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Collection de 

Caradim ImtitiiM for HIMorlcal Microraproduetlora / liwtHut Canadian da microraproduetlom tiMortquoa 

TMhnlMl Mid BIMIo«rapMe NotM/NotM t*ehniquM m WbNograpMquM 

Ttm Inttltut* hM atiMiiptMl to ototain tiMi bMt 
orlgifMl Gopy avaltaM* for fNmino. Pootiirot of tMo 
copy wMeh may bo bIbNotraiMiloollv unlquo. 
wMoh may altor any of tho Imagaa In tha 
roproduction. or wMoh may al g n lfl o a ntl y ohanga 
tha umial mathod of fHminfl. ara ohaekad bala w . 

□ Colourad eovara/ 
Couvartura da eouiaur 

rn Covars damagad/ 




Couvartura andommagAo 

Covart raatorad and/or laminatad/ 
Couvartura rattaurAa at/ou paWeuMa 

□ Covar titia mlMing/ 
La titra da couvartura man^ua 

□ Colourad maps/ 
Cartas gAographiquaa an eoulour 

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r~l Colourad plataa and/or IHuatratlona/ 

Planchaa at/ou Hluttrations an eeulaur 

Bound with othar matarlal/ 
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Tight binding may eauaa shadovvt or distortion 
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Lar«llura sarrAa paut eauaar da I'ombra au da la 
distortion lo long da la marga Intirlaura 

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appaar within tha taxt. }Mh9nmiw possHMa. thasa 
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mala, lorsquo caki 4tait poaalMa. eas pagaa n'ont 
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Additional commants:/ 
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Pagas rastaurAas at/ou palHculAas 

Pagas discolourad. stainad or foxai 
Pagas dAcolorAas. tachatAas ou piquAas 

Pagas datacliad/ 
Pagas ddtachias 

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Pagaa andommai 

rri Pagas raatorad and/or laminatad/ 
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I I Pagas datacliad/ 

rrn Bhowthrough/ 


Quality of prir 

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t modifier 
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Bibliiothiquo natkMMle du Canada 

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cos: Ie symbolo -^ signifie "A 8UIVRE", Ie 
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different reduction ratios. TIumo too large to bo 
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1 2 9 

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et do Itout en Imm. en pronant Ie nombre 
d'imogoe nAcessoire. Lee diogrammee suivanta 
lllustrent lo mAthode. 


1 2 3 

4 5 6 



























Mo«T BBinKrrrvLi.y 









Antecedently to the year 1759, the dominion of North America was 
divided almost exclusively between the Kings of England and France ; the former 
possessing the immense Atlantic seaboard of the continent, the latter the territories 
along the borders of the gigantic " Fleuve du Canada," or River St. Lawrence. 
But the conquest, gallantly achieved by Wolfe on the memorable plains of 
Abr'am, near Quebec, left, subsequently to that event, but a slender footing to the 
French crown in America, whilst it at once extended the empire of Great Britain 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the shores of the Pacific, and rendered it almost 
co-extensive with the whole northern division of the New World. England 
continued in the undisputed possession of these her immense dominions, for a 
period of nearly sixteen years, when those revolutionary discontents broke out in 
the old colonies, which ended in the declaration of their independence, and their 
recognition as a free and independent state, by the treaty of Paris, 3rd of Sep- 
tember, 1783. 

Whether the reduction of Canada accelerated the separation'of the original 
British North American Plantations, by removing the check which the relative 
geographical position of the surrounding French possessic ;vas calculated to 
produce upon the colonists, it is difficult to sayj but it is, perhaps, less pro- 
blematical whether England would this day have had to boast of her valuable 
transatlantic dominions, had not the victory of the British hero, who fell in the 
consummation of the conquest of Canada, preceded the birth of the United States 
of America, as one of the independent nations of the world. Certain it is, how- 
ever, that the severe consequences of the loss of the British plantations were greatly 
mitigated by Wolfe's victory, and the accession of the French colonies to the British 
empire, to which, not only from their intrinsic worth, but because of the political 
power and the commercial advantages incidental to the possession of them, they 
have since become important appendages. 

In the war waged by the colonies against the mother country, the people of 
Canada, although so recently become British subjects, resisted with fidelity every 






attempt that was made to seduce them from their new allegiance, and with bravery 
repulsed every endeavour to subdue them. Such devotedness was highly appre- 
ciated ; and England, at the termination of the revolutionary war, directed her 
attention towards giving increased consequence to her remaining possessions, with 
the design of drawing from them some of the supplies she had been accustomed to 
receive from the countries recently dismembered from the empire. It was some 
time, however, before the efforts of the mother country were attended with any 
degree of success, and a new order of things established, by which the languor that 
marked the growth of the colonies as French plantations, gradually gave place to a 
system of more vigour in the agricultural improvement of the country, and a more 
active development of its commercial resources. 

If the British dominions in North America be viewed merely in relation to 
their vast superficies, which exceeds 4,000,000 of geographical square miles, their 
importance will- become apparent ; more especially when the manifold advantages 
of their geographical position are properly estimated. Glancing at the map, we 
see British sovereignty on the shores of the Atlantic, commanding the mouth of 
the most splendid river on the globe ; and, sweeping across the whole continent of 
America, we find it again on the coasts of the Pacific Ocean, thus embracing an 
immense section of the New World in the northern hemisphere, reaching at some 
points as far south as 41° of north latitude, and stretching northward, thence, to the 
polar regions. But the importance of these possessions should be estimated less 
by their territorial extent than by the resources they offer, their capabilities of 
improvement, the great increase of which their commerce is susceptible, and the 
extensive field they present for emigration. 

The British North American provinces occupy but a comparatively small 
portion of the aggregate superficies of the whole of the British dominions in the 
western hemisphere; yet they cover about 500,000 geographical square miles, 
and contain a population which in round numbers amounts to nearly a million and 
a half of souls. Of the above superficies, the province of Lower Canada embraces 
almost one half, whilst its population absorbs nearly an equal proportion of the 
whole population of the North American Colonies. The inhabitants of Lower 
Canada are chiefly Catholics, the number of that persuasion being about 7-Sths of 
the totality. Of the remaining eighth, rather more than 2-3rds belong to the 
Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches, and somewhat less than l-3rd comprises all 
other denominations. 

In point of local advantages, situation and fertility. Lower Canada is 
decidedly one of the most valuable and interesting sections of the British Colonial 
Empire ; and although its climate is rigorous during part of the year, the clearness 



and wholesomencM of the atmosphere, atones, on the one hand, for its severity, 
whilst the abundance of snow that falls in winter, contributes, on the other, to the 
vigour of vegetation in summer. 

The general features of the country are bold and imposing. The St. Law- 
rence, in its greatest amplitude, flows majestically through the heart of the pro- 
vince, receiving, on both its banks, the ample waters of many a fine river, opening 
convenient natural avenues to the collateral parts of the country. Upon a rocky 
and commanding eminence, 4(X) miles from the Gulf and about 6^0 from the sea, 
stands Quebec, the capital of those colonies and the key of the country, with a 
seaport calculated to harbour first-rate line-of-battle ships ; 180 miles further up 
the St. Lawrence is the flourishing city of Montreal, which yields to Quebec in 
the strength of position, only. It enjoys an excellent seaport, also, and, being the 
emporium of the American and Upper Canada trade with the province, is rapidly 
increasing in commercial opulence and population. The following statement of 
the recent imports and exports at Quebec, much of the latter of which had passed 
through Montreal, will convey some idea of the activity of commercial business at 
the principal seaport in the province. 

Imports/or 1930 and 1831. ' ., 

August 12, 1(130 
August 9, 18:{l 



7410 237 
5682 450 






MuAi'Ovaftn ttiignr. 



