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Full text of "The American coast pilot [microform] : containing directions for the principal harbors, capes, and headlands on the coasts of North and South America : describing the soundings, bearings of the lighthouses and beacons from the rocks, shoals, ledges, &c., with the prevailing winds, setting of the currents &c., and the latitudes and longitudes of the principal harbors and capes, together with a tide table"

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UESCniriXG THc. 





AND THE '' f 













BY E. & G. \y. BLUNT. 





JUNE, 1837. , ' . ' < 

>- , * ■*, 


blan of portland harbor to front. 

; portsmouth harbor, 

isle of shoals, 

newburyport harbor 

annis squam harbor 

. cafe ann harbor, 

boston harbor,.... 

^—^ — — Cape poge harbor 

■ — ■ NEWPORT harbor 








' tf . . ' . 1, yiRGIN I^lAI^DS, 








. .2.39 

rer«M Rccerding to Act of Congress, in the year 18.'J7, by E. dt (!. W. Blunt, ill 

liMrOork'S^'ffice oflthe District Court of the Southern District of New York. 





WW jk OENTLEMEN'iaaking Nautical Communications to the Subscriber, will please ad- 

Ft^^«M them to the care of EDMUND &c GEORGE W. BLUNT, No. 154 Water 

*«treet, (Borner of Maiden Lane, New York ; by whom, in future, all his works will be 

flilllll^lildiecl. ST. & G;* W. BLUNT will, with pleasure, com.uuuiicate every informa- 

tltnl in Nautical Improvements. 


N.B. As sonae impfoveraents have been made since this work commenced, the reader 
brtferred to the APPENDIX. 

CHRONOMETERS rated, sold, and repaired by E. & G. W. BLUNT.— See their 
bdrertiaement in this work. 

Printed by J. M. Elliott, 6 Little Green street, N. Y. 




. .220 
. .239 



: their 



Nearli' /wr/y^mrs have elapsed since tlie subscriber commenced thisi 
;fVork. To it he lias devoted the largest portion of his life, unwearied 
labor, and great expense ; and the reception it has met with from that re* 
spectable class of society by whom it is used, may he inferred from the 
fact, that Ei,KVEN editions, comprising tkirty-sevsn thousand copies, have 
been sold, previous to the publication of the present edition. 

The difiicultics of procuring all the improvements incident to a work of 
this charactcn-, not only intended to enable the mariner to recognize the 
coast at a distance ; but to direct him into.a port when pilots cannot be 
obtained, render it a work of great labor and responsibility. The life of* tbe 
most experienced is more endangered when he approacbos the coast) than 
when exposed to the teni|)csts which agitate the mid-o<iean. Pilot?, who 
are not always to br 'bund in the discharge of their duty, are often prpvented 
by storms and violent winds from offering their.s'ervices to vessels end^ft- 
loring to make a harbor. In such cases; unless the.mast^rs ar^pilailtl^nted 
with the port, the safety of the vessel deperfds iipon the^ecuracVdiPilii Sail- 
ing Directions, (/harts sire intended rather to give a/gej^e)^T'id^||i^ thief 
coast, than minute and accurate descriptions of partitSuIar.^i&rbdlB.^Jt ii^' 
therefore, to their jjrinted directions that they must flesigpt, tO procuif^'li^irt- 
mation which at such moments is vitally important.: Their instrU,i|i^JU 
and charts, by which they have been enabled to shape thefr coursQ iHip^U 
a trackless ocean, are rendered useless from their ignora^^ei^of tbec|b^illlae| 
by which they are to enter the harbor; and maririei*S, who have escaped^ at 
former dangers of the voyage, are often shipwrecked uppn some sunken rb(^' 
or shoal, at the entrance of their destined port. Theiinowledge cjf suclv 
dangers, important as it it to seamen generally, is particularly 8o to tlii^ 
of the United States. Navigating waters filled with shifting sand baiiks flOpd 
bars, which are formed by the Gulf Stream, and by the mighty river9'p|i^li 
discharge themselves from the coast of the North American continent, i^idy. 
require no ordinary skill and knowledge to avoid those extensive and intri- 
cate shoals that line our shores. This coast is rendered still more danger- 
ous by rapid tides and eddies peculiar to the American seas, add by a strong., 
current running counter to the Gulf Stream, from the Banks of NewfonaiElf 
land to Cape Florida. The boisterous and variable weatlier. so ^oAimqn 
in this climate, also tends to increase the difficulties and dangers 6f bur 
coasting trade. 

The Charts of the American Coast of foreign publication, were drawn 
from information obtained previous to the revolution, from the imperfect 
sketches of such ports as the policy of the British government caused to be 
surveyed at the time it held us as colonies. These were few in number^ 
and, since the publication of American charts, the English charts have&Uen 
entirely into disuse. In general the mariners were left to acquire their 
knowledge from the shipwrecks of others. Those we now publish, are from 


authentic sources ; and from tlie survoys of our own government, the ob* 
servution of shiiMnasters, and our own exertions, ue (hirive thut infornuition 
which is here published concerning the roast of tiie Tnited States. 

Irt preparing the American Cons/ J'ilol for press, recourse lias been had 
to every Nautical work of merit ; and with the assurance that neither |)aing 
nor expense have been spared, it is presented to the worhl as perfect as the 
nature of the work will admit. Every source of marine intelliii-ence which 
our coinitry affords has bcicn successively resorted to. L(!tters have been ad- 
dressed to the Collectors and Pilots in the several jjorts of the United States, 
requesting nautical information, which they have given with conunendable 

Surveys, in pursuance of various acts of Congress, imve been made of 
Savannah River, Capes Fear, Ifatteras, and Look-out, of the entrance of 
the Chesapeake, the river Darien, Jsles of Shoals, Portsmoutl*, IJoston, and 
Newport Harbors ; copies of which the author has been permitted to take, 
and which are inserted in this edition of the Pilot. These, however, are 
but part of the improvements. The Bahana Bank, and the adjacent keys, 
which lie directly in the course of all vessels bound to New Orleans and lla- 
|>^ yana, attd. vriiiifth haye long been the dread of our West India marinersj 
..were SttrveyQoln 1,S|20, at the expense of the &iubscriber. The next year, 
Ibe jBloop il9r^iOt,''a mjrveying vessel in his employ, was sent to examine the 
l^outli Sh'<»td> jtif Nttntnck(|Sst, the extent and situation of which he had long 
fjuaj^iected to jbe'ii!j.correcfly desci^^^ It was then appertained that this 

. |ih<l^{,%hiPi hil^ be^tjsfetyirflown in all the English charts, as extending to 
.*he i||»«th as far ti» la|^^4^' ^- i" ^^^^ terminated in lat. 41° 4' N. The 
'JlmflNO^ance of this dia^|ren^ to the navigation of the United States, may be 
lonceived. 'Heretofore, mariners bound from Europe, or from the 
^^^_ ports to New Yorjc, Philadelphia, or any of the southern j)orts, in 
jiB^sire to a vqia this dangerous shoal, kept so far to the south-east as 
feA|to run into the Gdlf Stream, and were thereby retarded from CO to 
70 nii|e|» jjei* day. Jfy this survey, a clear nnd perfectly safe channel, twentyr 
jCvfOffniteS wide, is anded to th^ space, supposed to be between the stream 
llpd the shoal, whicb will enable them to keep more to the north-west, and 
Si^ltaie advantage of the south-west current on the inner edge of the (rulf. 
^#;^i!taTferagiB gain of twenty-four hours may be thus made in the home pasr 
"-^a^.e of most European traders. 

The accuracy of this survey, which was at first disputed, has been fuUy 
pKOV^t by two diffei^nt expeditions subsequently sent from Nantucket to 
jaacertdiin the extent of the shoal. 

Tbe surveying sloop Orbii. also accompanied a vessel sent by Capt. Isaac 
HuU, at the request of the subscriber, to examine St. Ceorge's Bank, and 
Ihe result is published in this edition of the American Coast Pilot. 

Since the publication of the eleventh edition, Messrs E. ^ G. W. Blunt 
fiave made a minute survey of Long Island Sound, and also completed 
itheir survey of New York Harbor. Great improvements have been made 
ia the directions for the coasts of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, for which 
Jthe author is indebted to the surveys of Messrs. Bullock, Lane, 6> Lockiroody 
Under the direction of the British Admiralty. He has also availed himself 
jof the labors of Baron Uoussin, who since the publication of the last edition 
jof the Pilot, surveyed the coast of Brazil from St. Catharine to M' "anham, 
by order of the French Government, and of the continuation of that survey 
from St. Catharine's to the River L* Plata, by Lt. Barrel, To tb§ care 

: r- 




and ability of Capt. ICing of the Uiitish navy, who has oompletod tlic survey 
of iho Straits of Maj^ellun, lie is imlcbtt'd for the dircciions for those straits 
in tlio followiniif 'vork. 

To Capt. Heauj' rf, hydroi?rapl)rr to the British Admiralty, Capt. R. 
Oinii of the IJr'tish iiuvy, JJou Mdrfin i\ dc Navantfc, i:ydrggrai)lier to 
the Spatiisii ^iovcrnmcnt, Lt. Col. yiheN of the U. S. topographical en <,Mneers, 
and to the ollirors in tluj JJritisli, French,. Danish, and Dutch service, his 
thaidvs are piirticiiliiriy due iur the nmv and vali'a!)lc information which 
tl ;<!y have voiiinturiiy iMrnisIicd of tiie roasts th*;t have fallen under their 
observation, and in a manner \vliicli indicates, that in their opinion the ad" 
vancement of the .science of hydrography la the common interest of all 

3Iany improvements are made in tiiis, which have increased its contents 
one-third over the last edition, by sailin<^ directions for every harbor in the 
West Indies, Spanish 3Inin, Sic. ttc. with a full description of the many 
Beacons, IJuoys, and the new Jiii^iitlioiiscs, which have been erected on the 
coast of the U. S.: tog(!th(!r with the alterations thaj have been made in 
some of th<! Liifhthouses, and a complete revision cf^lho "Latitudes and 
Louii^itudcs, adapted lO rec(Mit observations. ^ *****''.♦*. 

These are |)i)rt of tiic impro\cm(M\ts of the present cd|tidnf though some 
material correctiotis have been mnde,. whenfiv^ the author- wais satisfied, 
by the testimony of mariners, or by sarveys> thffil^is formef directioHs'were 
inaccurate. Alterations li ive not, liowever, beejft<^(nade, unless upon stronger 
evidence than what pvoiupted him to insert t||i'originai directions; ^ , 

In presentiui; the TliELFTH EDITIO^mt^ A mwican Coa|rt ^ilot 
to the public, the author does not ilatter himi^p^that it< will prove entirely* 
free from errors. The shiftini^ natare of ceftain parts of ihe ccmSf***"*''^ 
occasionally present deviations from the present directipns. Impen 
too is the lot of map, and in attempting to give directions- for the navi^al 
of a coast COOO miles in Icngtli, and which was discovered lijrig afti^'tl^j^N, 
European coast had been fully explored, he is sensible that he baa;^ijii^Bii^ 
taken a duty, the performance of which belonged RATufeR TO THE^VllR^ 
MENT THAN TO AN INDIVIDUAL. Of such a momentous task, it is matted 
of astonishment that so much has been done ; and not tlint so mucJ 
mains to be performed. During the many years devoted to its e?tec«tiiO>i, 
his zeal has not been excited, nor his industry quickened by the conscionSr 
ness that he was engaged in a brilliant undertaking, which would- attract 
the attention of mankind ; neither was there opportunity or place in a worfc 
addressed to a class using a peculiar dialect, and who required only per- 
spicuity and accuracy, for the beauties of style and language His pecu- 
niary reward has hitherto been nothing, the profits of the work having 
been wholly absorbed in the expense of improvements. 

It is, however, no small satisfaction to reflect, that the average rate of 
insurance, since the first publication of the Pilot, has been diminished more 
than one half upon coa* ting vessels, and four-fifths upon vessels bound to 
New Orleans, and that, among other causes, the improvements in hydrdf 
graphy mast have contributed to effect this great reduction. Still more 
Sfitisfactory is liie consciousness derived from many ])ublic and private acr 
knowledgments, that, in no small number of instances, by following hii? 
directions, both vessels and crews have been saved from the rage of a mevcir 
Jess elemetitj when the pilots were unable Jto come to their assistance. 


; • 



This conviction of iho utility oHm labors hns cnroiirnffod liini to conti- 
nue f hetn ovtn when the embnrrnsstiients of our coniinnTo luid extimriiislu'd 
^11 cApectiUion of any ndcquato recompense. For the <rrcater part of his life 
he has devoted himself to tjje imp'o\eiiietit of American hvdro::rapliy ; and 
with a (;onstitiition broken by <'\posuie and fatii-ia;, un<l a fortune bteraliy 
'feast upon the waters," he now retires from the superintendancc of a work 
whicli his increasitig infn-mities will not permit him any lnMi;er to contiime, 
with an e.vju-ession of gratitiule to that class of our citizens"^ 

" Wliiise march ia un ilic moiintuin wave," 

for the enconragcnKMit <:,^iven him in ihcir imiform preference of his pid)lica- 
tions, and parts from them with a wisli, thai I lie Amciiani I'odst Pi/of may 
long prove a safe and unerring guide in their journcvs tliron^^Mi the track- 
less ocean. 
July, 1833. I^DMIND M. BLUNT. 


P R E F A € JG 





on for the press, every care has been taken, 
made, and tuch errors as existed in the twelft^i 

ipn^nd haVe'bccll'jdiscovered, have been corrected. 

le Editors^ feel indebted for many cominiini(;ations to this work : 

especialij tx) Gapt. JJeaukoiit, hydro^rapher to the Admiralty, for 

lie continuation of his vakiable favors; to Lieut. ]}ki:ciiy, 1{. I\., and 

Kthe ihvakiable wprk, jthe English Nautical Magazine, hv edits ; to Cajjl. 

P#1N, R. N.-'fpT bis surveys of the Mosfpiito Siiore and IJahama Bank ; 

|v^/|)^ LiieHt. <JiieeNv>S^O)£:n, of the U. S. Revenue Service, tor his descrip- 

vj;ian of part of tire Coast and Harbors of the State of Maine. William 

^pX feEDFlELD, Esq. of this city, has contributed the articles on Storms 

'Stpd Currents., 

pjj J^chvyet remains to be done, to make this work as perfect as the edi- 
JirS desirQ./" This only is to be attained by continued industry, by col- 
||**;;|0l(5tin^ lind (JaTefiflly collating the various descri|)tions of j)laces, sailing 
(li^^ctiotis, SLurveys of harbors, coasts, <fcc. The important survey of the 
|d^E^s Off t\i6 United States, now in progress, under charge of Professor 
HASSLBfi, aided by a corps of scientific assistants, will at a future day af- 
ford materials for farther corrections and improvements. To this survey 
of the American coast, and to the surveys of the English and French by 
j^rographers, of the coasts, harbors, &,c. embraced in this work, to com- 
inunications and sailing directions from intelligent ship masters, and to an 
extensive correspondence, the attention of the editors is constantly directed. 
Large appropriations were made, at the last session of Congress, for 
* hew Lighthouses, Buoys, Beacons, &c. Notice of these appropriations will 
be found in the Appendix. On the completion of any of these works due 
police will be given. 
June 1, 1837. E. & G. W. BLUNT. 

Aliiicou L'ui 
AI)i(»l!iaH Is 
Aciil, Hay o 
Ailiuirar.s ( 
AfjUiiila, tou 
A,ii,Mijas J'o 
Aii^iu'.s Moil 
Alcciiitia, to 
A'';i(li's IviK 
Aldt'itoii Pu 
Alsarnilia I* 
Alii ran Slio 
All Saints 1 
Allavfla Isi.i 
Alvaradu, (ii 
Amazon l\i\' 
Ainoiia Islaii 
Anegada Isl; 
Angostura, C 
Angiula, We 
Anguilla, W 
Annapolis, II 
Annapolis, M 
Ann Uapo, T 
Annis Sijuau 
Annotta Bay 
Anse a Chou 
Anses a Pitn 
Anticosti Islii 
Antigonish I 
Antigua, W. 
Antonio Cap 
Antonio Porl 
Anton Lisad 
Anls, Jamaii 
Apple Island 
Apronac lliv 
Aqua Fort t 
Aquin Bay, f 
Aracati, towi 
Arachat liar 
Aranza Inlet 
Araya Point 
Arbiichee, ^ 
Arc6 Bay, I 
Arenas Islam 
Arenas Poini 



Abaoo, IV.jliamas 047, 24!), •^'iO 

Ahacou I'oiiit, .St. Duiiiiiig ,'M'>7 

Wno\\\oH l«4l;iriil.s, Iha/il 5.5'^ 

Aliseciim, N. .M'lsey -Jlrt 

Acul, Hay of, St. Doiniimo .'$74 

.'Vdiniralfy .Siimiil, l',ita,'iinia (lO-J 

Adiiiiral's Cove, Nc\vl'<tiiii(llaii(l ll> 

Afjiiada, tdwii, l'f)ii() Jvico U) J 

Auuadilla Bay, I'orlo Rico 104 

A,!;MJas Point, S'. Doiiiiimo 574 

Ai,!,'ii(s iMoiit llail)()r, CIrciiada l.'J'J 

Ali;aiitia, town, i!ia/.U .')4() 

Ali:anti"i/,t'.s Islands, J>ia/.il .'j')'J 

A''idi's Ivock, .St. Lawiiinco 70 

Aldtnton Point, Massaclinsetls 17'J 

Al^arrob.i I'oint, Si. Doininj^o I]7<) 

Alii.'ian .Slnial, (inif of Mexico •.'86 

All Saints J5ay, JJra/il 47 

Altavela [sland, West Indies 364 

Alvarado, (JnlC oC jMexico.... '.>6'J 

Ania/.iin Uivor, Soutli Anieiica. . ,51'), 5-25 

Aniclia Island, (J('orj;ia 'J44 

Anegada Islaml, West Indies 40!) 

AnsiPfstipn's Rocks, Bra/.ii 5.']7 

Angostura. Ciiyana, 5"i4 

Aiigiiila, West Indies 257 

Aiignilla, West Indies 414,415 

Annapolis, Hay of Kundy 127 

Annapolis, Maryland 228 

Ann ('ape, INIassaeliusetts 16,'J, 174 

Annis .S(|uani, Massachusetts 1G2 

Ainiotta Bay, .Taniaica ;3'J7 

Ause a Chouchou, St. Domingo .375 

Anses a Pitres, .St. Domingo , . ..364 

Anticosti Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 63 

Autigonish Harbor, Nova Scotia f)3 

Antigua, W. Indies 420 

Antonio Cape, Cuba 351, 354 

Antonio Port, .famaica 308 

Anton Lisado, Gulf of Mexico 2!J6 

Anls, Jamaica 385 

Apalachicola Bay, Florida 1269 

Ap|)le Islands, .St. Lawrence 71 

Apronac River, South America 526 

Acjua Fort Harbor, Newfoundland, ... 13 

Aquin Bay, St. Domingo 367 

Aracati, town, Brazil 535 

Arachat Harbor, Breton Island. . . .ys, 101 

Aranza Inlet, Gulf of Mexico 281 

Araya Point, Colombia...,, 461 

Arbiichee, Nova Scotia. .,., 94 

Area Bay, Patagonia 602 

Arenjis Island, Gulf of Mexico 288' 

Arenas Point, Colombia. , , . , 4S8 


Ariel Rocks, Sotith America ..583 

Arignole ( 'a|)e, .St, Lawrenf.o 70 

Arrecibo Harbor, Porto Rico 401 

Ascencao island, South Atlantic 549 

Atwood's Key, West Indies 313 

Al\vood's Key Passage, West Indies.. 319 

Au Choix Port, Newfoundland 61 

Audierne Island, Newfoundland 43 

Au Fer I'oint, Louisiana 279 

Aux Basques Port, Newfoundland ... 56 

Aux Cayes, St. Domingo 366 «, 

Aux (Jaul C:ipe, Newfoundland 45 

Aves island, We^t Indies 424 

Aves Island, Co^gRbia 472 

Avignon Roclt;||ti^L«WTenco 74 

BacalieU IslagJrai, Lajkrtenco. ; 18 >>. 

Back J^'^f'i'^lHfHH'lM • • • ■ • ''^^'^ 

Bahama Batfi^H|*,iV » 1 ».. .267 

Bahama Isluiflpf. . . . .■, . . .' .847, 24^ 

Bahia, Brazil: .'.,..> i;^. .'. , . . .547- 

Bahia Honda Hwrbbr, Golombia.-. . . . .476 

Bahia Honda Harbor,. Cuba'. 32^- 

Bajo Navidad Shoal, ■$»• Domiugo. . . .36d 

Baker's Island, Massachusetts '.^164 . 

Balize, Honduras . . ; 61#*<*\^ 

Bali/.e, Louisiana • .2^aPif^ 

Ballard Cane, Newfounijiand ........ "l^ ^" 

Baltimore, Mafylfind. ...... ; 226,'229 -a 

Bande de L'Arrier Bay, Newfoundland, 4^ 
Bane Harbor, Newfoundland. ........ 4a ' ,j^.s 

JJane's Harbor, Cuba 335^/^*1 

Banistre Road, St. Domingo , .36i^ ' 

>Baracoa Httrbor, Cuba .... i. ..,..,. ^ . 3;31 
Baradalres Bay, St, Domingo. .. ,.^i, 38^. " 

Barataria Bay, Louisiana..^; t . . .276 

Barawally Bay, St, Vmcent'a.,,,. .;.43§. -a 
Barbadoes, West Indies. . . .^',, . , , .%.441 

Barbuda Island, West Itidies.'. .-, .... ;'4i9 

Barcelona, city, Colombia ..... . ...» .465 

Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey. . . . . .214, 219 

Barnstable Bay, Massachusetts ,179 

Barranca Point, Patagortia. ........ * .5&7 

Barrington Bay, Nova Scotia........ ,120 

Barret's Ledge, St. Lawrence 71 

Barrowsway ' iiay,. Newfoujidlaud , . . . , 49 
Bartiqucri Harbor, Cuba. . .-. . . ,. . , , ,341 
Bartlett's Reef, Long Islantl Spuiid, . ,210 . 

Bashi of Mines, Bay of Fundy 127 

Basque Island, St, Lawrence. . . ; 71 

Bass Harbor, Maine. , ^. I47 

Basseterre, to^Vn, St. Kitts 418 

Bastimentos Harbor, Darien. .,»,» .v.* .494 
Batavano Harbor, Cuba,,,,,,,»,,.,,?^ 



^ 1 


Battle FmIiukIs, f^ahrjidor 1 

Bayuhii Harbor, St. Domingo .'57J 

llayuu Sr. .Iniii, liouisiann 'i'W 

Bay (i( BulU, .NrwrinintllatKl II, IM 

Bay of l''airaii(l Fal.sP, Newloumlland, -^U 

Bay of I.slaiids, NijwIoutidlaiKl fi'J 

Bay of Ishinds, i\o»a Scotia Kio 

Bay (ill iMcsjc, St. Domingo ;(()(( 

Bay Holicrt's, Ncwrouiidiaiid !(> 

Beacons 71!) 

Beata l8land. West liidio.s lid.) 

Beaufort, Nortii t^andina ',>;{l 

Beaver Harbor, Nova S(;otia 10;') 

Beaver Harbor, Bay of i'nndy i: 

Bedeqiiu Bay, (Juifid" St. liawreiice. , ')7 
Bedford Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence .. ')7 

Bedford Bay, Patagonia ()().j 

Beleiu City, Bra/.il 543 

Belfast Bay, Maine < 14.3 

Belize, Honduras < <..««. .515 

Belle Harbor, Newfoundland., «,,<... 48 

Bello Isle, Nowfoundiand It) 

Belinonte, city, Bra/.il .55:{ 

BeniiDi Isles, Bahamas. Uof) 

Bequin Island, West ludie^ ' 4.')') 

BerbicQ River, Guayna 6i»-i, 6'JH 

, Berkeley Sound, Falkland Island ». . . ..587 
Biprmija Islands, Gulf of Mexico. . . .2H8 
Bermadits Islands ...... 308 

*Berry Islands, Bahamas 248, 262 

Beverly Harbor, Massachusetts *. 4. <. 165) 
Bk'inland, St. Lawrence...., .,<,.. 70, 78 

Rirton Harbor, NovaScotia<4 4« .«.104 
Head Harbor, Maine 138 
[slands, St, Lawrence 88 

Bi|;d's Islandsr West Indies 424 

Bwhop's Reef, West Indies 318 

Black Bay, St. Lawrence 7 

Slack Head Bay, Newfoundland 22 

Black River, Jamaica 3'J3 

Black River, Guatemala 509, 512 

Black Rock Harbor, L. I. Sound, 204, 

206, 213 

Blanca Island, Colombia < .466 

Blanco Cape,^ Patagonia, .694 

Bbck Island, Connecticut 187, 206 

Block Island Channel 187, 194 

Blowmedown Cape, Bay df Fundy . . .127 

Bluefield's Bay, .Tainaica 394 

Bluefield's Lagoon,,Guatefnala 504 

Blue Hill Bay, Maine 141 

Blue Pinion Harbor, Newfoundland . . 48 

Bluff Cape Harbor, Labrador 4 

Boat Harbor, Newfoundland 42, 62 

Bocas, Gulf of Paria 451, 454 

Boca Grande Bank, Colombia 482 

Bombay Hook, Delaware Bay 221 

Bonacca Island, (iuatemaia 510 

Bonavista Bay, Newfoundland 22 

Bonaventure Town, Nova Scotia 90 

Bonne Bay, Newfoundland 50, 59 

Bonnetta Cove, Nova Scotia 120 

Boon Island, Maino 154 

Borracha Island, Colondjia 472 

Boston Harbor, JMassachusetts. . .171, 174 


Bouchasie Bay, I'ufa({onia dOH 

Bou;;ainvill(« l!;iy, I'atayonia Mih 

Bou^u^• 1 III. ■!, .North Caroliiia 2;..') 

M«iwlic;ir lliiilior, Mainr VM 

Boxy Harlior, Xrwroimillaiid H 

Brailor llarhor, St. Lawrtiicc 7 

Brandy I'ots, St. liawrrnets 7>) 

Braiidywini' Slioal, Delaware Bay . . . .221 

Brazil, coiistH of 5;i;) 

|{ra/.il lt«i(l». N(.va Scotia 121 

Bra/.o dr Santiago -jh'T 

Bra/.os Kivcr, (i. of Mexico 2Hl 

i»rid^c|iort, ( (iiiin'cticut 213 

Bridgetown, BiubadocH 441 

Briers Islimd, liiiy of I'lindy I26 

Bri!;us Bay, Ni'wV.iuiidland 14, I6 

l)rion Isliind, St. Liiwrcncr HH 

Bristol llarluir, Rhode Island 201 

Briton HarlH)r, Newfoundland 49 

Broad Sound, Maine 150 

Brooke's Harbor, Patagonia ti(l2 

Brown's Bay, Patagonia 605i 

Broyle C.ipe, Newfoundland 14 

Brnnct Island, Newfoundland 46 

Brunswick, North Carolina 2.37 

Bnciios Ayrrs, I'.ra/.il .'",70, 6H3 

Biiffft Ilatbov, Newlbuiidland 41 

ISiioys 719 

liurgco Islands, Newfoundland 53 

lUiiin Bay, Newlbniidlaiid 44 

Burnt Island, Maine 149 

Buzzard's Bay. Massachusetts.. . I9I, 197 
Bynoe Island, Patagonia 60& 

' C 

Cabanas Port, Cuba 358 

Cabonico Port, Cuba 3;53f 

Cabron ( 'ape, St. Domingo. 369 

Cabroiige Point, St. Domingo 370 

C'acana, St. Lawrence 71 

Calcasii Rio, (J. of Mexico 280 

Camden 1 iarbor, Maine 141 

Camel's Island Harbor 31 

Campeche, G. of Mexico 285, 29.'> 

Canipo Bello, Passamaquoddy Bay...i;)5 

Canada Bay, Newfoundland 32 

Canada Head, Newfoundland 32 

Cananova Port, Cuba 333 

Candelaria, Bay of, Daricn 489 

Canso Harbor, Nova Scotia 102 

Cape Aim Harbor, Massachusetts , , . .163 
Cape Bioyle Harbor, Newfoundland.. 14 

Cape Charles Harbor, Labrador 1 

Cape Cod Harbor, Massachusetts . . . .177 
Cape Elizabeth Lights, Massachusetts 174 
Cape Fear River, North Carolina . . . .236 

Cape Ilaytien City, St. Domingo 374 

Cape Porpoise Harbor, Maine 156 

Cape Roger Harbor, Newfoundland . . 42 
Ca|)e Rouge Harbor, Newfoundland.. 33 

Cape Split Harbor, Maine 147 

Capliii Bay, Labrador 6 

Caplin Bay, Newfoundland 14 

Carapano, town, Colombia .457 

Carbbniere Islaad, St. Lavrcnce ..... Vf 




Cariacou I 

(Jaribana I 

Caribbc 1> 

Carlisle \\. 

r;iulit Isj.i 

Junboii 1 

(.'ariboii P 

Carriage i 




Cascadc I 

Cashes Lr 

Castiiie, M 

Castle Hai 

Castle Isl; 


Catalina I 

Cat Island, 

Cat Island, 

('atoche (ja 

("alda I'ort, 

Cavaillon B 

Cavite Harl 

Caxa de Mi 


(y'aycos Pas 

(Jaycos, W'l 

(Jayenne, S( 

Carymans, ] 

Caballos Po 

Chaleur J!a> 

Chaleur Bat 

(Jhaiice liar 


('handler's 1 

Change Islai 

C'hapeau Ro 

Charles Cap 

Charles Islai 

■ Cliagres, Da 

(Miarles Islai 


Charlotte H 

Chat Cape, I 


Chateau Ba) 

Chatham Hi 

Chebucto H 




Chjgnato Ba 


Choiseul Ba 

Chouchu Ba 


Cinq Isles B 

Cispater Hai 

Clatise Harb 

Clouds .. .. 

Clode Sounc 

Coach Islanc 



.. H 
.. 7 
. . 7') 
. .',"21 

. .I'ji 


. .','Hl 
. .'JKi 
14, lf> 
.. HH 
.. 4!) 


.. 14 


0, .5h;{ 

,.. 41 

. ..14'> 
^1, l')7 


. 71 

. 31 


, 32 
. 32 
. 14 
. 1 
Its 174 
. .236 
.. 33 
. 6 
. 14 
. 17 

Carili^an Hay, Ci. Sf. Lawrenco 'X> 

(,'iiriuciiu (iuir, ('oloiiiliiii 462 

(jiiriiiciiu Ishiiid, \Vt'j<t Indies 43'J 

(.';iril>.Mia I'uint, (JoloiiiiH.i 4HH 

(/'aribbf Islatirls, C'oloiiiljia 407 | 

( 'ailislt! May, Jamaica 3');i I 

Tiilit Islaiiil, W'citt Indies lOl j 

.'ai'iljiiu llai'ltor, rSuvu ticotiu 93 | 

( laril)Ou I'oirit, 8t. liawrenrc ()6 

(Carriage Harbor, May of Fundy 130 

(Jarlliu^iMia, < 'oloinhia ihl 

(Jartwn^lit'.s Harbor, Labrador 6 

Caryslort'.s KfcC, j'iorida 262 

(Cascade Harl)or, I'al.iLjonia 609 

< 'ashes (jimI^o, Matisucliusetts 164 

('astinc, iNIaniu Ill, 143 

Castle Harbor, iirrniudas 309 

Oastlij Island, West Indies 313 

Casuinpic! Hmbor, (J. St. Lawrence.. 97 

Catalina Harbor, Nuwtouhdland 210 

('at Ishtnd, Louisiana .273 

Cat Island, West Indies 311 

Catoelu! (."ape, (i. of Mexico 284 

Calda I'ort, (.'iiba 346 

(availlon Hay, St. I)ominj;o 3()6 

Cavite Harbor, Haiien . , 490 

Caxa de Muertos, West Indies 402 

Cayamiane(|ue Harbor, Cuba 332 

Caycos J'assai^e :i21, 322 

CaycoH, West Indies 320, 323. 324 

Cayenne, South America 519, 527 

Carymaus, West Indies , . .399 

Cai)ailos I'ort, Cuba 333 

Ciialeur liay, NewlLunilland 51 

Chaleur i5ay. Nova Scotia 89 

(Jliance Harbor, New foundland 40 

Chandelcur Islands, Louisiana 273 

(.'handler's Reach, Newfoundland.... 24 
Change Island Tickle, Newfoundland. 29 

('hapeau Rouge, Newfoundland 55 

(Jharles C'ape, Jjabrador 1 

(Jharles Island, Labrador 1 

• Chagres, Darien 496, 497 

(Miarles Islands, Patagonia 6, 11 

Charleston, South Carolina 239 

(Charlotte Harbor, Labrador 1 

Chat Cape, St. Lawrence 65, 6i^ 

Chateaudin Harbor, St. Domingo . . . .366 

(Jhafeau Bay, Labrador 1 

Chatham Harbor, Msssnchusetts. 182,185 

Chebucto Head, Nova Scotia 109 

Chedabucto Bay, Briton Island 101 

Chesapeake Bay 226 

Chichiriuiclie llarbor, Colombia 470 

Chignato Bay 127 

Chincoteague Shoals, Maryland 218 

Choiseul Bay, Patagonia 612 

Chouchu Bay, St. Domingo 374 

Christianstadtj town. West Indies ....413 

Cinq Isles Bay, Newfoundland 48 

Cispater Harbor, Colombia 487 

Clatise Harbor, Newfoundland 41 

Clouds 691 

Clode Sound, Newfoundland 24 

Coach Island, Colombia. 461 



Coehinan Bay, Cuha .'t4d 

Chiliinas IsLindii, (iuuteniala 511 

C'oddlis Harbor, Nova Scotia t%Q3 

('odora (.'ape, ('uiumliia 467 

Cod Kay Island, Newfoundland 57 

(Johasset Roikit, Mass 172 

Colares, town, Bra/.il 543 

Colinet Itay 38 

C(dlier's May, Newfoundland 16 

('ol(iiiil)ia, coast of 457, 4H3, 485 

Colaria, Bra/.il 670 

(Jolorado River, (Julf of Mexico 227 

( 'olorado Rt'cf, Cuba 357 

Cohnnbier Islaiul, Newfoundland 45 

(.'(Hianicut Island, Rhode Island 199 

( !onceicao, town, Bra/.il 561 

(Jonception Bay, Newfoundland 16 

(J(Uiception Island, West indies .313 

(Jonck Harbor, Newf-mndland ,..,... 33 
(Jonnaigre Harbor, Newfoundland .... 49 

(Jonnecticut Kiver 205 

Connoire Bay, Nowfoundland 54 

Cook I'ort, Patagonia 602 

(Jook's Harbor, Newfoundland 3a 

Corbin Bay, Newfoimdiand 48 

(Jorbin Harbor, NewfiQundland ...... . 44 

Cordcs Bay, Patagonia ., ., .\: 6, 10 

Cornfield llarbor, MuryUiU(4« '. .^ . . ,. .227 

Cornwallis, Bay OfVuoilx 127 

(Jorrieutes Cape, Cuba 360 

( 'ountry Harbor, Notfa Scotia 103 

Cow Head, Newfoundland ... 6Q 

(Joy Inlet, Patagonia. ...,,.....,.., .%^ 
Co/.unuc Lsland, (iuatemala. ...... , .^ifi 

(Jrab Island, West Indies 401 

( Irane Island, St. Lawrence 74 

Craney Island, Virginia . ., 924 

('romwallier Harbor, Newfoundland, . . 34 
Crooked Islands, W. Indies. .313, 31 1, 316 

Croque Harbor, Ncwfonndland 33 

Cross Island, St. Lawrence 88 

Cross River, Maine .161 

Crow Harbor, Breton Islands 101 

Cruz Harbor, Colombia . . . . , 468 

Cuba . .• , 329 

Cuidado Reef, West Indies, ,,..,... .318 

Culter Harbor, Labrador 1 

Cuniana, town, Colombia , .4(53 

Cumaribo, town, Colombia 470 

Cumberland Harbor , ,342 

Cuinl)erland Harbor, St. Lawrence,,. 8 

Curazao, Colombia , 472 

('urlew Harbor, Labrador . . , 5 

Currituck Inlet, North Carolina. .... ,233 

Curuan, town, Colombia , 467 

Currents .,...,., , 674 

Cutleau Bay, Newfoundland 54 

Cutwell Harbor, Newfoundland 29 

Currents, atmospheric 694 


Damariscotta River, Maine 145 

Damnable Harbor, Newfoundland.... 26 

Dantzic Cove, Newfoundland 46 

Darien, Georgia , 243 





Dartmouth Bay, Nova Scotia 113 

Dauphin Island, Louisiana '^73 

Dauphin Port, St. Domingo 37:2 

Dawson Island, Patagonia bOl 

Dawson's Cove, Newfoundland 4y 

Dead Islands tiarbor, Newfoundland.. 55 

Dead Man's Chest, Porto Rico 402 

Dead Man's Harbor 4 

Deamon Point, St. Lawrence 65 

Decker's Narrows, Maine 161 

Deep Inlet, North Carolina 235 

Deer Harbor, Labrador 2 

Deer Harbor, Newfoundland 1<) 

Degrat Harbor, Newfoundland 35 

Delaware Bay 220 

Del Norte River, Gulf of Mexico 2H2 

Delute Harbor, Passamacjuoddy 135 

Demarara, South America 520, 523 

Dennis Harbor, Massachusetts 183 

Descondida Point, Gulf of Mexico... 282 

Deseada, West Indies 36o 

Despair Bay, Newfoundland I9 

Devil's Bay, Newfoundland 51 

Diana Reef, West Indies 314 

Diegos Islands, West^Indies, . , 450 

Dildo Harbor, Newfoundland 18 

Disappointment Bay; Pata^jOnia 610 

Dobay Sound, Georgia 243 

Dog Island, Louisiana 273 

Dominico- West Indies 427 

Doable Headed Shot Keys 257 

Douglass, town, Nova Scotia 89 

Dover Bay, Nova Scotia 103 

Dry Harbo", Jamaica. 397 

Duck Harbor, Labrador 4 

Durell's Ledge, Newfoundland, , 128 

Dyer Cape, Patagonia 604 

Dyer's Bay, Maine 138, 147 

Dynely Sound, Patagonia 604 


Eagle Bay, Patagonia 607 

Eagle Cove, Labrador 4 

Eagte Harbor, Labrador 9 

Eddisto, South Carolina 240 

Egniont Cape,Gulf of St. Lawrence.. 97 

Eleuthera Island, West Indies 311 

Elizabeth Cape, Maine 160, 153 

Enganno Cape, St. Domingo 361 

Engine Harbor, Nawfoundland 33 

English Bank, St. Lawrence 73 

English Harbor, Antigua. 420, 422 

Englif^ Harbor, Newfoundland 20 

Snglish Harbor, Newfoundland 47 

Enraged Cape, Bay of Fundy 1 28 

Enragee Point, Newfoundland 56 

Ensenada, Brazil 583 

Escondido Harbor, St. Domingo 363 

Escondido Harbor, Trinidad 450 

Escondido Port, Cuba 341 

Escribanos Harbor, Darien 492 

Esmeralda Bay, Colombia 458 

Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil 551 

Esquimaux Bay, St. Lawrence 8 

{Esquimaux lalaud, St. Lawrence, . • • . 64 

Esquimaux Islands, St. Lawrence... 8 

Esquimaux River, St. Lawrence 8 

Ksscquibo River, Guyana 529 

Etansr Harbor, Bay of Fundy 132 

Exhuma Island, West Indies 312 

Facheux Bay, Newfoundland 51 

Fairweather Cape, Patagonia 59.1 

Falkland Islands 5«4 

Fallen City, West Indies... 410 

Falmouth, Nova Scotia 127 

Falmouth Harbor, Antigua 420, 422 

Falmouth Harbor, Jamaica 396 

False Cape, Virginia 223 

False Cape Horn, Patagonia 627 

Famine Port, Patagonia 600 

Favorite Cove, Nova Scotia 120 

Fear Cape, North Carolina 235 

Fenirrie Harbor, Newlbnndland 47 

Fermose Harbor, Newfoundland 13 

Ferniowcs Harbor, Newfoundland .... 13 

Fernando Noronha, Brazil 532 

l''erroIle Bay, Newfoundland 61 

Ferrolie Harbor, Newfoundland 61 

Ferrolle Point, Newfoundland 61 

Ferryland Harbor, Newfoundland .... 14 

Ferrjland Head, Newfoundland 45 

Fields Bay, Patagonia 605 

Fincham Islands, Patagonia 623 

Fire Island Inlet, Long Island 213 

Fisher's Island, Connecticut 201 

Fishing Ship Harbor, Labrador 3 

Five Fathom Bank 321 

Five Islands Harbor, Antigua 421 

Fleur de Lis Harbor, Newfoundland.. 31 

Flores Bay, Patagonia 614 

Florida Reef 258, 262 

Fogs 691 

Fogo Islands, Newfoundland 28 

Fond la Grange Bay, St. Domingo. . . 375 

Formigas, West Indies 385 

Fort Royal, Martinique 430, 436 

Forteau Bay, St. Lawrence 7 

Forlescue Bay, Patagonia 611 

Fortune Bay, Newfoundland 46, 49 

Fortune Harbor, Newfoundland 29 

Fortune Island, West Indies 313 

Fouchce Cove, Newfoundland 32 

Fourchu Cape, Nova Scotia 125 

Fox Island, Labrador 3 

Fox Island, Newfoundland 39 

Fox Island Passage, Maine 140 

Francois Bay, Newfoundkaid 51 

Franklin Light, Maine 145 

Frayles Island, Colombia 460 

Frederickstaed, town. West Indies ...413 

Freels Cape, Newfoundland 26, 28 

Frencli Cove, Nova Scotia 112 

French Keys, West Indies 319, 322 

Frenchman's Cove, Newfoundland. . . . 47 

Freshwater Cove, Patagonia 609 

Froward Cape, Patagonia 609 

Frying Pan Shoal, North Carolina.... 235 
Fuerte Island, Colombia , 487 



PnsTc I 

Fundy, Bay of. Nova Scotia 123, 1.5.3 ! 

Kiiiik Islan'l, NowCounillaiid 28 ; 

Fury llarljor, Patagonia 603 i 


Gaharu." Bay, Breton Island 

(iabricl Channel, Patagonia 

(lalliboy's Harbor, Newfoundland . . . . 
(lalloping Andrews, Newfoundland ... 

Gaitaus Harbor, Newfoundland 

(ralvcstou Bay, Gulf of Mexico 

Gammon Point, Massachusetts 

Gannet Rock, Bay of Fuudy 

(iannets, Labrador 

Gardiner's Bay, New York 

(Jardiner's Island, New York 

(iaria ]?ay. Newfoundland 

(larroti 1 J arbor, Darien 

Gaspe Bay, Nova Scotia ; . . . . 

(iay Head Lighthouse, Mass.... 187, 

George's River, Maine 

Geors^e's Shoals 

(reorgetown. District of Columbia. . . . 

Georgetown, South Carolina 237, 

< Jcorgctown, Toba-^o 

Gibara Harbor, Cuba 

(rilbert's River, Lfti)rador 

Glasgow Harbor, Nova Scotia 

Gloucester Cape, Patagonia 

Gloucester Harbor, Massachusetts. . . . 

Gloucester, Virginia 

Goldsborough Harbor, Maine 

Gonaives Harbor, St. Domingo . . . 

Good's Bay, Patagonia 

Good Success Cape, Patagonia . . . 

Goose Bay, Newfoundland 

(ioose Harbor, Newfoundland 

Goose Island, St. Lawrei.ce 74, 

Gracios a Dios Cape, Guatemala. . 

Grafton Islands, Patagonia 

Grammer's Rocks, Newfoundland . 

(Jranadines, West Indies 

Grand Bay, Newfoundland 

Grand Bruit Harbor, Newfoundland... 
Grandfather's Cove, Newfoundland ... 

Grand le Pierre, Newfoundland 

Grand Manan, Maine. 

Grand Passage, Bay of Fundy 

Grand Turk, West Indies 

Great Adventure Cove, Newfoundland 
Great Bay de I'Eau, Newfoundland. . . 
Great Barrysway Harbor, Newfound.. 
Great Burin Harbor, Newfoundland. . . 

Great Cat Arm, Newfoundland 

Great Chance Harbor, Newfoundland, 
^reat Coney Arm, Newfoundland . . . . 

Great Corn Island, Guatemala 

Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey 

Great Gallows Harbor, Newfoundland. 
Great Ilarljor Deep, Newfoundland... 

Great Harbor, Newfoundland 

Great Isaac, Bahamas 

Great Jarvis Harbor, Newfoundland. . . 
Great Metis St. Lawrence .......... 










Great Quirpon Harfjor, Newfoundland .35 

(ireat River, Guatemala 507 

Great Round Harbor, Newfoundland. . 30 
Great Salmon River, Newfoundland .. 38 
(treat Sandy Harbor, Newfoundland., 40 

Great Sh )al, St. Lawrence 67 

Great South Harbor, Newfoundland . . 40 
Great St. Julien Harbor, Newfoundland 33 

Green Bay, St. Lawrence 17 

(Jreen Harbor, Nova Scotia 118 

Green Island, Newfoundland 45 

Green Island, Nova S'-otia 113, 115 

Green Island, St. Lawrence 78 

Greenport, Nev/ York 212 

(Jreenspond Tickle, Newfoundland ... 27 

Greenville Bay, St. Lawrence 97 

Greenville, town, Grenada 439 

Gregory Cape, Patagonia 697 

Grenada, West Indies 439 

Grenville Bay, St. Lawrence 97 

Griguet Bay, Newfoundland 34 

Guadaloui)e, West Indies 424 

Guaianaco Islands, Patagonia ...636 

Guanahani Island, West Indies 311 

Guanico Harbor, Porto Rico . . . .403, 406 

Guantanaiuo Harbor, Cuba 342 

Guaratuba River, Brazil ....562 

Guarico Harbor, St. Domingo .......373 

Guaurabo River, Cuba .'.... . «if3i9 

Guayamo Bay, Porto Rico 402 

Gulf of Paria 444, 450, 452 

Gulf Stream 649, 666 

Gull Island, Long Island Soimd 210 

Gull Rock, Newfoundland... 35 

Guirior Bay, Patagonia .615 

Gun Bay, Patagonia 615 

GutofCanso 94 

Guyana, South America 519, 530 

Guysborough Harbor, Breton Island.. 102 
Guy's Cove, Maine 145 


Ha Ha Bay, Labrador, 9 

Ha Ha Bay, Newfoundland 35, 53 

Hail 691 

Haldimand Port, Nova Sco^ia 120 

Halifax, Nova Scotia , 108, 110 

Hampton Harbor, New Hampshire ...159 

Hampton Roads, Virginia 224 

Hanover Island, Patagonia 640 

Hant's Harbor, Newfoundland 18 

Harbor Grace, St. Lawrence 17 

Harbor Island, Bahamas 248 

Harbor of Mercy, Patagonia 621 

Hare Bay, Newfoundland 51 

Hare Harbor, Labrador 6 

Hare Islands, Labrador 3 

Hare Island, St. Lawrence, 72 

Harpswell Sound, Maine 151 

Harrington Harbor, G. of St. Lawrence 97 

Harris Bay, Patagonia 603 

Hatteras Cape 233 

Haute Island, Bay of Fundy 128 

Haut Fond Shoal, St. Domiago 371 




Havana, Cubd....«., 3;{9 

Havre de Grace, Mar^jland 231 

Hawke Bay, Labrador 4 

Hawkins' Bay, Patagonia, . .... * 609 

Hawkc's Harbor, Newfoundland 6l 

Hay ti. West Indies »....«. 359 

Haytien Cape, West Indies 322 

Head Harbor, Nova Scotia 112 

Head Harbor, Passamaquoddy Bay... 135 
Heart's Content Harbor, Newfoundland 18 

Heneagua Great, West Indies 317 

Heneagua Little, West Indies 318 

Henlopen Cape, Delaware 22o 

Henry Cape, Virginia . .222, 225, 233 

Henry Port, Patagonia 634 

Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland 50 

Herring Cove, Massachusetts 178 

Herring Gut Harbor, Maine I4G 

Herring Gut, Maine 145 

Hickman's Harbor, Newfoundland. . . . 19 

Hidden Harbor, Patagonia 609 

Hidden Harbor, St. Domingo 363 

Hillsborough Bay, G. of St. Lawrence 97 

Hogoheehee River, Georgia 243 

Hogaties, West Indies 3i7 

Holderness Island, Nova Scotia 113 

Hole in the Wall, Bahairas 248, 250 

Hdlland Cape, Patago^i4.^ 610 

Hdllamd Harbor, Gulf qf ^^.gjawrence 97 

Holme's Hole, Massac^usetft 183, I9I 

Honduras Bay, Guatemala 512 

Hood Port, Breton Island 99 

Hooping Harb6r, Newfoundland 32 

Hope Harbor, Patagonia 624 

Home Island, Louisiana 273 

Home Islands, Newfoundland 31 

ttorton. Bay of Fundy 127 

Hubert's Cove, Nova Scotia 112 

Huntington Bay, Long Island Sound .205 

Huntington, Connecticut 202 

Hurricane Bay, Bahamas 248 

Hurricanes (W. C. Red;field on) 697 

Hussey's Sound, Maine 152 

Hyannes Harbor, Massachusetts 183 

Hypocrite Passage', Massachusetts. . . .173 


Ignacio Bay, Patagonia G37 

Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil 556 

Independent Hiirbor, Labrador 6 

Indian Arm, Newfoundland 23 

Indian Cove, Patagonia 627 

Indian Keys, Cuba 353 

Indian Sound, Patagonia 627 

Ingornachoix Bay, Newfoundland.... 60 

Ingram River, Nova Scotia 112 

Inhabitant Bay, Nova Scotia 94 

Inman Bay, Patagonia 609 

Inman Cape, Patagonia 623 

Ipswich Bay, Massachusetts 162 

Iron-bound Island, Nova Scotia 113 

Isabella Point, St. Domingo 370 

Isle au Haut, Penobscot Bay 137 

Isles of Shoals, New Hampshire 158 

Isthmus Bay, Labrador 6 


Jackson's Arm, Newfoundland ..*.... ^'i 

Jaquemel Harbor, St. Domingo 3{i4 

Jagua Harbor, Cul)a ;j4rt 

Jamaica, West Indies M^rt 

Jardinellos, Cuba, . ., 851 

Jardines, Cuba 351, 356 

Jean Rabcl Harbor, St. Domingo . . . .376 

Jebogne Harbor, Nova Scotia 125 

Jedore Harbor, Nov?. Scotia 106 

Jegogan Harbor, Nova Scotia 104 

Jeremie, St. Domingo np:} 

Jerome Channel, Patagonia Gl2 

Jestico Harbor, Breton Island 99 

Jesuits Sound, Patagonia. 637 

John's Bay, Maine 1 "> 

John's Bay Harbor, Maine 144 

John River, Nova Scotia 92 

Jones Harbor, Maine 139 

Jnde Cape, Newfoundland 43 

Judith Point, Rhode Island 199, 202 

Jururu Port, Cuba 334 


Kate Harbor, Newfoundland 23 

Kamaraska Islands, ."■ r. Lawrence . .72, 80 

Keel's Harbor, Newfoundland 23 

Kelly Harbor, Patagonia 637 

Kenipe Harbor, Patagonia 609 

Kennebec River, Maine 149 

Kennebunk Harbor, Maine 156, 157 

Keppel Harbor, Nova Scotia 106 

Key Biscayno, Florida 247, 363 

Key Largo, Florida 247, 261 

Key West, Florida 257, 266 

King and Fitzroy Islands, Patagonia. .604 

King's Harbor, Newfoundland 53 

Kingston, St. Vincent's 438 


Labrador, coasts of 1 

Labrador harbor, St. Lawrence 7 

La Bras d'Or harbor, J3reton Island . . 99 
La Caleta, anchorage, St. Domingo . .361 

LaCey harbor, Newfoundland 30 

La Coue harbor, Newfoundland 55 

La Coiite harbor, Newfoundlaml 47 

La Ouayra Port, Colombia 467 

Laguna, city, Brazil 566, 567 

La Ilacha, city, Colombia 477 

La Hnne Bay, Newfoundland 52 

La ITune Cape, Newfoundland 51 

La Moine harbor, Newfoundland 52 

L'Ance de Loup, St. Lawrerce 7 

L'Ance rUnion, Newfoundland 32 

Langley Island, Newfoundland 46 

La Perche hari)or, Newfoundland 41 

Largent Bay, Newfoundland 47 

La Poile Bay, Newfoundland 54 

Lark Harbor, Newfoundland 59 

Larido Bay, Patagonia 599 

Last Hope Inlet, Patagonia 641 

La Fete harbor, Bay of Fundy 1 32 

Latitudes and Longitudes 674 

T,atnur Port, 
La Vache Islal 
La Vela dc CJ 
La Villa Caj)el 
Laun Bay, Ne| 
Laun Islands, 
L'Kbcrt Port, 
Leeward Bay, I 
Leeward Islanl 
Le Have Rivei| 
Lcith harbor, 
Lennox Island! 
Lepreau PointI 
Le Procheur, 1 
Levantados Re 
Level Bay, Pal 
Lcwiston Roa(| 
Lion's Den, NI 
Liscomb harbo 
Little Hay, St. 
Little Catalina 
Little Cat Ann 
Little Coney A 
Little Cornlsl; 
Little Egg Hai 
Little Fish Ha 
Little Gallows 
Little harbor D 
Little harbor, I 
Little harbor, ^ 
Little Isaacs, E 
Little Round h 
Little River, N 
Little Sandy ha 
Little South ha 
Liverpool Bay, 
Livisa harbor, ( 
Lloyd's harbor, 
Lobster harbor, 
Lockwood's Fu 
Londonderry, I 
Long harbor, I 
Long Island, B 
Long Island ha 
Long Island, N 
Long Island S( 
Long Island, \ 
Long Reach, I 
Long's Wharf 
Lookout Cape, 
Lopez Cape, S 
liord Nelson's 
liouisbourg ha 
Lucea harbor, 
Lunenburg Ba 
Lyuuhavcn Ba 

Maces Bay, Bi 
Machado Capi 
Machapungo S 
Machias, Main 
Machias Seal ] 
Madisoaville, ] 



Tiatour Port, Nova Scotia 120 

La Vache Island, West Indies 3^).') 

La Vela de Coro, town, Colombia . . . .471 

La Villa dxpe, Colombia 477 

Laun Ray, Newfoundland 45 

Laun Islands, Newfoundland 45 

L'Kbcrt Port, Nova Scotia 117 

Leeward Bay, Patagonia 641 

Leeward Islands, Wesi Indies 409 

Le Have River, Nova Scotia 115 

Lcitli harbor. Nova Scotia Ill 

Lennox Islands, Patagonia G-i'J 

Lepreau Point, Nova Scotia l.'?0 

Le Procheur, town, Martinique .... .4.'35 

Levantados Road, St. Domingo 368 

Level Bay, Patagonia 643 

Lewiston Roads, Delaware 2'il 

Lighthouses 719 

Lion's Den, Newfoundland 24 

Liscomb harbor. Nova Scotia 104 

Little Bay, St. Lawrence 8 

Little Catalina Bay, Newfoundland... 21 

Little Cat Arm, Newfoundland 32 

Little Coney Arm, Newfoundland 32 

Little Corn Island , Guatemala 505 

Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey 219 

Little Fish Harbor, St. Lawrence 9 

Little Gallows Harbor, Newfoundland. 42 
Little harbor Deep, Newfoundland. ... 32 

Little harbor, Newfoundland 40, 54 

Little harbor, Nova Scotia 106 

Little Isaacs, Bahamas 255 

Little Round harbor, Newfoundland . . 30 

Little River, North Carolina 235 

Little Sandy harbor, Newfoundland... 40 
Little South harbor, Newfoundland. . . 40 

Liverpool Bay, Nova Scotia 116 

Livisa harbor, Cuba 333 

Lloyd's harbor, Long Island Sound... 205 

Lobster harbor, Newfoundland 31 

Lockwood's Folly Inlet, N. Carolina. .237 

Londonderry, Bay of Fundy 127 

Long harbor, Newfoundland 48 

Long Island, Bay of Fundy 126, 131 

Long Island harljor, Newfoundland ... 50 
Long Island, Newfoundland. .. .24, 41, 50 

Long Island Sound 213 

Long Island, West Indies 311 

Long Reach, Patagonia 646 

Long's Wharf harbor, .Jamaica, 390 

Lookout Cape, North Carolina 234 

Lopci^ Cape, St. Domingo 364 

liord Nelson's Strait, Patagonia 631 

liouisbourg harbor, Breton Island. . . .101 

Lucea harbor, Jamaica 395 

Lunenburg Bay, Nova Scotia 115 

Lynnhavcn Bay, Virginia 224, 233 


Maces Bay, Bay of Fundy 130 

Machado Cape, Patagonia 636 

Machapungo Shoals, Virginia 223 

Machias, Maine 138, 141 

Machias Seal Island, ^ay of Fundy.. 132 
Madisoaville, Louisiana 273 


Magalhaen's Strait of, t*atSgon'ia. 595 

Magdalen Islands, St. Lawrence 87 

Magdalena River, Colombia 478 

Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia 131 

Maize Cape, Cuba. 361, 340 

Malabar Cape, Massachusetts 182 

Mai Bay, Newfoundland 38 

Mai Bay, Nova Scotia 89 

Maldonado, Bra/.il. 570, 579 

Malpec harbor, (hilf of St, Lawrence, 97 

Manan Islands, Bay of Fundy, 130 

Manare harbor, Colombia 464 

Manati Port, Cuba 335 

Manchester harbor, Massachusetts. . . .169 

Manheigan harbor, Maine 148 

Manheigan Island, Maine 144 

Manicougan Point, St. Lawrence. .. . 46 

Manoel Lui/, Shoal, Brazil 538 

Man/.anares River, Colombia 478 

Mnn/.anilla Bay, St. Domingo 372, 377 

Manzanilla harbor, Darien 496 

Manzanilla, Cuba 344 

Marabona Bay, Jamaica 396 

Maracaybo, Gulf of, Colombia 474 

Maranhani, Brazil .540 

Maravi Port, Cuba .^32 

Marblehead harbor, Massachusetts.*.. .1$9 

March harbor, Patagonia. ,v.'^^6 

Margaret's Bay, ;Nova Scofia '^^l'i2 

Margarita Island', Colombia 469 

Maria Port, Jamaica .397 

Marie Galante Island, West Indies. ..42S 

Mariel Port, Cuba '..... . . . .359 

Marcuria River, South America .528 

Marnham Port, Labrador 2 

Maroni River, South America ..538 

Marsh Bay, Maine .141, 

Martha Brae harbor, Jamaica 396 

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. . . .188: 

Martinique : 429^ 

Martin Vas' Rocks, South Atlantic. . .647 

Masio Port, Cuba ..346 

Mason's Bay, Bay of Fundy 150 

Mata harbor, Cuba. 331 

Matagorda, town. Gulf of Mexico . . . .281 
Matamoras, town. Gulf of, Mexico. . . ,282 

Matane River, St. Lawrence 62 

Matanzas, Cuba 339 

Matanzas, Florida .........261 

Matomkin harbor, Virginia 223 

Matoon Port, Nova Scotia 117 

Mavinga harbor, Darien 492 

May Cape, New Jersey 220 

Mayaguana Island, W. Indies 318, 319, 320 

Mayaguez harbor, Porto Rico 403, 405 

May Point, Newfoundland 46 

Mazaredo Bay, Patagonia 609 

Mecatina Island, Labrador 9, 10 

Melville Sound, Patag^oria .....604 

Meogene Island, Bay of Fr.ndy 129 

Merasheen Islands, Newfoundland. ... 41 

Merchantman harbor, Labrador 3 

Mermentao River, Gulf of Mexico... 280 

Meteorology 689 

Metway Port, Nova Scotia 116 



1 l"v 'k 


Midflle Arm, Newfoundlniid ol 

Middle Ground and Bank, St. Law- 
rence; 72, 73 

Middle Island, Newfoundland 4:} 

Middieburgh town, Ciuayana 529 

Middle Race Rock, Long Island Sound 209 

Milford Haven, Breton Island 102 

Mille harbor, Newfoundland 47 

Mille Vache Point, St. Lawrence. ... 68 
Miquelon Island, Newfoundland. .. .46, 49 
Miragone harbor, St. Domingo. ..... .382 

Mirapor Voa, West Indies. 31.3 

Miray harbor. Gulf of St. Lawrence.. % 

Mirimachi Bay, Nova Scotia 91 

Mississippi River 276 

Mistanog-je Bay, St. Lawrence 8 

Mitford Rees Point, Patagonia 639 

Mobile, Alabama 272, 274 

Mob Jack Bay, Virginia 225 

Mochima harbor, Colombia 463 

Mona Isle, West Indies 360 

Mongon Cape, St. Domingo 363 

MonUlo Keys, Cuba 337 

Monita Isle, West Indies 360 

Monomoy Point, Massachusetts 184 

Monos Island, Colombia 464 

Montauk Pwint, Long Island 194, 206, 210 
Monte Chtisti Reef," St. Domingo. . . .371 

Mo»te ChristiRoad, St, Domingo 378 

Monte Video, Braail;^. .' . . . .570, 577, 580 

MoDtego Bay; Jamaica. ., 395 

MoDtpelo Cape, St. Lawrence 65 

Montserrat; West Indies 424 

Moose Island, Maine 135 

Moose Peak R,each, Maine 148 

Morant Keys, Jamaica 385 

Morant Port, Jamaica 398 

Morro Blanco, Colombia 458 

Mooosquillo, Gulf of, Colombia 486 

' Mortier Bay, Newfoundland 43 

Mosquito Coast, Guatemala 512 

Mosqnito harbor, Newfoundland 52 

Mount Desert, Maine. .' 136, 137, 138 

Mauton Port, Nova Scotia, 117 

Muia's Poiiit, Cuba 334 

Murray. harbor.. Gulf of St. Lawrence. 96 

Muscle harbor, Newfoundland 41 

Mushaboon harbor. Nova Scotia 105 

Musquash harbor, Bay of Fundy 130 

Musquito harbor, Mame . . , 149 

Musquito Inlet, Florida 246 


Nantucket harbor 186 

Nantucket Lighthouse 184 

Nantucket Shoals 186 

Nantucket South Shoals 188, 192, 194 

Naos harbor, Dnrien 497 

Narango Port, Cuba 334 

Narborough Peckett's harbor, Patago. 598 

Narragauset Bay, Rhode Island 199 

Narrow Gauges, Maine ...148 

Nash River, Patagonia .612 

Nassau, Bahamas 248, 310 

9au Bay, Patagonia. , , .628 


Nassau Islands, Patagonia 6(iB 

Nausot harbor, Massachusetts 182 

Navas Port, Cuba ;j;)i> 

Nava/.a Islands, West Indies 3h5 

Navy Bay, Diirlen 497 

Neddnck Cape, Maine 15(J 

Negrillo Shoal, Colombia 481 

Negrillo Shoal, (Julf of Mexico 288 

Negro Cape, Brazil 549 

Negro Cape, Nova Scotia II9 

Netsbuctoke, Labrador 6 

Neuman Inlet, Patagonia 639 

New Amsterdam, Guiana 522 

New Bedford, Massachusetts 195 

Newbury port, Massachusetts 159 

New Carlisle, Nova Scotia 90 

Newcastle, Delaware 221 

Newfoundland and Banks 12 

New Harbor, Newfoundland 27, 47 

New Harbor, Nova Scotia 103 

New Haven, Connecticut 212 

New Inlet, North Carolina 233, 236 

New London, Connecticut 207, 211 

Newman's Sound, Newfoundland 24 

New Meadow River, Maine 151 

New Orleans, Louisiana 274 

New Point Comfort, Virginia 225 

Newport, Rhode Island 199 

New Topsail Inlet, North Carolina 235 

Nevis Island, West Indies 417 

New York harbor and bay 214, 219 

Nicaragua, coast of 501 

Nick's Mate, Massachusetts 172 

Niger Sound, Labrador 1 

Nipe harbor, Cuba 333 

Nipisighit, Breton Island 90 

Nipper's harbor, Newfoundland 30 

Nod'ly harbor, Newfoundland 35 

Nombre de Dios harbor, Darien 493 

Nonsuch harbor, Antigua 420 

Norfolk, Virginia 22r> 

North Broad Cove, Newfoundland .... 25 

North Cape, Breton Island 57 

Northeast Arm harbor, Newfoundland . 55 
North Eddisto Inlet, South Carolina. .240 

North harbor, Newfoundland 34, 38 

North Inlet, Nortli Carolina 237 

Norwalk, Connecticut 202 

Nossa Senhora do Desterro, city, Bra- 
zil 565, 567 

Notch Cape, Patagonia 616 

Nuevitas, Cuba 335 

Nutlaud Bay, Patagonia 605 


Oar Bay, Newfoundland 51 

Obstruction Sound, Patagonia 642 

Occasional harbor, Labrador 4 

Ocoa harbor, St. Domingo 363 

Oco Rios harbor, Jamaica 397 

Ocracock Inlet, North Carolina 234 

Old Cape Francois, St. Domingo 370 

Old harbor, Jamaica 390 

Old Jerusalem, West Indies 410 

Old Man's Bay, Newfoundland 52 




Old Matacumhe 2G0, iJ(i4 

Old Point Coiiiloit, Virginia 2J1, 'J'2i3 

Old Proprietor, Bay of Fundy 131 

(.)ld Stamo harbor, Massachusetts Ida 

Old Topsail inlet, North Carolina '234 

Olimla City, Brazil 544 

Omoa harbor, (iiiatemala 512 

Onslow, Bay of Fundy 127 

Open Bay, Patagonia 643 

Ora Cabecca harbor, Jamaica ,3'J7 

Orangp Bay, Newfoundland 32 

Orange Bay, Patagonia, 627 

Orange Keys, ]}ahamas. , '<J5'2 

Orinoco River, S. America. .5vi0, 524, 52'J 

Orleans Island, St. Lawrence * 75 

Oruba Island 473 

Osorno Bay, Patagonia .014 

Otter Bay, Newfoundland 55 

Otway Port, Patagonia 63!) 

Owl's Head harbor, Maine 142 

Owl's Head harbor. Nova Scolia 106 

Owl's Head, Nova Scotia \V1 

Oyapoc River, South America 5' ti 

Oyster Bay, Long Island Sound 205 

Oyster Pond Point, Long Island. 209, 212 


Padre Port, Cuba 335 

Pampetai, town, Colombia 460 

Pamtico Sound, North Carolina 234 

Paquet harbor, Newfoundland 30 

Para, Brazil 541 

Paradise Sound, Newfoundland 42 

Paramaribo, Surinam 528, 529 

Parangua, Brazil 562 

Park Bay, Patagonia 604 

Parkham harbor, Antigua . . , 422 

Parry harbor, Patagonia 603 

Partridge Bay, Labrador 4 

Partridge Island, Bay of Fundy 129 

Pasa del Caballo, Gulf of Mexico 281 

Passage Island, West Indies 313 

Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine 134 

Pass Island, Newfoundland 49 

Patagonia, coast of 587 

Patapsco River, Maryland 231 

Patuxent, Rhode Island 200 

Patuxent River, Maryland 228 

Peake Bay, Jamaica 391 

Peale Inlet, Patagonia 642 

Pearl Lagoon, Guatemala 504 

Pedro Bay, Jamaica 393 

Penguin Islands, Newfoundland 51 

Penmequids harbor, Maine 144 

Penobscot Bay and River, Maine .. 142, 143 

Pensacola, Florida 271, 274 

Perlican, Old and New, Newfoundland, 18 

Pernambuco, Brazil 534, 544 

Petit Fort harbor, Newfoundland 42 

Petit Passage, Bay of Fundy 126 

Petty Harbor, Labrador 2 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 222 

Phillip River, Nova Scotia 9^ 

Picarre Harbor, Newfoundland 60 

Fictou, Nova Scotia 93 

' Page 

Piedras Keys, Cuba 337 

I'ilgriin Islii-ids, St. Lawrence 72 

Pities, Isle of 352, 354 

Piper's Hole, Newfoundland 40 

Pistolet Bay, Newfoundland 35 

Pitts Harbor, Labrador 1 

Placentia Bay and harbor. Newfound.. 39 

Pleasant River, Maine 148 

Plum Island, Long I. Sound, 207, 209, "212 

Plum Island, Massachusetts 159 

Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts 175, 176 

Pocklington, Labrador 1 

Page Cape, Massachusetts 184 

Polluck Shoal, Nova Scotia 107 

Ponce, Porto Rico 402 

Ponchartrain Lake, Louisiana 273 

Pope's Harbor, Nova Scotia 106 

Porpoise Cape, Maine 105 

Port au Petre, Guadaloupe 425 

Port au Prince, St. Domingo 380 

Port Bonaventure, Newfoundland 19 

Port Caballos,Guatemala 611 

Port Cavallos, Guatemala 511 

Port Clerke, Patagonia ^ 626 

Port Desire, Patagonia 589 

Port d'Espagne, Trinidad 460 

Port El Rogue, Colombia .....471 

Port Francois, St. Domingo ....37.4 

Port Grave, Newfoundland 16 

Portland Harbor, Jamaica.... 392 

Portland, Maine 152 

Port Maxwell, Patagonia ....'. 629 

Porto Bello, Darien ", . .495, 49» 

Porto Cabello, Colombia ....'.. 469 

Porto Rico, West Indies 400, 404 

Porto Securo, Brazil 552 

Port Paix, St. Domingo 376tt 

Port Plata, St. Domingo 370- 

Port Royal, Jamaica 388^ 

Port Royal, South Carolina 240 

Portsmouth, Doujinica 428 

Portsmouth, New Hampshire. . . .157, 161 

Porv' St. Elena, Patagonia 687 

Portuguese Ascension, South Atlantic «9 

Posadas Bay, Patagonia 614 

Possession Bay, Patagonia .596 

Potomac River 228 

Prado, city, Brazil 553 

Presque Harbor, Newfoundland ...... 41 

Prince Amilca River, Guatemala 507 

Prince Edward's Island, Gulf of St. 

Lawrence 96 

Prince's Bay Lighthouse, New Jersc" !17 

Prospect Harbor, Maine 138 

Prospect Harbor, Nova Scotia 124 

Providence Cape, Patagonia 618 

Providence Channel, Bahamas 250 

Providence Island, Guatemala. ...... .506 

Providence, Rhode Island 20O 

Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts .174 

Puerta de Plata, St. Domingo 370 

Puerto Real, Jamaica 406 

Purcell Island, Patagonia 638 

Purwick Cove, Newfoundland 3X 





Quaco, Bay of Fuudy 128 

Quebec, Canadii 76, 8.'3 

Quirpon harbor, Newfoundland. , . .uo, 30 
Quirpon Island, MewfoundJand 34 


Race Cape, Newfoundland 13, 720 

Race Point, Massachusetts 177 

Racoon Keys 'Z'6'J 

Ragged harbor, Newfoundland a8 

Ragged Island, Bahamas 315 

Rain 6^1 

Ram Islands, Newfoundland 3!) 

Ramier ha-'.or, Newfoundland b2 

Ramsheg he or. Nova Scotia 91> 

Random Souna, Newfoundland J!) 

Raphael Cape, St. Domingo 351, 3(jrt 

Rappahannock River, Virginia. . .226, 232 

Raspberry harbor. Nova Scotia 103 

Rattan Island, Guatemala .510 

Ray Cape, Newfoundland 50, 720 

Razade Islands, St. Lawrence 71 

Red Bay, St. Lawrence 7 

Redfield W. C. on Storms and Hurri- 
canes. 697 

Red harbor, Newfoundland 42 

Red Island harbor, Newfoundland. ... 53 

Bed Island, Newfoundland 41 

Rod Island, St. Lawrence 71 

Redonda Island, West Indies 424 

Reedy Island, Delaware Bay 221 

Rencontre Bay, Newfoundland, 51 

Rtfljowes harbor, Newfovndland 13 

Riipde Island Harbor 198 

Richibucto harbor, Nova Scotia. 91 

Richmond Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence 97 

Rich Point, Newfoundland 61 

Riding Rocks, Bahamas 253 

Rio Bucnq har' ir, Jamaica 397 

Rio de la Plata, Brazil 569 

Rio Grande, Brazil. 553 

Rio Grande de San Pedro, Brazil 568 

Rio Janeiro, Brazil 555 

Rio Negrq, South America 584 

Rio San Francisco, Brazil 562 

Ristigquche harbor. Nova Scotia 90 

River Islands, Labrador 1 

River Plate, Brazil 569 

Road of Naso, Loursiana .276 

Robin Hood's Bay, Newfoundland. ... 20 

Roccas, Brazil 553 

Roche Avignon, St. Lawrence 74 

Rockaway Inlet, Lonr Island 214 

Rock harbor, Newfoundland 43 

Roman Cape 238 

Romano Cape. 266 

Romano Key, West Indies 335 

Rosario Islands, Colombia 485 

Rose Blanche liarbor, Newfoundland. , 55 

Rotte Bay, Newfoundland 64 

Round harbor, Labrador 3 

Round harbor, Newfoundland 50 

^0X0 Cape, Gulf of Mexico 306 

Rugged Island harbor. Nova Scotia. . .118 
Rum Key, West Indies 31ii 


Saba Island, West Indies 417 

Sabanilla harbor, Colombia , . . .4;(« 

Sabine River, (<ulf o.' Mexico Q^^o 

Sable Cape, Nova Scotia 1^0, 121 

Sable Island, Nova Scotia 1:^1, 717 

Sable Kiver, Nova Scotia 117 

Saco, Maine i5(i 

Saddleback, Newfoundland .... 43 

Sag hatbor, New York ....212 

Sagona Island, Newfoundland 46 

Sail harbor, Maine 140 

Saintes Ishind, West Indies 4-,>6 

Salado River, Colombia 4^8 

Salaniaruiuilla island, Colombia 486 

Salem harbor, Massachusetts 107 

Salinas Harbor, Port Rico 402 

Salinas Point, .St. Domingo 36'J 

Salisbury Beach, Massachusetts 100 

o It Key Bank ... .257 

Salt Key, West Indies 327 

Salt River, Jamaica 391 

Salvage Bay, Newfoundland 26 

Saniana Bay, St. Domingo 308 

Sama Tort, Cuba 334 

Sambro Harbor, Nova Scotia Ill 

San Antoi !o Port, Patagonia 60I 

San Bartholo;''ew Cape, Patagonia. . . .631 

San Bias Channel, Patagonia 634 

San Bias. Gulf of, Darien 491 

San Diego Cape, Pat,.gonia 630 

Sand Key, Florida 1>47, 260, 262 

Sand Key, West Indies 326 

Sandwich Bay, Labrador 6 

Sandwich Harbor, Massachusetts 174, 179 

Sandy Bay, Guatemala 513 

Sandy Bay, Labrador 5 

Sandy Bay, Massachusetts 162 

Sandy Bay, Patagonia 634 

Sandy Hook, New Jersey 217 

Sandy Island Bay, St. Lawrence 8 

Sandy Point, Nantucket 183 

Sandy Point, Patagonia 599 

San Estevan Channel, Patagonia 642 

San German, town, Porto Rico 405 

San Juan de Nicaragua, Darien 503 

San Pedro Sound, Patagonia. 609 

San .Sebastian Harbor, Brazil 566 

San Tadeo River, Patagonia 638 

Santa Anna, city, Brazil 507 

Santa Cataliua Island. . , 506 

Santa Cruz Bay, Colombia 404 

Santa Cruz Isiind, West Indies 413 

Santa Fe, Gulf of, Colombia 404 

Santa de la Marina, Gulf of Mexico. .283 

Santa Lucia Cape, Patagonia 034 

Santa Martha Harbor, Colombia 478 

Santee River, South Carolina 238 

Santiago, Barra de Texas 282, 720 

Santiago Cape, Patagonia , 634 

Santo Anna Point, Patagonia 600 

Santos Port, Brazil 559 

Sapelo IshI 
Saumar' z 
Savanna d« 
Savage Col 
Savage Haj 
Say brook, 
Scatari Isll 
Schetky Cl 
Scituate Hi 
Scuttock l{ 
Sea Bear i| 
Sea BreezcT 
Sealing BiJ 
Seal Island 
Seara Tow 
Secretary ^ 
iSeguine, JV 
Selina, tow 
Serpent's I 
Serrana Ke 
Severn Riv 
Shallow B 
Shallow ay 
Sheep Kej 
Sheet Harl 
Shelter Isl 
Ship ilarb^ 
Ship Harb 
Shoal Bay, 
Shoals, Isl 
Sholl Bay, 
Shut-In h 
Silver Key 
Silver Key 
Sir John 

gonia. . 

Sisal, towi 

Sisal Shos 

Sisibou R 

Smitli's Is 

Smith's S 


Smyrna, 1 

Smyth Hi 

.Snug Hai 

Soan Isl? 

Sola Islet 


Sophia H 

South C 

South Et 



Spanish ' 





.. 43 
.. 46 
..4 -,'6 




,. 26 
60, 262 
... 6 
M, 179 
,. 5 
.. 8 
, 720 


Sapelo Isli\n(l, Georgia 243 

Sariniento Channel, Patagonia 042 

Saunde 's Port, Nowl'oundl.jd do 

Saumar'z Island, Patagonia 642 

Savanna de la Mar, St. Doniingo 369 

Savannah de la Mar, 'amaica 394 

Savannah River, (Georgia 242 

Savage Cove-, Newfoundland 62 

Savage Harbor, Gulf of St. Lawrence. . 97 

Saybrook, Connecticut 203,211 

Scarborough, Tobago 442 

Scatari Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence. .100 

Schapenham Bay, Patagonia 623 

Schetky Cape, Pa';i?,onia 623 

Scituate Harbor, Massachusetts 175 

Scuttock Island, Maine 147 

Sea Bear Bay, Patagonia 590 

Sea Breezes 696 

Sealing Bight, Jjabrador 3 

Seal Islands, Labrador 5 

Seara Town. Brazil 536 

Secretary Wren's Island, Patagonia. . .611 

Sedger River, Patagonia 607 

Seguine, Maine 147 

Selina, town, Brazil 540 

Serpent's Island, West Indies 401 

Serrana Keys, West Indies 507 

Severn River, Virginia 226 

Shallow Bay, Labrador 6 

Shalloway Island, Newfoundland 44 

Shecatica Bay, S* Lawrence 8 

Sheep Keys, Bahamas 254 

Sheepscut River, Maine 149 

Sheet Harbor, Nova Scotia 105 

Shelburne Harbor, Nova Scotia 118 

Shelter Island, New York 211 

Sherbiook Tower, Nova Scotia 109 

Ship II:.rbor, Newfoundland 39 

Ship Harbor, Nova Scotia 94, 106 

Shoal Bay, Nova Scotia lOo 

Shoals, Isles of. New Hampshire 158 

Sholl Bay, Patagonia 603 

Shut-In Harbor, Newfoundland 19 

Silver Key Bank, West Indies 328 

Silver Key Passage, West Indies 329 

Sir John Narborough's Islands, Pata- 
gonia 621 

Sisal, town. Gulf of Mexico 284 

Sisal Shoal, Gulf of Mexico 286 

Sisibou River, Bay of Fundy 127 

Smith's Island, Maryland 223 

Smith's Sound, Newfoundland 19 

Smithville, North Carolina 235 

Smyrna, Florida 241, 261 

Smyth Harbor, Patagonia 606 

Snug Harbor, Labrador 4 

Soan Island, West Indies 361 

Sola Islet, Colombia 461 

Sombrero Island, West Indies.. .414, 720 

Sophia Harbor, Labrador 2 

South Carolina 241 

South Eddisto Idlet, South Carolina. .240 

Southward Bay, Newfoundland 23 

Spaniard's Bay, St. Lawrence 17 

iSpaaish Town, West Indiet ....409 



Spear Harbor, Labrador 2 

Spotted Islands, Labrador 5 

Spry Harbor, Nova Scotia 106 

Square Handkerchief, West Indies... 328 

Sijuare Island, harbor, Labrador , 4 

St. Andrew's Bay, Florida 270 

St. Andrew's Harbor, Bay of Fundy.. 132 
St. Andrew's Island, West Indies 504, 605 

St. Andrew's Sound, Patagonia 642 

St. Ann Harbor, Curazao 473 

St. Ann's Bay, St. Domingo 397 

St. Ann's Harbor, Breton Island 99 

St. Anthony's Harbor, Newfoundland 34 

St. Antonio Cape, Brazil 544, 547, 673 

St. Antony Cape, Patagonia 631 

St. Augustine Cape, Brazil 646 

St. Augustine, Florida 245 

St. Augustine Port, Labrador 9 

St. Barbe, Bay of Newfoundland 68 

St. Bartholomew's Islands, W. Indies 416 

St. Bias Cape, Florida 267, 274 

St. Catherine's Island, Brazil 563 

St. Catharine's Sound, Georgia 243 

St. Croix Island, West Indies 413 

St. David's Sound, Patagonia 612 

St. Domingo, city. , .361 

St. Domingo Island, West Indies.... 369, 
St. Esprit Reef, West Indies. .,,,... .4w 

St. Estevan Gulf, Patagonia 6S$ 

St. Eustatius, West Indies •^4|7 

St. Fernando River, Gulf of Mexico.. 2^ 
St. Francis Cape, Newfoundland, .... 15 

St. Francis Harbor, Labrador, ....... 3 

St. Francis River, Gulf of Mfexico. . .285> 

St. Francois, Guadaloupe 425 

St. Genevieve Bay, Newfoundland.... 61 

St. George Cape, Florida SpS^ 

St. George's Bay, Newfoundland. .. ..'|l| 

St. George's Bay, NoVa Scotia , 94 

St. George's Town, Greijada .,,,.... ,4^ 

St. Gregory Cape, Newfoundland 69 

St. Helena Sound, South Carolina.. .242 

St. .lacques, Newfoupdland 48 

St. .Tagode Cuba ; 343 

St. Jago, St. Domingo...'.,... 370 

St. John, Bay of, Newfoundland 61 

St. John's, Florida 245 

St. John Island, West Indies 411 

St. John's Harbor, Antigua 423 

St. John's Harbor, Bay of Fundy 128, 129 

St. John's Harbor, Newfoundland 15 

St. John's Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence 96 
St. Juan Harbor, Porto Rico.... 400, 401 

St. Kitt's, West Indies 418 

St. Lawrence, Gulf of , 87 

St. Lawrence Harbor, Newfoundland 44 

St. Lawrence River, 63, 74, 76 

St. Louis Bay, St. Domingo 366 

St. Louis River, Labrador 2 

St. Louis, town, Gaudaloupe .428 

St. Lucia, West Indies 437 

St. Luis Harbor, Brazil 538 

St. Lunaire Bay, Newfoundland 34 

St. Marco Bay, Brazil 538 

St. Mark Cape, St. Domingo 37^ 




St. Mark's, FloridR 2C7, L>6<) 

St. Martin's Island, West Indies 415 

St. Mary Cape, i ra/.il 571', 578 

St. Mary Point, V atagonia 5<)') 

St. Mary's JJay, IJay of Fundy 126 

St. Mary's, Gt'uigia 244 

St. iMary's 'liver, Maryland 227, 232 

St. Mary's River, Nova Scotia 104 

St. Michael's ]iay, Labrador 4 

St. Nicholas Bay, Pat;ij;onia 608 

St. Nicholas Harbor, 'Juif of St. Law- 
rence 66 

St. Nicholas Mole, Sti Domingo 377 

St. Paul's Island, Gulf of St. Law- 
rence 57, 87, 720 

St. Peter's Bay, Labrador 1 

St. Peter's Harbor, G. of St. Lawrence 97 

St. Peter's Island, Newfoundland 45 

St. Pierre, Martinique 429, 434, 436 

St. Roipie Capo, Brazil 534 

St. Riryas Bay, Florida 270 

St. Salvador Bay, Brazil 547 

St. Sebastian, town, Brazil 558 

St, Simon's Sound, Georgia 244 

St. Thomas, West Indies 412 

St. Valentyu Cape, Patagonia 603 

Si. Vincent Cape, Pataaonia. . „ 630 

St. Vlpbent'Si West Indies 438 

^tat^D Islapd, Patagonia 631 

Steivart's! Birjr, P.atae;onia 615 

Stirrup JC|>, ffahamas 252 

Sto.qington. Harb.>r, Connecticut 2rtl 

Stoqo Inlet, South Carolina 240 

Testigos Islands, Colombia 457 

Texas . , 2n2 

Thatcher's Island, Ma8sacl\usetts 174, 175 

Thomas C'ai)e, Brazil .550 

Three Fathoms Harbor, Nova Scotia. .107 

Three Points Cape, Patagonia 634 

Three Rivers, (lulf of St. Lawrence. . . 96 
Throg's Point, Long Island Sound ...205 

Thunder Storms and Gusts 69i 

Tiburon Ca^)e, St. Domingo 384 

Tichfield, town, Jamaica 398 

Tides 668 

Tiger Point, Gulf of Mexico 280 

Timbalier Island, Louisiana 278 

Titmanan, Maine 138 

Tobago, West Indies 442 

Tolu, town, Colombia 486 

Torbay Harbor, Nev.foundland 15 

Torbay, Nova Scotia 103 

Tortofa Road, West Indies. .409, 410, "11 
Tortue, Channel of, St. Domingo . . . .376 

Tortue Island, West Indies. 322 

Tortuga Island, Colombia 466 

Tortugas, Florida 247, 258 

Toubalier Island, Louisiana 278 

Toulinguet Harbor, Newfoundland ... 30 

Town's End Harbor, Maine 145, 149 

Tracadia, St. Lawrence 97 

Trade Winds 694 

Traverse, St. Lawrence 74 

Treble Island, Patagonia 626 

Trebiippy, Guatemala 514 

Tres Montes Cape, Patagonia 649 

Storjmy Bay, Patagonia 604 ! Tres Puntas, Colombia, 457 

Storm$, ( W. C. Redfieia on) 697 

Stratford Point, Connecticut 203 

Suliiytiq's Island, South Carolina 239 

Suotmer's Islands 208 

Sll,|ii>ury, Georgia. 243 

Sundy Cape, Patagonia 622 

Surinam, South America. . . .520, 521, 528 

Suwanee River, Florida 268 

Swallow Harbor, Patagonia 615 

Sweet Bay, Newfoundland 23 

Sydney Harbor, Breton Island 100 


Tabasco River, Gulf of Mexico 295 

Table Bay, Labrador 5 

Taco Port, Cuba 332 

Tamar Harbor, Patagonia 646 

Tampa Bay, Florida 269 

Tampicd, Gulf of Mexico 306 

Tanamo Port, Cuba 333 

Tangier Harbor, Nova Scotia 106 

Tangier Sound, Maryland 226 

Tarpaulin Cove, Massachusetts 189 

Tarrent Harbor, Maine, 142, 149 

Tate Cape, Patagonia 623 

Tatmago^che, town. Nova Scotia 92 

Taylor's Bay, Newfoundlaad 45 

Tennant Harbor, Nova Scotia Ill 

T-en Pound Island, Massachusetts. . . .163 

Temperature of Elevation 690 

Termlno» Lake, Gulf of Mexico . . , « , .2<!;5 

Trinidad^, city, Cuba 315, 347 

Trinidad, Gulf of, Patagonia 635 

Trinidad, Isle of, South America 547 

Trinidad, West Indies 444 

Trinity Bay, Newfoundland 18, 20 

Trinity Bay, St. Lawrence 65 

Trinity Harbor, Martinique 432, 433 

Triton Harbor, Newfoundland 29 

Truro, Bay of Fundy 127 

Truro Harbor, Massachusetts 180 

TucKinuck Channel, Massachusetts ..193 
Tupilco River, Gulf of Mexico. ..... .295 

Turiamo Harbor, Colombia. . . , 469 

Turk's Island, West Indies 325, 326 

Tusket River, Nova Scotia ] 24 

Tybee Inlet, South Carolina 241 


Unare Bay, Ci ombia 457 

Union River, Maine 141 

Upright Cape, Patagonia 618 

Uraba, Gulf of, Colombia .488 

Uriarte Port, Patagonia 620 

Useless Bay, Patagonia 601 

Utila Island, Guatemala 511 

Valdez Port, Patagonia 602 

Valle Bay, St. Lawrence 68 

Vela Port, Cuba 334 

Veneauela, Gulf of, Colombia, , , 474 

Vera Crul 
Verde Bal 
Verte Baf 
Victory (| 
Vie(|ue Is 
Villa Novl 
Villena C| 
Virgin (iJ 
Virgin Islj 
Virgin R( 


Warsaw Si 
Watch Hi 
Water Spc 
West Cap 
Whales B; 
Whale So 
White Ba 
White Bed 
White He; 
White Hil! 
White Isla 
White Isla 
AVhite Isla 
Willes Ba; 





. , Uf<a 

ctts 174, 175 



I 6:!4 

rence... % 
ound ...205 










1 15 


09,410, '11 
'go ....376 

- 322 


...a47, 258 


and ... 30 
...145, 149 





[ 514 - 

.315, 347 
a.... .547 
...18, 20 


432, 433 
.... 29 



letts ..193 


325, 326 




Vera Cm/., CJiilf of Mexico ...^ ,197 

Verde Day, St. Lnwreiire 18 

Verte iJay, Nova Scolia !)2 

Victoria, city of, lira/ii 551 

Victory Cape, Patagonia 634 

Vieque Island, West Indies 401 

Villa Nova, city, Brazil 567 

Villena Cov ,, Patagonia 6l5 

Virginia, (Jajjcs of 223 

Virgin (Jorda Island, West Indies . . . .409 

Virgin Islands 409 

Virgin Rocks, Newfoundland 13 

Virgin's Cape, Patagonia 595 


Wadham Islands, St. Lawrence 28 

Warsaw Sound, Georgia 243 

Warwick, Rhode IslamI . . 201 

Washington, North Carolina 234 

Watch Hill Light, Conneciic , .201 

Waterman Island, Patagonia 626 

Water Spouts 693 

Watland's Island, West Indies 312 

Wellfleet Hnrbor, Massachusetts 201 

West Cape, Patagonia 628 

Westminster Hall, Patagonia 622 

Westward Arm, Newfoundland 31 

Whales Pack Liaht, New Hampshire 157 

Whale Sound, Patagonia 612 

Whirlwinds 693 

White Bay. Newfoundland 31 

White Ber.r Bay, Newfoundland 53 

White Head, Maine 142 

White HiUs. Ne-.v Hampshire 155 

White Island, St. Lawrence 71 

White Island, New Hampshire 158 

White Islands, Newfoundland 34 

'Wicomack, Maryland 232 

Willes Bay, Patagonia 603 


Wilmington, North Carolina 236 

VVin<ls , .680 

Windsor, Nova Scotia 125 

Windward (Jliannel, West Indies 316, 386 

Windward Islands, West Indies 409 

Windward Passage, West Indies 322 

Winter Harbor, Maine 166 ' 

Winyaw Bay, Carolina 238 

Wiscasset, Maine 151 

Withy Wood Bay, Jamaica 393 

Witless Bay, Newfoundland 14 

Wolf Bay, Newfoundland 63 

Wolf's Cove, St. Lawrence 7 

Wood Island, Bay of Fundy.. 131 

Wood Island Light, Maine 156 

Wood's Bay, Patagonia 610 

Wye1R,ocks, St. Lawrence ...76, 82 


Xngua Harbor, Cuba 348 

Xibera Harbor, Cuba 3,34 " 

Xicalango Point, Gulf of Mexico. .. .284 


Yaguaneque Harbor, Cuba 333 

Yarmouth Harbor, Nova Scotia 126 

Yarmouth, Massachusetts 179, 183 

Ycacos Keys, Cuba .3^,,. 

York Bay, Labrador ;.., ^ ' 

York Harbor, Newfcnndland. . .„^^j^. TO 

York River, Virginia. . . . .' , m^^ .233 

York Town, Virginia.. .....,;, jj,,-. 233 

Ysabella Point, St. Domingo. . «;»••. 370 
Yuma Island, West Indies .311 


Zacheo Island, West Indies 3®8| 

Zamba Island, Colombia ,...480^ 

Zanhio Island, West Indies.,,..,,.., 360' 




t^./-:-' "'- ^^ ' 

oi-» :* 



a:p. H.h) 






/^ ««» 

..* <•■* 

?^^ '/ 




, .488 




. 68 

« • • U«J4 




Known by l\ 
• iitriiiici' nil 

(IllMIl llMVI' tl 

to till' l)i>y, \\ 
not l)t' ulili' 
better iii;iik 
fimire. term 
liiml to tlie ( 
shore ; wliil 

'l\) sail ill! 
side, ;i!ul em 
trii point ol 
appcMriiiij; jl 
h'lnd ; tlicn, 
nearly niidw 
land : haul ( 
Whale Islaii 
to open the 
bor, tiieii li; 
open ofWli 
clear from d; 
tlionis, with 
your fishery. 
Heidey islati 

One mile t 
Island ; betw 
and also opcr 
Peter's tslam 
chorace, bnt 

ing with a hi 
the westwart 
lies S. E. by 
rate lieiQ:ht. ; 
.From St. P( 
between thei 
islands bet'or 
ward of thes( 
water; the c 

Cape Charlf 
by Eyre and 
there is very 
and yon nia^ 
and Little C 

From Caf 
distance 4i i 
a larfie mile 
i-ound at the 

From the 
I W. d- tatil 
Islands, you 
vessels may 



Variation allmced from Yink Paint to S indiC'rh llarhor 2',' and 3 Points. 

YORK, or OHATKAFX RAY, li.-s al.ont ](> milcn X. W. 1 N. fiom the sonfli-wpstprn 
|i(»irit ol' Rfllc Islt.', hikI H Icimiies N. ^' W . Inmi llic llirlmr of (iuii|>(m; it iiiiiy riisily he 
Known by two very re in ink ;t hie, liills, sitiiiitfd on ( 'iistl(> ;ni(l I Irnlcy Isliinds, wliicli lie iu the 
••ntnuiee oC the liny; these roeky iiiils iippear iit (lie tops, and tin- steep hills iironnil 
them have the appearanee ofeastie walls; the islands Conn the eastern side ot'tlie einranee 
to the hay, while tin; CajM-s V(M'k and Teini'le are to the westward ; hnt as the mariner may 
not he aide to discover the ahovc hills at a distance, hccanse oCtlic hiiili land lichind, the 
better marks will he, to observe that all the land to the westward is cd' a hii;li and nnilorni 
(innre, terminatiii_<; at the west .sicie of the bay wiih a coiispicnons UfM)l) or iiillock, while the 
land to the eastward of ("hafeanx I'ay is hilly and broken, having many islands ni'iir the 
shore ; while to the westward there ;n(> none. 

'i'o sail intr) Cliateaiix I5ay. yon most leave ("astle and [fenloy Islands on your starboard 
side, and endeavor to kee|) Point (Jrenvilie, \vliich has a beacon upon it, on with tln^ west- 
ern point ol' Henley fsland ; this point is a suioo'h black rock, liavinji a little dark rock just 
»pi)eariti4i above water o(K its point ; keep this mark on until yon }:et abreast of Whale 1»- 
l;ind ; then, to avoid tlie middle rock, itver which are only ') feet water, and which lies 
nearly midway between the east puini of Whale Island and the black point of Henley Is- 
land ; hanl over close to Menley l>hick Kock, or borrow towards, bnt not too near, to 
Wliale Island, for here it runs off shallow and (bt ; and whJiii yon .ire so far advanced as 
to open the narrow eliannel into Temple J5ay. witJi the view of sairmu; up info Pitt's Har' 
bor, then liaiil to tiie westward, until you brin.; the outer point of Castle I<)land, a Httle 
open of Whale fsland; this mark will lead you up into I'ills Harbor, whicli is spacious, 
clear from danger, and well sheltered from all winds; here you may ride in 10 or 14 fa- 
thoms, with plenty of timber ready for your use, and every ce enicncy for carrying on 
your fishery. There is also a narrow passage into Pitt's liar or, to the northward of 
Henley Island, throufih which you will have .'! fathoms wafer. 

One mile to flu- eastward of llenley Island, lien Seal Island, and 3^ miles farther is Duck 
Island ; between these is (loose and JJad l>ay, full of rocks both above and below the water, 
and also o|ieii to the easterly winds. To the eastw ard of Seal Island, distant 6 niilCii, is St. 
Peter's Islands, a cluster of barren rocks, within which is St. Peter's Bay, a good place of an- 
chorage, but too nmchex))osed to the south ainl soiiili-easterly winds to be much frequented. 

CAPE CHARIjKS. — To the norlh-eastwaid of St. Peter's Island is Cape Charles mak- 
ing with a high hill, steep to seaward, and slo|;ing down inland, so tliat wherlr you are to 
the westward of Chateaux Ray, it has tin; a]>pearanee of an island. Cape Charjes Island 
lies S- E. by E. | E. distant aljotit one and a lialf mile /Vom Ca])e Charles ; it is of mode- 
rate height, and has several small rocks i)oih to the eastward and to the westward f)f it. 
.From St. Peter's Islands to Charles Is!;;:,,) the course is K. X. E. | E. distant 14 miles; 
between thetu lies Niger Sound, an inlet :d out two leagties deep, and having several small 
islands before it ; to enter Niger Sound y.)U mav pass cither to the southward or north- 
ward of these islands, and obtain anchorage oirthe northern side of the sound in 9 fathoins 
water; the course in will be nearly N. bv W. 

CAPE CHARLES HARROR.--From the norfli poiitt of Cape Charles Island info 
Cape Charles Harbor, the course is N. W. y N. <lisfanf 4 miles; this harbor is formed 
by Eyre and Little Caribou Islands, on the eastern sides, and by the main on the west ; 
there is very good anchora<,e in fronj 17 to '22 fathoms water in it, on a muddy bottom, 
and yon may sail in on either side of the ceiitre island ; but the best passage is between it 
and Little Caribou; 

From Cape Charles Island to the Raffle Islands the course is E. N. E. i N. and the 
distance 4^ miles ; this course will carry you clear to the eastward of the rocks which lie 
a large mile to the eastward of northernmost Rattle Island, which will appear high and 
round at the top. 

From the northernmost Rattle Island to the River Islands, your course will he N. W. 
}r W. d' taut 2 leagues : here, to the westward of Pocklington, which is one of the River 
Islands, you will find anchorage in 30 and 35 fathoms water, with a bottom of mud ; and 
vessels may pass to the southward of these islands up the rivier St. Lewis, 


2 bllnt's AMr.iur.vN coast pilot. 

CUTTKIv II.VRISOII.— KiiMii fli.« sMiiili jxiiiif i.r i'.Mklin,:;ton Island to Cnltrr Har- 
bor, till' coiiiMe iH W. I 8. ilistaiit ihh' imiIc : in iliis harbor there is ({ood iiiichorngc (or 
:iiui\\\ vt-sft'ls. 

ST. LKWrS RIVKK.— Frniii the iinrflnTtmiost Uatfl.- Maiul. t<» thr nitraiirf of tJir 
RiviT Si. f.i'uis. tlio cuiiriM' is N. N. W. ' W. tlistaiit 7 itiilrs; steer in N. \V. \ W. Ii r 
!) miles, ilieii X. N. W. \ W, 8 niili's, to Woiniy ls!;in<l. When von are ihont I miles u|) 
tliis river iVdni its en.iMiice, von v ill liml l'""i| imclmraxe, ami this will continue until yoii 
arrive at Woody Island; hut ali.ive that tlie river lieeoiin'!) intritatti and has many shoals. 

The north point oC the river is low I'or alionl '2 inile.i up, tlien hotli .sides I me ratiier 

high and woody ; at the he:iil of the river a;.' dillerent kimls of very lino wood, liireh, (ir, 
juniper, and s|iiii(e ; and the river is pjentiliilly stored u',:h salmon 

NT. liK WlS'S ."^l )l '.N I). — ( >!ie mili- !o ilie 'mitliward of the north I'oiiit of St lieu is 
J{iver lies ilie entrance to St. Lewis's Sound, wl'.icli runs up nearly N. W. about It miles, 
havinj; very t;ood ;uiciiorar,'<» at its iipier part, Imt caro should lie taken, lest a shoal, which 
.stret(dies oil' from a .sandy lieaeli on the larl)oard side, about '2 miles within the eiitratuT, 
.slioidd ilo you anv injury ; yon \sill iI',i'r"l'ore lie sure to ^wt' this a i;ood berlh in passiny. 

DKKIf il A iilioll:.— -Fr'im the m'.rtiieriunoNt ilatfle l.sland. to the eniranee of Deer 
Harbor, the couise is .N, N. W. '; .\. tlistiuit •.',' jeni^iies. 'I'his is considered to be a very 
i^ood harbor, secure (Voiu sdl winds, and in which vessels wid find anchoras:e in from 10 
to IS fathoms; there is no danger in cnteriii'r. and tlie best anchorage is at the back of 
J)ecr Island, called aNo Marnham h.Iaml. I'urt .M;iriiham is furnied by tin* cast end of 
Maridiam Island, and lli" in.iin to the iinith ai I ea-hviin! of it. 

C.\IM; ST. liKWIS. — From tlie northernmost Ihcile Island, to Cape St. Lewis, tlio 
coiirso is N. ! W, distant ') miles; thi.s capo is hirih ra-zu'cd land; a (|uarfer of a mile 
from tiie point, there are two liat rotd^y islets, and s-veral siiid<en rocks about the point of 
the cape; ronnd tho jxiint is the entrance of a small cove rumiimf in S. W. 'i W. half a 
miU% it is cummoidy called Diej) Water Creel:. beiiiLr very narrow, and having; iVom -JO to 
40 fathoms within ii. About 1' mile N. X. W. ',' N. fiom the Ca|)e, is Fox Harbor, 
whijt'h is smalliand lit for slrdlop«, but appears to be a convenient place for tin* (isheries. 

PKTTV HAlMJOi:.— From the nortliern part (d" Cape St. [jcwis, to the lonth head 
of Potty Harbor JJay, the coiirsci is about .\. M. i). 'I F. distant 1^ mile; the .slnnes are 
bold r.nd lofty ; the entrance is a mile and a half \\\f\i\ and the nortli point bears from the 
southern point N. K. by N. ; the bay runs up nt.arly N. W. by N. full 1 mile, havini; frotn 
20 to 40 fatlioms wafer in it. At the bottom of th<- bay you will perceive Petty llariior; 
the entrance i.s to tin; northward of a low jioint of laiitl, whicli shut.s the harbor in from 
t^je sea, so as to render it very dii'licult to distin-niish its situation; it i.s not above ,'31) fa- 
thoms broail at the entrance, \vit!i '> t'arlioms mid-eliamud. and .'? towards the sides; but 
this narrow pa.ssa^rt; continues only a short way. lor liavini; passed tlu'on:;h it, the liarbor 
opens wide, and vessels will have plenty of room, and may anchor in any part, in from 7 
to 1:2 fathoms, lying land-locked. 

From the nortli head of Petty Harlior r>ay to Point .Spear, the course is N. E. ^ N. 
distant 2 j miles; and from Cntif; i-cwis to Cape Spear, in nearly the same direction, (')\ 
miles; between arc IJarreu I'lay ;uid Spear liarl)or ; JSarren l>ay is a litth; to the northward 
of the northern part of Petty llarlsor J!ay, and afl'ords no shelter; but Spear Harbor, 
which lies to the southward of Point Spear, is ii very excellent harbor; in coming from 
the northward, and making Point Spear, you will open two islands, in the bottom of a 
small bay ;' the best i)assage into Spear liurltor is between these islands ; keep the nor- 
thern islands close on board, tlnne being 1 fatlioms along side of if, and after you get 
about a, cable's length witliin the islands, .steer for the nnddle of the harl)or, ;md anchor 
in 7 err 8 lathouis ; there is good rotmi to moor. Small vessels may go on either side of 
the islands, the least water being two fat]u)ms : but you ought to ob.servc that, in coining 
from the southward, you will only be able to distinguish one island, for the iMjrthernmost 
islaiuls will be shiU in 'vi'li ihi' land so as lait to be se<'n until vou get within the heads. 

Si)ear to the entrance of these tinee harbors, the ooiuse is N. W. by N. tdjout 3 miles; 
between are several small but hiuh islands, lying within half a mile of the shore; these 
are coiruuonly called Spear Islands, ihey iire bold to, and there are channels between 
them with iiO fathoms water. N. F. by F. [ F. from the southern head of the entrance to 
the three harbors lie two small islands, close toi^ether, and therefore named the Double 
Island ; these appear to be as high as they are broad ; about a cable's length to the east- 
ward of these islands are two sunken rocks, over which the sea, in bad weather, constant- 
ly breaks. Nearly in the middle of the eiurance also lie two other islands, being so close to 
each other as to seem one island; these are steep to, and ships may pass on either side of 
them in 12, 13, and 14 fathoms, anchoring witiiin them, in Queen's Road, in 16 fathoms; 
but to the southward of these islands you will find the widest passage, and most room for 
8hip,% to work out. 

Sophia vffarftor,— The first and southernmost of these three harbors is Sophia Har* 

bor, runmn.' 
uwiv, round ; 
ter. aiidtil oidl 
/',„■/ Cliiirl] 
the fttarboard 
iiel over ; to 
close to the si 
;,iichor in any! 
ji reef that lie| 

\V. \ N. and 

fathoms, but 
than rJfalliMil 
tilt- larlwvod -| 
about :5(t fith. 
hor, and abo\| 
the harbor. 

(iislanee is ne 
to Cape St. I' 
the westward 
thougli small, 
fisheries beiiK 
one being to 
ICing directly 
inlet, called 
as you enter, 
you have 5 a 
yoii should ' 
i-eef off it ; iiv. 
two points (. 
no nearer to i 
nearer the sta 
turn westerly, 
to the cove at 

(;,//'(! SI. r 

a very narrow 

N. N. Wcstei 

Island's soiitl 

two narrow (( 

To the north 

running in)rtl 

have deep wa 

this Hat will ( 

10, and 1'^ fa 

Islanil, or vo 

Scaling IViul 


best anchora 

vou may saii 

veral coves, 

may anchor 

trance to thi 

Fox Island ( 

stretches ou 

in stormy w 

towards Ind 

is about 2 v 

thorns wate 


Islaiul, the 

number; tl 

Fishing Sh 

from 5 to 1 

Island: th( 

from Hare 

»hro\i«h it, 



iiiicliorago lor 

iifrMiiro of tlir 
W. I W. Ur 
>>it I miles „|, 
i"ii<' until vdii 
inaiiy nIki'mN. 
H'coiiio ratlicr 
"'. '»ii<li. tn, 

"I' St LouJH 
'loiit 3 inilps, 
•^'•oiil, wliicji 
I'll; •■iifnincp, 
li in passini;. 
nice (if 1),.,,^ 
to 1)0 a very 
'■ in from lo 
I tlic hack -.(■ 
' L-ast cml of 

• Lewis, tilt! 

IT •'<■ a mil,. 

'Il'' IKlillt of 

; W. liMlfa 
'i from -Jfj to 
ox Harbor, 
'" fi!sh»'ri(',s. 
"f'Utli head 
' slioic.N are 
ii'< froin tli(! 
iiiviii<; from 
'> ]larl)or; 
T in from 
)ove fjO f;,. 
ides; Imt 
K' liarbor 
in from 7 

^. R. ^ N. 
L'cfion, (,\ 
'■ Harbor, 
ling from 
itom of a 
> the nor- 
r you ircf 
t'r side of 

i»tn Point 
3 miles ; 
^ ; these 
ranee to 
he east- 
ciose to 

side of 
thorns ; 
»om for 

a Ha^ 

bor, rttnnin'.' in S. S. W. about 1 ', mile, wifli frtim tn to ['> fitlHim<« wafer; it therj frnnflii 
aw ly. round a low jioint to the eastward, and becuiiifH u mile bruud, it is theuce shuul wa- 
ter, aufl fit only for small vesnel-*. 

l'„rl Chiirldttr is the middle harbor, and fit i\)Y any Hhi|iH ; there is a low flat island oti 
the starboai'd side of its enlratice, iVom N\hi('ii nins .i reef of ruelts one third of the chan- 
nel over ; to ivoid this, kecji the soiitlii I'll Mide oti Imard, \ou will then have <> fathoiiiit 
close to the sjioie, until yon >;ct a (|uarlcrol a mile u|» wiihm tin- harbor, >oii may then 
iiiiehor in any part in from t'J lu 17 faihums, only ;^iviii^ the Hturbuuril ttidu u berth tu avuiti 
a reef that lies on that side. 

Mirkli tilhi.':li ll'irliiir is the northernmus' «d the tliree harbors, and turiiH in N. N. 
W. J N. and N. W. by N. about two imbv. ; in llie jciwer part of this harbor there are -JO 
lathonis, lint as yon ailvanee tiie water le -^'/iis, and in the iijiper put there are no more 
than I'i fathdiiis for ships to nmor in. 't'o sail up to the head of the bay, you iiiiist keep 
till! larlioard <ide nearest, in order to avoid the led;;e of rocks that lies on the starboard, 
iiboiit :50 fithoius from the shore. 'riie-.i' rneks lie wiihlii the narrowest part of the har- 
bor, and abnvi; the low point on I lie slarlniard aide ; >hu bcit aucluira^c m ut the head of 
the harbor. 

ST. b'RANCiS IIAIinOil.— From Point Sp'Vtr to Cape St. Franeis, the course ami 
ilistanee is ne irly north, i> miles, and from tlie at the eiilranee tif the thrt.'e harbors 
to (-'ape St. Francis N. K. ',' N. al):iiit .> mile-;; between them, and nearly half a mile to 
the westward ot' the Cape, is St. Fraiicis ilarlmr. This is a siiu;^ and secure liarbor, 
tli()n;;h small, and i':eiiera!ly filled wi.h ve-v.ejs, during llie li.shiiii; season, eimsiuerable 
fisiieries bein^' rarried on in its vieinity. To enter this harlior ihere are two entrances, 
one beins; to ilie northward, the other lo tlio south-westward of Pi'^eon Island, this island 
l>in;; directly belore its entrance : the south-easteni cliannid leads to a small but narrow 
inlet, called Itoiind Harbor; every wheri: clean i:jr!)und, with 10 lalhoms in tin; channel 
as you enter, and the depth uraliiaily decri- isin^ as yon advatiee tow.irds its head, 
you have 5 and .'{ fatlioms. lu eiitcriiij; to ilio south-westward for St. Francis Harbor, 
yon should beware of and !j;ive a berth to l!.t! western side of Piireon Islswul, for a rt^cky 
reefotf it ; yive this a bertli, proceed on X. N. 10. \ S. and haviii;.; i^ot fairly between the 
two points (, ' the harbor, yoii will pereelve on yo'ii sia:'!)oard siih; a small white rock; go 
no nearer to i* than 7 I'alhoms, .sfer uo norili, and 'i ivin.; pa-ised mid-channel, or rather 
nearer the starboard sluu'e, the rocks Jiliovo water, which you will see on each *ide of you, 
turn westerly, and anchor in 1 or 5 taflioms. Small vessels qo to IVirueH's Bei>ch, or up 
to tli(> cove at the northern CNtremity cil' tin; liarln-r. 

C'/y<(! ,Sl. Fi-"nri.s is the easiern point of .\!i island, between which and Granby Island, i« 
a very narrow pas'sai.^; for boais, wi;h 4 I'athoms \vator within it. From this- cape, in <i 
N. N. Westerly direction, about i' of a mile, is Indiau Point, between which and .Jasper 
island's south-eastern point, is an openiir^ leadin;; into Indian JVi:.dit aiul Shoal Tickle, 
two narrow coves, the latter beiiii; .^lialluw, and with only and Ik fatlioms water in it; 
To the northward of Indian Point are Hare and Fox islands, having a narrow jiassagc 
running noithwurd between them ; on crossing;; from Li(lia!i iJi^'ht to the channel, you will 
have deep water, but when you enter the 'passage it will shallow to 5, 4, 3, and -^ fathoms ; 
this (lat will continue for a (juarter of a mile, you then (k'-peii your water as;aiu to 5, 7, 
10, ami 12 fathoms; vessels iVeipK-ntly amdior in this j)lace, iin the western side of Hare 
Island, or rounding the uortln rn eud of Fo.\ Island, nui throu'^h Pearce's Tickle into 
Sealins; IViiiht. 

SKAIilNd niOHT is a very commodioti.s and convenient place for the fisheries; the 
best anchorage is on the southern ])ait of the bay, to the westward of Jasper Island ; here 
you may salcly ride in 8, 10, or 11 failioius, or further in witli less water. There are se- 
veral coV(\'<, siitiated alon<f shine, to th^' uiu'hward ol' this anchurazc, wliere small vessels 
may anchor; I'resh water can ea.-iily i'c obtaiiied, but wooil is scarce; the southern en- 
trance to this ])laee is between Indian i'oiiit and Jasper Island, on one side, aiul Hare and 
Fo.\ Island on the other ; the water is deep, and there is no daiurer, except a reef which 
stretches out to the south-westward from (iiiil Island, over v.liich the sea breaks very hi},di 
in stormy weather; it will, tiu'refore, to avoid tliis reef, be ahvays prudent to borro.v close 
towards Indian Point, in (;itlier sailing in or out of Seaiin;^ ili^ht. Merchantman Htirbor 
is about 2 miles W. ^ S. from St. Francis Ibhiiul; it is small, but has from 7 to lo fa- 
thoms water. 

FISHING SHIP HARnOR— From St. Francis Island, to the northernmost Fishing 
Island, the course is N. N. F. 'l N. ilisiaut tlireu miles. Tite Fishing Islands are 3 in 
number; the two northern ones are connected by a bi'ach, \vhich, with the main, forms 
Fishing Ship Harbor, where vessels may riile land-locked, and secure from all winds, in 
from 5 to 14 fathoms water, the entrance being to the southward of the southern Fishing 
Island : the best passage will be between the two western islands, that entrance bearing; 
from Hare Island N. by W. ; there is no danger in this channel, and vessels may sail right 
through it^ m nearly a N. by W» direction, up to the very head of the harbor, and anchoi 




ill 12 fiithoins, 1. ng good room for ships to moor ; there are two other passajres into this, one to tlie estward from the entrance of (iill)ert's River, the other to tiie northward 
of all tl'c Fishinjr Islands ; the latter has 7 fathoms tliroughout, but is so narrow that you 
will liave some dii'tieulty in dlscovi^rimi the openiof^. 

GlLJJi'UlT'S RlVKll.—lJi'tween Fishin;,' Islands and Granby Island, is the northern 
entrance to (filbert's River; tiie soutliern entrance is between Denbi^li Island and the 
main, and this is much the wider of flie two ; tliere is also a channel between J)enbif;h an(! 
(j'lanby Islands. The passa^je in has de.-p water every where; the course of tlie river is 
nearly N. W. by N. for about (i miles, it then divides into two branclies, one runnins; N. 
W. by N. 7 or 8 miles, the other S. \V. by W. about 6 miles: both these branches are 
full of rocks, small islands, and shoals; but in the middle tlie anchorage is good all the 
way up from -JO to lu fathoms; tliis river has also a passage out to sea, between Hare and 
the Fishing Islands. 


— Six miles N. N. E. I N. from the northernmost Fishing Is- 
'i S. from Point Spear, is Cape St. Michael, high and steep, 

land, and 16 miles N. N. K 

and easily known by a larire bay to the northward of it. 

OCCASIONAL IIARIUJK.— Al)()ut -J! miles to the southward of Cape St. Michael, is 
Occasional Harbor, easily known i)y the twins, two large rocks lying two-thirds of a mile 
outside of the entrance ; they are very iilmt each other, and vessels may pass on either side 
of them; the entrance to tlie harbor is between two liigh lands, and runs in W. by N. for 2 
miles, then N. W. by N. ; both sides are steep to, without any dangers, and liaving good 
anchorage in from 10 to 7 fathoms, about -2 miles from the entrance : the wind between the 
high land ahvavs sets ri'jht into or out of the harbor. 

ST. MICi-LiKL'S J}A\'.— Krom Cape St. Michael to Cape Blulf, the course is nearly 
N. N. E. about 7- miles, and these two Capes form the points of entrance to the Ray of 
St. Michael, which contains a vast luunber of islands, inlets, and rivers; the largest island 
Is named Square Island, lyiie: at the mouth of the b;iy, and being 31- miles long and very 
high; its N. E. point fori. is a lofty round hill, and makes, in coming from the southward, 
like a separatt; , iand, being only joini-d by a narrow neck of land ; the best anchorage for 
small vessels, is on tlie southern side of .St. ^lichael's Ray ; to go there you should keep 
Cape St. Michael's shore on board, tlien run along the south side of the first island you 
meet with, which is called Long Island, till you get nearly to its western end, there you 
may anchor in from 12 to :.*() fathoms, land-locked, and can work out to sea again on either 
side of the island. From Cape St. .Mieiiaei to the entrance of Scjuare Island Harbor, the 
course is N. N. W. ^i\ miles; at the entrance lies a small island of moderate height, to the 
westward of which is the best jiassage into the harbor, there being only 'i fathoms in ihat 
to the eastward of it. About a l':ague N. N. W. from Stjuare Island Round Hill is th6 
entrance to Deadman's Harbor, which is formed liy a number of little islands, and fit only 
for vessels of small dimensions. There is a passage between these islands and Cape Blutf, 
by which vessels may put out to sea. 

Cape Bluft'is very hi^h land, rugged at top and steep toward the sea ; it may be seen 15 
or 16 leagues; Cape Rlulf Harbor is a small place, and unlit for large vessels; to sail into 
it you should keep the Cape on hoard until you reach a small island, which you should 
pass to the ea.stward, and then anchor. The several bays and inlets in St. Michael's Ray 
are well stored with wood. 

From Cape Blulf to Rarren Island, tlie course is N. Eastward about 1 league; and from 
the south point of Barren Island to Snug Harbor, N. \V. by W. H mile. Snug is a small 
harbor, but in it is very 'zood anehoraue in iiti fathoms, and no danger to be apjirehended 
either in sailing in or out of it. About one mile to the northward ol' Rarren, is Stony Is- 
land, and within these islanils on tiie main, are Martin and Otter Rays; in the northern- 
most is good anchorage and no invisible danger in entering ; wood and water are plentiful. 

DUCIv HARBOR lies on the western side of Stony Island, a;,,! i.; a very convenient 
place for small vessels; large ships may also anchor between the west point of Stony and 
Double Islands, in from iiO lo 24 fathoms, sailing from thence to seaward on either side of 
Stony Island in great safety. 

HAWKE RA\^ — About 1 mile to the northward of Stony Island, lies Hawke Island, 
within which is Hawke Ray, riuming in westerly 2 leagues; it then divides into two branch- 
es, one going W. by S. G miles, the other N. W. by W. 6 miles: the shores of these are 
well supplied with wood. After you get within Pigeon Island, the anchorage is good up 
to the very head of both branches. 

EAGLE COVE lies on the south side of Ilawkfe Island ; this place affords good riding 
for large ships in 30 and 40 fathoms water, and also for smaller vessels in 7 and >i fathoms 
at the upper end of the bay. 

CAPLIN BAY. — On the main, within Hawke Island, arid rieafly 5 miles E. by N. from 
Hawke Bay is Caplin Bay, having good anchorage and plenty of wood. 

PATRIDGE BAY lies 4^ miles to the northward of Hawke Island; the anchorage is 
good, but the bay is difficult of access, unless to those who are well acquainted with the 
place, OD account of the numerous amall islands which encumber its entrance ; but the laud 

hevcaboui mi 
tiible hill "f ' 
high, while tl 
SEAL ISl is N. 
miles; this ll 
recojini/ed lil 
^V. i N. distl 
fronted with] 
course is N. 
steer W. h 
excepting a 
t,i»y ; this roj 
tie wood visil 
From \VlJ 
island isliigll 
where the rif 

White Rod 
fathoms wal 
ships, but 
nierous islai 
spots on it^ 
therii part 1} 
Rocky Bay 
go betw een i 
anchorage ii 
Island, wlie 
care to give 
Eagle Islaii 
Rocks you i 
may run up 
handy for hi 
From Si)i 
j-ock is abo\ 
it, and sevei 
entrance to 
western em 
and it ajipe 
tliern side 
here the ai 
saniiy groi 
north piiir 
length froi 
Sand Hill 
bay, abou 
lies N. ^^ 
from, its e 
from the 
in 12 or 1 
chor in 1 
Harbor, 1 
take care 
The C 
the oute; 
bor is be 
close to 
about 01 
rpck off 



HcYcal)ont may Ix; very easily known, for the southern point of the bay is a remarkable hlgl^ 
table hill ol'vciy banoii appeaninee, and all the laud betweeu it and St. Michael's Cape is 
high, while tir.ii to the northward is low. 

SEAi^ ISLAM IS.— From (Jape St. Michael to the soxuhernmost Seal Island, thei 
course is N. K. I- N. distant ') leagues, and from thence to Round Hill Island, N. E. Ill 
miles; this latter island is the easternmost land on this part of the, and may also be 
recoirni/.e(l by a n'marUal)lo liiL'li rounri hill on the western part of it. 

SHALLOW' U AV. — From Round Hill Island to Spotted Island, the course is N. N. 
W. t; N. <hstaut 1 ', miles ; and I'rom Spotted Island, the land turns N. N. Westerly and is 
fronted with numeror.s islands. From the southernmost Seal Island to White Rock, the 
course is N. IS. K. ;V F-. about 5 miles; and from this rock to enter Shallow Bay, you must 
steer W. I S. nearly 4 miles; there is very fair anchorage within this bay, and no danger, 
excepting a small liU'k which lies on a cove on the larboard hand, about one-third over thei 
bay ; this rock is visil)le at low water, and at other tinies the seu breaks over it ; there is lit- 
tle wood visible on the shores of this bay. 

From White Rock to Porcuj)ine Island, the course is N. N. W. distant 2 leagues; this 
island is high, barren, and steep to ; vessels may pass on either side of it to Porcupine Bay, 
where the ridiuL' is good, but little or no wood. 

SANDY JiAV lies on the southern part of the Island of Ponds, and N. i W. from 
White llock, from which it is distant 5 miles; there is good anchorage in this bay, with 10 
fathoms water, on a bottom of sand, and would be a very convenient resort for the fishing 
shii)s, but for the total absence of wood. ]5etween this Bay and Spotted Island, are ni^- 
nierous islands and rucks, both above and under water, rendering this part of the coast ex- 
tremely danuerons, 

SPOTTED ISLAND is liigh barren land, and maybe recognized by several whitei 
spots on its eastern side ; it is about .'} ujiles long and of nearly a similar breadth ; the nor- 
thern part lying in latitude 53^ 30' N. To the westward, and within side this island, is 
Rocky Bay ; to sail into this bay. you should run in to the northward of Spotted Island, and 
go between either of the islands tliat lie before the entrance of the bay: but there is rib good 
anchorage in it, tlie bottom being so r(>cky, until you get between Level Point and Eagle 
Island, where you may ride in 8 or lU fathoms, the ground good and clean, only taking 
care to give Level Point a free berth; the best anchorage will be on the western side of 
Eagle Island in S or <) fathoms, nuid. In ])assing between Eagle Rocks and the Duck 
Rocks you may borrow on either side to within two-thirds of the length of a cable, or you 
may run uj) and anciior on the southern side of Narrow Island in Narrow Harbor, and bei 
liaiidy for both wooding and watering. 

From Spotted Island to Wolf Rock, the course is N. N. E. | N. about 18 miles; this 
rock is above wafer, and lies 11 miles from the main ; there are some sunken rocks aboat 
it, and several islands between it and the coast. About two miles to the northward of the- 
entrance to Rocky Bay, is Indian Island; this is remarkable high land, particularly at the^ 
western end ; between the island and the main is tolerably good shelter for eraall Vessels, 
and it appears to be a (it i)lace for a seal fishery. 

