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Entercd according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, Iq the year one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-six, by The Copp, Clark Company 
(Limited), Toronto, Ontario, in the Oifice of the Minister of Agriculture. 



The present edition is designed to meet the wants of students 
reading for Second Class Certificate? and University Pass 
Matriculation. The notes have been purposely made copious 
and full. When it is remembered that Vergil is usually put into 
the hands of a school boy at a very early perlod of the course, 
and that the Aeneid is really a difficult book for a junior pupil, 
no apology need be ofTered for the assistance given in this 
edition. The object of the notes is principally to explain the 
grammatical difficulties that occur. The latest edition o{ 
Harkness's Latin Grammar (Standard Edition of 1881) is 
referred to. In regard to Orthography, though some forms not 
usually met with in ordinary editions have been introduced, the 
readings of Ribbeck have not, as a whole, been adopted. The 
pupil would be puzzled-if we were to read e. g. omnia (acc. pl.) 
in one line, and omnesmViit ftext, Tof the same case. The let- 
ter J throughout has also been retained. Pupils will never learn 
to appr^ciate Vergil, if teachers bother them vrith nice ques- 
tions of Latin orthography, which, in many cases, are still in 

The editions of Conington, Kennedy and Greenough have 
been consulted in preparing the notes for this edition. 

St. Catharines, May 2Sth, 1886. 



Fublius Vergilius Maro^ was born on theBirih- 
fifteenth of October, B.C. 70, in the first consulate of 
M. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Pompeius, at Andes, 
(now Pietola), a small village near Mantua. Since 
the fuU franchise was not given to this part of Gaul 
(Gallia Transpadana) till some years afterwards*, 
the poet like many of his predecessors and con- 
temporaries in literature was not a Roman, but an 
Italian provincial.' 

The parents of Vergil, like those of Horace, were Hig pftNnts- 
of obscure birth. Some authorities say that the 
poet's father was a potter, others, that he was a 
brickmaker, while others again assert that he Mtas the 
servant of a travelling merchant Magius, whose 
daughter Magia PoUa he afterwards married. What- 
ever may have been his occupation, cerlain it is that 
he was at the time of Ihe poet's birth the steward. 

1 Every Roman citizen had regularly three names — denoting the tn- 
dividual, the gem or clan, i\iQ fainilia. Thus in Publius VergiUus Maro, 
Puhlim is the praenomen, marking the individual: Vergilius is the 
nomen, denoting the getis or clan : while Maro is the cpgnomen, or family 
name. Sometimes an agmmen was added for honorary distinction, as 
Africanus to Scipio, Numidicus to Metellus. The original form of the 
name was Vergilius : Virgilius was not common till the middle ages. 

2 B.C. 49. 

3 Furius Bibaculus was bom at Cremona : Varro, at Atax : Asinius 
PoUio, among the Marsi : Aemilius Macer, at Verona : Comelius Oallus, at 
Forum Julii : Horace, at Venusia : Quinctilius Varro, at Cremona : Ca- 
tullus, at Verona : Propertius, at Umbria: Cicero, at Arpinum : Sallust, at 
Amiternum : Livy, at Patavium. Of the distinguished men of the time, 
Tibullus, CsBsar, and Lucretius alone were bom at Rome. 



Hi» studie» 
begin : 

Verail goea 
to Kome 
B.C. 53. 


factof, or possessor of an estate near Mantua. The 
childhood of Vergil was passed amid the hills and 
woods that fringed the verdant banks of the Mincius, 
and the early association of the poet with the lovely 
scenery of the neighborhood of his native town, may 
account for the exquisite touches of pastoral life 
which is so well depicted in the Eclogues and 
the Georgics. 

Vergil began his studies at Cremona, where, we 
are told, he assumed the /c^a virilis on the same day 
on which Lucretius died. The town itself had al- 
ready been noted, having been the birthplace of 
Furius Bibaculus, and of the critic Quinctilius Varro. 

After a brief stay at Cremonay and subsequently at 
Mediolanum (Milan), the poet went to Rome. In 
the capital, Vergil, after the fashion of the day, 
attended the lectures of rhetoricians and philosophers. 
Under Epidius, the teacher of Marc Antony and 
afterwards of Octavius, and under the Epicurean 
philosopher Siron, the poet became acquainted with 
the outlines of rhetoric and philosophy. It is quite 
probable that his father intended him for the bar, 
but a weak voice and a diffident manner were insu- 
perable barriers in the way of obtaining distinction 
in public speaking. Vergil soon gave up rhetoric, 
and, in fact, renounced poetry for the more congenial 
study of philosophy. Under Siron, he seems to have 
made considerable progress in Epicurean philosophy, 
and the love he retained for this branch of leaming 
is plainly observable in many of his extant writings.* 
In a minor poem, generally supposed to be genuine, 
he welcomes the exchange of poetry and rhetoric 
for more useful studies : 

* Eclogfue : VI. ; Georg : IV., 219 ; Aen : I., 748 ; VI., 724 ; Oeorg : 
II., 475-402. 



** Away with you, empty coloured flagons of the 
rhetoricians, words swollen, but not with the dews 
of Greece ; and, away with you, Stilo, Tagitius and 
Varro, you, nation of pedants, soaking with fat : 
you, empty cymbals of the class room. Farewell, too, 
Sabinus, friend of all my friends ; now, farewell, all 
my beautiful companions, we are setting our sails 
for a haven of bliss, going to hear the leamed words 
of the great Siron, and we mean to redeem our life 
from all distraction. Farewell, too, sweet Muses ; 
for, to tell the truth, have found how sweet you 
were : and yet, I pray you, look on my pages again, 
but with modesty and at rare intervals."^ 

After a short stay at Rome Vergil probal^Iy went Ooea to 
to Naples where, we are told, Parthenius, another ^"'P^'- 
Epicurean, was his instructor. The great Epic* of 
Lucretius no doubt added to the teachings of his in- 
structors gave his mind a strong bend towards the 
doctrines of Epicurus. It is probable that the poet 
retumed to his father's farm before the outbreak of 
the war between Pompey and Csesar, B.C. 49. It is Retum» 
also likely that he remained there till after the battle ^^^' 
of Philippi, B. C. 42, and that he employed his time 
in gaining by observation materials which he after- 
wards emplojred in his great didactic poem, the 
Georgics. Unlike Horace, Vergil sympathized with 
the party of Caesar. The formation of tbe Second 
Triumvirate threw the Roman world into the broils of 
a civil war. . In the division of the provinces, the Gauls 
(except Ga/iia Narbonensis) fell to Antony. The 
lands of eighteen cities were given up to reward the 
legions of the u nscrupulous Antony, and among these 
lands were those of Cremona. The district around this 
city failing to satisfy the greedy rapacity of the legion- 

» Catalepta : VII. • 
• De BAmm NaXura. 




Regaitu his 

A second 
time 10868 his 

/ortunes o/ 



aries of the Triumvir, the famM of the neighbouring 
Mantua were seized, and among the farms confiscated 
was that of the poet'8 father. C. Asinius Pollio, the pre* 
fect of Ga//ia Transpadanat unable to restrain the law- 
lessness of the soldiers of Antony, sent Vergil to Rome 
vrith a recommendation to Augustus to allow the poet 
to retain his patemal estate. It is quite probable 
that congenial tastes and a recognition of the genius 
of Veigil may have influenced Pollio to take this 
course. At the close of the same year (41 B.C.), 
however, war broke out anew between Octavius and 
L. Antonius, brother of the Triumvir. PoIIio, slding 
with L. Antonius, was deposed from office, and AI- 
fenus Varus appointed in his stead. Another division 
of lands followed, and the poet is said to have been 
deprived hi his estate the second time.^ His friends 
Gallus, PoIIio and Varus, however, interposed and 
saved his f;arm. By them he was introduced to Mae* 
cenas, the patron of literary men — afterwards the 
prime minister of Augustus. This year marks the 
beginning of the rising fortunes of the poet. With 
his friend and patron, PoIIio, as Consul, Vergil became 
the honoured member of a literary coterieyfhxch graced 
the table of Maecenas. The intimacy that Vergil en- 
joyed at court, is shewn by his being one of those who 
went to Brundisium along with Maecenas, when the 
latter was negotiating a treaty between Augustus and 

Through the munificent kindness of his patrons he 
was raised to luxury and afHuence. He had a mag> 
nificent house in Rome on the Esquiline, near the 
residences of Horace and Maecenas, estates in Sicily, 
and in Campania, near Naples. The mild climate 
and clear skies of Southem Italy suited his delicate 

7 Eclogues : I. and IX. 
> Horace : Sat. I., 5 and 10. 



constitution, and, till his death, his Campanian resi* 
dence was his favorite abode.*^ From the date of his 
early Eclogues till his death, little need be said of his / 

life except that he devoted himself to study and to the 
completion of his immortal works. In the year B.C. . 
19, he went to Greece, possibly with a view to restore 
his health and to give a finish to his great work, the 
Aeneid. At Athens he met Augustus who had just 
retumed from Samos. Vergil retumed to Italy in 
company with the emperor, but died at Brundisium Death. 
three days after he landed, 22nd September, 19 B.C. 
He was buried near Naples, on the road leading to 
'Pnteoh {Puzzuo/i). His epitaph, said to have heen Epitaph. 
dictated by himself in his last moments, was as fol> 
lows : — 

Mantua me genuit ; CaUibri rapuere ; temtnune 
Parthenope. Ceeini paseua, rura, du^ses.'^^ 

Vergil is generally described as of tall stature, 
delicate frame, homely features, and dark complexion, 
abstinent in the use of food, shy, and fond of retire- 
ment. Horace is said to have had Vergil in his 
mind's eye when he wrote^" the lines thus rendered by 
Conington : 

" The man is passionate, perhaps misplaced 
In social circles of fastidious taste : 
His ill-trimmed beard, his dress of uncouth style, 
His shoes ill-fltting, may provoke a smile ; 
But he's the soul of virtue ; but he's kind ; 
But that coarse body hides a mighty mind." 

He was so pure and chaste that the Neapolitans 
gave him the name of Parthenias," or the maiden. 


w Geo. IV., 563. Illo Vergilium we tempore duleia alebat 

Parthenope, studiis Jlorentem ignoMlis oti. 
11 Some have taken the last line to refer to the Eclogues, the Georgios^ 
and the Aeneid. 
»Hor.: Sat. 1.3, 29-34. 
*8 napOevoi, a maiden. 





He K satd to have been shy and even awkward in 
society, and these traits even thc polished society of 
the Capita,! never succeeded in eradicating. He was 
distrustful of his own powers, which his high ideas of 
literary excellence led him to underrate. 

In the midst of an irreligious age, he had the 
strongest religious sentiment ; in the midst of vice, he 
remained virtuous ; and where licentiousness disfigures 
the wndugs of many of his brother poets, the pages 
of Vergil everywhere inculcate the highest truths of 
morality and virtue. 



Vergil is said to have attempted in his youth an 
epic poenk^^ 6n the wars of Rome, but the difficulty of 
the task soon led !iim to abandon his design. His 
earlier poems, Cu/fx, Mor^m, Ciris, Copa, and 
those that pass under the name Calalepta, though 
they give Ilitle proof of great ability, still slhow the 
careful attention the poet bestowed on metre and 
diction. The writings that first established the 
reputation of Veigil were the Eclogttes^^ pastoral 
poems, ten in numbtr; written between 43 B.C.-37 

ThtwrMt-M This class of poetry was as yet unknown in Italy, 
^^^paOora tjjQ^g^j jj. \^gj^ already reached its perfection in the 

hands of the Sicilian Theocr^tus, whose influence 
may be traced in many writers frdm the days of 

M Eclogue VI., 8. 

i^These were oalled by the generic term Bucoliea (fiovKoktKu., scil, 
iroi^/uara, trom fiovxoki», to <Utend cattle). The term Edogue ia from the 
Oreek cfcAoyif , a ehoice eoUeetion, and may mean that the poems under that 
name was a collection from a larger number. Spenser \^rote the word 
jEgloque and followed the derivatiou 6i Petrarch, slysv K&yoi, " tales of 
goatg " or " tales ttf goatherds." ' 











nrkwaid in 

society of 

He waa 

g;h idea^ of 

i had the 
of vice, he 
I disfigures 
the pages 
: truths of 

youth an 
ifficulty of 
ign. His 
opaf and 
show the 
letre and 
shed the 

in Italy, 
>n in the 
days of 

\uti, soil, 
I f rom the 
nder that 
the word 


Veigil to those of Tennyson. The Idyl" of the 
Sicilian exhibits true pictures of the shepherd's life. 
The joys and sorrows, character, sentiment and habits ■ 

of the rural swains, the piny woods of fertile Sicily, 
the upland lawns with feeding flocks, the sea and sky 
of his native island are delineated so true to nature 
that the homely bard not only won the ear of the 
most critical period of Greek literature, but has lef t 
his undying impress on all subsequent pastoral poetry. 
As Kingsley has said, ** Theocritus is one of the 
poets who will never die. He sees men and things 
in his own light way, truly ; and he describes them 
simply, honestly, and with careless touches of pathos 
and humor, while he floods his whole scene with 
that goigeous Sicilian air like one of Titian^s pictures, 
and all this is told in a language and metre which 
shapes itself almost unconsciously, w^ve after wave, 
into the most luscious joy." 

Vergil's Eclogues, on the other hand, can hardly Theoerihu 
be said to be true pictures of pastoral life. HisJ^J^JjJ" 
shepherds and shepherdesses belong to the island of 
Sicily rather than to the districl of Mantua. Often, 
too, he makes the shepherd's dress a mere pretext 
for discussing some political event or for paying some 
compliment to PoIIio, Varro, or Gallus. His 
characters arie too conventional, his repre^entation of 
life too artificial. In the Roman Eclogue we miss 
that individualizing of character which so strongly 
marks the Greek Idyl. Still the earlier poems of 
Vergil have beauties. Their melodious diction, their 
soft and easy flowing style," were admired by Horace, 
no mean judge cf the poet's art. 

Dunlop divides the Eclogues into fufo classes : DivUUm oj 

(i) those in which, by a sort of allegory, some events 

M ciSi/AioK, a little picture. 
w Sat. 1. 10, 45. 




■ 4 


Beautiea of 
the Georgies. 

or characters of the time are drawn under the image 
of pastoral life as i, 4, 5, 9: (2) those in which 
shepherds and rural scenes are really depicted, as 
2, 3, 6, jf 8, 9. Others divide them : (i) those 
copied from Theocritus, as i, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 : (2) 
those more original, as 4, 6, 10. 

TheGeorgies. The Geortics,^* in /our books, waswritten (between 
B..C. 37tB.C. 30") at the request of Maecenas* to 
whom the poem was dedicated. In this didactic 
Epic, Vergil copies largely from Hesiod, Nicander, 
and Aratus.'* While the Eclogues have justly been 
regarded as inferior to the Idyls of his Greek original, 
Theocritus, the Georgics, on the other hand, have 
been accounted superior to any other poem on the 
same subject that has ever appeared. The har- 
monious and graceful language, the pleasing descrip- 
tions of Tural scenes, the apt and charming episodes, 
all combine to lend an interest to a subject ^hich 
in any other hands would have been intolerably 
dull. The time was ripe lor such a poem. Agricul* 
ure had been the chief employment and the honored 
occupation of the Romans from the early days of the 
City. The long-continued wars had, however, deso- 
lated Italy,'^ and Vergil, with sorrow laments, **the 
plow hath not its meed of honor, the fields lie 
neglected, and the tillers are off to the war ; the 

!• Oeorgica, yeutpyiKd, from yta =7^, the earth and Spyov, a work. 

!• The chief historical events alluded to in the Georgica are : thedeath of 
Julius CsBsar, 44 B.C. (6. 1, 466) ; the civil wars ended by the battle ot 
Philippi, 42 B.C. (B. 1, 490) ; the wars waged (34 B.C.) in Parthia \inder 
Antony and those on the Rhine under Agrippa (B. 1, 509) ; the battle of 
Actium and the submiBsion of the East, B.C. 30 (B. 2, 172 ; 3, 27.32 ; 4, 562) ; 
the irruptions of the Daci on thc Danube, B.C. 30 (B. 2, 497). 

s» See the opening lines of Georgics, I. and IV. 

«1 He8iod'8 Work» and Days ; Aratu8's Phoenomena ; Nicander'8 Oeorgics, 

** Civil wars, almost continuous, had raged in Italy from 49-81 B.C. 



the image 
in which 

epicted, as 
(i) those 

i 8, 9 : (2) 

n (between 
ecenas* to 
is didactic 

ustly been 
k original, 
land, have 
em on the 

The har- 
ig descrip- 

ject >vhich 
»e honored 
ays of the 
5ver, deso- 
;nts, "the 

fields lie 

warj the 


le battle of 
■thia under 
le battle of 
J2 ; 4, 562) ; 

'8 Oeorgics^ 

crooked pruning hooks are forged into stiff swords. "** 

Even after war had ceased, the soldier, too long 

accustomed to camps and the excitement of a military 

lite, cared little about the prosaic life of a farmer. 

To recall the peacefiil habits of rural industry, the 

poem, which Addison pronounces "the most com- 

plete, elaborate, and finished piece of all antiquity," SlSS?.'*'^ 

was written. The Jirs/ book treats of tillage, the 

^ec^nd of orchards, the iAird of the care of horses 

and cattle, and the /ourfA of bees. The two most 

successfiil imitations in English of this poem are 

Philips'8 Pastorals^ and Thompson's Seasons. Yet, 

no one can read the English imitations without being 

stmck with their inferiority to the poem of Vergil. 

The Aeneid,"* in twelve books, written between 29 ^^"^' 
B.C. and 19 B.C., recounts the story of the escape 
of Aeneas from burning Troy, his wanderings over 
the deep in search of a home which the fates had 
promised, his final settlement in Italy as the founder 
of the Roman Empire destined in after ages to 
rule the world. No doubt, Veigil, borrowed largely 
from the Greek and Roman writers who preceded ytrgil 
him. The Romans were original in no department ^aSarim. 
of literature, except perhaps in the matters of His« 
tory and of Jurisprudence. Vei^I can hardly be 
called a borrower any more than the rest of his 

«» Oeorg. 1, 607 : 

nm uIJtM aratro 

Dignus honos, 8qtialent dbducU<> arva colonis, 

Bt curvae rigidtm /alces conflantur in ensem. 

** The first notice of the Aeneid that we have is in a letter of Vergil to 
Augustus, written probably B.C. 26, when the latter was on an expedition 
against the Cantabrians. De Aenea guidem meo, si Tnehercule jam dig- 
num auribus haberem tuis lihenter mitterem: sed tanta inchoata res est, 
ut patm vUiis mentis tantum OTpus tngressus mihi videar, cum praesertim, 
ut seio, alia quoque studia ad id opua muttoque potfora impretiar. 
Macrob. Sat. 1, 24, 12. 





countrymen in other spheres of letters. Thereligion, 
the philosophy,*the very political life of the Romans, 
were all of composite structure, and poetry could 
scarcely avoid the eclecticism that everywhere pre- 
vailed. The object of Vergil was to produce a na- 
tional epic, by showing the various steps of the 
growth of the Empire, and in doing this he had to 
give prominence to the influence of Greek literature 
as an important element in moulding Roman thought. 

Vergil has been severely censured* for his defi- 
ciency in the power of invention, for his intermixture 
of Greek and Latin traditions, for his anachronisms, 
for his mode of representing tho character of Aeneas, 
and for the sameness of the individual characters. 
These are the main charges brought by his detrac- 
tors, and granting the full indictment brought against 
the poem, Vergil still has the proud claim of being 
one of tYk greatest of epic poets. No doubt his 
power of invention is less than Homer's, no doubt 
he did intermingle the traditions of Greece and those 
of Rome (for, this, as we have reniarked, could hardly 
be otherwise in his age), no doubt he did commit 
the heinous crime of anachronism, but he sins in 
this along with Shakespeare and Milton, and there 
is no doubt that his hero Aeneas is cold-blooded and 
uninteresting. These defects, however, are far more 
than counterbalanced by his many excellencies. 
"There is in Vergil a great tendemess of feeling, 
something better and more charming than mere 
Roman virtue or morality. That he excels in pathos, 
a Homer in sublimity, is an olct opinion, and it is 
surely the right one. This pathos is given at times 
by a single epithet, by a slight touch, with graceful 
art by an indirect allusion : this tendemess is more 
striking as contrasted with the stem Roman character 

M Espeoially by the Emperor Caligula, Marlcland, and Niebuhr. 



le Romans, 
>etry could 
where pre- 
xluce a na- 
;ps of the 
he had to 
c literature 
n thought, 

r his defi- 
)f Aeneas, 
is detrac' 
ht against 

of being 
loubt his 
lo doubt 
md those 



sins in 

id there 

ded and 

ar more 




d it is 

t times 



and with the stately majesty of the verse. The poet 
never becomes affected or sentimental ; he hardly 
ever ofTends against good taste ; he knows where to 
stop ; he is excellent in his silence as well as in his 
speech ; Vergil, as Wordsworth says, is a master of 
language, but no one can really be a master of lan- 
guage unless he be also a master of thought of which 
language is the expression." 

Crutwell thus defends Vergil in r^ard to the main vergtt 
charge : **The Aeneid was meant to be, above all ''•^*'**'**'* 
things, a national poem, carrying on the lines of 
thought, the style of speech, which national progress 
had chosen ; and it was not meant to eclipse, so 
much as to do honor to, early literature. Thus these 
bards who, like Ennius and Naevius, had done good 
service to Rome by singing, however rudely, her 
history, find their imagines ranged in the gallery of 
the Aeneid. Thus they meet with the flamens and 
pontiflfs, unknown and unnamed, who drew up the 
ritual formularies ; with the antiquarians and pious 
scholars, who had sought to find a meaning in the 
immemorial names, whether of place or custom or 
person ; with the magistrates, novelists and philoso- 
phers, who had striven to ennoble and enlighten 
Roman virtue, with the Greek singers and sages, for 
they, too, had helped to rear the towering fabric of 
Roman greatness. AII these meet together in the 
Aeneid, as in solemn conclave, to review their joint 
work, to acknowledge its final completion, and to 
predict its impending downfall. This is beyond 
question the explanation of the wholesale appropria- 
tion of others' thoughts and language, which would 
otherwise be sheer plagiarism." 

The object that Vergil had in writing the Aeneid oljetA tnf 
is variously stated by writers. Spencet Holdsworth^*"^^ 






and Warion say that the poem was written with a 
poUtical object to reconcile the Romans to the new 
orderof things. This view is also held by Pope, who 
says that the poem had as much a political object 
as Dryden's Absolam and Achitophel ; that its pri- 
mary object was to praise Augostus, and the second- 
ary one was to flatter the Romans by dwelling on the 
splendor of their origin. " Augustus is evidently 
typiiied under the character of Aeneas ; both are 
cautious and wise in counsel ; both are free from the 
perturbations of passion ; they were cold, unfeeling, 
and uninteresting ; their wisdom and policy were 
wordly-minded and calculating. Augustus was con- 
scious that he was acting a part, as his last words 
show ; and the contrast between the sentiment and 
conduct of Aeneas, whenever the warm impulses ol 
afTection might be supposed to have sway, likewise 
created kn impression of insincerity. The character* 
istic virtue which adorns the hero of th^, Aeneid as 
the epithet pius, so constantly applied to him shows, 
was filial piety, and there was no virtue which Augustus 
more ostentatiously put forward than dutiful affection 
to Julius Caesar who adopted him." — Browne. 



:ten with a 
to the new 
Pope, who 
tical object 
liat its pri- 
the second- 
ling on the 
> evidently 
; both are 
ie from the 
lolicy were 
[s was con- 
last words 
timent imd 
mpubes ol 
y, likewise 
i character* 
Aeneid as 
im shows, 


/•• . 


The StudetU thould eormUt Smith't CUugieal Dictionary for an aeeoumt 

qf the auhjoined poeUJ] 




LiviuB Andronious. 

285-204 B.C. 

Translated the Odyseey into 
Satumian Verse. 

Cn. Naevitts. 

264-194 B.C. 

Wrote the flrst National Epic : 
The FiRflT PoNic War. 

Q. Ennius. 

26d-169 B.C. 

Annalee, in 18 Boolcs : intro- 
duoed the Hexameter. 

0. MattiuB. 


Translated the Hiad. 

C. Hostius. 


BeUum letrium. 

T. Lucretius Oarus. 

98-55 B.C. 

De Berum Hatura, in 6 Books. 

P. Terentius Varo. 

40 B.C. 

Translated the Argonautica of 
Rhodius, and wrote BeUwn 

De Morte Caeearis. 

L. Varius. 

40 B.C. 

Pedo Albinovanus. 



P. Vergrilius Maro. 

70-19 B.C. 

Eclogae, Georgica, Aeneis. 

M. Annaeus Lunanus. 

39 A.D.-65 A.D. 


C. Valerius Flaoous. 

40 A.D. 

Argonautica, in 8 Boolra. 

C. Silius ItaUous. 

25 A.D.-101 A.D. 


P. Papinius Statius. 

46 A.D.-96 A.D. 

AchUleis, Thebais, Silvae. 

















Vergil born. 


Vergil assumes 
the toga virilia 
at Cremona. 

Vergil begins 
the study of 

Cicero's Verrine ora- 

Comelius Oallus born. 
Cicero'8 speechcA Pro 
Fonteio and Pro Cae- 

Horace bom at Venusia. 

The Catilinarian ora- 
tions of Cicero. 

Livy born. 

Death of Lucretius, aet. 

Civiii Chronolooy. 

Earliest date of 
Eclogue II. 
probably writ- 

Eclogues III. & 
V. written. 

Vergirs estate 
Eclogue IX. 

First Consulship of 
Pompey and Crassus. 

Cicero aedile. Lucullus 
defeats Mithradates at 

Pompey carried on war 
against the pirates. 

First Catilinarian con- 
spiracy. Caesar aedile. 

Second oonspiracy of 

First Triumvirate. 

Cae8ar's' first invasion 
of Britain. 

Caesar's second inva- 
sion of Britain. 

Caesar dictator. Con- 
fers the franchise on 
the Trampadani. 

Battle of Pharsalia. 
Death of Pompey. 

Caesar assassinated. 

Second Triumvirate. 

Horace serves 'as tri- 
bunus militum at 

Philippi fought. 






isulship of 
.nd Crassus. 

'/e. Lucullus 

rried on war 
le pirates. 

[narian con> 
aesar aedile. 

nspiracy of 


rst invasion 

icond inva- 

tator. Con- 
ranchise on 





CHRONOLOGY, SLC.--{Coniinued). 



LiFB op Vkroil. 


CiviL Chronoloot. 


Ver(iril'8 estate 
Writes Eclo- 
ffues L, IV., 
VIII., and per- 
haps VI. 


Consulship of Pollio. 
Treaty of Brundisium. 


Vergil wrote 
Eclogue X. 
Oeorgics be- 

• ) 




Death of Sallust. 


Battle of Aotium. 


Aeneid begun. 

to Vergil con- 
oerning the 


Octavianus reoeivesthe 
title Augustus. 



Death of Maroellus. 


Death of Vergil 
at Brundisium 




TfM daetylie 



The Aeneid is written in the heroic metre of the 
Romans, viz : the dactylic hexameter. This was the 
most ancient as well as the most dignified form of 
verse among the Greeks and Romans. It was culti- 
vated at a period far beyond the beginnings of 
authentic history, as we find it in its most perfect 
shape in the poems of Homer and Hesiod, and the 
responses of the Delphic oracle. Ennius is said to 
have discarded the rude Satumian metre of his pre- 
decessors, and to have introduced the hexameter 
among the Romans. Vergil is generally considered 
as the model of this kind of verse among the Latins. 

The dactylic hexameter consists, as its name im- 
plies, of six feet, the first four of which may be dactyls 
or spondees ; the fifth is usually a dactyl, and the sixth 
invariably a spondee. The following is the scheme : 


o yj 

O \J 

v> u 

KJ %J 




(i) For the comparative number of dactyls and 
dactyls and spondees in the first four places no definite rule can 
be given. Generally speaking, the line is more 
smooth when the arrangement is varied, to avoid 
monotony. A succession of dactyls may be used 
for special reasons, e.g. to describe rapid motion : 

QvMdrilp^ddnti pUtrem adnUii qndtU ungiild cdmpum. 

On the other hand, a succession of spondees may 
be employed to describe a laboured efFort : 
AppdrSnt rdrt ndntSt in gurgiti vdsto. 

(2) Rarely the fifth foot is a spondee, in which 
case the line is called a apoHdaic^ line : e.g. B.I. 617. 
Tuiie iUe Aeneds quem Ddrddnlo Anchlsde. 

20 In Vergil we have 28 spondaio lines : 17 of those end in a quadriByllable, 
9 in a trisyllable, and 2 in a monosyllable. 





tre of the 
is was the 
l form of 
^as culti* 
tnings of 
»t perfect 
) and the 
s said to 
■ his pre- 
i Latins. 

ame im- 
e dactyls 
the sixth 
scheme : 

yls and 
rule can 
is more 
o avoid 
>e used 
on : 
es may 

I. 617. 


(3) " When the last syllable of a word remains QMtwta. 
over, after the completion of a foot, that syllable is 
called a caesural syllable, in consequence of its being 
separated, or cut tff^ as it were, from the rest of the 
word in scanning the verse." The term caesura*' is 
also applied to the pause or stress of the voice, which 
naturally rests on the caesural syllable. The melody 
of the verse depends in a great measure on the 
position of the caesura. The chief caesuras in the 
dactylic hexameter are : ^ 

(a) Ptnthtmimeral^ (at the beginning of the third 
foot) : 

^rmA vtrumqu^ cdn6 | Trdjae qui prvmHs db drU 

(b) Hephthemimtral^ (at the beginning of the 
fourth foot) : 

IMMmprSfiigilsfdM \ L&xfln&qug vinU 

(c) The Trochaic*> (after the trochee of the third 
foot) : » 

Quld TrOis pdtHiire | qiiibu» tot fiil.nirA pdsAs 

(d) The Bucoiic Caesura (at the end of the dactyl 
of the fourth foot when this foot is a dactyl and 
ends the word) ; 

J)in%qu8 aaepi ggli maitils frdg6r j dtqu^ rHlnd 

It may be observed, generally, that a verse may 
have one, two or three caesuras ; that verse, however, 
is best divided in which the sense pause and the 
caesural pause coincide, as in each case given above. 

ST Called by the Oreeks r6nri, a eutting. 

>8 ir^vTc, five ; fjni, half; nipot, part or foot : hence, the flfth-half-foot 
caesura. This is also oalled the strong or masculine oaesura. 

M «irra, seven; Ji/uit, half ; M*poVi part or foot : henoe, the seven-half-foot 

so Also called the u^eak or feminine caesura. 



«WiUT'' *" ^^^ ^^^ '**^ ^*°"* *^ * dactylic hexamember line 
is for the most part adissyllable,*^ or a trisyilable. A 
quadrisyllable is rarely allowed, except in the case 
of a proper noun. Sometimes (but rarely) a mono- 
syllable is employed at the end of a verse, and gener- 
ally in thc case ofesf with an elision. 

(5) Metrical figurea : 
EHHon. (a) Biision occurs when a word ends with a vowel, 

diphthong, or with the letter -w, and the following 
words begin with a vowel, a diphthong, or the letter 
h. When such is the case the last syllable of the 
word so ending with a vowel, diphthong, or the letter 
•m is elided, i.e., is struck out altogether, arid in 
scansion is not regarded as part of the verse : e. g. : 
^lMHrA mitMum llle H terris jdctdtHLs it dltd. 

In this line -um in multum is elided before ille 
and the final -/ in ille is elided before et. 
So also : 

Niedum itidm cdusae IrdrHm tdeviqui ddUHris. 

Here a\so—um in fiecdum is elided before iliam*^ — 
ai in causae is elided before irarum. 

Eiatui. The M^^n-elision of a final vowel or diphthong 

before an initial vowel or diphthong, is called a 
Aiatus. Of this we have three cases in B.I. : 

(1) v. 16 Potth&hUd edlitiug Sdm5 : hle iUiiis drmi. 

(2) y. 405 Bt vSra ineissd pAtUU did : ille AbC mdtrim. 
(8) v. 007 TUne iUe Ainids quim Ddrddnid Anchlsai 

The first hiatus may be explained by the fact that 
the caesural and sense pause coincide, and there 

^ So called b«oauBe often employed by Vergil in hiBiNM<ora{ or Bucolic 
poetry. Thie caesura is common in the poems of Theooritus. 

** Leaving out the three unflniehed linee in the flnt Book of the Aeneid, 
we have 420 dissyllabic endings : 323 trieyllabic : 8 monoeyllabio : 2 quadri- 

smber line 
frllable. A 
1 the case 
/) a monoo 
and gener* 

h a vowel, 
! following 

the letter 
3le of the 

the letter 
!r, arid in 
! : e. g. : 


tiefore We 


called a 



fact that 
nd there 

[ or Bucolic 

^e Aeneid, 
1 : 2 quadri- 

LiFE or VEKQiL. xxiii 

would naturally be a rest between Sama and ^iV. 
In the second the sense pause prevents the elision 
(cp. Vergil's Ecl. II., 53). la the case of proper 
names, and especially of Greek proper names, con- 
siderable license is allnwed in the arsis of the foot. 

(b) Synaeresh is defined as the union of two 5ynaere«is. 
vowels which should properly form separate syllables : 

as in vs. 41, 73, 120, 131, 195, 256, 521, 698, 726. 
This figure is sometimes called Symzestf. 

(c) Synapheia is the principle of continuous scan* 
sion. It sometimes happens that a final vowel, 
diphthong, or -m at the end of a line is elided before 
the initial vowel, diphthong, or h of the next line : e.9: 

(a) V. 832. JdctimUr ddcida Igndri hdmlnilmqu^ IdcdrAmque 

In this line -^ue is struck out before erramus. 

(6) V. 448. Aired cul grddfbUs mrgebdnt llmind nexdique 

So also in this line. There are altogethf .' twenty- 
one hypermetrical lines in Virgil. 

(d) Ic/ua is the beat of the foot which corresponded ictw. 
with the elevation of the voice {&pai5). This natur- 
ally fell on the first syllable of the foot, and we there- 
fore find cases occurring in which a syllable naturally 
short is lengthened, simply from its occupying the 
natural posilion of a long syllable. 

(a) V. 308. Qul tgnMnt nam incultd vtdet hdminitqui firdine 

(b) V. 478. Per tirram H verad pUlvis inscribibur hdatd. 

(c) V. 661. Pirgdmd cHm pitirit iruMncisaoaque hym^ndios 

Here -e/ in r^iiiei ; -is in puivis ; -et in peteret are. 


• i 





Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam, fato profugus, Lavinaque venit 
Litora, multum ille et terris jactatus et alto^ 
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram, 
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem, . 
Inferretque deos Latio : genus unde Latinum, 6 

Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Bomae. 

M usa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso, 
Quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus 
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores 10 

Impulerit. Tantaene animis oaelestibus irae ? 

Urbs antiqua fuit — Tyrii tenuere coloni— 
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe 
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli : 
Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 15 

Posthabita coluisse Samo. Hic illius arma, 
Hic currus f uit : hoc regnum dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, jam tum tenditque fovetque. 
Progeniem sed enim Trojano a sanguine duci 
Audierat, Tyrias olim quae verteret arces ; 20 

Hinc populum, late regem belloque superbum 
Venturum excidio Libyae ; sic volvere Parcas. 
Id metuens, vetepisque memor Satumia belli, 
Prima quod ad Trojam pro caris gesserat Argis : — 
Necdum etiam causae irarum saevique dolores 25 

Exciderant animo ; manet alta mente repostum 
Judicium Paridis spretaeque injuria formae, 



Et genuB invisjim et rapti Ganymedis honores : — 

His aooensa super jactatos aequore toto 

Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis ^ohilli, 30 

Aroebat longe Latio, multosque per annos ^ 

Errabant aoti fatis maria omnia oiroum. 

Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem. 

Vix e oonspeotu Siculae telluris in altum 
Vela dabant laeti et spumas salis aere ruebant 85 

Quum Juno, aetemum servans sub peotore volnus, 

Haeo secum : ** Mene inoepto desistere victam, 
Neo posse Italia Teucrorum avertere regem ? 

Quippe vetor fatis. Pallasne exurere clasaem 

Argivum atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto, 40 

Unius ob iioxam et furias Ajacis Oilei ? 

Ipsa, Jovis rapidum jaculata e nubibus ignem 

Disjecitque rates evertitque aequora ventis, 

Illum exspirantem tranjifixo pectore flammas 

Turbine oompuit, soopuloque infixit aouto ; 45 

Ast ego, quae divum inoedo regina, Jovisque 

Et soror et conjunx, una cum gente tot annos 

Bella gero. Et quisquam numen Junonis adorat 

Praeterea, aut supplex aris imponet honorem ?" 

Talia flammato secum dea corde volutans, 50 

Nimborum in patriam, loca feta furentibus austris, 
AeoUam venit. Hic vasto rex Aeolus antro 
Luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras 
Imperio premit ac vinclis et carcere irenat. 
IUi indignantes magno cum murmure montis 55 

Gircum claustra fremunt ; celsa sedei Aeolus arce, 
Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos et temperat iras ; 
Ni faciat maria ac terras caelumque prof undum 
Quippe ferant rapidi secum, verrantque per auras. 
Sed pater omnipotens speluncis abdidit atris 60 

Ho6 metuens, molemque et montes insuper altos 









1 ' 


















Imposuit, regemqtM dedit, qui foedere oerto 
Et premere et laxas soiret dare jussus habenas. 
Ad quem tum Juno supplex his vooibuB usa est : 
** Aeole— namque tibi divum pater atque hominum 
rex 65 

Bt muloere dedit fluotus et toUere vento — 
Gens inimioa mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor, 
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates : 
Inoute vim ventis submersaaque obrue puppes, 
Aut age diversos et disjioe corpora ponto. 70 

Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti oorpore Nymphae, 
Quarum quae forma pulcherrima Dt/i6peia 
Oonubio jungam stabili propriamque dicabo, 
Omnes ut teoum meritis pro talibus annos 
Exigat, et pulohra faoiat te prole parentem." 75 

Aeolus haeo oontra. Tuus, o regina, quid optes, 
Explorare labor ; mihi jussa oapessere fas est. 
Tu mihi quodoumque hoo regni, tu soeptra, Jovemque 
Ooncilias, tu das epulis aocumbere di«rnm, 
Nimborumque facis tempestatumque potentem. 80 

Haeo ubi diota, cavum oonversa cuspide montem 
Impulit in latus : ac venti, velut agmine facto, 
Qua data porta, ruunt et terraa turbine perflant. 
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 
Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, creberque prooellis 
Africus, et vastos volvunt ad litora fluctus. 86 

Insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum. 
Eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemque 
Teucrorum ex oculis ; ponto nox incubat atra. 
Intonuere poli et crebris micat ignibus aether, ..dO 

Praesentemque viris intentant omnia mortem. 

Extemplo Aeneas solvuntur frigore membra ; 
Ingemit, et duplices tendens ad sidera palmas 
Talia vooe refert : " O terque quaterque beati, 





Quis ante ora patrum Trojae sub moenibus altis 95 

Contigit oppetere ! o Danaum fortiasime gentis, 
l^dide, mene Iliaois oooumbere campis 
Kon potuisse tuaque animam hanc effundere dextra, 
Saevus ubi, Aeaoidae telo jacet Hector, ubi ingene 
Sarpedon, ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis 100 

Souta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit." 

Talia jactanti stridens Aquilone prooella 
Velum adversa ferit, fluctusque ad sidera toUit ; > 

Franguntur remi ; tum prora avertit et undis 
Dat latus : insequitur oumulo praeruptus aquae mons. 
Hi summo in fluctu pendent, his unda dehisoens 
Terram inter fluctus aperit ; f urit aestus harenis. 107 

Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet ; 
Saxa vocant Itali mediis quae in fluotibus. Aras, 
Dorsum immane mari summo. Tres Eurus ab alto 
In brevia et syrtes urget, miserabile visu, 111 

IUiditque vadis, atque aggere oingit harenae. 
Unam, quae Lycios fidumque vehebat Oronten^ 
Ipsius ante ooulos ingens a vertice pontus 
In puppim ferit : exoutitur pronusque magister 115 

Yolvitur in caput ; ast illam ter fluotus ibidem 
Torquet agens oircum, et rapidus vorat aequore vortex. 
Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto, 
Arma virum tabulaeque et Troia gaza per undas. 
Jam validam Ilionei navem, jam iori^a Achatae, 120 

Et qua vectus Abas, et qua grandaevus Aletes, 
Yicit hiemps ; laxis laterum compagibus omnes 
Aooipiunt inimicum imbrem rimisque fatiscunt. 

Interea magno misceri mnrmure pontum, 
Emissamque hiemem sensit Neptunus et imis 126 

Stagna refusa vadis, graviter commotus ; et alto 
Prospiciens summa placidum oaput extulit unda. . 
Disjectam Aeneae toto videt aequore classem, 












\ t 




Fluctibus oppresBos Troas caelique ruina ; 

Neo latuere doli fratrem Junonis, et irae ; 130 

** Eurum ad se Zephyrumque vocat, dehino talia fatur : 

Tantane vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri ? 

Jam caelum terramque meo sine numine, Yenti^ 

Misoere et tantas audetis toUere moies ? 

Quos*ego— Sed motos praestat componere fluetus : 

Post mihi non simili poena commissa luetis. 136 

Maturate fugam, regique haec dicite vestro : 

Non illi imperium pelagi suevumque tridentem, 

Sed mihi sorte datum. Tenet ille immania saxa, 

Yestras, Eure, domos ; illa se jactet in aula. 140 

Aeolus, et clauso ventorutm carcere regnet." 

Sic ait, et dicto citius tumida aequora placai, 
Oollectasque fugat nubes solemque reducit. ^ 

Oymothoe simul et Triton adnixus acuto 
Detrudunt naves scopulo : lovat ipse tridenti ; 145 

Et vastas aperit syrtes et temperat aequor, 
Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas. 
Ac veluti magno in populo quum saepe coorta est 
Seditio, saevitque animis ignobile volgus ; 
Jamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat : 
Tum pietate gravem ac meritis si forte vinim quem 151 
Oonspexere, silent arrectisque auribus adstant ; 
Ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet. 
Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, aequora postquam 
Prospiciens genitor, caeloque invectus aporto 155 

Flectit equos curruque volans dat lo.ra secundo. 

Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima, litora cursu 
Oontendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras. 

Est in secessu longo locus : insula portum 
Efficit objectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto 160 

Frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos. 
Hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minantur 




In oaelum sodpuli, quonim sub vertioe late 

Aequora tuta silent : tum silvis soena ooruaois 164 

Desuper horrentique atrum nemus imminet umbra ; 

Fronte sub adversa soopulis pendentibus antrum, 

Intus aquae duloes vivoque sedilia saxo, 

Nympharum domus : hio fessas non vinoulfi naves 

Ulla tenent, unoo non alUigat anoora morsu. 

Huo septem Aeneas colleotis navibus omni 170 

Ex numero subit ; ao magno telluris amore 

Egressi, optata potiuntur Troes harena, 

£t sale tabentes artus in litore ponunt. 

Ao primum silici scintillam exoudit Aohates 

Susoepitque ignem foliis atque arida ciroum 175 

Nutrimenta dedi| rapuitque in fomite flammam. 

Tum Cererem oorruptam undis Cerealiaque arma 

Expediunt fessi rerum, frugosque reoeptas 

Et torrere parant flammis et frangere saxo. 

Aeneas soopulum interea oonscendit et omnem 
Prospectum late pelago petit, Anthea si quem 181 

Jaotatum vento videat Phrygiasque biremes, • « 

Aut Capyn aut celsis in puppibus arma Calci. 
Navem in conspectu nullam, tres litore cervos 
Prospicit errautes ; hoi tota armenta sequjmtur 
A tergo, et longum per valles pa^^citur agmen. 186 

Constitit hio, arcumque manu celeresque sagittas 
Corripuit, fidus quae tela gerebat Acliates, 
Ductoresque ipsos primum, capita alta ferentes 
Comibus arborei^, stemit, tum volgus et omnem 
Miscet agens telis nemora inter frondea turbam ; 
Nec prius absistit, quam septem ingentia victor 
Corpora fundat humi et numerum cum navibus aequet. 
Hinc portum petit, et socios partitur in omnes. 
Yina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acestes 195 

Litore Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus heros, 


>ra ; 



f t>^ 











Dividit, et diotis maerentia peotora mnlcet : 

'' O looii, neque enim ignari snmus ante malorum, 
O paMd gnurioray dabit dens his quoque finem. 
YoB et Si^Uaeam rabiem penitusque sonantes 200 

Aooestis soopnlos, vos et Cyolopea saxa 
Esperti : revooate animos, maestumque timoreta 
ilittite ; forsan et haec olim meminisse juvabit. 
Per Varios casnsy per tot discrimina rerum, 
Tendimus in Latium, sedes ubi fata quietas 206 

Ostendimt : illic fas regna resurgere Trojae. 
Durate, et vosmet rebns servate seoundis." 

Talia voce refert, curisque ihgentibus aeger 
Spem voltu simulat, oremit altum corde dolcrem. 
Illi se praedae accingunt dapibusqne futurio. 210 

Tergora deripiunt costis, et viscera nudant : 
Pars in frusta secant, veribixiique trementia figunt, 
Litore aena locant alii, flammasque ministrant. 
Tum victu revocant vires/fusique per herbam 
Implentur veteris Baochi pinguisque f erinae. 21S 

Postquam exempta fames epulis mensaeque remotae, 
Amissos longo socios sermonO requiriint 
Spemque metumque inter dubii, bau vivere oredant, 
Sive extrema pati nec jam exaudire vocatos. 
Praecipue pius Aeneas, nunc acris Orunti, * 220 

Nunc Amyci casum gemit et cmdelia secum 
Fata Lyoi fortemque Gyan fortemque Cloanthum. 

Et jam nnis erat ; quum Juppiter aethere summo 
De8pid,ens mare velivolum terrasque jacentes 
Litoraque et latos populos, sic vertice 'caeli 225 

Constitit, et Libyae defixit lumina regnis. 
Atque illum tales jactantem pectore curas 
Tristior et lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentes 
Alloquitur Venus : " O, qui res hominnmque deumque 
Aetemis regis imperiis et fulmine terres, 



Quid Troes potuere, quibu« tot funera passis, 
OunotuB ob Italiam terranim olauditur orbis ? 
Oerte hinc Romanos olim/yolventibus annis, 
Hinc fore ductores levocato a sanguine Teucri, 236 

Qui mare, qui terras omni dicione tenerent. 
PoUicituis ; quae te, genitor, sententia vertit 1 
Hoe equidem oooasum Trojae tristesque ruinas 
Solabar f atis oontraria f ata rependens ; 
Nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 240 

Insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum ? 
Antenor potuit mediis elapsus Achiyis 
Illyricos penetrare siniis atque intima tutus 
Regne. Liburnorum et fontem superare Timayi, 
Unde per ora noyfpm yasto cum murmuremontis' 
It mare proruptum et polago premit arya sonanti. 
Hic tamen ille urbem Patayi sedesque locayit 
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit armaque fixit 
Trola, nunc placida compostus pace quiescit : 
NoS) tua progenies, caeli quibus annuis arcem, 
' Nayibus, inf andum ! amissis, unius ob iram 
Prodimur, atque Italis longe disjungimur oris. 
Hic pietatis honos 1 Sic nos in sceptra reponis ?" 

Olli subridens hominum sator atque deorum 
Yultu, (|uo caelum tempestatesque serenat, 255 

Oscula libayit natae, dehinc talia fatur : 
** Parce metu, Oytherea : manent immota tuorum 
Fata tibi ; cemes urbem et promissa Layini 
Moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli . 259 

Magnanimum Aenean ; neque me sententia yertit. 
Hic tibi (fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet, 
Longius et yolyens fatorum arcana moyebo) 
Bellum ingens geret Italia populosque feroces 
Oontundet, moresque yiris et moenia ponet, 
Tertia dum Latio regnantem yiderit aestas 265 










" ■ » !■■■ ■ '*■ ; )<!■»■ — ^- 





Ternaque transierint Rutulis hibema subactis. 
At puer AscaniuB, cui nunc cognomen lulo 
Additur (Hus erat, diim res stetit Uia regno) 
Triginta magnos volTendis menBibus orbes 
Imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 270 

Tnuosferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 
Hic jam ter centiun totos regnabitur annos 
Gtente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos 
Marte gravis geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 
Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 275 

Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 
Moenia Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. 
His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono : 
Imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Juno, 
Quae mare nunc terrasque metu caeluirque fatigat, 
Oonsilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 281 

Romanos, rerum dominos, gentemque togatam. 
Sio placitum. Yeniet histris labentibus aetas, 
Quum domns Assarad Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 
Servitio premet ac victis dominabitur Argis. 285 

, Nascetiur pulchra Trojanus origine Caesar, 
Imperium Ooeano, famam qui terminet astris, 
Julius, a magno draaissum nomen lulo.. 
Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 
Accipies secura ; vocabitur hic quoque votis. 290 

Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis ; 
Cana Fides, et Yesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus 
Jura dabunt : dirae ferro et compagibus artis 
Claudentur Belli portae : Furor impius intus 294 

Saeva sedoui super arma, et centnm vinctus aenis 
Post tergum nodis, fi?6met horridus ore cruento." 

Haec ait, et Maia g^tum demittit ab alto, 
Ut terrae, utque novae pateaAt Karthaginis arces 
Hospitio Teucris, ne lati nescia Dido 

. t 



Finibus aroeret. Yolat ille per aera magnnm 300 

Remigio alarum, ac Libyae citus aatitit oris. 
£t jam jussa facit, ponuntque ferocia Poeni 
Corda volente deo. In primis regina quietum 
Accipit in Teucros animum mentemque benignam. 

At piuia Aeneas per nootem plurima volvens, 305 

Ut primum lux alma data est, exire locosque 
Explorare novos, quas vento accesserit oras, 
Qui teneant, nam inculta videt, hominesne feraene, 
Quaerere constituit sociisque exacta referre. 
Clossem in convexo nemorum sub rupe cavata 
Arboribus clausam circum ai;que horrentibus umbris 311 
Occulit : ips3 uno graditur comitatus Achate, 
Bma manu lato cnspans hastilia ferro. 
Cui mater media sese tulit obvia silVa, 
Yirginis os habitumque gerens et virginis arma 315 

Spartanae vel qualis equos Threissa f atigat 
Harpalyce volucremque f uga praevertitur Eurum. 
Namque umeris de more habilem suspenderat arcum 
Venatrix, dederatque comam diffundere ventis, 
Nuda genu, nodoque sinus coUecta fluentes. 320 

Ac prior, ** Heus," inquit, " juvenes, monstrate mearum 
Vidistis si quam hic errantem forte sororum, 
Succinctam pharetra, et maculosae tegmine lyncis, 
Aut spumantis apri cursum clamore prementem." 

Sic Venus ; at Veneris contra sic filius orsus : 325 

NuU», tuarum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, 
O — quam te memorem, Vu^ ? namque haud tibi voltus 
Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat. O dea certe ! 
An Phoebi soror ? an Nympharum sangiiinis una ? 
Sis felix, nostrumque leves, quaecumque, laborem, 
Et quo sub caelo tandem, quibiis orbis in oris 331 

Jactemur, doceas : ignari hominumque locorumque 
Erramus, vento huc et vastis fl.uctibus acti. 



: \ 


n '\ 





Multa tibi ante aras noctra cadet hostia dextra. / 
Tum Yenus : Haud equidem tali me dignor hon- 
ore. 336 

Yirginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, i 

Purpureoque alte suras vinoire cothumo. 
Punica regna yides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem ; 
Sed fines Libyoi, genus intractabile bello. 
Imperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta, 340 

G^rmanum fugiens. Longa est injuria, longae 
Ambages ; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum. 
Huic conjunx Sychaeus erat, ditissimus arvi 
Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore ; 
Cui pater intactam dederat, primisque jugarat 845 

Ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 
Pygmalion, scelere ante alips immanior omnes. 
Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum, 
Impius ante atas,,atque aiuri caecus amore, 
Olam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 350 

Germanae ; factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 
Hulta malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. 
Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 
Conjugia ; ora modis attoUens pallida miris 
Crudeles aras trajectaque pectora ferro 355 

Nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit. 
Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 
Auxiliumque viae veteres teUure recludit 
Thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 
His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat. 360 

Conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 
Aut metus acer erat : naves, quae forte paratae, 
Corripiunt onerantque auro. Portantur avari 
Pygmalionis opes pelago : dux femina facti. 
Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cenies 365 

Moenia surgentemque novae Karthiu^inls arcem, 


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^« MMH M Hm i*!»» » » » »»»»»' . 



Meroatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsami 

Taurino quantum possent oiroumdare tergo. 

Sed vos qui tandem ? quibus aut venistis ab oris, 

Quove tenetis iter ? Quaerenti talibus ille 370 

Suspirans imoque trahens a peotore vooem : 

** O Dea, si prima repetens ab origine pergam 

Et vacet annales nostrorum audire laborum, 

Ante diem olauso oomponet Yesper Olympo. 

Nos Troja antiqua, si vestras forte per aures 376 

Trojae nomen iit, diversa per aequora vectos 

Forte sua Libycis tempestas appulit oris. 

Sum pius Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates 

Olasse veho meoum, fama super aethera notus. 

Italiam quaero paMam et genus ab Jove summo. 

Bis denis Phryginm conscendi navibus aequor, 381 

Matre dea monstrante viam data fata secutus. 

Vix septem convulsae undis Euroque supersunt. 

Ipse ignotus egens Libyae deserta peragro, 

Europa atque Asia pulsus." Nec plura querentem 

Passa Venus medio sic iuterf ata dolore est : 386 

'' Quisquis es, haud, oredo, invisus caelestibus auras 
Vitales carpis, Tyriam qui lidveneris urbem. 
Perge modo, atque hinc te reginae ad limina perfer. 
Namque tibi reduoes socios classemque relatam 
Nuntio^min tutum ve rsis aquilonib us actam, 391 

Ni frustra augurium vani docuere paretates. 
Aspice bis senos, laetantes agmine cycnos, 
Aetheria quos lapsa plaga Jovis ales aperto 
Turbabat caelo ; nunc terras ordine longo 395 

Aut capere aut captas jam despectare videntur ; 
Ut reduces illi ludunt stridentibus alis 
Et coetu cinxere polum cantusque dedere, 
Haud aliter puppesque tuae pubesque tuorum 
Aut portum tenet aut pleno subit ostia velo. 400 




■-*>. -i 








Perge modo et, qua te duoit via, dirige fpreMum." 

Dizit ; et avertent rosea cervice ref ulBit, 
AmbroBiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem 
Spiravere, pedes vestiB defluxit ad imos, 
£t vera inceuu patuit dea. Ille ubi matrem 405 

Adgnovit, tali f ugientem est vooe- secutus : 
** Quid ntetum toties, crudelis tu quoque, falsis 
Ludii imaginibus ? cur dextrae jungere dextram 
Non datur, ac veras audire et reddere voces ?" 
TalibuB incuBat, greBBumque ad moenia tendit. 410 

At VenuB obBcuro gradienteB &ere BaepBit, 
Et multo nebulae circum dea fudit amictu, 
Oemere ne quiB eos, neu quis contingere posset, 
Molirive moram aut veniendi poscere causas. 
Tpsa Paphiim sublimfs &bit, Bddesque i^evisit^ 415 

Laeta suas, ubi templum illi, centumque Sabaeo 
Ture calent arae sertisque recentibus halant. 

Oorripuere viam interea, qua semita monstrat. 
Jamque ascendebant coUem, qui plurimus urbi 
Imminet adversasque aspectat desuper arces. 420 

Miratur molem Aeneas, magalia quondam, 
Miratur portas strepitumque et strata vianim. 
Instant ardentes Tyrii : pars ducere muros, 
Molirique arcem et manibus subvolvere saxa ; 
Pars optare l ocum tecto et concludere sulco. 425 

Jura magistratusque legunt, sanctumque senatum. 
Hic portus alii effodiunt : hic alta theatris 
Fundamenta locant alii, immanesque columnas 
Rupibus excidunt, scaenis decora alta futuris. 
Qualis apes aestate nova per florea rura 430 

Exercet sub sole labor, quum gentis adultos 
Educunt fetus, aut quum liquentia mella 
Stipant et dulci distendunt iiectare cellas, 
Aut onera accipiunt venientum, aut agmine facto , 





Ignavum fttoos pecuA a praesepibus aroent. 435 

Fervet opus, redolentque thymo fragrantia meila : 

" fortunati, quorum jam moenia surgunt !" 

^eneas ait, et fastigia Buspioit urbis. 

Infert se saeptus nebula, mirabile dictu, 

Per medios miscetque viris, neque oemitur ulli. 

Luous in urbe fuit media, laetissimus umbrae ; 441 

Quo primum jactati undis et turbine Poeni 
Eflfodere loco stgnum, qupd regia Juno ^ 
Monstrarat, caput acris equi : sic nam fore bello 
Egregiaip et facilem victu per saecula gentem. 445 

Hic templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
Oondebat, donis opulentum et numine divae, 
Aerea cui gradibul surgebant limina nexaeque 
Aere trabes, foribus cardo stridebat aenis. i 

Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem 450 

Lwuiit, hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem 
Ausus et afflictis melius confidere rebus. 
Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 
Reginam opperiens, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 
Artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 
Miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas , 456 

Bellaque jam fama totum vulgata per orbem, 
Atridas Priamumque et saevum ambobus Achillen. 
('onstitit,et lacrimans : "Quis jam locus," inquit, " Achate, 
Quae regio in terris nostri non plena litboris ? 460 

En Priamus : sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi ; 
Sunt lacrimae rerum, et mentem mortalia tangunt. 
SoWe metus ; feret haec aUquam tibi fama salutem." 
Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit inani, 464 

Mu'ta gemens, largoque umectat flumine voltum. 
Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 
Hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventus ; 
Hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles. 






-A> , i 

• \ ■ ' 
S I 


Se qi 




Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveiB tentoria velis ' 

Adgnoscit lacrimans, primo quae prodita (tomno 470 

Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, ^ 

Ardeutesque avertit equos in castra, priusquam 
Pabula gustassent Trojae Xanthumque bibissent. 
Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 
Infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 475 

Fertur equis curruque haeret resupinus inani, 
Lora tenens tamen : huic cervixque comaeque trahuiitur 
^Per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. _ 

Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 
Grinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant 480 

Suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis ; 
Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. 
Ter circum Hiacos raptaverat Hectora muros 
Exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 

Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 
Ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici 486 

Tendentemque manus Priamum conspexii inermes. 
Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis, 
Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 
Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis 490 

Penthesilea furens mediisque in millibus ardet, 
Aurea subnectens exsertae cingula mammae 
Bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere virgo. 

Haec dum Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur, 
Dum stupet obtutuque haeret defixus in uno, 495 

Begina ad templum fonna pulcherrima Dido, 
Incessit magna juvenum stipante caterva. 
Qualis in Eurotae ripis aut per juga Cynthi 
Exercet Diana choros, quam mille secutae 
Hinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; illa pharetram 500 
Fert humero, gradiensque deas supereminet omnes ; 
Latonae tacitum pertemptant gaudia pectus : 






T<;li8 erat Dido, talem se laeta ferebat 

Per medioB, i natans operi regnisque futuris. 

Tum foribus divae media testudine templi, 505 

Saepta armis solioque alte subnixa resedit. 

Jura dabat legesque .viris, operumque laborem 

Partibus aequabat justis aut sorte trahebat, 

Quum subito Aeneas concursu accedere magno 

Anthea Sergestumque videt fortemque Cloanthum 510 

Teucrorumque alios, ater quos aequore turbo 

Dispulerat penituiM][ue alias avexerat oras. 

Obstipuit simul ipse, simul percuisus Achates 

Laetitiaque metuque ; avidi conjungere dextras 

Ardebant, sed res animos incognita turbat. 515 

Dissimulant et nii^e cava speculantur amicti, 

Quae fortuna vii^is, classem quo litore linquant, < ; 

Quid veniant : <;a)oyc^ nam lecti navibus ibant 

Orantes veoiam, et templum clamore petebant. 

Postquam introgressi et coram data copia fandi, 
Maximus Ilioneus placido sic pectore coepit : > 521 

** O regina, novam cui condere Juppiter urbom, 
Justitiaque dedit gentes frenare superbas, 
Troes te miseri, ventis maria omnia vecti, 
Oramus : prohibe infandos a navibus ignes, 
Parce pip generi, et propius res aspice nostras. 
Non nos aut ferro Libylsos populare Pe^^tes 
Venimus, aut raptas ad litora vertere praedas. 
Non ea vis animo, nec tanta superbia victis.. 
Est locus, Hespei^am Graii cognomine dicunt, 
Terra antiqua, pote^s armis atque ubere glaebae ; 
Oenptri coluere viri : nunc fan^a.minores 5i 

Italiam dixisse dijgis de nomine gentera. 
Huc cursus fnit : 

Quum subito assurgeuE^fluctu nimbosus Orion /Wa^ 
In vada caeca tulit, penitusque prooacibus austris 




















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hunc tam 

Perque undas superante salo perque invia saxa 

Dispulit : huc pan«A vestris adn§£iinu8 oris. 

Quod genus hoc hominum? quaeve 


Permittit patria ? hospitio prohibemur harenae : 

Bella cient, primaque vetant consigtere terra. 