042 2182 




Punit I Coftet. 


I i:m 






2504 :i4;ia 







Exports for 1830 and 1831. 


Hot and |iei»rl a»h(^. 




«v nrat. 














AuKUAt 12, 18.30 
August 9, 1831 

























To agriculture and commerce, by which the importance of the province may 
be estimated, emigration may be superadded as a consideration of no insigniBcant 
moment, when we reflect that nearly 50,000 emigrants from the United Kingdom 
were, in the course of this year (1831), landed on the wharfs at Quebec. Pre- 


eminently, therefore, as is Lower Canada the immediate scene of this emigration, 
every information relative to it that could be conveyed tc the people of this 
country, and especially the people of Ireland, may appear particularly desirable ; 
and although the following work necessarily contains a variety of topographical 
details of no pressing utility to the emigrant, it will be found to embrace much 
information for his guidance, arising out of the experience of those who have pre- 
ceded him in the foimation of new settlements. 

In consulting a work containing so many statistical details, the reader will, 
naturally, be desirous of knowing the sources whence the information it conveys 
may have been derived, and it is satisfactory for the author to be able to state, that 
those sources can be relied upon for their accuracy and respectability. The sei- 
gneurial tenure of the lands, which prevails in by far the greater portion of the 
inhabited parts of Lower Canada, and the ecclesiastical divisions of the province, 
offer, of themselves, the most valuable means of statistical information. — The seigneur 
is competent to give the boundaries, dimensions, and subdivisions of his estate; its 
soil, surface, and its general topography, which he usually has graphically ex- 
hibited in maps, to which the author has, in most cases, had free access. The 
curate, as well as the seigneur, is acquainted with many of these particulars, and is 
moreover competent to form a correct estimate of the produce of the parish over 
which he presides, the extent of the lands in cultivation, the nature and amount 
of the farming stock and population. Upon all these points, besides a variety of 
others, have the seigneurs and curates of the province been, severally and par- 
ticularly, consulted, both by personal application from the author, and by circular 
queries, to which the most ready and ample replies were almost universally com- 

The volume of exact information conveyed, in formal returns to the legis- 
lature, by the very intelligent class of the community to whom we have already 
referred, — the gentlemen of the Roman catholic clergy, — upon all matters con- 
nected with the circumstances and statistics of the vast number of Roman catholic 
parishes of the province, constituted also a further corroborative fund of facts of 
considerable importance. 

The elaborate investigation of the subject of crown lands by a committee 
of the House of Assembly, of which Andrew Stuart, Esq. was chairman, having 
elicited a variety of information relative to the tenures, topography and statistics 
of the colony, has likewise furnished a portion of the materials upon which the 
author has had to work. 

The information relative to the townships is derived from sources no less 
authentic and respectable. A considerable part of it, the author possessed in the 



official records of his own office, through which all soccage grants have been made 
since the existence of the colony. Another part was collected from the official and 
non-official returns and statements of resident township agents, upon which the 
utmost reliance could be placed. A third resource was found in the principal land- 
holders and leading inhabitants of the townships, who were regularly consulted, in a 
series of queries, upon the local, agricultural, statistical and religious state of their 
respective sections of country. In addition to these multifarious means of informa- 
tion, the public returns of the censu-s of 1825 were carefully consulted, and to the 
whole mass of documents thus accumulated, were superadded the results of three 
official tours performed by the author in 1820, 18S4 and 1827i in the course of 
which he visited the settled extremities of the province, and traversed the old 
and the new settlements in almost every direction, noting with care, as he went 
along, the information with which he was furnished, on the spot, by the intelligent 
inhabitants whom he consulted, and sketching the country as he proceeded. 

Out of these combined materials has grown the following Topographical 
Dictionary. There are many minute points connected with the topography of a 
country, of the utmost importance to those seeking for complete information as to 
its resources, for the arrangement of which, as well as for the facility of reference, 
the alphabetical form affords distinguished advantages ; and this has induced the 
author to prefer the lexicographic plan, which he confidently presumes will be 
found to combine many and important advantages, from its comprising, under one 
view, all the particulars that can be required upon any one point. Thus every 
county, parish, seigniory or township is described under its particular head, with 
reference to its boundaries, extent, locality, soil, &c. ; its statistics arc then tabularly 
detailed, together with the description and amount of its agricultural produce and 
live stock. Afler the description of each seigniory or fief is an extract of the 
original title thereof, taken from the archives of the province. 

The lakes, rivers, roads and canals come also under their respective names, 
and are all described in topographical detail. Under the head " Province" will be 
found a general description of Lower Canada ; »~id under that of St. Lawrence an 
ample and somewhat nautical account of that important river. The system of 
opening roads through the forest, and of commencing clearings for settlement in 
the wilderness, will be found explained under the heads of Hull, Roads, New 
Settlement, and incidentally in various other parts of the work ; and as this infor- 
mation is derived from the e:;cperience of practical settlers, it is the more valuable 
to the emigrant who may eventually take lands in Lower Canada. 

In fact, nothing has been omitted which the author conceived might be of 
the slightest interest or importance, and which the researches of, and the accumu- 



lation of documents for, now nearly thirty years, could enable him to embody in 
such a work. That it is altogether free from defects it would be presumptuous 
probably to hope, especially when it is considered that such a work is the first of 
the kind that has been undertaken, not only for Lower Canada, but for any 
other of the British colonies j yet the author may vouchsafe to say, that the 
general correctness of the information may be fully relied upon. In the method 
and systematic arrangement of the Dictionary, the author has pleasure in acknow- 
ledging the assistance he derived from Mr. Thomas G. fiucke ; and he trusts that 
the fram6 of the work and the classification of the details will be found judicious. 

The author, in fine, has studied utility far more than elegance ; the earnest 
desire of conveying information and not a visionary prospect of literary fame, to 
which he cannot presume to aspire, has brought him again before the public, and 
he confidently hopes to receive that indulgence which, he thinks, he may claim, 
from the motive by which he has, avowedly, been actuated, in the publication of a 






Aug. Augmentation. B. b. Barony. C. c. Canal, co. County. D. o. District. b. East. 
F. F. Fief. fr. from. I. Isle. Id. Island. L. i.. Lake. 1. League, m. mile. n. North. 
P. p. Parish. R. R. River. S. Seigniory, s. South, sq. square. T. t. Township. V. v. Village, 
w. West. 


Abaovsquash, or " small water," rises in the 
rear of Trois Pistolles, S. It is a river, or rather a 
chain of lakes, forming one of the head branches 
of the B. Toledo, which it enters a little below 
h. Orsale Wallagamuch. 

Abawbibquabh, river, rises in a small l., con- 
nected by a portage with h. Orsale Wallagamuch, 
one of the sources of the Toledo. It runs N.w., 
cutting off the B. angle of the S. of Trois Pistolles, 
and joins the R. of that name. By means of this 
R., which is narrow, rapid and obstructed by falls, 
the Indians pass in canoes from the R. Tokdu to 
the St. Lawrence. 