SANi) HILL COVE. — This |)lace is so called from several sand hills lying on the sou- 
thern side of its entrance ; it is situated 4 good leagues to the westward of Indian Island ; 
here the anchorage is good al)oiU half a mile up from its entrance, in 4 or 3 fathoms water, 
sandy ground. When you are sailing into this cove, you should take care to give the 
north point a good berth, because of a ledge of rocks which stretch olf about a cable's 
lengtli tiom the point, and run westward along shore, the length of two cables. 

Table bay. — The southern head of this bay lies about 2 leagues N. by W. froni 
Sand Hill t'ove, and tuay be known by a remarkable table hill on the north side of the 
bay, about 6 miles within the entrance ; this hill may be seen from the Wolf Rock, which 
lies N. W. i N. 7\ leagues from the eiUrance of the bay. In this bay, about 4 mile^ 
from its entrance, lies Ledge Island, so called from a ledge of rocks stretching westerly 
from the island up the bay for 2 miles. On the southern side of this island is anchorage, 
in 12 or 14 fathoms, in what is called South Harbor; or you can run further up, arid au- 
thor in Tai)le Harbor. On the north side of the bay, just within Ledge IslariiJ, lies North 
Harbor, having very good aucliorage in it. In sailing up to Table Harbor, you should 
take care to keep the main land close on board, in order to avbid a rock that lies halfway 
between the ledge that runs off Ledge Island and the main. 

The GANNETS are a cluster of islands, lying from 7 to 11 miles off the main land ; 
the outermost island bears from the Wolf Rock N. N. W. J W. distant 10 leagues. 

CURLE W HARBOR lies nearly S. W. of the Gannet Islands, on the main, and may be 
distinguished by a green round island, lying before its entrance ; the channel into the har- 
bor is between this islarid and a low point to the southward, havihg a small rock above t^ater 
close to the point ; there is po darig'er, in sailing into this place ; the best anchorage i^ill be 
about one mile within its entrance ; here large ships may ride in safety, bringing th<$ Sitnall 
rpck olf the entrance point, on with the northern point of Long Island ; they will then ridci 



in 14 or 15 fathoms water, ^ood holding ground. Long Island lies about U mile N. by W. 
from Green Island. Small vessels ru.i higher up the bay, and generally anchor in from 10 
to 7 fathoms. On the southern side of the harbor is a shoal, lying at a small distance from 
the shore; wood is scarce in this bay, but water piei iful. 

ISTHMUS 1} AY. — This bay lies round the western point of Curlew Harbor, sailing from 
whence you should endeavor to keep Great Island on l)oard, in order that you may go clear 
of a shoal that stretches odthe point towards the island ; there is also another passage into 
Isthmus Bay, l)etween the western point and a small bare rock of moderate height, that lies 
otfthe south point of the Great Island ; this channel is narrow, and has a depth of three 
fathoms within it ; both wood and wattsr may be obtained here. 

HARE IIAKBUll. — One league to the westward is Hare Harbor, fit only for small craft, 
the bottom being foul, except towards the head, where you may anchor in ;>.V fathoms wa- 
ter, the ground tolerai)ly good. Hare Island, which lies bclbre the entrance to the harbor, 
is high land; the eastern point of Huntingdon Island lies al)out "J miles to the northward 
of Hare Island, and W. S. \V. 4' \V. about lo miles from Gamiet Island ; it is moderately 
high, and in length, from east to west, 7 miles ; olf its eastern point are some small islets, 
named Sadler's and Leveret's Islands, and a little to the northward of the latter is a rocky 
flat ; these lie l* mile olf the cMri'tiiejJoint of Huntingdon Island. 'J'here is a safe passage 
above a mile wide, along the southern side of Huntingdon Island: this leads into Hunting- 
don Harbor, ojipositc which yon may ride safely iu from 5 to lo fathoms water ; further in 
towards the island it shallows, but the best anchorage is behind Egg Island, in (> fathoms, near 
that island ; here you will bo secure from all winds, and ride very convenient for both wood- 
ing and watering, there being abundance of both on the island. 

SANDWICH BAV, calle.l by the natives Netsbuitoke. — On the south-western side of 
Huntingdon Island is Earl and Diver Islands, on either side of which is a ])assage into Sand- 
wich Bay ; but the chaimel between Diver Island and Earl Island, called Diver's Tickle, is 
very narrow, and has in some places not more than (> feet water, while that between Diver 
and Huntingdon's Islands, is over a sandy llat of [), lv2, and 16 feet water, and consecpiently 
not to be attempted by large vessels. To the eastward is Cartwriglu's Harbor, leading to 
the Favorite's Tickle, and thence to Sandwich Bay; this has deeper water, and by keeping 
the southern land well open of Earl's Island you will go through it until you reach the 
Narrows, when the two points forming the Narrows must be brotight on with each other, 
and this will lead between the eastern sn;all island and the main in 4, 7, and 'J fathoms; be- 
Iween the Narrows is 18 fathoms. Sandwich Bay is a very tine liari)or, G or 8 miles broad, 
And 6 leagues deep, with plenty of wood and water, and 4 rivers running into it, abounding with 
salmon. There is very good riding in a cove on the eastern side of the bay, and also on the 
northern side under a mountain ; from the shore, at the foot of the mountain, and live miles 
to the westward, the soundings stretch gradually oil' the shore, from 5 to -Jj fatlioms, muddy 
ground, and extend full three miles from the land. The passage into the bay, on the western 
side of Huntingdon and Earl Islands is the widest and best channel, for that to the southward 
We have just shown to be narrow, shallow and inconvenient: to enter to the northward of 
Huntingdon Island you must beware of the flats which lie a little to the northward of Leveret's 
Island ; there is deep water at the entrance, and you will see the Island of Plantation to the 
northward, a little to westward of which is Henrietta's Island; between these two is Inde- 
pendent Harbor, a snug retreat running in north, and having every convenience for the fish- 
eries. Directly before this har!)or, and in the fairway of the channel to Sandwich, are the 
Double Islands; in entering you will leave Wedge Island and Bellows Rock to the northward 
and Gull Island to the southward, and pass on either side of the Double Islands ; your course 
then will b^ N. W. by W. 41 miles ; and having got beyond the N. W. point of Huntingdon 
Island, you will perceive Entrance Ishiiul lying midway between the point and the o;)posite 
shore; the channel now bends to the S. Westward, and is bounded to the northward by the 
North River Flats, and to thcsoiuhwardby Huntingdon Flats, the deep water passage being 
about a mile broad : you may sail in on either side of Entrance Island ; proceed W. by S. 
towards Main Tickle Point ; from olf this point a spit extends E. N. E. 1^ mile, contracting 
the chaimel and making the navigable i)assage very narrow for large ships to enter : on the star- 
hoard side arc the two Brenton Islands, situated in Table Hill Cove : when you get these open 
of each other, a line passing directly between them, or when the North Brenton opens its own 
length to the eastward of the southern one, you will clear the spit in 4i fathoms; when these 
islands come on with each other, you will pass over the spit in 'J fathoms water: the cross 
mark is Green and Leading Mark Island in one ; these lead on to the centre of the pit, and are 
two islands situated on Huntingdon Flats; the leading mark to go through the Main Tickle 
Passage is Leading Mark Island on Old Man's Head; this wiii carry you clear of the 
shoals on both sides in from 6 to 14 fathoms, right into Sandwich Bay ; to sail out of the 
bay bring the hollow part of Leading Mark Island in one with the gap of Old Man's Head, 
until you are withift three cables' lengths of the former, then give the island a berth of equal 
distance is passings and steer direct for Entrance Island. 


From 11 
distance iiJ 
miles; bctl 
water, butf 
RED 11 
which lies] 
the bay, ail 
harbor; tlJ 
head of thi] 
passage is 
which at a 
also not to 
the length 
has very g 
is no pass; 
eastward, 1 
black rnck> 
the high ro 
you directl 
from Ship 
St. Modest 
island, calk 
Island, (list 
form the e-, 
towards tin 
the cove b( 
of this cov( 
small vesse 
them is rat 
tance; on 
oms, but V 
like a shall 
coming fri 
of Forteai 
mer of the 
Blanc Sal 
sand, and 
fathoms w 
leads to 1 
berth in \i 
nearly noi 
tween it a 
it rises u] 
Lady's 15 
height, h 
where sn 
Harbor, 1 
the numl 
to avoid ; 




lile N. by W. 
•»!■ in (rum 10 
listiuice lioiii 

, sailing from 
may go clear 
Jjasisage into 
S'lt. tiiat lies 
ptli of three 

r small craft, 
latlionis wa- 
t the harbor, 
e northward 
I moderately 
small islets, 
M- is a rocky 
safe passage 
to Huiiting- 
■ ; further in 
itlioms, near 
both wood- 

>fcrn side of 
3 into Sand- 
's Tickle, is 
ween Diver 
, leading to 
by keeping 
I reach the 
^ach other, 
hoiiis; be- 
llies broad, 
nding with 
ilso on the 
I live miles 
IS, muddy 
le western 
thward of 
ion to the 
o is Inde- 
tho lish- 
1, are the 
nr course 
rd by the 
ire being 
^V. by S. 
s its own 
en these 
he cross 
and are 
of the 
of the 
s Head, 
jf equal. 


Variation alloived 2 Points. 

From York Point, the southern entrance of Clint faux Bay, to Barrre Point, the course and 
distance is W. by S. 5.V leagues; from Barge Point to Saddle Island is nearly west, 10 
miles; between these is (Jreen Bay, a place where small vessels may anchor in 12 fathoms 
water, but open to the S. Easterly winds. 

RED BAi'. — This is an excellent harbor, and may always be known i)y Saddle Island, 
which lies at its entrance ; thisisland rises up at each end, and sinks down in the middle, 
somewhat similar to a saddle ; there is also a remarkable round hill on the western side of 
the bay, and opposite to the west end of Saddle Island, which will tend to |)oint out the 
liarbor; the land on the west side of tlu> bay is high, the eastern side rather low, and the 
head of the bay is high and woody: in sailing into this place, there is little danger, the 
passage is to the westward of Saddle Island, only taking care to give a berth to the rock, 
which at a (piarter eb!) is above water, and lies oifthe western i)oint of the main land, and 
also not to come too near to the inner part of Saddle Island, as a shoal stretches off it about 
the length of a cable. The western bay lies in to the northward of the western point, and 
has very good anchorage with westerly winds, but somewhat open to the eastward; there 
is no passage e\ce])t for boats, to the eastward of Saddle Island ; vessels ctnning from the 
eastward, must be careful to go clear of a small rock which lies about a mile from the two 
black rocky islets, which are at the east end of Saildle Island, and near a mile off the shore: 
the high round hill at the west side of the bay on with the saddle of Saddle Island, will lead 
you directly upon the rock, and the sea commonly breaks over it. 

BLACK BAY lies to the W. S. Westward, distant 10 miles from Saddle Islapd ; the 
anchorage here is tolerably good, but too much ex])osed tc the S. E. winds. S. W. by S. 
from Ship Head, which is the western point of entrance to Black Bay, distant 1 J mile, is 
St. Modeste Island ; it is small and low, but v( -^els fretpiently riui in to aplace within the 
island, called St. Modeste Bay, and anchor, but this, though occasionally used, cannot be 

WOLF'S COVE, OR L'ANCE DE LOUP.— S. AV. by W. fiom St. Modeste 
Island, distant 4A miles, begin some remarkable red cliffs, which continue full 2 miles, and 
form the eastern point of Wolf's Cove ; this is high tal)le land, terminating with steep cliffs 
towards the sea. The entrance to Wolf's Cove is about 2 miles wide, the two points of 
the cove bearing from each other S. W. and N. E. ; there is good anchorage at the head 
of this cove in 12 fathoms water, and also on the western side, in Schooner's Cove, where 
small vessels may lie safely in 7 fathoms, on a bottom of sand. 

FORTE AU BAY lies 5 or 6 miles to the westward of Wolf's Cove, the shore beiwCen 
them is rather low; Forteau Bay is about 3 miles i)road, and runs in nearly the same dis- 
tance ; on the western side, near the head of the bay, is good riding, in from 10 to 16 fath- 
oms, but exposed to the southward. Off the east point of the bay is a rock, which appears 
like a shallop under sail; and on the western side of the bay is a fall of water, which, on 
coming from the eastward will easily be percejitible. West 7 miles from the western point 
of Forteau Bay is Island an Bois, and 2 miles westward of that is Creen Island; the for- 
mer of these is of moderate height, and has a good passage round it; it lies in front of 
Blanc Sablon Bay. where a vessel niay occasionally find anchorage: but the ground is loose 
sand, and will not hold. The channel between Bois and (ireen Islands is good, and has H 
fathoms water in it ; there is a cove on the eastern side of (Jreen Island, where a fishery '■■ 
sometimes carried on ; there is also a |)assag(! between Creen Island and the main, whic ' 
leads to Brador Bay and Harbor; but you should be careful to give tirand Point a good 
berth in passinsr, as some sunken rocks lie directly off the point. 

LABRADOR HARBOR.— From (4reen Island to Island of Ledges, the course is 
nearly north, distant 5 miles; the Harbor of Brador may readily be known by the land be- 
tween it and Point Belle's Amour: the point itself is low and green, but about a mile inland, 
it rises up to high table land ; and further inland are three remarkable hills, called our 
Lady's Bul)bies ; theso are round and may be seen all along the coast, lying to the N. 
Eastward about v "agues distant from the Island of Ledges; this island is of moderate 
height, having a great many islets and rocks about it; on its eastern side is Blubber Cove, 
where small vessels may anchor in 2 and 2i fathoms. There are two passages into Brador 
Harbor, but that to the northward of the Island of Ledges ii by no means safe, on account cf 
the number of rocks scattered about it. To enter the eastern passage, you must take care 
to avoid a small rock, which lies about S, W, by W. a quarter of a mile from the low point 



i ^ 


on the main, where the houses stand ; on this rocit the sea commonly Ineaks and shows 
itself at a quarter ebb : on the eastern side, within this rocii, is Shallop Cove ; from the 
point above the cove, a shoal stretches off about a cable's length from the shore, and con- 
tinues nearly the same distance, quite to the head of the harltor. 

ESQUIMAUX RIVER AND BAY.— From Point lictlr.'n Amnur h the oiitir Es(}ui- 
maux Island, the course and distance is W. by S. 10 or 11 miles ; N. N. E. aboiu 4 miles 
from which there is good anchorage, between two high islands, for small vessels ; and within 
these lies the River Esquimaux. From hence to Dog Island, is a cliaiii or cluster of small 
islands and rocks, the easternmost of whicli are commonly called the Es(|niinaux Islands; 
the mjddle ones, the Old Fort Islands; and the western ones, the Dog Islands; within tliese, 
and on the main land, are various good bays and ])lac('s of shell er; but the ( ntnuices to them 
are so intricate, narrow, and dangerous, that no person, iinlcss well aei(u;(inte<l, should at- 
tempt to navigate a vessel through them. These islands extend from I he outer Esquimau^ 
Island nearly 4 leagues, ;ind some of them are full 4 mill's from I he land. 

LITTLE BAV.—W.N.AV. about;-, miles from the Do- Islands, i,-. Little Hay. in which 
small vessels inay find very good anchorage; nearly a mile to the westwanl (*!' Ijittle Bay, is 
the Bay D'Omar; this bay runs up N. E. by N. nearly .'i miles, the land on both sides being 
yery high, \,\\\. the western shore is the highest ; its width is -.ibcut J rabies" lengths, but olf 
the cqves it is broader; outside of the eastern point of the l)ay, are l small islets, a cable's 
length from land. This bay has good anchorage, the best place being -J miles within the 
entrance, o})posite a woody cove on the west side, w here you will lie seciu'e in 14 and 16 
fathqms water, witli abundance of wood and water. ( )n the west side also, a mile within the 
entratjce, is a remarkable green cove, but this becomes shoal a short di>;ance from the shore. 
From the entrance of the Hay D'Omar to i'owl |s|;uiil, tliecoiirsi! and disiance is W. S. \V. 
i S. 2 miles. This is a remarkable round island, of moder.ue lieiulu, and lies a mile from 
the main land; about it, and between l^owl Island and Sheealica, are a gieat number of 
islets and rocks, the coast being therel)y rendei-ed dangeious to navigate unless you have a 
fresh of wind; the'rocks will then show themselves by tlie sea breaking over them. 

From Bou'l Islnml to Sluciit/ca, the coiu'se is W. by .\. alioul two h'a::ues; and 3 miles 
p. N. E. from Shecatic.i Island is the Bay of Petit Peiie, raniiina in N. N. E. about 5 
miles; but this place is scarcely fit for vessels to go into, because the water is too deep, the 
entrance too narrow, the ground bad, and the whole bav open to the southerly winds. 

MISTANOGUE BAY lies -2 miles to the wVsluard of Petit Peiie; there is a 
good channel between the Island Shecatiea and the main, and niaiiy seals are freijuently 
caught there. Before the entrance to the Bay of Mistanogue, lies an. island of the same 
uanie ; here, between the island and the river, flie anchorage i* good, with froiu 15 to 20 
fathoms water ; the ground holds well, and there is room enough to moor. To go into this 
■road, you should pass round the western end of the island, which is bold to, or else round 
its eastern end, and between it and Sljecatica; but this latter passage is fit only for small 
Vessels. In the Bay of Mistanogue the anchorage is good up to the very head, the channel 
'ip both long and narrow; the islaiul and the main land, at the entrance, has a barren aj)- 
jiearance, and is high, but both wood and water may be obtained in the bay. 

SHECATICA BAY runs close in to the westward of Mi uaiiogue Island, and extends 
many miles up the country, its cotirse bending to the northwanl, and ha\ in'; various branch- 
es and turnings, with numerous islands, capable of i^ivinu shelierto vessels of all descrij)- 
tions; but these are little frecjueiued, and consequently not well known, besides the passages 
^re too narrow for strantrers to attempt the navigation of. 

SHAG ISLAND AND ROCKS.— Nearly S. W. by W. distant above 2 leagues from 
the Island of Mistanogue, is the iShag Island and Rocks; the island is small, high, and has a 
round peaked hill in the middle ; to the eastward ol'it are a iuinii)er of rocks above water, 
the outermost lying E. S. E i E. one mile and one-third froi.i the island. 
' CUMBEI-LLAND IIARBOll lies N. N. E. ,^ N. about three miles from the outer Shag 
Rocks; and may readily be distinguished by a remarkable hiuh hill on tlie main land, ap- 
pearing like a castle at its sununit. being a steep elill', looking like walls ; this hill lies N. by 
"^V. nearly '.}!j leagues from the entrance to the harbor. 'J'he outer islands which form the 
harbor, are called the Duke and Cumberland Islands ; these are modiuately high, the east- 
ern one making in two round hills. To enter this harbor there is tio danger but what appears 
anove water, except one small rock, which lies south aiiont half a mile from the ■•.■(■stern 
head ; the entr.mce to the harbor is a quarter of a mile wide, and the inlet half a mile long; 
from the eastern head you must steer for the inner point on the western side, and after you 
reach that ppint, haul over to the eastward, and anchor in from 20 to 7 fathoms, excellent 
ground, and rortm enough foe any ships ; this is by far the most cmnmodious and best 
harbor on the coast; and also the easiest of access ; fresh wr-ier is plentiful, but for wood 
you must go to Shecatiea Biiy. 

SANDY ISLAND BAY.— N. W. by N. about 2\ miles from Shag Island, is the bay 
and harbor of Sandy Island ; to sail into this, you should nass to the eastward of the Murr 
JB^ptks, keeping the starboafd point of tjte bay "on board, you will then perceive a small rqcl^ 

nbove water to 
oil eithe side 
dange- ; here 
ground and sa 
Augustine, is 
derately high, 
to be distingui 
a-third of ami 
but even at tii 
■a safe jjassage 
and Rouiul Is 
with plenty ol 
gustine's Islai 
outermost of V 
ter of a mile, 
of these are v 
above water, 
Augustine ; y( 
will bear N.N 
or von may st 
to the N. N. 
only lit for bo; 
up, it divides 
wood and wati 
From St. A 
distance is W 
which are ma 
Bay, cannot i 
other, that alt 1 
entrances, nor 
Ila Ha Bay, a 
vessels in seen 
to find out thi 
whence you si 
mile from the 
the eastward, 
if you intend 
E. 2:^ miles, i 
able high isla 
harbor, when 
sage to this 
small vessels, 
This part c 
weather, onai 
latter being v 
fore, always 1 
i.slandsat itsr 
Seal Point ai 
safe passage, 
7 miles, and 1 
eastward, are 
casionally an 
but on the wi 
trance on th 
small, but sii 
this harbor i 
is small, am 
island ; but i 
southward c 
the Woody 
chor in the 



above wafer to tlie N. N. Westward ; tliis lies ofl" tlin entnmce of the harbor ; you may pass 
1)11 eitlii; ■ side of tliis rork, iiihI tlitii steer in N. N. K. 7' N. for the harhor; there is no other 
dange' ; liere you will Imve room enonjj;h to uioor in 5 and b fathoms water, with good 
ground and safe ridin;; ; tliere is no wood here, but water in plenty. \ 

POUT AND KIVKli ST. AU(UISTINE.—Tiie entrance to the Port and River St. 
Augustine, is between Shag Island St. Augustine Square; the West Island, which is mo- 
derately high, the wiistern part being the highest, and (piite low in the middle, but not easily 
to be distinguished at a distance, on acrount of tlie islands within it being. much higher; 
a-tliird of a mile to tlie eastward of this is the I'ast Island, somewhat larger, not quite so high, 
but even at tiie summit ; iietw ecu these islands, after passing the Chain and Square Islands, is 
a safe |)assage f(»r small vessels to enter this port; and they can anchor between the West 
and Round Islands ; or run to the northward, past Round Island, and stop in 6 or 7 fathoms, 
with plenty of room to moor S. W. by W. aliout half a league from west part of St, Au- 
gustine's Island, is a string of small islands, commonly called St. Augustine's Chain, the 
outermost of which is a rematkable smooth round rock, and to the westward ofthis one quar- 
ter of a mile, are several rocks under water, over which the sea is constantly breaking, some 
of these are visible at one-third ebb : half a mile W. S. W. from these is a high black rock 
above water, and between these two is the best passage for large vessels into the Port of St. 
Augustine ; you should steer from tliir, black rock, towards a remarkable low point, which 
will bear N. N. E. jj N. until you open the port ; then haul in and anchor as before directed ; 
or voii may steer up the passage between this point and Round Island, and anchor. 

THE RIVER ST. ATJtiUSTINE is4i leagues from the entrance of the port, and lies 
to the N. N. W. having several islands lying in the passage ; but the river is shallow, and 
only (it for boats to enter; there is a sandy bar across, which dries at low water. Two miles 
vip, it divides into two branches, both running to the N. N. Westward for 14 or 15 leagues; 
wood and water arc |)lrntiful. 

From St. Augustine's (Miain to the bluff heail of Great Mecatina Island, the course and 
distance is W. S. W. 8 leagues and one mil'" : the coast is lined with islands, within and about 
which are many harbors ; the main land in sailing along this"part, from Shecatica to Ha Ha 
Bay, cannot lie seen, and the adjacent islands are so high, so numerous, and so near each 
other, that although there are navigable passages between them, yet you cannot discover their 
entrances, nor perceive them to be islands, until you get near and entangled among them. 

EAdLE HARIU)ll. — This lies at the western end of Long Island, to the eastward of 
Ila Ha Bay, and is formed by a elusterof islands, being capable of holding a great number of 
vessels in security ; in it are from "20 to IC falhoms water, the ground holding wel' In order 
to find out this anchorage, it will be advisable to make for the Great Island of Mecatina, from 
whence you should shape your course for the Fox Islands, which lie S. S. E. ^ S. one large 
mile from the westernmost entrance of the harbor; it may also be known by a deep bay to 
the eastward, without any islands in it, while to the westward there are a great many. But 
if you intend sailing in to the eastward, you should steer from the Fox Islands N. N. £. ^' 
E. 2^ miles, into the bay, when you will obs rve to the N. N. Westward of you, a remarlt- 
able high island, round which, to the northward, is a safe passage of three fathoms into the 
harbor, where you will ride in safety, well sheltered from all winds. In the western pas- 
sage to this harbor, there are 21 fathoms ; this is, however, a narrow channel, fit only for 
small vessels, and running in between many small islands. 

This part of the coast is very dangerous for any vessels to fall in with, in dark and foggy 
weather, on account of the infinite nuinlier of small low islets and rocks about it, ma;jy of the 
latter being under water, and to avoid which no practical mark can be given; it will, there- 
fore, always be advisable and prudent to keep off the coast to a considerable distance. 

IIA II.V BAY lies on the main, to the westward of Eagle Harbor, and has several small 
islands at its entrance, forming separate entrances; thebestof these is that which lies between 
Seal Point and Round Island, leaving all the islands on the starboard side ; this is a wide and 
.safe passage, having no danger but what is visii)le. Ha Ha Bay runs in to the northward about 
7 miles, and has many islands at its head, on the staibward side ; within these islands, to the 
eastward, are numerous anchorages, with from 9 to -20 fathoms water ; vessels may also oc- 
casionally anchor all along the eastern side of the bay in li and 14 fathoms, muddy bottom, 
but on the western side the water is too deep. N. N. W. ^ N. about two miles from the en- 
trance on the west side, is a high bluff head; round this head N. W. by W. half a mile, is a 
small, but safe harbor for small vessels, in which you will have 12 fathoms, good ground ; 
this harbor is formed by an island, on either side of which there is a narrow but safe passage. 

LITTLE FISH HARBOR is to the southward of Ha Ha Bay, and runs in westerly"; it 
is small, and formed by an island covered with wood; you may sail in on either side of the 
island ; but the northern passage is considered to be the better of the two ; in the bav to the 
southward of the island, is a ledge of rocks, partly visible at all times. S. E. by t. from 
the Woody Island lies a rock, on which are only two fathoms at low water. You may an- 
chor in the harbor at the back of this island in 7 or 8 fathoms, and have plenty of room to 


»»»wa:w~- -.--^iri/m^-f, 





moor. Off the northern point of the entmnce to this hiirbor, ciillecl Seiil Point, are two 
little islands, and a small sandy cove, where a seal fishery is carried on. 

Between Fish Harbor and Iln Ha Hay there is n very reinarl<al)le rouiiil hii;li liill, making 
in a peak, which may serve as a landmark to jjoint nut eitlier of these |)iates ot aneliorage. 

GREAT MECATINA ISLAND lies .3 miles olf the main land, it is ;{] miles long, and 
about 3 miles broad, beinc; the most rcniarkal)le land at this part of the coast ; it rises nji in 
the middle, which is much higher than either of the ends; its E. N. E. pf)iiit makes like 
a bluff head, and round this head to the northward, within a cluster of small islands, there 
is a cove running in about one mile and a half; in this cove vessels can safely anchor, in 
from 14 to 20 ftthoms, pood ground, and may obtain both wood and water. 

MECATINA HARBOR.— This harbor is formed behind iMecatina Isliuid on the main; 
it is safe but small, yet will admit vessels of burthen, there bein<; not less than :$ fathoms at 
low water, in either passage to it; but they must moor head anti stern, there being no room 
to moor otherwise. To sail in through the western passage there is no danger, but to sail 
in through the eastern channel you must observe the following directions. From thelnastern 
point of Mecatina Island steer North towards the main land, keep that close on board until 
you get the we , tern point of the island on with the point of Dead (Jove ; this is a small cove 
on the main, which lies open to the eastward ; the land which forms it is very low, with 
some brushwood upon it ; then sail on in that direction until you get above a stony point, 
which is to the north side of the said cove ; or until you bring the north point of (iuil 
Island, which is a small island lying E. by N. distant one mile from Mecatina Island, on 
with the E. N. E. point of Mecatina Island, you will then be within a spit of rocks which 
stretches off the island, and must haul over for Mecatina island, in order to avoid a ledge 
which runs off from the point of Dead Cove ; -nd when you bring the western passage open, 
you may anchor in 6 or 7 fathoms water. Vessels coming from the eastward, and bound 
for the Harbor of Mecatina, in passing to the northward of Gull Island, should be careful 
either to keep Gull Island or the main land close on board, m order to avoid a sunken rock 
that lies near halfway between Gull Island and the main, on one part of which there is 
not above 3 feet water. The highest part of the land between Grand Point and Ha Ha 
Bay is directly over the Harbor of Me* tina. 

THE GRAND POINT OF MECA TINA is the extremity of a promontory, which runs 
out from the main land, it is low at the point, but rises inland, slopin;' gradually up until it 
becomes of considerable height ; it may easily be recognized by the adjact;nt islands and 
rocks which ar^ about it; the nearest is a small low rock, not far from the point ; two of 
Aese islands^re much large/, and risenmch higher than the others ; and the outernuist are 
small, low, rocky islands, lying 11 miles off the point, S. E. by E. five miles and a half from 
the Grand Point are theiVIurr Islands and Rocks, and these are the most southerly islands 
on all the coast. The n(»rthernmost Murr Island bears from the otlij^r north a little westerly, 
distant one mile; they are remar!.able objects, being two barren rocks, of moderate height 
and steep all round. About half a mile E. S. E. from the southern Murr Island, are the 
two Murr Rocks, both appearing above water, and E. ^ S. from the same island lies a ledge 
of rocks, under water, on which the sea generally breaks. 

BAY DE PORTAGE.— -N. W. by N. from the Murr Islands, distant two leagues, is the 
Bay de Portage, the land over which makes in a valley, each side being high ; at its entrance 
lies an island of moderate height, which forms the harbor ; you may enter on either side of 
this island, but the eastern passage is fit only for small vessels, there being only 2 fathoms, 
in some parts of it, at low water. The western channel is sufficiently large and safe for any 
vessel to turn, there being from 6 to 8 fathoms in it ; but they must be careful to avoid two 
sunken rocks, on which are only 2^ fathoms at low water. The northernmost of these lies 
from Mutton Island S. by W. distant one mile and a half; the southernmost rock bears from 
the Seal Rocks N. E. f N. distant half a mile; they are both bold to, and vessels may 
borrow within a cable's length of Mutton Island or the Seal Rocks. 

Courses and Distances from Island to Island along the Coast, betwem 
Grand Point and Shecatica, which courses will carry you outside of all the 
other Islands and Rocks. 

From Grand Point of Mecatina to the outer rocks the course and distance are S. 
the outer rocks to the Murr Rocks .... - - E. 

Murr Rocks to Flat Island E. 

Flat Island to Treble Hill Island N. 

Treble Hill Island to Fox Islands, a cluster of islands lying S. \ E, 
from Eagle Harbor .-.-...-N. 

Fox Islands to St. Augustine'* Chain E. 

St. Aujfustine's Chain to Shag Island .,...£ 

St. Augustine's Chain to Shag Rocks E 

Shag Rocks to the east end of Shecatina Island • - - E. 

S. E. J E. ei miles. 

S. E. i S. 2i do. 

N. E i E. 5 do. 

E. by iV. 5i do. 

N. E. J E, 

9 do. 
15 do. 

N. E. )t N. 7i do. 
by N. 9 do. 

N. E. i E. 9 do. 

From the on 







The Gr< 
the coast, 
other place 
most remat 
2 points we 

From the R(i 

To the M 
nevieve, wl 
survey vet 
S. W. 15 h 
lie 7 miles 
given to it ; 
distant 7 oi 
may steer < 
p;-ssed the 
./hit tie, fl 
may steer ^ 
main land ; 

outer ones 
high, covei 
places whe 


settled, it ^ 
at half afte 
At Red 
eleven ; an 
neaps 4 fee 

uluint's ame ican coast pilot. 


^onit, are two 

Coursrs and Disfanres along shore, j)assinfr tvithin the Great Mecatina Island. 

From the outer rocks to the Biy de Portiise N. NW. JN. 4 

do, (iiiicr point of Mi'catina Island - - - N. J E. 4 

ontrr point i>t'M('calmi» Island to Gull Island - - - E, bv N. 1 

Gull lalund to Green Island, at the entrance of Red Bay - - N. E. i E. 3 

This course will carry you doar of the Shag Rock, 
mi fur ns vou ii.tjis oiitbide of Utill IsUiiil. 
Gull Island toLa Bouie Rock, off the N. N, W. end of Mecaliim E. N. E. j N. 4 

La BouleRork to Giccn Island W, by N. IJ 

La Houle Rock to Duck Island N. | W. 3 

Duck Island to Roind Island, Ha Ha Bay - - - - N. E. i N. H 

Round Island into Liillu Fish Harbor W. i S. ij 

Round Island into Ilu Ila Bay N, E. i E. 1^ 

This will leave nit th« Islands to the surhoard. 

La Boule Rock to Loon Islands N. N.E. ^E. 3 

La B )ul<' Rock to Goose Island E. N. E. 6^ 

Goose Island to Fox Island N. E, by E. 6 





The Great Island of Mecatina being the most remarkable point of land about this part of 
the coast, from whence vessels frecjnently take their departure, and shape their courses to 
other places, the followins; fable may be useful in showinu; the bearings and distances of the 
most remarkable points, rocks, headlands and harbors from it, allowing the variation to be 
2 points westerly, which is suHTiciently near the truth for any purpose of navigation. 

From the Round Head of Mecatina to Mecatina Island 

to the outer rocks off the Islands of En- 
trance ..... 

■ to Murr Islands .... 

■ to Flat Island . . . , 

• to Loon Islands .... 

• to Round Island Ha Ha Bay - 
to Trcl)l(! Hill Islands - 

■ to Double Hill Islands - 

• to Ooose Islands ... 

■ to Fox Islands .... 
to St. Aui^ustine's Chain 

• to Sha;/ Island - - ^ 

• to Sheeatica .... 

W. by R. i N. 3 J milea. 

s. w. \ s. 

S. S.W.J s. 
S. by E, 

N h E. 

5 do. 
5 nearly. 
5 miles. 
4 do. 

N. iV.W. iN.6i do. 

E. f S. 34 do. 

si do. 

h\ do. 

11 do. 

35. do. 

E. fS, 

N. N. E 
N.cE. I N. 
N. E. \ E, 



31} do. 
41 do. 

To the westward of the Grand Point of Mecatina, until you reach the Island of St. Ge- 
nevieve, which is the easternmost of the Esquimaux Islands, there appears to have been no 
survey yet made cf the coast ; the land from the Grand Point of Mecatina runs abont W. 
.S. W. 15 leagues to Cape Whittle, and is skirted by many islands and rocks, some of which 
lie 7 miles offshore ; therefore, in coasting along, the land must always have a wide biftrth 
given to it; vessels entering the Strait of Belle Isle, and being abreast of Chatoaux Point, 
distant 7 or 8 miles, or having brought the Red Cliffs to bear west, distant 5 or 6 miles, 
may steer a W. S. W. JL \V. course, and they will go clear of all dangers; when having 
P"ssed the Southmaker's ledge ; which is the outermost reef, distant 7 miles from Cape 
./hittle, and brought that cape to bear N. by W. or North, distant 8 or more miles, they 
may steer W. by NTpast Wolf Island, until they sec Mount Joli, a high mountain on the 
main land ; bring that to bear N. W. by N. and a N. W. 1 W. course will take them to St. 
Genevieve Island. 

Rkmarks. — All the islands along the coast of Labrador have a barren appearance, the 
outer ones being, for the most part, small low rocky islets, and the inner ones large and 
high, covered with a sort of green moss. There is no wood to be obtained, except at those 
places where we have menfioi'cd. 

TioKS. — The course and flowing of the tides along the whole coast are irregular and 
uncertain, dejjending much upon the prevailing winds ; and when the weather has been 
settled, it was high water at Sheeatica, full and chv;nge, about 11 o'clock, and at Mecatina 
at half after two. The rise of the tides being abou' 7 feet. 

At Red Hay, the tide flows full and change at half-past nine o'clock ; at Forteau Bay at 
eleven ; and at Labrador at half after 11 ; and at all these places, spring tides rise 7 feet, 
neaps 4 feet. 

i. i 






THE ISLAND OF NtWFOUNDLAND is situated on the eastern side, and directly 
in front of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, its norlhern part l)ein<; separated from the eoai»i 
of Labrador by the Straits of Belle Isle ; and its south-western extremity from Hreton Island 
and Nova Scotia, by the great entran(!e into the (iulf. Its lenjfth from Cape Kaee to (Jape 
Norman, is nearly five dejjrees and a half, and its breadth, from Ca|)e S|)ear to Cape An^sju- 
ilie, about 6 degrees 13 miles ; being verj narrow at tl c northward, but becoming wide as 
you approach southerly ; its extremes lie between the latitudes of 4fi^ 40' and 61° 40', and 
the longitudes of 52° 25' and 59' 23' west. The whole circuit of the island is indemed with 
inlets and bays, many of which are extensive, commodions and well sheltered, where vessels 
ride in perfect security ; into these bays and harbors ntimerous rivulets continually run, 
which, besides the fine purity of their water, alVord abundance of trout and other fish. — 
Most of the harbors have complete anchorages, with clear and good channels into them, 
80 that they can be navigated at all times without the assistance of a pilot; they are fre- 
quently situated so near to one another, that in many jdaces they form a succession of har- 
bors, but they are not all inhabited; the towns and villages are in general to be found in the 
larger branches only, where the situation and soil are most convenient ; the inhabitants 
therefore are not numerous, and the settlements but small. 

The Great Bank of Newfoundland is to the eastward of the island, and extends from 
about the latitude of 42° North to 50° or upwards, but recent observations seem to prove 
that its southern extent does not exceed the parallel of 42° 50' N. ; its form, like those of the 
other banl(8, is irregular and not easily ascertained or defined ; but about the latitude of 45°, 
its breadth, including the Jaquet and Whale Banks, is nearly 4 degrees; to the northward 
and southward it narrows almost to a point, and seems insensibly to drop into fathomless 
water. The Jaquet and Whale Banks may be fairly considered parts of the (ireat Bank, 
being on\y divided from it by channels of somewhat deeper water. The Jaquet lies to the 
eastward, and has 55 fathoms upon it; its edge is very steep ; between it and the edge of 
the Great Bank are 112, 120, and 160 fathoms. The mariner, when entering u])on the 
Gre^t Bank, will change his soundings from 60 to 30, 37, 44, 45, and 60 fathoms ; and as he 
advances towards the Whale Banks, he will liave 55 and 60 fathoms; between the (ireat 
Bank and the Whale Bank are 72, 75, and 80 fathoms, and upon the Whale Bank 50, 45, 
66, and 60 fathoms, being over which, you again drop into 100 and 200 fathoms, no ground. 
On the western side of the Great Bank, and to the southward of the Island of Newfound- 
land and Nova Scotia, a chain of banks extends almost t» o degrees from the land ; these are 
called Green Bank, Banquereau, Sable Island Bank, &:c.; all tljese have soundings over 
them of various depths, from 20 to 70 fathoms, admirably situated, in dark weather, to warn 
the mariner of his ap5roach towards the land. 

The Outer or False Bank, called also the Flemish Cap. This is a patch of rising ground 
lying two degrees to the eastward of the edge of the Great Bank, in latitude 46° 50', and 
longitude 45° ; its length is supposed to be about 90 miles, and breadth 50 miles ; on it are 
from 100 to 158 fathoms; between it and the eastern edge of the Great Bank is much deeper 
water, the bottom being very fine sand and ooze, which will hardly stick to the lead ; as you 
enter upon the Great Bank you will have fine whitish sand, speckled black. Should you 
make the bank in this latitude, between 46° and 47°, you must be very careful to avoid beiiig 
drifted upon the Cape Race or Virgin Rocks. These banks are frequently enveloped in most 
horrid fogs, which, from the middle of spring to December, have been know n to last 8 and 
10 days successively : at such times they are often so thick that you will not be able to see 
any object at ten fathoms distance; a continual drizzling rain is dropning from your sail? 
and rigging, a general calm prevails, and sometimes attended with a considerable swell of 
the sea, so that you are constantly in fear of running foul of some vessel, or being drifted 
by the currents upon some danger, which, from a total inability of discovering, you will 
have great diflficulty to avoid. Added to this, the currents which surround the Island of 
Newfoundland are frequently so violent and so irregular, sometimes driving towards the 
shores, and sometimes toward the sea, that the greatest caution will always be found neces- 
sary, while the known current coming from the northern regions, sweeps along the shores 
of Labrador, and in the spring detaches immense icebergs, which float to the southward, 
and become exceedingly dangerous, especially in foggy weather. Some of these masses 
will frequently be grounded in 40 and 50 fathoms water, and others will be met with further 

* E. & G, W, Blunt are now publishing a CHART of the Bank and Coast of Newfoundland, 
Gut of Canso, and Gulf of St. Lawrence, from tho Admiralty Surveys. 




111 (lirrctly 
1 (he co;\i»t 
>lori Ivlaiiil 
(•»! to (Jiipe 
iipe Anjju- 
im wide as 
1° 40', find 
ented with 
ere vessels 
iiinlly run, 
her (isli- — 
into tiiem, 
?y are (re- 
ion of Iiar- 
)und in the 

tends frotn 
m to prove 
liose oCthe 
ide of 4o°, 
reat l?ank, 
t lies to tlip 
le edge of 

upon the 

; and as he 

the (ireat 

link 50, 46, 

o ground. 

|; these are 
(lings over 
|(;r, io warn 

tg ground 
I'- 50', and 
on it are 
ich deeper 
[id ; as you 
[lould you 
k'oid being 
sd in most 
last 8 and 
Ible to see 
>our sails! 
swell of 
kig drifted 
you will 
Island of 
kvards the 
Qid neces- 
lie shores 
le masses 
111 further 

out to Hcawanl, at the distance of 125 or 130 leagites from the land ; fortunately these for- 
niidalile oljjectH may generally be discovered, even in durk weather, by a white and bright 
a|)pearanre on the sky above iliem, and also by the roar of the waters breaking against them ; 
they also may be apprehended by the intense eoldness they dilVuse to a great distance around 
them; they continue and are usually met with as late as June, .Inly and August. Your ap- 
proach towards the banks may be known by the numerous sea fowls which will attend yoji, 
as roches, maliiuauks and divers; these latter are seldom found more than ,'i() leagues oU' 
the banks, but maliniauks and others are occasiouully seen all across the Atlantic, but in the 
vicinity of the banks they become nunu-rous. 

THE V11{{JIN or CAPK RACK KOCKS are extremely d;mgerous; they extend in an 
irregular chain or cluster S. W. by VV. and N. E. by E. HOO yards; the breadth varying from 
!>00 to 300 yards; the least water on a white rock is 4,} fathoms, with from 5 to fii fathom.% 
about one hundred yards all around it — the bottcnu distinctly risible. Towards the extremi- 
ties of the shoal, the soundings are from 7 to 9 fiithonus on detached rocks, with deep water 
between them, the current setting a mile an hour to the \V. S. W. with n confused cross 
swell to the S. E. — South, S. W. — West, and W. N. W. of the shoal, the water deepens 
gradually to ."JO fathoms, half a mile distant, to the N. \V. North, vmd N. E. one third of a 
nule, and to E. N. E. — East, and E. S. E. a mile. 

The bank upon which the slioal is situated, extends E. by N. and W. by S. 4 miles and 
a quarter; and 2^' miles across its broade»t part, with regular sotmdings of iVoiu 2B to 30 fa- 
thoms, until they suddenly deepen on its outer edge to .TJ and 43 fathoms. 

The bottom is seen, and large patches of sea-weed on the sand around them. Over them 
the sea breaks so violent, as to make it unsafe to pass m a gale. Lat. 4(»" 26' 15"3 N. Long. 
50° 5C' 35" W. 


Variation 2 Points West. 

CAPE RACE, is the S. E. point of Newfoundland, and lies in 46° 39' 44" Nbrth lati- 
tude, and in 52° 59' longitude West from Creenwich; it is table land, moderately high; 
near it is a black rock, and several smaller ones around it. 

E. S. E. from Cape Race is a lishing bank, over which are from 17 to 25 fathoms w.ler; 
it is named the New Bank, and is about 5 miles long and 2 miles broad. 

From Cape Race to Cape Ballard the course is N. E. by E. distance 8| miles. About 
one mile southward of Cape Ballard is Chain Cove Head, a])pearing high and dark ; be- 
tween the points is a Cove, and to the westward of Chain Cove Head is Chain Cove, having; 
a black rock above water lying before it. 

RENOWPJS. — About three quarters of a league N. E. from Cape Ballard lie some small- 
rocks, oft' Small Point, and3| miles beyond Small Point are the Renowes Rocks ; they are- 
moderately high and bold toi^ being distant from the land about one mile; 1| mile' to the 
northward of these lies Renowes Island, situated near the main land ; and about one mile to 
the southward of the entrance to Renowes Harbor, which is but an indift'erent place of 
shelter, with a depth cf water of 15 feet ; to sail into it you must keep the north shore oa 
board, for several rocks lie scattered about its entrance, and S. E. winds commonly send iir 
a very rough sea. 

FERMOSE. — Near 3 miles further north is Fermose or Fermowes Harbor, and between 
them is Bears Cove, off which a sunken rock lies a cable's length from the shore. There ia 
no danger in sailing into Fermose Harbor, though the entrance is narrow ; just within it, on 
the northern side, is a small Cove, where a fishery is carried on, but the anchorage is indif- 
ferent; further in is Admiral's Cove, where merchant vessels ride land-locked in 7 and 8 fa- 
thoms; and one mile within that is Vice Admiral's Cove; large ships anchor on its south 
side in 12 and 15 fathoms, muddy ground, and very convenient for both wood and water. On 
the same side, further in, is Sheeps Head Cove, directly oft' which, near the middle of the 
channel, is a bank with only 9 feet, constituting the only known danger within this harbor. 

From Fermowes Harbor, about one mile N. E. by E. is Bald Head, N. by E. from which 
one mile further is Black Head. 

AQUAFORT. — From Black Head to the entrance of Aquafort Harbor the course is N. 
by W. distant one mile, at the mouth of which is a rock above water; to the northward of 
this rock is the passage in, having 15 fathoms water ; the harbor runs in W. N. W. about 3 
miles, becoming narrow as you advance ; here you have 4 fathoms water ; within the narrows. 


♦ CAPE RACE ROC ; S. — A large plan, from actual survey, by direction of Admiral Sir Charles 
OoLE, is published on the new Chart of the Western Ocean, by E. & G. W. Blunt. 




on tho northern shore, is a little Cove, where vesselH may heave down, the shore bcinq; steep. 
To sail ii|), n've the stony In-ach on the north shore a berth, it being uhoal, except at the 
point ol'llic narrows, where it is bold to. 

FKIlllVL VNI) HAIIIK )|{, is to the northward, and its entrance is betw«:en Kerryland 
Head anil Mnis Island, beinij; little more than half a cable's length wide. I'V'rryland Head 
has '2 rocks near it, called the Hare's Mars ; when yon have passed these and are within Wn'm 
Island, it becomes wider, haviiii; t^ood ancliorai;); with r^ and 10 lathoins, but north east 
winds send in a heavy sea over tlu; b)wcr rocks, which run tVoni Hois Island to tht- main. 

From Mois Island to (loose Island the course is i\. N. E. -I K. distant half a mile, and 
from (ioose to Stone Island the course is N. N. K. r; N. distant half a mile. 

CAl'LIN HAV. — Two and a half miles from (loose Islanil is("aplin Hay ninninp in N. 
W. by N. ; there is a passage into it, on either side of (ioose Island ; to tiie northward of 
Goose, and between it and Stone Island there is no danger, the islands bein.u b<dd to ; but in 
passinj^ between it and the Island of Hois take care to keep the point of Kerryland Head 
open to the eastward of Hois, by which means yon will avoid a sunken rock having only 2 
fathoms water over it; this rock lies nearly midway between (lOose Island and VuM Kast 
Point, and having passed this rock no other danger will be found in sailini; up the Hay to 
the best anchoraj^e, which is abreast of a Cove on the larboard sliore, and half a mile within 
Scogin's Head, with lb fathom's water. 

Fr(uii Fcrryland Head to (.'ape Hroyle, the course is nearly N. N. E. distant 2? miles. 
Cape Hroyle is high land, making somewhat in the form of a saddle. South of the north 
part of the (Jape ^ of a mile, lies the (Jld Harry Hock, over which are only '.i fathoms water, 
though between the main and it arc "JO fathotns. E. N. E. of the ('a|)e, distant '} of a 
mile, are the Horse Rocks, having from 7 to 14 fathoms over them : the mark for these rocks 
is awhile house on Ferryland Downs, open with Stone Islands; and the head ot(Ja|)e Hroyle 
Harbor open, will lead directly upon tliem. In stormy weather the sea breaks very high 
over them. 

CAPE BROYLE HARBOR runs in about 4 miles, between Cape Broyle and Brigrs 
Head, their distance from each other being 1^ mile. Within the entrance on the north 
side, is Admiral's Cove, where you may anchor in I'i fithoiiis water, good ground, but ex- 
posed to the S. E. The best anchorage will be found above the Narrows, in 7 fathoms; 
the only danger in the way is the Saturday's Led^e, which lies about 1} cable's length out- 
side of the Narrows, on the north shore : bring the saddle of Hrigus Head open of the point 
of Admiral's Cove, and you will clear it ; and after yon get beyond the Narrows anchor in 
7 fathoms, good ground, very convenient for both wood and water. 

BRIGUS. — This is a small cove, or harbor, a little to the northward of Brigus Head ; 
but it is only lit for boats. 

Four and a half miles from C ipe Broyle is Cape Neddick, a kind of table land moderately 
elevated, and steep to. From Cape Neddick to Haliiie Head is l.V mile; one quarter of a 
mile tc he northward of this is a Haline Cove, fit only for boats. ^Phe outer part of Great 
Island is about 2^ miles N. E. by E. | E. from Cape Neddick ; and from Baline Head to 
Spear Island, the course is N. N. E. i E. distant one mile. Within this island is a fishery, 
but the anchorage is unsafe, and the bottom rocky. One mile to the northward is Toad's 
Cove, fit ouly for boats ; half a mile from which is Tinker's Point, the southern boundary 
of Momables Bay; this place is nearly one mile deep; it is open, and its northern point 
forms the southern part of Witless Hay ; about three quarters of a mile from which is Green 
Island ; and the same distance to the northward of (ireen Island, is (iuU Island, about a 
mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, the land appearing high. 

WITLESS BAY extends inwards full two miles from Gull Island, but lies open to the 
sea ; the ground is tolerably good, and the deiith of water moderate ; but half way up is a 
ledge of rocks off the northern shore, i)art of which are seen at half tide. 

BAY OF BULLS. — One mile and a quarter to the northward of Gull Island, is the 
southern point of the Bay of Bulls, and from hence to the northern point, called Hull Head, 
the course is E. N. E. ^ E. distant one luile and a quarter ; between these points the Bay 
runs up N. W. by W. nearly two miles, and then N. \V. by N. one mile further to the river 
head. Within this bay the riding is good, in from 20 to 16 fathoms ; and after you have 
passed Bread and Cheese Point there is a cove ; off this latter point lies a sunken rock, at 
the distance of about half a cable's length, having passed which, the bay is free from dan- 
ger, and the shores bold ; run up and anchor over against John Clay's Hill, bringing it to 
bear N. E. by N. having 12, 13, and 14 fathoms; the merchant vessels run furtlier in to 10 
and 7 fathoms. 

Frotn Cape Broyle to the Bay of Bulls, the course is N. E. by N. distance 4^ leagues. 
From Bull's Head to the south point of Little or Petty Harbor, from which a reef of rocks 
stretches out about a quarter of a mile, the course is N. E. distance 8\ milefe. The south 
point of Petty Harbor is distant from the north point 2i miles, between which lies the 
bay, running in two miles ; at the bottom of this is a cove and fishery. About midway 
between the Bay of Bulls and Little Bay, is a cavern, having an opening at its snmmit, 
through which, whenever the sea runs high, the water spouts through, forming a remark- 



ahle appcnranee, which iriay be seen far nir, it iH therefore significantly enou<;h niiiiicd the 


Kroiii till' noiili, or Tiaily I'oiiit oT Ijittic I lailxir, Capi' Spear lioarn N, K. disiuit 2[ 
inilcH; it has a low ami ra^i^rd apix-araiicr, ami is tlu- (MNtcniiiiost part uf i\f\vruiiii(llaii(l, 
niid lies in latitndc 47^ .'(()' i).i" S. and in lon'j;itiidi'.JJ'-' ;{:j' '27" \V. Vessels Crnni theeant' 
ward, upon ^ettinu into soiiiidint^s, and hound torSt. John's, <;enerally steer tor this point. 
Hetwet II the ("apt- and the entrance to St. John's, are three hays ; the (irst is cdh'd Cupo 
I> ly, and lies hetween ('ape Spear and Mlack Head; tlie set oiid is called iJeadman's IJay, 
and lies between Ulack heati and Small point; and i • third is called Freshwater IJay, uud 
lies between Small Point and Kort Amherst. 

.ST. JOHN'S llARUOU is one of tin- priii<i|)al places in Newfonndland, beini; the 
seat of (Jovernineiit : and althoiu^h its eiiirain c is narrow, its harbor is excellent, and its 
situation readily known, ixith by the Islockhonsc built on Signal Hill, at the lunlh side, ;iiui 
Fort Amherst on its south liead, or point of entrance. The channel, from point to point, 
is only .'{faO fathoms wide; but it trets wider just within the |)oints than between them, de- 
creasing again as you approach tlie Chain Rock, for from the latter to tlie I'ancake Rock, 
the distance is only yj fathoms, these are rocks, bothbeiiii,' above water, and steep to; Chain 
is the northern rock, and l'an(;ake Hock lies on the south side of the channel. 

In approaching tlie Harbor of .St. John's with a lari,'e ship, care must be taken to avoid 
the Vestal Rock, which lies about ."iO fathoms olf the southern, or Fort Amherst Point; 
over this rock are •,';> feet water; tin; marks for if are Fort William, or the OUl Garrison, 
just open of the south head ; and the outer Wash Rail Rock open to the eastward of the 
Cuckold's Heai! ; these latter rocks lie close to the northern |)oint of the harbor, and are 
always above water, being steep to, and therefore not dangerous. The course in is N. W. 
hy W. the shores continuing bold until you get near the Pancak- , then give the south side 
a small berth, continue the same course, or rather more inclined to the westward, keeping 
Fort Amherst Flagstaff open to the northward of F'rederick's ij.itery Flas;stalf; you will 
by these means avoid the Prosser, a rock on the larboard side, running olf the end of another 
rock, formed like a saddle, with Iri feet water in the hollow, and only <') feet on its outside ; 
yet it is steep to, having not less than 5 fathoms close to it; so soon as you are within, and 
have passed the Prosser Rocks, you may steer up as you please, both shores being clear of 
dangers, and anchor in from 4 to 10 fathoms water, on a bottom of mud, and lying quite 

'J'he winds from tlie S. W. to the southward, as far as N. E. by E. blow in, all other 
directions of the ivind either balllt! or blow out of the Narrows; with the latter winds you 
must warp in, for the convenience of doing which, rings are (ixed in the rocks on each side : 
the anchorage within the Narrows has from 10 to 16 fathoms, and a little before you enter 
the Narrows there are 'JO fathoms. 

The tides rise (>, ', and 8 feet, but very irregular, being much influenced by the winds; 
and the variation is about two points west. 


We recoininend the mariner to be careful, lest, if a stranger to the coast, he should mis- 
take Kitty Vitty, a small place tit only for boats, lying about one mile to the northward of 
St. John's, for St. John's itself; at a distance it has the appearance of a good harbor; he 
will therefore observe, that at Kitty V'itty's south side is a round hill, shaped like a hay- 
cock, standing upon Cuckold's Head; while St. John's Harbor may be distinguished by 
Fort Amherst, which appears white ; and by the (lag-staves on the hill, over the north point 
of entrance ; these will sutficiently denote the right entrance. 

About one mile from Cuckold's Point, is a small point or projection of the land ; and two 
miles further is Sugar Loaf Point, tapering upward, and much re.seiiiljling a sugar loaf. 
One league further is Red Head; between Sugar Loaf Point ami which is Logy Bay. 

TORBAY. — One mile and a half from Red Head is the south point of Torbay, which 
is somewhat lower than the others. From this point to (treenCove, the customary place 
where vessels anchor, the course is W. N. W. ai)OUt two miles, where you may ride in 14 
and 12 fathoms, but it is much exposed to seaward. This bay is large, being full a league 
in extent; from olf its northern point is a Hat rock, where the sea breaks; a heavy swell 
sets from the eastward into the bay, so that it is not a good place to lie in. 

From Flat Rock Point, which is low dark land, the coast runs northerly to Red Head, a 
distance of two miles; and from thence to Black Head, N. E. by E. two miles more; the 
latter bearing north, distant 6^ miles from Torbay South Point. 

CAPE ST. FRANCIS.— From Black Head to Cape St. Francis the course is N. N. 
W. distant one league. Cape St. Francis has a white appearance, and is itself low, but 
above it the land rises high. A little south of the Cape is Shoe Cove, a place used in ba^ 
weather for splitting and saUing fish. Ofi' the Cove there is good fishing, and with nqp* 
therly, westerly, and southt. 'y winds you will lie safe within the cove. ' 

About one mile aud a half east of the Cape lie the Brandy Rocks, iu a triangular position, 


..^„.«..-. . if.^ 




jlie oiilfrrnrtHi hcini; •li^'faiit from tlic (^apc IJ mile : fhf sra bruaks ovrr lliom : aritl tliorc 
'\H a chiiiiiii-l lii-lwi'cri llinii and ilii- ('a|)i', lull (iio ilatij^'MiMis to lir altniipicd ; tlicst- ri>vk:4 
cuiifiilcralily adil In \\\v siilrly nrSlint' ('ovi' 

'riH-ri' is aN<i anotlicr stnidl ( 'ov«>, lit (oi biiats, to llic tiortliward of tlu> Capt', which may 
he ii>>ed with tlir uiiid oil' sIidi'c. 

('()N(M;I'TI<>.\ HAV.— ('apt! St. l-'rancis, wliicli wo have already dcs( rihnl, is tlii! 
soiillirri) point ot ('oik cplioii Itay. From ('apt: St. Kraiii'ls to tlic Noiilhrrii puidt (triliit- 
raloii Island, u hicli may Ix* considrnMl ilii> other point or lioiiiidary of ( '(inception Hay, ilii> 
<Minrse and distance is N. .N. K. \ N. ") ' leii;;iieH; this is an extensive and deep liay, run- 
iiin'4 to the souih-wesiwiird, and cimipreliendin<4 many lesser Mays and Inlels. 

HKIiliK ISI.K.— Four leanness, W. hy \V. from Cape St. Vrancis is l\v\\v Isle, in 
kuuiii ■')'; mile.H, in lireadlli alioiil two ; this island is hd'ty, and itr* eastern side is near three 
mill's oil the main; tiiere is (m this sidi-, a heiich, to the soiiihward ot' which is ^ood an- 
ehora:^!*, in :!(M'athoMis, sandy ;;ronnil; ami a lea.Mie fnrlher, near the sontii pail of the 
iiHlMiid, is also ttderaliie anchorage in from 15 to ;il) falhoins. .\tthe south end (d'tlie island 
ks a small Cove, ealli.'d lianee ('ove, whieli fisliiii'j; vessids soinelimes resort to, and liinl 
j(ood shelter for live or six vessels. One mile from the south part of the island lies a rock, 
over whicli are •*', fithouis water. Two miles .'^. hy W. from Lance Cove, lies ;i small low 
ixland, called liililr Melle Isle, \V. S. \V . (d' which, disiaiu \\ mile, is Kelley's Island, oi 
iiiiddrmt.' heiizht, and aliont three (piarKMs of a mile in letiuth. 

Within Itelle Isle, on the main, is I'mlu^al Cove, the anchorage within which is not 
connidered safe. 'I'o the southward is hroad (Jove, and at the iiottom of the Day is ilollv- 
rood tiarlior, in depth alioiil .'(', miles; in a Cove, on the west side of w hich, is ^uud anclior. 
a;;e in H, '), 10 or IJ fathoms water, and ru<im enonjih to moor. 

Followini; the ,'.i),ist, ahoi't 1', mile from llollyr(»od entrance, is llarhor Main, aliout I', 
mile ill depth, and half a mile wide ; it is an open place, but near the upper part yuii may 
uiH'hor in from 7 to 10 fathiMiis water. 

SALMON (;0\'K. — One mile I'urther is .'Salmon ('ove, the entrance to whidi is a mile 
wide; the course in is \V. S \V. about 'J', miles, it I hen divides into two branclies, one to I In- 
westward about one mile, the other southward one mile and a half; in either of these liianches 
tlie anchorage is good, but the southern river is considered the better one, ther<! beiii^ no 
danger in entering. In the western branch a rock lies at a Hiiiall distance from the .star- 
board shore, having on cither side a passage, but the southern <me is the wider of the two. 

COLLIKR'8 HAV. — To the norlhward near one league, lies Collier's l!.iy, running 
inward south-westerly full two leagues ; one mile and a half from the eiitianct of which lies 
a sunken rock, nearly inid-chanmd, on both sides of which the cli.innel is good ; this rock 
is Wsible at three quarters ebb. Two and u lialf miles up the bay is good ancliorage in 10 
fathoms water, on the eastern side, and wpposite a small (Jove ; into this Cove v«>ssels may 
go, and ride in 3 and 4 fathoms w aler. Higher t'p the Bay is another Cove, at the further 
distaace of ft mile, but it is both foul and shallow. Near the head of tlie Hay the anclior- 
age is good in 8, 9, and 10 fatlumis. 

BRIG I S BAY is two miles to the northward of Collier's Bay, and seldom fie(|upnted but 
by small vessels, it being open, and too far up C'onception Bay : it runs in from Hrigns Head 
about l.V mile, and has anchorage in from 10 to i') fathoms; or at the head of the Hay, be- 
hind a small island, on the south side, small craft may lie secure from all winds, with H and 4 
fathoms water, and moor to the shores. The south point ofBrigus Bay may be known by 
its peculiar raszged a[)pearance. 

PORTGRAV^F, or L'ORT l)F (iRAVE, BAY lies to the northward of IJrigus, and has 
within it Sheep's and Cupid's (Jovcs; the latterison the southside ofthe Hay, andisagood 
place for '2 or ',> ships to ride in, with 4, .'>, and (» fathoms water, almost laiul-lockc<l, and 
having not above one jjoiiit open ; its north side is bold, and you may lie alongside thr rocks, 
and take in your cargoes ; the shore on the northern side is remarkably high, and called 
Spectacle llcai!. .Shee|)s, or Ship C^ove, will accommodate small vessels in 4 and .j fathoms 
water, mooring head ; ud stern, having their S. W. anchor in 2'2 fathoms, about a cable and 
a quarter's length from the ship. 

Portgrave is about three quarters of a mile to the westward of Ship Cove; the water 
within the islands is shallow, but without, them the anchorage is "20 and 25 fathoms dee]), 
where you will be quite exposed to south-easterly winds. Burnt Head is the south point of 
Portgrave Bay; from whence 2}; miles N. F. | N. lies Bay Roberts Point, the southern 
point of the entrance to Robert's Bay, which is H mile broad, and runs in to the south-west- 
ward .5 miles. One mile above Bay Roberts Point is Blowniedown Head, which is higher 
than any land near it; half a mile within this is a Cove. 

BAY ROBFRTS has no invisible danger at its entrance; you may borrow on either side 
or go close to the island, which lies further in on your starboard side ; having passed which, 
you may run on about a mile, and lie land-locked in 9 or 10 fathoms ; between the island 
and main vessels can anchor, but the gronnd is foul and bad ; and there are two sunken rocks, 
one bein? near the inner part of the island, the other above the island and near the main. 



T»» iiiilt'*! nliove tlic isliiiid in rxccllt'iit luiclioriiKf, in llie N. W, iirm or luaiich of tlif 
Itiiv, on niii<lil\ i;iiMiiiil ; uivc tlic Nniitli ptiiiit a ^ooil IktiIi mi xailin^ in, as Hiune rucka under 
HaiiT lii' iMMr i(, anil (lit* siailxtard *<lioi«' nlioals near liali n cnldc'H icni;lh. 

Sl'AMAIMlS liAV in divnlrd Ironi ISav HolintN liv an iNllnnuM, or nrck of land; lliii 
ll;iy iH drrj) and I'Mrnxivf, l>ul n\)vti to tin- S. Kasicrly winds; llii re Ih aiuhoraKP within it, 
iii'inly all nvcr, <'H|)ci'ially at ilH licad, in 7 ami H ralliiiMis water. 

Two Icaiiiii'i N. K. Ironi Spimiani'M Kay are tlit- islandN ol ilarlior (iracc, tlicy are din* 
taiit from Cape St. Francis aliout (> I<mkiu<h, lioaiiiii^ K. { .Sontli. Tti the couthwiird iitHry- 
aiit'H Cove, a vi'tod plaee for (ish, hut not (or>iliippinn ; iheieisa riuU midway of the entrance ; 
\i)ii may Nail in on either side ot tliin rock, and fmd j;;oo(I anclu)ra^e in 4 :ind 5 fatlu)mH w uter. 
Till' uroniiil uidiiii the rock \h clean. 

IIAKIJOl! (ilvACK. — 'I'liL- entrance to the harhor is to the northward of the isiandii, 
fiirtiiihe sotitliwnrd, and hetwcen them and the whore, the ciiaiinel i.s narrow and tlie ground 
isliiui ; the course in will he nearly west : almost mid-charmel is the .Salvaye Kock, no danger 
isiiutside of this rock ; there is also ariolher rock, (ailed the Lon;^ Il.irry, lying near the 
iiorili shore ; both these rocks aie aliove water, and always visible. When you are within the 
SalvajL'c, <n> no nearer ilie west shore than just to open a passaye on the west side of the 
I.uiijl; Harry, the leadiiiK mark for sailing; in lieinjn the hi)j;h point of the main, called Mosquito 
I'liiiil, just open to the eastward of Loni; Harry Kock ; this will carry you in with not lesa 
than J'.' fathoms, (jMile npto the h irlmr, clear of all danj^er : but toward the eastern shore, 
you may stand over uiiiil you hrini; the W'estciii [jandmark on with the Cupola of the 
Cliapel ; you will then he up to llie north side ;»f the har, anil must take care not to open 
iJM'^ie marks, especially if the mark in the Cove at ."^hip's Head is open with the mark on the 
puiiit of AdmiiMl's ISeach; hul if you can hri'iu the \\'i-stern [^aniimark at the hack of the 
Chapel on w ith the ( 'npola, Ix lore the mark at the Cove at ."^hip's Head <()ines on with the 
mark at the poini of Admiral's Heaeh, (hen you will he in the narrows, and must not stand 
fiu'lhi r over to the eastw ai d liian to lirin^ those marks in one, and coiitimu' turning with these 
marks to the east and west, until you hriim the Kasiern liandmark at the hack of the Chapel 
on with the Cupola, then you will he within the har, and should slanil w ell over to the east- 
ward. Alioiil hallway down lliis harhor a l)road spit of sand runs oil" from the southern shore, 
exieiidini; full two thirds over to\\;irds the ('liapel; this appe;us to l)e what Mr. Lane has 
called the har, it has I ' -J, .'!, and :t.', fathoms in some places over it ; hut there is a channel 
l>iM\veen it ami the norihern shore, with t and f) t'athoms water; to sail through which bring 
Oticrhury llearl on with the point of the heach at .*Nhip's Head, this will also lead to the 
iiorlhward of tlie island of the llailxir (irace. A white rock on the heach at the west end of 
Father Kwcr's House, near the Catholic Chapel, will clear the cast end of the spit; the 
wi'stcrn post of the said l'\ilhiM's Mwer's (late on with the openini^ between the Spire and tht 
west end of the (^iiholic Chapel, will clear the west end of the Hpit ; and the outer edge of 
the Lons; Harry on wiih the extreme point of the iu)r.thern shore, will clear the shoal onitf 
iiorihein side. 'I'his is a very yood and convenient anchoraf^e, with room enough for a vessel 
to turn in or mit of the narrows; rhj/" the marks here (.'iven are very easily to he distinguished, 
and will dear all dan.uers. The Middle Mark at the back of the Chapel on with the Cupola, 
and the mark at .Ship's Head on with that at Admiral's JJeach, leads on to the shoalest part of 
the har. To the nortliward of Harbor (irace is Carhonierre Ishuiil and Harhor; before 
you reach which is .Mos(|uiio Cove, a place between Harbor (Jrace and Carhonierre, littk 
iVcipiented, althou^ih ihe amdiorage is good, it not bein^ convenient for the fisheries. 

CARBONIKIIIHO ISJ^AM) lies about ]H miles from C;ipe St. Francis, its. southern 
end is low land, hut upon it stands a small fort, built lor the defence of tyie fishermen. 
The island is bold to, so are the shores of the hari)or, hut olf the S. W. end of the island 
are several rocks under water: the ])iissage therefore, between the island and the main, should 
not be attempted. On tlie iu)rth side, o])posite Carhonierre Island, are two small Coves, 
where the planters live, who keep (isliing boats; the norihern of these is called Clown's Cove, 
fit only for boats; the other is called ('rocker's Cove, and is fejjaratcd only from Carho- 
nierre Bay by a small jioint of land, named Crocker'.s Point. Oif these ('oves are several 
rocks, hoth above and under w;iter; therefore, in saiiinc: either in or out of the Bay of Car- 
honierre, these must have a berth; and after you reach Otterbury Point you may stand in 
to either shore, both being hold to, until you near the head of the harbor: this is a good 
place for riding in. It is wide, and with water of various depths for anchoring every where. 
Two miles N. E. by N. from Carhonierre Island is .Salmon Cove Head, high and steep; 
behind which is a Cove, where abundance of salmon are caught ; an island lies in the mid- 
way of the channel, hut the cove is only fit for boats. 

GREKN BAY. — Four or five miles further north is Broad Cove Head; and 85 milefl 
further is Green or Western Bay Point; oil' the shore, . :.J about a mile to the northward of 
Broad Cove, is anchorage in from 10 to 1.5 fathoms. At the entrance to Green Bay, is anchor- 
age in 15 and IG fathoms, but it would be dangerous to go far into the Bay, which is quite 
open to the eastward. 



f i ' 

Fi"e miles to rtie north-eastward of Green Hay is Devil's Point Cove, a plare of little note, 
and further on is Fiainborousih Head, bhuk and steep to; there is no jsjood plare of shelter 
hereabout, nor from Carbonierre to the Island Baealieu, except with the wind o(T shore. 

BAY VERDF; is about lialf a mile to I he westward of the liead, and np to the f'ove is 
three qtiarters of a mile; the entranre is not aiiove a ralile's lena;lh across, and vessels lie 
about half a cable's length from the head of the bay, in 5 fathoms water, having a cable 
fastened to the shore, and an anchor out astern; six or seven ships can lie in tliis manner, 
but S. W. winds blowing right in, \\< old make that a dangerous situation; it is also a bad 
place ("or either wood or water, but the great quantities of fish which resort here, occasion it 
to be much frequented. It is a place easily Unowii by Hacalieu and the projecting land, called 
Split Point ; Bay Verde Head itself will serve to point out its position, for tliese three 
heads, Bay Verde Head, Split Point and Baealieu Island, appear prominent blulf land, very 
similar to one another, as you come from the southward ; and there is no hidden danger in 
entering the Bay. The Island 15acalieu is high land, nearly 4 miles long and 1 J broad, it is 
distant 1^ mile from the main, and between is a good channel; nearly midway between its 
southern point and Split Point is a sunken rock, over which, in blowing weathfcr, the sea ge- 
nerally breaks, although it is six fathoms under water, and steep to all round. 

From Split Point about 4 J miles is the Point of (Jrates, having rounded whi<;h, you will 
open Trinity Bay. 


TRINITY BAY is, like Conception Bay. wide, extensive, and forms itseilf south-west- 
ward ; like that also, it contains many lesser bays and harbors within it; these will be regu- 
larly described in rotation Point (irates is the S. Eastern point of the Bay; from which, 
distant about 2 miles, is Break-heart Point, and between them is a kind of Bay, where 
boats, with an oft'-shore wind, ride in safety ; within this iJay is a ledge of rocks above water. 
To the southward of Break-heart Point is Scurvy Island, and between this island and Sher- 
wick Point is a hay running in S. S; E. about three cjuartcrs of a mile; the course from 
Break-heart Point to Sherwick Point is S. W. by W. ."> miles. 0(V the latter .s a rock above 
water; this forms the northern point of Old Pcrlican; vessels cannot go between the island 
and point, although the passage appears good and open, because the ground is altogether foul 
and rocky, always therefore run in to the southward of the island, and when you have passed 
it, anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms; this cannot be considered a good harbor, as the ground is bad 
for holding, and with the wind at N. will then be obliged to buoy your cables. 

From Old Perlican to Salvage Point the course is W. ^ N. distant 5 miles; Salvage 
Point requires a good berth, having a reef of rocks running out from it, the point itselfislow. 

From Salvage Point to Hants Head riie coiirst* is W. by S. distant? miles; and one mile 
to the eastward of the Head is Hants Harbor, fit for small craft only ; two miles oil' which is 
Hants Harbor Rock, over which the sea generally breaks; bring King's Head opm of tlie 
Sugar Loaf, and you will clear it to the northward. Two miles further is King's Head, and 
from King's Head to the Sugar Loaf the course and distance is S. W. i W. about .3 miles. 

Eastward of the Sugar Loaf is Sillee Cove, fit only for boats, and unsafe for vessels. 

NEW PERLlCA>f. — From the Sugar Loaf to the north point of the entrance of New 
pQrlicEln, the beaming is S. W. { W. distance 2 miles; and Onr mile further is the Harbor, 
small, but tolerably good, within whicli you may ride land-locked in from 5 to 10 fathoms; 
the shores are bold to, and free from danger; the entrance is nearly two miles wide, being 
bounded by Smutty Nose Point on the east, and (iorlob Point on the west; but as yon ad- 
vance the harbor becomes narrower, sO that at the anchorage it will scarcely be half a mile 

HEART'S CONTENT— Three miles from New Perlican is Heart's Content, a good 
harbor, fit for any ship, with excellent anchorage towards the north shore, in from H to I'J 
fathoms water. One league further is Heart's Desire, fit for boats only ; and 31 miles beyond 
that is Heart's Delight, another cove, adapted for small craft only. From Heart's Delight, 
about three miles, is Long Point, projecting considerably into the Bay, and a league fnrtiier 
is Witless Bay, by no means a place of saf^'ty, being too much exjjosed, and the bottom nnky , 
between Long Point and Witless Bay are two small islands, which you leave on your lar- 
board side. 

One mile from Witless Bay is Green Harbor, where vessels may anchor in from 7 to 10 
fathoms; three miles further is llope-all-a-head ; two miles beyond which is New Harbor, 
a place of shoal water, and only fit for l)i)ats. 

DILDO HARBOR— Two and a half miles from New Harbor is Dildo Harbor, with- 
in which is very good anchorage, in a cove, at the northern side of the entrance, in from 10 
to 20 fathoms water, good clean gound. Three miles from thence is Chapel Bay, the mouth 
of which is a mile broad, and the bay about three miles deep ; here, behind a small island, 
about two miles in, is good anchorage in from H to 12 fathoms. About 6 miles to the north- 
ward is Collier's Bay, very similar, and running nearly in the same direction to Chapel Bay ; 



e of little notr, 
)l:ire of shelter 
ncl off shore, 
to the Cove is 
111(1 vessels lie 
lining a ciil)le 
1 this manner, 
t is also H bad 
re, dceasion it 
ria; land, called 
)r tlipse three 
)liilf land, very 
df'M danger in 
1 i broad, it is 
ay between its 
ir, the sea ge- 

hiCh, you will 


If south-west- 
will be reuu- 
; from which, 
f Hay, where 
s above water, 
uid and >Sher- 
> course from 
i a rock above 
L'en the island 
u have passed 
ground is bad 
your cables, 
ilfs; .Salvage 
t itself is low. 
and one mile 
5 olf which is 
I opm of the 
's Head, and 
bout 3 miles. 
r vessels, 
ance of New 
the Harbor, 
ID fathoms; 
H wide, being 
lit as yon ad- 
•e half a mile 

itenf, a good 
■oin 8 to ll> 
iiiles bevond 
rt's Del'lffht, 
ague further 
ittoiu n» Uy , 
on your lar- 

rom 7 to 10 
few Harbor, 

arbor, with- 
, in from 10 
, the mouth 
mall island, 
1 the north- 
)hapel Bay; 

seven miles further is tlie Point of Tickle Harbor Bay, which runs inward, In a southerly 
(iircction, full 8 miles; there is no danger in the way, and though little frequented, the an- 
chorage is safe. 

BA V OF BULLS. — To the northward is the Bay of Bulls, running in a N. N. Westerly 
direction to within '2 miles of Chance llivcr in IMacentia ]>ay ; tiiore is very good anchorage 
in various [larts of this Bay, in IJ and lo faihoins water, particularly on the western side in a 
Cove, about onemile and a half fnmi tlifcnirai)ce, wiihfiom 10 to l.o fatlioms, sandy ground; 
to the N. E. is Bull Island, ancJ 5 miles further Cojijicr Island ; bollj tliese lie very near the 
shore: we now open Deer Harbor, a place extensive, and good for anchorage, but barred 
with many shoals; the first shoal lies midway between Tickle Point and Deer Island, having 
6 fathoms ou its shallowest part, and tliercfore not dangerous; but one third of a mile fur- 
ther in, is ii bank with only J and 2!. fathoms v.ater ; bring the |)oint of the N. E. Cove open 
of Shallop Cove Point, and you will go clear to the westward in 7 fatlioms water. There 
is also another shoal lying off the jioint on the outside of Sliallop Cove, on which are 2j 
fathoms, this will be avoided by just oi)eni)ig tlie jioint of Deer Island with the first point 
on the main, within Deer Island; and after you have passed Harbor Islatid, you may an- 
chor on good ground, in from 10 to Jd fathoms. 'J'ln' entrame of Deer ilarbor bears from 
the north point of Bacalieu Island, W. l i>. distant about l;; leagues. 

Full "2' miles N. E. from tlie entrance to Deer Harbor is Jones's Harbor, the mouth of 
which is not above a (juarler of a mile wide, and the channel in is. in several parts, still less ; 
it runs in '2.7 or A miles, and has good anchorage in from -j to 24 fathoms water. To the 
southward is a high and steep island, called .loncs Island ; about 4 miles from which is Bald 
Head ; and 2 miles further (ianny Cove ; its entrance is cijiitiiied, being not more than a quar- 
ter of a mile wide ; there is, nevertheless, good riding within it in 10, 12, and 15 fathoms ; 
about a cable's length off the north shore, just at the entrance, lies a sunken rock, and about 
a mi|e S. S. E. from the south ]7oint of Long Island, is another rock, by some called White 
Island, just appearing above water; this i/ick bears S. \V. tVoiii I'andom South Head. 

Random North Head lies W. by N. distant 'j\ leagues from the north end of Bacalieu 
Island, and about 4', leagues N. by \V. iViun New Perlicati. 

RANDOM S(_)UND 1m stothe wtvstward. and comprehends several arms an. 1 harbors: thus 
Randtmi and Smith's Sounds unite and form Random Island, the channels being narrow, 
long, and circuitous; at the junction of the two sounds is a small island with a bar of only 
two fathoms water, the pass:>g(! being not a mile broad. About :'. leagues from Random North 
Head, lies Hickman's llarl)or, w here you w iU find goorl anchor;i;^^e in 1.5 fathoms. Random 
North Head bears from Random South Head N. K. -, E. distant;! miles. When you are 
within the entrance of Kandoiii Sound there is a branch i uns in toward the south west, about 
1 mile wil'iin which is Fox Cove, (it for boats, and -'miles further Little Heart's Ease, a simi- 
lar Cove running in a quarter of a mile, tli^ii <lividing into 2 branches, the western one has 4 and 
i) fathoms within it, but the eastern branch is shallow and adapted for boats only. There is also 
an anchorage 2 miles further, on the same side in a cove with an Island before it, with 8 fathoms, 
and not farfrom this is another Cove on the noithernside. where a vessel may ride in 7 fathoms. 

.SMITH S(JUNI) has generally deep water, and is in most places one rnlle wide until 
you get near the head. Shut-in Harbor is on ihp starboard side, it is nearly at the entrance, 
and has no safe anchorage, the groiuifl being rocky; .'} miles further up is Pope's Harbor, 
this also is encumbered with rocks, a shoal lyinc near the mitldle of it. The direction of 
the channel is westward about 7.V leagues. To the eastward of Kandom Island are Duck 
and (ireen Islands, both lying a consideralde distance fV(jnj the main : the latter is high, and 
may be seen as far as Trinity Harbor, it hears from Bonaveiiture Head S. W. | S. distant 
about 6 miles; and Bonavimture Head bears from the entrance of Smith's Sound E. N. E, 
\ E. distant 5 miles. To the north-westward of Green Isiand is Vnlhony Island and Ire- 
land's Eye ; the latter is 3.', miles in length, and lies in a .S. W. and ,\'.. E. direction, making 
the larboard side of the entrance to Smith's .Sounrl. The northern point of Ireland's Eye 
bears from Bonaventure Head nearly S. W. distvuit .'>' miles. 

There is a small place of anchorage called Ryder's Harbor, formed by a little island near 
the main, and bearing from (Jreen Islatnl S. E. | E. distant 4 miles, the passage to it is 
round the west end of the ]ioint, olf •.vliich are some si .ttered rocks both above and under 
water; within this harbor are .3 fathom's vatcr, a",l about a (jnarierofa mile from Ryder's 
Island the N. W. arm branches ofl', runnins west»vnrd one mile, and being about a quarter 
of a mile wide; here are 7 fathoms and good anchorite. From Bonaventure Head to Port 
Bonaventure is 2 miles, hut when you are a mile off, and to the southward of the Head, 
the Harbor to the Admiral's Stage will lie about N. by W. 

POPi^T BONAVENTfJRE'S best entrance is between 2 small islands, but you may go 
on either side of them in 3 and 4 fathoms water, with a leading win 1 there will be little danger, 
and when you are within, and have passed these Islands, anchor in 4 and 5 fathoms; south- 
erly winds here send in a very heavy sea : there is however a secure place for boats within 
a point behind the Admiral's Stage, appearing like a great pond, where 100 boats may lie, 
eytn with bad weather, in safety. 



blukt's a.merican coast pilot. 



From Bacnlicn ?«orth Point to nonavpnturp [lead the course and distance is N. W. | 
W. 22i miles. Honaventure Head is remariiably high and steep. 

From Bonaventiue Head to tiie entrance of Trinity Harbor, the course and distance is 
N. E. ^ N. 4? miles, and from Bonaventurc Head to the Horsecliops E. N. E. A E. 8 miles. 

TRfNITY HARBOR is considered one of the best and Intrest harbors in all New- 
foundland, havinj^ several arms and coves, where some hundred ships may ride land-locked. 
It is a place which you may safely turn in or out, being bold-to on each side, and havinj; 
no danger but what is visible ; except when going into the S. W. arm, where the Admiral's 
Stage usually is, there is a shoal, called the Muscle Bank, from which shoots olf the point 
within the small island on the larboard side going in, and extends over N. N. W. about a third 
of the breadth of that arm. Being within that bank, which will discover itself by the color 
of the water, you may edge over close to the south shore, or keep your learl going to avoid 
the Muscle Bank, giving it a little distance ; the mark for avoiding it is the house, standing 
over the steep perpendicular rock, situaterl between ^J'avernor's Point and Ship Cove, ojien 
of the Neddick ; keep this mark on, until you are halfway over to the Neddick, then hanl 
toward the S. W. branch, taking care to avoid the south shore, till you shut in Tavernor's 
Point with the Neddick ; you will then go within tbe Muscle Bardi. Vou may anchor in 
from 14 to 10 fathoms, and approach near to the stage on shore, i^o as to make a stage with 
topmasts to your stage on sliore, to load or unload your ship. This will be found a most 
excellent harbor ; for, after you are in the 8. W. arm, you will perceive another branch run- 
ning up to the N. W. which is continued by another to the 8. W. but there is a bar or 
ledge, at the entrance of tlie 8. W. arm. The N. W. arm is also a large place, having 
good anchorage for 500 sail of ships. Besides the fore-mentioned anrs, the main harbor 
turns up to the north. 

Ships, being within the harbor's moutli, may safely ride in a large cove, on the starboard 
or east side, land-locked, on good ground ; here the jdanters live. Over against that cove, 
on the larboard or west side, are two other coves ; the southernmost of them is called the 
Vice Admiral's Cove, very convenient for curing fish: and above, or to the northward of 
that, is a large cove, or arm, called Got's Cove, where there is room enousrli for .'>00 or 400 
sail of ships to ride, all on clear ground; there neither winds nor sea nor tide can hurt you, 
and iuthis place ships may lie undiscovered until the weather becomes clear and open. 

, There are several other anchoiing places in this harbor with good clean gromid. ''J'lie 
1)Ottom every where is tough clay, with 4 and 5 fathoms water, within twd boats' lengtlis of 
the shore ; and 6,7, 8, 9, 10, I'i, and 14 fathoms, and in some places more, in the middle 
of the arms and channels. You may turn in or out readily, observing your tide, which rises 
about 4 feet, and sometimes nmre. 

ROBINHOOD'S BAY.— Sherwick Head, which is the eastern point of Trinity Har- 
bor, forms also the S. Western boundary of Robinhood's Bay, the entrance to which is a 
mile wide, and the bay extends northward nearly two miles; here vessels frequently ride 
and fish, in from 7 to 17 fathoms water; at tlie further or upper end of this bay there are 
some spots of shallow water, but at its entrance, and between Sherwick and Fox Island 
Points there is no danger whatever. 

SALMON COVE'and ENGLISH HARBOR lie to the eastward of Robinhood's Bay, 
being only divided from it by a narrow neck of land, called Fox's Island. The former of 
these runs in northerly, and is considered a good fishing place ; it is clear of dangers, and 
has a good depth of water, from 17 to 10 an(l 8 fathoms; the eastern shore is hold to, and 
at the further end of the cove there is a small run of water, which extends about two miles 
to the northward. 

ENGLISH HARBOR is situated at the S. Eastern entrance of Salmon Cove; it is a 
clean bay, where you may ride in 4 and ."> fathoms water. From hence the coast rounds to 
the eastward to the Horsechops, a distance of more than three miles; it is all high land, 
steep toand without danger. To the N. Eastward of Horsechops is (ireen Bay, open and 
entirely exposed to the southward ; at the eastern part of this Bay is a small sandy bcacii 
with a rivulet of water; this place is little frequented, and is neither convenient for ships to 
fish or ride in. When you have passed this Bay, there is no sheltering cove or place untd 
you reach Ragsred and Catalina Harbors. 

RAGGED HARBOR is so named from the rough and craggy appearance of the sur- 
rounding rocks, which render it unsj-fe for either boats or ships to enter ; but tor those who 
intend going there, we shall observe, they must go to the northward of the reef of rocks at 
its entrance, running on north, until the Harbor comes quite open, then you may steer in 
between the Roun<l Island near the main, and a large black rock, being the outermost of tlie 
ragged ones before mentioned; sail on until you are to the westward of them all, or until 
you get the south head of Catalina to appear between the westernmost rock and the main, 
then anchor. A river of good water is at the head of the Harbor. 

CaTALINA H.'VRBOR is nearly two miles to the northward of Ragged Harbor, and 
is in the latitude of 48° 31' 15" N. bearing from the north point of Bacalien Island nearly 
north, distant 24 miles. It is a good harbor for small vessels, and may be known by a sin- 



cular green island at tlie south |)oints of its entrance; near half a mile to the north of this 
island, is the iJrandy Kocks, a lediie over which tlie sea frequently l)reaks ; you may go on 
either side of these rocks, ^ivina; the little island a herlh, or with a lead'rig wind lietween 
the island and the main, lh()uu;li this passage is exceeding narrow, in 4 and 5 fathoms. Just 
within the entrance of the llarhor is Charlton Eock or slioal, lying nearly mid channel, 
over which are oidy 8 feet water; you must avoid bringing the north point of IJreen Island 
on with IJurnt Head, the soiuli point of the harbor, for that will carry you right upon the 
rock ; there is a passage between the island and rock, and also between the rock and the 
north shore, only steering nearer the main about two thirds over. 

LITTLE CATA liLN A JJAV lies inwards on the northern side ; from Catalina Harbor 
to Little Catalina the course is about N. E. li mile; and thence to the north head of the 
Bay E. N. K. a little easterly -l ; miles; when within the Harbor you may anchor close to 
the shore in 4 and 5 fathoms land-locked ; or to the southward of the Little Green Island 
in ;5', fathoms, or by rumiing up two miles further obtain fresh water. In the S. W. arm or 
branch of the river, where there is aiu;horage in 5 fathoms, the harbor runs westerly. Some- 
limes the water in this harbor will suddenly rise 3 or 4 feet, then fall again, and in certain 
seasons it w ill often do so 2 or .{ times in 3 or 4 hours. It abounds w ith salmon, and the 
herb Alexander grows luxuriantly on the Little Lsland ; near a small Cove, at the N. W. is 
a sort of mineral, of a glittering nature, generally called Fire Stone ; excellent willicks may 
be found on the rocks. 

From the south to the north head of Catalina the course is N. E. f E. distant 3\ miles, 
and between them are from l.S to 5 fathoms water; the whole way is a kind of broken 
ground, and in blowing weather the sea fre<|uently breaks high over it. 

From the north head of Catalina to h'lower's Point, the course is N. N.E. | E. distant 
v.", miles; and one tuile to the eastward of (he Point lie some sunken rocks; you may go 
between Flower's l*oint and these rocks, in fathoms water, but it is more advisable to pass 
on ihe outside of them ; this you will readily do by bringing (iull Island open of Spiller's 
Point, or by keeping the south head of Catalina open of the north head. 

From I"'lower's i'oint to Hird's Island is -J miles : within J]ird's Island is a small bay 
where shi])s can occasionally ride, in one branch which runs up towards the west, and iuthe 
other, amidst some rocks, which are above water. Bird's Islajul Bay extends so far as 
Cape L'Argent. 

From Flower's Point to Cape L'Argent is .{j^ miles, it is rather a low rocky point, having 
also a large rock above water lyitig off it. 

From Cape L'Argent to Spiller's Point, is U mile ; between these points, the lead falls 
into very deep water. Spiller's Point is steep and bold to, but not very high, with a rock 
above water near it; over the point, you may discern the high land of Port Bonavista a great 
way off at sea. 

From Spiller's Point to Cape Bonavista the course is north, distant almost one league ; 
between them is a deep bay, which might be mistaken for the ilarbor of Bonavista, from 
the head of which it is only divided by a neck of land, two miles over, and from Red Head 
Bay it is not above a musket shot. 

Hitherto the allowance made for the variation of the compass has been two points west, 
which it is presumed will be found sulliciently near to the truth, for all the purposes of navi- 
gation ; but from hence to the iu)rthward it apjiears to have generally increased. At the 
Capes which form Bonavista Bay, the variation in 18'-i0 was 30° 28' W. at Barrow Harbor 
li8= 30' W. and at Happy Adventure only -28°. 


CAPE BONAVLSTA is in latitude 48" 42' N. and longitude 52° 59' 20" \V. The Cape 
appears from a distance of a bluish color, and is a steep rocky point, having 4 fatlioms close 
to the shore. Somewhat less than three ((uarters of a mile N. N. E. from the extremity of 
the Cape lies Cull Island, which, though small, may easily be recognized, by being of mo- 
derate luMght, and elevated in the middle, making something like a rounti hat with broad 
green brims, and visible 4 or 5 leagues oil, when the weather is clear; N. N. E. | E. distant 
3i miles from (iull Island is the Old Harry Rock, having only IS feet water over it ; from this 
a reef or baid< extenils to the N. iO. nearly three miles, having several dangerous spots upon 
it, of only 18 feet and 3 or 4 fathoms; the outer edge of this danger is called the Young 
Harry, and lies in latitude 48" 10' N., and longitude 52° 58' 15" W. ; at its northern ex- 
tremity is 10 fathoms water, and a little farther olf 45 fathoms ; between the Young Harry, 
and the middle ground of 18 feet, are 12, 20, and .")0 fathoms ; to the northward of the mid- 
dle "-round are 60 and 40 fathoms ; to the eastward! 9 and 20 fathoms, to the southward, and 
be veen it and the Old Harry, 26 and 31 fathoms ; at the north part of the Old Harry is 11 

* So ciilled to distinf^uish it from a Cape of the same name situated on the aouthern part of N^ew- 
foundland, near St. Mary's Bay. 



fathoms, to the westward 30 fathoms, to the S. W. 9 fathoms, anil a little further S. W. 57 
fathoiti'--; abundance offish are caujiht by the boats which fre()uent this i)ank, !)Ut it is vcrv 
dangerous for shipping. The sea commonly breaks over Old Harry, unless in fine weather, 
and the water be very smooth, but the other part of the shoals show themselves orly in, or 
immediately after, heavy pales on the shore. 

In order to avoid the Old Harry, you should bring ftull Island on with the ftreon Ridfje, 
which lies considerably inland ; but you must beware, for this mark will carry you too close 
to the Young Harry. Vessels running alongshore, to avoid these rocks, must be careful 
in keeping Cape Jionavista open with the westernmost extremity o*'a high range of land to 
the southward, called the Inner Ridge; thcsedangers, together with the long ledge, called the 
Flowers, already noticed, render it very imprudent for a mariner to attempt making land 
hereabout in thick or boisterous weather ; indeed at any tinie, the Island of Bacalieu is the 
best and safest land-fall for the stranger that is bound to any part of Bonavista Bay. 

BONAVISTA BAY. — This extensive Bay is formed on the South by Cape Bonavista, 
and on the north by Cape Freels; these Capes lie N. J E. and S. '^ W. from each other, 
and comprehend a distance of 40 miles, between which the coast is much indented with bays 
and inlets of the sea, most of which are navigable, but difficult, rocky, and dangerous. The 
land, on the south, is generally high and mountainous, and the shores steep and iron-bound; 
the north side is low and marshy, from which the water runs off shoal to a considerable dis- 
tance ; the whole Bay abounds with small islands, and is on every side encompassed with 
dangers. The harbors, sounds, and inlets, are deep, extensive, numerous, well sheltered, 
and safe, but they are generally so deeply embayerl, tlie passages into them so intricate, 
and the surrounding land so similar in appearance, that few, except those to whom the navu 
gatioii ia fainillar, v'^ver attempt to enter them. Of those which seem to offer the best re- 
fuge to strangers, who from necesity should be compelled to seek a place of shelter, the 
following appear best calculated to suit his circumstances: Barrow Harbor, or Great Chance 
Harbor, on the south ; and New Harbor, or Cat Cove, on the north side of the Bay ; but 
the extreme narrowness of the entrance to New Harbor is a great impediment, and renders 
Cat Cove the most to be preferred. 

PORT BONAVISTA, or Bonavista Harbor, lies within and about 3J miles to the south- 
eastward of Cape Bonavista, and vessels intending to rendezvous there, may either pass to 
it, be. ween Gull Island and the cape, or between Gull Island and the Old Harry Rock, or 
to the northward of the Young Harry altogether; if the former, between Gull Island and 
Bonavista, the passage is about three quarters of a mile wide, and both the Cape and Island 
Bteep to, having 4 fathoms water close to each side, and 16 or 18 fathoms mid-channel; but 
it will be advisable not to go too near to the Gull Island, on account of a rock underwater, 
which lies about 300 yards off the S. E. part of the Island. Having passed through this 
channel, and finding yourself to the westward of the Cape, you will see Green Island distant 
about half a mile from the Cape ; large vessels commonly leave this island on their larboard 
side, in their passage to Port Bonavista, going between (^reen and Stone Islands ; the chan- 
nel is full one mile and a quarter wide, and with 12, 16, and 18 fathoms water in it, and no 
danger whatever, except a sunk rock of 3 fathoms water, which lies about 200 yards to the 
N. K. of Green Island ; or they may go to the westward of Stone Island, and run on south- 
erly until they open the points of the Harbor, and having passed Moses Point, sail to the 
southward of the Swerry's Rocks ; these are always visible, and liave no passage between 
them and the Point here they mcay anchor in 10 or 8 fathoms. 

The Inner passage, between Cape Bonavista and (ireen Island, is frequently attempted by | 

small vessels; the channel is in some parts narrow, and the ground foul ; about a mile to 
the. S- Eastward of the Green Island is the ledge of red rocks; you may go between these 
andthe land into Red Cove ; there are 6 fathoms water, and in the Cove 4;;, 4, and 3 fathoms ; 
but the ground is all foul; there is a passage also to the southward of these rocks, and be- 
tween them and Western Head, in which are 6 fathoms. A little to the eastward of West^ 
eru Head there is a small rock under water, it lies about a cable's length from the shore, 
and the sea commonly breaks over it, but boats can go between it and the shore. To the 
southward is Red Head or Point, and further on is Moses Point; between these is another 
opening, called Bayley's Cove ; you may, in case of extreme necessity, run in here and 
anchor, but the ground is foul and rocky throughout; there was on the north side of this 
Cove a stage for fishing. Moses Point is the northern point of Bonavista Bay ; this place 
is a very eligible situation for carrying on the fishery, but it is so open to the weather, that 
with N. Westerly gales, following a continuance of strong winds from seaward, the waves 
break right athwart the harbor's mouth, and sometimes the whole of the fishing boats 
founder at their anchors, and not unfrequently many of their stages are destroyed. Ves- 
sels during the summer months commonly moor under Swerry Head in 8 or 10 fathoms ; 
but even liere, and in every other part of this Harbor, the ground is so rocky and uneven, 
that you will be obliged to buoy up your cable. 

BLACK HEAD BAY. — This is a wide and deep bay, comprehended between Black 
Head to the eastward, and Southern Head to (he westward. Black Head bears from Cape 



Bonavista W. S. W. l S. distant 5^ miles ; Southern Head bears from C'ape BonaviytaW. 
J N. distant lU miles;" and IMack Head and Soutiiern Head hear (Voni eaeli other E. 8. K. 
J S. and W. N. W. ? N. heins; nearly 8 miles apart: on the western side of Blark Head 
Bav is KINO'S COV'K, distant about 4 miles from Southern Head ; this also is a fishinf; 
establishment, but still more objectionable, as a place of shelter, than Uonavista, for this is 
directly open to seaward, and the .i^round is all foul. 

KEELS. — This is another establishment for the fisheries, and situated in one of the 
tfoves about midway between Sottthern and Western Heads; between these two heads are 
four other coves, but neither Keels nor any of these coves, are fit or good places for anchor- 
age, especially with ships of burthen. 

From Western Head the land bends W. S. \V. \ S. and lertds to numerous coves, bays, and 
anus of the sea, most of which have deep water, and places of anchorage ; we shall here 
enumerate the i)rinci[)al of these, with their respective situations, but, as many of them are 
too dee])ly embayed for general navigation, we shall nt)t extend our directions to a minute 
or particular description of them all, but confine ourselves to such only as are situated in 
promirtent parts of the Bay, and are mostly fitted for general use, and commonly fre(|uented. 

We have already stated, that from Western Hf*ad the land turns W. S. Westward, and 
leads to Plate C'ove, Indian Arm, and Southward Bay. 

PLATF^ COVE is situated on the coast about 7.', miles distant from Western Head ; its 
entrance between Arrow I'ointand Plate Cove Head is three quariers of a mile wide, from 
whence it bends in more than a mile to tlie southward ; at its Eaiuern extremity, is a run of 
fresh water, but the bottom is foul and rocky, it is therefore not much frefjuentefl. 

LXDIAN AR.M lies about S. W. by W.' from Plate Cove head, distant .'5 miles; it is a 
narrow inlet running in nearly S. W. about two miles, and terminates in a rivulet of fresh 

SOUTHWARD BAY is se))arated <"''^ I',''ian Arm only by a narrow neck of land ; 
this is an extensive branch of th> jca, ' . .ra; ;'0 between Red Head and Kate's Harbor 
Head, is a full mile wide, with :>i), HO, i * ;nd 90 fathoms water, mid-channel ; from hence it 
bends to the S. Westward 7^ miles, becoming narrower as you advance, but with deep wa- 
ter and no danger. On the western side there is an opening called Hayes Cove, it lies about 
2 miles from Kate Harbor Head. 

B.\CON-BONE RO("K. — It will be proper here to remark, that vessels intending to seek 
either of these places, must beware of the liacon-bone Rock, a danger of only 18 feet water 
over it; this lies W. \ N. distant one mile from Western Head, and directly in the fair 
way of the navigation. To avoid this danger, do not shut in Southern Head until Little 
Denier comes on with the outer Shag Island. 

KATE HARBOK lies to the westwani of Plate Cove ; its entrance is three quarters of 
a mile wide, and the Harbor runs in about one mile and a quarter ; the depth of water is 
36, 29, and 27 fathoms mid-chan.iel, decreasing as you advance to the further end : there 
is a rock under water ort" its entrance with 7, 8, and 9 fathoms round it ; this lies nearer to 
Kate's Head, but there is a passage between them, and also a still wider channel on the 
western side of the rock. 

SWF^ET BAY. — This is another extensive inlet, lying to the westward of Kate Harbor; 
its entrance is between Cutler's Head and Chance Point ; and leads also to Maidenhair Cove, 
and Little and Great Chance Harbors. Sweet Bay is the easternmost inlet ; which having 
entered, and ])assed Cutler's Head, which is rocky and steep to, you will see Turfpook 
Island, it is small and narrow ; about half a mile to the S. W. of this is Woody Island, and 
between them a rock under water; there is a passage ^n either side of these, and when you 
get beyond Woody Island, the bay becomes about three quarters of a mile wide, with 60 fa- 
thoms water, uiid-way ; advancing still further you will observe several islands in your pas- 
sage ; there is also a rock under water on your starboard side, three quarters of a mile beyond 
Woody Island ; it lies abreast of a little island which is mid-channel; further on is Wolf 
Island, between which and the luain there is no passage ; off this lies Gooseberry Island, be- 
tween which and Wolf Island there is 30 fathoms water, but the channel is narrow, and that 
on the eastern side of (iooseberry Island is much wider; Sweet Bay here divides into two 
branches, that to the eastward is called the S. W. arm, and has directly before its entrance 
Hunt's Island, the channel to the eastward of which has 10, 12, and 14 fathoms water, and 
that to the westward 7 and 9 fathoms, you will then see on yottr starboard side a small island, 
you may pass it on either side, and having so done, will drop into 24, 22, and 20 fathoms 
water; the head of the arm is foul and rocky. The N. W. arm is divided from the S. W. 
arm a little below Hunt's Island, and at the ftirther end of Wolfs Island is nearly a mile 
wide, from whence it runs S. Westerly 3[ miles, with good depth of water, and clear of 
dangers ; at the bottom is a sandy beach and a small rivulet. 

GREAT CHANCE HARBOR.— This is an excellent and C( ivsnient place of anchor- 
age, the entrance to which lies W. J S. distant 10^ miles from Western Head. Vessels sail- 
ing for this place, should recollect the mark already given to avoid the Bacon-bone Rock ; 
having passed this danger, you may sail on directly for the harbor, the course will be W. 


Blum's AAfRiiicAX coast pilot. 

y North, until you get uhieast ol' Chance Point; you will now guard ajjainst a sunken rock 
at tlie .southern part of the entnitice, wiiich has only 10 I'eet water over it; to avoid ami jjo 
clear of tlii:s danger, be carcliil not lo shni in tlie westward Mustard-i)o\vl Isiar.d with tlie 
eastern oiw. ; tliese are sitnatedat tin; larho in! side of tlie channel : having passed the eastern 
island, stand boldly in, a|)proailiinjj; eacli sid(! as nearly as you like, and anch ny where 
above the narrows in from 1 1 lo "j lathonis, the j^round is yood and holds well ; yo i ill lie shel- 
tered from all weather, and may procure wood and waier with j^reat I'acility. Chance Point 
and Cutler's Head are both siei.'p to; oil' the former, and dirc(!tly in a line between the 
southern part of Loii;; Islands, tiiere is a spot of srroiind wii!i only 7 (athoins water; during 
heavy gales from the seaward this will show itself by the sea breaking over it, but in line 
weather it is not dangerous. N. E. a little Northerly, distant almost one; mile, is the Chance 
(iull Hock, steep to, and always visible : to the westward is Deer Island, one mile and atpiarter 
long but narro v; there is a good channel between it and the main to Chandler's Reach. 

CHANDLER'S REACll is the channel leading to (ioose Hay and Clode Sound; the 
course through which is W. i S. which, from the N. W. point of Deer Island, will take you 
to Connecting Point; this is the point of the peninsula that divides the tornu-r from the latter. 

GOOSE IJAY runs in S. Westerly, about 7 J miles, and by kee|)inL; in mid-chamiel you 
will meet with no danger, but have 47, -10, and .Jd I'lthoms water, until, having passed Lub- 
bers Hole, the depth decreases to 1'2, l;{, 10, and H fathoms, when you will see a small 
island, situated to the westward of Coose Head; behind and to the westward of this, yon 
may anchor in from 4 to 7 fathoms, or furtlier to tlu' southward in 5,', fathoms; in most of 
these inlets you will lie |)erfectly sale, and entirely land-lockud ; fresh water and wood are 
pleiS'iful, and cusily obtained. 

CLODK SOUx'^D is a fine branch of the sea, running in from Chandler's Reach full 00 
miles; it has many places of very good anchorage, and without any ilanger ; vessels may 
find perfect safety on the northern shore, at Rrown's Cove, or further in at Long Cove, or 
Platter Cove; or on the southern shore, at IJiuiyan's ami Love ('oves; or, passing the 
1 latter Rocks, and steering westwaril, at Freshwater Cove ; the mid-cliamiel has alt the 
way deep water, and there jiie no rocks except near the shores. 

LION'S DEX. — This is an opening lyiiiLT at the N. W. end of Chandler's Reach; to 
enter which you must sail to the northward of the Deer and Cluster Islands, and [lass tlie 
narrows, which is about one tliird of a mile wide, and has 21 fathoms water in it; having 
passed the entrance about one mile, there is a sunken rock, round which are 4, 5, and ') 
fathoms; you may then perceive the inlet to br;uich oil" into two divisions, that to the N. W. 
is very narrow, and has a rocky islei at its entrance; but that which runs to the S. \V. is 
broader, and has 11, li, and 10 fathoms water in it; it runs in from the sunken rock about 
IJ mile, and at its further end becomes shoal, narrow, and rocky. 

THE LONG LSLANDS are 4 in number, having narrow channels between theui, some 
of which are encumbered with rocks, and dangerous; the eastern island is the largest and 
broadest, the next to it is the longest, the two western ones are smaller and narrower ; they 
form the northern boundary of (he passage from Western Head to Chandler's Reach; and 
also the southern boundary to Swale Tickle and Newman's Sound. 0(f the N. Eastern 
point of the largest Long Island, lies a sunken rock ; it is close to the land, and therefore may 
easily be avoided; this point bears from Western Head nearly W. by N. distant G miles. 

NEWMAN'S SOUND. — This is a large arm of the sea, running in W. by N. having 
at its entrance Swale Island, which is nearly 4 J miles long, and not one broad in the widest 
part. This divides the entrance into two channels: the southern passage is calleil the 
Swale Tickle, and the northern one goes by the general name of Newman's Sound. To 
sail from abreast of the W^estern Head into the Swale Tickle, you must steer W. N. W. i W. 
To sail from abreast of the Bonavista (jiiU Island, steer W. N. W. ^ ^^^- -^ miles, and it 
will carry you a little to the southward of Little Swale Island, and in the fairway of the 
passage : but in advancing through this channel there are several obstructions, and the jjas- 
sages from thence into Newman's Sound are so narrow, that it will always be advisable to 
go to the northward of the Great Swale Island. To do this, having rounded the Gull Isl- 
and, steer W. N. W. ^ W. '27 or 28 miles; you will then have the sound open, and can 
])roceed accordingly. It is full l\ mile wide, and extends in nearly a N, by W. direction 
from the N. E. point of Swale Island 11 miles, having several places of good anchorage. 
Those on the southern shore are South i3road Cove, Minchin's Cove, and Stanford Cove. 

SOUTH lUtOAD COVE is situated two miles and a half beyond the western point of 
Swale Island, and is a place of ijreat safety ; the passage in is to the S. Westward, and you 
will ride well sheltered in 10 fathoms, free from any danger: there is a small island at the 
entrance, which you will leave on your larboard side. 

MINCHIN'S COVE is to the westward ; to go tp this |)lace, there is a long narrow point 
of land running out to the northward, which you will round^wttu ruing southerly, the Cove 
will appear open : here you will lie in h fathoinS, opposite a^WiPy laeach. To the westward is 
Mount Stanford, oil* tlie point of which lies a small island, reaching halfway over the passage, 
making the channel in this part very narrow ; the best course through, is to the eastward of 


tliiH ishivl, in 9 fiillioiiis ; here an opening appears to the eastward, calltd Buckley's Cove, 
(it lor small vcshcIs : the coast now win(lu)^ to the westward, forms a broad bay, with 20, 
•JO, and -'7 fathoms water in it, free from any danger, and siiallowinfr on earh side towards 
the sjiores. At the S. Western part of this is Stanl'ord Cove, liaving a sandy beach, the 
ai)|)rua(;h towards wiiich shallows gradually. 

'I'lieanchoraijes on the northern shore are. North Hroad Cove, Great and Little Happy 
Adventure Coves, and Jkirrow Harbors; IJarrow Harbor is tolerably safe, and the most con- 
venient hr.rbor on the south side of IJonavista J5ay ; it is situated on the southern side of 
die peinnsula which divides Newman's Sound from Salvage JJay, and is formed by three 
|;irt;e islands, Keat's, Goodwin's, and Kichard's Islands; that i)art between Goodwin's Island 
and the main is the entrance, aljout .JOO yards wide, and not difficult <j(' access. Th.e harbor 
is a full mile in lens;tli, the outer part is rocky ami not well sheltered, but the inner part is 
coiuidetely land-locked, and has good holding ground. Vessels taking their departure from 
Gull Island, JJonavista, should steer N. W. by W. ,' W. about M2 miles. IJut if coming 
from the northward, tln-ir course from the Eastern (iooseberry Kock, towards Barrow Har- 
l)or, will be S. W. { W. 18 miles; Goosebjrry Kock appears just above water. In this 
course they will have to avoid tiie Malone Rock and Ledge, the latter being a shoal, lying 
S. 4 W. distant (uie mile from the rock, which is always above water : this shoal has never 
less than 4 fai horns over it, so that, in line weatiier, no danger whatever is to be apprehended. 
Ill sailing on, and approaching Little Uenier Island, which is almost opjiosite the harbor's 
iiKiiUli, you must be particularly careful of the Outer Kock, lying N. 'l W. uf Denier, dis- 
tant three (|uarier.s of a mile ; this has only 4 and () feet upon it, but fortunately the sea con- 
stantly breaks over it, thereby |)ointing out its situation, and enabling the mariner to guard 
against, and steer clear of the danger. Having reached the Little Denier, it will be better to 
goon its northern side, for between Little Denier and Kichard's Island there lies a danqjerous 
reef of rocks, called the Brandishes ; these extend nearly in a line, but at various distances, 
almost half way over the ciiannel ; upon these rocks are from I'J to 17 feet, with narrow 
channels of 7 and 8 fatlioms between them; to navigate this passage, therefore, requires a 
pilot. To clear the Brandishes, you should keep Wedge Point a little open to the south- 
ward of Smoky Ridge, which is a range of high lands at the top of the harbor, until you 
bring Broom [lead on with the Middle Shag Island ; the passage then will be open, and 
without ol)struction, until you get near to Wedge Point; off wjiich only 70 yards, lies a 
sunken rock, with 8 feet water: you may then sail up Pudner's Cove, until you are entirely 
shut in from the sea, then you can anchor in from 10 to 18 fathoms. Some vessels prefer 
anchoring in Garland's Creek, but without running well up, the ground is foul. The land 
about {{arrow Harbors is higher than the neighboring shores, and, consequently, may be 
the more readily recognized by its projection. 

SANDY COV'E lies further up Newman's Sound, and has good anchorage; it may 
readily be known, having the only sandy beach on the north sideof the sound; there is no 
danger in entering, and it is perfectly safe, the depth of water being from 10 to 20 fathoms. 
In sailing to this place, and kee|)ing along the northern shore, between Barrow Harbor and 
Sandy Cove, you will meet with a rocky islet, called the Half-way Ilock; it is steep to, and 
has 4 fathoms close to it ; there is also a deep water channel between it and the main, but 
keep outside, and pass to the southward of it, and there will be no danger. 

GRKAT AND LITTLE ADVENTURE COVES— These are two snug little coves, 
lying about three quarters of a mile above Sandy Cove, and on the same side of Newman's 
Sound ; but from the narrowness of their entrances they arc fit only for small vesbels. Be- 
tween 'lese coves, and off a pointof land which separates them, lies a sunken rock, about 
80 yards from the shore, with only 4 t'eet over it. Olfthe entrance to Great Adventure Cove, 
lies Sydney Island; the passage in is to the northward of this island, for between the is- 
land and Harbor Head, there is no thoroughfare. 

NORTH BROAD COVE.— The entrance to this place lies one mile and three quar- 
ters from Harbor Head, and is on the northern shore ; it is a convenient and well sheltered 
anchorage, and may i)e easily known by a round island lying at its western side; this is 
nan.ed Black Duck Island. Sailing into the Cove you should keep the island on board un- 
til you make a tickle* between it and the western shore, to avoid a sunken rock at its eastern 
side ; after which, it is advisable to keep as close as possible to the eastern shore, for there 
is a dangerous rock lying mid-channel ; being inside this rock, you may anchor in from 10 
to 25 fathoms, muddy ground. 

In advancing further up Newman's Sound, there are some other dangerous rocks, lying 
off the northern shore ; one of these is called the Shag Rock, and lies three quarters of a 
mile beyond Black Duck Islet; and one mde further on is Hall's Rock; both these are 
under water, and distant about a cable's length from the land ; they have 4 and 5 fathoms 
close to them, and a passage between them and the shore of 6 and 7 fathoms : therefore, in 
sailing up Newman's Sound, the northern shore should always have a good berth. Keep 
nearly half a mile off, and you will avoid them alU- 

* " Tickle," a narrow passage between islands tncrrocks, 



i ,i 

I' i 


SALVACrK BAY lies on tlie northern side of the pronumtory which dividp'^ it from 
Newiniiii'."* Sound ; it lias scvcnd runs of fresh wiiter within it, hut no place of ijood sheUer. 

DAMiNAHLK IIAKI50II hcs to tlic norlhwind of .S;dvii«e JJiiy ; between them are 
several Hiiiall ishinds and rocks, tlie latest of tlicse is named tjie Bai<er'8 Loaf, and is a nar- 
row island, al)oiii three(|narter.s()f a mile Um^:. To ^o to tliis place from (rull Island, Honavis- 
ta, yon should steer W. N. \V. .' N. ahout 7 leaj^nes, and round the Shaju Islands; |)roceed 
tlience to the northward of the IJaKcr's l^oaf, or steer N. \V. by W. from the (iull toward* 
tlie Shi|) Island, which may readily ho known by a rcmarkablt- bald point, like a sujE:ar loaf; 
then W. ^ S. Irom Ship Island, 5i miles, will brine; you to the entrance of Damnable Har- 
bor; this i)lace is well adapted for the recejnion of sninll vessels, but its very narrow en- 
trance disqualifies it for ships of burthen. There is a rock oH' the southern part of the 
entrance, and another off the northern side of the island, \fhich lies in the middle of the 
harbor ; there is jjood anchornge all round the island in 4 and 5 fathoms, sandy bottom. 

MORRIS'S COVK. — This lies on the north side of Morris's Island, and is considered 
to be a safe anchora<,'e. In sailing; for this place, keep Ship Island well on board, on ac- 
count of a dangerous reef, which extends from Flat Island nearly two thirds of the wav to- 
wards Ship Island, on some parts of which there are not above 17 or IH feet; proceed there- 
fore to the ncnthward of Shij) Island, jrassinf: at not more than half a mile distance; and 
when yon have t;otten well inside, avoid shutting in Lackinjzton Rock with Varket Island ; 
this latter will be known by its ap|)eariniu; like two singular hummocks, on account (»f there 
being several clusters of rocks belwe«!n Ship and llorsechop Islands ; eteer for Varket un- 
til you get abreast of Laekington Rock, then keep Lackington Rock on the n(»rthern ex- 
tremity of Shi,) Island, until tlie Varket bears north, in order to cl'jarthe two sunken rocks 
off the end of Morris Island ; you may then steer directly for the Cove, which you can en- 
ter without fearing obstruction, and anchor in any part thereof, in 26 to 5 fathoms ; but tJie 
western side of the Cove is to be jireferred. 

BAY OF FAIR AN I) F ALSK. — This place may contain several good anchorages, but 
it is so filled with small islands and rocks, that no description we could give would be of any 
tise to the mariner. A cluster of large islands extends off the frontage of this bay, full '/o 
miles, or so far as Offer (iooseberry Island; between these arejjassages innumerable, with 
deep water; there is also a wide channel, running from Fair and False Hay, and Morris Is- 
land, to the northward ; this leads to Hloody Bay, wliich then turns westward, and is divided 
into various branches, forming the N. W. arm, the middle arm, and the north east arm ; this 
latter being a peculiar and extensive channel, running in one direction, southward, almost 
to Newman's Sound : and in another, almost to Damnable Harbor ; all these are navigable, 
and afl'ord places of good anchorage, and plenty of both wood and water. There is also an 
open strait from Bloody Bay to the eastward; through Bloody and Cottel's Reaches and 
out to the northward of Offer (iooseberry Island. Other channels branch olT to the ncuth- 
ward frcun Bloody and Cottel's Reaches, and between the Lakeinan's Islands, running into 
Pit's Sound, Locker's and Content Reaches, and thence to Freshwater Bay : within these, 
and on the northern shore, are Hare, Locker's, Trinity, Indian, and many other lesser bays, 
coves, and inlets, abounding with good anchorages, and calculated to afford shelter for ship- 
ping of all descriptions, in oases of necessity : these are, at present, but little known, mikI 
frequented only by the constant traders ; we shall, therefore, proceed to those which are the 
usual places of resort, and are better situated for the luirpose of fishing. 

Vessels coming from the south-eastward, ami bound to the northward, for New Harbor, 
Greenspond Tickle, Cat Cove, the N. W. arm, or anchorages adjacent, frequently take their 
departure from Cape llonavista; in which case, their course will be l\. by W. to clear the 
Eastern Rock, which lies K. S. F. distant one mile and a quarter from Oiler (iooseberry 
Island. From thence they should steer N. ^ K. to Copper Island, at the mouth of (Ircens- 
pond Tickle; here pilots may frequently be obtained to conduct you to this, or any of the 
adjoining anchorages; there is good holding ground between (4reenspond Isl'.ind and the 
main ; but the water is generally so deej), that a vessel is liable to be drifted on shore in the 
act of weighing; nor is there sufficient room to veer out a lengthened cable, in heavy galea 
from the S. W. to which (piarter it is much exposed. 

Ships coining from the eastward, or round Cape Freels, must be careful to go clear of the 
Charge Rock, which lies S.F. 'l S. two and a half miles from (tull Island off Cape Freels; this 
has only G feet water over it, and is circumscribed by a large spot of rough fishing ground, with 
from 8 to .'50 fathoms u|)nn it. From the (nill Island of Cape Freels, you may run immediate- 
ly for the Stinking Islands, taking care not to open Cape Freels to the eastward of the former; 
this will carry you inside the danger. You should keep a good look-out for the mitl-rocks, 
which appear just above water, and lie two miles N. E. by E. | E. from the Stinking Islands, 
but vessels not bound up the bay, are strictly recommended to keep outside of them all ; 
for should the weather become suddenly thick and foggy, a circumstance by no means un- 
usual, more especially with an easterly wind, you will run great hazard of getting bewilder- 
ed among the innumerable rocks, which are scattered so profusely about this part of the 

eoait, and fi 

when the m 

ingly high o 

distant aboi: 

wcallier, alt 

till! trpinend 

settled, and 

Having n 

yon may, wi 

until you br 

outside oft! 

rock has ;) f 

will now alti 

starboard bo 

inency of th^ 

until you bri 

marble, to bi 


the Shoe Co' 

of its narrow 


Brown Fox 

and you will 

is Cat Cove ; 

that is covert 

some general 

must go rout 

may run on, 

may anchor i 

quarter being 

except off the 

more than 1(1 


to Cape Free 

surround it, ;i 

similarity of ; 

greatest ilangi 

'2"2 feet over i 

this island yo 

fine weather, 

waves beat ov 

somewhat hig 

cept about tli 

fly Island to t 

each otlier; t 

land; it is ad\ 

channel, exac 

over it ; but i 

be N. W. I \ 

ground, in fro 


each way. A 

Greenspond '1 

tance, being it 

dangers in goi 

but it will be ; 

a fair one, witj 

Ships some 

channel is nai 

considered a ] 

Copper Island 

S. I S. distar 

when you shu 

danger; it is 

shoals oft' thei 


lies it from 
itxl bhelter. 
I them are 
iiid is -.1 iiiir- 
(I, lioir.ivis- 
Is ; |)roft><'il 
nil towards 
sujt;ar loaf; 
iriablc Har- 
narrow en- 
part of the 
iddle of the 
y bottom. 
I considered 
)ar(l, on ac- 
the way to- 
x'ced there- 
stance: and 
irket Island ; 
unt of there 
r Varket iin- 
nortliern ex- 
nnken rocks 
yoTi can en- 
ins; but the 

horagps, hut 
idd be of anv 
< bay, fwli t'b 
nerable, with 
!)d Morris Is- 
md is divided 
ast arm ; this 
ward, aiiiiost 
re naviijablc, 
iM'e is also an 
K caches and 
to the north- 
running into 
within these, 
r lesser bays. 
Iter for shij)- 
known, and 
hich are the 

New Harbor, 
tly take their 
. to clear the 
th of (ircens- 
or any of the 
tnd and the 
shore in tlie 
n heavy galeji 

o clear of the 
c Freds; this 

ground, with 
n iuiinediate- 
jf the former; 
le mid-rocks, 
iking Islands, 

of them all ; 
io means un- 
ting bewilder- 
is part of the 

eoa^t, and from whidi neither compass nor chart can extricate you. In the winter months, 
wJKMi tiie north-easterly gales are generally heavy and continuous, tlio sea breaks exceed- 
iimlv high overseveral s|)ots of the Stinking Hanks, which lie iv by N. .', N. from the islands, 
distant about 'J^ miles ; in two places there are only 7 tailmnis over tliest; banks ; and in such 
weather, although a ship wr)uld not strike, she would be in great dau'^er of (nu;idering in 
(he tremendous sea which would then frequently break over her ; but when the weather is 
settled, and the sea smooth, they are by no mean.- dangerous. 

Having rounded the Stinkin2 Islands, and wishing to sail into New Harbor, or Cat Cove, 
you may, with propriety, steer S. W. by W. | \V. directly for the ( )ller (looseberry Island, 
until you bring Pouch and Flower Islands to touch eachother; you will then be two miles 
outside of the three rocks, which lie H mile to tiie southward of Flower Island : the outer 
rock has IJ fathoms over it, the middle rock 14 feet, and the inner rock only 11 feet. You 
will now alter your course to W. | S. keeping the white face of (Chalky Hills a little on the 
gtarboard bow, which will take you clear of (Jopper Island dangers; then, should the incle- 
mency of the weather prevent your getting a ])ilot on board, you can continue this course 
until you bring Shoe Cove Point, which may be distinguishcil by its semblance to white 
marble, to bear N. W. J- W. then shape your course W. N. W. for Indian Bay. 