Si genuB humanum et mortalia temnitis arma, 

ye/ At sperate deos m emores fa ndi atque nefand i. 

R^xerat Aeneas nobidy.jqu&^Justior alter 

l^ pietate fuit, nec bello major et armis ; 

Quem si fata virum seryant, si vescitur aura 

Aetherea, neque adhuc crudelibus occubat umbris, 

Non metus. Officio nec te certasse priorem 

Paeniteat ; sunt et Siculis regionibus urbes, 

Armaque, Trojanoque a sanguine clarus Acestes. 

Quassatam ventis liceat subducere classem, 

Et silvis aptare trabes, et stringere remos. >/ 

Si datur Italiam sociis et rege recepto, 5 -J^ 

Tendere, ut Italiam laeti Latiumque petamus : 

Sin absumpta salns, et te, paier optime Teucrum, 

Pontus habet Libyae, nec spes jam restat luli ; 

At freta Sicaniae, saltem sedesque paratas, 

Unde huc advecti, regemque petamus Acestem. " 

Talibus Ilioneus ; cuncti simul ore fremebant 


** Tum breviter Dido v ultum demiss a prbfatur : 

Solvite corde metum, Teucri, secludite curas. 

Bes dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt 

Moliri, et late fines cus^de tueri. 

Quis genus Aeneadum, quis Trojae iiesciat urbem 1 

Yirtutesque, virosque, et tanti incendia belli ? 

Non ob^sa adeo gestamus pectora Poeni, 

Nec tam aversus equos Tyria Sol jungit ab urbe. 

. Seu vos Hesperiam magnam Saturniaque arva 


540 h-^ 














Siye Eryois fines regemque optatis Aoestem, 
Auxilio tutoB dimittam opibusque juvabo. 
Yoltii ^ hi8 mecum pariter oonsidere regnis ? 
Urbem quam statuo, vestra est ; subduoite naves ; 
Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo disorimine agetur. 
Atque utinam rez ipse Noto oompulsiis eodem 
\j^i9/\Jt^ J\Mt Aifgret Aeneas ; equideqi per litora oertos 

Dimittami et Libyae lustrare extrema jubebo, 
Si qui^us ejeotus silvis aut urbibus errat. 
"^ His animum anspti dictis et fortis Aohates 
Et pater Aeneas jamdudum erumpere nubem 
Ardebant ; prior Aenean oompellat Aohates : 
" Nate Dea, quae nunc animo sententia surgit ? 
Omnia tuta videtl, olassem, sociosque reoeptos. 
XJnus abest, medio in fluotu quem vidimus ipsi 
Submersum : diotis respondent oetera matris." 
Yix ea fatus erat, quum circu]2afusa repente 
Scindit se nubes et in aethera purgat apertum. 
Bestitit Aeneas, olaraque in luoe refulsit, 
Os humerosque Deo siinilis : namque ipsa deooram 
Cmt^*^^ Caesariem nato genitrix lumenque juventae 
,tufJ/>^ Purpureum et laetos oculis afflarat honores : 
Quale manus addunt ebori decus aut ubi flavo 
Argentum Pariusve lapis ciroumdatur auro. 

Tum sio reginam alloquitur cunctisque repente 
Impfovisus ait : '^ Ooram, quem quadritis, adsum 
Troius Aeneas, Libyois ereptus ab undis. 
O sola infandoB Trojae miserata labores ! 
Quae nos, reliquias Danaum, terraeque marisque 
Omnibus exhaustos jam casibus, omnium egenos 
Urbe, doiua .socia a. - Grates persolvere dignas 
Non opis est nostrae, Dido ;f nec quioquid ubique est 
G^ntis Dardaniae, magnum quae sparsa per orbem ; 
Di tibi, si qua pios respectant numiha, si quid 




















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Hr-^ V 

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• "^ifcjJO^ >*^^rvilL«> »JOjU*^^ 

few- A/C d/ikXo 
4X4<^ dw\ »((L (»uQ^ - 3^tc.W> 

<^ir^ < 






^aJJ h^ 






Uflquain justitiae est et mens sibi or>iiBoia reoti, 
Praemia digna ferant. Quae te(&^ laeta tulerunt 
Saeoula ? qui tanti talem genuere parentes ? 606 

In freta dum fluvii ourrent, dum montibus umbrae 
LuBtrabunt oonvexa, polus dum aidera pasoet, 
Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt, 
Quae me oumque vooant terra^. Sio fatus amioum 
Ilionea petit dextra laevaque Serestum : 611 

PoBt alioBy fortemque Qyan fortemque Oloanthum. 
Obstipuit primo aspectu Sidonia Dido, 
vw^ QsBU deinde yiri tanto ; et sic ore loquuta est : 

'" Quli^ te, nate Dea, per tanta pericula casus /i^ 
Ii^sequitur ? quae m immanibus adplicat oris ?" 
fune Ule Aeneas, quem Dardani^ Anohisae ^ 

Alma Venus Phrygii genuit Simoentis ad imdam %^^ 
*^ Atque equidem Teuorum memini Sidona venire, 
Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem 
Auxilio Beli Genitor tum Belus opimam 
Vastabat Oyprum et victor dicione tenebat. 
Tempore jam ex illo casus mihi cognitus urbis 
Trojanae nomenque tuum regesque Pelasgi. ^ 
Ipse hostisJTeuoros insigni laude ferebat *^<t^if 
Seque ortum antiqua Teucrorum a stirpe volebat. 
\LAr^ Quare agite, o teotis, juvenes, sucoedite nostris ! 
Me quoqiie per multos similis fortuna labores 
Jactatam hac demum voluit consistere terra. 
Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco." 
Sic memorat, simul Aenean in regia ducit 
Tecta, simul divum templis indicit honorem. 
Nec minus interea sociis ad litora mittit ^ ^ ^ *>^ 
Viginti tauros, magnorum horrentia centum 
Terga suum, pingues centum cum matribus agnos, 
Munera laetitiamque dii. 636 

At domus interior regali splendida luxu 


625 /i. 










I Baooatum et duplioem gemmis auroque coronam. 
l ^'^'^^^ Haep celerans iter ad nayes tendebat Achates. 
At Cytherea novas artes, noya(pectore versat 


"^,4 Instruitur mediisque parant convivia teotis. 
< Arte laboratae vestes ostroque superbo : 
Ingenrargentum mensis oaelaCaque in auro 
Fortn faota patrum, series longissima rerum, 
Per tot ducta viros antiqua ab origine gentis. 

Aeneas, neque enim patrius consistere mentem 
Passus amor, rapidum ad navos praemittit Aohatem, 
Asoanio ferat haec, ipsumque ad moenia ducat. 
Omnis in Asoanio cari stat oura parentis. 
Munera praeterea, Iliacis erepta ruinis, 
Ferre jubet, pallam signis aurocjue rigentem 
Et ciroumtextum orooeo velamen acantho, *" 

Ornatus Argivae Helenae, quos illa MyceniB, 
[JPergama quum pieteret inconcessoBque Hymenaeos, 
Extulerat, matris Ledae mirabile donum ; 
Praeterea soeptrum, Ilione quod gesserat olim, 
Maxima natarum Priami, ooUoque monile ^'■^ 


t-**«.A»« I. 

'/ w 






655 O^ 




1 IrxJU^kU-^ 



Oonsilia ; ut faoiem mutatus et ora Cupido 
Pro duloi Ascanio veniat donisque furentem 
Incendat reginam atque^iaibiis implicet ignem. 
\^^J^3i^^^ Quippe domum timet amb^Xm Tyriosque bilingues. 
a-*>i^ ' I^rit atroz Juno et sub noctem oura recursat. /^^l^'*^! 

Ergo his aligerum dictis adfatur Amorem : 
Nate, meae vires, mea magna potentia solus, 
Nate, patris summi qui tela Typhpia temnis, 
Ad te conf ugio, et supplex tua numina posco. 
Frater ^ Aeneas pelago tuus omnia ciroum 
Litora jactetur, odiis Junonis iniquae, Wi«^ 

Nota tibi ; et nostro doluisti saepe dolore. 
Nunc PhoenisBa tenet Dido, blandisque moratur 
Vooibus : et vereor, quo se Junonia vertant 671 




; \^<tt(/i/yiu 



t-w»*^* ' 





AoV^- Vyji\t V A^WUiwu /J^Tjw^M^ 6o*aaUo ♦ fllfUtU-vv^^^y^ 






666 y^ 




9/^^^ 6/iMUUjt ^y0bbUir^ ^t.rt^\5/i *>j^ ./^/U^ a^ 

''^-•jM^//^^ t^O'/^ 

I^ ^ UjvAVv. .fliA^M/yira^ - XAh-{ \fM'^' r'"Yr "(^k/*^ 







pJ^y Pi 




I ■TfiiiirT-'-- 'f ■■■t i2^^Y' --— -'^ ^..-^ -^■■■-^f-. .■^^.-.-^t B-|,iMirt latt m i^-f^lMi 

^ ^r. .Aa<^At*ttiaiai<&W!«B»^'aj<ariti%3i'itwft 









Hospitia ; baud tanto peaaabit oardinc» rerum. 
Jk^^^Y^^ociroa capere ante doliB, et dngere flamina 
Beginam meditor,.ne quo ae numine mutet, 
Sed magno Aeneae meoum teneatur amore. 
Qua faoere id possis, nostram nuno accipe mentem. 
Begius, a cpit u cari genitoris, ad urbem 
Sidoniam puer ire parat, mea maxima cura, 
Dona ferenSy.pelago et flainmis restantia Trojae. 
Hunc ego sopitum somno, super alta Cjrthera, 
Aiit super Id^um, saOTata sede recondam, 
Ne qua scire dolos mediusve'oocu]^re possit. 
Tu faciem illius, noctem non amplius unam, 
Falle dolo, et hotos pueri puer indue voitus : 
Ut, quum te gremio accipiet laetissima Dido, 
R^^ales inter mensas latioemqueliyaeum, 
Qiium dabit amplexus atque oscula dulcia figet, 
Occultum inspires ighem fallasqme veneno. 
Paret Amor dictis carae genitrids, et alas 
Exuit et gressu gaudens incedit luli. 

At Venus Ascanio placidam per membra quietem 
Im^gat, et f otum gremio dea tollit in altos (<i^ 
Idaliae lucos, ubt moUls amaraous illum ^'/'^ 
Floribus et dulci ai^tett «omplectitur umbra. . 
Jamque ibat dicto parens, et dona Oupido 
Regia portabat Tyn^ duoe laetus Achate. 
Quum venit, aulaek jam ae regina superbis . 
Aurea com^iostdt spoiida, mediamque locavit. 

Jam pater Aeneas et jam Trojana juventus 
0(mveniupt, stra^ue super disoumbitur ostro. 

1 «^ 






680 _ 






Dant f^uiuli manibus lymphas, Oereremque canistris l^^^'^ 
Expediunt, tonsii^i^e ferunt mantelia viUis. \N-Ui cM>^^ 
Qninquaginta intus fsttiuke, quibus ordine longam 
Oura penum struere, et flammis adolere Fmiates : 
Oentum aliae, totidenique pares aetate ministri, . 706 


. t 



Qai dapibiui menMui oneient, et piooula ponant. 
Necnon et Tyni per limina laeta firequentes 
Oonvenere, t^djuasi discumbere pictis. 
Mirantur dona Aeneae, mirantur lulum 
Flaginml^sque dei voltuB aimulataque verba 
Pallamque et piotum «nroceo velamen aoantho. 
' - Praecipue infeliz, pesti devpta futurae, 

Ezpleri mentem nequit ardescitque tuendo 
__P^oeni8sa, et paater p^^ dimiique movetur. 
^Ule ubi complexu Aeneae colloque pependit 
^gXM^AyJ Et magnum f^l^ implevit genitoris amorem, 

Beginam petii Haec oculis, haec pectore toto 
Haeret et interdmn gremio fovet, inssia Dido, 
Insidat quantus miserae deiis. At memor ille 
Matris Acidalia^ pvlilatim abqlere Sychaeum 
Incipit, et vivo fentaet praevertere amore 
l^uyvo^HA^ Jampridein residM aiumos desuetaque corda. 

Postquam prima quies e^pulis, mensaeque remotae, 
Orateras magnos statuunt et vina ooronant. 
Fit strepitiis tectis vocemque per ampla vplutant 
,<^^ Atria : depen4ent lychni laquearibus aureis . 

Incensi, et nootem flammis fnnijlia vincnnt. ^k^^iAM 
\ ^^ ^c Begina gravem genmiiB auroque poposoit 
m9^^^ Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belus et omnes 
4 Belo soliti. Tum f aota silentia tectis. : 
'' Juppiter, hospitibus nam te dare^jura loquuntur, 
' Huno laetum Tjnriiaque diem Trojaque pn^eotis 
BJjU» velis nostrosque hujus meminisse minores. 
Adsit laetitiae Bacchus dator, et bonr. Juno ; 
Bt vos, o ooetum) Tyrii, celebrate.faventes !" 
Bixit, et in mensam laticum libav^t hpnorem ; 
Primaque libato summo tenus attigit ore. 
Tum Bitiae dedit increpitaaa : ille inpiger hausit 
Spumantem pateram et pleno se proluit auro : 






726 jw- 


730 iit 





< ■ 

^hAu' 1)tfluu ^;/ k l^ vaAX 






^^^""^ - ^^i(LftJ 


















PoBt aiii prooeret. Oitiuuni orinitus lopat 

Peraonat axaaikAf doouit qiiem mazimus Atlas. 

Hio oanit errantem lunam solisque laborea ; 
L>4. Unde hominum genua, et peoudes ; unde iibber et ignes ; 

Aroturum pluviaaque Hyadas geminosque Triones : 
ujU Quid tantum Ooeano properent se tinguere Boles 746 

Hibemi, vel quae tardis mora nootibus obstet. 
^ Ingeminant plausu Tyrii Troesque sequuntur. 
Neonon et yario nootem sermone trahebat 

Infelix Dido longumque bibebat amorem, 

Multa super Prii^no rogitans, super Hectore multa; 

Nuno, quibus Aurorae venisset filius armis ; / j^ 

Nuno, quales Diomedis equi ; nuno, quantus Aohilles. /x^CiiXtt^^ ■ 

" Immo, agdy et a prima dio hqsp^s origine nobis 

Insidias,"inquit,*'Danaum,oasu8quetupEa», -/ t^T^ 

Erroresque tuos ; nam te jam septima portat 

Omnibua errantem terris et fluctibus aestas." 756 





Juppiter " Electra 










u r, 


Ancnises = Venus 

t- Aeneas 

I • 

Ascanius or Iiilus 






1. Arma virumfiM «ono .• " of ariM aod the maa I sing." VeTgil olMems 
tbe uastom of epic poets by Annoancing hia sntiijeet st the outMt. Cp. the 
opening lines ef the Iliad, Odyssey and Paradise Lost— arma may be used 
here to show the ountrast between the subjeot of the Aeneid and that the 
Oeorgics. (Op. the openiug line of Geotglo L, in which the theme, vis., the 
pleasures of rural life, is announced.)^virtm, referring to the deeds of 
Aeneas. Distinguish.edno and edno-^i— Mtora : "who,fate's exile, was 
fhe ftrst that came firom the coasts of Troy to Italy and the shores of 
Lavinium." primmx Heyne and Wagner flnding a dilnsnlty in reconciltng 
the usttal meaning of this word with the statement of Antebor^s previous 
setttoment mentioned. v. 842, make prinivs - oUm, " of yore.'' OaUia 
Oisalpina was not formally induded in iea^ia Propria till 42 B.O., and 
possibly was not considered by Vergil as a patt of Italy Proper. Dis- 
tingaisb, ora » Akt^, the land or distrint on the sea ; litiM s aijyfAiv, the 
land covered by the breakers of the sea ; ripa » ^x^i ^x^^ ^^ ^ river. 

2. Itaikm^siad ItaHam. Vergil, with many other poets, somettmCs 
omits prepositions af:er verbsof motion. Cp. Aen. 1, 865, devencre locos. 
Shaks. Julius Caesar 1. II., " But ere we could arrivt (Ae «pot proposed."-— 
JMo may b« taken (1) with profugw as above, abl. of instr. ; or (Ml with vtn^ 
abl. manner. In what^compbund woids is jm> shbrt ? H. 604.6 ; A. J( O. ; 
864, d. IiavinogtM : others read Iiavinia^tue. In scansicn, if tiie latter 
reading is adopted, i ib consonantal i.e. pronounced y. 

8. iUe, not the subject of jaetattw {ut), but ih apposition with qai, 
" that man wandering much o'«r the land and mncbtossed abouto'er the 
daepi" Urris—aUo : local ablatives, H. 426, II., 2.iv.3 ; A. & O. 254, a. 

4. .vi— superAm : "by the constraint of the gods above." awptrHmtB 
«ttjMrorum, scil, deortim. 

. -5. .muIfaf^-fNUsue, llkeiaoto<u<, a participle, "much, too, having snffered 
in war also." duiiii-'-eondtrW. '* in his attempts to build :" H. 519, If ., 2 ; 
A. &<}. 828. The idea of purposeis implied. 

6. unde^aQtto, scil, ortumMt: ''fh)mwhom (sprhng)." Some think 
that the three stages of the growth of Rome are referred to, viz., the original 
s>sttlemeut at Lavinium, the transference «>f power to Alba Longa, anu the 
flnal selectinn of Bome as the seat of empire. The Latins dwelt in the 
broad plain between the Sabine mnuntains and the sea, aud traced their 
descent to King Latiuus. The word Laitini meaos tbe dwellers of the 
plain. KiT», latu», irAarv«, Lng. flat : for the loss of the initial niute, cp. 
wns, irAaf ; Utvo, irXvvciv. Vergil is incorrect in saying that the Latius 
were descended from Aeneas, as they existed before his advent. ■ Cp. Livy 
1.1. Their chief town was Lavinium (now Protica). 

7. patret. AVba Longa was the head of a confederacy of thirty 
Latin towos. ^ After its destruction by TaUuB Hostilius, the leading citizens 
were transferred to Rome and became iucorporated in the common -state. 
Many of the noble families of Rome, notablyl&e JnlU, trac^.their desQt- nt 
to the AlbanH. Alha Longa probably occupied a site near the convent of 
Palazzuolo.—moenia (rt mun, to defend; cp. k-ii.vv-*Kv), the waUs f>ir 
defensive purposes : murv* (mun-rue, also rt niun), a waU of any kind : 
parie» (rt. iKir, to separate), the partition walls of a house: macerta, a 





garden wtXi-^-^Utat Roma»: Bome at flrat occapied the PaiaHm. After- 
warda the Cmpitolitu, Aventint, Baquatnt. Cotlian, Viminal, QuiHndl hllU 
were Inoladed. Alao th« Pincian, Vatiean and Janimtan htlU on the 
BtraejMn eide were bronght within the boandaries of the city nnder 

8. Mtua. Vergil following the example of Homer invokes the mnse and 
refen the whole plot to the gods. (kMUfpt wae the muae of Epic poetor» 
qw numine taeto. Ihere are seTeral ways of taking these words ; (l) 
•ome sappljr.inMMtlMM ^mit, "hy what ofliBnded deity was he (Aeneas) 
oonstrainMr (S) nunintstvoluntaU, "what purpose (of Jnno) being 
thwarted:" (8) quom^qud d» oaiutA, "for what reaaon, hef<i.e. Jano'B) 
will being thwartad :" <4) ohquam lattionom niuminit, " on accoant of 
what affhmt to her puniose t*^ (5) "for what oflbnoe to the maJesty of 
heaven." The laet ii pronably oorrect The flrst is objeotionable becaase 
Jano hai been mentioned (vs. 1) as the oflisnded deity. 

0. quidvt doltnt : " or throngh what resentment ;" lit., " resenting what " 
Foroaseofgttid: H. 871, III.; A JtO. 237, b. <oe volvertcatut: "toron 
the round of so many misfortuhes." For inUntive, see H. 585, IV. ; A. & 
O. 881, g. 

10. intignem pietate. The hero of the Aeneid is distinguished by the 
epithet pitu, which means that he had fllial aflbction ss iireU as religious 
reverence. He rescuaB his fkther firom barning Troy (Aen. 8. 728); also 
the gods (Aen. 2. 7l7).^^dire, "to enoounter." For case of Idboret, see 
H. 886.3 : A. & O. 828, a. 

11. imimlmY— indirect qatistion, H. 529, 1 ; A. Jb O. 8841— animii, taken 
(1) dative, H. 887, A. & O. *J81 ; or (2) local ablative.- ime, the plural, 
aenotes the variouB manifestations of ber passion, H. 180, 2 ; A. A O. 75, c. 

12. urba ai^iqua, said with reference to Vergil'8 own time. Kartluige 
was founded probably about 853 B.O.— Tyrii eoloni: " settlera from Tyre^'; 
the Tyriaus fuunded also Tunes and Utica, near Karthage. 

Italiam longe ; longe may be taken (1) as modifying the wkoie phrase, 
" in the distance facing Itaiy and the Tiber^s mouths," or (2) longe dittantia, 
" the far distant Tiber^s mouths." Italiam eontra, what flgare, H. 680, VI. 
What direction is Kaitbage from Rome f 

14. dlvetopum: oompara divet, deoline opum. Wbat adjectives govern 
the genitive ? Fl. 890. 1. 8 ; A. & O. 218, o. ttudiia, U. 424. A. & O. 253, 
abL of respeot "in its passion for ;" see note ou irae, fur plural, vs. II. 
Verteil here, no doubt, alludes tu the experience of the Romans m tlie 
Punio Wan. 

15. quam eoluitte: the Romaus identifled the Syrian Astarte (the Athtth 
rothoithe Bible) with Juno— unan», "especially"; uHUfgives to super- 
latives, or to words, implying a superlatlve foroe (tiMfis onwibtu) an 
emphatic meaning ; op. tts : eU apurrov : "espeoially the best." 

16. posthabita Samo: " in preferenoe to Samos," lit, " Samos being held 
in less regard ": H. 431. A. k O. 255 Herodotus (8.60) mentions a famous 
temple of Here (Juno) at Samos. In scanning this line, notice that the 
hiatus in Samo is relieved by the caesural pause. This especially occan 
when a long vowel is in the arait of the foot, H. 608, II. 

17. currtu: Junoisnrely representedasawargoddess, thougfa we have 
some inotanoes : op. Hom. II. 5, 7iO-i.—hoc-fovetque : " the goddess even 
then intends, and fondly hupes that this would be the seat of empire for the 
nations, if in auyway the fates permit"— Aoc is attraoted to the gender of 
the predicate, H. 445.4 : A. & 0. 195.— sinant— subj. ot immediate clause, H. 
529, 1( , A. & O. 342. jam ium » etiam tum : " even then," at that early 














M. After- 
rinal hllla 
11« on the 
tity ander 

le poetry. 
orda; (i^ 
) (Aeneaa) 
no) belnff 

>. Jano'iO 
iccoont 01 
uaJeaty of 

: "toran 
V. ; A. & 

)d by the 
I religlooa 
'28); alao 
^OTM, see 

><•, taken 
te plural, 
; O. 7&, c. 

m lyre^'; 

) phraae, 
'■'\ VI. 


G. 253, 

, va. II. 

m the 



'nu) an 

ng held 
tat the 

e have 
■for the 
ider of 
ise, H. 







18. i$d*nim:cp. iAAA Wp, eUptieal for mdtmduU Kmrtkaaiikii •nim, 
Je., " yet (ah« fband for KartiMge) fbr," «o. '.'-4uet H. 618, 1.,X * O. 886, 
pireaent aa now in the act of beimg aocompliahed. 

M. Tyriat<urc$$j ** whloli ahoald hefeafter overthrow tho 1>iian towera." 
The demraotiOA of Karthage (140 &0.) la rafbrred t6.—v$rUr$ t '^ v $ rUM , 
aali). of parpoae, H. 401^. A. « O. 817 : for tenae, H. 401, A. * O, 886. 
olim may refer to etther the paat or ftitare ; here It refeta to latter: 
properiy (fir. oUu$, Uh), *' a* thatttme.'* 

81. Mtu maq^apreif$ml$.--Utt$v$g9mm(hjeaa$iU^)Uvl$r$0Hanttm: H. 
441.3, A. ft 0. 188. d: op. $ipvit^imn~4tmoqu$iup$rbuta: '^vlotorioaa in 

88. exeidio £«5mm: for two dativea, H. 890: A. A 0. 888. Bome read 
$x$eidio, but eEteimo ia not ft>r $x$eidio, bai for ao-aeuiio le$, $eind€l). Cd. 
the fwma «e>re, $t\fari, o^odio, fonnd in old writera. velvere Pnrea$, acfl. 
audiavt, there u referenoe here to the Araod of deatiny. The Pareoe 
(rt par. "to allot": cp. par$, portio, i-^rofi-eu) w^ the goddeaaea of 
birth and death, three in nnmner, Ifona, Dtmima. Movta, and ao the 
arbltera of hnman deatiny. They were identlfted wlth the Oreek Mota«i 
(Mcipofiat, ^ allotX Clotho, Lauhea», and Atropoe, whoae dntles are inoluaed 
m tne folL Itne : CMihe eolvm rettnef, Lack$tiis net, et Atropoe oeoat. Op. 
Milton's Lycidaa: — 

*' Oomes the blind Fury with the abhorred ahears, 
And alita the thln-spun life." 

83. nutuens : i' apprehenaive of " ; metuere, to dread with anxlety of aome 
ftitureevU ; tUner$, to faar an impendlng danger ; verer^ a i««pe!ctfial leax 
of some superior bising^ /ormidore, to dread.- veferie hmi, the war againat 
Troy,— Satumia, suil., jUia, or dea, according tu tbe Oreek theogony. Here 
(Juno) was the danghter of Kronoa identifled by the Romana with Saturn. 
The Romans, however, represent uo relatloiiship between Jnno and Batarn. 

24. ad Trqfam: ad may be takeu (4) = odvereiM, "against," or (2) — 
apud, " aV—Argia, here the town ia put tor the inliabitant8-«.AfV»tfi«, 
and thia for G^raeew. Here or Juno was wonfhipped apecially at Argoa, 
one of the chief citiea of Argolia. —Prima, " before all others," or aome say, 
"ofyore." Cp. jMimiM, y. 2. 

25. necdum etiatn : " not even now ;" etiam ^ et iam.—eauaae irariMit: 
"the motives of wrath;" the plural iroe refer to the many manifestations 
of the pas^ion. S«e note v. 11. exciderant, " had faded ;" distingulsh, 
excido, exeldo. 

26. animo; in prose, ex animo, ju. 412.2; A. & Q. 243.6.— manet, 
H. 463 I. ; A. & O. 205. d. — alton-repoetum - alte (in) mente repoeitum : 
" laid away in her mind " : H. 425, N. 3 ; A. & G. 258. f. What flgure ? 

27. itMfieitim Paridia. Paris waa Judge in the couteat of Juno, Venus, 
and Minerva for the golden apple.— «pretaeQue— /ormae: "and the wrong 
done to her slighted beauty ;"^ for obj. gen. H. 549. N. 2 ; A. & O. 292. a. 

28. qenua inviaum, referring to the birth of Dardanus, the son of Ju|iiter 
and Elecira, and founder of the Trojao llne. (See genealogical tree, p. 
25.)— ropti, ectl., ad cae|um. 

29. hia occenM : ' ' Inflamed by these things," i.e., by what tias been said in 
the foreguing lines. H. 416; A. A O. 245.— «uper»: ineuper, "besides," 
i'e., in aaditton to her anxiety foT Karttiage. 

258, f. 

why is the preposi* 

tion in omitted ? H. 425, II. 2 ; A. d{ O. 

80. reli^iaa Danaum. What words are used in the plural only? H. 
181 1.4).— Danaum, the subj. gen. H. 396. II ; A. Jc O. 214. Wbat words- 
have um for orum in gen. pL f H. 52.3; A. & 0. 40. e.—AchiU%: dedine. 

■ [ 



81. lath, iH. 414. V. 1 ; A. ft 0. SS8. •. 

St. trrahant:*' luid wftadered («ad wera 11111 wsnderiiuO^'' H. 400. II. t : 
A. dc0.i77.8. 

38. (anM»-«ra(: *'io vMt a work it wu." H. 402; A. A O. 214. d. tt 

:84. Vergili followlng the nanal metiiod of eplo poete, plangee the reader 
in fiMdicu iiM(Horftce A. P. 148), the earller «dventaree being left f«>r the 
hero to tetl in Bnolu II. ft lli. The Troiana have nuw left the port of 
Drepannm in Sioily. The natnml order ror a oonnecced namtive wonld 
have been Booki II., III., v. 816, then B. I. 

86. vtla ddbant, ecil., v$ntU.—4ai$ti, becaaae they exnected soon to end 
their wand<4rings. --Bmma» mlU : obaerve the alliteratfon, " the salt aea^a 
foam." tal, cp. fiAv ii.—atre, the bronie keela of the veesel » aeni$ caHnU. 
rnebarU =* eru^nt. 

86. 4ttum /uno— MOttm, loil., loquitwr.—aub pectore, " in her heart," lit* 
" beneath her breaRt." The heart waa the seat of intelleot according to 
the Romana ; the lower organs were the seat ot paasions. — eervana : cp. 
Bums's Tam o' Slianter. " nnrsing her wrath to keep it warm." 

87. mene — vietam : " What I am I to desist flrom my pnrpose, as one 
baffled?" The accusatlve wlth iof. denotes indignation here. H. 680. IM. ; 
A. & O. 274.— tne^to.., H. 418, N. 8 ; A. & O. 248. a. 

88. nee—regem : " and am I not able to tnm the leader of the rojans 
aside firom Italy r—Italia. H. 414 ; A. A O. 268. a. 

80. quifpe {^qiiirPe): " because forsooth," ironical ; cp. 8^ov. PaUaB> 
epit^et oi Athene (MJInerva), from (1) ir^Atii', to brandiah,' or (2) nd\ka$, 
a maiden.-^^ = nonne. U. 861. I. ; A. A O. 210. n.—Arffivum, see note 
on v. 80. 

40.. tpaof, avroik, " the crew themsolves," opposed to the ships. -^ponto, 
abl. either of instrument, or of place. 

41. ob noxam et furiaa : either "oh account of the guilt and flrenzy," or 
(by enallage) cb noxam furioaam : " on acoount of the guilty deedd com- 
mftted in fren^y." With Oilei, scU., yUii, AJax is said to have offered 
violence to Casnandra. priestess of Minerva, dau^dliter of Friam. For an- 
uther acconnt see AJaz (Proper Names). Scan this line. 

42. ipea : " she with her own hand." Pallas and Jnpiter were the only 
deities who are represented as wielding the thunderbolt. 

44. pectore : abl. separation. H. 414, N. 1 ; A. & O. 243. h.—turbine : 
abL of meana H. 420; A. A O. 248.— wopulo, local abL or dat. H. 426, 
N. 8; A. &0. 260. a, 

46. aat—gero : '* but I who walk wfth stately triead, the queen of the 
g*>ds, aud both the Sister and wife of Jove, with one nation, so many years 
have been carrving on want."— «uf, archaic form of at. The language of 
£pic poetry affected archaisms. Note the mi^estic gait of Juno is imi- 
tated by the spondaio oharacter of the verse. 

47. et soror et conjunx, Kaatyvifniv akoxiv re. II. 16, 482. annoa. H. 
370 ; A. ft O. 266. 

48. gero: "havebeen(and stiUam) waging." H. 467^2; A.&Q. 276. a. 
—quiaquam: implj^ng a negative. H. 467; A. & O. 106. h. Ditttinguikh 
^uM^am, uUiM and'9ttivi«, quUibet—adoritt : others read adoret. H. 486 ; 
A. & O. 268. 

40. praeterea^^poathac : " hereafter."— ari«. H. 886 ; A. & O. 228. 

60. corde. H. 426,. N. 8 ; A. & O. 268. f. 




51. We hftve tn tlie ft)Uowiiig Unee % Uvelf peraonlflMtkm of the wliide. 
loea—awtrU : " » pUce big wHh MiuterfaigbMete." The winde inenttoned 
In the Aenetd nre: N.» BoseM; N.R.. Aqnllo: JB,, Baras; 8., Notna or 
Aneter; S.W., AIHcni; W., Zephyrne; N.W., Conis or C«unu; N.N.W., 
Inpyx. DltUng. ioa», foei 

68. Diatingntok' vinit, «inil atUfttm : • onve or git>ttu, m • beentiftil 

.object with refiirence to^te romantio «ppearanee, «nd cooling temper- 
ntnre : «ptew, a aa)D with a longiah opening : gptHiunea^ a eavity, in a 
merely physical raiaaou, with refsrenee to ita darltneM or dreadfUlnMs. 

58. We liave hereaflne example of imitative harmony (otiomaCofNwia), 
the hiMing aonnda being weU desoribed by the i'8 : ." the atinggUDg windi 
and lounaing itormi." 

54. imptrio—fnnat : "reitraini benoath hii iway and cnrbi them with 
bondi in hi» prlion honM." The pioture of the wtndi may have been sug- 
seated by the Ivdi Cireeruu, at wfdch cluriot raoing wm one of the ditef 
featurei.— imiMrio. H. 4S0 ; A. A O. 248.— vifieli» tt coreerB— viiioti* in 
eareere, or lome My — vinclit ewreerit : what Hgure f 

55. iUi—fremunt : " they cliaflibg, while the grMt roek roan rMponiive, 
rage around the priion bara." Note the alliteration.— ma^no cuin mw- 
mure, a «tubatitute for the ablative absolute. 

57- sceptra (eneni >-■ vmiirrovxof , "iceptre in liand." — anifnM: "pM- 
stons."— ira«: "rage." Cp> v. :i6, note. 

58. ni, arcliaic form 6t niei; see aat, v. 48. faeiat—firanl—verrnnt: 
the pres. for impr. givei greater vividneM. A, A Q. 807. b.—guippe, 
" doubtleis," ironicaL Note, verront ti iniraniittve, " sweep." 

6t. molem et montie^mokm montium <by hendiadys): "a maM of 
monntains."— ineuper, "on the top of thera." 

62. regemque—habenae: "and gave them suoh a king as knew, when 
bidden (by jove), by n.tlzed law cTther to tighten or to loosen the seins." 
— gui— eeiret, tor subJ. H. 497. 1 ; A. k 0. 817.— premere, sciL, hdbenae or 
Mnioe. — dare leuxu ^- toxare.— ^iieeue, scil., a Jove. 

65. nemifiie, in proM ttsnatty etenim, introducM a Mlf-evident reason, 
" sefctng that." uere the partiole aMigns the reasort of her coming to htm : 
"I liave come to you, for, m you know," &c.-^(iivum- rex. Hom. II. 
1.544 ; irariip avifStv t« 9*itv r«. 

66. mtilcere— toUere — u< mulceoe— tolloe. H. 535, IV^j A.,& O. 881. g. 
^venio must be taken with lx>th muleere and t<Mere. llie ancients sMm 

to bave thi>ught tliat some winds calmed, wliile other windi raiMd the 


67. (uqwir : a kind of cognate accuMttve. 
Cp. iivai oi6v. 

H. 871. II. N ; A. & O. 288. 

68. Ilium—Penatee : tlie meaning sMms to be tliat the conquered Tro-- 
jans wiU in Italy perpetuate Jbeir race aud establish their retigion. The 
penatea are said to be victos, m their old home Ilium WM dMtroyed. 
Penatee, Roman houMhoId gods, of whtch each famUy had its owu. These 
were worshipped with Veita, the guddcM of the hMrth. fSach ctty also 
had Its penates. Tbose of Lanuvium, the chief city of Latium, were 
brought by AeneM firom Trov. Afterwards they were transferred to Rome. 
The root of penatee^ from pa, or, pat, "to nourtah." Cp. irar^p, ir6<ne 
(=• n&ris), ie<r-n&r-7it : cp. pater, paaeo, panie, penUa : Bng. father. The 
word may therefore mMU the imagM of "the origtnat founders" of tbe 
clan or gens. 

69. ineute—ventia : "sive force to the winds ;" lit "strike strength isto 
the winds," m if by a biow of his sceptre. —su{>mersae: " so tliat they wtU 




b* ■tinkMi.*' « ttrolt|itlA QM of fh* jMurtloipl* (ep. v. fl») — oftriM «I tiamtrgt 
fmppu. Op. iMk. iClii^ Jokn, «* Boiit mo Ihooo liono kot. " 

70. divtraoM, oott , oifM, " tho orew flir Apurt" Othon raod (Mvtnao, 
•oU., navM. 

71. «onpon: obl. ■poolAoation. B. 419. II. ; A. A. G. S51. 

7t. Iktopm, If thio bo tho oorroot moding, Doiopta io * ooao of invertod 
Attraotion, i.e., the •ntooedent io ottrooted Into tho oaoo of the relotivo. 
—qmo. Op. vs. 979. Others reodJMopMiti». 

75. jungcm. ■oiL, tihi —9>niubio: to get over tlio diiBoQl^ of ■oMuion, 
■ome toke thi« word ao o trioyllablo, making i conMuantal, Le., —y. 
— propriom mmp»rptUum : " and grant her to tnee as yoar wife for ever." 
cp. Ercl. 7.81. 

76. pulehm proU : taken either (l) with partnlM», abL q,aality, or (S) 
mvti/aeial aa, abL meann. 

76. tuua—4»pkirart : " thine is the taak to determine what thoa chooaoot " 
— op(M, sab}. of dependent queot. B. 6S0; A. ft 0. 884. 

77. tui—tu—tu, note tho emphasio : " 'tis thou who gaveot me whatever 
realm thio ii whioh I lutve."— wtiplra Jovemque: " theeceptoe and the favor 
of Jove," or by hendladyo — tetptra Jovii, " the scoptre derived firom Jove." 
AII kingly power oa|pe nrom Jove. 

79. epulis : deoline this word ; aeownbtrt, B. 685, IV., A. d( O. g. Vergil 
here asoribea to the gode a ooetom prevalent among the Romans of his 
own day. The Oreelu sat meals aa we do. 

80. pottntm: *' lord/' aeo noto on vs. 68. nimhorum, B. 809.8, A. A O., 

81. dieta, scil. twnL—eavum—latut: " with spear-point tamodthat way, 
thvQ hoUow hUl be pushed on the side." ITote tho aUtttration. Oistdngaish 

38. vthu agmint Jiteto : " Uke a column formed in line," abl. nianner. 
B. 419, III., A. & O., S48. 

88. data {ttt).~-ierra ptrftant : " they blew a blast across the world." For 
case of ttrrcu, see B. 878., A. & 0. 88 7pd. 

84. ineubutre moH : " they swoofl^ dowii ulWllKhe sea," for momentary 
action of pref : seo B. 471, Il.,*xrs O. S79. Cp. <ir4<r«n)^av. 

86. ruunt: tho change of iense is supposod to give vividness to the 
desoription.— cre&«r proctllit Afridua, "the gusty south-west wlnd." 
JJHeut, Ai^, as blowing flrom Libya ; caUed by the ItaUans stiU Africo, 
or Ohtroino. 

86. ttfluetut : ihe spondees well descrlbe thfe motion of the heavy surges. 

87. intequitwr—rudtntwn : " then foUow both the shrieks of the crew, 
and the creakingof the cordage."— vinm: whatwordsof the Snd decL have 
the gen. pl. in um instead of orumf B. 63.8 ; A. & O. 40, a. rudentet, 
were the light hanging gear of a ship (roir«ia), whUe /unta {axoivia), were 
the sirone ropes to which the anchors were attached, and by whtch the 
ship was iastened to the land. 

88. eripiurU—oeulia : " snddenly the clouds rob the^es of the Trojans of 
both sky and light." diea, "Ught," probably the original meaniog of the 
word ; cp. div., " bright." Op. KFo^, Ai F&s (gen. of Zev«, god of the air), 
Juppiter ( — IMvpiter), Diana ( — Div-ana, the bright one), " the moon.'* 

89. tneubaf : " broods over."— atra, " sable." Distingnish ater, denotmg 
black as a negative of all color, opposed to albtu, white ; niger, black, as 
being itself a color, and indeed the darkest, opposed to eandidua. 





OQ. imUmtmt imU : "It thnadeivd ttma pole to pol« ;" lil. " the polee 
thnndered.**— jMltM, (ir^otX the Latli) tenn fbr potiM li mtM*, the end or 
azii on whloh, «ccorainff to the anoient notiona, the be«vene tnmed {Mrti), 
—«t—Mf Aer : "end the heeven gleama with miinent flMhee.'*— «M^r, the 
hright npper sIev above the clondi («i#ifp) : a$r, the lower alr (Aitp). Here 
the dtMtinotion fs, however, unobserved. 

91. pfMMHlMifiM— morMm : *' end ell thingH threatra the orew with in- 
■tAnt deeth.''— iiUMitaiit, note the foroe of the Areqnentntlve. 

OS. $xtmB$o ( "- ta Umpulo, trom tmpulum, dim. ot tmpu»), "at 
onoe."->W90r«, " with a ohilllng feer." 

08. avfHeu: not "cluped," u thie wu not the attribute of prayer 
among the Oreelci and Romane, who extended the palms of their bands 
to the suppoaed dwelling place of the deity addressed, but " both." Op. 
the use o( AiirAov« for om^. i^- Aeschylns, Pmm. Vlnetus, 971, ii^4 
Ikoi JtirA«« Movf, Ufioiiiitnv, «pov^^n». 8o also dupUx, said for amoo, 
uterqut, of things in pairs. Aen. 7, 140, duplicM pan»tt$.—wUina, " the 
open hand." Cp. troKduii, " the blade of an oar," root pal, to spread ; 
palor, "I wander," and pando, "I spread." For d passing into {, op. 
odor, olere ; dingua — Hf^fua ; Micpv, lacrima. 

04. r$f$rt — dicit. The meaning may be he brtn||i« hack to light thoughts 
hidden in his heart : op. Hom. Od. 6,806. 

05. guU cotUigit : " whose happy lot it wu."— ^itii * quibu$.—cccidit, it 
happens unezpeotedly, said of good or bad events. — conliyil, it happens. 
said of fortunate events : $v$nii, it happeos, uid of events expeoted, sooa 
or bad.— an<e ora ; considered a happy lot, beoause their fathers woula see 
their noble deeds. 

06. oppetere, scil., mortm : to die, u a moral act, in so far u a man, if he 
does not seek death, at any rate awaits it with flrmness.— oHr$ morUm : to 
die, as a physical aot, by whioh one ends all sufTering. 

97. Tydid$ — iKomedM, who met Aeneu in single combat, II. 5,807. 
—m$n^--d$xtra : " whrcould not I fall on the Trojan plains and breathe out 
this life by thy right nand?" For the case of me, see note, v. 87. —occum- 
her$, scil, mortm, or morU, or obviam morti.—campU, local abl. — in 

99. aa$vu$: perhaps "terrible in battle:" cp. Btomer^s lUtvhv max^*'* 
Aoneu himself is called 8a$v%u in Aen. 12, 107.— iieaoidee : Aohilles is 
meant, who wu son of Peleus, grandson of Aeacus. Some render jacet by 
" waa siain," a historic present, beoause we leam Irom II. 16. 667, that the 
body of Barpedon wu conveyed to Lycia by SlCep ahd Death. 

100. iSimoie, decline. Namo the other rivers in the Troad. 

102. talia jactanti : " u he utters these words :" dat. of refereuce, H. 
884, II., 4, note 4 ; A. &G. 295.—$tridens—proeella : either " a squall howl- 
ing trom the uorth," (AguUonc — ah AquUone), or, " a squall howling with 
the north wind," abl. of aecompaniment. 

104. avertit, sciL, se = avertitur (middle force), " swings round." 

105. dat, scil., prora, " (the prow) exposes the side (of the sliip) to the 
waves."— ineeguttor— mone : "close (on the sbip) 1n a mass comes on a 
precipitous mountain \)il\oyr."—in$$quitur, scU., navm. — cumvio, abl. 

106. hi, properly « viri, " the crew." but by $yn$edoch$ ^ hae nave». 
—hU—aperit : " to those the yawning billow discloses the land between the 
waves." Distinguish unda, a wave, arlsing Arom the ordinary motion of 
water ; ftuctUe, a wave, oansed by some extemal force, u storms. , 

107. aestu» : " the seething flood." 




108. abrepUu-^orquetssdbripuU et torquet: "liati caught lihd whirls." 
—laUntia, "hidden'^ Dy the overfloiring sea in ■tormy weather ; in a calm 
(hey w^re visible. 

109. 8Ma—arat. The order .19 Mxa quae medtis in'JlUctibut iexatdrUia^ 
Itali vooant Aras : " roulcs which (staiiding out) in the midst of the billows 
the Italiaiiii call altars." The sadM» referred to are probably the rocks Jost 
outside the bay of Katthage. Of these, tlie' inauia A^muri is the chief. 
Some aa.f the Karthagmians priests used tu offer sacrinces there toavert 
shipwreclts on tha rocks, hence the term Arae. Others say the Skerki 
rocks are alluded to situated in the shaUow between Tunis and Sicily. 

110. dor«um—8ummo : " a huge ridge rising to the surface of the inain." 
—dormm, properly "a back" ol an animal. Cp. xou>a«, properly a low, 
rugged rock rising hke a hog'8 back on the surface of the waves.— mari, 
lo^ abl. — ah aHo, " from the high seas," 

111. in brevia et Syrteis=s in brevia (looa) Syrtium : "on tbe shoals cl the 
Syrtes." The Syrtes (so called frcm aragglng in the ships ; airb rov «rvpciv 
Tdc vr^oi, or from the Arabian word Sert, meaning a desert,) were two gulfn 
in Northern Africa, the Syrtls Major (Gul/ of Sidra), the Syrtis Minor 
{GulfofKhaba). viau, H. 547 : A. & G. 308. 

114. ipHiua, scil, Aetuae. {pse like avror is often used of a superior, as 
of a leader, inaster, 6ut. Cp. avrb; tijtrfv : ipse dixit, said of Pythagoras by 
his disclples. — a vertiee = Kar' axpijs, *' vertically." Sctm this line. 

115. pttpplm. What words have the accusative in im or em, H. 62 ; 
A. & G. 56, h.—exeutitur — caput: "tlie pilot is thrbwn overboard and head* 
long i& rolled fonvard." excutio, ofteu used "to throw out" of a ship, 
chanot, or froin a horse. — pronus, cp. irp>)i'^$, opposed to tupinus » virnoc. 
—magiater, scil, navis = guhemator. 

116. ast, old form of at, and like the Greek arap, it joins a previous 
thought to a new and different one : " whilst on the spot thrice the billow 
whirn it (scil, illam, or navem), driving It round and rouud.'' 

117. et—vortex: "and the greedy eddy swallows it (i.e. navem) in the 
deep." rapidus, root rap: ep. apir-a^w (by metathesis). —oe^uore, local 

118. The spondees describe well the slow movements of tlie struggling 
sailors.— rari : "scattered here and there." 

110. anna—undas. The shields and spears may be referred to as floating 
for a while in the waves, orthe picture may be raerely momentary.— /702« » 
9iivavp6t, a prince'8 wealth. 

120. Sean this line. Tell what metrical figure is in it : H. 608. III. 
Dticline Achates. ^ 

121. qua — in quM, local abl. 

122. hietnps. Hhe p is merely euphonic, because it is diflicult to pro- 
nounce s aftei m. Cp. stimpsi.—laxis—fatisount : — "through the loosened 
fastenings of the ribs, ali (the ships) admit the unwelcome water and gape 
with (many) chinks " — imber : properly rain water. Here = mare. Cp. 
Vlrg. Georg. 4.115. — rimis, abl. inaniier. 

124. interea : refers to a matter of sorae duration. interim :' to a thing 
merely momentary : interea, incliides the time occupied from the winds 
Rwooping dowu on the sea (v. 84) up to the present. We may translate, 
" while this was going on, Neptune greatly moved felt that the deep was 
disturbed with dreadful din." What tigure in thisline? 

125. et—vastis : "and thattbe still waters were forced up fto tho surface) 
flrom thtiir lowest depths." Strvius talces stagna to mean tne still waters 
at the bottom of the deep : vadis, abl. of sep, H. 414, N,, 1 ; A. jt G. 243. 





— commoeiM, ''moved" in heart, though 61 serene ccMintenance (plaeidum 
cmput).—tUto pro9piei»n$. may mean, (1) " lookiag forth firom the deep sea," 
wbere his palaee waa^wbl. eep : (8) " lookfaifffbrth o'6r the d«ep," the abl 
representing the apaed orer whion the view ig talcen, cp. v. 181 (more cor- 
rectly pro$pieer« takea an aco. in this oonntraction as in v. 165); (3) "in 
his regard for the maia," the dat., H. 385, II., 1 ; A. ft G. 827, o. 

127. unda, abl. of lep, H. 414, K, 1 ; A. & O. 248. 

128. toto—aequort. See note, vs. 29. 

129. cadi ruina : "by the wreck of heaven." The violent storm of rain 
is consldered as the downfall of ^hvsky^ttftelf. 

130. latuere- -fratrem : '''WHreilURhown to her brother " : with lateo and 
acc, cp. use of kavSdv». 

131. Scan tbis llne and tell what metrical flgure is in it, H. 608, III. 

132. tantane—vestri : "has such confidence in your origin possessed 
you." The winds were the sons of Au rora and the Titan Astraep s, so tliat 
they were on the one side of divine ORjglh UU 011 lliu uUlUfthoy were 
descended from a rival of the gods. 

133. numine : " coneent," from mu>, " to nod." 

184. iantaa molee: "such mighty billows." Wliat kind of a verb is 
audeo ? What others of the same class ? 

135. quot ego, scil., ulciecur, What flgure? H. 637, xi. 8 ; A. & G. page 

186. poat^^potUii: "hereafter." — no» may be taken (1) either with «imili, 
(2) or witb luetis : the former is preferable. ■-•eonmiaaa luere : cp. 
irtnpayfiiva Kvtiv. 

138. aaevum : "stem," as the sc^ptre is the badge uf authority. 

139. aorte. Juppiter, Neptune, and Pluto are said to have received their 
realms by allotment, a notioa probably sugnested by the Roman mode of 
assigning the pTovinces at the beginning of we year. 

140. veetras : referring to the whole winds, though directly addressed to 
Eurua— <e jaotet Aeolua : " let Aftftli||^ Hinnlav bia t^p-^^pri>n«»ft" 

141. et—regnet : " and let him reign, when he lias clo^pd thg p rison of the 
winds." — car wrt^ abl. abs. 

142. dicto dtim : " ^ooner t)ian the words were spoken :" H. 417, N. 5 ; 
A. & Q. iiT.Q.^-placai, distinguish in meaning pldcare, plddre; pendSrt, 
pendere; albare, aWere; /ugare, fugSre; jaclre,}acere ; liedare, aSdere. 

144.jjg2|ji||||^"pushingagainst." theships. 

145. «cfi^uZo. abL of separation. Vergil does not seem to distiuguish 
«coimnnrpamgh pointed cliff, affording a wide lookout : rt. scep. ; cp. 
«rKdircAo? ; aaxum, a huge rock of whatever form = irirpa ; mpes, a jagged 
cliff ; cautea, a, imall rock down in the water, and invisible to the sailors. 
—levat, scil. navea. 

146. aperit : " he makes his way through :" ayrtia, see uote, vs. 112. 
— temperat, distinguish the nieaning of tbis verb with (1) dat., (2) acc. H. 
385, 11. 1. 

147. levihua : distlnguish Uvia, Uvi%. The adj. is best taken «> leviter, an 
adv., modifying perto&itur. 

148. ac vtlvii : one of the l)est known of Vei^irs similes. Tliis simile re- 
verses the ord^r observed by Homer. In II. 2, 144, Homer compares the 
din of the assembly to that of the sea. Vergil bere compares the sea paci- 
fied by Neptune to a violent mob swayed by some respected orator. " Man . 
reminds the more piotorial poet of nature : nature .*eminds the more philo* 



•ophic p^t tif laui^—magno inpwulo: "tn a VMt throng."— eoorfa t$t, 
gDOinto perfect. B. 473.5 ; A. & O. 279, c 

149. aefKtio : deriveUftrom M,i(to." iigotnffapart,"t.«.,"iitiot": ford 
ep«nthetto. cp. rtdto, prodto.—anifnii, ptobtmyni^M^vo ; op. animi 
dwontoior, «^ninki atgir. ■ '.•■ 

15C. jamqvt, " and at length ;" iam, tmplies the idea of a gradual pro- 
greuion up tb^a certain time ; nune, deflniUly the preient.— /DieM tt taxa 
were t^lte arms of a Roman mob, as the oarrying of weapons waa forbidden 
within the city. 

151. tum, correlative with cum ; v. \i8.—pietatt gravtm ao mtritit : " of 
influence by hin patriotism and by his virtues. ' Some sav that Cicero is 
meant— 9t(«in : when is quit^altquitf H. 456.1 ; A. dt 0. 105, d. /orte, 
" perchance " talces the indic : so al«o fortan ; fortattt hat once the indic. 
tn Vergil, otherwise the subJ- ; fortitan has regularly the •ufaj. 

152. eonintxtrt: llie individuals coraposing the throng (vulgtu) are thought 
of : hence the plural. —adttant, " thej' stand by." 

154. cunctfu—fragor : "all the uproar of the sea is hushed." Decline 
ptUigus. Distinguish etcidit, 'itcldit. — aequora protpicient: "lookiug o'er 
the calm deep." See note vs. 126. 

155. genitor — Septvntu. Pater seems to Imve been a general epithet of 
a river ur sea deity ; cp. pater Tibtirinut (Livy, 2.10) ; pater Oeeanus (Virg. 
Oeorg., 4.382) ; piUir Portunus (Virg. Aen., 5.241). So also Hoiner calTs 
Ocean, Oeiiv yiffcviv. It was one of the dognias of the lonic Schoul of 
Philosophers that water was ^he primary eiemeit of all thtngs— a doctrine 
evidently held by Vergil (Qeorg. 4.S82).— aperto: "cleared," of clouds, i.e., 
•' serene." 

156. currU'-'eurrui.—secundo: 'followinghis steeds,"heuce, "gliding." 

157. ileneadae: "followers of Aeneas;" so the Atheiiians are called 
Cecroptdae, Thetidae, from their original leaders.— ^ttfre litora : "the near- 
e8t shores ;" the relative here supiuies the place of our article.— cu>»u>" 
rapide, abL^f manner ; cp. jprf/a^ « ra}(v. 

158. rermillUf »" vertunt se. The passive endings in Latin arose ont nf 
the reflexive torm» of the active by adding to the verbal stem with the 
tach vowel the acc. of the reflexive pronoun in all perHons- se; e flnal yf&s 
afterwards dropped, and the remaining fortn sometimes changes s tor; 
vertor =- verto-ne ; vertetis = originally vertesi-ae ; vertitur == verteti-se. 

159. est hcm: prob.ilily an imaginary placo. Some refer the description 
to Novn Karthago (Cartagena) in Spain ; otliers to Neapoli».— in secesm 
longo : " in a deep reeediiig bay." 

160. ohjectii TtTTfWHIBa!' by tiie shelter of its sidea."—quibiis, "against 
which," abl. instr. 

101. ituiue—rednctos : " and the wave parts into tlie deep creelcs." sinus, 
properly "a bosoin," then *'a gulf." Cp. the cliange of meaning of 
KoAtros, Romaic yoAt^of, Eiig. gulf — scindit sese = sciiiditur. 

162. hinc—scopuH : " on this side «nd ou that luige rocks aiul twin clitt» 
tower toward heaven."— mi/ianfMr, rt. min, "to jut."^ Cp. mons, minae, 
prop., gable ends of a liouae. 

163. to<c: "farand wide." ' 

164. aequora—silent : "tue calm sea lies snfe and still ;" lit, "the onlia 
sea safe (from the winds) is still." tuta inay, however, inean " safe for 
ships."— <ttm — coruscis: "tlieu a background of waving wcuids." scaena, 
cp. orKT^vri, the background of tlie Roman theatre, the circular forni of the 
bay (tinus) having suggested the idea of the pii {cavea).—silvis, altl. quality. 





'— coorta ettf 

liot": ford 
op. anitni 

gndual pro* 
mc*i tt taxa 
M forbidden 

mritit: "ot 
lat Cicero is 
)5, d. /orte, 
ice the itidic. 

) are thought 

d." Decline 
loolciDg o'er 

%l epithet of 
eanua (Virg. 
Homer calTs 
io Schoul of 
I— A doctrine 
clouds, i.e., 


are called 
"the near- 
.—cumu — 

irose out of 
m with the 
e flnal yf&s 
iges s to r ; 

•in secesnu 

" agaiust 

." sinus, 
leauing of 

twin clitt» 
ns, minae. 

"the onlni 
safe for 
>rm of tlie 
il. quality. 


Dlntinguinh tUva, a wood in a general sense, wH|i wjmence to the ttmber • 
tiAi}. nemut, a pleasant place, a grove — von6i. 

160. fronte sub adversa : " beneath the f ront (of tlM «IMQ facing (the 
entrance of the harbour)." 

167. aquatdulots: " springs of flreih water ;" opposed to a<7tuM amara«, 
"sait water aprings. "—vivo saxo: "of uative(i.e. unhewu) rock," abl. of 

168. non— «Ua s nulla. The oalmness of the harbour is contrasted wttii 
the raging of the sea. 

169. uneo—morsu: "with its hooked bite." Vergil here is guilty of 
anac/ironMm. Auuhors wera not in use in the Homeric ships, which nad 
large stones (cvvai, sU^r») tc steady them. 

170. septem. The origtnal number was 30 in all (vs. 881). The seven 
were made up of three from the reof (vs. 108), three from the sand bank 
(vs. 110), and his ovrn.—collectis, "mustered:" navibus, abl. of accom- 
panimeut, or abl. abs, 

171. subit : " takes refUge." — amore — desiderio, " longing " for something 
absent or wantiug. 

172. tgressl, scil., ez navibue: "having disembarked ;" op. iKfiaivw, 
often used U vrio» omitted. harena: wliat other case does potior govem? 
H. 410, V. 8 ; A. & O. 228, a. 

178. et—ponutU : " and they stretch on the shores their limbs drenched 
with brine ;" tab-es, tabeseo same root as t^k-m by labialism. 

174. silici: "fromflint;" fordat. H. 886.4 ; A. &G. 229, c. 

175. suscepitque—Jbliis : "and nursed the (Ire amid the leaves." H. 420 ; 
A. & O. 2i8.—atque—dedit: ''aud besides he placed around (the flre, i.e., 
ijrnem) dry chips ;" or circumdedlt may be by tmesis ^ oircumdedit, Hcil., 
igni. The origiual meauing o' tfare (cf with root da—9t) ; in Ti-9ri-ii,t is 

176. rapuitqv,e—jlammam. Servius says rapuit^^raptim /eeit, "and 
quickly he started a blaze among the touchwood." Heyne makes rapuit-=' 
raptim excepit, probably meaning that the fire wu. tirst started by rubbing 
together the dry pieces of wood anu then quickly placing the flre around 
the tinder. 

177. Cererem corruptam : " the corn damaged ;" uote the metonymy ; so 
vs. ?16. Cerealia arma: " tlie vessels of Ceres," may refer to the hand- 
inill {saxa), kneading trough, &c. 

178. exped^unt : " they fetch," out of the ships.— /e»«i rerum, either 
" weary with the world,' or rerum == rentm adversarum, " weary with their 
misfortunes." H. 899.3 ; A. Jc G. 218. c.—receptas : " recovered" from the 

180. aeopulum, properly, "a look-out;" cp. <rK(iircAo«, rt. spec-CKtir, by 

181. pclago, see note ou alte, vs. 126 ; the abl. of the space inoved over 
in vision: "o'er the deep."— J^ntAeo— uideu^: lit. "if he can aee any An- 
tlious," i.e., " if he can anywhere see Anthuus." It may also be taken, " in 
the hope that he may see some tempest-tossed (barK of; Antheus." For 
Anthea qmtn==Anthei quam (navem), cp. Mn. 2..H11 ; Jam proximus ardet 
Ucalegon —jam proxima ardet domus Uealegontis. Por mood of rideat, H. 
529, 11. 1 ; A. & G. 334. f.— 5i>em««.- Vergil is guilty of an anachronism 
liere, as no suuh ships existed in the Homeric era. 

183. arvia, shields arranged on the stern. Cp. JEn. 8. 92. 

184. Some Iiave raised the questiou whetlier deer are found in Africa. 





185. artnunUa : properiv, "ploiighing cattle," {.e., "oxen," but often ap- 
pUed to other kincU of •ninials : to horses (iEn. 8. 540) ; to apes (Piiny 7. 2); 
to sea monsters (€toorg. 4. i96).—^umentuin {'—Jug-mientufn\ "draft 

196. hie. Distinguishiile.Aic. 

190. BUmit : " he lays low :" vtUgus, said of beasts : cp. Georg. 8, 469 : 
vti^fus ineautum.—et — twbam : "and driving witli his shafts the whole 
hera (of deer), he disperses them amid the leafy woods." 

192. neepriua dbsiatit quam, denotes purpose ; hence the subj. in fundat. 
H. 680; A. & 0.827, a. 

194. partitur, scil., procdam. 