Abrnakis, v. Indians, 

Abercroiiby, township, in the co. of Terre- 
bonne, is in the rear of the Augmentation of Mille 
Isles and joins Kilkenny n k. When this town- 
ship was originally surveyed it was considered 
barren and the lands unfit for cultivation ; but 
more recently the reverse has proved to be the cose, 
and both sides of the North Hivcr, which traverses 
this township in a N.w. direction, already pre- 
sent a tolerably large and improving settlement 
of Canadian farmers, who have been unadvisedly 
located by Mr. Dumont, proprietor of part of 
the seigniory of Mille Isles, and who, in conse- 

A B E 

quence of the great deficiency of superficial extent 
sustained by him in the augmentation of that 
seigniory, produced by the interference of the an- 
terior seignorial grant of the Lake of the Two 
Mountains, has thought himself at liberty to ex- 
ceed his seignorial limits, and has accordingly con- 
ceded the lands on both sides of the North River 
to the lateral depth of nearly seven miles within the 
township of Abercromby. These concessions ex- 
tend, generally, three arpents in front on the river 
by 30 in depth, and pay an anuual rent of five 
livrcs and 3] bushels of wheat. The number of con- 
cessions is about 120 and the population amounts 
to about I7O; there are 40 houses, one suw-mill, 
and a potashcry belonging to Mr. Laviolette. The 
total annual produce of this new settlement may 
1)0 said to be about 2100 bushels of wheat and 
other grain, besides 3700 bushels of potatoes and 
600 of Indian com. There are in the settlement 
alx)ut 2)) horses, 12 oxen, 30 cows, fiO sheep, and 
71 pig!<. Many of the settlers make excellent 
maple sugar, of which about 2000 lbs. are made 
annually. The lands in this T. are generally un- 
even and broken, being traversed by rocky ridges. 
The soil is light and in many parts stony and 
sandv ; but there are some valuable tracts of ex- 

A C H 

A N C 

cellent land and meadows. This t. ia well wa- 
tered by several rivers and creeks, and a few 
small lakes. A few militia locations were made 
here, but, as the lots were not laid down with 
sufficient precision in the hasty survey made in 
1803, the settlers could not enter into possession. 
— Ungranled and unlocated 35,600 acres, exclu- 
sive of reservations — 1st Sept., 1829. 

AcADiK, county, in the District of Montreal, 
bounded n. w. by the co. of Chateaugay, s. by 
the province line, s. by the R. Chambly or Riche- 
lieu, N. E. by the co. of Chambly, and 8. w. by the 
N. B. line of the t. of Hemmingford and part of 
the S. of Beauhamois, is 22} m. long and 20 
broad, and comprehends the S. S. of La Colle and 
De Lery, the t. of Sherrington and the isles in 
the R. ChamUy or Richelieu nearest to the county, 
and which are wholly or in part opposite, vis. Isle 
aux Noix, Hospital Id. and Ash Id. The centre 
of the CO. is in lat. 45o 9' N. Ion. 73° 27 w. It 
contains 242 sq. miles, several parishes, one town, 
and three villages, and sends two members to the 
provincial parliament. The place of election at Ste. 
Marguerite de Blairfhidie. The principal rivers 
are, the Montreal, La Tortue, and La Colle. The 
chief town is Dorchester. About one-half of the 
population is Canadian, the other half American, 
English^ Irish, and Scotch. 

6637 Court-bouMS 
OaoU . 
Towns . i 
Villages . 




Rom. Cath. 


Grist mill!) . 
Saw mills . 
Carding mills 
Fulling mills 
Tannerie* . 
Potteries . 



Potash woric* 
Distilleries . 
Medical men 
Taverns . 
River craft . 
Keel boats . 





AnHual AgricuUunl Product, 

Buiheli. Buihcb. Budwta. 

Wheat . 55,UU0 Peas . 83,080 Indian com 11,800 

Oat* . 58,000 Rye . 8,890 PoUto* 1«3;400 

Barley . 0,900 Buck wheat 8,000 

Lilt Stock. 
Hone* . .3,050 1 Cow* . 0,4.35 1 Swine . 6,085 
Oxen . 9,86H|8heep . 10,HiO | 

AcHioAN, river, takes its rise from Echo Lake, 
in the t. of Abercromby, and from the Killamcy 
hikes and many streams in the T. of Kilkenny. 
These numerous waters unite and form the Achi- 
gtin, in the settlement of New Glasgow, in the 
Augmentation to Terrebonne. It crosses the S. of 

Lachenaye, enters the S. of I'Assomption, towards 
the middle of its depth, forming a considerable 
bend ; and, after being increased by the Ruisseau 
des Anges, it waters the village of St. Roch, and 
in a very winding courae leaves the S. for that 
of St. Sulpice, where it falls into I'Assomption 
about two miles above the village of that name. 
Although the Achigan may be called a large river, 
it is not navigable and is only used for mills and 
for bringing down the timber felled in the upper 
parts of the adjacent seigniories and townships. 

Acton, a township in the co. of Drummond, 
is bounded b. by Roxton and Ely, w. by Upton, 
and N. N. B. by Grantham, Wickham, and Dur- 
ham. About one half has been surveyed and 
granted, but no part u settled. The land is level, 
and, lying rather low, is overspread with several 
swamps covered with spruce, fir, white pine, cedar, 
&c. ; the drier tracts are timbered with ash, beech, 
maple, and birch. It is watered by two large 
branches of then. Yamaska. — Ungranled and un- 
located, 9372 acres, exclusive of reservations— 1st 
Sept., 1829. 

Adstock is a projected township in the co. of 
Megantick ; it adjoins Tring and Thetford and is 
not surveyed. 

Ahpuoojkbne-Gamook (L.), v. St. John, R. 

AiOLX, one of the principal isles at the eastern 
extremity of the Id. of Montreal. The soil is 
good, and chiefly in gracing land. There it a 
productive farm with a tolerably good house. 

Aldkr (R.), v. r. des Aulnaib. 

Aldfibld, a projected township in the rear of 
Onslow and in the co. of Ottawa. 

Aloonouin, v. Indians. 

Amherst, a projected township in the rear of 
Ponsonby and in the co. of Ottawa. 

Ancb u Bbaufils (F.), in the co. of Gasp£. 

Ancb u Catherine (Cove), v. Saouenay, b. 

Ancb i\ la Barque (Cove), t. Saoubnay, r. 

Ancb u la BArAiLLK (Cove). 

Ancb au Bateau (Cove), ti.NBwLoNOUKiL,S. 

Ancr au CoQ (Cove), v. Lb Paob, S. 

Ancb au Snbllkh (Cove), v. Mitis, S. 

Ancb de Bbrthirr (Cove), in Berthier, S., 
and CO. of Bellechasse. 

Ancb de TEtano, fief, in the co. of Ouspi-, is 
chiefly above little Fox River, which traverses the 
B. extremity. The S. of Grand Valliie des Monts 
is on the w. 



TUk.—" CooMMion d« Mm Septcnbn. XWl, Mte 
par Limit <k Buaie, Ootivemeur, et Jean Bochart, Intend, 
■nt, au Sieur FiaufoU Haxzeur et DenU Riverin, de rjlnce 
d€ tBtaag, atatt au ba* du fleuve St. Laurent, tax lieuea 
au deiMiu de la ValUe dei munta de Notr* Dame, avec une 
demi lieue de front de ohaque p6te de la dite Ance, sur 
one U«Me da profondeur."— X^Mrv ilnttndanct. So. A, 

Amcb del MoBTS (Cove), in the co. of 0«sp£. 

Ancb des MoBTB (Cove), in Mids, S. 

Ancb Sablon (Cove), on the Labrador coast, 
•t the B. extremity of the province, to which it 
was reunited, with other territory, by act of the 
imperial parliament in 1825. 

Ancb St. Jbam (Cove), in 

AncbSt. Vallibb (Cove),«. 8t.Vallib«,S. 

Ancb Snbll (Cove), in the S. of Cote de 

Andbews bbook, in the co. of Bonaventure, 
runs into n. bank of the Riitigouche near iu 

Anob Oabdibn (P.), V. CoTB de Bbaupbb, S. 

Angb Oabdibn (V.), v. Cotb de Bbadpbk, S. 

Anobb, des, a rivulet. Ruisseau des Anges 
rises in Lachenaye, 8., and, running a., cuts the 
division line into I'Assomption, 8., where it enters 
the Achigan about one m. above the ▼. of St. 