NKW HARBOR is situated on the eastern side of Indian 15ay, about two miles from 
the Shoe Cove Point; this place, during (sisterly winds, will be (juite inaccessible, on account 
of its narrow entrance ; in this case, you must proceed onward, about ("our miles, for Cat (Jove. 

CAT COVE. — In order to reach this place, you will proceed between Silver Hair and 
Brown Fox Islands and the main ; and as you approach the latter, the cliannel narrows, 
and you will have a narrow island on your starboard side; this is Cat Island, behind which 
is Cat Cove; you will have no difficulty in distinguishing this island, . it beini; the only part 
that is covered with livk wooos, for the surrounding forests have all betm destroyed by 
some general conflagration. Olf the upper part of Cat Island lie two high green rocks ; you 
must go round these, for the waier is too shoal to go between them: liaving done so, you 
may run on, until you get some distance inside the upper point of the island, when you 
may anchor in from 5 to 13 fathoms, with a hawse o\n)n to the N. W the winds from that 
quarter being most heavy and s(|ually. In working in, you may stand close to either shore, 
except off the point of the island, as there is a sunken rock within 100 yards of it, with not 
more than 10 feet water over it. 

NORTH WEST ARM, — This is situated on the main, and is the place of safety nearest 
to Cape Freels; but its entrance is very dilficnlt, on account of the number of islands that 
surround it, and these islands are almost undistinguishable one from the otlier, from their 
similarity of appearance. In coming from the southward for the North West Arm, the 
greatestdanger you will have to encounter, is the Northern Rock, which never has less than 
2.2 feet over it ; this lies N. E. distaiU one mile and three cpiartors from the Copper Island ; 
this island you will easily recogni/,e by its having no wood u|)on it, and by its height. In 
fine weather, and a smooth sea, vessels pass over it in (lerfect safety ; but in hard gales, the 
waves beat over it incredibly high. To avoid it, be careful to ojK'if Fool's Island, which is 
somewhat higher, and more prominent than the rest, and which is covered with trees, ex- 
cept about the suumiit, to the westward of the Western Pond Rock, until you get Butter- 
fly Island to touch the inner part of Flower Island, or until Puffin and Copper Islands touch 
each other; then, leaving the Pond Rocks on your starboard side, steer in for Fool's Is- 
land ; it is advisable to keep this island well on board, for there is a sunken rock, lying mid- 
channel, exactly between it and Partridge Island Kocks: this danger has only 18 feet water 
over it ; but no mark can be given to avoid this rock. The course then up the arm will 
be N. W. I W^. and so soon as you get inside of Odd Island, you may anchor on muddy 
ground, in from 7 to •) fathoms. Fool's Island Hill bearing S. E. to S. E. by S. 

(iREENSPOND TICKLE. — Greenspond is a square island, about a mile in breadth 
each way. A reef of rocky islets runs of!" its southern part all the way to Puffin Island. 
Greenspond Tickle lies on the south-eastern part of the island, and is of very little impor- 
tance, being incapable of receiving any vessel whose draught of water exceeds 14 feet : thn 
dangers in going to this place, are the Northern Rock, tho Cook-room and Harbor Rocks ; 
but it will be almost impossible to get into this harbor with an adverse wind, or even with 
a fair one, without the assistance of a pilot. 

Ships sometimes run in, and anchor between Greenspond Island and the main, but the 
channel is narrow, the water is very deep, and it lies too open to the S. W. winds to bo 
considered a jjlace of safety. In order to sail into it you must get to the westward of the 
Copper Islands; in so doing, be careful of the Midsummer Rock, which lies nearly W. by 
S. I S. distant one mile from Copper Island, and has only -5 and 6 feet over it, observe, 
when you shut in Silver Hare Island by Shoe Cove Point, you will be within side of the 
danger; it is also necessary 'to give Newal's and Ship Island a wide berth, an the v/ateit 
shoals oil' them to a cuueiderable distauce< 







CAPE FREELS is funnpd of tliirr points, tlie Soiitlj Hill, tlif North IJill, and tiic Mid. 
die, or Cape Freeis: there are numy shoals and rocky dangers about tlieni all, llieroftire a 
uide berth should be ^i\cn them at all times. (Jver these points is some hi^h land, coin- 
uionly called the Cape Kid^e, which is visible at a considerable distance. 

FUNK ISLAND. — N. .04 ' E. from (ape Kreels, distant '27 miles, lies the Kunk Islnnd. 
This is little more than a sterile rock, and cannot be seen turlher than at the distance of in or 
12 miles; but it will always be distinguished by the ^reat nundier ol'bird.s which contiiai- 
ally hover over it. About 'JOG yards north of Kunk Island is a lariie rock above water, ami 
N. W. by W. 180 yards from this are still lari;er rocks ; they are all barren, and only ili« 
resort of sea birds, that iidiabit and breed there ; bet\v<'en these rocks are It^, .'57, and 4-2 la- 
thoms water, with a clear passage, but between tlie eastern rock and Kunk Island there is 
a dangerous simkeii rock, ol' only 10 feet water, over which the sea jjeneraliy breaks: near 
this sunken rock arc 14 and lb fathonts, and between it and Kunk Island .'!(), 'Jo, 5b, .^8, 'J4, 
and 17 fathoms; olfthe western point of Kunk Island are some rocks, and at its eastern 
part a sort of creek with .'> fathoms in it. It is also rei)urted that a ledge of rocks lies S. 
W. from Kunk Island, distant about 7 miles. 

DUREL'S LEDdE. — This is a dangerous reef, and said to lie about 7 lea'^ues N. W. by 
N. from Kunk Island ; the sea breaks over it continually; and nearly N. W. by W. distant 
3 leagues from laurel's Ledije, is another danger named Cromwell's Ledj^e, it is supposed 
to bear E. S. E. 'l E. distant 10 or 16 miles from Little Kof:o Islands. 

N. N. W. I W. from Cape Kreels, distant b\ miles, is tlu' Outer Cat Island ; it is con- 
nected to the main by a sandy reef, w hich is impassable for ship))inL', and forms the southern 
point of Deadinan's IJay : a little before you come to the ( )uter ( "at, you will see a remark- 
able hill called the Windmill Hill, and near it the Little Cat Island. In sailing to or troni 
Cape Kreels the shore should have a good berth, although there are soundings all the way, 
and they decrease gradually towards the shore. J'eadman's Bay is formed by the Outer 
Cat Island to the southward, and Deadman's Point to the northward ; the soundings with- 
in it are regular, and the bay without rocks, uidess close to the shore, but it is totally tin- 
sheltered and open to all easterly winds. 

Having passed Deadman's Point you will approach the Penguin Islands; these are 2 in 
number and bear from Ca])e Kreels N. N. W. | W. distant 14 and 15 n\iles ; between them 
the passage is clear, with from 5i to 7 fathoms water, but vessels should not go within them 
and the shore, for there are several rocky reefs which render it jjarticularly dancerruis. 

RAGGED HARBOR lies to the N. westward of the Penguins, distant 6^ miles; the 
main land hereabout is low and sandy, and the passage from the eastward rocky and danger- 
ous; it should therefore not be attempted by a stranger, or without a j)ilot. To tlie north- 
westward is Ladle Cove Island, and 7 miles beyond that is Rocky Bay. At its entrance, wliidi 
is wide, lie 3 islands, Noggin Island, Green Island, and further south is White Island ; you 
may pass between each of these in 7 fathoms; between Rocky Point and (ireeu Island in 7, 
8, 13, or 10 fathoms; and between Green and White Islands in 13 and 14 fathoms; between 
Noggin Island and the western point of the Bay there are 3,^, 7, 12, 9, and 4 fathoms ; the bot- 
tom of these bavs, for there are 3 openings, is rocky, and vessels cannot go far into them. 

THE WADHAM ISLANDS.— These are a cluster of islands lying to the N. westward 
of Cape Freeis. They consist of 8 or 10 scattered islands, separated from each other by chan- 
nels more than 1 and 2 miles wide; the largest of these is called Peckford's Island, which 
is almost a mile long, lies in the direction of north and south, and bears from Cape Freeis 
nearly N. by W. distani20 miles ; from its southern part towards the land about Ragged Har- 
bor, there are a number of rocky islets and reefs, with channels between them, rendering the 
navigation of this part extremely hazardous. N. N. W. ^ N. I5 mile from Peckford's Island 
is White Island, but a passage between them should not be attempted, for there are several 
small rocks lying ott'the north and north-western part of Peckford's Island, some of wliich 
stretch out almost as far as White Island. N. W. by W. from Peckford's Island, about 4} 
miles, is Copper Island ; Green Island lies W N. W. | N. 2i miles from Peckford's Island, 
and about a similar distance S. S. E.^ E. from Copper Island; there are also some small rocks 
lying off the N. W. end of Green Island, which, being visible, can always beavoided with ease. 

S. W. ROCK. — This is a small detached rock above water, bearing from Peckford's Is- 
land S. S. E. I E. distant 31 miles; near it are 13, 17, and 21 fathoms ; about N. N. E. 
distant 2 miles from the S. W. Rock, is a small flat island ; and a little more to the eastward 
is Offer Island; this is the most easterly of all the Wadham Islands. There is yet a rock 
to describe, which lies E. S. E. ^ E. from Ofl'er Island, distant about one mile and a half; 
this is dangerous, and must have a berth in passing either north or south of it. 

THE FOGO ISLANDS lie to the N. westward of the Wadham Islands ; Great Fogo 
is a large island, 4 leagues long and 9 miles broad ; off its S. western point lie the Indian 



•1 till' Mid- 
ihcipfoie a 
land, cuin- 

ink Fslnnd. 
!('«■ of Khir 
li coiitinii- 
wiiirr, and 
1(1 only llin 
, inid 4'J la- 
id tlifif is 
caks: near 
56, HH, 'J4. 
its ensfcni 
>cks lies S. 

9 N. AV. I.y 
W. distant 
IS supposed 

; it is ron- 
ic soiitlu'iii 
e a reniark- 
; to or troiii 
ill the way, 
\- tlie Outer 
idiii<;s witli- 
totally iin- 

ese are 2 in 
wccri tlicm 
itliiii them 
miles; the 
iiid ilaiicer- 
the north- 
iice, wliicli 
sland; you 
Island in 7, 
IS ; between 
lis; thebot- 
o them. 


er by chan- 

and, which 

ape Freels 

agged Har- 

dering the 

ird's Island 

arc several 

e of wliich 

1, abotil 4} 

I's Island, 

small rocks 

J with ease. 

jkford's Is- 

N. N. E. 

le eastward 

yet a rock 

ind a half; 

rreat Fogo 
the Indiau 

lHlaiHN;aii(l N. K. by N. .1 ] mlleM frniii the body of Oreat Koj^oaro the Llttln Vog^o Islandn} 
iiiiMieroiis other rocks and Nriiall islandn are Ncattered about. 

'I'liis harbor is very secure, with i;ood anchorasje in any part, above the Harbor Rock; 
it has two Tickles, so called, in Ncwfoudlaiid, ami intended to describe narrow passauesbe- 
iHccii islands and rocks; these may be entered with any wind except from the South to the 
S. W. which wind blows out of both. 'l"o enter the Kastern Ticikle, you should borrow on 
Kai^s Island, keeping the extreme of Fofjo Island nearly open of Lane's Island, until (iap- 
pys Islanil comes open of Simon's Island, you will then clear the shoals (d' Filly's Point. 
To avoid the Harbor Rock, brin;^ Slade and (Jox's Fla<;stalf on with the eastern chimney 
(if ihi'ir dwelliii'i house; it will be necessary to uet this mark on before Roafswain's Island 
(loses Rullock's I'oinf. In coming (rom the westward it is advisable to make free with 
I'di^o Island, in order that you may disiiimuish the small islands that form the 'i'ickle, which 
if passed with westerly winds can m^ver be refrained, owiny ti, tlie constant set there is to 
llie eastward, [lavinn; jiassed Little Motion, keep the extreme point of the head over the 
Niirrows I'oint, until you get past Rullock's Point, when ihe above directions will clear all 
the harbor's danjiers. 

FOR'rrXK IIARROR.— ThisIIarbot lies between the Ray of Exploits and New Ray; 
it is good when attained ; but the entrance, which is the Western Tickle, is extremely nar- 
row and dangerous, on account of the high land around it ; from which all winds baOlc, 
except those blowing directly in. 

TlU'l'OX lIAKiioR. — The entrance to this harbor is between the great and little 
Diinier Islands; in entering you will see Francis Islanil, which lias a reef running to the S. 
Westward; give this a berth, but both the Dunier Islands are. bold to and free from danger. 
Little Dunier Island lies S. W. three miles and a quarter from .Saulpin Rocks, on ap- 
proaching which, the harbor opens ofT the high land of (ireat Dunier; its shores are ex- 
ceedingly bold, and therefore it is always to be jireferred to Cut well Harbor; its great 
depth of water will be avoided by ruimi-g into Inspector's or Scrub Cove, where vessels 
may moor with hawsers to the trcv-'s, in perfect security. 

The tides here, and also upon all the eastern coast of Newfoundland, have nearly the 
same rising, the springs being about 6 feet, neaps 4 feet, but these are much influenced 
by the winds. 

CUTWKLL IIARROR. — This harbor has a spacious entn.nce, sufficient for the lar- 
gest ship to beat in to secure anchorage, in from 10 to 5 fathoms, sand and mud : the best an- 
chorage is about W. by N. distant three miles from the Southern head. The arm runs in 
full one mile and a half above the Narrows, in which is abundance of wood and water, and 
well adapted for heaving down and refitting vessels. At the entrance is the Fool's Cap Rock, 
the marks for which are Copper Island, seen through Indian Tickle, and Mark Island on with 
the White Point. To clear the Fool's Cap Rock, keejithe extremity of Southern Head, 
touching the north end of Haidrix Island, until Green Ray Gull Island opens to the west- 
ward of the Hag Rock. The only danger within the heads, is the rocks on the eastern shore, 
and most of these are visible at half tide. 

Coming from the eastward, and bound to Fogo Harbor, you must be careful to avoid the 
Dean's Rock; which is a sunken rock, and lies between Joe Ratt's Point and the harbor; 
steer W. N. W. tmtil Rrimstone Hill, a remarkable round mountain, appears in the centre 
of the harbor; then steer for the East Tickle, which may be known by the lantern on the 
top of Sim's Island, make the west side of the Tickle. Give a good berth to the point on 
the starboard side, and run right up the harbo ' keeping near the south side, and you will 
carry from !) to .'J fathoms through ; immediately you get round the point, steer S. W. to 
avoid the Harbor Rock, and follow the directions given above for anchoring. The middle 
Tickle appears the widest, but it is fit only for boats; the other two must be adopted as 
best suits the wind. 

Little Fogo Islands lie nearly N. E. distant 4 J^ miles from Joe Batt's Point; there are nu- 
merous rocks about them, both above anu under water, making this part of the coast ex- 
ceedingly dangerous ; a little to the eastward of Little Fogo is a small rock just above water, 
called the N. Eastern Rock, and somewhat in this direction, distant 10 or 11 miles, is said 
to lie Cioinwell's Ledge, whose exact position is not well determined, although it is consider- 
ed to be extremely dangerous. Northward of Little Fogo are the Turr Rocks, and from 
hence in the direction of the western side of Great Fogo Island, and the Storehouse Rocks, 
the Seals Nests, Gappy and Stone Islands, the Jigger and Black Rocks, and various other 
dangers, all having deep water round them, and tending to increase the difficulty of the na- 

The Island of Toulinquet lies to the westward of Fogo, and has several small islands 
about it : here is situated what is called Toulinquet Bay, and to the S. Westward of Toulin- 
quet Island is the Harbor of Herring Neck; this is said to be a spacious, fine harbor, and 
fit for any vessels. 

CHANGE ISLAND TICKLE.— This harbor is accessible when Fogo Harbor is not: 
it is very secure, and has good anchorage with 6 or 7 fathoms, muddy bottom. In general 






tCnrc-wcHxl, llidiiqli wafrr 
toik ,'uiil llif 'ri)li;icc(i U|. 

tlu! inlatidH nhotit it nrn low itiid iiiiirNliy, hut tlicri' \h iiltiindaiuT 

is s<'nn'e. 'I'lif |ms.s;i;(c in (Vom the »M>it\v:iril is hclwcin Kiitli's 

ands, the mark liciiii; iiriiristoiK- Head kopt l)i>iw)<cn Ixilli; (liis will clear all (In- daii^crit «n 

the Nortlicrn Sliorc, and also oil" Skinni'i's llailxtr; (tr vtiu may Id-inm the "'" klc to the 

westward hetwetii the ])oiiits ot'thc land, anil srecr directly flifdif.'li in i;reat saietv. 

T()l'IJ.N(il'K'r IIAIMSOU.— Tills IkmImm is sh.ltcn'd fn. ui all winilshiit tlnise which 
hlowlKitii the North and North Kasi, when, in heavy ^ales, it heconns danuerons. In t'liier- 
in^i, either l»y the Kast or Western chaiHM'l, yon niiisi lake the greatest care to avoid fin- 
Whit«! (iroiind, to clear wliich, you must lirint; .McsMrs. Wlade's Duellirii; House oi>en o| 
Simms' Island, and keep it so, iiiifil French I lead opens throiii;!! the Kastern I'assaye. 'i'liis 
is very couiinoidy eallitd linrnl Island Tickle; and shonid not lie attempted wiihont vou 
are thoroughly acipiainled w ilh the navis,'alion, dv in casesoltjreat emeri^ence. The anchorai'e 
is iimstly loni, hot the hesi and iiH)st seenre is ahont ') or (> lalhoms oil ( 'olhiirn's Stores- 
both \vat(!r and wood is scarce. It'tiie mariner should lie InTe either early or late in the year, 
JJack Harlior, which lies oli'the western side ol'ihe Talile fjaiid. will he loiind a prefe'rahhr 
place tor shelter, and a lew small vessels may ride there with ninch sal'eiy ; yon may ptoieed 
in on either side of (inll Island, lyiri;; with the Weslern I lead open ol' H.itrix Island, ami 
the hliiir Head, or with the Kastern Sta'^e on IJalrix Island. Tlie islainls ahoiU the harlior 
•of Touiintpiet are moderatidy hi^h, and honiidcd hy dark colored slate cliD's : it may readily 
he known liy the (lull Island or Talile Land. 

From Toidin(|uet May to Cape St. .lolm the coiiisc is N. \V. hy N. distant IJ or 13 
U>a<jiies; this is a liiuli and inimed |i(iint ol' land, and may re;idily lie known liy liie small 
'lii,i;h round Island to the S. Kastward, distant from the n(irtii(>rn pilch ol'tlu^ ('ajie aliuiit 
2\ or 3 miles; this is calle<l the (Jnll Island, ami is the third ol'that name on this siil.i of 
Newfonndiand ; perhaps it will he lietler we sliould liereat'ter distinguish this as the North- 
ern or St. .John's (!idl; that near Cape !•' reels as t)ie middle orCnpe Freels (iiill, ami tlie 
one lyin^,■ oil' Capo Bonavista, as the iionavista or Smith (Jiill. 

Between the Kol;o Islands and Cape St. .lohn I lie charts commonly represent various deep 
buys and inlets, hut their particulars arc very little known, alth()iii:h there can he littlo 
doubt the (Jreat Bay, and Biver Exploits, and the JJay of Notre Dame, ali'ord many places 
of good anchora;;c, and of easy access, which, when liilly explored, may hecoine hereafter 
frequented, better understood, and prove hiulily lienelicial. 

LA CEY. — About ."■} miles to tlie westward of Cape .Sf. .lolui is the Little Harbor or 
•Cove of La Cey, to sail into which there is no dans;er wliatever, and you may anchor any 
•where in from ''l to 8 fathmns; it is easy of access, and open to the N. N.W. winds, which 
throw in a heavy s(?a; the best holdintj jirouiid is just wilhiii a little cove on the starboaril 
-aide, in 15 fathoms, muddy bottom; biil fiiillier in the i;riiimd is not sjood. 

GRKAT ANJJ LITTIJO BOUNi) ilAHBOBS.— Tlie former of these is a ijood and 
convenient place for vessels engag'd in the tisliinir trade ; there is no danger in sailiiijn in or 
out of it, both shores heinu hold to: the auchoiaj^e liesv.ithin the two inner points, wlierfl 
vessels may ride in 4 or .5 fathoms water, secure from the weather and entirely land-liK ked ; 
i)Ut Little Round Harbor, vvliich lies round a point to the N. Kastvvurd about one mile and 
a half distance, is merely a Cove, and totally unlit for shippimj;. 

NIPPER'S HARBOR.— This harbor "lies to the N. Eastward of (ircen Bay Island 
«bout 44 miles, and is I'roiited iiy seviM-al small islands, between whicli are several chaimels; 
fcut the "best and safest is between them and tlie Northern Slim-e, in which the water is very 
deep and the shores hold. The harbor is rather coii'iiicd and .small, and therefore only fit to 
accoininodate small vessels; hut it is the most safe and secure on the shores of ("ape St. 
John, and has excellent anchorage vvitli from 7 to 14 fatlioms water; the land about it is 
high and barren, but it is well supplied witli water, and may be easily distinguished by the 
islands which lie off it. 

PAQUET HA IIBOR.— About 5 miles N. W. by N. from Creat Round Harbor lies 
Paquet Harbor; its entrinute bears from tlie channel between the Horse Islands, nearly 
S.W. by S. ; it may be known by its Southern Head, which is a hi^h and rocky mountain ; 
the Northern Head is somewhut lower, and tlicri! are .'3 rocky islets lying directly off its 
point; both points are hold to, but a little to the southward of the ,"3 rocky islets, is a small 
shoal with 2^, 3, and 4 fathoms upon it; the channel between it and these three rocks has 7, 
8 and 9 fathoms, and the water across the entrance is from 8 and '), to 19 and 20 fathoms; 
a similar depth continues more than a quarter of a mile in, where the Harbor divides into 
two channels, the one running norihward, the other West and 8. West. The nortliernarm 
is about one quarter of a mile long, and has 20, 18, and 19 fathoms at its entrance, becotninir 
«hallower as you advance ; vessels running in here should keep the starboard shore on board, 
for about two thirds up the channel on the larboard side, there is a rocky shoal, a small part 
of which occasionally appears above water; on the other part of this shoal are from 3 feet to 
4 fathoms; having passecl this shoal steer up mid channel and anchor in 5, 7, or 8 fathoms ; 
the northern part near the land becomes shallow, and a rivulet here falls into the bay, which 
48 said to issiie from some extensive lakes about two miles inland. The south-western chan- 

nel inomewhf 
(III liolll sides 
mile in ; it ih 
riining souiIm 
elision may rei 
Hill, common! 

THE Holi 
mul I'ape St. 
li'iiljnes; thesi 
riiiely higii; tl 
and on the eas 
sdiiie places n< 
(•(ive, fit only I 
(oldmi' attemp 

Kolhiwing t 
f,vo li<•v^■, calle 
clioriige. they 

M.EL'l? I J 
r lint, iVom wl 
ri"narl,abb> hil 
excellent am h 
lies alio lit 101) 
Head oj.eii to 
water becomes 
niotily is freipi 

W'lH'J'E B 
('a|»e P; rtridgi 
alioiit 1 1 leagii 
lliib Bay or (ii; 
these are liobs 
I'lirwick Cove, 
Ann, .lackson' 
Cat Arms. 

having, at low 
entered, you v 
sail in, commo 

llie bay ; here 
«ithiii the heai 
are advanced s 
em side, is a n; 
water ; and wli 
channel contiii 
on this side oft 

its entrance is ; 
and, in some p 
miles. To em 
only for small v 
between them ! 


4 miles ; here 1 
of its entrance ; 
moor securelv, 
Wild Cove, a \ 
rocky and foul, 

E. side of the I 
ter; on the S, 
with not more t 
of White Bay, 
conveniences A 

Having passe 

5 leagues towai 
commonly calh 

On returnina 
miles in letigth, 



• hmmli w;i»pr 
'roliiiccn U|. 

tit" iliiimt-rM nri 
"■' l-.U- lolllB 

t (liosf wliicli 
oiiM. In PiifiT- 

!• to iivdid the 
IdHsc opcti <ll 
'!n;c. 'IMii.s 
I without you 
urn's Siori's; 
tc in ilif yiMr, 
(I ;i pn-fcrihlc 
I iiiiiy |)t(iicn| 
i\ Isl.inil, and 
lit lilt' hiirlior 
it iii;iy rt'iidily 

tiint IJ or l:i 
I l>y the siniill 
V. ('ii|i(! alionr 
»n this sid.' ol 
:is till' North- 
(iiill, and the 

t various d«'op 
can he littln 

I many phirpji 
Dine hciral'ler 

tli^ ilarhor or 

ay anchor any 

winds, wliicli 

thf! slaihoard 

is a ;i;ood and 

II saihii^ in or 
points, wlicift 
laiid-lix k('(l ; 
uiiu mile and 

n Hay Island 
ral channels; 

• wali'r is vpiy 
ire only fit to 
s of Tape St. 
11(1 alioiit it is 
iiisheti by the 

1 Harbor lies 
lands, nearly 
ky inountain; 
ircctly olV its 
i'ts, is a small 
(■ rocks has 7, 
\ 20 fathoms; 
r divides into 
northern arm 
ice, becoming; 
lore on board, 
1, a small part 
from 3 feet to 
[>r 8 fathoms ; 
he bay, which 
^vestetn chan- 

nfl inoniewliat narrower than the nurthern one. but in quilp free from ilaneer; thr shorcn 
(III liolh sides are steep to, and l>old, and \ou w ill have ]■.', 1(1. '1, H, and 7 I'atlioiiis for half a 
mile in; it then slialliiUsto the head ot ilie bay. Mlnre iher*' is a sandy bvaeh and a river 
riming southward. This is a sniiii uml se. me pluce lor vessels to run into \»henever oe- 
ciiition may re(|iiire. 'i'o the iioiih.vard ot the Northern I'oint is a mountain called Signal 
Hill, eoiiinionly havinc h siunal-post upon it, iinil serving to point out its situation. 

TIIK IIOltSK ISli.\M)S are situated nearly efjui-ilisiaiit between I'artridije Point 
.indCape St. .loliii, bearing Iroiii the latter N. by W. and N. N. \V . distant about five 
Icaijues; these are tw(i islamls, and lorm a circuit ol' nearly two leauues, appearing mode- 
rately l'i)i;li; theri! are llirei' rocks above water lyiim to the northward of the easternmost ; 
and oil the east side of the same islami there are some sunken roeks, which stret<-ti out in 
siiinu places near a mile from the shore ; at the .S. K. |iart ol' this island there is also a littlo 
(■live, (it only for boats; there is probaidy a safe channel between these islands, but it is 
ii'ldoii altem|iled : the eastern island is the lar<;est. 

Folhiwin;; the shore of Neulouiidland, to the N. Westward of Cape St. .John lliere are 
t.vo bays', called rini! \\i\\ and iJay Verte, but allhouyh these may be places of good au- 
••iioriiue. they are little fre()iieiiled by shippinc. 

t'l.Kl'!' DK lilS IIAKIloK.—'l 111; harbor lies to the soutli-eastward of Partridgo 
P lint, I'rom which it is distant one lea;j:iie, and derives its very apjiropriate name from three 
ri" hillocks just over it. It is t;inall but safe, and secure from all winds, having 
excellent anchoray;e in its N. K. arm, in 4 fathoms water. T«» avoid h rocky shoal that 
liesalitiut 100 yards od'the island, borrow towards the eastern shore, until yoii (jet IJInll" 
Head open ti, the eastward of the island. 'I'liere is plenty of wood, but in a dry seas(m' 
water becomes scarce. It is, however, very conveniently .-laiated for the fishery, atiiJ coin- 
niDiily !•< (re(|uemi'd by H or 10 French vessids. 

W H,''J'K 15 A v. — 'I'his is a larije and extensive arm of the sea, being at its entrance, from 
f'ape P; rtrid^e to Cat Head, full t leamies wide, and ninnini: in a S. westerly direction, 
«ii()iit 11 lea.'.;iies, to its head ; where it is contracted to a river's iiiuuth 1,', mile wide, ju 
this Hav or <ii;ll are several islands, coves, and inlets, all'tudiii^ both am horaue and shelter; 
tlii'HC are Lobster Harbor, Soiiilivard Ann, Middle Arm. i'lucon Islands, Westward Arm, 
I'lirwick Cove, Craiisby's Island, (iold Cove, or jriver's Head, (ioat and .So|» Islands, .Sop'a 
Ann, .lacks(urs Arm, Frencli Cove, Creat and Little Coney Arms, and (Jreat and Little 
Cat Arms. 

liOliSTK 11 1 1 A R 15( >R. — I'his is a small round harbor, with a sliallow narrow entrance, 
havinj;, at low water, in some places, not abovi- H or ') feet water; but when you are once 
entered, you will have 15 and 1:5 fathoms all over the liarbor. Small vessels, therefore, 
sail in, commonly, at t!ie (lood tides. 

Tllh: SOUTH W'AIM) A l{ M lies about 8 miles from Lobster Harbor, and furthcrup 
the bay ; here a ship may am hir with sjreat safety, in 17 fatlumis water, about .3 rnile» 
within the heads; but there is also uood anchoraije in any part below this, and before you 
nre advanced so far up, in "JO and •2'> I'athoins; a little above the inner point, on the uorth- 
ern side, is a muscle bank, which stretches (luite a(;ross tlii' Arm, and nearly dries at low 
water; and when you have passed this, you will have 11 and Iv! lathoms water, and the 
channel continues deep until yiui approach the River's Head, 'i'his is tlie first great inlftt 
on this side of the ^ulf, and may, llierel'ore, be readily recomii/.ed. 

MIDDLK AlviSl. — This inlet lies about U mile S. W. from tlie Southward Arm; at 
its entrance is a rocky island, which is joined to the shore by a shoal, over which are 1, 2, 
and, in some jilaces, .'5 fathoms water. This inlet runs in to the soiitliward, about 3 or 4 
miles. To enter it, you will do wull in kcepinjj the larboard shore on board; it is fitted 
only for small vessels. Two leamies \V. by S. Iroiii Middle Arm, is llawlinj: Point; and 
between them lie the Piiieoii Islands, about which the jtjround is tjood for fishing. 

WESTWARD ARM.— This lies E. S. 11. ^ S. of Hawliiiij Point, and runs up nearly 

4 miles; here lart;c vessels may anchor in IH fathoms water : there is a cove on eacli side 
of its entrance; that to the N. Eastward is named Uear Cove, where smaller vessels may 
moor securely, ajul ride safe from all winds, in about 12 fathoms water; the other is calhid 
Wild Cove, a very indilVerent anchorage, open to the N. Westerly winds, and the bottom 
rocky and foul. 

PURWIClv COVE. — About 5 leajOjues down from the River's Head, and near the .S. 
E. side of the bay, lies (irat'by's, or Mid 15ay Island, without either cove or ])lace of shel- 
ter; on the S, Eastern part of tliis island is a shoal riimiinu; oil" the length of two cables, 
with not more than 'j feet water over it ; and nearly abreast of this island, on the S. E. side 
of White Bay, is Purwick Cove, where shipping may find safe anchorage, and lie with good 
conveniences for the fisheries. 

Having passed to the southward of Cranby's Island, the bay narrows and runs up abo't 

5 leagues towards (Jold Cove, where the river branches out into several streams; and is 
commonly called the River's Head. 

Ok returning up the western side ofWliite Bay, you will perceive Sop's Island, about 3 
miles in length, aud 11 miles in circuit ; near its southern eud is Goat's island ; these form a 





long passngp, or ann, called Sop's Arm ; at the north part of which a vessel may Bafelv 
anchor, just inside the north side of Sop's Island ; this will be the best side of thechiiiiKol.o'r 
passage, into •he arm ; but there is anchorage in deep water between Sop's Island and tin- 
main, before you reach so far up as ( Joat's Island : there is also a small cove at the north cm] 
of the island, called Sop's Cove, and two other coves opposite the main, called Hart's ('oves 
in all which the fisheries are carried on, although shijjs generally anchor in the upoer part 
of the arm, and withinside of (joat's Island. 

JACKSON'S AKM. — About 4 or 5 miles to the northward of Sop's Island is .TacKsdn's 
Arm, to enter which you will pass a ragced point, low and round ; tiie" water here is deeji, ex- 
cept in a small Cove on tlie starboard side, where a vessel should moor head and stern : this 
place affords the lareest tindier in White's Bay. Frenchman's, or Frendi Cove, is about 
H league to the nortJiward of Jackson's Arm, and ofl'ers good and safe anchorage, 
ill LITTLE AND GREAT CONEV ARMS.— Nearly 4 miles to the N. Eastward of 

Frenciiman's Cove, is Coney Arm Head, the most remarkable land on the western side 
of White Bay, and bears W. N. W. J W. distant (> leagues from Cape Partridge; the land 
here projects out one mile and a half, forming a deep bight, railed Great Coney Arm. In this 
place there is no goo J shelter for sliipping; but in Little Coney Arm, which lies to the 
westward of the head, is convenient anchorage for small vessels, although its entrance is too 
shallow for large ships ; here fishing cratt frequently rendezvous. 

GREAT AND LITTLE CAT ARMS— To the north-eastward of Coney Arm Head, 
distant 3 miles, lies the (jreat Cat Arm, and 5 miles further is Little (Jat Arm ; this latter 
inlet runs up to the westward full two miles; olf its northern point are some rocks above 
water; to avoid which, keep nearer to tlie soutiiern shore ; you will lind the water deep, and 
no good shelter, unless you approach the head or further end of the arm, where you will 
Jie secure and land-locked. 

LITTLE HARBOR DEEP.— You will now be to the northward of White Bay. and 
following the shore, vill perceive the entrance to Little HarborDeep, called by the French 
La Vache ; this pi; . e is much exposed to south-easterly winds, and by no means a good 
harbor; oft' its n :rthern point are some rucks, which are always above water; they lie halfa 
mile from the simre, and afford good fishing about their environs ; the water is not very deep 
in any part ci this inlet, and when you get up half way from the entrance to the head, or 
further end, ;l becomes quite shoal. 

GRANDFATHER'S COVE, or L'ANCE L'UNION, is an inlet about two miles deep, 
lying one mile and a half from Little Harbor Deep; this is also open to the southerly winds : 
and max be known, when near the shore, by the northern point appearing like an island, and 
bearing N. N. W. \ N. from Cape Partridge : it is but an inditferent place for shipning, and 
seldom frequented. 

ORANGE BAY, or GREAT HARBOR DEEP.— This may be known from any 
other inlet, by th' and a' iU entrance being much lower than any land on the north side of 
V/hite's Bay, and oy is bearing north, distant 5 leagues from Cape Partridge; it forms a 
large harbor, and when you ;;et about three miles within its entrance, divides into three 
branches, in the northe' ■ ar-n the water is too deep for vessels to anchor, until they have run 
up near the head ; but t;!e middle fin . has a goed bottom, and safe anchorage in (. .uid 7 
fathoms water. A little witnin the entrance of Orange Bay there is a Cove on each side 
frequented by the fishing vessels; but these are very dangerous lor a ship to lie in, for although 
they moor head and stern, yet should a gale come on from the eastward, there is little 
safety to be depended upon. 

FOUCHE'E. — This place is little frequented, and there is no anchorage until you ap- 
proach its further end, where you will find a cove on the northern side; this cove is '2 or 
3 miles above the entrance, and very small vessels may anchor there in lb fathoms, moor- 
ing head and stern. The land on both sides is extremely high and steep to the shore ; 
there is also another arm running in above two miles furtlier than the cove, but it is so 
narrow, and has such a depth of water, that it is almost uselr»ss to shipping. 

HOOPING HARBOR. — About eight miles to the north-eastward of Fouchee, and a 
little to the S. Westward of Canada Head, lies the entrance to Hooping Harbor, or Sans 
Fond. This place has two arms, or bays, one running up northward, the other westerly; 
like many of the adjacent inlets, there is deep water all the way until you get near to the 
head of the northern branch ; there the bottom is a kind of loose sand, o|)en to the southerly 
winds, and by no means a safe place to lie in ; but in the western arm a vessel may anchor 
ip a moderate depth with saftey. 

CANADA HEAD lies about three miles to the south-westward of Canada Point, or 
Hide's Head ; it is elevated land, and very easily to be distinguished either from the north- 
ward or southward, but when you are directly to the eastward of it, it becomes hidden by 
the high land up the country, commonly called the Clouds. 

CANADA BAY. — This is an inlet of considerable size and extent: at its southern en- 
trance is Canada Head ; from whence it runs N. N. Easterly full 6 leagues ; here vessels 
caught in easterly gales may seek shelter, and anchor in safety : in entering, when you get 
above the two rocky islet* which lie near Ride's Head, and called the Cross Islnds, you will 



I may Rafely 
■i ch;iiitiel, or 
land and tlif 
he north end 
lart's (.'lives, 
e upper part 

is .Tuciisiin's 
! is deep, ex- 
1(1 stern : this 
uve, is ahoiit 

Eastward of 
western side 
j!.e ; the land 
Arm. In this 
h lies to tilt! 
trance is too 

k' Ann Head, 
I ; tltis latter 
rocks ahove 
ler deep, and 
lere you will 

lite Bay, and 
y the French 
leans a f;nod 
hey lie halt' a 
lot very deep 
the liead, or 

o miles deep, 
herly winds : 
III island, and 
hipoin^, and 

wn from any 

north side of 
it forms a 

es into three 
ley have run 
e in (. and 7 

in eauh side 

lere is little 

ntil you ap- 

cove is 2 or 

loitis, inoor- 

the shore ; 

hut it is so 

lehLP, and a 
hor, or Sans 
ler westerly ; 

near to the 
he southerly 

may anchor 

da Point, or 
1 the nnrth- 
es hidden by 


outhern en- 

here vessels 

fhen you get 

nds, you will 

srr a low white |)oint, and another low black one a little beyond it; ofl'this latter, distant two 
cjihles' lengths, lies a surda-u rock: keep therefore towards the middle of the bay, and you 
will find no daiuier, except a nn k above water, which lies about a mile below the point of 
the narrows: this you will endeavor to leave on your larboard hand, keeping; mid-channel, 
iind von will have IH fathoiiis throU!,'h the narrowest part. Soon after you have passed the 
narrows, the bay widens, and is above a mile across, and you may then anchor in from 18 to 
•JO lath'iMis, <;oo(l lioldiiif; ground, and secure from all winds. But this bay is not much 
iVfiiiieiited. and only oceasioiially resorted to iii case of necessity. 

KNiiLK'K lIARiJOli is situated on the north side of Canada Bay; to sail into this place 
von must pass a low point, appearinn white, and forming the northern jioint of entrance to 
Taiiada May ; then keep near the shore, until you cet abreast of the next point, which makes 
the Marbor: haul round it to the S. K. taking care not to come too near the point, for it 
shoals a full caiiles' len.rth o(V; having' so far advanced, you can anchor in from 15 to 7 fa- 
thoms, cood holding; Kinuiid; but this is well up the Cove, which is too small to lie in, 
iiniessyou moor head and stern. In Hide's Arm. which runs up N. N. E. from Engloe, 
almost '2 lea<jues, there is no good aiichoraiit!. the water beint; too deep; but within the 
south end of Entire Island, is a srood harbor lor shallops, although from thence to where 
the ships lie, there is no (haimcl, even for boats, unless at high water, or beyond half tide. 

('ON'CIl HAHBOR bears nearly E.N. E. ^ E. distant 7 or 8 miles from the entrance of 
(!;iiiada Bay ; it lies very open to the winds from the south, but has yood anchorage well up 
tothehea<l, in 11 fathoms water, good lioldin:/ t;round. S. by W. from Conch, distant 2 
leagues, is Hilliard's Harbor, called by the French Botitot; this is a bad place for shipping, 
but very convenient for the lishing craft. 

CAPE IUtr(iE HAKBOll.— This harborlies to the westward of (Jroais and Belle Isle 
Islands, wliicli cunirihute to shelter it from the heavy swells ofthe Atlantic; the southern 
jiart of its etunr is shallow and rocky, and in the S. W. Arm is the Harbor shoal. The 
best aii(hora;:t m the Northern Arm. in any depth idwater. Ships may beat in or out, but 
the centre ofthe harbor is too deep for anchorage. Directly opposite to its entrance is a small 
island, which is named after the haibrr, Kouge Island ; its northern end requires a berth in 

' "bKLEE isle and CKOAIS ISLAND.— These are high islands lying off theN.E. 
roast of Nenfiiuirlland, rroiii wliicli they are separated f)or 10 miles. Belle Isle is the south- 
ermiiosi, and tlii' larger island, being H miles in length and ."5 broad : there is a little harbor at 
its s(!Uth iiart, where fishing craft occasionally resort, but not calculated for shipping; other 
coves may be found Mi'iiiit the shores of the isjinnl, where shallojis soinetinies take shelter. 
()l]'it> south-eastern side lies (Irten Island, a small rocky islet, and to the southward a bank 
ef soundings extends with 1-J. -'0, _>.'), and V.o rathoitis : there are s(oiie rocks, both above and 
under water, at lli<" S. p-oint of Belle Isle, hut these lie close in to the land. 

CKOAIS ISLANDIies to the north-eastward ofBelle Isle; and is about 8 mile.s in length 
and •,", miles broad, its iiortliern point lying in latitude ')1 ^. Oli'lhis end, and also off the N.W. 
part ofthe Island, are -^eveial ro( ks al)ove water: otherwise this Island is bold all round, and 
iietween it and the main are from '20 to 70 fathoms water: there are also two islets midway; 
the sonthern one is coimnonly called iled Island, tlii-y are both steep to, and without any 
Known daiiirer. 

( ' K ()(}!' K 1 1 A B B< )B. — The entrance to this harbor !>; half a mile wide, and somewhatdif- 
fiiiill lo discover, it i)ears N.W. from ( Jroais. distant :'. lea'jii<'s. When thei. rth point ofBelle 
lsh> is clear of the southern p.irt of (iroais. you will br- a little lo the southward of Croque; 
;i!id this mark will not f il pointing out to those iina<(|uainted with this navigation the 
fair way to its entraiue ; esjiecFally ;is the headland forming the southern shore is hare of 
trees and has a round appearance, with some rocks, which are always visible, and He about 
■10 yards to the S. I"!, ofit. The shores of tl"' harbor are Ixdd to, and even a frigate may easi- 
ly work into it; the amli(.ra<:e is e\( (•|let:t. being s."'iid holdiii'r ground, of dark slate colored 
mud. Having opened the Harbor s mouth, steer in N. W. by N. proceed mid-channel, and 
when you have advanced up aholit a mile, you will see the river divide into two branches, 
anchor hereabout. There is a little Cove at the southern entrance, called Irish Bay, in 
which are 1.;, II), S, and .') t'athoms, and two rocks above water at the head ofthe Bay, near 
which is a little rivulet of (i'esh water. 

(iKEAT AND fJTTLE ST. .11 LIEN.— To the north-eastward of the Harbor of 
('ro(|ue lie Negro and St. .Iiilien's Island-' : near whit h are the Harbors of (ireat and Little 
St. .lulien, and also that of' ( Iraiidsway : these are all adjacent to the Island of St. .lulien, 
and hear to the north-westwaid ofthe northern part ofthe Island of (Jroais. The S. W. end 
of the Island of St. .lulien is hut little separated from the main, and cannot be distinguished 
to be an Island, until you arrive very near it; there is at this end no passage, except lor 
boats; therefore to sail into either of these harbors you may keep close to the novtli ea-st 
end of the island ; and in jiassing that, the Harbors will open to your view. 

Great St. Juiieu's ia the easternmost harbor, to which there is no danger until you get with- 





in the entrance; then you will find the starboard shore to be shoal, nearly one tliird over; but 
when you have passed the first stages, you may anchor in from 8 to 4 tathoins water. 

To Sail into Little St. JulierCs you will first steer for (treat St. Julien's Harbor, in or- 
der to clear a sunken rock, which lies directly before the Harbor's mouth ; and having 
arrived opposite the entrance of (xrandsway, steer into the harbor and anchor in 5 or 4 
fathoms water. It will be requisite for all ships which jro into either of these Harbors, to 
moor both head and stern ; but Grandsway is not a harbor for shipping, although it is ex- 
tremely convenient for fishing craft. 

CREMALLIRE and GOOSE COVES.— These places lie on the northern shores 
of Hare Bay ; Cremallire has spacious and good anchorage in 7 or H fathoms, and is siii)- 
plied.with abundance of wood and water. Trois Montagnes is merely a small creek, m 
whicji a few French vessels moor during the winter season. It is situated to the 8. West- 
ward of Cremallire, and has a rivulet which extends eastward to ( Joose (Jove. 

Goose Cove is situated on tiie western side of Goose Cape ; it is small but very secure 
and has most excellent anchorage in 4 or 5 fathoms. Vessels can sail into it with a westerly 
wind, or into Cremallire with an easterly one. 

ST. ANTHONY'S HARBORS.— This lies a little to the north-eastward of Cremallire 
Bay, and is a very safe place, having good anchorage with 6 and 7 fathonjs water, on a bot- 
tom of blue clay ; its entrance lies West, distant one mile and a half lioni Cape St. Antlionv. 
It cannot be easily mistaken, from the remarkable high land on its southern shore. It is well 
supplied with wood and water, and is commonly frequented by some French fishing vessels. 

BRAHA HARBOR. — This harbor is small but safe, having good anchorage within 
it ; the bottom is sandy, and the shores are bold and steep to. The Hralia Shoal, lies S. 74" 
E. (true) distant \\ mile from the Needle Rocks: it is reported to have not more; than 6 
feet water over it, but Capt. Bullock says, he never found less than 1(» feet ; with a little sea 
it occasions breakers, but the common current will always create a <u)nstant ripple. 

HOW HARBOR lies on the northern shore of Hare Bay. The entrance to this 
place bears N. 48° W. distant 1-J miles from Fishot's Northern Island, and is by far tiie best 
harbor in Hare Bay, having safe anchorage over every part ; t)ie surrounding hills are 
barren; but small stunted wood may be found in the valleys. To the northward a range of 
marshes and ponds extend as far as Pistolet Bay. The harI)or is about half a mile wide, 
and a full mile and a half long ; a small rock lies off the western point, but it is very near 
the land, and the upper part of the harbor shoals gradually. 

ST. LUNAIRE BAY.— This excellent harbor will contain 100 vessels in perfect secu- 
rity, is remarkably easy of access, and may always be recognized by the appearance of the 
White Capei the best and most convenient anchorage will be found at Amelia Cove, in 
from 5 to 7 fathoms. The approach and entrance are bold and steep to, only obsei-ving to 
give the point of the Southern Islands a good berth. Both wood and water are to be ob- 
tained without difficulty, and it affords in every respect a good and secure anchorage. 

GRIGUET BAY and CAMELS' ISLANDS HAKBOR.— 'I'he North Bay is inse- 
cure in spring and fall, on account of its being exposed to the southerly gales ; the S. West 
Bay is therefore recommended, where there is good anchorage in five or six fathoms water. 
Camels' Islands Harbor will always be found too intricate for a stranger, and sluMild ne- 
Yer be attempted without the assistance of a pilot. 

THE NORTH HARBOR runs in with Stormy Cape; and has, at its entrance, a mck 
above water ; which is bold to all round, and vessels may sail on either side of it, and an- 
chor in 6 fathoms water. In tlie ])assage which leads to the N. W. and S. W. Harbors, 
there is an island wliieli contracts the channel, rendering the passages narrow ; the best and 
safest entrance is to the northward of this island, giving the outer point of the N.W. Har- 
bor a little berth, and so soon as you get within the island you will o])en both harbors; 
that which runs in N. Westward is the larger of the two, and is two miles deep ; you should 
sail up on its western side, having 14, 16, anri 18 fathoms, luitil you get inside the point, 
a little within which is a bank )f 7 or 8 fathoms, but when you have passed over this, yoii 
will again droj) into 16 and 17 fathoms ; and as you approach the head ol the Bay you will 
lessen your water to 7, 6, and 5 fathoms, every where good anchorage, and well sheliercd 
from all winds. The two Islands of (iriguetlie outside of Camel's Island, and, together, 
form between them several small but siuig harl)ors for fishing vessels. 

WHITE I&uANDS. — You will now perceive the White Islands, lying to the north- 
eastward of Stormy (^ajjc, from which they are distant one league and about "J^ miles from 
the shore opposite; they are small, of moderate height, and have several rocks inside, i)otli 
above and under water, but these are not considered to be dangerous, as they are easily 
discoverable even in fine weather, and the passage between them and the main is very safe. 

QUIRPON ISLAND. — This lies off the north-eastern part of Newfoundland, and 
forms the S. E. point of entrance to the Strait of Belle Isle ; it is large, high, and barren ; 
and Cape Degrat is visible in clear weather, full 12 leagues to seaward. 

LITTLE QUIRPON. — There is a narrow channel which nuis into the southward of 
Quirpon and divides it from the main ; here lies Little Quirpon Harbor, to enter which 



)or, in or- 
iel liiiviiig 
In 5 or 4 
iirbors, to 
li it is ex- 

!ry securr, 
a westerly 

, on a i)()t- 
. Anthony. 
. ItiswHI 
ng vcsst'ls. 
ige witliin 
lies S. 74" 
ore than fj 
a little sea 

ce to this 
ar the i)est 
tjX hills are 
I a range oi" 
mile wide, 
8 very near 

rfeet seru- 
mce (if the 
[I Cove, in 
hservini; to 
e to he ob- 
ay is itise- 
le S. West 
ins water, 
shwultl ne- 

ice, a rock 
it, and an- 
il arbors, 
e best and 
.W. Har- 
1 harbors ; 
you should 
the point, 
r this, you 
ly you will 
1 sheltered 
, together, 

the north- 
miles from 
nside, both 
are easily 
s very safe, 
illand, and 
lid barren ; 

ifhward of 
iter which 

there is no danger but what you will easily perceive ; vessels commonly moor head and 
stern, and lie there peifeetlv secure. 

DEGRAT AND PIGEON COVES.— These coves lie on the eastern side of Quirpon 
Island, and to the northward of Cape Dejjrat ; at their entrance are several small rocky islets 
and rocks above water, alfordinfi; behinti them very tair set urity for shipping, in 4 I'athoms 
water, and good conveniences for fishing, liauld Cape, which is the northern extremity of 
Quirpon Island, lies in latitude 51° 39' 4.5" N., and in longitude 55° :27' 50" W. ; it is rocky 
and steep to, and may be approached very near, with great safety; having rounded tliis Cape 
you will |)erceive a rocky point to the southward leading to the Harbor of Quirpon. 

GREAT QUIRPON HARBOR, lies on the N. W. side of the island, and its entrance 
is b»>tween it and (irave's Island ; in your approach towards it from the northward you may 
borrow as clos(^ as you jjlease to 13auld Head, there being no invisible danger until you arrive 
at the entrance to the harbor, where there are some shoals which must be left on your lar- 
board side: to do this keepRlack Head on Quirpon Island open of all the other land, until 
Kaven Point coines over Noddy Point, then haul in for the harbor, going not nearer than 
the distance of half a cable's length from the point of ( Jrave's Island ; the anchorage with- 
in the island is every where good, with room and depth enough for any ship, and the ground 
holds well; but the best place to ride in will be towards the upper end of Grave's Island, 
abreast of (ireen Island, in 9 fathoms water ; the passage to the Inner Harbor, on either side 
of Green Island, is very good for ships of moderate water, through which you will have 3 
fathoms, and above Green Islatid you have excellent riding in 7 fatlioms. There is also a 
j)assage to this harjjor through Little Quirpon Hari)or, luit it is too narrow and intricate 
for any one to attempt, unless they are perfectly acquainted with the navigation. 

NODDY IIARHOR. — This jilaee lies a little to the westward of Quirpon Harbor, and 
runs in between Noddy Point and Cape Raven ; there is no danger in entering, and you will 
|)ass to the starl)oard of the little island that lies about a mile within the entrance, and anchor 
above it in ') fathoms water; or you may with a small vessel run further up into the basin, and 
anchor in JJ or '.i fathoms ; here is a stage within the island, and on the eastern side of the 
harbor, with eoiivenient room for many vessels. 

GULL ROCK and MARIA'S LEDCJE.— The Gull Rock lies W.N. W. fromBauld 
Cape in the island of Quirpon, distant -JJ miles ; and N. N. E. J E. nearly .3 miles from Cape 
Kaven ; it is always above water. Maria's Ledge lies nearly S. W. from the Gull Rock, distant 
2 miles, and N. i)y E. li mile from Cape Raven, being distant about a mile from Maria's 
Head. In standing in from the northward for either QUIRPON or NODDY HAR- 
liOKS, you need be under no ajjprelieiision of danger from the Gull or Maria's Rocks, for 
both are above water, the passage between them is half a league wide, and vei-y safe ; but it 
will l)e |)ru(ient to pass nearer the (iiill Koek because of the N. W. Ledge, which never 
ajjpears but in iiad weather; (his N. W. Ledge bears W. a little south, distant IJ of a mile 
from the (iu!l Roek, and you should not attempt the j)assage between it and the main, on 
account of other roeks liiat are said to lie about, and places of shallow water. 

^Po the westward are the Sacred Islands; (ireat Sacred Island lies about N. W. by W. 
i W. from Hauld (^>pe, disiant 5i miles, and S. E. by E. ^ E. from Cape Norman nearly 
1.3 miles. Little Sacred Island is one mile to the southward of the great island ; the pas- 
sage between them is safe, and you may sail round both, for they are high and bold ; with- 
in them, on the main and to the W. S. Westward, is Sacred IJay, tolerably large, with nu- 
merous rocky islets within it : the shores of this place abound with wood, and therefore it 
is much resorted to for the use of the fisheries at Quirpon and Griguet, &c. Cape Onion 
forms the north jjoiiit of Sacred Pay, being high and steep ; near it is a remarkable rock, cal- 
led the Mewstone, and much resembling that in Plymouth Sound. There is a little cove 
to the southward of this rock, where a vessel may occasionally resort to with safety. 

HA-HA PAY. — From Cape Onion to Purnt Cape the course is W. ? N. about 6 miles; 
it has a white appearance, and ris(\s from the seaward to a considerable height. On the east- 
ern side of Purnt Cape is Ha-ha Bay, which runs in southerly about 2 miles ; it lies open to 
northerly windh, but when you are within the eajie you will find anchorage in 6 or 7 fathoms ; 
or you can go further up and ride well sheltered in 3 or 2^ fathoms. This is a convenient 
place for the fisheries, and has plenty of wood. 

PISTOLET BAY. — This bay lies be( ween Burnt Cape and the Norman Ledges, which 
bear from each other N. W. by N. and S. E. by S. distant 8 miles; the bay is extensive, and 
reaches several miles each way, having good anchoring ground in most parts, particularly on 
the western siile, a little above the islandu, in about 5 fathoms water ; the shore is tolerably well 
furnished w ith wood, and contributes to supply those places which are destitute of that article. 

COOK'S HARBOR, lies in the N. W. part of Pistolet Bay, and withui the islands, 
about two miles above Norman Ledge Point. These ledges are about one mile to the east- 
ward of the north point : to clear these dangers as you enter, be sure to keep Burnt Cape well 
open of the outer rocks, that lie off the islands at the western entrance to Pistolet Harbor, 
and if going in, so soon as you consider yourself to be to the southward of these ledges, steer 
iu for the harbor, leaving the islands and rocks, on your larboard side ; keep the siouthern 

'' 36 


flhore on board, for fear of a ledge of rocks that juts out from a little rnr-ky island on tlip 
other side; and so soon as you get within the island haul over for the northern shore, mikI 
anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms water. 'J^his liarbor is capable of heini; made verv convenient 
and several fisliing rooms and projjcr stages for the boats to resort to, and cure their fisli 
might be erected in all the coves between it and ('ape Norman. 

CAPE NORMAN, is th • northernmost point of Newfoundland, being of a nioderat? 
even height, and very I)arri'n appearance, which continues far inland : it is about a lp;n;iie 
to the N. Westward, of the ledges; fnnn (.'a|)e Norman the shores of Newfoundland 
turn S. Westerly, and will be described hereafter. 

BELLE LSLE. — This island, which lies at the entrance of the strait to which it roni- 
municate.s its name, should be called the Northern H(dle Isle, to distinguish it from tbnse 
we have already described, lying to the southward ; it is about 8 miles long and .'{ broad, 
or 7 leagues in circumference, being distant from Bauld Head in Quirpon Island, about 
14 miles, and from the coast of Labrador 12 miles; it is moderately high, and wears a 
uniform sterile anr^arance. On its N. Western shore there is a small harbor called Link 
Cove, or Harb .r, lying within an island almost close to the land, and fit only for small 
craft ; and at the eastern side of this island is another cove called Hatteaux Creek, fre- 
quented occasionally by shallops. About two miles to the nortli-easfward of this island 
lies a ledge of i ks, part of which appear above water, an(' )ver these the sea breaks v«mv 
high; this is called the N. E. Ledge, you will have 15 an'. fathoms close to it, and 55 
between it and the north part of the island. Thf- soundings about this Belle Isle are verv 
irregular; near tlui island you will seldom find less than 20 fathoms, except on a small 
bank said to lie to the northward, distant 4 miles from its N. Eastern part, whereon is onlv 5 
fathoms. The northern part of this island is said to lie in about the latitude of 51° 57' N. 
Soundings in the Strait of Belle hie. — In crossing the Strait of Beile Isle from Quir- 
pon to Chateaux Bay, your soundings will be irregular; from 20 to .30 fathoms on the 
Newfoundland side, and in some places from .30 to .'3H fathoms; in the stream or middle 
of the Strait, you will find 25 and .35 fathoms, coarse sand and broken sliells ; and towards 
Chateaux Bay, 45 to 80 fathoms, and within a mile of the coast of Tvibrador .35, .30, and 
95 fathoms. To the northward between Belie Isle and St. Peter's Bay there are 5'J, H7, 
9C, 63, ?.nd 20 fathoms. 




PRELIMINARY REMARKS.— Vessels bound towards the (iulf of 
sbould take the greatest care to notice and make a proper allowance for the(;urrents, whidi 
• 3tfrom the eastward, all along the southern coast of Newfoundland, with fre(|uently fatal 
velocity; causing an impetuous indrought into the various Bays, and occasioning flic mncli 
to be deplored loss of nrany lives, and the wreck of numerous vessels; these local currents 
chiefly prevail on that part between Cape Race and Cape Ray: more vessels have been 
cast away on the small point of land which divides the two bays of Trepassey and St. 
Mary, than on any other part of the island ; that these accidents were occasioned by the 
currents there can be little doubt. 

An able navigator, who has been 20 years employed in the fisheries, and who is a native 
of Newfoundland, observes, it is well understood by all the l)oat masters, that there is in 
general a strong current setting in from the eastward, along the Western Coast of New 
foundlan<l, which, after passing Cape Pine, runs more towanls St. ^Mary's and Placentia 
Bays; this current will be felt at least 20 leagues to the S. W. of Cape Pine, and becoiiies 
more rapid as you approacli the land ; its velocity increasing as the winds favor its direc- 
tion ; but at all times of sufiTicient magnitiule to endanger the safety of any vessel ap- 
proaching from the south or west in foggy weather, and being ignorant of its existence. 

In order to avoid the danger arising from this current, the fishermen in foggy weather, 
when returning from the western coast to their homes on the eastern shore, invariably use 
the lead, depending more upon the depth of water than their comptiss, and always keeping a 
sufficient distance from the land to insure the safety of the vessel. On passing to tlie east- 
ward of Cape Race they never a|)proach nearer to the land than .35 fathoms water ; the 
ground being more of an inclined plane on the west than on the east coast, you will find that 
depth of water at a considerable distance; the ground becomes more broken, and the depth 
of water increases so fast, that in your course from Cape St. Mary's to avoid Cape Race 






you will, wliPii to tlie eastward of it, find yourself in /jO fathoms, and when advanced a very 
siiort distance fnrtlier, you will drop into (10 and 70 fathoms; consequently, you will then 
he ilear of anv land, and may safely puisne what course you tiiink proper ; l)Ut, in ail this 
iiaviijation, tlie mariner's safety may Ite insured l)y a due ittention to the lead. 

CAl'K HACK is situated on the southernmost part of Newfoundland, and lies S. W. | 
W. distant .'} leasjues from I'ajje Ballard : hefore it lie 2 or 3 rocks ahove water, these are 
flose to the land, and have 10 fathoms water very near them. Between ti and 7 miles E. 
S. K. from ('ape Hace is the New Hank, heins; 4 miles long and 1^ broad, and lying N. K. 
hv N. and S. W. by W. ; on it are 17, v-'O, and 'Jo fathoms with very deep water on its out- 
side, and ',W fathoms just within it. Vessels making this |)art of the coast may know their 
npinoach toward the land, by suddenly lessening their water to the above depths. 

The Virgin Kocks, which are danaerous, he in the direct track to Cape Race, Newfound- 
land, the point which vessels bound to Quebec generally endeavor to make (Seepage 1.'}.) 

Near Cajjc Race is a small inlet named ('ripple Cove ; the land then turns westerly to- 
wards Mistaken Point a distainie ol 4j miles; the shores are bold, and o(f Mistaken Point 
is a rock above water. N. W. by W. about 2 miles is the Krencli Mistaken Point, this also 
has a rock olf its extremity : from luMice the shore winds N. by W. into Trepassey Bay, at 
the northern part of which lies Biscay and Mutton Bays, and Trepassey Harbor. The two 
former of these are seldom freijuenfed. and it is considered dangerous to get embayed there, 
for the sea commonly drives in, and there is hardly any current to help you out again. Mut- 
ton Bay is formed to the eastward by Cape Mutton, and to the westward by dxpe Powles ; 
this last is the extreme ])oint of a narrow neck of Ian;! that divides Mutton Bay from Tre- 
passey Harbor: it is a long, low, sandy, and stony beach, over which the ships lying in 
Tre])asse 'larbor can be distincily seen. Mutton Bay is about 2 miles deep, and lias from 
1-2 to .'5 fati.oms water in it: but the Ixittom is foul and rocky. 

TREPASSEY KAKBOR.— The entrance to (his harbor is to the westward of Cape 
Powles, and tlic direct course in will be N. E. i E. Cape I'owles lies from French Mis- 
taken I'oint N. \V. about H miles ; from (Jape Mutton W. S. W. i' W. one mile, and from 
Cajie PiiK! N. 10. by K. o miles. The entrance to Trepassey Harbor is three quarters of a 
mile wide, and continues of that breadth full 2^ miles up; it then narrows to less than 
half a mile, and opens again to its former widlh, and there vessels commonly ride. To en- 
ter this harbor ships conunonly steer over from Mistaken Point towards Cape Pine, until 
you fairly open the liarl)or; you may (hen safely run along the shore, foritis bold ; in sail- 
ing into the harbor, you will meet with a rock on the S. Eastern shore, lying about a mile 
from Powles Head, and one third of a cable's length off the shore ; there is also, on the 
northern side, a shoal which runs along up the harbor, so far as a low green point ; to clear 
this shoal, bring Baker's Point on with a low rocky point at the e:itrance of the harbor; and 
when you get so far up as the low green point, you may steer more westerly, and anchor 
either in the N. W. or N. E. arm, in 5 or 6 fathoms water; both wood and water can be 
obtained with case. 

From Mistaken Point to Cape Pine the course and distance are W. N. W. } W. 4 
leagues and a half: and from ('ape Pine to Cape Freels, west, one mile. The land about 
Cape Pine is barren and uiodovately higli : from Cape Freels, the shore.s extend W. N. 
W. one mile to Black Hea<l, and thence N. W. j' W. to the eastern reef, and head of St. 
Shot's Bay. 

ST. SHOT'S BAY. — This is the fatal sjiot where so many vessels have been recently 
wrecked ; the bay is about a mile deep, and from the eastern to the western head, the bear- 
ing is N. by \V. ,' W. distant two miles, it lies entirely open and exposerl to the sea. 

ST. MAR VS 1>A^'. — This is an extensive bay, or gulf, connnencing on the eastern 
side at St. Shot's, an<l on the western side at Point Lance ; the course from the eastern 
head of St. Shot's to Point Lance being N. W. | W. about 20 miles ; t'rom thence the land 
runs up E. N. E. n leagues and a quarter ; the land on each side being moderately high, 
and having s(>veral good harbors in it. in |)roceeding from St. Shot's along the eastern 
shore yon will pass two little coves, and reach Cull Island, this lies close in to the land, and 
bears from the western head of St. Shot's N. J E. distant 4 miles. 

From (juII Island to Cape English the bearing and distance are N. by E. J E. two 
leagues; Ca|)e English is Iiigh table-land, terminating in a low rocky point, and fonning a 
bay, abotit a mile deep, to the southward of it ; at the bottom of this bay is a stony beach, 
within which is Ilolyrood Pond, running E. N. E. nearly six leagues, and from half a mile 
to .1 miles in breadtli ; this occasions the ('ape to appear like an island, when you are to the 
southward of it. One mile and three quarters N. E. | N. from Cape English is False 
Cape ; six and a half miles E. N. E. from ('ape English is Point la Ilaye, this is low, and 
has a ledge of rocks running from it abotit a ipiarter of a mile into the sea, and above a 
mile along the shore, on which the waves break furiously in bad weather; this is the only 
danger vou will meet with in St. Mary's Harbor. 

ST. MARY'S HARBOR.— From Point La Haye to Double Road Point, which is the 



, ^1 


Houtlicrnoxtreiiieof St. Mary's Harbor, the c<) and distance arc K.N. E.onr mile and a 
lialf; the land between in low and wears a barren appearance. Within Double Koaij Poim 
18 Ellis's Point, distant half a mile ; these two form the starboard points of entrance to tin; 
harbor, which is here nearly a mile wide. You will now perceive the river to be <livii|ci| 
into two branches, the one nmning K. N. E. into what is called Mai \\:\y, the oilier S. 
Easterly into St. Mary's Harbor. Whi^n you are within Kllis's Point, in St. Mary's Ihir- 
bor, you can haul to the southward, and anchor abreast of the fishin<i-staL'es and li(> 
upon a flat, in 4 or 6 fathoms water, where you will ride land-locked ; this flat runs (,(f 
Htiore about half a mile, and between it and the opposite shore is from 1.5 to :i() fallidtns 
water. Tlie best auchora};e is about two miles aiiovc the town, (tppositeto IJrowii's Pi)tMl 
where it is above half a mile wide; here also you will lie land-locked in 1'2 fathoms, mul 
have excellent ground to the further end of the bay. 

MAL BAY on the E. N. E. brant h, is about one mile wide, and runs up 2| miles; but 
the anchorage is not good; a heavy sea frequently sets into it, and unless you run up to 
its very head, in 5 or (J fatlioms, you can have no place even for occasional seciirity; it 
tlierefore is seldom resorted to. The entrance to these harbors bears from Point Lance 
nearly East distant 1!) miles. From Trapeau Point, the coast runs N. N. E. j N. aliove 
two miles to Shoal Bay, and op|)osite to the nortliern point of this Shoal Bay lies (irtat 
Colinet Island; this is about a league in length and one mile broad; the southern end of 
which bears from Cape English N. by E. distant three leagues; there is a safe chatmcl on 
either side of this island, only taking care to give Shoal Jiay Point a good bortli of a (piiir- 
ter of a mile, in order to avoid some rocks which lie off it. On the northern side of the 
Great Colinet is a stony beach, olF which runs a bank with from 7 to 17 fathoms water, 
rocky ground. One mile and a half N. Eastward from Great Colinet is Little ('(dinet Is- 
land, above a mile in length and half a mile in breadth ; there is deep water all roniid i'. 

(4REAT SALMON KIVER.— E. N. E. five miles and a half from the nt.rtluni part 
of Little Colinet Island is the entrance to (Jreat Salmon River, which is nearly three ( 
ters of a mile wide, and runs E. N. E. 7 or 8 miles. About 3 miles up this river, and on 
its southern shore, is an opening called Little Harbor ; opposite this, in a small cove, is the 
best anchorage in the river, although it is generally good throughout ; here you may ride 
safely in 5 or (i fathoms water ; the river narrows as you advance up it, and towards its fur- 
thest end becomes very shallow. 

COLINET BAY.— N. W. by N. from the entrance of Great Salmon River. <listaiit 
2} miles, and N. E. ^ E. .^i miles from Little Colinet Island, is tlie mouth of Colinet Bay ; 
between Salmon River and Colinet Bay, is a cove a good mile and a half deep, witli fmni 
13 to 4 fathoms in it, but it is exposed to the S. W. and therefore not mucli resorted to. 
Colinet Bay runs in N. E. by N. about 2 miles, where the point of an island on the star- 
board side narrows the passage, having |)assed which tlie diannel opens wider again, and 
the top of the bay is a sandy shallow beach; throughout the whole of (Jolinet Bay the an- 
chorage is good; you will have from V2 to fi fathoms water tip to the narrows; in jjassing 
the narrows there are 7 and 8 fathoms, and ai)ove it (J, 5, i-nd 4 fathoms ; all good lmouimI. 

NORTH HARBOR.— To the W. S. W. of Colinet Bay, 4 miles, and N. by E. about 2 
miles from the northern end of Little Colinet Island, is the entrance to North Harbor, 
which is three quarters of a mile wide, and rtins u]) to the northward 3 miles ; the anchor- 
age is very good about two miles up the river, where if is half a mile wide in 5 or (i fathoms ; 
or vessels may run further up, where two sandy jioints stretchout, being half acabl(!'s lenytli 
asunder; keep the starboard point on board, and anchor close within the starboard shore. 
In entering North Harbor always keep mid-channel, for the eastern land is somewhat shallow. 

The land now trends W. S. W. ^ S. towards Point Lance; there arc one or two coves 
in the way, but no place fit for the reception of shipping. 

POINT LANCE lies in lat 40^^ 48', and is a low ragged point, although the land in tlie 
interior rises up and becomes highly elevated. We have already stated that the course and 
distance from the eastern head of St. Shot's to Point Lance, is N. W. i W. about 2'J 
miles; from Point Lance to Cape St. Mary is N. W. i W. about 0^ miles. 

CAPE ST. MARY is a high blurt" point of land making like Cajie St. Vincent's on the 
coast of Portugal; the land to the northward along shore, to a considerable distaiKie. has 
an even appearance, and is nearly of equal height with the cape itself. W. by S. from Cape 
Lance, distant full two miles, lie the Bull and Cow Rocks; these are two flat rocks 'ying 
very near each (»t!ier, and having many smdl rocks about them ; about a similar distance, but 
nearer to the main, is another rock appearing at half tide; there are 10 fathoms between it 
and the shore, and 1.5 fathoms between it and the Bull and (^ow Rocks. In a similar direction 
to the Bull and Cow Rocks from Cape Lance, but at 3 leagues distance, and nearly S. S. W. 
distance 7'^ miles from Cape St. Mary's, are two other little rocks appearing just above the 
surface of the water, and having the sea constantly breaking over them ; they lie S. S. E. 
and N. N. W. from each other, distant 3 cables' lengths, and have 1.5 fathoms between them ; 
the same depth of water is all round them excepting towards the S. S. E. where only 6 fathoms 
will be found 2 cables' lengths off. Between these rocks and Cape St. Mary are 32, 25, 



of a mile, is tli^ 



ami 19 rathoms water; and near the Cape are 13, 14. and 15 fathoms. Vessels therefore 
iiiiiy proceed between them, and also between the Bull and Cow Rocks and the main, if 
iipct'ssary, for tliere is no hidden danger ; but peihaps it will always be more prudent to go 
to the southward of both. 

PLACKNTIA BAY. — Theentranceto PlacentiaBny isformed by C'apeSt. Maryonthe 
east, and ("ape ( Ihapeau Rouge, or Mountain of the Red Hat, on the west ; the former lying 
in liititude 4U° 4')' N. the latter in4()° 53' N. bearing from each other W. N. \V. and E. S. 
K. distant 17 leagues. Cape Chapeau Rouge is the most remarkable land on all the coast, 
appearing higher than the surrounding shore, and somewli;it like the crown of a hat, from 
wiiichsiiigularify it obtains its name; it is visible 1 1 or 1 '2 leagues to seaward, in clear weather. 

From Cape St. Mary to Cape Bremeyour course will be N. by E. about 9 miles, and from 
Point Breme to the Virgin Rocks N. E. by E. 13 miles : these rocks lie U mile from the 
main, and always ai)|)ear above water ; a little to the southward of the Virgin Rocks are 
.some whitisli clitfs in the land, by which it may be known if falling in with the land herea- 
bouts in thick weather. 

From the Virgin Rocks to Point Verde, the southernmost point of Placentia Harbor, 
the course and distance are N. E. by E. | E. 5 miles; from St. Mary's Cape to Verde 
Point there is no harbor or place of shelter for ships of any size. 

PLAC'EN'J'IA HARBOR. — Point Verde or(ireen Point is low and level, and torms the 
southern point of the road ; it has a pebbly beach on each side, and several fishing stages with- 
in it; at the end of this beach, is a liigh rocky cliff, extending to the S. E. corner of the bay, 
where it tigain terminates in a pebbly beacdi; this beach then runs E. N. E. one mile to the 
Fort Point, and <ui the inside, which faces the .S. E. arm of the harbor, stands the town of 
Placentia. A little southward of the town is a high hill, with a remarkable cliff on the mid- 
dle of the beach. The outer side of the north point is level, with a clay cliff on its outer 
part, bearing nearly N. E. by N. distant from Point Verde 1 i mile ; from this point the land 
iorins a small bay, with a stony beach round it, to the corner of the cliff under Signal Hill; 
this cliff continues to Freshwater Bay, which is formed in a valley between Signal Hill and 
(■astie Hill, having a jiebbly beach around it; here a small rivulet nms down the valley, at 
which vessels may obtain water ; to sail into this road, if coming from the southward, you 
should keep a league off the land, in order to avoid the (Jibraltar Rock, which lies about 
two miles to the westward of Green Point, and has only 8 feet water over it; the mark to 
go to the northward of which is the castle, standing on a hill at the northern side of the 
harbor, and very consi)',cuous to seaward, open of Point Verde ; when you have this castle 
on with the point, you will pass a little to the northward of the rock, but when you have 
the castle well open of the point, you will give the rock a wide berth ; run in with this market 
keep your lead going, for there are regular soundings on both sides, and give Green Point a' 
good berth of 2 cables' lengths, passing it in 4 fathoms water; then proceed to the anc^ior- 
iige in Freshwater Bay, and under Castle Hill, at three quarters of the distance over from 
that side, where you will lie in 6 or 7 fathoms water, good ground. At the bottom of the 
road is a long beach, which terminates in a ])oint to the northward, on which stand some 
houses and an old fortress ; there is also a fort on the opposite point; the entrance to the 
harbor is between these ; it is very narrow, not above CO fathoms across, and has 3^ fathoms 
water in it ; when you get within these points the harbor opens, becomes one third of a mil* 
wide, and extends E. N. E. above 1^ mile, where ships may lie in perfect security with 6 
and 7 fathoms water ; in going in keep nearer to the starboard side ; the stream runs into 
the harbor more than 4 knots an hour. The tide rises 6 or 7 feet ; and it is high water, 
full and change, at 15 minutes after 9 A. M. 

N. E. i E. from Point Verde, distant two miles, and N. N. W. from Moll Point, about 
J of a mile, is the Moll Rock, over which are only 12 feet water, with 8 and 10 fathoms 
near it. N. E. by N. 5| miles from Point Verde is Point Latina; S. W. from Point La- 
tina, distant one mile, is the Wolf Rock, these lie about half a mile from the main, and be- 
tween Placentia Harbor and Point Latina, and therefore must have a good berth in passing; 
the shore all the way is low near the sea, but high and ragged inland ; a large mile to the 
eastward of Point Latina is Point Roche, which has a shoal off it extending one quarter of 
a mile out. 

LITTLE PLACENTIA HARBOR nms in to the southward from Point Roche, and 
S. E. by E. ^ E. from Point Roche, distant 2 miles, is the opposite, or Fox's Point, which 
may be considered to be the eastern entrance to Placentia Sound; on the western side of 
this Sound is the harbor of Little Placentia, which extends W. by S. above IJ mile, and is 
nearly half a mile broad'; there is good anchorage in a cove on the northern shore, which 
you may know by the western side of it being woody ; off the east point of the cove lies a 
shoal, stretching nearly one third across the channel ; in this cove are 7 and 8 fathoms wa- 
ter. To the eastward an arm also runs in almost a league with deep water, but little fre- 
quented ; it is called Placentia Sound. Fox's Harbor is a small sandy cove, fit for boats only. 

SHIP HARBOR. — From Point Latina to Ship Harbor the course and distance is east 
!■ -arly 7 miles ; this inlet runs up northerly two miles and three quarters, and is } a mile 




wide; tlie best iinclioriige is in a cuvc on ihc west side, in 10 latlionis water, about one mile 
I'nnn the entraiice. 

FOX ISLAND is small and round, and liesN. E. i N. distant .'} miles from Point l^a- 
tina, and N. W. I)y W. luli ;! miles iVom Sliip Harbor Point; this latter is a low stony 
point, Ivinj; a mile and a (|iiarter I'rom the entrance ol'ihe harbor; between Fox's Ishinil 
and .Ship Harl)or I'oint, is a ledjie of rocks, which, in bad weather, will show breakers (niiic 
across; between the rocks are V^. 5, 7, and HI I'athoms water. N. N. W. one mile and a 
liair from F(»x's Island is the Kishinj; Hock, a sleej) rock always above water; and .\. ;\. 
K. one mile and a half from tlie Fishing Kock is Kowland's .Sunken Kock, over which the 
sea most commonly breaks. 

THK RAM I.SLAMJS.— Tins is a cluster of hiirh islands, lying nearly N. K. ■' K. 
from Fox Island, distant ;{ miles ; on the eastern side of these islands is Loinr llarbor; there 
is no (huiger in entering this ])lace, but the best anchorage will be on the norlhern side, to 
the eastward of Harbor Island, between it and the main, in or 7 fathoms water, where you 
will ride secure from all winds. 

From Lons; Harbor the shore runs N. N. E., N. by E. and North fidl 15 miles, havitur 
no harbor or place fit for the reception of vessels, until yon reach Little Harbor, Little 
South Harbor, and (ireat South Harbor; within this space are said to oe several low is- 
lands and rocks; one of which, called the White iiock, from beirij^ covered with thedurn; 
of birds, lies N. E. by N. I'rom J'oint Lalina, distant 1,'J miles, and direct mi<lway between 
Fox Lsland and Little Harbor; it is abreast of a small j)lace, called Tinny Cove, and full vj 
jniles oflthe land : vessels jiass on either side. 

LITTLE HARJJt )R lias very bad anchorage, and is much ex|)ose(l to .S. Westerly 
winds, therefore not much frequented. 

LITTLE SOUTH HARBOR lies onemile to the N. Westward of Little llarbor, and 
has several rocky islands at its entrance, which, in sailini; in, must b«! left on your starboard 
side, excepting; one, on either side of which there is a ijood passage, with 1 o lai horns water: 
on the southern shore within these islands is a sunken rock, over which the sea commonly 
breaks; it lies about a cable's length from the land. Neaily opposite are also some rocks, 
half a cable's length from the shore, which appear at half ebl) ; this harbor is one mile and a 
half long, half a mile wide, and has 7, H, 10, and 1-J fathoms water in it ; and the irround, 
except where these rocks are situated, ttderablv good. 

GREAT SOUTH HARIJOR lies one mile to the northward of Little South Harbor; 
its entrance is between the middle point and the Isle au Bordeaux, one mile and a ((uarter 
wide, with from 20 to 30 fathoms water; there is no danger in going in, and llie anclioraiie 
one mile and a halfu|), or nearthe head of the harbor, is very irood in ti and 7 falhoms water. 

CHANCE HARBOR.— The Isle an Bordeaux is a hiuii round island, fnmi which the 
•coast runs N. Easterly 4 miles, to the entrance of an inlet, called Come-by-t 'liance ; ilus 
runs up full three miles, and lias from -JO to 3 fathoms water, gia<lu:!My decreasing in depth 
unto the further end ; vessels may anchor here on a sandy bottom, but they will be (juite ex- 
posed to S. Westerly winds. 

NORTH HARBOR.— About N. N. W. 3 miles from tlie entrance of Come-by Chance, 
is that of North Harbor ; it is above a mile wide, and there is no danger in sailing info it, but 
like the former, it is too open to be trusted to ; there is, however, fair anchorage about "i 
miles up, in 7 fathoms water. 

PIPER'S HOLE.— N. W. by N. distant -2^ miles from the entrance to North Harbor, is 
that which leads to Piper's Hole ; the channel in it is between Sound Island and the iriiiin ; 
in the passage you will have 1!), 1.5, and I'J fathoms, and when to the northwar<, of the island 
8, 7, and 6 fathoms ; from hence Piper's Hole runs up to the northward full Wm miles ; but 
the water is shallow and unfit* for shipping. From Piper's Hole, in a S. W. (iaection, lie 
Sound, Woody and Barren Islands, having a channel between them and the N. Western 
shore half a mile wide, in which are from 7 to 20 fathoms, atid good anchorage all the 
way ; between Woody and .Sound Island is a passage with from 7 to Kifa'lioms water in it ; 
that between Woody and Barren Island is much widerand (!ee])er, having 40 and .")0 fathoms. 
Opposite the northern part o{ Barren Island is a small cov»\ called f^a Plant, fit only for 
boats: Barren Island is 34 miles in length, and one in breadth, it is high land, and at irs S. 
Eastern part is a small cove, in which is tolerable ant hora<;e in from 8 to l(i fathoms. N. 
W. by W. from the southern part of Barren Island is (4ulsh, an inlet of very little impor- 
tance; furthers. W. are (rreat and Little Sandy Harbors. 

(iREAT SANDY HARBOR lies W. i S. distant 4 miles from the south end of Bar- 
ren Island ; to this place there is a passage between Shi]) islaiul and the main, with 7, 0, 
and 17 fathoms water ; but the entrance to the harbor is vsMy narrow, and much encumber- 
ed with rocks; these are all above wai?r, and have channels between them, but when you 
get within the harbor there are 6 and 7 fathoms, and good shelter. 

LITTLE SANDY HARBOR is a quarter of a mile to the southward of the fJreat Har- 
bor; in it you will have 6 and 7 fathoms water, good ground ; in sailing in, you should pass 
to the northward of alow rock, which lies at the entrance. You ma'^ readily know this har- 



lit ono iiiilo 

bor by the Bell Islan I, which lios S. K. \ E. one inile ninl a half from thn mouth of it, 
and N. E. by N. l;J iiiiios (rom tlio western point of Meraslieen Island ; this island has a 
rfinarkabie appearanrc, reseuiMin;; a l)eli witli the bottom npuanls. 

CLATISE HARBOR. cVe.— S. W. by S. tVoi.i Bell Island, lie the Bnrgoe Islands, 
and farther soutii, llie Wliite Islands. .S. W. by \V. from flic Burijoe iMlauils, nearly 5 
miles, is the cntranie to ('latise Harl)nr, between the <i;reat Isle of Valen and the main ; 
the shore all alonj^ from the Saiuly Harliors is steep to, and the paasajge to C'latise three 
quarters of a mile wide, with 10 and .'jit tiitlioiMs water; but the rove itself is very narrow; 
the best anchorage is in the western branch, which is a mile lonn, in from 10 to 17 fathoms, 
good ^ijround ; there is also a j^ood channel from the southward, between Great and Little 
Valen Islands and the main, with 'JO, ."{O, and oO fathoms in it. 

GRAMME ll'.S R()(,"K.">. — Tliesearea<lusterof low rooks, just appearing above water; 
and lying E. by N. ■ N. 1 mile from the northern end of Valen Island; there isapa8sa<;o 
between (Jreat and Little \'alen Islands, but it is encumbered with several rock«. 

MERASHEEN ISLAND. — This is a Uuisj; narrow island, nimiins; nearly inthe diric- 
tion of the eoast full 6 leagvies ; off its northern shores are a laruer cluster of rocks and 
islands denominated the Ragged Islands. At its south-western part is a small, but good 
harbor, with from (> to 10 fathoms water in it ; to sail into this place you should keep the 
starboard shore on board, in order to avoid a sunken rock that lies a cable's length off a 
ragged rocky point on the larboard side when going in. Tliero is also a small elusiei of 
rocks lying oli' the .S. Eastern part of Merasheen, three quarters of a mile from shot j , 
these lie between it and Red Island. 

RED ISLAND is high, being visible 11 or 12 leagues, and wears a barren apn :arance, 
about 4y miles long, and "JV broad; its southern point bears N. N. W. distant 11 miles 
from Plaeentia Road, and E. by N. 16 leagues from Mortier Head. On the eastern side 
of the island, and near its northern end, is a small cove or bay, fit only for small craft. 

LON(i ISLAND. — Directly N. E. from Red Island, distant 7 miles, lies the main body 
of Long Island, and midway between them, is Woody Island, of!' the .S. \V. of wh'c'u are 
two small rocks above water; the passage between Red and Woody Islands is otherwise 
clear from dangers, and nearly three n.iles wide; that (between Woody and liong Island is 
two miles acr.tss; both have deep water. Long Island is irregularly shapi-d, and indented 
with inlets, its length is full eight miles, its breadth no where nmch above one ; off its 
southern end is Iron Island, and a siir'll lock above water; the southern point being form- 
ed of liigh and steep rocks. From Point Latina to this end of Long Island, the course 
and distance are N. •'; E. 4-, leagues, and liom thence to Indian Harbor, which is situated 
on the eastern siile of Merasheen Island. N. W. by W. I miles; to enterthisplnce, you may 
go on either side of a small island at the entrance ; the passage is safe, but the only anchorago 
is to the westward of the island, between it and Merasheen, and here the ground is uncertain. 

HARBOR BUFFET. — On the eastern side of Long Island, about a league from Iron 
Island is Harbor Buffet, a tolerably good hiirbor, the entrance to which is narrow, but has 13 
fathoms water in it; this place may i)e known by the isl ndsthat lie inthe mouth and to the 
souihward of it, and by Harbor Buffet Island, which lies E. J S. 1 mile from the entrance; 
to sail into this harbor you must steer to the northward of the islands at its mouth, and being 
within them, you will perceive the harbor divide into two brandies ; one running westward, 
the other northward. The best anchorage is in the northern arm, in 15 fathoms water. 

MUSCLE H.^RBOR. — On the western side of Long Island, and about 4 miles from its 
southern end, is Muscle Harbor, the entrance to which is between a low green point on the 
starboard side, and a small island on your larboard : the harbor is nearly 2 miles long, and 1 
broad, and has from 10 to 20 fathoms water within it. Vessels bound to this place may run 
in between Woody and Iron Islands from the southward, or between Long and Merasheen 
Islands from the northward; but ^n the latter track there are some rocks to he guarded 
against, which lie nearly mid-channel between the northern ends of both islands ; there aro 
also some ro(^ks above water, to the north-eastward of Long Island, called the Bread and 
Butter Islands, but these are always visible, and steep to. 

PRESQUE. — W. N. W. ? Ni distant 4 miles from the south-western point of Mera- 
sheen Island, lies the little liarhorof Presque; the water here is sufficiently deep, but there 
are so many rocks about its entrance, that it is rendered thereby difficult of access. S. W. J 
W. two miles from Presque, is the 151ack Rock, and a quarter of a mile within this is a sunk- 
en rock. West from the Black Rock, distant 2 miles, is the Island of Marticot, about one 
mile in length, and half a mile broad; within the Black Rock and Marticot Island lie the 
Harbors of La Perche, and Little and Great Paradi-;e. 

LA PERCFiE runs in to the northward of the Black Rock ; its entrance is difficult; and 
there is no good anchorage. Little Paradise lies to the westward of La Perche, and to 
the northward of the east point of Marticot Island ; the only safe anchorage is in a cove, at 
the head of the harbor, on the larboard side ; there you may moor to the shore, and lie 
land-locked. Great Paradise is fit only for boats ; it lies to the westw s- . '. of Little Paradise. 
Between the north-western point of Marticot and i.he main, is Fox Inland ; between thes* 



iMlnnds is a siifp piiRSiijcc info Pnr.i<li.ip Sound, with 9 fathoms, but vpsselx must never at- 
tempt KoiiiK Ix'fwiTii Fox IsiiiiKJ iiiui the iMiiin. 

I'AKADISK SOl'NU — To the wi'stwiini of Fox Island about 1 mile is the entranre 
to I'aradise SouikI, i-xtc iidiiii; \. K. by 10. J Icamies, and ln'in^ about a mile iiroad ; hav- 
ini; very d»'i'|) ualir fhroiiL'liiiiit, and no Hafii aiKboiaye t-xcepi at its hrad. Just wii bin 
the Hound. on its eastern side is a cove, witii Kt laiiioniN water; but there are several ro» k» 
abjve water in it, and tin- bot'oni is rocky, so that you eannot w»'ll an .lior tinre. In pa>s- 
JiiR to the N. Westward (d Fox Island there i sunken ro( k which must be avoided. To 
the S. Westward of I'ararlise Sound lies Lon sinnd, runninji; W. S. W. j S. about ^i 
miles; it is princi|)allv hi&h land, makini; in sev. il jieaks. 
^ PKTIT FUirr ilAKH()l{.— (Jne mile to it,.- westward of Paradise Sound lies Petit 
Fort IJarbor, a very ^ood inlet, iiavin;r in it Irom 11 to7 I'atliomswater, <!ood 4;r(>niid. Tii^^mr 
trance is more than a (piarter of a mile wide, and lies N.K. distant 5 miles from the south ponit 
of Lonj; Island, and N. by milesfrom the north point of tlie same. 'J here is no damper in 
fjoin;; in ; and the best anchor. nje is on thestarimard or eastern side, lor S. K. winds heave in a 
yreat Nwcdi on the western shor<',Hhen it blows hard. Nonsuch Harbor has no good anchorage. 

CAPE RO(iKil HAKHOR lies close to the westward of (ape Ho-er, which is a hi^h 
round barren head, lyinij; N. I K. .'J' miles from the south point id' Lonj^ Lsland. There 
are several low rocks and islands lyitic olf the eastern pomt ol'ihe entrance. In the harbor, 
at a quarter of a mile within, on the western side, lies a small island to the northward of 
whirli, between it and the main, is a very good anchorage in 7 or 8 fathom.s water, or I'arther 
iij) in f) or 7 fathoms. 

(iHEAT (JAI.LOWS IIARnOR.— N. N. W. 'J miles from the south ixdntof Long Is- 
land, lies a small tJreen island, which has a shoal all round to nearly acabie's !enj:th. From 
Green Island, N.N. W.'Js miles, liestireat (iallows Harbor Island, which is hii;h. \'essel» 
may pass on either side of this island info (Jreat (Iallows Ihirlxir, whii h lies one mile to the 
E. N. K. of tlie island. in this harbor is exc^eediiijuly jjood anclKuai^e in 7 laflioms water, 
on tile starboard side, just witliin a low stony point, takinu i-are to jjive tlie |)oinf i small berth, 
ill order to avoul a rock which is alternately eovercd and uncovered wiili the tide. 

LITTLE (JALLOWS IIARIJOR lies close round to the eastward of (ireat (iallows 
Harbor, and is only fit for small vessels, which must be moored t«) the sliorc ; a rock above 
water lies at the entrance ; and the two hari)ors are only divided by a narrow neck of land. , 
To the nortii-westward of fireat (iallows tiarbor are l^ittle llarljor. May de L'Kau, and 
Boat Harbor; tiie first of tliese is only (it for boats; Bay de li'Jviu nms in a t'ul! leagriie, 
J.. and has deep water all the way up, exceju at its iiead, wiiere there appears a sandy beach. 
''1^ .Here vessels may ride in 3 fathoms. 

:'*?'.?'?,'■, BOAT HAllBOIl lies round the western point of Ray de L'ICau, off which is. a roek 
■*«im/e water; tiiis harbor runs up N. E. ." '"its. "'tli deep water, until you ^'et near its 
furtlietend. Tlie iand from iienci' runs S^^'estward to Rane Harbor ; this lies on the 
main land, and is fronted by several islands, tlie largest of which is callcil Cross island, 
being two miles in lengtii, and one in bre.ultii ; tlie other isbuids are named (ii.iiseberry, 
Pettieoat, Gull, and Jerseyiiian's Islands, and are situated between Cross Island and the main. 

BANE HARBOR is a good place for small vessels its entrance is narrow, but when 
you are within it, tiiere is snlTi iont room to moor with .l fathoms water, 'i'here are gooil 
clianncla between all these islamls, throusih wlii(;h vessels may pass to the harbors a' the 
northward. One mile and three ([iiarters S. W. 4Vom Bane Harbor is Rashonn ; too slial- 
low for any vessels : and about the same distance Irom Raslioon is iiroad Cove; liere the 
anchorage is exceedingly good, witli 8 and fathoms water; it li<\s to tlie nurth-eastward 
of a point of land, which juts out, and is named iiroad Cove li(>ad. 

RED HARiiOR lies three miles from Broad (.'ove Head, iiiid is n (jood harbor, but too 
open to the southward ; in it are 17, 1.3, and 9 fathoms ; S.W. lidin Ik tice, distant .'}■. miles, 
and situated on the main, is .fidin le Bay ; in your passage to wliicii, and nearly mid-chan- 
nel, botiveen Flat Islands and tlie shore, is a cluster of small islands wirh deep water all 
round tiicm: and further on, near the land, is a rock above water; you may sail on either 
side of tills; the cha'inel between it and the lind is narrow, and !i is 17 fathoms: tha' on 
tlie e'.stern, or outside, has IP, 2.'), and •2() fatlioms, and leads diiectly out to Placentia I'ay. 

AUDH'-RNE ISLAND lies half a mile to the northward of Cape .Tude or Middle Is- 
land, on the west side of wliieh there is a tolerably good harbor. At about a cable's length 
from \udierne Island, to the southward of the harbor, is a sunken rock; tlie mark for 
avoiding which, in coining in from the southward, is not to haul in for the iiarbor till you 
open a remarkable green point on the southern side of the harbor. The best anchorage 
is on the north shore, just within a small islanti. A spit of rocks stretches just off the 
Green Point on tlie south shore, which is covered at high water. 

Vessels bound for Audierne Harbor-may pass between C,\\)e .lude or Middle Island and 
Audierne Island ; and l)€tweeu Crow and Patrick's Island, whicli are two small islands 
Iving off the S. W. point of Audierne Island. Off tlie eastern point of Audierne is 
Ford's Island, to the west of which is a sunken rock, about a cable's length from 
the island, and another on the eastern side, which almost always breaks. W. by N. about 

ist never at- 

lie entrance 
iroad; Ijiiv- 
.luKt wiiliin 
•venil roi kn 
'. In pit.sH- 
^((ided. To 
.S. Hbi)Ut 3^ 

1(1 lies Petit 

il. 'ri^rimr 

south point 
u) (l:in!{i-r in 
slicave in ;\ 
h is A liii^li 
ntl. Theic 
the harbor, 
orthward of 
r, or lartlu-r 

of Long Is- 
.'th. Kroin 
1. \'csselH 
mile to the 
loins water, 
small berth, 

■at (iailows 
1 rock above 
'ck of land. , 
L'Kau, and 
I'ijII league, 
indy beach. 

Il is. a roek 

;et near its 
ies on I lie 

OSS Island, 

(1 tlio main. 

i)ut when 

are i^ood 

bor-! a' the 
; too slial- 
: here the 

or. but too 
t 'A: miles, 
p water all 
il on either 
s : tha' on 
I'ntia I'ay. 
Middlr Is- 
le's leiii;th 
mark for 
)or till yon 
list off the 

Island and 
lall islands 
udieine is 
Qgth from 
N. about 



Ij mile from Kord'n Island is (Sreen Island, having a little roeky islet offits cn^tern, and an- 
other olf it.i western ends; there is dee|) water all round it, 11 taihoms close tu the rocky 
i.ilets, 70 fathoms between it and Kurd s Island, 7.'t and (iU lalhoms between it and Loiif^ 
Island, and still det-per watrr towards the (fallows Harbors. 

'I'lIK SADDLK l>\ri\ is aiiislei lyiii'^ K, N. I•;.^i leaiiur- IrnmCorbin Head ; N. 
from Alortier W e-t I'omc, and K. ,' S. .{ Ifayues from .lohn iln' Hay Poiiii. IJeiweeii it and 
the main are a i;reat number of rocks and little islands, which render this part of the eoaitt 
vtrv dangerous. A chain of rocks extends N. K. bv K. - miles (rom the .Saddlf IJack. 

(''AI'K J 1 l)K. or >ll DDLK IS LA NO, isaboiu J ; mil.-s in l.-n^th, -J in breadth, and lieH 
I ■, mile nortii of the Saddb* I'ael; ; on the soiitli end ol it is a loiind hill, which is called the 
(Ja| e. lietween tliis i-^laixl and the main are a cluster ol' islands and low roi-ks willia^^reat 
number of sunken rocks about them, called the Flat Islands, the iniierniost of which li^s 
about one mile tfom the main. 

West ;)i miles from the .S. Kastern Flat Island, and two miles to the N. N. W. of John the 
Hay I'oint, lies John tlie Hay ; in which liiere is tolerable truud anchorage, with about 8 fath- 
oms water, sandy bottom. 

K<K;K HAl<i!(*K. — From John the Hay Point to Mortier Rast Head, the bearint; and 
distance are .'^. \V i W. H miles. 'I'wd mill's S. W. i>y W. from .lohn the Itay Point lies 
Uock Harbor, not fit tor shipping. Hetween He two sunken rocks, nearly hall a mile from 
(lie shore. 

.MUR THCIl HA v.— Two miles \V. S. \V. fioni Hock Ila.bor isthe openin',' into Mortier 
I5ay, at the western entrance of wliicli is a small harl)or, called Holioy, of only Jl feet water. 
The course into .Mortier liay is N. N. K. for abont tv^'o miles; and in il there are from .')(> to 
70 fathoiin water, the bind on f',\c\i side bnii^ iiiuh; it then rxiciids westward about two 
miles, and i ■• nearly two miles wide. ( >ii the easier-i sidr-. at about three miles from the en- 
train e, is aa e<ccfdin^ly ;;(iod Inrlior, called S, atush Koom. in which vessels may anchor, 
in from 4 to fi fathoms vv;iter, uood ground, anil sec^nre from all winds. There is not the least 
daiiiier in yoioir into tliis harlior. <inly ^ivini: the low rocks above water, on the larl)oard hand 
at tile entrance, a berth of one cable's length. 

LrrTLL .MOKTIKK I5AV.— Two mdos and a half from the entrance of Mor^.er Bay 
/ lies Croney Poim and Islands; about two miles further southward, and nearly a n'de west- 
ward of M(utier Last Point, is Li'tle .Mortier l?ay. at the entrance of which isa roi.nd island. 
called Mortier Island, 1> iti;,Mtiie third id the distance from the west side ; it is bold to all round, 
aad may be passed oneiiher sifle. (lose to the fust point beyond the island, on the larboard 
side, goiii'^ ill. is another little i.-land. close under the land ; and two cables' length from it in 
a direct liiie towards the outer island, is a sunken rock, on w liicli the sea breaks in bad wea- 
ther, which is the only danger in the bay. .\t the bottom of it, 1 , mile from Mortier Island, on 
the east side, isa cove, called I'"ox ' 'ove, where there is fair anchoraj^e, and room for one 
8tii|) to moor in ;• fathoms, "rood Inddiiii jiround, two points ojien to tlie sea, from S. S. 
S. K. On the west side ol'ihe bay is tin- harbor, which is suiall and iiariow ; but a very good 
one for small ships, wli'-n' they lie moored t;» the shore. Olf the starboard point, going in, 
is a rock, which is alway.s covered at hi^^li water. 

One mile and a half .S. W. by W. from Mortier F.ast Point lies Mortier West Head, one 
mile beyond which is Iron Island ; and .S. K. \ K.2 leainies iioiii Iron Island, and S. W. |- 
W. o leagues from Oajie .hide, lies the .Mortier Hank, the shoal part of which is about one 
leasjuc over, and on which there are said to be only 4 fathums. The .«ea breaks heavily on 
il in blowin<; weather. 

IIIO.N ISL.V.N'l) is small and hi^jh ; ofi'its 8. \V. point is a roek underwater; three quar- 
ters of a mile to the southward of it is (ire<rory's Hock. S. 1^ \V. | of a mile from which is 
(talloping Andrews; and .S. K. by F from Iron Island is the White Horse of 8 fathoms: a 
W. 8. W. course from Marticot's Island will clear all these daiiiieis. 

(iRFAT AND LITTLK HIIKLN' HAKBOH8.— 8. W. • W. from Iron Island, dis- 
tant one league is the 8. F. point of (ireat Hurin Island; and \V. N. \V. \', mile from it is 
the north part of Pardy's Island. On the main, within these islands, lie the harbors oftireat 
and Little Hurin. \'essels bound for Hurin may pass on either side of Iron Island ; the only 
danger in pa.ssing to the northward is the ledsje called iheHrandys.which almost always breaks; 
they lie near a (piarter nf a mile to the southward of a low rock, above water, close under the 
land of Mortier West Head. Hy keeping .Mortier West Head open to the westward <•; Iron 
Island, you will avoid (-Iregory's Hock, cm which is oidy 'J fathoms water, and whic'i almost 
always breaks. V'essels may pass with safety between this rock and Iron Island, by giving 
the latter a berth of above a cable's length. 

(iALLOPIN(i ANDRE W8.— On the main, within Tardy's Island, are two remarkable 
white marks in the rocks ; the northernmost of these brought on with the north |»arl of Par- 
dy's Island, and iron Island N. E. ^ N. will lead on the Galloping Andrews, a shoal with 5 
fathoms water on it. 

The White Horse is a shoal with 8 fathoms on it, which bears S. £• by E. one mile from. 
Iron Island. 




TliP I)o(l(lin<; Rock lies about » (|iinrtL>r of u mile from the rsiHtommont part of Great 
Burin'rt hliind. 

(Jreiit IJiiriii Island \h about '2\ miles in length, lying N. N. K. and S. S. W. beinif hiph 
land ; near its suutli end is Cat Island, hi^li and round, lyio); K. N. E. nearly 4 miles from 
Corbin Head, 

From Ciirbiii Head to Slialloway Point tlie bearing and distame are N. K. \ N. 4\ miles. 
Detween tlieni, audiitsuly in llu- same direciion, lie Corbin and Little Hurin Islands, both 
high and round, not nnii*; than a < iil)le'H Icnzlli Ironi the sliore. 

SHALLOWAV ISLAM) lies N. N. W. ', \V. one mile from Cat Island, and N. K by 
£.a (juarter of a mile from Little Hurin Island: the |)assaire into Hurin Harbors, from the 
■outhwaril, is to tht; westward ol Slialloway Island. 

In iiailiug in, take care to give Poor Island a berth on your larboard hand : and when witlnn 
Shalloway Islaiul, you may amlior in salety between it and (ireat Hurm Island, in t. ni I'i 
to 18 fathoms. The best am lioraLie in (ireat Hurin Harbor is in Ship Cove. The course 
up to it, after you are within Neck P')int, which is to the westward of the Shalloway Island, 
is N. N. E. about I mile. It is nearly a (|u irter of a mile wide: in sailing up, keep the 
west shore on board, in order to avoid a sunken rock on the east shore, at about half v/ay 
up, and near a cable's length from the shore. iJirectly oil this is a remarkable hole in tile 
rock, on the same side, and a gully in the land from toj) to bottom, on the western shore. 
Another rock, wii^Ji \.' fathoms on it. lies above a ( able's Icimtli to the S. \V. of Harbor 
Point, which is round and green, and ol a moderate height, joined to llreat IJurin Island 
by a low narrow, sandy neck. 

B(TRIN I)AV is about one mile N. N. E. of Little Hurin Island ; it is clear, and about 
a mile wide every way : here ships may occasionally anciior, and lie almost land-locked. 
In this bay are two i.slainls, one called Poor Island, low and i)arreii ; the othe lies to the 
northwani, before the entrance of Hurin Inlet, and is high an 1 woody. 

BUKIN INLET may be entered (m either side of tlie island; it extends up .'> miles; a 
little wiiliiu the eiitrani e on the cast side, half a cable's length from the shore, is a rock 
covered at threc-(|uarter's flood ; and J ■' iiide from the entrance, near the middle, is another 
rock, to the westward of which is good room and fair anchorage, in from 7 to V2 fathoms. 
There are 1,") fathoms in tin? entrance; and, in the middle, "J miles up, l.'j to 'J.'5 fathmns; 
and thence up to the head are fioin 10 to 5 fathoms. 

The east passage in i> between Pardy's Island and Iron Island ; but is not safe without a 
commanding gale, and tliat between the N. N. E. and S. E. 

CORBIN ilARBOH is about a u\\W to the northward of (Sorbin Head, and is a good har- 
bor for small vessels. A quarter of a mile eastward from this harbor, and '2 cables' length 
from the shore, is a sunken rock, of.*) or (J feet water, on which the sealneaks in bad weather. 
Vessels bound for this harbor must also avoid a shoal of 1? fathoms water, which lies E. S. E. 
from the south point of the entrance, distant half a mile ; the liest am horaue is in the north 
arm, about half a mile within the entrance, opposite a cove on the starboard side. 

From Corbin Head, which is high, blutVland, to Small Point, the lowest hereabout, the 
course and distance are W. S. W. J^ miles ; and from Small Point to Saiiker I lead W. A S. 2 
miles: there are many head-lands between, which form coves, but alford no shelter. The 
coast is clear of rocks ; and there are 30 fathoms water close to the shore ; but a little to the 
S. Westward of Sauker Head there is a small rock underwater; it lies close in with the land. 

From Sauker Head, which is a high hill in the shape of a sugar loaf, to Cape Chapeau 
Rouge, the bearing and distance are West, 3 miles; between he the harbors of Great and 
Little St. Lawrence. 

LITTLE ST. LAWRENCE.— The harbor of Little St. Lawrence is the first to the 
westward of Sauker Head. To sail in, you must keep the west shore on board, to avoid a 
sunken rock, which lies a little without the point of the peninsula, which stretches off from 
the east side of the harbor. The anchorage is above the peninsula, (which shelters it from 
the sea-winds,) in 3 or 4 fathoms water, a fine sandy bottom. Ships may anchor without the 
peninsula in 12 fathoms, good ground, but this place is open to S. S. E. winds. 

GREAT ST. LAWRENCE.— The harbor of Great St. Lawrence, which isthe western- 
most, is close to the eastward of Cape ('hapeau Rouge. To sail in you should be careful with 
westerly, particularly with S. W. winds, not to approach too near the Hat Mountain, in order 
to avoid the flaws and eddy winds under the high land. There is no danger but what is very 
near the shore. The course in is, first, N. N. W. till you open the upper part of the harbor, 
then N. ^ W. The best anchorage for large ships is before a cove, on the east side of the 
harbor, in 13 fathoms water. A little above Blue Beach Point, which is the first on the 
west side, you may lie, only having two points open: and may anchor any where between 
this point and the point of Low Beach, on the same side, near the head of the harbor, observ- 
ing that, close to the west shore, the ground is not so good as on the other side. Fishing 
vessels commonly lie at the head of the harbor above the beach, sheltered from all winds. 

Garden Bank, whereon are from 7 to 16 fathoms water, lies about half a mile off Little 
St. Lawrence, with Blue Beach Point on with the east point of Great St. Lawrence. 

high rocky islai 
objects to point 

whence the Ian 
inlets, railed ih 
winds, and ther 
is near half a mil 
a sunken rock, 
is on the east 
tuin, and open 
bead of this p|; 
for fishing, with 

rrninost and out 
Nearly a (|uartet 
ill very bad weat 
being verv near t 

Olf the ea«!t poin 

westward of Tav 
(iaul Shag Kock 
It fathoms close 
Shag Ro( k to tli 
between is the Hii 
ral islands and ro 

Near the south 
Lamelin .Shag R 
between lie the I 
from the land. ' 
to the .southward 
Hteer northward I 
Dearer than in 30 

appearance of th* 
close to the sea ; 
elin to Point Mai 
comes mouiitaiiK 

W. by N. from (. 
high, with a cragi 
which is the S. K 
rated from St. P 
innermost of whi( 
of St. Pierre. 'I 
across the entran 
hes on the W. sid 
water. The best 
to the N. E. wine 
a mile E. S. E. f 
tioned : this is th 
harbor has lately 

is rather high ; b^ 
On the north side 
of a mile E. N. I 

about 5 miles froi 



t of Oreal 

lieinK high 
iiiilft fruin 

i. 4\ niilfs. 
lands, both 

iiH N. K hy 
H, Iroin tlie 

'li»'n within 
in t. <ni 13 
l"he course 
wuy Uland, 
), keep the 
It half v/ay 
hole in the 
ern shore, 
(if Harbor 
iirin Island 

', and about 


lies to the 

5 miles; a 
p, is a rock 
', is another 

12 faihouiB. 

13 fathoms ; 

e without a 

a f:ood har- 
)ks' length 


s H. S. K. 
the north 

n1)out, the 
er. "The 

itile to the 

1 the land, 

(ireat and 

first to the 
to avoid a 
^s off from 
ers it from 
'ithout the 

le western- 
areful with 
in, in order 
hat is very 
he harbor, 
side of the 
irst on the 

e between 
or, obserr- 
all winds. 

off Little 


FF.RRVLANI) HEAD lies W, S. W. one mile from f'ape Chapcau Roiu;*-; it ix a 
high rocky island, just separated Ironi 'he iniin, and with Chapeau Kiiu<;«*, are infallible 
objects to point out the harbors of .*<t. Ijawreiire. 

LAIN MA v.— W. N. W. h miles Irom Kerryland Head, lies the I'oint of F.aun, from 
whence the land "irns to the northward, and tome, the Hays of Latin; here iire two small 
inluts, calleii (Jrtatand Little Laun. Little Laiin is the easternmost, lies open to the S. W. 
winds, and theret'ore is no place to anchor in. (ireat Laun runs in N. K. by iN. V miles; 
is near half a mile wide, and has from It to .'( tathoms water. In sailin;; in be careful to avoir) 
a sunken rock, which lies altoiit a (piarter of a mile otf the ea-<t fioitit. The best aiicliora^e 
is on the east side, about half a mile from the head, in *> and '> iathoms, tolerably t'ood bot- 
tom, and open only to the South and S. by W. winds. whi< h cause a uretit swell, as the 
head of this place is a bar harbor, whi'te boats can ascend at halt tide, and find convenieiiceA 
for fishing, with both wood and water. 

L.VUN I.SLA M)S lie olf the west point of Laun l»ay, not farfrom the shore; the wpst- 
prniMost and outermost of whu ii lies \\'. N. W. westerly II miles Irom h'erryland Head. 
Nearly a (|uarterol a mile ff» the soiitliward of this island is a rock, whereon the sea breaks 
ill very bad weather; there are other sunken roc ks about these islands, but not dangerous, 
being very near the shore. 

'PA V L( *K'.S HA V lies open to ihr sea, aliout four miles to the westward of Laun Islands. 
Olftlie east point are some rocks, near a (|iiarter of a mile from the shore. 

I'OINT AI'X (JaI'L is a low, narrow jminf of land, which sirefdies out a little to tho 
westward of Taylor's Hay: a rock lies olf it above water, half a mile from the shore, called 
(iaul Shag Kock, which bears from Kerry land He;id W. N. W. ,' \V. (!.V leagues: there are 
M fathoms close to tiie offside of it, but some rocks on its inside. From I'oint Aux Gaul 
Shag Kock to the Lamehii Islands, the beariM'j and distance are N. W. by W. one league; 
between is tlie Hay of Lamelin, which is until (or shipping, being shallow, and having seve- 
ral islands and rocks about it ; the river at the bottom of the bay abounds with salmon. 

Near the south |)oiiit of the westernmost Lamelin Island is a rock high above water, called 
Lamelin .Shag Kock. From Lamelin Shag ISook to Point .May. the distance is 9 miles; 
between lie the Lamelin Ledges, whidi are very dangerous, some of them being 3 miles' 
from the land. To avoid them, in the day time, you should not bring the Lamelin Islandsi 
to the southward of E. .S. E. until Point May bears N. E. by N. t'romyou; you may th?i> 
steer northward between Point May and Green Island w ith safety. By night, approacb no 
nearer than in .30 fathoms water. 

REMARK. — Mariners who navigate this part of the coast, will do well by observine the 
a|)pearance of the land, for all that part of Chapeau Koiige and Laun is very hig'i and nilly 
close to the sea ; from Laun Islands to Lamelin, if is only moderately high ; ami from Lam- 
elin to Point May, the land, near the shore, is low, with beaches of sand, while inland it be- 
comes mountainous. 

ST. PIERRE, or ST. PETER'S ISLAND— The island of St. Pierre lies Vi leagues 
W. by N. from Cape Chapeau Rouge; it is about 4 leagues in circumference, and pretty 
high, with a craggy, broken, uneven surface. On coming from the westward. Point Cronier, 
which is the S. E. point of the island, makes in a round hummock, like a small island, sepa- 
rated from St. Pierre. A little to the N. E. of Point Cronier lie three smai' islands, the 
innermost of which is the largest, and called J)og Island; within it are the road and harbor 
of .St. Pierre. The harbor is small, and has from '..'(> to li feet water; but there is a bar 
across the entrance, with only six feet at low water, and TJ or 1-1 at high water. The road 
lies on the W. side of Dog Island, and will admit ships of any burthen in 8, 10, or 12 fathoms 
water. The best anchorage is on the north side; but in general it is rocky, and exposed 
to the N. E. winds. Be cautious, in going in or out, of some sunken rocks, which lie about 
a mile E. .S. E. from Boar Island, which is the easternmost of the three islands above men- 
tioned : this is the only danger about .St. Peter's, but what lies very near the shore. This 
harbor has lately been improved by the erection of a lighthouse. 

THE ISLAND OF COLOMBIER lies very near to the N. E. point of .St Pierre, it 
is rather high ; between them is a passage one-third of a mile wide, with 12 fathoms water. 
On the north side of the island is a rock, called Little Colonibier; and about one-quarter 
of a mile E. N. E. from it is a sunken rock, with 2 fathoms on it. 

GREEN ISLAND is about three quarters of a mile in circuit, and low ; it lies E. N. E. 
about 5 miles from St. Pierre, and oearly in the middle of the channel, between it and Point 






Miiy, in NewfounHlmid ; on its south sifle are several rocks above and under water, extend- 
ing'l j mile to tiie \V. S. W. 

LANGLKV, or LlT'l'LK MlqUHLON— liansjiey Island lies to the N. W. of St. 
Pierre, witli a piissa^je <it' alxiut 'J', mill's wide bciwti'n, iVce I'rom danger, it is al)oiit ft 
lei^ues in circuit, of a moderate and eijual height, e\'-e|)tin<r at the north end, wiiicli is a 
low point, with sand liills ; otJ" wliich, on both sides, it is a (lat a little way ; but every otlifr 
j)art of the island is bold to. There is anchora^ie on the N. H. side oftiic island, near .Seal 
Cove, in 5 or H I'atlionis, a little to the southward ofiliesand hills, on a line sandy bottom. 

(illKAT Mim'KLON. — Krom the north in>int oiLaniiley to the south point of .Mitpic- 
lon, the distance is scarcely one uiile, and the depth of water between is vJ I'athoms. ,Mi- 
quelon is 4 lea};ues in lens^tii from north to soutli, and is about .5 miles in breadth at the 
widest part: the middle of the island is hi'^h land, called the llifih Lands of Dunne; but 
down by the shore it is low, excepting Cape Mi(|uelon, which is a Kdty promontory at the 
northern extremity of the island. 

On the 8. K. side of the island is tlie little Harbor of Dunne; it is a bar harbor, admitting 
fishing shallops at half flood, but no way ealculat»'<l for shipping. 

Mii]ueii;p Hocks stretch olf from the eastern point af the island, tinder the hiijh land, 1 \ 
mile to the eastward : some are aliove, and s(mie imder water; ihe oiUermnst are above 
water, and there are 1-2 fathoms water close to them, with IH and -JO a mile oiV. N. 
E. about 4V miles from these rocks, lies iVIi(]uelon Hank, on which are (> fathoms wafer. 

Miquelon Rortd, which is larire and spacious, lies towards the iu)rth end, and on the east 
side of the island, between Cape .Mi<pie!on and ( 'hapeau, which is a very remarkable ronial 
mountain near the shore, olf wh'ch are sou-e suidven rocks, at the distance of about a rpiar- 
tcrofa mile; but every where else it is clear of darrjer. The best anchorage is in 6 or 7 
fathoms, near the bottom of the road, on fine sandy bottom; but there you lie exposed to 
easterly winds. 

The Seal ilocks, two in number, are aI)ove water, and lie about IV league ofl" from the 
north-west side ofMi(|uelon; the passage betwt en them and the island is very safe, and 
there are 14 or lH fathoms water within a cable's lenclh, all round them. 

Point May has a rocky islet at its point, and from thence the land tuins N. N. E. towards 
Dantziek Cove and I'-unt, and thence K. N. E. towards Fortune Head. 

FORTUNE J5A Y, dec. — From Point May to Pass Islaiil, the Lc ring and distance arr 
N- \ E. 12 leagues; between them is the entrance to I'ortune Hay, ivhich is about -"J vr 
23 leagues deep; and in which are nu!iu>rous bavs, harbors, and islands. 

BRUNET ISLAND.— The Island of lirunet lie icarly in the nuddle of the entrance 
into Fortutte Bay ; it is above .'i miles in length, two .n breadth, and of moderate height; 
tlie eastern part appears, in some points of view, like islands ; on its K. side is a bay. wherein 
there is tolerable anchorage for ships, in 14 or lU fathoms water, slieltered from southerly 
and westerly winds. In the bottom of the bay, at aijoui a (piarterof a mile from the slioie, 
are some rocks, which must be avoided. Oj)posito to this bay, on the south-west side of 
the island, is a small cove, with (i fathoms water. The islands lying ofl' the west end of 
Brunet, to the southward, ari called the little iirunets, which, willi Urunet, may be ap- 
proached within a quarter of a n ile all round. 

■The Plate Islands are three rocky islets, of a moflerate heisiht, the in'an'st of which lies 
W. 8. W. one league from the west end of (jreat Brunet. The sonthermnost is about 'J 
mites farther off, and bears from ('ape Miquelon E. ^ S. .3,' leagues ; and in a direct line be- 
tween Point May and Pass Island. 17 miles fiom the former, and 1') miles fVmu the latter. 
E. S. E. a quarter of a mile from fhe(ire;it Plate, (which is the nrnthernmost.) is a siud\en 
rock, whereon the sea breaks, and this is the oidy danger ai)out them. There are several 
strong and irregtilar settings of the tides or currents about the Plate and Brunet Islands, 
which seem to have no dependency on the moon and the course of the tides on the coast. 

SAGOiNA ISLAND, which lies N. K. 2 leai;ues from the east end of Brumn, is about a 
mile across each way, of a moderate height, and bol!': to all round ; on its western siile (here 
is a sniall creek admitting fishing shallops; in the i.iiddle of the eiUranee to this, is ;» sunken 
rock, which occasions it to be difficult of access, except in very line weather; a sa-.d 
surrounds this island, running westerly full 7 miles, upon which are 14, 17, and 20 luihonis 

POINT MAY is the southern extremity of Fortune Bay. and the S. W. extremity of 
this part of Newfoundland ; it may be kimwn by a great black rock, nearly joining to the 
pitch of the point, aiul something higher thati the land, which maktts it look like a black 
hummock on the point. At about a quarter of a nule directly off from this black rock are 
three sunken rocks, on which the sea always breaks. 

DAN rZIC COVES.— N. by E. 1/ of a mile from Point May, is Little Dantzic Cove; 
and 2 miles farther is (treat Uant/ie (Jove. F^rom Dant/.ic I'oint (which is the north 
point of the (Joves) to Fortune Head, the bearing and distance are E. N. E. 2! leagues; 
and thence to the town of Fortune, 1^ mile S. E. by E. This is a wishing village, and the 

road where tl 
coin) 'iss. It 
Diuitzic Poii 
tending fVfUu 

Fortune. 'J' 
sliippini; in H 
Grand Bank 
ri(> security i\ 

From tlie ( 
laiice H leagu 
imv, with sev( 
the principal 
known by scvi 
llie oulerniiisi 
siiiikeii rocks 
vessels somcti 
llie sea winils 
ward of the 
rocks lying of 
in the middle 
liom I'oint M 
length, and :!( 
so deej), and ! 
the land-wind.' 

From I'oint 
to (irind Jeiv 
the south sidi 
extent, the lat 

BAV l/Al 
g( lit, wliere ll 

point of 1/Arg 
at a distance, ; 
lying t(t (lie S. 
lU'twecn this 1 
beaches: but i 
but it must be 

,1 leagues liom 
of Fcutuiie Ba 
low, if becuuH 
ca|)e the lanil 
miiiatcd by a Ic 
this, and in all 
buildim: staae 

league from tl 
MO danger in g 
from all wimi- 

ward of Fngli. 
for I oats. 

(le L'Kau : it 
l'at)n)Mis, shelti 

TH'O llAR 
row, and has ii 
rocks above w 
only for boats 

this are some i 
there arc also 
in is on the wt 
begin to open I 



water, extend- 

N. W. of St. 
It is aliom H 
ikI, wliidi is a 
ut every other 
and. near Scul 
sandy lioltoni. 
lint III" Mi(|nc- 
atlioMis. .Mi- 
brt-adih at the 
t' Dniiiie ; Imt 
rioiitory at the 

bor, ndinitting 

: high land, 1} 
Hist are above 
oiV. N. E. i 
iionis water, 
nd (Ml tlie cast 
arkable ronnd 
:'al)()Ut a f|\iar- 
H;e is in 6 or 7 
lie exposed to 

le ofl" (Vnni tlie 
very safe, and 

N. E. towards 

id distanee av, 
is about "J'J ir 

f the entrance 
eiate heii;iit ; 
bay, wiiereiti 
oni sontiierly 
ini the shdie, 
i-west si(h' iif 
e west end of 
, may be ap- 

ofwliieli lies 
ost is al)()nt '2 
ilireet line be- 
iini »lie latter. 
,) is a sufdien 
e are several 
nnct Islands, 
on the eoast. 
net, is about a 
111) side iliere 
, IS ;) sunken 
a sa,,d b.Hik 
id'JU ii>iiio:ns 

extremity of 
.linine to the 
k like a 
lack rock are 

antzic Cove ; 

is the north 

. j! leagues ; 

lage, and the 

road where the ships lie ha.s from 6 to 10 fathowi;. water, quite exposed to nearly half the 
roin) ass. It lies S. by \V. from the east end of Unmet. To the N. N. Westward of 
Danf/.ie Point is the Ion;? narrow bank oi' .Jersey man's, with '^4 and 25 fathoms over it, ex- 
leiidm^ (Vom aiireast of the point in the direciioii of the Plate Islands. 

.SIIJP C()\'E. — The Cape of (irand Hank is hi'ih. and lies one leasiue E. N. E. from 
Fortune. 'J'o the eastward of tiiis eapc is .Ship Cove, wliere there is icood anchorage lor 
sliippiii.: in H or 10 tatiionis water, shcliercfl from south, west, and N. Westerly winds. 
Grand Bank lies S. K. half a leaque from tlie Cape, and is a fishint; village, where there is 
no security for shinpinjj, and the entrance is barred. 