195. vina cadie onerarat, by hypallage, =* vino cadoe onerarat.—deinde 
dividit. Scan this line, and t«ll what nietrial flgure in it.—bonus, join 

106. Trinacrlo. Sicily was called by the Oreeks $pivaKpia, rpivaKpia, 
rpivducpif, from its three promontories (rptU aKpai), and by the Romans 
Triqxutra. The promontories are Pelorus (Faro), Pachynutn (Paseara), {Bona, or MarscUa). 

198. ruque — malorum: either "for we are not ignorant of our former 
mlsfortunes," taking ante malorum = rStv npiv KaKwv ; or, " for we have 
not been former\]^ ignorant of. misfortune, taking ante sumtts» irdAat 

199. 0—graviora : " O ye who have suffered heavier woes." 

200. Scyllaeam rabiem = {hy enallaife) Seyllam rabidam: "the raging 
Scylla." Cp. HerctUeus labor, /3i>j 'KpaKKrieiri.-^nitua sonantes: "re- 
sounding through their caverns," or "deep sounding." The re'erence is 
to Charybdis. The onomatopoeia well imitates the hissing sound of the 
seething whirlpool. 

201. accestia^accessiitis. For similar cnae!> of sj/neope, cp. dixti, inteU 
lexti, misti, promitse : H. 235.8 ; A. & 0. 128, t.—Cyclopea saxa, referring to 
the cave of Polyphemus. The usual quantity is Cychpgus, not Cyclop^us. 
Cp. Aen. 3.569. 

203. forsan: eliptical for fors sit an ; lit., "the chance may be whether," 
i.e. " perhaps," H. 485 ; A. JE O. 811, a. See note on forte, vs. 151.— oZint, 
see note, vs. 20. 

204. discrimina rerum = re« pericuiosas. —ditcrim^n ; properly, the turn- 
ing point, rt. kri ; eerno, Kpivw. 

205. tendimus, scil, iter: " we pursiiie our course." 

206. ostendunt: " promise "— /as est, "'tis heaven's will." fas, rt. fa, 
"to declare." Cp. firi, <t>rip.i ; fatum, 4>Vf^V- 

207. dwrate— tA^tc : "bear up." rebusi d&t, H. 384, II.; A. & G. 225. 

208. Distinguish vocea, vbcef; rSfert, rSfert. 

209. ^vm^ simuilat vultu : V bope in his look he feigns." — vultu, abl. instr. 
Distinguish nmutore, to feign ^liat you arb not : dxssimulare, not to shew 
what you actually are. —oremit^-dolorem : " he holds concealed deep in his 
heart his grief." cordje, looal abl. 

210. se acciiigrunt : lit„ "girdthemselves,"i.o. "busy themselves." The 
toga of the Romans, hanging loose, had to be tucked up for an active task. 
Hence, s/uccxnictus, aecinclus, " actlve." 

211. Vergil was well versed in the ceremonial rites of the Roman religion* 
The minuteness of the descriptiou is paralloled by Hom. II 1.458-478. 
— eo%tiSy abl. separation.— vieoera, properly, the great intemal organs, as the 


but often ap- 
umX "draft 

leorg. 8, 469 : 
ts the wbole 

bj. in fundat. 

—bonus, join 

n, rpivoKpia, 
the Romana 
n, (Passara), 

t our former 
' for we have 
mtts» iraXai 

"the raging 
lantes : " re- 
B re'erence is 
sound of the 

dixti, intel' 
, referring to 
>t Cyclopiiis. 

161.— olim, 

fly, the turn- 

1 /o», rt. fa, 
i.kO. 225. 

f,, abl. inatr. 
lotto shew 
I deep in his 

Ives." The 
p.ctive task. 



;ans, as the 



heart, liver, &«., but alao applied to the flesh in general or te anything 
beneath the akin. 

212. pars—secant—ftgunt. What flgnre, H. 488.6; A. & O. 205, c. 
—veribua, abl. instr.— trementia, scii, viseera.—fignnt^-tranejlgunt. 

218. aejka, scil., va$a: "the bronzepots." Vergil is here gail]^of an 
anachronlam, Homer^s heroes knowing nothing of noiled meat. Ae hot 
water may have been for the bath taken before the moal began. 

214. victu—vin$: " with food they recover their strength."— /ttn, 

215. BaecM " vini: see note 177, H. 409, v. 1 ; A. & O. 248, G. R.— tm- 
plentur » seimplent ; see note vs. 158 ; H. 465 ; A. & O. 111, N. l.—ferinae, 
scil., camiti : " venison." Cp agnina, "lamb ;" hovina, " beef ;" vitulina, 
" veal." fera is connected etvmologically with Or. Byjp, German thier, Eng. 
deer, which was once a generic term, as waa each of its Aryan equivalents. 

216. postquani—epulia : "after hunger was appeased by the feast." De- 
cline fames nnd eptUum. For tense otexemta eet, H. 471, 4 ; A. & O. 324. 

217. amieeo» — remiirunt : " they express their regrets for their lost com- 
rades in many words."— re^utVo, to ask about something needed. 

218. spem inter : anastrophe— du&i», " wavering."— -sett — eive : in the pre- 
Augustan period we find sive—sive, seu—aeu, but after that time we 
generally find seu—aive, sive—seu. — credant : H. 486, II. ; A. Jt O. 884, b. 

2ld extrema pati : "to have suffered their flnal doom :" a eupAemim for 
mori.—nee —voeatos : " and that they no longer hear when summoned." The 
reference is to the cenclamatio, i.e., calling the dead by name, andalso 
shouting vale, or Aave. 

220. Orontei : decline this word. 

221. aecum : " by himself," not in sight of his comrades. 

222. aethere : abl. separation, H. 413 ; A. & O. 248. 

223. finis : the end of the day, or of the feast. 

224. despiciena : " looking down upon." Others read dispiciens: " looking 
abroad."— «clftwium : " alive with flitting sails." 

225. aic, scil., dei^iciens: "then and there looking down." Cp. use of 
ovTO), introduced after participial clauses. 

226. regnis: "on the reaims"(dat. or abl). 

227. tales curas : '* such cares," as became the ruler of the world. 

228. tristior == subtristis : ' ' sadder than was her wont," H. 441, 1 ; A. & O. 
93, a. : ocalos, H. 378 ; A. & O. 240, c. 

230. fulmine, the lightning that strikes the earth = Ktpavvo^. fulgur, 
the gleam of the lightning = aorpair^. 

9^\. quid—orbis : '* what sin so heinous can my Aeneas have committed 
agamRt thee, what sin, the Trojans, to whom, after suffiering so many 
htfrdships, the vliole world is closed on account of Italy :" cunctus, for 
co-junetus, or covinctu^s. — ob Italiam, to prevent their coming to Italy. 

234. certe : distinguish certo, a particle of alQrmation joined with scio, 
"surely," "certainly," and cer te, which moditles a statement, "atleast," 
- joined to any verb. Join with pollicitus, scil, e*. — hinc-hinc is (1) either 
a repetltion, (2) or, thtre tfretwo clauses: hinc RomMnoa fore, hinc 
duetores fore a sanguine Teucri. — volventibus annis. Cp. Homer's 
TrepiTrAoficVwv cviavruv. 

236. qui—tenerent : "shallhold, imperf. subj. of virtual oblique narra- 
tion. H. 493.1 ; A. & O. 286. 



; I 

287. po^liciHu, soil. , e». 

288. Koo: " by thi8 ;" abl. of means, referriog to the promise mentioned 

239. fatia—^evendenB: "balanclng fates by oppuslng fates;" striotly 
eontraria U an inverted epitbet =• contrariit. —/at%a. The downfUI 6f Troy 
is oompensated by the hope of reaching Italy. 

240. tot—aetos : " harassed by so many woes." 

242. medm— ilcAivi» : " escaping from the midat of the Oreekfi." Sopho» 
eles represents Antenor as having esoaped by coIIu«ion from Troy, the 
Greeks having spared his life as he oonoooted a plan to deliver Troy int& 
their hands. Some say lie survived the fsUen city, and founded there a 
new kingdom ; others, that he settled in Libya. 

248. penetrare: "coasted along." 

245. per ora novem The Timavus riaes about a mile froni its mouth at 
the head of the Adriatic sea. Between the fountain of the river and the 
outlet are several subterranean channela, through which the salt water of 
the sea ia foroed back by a atorni, breaking out at the fountain through 
aeven holes or crevices in the rock, and overflowing the channel of the 

246. it—proruptum : (1) " the aeacomeaburstingup ;" (2) " it (the Tima- 
vua) roUs aa a dadiing sea ;" (8) " it rolla to break upon the aea ;" pro- 
ruptum, a supine in thia last. The firat is the most naturtd explanation. 
pelago, "aurge." 

247. tamen: "In spite of all hia dangers." -ur^w Patavi, H. 396, VI. ; 
A. & G. 214. f. In Virgira day Patavium (uow Hadua) waa the fourth city 
of the empire in wealth, ranking next to Rome, Alexandria. and Gadez 
(Cadiz). The Veneti, or Heneti, are said to have come from Paphlagonia 
to Italy ; others say they were Celta. 

248. fixit : i.e., hung theni up in the temple as a token of hia wars being 

249. nunc — quiescit: "now reposing he reata in peaceful i^Ieep." — cowi- 
postus, referring to tiia toils being over. Some aay that com,postus refers to 
Antenor'3 death. Cp. cKTidcVai == componcre, to atretch out a Ixidy for 

250. nos, i.e., Venua and her aou Aeneaa. — adnuo, cp. KaTarcvw, to nod 
the head down, to give aascnt ; denuo = avavevw, to nod the head up, to 
dissent.— cae2i arcem. Aeneas waa worshipped aa one of the Dei ind^etes. 
(iEn. 12, 794 ; Livy, 112.) 

251. infandum : " oh, horror unapeakable " : H. 381 ; A. & G. 240, d. 

— itnttts i.e. of Juno. 


252. prodimur : " are abandoned," by Juppiter. 

263. hic. agreeing with the predicate honos, "is this the reward shown 
to piety," H. 445.4 : A. & G. 195, d. 

254. olli^^illi, H. 186, III, , l ; A. & G. 100, d.—subriden8, with tlie force 
of sub, cp. that ot iiiro — in vnoytXav. 

255. The majestic apondeea give dignity to the look of Jove. 

256. Scan thia line and name the metrical figure in it. See note, va. 131. 

257. metii = mietui : H. 116.; A. & G. 68, IV . —Cytherea. Venus was ao 
called becauae she was wor.shipped at the island of Cythera (now Cerigo). 
Her worship was probably a reinnant of the old Phoenician worahip of 
Astarte, wbo was afterwarda identitied with Venus and Juno. 

B. I. 

86 mentioned 

B»:" Btriotly 

Bkii." Sopho- 
►m Troy, the 
er Troy Inta 
aded there a 

its mouth at 
iver and t)i6 
salt water of 
tain through 
annel of the 

it (tlie Tima- 
le sea ;" pro- 

H. 396, VI. ; 
e fourth city 
%. and Gaduz 

s wars being 

leep." — com- 

tus refers to 

a body for 

-evw, to nod 
lead up, to 
!t indigetea. 

IG. 240, d. 

irard shown 
|h the force 

i, vs. 131. 

|us was so 

|\ Cerigo). 

irorship of 

\ I 



258. tibi : ethioal dative. "acRording to your wiah," H. 889 ; A. & O. 836. 
urbem et moeiiia«-by bendiadys urbit mo*nia. L&vM here, in tb. S. 
Ldvina (adj« )■ Such variations in quantity are frequent in th« cam of proper 

269. sublimem : " on high," H. 448 ; A. & 0. 191. 

260. magnanimum. Cp. Homeric, iityd9viiot. 

261. hie—subaetis : " this one according to your wish— for I shall deolare 
the fates, since this anxiety torments thee, aud unroUing the mysteries of 
destiny at greater length I will bring them to light— thie one, I say, shaU 
earry on a great war in Italy, and shall crush the warlike tribes, ana shaU 
give laws to the people and shall build towns, until the third summer sees 
hiin roigning in Latmm, and three winters are passed after the sul^ugation 
of the Rutiui."— tibi : see note, va. 25S.— ^ndo-^^^uando quidrm : this 
rneaning occurs only in poetry and in post-Augustan prose. Cp. orc for 
oTi in Qreek.—volven8: the metaphor is t^ken from the unrolling of a book. 
Cf volum^n, properly, an unrolling, hence a volume.— more»— moenia 
ponere. Cp. yonovt — rtixta Otivai. The two ideas were inseparable in a 
Konian mind, as the buildiug of a city implied the establishment of laws. 
There is no real zrugma, as the ditference in sense exists only in the 
English translation.— vidm'e. H. 519, II. ; A. & G. 328.— Hutulis-eubaetit, 
either (1) an abl. absol , or (2) dat. of reference, H. 884.4, IV., 8 ; A. &; O. 
235. —f«ma — hibema, scil, castra^^tres hieniea. Lit., wmter camps*» 
«^inters. Note the use of the distributive instead of the cardinal numeral 
with a Moua having a pl. form only. 

267. At : the idea is " though the reign of Aeneas shall be short, still," 
&«. : see note vs. 116.— lulo. H. 387. N. 1 ; A. &. O. 231, b. 

268. stetit: for tcnse, H. 519, 1. ; A. & G. 276. e. H.—regno, H. 419. lU. ; 
A. & G. 248. 

266. magnos — orbes : reftrring to the anuual cycle in contradistinction to 
the mnnthly Tevi}\\ition.—volvendi8 = volventibus, from the dei^ionent re- 
flexive volvor. H. 465, N. 1. ; A. & G. 296.— menstbtM. abl. absol., or abL 
iust., or manner. 

270. imperio : either = {mjKrando, abl. of manner, or dat. =="for his 

271. longam Albam : co. 
Od. 2, 2.3. 

Livy 1, 2. For inversion of names, cp. Hor. 

272. hic: at Alba.— jam, "thenceforth."— ter eentum, according to the 
received date of the fall of Troy, this would put the fouudatiuu of Rome 
about 850 B.C., instead of 753 B C.—regnabitur, "the dynasty shall last." 
fl. 801. 1 ; A. & G 146, c. 

273. Hectorea. The race takes its name from its greatest hero : cp. 
RomuUdae, Assaraeidae, Cecropidae, or perhaps there is a refereuce to tlte 
warlike spirit of the Roraans. — regina sacerdos : it is difflcult to say which 
i'f these substantives is used adjectively. Tbe reference is tu Rhea Silvia, 
daughter of Niiinitor. 

274. partu: H. 419. IH. ; A. & 0. 248.— dabtt, H. 519, IL; A. & G. 328. 
lUa, i.e. , of the family of IIus. one of the founders of tlie Trojan line ; Rbea 
Silvia is generally given as ber name. 

275. lupat—laetut : " proudly rejoicing in the tawny covering of the she 
wolf that nursed him." H. 416; A. & O. 245. 

276. ex<^plet: " i|)j^t receive by succession ;" cp. iKS€X'(r9at..—Mavortia. 
Mars (old form Mavott, Mamers) was the patron deity of iiome, and uni- 
versally worshipped by the Italian people The word is trom mar, maf, 
"to grind" or "crush." He is identifled with Thor Miolni.', i.e.," Thor, 
the smasher," of Norse iiiythology. 







S7S. NMto* nrutn : fhe ineMiing ii that Rome shall baTe a unlvenal 
and an efotnal empire. 

270. 9u<n— of»(ne; "nay even." Distlnguish the meanings of quin 
when UMd wlu the indic, the sabj., and the imper. 

281. eoruiUa'-r^/kr$t : " shall amend lier plans.' 
ing rif$rtf riftrt. 

Distingulsh in mean- 

282. toffotam. The Romans had the toga, or " gown," as their chAracter- 
istio drtt$: as tbe Oauls liad the brtuoiH, or "trews;" the Oreeks the 
IKiUiun», or " doalc.'' Henoe gtna togata >- Jloiitimi : gtm hraixata^-OaUi : 
gen$pauiata <— OraeeL As the toga was the civil gown (in contradistinction 
to eagum, the military doali), Vergil may tefer here to the civil greatness 
of the Romans as he may refer to their military prowess as loras of the 
world (rnnm dominot). 

283. sio placUum, scil, miAt ett^tie plaeuit : "such is my pleasnre," 
H. SOl.l : A. SlQ. 146, N. : hutrit lahentibu» : " as the years glide by," 
abl. abs —luatrum, properly the period between two successive puriflca- 
tions (lu, " to wash ^). After the eentor had completed his enumeration 
of the people (censua), wbich was done every ftve years, an expiatory 
sacrifice (luttrum) was held. 

284. domue Attaraci : " the line of Trc^ .' The family of Aeneas is 
meant, being desoended from Assaracus (see table, p. 25). Phthia : a dls- 
trict of Thesiialy, in^which was situatea Larinsa, a town, whore Achilles 
and Neoptolemus were bom. — Mycenaa : the royal city of Agamemnon, 
near Argos. A reference is made here to the subjugatiOn of Oreece 
in 146 B.C. 

285. vietia — Argis : "shall lord it over conquered Argos." Onlyinlate 
writers, dominor govems a dat. or genitive. In-^^.-best writ^ it is cnn- 

' strued in tUiquem, or in aiuiua re. For dat, H. 385, 1. ; A. ft O. 227. 
Decline Argia. 

286. origine : abl. origin, H. 415, II. ; A. & O. 244, a. Caeaari.e. Auguatus. 
His proper name was C. Octavius Thurinus, but by the will of his unc!e, 
C. Julius Caesar, he was made his heir, and consequently took the name, 
C. Jtiliua Caesar, adding Oetavianu^, his owu gentile name. Aagustua 
{revered) was bestowed on him by the Senate and the people, 27 B.C. 

287. qui—terminet : subj. of purpose, H. 497, 1. ; A. & O. 317.— Oceano, 
abl. mectns. 

288. caelo. Augustus in his lifetime was wnrshipped as a deity. (Hor. 
Od. 3.5.3.)— Orientts onuatum. The reference is probably to the restoration 
of the staudards taken from Crassus at the battle of Carrhae, B.C. 53. 
These were restored, B.C. 20. Others thlnk the poet refers to the retura 
of Augustus after the battle of Actium, B.C. 31.'- 

290. hic quoque, i.e. Caesar, aa well as Aeneas. 

292. caTia: "untamished." The Romansoften exaltedabstract qualities, 
as Pvdor, Fortuna, &c., to the rankof deities. The return of the golden 
age is here prophesied. 

293. jura dabunt: "shall impose laws." — dirae portae: "the gates of 
war grim with olosely welded iron bars shaJl be elosed. "—/erro et com- 
pagibu8=ferrati8 compagibu^, by hendiadys. The reference is to the- 
closing of the tl^mple of Janus either in B.C. 29 or in B.C. 25. 

294. impiua: "unholy," as the cause of the civil wars of the Ronians. 
These three lines are said to deseribe a picture by Apelles representing 
War fettered with chains or a statue of Mars exhibiting the god bound 
with chains and seited on a pile of arms. 


a unlvenal 
ags of quin 

[sh in mean- 

ilr character- 
) Oreeks the 
eata^Oalli : 
Til greatnees 
loras of the 

y pleasnre," 
ps glide by," 
ive puriflca- 
,n expiatory 

r Aeneas is 
ithia: adis- 
iore Achilles 
I of Qreece 

Only in late 
urs it is con- 
. « Q. 227. 


his unc!e, 

the name, 



r.— Oceano, 

lity. (Hor. 
B.C. 53. 
Ithe retum 

[he golden 

gates of 
lo et com- 
lis to the. 


NOVMk' 41 

295. vinetu», toU., numu», implied in pott tergutn: "with his handa 
bound behind hto b«ok." 

297. Mttia MnUwn : H. 416, II. ; A. ft G. 244, a. Meroury was son of 
Juppiter and MAl», the daug^ter of Atlaa. 

298. utpatemnt : H. 496, 1. ; A. A G. 881. 

800. areeret : B. 497. II. ; A. ft G. 817. The historio present may take 
in form a presint vubj. (pateont) or an imperfeot in respeot of sense 
(arceret) : H. 49», II. ; A. SQ. 287, e. 

301. remigio alarum: "by the oarage of his wings." Cp. Aesohylus, 
Ag. 52 ; nrtpvyuv ip9Tjtoiirtv ifttw^iiwoi. The wings bi the oap (petaau») 
of Mercury and of his sandals (ttUaria) are aptly oompared to a 8hip'8 
banks of oars. 

802. faeit—ponunt : note the shnultaneous order and result. 

308. tMente 4»o ^" 9tov $iKovTOf : "sinoethegodwilledit."— tn t>r£m<«— 
benignam : " moBt ot ai\ does tbe queen reoeive a peaoefnl disposition and 
friendly mind towards the TKrians." Dido is represented as receiving 
these feelings from Meroury. Distinguish animus '^ 9vn6t, the soul as 
seat of the feelings ; mens => ^pijv, the mind as the thinking f aculty. 

305. volvens, soil., in animo : " revolving in his mind." 

306. lux alma : " the kindly light."— «xtVe, govemed by comtituit. 

307. vento : " by stress of weather. "— ora» : explanatory of loeo» : govemed 
by ad in aceeeeetit : H. 886.3 ; A. & G. 170, a, 1. The subj. is used in in- 
direot question : H. 529.1 ; A. & O. 334. 

309. exacta: either (1) "the resultof his enquiries;" exigere, is some- 
times used in the aense of, "to enquire :" ao examen '' exag-men, "the 
beam of a balance," or (f) = r«l wmnpaffttit^ : " tite report of what he did." 

310. in convexo nemMrum : " within a vault of woods" i.e. " within the 
vaulted woods," the woods which overhung the cliffs were formed into a 
cave by the aotion of the waves. 

31L daaeem — olamam—oeeuUt = claeeem elaueit et oeeulit : see uote 
V. 69. 

312. c&imtattis : fordeponents used passively : H. 231.2 ; A. JcG. 135, b. — 
Achate : H. 415, 1., 1 ; A. & G. 248. 

313. bina : " a p»ir :" H. 174.2.4) ; A. & G. 95, d.—ferro : abl. of quality : 
H. 419, n. ; A. & G. 251. 

314. cui mater aese tulit obvia : "to meet him his mother advances." — 
cui : H. 391.1 ; A. & G. 228, b. — obvia. poetie for obviam : H. 443 ; A. & G. 
191.— media—silva, local abl. : H. 425.1 ; A. & G. 254. 

315. os habitumque : "the locdt aod dress." 

316. vel — Harpalyce : & condensed mode of saying, vel (talis virginis) 
qiialis Threissa Harpalyce {est quum) fatigat equos: "or (of such a 
maiden) as the Thracian Harpalyoe (is when) she out-tires the steeds." 
OthevB takefmtigat: "presses sore," 

317. praevertitur Hebrvm: "outstrips the Hebrus." For the case : 
H. 386.3 ; A. & G. 170, a, 1. Some editors object to the reading Hebrum : 
because (1) it is no proof of swiftneffl to outstrip a river in speed ; (2) the 
river Hebrus is not a swift stream. They propose to read Etnrum. 

318. umeris: dat. or abl. — de mxire, scil., venatricum: "after the 
manner of h.xaitre9seB."—habilem^v&natTix: "the huntress had slung a 
light bow." The bow and sometimes the arrows were carried in the bow 
case (YwpvToc) and slung over the shoulder. 

319. lUffundere : H. 533, II., 2 ; A. & G. 331, g. 



320. geitu : B. 878 ; A. ft O. 240, o,-^nodoque—JluMte» : " wltb her flow< 
ng folds oolleoted in a knot :" H. 878 ; A. A O. 240.1, o. 

821. tnonstrate: " point out where she is." 

822. quam : when is quie used for aliquiel H. 456.1 ', A. k 0.^105, d. 
828. maculoeae—lyneie : cp. Eur. AIo. 570 : fiaXiairt Xtiy*et. 

824. aut—prementem : " or with a shout olosely followlng the flight of 
the foaming boar," opposed to errmUem, scil., perMvae: "sauntering 
(through the woods)." 

825. eic Venue, sdil., loqwitur. — oretu, sil., eet, from ordior. 
m. mihi : H. 3^.1 ; A. k O. 282, a. 

827. mem^em : sabjunctive of doubt : H. 484, V. ; A. dc O. 268. 

828. hominem — humanum eonat, a lcind of cognate aco.: H. 871, II., 
N.; A. &0. 237 «5. 

820. Phoebi eoror, i.e., Dia,n&.—eanguinis : partitive genitive; H. 897; 
A. dc O. 216. 

380. eie: H. 483 ; A. & O. 2ffl.—felix: " propitious."— {eva« : disting. 
Ufvee, livee.—quaeeumque, scil., ee. 

JS31. tandem: cp. 4^to: "pray." 

335. Venue, scil., loquitur. — equidem : " 'tis true, I consider myself 
worthy of no such Ihonor :" H. 421. N. 2 ; A. & O. 245, a. She refers to the 
honor of being addressed os a goadess or nymph. 

337. purpureo — eothumo : the purple buekin was wom high and gener- 
ally by hunters, horsemen, and actors. 

338. Punica : also Poenica : cp. munire, moenia. For the dropping of 
the h, see Papinon's Comparative Philology : p. 82. 

330. Libyci. The original Karthaginian settlers did not throw ofl the 
yoke of the Libyan tribes till about the age of Cambyses of Persia, i.e., 
530 B. C.—genus : in apposition with the noun implied in Libyd. 

340. imperium—regit : "holds the sway," not " rules over the domain." 

3il. longa — injuria : "tedious would be the tale of wrong :" H. 476, 5 ; 
A. k O. 311, c. 

342. ambagee: " details ;" lit. : "roundabout ways:" " ins and outs."— 
sed—rerum : " but I shall relate in order the main points of the story," 
eequar = persequar. summa—fastigia = capita. 

343. Suan this line ; also line 258. la there aiiy word varying in quantity 
in these two Wnesl—ditiseimu^ agri: "richestin land;" H. 399, 3; A. & 
O. 218, c. As the Karthaginians were not an agricultural, but a commer- 
cial, people, some propose to read auri for agri. Vergil, however, is de- 
scribing Sychoeus, as he would describe a Koman of his day whose chief 
wealth consisted in land. 

344. et—amore : "and beloved with great affection by the hapless (wife):" 
for the sum of miserae : H. 388, 1 ; A. &; O. 232, a. 

345. intactam : " a maiden :" cp. aOiKTOi. primiequ^ — ominiims : "and 
had united her in the flrst rites (of wedlock)."— JMjo : as ^evywfit is often 
applied to wedlock : cp. conjunx, trvivi. 

346. ominibus : the consultation of the omens was regarded of great 
imporiance before the celebration of the marriage rites. Here the words 
are put for marriage rites.—Tyri : local genitive. 

347. scelere : H. 424 ; A. & O. 253. ante alios—omnes = major quam 
alii omnes. 

/348. quos—furor : " in the midst between them a feud came." 


with her flow- 

O.^lOft, d. 


g the flight ot 
" sauntering 


: H. 871, II., 

tive ; H. 397 ; 

m« : disting. 

isider myself 
i refers to the 

:h and gener- 

e dropping of 

ihrow off the 
Persia, i.e., 

ihe domain." 

H. 476, 5 ; 

»nd outs."— 
the story," 

' in quantity 
?99, 3 ; A. & 

a commer- 
^ever, is de- 

rhose chief 

|le88 (wife):" 

: "and 
^ixi i8 often 

of great 
the words 

ajor quam 



849. impius : referring to hki diiregard for hii sitter or f or th« pteoe, as 
well a« to nis treaohery. 

360. teewnu «morvm : " rMrardleM ( m — tim, ewra) <A his sifter*! af- 
fection ;" H. 8M, 8 ; A. Ac O. tiA. Distinguirii , tieurit, «Amrf*. 

852. mtUtu — maU, by enallage : " wiokedly." 

868. M<f ipta : the idea is : " but 'twas in voin that he deoeived her, 
for, tK."—ipta : " of its own aocord :" op. avrit — nMiiurtt.—ii^umati : 
" unburied :" this may aocount for the unrest of the shade. 

366. nudavit : a leugma : " he revealed the cruel altars. and ehewed his 
heart pierced with the iword."— <ioinuc acelue: "the crime done to the 
f amily. " What lcind of genitive ? 

367. eeUrare : H. 686. IV.; A. & O. 331, g.—patria : H. 414, N., 1 ; A. & 
O. 243, a. 

368. auzilium viae in apposition with thesauros. 

369. icnotum pondus : " untold mass :" lcept secret and apart from the 
rest of his wealtn. 

360. fugam^parahat : " Dido began to prepare for flight and to collect 
companions." With socios, parabat = comparabat. 

362. pelago : abl. of space moved over : A. & O. 268, g. 

365. devenere locos, i.e., deoeneread loeos: "they reaohed a spot :" de- 
venire : cp. «ardycii', to come from the high seas to land : opposed to 
conscendere, vs. 381 : cp. dvdycii'. 

367. Construe: mercatique (sunt tantum)solum — quantum, &c.: "and 
they bouffht (as much) land as they were able to surround with an ox 
hide." Tne Phoenician name for a fort is Bursa (Hebrew, Bosra). It is 
probable that the conf usion 6f the Phoenician Bursa with the Oreek fivpva 
gave rise to the story, according to which the Phoenicians cut up the hide 
into thongs aud so surrounded a considerable portion of gro\ind.—possent : 
virtual oblique narration implying the terms of agreement: H. 528, I.; 
A. & 0. 341, c. 

369. qui, soil., estis. 

370. quaerenti vocem : "as she asked, he sighing and drawing his voice 
deep from his breast answered in these words :" with ille, scil., respondit. 
Witn quaerenti, scil., illi, i.e., Dido. 

371. si—peraam : " if going back, I were to tell thee the story in full 
from the very beginning." With repetens or pergam, scil., supply famam. 
For subjunctive : H. 509 ; A. & O. 307, b. 

373. vacet, scil., tibi: "you have leisure." — annales: properly the an- 
nales libri were "year books" recounting the events of each year, and 
were kept by the chief offlcer» at Rome : hence, the story of events, gen- 

374. ante—Olympo : " ere (I had flnished my tale), the evening star 
would lay the day to sleep, closing (the gate of)heaven : "ante = ante 
finem annalium: "liehold the end of my tale." Vesper: cp. eantpoi, 
i.e., fco-7rc^o«: root vas, "todweil,"as the abode of the sun : cp. Eng.: 
west. — Olympus, a high mountain (now Elimbo) in Thessaly, the dwelling 
place of the gods according to Homer, afterwards often in the poets used 
as a conventional term for heaven. 

375. Troia join with vectos: H. 412, II.; A. & O. 258, Bi.—per aures : i.e.,' 
has been heara of by you. 

376. diversa: either (1) "various," or (2) "distant," i.e., far separated 
f rom each other. 






// ^*>^ 



■ii lii |22 
£f Ufi 12.0 


■ 1.8 












' V 



WEBSTH.N.Y. 143«0 












877. /Qfte «iia : "by ito own oluuioe :" Le., by mere aooident : fw»^ only 
here tued m a subataatlve. 

878. «ufi»— notiw: thia vainglorious method of announoing one's aelt 
waa oommon amoiijr the anoienia : cp. Od. 9, 19 : ctfi' '0<w9tv« Aacprutti|«, 
oc ira9i MXoivt 'AnvpwvoMr» ^Aw, «at ficv itKivi oipavo¥ tKCt.— ropto* «X 
hotU : " reaoued from the mlott of the foe." 

880. quaero—mmmo : "I am aoeking Italy and my raoe (desoended) 
from Jove on hig^" With mmu, aoil., ortum. Dardanua, the founder 0« 
the Trojan line, aon of Jttmter aad Electra, originally oame from Italy> 
Aeneiw seeka Italy to re-estabUah hia iine in ita anoient seat 

881. bia dmi» : the diatributive. raMier than the oardinal, ie uaed because 
ten are reokoned. eaeh Hme : H. 174, 2 ; A. A O. 95, o. eonscendi : " I 
climbed," aa the sea seems to riae aa it reoedes from the shore : or simply, 
" I embarked f cp. note on vs. 385. Cp. Monris (Ufe and Death of Jason): 
" And swiftly Ajrgo elimbed eaoh ohaaging hill, And ran through rippling 
valleys of the sea." Cp. &vm.yttv. 

882. morutrante : i.e., fc^ a star Aeneas was led to Italy, Aen. 2, 801. 

388. ipee, oppoeed to the shipe.— i^iTnoetM : " unknown " to the inhabi- 
tants, far from f riends, as he was well known by report : vs. 879. 

884. The referenoe to the three oontinents fi^ves dignity to the story. 

385. plura querenUm : "beginning to complain furtoer :" conative part : 
H. 467,6; A.ftGl276,b. 

y387. haud earpie : "not an object of hatred, I wean, tothe power above 
^ou breathe the vital air inasmuch as you have come to the Tynim city."— 

Join haud withtntiftMr. The meaning is, it is by heaven's wiU that you 

have reaohed here. 
y 388. qui advenerit : H. 517 ; A. ft O. 820, ^.—urbem, i.e., ad urhem. 

389. perge modo : "only go on." C!onJugate pergo. DiHtinguish mddd, 

390. namque—nurMo : " for I announce to thee the r^tum of thv com> 
rades and the recovery of thy fleet." Make redvMs predioative with e$«e 
understood. Dtetinguish rgdHees, rMHeee. 

891. et—aetam : " and bome into a safe (place) by the shifting winds." 

892. ni » nisi—fruetra : " in voin," disappointed hope of the subject : 
nequidqtiam : " to no purpose," refers to tne nulUty in which the thing 
has ended. — augurium : {avie, a bird, ^ar—" to chatter :" hence Yiwivctv, 
garire, properly an omen from the Ttote» of birds, but often used lor an 
omen from any souroe ; auyneium (avia, a bird and «pee— to see) omens 
from the flight, or from aii inspeotion of the entrails of birds. —vam : 
"deceivers,'°i.e. impostors. 

893. Venus here gives tidim^ of the missing ships f rom the omen of the 
swans, her favorite birds. "i^ere are twelve swans as there were twelve 
missing ships. Some of these swans already settle on the land (t^rra» 
capere), others are on the point of settUng on the land already oocupied 
(captos despeetare) : so the ships either now oocupy the haven (portum 
tenet) or are entering it (subit) with fuU asAl.—Metantes agmine : "in 
JubUant order." 

394. aetheria—eaelo : "whioh the bird of Jove, swooping from the 
region of the sky, Uirew into oonfusion in the open heaven '. plaga : H. 
428, II. ; A. A O. 248, o. Distinguish plaqa, pldga.—^ovis eUes — aquila.— 
aperto eaelo : abl. piaoe : cp. ii ipu/iiiov at9<pof . 

396. avP—videntur : "they seem in a long exteiided row either to be 
ohoosinff the ground or to be gasing downwards on the ground already 
(iam) chosen.'* 


. I. 

ent : fwt^ only 

!ing one's self 
Mt.— roptpt «« 

« (descended) 
tiie f ounder <^ 
le from Italy' 

oofMoendt: "I 
re : or simply, 
atii of Jaeon): 
ougli rippUng 

\m. 2, 801. 

to the inhabi* 

I the 8tory. 

3onative part : 

B power above 
!yrikn city."— 
wiU that you 

%A urhvm. 
nguish m^, 

1 of thy com- 
tive with «Me 

ing winds." 

the subject : 
ich the thing 
snce yiM>v«(v, 
\ used lor an 
» see) omens 
>ird8.->t»m' : 

omen of the 
were twelve 
land (torrew 
tdy occupied 
ven (jpmtum 
igmine: "in 

ig from the 

*^ plaga : H. 

- aquila. — 

either to be 
und already 


43 r^' 

S/m. ut—dedtr» : "as these retaming qiort wlth whlrring ptaUoni end 
gUd the pole with theihr ciroUiw floek, and give forth their soaf ." Ihe 
swans were flrst e catt er s d by we bird oi Jove (as the ships havt baen by 
the storm) ; they have now united, and with whiaiing wings Mid sonff ttiey 
desoend to earui. It appears that these words should naturally c(mie 
after eaelo.—aH$ : distinguish ala, a wing ; perma, the larger and huder 
f eathers of the wing ; pluma, the nnaller and softer feathers of the boqy.— 
cinxere—dedere : the perfeots express oompleted action.— €an(uf ; th» 
absence of fear, perf eot security, is desoribed. 

899. tuorum for tua, for the salce of variety. 

400. suMt ottia : "are making an entrance f H. 886.8 ; A. dt O. 228, a. 

401. perge modo : " do but onwards go." 

402. averteru : "as she tumed away :" H. 549.1 ; A. & O. 292. roeea-^ 
refuUit : " she shone with her rosy neck :" i.e. her rosy neck shone forth to 

403. ambrotiae—comae : cp. iiifipoirim x**rai Hom. II. 1.629 : " im 
mortal locks." In Homer ambroHa is conunonly applied to the food ot 
the gods; but is also used for ointment and perfume. 

404. veetie : in vs. 820 she was dressed as a huntress. She now appears 
in the flowing robes charaoteristic of a goddess. 

405. et—dea: "andbyhergaitsherevealedthetruegoddess:" inceetm, 
and ineedo are often applied to the dignifled gait of we gods : op. vs. 46. 

406. adgnovit : distinguish in meuiing : adgnoeeo, eognoeoo, ipnoeeo. 

407. tu quoque: i.e. you as well as Jrmo.—faleis imaginibue: "by 
empty phantoms," i.e. by assuming disguises. 

409. audire — voeee : " to he«r and reply in real words f i.e. words with- 
out disguise. 

410. talibue, scil., verbie or voeibue : "in such words :" H. 441.1 ; A. dc 
G. 189, h.—ine'iieat : (in, causa), " he chides her." 

>>^1. aere : with aer : cp. di}p, the misty air near the earth, " a doud," 
distinguished from aether : cp. at^p, the brlght air above the clouds. 

412. dreum—fudit ^ dreumfudit : by tmesis : for oonst. : H. 884.2 ; 
A. tt G. 225, d. — What other construotion may be used? 

418. molirive moram : " or to plMi a delay." 

415. Paphum : Paphoe, in Cyprus, was a noted seat of the worship of 
yenvM.—aublimie : " nloft in air." 

416. templum (eet) itti.—eentumque JuUant: "and(where) a hundred 
altars smoke with Sabaean frankincense, and breathe with the f ragrance 
of garlands ever fresh." Cp. .Paradise Lost, IV., 162: "Sabaean odors 
from the spicy shore of Arabie the blest." 

418. corr^ftuere viam: "they hastened on their way." Here via and 
eemita are not distinguished : generaily via is " a liighway ;*' »emita(ee 
meare), " a by-path." 

410. qui~imminet : " which hangs with its mighty mass over the city :" 
H. 468.5 ; A. & 0. 200, d. ^" 

420. advereaeque—arcee : " and loolu down from above on the opposing 
towers." This may mean that the towers rise up to meet the mountain 
which gar«8 down upon them, or that they are over a valjey and so 

421. m4}lem : to Aeneas, the oity is a heap, a masB, of buildings, for he 
gazes from a dietanoe.—magalia quondam : " once a cluster of huts.'.'— 

! •': 


P. yER01|.I MAK0NI8 AKTilDOR, LIB. I. 

vMgaKa \» uiA to be a Phoenioian wofd Applied to "hute." In some 
plaoes it meuw, " the suburbe " of KarChaii. 

422. ttnmitumque: "»nd the hum," ol! the thronged streete.— «(ra(« 
viarum : "the p»ved streete f cf». opaca vtarum : H. 807, N., 4 ; A.kQ. 
216, b. 

428. inatant-murot : " the eager Vjrriana ply their trade, some tn oarry- 
insr on the waUs :" R. 688, 1., 1 ; A. A Q. 3fll.—pars in app. with Tyrii.— 
dueere muro$ : cp. ikavvt\¥ toIxop. 

424. , moUri : " to build," with the idea of the mavnitude (mo^) of the 

426. partoptare, eoil., in^nt: "some (ply their woi^lt) fai selecting a 
site for their dwellinge and in marldnff it out with a funrow." The plough 
doee not eeem to have been ueed for nngle dwellings. The poet in teetum 
means the portion of the city eelected for habitation, bi opposition to that 
chosen f or military purpoees. 

426. jura—eenatum : "they apppint laws and choose magistrates and a 
reverend senate." Verfril is here thinkinff of the custom prevalent amongr 
the Komans in the establishhiient of colonies. There is a zeut nm in te/ntn t : 
i.e., the construction iajura eonatituunt magittratusque legnnt. 

427. the^rie. Others read tAeatro. There is ani^iachronism here. No 
theatre was built even at Athens till 500 B.C., and no permanent theatre 
was ndsed at Rome till B.C. 68 ; no one of stone till 66 B.C. 

429. rvpitnu exSlurU : "quarnr from the rock :" H. 414, N. 1 ; A. & O. 
258, a.— Distinguish: <Ue6rd, eUMrd, deeorA. 

480. qualie—labor : the full oonstruction is : (teUie ett) labor (eorum) 
quali» exereet ape» nova aeetate suib sole per Jhrea rura : "(suoh) toil (is 
theirs) as engages the bees in early summer 'neath the sunshine throughout 
the flowery fields." The hive awakened from its torpor by the warm sun- 
shine of spring displays unusual activity. 

481. eum—/etus: "when they leaid out the full-grown young of their 
race." — Distinguish idHeo, iduco. 

482. Distinguish ttquentia, llquentia. 

433. stipant: "pack :" cp, vrtipn. 

434. venientum » venientium : H. 168, 2 ; A. & O. 87, d. — agminefofito : 
"in martial array."— ^naottm(m, gnavus <- j/itaru«. connected with nosco), 
" unskillful," i. e., " ]azy. "—praesepUms : give the alfferent nominatives of 
this word. 

486. /ervet opus : " hotly goes on the work :" with ferveo : cf. StpFt» : 
Oer. dorren : Eng. dry. 

438. su^frieit : " looks up to :" he has now got done to the bottom of the 

439. dictu : H. 647 : A. & O. 303. 

440. viris : H. 386, 8 ; A. & O. 248, a, R.—neque—uUi : "nor is he visible 
to anyone :" H. 388, 3 ; A. & O. 232, b. 

441. laetissimus umbrae : "most luxuriant in foliage :" H. 399, III.; A. 
dc O. 218, c^ 

442. quo—loeo : inverted attraction, H. 446, 8 ; A. dt O. 200, h.—primum 
signum : " the iPrst sign," i. e., of rest from their toils. 

444. aeris: "spiiited," a token of their bold and active disposition.— 
nam sic, sciL, monstrarat : "for thus had she pointed out." 

445. faeilem vietu : may mean either (1) "rich in provision," or (2) "easy 
of maintonance." For the supine : H. 547 : A. Jk O. 303. The horse points 


In 8ome 

S., 4 ; A. ft O. 

some tn oarry- 
with Tyrii.— 

(mol0s) of the 

n seleotingr a 
' The plough 
toet in teetum 
Mition to that 

istrates and a 
valent amongr 
rnttin fe/mnt: 

smhere. No 
inent theatre 

r. 1 ; A. & O. 

%bor (eorum) 
e throughout 
le warm sun- 

nng of their 

minefacto : 

with noseo), 

minatives of 

cf. 0epFw : 

tttom of the 

18 he visible 

99, III.; A. 



or8e pointe 




to warlike proweas, and wealth, probably beoause the cavaby were sup* 
plied by the nobility, and formea an important part of the Karthaginian 
araa^. The horae was an emblem of Athens also. 

«{^'Me. SUonia <- Phoenima : Sidon was the parent oity 6f lyre, and for 
manyyearstheohief olty.of Phoenioia. 

447. donit—divae: a leugma, "rlch with gifts and fftvored by the 
presenoe of the goddese." nie two notionw are, however, cloeely connected. 

448. aerea—Umina : " whoae brawn threshold crowned the stepe :" lit. : 
"roee on etepe:" H; 425, N. 8; A. ft O. 268, t-^nestaeoue—irabee, scil.. 
gradibu» aurgtbamt : " and whoae door posts plated wilh hnm (orowned 
the Btepe). " traJbee are the door posttk— n«aMi« aere — aeratoie, plated with 
bnwB. Others read nixae (from nttor) and take trabee to mean the roof or 
the arohitrave and translate : " ''hoee roof was supported on brasen piliars," 
or " whose architrave was supported on Jambs of brass." 

449. In reading this line, note the frequenoy of r and » to express the 
80imd of the creaking doors.— /onfrti*— «witis : " the hinge creaked on 
doors of bronse. "—/OTM : cp. 9vaa : Emr. door. (7p. Milton'8 desoription 
of the grating noise of the opening of HeU's gates :— 

* On a sudden, open fly 
« With impetuous recoil, and Janinff sound 

Th' infemal doors : and on tndr hlnges grate 
Harsh thunder. 

452. aunts, soU.^ est : what verbs are semi-deponent l—rebue : dative : 
not for in—adJlietts—rebU8. 

458. luetrat : orisfinally appUed to tiie priest mir\fying the people evenr 
five years (luetrum)', then usedin the general meaniiw, "surveys:" H. 
4^, 4 ; A. ^ O. 276, e. 

454. dum, Join with miratur: "while he wonders."— «»f : dependent 
question : H. 529 ; A. & O. 384. 

455. artifieumque—miratur : " and admires the handioraft of the rival 
(inter se) workmen and their toilsome labors." What flg. in mantieJ in, 
operum Idborem^ 

456. ex ordine : cp. «(ctV : " in detaU." The question has been raised 
by Hevne, whether the poet meant to represent these battles as depicted 
in 8oulpture or in painting. The latter mode of representation would be 
more oonsistent with the ciistom of ^^rgU's own age. The poet transfers 
here to the Phoenicians, the practice of the Oreel» and Romans of his 
own time. 

457. jam : " by this tfane." 

459. saevum : in refraining from the war and hi kUling Hector. > 

460. noatri—labori» : "of our sorrows :" H. 899, 3 ; A. & O. 218, a. 

461. en Priamue. The ransom of the body (A Hector by Priam was a 
favorite subject among ancient artists (vs. 484).— «unt— toudt : " here, to6, 
has worth its own reward :" H. 449, 2 ; A. A O. 196, c. 

462. sunt—reruin: "(here) there are tears for woes:" H. 896, III.; 
A. & O. 217. 

463. fama, soil., Trojae. 

464. inanis : beoause the persons represented are now lost. 

466. uti » quo modo : see for the mood of fugerent : H. 529 ; A. & O. 
334. Pergatna eireum : anastrophe— with Pergama, cp. etyniologically 
mipyoi ; Oerman burg, berg ; Eng. -burgh -bury. 

467. hae, scU., parte : " in this quarter." 




468. eurru,in9taret: "punu«d them wlth his cmt:" euriru: abl. of^ 

MQ. nivei$ veU$: "with oaavaa whlte aa sirow/^-Hm anachronlsm,— «s 
the Homerio tenta («Aiatai) were plank» thatched with (praaa. The itory 
of Rhesus is told by Homer (II. 10.474). Rhaaus oame from Thraoe, aa an 
aUy of Priam, with the oraoular promise that sliould his steeds drinlc of 
the waters of the Xanthus, Troy would be impreffnable. Rhesus pitohed 
his tent noar the shore, was slain by Diomede ana Llysses, and his horses 
oaptured, and thus the fate of Troy waa foreahadowed. 

470.' pnmo tomno : either abl. (1) of time : *'in their Arst sleep," i.e. in 
their deepest sleep, or (2) of instrument after prodita : " beiKaguLiS ^*™ 
by their flrst sleep." 

472. ardenteaque—^uoa : "and he tumed aside iiis flery steeds." One 
MS. reads albentee, a reading sanctioned by Hom. II. ia487. in which 
the stwds of Rhesus are said to be : Acvx^cpot x^o^o*» Btinv t^aviiLw.9w 
&Motot : so Viri^ 12.84.— ecMera, scil., Oraeea. 

478. guttaesent — InbiseeM : the subJunctiv^ in virtual oblique narration, 
and Indicating tiie purpose of Diomede : H. 620, II ; A. & O. 827. 

474. Troilue : the death of Troilus is mentioned (H. 24.2S) as oocurring 
before the time of the aotion of the Iliad. Vergil may have derived the 
story from other souroes. * 

475. AchiUi : deoline this word. 

476. eurruque^inani : " and lying on his back clung to the empty oar." 
curru may be either oM. or dat. « currui. 

477. huie—terram: "both his. neck and locks are trailed along the 
ground :"— Auie : H. 884.4, N., 2 ; A. & O. 286, a. 

478. hatta : the spear of Troilus. 

r 479. non aeqtiae >■ iniquae : " unjust,", i.e. unprop itious . —Palladi» : 
from (1) ndkkttv, to brandish, i.e.*llll! ' ' TJhmdishor" bt VMb spear ; or (2) 
ir^AAal, "amaiden." . 

480. eriniXnu paaeie : " with dishevelled locks."— jMiw»» : from pando.— 
peplum : (wivkot), the saored shawl embroidered with figures representing 
mytiiol(nrical subjects was carried as an olferinff to Awene (Minerva) by 
the Athenian matrons in the public procession at tho Panathenea. Homer 
aiso represents a similar custom prevailing in Troy (II. 6.00). 

481. auppUeiter: " In suppliant gui8e."--tun0a« i^eetora : ".beating their 
breasts :" H. 878; A. & 0. 111., N., for the tense : H. 560, N., 1 ; A. & O. 
290, b. 

482. aversa: "avertingher face." 

488. raptaverat: Homer says that Hector ivas thrice chased round the 
walls ana dragged to the tomb of Patroolus. Vergil here follows probably 
some Cyclic poet or Tragedian. 

484. exanimum: "lifeless." What adjectives are heterocUtic? Some 
take exanimum » ita exanimatum : " thus made lifelesfli)^ as Venril seems 
to have represented Heotor as being dragged 'vhUe stiU alive at uie oar of 
AcliUles : cp. Aen. 2.273 ; Soph. Ajax 1080. 

485. ingentem: emphatio: "then truly deep was the groan he utters 
from the depths of his breast." 

486. curru» i.e. of AchUles. It may, however, mean the car of Hector, 
or of Priam. 

487. inermee : " unarmed," i.e. suppUant. 

488. priiusipibut : abl. : H. 419, III., 1.1) ; A. Jt O. 248, a, R. 

*• '• 

currut abl. of^ 

iftohroninn,— M 
«M. Theitory 
1 Thimoe, M an 
iteeds drlnk of 
Rhesus pitohed 
, Mid hit horaee 

it aleep," i.e. in 
MtKaxfifl^ him 

y eteeds." One 
D.487. in which 
tf tv Favdfkonnv 

lique namtion, 
}. 827. 

25) as occurring 
ive derived the 

the empty car." 
iled along the 

m.—Palladis : 
n spear ; or (2) 

from pando,— 
B8 representing 
le (lunerva) by 
lenea. Homer 

N., 1 : A. & G. 

tsed round the 
Ilows probably 

sclitic? Some 
8 Verffil seems 
e at the oar of 

oan he utters 

»rof Hector, 



489. SoM aciM : the Indlan AethiopiMii. The legendi ot Memnon and 
of the Amason* appear in poet Homeric poems, in lAtAt iiutpJi, Alfteir^ff, 
and other Cyclic poeme. 

490. hmtOia pelti» : " armed with moon%haped ihields f abl. oharaoter» 
istio : H. 419, II. ; A. A Q. Sfil. 

491. msdii»que—ardet : "and with oourage she glows tn the midst of 

492. aurea—ma',/>nuu''habena aurea eingula eubnexa exeertae ntam- 
mae : " having a golden irlrdle buckled on 'neath her exposed breast : ' for 
oase of tnammae : H. 386; A. ft O. 228. 

' 49S. bettatrix—virgo : note contrasted position : "a female warrior and 
she dares to flght with men,.though a maiden :" op. Homer^s 'AniiovtLt 

494. haee — videntur: "whUe these wondrous sights are seen by the 
Trojan Aeneas :" Aeneae : Oreek dat. »> ab Aenea : or " while these things 
seem wondrous to the Trojan Aeneas." 

496. t^utuqye—uno : " and remains iixed in oontinuous gaie ": for con- 
structioh dum : H. 619, 1.; A. k O. 276, e. 

496. /orma : abl. of respect : H. 424, IV. 1 ; A. ft O. 268. 

497. ineeuit : expresses the dignity of her walk : cp. ve. i6.—magna 
eaterva : " a great orowd of youttis thronging about ner :" op. etip<Uor, 

498. qualie—ehoroa : a condensed construction f or (taUe erat IHdo) quoHe 
(eet) Dtana (quum) exereet ehoro» in Eurotae ripi» aut perjuga Cynthi. — 
JHana here : elsewhere IHdna.—exereet ehoroa : "leads the danoe." 

499. quam : govemed by aeeutae. 

600. Oreadsa : from oreaa, a mountain (opoc) nymph. — iUa — humero : <^ 
iox^aipa, a« an Homeric epithet of Diana. 

601. grad.ienaqvie—omnea : "and as riie steps along, she o'ertops aU the 
(other) goddesses :" for aoc. deaa : H. 372 ; A. & O. 237, a. 

602. pertemptant : " pervade." Latona takes deligfat in the gloiy of her 
daughter, Diana. 

503. ae—/erebat: "Joyously sheadvanced." 

504. inatana--/uturia : " intent on her work and on the (glory of her) 
realms yet to be :" for dat.: H. 386; A. ft O. 228. 

5(^.' /oribua—teatudine : local ablatives. Temples, at least among the 
Oreeks, had generally three distinct parts : (l)the outer court (veatibulum, 
wp6va^H)', (2) the inner court (ceUa, va6t); (3) the treasury (theaaurua, 
9iwAvp6c). By /oribua is meant the doorway of the e^lla, or inner oourt, 
which here haid a vaulted roof (teatudo), resembling a,tortovie aheU. 

606. ormw •=• a^firmeUia viria.—MUoque—re9edit : ".i^ supported from 
beneath by a I<^ throne she took her seat." aolium (rt. aed, to sit), a 
high chair of state. — aUe » aUo, limiting aolio, rather than reaedit. 

bffl. jura — legeaqtie : cf. SCKifv, v6iiovi nOivat : jura dare was saidof a 
judge : legea dare was said of a lawgiver. Distingniah j'u« : what is Just 
and rigfat in itself or wfaat from any cause is bincUng (jungo) upon us : 
lex, tfae written (lego) statute or order. 

608. operumque — trahebat: "sfae divided into equal sfaares tfae toil of 
tfae work or cfaooees tiiem by lot." partibua : abl. of instrument or manner. 
— sorte trahebat : eitfaer for aortem uniua eujuaque trahebat, or rumina 
uniuseujusque sorte trahebtU. 




-M9.o(m<»«f«u— nMMno: either (1) abl. 6f «ocompanlinent i-* eiitn eon- 
«urm mitgno, or (2) abl. o( plaoe -i in coneuraw moffno. 

612. penittu: "tar away."— atwxemt : other readings are advexerat, 
averterat. For aoc. oras : H. 892 ; A. A.O. 287, d. 

dl8. pereulmu : " was struck dumb-" Others read peretutsus, 
b\A. Gvidi—ardehant «- ainde—ardM^nt : "they eageHy long/' by enal> 

616. dii»imulu,nt, scil.. laetitiam metumaue: "thev represB th eir Joy 
and lear/' Distinflruish aisHmulo, to conoeal an emetioh wnat Afltes exist : 
tim^tSTw exhibit an emotion what does not exiat.— et— ami0ft : "and 
ghrouded 4n a hollow cloud they see from a distance."— am<c(t : lit.': 
• • wrapped around " {amh—jaeio). 

617. liuae—viria, sciL, sit ; H. 62Q ; A. ft O. 884. 

618. navibu» «» ex navibue. . 

619. orantes veniam : " to pray for the favour (of the queen):" the prei. 
part here — oraturi : expressing a purpoae : H. 649.8 ; A. dk O. 292. 

620. corafn—fandi : " of speaking openly to you," with the queen. 

621. maximu», soil., aetate et dignitate. The calmness 6t the aged 
Ilioneus well bents his age. 

522. Twvam—nrbem: the word Karthofio means Mnew town^' probably 
being contrastei^.with the parent city of Tyre. 

. 623. justitiaque—superbas : " and with the restraint of justice to curb 
the haughty tnbes."— jtwfitia (from rt. yu^ = jug): ','that which binds 
states or communities together or that which restrains :" op. relligio. — 
gentes ; the Af rican peoples. 

624. ventis — vecti : " by the winds borne over all the seos." — maria : aoo. 
of thd spaoe moved over : H. 371, II.; A. & O. 257. , 

625. infandos == appijros : " unspeakable," i.e., horrible. 

626. propius: either (l)"more closely," or (2) " more propitioualy " =» 

627. populare = ad populandtim : a Oraecism. The inffai. often ex- 
presses a purpose in Oreek :,so also vertere. 

629. animo : elther (1) dat., after est omitted, or (2) local abl. = in 

630. Hesperiam : cp. Feairepia. The term Hesperia meanipg the 
"^estem land " wos applied to Italy by the Oreeks, and to Spain by the 
Italians. Spain wos called also uUima Uesperia. 'Eo-irepo? i.e. reo-ircpo( : 
from root was or vas, "to dwell :" vesper, Fmtv; Eng. toest; probably 
the oAode of the sun at nitrht. 

632. Oenotri : probably Oenotria, the poetic name for Italia, meant vtne- 
land (pivosi). Vergil makes Italus, king of the Oenotri. Thucydides (6.2) 
makes him king of the Siculi. The Lntiri Varro (R. R. 2.12) derives /foZia, 
f rom iraAoc vitultis,- a ox — as being rich in oxen. The probabilities are 
that Itali, Vitaii and Siouli are vaneties of the same wora. 

634. hic—fuit: "this(i.e. tothis land) was our voyage." The simpler 

reading hue is ffiven by some editors. 'This is the flrot of the flfty-efght 

lines left unflmshed by Virgil. Aocording to acoounts, Augustus gave 

nstruotions to Varius and Tuooa, the literary testators of the poet, to 

publish the Aeheid with the lined unfinishod. 

586.c«m— iOrton: "whensuddenly arising o'er the billows thestormy 
Orion."— j^utftu may be either a dat. or an abl.— Orlon iri Latin ; 'npioii' in 
Oreek. Orion rises about midsmnmer and sets early in November. 

B. I. 

ent « mm eon- 
are adveseerat, 


y lonjT," by enal* 

BDr eaB th elr Joy 
ivhat H&bH exiit : 
—amieti: "and 
,"— amtVft : llt.: 

leen):" the pres. 
& O. 292. 

the queen. 

)8s of the ayed 

town;" probably 

justice to ourb 
lat which binds 
" op. relliyio.— 

." — maria : aoc. 

>ropitiouuly " =» 

nfln. often ex- 

local abl. — in 

'■ meani^g the 

<o Spain by the 

i.e. Feanepof: 

wegt; probably 

ia, meant vine' 
nucydides (6.2) 
derives Italia, 
'obabilities are 

The simpler 
the flfty-eight 
LUgustus gave 
f the poet, to 

ws the stormy 
.tin ; 'Qpnuv in 




536. tulit, soil.. no».—penUuaque—auiitriii: "and far away by wanton 
inds." The sibilants well express the whlzzing of the wind. 

5.^7. euperante «ato : either (1) " the briny deep overpowering us," or (2) 
" the briny deep roaring high.^' 

638. pauei — orit: "only a few of us have drifted to your shorei."— 
paufi has a negative meaning. — ori» : H. 380.4 ; A. dc O. 226, b. 

630. barbara: hospitality was regarded as a sacred duty among the 
ancients, and rudeness to strangers.was a mark of barbarity puni^aDle by 
the vengreance of heaven. 

640. hospitio—harentte : " we are debarred f rom the weloome even of the 
strand," i.e. yre are not allowed even to land, a right whioh is given to ship> 
wreoked men. 

641. prima terra : " on the edge of the shore :" local abl. 

643. at nefandi : ' ' yet expect that gods are mindf ul of right and wrong. " 
/arkft— /i«/a^i ftre genitives of the indeclinable/rM— ni^a«<. 

544. ernt; Ilidneus supposed Aeneas dead.- quo~alter; "in Justioe 
second to none." 

• 646. pietate—bello — armi» : ablatives of respect. 

546. $i—aetheria : i.e. if he is still alive. 'iVhat verbd govem the abl. ? 

647. oceubat: "lies \oyf."—umbrig: local abl. : H. 425, II., 1; A. dc O. 

648. non metus, soil., est nobis. — oMdo—paeniteat : "nor are you likely 
to regret that you were the flrst to vie in an act of kindne8a."—paeniteat 
has nearly the foroe of a f uture. 

661. qua«aatam — ekusem : scil., nobis : " may we be allowed to land our 
fleet rooked by the winds." With iiubdu^sere naves : cp. avikMiv rdc vav«, 
opposed to deducere nave» : Ka&ikKtiv Tdl« vavt. 

662. et—remo8 : " and to flnd suitable planks in the woods and to fashion 
them into oaxa."—»ilvig : local &hl.--8tringere : to strip them of leaves and 

663. Italiam—tendere, i.e. ad Italiamr—iter tenderei "to pursae our 

554. ut, depends on liceat {npbi») deducere classem. 

556. »in : opposed to si, vs. 663, " but it."—Teuerwn : H. 62.8 ; A. & O. 
40, e. 

556. jam: " any longer." 

. 557. freta : distinguish : fr^a,frgta.—Slc&nias : elsewhere, SKcdni^te.'- 
gede»que parata» : " and abodes already built," i.e. the cities built by 
Acestes who was in Sicily as opposed-to those they expected to built for 

559. talibu», scil., verbi» dixit.—ore fremtbqM : " murmured their 
applause :" cp. en-ev^^/yii)crai/. 