Ann's Town, v. Bbavrabnois, 8. 

Antaya or DuBviLLiBB, fief, is in the S. and 

P. of Berthier, and in the co. of Berthier. It 

fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded w. by 

Dautr6. It extends 1^ league along the river and 

one in depth ; and, with the adjacent Isle au Foin 

and the intermediate islets, was conceded, 29th 

Oct,, 1672, to the Sieurs de Comport^. The soil 

is good and generally well cultivated and settled. 

The surface is generally level. 

Title.—" Conceniiion du VOme Oetobre, 1078; faite par 
JiMM Talim, Inteiidant, au Sieur ie Comporti, d'une denii 
lieue de terrc de front, aur une lieu de profondeur, i pren- 
dre nur Ie deuve St. Laurent, homte d'un c6tt par la con. 
oesilon du Sieur Dautri, tintnt >ur Ie fleuve et dcucendant 
ven lei terres non.conctdH>i ; avec I7<fa au Fvi» et inlets 
lituff entre la lerre ferme de non front et In dite lik au 
Foin."—HigUlre d" inlendanee. No. l,Jblto W. 

Anthony (L.), v. Mubbay Bat. 

Anticobti, island, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
This island, on account of its extent, geographical 
position and importance to mariners, is of con- 
siderable interest. It is now comprehended in the 
CO. of Saguenay, being reannexed to the province 
of Lower Canada by an act of the imperial parlia- 
ment passed in 1825. It previously formed a part 
uf Labrador. This isle was conceded in March, 

1680, to the Sieur Jolliet. Its situation ii in the 
widest part of the entrance into the St. Lawrence, 
lying w. 8. w. and b. b. b. Iu length is about 125 
m., and its extreme breadth about 30, containing 
about 1,530,000 sq. acres. Although it has neither 
bay nor harbour sufficient to protect ships from 
the dangers of the sea, having only many small 
creeks, it is not altogether unprovided with the 
means of succouring persons who may be ship- 
wrecked or in want of an asylum against that 
perilous element. The surface is in general low 
and the soil and timber of very inferior quality. 
On the N. of the island the shore is occasionally 
more elevated, and three remarkable high lands 
or mountains break the monotonous appearance 
of this large extent of flat land ; one is opposite 
Little Jupiter river, another in the rear of s. w. 
Point, and the third, called Table Mountain, is 
near the w. extremity of the island. The rivers 
are of no importance. On account of its geo- 
graphical position, this island is of great interest 
to all navigators who soil up the St. Lawrence 
from the Atlantic ; therefore, the bearings of its 
extreme points have been frequently determined, 
particularly by Major Holland, Mr. Wright and, 
lately, by command of Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, 
by Mr. John Jones of his majesty's ship Hussar, 
who seems to have ascertained their precise situ< 
ations with the greatest accuracy; his authority, 
and particularly as it is the most recent, is here 
given :— West Point, lat. 40» 62 29" n.. Ion. 640 
36* 54" 9 w. ; variation, 22° 55' w. ; East Point, 
lat. 4!>» 8- 30" v.. Ion. Ol" 44' 56" 9 w. ; variation, 
24<> 38* w. ; North Point, lat. 49" 57 38' n., Ion. 
64° 15' 1" 4 w. ; South.west Point (by the au- 
thor's former map), lat. 4&> 23' n., Ion. 63» 44' w, 
— By a recent act of the provincial assembly, two 
light.houses are to be erected on this island, one 
at the East Point and the other at the a. w. Point. 
As the navigation of this part of the gulf is con- 
sidered by sailors in general as very dangerous, no 
ap'logy is necessary for the insertion of the fol- 
lowing extract from " Sailing Directions," by Mr. 
Lamkly, who, by order of government, placed 
the direction boards and nailed them to trei'S near 
the beach, the branches being first cut off*. — " Two 
leagues h r. from the west end of the island of 
Anticosti lies Cape Henry, the west side uf (}rand 
Buy ; Cu))e Eagle forms the east side of thiit Bay, 
and they ure n. w. and 8. r. of each other, three 
milesdistant. ThisbayliesN and a. and runs 2 jm. 



A R O 





into the idand, with good anchorage for nnall 
veHeU in from 2| to 4 fathonu water. In running 
down from the west end of the idand come no 
nearer than ten fathoms : the breakers will be seen 
on the ihoal which lies from the beach \ m. ; and 
when you are down to Cape Henry, haul into six 
fathoms, towards a long ilat spit of sand, which 
lies B. K. from this cape ; it is very regular ; five 
and six fathoms a good birth from it. Run along 
this spit and round the a. b end of it in four fa- 
thoms at low water, and come to anchor; you will 
then be 1^ m. from the houses, which stand on 
the north ude of the bay. This bay is about one 
mile across ; at this anchorage small vessels may 
anchor farther in, with shelter from s. w, and even 
8. s. w. winds ; but the outer anchorage is exposed 
from 8. a. w. round to the a. b. — Mr. Delisle lives 
on shore here at the houses, and remains all the 
year, and government has put a quantity of pro- 
visions into his possession for the supply of unfor- 
tunate shipwrecked persons, which are issued iu 
regular quantities to each man; the captain giving 
him receipts for the expenditure. — The Reef that 
is to the westward of the west end of the idand 
does not lie farther off than two miles, and at that 
distance you cross it in ten fathoms, but it is very 
narrow, and ouly three casts of the lead can be 
got. — From Orund Bay to the a. w. point of the 
island the shore is all bold, and so steep there is 
no trusting to the lead. You may stand to the 
island within one mile, and you will see all the 
danger on the beach : there is not a reef or a rock 
to be seen \ m. from the beach. — The great river 
which is just to the westward of the a. w. point of 
the island is called Jupiter River ; its proper name 
here is Seal River. — The shore from the a. w. 
point to the south point is all bold likewise, and 
no danger ; ships may safely stand to within one 
mile from it. There is no anchorage on any part 
of this side of the island except Grand Bay. — Two 
leagues to the westward of the south point of the 
island is Jupiter River (called Shallop Creek in 
the charts). Mr. Hamel lives here, and has in his 
possesuon the same quantity of provisions, and for 
the same purpose as Mr. Delisle, at the west end 
of the island, vis. 16 barrels of flour, 8 barrels of 
pork and 8 barrels of peas ; and there is also an- 
other depot of proviiiions in the possession of Mr. 
Oudin, who resides ut Fox Bay. This place is 
five leagues N. w. from the cast end of the island. 
—Off the south point of the island lies a reef of 

rocks two milet. This is the only danger on the 
south nde of the island. The east end of the 
island is flat two miles off, and lies from the south 
point B. 8. E. distant seven leagues. There are no 
inhabitants on any part of the island, except those 
mentioned. — Jupiter River (or Shallop Creek) is 
very small, with just water in it to float a boat- 
load of provisions at low water ; small vessebi may 
anchor in a small cove just to the westward of the 
creek; and there is one anchorage on a spit of 
sand that runs from the east side of the river (with 
a N. E. wind) in four fathoms. One cable length 
off there is twenty fathoms and a little farther off 
fifty fathoms. — In the year 1808 direction boards 
were placed along the idand to assist any unfor- 
tunate person to find the provision posts that are 
mentioned above : viz., one on the west end of the 
island, marked, ' Two Leagues East to the Pro- 
vision Post.' — Four leagues s. e. from Grand Bay 
another, marked, ' Four Leagues West to Pro- 
vision Post.' — On the pitch of the 8. w. point one, 
marked, ' Ten Leagues West to Provision Post' 
— In a small cove, to the eastward of the s. w. 
point, another, marked, ' Ten Leagues East to 
Providon Post.' — Half-way between this board 
and Shallop Creek stands another, marked, ' Six 
Leagues East to Providon Post.' — And near the 
east end stands another, marked, ' Seven Leagues 
West to Provision Post.'— The island of Anticosti 
is thought to be very dangerous to ships coming 
to Quebec, but it is not so dangerous as is said. 
When sailors can see the island they may make 
free with it ; and, by doing so, they will always 
get faster to the westward with foul winds than 
in the offing ; and by keeping within two or three 
leagues of it they will be clear of the strong s. b. 
current that always runs in the offing. There is 
no danger of being embayed, and the floods are 
pretty regular near the island. Tides at Anticosti 
flow un the full and change days 1 1 o'clock ; 
rise 10 feet in spring tides, and 4 feet in neap 
tides, and run tide and quarter." 