From the ("ape ol the (irand IJank to thv^ Point Enragi'-e. the course is E. N. E. | E. dis- 
taiice ri lcas;ues; tlie coast between I'oriiis a circular bay, in whi<;h the shore generally is 
liiw, with several sandy beaches, lii'hind which are bar-harbors, tit only for boats, of which 
the principal is (Jreat (iarnish, lying 4 ': leagues from the Cape of (irand Bank; it may be 
known by several rocks above water lying before it at two miles distance from the sVoro, 
(lie outermnst of tli-se is steep to ; but between them and the shore are several dangerous 
sunken rocks. To 'he eastward, and within these rocks, is ^'rcMichinan's (Jove, where .small 
vessels sometimes run in and anchor in 4 or.'j lathoms water, tolerably well sheltered from 
till' sea winds ; thi-i is a convenitMit place for the cod lishery ; the passage in is to f.he east- 
ward of the rocks that appear the highest above water : between them and some other lower 
rocks lying off to the eastward of the ea^t point of the Cove, there is a sunken rock nearly 
in the middle of the passage, v.liich you must be aware o(. 'I'he shore is bold dl the way 
liotM Point May to C'ape oi' (irand Bank, there being 10 or 12 lathoms within 2 cables' 
length, and .'50 or 40 at a mile olf : be;«een the latter and (Jreat (Iarnish the water is not 
so deep, and ships may anchor any where in H or 10 fathoms water, sheltered only from 
the land-winds. 

Fniiii Point Enragee to the head of the bay. the course is. first, E. N. E. J E. ,3 leagues 
to (irind Jeivey ; then 1",. ^ N. 71 leagues to the head of the bay : the land in general along 
the south side is high, bold to, and of uneven ajijiearance, with hills and valleys of varioiLS 
extent, the latter mostly cov«ued with wood, and having many fresh water rivulets. 

BAV L'AI\(iEXT. — Seven leagues of the eastwanl of Point Enragee is the Bay L'Ar- 
gfiit, \vliere there is anchorage in :iO or 40 t'at!i(,i!is water, sheltered Iroin all winds. 

nARl'.()f{ MILLE'. — The entrance to Harbor Milb" lies to the eastward of the east 
jioint of LArgent. Before this harlior. atid the Bay L'Arsrent. is a remarkable rock, which, 
at a distance, appears like a shallop under sail. Harbor Milh'; branches into tw.^ arms, one 
lying to tlie .'>. E. the other to the east ; at the upper part of both are good anchorages. 
Ik'iuet n this harlior and Point Eiira.'r'''e are several liar-liarbors, or small bays, tVith sandy 
heaches : inu ihe water all alonij the coast is very deep ; you may safely anchor any where, 
but it must be very near the shore. 

Cape Milit' lies .\. E. J E. one leigiie from the Shallow Rock above mentioned, and near 
,1 leagues (loni the head cf l'\i:tune Bay : it isahi-jh reddish barren r(»cl;y point. The width 
of I'ortiine Bay at ('apeMiili- does not muc'i exi-t-ed half a l.amie; but, immediately be- 
low, it becomes twice as wide, by whi( !i the ('ape may readily be known; and above this 
cape the land on bmli sides is high, wiih steep craguy cliffs. The head of the bay is ter- 
ininat(!d by a low beach, behind which is a large pond, or bar-harbor, fit only for boats. In 
this, and in all the bar harbors between this and Mie (irand Bank, are convenient places for 
Ijiiililimr sta::es, and l;(h .1 beaches for dryiii'^ fish, fitted to accommodate numerous boats^ 

(ilxANI) !jI", PlEKltE is a jrocnl liaibor. situated on the north side of the bav, half a 
league from the head. Tlic entrance cannot b- seen until you are abreast of it; there is 
no danger in going in, ami yon may anchor in any depth from 8 to 4 fathoms, sheltered 
from all winds. 

E.\(iljISIl n \RB()!l lies a little to the wpstwani of (^rand Pierre; and to the west- 
ward of Harbor is the Little Bay de L'Eau, both of which are small, and only fit 
for 1 oats. 

NEW HARBOR is situated opposite to Caj)© Mill*', aid to the westward of the Bay 
(le Ij'Eaii ; it is a smill inlet, and iias good anchorage oti the west side, in tVoin 8 to 5 
fatlniiiis, sheltered froii' S W. winds. 

TH'O IIAI1B(,)K FE.M.MK lies half a league to the westward of New Harbor, it is nar- 
row, and has in it 2') and 2'.i lathotm ; before its entrance is an islet, near to which are some 
rocks above water; one lea/ue to the westward of Harbor Femme is Brewer's Hole, fit 
only for boats ; before this cove is also a small island near the shore, and some rocks ibove 
wat( r. 

HARI)()1( LA (ONTE is situated one mile to the westward of Brewer's Hole; before 
this are some islands, the outer one is called the Petticoat Island, the inner Smock Island, 
there are also two smaller ones between these, and a sunken rock or two ; the best passage 
in is on the west side of the outer island, and between the two larger ones; so soon as you 
harbor, keep the inner island close oa board, to avoid some sunken rocks 


open I 



that lie near a small island, which you will discover between the N. E. point of the otiter 
island, and the opposite point on the main : tliere is also another rock wliirh appears at 
low water, and lies hinlicr up on the side of the main , and when yon fiet beyond these 
dani^ers, you may keep in tiie middle ot' the channel, and will soon open a fnie spacious 
harbor, where:n you may anchor in any depth, from ti to Ki fathoms water, on a bottom of 
sand and nuid, shut in from all winds. To the eastward of the outer island there is a small 
cove lit for sin;dl vessels and boats, and otherwise convenient for the fisheries. 

LONG HARBOR lies 4 miles to the westward of Harbor La Conte, and N. E. by E. 
distant 5 leagues from Point Enriigt'-e. It may be known by (Jull Island, which lies at its 
mouth, and a small rock, which lies half a mile without the island, and has the a|)pearance 
of a small boat; there is a passay;e into this harbor on each side of this island, the western 
one is the broader of the two ; nearly in the middle of this channel, a little outside of the 
island, is a ledge of rocks, whereon is two fathoms water ; and a little w^ ;iin the island, on 
the eastern side, are others, li cables' length from the shore, they lie o(f two sandy coves, 
and are visible at low water. Long Harbor runs ,'y leagues up into the country, but the 
only anchoring place is in Morgan's Cove, on the N. VV. side of the harbor, about 2 miles 
within (iuU Island, in lo fathoms water, unless you run above the Narrows; there is a 
salmon fishery at the head of the bay. 

A little to the westward of Long Harbor, is Hare Harbor, fit for sinall vessels only. Two 
miles to the northward of Hare Harbor, is Mai B:^, having very deep water, extending N. 
Easterly about .5 miles, and having no anchorage except at its furthest end ; to the westward 
of Mai Hay, near the shore, lie ihe Rencontn; Islands, the westernmost of which is the 
largest, his a conuuunication with the main at low water. In and about this island is shel- 
ter for small vessels and boats. 

BELLE HARBOR lies 4 miles N. W. by N. from the westernmost Rencontre Island ; 
the passage into it is on the western side of the island, and so soon as you have passed the 
islands you will open a s)nall cove, on the east side, where small vessels can anchor, but 
Jarge vessels must run up to the head of the harbor and anchor in "JO lathoms, where there is 
most room ; it is but an indilierPiit harbor. About 1'^ of a mile westward of Belle Harbor 
is Lally Cove, behind an island, fit for small vessels ouly ; the west point of this cove is high 
and blutf, and is called Lally Head: to the northward of this head is Lally Back Cove, 
■where ships may anchor iu 11 or IfJ fathoms water. 

■ Two miles to the nortiiward of Lally Cove Head, are East Bay and North Bay, in both of 
these there is deep water, but no anchorage near the shore; at the head of North B.v is the 
largest river inEortune Bay, and appears to be a good place for the salniou fishery, from 
which circumstance it is named Salmon Ri\er. 

CINQ ISLES BAY'.— The Bay of Cinq Isles lies to the southward of the North Bay, 
and opposite to Lally Cove Head ; there is tolerably good anchor^e for large sliips on the 
S. W. side of the islands, in the bottom of the bay. The north arm is a very snug place 
for small vessels, and salmon may be caught at its head. 

COllBEN BAY. — A little to the southward of the Bay of Cinq Isles is Corben Bay, where 
there is good anchorage for any ships in 'J-i or "24 fathoms w ater. About 'i miles south-eastward 
from Lally Cove Head are -2 islands, about a mile distant from each other; the north-east- 
ernmost is called Belle Island, anil the other Dog Island ; they are bold to all round. Between 
Dog Island and Lord and Lady Island, which lies olV the south jjoint of Corben Bay, some- 
thing nearer to the latter, is a sunken rock, w ith deep water all round it ; and, about a quarter 
ofamile to the northward of Lord and Ladv Isiaml, is a rock which ap|)ears at low water. 

BANDE DE L'ARIER BAY lies on' the west jioint of Beile Bay, and N. i W. 3 
leagues from Point Enragec ; it may !)e known by a very high mountain over the bay, which 
rises almost perpendicular from the sea, called Iron Head. Chapel Inland, which forms 
the east side of the bay. is high land also ; the harbor lies on the west side of the bay, just 
within the point formed by a narrow low beach, and is a snug place ; between the harbor 
and Iron Head there is tolerably good anchorage in 18 or '20 fathoms. 

Bande de L'ArierBank has 7 fathoms water on it. and lies with the beach of Bande de 
L'Arier Harbor just open of the west point of the bay, and Boxy Point on with the north 
end of St. Jacques Island. 

ST. .IACt^ri':S.— Two miles to the westward of Bande do«L'Arier is the harbor of St. 
Jacques, which may be readily known by the island belore it being high at each enil, and 
low in tlie middle. The passage into the harbor is on the west side of the island, free from 
danger, as is tlie harbor, where you may anchor in from 17 to 4 fathoms. 

BLUE PINION. — Al)out one and a half mile to the westward of St. Jacques, is the 
harbor of Blue Pinion; and a little to the westward of that is English Cove. 

BOXY HARBOR.—Boxy Point lies W. ? S. (J miles from St Jacques Island, and E. 
N. E. •■ E. 12 miles from the east end of Brunet Island ; it is of moderate height, and the 
most advanced to the southward of any land on the coast. Boxy Harbor lies N. E. 3 miles 
from Boxy Point, in which there is anchorage in 4 or 6 fathoms water, fine sandy ground ; to 

nil in, bring 
Head, in this 
wliich lie olV 

\V. N. W. 
league from 
John's Head 
John's Harbc 
islets, called 

In this bay tl 
sage in is on 
seis can entei 

St. John's H 
age for large 

leagues from 
from each ot 
above water, 
length from 
head. Th(! 
..f the S. W. 
pood, and pie 
the N. E. aril 
necure from a 
there are 3 fa 
which is the 
which is high 
goon as you o 

From the \ 
West 5 miles 
stretching fn 
fathoms. Tl 
Gull island. 

Point, the be; 
extends aboii 
water, which 
the channel I) 
mile from the 

bay ; it is vei 
side of the isl 
bay, are two i 

Dawson's ( 
Connaigre H 
greatest) isia 
Basseterre Pi 
of wood, and 
tant 3 miles I 
length an;! r 
from Point T 
Western side 
and to the N 
passage betw 
ly is traverse 
fathotns watc 
northern side 
extending 4 
side of Fort' 
iieing better i 
ness and fert 
place much 

♦ On Miquc 



nt of the ontfr 
liich appears at 
beyond these 
a fine spacious 
on a bottom of 
there is a small 


id N. E. 
k'hiih lies at its 
the appearance 
!ul, the western 

outside of the 
1 the island, on 
'o sandy coves, 
)untry, but the 

altout 2 miles 
►ws ; there is a 

sels only. Two 
•, extending N. 
o the westward 
f which is the 
s island is shel- 

icontre Island ; 
lave passed the 
an anchor, but 
wliere there is 
Belle Harbor 
lis cove is high 
ly Back Cove, 

Bay, in both of 
orth B.y is the 
u fishery, Irom 

he North Bay, 
ge sliips on the 
cry snug place 

ben Bay, where 
the north-east- 
)und. Between 
en Bay, sonie- 
d)out a quarter 
t low water, 
ind N. i W. 3 
the bay, which 
, which forms 
>f the bay, just 
?en the harbor 

li of Bande de 
with the north 

'■ harbor of St. 
each end, and 
land, free from 

lacques, is the 

Island, and E. 

leight, and the 

N. E. 3 miles 

idy ground ; to 

nil in, bring Boxy Point open of a little black head just witliin the point, called Friars 
Head, in this direction you will keep the middle of the channel, and between the shoals 
wliich lie off each point of the harbor where the stages are. 

\V. N. W. one mile (loiii Boxy Point is the Island of St. .lohn, and N. N. \V. half a 
ieasue from St. .Folin's Island is St. .lohn's Head, high, steep, an<l craggy. Between St. 
John's Head and Boxy Point is St. .lohn's Bay, (|uite exposed ; in the bottom of this is 
John's Harbor, fit for boats only. On the north side of St. John's Head are two rocky 
islets, called thetjulland Shag; at the west end of which there are several sunken rocks. 

(iKEAT BAV UE L'EAII is about U league to the northward of St. John's Head. 
In this bay there is good anchorage in various dei)ths, sheltered from all winds. The pas- 
sage in is on the east side of the island, which lies in its entrance ; for only very small ves- 
sels can enter to the westward. 

BARRYSVVAY BAY'.— To the westward of Bay de L'Eau, about 3 miles north from 
St. John's Head, is Little Bay Burrysway, on the west side of which there is good anchor- 
age for large ships in 7, 8, or 1(1 fathoms ; and both wood and water to be obtained with ease, 

HARBOR BRITON lies to the westward of Little Barrysway, and N. N. E. 1 E. 2 
leagues from the Island of Sagona. The heads which form the entrance are high, and lie 
from each other S. E. and N. W. distant about 2 miles. Near the east head is a rock 
above wafer. The only danger in going in is a ledge of rocks, which stretches 2 cables' 
length from the south point of the S. M^ arm, which is more than a mile within the west 
head. Thi; only place for ships (»f war to anchor in is above this ledge, before the entrance 
of the S. W. arm, in It) or lt< fathoms, mooring nearly east and west; the bottom is very 
pood, and plenty of wood and water is to be obtained here, (opposite to the S. W. arm is 
the N. E.arni, or .lerseyman's Harbor, which is cajjable of holding a great number of ships, 
secure from all winds, in (i, 7, and 8 fathoms water: it has a bar at the entrance, on which 
there are 3 fathoms. The mark to sail over the bar is, the point of Thompson's Beach, 
which is the south point at the entrance into the S. W. arm, open of Jerseyman's Head, 
which is high and biutf, on the north side of the entiance into Jerseyman's Harbor; so 
goon as you open the harbor, haul up to the northwanl, and anchor. 

From the West end of Hari)or Briion to Connaigie Head the bearing and distance ar« 
Wests miles; betneen are (i nil Island and Deadman's Bay, off which t\u'.rc is a bank 
stretching from the shore between -J and 3 miles, whereon the depths vary from 34 to 4 
fathoms. The sea, during storms, will .sometimes break for a considerable way out from 
Gull Island. 

CONNAIGRF^ BAY. — From Connaigre TTead, which is high and craggy, to Basseterre 
Point, the bearing and distance are N. W. 'I W. 7 miles; between is t/'onnaigre Bay, which 
extends about 4 leagues inland. In the moutii uf the bay lie the Connaigre Rocks, above 
water, which may be a-iproached very near, there being no danger but what shows itself: 
the channel between t!ie:;i and ( 'omiaigre Head is the safest, as a ledge of rocks ei^tends a 
mile from the north shore, which renders the other channel rather dangerous. 

Connaigre Harbor is near .') miles above the head, within a point on the .south side of the 
bay ; it is very small, and the depth of water is 7 fathoms; the passage in is on the S. E. 
side of the island, which lies before it. .\breast of this harbor, nearly in the middle of the 
bay, are two islands ; and on the south side of the westernmost, are some rocks above water. 

Dawson's Cove is on the N. W. side of the bay, and bears N. N. E. about 4 miles from 
Connaigre Head, and W. N. W. 2 miles from the west end of the westernmost (and tlfe 
greatest) island : the anchorage is in (i or ."> fathoms, (|uite exjjost <l to southerly winds. 
Basseterre Point, which forms the west point of Connaigre Bay, is of moderate height, clear 
of wood, and from thence to Pass Island, bold to; Pass Island lies nearly W. by N. dis- 
tant 3 miles from Basseterre Point. 

PASS ISLAND, which is the N. Western extremity of Fortune Bay, is a full mile in 
length and narrow, it bears from the N. point of *xMi(|uelon N. K. by x\. 7 leagues, and 
from Point May N. i E. 12 leagues. It lies near the shore and is rather lofty; on its S. 
Western side there are several rocks aiiove water, which extend a full mile from tlie island ; 
and to the N.W. is a sunken rock about a quarter of a mile from the island; there is a 
passage between this island and the main, about the length of two cables wide, it frequent- 
ly is traversed by small ves.-els, who sometimes anchor there on a line sandy bottom in 6 
fathoms water. Thecod-fisherv about this part is generally considered good and productive. 

REMARKS ON FORTUNE BAY.— The generarappearance of tlse land on the 
northern side of Fortune Bay, is hilly, rising directly from the sea, with craggy, barren hills, 
extending 4 or 5 leagues inland, having many rivulets and ponds, while that on the southern 
side of Fortune Bay has a very dilVerent appearance, having less of these rugged hilla, and 
being better clothed with wood of a short brushy kind, giving to the country an air of green- 
ness and fertility. 

SOUNDINGS. — In the night time, or in dark foggy weather, the mariner should not 
place much dependance on the soundings in Fortune Bay, for therein they might be great- 

♦ On Miquclon Island a lighthouse is built, showing a liglit from Ist May to 15th November, 





ly and fatally (ioccived, inasmuch as, in many places, the water near the shores and in its 
creeks and harWors is oTtcn d('e|)er than in the rniddlc of" the bay itseil'. 

HERMITAtiK HAV.— Tiiis extensive bay is bounded on'the S. W. by Pass Island, 
and to the northward by the islands that form the Bay of Bonne and (ireat Jervis Harbor, 
the width beinji; more than 'i leai,'ues: and by the southern shores of Long Island, where 
it begins to narrow ; in sailing along the southern coast front Pass Island, you will discover 
the Fox Islands, which are distant from I'ass Island 10 or 11 miles; these islands are situa- 
ted opposite to the entrance to Hermitage Cove about J of a mile from the land, and are 
said to have good (ishing about tiiem ; olf Uie Northern Fox Island are several rocks above 
water, and a simkeii rock lies also olf the south side of this island. To enter Hernutaue 
Cove you shoulil keej) between the islamls and the shore, borrowing somewhat towards ti;e 
main land, where you will (ind ;((), 32, and IP fathoms water; here you will see the rove 
open, and may turn m south, having deep water and without the least danger ; the anchor- 
age is good, with every conveniency for fishing, and plenty of both wood and water. 
From hence Hermitage Jiay runs in nearly west for V2 miles, with very deep water, until 
you get near tlie head, where it gradually lessens to •.'.'> and '22 fathoms, and further into 9 
fathoms ; there is a small islet or two on the ^:outhern side, but no danger whatever. 

LONG ISLAND, which separates the Bay of Despaii iVom Hermitage Bay, is of a 
square form, about 8 miles long and nearly rt leagues in circuit. The eastern passage is 
very good, but narrow, and is between the eastendof Long Island and the main, called the 
Passage of Long lylaiid. The west entrance into the Bay of Despair from Hermitage 
Bay is by the wi<st end of Long Island. About lialf a mile from its S. W. point are two 
rocks above water, with deep water all round them. 

GALTAUS HA KBOH.— There are four harbors on the south side of Long Island, 
the easternmost of which is caller! (iaitaus; this is but small, and lies near the south-east 
point of the island : the best channel into the harbor is on the west side of several rocky 
islands, which lie at the entrance, wherein arc 4 fathoms, but in the harbor there are from 
15 to 24 fathoms. 

PICARRK HARBOR— The next is Picarre, which lies N. by E. half a league from 
the easternmost Fox Island; in going in liere, keep near the west point, in order to avoid 
some sunken rocks off the other: the anchorage is in the first cove on the east side, in 9 
or 10 fathoms, sheltered from all winds. 

ROUND HARBOR. — 'J'he next harbor, calltMl Round Harbor, is about 2 miles to the 
westward of Picarre, and fit only for small vessels, tin; ( hannel in being so narrow. 

LONG ISLAND llAKliOR is the fourlh, and lies about •_", miles from the west end 
of Long Island. This harbor has two arms, one running in to the north, the other to 
the v^Rstward ; they are both vriy iianuw, a d liave from 40 to 7 fathoms water; the east- 
ern arm is the deepest, and all'ords the best anchorage. The passage in is on either side of 
an island which lies oil' the eiitriuu c. and has several rocks above water about it. 

B.AY OF DESPAI U. — The entrance of the Bay of Despair lies between the west end 
of Long Island and Great .larvis Island (which lies '..i the mouth of the harbor of llnit 
name); the distance between is one mile and a quarter, and midway lU) bottom is fouutl 
with a line of 280 fathotus. The Bay of Despair Iimmiis two capacious arms, one extend- 
ing full 8 leagues to the north-eastwaid, the other about l'< miles noithward : in the N. !■,. 
arm are several arms and islands, and toleiai)ly good anchorage in several places; in the 
north arm tliere is vtiy (hn-p water, and no ancliorage excepting iiithesmall baysaiul c(»ves 
which lie on each side of it, but in an arm of this bay, which runs easterly, there is a fiiii' 
salmon fishery, anil wood in plenty. In the X. E. arm also there are good salmon fishe- 
ries at Little River and fJonne River; all the country about this part is mountainous and 
barren, but about the head of the bay it becomes level, and has abundance of wood, such 
as fir, pine, birch, witch ha'/el, spruce, tVc. 

GREAT JAR\'1S HARBOR is situated at the west entrance into the Bay of Despair; 
it is a safe harbor, with good anchorage in every part of it, in from l(>to 20 fathoms, secure 
from all winds, and plenty of wood and w ter. The passage in is on either side of the 
Great .larvis Island ; but the souiliermnost chaiuiel is the safest, there being lU) danger in 
it but the shore itself. In the northern channel are several smiken rocks. To sail ii; you 
should bring llie north point between the two rocks above water, on the starboard side, and 
then steer directly in; this will carry you clear of some sunken rocks which lie on the 
west point of the island ; thes( rocks appear at lovr water : the entrance to this harbor may 
he known by the east end of great .larvis Island, which is a high, steep, craggy point, called 
Great .larvis Head, and is the northern point of the south entrance to the hail)or. 

BON.NE BAY lies about a league to the westward of (Jreat .larvis Head, and nearly 
N. by E. distant 7 miles from Pass Island; it has several islands at its jntrance, the west- 
ernmost of which is the largest and highest. The best passage in is tc the eastward of the 
largest island, between it and the two easternmost islands. The bay runs in north 4 miles, 
and there is no danger but what shows itself; you may go on either s'de of Drake Island, 
which is small, and nearly in the middle of the bay ; between which, and two small islands 

on the west s 
but the best 
ground, and 
the two sinal 
winds. Tin 
ins; in or out 
some suidven 
of Botme Ba 
W. N. W. 
this entrance 
N. N. E. 2 I. 
parts of it. (J 
;o 20 fathom; 
or 70 fathom 
very near the 
small craft 
oiilv for sii 

runs in N. N. 
home to boti 
there is good 
rove about oi 
to the shore. 
Hare's Ears 
with deep wa 
The Bay o 
W. 2 league^ 
riiwest part, 
quite land-loc 
points of vie\ 
Richard's IL 
leagues from 
shore, having 
Icur, which r 
parts. At the 
rate height, a 
water; a littl 
which vou c;i 
Fran-'ois. a si 
ter of a mile 
is froi'i 30 to 


lies Oar Bay 

the bay is an 

miles, and is 

the head is r 

entrance int( 

shelter for si 


lat. 47° 31' : 

leagues froiv 

known by th 

flat at the tc 


N. W. i N. 

near to each 

<lay-tiu»e to 

and, which 

and the groi 


from Cape . 

100 fathom! 

! shores and in its 

'. I>v Paw fsland, 
pat Jeivis Harbor, 
uiifi Island, wliere 
. you will discover 
' islands are situa- 
the land, and are 
•voral rocks above 
enter Herniitat'c 
ewhat towards ||;(! 
will see the cove 
iger ; the anchor- 
wood and water, 
deep water, until 
nd furtlier into 9 
tajie IJay, is of a 
astern passage is 
e main, called the 
from Hermitage 
V. pohit are two 

; of Long Island, 

ar the soiitii-east 

of several rocky 

or there are froiii 

If a league from 
in order to avoid 
he east side, in 9 

lit 2 miles to the 
J narrow, 
oiri the west end 
itli. the other to 
water; the east- 
on eiilar side of 
out it. 

eeii the west end 
p harbor of that 
Jottom is found 
IMS, one exlerid- 
rd : ill (he \. K. 
places; in tlie 
II bays and coves 
y, there is a lin,- 
;»d salmon (ishe- 
lonntainou.s and 
of wood, such 

I5ay of Despair; 
fath(jms, secure 
her side of the 
ng no danger in 
To sail ii; you 
rl)oar(l side, and 
thicli lie on the 
this harbor may 
cy point, called 

ead, and nearly 
ance, the west- 
eastward of the 
north 4 miles, 
Drake Island, 
o small islands 



on the west side of the h;iy, within Great Island, there is anchorage in 20 or .30 fathoms; 
but the best place for large ships is near the head of the bay, in 12 or 14 fathoms, clear 
jrioimil. and (MHivenient for wood and water. On the N. \V. side of (ireat i.-land, witliin 
the two small islands, is very good anchorace, in from If) to 24 fathoms, secure from all 
winds. The entr:ince from this iiay is to the northward of the two small islands. In sail- 
ini; in or out of the l)ay, approach not too near the soutli point of (ireat Island, as there are 
some sunUin rocks lying at one quarter of a mile from the shore. A little to the westward 
of Bonne Iiay is Muskita Cove, a small inlet of from ."50 to 47 fathoms water. 

W. N. W. 4 miles from lionne Bay is the entrance to the Bays of Facheux and Dragon ; 
this entrance being very conspicuous at sea, the coast may here be readily known. 

FACHEIW, which is the easternmost branch, is very easily seen to seaward, it runs in 
N. N. E. 2 leagues, and is one-third of a mile wide at tlie entrance, with deep water in most 
parts of it. On the west side of the bay are three coves, where ships may anchor in from 10 
ro 20 fathoms. Dragon Bay lies in N. W. one league, and is near half a mile wide, with 60 
or 70 fathoms water, and no anchorage exceptini; near the head ; and then you must lie 
very near the shore. One mile to the westward of J'acheux is Little Ilo't;, with slieltcr for 
small craft ; and one league to the westward of Facheux is Richard's Harbor, a place fit 
onU" for small vessels and fishing shallojis, with 215 fathoms water in it. 

HARK BAY.— N. W. by W. one league from Richard's Harbor, is Hare Bay, which 
runs in N. N. E. about .5 miles, and is about one-third of a mile wide, with deep water close 
home to both shores on all parts of it, except about one league up on the west side, wliere 
there is good anchorage, in from 8 to 15 fathoms, w ith plenty of wood and water, and a small 
rove about one mile up on the east side, where there are 'M fathoms, with gradual soundings 
to the shore. 

DEVIL'S BAY.— N. W. about 4\ miles from Hare Bay, and one league N. E. from 
Hare's Ears Point, is Devil's Bay, a nan inlet, extending a league to the northward, 
with deep water, and no anchorage until you come close to the head. 

The Bay of Rencontre lies to the northward of Hare's Ears Point, and runs in N. 
W. 2 leagues; it has <leep water in most parts of it, and is near half a mile wide at the nar- 
rowest part. The anchorage is in .'iO fathoms, above a low woody point on the south shore, 
quite land-locked. Hare's Ears Point is large, with a ragged rock upon it, which, from some 
points of view, looks like the ears of a hare. It lies W. by N. I N. distant 10 miles from 
Richard's Harl>or, divides the IJays of Rencontre and Chalerr, and be:irs N. W. ^ W. 6 
leagues from I'ass Island. Olf tins [loint is a fishing bank, extending a full mile from the 
shore, havinu; from 20 to 'M fathoms over it. 

CH.^LEl'R liAY. — ""'wo miles to the westward of Hare's Ears Point is the Bay of Cha- 
Ipur, which runs in about 2 leagues N. N. W. It is very narrow, and has deep water in most 
parts. At the north entrance into the bay, and chtse to the land, is a small island of mode- 
rate height, and half a league within the island, on the N. E. side of the bay, is a rock above 
water; a little within this rock, on the same side, is a .•iiiall cove, with a sandy bna h, off 
which you can anchor in 2H fathoms, a cable's length from tlie shore. 

FRANCOIS BAY. — West, near half a league from the Bay of f ^haleur, is the Bay of 
Frairois, a small inlet running in N. W. { W. one mile, being at the entrance about a quar- 
ter of a mile broad, and 17 fathoms deep, but just within is .')() and (iO fathoms; at the head 
is froiii ;iO to 20 fathoms, good anchorage, and very convenient for carrying on the fishing 

OAR Bay. — Westward, 4 miles from the Bay Franrois. on the east side of Cape la Hune, 
lies Oar Bay ; olVthe the east point of its entrance is a low rocky islet, and, in the entrance of 
the bay is aiuttlvei, with a passage on each side of it. The bay runs in N. N. E. about 4 
miles, and is one third of a mile wide, with t\cep water close to both shores all the way up; at 
the head is a harbor for small vessels, with only 5 fathoms water. At the west side of the 
entrance into the bay is Cul de Sac, a little cove, with 3 and 4 fathoms water, and good 
shelter for small vessels. 

(^\PE L\ HFNE is the southernmost point ofland on this part of the coast, and lies in 
lat. 47° ."ir X. bearing W. N. W. ,V N. S lea^iues from Pass Island, and N. N. W. A N. 10 
leagues from (Uipe Miquelon ; its figure much resembles a sugar-loaf: this cape may also be 
known by the high land of La Hune, which lies one leauue to the westward of it, appearing 
flat at the top, and hiav be seen front a distance of Id leagues. 

'I HE PENOriN ISLANDS lie W. S. W. ,', S. 10 i miles from C-ne La Hune. and 
N. W. A N. 10 leagues from Cape Miquelon : they are an assemblage of bar. en rocks lying 
near to each other, and altogether about 2 leagues in circuit ; and may be approached in the 
(lay-time to the distame of half a league all round. On the W, S. W. side of the large isl- 
and, which is the highest, is a small cove, fit for shallops, and convenient for the fisheries, 
and the ground about it is considered to be good for (isliing. 

WHALE ROCK.—E. S. E. H miles from the Penguin Islands, and S. by W. .-^ leagues 
from Cape La Hune, lies the Whale Rock, on which the sea generally breaks; it is about 
100 fathoms in circuit, with 10, 12, and 14 fathoms water close to all round it. From this 








• : 

rock a narrow bank extends one leajiue to tlie westward, and lialf a leapup to the eastward 
with from 'J4 to 5H fathoms water on it, rocky and frraveiiy bottom. In tlic < hanncl between the 
shore and this rock, and also bet ween tlie sliure and I lie I'enuuin Isbnids, are rjOaiul JJiOlath- 
oms of water, inmldy bottom, and there is the same ik'|)tluit water at omMeapue without thein. 

LA HUNK BAY hes eb>se to tlie westward of C^ape La Hune; it is about two leagues 
deep, and one third of a mile wide, with deep water in most parts of it; but there is a 
sunken rock, which lies oil" the west jxiiiit of the entraiice, nearly one third 
over. In sailinj; in or out (d this bay, you should keep the ea.-tern shore on board, in or- 
der to avoid a sunken rock which lies o(f the west point of the entrance into the bav, iiearlv 
one third over. Two miles up the bay is Lance Cove, havinj; anchorage in 14 and IG fa'. 
thonis water, i»ood clean ground. A cable's lengtii off the southern point of this cove is a 
small shoal with !) feet water, and betw een it and the point there are .5 fathoms. To sail into 
this place, keep the east point of the bay open of a red cliff point, off which is a rock above 
water, until the round hill you will see over the valley of the cove, is brought on with the 
north side of the valley ; you will then be above the shoal, and may liaul into the cove with 
safety. Tliere is a narrow bank which stretches tjuite across the bay, from the south point 
of the cove to the opposite sliore. wlicrcon are (Vom \'7 to 45 fathoms. 

LA IIUNE IIARHOU lies half a league to the westward of ('ai)e la Ilnne: it has an 
island before its entrance, and is lit only for small vessels, and open to westerly winds : be- 
fore it lies an island near the .shore. The channel into the harbor is on the N. W. side of 
the island. There is no danger in going in, and you niuit anchor close up to the head, in 
10 fathoms water. This liaibor is will adapled for the fishery, there being good fishin" 
ground about it, and a large iieaih (|ui(e across frnm the head of the h;:rbor to la Hune Bay : 
a space of 800 feet, exposed to the open air, and well iiilcuiated for drying fish. 

Four leagues N. W. 4' W. from Cape La Hune, is the entrance of Little Kiver, which 
is about 100 fathoms wide at the entrance, and 10 fathoms deep: a little way uj) there is 
anchorage in 10, 8, and 7 fathoms water, good ground. J3etween Cape La Hune and 
Little River, the land is tolerably high, and forms a bay, where there are several small 
islands and rocks above water, the oiitennost of which lie N. N. E. | E. 3 leagues from 
the Penguin Islands, and are called the Magnetic l\ocks. 

S. by W. ^ W. 7 miles from the entrance of Little River, and N. by W. J W. from the 
Penguin Islands, lie the Little River Rocks, which are just above water, with very deep 
water all round them. 

THE ISLES OF RAMEA, which are of various extent, both in height and circuit, 
lieN.W.^N. 5^ leagues from the Penguin Islands, and one league from the main: they ex- 
tend east and west 5 miles, and north and south ,3 miles, and have several rocks and breakers 
about them; but more on the south side than on ilie nortli. 'J'he easternmost island is the 
largest, and is very high and hilly : the westernmost, called Columbe, is a remarkably high 
round island, of small circuit, with some rocky islands and sunken rocks near it. 

RAMEA HARBOR. — There is a harbor for small vessels, formed by the islands which 
lie near Great Ramea and the Columbe, called Kaniea Harbor, where they may lie sheltered 
from all winds. To enter this from the westward, you should give the southern point a berth 
on account of some rocks that lie o(f the starboard island, these are all above water ; steer E. 
N. E. towards the harbor, keeping as nearly mid-channel as yoti can, the passage is above a 
cable's length broad, and run for the anchorage in Ship Cove ; this is the second inlet on the 
N. Western shore ; you will here ride? safely, on clean ground, in .'i fathoms water. To enter 
from the eastward, you must keep the northern side of (Jreat Ramea on board, until you are 
up to the west end thereof, then steer S. W. into the harbor, keeping in the middle of the 
channel, in about three fathoms, and anchor as before directed. Tliis harbor is very conve- 
nient for fishing vessels; in it, and also about tlie islands, are several places fit for erecting 
stages and drying fish, which seem to be well calculated for that purpose. 

The Rainea Rocks are two in number, close to each other; they lie about south, distant 
4 miles from the east end of Creat Ramea. W. S. W. one league from these rocks is a small 
bank with only fi fathoms water on it; and, nearly in the middle, between Ramea and the 
Penguin Islands, is the New Bank, with from 14 to 50 fathoms water; to run upon the shoalest 
part of this bank, bring the two Ranie-) Rocks on witii the S. Western jiart of Ramea 
Islands, and between them and Columbe, and the entrance to Little River N. E. J E. 

OLD MAN'S BAY.—Four miles to the westward of Little River is Old Man's Bay, 
>vhich runs in N. N. E. about 7 miles, and is nearly a mile wide; the water throughout 
the bay is very deep. About one mile and a half up the bay, on the eastern side, is a small 
island, called Adam's Island, behind which vessels can ride, if necessary, in 30 and 40 fa- 
thoms; but the best anchorage is at the head, in 14 or 1(5 fathoms. 

MOSQUITO HARBOR lies about half a league to the westward of Old Man's Bay; 
it is a snug and sale harbor, and will hold a great number of vessels in perfect security ; but 
the entrance is so narrow, being only 48 fathoms in breadth, that it is difficult to get in or out ; 
the land on both sides is high, and oft' the southern point of entrance is a large white rock, 
about a cable's length from which it a black rock, above water, on the southern side of whivth 




fo fliP eastward, 

unci l)i>t\v(M>ri the 



ilxjut two Irii(>uc8 

it: l)ut then' is a 

rd of th«- 1 liiini.f'l 

oil hoard, in or- 

to t\w hay, nearly 

K in 14 and IG fa- 

t of this <ov«" is a 

Jtiis. To sail into 

li is a rock above 

iu;ht oil with the 

nto the cove with 

n the south point 

IIhiip: it has an 
;terly winds : he- 
le N. W. side of 
jp to the head, in 
inji good fishin;r 
to hiHiine Bay: 

TlP^ fisll. 

ttio River, which 
; way up there is 
e La liune and 
ire several small 
• 3 leagues from 

^. ^ W. from tlie 
•, with very deep 

ight and circuit, 
e main : they ex- 
)cks and breakers 
iiost island is the 
reinarkai)ly high 
'ar it. 

he islands which 
may lie sheltered 
em point a berth 
e water; steer E. 
assage is above a 
cond inlet on the 
water. To enter 
ird, until you are 
lie middle of the 
or is very conve- 
8 fit for erecting 

ut south, distant 
; rocks is a small 

Ramea and the 

part of Ramea 
rN. E. J E. 
Old Man's Bay, 
ater throughout 
[1 side, is a small 
in 30 and 40 fa- 

•Id Man's Bay; 
ct security; but 
to get in or out; 
irge white rock, 
It side of whioh 

inn sunk rock, whereon the sea breaks; from this blark rock to the entrance of the harbor, 
the course is about N. N. W. distant oiie-ihiid of a mile, in sailing cilher in or out, you 
shoulii give the I'ack rock a small berth, keeping the wcHtern shore on board, and if obliged to 
anchor, be as cpiick as possible in getting a rope on shore, lest you drift on the rocks. In this 
bariioryou will have from Id to 30 (athoms water, with good riding every where, and ph nty 
of both wood and water; in the narrows youwillfmd I'i fathoms, the slu)res being bold to: 
south and easterly winds blow right in, northerly winds right out; and with westerly wind* 
it is commonly either quite calm, or descends in irrejiular pulls. 

Fox Island Harbor is formed by an island of the same name; it lies about half a league 
to the westward of Moscjuito Harbor ; between are several rocky islands and sunken rocks. 
This is a commodious harbor for small vessels, which may anchor in rj, 9, and 10 fathoms 
water. You uuiy go in on either side of the island, and tlierc is no danger but what shows 

WHITE BEAR BAY lies about 2 miles to the westward of Fox Island Harbor, and 
N. N. E. one league from Great Ramea Islatid ; it has several ishiiids at its entrance. It 
runs in N. E. J I"!, about 4 leagues, is near half a mile wide in the narrowest part, and has 
deep water close to botli shores in most parts, to the distance of S miles up; then the 
ground rises at once to 9 fathoms, whence it shoalens gradually to the head with good 
anchorage. The best passage into the bay is to the eastward of all the islands. On the 
S. W. side of Bear Island, which is the easternnujst and largest in the motitli of the bay, 
is a small harbor, runninjj in about east half a mile, with from 10 to .ii fathoms of water, 
but there are several sunken rocks before its mouth, rendering il difficult of access. At 
the western entrance is a high round white island, aiid S. \V. half a mile iVom this island 
is a black rock above water. The best passage into the bay, from the westward, will be to 
the westward of this black rock, and between White and Bear Islands ; some of the rocks 
are above a mile oft' the land. 

RED ISLAxND HARBORS.— Five or six iniles to the westward of White Bear Bay, 
and nearly nortlifrom Ramea (!oliuube, are two small harliors, called Red Island Harbors, 
formed by Red Island, whif-h lies close under the land. The westernmost is the largest and 
best, and has from 6 to 8 fathoms water, irood anchorage. In going in, keep the island 
close on board, the outer part of which is coinposed of steej) red cliU's. 

The BURGEO ISLES are a cluster of islands extending about 5 miles along shore, 
and forming several snug and commodious harbors. They lie about 3 leagues N. W. by 
N. from Ramea Columbe. To sail into Burgeo from the eastward, the best passage is on 
the N. E. side of Boar Island, which is the northerunu)st. and lies N. N. W. from Ramea 
Columbe. S. E. by S. from this island half a league, is a rock, uncovered at low water, on 
which the sea generally breaks; yoti may go on any side of this rock, the water being deep 
all round it : so soon as you are to the N. W. of it, keep the north side of Boar Island on 
board, and steer W, i N. for Grandy's Cove, the north point of which is the first low point 
on your starboard bow; haul round that point, and anchor in the cove in 14 fathoms, and 
moor with a fast on shore. The best place for larjje ships to anchor in is, betwixt Grandy's 
Cove and a small island, lying near the west point of Boar Island, in 20 or 24 fathoms, good 
ground, and sheltered from all w iuds. To sail into (brandy's Cove from the westward is 
dangerous, unless well acquainted : there are several safe passages in from the southward 
and eastward, between the islands, and good anchorage ; and in bad weather all the sunken 
rocks discover themselves, and you may run in without any fear; but the islands do not 
aftord either wood or water. 

WOLF BAY extends inwards N. E. by E. one league : tlie entrance is E. N. E. 2 miles 
from Boar Island, and two miles to the westward of Red Island Harbor ; the east point of 
the entrance is composed of low rugged rocks, oft" which is a sunken rock, at the distance 
of a quarter of a mile from shore, over which the sea breaks in bad weather. Near the 
head of the bay is tolerably good anchorage, and plenty of wood and water. 

Swing's Harbor lies round the west point of Wolf Bay, and runs in N. E. by E. three 
quarters of a mile ; before its mouth is a cluster of little islands. To sail in, keep the 
east point of these islands on board, and steer N. by W. and north for the entrance of the 
harbor, anchoring under the east shore in !) fathoms. 

HA-HA. — On the south side of the islands before King's Harbor, and nearly north one 
mile from Boar Island, is the entrance into the Ha-Ha, which runs in W. N. W. one mile, 
and is about a quarter of a mile broad, with from "JO to 10 fathoms water, and good ground 
all over. Over the soutVi point of the entrance into this harbor is a high green hill; and a 
cable's length and a half from the point is a sunken rock that always shows itself. Over the 
head of the Ha-Ha, is Richard's Head, a mark for running ujion Ramea Shoal. 

(J RE AT BARRYSWAY.— About four nutes to the westward of the Burgeo Isles is 
the Great Barrysway point, which is low, white, and rocky ; and E. N. E. ^ E. half a league 
from this point is the west entrance into the Great Barrysway, wherein is room and depth 
of water for small vessels. Between the Burgeo Isles and the Great Barrysway Point, are 
several sunken rocks, some of which are half a league from the shore. 



CONNOIFU: IJAV.— N. W. .', N. 4 iciCMirs from tin- Ilm-zo" Islrs, is the pn««t point of 
the Hay of ConiioirH: tliis imiiit is so ii'mnrk;ililf that it uses with an ;\s(pnf to a 
moderate lieinlit, and mu. ii liij;lier tliaii tin- land witliiii it ; iln" west point of the hay is 
low and (hit. and to the wcsn- an! of tliis are several small ts';iiid . Tiie hay runs in N. K, 
by N. ahout a league from the east point to the niidiiie hea<l, which lies between the two 
arms, and is half a leaL'iie wide, wiili H, I'i, 10, and H fathoms, elose to both shores, jjood 
anchorai^e, and clear >;round. but ()|>en to S. W. winds. The N. K. arm afforils shelter 
for small vessels from all winds. To sail in, kee|> nearest the starboard shore, and anchor 
before, a small eove on that side, near the head of the arm, in M.', fathoms ; towards the head 
of the arm on the north-western side, is a bank of mud and sand, uptm which a vessel tnay 
run, if necessaiy, and receive no damage. 

THE HAY UF CUTTKAU lies about 2 loajjnes to the westward of Connoire : its 
depth will admit small vessels only. KduiuI the west point of ( 'ntteau is Ciiirj Serf, where- 
in are a number of islands, which form several small snuj; liarbors Right off Cinq Serf, 
about half a league from the s)ioro, is a low rocky island, westward of which is the safest 
passage into the hir<;est harbor; keep near this rock, steering; K. N. K. J E. towards the 
south-eastern shore, untd you get abreast of a small woody island; this is the easternmost 
except one, and lies about a (juarterof a mile K. .\. E. I'rom a white rock in the middle of 
the chamiel; haul short round this island, and an(rhor behind it, in 7 fathoms water, here 
you will lie safely shfiltertd from all winds, or you may go further up, and anchor at its 
head in 4 fathoms. 

(IRAN I) '' ' 'IT, — Four miles to the westward of the rocky island of Cinq Serf, is the 
harbor of Gi ^iii . vhicli is small but commodious; and may be known i)y a very hiijh 

remarkable nv ' itait « 'er it, half a league inland, which is the highest land on all the 
coast: down th. .nounl,^- runs a considerable brook, emptying itself by a cascade into 
the harbor. Hefore the mtiudi of the harixir ace several litilc islands, the largest of which 
is of middling height, with three green hillocks on it. A little outside of this island is a 
round rock, rather liigh above water, called the ("olumbc of (treat Hruit ; and a (piarter of 
a mile to the southward of this rock, is a low rock : hi a direct line between the low rock 
and the rocky isles of Cin(| Serf; lialf a league from tlie former, is a sunken rock, whereon 
the sea does not break in fine weather. The safest passage into (Jranti Bruit is to the north 
eastward of this rock, and of the islands lyin<r before the harbor, between them and the 
three islands (which are low, and lay under tlie shore ;) and, after you are to the northward 
of the sutiken rock above meiuioned, there is no danger but what shows itself. The har- 
bor extends N. N. E. half a mile, and is but a quarter of a mile wide in the broadest part; 
but it is bold to on both sides, and has a depth cd' from 4 to 7 fathoms. 

BAY OF ROTTE— To the westward of (Irand limit, between if and La Poile Bay, 
lies the Bay of Rotte, wherein are a great many islands and sunken rocks. The soulhcrii- 
most is a remarkable high round rock, called the Cohimbe of Kotte, which lies N. W. by 
AV. 8} leagues from the southernmost of the Burgeos. Between this island and (trand 
Bruit i8,a reef of rocks, some abo\e, and some under water, but they do not lie to the south- 
ward of the direct line between the islands. Within the islands of Kotte there is shelter 
for shipping; the safest passage in is to the westward of the islands between them and Lit- 
tle Ireland, which lies olf the east jjoint of l^a Poile Bay. 

LA EQILE BAY is large and spacious, and has several commodious harbors. Tt may 
be knpwo b^' the high land of (Jraiid Bruit, which is oidy five miles to the eastward of it ; 
and likewise by the land on the east side of the bay, which rises in remarkably liigh craggy 
hills. About 1! mile S. W. from its east point lies Little Ireland, a small low island, en- 
vironed with sunken rocks, smne of which aro one-thin! yf a mile off: north, about half 
a mile from Little Ireland, is a sunken rock that shows itself at low water: this is the only 
danger in going into the bay, excepting such as lie verv near the shore. 

GREAT AND LITTLE IIABBORS.— Two miles within the west point of the bay, 
and N. i W. 2 miles from Little Ireland, is Tweeds, or Great Harbor; its south point is 
low, and it extends inwards \V. ^. W. one i7iile; it is about li cable's length wide in the 
narrowest part : and the anchorage is near the head of the harbor, in 18 or 20 fathoms, clear 
ground, and sheltered Irom all winds. Half a mile to the northward of Great Harbor is 
Little Harbor, the north point of which, called Tooth's Head, is the first high blnlf head 
on the west side of the bay ; the harbor extends inwards W. x\. \V. about a mile. In sail- 
ing in, give the south point a small berth. You may anchor aiiout half way up the harbor, 
in 10 fathoms water, before the stage which is on its northern side. 

GALLY BOY'S HARBOR hes on the east side of the bay, opposite Tooth's Head ; 
it is small, snug, and convenient for ships bound to the westward. The north point is high 
and steep, with a white spot in the clilf, and near its southern jmint are some hillocks close 
to the shore. To sail in or out, keep the north side on board. You must anchor so soon 
as you are within the inner south point, in 9 or 10 fathoms, good ground; and sheltered 
from all winds. One mile to the northward of Gaily Boy's Harbor, between two sandy 


covfs on the 
rock, that ju.- 

Bro id ( M)v 
the l»ay. In 

K. arm, whic 
sjndy point 
fallioms wale 
jikI water. 

Inilian llai 

jrc two smal 

may get in ai 

Little Ireli 

and lies near 

G.\iUA r 

isW.N.W ,' 
snr.iU vessels 
shore, but no 
discover then 
white head, I 
of the bay, 
point N. N. 
lie to the W 
row toward t 
large enouiili 
LV ;M()i: 
Harbor la Gc 
is tolerably 
much highe 
Biiv extends 
narrowest pa 
ing in, keep 
wards the ea 
U fatlioins, 
which lies a 
above water, 
the rock, hai 
iiiiT with a 1' 
from the hai 
resort of fht 
same name ; 
into tiie hav 
(rive the isla 
and keepth 
hig within t 
the harbor i 
Mull Ra< 
islands, and 
.Seven iii 
close undei 
shelter for 
mile tVoin I 
Point, is C 
several sun 
but wlien c 

Point, are 
ands Harh 
fathoms, s 
are severa 
be known 
W. and St 
island on ; 






flio rnM point of 
«':iNV iiscrni to a 

'If of the l);,v i<| 

iiv runs in N.' [.; 

iffwccn tlif two 

"111 shores, jjodd 

affords shpjti-r 

iliore, ;in(l anchor 

towards the hfad 

hich a vesst'l may 

of f 'onnoire ; jtj 
("mi Serf, where 

lit off Cin(| Serf, 
ii<'li is the 

J E. towards the 
s the easternniost 

in the middle of 
lioins water, here 
I'ld anchor at ita 

rCinq Serf, is the 
wn \,y a very hii;h 
St land on all the 
>v a cascade into 

larpest of which 
f this island is a 

and a (inarter of 
eon the low rock 
'11 rock, whereon 
tit is to the north 
'n them and the 
to the northward 
f^elf. The har- 
le broadest part; 

J La Poile Bay, 
h lies N. VV. by 
stand and (irand 
lie to the .south- 
there is shelter 
n them and Lit- 

arbnrs. Tt may 
eastward of it ; 

biy hifrh cragcy 
low island, en- 

ifth, about half 
this is the only 

oint of the bay, 
i south point is 
Jth wide in the 
) fathoms, clear 
Jrcat Harbor is 
liilh blu/f head 
inile. In sail- 
up the harbor, 

Tooth's Head ; 
th point is high 
! hillocks close 
inehor so soon 
and sheltered 
Jen two sandy 

(•ovps on the east side of the bay. and nearly two cable's length from the sliorc, is a Runkeii 
rock, that just uncovers at low wnter. 

Broid Oove is about two miles to the northward of Tooth's Mead, on tlie same side of 
the bay. In thisthere is cood anchorane in IvJ or 11 fathoms. 

NOHTH KA.ST AK.M —About two leagues upilic bay, cm tlie pastern sifie, is the N. 
K. arm, which is a spacious, safe, and commodious harbor, in sailin^ in. jiive the low 
»ainly |>oint on the S. K. side a small bcrlli, and anciior above it where convenient, in 10 
fathoms water, good holdinj^ ground, sheltered from all winds, and very convenient for wood 
jiiil water. 

Indian Harbor and De Plate lie just within the outer west point of La Poile Bay; these 
are two small coves, conveniently situated for the fishery, but lit only for small vessels, who 
may get in at high water. 

Little Ireland bears from the sctuthcrmnost of the Jhirgeos N.W. by W. | W. 9J leagues ; 
and lies nearly 11 leagues to the eastward of Cape Kay. 

GARIA BAV — From Little Irclandto Harbor la ('one, and La Moine Bay, the course 
is W. N.W 'I W.Oor 10 milts; bctw<Mu lies the bay of ( Jaria.and several coves, fit only for 
small vessels ; before these there arc several islands, and sunken rocks scattered along the 
shore, but none of them lie without the above course. In bad weather, all the sunken rocks 
discover themselves. To sail into (Jaria Bay. you will, in coasting along shore, discover a 
white head, this is the south point of an island, lying under the land, off the eastern point 
of the bay. and a little to the westward of two green hillocks on the main; bring this white 
point N. N. K. and steer directly towards it; keep between it and the several islands that 
lie to the W. S. westwani ; from the white point, the ctiiiise into the bay is N. by W. bor- 
row towaril the eastern point, which is low. 'J'hc bay of (iaria alfords plenty of timber, 
large enough for builtlinu <»f ships. 

LA .MOI.NK AND LA ("OUK HARBORS.— Tlie .«^. W. p-'-u of the entrance into 
Harbor la ('one, callcil Rose Blaiiclit> I'oint. (iicartt) \viru h are ^ ,(ie >-ocks above water,) 
is tolerably high, and the land near the slitne tiver Harbor la Co, i a La .Moine Bay is 
much higher than any other land in tin- vicinity: by this they ay bt u_ own. La Moine 
Bay extenils inwartls .\. H. •,' L. about I miles, anil is tme (piaiuv of a mile broad in the 
narrowest part. Olf the e;ist point arc some small islands, anil rocks above water. In sail- 
ing iu, keep the west point on board, uiilil you liave eiitcreil the biiy ; then edge over to- 
wards the east shore, and run up to the hcati of the bay, where .on may anchor in 10 or 
11 fathoms, gnoil ground : here is |)lciity of wood anti water. To sail into Harbor la Coue, 
which lies at the west entrance into La Moine Bay. steer .\. N. W. between a rock 
above water, in the mouth of tli- harbor, and the west shore; so soon as you are within 
the rock, haul to the westwani, into the harbor, anil anchor in (> or H fathoms v^ater, moor- 
ing nitli a hawser on shore; or you may steer into the arm. which runs in N. E. by E. 
from the harbor, and anchor in •,'') fathoms, sheltereil from all wintls. This has been the 
resort of the small fishing vessels for many years. 

ROSE BliANCHE. — To the westwani of Rose Blanche Point, is the harbor of the 
same name; it is small anil xnug, ami the anchorage is in ') fathoms water. The channel 
into the harbor is between the islautl lying off its western jioint, and Rose Blanche Point; 
give the island a gooil berth, on account of some sunken rocks which lie on its eastern side, 
and kee|)the west side of the small island which lies close to ilie point, on boari), anchor- 
ing within the \. E point of this island in 9 fathoms. To enter into the N.'W. part of 
the harbor woultl be dansjerous, if a stranger, bct-ausi? of its numerous islands and rocks. 

Mull Race is a small cove 'J miles to the westwani of Rose Blanche Point, wherein is 
anchorage for small vessels in 4 fathoms. Off the west point of the cove are two small 
islands, ami several sunken rocks ; the passage in is to the eastward of these. 

Seven miles to the westward of Rose Blanche Point are the Burnt Islands, which lie 
close uniler the shore, and are not easily to be tlistinguished from it; behind these is a 
shelter for small vessels. Off these islands are sunken rocks, some of which are half a 
mile from the shore. 

CONNEY AND OTTER BAYS.— Six miles to the westward of Rose Blanche 
Point, is Conney Bay and Otter Bay, both of which are rendered difficult of access by 
several sunken rocks outside the passage; which do not show themselves in fine weather ; 
but when once you are safe within Otter Bay, there is good riding in 7, 8, and 9 fathoms 

DEAD ISLANDS HARBOR.— W. N. W. ?\V.nearly4 leagues from Rose Blanche 
Point, are the Dead Islands, which lie close uniler the shore ; in the passage to Dead Isl- 
ands Harbor, between the islands and the main, is good anchorage for shij)ping in 6 or 8 
fathoms, sheltered from all winds; but it is very dangerous of access to strangers, as there 
are severai sunken rocks in both the east and west entrances. The eastern entrance can 
be known by a remarkable white spot on one of the i lands ; bring this spot to bear N. by 
W. and steer in for it, keeping the starboard rocks on board, and leave the white spotted 
island on your larboard side. The western entrance may be recognized by a high point oi 



the main, a little to the wentwanl of tlie i^htnd*. on the western part of wliirh point ii a 
greni liillock; keep tliis ixtiiit rioscon buiiid, iiiilll ynii ^ct within a htth- round rock, near 
to (he wrKterniiioHt iNl.ind, at the ra-itfrn point ot «titranre; then haul over to the eaiitwarii 
for tiie ^reat island, dislinjjui.shud by a hi^h hill, and steer K. I N. keeping; the before men- 
tioned little rock in Nii^lit. 

I'CJR'r Al'X HASC^CK.— From the Dead Isles to Port ati Ha-^cme, the eotirnr and 
tlistance are W. N. W. about tnides; bciwcen lie .several small islands close under the 
shore, and there are snnkcn rocks, some nl which are hall a mile from the shore. I'tirt 
niix iiasijiM- is a small commodious harbor, mImcIi lies about 'i\ leagues to the eastward 
of (Jape Kay. To fall in with it, briii;; the Sii^ar-Loaf Mill over Cape Kay, to hear N. N. 
W. ,'j W. or the west end of the Table iMoimiain N. N. W. Steer in for the land with 
either of these marks, uiid you will tall directly in with the harbor: the S. W. point, called 
Poitit KlaiK he, is of a moderate heiulit, and of white appearance ; but th" N. K. point is 
low and llat, and has, (lose to it, a black rock above water. In order to avoid the outer 
shoal, on which are three fathoms, and which lies K. S. E. three tpiarters of a milu 
Inuii Point Blanche, keep the said point on board, and brini; the tlag-stalf which is on the 
hill over the west side ol the head of the harbor, on with the .S, W. poitit of Koad Island; 
tliat direction will lead you in the middle of the channel, between the east and west rocks, 
tile former of which always show themselves, and these you leav<; on your starboard hand: 
continue this course up to Koad Island, and keep the west [)oint on board, in order to avoid 
the Kryinj^-|)an Kock, which stretches out Irom a cove on the west shore, opposite the 
island; and, so soon as you are above the island, haul to the H.N. K. and anchor between 
it and Harbor Island wherever you please, in (tor 10 fathoms, jjood jiroiind, and sheltered 
from all winds : this is called the Koad or Outer Harbor, and is the only anctmririi; place 
for men ol" war, or ships drawint; a (jreat depth of water, but small vessels always lie up in 
the Inner Harbor. To sail into it. run in between the west shore and the .S. W. eiul of 
Harbor Island, and anchor behind the said island, in '! or 4 fathoms. In some parts of this 
harbor sliips can lay their broadside so near to the shore as to reach it with a |)laiik. This 
place has been fre(|iieiited by lisliermen for many years, it isweil situated for their pur|)oses. 
and is capable of most excellent uccommodatioiis; one mile to the eastward of Basque is 
Little Rav. 

GR.Ar>/D BAY lies about two miles to the westward of Port atix Basque; there are 
several small islands and ro< ks in and before it, the outtriUDsi of which are not above \ 
quarter of a mile iVom the shore, on these the sea i^enor.illy breaks: it is only fit for small 

From Port aux Basque to Point Kiira<;(''e. the bearing and distance are W. N. W. 
about a league, and thence to ('ape Ray N. N. W. nearly 1', league. Point Enracce, is 
low ; off it and to the eastward of it, are some sunken rocks a mile froin the shore, on which 
the sea breaks. 

CAPE RAY is the .*^. W. extremity of Newfoundlan 1, situated in lat. 47 deg. 37 min. 
north, and longitude .59 dcij. 17 min. w.^st from (Jrceiiwich: the land of the cape is very 
remarkable; near the shore it is low, but three miles inland is a very hiuh table mountain, 
which rises almost perpendicular from the low 1 nd, and ajjfiears to be (juite flat at the top, 
excepting a small hillock on the S. W. |)oiiit of it. This land maybe seen, in clear 
weather, from the distance of l(> or Irt leagues. Close to the foot of the Table mountain, 
between it and the point of thti cape, is a liic;h round liill. resembling a sugar-loaf, (called 
the Sugar-Loaf of Cape Kay,) whose summit is a little lower than that of the table inotin- 
tain ; and to the northward of this hill, under the table mountain, are two other conical 
hills, resembling sugar-loaves, which are not so high as the former ; one or other of these 
sugar-loaf hills arc, from all points of view, seen detached from the table mountain. 

There is a sandy bay betwi-eii Cape Ray and Point Eiiragee, wherein sliips may anchor 
with tlie winds from N. N. W. to East, but they should be cautious not to be surprised 
there vv'ith S. W. winds, which blow dire; ily in, and cause a great sea. The ground is 
not the best for holding, being lim^ sand. Towards tlie east side of this bay is a small 
ledge of rocks, one mile from shore, on which the sea does not break, in fine weather. 
The best place for lar.'.'e ships to aiiclior it; is, to bring the point of the cape N. W. and 
tlie hi'^h white sand-hill in the bottom of the liay N. E. in 10 fathoms water. Small ves- 
sels may lie farther in. Be larofiil not to run so far to the eastward as to bring the end of 
the table mountain on with the sand-hill, in the bottom of the bay, liy which means the 
ledge of rocks before mentioned will be avoided. 

N. W. ^ W. nearly one mile from the point of the cape, is a small ledge of rocks, called 
the Cape Rocks, whereon the sea always breaks; and, one mile to the northward of the 
cape, close uiider the land, is a low rocky island ; there "^ a channel between the ledge 
and the cape, with 14 and 15 fathoms water, and also between it and the island with 4 and 
6 fathoms; but the tides, which run here with great rapidity, render it unsafe to shipping. 

The soundings under 100 fathoms do not extend above a league from the land to the 
southward and eastward of the cape, nor to the westward and northward of it, except on a 


)ank *hich 
arc from 70 
aux Basqm 

Kay, in .Ni 
hiaiid ; it t>* 
Iii){li hills 11 
there is a Ii 
from the se 

fntrance iiit 
bears from t 
excepting n< 

the tide gei 
about 7 or h 
greatly inllu 
and St. I'le 
Bay, it sets 
Mniie and ( 
generally v! 
xiderable, e\ 
vhat miiilit 
lime than at 




Cape f\jigui 
ward of (.'ap 
Between tli« 
wherein are 
which has a 
The shore u 
ger so far off 
being timbei 

Cape Anguil 
in compass, 
bar-harbor ( 

good anchoi 
point of the i 
island, at the 
of the island 
to the soutlr 
shoal stretcl 
there is goof 

distance are 
(leorge, whi 
leagues froii 
land, is a go 
St. George < 
but boats, 
chorage in 7 
two-thirds a 

the Bay of I 



licli point i« a 
iikI rock, near 
> the «'ioiiwnrd 
u; bi'furf iiien- 

le course nnd 

DHP under lln; 

Hliorc. I'ort 

» the cnslwiirtl 

to bi'iir N. N. 

tilt' land with 

'. point, cidicd 

N. K. point 18 

void the outer 

ters ol'a nirlu 

hich is on the 

Hoad Island ; 

id west rocks, 

irl)oiird hand : 

oriler to avoid 

', opposite the 

ichor between 

and ^*hp|ter(•ll 

clioriiii; place 

wavs lie up in 

S.'W. end of 

e fiartsoC this 

plank. This 

heir purposes. 

of 15as(]ue is 

ue ; there are 
' not above h 
\y (it for small 

re W. N. W. 
t Enragoe, is 
ore, on which 

deg. 37 niin. 

cajie is very 

lie mountain, 

lat at the top, 

een, in clear 

le mountain, 

r-loaf, (called 

table motin- 

other conical 

tlier of these 


may anclior 

be surprised 

10 ground is 

ay is a small 

ine weather. 

N. W. and 

Small ves- 

n<j the end of 

1 means the 

rocks, called 
iward of the 
in the ledge 
d with 4 and 
to shipping. 
! land to the 
except on a 

jank Ahich lies otV Port aiix Itasijiie, between 'J and .'( leaKues iVomilie Innd, whereon 
are from 70 (o 100 fathoms, good hsliing uround. S. K. j S. about 13 ^rnKueft from Port 
,iux itaNijue, ill the lai. of 47 deg. 14 miii. north, is saiil to be a bank, whereon lire 70 

THK ISLAND OK ST. I'AIJL, bearn W. S. W. \ W. distant 14 lengieiifrom Cape 
Ray, ill Ni^wfounilland, and K. N. K. | K. 4 leagues from the North Cafie of Itretou 
Maud; it is about 5 miles in compaMs, including the islet at its N. K. end; < has three 
liigli hills upon it, and deep water close to all round. On the northern part of 'his island, 
there is a lighthouse containing a fixeil light, it can be 8eeii in clear weather 18 miles 
from the sea. 

CAPK NOKTII is a lofty nroniontnry at tiie N. K. extremity of Itreton Island; the 
entrance into the (iulf of St. Lawrence is formed liy this cape and Cape Kay, and the latter 
bears from the former K. N. K. | K. distant IH l leagues : the depth of the water between, 
excepting near the island of St. I'aul. is generally aluive JOO fathoms, 

THK TIDKS. — IJelweeii ("ape Chapcau Kuuge and ("ape Kay, in all the bayn, &e. 
the tide generally flows till !) o'clock, on full and change, and its perpendicular rise is 
about 7 or H fft on springs; but it must be obsencd, that the tides are every where 
greatly inlluein ... by the winds and weather. ( >ii the coast, between ("ape ('ha|)eau Kouge 
and St. Pierre, ilie current sets generally to ilie S. \V. On the south side of Fortune 
Kav, it sets to the eastward, and on the iioitli side to the westward. Ketween (Jape La 
Huiie and Cape Kay, the Hood sets to the westward in tin- oiling, very irregularly; but 
generally -J or .'• Iioui.s after it i> high water by the shore. The tide or current is inron- 
fiiileruble, exceplini; near ("ape Kay, where it is stidiig. aod at timi's sets (|uite contrary to 
what miuht be expected Imm the coiiiiiion course of the tides, and much stronger at one 
lime than at another; irregularities seem to depend cliielly on the winds. 



FROM Cape Ray to Cape .\nguille, the course and distance are N. } E. 17 or 18 mtlefli 
Cape Anguille is the northernmost point of land you can .see, after passing to the west-' 
ward of (."njie Kay; it is high table land, and covered with wood, in the rnuntry above it. 
Ketweeii the high land of the two capes the coast is low, and the shore forms a bay, 
wherein are the great and little rivers of ("od Roy; the northernmost is the great river, 
which has a bar-harbor, fit to admit vessels of H or 10 feet draught only at high witer. 
The shore may lie approached between the two capes to half a league, there being no dan- 
ger so far off. It is a good salmon lisliery, and for buildiii!: small vessels and boats, there 
being timber in abundance. 

ISLAND COD KO^■.— The Island of Cod Roy lies l\ or '-> miles to the southward of 
Cape Anguille, close under the high land ; it is a low, (lat, green island, of nearly 2 miles 
in compass, in the shape of a horse-shoe, forming, between it and the main, a small, snug 
bar-harbor for vessels of 10 or IJ ("eet draught ; the salest entrance to it is from the 

COD RO V KOA D. — South-eastward from the island is Cod Roy Road, wherein is veiy 
good anchorage for shijiping, in ."", 7, or (>, fathoms, on a dav bottom. With the south 
jioint of the islanil bearing about W. N. W. and the point o( the beach on the inside of the 
island, at the south entrance into the harbor, on with a point on the main to the northward 
of the island, you will lie in 7 fathoms, ;uid nearly half a mile irorn the shore, ; one league 
to the southward of Cod Roy Island is a high lilull" point, called Sioriuy Point, otX which a 
shoal stretches out a full mile ; this point covers tlie road from the S. S. E. winds, and 
tliere is good anchorage all along the shore, between it and the island. 

ST. (jEORCK'S IJAV.— From Cape Anguille to Cape St. George, the course and 
distance are N. N. E. J E. nearly 12 leagues; these two cajies ibrm the (ireat bay of St. 
(leorge, which extends inwards E. N. E. 18 leagues from the former, and E. S. E. II 
leagues from the latter; at the head of this bay, on the south side, round a low point of 
land, is a good harbor, with excellent anchorage in 8, 10, or 12, fathoms water: the river 
St. George empties itself into the head of this bay, but it is not navigable for any thing 
but boats. On the north side of the bay, before the isthmus of Port-a-Port, is good an- 
chorage in 7 or 8 fatlioms, with northerly winds; from ottthis jilace a lishing-bank stretches, 
two-thirds across the bay, w itli from 7 to lt> fathoms water on it, dark sandy bottom. 

CAPE ST. GEORCiE may be readily known not only by its being the north point of 
tlie Bay of St. George, but also by the steep cliffs on the north part of it, which rise per^ 



pendirtilnrly from <rt«' hpii to it coiiMHlfr;!!)!** ln-iKlit ; iitiil hy Ht-d iNhtml, which \\p% Ti milrt 
to the »orth-i-iiftlviiril olthi- <-,t\tv, .tiid liall a iiiilc Iroiii the Hhnri-: thiM island m hIxhu 1 


ili> in hMijijth, v(id ol' a middling; h«M):lil ; (he .«tt'f|) idill n uroiiiHl it an- ol a rt-ddJNh red 

re IN ant 

hi^a^e with idl-Nhorc winds under the N. K. end nl' iht* i.nland, liet 


••re H NHndv 


di}i(iii;;li this |dare waM lieretolore much reMurled to by ve<tHi-lH in ih 

Red I<4land, diHiant •> or S inilcN, to lion^ Point, nt tlie rntran 

ee into (lif 

cove on the i«ain, wliiili hes just to tiut nnrtliward olthe uteep c lili'n, in I 'J or 14 (all 
you will the/e ride, covered (rom tlie S. W. winds hy the island, and Ironi the soiuherl, 
nnd eaHterl/ winds l»v tin* main land, liut there is no shelter whatever, with winds Ironi the 
North or 
fiiliinir trad 

Kroui ahi 
bay of i'ort-a-l'ort, the hearinij and distance are K. by N. 7 or 8 leaxues : troni l{ed Ulnnd 
to Ouernsey Island, in tlie moulh of the hay of islands, K. N. K. \ N. nearly Ki leayueit; 
from Ked Island to Cape St. (irei^ory, N. K. hy K. full 'JO lea^jues: and from Ked island 
to Point Kicli, which is the north point of liii^ornachoix J{ay, N. K. [ K. 4H.', lea/jnes. 

P()RT-A-P(>K'r.— The land between Ked Island and the entrance into Port-a-I'ort it 
rather low, with sandy beaches, except one reniarkalde U^U hillock, called Kound I ead, 
close to the shore, abotit .> leagues to the K. N. Kastward of Ked Island: but up in the 
country, over Port-a-Port, are hi;;h lan<ls : and, if you are ;j or 4 leanues ofV at sea, vou 


W. ; 



ast of 






not discern tiie Lon^ Point ol' land which forms the bay ; this bay is capacious, be 

above.') miles broad at the entiaiKc, and 4 leagues deep, running in to the .South and .S. 
Westwaril, with j;ood anchorages in most parts idit. Ijonj; Point is the west point of the 
bay; it is low and roc ky, and a ledye ol' rocks extends from it K. N. K. nearlv a mile. ,S. 
E. by K. J K. I miles iVoiii liOiif; Point, and half a leaiiue from the east shore, lies Fox 
Island, which is small, but of iniddlin.; height; from the north end of this island a •hoal 
Htretches out nearly 'J miles to N. N. Kastward, called Fox's 'i'ail ; and nearly in ihe mid- 
dle of the bay, between Fox Island and the west shore, lies the Middle (Jriiiuid, on one 
place of which, near the .S. W. end, there is not above .3 or 4 feet water. From the head 
of the bay, projecting; out into the middle of it, is a low |ioiiit, called Middle Point, olf 
which, extending '* miles N'. K. by N. is a shoal spit, jiart of whic h dries at low water: 
this Middle Point divides the bay into two parts, (ailed Fast and West Ha>s. From tl 


head of the Fast iJay, over to the Hay ^>i St. (ieorije, the distance is a lar^e qiiaiter of a 
mile : this isthmus is very low, iind h s a pond in the middle of it, into w hich liie sea fie- 

auently daslies over, especiilly at liiuh tides, and with yales oi wind from the soiuliwaiil. 
•n the east side of it is a toleriii)ly liit;li mountain, risiiii; directiv from the i«.tliini 


IS, a 


at top; to the nortliwanl ol tins, ami at ahout o miles distance irom the isilinms, i- a 
conspicuous valley, or hollow, hereafter to be used as a mark. iN. K. by F. [ K. above 'J 
leagues from Long Point, and hah' a leamie from the shore, lies .Shns; Island, which ap- 
pears at a distance like a hii;li rock, and is easily to be distinguished t'roiii the iiiiin : and 
W. N. W. about a league from it lies the middle of Long Led-re, which is a narnw led^e 
of rocks stretching K. N. F. iuid W . .S. W . idioul 4 miles; the eastern p;irt of them is 
above water, and the channel into the liay of Porl-a-Port. between the west end of this 
ledge and the reef which stretches o(f from the west |ioiiil id the bay, is a league wide. 

In sailing in to Port-a-Port, if coining from the .*>. Westward, advance no neiirer to tlie 
Long Point of the bay than 1 ^ mile, until you have brought the valley, in tiie side of the 
mountain before mentioned, (on the east side of the isthmus.) over the east end of Fox 
Island, or to the eastward of it, which will then bear south a little eiisteiiy ; you will then 
be clear of the lauig Point Heef, and may haul into the bay with safety; but, if coining 
from the N. F. without the Long Ledge, or liirniiig into the bay, in order to keep clear of 
the S. W. end of fiong Ledge, bring the isthmus, or the foot of the mountain, (which is 
on the east side of the isthmus,) open to the westward ol Fox Island, nearly twice the 
breadth of the island, and it will lead you into the bay (dear of fiong Ledge; and when 
Shag Island is brought on with the foot of the high land on the south side of ("oal River, 
bearing then E. !,' .S. you will be within tlie Long Ledge : there is also a safe passage into 
the bay, between the [iong Ledge and the main, on cither side of Shag Island, and taking 
care to avoid a small shoal, of 0.^ fathoms, which lies W. by N. one mile from the -sland. 

To sail up into the West JJay and Head Harbor, keep the western shore on board : this 
shore is bold to. In turning beiween it and the iMiddle (iroiind, stand no nearer to the 
Middle than into H fathoms ; but you may stand to the spit of llie Middle INuni into (! or 
6 fathoms. The anclioniire in West iiiiy is in iihoiit 8 fathoms, and in Head Harbor, in 
about 5 fatlioms. The West Road lies before a high stone beach, about 'J miles south- 
westward of Long Point, where you may lie very secure from westerly and N. W. winds, 
in about 10 or I'J fathoms water: this be;:( h is steep to, and forms an excellent place for 
landing and drying your fish; tliere is a good place at the northern end of Fox's Island 
for the same purpose. The whole bay and the adjacent coasts abound with cod, and 
extensive fishing banks lie all along the coasts. 

The East Road lies between Fox Island and the east shore : to sail up to it, you should 
keep the high bluff head, which is about a league to the E. N. E. of the island, bearing 

10 thn souili«. 
liluiid; yoi" « 
louihward, am 

To nail i'l> 
ibiive the islaii 
point above ili. 
wiiiil'*, in altou 
iiiiil the Fox'i* 
, as before 
H.\Y OF 
\\.\\ of Isl iiid> 
Long Ledge ; 
Iv from the si 
(ii It. particiila 
are nearly id 
Harbors. wlii< 
111 bet went (»i 
HOiitherly and 
(justs of wind) 
M.ileiy. 'I'l"-' 
liiiil in or o'lt 
k'.lge of rock 
a hue with th 
Hide ol the N 
safest passage 
between Twe 
LARK 11 
of York liar 
.^. S. \V. b 1 
third of a mil 
large ship, ki 
side, bearing 
secure from i 
are W. S. W 
iiiir's Island, 
runs olV frou 
there is also 
iiNo be av(dib 
give Sword I 
a sandy beac 
erU winds bl 
ilarlmr Isl 
fiuernsey Is 
River Huml 
80 rapid in ^ 
even a boat 
The Nort 
On the east 
10, orl-2f;»t' 
with S. W. 
the bay, is 1 
Hay oi" Islai 
were ere< e 
lame beaci 
t roin tlu 
E. H miles; 
of Bonne 1 
is low, alon 
way inland 
from the se 
when vou • 
all that on 
and thence 



'"■h lies r, ,„ii„ 

'•""I i» RllOllt 1 

'• •••■•lilixh color '; 

I. iM-lori' H 

' "«• H Lilhom,, 

'•' »Jn- MOUlhlTiv 

' *^'>i<lNlroii, ihK 
>y VfSMelM in th^ 

cnirancc info tlif 
''••III Hr.l Mn,„| 
y^y Iti l.-i.uu..H: 
from Kf«l inh,,,,! 
'I'^.l len^iiPH. 
" f'<»rt-a.|»orii, 
'I Hound f ca,!, 
• '"If ii|) in (lie 
•>'}' at scii, vou 
:M'»<"i<>tis, bt'iii); 
♦• '"^"iitli and S. 
**'"*' poiiii ol tlip 
"'"■Iv ii mile. .S. 
NllOlf, lies K„x 
ix isl.iiid a sh.iid 
•'iirlv in rlic niid- 
< •round, on one 
l-'iorn the l„.i,d 
Iidilli- Point, o/l 
X itt low water ; 
'i'Jt. l'"roni ilic 
'•;;<' <|iiaiier of a 
hich the Nea (re- 
' 'lie sonilMvartl. 
I"' i^tiiiiiUN, and 
til*' istlinms, i.« a 
'■•• '. K. ahcnp vi 
^litiid, uhieli ;,,,. 

' lli«' main : and 
« a nam.w ledj^e 

p:irt of theni is 
*«'.sf end of tliis 
(>iiUiit- wide, 
no nearer to tlie 

tliP side of tlie 
iist end of Fox 
; von will then 

'•lit, if roinini; { 
to keep clear of I 
iitiiin, (wiiii li is 
iPJirly twice t)ie 
tl^i' ; und wlien 

of Coal Kivcr. 
ife passage into 
iind, and takin;^ 
rom tlie island. 
on hoard : this 
) nearer to tiie 
I*<"uil into (i or 
fad Ifarhor, in 
'■! miles south- 
I N. W. winds, 
flhnt |dace for 
f Fox's Island 

with cod, and 

' it, you should 
island, bearing 

in tbn ^nnthward of .S. K.. Iiy K. .) K. until ihi* iNtlniniH In lirou|{lit to llii* riiMwHnl of Fox 
lihiiid ; you will iIiimi he within the shoal calh-d the Fox'n 'r.iil, and may haul tu (he 
luiitliward, and anrhor any where hetween the island and the main, in from lUto IH tuthomi. 
To mtil ii/i Ihr Hunt liitij, passi hetween the island ami the eaMi stliore, and after you are 
altdve the inland, come no nearer to the main th ui half a mile, until you are alireHHl uii\ hluff 
nuint ul)ove the island, called Koad I'oint, just ahove which is the hcst anchorai;e with N. £. 
winds, in alioiit IJ lalhoms water; and to sail iijithe Kasi |(ay heiweeii tin* .^Ii(ldle (iruund 
iiiiil the Fo\'h Tail, brin;; the said hlulf point on with the S. W, pmi.t of Vox Island ; this 
mark will lead you up in tin- tair way hetvveeiithe twiiHhuab; Kivuthe island ahvrlli, audaa- 
ilior as before flirecied, in from H to I'J fathoms water. 

HAY «)F I.SLA.NDS.— From the j.oiii; Pmnt at the entrance of i'ort-a-l'ort to tbfl 
Itiiv of Isl mils, the bearing and distance are N. K. I)y -V,. r* leagues, lie i arel'ul to avoid the 
Loiix Ledi;e ; the land between is ofcoiHiderable height, risiiij; in crH{ji5y harren hills, direct- 
|v from tlie shore. The liay of Islands may he known by the mitiy inlands in the mouth 
liiil, particularly the three named (iuernscy Island, Tweed i>linil,iind Fear! Island, which 
;ire nearly ol eijiial heiulit with the li'iid on the main. If >ou are liouiid lor Lark or Vork 
Harbors, which lie on the S. W. side of the bav, and are coiniiiL; from the ^^oiilhward, run 
111 belwei n ((Uernsey Island and tin; Soiilli ijead, hutli ol winch are bold to ; but with 
Koiitherly and S. \V. winds approach not too near the .'^oiilh Head, lest calnm and sudden 
i;iists of winds should proceed from the hi^h land, under Mhich you raimot anchor with 
^ifetv. There are several cliannr'ls formeil by the dilfereiit islaiid>, tliroujh which yon may 
s:iil in or out of the bay, there beinj; no danger but what slmus iiself, exceptim; a small 
It'.Ji^e of rocks, which lie lialf a mile north eastward Iroiii the northern Slia;; llocki and in 
^ line with the tw(j Sha^ Hocks in one. If you brini; the south ."^hai: Kock open on either 
mile of the North Kock, you will j;o clear to the eastward or westward of the Icd^e. The 
Kifest passaL^e into this bay from the northward, is iieiwceii the two Shai; HocIvh, and then 
between Tweed Island and I'carl Island. 

LMIK IIAKMOR. — I'roiii (liienisey Island li. Toitoi-.e Head, which is the north point 
(if Vork llarlior, and the S. K. |ioint of Lark Harbor, tlii* course and distance ar«' nearly 
S. S. W. b miles; Lark llarlior extends inwards W S. W. nearly two milen, and is one 
tliird of a mile broad in the entrance, which is the narrowest part : in sailins; into it with a 
liir^e ship, keep the larboard shore on board, and aiiclmr with a low |ioint on the nturboard 
side, bearim; W. .\. W. X. N. W. or X. X. K. and )ou will ride in 6 or 7 fathumg water 
secure from iill winds. 

VOKK II VKIIOII. — From Tortoise Head into Vork Harbor, the course and distance 
are W. S. W. nearly a le i';ue ; there is :;im)iI iiirniiiL' room betwi'm the Hend an<l (lover- 
iKir's Island, which lies before the harbor : bill you iiiii<t be careful to avoid a shoal which 
runs oil" from a low beach point on the west end of ( ioveriuu's Islind. called .Sword Point; 
there is also a sho >.l whicli spiis oil' from the next ptint of (Miverin-r's Island, wWch must 
aUo he avoided : Tortoise Mead just touchin;; Sword Foiiit will lead clear of it : in sailing in, 
give Sword I'oiiit a berth, passinij w hich. the best aTithoriii.: .;r'>niid is in 10 fathoms, along 
A sandy liea<h on the main, with Tortoise Iwad open it' Sword I'oini : West and N, West- 
erl\ winds blow here with iLrreat violence. 

ilarl)or Island lies at the entrance of the river llumlier. and S. by K. , E. 7 miles from 
riiiernsey Island: at its .S. W. point is Wood's Harbor, which is unlit for shipping. The 
River II umber, at about ■'i leaijues within the entrance, becomes narrow, and the stream Is 
80 rapid in some places, lor about I lea;;ues up, to a lake, that it is with j^reat dilFiculty that 
even a boat can stem the ( iirrent. 

The North and South Anns are both Ion;; inlets, with very deep water up to their heads. 
On the east side of Ea^le Island, between the North and South Arms, is anchorage in 8, 
1(1, or 12 fathoms water. I'lider the north side of Harbor Island also is c;ood anchorage 
with S. W. winds; and opposite to the S. K. end of Harbor Island, on the south side of 
the bay, is Frenchnnn's C'ove, wherein is good anchorage in from 'JO to IJ fathoms. The 
Hay of Islands was formerly much fre(|uented by vessels in the cod fishery, and stages 
were ere( 'd at Small Hay. which lies a little on the outside of South Head; and the 
large beac; on Sivords Point, in (iovernor's Island, is an exc client jdace for drying the fish. 

From the North Shag Rock to Cape St. (ireiiory the course and distance are nearly N. 
E. H miles; ud thence l.J or 14 miles, on a similar bearinir, will carry you to the entrance 
of Bonne Bay. The laud near the shore from the north Sliaj: Kock to Cape St. (Jregory 
is low, along which lie sunken rocks, a quarter of a mile from the shore ; but a very little 
way inland it rises into a hii;h mountain, terminating at the top in round hills. 

CAPK ST. GRE(i()RV is high, and between it and Homie Bay the land rises directly 
frou) the sea shore to a considerable height ; it is the most northerly land you ctiU (' ;ern 
when vou are sailing along shore between Red Island and the Bay of Islands, 

BoKNE bay may be known, at the distance of 4 or 5 leagues, by the land a ; it; 
all that on the .S. W. side of the bay being very high and hilly, and that on the N. L'. side, 
and thence along the sea-coust to the northward, being low and flat ; but, at about one 










league inland is a range of mountains, whicli runs purallel witli the sea-rnast. Ovrr ihr 
south side of the bay is a vory hinh inountain, teuriinatint; at top in a rpinarl\abip rniiurl 
h'l', very consi)i(.-uouM wlirn you are Ir) tlit' iiorlliward of tlit; l»ay. Tiiis hay extends inward 
E. S. E. nearly 2 leagues, then branches into two arms, one ol whicli runs in to the south- 
ward, and the other to the eastward ; the s(Uilliern ami aliords the best anchorajje; small 
vessels should ride just above a low woody jMiint at the entrance into this arm, on tb*; star- 
board side, before a sandy beach, in H or 10 fathoms water, about a (table's lenj^th from thr 
shore ; there is no other anchorage in less than .'JO or -10 fathoms, excepting at the head of 
the arm, where there are from t»5 to 20 fathoms water : in sailing; into the Kast Arm,kpepthe 
starboard shore on boanl ; and, a litth^ round a point at the entrance, will he found a small 
cove, with good anchorage in 17 to i»0 fathoms, hut you must nu)or to the shore. There 
is a snug cove also close within the North Point, witli anchorage in G or 7 tathoins water: 
in sailing in or out of Jioime Hay, with W. S. W. winds, come not near the weathp shore. 
lest you should hap])ento be becalmed, or should meet with heavy gusts of wind, as the 
depth of water is too great to admit o( ynur anchoring. 

Ten miles to the northward ol" Honnu i5ay is Martin Point, high and w hite. off which, 
about three-quarters of a mile, is a small ledge of rocks, whereon the sea breaks. JJronmc 
Point is lov; and white, and lies about a league to the northward of Martin Point; about 
half a mile W. S. W. from it lier, a sunkert rock that seldom shows itself; on the north side 
of Broome Point lies the Hay of St. Paul, wherein ves.sels may anchor with ofl-shorc 
winds, but it is (piite exposed to the sea. 

COW HEAD lies about 4 miles to the northward of the Bay of St. Paul : this is a 
promontory, which has the appearance of an island, it being joined to the main oidv br a 
very low and narrow neck of land : about three-(|uarters of a mile od'this head lies Steer- 
ing Island, which is low a.nd rocky, and is the only island on the coast between the Mav of 
Islands and Point Rich. Cow Cove lies on the *outh side of Cow Head, and ships may 
lie there in from 7 to 10 fathoms, sh-.-ltered from northerly and easterly winds. Shallow 
Bay lies on the north side of Cow Head, and has water sufficient for small vessels; at the 
N. E. side of the entrance is a cluster of rocky islands, extending K. N. E. and W. S. 
W, and at the VV. S. W. side are two sunken rocks close to each other, which generally 
show themselves; they lie a cable's length fnnii ilie shore, and there is a channel into the 
bay on either side of them. Steering Island lies right before this bay, which you may 
pass on either side, but come not too near its .\. K. end, as there are some sunken rocks ex- 
tending from it. This is considered the best situated for a fishery on all the coast, and 
the ground about its environs is einiiientlv productive. 

INGORNACHOIX BAY.— From Sli'ering Island to Point Rich the course is nearly 
N. E. distant 50 miles; Point l^iih is the northern point ol Ingtuiiachoix Bay. From 
Shallow Bay to the southern j)(i!nl of Tngornachoix Bay the coast is nearly in a straight 
iine, there being all the way neither creek nor cove, where a vessel can find shelter from 
the sea wind^5, although there are a fer places wliere they might anchor occasionally w itli land 
winds. About 6 leagues from Steering Island there is a hill, standing h.;\( a mile inland, 
:^'hich is commonly called Portland Bill, probably because it resembles Portland Bill in 
the English Channel, and alters not its appearance in whatever point of view it is taken. 

PORT SAUNDKRS and IIAWKKS HARBOR.— These are s;tuated within, and to 
the eastward of Ingoriun iioix Bay ; at the entrance lies Keppel Island, which at a distance, 
will not easily be distinguished from the niiiin land; there is a passage on both sides of 
the island; to sail into Port Saunders there is no impediment or danger; you will leave 
Keppel Island on yotir siarboi'.nl side, and when you get about half a mile within the en- 
trance you can anchor in 12 or 14 fathoms water; but if you are intending to run up to 
the head of the harbor, you nuist keep the larboard .-iliore on board, in order to avoid a 
ledge of rocks, which lies near the mid-channel; this is considered to be the best harbor 
for vessels that are bo;'nd to the southward. 

HAWKES HARBCR. — To enter this harbor vessels commonly go to the southward 
of Keppel Island ; the st.i boanl shore is shoal, and has a sand-bank, which stretches along 
the land, and runs t)ut two-thirds of the passage over, great part ol which dries at low- 
water; your in will be 1'-. S. F.. keeping nearer to Keppel Island than to the main, 
until the eastern cnii of the island, which is a low stony beach, hears N. E. by N. or N. N. 
E then steer S. S. F. ^ E. for a small island you will see, situated further up the harbor ; 
keeping the larboard shore well on board, run direct for this island, and when you have 
brought the jioint at tho south entrance of the harbor to hear N. N. E. i N. and are at the 
S. S. E. point of a bay <ni the starboard side of the harbor, you v.ill then be beyond the 
shoal ground, and may a ichor in 12 t'athoms water ; or else run within half a mile of the 
small island, and anchor there, which wilt be more convenient for both wood and water. 
This is the best harbor for ships bound to the northward. The land round about these 
harbors is generally low, and covered with wood ; you may occasionally anchor outside, in 
the Bay of Ingornachoi.x, according as you find the prevailing winds. 


by the sea, being 
aiiv other land on 
inward direction. 

Port au Choix, si 
gtern ; to 'sail in y 
small island lyinj; 
lies a little to the 

harbor, having at 
rocks, both above 
nearly a inib' Iron 
(tut towards Harb 
i. 5, <>, and 7 fatli 
tween Savage Isia 
Island and the v 
Harbor Island, y( 
of the island, giv 
you may anchor ; 
side, for a shoal ( 

southward, anil P 
sunken rocks; the 
tliislies K.N. F.< 
well calculated foi 
commonly drive ii 
it and One Head I 
sheltered from nu 
bay. West from 1 
at its .southern en 
tlionis in it, and t 
distant One leaguf 
scattered rocks ah 
110 anchorage, 
of Castors, the et 
From the norther 
stretching out 2,V 

height, and joined 
.New Ferolle Bay 
shore is bold to, i 
of St. .Tohn's, the 
W. and its caster 

flat all over, there 
northerly winds, ! 

St. Margaret's 
affording good at 
ships, being most 
spruce and fir tre 
ward of Point Fe 
er than any land 
island situated at 

island lies parallel 
safe : the best ent 
small island in tli 
K. and anchor ui 
land-locked. 'JMu 
good channel up 
end of Ferolle Is 
Head the course 
Eastward about i 
two of which are 
northernmost oft 



rkiihlp roiiiifl 

H'lids inwHrd 

o the south- 

oifii,'e; small 

on til" star- 

tHh from fhp 

the h(.'affof 

rni, keep the 

1111(1 a small 

ore. Then- 

loins watrr: 

iitho shore. 

ind, as the 

, off which. 
8. I'roome 

oint ; ahout 
!'■ north side 
th off-shore 

ul : thiii is a 
liii oiilv br a 
lii's Steer- 
till- Hav (it 
(I ships may 
sels : at tlie 
i«nr| \V. S. 
•h cenerallv 
mel into the 
h yoii may 
^11 rcK^ks ex- 
c coast, and 

so is nearly 
5ay. From 
n a Rtraiirht 
ihelter from 
ly witli land 
milte inland, 
land Bill in 
is taken, 
ithin, and to 
t n distance, 
ith sides of 
u will leave 
hin the en- 

run up to 
to avoid a 

best harbor 

tches along 
Iries at low 

1 the main, 
N. or N. N. 
he harbor ; 
I you have 
I are at tin; 
beyond the 
iiile of the 
and water, 
bout these 
outyide, iu 

I'OlNT RICH is the soutli-vvestern |)oint of a peninsula, uhieli is almost surrounded 
hv the sea, beini; everywhere of I'loderate hei^lit. and projectim; furiiier to seawanl llian 
;uiv other lanil on this side of Newfoundland, the foast from thence, eacli way, taking an 
inward direction. 

PORT AU CHOIX. — Rounding Point Rirh. on its northern side, you will meet with 
Port au Choix, small, but yet capable of admitting a ship of burtheti, mooring head and 
stern ; to "sail in you should keep the starboaril shore on board, and anchor just above a 
unall island lying in the middl'" of the harbor. In tliis place, ami also in J$oat Cove, which 
lies a little to the N. E.istward, there are sevt-ral stajre.-; and places for dryin;; fish. 

OLD PORT AU C'llOlX lies to the eastward of Boat Cove: it is' a small but safe 
harlior, having at its entrance an island (railed Harbor Island, and on its western side some 
rocks, both above and underwater: there is also another islainl lying K. N. K. ,7 N. distant 
nearly a niil«' from Harbor Island, about whidi are several rocks, some of which stretcli 
(Hit towards Harbor Island, and render the passaL'c very narrow between them: there are 
;. 5, <), and 7 fathoms water between Savage I.-lruid and the main, and I and .j tathoms be- 
tween .Savage Island Rocks <nd Harbor Island ; and nearly the same depth between Harbor 
Island and the western shore. To sail into Old Port au Choix, on the western side of 
Harl)or Island, you must keep the island close on board : but to go in on the eastern side 
of the island, give the N. Eastern point of the island a berth, and having well entered, 
you may anchor any where on the larboard side r»f the harbor, only avoiding the starboard 
side, for a shoal of sand and mud runs all aloiii: it. 

BAY OF ST. JOHN. — Thisisan opei; extensive bay, bount'ed by Point Rich to the 
southward, and Point Ferolle to the northward, having several island-; within it, and some 
sunken rocks; the largest of these islands is ."^t. .lolm's. al)out 1?' miles in length. ;iud I ,' broad ; 
tins lies E. N. E. distant ri,', miles (rem Point Rich : on its .S. We tern side ly a small harbor, 
well calculated for the cod tishery, l)Ut loo much exposed for shipping, as S. SV'esterly winds 
commonly drive in a heavy sea. On the S. Eastern, or inner side of the island, and between 
it and One Head Island, vessels may lie nmch mon- secure, in 14 .)r IG fathoms water, and 
sheltered from most winds; and this is considered to be the oidy safe anchorage in the whole 
bay. West from .St. .John's Island one large mile is Flat l>land. having a rock above water 
at its southern end ; the channel between St. Johti's and Flat Island has from 13 to "25 fa- 
thoms in it, and they are both bold to; the Twin Islands lie N. E. i)y N. from Flat Island, 
distant rtne league, and have no danger aixtut them. To the westward of '.he Twins are several 
scattered rocks above water, named the Bay Islatnls; tht-y have deep water around them, but 
no anchorage. The land at the bottom of the bay is very high, and there is the little river 
(if (^istors, the entrance to which is dangerous and shallow, therefore seldom frecjuented. 
From the northern point of this bay a rocky shoal extends all the way to Point Ferolle, 
stretching out 'J.V miles from the shore. 

POINT FEROLLE lies N. E. by E. from Point Rich, distant 'J'2 miles; it is of moderate 
height, and joined to the main by a neck of land, which divides the Bay of St. .John's from 
New Ferolle iiay, making it appear like an island when .seen from a distance; its i>o»tliern 
shore is bold to, and this part of the coast wdl easily be known iiy the adjacent table land 
of St. .John's, the west cikI of which uiountain lies from the middle ol Ferolle Point S. by 
W. and its eastern end .S. E. J .S. 

NEW FEROLLE BAY is a small cove lying Jo the eastward of the point, and is quite 
flat all over, there being not more than '.i and 3 fathoms at any |),irt ; it is ijuite open to the 
northerly winds, h.a a stage on each side of it, with pleiity of room for others. 

St. Margaret's Bay is large, and has several islands within if. also various inlets or coves 
alTording good anchorage, particularly on its western side, which is the best situation for 
ships, being most clear of danger, and convenient for wooding and watering ; on its banks are 
spruce and fir trees in plenty, and many rivnlets of fresh water. Dog Island is to the east- 
ward of Point Ferolle full 3 miles, and only divided from the main at high water; it is high- 
er than any land near it, which gives it the ap|>earance, when seen from the eastward, of an 
island situated at some distance from the main. 

OLD FEROLLE.— To the eastward of Dog Island about .5 miles is Ferolle Island. This 
island lies parallel to tin; shore, and forms the harbor of ( )|d Ferolle, which is very good and 
safe : the best entrance to it is at the S. W. end of the island, passing to the southward of a 
small island in the entrance, which is bold to: as soon as you are within it, liaul U|)E. N. 
E. and anchor under the S.W. end of Ferolle Island, in ^ or') fathoms, good ground, quite; 
land-locked. ^Fhere is also good anchorage any where along the inside of ilu; island, and a 
good channel up to the N. E. end thereof. There are some little islands lying at the N. E. 
end of Ferolle Jsland, and on the outside are some ledges of rocks a small distance off. 

BAY OF ST. GENE VEIVE.— From the north end ol Ferolle Island to St. Geneveive 
Head the course is E. N. E. 4j miles, and thence to the west end of Currant Island it is N. 
Eastward about 3 miles. There are several small islands lying in and before this bay, only 
two of which are of any considerable extent. The afore-mentioned Currant Island is the 
northernmost of the two, and the largest; it is of a moderate height, and when you are to tho 




E. N. R. of it, the western point will appear biulilmt not hi^li: and wlien you are to the wc?t- 
waril of it, it appears flat and white. The other, called (Jooseberry Island, Hes nearly a mile 
to the soutiiward of it, and its west point bears from the west point of Currant Island S. S. 
W, i W. nearly a ni'.le. (nioscberry Island has a eross on its S. W. end. from which point 
stretches out a ledye of rocks near half a mile to the southward ; tliere is also a shoal about 
half a mile to the \V. S. W. from the S. W. point of Currant Island. The best channel into 
this bay is to the southward of these islands, between the rocks which stretch oft' them and a 
small island liyna; S. S. W. from them (which island lies near the south shore;) in this 
channel, which is very narrow, there are not less than o fathoms at low water, and the course 
in is E. by S. southerly, until you come to the lenjith of the afore-mentioned island, pjiss- 
ing which you should haul to the southward, and bring St. Geneveive Head between the 
small island and the main, in order to avoid the middle bank. You may either anchor be- 
hind the small island in u or 6 fathoms water, or proceed farther, with the said mark on. un- 
til the S. W. arm is open, and anchor in the middle of the bay, in 7 or 8 fathoms water. 
Here is wood and water to be had. There is tolerable good anchoring in most parts oftlie 
bay; bu. the snuggest place is the S. \V. arm; the entrance to it is narrow, and has only 
4 fathoms at low water. In coming into the bay, if you get out of the channel on either 
side, you willshoalen vour water immediately to .3 or '2 fathoms. 

BAY OF ST. BARIJK.— From the west end of Currant Island to St. Barbe Point it 
is E. by N. 2i miles, and from St. Barbe Point to Anchor Point it is N. N. E. nearly 11 
mile. Between them lies the Bay of St. Barbe; it runs in S. by K. about 2 miles from 
Anchor Point. To sail in, give Anchor Point, and all the east side of the bay, a good 
berth, to avoid the sunken rocks which lie along that shore: you nuist be well in before 
you can discover the entrance into the harbor, which is but narrow; then steer south, keep- 
ing in the middle of the channel, and anchor as soon as you are within the two points, in a 
small cove, on the west side, in 5 fathoms water, on sand and iiuid, quite land-locked. Near 
this place branch out 2 arms or rivers, one called the south, and the other the east ; the 
latter hits 3 fathoms a good way up, but the former is shoal. Between the S. W. point of 
the bay and west point of the harbor is a cove, wherein are sunken rocks, which lie a little 
without the Une of the two points: in the open bay are 7, S, or 'J fathoms; but the N. W. 
winds cause a heavy sea to fall in here, which renders it unsafe. 

From Anchor Point to the extremity of the Seal Islands, the course is N. E. | E. one 
league ; off Anchor Point a ledge stretches itself W. by S. about one-third of a mile ; there 
are no other dangers between it and the Seal Islands but what lie very near the shore. 

The Seal Islands are white and rocky, and must not be approached out with care on 
their north and western sides, because there are some sunken rocka near them. 

From the N. W. Seal Island, to the N. W. extrenuty of Flower Ledge, it is N. N. E. 
near 2 miles; part of this ledge apjiears at low water, and there are 10 fathoms close on its 
«if side. 

MISTAKEN COVE.— From the north part of Flower Ledge to Grenville Ledge, it 
is about l^mile E- by S. and Grenville Ledge lies about two-thirds of a mile W. by N. 
from the eastern point of Mistaken Cove, between which and Seal Islands lie also Name- 
less Cove and Flower Cove, neither of which are fit for ships. 

SAVAGE COVE. — Close to the eastward of Mistaken Cove is Savage Cove, which has 
a little island in its entrance, and is only fit for small vessels and boats. 

Sandy Bay lies 2 miles eastward from Savage Cove, where small vessels may ride in 3 or 
4 fathoms water, with the winds from E. to S. W. 

About E. N. E. 5 large miles from Sandy Bay is Green Island; between them, at 3 
miles distance \V. \ S. from (ireen Island, is the north extremity of Double Ledge, which 
extends nearly two-thirds of a mile from the shore, and has only d or 9 feet of water on it. 

Green Island lies about three-tburths of a mile from the main, is two-thirds of a mile in 
length, very low and narrow, and agreeable in color to the name it bears; from the east end 
of it a ledge of rocks extends three-fourths of a mile to the eastward, on which the sea 
breaks in bad weather. There are 4 or 5 fathoms water in the channel between the island 
and the main, where ships may anchor if necessary. To 20 in from the westward keep the 
island close on board for the deepest water, which is 4 fathoms; and going in from the 
eastward keep the main on board. From this island to the opposite part of the ('oast of 
Labrador, called Castles or Red Clifts, which is the narrowest part of the Strait of Belle 
Isle, the distance is about 3r leagues, and they bearfrom each other N. N.W. and S. S.E. 

BOAT HARBOR. — From Green Island to Boat's Head it is E. h N.8 leagues; between 
there is no shelter on the coast, but to the south-eastward of Boat's Head is a cove, called 
Boat Harbor, where small vessels and boats may lie very secure, except with N. E. winds. 

Cape Norman lies E. 4 miles from Boat's Head, and is the northernmost point of land 
in Newfoundland; this hiis been already de-<cribed. (See page 36.) 

TIDES. — The tides flow at the full and change of the moon as follows : at New and Old 
Ferolle, till a quarter after 11 o'clock ; in the Bays of Geneveive and St. Barbe at half after 
10, and at Green Island until 9. Springtides rise 7 feet, nea|)s 4 feet. In the Bay of Pis- 

tolet it flows till thr 
alter 6 : spring tide 
tide sets to the sout 
In the Strait of Bell 
high water on the si 

North America, it is 
the lakes Superior, 
Lawrence; in difiei 
from the sea as Moi 
about 180 miles fnii 

The River St. L; 
Anticosti : these art 
part, full 8 leagues a 
for in some parts no 



long, and of irreguh 
not almve 9 or 10 mi 
bays or harbors, caU 
its aspect forbiddin 
leagues S. E. from t 
(called also Ellis' B; 
E. of each other, di 
cliorage for unall ve 
running down from 

♦ On the outer lost 
board to ihe bouse of ( 
by crossing the islhmii 
Point Henry, and up •! 

Six iriigues to the en 
.itands tilt' Diicction B 

Four lengues to the 1 
tion Board. 

Four I'^ngiies to (be ( 
Board nailt'd lo the koi 
thpre arc no provisions 

Two Iciigiirs from tl 
west ends of which si: 
from the ensfcrnmost .« 

Seven Icngues lo llif 
stands the Dirc( lion B 

Three lengitps to ihc 
ward stands the Direct 

Six leagues to the ci 
of Provisions. 

Seven leagues to thp 
aDireclion Board, and 

Four leagues from tl 
God in. 

It may be remarked, 
a boat at low water, ex 



tol«'t it flows till three quarters after 6, and in Noddy Ilnrlinr and Griqiiet until a quarter 
alter 5: spring tides rise f) feet, neaps about .T. Before C^uirpon, in settled weather, the 
tide sets to the southward 9 hours out ol the ]'2, and stronjjer tlian the northern stream^ 
In the Strait of Belle Isle, the flood, in the (irtinp. sets to the westward two hours after it i» 
high water on the shore ; but in blowing weather, this stream is subject to many alterations. 



fiENERAL REMARKS.— The River St. Lawrenre is one of the largest rivprs in 
North America, it issues from Ijake Ontario, and is the grand outlet by which the waters of 
the lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario are poured into the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence; in different j)arts of its course, it is designated by different names, but so far 
from the sea as Montreal, it is called the River St. Lawrence. Montreal is computed to be 
about 180 miles from Quebec, and oh(t miles Irom the (iulf of St. Lawrence. 

The River St. Lawrence is, at its entrance, divided intr) two passages, by the Island of 
Anticosti : these are called tlie North and South Cliaimels; the former is, at its narrowest 
part, full 8 leagues asunder, and the latter is 13 leagues; both channels have deep water, 
for in some parts no bottom has been found with 18U and 2UU fathoms of line. 


THE ISLAND OF •ANTICOSTI lies nearly N. W. and S. E. being 36 leagues 
long, and of irregulnr breadth nt)out the middle it is !( leagues wide, but its N. W. partis 
not al)ove 9 or 10 miles broad : this island has been reported to be entirely destitute of either 
bays or harbors, calculated to afVord shelter for large shijiping : its soil is unpropitious, and 
its aspect forbidding; hut Mr. Lambly, Harbor Master of Quebec, states, that "two 
leagues S. E. from the west end of th.- island lies Cape Henry, the west side of Grand Bay, 
(called also Ellis' Bay;) Cape Eagle forming its eastern boundary, bearing N. W. and S. 
E. of each other, distant 3 miles. This bay, he says, is i'i miles deep, and has good an- 
chorage for unall vessels in from 2.'; to 4 fatln nis wafer." "He further observes that "in 
running down from the west end of the island, you should not come into less than 10 


♦ On the outer^ lost extremity of the wc?t end of Anticosti, stands n direction boaid. From this 
board to the house of Gjimnchc, wlu-rr tlicie is a depot of provisitns. nl the upper end of Grand Bay, 
by crossing the isthmus formed hv Pomt Henry, ilic distance is f^i.v miles ; but fiom this board, rountl 
Point Henry, and np ♦he bay to t'lie house, it i? d, ubie the diFtanee. 

Six Ici'gues to the eastward «f Grand Buy, is Duck River, at the mouth of which, on the east side, 
itands the Diicction Board. 

Foiu leagues to the eastward of Duck River, is Otter River : close to its entrance stands the Direc- 
tion Board. 

Four leagues to the eastward of Otter River, is Seal River; on the east side of which is a Direction 
Board nailed to the house, used only in summer by Gauioche's Salmon and Seal Fishers ; at this house 
there are no provisions. 

Two leagues from tiiis river is the south-west point of the island ; on both the extreme east and 
west ends of which stands a Dir( ction Board, nlionl one mile from each other ; and about one mile 
from the eiisfcrnmost stands anollw^r nireelioii Bend, in fl e Hay to the Eastward of the Point. 

Seven leagues to the eastward of South-Wesl Point is Heuth River, on the east side of its antranco 
stands the Dirc( (ion Board. 

Three leagues to the eastward of Heath River, is Pavilion or Flag River, and two miles to the east- 
ward stands the Direction Board, on a point on the east side of the bay. 

Six leagues to the eastward of Flag River is Hamel's Post at Jupiter River, where there is a Depot 
of Provisions. 

Seven leagues to the eastward of Mr. Hamel, and on the south »ide of the east end of the island, is 
a Direction Board, and on the north side of the east end i« another Direction Board. 

Four leagues from this board, on the north side of the island, is the post of BkUc Bay, kept by Mr. 

It may be remarked, that nil these rivers are mere creeks, there not being water in any of them for 
a boat at low water, except Jupiter River, at Hamel's Post. 



I .-' i 

fiithoiiifi ; tli;' bieiikfrs will ilicn he viHihie on the shoal, whi«h lirs a (priffer of a mile from 
tlM' Ix'ach; and wlu'ii vou an- alm-ast (if f'ii|M' Ilciiiv, you may liaiil into (i fatl'ums, to- 
wards a loiij; (lat spit of sand, wliicli lies S. K. from tin- ( ;i,i(! ; run .dong firs ..pit, u.ij 
round its S. K. end, in 4 fallioms at low water, you will tlini (i.-l yoHiself < nr mi'f and •» 
half from thi- houses at tlie northern part of the hay. liere the bay is about one niiie 
arross; small vessels may am lior further i'l, sheltered from b". \V. ai»'i "\i ii ''V S. W. wituiN; 
but the ( uter anehorai;e will In- exposed, and open to those from th. .S. .■. \»'. -ciund to :liii 
S. E. i'liere a supply of pr.nisituis is eonsianily kept lor the u. e cf uiifoU i .ate seamen 
who ma} ; c wreeked on tiie island. The reel which ru:is:Voui tlicrsf pom' of the isl- 
and exleiids little more than two uules, and vessels at that distance i.nay eroHs it i;i 111 fathoms 
with safety ; but it is >ery narrow, and not nu)re than .> caf'-j of ihe «jan '.e got uj)on it 
in rrossinK." 

From (irand I5ay to tlie S. W. point of tlie islan«l the sliore is all bold, and so steep 
there can be no surety in the lead ; but you may stand on deck and see all tlie dangers about 
the bearh, for there is not a reef or rock our tpiarterof a mile I'rom the shore. A little to 
tlie north-westward of the S. \V. point of flw iivland is a considerable river, called Seal or 
Jupiter River; its entrance may be distlimnished Iiy some while clilfs. 

A lighthouse has been erec ted on the S. W. jioint ol the islanil, it is a r-^volving light, 
and will be litrhted every night from sunset to sunrise, from the •^.'ith of March until the 
hist day of Decemlier in each year. 

When ships are to the eastward of the liglitiioiise, tliey may safely stand towards tlie 
island until it bears i\. N. W. by compass — they will then be in ;i good fair way, ;;nd if llicv 
wish to make more free with tlii- laiul. they can do so liy their lead. The land trendin'' 
from the lighthouse S. K. by .S. or nearly so. 

When ships are to the westward of the lighiliouse, they may safely stand towards tlie isl- 
and until the light bears .S. S. K. ^ E. they will then b" in a good fair way for the lanu. and 
as before mentioned tliey can make more free by their load. 

Nearly east and west with the lighthouse, ami about , <d' a mile from it, is the oiitennost 
part of a reef of rocks which joins the .■^. W. point. These are dry at low water, and are 
the only danger near the lighthouse; therefore a berth of a mile from the point is a good 
fairway. At the lighthouse are depots of provLsious for the use of mariners in distress, 
or other shipwrecked ]) 

From the S. \V. jxiint to the south point, the land is all huh\, anc inriV be approached 
within one mile, tliere being no danger whatever; but there is no anchrsatie. Oil the south 
point of the island is a reef ot' mcks. To the westward ot' the south point there is an in- 
let, called by some Little .lupiter Kiver ; but by others Siiallo]* Creek ; here also is a depot 
of provision* kept for the shipwrecked mariner, similar to that at virand liay; this Creek 
is small and shallow, having only sulficicnt water to float a boat at low water. There is a 
small place to the westward of Shallop Creek, where a ve.ssel may anchor, with a N. E. 
wind, on a spit of .sand that runs from the ei\.>-t side of the river, in 4 fathoms; a cable's 
length outsitie of this, are 'JO tathoms. and a little further o(V ')0 faii'.oiJis. The east end 
of Antico.sti is flat for 2 miles oft". On liealli'-s Point a lighthouse, 'jontaining a fixed 
light, Ls erected. 

This island has hitherto hern considii"d dangerous to vessels bound to Quebec; but 
with care it will not be found so, for so ; • as you can see the land, you may advance to- 
wards, and sail freely along it ; by wh.. m ^ on will .dways get faster to the westward with 
foul winds, than you can do .i the offing .Here can be no danger of getting embayed, and 
the floods are regular near the island. Mr. Lauibly. in a fast sailing scliooner, frequently 
laid to diiring the niglit with westerly winds, and always found himself to windward of tiie 
place in the niornintr ; of course, ships beatuu; will always gain ground. 

TIDES AT ANTICOSTI.— The tides (low on the lull and change days till 11 o'clock, 
and rise iO feet, with spring, and 4 with neap tides. 

THE NORTH OR CANADIAN CHANNEL is bounded on the southward by the 
island of Anticnsti, and on the northward by the Mainland; here, in about the longitude 
of (34^ W. is the River St. .lohn; the land to the eastward of which, together with the ad- 
jacent i-slands, iiichidiiig Anlicosti, is under tlie (iovernment of Newfoundland ; that to 
the westward of that rivt r is under the (nivernment of Quebec. To the eastward of Si. 
John's River are the Miiiean and Esi|nimaux Islands •. these are a muiierous cluster of 
islands lying olV the main, with passages between, and places of good anchorage; the west- 
ernmost is named Mingan Island, and hears from the western point of Anticosti N. E. J E. 
distanf ]()', leagues; the Mingan settlements lie to the E. N. Eastward of the island, dis- 
tant ,.' out 7 or H miies; the harbor is formed between Canat.schoa Island and the main; 
h>?re vessels may ride securely in all weathers, the ground is good, and the anchorage in 
from 9 to 15 fathoms, v -th plenty of codfish, salmon and seals; the soil surrounding the 
«ct?!einent i.s fertile, tin! iand level, and a profitable trade is carried on with the Indians. 

KSQUiMAT^X ISLAND is about '20 miles to the eastward of Mingan Island, and lie'* 
iiP '< projecting pouii of laud, named Ksquiutaux Point, between them is good aad safe an- 



r'liiragt : from h 
iiiosi ol the who 
particularly that < 
7 to It) fathom.s. 

?!!•■: TIDE a 

ion!" 12 feet ; bi 
a considerable vai 

shore of the Ri\ 
harbor for shippii 
X. bearing N. W. 
Between the Muiij 
anchorage, but no 
iiig to the Fren<;h 
to the Seven Islaii 
c leasing towards 
the bay nearly N. 
when you approac 
to the westward o 
tathoms; the groi 

Captain Hardy, 
he strongly retiom 
point it out, and il 
and 'he ground ai 
possible for even 
headway up the K 
silily be too late in 
liir crew, for the s 
iiii; ; l)ut having ri 
tor the first favora 
continuing in the i 

THE i'llJE II 
If) feet, neaps 10 fi 

Between the we 
is 'J-' leagues wide, 
westward of Seve 
Point Deauion, be 
contracted to abou 
iaiiil to the eastwiM 
CCS u'liere vessels i 

Mion, it is a safe pi 
the ground iieing < 
tiist sailing ships >\ 
ity Hay the shore 
rocks above water 

On the N. E. pc 
main, with spring ( 
of the point ; tlier 
to |)oiiit, and there 
also may be found 
may lie hail in abr 

To sail into Trii 
piiiiii, on which st; 
W. Small vessel.' 
point of the bay In 
cross stands, is a le 
than 4 fathoms. 

The land to the 
n'.ss(ds sometimes 

.Nloni-Pelo) oil thf 
l.iiiteni standin-.f nr 
part of Carribou 
point, and to the c 

3hip& approachi 




1 mile from 
ithuiiis, to- 
» -'.pit, 
mi'f and -k 
It on.' mile 

W. winds; 
'H'i'l til tliH 
itf s«'iuneii 
<>(' the isl- 

e;ot ii|)on it 

1(1 so steep 

igers iihoiit 

A little to 

led Seal or 

ving light, 
h until tlie 

owards ti)t> 
::iul iftliey 
1(1 trendinir 

urds the isj- 
le biui. uiid 

pr, and are 

is a good 
in distress, 

i the south 
re is an in- 

is a dei)ut 
this Creek 
There is a 
h a N. K. 

a cable's 
le east end 
inp; a fixed 

ehec ; hut 
dvance to- 
ward with 
bayed, and 
ird of the 

1 o'clock, 

rd by the 
th the ad- 
i; that to 
ird of St. 
cluster of 
the west- 
E. i' E. 
sl;ind, dis- 
he maiti; 
horage in 
iiding the 
1, and lie'* 
d safe au- 


/•'iriragr ; from hence, 1 leagues to the eastward, lies the lale of Geneveivc, the eastem- 

iiiosi ol the whole range; there is good riding behind most of the iutermediate islands, 
particularly that of tit. Ciiarle^; within the east end of which a vessel inav anchor in from 
7 to It) fathoms. 

T'!'"' 'IMDK at these anchorag' s (lows til! ."' o'clock full and change, an(i its rt«e iscoin- 
;on!" 12 feet ; but the weather always has great inllueiice over it, ai .1 lVe(|uently occasions 
a considerable variation. 

THE SEVEN ISI^ANDS --The bay <d' the Sevi.n Islands is situated o" (lie northen. 
shore of the River St. Lawrence, ip longitude tib° 52' \V. and is ai. evten.-ive and good 
harbor for shiiiping of ail sizes, and with any winds; its entrance lies in latitude 50° 10' 
N. bearing N. W. ,' W. from the west end of Anticosti, Iroiii which it is distant 2J leagues. 
Between the Miiigan Islands and the Seven Islands IJay, there are a lew places of temporary 
anchorage, but none of note, or much fre(|uented. Here formerly was a settlement belong- 
ing to the French, destroyed in 175!), and never re-established. The principal channel in- 
to the Seven Islands Hay. is full two miles wide, and has from (iO to ;](> fathoms water, de- 
cieasiiig towards the interior of the bay; on entering you should bring the west point of 
the bay nearly N. N. \V. steer towards it in that direction, and jiass between the islands; 
when you approach the [loint, you iinist give it a berth, steering in nearly north, and when 
to the westward of the liarbor imiiit, about one mile and a half, anchor in from y to 14 
I'athoins; the grottnd is good, and the shelter safe. 

Captain Hardy, of the Savage, says this bay is so safe a shelter from westerly gales, that 
he strongly recommends every master of a vessel to run for it; the islands will sulliciently 
point it out, and the channels in are clear and bold ; wood and water may be easily obtained, 
and :hc ground ami shelter is perfectly good : for, lie observes, it will be always totally im- 
possible for even a fast sailing v'^ss(d, during westerly gales, to gain ground or make any 
headway up the River St. Lawrence, and a merchantman may beat about in vain, and pos- 
sibly be too late in attempting to run for a roadstead, after having sjdil lier sails, and harassed 
her crew, for the s()ualls in the river are violent, ami in thick weather give very little wtirn- 
ini; ; but having run for the Seven Islands Hay and anchored tliere, ytjii may wait in safety 
tiir the first favorable slant, and be up at C^uebcc far mure readily than you would do by 
continuing in the river beating about. 

THE TIDE in the bay (lows till half after one, lull and change, spring tides rise 18 or 
1!) feet, neaps 10 I'^ei. 

Between the west point of Anticosti and the Seven Islands Bay, the River St. LawrencA 
is JJ leagues wide, forming a clear open sea. without any damier whattr'er; but to the 
westward of Seven Islands Hay the main land bends to the sonlhward, untilit reaches 
Point Deamon. between which and the o])piisite shore ol Cape Chat, the liver becompg 
contracted to about 8v leagues; the shore is Ixdd all the way ; but i'o'iit Deamon, and the 
land to the eastwi>rd of it, is somewhai lower than to the westward, and there are a few pla- 
ces where vessels may occasionally anchor. 

TRIXITV HA v.— This Hay or Cove is about ,", leagues N. K. by N. from Cape Dea- 
mon, it IS a safe place for vessels unable with westerly winds to make their way up the f-'f/, 
the ground being everywhere clean, and tlie current so strong with these winds, that 'iv" 
last sailing ships will not be able to advance against it. Heiween (.'ape Deamon and Ti >. - 
ity Hay the shore is indenti-d with some s»ii;dl sandy coves, and near tliein are three '■ , c 
rocks above water; keep in not less than H fathoms water and yon will avoid them. 

On the N. E. point of the bay are also two large rocks, tlie northern one dries Ut «',t( 
main, with spring ebbs, but the sonthern one lies near a quarter of a mile to the sottth«. id 
of the point; there is no ])assai;e between thein. This bay is .'5,'^ miles round from point 
to point, and there is a river falls into il, wheio L'ood water can be ubiained ; another j^tre- ni 
also may be found about half a mile to the westward of the .vest pwint of th'! bay, and wood 
may be had in abundance. 

To sail into Trinity Hay, you must come to about half a ni'de to the f astward of the west 
point, on which stands a cross, and anchor with the pnnn bearing W. S. W.orS. W. by 
W. Small vessels may anchor in :{ fathoms at low water, just within die reef, the western 
point of the bay bearing S. W. T'hree (|uarters of a mile S. W. ot the |ioint, where t!ie 
cross stands, is a ledge of rocks, which dry at low water, and must not he approached nearer 
than i fathoms. 

The land to the westward of the point trends N. W. and forms a little bay, where small 
vfss(ds sometimes take shelter (rom N. E. winils, but of no use to large ships. 

CAPE MONT-PELO.— A -ighthouse has been erected on Point-des-Moiits (or Cape 
Mont-Pelo) on the north side of the river St. Lawrence, nearly opposite to Cape Chat, the 
lantern standing neav'.y 100 feet above the water. The lighthouse lays with the outermost 
part of Carribou Point, N. .')-2- E. — and S. 52^ W. by compass, an'.! can be seen over thai 
point, and to the ea,stward of it. 

Ship* approaching; the lighthouse from the eastward, as they draw towc,rds Can'ibou 








Point, must bring; it to bear W. hy S. Micy will then be in a good fairway, and if necessa- 
ry they can near the land hy tli ir • id. 

After passing Carribou J\)int. and as tlu'V draw towards the lighfliouse, they innst come 
no nearer than twelve fat,>(»nis tvatcr to avoid two ledges of roeUs, one of which lays K. S. 
E. from the lighthotise, with ordv 1-2 feet »i ater on it, tlie oilier lays S. W. from the light- 
house, and E. S. E. from the western extremity of Point (Its iMonts, with sixteen feel wa- 
ter on it, but these roeksdo not lay fuitiier iVom tlie shore tliaii half a mile at low water. 

The lighthouse lies with the western exticmity ol' I'oiiit des iMonts, N m E. and ii,(\v 
W. and distant about one mile ; and when ships are to the westward of the point, the light- 
house is in one with the outermost rocks olV the point; and in the daytime it forms a bold 
distinct landmark — and on this line of licarmg, ships are in the best possible fairway for the 
general purposes of navigatio'i. whether bound up or down. 

For any particular purpose of navigation, shi[)s may safely stand to the northward, un- 
til the light bears E. by N. ; they will then be drawing near the north land ; and when it 
bears E. ^ N. it is time to tack, for w hen it bears east, it will shut in with the high land anil 
cannot be seen to the southward of east, arul then tlu-y will be only one mile from the land; 
and if they are off (Jodbout Kiver, Point des Monts will bear I'rom ihem E. by S. two 
leagues distant. 

When ships are oft' St. Nicholas Harbor, and the light bearing E. by N. they are in a 
good fairway from the north land. The .S. E. spit of Manicoiigan Great Shoal, the ship, 
and the lighthouse are then all in one line of bearing. 