661. ymltum : aco. of specifloation : H. 378 ; A. & O. 240, c. 

662. iolvite corde metum^^aolvite eorda metu: " f ree your hearts f rom 
tea,r."—»eeludite : "dismiss." 

563. reffni no9ita» =' regnum novum: "my vouthful realm." — talia 
moliri : " to take suoh a oourse," i.e. to prevent the Trojans from Ifuiding. 

565. Aene€idum : H. 49.3 ; A. ^ O. 36, d : a oomplimentary referenoe to 
their chief. 

566. virtute»; "theirmanly deeds." ' 



607. oUmw: " dullad/' by thelr own «aMiilfttaff. 

668. mm tam—urbe : Mm mwuilngs Menif to be that we we not to far 
removed from the pole of oiviUiatlon u to be ifnorant of the mraly deeds 
of the heroes in the Trojan wer. 

609. Satumia ttrva : Italy wm often oalled Satumia, loil., terra, the 
land of Satumus, the fouwr (from $atu$, $eroy. 

670. Eryei$ finee : " the reafan of Eiyx." Ery» % mountain (now, St. 
QuiUano) of westem Sioily, noted for a temple of Venua. Here dwelt 

671. auxilio iutoe, Kil., tiro$ : "(men) guarded by an eeoort." 

672. voUi$—reffni$f 8ome remove the interrogation marli, and plaoe a 
oraima. The Benie would then require n before tuUi$. 

jyt^. urbemr-e$t ; inverted attraotion — urb$, quam Hatuo, veetra e$t : 
/VL. 446.9; A. ft O. 200, b.— «uidttcite : "draw up on ehore;" op. kvifitw 
vav« oppoeed to dedueere navee, to launoh shipe : op. K«d^A<cf tv yavf . ^ 

674. agetur : either (^) - dirigetur, "Bhall be goveraed," or (2) "■hall 
be l«garded^ dii«e(ur,'^ or (8) '^shall be dealt with." 

676. utinam—aforet : what ii the foroe in the tenie here? H. 488, 1.; 
A. * O. 267. 

676. «9ttid0m: *' tm\y."—eerto$. loil., vtroi: "tried men," or "truity 
men," or — eretoe, "pioked men.'* 

677. Itti<rar0 : 'Ho icour :" lee note vi. 288. 

578. «<— errat: "toiee whether he wanden aboutf H. 629, II., 1; A. 
k O. 884, f. The aubj. would be the more common conitraction in proee : 
H. 609; A.ftO. 884, d. 

679. animum arreeti : " rouied in ipiriti :" H. 878 ; A. O. 240, c-^am* 
d«dttm^arde6an( : H. 469.2 ; A. ft O. 277, b. 

682. eententia: "purpoie." 

684. ttntti : i.e., Orontei, vi. 118. 

686. etrettD^ttia: "encircling." 

687. eeindit—apertum : " parti and melti into the open iky." With 
purgat, wdSL., $e from the eeindit $e. 

688. reetitit; "itrodeforth." 

689. 0$ um»ro$que : aoc. ipeciflcation : H. 878 : A. ft O. 240, c— tiam- 
otte— AonoTM : " for hii mother henelf had given her lon graceful flowing 
looki and the raddy glow of youth and impired his eyes with a Joyoua 
luitre." There ii a uugma in adfiaral—eaeeariee, long flowing hair (from 
eaedo, ai Kovp« from Ktip»).—purpureum : does not necessary mean mereljT 
" purple," but embraces all colors from scarlet to dark violet inolusive : lo 
alio wop^vpcof . t. 

602. qu4Ue—deeu$ : «- (taU) deeue (e$t) quale . . . ebori : " luoh ii 
hii beauty aa the crattBm«n:Mld fo ivory :" H. 446.9 ;^ A. dc O. 200, b. 

698. Pariue lapi», i.e., marble. 

694. euneti$, Join with improviKus : " unexpeotedly to all." 

696. eoram : "before you." The sudden announcement of Aeneas ii 
paralleled by the declaration of Ulysses : Od. 24, 321 : «ctfov iLivroi, o6' 
avT&« iy*t, irarcp, ov 9v iktrakK^^. 

M7. miserata ; diBtinguish mieeror, to express pity in words : cp. 
otKTctpciv, and mi»ereor,io feel pity in the heart : op. cAcctv. 

698. ^ttae— orbem: " thou who dost welcome us as partners in your city, 
in your home, a remnant esoaped from the Oreeks, now wora out by all 

. I. 

e an not M> far 
M niMily de«ds 

Mll., terrUf the 


lUdn (now, 8t. 
■. Here dweU 


rk, and plaoe a 

uo, vettra e$t : 
i;" op. a¥i.y9KV 

Mtl¥ fSVf. . 

" or (2) "■hall 
re? H. 488, 1.;, 
1," or "truaty 

529, II., 1 ; A. 
ction In proee : 

L 240, c.—jam- 

i 8ky." Wlth 

240, o.— nam- 
aceful flowing 
with a Joyous 
ing hair (f rom 
mean mereljT 
inoluaive : so 

)ri : " suoh is 
200, b. 

of Aeneaa ia 

/Of fJiivTOl oi' 

words : op. 

in your city, 
>m out by all 



our troublea by land and Ma, In n««d of all thlnn : 'tia not In our powar to 
pay you wortny thanka, O Dldo, nor oan all ttae raoe of Troy, aoattered 
irwhere throuirhout the world."— Danattm : lee vi. 80.-^im««— dofNO : 
ablatirea, witn «ocio*, eoiL, teeum or t^—gratet—opie : deollno. 

"7108. ei—i%umina: " If any deities regard the benevolent" Wheniiftti* 
uied for aliquief H. 466.1 : A. * G. IM, d.—ei quid^-e$t : "if Juetlce in 
any plaoe ia anvthlng."— Distinguish uequam and unquam. Another 
readlng iMjuttitiae. 

606. laeta: "blesaed." 

007. duMr-e%irrent : diitinguish dum with the Indic. and with subjuno* 
tive : H. 407.4, 618.1 ; A. * G. 276, e. Note : 814— dum—eoniwaMi : " whlle 
the shadowi ahall oourse along the ilope of the mountains. "—monM^ : 
dat. Qf reference : H. 384.4, 1 and 8 ; A. * G. 286. 

608. dttm— ^pa«00( : aooording to the anoient philoeophen (op. Luor. 1. 
281) the perpetual flre of the stan was maintained by the aetMr nflned 
f rom exlialations of the earth. « 

610. 9tta«— cttfn^tte ^ quaeeumque: tmesis: H. 686, V. 8; A. A O. 
page 298. ^ i^ 

611. In soanning this line, notioe that e in iI»on«a is long : H. 677.6 ; A. 
& O. 847.6. 

612. poet » poetea. — alioe: soil., dextra petit: "he grasps the right 
hand of othen.^' 

618. primo : adverblal. 

614. eaeu—tarUo ;, " at so gnat misfortune :" distinguish eaeue, a natural 
agent not the consequence of human calculation or or known causes : /o 
a kind of mythologioal being sporting with and thwarting human aflai 

616. V»» : not power, but " violence :"^op. $ia. — »mman»&tt»— or»« : "i 
age shores f H. 886.4.1 ; A. ft O. 226, b. 

617. Vergil hen nfen to the wild African tribes. Scan thls Une. Note 
that when flnal the vowel o is often left unelided (hiatue), It is in the case 
of proper names : cp. vs. 16 : so also Aen. III. 14 ; IV.667, et eaepe. What 
kind of a line is this? H. 608, II.; A. A Q. 359, e. 

618. alma: "fostering." 

619. Sidona : H. 880, II.; A. ft O. 258, b. Teucer, after the Trolan war, 
was expelled frojm Salamis by his father Telamon, and sought a home at 
CvpruB, when he built a seoond Salamis. He is hen npresented as stop- 
ping at Sidon to make terms with Belus, who was at that time master of 
Cyprus. — ventr« : H. 687, 1.; A. k O. 288, b. 

622. didone : " under his sway :" i.%. eub dieione or tn dieione. 

628. jam: "even." — catt«u«, scil. : "downfall." 

624. Pelaeai : " the Oneks," according to Oladstone, the Pekugi wen 
a pre-Hellenic race, and formed the base of the Onek army in the Trojan 

626. ipse hoetie : " he, though an enemy."—fereJMt : " us ed to extoL" 

626. se volebat : " would have it that he was spnpg :" distingulsh volebat 
and vellet in meaning. ' 

627. tectie : H. 386.4.1) ; A. & O. 226, b. 

628. per muUoe laboree join with jactatam.—8imUie : scil., tuae/ortunae. 



demum : " at length," not till now : denique, opposed to prtmttm, 
"flnally," "in short;" tandem: "at last," after many eflorts or dis- 
appointments : poetrem^ ; "last," in order of time. 



682. divum-4tonarem : "she prooUlmi In the templet of the godt • 
UieiriAc9."^indieit, » terhnlcal word for orderlng a reil|rlous obeervanoe : 
Cms. B. O. 7.90 : mitplieatui indieitur. 

033. nee tninu» tnMrea : often umcI In trMultlona ; nee mintu, Mlds llttlc 
to the foroe of interea.—aoeiia — ad eoeiot: a Greek d»tlve. 

034. nMffnof^*m~-*uum -^ inoffnoe horrentibue eentum tergie tuee: by 

9^. munera~-dei : " the iriftH and oheer of the god," i.e. Booohus. 

«iw?. at : nee note vs. 

038. aplendida, proleptloally uied — (eie) ijuitmitur (i«t) ej^endida (eity 
The atrtum in a Roman houRe octmpiea the c*«ntre and waa generally used 
for a dininir-rooni. The use of the present tenne givea anlmatlon to the 


030. arte—euperbo : " alcilf ullv wrousrht were the ooverlet* and of brlght 
purple."— fMfro : uroperiy the oIochI m the sea snall, whloh supplied the 
aneientfl with their rioh, purple dyes. 

040. caelata : "embotwed :*' i.e. on the goblets, vaies, iK., were oarved 
the deeda of their fathers. 

041. eeriee—gentie : " a very long, unbroken ohain of feata continued bv 
8o inany heroes from the early origin of the rac« :" a referonoe to the deeclH 
of the Tyriang. Vfu^l had here lii view the Konion cuatomi prevalent in 
hl8 own time. "' 

048. neque enimr-mentem : "for nelther did his love asa fatb|er suffer 
his mind to rest." * 

044. rapidum : " in haste," Joln with praemittit, although grammatically 
oonnected with Aehatem. 

046. ferat : subjunotive of oblique narration : oorresponding to fer in 
dlrect narratlve. 

040. etat: "centres." 

048. ferrejubet, soil., Aehatevi.—pallam, properly a long, seamless gar- 
ment worn by women over the ttiniea, corresponding to our gown or 
dress. — ew-nie—rigentem ^" eiffnia aureie rigentem: "staff with figures of 
gold :" a nendiadys. 

040. eireumtextum — aeantho : " an a veU fringed with a border of yellow 
acanthus."— vetoY/i«n : ^gpifeHvere conaidered a very important portion of a 
Roman lady'8 dress, and wereof costly material and exquisite workman- 
shi\i.—aeanth o : abl. of deaor iption : the aeanthue (rt. ak, "sharp"), a 
thomy shrub, now called bear'e foot. 

060. Myeeni» : abl. : H. 4.12, II. ; A. &; O. 258, a. Helen is mentioned In 
2.677- as coming from Mycenae, whereas she ^ally oame from Sparta, the 
royal city of Menelaus. Vergil confounds the city of Agamemnon with 
that of Menelaus. 

061. Pergama : the citadel of Troy is called Pergamm (n^pyafiof 17), and 
Pergama {nipyatLa), connected etyniologically with irvpyof, a tower; 
German burg, a town ; berg, a hill ; Eng. burg, bury : as Edin-bur^gr ; 
Edmnnds-bury.- incmicestme Hyinenaeoe : " unlawf ul wedlook :" soan this 
line : H. 608, V. ; A. & G. 369, f . 

068. eceptrum ; i.e. jubet Aehalem ut ferat aeeptrum Ilione was mar- 
ried to Polymnestor, tne treacherous king of Thrac^. 

064. tnaxima, soil., ntUu : give the other degrees of comparison.— coZIo 
monile : " necklace :" for the dative : H. 884, II., 1.8) , A.&Q. 236. 

I. 1. 

of the yodi » 
>ui obMrvanoe : 

inu», Mldi littlc 

tergit tust: by 


nptmdida {tity 

ffenerally uied 
nTmation to 

b« and of bright 
h lupplied the 

c, were oarved 

» continued by 
toe t<> the deedM 
ni prevalent in 

a father lulfer 


ling to /er in 

seamlen gar- 

our jfown or 

vith flgurei of 

rder of yellow 

it portion of a 

lite worlcman- 

••sharp"), a 

mentioned in 
m Sparta, the 
nemnon with 

yafiof ii), and 
)«, a tower; 

Edin-burg ; 

:" loan thii 

ne wai mar- 

riion. — colU) 



OftA. dupHottn—wmmani : probably a orown tormed by »olrolet of two 
rlnipi, one of fgtnw, and une nf ifuldL Othen lay of one rlng, and tranilate, 

' to execute promptljr 

*'a crown of Blendefl Keuii andifold." 

066. haec etkrant « ut haee etttriter tjottquatur : 
theie orden :" H. M9.8 ; A. A O. 290, a. 

Ofi7. ot : lee vh. 110. /aeitm—ora : H. 878 ; A. ft G. 240, o. /aoUt 
(trmn/aeio : the natural makt of the faoe : l.e., the oountenanoe ai expreM* 
ing emotion by the mouth or by the eyei. 

ora. dvnitqut—iffnem : "and bv Kifti influence the queen to fnncy, 
and iniinuste love'i flro into her neart."—/umiif«tit : proleptlc uie of the 
adjective : vi. 70. 

000. tuttihut : H. 886 ; A. A O. 228. otaihut, often uied for the leat ot 

001. auippt: lee note, vi. 30.— amM//tiam dfnnnm: *'the treaoheroui 
houie :^ literally, "ifoinif round abouf' (amb.. ai/o). -hilinffutt : "double 
tongued,'^' layintf one thing and thinking anotner, referring to the prover* 
biaTtreaohery of the Karthaginiani. 

wt,. urtf, loil.. «am eura: "haraHMei her with anxlety."— «uft nncttm: 
"at the approat^n of night :" op. vtrb vvKra. — rteurtat : "oft retumi." 

064. meae—nndm : i.e. {uui ««) tolut meae virtt, mta majna potentia : 
H. 800.2 ; A. Jc O. 241, o. 

606. patrit—temnit : " who doit deipiie the ioverai|rn father'i bolti that 
itruck Typhoeui." The giant Typhoeui wai ilain by the lightning of 
Jupplter. The poet here repreients the undying power of love. 

00& Humtna: "divineaid." 

^KI.' frater : Cupid and Aeneai were loni of Venui. ut — 9110 modo : 
"in what way :" introduoing an indireot queition after nota, loil., tuut. 

068. Snan thii line : H. 608, V. ; A. A O. 869, f. 

609. tuita : a Oraeciim for notum ett. 

670. tenet, loil., tum : "detaini him*" 

671. wreor—hotpitia : " I am anxioui how Juno'i w eloome may end :" 
dep endent queition ; J I. 629 ; A. dt O. 334r' " 

67^ naua—rerum, loil., Juno, from Junonia : " Juno ihall not be in> 
ootive at such a criiii," literolly " at luch a tuming point of affain :" H. 
429 ; A. & O. 269, a. 

673. quieirca — meditor : " wherafore I purpose to antioipate her by oraft 
and to surround her with (luch a) flame (of love)." The Romani borrowed 
many of their metaphora frora military airaira. 

674. ne — muiet : " that she niay not be ohanged by any influence," i.e., 
any power but mine, or "by the inflnence (of Juno) in any way."— «» 
mntet — mutetur : see note vs. 158. 

676. qua, loil,, rationt: aeeipe: "hear:" cp. da, "tell." 

677. accitu : " at the lummoni ;" H. 416 ; A. & O. 258. 

679. pelaffo—reetantia : " remaining from :" H. 414, IV. 1 ; A. tt O. 
343, a. 

680. sopitum — tomno: "ilumbering lound in ileep:" luoh pleonasmi 
are common. Note the alliteration. Decline Cythera. 

tacrata tede : " in a ooniecrated spot ": either grove or temple. 


682. msdiutve oceurrere : " or to interpoie to prevent it.' 
- obviam. 

Here mediut 



688. tu—dalo : "do you oounterfeit his looks tor one ni|^t, no more :" 
foroMoM noetem: H. 870; A^Q. 2M.—ampliut: U. 417, IV. 2; A. * 
O. 847, c. 

686. laetitnma : " at the height of her Joy." 

686. kUieemjue Lyaezim ; " the oups of Baochus."— fotex, poetic word. 
— Lyaeum : cp. Avator : cp. L»6er : " the one who frees (Av-) men from . 

68^ /aUaaque veneno, scil., eam: "and may beguile her with (love'8) 

680. Distinguish pdret, paret. 

690. exuit : "he duRB."—et—Juli : "and gladly he wallcs with the step 
of Iiilus": for inceseu : see note on incedo : vs. 46. 

691. at: cp. vs. llb.—A»eanio — inrigat: "shedjjike dew calm sleep 

o'er the limbs of Ascanius." i rrn - - -JQlflljCMlmftrrTirr - H. 384.4.; 

A. t3c O. 235, a. inrigat may refer to thetl&ws oi night or more probably 
to perspiration : cp. Shaka. J. C. II., 1 : "Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of 

692. fotumr—gremio : " her foiidl«njf in her lap." 

603. ubi — umhra : " where the soft majoram, breathing forth frogrance 
with its blossoms and sweet shade envelopes him." With adepirans, scil., 
odorem. ^, 

"glad in having Achates as a guide :" H.- 431 ; A. ft 

698. aurea . 

dvuse — Aehate 
O. 265, a. 

697. cum — locavit : "by the time he arrives, the queen had alre^ MJly be* 
neath-tb^^rioh-ourtoins takvn^her {dace on a go lden cooch aiid haa Hita^ 
tione d herself i i r ttiy- rj i ntM,;;' T*^^ Ma*.-.»^» p , pi)ny» ^ wna;; t:;S^ cumrmmmt- 
— If <UI'HIM( were read, cnen we should have had eompoauerat. — aulaeist 
maj^mean (1) " in a curtain," or (2) " 'neath a curtain ( » sub aulaeie), or 
i^ljr' with a curtain," i.e., contributing to the ease ot her position. 

^ AOfi /lu-Ko/o • i|, scansion (synizesis). — mediam : she as hostess would 

occupy the UMyim mediue of the lectus 
m^dtue. Vergil is evidently describ- 
ing hrre the customs ot the Romans 
ot his own day. At a Roman feast 
tliere were usually three couches. 
The room in which the feast was held 
was '^"Iled triclinium (rpets icAivai. 
The couches were arranged as in the 
annexed flgure, and were called by 
the names mmmm lectus, mediu» 
lectutf; imu8 lectus. There were usu- 
ally three guests on each, arcording 
to the custom that there should never 
be tewer than the number of the 
Graces, or more than that of the 
Muses. The plates ot each were styled (1) loctis medius, (2) locus summus, 
(3) locus imus. The host occupied (1) in medius lectus. 

700. disctinibitur : " they recline in their several (dis-) places ": H. 465.1 ; 
A. & G. 116, c. 

701. Cereremque—expediunt: "and serve out promptly the bread trom 
baskets." For the case ot canistHs : H. 414, IV. 1 ; A. *: O. 268, a. For 
Cererem : see note vs. 117. 

702. tonsique—villis : "and napkins with shom nap :" < a7ft«; abl.gualit v. 


Medius lectv^. 













gfit, no more :" 

17, IV. 2; A, k, 

X, poetic word. 
[Av-) men from 

jr with (love'8) 

8 with the step 

tew calm sleep 
rice: H. 384.4.; 
more probably 
jr-heavj' dew of 

forth fragrance 
'dapirans, scil., 

" H. 431 ; A. & 


lad alretwji y b e* 
h r a nd h i wFi ta- 
>r Ctt HI wii i»N rt . 
ierat. — anlaeU, 
<ub aulaeis), or 

hostess would 
iM of the lectus 
lently describ- 
)f the Romans 
i Roman feast 
ihree couches. 
feast was held 

(rpetf K\ivai, 
nged as in the 
irere called by 
ectm, inediu» 
lere were usu- 
ich, arcording- 
i should never 
imber of the 

that of the 
0CU8 aiimmWf 

e8":H. 465.1; 

e bread from 
. 258, a. For 





706. quibuB-rPenate* : " whoee oare it wm to furaiih In tum the lastlng 
store, and to wonhip toe Penates." — ordine ^ iv ii^pct, referrlnif to ttw 
divMon of the labottr.—fienuin, and Penatee are conneoted etymofogioally 
root PA or PAT : op. wivoikai, wiviit, utvia, u6vo9 : adolere Penatee may mean 
no more than to lceep up the flre for oooking. With adolere : cp. " ttmg' 
nify " in our ecclesiaatical writinfs. 

706. qui — onerent : su bjunotive of p urpoee. 

707. nec non et : the negaiives cancel each other, giving an affirmative 
sense : " moiyov er, too."- -limina p atria : syneodoche. 

708. ton$—pleiie '^•adcoenam eonvenire jueei. 

710. fUigranteaque — verba ; ' ' the glowing looks of the god and his f eigned 
words.'* Thi^ poet here transfers the looks and words of lovers to those of 
^e god of.Iove. 

712. infeliz Join with Phoenieeat—pesti—futurae : " doomed to her 
coming ruin." 

713. expleri mentem: "to satisfy her soul :" for case of mentem: H. 
378; A. iO. 240 o. 

715. ille—pependtt : " when he **""ir^j[!:!L„tih'' i"»^«^"«» «^n^ """'■^ of 
Aeneas:" abl. separation: H. 57SJ tVjTl; 
pendfHi: pendi —«•••«■ " 

716. et — amorem: "and kratified to the fuU^the affection of his 
tonded fattr'*- " 



llTniae&—1ia0ret ~: "she hangs on him with her eyes^ she (hangs on him ) 
with her wholehea rt:" cp. Tennysun'1 IjuulLsle^ Hall : " and 'K^r ef^TTni 
all my motf VtSU WitlTS mute observance huni 

719. imidat—deu» : " how dread ft fnri *'*^T*"ir *" — f^^" **"" '" i^e. is 
plotting aggiiiglly^yj^ wWHlhndere cp. inndiae 

720. paulatim : " tittleh y litt| y. " — Aindaliae : referring to the Acidaliaii 
spring, near Orchomenos, in Bbeotia, the haunt of the Graces. 

721. et — corda : " and he tries with a living affection to pre-occu 

soui longLsincf dftMl tn inva, and^ftbsftijtiQng magiptonifln ftn InYfi 



ipy a 

praevef^e : explained by some = praeoccupare. Oithem uke it to mean, 
" to surprise."— re»uie« : decline.— (fe«iieto, scil., amori. 

72S. poatquamr—epulia : acil., est or fuit. Decline epulis. Ylliat words 
in Latin are heterogeneous ? — remotae, scil. , mnt. The tables were literally 
brought in before the feast began and were removed after it was over : 
hence such phrases as mensam apponere, or opponerc, and meneam auferre 
or rem^vere. 

724. crateras—etatuunt: "they place the large mixers :" cp. II. VI., 
526 : xpaT^pa aTti<ra<r^ai, vina coronan,t ; " cyown the w in e." may mean (1) 
as in Homer^s Kpirr^paf iiretrTf^iiavro iroToto ; "thiey' Ml t o tlie brim the 
mixera with w^p^^' or (2) "they deck ^^"'^ligwlfl nf Wtffff^'"^^^^ or 
myrtTe wreaths, as was certainlj' don% Ih later times. 

725. fit — tectia ; " a hum arises throiujbautthe halls :" tectis = in tectis : 

H. 425.2, IV., 3; A. & G. 254, a vfcemqu^^tri.x : "and through the 

long halls t hqv yaase their words to re-echo.J — atna ; the^ atrium, was 
the principal room in"ll lUlUIRIl llUUIi. 11 WEllxHed bs the reception room, 
and also as the place where the images of ancestors were placed. Derived 
from ater, "black," i.e. blackened by the smoke of the hearth (focue): 
cp. fieKa&fiov, from /xcAac. 

726. lychni : cp. Awxi'05.— Night came on before they had finished their 
mea.l.—laquearibu8 : the smail interstices (Uicuh) formed by the fret-work 
of the cross beams of the ceiling were decorated with guilding. Scan this 
line : H. 608, III. ; A. & G. 347, c. 



727. /ntMl^ : A toroh made of stout oords (J^ne$) and oover«d with wax 

728. Auj; "heMupon." 

729. mero : distinffulsh, merum, " pure, unmixed wine :" vinum, simply, 
" wine :" een«<Mm, "a heady wine." 

780. a Beh, scil., tnrti: "sprung from Belus," or — eo; teinpmt Btli' 
"from the time of Belus."— «oKe», Hcil., mnt vino implere. It was cus- 
tomarj' to pour out a stnall quantity of wine with the uaual prayer to the 
tfo^a as the preliminaries of a feast. 

y/^si. hmpitibue -jura : "deflne the riffhts 6t stranLrem:" or "proteot 
^ the rlghts of stranjfers :" Z«v« («iVioc (Juppiter hofipitaliti) was vi^orsnipped 
as the guarciian gods of guests. 

733. o,'li)i: "may it he thy wlll :" distinjruish, viUe, viliM.—htiJus, scil., 
diei.—minoren, aoil., natu : give the other ae^rrees of comparison. 

734. laetitiae—dator : op. Hesiod (Works and Dav8, 014) : iitpa Aiwcvtrov , 
no\vyri&ioi.--bona Juno : Juno was the tutelary deity of Karthage. 

.' "attend in thronufs the gatherlng."— (JOee«w «- 
iit: " Biie akin t r woraa o f jjrQQdQmMiJlQiLiiJteeping 
va» taken^MfflffWTfflnVingtotne gods or during 

736. eoetum — celebrate 
coitum 0;on, eo).—faoente9 

_ Especial care was taken'<(iuiiii(( uii uiimiug to tne go 

religious rite that no inauspicious or f rivoloua words should be uttered. 
Hence the admonition of the priests whicli we flnd at the beginning of a 
ceremony : /at'.3t|| h'nr/tm animisque, ore /avete, fave linjuiit: cp. ew<^T}- 
/u,etrc, cv(^))|u,oc nat «stu» Aea)$, «rrdfta vvyKMiaai. 

786. laticum---honorem : "an offering of wine:" the men«a being re- 
garded as the altar of Juppiter hoHpUam. 

1^1. primaque — ore : " and she the flrst, when the libation had been 
made, with tne tips of her lips touched it."—prima, as being tlie flrst in 
ra,nk.—libato : imperaonal, H. 431, IV., 2; A. & G. 265, b. Madvig. 420.— 
tenus: for construotion of tenu4i: II. 434, IV., 4 ; A. & O. 260, e. 

738. dedit, scil., poculum.—increpitans: "with a ot^allenge to drink 
deep:" cp. the Saxon, drinc haeL—ille—pateram: "he quickly drained 
the foaming bowl." There is some humour in contrasting the aotofButes 
with th at oj Dido . J ^■-■^^a^^ — — — 

789. el—auro : " and swilled himself with the full cup of gold." 

740. proeere», scil., epumantem' pateram haumrunt. — crinitus: bards in 
imitation of Apollo are often represented with long hair : cp. 'AnoWutv 

741. j)ersotMt, ncjj i atrims "rnnnrn the halls to reecho." The Greek and 
Romans, a« well as mediaeval nntinnn^^iftinii iniliirniifri their feasts with the 
songsof minstrels. 

742. errantem lunam : i.e., the revolution» of the moon.— to&ore» ; some 
say eclipses : such a theme wos common aniong ancient bards. Physical 
philosophy was a f ruitf ul theme of the old Orphic writers, as well as among 
the Koman poets. Gp. Lucretius, Vergil, pOMsim. 

744. Arcturitm- = 'ApitToOpou == 'ApkTofpov : "the watcher (Fop; cp. 
Eng. ward, u>ary) of the bear (ipitTos)." This refers to the Lesser Bear 
((Trsa Mimyr), called also Aretophulax, Arcturus is often limited to the 
brightest star in the Lesser Bear (t/r«i Minor), called Pootes (ox-driver).— 
Hyadas : the Hyades weie seven stars at the hestd of the BuII (Taurm), 
the rising of which (May, 7-21) was attended by showers of rain (iieiv, to 
rain). — geminosque Triones : two pair of stars, one at the end of the Greater 
Bear (tfrsa Major), and the other at the end of the Lesser Bear (Ursa 
Minor). The word trio, cp. Sanscrit trio = staras, " the showers of light :" 
cp. Eng. star : Ger. stem : Lat. sterula. Varro (L. L. 7, 73) says trio «• 



». I. 



,--' A*^ 

rend wlth wax 

vinum, simply, 

'■ temmre Beli • 
«. It wati CU8- 
lU prayer to the 

:" or "proteot 
i^^as Woranipped 

l.~htfjlM, scil., 


g."—e6etum •- 
grods or durinflf 
uld lie uttered. 
t>eginning of a 
uin: cp. tv^rf- 

HM being re- 

Jon had been 
ng the flrst in 
ladvig. 429.- 
), e. 

nge to drinlc 
iclcly drained 
le aot of Butea 


'tm : bards in 
cp. 'AirdAAwi' 

he Oreelc and 
Musts with the 

'■abores : some 
is. Physical 
veU aa among 

6o«and connecttit with tero: cp. «eptentrimea : "the north :" properly 
the "fteven atara" of the Oreat Bear. 

7i6.^quid—properetU : de pendent queation : H. 620; A. dc O. 384, 

746. tardin : opposed to jyrS/SSITWWT'"'*'"'^ 

747. ingeminant plauaa : "applaud i^epeatedly :" lit<: "redouble with 
their applauBe." 

748. me non et : see note v^. 707. 

749. longumqe—amorem : "and kept drinking in along draught of 
love :" note the force of the impeiMutl lil UUMm UllU mmVUt ; H. 468 ; 
A. &t5r277. I 

760. multa — multa : note the emphatic posltion of these words : H. 661 ; 
A. & O. 844. This shows her d e wli e ^i piuluiig Mw least. — 

761. nunc, scil., rogitat.--qwHm9^annt9 .' (Kp. VfQest.: H. 629; A. 4 0. 
384. Aurirrae—fiUus : Uemnon. 

762. qvnkii, «M;il., eneeiU: H. 529; A. & O. 884 # .~quantiu,^l\., eimet. 

768. immo .•■^^rfe : "nay, come tUen :" often used to conncct, or add em- 
phasis, to what hos befiff^iaid uefore. die: give examples of irregular 
iniperatives ? 

764. tmrum : referring to tbe Trojans who had perished at Troy : tuot 
re^era to the case of AeneiM.—-«eptitHa : sonie writera, Weidner. amongst 
the number, conclude that Vcrgil died before he flnsdly settlea the ohro- 
nology of the Aeneid. Vergil in Aen. Y., 626, also says that seven yeara 
hod pasHei »ince the fall of Troy, although a year inust have elapsed be- 
tween the time of the reception of Dido and the celebration of the games. 

ler (fop; op. 

Lesser Bear 
imited to the 
uU (Taurus), 
rain (vei>', to 
i the Oreater 

Bear (ITrsa 
sra of light :" 
I eays trio «» 




Ab-as, •antls : m. : » Trojan, one of the conipAniona of Aeneas. 

AoeBt^es, ae, : m. : a king of Bicily, who hoNpitably entertained Aenea 
and hig followeni. He was the Ront>f the river-gtKl Criniisus and of a 
Trojan woman Kgesta, or Sergetita. 

Aohates, ae: m.: the faithfulfriend and trusty henohman of AeneaM. 

Aohill-ee, -ia and i : m. : mn of Peleus and Thetis. and the moat valiant 
of the Oreeic ohieftains engaired in the siege of Troy. His quarrel with 
Agamemnon raused hiti withdrawal from the war. The Oreelcii were 
in consequence of this withdrawal plunged into minfortune^, and de> 
feated in battle. The death of Patroolua who fell by the hand of 
Heotor rouaed Aehilles into action. He toolc the fleld and alew Heotor. 
Homer renreaents him aa beinir alain in battle at the Scaean gate : 
latter traareiona, however, make nim to have been killed treacheroualy 
by Paria. 

Aohlv-US, -a, -um: adj.: Greoian. ' 

Aoid&lI-\l8, -a, -um : adj.; of or belonging to Acidalia, a fountain in 
Boeotia where Venua and the Gracea uaed to bathe. 

Ae&Old-es, ae : m. : deacendont of Aeacua, i.e. Aohiliea. 

Aend&d-ae, -arum: pl. n. m.: followera of Aeneaa i.e. Trojans, or 
Romana, aa being deacendants of the Trojana. 

Aend-as. -ae : m. : a Trojan prince, aon of Anchiaea and Veous. After 
the fall of the city, he and hia followers aet out for Italv, where he 
arrive<l after many wanderinga. He married Lavinia. daughter of klng 
Latinua, and aucceeded to the power of this monarcn. 

Aedll-a, -ae: f.: the country ruled by Aeolua, the king of the winda. 
The itmilae Aeoliae or Vudaniae, north of Sicily comprise hia doinain. 

Aedl-us, -i : m. : the gotl of the winda. 

AlHo-us, -i : m. : the south-west wind. 

Affdn-or, -dris: m.: aon of Neptune and Libya, king of Phoenicia. 
Vergil (B. 1.S38) calla Karthage the,.city of Ageiior, since Dido was 
deacended from him. 

AJ-ax, -ftcis : m. : son of Oileus, king of the Locrians. He is described 
as of sinall «tature, but of great skill in hurling the spear, and next to 
Achilles, the niost awift-footed of the Greeks. Hoiner represents him 
as having been wreoked, on his return from Troy, on the " Whirling 
Rocks." AJax e^oped and boasted thut he could escane without the 
aid of the gods. For his inipiety, AJax was swallowea up by the sea. 
Vergil represents AJax as being especiolly hated by Minerva, because 
on tne night of the capture of Troy, he insulted Cassandra, tlie priest- 
ess in the temple of the goddeas, whither she hod fled for refuge. 

Alb-a, -ae : f. : Alba Longa, the most ancient oity in Latiuui, and the 
parent city of Rome. It was destroyed by TuUus Hostillus, and never 




la, a fountain in 

i.e. Trojans, or 

Albta-\is, -A, -um : adj. : of , or btlonfflnf to Altw. ' 

AMt-M, -M : m. : on« of th« oompMtoni of AwieM. 

AmMdn-M. -um : f . : » f*bltd rMo of f tuMlo WMrion who dwtll on tht 
hanlti of tht Thtrmodon, in Pontui. Thty otmt to tht tld of tht 
Trojans in tht war undtr tht oomnuuid of tntir quttn Ptnthttiltft. 

Anctals-as, -M : m. : lon of Capyt, and fathtr of AtntM. Ht ■unrlvtd 
tht fall of Trojr, and Mpomptnitd Atnttt, but ditd on AtntM* llrat 
arrival In Sioily. 

Anten-or. -drit : m. : a Trojan : aooordinff to Homtr, ont of tht wiittt of 
tht Trojan tldtn. Btfort the takiny of tht city. nt wat Mnt to Aga' 
memnon to ntgotiatt a 6taoe and conoerted a plan of delivering tne 
city Into the handt of tne OreekM. On the oapture of the oity he wm 
epared. Hii tubeequent hletorv i» variouely nlated. Bome my that 
he founded a new kingdom at Troy : othen that he went to Libya or 
Cyrene : othen that he went with the Heneti to Thraoe, and then to 
Italy where he founded Patavium. 

Anthe-U8, -1 : m. : a follower of^ AeneM. 

Aqull-O, -dnls : m.: the N. E. wind : called |9optfa« by the Oretkt. 

ArotAr-iui. -1 : m.: a conattllation near the Oreat Bear; oalled aleo 
Botites, or Arotophylax. 

Arff-i, -orum : m. : one of the ohief towne in Argolie, in the Pelopon- 

Arglv-ut, -a, -um : adj. : of, or belonging to Argoe. 

Aaoftnl-us, -1: m.: son of AeneM and Crellea, reeoued by hie father 
from Troy and taken to Italy. 

AsIa, -ae : f . : one of the oontinents. 

AMArftO-u0, -1 : m.: a Trojan prlnoe, son of Tros and father of Oapye. 

Atla-e, -ntis : m. : a Titan who upheld the heaven and stan. 

Atrld-ae, -&rum : m. : descendants of Atreus, applied to Agamemnon 
and M eneiaus. 

Aurdr-a, -ae: f.: goddessof the dawn, and wife of Tithonus. 
usually represented in a chariot dnwn by four horses. 

She is 



Baooh-U8, -i : m. : son of Juppiter and Semele, and god of wine. 

Bdl-\I8, -i : m. : king of Tyre and Sidon, and father of Dido. 

Bltl-aa. -ae : m.: a Tyrian oompanion of Dido. 

Bjnns-a, -ae-: f.: the port of Karthage flrst built wm oalled, in the 
Phoenioian language, Betzura or Bosra. i.e. eitadel, which wm cor^ 
rupted by the weeks into Byrsa Ovpaa) i.e. ahide, and henoe probably 
arose the story. Afterwards it formed the oitadel of Karthage. 

Cfiea-ar, -ariS : m. : a sumame given to the Julian family at Rome. 

0'&i0-U8, -i : m. : a follower of AeneM. 

C&py-8, -oa : m. : a follower of AeneM. 

Cereal-lS, -e : adj. : of, or belonglng to Ceres. 

C16anth-t*8, ■>i : m.; a follower of AenoM. 

Cdpid-O, -Inle : m. : son of Venus and god of Love. 




OyolOpdAis, -a, -um : adj.: of or belonging to the Cydopes. 

Oym6thd^, -da : a sea nymph. 

O^mth-US, -i : m. : a mountain in Delos, the natal place of Apollo and 

03rpr-\18. -i : f . : a large island in the Mediterranean 8ea colonized by the 
Thoenicians. It wae noted for the worahip of Yenu8,.who was often 
calLed Cypri« or Ctfpria. Tbe chief towns were Paphos, Citium and 

Oythdr-ft, -orum : m. : pl.: (now Cerigo). an ialand off the south-wefltern 
point of Laconla. It wos colonized by the Phoenioians, who early 
introduced the worahip of VenuH. Hence the troddess is often called 
Cytheri» or Cythdr0&. According to some traditions she aroHe from 
the foam of tiie sea near the island. 

Oirthdrd-us, -a, -um : adj. : of or belonging-to Cythera. . 

' * • . 


Dftnft-i, -orum : a name given to the Greelcs. As descendants of Dana- 
U8, Bon of Belug and twin brother of Aegyptus. 

Dardftnid-aet -arum: m.: pl.: the descendants of Dardanus^ i.e., 

DardftnI-UB,,-a, -um : a<ij. : of, or belonging to Dardania or Troy, 

D$l6pe-a, -ae : a sea nvmph, whom Juno promised to Aeolus on condi- 
tion that he would aid her in destroying the fleet of Aeneas. 

Diftn-a, -ae : f. : daughter of Jup^iiter and Latona, goddess of the chase, 
the moon, and archery. From root div, "bright:" = divana, '•bright 

Did-O, -€L8 and -onis : also called Elis^at the reputed founder of Car- 
thage. She was the daughter of Belus, or Antenor, and sister of 
Pygmalion, who succeedea to the crown of his father. Dido married 
Acerbas or Sychaeus, a priest of Heroules and a m&n of great wealth. 
In consequence of the murder of her husband by Pygmalion, she 
sailed from Tyre, and flnally landed at Karthage. She purchosed f rom 
the simple natives as much land as she could oover. with an ox-hide. 
Cutting the hide into strips, she surrounded thespoton which she 
subsequently built Buraa (/Svpo-a, a hide), the oitadel of Karthage. 
Vergil represents Dido as falling in love with Aeneas, although an 
interyal of fully three hundred yeara elapsed between the taking of 
Troy (1184 B.C.) and the founding of Karthage (853 B.C.). 

Didmed-ed, -is : m. : son of Tydeus, and onc of the bravest of the Greeka 
who fought at Troyi He was the special favorite of Minerva, and 
under her direction did many feats of bravery. He engaffed in single 

. .. combat Hector and Aeneas ; wounded Mare, Venus, and Aeneas : with 
Ulysses, carried off the horses of Rhesus, and the Palladium. 


B0-U8, -a, -um: adj.: of or belonging to the East (^w? = im, "the 
dawn "). 

Br-yx, j^C^8 : a nibuntain and towh on the west of Sicily, niaar it stood 
Egesta, or Segesta, the oity of Acestes. 

Burd]>a, -ae : m. : a division of th» Eastem world. 
Burdt-as, aa : m.: the ohief river of L%oonia (now Basilipotama), flow 
ing through a narrow and fruitf ul vale into the L^jonian Qulf. ^ 

Bur-U8, -i: m.! the S. B. wind («Spof )< 

B. I. 


76 of Apollo and 

colonizerl by the 
8,.who wosoften 
>ho8, Cltium and 

^e flouth-western 
[jians, who early 
88 is often called 
I ahe ar«)Me from 

ra. , 

mdants of Dana- 
Dardanus: i.e., 

nia or Troy. 

\eolu8 on condl- 

ess of the ohase, 
iimna, "bright 

rounder of Car- 
and aister of 
Dido married 
>f f^reat wealth. 
'ygmalion, she 
purchosed f rom 
fith an ox-hide. 
on which she 
of Karthage. 
8, although an 
n the taking of 


st of the Greeks 
Minerva, and 
Hnged in single 
1 Aeneas : wTth 

»5 = ews, "the 
niear it stood 

potama), flow 
i Gulf. ^ 

fNDI^'OF^-^k»Rtl NAmbS. 


63 / 


0&lurnid4-68, -Is : m.: son of Tros, and the most beautiful of. mortals. 
He was carried off by the gods to act a8 oup-bearer- 

Orail-, -orum : m. : pl. : the Oreeks : originally a name given to the 
people in the N. W. of Epirus. With this tribe the Romans flrat became 
aoquainted, hence they applied the temi Graii or Graeci, to a people 
who oalled themselves Hellenes and their country Hellas. 

Qy-as, -ae (aco. Oyan): m.: a follower of Aeneaa. 


Harp&lyc-d, ds : f. : daughter of Harpalycus, king of Thrace. Noted 
for her swiftness of foot and for her martial exercises. 

Hebr-U8, -1 : m.: a river of Thrace, now the Maritza. 

Heot-or. -drls : m.: son of Priam and Heoula, the braveatof the Trojan 
leaders. He long baflled the (jreeks, and when Achilles withdrew f-^m 
the contest, he drove the Greeks before him and bumed their shipg. 
Tlie death of Patroclus aroused Achilles to action. The two heroes 
met and Hector fell. The conqueror, according to Verffil, attoched the 
deod body of Hector to his chariot and dragged it tnrice round the 
walls of Troy ; but according to Homer, he dragged it away to the 
Greek fleet. then for the space of twelve days, to the tomb of Patro- 
clu8. The Dody was at last ransomed by Priam. 

Hect5rd-U8, -a, -um : adj.: of or Hect^r. 

Hdldn-a, -ae : f.: dauffhtcr of Juppiter and Leda, and wife of Tyndarus^ 
from whom she is calied Tyndans. She was the most beautiful womau 
of her time, and her hand wos souffht for by the most illustrious 
prinoes of Greece. She was married to Menelaus, king of Sparta. 
Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, was kindly eatertained by Mene- 
laus, at the Spartan court. In consequence of an elopement with 
Helen, Paris brought on the war against Troy. Menelaus after the 
war forgave her infldelity, and carried her back with him to Oree^e. 

Hespdrl-a, -ae : f.: Italy': literally, the land to the iveat of Oreecel 

Hj^&d-Ss, -um : f. pl.: a group of stars at the head of the constellation 
of the BuII (Tauru«). Thev were the fabled daughters of Atlas, 
mouraing the death of their brother Hyas (vcti', " to rain "). 

Hymenae-U8, -1 : m.: Hymen, the god of marriage. 

• 1 ■• ''■■ 

Id&ll-a, -ae: f.: Id&ll-um, -i, n.: a grove and height of Cyprus, the 
favorite abode of Venus. There wos also a town in the island, sacred 
to Venus. 

I1I-& -ae: f.: another name for Rhea Silviai a vestal, who hecutne by 
Mars. the mother of Remus and Romulos. 

I1I&C-U8, -a, -um : adj. : of or belonging to Ilium or Troy. 

IU&d-ee, -um : pl.: theTroJan women. 

lUdn-e, -es; f.: eldest daughter of King Priam, and wife of Polym- 
nestor, king of;Thraoe. .^ 

IUdn-eus, -ei : m.: afollowerof Aeneas. 

Ill-um,-i: n.: another name for Troja. "" 

IU-U8, -a, -um : of or belonging to Ilium. 



Iliyrlo-Uli -ttk -um: ot or bclonglng to lllyiift, a dittriot, north oi 
E|]lnM, along the Adri»tlo. 

U-US, 1 : m. : R name glven to (1) the fabled founder of Trojr: (8) lului or 
Asoanius origlnally. 

Idp-as, -ae : m. : a bard who lung at the entertainment given to Aeneas. * 

It&l-U8, -a, -um : adj.: Italian. 

ICU-U8, -1 : m. : another naine of Aacanius, son of Aeneaa. 

JAII U8, -a, -um : adj. : nmnen of the Julian family. 

JAn-o, 0nl8 : f. ' the wife and sieter of Jove, and daughter of Satumus. 
She aided the Greelcs against Troy. (For Djovino: not div: "to 

J\lndnl-U8, -a, -um : adj. : of or belonging to Juno. 

Jupplter, JdviS : m. : king of gods, Bon of Satumus and Rhea. (For 
Djovlgpater: "fatherof light") HerepreeentstheRky : henoethunder, 
lightning and physical phenomena generally proceed from him. 

Karth&ff-O, -Inis : f. : one ot the most celebrated cities of the ancient 
world : founded about 858 B.C. It embraced the citadel (Byrsa), the 
port (Cpthon), and the suburbs (Magalia). It was involved in long and 
tedious wars with the Konutns for ^e supremaoy of the ancient world. 
It was flnally destroyed 146 B.C. It was rebuilt under JuUus and 
AugustuB under the name of Colonia Karthago. f^t ruins are near 

L&tin-U8, -1 : m. : son of Faunus, and king of the abprigines of Italy. 
He kindly received Aeneas and gave the Trojan leader his daughter 
Lavinia in marriage. After his death, Aeneas suoceeded to the throne 
of Latium. 

Lfttl-um, -i : n. : a broad district south of the Tiber, and between the 
Abban hills and the sea. Probably called f rom its flat character : cp. 
irAarvf , latus : Eng. flat. 

L&tdn-a, -ae : f. : the mother of ApoUo and Diana. 

li&Vinl-uni. -i: h. : a city of Italy, founded by Aeneas in honor of 
Lavinia, his wife. Now Pratioa. ^" 

L&Vini-US, -a, -am : of or belonging to, Lavinium. 

Ldd-a, -ae : f. : mother of Helen and of Castor and Pollux. 

Libum-i, -orum : m. pl. : a nation of Illyria, inhabiting modera 
Auatrian Croatia. 

Ubj^-a. -ae : f. : a district of Northera Africa. 

Llbj^C-US, -a, -um : of or belonging to, Llbya. 

Lj^ae-us, -a. -um : an epithet of Bacchus : from Avoioc, from kvti.v 
" to free :" cp. Liber: quia liberat meiUem a curis. 

Lj^Cl-U9, -a, -\un : of or belonging to, Lycia. 

Lj^C-U8, i : m. : a comrade of Aeneas. 


w n'- 


Mal-a, -ae: f.: daughter o( Atlas: the eldeit o( the Pleiades and the 
most beauti(ul o( the seven Btan ; the mother o( Meroury. 

Mar-B. -tlB : m.: the god o( wan ; son o( Juppiter and Juno : the patroa 
deity o( Rome. 

M&vortI-U8, -a. -um : o( or belonglng to Man, or Mavora. 

Memnon, dnla: m.: a ]cingo( Ethiopia: son o( Tithonusand Aurora: 
came to Troy with a body o( Boldien to aid Priam : distinguished hlm- 
ael( (or his bravery : was slain by Achilles. 

Mercilri-U8. -i: m.: son o( Juppiter and Maia: messenger o( the goda. 

MOe-a, -ae : (.: the B^uiiee were dauffhten o( Juppiter and Mnemoignie, 
and bom at Pieria. Heslod states uie names as, JilU> (history), E\$lerTp* 
nvrio poetry), Thalia (comedy), MtlpwmeM (tragedy), Terpfiehon 
idanoe and sonff), Erato (amatory poetry), Poljfmnia, or Polynymnia 
(sublime poetry), Urania (aetronomy), CaUiope (epic poetry). 

Mycdn-ae, -&rum: (. pl.: one o( the chie( dties o( Argolis, in the 


NeptAn-U8, -1 : m.: the god o( the sea. 
Ndt-U8* -1 : m.: the south wind. 


Oen0tr-U8, «a, -um : adj. : o( or belonging to Oenotria, an old name for 

Oild-il8, -i : m.: a Icing o( Locris, (ather o( AJax. , 

Ol3rmp-U8, -1: m.: a mountain o( Northem Oreece, near the Aeffean 
Sea ; aocording to Homer the abode o( the gods : hence o(ten used (or 
Caelum : now Elimbo. 

Orda-8, &di8 : (.: a mountain nymph (&p«t(if : (rom 5pof, a mountainX 

Olien-8, -tie: m.: the qnarter where the sun rises (oriene): hence the 

Orlon, -6ni8 : m.: a celebrated hunter and giant ; plaoed a(ter his death 

as a constellation in the heavens : showen attended its rising and set- 

ting: B. 1,686. 

Oront-ee, -ie and -i: m.: a leadeao( the Lycians: shipwrecked on his 
voyago (rom Troy to Italy : B. 1, 113, 220. 

9 in honor o( 

iting modem 

, (rom Aveti' 

Pall-&8. •&(U8 : (.: an epithet o( Athene or Minerva, the goddess o( war 
and o( wisdom. The epithet is derived (rom (1) either TraAActi', " to 
brandish." i.e., the brandisher o( the spear: (2)or(rom ndkkaf, "a 
maiden," i.e., the virgin goddess. 

P&ph-08. -i: (.: a city o( south-westera Cyprus, where Venus wa« es- 
pecially worahipped. 

Paro-a, -ae: (.: one o( the three Fates, or Destinies. According to the 
Oreeks their names were Laohesis (kayxdvti.v, "to allot"): Clotho 
OtKutdniV, "to weave"): Atropos(a, neg.: rp^irctv, "totura"). Their 
duties are expressed in the (oUowing Une : Clotm colum retinet, La- 
ehetis net, et Atropos oceat. With the Romahs these were worship- 
ped aa Morta, Deeuma, Morta. The best derivation seems to be par 
- /yi«p, " to aUot ;" cp. Motpat. For the interoliange o( p and m : op. 
m6AvjS9o«, plumbum. 




PArl-t, -dls : m. : alto oalled Alexander, 1011 of Priun »nd Heouba. H^ 
oarrled off Helon, wife of Menelaui, kinr of Sparta, Mid thus was the 
oauM of the Trojan war. He waa elain by the arrowi ot Phllootetef. 
He wae the eq>edal favorite of Venui. 

Pirl-us, -a» -um: adj. Parim, of or belonging to Paroe, one of the 
Cycladee, noted for fts quarriee of marble. 

Pfttftvlum, -1: m.: a oity of Oallia Olialpina, founded by Antenor; 
between the Meduaous Major and Minor {BrerUa), now oalled Padua. 

PilUuiff-U8, -a. -um: adj.: of or belonging to the Pelaegi, an anoient 
raoe who inhabited Oraeoi before the arrival of the Hellenes. The 
word is derived from wtkKit: op. jxUidtu, paUeo: darli, or aeh- 

Ptaftt-e0, -ium : m. : pl. deities who presided over ^e household ond 
theitate. The word eeems oonneoted with po, "to teed" or *'pro- 
teot :" henoe tNiter, panU, pentu ; irtf<rt« ( — ir^rtc) potetu. They were 
probably deilled foundera of the family. 

PenthMQd a, ae : f. : queen of the Amaiona, an ally of Priam in the 

war of Troy. 
PerflT&m-a, orum : n. : pl. : the oitadel of Troy : oonnected with injpyoc, 

"a tower :" Oerman, burg ; Eng. -borough, -burgh, -bury. 

Phoeb-UB, -i : m. : an epithet of Apollo : cp. ^ot^oc, " bright :" flt, " to 
ehine :" op. ^atVcti', ^aoc. 

PhoenlO-es/^um : m. : pl. : people of Phoenioia, a distriot on the eoet 
of the Mediterranean. ooundea on the south by Paleatine. and on the 
north and east bv Syria. The Phoenioians were t^e moei celebrated 
navintora of antiquity and founded oolonies along the Ihoree of the 
Mediterranean ; notably Karthage, Tunis, Utioa. lyriB and Sidon were 
their c^ief towne. 

Phoex^BS-a, ae : f. : adj. : from mas. Phoeniz : cf. Threissa, f rom 
Threx : a Phoenioian woman. As a noun : Dido. 

FhryflT-es, -um: m.: pl. : the Phrygians, a people of Central Asia 

PhrJ^fflus, -a, -um : adj. : Phrygian. 
Phtm-a, -ae : f. : a distnot in southem Thessaly. Achilles was bom at 

Larissa, in Phthia. 
Poen-i, -drum : m. : pl. : the Karthaginians. 

Prl&m-US, -i : m. : son of Laomedon, and last king of Troy. Hercules 
took Troy and Priam, then oalled Podarces, was among the prisoners. 
Herione, the sister ot Priam, ransomed her brother, and he chan(|[ed 
his name to Priamus (irptauat, " I buy," or "ransom "). He mamed 
Hecuba, the daughter ot Cisseus, and had among his sons Hector, 
Paris, Polites. Tne conduct of Paris involved his tather in a war with 
the Oreeks, whioh lasted tor ten ve^rs. Troy was flnally taken (1184 
B.C.) and Priam was slain by Pyrrhus, son ot Achilles. 

P&nlO-US, -a, -um : adj. : Karthaginian. • 

Pyi^&Uon, -Is: son ot Belus, and king ot Tyre: brother ot Dido: 
murderer of Sychaeus. 


Qulrin-us, -i : m. : a name given to Romulus, atter his ascent to heaven. 
Derived trom kur : " powertul :" op. Quirites, Kvpoc, Kvptoc, xotpavoc. 

R§m-UR, -i ; m. : the twin-brother ot Romulus. 
Bhes-us, -i : m. :*kinff ot Thrace, whose horaes were captured and who 

was slain by Diomede and Ulysses in"Uie night attaok. 



kTot, one of the 

e houeehold and 
feed" or "pro- 

Ues wae born at 

Bdm*a^ •«• : f. : ft dtv In Italy, on the banke of the Tlber ; the oapltal 
of tne Roman worid. Derlved: Roma — (i) Roma: sru, op. '^4m: 
henoe, "the itream town." 

BOmftn-us, -a, -um : adj. : Roman. 

BOmtU-us, -1 : the tounder of Rome ; eon of M ars and Rhea Silvia. 

BUttU-i, Orum : m. : pl. : a people of Latium. They oppoeed the settle- 
ment of the Trojans in Italy. They were defeated and their liing 
Tumus waa slain. 


B&bae-US, -a, -um : adj. : of or belonging to Saba (the Sheba of Sorip- 
ture), the oapital of Arabia Fellx, lituated in the S. W. part of Arabia 

S&m-OS. -1 : f. : an island, S. E. of Ohioa, oppoeite Mt. Myoale. It waa 
noted for a maniiftoent temple of Here (Juno), lituated about two 
miles from the town Samoe. The remains of tnis temple are stiU to 

San>M-on, -01118: m.: kinff of Lyoia, and ah ally of Priam in the 
Trojan war. He was slain oy Patroolus. 

S&turnl-ua, -a, -am : adj. : of or belonffing to Satumus, Satumian. 
Satum was aooordinff to the Romans the was the father of Juno. 
His name is derivecTfrom $ero, to sow; hence he was the god of 

SoyUae-u& -a, -um : adj. : of or belonging to Soylla, a monster who 
inhabited the rooky strait of Messina, between Brattium and Sioily. 

Serffeat-ua, •! : m.: afollowerof Aeneas. 

3UAal'A, -ae: f.: another name for Sioily. The Sioani from whom the 
island obtained its name were an Iberian people while the Siculi were 
an Italian tribe. 

SlotU-ue, -a, -um : Sidlian. 

Sld-on, -Onla: f.: Sidon (now Saida), the most andent of the Phoeni- 
dan dties and for a long time the most powerful. It wos eolipsed by 
its own colony Tyre. 

SldOnl-us, -a, -um: adj.: of Sidon, Sidonian. 

SlmO-is, -entis: m.: (now Chmbrek) a river of theTroas falling into 
the Soamander (Mendere). 

Spart&n-US, -a, -um : of or belonging to Sparta, Spartan. 

Syohae-U8, -1: m.: the husband of Dido. 

S3rrt-i8, -is: f.: two gulfs on the northera coast of Africa, the Syrtis 
Major (Oulf of Sidra)^ Syrtis Minor (Gulf of Cabes). The word is 
denved (1) either from avfitiv, "to draw," (2) orfrom the Arabian 
woni sert, a desert. Both were proverbially dangeroua to sailors on 
account of the quicksands and of their exposure to winds. 

>ther of Dido: 

tured and who 

Teuo er, -rl: m.: (l) an ancient king of Troy : (2) a son of Telamon, 
king of Salamis, and brother of AJax. 

Teucr-i, -Orum : pl. m.: the Trojans. 

ThreiSS-a, -ae: fem.: of adj.: TbreTC: Thracian. 

TlbOrln-us, -a, -iim: adj.: of or belonging to Tiber, a river of Italy, 
on the banks of whioh Rome was built. 

Tlm&V-us, -1 : m.: (now Timavo) a river of Istria. 



TrlnAorl-US. -§, '0111 : «dj.: of or bolonginff to Trinaeria, Miothar nMut^ 
for Blotll». Tn« iiland obtolnwl ita nani* from ito thrM promontoriM 

(r«4if <«^i) Ptlorum (now (Utpo di Faro, or Ptloro) ; PMhynum (Capo 
4% Paatara) ; LibybMum (Capo di Buna, or JfarMla), 


m.: pl.: aIm oallwl SoptontrionM, MV«n ttftn (Mjptom, 
....» ,....- tfrio ; root «<r<, " to Mattor/' henoe, MAttor«n of liflfht), 
noM thi north polo. 


Trlton, •dnUi: m.: a M»*<leity, Mn of Neptuno and Amphitrito, and 
trumpotor to hii father. 

Tr6Il*ua, •!: m.: Mn of PriMn »nd Hoouba, romftrliablo for hii beauty. 
He WM iilain by AohillM. 

TrOI-US, -m, -um: adj.: Trojan. 

Trql**« -M: f<: ftlM) oalled llium, one of the moet noted oltiM of mi- 
tiquity: eituAted in the north*eMtom part of Myeia, in » diitriot 
oMled TroM. It wm built neMr the Junction of the Simoli ard 8o»- 
mander. It wm token by the Greeki aftor a lieire of ten yohn, B.C. 
1184. Reoently Dr. SchlfemMi hM by exoavitinff the ground brought 
to Itght mMiy remAirie of thii onoe memorftble oity. 

TrO)to-US, •% -um : mIJ.: Trojan. 

TrO-Si -!■: m.: (l)ion of BriohUiimui, and gnmdion of DardMiui. He 
mMTied Callirnoi, daughtor of the BoMnMider. mkI hKl thrM Mni, 
Ilui, AiMraoui, and GMiymede : (2) an mIJ. — TrojMiui. 

T^d-M, -Mi m.: mu of Tydeui, mi epithet of Diomedea. 

T^hdl-USi •*> -UDi: adj.: of or belonging to TVphoeui, a monitroui 
giant whom Barth brought forth to war with the godi aftor the dM* 
truotlon of her glant progeny. He wm deitroyea by Juppitor and 
plaoed beuMth Aetna. 

TJhrl^uS, -Ai -um: adj.: of or belonging to l^re, a oelebrated oity of 

Tjhr^Ufl» -1: f.: ui anoient city of Phoenioia, a oolony from 
the older oity of Sidon. It wm noted for ito famoui purple. 

Vta^us. •Arts : f. : the goddoM of beauty and the mother of AenoM. 
By aajudging the reward ot the golden apple to Venui, when Minerva, 
Juno ana Venui were the oompetiton for thii priM of bMuty, Parii 
WM promiied the hand of the handMmMt ot Mrth'i daughton. He 
loon eloped with Helen, and henoe the war of Troy. Thelnfluenoe of 
Venui in thii oonteit wm alwayi exerted on the side of the Trojani. 

Vest-a. -ae : t. : the godden who prMided over the AMirtA (i^rla). She 

Smboliied the sanotity ot the famil^ tiei. In her tomple at Rome, 
e attondant priesteMei, VMtal virgini, kept alive the saored flre. 