Tlllr. — " Ciinredk' on Mhps 1080, (Mir Jucquri Dnrhei- 
ncnii, liitfiiiliiiit, Rti ^ii-ur JulluW—ttegiilre a' IntcHftancty 
No. Ma 17,>/iu(ii'J. 

AppKixN, river, in the S. of Lauson, falls 
into the left bank of the Etchemin. 

Ahbrb a la Cnoix (F), v. Champlain, S. 

Argkntkuii., seigniory, in the co. of Two 
Mountains, is bounded, s,, by the Grand or Ot- 
tawa river, n. by the Gore of the t. of Chatham, 


B. hy die S. of the Lake of Two Mountains, and 
w. Ij the T. of Chatham. This seigniory is two 
leagues in breadth and four in depth (by Title), 
containing about 58,000 sq. arpenU. This pro- 
perty was granted, March 7> 1725, to Mons. 
d'Aillebout, and now belongs to Major C. John- 
son. 590 farm lots, measuring about 49,000 ar- 
pents, are conceded and mostly built upon and 
cultivated ; but the lots and settlements are neither 
separately regular nor uniform with each other, 
either in sise or position, the rivers and brooks 
having been made in general the front boundaries ; 
in consequence of which many irregularly formed 
tracts intersect the settlements. 27,000 arpents 
are under cultivation, and 31,000 in wild wood- 
land. The soil fronting the Ottawa is composed 
of clay, sand, and gravel, and much of it is calca- 
reous : the central sections are clay, loam, and marl, 
intermixed with some high and stony land. The 
north side, though mountainous and rocky, contains 
many fertile intervals. The land, which abounds 
in stone, is generally very fertile when cleared and 
cultivated. The wood is much diversified, varying 
according to locality ; the higher lands producing 
beech, birch, hemlock, and maple ; the level and 
low lands yielding spruce, soft maple, ush, elm, 
cedar, &c. ; on the mountainous and rocky parts 
are hemlock, white spruce, &c. ; and near the 
brooks is white pine, though not in great abund- 
ance. The roads and bridges are kept in good 
repair, and there is one established ferry, which is 
at the Carillon Rapids. The rates are, for a foot- 
passenger 6d., for a saddle-horse I: 8d., and for 
a carriage 2x. The Ottawa, which flows east- 
wardly, is navigable as far as the south-western 
angle of the seigniory, where the navigation be- 
comes obstructed by the foot or termination of the 
rapid of the Long Sault, and where this river is 
to form a junction with the intended Grenvillc 
canal. The North Rivrr runs obliquely through 
the seigniory, and, though not large, is of much 
advantage, as it affords many mill-sites. Its cur- 
rent is generally rapid, and only partially navi- 
gable. Besides these important rivers, there are 
many never-failing small streams and brooks run- 
ning into and through the seigniory : they are 
called West River, River Rouge, Davis Brook, 
Clark's Brook, Pine Brook, ttc, all extremely 
beneficial to the lands through which they flow. 
— The population exceeds 2(UN) souls, chiefly epi- 
scopalians and prcsbytcriuns, who have their re- 

spective churches ; and a clergyman of each per- 
suasion is attached to the parish of St. Andrews, 
which is at present the only parish in the seigniory, 
though another will be erected comprising the 
settlements of North River down to Beach Ridge 
or to Muddy Creek, which nearly traverses the 
seigniory. Under the auspices and direction of 
the Royal Institution six public schools have been 
established and supplied with male teachers: 
many of the scholars are instructed gratuitously, 
and their average number is about 180. Be- 
sides these public schools, there are three private 
establishments under the direction and tuition 
of females. Parents and guardians in this sei- 
gniory seem, happily, to appreciate the good 
that must eventually result from early instruc- 
tion. There are two excellent flour-mills, • 
paper-mill, a carding and fulling mill, three saw- 
mills, four potash-works, two distilleries, two 
brickkilns, six blacksmiths' forges, and three tan- 
neries. The number of tradesmen and artisans is 
about 100, viz. 


3 Silversmithg 
I Plater 
V Watchmakers 

10 Weavers 

4 Coo|i«r« 

8 Tailors 
18 Shuemakers 
4 Tanners and 
6 MiUcr^ &c. 

6 Millwrights 
9 Blacksmiths 
5 Wheelwrights 
9 Masons and 

The homed cattle is generally of a good breed, 
and, though not of the largest size, is hardy and 
well adapted to the climutc. The farmers are 
very attentive to its improvement, and consider 
the cross between the English and Canadian the 
most thriving ; and, as much of the soil is adapted 
for good pasturage, a quantity of excellent beef 
is produced for the market. There is every reason 
to hope that a good breed of horses will be ul- 
timately obtained, for many English, American 
and Dutch horses have been introduced, which, 
crossed with the Canadian race, will produce a 
sturdy breed of draught horses, fit for any cli- 
mate or service. Some attention is paid to sheep 
and swine, though neither can be considered of 
the best breed, nor are there many more reared 
than are required for the use of the inhabitants.— 
The annual consumption of grain in the S. is about 
three-fourths of the produce. Hay is abundant, 
the meadows yielding 2500 tons, lUO of which are 
sold to persons employed in the lunilicr-trade on 
the Ottawa. Hemp is raised in many parts of the 
seigniory, though not extensively, its cultivation 
being considered expensive. — The lower port of 



A R G 

this leigniorjr, bordering on the Ottawa, is to> 
lerably well cleared from wood, and contains 
large patches of fine meadow and pasture, as- 
cending gradually from the river to woodlands 
of great extent, which yield timber of different 
kinds of first-rate sixe and goodness, and which 
have hitherto been very little thinned.— Scarcely 
a third part of the seigniory is divided into settle- 
ments, and the remainder presents many tempta- 
tions to agricultural speculation. The concessions 
on the bank of the Ottawa are the most numerous 
and perhaps the best cultivated : others are on the 
Riviere Rouge, in a range between it and the North 
River, and idon- both banks of the latter, all ex- 
hibiting strong .udications of a thriving industry. 
The island Carillon, 3 m. long by | m. broad, is 
very good land, but at present not used ; which, 
with a smaller island near it and another at the 
entrance of North River, are appendages to the 
seigniory.— The village of St. Andrews occupies 
both banks of the North River, and, in point of 
beauty and situation, has the advantage of even St. 
Eustache. In 1824 it contained 28 or 30 houses, 
and 200 inhabitants, now increased to 55 houses 
and about 330 souls, composed of American and 
British bom subjects. It also contains a grist 
and saw mill and an extensive paper-mill, be- 
longing to Mr. Brown, opposite whose -esidence 
is a handsome bridge over the river. Perhaps, 
through all the upper part of the district of Mont- 
real, no tract of equal extent will be found of 
greater fertility or possessing more capabilities of 
improvement ; and, if fertility of soil and easy ac- 
cess to water conveyance be duly appreciated, it 
will not be easy to select a tract more advantageous 
to settlers than the seigniory of Argenteuil. 

Schools . 
Houses in 

. 8 

. 6 
. 55 

Wheat . 
Barley . 