• ST. NICHOLAS HAKHOK.— West by North nearly 5 leagues from Point J3eanion 
lies the entrance of St. Nicholas Harbor; between them and .j miles to the eastward of 
St. Nicholas Harbor, is (ioodboo or (lodi)ret Kiver, of no use to shipping, except to pro- 
cure provisions occasionally, the North-west Company having a small settlement here of 
two or three houses. But at the entrance of St. Nicholas Harbor, vessels may find shelter 
from westerly winds. IJeing to the westward of the harbor, and bearing up for it, the har- 
bor will be known by all the land to the westward of it being dry iind barren, the wood be- 
ing all burnt oft' the mountains, but on the east side of the entrance, the mountains are 
green and full of trees. Run bolciiy in between the burnt Cape and green one, steering 
about north, i'nd the low point on the west side of the entrance will appear like a small 
island, which yoti must steer for; a stiiall wooden cross is »'rected on it, and as you draw 
near, »t will easily be seen, ami then you will observe a large reef of rocks running S. W. 
from the I'asternmost point of the harbor, opposite to which, on the land to the westward. 
liesanother reef; these reefs are covered at high water, but the large one may always be 
discovered ; you may anchor a little within the stream of the easternmost in fi fathoms, at 
low water; there is a distance of about one mile between the points nt' these two rcets, and 
hoth are very bold; there are ten fathoms close to the eastcrmimst, and four fathoms close 
to th > westernmost, you will then be a siu.dl ((uarter of a mile from the pomt with the cross 
on it; thi' i)oint is very bold, and round it, to the N. W. lies the (Jreat Basin. 

One hundred yards within the cn.iff. begins .i bar. with only ten feet water on it at low wa- 
ter, and lies quite acr'-ss tlic channel, comi)!eteIy blocking up the entrance for large ships; 
this entrance is nowhere, within the point, two ships' lengths wide at low water; but about 
a quarter of a mile higher, the channel becomes wider, and half a mile frointhi* entrance 
the basin is hah a mile wide, with room to moor fifty sail of the line, in from ten to twelv,? 
fathoms water, ^'ood ground. 

The Basin is dJ:ont two miles bmg from the head to the east point of the large reef at the 
enrrance. hut it is a very bad outlet for ships houinl to the westward, as an easterly wind 
blows right in, and the land all around is very mountainous, so that there is no getting in oi 
out with canvass set, in sfjuare rigged vessels. 

Small ves ris may haul along side the rocks just within the entrance, at the mouth of a 
small deto cove on tlie west side of the harlior, and lie in t"!i Icet at low water; this is a 
very safe harbor for small craft, and such as are quick with their canvass, but large ships 
h?.l ii tter anc^ior in the Bay, as before directed. 

• J :;oing nitu .lie Basin, keep close round the west point and along the west side, as the 
east side ii ijiuts^ Iry at low water, and the channel is nowhere two sliips' lenghths wide as 
befo't; mentione<i. 

The bank jast '': the southward of the east reef, and all along the shore, is very steep, 
dropping into 15, !iO, 30, and !iO fathoms, at the distance of 300 yards from the reef. Cod- 
fish are commonly caught here in abundance. 

This larg." reef completely dries at low water, and quite shuts the basin from easterly 
and southerK winds, making it a very safe place. This reef extends in the direction of S. 
W. by S. from the east side •>! the harbor, a large quarter of a mile. 

The tide flows till half past twelve o'clock, full and change, and rises eleven feet in spring 
tides, and seven feet in neap tides. 

The flood, in spring tides, runs to the westward above two knots, past the entrance, and 
this is to be observed all along the lorth shore up to the Point o " Mille V^ache, and Todusac. 


St. Nicholas Harl 
between them is I 
The land is all h 
ward is much low 
sandy, and has a 

The eastern pn 
eastward of it, df 
which, '2\ miles fi 
the sides of two I 
N. N. VV. and wl 
vou will then be o 

When the smal 
if vou should /i:i( 
|Voin the river, yo 
of the point of ei 
haul up, and that 
great shoal and tli 

The south side 
must steer up hal 
teen feet at low w 

The eastern sid 
rocky for one mii( 
ly winds, in four f 
be able to clear th 

In approaching 
from 60 to 20 fatli 
the east spit on tli 
breakers ; the clia 
narrow, while the 
three miles to the 

When at aiiclio 
the bay, bearing .'t 
is three miles bro 

The (lo)d tides 
anchoring place, i 
the head are two ,- 


extends from W. 
than any near it, r 
all along, i)ut very 
ward, does not exi 
that it is impossib 
of a mile of it, an 
part of the bank. 

On shore, withi 
another mile, ther 
three miles off. 
during a fresh gal 
kept from riumin£ 
place, and sliouhl 

The tide flows, f 
and eight feet in tl 

From the easts 
and at its western < 
miles from the Ian 
far as Befsimet's I- 
and lies S. \V. full 
to the westward ot 
two miles and a h? 
is very steep to an( 
but close to the m 
but is of no use to 
miles to the N.E. 
up by sand banks, 
for a steep and dan 



1 if necegsa- 

f must come 
:;li l;i)» K. S. 
"1 the li;;ht- 
tecii (eel wa- 
low water. 
'-. and S.fijj 
lit, the h«ht- 
t'oi IDS a bold 
r way for the 

rthward. un- 
aiid when it 
iflh land and 
0111 tlieland; 
K. by S. two 

hey are in a 
Jal, the ship, 

iint Deamon 

eastward of 
cept to pro- 
nent here of 
y find shelter 
)rit, the har- 
the wood be- 
lountains are 
t)iie, steerins: 

like a smnil 
as you draw 
ining S. W. 

e westward, 
iiy always be 

fathoms, at 
vo reefs, and 
thoiMs close 

th the cross 

it at low wa- 
largc ships; 
■ ; but about 
!••' entrance 
en to twelve 

e reef at the 
risterly wind 
netting in or 

! mouth of a 
er ; this is a 
; large ships 

side, as the 
hths wide as 

i very steep, 
reef. Cod- | 

roiii easterly 
'ection of S. 

?et in spring f 

itrance, and 
id Todusac. 

MANICOIKJAN HAY AND (JRKAT SHOAL— Five leagues and a half west from 
St. Nicholas Harbor lies the east point of the entrance of Manicougan Bay. The shore 
between them is bold and rocky, with (i(ty fathoms water within 600 yards of the rocks. 
The land is all high, ruined, burnt and barren (juite up to the Bay ; hut that to the west- 
ward is much lower, and of a yellow api)earaiice, by which it will readily be known; it it 
sandy, and has a line beach, flat tor the distance of two miles oH". 

The eastern point o( the entrance to ManicMmgan Bay faces a lare;c cape, lying to the 
eastward of it, distant •,'', miles; between them is adcc]) round hay, on the N. W. side of 
wliicli, 2 J miles from the eastern point of the enhance, is a small river running down by 
the sides of two hills, that arc close to the shore: this bay is open when the river bears 
N. N. W. and when the west point of iManicouijau Bay bears W. by IS. distant five miles, 
vou will then be on (he east end of Manicoiman (treat Shoal. 

When the small river above mt'iitioned i)ears N. N.W. and you intend going into the bay, 
if you should find yourself dose in to the uortliward, for the spit extends only 4^ miles 
|Voin the river, you dioiild e(l.;e off to the southward, in seven fathoms, along the east side 
of the point of entrance, until a cove conies open of it, bearing N. W. by W. i W. then 
haul u]), and that course will carry you into the bay; the clianiiel is narrow between the 
great shoal and the east point, and a bar siret<lies across with ten feet over it at low water. 

The south side of the east point is rocky, and the rocks run olt" 100 yards from it; you 
must steer up half a mile to the W. N. \V. of fhem. ami anchor on the east side in six- 
teen feet at low water; tiien moor, loi there is scarce room to swing safely. 

The eastern side of the east |)oint of the entrance. (|uite to the small river, is all flat and 
rocky for one mile oil", to the eastward of wliich, small vessels may fmd shelter from wester- 
ly winds, in four fathoms; but if caught with an easterly wind anil (lood tide, they will not 
be able to clear the east spit of the (Jreat Shoal. 

In approaching the bar iVom the eastward, the soundings are very irregular. You rise 
from fiO to liO fathoms, then ten, and four I'athoms close to the bar; from the bar down to 
the east sfjit on the north edi^c of the shoal, there are seven and ten fathoms close to the 
breakers; the clianuel between t!ie ed^e of the sho il and the east side of the bay is very 
narrow, while the (treat Siioal to the south, S. \V. and west, is completely dry, and for 
three miles to the S. \\'. the breakers are visible. 

W'iieii at anchor. Mount (,'aniiile will be Just open to tlie eastward of the west point of 
the bay, bearing S. W. by S. At high water, tliere are ten feet quite across the bay, which 
is three mib-s broad. 

The (lo>d tides run stnuig into the bay, and the elib to the contrary. The bay, from the 
anchoring place, runs west one mile, then N. \V. two miles, and N. N. E. half a mile; at 
the head are two small rivers, and tlie bay is about one mile wide across at the head. 

MANK'OTKtAN POINT begins at the point which forms the east part of the bay.and 
extends from W. S. W. to W. I)y N. four lea-^rues. The land is much lower on the point 
than any near it, and is easily known by its yellow appearance, being sand, with a fine beach 
all along, l)ut very flat. The utmost extent of the (Ireat Shoal from this point to the south- 
ward, does not exceed four miles and a half, but is every wliereso steep on the south side, 
that it is impossible to approach itwitli the lead; there are thirty fathoms within a quarter 
of a mile of it, and in some places fifty fathoms within 100 yards; it is the same at every 
part of the bank. 

Onshore, within the shoal, the tides ebb nearly one mile from hi^h water mark; for 
another mile, there are only two feet water, and in strong wimls. breakers are to be seen 
three miles otf. Strong and irregular eddies are aboui all the edges of the shoals ; and 
during a fresh gale of wind, vessels will not answer the helm, but will with difficultv be 
kept from running on the bank, or driving against each other, in short, it is a dangerous 
place, and should by no means be made tree with by strangers. 

The tide flows, lull and change, at one o'clock, and rises eleven or twelve feet in the spring, 
and eight feet in the neaj). 

From the east spit Manicoiigan .Shoal extends W. by S. and west, six leagues and a half, 
and at its western end it turns into the River anil Bay des Outardes; it i .nis out nearly three 
miles from the land, and joins a flat, which stretches completely round Bay des Outardes so 
far as Betsimet's Flat. Betsimet's Point is the name of the west part of Bay des Outardes, 
and lies S. W. full five leagues from Mauic(>u!:au West Point. After ships are two league? 
to the westward of .\Iauicougau Point, they may stand info the Bay des Outardes to within 
two miles and a half of the shore, but not nearer, for the llal runs off one mile and a half, and 
is very steep to and dangerous, [n the north part of Bay des Outardes, are two rocky islands, 
but close to the main; Outarde River lies between these two islands and Manicoiigan Point, 
but is of no use to ships, the entrance being quite blocked up by shifting sand banks. Three 
miles to the N.E. from Betsimet's Point, is anothe*- river, but its entrance is completlyshut 
up by sand banks. Ships in rounding Betsimet's Point should give it a bertf of three miles, 
for a steep and dangerous sandy sitoul quite surrounds the point, and theneare /ou approach 








the nhoal, tho siroiii»er is the rtood tide; iniljM'd the flood in alwiiys 8tr(ln^ lirreabnm, nnd 
the clib wfitk. 

From Hersiiii't'M Point to Point Miile Vachr, the bearing is S. W. by W. distant nearly 
8,V lea!znt'M; between tlicni lies La Valle Bay. 'I'his bay is (jiiite clean and bold to wiiliiiKino 
mile of the shore; in ilie N. K. part otihis bay stamls Jerome Island. .Inst to the eastward 
nt'.lerome Island, is a reinaikalde irhitr /iiifrli in the land, which, in line weather, looks inudi 
like a lar<{e Cliunli, and is a snic mark lor the island, and nnieh sooner seen than the island 
in goitii- lor it. .Ships may make free with this bay (|iiiie np to I'oint Mille V ache, but they 
innsi ji'iw tiiat |)oint a berth of two miles and a half, as a steep sandy Hhoal surrounds it, like 
that at Betsimet's Point. 

In Valle Hay, ami to the westward of .lerotne fslanrl, there is a river open when it bears N. 
W. Sliipsfallini; iiilft this bay, and secini; this river open, will be sure the point to the east- 
ward of them is Betsimet's and not Manieoiiijan, as there is no otiier river o|)en, in Ihul hear- 
ing, in any part of tJiis coast : it may be proper to observe this, thai stran^'ers may be certain 
where they are, sliouldlhey fall sinlderdy in with this part of the coast, after thick weather, 
at the :,,n>ii> time seeing; .lemme Island with the >vhite buildings on it. — Observe also, there 
are two islands iti the N K. |)art o( ihiy des Outardes, and only one in this bay, and that 
much lari^er thaniither of the others. 

Betsimet's Point bears from Father Point (the pilot's rendezvous) N. }, W. distant thirty- 
two miles, ami Irotn Bariiab, Island, N. by K. distant thirty-five miles. Here vessels with 
the wind at west, and (loud tide, iimy cross over, and eni;ai;e a pilot for tiie river; should tlit- 
wind be .S. W. by \V. tliev will do well to keep the northern land on board, until they can 
make certain of felchin;; Father Point. 

The current is always stronsr between Mille Vaehe and Bicquette, ninnins; to the N. E. 

Three miles to the eastward of Point Mille \'a( he, is a small river, witli a settlement of 
two or tiiree honses, ()elonsi!iin; also to the North-west ("ompan>, called Porlneuf. At this 
part are some remarkable white clilfs, appearini^ like chalk, which will distinctly point out 
the situation, there beinji "o similar object in the river. 

When abreast of Point Mille V'ache, or near it, the Island of Bic will bear S. by E. distant 
twenty-two miles. 

The tide flows at Mille \'a( he Point, full and change, till three o\ lock. 


.SOUTH CHANNEL.— The const of the district of Gaspe is high, bold, rugged steep- 
to and totally destitute ot' li:ir!)ois. Several rivulets fali into the sea between this and {'a|]e 
Chat, but there are none ofsnlficifiit importance to warrant description. There is a small set- 
tleinent at St. Ann's, about six leagues K. N. E. from Cajjc Chat, where a few families re- 
side, who are always ready fo atlord the mariner assistance if required; but the little river 
of St. Ann's, as \yell as that near Cape Chat, are both barred at the entrance, and all'oni 
very little advantage to shipping: the latter, called C;ipe Chat River, becomes almost dry 
at low water, except one spot where ten feet water may occasionally be found, these rivers 
am therefore little frequented. 

C\PE CHAT is a remarkaiile lieidland, known by a short Sugar Loaf Hill upon it; 
it lb the most northerly |)oii)i of land (by compass) on the south side a( the River Lawrence, 
but the land that surrounds il.asws-ll as thai behind, is much more elevated. 

From the N. W. end cd' An'icosti to Cajjc Chat, the bearing and distance are W. by .S. 
thirty leagues: and from Cape (Jliat, to the opposite shore at Cape Deainon, the distance 
is only eight leagues and a half; these Capes bearing from each other S. S. E. and N. N. 
W. The land about (!ape Chat ]?as a remarkable aiipeariuice, tlie mountains being broken, 
notched, and irre'j;nlnr at their summits: this is a certain and a good .,iark forthe River St. 
Lav.'rcnce, for there is no land like it to the westward. 

From Ca|)e Chat to Matins or Matane Hiver. the coast trends W. 1 S. distant nearly 11 
leagues; the coast between them is indented with three places like Bays, but no slielter on 
any part of the coast for anchoring, tlie shore is nil bold and rocky. 

The soundings between tliein, beyond tlie (ie])th of /ifreen fathoms, are all sand, bui with- 
in that depth all hard and foul. In fifteen fatjmms water vou will not be half a mile from 
the rotks, and in some |;laces close to them. ''J'he water deepens very fast from fifteen 
fathoms, so much so, that a mile and a half from sliore, vou will have fifty and sixty fathoms 
with fine clean sand, and somewhat f,uther oil" no ground at 100 fathoms, 

'i'he tide Hows by the shore "il! 12 o'clock nearly at Cajje Chat; but the tides in the 
River St. Lawrence are very mirdi iiiduenced by the winds. Strong easterly winds make 
them (low much stronger and rise iiiiich higher, while westerly winds will have a contrary 
effect; common springs will rise twelve and fourteen feet, neap tides eight feet. 

The shore is all very barren quite up tr Matane, and notliing (u be got from it but wood 
and water. 




t but wood 

MATANK is n small river of little use. except to small vessels. Wlien Rhreast of tliia 
rivpr, and not more tlian three or fttur miles from it, you will see several houses, and a bluff 
cliir standing liy itself close to the west side of the entrance ; if desirous of enterins;, brin(? 
the said hliilf S. S. K. and a lead-colored house will he just open to the eastward of it; 
lieep it so, and run for the River ; this mark will lead between two banUs, which dry at low 
water, and over the bar, which has only six feet water on it at low water; the two Hanka 
lie not a half mile from the shore; small vessels sometimes run down alnni; the land, and 
po to the southward of the westernmost bank : the two Hanks sometimes shift by tlie vio- 
leiic(; of the upland water from the mountains, in the spring of the year, when the suow 
melts, at which time the current runs very strong out of the river. 

Ships may procure pilots or provisions iicre, if in want or in distress, when, with a pilot 
and hiijh water, they may haul close round tlie west side of the entrance, and lie alongside 
tlip sand bank in 14 feet at low water. 

Tide flows at Matane till tiirc('-(|uarters past I'J o'clock, full and change. 

When one or two leagues to the eastward of Matane, and three miles from shore, you 
will seethe Papsol .Matane bearings. W. i \V. they stand inland to the westward o< the 
Kiver, and this is the best beariui; to distinguish tliem in ; Mount (Jamille will then bear S. 
W. bvW. 1 VV. distant 14 or 1") leagues; this mountain ai)pears to the nnrthward of all tlie 
land, then in sit^ht, in (he form of a circular island. 

The course from Matane to the coast opposite Mount (-amille, is from West to W. by 
S.; between them, and eight leagues to the westward of Matane, lies Little MathisCove; 
it is a place where small vessels may find shelter from westerly winds, in two and three fa- 
thoms at low water: in !.'oing in, give the east end of the reef a berth of 100 yards, or cross 
it in three (athoms. and haul t(» the westward and anchor in the middle of the cove. The 
reef runs one mile, nearly, to the eastward from the land, and from it to the shore or south 
laml, the distance is near two miles, but there is a reef between, and all is dry to the south- 
wanl of the second reel". The coast is all barrttn from Matane to this place. 

Two leagues and a half S. W. from Little Mathis is Grand Mathis, a small Cove with a 
River on the S.W. side, of no use to slii]>s. as the Cove nearly dries at low water; however, 
small vessels m;iy aiflidr there with S. \V. winds in three fathoms at low water, but with 
westerly winds tlicy will have no shelter. 

Little >Lithis is known from (irand Mathis by its having a round bluff rock lying S. E. 
(roin the north reef, distant one mile and a half; a little to the eastward of the bluff rodk 
stands a small hill on the mountain, in the form of a sugar loaf. Crand Mathis has a large 
rock standing in the middle of tluK'ove ; Little ALuhis lias none. You must be within 
two or three leagues of the shore to make the Cove out, for the points of land and the reefs, 
which form the Coves, are very low. 

The soundings from Matane to (irand Mathis extend furth.:. to the northward off the 
.Mathis's than otV iNLitnii!^, having ;i.) fathoms water, with sand, four miles from shore, and 
from four to six miles otV, you drop into (>() or 71) fathoms. The north edge of the bank is 
very steep (juite up to Green Island. Within 10 fathoms watertlie ground is all hard and 
fdiil, and very bad lauding w ith a boat, except in fine weather, at the Coves at Little and 
Grand Mathis. The coast between the Mathis's is very full of rocks: in some places they 
run near a half mile from shore. Three mib's to the westward of Little Mathis is Death 
Cove, a small place where the pilot's boats find shelter w ith easterly winds, but dry at low 

Tide Hows at Mathis till one o'clock, full and diange. 

From (irand Mathis to Cock Cove, the easternmost part of Father Point, the land trends 
W. by S. and the distance is .'5', or 4 leagues, "^riie ground is all foul half a mile from 
shore, bui in from T.' to It fafhoms, ves- eis may stop in calm weather with clean ground. 
The current generally runs strong down on the south shore. Mount Camille is between 
Grand Mathis and Cock Cove. 

From Cock Cove to the west part of Father Point, the land trends due west, and the dis- 
tance is () miles; lietween the Cove and Point, the land is low and well stocked with houses, 
and the |)ilots live on shore here, (at least many of them) as this place is the general ren- 
dezvous for tlipvn all. On the west part of the Point stands a house with the body of it 
painted red, it is the we«iternmost jiilot's house. From this house to the Lsland of Barna- 
by the bearing is due west, three miles and a half. 

BARNABY ISLAND lies W. by S. and is tliree miles long. Small vessels may find 
shelter from westerly winds under the east end of this Lsland, in from two to three fathoms 
at low water. There is a round large stone on the reef, which runs to the eastward of the 
Island a quarter of a mile. Cross the reef by the lead, and haul to the S. W. till the large 
stone bears N. W^. by W. and the body of the Island bears W. by N. then anchor a quarter 
of a mile from the Island. Small vessels may likewise find good shelter from easterly and 
N. E. winds under the west end of this Island; run up to the westward until the Church, 
which stands on the main, is just open to the eastward of a bluff rocky Island which lies 
close to the main, and due south from the west end of Barnaby ; with this mark, cross the 







rorf in ihrre fathoins, (which runs to the N. W. fntm niiniiiijy) tind romo to mid-wnyh«- 
twccii (his bhiU" Ulaiiil and Haniiiliy. l{;iriial(y thru will N K. and yon will havctV 
.'t III 4 (athiinis at hiw water. 'I'liP channel Innii ISainaliy tn the hhilf lsia:id \s i\\ 
rourths of a mile wide, ami ail clean <;ii'mI mnniid. At h'uh water, Mpritic ti Icm, tlierv 
are It leet water in tlie cli.iinicl between I'/aiii iSy and tlie Main, hut this liccnnieH ijuite dry 
at low water. havinj» many larije stones here uiKi there. Vesseln of ten tect water mav run 
through salely heiween tiie Island and Main, should th'-y becauirht at aiiclior at eiilnr piid. 
by the wind shil'linj; suddenly ; iini it must he at spring tides ur nearly so, as at iu>a|i tides 
there is no wli. re nine feet. The tide (lows at IJanialiy island, full and change, ii|| |^^,, 
o'clock. The ( 'hiirdi above mentioned staiifU due soiuh I'roiu »lie body ol Harnaby lslan<l, 
on tiip east side of the Kiver called Itemousky. Re(noiisky is the name of (his parish; it 
begins at Cock <'ove. and contiiiius thie.- miles above this river. 'I'here arc no houses 
on Barnaliy Island, and very litilc waiec: ships in <d' water must yo to the river. 

From Harnaby Island, Hie Island bears west, and lii(|iiette W. a little Northerly. The 
first is three leanius distant, and the latter len miles; ('ape Ari,'i!idc bears W. by S. '; S. 
distant three leagues and a half. Cape Ari^rnnle or ( )ni.'iual, and the east end of Hie Is|. 
and lie due north and south of each other ; the west end of the Island Hie be"' mh; N. W. 
and the east end ul' the reef, which extends .S. K. iVoiu the Island, N. N. K. tli? ''stance 
from the (,'apt! to the Hod v ot" ihc Island is about two miles and tlirce quarters. 

Between Harnaby and Hie Islands, lies the Kiver Otley and Old Hie ll.ulxu-; the Fliver 
Ottey bears S. \V. Cioiii Harnaiiy, distant about live miles, and is of little use to shipping 
except to water at. Old Hie is to the westward of Ottey River, ;ibout three miles, and is 
a very ijood phice for sniall vessels to lie slieltercd from westerly winds. Tliis haiiioi- has 
two round Islands oii the cast side of it. and it is (Uie mile tVom them to the west side of 
the Harbor; aiiciior mid-way between the westernmost Island and the west side of tho 
harbor in three latlu)ius ;it low water, the west [mint bearinsi west: a single family resides 
liere, wlio occasionally can furnish you with provisions, if necessary. 

Cape Arigiiole bears from the Harbor of < )ld Hic due west, and is distant about two miles 
and a half; from the Cape runs a reef K. by N. one mile, and the east part of that reef, 
the west point of Old l>ic Harbor, and (he west cml of the Island of Hie are in a direct 
line bearinu; \V. N. W. and K. S. K.; the distance from the east end of the rei f to Old 
Bic Harbor is one mile. 'I'o tlie S. K. of the (^ape, is a Bay of no use to shipping bein;; 
all foul ground and shoal water. Tlic leadiiiij mark to clear the eastern reefof ( ape AriL'- 
nole, goinn in and out of Old Hie Harbor, is to keep tlie swasliway in the S. K. part of 
Old Bic Harbor open to the eastward of the west point of the iiarbm', bearin:; K. .*s. K. ! .*>. 
in four fathoms water, sprins; tides. The swasliway here mentiimed, is made bv a river 
running down between the moiititains. .lust to the westward of the swasliway the 1 ind ap- 
pears like chalk, but it really is a white barren rock. It forms a very cood mark for small 
vessels coming down from the westward, and intending; to anchor ;it ( *lil Hic, as the r;tst 
part of the reef of the Cajie is covered at hi;,'h water, and is all rocks, which dry at low 

THE ISLAND OF IHC is moiierately liit,'h and well clothed with trees, its lenjith east 
and west is about three miles, and it is surrounded on the east, west, and north sides by 
dangerous reefs. Otf its northern sliore lii's a woody islet. l.")ti yards lonij, called Hiqiiette; 
this is nearly a mile distant from the Island Hic, but there is no channel for vessels between 
them ; the northern side of Biijuette is steep to, and there are ?,0 fathoms water, at a mus- 
ket shot distance from it. 


THE ALCIDES ROCK. — This is a daniieron which is said to be no more than eiijht 
feet water, but recent navigators seem inclined to disbelieve its existence. Mr. Lambly, 
whose name wo have already mentioned, says, " he is sure there is no such rock ; there is, 
he states, a rock with 10 feet water, but that lies S. \V. by S. 3', miles distant from the west 
end of the Island of Hic, and only one mile from the main. Vessels sailing in 10 fathoms 
water, will go to tiie northward of it, it lying coinpletelv out of the fair way track of snip- 
ping: this rock and the N. W. Ledge that stretches from the west end of Hic, are the on- 
ly dangers to be avoided." 

South-west, distant one mile from (^ape Arignole, lies the east side of the Bay Ha Ha; 
it is about three-quarters of a mile wide, and one mile deep; small vessels may anchor with 
the east part of the Hay bearing N. E. the east end of Bic Island will then be shut in with 
it, in two or three fathoms at low water, sheltered from ' asterly winds; but the Bay is of 
no use to large vessels. 

Between two and three leagues to the westward p'' Ha Ha Bay there is a sniall rivulet, 
where in the spring of the year, there is a reinar'^able waterfall; and a league aud a half 
further west, are the Razade or Bumper Islands. 



always above water, 
irrf) of a mile apart. 
jn« a full league Iro 
Iroin llie noriliward 
Hank is commuiily 

S. W. I \V. 
aiice, and is coverec 
nide is bold to. I'x 
a small setilemeiii. 

three barren mcky 
and a little to the m 
dry at low water; ll 
i<i distant nearly a It 
N. K. and S. W. al 
river, stands a liL'liil 
hibits a regular ligh 
rise, its bearings bei 
ly. the Brandy i'oi> 
J S. from the shoal 
at the west end (d' t 
the middle Apple h 
house will have the 
visible six leauues o 
ledge that runs olf t 
it: it is covered at I 
shoal lies directly it 
There is a rocky 
westernmost part id 
through it strongly 
the lightlHuise bean 
It may be jn-oper 
light, as a high ligh 
a line drawn throng 
tween Red and (Jrei 
fair way iietween Hi 
On the outermos 
side of Bas(|ue Isla 
line ; therefore by l> 
ship will clear the r 
ship will lead clear 
CACANA is the 
the water between i 
northward of the st 
about a mile from e 
one mile ; and are : 
of tliem. Von wil 
buoy, having the m 
the northernmost I 
ernmost mountain i 
Tilgrim Island S. : 
west Cape of the I 
River du Lou|) S. ' 
dii Loup. 'I'hese 
E. and S. fi.'}" W. 
between them are ] 
above 20 feet abovi 
situated nearly in t 
six miles ; w hile tj 
lighthouse N. W. 
3^ leagues, beii.g i 



THF. RAZADK ISLANDS aic, Ntriclly Hppiikinj;, two larur liarrrii rnckn, ii|)ppflriii(( 
nlway^ al)ovt' witirr, atnl luiinnii Irom ta<li oilirr N. K. anil S. W. hriiig ahout tlirrt* quar- 
trrH ol' a iiiiln apail. A Hank nC sutitiilin^iH ixiiikIn all tlii> way Iioim iii(|iH'tt>- I.Hlaii(l, rfacli- 
int; a lull li-auiii- troiii ilic slioti', witli iVdiii 10 to -Jd lathoins n|ioii it, and vthHcLs may 
trotn lli*^ northward ol ilit- Ka/.aili- and lSa.Hi|iif Islands in 10 raltinin^t, liiil ilic ed^r ol this 
Hank Is cnnnnunly steep to, and Ijiin^ oil it you will Kuddcniy drop into diM'p water. 

llASt^lK ISIiAM) lifs \V. N. \V. trorn tin; wrstcrn KaV.adr, distant two niili"!*, and 
S. W.hy W. \ W. Irom the Island of Uir, distant alioiit li Itaiiues; it has a round appear- 
ance, and is eovered with tret-s ; at present there art; no houses upon it, and itM northern 
«ide IS hold to. iiehind lSas(|iie Island, and sitiiali d on the main land, is 'I'hree I'iHioleH, 
a HUiidl settlement. 

Al'I'LK ISLANDS lie a leayue ami a half W. S. \V. from Hasr|tiP Island; they are 
tliree barren rocky Islets, the middle one lieint; eonsiderahly the largest: between tliein, 
and a little to the northward of the west enri of Hasipie Island, there are some rucks which 
dry at low water; these are steep to, and very near them are 10 lathoiris. 

GKKEN ISLAM) lies lu the S. west of Apple Islands, from whieh its northern point 
19 di-tant nearly » league and a half, it thence continues in the directitin of the laiul nearly 
N. K. and S. W. about three leanues; liere, on a point that projects northward into the 
river, stands a liirhihouse, which is 70 feet above the level of the low water mark: and ex- 
hibits a ret;ular lii^ht from the liith of April to the 15lh of December, from sun set to sun 
rise, its l>earinKs beina as follow: from Ked Island K. S. K. White Island K. N.E. norther- 
ly, the Jkandy Pots N. K. by K. j E. Apple Island S. W. by W. Basque Island W. S. W. 
J S. from the shoal at the north-east end of (irecn Island S. W. by S. anil from the shoal 
at the west end of the Island N. E. From Has(|ne Island it is distant i;j miles; and from 
the middle Apple IsIatuI, 7 miles. To vessels either noiny up or down the river, the light- 
house will have the appearance of a ship, beinj; very conspicuous, while the li>;lit will be 
visible six leagues oil. There is no danger on the north side ol (irecn Island, except tha 
ledge that runs off the lighthouse, and this leili;e stretches out ,' of a mile N. E. by N. from 
it: it is covered at liigli *' ater spring tiih-s, but steep to and roiky: the extremity of the 
slioal lies directly in a line with IJasijue Island and ('ape Ariunole, bearing E. N. E. 

There is a rocky reef at the western end of (Jreen Island, which dries for a mile; the 
westernmost part of this reel is there detached from tiie dry part, and the flood tide sets 
through it strongly towards Caeana; this part is only covered at a (piarter tide, and when 
the lighthouse bears N. E. \ E. you will be in its direction. 

It may be proper to state that the lighthouse on (ireen Island, was intended for a low 
light, as a high light was to have been erected on the island beliind it, on such a spot, that 
a line drawn through their centres would fortii a line of sailini; to lead sliips in at: 1 out, be- 
tween Red and (ireen island Shoals, and sulliciently far to the eastward, to insure them a 
fairway between Hie and Mille Vache Shoal. 

On the outermiist part of the reef that lays N. E. by N. from this lighthouse, the norttk 
side of Hasqun Island and the high land to the southward of C'a|)e a I' Original are in one 
line; theiefoie by keeping the said highlands open to the northward of Basque Island, a 
ship will clear the reef: by keeping White Islarul open to the northward of Hare Island, a 
sliip will lead clear of, and be in a fairway berth from Ked Island Shoal. 

CACANA is the high bliitf land lying S. S. W. from the S. W. end of Green Island^ 
the water between is deep; one and a half mile to the westward of Caeana, and just to the 
northward of the stream of if, lie the Perces or Percy Rocks; these form two clusters, 
about a mile from each other, bearing east and west ; they are distant from the mairy)early 
one mile; and are almost eovered at high water; but there is no |)assage to the southward 
of them. Vim will always go clear of them by kee[)ing in not less than 10 fathoms water.. 

BARRET'S LEDfJE is two detached rocks; on the soutii-western rocks lies a black 
buoy, having the northern extremity of the main land within (Jreen island, in a line with 
the northernmost high land of (Jape Arignole, bearing N 64^^ E. the summit of the south- 
ernmost mountain in the Highland of Ivaniaraska in one with tlie south point of the Great 
I'ilgrim Island S. .30^ W. the eastern si 'e of the trees on Hare Island in one witli the 
west ('ape of the iiay of Rocks, on the north shore N. 47° W. and two houses near the 
River du Loui) S. 29"^ E. the latter are the only two houses between the (Jhurch and River 
dti Loup. These rocks are distant from each other one quarter of a mile, bearing V.G.I^" 
E. and .S. fi:}" W. the N. E. rock has 15 feet water over it, tlie S. W. rock only 12, while 
between them are 11 fathoms. 

RED ISLAND. — This is alow, flat, reddis'i-looking island, without trees; and not 
above 'JO feet above tlie level of the high water mark ; it is surrounded with slioals ; and 
situated nearly in the middle of the river, bearing from the liahthouse W. N. W. distant 
six miles ; while the outer or eastern extremity of the reefs about it, bears from the same 
lighthouse N. W. 

WHITE IS^^ AND.— This is a small island lying S. W. \ W. from Red Island, distant 
3^ leagues, beii.g round and covered with trees; a reef of rocks extends N. E. ^ E. full & 






M 12.5 

■ 50 



1.25 1.4 




6" — 





WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 






■ 1, 


i \ 



miles from the oast end of Hare Island, drying to about half that distance ; midway between 
the Red Island and this reef are 20 and "Jo fathoms. 

It may be proper to remark here, that, from this part, a bank extends nearly parallel to 
the shores of the river, so far as the Goose Islands ; it is narrow, and may be crossed in 
many places, but it naturally divides the navigation of the river into two channels ; that to 
the south-eastward is the one most conimoidy frequented, the other to the north-westward, 
having strong tides, deep water, and no godd ancliorage. 

. . HARE ISLAND. — This island lies S. W. } ,S. distant only three quarters of a mile 
from White Island, thence it exleiids to the S. W. full eight miles; in no part exceeding 
hi breadth one mile, bu^ in several places not equalling half a mile. S. by W. one mile 
from the east end of Hare Island, lies the southernmost of some small islets called the 
Brandy Pots, on which a telegraph is erected. The northernmost Brandy Pot is close to 
the southern one ; it is high and covered with trees; the southernmost is a whitish rock 
nearly barren; they are each about half a mile long, lying N. V/. and S. E. of each other, 
the ground between them drying at low water; they lie nearly a I of a mile from the south 
side of Hare Island, with no passage for vessels between. A little to the east of the north- 
ern Brandy Pot is the Noggin, a small islet covered with trees ; at low water these are 
connected by a chain of rocks, leaving a passage only fit for boats. Halfway between the 
Noggin and the east end of Hare Island is a reef of rocks which dries at low water; it lies 
close to Hare Island, and therefore not in the way of shipping ; and by keeping in 7 fa- 
thoms, you will always go clear. 

To the westward of the Brandy Pots, the south side of Hare Island has a flat of hard 
ground, extending from it, being three miles long and one quarter of a mile broad : the 
whole of this side of the island is bounded by rocks. 

MIDDLE GROUND.— South-westward of Barret's Ledge, and between Hare Island 
and the main land, lies a shoal called the Middle Ground, its north-east end begins where 
the Brandy Pots bear N. W. distant two miles j it runs S. W. by W. from thence about 
four miles; the least water on its N. E. part is 2 fathoms, on its middle 3 fatlioms, and on 
its western end 5 fathoms : the anchorage upon it is good in 'ine weather. When the 
west end of Hare Island bears West, Cape Salmon, on the north side of the river, will be 
open to the westward of it : but you will observe that, with this mark on, about half a mile 
to the northward of the Middle Ground is a small knoll with only 14 feet water upon it. 
By keeping White Island between Hare Island and the Brandy I'ots, y-m will pass to the 
southward of this knoll in 5 fathoms water. 

HARE ISLAND SHOAL. — This is a long shoal, beginning about a mile above the 
west end of Hare Island, and running up in a S. W. direction, full three miles; and a 
considerable part of it becomes dry at.low water; the western extremity that dries, bears 
from the west end of the Pilgrims N. 35° W. and the eastern extreme due north : the bank 
is composed of sand, some part of it being above the level of high water mark, but it is 
bold to on its southern side, and 7 fathoms will lead right along its edge. Between the 
8ho»l and the Pilgrim Islands, the channel is not three miles wide. 

According to the information of Captain Watson, of the ship Perseverance, there is a 
baak of 13, 14, 15, and 16 feet in this part of the channel, lying in the same direction with 
the Hare Island Shoal, and having a narrow channel of 3 fathoms water between them; 
the south part of this bank lies W. J S. from the Northern Pil-rriin, distant nearly 5 miles 
S. W. ^ S from the Brandy Pots. S. S. W. from the western part of Hare Island, dis- 
tant 4 J miles, and N. E. by N. from the Kamaraska Islands, distant 6 miles, at which spot 
there are only 2^ fatl m s water: the bottom is hard, flat, and clear from rocks; should 
this description prove correct, mariners passing through this part of the river will do well 
to borrow somewhat closer towards the Pilgrim Islands, keepinc; at about a mile from them, 
they will then go clear of all da ger, and have from 8 to 10 fathoms water. 

THE PILGRIMS are four islands connected together by reefs, that become dry at low 
water; they occupy a space of about three miles, and are distant one mile and a half from 
the main, but there is no passage between them and the south land. The N. E. or (4reat 
Pilgrim, bears from the Brandy Pots S. 18° W. distant eight miles, and from the S. W. end 
of Hare Island, S. 36° E. distant 3V miles; this is the highest island, and covered with 
trees; the others appear white and barren. The south-westernmost or Long Island, lias 
a telegraph upon it, and lies in the direction of S. W. and N. E. its west end bears from 
the west end of Hare Island S. 10° W. they are all bold to on the northern side. 

KAMARASKA ISLANDS. — These are a collection of small islands lying ofl'the south 
side of the river, between the Pilgrims and Cape Diable, and in front of the Church and 
settlement of Kamaraska. The Great or N. E. Island, beais from the western Pilgrim, 
S. W. distant two leagues ; there is a bank extendmg from one to the other, with three 
fathoms upon it, and 10 fathoms close to its northern edge; the second is called Burnt 
Island, and lies close to the westward of Great Island ; on its western end is a telegraph. 
Crow Island lies S. S. W. from the west end of Burnt Island, distant half a mile : there 
«re also two lesser Islands at the inner side of Burnt Island. These Islauds occupy a 

midway between 

nearly parallel to 
lay be cros^sed in 
channels ; that to 
i north-westward, 

(uarters of a mile 
10 part exceeding 
by W. one mile 
I islets called the 
Jy Pot is close to 
is a whitish rock 
E. of each other, 
ile from the south 
east of the north- 
water these are 
' way between the 
low water ; it lies 
keeping in 7 fa- 
has a flat of hard 
L mile broad : the 

/een Hare Island 
end begins where 
lom thence about 
3 fathoms, and on 
ther. When the 
f the river, will be 
, about half a mile 
;et water upon it. 
u will pass to the 

a mile above the 

ree miles ; and a 

that dries, bears 

north: the bank 

r mark, but it is 

e. Between the 

nance, there is a 

irie direction with 

between them ; 

Int nearly 5 miles 

rlare Island, dis- 

|cs, at which spot 

rocks ; should 

river will do well 

mile from them, 

lecome dry at low 

and a half from 

N. E. or (treat 

bn the S. W. end 

|ul covered w}th 

jong Island, has 

end bears from 

In side. 

ling off the south 
Ithe Church and 
Testern Pilgrim, 
Iher, with three 
lis called Burnt 
ll is a telegraph. 
Ilf a mile : there 
llauds occupy a 



ipacc of three miles, and are about one mile off shore, the bank between drying at low 
water. Great and Burnt Islands are both bold and steep to on the north side, but Crow 
Island has shoal water around it, and bears from Kamaraska Church N. W. distant three 
quarters of a mile ; between is a safe landing place. 

From Crow Island, Cape Diable bears S. W. distant nearly three miles, but from the 
Cape, in the direction of Crow Island, runs a rocky reef, the eastarnmost part of which is 
covered at a quarter flood, and is not more than a mile from Crow Island. Two miles above 
Cape Diable is Point St. Denis, to the southward of which is a little Cove with an Island 
in it, on which stands a Telegraph. There is good riding opposite to this Cove, at one 
mile or one mile and a half distance from shore, in from 10 to 15 fathoms. 

The land from St. Denis runs S. W. to Point Oval, and is all low, with regular sound- 
ings before it; Point Oval has a rocky reef attached to it, which stretches out W. and S. 
westerly a full mile and a half; roui.ding this point you will open the River Oval, on the 
eastern banks of which is a Church and Settlement : from Cape Diable to Point Oval, the 
distance is 7 miles. Nearly 8 miles to the south-westward of Point Oval is Point St. Roch ; 
a sand bank stretches out from this latter Point, at the extremity of which a black buoy is 
placed in 2^ fathoms, this lies with the Road and St. Roch's Church in one, bearing S. E. 
by S- and the northernmost part of trie Land of Kamaraska, just open of the low Point of 
St. Denis, bearing N. E. by E. 1 E. St. Ann's Church E. \ S. Oval Church E. by N. the 
east end of Coudre Island N. N. W. \ W. and Cape Goose N. N. E. Between PoinU 
Oval and St. Roch is an extensive Bay, commonly known by the name of St. Ann's Bay : 
it is shallow all over, for a sandy flat beginning at Point Oval extends itself W. by S. so 
far as the buoy of St. Roch ; this flat is studded with sunken rocks, and very dangerous. 

A floating light vessel lies about a fourth of a mile below the station of the black buoy, 
which was laid many years since on the outermost part of the large shoal off St. Roch's 
Church, in 4^ fathoms at low water. The said buoy lays with the following land marks, 
bearings, Jcc.'&c. St. Roch's Church S. E. by S. the steeple is then immediately in one, 
with the road that runs up from the church into the Concessions, and about 5 miles distant. 

The northernmost high lands of Kamaraska in one with the low point of St. Deois, 
b:)aring about N. E. by E. \ E. Pillar Boise, shut twice its breadth with the S. point of 
Goose Island, bearing S. W. quarter W. The buoy lies in 2^ faUioms water. 

Ships should give the light vessel a fair berth and run up abov^ the black buoy on tb.e'r 
S. W. by W. course, and then haul in to the southward to h fu'ioni'^ of water ; the course 
will then be S. S. W. to the pillars, and the distance from the piaats to the light vessel ia 
about 11 miles. 

ENGLISH AND MIDDLE BANKS.— Directly opposite the black buoy of St. Roch, 
lies the red buoy of the Middle Bank, from which it bears N. W. by W. distant one mile, 
the marks being the summit of the second mountain of the high land of Kamaraska, to 
one with the low land of St. Denis; and Pilier Boise open its own breadth to the south- 
ward of Goose Island ; the tiiwart marks are, the road behind St. Roch's Church, open to 
the westward of said Church, three times the church's length, and the black buoy S. E. 
byE. the channel for shipping is between these two buoys; the depth of water being from 
11 to 14 fathoms. This is considered the most intricate part of the river; the currents 
here are various, irregular, and strong, so that it cannot be passed in safety, except at a pro- 
per time of tide. A bank occupies the middle of the River St. Lawrence, stretching all the 
way from Hare Island to the Middle Bank; it is generally about a mile wide, with from 3 
to 14 fathoms over it; but the soundings are regular, and the bottom sand and mud, afford- 
ing good anchorage. It is called the English Bank : and that part of the river between it 
and the southern shore is commonly called the English Channel. The Middle Bank be- 
gins a little to the westward of the red buoy where there are 2,V fathoms water; it thence 
extends S. W. \ W. for 3 leagues, nearly reaching the Seal Islands; about li mile west- 
ward of tlie buoy, it shallows to 4 feet, and continues so for a league, being composed of 
mud, sand, and stones ; its western end dries at low water. 

To the westward are the Seal Islands or Reefs ; these are connected to the South Pillar 
by a reef of rocks, which, at low water, become dry in several places, and extend N. by W. 
towards the Island of Coudre; they are a body of rocks nearly covered at high water, 
spring tides, and are very steep to on their southern and eastern sides. 

The Pilier Boise or Woody Pillar lies to the S. Westward of these reefs, and is 3 miles 
N. E. from the east end of Goose Island ; it is a high round rock, with some trees on its 
western part. The South Pillar is a barren high rock, one quarter of a mile long, and al- 
ways visible : this Pillar marks the north side of the west entrance to what is called the 

*0n the Traverse a light vessel is placed every spring and removed every autumn, at the close of 
navigation ; also Buoys placed ss follows, viz. A red Buoy off St. John's Church, on the south bank 






il :• 



THE TRAVERSE is that part of the river which is bounded on the north side by the 
Seal and Middle Br.nks, and on the south side by the shoals oft' Point St. Roch, from 
Point Oval to the Three Salmon River; vessels frequently anchor there, but the ground is 
hard, and the » rents strong. 

THE ROCHE AV^IGNON is a half tide rock, 100 yards in length, quite round at the 
top, and lies two or three cables' lengths S. E. from the body of the South Pillar; there 
are 7 fathoms watf r close to it. Crane Island, kept well open to the southward of the 
large reef o(f Goose Island, next described, leads clear to the southward of it. 

S. \V. by VV. about two miles from the South Pillar, begins a ledge of high rocks, which 
runs up to the middle of Goose Island, from which the upper end is but half a mile dis- 
tant ; with the exception of their eastern part they are always above water; this is called 
Goose Island Reef, and forms the mark for clearing the Avignon. There is an opening 
between the east end of (Joose Island Reef and the South Pillar, leading towards Piljer 
Boisse; but at low water it is surrounded with rocks both east and westward, it therefore 
forms no outlet for shipping. 

GOOSE ISLAND is nearly three leagues in length, and, whervabove the reef, becotnes 
bold to, with regular soundings; there is a farm house on thi island, just to the eastward 
of which is the Hospital Rock ; it is large and close to the low water mark : to the west- 
ward of this rock, for the distance of a mile and a half, ships may safely be run on shore, 
for it is all soft mud ; but further on, two miles from the Hospital Rock, the shore be- 
comes rocky, a long reef commencing, which, as it lies close to Goose Island, is out of the 
way, and consequently easily avoided. 

CRANE ISLAND lies a little above Goose Island, and is about 4 miles long ; the 
northern side is cultivated, and a farm house appears at the east end : to the S. E. of this 
house, about half a mile or three quarters of a mile, lies Madame Beaujeu's Bank, having 
on its shoalest part not more than twelve feet water over if; it is connected to the main land 
of St. Ignace by a shoal of 4 and 3j fathoms. The channel between Beaujeu's Bank and 
the eastern end of Crane Island has 10 fathoms in it, but its breadth scarcely exceeds half 
a mile. 

To the westward of Crane Island lies a cluster of small islands, named Canoe Island, the 
Heads, Onion, Margaret's, and Grosse Islands, and a little further are Rat and Madame 
Isles ; above which is the large Island of Orleans. 

From the western end ol Crane Island a reef of rocks extends half a mile, drying at 
low water; there is an opening between Crane and Canoe Islands; but although there are 
2j fathoms in it, the channel is too narrow for shipping : the island of Margaret lies to the 
westward of Canoe Island, it is about 2k miles long ; the opening between Margaret's and 
Grosse Islands is half a mile wide, but shoal, and affbrds no passage for ships. Grosse is 
three miles in length, lying N. E. by E. and S. W. by W. It is inhabited. 

Rat Island is about the length of Grosse Island, but narrow. Madame Island is some- 
what smaller than Rat Island ; both are covered with trees ; from Madame Island a rocky 
reef extends S. W. by W. 3 miles, drying at low water, and ships ought not to go nearer 
to it than 10 fathoms water. The mark to clear it is, some part of Rat Island kept open to 
the southward of Madame Island. The western extremity of the reef lies with St. Valier's 
Church, bearing South. 

At the back of these islands, there are numerous shoals extending all the way to the isl- 
and of Coudre, among these the river craft frequently pass towards St. Paul's and Mai 
Bays; these form a continued chain to Neptune Rock, and Burnt Cape Ledge, being the 
outer boundary of the northern channel, now very little used or understood. 

THE SOUTHERN SHORE.— In following the Southern Shore from St. Roch's 
Point you will see the Church of St. John's standing on a projecting point, about 2'; leagues 
distant from the Church of St. Roch; behind the iatter, at some distance inland, is a 
Telegraph. Nearly at the same distance from St. John's Church, and in a similar direc- 
tion, stands the Telegraph of the Islet St. Jean; and between these is Port Jolie and Three 
Salmon River, fit only for small craft ; further on is the Church and Telegraph of St. Ig- 
nace; this lies to the southward of Madame Beaujeu's Bank, from which it is distant near- 
ly IV league. The shore all the way from St. Roch's Point to St. Thomas's River is lined 
with a sandy fiat of three, two, and one fathom water. 

Two leagues to the S. Westward of Beaujeau's Bank, and about the same distance from 
St. Ignace, lies the entrance to St. Thomas's or South River ; from this land, a flat or 
mud bank extends more than half way towarda Crane Island ; it is named St. Thomas's 
Bank, or Quart Point, its northern extremity bears S. W. by W. distant two miles, from 
the south point of the island ; it is a dangerous bank, and chiefly dries at low water. 


of the river, in 1 1-4 fathoms. A white Buoy on the middle ground. A black Buoy opposite to the 
last on the St. Roque Shoal, and a chequered black and white Buoy off St. Ann's Church, on the St. 
Ann's shoal, south bank of the river. 

le north side by the 
int St. Roch, from 
e, but the ground is 

, quite round at the 
south Pillar; there 
( southward of the 
rd of it. 

f high rocks, which 
but half a mile dis- 
ater; this is called 
iiere is an opening 
ding towards Filler 
stward, it therefore 

e the reef, becomes 
ust to the eastward 
mark : to the west- 
ly be run on shore, 
ock, the shore be- 
Island, is out of the 

4 miles long ; the 
o the S. E.of this 
ijeu's Bank, having 
ed to the main land 
ieaujeu's Bank and 
arcely exceeds half 

[1 Canoe Island, the 
! Rat and Madame 

If a mile, drying at 
although there are 
Vlargaret lies to the 
en Margaret's and 
r ships. Grosse is 

Tie Island is some- 
ime Island a rocky 
It not to go nearer 
sland kept open to 
es with St. Valier's 

the way to the isl- 
t. Paul's and Mai 

•Ledge, being the 

frcm St. Roch's 
t, about 2.\ leagues 
stance inland, is a 

in a similar direc- 
»rt Jolie and Three 
^le^zraph of St. Ig- 
it is distant near- 
las's River is lined 

ame distance from 
his land, a flat or 
led St. Thomas's 
It two miles, from 
low water. 



Buoy opposite to the 
Church, on the St. 

THE WYE ROCKS are immediately above the Bank of St. Thomas, this bank lies in 
the direction of S. W. by W. and is about half a mile long; over its western end are only 
four feet water, and over its east end ten feet ; at its western end there now lies a black buoy, 
the marks for which are St. Thomas's Church E. S. E. St. Thomas's Telegraph S. \ E. 
and the Seminary of St. Joachim just shut in with the east end of Rat Island, bearing N. 
.•iO" VV. Its distance from the nearest shore is less than one mile ; the long mark for this 
Rock is Belle Chasse Islands and St. Michael's Telegraph in one ; the islands will then be 
twice their breadth open to the northward of Point St. Valier. 

THE BELLE CHASSE ROCKS are two remarkable rocky islets that lie eight miles 
above the Wye Rocks, they are opposite to Berthier Church, and about a mile off shore ; 
behind them is a small sandy cove, a reef of rocks running from its western point. Beyond 
these you will perceive, standing on rising ground, another Telegra|)h, No. 4, being part of 
a chain communicating to Quebec. St. Valier's Church is two miles to the westward of 
the Telegraph, and bears from the Church of St. .John, in the Island of Orleans, S. E. 
distant three miles ; there is a large cove to the southward of St. Valier's Point, but it dries 
at low water. The ground from St. Valier's Point is foul, and affords no anchorage all the 
way up to Quebec. Nearly five miles beyond St. Valier is the Church of St. Michael, near 
which stands another T^degraph; 3 leagues above this is the Church of Beaumont: St. 
Lawrence and Beaumont Churches bear from each other S. W. by S. and N. E. by N. dis- 
tant 4.t miles: between them extends a large rocky shoal, called Beaumont's Shoal, it dries 
at low water, and extends nearly half way across the channel, uneven, dangerous, and 
steep to, there being 14 fathoms close to it. From Beaumont the coast turns about W. N. 
W. 7 miles to Point Levy. 

ORLEANS. — The Island of Orleans bounds the starboard shore, frcm Madame Island 
to nearly abreast of Point Levy; its shores generally slope down to the beach, except in 
some few places where small rocky cUffs arise of neither great extent nor elevation. It is 
well cultivated, and very fertile; its northern shores are flat and muddy, and lined with a 
reef of rocks, but its southern side is fine sand, with here and there a pointed rock. The 
Churches of St. John and St. Lawrence stand near the shore, the distance between them 
being 5\ miles, this part is highly diversified with gardens and houses. Patrick's Hole is a 
little to the westward of Point St. Lawrence, and is a safe and well sheltered cove, where 
vessels outward bound commonly anchor in 10, 12, or 14 fathoms, previous to taking their 
,ual departure; the ground cannot be accounted good, but it is well sheltered frono easter- 
ly gales, and the river here is bold on each side, being about 1} mile wide; just to the east- 
ward of the cove stands the Telegraph, No. 2; and on the western part of the point is a 
cluster of neat houses, where accommodations of all kinds may be obtained. 

About half way between the west end of Orleans and St. Patrick's Hole are the Moran- 
dan's Rocks, running out one cable's lengtn from the shore ; they have 10 feet water over 
them, and 12 fathoms in sailing past them. At the S. W. part of the island are other rocks 
which dry at low water; these are close to the land, and may safely be pasoed in 10 fathoms 
water. This is the highest part v. ' e island, and here stands the Church of St. Peter, 
about 4 miles from the western point, and nearly opposite to the Falls of Montmorency. 

The Point of Levy is surrounded with a reef, which continues along shore to the west- 
ward, but by giving the land a berth, you will go safely in 10 fathoms. 

QUEBEC. — The Btusin of Quebec is about one mile across, tVom Point Levy to Que- 
bec, or to the opposite shore of Beauport ; the water between is very deep. The HAR- 
BOR of QUEBEC may be said to commence at St. Patrick's Point, and extend to Cape 
Rouge River, three miles above Quebec. 

THE PORT OF QUEBEC comprehends all that space which lies between Barnaby 
Island and the first rapid above Montreal. The BALLAST (tROUND is a part appointed 
by law to heave the ballast into, oeing to the westward of two beacons that stand on the 
south shore, between Patterson's and Charles's Coves : these beacons are situated on the 
brow of a hill, and, when in a line, bear S. E. 

The regulations, with respect to the shipping and quarantine, in the port and harbor of 
Quebec, must be strictly attended to : all pilots are bound to give the masters of vessels 
due information relative to quarantine, as soon as they come on board; and a copy of the 
harbor laws is delivered to each vessel, on her arrival, by the harbor master: and those re- 
specting shipping are always to be seen at the harbor master's office. 

THE CITY (»F QUEBEC is built on Cape Diamond, which is exceedingly high; 
from hence, and from Point Levy, the views are magnificent and beautifully varied; the 
Capitol on the summit of the Cnpe, the River St. Charles flowing to the northward, the Falls 
of Montmorency to the north-eastward, and the well cultivated Island of Orleans, form al- 
together a most beautiful spectacle. 

The Island of Orleans divides the river into two parts, or channels, but the southern 
channel, which has been described, is the only one the pilots make use of for large ships. 




bluiNt'vS amkrican coast pilot. 

The River St. Lawrence is not navigable from the early part of December to the middle 
of A{)ril, on account of the severity of the frosts; during this period its upper part, from 
Quebec to Kingston, in Upper Canada, and between the lakes, with the exception of Ni- 
Kgaraand the Rapids, is frozen over; but below Quebec, although the river is never whol- 
ly frozen, yet the strength of the tides continually detach the masses of ice from the shores, 
and such immense bodies are kept in incessant agitation, by the flui« and reflux, that navi- 
gation becomes impracticable. At the beginning of May, the ice is either dissolved or car- 
ried off by the current. 



REMARKS. — It has been obseiTed that the current, between the S. W. point of Anti- 
costi and the coast of Haspe, sets strongly from the rivf r to the south-eastward ; that in the 
spring of the year, probably in conscijuence of the melting of the snow, its velocity is always 
the greatest. In summer it mny be averaged at about the u;eneral rate of two miles an hour, 
but in spring it becomes variable, aiid much beyond that rapidity ; at times it will run .3i 
miles an hoar, and often more than that, depending greatly on tl;e quantity of ice and snow 
that has accumulated. And it has been said, that, during the months of May and August, 
the water will be elevated two or three feet above its ordinary level. 

Mariners entering the river hettreen Anlicosti, and Gaspe, when in the fair way, having 
the wind at north or nortli-east, and being uninforinod of this current, will be led to im- 
ag' "e they are making a reach up, when really they will be approaching the southern shore ; 
this is an error that must be particularly guarded against, especially in long dark nights and 
foggy weather ; be, therefore, always careful to tack in time. 

Ships coming vp with contrary ndiids, and boing far enough to the westward to weather 
the west point of Anticosti, should constantly su^nd to the northward, and endeavor to sail 
on, within 3 or 4 leagues of the northern shore : for the land is all bold to ; you will be out 
of the strength of the current, and the nearer you get to the land, the more you will be 
favored by the tide. Run up so far as Point Deamon, and when up to Trinity Bay, should 
your vessel sail well, you will, by keeping in with the north shore, have the advantage of a 
flood tide, and may probably be enabled to get through the Narrows; but should your ship 
Bail badly, you can take shelter in Trinity Bay, (which is described in page 65 of this work.) 

Should circumstances render it necessary, you may proceed to St. Nicholas Harbor, 
which lies W. by N. about 5 leagues to the westward of Point Deamon ; (see page 65,) 
keep close along the land, but take great care to avoid the Manicougan Shoals. 

Abreast of the Manicougan Shoals and standing to the northward, distant about one-third 
of the breadth of the river from the northern shore, a strong rippling has been frequently 
t>b8erved ;• about 2 miles further to the northward you meet with a similar one, and 2 miles 
beyond that is another: these are visible only in fine weather, and are conjectured to be oc- 
casioned by the slack of the eastern current, which runs down, on the south shore and in 
the middle, and the regular flood to the north. Mr. Lambly has frequently tried forsound- 
ings upon themv but without finding any bottom. Vessels standing on towards Betsimet's 
and Mille Vache Points, will experience similar appearances, and when above Mille Vache 
the ripplings increase; but there is no danger whatever, it being merely the conflicting con- 
cussion of the opposing streams. 

It is advisable, when a ship has advanced on the northern side, so far as Betsimet's 
Point, with the wind at west and a flood tide, to cross over towards Father Point, in order 
to obtain a pilot : but should the wind shift to S. W. by W. it will be advantageous still to 
keep the northern land on board, until you can with greater certainty fetch that point. 

The current between Mille Vache and Bic Island will always be found strong toward 
the N. E. ; this must be particularly attended to, for if a proper allowance be not made for 
this current, you will be driven fast to the northward, and, before you are aware of it, will 
be drifted into imminent danger. 

Ships coming up with a fair wind, and under favorable circumstances, may proceed along 
the south shore ; the land all the way from Gaspe, is bold and high, but it affords no sort 
of shelter : soundings may occasionally be found, but very irregular, and there is no an- 
chorage whatever. On advancing towards Cape Chat, which may be readily known 'jy the 
Sugar Loaf Hill already described, as well as by its bioken and uneven mountains, steer 
W. by S. for about 11 or 12 leagues, you will then be a little to the eastward of Matane, 
and may perceive the Paps of Matane, bearing S. W. A W. ; these are two hills, standing 
somewhat inland, and appearing to the westward of the river; Mount Caraille will also be 
visible bearing S. W. by W. 1 W. distant 14 c fifteen leagues; it forms in the shape of a 
circular island, and appears to the northward of all the s-outhern land. From off Matane 
to abreast of Mount Camille, steer W. S. W. or W. by S. according to ihe -.vind. Con- 
tinuing that course, you will pass Little and Great Metis, or JViathia, ?nd. if desirous of an- 

mber to the middle 
ts upper part, from 
e exception of Nj. 
river is never vfhoi- 
ice from the shores, 
id reflux, that navi- 
ler dissolved or car- 


W. point of Anti- 
stward ; that in the 
its velocity is always 
r two miles an hour, 
times it will run 3i 
itityof ice and snow 
of May and August, 

the fair way, having 
:, will be led to im- 
the southern shore ; 
ong dark nights and 

estward to weather 
nd endeavor to sail 
to ; you will be out 
e more you will be 
Trinity Bay, should 
; the advantage of a 
ut should your ship 
!ge65 of this work.) 
Nicholas Harbor, 
on; (see page 63,) 

ant about one-third 
las been frequently 
ar one, and 2 miles 
njectured to be oc- 
iouth shore and in 
itly tried forsound- 
:oward8 Betsimet's 
above Mille Vache 
le conflicting con- 
far as Betsimet's 
er Point, in order 
vantageous still to 
tch that point, 
und strong toward 
ce be not made for 
re aware of it, will 

may proceed along 

It it affords no sort 

d there is no an- 

dily known by the 

mountains, steer 
tward of Matane, 
wo hills, standing 
iraille will also be 
s in the shape of a 
From off Matane 

ihe wind. Con- 
• if desirous of an- 




choring at Little Metis Cove you must give the east end of the reef a berth of 100 yards, 
or cross it in 3 fathoms and let go : sninll vessels may find shelter here in 3 fathoms, at 
low water. 

GRP2AT METIS isS^eagues S. W. from Little Metis, and is only fit for small ves- 
nels ; these may find sheher and anchorage with H. W. winds, but it nearly d'ios, and there- 
fore is of little use to shipping. Little Metis may be distinguished from Cireat Metis by 
a round bluff rock, which lies S. E. from the North Reef, distant l^j mile, and a small 
sugar-loaf hill to the eastward of the rock, (ireat Metis has a large rock in the middle of 
the Cove, Little Metis has none; but you must be within 2 or 3 leagues of the shore to 
make these Coves out, for the points of land they are formed by, are very low. 

The Bank of Soundings extends farther from the shore, about these Coves, than it does 
at Matane ; at the distance of 4 miles from the land, you will here have 35 fathoms, be- 
yond that distance you suddenly drop into 60 and 70 fathoms ; the edge of the bank con- 
tinues steep and high all the way up to (ireen Island ; within 10 fathoms the ground is hard, 
and the landing bad, except in very fine weather; for the coast between Great and Little 
Mathis is full of rocks, which run off half a mile from the shore. Westward of Little Ma- 
this is Death's Cove, where the pilot boats shelter in easterly winds, and lie dry at low wa- 
ter. Cock Cove is at the eastern part cf Father Point. Between Great Mathis and Cock 
Cove ships may stop a tide, if the weather is fine, in 15 fathoms : this is the kc^ular rendez- 
vous for the pilots : here they repair about the month of April, but thry w ill frequently, 
after that time, be met with off Matane, or so far as Cape Chat; on their sails and boats 
are their respective numbers. Should a vessel be olf Cape Chat, distant about 3 leagues, 
she may safely steer W. S. W. or W. by S. 23 lcno;ues, making a proper allowance for the 
(Murent, and she will be up to Father Point, or very near it ; then, should the weather be 
thick, she may haul to the southward, and after getting soundings, if the water shoalens 
from 36 to 20 and 18 fathoms in a short distance, such as a mile, you will not be up to Fa- 
ther Point, and should run 4 or 5 miles higher; but if you get soundings, and the water 
gradually shoalens from .35 to 30, 25, &c. fathoms, in a distance of three or four miles, then 
they are ip to the Point, and may make the signal for a pilot, standing no nearer than 10 
or 12 fathoms, as they will then be onlv two miles from shore ; but should the weather be 
clear, they will see the houses, and t..ay make as free as they choose, the shore being all 

The distanco from* Cape Chat to the west part of Father Point is about 23 leagues, and 
from thence to the anchoring place at Bic Island is 1!) miles; make an allowance for the 
current, of five miles, and any ship may run it with safety. 

Ships being off Little Mathis will see the high land which is to the southward of Cape 
Arignole, but the Cape itself and the Island of Bic being much lower, will not be visible; 
off Mount Camille, Bin Island may be perceived very plain in clear weather. 

Some years ago, a master of a vessel mistook the Island of Barnaby for the Island of 
Bic, and hauled to the southward ; when he found his mistake, after veering the ship, he 
but jjist weathered Barnaby Island. Now, should a ship be running up in thick weather, 
and not be certain of her distance, if she should be near Father Point, she cannot approach 
the land without gradually shoaling her water, consequently, keeping the lead going, and 
being in nine or ten fathoms water, should she make an Island suddenly to the south- 
ward, it must be Barnaby Island. And if falling in with an Island suddenly, without hav- 
ing hove the lead, in any bearing to t!ie westward of W. S. W. one cast of the lead will 
reduce it to a certainty, for from W. S. W. to west, Barnaby will have only from 7 to 6 fa- 
thoms, and the Island of Bic will have, in the same bearings, from 15 to 12 fathoms. 

Again, if the lead be kept going, and no soundings be found, then, falling in ^7ith land 
suddenly a-head, it must be Biquette, for there is deep water in the streamof Biquette, and 
when it bears S. W. distant half a mile, there are 60 fathoms water. In the stream of 
Biquette, when it bears W. S. W. if you should have ten fathoms water, and see no land, 
you must haul off to the northward, or run for Bic, as you think proper; if you are stran- 
gers, the safest way will be, to haul off to the northward, keeping in nine or ten fathoms 
water, and steer W. S. W. and W. by S. according to the depth of water; that course 
will lead to the southward of Bic, and if you get sight of the reef at the East end of the 
Island, which is always above water, steer west one mile and a half, or two miles, and an- 
chor in 11 or 12 fathoms. 

Ships being near Bic Island, in thick weather, should stand off and on to the northward 
of the Island, and wait for the weather clearing up. 

If desirous of anchoring on the south side of Bic, and the wind should be easterly, run 
boldly to the southward, looking out for the reef at the east end of the island, as before 
directed ; give this reef a berth of a quarter of a mile, and run along in mid-channel until 
you find Cape Arignole bears S. S. E. the body of the island then bearing N. N. W. large 
ships may anchor in 13 or 14 fathoms, the ground clear and good ; but small vessels may 
run on until the island comes N. E. and the depth 10 fathoms ; you will then be a quarter 




! i 



of a mile off thf> island, h't the bottom will not he so clear as when yon are in deeper wa- 
ter. Fresh water may be obtained in the Cove to thi westward of tin; island. 

But, if the wind should be westerly, and you are to vindward of the island, intending to 
anchor there, stand to the southward into 11 fathoms, *hen run down and anchor, as above 
directed: for with little wind 11 fathoms is the proper dr|ith of the fair way, and the last 
quarter flood, and all the ebb, sets strongly between Hiiniette and Hie. 

Should you, with an easterly wind, be too far to the westward to fetch round the east 
end of Bic, then, in order to gain the anchoraj;e, you should give Biquctte a berth of about 
half a mile, run up until the west end of Bic bears S. E. then Cape Arignole will be open 
of it ; this latter mark leads to the westward of a reef, which is covered at a quarter tide, 
and extends S. W. by W. one mile from Biquette, while another reef, always visible, lies 
between the former and Biquette. By haulina; round to the southward with Cape Arig- 
nole open, you will paas athwart the opening between Bic and Bi(|uette, in from IC to 9 
fathoms; thence the water will shoalen to 6 fathoms upon a spit of mud and sand, which 
lies S. W. by W. from Bic, about one mile long : after you have crossed this spit, you 
will have 10 and 12 fathoms, where the passage will be open, and you can anchor. The 
N.W. ledge of Bic, the west end of that island, and Cape Arignole, are in a line, bearing 
S. E. When you are beating into Bic Harbor from the westward, while standing to the 
southward, take care not to shut in Mount Camille with Cape Arignoic; and in standing to 
the northward, do not shut in Mount Camille with the Island Bic. In Old Bic 1.' arbor 
lives one family, where some provisions may be got occasionally, and about two miles above 
the Bay of Ha Ha, or S. W. from Bic, lives another family, which are all the houses be- 
tween this and Three Pistoles or Basque Island. Passengers wishing to proceed to Que- 
bec by land from Bic, must go to the westernmost houses, and procure a guide to take tlieni 
through the woods to the next parish, where horses may be got, or else take the boat op to 
Basque Island and land on the main, at Trois Pistoles, which is five leagues from Bic. By 
80 doing strangers will know how to proceed, should they wish to leave the ship and go by 

The tide^ flow at Bic Island, full and change, till three o'clock, and rise in spring tides, 
12 or 14 feet ; neap tides, 7 or 8 feet. 

The flood tides never bend to the westward till an hour's flood by the shore, and in neap 
tides the floods are very weak, and with fresh westerly winds there is none at all, but in the 
spring tides, ships will always find a flood tide from Father Point to Bic Island. 

Between Barnaby and Bic Islands there is a bank of soundings, being a continuation of 
that which runs from Cape Chat ; at the westerly part, about Barnaby and Bic, it extends 
2 leagues from the shore, and has regular somidings upon it; its edge is very steep, for 
from 35 fathoms it sinks suddenly into more than twice that depth : but froni 35 fathoms 
towards the land it decreases gradually ; vessels may therefore stand to the southward by 
the lead, and tack or anchor in any depth of water they think proper; but it will be ad- 
vieable to go no nearer the land than 1^ mile, with Bic Island bearing from W. S. W. 
to S. W. lest you should shut in the channel to the southward of Bic ; and with a sudden 
shift of the wind, should not be i.ble to clear Bic to the northward. 

Westward fVom Bic Island, the bank of soundings runs all the way to Bascue Island, 
parallel to, and a league distance from the shore : beyond Basque Island it bends nearer to 
the land, and continues on to the Apple Islands, at 2 and 2^ miles distance from the main, 
flhips may therefore stand to the southward by the lead, or keep on, in the fair way, in not 
less than 12 fathoms water. 

FROM BIC ISLAND TO GREEN ISLAND.— Vessels having arrived at Bic Isl- 
and, without being able to obtain a pilot at Father Point, and finding none to be had at Bic, 
may proceed towards Green Island, the latter bearing from the former S. W. by W. dis- 
tant nearly 10 leagues: in thi" course you will pass the Razades, Basque, and Apple Isl- 
ands, which have been already described, page 70 ; the edge of the bank of soundings con- 
tinues all the way steep to, but from 35 fathoms tVie depth decreases gradually towards the 
land, and between Bic and Green Island vessels will find anchorage all the way in 14 fa- 
thoms, and ships of lesser burthen in 9 fathoms ; between Bic and Basque Island the ground 
is all clean, but between Basque and Green Island it is foul : there is shelter for small ves- 
sels at the east end of the Razades, and also under the east end of Basque Island in three 
fathoms, giving the east end of the reefs, which run off those islands, a berth of a quarter 
of a mile : the anchorages are with the body of the islands bearing W. by S. or right 
abreast of Basque Island. Here, at Trois Pistoles, fresh water and provisions may be ob- 
tained, ;f necessary ; and from hence are regular stages to Quebec. Pilots also reside here, 
and at Green Island. 

Vessels passing from Bic toward Green Island, wil' keep about a league from shore, and 
have 14 and 15 fathoms all the way ; and when up so far as Green Island, sh ild the tide be 
done, they may anchor off" the reef in 10 fathom.'^, and in the stream of the ledge, which 
runs N. N. from the Lighthouse Point, at a mile distance from the ledge. 




"are in deeper »a- 


isliind, intending to 

11(1 anchor, as ahove 

lir way, and the last 

■tch round the east 
■ttf a berth of about 
ignole will be open 
(i at a quarter tide, 
always visible, lies 
rd with Cape Arig- 
te, in from l(] to o 
id and sand, which 
ssed this spit, you 
can anchor. 'JThe 
■e in a line, bearing 
lile standing to the 
; and in standing to 
In Old Bic (.arbor 
)ut two miles above 
all the houses be- 
to proceed to Que- 
guide to take theni 
take the boat -,ip to 
nes from Bic. By 
the ship and go by 

ise in spring tides, 

shore, and in nepp 
ne at all, but in the 
; Island. 

' a continuation of 
|nd Bic, it extends 

is very steep, for 
froni .35 fathoms 
the southwPYd by 

but it will be ad- 
g from W. S. W. 
and with a sudden 

o Bast;ue Island, 
it bends nearer to 
ce from the main, 
le fair way, in not 

arrived at i3ic Isl- 
to be had at Bic, 
. W. by W. dis- 
and Apple Isl- 
of soundings con- 
ually towards the 
the way in 14 fa- 
[sland the ground 
ter for small ves- 
xe Island in three 
erth of a quarter 
by S. or right 
sions may be ob- 
s also reside here, 

from shore, and 
lid the tide be 
the ledge, which 





The high land of Arignole, kept open to the northward of Basque Island, will lead clear 
of the liglithouse ledge ; and with the lighthouse bearing S. W. by S. the ledge will be ex- 
actly between the lighthouse and the ship. Vessels may also, in tine weather, stop between 
the lighthouse and the west end of (i»-een Island for a tide, in 'iO or M fathoms, close to 
the north side of the island, '. '. with a <'resh bree/.e, it will be too near the shore, and the 
ground does not hold well. Du ng N. Easterly winds small vessels fre(|uenliy run between 
theS. W. Reef and ('acana. ancuoriiig m 4 fathoms; but it will be always more prudent 
to bear up for the Brandy Pots, lest you should be c.iught by adverse stormy weather. 

Should you therefore have passed (treen Island Lighthouse, and no pilot be obtained, the 
weather clear, and the wind fair, steer boldly on S. W. i W. or S. W. by W. 5 leagues, you 
will then have White Island W. by S. an'l Hare Island with the Bra n'.y Pots open to the 
southward bearing W. S. W. Give the Brandy Potsa b'irth, and rUiionhalfa mile or more 
above them, there anchor in from o to 10 tathoms; or should die wind shift to the west- 
ward, and your vessels be up to Wiiite Island, the tide being sptut, stand to the southward, 
into 9 fathoms, or towards White Island into fi or 7, then anchor, the ground is good. 

Vessels coming up the river, and giving the southern shore a wide berth, will necessa- 
rily go near Red Island. The body of this island bears from the lighthouse on Gr^en Isl- 
and W. N. W. distant 6 miles ; and the eastern point of the dangerous reefs which are at- 
tached to it, bears from the same lighthouse N. N. W. : therefore the greatest care must 
be taken, especially at night, not to brin^ the light to bear to the eastward of S. by E. until 
you are sure you are within .5 miles of it. If witiithe light S. by cannot venture to 
enter ae narrows, wait the return of day; and should the wind be scant from the N. W. 
yon nay borrow on the south side of the Red Island, by observing these marks — open 
White fsland to the northward of Hare Island, and as you draw to th'" westward you may 
approach the Mioal of White Island by the le. J, remembering that the ebb tide sets strong 
down between White Island and Red Island, and the flood the contrary. \. vessel, in fine 
weather, may anchor on the south side of Red Island in IvJ fathoms, at a quarter of a mile's 
distance ; but the tides here are strong, and set all round the coi.ijjass. 

The soundings befveen Red and Green Islands are irregular; for, at the distance of a 
mile from either of them, there ?re 40 fathoms : further off, and towards the middle of the 
channel, no bottom is to be found at 70 fathoms ; yet, iluring the ebb tides and the wind 
easterly, the water breaks and ripples, but you need apprehend no danger. 

In beating up the northern shore from Bic to Green Island, you cannot stand to the north- 
ern land by the lead, on account of the great depth of water; but Mille Vache shoal begins 
at the little river of Port Neuf, and completely surrounds the whole of the low point that 
is to the westward of the houses for three miles. Its southern extremity is distant 1| naile 
from the shore, part drying at low water, and steep to. 

At Pert Neuf is a trading post, and provisions may be occasionally obtained there. Whan 
you have passed Mille Vache Point and Shoal, the land forms a deep bay, but it is shoal 
and full of rocks. Two leagues to the westward of the Point are two islets, called the Es- 
quamine Isles ; to the eastward of these is Saut au Mouton, a small river, with a handsome 
cascade near its entrance : this will always attract notice when passing. Between the Es- 
quamine Isles and Saguenay are three small inlets, Bondesire, Little and Great Beagerone. 
They are frequented by fishing boats, but unfit for shipping. 

Shi " working along the northern shore, between the Esquamine and Red Isiand, should 
keep t > 1 good leagues off the land ; the shore is clear and bold, and the floods regular; 
but should a vessel be caught to the northward of Red Island by a sudden shift of easterly 
wind, and be unable to fetch round the east end of the Island Reefs, she may safely bear 
up, and run to the westward, giving Red, White and Hare Islands a berth of full two miles : 
and when you have run three leagues above Hare Island, haul to the southward, cross the 
English Bank, and enter the South Channel towards Kamaraska. 

GREEN ISLAND to ths BRANDY POTS.— From abreast of Green Island to the 
Brandy Pots, your course will be from S. W. \ W. to S. W. by W. and the distance 5^ 
leagues. Between these arc the Percy Rocks, lying near the main and Barret's Ledge, in 
the fair way. or middle of the stream : the latter has been already described in p. 70. There is 
no channel for shipping between Percy Rocks and the main ; but vessels keeping in about 
10 fathoms will go clear to the northward of them. Abreast of these rocks, and between 
them and the western end of Green T«land Reef, are 20 fathoms, mid channel. Barrett's 
Ledge has a black buoy upon it, lying in 12 feet water : the channel commonly used is to 
the northward of the Ledge ; keep the southernmost mountain of Kamaraska in one with 
the Saddle of Great Pilgrim, or bring the Islet, lying on the N. E. side of Green Island, to 
touch the high land of Cape Arignole ; either of these marks will lead you into the fair 
channel, and clear the Ledge to the northward. The telegraph standing on the southern 
Brandy Pot will then be seen. There is also a passage to the southward of Barrett's 
Ledge, leadmg to the southward of the Middle Ground, and up to the Pilgrims; but the 
northern channel is more commonly made use of, and is always to be preferred by large 




; i 



■hips. In aivanpiiic; towards \V)iite Isliiinl Reef, joii m;»y nafely trust to the lead, but 7 
fathoma will be Muiricicntl)' near lor your iiuclmrH^e, aixl it will be udvisabie to ^et into no 
leas water before yoit tack, for this in in the t'air way to the lirandy Pots, which are steeii 
to, there oein^ II) fathoms close to their southern Hides. The above anchorage, haviti" 
St. Andrew's Church open, or between the (treat and Second Pilgrim, is very good, and 
so is the anchorage to the westward of the Hraiidy Pots, in from !> to 14 fathoms, this lat- 
ter being considered the best sheltered roadstead for easterly winds, except that at Crane 
Island, of any in the river. 

.When you are to the eastward of White [aland, and crossing towards the South Shore, 
your water will gradually deepen to '2H and 30 fathoms, and then shoalen regularly to 10 
fatlioms, this iatter depth being abreast of the Percy Rocks. In running from White Isl- 
and towards IJarrett's Ledge, the wator will deepen to 16 and 20 fathotns, and then shoal 
to 12 fathoms, wliich is an near as you ought to ap|)roach the Ledge; but as you get tu 
the southward of it, you will, from \2 fathoms, gradually lesson your depth towards River 
du Loup to 5 fathoms, and none i)Ut smdl vessels tnust venture to go nearer. In the fair 
way between the Hrandy Pots and the Ledge and Middle (Jround, are 20 fathoms, and as 
you get on to the southward, you will cross a flat of (i fathoms, which stretches from the 
Pilgrim Islands to Hare Island Spit ; having passed which, you sink into 7, 10, 16, 20, and 
30 fathoms; the latter being abreast of Kamaraska Island. 

TIDE.S. — PVom the west end of (ireen Island ships will begin to have the advantage of 
a regular flood and ebb, the tide running 5 hours up, and 7 down the river, and being so 
far as the Brandy Pots, it sets regularly up and down, that is N. K. by E. and S. W. by W. 

From the BRANDY POTS to the TRAVERSE and GOOSE ISLAND— The pas- 
sage from the Brandy Pots, southward, is between Ilare Island and the Middle Ground; in 
order to sail in the deepest water, you should steer from the lirandy Pots S. W. for aboui 
half a mile ; then bring the southern mountain of Kamaraska over the midddle of the Second 
Pilgrim, and when White Island comes open between Hare Island and the Brandy Pots, 
bring it midway, and it will carry you clear between the Knoll and the west end of the 
middle in 4 and I^i fathoms water ; and when the west end of Bare Island bears N. W. you 
will bc/up to the Knoll or Flat, which runs across from the Pilgrims to Ilare Island Spir. 
There is no passage between the Brandy Pots and Hare Island ; and the Gut, or Deep 
Wafer Channel, between Hare Island and the Great Shoal or Spit, though nearly a mile 
wide, is seldom or ever used. 

lb standing from above Brandy Pots, or Hare Island, to the southward, you will have 
20 and 18 fathoms water; on the north part of the Middle Ground, 4 fathoms; abreast of 
the middle of Hare Island, 20 fathoms ; on the Spit of Hare Island Shoal, only 2 fathoms ; 
t(^ the eastward of that, .3^ and 4 fathoms; and between the Middle Ground and the Pil- 
grim Islands, 4 and 6 fathoms; and when a ship is in the latter depth, she should tack. 

From abreast of the Pilgrims up to the Buoy of the Traverse the course will be S. W. \ 
W. and the distance 9J leagues. There is no passage for shipping to the southward of 
the Pilgrims: the bank between the Pilgrims and Kamaraska is steep ; the mark for tack- 
ing is not to shut in the S. W. land with the great island of Kamaraska ; in standing to the 
northward you will find 20 fathoms, and you may cross the English Bank in this part in 4 
fathoms ; but to the southward and opposite to Kamaraska Islands it deepens to 10 fathoms. 

KA.MARASKA ISLANDS, are Grosse or Great Island, Burnt or Telegraph Island, 
and Crbw Island ; the two former are steep to, but near Crow Island the bank becomes 
shallow ; to the southward of Crow Island is a place where vessels may run on shore with 
safety; the mark for going in is to open the church 3 sails' breadths to the west of Crow 
Island, and steer in : with spring tides you will have 14 feet, and with neaps 10 ; the ground 
being all soft mud. N. 50^ W. with the S. E. end of Crow island in one of Kamaraska 
Church, distant from the former about 12 miles, lies Mai Bay. Cape Diable bears from 
Crow Island S. W. distant 3 miles, and the easternmost part of the reef runs from it to 
within a mile of Crow Island ; therefore vessels from the westward should stretch along this 
reef in 6 fathoms water, and then haul in for the Church, agreeable to the mark just given; 
there are two openings in the reefs, but strangers must not attempt either. 

With easterly winds, ships that have lost their anchors may run for the cove to the south- 
ward of Cape Diable, to enter which you should bring the Church and Crow Island in the 
direction before stated ; and having got within the reefs, run up westerly, leaving a small 
island above the Church on your larboard side, then put the ship on shore in the S. W. 
part of the cove, and she will be sate ; but if the wind be westerly, run her aground a little 
to the eastward of the Church. There is good riding opposite to Cape Diable, at about a 
mile from the shore. 

I THE TRAVERSE. — From abreast of Cape Diable, distant 3 miles, your course to the 
■narrow channel, now called the Traverse, will be S. W. by W. ; in the sailing on this di- 
irection, you will keep the high land of Kamaraska in one with the low point of St. Denis — 
(this will lead you direct to the black buuy off St. Roch's Point; and when St. Roch's 

to the lead, bii(. 7 
table to ju;ct iiun no 
ts, which are !»iee|) 

anchorage, having 
, \a very f^„o^i, and 
4 fathoms, this lat- 
ncej)! that at Crane 

8 the South Shore, 
len regularly to 10 
ng from White isl- 
ms, and then nhual 
; but as you get lo 
epth towards Kivcr 
icarer. In the fair 
•20 fathom!), and as 
stretches from the 
to 7, 10, 16, 20, and 

re the advantage of 
river, and beini; so 
. and S. W. by VV. 
LAND— The pas- 
Middle Ground; in 
its S. W. for aboui 
Iddle of the Second 
I the Brandy Pots, 
le west end of the 
id bears N. W. you 
» Hare Island Spit. 
the Gut, or Deep 
lUgh nearly a mile 

ard, you will have 
lithoins ; abreast of 
il, only 2 fathoms ; 
•ound and the Fil- 
e should tack. 
*se will be S. W. \ 
the southward of 
the mark for tack- 
in standing to the 
ik in this part in 4 
)ens to 10 fathoms. 
Telegraph Island, 
the bank becomes 
run on shore with 
the west of Crow 
IS 10 ; the ground 
one of Kamaraska 
Diable bears from 
ef runs from it to 
stretch along this 
mark just given; 

cove to the south- 
row Island in the 
', leaving a small 
lore in the S. W. 
sr aground a little 
liable, at about a 

our course to the 
sailing on this di- 
int of St. Denis — 
when St. Roch's 

BI.U.NTS .\.MEUI(.\\ C0.\8T IMLOT. 


Church mines S. K. by S. the road behind the church will be in one with it, so soon »% 
yon arrive at the buoy : from hence you will observe to keep the I'oilier Uoisse lsli>ni 
jii^t touching till' south point of (ioosc Island, then run .S. W. Iialf or a ijuarter of a 
mile lieyoiid the buoy, ai ' haul up lor tlie I'illars, k"e|)ing the Houth side aboard, in 
7 fathoms water. Small vessels of 10 I'eet water, may run over the Hank of St. liocli, 
to the siiiithward of the buoy, but it nIiomM not be done bcfiiic half flood, and at about 
a mile off the buoy, which lies in 2j fathoms. There is a reil buoy now placed on the 
Middle Hank, in J^ fithoms also; your passage through the Traverse is between these 
two buoys, the direct course, with a (lood tide, being S. S. W. and with an ebb S. W. tho 
distance being !j\ leagues. 

In running from Cape Diable for ;iie Traverse in thick weathrr, or at night, strike the 
liank o(f the Cape in 7 or H fathoms, steer about W. S. W. and it will conduct you to 
the buoy ; when you have passed the point, you will deepen your water suddenly, and must 
haul to the southward and keep the south side on board. In la'aliiig up, from the (':\\>e 
towards the buoys, you should take the English Bank for your guide to tack from, when 
standing to the northwaril, and the fiat of St. Anne, when staiuling to the southward, au- 
choring on either side, as the wind best suits: the wiMer between them is deep. 

ANCHOR AtiKS. — Vessels may anchor all along the Knglish Bank, and upon the 
edge of the flat to the southward, in fathoms, letween the I'ilgrims and Kamaraska: 
under the Pilgrims, in 3 fathoms, and under the east end of the (ireat Island of Kamaras- 
ka, in 9 fathoms; offCape Diable, in 10 fatiioms, and all along the Hat, from the Cape up 
to the buoys. 

In enterinir the Traversi; with little, wind, you ought to be careful to make proper allow- 
ance for the first part of the flood tide, for that sets strongly towards the point of St. 
Roch's Bank. In going through, if more than half flood, be guarded against the S. W. 
by W. set, and always keep the South Bank on board : but when you have got above the 
Pillais, the tide sets fair up the river. 

In (jeating into and thruueh this passage, be careful to tack from side to side on the first 
shoal cast of the lead, but more particularly so on the edge of the Middle Bank ; go not 
nearer to it than 1 fathoms water, and olisei : that the ship will go farther over towards the 
Middle Bank than towards the Shoals of St. Iloch: and if there be but little wind, be 
sure to borrow on the south side of the channel. 

Should the flood be done, and your ship in the Narrows, or between the buoys, and any 
circumstance make it necessary for you to anchor, do not bring to in the channel, but rtin 
below either of the buoys, on whichever side may be most convenient, and come to in? 
fathoms. After half ebb, the tides will be found to be more moderate below the buoys than 
between them ; and in the deep water they run very strong. Should the wind incline to 
the westward, you may am^hor half a mile to the eastward of the red buoy in 6 fathoms, 
on clean ground, and moderate tide. With southerly winds, anchor io the southward of 
the stream of the black buoy in 7 fathoms. But should a vessel be a mile or more beyond 
the buoys, it will be advisable to anchor on the edge of the Southern Bank, in 7 fathoms, 
taking care to give her a good scope of cable before the stream becomes strong, for should 
your anchor start, you may have to cut from it, as it seldom will take a fresh held, the 
ground in every part of the Traverse being hard, foul, and unfit for holding well. 

Further on, at or above the Pillars, the tides have less velocity, being seldom mate than 
3\ knots an hour; ships therefore will find good riding, with easterly winds, about 2 miles 
to the eastward of the South pillar, in 7 fathoms, or to the southward of it, in a similar depth, 
on good ground ; between the buoys are l.T fathoms mid channel, in the Traverse 12, 10, and 
9 fathoms, and to the southward of the Pillars 8 and 7 fathoms. 

From abreast of the South Pillar to Crane Island your course will be nearly S. W. by W. 
and the distance 4 leagues. In your progress you will pass Goose Island and Madame 
Beaujeu's Bank, both of which have been described in page 73 of this work. Crane Island 
is little above Goose Island, to which it is connected by a rocky ledge. The southern side of 
this pr.rt of the channel is formed by a muddy flat, with regular soundings as you approach, 
and fathoms over it, having good anchorage all the way; but the northern side has the 
Rock Avignon and the Goose Island Reef, both of which are dangerous, and must \ f^, 
avoided. The mark to clear the Rock Avignon, is the whole of Crane Island open of 
the S. W. end of Goose Island : this will lead lo the southward of the former, and along 
the outer edge of the latter. 

In standing towards Goose Island Reef, do not get into less than 12 fathoms water ; but 
when you have got above that reef, you may stand toward Goose Island to 7 fathoms; for 
it is bold to, and the soundings are regular: when you have passed the Hospital Rock, 
which lies to the eastward of a farm house, and close to the low water mark, vessels may if 
necessary be safely run on shore, for the beach is, for 2 miles, all soft mud. 

TO CLEAR MADAME BEAUJEU'S BANK, you should keep the southerntnost of 
the three mountains, which stand to the southward of Trois Sauiuoa, 00 with the Islet uu 


I - 




1 I 



which •tandu the Telegraph ; run «>ii in -1 CafhoitiH water, until you ;;«•( M 'PlirronnN ITon»e, 
which is at the ea«t end of (,'rane iHlanil, to hear N. W. you will then be cIok*' upon iIih 
Bank; then bring the biuUl'oint oCSt. \'allicr two Nails' hreadth open to the ttoiithwanl n| 
Che west end of Crane iHJand, and that will carry you in tlie best water; and wlirn you 
•re up to Crane Itdand you tuay borrow close to it, lor there are 7 faiiioniH close to the 

ANCHORAGES.— Ships may anchor all the way •Voni I'illar to the east end of Crane 
Island, in 7 fathoms water, the ground ;;oo(l and clean: tlicre also is mood ridinnj ofVilip 
body of Crane Island, in If) fatlioms. Mut the best roadstead in the river, with «astcrly 
winds, is one mile to the westward of Crane Isi.uid. Vessels Imnnd d(»wn the river, when 
advanced so far as the Pillars, if caught by stronjj; easterly winds and bad weather, had 
always better run back to this place than ride below it, at the risk of losinj^ their ancliors. 

FROM CRANK ISLAND TO POINT ST. VAIJJKK the course wdl be about 
W. by S. and the distance about (> leagues; in pnrsuiiin this track, you will have to p;iss 
the flat mud bank ort' St. Thcuuas's Church, the \V'>e Kocks, the Helle ( 'basse Islets, 
and the small bank off ({rose island. (Kora (les(ri|)tir)n of these dan'^ers set- paj;e 7.5.) 
In proceeding from Crane Island, you may keep tiie Island on board, for it is steep to; run 
on in from 7 to 10 fathoms, and S. W. by W. distant 'J miles iVfun the southern part of 
Crane Island, you will meet with the northern extremity of St. Thomas's Flat, which 
runs out a full mile and a half from the main land, and dries at low water; it) rounding 
Crane Island, steer W. by S. or stand toward it info 7 and (j fathoms, soft muddy jironnd ; 
and when St. Thomas's (Jhurch comes .S. E. you will be abreast of the Point, and Ujay 
steer up W. S. W. Having got above this flat, you will be abreast of the Wye Rocks. 

THE WYE R0(;KS arc sufficiently distinmiished iti the day-time by a black biiny 
placed on their western extremity ; it lies about a(|uarterof a mile from the shore, and has J 
feet over its western end, and 10 feet at its eastern part; keep in not less than 7 fatiiotns 
water, and you will at all times go clear of it ; the loni; mark from the westward is to keep 
Belle Chasse Islands always open to the .southward of Point St. Vallier. 

When you have arrived above St. Margaret's Island, yoti should stand to the northward, 
but not into less than 6 fathoms, on account of the baiA which runs tromiiroso Island ; nor 
go nearer to Rat and Madame Islands than 7 fathoms, for both these latter shallow as you 
approach them : the south side of the channel is bold all the way to Belle (.'hasse Islands, 
having 8 fathoms near the shore, and 7, 8, <), and 5 fathoms quite across ; the ground clean, 
theatream moderate, and the anchorages all along good. 

Sbipe being up so far as Belle Islands, siiould stand no nearer to them than 8 fa- 
thoms; nor to Madame Islands than ti fathoms: the channel here is about tluee miles over. 
S. W. by W. 3 miles from the west end of Madame Island, a rocky shoal runs out, which 
dries at low water ; come not nearer to it than 10 fathoms water, but always keep some part 
of Rat Island open to the southward of Madame Island, and you will be sure to pass to the 
southward of the Shoal in safety; and when St. Vallier's Church bears S. S. E. you 
will perceive it to be in one with an old windmill ; you will then be to the westward of the 
danger, for the western end of the shoal bears from .St. Vallier's Church directly nortii. 
Frona Belle Chasse to Point St. Vallier, you will have 8 fathoms all along thf fair way 
of the channel ; but having passed St. Vallier's Point, it deepens to 16 and 18 fathoms. 

FROM ST. VALLIER TO QUEBEC, the course is W. by S. Westerly, for 
about 4 leagues, or up to St. Lawrence's Point in Orlean.s ; both shores being bold to ; 
you may therefore borrow on the northern side to 10 fathoms, and on the southern to 8; 
while in the middle of the channel there are 16, 18, and 20 fathom.s, all the way to abreast 
of the Church of St. Lawrence: vessels may anchor towards the Island of Orleans, in 
from 16 to 10 fathoms; but the ground from St. Vallier's Point up to Quebec is not 
good for holding. 

As you advance towards St. Lawrence Point the channel narrows, being not above l.V 
mile across; on the opposite point stands the Church of Beaumont; between this and 
the Church of St. Lawrence, bearing from each other S. W. by S. and N. E. by N. is a 
large rocky shoal, extending almist half over the channel, and drying at low water; this 
is dangerous and steep to, having 14 fathoms close to its edge ; you must therefore be 
careful to avoid it, by making short boards, until you are fairly above St, Lawrence's 
Point ; then you may safely stand to the southward into 10 fathoms water. 

From Point St. Lawrence steer W. by N. towards Point Levy, the distance being 2} 
leagues. About 1| mile to the westward of St. Lawrence is St. Patrick's Hole, a road- 
stead for vessels bound outward, with easterly winds, but the ground does not hold well: 
the river here is one mile and a quarter wide, and ships may tack into 10 fathoms water ; 
in the middle of the river are 20 fathoms. In proceeding along the north .shore, you 
must give ihe Morandan's Rocks a berth ; they lie about half way between St. Patrick's 
Hole and the west end of the Island of Orleans, and have only 10 feet over them; pass 
them in 1£ fathoms : there is also a reef stretching from the west end of Orleans, but 

come not ii 
(n the niiril 
rate berth. 

Ilavini; : 
utiles ; on 
cleared by 
eastern |)ar 
Steeple oft 
S. 36^ V. 
thedrai. aiu 
oues : obse 
east end. 
English Nif 

erly wind, s 
hoid well ; 
the middle 
within 2 cal 
may e.isily 
Un'the Pdii 
they will m 
tiie best ri 

THE li/ 
ballast in ; 
Quebec, an 
line, bear a\ 

The Rivc 
is distant 1.5 
of llicheliei 
numerous to 
which coinit 
single hoiist 

From Qu 
and become 
ceases : hert 
yond Trois J 
above the Li 
St. Pierre, v 
nearly 8 in b 
divide into s 
cleanest, dee 
tance, leavin 
structed by i 
that the utm 
proper time 
proper oppor 
and uniibrmi 

Montreal i 
and situated 
feet water ca 
their cargoes 
current is so 
will not be a 
spot where t 

ping in the I 
per attention 
pilot is com 
the Harbor . 
sides which 

Should si 
Madame Isl; 
will find a gc 
shore, the gj 



pr«onN ITon»«, 
cloM*' upon iJiH 
•• NDiithwanl nt 
iiiiH whrn you 
iiH close to the 

It end (if ('riinf? 
I ri(liii(r oO'ilir 
r, with oiiNterly 
he rivt-r. wlirri 
I wfnthiT. hnd 
their iiiichoiH. 

• Will he nhdiit 
ill hiivc lo p:iN.<i 

('h;»sse Islets, 
I Nff piij;« 75.) 
s sic( p to; run 
iiUhcni part of 
'h Klat, which 
•; in rounding 
mddy sronnd; 
'oiiil, iiiid may 

• WvR Rocks. 
y a black hiKiy 
iiorr, and has '| 
hail 7 Cathoiiis 
vard is to keep 

tiie northward, 
He Island ; nor 
shallow as you Islands, 
ground clean, 

hem than 8 fa- 
ce miles over, 
ms out, which 
cep some part 
' to pass to the 
S. S. E. you 
estward of the 
Inectly north. 
g thf fair way 
18 fathoms. 
Westerly, for 
eing bold to ; 
outhern to 8; 
vay to abrciist 
f Orleans, in 
Quebec is not 

not above 1 \ 

veen this and 

E. by N. is a 

w water; this 

therefore be 


mce being 2} 
Hole, a road- 
lot hold well : 
homs water ; 
1 shore, you 
St. Patrick's 
• them ; pass 
Orleans, but 

tome not into lens than 10 fathouiH and there will be no danger : another Rmall reef run* 
to (he niirihward from I'oini Levy, but it lies close in shore, and requires only a mode- 
rate berth. 

Having arrived at INiint I^evy, steer W. S. W. for (Quebec, the distance being only 2 
miles; on the northern side of the passage lie the Heauport Shoals, which are readily 
rieareil by coming into U'lt less than 10 fathoms. In the day time the mark for th« 
eastern part of these shoals, which have some rocky patches among them, is the small 
Steeple of the Roman ('athedral, and I lie Steeple of th<' Knglish Cathedral in one, bearing 
S. 36° ''^. ; therefore keep the Miiiall St»eple open to the northward of the English Ca- 
thedral, and riinuing up, keep (he above small Siecple midway between the two large 
ones : observe the Koman ( 'athedral has two steeples on it, the small one standing at the 
east end. and the lartic one at its west end; both <'hitrches are covered with tin: the 
English steeple is a spire; the Koinan has two cupolas. 

TIH] IJASIN Ol'' (^I'LilHC —Ships arriving at (Quebec, with flood tide and east- 
erly wind, should lake in their sails and have their cables ready, for the ground does not 
hold well; the tides are cdiiunonly strong, and the water deep : if obliged to come to in 
the middle of the stream tliey will have from Hi to 2') fathoms abreast of the iown; but 
within '2 cables' lengths of the Wharves, then; will be 11 fathoms, and here the vessel 
may easily be brought up; while in the otling it will require 60 fathoms' length of cable. 
On the Point Levy side is a depth ol .'JO fathoms, and strong tides; near the Wharvee 
they will not be so strongly felt ; but should the wind be violent, and from the eastward, 
the best riding will be above the Wharves, abreast ol Diamond Harbor, in 10 fathoms. 

THE liALLAS'r (tROL'ND is the place appointed for vessels to discharge their 
ballast in; this is to the we tward of two beacons that stand on the south shore, above 
Quebec, and are i)lai'cd on the brow of the hill near Charles' Cove, which, when in a 
line, bear N. W. and S. K. of each other. 

The River St. Lawrence extends iVoiii (Quebec to the City of Montreal, from which it 
is distant 1.5r> miles, and from the Island of Ric 'JO leagues; it is navigable to the Rapids 
of Richelieu, for vessels of 000 tons; the impediments are few, and those very easily 
surmounted. The banks of the river are in a high state of cultivation, and ado/ned with 
numerous towns and villages, most of wiiich are built around, and adjacent to •> churchi 
which commonly makes a handsome appearance, and is generally a stone edifice; whil« 
single houses and farms keep up a rcuular kind of connuunitation. 

From Quebec, the shores of which are exceedingly lofty, the hills gradually decline, 
and become less elevated, until you reach the River St. iMaurice, where the tide entirely 
ceases : here, on the iiortij side of the river, stands the town of the Trois Rivieres. Be- 
yond Trois Rivieres, 3.3 miles, is the Jiichelieu Rapid; at the entrance of which, and 
above the Lake St. Pierre, is the town of William Henry, formerly called Sorel. Lake 
St. Pierre, which is between the two towns, is '22 miles in length, and in some place* 
nearly 8 in breadth ; but its western part is encutnbered with numerous islands, which 
divide into several channels; two of these arc navigable, but that to the south is the 
cleanest, deepest, and best; the banks here are low, and shelve olfto a considerable dis- 
tance, leaving only a narrow channel of from 12 to Id feet water: the river here is ob- 
structed by masses of rock, and at the ebb-tide the descent of the Rapid becomes .io great, 
that the utmost caution must be taken to pass it ; vessels therefore should wail for the 
proper lime of tide, and, if necessary, they may anchor at the bottom of the Rapid ti)] a 
proper opportunity offers. From hence to Montreal, the banks are of a moderate height, 
and uniformly level. 

Montreal is considered the most fertile part of Lower Canada : its port is convenient, 
and situated on the S. E. side of the city ; the harbor is not large, but vessels drawing 15 
feet water can lie close to the shore, near the Market Gate, and both deliver and receive 
their cargoes with expedition: the depth is generally from 3 to 4^ fathoms: its greatest 
inconvenience arises from the Rapid of St. Mary, which is about a mile below, whose 
current is sometimes so powerful, that without the benefit of a N. East wind, vessels 
will not be able to stein it, but must be detained for weeks, within two miles only of the 
spot where their freight should be delivered. 

REMARKS. — The laws of the Trinity House are very strict with respect to ship- 
ping in the Harbor and Port of Quebec ; and require the masters of vessels to pay a pro- 
per attention to the observance of them. The regulations relative to quarantine, the 
pilot is compelled to make them acquainted with, so soon as he comes on board ; and 
the Harbor Master will deliver a copy of the Laws of the Harbor on their arrival, be- 
sides which the difterent laws are always kept open to view at the Harbor Master's Office. 

Should ships have the misfortune to part with their anchors, either above or near 
Madame Island, it being high water, and the vessel's draught of water not too great, they 
will find a good cove at the west end of Grose Island, where they may safely run her on 
shore, the ground being all soft mud. In this cove are 14 feet spring tides, and 9 neap. 








Should they part neav Crane Island, they may safely run on shore on Goose Island 
above the Hospital Rork. ' 

Should they part in the Traverse, they may run into Kamaraska, observing the marks 
given in page 80. 

Should they part near the Pilgriins, they may run on shore in safety on the S. W. 
part of (irefn Island, near Mr. Frasers House. 

Should they be obliged to run for a harbor below Bic Island, old Bic furnishes a pro- 
per place to run ashore; and to the southward of Barnaby Island a ship will be equally 
safe. ■ Little Mathis Cove is also a good place for a vessel on emergency to take refuge 
in : see pnge 77. 

As the ice sometimes sets in suddenly, should vessels be caught at that season, all the 
places above-mentioned will be proper and sate to winter in ; and also in the space be- 
tween Kamaraska and the Pilgrims, but at all times they should be hove up to high- 
water mark, spring tides. 

Should they be assailed between Kare Island and Kamaraska, with easterly winds and 
in a dark night, and being bound up the river, they should run from Kamaraska, and 
have a night's drift, vearing a;; required by the lead, always taking the English Bank 
for their guide, and when the <lay returns, either anchor or run up, as must convenient. 

THE NORTH CHANxN EL"— 'J'his Channel, now very little frequened, was formerly 
thfc one most commonly used; its direction was to the southward of the Red Island, or 
Hare Island, between the English Bank uid the Northern Mainland; to the northward 
of Coudre Island, along the Northern Shore, and through the Old Traverse, which is 
between the east end of Orleans Island and the western part of Madame Island. In this 
Channel the water is deep, the adjacent lands high, and heavy squalls very frequent, the 
tides strong, and that part called the Old Traverse, intricate, narrow and dangerous; be- 
sides which, there are tew places fit to anchor in. Mr. Lambly, the Harbor Master of 
Quebec, emphatically s;<ys, "he believes few men now living will undertake to carry a 
ship through* it; and that he conceives it would be the extreme of folly to attempt to open 
the use of it;" and further on he states to have "heard of men who "knew and could do 
this, but never saw any of them takt a ship through it ;" and adds, " he is sure they ne- 
ver will." Nevertheless, as this channel has hithort ) been described in all nautical pub- 
lications of this nature, and as it may be satisfactory to know what has been formerly said 
of it, we subjoin the following account :— 

It has been already stated that the N. W. Company, trading in furs, <fec. have settle- 
ments o' the northern side of the river, at the following places — at the Mingan Islands, 
Oodbou River, Jeremy Island, Port Neuf, and Tadusac, where supplies of provisions or 
assistance, if required, may be obtained. 

From Tadusac, or the River Saguray, a reef extends to the westward, and the whole 
of the coast is rocky ; vessels, therefore, must always give it a good berth, and not trust 
to the lead ; about 9 leagues from Sagunay is Cape Salmon ; and near 2 leagues beyond 
that is Cape Eagle. The channel between Cape Eagle and the English Bank becomes 
narrower, and only 4 miles wide. Having rounded Cape Eagle, you will open Mai Bay ; 
here arocky reef runs from the eastern point of the entrance and almost blocks the river 
up. Ta the southward is Cape (Joose ; the channel here bends to the westward, and is 
formed by the N. E. point of the Island of Coudre and the Main, on which latter, to the 
N. W. of the island, is Si. Paul's Bay ; this is rocky and shoal, and called by the French 
the Whirlpool; in navigating this part, a vessel should borrow on the <" udre Reef as 
close as she can, with safety, in order to keej) out of the contrary curient: bring the 
North Cape of Coudre Island a cable's length open of Cape Goose, and you will clear 
the reef. You will observe these rocks will be completely covered at high water, and 
the marks for their extremi'v are St. Paul's Church bearing N. 41° W. Cape Diabje N. 
27° W. and the North Blufi' Point of the island S. 22° W'. 

In the channel between Coudre Island and the Main, the current is strong, the water 
deep and th^ ground bad for anchorage, hi case of necessity you can anchor oft' Cou- 
dre, in 17 fathoms, coarse sandy ground, with Cape Goose just oi)en of the land to the 
westward of it, bearing E. N. F. i- E- and the cast end of Coudre Island E. S. E. ^ L. 
but the tide here is very rapid, ant! a vessel will be apt to swing round. A small hill near 
Kamaraska Island, brought between the Island of Coudre and Cape Goose, but rather 
nearer to the former than the latter, will lead between the Reef and Whirlpool; then 
should the tide drive you towards the Reef, when in 7 fathoms anchor, but if you pass 
into 8 fathoms, you will be nearer the Island than the Main, and having passed it, you 
will deepen your water to IG and 18 fathoms. A shoal, or ridge of rocks, stretches all 
along the northern shore, from St. Paul's Bay to Cape Hog. So soon as you have cleared 
the S. E. of Coudre Reef, haul in for the Main, sailing along in 10 and 12 fathoms, or 
mid-channel in 15,16, and 18 fathoms, these soundings will diminish as you approach 
Burnt Cape Ledge. From Coudre, until the Church of the Little River Settlement 



on Goose Island, 

erving the marks 

ty on the S. W. 

: furnishes a pro- 
p will be equally 
icy to take refuge 

fiat season, all the 
in the space be- 
hove up to high- 

asterly winds and 
Kamaraska, and 
le English Bank 
nost convenient, 
ned, was formerly 
le Ked Island, or 
10 the northward 
raverse, which is 
! Island. In this 
cry frequent, the 
I dangerous; be- 
larbor Master of 
crtake to carry a 
o attempt to open 
lew and could do 
; is sure they ne- 
all nautical pub- 
een formerly said 

, Arc. have settle- 

Mingan Islands, 

s of provisions or 

d, and the whole 

th, and not trust 

! leagues beyond 

Bank becomes 

open Mai Bay ; 

blocks the river 

westward, and is 

ich latter, to the 

(1 by the French 

udre Reef as 

nent : bring the 

d you will clear 

high water, and 

Cape Diable N. 

trong, the water 
anchor oft' Cou- 
the land to the 
E. S. E. i E. 
A t.mall hill near 
oose, but rather 
V'hirlpool; then 
but if you pass 
^ passed it, you 
ks, stretches all 
'ou have cleared 
12 fathoms, or 
you approach 
iver Settlement 

bears N. N. W. you will have a rocky hottoni, and from thence it becomes tolerably 
good. From Coudre anchorage to (Jape Torment, the distance is about o4 miles, the 
shore forming 7 capes, each of which appears split at the top, the course being nearly S. 
W. In thi.i course you may anchor with Cape Millard beariiig N, W. by N. distant 
one mile and a half, in a bottom of sand and mud, with l(i fathoms, or about a mile from 
the north shore -n 'J fathoms, Pillar Island being in one with Neptune Rock, Cape (joose 
nearly in one with the S. E. part of Coudre, Cape Torment a little open with Burnt 
Cape, and the north part of (Joudre N. 36° E. The Neptune Rock lies on the larboard 
•lide of I he channel, and is never wholly covered, though in stormy weather the sea breaks 
over it; it lies rather more thiui '2 miles from Cape Rouge, and bears from Cape Raveu 
S. 35° W. Cape Millard, S. 'J2° W. and Cap. ornieut, N. 65° E. Southward of this 
reck is Burnt Cape Ledu*', lying directly opp, ,ie to Burnt Cape; between them is the 
Channel, narrowing abreast of the Cape to but little more than half a mile wide, but 
with not less than 8,9, and 1(1 fithoms water; keep near the Main and you will sail along 
it in safety ; the leading mark is the highest of the broken clilfs, in one with the N. \V. 
end of Coudre, and be careful, when t)pposite Burnt Cape, to avoid shutting in the N. 
E. end of Madame Island, with tiie S. W. end of Rat Island. The best place of an- 
chorage to wait for a wind to pass the Qld Tnwersc, is a quarter of a league from the land, 
with Cape Torment bearing nearly W. by .S. in I'J fathoms water. 

OLD TRAVERSE. — This is the channel which divides Burnt Cape Ledge and the 
shoals adjoining it to tiie southward, from the Island of (Jrleans, and is considered dan- 
gerous, therefore it should, if possible, be passed on a clear day. First then, in order to 
keep clear of Burnt Cape Ledge, bring a part of the Butt, shut in behind Cape Tor- 
ment, until Burnt Cape becomes N. by E. the soundings being irregular, and the edge 
of the ledge steep to: being past Burnt Cape, and i' bearing N. N. E. haul over the 
Traverse, and observe the following marks: — Or the st-uth shore, considerably inland, 
are three mountains, the south-western one being the largest, bring the west end of this 
mountain in one with the east end of Rat Island, sail on with them in thisdh-ection until 
St. John's Point comes open of Point Dauphin; there is also a little hill to the westward 
of the above three mountains, which may always be seen in clear weather, keep this hill 
to the westward of Madame Island, until you have opened St. .lohn's Point, as before 
mentioned, this is a good mark : having proceeded thus far, steer for St. John's Point, 
rather nearing Orleans Island to avoid a small krjll, on which are only 3 fathoms water; 
the mark for this knoll is the entrance of St. Ann's River, on with the east point of Or- 
leans Island; and when St. John's Point is just opening, you will be in the deepest wa- 
ter, and may run along the Island in six and seven fathoms in safety. The passage be- 
tween the Middle Shoal and Rat Island should be avoided, but if the mariner has occa- 
sion to use it, he will bring the east end of the westernmost of the three mountainv^ 
before mentioned, in one with the east end of Rat Island, and steer on towards the 
Island, until St. John's Church comes open of the Point, you will then be to the south- 
ward of the Middle Shoal, and may proceed towards St. John's Point; the channel be- 
tween the Middle Sand and that which stretches froui Burnt Cape Ledge, is narrow, 
and in crossing the tide, you will not only lose time, but unless attentive to the foregoing 
marks, you will be driven out of your way, it therefore in never to be recommended ; the 
west end of the middle lies with the west end of the Middle Mount in one »vith the 
west end of Rat Island, and as soon as the east end of the same mountain ci'mes on, 
you will have passed the Shoal, and will have the channel open to the west end of Rat 
Island, you may then anchor between Orleans and Madame Island, or proceed up the 

OBSERVATIONS. — At the Isle of Bic the stream never bends to the westward un- 
til an hour's flood by the shore. Here the neap floods are very weak ; and with wester- 
ly winds, no tide will be perceptible. A spring flood is, however, always found within 
four miles of the shore between Father Point and Bic Island. Hence, all the way to 
Quebec, the tide, when regular, flows tide and quarter-tide; but it always is influenced 
greatly by the wind, and by no means to be depended on, as to its running any where be- 
low Hare Island, where there is a regular stream of ebb and flood. 

Between Barnaby and Bic the stream of flood sets in from the N. E. at the rate of 
about two knots an hour; then fair through the channel until the last quarter flood, when 
it sets to the N. W. by the west end of Bic, and then gradually to the N. E. as the flood 
slacks. The whole of the ebb, both to the eastward and westward of the island, sets 
strongly to the N. E. The current between Biquette and the north coast is generally 
very strong to the N. E. without any regular change. In the summer and autumn, as 
well as in spring tides, this current slacks, and, near Biquette, runs to the westward dur- 
ing flood; but, until the upland waters have all run down, and the great rivers have dis- 
charged the freshets, caused by the thawing of the snows in the spring of the year, this 
current will always run downward. 




' i 




From Bic to Green Island, on the soutliern side, the stream of flood is no where per- 
ceptible at a mile and a half from tlie islands. The ebb, or rather current, comes strong- 
ly from the N. W. out of the River Sagunay. and through the channel to the northward 
of Red Island. Here it always runs in a S. E. direction, two miles an hour, with a 
westerly wind ; but only to the southward and eastward of Red Island. Between Red 
Island and Green Island, the ebb runs from 4 to 6} knots. In crossing over to the north 
shore, this easterly current will be found to diminish; for, on the north side, tlie flood 
is pretty regular, and the ebb much wealier. Eastward of the Razade Rocks, and near 
Bic, the current assumes a N.E. direction, and sets strongly between Bic and Biquette. 
To the southward of Bic, spring floods run at the rate of a knot and a half* neaps are not 
perceptible. Ships that come to the southward of Bic, with a scant wind from the 
northward, should steer VV. by N. to check the S. E. current, until they come into 18 
fathoms water, or up to Basque, wlience they may proceed for Green Isl; nd. 

The first of the flood, with spring tides, sets Irom the N. E. along the north side of 
Green Island, and strongly towards the west end of it; then S. S. W. over the reef to- 
wards Cacana. In the middle of the channel no flood is perceptible. At two miles to 
the southward of Red Island it sets strongly to the N. W. and the ebb contrary. Dur- 
ing spring ebbs, the meeting of the N. E. and S. JC. tides, near the middle of Green Isl- 
and, causes very strong ripplings : and, to the eastward of Green Island, the S. E. ebb 
comes strongly about the east end of Red Island ; here meeting, the N. E. tide causes 
a high rippling, much like broken water in strong easterly wmds ; but, in neap tides, the 
floods are very weak, and in the spring of the year there are none; thus rendering this 
part of the river more tedious in its navigation than any other, luiless with a free wind. 

From the west end of Green Island a regular stream of flood and ebb commences, 
which runs five hours upward and seven downward. At the Brandy Pots it flows tide 
and quarter tide ; and above the Percy Rocks, on the south shore, it sets regularly up 
and down, N. E. by E. and S. W. by W. From the Brandy Pots, the stream of flood 
sets towards Hare Island ; "".nd near the west end, N. W. with great 'rength, through the 
passage between the islai d and shoal. Above Hare Island the flood sets regularly up 
the river. The ebbs contrarywise. 

From the Pilgrims np to Cape Diable the flood is very weak, but it thence increases 
uptoJthe buoys of the Traverse, where it runs at the rate of 6 knots. The first of the 
ebb sets towards the English Bank and Hare Island Shoal, when abreast of the greater 
island of Kamaraska, and the ebb contrary. At the Traverse, on the full and change, the 
tide on shore flows at half past four, but it continues to run to the westward until 6 o'clock, 
when regular in the channel. AV'ith westerly winds there is a deviation, but it is certain 
that the tide on shore rises three feet before the stream bends to the westward : and this 
allowance must always be made in every part of the river. In the Traverse the first of 
the flood sets from the N. N. E. at the buoys, at a quarter flood, it takes a S. W. direc- 
tion: and when the shoals are covered at half flood, at the Seal Reefs, it sets until high 
water S. W. by W. The ebbs, in a contrary direction, run with great strength ; fre- 
quently, in the spring of the year, at the rate of 6 or 7 knots. 

From Crane Island the flood sets fairly up the river, but the first of the ebb of L'Islet 
sets to the northward for half an hour, then fair down the river, at the rate of not more 
than 3j knots an hour with spring tides. 



In the year 1775, variations were given by M. des Barres, as follows: North entrance 
of the Gut of Canso 16° 0' W. : Crow Harbor, (Chedebucto Bay) 14° 50' W. : entrance 
of Liscomb Harbor, 14°: Sable Island, 13° 57': Halifax lighthouse, 13° 35': entrance 
of Shelburn, 13^^ 30': Cape Sablo, 11° 15'. 

In 1798, Mr. Backhouse found the variation at Halifax to exceed 16 degrees; an ad- 
dition of 2^ degrees to the prece.ling, may therefore give the present variation very near 
the truth.' Mr. Lockwood gives the variation at Halifax. 17° 28', and at Cape Sable, 
14° 27' : but it seems that the needle is now receding. At St. John's, New Brunswick, 
the variation in 1827 was about 16 degrees. 

The following was taken in 1831, and sufliciently exact for the purpose of Navigation. 

Brandy Pots, 
Island of Bic, 
Cape Chat, 

l6ideg. West. 



Bay of the Seven Islands, 
West end of Anticosti, 
East end of do. 

23 deg. West. 

23 i 





SHIPS bound for the (liilf of St. Lawrence, after pRssing the Islands of Miquelon 
and St. Peter's, will do well by endenvorinir to steer a middle course between Newfound- 
land and Breton Island, passing on either side of St. Paul's Island, as best suits their 
convenience; but by no means should they run beyond the parallel of 47° 30' N. until 
they are assuredly well past Cape Ray, for the harbors on the South Coast of Newfound- 
land, to the westward of Fortune Island are full of dangers, and but imperfectly known ; 
while the whole shore is frequently enveloped in thick fogs, and the rocks cannot then 
be perceived before your vessel has got irrecoverably entangled among them. In this 
part also, shifts of wind are common* and it will often happen, that after blowing a gale 
from one point of the compass, it will suddenly vary to the opposite point, and continue 
equally strong ; thus it has been known, that while one vessel has been lying to, with a 
heavy gale, another, not more than 30 leagues distant, has been in another gale equally 
heavy, but with the wind in a direct contrary direction ; this has proved fatal to many 
ships, particularly in 1782, w hen the Ville de Paris, Centaur, Ramiles, and nearly a whole 
fleet of merchantmen were lying to, during a hurricane from the S. E. and by its sud- 
denly shifting to the N. W. either were rendered unserviceable or foundered. 

The winds within the Gulf are not so liable to such sudden changes as on the outside, 
or to the eastward of Breton Island. 

Ships navigating the coast of Breton Island, and particularly those who have crossed 
the Grand Bank and are steering for the Gulf, should be particulrly careful to make a 
proper allowance for a strong current which commonly sets S. by W. and S. S. W. abbtit 
three miles an hour, and sometimes four, by which the unwary mariner will be greatly 
deceived : for while he is considering himself in a fair way for the entrance of thaGulf, 
he will be drifted upon the iron-bound shore, the attendant fogs in summertime conceal- 
ing his dangers, until it becomes too late for him to avoid destruction ; to persons who 
may unfortunately be driven too near this coast, it may be serviceable to be apprised, that 
a settlement is now formed at Ashpee Bay, and good anchorage is to be had behind the 
Island, where boats can land, and water and provisions be obtained ; while for the want 
of the knowledge of such an establishment, many have been obliged to endure both hun- 
ger and fatigue unrelieved. 

THE ISLAND OF ST. PAUL, on which there is a fixed light, is not dangerous, 
and may easily be discovered, even when the weather is foggy, by keeping a good look 
out; the shores of the Island of Breton are high, and although fogs do frequently ob- 
sctire the land, yet, by proper attention, it will generally be discovered time enough to 
avoid danger. Having entered the Gulf, you will seldom fail to see the Magdalen and 
Bird Islands, as you must pass them in your route to the River St. Lawience ; you had 
better, particularly in thick weather, go either to the eastward and northward of these, 
between them and Newfoundland, or to the -outhward and westward, between them and 
Prince Edward's Island; for although, in fine clear weather, there is a good and safe 
passage between the Bird and Magdalen Islands, yet when it is dark and foggy, the chan- 
nel will not be so easily distinguished, and perhaps might be mistaken and attended with 
danger. The wer.ther to the southward of the Magdalens, and between them and Prince 
Edward's Island, is generally much dearer than to the northward, therefore the passage 
that way is to be preferred, particularly after the early part of the year, for then S. West- 
erly winds are most prevalent ; and also, if necessary, clear and good anchorage is to be 
had at the S. Eastern part of the Magdalens in Pleasant Bay, very near the shore; this 
is a safe place for vessels to ride in, with westerly winds, and greatly moie to be recom- 
mended than to ha/.ard the beating about in the Gulf with a foul wind; the passage into 
it is safe, and runs in between Amherst and Entry Islands. 