Xanth-US, -I : m. : also oalled Soamander. a river rising in the defllM of 
Mt Ida, and aftor reoeiving the Simoii, falls into the HellMpont The 
name is derived from the yellow oolour ot ito waten ((av^it), Now 
Uie Mendere. 


Zdphj^-US, -i: m. : the WMterp wind (trom i6^ot,ivo^^i op. v^of, 
nvbe$, all ref erring to the dark region of the world). 




a, of aot aeMve. 

ftbl ablatlve. 

aoo MtcuHatlve. 

aflj adjeotive. 

adv adverb. 

of. M oonfer . . . compare. 

oonj nonJunotion. 

dat dative. 

dem demonetr demonstrative. 

f feminlne. 

f r from. 

freq frequentatlve. 

fut future. 

iren genitlve. 

Ur Oreek. 

Imperf Imperfeot. 

Ind. or Indio.. inaioative. 

Indecl IndeSlinable. 

Indef. Indeflnlte. 

inf. vr inftn . . . Inflinltive. 

interj interjection. 

Interroff interroKative. 

irr. OT Irreg. . . irregular. 

Lat Latin. 

m mosouline. 

n. w neut neuter. 

ney netratlve. 

nom nomlnatlve. 

num numeral. 

obeol obiolete. 

p. w part partloiple. 

paas paMive. 

perf perfeot. 

pere penon. personal. 

pluperf plupertect. 

plur plural. 

poe pofritive degree. 

poae poseeeelve. 

prep prepoeition. 

pres t resent. 

prob ;.robably. 

pron pronoun. 

rel relative. 

aing lingular. 

aubj Bubjunotive. 

unoontr unoontraoted. . 

v. a verb aotive. 

v. dep verb deponent 

V. n verb neuter. 

voc vooative. 

■■ equal to. 


&b (&), prep. gov. Abl. : From. 
To denote the direction from which 
an object is viewed : At, in : a ter- 

go, at cn«'« haek; behind [akin to 
rr. a»r-<J]. 

ab-do, dldi, dltum, dSre, 8. v. a. 
rab, "away"; do, "to put"] To 
hicU, conceal. 

&b-6o, Ivi or li, Itum, ire, v. n. 
[ib, "away"; »o, "to go"] To go 
avoay, depart. 

&b-6l-dO, Avi or tti, Itum, ere, 2. 
V. a. [9,b, denotinff "reversal"; 
obsol. OL-o (—cresciv, "to Rrow"] 
To banish or remove an object /rom 
the memory, eto. ; v. 720. 

ab-rXpIO, riptti, r^tum, rlpdre, 
8. V. a. [for ab-raplo; fr. ab, 
" away " ; rftplo, " to seize "] To 
seize and earry away or off; to 
drag, or carry /orcibly, away. 

ab-SistO, stlti, stltum, sistSre, 3. 
V. n. [ftb, " away from " ; sisto, " to 
stand "] To leave off or deaist ; to 

ab-8UXn, fOi, esse, V. n. [ab, 
"away from"; sum, "to be"] To 
be awayfrom one ; P> be a^sent. 

ab-sumo, sumpsi, sumptum, 
stUnere, 3. v. a. [ftb, " away " ; 
stlmo, " to take "] To taJee away. 

ac ; see atque. 

&CCUlthus, i, m. The plant 
bear's-/oot or brank ursine [aKavdos, 
" thorn-flower " ; rt AK—sharp : 
ai'0os, a flower]. 

ao-cedo, cessi, cessum; cedSre, 
8. V. n. [for ad-cedo ; fr. ftd, "to" ; 
cedo, " to Ko "] To go to or towarda ; 
to approach. 

ac-cen-do, di, sum, dere, 3. V. a. 
(" To set on nre " ; hence) Of per- 
sons, the passions, etc, : To ii\flame I 

with raffe, exaaperate, enrage [for 
ad-can-do; fr. ad. in "augmenta- 
tive " force ; rocc oan, akin to Or. 
Ko-*), Kai-n, "to light, kindle"]. 

ac-cingo, cinxi, oinctum, cin- 
gfire, 8. V. a. [for ad-cingo ; fr. ad, 
^♦to 0» on to"; cingo, '^to ^rd"] 
With personal pron. in renexive 
force : With Dat. : Togird <yne's self 
/or something ; i. e. to prepare om's 
aelf, get one^s seJ/ready, /or. 

ac-cipio, cepi, ceptiun, clpSre, 
8. V. a. [for ad-cftplo ; fr. ftd, " to " ; 
cftplo, "to take"] To receive. 
Mentally : To leam, understand. 

aoci-tus, tQs, m. [aocl-o, "to 
summon"] A sumn-.nining, sum- , 
mons, call. 

ac-cumbo, ^cfiboi, ctlbltum, 
cumbSre, 3. v. a^ [for ad-ctunbo ; fr. 
ftd, " on, upon " ; obsol. cumbo, " to 
lie down"] To recline at a table, 
feast, etc. 

a-cer, cris, cre, adj. [for ac-cer ; 
fr. AC, root of ax^, aKutKr), aKfiri, 
aKp6i, wKvc; acus, acuo, acies, 
ocior] Incharacter: Ardent.bold, 
spirited, etc. Of fear: Sharp, 
strong, intense. 

&c-ies, lei, f. [ac, root of ftc-Oo ; 
se&ftcer]("A sharp edge"; henoe, 
" order of battle *' ; hence) An 
army, host, /orces, drawn up in line 
of battle. 

&CU-tus, ta, tum, adj. [see Scer] 
Of a rock, etc.: Sharp, pointed, etc. 

&d. prep. gov. Acc. : To, towards ; 
near to, beside, at. 

ad-do, dldi, dltum, dSre, 3. v. a. 
[&d, "to"; do. "toput"] ("Toput 
to or on to " ; hence) To add. 

&d-do, Ivi or li, Itum, Ire, v. a. 
[ftd. "to"; 6o, "to go"] ("To go 
to an act, etc. ; hence) To under- 
go, submit to, expose one^s seJ/ to. 

ite, enrage [for 
in "augmenta« 
AN, akin to Gr. 
it, kindle"]. 

oinctum, cin- 
d-cingo ; fr. ad, 
igo, '^to rfrd"] 
n. in renexive 
'^ogirdone'8 8elf 
to prepare oneg 

}eptum, clpSre, 
; fr. ad, "to"; 
I To receive. 

a. [accl-o, "to 
irrontnflf, Buni' . 

bOi, cttbltum, 
rad-cvunbo; fr. 
)ol. cumbo, "to 
ine at a table, 

djj [for ac-cer ; 

acuo, acies, 
f ear : Sharp, 

root of &c-tlo ; 
edge"; hence, 
hence) An 
awn up in line 

adj. [see ftcer] 
), pointed, etc. 

: To,toward9 ; 

, d6re, 3. v. a. 
Lit"] ("Toput 
To add. 

um, Ire, v. a. 
ro"] ("To go 
b) To under- 
ne's self to. 




&d-dO, adv. [prob. for &d-eora ; 
fr. ftd, " to or up to " ; eom (».£imi), 
old acc. of pron. is] So very, so. 

ad-for, fatOs, sum, fari, 1. v. a* 
[ad, "to"; for, "to speak"; op- 
^iffii] To addrest. 

ad-gnOBCO, gnOvi, gnOtum, gno- 
flcere, 3. V. a. [ad, "to"; gnosoo, 
" to know "] To recognize. 

&d-hUC, adv. [ftd, " fo or up to " ; 
htto, old form of hoc, " this "] Aa yet. 

ad-nltor, nlstu and nixus sum, 
nlti, 3 V. dep. [ftd, "against" ; nltor, 
"to lean"] To exert one'9 seU, 
etc. ; to put forth one*s strength, 

ad-no, nftvi, nfttmn, nftre, 1 v. n. 
ad, "toorupto"; no, "toswim"] 
V swim to or up to. 

&d-dl-eo, tli (rai^ely evi), (ul)tum, 
6re, 2. V. a. [&d, "up"; obsol. OL-o, 
"to grow"] Belis^ous term: To 
honour, propUiate, etc. 

&d-dro, Orftvi, Orfttum, Orftre, 1 v. 
a. [ftd, "without force"; 6ro, "to 
entreat"] To entreat, beseech; to 
address an entreaty to. 

ad-sto (a-sto), stlti, stltum, 
stare, 1. V. n. [fta, "by or near"; 
sto, "to stand"] To stand by, or 
naar, a person or tbing. 

ad-8Um, ffli, esse, v. n. [ad, 
"at"; sum, "to be"] To be pre- 
sent or here. 

&dul-tus, ta, tum, adj. [for 
ftdol-tus ; fr. ftdOl-esco, " to grow 
up "] Orown up, fuM-grown, aduU. 

adrvdho, vexi, vectum, v6here, 
8. V. a. [ad, "to"; v6ho, "tocar- 
ry "] To sail to a place, etc. 

ad-Vdnio, veni, ventimi, vgnlre, 
4. V. n. [&d, "to"; v6nIo, "to 
come "] To come to. 

adver-^sus, sa, sum, adj. [for 
advert-sus, fr. advert-o] Opposite ; 
i. e. Lying over against or in an 
opposite quarter ; corning in an op- 
posite direction or from an opposite 

aeger, gra, grum, adj. Sad, 
sorrouring, troubled. 

&e-nus, na, num, adj. [for »r- 
nus; fr. aes, aer-is, "bronze"] Of 
bronze or copper; brome-, copper-. 

Ab Subst. :. aeniun, i. n. A vem^ 
or ealdron cf bronu or copper; a 

aequ-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[aequ-us, ' ' equal "] To make equalf 
plaee on an equality, eqwUize. 

a6qu-or, Oris, n. [aequ-o, "to 
make level''] The waters of tk« 
sea ; the sea, in any condition. 

aequ-U8, a, um, adj. [root IK 
"to make even " ; cp. aequor : ctK*»] 
Favourable,friendly^ : — non aequ-us, 
unfavourable, un^riendly [akm to 
Sans. eka*, "one']. 

&er, fteris, m. : [root av " to 
blow": op. i.Fripi aT Ai}/biij aura, 
avis] The air; cloud, miit, vapour. 

aer-dus, Sa, eum, adj. [aes, aer-is, 
" bronze "] Of, or vMide of, brome ; 

aes, aeris, n. : Bronze, copper. 
Of vessels: A ^ow qf brome, a 
brome-protp [akin to Oer. eisen, 

aes-tas, tfttis, f. [root akd, " to 
bum"; cp. aedes, aestus; oidw, 
ai&rip] Summer. 

aes-tus, tils, m. Of the sea' 
A wave oy bittow ; the sea in an agi* 
tated state [see aestos]. 

ae-tas, tfttis, f. [for aev(i)ta8 ; fr. 
aev-um, "affe"; aimvt root aiv, a 
lengthened rorm of i] Tims of hfe, 
age, generation. 

aet-emus, ema, emum, adj. 
[contr. fr. aetftt-emus^ fr. aetas, 
aetftt-is] Constant, kuting, etemal, 

aetber, eris, m. [see aestas] The 
upper air or ether ; the sky. 

aeth6r-!us, la, lum, adj. [aether, 
aeth6r-is, " the ether or upper air "] 
Pertaining to the upper axr or sky. 

aflBiic-tiis, ta, tum, adj. [for 
afflig-tus; fr. affllg-o, "to dash, 
or strike, down"] Ur^fortunate, 
wretched, distressed. 

af-flo, flftvi, flfttum, flftre, 1 v. a. 
[for ad-flo ; fr. ftd, " upon " ; flo, " to 
blow or breathe "] To blow or 
breathe upon an object ; i. e., of a 
deity, to bestow on, or impart to, by 

(af-for), ffttus sum, fftri (Ist and 




tnd penoml sing. pres. not found), 
1. V. dfc. [lorad-for; fr. fcd, "to"^; 
(for), " to apeak "] To »peak to, ad- 

Affer, ftgri, m. [root ao, 
drive"; henoe where oattle 
driven; cp. iyp6t: Oerman trift, 
pMturage from treiben, " to drine " ; 
Eng. aore; hence] Land, landed 
property or ettate. 

aflr-ger, gsris, m. [agger-o, "to 

bring, or ciny, to" a place] A 
mound, pile, htgh or mighty heap. 

ag-men. mlnis, n. [ag-o] A line, 
atream, tram ; a wmd, crowd, mul- 
tUude. Of soldiera: A column or 

a-ffnOBCO, gndvi, gnltiun, gnos- 
o6re, 3. V. a. [for ad-gnosco ; fr. fid, 
"in relation to" ; gnosco, old form 
of nosoo, " to lcnow "] To recognize, 

aern-US, i, m? A lamb [akin to 
Aitv-of, " a lamb "; root AV, " to 

Slease"; cp. oAc; ovis; Eng. ewe 
jrobably the pet thing)]. 

&gO, egi, actum, ftgSre, 3. v. a. 
To arive, drive about. 

aio, V. def ect. : To aay, to speaJc 
[aldn to root ath, " to say " ; cp. ad- 
ag-ium, a saying]. 

fila, ae, f. [for axla>s=axilla: see 
•ger] A rving. 

ftl-e-S, alltis, adj. [for al-i-<t)-s ; 
fr. al-a, "a wing"; i, root of e-o, 
"to go"; (t) epenthetic letter] A 

fiJ-I-Crer, gfira, gSnun, adj. [&l-a, 
"» wing"; (i) oonnecting vowel ; 
gAr-o, "to bear"] Bearing udngs, 

' &l-i-QuI, qua, quod, Qen. (&llcti- 
jus ; Dat. Ulcui ; Plur. &llqui, quae, 
qua, ete.), indef. pron. adj [&1I-U8 ; 
quij Smrn, any. 

fil-Iter, adv. [&l-is, old form of 
ftl-Ius] In another mmmer, other- 
wi»e : — haud aliter, not otherwiee, i. 
e. just in the eame rmy. 

fil-iUB, la, lud (Qen. &llU8 ; Dat. 
ftlli), adj. Another, other of many 
[aldn to aA-Aoc]. 

al-Usro, llg&vi, llg&tum, llg&re, 1. 
[for ad-llgo; fr. ad, "without 

V. a, 

llgo, ' • to bind "] Of an an- 

ohor aa subject : To muke or hold 

al-l6quor, lOquatus sum, lOqui» 
3. V. dep. [for ad-lOquor: fr. &d» 
"to"; lOquor, "to speak"] To 
apeak to, addreea. 

al-muCL ma, mum, adj. [&l-o. 
" to nourish "] Benign, propitiou», 

alt-e, adv. [alt-us, "high"] On 
high, alo/t. 

al-ter, tera, tdrum [Gen. alt£r- 
lus ; Dat. altSri), adj. [akin to &I-Iu8] 
Another. — As Subst. m. Another 
pereon, another. 

altus, ta, tum, adj. [root al, ar 
or OL, "hiffh"; cp. opwfit, 5po$, 
opi^if ; ad-oHesco ; alo] H^h, lo/ty. 
— As Subst. : altum, i. n. The 
high heaven. As Subst. : altum, 
i. n. The deep ; the main or open aea, 

diXi&rd.CU8, i, comm. gen. Mar- 
joram [djuiapaicot]. 

amb-fifir-es, is (found only in 
Abl. Sing. ; comulete in Plur.), f. 
[amb, "around'^; &g-o, "to go"] 
Intricate detail» or narrative. 

ambler-Aus, fia, ttum, adj. 
[amblg-o, "to doubt"] Doubifui, 
uncertain, not to be relied upon, 

^ ambo, », o,' plur. adj. [Gr. 
a/Li^(i>] Both. 

fimbrdsius, a, um, adj. [Gr. 
a*/[Aj3pdo-tov ,- fr. a, neg. ; fioprdc ; cp. 
mora, ftolpa ; hence] Lovely, pleaa- 
ant, etveet, etc. 

fim-icio, Icfli, iotum, Iclre, i. v. 
a. [for am-j&clo ; fr. am, " around " ; 
Jftclo, "tothrow"] Towraparound, 
to clothe. 

fimic-ttis, tOs, m. [&mIc-Io, "to 
throw around"] Clothing, gar- 

fim-icus, lca, lcum, adj. [am-o, 
"to love"] Lovina, /riendly.—Aa 
Subst. : fimiCUS, i, m. A /riend. 

&-mitto, mlsi, missum, mittere, 
3. V. a. [&, " from " ; mitto, " to let 
o "] To let go, »lip, to loee.—PoBa. : 
-mittor, missus sum, mitti. 

&m-0, &vi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. To 

fim-or, 6ris, m. [am-o, " to love"] 
Love, a/fedim. Personmed : Love 
or Cupvd. 





> make or hold 

tVM mun, lOqui» 

Jquor: fr. &d> 

gpeak "1 To 

m, adj. [U-o. 

"high"] 0» 

n [Oen. alt£r- 

[akin to &1-Iu8] 

m. Another 

J.^ [root AL, AR 
bpvviii,, opof, 
>] High, lofty. 
a, i. n. The 
bst. : aJtum, 

un. gen. Mar- 

[>und only in 
in Plur.), f. 
r-o, "to go"l 

ttum, adj. 
"] Dmibtful, 
lied upon, 

ir. adj. [Or. 

m, adj. [Qr. 
; ^ioproi i cp. 
Lovely, pleas- 

n, Iclre, 4. v. 
1, "around"; 
orap around, 

Imic-Io, "to 
khing, gar- 

adj. [am-o, 
A friend. 

im, mittgre, 
itto, "tolet 
'oee. — Pase. : 

1. V. a. To 

fied : Love 


73 ^ 

amplexuSi fls, m. [for ompleot- 
SU8 ; fr. ampleotK>r, "to embraoe" ; 
op. plecto: irAtfiefliv; Eng. plait; 
root PLAK, " to twiat]. An ermrae- 
ing, enUtraee, earees. 

ampU-U8, comp. adv. [adverbial 
neut. of ampli-or ; fr. amplus, " ex- 
tensive"] Of time: Lcmger, far- 
ther, more. 

am-pl-us, a, um, adj. [am, 
"around"; pl-fio, "to fill "] Of 
Inrge extent, exteneive, «paeious. 

an, oonj. [prob. a primitive 
word] WKether.—Or :—eiaL . . . an, 
whether . . . or whether. 

ancdra, ae, f. An anehor [root 
ANC, "to bend"| cp. ancus, uncus, 
anguis ; Or. ayKiiv, oyKKpa, oyxot]. 

dxdOM, Imae, f. Life [akin to 
root AN, "to breathe" ; cp. animus ; 
avtiiof, arifit. 

&n-!mus, Imi, m. [akin to &n- 
Ima] Mind, feeling, eourage. 

ann&l-is, is (Abl. annali), m. 
[annftl-is, "of, or belonging to, a 
year "] Annu^ records. 

an-ntio, ntli, nfltum, nttSre, 8. 
V. a. [for ad-nuo; fr. ad, " to or 
towards"; ntto, " to nod "] To 

an-nus, ni, m. Of time: A 
year [akin to am, "to go"; annur 
lus; to Or. cr-os <» «f-iavrdf , "a 

ante, adv. and prep. : Adv. : Be- 
fore, prevumsly, b^orehand, sooner. 
Prep. gov. Acc. : Before, infront af. 

ant-iguus, Iqua, Iquum, adj. 
[ant-e] Former, ancient, old. 

antnmi, i, n. A cave, grotto 

&per, &pri, m. A unld boar 
[akin to Kairp>os]. 

&-pdr-iO, tti, tuni, Ire, 4. v. a. To 
open, i. e. to make a way, or pass- 
age, through something previousl^ 
closed ; To disclose to view, permit 
to be seen ; [prob. &b, denoting 
"reversal"; root par, "tocover"]. 

&pertU8, a, um : P. perf . pass. 
of aperio : Of the sky : Unclouded, 
clotmess, clear. 

&-p-iB, is, f. ("The drinker or 
sipper " of the dew, Juice of flowers, 

ete. ; hence) The hee [akio to root 
po, "to drink" ; the a isa preflx.] 

ap-pAr6o, pArtti, pftrltum, pAr- 
ere, 2. v. n. [for ad-pftrto; fr. &d, 
"at"; pAreo, "to appear"] To 
come or oe in sight, to oe vitible, to 
show one'» self, eto. 

ap-pello, pflli, pulsum. pelldre, 
8. V. a. [for aa-peUo; fr. ad, "to or 
towards " ; pello, " to drive ''] Of a 
storm : To arive to. 

ap-pUoo, pllcfivi or pllotti, pllcft- 
tum OT pllcltum, pllc&re, 1. v. a. [for 
ad-plico ; fr. ad, " upon " ; plico, 
"to fold"], Toforce, or bring to, a 
place, etc. 

apt-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[root AP, " to work or Join " : cp. 
opus, opes, opisci: airTcii'] To 
aiaapt, fit, adjust, prepare, provide. 

&qu-a, ae, f. TToeer [akin to 
Sans. ap, " water." 

&r-a, ae, f. [root ar, see altus] An 
elevation for saered purposes ; i. e. 
an altar. 

arbor, oris, f. A tree. 

arbdr-dus, ea, Sum, adj. [arbor, 
"a tree"] Tree-like, resembling a 

arc-anus. flna, anum, adj. [arc- 
a, "a chest''] [see arceo] Secret, 

arc-do, fli (obsol. sup. Itum), 
ere, 2. V. a. : To confine, restrain, 
keep off, drive away ; — at v. 300 sup- 
ply eos, i. e. Teucros^ root, ark " to 
protect" ; cp. aAicetv, dAx^; arca, 

arcus, tts, m. [see arceo] A bow. 

arddo. arsi, arsum, ardere, 2. v. 
n. [root AR, "to bun» of parch"; 
cp. arena, areo, aridusj To bum 
with any passionate emotion; to 
long, be eager. 

ardesco, arsi, no sup., ard- 
escSre, 3. v. n. [ardeo, "to bum"] 
To become inflamed with love, etc. 

&re-na, nae, f. [see ardeo] Sand, 
shore, beaeh, strand. 

arsr-entum, enti, n. : Silver, 
silver vessels or ^late [root aro, " to 
be bright": cp. apyvpot: arguere, 

&r-IdUS, Ida, Idum, adj. [see 
ardeoj Dry. 



ar-tna. mOrum, n. plur. Arm», 
«MOjpotM, tUenrilM [root ar, '*to 
flt" : op. tH/ht, Afi-afiivK», aVdpov : 
MrtuB, artkmlus]. 

menti, n. [ftr-o] 
Of deer : A herd. 

CaMe in general. 

ar-rlflTO, rexi, reotum, rlgffire, S. 
V. a. [for ad-rfigo: fr. &d, "up, up- 
wairds"; rfigo. "to keep straigrht^'] 
To lift, or raxM, up. Of the eara : 
To prick up ; i.e. (supp. aures) To 
litUn, he aUentive. To rouae, ani' 
mate, vfieourage. 

sr-a, tis, f. : Art, skill, ttratagem 
[root AR, " to gain or acquire " : cp. 

art-I-flBZ. flcis, comm. gen. [for 
art-i-fac-s; fr. ara, art-is; (i) con- 
neoting vowel; fao, root of f&o-Io, 
"to make; to exeroise" a calling, 
etc.] An artifteer, artiean. 

ar-tu8, tOStt m. A joint ; a limb 
[see arniaj. 

ar-tu8(aro-), ta, tum, adj. Nar- 
row, cUm, wnfined [see arma]. 


plough": cp. afiUw, aratrum; O. 
£. ear] A Jield, plain. 

arz, arcis, f. [see arceo] A castle, 

a-acendo, soendi, scensum, 
soendgre, 3. v. a. [for ad-soando ; fr. 
ad, " up " ; scando, " to mount "] To 
mMint up, cKmb, ascend. 

aapec-to, tftvi, tfttum, tftre, 1. v. 
a. [id.] To look at aitentively. 

aapec-tua, tos, m. [aspicio, " to 
see or loolc at," through true root 
SPBC] A glance, look. 

aaper, £ra, Srum, odj. : Rough, 
rugged. Cruel, bitter, vioknt, fierce. 
(Comp. : aspfir-Ior) : Sup. : aeper- 

a-apld[0, spexi,spectum.splc6re, 
3. v. a. [for ad-sp8clo ; fr. Ra, " on or 
upon " ; speclo, " to loolt "] To look 
upon, behold, see. Mentally : To 
coneider, regard. 

a-apiro, splrftvi, splrfttum, splr- 
ftre, 1. V. n. [for ad-splro; fr. &d, 
"upon"; splro, "to breathe"] Of 
flowera : To send /orth gcents, emit 
fragrance upon a person. 

aa-aurgro, surrexi, surreotum, 
surgfire, 3. v. n. [ftd, "up"; surgo, 

"toriM"] Oftheheavenlybodiet: 
To riee up, rite. 

ast ; see at 

asto, ftre ; see adsto. 

aatrumJ, n. il«tar[rootBTAR, 
" to soatter " : cp. irropivvviu : stemo, 
stratus, stramen : stella ^ sterula, 
" the soatterer of light "]. 

at(a8t),conJ.: But. Butindeedt 
yet [akin to Qr. ar-^p, "but"], 

ftter, tra, trum, adj. Blaek, dark. 

at-que (contraoted ac), conJ. 
[for aa-que ; fr. ftd. denoting "addi- 
tion " ; qufi, " and '*] And aho, and 
beaidea, moreover, and. 

fttrium, li, n. A hall [from ater, 
"blaok," i.e. blackened by smoke: 
op. niKa^pov, from m^^ac]. 

Atr-OZ, Ccls, adj. [ater, atr-i, 
"black"] Of persons: Fierce, cruel, 
harsh, severe. 

at-tlnffO, tigl, taotum, tingure, 3. 
V. a. [for ad-tango ; fr. ftd, "against" ; 
tango, " to touch "] To touch. 

at-tollo, no perf. nor sup., toll- 
6re, 3. v. a. [for ad-tollo ; fr. ad, "up, ' 
upwards " ; toUo, " to lift "] To l\ft, 
or raiee, up. 

auddo, ausils sum, audere, 2. v. 
semi-dep. To dare or venture some- 
thing, or to do something. 

aud-to, Tvi or li. Itum, Ire, 4. v. a. 
To hear [akin to a«t ( » oSc), avT-6t, 
"an ear"; modem Greelc avnoi': 
auris, ausculto]. 

auerdr-Xum, li, n. [avis, " a 
bird": root oar, "tochatter : cp. 
Y^pvc, YpaCc ; garrire] Augury, an 

4ula, ae, f. A palace [root av, 
"to blow": see aer: the avArj of a 
Greek house, corresponding some- 
what to the atrium of the Roman, 
was open above]. 

aulaeum, i, n. Tapestry [see 

aura, ae, f. The air [see aer]. 

aur-fttua, ftta, fttum, adj. [aur- 
um, " ^rold "] Omamented unth 
gold; giU. 

aur-dua, fia, 6um. Made ofgoJd, 
golden [root us, ur, " to bum " : op. 
cvffiv, aveiv : aurora, uro]. 


76 r 

hMvenly bodlet : 


A Har [root stir, 
^pivyvim : stemo, 
Btella •- stenila, 

But Butindeed, 
ip, "but"J, 

adj. Black,dark. 

oted ao), oonj. 
'] And also, and 

i hall [trom ater, 
ened by amolce: 

dj. [ater, atr-i, 
18 : Fierce, cruel, 

lOtum, tingure, 3., "againat"; 
To touch. 

t. nor sup., toll- 
•llo: fr. ad. "up, ' 
Jolift"] Tolift, 

m, audere, 2. v. 
>r venture some- 

tum, Ire, 4. v. a. 

( — oit), avT-6t, 

Oreelc airiov: 

n. [avi«. " a 
ochatter'*: cp. 
9] Au^ury, an 

talace [root av, 
: the avKii of a 
ponding some* 
of the Roman, 

Tapestry [see 

air [see aer]. 

;um, adj. [aur- 
amented unth 

Made ofgold, 
to bum " : op. 

aur-la, is, f. [for aud-is ; fr. aud- 
to] An ear. 

Aur-dra. Orae, f. ^urora ;the 
goddees ot the dawn [alcin to Or. 
av-MK — i^tdf ; "the early mom": 
fr. root us, "to bum," and so "to 

atlr-umi i, n. Oold, money [see 

au-8ter, Btri, m. TheSouthunnd 
[see aureus, i. e., the burning wind.] 

aut, conj. Or :— aut . . . aut, 
either . . . or. 

au3dl-Ium, li, n. [prob. fr. obsol. 
adj. auxll-is ( » aug-8ll-ia, fr. aug-to, 
" to increase "), " inoreasing "] Aid, 
help, assistance. 

&V-&rua. ftra, Arum, adj. [root 
Av, "to be pleased": op. avere, 
ovi8: see agnus] Covetous, avarid- 


&-vdhO, vexi, veotum, vShfire, 8. 
V. a. [ft, " away " ; v6ho, " to carry " ] 
To ca/rry away. 

&-vertO, verti, versum, vertSre, 
3. V. a. [ft, "away from" ; verto. "to 
tum "] To tum away. Pass. in re- 
flexive foroe, also avertere for avert- 
ere se: To tum one'8 sel/, etc., 
au>ay ; to retire, withdraw. 

&V-Idu8, Ida, Idum, adj. [&v-eo, 
" to desire eagerly "] Eagerly deeir- 



ba<C-&tUS, ftta, fttum, adj. [baoc-a, 
" a berry " ; hence, " a pearl "] Set 
or adomed urith pearU ; pearl: 

barb&rus, a, um, adj. Bar- 
harian, barharom [^dp^apo«]. 

bd&-tU8, ta, tum, adj. [be(a)-o, 
"to make happy"] Happy, /or- 
tunate, etc. 

bell&-trlx, trlcis, f. [bell(a)-o, 
" to war "] A female warrior. 

bell-O, ft/i, fttum, ftre, 1. v. n. 
[bell-um, "war"] Towagewar; to 

b-ellum, elli, n. [old form, dft- 
ellum ; fr. dtt-o, " two "] Wwr, war- 

bdn-d, adv. [obsol. bSn-us =» bOn- 
U8, "good"] In a good way or 
m^inner ; well. Comp. irreg. mSllus. 

I bta-l-ffn-U8, a, um, adj. [for 
ben-I-flrfin-us ; fr. bfin-us ( — bOnu*), 
"good": aiM.rootof gigno,(inpaM.) 
"to be Umh kind, frimdly, he- 

b!b-o, i, Itum, £re, 8. v. a.: To 
drink. Of love : To drink in, im- 
hihe [root bi ( » iri in iri-i'*», " to 
drink") reduplioated]. 

bl-llnffu-l8, e, adj. [bi ( » bis). 
"twice"; lingu-a. ''a tongue'^] 
Douhle • tonaued, i.e. hypoentiealt 
deceitful, playing a dofubte part. 

bl-nl, nae. na. distrib. adj. plur. 
[bi ( = bis), "twice"] Two apieee. 
A pair. 

blrdm-i8, is, f. [blrem-is, "two- 
oared"; fr. bi ( = bis), "twice": 
rCm-us, "an oar"] A veeeel with 
two hank» of oare ; a hirem^. 

bl8 (in composition bi), num. 
adv. [for dOis, fr. dflo, "two"] 

blandue, a, um, adj. Of things : 
Flattering, kind, eto. 

bdnu8, a, um, adj. : Oood. Comp. : 
mdllor; Sup.: optlmus. 

brdv-Xa, lum, n. plur. [brevis, 
"short"; henoe, "shallow"] Shal- 
low plaoes, ahallow», ahoal». 

br6v-Iter,adv. [brev-is, "Bhort"] 
Shortly, hriejty. 

C&dO, cSoldi, oftsum, cftdfire, 8. 
V. n.: Tofall, in the fullest accepta- 
tion of the word- Of victims: To 
fall in aacriftce ; to he alain or oj^er- 
ed. Of sounds: To abate, aubnde, 
die away. 

c&du8, i, m. A jar, esp. for 
wine [KdSof]. 

caeoue, a, um, adj.: Blind, 
blinded, whether physically or men- 
I tally. Hidden, conceaUd, secret. 

caed-ee. is, f. [caed-o, " to slay "] 
BUod shed in slaughter, gore. 

cael-O, ftvi, Atum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[cael-um, " a irraver " ; fr. cavillum, 
that which hoUows (cavus)]. To en- 

«frave in reli^f upon metals ; and, 
ater, to cast or found ; to form 
raised tvork upon any thing : to em- 

■ \ 



caelieatls, e, adj.: [see oaelum, 
' ' heaven "]. Heavenly . 

oael\im, i, n.: [root ku. See 
cavo]. Heaven. 

0aes-&rie8, &rI6i, f. The hair 
of the head [caedo, to cut ; cp. 

KOVpil fr. KCtpia»]. 

C&l-dO, tU, no sup., ere, 2. v. n. 
To be hot. 

campUB, i, m. A plain [prob. 
akin to «c^iro;, "a garden"]. 

c&nistra, Orum, n. plur. A bas- 
ket made from weeds [Kavaarpa]. 

C&no, oeclni, cantum, c&nere, 3. 
V. a. To sing, celebrate in song or 
verge [root oan, to sound : cp. «cayax^; 
A.S. hana, a cock (singer)]. 

oan-tU3, tOs, m. [see c&n-o]. Of 
birds : A singiiig, note, etc. 

C&-nu8, na, Inum, adj. Orey, 
hoary, venerabte [akin to Ka-iia, " to 

Cap-esso, easlvi or essli, essltum, 
essfire, 3. v. a. desid. [c&plo, "to 
take "]. To engage in, betake one'8 
to, undertake. 

C&pio, cepi, captum, c^pSre, 3. 
V. a.: To take in the widest sense of 
the word. To reach, arrive at, etc., 
a place. To take in, deceive, mis- 
lead [root kap, to take or hold : cp. 
KwffT}, Kdnria, Kair^ : capulus]. 

C&p-ut, Itis, n. A head [see 

carcer, firis. m. A prison, pri- 
gon-house [Sicilian, KapKap-ov]. 

card-O, Inis, m. The pivot and 
socket by which the doors of the 
ancients were flxed and made to 
open and shut ; commonly rendered, 
hitige. The tuming-point, main 
point, of matters [root kard, "to 
swinff " : cp. KpaSaetv, KapSia, cor. : 
A.S. neorte: Eng. heart]. 

carpo, carpsi, carptum, carpere, 
3. V. a. Tofeed, or hve, upan [akin 
to apir-diut, "to seize"]. 

ca-rus, ra, rum, adj. Beloved, 
dear [for cam-rus ; root kaii, " to 
love," cp. amor, i.e. camor]. 

castra, trOrum, n. plur. An en- 
campmetU, camp [root bkad, "to 
oover " : hence castra = scadtra: op. 

casa ( a cadsa); scassis ( = soadsis) : 
Qer. schatten : £ng. shade]. 

0&-8\t8, sOs, m. [for cad-sus, fr. 
o&d-o[. A ehance, aceident, event. 
Mi^fortune, calamity, ruin. 

c&terva, ae, f. A crowd, troop, 
band of persons. 

causa, ae, f. A eause, reason, 
motive [root sku, "to protect" ; cp. 
aKVToc, Kcvdciv : outis, soutum, od- 

C&V-O, ftvi, Atum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[c&v-us, "hollow"]. To hollow out, 
hoUow [root KU, " to swell out " : cp. 
KOiAo«, Kvp.a ; cumulus, oaelum ( s 

C&VU8, a, um, adj. Hollow. 

cdldbro, ftvi, fttum, are, v. a. [cSlS- 
ber, celebr-is, "much frequented"; 
hence, of a religious ceremony, etc, 
to whioh great numbers of persons 
resort]. To sokmnize, keep feative 
or festal. 

cdl-er, Sris, ere, adj. Eroot kar or 
KAL, " to move " : cp. KiWu, Kiktj^ : 
oelox, ourrere : A.S. hor-s]. Sw(ft. 

Cdldr-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[cfiler, " swift "] To quicken, to has- 
ten, or speed, on or towards ; to ac- 

cel-la, lae, f. [root kal, "to hide"; 
op. xaAia, «caAvf : oc-cul-ere : cel- 
are: oilium, claudo, oolor; A.S. 
helan: Eng. heal). A cell.. 

cel-O, &vi, atum, are, 1. V. a. To 
hide, conceal [see, cella].' 

cel-8U8, sa, sum, adj. [root kar, 
"toprojeot": cp. xapa; oer-ebrum, 
collis, columna, culmus, culmen : 
A.S. holm]. High, lofty. 

centimi, num. adj. indecl. A 
hundred. Poetically for any indefl- 
nite large number; e.g. Unnum- 
bered, countless [akin to Gr. i-Karov]. 

cemo, crSvi, cretum, cernere, 3. 
V. a. [root CER, " to separate. or di- 
vide"; cp. Kpivot, Kpiai^, Lat. cri- 
men]. To perceive, discem, ce", 
whether by the eye or the mind. 

cert-e, adv. [oert-us, "sure"] 
Surely, assuredly, certainly. 

cer-tO, tavi, t&tum, tare, 1. v. n. 
intens. [ckr, root of oer-no, "to 
flght"] [See, cemo]. To contend, 
me with one in something. 


77 f' 

oer-tus, ta, tum, adj. [ob, root 
of cer-no, "to decide"] JFixed, 
settled, anre. Trtuty, /aith/ul, etc. 

cer-vlz, vlois, f. [root KAR, "to 
projeot": op. Kifta: oelsus, oolum- 
na, coIUb, cerebrum : for cer-vehs : 
(vehs, to carry)]. A neek. 

oer-VUB, vi, m. [root kar, "to 
be hard " : cp. «^pav, xapvov : comu, 
carina : Eng. hart, hom] A stag. 

ces-80, 8&vi, sfttum, Bftre, v. n. 
inteng. [for ced-Ho ; fr. ced-o, " to go 
away "] To be remisf in any thing. 

OdtdniS, a, um (rare in sing.), 
adj. The other ; the remaining. — 
As Subst.: odtdra, Orum, n. plur. 
The remaining thirige. 

ohdrus, i, m. A dance [xopii] 

dldO, clvi, cltum, ciere, 2. v. a. 
("To make to go"; hence) To 
rouee, stir up [root ki, to stir up : 
cp. Kiut, KivvftM : citus, soUi-citus]. 

oinSTO, cinxi, cinctum, cingSre, 
8. V. a.: To aurround, encircle. Of 
birds: TowheelaroundinfAg\it. 

oinff-tUum, tUi, n. [cing-o, " to 
gird"] Agirdle,belt. 

• oiroum, adv. and prep. [prob. 
adverbial aoc. of circus, "a nng" 
[root KAR, " to ourve " : cp. Kvprli, 
KVKkoi, KpUoi : ourvus, corona, ool- 
lum] Adv.: Around, rounXl abot^^, 
all round. Prep. with Acc.: Around 

* oirotbn-&iro, Ogi, actum. ftgSre, 
8. V. a. [ciroum, ••around''; ftgo, 
"to drive"] Of a vessel as object: 
To drive round, wheel around. 

oiroum-do, dedi, d&tum, d&re, 
1. V. a. [circum, "around"; do, "to 
puV] To mrround, encirelfi, en- 

oiroum-fUndo, fadi, fasum, 
fundfire, 8. v. a. [oircum; fundo, 
"to pour"] To pour around. To 
mrround with, envelope in, a cloud, 

Olroum-tez-tus, ta, tum, adj. 
[circum, "arouiid"; tex-o, "to 
weave"] Woven around or ail 
round' ' 

dLth&ra, ae, f. A harp, dthara 

Olt-O, adv. [oit-us, "quiok"] 
Quickly. Comp. olt-Ius. 

<d-tus, ta, tum, adj. [oI-So, " to 
put in motion"] Swift, /leet. In 
adverbial force: Sw\ftly, quiekly, 

Olam, adv. Secretly, privately, 
by atealth [for calam : root kal, " to 
cover": op. KoAvirTw: celo]. 

Ol&mor, dris, m. [root kal, "to 
call": cp. icaAffti', Kkriiui (c^men 
tor, kalendae]. Outcry, clamour, 
cmi/ueed ahouting. 

Ol&-rus, ra, rum, adj. Of light: 
Clear, bri^ht. Famous, /amea, re- 
nowned, tllustrious [probably for, 
c(a)larus : same rbot as clamor]. . 

olassis, is, f. Of persons sum- 
moned for sea-service: A Aeet, 
comprising both the ships ana the 
men serving in them. [See, clamor]^ 

Olau-do, si, sum, dfire, 8. v. a. 
To shut, to shut up, cUm. To sur' 
round, shut in [klu, " to shut " : cp. 
Kktin, «cAetc : olavis]. 

olaus-trum, tri. n. [for claud- 
trum; fr. claud-o, "to shut"] A 
bar or boU. 

ooepio, i, tum, 6re and isse, 8. 
V. u. and a. [contr. fr. co&plo ; fr. co 
( =: cum), in "augmentative" force; 
ftplo. "to lay holdof"] Neut: To 
To begin, commence. Aot.: To be- 
gin or comnience something. 

ooe-tus, tfis, m. [another form 
df cdl-tus; fr. o6€o, "to come to- 
gether"; through root coi] Of per- 
sons : A meetina, company, eto. Of 
birds : A flock, body, etc. 

OO-^d-men, mlnis, n. [co ( = 
cum), " together with " ; gnd-men= 
nd-men, "a name"] A /amily or 
sumame. For no-men : A name or 

OO-gnosoo, gndvi, gnltum, gno- 
8c6re, 3. v. a. [co(=cum), in "aug- 
mentative " force ; gfnosco, «= nosco, 
"tobecome acquainted wlth"] To 
become thoroughly acqumnted Vfith ; 
to understand, leam. 

Odgro, cOegi, cOactum, cdgere, 8. 
V. a. [contr. fr. oO-ftgo; fr. co ( = 
cum), "together";ftgo, "todrive"] 
To fiirce, compel. 

OOlleotus, a, um, P. perf. pass. 
of colUgo. Having gathered up or 



OOl-UffO, l^, leotum, Wgdre, 8. 
V. a. [for con-l^^ ; fr. oon ( « oumX 
*'together": lego, "togather"] To 
gatMT together or up ; to eoUeet. 

Oollis, ifl, m. A hiU [see oervix]. 

OOllum, i, n. The neek [see, oir- 

06I0, oOlM. oultum, oOlfire, 8. v. 
a.: To inhabit. To tiU, euUivate. 
To honour, eateem, hold in /avour 
or regard. 

0dl-dnu8, Oni, m. [ool-o, " to in- 
habit"] An inhabitarA, esp. of a 
new settlement ; a settler, coloniet. 

odlumna, ae, f. A eolumn,pil- 

lar [see, cervix]. 

odma, ae, f. The hair of the 

odmlt-or, fttus sum, ftri, 1. v. 
dep. [oOmes, (^mlt-is, "a 00 m- 
panion "] Tobea eompanion to; to 
accompany, attend. P. perf. in 
pass. force : Accompanied, tUtended. 

Oommis-8Um, si, n. [for oom- 
mitt-sum; fr. eommitt-o, "tocom- 
mit " a fault, ete.] A fautt, offence, 

OOm-mittO, mlsi, missum, mit- 
tfire, 3. V. a. [com ( =» cum), " to- 
gether"; mitto, "to cause to go"] 
Of a fault, etc. To perpetrate, com- 

OOm-m6vdo, mOvi, mdtum, 
mOvere, 2. v. a. [com ( = cum), in 
" intensive " f orce ; mOvfio, " to 
move "] To disturb, affect, diequiet, 
etc. With respect to the passions, 
etc: To rouse, excite. 

oom-pasr-es, is, f. [com ( = 
ciun), "together"; pao, root of 
pango, " to fasten "] Of a structure: 
A /astening. Of the sides, etc, of 
a vessel : A joint, aeam, etc. 

oompello, &vi, fttum, are, 1. V. 
a. [compello (3. v. a.) in reflexive 
force, "to bring one's self " to a per- 
son in order to address him ; hence) 
To addresa, speak to, accoat. 

oom-pello, pOli, pulsum, pel- 
ISre, 3. V. a. [com ( = cum), in 
"strengthenin^" force; pello, "to 
drive "J To drive, /orce. 

oom-pleotor, plexus sum, 
plecti: 3. V. dep. [com ( = cum), 

" with " ; pleoto, " to entwine "] To 
embraoe, eUup. 

oomplexus, Ofl, m. [for com* 
pleot-sus; fr. oompleot-or, "to em- 
braoe "] An emlbraeing, embraee. 

oom-pdno, pflstu, pOsitum, pO< 
nSre, S. v. a. [oom ( = o*mi), " to- 
gether"; pOno, "to put"] With 
aocessoi^ notion of arrangement, 
and with personal pron. as Object: 
To reeline on a couoh at table, ete. 
Of the day : To end, eUm. (" To 
dress, or lay out, a dead boay " ; 
hence) To bury, inter. To ealm, 
stiU, aUay, appeaee. 

oondDl-o, ftvl, fttum, ftre. 1. v. 
a. [concili-um, "anassembly ] To 
make frienMy, eoneUiate, proeure 
the /avour 0/. 

oon-oltido, clOsi, olflsum, oltl- 
dfire, 3. V. a. [con (=cum), in "aug- 
mentative " foroe ; cludo = claudo, 
"toshut"] ToencUm. 

oon-ourro, ourri (rarely oflcur- 
ri), cursum, currSre, 8. v. n. [oon 
(=cum), "together"; ourro, "to 
run"[ To nteh together in battle, 

engage in eombtU, jtght. 


oonour-sus, sos, m. 
curr-Bus ; fr. concurr-o. 

[for con- 
"to run 


Assemblage, crowd. 

oon-do, dldi, dltum, dSre, 3. v. 
a. [con ( = oum), "together"; do, 
"to put^'] To ImUd. Of a state, 
etc: To /ound. Of a nation : To 
/ound, estahUsh. 

oon-fido, flsus sum, fldere, 3. v. 
semi-dep. [con ( = cum), in " inten- 
sive" force; fldo, "to trust"] To 
trust strongly, entertain a confldent 

Oon-fCiglo, ffkgi, ftigltum, fti- 

f-fire, 8. V. n. [con (=cum), "with"; 
ttglo, " to flee "] To flee /or re/u^e 
or succour. 

COn-iTZ^dcUor, gressus sum, grS- 
di, 3. V. dep. [for con-grftdlor ; fr. 
con (=cum), "together"; gr&dlor, 
"to step"] To jQfht, engfige, con- 

OOn-JunfifO, junxi, Junctum, 
JungSre, 8. v. a. [con (=cum), "to- 
^ether"; Jungo, " to Join"] To 
join together, unite. 


tentwine"] To 

m. [for oom- 
«t-or, "to em- 
Ing, embraee. 

\, pOeltum, pO- 
; = c>im), '• to- 
I put") With 

ron. as Object: 
ihattable, ete. 
, eUm. ("To 

dead boay"; 
ter. To calm, 

ium, ftre, 1. v. 
Bsembly ''] To 
iliate, procure 

, ciasum, clQ- 
mm), in " aug- 
udo s claudo, 


(rarely cflcur- 

3. V. n. [con 

' : curro, " to 

iher in battle, 



m. [for oon- 
r-o, "to run 
lage, crorod, 

m, d6re, 8. v. 

Dgether"; do, 

Of a state,' 

Ei nation : To 

1, fldSrej 3. v. 
i), in " mten- 
) trust"] To 
In a confident 

ftlgltum, ffl- 
im), "with"; 
lee /or refuge 

ms sum, grg- 
-grfidlor; fr. 
sr"; gr&dlor, 
engfige, con- 

, Junctum, 
=cum), "to- 
Join "] To 



/ ^ 

COl\)UZUC [f«r conjung-f; fr. 
oovjVQ, root of conjungo, " to ioin 
to-gether"] Ahusband. Awife. 

oo-nab-Ium, li, n. [oon ( « 
cum), "together"; nQb-o, "toveil 
one'8 self. as a bfide does ; hence, 
' ' to wed '*] Marriage, toedlock. 

con-scendc scendi, scensum, 
scendSre, 8. v. a. [for con-scando ; fr. 
con ( = cum), in " augmentative " 
foroe, scando, "to mount"] To 
mount, (ueend, elimb. Withaequor, 
ete., as Object: To navigate, eail 
over, in vessels. 

OOn-8Cl-U8, a, um, adj. [con 
( - cum), " with" ; scl-o, "to know"] 
Coneciims to one's self. 

0On-8idO, sedi, sessum, sldere, 
8. V. n. [con ( — cum), "together"; 
sldo, " to sit down "] To aettle, take 
up one's abode. 

oonsH-Xum, li, n. [prob. fo~ con- 
sfll-Ium ; fr. conatU-o, " to consult "] 
Counsel, plan. 

Con-si8to, stlti, stltum, sistSre, 
8. V. n. [con ( <— cum), in " strength- 
ening"force; sisto, "tostand"] To 
star^gtiU; t0 9top,remain. Ofthe 
mind: To be cU reet or eaee. 

con8pec-tU8, tfls, m. [con- 
splclo, "to look at"; through true 
root OONBPSO] SigtU, view. 

con-8pXcXo, spexi, spectum, 
spIcSre, 8. v. a. [for oon-specio ; fr. 
con ( as cum), in " strengthening " 
force ; speclo, " to see 'l To see, 

con-8tXtiio, stltfli, stltfltum, 
stltflSre, 3. V. a. [for con-stfttflo ; fr. 
con ( = cum), "together"; statuo, 
"to set or place"] Mentally: To 
reaolve, determine to do, etc. 

con-tendc^ tendi, tensum or ten- 
tum, tendSre, 8. v. a. [con ( = cum), 
in "intensive" force; tendo, "to 
stretch "] With Inf. : To exert one'8 
eelf, etc., vigorouely to do, etc.; to 
apply one'» self, etc., vMh zeal to 
the afoing, etc. 

con-tingro, tlgi, taotum, tmgSre, 
8. V. a. and n. [for contan|^o ; f r. con 
( = cum), in " augmentative " force ; 
tango, " to touch "] Act. : To take 
hold of, seize, lay hands on, touch. 
Neut. : To happen, faU out, coma to 

oontra, adv. and prep.: Adv.: 
On the other hand, in reply. Prep. 
gov. Acc. : Of place : Over against, 

0011tr&-riu8, rla, rlum, adj. 
[contra] Hoetite, oppoeing, unto- 

COn-tundO. tfldi, tflsum, tund- 
ere, 8. V. a. [oon( — cum), in "in- 
tensive" force; tundo, '*to bruise 
or pound "] To aubdue, overpower, 
crueh, dettroy. 

OOn-vello, velli or vulsi, vulsum, 
veliere, 3/ v. a. [oon ( — cum), in 
"augmentative" force; vello, "to 
pluok "] To rend in piecee, shatter. 

COn-ydnXo, veni, ventum, vemre, 
4. V. n. [con ( — cum), "together"; 
venlo, " to oome"] To come together, 

8. V. a. [con (»cum), in "strength- 
ening" force ; verto, "to turn "] To 
tum round, tum. 

convex-iun, i (mostly plur.), n. 
[convex-us, " concave "] A vault, 
arch. A hottow spot, a hollow, cavity. 
A sloping side, slope. 

con-viv-Xum, li [conviv-o, "to 
live together"] A feast, entertain- 
ment, oanquet. 

eo-drior, ortus sum, Orlri, 3. dep. 
[co (scuni), in " strengthening " 
force; Orlor, "to rise"] To anse, 
break forth. 

C-dp-Ia, lae, f. [contr. f r. co-op-ia ; 
fr. oo (=ciun), in " strengthening " 
force ; <ops) op-is, " means " of any 
kind] Means, power, opportunity. 

cor, cordis, n. : A heart. The 
heart or mind [see cardo]. 

C-or-am, adv. [contr. fr. co-or- 
am ; fr. co (=cum), in " strengthen- 
ing" force; o8, or-is, "the face"] 
Before one, in one's presence. 

cor-nu, nfls, n. A hom [see 

cdrdna, ae, f. A croim or eirelet 
of metal [see circum]. 

cdrdn-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[cOrdn-a, "a garland," see circum] 
Of gobiets : To fill to the brim with 

OOrp-uB, Oris, n. [root kar, "to 
ftiro» • cp. KptUvui, Kpenv: CereSy 




oresco, creare] Th$ body, A dead 
hody; a eareoM or eorjm. 

oor-rlpto, rlptli, reptum. rlpfire, 
8. V. a. [for con-rtolo ; fr. con ( = cum), 
"together"; rftplo, "to dng or 
draw "] To atixe, tnateh, take for- 
cible potaeeeion qf. Of space tra* 
versed: Tohaetenthroughoralong, 
to past quickly over. 

oor-rumpo, rapi, mptum, 
rumpere, 3. v. a. [for con-rumpo ; fr. 
con (=cum). in "intensive" force; 
rumpo, " to oreak "] To epoil, mar. 

cdrusc-US, a, um, adj. [seeceler] 
In waving motion, watAng, tremuU 

COSta, ae, f. A rib. 

c6thumUB, i, m. A high hunt- 
ing boot, laced in front, worn by the 
Oreeks [«tfdopvof ]. 

cr&tdr, firi8,-m. A bowl for mix 
ing wine * a gootet [Kparrip]. 

cre-ber, bra, brum, adj. [crb, 
root of cre-sco, "to increase," see 
corpus] Freqmnt, repeated. With 
Abl. : Fumished abundantly vnth, 
ahounding in, thiek. 

cre-do, dldi, dltum, dfire, 8. v. n. 
and a.: Neut.: To truat, believe. 
Parentheticall:^ : credo, / believe, 
tuppoae, ima^ne. 

cri-nis, nis, m. [for cre-nis ; fr. 
CRB, root of cre-sco, " to grow "] The 
hair of the head. 

Ortn-itus, Ita, Itum, adj. [crln-is, 
" hair "] With flouring hair or loek». 

orisp-O, Avi, atum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[orisp-us, ' ' curled "] To whirl round, 

orist-&tus, ftta, fttum, adj. 
[orist-a, "a cre8t"=cer-i8ta: see 
oervix] Crested, ptumed, with a 
crest or plume. 

crd-Odus, Sa, Sum, adj. [oroc- 
us, "saffron"] Safron-coloured, 

crad-elis, ele, adj. [root kru, 
"to be hard": cp. «pvof, Kpvii.6t, 
KpvcrraAAof : criior, caro, crusta] 
Oruel, hard-hearted. Of hatred : 
Bitter, fieree. 

crdentus, a, um, adj. [prob. 
akin to craor, "blood"] Btoody, 
blood-stained, gory. 

OUm. prep. gov. abl. With [akln 
to Or. (vi' (for Kvv), «vv]. 

Oii-mQlnB, maii, m. [see cavo] 
A heap, pile, ma$e. 

cunotus, a, um(mostfrequently 

flur.), adj. [oontr. from conjunotus, 
'. perf. pass. of conjungo, "to Join 
or unite together." or co-vinotus, 
" bound together ''] AU, the vfhole, 
the whole o/. As Subst. : ounoti, 
Omm, m. plur. AU. 

our, (anoiently quor), adv. 
[contr. fr. quft re, or oui rei; the 
abl. or dat. of qui and res, respec- 
tively] Why. 

our-a, ae, f. [for coer-a ; fr. coer-o, 
old form of quaer-o, " to seek " ; root 
Ki, "to searoh"] Care, angeiety, 
solicitvde. An objeet of care, a care. 

curro. cacurri, cursum, currSre, 
3. V. n. To run [see celer]. 

C\UT-US, as (Dat. ourru, v. 156). 
m. [curr-o, " to run " ; see curro] A 
chariot, car. 

cur-sus, sOs, m. [for currsus; fr. 
curr-o, " to run *'] A voyage, course, 
by sea, etc. 

cuspis, Idis, f. [root ki, "to 
sharoen " : see creo] A spear, lance, 

custos, ddis, comm. gen. [root 
bkii, "to oover": see causa] A 
keeper, guardian. CoUectively : 
Ouards; an armedforce. 

oycnus, i, m. A swan [root 
kan, "to Bing," or "sound": see 

d&, pres. imper. of do. 

dap-s, is (Qen. Plur. seems not 
to ocour), f. A richfeast, a mag- 
nijicent banquet [aldn to 8air, root 
of Wir-Tw, "todevour,"and2air-dvi}, 

d&-tor, tdris, m. [d(a)-o, "to 
give "] A giver, bestower. 

de, prep. gov. abl. : Of local re-- 
lations: From, dotmfrom; away 
from, out of. Of time: Direetly 
after. Of origin, etc. : From ; a^;- 
cording to, in accordance with, ctf- 

dda, ae, f. [akin to deus] A god- 




M. With [akin 

\, m. [see cavo] 

'most frequently 
rom eonjunotus, 
Jungo, ^' to Joln 
or co-vinotut, 
AU, the v^ole, 
ubst.: ounoti, 

quor), adv. 
or cui rei; tlie 
ind res, respec- 

>er-a ; f r. coer-o, 
' to seelc " ; root 
Care, anxiety, 

iirsum, currfire, 

curru, v. 156). 
; seecurro] A 

voyage, course, 

[root Ki, «to 
A apear, lance, 

tm. gen. [root 

9ee causa] A 

Collectively : 


A swan [root 
"sound": see 


iir. seems not 

^e(Mt, a mag- 

to 8an, root 

' and Jair-avi), 

[d(a)-o, "to 

Of looal re- 
from; away 
le : JDireetly 

From; ac- 
nce with, af- 

eus] A god- 

dtedr-Ufl, a, um, adl. [dteor, 
dfioOr-is, " graoefolneM "] GroM- 
/uX, etegant, beauti/uL 

dte-us, Oris, n. [dto-et, "it i» 
beooming"] Ornaiment, deeoration, 

dd-ffttiaoor, feMui sum, fStiaoi, 
8. V. dep. inoli. [for dfi-fatiscor ; fr. 
d«, in "strengtnening" force; f&- 
tifloor, " to grow faint"] To beeome 
quite/aint or weary. 

dd-flffo, fixi, flxum, flgfire, 8. v. 
a. [da, •'down" ; flgo, "to flx"] Of 
tlie eyes : To/<uten, orfix intently, 
downward» on some objeot be- 

dd-fltlo, fluxi, fliixum, flflfire, 8. 
v. a. [de, "down" ; flQo, "toflow"] 
Of a garment : To /au in JUming 
/oldt ; to detcend, etc. 

de-hino, adv. [de, "from"; 
hinc, "henoe"] Hereupon, a/ter- 
ward», ttext, then. 

dd-hlsoo, hlvi, no 8up., hisofire, 
8. V. n. [de, " asunder " ; hisco, " to 
yawn"] To yaton, or gape, aeun- 

dd-inde, adv. [dfi, "from"; in- 
de, "thence"] Of succession : A/- 
terwarda, next in order, t^fter that. 
Of time : In the next plaee, a/ter- 
toardn, after that. 

demis-sus, sa, sum, adj. [for 
demitt-8us ; fr. demitt-o, "to send 
down "] Downcatt, bendina down- 
warde. Of genealogioal desoent: 
Derived, deseendjed. 

de-mitto, mlsi. mlssum, mit- 
tfire, 8. v. a. [de, ^'down"; mitto, 
' ' to send "] To aend dovm. 

dem-um, adv. [a lengthened 
f orm of the demonstrative particle 
dem in i-dem, t&n-dem] At l^ngth, 

de-ni, nae, na, num, adj. plur. 
[for deo-ni ; fr. dfio-em, *• ten "] 

de-penddo, no perf. nor sup., 
pendere, 2. v. n. [de, " down^* ; 
pendfio, "to hang"] With Abl. : 
To hang dovm, or depend, /rom. 

deriplo, rlptU, reptum, rlpSre, 8. 
v. a. [for de-r&plo ; fr. de, " away " ; 
r&plo, " to tear "] To tear away or 

desert-a, Orum, n. plur. [desert* 
us,"desert, soUtaiy"] Jh$»rt,tol- 
itary, or watte plaeet ; dmrtt. 

dd-siStO, stlti, stltum, sistCre, 8, 
V. n. [de, "away from"; sisto, ''to 
set one's self , stand "] To leave off, 
give over, eeate, detitt. 

deepeo-to. t&vi, tttum. tbre, 1. 
V. a. uitens. [despioio, ''^to look 
down upon," through root bpbc] 
To look down upon imently from a 

dd-spXcdo, spexi, speotum, spl- 
ofire, 8. V. a. [for de-sptolo ; fr. de, 
" down upon " ; speoio, " to look "] 
To look dhum upon f rom a height. 

dd-suesoo. suevi, suetum, sues- 
ofire, 8. V. a. [de, denoting " remo- 
val"; suesco, "to aooustom"] To 
disaccuMom, bring out o^ute. 

dd-siiper, adv. [de, "from"; 
super, " above "] From above. 

de-trddo. trflsi, trOsum, trfl- 
dfire, 8. v. a. [de, "down " ; trOdo, 
" to thrust "] To thrutt down or off 

ddus, i. m. Affod [root div, " to 
be bright '' ; cp. ii.Fo%, a^Aof : dies, 

de-VdxdO, veni, ventum, vfinlre, 
4. V. a. [de, "down"; vfinlo, "to 
oome "] With Aoo. of plaoe : To 
eome to, arrive at. 

dd-vdvdo, v5vi, vOtum, vOvere, 
2. V. a. [de, "from"; vOvOo, "to 
vow"] In a bad sense: To devote, 
dettine, to some misfortune. 

dextr-a, ae, f. [dexter, dextr-i, 
"right, on the right side"; root 
DBK, " to receive," or dik, " to 

S>int out"; cp. Acyouai, StUvvit.i: 
co, index] The r%ght hand. 

dloI-O, Onis, f. [perhaps fr. dic-o, 
"to say"] Diyminion, power, au- 

diOO, dixi, diotum, dlcfire, 8. v. 
a. [root dik, "tp point out"; cp. 
itUwfjn, SiKTi : digttus, indioo] To 
tay, teU, tpeak ; to reuste, dedare ; 
to caU, name. 

dXo-O, ftvi, atum, ftre, 1. v. a. To 
tet apart, give up, appropriate 
[akin to dioo]. 

dic-tum, ti, n. [dio-o] A word, 
order, command. 



dlM, tl, m. (In tinff. sometlmM 
f.) : A day, ths light qf day, th» 
dayliffht [lee detu]. 

dlf-ftindo, ffldi, f Oium, fundfire, 
8. V. a. [for dli-fundo; fr. dli, "in 
different directiom " ; fundo, " to 
pour out"] Of the loclis : To 
$pread or w^fl about. 

dlignOT, ttui lum, ftri, 1 V. dep. 
[dign-ui, "wortliy"] To deem or 
noM one, etc, worthy of lomething. 

difr-nus, na, num, adj. [root; 
lee oioo] Of things : Suitable, ft, 
beeoming, proper ; that qf whieh 
one, eto., it worthy. 

dl-UffO. Ifixi, leotum, Ilgfire, 8. v. 
a. [for dl-Iego ; fr. di ( . dii), 
"apart"; ICgo, "to chooie"] To 
value, or eeteem, highly ; to love. 

dl-mitto, mlsi, miiiimi, mittfire, 
3. V. a. [dl(»di8), "apart"; mitto, 
"toiend"] Te/^mid about in dif- 
ferent directione or to different 

dl-rlffO, rexi, rectum, rlgSre, 8. 
V. a. [for dl-rfigo ; fr. dl (— dii), in 
" itrengthening " force; rSgo, "to 
keep, or put, itraight"] To guide, 

dfrus, a, um, adj. Fearful. 
dreadful, horribU [prob. akin to 
«et«to», "tofear"]. 

dl8:;o, dldlci, no sup., discSre, 
3. V. a. To leam [root dik ; lee 

discri-men, mlnii, n. [for dis- 
cre-men ; fr. discerno, "to separ- 
ate," through rootCRE] Distinction, 
difference ; risk, hazard, danger. 

dis-cumbo, cflbOi, ctlbltum, 
cumb^re, 3. v. n. [dis, "towards 
dillerent sides " ; cumbo, " to lie 
down "] To lie doim by atretchiv-q 
one'8 m\f out from one side of a 
couch, etc, to the other ; to recline 
on a couch, etc. 

dis-JId[0, jeci," Jectum, Jicfire, 3. 
V. a. [lor dis-jaolo ; fr. dis, " asun- 
der " ; jaclo, ' ' to throw "] To scat- 
ter, dieperse. 

dis-junero, junxi, Junctum, 
Junggre, 3. v. a. [dis, denoting " op- 
position " or " reversal " ; Jungo, 
"to Join"] To divide, part, re- 

di*-p«Uo, pQU, pulram, pelMre, 
8. V. a. [dii, "in difTerent dlreo- 
tloni " ; peUo. " to drive "] To dHiA 
in difertnt direeHom ; to ditpene, 

disalmiU-o. ftvl, fttum. ftre, 1. v. 
a. [for dinimU-o; fr. diMimU*li, 
"unlike"! Without nearer Obieot : 
To eoneeaX or hid» one'$ telf; to re» 
main ooneealed or hidden. 

dis-tendo, tendi, tenium, or 
tentum, tendfire, 8. v. a. »[dii, 
" apart " ; tendo, " to itretoh ") To 
awell out, distend. 

dl-tlo, tlonii, f. [prob. for dfi-tlo ; 
fr. DB, root of do, ''to put"] Do- 
minion, »u>ay, rule, autnority, 
power. See dicio. 

dlu, adv. [odverbial abl. of obiol. 
dlui (>-dIei), " a day "] For a long 
time ; a lonq while. (Comp. : dlQt- 
ius ; Sup. : diutisslme.) 

dlv-a, ae, f. [akin to divus ; lee 
deui, for not] 4 female deity, a 

dIver-BU8, la, sum. adj. [for 
divert-sus ; fr. divert-o, " to tum in 
a diflerent direction "] Turned in 
different directions, i. e., hither and 
thither; variovs, different, diverse. 

div-es, Itis, adj. Wit!i Gen. : 
Rich or abounding in. (Comp. : 
dltlor) ; Sup. : ditissimus [akin to 
root Div, "to siiine" ; see deus]. 

dl-vldo, vlsi, vlsum, vldfire, 8. v. 
a. To divide out, distribute [di 
(=di8), " asunder " ; root vid, " to 
separate " ; cp. viduus, vidua ; Eng. 

div-inus, ina, Inum, adj. [dlv-us, 
" a deity "] Divine, heavenly. 

dlV-US, i. (Gen. plur. divfkm), m. 
A deity, a god [dlv-us, "divine"]. 

do, dSdi, d&tum, d&re, 1. v. a. 
To give in the widest sense of the 
word.— Phrases : Dare vela (to give 
the sails to the wind ; i. e.) to set 
sail. Dare amplexQs (to give em- 
braces ; i. e.) to embrace. Of 
sounds : To ^ive, or pour, forth ; to 
allow,permit [root da, "to give"; 
cp. Si-Bu-m, ioariK, S&nip : datorj. 

d6c-§0, tti, tum, 6re, 2. v. a. 
[akin to dlc-o, " to say "] To teach, 
instruct, inform. 



pulium, pelMre, 
durerant direo* 
rive"] TodHiA 
n$ ; to ditptte, 

Itum, tre, 1. v. 
fr. diarimiMi, 
; neftrer ObJeot : 
•n«*» $$1/; to f». 