Corn-mills . 
Snw-milU . 
Tanneries . 

Potash factories 4 
Distilleries . i 
Postmaster . I 
Taverns . 
Artisans . 100 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Peas , 



. 3,000 


Rye . i0,000 
Indian corn 50,000 




Uvt SiMk. 
Cows . . 8,000 I Sn ine 
Sheep . 3,800 1 

Annual Produce qf Donirtlic Loom: 
Bill. I Elli. , 

. 7,750 1 Flannel . 3,850 Linen 



A S 

to/a— " Pierre LeuU Pentt, Ecnytr, PropriMaire in 
Fief et Seigneurie A'ArmntteuO, produisit un Acte de Foi 
et Hommage, du 7me Mars, I7ie5, rendu par Dame Louiie 
Denis, Veuve de Pierrt fAUkboul, Ecuyer, Sieur d'i<r- 
gtnteuU, faisant mention 'd'une pioraesses (mm octroi ri- 
gulkr) de la part du Gouremement Francois, i Mr. i'AlU 
lebtut et autres personoes, d'une itendue de tentii qui se 
rencontreront au c6tt du Nord, la Biviire du Iford con^ 
prise, depuis le has du Long-Sault jusqu'i deux lieues en 
descendant du c6tt de MontrM, ravec les Isle*, &c) sur 
quatre lieues de profondeur.' Aussi un ArrM du Con> 
seil, d'oik il paroit que cette Seigneurie joint celle du Lae 
det deux Moutagnei et que les rumbs de vent dn flront et 
de la ligne qui tennine la profondeur doivent Mre Esl^ 
quart de Sud-est et Ouest quart de Nord-ouest; et que 
les rumbs de vent des lignes qui bomeiit la largeur de 
chaque cAXi seront (pour la Seigneurie du Lae Set dent 
Montagnes aussi bien que pour celle i'Argenteuil,) Sud 
quart die Sud-ouest et Nord quart de HorA-eiV—ltigiilre 
del Foi el Hommage, Ifo. 76. Page 3M, 81me Mar$, 
1781. Cahiers d'Intend. 10 i n.fiHo 57& 

Armagh, township, is in the rear of the Aug- 
mentation to La Diirantaie and the S. of I'Epi- 
nay. There are no settlements in this t. The 
Riviire du Sud traverses the s. w. extremity. 
The soil is not very good ; but there is meadow- 
land between the hills and the rocky ridges that 
traverse it in a b.w. and n.x. direction. — Vnm 
granted and unlocated, 41,000 acres, exclusive of 
reservations — 1st Sept., 1829. 

Arnold, river, rises in the high lands in the 
T. of Clinton and falls into the s. extremity of L. 
Megantick. It derives its name from the Ame« 
rican general Arnold, who, in the year 1775« 
passed part of his troops down it when conduct- 
ing his army through an almost unknown country 
to besiege Quebec. 

Artharaska, township, in the co. of Drum* 
mond, is a triangular piece of land, situated be« 
tween Chester and Halifax on the b.b., Bulstrode, 
Stanfold, and Somerset n.w., and Warwick b. w., 
containing a much less extent than a full township. 
The land is much of the same nature as that in 
the townships of Halifax and Chester, but in some 
parts lower, and rather swampy. The timber is 
chiefly birch, t)eech, elm, and some pine, with 
much of inferior qualities upon the swampa. Se> 
veral branches of the Nicolet and Becancour run 
through it. No part is settled. — Ungranted and 
unlocated, 15,600 acres, exclusive of reservation*^ 
1st Sept., 1829. 

AnuNDKLii. A projected township in the rear 
of Harrington t. in the co. of Two Mountaiiu. 

AscoTT, a township in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
advantageously situated at the forks of the river 
8t. Francis, bounded n. by Stoke, a. by Hatley 
and Coropton, e. by Eaton, and w. by part of th« 



Imoch of the St. Francis that connects with Lake 
Memphremagog.— In eveiry point of view this is 
• deainUe tnct : the knd is of exceedin^y good 
quality and so well varied as to answer all the 
purposes of the farmer; the timber is beech, 
maple, pine, basswood and oak ; it is watered by 
some rivers of considerable magnitude, branching 
off into the adjacent townships of Compton, Clif- 
ton and Eaton, which in their course through this 
S. turn several grist and saw mills. Settlements 
on a very large scale have been made and several 
farms, by the sides of the rivers, have attained 
a degree of flourishing superiority, that shows 
their improvement to have been very rapid, as no 
part of the land was granted prior to the year 
1803. The majority of the settlers here, as well 
as in most of the neighbouring townships, are 
Americans, who, since their domiciliation, have 
taken the oaths of allegiance to the British go- 
vernment. These people, generally very indus- 
trious and persevering, are unquestionably much 
better managers of their farms tLan the Canadians, 
particularly when they take the land in a state of 
nature. By the system thay pursue, a tract of 
ground, from its first clearing, becomes fruitful and 
turns to account in a much shorter period than if 
under the hands of provincial farmers, who would 
follow the methods of their forefathers : for the 
American is an experimentalist and varies his 
operations according to the nature and quality 
of the materials he has to work upon. The 
population is 1000. Several factories and saw 
and grist mills have already, in some degree, 
laid the foundation of commercial speculations 
that bid fair to obtain a considerable increase- 
In the encouragement of these, the navigations 
fay the St. Francis into the St. Lawrence and 
through Lake Memphremagog and the rivers 
branching from it into the United States, the 
main road by the St. Francis towards Three 
Rivers and Quebec, and several other roads lead- 
ing into the different townships, will be greatly 
instrumental. At the forks of the St. Francis and 
at the foot of the great fall are Hyatt's mills, in a 
most convenient situation. This valuable property 
belongs to Mr. Gilbert Hyatt to whom, with 
several associates, the tovv^nship was originally 
granted, and who is at present the greatest land- 
holder.— A rich mine of iron ore, much impreg- 
nated with sulphur, has been discovered on a farm 
near Sherbrooke, and a mineral spring near the 

centre of the t.— The cultivation of hemp has been 
found productive, and thedistillation ofwhiskyfnmi 
potatoes is a source of much profit. — Neat cattle 
and live stock in general are in a flourishing state 
of improvement. — The vilUiffe of Sherbrooke occu> 
pies an elevated situation on both banks of the river 
Magog, at the Forks of the St. Francis. It contains 
about 75 houses, and its settlements ve connected 
by a tolerably good bridge, near which are Mr. 
Ooodhue's mills. The churches and the greater 
port of the village are in Orford, but the old 
court-house and the gaol are on the Ascott side of 
the river. The population is about 350. It is the 
seat of the jurisdiction of the inferior district of 
St. Francis, and is a place of more general resort 
than any of the villages in the neighbouring town- 
ships : it is, as it were, the emporium of the town- 
ship trade, and the place of transit through which 
the chief part of the township commodities arc con- 
veyed to the St. Lawrence: these commodities 
are, chiefly, pot and pearl-ashes, hordes, horned 
cattle, and some sheep. At some distance from 
the village is Belvidere, remarkably well situated, 
the residence of the Hon. W. B. Felton, the pro- 
prietor of large tracts of land in this and other 
townships. — Lennoxville, about 3 m. s. of Sher- 
brooke, is situated in lot 10, 5th range, on a 
rising ground on the s. side of a branch of the 
St. Francis. It contains about 20 houses, and 
its population is about 120. The church, seated 
on a rising ground s. of the road, is built of larger 
sixe than is necessary for the extent or population 
of the parish. The houses of this village are scat- 
tered along the public road leading to Compton 
and other townships near the province line. 