THE MAGDALEN ISLANDS are but thinly inhabited by persons employed in the 
fisheries; their extent is from E. N. E. toAV. S. W. ; there are no harbors, and you 
must give their N. E. extremity a berth of two miles, on account of a reef whijh runs 
out from it ; in approaching towards them you must avoid the Pearl's Ledge of only 15 
feet water: which lies with the S. Eastern extremities of Entry Island, bearing S. W. 
by W. i W, distant 5 miles. 

A Rock upon which the ship Brothers struck, lies about 6 or 7 miles from the Dead- 
man, bearing nearly E. by N. from it. This has only 3 or 4 fathoms over it, and rests 







i' 1 



upon the authority of Capt. M'Dougall. Another Rock is said to lie between the Dead- 
man and Seal Islands • this is situated in a hne between tlie two, and nearly equi-dintant, 
having only 8 feet water over it, and conseriuently very dangerous. 

A Shoal with only 18 feet water, and which breaks but in heavy weather, bearing S. 
E. I E. by compass, seven miles distant from the east point of the Magdalens, has been 
discovered by Capt. Bayfield, R. N. 

THE BIRD ISLANDS are small, and not far asunder; they are moderately high, 
flat at top, and have a white appearance ; the southern one is the largest, and from its 
eastern end a ridge of rocks runs out ; in a passage between them there is also a rocky 

BRION OR, CROSS ISLAND lies W. by N. distant 4 leagues from the Bird Isl- 
ands, and N. J E. about 10^ miles from the N. E. end of the Magdalen Islands, being 
five miles long and very narrow ; the depth of water between the Bird Islands and 
Brian is from 4 to 14 fathoms, the N. E. end is bold to, and there is no danger in the 
"channel ; but off the S. W. end of the Island there is a ledge of rocks, even with the 
water's edge; between Brion and the Magdalens are 10, 11, and 12 fathoms. It was 
former'}' generally considered that beyond the Magdalen Islands all was deep water, but 
Captain Philip Aldridge asserts that a bank lies teethe northward, having the following 
soundings upon it. He says that standing in for Brion's Island from the southward, and 
steering N. W. from the N. E. end of the Island, when he was 12 miles from iihe sound- 
ed, and had 20 fathoms water, fine brown sand with black specks and pieces of broken 
shells; that he continued to have the same depth and bottom until he came within two 
miles of the Island, when the water shoaled to 17 fathoms, small stones: he continued 
the same course until within half a mile of the Island, the depth gradually lessening to 
7, 5, and 4 fathoms, then 6 and 7 fathoms, until he opened the northern point of the N. 
Eastern Island ; then he deepened to 15, 17, 16. and 18 fathoms, being two miles oft' the 
Island, and on a rocky bottom. With the N. E. point of the Island brought S. E. by 
S. distant 4 miles, he says yju will have 30 fathoms, fine brown sand, with black specks 
and bits of shells, and with the N. F. end of Brion's Island S. S. E. distant 12 miles, 35 
fathoms, rocky bottom. 

are not 
often ar 
ther, wl 
the dazv 
and agr 

Latitude 47 58 N. Longitude 61 20 W. 35 fathoms, rocky bottom. 

61 30 W. 38 ditto, fine brown sand and shells. 

61 38 W. 43 ditto, stones. 

61 48 W. 55 ditto, fine brown sand and shells. 

61 57 W. no ground with 110 fathoms. 

- 62 8 W. 70 fathoms, light brown sand and stones. 

62 19 \V. 55 ditto, brown sand. 

62 30 W. 40 ditto, fine brown sand. 

62 42 W. 55 ditto, ditto. 

— — ^— — 62 52 W. 40 ditto, fine brown sand and shells. 













47 58 





The Qaptain further says, that many ships have got, in winter time and long nights, so 
far to leeward, that they have been forced through the Strait of Belle Isle; when, had 
they IwowD that such a bank of soundings existed, they would have lain to until daylight, 
and not have been driven out of their route. In sailing from the Magdalen and Bird Isl- 
ands, you will, after you have passed this Bank, drop into deeper water, and lose your 
soundings till you get near to Cape Rosier. 

Bearings and Distances of the Principal Points and Places, 

Cape Ray to the N. side of Bird Islands, N. W. by W. 22 leagues. 
Cape Ray to the east point of Anticosti, nearly N. N. W. ^ W. 46^ leagues. 
Cape North to the N. E. end of the Magdalen Islands, N. by W. J W. 16 leagues. 
Cape North to the Bird Islands, North 18 leagues. 
N. E. end of the Magdalen Islands to the Bird Islands, N. E. by E. 
East side of St. Paul's Island to the east side of the Bird Islands, N 

Bird Islands to the eastern end of Brion Island, W. | N. 12 miles. 
Bird Islands to Cape Rosier, N. W. | W. 47 leagues. 
Cape Rosier to the S. W. point of Anticosti, N. E. J E. 13 leagues. 
Cape Rosier to the west end of Anticosti, N. i E. 20 leagues. 

In crossing the Gulf of St. Lawrence, even during the summer months, islands of i'''' 
have frequently been met with. The ice that drifts out of the river all disappears by the 
latter end of May, but these masses make no part of t. Toe conjecture t"., that they 

'; E. 6 leagues, 
"by W. i W. 18 

vvnen the Dead- 
ly equi-distant, 

her, bearing S. 
lalens, has been 

oderately high, 

it, and from its 

is also a rocky 

n the Bird Lsl- 
1 Islands, being 
rd Islands and 
danger in the 
, even with the 
thorns. It was 
deep water, but 
; the following 
southward, and 
om iihe sound- 
eces of broken 
ame within two 
i: he continued 
illy lessening to 
point of the N. 
vo miles oft" the 
ought S. E. by 
th black specks 
ant 12 miles, 35 

ind shells. 

md shells. 


nd and stones. 

ind shells. 

long nights, so 
lie ; when, had 
until daylight, 
n and Bird Isl- 
and lose your 


6 leagues. 

*!,. G leagues. 
W. i W. 18 

islands of i'*'" 

ippears by the 

ii, that they 



are not formed on any of the neighboring coasts, but descend from the more northerly 
regions of Uavis's Strait, Arc. where, it is presumed, they ;.re severed by the violence of 
storms, from the vast accumulations of the arctic winter; and, passing near the coast of 
Labrador, are drawn by the in-draught of the current into the Strait of Belle Isle. They 
often are a hundred feet in height, with a circumference of uiany thousands; the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere is very sensibly affected by them, which, even in foggy wea- 
ther, when they are not visible, sufficienfly indicates tlieir neighborhood : by day, from 
the dazzling reflection of the sun's rays ; also by moon-light, their appearance is brilUant 
and agreeable. 



GASPE' BAY, &c. — Cape Gaspe lies at the distance of 6 miles to the southward of 
Cape Rosier ; and Point Peter, or Flat Point, lies 6 miles to the S. by W. ^ W. of Cape 
Gaspe. At the distance of about .5 miles S. S. E. from Cape Gaspe, is a small (ishing- 
bank, with 15 fathoms over it, sometimes called the Norwich Bank, around which there 
is, at a short distance, a depth of 58 and 60 fathoms. 

The Entrance of (iaspe Bay is formed by Cape Gaspe and Point Peter. In this bay, 
at the distance of 11 miles N. N. W. from the entrance, within a point on the southern 
side, near its head, there is an excellent anchorage in from 9 to 12 fathoms water, shel- 
tered from all winds. Here the river divides, one branch running N. \V. by N. the other, 
or S. W. branch, West, and S. Westerly. There is, also, good anchor;>ge, with westerly 
winds, off Louisa's Cove, on the western side of the bay, at about (j miles N. W. by W. 
from Cape (Jaspe, in 9 or 10 fathoms. Throughout the bay there is deep water; nearly 
50 to 40 fathoms in the middle, and 20 very near the shore on the eastern side : on the 
western side it shoalens more gradually towards the coast. The shores of the bay are 
elevated, and the settlers upon them nearly all iishermen. The tide flows until 3 o'clock, 
on the full and change. 

DOUGLASS TOWN is at the entrance of the River St. John, on the south-west 
side of the bay. On the opposite shore of the same river is the site of the town of Hal- 

From Point Peter, off which there is a little islet, called Hat Island, the bearing and 
distance to Bonaventure Island are S. by W. \ W. 6 miles. Between lies the bay called 
Mai Bay, or Cod Bay, which is nearly 5 miles in width. 

MAL BAY. — Very near the sourhern point of Mai Bay is Percee, a remarkable rock, 
rising about 200 teet out of the water, anil of about 1200 feet in length, in which there 
are three arches, completely wrought by nature ; the central one is sufficiently large to 
admit a boat under sail to pass through it with ease. From this rock, along Mai Bay, to 
Point Peter, there is an excellent beach for fishing, part of which is named La Belle 
Anse or Lobster Beach : close to this place is the house of the late Governor Cox. The 
village called Percee, is situated on the rising ground that forms the southern point of 
Mai Bay, inhabited, principally, by fishermen. In front of it the beach is convenient for 
the curing offish, and off it are some of tlie best bauks for catching them. The Isle of 
Bonaventure lies at about a mile and a quarter from the shore opposite to the point; it 
is little better than a barren rock, but yet a few persons are hardy enough to winterthere, 
for the sake of retaming possession of the fishing places they have occupied during the 
summer. There is a passage between the Island and the shore with 16 fathoms water. 

The bearing and distance from Bonaventure to Cape Despair are S. W. by W. Smiles, 
and thence to the north end of Miscou Island S. \V. | S. 26 miles. Nearly S. S. E. - 
miles from Cape Despair, lies the Leander Rock, over which is a depth of 16 or 18 feet 
water. As this rock lies in the fair way of ships coming from the northward, with north- 
erly winds, for Chaleur Bay, it should be avoided by giving the Cape a berth of 3 miles. 
The bearing and distance from Cape Despair to Point Maquereau or Mackarel Fc' /: 
are W. S. \V. | W. about 7 leagues. Between these points lie the two coves caijed 
Pabos and Petit Pabos, or Pabou and Little Pabou. 

On the western side of the entrance of Pabou Harbor is a small village ; and on the 
opposite side, on a projecting point, stand the summer habitations of the fishermen. 
Several streams descend into this harbor from a numerous chain of small lakes to the 
north-westward. Next to the westward of Pabou is the township and inlet of Port 
Daniel, where vessels may find convenient shelter during the westerly and N. W. winds. 

CHALEUR BAY. — Point Macquereau and Miscou Island form the entrance of 
Chaleur Bay, and bear from each other S. J E. and N. j W. distant 4i leagues. From 
the entrance of Chaleur Bay to that of Ristigouche Harbor, which is at its head, the 
distance, on a west and N- W. by W. course, is 22 leagues. The bay is of moderate 




depth near the shore on both .»ides, and has, towards the middle, from 45 to 20 fnthonni 


Nouvelle Harbor lies about 14 miles W. by S. from Point Macquereau, wherp are a 
church -and several houses. 

NEW CARLLSLK. — The town of New Carlisle, the principal town of Chalet) Baj, 
is situate in Coxe 'I.)wiishii», on the North shore, us shown in ihe Chart. 

BONAVENTURK. — In the adjoininsr township of Hamilton, on the west, is the vil- 
lage of Bonaventure, containiiii; a church and several houses, sti-nding on I'-vel nrround. 

From Bonaventure the land turns N. VV. by N. towards Ca.'.cape(ua B^v, aion^ ai« 
iron bound shore, and having several rivulets of fresh water ; within this Bay is ancJjor- 
age in 4, 5, and 6 fathoms water ; this is in the township of Maria ; the head of the Bay 
is sho-il, into which the (Jreat t'ascajjedia River empties itself. 

In RlSTKiUUCHE HARBOR, at the head of Chaleur Bay, there is good anchor- 
age in from H to Iv* fathoms, land-locked from all winds; but it is so difficult of access, 
that it should 'lot be attempted without a pilot. The tide flows here, on full and change, 
until 3 o'clock, and its vertical rise is 6.i or 7 feet. 

NIPISI. '^ IT— Vessels bound into Chaleur Bay should make for the Island of Mis 
ecu, which ti. -y can round by the lead, for it shoaiens gradually from liO to .'< fathoms 
tli^ latter depth being near Miscou Point , should it be Ibggy, which in summer time is 
frequently the case, it will be advisable to steer from thence towards the northern shore, 
when you will most probably fall in with Nouvelle Harbor; here stands a church, upon 
}li;l some rising ground to the northward of the town or village, which is built alotg the 

beach and lies low. Proceeding up the Bay of Chaleur from hence, you will pass round 
a low ])oiiit and reach Carlisle; this is somewhat similar to Nouvelle, for the town stands 
on a low point and has a church above it; both are near the beach. Having got abreast 
of Carlisle, if you are bound across forNipisighit Koads or tM. Peter's, then, by keeping 
on the norlherii shore as thus dirt cted, you will readily know how far you have pro- 
ceeded up the hay, and may then haul across, with greater certainty, for the land, be- 
tween Caraquet Point and Ci\])e Idas, which you may approacli to by your lead without 
the least .danger; the land on the northern shores of Chaleur Bay is in a high state of 
cultivation, when compared with the southern shores, and this, perhaps, is the principal 
cause why the fogs that obscure it are less heavy on 'he former than on the latter. 
From Cape Idas to Nipisighit Roads, the shore is clear of all danger, and wlien the wea- 
ther is dark or foggy, you m;iy safely run along the land by your lead, only observing to 
come no nearer than 5 fathoms water, for in that depth you will he only three miles off 
the land. From abrea't of Cape Idas, steer W. by S. about 9 miles; you will have 
from 5 to 7 fathoms all tue way, clear of all danger, and get good anchorage : in opening 
the bay, you ".vill see Mr. Miller's house and store standing on Carron Point on the lar- 
board liand, and appearing like an island ; there is a large grove of trees to the southward 
of the house ; and the open space between that and Mr. Sutherland's gives it that ap- 
pearance : steer for the house and store on Carron Point until you get about 4 miles dis- 
tant from it, t? in bring Mr. Miller's house on Carron Point to bear S. W. and anchor in 
from 7 to 5 fathoms, where you may heave your ballast ; here a pMot will board you, but 
should no one come, and ;rOu are inclined to enter the river, your vessel having but a 
small draught of water, then the following directions by Captain Ai<lridge, will prove ac- 
ceptrible, and lead you over both bars ; and when you get inside of them you will find 
good anchorage to the northward of Carron Point in 3 and 4 fathoms, good ground. 

Bring Mr. Miller's house half a handspike's length of Indian Island; this has a round 
tuft of trees on it, and will lead you in mid-channel clear of all danger: when you arrive 
abreast of Carter's Point, you should open the upper part of Lathwocd House ; steer in 
that direction close to the beach, until you open the beach of Carron Point with Mr. 
Miller's house, then run a little further ui) and anchorin 12orl4 feet water, sandy ground ; 
from Carron Point to Munro's Wharf there are three bars, with not more than 6 feet 
over them, but there are places between them, with 16, 15, and 14^'leet, where a number 
of vessels load. 

The Tatigouche or Little River is only navigable by canoes ; the middle river is 
deep, but bars run across the channel in many places: the banks on each side, from the 
village to Carron Point, dry at low water. 

TIDES. — It flows full and change at three o'clock, and the water rises on the inner 
brir 8 feet, on the outer bar 6 feet, and in the harbor 8 feet, with regular .springs, but it is 
much influenced by the winds which prevail in the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; in summer 
time no vessel should load down to more thaii 13 feet, and then the bar should be at- 
tempted with the first of the springs. 

From abreast of the north point of Miscou Island to the south point of Shippigan 
Island the distance is 19 miles, and the course is nearly S. W. by S. From the south 
point of Shippigan to Tracadie, the course and distance are S. W. ^ S. 4 leagues. From 

ramie I 
the no 
and th 
Fox Is 
and pa 
and, ai 
ail vane 
so a re< 
this pa 
Buoy < 



5 to 20 fathoms 
u, wherp are a 
[)f Chaleni Baj, 

Tracailie to Point Esquiininac or Escnininiic on the south side of the entrance of Mi- 
ramichi Kay, the course is S. by W. k W. distance !) loa^au-s. 

MIR/. M1CH[ JJ VY". — Th' • is a spacious hay, having at its entrance several islands: 
the northe.-n sluire is (routed by some small san(l islands, having; channels between tlicin 
and the ii*.iin, into which boats may enter; behind these is an Indian villaj^e called Ne- 
gowack, but the chief passage int(» the harbor, is between Walthaui or Portaije Island and 
Fox Island: to enter this you nnist borrow towards the southern point ol' lOscuminac, 
and pass to the southward of a lont; narrow shoal which stretches in front of Fox's Isl- 
and, and fornjii che channel of 1| mile wide, with 4 and 5 fathoms water in it; having 
advanced to the northwaril of Fox Island you must turn westerly, niul pass between the 
southern point of WnUham i-land and the northern point of Fox Island : on your star- 
board hand lie 3 black buoys, wiiich mark the edge of the Horseshoe Sand ; tliere is al- 
so a red buoy on the larboard side of the western part of the Hay de Vin Island : through 
this part of the channel you will have :Vy fathoms, and having arrived abreast of the Ked 
Buoy de Vin, you may ..teer VV. N. W. for Oak Point, in :i, ;'}, and 4 fathoms; here the 
greatest care must be o!)served, in order to take the passage between t^heldrake Island 
and the Sandy Spit which runs olf Point Cheval ; run very near the N. E. point of that 
island, steer S. Westerly for iNappan Bay, and round the south part of Sheldrake Isl- 
and, you will then see Old C'ustoni House situated upon tlie northern shore ; from whence, 
by keeping mid-channel, and following the sinuosities of the river, you will safely pass 
Middle Island, and have 7 and 6 fathoms wj\hout any danger, until you reach the Town 
of Newcastle, here the water lessens to 3 fathoms ; ahead you will perceive Beaubac or 
Frazier's Island, dividing the channel in two passages, that to the S. Eastward is the bet- 
ter one, and runs into the S. W. brantdi of the river; that to the northward leads into 
the N. W. branch, both these have their rise a considerable distance up the country. 
The New Custom House stands on the southern shore, about '2 miles beyond Middle 
Island : there are several places of good anchorage about this harbor, but the navigation 
is in general so intricate that a Pilot will always be necessary and he will point out the 
best places for riding. Spring tides rise 5 and 6 feet, and the l)Uoys are fiequenUy shifted. 

There is good anchorage with olf-shore winds in Outer Bay, but you nmst not go 
into less than 7 fathoms water. The Pilots' houses are 4 or 5 miles to the westward of 
Escuminac Point, an. '^ilots for this place are sometimes obtaiiuMl from the Gut of Can- 
so. Considerable quantities of timber have recently been shipped from this harbor for 
Europe, but a late tremendous and extensive fire having made great devastation in the 
adjacent woods, destroying the dwellings and property of most of the inhabitants, and 
reducing them to the greatest distress, it will take some considerable time before they 
can recover their losses, or resume their former occupations. 

From the northern part of Miscou Island to Escuminac Point, the soundings are regu- 
lar; and, in thick weather, the shore may be approached by the lead to the depth of 13 
or 1(T fafhoms. In passing Escuminac Point you must give it a good berth, for a sandy 
spit runs otf it a full league. 

RICHIBUC TO. — The depth of water at the entrance of this harbor is, at the best 
and highest tides, about 18 feet, and with common tides Ifil feet. When you are off the 
harbor's mouth, in 6, 7, or 8 fathoms water, you should endeavor to steer in, bringing the 
two large beacons in a line, and keeping them so, until you get up near to the Sand Hitf; 
then run along the shore about N. W. in 3 or 2\- fathoms, until you find yourself in safe- 
ty. There is a large buoy, laid down in .5 fathoms, outside of the bar, which is a good 
guidance in. and may be seen, as you approach, for upwards of a league off. 

Within Cape Tormentin is the isthmus and boundary between New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia, the narrowest part of which, from the Bay Verte to Cumberland Basin, at 
the head of Chignecto Bay, is only 15 miles in breadth. 

THE NORTHERN COASTS OF NOVA SCOTIA, &c.— The general features 
of the Northern Coast of Nova Scotia are pleasing : the land low and even, or slightly 
broken by agreeable inequalities. The few Harbors are of a very limited capacity ; the 
soil of the country is fertile, and the woods abound with Beach, Oak, Elm, Birch, Ma- 
ple, Ash, Pine, Spruce, Larch, Juniper, Hemlock, and Fir. In the Strait of Northum- 
berland, to an extent, from end to end, of not less than 100 miles, the bottom, in many 
places is nearly level, and varies in its depth only from 20 to 10 fathoms; being, general- 
ly, a stiff clay, and the ground holding well. 

Between Cocagne, on the west, and the high rock called the Barn, on the east, the 
shore is, in general, bound with red clilfs, and beaches under them, and the island which 
lies between Tatmagouche and the basin of Cobequid, appears remarkably high to ves- 
sels in the oDing. 

Having rounded Cape Tormentin, either inside or outside of the 6 feet ledge which 
lies off it, you will open to the westward the Bay Verte. 


BLLNt's AMEKICA.N coast I'lk.OT. 

THE BAY VERTE is wide at its entiancf, and narrows n» vou ndvHnrc, the Blioren 
are lined with flats, on whicli tiie water btconu-.x shallow, but Miid-( hannci the anrhpT- 
ages are good; here v sri'Im of considerabh; Imrthen may take in their cargoes of tim 
ber, 6cc. On the northern side of the Bay, and near its head, is the small River of Gas 
pereau, on the southern sl)or(! of which stands the Fort Monckton, and on the southern 
part of tiie Bay is another small rivulet called the River Tidnish, they are both too shal- 
low for shipping .o enter. The Bay of Verte is now risinj; into considerable inipoilanee, 
in consequence of its ijroxiniity to the Bay of Fniidy, and the interior from the Bay to 
Amherst, Cumberland, Li> I'lance, and Tanlamaree is in a highly improving state and 
increasing population. 

RIVER PHILIP.— To the southward of Cape Tormentin, at the distance of 41 
leagues, is the entrance to the River JMiilip, a bar harbor, having only 10 feet at the en- 
• trance. In advancing towards this place, when in the depth of 5 fathoms, another har- 
bor will be seen on the eastern or larboard side, which is called Pogwash. In the lat- 
ter* ships drawing 17 feet load with timber. This harbor is safe ; but the entrance is so 
narrow as to require a pilot. Ships cummonly anchor outside in 5 fathoms, at 3 miles 
distance from shore, with the entiancc bearing to the .S. K. 

E. N. E. ^ E. about 8 miles from the entrance to the Bay of Pogwash is the Cliff" 
Cape, and from Cape Tormentin to Cliff Cajje the bearing and distance are S. by E. J 
E. 16 mih" ; from Cliff Cape to tShoal Point S. E. 3 miles: and from Shoal Point to 
Cape John S. E. by E. 11 miles. Between the two latter lie the harbors of Ramsheg 
and Tatmagouche, which are good and well sheltered, but each requi/e a pilot. 

RAMSHEG HARBOR.— Off the northern or Shoal Point is Fox Island, the flats 
from which extend so far from shore, at the entrance of the harbor, as to leave but a 
narrow channel, through which, at all times, excepting at slack water, the tide runs with 
great velocity, and renders the navigation into it very unsafe, although the depth up to 
the anchorage is sufficient for a frigate ; there being, in mid-channel, 3| fathoms at low 
water. In sailing in, steer south-westerly, towards Gravois Clit!', giving Shoal Point a 
berth of a mile, until the N. \V. arm is well open ; then steer for the latter, keeping your 
lead going, until the beach to the N. W. of Gravois CUfi' bears S. W. by W. 

TATMAGOQCHE is 6k miles to the westward of Fox Island, and the channel on 
the western side of Amet Isle is quite clear ; but, in sailing in from the eastward, between 
Cape John and the isle, you should keep nearest to the Cape, for a ledge extends from 
the isle to a considerable distance. Amet is a low island, without trees, and it will be 
most prudent to keep at least three-quarters of a mile from it every way. The best an- 
chorage for ships is in the Harbor or River John, on the ea'^t side of the Harbor, in 4 or 
5 fathoms, muddy bottom. Small vessels may run up to Tatmagouche, and anchor ofT 
the town in 10 or 12 feet at low water. Here the tide rises 5 feet, on full and change, ai:d 
flows till 7 o'clock. 

RIV^R JOHN. — In coming from the eastward, when between Amet Island and Cape 
Joho, your course towards River John will be W. by S. In passing between the Island 
and Cape, you will have 4^ fathoms until you open the River John, on the larb jard side. 
You will then have 7, 8, and 9, fathoms ; and if bound for this river, or for Tatmagouche, 
may obtain a pilot, by making the usual signal. There is safe anchorage at 2 miles dis- 
tance from shore. 

In Ramsheg, Tatmagouche, and John Harbors, ships of fifteen feet draught common- 
ly load with timber. 

CARIBOU HARBOR. — From Cape John to Caribou Point the course and distance 
are E. S. E. 6 leagues. Here the water gradually shoalens to the shore, from the depth 
of 8 or 9 fathoms at two miles off. To strangers it may be dangerous to approach Cari- 
bou Harbor, as it has frequently been mistaken for Pictou, which lies to the south-west- 
ward, and some have run on shore before the error has been discovered. For it is to be 
observed that ships are seen riciing, not in the entrance of thv harbor, but within a sand 
bank, which stretches from side to side, having not more than 3 or 4 feet over it, and 
which appears like a good channel. Small vessels load with timber here. The pro- 
montory of Caribou may be known from Pictou by observing that the hollrw laud over 
it appears like a deep inlet; but the highlands of Pictou seem to fold over each other, 
and blind the entrance. The ledges about Caribou extend upwards of a mile fr m 
shore, and some of them are dry at low water. Nearly in mid-channel, to the northward 
of Caribou Point, is a rocky shoal of 10 feet. It is a quarter of a mile in circumfer- 
ence, and around it the depths are 4, 5, and 6 fathoms* The tides, both ebb and flood, 
set rapidly over it. 

SUNKEN ROCK. — Between Pictou Island and Caribou Point, is a sunken rock. 
The rock lies in the fair way between Pictou ^sland and Caribou Point, being distant 
about one-third the breadth of the channel, in a W. by N. direction from the western 
point of the island. The circumference ol' the rock is about 400 yards, and the tide 



iffht conimon- 

wa» found to set ovrr it iit the raff of v?'i nii'cs ]>er hour, tin- (lood settin<» to the N. N. 
W. making \uii\i water at full and clianu;*' at ' h. liOin. ( )i> ttM \vest«'rn c'(lj;f , the rock han 
4 9nd 5 fathoms close to it, and 5 to 7 fathoms on its eastern edi^e. The position of thi» 
rock renders it extremely dan;j;erous to ships ieavini; Pictou llarl)or ior the westward, 
as it lies immediately in the fair way. The chaniit 1 to the westward of the shoal is gene- 
rally adopted, in which there is from :{', to 4 fatlmms irregular soundings. 

PICTOU. — The Harbor or Kiver of I'ictou has a har across its enlranee, liaving over 
it only 15 feet at low water; and x^ithont this is a shoal, called the Middle (iround, hav- 
ing tl»' smaller depth ot 7 feet. The entrance, on the south side of whicJi there is a fixed 
light 54 feat high, lies S. W. 1 S. 5 miles from the west end of I'ictou Island. 

In approaching Pictou from the westward, hetwecn the island and the main, tjie light 
will not be seen until it bears W. by S. and may be run tor when it bears west. 

In approaching from the eastward, (^ipe George bearing S. one mile distant, the ' 
course is W. b-' S. ; but after making the light it ought to be brought to bear W. or W. 
J^ N. when the light may be run for, and will serve for a leading mark over the bar, and 
may be approached within two and a half cal)les' lengths, where there is good anchor- 
age, or haul up W. N W. until abreast of the light, or until it bears VV. S. W. when 
the course up the harbor is west. 

The windmill near the town, lii a line with the beach that forms the left or south side 
of the entrance, is the mark to r' nr the Middle (iround, and for the deepest water. 
Within the bar and the beach the v .ttei il^epens to ,'j, (>, and 7 fathoms, muddy bottom. 
This depth continues up to the town, opposite to which a mud flat extends outward so 
far as to leave the channel midway between tlie two shores. Above the town the river 
divides into three branches; of these, tlie eastern one is winding, but navigable to ves- 
sels drawing 1^ feet, about 4 miles upward ; at which distance the river becomes im- 
peded by a bar, although above that the water increases. At 9 miles above the town of 
Pictou are the well-known coal-pit.«, the produce of which is brought down to the bar in 
large f\&l boats. The Middle and Wt.-tt Rivers are navigable upward to a considerable 
distance. The lands hereabout being good, the population is rapidly increasing. The 
town of Walrnsly, on the north side of the harbor, is the residence of the principu! mer- 
chants who loiid timber in these parts. 

MERIGOMiSH, which is an excellent bar-harbor, lies 7 miles to the E. S. E. of the 
ei trance of Pictou; the merchants of which place have ponds here, for the reception of 
tin'ber, with which a number of ships are annually laden. To sail in for this place, britig 
the east end of Picfou Island nearly North, and keep it so until ofl'the harbor's month, 
where you may either obtain a pilot, or anchor in 4 fathoms. A stranger should not ven- 
ture to enter the harbor without a pilot, as a ledge stretclies ofl'from either side. There 
is a depth of 14 feet on the bar at low water, and the vertical rise of tide is about 8 feet. 
The depth within is from 4 to 7 fathoms, sot^t mud. 

PICTOU ISLAND, which liba ofl'the entrance of Pictou and Merigomish, is culti- 
vated, and contains about 3000 acres. Fine quarries of free stone have been opened li<5r6, 
and strong traces of coal are visible in several places about the cliffs. From the east end 
a spit of rocks extends about half a mile ; and al the E. N. E. from it, one league and a 
half, is a shoal of 21 feet. Between the island and Merigomish the bottom is muddy, abd 
the depth from 1 1 to 7 fathoms. 

There is no harbor between Merigomish and Cape St. George ; but the coast is clear 
high, and bold, and vessels may .--il along it in safety, at the distance of a mile. Asa 
place . f refuge for small vess'^i.* in distress, there is a new pier erected on the coast, 7 
leagues to the eastward of Pit,.. . , and at the indent formed by the rock called the Bam. 
Cape St. George is a promontory which runs out to the N. Eastward; it is bold to, and 
considerably elevated, forming the western point of entrance to St. George's Bay, but 
there is said to be good anchorage under the Cape, in from 10 to 7 fathoms ; the ground 
is somewhat rocky, but you will ride there sheltered from westerly winds. 

ST. GEORGE'S BAY, ANTIGONISH.— The entrance of the Harbor of Antigo- 
nish lies 10 miles to the S. by W. from Cape St. George. Here small vessels load with 
timber and gypsum, or plaster, of which there is abundance in the neighborhood ; but 
the harbor is so shoal, that even these complete their cargoes outside of the bay, although 
the anchorage is not so safe. 

At Pomket Harbor, 6 miles eastward from Antigonish, ships of any size may load in 
safety. In sailing in, when from the northward, you will leave the island on the starboard 
side, keeping close to a rock, which appears 5 or 6 feet above water. This rock is steep 
to, and lies off the east end of the island. Outside of it, at the distance of three quarters 
of a mile, lie several sunken ledges, which are dangerous. After passing the rock a bay, 
will open on the starboard side, which you must stand into, till you are shut in with the 
island, where there is anchorage in 3^ fathoms water, at about half a mile from the island. 






ARIHISMKK, or ACIU'SHKK, \h mh inl.'t wliich lirs Mwci-n Cape .lark and the 
(lUt I..' ('iiii>^<i, (nulling ii >■ i\;\\\ liiiiliiir, (Mriipicd liy iin iii'lnstridiiN iind tliriving |>«-(i|i|(<. 
Hpre a iiimil)»'r »iC smiill ^cMsrln liavc Ucvu liiiilt, tiirrvitin (nun 15 to 50 tons. A rocky 
ledgi^ cxtfMuls outMidi' the hiirlior, in a north-wchrrly dirccfioei. 


REMARK.S.— Tlir (Jut of Canso is (ormetl t)y the Island of Hrcton on one nide, and 
by the hind of Nova Scotia on tlie other. Its length is ahimt 5 leagueH, and breadth 
more than three (piarters of a niih'. 'I'he ea.>t '; is h)w, with beadies, but the west 
shore is for the most part hJL'h and rocky ; ('!•• "orcupine heinj; remarkably so. The 
deepest water is on the western shore ; bn ores are bold to and sonnd, exreptini; 

some sunken rocks, one of which lies nei>. a . ..ole's length from the eastern shore, and 
about midway betwej^n the soulhern entrance of tlie (»iit and Ship Harbor; a second is 
between Shin HaiSorand Bear's Head, runnin<{ out nearly a cable's jenjjth from shore; 
and a third lies ol) Mear's island, aboiu 100 fathoms from the land ; the deptli of water 
over tliese rocks is about t) or H feet. Mill Creek. Oypsum or Plaster Cove, V^enus 
Creek, Ship Harbor, Holland Cove or Pilot Harbor, and Kddy Cove, alford excellent 
anchorajTfs, with a moderate depth, and out of the stream of the tide, wliich generally 
sets in from the southward, but is very irrejjular, heim; much influenced by the winds. 
After stront; N. W. winds, which happen daily diirinu the fall of the year, the water in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence is rendered low, which causes the currt iit to run northward 
through the Out, at tht rate of 4 or 5 knots, and the contrary happens after southerly 

When off Cape (Janso and bound for the Ctulf of St. Lawrence, the best passage is 
through the (tuI of Canso, being shorter, anrl having the advantage of several anchoring 
plpces, out of the strength of the tide, in case of contrary wimls or bad weather. 

CAPE ST. CiKORGE, as before observed, is a remarkable promontory, lying at the 
distance of lOV leagues to the eastward of Pictou Harbor; a course of 6 leagues, thence 
to the houth-eastward, will lead to the entrance of the Out, whence you may run along 
the Breton shore. It is to be oiiserved tliat there is a ledge of rocks, in the offing, near 
Aubushee, already notice<l ; some of these are nearly dry at low water, and nearly in the 
direct course for the (rut ; they must, of course, be carefully avoided. 

Opposite Mill Creek', at the upper end of the (lUt, on the Nova Scotia side, you may 
stop a tide or lie wind-bound, if it does not overblow. Keep the creek open, and come 
to anchor in 8 or 10 fathoms, within a cable's length of the steep rocks, on the south 
side of the creek. The best water is with the creek's mouth open. It will be ne- 
cessary to carry a hawser on shore to the rocks, to steady the ship, as the tide here 
runs in eddies. You may obtain fresh water from the creek at low water. 

Upon entering the Out, there will be seen, on the larboard hand, a red house, on a point, 
called Belie Ashe's Point, off which, at nearly a cable's length from shore, there is a 
sunken rock, which may be readily distinguished by the eddy of the tide. Within this 
point, on the S. E. is Oypsum or Plaster Cove, where shipping frequently anchor. 
When abreast of Oypsum or Plaster Cove, the remarkable headland, on the western 
side, named Cape Porcupine, will bear nearly S. W. To sail into the cove, keep nearly 
in the middle ; and, when in 10 fathoms, let go your anchor. You will find sufficient 
room for swinging round, in 7 fathoms ; here, off the western side of the cove, is the 
sunken rock said to have been discovered lately, having only 6 and 8 feet over it, and ly- 
ing about 60 fathoms off the shore ; if this information be correct, the greatest care must 
be taken to avoid it. 

SHIP HARBOR, which lies half way down the Out, on the eastern side, is a good 
harbor for merchant sliipping. It is, however, more particularly useful to those sailing 
northward, being a good outlet. It is a very proper place for ships of 16 feet draught. 
If bound in, from the southward, give the starboard side a berth of a cable's length, it 
being flat, and run in until you shut the north entrance of the Out,- and come to anchor 
in 4 or 5 fathoms, soft bottom ; where you may wood on the Breton side, and water on 
the opposite shore, at Venus' Creek ; the larboard side of this harbor is bolder to than 
the starboard side, and deepest water. Without the harbor, one third from the Breton 
s'de, you may anchor in 9, 10, to 13 fathoms, loose ground, in the strength of the tide. 

Ships bound through the Gut, from the northward, may proceed through it with 
safety, by keeping nearly in the mid-channel, there being no danger until they arrive off 
the south point, called Eddy Point; but from this point extends a long spit of sand, with 
large round stones, which must be left on the starboard side, at the distance of half a 
mile from what may be seen above water. The race of the tide will serve to guide you 
from it. Having passed the Spit of Eddy Point, you may steer to the S. S. E. until 



' Jnrk ntiH the 
liriving |))-(i|)|«>, 
tons. A rocky 

n one nido, and 
■H, nnd breiulth 
IS, hut the west 
inhly so. Tli(^ 
nnd, excepting 
tern shore, and 
or; a second is 
;th from shore ; 
(h'|)th ()( water 
r ("ove, V^enus 
ad'ord excellent 
vliich generally 
[| by the winds, 
ir, the water in 
run northward 
after southerly 

hesl passage is 
veral anchoring 

iry, 'yinp at the 
leagues, thence 
may run along 
the offing, near 
id nearly in the 

I side, you may 
)])en, and come 
, on the south 

It will be ne- 
s the tide here 

use, on a point, 
lore, there is a 
. Within this 
uently anchor, 
in the western 
ve, keep nearly 

find sufficient 
le cove, is the 
over it, and ly- 
atest care must 

side, is a good 

those sailing 
feet draught. 

ble's length, it 
ome to anchor 
and water on 
bolder to than 
m the Breton 
h of the tide, 
rough it with 
they arrive off 
t of sand, with 
ance of half a 

1 to guide yon 
S. S. E. until 

abreast of an island which appears covered with green spruce trees, having red bark. 
lleiicH you proceeil to sea, aci ording to the charts. 

Be cautious of ruiieiiii:^ in the directiitu of a dangerous steep rock, called the Oerlie- 
ru» Kock, with oidy 1(1 l<et water over it, and on which the sea breaks with a wind. 'I'liis 
rock lies with V erte or (Jreen Isl.iiid in a line with Cape Hoagais or Iron Cape, on the 
Isle of Madame, at tlKMlisfaiice of aboul 4 ', miles from that island : to clear it to the south- 
ward bring (Jreen Island open of the Albion (Mdfs; to go clear to the westward of the 
(jerberus, bring the western point of Conway Island on with Cariton CMills, bearing N. 
N. W. 

At the entrance of the (tut, within a mile of Kddy Point, there is a middle ground of 
7 to I'J fathoms, on which ships may stop a tide in moderate weather. To the west- 
ward of this ground there is a deptli of IH fathoms, and to the eastward (d' it 'JO to 2.5 
fathoms. With the wind iiic lining from the southward, steer in nearly west, and keep 
the lead goitig, until you slioalcti to 1 1 lallioms, when you may let go your anchor. 

(typsum, or Plaster ('ove, is so (valled from its valuable (piarry of gypsum, wliich ap- 
pears to be exhaustless. The anchoratie at the mouth of this cove has from 10 to 4 
fathoms; bottom of soft mii(i. Cape Porcupine, opposite to this cove, is .')()'j feet in 
heiclit, anil this is the narrowest part of the strait. On the banks of the (Jut, in general, 
the hills rise in easy acclivities, which present settlements on the whole range of the 

INHAlllTANT RAV, Arc— Those who wish to anchor in Inhabitant Bay or Har- 
bor, may bring the farm that is opposite to Hear Head open, the Head bearing W.S.W. 
This mark will lead them clear, and to the southward of the Long Ledge, and in the 
mid-channel, between it and the steep rocks on the east or opposite shore ; at the same 
time take your soundings from the liong Ledge, or north shcue, all the way till you ar- 
rive at Flat Point; then keep in mid-cliatmel between Flat Point and the island oppo- 
site, from the N. K. side of which runs off a spit or ledge of rocks, at the distance of a 
cable and a half's length; then port your helm, and run under island Point, and come 
to in 5 fathoms, muddy bottom. I'p the river Trent are jilenty of Salmon, in the sea- 
son, and there you may wood and water. 

N. H. The leading-mark to ch .,r the steep rocks of Steep Point is, to bring the penin- 
sula in a line over the point of Tiirhaltun I lead, bearing .S. nr S. }- K. tmtil you open the 
island to the northward of Islaiid Point: then haul up for the outer harbor, and come 
to in 10 or ]'i fathoms, n\U(ldy t)ott()m. 

Those who are bound up thedut of Canso, and meet a N. or N. W. wind, at the south 
end of the (Jut, and who are desirous of good and safe am horage in 10 to 12 fathoms 
water, may come to on the north side of Hear Island; but, should >* blow hard, to a gale 
of wind, down the (Jut, this anchorage is not altogether so secure s a careful master or 
pilot woubl wish. You must then leave the road of Hoar Island, at .1 sail round the south 
end of Bear Point, giving a berth to the spit that runs oli" it, of .'} caljles' length, then haul 

round to the N. K. into Sea-Coal Hay, and come to anchor, in 4, 5, or G fathoms, sandy 
and muddy bottom. There is also a rock under uater, said to lie about 100 fathoms to 

uthward of Hear Island, having oidy (> or ri feet water over it ; it will be necessary 

; this point a good berth, for fear of this danger. 

•ks for anchoring, viz: bring Hear Head in a line over Flat Head, bearing W. S. 
W. by S. and Cariton Clitls. to bear N. by F. or N. in '> or 6 fathoms, vou will 

the southward of Hear Island, having oidy (> or ri feet water over it ; it will be necessary 
to give this point a good berth, for fear of this danger. 

Marks for anchoring, viz ; 
W. or W. by S. and Cariton Clitls. to bear i\. by K. or i\. in '> or G fathoms, vou will 
then have a good berth, sheltered from ihe W. iN. W. and N. winds. Here is sufficient 
room to moor ten or twelve sail of any sliips of war, iVom the sixth to the third rate. 

The following directions are given by Captain Aldndge for vessels bound through the 
Gut when coming from the southward. We made land abreast of Richmoml or Mel- 
ville Island, on the eastern shore of t!ie en'rKUce of the (nit of Canso, keeping at the dis- 
tance of 2 miles or 1', mile from land, and sieering N. N. W. until we opened the town 
ofArachat, when hauling further to the nonhward, so as to pass between the east shore 
and the Cerberus Rock, which is nearly dry at low water, but over which the water con- 
stantly ripples ; continuing this course, and with the Red Blufi" Point bearing in that di- 
rection, we passed quite clear of that danger ; the above Red Point is the western entrance 
to the (xut of Canso, and off it there is a ledge of rocks. The marks for the Cerberus 
Rock area small round lanu "overed with trees, looking like an island, and having some 
houses behind it, on with the centre of it, bearing east, and the outer extremity of Albi- 
on's Cliffs bearing S. E. by E. you will then be abreast of the rock ; and when the church 
comes open of the point bearing east, you will be opposite its N . W. end ; by keeping a 
man at the mast head the rippling will be easily recognized, although it be nearly calm 
and the sea quite smooth ; there is no danger between it and the Red Point on the lar- 
board side, but you must give a good berth to that point which forms the entrance of the 
Gut, because of the Spit which runs off it ; and when you are well past this Spit steer 
oa mid'-'haoael through the Gut, aud you will go clear of all lianger. When yuu have 






got b«?vnn(l ('npn Porrupinp, stpcr N. N. W. nhoiit 5 lfa«uc», or unril f'apr Si. CiPorKe 
iM'ars VV. N, W.ilisf;itU 7 miles; you will ilicii iiave piiNsfd to 'In? westwanl of thp Hou- 
ilie Hank of only 2 rallioiiiN wal(*r, wliicli lies opposite to .lesiuo, and liy adopting a \. 
N. K. coiirnf, yoii will clear the vnut point of I'rinte Kdward'* l.slan<t, and l»e in a fair 
diret-tion lor the Magdalen Islnnds. 

Slii|w L-oinint; down tlie (iut of ("nnso, wiiicli may ha*e reached past Kddv Point, or 
as far as ('ape Arj;os, and caught wiiliaS. K. to a S. S. W. Wind, and cannot ludd their 
own by heatinir to windward, may hear up and t-omi; to anchor in 'riirlialton liav, under 
Turljaltoii Head, where they may ride salrly in iVom .'> to 7 fathoms water, mm'dv hot- 
t«»m. 'I'he marks lor anclioriii!,' in 'riirl)idion hay nie. to lirini; the peninsula point in a 
line over 'I'nrhallon Head, hearinij; .S. or S. \ W. or a point of land iidarid. a little up in 
the country from Cap«! Argos shore, with f)ine trees on it, open to the eastward of the 
Kcd Heail; or the said point of latid with pitio trees on it, over the pitch or point of 
Turhalton Head; you are then sheltered hy the rocks or spit that runs from Turbalton 
Head, in 4 to ft and fathoms water, and wdl ride very safely on ^ood holdint; (ground. 
But, should the wind shift to the S. W. or i\. W. you must take up your anchor and 
beat out oftiie i)ay intoC'liedehiu-to 15ay, and proceed on your passnj^e to the southward. 
Should the wind over-blow at .*^. W. so as to prevent yttur beating to windward into 
Chedebucto Hay, you may come to an anchor in Kddy (.'ove, brinf{in>{ the low part of Kd- 
dy I'oint to bear S. S. K. or S. by K. in 5, (!, or 7 fiitlionis wafer, fakin;; care to i;ive the 
ship sufficient cable, lest you drive off the iiank iiit(» deep water, from \'i to 'JO fathoms. 

TIDKS on the South Side of the (iulf of St. Lawrence. The tide rushes with creat 
rapidity throunh the (iut of ('anso: and in the nan west part of the (Jut, or (.'ape Por- 
cupine, it seldom runs at a slower rate than 4 or 6 miles in an hour. Here it Hows, on 
the full and change, at IXjh. 

Along shore, past Atibusliee and Antigonish, it sets towards Cape St. (leorge; and 
rounding that Cape, proceeds thenc<' in a north-westerly direction. On the soutli shore 
of Northumberland Strait, the time of flowing, on the full and change, is from VHlo 
Vin h. The perpendicular rise is from '.i to 7 of.ri feet. 

The tides here are very materially varied by tlie win<ls ; and it has been found that, at 
times the stream of tlic (iut of C'anso has continued to run one way for niuuy succek- 
•ive days. 


This island 'u, veil settled, and possesses a good soil, fit for all general purposes. The 
climate is commonly healthy and temperate, and not subject to such frequent and heavy 
fogs as Newfoundland, and the adjacent (Joasls of JJreton and New Brunswick generally 
are, nor yet to sudden changes of weather. The first ajipearance of the island is like 
that of a forest emerging from the sea; the red cliffs, which are not very high, then ap- 
pear; the lands are covered with lofty trees, and the sand hills on tlie northern side of 
tUe island) are covered with verdure. The country is generally level, and abounds with 
springs of fine water, and gioves of trees, which produce great quantities of excellent 
timber. The greater part ol the inhabitants are employed in farming and fishing. 

Rifleman's Shoal is situated ofl' tho south coast of the above Island, and the following 
remarks were taken at anchor in 7 fathoms, about 2.7 or .3 cables' leiigth, S. S. W. of that 
part on which the British ship Killeman grounded, vi/,. Point Prim N. N. W. -J W. 
Sooth Woody Island E. by S. .V S. a point (supposed Point Jenijings) N. ^ W. a mer- 
chant brig on shore on the Indian Rocks, bore S. E. about 3 or 4 miles distant. 

The least water found upon the shoal was 8 feet, about half a cables' length to the 
northward of where the Rifleman grounded. It appears to be a rocky shoal, of con- 
siderable extent. 

The coast forms numerous harbors, many of which are, however, fit for small vessels 
only. The principal loading ports at present are on the eastern side, Cardigan Bay, or 
the Three Rivers, and Murray Harbor; on the S. E. Hillsborough Bay and River; Be- 
deque Bay on the southern side ; and Richmond Bay and Holland Harbor on the north. 

CARDIGAN BAY, or the THREE RIVERS, lies between Boughton Island and 
Panmure Island; it is the common entrance to three rivers; namely, Cardigan River, 
Brudenell River, and Montague River. In the former there are from 7 to 3 fathoms wa- 
ter, and in the others from 4 to 2 fathoms. George Town stands on a peninsula between 
the rivers Brudenell and Cardigan. In these places many large ships have been loaded 
with timber. There is anchorage without, in Cardigan Bay, in from 10 to 15 fathoms, 
where a pilot may be obtained. 

MIRAY, or MURRAY HARBOR lies close to the north-westward of Bear Cape ; 
and the entrance is narrow and shoal, difficult of access, and not having more than 12 
feet water. But small ships have frequently loaded here. Vessels coming from the 



[)!• Sf. fipori^e 
il ol' th«' Hon- 
iiddptiriK n N. 
1(1 l)«> ill a fair 

lildy INiiiif, (ir 
mot hold ihcir 
oil itiiy, under 
r, iiim'dy liot- 
Niila |i(iiiit ill a 
, a litllc ii|> in 
istward (if tlic 
( Il or point of 
oiii Tiirbalton 
ddini; i;rouii(t. 
ir iinrlior and 
he southward, 
windward into 
low part ol' Kd- 
are to i;ivo the 
ro 'JO falhoiiis. 
ihfs with cr**at 
or ('a|)r l»or- 
;re it tluWM, uii 

, Ciporgp; and 
IP soiitii shore 
is from V'll to 

found that, at 
niuiiy Kuccett- 

irpospd. The 

ent and heavy 

vick generally 

island is like 

ligh, then ap- 

rthern side of 

abounds with 

of excellent 


the following 

S. W. of that 


\v. y w. 

a mer- 

length to the 
jhoal, of cou- 

sniall vessels 
digan Bay, or 
1 River; Be- 
on the north, 
on Island and 
rdigan River, 
fathoms wa- 
isula between 
been loaded 
15 fathoms, 

f Bear Cape ; 
nore than 12 
JDg from the 

pamward, and bound to Murray Harbor, niiist avoid approarhin;: too tuar In the eastern 
point, for a riilj;e of rockM NtrctclifM out a lull mile from it; beiween the eniit point and 
Wood iNlaiid the urouiid is clear, with a drjilli of :i fatliniiis all the way, near the slior**, 
ind the aii('liiiia::e uimmI. 

HllJiSIM)K«»l <;il IJA V is I he (liirHt liay in tlie islinul, and the lliver HilNIiorouKli 
ii4 a lar^'e iiavijL^alili' nvr ; biittiiiiiier lu-re is not pleniiliil. Alter passing the front about 
a ((uartcrol a mile, keep towards the entrance of York Kiver, for a NJioal extends from tlie 
(i|ipoHite shore to some distaiMN', and anelior nil' the town in six orei!,'!it fathonm. Ves- 
sels bound lor ('liaili)iie Town, or piissiiii; tlirou:;li Nurllimiiberlaiid Strait, must be 
careful to avoid the Indian Kot ivs, wliicli are covered at liiuli water ; and by iiii;lil il will 
ahvavH be advisalil'' In keep on the iNuva .Scoiia side, particularly « hen passm;; by the 
island of i'ictou. 

JlKUK(^l'K IiAV. which lies between Oape Iv.'iiiont and ('arlrfnn Point, has ;:;on(l 
aiichorini;;-|:rouiMl in Irotn (> to n . illioins. 'riie liarUor will admit ships of KiO tons, but 
tlie channel is narrnw, croidxcii, and riijiiirrs a pilot. It is the cliicl' port for loading 
timber: but tlie water iV-eze.s much sooner than at i'ictou, or the harltors on tlie N«iva 
.Scotia coast. 

HetweenCape F,i;nitiiit and \Ve.<t Cape, in Halifax orK','mont I'ay, tlicre is pnod anchor- 
aije with iiortlitrly an I eiisicily winds, in (> or r' l,itlioiiis, iml care must be taken to giv«» 
a good berth in \Vesf '',ipe, as a slioal runs oil' it I'lili •.» miles, in a S, W. direeiion. 

From llio *\orili ( "ape ol'tiie i-.l.iiid a siiual spits mi' ne uly J miles, close to which then) 
are 4 fathoms of water, and tin; i;round is (lat much lartlier oil', tlu re being only (> fathoms 
water at the distaiiee of-' or ') miles from tiie cape. Vessels sailing llirougli the Strait 
of Northiimlierland, \\itli liie intention o| ;:uiii<; to any port on the noriliern side of the 
island, will, alter giviir^ the .Norili Cape a wide bertii, llnd all the utlii'r pari of the const 
clear from foul ground, to within tlie distance ol a ipiarler of a mile ol'ihe land, and may 
anchor any where in not less than .'J fathoms water; and ships coming Crom the eastward, 
will find an advantage in sailing along the iioiMiern shore of the island, to going through 
the Strait of iNortliumberland. lor there is more sea room, and the prcvr.iling winds are 
from the S. Westward; tliev may safely niii along within a mile of the shore, until tjjtey 
approach Richm(,iid J>ay. There is a reel exieinling I'lom the east poirtt of the isliind to 
the distance of .3 or I miles, and which should not be approached in the night neater than 
to the depth «»f 17 or IS fathoms. The only liarliore on the north side of the island, for 
ships of large luirtheii, are H(dlaii(i llarlior and Jtieliiiioiid I'ay; and olf these harbors, 
the sand banks, whicli form the bars, run oil niiire tliaii a mile from the shore. , 

ST. PETKli'.S is the ihsi harbor on the iiorlli snle, when coming from the eastward, 
and is fit for small vessels only. The bar runs out about a (piarter of a mile. 

Savage Harbor is (if oiilv for small cral't, and has a liar before it. 

TRACADIK. or r.l". i)l''()llD iJAY, has about 6 or 10 feet of water on the bar, which 
extends outward half a mile. 

HARRIN(iT()N, or LITTLE RASTICO, admits only small vessels; it coinmu- 
nicates with Great Rastiro or Harris ]]ay, whicli is very shallow on the bar, and calculat- 
ed to admit fishery schooners only. — The bar stretches olf n-arly li;<lf a mile. ' 

NEW LONDON, or CRHNVILLE IJA V, has about h or in feet of water, but the 
bar is very difficult, and the channel runs in west. Tlie bar extends nearly half a mile out. 

RICHMOND \\.\ Y, in- M ALPEC!, is a spacious harbor, having about 17 or 18 feet 
upon the bar. The sands wliich form tlie bar extend more than a mile ofl'tlie harbor. 
The shoals on each side are generally discernible from the swell on them, and the course 
in and out is nearly east and west. On a vessel's anchorin": outside the bar a pilot will 
come oft'. There are twfi entrances into the bay ; between tiiem is Eishery island. The 
.«astern is the only cliannel by which a vessel of burthen can enter; the western channel 
being very shallow and intricate. Vessels usually complete their landing at about a mile 
within Fishery Island, but a considerable current runs there. The anchorage is good, 
and vessels lay in jierfect safcrv. 

HOLLAND HARBOR, or CASCUMPEC, is the westernmost harbor on tlie north 
side. Here the sands form a bar as ;it Richmond Ray, and run oil' about a mile and a 
half. The harbor may easily be known by the sand hills which extend along the coast; 
about half-way between the entrance of Richmond Hay and Holland Harbor, is one san(i 
hill, near Conway Inlet, much higher than the rest. Holland Bay may be known by its 
being at the west end of all the range of sand hills. There is good anchorage close to 
the bar in from 5 to 8 fathoms. 

On the bar is a depth of 18 feet of water, and It will not be difticult for a stranger to run 
in with a ohip not drawing more than 12 feet of water. There being two leading marks, , 
painted white, bearing W. by N. by compass, a vessel of this draft, by keeping the two 
marks in one, with a leading wind, may run in with perfect safety. But as these marks 
will carry a vessel over the south tail of the northern sand, vessels drawing more than 19 






feet should not venture without a pilot. There is a buoy on the end of the south sand; 
between that and tin; '• 1 of the north shoal there is 18 feet of water. Vessels enterio^ 
tho poit, if drawing; -c than 12 feet of water, should not brini; the marks in one till 
they are within the buj . The soundings off the harbor are rei!;ular, and the ground clear. 
Ships on cij iiinsj; to anehor off the bar, will immediately bo attended by a pilot. 

There is ahoaler water between the outer and inner harbor, on which is about 14 feet 
of water in common tides. Vessels generally load to 13 feet in the inner harbor, and 
complete their cargoes in the outer one. In the former, they lie alongside a wharf at 
Hill's Town, in 4 fathoms water, where they lie witliout any current, as in a dock. In 
the outer harl)or the spring tide runs strongly, but the water is smooth, the sta bein" 
broken oft' by the bar. 

The CUlvRKNTS around the island are very inegular, frequently running many 
days along tlie norrh coast, from east to west, and at other times from west to east. 

The T^J^l'^^t 'dso, in tlie north side ports, are irregular, excepting spring tides. 
They sometimes keep .'lowing for 48 hours, and at other times not u^ore than 3. In com- 
mon tides, the water seldom rises more than two feet; in sprii.g tides, (except in strong 
winds from the northward and eastward,) uot more than five feet. 


The N. W. Coast of llroton Island, all along from Cape North to Cape Linzee, is, in 
the inland parts of tin; fountry. very high; but, in some places, it falls down gradually 
towards the shore. Sailing along on this sitie of the island, from the northward, you 
may safely stand in to the distance of two leagues from shore, until you arrive otf Justau 
Corp or Henry Isla;ul, when you may stand within one mile of the shore. 
' ' In the winter season, Alien the weather is mild, tho S. E., N. E. and N. W. shores ol 
Breton Island alxmiut with all sorts of fish; and |)leiity of lobsters and oysters are to be 
found towarrds Prince Edward Island, especially in Hillsborough Bay. 

The Eastern exniMnity of Breton Islanrl apiiears, on the sea shore, and to some dis- 
tatfDe up the coiiuiry, barren and rocky; and the tops of tho hills, being much alike, 
have noching remavkalilo to distinguidi them. The rn-ns of the lighthouse and town of 
Louisbourg serve, however, to point out that part of the island on which they stand, 
The coast continues rocky on the shore, with a few banks of red earth, which appear 
less barren. 

The N. E. Coast of Breton Island, from Cape North to Cape Ensume, the water is 
deep, except very near the shore. From Cape Ensume to Cape Dauphin is high land, 
but from Cape Dauphin to Scatara Island it becomes rather low : between Port St. Anne 
and Scatara Island, a vcsstd may st..nd in shore to 15, 10, an<l 5 fathoms, in clear wea- 
ther, the water gradually decreasing in depth. The following soundings were taken by 
Capt. Philip Aldridgo, on making Cape North : 

O ' o / 

Latitude iG 50 Longitude 5'J 5(J 9"2 fathoms, black mud. 

4b 57 5!) 57 85 ditto, ditto. 

47 1 58 5') 95 ditto, rocky bottom. 

47 10 58 47 100 ditto, small red stones. 

BLANCHEROTTE, or WHITE CLIFF.— On the south coast of Breton is a re- 
markable clilf of whitish earth. Four niilcs to the westward of it is a small woody isl- 
and, lying at the distance of two miles from sliorc, and olf the little harbor called St. Es- 
prit. Without this island, at the distance of a mib' and a half, on the S. E. is a breaker. 

The land hence to the Isb? of Madame, or Richmond, is generally low : it presents 
several banks of briglit red earth, with beaches between them. Albion Clift", on the south 
side of Madame, is rocky, remarkably high and precipitous. On the S W. side of this 
island is the settloiuent called Arachat. 

In the descrijition of the (iut of Canso, already given, (page 94,) we have noticed the 
general appearance of its coasts. On' proceeding towards this strait, it should be reniyrk- 
ed that the Isles of Canso, on the Nova Scotia side, are surrounded with many low white 
rocks and breakers. The south shore of Chedabucto Bay is iron-bound and steop to ; 
its north shore consists of red cliifs and beaches. 

Off the Cut of Canso, from the southern entrance northward, the western shore, 
throughout, is high, rocky, and steep; the eastern shore low, with beaches. From th? 
north end of the Cut, the eastern shore to .lestico, or Port Hood, is distinguished by 
high, rocky, red cliffs. The opposite shore has several remarkable cliffs of gypsum, or 
plaster, which appear extremely white. Cape St. George is iron-bouud and very high, 
its summit being 420 feet above the level of the sea. 



r the 3ou(h sand ; 
Vessels enterinj; 
marks in one till 
the ground clear. 
r a pilot. 
1 is aboDt 14 feet 
iner harbor, and 
igside a wharf at 
IS in a dock. In 
th, the Bta bein" 

\y running many 
west to east, 
iug spring tides, 
■han 3. In com- 
(except in strong 

ISLAND, &c. 

pc Linzee, is, in 
I down gradually 
northward, you 
arrive off Justau 

N. W. shores of 
oysters are to be 

md to some dis- 
cing much alike, 
)use and town of 
liich they stand, 
1, which appear 

me, the wafer is 
lin is high land, 
n Port St. Anne 
IS, in clear wea- 
s were taken by 


Breton 13 a re- 
mall woody isl- 
r called St. Es- 
E. is a breaker, 
ow : it presents 
ff, on the south 
W. side of this 

ave noticed the 
)uld be remtirk- 
nany low white 
I and steep to ; 

western shore, 
es. Fromth5 
stinguished by 
of gypsum, or 
and Yery high. 

JESTICO, or PORT HOOD, situate on the western side of IJreton Island, is a safe 
harbor for frigates with any wind; the imchorage is in from 4 to o fathoms, mud and 
sandy bottom : liere you may get both wood and water. The leading mark going in is, 
Cape Linzee on with the highest sand hills that are on the N. N. E. side of the beach, 
bearing N. by E. or N. N. E. ; these kept in a line will lead you clear of Spithead, in 4 
to 6 fathoms. On the opposite biiore is a long and broad flat, stretching from tlie shore 
three quarters of a mile, called the Dean, to which come no nearer tliun in 4 fathoms. 
KVom hence the shore runs nearly in a straight N. E. direction to C!a|)e St. Laurent, 
whence it turns easterly to Cape North: during the wliole of this distance there is no 
harbor of note, but several salmon rivers. To the southward of Cape North four or five 
miles is Ashpee Harbor, where there is a settlement formed for the relief of shipwrecked 
seamen, and to the southward of that, about 30 miles, is the entrance to St. Anne's Harbor. 

ST. ANNE'S HARJJOR, situate on the N. E. side of the island, was called by the 
French, when in their possession. Port Dauphin, and is a very safe and spacious harbor. 
It has but a narrow entrance, and carries 4. V fathoms at low water, until you join the 
beach. When in mid-channel, you will have 9 to in fathoms, and in the harbor from 5 
to 10 fathoms, muddy bottom. On the north side the land is very high, and sliipr- of war 
may lie so near to the shore, that a water hose may reach the frc^di water, and a ship may 
be loaded in one day, from a cascad.-i which runs from the top of the rock. 

For more particular directions for St. Anne's Harbor, you will observe as follows:— 
After you have i)assed the Sihoux or Hertford Isles, on the cast side of tlie entrance, 
keep the south shore on board, if the wind be to the S. E. and as you approach Passage 
Point, bring Cape Ensume, or Cape Smoke, which lies to the norlliward, nearly on 
with Black Point : steer with these marks in one, until you are nearly abreast of Passage 
Point, ofl' which lies a sunken rock of 6 feet water, and op|)osite to which begins the spit 
fif St. Anne's Flat, and the narrowest ])art of the channel. Now keej) a small hummock 
up in the country, nearest to the shelving high land to the westward of it ; which hum* 
mock is on the middle land from the water-side, in a line over the (ishing-hut, or fishing- 
stage erected on the beacdi : this will lead in the best water, until you enter the^|l)ow 
A i)art of the beach. When advanced thus far in, keep the opening open, (aboiit the'siz^ 
of two gun-ports,) which makes its aiijjearance up the S. W. ann. This opening IdtJks 
like two steep chtVs, with the sky appearin.; between them, aiid will lead you between the 
beach and the south shore, in mid-channel, through *J ant! 10 fithoms, and past the beach 
point, off which a si)it stretches to the .S. W. about "J cables" length. Having passed 
this spit, come to anchor in either side of the harbor in from 5 to 10 fathoms, nmddy bot- 
tom, and sheltered from all winds. 

LA BRAS D'OR. — 'J'liis pla e ins liitherto rem linod unknown, and unfrequented, 
but having recently been visited by many vessels in the timber trade, some description 
may be acceptable. It aj)pe us, from the charts, there are two entrances to this lake or 
inlet, the North-jrn, or fhcal Entrance, and the Southern, or Little Entrance; they are 
thus described by Mr. '^J'homas Kelly, the only ])ilot of the ])lace ; but the names of the 
places he refers to are generally unknown, and cannot be aiiplied to any publication 

SaHinn- Directions for iJie G rand liras d'Or Entranc<\ — " Ship* from the southward 
must give Point le Couie a berth (/f about two miles, and steer from thence for the east- 
ern end of the inside Bird Island, until you bring M'Kenzie I'oiiii and Cary's Beach in 
one. Make for the 15lack Rock Point until you have Messrs. Dull'us's Store just open of 
Point Noir ; then steer for GoosebiMiy Beacli, until you briii; a clearing on Duncan's 
Head over M'Ktnzie's Point. It is to be observed, that ships coming in with the tide of 
flood must keep Point Noir well alioard, to avoid the eddy and whirlpools on the north 
I side of the Gut, which has various settiiitrs. Vou must then steer for I'oint Jane, to 

keep the fair stream of tide as far as the Round Cove, where there is fair aiicliorage in 7 
or 8 fathoms, good holding cr um I. When a!)reast of the Bound (Jove, steer over for 
Duncan's Head; iiiid when abreast of this Head, stCL^r for Long Beach, until you bring 
a tall ])ine-tree, on the Upi)cr Seal Island, in one with a notch or valley in the mountain. 
You will then make f)r the i)oiiit of the Upper Seal Island, which will carry you clear 
of the slioals on the islands, as also the South Shoal, or Middle (iroiiiid. Tlie marks 
for this shoal are a white rock in the bank for the eastern end, and a white birch-tree for 
the western end. When abreast the western end of this shoal you may keep tlie middle, 
there being no difticulty until you come to Red Head. If boniid to lu'iit Harbor, after 
doubling tlie Ked Head, steer for a rcmarkalile red bank covered with small bushes, until 
you bring Mr. Ihilfiis's house entirely open of the beach which is on tin' Island : there is 
a depth of from 4 to 5 fathoms in this harbor, and good holding ground." 

Directions for that annoflkr L'lhr colkil St. Patrick's Chaiintl and up to Whookamnsh. 
— " From Red Head you will steer well over for the Duke of Kent's Island, to avoid a mud 




shoiil which runs ofT from M'Kay's Point. When abreast of the western end of the Bukc 
of Kent's Island, sail for Wassahack Head until al)rtrast of Stony Island. Then steer 
for Cranberry Head, so as to clear a shoal lying off from Wassaback Head ; when abreast 
of Cranberry Point, sheer well over for the JJell Hock, to avoid a shoal lying on the south 
side of the chaiuiel ; wiicn aljreast of tiie J5ell Hock, ste<rfor Green Beach, observing to 
keep Bakdock River shut in until you are well up witli Green Beach. You will then 
steer for a beach on the south shore, until you cross the opening of tlie Narrows; you 
niay then sail through the Narrows, keeping the middle until you conic to the western 
end, when you must haul round the southern shore (l)each) until abreast of the Plaister 
Cliffs; you are then clearofall, and in the Whookainagh Lake." 

Of the Anvlwnnxc throu}j;h the Bras d'Or. — ''The fu'st anchorage is the Round Cove, 
where you may ride in 7 or 8 fathoms. You may anchor in 5 or 6 fathoms, in the cen- 
tre of the harbor, on a middle ground ; the marks fur which arc to bring the Table Island 
u handspike's length open of IJlack Rock Point and Point Jane bearing N. W. On the 
north side of the harbor tliere is good anchorage as far up as the Lower Seal Islands, and 
to the eastward of the Upper Seal Islands, in 5 fathoms, and to the westward of the same 
islands in 7 fathoms. There is no other place of aiicliorage from this to the Big Harbor, 
where you may ride in 7 or 6 fathoms; from thence you may anchor at any time." 

Setting of the Tide in Grand Jhi/sfl' Or. — "The tirst quarter Hood sets from the north- 
ward, directly over the shoal ; last quarter W. S. W. being directly through the channel, 
and meeting with the tide coming over the shoal, sets towards the Black Point which 
occasions it to shoot across the (Jut, nr.tking a niuuber of whirlpools and strong eddies 
on each side of the cliannel, which slacks two or three times during the tide. The first 
quarter ebb sets over the slioal to the northward ; last quarter directly through the chan- 
nel. — N.. B. The tide of ebb is the fairest setting tide. The tide runs in until half-ebb, 
and out until hah'-llood, in regular tides; but the winds make a great alteration, N. E. 
winds making h'gli tides, and S. W. neajnug them ; also tides running out with S. W. 
winds until high water, and in until low water with N. E. winds. Tides rise four feet, 
unless affectdid. by winds. High water ten minutes past 8 o'clock, full and change." 

SYDNEY ¥lARBUR. the entrance to which lies 4 leagues to the S. E. of that of 
St. Anne, is another excellent harbor, having a safe and secure entrance, with soundings 
re^gular, from sea into 5 fathoms. On a low pr/mt wliich you leavt; on the larboard hand 
going in, a Lighthouse is erected showing a fixed light, elevated IGO feet above the level 
of the sea. 

Entering the harbor, give the point a berth of one-third of a mUe, and steer W. S. W. 
when you will have from 7 to 'J fathoms water ; within the point the shore is bold and 
perfectly safe. 

In the inner part of the entrance. Beach Point and Ledge, on the south side, are steep 
to, but Sydney Flats, on the opjiosite side, are regular to 4 fathoms. When past the 
Beach Point, you may run up the river Dartmouth to the S. W. and come to anchor in 
any depth you please, to 5 and 10 fathoms, a fme nmddy bottom. 

The harbor of North Sydney, wh.'re the vessels arc loaded with coal by lighters, lies 
9 miles above the Lighthouse on the north sidt; of the river. The coal is obtained three 
miles above the Lighthouse, on the same side of the river as the town. There is a 
Steam Engine at the Coal 31ines, with three very tall chimneys, the smoke of which can 
be seen 8 or 9 miles at sea on a clear day. The tide in the harbor flows at 9h. and rises 
6 feet. 

West of Sydney Harbor are Indian Bay and Windham River, both places of anchor- 
age, and fit for vessels to rim into, altiiouiih little frecjuented at present ; beyond these is 
Murgain or Cow Bay, at the northern jjoiut of which is Flint Island; there is a passage 
between this Islaiul and the main, with 14 fathoms water, but this sh<juld be adopted 
with the greatest caution, on account of the mnnerous rocks under water that are scat- 
tered about: this Bay is open to ilie iiDrtli-eastward, and its further end is encundjcrod 
with an extensive shallow flat, whicli dries at low water. 

Miray Bay is to the southward, and its entrance is boimded by C'ape Murgain and the 
Island of Scatara; the Bay is wide, and runs in 3 Icaiiues, branching off at its Upper part 
into two rivers; there is dee]) water witjiin it, from 20 to G fathoms, and clear from dan- 
gers, but it affords no shelter for shij)ping. 

SCATARA ISLAND lies in about the latitude of 4fi° North ; its length E. and W. 
is nearly 2 leagues, and its breat'fh about one ; it is separated from Cape Breton by a 
( hannel into Miray Bay, but this is too hazardous for strangers, and freiiuented only by 
those coasters who are well acquainted with its dangers. 

As vessels from Europe frequently first make the land about Scatara Island, it may be 
useful to give the following observations, conununicated by Captain Philip Ahhidge, who 
says, "I am of opinion the Banquereau Bank is laid down somewhat too far to the east- 



ward in the rliaits, for on my p;\.ssi(c;e to Quebec, in 1823, I found no bottom with BO 
fiithonis, where oO Tttlioms is liiid down • and with latitude 44^ 44', and lon£;itude 57°, 
the longitude well corrected andascertainw.V there was no ground at 80 fathoms ; and in 

O ' o ' 

Latitude 44 3G Lonj^itude 57 34 no ground with 80 fathoms. 

■ — 45 (J i)f^ 'JO 20 fathoms, white sand and stones. 

45 6 5d 24. ....... .22 ditto, sand and pieces of shells. 

45 13 58 2'J. . . k 30 ditto, rocky ground. 

J5 26 58 30. ...... . .no ground with 80 fathoms. 

We made the Island of Scntara in the evening, during a fog, and saw great quantities of 
gaimcts. who vcrv .seldom llv far from the land." 

LUL'lSlJOrMUr HAlllVoil is .situated on the S. E. side of Cape Breton, to the 
westward of .Scatara Island, and is very easy of access; you may be soon in, and you 
may likewise be soon out, if you please. In doing so be careful to avoid the Nag's Head, 
a sunken rock nn the starboard liand going in. The east part of the harbor is the safest. 
On the east head, and oi. the site of the old French Lighthouse, a White Beacon has 
been erected; it may l)e scon some distance. Tlie inhabitaiitsconsist of a few fishermen 
(jnly. Water is plenty liere, but wood is scarce. The Nag's Head Rock lies nearly 
one-third from tlie lighthouse point, and has no more than 3 feet on it at low water. 
The larboard side going in is the boldest. 

GABARUS BAY. — From the entrance of Louisbourg to Guion Isle, called also 
Portland Tsl(>. the course is .S. W. I)y W. and the distance moi'o than 3 leagues. Be-* 
tween lies the l)ay called (iaburus Bay, which is spacious, and has a depth of from 20 to 
7 fathoms. Off tiui south point of this bay, called Cape Portland, lie the Cormorants, a 
number (jf islets and rocks, which are dangerous. About 4 leagues to the westward of Ga- 
oarusBay is tbe l'':jrke(l Harbor, a narrow winding iidet, where small vessels mayrunintO» 
and lie landlocked. .\nd (ivc miles 8. Westward of this is the remarkable white cliff, al- 
ready noticed, lad called Caj)e iJlancherotte. The shore now winds to the westward, to 
Cape liinchinbroke and the Isle of Madame. • 

Arachat llarljor has two entrances; the north-western one, being Very narrow, ought 
never to i)e atteuiptcil without a leading wind, as there is nf)t room for a large ship to 
swing to her auchors, sliould she be tal;en aback. When going in, give the led^, to the 
westward of Seymoiu' Island, a good berth, not ajiproaching it nearer than 8 fathoms, 
and keep as near as possible in mid-channel, to enur by the South-Eastern passage steer - 
for Port Maraclie, rouniiinsj; it in 8 fathoms at about two cables' length off, and keep that 
shore on board at neatly the same distance and depth of water until the church bears 
north ; you will then see a small house (the dead house) on the top of the hill behind 
the church ; bring that on with the east end of the church, and then steer in that direc- 
tion ; you will thus pass mid-way to the eastward of the Eleven and Five Feet Shoals« 
and als'i to the westward of the Fiddle-head Slioal ; proceed with this mark on, until a 
red house on Fiddle-hoad PoiiU coiii(>s on with the dark rocky extreme of the point, 
bearing E. i S. ; you will then be to the northward of the Twelve Feet Shoal, and may 
haul up to the westward, where you will liave excellent anchorage on fine soft mud, o}*- 
posite to the low sandy beaeli, mi the middle of Seymour Island, in 10 fathoms. 

Fox Island .\nchorage is one of the greatest mackerel fisheries in Nortii America, 
during the motiliis of September and October. When sailing in you must pass to the 
westward of Fox Island, uiviiig it a berth of a (juarter of a mile, as there are rocks both 
above and under water, with .'J and 4 fathoms close to them. You may anchor in from 
4 to 10 fathoms, with the west end of the Island bearing frou) E. N. E. to N. N. E, keep- 
ing about midway between the island and the main. The water shoals gradually to the 
bar, which extends from the island to the opposite shore; it has not more than 6 or 7 
feet on its deepest part, and dries in one place about one-third ol' the distance from the 
islanil to the main ; with northerly and with westerly winds, the fishing vessels ride to the 
eastward of it in (Vom two to foiu' fathoms, and shift to the westward with easterly winds. 

At Milford Haven, it is high water full and change at 8', h. and the conuuon spring 
tides rise 8 feet. At llu? Day of Roeks at 8[ h. rising 7 and 8 teet, and, at the Gut of 
Cunso, at 8,^ h. eommon spring tides rising 51 feet. 

To clear "the ('erberus Itock to the westward, bring Arachat Church open of the west 
end of Seymour Island. To clear it to tlie southward, bring Bear Island just to touch 
Edily Point : (ireen Island in a line with Point Pogan will lead directly upon it. 

CHEDABUCTO BAV is wide and s])acious; it is bold toon both shores, and free 
from danger ; on its southern side, which is high and nearly straight, of Fo.x's Island and 
Crow Harbor. Fox Island is small, and lies near the shore. 

CROW HARBOR is situated on the south side of Chedabucto Bay, and is capable 
of containing ships of war of the 0th and- 5th rates, merchant ships, &c. Many schoon- 


"WPM^P— •- 



ers and sloops resort here in the months of July and Aiigtist, to take mackerel and her- 
rings. The passage in is to the S. W. of tlie Jsland tliat lies in the entrance. (Jn the 
south side of the beach, a beacon is erected, to lead ships clear of the t'orhyn Hocks. 
Keep this beacon in a line with a remarkable tree upon the high land, and it will lead 
you also clear of the Hook Island liock, that lies Mo fathoms from the N. W. j)oiut of 
Hook Island. 

MILFORD HAVEN, or the Harbor of Guysborough, at tlie head of the IJay, is im- 
peded by a bar, but a sloop of war may pass over it. Within the bar vessels lie in j'cr- 
tect security ; the tide, however, sets in and out with great rai)i(iity. 'J'hc town is at 
present a place of little trade ; Init it is protected by a battery. A little to the south- 
ward of Guysborough is Salmon liiver, which rises a considerable way up the country, 
and contributes to fertilize an extensive tract of good land. From Manchester round 
the north shore of Cliedabucto Day ihesliorcs are full of settlements, and wear a pleasing 
aspect, and on the northern side of Cliedabucto l>ay you will see several red ciifis ; this 
shore is sandy, with regular soundings in the middle of the Day ; the water is deep, from 
25 to 35, (fee. to 50 fathoms. 

^ :H 



DESCRIPTION OF THE LAND.— The eastern part of Nova Scotia is broken 
into thesevecat'islands and passages as r('])rc.sented on the ('harts. Of the islands, which 
are low and covered with stunted fir-tic.'s, the/irst on the N. E. is called Durell's Isl- 
and, the secoftd George's I«:land, and the third, Caiiso or St. Andrew's Island ; outside 
this latter Island is the smalle;- one, called Cranberry Island, which is now distinguished 
*^by the liglithouse below described.* 

:', CAPE CANSO is the outer, i/r easternmost point of St. Andrew's Island. From 
this Cape, westward, to Torbay, the coiist makes in several wliite heads or points ; here 
the country is much broken ; and near the S. E. extremity many \vhit<i stones appear 
from the offing, hke slice]) in the woods. During a southerly gale the sea is dreadful 
here. From Torbay to Liscombe Harbor there are banks of red earth and beaches; 
and from Liscombe Harbor to the liugged Islands, (excei'ting the White Isles, 
which are white rocks,) the Capes and Outer Islands are bound with black slaty rocks, 
generally stretching out in spits from east to west: and from the Rugged Islands to 
JDevil's Island, at the entrance of the Harbor of Halifax, there are several remarkably 
steep red cliiTs, linked with beach. 

The fishermen of Arachat are w ell acquainted with the channels and inlets on 'his coast, 
and frequent them, more ])articularly in the spring and fall, to catch mackerel and her- 
rings, of which large slioals commonly lesort here ; but the rocks are so numerou.*, and 
the passages so devious, that no stranger should attempt them. 

Of the many rocks lieieabout, the outer lireaker called the Jlass, a rock of 3 feet water, 
lies more than two miles E. ^V »5. from the lighthouse on Cranlieny Island. At seven- 
tenths of a mile S. E. from Cape Canso is a similar rock, called the Roaring Bull ; and, 
at one mile to the E. S. E. of the latter, there is said to be another, discovered by a 
fisherman of Canso, in IHITJ; but its existence seems to l)e (|ucsti(inable. 

CANSO HARBOR. — Sailing from the westward into this harbor, .';o soon as you iiave 
passed the Roaring Bull, over which the sea generally breaks, run for Pitipas or Ikcd 
Head, taking care when above the Black Rocks, to keep thein open of the rocky islets 
off Cape Canso, until you bring (ilas::{)w Head and the north end of Inner Island in one, 
which will carry you above Man of War Ro.*k ; then steer westerly, being careful to 
uToid Mackerel Rock, and make for ]>nryiiig Island, the north end of which you must 
not approac h nearer than to have a depth of five fathoms; then anchor to the north- 
westward of it on a bottom of mud. 

" Ncartliis Cape a new lichllioiiso has been erected on Cranl)crry I?lnnd, and calcuiatrd to be 
of mostcasentia! service to iiiarincrs win frequent diis dangrrous const, but more ])nrticularly those 
who intend passinjr llirougli the (Jut of Cnnso. It lins been observed that t'u- (iut of Canso will, by 
tlipse means, becoine the common thorourrhfare to the (nilf and River of St. Lawrence, and tend to 
Aiitigatc ihe inconvenience an i rigors of a late or cailj' passage to (Quebec, &€. 



St. Andrew's Passa::5e, le;i(!in;T to Glasgow Harbor, being so thickly encumbered with 
rocks, can only be navigated by those who are well acquainted with its dangers. 

Coming t'roui the eastward pass between Cape Canso and Cranberry Island ; giving the 
latter a sufficient berth to avoid a shoal which stretches to the southward of it, and steer 
for Piti[ .;s Head, as before directed. The Northern Passage, between Durell's and 
George's Islands, notwithstanding its narrowness, yet having a depth of water, and a clear 
channel, will be found to be the best passage. In sailing in, keep mid-channel between 
Bald and Net Rocks, the former beiug above water, and the latter drying at onequirter 
ebb, when you may steer with safety by attending to the chart, and the situation of Bury- 
ing Island. At Cape Canso it is high water full and change at 50 minutes after 8 o'clock, 
and the tides rise from 5 to 8 feet. 

DOVE II BAY is a wild deep indent, with a number of islands and sunken rocks a\ its 
head ; yet shelter may be tound on the western shore, or during a south-east gale, by 
giving a berth to the rocks that lie olf tlie south end of Big Dover Island ; these are verj 
visible in bad weather ; haul up under the Island, and anchor between the small islands 
on the eastern side ; within these 'slands Little D(jver passage continues out south-east- 
ward, having 5, 6, and 7 fathoms water, and tpiite safe. 

Eastward of Little Dover is St. Andrew's Cliannel, for which no directions can be 
given, for even those who are well accpuiinted witli the navigation, cannot keep themselves 
clear of the rocks. This channel leads to Glasgow Harbor, which is, in fact, a part of 
Canso Harbor. 

These jjlaces, says Mr. Lockwood, deserve notice, as they may afford shelter in cases 
of emergency, and in war time are nests for privittters; while from the heights adjacent 
may be had an extensive view of whatever passes in the offing. 

RASPBHRUY HARBOR is to (he westward of that of Canso, or Port Glasgow: it 
is small, and the shore is within quite bold. At tlio entrance, on the eastern side, is aQ 
island, having a ledge close to it on the S. E. l>y rounding this ledge, you may steer 
directly into the harbor, and come to an anchor uii(Ii'r the island which lies in the middle 
of it, in the depth of 7 tatlioms, where you will ritlo safely. The country here is rockj 
and barren, and there is a quarry of granite, niiuh in request for millstones. The outlet 
between Raspberry Island and the main, is a complete dock, where vessels can lash them' 
selves to both shores, and ride in .'50 feet water; but half way through it has only 10 feet. 

WHITE HAVEN, which is two leagues to the westward of Raspberry Harbor, is a' 
place of hideous aspect. Of its roicky islets, the larger and outer one, called White Head, 
from the color of its sides, is 70 feet above the level of the sea. This islet appe'ars round 
and smooth, and is a useful mark, as the passage in, on either side, is in mid-channel, 
not dilTicult to navigate, and the anchorage is good throughout, in a muddy bottom. Off 
the head are two breakers, one S. S. E. and the other E. by^. half a mile off. 

TORB AY. — The entrance of this bay is formed on the west by a bold headland, called 
Berry Head. The channel in. is between this head and the islands to the eastward. E. 
S. E. from the head, and south of George's Island, are three very dangerous rocks, which 
do not break when the sea is smooth. Within the bay, under the western peninsula, there 
is excellent anchorage in from 6 to 4 fathoms, iuddy bottom, up to the eastern par^ of 
the bay, there is also anchorage on the western side of the bay in from 7 to 3 fathoms, 
similar ground, where a vessel may |-e in safety during any gale. The adjacent lands are 
rocky, but vessels are built here of from 40 to IJO tons, which are employed in the fish- 

The principal dangers to be avoided in entering, are the small sunken rocks in the 
offing, which in smooth water do not break ; they should be left to the eastward. Within 
the bay the anchorage is excellent in a luuddy bottom, with the exception of a few spots 
of rocks, sheltered from every wind. 

Tufhiui to Countr)j Harbor. — From Torbay, westward, to Country Harbor, the land, in 
general, continues rocky and sterile, with deep water close in, but regular soundings with- 
out, and from 30 to 20 fathoms of water. 

Coddle's Harbor, which is o\ leagues to the westward of Berry Head, affords shelter 
to small vessels only; and these enter on the eastern side, to clear the breakers. There 
is a deep inlet called New Harbor, which lies al)out 7 miles from the islands, and connected 
with a chain of extensive lakes, but its navigation is obstructed by a bar across its en- 
traiice ; and it is open to southerly winds. 

Nr]\V HARBOR. — This ])lace is so much exposed, that even small vessels which 
occasionally resort there in the fishing season, are under the necessity of leaving it the 
moment a southerly wind arises. 

Inland Harbor lies between Harbor Island and the main, and affords excellent anchor- 
age on a bottom of mud ; it is particularly convenient for going to sea with almost any 





Isaac's Harbor is on iiw north-east side of Country Harl)or, and liiis ^ood holding 
ground, with snllicicnt depth of water for any vessel. Between Isaac Harbor and Har- 
bor I'oint, the jjronnd is fonl and rocky. 

CUUiNTRV llAKliUJi.— The tine Ijarbor, called Country Ilariuir, is navi^al.le f„i 
the largest ships, twelve miles imni its entrance. It is, at |)resent. but thinly settled, 
yet there are reasons for believing that, in consecpu'nce of improvements in the neiglibor- 
hood, the population will s])e(Miily increase. The shores an; bold ; the anclim'au'e soft 
inud, .vith a deiith of l.'3 to ■") fathoms. iMr. Lorh-icno'l has said that. " iki i)(isiti(m in the 
prov tice is more advantageous (or settlers than this linrlior: at its mouth tlic isbuids af- 
ford shelter to <isherme;i and small vessels, as well as tiie means of erecting their stages ; 
and tlie fishing grounds, at a short distance in the ofling, abound in halibut, haddock, cod, 
and what they term the i)ait-tishery ; that is, mackerel, gaspereaux, snu-lls. iVc. Salmon 
•fire plentiful in the., season ; and, but for the inipi-ovident use of iliis v.duaijle addition 
to the means of subsistence, would continue for ages." 'i"he ledges olf tiie harbor gene- 
rally break, and between them are deep passages. On advancing from the eastward, 
there are two rocks to lie avoided, wliich lie as shown on the Charts; proceeding inward, 
you should give (ireen [slaiid a small b(Tth, and the dangers on that sidt; will be avoidt'd. 
The rocks on the west id' the entrance, iiameil Castor and i'ldlux, are ai)ove water and 
bold to. When abce them give Cape Mocodaine a good Ijeiili, so as to avoid th(.' J>ull, 
a dangerous sunken rock, that breaks in rough weather, and lies about half a mile from 
LS'l the extremity of the cape. The black rocks arc i)artly dry, and from them ujjwards. 

there is no danger, and the anchorage is good. N'essels entering this liarbor, nmst use 
the utmost caution in steering between tlie ledges and nicks which are scattered about ; 
fortunately they commonly sliow themselves whenever tlicre hajfpi'ns to be any st-a. tiiis 
will render the entrance less difhcult ; but Iraving i)asscd the Black Ledge, wliicii is th'; 
innernvosf danger, the navigation will be perfectly safe, for the hn-gest fleet. The tide is 
scarcely td be perceived, except when in the spring the ice and snow dissolves, and heavy 
rains are prevalent, At the entrance of Country Harbor, it is high water on lull and 
change at,8 h. 4Q nj. Tides rise from 6 to 9 feet. 

Fishemuin^s Herrbor. — In entering tliis place between Cape Mocodame and the Black 
X^edge, great care must always be taken, in order to avoid the Bull Rfick, which dries at 
low watei'.'but is Covered at high water, and ( ly breaks when the weather is bad. 

HARBOR ISLAND.— -The Islands on tne oast side of the entrance. Green Island, 
Goose Island, and Harbor Island, or the William and Augustus Islands of Des Barres, 
^re low and covered with scrubby trees. Within Harbor Island is excellent anchorage. 

BICKEJRTON HARBOR, to the west of Fisherman's Harbor, is fit for small vessels 
only., At two mi4es to the west of it is Holhn's Harbor, a ])lace of shelter for coasters, 
and resorted to by the fishermen. Indian H-.rbnr is a shallow and unsafe creek, but has 
good lands, well clothed with ])ine, maple, birch, and sjniiee. The next inlet, called 
Wine Harbor, has a bar of sand, which is nearly dry. There are a lew, and but lew. 
(settlers on these harbors. 

ST. MARY'S RIVER,— The navigation of this river is impe.Iod by a bar of 12 feet 
water, which extends across at the distance of a mile and three-quarters above (iunnini: 
Point, the west point of the entrance. ]5elow the bar, towards the western side, is a mid- 
dle ground, which appears uncovered in very low tides ; and, ai)ove the bar nearly in 
fnid-ehannel, is a small rocky islet. The passage over the bar is on the eastern side ol 
this islet. The tide, whicli is very rapid, marks out the channel: the latter is devious, 
between mud-banks, extending from each shrire, and dry at low water. The depths up- 
ward are from 24 to li-s feet. .Sailing in you shoulil proceed for 4 miles N. N. W. then 
2 miles N. by W. and afterwards N. N. W. to the Fork, where it divides, the western 
branch terminating in a brook : the eastern l)rancli continuing navigable a (piarter of a 
mile further up to the rapids. The town of Sliert)rook is, at present, a small village a: 
the head of th'; river, about three leagues from the sea. 

WEDGE LSLE.— The islet called AVedge Isle, wliich lies at the distance of half a 
league south from tlie S. W. ])oint of St. Mary's liiver, is remarkable, and serves as an 
excellent glzide to the harbors in the neigliborhood. The side of this islet, towards the 
main land, is abru])t, and its summit is ll.'j feet al)ove the sea. From its S. W. end ledges 
stretch outward to the distance of half a mile ; and some sunken rocks, extending towards 
it from the main, obstruct the passage nearly half way over. About 2- miles south from 
the Wedge, is a (Ishing bank of 30 to 20 feet, the area of which is about 200 acres. 

JEGOGAN HARBOR may be readily found, on the eastward by Wedge Island, and 
on the westward by the bold and high land, called Redman's Head. The pa.ssage in is 
easy, at the distance of a quarter of a mile from the Head, and anchorage good, in mud- 
dy bottom. Three-quarters of a mile from it is a dry ledge, called the Shag. 

LISCOMB HARBOR. — The entrance of this harbor, which is one of the best on the 
coast, ia between Liscomb Island and the head-land on the west, called Smith or White 



Dod lioldiDi^f 
or anil liar- 

lavi t;ivM(' i\n 
iiiiy si'Mled, 
10 iiei^libor- 
clioraao soli 
sition in the 
(■ islands af- 
lu-ir sta:;cs ; 
iidduck. cod, 
:c. iSalinon 
djle addition 
l)arl)()r i;ene- 
ic easiwiird. 
liiiia inward. 
I bf avoided. 
'e water and 
)id tin; J)idl. 
a mile I'roni 
hi upwards. 
)r, must use 
tcred about ; 
my sea. this 
whic'li is th-' 
The tidn is 
:s, and heavy 
f on lull and 

id the Black 
liich dries at 
5 bad. 

roen [slan{i. 
Des Barres. 

mall vessels 
or coasters. 

ek. but has 
iidet. called 
|uid but lew. 

u- of ] 2 feet 
e (Tuniiini: 
le, is a mid- 
ir nearly in 
[tern side ol 
is di'vious, 
[depths up- 
" W. then 
llic western 
luarter of a 
II vil]a::c a: 

b of half a 
Jerves as an 
lowards the 
end ledges 
|ng towards 
5outh from 

Island, and 
Issage in is 
Id, in mud- 
pest on the 
or White 

Point. From the S. E. end of Liscomb Island, a ledge, with breakers, extends to the 
distance of three-quarters of a mile. Within and under the lee of the island is safe an- 
chorage in from i:} toH fatlioms. On the N. K. of the island, a vessel c ught in a S. K. 
gale may be sheltered by Redman's Head, already described, with the Head S. S. E. in 
6 and 7 fathoms, on a bottom of clay. 

Oil the west side, the ground from Smith Point is shoal to the distance of nearly a 
mile S. S. K. and, at 2\ miles south from the point, is a rock, on which the ship Black 
Prince was lost. It cor. fantly breaks, and is partly uncovered. The island-side is bold. 
The first direction of the harbor is nearly north, then W. N. W. Opposite to the first 
fish-stage, at half a mile from shore, is as good a bertli as can be desired, in 7 fathoms. 
From this place the harl)or is navigable to the distance of four miles: it is, however, to 
be observed, that there are two sunken rocks on the north side. At Green Bay (Liscomb 
Harbor) spring tides rise 7"; feet, neap 4 V. 

BAY OF ISIvAND.S.— The coast between Liscomb and Beaver Harbors, an extent 
of () leagues, is denominated the Bay of Islands. Within this space the islets, rocks, and 
ledges are innunierable : they frum passages in all directions, which have, in general, a 
good depth of water. At the eastern part of this labyrinth, near Liscomb, is Marie-et- 
Joseph, an excellent harbor fi>r the largest ships, but requires caution to enter. Nicom- 
quirque is a small settlement in the same range, the inhabitants of which are an industri- 
ous set of people. Newton-quaddy, next east of Beaver, is scarcely fit for any but fish- 
ing and other small craft, as the channel in is rocky and narrow. 

The White Islands, nearly halfway between the harbors of Beaver and Liscomb, appear 
of a light stone-color, with green sununits. The latter are about GO feet above the level 
of the sea. The isles are bold on the south side ; the passage between them saie ; and 
there is good anchorage with them, in from 10 to 7 fathoms. From these the rocks and 
ledges extend five or six miles from E. to E. N. E. they are bold to, and mostly dry, the 
water within them being always smooth. 

BEAVER HARBOR. — The Pumpkin and Beaver Islands are very rgfefirkable to vet- 
sels sailing along the coast, particularly Pumpkin Island, which is a lofty axid dark barren 
rock ; but they afford ii smooth and excellent shelter inside of them'dur|ng a southerly 
j^ale. Southerland Island has, on its N. W. side, a deep and bold inleC where a vessel 
may lie concealed and secure as in a dock. When in the offing,^the harbor is remarka- 
ble on account of the small island which lies north of the Black Rock, having at its 
southern end a red cliff, being the only one on this part of the coast; having entered the 
harbor, you may choose your anchorage, according to the direction of the wind, the bot- 
tom being generally mud. The basin on the west side is so steep to, that a small vessel 
may lie afloat, lier side touching the beach. 

The Harbor is too intricate to be recommended to a stranger. 

SHEET HARBOR.— This harbor is nearly half-way between Country Harbor and 
Halifax. It is dangerous for vessels to approach in thick weather. The narrow channel 
between Sober Island and the main, affords secure anchorage on a bottom of mud. 

Without the harbor are several ledges, which show themselves, excepting the outer one, 
called by the fishermen, Yankee-jack, and which, when the sea is rmooth, is very dan.jer- 
ous. It has been asserted, that a rocky shoal lies half a mile to the south of the Yankee, 
but its position has not been ascertained. 

Within the entrance is a rock, two feet under water, which will be avoided by keeping 
the Sb et Rock open of the island next within it, on the eastern side. In sailing or turn.. 
ing up the harbor, give the sides a very moderate berth, and you will have from 11 to 5 
fathoms, good holding ground. 

The flood at the entrance of Sheet Harbor sets S. S. W. about one mile an hour. High 
water, full and change, at 8h. 50 m. Tides rise 7 feet. 

MUSHABOON, to the westward of Sheet Harbor, is a small bay, open to the S. E, 
which affords shelter at its head only, in from 7 to 5 fathoms, nmddy bottom. It is con- 
nected to Sheet Harbor by a clear, deep, and bold passage, between an island and the 
main land, not having a shoal or obstruction in it. Here you may lash your vessel to the 
trees, and, lying in 5 fathoms, soft bottom, with the side touching the clifl" be perfectly 
sheltered from al) winds. This place is uninhabited, the land being incapable of cultiva- 
tion. In going through the passage to Sheet Harbor you uiust guard against a sunken 
rock at its uu)uth, which, from the smoothness of the water, seldom shows its position ; 
this rock lies 400 yards off Banbury Islands, and may easily be cleared by keeping the 
Sheet Rock open of the island. 

SPRY HARBOR has on each side the entrance, a high, rocky, barren cape, distin- 
guishable at a long distance. When sailing in you will perceive the land in the centre 
of the harbor, appearing in three distinct hills ; keep the valley between the two eastern- 
most on with the Bald Eocks, which will lead you between Mad Moll Reef and Malo- 






ney Rock ; you mny now stpei- in lor tin; !intlior:n;c, ;it tlic western head of the liarbor. 
where a fleet maybe land-locked in a muddy bottom. 

This harbor is open to S. K. and K. S.E. winds. At the entrance, the flood-tide 
t iefs in at about one mile an hour. The tide, at the entrance of Spry Harbor, sets in 

I with the velocity of about one miic! an hour. 

DEANE, or rUPE'S tlARJJOK, on the western side of Gerard's Tsles above-men- 
tioned, has a ledge at its entrance, forminsj an oi)tuse angle at the two points, three- 
fourths of a mile from eacn, and from which a shoal extends to the southward half a 
mile. It may be passed on either side : l)ut, on the west, caie nuist be taken to avoid 
a shoal extending from the outer Tangier Island. 'JMie best shelter is under the smaller 
island on the eastern side, where there are from 8 to b fathoms, with bottoni of blue clay, 
mud and sand. 

TANGIER HARBOR, next to Deane or Popes, is formed by craggy barren islands, 
which secure vessels from all winds. At about two m.les from its mouth v.i a ledge that 
dries at low water. The anchorage is under the eastern shore, above Fisher's Nose, in 
6 to 4 fathoms, stift' mud. Here are sonie good tracts of pasture land, and the few in- 
habitants are occupied in the fishing and coasting trade. 

SHOAL BAY is the Saunders Harl)or of Des Barres. This bay has a good depth 

of water and excellent anchorage, on fine whit<! sand and strong mud. The latter is to 

the northward of the island now called Charles Island, and vessels lie in it, land-locked, 

in 7 fathoms. Oil' the mouth of the harbor is a rock, that always breaks; but it is bold 

r to, and may be passed on either side. Sonu^ parts of the harbor will admit large ships to 

k lie afloat, along side the shore, over a bottom of black mud. Supplies of stock, 6cc. may 

; 1m) obtained from the inhabitants of this pince. 

''SHIP HARBOR is easy and safe to enter, having good anchorage in every part, the 
bottom being a tough clay of bluish color; it leads to Charles's River, above the nar- 
rows of which a fleet of the largest ships may lie alongside of each other, without the 
..smallest motior. In tViis harbor, and on the isles about it, are near twenty families, who 
.keep small stocks of cattle, &c. The entrance, called by Des Barres Knowles' Harbor, 
is fleep and bold : it lies between two islands, of which the eastern i^ Brier's Island, on 
the western part of which is a lighthouse. A white cliff, which may be seen for a con- 
1 ftderable distance in the otBng, is a good mark for the harbor : at first it resembles a ship 
'^^der sail) but oi* approaching seems more like a schooner's top-sail. Brier's Island, 
* -b40^ mentioned, Is a low rugged island, and ledges partly dry, extend from it three- 
fourths of a mile to the eastward : avoiding these when entering this way, you may range 
fdpng the western island, and come to an anchor under its north point, in 6 or 7 fathoms, the 
bottom of mud. Ship Harbor, proper, commences about 7 nules to the N. W. of Brier's 
Island, at a beach in the western shore, which has 6 fathoms close to its side ; its entrance 
ig one third of a mile broad, widening as you ascend it: above Green Island are some 
thoals and ledges, but the anchorages below them are capacious and good. Spars, stock, 
water, and firewood may be obtained here. 

OWL'S HEAD, or KEPPEL HARBOR, which is next to the west of the harbor 
last described, although smaller than many other harbors on the coast, has suflficieut space 
for a fleet. It may be known, at a distance, by Owls Head, on the western side, which 
appears round, abrupt and very remarkable. The neighboring coast and isles are rugged 
and barren, but the harbor has a few settlers. The entrance is of sufficient breadth to 
allow a large ship to turn in it ; and, within the harbor, shipping lie land-locked, when 
in 6 and 7 fathoms, with a bottom of mud. In taking a berth, you will be guided by the 
■ direction of the wind; as, with a S. W. gale the western anchorage is to be preferred, 
and the eastern with a S. E. The tide sets into this harbor from the S. W. at the rate 
of one mile an hour. 

LITTLE HARBOk is somewhat to the westward of Owl's Head Harbor, and is a 
place of safety for small vessels ; but its entrance is intricate, and requires a good know- 
ledge of the passages leading to it, in order to enable a vessel to enter. 

JEDORE HARBOR. — In the offing at the distance of two leagues of^' the land, the 
body of the flood sets in S. W. by S. at the rate of half a mile an hour. From the ap- 
pearance of this harbor on the Charts, it might be presumed that it is spacious and com- 
modious; but on examination, it will be found to be really diflerent. The entrance is 
unsafe and intricate ; a shoal of oidy 11 feet lies at its nu)uth ; the channel within is nar- 
row and winding, and there are extensive mud flats, covered at high water, and uncovered 
with the ebb : hence a stranger can enter with safety only at low water, the channel be- 
ing then clearly in sight, and the water sufficient for large ships. The best anchorage is 
abreast of the sand-beach, two miles within the entrance, in from 9 to 6 fathoms, on a 
bottom of stiff mud. Two and a half miles above the beach the harbor divides ; one 
branch to the larboard, is navigable nearly to its extremity, and has several sunken rocks 
on it ; while to the starboard is a large space with a clear bottom, and from 3 to 5 fathoms. 

On the! 
their el 


ands, bl 
Clanib I 

isle calll 
face. ' 
end of 
of .fedc 

An aj 
and upt 
end of 
This shI 
with thf 
is also 
only 5 f( 
the Brie 
to show 
search f 

It is h 
tide rise 
and the 

the Poll 

should b 
Charts, a 

there are 
height, ri 
of the eai 
called Tl 
to be dea 
it has o( 
The clilTl 
ward. 1 
with the 
cases of r 
Island, ai 

In beat 
the souni 
says, " w 
saw an i< 
Jedore, a 
had a thi 
Owl's H« 
of red. 
to the we 
stones, tl 

of tlie harbor, 

, thi- flood-tide 
Harbor, Hcts in 

des al)ov«;-meii- 
) poiiitH, three- 
uthward half a 
' taiicn to avoid 
!ider the smaller 
)ni of blue clay, 

! barren islands, 
1 1:4 a ledge that 
is'ier's Nose, in 
and the few in- 

is a p;ood depth 
The latter is to 
it, land-locked, 
s; but it is bold 
lit large ships to 
stock, &c. may 

I every part, the 
, above the oar- 
er, without the 
y famihes, who 
lowles' Harbor, 
lier's Island, on 
seen for a con- 
esembles a ship 
Brier's Island, 
from it three- 
you may range 
r 7 fathoms, the 
W. of Brier's 
its entrance 
and are some 
Spars, stock, 

of the harbor 

ufRcieut space 

n side, whicli 

es are rugged 

ent breadth to 

locked, when 

guided by the 

be preferred, 

W. at the rate 

arbor, and is a 
a good know- 

the land, the 
From the ap- 
ious and com- 
le entrance is 
within isnar- 
ind uncovered 
I channel be- 
anchorage is 
fathoms, on a 
divides; one 
sunken rocks 
to 6 fathoms. 

bliint's amkhk an coaht pilot. 


On the eastern ■'hore are Oyster PonrI and Navy F'ool, two deep iidets, but choaked at 
their entrance by a bed of rocks; the river terminates with a rapid. 

The lands at the head of the harbor are stony, but tolerably good ; the rest barren and 

Without the entrance, on the eastern side, are two isles, called Roger and Barren Isl- 
ands, between and within which tlie passages aie good, and afford shelter in case of ne- 
cessity ; from these the land runs nearly K. N. E. and tonus a deep inlet, called Clam or 
Clantb Bay. 

THK BRKJ ROrK.— This is a very dangerous rock of .T feet, about the size of a 
frigate's long boat; il lies S. K. i E. from .lerlore Head, and S. W. two miles from the 
isle called Long Island. The weed on the top of it may (rcquently be seen at the sur- 
face. The m. rks for this rock are a house and l)arn in (.'lam Hay, just open of the east 
end of Long Island, bearing N. 5° E. anil the house on Jedore Head open to the N. E. 
of .Jedore Rock. 

An account is given of a rocky shoal over which a vessel passed in 8 fathoms water, 
and upon which were taken the following iiearings : .ledore I lead N. N. W. \ W. ; west 
end of Long Island N. E. by N.: and .ledore Outer Ledge or Brig Rock, E. by S. 
This shoal may have less water upon it in other parts, but as these hearings do not agree 
with the chart, we ap|)rehend there must be some error in its exact position. Mention 
is also made of a rock, bearing from .ledore Head S. 38° E. distant 6 miles; this has 
only a feet over it, and •,*-' fathoms close within and without it. This is supposed to be 
the Brig Rock, but if so, the bearings are not correct. These two notices are inserted 
to show that some dangers exist hereabout, and will be sufiicient to warn the mariner to 
search for and cautiously avoid them. 

It is high water at .ledore Head full and change at 20 minutes after 8 o'clock, and the 
tide rises from 6 to 9 feet. At Owl's Head, it is high water at 30 minutes after 8 o'clock, . 
and the tide rises from .5 to 7 feet. 

POLLUCK SHOAL. — At about nine miles south from .ledore Head is a reef, called 
the Polluck Shoal; its area is about one acre, having a depth of 24 f^$t over it; and^ 
during a swell, the sea breaks on it with great violence. " *>^- . 

.f EDORE LEDCtES.— Those advancing i)etween the Brig Rock and Polluck Shod, 
should be cautious in approaching any of the .ledore Ledges : they are laid down on the 
Charts, and said to extend I'roni five to nine miles from the mouth of the harbor. 

Between Jedore and Hulifar, there are no harbors of any consideration for shipping, but 
there are numerous settlements. The land in this extent is, in general, of moderate 
height, rising gradually from the shore. Red and precipitous cliffs, the characteristic 
of the eastern coast, may be seen from seven to nine miles off. The best harbor is thai 
called Three Fathoms Ilarbor. When you are within this harbor the passage will be found 
to be clear between banks of soft mud. But it is only fit for schooners and sloops, although 
it has occasionally been visited by large vessels. The anchorage is tough blue clay. 
The cliffs are composed of bright red earth, remarkable for vessels coming from the east- 
ward. This harbor lies immediately to the east of an islet called Shut-in-Island ; and, 
with the wind on shore, is difficult and dangerous ; so that it is to be attempted only in 
cases of real distress. The channel lies two-thirds over to the northward from Shut-in- 
Island, and turns short round the starboard point to the westward. 

In beating to windward, ships may stand to within a mile and a half of the shore, 
the soundings being tolerably regular, from 20 to 12 and 8 fathoms. Captain Aldridge 
says, "we made the land to the windward of Jedore Ledges, which bore E. S. E. and 
saw an island, appearing white along the bottom ; between this and another island lay 
Jedore, a large rock, to the eastward; the island was quite white round the bottom, and 
had a thick green wood at top; to the westward of the westernmost of these islands, is 
Owl's Head ; a large high bluff land, the western part of it is a darkish white, with a patch 
of red. A little to the eastward of this red patch are two houses, situated in Clamb Bay, 
to the west of which is a sandy beach. In coming from the bank we had 45 fathoms, 
stones, then 37, 39 and 40 fathoms, mud and small pebbles." 


GENERAL REMARKS. — Vessels coining from the eastward, and bound for the 
harbor of Halifax, should pay particular attention to their soundings, especially when they 
consider themselves in the neighborhood of Sable Island ; which island and its sur- 
rounding banks we shall hereafter describe ; it will therefore only be necessary at present 
to remark, that the island is low, and appears like small sand hillocks ; that, in summer, 
it frequently is enveloped in a fog, but you may always discover your proximity to it, by 
your soundings ; and tliat on its N. E. and N. W. sides are dangerous bars ; you will 
have, except on these sides, 2 fathoms, 2 cables' length off, and your depth will increase 

rm Tsw w u ij P '"*'- "-' '-'■ 






in proportion to the distance you arf from it, at a general rate of about 2 fathoms for 
every mile, until you are more than 'JO miles from it. .Si>;nals are placed on the island, 
and also a gun to answer such as may he heard from vessels in dii^treMs, or in thick weather, 
which have already saved from shipwreck a numlier of vessels. 

In making land more to the south-westward, and about Cape Sable, you must be par- 
ticularly careful to avoid *Seal Island Kocks and the Hra/.il Kock. Te the westward of 
Great Seal Island the soundings are very irregular for upwards of 'JO miles, at which dis- 
tance are 45 fathoms, gravel and stones. Indeed the soundings along Nova Scotia from 
Cape Canso to Cape Sable, partake of the same irregularity, from J6 to 50 fathoms, 
therefore you should not come nearer the land than H5 fathoms, unless you are well assur- 
ed of the exact |)art you are in, lor otherwise, endeavoring to enter llalilax, you may be 
driven into Malione or Mecklenburgh Hays, and be caught by S. K. winds. The 
weather is generally foggy 4 or (i leagju's offshore, both in spring and summer; but it 
becomes clearer us you get nearer the coast, and with the wind olf tlie land it will be per- 
fectly clear. 

From one to three leagues out to the seaward, rnacker'cl, halibut, rays, haddock, and cod 
are found in plenty ; nnci at the entrance to the harbors and rivers, salmon is taken from 
April to August ; the bays abound with herrings in June and July, and with torn-cod 
all the year round. 

Mariners may always know their approach to, and arrival into, soundings by the in- 
creasing coldness of the water. 

HALIFAX, the ca])ital of Nova Scotia, is large enough to accommodate any quan- 
tity of shipping in perfect safety. Its direction lies nearly N. and S. being about IG 
miles in length, and terminates in Bedford IJasin, which is an extensive sheet of water, con- 
taining 10 squire miles of safe anchorage. The town is situated on the declivity of a 
peninsula at the western side of the harbor, about 10 miles from its entrance. 

HALIFAX HARBOR. — In approaching the harbor of Halifax, you will perceive 
the coast about its environs, jjarticularly to the southward, to be rairged and rocky, with 
-|)Btbbes of withered wood scattered about, but the land is rather low in general, and not 
'VtMbl4^' 20 miles oft, except from the (|uarter deck of a 74 ; the high mountains of Le 
Have ind Aspotogon excepted* which may be seen !) leagues oil". When Aspotogon 
HilU, which hay^ ja long level appearance, bear north, and you are 6 leagues distant, au 
\^. N; E. coursel^U carry you to Sambro lightliouse; this stands on Sainbro Island, and 
il^ndered remarkable by being a high tower, elevated above the sea JIO feet ; there are 
two &4 pounders placed on the island, under the direction of a small party of artillery 
men ; thtose ^tire fired on the approach of vessels, and contribute much to the mariner's 
safety by warning him oft' the adjacent breakers. Sambro Island and lighthouse lies on 
the S. Wi side of the entrance to the harbor. In standing in for the land you may 
kno\. on which side of the harbour you are by a remarkable diff'erence that takes place 
immediately from its' mouth in the color of the shores; which, if red, denotes you are 
to the jastward, and if white, to the westward of it. S. by E. distant 'I full miles from the 
lighthouse lies the Henercy Rock, with only 3 feet water over it ; and E. N. E. distant 
one mile from the Henercy, lies the Lockwood, of I'J feet: these appear to be but little 
known, although they are both so very dangerous. 

THE LEDGES. — About two miles to the westward are the Western Ledges ; these 
are the Bull, the Horses, and the S. W. or Outer Rock; the Bull is the westernmost 
and nearest to the land : this is a rock above water, lying about two thirds of a mile S. 
E. by E. ft-om Pendant Point, the lighthouse bearing from it E. 7° S. The Horses are 
about a mile to the south-eastward of the Bull, the lightliouse bearing E. by fjf. distant 
one mile and three-quarters; and the S. W. Rock or Ledge lies with the lighthouse 
bearing E. by N. distant one mile and a half; to avoid these, constant caution will be 
requisite, though they are surrounded by deep water ; the channel between the Bull and 
the main having 10 fathoms water, and the passage clear; between the Horses and the 
Bull are 16 fathoms, and no intermediate danger ; and between the Horses and the S. 
W. Rock there are 20 fathoms. 

The Eastern Ledges are the Sisters or Black Rocks ; these lie nearly E. by S. from 
the lighthouse, distant two-thirds of a mile. There is also the Bell Rock, lying further 
in, and about a quarter of a mile from the land, the extremity of Chebucto Head bearing 
N. by E. ^ E. distant three-quarters of a mile. In advancing up the harbor you will 
meet with several other rocks, as ilie Rock Head, which lies with Chebucto Head S. W. 
by W. distant 2t miles, and the Devil's Island, N. E. nV E. about the same distance ; the 
Thrum Cap, which extends from the south end of Mac Nab's of Cornwallis's Island ; 

* On Seal Island a Lighthouse is erected, showing a fixed light. From Cape Sable it bears W. 
N. W, \ W. dis'ant 16 miles. 

t 2 fathoms (ot 
'a\ on (he Liliuid, 
n thk'k weiitlicr, 

ou iiniHl be piir- 
the westwjinl of 
?8, at which <h.H- 
ova Scotin from 
'i to 50 fnthoiiis, 
J are well assur- 
ifax, you iiiiiv l)»! 
•]. wiinls. The 
suniiiit'r ; but it 
ml it will be pcr- 

a(l(K»ck, atiil cotl 
II is taUcii from 
u\ with toin-cod 

dings by the in- 

odatc any quan- 
bein^ about IG 
;et of water, coo- 
lie declivity of a 

)U will perceive 
and rocky, witli 
ireneral, and not 
lountains of Le 
'hen Aspotogon 
gues distant, nu 
inbro Island, and 
J feet ; there are 
)arty of artillery 
to the mariner's 
;hthouse lies on 
land you may 
that takes place 
lenotes you are 
II njiles from the 
N. E. distant 
rto be but little 

Ledjjes ; these 
le westernmost 
ds of a mile S. 
'he Horses are 
by }j. distant 
the lighthouse 
caution will be 
en the Bull and 
orses and the 
ses and the S. 

E. by S. from 
, lyiuii further 

Head bearing 
arbor you will 
Head S. W. 

distance ; the 
fallis's Island ; 

ible it bears W. 



the I/ichfield, on the weKtern side of the harbor, having only Ifi feet w 'trr over it; and 
the .Mars |{o(k, lying also on tin- wcsicrn side, INtint Sandwich lienrmg north disliiiit 
half a mile, anil nearly in a line with it anil the west side of (leorge's island; all tlies(> 
are distinguished by buoys and (lags being placed upon them. 'There Ls also a reef, 
called the Horse Shoe, which runs out from Manger's Heacli on the west side of Mae 
Nab's Island; this is dangerous and must carefully be avoided. On Maimer's Heacli is 
a'l'ower. called .'^lierbrook Tower, on which is a lii;lithonse. elevated oH feet above the 
level of the sea, erei ted for the |Mirpose ol' guiding vessels up the harbor. 

When abrenst of Cliebncto Head, or when Sanibi Light bears W. S. W. the light 
on Manger's Heaeli should never be brought to the westward of north. By keeping the 
light from North to N. by K. will lead clear of the 'riiriim Cap .Shoal. Tliis lighthouse 
bears from the Thrum Cap buoy N. ,\ W. two miles and a hall'. 

Dire.rtion» for iihvrhruol; Tower Ligltiliouse. 

Vessels coming from the eastward, must keep Sambro Light ojien to the southward of 
Cliebncto Head, until the liglii opens on Manger's Beach, which will then bear N. }i W. 
when they will be to the westward of Tliiiiiii Cap .Shoals, and may shape a course up 
the harbor, always keeping the light on the beach open, and on the starboard bow. 

Vessels coming from the westward will see the light w hen they are as far to the east- 
ward as Chebucto Head; by keepiiij; it open and on the starboard bow, it will lead them 
u|) to the beach. 

The light on .SherbrooU Tower appears of a red color, which distinguishes it from any 
otluT on the coast. ,. 

High water, Halifax Dock-Yard, 8 o'clock ; spring-tides rise from 6^ to 9 feet. High J,-. 
water at .Sambro Isle Hli. 15ni; spring-tides rise from .') to 7 feet. ' t * -* . 

Half way between Mauger's Beach and (ieorge's Iidand, is a shoal, on the oppilbsite 
side, extending to the S. E. from Point I'lcasant nearly one third ol tn^ channel over, 
and having a buoy at its extremity ; the thwart mark lor this buoy is a littje islet at- the 
entrance of the N. W. arm. on with a remarkable stone upon the hill, appiearing ^e a 
coach-box, and bearing W. S. W. Between I'oint Pleasant .Shoal and Mauger't Beach, 
is a middle ground of 4.^ and 5 fathoms, sometimes pointnl out by a^buoy: tbU middle 
ground extends north and south a (able's length, and is about .'30 fjUBjBns broad; as-ydtu 
fall 0(1" to the eastward of it there will be found I'rom 7 to 10 fatholtns wateft muddy bot- 
tom ; while on the -vest side there are from 10 to 14 fathoms, coarse rocky soundings. 

REID'.S ROCK has 12 leet water over it, and lies in shore, about mid-way between 
Point Pleasant and Halifax : the thwart mark for this danger is a farm houae in the wood, 
over a black rock on the shore, bearing W. by .S. and opposite to Reid's Rock is a bacj 
on a spit extending from the N. \V. end of Mac Nab's Island. 

MAC NAB'S ISLAND lies on the eastern side of the channel, and is nearly three 
miles in IcuL'th and one in breadth; there is a small island to the eastward of it, called 
Carroll's Island ; boats can pass this way or between it and the Devil's Island shore, in 
what is commonly called the S. K. Passage, but the channel is too .shallow for shipping, 
and it is further obstructed by a bar of sand to the southward, over which is only 8 feet 
water. Mac Nab's Cove has good anchorage in t'rom 'J to 4 fathomS,' muddy ground ; 
the best situation is in 7 (utlioms, with Mauger's Beach and Sandwich Point locked ; 
George's Tower touching Ives's Poiiit 

Dartmouth is a settlement on the eastern side of the harboi', opposite Halifax. . 

To Sail for Hail far Harbor. — Having made the li:.'ht!ionse, and coming from the 
westward at night, witha westerly wind, the light being 7 or H miles oH", steer E. N.E.or E. 
by N. until you have passed the S. \V. Ledges, and the iisihthouse bears north, then run 
on N. E. or N. E. by N. until yon bring it to bear N. W. which being done, take a N. 
N. E. or N. E. by N. course, until you bring it W. N W. you will then, agreeably to 
the wind, haul up N. or N. by E. for fJliebucto Head, avoiding the Bell Rock. Che- 
bucto Head is bold to within half a mile from the shore ; run on north, along the west 
shore for Sandwich Point, which also is bold : thus you will safely pass the Lichfield 
Rock, leaving it on your larboard side ; this rock has a buoy placed on its eastern end, 
a mile northward of which is the Mars Rock, whose situation is pointed out by another 
buoy, which must be left to the larboard. When abreast of Sandwich Point get as 
near Middle Channel as you can, for on the opposite side is the Horse .Shoe, a danger- 
ous shelf, which stretches out from Mauger's Beach; steer on Mid-Channel between 
Mauger's Beach and the Horse Shoe, and having passed the latter, edge over towards 
Mac Nab's Island. Midway between the Island and Point Pleasant Shoals, on the ex- 
tremity of which is a buoy, and rather more than ^ a mile further, on the same side, is 
Reid's Rock, whose position is also denoted by another buoy : are all to l.-e left ou 
the larboard side. On the st''vboard, or opposite side, is a red buoy placed upoT 




niJi\TM /\Mi;itir.\i\ roAsr imi.ot. 

S|>it, which I'ttns oft' IM;ic Nah's Islanrl ; you will Nitil nn Itctwrrti thr**** two liiftor hiiovn, 
Hiiil hiivinn piisscil thi" Kn-I, Mlccr (hit-ctly iiortli (or (itM»ri;t''s Ishirid, which you iiutv 
piiMH on either Midc anil run ii|) Cor, aeul ahrcai^t o(, the town (»(' llahl'iix, where yon will 
find atichoraue in <) and HI lalhonis, innddy ground ; two ralih-s' h>nK(h east ofthe moor- 
int{ liiioys, or near cinxiuh to tlie wliarvcs to throw yonr haw.ser on Nhnre. 'I'here in a 
middle ground heiwern MaiiKcr'.s iieach and I'oiiit IMcasant Slioal, which Moinetiirien 
has a buoy upon it, hut no less than 5 (athoins han yet been found n|)on it. 

"Thn ^reat dilliculty <d' making ilalit'ax I'roni the eastward, particularly in thn wintrr 
snaNnii, is that the winds are ^'etu'rally Croin the W. S. \V. to N. W. and blow so haid ai 
to reduce a ship to very low canvass, if Hot to bare judes : but sliould the wiiul coiiie to 
tlie eastward, it is invariably atteufk'd with such lliicL weather, as to prevent an observa- 
tion, or seeiui: any f;reat distance; and conseipicnily renders it impruilent to run on a 
lee shore under siuh cirruiustances, and more particularly in tiu^ winter tinu*, when the 
easterly winds are attended with sleet and snow, which lodi{e about the masts, sails, rij;- 
^inn, and every |)art of tin- shi|), bccomin'j; a solid body of ice so soon as the wind shifts 
round to the N. W. which it does suddcidy from the eastward. What adds considerably 
to the al)ove dithcidty is, havini; bee!i several <biys without an observati(ui, and subject to 
a current, which sometimes rims stroni» to the southward ; you may have the Hay of 
Fundy open, ami be swejH into it by the strons; indrauj^lit wliicii prevails when the wind 
has been any time iVom the sf)utli" ■inl or eastward. 

"From the above circumstances, 1 would recommencl that ships boimd to Ifalifax in 
the winter, should shape a southerly course, ami run down their lonmtude in latitude 
from .'IS" to 3()°, in which parallel they will juake the prmcii)al part of tlieir passajje in a 
temperate climate, until they approach the coast of America, when they will be met bv 
the westerly or even north-west winds, which will enable them (having got soundings, on 
St. George's Bank,) to Mi.ike their ( Durse j^ood alon;:; shore, and with a free wind and 
clear weather, cross the iJay (d' I'uiidy, with coidi(len( e of their situation ; then, so soon 
S». they have shut in the Bay, keep the shore on board the whole way to Halifax Light- 

(9^rve in coming from the eastward with an easterly wind, the Thrum Cap shoals 
must b^tj^rticularly avoided ; a red buoy, as before imticed, now marks their extremity, 
jj^nd to go clear of them you should bring the easternmost land in sight, a ship's lengtli 
„'^thc southward of Devil's Island, bearing K. N. K. nearly, and steer in W, or W. by 
S. M best suits the distance you are from the island, and according to the wind and 
situation; with respect to the shoals, you may pursue a West, N. W. or W. N. W. 
course, until George's Islaiul comes a sail's breadth open to the westward of Mac Nab's 
Island; then stand up for Sandwich I'oint, or the fort, until St. Paul's Steeple in Hali- 
fax is open of Brenton House ; keep this mark on, and you will go in the fair way, clear- 
ing Point Pleasant Shoals and Mauger's Beach; then steer on as before directed. 