11, temum, or 
l V. o. •(dle, 
oitretoh"] To 

•rob. for dfi-tlo ; 

to put"l Do' 

le, authority, 

al abl. of obiol. 
"J For a Uyng 
(Comp. : dlQt- 

to divus ; see 
imale deity, a 

lum. adj. [for 
-o, "totumin 
"] Tumed in 
e., hither and 
'erent, diverse. 

Wit!i Qen. : 
in. (Comp. : 
mus [alcin to 
see deus]. 

a, vldere, 3. v. 
distribute [di 
root viD, "to 
, vidua ; Ent;. 

a, adj. [dlv-us, 

ir. divtUn), m. 

iire, 1. V. a. 
; sense of the 

vela (to give 

i. e.) to eet 
(to give em- 
nUn-ace. Of 
'wr, fmrth ; to 

■'to give"; 
Tp: dator]. 

Bre, 2. v. a. 
] To teaeh. 

; i^ 





ddUk>. fli, Itum, «re, 2. v. n. and 
«. : Neui : To grieve or aorrow. 
Ao%. : To griev or eorrow at or over, 
to lament, eto. 

ddl-or. Oria, m. [dOl-«o, "to 
grieve "] Orit(f, torrow. 

ddl-US, i, m. Cfraft, /raud, guiU, 

ddmln-or, Atui «um, ftri, i. v. 
dep. [domIn-u8, " lord," " master " ; 
root OAM. " to oonquer " ; op. Aom^i 
iifiafi : domo ; Eng. tame] To bear 
rtUe, hold noay, have the dominion. 

ddm-InuB, Ini, m. [either fr. 
dOm-iis, and bo, " One pertaining to 
the houee " : or, rather, f rom dOm-o, 
andso, "The subduer," e<<;.] Mas- 
ter, ruler, lord. 

ddmus, i and Qs, f. : A dwell- 
ing, abode, houae; afamily, houee, 
line lS6not]. 

dOneo, eonj. (Tntil, till at 

dO-num, ni, n. [for d&-num ; fr. 
DA, root of do, " to «five "] A gift, 
present ; a votive gift, or offering, 
to a deity. 

d-orsum, orsi, n. [contr. fr. de- 
vorsum; fr. de. "downwards"; 
vorsum, "tumed"] Of roclcs: A 

d{kb-IU8, la,. lum, adj. [obsol. 
dttb-o, "to move two ways, vibrate 
to and fro " ; fr. dtto, " two "] 
Doubtful, uncertain. 

diiCO, duxi, ductum, dttcfire, 3. 
V. a. : To lead, condv^t, bring on 
or forwa/rd ; to fonn, conetruct, 
erect; to derive one'8 origin, etc, 
descewl; to draw, dedv4X, derive ; 
to prvlong. 

duo-tor, t6ri8, m. [duc-o, "to 
lead '^] A teader. 

dulc-is, e, adj. : Sweet in taste ; 
Stoeet, delightful; dear, beloved 
[usually oonsidered alcin tc yAvKvs]. 

dum, conj. [akin to diu] While, 
whilet, during the time that ; yet, 
now ; \f 80 be that, provided that, 
80 that ; Until that, until. 

dii-plez, pllcis, adj. [for du- 

J>lic-8 ; fr. du-o, "two" ; pllc-o, "to 
old"] Two-fold, d&uble. Plur. : 

dAr-O, tvi, Itum, Ire, 1. ". n. 
(dur-ua, "hard"] Ofpenons: Ai> 
dure, hold out, eto. 

dOrua. a, um, adj. Hard In 
nature, ete. ; ur^fortunate, adveree. 

duz, dflois, comm. gen. (for 
duo-8, fr. dflo-o, "to lead"] A 
leader, eonductor, guide ; a leader, 

d ; see ex. 

6bur, Oris. n. Jvory. 

d-diioo, duxi, ductum, dac£re, 
8. V. a. [e (— ex, " out " ; dflco, " to 
lead "] To lead out ovforth. 

eff&ro, extttli, elfttum. efferre. v. 
a. irreg. [forex-f£ro ; fr. ex, "out" ; 
ffiro, *"to bear "] To bear, carry, or 
bTing out or forth ; to raiee up or 
ahft; touplift. 

ef-fldo, ffici, fectum." fIo£re, 8. 
V. a. [for ex-f&clo ; fr. ex. "out"; 
f&clo. " to make "] To form, make 

ef-fddlo, fOdi. fossum, fOdSre, 8. 
V. a. [for ex-fodlo: fr. ex, "out"; 
f Odlo, ' ' to dig "] To dig out or up ; 
to excavate. 

ef-fundo. fttdi, fasum, fundere, 
8. V. a. [for ex-fundo ; fr. ex, 
"forth"; "fundo, "to pour"] Of 
life : To reeign, give up. 

dgrens, ntis: P. pres. of egeo. 
Needy, destitvte. 

dffe-nus, na, num, adj. [egg-o, 
"tobein need"] With Gen. : In 
need, or deetituie, of. 

6g-6o, tti, no sup., ere, 2. v. n. 
To oe needy or in need [root aoh, 
" to be in want " ; cp. axrjp]. 

dero, Oen. mei (Plur. nos, Oen. 
nostrum or nostri), pron. pers. I. 

e-gnrddlOr, gressus sum, grSdi, 
3. v. dep. [for e-gr&dlor ; fr. e (=^ex}, 
"out"; gradlor, "to step "] To 
diifenibark, land, from a vessel. 

e-ffrdglu8, a, um, adj. [e (o=ex), 
"from"; grex, "a flock"] Emi- 
mnt, fammis. 

6-jIcIo. jeci, Jectum, Jlcgre, 3. v. 
a. [for e-j&clo ; fr. e (=sex), " out" ; 
J&clo, "to cost"] To caM or throw 
out. P. perf. poss. : Wrecked, ehip' 
wrecked, caat aehore. 



6-l&bor. lapsus sum, l&bi, 3. v. 
dep. [e («ex). " out or away from " ; 
Iftbor, "to glide"] To sHp away 
from, toegeaper 

d-mltto, mlsi, missum, mitt£re, 
3. V. a. [ej— ex), "out"; mitti-, "to 
gend "] To gend out or forth , to let 

dQ, interj. Lo ! behold ! 

dnim, conj. : Truly, certainly, 
surely, indeed ; for. 

6-0, Ivi or li, Itum, Ire, v. n. To 
go [root I, (dtin to Gr. i-^i^aij. 

dddem, adv. [eomdem => eun- 
dem, acc. sing. of idem, "the 
same "] To the same place. 

6p(Uae, ftrum, f. plur; A feast, 

d-quXdem. adv. [for ec-qu!dem ; 
fr. demonatrative sufHx ce, chang^ 
before the k sound into ec ; quidem, 
"indeed"] Ind^d, verily, truly. 

dQU-U8, i, m. A horse [akin to 
Gr. iK«c-oc=.tirir-o«; root ak, "swift" ; 
cp. wKvv : aquila]. 

erffO, adv. [akin to vergo, "to 
bend itself, incline "] Ther^ore, in 
consequ,ence, consequently. 

e-xipio, rlptli, reptum, rlpSre, 3. 
V. a. [for 6-r&pIo; fr. 6 ( = ex)» 
" away " ; rftplo, " to snatch "] To 
snatch away; to deliver, setfree. 

erro, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. n. To 
wander, rove, stray. 

err-or, Sris, m. [perhaps = ers- 
or ; fr. ars, to move quickly ; hence, 
a wandering] A wandering. 

d-rumpo, rQpi, ruptum, rum- 
p6re, 3. v. a. [6 ( = ex), "out"; 
rumpo, "to break"] Tohreak out 
from, to sally forth from. 

6t, conj.: ^nd:— et . . . et, 
both . . . and. And too, and 
moreover [akin to Gr. «T-t, "more- 

dtlam, conj.: And also, further- 
tnore, moreover, likewise, Even 
[akin to crt ; Lat. et]. 

e-verto, verti, versum, vertfire, 
8. V. a. [6(=ex), "out"; verto, "to 
tum"] Ofthewaters: Toupheave, 

ez (S), prep. gov. abl.: Out of. 
Away from, from among, from the 

midst cf. Of. Of time: From, 

ezactus. a, um: P. perf. pass. 
of exlgo. Preeise, accurate, exact. 
As Subst.: exacta, Orum, n. plur. 
Accurate things, i.e. precise or exact 

ez-&ldm-us, a, um, adj. [ex. de- 
noting " netration" ; &nlm-a, "life"] 
Withovt, or devoid of, l^e ; lifeless, 

ex-audlo, audlvi or audli, aud- 
Itum, audlre, 4. v. a. [ex, " without 
force"; audlo, "to hear"] With- 
out nearer object : To hear. 

ez-cedo, cessi, cessum, c6dSre, 
3. V. n. [ex, "forth" ; cedo, " to gon 
With Abl.: To go forth, or deparf, 
from ; to leave. 

ezdtd-Ium, li, n. [for exscldltun : 
fr. ExsciD, true rootof exscindo, "to 
destroy "] Destruction, overthrow. 

ez-ddo, cldi, no sup., cldSre, 3. 
V. n. [for ex-c&do; fr. ex, "out"; 
cftdo, " to fall "] To slip out, escape, 
from the mind, memory. 

ez-CldO, cldi, clsum, cTdSre, 3. v. 

"to cut"] 

fr. ex, "out"; 
To cut, or Jiew, 

a. [for 



ez-clplo, c6pi, ceptum, clpSre, 
3. V. a. [for ex-capio ; fr. ex, " with- 
outlorce"; c&plo, "to take"] To 
take, receive. 

ez-CtldO, cQdi, cQsum, cQdere, 
3. v. a. [ex, "out": cfldo, "to 
etrike "] To strike forth or out ; to 
produce by striking. 

ez-ciitlo, cussi, cussum, ctttSre, 
3. V. a. [for ex-qu&tlo; fr. ex, "out!' ; 
quatio, "to shake"] To shake out 
or off from any thing. 

ez-do, Ivi or II, Itum, Ire, v. n. 
[ex, "out"; eo, "to go"] To go 
out or forth from a place. 

ez-ercdo, ercOi, ercltum, erc6re, 
2. V. a. [for ex-arc6o ; fr. ex, denot- 
ing " opposition " ; arcfio, "to en- 
close"] To drive on or about; to 
keep busy, exerdse, em^loy, etc. To 
practise, foUow, employ one's seif 

ez-haurlo, hausi, haustum, 
haurlre, 4. v. a. [ex, "out"; haurlo, 
" to draw " water] To drain a per- 



time: JVowi, 

: P. perf. pass. 

lecurate, excust. 

5rum, n. plur. 

predte or exact 

m, adj. [ex, de- 
ftnlm-a, "ifee"] 
f, life ; lifeUsa, 

or audli, aud- 
[ex, "without 

hear"] With- 


essum, cedSre, 
ccdo, "togon 
rth, or deparf. 

[for exscldlum : 
f exscindo, "to 
m, overthrow. 

mp., cldSre, 8. 
r. ex, "out"; 
lip ovt, eecape, 

m, cldgre, 8. v. 
t ex, "out"; 
► cut, or hew, 

ptum, clpSre, 
fr. ex, " with- 
bo talce "] 2'o 

isum, cQd£re, 

: cQdo, "to 

rthorout; to 

ssum, cttt^re, 
r. ex, "out" ; 
To shake out 

im, Ire, v. n. 
go"] To go 

$Itum, ercere, 
r. ex, denot- 
560, "to en- 
or about; to 
9loy, etc. To 
yy one'8 self 

ut"; haurlo, 
dram a per- 



son of resources, etc.; to impoverUh, 
reduee to poverty or want. 

ez-I|ro, figi, aotum, Igfire, 8. v. a. 
[for ex-&go ; fr. ex, " out" ; &go, "to 
drive "] Of time : To pass, epend, 
lead. To weigh aeeurately in the 

ex-Imo, emi. emptum, ImSre, 3. 
V. a. [ex, "out'* or "away"; 6mo, 
" to talce "] To remove. 

ex-pdd-IO, Ivi or li, Itum, Iri, 4. 
V. a. [ex, "out of"; pes, pM-is, 
• • the f oot "] To prepare, get ready, 

ex-pello, ptUi, pulsum, pellSre, 
3. V. a. [ex, "out"; pello, " to 
drive "] To drive out, expel. 

ex-pdrior, pertiis sum, pgrlri, 4. 
V. dep. [ex, in " intensive^' force ; 
pfirior, " to try "] To prove, put to 
the test. In perf . tenses : To experi- 
ence; to know or prove by experi- 

ex-pldo, plevi, pletum, plere, 2. 
V. a. [ex, in " strengthening " force ; 
pl5o, "to flll"] 0! thne: To c<ym- 
plete, finish, etc. To satisfy. 

ex-pldro, pldrftvi, pldritum, pld- 
rire, 1. v. a. [ex, in " intensive " 
force; pldro, "to call out"] To 
search out, seek to diseover, ascer- 

ex-sdro, sSrOi, sertum, sSrSre, 3> 
V. a. [ex, " out or forth " ; sSro, " to 
put"] To be bare, uncovered, naked. 

ex-spiro, splrivi, splratum, spl- 
rare, 1. v. n. [ex, "forth"; splro, 
" to breathe"] To breatlie fwrth or 

ex-templo, adv. [oontr. fr. old 
ex-tempdlo ; fr. ex, " immediately 
after " ; tempQlum, a dimin. form of 
tempus, " tinae "] Forthunth, at 

. extremus, a, um, sup. adj. 
(" Outermost " ; hence) Of place : 
Furtfiest, extreme. As Subst. : ex- 
trema. 6rum, n. plur. The fur- 
thest parts. In quality or degree : 
Extreme, utmost. As Subst. : ex- 
trem-a, Srum, n. plur. Extrema 
things, extremities. 

exCLo. tli, Qtum, tkSre, 3. v. a. 
Toput off from one'8 self ; to lay 

ex-i!Lro, ussi, ustum, Qr&re, 3. v. 
a. [ex, denoting " completeness " ; 
Oro, "to burn"] To burn up, de- 
stroy by buming orftre. 


f&C-Ies, lei, f. [prob. fr. Uc-Io, 
"to make"] Make, form, figure, 

f&C-ilis, Ile, adj. [facio, "todo"; 
through root fac] Easy, prosper- 
ous ; suitable, adapted. 

f&cio, feci, factum, facSre, 3. v. 
a. To make in the widest sense of 
the term. With double Acc. : To 
make an object that which is de* 
noted by the seoond Acc. To do 
[root alcln to fu, " to be " in a caus- 
ative sense ; cp. fu-i ; -bam, in impf. 
of active verb : ^vca]. 

fac-tum, ti, n. A deed, act [see 

fiaJ-lO, fSfelli, falsum, faliere, 3. 
V. a. To deceive ; to imitate or as- 
sume for the purpose of deception 
[root SPAL or spar, "to fall or 
tumble " ; cp. a<t>aK\etv, anaiptiv, 
iraAAeii' ; spemo, peliere, pvdvis, 
pOpulus (poplar)]. 

falsus, a, um : P. perf. pass. of 
fallo: Deceptive,' false ; supposed, 
as opposed to true or real. 

fama, ae, f. [root fa, "to say ; " 
cp. ^rifii, (^arif ; fari, fabula] Fame, 

f&-mes, mis, f. [for fav-mes] 
Hunger [root bhao, "to eat^'; cp. 
«/»i)Y(ic, ^ayeii' ; fagus]. 

f&milla, ae, f. A femaU servant 
or attendant [for fac-mula, from 
facio, "todo"]. 

f&miUus, tlli, m. A servant, 
attendant [see famula]. 

fa-ndus. nda,ndum, adj. [f(a)-or, 
"to spealc'] JiiQht, proper, etc.— 
As Subst. : fandum, i, iv ^^iHffht, 
that which is rightful. 

fas, n. indecl. [see fandus] A law- 
ful, fit, or right thing. 

fasti^-ium, li, n. [fastig-o, "to 
make pomted "] A projecting point 
or the kighest elevation of a bujlding, 
ete. ; a pinnacle, battlement. Of 
narratives, events, etc.: The leadinj 
or main point ; the head. 



t&tigo, Avi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. : 
To weury, tire out, /atigue. To 
plague, vex, wear owt, 

f&-tl800, no perf. nor sup., ti»- 
c6re, 8. V. n. To gape open, yawii 
amnder [prob. akin to xa> root of 
X«-ivt», " to gape or yawa "]. 

fft^tum.ti: n. [f(a)-or, "to speak"] 
Demny,/(ae. Plur.: Pensonifled: 
TheFatet; the goddeeses qf deatiny. 

f&V-dO, fftvi, fautum, f&vere, 2. 
V. n. To be /avourable ; to be ivell 
dispoted or incKned. 

tB^-Xf cis, f. A torek [root fa, 
"toshme": op. ^a-«iVu, ^«Loc : fen- 

fe-liz, llcis, adj. [root rm, "to 
produce " : cp. ^vcw : f ui, fetusj For- 
tunate, happy. 

fd-mJna, mlnae, f. [see felix] A 
/emaU, a, woman. 

fdr-a. ae, f. [cp. ^rjp: ferus: Eng* 
deer] A vnM beaet. 

fSrin-a, ae, f. [f6rin-u8, '• of, or 
belongringto, a Wild animal" : hence, 
with especial reference to stags. 

fSrlo, no perf. nor sup., ire, 4. v. 
a. To gtrike. 

fdro, tOli, latum, ferre, v. irreg. : 
To bear, carru, brtng, eonvey. To 
bear one'a aelf along. To waUc on- 
warda. To preaent one'a aelf To 
raiae, li/t up [roots are Pni and tul. 
The second root has the form of TOii, 
TLA or TAL. The supine latum- 
tlatum, is derived from this latter 
root : Cl^. rAau, TdAavToi', ^tfpw : 
tollo, sus-tul-i]. 

f&roz, Scis, adj. : In a good 
sense: Spirited, bold, courageoua. 
Warlike. Ir. a bad sense : Fieree, 

ferruxn, i, n. Iron. A aword. 
The iron-head of a spear. 

teit-v6o, btti, no sup., vere, 2. v. 
n. [cp. dipta, ^ipoi, depfxof ; febris : 
torreo ; Eng. dry] Of a work : To 
glow, i.e., to be carried on warmly 
or briakly. 

fes-SUB, sa, 8um, adj. [for fat- 
sus; fr. f&t-isco, "to grow weary"] 
Wearied, weary, icorn out, ex- 


f6-tus. tQs, m. [f6-o. "to pro* 
duce"] Progeny, offapnng, young, 

f(S-tU8, ta, tum, adj. [id., root pb, 
"to produce": see felix] Fmd 
with, abounding in, eto. 

fXd-ee, 6i, f. [fld-o, "to trust"] 
Personifled : Faith as a goddess. 

flduc-Ia, lae, f . [obsol. flduc-us or 
fldux, fldOc-is, "trusting"] Trvst, 
confidence, asaurance. 

fld-U8. a, um, adj. [fld-o, "to 
trust"] Truated, truatworthy, to be 
relied on, /aith/uL 

tiso, flxi, flxum, flg£re, 8. v. a. : 
ToJUe./aaten [cp. vitiy-yt», "tobind 

f!Uu8. li, m. A aon [root fb, " to 
produce": seefelix]. 

fl-ni8, nis, m. [prob. for fldnis; 
fr. flndo " to divide " ; through root 
FiD] An end, termination, conclu- 
aion. Plur. : Bordera of a country ; 
territory, land, coiintry. 

fla^rrans, ntis : P. pres. of flagro. 
Olomng, impaaaioned. 

fl&GT-ro, rftvi, rfttum, rftre, 1. v. n. 
To flame, or blaze ; to bum [flao, 
"to bum": cp. ^Kiytw. flamma 

flam-ma, mae, f. A /Unme. T/ie 
Jlame of love [f or flagma ; f r. ^Acy-w ; 
see flagro]. 

flamm-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, l. y. a. 
[flamm-a, "a flame"] To injlame, 
aet on Jire, whether actually or flgu- 

fl&V-us, a, um, adj. [prob. for 
flag-vus, same source as flamma ; see 
flampia] YeUow. 

flectO, flexi, fleXum, flectSre, 8. 
V. a. To bend, tum, tum round 
[prob. akin to irAtfx-w, "to plait or 

fldr-dU8, ea, Sum, adj. [flos, fldr- 
is, "aflower"] FUnDery,deckedwith 


flds, fldris, m. A flmoer [root 
BHLA, "to flourish": cp. ^kiuv; 
florere, fluere ; A.S. bloom, blood]. 

fluc-tus, tfls, m. [for flugvtns; 
fr. fldo, through root fluov] A bil- 
low, wave. 





Iffi-o, "to pro- 
ffspnrtg, young, 

dj. [id., root n. 
e felixj FiUed 

■o, "to trurt"! 

bsol. flduc-U8 or 
Btingr"] Trust, 

dj. [tld-o, "to 
utworthy, to be 

tlgire, 8. V. a. : 
iy-yu», "tobind 

•» [root FB, " to 

ob. for fidnis; 
; throughroot 
%ation, conclu- 
« of a country ; 

pres. of flagro. 
n, rftre, 1. v. n. 

to bum [FLAO, 

(yttv: flamma 

Aflame. The 

n, ftre, 1. y. a. 

To inflame, 

tually or figu- 

IJ. [prob. for 
B flamma ; see 

n, flectSre, 3. 
tum round 
"to plait or 

dj. [flos, fldr- 
f, declud urith 

flower [root 
cp. ^Kieiv, 
om, blood]. 

br flugrvtns; 
kUOV] A bil' 

flfl-men, mlnis, n. [flti-o, "to 
flow "] A etream, river. Of tean : 
A ttream, flood. 

HtiO, fluxi, fluxuni, flafire, 8. v. n. 
Of things not fluic^: Toflow,etream 
[root PLU, "to flow, to Bwim": cp. 
irAtfw, ffAotov; pluo, pluvia: Eng. 

fltiV-Ius, H, m. [for flugv-ius ; fr. 
fluo, " to flow," through root fluov ; 
see flno] A river. 

foed-U8, firis, 
fld-o, "totrust"] 

FB, "toproduce" 

15-me8, mltis, 
fr. f6v-€o, "tofoeter"] Touchwood, 
to receive the sparlc struclc out f rom 

fon-8, tis, m. [prob. for fund-ts ; 
fr. fund-o, "to pour forth"] Of a 

n. [for fld-us; fr. 
A league, treaty, 

A Uat [roo|; fu or 
: seefado]. 

m. [for fov-mes ; 

(for), ffttus Bum, fftri, 1. v. dep. : 
Without nearerObJect: To speak. 
To epeak, say, utter [see fama]. 

fdre (=futurum esse), fut inf. of 

fdr-is, is, f. A door [akin to Gr. 
Mp-a ; Eng. door]. 

for-ma, mae, f. [for fer-ma; fr. 
ffir^o] Form in the widest sense of 
the word ; shape, eontour, fl^ure. A 
tbae/orm, beauty. 

fors, abl. forte, f . [prob. for fer- 
tis, fr. f6r-o, "tobring"] Chanee, 
hap. Adverbial Abl. : By chanice. 

fors-an, adv. [elliptically f or fors 
sit an, " whether there be a chanoe"] 
Perchance, perhapa. 

forte ; see fors. 

for-tis, te, adj 

brave, bold. (Cornp , _ .^. 

fort-isslmus [cp. ^ap<r«iv; Eng. dare], 

fort-una, flnae, f. [fors, fortis] 
Fortune whether ffood or bad. Per- 
sonified : The goddess Fortune. 

fortuna-tus, ta, tum, adj. [for- 
tfln(a)-o, "to make fortunate"] 
Bappy, lucky, /ortunate. As Subsj;.: 
forti!ln&-tU8, i, m. A happy, 
or /ortunate, person. 

fort-Ior) Sup. : 

f6ydO, idvi, fdtum, fOvSre, 2. v. a. 
Tocherish,/oster. Toclaspinwarm 
enibraee, etc. ; to et^fold warmly in 
the bosom, ete. Mentally: with 
Objective dause : To eherish a 
dekgn, /otUr a hope or an intention. 

M4for, Oris, m. [frango, "to 
brealc^' ; through root fkao] A 
ereuhing, as when something is 
broken to pieces, a erash; the din 
or roar of the ocean. 

tr&g-ro, rftvi, rfttum, rare,l.v.a. 
To emit a srrtell whether good or 
bad ; to be/ragrant. 

ftranffO, fregi, fractum, frang- 
Sre, 3. V. a. : Tooreak, dash to piece» 
[akin to Or. (trjywiii, and root frao, 

fMbter, tris, m. A brother. 

fMm-O, tU, Itum, fircr 8. v. n. 
To murmur, make a Urw, murmur- 
ing sound, whether in approval or 
otherwise [root bhraii, "to sound"; 
cp. PpiftM ; f remitus]. 

firen-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[fren-um, "a bridle"] To curb, 
eheck, hold in check ; to govem, re- 

firdquene, ntis, adj. [root FARO 
" to cram ; " cp. fMcio] Of persons 
In great numiers, numerons. 

ft^tum, i, n. A strait, /rith ; 
the sea. 

Mff-fUs, Oris, n. [frfg-^, " to be 
cold'^ Cold; a cold shudder pro- 
duced by fear [root frig, "to shud- 
der " ; cp. piyo« ; Mgidus]. 

firond-dus, Sa, eum, adj. [frons, 
frond-is, " a leaf "] Lea/y. 

ttona, front-is, f. The /ore-part, 
or /ront, of any thing [root bhur, 
" to move quickly " ; cp. furere, fer- 
vere: o-^pv«, ^vpetV; Eng. brow, 

fi*U8tra, adv. [akin to fraudq] 
In vain, to no purpose. 

fiTLStum, i, n. A piece, bit, of 

flrux, frOgis (mostly plur.), f. [for 
frug-8 ; fr. frttor, in etymological 
meanin^of " to eat," through root 
FRUO] Fruits o/ the earth, com, 

tQ.OU.6, i, m. A drone. ' 



fQg-a. ae, f. [fOg-Io, "to flee"] A 
fiuing, fiight. 

fOflrla fOgi, fngitum, fflggre, 3. 
V. n. and a. Neut. : Tofiee, take to 
fiight. Aot : Toflee/rotn, to eseape 
by ilight [root bhvoh, "to bend or 
tum' ; cp. ittvyttv ; fugare]. 

tOg-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[fug-a, " fliffbt " ; To eauge to fiee ; 
to put to fiight ; to drive or chase 

fitl-men, mlnis, n. [for fulg- 
men; fr. fulff-So, "to flash"] A 
lightning-fiash, a thunder-bolt. 

fUlvuB, a, um, adj. [root bharo, 
"to shine^' ; cp. ^keytiv, ^A«${; ful- 
geo, fulgur, namma (=:>flag-ma)] 
Iteadish yellow, tawny. 

fonai-e, is, n. [fQnftl-is, "per- 
taining t<LA cord or rope "] A wax- 
torch, a toreh. . 

ftind&-mentum, menti, n. 
[fund(a)-o, " to found "] A founda- 

fUndo, ffldi, fOsum, fundSre, 3. 
V. a. To oring to the ground, pros- 
trate. Of several persons : Pass. in 
reflexive force : To spread abroad, 
scatter themselves [root ohu, "to 
scatter " ; cp. x^«. X""^** I fons].- 

fQnus, eris, n. Death [root bha, 
"to kill"; cp. 4>6voi, ^eVw]. 

fOr-iae. Iftrum (rare in sing.), 
f. plur. [fur-o, "to rage"] Rage, 
fury, vioUnt passion, wndness. 

far-O, fli, no sup., 6re, 3. v. n. 
To ra^e, rave, be out of one^s mind, 
whether from anger or love [see 

far-or, oris, m. [fttr-o, " to rage "] 
Rage, fury, angry passion, etc. 
Ra^e ; as a deity, the companion of 


£fftl-da, Sae, f. A helmet, head- 
piece [root kal, " to hide " ; see 

grauddo, gftvlsus sum, gaudere, 
2. v. n. semi-dep. To rejoice, delight 
[root OAu, "to rejoice" ; cp. yrii^iit}]. 

flraud-Ium, li, n. [gaud-eo, " to 
refoice "] Joy, gUtdness, delight. 

GT&za, ae, f. Treasure, riehes, 
wealth [yaia., said to be originally a 
Persian word]. 

gd-mXnuB, mlna, mlnum, adj. 
[prob. for gen-minus. fr. gen-o, "to 
bring forw»"] Tunn-horn, twin; 
douwe, two. 

firem-XtU8, Ittts, m. [gSm-o, "to 
groan"] A groan, groaning; cry 
ofpain or sorrow. 

^em-ma, mae, f. [for gen-ma ; 
fr. gSn-o, " to bear "] A jewel, gem. 

GTdm-O, tti, Itum, Sre, 3. v. a. To 
moum, lament, bewail, bemoan. 

erdn-itor. Itdris, m. [gSn-o (old 
form of gigno), " to beget"] A 
father [root oen, "to beget"; op. 
yivoi, ^iyvonM ; genus ; Eng. kin. 

* sr^n-Itrlx, Itncis, f. [g6n-o (old 
form of gigno), "to bring forth"] 
A mother. 

Sren-s, tis, f. [g6n-'», " to beget "] 
Of persons : A nation ; a country, 

grenu, us, n. A knee [root oxs, 
" to bend " ; cp. Yoin;, yiw^ ; genae]. 

jgrdn-US, 6ris, n. [akin to gen-s] 
Birth, descent, origin. Of persons, 
etc. : A race. 

ererm&n-a, ae, f. [german-us, 
" full, own," as applied to brothers 
and sisters] A full sister, i. e., from 
f rom the same fatner and mother. 

grerman-us, i. m. [id.] A full 
brother, i. e., from the same father 
and mother. 

irdro, gessi, gestum, g6r6re, 3. v. 
a. To bear, carry, have. Of war : 
Tocarryon, wage. 

gresto, tftvi, tatum, tftre, 1. v. a. 
intens. [for ger-to ; f r. g6r-o] To 
carry; tohave. 

Sr^rno (old form firdno), g6ntti, 
g6nltum, gign6re, 3. v, a. To brina 
forth, bear, give birth to. With Abl. 
of " Origin " : Sprungfrom. 

erlaeba, ae, f. The soil, land. 

Srldmdr-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. 
a. [glOmus, glOm6r-is, "a ball" of 
yam] To assemble, or mms, to- 
aether ; to fortn into a compaat 
body. '. 

grr&dlor, gressus sum, grftdi, 3. 
V. dep. To step, waUc. 

gr&d-us, uS, ra. [grftd-Ior, "to 
step "] Plur. : The steps of a build- 





i, mlnuin, adj. 
j fr. gen-o, "to 
m-born, ttoin ; 

m. [8r6m-o, "to 
groaniTig; cry 

. [tor gen-ma; 
A jeuoel, gem. 

5re, S. V. a. To 
lil, bemoan. 

m. [g£n-o (old 
bo beget"] A 
to beget"; cp. 
118 ; Eng. kin. 

f. [gfin-o (old 
bring fortii "] 

1, " to beget "] 
n; a country, 

nee [root obn, 
yeVvs; genae]. 

akin to gen-s] 
. Of persona, 

. [german-\i8, 
id to brothers 
ter, i. e., from 
EUid mother. 

. [id.] A full 
e same father 

i, g§r6re, 8. v. 
ive. Of war: 

tftre, 1. V. a. 
p. g6r-o] To 

:6no). gSntti, 
a. To bring 
o. WithAbL 

8oil, land. 

tn, are, 1. v. 
"a ball" of 
Dr mmg, to- 
a compaet 

im, gr&di, 3. 

r&d-Ior, "to 
>« of a build- 

ffrand-aev-us, a, um, adj. 
;[grand-i8, " great" ; aev-um, "age ] 
O/great age, aged. 

fgr&t-eB (usually found only in 
the nom. and aoo. ; the abl. grati- 
bus is found in Tacitus), f. plur. 
[grftt-or, " to manifest Joy " ; root 

• eftA, " to be glad "] Thanks. 

firr&v-is, e, adj. Heavy, pon- 
derous, pregnant. With respect to 

• charaoter : 0/ weigtU or authority ; 
. grievous [akin to Or. /3ap-v«]. 

fipr&V-Iter,adv.[grav-i8, " heavy"] 
Vehemently, strongly, violently. 

firrdmXum, li, n. 2%e lap, 

firres-SUS, stbs, m. [for grad-8U8 ; 
fr. gr&d-Ior, " to step "] A stepping, 

grurfires, -tis, m. A whirlpool ; 
an eddying stream. 

ffUSt-O, ftvi, atum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
! (gustus, "a tasting"] To taate. 

h&be-na, nae, f. [h&bS-o, "to 
hold "] Plur. : Of horses : The 

h&b-do, tii, Itum, ere, 2. v. a. 
To have, in the widest aoceptation 
of the term. 

h&b-ms, ne, adj. [h&b-eo, " to 
hold"] Suitahle, fit, etc. 

h&b-!tU8, ItQs, m. [h&b-eo, " to 
have one'8 self " in a particular con- 
dition] Drem, attire, garb. 

h&C, adv. [adverbial abl. fem. of 
hic, "this"] /n thi» place, on this 
■ side, here. 

haer-do, haesi, haesum, haerSre, 
2. V. n.: To remain /aat, adhere, be 
fixed. To atand rooted to a spot, to 
remainfixed anywhere. 

h&lo, ftvi, fttum, are, 1. v. n. To 
breathe out or /orth; to emit a sweet 
scent, be /ragrant. 

h&ren-a, ae, f. The sand [see 

hasta, ae, f. A spear or javelin. 

hast-ile, Ilis, n. [hast-a, "a 
apear "] A spear, javelin. 

haud, adv. Not at all, by no 
meana, not. 

haurio, hausi, haustum» haurlre, 
4. V. a. To drain, drink up, empty 
a goblet, etc. 

herb-a, ae, f. [akin to^«a^M, "to 
fe^d "] Herbage. grass, and all that 
is comprehended under the English 
expressionof "greenfood." 

^ her-ds, dis, m. A hero [Gr. 

heu, interj. Ah I alas ! 

heus, interj. Ho! ho there I 
hark! hoUoa! 

hib-emus, ema, emum, adj. 
[for hlfim-emus ; fr. hlems, hlfim-is, 
" winter "] 0/, or betonaing to, 
winter; vointer. As Subst.: hib- 
emum, i, n. («c. tempus), vnnter- 
time, winter. 

hic, h8BC, hoc (Gen. hdlus ; Dat. 
huic), pron. dem. This. As Subst.: 
a. Masc.: hi: These: hi . . . hi, 
iJiese . . . those. Fem.: hSBC: She. 
Neut.: This thing [akin to pronomi- 
nal root i, ajspi.tited ; with c ( =: ce), 
deitaonstrative suffix]. 

hic, %dv. [hic, "this"] In this 
place. here: hic . . . hic, here~ 
. . . there . 

hXem-ps, is, f. [Sans. him, hima, 
"snow"; cp. Hima-laya, "houseof 
snow": xeiMtttc]* Winter. A storm, 
tempest. , 

h-in-C, adv. [for h-lm-c ; fr. hi, 
base of hi-c ; im, locative sufflx ; 0= 
demonstrativ/snffix, ce] Of place : 
From this place, henee. On this 
side, here : hinc . . . hinc, on this 
side . . . on that side. Of time: 
From this very time, a/ter this. Of 
cause, source, etc: From this very 
source, /rom thia cause, hence. 

hdmo, Inis, comm. gen.: Sans. 
OHAMA, "the earth": cp. x'^'^^' 
humus: hence, "a son of earth"] 
Sing.: A person or man generally 
a human being. Plur.: Persons, 

hdnor (honos), oris, m.: Hon- 
our, respect, esteem; an honour, 
digmty, etc. ; an offerirm or thanks- 
giving to the gods, mstde in their 

hdnos ; see honor. 

horre-ns, ntis : P. pres. of hor- 
reo. Pa. : [horre-o, " to stand on 




end," oa liidr, ete. ; hence, " to be of 
a rough, or frightful, appearance " ; 
henoe, "to be terrible^'] TerribU, 
drea4fM,/earful, horrid. 

horrdo, td, no lupine, ere, 2. v. 
n. To atand on end, as hair; to 
hrittle, be brietly. 

hoXT-Xdus, Ida, Idum, adj. 
fhorr-te; see horreo] Terrible, 

hospes, pltis, m. A gueet, 
friend, vieitor ; a hott, entertainer ; 
a etranger [ for hospet-e; 
akin to Sans. root ohab, "toeat"; 
Lat. pSt-o, "to seek"]. 

hospXt-Ium, li, n. [hospes, hos- 
plt-i8, '^ahoBt"] Hospitattty. 

hOBtl-a, ae, f. [obsol. hostl-o, 
"to strike"] A victim, as struck 
down for sacrifloe. 

hOB-tis, tis, comm. gen. An 
enemy, otfoe, of ine's country. In 
oollectiive force : The enemy, thefoe 
[prob. akin to Sans. root qhas, " to 

hiio, adv. [for hoc, adverbial 
neut. aco. of hic, "this"] To this 
plaee, hither. 

ham-&iiU8, a, um, adj. [for 
hOmln-Anus; fr. hOmo, hOmln-is] 
Of, or belonging to, a man or msn ; 

hfUnectHO, ftvi, &tum, ftre, 1. v, 
a. [humect-us, " moist "] To m/oieten. 
%oet, bedew. 

ht&m-dnis, Sri, A. A shoulder 
[akin to &ii-oi]. 

hiimi ; see humus. 
htbH-US, i. f . The ground [akin 
to xaM*at'> "oii the ground"]. 

Ibl-dem, adv. [Ibi, with demon- 
strative sufflx dem] In tAe suTne 
place, in that very place. 

i-dem, Sftdem, Idem (Gen. ejus- 
dem ; Dat. Sldem), pron. dem. [pro- 
nominal root i; suffix dem] The 
same. As Subst. m. The aame man 
or pereon. 

i-ffXiaru8, gnftra, gnftrum, adj. 
[for In-gnarus ; fr. In, "not"; gnft- 
rus, "knowing"] With Gen. ; Not 
Tenoujing, unacquainted with, igno- 
rant of. 

i-flrn&yus, gnftva, gnftvum, adj. 
[for ln-gnftvu8 ; fr. in, "not"; gna> 
vus, "DUflnr, diligent"] Inadive„ 
kuy, tlott\ful, inaolent. 

\gaia, is, m. Fire, /tame. 

i-ffnOMlis, gnObne, adj. [for in> 
gnOblUs; fr. In, "not"; gnObQis, 
(— nobllisX "well known''] Low, 
b€ue-bom, ignoble. 

i-flmOtus, gnOta, gnOtum, adj. 
[for in-gnOtus ; fr. in, "not"; gnO- 
tu8(-.n0tu8), "known"] Notknownr 

il-le, la, lud (Gen. illlus, but, at 
V. 16, illlus; Dat. illi), demonstr. 
pron. [for is-le ; fr. is] That person 
or thing. As Subst. : Of both num- 
bers and all genders : That person 
or thing; he, ehe, it. With acces» 
sory notion of reputation, ete. : 
That weU-knoum, that famoue or 

illic, adv. [pron. mio, "that"! 
In that pUtce, ther^., 

il-lido, llsi, llsum, lldfire, 3. v. a. 
[for in-laedo ; fr. In, " upon " ; laedo, 
" to strike or dash "] To etrike, or 
daah, upon or a^ainat. 

Im-&firo, ftglnis, f. A form. ap- 
pearance, image ; an appantion, 
phantom [root im, akin to /uti/ui-^oMai, 

imber, bris, m. A heavy rain ; 
a pelting 8hou>er or storm; water,. 
eea-water, aea [akin to ofi^poc]. 

im-m&-niB, e, adj. (i"Not to be 
measured"; hence) Vaet, huge. 
Crwel, aavage. Comp.: immftn-Ior 
[for in-mftnis; fr. In, "not"; root 
MA, "tomeasure": op. ikirpov, ivt)vy)y. 
modus, metior, metare, mensis: 

im-n^bido, no perf. nor sup.» 
mlnCre, 2. v. n. [for m-mlnSo ; fr. in, 
"over"; root min, to project: cp. 
minae, mons] To overhang, hang 

im-mitis, mite, adj. [for in> 
mltis; fr. in, "not"; mltis, "mild"] 
Of persons: Cruel, fierce, inexordble. 

immo, adv. Yea ir^deed ; by aU 
maana, nay: immo, age, nay^ 

im-mdtu8, mOta, mOtum, adj. 
[for in-mOtus; fr. in, "not"; mO- 







amftvum, adj. 



, adj. [for in> 
b"; jamObOis, 
mn"] Low, 

rnOtum, adj. 
"not"; gnO- 

lllus, but, at 

), demonstr. 


yt both num> 


With aoces- 

tation, etc. : 

i /cmous or 

lio, "that"! 

ifire, 8. v. a. 
ppn " ; laedo, 
To ttrike, or 

A form^ ap- 


lo fLm-ionait 

heavy rain ; 
mn; voater^ 

;"Not to be 
aat, huge.. 
: immftn-Ior 
*not"; root 
irpov, /Liiji»jj^ 
!, mensis: 

nor sup.y 
iIneo;fr. in, 
•roject: cp. 
hang, hang 

f. [for in- 
;is, "mild"! 

leed; byaU 
age, /wy, 

dtum, adj. 
not"; mO- 



tus, *'moved"] Of the fates: Un- 
ehanged, unehangee^le. 

ixn-isar, Oen. im-pftris, adj. (for 
In-par; fr. in, "not"; par, "equal"] 
Not equal, uneqwU. 

im-pello, pflli, pulsum, pellfire, 
8. V. a. Tforin-pello; fr. in, "a^nst"; 
peUo, " to drlve "J To drive, thrutt, 
or pu»h scaethingr againet an ob- 
Jeot. To inette, urge, impeL With 
Inf.: To foree on, eompel, to do. 

impAr-Ium, li, n. [imp«r-o, "to 
command"] A eommand, order. 
Dominion, tovereignty. Realm, 

im-p!brer, plgra, plgrum, adj. 
[for in-plger; nr. in, "not"; plger, 
"indolent"] Quiek. 

im-plus, pla, plum, adj. [for 
in-plus; fr. in, "not '; pius, "holy"] 
Unholy, wicked, impioua. 

im-pldo, plevi, pletum, plere, 
2. v. a. [for in-plfio ; fr. in, in "auflr- 
mentative" foroe; plfio, "to fllin 
With Abl.: To fiu up, make quite 
JfuU with. Pass. in reflexive foroe : 
With Oon.: To fiU one% etc., »e\f; 
i.e. to eatitfy, ot regale, one% etc., 
eeJf vnth something. To sati^y, or 
gratify, some feeling. 

im-plXco, fli, Itum ^so, ftvi, 
fttum), ftre, 1. v. a. [for ui, "in"; 
plloo, "to fold"] Toer\fold, involve, 

im-pOno, pOsQi, pOsItum, pOn- 
Sre, 8. V. a. [for in-pOno; fr. in, 
"upon";p6no, "toput"] Toput, 
or place, something upon an object. 

im-prOviaus, prOvisa, prOvi- 
sum, adj. [foi^ in-prdvlsus; fr. In, 
" not " ; prOvisus, " foreseen "] Un- 

imus, a, um, sup. adj.: Lowett, 
deepest. Where a thing is lowest; 
i.e. tfie lowest part, or bottom, of 
that ^;«1iich is represented by the 
subst. to which it is in attribution. 
Pos.: inffimus; Comp.: inferior.) 

in, prep. jrov. abl. oraco.: With 
Abl.: In, wtthin. In the case of, 
toith re^aect to. With Aoc.: Into, 
trithin. Towards. Upon. Against. 
For. Among. 

inania, e, adj. Empty in the 
fullest sense of the word. 

in-oautU8, oauta, oautum, adl. 

5In, "not"; oautus, "oautious'^;- 
fneautiotu, heedless, of ons^s guard. 

in-oddo, cessl, oessum, oMfire, 
8. v. n. [In, "in"; cfldo, ^'to go"J 
To proeeed, advanee, watte, eto. 
With acoesaory notion of dignity : To 
walk majestie. 

incend-Xum, li, n. [inoend-o,. 
" to bum "] A buming, cmfiraga' 

in-con-do, di, sum, dfire, 8. v. 
a. Toseton ftre, bum. Of lamps, 
etc.: To light. P. perf. pass.: iAght- 
ed, buming. To tnflame with any 
emotion, esp> love [root oan, akin to 
«<£-*>, "tobum"]. 

inoep-tum, ti, n. [for incap- 
tum; fr. inclplo, "to begin," 
through true root inoap] A design,. 
purpose, etc. 

inces-BUB, sfls, m. [for inoed- 
sus ; fr. incfid-o, " to walk "] Walk, 

iXKHvAo, cfipi, ceptum, clpfire, 
8. V. a. [for in-cftplo; fr. in. "in";^ 
o&plo, "to take''] To begtn, cmn- 

in-coffnXtus, cognlta, oognltum, 
adj. [in,^'not";cognItus, "known"] 
Unknown, not known. 

in-concessus, concessa, con- 
cessum, adj. [In, "not";oon-oessus, 
"allowed"] Unlauiful, forbidden. 

incr6p-ItO, Itftvi, it&tum, Itftre^ 
1. V. n. intens. [increp-o, "to make 
a noise"] To call, or ery out, Uy 
one in an encouraging way, ete. : to 
caU upon, chaUenge. 

in-ctibo, oabtti, oflbltum (rarely 
oflbftvi, cQbfttum), oflbftre, 1. v. n. 
[In, " upon " ; cflbo, " to lie down "] 
Of night : With Dat. : To settle upon, 
hang over, overhang. 

in-OUltus, culta, oultum, adj. 
[In, "not"; cultus, " cultivated "J 
Not cuUivated, uncuUivcUed, un- 

in-cumbo, cflbfli, no sup., oumb- 
fire, 8. V. n. [in, "upcn"; obsol. 
cumbo, " to lie down "J With Dat. : 
Of the winds: To settle upon; to 
faU or rush violently upon. 

in-CilB-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[for in-caus-o; fr. in, "against"; 




oausa, "a Judlcial prooesfl"] 
hlavM, chide. 

ln-OtktIOi oussi, ouMum, otktSre, 
8. v. a. - [for in-qufttlo ; fr. In, 
"aerainst"; qu&tlo' *<to shake": 
hence, "to strike"] With Aoo. ot 
thing and Dat. of person : To in- 
$pire one mth ; to aroiue, or eaeite, 
in 6ne. 

i-n-de, adv. Of time: From 
that tiine, after that, afterwards 
[pronominal root i : n, epenthetic ; 
•Dfllx de (=^0tor Stv, " from ")]. 

In-dico, dixi, dictum, dlodre, 8. 
V. a. [in, in " augmentative " foroe; 
dloo, "to say " ; hence, "to declare "] 
To proclaim, announee, c^apoint. 

in-difipnor, dignStus sum, dign- 
4ri, 1. V. dep. [in, "not"; dignor, 
•"todeemworthy"] Tobeindignant 
or di8daif\ful. 

in-di&o, dOi, dlitum, daere, 8. v. 
a. To put on, asmme the appear- 
anoe, etc., of another [ivivn]. 

In-erm-is, e, adj. [for in-arm-is ; 
fr. in, "not"; arm-a, "arms"] 
Without arms or vjeapons ; un- 

in-fleindua, fanda, fandum, adj. 
{in, "not"; fandus, "to be spoken 
of " ] UmpeakaJble, unutterahle, 
abominable. In nom. neuter sing., 
as an exclamation : ! horrible, or 
dreadful, thing; 01 horror I or, 
adverbially, harribly I 

in-f(§lix, fellcis, adj. [in, "not"; 
fslix, "happy"] Unhappy, miser- 

in-fdro, in-tflli, il-iatum, in-ferre, 
8. V. a. [in, " into " ; ffiro, " to bear 
or bring"] To bear, or bring, into 
a place. With Personal pron. : To 
^etake one's, eto., self; to go, walk, 

in-fiflTO, fixi, fixum, f Igfire, 8. v. 
a. [in, •Hnto " ; f Igo, " to fix "J To 
Jix, or drive, into. 

in-firdn^O, gSmlnftvi, gSmln- 
atum, gfimlnftre, 1. v. n. [In, in 
" augmentative " force ; gSmlno, 
"to double"] To be redotAled, to 

in-grdmo, gSmfli, ffSmltum, gSm- 
6re, 8. v. n. [in, " without force " ; 
gSmo, " to groan "] To groan, moum, 

in-srens, gentis, adl. [in, "not"; 
gens," a race or kind '^] auge, vatt, 
imnunse. Oreat, mighty. 

In-hiUnft-tU8, ta, tum, adj. [In, 
" not " ; hum(a)-o, "to bury "] Un- 

In-ImlcUB, Imlca, Imlcum, adj. 
[for In-ftmlcus; fr. in, "not"; ftm- 
lcus,"friendly''] UwtriendlyhostUe. 
Of tiiings : Hurlful, injurious, det- 

In-Iquua, Iqua, iquum, adj. [for 
In-asquus; fr. in, " not " ; aequus, 
" favourable " ] Unfavourable, ad- 
verse, hostile. 

inltlrl-a, ae, f. [injuri-us, "un- 
Just"] Injury, urrong. Injustice. 

in-p&flrer, pigra, pigrum, adj.. 
[in, 'Hiot"; plger, "indofent''] 
Quick, aetive. 

inquam or kiqtdo, v. defeot. 
To say. 

in-riflro, rigavi, rigatum, rigftre, 
1. V. n. [in, " without force " ; rigo^ 
"tomoisten"] Tobedew. 

in-8d[-US, a, um, adj. [In,'"not" ; 
sol-o, "to know"] Ifot knowing, 

in-8Cribo, scripsi, soriptum, 
scribSre, t. v. a. [In, "upon " ; scrfbo, 
" to write"] To make marks upon, 

in-sdquor, sSquutus sum, sfiqui, 
3. V. dep. [in,* "after, close upon " ; 
sSquor, "tbfollow"] To foUow after, 
pursue. In order or suocession : To 
suceeed, follow. 

in-sldo, s6di, sessum, sldSre, 2. 
V. n. [for in-sSdSo ; fr. In, " upoii " ; 
sSdSo, " to sit "] To sit down upon, 
settle itpon. 

insld-lae, Iftrum, f. plur. [insld- 
So, "to take up a position in a 
plaoe "] Artifice, plot, snare. 

in-sifirn-is, e, adj. [in, "upon"; 
sign-um, "a mark"] Remarkable, 
eminent, distinguished. 

in-spiro, splrftvi, splrfttum, splr- 
ftre, 1. V. a. [In " into " ; splro, 
"tobreathe"] Of apas8ion,emotion, 
etc: To inspire, produce, excit^, 

in-StO, stlti, stfttum, stare, 1. v. 
n. [In; sto, "tostand"] [In, "on or 
upon "] To press onwards or hard ; 





J. rin, "not"; 
'] Huge, vtut, 

tum, adj. [In, 
buiy"J Un- 

Imloum, adj. 

"not"; im- 


^juiiow, de»' 

lum, adj. [for 
ot"; aequus, 
jourable, ad- 

uri-us, "un- 

?igrum, adj. 
" indolent ''j 

o, V. defect. 

itum, rigftre, 
force"; rigo. 

fw. " 

J. [In,""not" ; 
'ot knowing, 

K)n " ; scrlbo, 
marke upon^ 

B sum, sSqui, 
lose upon"; 
foUow afier, 
Xiession : To 

n, sldere, 2. 
n, " upoh " ; 
dmtm upon, 

plur. [insld- 
•sition in a 

n, " upon " ; 

rfttum, splr- 
o " ; splro, 
m, emotion, 
uce, excit^, 

[for in-sal-a; fr. 
"the 8ea"J An 

stare, 1. v. 
[In, "on OT 
U or hard; 

to aMait, make an attaek. With 
Dat.: To hastm or apeed on; to 
hurry onwarde. 

in-Btr€io, struxi, structum, strd- 
6re, 8. V. a. [in, " without foroe " ; 
strflo. " to build "J Of a house : To 

In-aiU-a, ae, f. 
In. "in"; s&l-um, 

ln-8<iper, adv. [in," on or upon " ; 
sflper, " above "J On the top, a6oiw, 

in-tao-tU8, ta, tum, adj. [for in- 
tag-tus; fr. In, "not"; tango, "to 
touch," through root taoJ Pure, 

Inten-to, tftvi, t&tum, tftre, 1. v. 
&. intens. [forintend-to; fr. intend-o, 
" to stretch out against " in a hostile 
mannerj To threaten, Tnenace. 

inter, prep. ^ov. acc. : Bettoeen. 
Of time : Durmg, in the couree of. 
Amova, amidst, m the midet of. 

inter-dum, adv. [prob. inter, 
"at intervals of"; dum, contr. fr. 
dium, old acc. of dies; see diuj 
OecaeionaUy', aometimee. 

intdr-d&, adv. [for int^-eam : fr. 
inter, " between " ; 6am, acc. sin^. 
fem. of isj Of time : Meanwhile, tn 
the mean time. 

(inte^-for), ffttus sum, fftri, l. v. 
dep. [inter, ^'durinif»; (for), "to 
spealc "J To break in upon, or inter- 
rupt, the conversation, etc. 

int6r-Ior, lus, comp. adj. [obsol. 
int£r-us, " within "J Inner, interior. 
The inner part q/ that denoted by 
the subst. to whioh it is in attribu- 
tion. Sup.: intimus. 

intlmus, a, um, sup. adj.: /n- 
nermogt. The innermost part of 
that denoted bv the subst. to which 
it is in attribution. 

in-t6no, tOnOi, no supine, tOnftre, 
1. V. n. [in, " without force " ; tono, 
" to thunder "J To thunder. 

in-traot&bUis, tractftblle, adj. 
[In, -'not"; tractftbllis, " to be 
handled"J Indomitable,unconquer- 
able, not to be subdued. 

intrO-grddior, gressus sum, 
Krfidi, S. V. dep. [for intro-grtdlor; 

fr. intro, " within " ; gradior, " to. 
step "J To $tep vnthin, to enter. 

intU8, adv. Within, in the imide 
or interior [akin to Qr. ivf6i]. 

in-vdho, vexi, vectum, vehfire,^ 
8. V. a. [In, "upon"; vfiho, " to 
carry"J Pass.: 7^ rufe on or upo)) ; 
to be carried upon. 

inv1-8U8, sa, sum, adj. [for invld- 
sus ; fr. invld-eo, "to hate"J Hated, 

in-Vl-U8, a, um, adj. [in, "not"; 
vl-a, "a way"J That aif<yrda no 
way ; impaseable, impenetrable. 

i-p8e, psa, psum (Oen. ipslus ;— 
at V. 114, ipslus ; Dat. ipsi) pron. 
dem. [for is-pse ; fr. is ; sumx, psej 
Self, very.—Aa Subst.: Of all per- 
sons and both numbers: /, etc., 

ira, ae, f.:, Anger, wrath, rage. 
Plur.: Angry pasnons, wathful 
feelings, emottons ofrage. 

ir-rlffO, rlgftvi, rlgfttum, rlgftre, 
1. V. a.Tfor in-rigo; from In, "with- 
out force"; rlgo, "to wet or mois- 
ten "J To diffuse. 

i-B, Sa, id men. ejus; Dat. 6i), 
pron. dem.: This, that person or 
thing.— As Subst. of both numbers 
and all genders: Th^ person or 
thing juMt mentioned ; he, she, it.— 
= tfuis : Of such a kind or nature ; 
such [akin to pronominal root ij. 