Population . 881 

Churches . 3 

Schools . 3 

VUlages . 8 


Corn-mills . 2 

Saw-mills . .'1 

PotMheriei . 8 

Pcarlssberies i 

Tanneries . I 

Shopkeepers 5 

Taverns . 3 

ArtiMUis . 21 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 




Oxen . 


. 10,000 

. 10,400 


Potatoi . 17,H00 
PeH . 1,500 

Rye . aiM) 
Indian com 2,000 

Live Slock. 

405 I Cows . 
500 I Sheep 

0.53 I Swine 
1300 I 


Ungranled and unlocaled 12,248 acres, exclusive 
of reservations — 1st Sept., 1820. 

Ash (I.), V. RicHKLiKu, r. 

AsHBitBUBK or AsBBiRBiBH, river, discharges 



its waters into the head of l. Temiscouata, and 
talces its rise in a chain of small lakes in the ridge 
of mountains to the n. w. of that h., separated 
from Trois Pistolles r. by a short portage. 

AsHBURTON, a projected township in the rear 
of I'Epinay, S., in the co. of I'lslet. 

Abhforo, township, in the co. of I'lslet, is in 
the rear of the S. of St. Roch des Aulnais. Its 
average superficial extent is 10 miles square. A 
few ranges of lots have been surveyed and some 
militia locations made, but no settlements have 
been formed. The soil cannot be considered very 
good but it is susceptible of cultivation, and abounds 
with pine timber, some beech, maple, spruce, &c. 
It is traversed in many parts by rocky cliff's, and is 
watered by several rivers and creeks, the principal 
of which is the River Ouelle. — Ungranled and un- 
located 20,000 acres, exclusive of reservations — 
Ist Sept., 1829. 

AsHRATSi, lake, in the co. of Saguenay. The 
diameter of this small circular L. is about 5 m., 
and its waters are conveyed to v. Assuapmoussoin 
through the small R. Red Carp, that runs into the 
R. Miskahouska. 

AsiiuPEKACMiOAN, river, empties itself into the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

AsKATicHE, lake, in co. of Saguenay, receives 
the waters of the small l. Patitaounganiche, which 
is in lat. 48". 18' : their united waters fall into the 
Nekoaba R , wliich also receives the waters of 
L. Nekoaba, and empties itself into l. St. John. 

AsKATicHE, river, falls into l. St. John. 

AssoMEGUAOAN, river, runs into the left bank 
of the Matapcdia. 

Assuapmoussoin, lake, in the co. of Sague- 
nay, is 10 m. long. It lies in lat. 49° 27' n. Ion. 
73° ."ia' w. It receives the waters of several lakes, 
among wliich are the Necould, Ashratsi, and -tm- 
kahoiiska ; the last two unite their waters by 
mcnns of the Red Carp river which rises in lake 
Ashratsi ; these waters form the R. Aliskahouska, 
which, being increased by a small river that rises 
in lake Necoutl, stion after falls into the N. w. 
extremity of l. Assuapmoussoin, which is con- 
nected with the R. of that name by portages 
leading to the Shccoubish lake and river. At the 
N. E. extremity of l. Assuapmoussoin is a King's 

Assuapmoussoin or Asuap, " The Indian's 
Ambush," or " The Place where the Elk is laid 
wait for," a river of the first magnitude, rises in 


unknown lands in the Saguenay country, and 
running in its general course from n. w. to s. s. 
receives the tributary waters of the Shecouhish, 
the Twashega and the Salmon rivers, and falls 
into the western side of l. St. John. At the 
mouth of this r. lie two islands covered with 
brushwood: one, not less than 1^ m. long, pro- 
duces elm, ash, fir, and alders. Below this island 
the R. is not less than \ m. wide, and above it 
nearly \ m. The land at the entrance of the R. 
is of excellent quality, chiefly alluvial. Ascending 
the river, the land on the w. side is better than 
that on the e. and the timber principaUy consists 
of elm, ash, cedar, fir, balsam, red spruce, white 
and red pine, yellow birch, some poplar and white 
birch. On the s. bank the timber consists of tama- 
rack, white birch, spruce, fir, balsam, aspen, and 
pine ; cypress and a red or Norway pine are com- 
monly observed on both banks. At 4^ m. from its 
mouth and above another considerable island the 
river becomes very shallow and the current runs 
down, with much swiftness, to a cluster of three 
islands of the same character as the one already 
described. The Portage au Saumon, on the w. 
bank, just below the Salmon r., is 1200 yards, 
leading partly through woods and partly on the 
beach. Here the Assuapmoussoin falls in two 
cascades : the uppermost is, more strictly speaking, 
a perpendicular fall of about 15 feet, affording in 
the basin below a propitious site for a mill. Higher 
up is Portage a I'Ours, lying on the E. side of 
falls which are at least 60 feet in perpendicular 
height, and have a fine eff'ect. Its length is 
nearly 1| m. and it leads through a growth of cy- 
press, small red pine and fir, produced on a sandy 
poor soil. Still higher up is the Petit Portage a 
tOurs, which is 350 yards across a narrow tongue 
of land. Here the R. describes a crescent falling 
over the rocks in a very picturesque manner and 
the sand-banks, on both sides, afford but a very poor 
idea of the country. \ m. higher up are Pemouka 
Rapids and carrying-place. The portage is 660 
yards over the rocks, which, in spring, are covered 
by the R., and the carrying-place is then made on 
the opposite bank. Tlie Portage of Pemouka or 
"Last Pine," so called from its being opposite 
the last pine that is to be seen through the interior 
country, leads through a white spruce or tama- 
rack swamp. About 30 m. up the river the land 
ceases to be good, and, at the Portage d I'Ours, 
the country is only fit for hunting the caribou and 

A U B 

tkeWMMe. Thii inferitnitr of loil continues to the 
foot of the Grands Rapides, about 9 m. higher, 
where the land becomes totalljr unfit for cultiva- 
tion, being traversed bjr a rsnge of rocky moun- 
tains that produce nothing but fir and spruce treea. 
The Company of the King's Posts have a trading- 
post on this ■., about 45 m. from its mouth. From 
this post to L. St. John the Assuapmoussoin is 
one continued rapid. 

Aston and its augmentation, a township in the 
CO. of Drummond, in the rear of the S. S. of 
Becancour and Godefroi; bounded n. k by the 
River Becancour, 8. w. by the n.k. line of the 8. 
and aug. of Nicolet. On the Becancour and Ri- 
viere Blanche the land is rather high, but, a short 
distance thence, it descends into a low flat. The 
soil in general is good, and would no doubt prove 
highly productive if brought into cultivation. In 
situations near the rivers the timber is oak, elm, 
pine, beech, birch and maple ; in other directions it 
is either cedar, hemlock or spruce. — The Blanche 
and the Becancour, the banks of which are ex- 
tremely picturesque, water it very completely. — 
This T. and its aug. have been surveyed, and a 
great extent granted and located; but there are 
no settlers, except a few in the fropt ranges. Mi- 
litia locations were made, and 800 acres granted 
to Capt. Douglas on the b. branch of the Nicolet. — 
The new road, leading from the ferry opposite to 
Three Rivers into the southern townships, tra- 
verses the aug., and passes at the ferry near 
Capt. Douglas's residence, which is rendered by its 
hospitable proprietor of great assistance to travel- 
lers. — Ungranled and unlocated 2(1,352 acres, and 
6,164 in the augmentation, exclusive of reserva- 
tions— 1st Sept., 1829. 

AsTUHAOAMicooK, rfver, runs into the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 

Atcook, a small river that runs into the b. 
Trois PistoUes. 