The long mark for Halifax Harbor from abreast of Chebiicto Head, and steering in 
north or N. A W. is the middle cf tlnee hills, over Dartmouth village, having some trees 
upon it, in a line with the N. W. end of (ieorgc's Island ; tins will lead clear of the dan- 
jfers on both sides, and over the Middle Ground, in from 6 to 8 fathoms and up to 
George's Island. 

The marks for the Lichfield Rock are the Chmnel between the Devil's Island and the 
Main open, bearing E. N. E. aiul (George's Island open to the eastward of Sandwich 
Point; over this rock are only lb feet. 

The marks for the buoy at the extremity of Point Pleasant Spit, is a small island at 
tlie entrance of the N. W. arm, on with the .';tonc on the hill, bearing W. S. W. The 
marks which clear Point Pleasant shoals will also clear the Reid Rock ; its thwart mark 
is a farm-house in the wood, over a black rock on the shore, bearing west by south. 

In approaching from the westward, round the lighthouse, at the distance of a short 
league. To avoid the sunken rocks which lie to the southward, when the light bears 
N. W. by N. haul ir N. by W. The tlag-staves on Citadel Hill above the town are 
distinguishable at a c msiderable distance ; by keeping them open of Sandwich Point, 
you are led clear of tiie Bell, Lichfield, and Mar's Rocks, on the west side ; and the 
Rock Head and Tlinun Cap to the east. When arrived at Sandwich Point, keep Che- 
liucto Head in sight, by not allowing it to he shut in ; this plain mark will lead in the fair 
■way home to George's Island ; leaving Poiiu Pleasant shoals on the left, and Mac Nab's 
fihoals on the right, round George's Island on either side, and anchor any where in 6, 10, 
or 13 fathoms, muddy ground ; from George's Island to the entrance of Sackville River 
there is not a single obstniction. Men of war commonly anchor off the naval yard, 
which a stranger will distinguish by the masting sheers ; merchant vessels discharge 
their cargoes, and load alongside the wharves. 

Catch Harbor, fit only for small vessels, lies to the westward of Chcbucto Head ; it has 
a bar across with breakers, and only 9 feet water; within it are 3 and 3^ fathoms; there 

two lattor hnoyw, 
which vol! luiiv 
, wh«*r»' Vfiu will 
I'ast (iCthf moor- 
tre. Then- In a 
hich Hoinetiini'fi 
I it. 

ly ill Iho winfrr 
lilow NO h)ii(i ill 
lio wind roiiic to 
vent an ohMPiva- 
I'lit to run on a 
time, when the 
masts, sails, rii;- 
s ihf wind shili.s 
Ids corisidcralily 
II. and suhjt'ct to 
avf the IJay ol 
9 when the wind 

1(1 to ITnlifax in 
itiuh> in hitiliidf 
ifiir iiassafic in a 

will h(« met hy 
)t soundings, on 
a free wind and 
1 ; then, .so soon 

Halifax Light* 

rum Cap shoals 
their extremity, 
, a ship's ienmh 
ill W, or W.' by 
) the wind and 

or W. N. W. 
rl of Mac Nab's 

teeple in llali- 

air way, clear- 


ind steering in 

ing; some trees 
ar of the dan- 

>m9 and up to 

sland and the 
of Sandwich 

small island at 

S. W. The 

ts thwart mark 

by south. 

ice of a short 

ic light bears 

the town are 
ndwich Point, 
dde ; and the 
nt, keep Che- 
lead in the fair 
nd Mac Nab's 

here in 6, 10, 
ackville River 
naval yard, 

iels discharge 

Head ; it has 
thorns; there 

ni.rNT S AMI.tlMA.X <'(>\MT PILOT. 


tt a fine run of fresh wafer at the li<ad of the harbor. I lerrim; ( 'nve is about 10(1 fatlionm 
wide at the eniriince, and bold on both sides, with 7, 5, and t filhoms up to the elbow 
thai forms the Inner ( 'ovt-. wiibiii which small vessels lie perfectly sheltered in 7 and "J 
feel, soft mild, the sides being uneentiri' body of ro( k. 

KK.MAKKS. — Leaving llalilix, and sailing Westward, you will find the shores to be 
sleep, and appear tVoiii seaward bioki-n and rocky, with whitish clilfs ; the high lands of 
Aspotogon and l^e Have, before mentioned, are coiispiciioiiN and remarkable; to the 
westward the rocks about llie land appc.ii black, with reddish banks of earth. I.e Have 
appears babl or barren ;it the top. with red earthy hillocks iindi-r it, and between ( 'apn 
Le Have and Port Medway or .lackson, arc some hummocks inland, the coast to the 
seaward being level and U>\y, and the shores marked with white rocks, with low barren 
points; (rom thence to Shelbiirne and Koseway it is wooily. Near Port Latoiir are 
several barren places, and thencu tu Cape Muble the land is low, with white sandy dilfti, 
particularly visible at sea. 

SAMHKO HAUHOK is a mile and tlnee-cjuarters N. N. W. from the lighthouse; 
ort' its entrance is the Mull Rock ; there are also twit other rocks between ; the best chan- 
ni'l into the harbor is between Pi-nnant Point and the Hull, but vessels iVoin the east- 
ward may run up between .Samitro Island and the Inner Kock ; you are to leave the Isle 
nl .Man to the larboard in entering; the am lioiage is within the island, on a muddy bot- 
tom, with ;J fathoms water. 

The strait which connects the harbor with Londy IJasin is exceeding narrow, and haa 
only 2 fathoms wiiter. This place is generally the resml of coasters in bad weatlier. 

The passage between the rocks and ledges that lie to the soutliward of Sambro Harbor, 
may olteiitimes conduce to the safety of vessels, that make the land by mistake so fer to 
the westward of the light as lobe unable to clear the dangers soiitliwaiil of it, but should 
be attempted only in cases (d emergency ; the depth ol water is sulficient for the largest 
ships, but great prudence is retpiired. 

TKNN.VNT IL\R|{()R is situated round the point to the westward of Port Sambro, 
has a fair channel leading in between Teunant (ireal Head and Island, with good and 
secure anchorage, particub-rly above the islands, in G or 8 fathonn; 4t is extensive and 
safe in bad weatlier, and the dangers are all visible. 

TENNANT'S BAY is well sheltered above Macworth Point, a;id Aere is anchorage 
in 9 fathoms on a bottom of tough blue day; the passage in lies^efween the rocks of 
Point Maev.orth and the white rocks. There is also a safe (lassago between Cape Ten- 
nant and Hervey Island, with anchorage in from f) to rt fathoms. Whei^ entering, the 
land presents to the eye of a stranger, the rudest features of nature, but it is extensive 
and safe, and in bad weather the dangers all show themselves. The tides rise 8 feet, and 
it is high water at three-cjnarters after 7. 

PROSPECT HARHOR lies about .3 miles to the N. W. of Cape Prospect, which 
forms the west side of iJristol Hay ; and its entrance is encumbered with a cluster of 
islands which form the western side of Bristol Bay : at the back of these islands is a 
considerable inlet, called by ])es Barres, Parker's River, but little frequented. Prospect 
Harbor, wears, at its entrance, a rugged broken ajipearance, but it is safe, commodious, 
and extensive ; and in rough weather the dangers mostly show themselves. Vessels 
coming from the eastward and rounding Cape Prospect, must beware of ft: rock with 17 
feet over it ; it lies south about one-third of a mile (rom the Cape ; go not between it and 
the Cape, but proceed on its southern side in 20 and 21 fathoms water, and by keeping 
more than half a mile from the land you will steer quite clear of danger, and may sail 
boldly up its eastern channel between Prospect and Betsey's Islands ; having passed 
these the channel narrows ; the western passage is between Hobson's Nose and Dorman'a 
Rock ; there is good anchorage for large shijis above Pyramid Island, and also for small 
vessels, within Betsey's Island, in 4\ fathoms, blue stiff clay. At the entrance to this 
harbor, depths are very irregular, and there is a rock, over which the seabrea ks, hav- 
ing .3 fathoms water over it, and lying 2 cables' lengths to the eastward of Dorman'a 
Rock. There are some residents on the western side of the bay. 

LEITH HARBOR.— This lies about 2l miles toMhe north-westward of Prospect 
Harbor, and here are situated the inlets called Shag and Blind Bays, both possession 
excellent anchorages. At its entrance lies the Hog, a sunken rock, having 6 feet water 
over it, and bearing E. S. E. about one mile and a half from Taylor's Island. In fair 
weather the Hog Rock may readily be perceived by a constant ripple over it, and in bad 
weather, with an on-shore wind, it will be distinguished by the breakers ; there are good 
channels on both its sides, but the eastern one is always to be preferred on account of the 
ledge which exti'ids E. S. E. about half a mile towards it from Taylor's Island. 

DOVER PORT lies at the western side of the entrance to Blind Bay, and is chiefly 
formed by Taylor's and the adjacent islands; this is the Port Durham of former charts, 
and alfords safe and good anchorage ; the eastern passage is the best, and in sailing in you 


' W. HW Bj P " - - " 



must pive the reef that stiPtclies ofl' the east en(J of Taylor's Island asu(Ti('ient berth, 
anchoiiiin; within the hody of the largest island in 7, H. !), or 10 f'atiiDnis, muddy hoftoin. 
Tilt! ueatern entrance has some sunken roeks in it, and the water is in some places but 

JJeiween the Ir.irljors of Halifax and Dover tiie shores are craf^gy, broken, and barren, 
sleep to, iron-i)ound, and destitute of trees; but the creeks and inlets abound with fish, and 
great {piantities of cod, herrings, and mackerel, are caught and cured here for the mar- 

MARtJARET'S RAY. — '{'he entrance to thisbay is to the westward of Taylor's Island 
about one league ; the bay itself is full '2b miles in circumference, in length nine miles, 
and in breadth, from Peggy's Point to Owl's Head, about two miles; here are harbors 
capable of receiving ships of war, even against the sides of the shore, and sutficiently wide 
to turn in. In choosing a berth, it i-s usual to be guided by the direction of the wind, ta- 
king the western aticliorage, in S. W. gales, and the eastern one in .S. E. where you lie 
land-locked, the bottom mud. 

OWL'S IH^AD is very remarkable, being round and abrupt ; the lands and islands in 
the neighborhood are rugged and barren. The body of flood tiile sits in from S. W. at 
the rate of one mile per luuir. 

Following the coast, w hicli runs nearly 'J miles W. X. W. from Taylor's Island to East 
Point, there is a rock uncovered at low water, which lies near the land, having a passage 
between, with 4 and 5 fathoms water : the shore all the way is rugged and steep, against 
which the sea beats violently. N. X. W. from East Point one mile, is Contact Point, 
and in the same direction 1{ mile further, is Peggy's INjJnt, beyond which a short mile is 
Shut-in-Island, 1200 feet high and covered wiili trees; olf the southern point of this isl- 
and there is a shoal of 'J leet, with 6 and 7 fathoms between it and the island, and near to 
Peggy's Point there is another of 1') feet, w ith (> fathoms to the ntuthward of it ; during 
^utherly galfs the water on the lee side of the islands becomes smooth, and the bottom 
It9l<;ls well. Indian Harlior runs in here, and forms a place (it for small vessels, but afforrls 
nQ s&elter, being enMrely open to the sea. To the E. N. Eastward of Indian Harlxir is 
'>Hag|»'s Cove, distant one mile, a cove or harbor of similar description. Luke s Island, 
Tbc^QpUpt Jolliman and Wedge Islands, all lie olf the eastern side of Margaret's Ray, 
and contirlbute to break olF the force of the sea, so that under the lee of Luke's and Jolli- 
man'9- Islands, there is good anchorage at all times fur ships o|' every description. 
'% FRENCH COVE is easy of actess. and may be considered as a natural dock, exten- 
sive, with plenty of water, and well sheltered ; there is a shoal of 10 feet water lies oppo- 
site to the entrance of this cove at the distflnce of two miles, but as the islands of the 
eastern shore are bold to, no vessel need go so far out into the bay as to approach too 
near this danger. 

HEAD HARBOR, or DELAWARE RIVER, lies at the further end. on the N. 
Eac^ern extremity of the Ray, and is an anchorage of most excelh'ut description, forming 
so complete a place of safety that a tleet of ships might be securely moored side by side, 
and remain undisturbed by the most violent hurricane ; the surrounding lands are high 
and broken; Mason's Point is in itself a good farm, well stocked with cattle, and excel- 
lently cultivated ; and IMoser's Islands at its entrance are used as sheep folils : the land on 
the larboard side of the entrance to the Head Hariior is 4i() feet high. 

INGRAM RIVER, — To the westward of Head Harbor is Ingram River, running in to 
the northward of Moser's Islands ; at its entrance it is one-lhird of a mile wide, with 7, b, 
and 5 fathoms water, it then gradually decreases to its head, which is shallow and sandy. 
To the westward is (Caspar's Indent, open, shallow, and seldom fre(|uented. These in- 
dents or coves have rugged jioints projecting southward, and it is from these places small 
craft are employed to take limestone, building sand, &c. the former of these being of a 
very superior quality. Cooper and Indian Rivers are both shallow rocky nooks, but are 
the resorts of salmon, and in the lakes above, trout abound in great qiumtities, of delicate 
flavor, and conunonly of a deeper red than the salmon. 

HUBERT'S t;OVE, is situated at the N. W. corner of Margaret's Bay; here at the 
entrance, is a ridge of rocks about 100 fathoms long, and covered at high water, so that 
when the sea is smooth it becomes invisible ; in order to avoid this danger you have only 
to keep towards the western or eastern side of the harbor, for both sides are bold to; the 
western channel is much the wider and better of the two, and by keeping the larboard 
shore on board, a stranger, or a ship dismasted, or in distress, or without anchors, may 
turn in and (ind shelter, running aground with perfect safety. 

Lonff (^orc is 2j miles to the south of Ilubiiert's Cove, and affords good anchorage 
with a westerly wind. To the southward of Long Cove the coast is bold and rugged, 
without any danger. exce|)t a small rock of six feet water which lies close into the lanil. 

NORTH WEST HARBOR is about one league to the southward of Long Cove ; at 
its eutrance is Horse lylaud, which divides it into two chauuels ; there is a good passage 

with 10 f! 
behind itf 
abrupt pil 

steep on 
is a small 
inonly cal 
rocky islij 
bo:!ts ; he[ 
N.E. of 
this the s| 
f)us unles] 
Till- H 
West IslJ 
from Tayl 
rocks abol 
sides, andT 
on the wel 
it then sil 
are 1-M4 
ret's Bay, 
will carry 
tering an 
To 111'' 
ping ; at 
ward of t 
niiles fro 
South W 
Island, di 
it lies S. I 
good c-ha 
7 miles fr 

W. i w. 

between 1 

its exact 

the marii 

out for a 

water sut: 


high and 

regular r 

off; itsei 

with plei 


bound I' 

jaeent ti 


sine are 


Island 11 

N. 5 mi! 

Little i: 

bears fn 


are 4i, 

Flat ! 

in a sini 

but the 

places i 

it is a b 

ern par 

on the 

line wit 



stiirK'ienl l)eitlj, 

iniuldy bottom. 

some places but 

ieri, and barren, 
11(1 witli fisli, and 
ere lor the mar- 
Taylor's Island 
"Stli nine miles, 
lere are harbors 
utFiciently wide 
of the wind, ta- 
'■■ wliereyouiie 

Is and islands in 
from S. W. at 

^ Island to East 
;<vin« a passage 
1 steep, asjainst 
Contaet Point, 
■> short mile is 
»iiit of this isl- 
id. and near to 
' "f it; (hiring 
Hid the bottom 
pIs, but afl'ords 
lian nari)or is 
Luke s Island, 
i>f«nret's Hay, 
ke'sand Joll'i- 

1 doek, pxten- 

iter lies oj)po- 

islands of the 

approach too 

id, on the N, 
)tion, forming 
I side by side, 
inds are high 
e, and exccl- 
: the land on 

running in to 
ide, with 7, (>, 
w and sandv. 
. 'J^hese ill- 
places small 
He being of a 
)oks, but are 
s, of delicate 

; here at the 
nier, so that 
01 iiave only 
bold to; the 
the larboard 
nchors, may 

"id rugged, 
to the land, 
ig Cove ; at 
lod passage 

with 10 fathoms water on each side of the island, and small vessels may find anchorage 
lichind it in from (> to !) fathoms, or further up in T), -1 or 3 fathoms. Owl's Head is an 
abrupt precipice, and forms the south point oftntrance to Nortli West Hay. 

Sot/tit Wv'.s/, or Holdcrncss Island, is a remarkably rocky island, full 50 feet high, and 
steep on all sides : directly to the northward of the northern jiart of the South West Isle 
is a small spot of 3 fathoms water, and to the N. Westward of tlie island is what is com- 
monly called the South West Harbor, formed between (Jwl's Head, which literally is a 
rocky island, separated from the main by a very narrcnv j)assaiie, not even navigable for 
bouts; here are o, i) and 7 fathoms water, but the place is seldom frequented. To tho K. 
N. E. of South West Island, distant nearly half a mile, is a rocky shoal of 4 fathoms ; 
this the sea freijuently breaks over, in bad weather, but it cannot be considered danger- 
ous unless to vessels that draw very deep watc^r. 

'rhf Horse Shoe, or Do/a; Rock, lies about south, distant one mile and a half from South 
West Island ; directly west ftoiu East I'oint, distant 'J miles and three quarters, and 
from Taylor's Island W. by N. 4 miles and one third ; there are several small sunken 
r'jcks about it ; part of it is conse(|uently above the surface of the water shelving on all 
sides, and the sea in stormy >k'eatlii'r lireaks violently over it ; at a little distance from it, 
on the western side, is (i fathoms, and on its eastern side at a similar <listance, is 8 fathoms, 
it then sinks into deep water ; between the Horse Shoe and the South West Island there 
are Vi, 14, 'J6, .'34, and 150 fathoms water. Vessels from the eastward, bound for Marga- 
ret's Hay, commonly go in between the llorsi- Shf)e and Kast Point ; a northerly course 
will carry you midway bef 'en them, right up to the head of the bay, without eucoun- 
tering any danger, excei . tliost? already descrilied. 

To the Westward ol Soutli West Island is Aspotogon Harbor, too shallow for ship- 
ping ; at its entrance are Hlack, Saddle, ;md Ciravelly Islands and Shoals ; to the south- 
ward of these is Seal [..edge, shallow and dangerous: it lies west i north, distant 2j 
miles from the Horse Shoe, and W. S. W. nearly 3 miles from the southern part of 
South West Island. 

IRU.NHOrNl) ISLAND. W. S. W. } S. from the south poiDt of SoutfcW**, 
Island, distant 5 miles, is Ironbound Island, about one mile long, narrow, and ate6p to |>t. 
it lies S. S. E. ^ S. one mile and a half trom the extremity of the pen'nStilawhicTb divides 
Margaret's and Malione Hays, and is calliul New Harbor Point; between wliich is a 
good channel, with from U to 17 fathoms water, the ground being diiiefy a black sand. 

(JREEN ISLAND. S. A E. distant one loagiicfrom Ironho'und Island, S. W. by S. 
7 miles from South West Island, W. S. W. 3 leagues from Taylor's Island, and W.^N. 
W. ''l W. from abreast of Sanibro Liu'lithouse. lies (uecn Island ; it is small. Midway 
between Ironbound and tJrccn Island there is said to be a shoal oi'only 2 fathoms, but 
its exact position is not acciuatcly known, and then-fore it is omitted in the charts ; 
the mariner, in passing through tiic channel between tlu'se islands, will do well to look 
out for and guard against, the jirobable existence of such a danger; there is otherwise 
water siillicieiitly deep for any vessel. 

MAHONE HAY is separated from Margaret's Bay by the peninsula, upon which the 
high and conspicuous Mountain of Aspotogon is situateii, whose appearance, in three 
regular risings, is a very remarkable ol)jt-ct to seaward, being visible more than 20 miles 
oil'; its entrance is encumbered with several islands, between all which are good passages 
with plenty of water, and few dangers; tliese lead to most excellent harbors, and places 
convenient and well adapted for the fisheries. We have alrendy noticed Gre^n and Iron- 
bound hiands; these lie on the eastern side of fli" entrance to the Bay of Mahone ; ad- 
jacent to these, and on the same side, are the Tancook Islands, Flat Island, and the 
Knohuie Hock ; there are also the Bull Rock, and the Outer Ledge. On the western 
sine are the Duck and other islands. 

(Jreat Duck Island lies W. by S. from (ireen Island distant 4 J miles. Little Duck 
Island lies N. W. .V N. aliout one mile and two thirds from (Jreat Duck Island, and W. \ 
N. 5 miles and one third from (ireen Island : nearly midway between Green Island and 
Little Duck Ishnd, lies the outer Ledge, over which th" sea always breaks ; this danger 
bears from the east end of the Great Duck Island N. K. , N. distant one mile and two 
thirds; and from (ireen Island W. \ N. one league ; over it is 4 feet water, and round it 
are 4i, ."), and 7 fathoms. 

Flat Isl.iid lies due west from Ironbound Island, distant one mile and a quarter: and 
in a similar direction from Flat Island, somewhere about one mile off, lies the Hull Hocks, 
but the exact situation of this danger is not correctly ascertained, for Mr. Des Harres 
places it more to the southward, and Mr. fiockwood to the ntu'thward of thin position; 
it is a blind rock, uncovered at one-third ebb, with deep water all rounrl it. The south- 
ern part of Flat Island, in aline with the southern points of Ironbound Island, will lead 
on the rock, as Mr. Des Harres has |)laced it, while the northern part of Flat Island, in a 
line with the northern shore of Ironbound Island, will lead to the northward of it; and 




:iu i»m>an ■"- 



Chester Church open of Great Tancook Island, will carry you clear to the westward of 
it in 7 and 10 fathoms water. 

Great Tancook is one mile and three-quarters long, and about a mile broad; to the 
eastward, between it and the main land, is the Little Tancook Island, separated by a chan- 
nel a quarter of a mile broad, in which are 7, 8, and ") fathoms; a similar passage is be- 
tween Little Tancook and Indian Point on the main, but there is a middle ground in it 
of 4 fathoms ; Knohnie Rock is above water, and shoals all round, it lies to the eastward 
of the south-east part of Great Tancook, and at this part of the island is anchorage in 8 
or 10 fathoms water. 

Westward of Great Tanrook one third of a mile, is a rocky shoal of 6 feet, while be- 
tween them the channel has 10 fathoms water: to the W. I)y N. of this shoal one mile, 
is another, with from G to IJ feet over it; l)etween these shoals the passii^e is good, and 
lias from 12 to 25 fathoms water in it. Olf the north-west part of Great Tancook is Star 
Island, and a little to the eastward of it is a ro( k y patch of shidlow ground, so that vessels 
should never attempt the puss;!^i' between !S ar and Tancook Islands. There is yet 
atjother danger, called the Coachman's Li-diit-; it lies 2 miles to tl.e northward of Great 
Tancook, and is only visible at low water; to lead clear to the eastward of this ledge, you 
should brinjT the eastern point of Great Tancook and the east side of Flat Island in one : 
to clear it to the southward, bring the west end of Iroiibounfl Island open of the west 
part of Little Tanf ook : and Frederick's Island north point bearmg W. S. W. ^ S. will 
carry you safe to the iidilhward of it. 

Having passed theCoiuhman, the head of the bay lies open; on your starboard side 
is the high land and small River of Aspoto^on, where small vessels occasionally run in 
alid anchor; there is a rocky shoal at its entrance, which must be avoided. To the north- 
ward is Cumberland Arm, easy of access, and alfording good anchorage, with 7 and 8 
fathoms, obseSjj'ing togive a berth to the starboard shore, which shallows some distance 
«u|^..^^here-i& also good riding on the larboard shore, behind an island which lies on 
di^ e^Mpra side of the Chester Peninsula; here vessels can ride, well sheltered, in 8 fa- 

"'.-■i} Chester Town is situated at the northern part of Mahone Bay, and is surrounded by a 
lilne and fertile country ; its inhabitants are industrious people, and the adjacent islands 

• .<u?e well clothed with sheep; wood and water is in aiuuidance, and several vessels are built 

4bere; the anchorages between the various islands and before the town are good, well 

thelt«red, and secure, and the depth of water moderate ; the only danger is a shoal, which 

jMinly dries at low water: this lies west | south from the Town of Chester, from which 

it is distant one mile and three quarters. 

On the larboard side of Mahone Bay, and directly west of Tancook Islands, is a large 
Inlet or branch of- a, river, named by Des Barres, Princes Sound: the passages into it 
are very safe, only giving a wide berth to the southern end of Edward's Island ; steer 
mid-channel, and, when well in, anchor in 9 fathoms, or within the innermost islands, in 5 
or 6 fathoms ; further in it becomes flat and shallow. 

To sail into Mahone Bay from the eastward the fust land visible will commonly be 
Green Island, which is round, bold, and moderately high; thence to Ironbound and Flat 
Islands, both steep to, is two miles and three-quarters ; you may proceed and pass between 
them towards the Tancook Islands; these are inhabited ; the channels between them are 
bold, and the anchorages under their lee good, in from 7 to 12 fathoms water : but if you 
are proceeding for Chester between Green and Duck Islands, you must beware of the 
Outer Ledge, which always shows itself by breakers ; the mark to lead clear through 
this passage, is Chester Church well open of Great Tancook Island ; this mark will also 
carry you safe to the westward of the Bull Rock, already described ; and when you get 
near, or within half a mile of Tancook Island, steer out westward, and bring the same 
church to bear about north, and this will lead you up to the town. 

LUNENBURG BAY, called also Malaguash, is now a plar e of great population and 
considerable trade ; vessels carrying wood, cattle, vegetables, &c. are constantly employ- 
ed from here to Halifax; the harbor is very easy of access, and there is good anchorat^e 
to the very town. At its entrance lies Cross Island, about 30 feet high, and containing 
253 acres of land, on which a lighthouse is erected, the light and keeper's house are red 
and the lantern black ; on the N. K. sir' of this island is a nook, where coasters ride in 
safety; off this part lie the Hounds Rocks, which, in passing, niust have a berth; the 
west and south sides of the island are bold ; and two miles from its southern end is an ex- 
cellent fishing bank, with from 14 to 17 fathoms water. There are good channels on 
either side of Cross Island. 

Vessels sailing in or out, through the northern passage, should endeavor to keep about 
the raid''le of the channel, in order to avoid the sboals and rocks above mentioned, and 
also those adjacent to the opposite, or Colesworth Point ; having passed these, you should 



he westward of 

; broad ; to the 
rated by a chan- 
r passage is be- 
lle ground in it 
to the eastward 
anchorage in 8 

i feet, while be- 

ehoal one mile, 

s;p is good, and 

i'ancook is Star 

, so that vessels 

There is yet 

hward of Great 

this ledge, you 

t Island in one; 

len of the west 

S.W.I S.Will 

' starboard side 
isionally run in 

To the north- 
B, with 7 and 8 

some distance 
1 which lies on 
eltered, in 8 fa- 

iirroundcd by a 
djacent islands 
■esseJs are built 
are good, well 
a shoal, which 
;r, from which 

mds, is a large 
)assages into it 
i Island ; steer 
St islands, in 5 

commonly be 
ound and Flat 
pass between 
*een them are 
er : but if you 
beware of the 
clear through 
nark will also 
tvhen you get 
ring the same 

opulation and 
antly employ- 
od anchoras;e 
nd containing 
house are red 
iNters ride in 
a berth; the 
1 end is an ex- 
channeis on 

:o keep about 
mtioned, and 
e, you should 

keep the northern shore on board, bringing Battery Point to bear nearly N. W. by which 
you will also go clear of the Sculpin or Cat Rock. 

The Sculpin or Cat Rock, lies nearly in the middle of the bay, bearing N. E. distant 
three-quarters of a mile from Oven's Point; according to Des Barres, there are but three 
feet over this danger, but it will easily be discovered by the breakers over it at low water. 
Sailing through the western channel, which is to be preferred, you should endeavor to 
steer N. N. W. between Cross Island and Rose Point, where you will have 10 and 12 fa- 
thoms water; keep the Town of Lunenburg in sight over the low land to the eastward of 
Battery Point, and this will lead you clear of the rocky reefs about the Oven's Point; 
but beware lest you lessen your water below 7 fathoms, for the soundings about the point 
are very irregular; bring the Wagon Road at Lunenburg open to the westward of the 
Battery Point, and this will run you to the westward of the Sculpin, and between it and 
a rocky knoll of 4 fathoms water; having passed the Sculpin, haul up towards the north-* 
em shore, until you bring Moreau and Battery Points in one ; this being the direct mark 
for the Sculpin Rock, steer on in the direction of the Battery Point, approaching it oo 
nearer than a cable's length, then round Battery Point, and bring the road well open of 
the Moreau Point; this will run you clear into the hirbor, and between the Long Rock 
and the shoals off Battery Point, when you may direct your course for the town, where 
you will find 12 and l.J feet water along side the wharves, and near to them 20 and 24 
feet, soft muddy ground, and perfectly secure. ,. 

Vessels having occasion to go to the southward of the Long Rock, which is the wider 
and safer passage, will observe there is a reef runs out from Woody Point, culled the 
Shingles, which must be carefully avoided; to do this, when you have so far entered 
the bay as to be equi-distant between the Ovens, which are hollow cliffs, Battery (Mat) ' 
Woody Points, then edge off a litile to the westward, until you bring a farm house, that 
stands over the middle of Sandy Bay, on with the end of a wood close to ttn opening lik^ 
an avenue, bearing N. W. i N. steer with this mark on, until the west end of Lunenburg 
Town comes over Moreau Point, then steer N. Eastward a little, approach Battery 
Point, and proceed as before directed. 

The best anchorage in the Bay of Milaguash or Ltmenburg, is on its western sidet*^^ 
about half a mile from the shore, and nearly inid-wpy between Oven's and Woody Points ( 
where, with good ground tackling, you may s;ifcly ride out a S. Easterly gale; but tb<| ■ 
bottom is generally rocky and uneven. It is high water, full and change, gt 9 o'clock. 

Ddrtmoulfi Bay. This is siiiiatcd between Oven and Rose Points; there are soni9 
settlements about the sliores, and on an island at the bottom of the bay ; it is easy of en- ' 
trance, and you may anchor aitreast of this isliuid in 3, 4, 6, or 7 fathoms; in sailing in- 
to this bay, it will be always ailvisable to borrow somewhat towards the Rose Point short, 
because of the shoals which lie to the southward of the Oven's Point ; there is others 
wise no danger whatever. 

From Lunenburg to the Ironbound Island, at the entrance to Le Have River, the 
shores are bold, and much indented with irregular inlets or bays. Ironbound Island lien 
about W. S. W. ^ S. distant nearly 2 leagues from Cross Island; it is inhabited; and 
some small rocky islets surround its northern shore : S. E. A E. 1^ mile from this island 
is a bank of 20 and 25 fathoms, and W. S. W. three-quarters of a mile from that, is a 
small spot of 15 fathoms; these have from 30 to 40 fathoms about them. 

LE HAVP^ RIVER. — Vessels coming from the south-eastward for Le Have River, 
will not fail to discover Cape Le Have, a steep al)rupt cliff, 107 feet high, bearing W. | 
S. about 12 leagues distant from Sambro Lighthouse. S. E. by S. one mile from the 
Cape, is the Black Rock, 10 feet high, and 100 feet long, with deep water all round it, 
and 9 to 11 fathoms between it and the shore, except on a small knoll, lying off, and op- 
posite to, the Cape, over which are only 4 fathoms ; W. t)y S. distant 3i miles, is Indian 
Island; and to the northward of the Cape, lie several islands, with passages between 
thci7i; but the best entrance to the River Le Have is to the northward of them all. 
There is also a channel to the northward of Ironbound Island, but it is narrow, and to 
navigate this you must give the Ironbound Island a good berth; you will fhen have from 
12 to 4 fathoms water all through it ; but the best passage is to the westward of the isl- 
and, which is above one mile and a half broad, and has from 10 to 14 fathf-ms water with- 
in it ; about 3 miles to the N. Westward of Ironbound Island, is a bar which runs across 
from shore to shore ; over this are 12 and 15 iefl, the deepest water beina; one-third across 
from the eastern shore: the soundings from Ironbound Island towards the bar are 11, 14, 
12, 9, 7, 6, 5, 4, and 3 fathoms, the latter depth being close to the edge of the bar; but 
when you are well over that, you drop into 4, 5, and (' fathoms, the river continuing navi- 
gable 1" -niles uy). or so far as the falls ; the general wiiith of the river is half a mile, and 
whei. ou are 8 miles up it, you will meet with the road from Luneuburg to Liverpool, 
where a ferry is established. 

■ fe**s; 




Within and to the westward of Cape Le Have is Palmerston Bay, at the head of thi<» 
is Pftit Riviere; off the eastern eiilnince of this bay hes Indian Island, bearing W. by 
S. distant ;}.'t miles from Cape Le Have. 

PORT MF/rWAV lies between Cape Le Have and Liverpool Bay, and is a plare 
now rising into considerable conse(]uence, on account of its navigable capacity, and its 
convenience to the fisheries. The entrance to this port bears from Indian Island W. 8. 
W. distant 7 miles, rlio land to the eastward of it beinj^ remarkably broken and hilly ; on 
the starboard point of the entrance lies Kryins; Pan Island, which is connected, by a san- 
dy reef, to niimerotis islets which stretch alomj; in a N. N. E. ^ Northerly direction, nn- 
til they join the main land : that which is next to Frying Pan Island is commonly called 
Glover's Tsland, and lies half a mile to the northward, and bears S. E. ] S. a good mile 
and a half from Metway Head. The entrance to this port may be known by the high land 
at Cape Metway, and the low ragged islands before mentioned ; the widtli of the chan- 
nel is about seven-eighths of a mile, and the depth of water from 5 to 14 fathoms. Di- 
rectly in the way of your making for the entrance of the channel, lies the South West 
Ledge and the .Stone Horse Rock ; the former bears from the Frying Pan Island S.4^ E. 
distant | of a mile; there are 19 feet water upon it, and the sea, in rough weatlier, 
breaks over it: the latter, or Stone Horse Rock, lies E. by S. distant one-third of a mile 
from the S. W. Breaker, and dries at low water: there is 6, 7, and 8 fathoms between it 
and the Frying Pan Ledge, and should you pass this way, you must give the island a 

food bertb,.Qn account of a spit which runs out from it, in the direction of the Stone 
[orie RoQK, a full quarter of a mile; but tlie best course will be half a mile outside of 
both thead dangers, you will then pass in 12 and 14 fathoms water, and running on W. a 
little Southerly, toward Kempenfelt Head, you will open the channel, and may steer in 
dire<;j;ly north. Or, you will avoid the S. W. Ledge and Stone Horse Rocks, in coming 
from tne eastward, by bringing the Liverpool Lighthouse, which stands on Coffin Island, 
open tif the'laod to the eastward of it: and when Frying Pan Island comes N. N. E. dis- 

'• tant It mile, steer in N. J E. this will carry you past jNfetway Point ; and when opposite 
to Neii'f Poivt you may anchor in 4 or 4', fathduis water; from hence mud banks con- 
Bidera]bl3^,JiariiQ\<* the passage, and a pilot will be found necessary; but should you pro- 

' ceed firth'er Vrithout one, you will continue mid-channel from abreast of Neil's Point, 
Jt. N,.!WR|j^ N. until Collin's Island hears West, and until Alicia River is just opening 
. oif. Poittf li'iiSyt'then steer N. W. by N. and \V. N. W. I W. and anchor in 3 or 4 fa- 
thoms, muddy'ground. 
*I To run up Alicia River, you must sail between d'rass Island and Point Lucy, keeping 
clo^e to the southern and western shores, in order to avoid the flat which extends from 
the northward, leaving a deep but narrow channel. Barry Bay, or Branch, which runs 

\ up to the westward, U|^^allow, and full of rocky shoals: and so is Brier Bay, which is 
situated on the NrJK side of ihe port. The tide runs commonly with great strength, 
and it is high water at 45 minutes after seven. 

At Cape Le Have it is higli water full and change, at 8 o'clock, tide rises from f> to 7 feet. 

Malaquash Bay. 6 to 8 

Green Island 6 to 8 

Mahone Bay 7 

LIVERPOOL HAY.— The entrance to this bay hears about W. by S. distant 17 or 
18 leagues from Sambro Lighthouse. Halifax ; and W. S. W. | W. 15 miles from Cape 
Le Have; before it lies Coffin's Islund, which is now distinguished by a lighthouse, 75 
feet above the level of the sea; the light is on 'he revolving principle, and appears full 
at intervals of 2 minutes; between this island and the western land is the bay, aUbrding 
good anchorage for lar<,'e ships, especially with the wind off shore. In the bay there is 
sufficient room for turning to windward, and tht; deepest water will be found near the 
western coasts; the land in the vicinity of the harbor is broken, rocky, and of a barren 
appearance, yet the commerce of the town is very considerable. The channel to the 
northward of Coffin's Island is shallow, having a sandy spit running from it and joining 
the main land ; therefore none but small vessels ever attempt it: but the passage to the 
southward is full one mile and a half wide, and has 15, lb, 17. and IH fathotns water. 
Give the lighthouse |)oint of the island a small berth, as a flat of .3 and 4 fathoms encom- 
passes it, and there is no other danger. Bald Point, or Western Head, is bold to. and 
rendered remarkable by its having no trees upon it. Having entered this bay, and passed 
between Coffin's Island, and Moose Head, bringing the lighthovise to bear E. by N. dis- 
tant 1| mile, steer west; this will bring you abreast of Herring, or Schooner's Cove, sit- 
uated on the N. E. side of the bay, and affording good shelter from sea-winds in .3 fathoms 
water, on a bottom of mud ; or, proceeding further, vessels of two or three hundred tons, 
with high water, may pass over the bar, which stretches from Fort Point to the opposite 
shore; but at low water this cannot be done- for then it has not more than 9 or 10 feet 



he head of thi«( 
lieaiinjj; \V. by 

, and is a plare 
capacity, and its 
n Island W. 8. 
11 and hilly; on 
ected, by a san- 
y diiecfion, iiii- 
imnionly failed 

S. a good mile 
ty the hiLjh land 
th of the chan- 

fatlionis. iJi- 
le South West 
1 Island S.,| E. 
mnpli weatlier, 
■third of a mile 
oins berween it 
ve tlio island a 
n (if the Stone 
mile outside of 
Hininii on W. a 
[id may steer in 
jcks, in coming 
n Coffin Island, 
!s N. N. E. dis- 

when opposite 
lud banks coii- 
lould you prn- 
f Neil's Point, 
s just opening 
or in 3 or 4 fa- 
Lucy, keepiiiir 
I extends fnini 

h, which runs 

Bay, wliicli is 
;rcat strength, 

)m 5 to 7 feet. 
. .6 to 8 
. .6 to 8 


distant 17 or 
es from Cape 
tjlifhouse. 7.} 
I ajipears full 
bay, artbrdiiig 
e bay there is 
uiid near the 
i of a barren 
lannel to the 
ind joinine; 
)assaji;e to the 
tlionis water, 
bold to, and 
y, and passed 
h>. by N. dis- 
r's (Jove, sit- 
in .T fathoms 
undred tons, 
the op|)osite 
I 9 or 10 feet 


o\'er it ; when within the bar you will perceive the channel winds S. Westerly, and you 
can andior in not less than vi failioms, opposite the Town of Liverjioid. Herring Bay 
is much exposed to the heavy 8. Easterly swells of the sea, and has not room for more 
than two sloops of war. 

It is liiijh water in Liverpool Bay, full and change, at 50 minutes after 7, and the tides 
rise from 5 to 8 feet. 

PORT MATOON, or MOUTON. called by Des Barres, Gambler Ha>bor.— This 
port is formed iiy the Island Matooii, which lies across its entrances, dividing it into two 
channels. In the eastern passage lies the rocky ledge, called the Portsmouth, or Black 
Rocks, partly dry ; this is about one mile to the eastward of the island, and lies S. W. 
by W. distant 5 miles from Bald Point ; the passage on either side of this ledgehas deep 
water, with sufficient room to turn into the harbor. From the N. W. part of Mouton a 
shoal runs off a full mile, having J] fathoms near its outer extremity; over some parts 
of tlii? shoal you will have .'}, 3;, ■ od 4 fathoms; here also is a small spot of foul ground, 
with 'JO feet over it; this lies I'l. i^ W. | W. from the N. W. end of Mouton.Island, 
and N. E. i E. from the Northern Spectacles Island, distant half a mile. The Specta- 
cles lie to the W. N, Westward of Mouton Island, and are visible as you enter the port ; 
to the northward and westv.ard of them are 10, 11, and 12 fathoms water, muddy and 
sandy ground, with good anchorage, secure from all winds. To suil into Port Mouton 
by the eastern channel, and with a leading wind, to the northwarci of the Black Rocks, 
you may steer in W. by N. passing at the distance of three-ipiarters of a mile from White 
Point, until yon bring the Spectacle Islands to bearS. S. W. ,} W. ; this wiTt Carry you 
clear to the northward and westward of Mouton Island N. W. Shoal, then haul up S. 
W. by W. for the anchorage before mentioned. To sail in to the westward of the Black 
Rocks, you should steer in N. W. mid-chann ' or nearly half a mile froii(^ Montdn Isl- 
and ; in this ])assage you will find t''-< m 8 tr ' i.^ins water; alwayejiviojg the south- 
ern part of the island a berth, on ; eoiint •' . sandy flat wliich runs o|fftj^-In adopl'mg 
this channel, mariners must look out for a >,iiall knoll of (j feet, said to fie^J. N. E. f E* 
distant one milo and a half from the southern extremity of Mouton Islaod.} this appears 
to be a modern discovery. * 

'^IMie Western Passage to Port Mouton is between the island and the igain, and only 
frequented by coasters and vessels of a small draught of water; it is eofeumhered witn 
shoals, and too intricate for straiiirers; the channel is narrow, and close tO the tnaiqlfiDd^ 
jiassiiig iictwccn it and tlie Bull Kock : haviim passed which, you can proceed to the an- 
chorages, either otl' the \. W. shore of Mouton Island, or round the Spectacles. 

The land now turns S. W. i' W. from Point Mouton towards I|ort Jolie ; midway is 
a black craggy point, with several rocks about it ; 8. \ E. distant 2^ miles from Black 
Point, and S. W. 14 miles from Liverpool Liirhthouse, lies Little Hope, an island 21 
feet high, and 1200 fathoms long ; this is a very great danger, ana i|)|auld have a beacob 
to distinguish it; round the island is a shoal ground, partly drying, and with 3 and 4' 
fathoms upon some parts ; it lies dirct E. S. E. from the eastern point of entrmce to 
Port .lolie, from which it is distant two good miles; between the island and point, some- 
what nearer to the latter, there is said to lie a ilangerous shoal,' not hitherto noticed in 
the charts. 

Port .lolie is an inlet more than .5 miles deep, but very shallow, and having scarce wa- 
ter enough for large boats ; the lands adjacent appear barren and stony, yet have some 
families of fishermen settled there. Nearly south from the eastern point of Port Jolie, 
distant one mile, is a spot of 3 fathoms, over which the sea commonly breaks; and on 
the western entrance of the port are some ro(;ky ledges, which show themselves by the 
breakino; of the water over them ; there is also a small island, lying to the S. Westward, 
called the Little or Lesser Hope. 

PORT L'EBERT —This is the third inlet west of Liverpool, and may readily be 
known by tht steep and abrupt appearance of its western head : and by Green Isl- 
and, which lies to the S. Westward of its entrance ; this island is somewhat remarkable, 
being destitute of trees. Port L'Ebert is divided from Port Jolie by a peninsula, which, 
at the head of tlie respective ports, is scarcely half a mile across. The channel in runs 
nearly North 6 or 7 miles: but, although small vessels may run a considerable way up, 
ships of larger size can only find anchorage at its entrance; the depth half a mile from 
the head, is from 9 to 12 feet ; but at the mouth of the port are 6, 4, and 3 fathoms. 

SABLE RIVER lies to the S. Westward of Port L'Ebert, distant 5 miles; at its 
entrance, nearly midway of the channel, is a rocky islet; this lies S. W. by W. from 
Green Island, distant .'U miles ; there is a passage on either side of the rock ; that to the 
eastward has 12, 13, and 15 fathoms water, but that to the westwan! is somewhat shal- 
lower ; the two points of entrance of the river are distant from each other one mile and 
a quarter, with from 6 to 11 fathoms ; but there is a bar which renders this place totally 
unfit for aifording shelter to any but the smallest class of vessels ; it is, however, not 


.,:'.j»i«**t-- ■ 




destitute of inhabitants, some of whom Hie settled in a small nook close to the westward 
of the river, which h (.alk'd the Little Harbor. 

RUGGED ISLAND ILVRBOll lies W. by S. distant 15 miles from the Hope Isl- 
r.nd, and E. N. E. 9 miles from .Sheli)iirne Light. It seems to have been so uned from 
its craj^gy and ruggeil appearance, and the numerous dangerous ledges and ^Ken rocks 
at its entrance. This harbor is difficult of access, and seldom resorted to, unless by the 
fishermen, who are familiar with its navigation; yet the anchorages are good, with 4,1 
and 4 fathoms; during gales of wind, the iinevenness of the ground frequently causes 
the sea to put on a most formidable appearance, breaking violently from side to side. 
Off the western head, distant about a mile, is the Gull, a bed of rocks, over which the 
water always breaks ; but between the head and the (iull are from 6 to H fathoms. Ves- 
sels coming from the eastward will jierceive 8t. Thomas's or Rugged Island, lying S. 
W. by W. fruin Green Island, distant b^' miles ; this island, having high rocky clifls on 
Its easte^rn side, allbrds a good mark for the harbor. To the S. W. of Rugged Island 
are some rocky ledges; the outermost of these is called the Bear Rocks, being distant 
from the island three-quarters of a mile; between Rugged Island and the Bear Rocks, 
are ether dangers; and a little westward of the Bears is a sunken rotk ; these three lat- 
ter, lying in a sort of triangular form : W. by N. from the Bear Rocks, distant one mile, 
is the Blow Breaker, a rock with only 4 feet over it ; this appears to be the Tyger of Des 
Baicres, by whose description it should bear south from Rugg Point, which is the east- 
ern bouudary of the harbor. To sail from the eastward for Rugged Harbor, you will 
see tJje eastern cliffs of Rugged Island bearing north, distant 1 \ mile ; keep a good look- 
•ou? for the Blow, or Tyger Rock, and |)ass well to the outside of the foregoing dangers ; 
ti*jd having cleared these, haul up N. N. W. for the islands on the left, or larboard side 
of the harbor : in so doing you must be careful to avoid a shoal which stretches half way 
over from the starboard shore, narrowing the channel very considerably, so that between 
the aboal antJ^P^uffatt Island, the passage is not above a quarter of a mile wide; pursu- 
ing this direction, you will readily reach the anchorage in the Northern Arm. In the 
best of the channel. Center Island will be just open of MuHait Island. Small vessels 
°j(nay be ifi^ sheltered within Cubb Basin, which is to the northward of Mufl'att Island ; 
litid vessCjKcoQung from the southwaid or westward will have deep water on either side 
of the GOB&oc'ks, or between the Bear and Blow Rocks. At Cape Negro and Rugged 
\Jsland H^or, It {b high water, fiill aud change, at H o'clock ; and the rise of the tide is 
about riiek. 

.■ , GB.EEN HARBOR.— This port is to the westward of Rugged Island Harbor, hav- 
L-,ing Wtt island on its western side of entrance, and running in full three miles; this and 
' Hhe River Jordan, situated still further to tne westward, r.ppear to be places where good 
■if^ anchorages may be obtained, but they are at present little frequented by shipping, al- 
ii though they have miiny inhabitants ; they are open to southerly winds, which cause a 
' heavy rolling sea. 

SHELBURNE HARBOR, or PORT ROSEWAY, is, according to Mr. Lock- 
,^ wood, juiitly esteemed the best in all Nova Scotia, from the ease of its access, and per- 
.- , feet security of its anchorages, which distinguishes it perfectly from Sambro Light. At 
the entrance of the harbor is the Island of P^oseneath, or M'Nutts, which is nearly 
-3 miles in length, and 1^ in its broadest part : on the S. E. point of this island stands an 
excellent lighthouse; this point is a high clilf of white rocks, the summit of which is 
without trees ; the west side of the island is low. The lighthouse is painted white, and 
has a remarkable appearance in the day-time, on account of a dafli wood that is behind 
it; while, at night, two lights are exhibited from it : the upper light is 125 feet above 
the level of the sea, and the lower about one-third from the top of the building. This 
lighthouse bears from the lighthouse of Sambro W. S. W. distant 30 leagues; from 
Cape Negro N. E. J^ N. 7 miles ; fioni Point Btny S. W. tV S. 2} miles ; from the break- 
ers South west of Rugged Island W. N. W. f W. 8 miles, and from the Jigg Rock, 
which has only 6 feet water over it, N. N. E. ^ E. IT mile. When coming in from 
sea, make for the lighthouse, bringing it to bear N. W. or N. W. by N. then steer di- 
rectly towards it : the dangers to be left to the eastward of you, are those adjav;ent to the 
Rugged Rocks already mentioned, the Bell Rock, which is always visible, appearing 
black and bold to, lying E. N. E. ^ E. distant 2j miles from the lighthouse. In coming 
from the westward, you may steer for the entrance on either side of the Jigg Rock, and 
if for the eastward, on either side of the Bell Rock. When you get abreast of the light- 
house you may sail in to the northward of M'Nutt's Island about N. W. by N. keeping 
nearly in mid-channel ; the island's side is bold to, and the anchorage is good, in 7, 8, or 
10 fothoms, the bottom mud ; keep ihe western shore on board, for there is a shallow 
spot somewhere about the eastern side, between George's and Sandy Points. Sandy 
Point is about two miles beyond the N. W. part of M'Nutt's Island ; give it a berth, for 
a sandy spit extends from it 3U0 yards. With M'Nutt's Island locked to this point, the 



to the westward 

anchorage is exceedingly good, and sliipping may. with good ground tackling, ride in 
safety during the most violent storm. In the channel, about 8. by E. distant nearly one 
mile from Carlton Point, lies the Adamant Jiock, abreast of Dnrfcy's House ; this will 
easily be avoided by going into no less water than 4', or 5 failionis, or by keeping Petit's 
Island open of Surf Point. The inlet which runs up to tlie N. W. has several shoals, 
in it, but the eastern shore has regular soundings, from Sandy Point upwards, and is 
free from danger, while in the upper part of the harbor, above Carlton Point, vesselsmay 
ride in 5, 6, or 7 fathoms, the ground holding well. We have already stated, that your 
course from the entrance towards Sandy Point will be about N. W. by N. and having 
rounded Sandy Point, you tan I'locci'd N. I.y W. and North, accordir;: to your wind. 

In coming from the eastward of this iiarboi, be careful to avoid, and give a good berth 
to, the shoals oif Kugged Island ; and do not haul up for the harbor until you get the 
lighthouse to bear VV. by N. A N. by whicli precaution you will go clear of every danger: 
or you may stop a tide at the entrance in from K) to lU fathoms, sand and clay* 

Shelburne afiords excellent shelter for ships in distress, and is secure against any wind, 
except a violent storm at S. S. W. abreas^t of tlie town, the wind from S. to E. does no 
harm, allhouj^h from S. by W. to S. W. by S. if blowing hard for some considerable 
time, it will set the smaller vessels adrift at the wharves; but in the stream, as has been 
observed before, with good cables and anchors, no winds can injure you. Hereyoumay 
be supplied with cordage, duck, spars, provisions, and water. Carpenters, )iii,*»'n. blOck, 
and sail makers, can be obtained, if re'iuired ; and the port charges for vessels which L>ut 
in for supplies only, is no more than 4d. per ton, light money, on foreign bottoraV; but 
should you enter the custom-house, the duties become much higher. It is higU water, „, 
full and change, at 8 o'clock ; spring tides rise H feet, neaps 6, but a fresh breezeTrpna 
the S. E. commonly brings on high water sooner, and causes an additional rh&oii or 
3 feet. 

CAPE NEGRO HARBOR is named from Cape Negro, the easter|i,%nit of an isl- 
and which lies before its entrance ; this Cape is remarkably high,^rocl;y, and hmnay' 
bearing S. W. 4 S. distant 7 luiles from Shelburne Lighthouse ; this i'stand is very low 
midway, and has the appearance of being two islands. There are twa'-pibssaj^s into the 
harbor, one to the eastward of the island, and the other to the westwartlpfitji^fbe former 
is much the better of the two, but this is rendered dangerous, on accoput Cffi^o sunken 
rocks which lie off its entrance ; these are called the Gray Rocks and'ttie Btmget: thft 
Gray Rock lies N. N. E. from the Cape, distant a full mile, and is situated neariy on th* 
starboard side of the channel ; some parts of these rocks are always visible, su)<j senre aa . 
a mark for the harbor. The Budget is a blind rock of 6 feet, lying nearly ratd*channe|^.,- 
and only a quarter of a mile from the island, having deep water round it. In the chan- 'J 
nel to the eastward ofthe Budget you will have 10, 1-2, and 14 fathoms, and the best direc- ^,; 
tion to enter the harbor, will be to steer one-third from the rocks Off the eastern point, 
until Shelburne Lighthouse is shut in, then you will be within the danger. There itt * 
excellent anchorage off the N. E. part of Negro Island, in from 6 to 4 fathoms, on a bot-. 
tom of stiff mud. The northern part of the island presents a low shingly beach, (rovt^ Cf 
which a bar extends quite across to the eastern shore, over which are 15 fe^J at low water 5v'.,^ 
above this bar it is navigable full 6 miles, having a smooth clayey bottomfwith 3, 4, and 
5 fathoms water. 

The passage to the westward of Negro Island is somewhat intricate, encumbered with 
rocks and dangers, anjl should not be attempted except in cases of extreme emergency; 
in such circumstances, indecision or timidity might produce certain destruction; theo 
the commander's post should be aloft, and if not possessing confidence himself, he should 
affect it. Captain Des Barres, says, " if coming from the westward, in hauling round 
Point Jeffery, to avoid the ledges, blind rocks, and shoals, extending easterly from thft 
western shore, you should shape your course N. N. E. i N. towards the Cape, giving 
the Savage Rocks a berth of three cables' lengths, until you open Davis's Island, a sail's 
breadth off Point William; Davis's Island is the largest, and westernmost at the head of 
the harbor ; run up in that direction, observing to keep clear of a sunken rock which 
lies E. S. E. from Point William, about 300 fathoms from the shore. Fishery Beach is 

To sail through the north-east passage, which is not so difficidt, keep Gray's Rocks 
on board, and steer N. W. for Point John, until you see across the isthmus in the mid- 
dle of Cape Negro Island, or until Shelburne Lighthouse is shut in, and having passed 
the Budget, from thence haul over to the westward, keeping along the shore about 2 
cables' lengths from the island, to avoid the shoal, which extends half the distance over 
from Point John, towards the island ; and when you have opened the small islands at the 
head of the bay shape your course N. N. W. to the anchoring ground, the bottom is 
mud and clay; along the N. E. side of Cape Negro Island, the auchorage is good stiff 




It n* i 

I , The River Clydn, whicli (Jescends from a rhiiin of lakes that extends E. N. E mul W, 

S. W. a coijsideriibic! distance in the interior, lulls into the head of Negro Harbor, af- 
ter a run of 28 miles. 

PORT LATOUR, or HALDTMANT), is situated a little westward of Neirro Har- 
bor, being separated from it by a narrow peninsula ; Uie extreme points which bound the 
entrance to the southward, are Point Jelfery, or Blanche Point, to the eastward, and 
Point Baccarro to the west , between and within there are several clusters of roeks, rt-n- 
dering the harbor unfit for any but small craft ; and the tide leaves the head of the in- 
let dry in many places ; the adjacent lands are barren, and the settlers are but few ; nt ver- 
theless, as some vessels may be driven to seek shelter here, the following directions of 
Mr. Des liarres may prove acceptable. " To sail into this port, coming iVom the west- 
ward, continue your course easterly, until you have Hrehem Isle a ship's length open 
to the eastward of North Rocks : thence you may steer northerly for Isle (leorge, and 
when you come up within the distance of two cables' lengths from its south end, incline 
to the westward in a dnection with the western extremity of Pond lieach until you ojjen 
Prospect House on the north side of the northernmost Mohawk Ledges, and then haul 
into anchorage in 3 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

" Nearly midway between Baccarro Point and the South Ledge lies the Folly, a sun- 
ken rock, within which and the western shore is a channel off) fathoms. The V'ulture, 
a dangerous breaker, lies S. W. A S. nearly two miles from Baccarro Point." 

BARRINGTON BAY. — This is a spacious inlet, situated to the westward of Port 
Latour, and formed by Cape Sable Island, which lies in front of its 3ntrance; there are 
two passages into it, that to the eastward is between Baccarro Point and Sable Island, 
beiog at its entrance three miles wide; that to the westward is not more than a mile 
broaa; both are encumbered with numerous and extensive flats, narrowing the passages, 
and rendering the navigation dangerous; for although the channels may generally be 
discovered, oy the waters appearing dark, yet it will require a leading wind to wind 
through to the anchorage, which is towards the head of the bay, and about one mile and 
a half lielow the town ; here there are from IH to ^(i feet water. The passage to the 
nortbwatd and westward is used by small vessels only, and is not safe without a cominand- 
ingbreBae, as the tide of ebb is forced unnaturally through to the eastward, by the B:\y 
ofFundy tide, |t the rapidity of 3, 4, and sometimes 5 knots an hour; setting immedi- 
atdy upon the rocks which lie within it. 

The Town of Barrington is situated at the north-eastern extremity of the bay. Ves- 
• hHb venturing into this bay by the eastern passage, must be very careful to avoid Baccarro 
Point, giving it a wide berth of full 2 miles on account of the Bantan, Shot Pouch, the 
Vultuje, and other rocks which lie off it ; the Vulture Rock is very dangerous, and lies 
W. S. W. from Baccarro Point, distant nearly 2 miles ; tlie IJantan bears S. S. W. 
from the point about a similar distance, and from the Vuliurc S. hi, almost one mile; 
they are both exceedingly dangerous. 

CAPE SABLE is the south-easteru extremity of a small narrow island which is sep- 
arated and distinct from Cape Sable Lsland ; it is low and woody, but the Cape itself is a 
,. broken white cliff, apparently in a state of decomposition, and visible 4 or 5 leagues olf; 
ifef- from this island spits of sand extend outward, both to the south-east and south-westward ; 
the Eastern Ledge is called the Horse Shoe, and runs out 2.\- miles S. E. by S. ; the 
Western, or Cape Ledge, stretches to the S. W. about 3 miles. The tides, both flood 
aud ebb, set directly across these ledges at the rate of 3 and sometimes 4 knots an hour ; 
causing a strong break to a considerable distance, particularly when the wind is fresh ; it 
will then often extend full 3 leagues out, shifting its direction with the tide, the flood car- 
rying it to the westward and the ebb to the eastward, the former running a considerable 
time longer than the latter. This rippling, or breaking of the water, may be considered 
hazardous to pass through in a gale of wind, but there is not less than 8, 10, 12, aud 
20 fathoms, rocky ground. 

It is high water at Cape Sable, full and change, at three quarters after 7 o'clock, and 
the spring tides rise 12 feet neap 6. 

BONNETTA COVE.— To the north-westward of Cape Sable is a small island, called 
Green Island, to the N. East of which an inlet runs in to Cape Sable Island, forming 
Bonnetta Cove, where good anchorage may be found in 3 fathoms water; the entrance to 
it is narrow, and runs in between a spit and the- island ; this will be too difficult for a 
stranger to discover, but is frequented by the coasters and fishermen. 

FAVORITE COVE is situated in the Western Channel, and about the middle of 
Cape Sable Island ; here also small vessels may run in and anchor in 2 fathoms, behind a 
small islet which lies mid channel, at its entrance, affording a passage on either side, but 
that to the eastward is the best, and has the deeper water. With S. W. gales there is 
always good anchorage off the N. E. side of Cape Sable Island; but the Shag Harbor, 
which lies on the opposite side of the Western Channel, and bears N. N. W. from Bon- 



o'clock, and 

netta Ctfi", i" f"ll of shoals, and must not l)e attempted, unless you arc well acquainted 
with il.^' It is here high water, lull and change, at 9 o'clock, spring tides 11 fe.;t, neaps 
8 feet. , 

THK| BRAZIL ROCK. — This is a flat rock, covering a space of 10 yards, over which 
are only'8 and 9 feet at low water; a tail extends 90 or 100 yards from its hase, having 
6 to ri llfthonis water ; the tide runnm<; strons? over this, causes a ripple, and makes the 
rock ap|»t>ar larger than it really is. Southward of the rock, at the distance of about a 
mile, you will have .'15 and .'{4 fathoms, then :M and -J-2 as you approach nearer to it ; but 
towards the Cape Sable shore the soundings are regular, from 19 to 15 fathoms, you will 
then lessen your water to 10 and 7 fathoms, when you will beat the edge of the Race-horse 
Shoal; to the northward of the Brazil llock, in the direction of the Bantan Rock,' you 
will have Hi, 1!), 15, 17, Ki, 15, and 10 fatlionn ; with this latter depth you will be near 
the Bantan. and must tack to the westward. The exact position of this rock has been 
much disputed, but the place assigned to it by .Mr. Des Barres, appears to be nearly cor- 
rect ; its latitude is 4.3^ 24' 15" N. and longitude 65° 22' VV. 

Magnetic Bearings and Distances between Halifax and Cape Sable. 

From .Sanibro Lighthouse to Cross Island Lunenburg, nearly West, 8^ le^ues* 

-Capi! La Have, W. jf S 12 

-Liverpool Lighthouse W. by S 17^ 

-Hope Island near Port .Tolie, . . W. S. W. | W 21 

-entrauce'of Port Shelburne, . . . W. S. W 2) 

-Cape Negro, W. S. VV. a little westerly 31| 

-Cape .Sable, 

W. S. W i W* 








*dmi > 


ICK. — H. M. packet brig Express fell in with twf) islands of ice on ^hjig Isll|todr0t|n1c» 
the 7th July, 183G, in 45 fathoms water, estimated heights 180 and ISdl^ipt^ < liaUtlido 
43° 13' N. longitude 2b° 17' W. Air 46°, water 42°. .'.>*„?,' V 

Brazil Rock Nearly W. S. W 34^ 

Shelburne Lighthouse to Cape Negro, .S. W. iS ,.,... 7- 

Cape Negro to the Brazil Rock S. W. J S .,'a..10 

Cape Sable to the Brazil Rock, S. E. by E .\i .^ * '.'i - 8| 

.•^f . 

• This course cannot be sailed upon account of the intervention of the land. 


I ra 


ON the days of the new and full moon, it is high water along the south, shore of 
island at half an hour after 8 o'clock, and it (lows till hiilf an hour papt 10 o'olo<^ od 
north side, and till near 11 o'clock in the pond. Common spring tides rise pevoD feet pfN^t, 
pendicular, and neap tides four. The flood sets in from the S. S. W. at the (ate of half a 
mile an hour, but it alters its course, and increases its velocity, near the ends of theislapc^ 
At half-flood it streams north, and south at half-ebb, with great swiftness, across the noHfa-> 
east and north-west bars ; it is therefore dangerous to approach without a commanding 
breeze. The north-east bar runs out E.N.E. about four leagues from the eastern extremity 
of the island, all which is very shoal, having in a few places no more than 2, 3, or 4 fathoms 
water, whence it continues E. and E. by S. deepening gradually to 12, 15, and 18 fathoms 
water, at the distance of 8 or 1 leagues, and shaping to the S. and S. E. sloping gently to 60 
and 70 fathoms water. To the northward and eastward it is very steep, and, in a run of 3 
miles, the water will deepen to 130 fathoms. Abreast of the body of the island the soundings 
are more gradual. The shoal ground of the north-west bar shapes to the westward, and 
deepens gradually to 70 fathoms water, at the distance of 20 or 25 leagues from th.e isle, 
and winds easterly and southerly, until it meets the soundings oft' the north-east bar. 
The quality of the bottom in general, is very fine sand, with a few small tran.sparent 
stones ; to the northward, and close to the north-east bar, the sand is mixed with many 
black specks ; but near the north-west bar, the sand has a greenish color. The north- 
east bar breaks in bad weather, at the distance of 8 and 10 leagues from the island ; but 
in moderate weather, a ship may cross it at 5 leagues distance, with great safety, in no 
less than 8 or 9 fathoms water ; and. if the weather be clear, the island may be seen 
hjnce very distinctly from a boat. The north-west bar breaks, in bad weather, at 7 and 
sometimes 8 miles from the island ; but when the sea is smooth, ships may cross it 






within the (lifltiuicc of 4 iniltss, in 7 I'iithoins wiiler. — These hurs iirc tliils di'Mcrilicd by 
Mr. Des HHrrcs : hut rcpeiititil stoniis, arxi the violence ofthe »i:.\, may, in cnuriie ^t'years, 
have eoiiMiderabiy altered tlnii- Ibrni and extent. 

Alung the north and tiiMttli sides oi the island are many 8pits ofsand, nearly parallel 
with ami within a tHile Ironi the shore. Vessels may anchor on the north .side ol the 
island, between the spits, ami not be liable to be driven oil' by southerly winds. On the 
south side, it is boldest oil' the body ofthe island, having 10 or I'J fathoms water, within 
a mile ofthe shore ; but towards the bar it is more shnnl, and daii^iTous to approach ; for 
the currents, which arc uncertain, are, in a fi;reat de;;riM', influenced by the winds which 
have preceded. The surf l»eats continually on the shure, and in calm weather, is heard 
several leagues olf. Landing; ou this island, wiih boats, is practicable on the north side 
after a continuance of good weather only. The whole island is composed of white sand, 
much coarser than ;my of the s()undiii!:;s about it, and intermixed with small transparent 
stones. Its face is very broken, and liuve up in little Inlls, knobs, and dills, wddly lie:ip< 
ed together, within whi>'h are hollows and ponds olfiesli water, the skirts of whicli aboutid 
with cranberries the whole year, and vith iiluebt-rrics. juniper, (\'c. in their season ; as 
also with ducks, Miipes, and other birds. This sandy island alfonls great plenty of bench 
grass, wild pe^is, and other herbage, for the support ot the horses, cows, hogs, dec. which 
are ruontag wild upon it. It grows no trca-s ; but abundance of wreck and drift wood 
may b*^ Wcked up along the shore for fuel. Strong ntutlierly winds shift the spits of 
saittk ipa often even dioak u|) the cntranci! ofthe pond whicli is «ii the .South side of 
the island. In this pond are prodigious miiiibers of seals, and some llat-lish, eels, ice. 
and on the south-west side, lies a bed of remarkably largo muscles and dams. The south 
shore Is, between the clill's, so low, that the sea breaks (|uite over in many places, when 
the wind blows on the island. The Ram's Head is the highest hill on this island; it 
has a steep cliff on the north-west, and falls gently to the south-east. The naked Saml- 
hills wcp l46 feet in perpendicular height, above the level of high water uuirk, and always 
appear very white. Mount Knight is in the shape of a pyramid, and situated in a hol- 
low, between two steep cliffs. Mount Luttrell is a remarkable hummock on the top of 
a large swelling, in the land. Gracia Hill is a knob at the top of a cliif, the height of 
, which if 126 feet perpendicular, above high water mark. The Vale of Misery is also 
. remarkablie, a| is Smith's Flag-Staff, a large hill, with a regular ascent every way. From 
the offingf the south side ofthe island appears like a long ridge of sandy cliffs, lessening 
towards the west end, which is very low. 

Ship masters are too ready to abandon their vessels when stranded on the shores of 
thia island: in moderate weather an immediate .ttempt shotild be made to get out an 
anchor; for, as the sand is soft and luoveable, it will often happen that a vessel can be 
got oflTat once, which in a few hours would be totally lost : when the surf is so smooth 
ai«to permit landing, it is generally smooth enough to carry out an anchor. The Bri- 
tish barque Tottenham, in 1832, got on the N. W. bar ; the crew and passengers land- 
ed, and in 11 hours she was discovered to be afloat, and all hands went on board and 
succeeded in getting clear. The ship Kagle, of New York, with a very valuable cargo, 
got on shore in August, 1835, on the S. E. part ofthe island ; after being on shore 4 or 
6 days she floated off, having very little water in her, and brought up a mile further to 
the eastward, where she was finally lost. 

At the present time, there are three houses on the Isle of Sable, one on each ex- 
tremity, and one near the centre ofthe island, in which individuals reside, who are em- 
ployed by the Provincial Government of Nova Scotia, to assist any vessels which may 
be wrftcked on these shores. Adjoining the house at the west end is a garden, and a 
piece of cultivated land, the only spot of the kind on the island, where vegetables and a 
considerable quantity of hay are annually produced. 

As when a vessel is on shore in a fog, it is of the utmost importance to ascertain her 
true position, in order to save the ship or the lives of those on board, the following di- 
rections should be attended to : 

If breakers are seen to extend in a direction N. W. and S. E. you are on the N. W. 

If breakers are seen to extend W. S. W. and E. N. E. you are on the N. E. bar. 

If breakers are seen to the northward ahead, and extending from to west, you are 
on the south side ofthe island. 

If breakers are seen to the southward ahead, and extending from east to west, you are 
on the north side of the island. 

The eastern end of this island is in 43° 5')' N. latitude, longitude 59° 48' W. : the 
western end is in 43° 57' N. lat., long. 60° 14' W. 

The Nova Scotia Banks extend nearly 70 leagues, in a westerly direction. From the 
Isle of Sable, they are from 20 to 25 leagues wide, and their inner edges are from 14 to 
18 leagues off-shore. They are intersected by narrow winding channels, (the bottom of 



wliirh is nuiil.) niiiniiiK N. W. ami S. K. nptwccn tlit-sf banks iiiuJ thr »}iore, are iieve- 
ralHiiiJill iiiiior I) inks, with (lf»!|) water and iniiddv boltoni. The water d<!«'|)f<ns regular- 
ly frnin tli.' Isle ol Sahlr, to the distance of 22 Ica^ucH, in T)!) fathoms, line jjravel ; thence 
procct'diiii; wt-stwani, the yravel becoiiH'H coarser; rontinniiii,' westward to the western 
extremity oC the l)anks, the Roni\dinns are rocky, and slioalcn to IH and 1j latlioms wa» 
ter: (Jape Sable bearini; N. by W. distant ir» leagues. 

The south-west exlreiiiity of liantjuereau, lies seventeen leagues K. N, E. one half 
E. from the east end (d the Isle of Sable. This bank extends E. by N. .'{5 leagues, and 
is near H leagues in width; its shoalest part is abotU 5 leai^iies from its eastern extremity, 
in Hi and IH fathoms water, slimy sand and clams: whence it deepens regularly every 
way to ()() and 70 fathoms, towards the edyes of the bank. 

This bank is steep to ; and from its sonndiims on the north side, you fall immediately 
into ')() or 100 fathoms water, black mud ; and, on the south s I •, into 120 fathoms'. 

REMARKS. — It may be observed, generally, that tVe soundings all along the Nova 
Scotian Coast, between ("ape Canso on the K, N. E. and t^ape Sable to the W, S. 
W. are very irrei;ular; from -Jf) to »(t and 50 fathoms; therefore in foggy weather, do 
not stand nearer in sliore than .]') fathoms, lest you fall upon some of the ledges. By 
no means make too bold with the shore in such weather, unless you are sure ofthe.pait 
of the coast you are on; for you may, otherwise, when bound for Halifax, fall unet- 
pectedly into Malione or Meekleidierg Bays, and thus be caught and endangered byaS. 
E.wind. >'■'■ 

The weather on the coast is frequently foggy in the spring and some part of the iWn- 
mer; in particular at the distance of 4 or 5 leagues from the shores; but on apprOKOhlng 
nearer, the weather is found more clear; and, with tlie wind from the land, ittvj|Mrfo<st- 
iy clear and pleasant. 


on the N. W. 

REMARKS. — Whoever examines and well considers the situation of the south t|Mt- 
'em roast of Nova Scotia, tlie Ray of Fnndy, and Manan Isla'- Js, will readily perceiye 
the dangers attendant upon the navigation of its harbors, its natural exposure to the At- 
lantic Ocean the variableness of its tides and winds, and the many rocks with which it is 
environed. These, tlierefore, must be expected to involve the mariner in occasional dif- 
ficulties, which will call forth his utmost energies, and require no comraofi share of at- 
tention to surmount ; yet, although the loss of vessels in these parts fully justify a peril- 
ous apprehension, there are few obstacles which a nuidcrate exercise of skill and resolu- 
tion would not have been able to overcome; nnd we fear it is more to the want of these 
qualifications in the navigators, than to the da.igers of the navigation, that such losses 
have ever occurred. • 

"It is essential," says Mr. Lockwood, "to the safety of those who are navigating the 
Bay of Fundy, that it should be clearly luideistood," and in cases of necessity, many are 
the places of safety to which vessels mi/^'ht resort, even without the advantage of a pilot: 
although no man would attempt to justifv the ccoimmy of saving the expense of pilot- 
age, on a coast like this, where currents, fogs, and changes of weather may confound 
the best judgment. 

In order to lessen these accidents, if not totally to prevent such fatal occurrences in 
future, let the mariner be fully convinced of the necessity of frequently sounding with 
the deep-sea lead, and see the expediency of having his anchors and cables fit for im- 
mediate use; this cannot be too strongly impiessed upon his mind, for vessels well 
equipped and perfect in gear, with their anchors stowe^l as in the middle of the Atlantic 
Ocean, have been here wrecked, in moderate weather, and so frequently, that such gross 
neglect cannot be too much reprobated; such serious losses will, we trust, be hereafter 
prevented, more especially as it is so dependant upon the mariner himself, and may 6e in 
most cases, remedied by only sounding in time, and keeping the lead in continual action. 

TIDP2S. — Another subject most particularly essential to the mariner, is a knowledge 
of the tides ; this we recommend seriously to his attention. 







THE (COASTS, ISLANDS, &c.— Hi-fore wp givr a dpurription of the rP'=i lantl, 
from ('aptt Sahlr lo ilic cntniiicc of tin- IJiiy o( Kiindy, it iiihv lie proprr to n» the 
iMhiiut<i and rucks which lie adjacent and to the westward (il Cape Salde; these «re the 
Jilonde llork.llic Seal, (on which is a li^hthniise) and IVIlid islands; the 'IMiKket IslalMlx, 
the (irannet Kork, and (ireen l.sland, Arc. The Seal IslandH Honthernniost point b'-.rrs 
from Cnpe Sahle nearly W. N. VV. } W . distanl l(> miles, liein^ somewhat more thiin 
two inilcH in lentrth from Nortli to Soutli. Its sonthern part is covered with scrnliliv 
trees, elevated ahout thirty feet aliovc timsea; to the sonthwaid o( this part, distant iwi) 
miles and seven-tenths, is a rock uncovered at low wat«'r called the itionde, iVoni a vessel 
that in 1777 was wrecked upon it ; round this rock are 7, !>, and 10 lathoins water. Aliout 
a mile to the westward of the Hlonde are very heavy and dangerous overfalls, liavinu u 
Tcrv alarininti; appearance. The ship Waterloo, in passiuR between the Hlonde Kock 
and Seal Island, struck twice ujion a rocky shoal, with only eij;hteen feet water over 
it, and thefebv knocked o(f her rudder; this was supposed tc» he a jiart of the ledpe 
which nins oil" to the southward of the Seal Island. ^I'he lilonde llork is particu- 
larly dangeroun,^aa the ehh tide sets so stronjily towards it; and from tlie Inwness of 
the Seal Islands you are so likely to he deceived, even in line weather. 'I'he tide also 
runn with great rapidity past the Seal and Mud Islands, whidi occasions tlie sea to lirrak 
over the shoals in their vicinity, making them appear more extensive than perhaps they 
really are. In sailing, therefore, between the Seal Island and the Miul Islands, large ves- 
■•laahould always keep one tnile o(f the latter, by wjiich they will avoid the overfaHs in .1 
f'athbms. Off the western part of the Seal Island, distant one mile, lie two small rockv 

' islets, called the Devil's Limb, and the liiinb's Lindi; tlic Devil's Liud) is fisible at all 
times, and the Limb's Limb is onlj seen at half tide. The smoothest anchorage is mid- 
way between these and Seal Island in li', or 4 fathoms, clear sand; wild fowl and fish 
Ve here in iftmndance. The fishermen r"sort to this island for wood and water; the for- 

:|tt*l(^l^ktiif fkbtain from wrecks, the latter from a pond near the centre of the island. 

^XwiMud Islands, called also the North Seals, are !y or (> low ragged islands, the largest 
of which lies N. E. by N. .3} miles from the .Southern Seal Island ; if is one mile and a 
quarter loitg, and off its southern point lies tlie Noddy, a little low islet; to the south- 

i%ard of which are overfalls of eighteen feet; large vessels, in passing between Seal 
9Xtd Mud Island, shouldbe careful to borrow within a mile of .Seal Island, for these over- 

-'Cills ex^d full threc-qtutlrters of a mile from Noddy Islet. To this islet the petrels, or 
Mother Gary's chickensTannually resort in great quantities to hatch their young, (lit- 
tlng about in astonishing numbers. Nearly N. W. by >. distant two miles fnirn the 

largest Mtid Island, is a ridge of rocks, called the Soldier's Ledge; it is commonly un- 
Oovered at half ebb. The course from abreast of Cape Sable to pass between Seal and 
Mud Islands, is W.W. by W. you will meet with some overfalls in this direction, but no 

Tnsket-Bald Islands are a cluster of islands lying to the northward of the Mud Isl- 
ands and to the south-westward of the entrance of the Tusket River; some of them are 
of considerable dimensions, and there are juany shoals and dangers among them, so that 
although there may be navigable channels between, no stranger should attempt these 
passages. In the channel which separates the Tusket and Mud Islands, is a rocky shoal, 
called by Des Barres the Acteon ; it lies N. N. W. distant 4 miles from the largest Mud 
Island, but Mr. Lockwood places it one mile and a half further off; nevertheless, these 
are generally supposed to be the sairie dangerous shoal, although its position does not 
seem to have been exactly detprmined ; it appears to have from 2 to 4 fathoms over it, 
and therefore must be carefully watched for and guarded against by those who should 
venture through this channel. 

TUSKET RIVER runs in to the north-eastward of the Tusket Islands, and is one 
of several inlets that are navigable on this part of the coast; it has several settlements, 
on its banks, but at present it is little known or frequented. 

PUBNICO HARBOR is, according to Mr. Lockwood's account, "an excellent ship 
harbor, easy of access, and well situated for vessels bound for the Bay of Fundy, and dis- 
tressed for either shelter or supplies. Its entrance is distant from the south end of Seal 
Island 12 or 13 miles, from which it bears N. E. ^ E. the depths of water between tlem 
being from 16 to 20 fathoms, and from thence to 12 and 7 fathoms Up so far as the beach, 
which is the proper place for strangers to anchor. Above this beach, otx the western 
Hide, is a ledge, which becomes partly dry at low water. About 2 or .3 miles, on the 
starboard shore, before you arrive at the entrance to Pubnico is St. John's Island, under 
the northern side of which is good shelter in S. easterly gales ; and small vessels fre- 




f|UPntiy lif rouiul th« hriirh whi(h forrii»< ifi rumrrn |)nrt; Imi ronxfr" rotnnmtily |)mmn 
lliroUKli tlie ititirr cliiinni'l, witliiii St. Joliirn IMiittoii, ond lloiini' i'ltrtiiuc l.iliiriiU, dy 
Corkewit, Hnil llienct* tow;inlH ii)irriiiK">ii liny hy Nhu^ liurlior; hut ihcHC pliicea ore 
pnrtly nhoHl, iiiiil tntiilly iitilittf*<l tor lnrn«' »cshpIii. 

Kniin the entrMiicf to I'ulmiro it W. N. W. J W. coiirup for 4 Iragiifs, will leail clear 
to tlie Hoiiiliward of tin' 'I'liskct IsI.huIm, Ixit iti this route loii itiunt hr very larelnl to 
avoid the Soldier's he<li!e and the Actvon, both ofwliirh have been already descrihed. 
Having pansed to the weHtward of llie Mud iuid 'l'u»ket Iwlandfl, you will encounter, in 
your paHHajse to the norlliward, the (iannet Hork, wliieh lien N. W. hy W. nearly <» niiles 
iliHiant Iroui tlie Southern iiald Island, and S. .', W. 10 iiiileH from Cape Koureliu ; it i> 
:U) feet above the Murfare of the water, and always appears whitened by the tlnnR of 
birds: about two uiileM to the south-westward (d the (iuiuict iH the 0|>poi<«uni'ii I^edjte, 
which is visible at half tide, and appears to have endangered the lives of many, havuig 
been formerly rcpresenle-l to lie 4 niiles W. by N. from the (iannet ; Des Barres has 
plai ed this datiger in latitude '»;( ' -lO' 4(1" and longitude 66° ')'. 

(i'|{KKN ISLAM) lies N. N. K. ■' N. distant :t! miles from tVic fiannet Rock Light ; 
there is a ret!' runs ottt froni this islaiul to the S. Westward almost ? of a mile; round 
this reef are 6 and .5 •athoms water, and between it and the (Tai.nel Rock frt>m 12 iu I''' 
fathoiiiH. West of (Jreen Island, about 1', ttiile, is „lso a sunker; ledge; it lies directly 
in the fair way of the <liantiel m the liittle Harbor of Jeboeue, which is shoal ■nd in- 
tricate, beinu the < ommoti resort of lisherniet' <nd coasters ; the latids adjacent are mo- 
derately hii^h, and are both well «ullivated a' d settled. Should a stranger venture for 
this harbor, he must not otdy avoid the dangers already described, but also a roeky shoal, 
called the ])ragon, whi( h is situated S. W. .Southerly a full mile from Jeboglie Head, 
and N. N. K. one mile and three-(|uarterH from (Jreen Island; there are 8, 10, and 12 
fathoms between the Drajron and (ireen Island, and 5, 6, and 7 fathoms between it and 
.lebogue Head; there is also a knoll of :) fathoms at the entrance of the harbor, and ■hod)^'' 
water olf its eastern side. 

CAPK FOIJKCHU, or the Forked tape, so called from the island which forma it, : 
having two narrow prongs running out to the southward, but the inlet formed between 
these must not be mistaken for \'arnu)Uth Ilarl)or, which lies to the eastward of them 
both. This Cape, according to the best authorities, lies in latitude 43" 5-2' 30", and forma 
a remarkable object in these p:uts, being rocky, high, and barren | it beara from Jebogue 
Head N. N. W. ? N. distant miles. 

YARMOUTH. — Vessels intending to ruii for Fourchu or Yarmouth Harbor, will find 
it the safest way to proceed to the westward of Seal Island, the Uannet Ruck, and OreM^ 
Island, giving the Cannet a berth of about two miles; they will then have nQj[|mger |9' 
encounter, but from 'JO to ;U) fathoms water all the way. Having POM^d Gre*h IslaodTi 
their course towards Yarmouth Harbor will be about N. N. E. A N. in this passage th*y,, 
will meet with the Bagshot Rock, whirh dries at low water, and is dangerous, ruiming ' 
out shoal full half a mile to the southward : it bears from Cape Jebofue nearly N. W. 
from which it is distant almost y.\ miles, and from Cape Fourchu S. bv W. almost 9j 
miles ; you may pass on either side of this rock, and run on N. by E. | E. for the har- 
bor's mouth; tiiis is considered a safe but small harbor; the fair way is to follow the 
eastern shore until you reach the eastern point ; this you itre to give a berth, and pro- 
ceed mid-channel : you will readily perceive the isthmus, with a battery upon it, and 
under its lee, to the northward, is the anchorage; the grotuid is good, and the depth of- 
water from 5 to 6 fathoms. About a mile above the anchorage is the town of Yarmouth, 
which is numerously peopled, the houses large, though straggling, the grounds adja- 
cent well cultivated, and the circumstancesof the inhabitants generally good. 

From Cape Fourchu to Cape Mary the main land extends N. by W. and from Cape 
Mary to the Lighthouse on Briers island is N. N. W. 13 miles. Almost opposite to 
Cape Fourchu is the Lurcher's Rocky Shoal, and between that and Cape St. Mary is 
the Trinity Ledge, and these are the only dancers in the passage. 

THE LURCHER ROCK lies nearly W. N. W. from Cape Fourchu, distant 13 
miles; it "hovers a spot of about 3 acres of shoal grotmd,the least water over which is 12 
feet; around the edge of the shallow water are 10, 11, and 12 fathoms, and a little fur- 
ther off from 20 to 30 fathoms. 

THE TRINITY LEDf^E comprehends a smaller space than the Lurcher, about 
three-fourths of an acre, having the tops of three small rocks showing themselves at low 
tides ; this danger bears from Cape Fourchu N. by W. distant 14 miles, and from Cape 
St. Mary S. W. J W. 6} miles ; the depth of water to a mile round it is from 12 to 15 
fathoms. The stream runs very strongly over these two dangers, but the anchorages in 
their vicinity are tolerably good for a tide. 

Vessels coming round Cape Sable, and intending to take the Tusket Passages, m?y 





1 steer N. W. by N. and proceed thrmigli either of the cliannrls wliicli have been liescrihfd 

* before, as best suits their conveiiienci', or else proceed to the soiitliward of Seal Island 

for about '.]') mi'es, passini; at the distance of -JO miles to the westward of Seal Island; 
lluis the JJay of b'lindy will be open, and their course up N. N. W. This will rarry 
them outside of the Lurcher, but tlie tide will make one point dilfereuce in this course, 
and it sets S. E. and N. W. throufjh the channels of Mud and 'J'usket Islands, and near 
the Manan Ledges, the ebb running W. 8. W. and the Hood E. N. E. at the rate of 4 
knots an hour. 

From the Seal Islands up to Cape St. Mary, the soundings extend lull 20 and ."JO 
leagues off the land westward of Hrier's Island Light, and near the Manan Ledges are 
60, 80, and 100 fathoms at 3 and 4 miles distance; tlu-refore the lead should always be 
kept going. 





BRrBR'S ISLAND ... 3 at the S. W. entrance of St. Mary's Bay; it is 4 miles long 
and 1^ iriileljiroad ; on its western side stands a lighthouse, ill const rurtcd and biuili/ Ufrhi- 
id; iKe marpftr, therefore, ranvot place his hpendcncc upon serin i^ if, irhicli is the more to 
hli lamented, on account of the (/misers ivhirh surround it. In advancing from the west- 
Ward towards the island, the tide ripples strongly, even in .'$;J and 45 fatlioms, when you 
a ■ at the distance of 8 or 10 miles off the island. There is a long and narrow reef runs 
J|ft»ut S. W. from the S. Eastern part of the island, full two miles, some parts of which 
' ^kr9 visible, and called the Black Rock; in the same direction to the S. W. is a small 
apotofS fathoms^ {his lies about 1 imile from the extremity of the reefs ; between the knoll 
and reef, and also aroi^od the knoll, there are from 15 to ;!4 fathoms: vessels, therefore, 
going round to the son 'iward ofjirier's Island must always give it a wide berth. About 

* ^jii^es N. W. I W. i om the northern end of the is'.,ind lies the N. W. Ledge of 10 
'fbet; li is small and dangerous : nfearly S. \V. three-quarters of a mile from this, is Bet- 

80ia'« Ledge, and otweeti these two ledges and the island are two others, said also to 
be dangeroi^s, '' .ih deep channels between them, but the exact situations of these are not 
clearly knoVn; it will therefore be particularly dangerous for the mariner to approach 
nearer to the northern side of this island than four or five miles. 

LONG ISLAND is separated from Brier's Is.and by a narrow channel, called the 
Grand Pass;ige, in which are from 5 to 15 fathoms water: the island runs in a N. E. and 
S. W. direction, being nearly 10 miles long, and about \},- mile broad ; its coasts are al- 

• mosl^ straight, and at its further end is the Petit Passage, dividing it from a narrow neck 
of bind which continues so far as the Gut of Annapolis; thus Brier's Island, Long Isl- 

- tjoy, and this peninsr'^, form *lie northern shores of 

: -St. MARY'S BA .. -While from Cape St. Mary, upwards into the bay, the south- 
ern shoje is low and runs out w^th sandy flats, in some places almost so far as three- 
3uarter« of a mile ; the ornosiie or northern shore, is constituted of high cliffs, having 
eep water close under thtia. Nearly n' d-channel, and full two-thirds up the bay, is,i 
rocky bank, with 4, 6, and 6 fathoms ovu it. whilst on each side of it are channels of 12 
and 15 fathoms, muddy ground. Far up the bay, on the southern shores, is the River 
Sisibou, ,the entrance to which is shoal, with a depth of only 2 fathoms water. At the 
further end of St. Mary's Bay, is an extensive sandy beach, on entering which you will 
lessen your depth from 4, 6, and 6 fathoms to 12 feet, and should you advance, it will 
become more shallow. On the north side, and nearly opposite to Sisibou River, is 
Sandy Cove, where vessels, when it comes on to blow hard, may run aground on a bot- 
tom of soft mud, and lie sheltered from all winds. 

GRAND PASSAGE. — We have already stated that this channel runs in between 
Brier's and Long Islands; its souther:) entiance bearing North, distant 2(» miles from 
Cape Fourchu, and N. by W. 12 miles from Cajie St, Mary; in running for it. from 
abreast of Cape St. Mary, you will have no impediment whatever, but a depth of from 
14 to 30 fathoms; at the eiurante of the passage is IH fathoms mid-channel, and having 
advanced wiMiin you will perceive Billy Islet; this .nay be left on either side, altltougli 
Mr. Des Barres says the western cliannd is the best and widest; here, a little to the 
northward of the island, is one of the safest and best harliors in the vicinity ; from hence 
to the northwanl are 4,6, 6, and 7 fathoms; following the shore of Brier's Island, 
opposite its nftrfhern point, the water dee|)ens to 13 and 14 fathoms ; you are then clear 
of the Grand Passage, and may borrow towards Long Island, steering N. Easterly, or 
N. E. by N. into the Bay of Fundy. 

PETIT PASSAGE lies at the further extremity of Long Island, and is the channel 
which separates that island from the main. It is situated about 3 leagues to the north- 



eastward of the (Jnuui Passugc, and is 280 fathoms wide in its narrowest part : its sliores 
are bold to, and tlierc islVoni JO to ^Ufatlioins of water within it ; a i\. N. E. .V Northerly 
course, from abre;«.st of Cape St. Mary, will carry you right through it. Near its north- 
ern entrance, on the western si<le, is Eddy Cove, a very convenient place for vessels to 
anchor in, for here they may ride out of the stream of tide, which conunonly runs so 
rapidly, that without a fresh leading wind, no ship could possibly stem it. 

ANNAPOLIS CUT. — Pursuing the coast along shore from i3rier's Island to Anna- 
polis Gut, it lias very few curvatures; the shore is bound with high rocky clilfs, above 
which a range of hills rises gradually to a considerable height; their sunnnits appear 
unbroken, except at the (irand and I'etil Passages, at Sandy Cove, and Gulliver's Hole> 
where they sink down in valleys, and near the Gut, where they terminate by an abrupt 
and steep declivity. The muriner, in navigating this coast, will by keeping about a mile 
or a mile and a half from the land, have .jD, 4(t, and not less tlian30 fathoms water all the 
way ; and when at the entrance of the Gut, 1.', mile distant from the lighthouse on Point 
Prim, he will find the latter drptli. The Gut of Annapolis, says Mr. Des Barres, lies in 
latitude 4-1'^ 45' 30" N. and longitude 05^ 40' 30 " \V. The shore on both, sides of the 
Gut is iron bound for several leagues; the stream of ebb and flood sets throU|[hfheGut 
with the velocity ofo knots an hour, ciUMug various eddies and whirlpools, Ifet'fiieUhest 
tide will be fouii<l off the eastern side, which is so bold to approach that a 6Kp tavf Iruh 
her bowsprit against the dill's, and yet lie in 10 I'lithoms water. There is a lightbottKB 
upon Point Prim, the,l;ght from which is exhibited from a window 120 feet above th%^ •; 
sea, and is an object of piiilul and useless economy ; but it may perhaps serve to ptevemt' 
the fatal error of mistaking tiie re;U entrance of the Gut from Gulliver's Hole, which t| 
land much resembles, but which the latter has no such distinguishing buildiog tt{ 
Point Prim runs oil' shoal about 30 fathoms, and ott'the eastern entrance is the Ma£j 
War Rock : it lies about a cable's length from the land, and has no channel within J 
The entrance t' he (:iut is very narrow, but keep mid-channel, and after you get pi^tjIiP 
it the harbor wiilens, and ships can anchor on the east or west side of the basin, (tt.iMl'^ 
up to Goat's Island, if the latter, they should observe that when they get withia hidr^ 
mile of the island, they must stretch two thirds of the way towards the Urboard shont^/'^ 
until they are past the island, which is shoal all round, and from thence they can Ste0Jr 
up mid-channel towanls the town. ', 

In addition to the above, Mr, Lockwood observes, " That the'abrupt precipice* of t||9 
high lands which form the Gut, cause those gusts of wind which rush down so-suddeli- 
ly and so violently from the mountains. The tide also hurries your vessel through with. 
great force. At the entrance there is no anchorage except close in shore^ near the qutdjr 
western point ; in some places tlie depth is from 40 to 80 fathoms." 

ANNAPOLIS TO THK BASIN OF MINES.— From the Gut of Annapofii xi 
the bay to Cape Split, the coast continues straight, and nearly in the same direction, wl _ 
a few rocky clitfs near the Gut, or narrows, and many banks of red earth under lligh land(« -^ 
which appear very even. In the channel or narrows leading into the Basin of Mines, from 
Cape Split to Cape Blowmedown, and from Cape D'Oronthe north side, to Partridge 
Island, the land rises almost perpendicularly from the shore to a very great height. Betweon . 
Cape Piowmedown and Partridge Islauil, there is a great deptli of water, and the stream of 
the current, even at the time of neap tides, does not run less than 6 or 6 fathoms. Having 
passed Cape Blowmedown, a wide space opens to the southward, leading to the settle- 
. meutsofCornwallis, Horton, Falmouth, and Windsor, &c. these are now using' into great 
mercantile conseque-ice, and abound in mines of coal, plaster, limestone, and other valu- 
able minerals. While to the eastward the river extends to Cobequid Bay, having on its 
banks the towns of Londonderry, Truro, and Onslow, this latter place forming a direct 
communication with the Bay of Tatmagouche in the (lulf of St. Lawrence. Off Cape 
Splitthere are considerable whirlpools, which, with spring tides, are very dangerous, and 
frequently run 9 knots an hour. Should a vessel be at anchor between Cape Sharp and 
Partridge Island, and you should be desirous of proceeding to Windsor River, it will bo 
necessary to get under weigh two hours before low water, in order to get into the stream 
of the Windsor tide on the southern shore ; otherwise, without a commanding breeze, a 
vessel would run the hazard of being carried up with the Coiiequid tide, which is the main 
stream, and runs very strong, both with flood and ebb ; while the Windsor tide turns oif 
round Cape Blowmedown to the southward, and is then divided again, one part continu- 
ing its course up to Windsor, and the other forming the Cornwallis tide, running up the 
river of that name. 

In sailing up Windsor River, the house on Horton Blufl' should be kept in a south 
bearing, and the gap in the Parsborough River north; this will c,\rry you through the 
channel between the flats, which cannot be passed at low water by a vessel drawing 15 
feet much before half tide. Off Horton Blutf the ground is loose and slaty, and a ship 
will be likely to drag her anchors, with a strong breeze, particularly at full and change ; 




therefore it miglit, perhaps, be better for men of war to moor across the stream, and full 
one third from the lilulf. 

HAUTE ISLAND — This island is situated at the entrance of the Mine's Channel, 
and is not 1 { mile iu length, and about half a mile broad ; it bears from Cape Chignecto 
S. W. distant 4 miles : the channel on either side is good ; that between it and the Cape 
has 14, '20, and -JJl fathoms water in it, and that beuveeii Haute and Jolyfte Head from 
'20 to 40 fathoms ; it forms a prominent and very remarkable object, from the height 
and steepness of its rocky dirt's, which, in a most singular manner seem to overhang its 
western side ; there is, however, a fair landing at its eastern end, and anchorage half a 
mile off in 18 fathoms, with the low point bearing about N. E. by N. here also is a stream 
of fresh water running into the sea. Cape U'tJr and Cape Chignecto are high lands, 
with very steep dirt's of rocks and red earth, and deep water close under them. You 
have nearly the same kind of shore to the head of Chignecto Bay, where very extensive 
flats of mud and quicksand arc left dry at low water. The tides come in a bore, rushing 
in with great rajtidity, and are known to rise, at the eqinoxes, from 6U to 70 feet perpen- 
dicular. . 

CUiGNECTO BAY runs up E. N. E. and may be considered to be the north-east- 
ern branch of the Bay of Fundy ; it is divided from the Mine's Channel by the penin- 
sula, o'f which Cape Chignecto is the \ve;jtern extremity: having advanced about 12 or 
13 miles within it, you wUlsee a point on the larl)()ard or northern shore running out to 
Mawar^this is called Cape Enrage or Knraged Cape ; II miles beyond which it divides 
into, jtwo braacliea, the one leading to Cumberland Basin, and by the River Missequash 
jtO'V^rte Bay, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and now becoming a place of very consider- 
^^idiW^t^intnctrce \ the q>tli9r ruuning northerly, and taking the name of the Petcudiac 
rj Aesflfjwti'tSf Mtoft. the Basin of Mmes, are fast rising into consequence, and becom- 
»$«at (If liUoievlras settlements. The Cumberland Branch is navigable to within 
)m of Vert« Bay ; and it iliieniarkable that when the rise of the tide in Cumber- 
'iasib is 60 feet that in V^e Bay will only rise H leet. The River of Misse- 
k, which rans aerOss the isthinus, is the present boundary between the provinces 
'liova Scoti»0Bd NevJSrunswick. 




tij;THB NORTH COAST OF THE BAY OF FUNDY, from Cape Enraged, 
' I C^aoo, in the township of St. Martin's, is; at present, but thinly inhabited, and 
ioBtinii0»to;be8O as far as St. John's : the land is good, but much broken with steep 
".^Ffdtfjns; tlf<!f^ weather is generally humid, the winds boisterous and changeable, and the 
v^MMf^l of sunshine limited and evanescent : but from Quaco to St. Johns the interior 
|Uls rise in easy inequalities; the ravines of the dirt's are deep and gloomy, and the in- 
„ ,1 llRtioiu frequently have beaches: at Black River, which is about 12 miles west of 
li^ttMiO, is a safe inlet for a small vessel, although it is dry from half-tide. 
- QUACO LIGHT is on a small rockort'Quaco Head, W. ■( S. from St. Martin's Head ; 
iJ^ a revolviti ' light, time of revolution .30 seconds. 

^UACO LEDGE.— This is a dangerous gravelly shoal, situated about 12 miles S. 
it. from Quaco, and W. by N. distant 11 miles from Haute Island; it extends N. 
N. and S. £. by S. about 3.t miles, and is half a mile broad ; vessels have fre- 
^tlMiUy grounded upon this bank; there are several irregular patches of rocks lying ort 
itsK. £. side; the ledge shows itself at half tide, and dries for about 100 yards, having 
but 13 feet water over it with common tides ; half a mile to the N. E. the eddies with 
the fldod tides are strong and numerous, the ship's head going nearly round the com- 
pass in the space of half an hour ; the ebb is a true tide, and sets in a W. S. W. direc- 
tion towards the ledge; the are from 7 to 14 fathoms, at about two cables' 
lengths all the way round, but they shoal more gradually from the N. E. 

The night tides here, and generally throughout the bay, are highest : at St. John's 
they are so during the summer, but the contrary during the winter months, or between 
the equinoxes. The mark to go dear to the southward of the (:^uaco Ledge is Cape 
D'Or on with the soutu side of the Island Haute. 

ST. JOHI*'S HARBOR.— The entrance to this harbor bears from the Gutof Annapo- 
lis about N.^W. distant 11 leagues: it is distinguished by a lighthouse which stands 
on Partridge Island, after mentioned. Vessels coming from seaward, and making for 
this harbor, should, so soon as ever they can well discern the lighthouse, make their 
signsl for a pilot; but if unable to succeed in reaching the harbor that tide, then endea- 
vor to ifun in between Meqgenes Island and the main, going either on the south or on 
the itMth side of this >BitU||p >Q doing which you will no where have less than 4, 6, and 



ream, and full 

artin*8 Head ; 

6 fathoms water, with a bottom of sand and nuid. Here you will d ';»in the best anchor- 
age, by liriiijjihg thetliiee hills in the coinitry to the N. L. in a In over llocky Point 
Inland, and the house on Meogenes Island S. K. by S. 

THE CITV OF ST. JOllN stands on an irregular descent, liinirig a southern as- 
pect, and on entering the river, has an imposing appearance. Partridge Island is about 
two miles to the southward of the eiiy, answering the double purpose of protecting the 
harbor, and, by its lighthouse, guiding and directing the mariner to its entrance; the lan- 
tern is 166 feet al)ove the level of the sea, and the light is good and well attended. The 
ground for several miles to the soutiiward of Partridge Island is muddy, the de|)lhs gradu- 
al from 7 to 20 fatlioms, aH'ording excellent an( horage ; the |)assage westward of tliis is- 
land has in it 10 feet, that to the eastward has 10 feet, and abreast of the city are from 7 
to '22 fathoms. Three fourths of a mile to the northward of the lighthouse is a beacon 
fixed on the edge of a rocky ledge, formini; the west side of the channel, and having deep 
water close to it. A breakwater is erected liirilicr on at the eastern side of the channel 
and below the town; this greatly intercej)ls the violi nee oi the waves, which southerly 
gales usually occasion. Every possible assistance is here given to shifu wanting repair, 
they lie upon blocks, and undergo atliorongh examination, without incun'iug the expense, 
injury, and loss of time occasioned by heaving them down. «• tt, ' 

Vessels having made the harlmr, and (inding themselves able to enttfr, may, whefi they 
have passed Meogenes Island, edge in sliore towards Ivocky JaOiut, until tliey mtceSf^* 
Meogenes Point is in a line with, or over the N. \V. corner of^Meogenes Jslai^: thed^ 
sailing in between Rocky Point and Partridge Island, with these marks on,.jrUl<<)llii?l^;^ .. 
them, in the deepest wafer, over the bar, iiniil they open -Point J^aspetik to ti4;"B|f''*^'*^^''^ 
ward of the low point of Partridge Island; when putting the iitlm.stiM'board, theiri|iil 
edge over towards Thom|)son's Point, until they get the red St^i#'|^the sotttnit^ 
St. John's in a line over the beacon ; keep tlunn in one, uptil tnly liave- passed .^ 
con at the distance of a ship's breadth : then haul up N. N. W. ibr the-hiirbor/ra 
the blockhouse, at the upper part of the harbor, open^tp the westward of the kipg'A 
situated l)y the waterside ; >• hich mark will lead lliem, mid-chttlhi^], up to t» «^ 
where they may lie aground, dry at half-tide, and clean the ship's Ubttoa^ Q^tiAt 
ill the stream at single anchor, with a h.wser l;ist<;ned to the postsof the wharves OB i^OL., 
The Mood tide is weak heie, but the elib runs down rapidly past jVIeogenes li&tsftiijii^! 
the Hay of Fundy. - ^ ^' ■< ' •i^i;. 

Should the tide of ebb have taken place at the beacon, then it would behighfy^aqMtO|il|" 
to attempt gaining the harbor that tide ; but wait for the next half-fiood-to gd'dVer"' 
bar; a-* lioth sides of tin- enlranc!: to the lii\rl):)rare composed of sharp rd<iks, «^iieh 
at low water; and the tide of ebb, especiall ii the spring of the year, when th« Use 
snow is dissolving, is so exceedingly rapid and strong, that all the anchors yott 
will not be sufficient to prevent the ship from driving. 

" Tlie lliver St. .lolin," says Mr. Des Harres, " has sulficieut depth of water for lalMi'P 
ships to the falls; wlieiice it (uintinues navigable eighty miles up the country, for vessels <^ ' 
10!) tons. At Fort Fre(leri(;k tiie rise of the tide is 18 feet, and at equinoetial S{Nrht^'- 
tides 'Jo feet; above the falls it seldom rises more than 4 feet. When the tide has risen 
I'J feet at the fort, the falls become smooth, after which, during the space of 20 tninutcjl. 
they are passable. At times of great freshets, which gejierally happen between the begiti* 
ning of yJy^r/'/ and tlie tml ot'JMdi/, from the melting of the snow, the falls are absotate]^ 
im))assable for vessels going up the river, (or then the tide does not rise to their -lev^D^ 

The falls are situated nearly -' miles beyond the City of St. John ; it is a narrow cbanbel 
HO yanls wide, and 4(,0 long; this channel is sirai'^ht, and has a ridge of rocks stretching 
in such a manner across it, as to hold an<l retain th" river water from running out into the 
sea. After passing the falls, you enter a gullet, which is a quarter of a mile widfl, and 
two miles long, winding in dilierent coiirse-s, and having lb fathoms in the channel.— 
Next to this gullet is a line and extensive basin, a mile and a half wide, and eight milm 
long, which enters the main river. 'J'hc river braiK lies some hundreds of miles up ib H 
serjientine manner ; and runs through a country win li a'joniids with timber, coal, lime* 
stone, and many other minerals; and the surrounding lands are now becoming highly Cul- 
tivated. There is water sulticient to navigate vessels of ")(i tons, ns high as FrederioktoQ 
and in all the branches to the lakes adjacent, except in dry seasons. 

In the middle of iMni/., or earlier in fii.orahlc seasons, the snow and ice in the country 
dissolving, occasion a general overllow in tiie rivtT, which, in some year.^ rises so high 
as to inuiidi^le all the low lands. 

In autumn, the River St .John is swolii by rains, and between t)i( ?r.iddle oi April and 
the beginning of Mnij, by the melting of the i( e and the great (jnantity of snow that accu- 
mulates on the banks of this vast navigable rive--. From these causes, the water streams 
out to seaward cuutinually : therefore vessels, at tliat tiiu^, fj^qui enter the harbor with- 

17 iS*<- 







out a fresh leading wind. The falls are then iuipaHHable, as the tides do not rise to their 

The body of the river is 17 J feet above low water mark, consequently after the tide has 
arisen to that height, the water descends, or literally falls up into the river. When the 
tide has flowed I'i feet, the falls are smooth and jjassable for 20 minutes. Above the falls 
the water rises 4 feet, and at Majortield, which is 60 miles in the interior, it rises only 11 

To the W. Sk Westward of Meogenes Island is Flat Bay, railed also Visarinkum ; it is 
a small harbor, with 5 and 4 fathoms water, used sometimes by the coasters. From hence 
the land runs nearly W. S. W. passing Negro Head to Cape Musquash; oft' the point of 
which is Split Rock ; it lies close to the Cape, and ^las H fathoms water very near it, bein.; 
distant from Partridj^s Island 8J miles; the shore is ironbound all the way, and has deep 
water close in to the laj"!- 

MUSQUASH HAKROR lies about a mile to the westward of the Split Rock ; its en- 
trance is about half a mile wide, and there is gond anchorage a little way in, with 4 fathoms 
, ^ter, but furtl^r on a h-ir runs across the harbor, over which is only lA fathom ; small ves- 

10 sels sometimes paV ,j itie westward of the islands, and run up the river, which, when past 

the bar, has 2, 2^, and 3 fathoms water; but this harbor is open to the southward. 
' From the entrance to Musquash the coast runs W. S. \V. westerly nearly 10 miles to 

■ Point Lepreau, on which there is a tower with two fixed lights, ( e elevated 18 feet above 
..the other. In this space are 4 or 5 inlets, but only calculated f ;. <ma II craft ; the first of 

.these is about 1^ mile to the westward of Musquash western point, and is of no note 
-1|'halet4n' ; in your way to it, a berth must be given to the shore, particularly al)oui 
aiquasfa Point, on account of some rocks lying oft' that part ; there lue channels be- 
Bn these rocks, but few vessels will venture thronch them. About a mile further is 
|S||il|oe Harbor, which is a mere shallow cove of two fathoms water. Little Dipper is 
westerly still, and situated 31 miles from Musquash Point; this also has only 12 
Iter hi it, and scarce fit for any thing but boats, (ireat Dipper is divided from Lit- 
ter bJTa flat point of land, round which are several scattered rocks ; this harbor 
c<MUi leftliratbtlate small craft, which sometimes run in there for slielter ; but it is by no 
■q)0ta|il4^M.recQCimended, unless in cases of necessity ; there is a creek of fresh water 

■ .yv^ te'iiO it, callsd Moose Creek. Further we.-tward, and about H niile from Point 
i 'i4iflif»9*a, )« CurrLagu Harbor: this is open to the custward, and aft'ords anchorage at its 

SlMttrance ip^ from 7 to 3 fathoms. The land all the way from Musquash to Point Lepreau 
V^ hichg broken, and. many scattered rocks lie oft' it; therefore vessels, in passing, should 

I'ji^Mrenil^ give it a good bej-th 


or MASON'S BAY, is formed to the westward of Point Lepreau, /etween 
^«od Red Head ; these bear from each other N. W. | N. and S. E. } S. distant full o 
^jnlles. There are numerous rocks, shoals, and small islets within it, but its navigation 
'•eems insecure, for Mr. Lockwood emphatically observes, "this point ought to be classed 
Moae of the dangers of the Bay of Fundy, for many serious accidents have lately hap- 
-'penedin the neighborhood of this promontory." Mason's Hay he calls a deep and ugly 
In4ent ; so much so, that ships bound to the Kiver St. John, dreading to pass its entrance, 
get freqaently embayed there, and some valuable vessels have thus been lost. " Yet, at 
the head of this bay," he obseiTes, "is a place called Pok Logan, where there is good 
shelter. Several rivers appear to fall into this bay ; and, perhaps, a better knowledge 
would tend much to strip it of its fancied dangers." 

"W. by S. from Point Lepreau, distant .'{i or 4 miles, there is supposed to be a danger- 
ous shoal, but its* actual situation is not known : if such should exist, it must be sur- 
rounded with very deep water, for a small distance from this imagined situation, are 26, 
28, and 31 fathoms, mud, nmd and san<l, and gravel. 

THE MANAN ISLANDS. — (irand Manan is an island situated at the north-western 
entrance of the Bay of Fundy ; it is in the province of New Brtinswick, and forms a part 
of Charlotte County; being 14^ miles in length, and 7 in breadth. According to the 
Chart, the N. Western part of this island is distant from Passamaquoddy Head abou? 7 
miles: its N. Eastern point, or Bishop's Mead, bears from Cape Maspeck W. S. W. 
nearly 10 leagues, and W. N. W. from the entrance to the (Jut of Annapolis, abont 14 
leagues; and from Petit Passage, N. VV. by N. 32 miles. Its S. \V. end, or head, bears 
from the lighthouse on Brier's Island N. W. by N. nearly, from which it is distant 28 
miles; and N. W. by W. from the northern entrance to Petit Passage, listant 30 miles. 
Thus situated, it conunands an uninterrupted view of every vessel that passes to or froju 
the Bay of Fundy ; it is naturally stronj;, and possesses harbors where the largest ships 
may ride in perfect security : its fisheries are in great estimation. 

On its western side the cliff's are nearly peri)endicular, rising 600 feet above the level 
of the sea; but on this side there is only one little inlet along the whole range, that can 



lot rise to their 

shelter even boats ; it is coinnionly called Dark Cove, being situated about 4 miles from 
the northern part of the islaiul : there i.s indeed a place called Bradford's Cove, about 5 
or 6 miles more to the southward, but this is of no note whatever. There are soundings 
all along the shore, from Bishop's Head to the 8. W. Head, 3, 4, 5, and G fathoms close 
to the land, deepening to l.'i, 20, 21, and -.''2, half a mile off, to 3U, 40, and 50 fathoms at 
a mile distance, and still deeper as you increase your distance from the isl^pd. 

The Northern, or Bishop's Head, is abrupt and bold; but on its eastern side there is 
anchorage in a place called Whale C'ove : this is situated between Swallow's Tail and 
the North Point ; here vessels fre(|mMit!y ride during southerly winds, to wait the turn of 
tide ; the soundings are from 15 to 25 fathoms ; but it must not be resorted to in north- 
erly gales. 

Lo)i/i Island Bay. — This lies to the S. Eastward of Whale Cove, and is formed by the 
Swallow's Tail, which is a bold, high, ragged, and barren looking point, and Long Island, 
which bears nearly south from it, distant l^mile. This bay is easy of access^ and pos- 
sesses all the advantages of a }iari)or; the bottnin of the bay is generally mud, excepting a 
ridge of rocks and gravel, which extends from the ledge that shows itself i^ithin the Swal- 
low's Tail, and the cluster of sunken rocks that lie half a mile N. N. E.'from Long Island 
Point, and these are 5 teet under water at low spring tides. In the northern part of the 
bay the bottom is a stiff clay, and vessels ill provided with gear have otlen rode out tha 
severest gales there; and under Long Island, opposite the beach, is good anchoraget " 
even locking in the northern end of Long Island with Swallow's Tail: the groundher* 
is a strong mud, and you will ride safe and unaffected by sea or wind from any qtuntnr. 

Further to the southward, and on the eastern coast of Great Manan, are the £|l|al(, 
Islands ; here a pilot will be necessary, for though the ground is good about'Oreat 
Island, yet t .ire are dangers which, when the tide becomes high, are completely l^ii^ld 
To the south-westward of Duck Islands, are the Islands of Ross, the northern ' 
which is scarcely separated iVom .Manan, Cheney's Island, and White Head Islana}'t 
are connected together by a sandy and rocky reef of foul ground, which extendaj 
W. to the Diamond Rocks — of which we siiall speak hereafter. On White Head ul 
resides an able and active pilot, and the cove opposite to his house is comftUMQilf. M 
resort for vessels employed in the fisheries; but with easterly winds, thi» »» i . 
place. At the western side of Koss Island is part of what is called Gfrand Htilrbidrt It l»>, 
a shallow muddy basin ; but vessels may enter and lie securely in it, on the mud; a.jfMni* ' 
venience somewhat desirable, should you have lost your anchoigsand cables onanyof ttM 
outer ledges: the entrance to this place has 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathoms water, with a tiVtyvf 
bottom; the chaimel is narrow, but secure from the sea. " a 

A little to the westward of White Head Island arc the Green Islands, ana to the Mttt 
ward of the Green Islands, about one mile, are the three Kent's Islands, these latter I 
low and ledgy ; the e^istern, or largest one, is bold to the rocka, which are at all timeal 
be seen ; and to the N. Westward of these rocks is a ledge called the Constable, whk 
dries at low water; under the lee of these and the Greeu Islands, occasional aflchoragiBr^''';; 
may be obtained in from 14 to 7 fathoms. * 

WOOD ISLAND lies off the southern part of Grand Manan, and is one mile and 
three quarters long ; it runs parallel to the south-west head of Manan, and forms an ex- 
cellent liarbor between; the upper part of this inlet, and the head of it, afford most secure , 
anchorage ; and the inhabitants about Seal Cove and Red Head, will furnish you with 
all necessary supplies you may stand in need of, for these places are all well settled. 

THE MANAN IiEDGES are those more distant islets, rocks, and dangers, which 
lie to the southward of Grand Manan ; the outer and most dangerous-of these istheOM 
Proprietor; covering a space of half an acre at low water, and drying at half ebb; but 
when covered the tide sets <lirectly over it. at the rate of 4 miles an hour. It lies S. 4 
E. distant 9^ njiles from Great J)uck Islaiid ; S. by ¥.. nearly 7 miles from the norih 
«?astern part of White Head Island; E. ; S. d? miles fVom the Gannet Rock; S E. by 
E. 4 leagues from the south west head of .Manan ; N. N. W. ^ N. 18^ miles from Brisr 
Island Lighthouse; N. N. W. J W, Iri miles from the northern entrance to the Grand 
Passage; N. W. J W. \d>\, miles from the Petit Passage ; West 35 miles from theGiJ^ 
Mi Annapolis ; and S. W. 15 leagues iVom tho li^htlionse on Partridge Island. 

About 21 miles N. E. 1 N. from the Old Proprietor is the (.'lerk's Ground; a rocky 
shoal of 4.J fathoms. N. \\'". by N. one mile and two thirds from the Old Proprietor, 
is Crawley's Shoal, of 7 feet only: and west of the Crawley, one mile and a half, is the 
Rans' of 5 feet. The Ro, ring Bull bears N. \ E. from the Old Proprietor, distant 4 
miles ; and, although it has d fathoms over it, it usually has a heavy dangerous ripple. 
The marks to go clear to the eastward of all these dangers, is 'he north-easternmost high- 
land of Manan well open of the Long und Duck Islands ; tlie mark to lead to the south- 
ward of them is the south-west head of Mauau open to Kent's Tlu'ee Islands. In eaat> 
erly winds the tide-rips arc impassable. ^ 




ThpfP nif also ofh^'r rocks within these ; a rinige of which lie south of the south-west 
point of VViiite He;til Island ; some of these have deep water between them, and occasion 
a cnntinuiil ripple time miles fro-n the shore, quite home to the h)ng point; these are 
called the Tinker, 'I'liree Diamonds, Rans, and many others without names ; some of 
these show thems;'lves, olliers have only A and 4 feet water over thern." 

S. S. E i S. alxHit llirec quarters of a mile from the southern point of the Three Is- 
lands is a knoll called the Kent, it is dan<i;emus and has only 7 feet water over it ; it bears 
about W. N. W. .', W. from the Rans, an<i is not inchuled within the confines of the mark 
given to avoid the danj^ers tu the sdiitliward, vi/,. the- S. W. head opeii of all the 
islands. There is also a danger said to lie S. '•> 4 S. from the Kent Knoll, distant 2 miles, 
and VV. S. W. 'i S. one mile and a (piaricr from the Hans, but this is doubtful. 

THE G.VJSf.NKT ROCK, on which is a li-^hthDnsc, is forty feet above water, and lies 
S. W. by S. distant .3! miles from th(- sontlierii point of the Three Islands, and S. S. [•]. 
6} miles ftom the S. W. head of the < iiaiid Maiian ; it has a number of small ledges ntid 
8unken,rock8 about it, which are always breakins; : this stands conspicuous, bcini,' in the 
imilfiediate vit^nity of all the sunken rocks and dangers. Nearly \V. S. W. from tlie 
Gurnet, tKsfaitt one mile and a half, is St. Mary's Ledge; part of which is always above 
water; and to the northward of St Mary's Led^e, one mile, is the Long Ledge, e(pially 
visiMc; between ant] around these are numerous ro;ky shoals, with deep water between 
them, rendering this'part particularly dangerous. Other reefs are supposed to exist to the 
WCfStward, and between the G?innet fledges and the Machias Seal Islands; their imagi- 
■l^ry situations are marked od'the Chart, but no further particulars of ihem are known. 
id of MaiKtti, distant about 9 or 10 miles ; they have channels between them, with 10, 
iSO, and 30 fathoms round them. A sunken rock is said to lie to the N. Eastward, 
liMireeQ thena and •fifiinan ; but its exact position is not ascertained. Mariners na- 
ig^Ats part shotfld iieep a good look out, lor re|)ort places many dangers herea- 
8011M bf. which probahlyi have existence, and might otherwise be attended with 
ll^Dces' tjiie most fataj. 

'^•Mtthor lies ab%ut 4 miles to the eastward of Bliss Island, and is above a mile 
I'jji&trance, with 10 fathoms water on each side, and 'JO fathoms mid-channel. 
_ keep the western sliore on board, until you bring the (Joal Rock to bear cast, 
^tl^ilt half a mile, Where you may author in 1 or .5 fathoms, good holding ground. 
"'' life 'no regular pijots, but the lishermen on the coast are well (|ualilied for the task, 
in clear weather they are not absolutely necessary, yet strangers to the place 
moat probably requ^e tHeir assistance. There are several rivulets running into va- 
pttrts of the harbor, but th^re is no convc nient watering place. 
?!iltt'ng- Harbor is situated to the southward of the Magagadawe, and runs info the north- 
totetwam of Campo Bello ; before it lie many islands. There are three entrances into 
ihairttor, so that vessels may go iu or out at any time. The western entrance leads 
Id' LftTcte Harbor, where anchorage may be obtained in from 10 to 5 fatJioms, but there 
' ^nu passage for ships round the northern end of Payn's island. The channels between 
Pa^d^'a and Bligs Islands are considered to be the best; as they will admit of vessels 
■Woifchlg through them ; but the leaRtern passage inquires a leading wind. A pilot will 
l)i'Jlft'(fte9Sary oa account of the intricacies of the chatmel, but one can easily be obtained 
tUS^ where on the coast; water can be procured in various places. The Bay is extensive, 
» (ecure, and well sheltered, having good anchorage throughout. 

^ .■ ST. ANDREW'S HARBOR lies on the eastern side of the entrance of the River 
'^^coodic, and has two entrances-; the eastern one is narrow and intricate, but is the deep- 
^^r, having 4 or 5 feet at low wrtter: the (Lingers in entering through this passage area 
teef of rocl|8 with a beacon on it, extending nearly tluee quarters of a mile from Navy Is- 
land, and a reef of sand and large stones with a pole or it, extending nearly two miles 
from the block house ou the main laml; the narrowest part of the channel is not more 
than a cable's length; the mark for entering is to keep the town of St. Andrews open, 
•and steer directly in for the harbor. In the bay, in general, there are from 17 to 2,5 fa- 
thoms water. 


• The Ship Alert is said to h^'ve d'sc iverc'l ua additional rock, upon which (hat vessel 
struck in 18-0, not noticed on any Cii:iri : b .■ iliat ship's account it is said to lie S. S. E. \ S. distant 
6 or 7 miles from the S. W. end of Wliiic llfi\<\ Island; N. by VV. distant 17 miles from Brier's 
Island Lighthouse ; and distant II milep fio n the west end of the Grand Mannn ; and named by 
the fishermen, Sliand's Rock ; we cannot lio!p noticing tiic discordancy of the above bearings and 
distances, and arc apprehensive there is sonif error in the account ; at any rate if this dansrer is not 
the Old Proprietor, it nuist be situated some whore not far distant from it ; and forms an additional 
Stimulus for the vigilance of the mariner. 





\\^^ ' 

The wpsfprn entrance is not so difficult, but hi^", less water than the eastern, the bar 
being dry at the last (juarter ebb. A dangerous reef of stones, with a floating beacon on 
it, lies olf the west end of Navy Island. In steering you must keep close to the northward 
of the two poles on the bar, where at high water you will have from IH to 20 feet water. 

There is a Harbor Master and branch pilots belonging to St. Andrews, and large ves- 
sels should never attempt to enter without having one of them on board. High water 
lOh. 4;)m. C'ommon tides rise i,'4 feet; s|)ring tides .30 feet. 

WITHIN THK BAY OK FINDV.— .Ships navigating the Bay of Fundy have to 
encounter an atmosphere almost constatiliy enveloped in dense fogs, the tides setting 
with great rapidity over the rocks and shoals with which it abounds, and a difficulty of 
obtaining anchorage on account of the depth ; so that, under these circumstances, the 
most unremitting attention is n'(|uisite to prevent the disastrous consequences which 
must necessarily attend a want of knowledge and caution. 