I-ter, tlnSris, n. [fio, "to go," 
through root ij A wag, road. A 
joumey, course, etc. 

J&-Odo, ctti, cltum, cCre, 2. v. n. 
Of persons : To Ue dead. Of places : 
Toiie heneath or below. 

iac-to, tftvi, t&tum, tftre, 1. v. a. 
ens. [J&c-Io, "tothrow"J Tokeep 
throwing or tossing ; to toss to and 
fro, to arive hither and thither. Of 
words, etc: To utttr, pour forth. 
To revolve, tum over, etc., in the 
mind. — With Personal pron. in re- 
flexive force : To condxict one's, etc., 
self in a proud or haughty manner ; 
to behave haughtUy. 

J&oiU-or, fttus sum, ftri, 1. v. dep. 
[Jftcfll-um, "a iavelin"J To hurl, 
cast, launch. 



Jam, adv. [prob. seam, aco. ling. 
fem. of is, "this, that"] At tM» 
time, now ;— Jam . . . jam, at thit 
tiiM . . . at that time ; at one tim« 
. . . at another time ; now . . . now. 
At that timty then. Strengthened 
hy tum: At that very time, even 

Jam-dadum, adv. [Jam," now" ; 
daduni, " not long sinoe "] Now at 
onee, instantly, /orthwith. 

Jam-prldem, adv. [jam; prldem, 
" long ago "] Long ago, long tinee, 
Jor a Umg time pagt. 

Ji&bdO, jussi, jussum, Jtibere, 2. 
V. a. To order, command, bid. 

iad!c-Ium, li, n. [JQdlc-o, "to 
Judge "] A sentmee, or dedsUm, of 
ajudge; ajudgment. 

^■Qg-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[Jdg-um, "a yoie"] To join, or 
give, in marriage ; to marry. 

JilflT-um, i, n. [juo, root of jungo. 
"tojoin"] A mountain-ridge. A 
heignt, mmmit, peak. 

Jungro, Junxi, Junotum, JungSre, 
■3. V. a.: Tojoin, unite. To hameea 
horses [see Jugum]. 

ju-S, ris, n. [root JC, " to bind "] 
Plur. : Lawa, ordinances. 

Jus-8Um, si, n. [for Jub-sum, fr. 
jab-eo, '• to order "] An order, 

Just-itla, Itlae, f. [Just-us," Just"] 

Jus-tus, ta, tum, adj. [for Jur- 
tusj fr. jus, lur-is, "law"] Just. 
hair, equitable. 

jtiv6n-is, is, adj. comm. gen. 
Young, yotUhful. As Subst.: A 
young person ; a youth, young man. 

Jiiven-ta, tae, f. [javSn-is, 
♦ young "] Youth. 

jiiven-tus, tatis, f. [id.] Youth, 
i.e. your^ men. 

JOVO, Jflvi, JQtum, Jttvftre, 1. v. 
a. and n.: Act.: To aid, assist. 
Neut. : To please, delight, gratify. 

l&b-or, dris, m. Labour, toil. 
Of the sim : An eclipse [akin to 
root LABH, " to acquire " ; Qr. Kap, 
JTOOt Kanpdvw, "to talce"]. 

l&bor, lapaus sum, Iftbi, 8. v. dep. : 
To glide, or glide onwards. To gltde 
downwards [akin to root lamb, "to 

l&bOr-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[1. labor] To make laboriotulu or 
with toil; to work something labori- 

lAcrXma, sb (old fomi daorlma), 
f . A tear [root dak, " to bite " : op. 
lanv», ii,Koi]. 

l&crLH-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. n. 
[lAcrlm-a, " a tear "] To shed tears, 

laedo, laesi, laesum, laedere, 8. 
V. a. To displease, offend. 

laet-Xtia, itlae, f. [laet-us, "Joy- 
f ul "] Joy, joyoumess. . 

laet-or. fttus sum, ftri, l. v. dep. 
[id.] To feel joyful; to rejoice, 

laetUS, a, um, adj. : Joyful, joy- 
ous, rejoiciiw. Delightful, pleasant. 

^Uasing. with 

Oen. : Aoounding 

laev-US, a, um, adj. L^ ; i.e. 
on the laft side.- As Subst. : laeva, 
ae, f . The Uft-hand ;— laevft, on the 
left-hand or side [Xair-6«]. 

l&-pi8, pldis, m. A stone [op. 
Aa-a«, "astone"]. 

l&qu-dare (-dar), £&ris, n. [alcin 
to l&c-us, in etymological force of 
" a thing hollowed out "] A sunken 
panel in the ceiling. 

largr-US, a, um, adj. Abundant, 
copious, plentiful. 

lat-e, adv. {Iftt-us, " wide "] 
Widily, far and wide. 

l&t-do, tti, Itum, ere, 2. v. n. arul 
a. : Neut. : To lie hid, be concealed. 
Act.: To lie hid or be concsaled 
from; to escape the notice of [aldn 
to Aa0, root of \av9dviii, " to lie 

l&tex, Icis, m. Any liquid or 

l&tUS, a, um, adj. : Wide, broad. 
Widely extended, spreadingfar and 
wtde [root plat, "to extend": cp. 
irAarvc, n-AaTavoc, irAanj; planta, 
latus (i.e. platus), platessaj. 

l&tus, eris, n. The side, whether 







A gtone [cp. 

2. V. n. and 
ie concealed. 
be concsaled 
)tice 0/ [akin 
»»«0, " to lie 

of penom «r thiHfini [prob. akin to 

lauB, laudis, f. Praiae, eom- 
mendation [for (o)Iau8 : root obu, 
*'tohear": cp. «cAvciv; olueo, glo- 

laxuB, a, um, adj. Loom, alaek. 

IteO, lClgi; lectum, \6gire, S. v. a. 
To chooM, ptek out, aelect. Of mag- 
iBtrates, etc.: 

To ehooge, appoint, 

Idn-Io, Ivi or li, Itum, Ire, 4. v. o. 
[len-is, " mild "] To appeaee, quiet, 

IdV-is, e, adj. Light, sw^, rapid 
[akin to Gr. i-\ax-vt. 

Idv-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, l. v. a. 
[I6v-i8, "light"] To li/t, or raiee, 
up. To lifhten, ease, relieve, alle- 

lez, iGffis, f. [for leg-8 ; fr. 16g-o, 
" to read "] A law or enactment. 

liber, bri, m.: "Abook." 

libo, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. Of 
wine, etc, for religious purposes: 
To take and pour out in honour of a 
deity; to inake a libation of. To 
touch, preas. 

lloeo, tli, Itum, Cre, 2. v. n. To 
be allowed, or permitted ; to be aUow- 

li-men, mlnis, n. [for lig-men : 
f r. llg-o, " to tie or fasten "] A thres- 
hold. JL dweUing, aibode. 

linquo, llqui, Ilotum, linquSre, 
8. V. a. To leave [akin to Or. keifit»]. 

li-quor, no perf., qui, 3. v. dep. 
To be fluid or liqu^Ul [akin to root 
Li, " to 8mear over "]. 

li-tus, tOris, n. [prob. li, root of 
ll-no, " to overspread "] The sea- 
shore, beach, straTid. 

l5c-0, ftvi, fttum,- ftre, 1. v. a. 
[loo-us, "a piace"] To place, set; 
to take one'splace or seat. 

Idc-us, i, m. (plur. Idci, m., and 
loca, n.) ^ place, spot. 

longr-e, adv. [Iong-u8, "long"] 
A long toay off; afar off; i.e. Toa 
distance. At a distance. 

lonfiT-US, a, imi, adj. Long, in 
the fullest sense of the word. 

Idqu-or, tttus sum, i, 8. v. dep. 
To spedk. 

Id-rum, ri, n. Plur.: The rtins 
of horses. 

luo-tor, tatus sum, tftri, 1. V. dep. 
To struggle. 

lAo-US, 'i, m. A wood or grove 
in general. 

IQAo, Itlsi, lusum, ladfire, 8. v. a. 
and n. [ludus, "play"] Aot.: To 
make sport ot, i.e. to rmck, deeeive. 
Neut. : To play, sport. 

ItH-men, mlnis, n. [for lucmen ; 
fr. iao-«o, "to shine"] Light. An 

Itl-na, nae, f. [for luo-na ; fr. iao> 
to, " to shine "] The nwon. 

llin&-tUB, ta, tum. adj. [lun(a)-o, 
" to bend like a holf-moon or cres* 
cent"] Half-moon-shaped, crescent- 

lao, lOi, Ittltum or latum, laSre, 
8. V. a. Of punishment, ete.: To 
pay, suffer. To atone /or, exj^iaU, 
a/auU, etc. 

liip-a, ae, f. A she-tcolf [like Gr. 
\vK-os, akin to Sans. LUP=Lat. rup, 
" to break or tear "]. 

lustr-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[lustr-um, "an expiatory ofFering"] 
To survey, examine, observe. To 

lu-stnmi, stri, n. 
wash out or expiate"] 
ftve years, a lustrum. 

[Itt-o, "to 
A space qf 

luz, IQcis, f. [for luc-s; fr. Ittc-So, 
" to shine " ] Li^/ht, splendoWr, 
briahtness. The light o/ day, day- 

luz-US, Os, m. [lax-us, "dis- 
located "] In a good sense : Splend- 
our, pomp, magnift^nce. 

lychnus, i, m. A light, lamp, 
torch [root luc, " to shine " : op. 

lympha, ae, f. Water [vvm^i}]. 
lynz, cis, comm. gen. A lynx 
[Awyf]. „ • 

m&CtU-osus, dsa, 58um, adj. 
rm&cttla, "a spot or blemish " ; 
hence, "a spot, or maTk," on the 
skin, etc.\ FvU of apots, spoUedf 

I . 1 



maerons : n« inoerens. 

maer-eo, ere. To bt $ad. 

mae«t-U0, a, um, adj. Sad. 

mftffalla. lum, n. plur. LittU 
dmlUngi, hutt, etc. [said to be a 
Punic word]. 

m&ff-is, comp. adv. [akin to mag- 
nuB] Jfore, in a greater degree. 

m&ff-ieter, istrl, m. [r. . /. MAO ; 
cf. magnuBJ Of a vessel : ? ^s «leerv- 
man. *^ 

mftffl8tr-&tU8, Atds, m. [mag- 
iater, magistr-ij A magiatraU. 

masrn&nlm-ua. a, um, adi. 
[magn-us,"great"; &nIm-us."soulv] 
Great-xnUed, inagnanimoiu. 

maar-nus, na,num, adj.: Great; 
i.e.: Large, epaciotu, mighty. Of 
sound : Loud, numerout, nobie. Of 
persons with respect to age: Ad- 
vanced. Coinp.: laiyor [i.e. in&g-Ior); 
Sup.: max-Imus (i.e. inag-slmus) 
[root MAO, akin to Gr. niya%, Sans. 
mah-a, "great" ; tr. root mah (origin- 
ally maoh). "to be great; to be 
powerful "]. 

m&l-UB, a, um, adj. £ad of its 
kind. Irijunous, hurtful Wicked. 
EvU, un/ortunate. As SubHt. : 
m&lum, i, n. An evil, mi^ortuiu. 
Comp.: pejor; 8up.: i>es-Imus[akin 
toGr M<A-a(, "black"]. 

mamma, ae, f. A brea^t, pap. 

mftn-do, si, sum, 6re, 2. v. n. 
To remain, contintu [niv-u\. 

mckn-tdle,teli8,n. [mftn-u8,"the 
hand"] A napkin, towel. 

mft-nus, uQs, f. A hand. 
Handy-work, workmanship, work 
[akin to root ma, "to measure"; 
see immanis]. 

mftr-e, is, n. The sea [root mar, 
"to die,"i.e. that wbich kUls: cp. 
mors, morior : iiofyr6$ = ^pords : also 
cp. Sans. maru ; Slav. more; Celtic, 
mor; Lith. marios, mares; Goth. 
marei : Ir. muir, all meaning "sea." 
Others derive it from ri mab, 
"bright": cp. napiiaipa: marmorj. 

mft-ter, tris, f.: Ofpersons: A 
mother. Of animals : A dam [akin 
to Qr . ft.ii-TTip ; fr. a root ma, in 
meaning of "to produce"; and so 
" the producer"]. 

mfttUr-o, ftvi, Atum, Are, l. v. a. 
rmAtOr-us, in meanlng of "quick "} 
To hatttn, apttd 

mM-Itor, ItAtus sum, ItAri, 1. v. 
dep. To think or rtjltot wpon; t» 
«lUM, or m€ditat€, ahout [akin to 
Ikii-otkai, " to care for "]. 

mM-IU8, la, lum, adj.: MiddU, 
mid. (Where a person or thinff Is in 
the middle; i.e.) The midm or 
midit a/ that denoted by the Bubst. 
to which it is in attribution [cp. 
M^iToc, iitariyvt : di-mid-ius]. 

mel, mellis, n. Honty [akin to 

membrum, i, n. A Umib, mem- 
ber I for memiuin, root mar, "to 
die ''^: see inarej. 

md-mln-i, isse. v. defect. [for 
men-mfin-i ; reduplicated fr. root 
MEN ; see mens] To btar in mind ; 
to remtmber, recolUet. 

m6mor, Oris, adj.: With Oen.: 
Mind/ul of, rememUHng. Of anger : 
Unjbrgttting, unile^ng, vindictive. 

mdmdr-o, Avi, Atum, Are, 1. v. 
a. cmd n. [mfimor, "mindftil "j Act. : 
To rtlate, declare. With double 
Acc. To call an objeot something. 
Neut. : To epeak, tay, declare, etc. 

men-8, tis, f. The mirui, as 
being the seat of thou^ht. Jfotion, 
idea, thought. Diepotition, /eelinga 
[Lat. root mbn ; tr. root mam, " tu 
think " ; cf., also, Gr. niv-of]. 

men-sa, ae, f. [mfitlor, '^to mea- 
sure," through root men, found in 
part perf men-sus] A tahle. Food, 
dishea ; an entertainment, etc. 

men-8is, sis, m. [root mbn, 
whente mensus, P. perf. of metior, 
" to measure "] A month, as a mea- 
sure of time. 

merc-or, Atus sum, Ari, 1. v. dep. 
[merx, merc-is, "merchandize"] To 
huy, purchcue. 

mdr-Itum, Iti, n. [mer-eo, "to 
desei ve " J A service, kindneis, benefit. 
Deeert, merita. 

mdr-um, i, n. [mfir-us, "pure"] 
Pure wlru; Le. not mixed with 

met-a, ae, f. met-Ior, "tomea- 
Bure "] End, limit, termxnation. 


m, ftre, 1. v. a. 
S of "qulck^y 

\xm, lUri, 1. V. 
fUet wpon; to 
bout lakin ta 

adj.: Middle, 
i or tbine ia in 
he midale or 
by the Bubst. 
tnbution [cp. 

oney [akin to 
A lin^, mem~ 

Ot MAR, "tO 

. defect. [for 
ated fr. root 
mr in mind; 

: With Oen.: 
Ing. Ofanger: 
ng, vindictive. 

am, ftre, 1. v. 
indnir'j Act: 

With double 
ot Bomething. 

deelare, etc. 

Ae mind, as 
^ht. yotion, 
Uion, /eeiinga 

>0t MAM, "tu 


lor, '**omea- 
iBN, found in 
table. Food, 
•,nt, etc. 

[rOOt MEN, 

rf. of metior, 
ith, aa a mea- 

ftri, 1. V. dep. 
landize"] To 

mer-eo, "to 
dness, benejlt 

-U8, "pure"] 
mixed with 

or, "tomea- 



mAttt-Ot mttfti, lufitQturo, mfitO- 
fire, 8. V. a. (metui, (unoontr. Oen.) 
mfittt-ia, " fear "] To /ear, dread, be 

mAtUB, Os (old Dat metu, v. 
257), m. Fear, dread. 

m6-US> a. um, pron. poin. [me] 
0/, ov belonging to, me; my, mine. 

mlO-O, tti, no aup., ftre, 1. v. n. 
To gleam, aparkle. 

mlll-e, num. adj. indeol. A thou- 
$and [akin to Or. x^^-^ovl- 

ndn-ister, istri, m. [m. re- 
ferred to mln-tio. "to lesien," and 
80 "an infcrior'*; ni. to m&u-ui, 
"a band," and 80, "one at hand, an 
attendant" ; root min, " to l<>88en": 
cp. iiivvOt», iitiwv: minor] A Mr- 
vant, attendant. 

n^bilstr-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre. 1. v. 
a. [mlniater, mlniMtr-i, " a servant "] 
To provide, /urnieh, eupply. 

mXnor, fttua aum, ftri, 1. v. dep. 
To jut /onoarde, pmject. 

mlnor, ua, comp. acU.: aee par- 


ndn-US, comp. adv. [adverbial 
neut of mln-or, " less "J In a lea$ 
degree,Ua»: — nec minuH, (and no leaa, 
i.e.) and ia lite manner, likewiae. 

m!r&-blli8, blle, adj. [mir(a)-or, 
" to wonder at " | That may, or can, 
be wondered at; wonder/ul, mMr- 

mlrarndUB, nda, ndum, adj. 
[mir(a)-or, "to wonder at"] Won- 
de'/ul, marveUow, extraordinary. 

mi-ror, rfttus sum, i^ri, 1. v. dep. 
To wonder^ or marvel, at. To admire, 
regard with admiration [akin to 
Sans. root smi, " to siiiile "]. 

mir-us, a, um, adJ. [mir-or, "to 
wonder"! Wonder/ul. 

miscdo, misctii, mistum or mix- 
tum, miDcere, 2. v. a.: To mix or 
miv^U. With Ahl. : To mingU with 
or amongat persons, etc. lx> throw 
into con/uaion, disturb. To atir up, 
excite, rouae [akin to Or. ftitry-w, fity- 
wiii, "tomix"J. 

miS-er, Sra, Srum, adj. [prob. 
akin tu moer-So, " to be sad " ; moes- 
tus, "sad"] Wretched, miaerabU. 


As Sttbat: mlser, «ri. m. A 
wretehed one, a poor wreteh. 

mls6rft-bnis. blle,adj. rmiseK*)- 
or, " to pity "1 Worthy, or deaerving, 
o/pity ; pUiaoU, wretehed. 

mMr-or. fttui sum, ftri. 1. v. 
dep. [mlser, "wretrhed") To pUy, 
oompauionate ; to /tel pity or 0om- 

mlt-esoo, no pcrf. nor sup., 
escfire, 8. v. n. [mlt-is, " mild "1 in 
character, eto.: To becmu gentle, or 

mitto, mlsi, mi88um, mittfire, 8. 
v. a. To aend. Of fear, eto.: To 
dlamiaa, get rid o/, eaat off. 

m6dO, adv. : Only, merely. With 
Imperat: Juet, now. 

md-du8, di. m. A manner. 
method, way, etc. [prob. akin to root 
MA, ." tu measure " ; whence alio 
Lat. me-tlor, " to measure " ; Gr. 
Iti-rpov, " a meanure "]. 

moen-Ia, lum. n. plur. Walla, 
/orlifieationa, ramparta, of a city. 
A wallcd town ; a city endosed bv 
fortiAcacions [root muh, "to ward 
ofT": cp. Or. a-iivv-ti, "to ward 

moere-na, ntis, adj. [moer6-o, 
" to be sad"] Sad, mourn/ul, etc. 

moes-tus, ta, tum, a<iJ. [for 
moer-tus ; tr. nioer-eo, "to be lad"] 
8ad, aorrow/ul, aorrowing. 

mdles, is, f.: An immenae, or 
vaat, moM; a huge bulk. An im- 
menae atrueture; a huge piU o/ 
buUdinga. DijfficiUty, labour, troubU. 

mol-Ior, itus sum, Iri, i. v. dep. 
[mul-es, " power, might "] To undtr- 
take, aet about, betake one'a ael/ to. 
To build, erect, eonatruet. To imUce, 
cauae, occasion. 

moll-Io, Ivi and II, Itum, Ire, 4. 
v. a. [raoll-is, " soft"j To molli/y, 
paei/y, ao/ten, soothe. 

mollis, e, adj: So/t [root mal, 
" to griud " : cp. fioAaxds, fiakaa- 
vtiv : malvaj. 

m6n-iie, iHs, n. A jeweUed oma- 
ment/or the neck, a necklace. 

mon-s, tis, m. [for inin-s; f^. 
mln-fio, " to project ] A mountain. 
Of the sea : A towering maai. 



monsHr-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, l. v. 
a. |.mnn8tr-nm,"that wbich wams"! 
To ahow, point out. 

mdra, ae, f. JMay. 

mdr-or, atns sum, ari, l. v. dep. 
[mOr-a,] To dday, detain. 

mor-8. ti8, f [mOr-Ior] Death. 

mor-8U8, sHs, m. [for mord-sus; 
fr. murddo, "to bite"] Of an anchor: 
A fiuke. • 

mort-&ll8, aie, adj. [mors, mort- 
isl Subject todeath, inortal. 0/, or 
beltnging to, mortals or men. 

m-d8, Oris, m. [prob. for me-cs ' 
fr. me-o. "to go"] Usage, habtt,ctu' 
tom, praetice. A law, precept, ruU' 

m6vdo. movi, motum, mdvere, 
2. v, &. Mentally: To shnke, toas 
about, amtate. To move, infiuenee, 
affeet. To tefl, declare, reveal. 

mulodo, mulsif^mulsum or lOulc- 
tum, mulcere, 2. v. a. To soothe, 
pacify, allay, soften, appease. 

mult-um, adv. [adverbial neut. 
ol mult-us, "much"] Much,greatly. 

mul-tus. ta, tum, adj : Sing.: 
huch. Smg.: Many a. Plur.: Many. 
Oomp.: plus; Sup.: plurliims [per- 
haps akin to iroA-vc]. 

miln-io, Ivi or li, Ituro. Ire, 4. v. 
a. [see moenia] To wall, jortify. 

munU8, firis, n. A gift, present. 

murmur, tkris, n. [prob. the 
natural sound mvr] A fow tnutter- 
ing sound; a mtirmur, A roaring 
sound. a roar. 

mur-us, i, m. The wall of a city 
[skin to root mur, " to encircle "J. 

Mtlsa, ae, f. A Muse. The Muse 
whom Virgil invokes at v. 8 is Cal- 
liope, the Muse of Epic poetry [root 
MOK, " to advise " : fiovaa s fx6v-<ra : 

mil-to, tavi,*tatum, tare, 1. v, a. 
freq. [for mov-to; fr. mOv-6o, "to 
move "1 To chang^ al er. With Per- 
sonal pron. in reflexive force : To 
change one*s stlf: to change one's 
mind; to alter infuling, etc. 


nam, conj- For. 

nam-que, conj. [nam, "for"; 
sufflx que I For. 

n&-80or (old form jrna-), tns 
sum, soi, 3. v. dep.: To be bom. 
With Abl. of origin : To be bom of 
or from [root na ( = gna), another 
form of root oen ( = Gr. yci'), cp. 
•H.y(*)voiLai . gens, gigno]. 

n&ta, tae, f. [na-scor, **to be 
bom "] A daughter. 

n&-tU8, ti, m. [id.] (" He that is 
born " ; hence) A son. 

n&v-igro, Igavi, Ig&tum, Ig&re, 1. 
V. a. [nav-is, " a ship"] To saU over, 

n&Vi8, is, f. A ship, vessel [root 
NA, " to swim" : cp. vavt, narej. 

ne, couj. That not, lest. 

n6, enclitic and interrogatlve par- 
ticle : in direot questions with verb 
iu Indic. it throws force and eni- 
phasis ou the word to which It is 
attaclied, pointing it out as the prin- 
cipal ono m the clause or sentence ; 
in this force it has no English equi- 
valent. In indirect questions with 
Subj.: Whether:—ne . . . ne,whether 
. . . or wh,ether. 

ndbiUa, ae, f. A vnist, vapour 
[root NUB, "to cover": cp. vii^ioi, 

nec, neodum ;' see neque. 

necnon ; see neqne. 

nectar, aris, n. Neetar; the 
drink nf the gods ; — at v. 483 applied 
to honey as being somethin$t exqui- 
sitely delicious [ne, "not"; ktan, 
"to kill": as conferring iminor- 

necto, nextii, nexum, nectSre, 3. 
v. a. To biind ; tojoin, tie, or /asten 

nd-fti-ndu8, nda, ndum, adj. 
[ne, "not"; f(a)-or, '^to speak of "] 
Ivnpious, execrable. As Subst.: nd- 
fietndum, i, n. Impiety, wickedness. 

ndm-U8, dris, n. Feeding land 
amongst woods ; a wood with open 
glades; a grove [ront nem, "to feed": 
i.e. the feeding ground : cp. vofiot, 

nd-que, (conti. nec), adv. and 
coiij. [ne, " not" ; que, "and"] 
Adv.: Not. Cotij. And not, also 
not,nei«fc«r:— neque(nec) . . . neque 
(nec), neither . . . nor : — uec dum 



i-8cor, "to be 

(also written aa one word, necdam), 
and not ytt ;— neo non (uso as one 
w(ird, necnon), {and not not, i e.) and 
also, and betUUs, inoreever, ^rther. 

ne-Queo, qulvi or quH, qultum, 
qulre, v. n._[ne, "not"'; qufio, "to 
be able "] To be unable. 

ne-Sdto, sclvi or acli, RCltum. 
sclre, 4. V. a. [nfi, "not" ; «clo, "to 
know "] Not to know; to be ignorant 
of, or unaequainted mth. 

neBcH-UB. a, um, adj. [nescl-o, 
"not to linow"] With Oen. Not 
knowing, ignorant of, unacquainted 

neu ; see nSve. * 

n§-ve (contracted neu) 


; ve. 

And not, nor [ng, " not 
" and "]. 

ni (old form nei), conj. [identical 
witli ne, " not "] As a conditional 
particle : // not, unlesa. 

nXjBTOr, ra, rum, adj. Black. 

nimb-^iSfS. os», osum, adj. 
[nimb-us, "a storm-cloud "] Stormy, 
tempestuous, attended with many 
storms, etc. 

nimb-us, i, m. A black rain- 
eloud. a thunder-doud, a atorm- 
cloud [see nubes]. 

nitens, ntis : Brlght, glistening, 

nit-do, tti. no sup., ere, a. v, n. 
To shine, or be bright; to glitter, 

niv-dus, 6a, 6um, adj. [nix. nlv- 
is, " snow "J Snow-white, snowy. 

no, ivi, no sup., are, 1. v. n. To 
swim [root ka, "to swim": cf. 
nayis, nauta, natare : vavs, vdeiv, 

vaii, i^aia;]. 

nod-us, i. m. A knot. 

nd-men, mlnis, n. [no-sco] A 
name. Renovm, reputation, fame. 

non, adv. Not [for ne-unum, 

n03-ter, tra. trum, pron. poss. 
[nos, plur. of ego] Of, or belonging 
to, ug ; our. 

nd-tU8, ta, tum, adj. [no-sco, "to 
know "] known, weU-known. 

ndvem, num. a^j. indecl. Nine. 

ndvlcaa. Itfttis, f. [n6v-us, 
"new"] Nvwneta, 

ndv-US, a, um, adj. New, freah 
[pronominal root NV : cp. vvv, veFot ; 
nuno, noyua]. 

nox. noctis, f. Night [root nak, 
"to perish": cp. vtKvt, vcxp^: 
nex, necai^e, nocere]. 

noza, ae, f. [for noc-sa ; fr. ndc- 
«o, "to hurt"] A fault, ojfence, 

ntlb-es, is, f. A eloud [rcot 
KABH, " to Bwell " : cp. ve^«, 
fc^cA^, bfi^ak6t: nebula, nimbus, 
imber, umbilicus, umbo]. 

nud-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[nud-us, " naked "] To make naked 
or bare. To lay bare, expose to view. 

niid-us, a, um, adj. Naked, bart, 

n-ullus, ulla, ullum ^Oen. nuU- 
lus ; D. nuili), adj. [for ne-ullus ; fr. 
ne, " not " ;"ullus, " any "] Not any, 
none, no. 

nii-men, mlnis, n. [ntt-o, "in 
nod "] Comnumd, wUl. Of thegods: 
Divine will or power. Godhead, 
divinity. A deity, whether a god or 

ntlm-drus, 6ri, m. A number 
[root NEM, *'to allot": cp. viiieiv, 
voftoi : nemus, nummus]. 

nun-C," adv. Noio :—nnnc . . . 
nunc, now . . . now ; at one time 
. . . at another time [see noviis]. 

nunti-o, avi, fttum, are, v. a. 
[for nov-ven-tio : fr. novus, "new": 
ven-io, * ' I come "] To carry, or bring, 
a m^ssage ov intelligence dbout; to 

nutri-mentum, menti, r. 
[nutrl-o, "to nourish"] Of a flre: 
Fusl, as that which feeds the fiame. 

nutri-z, cis, f. [id.] A nurse. 

Nympha, ao, f. A nymph : a 
demi-ifoudesa, inhabiting either the 
sea, rivprs, woods, trees, or moun- 
tains [Nv/1^1}]. 

O, interj. ! 

db, prep. gov. acc. To indicate 
object or cause : On aceount of» i» 
eontequence o/[akin to in-i]. 



ob)ec-tU8, tu8, m. [for objac- 
tu8 ; tr. objlclo, " to cast before," 
through true root objac] A cattinif, 
or placing, before or in the way ; an 
OfpoHng, oppoaite potition. 

Ob-rAo, rOi, rQtum, rttere, 3. v. 
a. Lob, "without force"; rtko, "to 
throw down with violence "J 2'o 
overthrow, overwhelm. 

Ob-8CtL-rU8, ra, nim, adj. Dark, 
dim [ob, "over" root sku, "to 
cover " ; scutum]. 

Ob-8tO, stlti, st&tum, st&re, 1. v. 
n. [ flb, " over against " ; sto] To 
witMtand, oppoae, present an obata^le. 

ob-8t!pe8CO, stlpOi, no anp., 
stipescere, 3. v. n. inch. [ob,"with- 
out force " ; btlpesco, " to become 
amazed"J To become amazed, to be 
struck with amazemmt. 

obtCl-8U8, sa, sum, adj. [for 
obtud-sus; fr. obHHndo, "to beat 
agaiust " ; hence, "to blunt"] Ment- 
ally : Blunted, dull, ineensible, etc. 

Obtti-tus^ tus, m. [obttt-eor, "to 
look at "] A loitk, gaze. 

ob-vX-U8, a, um, acU. [ob, "to- 
wards " ; vi-o, " to go on one'» way, 
to travel "] Going, or coming, to 
meet. Meeting, falling in with. 

OCC&-SU8, 8US, m. [For occad-sus, 
fr. occld-o, " to perish " ; through 
root CADJ Overthrow, ruin, destruc- 

OC-CiibO, no perf. nor 8up., are, 
1. v. n. [for ob-cObo ; fi*. 6b, " with- 
out force " ; ctkbo, " to lie down "] 
To reat, or repose, with the dead. 

OC-CCU-O, tti, tuni, 6re, 3. v. a. 
ffor ob-cttl-o ; fr. db, "over"; root 
CUL (alcin to cel-o), " to cover "J To 
hide or conceal. 

OCCUltUS, a, um. Hidden, secret. 

OC-CUmbo, cttbtti, cttbltum, 
cumbSre, 3. v. n. [for ob-cumbo ; fr. 
ob, " without force " ; obsol. cumbo, 
" to lie dowu "J To lie down in 
death; to /aU, perish. 

OC-Curro, curri and ottcurri, cur- 
sum, currfire, 3. v. n. [for ob-cuiTO ; 
fr. ob, "towards"; curro, "to run"] 
To rneet, eome in the way of. 

dc6&nU8, i, m. ITie ocean 

6c-iUu8, Qli, m. An eye [akin to 
Or. 5k-os', root ak, "to 8ee|. 

dd-Iiun, li, n. [dd-i, " to hate "j 
Hatred, haU, iU-wUL 

dd-or, oris, m. A aeent, odoiir 
[root OD ; akin to Qr. 5<w ( « 6Sv») ; 
also Lat. dl-eo, " to emit a smell ; 

Ofli§ro, ObtttU, obl&tum, offerre, 
v. a. irreg. [for ob-fSro; fr. ob, 
" towards " ; fSro, " t;p bring "J To 
present, shew. 

Of-flc-liun, li, n. [for op-f&c- 
ium; fr. (op8),op-is. "aid"; fac-io, 
" to [lerform "] A kindness, favour, 

dl-im. adv. [for ollim ; fr. oU-e, 
old form of ill-e] Of fUture time : In 
time to come, at some time or other, 

oUi, old form of iUi, dat. of ille. 

0-men, mlnis, n. [for or-men ; f^. 
6r o, " to speak "] A, prognoetic or 
tmen of any kind. In tn^ poeto, 
sometimes : Marrtage, nuwtials, as 
being always preceded by tne takiiig 
of auguries and the uotmg of tbe 

omn-I-pdtens, jidtentis, adj. 
[omn-is, " all " ; (i) connecting vowel ; 
pdtens, " powerful "J AU-powcrful, 

omnis. e, adj.: AU, evtry. As 
Subst.: onmes, lum, comm. ^n. 
plur. AU persom, aU. 

6ndr-o, &vi, atum, &re, 1. v. a. 
[ouuM, ouer-is, " a burden "J To 
burden, load. Of liquids: With 
Abl. : To stow in. 

dnus, eris, n. A burdeji, load. 

6nu8-tUS, ta, tum, adj. [for oner- 
tus ; fr. dnus, Ongr-is, '* a burden "J 
Loaded, laden, etc. 

dp-imu8. Ima,Imum,adJ. r(op-s), 
plur. op-es, "wealth"] Wealthy, 

oppdrlor, perltus and pertu^ 
sum, perlri, 4. v. dep. 2'o wait for. 

op-pdto, petlvi and petli, pSt- 
Itum, pfitere, 3. v. a. [for ob-pfito ; 
fr. 6b, "towards"; p«to, "to go 
to"1 To go to mut, to eneowUer. 
With ellipse of mortem (which is 



Bometimes expresded) : TomcounUr 
death, i.e. to die, faU, perUh. 

op-pximo. preBRi.pressum, prlm- 
6re, 3. V. a. (lor ob-prfimo ; fr. flb. 
" against " ;- premo, " to presa "] To 
crufih, overwhelm. To overconu, over- 
ihrow, overpower. 

op-S, is (Nom. SiDi;. dnes not 
occur ; Dat. is found perhaps only 
once), f. [prob> for ap-s, fr. root ap, 
whence ftp-iscor, " to obtain "J 
Power, mxght, ability. Means, or 
reeourcet, of any lcind ; weaUh, riches, 

op-to, t&vi, t&tum, t&re, 1. v. a.: 
To wUh for, desire. With Inf.: To 
wUh to dn, ete. To choose, seUet. 
Pass.: op-tor, tatus sum, tari [akin 
to root AP ; " to desire to obtaia "J. 

dp-iUentus, tklenta. tilentum, 
adj. [op-es, " wealth "J With Abl.; 
Rieh, or wealthy with or in. 

dpus, 6ris, n. Work, employment. 

dra, ae, f Of the land : Coast, 
sea-coast. A region, clime, country. 

orbis, is, m.: A circle, orbit, 
orb : — orbis terrftrum, or orbis alune, 
(the cirele of lands, i.e.) the world, 
the earth. Of things that return nt 
a certain period of time: Circuit. 

OrcUor, orsus sum, ordTri, 4. v. 
dep. To btgin, comm^nce. 

ord-O, Inis, m. [ord-ior, "to 
weave"J Arrangem^nt, order. A 
row, lirie. Order, suceession. 

.orlens, ntis: As Subst: The 
East, as the quarter where the sun 

dr-ifiro, iglnis, f. [6r-Ior, "to 
arise " ; hence, " to begin "J A 
beginntng, commenccTnent, origin. 
Birth, descent, llneage. 

6r-ior, tus sum, Iri, 3. and 4 v. 
dep. To rise. Of blrth : To spring, 
or deseend, from [prob. akin to 
op-wtii, " to stlr up "j. 

oma-tUS, tus, m. rorn(a)-o, "to 
adorn "J Dress, attir^apparel. 

dr-O, avi, atum, ftre, 1. v. a. [os, 
or-is, "the mouth "J To beg, implore, 

Orontes, is (Oen. Oront(d, v. 
220), m. Orontes; a chief of tlie 
I^cii, one of the companions of 

O0, dris, (Oeto. plur. not foundX n. 
The moiUh ;— at v. 246 tke mouth of 
a river. TAe face, countenance. Plar. : 
Speech. An opening, gap. 

os; ossis, n. A bone [akin to Or. 


OB-CiUum, ctili, n. [for or-cttlum ; 
fr. 08, dr-isj A kiss. 

os-tendo, tendi, tensum, tend- 
6re, 8. v. a [for obs-tendo ; fr. obs 
( » ob), " before or over aminst " ; 
tendo, "to stretch out"] Toshow, 
exhibit, dispiay. 

OSt-Xum, li, n. The mouth of 
any thing ; an entrance. 

OStrum, 1, n. A pnrple dreas, 
purple. A purple couch, i.e. a couch 
covered witli purple hangings. 

pa-btllum, btUi, n. [pa-sco, " to 
feed "J Of animalii : Food, fodder. 

paenit-et, -Int, ere, r.: [pu, "to 
purify " : cp. punlo, imivijJ, " it 
repents" : mepaenitet, "I repent." 

palla, ae, f. A robe or loose dress ' 
worn especially by women ; in the 
poets sometimes assigned to ni^ni 

pall-idus, Ida, Idum, adj. [pall- 
60, " to be pale "J Pale, pallid. 

pedma, ae, f. The palm of the 
hand [iroAajuiT)]. 

pando, pandi, pansum and pas- 
sum, pandere, 3. v. a. To open, 
throw open. P. perf. pass.: Of the 
hair: Dishevelled [root pat, "to 
spread " : cp. ireTdwviit, niTa\ov, 
naTdyf) : patere, patulus, pandoj. 

par, pftris, adj. Equal, corres- 
ponding, aimilar. 

Par-ca, ae, f. Sing.: One ofthe 
(three) goddessea offate. — Plur. : The 
Fates : their Latin names were Nona, 
Decuma, Morta ; their Greek names 
Clotho^ Lachesis, Atropos [prob. 
root PAR, " to bring or put," wlience 
p&r-o, "toprepare" (see paro), aud 
so, "She who brings, or assigns," 
one's lot;— cf. Gr. Moip-a, "The 
Allotter or Apportioner," fr. y.*ifi' 
o/uiai, in force oi " to allot "J. 

parc-O, peperci (less frequently 
parsi), parcltum or parsum, parcSre, 
3. V. n. [parcus, ^' sparing "1 To 




%paT€ ft thing, iX to dbittain or re- 

X>&r-en8, ntiH, comm. gen. [either 
for pftrl-ens, fr. pftr-!o or fr. obsol. 
pAr-o = pAr-Io, "tobeget ;— tobring 
lorth "] A parent, whether a father 
or mother. 

p&rens, ntis, P. pres. of pareo. 

p&r-te, Qi, Itum, 6re, 2. v. n. 
[akin to pftr-Io, "to bring forth"] 
With Dat. To obey. 

p&r-Iter, adv. [par, "equal"] 
JHqukUy. A t the sanie time, together. 

parma, ae, f. A Bmall round 
shield ; a target [Or. irap/u.i}]. 

p&r-o, avi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. To 
make, or get, ready ; to prepare 
[prob. akin to ^^p-ioj. 

par-8, tis, f. A part, piece, por- 
tinn, etc. Of persona : A part, etc. 
Oollectively : SSonu; ;— pars . . . pars, 
nnme . . . others. *■' 

IMUTt-ior, Itiw sum, Iri, 4. v. dep. 
[pars, part-is, " a part "] To divi-de, 
^ portion out, apportion. 

par-tus, tus, m. [pftr-lo, "to 
bnhg forth "] A bringtng forth, a 

par-VUS, va, viun, adj. [prob. 
akln to par-s, "a part"] Small, 
little. (Of persons : " Young " ; 
Comp.: "Younger, less in age": 
hence) As Subst. : m!ndr-es, um, 
comm. gen. plur. : Descendants, pos- 
terity. Comp.: mlnor; (Sup.: mlnl- 

P&-8CO, vi, stutgi sc^re, 3. v. a. 
To /eed. Pass. iirrcflexive force : 
Of animals : To graze, browse, /eed 
[akin to root pa, " to nourish " : cp. 
naTrip, iroaii, irorvia : pater, panis, 
penus: Gothic fadar: O. H. G. fatar: 
Eng. father]. 

p&t-do, tki, no sup., ere, 2. v. n. 
To lie open. To be mani/est or 
evident [akin to Gr. ircT-oi^v/Lii]. 

p&-ter, tris, m. A /ather, aa 
one who protects. Plur.: Fathers, 
fore/athers, ancestors [see pasco]. 

P&t-dra, ^rae, f. [p&t-So, " to lie 
open"; hence, "to spread out, ex- 
tend " : see pando] A broad flat 
dish, especially used in makingoffer- 
ings : a botol for libations. 

P&ti(or, passus sum, pftti, 8. v 
dep.: To suffer, bear, endure, un 
dergo. To pertnit, ailow, mffer [root 
8PA, 8PAN, " to increase or to pi^n " : 
cp. anaeiv, spatium : iracrxw, «a9of 
ireVo/uiai : patientia, penuria]. 

P&tr-IU8, la, lum, adj. [pftter 
patr-is] 0/, or belonging to, a /ather ; 
a /athers; patemal. As Subst.: 
patrl-a, ae, f . Fatherland, native 

g&tri-U8, a, um, adl. [patri-a, 
therland "] 0/, or belonging to, 
one's /atherland or native country ; 

gaucus. a, um, adj. Of number : 
g.: "Small") Plur.: Few. 
paul-atim, adv. [paul-us, 
"little"] By little and httle, by 
degrees, gradually. 

p&X, pftcis, f. [for pac-8 ; fr. root 
PAC, or PAO, " to bind " : whence 
jr>jy W/U.I, naaaaXoi '. paciscor, pagus] 
Peace, tranquility. 

pectus, Oris, n.: The breast. 
Heart, mind. 

pdc-us, Oris, n. Animals in 
general [see pax]. 

pec-U8, tldis, f. (Sing.: "asingle 
head of catt[e") Plur.: Cattle in 
general [see pax]. 

pdl&fiTUS, i, n. The sea, esp. the 
open sea [eitherfrom root plak, " to 
strike": i.e. "the beating thing": 
cp. »rA>;«r(reii/, irAijy^ : plango, plaga, 
plecto, or from irAaf , ir Aanis : " flat " : 
cp. aequor, fr. aequus]. 

pello, peptili, pulsum, pellfire, 3. 
V. a. To drive out or away [root 
PAR, "to go": hence, "to cause to 
go": cp. vfpdoi, ir6po9, nop0(j.6s, 
iropevta) : ^porta, portus : £ng. -fare, 
" in thoroughfare "]. 

pelta, ae, f. A pelta, i.e. a target 
or small light shield (in the shape of 
a half-moon) [root pal, "to cover" : 
cp. n-cAAa : pellis]. 

I>dnddo, p&pendi, no sup., pend- 
ere, 2. V. n.: To hang, hang aown. 
To be kung up, or suspended. To 
be upraised, or unli/ted, in the air. 
To overhang, to hang over or over- 

pdn-dtro, Strftvi, etrfttum, Strftre, 
1. v. n. [root PBN, denoting the idea 



of "entering," "the interior"] To 
enter, penetrate. 

p6n-itU8, adv. [id.] Deeply,far 
vnthm. Wholly, thoroughly, eom- 

pdnus, U8 and i, m. and t. Food, 

pdr. prep. flfov. acc. case: 

Through. 01 tune : Through, 

throughout, during. All over, 
thnmghout, aUmg. 

peplum, i, n. and pepluB, i, m. 
(the robe of state of Minbrva at 
Athens. with which her atatue was 
solemnly invested every five years, 
at the festival called Panathenaea ; 
hence) A spkndid, or mmptuom, 
upper robe or gannent, a robe o/ 
state [see pelta}. 

pdr-&err-o, &vi, atum, are, 1. v. 
a-[p6r, "t? lough"; ftger, a«r-i, "a 
fleld"] To wanaer about ov through ; 
to traverse. 

per-cello, cQli, culsum, cellere, 
8. V. a. [pfir, in " augmentative 
force"; cello, "toimpel"] Tostrike, 
whether physicaUy or mentally. 

pe*..^Aro, tttli, latum, ferre, v. a. 
irreg. [p6r, "without force"; f€ro, 
" to bear "J With Personol pron. in 
reflexive force : To eonvey or betake 
one'8 eelf; to go, proceed. 

per-flo, flftvi, flatum, flftre, 1. v. 
a. [p6r, " through " ; flo, " to blow "] 
To blow through. 

per-gro, rexi, rectum, gSre, 3. v. 
n. [for per-rego; fr. p6r, "quite"; 
rfigo, " to malce straight "] To pro- 
ceed,go on. In speaking: Of one 
who has not yet spoken : To begin 
and go on, to proceed. 

pdri-o€Uum. caii. n. [obsol. 
pfirl-or, " to try '] Danger, peril. 

per-l§.bor, lapsus sum, labi, 3. 
V. dep. [p6r, "through" ; Iftbor, "to 
glide"] To glide throv^gh, to pass 
with gliding motion along, to skim 

per-miSCdo, misctU, mistum 
aiid mixtum, miscSre, 2. v. a. [p6r, 
" thoroughly " ; misceo, "to mix"] 
To mingle together, intermingle. 

per-mitto, mlsi, missum, mitt- 
€re, 8. v. a. [pfir, " through " ; mitto, 

" to allow to go "1 To grant, permU, ^ 
tufer, etc. 

per-80lvo, solvi, sOiatum, solv- 
6re, 8. V. a. [per, " completely " ; 
solvo, " topay *'] Of a reoompense, 
thanks. To retum, refnder. 

per-adno, sOntti. sOnltum, sdn- 
ftre, 1. V. a. [p6r, " without foroe " ; 
sono, " to sound forth " ; hencA, " to 
pour forth in song," ete.] To pour 
forth in song, sitvg of, 

per-tempto, tempt&vi, temptft- 
tum, temptftre, 1. v. a. [per, "tho- 
roughly " ; tempto, " to handle " ; 
hence, " to try "] To pervade. 

pes, pefUs, m. A foot [root pad. 

' tb go : cp. iroTciv, 
tes : Eng. foot]. 

irovf, niiyi : 
pes: Eng 

pes-tis, tis, f. [prob. for perd-tis; 
fr. perd-o, "to destroy"] Deetruc- 
tion, ruin. 

pdto, Ivi or li, Itum, 6re, 8. v. a. 
To seek, to proceed tb or towards. 
To desire, to ask for. To endeavour 
to obtain ; to strive after [root pat, 
"to fly": cp. iti-irr-tiv, irtfro/Kat : 
penna ( = pet-na), im-pet-us]. 

phd.r6tra, ae, f. A quiver [^api- 
rpa, "a quiver," aa being "that 
which carnes " arrows]. 

pic-tura, tttrae, f. [for pig-tQra ; 
fr. pi(n)g-o, "to paint,* through 
root Pio : cp. iroiKiAo« : pictus] A 
painting, picture, whether in paint, 
mosaic, or any other mode of de- 

pi-dtas, etfttis, f . [pl-us ; see pius] 
Piety with respect to the gods. 
Affection, dutifulness, love, tender- 
ness. Loyalty, patriotism. 

pi(n)flro, pinxi, pictum, ping6re, 
8. V. a. ("topaint{"hence,of needle- 
work) To embrotder. 

pineruis, e, adj. Fat. 

pi-US, a, um, adj. Of persons 
Pums, devout, just [root pu 
purify": cp. irvp: purus, p 

pl&C-dO, tli, Itum, ere, 2. v. n. 
Tovlease. Impers,: Pl&cltum (est), 
It nas pleased (me) ; i.e. it is my 

pl&C-idus, Ida, Idum, adj. [pl&c- 
eo, " to please "] Gentle, calm, mild, 
peaceful, plaeid. 




pl&C-O, Avi.ifttuin, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[prob. akinto plfto-eo, "to please"] 
To paeify, (^ppease, ealm. 

I>1&9&, ae, f. Ot the sky : A 
region, tract [root plat, ' ' tiO extend ": 
op. irAarvc, nkdrot, irAan}, TrAarafOf : 
planta, latus ( = platus), platessa]. 

plau-8UB, sOb, m. [tor plaud-sus; 
fr. plaud-o, "to clap"; hence, "to 
applaud "] AppUmee. 

Sld-niis, na, num, adj. [plfi-o, 
flll"] FiUed,full WithGen.: 
FiUed ivith, full of [root pal, " to 
fill " : cp. nitt-nkri-fii, nXfjSia : n6\i,t, 
iroAvc : plere, plebs, po-pul-us, am- 

pliis, pluris rpiur. pliires. 
plura), comp. adj. (see multus) 
[contr. and cnanged fr. pl6-or ; pal, 
root of pl6-o, " to fill " ; comparative 
suffix '^or"] More. Several, very 

plu-rimus, rlma, rlmum, sup. 
adj. (see multiis) [plb, root of pI6o, 
"to fill"] Of size: Very great, 
very large, vaM. 

pia-Vlus, vla, vlum, adj. [plti-o, 
"to rain" or "swim": root plu: 
cp. irXeeiv, nhvveiv : pluit, plorare, 
pluma : En^. flood] Rainy ; attended 
vnth, or bnnging, rain. 

pd-CtUUm, ctUi, n. A cup, gob- 
let [root pa, " to drink " : cp. nivet.v, 
n6aiv : potio, bibo]. 

poena, ae, f. Satitfaction for 
an offence conmiitted [root pu, " to 
purify": seepius]. 

poen-Xtet, IttUt, no sup., Itere, 
2. V. a. impers. [poen-io = piin-Io, 
" to punish ^' : see pius] Wif h Acc. 
of person folld. by Inf. : It repents 
oneof doing,ete.,8omething; i.e. I, 
etc., repent of doing, etc. 

pol-Ucdor, Ilcltus sum, Ilceri, 2. 
V. dep. a. and n. [for pot-IIc6or ; f r. 
inseparable preflx pdt, "much"; 
IlcSor, "to bid" atanauction] To 
holdforth. orpromise, a thing. 

p6lus, i, m. [root pal, "to go" : 
hence, "the tuming thing": cp. 
n6\oi, iroAe'(i>] Heaven, the heavens. 

X>on<l-us, Sris, n. [for pend-us ; 
fr. pend-o, "to weigh"] A toeight. 

pdno, pdstli, pdsltum, ponere, 3. 
V. a. To put, plaee, lay. To lay 

atide. To OMign, aet. T6 put, or ^ 
lay, dmm; to eaet of. Of walls: 
To build, Laws, ete. : To enaet. 

pontus, i, m. The »ea. A aea- 
wave, billow [n6vTOi]. 

p6pfU-o„ ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[popul-us, "apeople"] Tolayvmte, 
devastate, spoil. 

pd-pCkl-us, i, m. A people, 
nation. The people of a partioular 
country, etc. [prob. for pol-pdl-us; 
fr. iroA-vt, "much"; plur. "many": 
see plenus]. 

por-ta, tae, f. [see pello] A gate 
of a city, house. An ouilet, paseage, 

por-to, tftvi, tatmn, tare, 1. v. a. 
To carry, convey [see pello]. 

por-tus, tus, m. [akin to por-ta] 
Anarbour, haven, port. 

POSCO, pdposci, no supine, posc- 
6re, 3. v. a. To aak for, require, , 
demand. To invoke [root park, "to 
ask or pray for " : cp. prex, precari, 
procus : posco = porsc-ere, postul- 

possum, pdttii, posse, V. irreg. 
[for pot-sum; fr. pot-is, "able"; 


"to be"] To be abk. With 
(/, etc.) can, could, eto., do, 


post, adv. and prep.: Adv.: 
Afierwards. Herettfter. 
Acc. : After. 

post-h&bdo, h&btii, hftbltum, 
h&bere, 2. v. a. [post, "after"; 
h&b6o, "tohave"; hence, "to hold 
or deem"] To esteem, or regard, 
less ; to consider of less importanee. 

post-quam, adv. [post, "after" ; 
quam, acc. fem. of qui, " who, 
which "^ After that, when. 

potens, ntis, (Part. pres. of pos- 
sum, but used only as) adj. : Potoer- 
ful, mighty. With Gen.: Having 
power over, ruling over; master, or 
ruler, of. 

pdtent-ia, lae.f. [potens,potent- 
is, " powerf ul "] Might,force,power. 

pot-Xor, itus sum, Iri, 4. v. dep. 
[p6t-is, "powerful"] WithAbl.: To 
get, or taJ^, possession of. 

praedlpii-e, adv. [praecipu-us, 
' ' especial "] Espeeially. . 



praeda. ae, f. Bootu, apoil, 
plunder. Prey teken in the chase, 
ete. : game [for prae-hed-a : root 
«HAD, "to seize": op. xo(y)S-avtiv : 
hed-era : prehendo : praebere ( = 

prae>mitto, mlsi, missum, mitt- 
Sre, 8. V. a. [prae, "before" ; mitto, 
"to Bend"] To gend before or /or- 
wards ; to send in advance. 

prae-m-Ium, li, n. [for prae- 
fim-Ium ; fr. prae, " before or 
"above"; 6m-o, "to take"] Jte- 
VHtrd, reeompeme. 

praenip-tus, ta, tum, adj. 
[praeru(m)p-o, " to break ofl in 
front"] Abrupt, precipUous, steep. 

prae-s-ens, entis (Abl. usually 
praesente of persons, praesenti of 
thinffs), adj. [prae, "before " ; s-um, 
"to De"] Present, at hand, inatant. 

graesep-e, is, n. [praesep-io, 
fence ui front "] Of bees ; A 

praesta-ns, ntis (Abl. prae- 
stanti, V. 71), adj. [praest(a)-o, "to 
stand before " ; hence, " to be 
superior "] Superior, mrpassing, 

prae-StO, stlti, stltum and sta- 
tum, stare, 1. v. a. [prae, "before" ; 
Bto, " to stand "] To be superior, to 
surpass. Impers.: Prae-tat, It is 

praeter-da. adv. [for praeter- 
eam; fr. praeter, "beyond^'; eam, 
acc. sing. fem. of pron. is, "this"] 
Besides, moreover, further. 

prae-verto, verti, versum, vert- 
6re, 8. v. a. [prae, " before " ; verto, 
"to turn"] To pre-oocupy, to take 
possession of beforehand. 

prae-vertor, versus sum, verti, 
3. V. dep. [prae, "before"; vertor, 
" to tum one'B self "] To outrun; to 
surpass, outstrip in speed. 

prSmo, pressi, pressum, prfim- 
6re, 3. V. a. Of reins : To draw tight. 
To cover, overwhelm, as a flood, etc, 
does. To press hard, or close ; to 
pursue closely in war, the chase. 
To oppress, weigh doum; to check, 
hold tn check, restrain, curb. To 
suppress, conceal, hide. 

prim-um, adv. [adverbial neut. 

of prim-us] Firstly, in Uis first 
plaee, first. For the first time. 

prl-mus, ma, mum, Bup. adJ. 
[for prae-mus; fr. prae, "before''^; 
with Bup. sufRx muB] Firet, thefirst. 
Phrase : In primiB (alBo as one word 
imprimis). Anumg the first, i.e. 
ehxefiy, espseiaUy. The first to do 
aomettdng ; thefirstth<U. Thefirst 
part of that denoted by the BubBt. 
to whioh it is in attribution. Oomp. 

prin-cep-S, clpia, adj. [for prim- 
cap-s; fr. prlm-u8, "flrst"; cftp-Io, 
" to take "] Firstf foremmt, ehief, 
mo -*, eminent or distinguished. — Ab 
Subst. m. : A chief, leader, leading 
or prineipal person. 

pri-or, us, comp. adj. [for prae- 
or; fr. prae, "before"; with comp. 
suffixor] Previous, former, prior— 
often to be rendered first : so, at w. 
321, 681. Sup. : prlmus. 

pri-us. comp. adv. [adverbial 
neuter of pri-or] Before, sooner: 
prius quam (or, as one word, prlus- 
quam), before that. Beforetime, 

prd, prep. Kov. abl. case : Before, 
infrontof. For, on beha{f of. For, 
instead of, in the place of. On oc- 
count of [akin to Gr. irpo]. 

prdc-aoc, acis, adj. [proc-o, " to 
ask "] BoM, wanton. 

procell-a, ae, f. [prflcell-o^ "to 
drive or dash forward "] A vwlent 
wind, storm; tempest, hurricane. 

prd-cer, ceris, m. A chief, chief- 
tam, noble [prob. pr6, "bBfore"; 
CKR, akin to Gr. xap-a, "head"]. 

pr6cul, adv. [pROcnL, a root of 
procello, "to drive forwards"] Of 
place : At a distance, far off. 

pro-do, dldi, dltum, dere, 3. v. 
a. [pro, "forth"; do, "toput"] To 
betray perfidiously. 

prd-flc-iscor, fectus sum, 
flcisci, 3. V. dep. n. inch. [pro, "for- 
wards " ; fftc-Io, " to make "] To set 
oui, go, proeeed. 

pro-for, fatus sum, fari, 1. v. 
dep. [pr6, "forth, out"; (for), "to 
speak "] To speak oui or forth ; to 

prdfCifir-us, a, um, adj. [prdfdg- 
lo, " to flee forth or away "] Fleeing 



frmn one^B eDuntry. As Subnt. : 
prdfQff-Viai 1» m. A fugitive /rom 
one*$ eoufUry ; anexiif. 

prd-ftind-UB, a, uni, adj. [prd, 
"forwards"; ftuid-us, "the bot- 
toui "1 Ikep, profound. 

prdffdn-lM. Idi. f. fprogifrno. "to 
hejget or bring forth," thromrh root 
PRooRtii] Offapring. Race, Jamily, 

prd-hlbdo, hlbni, hlbltum, hlb- 
ere, 2. V. a. (for prd-hftbdo ; fr. prd, 
" before " ; hftbfio, " to hold "] To 
ward, or keep, off. With Abl.: To 
exeliide, shut out, keep atoayfrom. 

pr-dl-es, is, f. [for pro-ol-es ; fr. 
pro, "forth"; ot, root of ol-esco, 
'' to {frow "] Of persons : Ojiepring, 

pr6-l<io, lai, lutum, Ittfire, 3. v. 
a. fpro, "without force"; Itio, "to 
wash "J To wa^, tvet, drench, 

prd-mitto, mlsi, missum, mitt- 
ere, 3. V. a. [jpro, "forth"; mitto, 
' • to send "] To prom ise. 

pronus, a, um, odj. Of thinfifs : 
Inclimd dotmtvards, bending for' 
warde, headforemost, headlong [irpTj- 

pr6pdr-0. ftvi, atum, ftre, 1. v. n. 
[prdpSr-us, "hasteniniif"] Tohasten, 
make haitte, be quick. 

pr6p-IU8, comp. adv. [adverbial 
neut. of prdpl-or, " nearer " Nearer. 

prdprlus, a, um, adl. Not in 
common u>ith others, one« oivn, i.e. 
hia, her, its own.. 

prdra>, ae, f. The prow, or head, 
of a vessel [npiapa]. 

pro-rumpo, rflpi, ruptum, 
rumpgre, 3. v. a. [pro, " forth " ; 
rumpo, "to break"] To break or 

prospec-tus, tus, m. [pros- 
plclo, "to look out"; through true 
root PR08PEC] A distant view, pros- 

prd-sptcio, spexi, spectum, splc- 
6re, 3. v. n. and a. [for prd-spScIo ; 
fr. pro, "forwards"; spedo, "to 

look"] Neut.: 
forth, or out. 
deacnj, espy. 

To iook forwards, 
Act.: To diseem, 

proxlmus, a, um, aup. adj 
[for prop-slmus; fr. obsol, prdpis» 
"near"] Nearett. 

pxH-bes, bis, f. [prob. akin to 
pQ-er] The youth, i.e. young tn«n. 

ptl-er, firi, m. A boy^ lad [root 
pu, "to beget": cp. irai«, irwAof : 
puer, puella : Eng. foal]. 

puff-na, nae, f. [puo, root of 
pungo, " to strike "] A fiqht, battle. 

Kpul-cher, chra, chrum, adi. [for 
T-cher; fr. pdl-lo, "to polish"! 
'.auitiful, fair. Comp.: pulohr-Ior; 
Sup.: pulcher-rlmus. 

pulvis, firis, m. Dust. 

puppis, is (Acc. puppim, v. 116), 
f. A ship, vessel. 

pur-iro, gftvi, gatum, ufare, 1. v. 
&. [pur-us, " clean "] To cJear, clear 

purptlrrdus, fia, 6um, adl. [pur- 
pftr-a, " purple "J Purple-comired, 





?U&, adv. [adverbial abl. fem. of 
; see quij Relatively: Where. 
IndeAnitely : Of place : Wherever. 
In whatever way or manner: — ne 
qua, that in no way whatever. In 
any way, by any means. Interro- 
gatively : In what manner, how. 

quaero, quaeslvi, quaesltum, 
quaerere, 3. v. a To seek. To ask, 

qud>-lis, le, adj. Interrogative : 
Of what sort or kind. Kelative : Of 
such a sort, or kind, as ; such as. 

quam, adv. [adverbial acc. fem. 
of quij How. After comparative 
adjectives or adverbs, or words in- 
volving the idea of comparison or 
diflerence (alius, aliter). Than: — 
prius quam, sooner than, before that. 

quando, adv. Because, since. 

qua-ntus, nta, ntum, adj. [akin 
to quA-Iis] How great. As great as. 
As muxh as. 

aud,-re, adv. [abl. fem. of qui, 
of resj Interrogative : From 
what cause ? on what account f 
wherefore ? why f Relative : For 
which reason, tmerefore. 

quas-SO, s&vi, s^tum, sftre, 1. v. 
a.Tntens. [for quat-so; fr. quat-Io, 



"to Bhake"] To tihatUr, batter, 

qu&ter, adv Four tiiiM$. 

qu6^ enolitio oonj. And ;— que 
. . . que, both . . . ana ; a» mll . . . 
a» ; partly . . . partly. 

queifl, - quibus, abl. plur. of qui. 

qudror, questuH sum, quCri, 8. 
V. aep.: To eomplain o/. To eom- 
plain, lament, bewail. 

qul.quae, quod, pron.: Relative: 
Wno, wnieh. At the beginnin(f of a 
clause instMd of a conlunotion and 
demonHtrative pron.: And thia, eto. 
With SubJ.: (a)To denote a cause or 
reason : Ae, Inasmuch m, beeauee, 
Mnce.— <b) To polnt out a purpose, 
ete.: For the purpose of; that; in 
order to or that ; to. Quod, neut.: 
In restrictive force = quantum : Aa 
much a», ae far aa. Interrogative : 
Who, which, what. Indeflnite : Any 
one, any. 

qul-cumque, quae-cumque, 
quod-cumque (at v. 610, in tmesis, 
quae me oumque), pron. rel. [qui, 
"who": indef. suffixoumque] Who- 
ever, whoaoever ; whatever, whatao- 

qvA-eB, Ctis, f. Reat, repose, from 
any thing [alcin to root ki, "to lie 
down; to sleep"; Or. Ktl-fiai, "to 
lie down "]. 

quie-sco, Cvi, etum, escSre. 3. 
V. n. [for qulet-sco ; fr. qules, qulct- 
is, "rest"; root ki, see quies] To 
reat, repoae. 

quiet-us, a, um, adj. [quie-sco, 
" to be quiet " ; through root ki, see 
quies] Quiet, calm, peace/ul, etc. 

qui-n, conj. [for qui-ne ; fr. qui, 
abl. of relative pron. qui, "who, 
whioh"; ne = non] With SubJ.: 
That not. bvt that, without, /rom. 
To corroborate a statement: But 
indeed, verily, o/ a truth. 

quinqu-&-grinta,, num. adj. in- 
decl. ("Five tens"; hence) Fi/ty 
(for quinque-a-ginta ; fr. quinque, 
"flve ; (a) "connecting vowel"; 
ginta = Kovra. = "ten"]. 

qui-ppe, oonj. [for qui-pte; fr. 
qui, abl. of relative pronoun qui ; 
sufflx pte] Inuamuch aa, becauae. 
In an ironioal sense : Certainly in- 
deed, /ortooth. 

SUis, quae, quid (GeuM cujus; 
., oui). pron. Interrog. : What per- 
son or thinff ? what aort o/ a person 
orthinflr? Whof whiehonef whatf 
Adverbial neut. Aoc.: quid, whyf 
where/ore [irt«, "who? which"?]. 

quis, n'o fem. quid, pron. indef. 
Anyone, anybody ; anything :—ne 
quis, that no one :—neu quis, and 
that no one [ti«, " anyone "]. 

qui-S-quam, quae-quam, quic- 
quam or quid-quam, pron. indef. 
[uuis, " any one " ; sufHx, quam] 
Any, any whatever. As Subst.: 
Masc. : A ny one, any body. Neut. : 
Any thing. 

quls-q\lis, no fem., quod-quod, 
or quid-quid, or quic-quid, pron. 
indef. [quis r^uplioated] Wnatever, 
whataoever, person or thing.— As 
Subst.: Ma«c.: Whoever, whoaoever. 
Neut.: Whatever, whataoever. 

qud, adv. [for quo-m, old forin of 
que-m, acc. of qui] Of plaoe: To 
which or what place ; whither, where. 
Of plans, etc: In what direction, 

qud-circa, adv. [for quom-oirca ; 
fr. quom (old form of quem), aoo. 
sing. masc. of qui; circa, "with 
respect to ] For which reaaon or 
cauM, where/ore. 

quon-dam, adv. [for quom- 
dam ; fr. quom, old form of quem, 
aoo. of 1. qui; sufHx, dam] At a 
certain time ; atone time. once upon 
a time, /ormerly. 

quoque, oonj. Alao, too; placed 
after the word to be eraphasised. 

quot, num. adj. plur. indeol. 
[quOt-us, " how many "] How many ; 
as many aa. 

qudve, = quo, ve ; v. 370. 

quum, adv. and conj. [for quom, 
ola form of quem, acc. of 1. qui] 
Adv.: When. ConJ.: A», aince, 
aeeing that. 


r&b-Ies, lem, le (other cases do 
not ocour), f. [r&b-o, "to rave"] 
Rage,/ury, vioUnce. 

r&prldus, Ida, Idum, adj. [r&p-Io, 
"to seize," "to hurry onwarns"] 
Of flre : Fierce, eonauming. Hurry' 
ing onwarda ; aun/t, rapid. 



r&p-lo, tti, tum, £re, 8. v. a.: To 
$tuUeh, aeize ; to earry off or away. 
To plunder, ravoffe, eto. Ot flre, 
ete., M Obieot : To haeten/orwarde, 
promote, vnereoM. 

rap-ta tftvi, tatum, tire, 1. v. a. 
intens. [r«p4o, "to drag klonff"] To 
drag violently or hurriedly along. . 

r&ru8, a, um. arij. Here and 
theri, eeattered ahout. 

r&tifl, is, f. A bark, veaeel, ehip- 
[prob. akin to remus]. 

rdcens, ntis, adj. Freeh. 

rd-dplo, cepi, oeptum, clpfire, 3. 
V. a. [for rd-o&plo; fr. r6, "Daclc"; 
o&plo, "Jbo talce "] To take, or get, 
baek ; torecover. 

rd-ClAdo, olQai, clAsum, olfldere, 
8. V. a. [rS, denoting "revenial"; 
clQdo = claudo, "to shut, olose"] 
To diecloee, reoeal, discover to a 

rd-condo, ^ndldi, oondltum, 
oondere, 3. v. a. [r6, " without 
foroe " ; condo, " to hide "] To hide, 
coneeal, eecrete. 

rec-tU8, ta, tum. adj. [for reg- 
tus; fr. reg-o, "to lead straight '] 
Right, correct. 

rdCur-80, no perf. nor sup., slre, 
1. V. n. intens. [for recurr-so; fr. 
recurr-o, " to run baclc "] To run or 
haeten back ; to retum, recur. 

red-do, dldi, dltum, dere, 3. v. a. 
[red ( = r6) with d for de demonstra- 
tive), "back"; do, "togive"] To 
give back, retum in answer. 

rdddldo, dltti, no sup., ol6re, 2. 
V. n. [re, with d or de demon. ; oleo, 
"to omit a scent"] To diffuee a 
scent, to be redolent. 

rd-duco, duxi, ductum, dQcSre, 
8. V. a. [re, " back " ; dQco, " to 
lead "] To lead, or conduct, back. 

rdductua, a, umi Pa.: Of local- 
ity : Retired, deeply situated, deep. 

rddux, rfidQcis, adj. [for rfiduc-s ; 
fr. r6duc-o, "to lead back "] Retum- 

rd-fdro, tQli, latum, ferre, v. a. 
irreg. [r6, "back"; fCro; see f6ro] 
To bring, or rarry, back or btKk- 
wards. To bring back word ; to re- 
port, announee, notify. To relate, 

T6-tViltt6o, fulsi, no lup., fulgire, 
2. V. nTTre, "back"; fuIg6o, "to 
flaah "] To fiaeh baek or refleet the 
light, to ehine brightly, etc. 

rd-ftindo, fQdi, fusuro, fundCre, 
8. V. a. [rfi, "baok"; fundo, "to 

Kur "] in reflexive foroe : Flowing 

r6ff-&li8, Ale, adJ. [rex, reg-is, 
"a king"] 0/, or oelmginato, a 
king; kingly, royal, regeu. Worthy 
qf a king, eplendid, magnifieent. 

rdfir-ina., inae, f. [r6g-o, " to 
rule ] A queen. 

rdflr-Io, Wnis, f. [r6go, " to 
direct^*] A portion o/ the earf/i,_ etc., 
of indeflnite extent; a territory, 
tract, region. 

r6flr-IU8, la, lum, adj. [rex, rCg-is, 
"a Idng"] O/, or belonging to, a 
king ; royal. Princely, gplendid, 

regn-O, ftvi, fttum, &re, l. v. n. 
[reg-num] To reign, ruli-. 

regf-num, ni, n. [tig^, " to 
rule "Thence, Dominion , eovereignty, 
rule. A kingdom, realm. 

rdgro, rexi, reotum, r6g6re, 8. v. a. 
To rule, govem, have supremaey 

r§Uqu-iae, iar,um, f. [reIi(n)qu-o, 
" to leave "] The remnant. 

remlflr-Ium, li, n. [remig-o, " to 
row "] The oars. 

rd-morddo, no perf., morsum, 
mordere, 2. v. a. [r6, "without 
force " ; mord6o, " to bite "] To vex, 
torment, dieturb. 

r6-mdvdo, movi, mdtum, m6v- 
6re, 2. v. a. [r6, "back"; ra6v6o, 
" to move "] To remove, ujithdraw. 

re^us, mi, m. An oar [prob. 
for ret-mus ; alcin to e-peT-/u.o«, " an 
"the rowing thing"; fr. 
'to row," through epet or 





rd-pendo, pendi, pensum, pend- 
6re, 3. v. a. [r6, " back again " ; 
pendo, "to weigh"] To balance, 
eounterbalance, compenmte. 

rdpent-e, adv. [repens, repent- 
is, "sudden"] On a eudden, eud- 

rd-pdto, p6tlvi wr p6tli, p6tltum, 
p6t6re, 3. v. a. [r8, " again^' ; p6to; 

in foroe 
detail, e\ 

r*-i , 

8. V. a. {\ 
[r«, 'M 
Irt, ••« 


6re, 8. _. 
aeek to 


affair, _ 
lioa: r/| 
[akinto i 

"to be 
aetive, ii 


V. n. [t 
"to sea 
ael/, tak 

V. n. [r6, 
To ttaw. 


V. a. int4 
^dor ( 

to; agr 


n. [re, 
To rem 


adj. [r6 
us, "ly 


V. a. [r 



a. [re, 

* 1. V. a 



in foroe of " to fetch "] To rteount, 
detail, eto. 

r^pdno, pdsOi. ptaltum, pOnAre, 
3. V. a. [rfi ; pOno, "to put or plaoe"] 
[ri, "baok again"] To reinttate. 
[rfi, "aaide or away"] To lay, or 
atore, up. 

r6-quIro, quMvi, quliltiun, qulr- 
fire, 8. V. a. [for rfi-quaero; fr. rfi, 
"affain"; quaero, "to aeeli"] To 
eeek to know; to ask, or enquire, 

rds, rSi, f. A thing, matter, event, 
affair, dreunutance. For res pub- 
lioa : The etate, eommonufealth, eto. 
[akinto p4-w, " to say or tell "]. 

r6eeB, Idis, adj. [for rtold-s; fr. 
rSsId-eo, " to remafn beiiind " ; henoe, 
" to be idie or inaotive "] IdU, in- 
aetive, inert, eluggieh, eto. 

r6-Bldo, 8ddi. no sup., sldere, 3. 
V. n. [rS, "witnout foroe"; sldo, 
"to seat one'8 self "] To eeat one'a 
ae\f, take one'8 aeat, eit down. 

r6-Bi8tO, stlti, no 8up., sistfire, 3. 
V. n. [r6, " baok " ; sisto, '^to stand"] 
To etand etill, halt, ttop. 

r6Bpec-to, tavi, tiitum, tare, i. 
V. a. intens. [reaplclo, "to look at," 
through root spbc] To regard, pay 
heed or attention to, eto. 

re-sponddo, spondi, sponsum, 
spondSre, 2. v. n. [r6, " in retum " ; 
spondeo, "to promise solemnly"] 
With Dat.: To correepond or anewer 
to ; agree or harmonize with. 

rS-BtO, stlti, no sup., stare, 1. v. 
n. [re, "behind"; sto, "to stand"] 
To remain, be left. 

rd-BiHpinuB, saplna, ^sOplnum, 
adj. [r6, m " intensive" force ; sfipln- 
us, " lying on the back "] Tying on 
the back, or vrith the/ace upwards. 

r6-SUrcro, surrexi, surrectum, 
surgfire, 3. v. n. [r6, "again"; surgo, 
" to rise "] To riae again. 

rd-tdfiTO, texi, tectum, tSgSre, 3. 
V. a. [re, denoting " reversal " ; t6go, 
" to cover "] To diaclose, reveal, ais- 


r6-visO, vlsi, vlsum, vlsSre, 3. v. 
a. [re, "again"; vlso, "to visit"] 
To visit again, revisit. 

rd-v6co, vdoftvi,vdcatum,vdcare, 
1. V. a. [re, "back"; voco, "tocall"[ 

To eaU baek, reeall. 
new, eto. 

To rettore, re- 

rex, regis, m. [for reg-s ; f r. r6g-o, 
"torulei Alnng. 

Xlff-te, fii, no sup., ere 2. v. n. 
To be «tt/[akin to iny6n]. 

rl-ma, mae, f. [perhaps for rig- 
ma ; fi? ri(n)g-or, "to gape"] Of a 
vessel : A aeam, eto. 

rlpa, ae, f. The bank of a river. 

r6g-lix>, Itftvi, Itfttum, Itftre. 1. v. 
a. freq. [rog-o, "to ask"] To aek 
frequently or repeatedly ; to keep 

rdci-dUB, £a, fium, adj. [rOs-a, "a 
rose "] Moay. 

r6t-&, ae, f. A wheel [root ra or 
AR, "to drive"; cp. ratio, rota, 

rtLdenB, ntis, m. A rope, line, 
cord. Plur.: Thecordage,orr^iging, 
of a vessel. 

rCL-ina, Inae, f. [ru-o, "to fall 
down"] A tumbling or falling 
down; afall. 

rtl-O, i. tum, 6re, 3. v. n. and a.: 
Neut.: To fall with vioUnee. To 
ruah, haaten, etc. Act.: To eatt, 
or throw, up f rom the bottom. 

rCLp-eB, is, f. [rumpo, "to break," 
through root rup] 4 ^^^/> '^^ 

ruB, rQris (in Plur. only in Nom. 
and Acc.), n. The country :— Plur. : 


B&cer-dd-B, tis, comm. gen. [for 
sacer-da-(t)8 ; fr. sacer, sac(e)r-i, 
"sacred ; seesacro; da, rootof do, 
"togive"] A priest. Apriestess. 

S&-cro, ftvi, atum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[s&cer, sacr-i, "sacred"] To con- 
secrate [root sao, ' ' to fasten " '. henc^ 
" to bind " by a religious ceremony ; 
cp. sancire, sanctus ; vaTrtiv, aay fia]. 

saeciUuni, l ; see seculum. 
saep-e, adv. [obsol.saep-is, "fre- 
quentn Frequently, often. 

sa6p-io, si, ptum, Sre, 3. a. To 
surround. " 

saev-io, li, Itum, Ire, 4. v. n. 
[saev-us, "flerce] To be fierce ; to 



■aeyiUI, .0. um, «dj.: Fimre; 
tavag*. CriMf. In a gbod Mnte: 
SpirtUd, darinff, botd, valiant. 

•Affitta, ae,f. [rootSAK, "shftrp"; 
cp. laxuni, secare) An arrow. 

S&l, e&Hi, m. (r«relv n.) The aalt 
wat«r, th9 ma, th* bnny oeean [akln 
to £Ac, aA-of ]. 

saltem, adv. At leaat, at aU 
«ventn, any h<nt>. 

s&l-um, i, n. The mo [Or. vdiA-«f ]. 

B&IQ 8, tis, f. [for Mlv-t8, fr. aalv- 
So, " to be well or in good health "] 
8a/ety, m{fare, pronperity, deliver- 

sano-tus, ta, tum, adj. [sano-Io, 
" to render aacred " ; see sacer] Of 
pereons : Vetierable, august. 

sanfiTU is, Inis, m.: Blood. 
Family, etoek, raee. 

S&-tor, tdris, m. [sero, " to be- 
get" ; through rq^t ha] A father. 

saxum, i, n.: A huge rough 
etone or /ragtnent ofrock. 

SOdlus, firis, n. A wieked deed ; 
guiU, unekedneea. 

SO§na, ae, f. The ntage, or tcene, 
of a theatre. A ivide open apace, 
lilce a stage-scene, 

soeptrum, i, n. A royal titaff, 
a aceptre. Kin<jdom, govereignfy. 
dominion, rule [o-K^trrpoi', " a stafT," 
as that on which one leans or sup- 
ports one'8 self]. 

SOlndt), Bcldi, soissum, scindere, 
3. V. o. With Personal pron. in re- 
flexive foroe: To divide, aeparate, 
part a«%inder [root scid, "tocleave"; 
op. ffxiiiJi ; csiiedo, caelum ( = caed- 
lum, " a chisel "), caementum]. 

SOintilla, ae, f. A epark [akin 
to <riTiv0rip]. 

8OI0. sclvi and scli, scltum, sclre, 
4! V. a.: To know, perceive, have 
knowledae of. With Inf.: To know 
how to do. 

SOdpiUus, i, m. A projecting 
point of roek ; a rock, cliff. erag [root 
SPAK, " to see"; cp. aKtnroixai, 
(TKoirdf ; specio, spectare]. 

sou-tum, ti, n. A shield of 
oblong shape, covered with leather 
[root 8KC, ''to cover"; cp. o-kcvi}, 
<r«cvroc, Kcvtfeif ; outis, obscurus]. 


I, aco. and abi. of lul. ^ 

OM-SUS, lai, m. [for momI- 
fr. i«c«d-o, "to retirt, wlth- 
draW "] A retreat, reeeet. 

■4-Ol1!idO, oinii, cluium, olttd- 
fire, 8. V. a. [i«, "apart": olOdo 
(»olaudo). "to ihut") Of oarM, 
ete.: To ehut out, eaeelude. 

■te-O. Qi, tum, &re. 1. v. a. To 
euf [root SAK or ika, " to out" ; op. 
K9i9ty, oanalii]. 

SdOtUum, i, n. With rMpeot to 
penoni livlng in a partioular age : 
A generatim or age ; the timet. 

sdo-undus, unda, undum,-adi. 
[for sequ-undus, fr. sfiquor, "to fol- 
low "] Favourable, proeperoua, fot' 
tuntUe. Of a chanot : Speeaing 
along, rapid, tw\ft. 

s6-oUr-uS, a, um, adj. [n ( a slne), 
"without"; cOr-o, "oare"] WUh- 
out care, unconcemed, regardlee». 

sdd, conj. [sonie word m sed » 
sine, " without "] But,yet. 

SdddO, sddi, sessum, sfidSre, 2. v. 
n. To (tit [alcin to Or. c^o^ai ( s. 
itvofiat), Sans. root bad, " to slt J. 

sdd-es. is, f. [sed-fio, "to sit"] 
A dtveUing-place, abode. A foun- 

sdd-Ile, His, n, [id.] A eeat, 
bench, etc. 

8d<UtIO, dnis, f. [oco. to some fr. 
sed ( = sine), " apart " ; 1, root of do, 
" to go " ; ond so, " o going anart " ; 
acc. to others fr. sd, "aport ; d-o, 
" to put " ; and so, "a putting apart, 
oseporating"] Jnsurreetion, eedi- 

sd-ml-ta, tae, f. [for se-me-ta; 
fr. se, "oside": m6-o, "to go"] A 
by-wi^ ; a patn, footpath. 

sem per, odv. Ever, always. at 
aU tim£« [root sam, from pronominal 
SA ; "together with " ; op. &tia, init, 
ofioidf; simul, semel, similis, sin- 

sdn-atus, fttus, m. [senex, sSn-is, 
"old man"] The Senate', i.e. the 
cowusil, or aseembly, of elders. 

8§-ni, nae, no, num. distrib. adj. 
plur. [for sex-ni; fr. sex, "six"] 

sentent-Ia, lae, f. [for sentlent- 
la ; fr. sentiens, sentient-ia, " think- 






] A iMiy qf thirMnq ; an 
nim. PurpoM, VfiU, rMolv$. 

MntlO. mmI, Mntuin, Mntlre, 4. 
V. ». To p0ro$ive, obatrve ; to b«- 
oonM »»nnH» nr avxtr» ((f. 

•ept-em, num. «dj. indeol. 
S$v$n [iwT-4]. 

Mpt-Imus. Ima, Imum, num. 
ord. «dj. [Mpt-om, "Mven ] <Sb«> 

•teuor, Otua. (or sto>) lum. i, 
8. V. aep.: To /ollow. /olhw afur. 
To /iMow the tseample o/, imitate. 
To/ollow in narration ; to detail, or 
narrate, in luooeMion. To /oUow 
in9ur»uit, tomtreue Froot bak, "to 
follow": op. twoiiat, iwirrit, &irAoi'; 
aeoundua, eooiuo]. 

•6rdn-o, Avi, Atuin, Are, 1. v. a. 
(Mren-ui, "olear" [rootswAR, "to 
•hine " : op. (rcipiot, aikat, ot\^tni : 
Sol: Eng. iwart, lultry] To elear, 
eUar up. 

•dr-lM, lOi, f. (iSr-o, "to Join"] 
A aueeeeeion, eeriee. 

aer-mo, mOnii, m. [oommonly 
referred to "i£r-o, "to oonnect ] 
Talk, eonvereation, dieeouree. 

• dr-tum, ti, n. [ler-o, "toplait 
or entwine "] A garland, urrealh. 

•erv-Itlum, Itli, n. [Mrv-ui, "a 
slave "] Slavery, eervitude. 

•erv-O, Avi, Atum, Are, 1. v. a. 

iroot 8AR, or BAL, "to lceep": cp. 
iA-o«, salvui, Mrvui, lalvui, lolui] 
To preeerve, protect. To keep, re- 
tain, eto. 

•eu ; lee live. 

•i, conj. I/. 

Sl-C [apooopated froin li-oe; i.e. 
ei, alcin to hio, ii, ita ; demonitrative 
aufflx oe] In thi» manner, in such 
a manner, ao, thua. In introducing 
a itatement : In the /ollounng way, 
aa /ollowa. In ooncfuding a itate- 
ment : In thia manner, thua, in the 
/oregoing way. To imcA a degree, 

8id-U8, Srii, n. A atar. 

signum, i, n. : A token or sign. 
A atatue, image. A Jigure, deviee. 

•Ilent-iiun, li, n. [lilens, lilent- 
is, " lilent "] A being ailent ; aiUnt, 

■I1-40, Qi, no sup., Ire, S. v. n. 
To b» ailint. 

•Ilez, lois, (kh\. silici, V. 174), m. 
(rarely f.), A flint, Jlint-»tone. 

mUv-m, ae, f. A wood (OAf -ifl. 

•Imlll^. Ile, adj. Lik» [aee 

•Im-Ul, adv. At th» »ams tim» 
[SM Mmper]. 

•ImtU-o, Avi, Atum, Are, 1. v. a. 
[for slmllK); fr. slmll-ls, "llke"}. To 
a»»ume the appearanee qf. Feign, 

•I-n, conj. [shortened fr. si-ne ; fr. 
sl, "If"; ne, "not"l I/ on the 
eontrary, i/ however, out %/. 

•Ine, prep. gov. abl. [aliin to sflt 
"apart") Without. 

•in-ffttlua. gOla, gnium (moetly 
plur.), adj. One by one, one after 
another. As Subst. : Ainffuia, 
Orum. n. plur. Individualthing», 
eaeh thing [mo Mmper]. 

•Ino. ilvi, iltum, iln£re, 8. v. a. 
To alUrw, permit, auffer. 

Slnus, fls, m. The hanging/old, 
or boaoin, of the ancients. A bay, 
harbour, gul/. 

Sl-ve (contr. seu), conj. [si, "if " ; 
ve, "or'^] Or i/; sive (mu) . . . 
ilve (mu), tDAo(A«r . . . or;whether 
. . . orwhether. 

sdd-O, Avl, Atum, Are, 1. v. a. 
[looiui, " a friend, companion," etc. ] 
To join unth one'a ael/, etc. ; to unite, 

sddus. 11, m. A /riend, ewn- 
panion, comrade [mo lequor]. 

Sdl, lOlii, m. The aun [Me Mreno]. 

sdl-do, Itui Bum, flre, 2. v. Mmi- 
dep. n. To be tusetutomed or unmt. 

sd-llum, li, n. [prob. akin to 
lOl-um ; lee lolum] A aeat ; a ehair 
o/ atate, throne, etc. . ^ 

Bdlor, Atui lum, Ari, 1. v. dep. 
To cotn/(jrt, aolace, oonaole. 

sdl-um, i. n. [prob. fr. root mol 
— SBD in led-eo, " to sit " ] The 
ground, aoil. 

Sdl\lS, a, um. (Oen. sOlIUB ; Dat. 
sOli), adj. : Alone. The only one. 

SO-lvo, Ivi, IQtum, Ivere, 8. v. a. 
[for s6-iao; fr. 80, "apart"; lOo, 



" to looien "] To render powerleM 
from the ejtecto of oold ; toparalyte. 
Of fear : To diemite, get rtd cf, ecut 

80m-nU8, ni, m.: Steep. A 
dream [akin to Or. vn-vos ; sopor, 
fr. root BVAP, " to sleep"]. 

8dn-0> tti, Itum, fire, 1. v. n. 
and a. : Keut. : To eound, resound. 
Aot. : To give /orth the tound o/ any 
thing [akin to root svAjf, "to 

86n0l'-ii8, a, um, adj. [sdn-or, 
" sound "} auounding, loud sound- 
ing, roartng. 

8dp-IO, Ivi or Itum, Ire, 4. v. a. 
To put or luU to sleep ; to cauae to 
tUep [alcin to root bvap, "to sleep"]. 

86ror, Oris, f. A eister. 

80r-8> tis, f . : Alot by which a 
thing/fs determined. Lot, i.e. /ate, 

8pargO, spar8i,'^q>ar8um, spar- 
gfire, 8. V. a. Of persons : To die- 
peree, eeaiter. 

8pdcCU-or, itus sum, ftri, 1. v. 
dep. [sptetU-a, "a look-out place"] 
To look out /or, obeerm, watch. 

8pdlunc-a, ae, f. A eave, eavem 
[irni)\vy{, tnr^kvyy-ot]. 

8P6mo, sprfivi, mretum, sper- 
nfire, 3. v. a. To aeepise, slight, 
eontemn [root bper, or sprk, akin to 
root SPHVR, "to dastroy " ; Gr. «rirop- 
ao-iTM, "totear, rend,''^^^.]. 

8per-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. : 
Tohcpe jor; to expect. To bear 
something in mind; to be assured 
of something. 

8pd8, spSi, f. [for sper-s; fr. 
sper-o ; tne word, in some old 
writers, behig found in the forms 
fperes and speribus] Hope, expecta- 

81»iro, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. To 
give/orth, emit, exhale. 

8plend-Idu8, Ida, Idum, adl. 
[splend-eo. " to shine or be bright "] 
Brilliant, spUndid, shining. 

8p6l-Ium, ii, n. Arms, armour, 
etc., stripped oft a fallen foe. SpoU, 
booty, plunder. 

sponda, ae, f. A couch, etc. 

epil-ma, mae, f. [sptt-o, " to 

spit "] Foam, whether of the mouth ^ 
or of the sea. 

spHm-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. n. 
[spmn-a, " foam^'] To /oam. 

8t&-blli8. bne, adj. [st(a)-o, "to 
stand"] FHrm, enduring, eto. 

8t&-flrnum, gni, n. [id.] A piece 
o/ standing toater, a pool, pond, 
sipamp,/en. Plur.: ITater» in gen- 

8t&tiiO. st&tfli, st&tatum, st&td- 
fire, 3. V. a. [status, imoontr. gen. 
st&ta-is, " a standinflr position "] To 
place, put, set. Toouild, ereet. 

etemo, str&vi, strfttum, stem- 
6re, 3. V. a. : To apreadt spread out. 
To bring to the ground, prostrate, 
overthrow [root star, by transposi* 
tion STRA ; akin to Gr. aTo/tivvvm ; 

Stlp-O, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1, v. a.: 
To press together, compress. Tosur- 
round, encompass; to accompany, 

8tirp8, is, f. (rarely m.) A stem, 
stock, race, lineage. 

8to, stfiti, stfttum, stftre, 1. v. n.: 
To stand. Of care, for a person : 
To stand in, be centered %n. To 
stand firm, remain standing [akin 
to Gr. «rra-ta, i-aTTj-/«,i]. 

8tr&-tum, ti. n. [stemo, "to 
spre«d"; hence, "to cover"] Of 
roads, ete. : The pavefnent :— strata 
viarum, (the pavements c/ the waiys„ 
i.e.) the paved ways or roads. 

8trdp-!tu8, itOs, 
" to make a noise "]. 

8trid-do, i, no sup., Sre, 3, v. n.; 
also 8trid-0, i, no sup., Sre, 3 v. n. 
Of a hintfe : To ereak. Of a storm : 
To whmle, howl, roar. Of the 
wings of birds : To whirr, rustle. 

8trid-or, Cris, m. [strld-eo, "to 
make a harsh, or grating, sound "]. 
Of the oordage of a ship : A creak- 

etrinfiro, strinxi, strictum, strin- 
g6re, 3. v. a. To eut down, top ofy 
m order to make. 

Strii-O, xi, ctum, Sre, 3 v. a. To 
heap, or pile^ up. To set in order, 
arrange [i^in to Gr. erTOfi-ivwtii l 
see stemo]. 

m. [strSp^^ 
A noise, ain. 



BtOd-Ium, li, n. [stOd-fio, "to 
livmy oiie'8 mU,'' ete.] Sagems»$, 
^et^fer punuU. 

SttLl>-eo, tki, no sup., ere, 2. v. n. 
To be ttruek agtuut; to be amaz^ 
or aetownded, [akih eitiier to Or. 
n$«-Tw, "to beat"; root TDP,."to 
hort";— or to root stumbb, "to 

BUftddo, Butei, BuSsuro, euftd- 
«re, 2. V. a. To adviee, reeommend, 
«to. [akin to root »yad, " to pleaae"]. 

BQib, prep. ffov. aoc. and abl.: 
Under, oeneatn. Qf time: At tke 
approiteh of, toioarde ; v. d62 [akin 
to Gr. vn-6]. 

BUb-dAco, duxi, duotum, du- 
<j6re, 8. v. a. [sflb, "from below"; 
dflco, " to draw "] Of the vesMl» of 
iihe ancients : To draw, or haul, up 

Gri&b-do, Ivi or li. Itum, Ire, v. n. 
and a. [8flb; 6o, "to go] Neut.: 
(sflb, "towards"] To proeeed, ap- 
proaeh. Act.: [sub, "under"] To 
enter a place. 

Biib-Xso, egi, actum, Ig&rei 3. v. 
■a. [for 8ub-&sro ; fr. sflb, "under"; 

X, "to put in motion"] Tosub- 

8<ibXt-0, adv. [8flblt-u8, "sud- 
den"] SuddetUy, on a audden. 

Bublimis, e, adj. High, on 
high, alqft. 

BUb-mergO, mersi, mersum, 
mergSre, 3. v. a. [sflb, "beneath"; 
mergo, "to idunge"] To plunge 
anouier beneath something, to eiiuc, 
«r overwhelm. 

sab-necto, no perf., nexum, 
neotire, 3. v. a. [sub. "beneath"; 
neoto, "to bind or tie"] To bind, 
tie, OTfasten beneath or below. 

subnixus, a. um, P. perf, of 
obsol. verb subnltor [fr. sOb, "be- 
neath": nltor, "to lean upon"] 
With Abl.: Supported by, reelining 
or reeting m. 

sub-rid^j, nsi, no sup., nder>, 
2. V. a. '[dflb, denoting "diminu- 
tion"; rld6o,."tolaugh"] Tolaugh 
aomewhat or a little, to emile. 

SUbvolVO, volvi, vdiatum, vol- 
v6re, 3. V. a. [sub, "withoutforce"; 
volvo, " to roll "] To roU, roU aUmg. 


BUO^Cddo, oesBi, ce88um, oMftre, 
8. v. n. [for sub-ofldo ; fr. sub oido, 
"togol [sflb, "below"] WithDal: 
To go helow or under. [sflb, "to* 
wards or up to"] WithDat: Togo 
toward» or up to; to approaeh, 
draw near to. 

SUO-CingO, dnxi, oinotum, dn- 
fffire, 8. V. a. [for sub-oingo ; fr. sflb, 
" upwards, up " ; oingo, " to gird "] 
Pass.: To be girded or girt. 

SUC-OUZTO^ ourri, oursum, our- 
r6re, 8. v. n. [f or sub-ourro ; fr. sttb, 
"towaids or up to"; curro, "to 
run"] To aid, aseist, aueeour. 

suf-fUndo, fudi, fflsum, fun- 
dSre, 3. V. a. [for sub-fundo; fr. 
sub, "beneath"; fundo, to pour 
upon "] To overspread euffuee. 

StU (Dat., sibi ; Aoc. and Abl.. se, 
or reduplicated sese), pron. pers. 
sing. and plur. O/ htmee^, her- 
eel/, itsel/, or themselvee. 

sulcus, i, m. A /urrow [Gr. 

sum, ffli, esse, v. n.: To be. 
With Dat.: To belong to one [root 
AS. "to be" ; in perf. tenses and in 
fut. part. ukin to root bhv, " to be "]. 

stiper, adv. and prep.: Adv. In 
addition, m/oreover. Frep. with 
Apo. or Abl.: With Aoo.: (a) Over, 
~ ) Upon, on the ttmqf. (c) Above, 

jond With AbL: Reepeeting, 
concerning, about [akin to virip]. 

Si&perb-Xi^ lae, f, [superh-us, 
"proud"] Pnde, haughtines». 

Siiper-buSj ba, bum, adj. 
[sflper, " above."] Proud, haughty, 
arrogant. I^lendid, gorgeous, mp- 

stLpdr-emXndo, no perf. nor 
Bup., emlnere, 2. v. a. [sttper, 
"above"; Smlngo, "to project"] 
To riee aiwve, or htgher than, some- 
thing; to over-top, stand higher 

S<ip6r-0, ftvi, atum, ftre, v. a. 
and n. [siiper, "over"] Act.: To 
pas» over, ero»». To overcome, over- 
power, deetfoy. Neut. : To have the 
upper hand, to be overpowering. 

Sttper-sum, ffli, esse, v. n. 
[sflper, "over wtd above"; sum 
" to be "] To remain, eurvive. 




«t.: BttP|ftrii Srum (Om, v. 
plur. The^godt above, the 

8flpdrrU8/a, um. adj. [stlp6r, 
"above"] That i» above, on htgh. 
Am Subst. 

4). m. . 

eelettial deitiee. Sup.: 8UperU8, 
a, um; Hipheet, kftieet The 
higheet or lafiieet part o/ that de- 
noted by the subst. to which it is in 
attribunon; the top o/. Supreme, 
miahtieet. Moet important, main, 
pnneipal. Comp.: sQpfir-Ior; also 
anotherSup.: stkprfimus.) 

8UPPl8X, lois, oomm. gen. [sup- 
plex, "suppliant"] A auppliant or 

8UppHc-Iter, adv. [supplex, 
supplic-18, "suppliant"! (After the 
manner of the iupplex'^; hence) 
SuppKantly, a» a suppliant, or ae 
euppliant» ; humbly, swtmisaively. 

sflra, ae, t The cal/ of the leg. 

8Ur-firo, rexi, rectum, gSre, 3. 
V. n. [contr. fr. sitr-r6go, for sub- 
r6go; fr. sttb, "upwards. up"; 
r^, " to lead straight or oirect " ] 
To rise, ariee, etc. 

8U8, stUs, conlsi. gen. A hog 
[Gr. «s, "ahog,"]. 

8U8-d[pIo, cSpi, ceptum, clp- 
6re, 3. v. a. [for subs-c&plo ; f r. subs 
(=sttb), "without force"" cftplo, 
*' to take "] To take, receive. 

8U8-pendO, pendi, pensum, 
pend6re, 3. v. a. [for subs-pendo ; 
nr.sulM (=> sttb). "beneath"; pendo, 
"to hang"] To hang up, to aua- 

8U-8ld<dO, spexi, roectum, spl- 
o6re; fr. subs (= sttb), "from be- 
neath " ; sp6cIo, ■• ' to behold "] To 
look up to or at. 

8U-8piro, splrftvi splrfttum, spi- 
r&re, 1. v. n. [for subs-splro; fr. 
subs (— sttb), " from below^' ; splro, 
"to breathe"] To draw a deep 
hreath ; to heave a eigh, to aigh. 

euttXD, gen. plur. of sus. 

8U-U8, a um, pron. poss. [sQ-i] 
Belonging to himael/, hia orm. 

syrtiB, is, f. A aand-bank in the 


t&b-do. no perf. nor sup., fire, 
2. V. n. To pine, or vmate, away 
[perhaps akin to njic-A», Doric tAk-*)]. 



tftb-tUa, ttlae, f . A board, pkmk 
[prob. akin to ran, root of Tiu-tm, 
•*to out " ; and so, " the cut thlng "| 

t&0-itU8, Ita, Itum, adj. [t&o-eo. 
"tobesUent"] Silent, aHll, eto. 

t&-li8, le, adj. 0/ aueh a kind,. I 
aUfCh. As Subat. : t&Ua, Imn, n^ i 
plur. Such thinga, awh tvorda [prob.. 
akin to demonstr. pron Yoot TO.! 
" this," and Gr. article t6]. 

tam. adv. [prob. akin to t&-li8| 
With adj. : So, ao very. 

t&men, adv. [prob. a lengthened \ 
form of tam] For aU that, notvrith^ 
atanding, nevertheleaa. 

tan-dem, adv. [fortam-dem; 
tam, "so"; wlth demonstrative 
sufflx dem] At length, finaUy, 
Pray now; I, etc., pray thee. 

ta(n)g|-0, tetlgi, tactxun, tang6re, 
3. V. a. :To touch. Of the feelmgs : 
To mmej exdte, affeet [root tao, i£in 
to diy-yafu]. 

tant-um, advj [tant-us, "so 
much "] So much, ao greatly. 

tant-U8, a, um, adj. : So mwih, 
So great or large in nze. So great 
or impdrtant. 

tar-du8, da, dum, adj. [prob. for 
trah-dus ; fr. trfth-o) Smo, tardy. 

taur-inu8, ina, inum, adj. [taur- 
us, "a bull"] 0/, or beloi^ng to„ 
abull; abulVa; buU. 

taur-u8, i, m. ^ bull [Qr, 
ravft-oK ; akin to Anglo-Sax. "steor" ; 
Eng. "steer"]. 

tec-tum, ti, n. [for teg-tum ; fr. 
t6g-o] The roqf of a bufiding. Ar 
houae, dweUing, buHding. 

tefiT-iuen, mlnis, n. [t^-o, "to 
cover"}- Ofanimals: Aakm,hide, 

tellue, ttris, f. A land, eountry. 

telum, i, n. A weapon, whether 
f or hurling or for close c<»nbat [usu> 
ally referred to Gr. r^Xe, " far olf " ; . 
but rather for tend-lum, fr. tend-o, 
in force o! "to launch or hurl a 
weapon"; and so, "the thing 
launched or hurled "]. 

temno, tempsi, no sup., temn6re» 
3. v. a. To aeapiae, aeom, make 
light o/, eontemn [akin to Or. riiivm, 
"to cut"; and so, "to out or cttt 


tempdr-O. ftvi, &tum. &re, 1. v. 
«. [proD. for tempdr-o, fr. tempiu, 
tempOr-iB, in etymological meaning 
of "a seolion, portion"] To rute, 
reffuiate, govem, restrain, eto. 

tempes-tas, tfttis, f . [f or temper- 
tas ; fr. tenqpua, old gen. temp£r-is, 
as proved by existinflr adverbial abl. 
tempfir*i1 Of weather ; in a bad 
seose : iStorm, tempeet. 

tem-plum, pli, n. A temple, as 
« plaoe dedicated to «ome deity [akin 
to Or. t4ii-vu, " to cut "]. 

tem-pu8, pAris, n. [akin to tem- 
plum] Aportion cf time ; a tims, 
eeaeon. Time in general. 

tendo, tfitendi.tensum or tentum, 
tendfire, 8. v. a. and n. : Aot. : To 
«treteh out or forth ; to egetend. To 
tnm, hend or direct, Qne'8 steps, 
ooursej tte. With Objeotive dause : 
To etrtve, endeavour, use exertion or 
efort that something be done. Neut. : 
To bend one't umy or wurae ; etrive, 
mdeovour [akin to rtv, root ut rctVw]. 

tdn-do^ fil, tum, fire, 2. v. a. [aUn 
to ten-do] To hold, keep, have. To 
hold,orkeep,po8»ea»iono/. Tqreaeh, 
gaij^, OTOrrive at, a plaoe. To hoM 
/aat. To hold baek, detain. With 
iter, etc.: To hold on orWs eouree, 
bend one'» im»y, proeeed. 

ten-to, t&vi, tfttum, tftre, 1. v. a. 
intens. [t6n-fo] To try, attempt, 
teeay, endeavour. 

tentdr-Iimi, u, n. rteudo, "to 
stretoh out"; tmrough obsol. tentor, 
tentor-is, "a stretoher-out" of some- 
thing] Atent. 

t6nu8, prep. (^\x% after its oase) 
gov. abL A»/at ae, up to. 

ter, num. adv. [tres, tr-iiun (with 
«insertedX "three"] Three ttmee, 

terffmn, i, terffus,, oris, n. : 
The baek;—tov a tergo, see ab. The 
ekin or hide of an anuual. 

terffUS, dris ; see tergum. 

tmnXn-O, ftvi, &tum, ftre, 1. v. a, 
[termin-us, "abound" or "bound- 
aty"] Tolimit,cireum8er%be,bound. 

ter-ni, nae, na, num. distrib. adj. 
plur. [tres, tr-Ium (with e inserted), 
"three"] Fortres: Three. 

ter-ra, rae, f. The earth, as 

such. The eorth, aoU. ground. A 
kmd or eountry. Orbis terrarum, 
or simply terrae, (the eirele o/ tand» 
—the Janda; Le.) The eokh, the 
wortd, tA« globe [prob. akin to Qr. 
rip-voiuu, " to be, or beoome. diy" ; 
root TRiSH (tarsh). " to tlUrst"]. 

terr-do, tli, Itum, ere, 2. v. a. 
To /righten, terri/y [akin to root 
TRAS, "to tremble''^; and inoausa- 
tive force, ** to cause to tremble "]. 

ter-titus, tla, tlum, adj. [tres, 
tr-ium (wim e inserted), "' 


test-ado, fldlrj, f. [test-a, "a 
shell," of anfmals] An arch, vauU, 
in buildings. 

th6&trum, i, n. A theatre 
[Biarpov; "that whioh serves for 
seeing, or beholding, sig^ts]. 

thesaurus, i, m. A treaaure 

thymimi,'i, n. Thyme[Bvii.ot]. 

tibn-do, tli, no sup., ere. 2. v. a. 
To /ear, dread, be a/raid o/. 

tim-<xr, Oris, m. [tlm-fio, "to 
fear"] Fear,dread,tefrrw. 

tingffo, tinxi, tinotum, tinguSre, 
8. V. a. With Personal pron. in re- 
flexive ioroe : To plunge one'a aet/ 

t6ff-atU8. ata, atum, adj. [tog-a, 
"a toga"; theouter garmentwom 
br Roman oitisens in time of peaoe] 
Provided unth, or wearing, a toga ; 
toga-wearing : — gens. to^ta. ihe 
toga-wearingnation, i.e. theRoman 

tollo, sustttli, sublfttum, toilfire, 
8. V. a. To li/t up, raiae, upV/t 
[root Toii, akin to root tul, "to 
lift " ; Gr. tA-o», " to bear"]. 

tondido, totondi, tonsum, tond- 
ere, 2. V. a. To ahear, elip. 

torqu-do, torsi, torsum and tor- 
tum, torquere, 2. v. a. To whirl 
around ; to JUng with /oroe or vio- 
lenee, to hurl [akin to Or. rvpir-w, 

torrdo, fcorrOi, toetum, torrere, 
2. V. a. Tb bum; — of com, ete.: to 

tdr-U8, i, m. A eoueh [— (s)tor- 
us : see sterao : henoe "the covered 



tdt, num. adi. inddol. iS!i> mmy. 

tdt-Xdeih, num. adj. indeol. [tot, 
"w many"] Jiut to many or a$ 

tdt-Xes, num. adv. [id.] So many 
timet, <o qften. 

tO-tuS, ta, tum(Oen. tOtlus; Dat. 
t0tl), adj., henoe, The whoU oren- 
tire ; the whole oj [akin to/ root tu, 
in meaning ot " to inorease "]. 

trab-B, ia, f. A })eam [akin to 

tr&ho, traxi, traotum, trfth6re, 
3. V. a. : To drag aioay or aUmg. To 
dragor puU along gently. Todraw 

tr&-JXd[0, j«oi, jectum, jloSre, 8. 
V. a. [for tra-jftolo ; fr. tra(=tranB), 
"througrh"; Jftclo, "to cast"] To 

trans-do, Ivi or li, Itum, Ire, v. 
a. irreg. [trans, "beyond"; eo, "to 
go "] Of time : IVpase by, elapee, 

trans-fi&ro, tOli, Ifttiun, ferre, 
V. a. [trans, "across"; fSro, " to 
carry"! Totrav^fer. 

tranB-flgro, flxi, flxum, f IgSre, 3. 
V. a. [trans, "through"; flgo, "to 
flx," "to flx by pieroing, pierce"] 
To pierce through, tramjui. ' 

tre-mo, mtii, no sup., m6re, 3. 
V. n. To tremble, quiver. etc, [akin 

tO Or. Tp^-a>]. 

tres, trla, num. adj. plur. Three 
[Or. rpeisj. 

trldens, ntis, masc. [trldens. 
" having three teeth or tines "] A 
three-tined spear ; a trident. 

tri-srinta, num. adj. plur. indeol. 
[tres, trl-a, "three"; ginta^Kocra^ 
" ten "] (" Three tens " ; i.e.) Thirty. 

tris-tls, te, adj.: Sad, sorrowful. 
Comp.: Very ead or sorrotqful. 
Comp.; trist-Ior ; (Sup. trist-issimus) 
[proD. akin to root tras, " to trem- 
ole " ; and so, literally , ' < trembling "]. 

tiL tfli (plur. VOS, vestrum or 
vestn), pron. pers. Thou, y^ [<rv, 
Doric form rv]. 

tii-dor, Itus sum, eri, 2. v. dep. : 
To look, oehold. To proteet, defend. 

tum, adv.: At that time; then. 
In a series : Then, in the next plaee 
[prob. akin to a demonstr. root xo ; 
Gr. r6}. 

tttm-Xdus, Ida, Idum, adj. [tOm*^ 
«o, "to sweU"] SweUing, ewoUen. 

tu(n)do, tfltttdi, tupsum and 
tQsum, tundfire, 8. v. a. To atrike, 
beat, amite [akin to root tuo, "to 

turDa,ae,f. Aerowd,m^tUitud$y 
. throng [Or. rvp^ii]. 

turb-O. ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[turb-a] To dieturb, agitate, eor^fiue. 
To throw into dieorder or co^fution. 

turb-O. Inis, m. [1. turb-o, "to- 
move violently "] A whirlieind, 

tH-S, ris, n. Incense, frankin' 
cenae [9v-o«, 0v-cii', " to saorifloe "]. 

ttl-tus, ta, tum, adj. [tti-eor, " to- 
proteot"] Safe, in ac^ety. 

ti!l-US, a, um, pron. poss. [tO, tti-i) 
Thy, thine; your.—\a Subst.: tui, 
drum,m.plur.: Thy,oryowr,friend» 
or foUower». 

tj^rannus, i, m.: Originally: A 
monarch, sovereign, . who obtained 
supreme power contrary to the in- 
stitutions of his country; opposed 
to ^curiAeiif, an hereditaiy possessor 
of royalty. A deapot, tyrant [nipay' 


tLber, eris, n. ("A teat," ete.; 
hence) Pertility, fruilfiUneee, rich- 
nese [akin to Gr. oiBap; cf. Eng- 

<i-bi, adv. [akin to qu-i] Of time : 
When; aseoonas. Of place: Where. 

ilbi-que, adv. [tibi, no. 2; que, 
indef. suffix] Wherever it may be ; 
anywhere, everywhere. 

ul-lus, la, lum (Oen. ullrus ; Dat. 
ulliX adj. [for un-lus; fr. un-us, 
" one "t Any ;— non ullus, not any, 
none, no. — As Subst. m. Any man, 
any one. 

umbra, ae. f.: Shade, shadow. 
The ahade, epirii, or ghost of a de- 
parted person. 

umect-O, ftre, avi, atum, 1. v. n. 
To moiaten, mt, bedew [connected 
veiv, sudor, sudus]. 

VUner-US, i, m. [akin to &<yio?, 
* * a shoulder "] The eho ulder. 

un-d., adv. [adverbial abl. of iin- 
us, "one"] At one and the aaine 
time, together. 




unc-US. a, um. «dj. [uno-iu, " a 
hook "] uooked, btrU, eurved. 

*unda, ae, f. WtU&r (akln to root 
vm, "to wet or molBten "]. 

u-nde, rel. adv. [for ou*nde ; fr. 
rni-i, " who, whioh "] Of persons or 
tiiinga : From whom or whieh ; 

iXn-ua, a, um (Gen. generally 
Qnlus ; but atv. 41 Cuilus ; Dat. &ni). 
adj.: One: at v. 829 with gen. of 
" thing distributed "] As Subst. m. 
One man, one person, one. AUme, 
single, by one'a m{f, or iteelf, apatt 
from othen [akin to clc, ip-it]. 

urb-8, is. f. [prob. urb-o, "to 
mark out with a plough "j A eity, 
a waUed toum. 

\xrg6o, ursi, no sup., ursrere, 2. 
V. a. To drive, /oree, push, tmpel. 

{Lro, ussi, ustum, urSre, 3. v. a. 
To gaU,/ret, eha/e, wx. 

U-8-OUam, adv. [akin to qu-i, 
with (sT inserted, and sufflx quamj 
Any where. 

iit, aXL, adv. and conj.: Adv.: 
Wh*n. How. Ae. Aeeoonas. Conj.: 
That, in order that. 

atX-nani, adv. Oh t that ; would 
that ; / vriah that. 

fltor. Qsus sum, uti, 8. v. dep. 
With AdI. To tm, make use o/, 
employ. Of words : To addrees, etc. 

V&CO, &vi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. n. 
Impers. with clause as Subject Vacat, 
There is time, leiaure, to do, etc. 

vAd-um, i, n. [vftdo, "to gro"] 
A ahaUow, $hoal. 

V&l-Idus, Ida, Idum, adj. [v&l-£o, 
"to be strong"] Strong, power/ul, 

vaUiB, is, f. A valley. 

V&nus, a, um, adj. [for vac-nus : 
cp. vaco] Vain, idle.—AB Subst.: 
V&na, brum, n. plur. Idle, or 
/rivoUmSfthinga. Ofpersons: False, 

' V&r-Xus, ia, lum, adj. Various, 
mani/old. Of conversation : Varied, 
varytng, o/ different kinds [akin to 

vast-O, &vi, fttum, |re, 1. v. a. 

[vast-ua, "waste"] To lay woite, 
devastate, piUage' 

vastU8, a, um, adj. ("Empty, 
waste," ete.; hence) Vaet, huge, 

V^, enclitio oonj. Or, leaving the 
ohoice free between two or more 
Pf rsons or things. 

Vdho, vexi, veotum, vShfire, 8. 

v. a.: To earry, eonvey. Pass.: To 

sail in a veseel [root vah, "to 

vel, conj. [akin to vdl-o] (" Wish 
or ohoose " ; henoe) Or i/ you u>Ul \ 
or :— vel . . . vel, either . . . or. 

vdl&-men, mlnis, n. [veKa)-o, 
" to cover "] (" That which covers", 
hence) A garment, dress, eUtthing', 

V61im, pres. subj. of 2 volo. 

Vdl-I-v6l-ue, a, um, adj. [vfil- 
uin, " a sail " ; (i) connecting vowel ; 
vOl-o, "tofly"] Sail-flying, winged 
toith sails ; an epithet of both ships 
and the sea. 

V&l-um, li, n. [prob. vehlum: 
fr. veh-o, " to carry 'T Of ships : A 
sail. Of.tents: Canvas, covering, 
etc. • 

V61-<it, (-tttl), adv. [v6l, "even"; 
ut, " as "] Even as, just as, like aa. 

v61(iti ; see vclut. 

vdn&-triz, trlcis, f. [ven-(a)-or, 
" to hunt "] A huntreas. 

ven-do, dldi, dltum, dere, 8. v. 
a. [v6n-um, "sale"; do, "toplace"] 
To seH, vend. 

vd-nd-num, i, n. [for ve-nec- 
num; fr. ve, intensive partide; 
n6c-o, "to kili"] Charm, seduetive 

Vdn-ia, lae, f. Favour, irulul- 
gence, kindmaa [akin to root van, 

VdnlO, veni, ventum, v6nlre, 4. 
V. n. To come ;— at v. 22, with Dat. 
dlnoting purpose or intention ; cf. 
[Oscan and Umbrian root bbn ; akin 
to Gr. fiaHvta ; root qa, "to go, to 
come "]. 

vent-U8, i, m. The unnd. Plur.: 
The unnds [akin to Sans. root va» 
"to blow," through part. prei. 

VANT]. ' 



varbum.i, n.t Avmrd. 

vAr-e^ adv. [vSr-u8, "true"] 

▼«r-ter, ItUR 8um, iti, 2. V. dep. 
To/ear, be ttfraid, dread. . 

yAro, adv. [vfir-us, "true"] /n 
tfwth, atmredly. Indeed. 

▼er-ro, ri, sum rSre, 8. v. a* 
("To ■waep"; hence) To noeept 
or tohirl, aumg. 

▼er-BO, sftvi, gfttum, Bftre, 1. v. a. 
iQtens. [for veiXHBO ; fr. vert-o, " to 
tttm"] Mentally: lotwmmuehot 
q^fen, (o keep revolving/- 

vert-ex, loia, m. [vert-o, "to 
tum"] The top, or croum, of the 
head. The too, or summit, ot.A 
thing. Of theheavens: Thepole. 

verto, verti, versum, vertSre, 8. 
v. a.: To tum. Pass. in reflexiv« 
force; To tum one^» eelf, eto.; to 
proceed. To change, aUer. To over' 
tum overthrow, deatn^. 

vteu, Qs. A spit. 

Vteu& a, um, acM.: True.real, 
aetuai. In adverbiaf foroe : Truly. 

Veso-or, no perfeot, veeoi, 8. v. 
dep. ^With Abl.: To feed upon, to 
MK, to take as /ood [aldn to esc-a, 
"food": or periiape Or. fi6vit-t», 

veeper, firis ond Sri, m.: The 
«veniruf. The evening-ttar [Fitr- 


vee-ter, tra, trum, pron. poss. 
[old form vos-ter: fr. vos, plur. of 
tu, "thouoryou'] Tour. 

ves-tia, tis, f. A garment: 
ekMiing, drets [akin to Qr. Fwtiji, 
"a garment"; Sans. root vas, "to 
wear " as dbthes ; " to put on"]. 

VdtO, ui, Itum; ftre, 1. v. a. To 

VdtUS, Sris, ad^.: Old, aged. 
Andent, i.e. heUmging to a /ormer 
age or agea [prob. akm to Or. Fn- 
ot, "ayear ]. 

Vl-a, ae, f. A u>ay. street, road. 
A uKty or eouree. A way or ptu- 
aage [prob. root vah, "to carry "]. 

Vic-tor, tdris, m. [vinco, "to 
oonquer," tiirough root vic] Con- 
^ueror, vietor. As adj.: Conquer- 
xng, vietoriout. 

vlottis, a. um. The oonquered, 
the vanqut^d. 

vio-tuCL tQs, m. [for vigvtns ; fr.« 
vlvo, "to live,^' through rootviov] 
A Kvina, mode of living, way t/ 
life. Thatonwh%ehoneUvee; eue- 
tenance, provieiona, etc. : see faciUs. 

ylAibo, vldi, vlsum, vldfire, 2. v. 
a.: Aot.: To eee, behold. To per- 
eeive [akin t6 Or. ii-«iv, "tosee": 
root VH), " to know"]. 

Vl-Sinti, niun. adj. indeol. [for 
bi-ginti; fr. bi (= bis), "twioe"; 
ginti=KovTa, "ten "] (" Twice ten" ; 
t.e.) Twenty. 

villue, i, m. Shaggy hair. 

vixudo, vinxi, vinctum, vinclre, 
4, V. a. To Irind, tie,/aiten. 

vino-luxn. u (-tUum, (Ui), n. 
[vinc-Io, "tobindn A bond,/etter, 

Vinco, vloi, victum, vinoSre, 3. 
V. a.: 3b eonquer, overeome; von- 
quieh. To get the better o/, ofeer' 

Vin-um, i, n. Wine. [fetv-ov]. 

Vfr, vlri (Oen. plur. vlrttm, m. 
A man. 

Vir-go, glnis, f. A miaiden, vir- 

Vlr-Idis, Ide, adj. [vIr-«o, " to be 
green"] Qreen. 

Vir-tns, tiitis, f. [vir, "a man"] 
Vt^our, bravery. 

vis, vis (plur. vlree, lum), <•: 
Strength, mgour, energy. Foree, 
violenee [Fn]. 

Viecus, Sris (mostly plur.), n. 

vit-ftlis, ftle, adj. [vit-a, "Ufe"] 
0/, or belortging to, l{fe ; vitaL 

ViV-O, vixi, viotum, vlvfire, 8. v. 
n. To live [akin to root jiv. to 
Uve : cp. ^ioc]. 

VlVUS, a, um, adj. [vlv-o, "to 
Uve"] Living. Ot a rodk : Living, 
i.e. unhetm, uneut, unwrought, 
natural. Of love: Lively, stro/ng, 
pov>er/ul — or For a living object. 

Viz, adv. Seareely, unth dijfi- 

vdc&tus, a, um, P. perf. pass. 
of vooo. 



v6oo. ftvjl. &tum, tre, 1. v. a. 
andn.: To9liu. TocaUbyname. 

VOlnu9: seevulnus. 

▼oliTus: see vulgus. 

v6lo, &vi, &tum.Ar«>l* V. n.: To 
fty. Ofthlngs: ro^y, Le. topase, 
gwifUy or npidly. 

v6lO, v0lfli, velle, v. irreg.: To 
be waiina [fOdn to Gr. fio\, root ot 
fi6K-oiun (=fio(v)k-on<u), "towisli"]. 

VOlt-U8, &8, m. [volo, "to wish, 
as expresdve of emotionB, or de- 
sires"] The/aee. 

v6l-{U3er, ttoriB, ttcre, adj. [v61-o, 
"tofly"] Sur^ft,rapid. 

v6lil-to, tAvi, tfttum, tftre, 1. v. 
a. intens. [for volv-to; fr. volv-o, 
" to roll "] Of the voice : To eauee 
to roU, roU alona, epread. Mentally : 
To twm over in we mind ; to revolve, 
ponder, eto. 

VOlVO, volvi, vdl&tum, volvfire, 
8. V. a. ond n.: Act: To roU, roU 
oton^. Pf misfortunes: Toimdergo, 
beinvolvedin,ebo. Tow\fold,reveal. 
Mentally : To revolve, ponaer. eon- 
eider, weigh, eto. Neut.: Oftime: 
To roU onward or (Oong, to revolve. 

Of the Fatee : To roU akmg [akin 
toFtAKt*, "toroll"]. 

v6ro, ftyi. fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. To 
devour, ewauow up, eto. [akln to Gr. 
jtoM, "food"; ^i|lp(6<ric»,"toeat"; 
Sans. root ori, " to devour "] 

vort-dz, Icis, m. [for vert-ex, fr. 
vert-o. "to tum"l ("The tunung- 
thing" ; hence) A tmirlpool, eddy, 

v6-tum, ti, n. [for vov-tum ; fr. 
vOv-€o, " to vow "] A vow. 

VOX, vOciM. [for voo-s: fr. vfio-o, 
"to call"] The voiee. A eound, a 

vllfir-o, ftvi, fttum, ftre, 1. v. a. 
[vulg-us, "thecommonpeople"] To 
sprMd abroad, make undely or gen- 
eraUy known. 

vulgus, i, m. and n. : The eom- 
monpeople; the muUitude,populaee,. 
Of animals : The throng, erowd, 
maes, etc. [sometimes referred t» 
Gr. Sx^of» iEoUo oxAo«, Cretan 

VUln-U8, M», n. A %oound. 

vul-tus (old f orm vol-tus), tOs, 
m. [prob. vdl-o, "to wid»"] Faee^