When you are oHCape .Sable with a westerly wind, and destined for the Bay of Fun- 
dy, it will be advisable to make for the coast of tlie L'liited States, somewhere about 
the Shuttock Hills, orTit IManan Lighthouse, as you can pass with^gpel^ipr safety tp the 
westward oftirand Manan than to the eastward, having also, if necessary, shelter in Pe- 
tit Kiver, Machias, Passama(|iiod(ly. Klaiig. or jjeaver Harbor, &C/ ' ^ 

Between (iraiid Manan and the State otMaine the passage is free f|;on} danger; ves- 
sels beating through generally stand iVom side to side, particularly during' fogs, the depth 
being from Iv.' to 70 fathoiris, with a bold shore on each side, and the tide through strong 
and regular. The Wolves may be passed on either side, having deep water close tbtheifti; 
but they afford no sheltered anchorage, except for small fishing vessels intutnmer i 
they are from Go to 100 feet high. With light winds, a lee tide, of thick weather^, 
may let go an anchor any wliere between the Wolves and B'et^^ju Harbor, in goOd ho| 
ground, with a depth of JO or ■J5 fathoms. Point Lepreaufi^iniM to, but InngeV-, 
dark we;!ther, as it projects so far out to the seaward : ^utYtoIb t^nce t^S^t Johfl^ 
course is free from dangers, except those wliic^h lie near iju^Mtd^ apd which hftf 
described in i)age 1:29. ^5p" ' */■ V- 

When steering between (Jrand Manan and Brier's Islands ine Utihost cstftiMi^ 
site during thick weather, as vessels are fre(|uently drawn in among the isliiidBaild 
to the southward of Manan, by the flood setting directly upon them; the roost dttl 
ous of these is the Old Proprietor, which, at low water, dries for the space of 
acre. When the wind, therefore, veers at all to the southward, make the betftdf 
way to St. John's Harbor, or you may secure an anchorage in prand Passage or^^ 
ry's Bay, as it seldom blows in that direction above 18 hours without bringing (^ sl 

There is no difficulty in going through Annapolis Gut, if you have but acommaik 
breeze, although the tide is very rapid, the flood and ebb running 5 knots an hour,-) 
the eddies strong: about one-third through lies the Man of War Rock, about acattbi^ 
length from the eastern shore; therefore, if you keep mid-channel, you will bO'iAirelil'J 
clear it. 

The prevailing winds here, and tliroughout the whole coast of Nova Scotia, are frbifi t^ 
W. S. \V. to S. W. nearly as steady as trade winds, except .during tlie summer ir^pn^^lli^ w 
when thev become rather more southerly, accompanied with but little intermia9lotf%r^| 
fog, which requires a N. Westerly wind to disperse. It is therefore recommended iNlt 
to leave an anchorage, without making proper arrangements for reaching another bdfonr 
dark, or the appearance of a fog coming on, which with a S. W. wind is so sudden, thkt 
you become enveloped wiihin it una-' ares : neither should you keep the sea at night, ii 
you can avoid it. But you will observe that, whenever the wind blows directly off the 
land, the fog will soon disperse. 

TIDKS. — The tides at the entrance and within the Bay of Fundy are very rapid, but 
regular, and although the wind against them alters the direction of the ripplings, and 
sometimes makes them daniierous, jet if has little or no effect upon their courses. The 
flood tide sets from Cape Sable to the N. Westward, through the *Seal, Mud, and Tus- 
ket Bald Islands, at the rate of 2 or ,} miles an hour; and in the channels amonj; the 
islands, it increases to 4 and 5 miles ; from thence taking the direction of the main land, 
it flows past Cape St. Mary, and then N. N. W. towards Brier's Island : it runs up St. 
Mary's Bay but slowly, which adds to its strength along the eastern shore ; then in- 
creasing its rapidity as the bay contracts, it rushes in a bore into the Basin of Mines, and 
up Chignecto Bay ; so that here the water sometimes rises to the extraordinary height 
of 75 feet. ^ . 

* On the western Seal Island, two lighthouses are erected, as mentioned in pages 136, and 13fi|. 




blunt's amkkica.n coast pilot. 

To tlie above may be adder! the additional observations : " The great volume of fre»h 
water which constanily Mows down the Harbor of St. John, in April and May, causes a 
Continual (!bb-lide, durins; that period, sotnetinies to the depth of nearly 5 fathoms, under 
which the llood and ebb-tides llow rcj^ularly ; the maximum of its velocity was found to 
be four knots and u half, and the iiiininium at two knots ; but as the lo^ floated very deep 
in the fresh water, and ultimately sunk into the salt water, underneath, it will not be too 
much to estimate the maximum at live knots, and the minimum at two knots and a (piar- 
ter. The f ict of the under-tide beninninf,' al the depth of nearly 5 fathoms was ascer- 
tained by sinking a lead down to that depth, when it was earrieil the same way as the 
current on the surface; but when lowered below that, it was drifted in a contrary dircc- 

"Between Brier's Island and the opposite northern coast, and for some distance up the 
bay to the eastward, the first of the llood sets stroiiijly, nearly north, so tliat it will be ex- 
tremely dangerous for a vessel to run in the nii^ht, or durinii thick weather, tVoin any 
£art of the southern towards any psirt of the nortliern coast, without inakint; a large al- 
iwance (or^httjtet of the tides, and kee|)in:i 't"" I*5'kI constantly going; the .iaseur, Cap- 
taia Napief) was nearly run on shore, having been drifted by this tide in a fog, eight miles 
and a half in th|ee hours and ten minutes." 


I logo to the eaM^rd of the Island of* Cam vo Bcllo, between the said inland and 
!'* -e the \ Wolf hlarui, and uj> the Bay oj Xl'assamaquoddy. 

gi^ratE BAY OF P ASSAM AQUODDY abounds in good anchoring places, well 

"fed ftom all winds, apd divides the T 'nited .States from that of the British territo- 

ilie -WiBstern side of which is distinguished by a lighthouse on West Quoddy Head, 

tt^'(M) feet above tbjp level of the sea, and may be seen 7 leagues in clear weather. 

Ihbws a fixed light. »Ifbound to the river of Passamaf|uoddy, in a large vessel, your 

It way is to go to the eastward of Campo Bello, kee|)ing your course N. K. by E. 

khvill carry you to the Wolf Islands, distant about 3 lea,i,'-ues. The Wolves lie about 

' •CAMPO BELLO LIGHTHOUSE.— The followinK bearings were taken from the top of it. 

TVl the East Point of Grand Mnnan, (Fish Head) S. 18 dcg. E. or S. by E. 1.2 E. 
, To &e southernmost of the Wolves, S. 6G dee. 30 E. or E. S. E. 

To the northernmost do. S. 87 deg. E. or E. ^ S. 

To Point Lepmu N. 84 dep. E. or E. t N. 

T(» entrance <fl!%aver Harbor N. 70deir. E. or E. N. E. i E. 

To the "White Horse Island, the top of the Rock, which is white, N. 45 deg. E. or N. E. This 
yaa leave on the starboard hand. 

Spruce Island bearing from N. 6 Acs. E. to N. 15 de^- W. 
. To Bluck R(»ck, very dangerous, N. (11 <l. tr. 30 W. .y: N. W. by W. \ W. 

To Casco-Bay Island. N. 3.3 deg. W. or W. ^ N. 

tThe Wolves, or Wolf Island, wiiirh lie 9 miles to the N. E. from Grand Manan, are from 60 
to 100 feet in height, steep and bold. Tlie piissiujcs between iheniar" deep, and theyafl'ord tempo. 
rary shelter, in the depth of from 20 to 1^ fathoms. Between \ianm> and these islesi the depths vu. 
ryfrom 70 to40fu;hoin9, bottom of ooze ami mud. Between the Wolves and he island of Cum;)o 
Bello there is a depih of from GO to 100 finlioms : With the latter bearing S. .S. E. or S. E. there is 
a depth of 19 and 20 fatlmms, where ships may anciior safe from all winds. The course thence to 
Moose Island is W. fc. W . 2 Irairnes. 

t There are three rivers wliieli iViil into Passamaquoddy Bay: the largest is called by the modern 
Indians the Pcoodia, but by Demons and Cliamplains, Etchemoiis. Its main source is near Penob. 
scot river. The mouth of the river hii.»f 25 fathoms water, and the land is very bluft'. 

In November, 1817, the commissioners appointed by the respective governments under the treaty 
of Ghent, (the last treaty of peace,) decided that Moose, Dudley, and Frederic Islands, in the Bay 
of Passamaquoddy, do belontf to the United S'p'cs; and that all the other Islands in the same bay, 
with Grand .Manan, in the Bay of Fuiuly, do belong to Great Britain, by virtue of the treaty of 
peace of 1783. The citizens of the United States continue to enjoy the privilege of navigating 
through the ship channels between Deer Island and Campo Bello. 

!,■ ' 



N. E. This 

K. N. E. fronrf'aiTi|>o Hello, on tlie noitlieiist point of which is a h^htlioiise showing 
a fixed hght, and the lantern is f)() (eet al)ove liii;h water marit, — it is placed between the 
Main Ship Channel and the northern entrance into Head Harbor, and within 'J50 feet 
of the extreme point. Shi|)s in enterint; into tlie main channel, or vessels bound to 
Head Harbor, may safely pass at a cables length from the lighthouse. In sailing tip the 
main channel, care should be t^ken not to keej) far from the shores of Campo Bello, as 
the flood tide sets directly over from the point at the lighthouse, to the islands and ledges 
on the north side of the channel, which is here upwards of a mile in width, and at two 
hours flood the tide sets directly towards the l)la«;k liock, which is a very dangeroun 
ledge between Spruce and Casco May Islands, u|)on which several vessels have beei. 
wrecked; after passing up and leaviiii; tlic lii>ht about a mile to the eastward, the l.i'.e 
becomes more regular, and sets along the direction of Campo Bello shore. 

Comnuni tides rise here '-'.') feet. At lull and change it is high water at half past 11 
o'< lo<jk at Moose Island, and runs, when strongest, between Moose Island and JTar' lii 
Island, and between Deer Island and Campo iiello, nearly 5 miles an hour. ^ In th \H i*,- 
ern passag*-, common tides rise from 20 to '25 feet, and within Pa9sama<tfH|^dy 1' ./ '.}xe 
stream of tide is scarcely perceptible. ^^f^JK 

Vessels from the southward, when bound up for this bay, shou jj^na ke for the west ; 
ern coast, or that of the I'nitetl Slates, as if is the most clear, an djfln|ood m. »t favora- 
ble, being from 7 to H miles wide: boi!\ shores bold, the depth^Ql^^y iDcreusing, tfn 
each side, from 1"J to 70 and 7f> fathoms; the greatest depth neair Grand Manan, where 
you haul quickly from 10 to 7") fathoms. 

There are three passages into Passama(nu)ddy Bay, namiyy, the Western Tvutige, 
tiie Ship Channel or Middle Passage, and the Eastern Passage. ThejiirK: i> dl*t.^§> 
tween the isle of Campo liello and the main land to the west. Middle Passage Hi 
tween Campo Hello and beer Island , and tin; Eastern Passage is to the eastwav^i 
northward of both islands, which is preferred, being of eas-^^^cceaai tyitll good de| 
water. ^ '' '^ 

If bound into the Western Passage, give a berth to thff JBeal Rocks, which are 
remarkable rocks that lie about half i mile from West Quotfi^'Head, and, at adUttM 
resemble a ship. To the eastward of these, there is a whirlpool. In passing bfM»[ 
requisite to give these objects a berth of half or three-quarters of a mile before y^jlll 
in. After passing them, steer to the westward, keeping nearest to the south H^§ifli,^&^'| 
two and a half or three miles, where you may come to anchor in 4 or 5 fathdilttfllrip ' 
sheltered, either by day or night. You must not proceed higher, as a rocky bariftfeicltfii^ 

across, which is dry at low water. Here a pilot may be 'obtstined, on firing a gQD»' 
making the usual signal, who will take the ship to Snug Cove, ^p-M.opa^ Island, whei 
another may be obtained for St. Andrews, or the river of Scoo^. *' 

Between the Wolves and the of Campo Bello there i»^ depth of from 50 to 
fathoms. With the light bearing S. S. E. or S. E. there is a^epthof 19 and 20 fatboi 
where ships may anchor securely from all winds. The course theuce to Moose 
is W. S. W. 2 leagues. 

Ort" the N. E. end of Campo Bello. is a remarkable large rock, called the 
Rock; and here lies Head Harbor, a secure and safe place, small, but of 
and with 6, 7, and 8 fathoms water, muddy bottom. 

Harbor Delute lies on the western side of Campo Bello, and at its S. "Sfti end if'l 
Cove, a good harbor. Moose Island is on the opposite side of the chattel, aitod; 
to the United States. The entrance to Passainaquoddy comprehends a qO} 
twelve miles ,1^"V U 

If bound for Moose Island up the Biver Scoodic, as you pass Todd's Ht^if^^fwhiciipfc 
half a mile N. E. from the town landing on Hasf|)ort,) give it a berth of halfa mile, tti'i 
ledge of rocks lies ofl^ it. Having passed this Head, the course and distance to Oak Poiot 
or Devil's Head, will be N. by W. H leagues; in going which distance, (24 iniles,) you 
pass Fross' Ledge on your larboard hand, six miles from Todd's Head, and 'three-quar- 
ters of a mile from the land ; when continuing your N. by W. course 5 leagues, you will 
come to Robinstown, two miles above which, oft' a small island, from which it bears N. 
E. is a shoal on your larboard hand, and to avoid it you tnust keep your starboard hand 
best on board, till ybu come uj) with Neytra4 Island, which you leave on your larboard 
hand, one-fourth of a mile distant ; and your course from this to the Devil's Head, (be- 
fore mentioned,) which you leave on your larboard hand, is N. N. W. '^ nnles. When 
you have passed the Devil's Head, your course is W. N. W. 1 league, when you will 
come to a large ledge of rocks that you must leave on your larboard hand, which is bare 
at two hours' '.*bb, and extends halfway at-r iss the river. Keep your starboard hand oh 
board, and when you pass this ledge, your course is \V. S. W. distant one mile to Turn- 
er's Point, and from said point to the harbor, your course is N. W. by N. distant three 
iniles, and the next reach to the Falls is W. N. W. distant one mile; the tide flows here 




25 feet, and there are only 6 or 7 feet in thi- cliaimt'l at low water, with long flats of iniirl 
on both sides. The Devil's Head may lie si-eri at ihi' distance of 10 or I'.' miles. 

There are several good harhors on tin* west side of this rivt r, and all the ditficnily in 
the great depth of water, which is, in utMierai, from IH to V.M fathoms. There is also a 
pood harbor on your starboard hand going into Deer Island, whirh lies to the sonthward 
of St. Andrews, 2 leagues distant, it may lie easily known, as there is a large Imy he- 
tween the two islands, which lies N. K. from the river St. Croix, ;{ leagues distant. 

•GRAND MANAN AND MUUNT DKSKKT 111 LI..S.— These places may ea- 
sily be known from the western coast. Mount D» -rt llills may be seen 'JO leamirs at 
sea, and when within 4 or 6 leagues of them, you i see .Scutloc Hills bearing aliout 
N. N. E. The tide of flood sets here E. N. K. and .t ebl) W. S. \V. but as soon hs 
you are 9 or 10 leagues from the land, the current run. ;n general to the .S. W. westward. 


• GnAND ManaMt— This island, MJ niiics in Iciiijth, by 7 in brrndtii, is includnl in Chnrloito 
County, in the prwrince of New Bninswick. Its nciriluiii |i(iiiit is in liiiitiidc -I l'^ '>4' inul luiit'itiuhi 
6(io m^. The nnareat distance, from ihr opposite const of Mniiir, is nearly 9 niilos. The western 
side is very high; its clifls beiiif; nearly perpeiKJiriiliir, and nioiit GOO leet hlf,'h above the level di" 
the sea. On this side viuiut one little inlet, (Dark Cove,) wliicli iill'ords shelter lor lioats only. The 
northern head is equaUiSlbrupt and bold ; but to the eastward ut'it is Whale Cove, having anchor. 
;'V. ing ground, with 25 ^K* fathoms, in which ships may stop tur u tide during a soullitrly gale, but 
'*'•:>/- Jt is exposed to the etttA^y gales. 

To the S. E. of WjiVe Cove, on the N. E. side of the island, is Long Island Bay, so called from 

^ the itland on the S. E. siu ■ of it. The N. E. i.oin; of this bay, called, from its shiijie, the Swallow's 

i/'vT«uli is high, bold, rugged and barren. The bay is open, but possesses nil the adwiiitajrcs ot a 

^ittrbor; the bottom is wholly of mud, excepting a rid^^e rf rocks and gravel, 'hat shows iiseUWitliin 

^.;|||^.8waIlovv'8 Tail, and the north end of Long Island : tlieui.' also, u smidl clii. cr of suiike;i rocks, 

i;i^ftto^et at low water, at half a ntile from Loii;; Isiiunl Point. 

'^^^^VaitflJ6x^g Island, and opposite to the beacli, shijis niny anchor, ovrn locking in the nnri i end 
' V«f li«jb.lsii|lfl with the Swallow's Tail, on a strong muddy bottom, entirely sheltered from il:e wiird 
''MM94e% tn the northern part of the Bay, bottom of stilf ul:iy, vessels have frc(juendy been jirutcctcd 
:'l^ac« severe gale. 

■i*%(ra^miydown, on the eastern coast of Grand Manan, is Gieat Duck Island, under which there 

liffil^OOd ground; but hern a pilot may be required, as there are hidden dangers in lliu vicinity. To 

r%;yJ&jlouth-eaatward of Duck Island lie Ross, Cheney, and White H>iid Islands ; the latter occunieii 

't^N.,l^a skiUuJ and intelligent pilot : from these the rocks and foul ground extend 3 leagues to the S. 

On the Boiitljem bank of Grand Manan, the most dangerous ledge is that called the Old Proprie. 

J)*, which lies two leaguesS. 8. E. from Wliite Head Island, and covers the space of half an acre at 

water ; it is 'dry athalf-ebb. When covered, the tide sets directly over it, at the rate of tour 

<ni)e8 anhour. At three mil^ more to the S. E. is nnotlicr siioal. Clerk's (Jround; and east from it, 

E'f Bflfrfy four miles, lies the Roaring Bull, a bnnK of 8 fathoms, over which is a heavy and dangerous 

;>4l$pple. The S. W. head of Manan, open of all the islets otl'the south side of that island, will lead 

,:'el«ar to the southward of these dangers. The north. easternmosl high land, open of the islets on the 

': .*ast, laads clear to the eastward of them. During an easterly wind the tide-rips are impassable. 

■ The Three. Islands, (Kents,) the southernmost oC the Manan Islets, are low and Icdgy. The cast. 
.•«ni ti<|« "f'hslrtlfT* is bold to the rocks, which are at all times visible. Uif the N. W. of 'liese rocks 
•; feia le^ge calmf&e Constable, dry at low water. These islets, with Green Islets to the northward of 
,them, aflbrd ociiuional anchorage, in from 14 to 7 fathoms. 

;,. Wood Island, on the south side of Manan, and the S. W. end of the latter, form a bay containing 
^^^JI^ellAnt ground. The ugper part and head of it, in a gale of wind, are jilaces of security ; and here 
'isupplies, if requisite, may be obtained from the inlinhitaiits. 

Between Wood Island on the west, and Ross Jsl? id on the east, is the passage to Grand Harbor, 
■ a shallow muddy basin. It is a convenient place for ships without anchor or cable, as they may lie in 
the mud, in perfect security. At the entrance, which is narrow, the depths are from 7 to 5 fathoms, 
bottom of clby. 

W, by S. } S. from Grand Manan lie the Western Seal Islands. On the western island two light. 
houses are erected, showing fixed lights, distant from each other about 140 feet, in the direction of 
E. S. E. and W. N. W. by which they are distinguished from ail other lights upon the coast ; they 
are elevated about 50 feet above high watermark. From the westernmost of tliese lighthouses the 
following bearings were taken; 

To the southernmost of the Murr Ledges, E. S. E. 

To Gannet Rock Lighthouse, E. by S. i S: about 12 milts. 

To N, E. Rock, N. E. by N. about Ij mile. 

To southern head of Grand Manan, E. by N. J N, 

To West Quoddy Lighthouse, N. N. E. 

To Little River Head, N. by W. 

To Libby Island Lighthouse, N, W, by W. 

To south point of Kent Island, (on tlic chart three isles,) East. 




Ifyou fall in with Muuiit Desert Kock, which lies S. d leiif;u<^" froni Mount Desert 
Hillai. J'uii must observe the tiile of tlouil ttets W. tS. W. itloii;; shore, till ^ou coirin to 
the Fox islands; but the same Ihtod runs U|> to the northwurd, into iijue Hill liny, 
Union River, and 'Isle-un-haut Hay. 

The next remarkable land ts I'enobscot Mills, which ynu will see over the l<'ox islimiis, 
bearinj; iVom the N. W. to the N. i\. W. of them. When you pass the isle-au-haut, 
in steering W. >S. VV. you will leave fMantinicus Islands, and Mantmicus .Seal Islands to 
the southward of you. If at ni^ht, or thick weathei, it is advisable to i;o to the south- 
ward of all these islands, unless you are well aL'(|uaiiited. When you pass to the nest- 
ward of Mantinicus Islands, the main passage trom sea to Peinibseut Hay lies about ^<. 
by W. If yuu go into this [lassnge, you leave Mantinicus Island ou your starboard, iipd 
tile two (ireen lsl;<nds on your larboard hand, steering; north-westerly 4 leagues; and if 
bound up the bay, follow your directions for I'enoiiscot Hay. 

If you come in from sea, and make th*' island of Manheigen, on which is a lighthouse, 
(described hereafter,) when it bears N. or N. N. W. it appears like two islands, bu^ 
when it bears east hr west, it appears in one island. Oaniiscove Island^ lie to the W. by 
N. of it, which are all bare of trees, except the north part. The rocks called Uanta)n 
I^edgc, lie two miles from Damiscove, VV. S. W.; when you arc 6 or 7 leagues «lf at 
sea, you will have 70 or 80 fathoms water, with a S. S. W. cutrent. In general, be- 
tween Damiscove and Manheigen Island, the Hood tide parts, a]^sets E. N. K. to the 
eastward, and VV. 8. VV^ to the westward, as far as the island (ff.'Seguine, and to the 
northward up to Broad liay, Sheepscut, and Kennebeck rivers, and;tbe ebb setq the coi^t 
trary way. rp-. 

MACHIAS TO jPASSAMAC|i;ODI)V.— When you leave Mhchigs, and are 
to Passamaquoddy, briiijj lJr;iss Island to bear S. W. by W. and steer N. E. by E. \ S* 
tant *) leagues to West Passaiiia(|Uoddy lighthouse, nearwhich iaan'ALARiiBiCLl.t^ 
will, during foggy weather, strike ten times in a minute, unle'iw neglected, whicbdj 
often the case, as the machinery is out of order, and it is nownruug by hand ; hx0 
rung, the sound may, when calm, be heard live miles. But if tlte ffiud ti)kee jfOQ' ' 
eastward, there is a good harbor, about two leagues to the N. £. of Cross Islsqd. 
harbor bears due west from the middle of Grand Manaaislan.!, and is called Li 
but you cannot see it except you are near the north shore. You must not mtr jl|§<j 
before it bears N. VV. or N. N. W. There is a bliitf point of rooks op the A«)|i^r4 
hand, as you go in, and an island in the middle of the harbor. As you palu io, leayB.lliS 'M 
island on yoi|r larboard hand, and when you have passed it half a mile, you may Wl^ilM^li 
in 4 or 5 fathoms, muddy bottom, and remain safe from all winds, Your, course f)roratlli|^ 
harbor to West Passaii)a(|uod(ly light, is N. E. by E. ^ E. distant 7 leagues. W" 
you come from the S. W- '»>J arc bound into VVest Passamaquoddy, you must give 
fcjeal Rocks, before n^entioned, a berth of three-quarters of a m.le; before you hai|l in fof"*! 
the harbor, as there is a whirlpool to the eatst ward of them. ¥he bay is about one leagtie ■ 
from this poiiit ; it is high water here, at full and change of the moon, about lUb. 4^9. 

There is a good bay that lies about W. S. W. from this point, three-quarters of a Qii)« >;^ 
distant, where you may anchor ; but it is not safe for any stranger to go over the bar wit^^ia 
out 9 pilot, which may be easily obtained. Thr bar bears N. N. W. from the aijcl: 
ground, three-quarters of a mile distant. 

When up as far as Al|en's Island, if you leave it with the tide of flood, MJrdr N. N. J(^^1 
3 miles, when you will have the tide against you four hours ; and two hoars before h^^ 
water the tide sets S. S. W. till you come down to the Collector's Island, when it MlS . 
over the barS. S. I^. The tide rises here twenty-live feet. There is a fine cove on ttoJ 
south end of Moose Island, where a ship of 500 tons may lie, moored head and Bteri& ^ 
safe from all winds, but the anchors are very much exposed with the wind to the f|puti)T ' 
east. ,- '^W 

• The Isle-au-haut is remarkable land, composed of high steep clifls, and malces with a large bay 
on each side of it ; has good landing on its eatitcrn end, and anchorage half a mile ofl*, in 18 fath. 
oms, with the low point bearing about N. E. by N. where is also a stream of water running ii)^ th% 
sea. The highest part of the island is in the middle, and represents a saddle. 

t Mantinicus Kock Lights are at both ends of a dwelling house. Tiie houpe is 40 feet in length 
find 30 feet in breadth, to which the lights are attached, and are both fixed lights. Height of the 
lantern above the level of the sea, S'2] feet. The course from this to Maiiheigan Light is y^, ) N, 
distant 8) leagues. [See mention of these lights page 142.} 

} West Passamaquoddy lighthouse contains a fixed light, as before mentioned, page 134, situated 
on West Quoddy Hei^d, 90 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen at a distanoe of 8«y§|) 
{eagves in clear wcat^^r. 





*T1TMANAN.— Ill c«iiiinii fnmi iIm- wf»iwiiril, IxmiikI to I'ipptm IlitI, or Ro»hr,ir 
Ilarhoi, Ijiiri^ tli<> li):lit In Iomi S. W. .iikI miii toi il, ^iviii); it a tjcilli dI <iiifl<iiiii|| oi a 
mile, aiid lluii hlifi N. ' W. J iiiilt's: iti Hii-ninit' iliis nmiM', j<)U will leavr (lie Kjfg 
]{i>ck oil xiiir stailxiniil r:iii(l, win ii vou will iiiiikr llit- wislcil)' flicur, ftiviiiK il ;i herili 
of liiiK'n mile; llini flfcr N. N. Jl. \)i\v inih-, wluii yon will bi- oppoBitt Djer's Hounc, 
where you iiiiiy aiiehoi f.wv lioiii all wiiiiU in ;< tatlioniN water. 

In eimiin^ Iroin the eaNiwanI, hoiiml to Dyer's iti-y, cive 'rilinannii Inland liglit ilirfe- 
fourths o( a mile benli, leaviiii> it on your .viaiJMiunl In ml ; hrinj: llip li);hi to hear N. K. 
threc-lourllis ot a mile di.slanl, ihtii vteeriN. I'y \V. w Im li will tarry >oii into the inonih 
of the hay, leaviiig a lari;e dry ledj;e on your larhoard hand: when ahreaMi of ihls ledj;e, 
which i« bold lo, j'.ive it u berth ol ') ort) rodn, then oleer iN. }, K. 4 or 5 iiiik-!), where you 
may anchor sale iVom all uiiuis, in 4 or') lailuiM", muddy bottom. 

GoldHhorouiiih Ilail)or lies N. .N. U. l-oni '1 itmanan li;!hlhiiiise, two lraj;iip« disinni, 
Icavinja; one island, covered with trees, on your .siarl>oaitl hand, and two nn \oiu larlioard 
hand; then your cour.-n is N. N. Vv . 1 ' mile, then .N. ' J".. J miles, whn h will brini; 
you up with (ioldsborotigh I'oint, where you may uiithoi sale from all windb, in 3 or 4 
iiptttiomis muddy bottom. 

'Jo coming lioi^t^ie eastward, bouml to rnis):ert liarhor, uive Tinnanan li»hf a berth 
of three-fourths of a mile, brini; it to btar 1,. S. K. iind sict r \\ . iN. W . J leaunes, which 
win bring you up wilb the wentern shoie, or l!ii(h Head I larbor. In rnniiiii): the ;diove 
COnreei you will leave f Cranberry Keck poini im your starboar<l hand, i\loulf(ni's Lpdt;e, 
and the two black ledges on your larboard haml. ^ our course I'roin < 'ranheiry Hock 
jint in is N. W. by N. Jn case you !.lioiil(l not make the | omt, conti'iiie your course 
^ N. W. until youmakr; the western nhore, nivin^; it a heilh of half a mile, then steer 
I. N, E. until you open the harbor, then steer N. W. which course will carry you sale 
'ton fall in with Chuttock Island, and are bound to i'rospect, Rive it a berth of 
Is of a mile, theusteer M. N. K. which conisti will carry you sate into the 
*In running this course, you will have the two black leil^es on your starbonid 
gWiogthem a berth of three fourths of a mile. 

<iaMw» Ledge bears from Titniaiian lighthouse W. by N. 4 miles distant ; this 

I bare, except at low tides; straiii;eis should not approach too near it; it lies 

^Qpi Goldsborough Harbor. 'I here is a sunken ledge that lies S. E. 

Ilightli^use, 12 miles distant, on wliich there is but i> feet at low water. 

Il W. 4 miles distant from tlie lighthouse, lies a sunken ledge, on which there are 

Set at low water. 

[ount Desert to Goldsborough, you must steer K. -, N. for HScuttock roint, (our 
where is an island, which yeumay pass either side of, but it isbe=t to leav? it on 
)oard hand, and tlien steer N. E. about ;V'. leagues, whiih will carry you up with 
ttorough Harbor. Vou will see three islands whidi lie in the mouth of the har- 
^fdtt must leave them ou your larboard haud, and go in the eastern passage. In 
ilding in for this place, you will see Titmanau Island, which has a lighthouse on it. 
Iltldmng a fixed light, already described, wlii( h you leave on your starboard hand. 
fOCtb from Titmanan^ ona eighth of a mile distant, lies a ledge, bare at hall iide, which 
^ou keep w'ithin half a cable's length of \,heu going over the bar, which you pass on 
^ttr starboard hand, when bound eastward, at which, as you pass the bar, Scuttock Isl- 

w~~. ■ ~~~ 

.-*Tttmanan Light is a fixed light, elevated 53 feet above the level of the sea, on the south end of 
"^e Titihamo Island, near the mouth of Niiiiimumus River ; S. S. W. I'roiii it, 4 miles distant, is a ledge 
>iHivingl3 feet at low water; also, S. K. by H. from it is ji diinfrcrous sunken ledge, about H miles 
distant, but there is plenty of water inside the sliore ; on the sduiIhtii and northern sides of the island 
ire.shoals. Give the island n liertli oi Iiall' a mile. Near the liyiit, nre two good hatl)ors, viz. Dyer's 
Bay, and Goldshoiouph Harbor. 

t Cranberry Rock licb near linker's Isliind Lifrhi, Criiiiburry Island ami Mount Desert. The 
light is'elevated 70 feet above the level of the S(-u, and shows a fixed light, henrin^ K. N. E. froin 
Titiltaiian Light, 22 miles distant, and E. N. E. eoateily, from Moose Peck Heud Light, distant 41 

t Mount Desert Islanl is »l)out fifteen miles lonjr, and twelve broad. It is intersected in the mid- 
die by the water llowinj; into the south side from the sen. On Mount Denert Rock, six leagues south 
from the island is a lighthouse contaiiiins; a fixed lislit, elevaietl .'ilii feet above the level of the ses. 

There ate two considerable islands on the 8. E. side of Mount Desert Island, called Cranberry 
Islands, wKieli assist in forming a Imrlior in liie (Julf, which ^ts up on the south side of the island. 

§ Machias Light House is built on Libby Island, which ^es on the western entrance to Macl.'ias 
Bay, 65 feet above the level of the sea, ond contains a fixed light. 

H There are five hills on Scuttock, reiiiarkable from any hills in the eastern country, and at a dis- 
tance they appear round. 





■nl will b«'a hntidipiUo's lcn;;fh opi-n Id the Miiiiiliwunl of •Sctiffork Point, but to go 
over tins bnr rrijiiires w pilnl. W'lifri iiimt tin* liiii, :itiil up wiili 'I'ilncuiiin Isliriil, keep 
K. S I",. II If li iT a unit- ili<.! uii, wlm h will .1 It dt'c Inviny ') It'ct Hater at low wa- 
ter, tiiat \\v* K. ol' tlH> cli.uitii-l ;;oin.j ovi-r tlit- It ir, iiiit'-linirlli ol a utile (i itanl. 'I'lu're 
i<i a liar that riiti.H IVkiu ilin shore to tins liitln island, tvhich a* about one \> a;;uv from the 
lainl. This bar has '.\\ fathouis at liinh water, and ') fret at low w itet. 

If you are boiitiil to .Macliias or I' issaMia!|U(Mlilv, your course iVoni Mount Desert is 
K. IJ , lea'iui's, which will earry you np with f Mmise I'eek I/ij{lit, which you leave on 
your larboard hand; then sieer N. K. by K. lur .Micliius l<it;ht, on liibliy Island, 4; 
ieaijues. hi steeriiii; the above i-oures and (l..-.iaiiies, you pa»N by nofhui;; but islandn 
on your larlioard hand, with inlets and tmndry uood harbors, pleanant riverM, .SIooho Feck 
Reach, and ( 'handler'.s Kiver, which nre all uood harbors, but too intricate to be de- 
ncnlifd lur sir,Mi.iers to aiieiii|if with laleiy. Il you cannot steer your courBCd a» above 
directed, you must observe, atier passinj; .Moose |*eck Head liiclit, there are three low 
islarnis to the .<> W. of (irand .Manan Island, wiiich lie due S. K. from Maciiiati called 
Seal Islands, diiiant 4 leagues, tin one of which are two lii^hthoiises. Vou may see the 
island ol' (Jrand Manan b leagues belbre you come to it, and when it bears N, E. these 
islands run .'<^. W. t'roni (irand .Manan. almiu J Ica^Mies distant, and ill thick weather, if 
you make these islands, yon in ly run lor .Mailiias Liu'lii. bringing Ihe S. W. end of 
(Jrand .Manan lo bear .S. K. by K. and then run .\. W. by W. (or the entrance of Ma- 
cliias, f) leaiiiies distant, atid when you hive passed ('ross Island; which you leave on your 
starboard hand, you may steer N. but in passins; CrusH Island, you must be careUll of ' 
some dangerous led'^es lyiin; otf it 1 ', mile, in a ."^. W. direction. In .steering this course, 
you will leave a larije white rock on your larboard hand; and if you do not waotiD go 
into .Machias Harbor, you may haul to the wcstw ird. Alter you have paq - *». , 
about half a mile, briii;; a hi^ii round island that is covered with trees tq 
you may anchor in 4 ur.'> raihoiiiN, muddy bottom. 'I'his, Is called Jonei 
you mean to '^o up to .Madiias you must keep your course N. till you f., 
island on yoiy larboard hand. wIumi you niity shape your course W. N. 
W. for a point that is covered witli yoiiii.; birch trees, and a house on it, fS 
board hand there is tiotliin*; but llats and shoils. Vou may keep your lar 
after you pass this lioii>c, until the river opens to the uorlhward, wbeo yo%iB|P1RW'|l| 
to Cross Kiver, where yon may am hor in I lathonis; but if you are boi^l^fr^f^^rotl 
W. mills, you must haul away lo the we^t^^,lld. When you get up wiihltff. E|lrti'W*i> \, 
house and barn, which are (in the starboar<' band, vou nnist leave the barn opeir.t|i|i»^ | 
south-westward of the Pot I Head, 'i'iiis Pott- 1 lea»l is a large hill thatyo^ule^iy^ OA jnliW^V' 
starboard hanrl. [For description of (irand .NIanan, see pa^e 1U6.1 

IA).\(i l.SLAM) 'lo riJK .-^oirilWK.ST HARBOli.OF MOUNT DE! 
— Your course is N. .\. K. distant :!', liHuues. Vou inusl leave the two Duck 
on your starboard hand, and t!iree islamls on your larboard hand. It is not safe llkr t . 
stranger to run here in tlie nis;ht, as there is a lar^e.liBdge that is covered at high waterji .' 
and bare at half tide. Vou leave this ledce on your starltuard hand, whicli is abont OKA 
mile from the harbor. There is a lon^ IciLze on the larboard hand, which runs offbatlf j^l 
a mile, but 'here is a good turning ; liannel between them. The.^. W. passages fittos/ 
enter, even with a lar;:e vessel, at low water, keeping nearest tl^ starboard hanpliw yw|i 
go in, for there is a long point thai lies aiioiit hail' a. mile off from the larboa^.^ haa^J 
When you pass the iioinf^n your larboard hand, you liavp the harbor open, and mtlM^M, 
bear up N. W . or W. N. W. and anchor well up the harbor in 5 or () fathoms, mudlhr/^ 
bottom, whero you may lie sale Inun all winds. If you are in a large vessel, and make 
the Isle-au haul, bring it to bear W. by S. and steer K. by N. 10 leagues, which coursi^i 
and distance will carry you up tlie eastern passage iroiti;; into Mount Desert, you inust^^ 
leave all the islands to the nonliward, and lio to the nor! Ii ward of Mount Desert Rock," 
which lies K. .S. K. Irom the Isie-au-li;;iit. S. K. from Long Island, Jind S. from the 
Duck Islands. When yon brii::; the harbor to be ir W. N. W. you may steer directly' iu, 
for you may go about with a fiist-rat;' man-of-war in this passage. You may steer ih 
this c'.iannel, with a fair wind, trom W. N. \V. to W. by N. til' yon come toLangley'd 
laland, \vhich lies about one league up the htirbo.s and makes ihe starboard hand of the 

and at a dis- 

• feiitfock Point forms the etiftern, and Mount Desert the western extreme of Frenchninn's Bay. 

+ Moose Pfck Hcnd Litrht is on .M .'^rukc I^lnnd, 51 t'eef nbf)vo the level ci' the sen, and ontaina 
a revolving lifrhi : Time of revolution four minutes ; showinp two litdits and two darks; when at 
the diftance oi' six league"?, tiuir lime of darkness will hv no loofrer than that of light ; ae you ap. 
proach il, the time of dnrkncs-i wiil dccrenso ; witiiin Ci or (> imies it will not wholly dirapprar, 
but in the revolution the gr<'a'est power of lijjht will bo as 24 is to 1 at least. The* light beaxs S. 
W. by W. i \V. from Libby Island Light- 




.., .,. . ,. -r i - wi rt CY 




river that nins from tlie N. E. Be careful of this island, as there is a sunken ledge of 
rocks abreast of it, near half a mile off. The river above-mentioned has water enough 
for aii^ ship fo {;o in, and is a safe harbor. 

FOX ISLAND PASSACiE.— On Brown's Head, at the western entrance of Fox 
Island thoroughfare, a lii^ht, showing a fixed light, is erected on the Southern Fox Isl- 
and, and stands two rods from the shore, and 80 feet above high w ter mark. 

The following are the results of observations by compass: — Fiddler's Ledpe bears 
from the light, W. | S. distant about 3 miles ; Fiddler's Ledge from Crabtree's Point, 
AV. S. W. distance about half a mile. Fiddler's Ledge is above the surface of the water 
at two hours' ebb. 

Crabtree's Ledge bears from the light W. by S. distant about 14 mile ; Crabtree's 
Ledge bears from Crabtree's Point S. W. by S. distant about half a mile. This ledge 
may be seen breaking at high water with a little motion. 

Inner Dog Fish Ledge bears from the light S. W. distant about 3 miles; Inner Dog 
Fish Ledge bears from Crabtree's Ledge S. S. E. distant about 1^ mile. 

In running O'om Owl's Head Light* for Fox Island thoroughfare, bring the light to 

bear west, and steer E. i S. until you bring the light on Brown's Head to bear E. N. E., 

and then stetr for i' Uiitil you are w ithin one cable's length from the light. In running 

thia course, you pass between Crabtree's Ledge and Dog Fish Ledge, leaving Crabtree's 

I'^dge on the larboard hand, and Dog Fish Ledge on thfe starboard, which is separated by 

B channel 1^ mile broad ; you may then run half a cable's length of either of them. 

When abreast of the light, and between tht light and Sugar Loaves, steer N. E. ^ E. 

hfpr Young's Narrows. The Sugar Loaves are two high rocks, formed somewhat like 

' sugar Ipaves, and are located nearly in the centre of the passage. There is good anchor- 

* Age between the Sugar Loavea and light, in 7^ fathoms, at low water. 

Tlj» entrance to Young's Point is narrow at low water, off which lies a ledge of rocks, 
irliiell.'kre covered at high water. There is also a cjuantity of sunken rocks at the lar- 
IiookI hand, near a mile to the W. N. W. which lie ntf the Dumplins. These Dump- 
, IS^n. are thvee islands, which you leave on your L.rboard hand. Your course in this 
' t^finBizi'iM E. S. E. and W. N. W. keeping your sti'.rhoard hand on board. W hen you 
l^il thi* point on your starboard hand, you must keep your starboard hand on board, 
aad,«teer E Si JSr about two miles, when you will make Deep Cove on your starboard 
¥^ IfiaxiA, which Ues to the ea^.tward of a very high bluff of rocks. If you have neither ca- 
L' • iilesnor anchors, you may run into said cove, or secure your vessel witlj t le main or fore- 
«h9et, .or come to anchor in 7 fathoms water off the said cove. There the flood meets, 
oat. from the W. N. W. the other from the E. N. E. wliich makes an eddy against this 
qove and highland ; here yoi may ride safe with any wii When you leave this place, 

and are bound to the eastward, yoti steer E. S. E. anu keep your starboard hand on 
I^Mrd tili y6\i come upno a clear spot of land, where the trees haVe been cut off. As 
Qoon as said sped bears W. S. W. you steer E. N. E. for the middle narrows. When 
jou draw near the Narr(»vs, you will see two large white I'ocks in the middle of the pas- 
sage, unless at high water, at which time they are covered about one hour, but may be 
seen at all other times of tide. You may go on either side, but the deepest water is at 
the 'southward of tiiem. . Continue vmir course E. N. fc. about onfe league, when you 
nust keep your starboard hand on L jard, as there are several sunken rocks and ledges 
'on your larboard hand, which are covered at high water. You will make the eastern 
narrows on your starboard hand, and as soon as you britlg it to bear S. S. E. you may 
f/s^f nip througli, wliere you will have a fine harbor, which is safe to ride in with all winds 
' e\cept at £. N. E. but you may I'emain in the west passage with the wind at E. N. E.or 
anchor at the northward of a bar*^ island, that you will see on your starboard hand as you 
go back to the westward. When you pass the eastern passage of Fox Island, you must 
steer E. N. E. about 4 miles, which course will rarry you into a large bay that lies be- 
tween Fox Islajid and the Isle-au-haut. This bay lies N. and S. and about <! leagues 
E. an 1 W. When you get into tliis bay from the above-mentioned passajre, and are 
bound t--- the eastward of the Isle-an liaut. you may sie^r E. S. E. 6 leagues, which course 
Will carry you to the southward of the Isle-au-haut. 

When you come from the westward, having j)asscd the island of Manheigen and the 
entrance of Penobscot Bay, you may steer E. N. E. which course will cirry you between 
the Fox Islands and Mantinicns Islands ; on the latter, at each end of the keeper's 
house, a lighthf)iiso is rrected. vhich .shows two distinct fixed lights, sailing coastwise, 
north-easterly and south-wc-iierly ; and one light, sailing N. N. \V. and S. S. E. leaving 
all the Fox Islands ou your larboard hand, but bring the Isle-au-haut to bear W. N. 

* Owl's Head Light is near the entrance of Penobscot Bay, on the larboard hand ; is 147 feet 
above the level of the sea, and shows a fixed light. 





W. !?nd steer E. N. E. 7 leagues to Long Islnnd, which you leave on your larboard 
hand. If you are bound to Blue Hill Bay, or I'nion lliver, as soon as you pass Long 
Island, you will open a larf;e sound to the N. N. W. which course you are to steer seven 
leagues, when you will be up with Robertson's Island, leaving the Shij) and Barge,* on 
your larboard hand. Robertson's Island is the only island near that place that has a 
house on it. The soutli part of the island i.s clear of trees, on which th« house stands. 
When you come near the south part of the island, give it a berth of ihree-tiuarters of a 
mile, as theie are several sunken rocks ofl" srid pouit. When you bring this island to 
bear from S. W. to N. W. you may anchor in 6 or 7 fathoms water, muddy bottom ; but 
•f^ou are bound to Blue Hill Bay, you may stand to the northward direct for the Blue 
Hills, which y "U may s'e 10 or 15 leagues off. If you are bound for Union River, you 
had better take a pilot at Robertson's Island, for it is not fit for a stranger to go without 

CAIMDEN HARBOR. — North-east Ledges bear from the light on Negro Island, at 
the mouth of Camden Harbor, N. E. j N. distance about three eighths of a mile. North- 
east Ledges to Morse's Point, N. by W. distance about half a mile; those ledges are 
covered at high water, but are above the surface of the water at two hotirs' ebb. Bar- 
rit's Point forms the western side of Camden Harbor, and i)ear8 from the light S. W. 
by S. i S. distance about three eighths of a mile. Morse's Point lies opposite tho light- 
house and lormsthe eastern side of the harbor. Barrit's Point to the Graves, S. S.^ S. 
distance about 1| mile. From the light to the (iraves, S. by E. ^ E. distance about 2 
miles. Owl's Head Light bears from Camden Light S. i W. distance about 12 miles* 
From the Graves to the Owl's Head Light S. by W. i W. distance about 1"^ miles^. 

Camden Lighthouse is situated on the S. E. part of Negro Island, and contains 
light, elevated 4') feet above the level of the sea. 

In coming from the westward, and bound to Camden Harbor, bring Owl's 
to bear south, and steer N. i K. for Camden Light, leaving the Graves and N< 
rocks, on the starboard hand : the (irave is a small black rock, and is above the^ii 
of the water at all times, and you may near it within a cable's length, on all sidm. 
up with the lighthoui^e leave it on the larboard hand one cable's length, and steeri 
by N.^ N. or N. N. W. distance nearly half a mile, and anchor near the nort^lfaf 
from four to five fathoms water, good holding groiind. If you are to tli% efH|^%t|^cild-' 
bound for Camden Harbor, bring the light to bear W. S. W. or S. W, bjF "Wi U^ 6|«ir 
the north east ledges, then follow the above directions. 

CASTINE. — The beacon on Otter Rock bears from the lighthouse on OieeHl H«ad| 
at the entrance of Castine Harbor, S. E. j E. distance half a mile; NoJdte's tilltid' 
Point, fS. E. I S. distant e about I'l miles; Bull Head, on Holbrook's Island, sotitbt did* 
tance about 2 miles ; Turtle Head, W. N. W. distance about 4^ miles; Bdfast, N. Vl^* 
by W. distance aboui 11 miles. From the beacon on Otter I^ck ^o Noddle's Islhodt 
Point, S. E. by S. j' S. distance about three eighths of a mile; from 'Noddle's Islandf' 
Point to the beacon on Hosmar's Ledge, E. N. E. distance a4)out three-quarten of a 
mile ; from Otter Rock Beacon to tlie beacon on Hosmar's Ledge, east, distanc* abdut 
three-quarters of a mile ; Hosmar's Ledge Beacon to the town of Castine, N. N. S.|li'^ 
tance about half a mile. . 

Otto Rock is a small round rock, and lies about two Cables' length from the DortbMIl 
shore, and has on it an iron beacon, with a cask placed upon a staft'at its centre, and is 
about 11* feet abo'r the level of the sea at high water. Noddle's Islan4 Poi^l is a low 
black rock, and very bold. Bull Head is a high bhitl of rocks, and of a yellowish casti 
and lies on the south side, without the entrance of the harbor. ( " 

Hosmar's Kock lies about one eighth ol a mile from the southern .shore of CastitM 
Harbor, and has on it an iron beacon, as described on (JtlerRock.. Turtle Head is th(4' 
northern head of Long Island. Stubbs' Point Ledge lies opposite the town, but is not 
in the way of vessels going into Castine Harbor, on which there is a beacon to b6 erected 
this season. 

If you are bound up Penobscot Bay, and are to the eastward of Long Island, and i«» 
tend going into Castine Harbor, bring the light on Diet's Head to bear N. E. by N. and 
run for it until you are within a half a mile of it. then steer E. by N. for the beacon otl 
Hosmar's Ledae, leaving Otter Rock Beacon on the larboard hand, one cable's length 
>_isiance, and Bull Head, Noddle s Point, and the lieacrn on Hosmar's Lodge on the 
starboard hand, you may near the starboard shore o(f the entrance of Castine Harbor, 
within one cable's length, and steer E. N. E. which will carry you in ship chai nel way. 
You may anchor oH'the town, near the wharves, in from 8 to 10 fathoms water. 


id ; is 147 feet 

* The Phip is nn inland that has three trees on it, and appears like a ship e'. a distance ; 
and the Bnrge is a dry rock, which appears like a barge. 



This harbor is easy of access, and vessels may approach it with safety by following the 
above directions. 

*\VHI'rK HKA]). — Vessels bound from the southward, and inteiidinj; to fall in with 
White Head Lighthouse, should endeavor to take their departure from the High Land 
of Cape (Jod, on which is a liijhthouse, containing a fixed light, from which to Manhei- 
gen Light, the course is N. N. E. \ K. distant .'35 'r leagues. The shore near Manhei- 
gen is bold, with good watt»r on all sides, having no shoals or sunken rocks about it ; 
tliere are some dry islands and ledges on the north side, but they are bold, and good wa- 
ter all among thein. From iManheigcn light to VN'hite (lead Light, the course is N. K. 
distant about 7 leagues, with a fair open sound, '{'here is a small ledge lies about half 
a mile from White Head Light, bearing S. by K. which is just out of water at conunon 
tides: at low water you pass between this ledge and the light to go in tiie Mu^'cle Kidge 
Channel, or into the harbor. Wni contituu' your course N. K. by the light about three- 
quarters of a mile, when you will open the harl)or on your lari)oard hand, ' etween a " 
small ledgy island next the light, and a hii;h white island with some spruce trees on it. 
When you open the harbor N. W. you steer N. W. and sail on till you pass all the 
ledges on your larboard hand, and anchor in about .'> nr(-< fathoms, good holding grr)uii(l. 
Vessels of 60 or 70 tons, may double dose around the head of the light, soon as it 
bears N. E. and anchor right abreast of the store. This is called Sail Harbor. Va- 
mls taken with calm and ebb tide, may anchor any where off the Imht, in from 12 to i'O 
jfathoins water. If the wind takes you at N. H. and ebb tide, that you caiuiot get into 
Sail Harbor, you may run into Tarrent Harbor, which bears W". by S. aboui 4 miles dis- 
tant. You will continue your W. by 8. course, till the first house on the starboard 
hand bears N. N. W. when you mav anchor in about 4 or fy fathoms water, good ground. 
tailiAfrom this harbor, you may steer east one league, to White Head Light, but be 
loot to haul in for it till it bears N. E. as there is a large ledge of rocks bearing 
|?Wji,«N. W. from said Head, one mile distant, but within it, a pistol shot from the 
k'u lAkdeoavigation. In going in, you must give the larboard hand a berth, as there 
ikeo le<)ge« which extends about two-thirds across the mouth of the harbor, that 
wb#n there is any sea, unless at high water. 
^'f' ^Ali* IIARBOR lies to the northward and eastward of White Head, about three- 
k^UKUlf of a mile. If you wish to go into this harbor, haul up round the Head, within 
»^ ttboi^t a eabh> and a half's length, run until the light bears S. W. then steer N. by W. 
' run ^1 and MChpr in 8 fathoms, sticky bottom. This is a good harbor in winter. Ves- 
•eki getting beealnisd can anchor rear the Head in 10 or V2 fathoms water. Attached 
to this light is a bell weighing 1000 lbs. striking, in foggy weather, three times a minute. 
Your course from White Head Light is N. E. to Ash Point or Island, one league dis- 
tant, which has a large rock to the S. W. of it, about half a mile distant, which you must 
leaye on your larboard hand. It is not in the way except you are obliged to go about. 
When you haul round this island, give it a small berth, and steer N, N. E. or N. p]. by 
N^ for the Owl's Head, leaving two islands on your starboard hand ; but when you draw 
•ftear the larboard shore, you steer about E. N. E. for the Owl's Head, which has a good 
^i,)iarbor on the larboard hand as you go to the eastward. This harbor makes with a deep 
'^jeo»e. You may bring a rocky point that lies on your starboard hand to bear N. E. and 

jl ledse of rocks that lies without said point to bear E. N. E. and anchor in 4 fathoms, 

muddy bottom. 

^ This harbor is open to the wind at E. by N. and E. N. E. but in all other winds you 
"are safe. The tide of Hood sets to the eastward, and the tide of ebb S. W. through the 
*T Muscle Ridges. 
• If it is night when you come to White Head Light, you bad better not attempt going 

through the Muscle Ridges. Your best way is to go by Two Bush Island, which you 

must leave on your larboard hand, keeping your course E. N. E. or N. E. by E. [Two 

Bush Island is round and barren, but has only one bush on it. Formerly it had two 


If you. are in a large vessel, your best way is to go in this passage, as it is the most 

•afe. You must follow your course, as above directed, about two leagues, when yoii 

• White Head Light is built on White Head Island, remnrkable for the ninny white rocks on the 
head. It is 7 ieiigues from Mnnheigen, brnrinc N. E. ; is n fixed white light, 58 fiet above the 
level of the sea. Tiie litjht in sninll, but of preiii irnporlnnce, ns nil ve^ssels bjuiul to i'enobscot Bay, 
going in shore, are obliged to pans by the liKhi thniiigii tlie Muscic Ridges. A stranger wishing lo 
pass this Hght must, if coming from the wcHtwiird, run in for the land cast nf Muidici^ien, until the 
light bears S. W. ; theu steer N. E. and yuu can pass witliin half u cable's length uf the bead. 


.ittk .. .:^S^' 



will have •Penobscot ]\ay open, and then you may direct your course to either side of 
Lons; Island. If you go to the westward, your course is N. N. K. to (ireat .Spruce 
Head, which havinj; passed seven ieaj^ues, your course is N. E. by N. 5 leagues to Old 
Fort Point. In steering said course, you will leave lielfast Bay and Brigadier's Island on 
your larliiiard hand, which island has a good harbor, and if you mean m go into it, you 
must leave it on your larboard hand, and steer in about N. or N. by W. 

^'ou may run up above this island, and andior on the starboard hand, if the wind is to 
the eastward; but if to the westward, or .S. W. you must not. There is a bar that lies 
from this island to the main land, whith is cnvere I at high water. There is also a good 
harbor to the westward of this island, tailed Lung ( ove. If you turn into either of these 
hariiors, you must be carelnl of some rocks that lie to the southward of this island, more 
than half a mile from the main land. But in going to Penobscot, proceed as above, and 
keep your larboard liand on bcnird. \\'hen you pass tliis island for the Old Fort Point, 
V. hich has no trees on it, you must observe before you come to it, that a large ledg«- of 
rocks lies about three-quarters of a juile to the K. S. K. of it, which is covered at high 
water, but bare at half tide. Vou may go within a table's length of Old Fort Point, in 
smooth water. These rocks may be discovered when the wind blows. 

If you are bound u]) Penobscot, from Old Fort Point, with the tide of ebb, and th»» 
wind a-head. you may make a jirood harbor in the east river, which lies about E. N. E. 
from Old Fort Point,! about one league. Tliis river lies to the soulhAvestward of Orphan 
Island, in which place you will lie sate from all wmds, and anchor in si.x or seven fathoou, 
good holding ground. 

Orphan Island is a larae island, which you are to leave ou your starboard hand, and 
sundry rocks on your larboard hand, which are above water. When you pauOijphan' 
Island, you may anchor to the N. W. of it, on the starboard hand, ackyou go tbfongh: 
but if wind and tide are in favour you may proceed up to Marsh Bay, keepin|^Ae lar- 
board hand best on board. Marsh Bay is about two leagues from Orphan Island. -^Siirheil 
you pass Marsh Bay, you may keep in the middle of the river, and you bt\^r neither^ 
rocks nor shoals until you get u|) to the falls. You have no particular OQl 
this river, but may sometimes go to the westward of N. and sometimes to tlle4 

When you enter Penobscot Bay, and are bound to the eastward of LoDl 
must steer N. E. by N. leaving Long Island on your larboard band, wbic&<tt^ltpt ,%ril 
carry you up to Castine.t If you intend going into this harbor, as sooauit DWMiE.'Nj 
E. you may run in, steeling E. N. E. keeping the middle of the channel ll^til |rMi JMM)|.'J 
the first island, giving it a berth of half a mile ; then haul to the sonthimd ttl|l8 the 
island bears VV. 8. W. when you may anchor in 8 or 10 fathoms, muddx bottoib, aM U* 
safe froiH all wind. ' 

In going into the harbor of ('astine, you leave three islands on your starboard han^J' 
but if you are bound u]) I'enobscot River, you must steer north, leaving the ledge of 
rocks off the Old Fort Point on your larboard hand : then follow the same airectiona »ou 
have for miming into the Penobscot River, which will carry you up to the Fidls. The 
tide ebbs and flows, at full and change, about 10 or 11 feet. 

GEORdES RIVER.— Bring the ^orth IJamiscove Island, which is called Whittl 

•PBNOBSCOT HAY a.vd RIVER.— This extensive bay is included between Sedgwick Point, ■ 
on the enst, and White Head on the west ; ihcdistaiicr lirtwocii these points is about 11 leagues; and "' 
it therefore includes the Isle-iiu. Haute, Peer Island, the Fox Island, Long Island, and anumfaWTof ' 
sninll isles, rocks, nnd ledi^cs. TlirDHirh the bay to the mouth of the river of its name, the weatent 
chininri is by the headland on thf west, railed Owl's Hood : thence, by Camden on the west, siid 
Cape Riisaric on the east, to Hatraduce l^jjnt or Cnstine River. The eastern channel is between on the west, and the smaller isles on the east, through a channel called Long Reach, ' 
formed by tlie shore of .Sedijwick on one side, and Deer Islniid on the other, until it unites With the. 
main channel between Gtt|ie Rosnrie and Long Island. Above this, on the east, stands Fort Caatina 
ntor to which is the town of Castine, opposite to Penobscot. (Jasiine is the port of entry. This 
noble riveri^hieh empties its waters into the bay, and which is now decorated with numerous town- 
ships, is the most cfjiisideniliie in the State of Maine, and lins its sources about 130 miles above the 
inlet o( Castine. The head of tide and iiavit;aiion is, however, at Baiifior, about 30 miles from the 
same : but vessels of 30 tons may u|)pruaeh within a mile of this place. At the entrance of the river 
is a depth of 10 futhums. 

t On Old Fort Point, above Cnstine, there is a lighthouse to indicate the direction to Prospect 

} Castine Lighthouse is built on IJise's Head, at the entrance of Castine harbor, and is an impor. 
tnnt light running up and down Penobscot Bay. It shows a fixed light llCferi above the level of the 
sea, N. W. ^ N. from Fort Point ledges, and from the eastern end of Long Island S. E. by E. | E. 
The shore near the light.houBo is bold. 


■H> ■■ " ' 



Island, (from its being white,) to bear W. S. W. and steer E. N. E. for * Franklin light- 
house, that you leave on your starboard hand, and which you may pass within a cable's 
length of. When abreast of Kranl<Hn Island light, (which is on your starboard hand,) steer 
N. K. for Utter Island, 4 miles distant, and continue until within one-quarter of a mile 
of it, leaving it on your larboard hand; then steer E. N. E. for fCauldwell's Island, at 
the S. W. end of which is a high round rock, called Goose Rock. When abreast of said 
rock, which you may pass within one cable's length of, leaving it on your starboard hand, 
steer N. E. by E. and N. E. keeping Cauldwell's Island best on board, to avoid a ledge 
in the midd'e of the river. 

In beating into (ieorge's River, you must be carrful of a sunken ledge which bears E. 
N. E. from Franklin Island Light, 6 miles distant ; also of a ledge oti' the S. E. end of 
Gay's Island, which extends one third of the way across to Goose Rock. 

Should you fall in with Manhcigen Island Light, and bound to (ieorge's River, you 
may steer N. N. W. leaving Manheigen Island on your starboard hand, until Franklin 
Island Light bears N. E. by E. when you may run for it, and steer as above directed. 
Franklin Light may with safety be run for when bearing from N. E. by N. to E. N. E. 

In running from White Islands for (T»>orge's River, be careful of New Harbor Ledges, 
which bear E. N. E. from tPenmequid Point Light, one league distant, on which art 5 
feet water at low water. After passing these Ledges, you will see a large dry rock called 
the Western Egg Rock, which bears E. N. E. from Penmequid Point, two leagues dis- 
tant, and W. by S. from Franklin Lisht, one league, which you leave on your larboard 
hand; you will also see the Eastern Egg Rock, wlijch boars south from Franklin Light, 
one le^ue distant, which you leave on your starboard hand. These Egg Rocks bear 
£. 8^E. and \S(. N. W. from each other, one league distant, and their appearance much 
alike, irhich you pass between, with a clear and open channel. You may distinguish 
one flfl^ the other by their bear'uigs from the light. 

Sl^l^ki you have the wind ahead, and be obliged to turn to windward, you may stand 

^rthward until Franklin Island Light bears E.N. E. and to the south-eastward 

N.N. E. without danger. 

lithward of the range of Penmequid Point and the Western Egg Rock, and 

idaad, the ground is foul and rocky ; and also to the eastward of the range of 

iaiui Light, and the Eastern Egg Rock. [Nuie. M'Cobb's Island is the 

ince of George's River, and bears N. W. 1| mile distant from Franklin 

1% ;;!§BPI*S'. BAY HARBOR John's Island bears from Thrum Cap Island N. N. E. 

:;4iiHllitfllboilt three miles. Thrum Cap Island is a small bare island, and forms the west- 

pyinrtl aide of the entrance of John's Bay, bearing from Penmequid Point W. S. W. dis- 

i^'^'^lpt' about two and a half miles. Penmequid Point forms the eastern side of the bay, 

';,|p3la a \ow bare point ; but the shores are bold on all sides. The lighttiouse is situated 

:.0D t\f« S. B. side of Penmequid, and bears from the western point E. N. E. distant about 

half a mile; from John's Island to Butford's Island, west, 'listant about one mile; 

Mrt'a liland, N. W. by W. distant about one mile; High Island Head, N. } W.dis- 

It-abottt two miles; McFarling's Point, N. W. by N. distant about one and a half 

^Ic— «ne-eighth of a mile from McFarling's Point there are several ledges, covered at 

rwater, butare not in the way of vessels running into this bay, as they lie so near the 

litem shore they may be seen at all times, with a little motion of sea 3 — McCown's 

*tAttt from Johir's Island, north, distant about one and a quarter mile; Penmequid 

Poiltt, S. by E. distant about three miles; Penmequid's Harbor, N. E. distant about half 

a mile. Thrum Cap Island bears from White Island N. E. distant about two mdes. 

^ gl^ Islaqd Head is a high bluff covered with trees, and you may near it within 200 feet 

^Bf^Ha shore. 

John's Island is small and high, covered with spruce trees, located near the centre of 
^^ „ _ bay, and has a house on the N. W. part of it, which cannot be seen until you are up 
^Kiwh the island; if you wish to run into Penmequid Harbor, you may go to the eastward 
1^ i)f John's Island, leaving two dry rocks on the starboard hand, keeping them close on 
board; or you may leave them on your larboard hand, and after passing thean you will 

•Franklin Ligbt iserectndon the north or.d of Franklin Islnnd, near the end of George's River. 
The lantern is elevated 50 feet above the level of the sea, and contains a tixed light. 

tCauldwell's Island lies on the east side of George's River, about 9J miles from the entrance ; it 
is a high round island covered with trees. 

t A lighthouse is erected on Penmequid point, 30 feet high, and 75 feet above the level of th<; sea, 
which exhibits a fixed light It is a light to Bristol and Waldoborough Rivers ; bears N. V/. | W, 
from Manheigen Island Light, distant 12 miles. 



see the cntraiifc of tlie harhor, bc-arinj; about N. E. lialfa mile distant, where you may 
run ill, and he safe iVnm all winds. 

Vessels westward Ixinnd, and railing in with .Manheijrcn Island, and wish to make a 
harbor in a strong S. \V. wind, nnjst observe the tollowini^ dire<tions : — Bring Manhei- 
gen Liulit to bear S. K. and steer N. \V. distatit about 11 miles, for l'cnme(juid I'oint, 
and when the light on said point bears 10. N. K. distant halla itiile, you are then u|) with 
the Wfstern point ol" l'euMie(|uid ; leavt* it on your starboard liand, and give it a berth of 
one-eighth ot' a unle. then stet:r north tor .lohn's Hay Harbor, leaving John's Island, 
IMcCoun's I'oint, on your starboard hand ; I'lUtlonl's Isluid, Stuart's Island, and McFar- 
liiig's I'oint on the lar'ioard liaml. ll you an- Ironi the westward, and bound into this 
harbor, you may bring John's Islaud to bear N. by K. ami run until you are wilhii. one 
cable's lengtli ot it ; ttien steer north for High Island Head, whieh you leave on your lar- 
board hand, and when abreast of saiil heail steer N. { 10. about three-eighths of a mile 
and anchor in from \ to jiathoms water, good holding ground. John's Hay liesabout 5 
miles to the eastward ot Townseud I larbor. and is a fair open bay, havin<; no rocks or shoals 
at its entrance, and vessels may run in without fear, by following the above direotions. 

DA.MAKlSCCJ'rTA KIVKK.— The buoy at the mouth of Damariscottu River, and 
the bearings of ddfi rent objects about it, and directions tor the river : — Hern Island, S. 
W. part, bciirs tVom the buoy, K. by .\. distant about a (piarler of a mile;" White 
Island, S. '; ^^ distant vJj nnles; \ arnums I'oint, ni;rih, distant about 3J miles; 
Foster's Point, N. by K. diiHant about -J", miles; from Horn Island to White Island, 
S. S. W. distant about .'5 miles. Hern Island torms the eastern side of the entrance of 
Damarisco'ta lliver, and is high, covered wuli spruce-trees. V^anmm's Point Uahigh 
bliilf point, and is on the western side of ihe river, and is also covered wi^ trees. The 
shores on both sides ottlie riverare bold. * .^'^ 

In coming from the westward, and b(. ■ d to Damarisrotta Rlrer, bring V^^te-Xslaod 
to bear S. .'. W. and steer north, leaving the buoy. Hern Island, Rpd Foster's Point jim 
the slarl)oanl hand, give tlie buoy a berlli of a cable's le'igth, and steer N. by E. kCi 
in the middle of the river, and when up with \ arnum's Point, which you lea^e i 
larboard hand, you will see Hodgden's .Mills on the western side of the riveVtS 
mile. Hodgden's house and mills are painted red : you may anchor abreasf; 
near the middle of the river, in ii fathoms water, good holding; ground, vtUttpM 
lie sate froin all winds. The abovementioned buoy is a spar buoy painted iredy il ^ i|i | i| ^ 
a!)out IJ feet a!)ove the surface of the water, and is moored about 100 feet tor^ijlill^iibl". 
ward ol the ledge, in (> fathoms, at low water. f^^^V 1' V 

Sliould you fall in to 'hv eastward ol' * .S.'-i;uine, Itnd wishing to gd outside o£'y|liJrijfe»i 
eove Islands, bring .^egimie Liglu to bear 10. i N. and steer E, ^ S. 5 leagues dftltilSfleiM^ 
to clear Hantam hed^e, whiih lies east Inmi Segnine [i}j leagues distant, and S; SifW/K»» 
Irom f Pumpkin i\ock, one league : you then steer N. 10. until you make Franklin ~ '^, / _ ", 
and then >teer as al)ove directed, or coMliaiie your K. -, S. course until Pumpkin Rftldl^i'^J 
bears north, then steer N. 10. for Franklin Licht. Your course from Punipkin^Rock M^ 
Franklin Light is N. K. by K. five leagues distant. In hazy weather you jlfiU.4ft.wel^^ 
to get a departure from this rock, as you cauiiot see Franklin Light more tBan^4naiii 
distant. Vou may anchor in (iay's Cove, taking care to avuid a sunken led^ew)Ko]hUi|i(Sl^'^j 
K. from (tay's Cove near thi' middle of the (diannel, and has 4 feet at low watNT* ^^»f 
ledge :uust be left on your larboard hand, keepisig ('auldwell's Island close on bio^. 
(iay's Cove lies on your larboard haml about 8 miles tf> the E. N. E.c" Franklin'a ' 
Island Liirhi. Vou may know this Cove, as Cay's house and barn lie to the N. W. of 
it. Hut if you are bono I 'hrous;li tllerritiu' Cut, bring §Oapt. Henderson's House to 
bear i\. N. W. and steer S. t». K. for Herring (int. This Herring Gut hits a hat frem- 
sid« to side, but you luay go over it at two hours llood keeping your larboard hand best* 
on board. As you come on the bar, you will see a lari^e rock on your starboard hand, 
and the deepest water is within a cable's length of the rock ; your course over the bar if 
S. S. E. Vou may aticlior to the N. \V. of the bar in 4 or .'> fathoms, muddy bottOdir - 
and wait for the tide. ' The tide of flood sets to the northward, and tlte tL, soutli- 

* Spijninp Lichthouse is situated on un island nenr the mouth of Kennebcck River. The lontern 
is elevated 2IM) t'ect above tlie level of the sen, luul coniniiis n fixed light of the first i. ignitude, and 
niny ill' seen at the distance ol 9 or lOienirnes in clear wenthrr, 

+ riiiiipkin Rock lies offihe S. E. point of Dnniiscovc Islnnds, half a mile distant. It is a dry flat 
rock, elevated iiliout '2i) I'eet above the level of the sen. 

t At the entrance of Herring Gut, on Marshall's Point, a lighthouse elevated 30 feet, containing a 
fixed light is erected. 

^ Capt. Henderson's House is white, and his store red, and both lie on the larboard hand. 




,, ,^ ^ .^ 





HERRTNG GUT HARBOR.— Old Cilly hears from the lij;ht on Marshiill Point, ,if the 
entranceof Herring Out Harbor, soutli,<listiuit iihout .'( miles; lilack Kotk, S. }, W. distant 
about li mile; Henderson Island, S. S. W. distant 1 mile; Bradford's Island, W. bv S. 
distant half a mile; Gunning Rock, 8. E by S. ? S. distant about 1 mile; Two Bro- 
thers, S. E. distant about vJi miles; Henderson Island from (innninjj Rock, west, dis- 
tant about half a mile; Gumiina; Kock to Black Kock, .S. W. ^ S. <listant about half a 
mile. S. E. by S. .', S. from (iunning Rock, distant a (piarter of a iriilc, lies a sunken 
ledge, which ran be seen breaking at low water in a heavy sea. From Old ('illy to the 
light on Manheigen Ishmd, S. W. by S. distant about ') miles; Mus(|uito Island from 
Old Cilly, N. E. by E. distant about 4 miles; Green Island from tli(; Brothers, S. E. | 
S. distant about a quarter of a mile. Old ("illy is a low bhuk roek, and ran always be 
seen above the surface of the water. A reef extends oil east, distant nearly a (|uarter of a 
mile, which must be avoided. Black Kock is a small round roek, and is also above the 
surface of the water. Henderson Island is a small low island, with no bushes or trees on 
it. Bradford Island is high, and covered with spruce-trees, and (orins the western side 
of Herring (lUt Harbor. (Jreen Island is also a small bare island. The two islands called 
the Brothers, are small, and covered with sjiruce-trees. (Junning Rock is hii;li and 
bfU'e, with a yellowish color : this led^e is very bold, and you may near it within 1(10 feet. 

Sailing Directions. — In running from Manlieiuen for Hcrrini;(iut Harbor, brinii the 
light on Manheigen to bear S. W. and steer N. K. by N. and when the light or) NTar- 
shall'S Point bears N. by W. ^ W. then run Ibr it : in nirining for the light you will leave 
the Old Cilly, Black .Rock, and Henderson Island on the larboard hand ; I\liis([(iiio Isl- 
and, ^HnMO filland, Twq Brothers, and Gunning Rock, on your starboard hand, (iive 
the li|^ a berth of two cables' length, and when it bears cast of you, steer N. N. E. 
distMnT^out one mile, and anchor in from 4 to 5 fathoms, where you lie safe from all 
^ritlds : you will find good anchorage anywhere between Marsliail's Poiiit and Brad- 

■ :X^ miy ran into this harbor by bringing the light on Marsliall's Point to bear W. 
""'^Ilryewilg the Green Island, Two Brothers, and (Jiumiiii: Ivock on the larboard hand ; 
Ivbod on the starboard. This passage is full of shoals, and had better not be 
{'unless well acquttinted. 

riseiuy of access, and vessels may approach it with safety by following the 

i»gO 'out of this harbor, and bound to the eastward, be careful and give the 

/T.:* . 9 a ffood berth, for there are two ledges of rocks on the same hand of the eas- 

Mim|Sliti^*i^icn are under water, and lie off about a cai)le's length. When you are 

*ltar^tt|#«iB ledges, you may steer E. by S. or E. S. E. one mile to the barrei'i island, 

'i«HNi«fat|^tt leBVe on the larboard hand, and 3 or 4 islands or ledges on the starboard liand. 
AVheaTWu pass these ledges and Musqueto Islands, if bound to White Head, you may 

'iteer-lCC by E.'2 leagues, and when you bring the light to bear N. E. run for it, but 
firhea ydU pass the S. W. White Head, leave it on your larboard hand, and be careful of 
a sunken rock, that lies S. E. from the eastern White Head, about one cable's length 
5; t*'di«taDt.. Your course through to the eastward is N. E. and to the westward S. W. keeping 
Hear tke' middle of the passage. Before you come up with Ash Point, you must be care- 
ful 6f a sunken rock, which lies off the point about one third of the passage, which has not 
more than 8 feet at low water. But if you should go througli this passage in the night, 
keep'Potatoe Island, which is right against Ash Island, about S. S. W. from it, and bare 
of treesi which you leave on your starboard hand, best on board. When you pass Pota- 

^toe Island, and are bound into Owl's Head, your course is N. N. E. about ^' miles, which 

• ^Ul leave two islands on the staiboard iiand. When yon open the passage to Owl's 
Head, and bound to Edgemavoggan Reach, your course is N. E. by N. till you pass the 
Lime Islands, which you leave on your larboard hand. (Jontinue said course till you 
make a large bare rock on your starboard hand, and a little round island to the eastward 
on the same hand, which is covered with trees. Continue your coiuse to the N. E. and 
you will make a large island on your starboard hand ; when you pass this island you 
have the passage open to Buck's Harbor; coiuinue your course N. E. till you pass' by 
all the islands, to the southward aiirl northward. In the day time you may see Blue 
Hills bearing E. N. E. over all the land. This passage is safe to go through with a tirst 
rate man of war. When you come within two miles of the reach, you will make a small 
island on your starboard hand, which has a sunken rock to the northward of it. Your 
safest way is to keep the middle of the passage, as there is a sunken rock (or ledge,) on 
the larboard hand, that lies E. by S. from an island which you leave on your larboaril hand 
about half a mile distant. If you want to make a harbor, you may go into Buck's Har- 
bor by a N. E. or N. E. by N. course. When you come into this harbor, (which is 12 
leagues from Owl's Head,) you must leave an island covered with young birch trees, on 
your starboard hand, steering N. N. W. uud when you get to the northward of said island 


f. - 

f ' 


.....^ jii^2 





nil Point, nf»b^ 
S. I W. (liHrnnt 
iind, W. I)v S. 
!<•; Two Hio- 
)ck, we.Ht, dis- 
it iibotit Ir.iir a 
, li»'s ;i ruiiikcti 
111 C'illy to the 
to Island iVoiii 
If hers, S. E. | 
can always he 
. a ()iiaitpr «)('« 
also above the 
lies or trees on 
le western side 
o islands called 
k is hi<j[li and 
vitliin 1(10 ffct. 
rlior, i)rin<: the 
!ii;ht on Mar- 
t yon will leave 
INInscjnilo Isl- 
d hand, (live 
*teer N. N. K. 
i safe from all 
iiit and Brad- 

int to hear W. 
larboard hand ; 
d better not be 

V following the 

1 and give the 
nid !)(' the eas- 
iVlien yttu are 
barren island, 
arboard hand, 
ead, yoii may 
nm for it, but 
I be careful of 
cid)le's length 
y. W. keei)ing 
must be care- 
which has not 
; in the night, 
in it, and bare 
• on pass I'ota- 
.' miles, which 
sage to Owl's 
I you pass the 
•(inrse till you 
» the eastward 
(he N. E. and 
lis island you 
I you pass by 

lay see JJlne 
gh with a first 

make a small 

of it. Your 
(or ledge,) on 
larboard hand 

HiK^k's Har- 
, (which is 12 
irrh trees, on 

of suid island 


\ • 

ypn Rtpcr E. S. E. till you bring it to bear S. S. W. where you will be land-locked from 
all winds, in 4 or .j lailioins, soft bottom. When you leave Buck's Harbor, and hound 
to the enstward, you steer .S. E. till you come to a large rock and four islaiuU, which you 
leave on your larboard hand, keeping the said rock and islands best on board, for there it 
a sunken ledge tliat lies 8. 8. W. from thciii. Vou will make a black island on your 
starboard hand with burnt treeson it. 'This ledge lies .\. N. E. from said island, near the 
middle of the jiassage, but kee|)ing the eastern shore best on board, you will go clear of 
it. When yuu hiive passed this ledge, you leave two islands on your starboard and two 
or lluee on your larl)oard ('(iniiniie your <r)utse to the S. E. till vou make two 
islands between which anil Buck's Harbor the course is .S. E.and N. W. fj leagues. To 
the eastward you m ly go between both islands, steering S. 1 league, whicli course 
will carry you up with 'J'rum ("ap. which island has a bar of rocks, that lie near half a 
mile to the northward; but if you havea head wind, and are obliged to run through, you 

will olisorve (he channel is two miles wide at (Jhanni'l Koi.k, which is always above water. 

Wlien you leave this Truin (ai). steertjl. l^V- S.^iich will carry you between the Ship 
niid Mume, and three islands wliii li yoiW'ave on your Ifirboird hand, which are covered 
with l.frge nil k-maple trees, 'j'lie Barge is a bare rock, which you leave on your star- 
hitaril hand; but there is a rock about a cable's length to the northward of the Barge.-* 
Continne your course E. by S. fur Hass Harbor, distant from Trum Cap 5 leagues; but 
yon iMiist have some iei:ard to the tide of ebb, which sets very strong to the S. S. E. and 
llie tide of tl')ud to the .\. N. W. If you are bound into Bass I ] arbor, you keep Rieh*« 
I'oiiit witlim a cal)li''s length, which you leave on your larboard hapd, for thereMalare* 
ledge of rooks, which lie idf al><>iit half a mile, which is bare at halftide, and.bMlrs S. Ejt 
from liich's Barn, and S. by W. from the entrance of I'ass Harbor. Yfl03( give the lyr- 
boanl hand a gnod berth in g(iin<i into liass Harbor; in entering which you IQtUrt give both 
sides a liertli, lor at low water, it is shoal. When you get into this harbtir, anchor OH th* 
larlioard h iiid, witli a cove to the westward of you, in Ij or 4 fathoms, muddy ll^tttlil*"" ; 

BASS HAKBon. — When you leave thisharbor, bound to the eastward,, ateiw Ortt 8» 
W. till you bring Bass Harbor'liar to bear S. S. E. then run S. S. E. keeping th»lli|j<<i>rd 
lianl Ix'st on board. This liar has not water enough for a loaded vessel boGi)jl| I 
haviiis; H', feet only at low water; but a light vessel may go over at low Wat 
the larlxiard hand best on board. When you get over this bar, you steer "* 
you biiu; the S. W. entrance of Mount Desert to bear N. E. (hen yon nmy^ 
leaving ("ranlierry Island on your stariioard hand. But this- passage is thpalj 
fer, and not fit lor loaded vessels to tro through ; but at full tide there ii 
keeping the middle of tiie pissa^e. Continue your course to the N. E. 
Crasiberry Island; then yon may steer E. S. E. and anchor betWeen the 
islands, where ycu will be safe from easterly or S. W. winds. You naajr ! 
to 7 fithoins, sjood holding ground. 

When you leave this port bound to the eastward, you steer E. by S. till yoUgCti;^''| 
with Baker's Island Eiuht. wliirhlies to the eastward of the Cranberry islaodi ; th*vy<lit; 
ste T E. by N. 4 leagues, to Scuttock Island. When you pass said isl^d« apd .^'i 
lioun 1 to Goldsliorough, you must steer N. E. about 5 leagues, audkeep thati^ltolpl 
you brini; (Joldsboroii'^h harbor to bear X. N. W. then you must leave thr»9.-1k|^ll4i'fi^J 
your larl)oard and one on your starlmard han 1. and run into the harbor, wbetS jfAV^^f 
lie safe from all win Is, and anchor in h or ') I'athoms. -. ', ..'■', • ' 

D^'EirS BAY, (S:c.— This harbor lies a little to the eastward of Golddbimni^* 
When you make Titmanan Light, bo ind to Dyer's Bay, leave it on your titarboard Iw 
and steer north for the eastern head. Vou leiive a large dry rock on your Iar|b«B*i 
hand, and. after passiti!: it, you will see a small island, covered with trees, which /^' 
leave on your starboard hand, then haul round said island, where you will be saifti/ 
all winds. 

SC[TTTOCK ISLAND.— When you come from the westward, and bound to ■' 
manan, you jiass Scuttock Island ; steer E. N. E. tVom Scuttock Island 5 leagueir^'^ 
Titmanan light, before descrilied. 

TITMANAN LKJHT TO LADLE ISLAND— When you pass the light 
it to bear S. -W. and steer N. E. about 4', leaiines, wjiich eoursi will carry you to jbl . 
Island. This island has a remarkable appearance, being formed exactly like a ladlA,4HHl< 
has a larsp black rock to the S. W. a little distance from it. You may go any side of' | 
this island, but the best channel is to the S. 12. of it. 

CAPE SPLIT HARBOR.— When you pass Titmanan Light, bring it tobearS. 
W. A S. and steer N. E. i N. for Cape Splitt, distance 5 leagues, which course will carry i 
you safe into the harbor.' In steering said course, you will make a black rock, whieni 
you leave on your starboard hand, distance one mile from Cape Splitt. This harbor itf 
safe from all winds but S. W. which blows right in ; but if you anchor in a cove on thej 
starboard side, and moor N. W. and S. E. you will lie safe from all winds. 



PLEASANT RIVER. — Wlii-n > •>;! < oiik- iVntn the wi-stwiinl, niid hound to Plea- 
sant Klver, ill pus'^'Mii: Titiniuiaii Li^Iir, ix-in-; if t(» l)i'nr S. W. hy S. atiil stfcr N. K. by N. 
5 l»'iiiiUPs (litjtiiiice. Ill stt'fiiii!: said rcniH', Hit is clear weather, you will see ( 'apt. 
WaHse's lioust open hetweeu llii inland and niaiu land ; hut this passaire will not do at 
■.WW water. V'ou must leave liiis island, (and a hi;:h dry led^e ni roeis that he to the 
westward of it,) on y(Mir siarl)oaid hand ; when y.tu pass the hare ledije, you will see a 
bare isle, which you leave on your starhoard hand- then you may haul up lor ( 'apt. 
Wa.ssi's house and anchor, anrl take a [lilot I'or I'leasaiit Kiver, as it is not safe (jjoin<; 
without one, except you are well ac(|iiainted. 

Narr(>w (lauues is om- mile to the westward >•( Pleasant River, too didicult to he de- 
Bcrihed, as there are sundry sir.ail islands at the month ol the harhor or hay. The hesl 
way for a stranjier, \^ to t;o into ( ',ipe Splilt haiho*- and i;et a pilot, as there is no dilficiil- 
ty in ijoiuL: into Cape .Splitt in the day-time, keeping the larhoard hand hest on hoard. 

iMOOSK I'KAKK KKACII. — UMu-n you ctune iVom the westw;ud, and pa'is Ladle 
Island on your larhoard hand, steer iff l'/./iy?^KJ * < r Tihliet's Islimd, which you leave on 
your larhoard hand. When you (iiiiie to ihe i^t end (d this island, yive if a t:oodl«'rth, 
for at low water, there is a ledue oC rocks that lie a cahle's Ipntjih to the S. K. (d said is- 
land. When you pass it, and hrin;^ Moose I'eaUe Iteach open, ytui may steer east for 
Mr. Deall's house, hut you must keep the starhoard hand hest on hoard, for tliere is a 
rook that lies about the middle of the sdiiiid which has not above two feet of wafer on it 
at low water. You luav ari'luM' tothe wesiwurd of .Nlr. Beal's house. 

MOOSE PEAKE F." VCU.— When hdun.l to the eastward over Moose Peck bar, 
which you mtiSt f *^ craw^tefore two honis Hood, you steer for Kelley's < 'o(l'ee-l louse, 
whichiies on the •"».■(' * ?n(l, as you 20 to the ea.stward on the N. K. point of Moose 

Peake Reach. V« ■ yi. i -«re enterin;; on the bar, you will brim; a bushy tree ri;:ht 
against Kelley's Ho, ^v whit'^ ■■ 'ands on lln- p(dnt. \ Our course over tin- l>ar is east. 
Xou4eatre Vhb Virgin's Breasi . oe on yom- starlxiard and one on your larhoard }iand; 
bu^P;youare bound to Chandler's Kiver, you will leave the \'iri;in'.« liriasts on your 
Atittbard hand, and Rogue's Island on the same hand. Tliere is a muddy bar that lies 
beYwMta Rogue's Island and the main land, hut water enough on if at tuo hours Hood. 
Rdglieiil bland has a good harbor at the N. W. of it, safe from all easterly winils, and a 
smaU distance fronijChandler's River. 

■ When you go over Moose Peake Rar, bound to Ma( bias, you leave the V'ir^in's Rreasts 

i^ai before mentioned.-keeping your course east, and a bare ro( k, called Pul[)if Rock, on 

■ "■ wur starboad hand; vou must keep *Lil)l)y's Island I.i'.'ht open to llu- sonthward of this 

' /Imni rock. [N. B. ^^his bare rock, which you leave on your sturhoard, may also be 

. -ifft on your larboard hand; and steer K. S. K.for Ld)l)v's Isjand Liuht.] 

(,'■ ^ MQjOSE PEAKE HEAD TO M AClllA.S.—liivc' the hi-ht a b>rtli of one mile, 

ipaving "ii on the larboard hand, 'and steer N. K. by K. 4i leasnes, when you will be up 

"llith Llbby's Island Liight on your starboard hand ; then run N. N. K. '2 Icaiiues. which 

.'1»ill bring you up with Stone's Island, (ui yiuir larboard hand, havim; a rock lyiiiij; K. one- 

third of a mile from the centre of the island : from this steer N. for Hound Island, from 

Sisiirjfiich follow the eastern directions lor .Machias. 

;m TOWNSENB TO fMANHKKiKN HARBOR.— When you take your departure 
•:^^i"om Squirrel Island, you steer K. S. K. for Maidieiuen I/iyht, on the north side of which 
'.%. are some small dry islands and ledfjes, but tood water between tliem and the other sides 
"f of the island, keeping that course until the passage between (leorsic's Island anrl Man- 
Jbeigen bears N. E"; You may then steer N. K. about s( ven leaijues, throujih a fair 
■;: .[-Oipi.'a sound, for White Head Lichr, leaving (ieorjie's Islands, (whicli are three in 
. ; SUniber,) on your larboard hand. Tlie eastern island has no trees on jt. There are 
f^two dangerous rocks, beariiii; due south from the middle of the middle island, called the 
. %31d Man and the Old Wom;m, which are hare before low water. They lie about one mile 
from the shore ; and at hit;li water wlien the wind blows olf the land, they do not appear. 
# If you are bound to the eastward, and the wind Khould take you ahead, when yon are be- 
' tween Manheigen and (ieor<;e's Islands, hrint; the middle, of .Manheij;en to bear S. and 
run in N. which course will carry you between the eastern (icort;e's Island and the mid- 
dle island. You may run as near as yoti wish to the eastern island, but tlie middle island 

• Libby Island Ligbt is on Libhy Ic'nnd, at tlie cnirniier of Mncbias Bay; is n fixed I'ghf, 60 feet 
above the level of the sea, betirin!; N. H. by h). ; K. from .Moose I'cakc Head Light. 

t Manheigen Island Lifilu bus t"ii lamps and relli'ctors, (iiied im two sides of an oblonti; square, 
one side prodiirin;; n blood red iiirbt, ilip oilirr n cniTinion \\ bile liidif, luid is a revolving lij.dit. Its 
time of revolution is 2' 1.5" ntui r!e\atiori 1711 feci above the level of the pea. Vou eati run, close to 
the island on either side, taking care to tro between some dry ledpcs on the northern side of it. In 
the island there is a smaU harbor open to the 3. W. It bears E. N. E. from Segiiiue Light. 




1 lioimd ti) Plcrt- 
itccr N. K. hy i\. 
Ill will scr ( ";ipf. 
cc will not do :it 
<s tliiit he to the 
•, you will see ;i 
inl up (or ('apt. 
is not safe going 

idiciilf ((I ho de- 
l)iiy. 'J'hc hcsl 
■re i« no didicnl- 
Itrst on i)o;trd. 
iind pa^is I^adlc 
ich yon leave on 
' it a nood heith, 
S. K. oCsaid is- 
ly sleer east Cor 
d. tor there is a 
Pt of water on it 

loose Peck bar, 
< Cofree-llonsp, 
point of iMoose 
bnsliy tree riy:lit 
the har is east. 
• larhoard liand; 
Ureasfs on vonr 
hiy har that lies 
uo honrs (iood. 
'riy winds, and a 

\'iiain's Ureasts 
*"ipil Hock, on 
mtliwanl of iImh 
nl, niav also he 

1 .' 

til o( one mile, 
I yon will he up 
' ieaiines, uliieli 
ck lyint' K. one- 
nd Island, from 

your de|)arlnrc 
thside of wliieli 

the other sides 
sland and Man- 
, tlnoniih a fair 
li ar«' three in 

it. 'J'liere arc 
land, called tlie 
■ ahont one mile 
{ do not appear, 
hen yon are he- 
1 to bear H. and 
rid and the inid- 
le middle island 

fixed light, 60 feet 

an oblonpfifjiiare, 
■diving li^dit. Its 
II Clin run close to 
■in side of it. In 
nc Light. 



hr^1n led^eof rocks tliat lie to tlie eastward of it, wliieli are always dry, tliat you are to leave 
on Miiir larboard liand. When you uet to the northward of this island, you must haul 
to the wftw ird and mil up between it and the western island, so as to brins; the body of 
the middle islantl to bear N. K. of you. Here you moor your vessel, if you stay any 

If yon are bound to tlie eastward from lliis island, you may go to the inirthward of the 
eaHtern island, but you must be careful of a led^je that lies to the eastward of said inland, 
wliich'yon miMt leave mi your siarhnanl hand; and when you l)riim Manheit;en Light 
to liear S. W. vol" may l'o N. K. il nii:ht should come on. or the wind ahead, yon may 
)iaul up about N. K. Iiy N. for 'Perianl llarlior, which lies about H leasines from (ieorge's 
Islands. Von cannot miss this harbor in the day-time. Voii will make .Miisf|ueto IIbI*- 
bor. which lies betw.-en l«o islands, covered with spruce trees. TIiq entrance of the 
harbor i» north. Ilavin;: passed this harbor, yon will run about two miles, keeping your 
course \. K. bv N. wlienyon will pass an island with hiniif trees on if, wiiich you leave 
on your larboard liand, and two islands on your siariioard hand, which also have blunt 
trees on them; then you must brins; the liariior to hear W. N. W. beft)re yon entebi 
This is a siood harbor, provided you have neither cables nor anchors, hh you may sav'ff'? 
voiir vessel by running; up to the head of it, on innddy bottom, which will be dry at low 

TOWNSKNI) H AKIJOK.— The entranci- of Townsend is wide; from the Cuckolds 
to the Damiscove Islands is aliiiiit lliice miles: and Sipiirrel Island lies N. E. by N. 
about'.*' miles; and from Scpiirrcl Island to the western shore is about 1 ^ raile ; and 
I'lirnt Island- Liuht bears \. distant ahont two miles from the westerly point of Squir- 
I'td Islatid. liuntinc Led^c Ins south, a little westerly, from Burnt Islaod Light. If 
voi< are outside ol Damiscove Islands, be careful to stand so far to the westward as to 
)mnz Burnt Isla-id Liclit to bear N. iiy K. then you may run for it without f«ar. 

If the wind should be ahead, and you have to beat into the harbor, you Ittay Stand from 
shore to shore without fear, and beat up either to the eastv d or westward of ^ttrorrel 
Island: you may Iind ^ood anchonige under the lee of Squii'el - cmd, and goroY^P^Uie 
island with any vessel. . rf fA ^ 

In coiniiiii from the westward, leave Sen;uiiie Island on j mr larboari hand, gfi^g ita J 
berth ni' about half a mil"; then steer N. E. by K. 3 leaguss, wfa^n yott Wtt|«.i| clear ^ 
weather, open Town^end l/iu'ht, on Murnt Island, bearing about N'.'N. K. bttt-Stl^^or 
tinue your N. K. by K. course until liiirnt Island Liy;ht bea , N. fcv £. tBen Wafldfoti 
contiiininu N. by K. leaving' it on the larhoard hand, t"U up the harbor. ikbOUt tl 
ipiarters of a mile N. \. K.fnnn the li>;ht, there is a i dl island called Motise Ish4^J 
wliidi you leave on your starboard hand, which is bold, after passing it, VOU haul IP'If'J 
E. for the eastern liarbir, or continue your course N. by E. till you' get the westeiril 
bor to bear W. .\. W. then yon may run in till you .Shut Burnt Island Light lO^'by tbc 
land; or you may an< hor any where inside of Mouse Island, as there are neither roc^ici"] 
nor shoals Ivin:^ otf from the l,uid. 

In comin,' from the eastward, get Manheigen Light to bear E. S. E. and steer W.N. 
W. about ■'} leagues, which course and distance will carry you into«the passage bet»i|itiit^ • 
all the outer islands and the main ; and in steering said course, you will make Burnt l^i 
and l/mht, liearing about N. \V. hy W. then steer \V. by N. till you- get Btirnt Isl» 
Light to bear N. W. then haul up for it, keejiing it on your larboard bow, till you' 
up w ilh it. then steer N. by E. and follow the dnection.^ before given, in comtag frq 
till' westward. 

fKKN.NKBECK AND SMEErStTT.— If roming into Kennebeck River from thp I 
westward, keep about one fourth of a mile from Seguine Island^ Light, in doing whicbJ 
you will avoid .laik-knil;- Ledi;e, which bears (rom Seguine Light N. W. distant 
mile, and Ellingwood's Kock, lying N. one-fourth of a mile from Seguine. Alter {ta 

• Burnt I.«land lies uiY the entninrc of Townsend (Booth Bay.) On it is a lighthouse oontaiirfli 
a fixed liaht, eievaied 56 feel almve the li'vel of the sea. 

t Kenncbeck River is one of the most important in the State of Maine. Swan Island, 4^ i 
loPK. lies 3i) miles from the inoiiih of the river, and h miles from the chops. 

{ SeL'uine Island, on which n litduhouse i.« erertcil, coniainiii}! a lixed light as before' mentione<| 
lies '2{ miles S. \ E. from I'omI Island, on which is also a lii^'iiihouse, coiriainiiiga fixed light, 
is reniarknhle w lien beariiii: (ast or west, lieiinj marly U miles from land, und when it bears nOrt| 
shuts in with it. Cape small roirit bears N. \V. from it, and Wood Island N. N. W. 1| mile dij 
tant. There are ficvernl rocky ledyes near Scgiiine, which hear from the light as follows; 5 fathoil 
Icdjie S. by \V. distant three (|imrterH of a mile — l'<llini;win)d's Rock north, one quarter of a inilel 
Seguine I^dt'cs. N. N. E. half a mile, nlwavs drv — .lack-knifc Lcilgc, N. W. l\ mile, 8 feet waf 
—Wood Island Reef, N. N. W. 1 J mile, 4 feet water— Whale's Buck, N. N. E. 1} mile. 

— • ■•• -^'-— ^^ — LiaMliiliaatlm.-...^-^^.^.--. 



sin^ Kllin}»w()o(|'s Kork, brimj S«'i,Miiiip Li^lil l(» IjCiir S. iirul sirrr N. for Pond TsIiMul* 
Li>{lit, whi( li is'.'l milt's from Sc^uiiii'. Lciifiin; I'oml Island ;i ciililf's Icn-tli on tin- Im- 
boiird li;ui(l, rare should bt* takfii on tiif llnod lidc to haul (jUii kly round i'untl Island Point 
to avoid tlicSuK^r Loaves, (two small islands norlh lialla mile tVom Pnnd Island) upon 
which the tide sets very strongly. Tiie course alter piissinj; INnid Islisnd. is iihout N. W. 
to the fort on f llunnewell's Point, (which y(Mi will i^ive a licrih of a calile's lenuili) and 
«teer north for ("oxe's Head (on whi( h also is a fori) one mile. 'I'lie coiiise is then N. 
K. to Perkin's Island, which you will Icivi- on llic slarlioard hand aliout one mdc, and 
you will >;ive it a berth of a cable's leiiiith to shun two sunken ledges that lie nearly 
abreast of Perkin's Island, and about in the iniildle of the river'; then steerinj; about 
north one mile, yon have line nm Imrauc at I'erkins' l-'lats, in t. "j, and fi faihoins. This 
is as far as it would be iirudent for a siraiiKcr lo attempt with a hi'avy vessel. 

There is good anchor iL;e in niodcrale weather any wlieie between Se;:ume and I'oiid 
Islnn<l, within half a mile of the latter, in from '> to H fathoms .'should the w'luA \>\ >w 
violently, or in case of stress of weather, and if far enou;,^h to windward to wt-alher Kllin;:- 
^ood's Rock and Se^uiiu' Ledi^es, it minht sometimes be advisable to run lo Townseml 

If bonm] into Kennebeck, ami falliii.: to the eastward of Se:;uine, brim; the lijilil on 
Pond Island to bear N. W. by W . and run lor it till within a cable's leh;;th, then lollow 
tbe preceding directions. 

Tnerei is safe .aDchora<;e with an olf-shore wind, any where between .'<mall Point and 
Segttine, avoiding Jack-knife Ledf^^e, beloie mentioned. 

Safe anchorage may he h;\d from ('oxe's Head to Perkins' Island, nearest the ea.-teiii 
shore. The usual rapidity ut,tliP Ui\r, between Se;;iiine and the mouth ol the river, is .'{ 
and 4 knots. -. 

There it also a passirge into Keimebec River, leavini,' Pond IslantI, on the starboard 
iQC^'but only 16 feef'can Ije carried at hii;ii water, and it is not recommended. 
^Ob have deep water to the eastward of Seguine. At the westwaid the tide (d'llood sets 
li-f trong tiQ^the 'northward into New iMeadows. and \V. N. W. into IJroad .Sound, iuul up 
tM ^^ Portmd. and the ebb tide the reverse. Vour soundin{;s, botwePii Seyuine and Capo 
' ^''^lizabfj^iihf*- Various ; at times you hmc If or •.'(! fathoms, rocky bottom, and within a 
ii cable's v^l^^ you will find .30 or .35 fathoms, nmddy bottom. 

Thci rlanl'tl^ween Segulne and (Jape Kli/.id)etli. is all in islands : on the Cape is a py- 

QSidt biW^ltg S. 1" W. from Portland l^ighthonse, 4 miles distant, and a windnnll tollie 

t^rdtOsar Richmond's Island, wliicli is the first wimlmill you sec when comini: from 

eaatwaid' Riehmond's Island lies 1 league west of Poitlaml, and has a bad ledjie 

llboatS. E, from the N. E. end of it. half a mile distant. 

[you are bound to §Slieppscut River from the vve^-iward, and make Sei,'nine Lis;lit. 

ihiny leftve it on your starboard hand, {.'ivin;; it a berth of half a mile ; when you pass 

ip thf} eastward you must bring it to hear S. W. by S. and steer N. K. by N, which 

rsewrll carry you to Ebenicook Harbor, distant .3 leagues, leavin? three dry ledjies on 

r starboard hand, and one on your larboard. This harbor is very narrow at the en- 

, but makes a large basin when ynu tret into it ; in the enirance it liesK. \. K. 

oannpt get in'tiere, with a N. K. or easterly wind, but must have the wind south or 

terly faft^jr yotl get into this harbor you must haul up N. E. or N. E. by N. for there 

"P several 8^K.eil^ro<>ks on the starboard hand as you co in, wliich yon are to avoid. 

,e best ancnqrage js against Capt. Smith's Whari, where you are 4 t'athoms, muddy 

ttom; and yflA**rflBlie safe from all winds. But if you are bound up .**lieepscut River 

f large vessel, apd come from the westward, you must go to the sou'hward of Sesruine 

^l, steering about N. E. or N. E. by E. 1 league, and when the river bears north, or 

irfh a tittle westerly, you may run north, and must keep the starboard hand best on 

rtl : there, are many rocks and ledges, some of them above and some under water, 






"• The lantern of Pond Island LielitlioiiPe contains a fi.xcd light, i2 feet above the level of the sea, 
leaving N.^ W. from Seguine Light, distant 2J miles. 

■f A dry dock lies ofT the eastern shore, about half a iniN iihove the lower Fort, called Shng Rock, 
«nd is the only obstacle bet wren HiinncweJI's Point and < 'oxe's Head. 

' \Vith the wind at N. \v . •■nd a flood tide, you may, by fetching within a cable's length of the 
lower Sugar Loaf, and leaving it on the larboard hand, run into good and safe anchorage, in from 
^ to 3 fathoms, in I'eald's Ed<ly. 

§ Hendrick's Ilci.d Light is siuiated at the mouth of Shecpscut River, and is a fixed white light, 
elevated 30 feet above the level of the sea. 

If bound lip Shrepscut "iver, pass f-'egiiine Light to the southward, steer N. E. until you bring 
Hendrick's Head Light to bear north a little westerly, then run for it, keeping the starboard shore 
close aboard. 



ill.- 1.11- 

1(1 rtiiiit 

nl) ll)Hltl 

II N.W. 

Utll) lUlll 
tlKMl N. 

iiilc, ami 
f lusirly 
ij; alii>\rt 
s. TliiH 

ind I'tiiid 
IikI I.I »v 
ft- Klliii^I- 

!• li(;lit oil 

ICIl IllUllW 




t anil 


lie tUftcni 
; liver, is ."5 

■ stari)(iai<l 

)r(ln(ni sots 
11(1, iiiid up 
• and Tapo 
nd within a 

ape is a ])>■- 
linii; iVdUi 
l)ad Ifd^e . 

nil' Li!:1it. 
II you pass 

N. wiru ii 

ledues OH 
at tiiP en- 
's K . N . J'-" • 

id south or 
N. I'd I- thfiB 
re to avoid, 
ms. muddy 
iiscul Kivcr 

IS noith, or 

and best on 
indcr water, 

vcl of the sen, 

d Shot' Rot-k, 

length of the 
rage, in from 

>d white light, 

itil you bring 
irboard shore 

whieh ar'» all to the eintwardof Sp;;iiinr. \\'h«*n you get upnH liiah as Ehpiiirook, yon 
leave llic two Mark Islands (ui your larho'ird hand, kecpint: your course north a little 
easterly, l)Ut ifyou only eoiue here to make a harhor, when you jji f uptoCapl. llodyson'H, 
y(ui will see a hare U'djji' on your larlioard hand, if it is low water, which is covered at 
hiirh water; you tiny anchor at H fathoms to the nortliwanl of it. 

On Little Slark Island a Stone Column is erected, as a landmark for vessels running 
into, or passing, either llarpswdl or IJroad Soiin<l. It is also ;i conspicuous mark for 
the inarmer, siandim; in Irom sea, in any direction helwc«>n Cape Kli/.aheth and Cape 
.Small I'oint. This i.shind, at the entrance of I larpswcll Sound, (half wav hel ween Port- 
land and tlu* entrance of the River Keiine!)eck,) is oiiH-fonrth of a mile ui length, with- 
out trees, its elevation tu feet aliove the level of the sea; the c(dii?nn is placed near the 
centre of the isLind. .')!• leet hii;li, paiiiteil perpendicularly in lilack and white stripes, ex- 
cejit near the top, which is hlack on each side. Course u|) 1 larpswcll Sound, N. E.^N^ 

Bearing hi/ Comixis,'), and ili.slann>s in slatiilr miles from the ccHtunn,' 

T« .lie Column on Cape F.lizahelh S. W. \ W. 

" the outer ( ireen Island S. \V. hv W 

Mark Island Ledge... 
.South Pilot of ,Fa(|uish 

I.'i mile;*.. 

6 do. 

1 lall-wav Rock S. I.v W. J W 4 do. 

Drunkard's Led-e S. l' \V. to Sf'^ W-. . V, A% 

S. K. I S v"*** t ^*** 

K. IS. ...: ?;. 11 do4 

I iirnip Island K. -J N, ........ .... If do. 

Cape Small Point K.hvS. 10 ^0. 

Whale Hock (out of water) S. \VMv W 

Haddock Kockor IslamI (N. point) N. W. tAV,...; 

S. W. point of llaskill'slsland N. N. W...; , 

.Middle of Kagle Islami W. N. W. ^ W...v.. \\ 

Mackerel Cove E. N. E 9 

Ifyou want to <ro uj) to Wiseasset Point, you must keep your starbdlli&' hfi||d bMt 
aboard, north-easterly, till you come to Cross River, which you leave onyolklPftlilUounl 
h uid. ^'ou will not attempt to go up to Wiscasset Point with a head wind Mill tlhl tide 
of ibb, for it is 1 leagiu* from Cross River; but when. you have a fipir WJiid ilodi i 
you may proceed without fear. This river is narrow, and lies mora to tliis irtMn 
when you are aboi,it a mile or a mile and a half up, you must keep yoar hlir^iaiml iljli 
best on board, for there is a ledge of r(>(ks which reaches near halfway acroflfl me'tllrei 
which is on your starboard hand, and the rock near the middle is covered- at t|u|ii*ratl 
hut may be seen two hours before. The river rut;.i straight to Diecker's NaW^dl^, th« 
turns round to the westward : when you enter these narrows, you may see thefoVn. 
case you should go up in the night, you tiuist be careful of two large rocks t^at U« 
S.- VV. of these narrows ; liie tide of Hood sets very strong for them, and they are covefjj 
at half tide ; you may go on either side of them, and may. anchor in 10 or 12 fittha 
water, muddy bottom. , '- . ' 

It is high water here, at full and change of the moon, about 10 h. 45 Ql. "* • 
NEW MKADOWS.— This river bears N. E. 8 leagues distant CrdmJhe Pyramid Ol> 
Cape Elizabeth, and about one league west from Cape Small Poi^. Ifyou abOuld <^ ' 
into this bay with the wind at S. E. or .S. S. E. and bound to the eastweft'd, you majT IQldlo 
a good harbor in the above river. In standing to the northward, you will havo ft lai^ 
round island on your starboard hand, covered with spruce-trees, together with two b(||te 
ro( ks, one called the Brown Cow, and the other the White Bull, which are 801U9 dlfl" 
tance from each other. You must leave the 11 rown Cow on your starboard, and tne' ' 
White iiull on your larboard hand, the latter of which you may go within a cabie'ttj 
lengtii of, and when you have passed it, must stand over for Horse Island, that ties fl| 
the starboard, which has a luiuse on it, that you may go within a quarter of a miJc 'ofi^ 
To the westward of the island lies a large ro( k, which is covered at high water, bat bar«t 
at half tide ; you may go on either side of it when it is in sight, but the widest passage U( 
to the eastward. When you have passed this rock, steer N. I)y W. or N.N. W. which 
course will carry you up with a large island, called Bear Island, which is covert with 
spruce and birch trees. When you have passed this island about one (piarter of a mile. 
you may haul in for the starboard shore, and anchor in 5 or 6 fathoms water. This it 
the best place to anclior, witli the wind at S. .S. E. or east, but be careful of a ledge of 
rocks that runs to the northward of this island, about a half a mile off. You may anchor 
in this bay according as the wind may be ; if it should be at tiie eastward, anchor on the 
east side. Ifyou have lost your cables and anchors, there is a large cove on the star^ 
board hand, about two miles from Bear Island, bearing about N. which is sufficient 



■•f I "mp-,^1 

• w ' " m 



hnlil ;)0 or 10 t«iiil of vrNMclH. It i.t luiKl-locked all round, mo that no wind can dauinifc m 
VfttNfi litter nIm- nctx into i(. 

I^^'^SK^''S .soUM). — ir you rome from flir isintward, and niakr ftrc>ii'>«' I-"!*:'''* 
briii^ it to bi'ar K. and stcrr W. for lliissry'H Sound, il you iiavt; a tair wind and day- 
\\n\u, as you II ivf iiotliiiii; Ixil islands on your slarlxiard hand Tin- lidt- ol° Mood sets 
very Ntron<{ in In tweeti these islands: when you );e( wiiliin two iniles nt' I lu'>seyV Sound, 
you will make t\ro islands wliieh have no trees on th^iii, ealled (ireen Islanils. \ Hit 
continue your course till you make llusse_\"s .*smiiii<I, liearin;; N. .\. K. then you may 
8teer m with your <oiirse .N. N. K. 

Wlien you pass the two islands after enterina; lliissey's Sound, yon leave three isl- 
ands on your larixiaid, and two islands on your staiiioard hand; the northern island, on 
your Mtarhoard, is e'alli-d Smith's Island; when yon pass said i-ijand altnui lhree-(|uarters 
of a mile, you may haul away K. N. K. till you shut in said island to the S. K. then you 
may anchor in H or !< t'athoms, muddy hottom; llo;;: Island to the S. W. Maskel l>land 
to the fi.M^. (ireat (iaheuiie Island to the N. K. atid Smith's Island to the S. K. Here 
you may Moor 'iOOsail of ships, sale from all winds, and wlien wind and tide serve, you 
may be out to sea in one hour. 

HALF-WAV KOCK is hi^h and l,laik, ahoiit feet in diameter, elevated Hi feet 
above the level of the nca, at hi^h water. At the distance ol dlX) feet Ironi the rock, on 
the N. W., N., N. K., K. ai:d S% K. side, there aN" iVom .") to (>, and i;ra(lually deepens to 
90 ffathoDlS, within three quarters of a mile of it. A reef extends olf W. Iiy .S. distant 
about no eighth ofa mile. Wiihiii one calile's lenuth of said reefymi will find linni ID 
to 12 fathoms water. You may near this rock on all -.ides within a ipiarter of a mile, and 
And fruin 15 to 25 fathoms water. Sej;uine Liylillii use hears from the rock K. ', N. 
itistant about 16 Miles ; Drunken Ledges, N. N. K. distant alioiit J', miles ; Mark Island, 
N. by £. ^ E, 'distant about 4^ miles ; the lifjhthouse on Cape Kli/.alieth, S. \V. hy W. 
f 'W^ distant ab;)Ut <f miles; Cod Hock, (shoalest part.) .*<. \V. hy S. distant ahout (> 
inil«a) Portland Lighthouse, W. ^ S. distant alidiil II', miles; (ireen l>lands, W. [ N. 
distant aftotit 6 miles; JowillV iHland, N W. hy N. distant ahoiit .'{ miles; Kai:!e'ls]- 
aod, :UOrti||^4lboat 4| miles. Drunken Ledges may he seen at all titiies, hreakin^ with a 
little^ molioif of the sea. Mark Island is a sniiill hare island, and has a stone monument 
^: . eCfcfed OK|Mf ^ guide for vessels riinnim; into Hroad Sound. Ka<zle Island is a small 
"^^ ,b%h;.klaod^<lOVered with trees, .at the entrance of said sound. Mark l>land and Kauie 
iwljid form the eiuitern side of the entrance to l>road Sound. Itrown Cow and .lewill's 
•lauds ilGnrigat|l0 western side. Greon Islands are two in iiumlter, and hear iVom .lewill's 

»od,S..'W. distant about one :>nd a half mile. 

pod Ledge is about half a mile in eircumfereiu e, and has im the shoalest part of it 

i^.|tQd-a iKilf fathoms, at low water, and ;j;radi!ally deepens to ■'>, ■'), 7, h, ami IJ fithoms, 

' \pma%tfOm Portland LighthouHc, K. S. K. ilistant ahoui 7 miles, and I'rom Cape 

eUl Lightliouse, E. by N. half N. distant ahout .3 miles ; (ireen Island S. S. K. 

itant about 3 miles. This ledge often breaks in a heavy south-east f;ale. 
:P0RTLAND harbor.— A Buoy has been placed on Alden's Kock.olflhe li-ht- 
)ttBes at Cape Elizabeth. The followiiiir is the report upon that subject. 

AnchOted at low water, in seven fathoms, near Ahlen's Led^'e. 

KtUf(^*s Sound bears from the Buoy N. about H'v miles distant. 

Northern Lighthouse on Cape Eli/.abeth, N. \V. by W. \ \V. 

Southern Lighthouse, on the same, N. W. iiy W. ,'; \V. distant ?> miles. 

The Barn on Richmond's Island W., distant l ', miles. 

Portland Lighthouse,. N. N. \V. \ W.. <lisiaiii (.j miles. 

Wood Island Lighthouse, S. W. by \V. j W., distant i:! miles. 
sThe most dangerous part of this ledije are two roiks beiirinj^ from ea< h other K. S. E. 
iod W. N. W. The distance betwet n these rocks is -IJO feet. 

The Western rock is about i-i feet in diairu'ter, and has 6.\ feet on it at low water. 
The Eastern rock is ahout .'30 feet in diameicr. and has but 7", feet at low water. Be- 
tween these rocks are .3, 4, and .'j fathoms. The Western rock bears from the Buoy S. 
by W., distant 240 feet. The Kastern rock bears S. E. A S., distant 5'J') feet. At the 
distanQ<e of 600 feet from the Kastern rock, on the .South East, Kasi and North 
sides, are 4, 5, and G fathoms water. At tlje distanec of JOOO feet from the Western 
rock, on the South West, We»l and North West sides, arc (j, 7, and H fathoms. 

Vessels bound to Portland. fallin<r in to the Westward, and making Wood Island 
Light, must bring it to bear S. W. by W. ,' W., and steer N.E. by E. { E. 13 miles, 
whicliwill bring them up with the Buoy on Alden's Ledg?. 

Should they fall in to the Eastward, and make Seguine Light, they must bring it t(> 
bear £. by N. j N., and run W, by S. f S. 9 leagues which will bring them up with the 
^ Buoy. 









In paMiiin({ the niiny tn the K., f,\v(t it a bprth of mie (|iiartcr uf n milf. If to th* 
Went Villi iiiHy iifiir it wiihiii a i'alili''i« h-ii^th. 

Il luniiiiii; tor I'lirtlaiid llarltor, liriiiu llie liiioy tii liear S. S. K., ami sfrr N. N. W. 
(i{ iiul>"«, wliii II will liiiii'.' v«u ii|i»itli I'lirtlaiid lii(;lit. ('ontiniu thin rniirNc iiiitilyou 
uri* halt a iiiih' wiiliiu the 1<ikIi||iiiiisc, ihcii liritiu it to Ix'ar S., and Miti-r N. Iiv W. lor 
lliiiiHi- JMlaiui. mIiiiIi is 'wo iiiiIi-k N. I>\ \V. rrotii I'lirtlaiid hiuht >Shiiiild you wish tQ 
);i. Ii.rih<*r ii|> t!ie liarlini, tullnw liit- din-rlions id tht* < 'oai<t I'llot. 

'I'll)- • wiir««> litiiii till' llimy tn liussi-y's Sound is North. 

VesMftls tall.ii^ in wiih ' ',i|m' Klizaln-iii. and wi^'liin.; to in iki- a harbor in a ittrniig N. W. 
tvind, iiMist oIhitvi' tin- rnllnwinu diri't linns : 

tJnf tills l',\\)v a liiTili It! out- rpiarti'r of a inih", and stoiT N. K. nitie mile*, leaving 
till' (iriTii Isliiid on the Niarlioard hand, wlinh will rarry yoU up with llie S. W. point 
ol Ciiiti'li Isl.ind. tiivKtlii-; point a ImtiIi id liall a mile, and si -er N. N. K. \ V.., which 
Will carry you between llo|ie Island mi the North and ( 'roii-li loland on the fiSoiith. Vou 
may anrhor luidttay between the two Island.s, in about I'i I ithoiiis water. The Rhore4 
on eaeli side are verv bold. 

'I'lie above ineiitiuned liiioy is a spar, painted red, about twenty feel above the surfnee 
ol the water, with a si.itl about IJ liet in length, to whn h is attached a red tlag, which 
ran be seen Irom d to 7 miles. 

There are ;dso two wateli lltioyu, within I'> to JO feet of the prineipal Uuoy. 

N. H. \'ess"|s lit a laii^e drauijlit will lind the best water by bringing Portland Hghi 
to bear N. W. by N., and runnin.' direelly for if. 

(oiiiin;; Iroin tlie sduih-west.vanl, when within lialf ;\ mile of *Cape EliMbflth* 
tlic red buoy, on iiroad Cove llmk may be seen; it bears N. N. £. from ths pilch 
of the rape, distant one and a half niile, und lies in twenty-four feet water. WKei) lift 
with this buoy, leave it on the larboard hand, half a eable'n |pni;th diitant, nndaUt/ttf, 
by K. }, K. I mile, which wdl '-any you up with tliewhite buoy uii Truu(l)'aH«(M»i>llid|- 
lie.s ill lb t'eet water. <Hvin!{ il the s.imu oerth as the otiier, you may then rn N> bj 
W. \ \V. for f I'orfland iii^jlithouse, :i miles distant. When up with thfihea^toi 
the li;;litliiiiise stands, ^ive it a small lierth, and steer N. by W. leaving Ban£*j^||Ui||K| QH' 
the starboard hand, till you eoiiie to House Island, the 8. W. point of whiefe ImNuJi N« 
from the li<;hiliiiuse, distant almost 'J iiiilci. Before you are up with tfalf faAuidi (b« 
black buoy on Sprinii l'"iiit I.eilye may be seen ; it bears N. W. by W. frOBj tkefl. Wf^ 
part of House Island, distant half a nuie, and lies in 14 feet water. When tt||widii*" 
buoy, you open the town. (Jivin:: the black buoy a small b«»rth, you may haullilk,! 
W. (or the white Imiov on Stanford's Ledi;e ; this buoy lies also in 14 feet watert 
one mile distant iVom Sprini,' I'oinl lied;;p buoy, (livini; the whito buoy a small 
you may keep np midway t!i>' rivor, and anchor opposite the towq, where you j4eM9f 

X'essels romiiii,' from sea, and bound into Portland, may. by giving the lights OQ CJapi!..^' 
Kli/abelh a lierih of | nnles, run to tin norihward nnd eastward until Portland I^igbt 
buar.s N. W. and then stand directly fur it, which will clear all the led^ei. 

» Cape I"'Ii-/.abeih I.iubts are sitiintril oriCnpe Rliznbeth, entrance to Portland Harbor, about t,jff 

feet iil)()\r the level ol the Sea, and 300 yards apart, l>i aring from ooch other S, W. ^ W. and N. Bi 
) ]•]. The western li^ht revolves oiicu in two minutes, and can besoon tan leagujs distant in clew 

!•;. S. K. from these liudits, 2' miles distant, is n (bimreroiis ledffc, called Alden's Rock, with fiiQi 
feet water on il nt low tide. Also u reef, rallfd 'riivlor's Reef, bearirig S. E. by 8. 1| mile distant 
haviiiK ~i lathoms nt low water. K. by N. \ N. from the !ii;hts ."^l miles distant, lies Bulwarll 
Li'di/e. Imvinj.' 2^ fatlioins on it at low water, rortland l.iLdit i>oar8 north-easterly from them, dia». 
tiinl .')} miles. 

The t<>i\:winc: arc the l)enrint;M and disinm-rs Irom the nortli.eastcrly light, of ih ■ ihoals and reels, 
andufui r liKluhouMcs in Mii,'lii of and luur ilie Cape, vi/ : 

Alden's Rock S. K. bv E 2| miles, 

Huennd Cry H. K. 4 S 3* do, 

Tavloi^ Reef. S. S. K. 4 E l} do, 

Drond Cove Roek N. \. H. 4 E l\ do. 

Outer point of ^Valcli Ledne S. W. \ .S 2 do. 

S. E. side of Richmond Island H. W 3^ do, 

Seiruine Li^ht E. bv N. i N 24 do.- 

Wood Island Lijiht S. VV. 4 W IO4 do. 

Portland Head Light N. i E 4 do. 

t Portland Tiiybthouse is on a point of land, called Portland Head, at the western entrance ol the 
harbor. It is a stone edilice, 72 feet high, exclusive of the lanUirn, which is 13 feet, and ooat&ina 
a fixed light. 




There are also t vo small buoys, on two Jedges in Wliilehead Paosapp, at the N. E. 
part of Bang's Island. This passajje is narrow, and but sfidoni used witii lar.^e vessels. 
By kcc;,ing midway between the two buoys, the red on the starboard, and the white on 
the larboard hand, in roniing in, you will have not less than 5 (allionis water. Alter 
passing the buoys, keep midway the pas.sage, and run one mile distance, which will 
carry you into .Ship Channel, the same as it you had passed the lighthouse. 

[N. B. All the abovementioned buoys are to be left on the larboard hand, in coming 
in, and the depth of water put down, is at low water.] 

Note. — ///'.'/ licc'deul either of the huot/s should be removed, thefollowiiifr directions for 
tailinfr into Forlland Harbor irilj be found tisfful. 

When you come from tlf south-westward, and intend to go into Portland, give Cape 
ElizabetFNl berth of haifa n.ile, and steer N. N. K. until you bring Portland lighthouse to 
bear N. N. W. when you :nust haul up N. N. W. if the wind will permit; but if yo'i 
are in a large «hip, ai;d the wind N. W. or W. i\. \V. your salest way is to continue your 
course N. N. E witich will carry you safe into Uussey's tSoiind, allowing it to be tide of 
flood, as Portland-^iiound is narrow, but bold between the li;;hthouse and Bang's Island, 
tbe latter of which is on your starboanl hand. If you should tmii into Portland in the 
night, in standing to the south- westward, you must go about as soon as the light bears 
N. K. W. and in standing to the eastward, you nmst go about as soon as the light bears 
W. N. W. for there is a ledge of rocks that bears .S. by K. from Portland liiihtliniisc, 
and also a low island, called Kam Islan 1, cast northerly, one mile distant from the li^ht- 
boutie: but if you have a leading wind you may go in without fear, ke«pin<; about middle 
of the channel way, and when abreast of the light, steer alxi-.u N. by \V. tor House Island, 
which you leave on your starboanl hand ; when you pass House Island, bring it to bear 
S. E. by E. and steer N. W. by W. or W. N. W. with the fide of Hood. In steering the 
above course, you Ijjill see a round bushy tree to the north of the town, and a house with 
a~edrooT^-aDd one i^imney ; bring the tree to the west of the house, which course will 
cnrrn^ yott.,u|l'tlie channel way, in 6 or 7 fathoms water; but when you come abreast of 
' die ibrt ^!b^]&-tXands on a hill, haulaway W. S.W. as there i