AuBKRT Gallion, fief, and Db l'Isle, in the 
CO. of Bcauce, are the last two seignorial fiefs on 
the River Chaudiere, which separates them from 
each other. — Aiibcrt GuUion is bounded, s. w. and 
8. K., by the T.of Shenley, n.k. by the R.ChuudiiTc, 
and N. w. by Vaudreuil, 8. It is twol. square, and 
was originally granted to Dame Aubert in 1736, 
and is now the property of Jacob Po«er, esq. The 
land in both fiefs is good though generally moun- 
tainous and broken, and on the Chuudiere thickly 
settled, but the farms exhibit neither good manage- 
ment nor much care ; nor did the inhabitants till 

A U L 

lately enjoy that character for industry and its at- 
tendant comforts so vidUe in many other parts of 
the district. The timber in both fiefs is generally 
ofa good quality and in profusion. Aubert Gallion 
forms part of the p. of St. Francois and contains a 
good grist and saw mill. The first concession is to- 
leraUy well settled. The proprietor, being a Ger- 
man, invited a number of his countrymen to emi- 
grate and settle in this fief, which he effected at 
much expense ; they have been very successful in 
the raising of hemp and its preparation for use. 

Tilk. — •< Concemion du 'iime Septembre, 1736, flute 
par Cliarlct MarquU ilr BrauharnoU, Uouverneur, et GUUt 
Hocquarl, Intendant, d Dame veuve Aubert, de deux lieues 
de terre de front et de deux lieuen de profundeur, du cAti 
du Sud-ouest de la rivi£re du Sauit de Chaudiire, en re- 
montant, }>. commcncer i la fln de lu ruiiccHiiion accordte 
BU Sieur de la GorgcniHire, ensemble leg isles et islets qui 
Rc trouvernnt dans la dite riviere dans I'etendue de deux 
lieues, et des deux ccit^s d'icelle; lesquels isles et islets 
seront partagiVs par egale portion entre la dite veuve Att- 
btrt et le Sieur de Vlilr, auquel nous avons accords au- 
jourd'hui parcille concession du c(M du Nord-est de la 
dite rivijre." — HigUtre d'lnlenianct. No, S, folio II. 

AuBiONT, town, t'. Lauzon, 8. 

Auckland, a township in the co. of Sher- 
brooke, lies between Hereford, Drayton, and 
Newport, bounded w. by Clifton, and b. by Em- 
berton. The land is uneven and rugged, in some 
places mountainous and in others sinking into 
swamps ; the level and dry tracts have a pretty 
good soil, which, if brought under culture, would 
answer moderate expectations, and some patches 
in lower situations appear fit for hemp. The tim- 
ber is a mixture of most kinds found on the sur- 
rounding tracts. This t. is abundantly watered 
by a great number of streams and brooks, some of 
them flowing into the St Francis and others into 
the Connecticut River. The n. half of the town- 
ship has been granted, but no part of it is settled, 
and a sort of footpath runs through it, by which 
the Indians frequently make their way to the River 
Chaudicre. — Ungranled and unloruled 2(^900 
acres, exclusive of reservations — 1st Sept., 1829. 

Aui.NAia, des, " River of Aklers," called, in 
the Indian or Crie languages, Pcshikaouinamish- 
ushihi, is the narrow outlet, winding among alders, 
of the lake Kiguagomishish, by which that l. dis- 
charges itself into La Belle Rivii re. Although 
9 m. long, if followed in its windings, this R. is 
in reality only 3 m. in a straight line, and about 
22 yds. wide. There is but one canoe portage, 
which is 5.'>0 yds. long, and lies about a mile from 
Lake Kiguagomishish ; and thence to the Belle 
Riviere there is a path, preferred by those who 
have no duty to perform in the canoes, because 

B A I 

the river is much obstructed by alders and canoes 
pass with difficulty. This B. flows through an 
alluvial soil composed of layers and mixtures of 
sand and clay. The course of this river is exceed- 
ingly tortuous, and, being narrow, is much ob- 
structed by fallen trees; and the entanglement and 
intertwining of the branches of alder, with which 
both banks arc covered, render portages sometimes 
necessary where there is plenty of water and little 
current. The Portage des Aulnets, however, is 
occasioned by the river tumbling over the rocks. 
The timber on the banks of this R. is elm, ash, 
spruce and some pine and iir. The R. des Aul- 
nais runs, with a gentle current, into the N. e. 
side of a basin formed by the Belle Riviere, having 
passed over a picturesque fall occasioned by a fels- 
pathic rock. On the s. shore is a narrow channel 
which leads to Lac Vert. 

AuLNEs, des, (R.), v. des Aulnais, r. 

AuNAiB, des, river, rises in several small lakes, 
and joins the Batiscan near the w. line of Per- 
thuis, S. 

AviBON, Baie ii V, v. Ouiatchouan, r. 


Back Lakb, t;. Drayton, t. 

BADOELY,river, in the co. of Saguenay, falls into 
Lake Kiguagomishish, and is supposed to be a com- 
munication between it and Lake Kiguagomi. This 
is a very pretty r. though choked with alders; its 
course is from 7 to 8 miles, and it passes through 
a rocky country, covered with a small quantity 
of black earth, and falls into Cushcouia bar- 
Along the banks of the R. is a mixture of red and 
white spruce with some pine, white birch and 
sapin, and the soil is a mixture of clay and sand. 
This R. derives its name from Lieut. Baddely, 
employed by the colonial government to make a 
geognostical survey of this part of the Saguenay 

Baib des Allouettbs, v. Saguenay, r. 

Baie des Roche Rs, i; Saournay, r. 

Baie du Febvre, v. Baie St. Antoine. 

Baik St. Antoinb, or Lgfebvre, seignory, 
in the co. of Ynmaska, is bounded a. w. by Lus- 
saudiere, n.e. by Nicolet and, in the rear, byCour- 
val. — Two leagues in front and depth. —Granted 
Sept. 4th, 168.3, to Sieur Lefebvre, and is now 
the property of Mr. Le Blanc. — This is in all 
respects a very productive tract of land: in 
the front the Longue Pointe, Pointe aux Pois 
and Pointe a la Oarenne, all stretching boldly 

B A I 

into the St. Lawrence, form the extremities of 
two large bays ; to the k. of Pointe k la Clarenne 
is the Baie du Febvre, also trenching deeply into 
the seignory. For some distance on the margin of 
these bays is a marsh that in the summer affords 
excellent pasture, singularly intersected in all di- 
rections by numerous small and clear rivulets, 
from which to the main road, crossing the seignory 
from E. to w., are some very rich and luxuriant 
meadows. From the main road the land continues 
a gradual elevation to the rear ; the soil is mostly a 
fat clay or good black mould highly fertile. Ex- 
cept in the marshes and meadows, which have 
much inferior wood, the timber is of the best kinds. 
The river Nicolet, crossing a small part of the s.e. 
comer, is the only stream towards the back of the 
seignory. — About two-thirds of this property are 
under culture and can boast of some farms in a 
very flourishing state, particularly near the road- 
side. The want of water corn-mills is supplied 
by several wind-mills. The church is placed about 
the middle of the seignory on a rising ground, be- 
low which are several good houses, almost sufficient 
in number to form a respectable village ; among 
them are two or three shops and a tavern, for 
which the situation is not ill chosen, as the place 
is a great thoroughfare. A main road strikes off 
towards the southern townships. — In this S. 136 
persons are employed in agriculture without re- 
ceiving wages, and 61 are hired labourers, one 
quaiter of whom would take new lands. — The 
farms are chiefly between two and three arpents 
in width. The population consists of native Cana- 


Population 2,955 
Churches 1 
Prcsbyteiies J 

Curates 1 
(.!oni-uiill8 1 
Saw-mills 3 




Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Wheat H),0(X) 
Oats 13,0(X) 

Barley 2,000 
Potatoes 16,000 





Some Indian i;om is grown, and also a considerable 
quantity of hay. 

Live Stock. 

Horses 1,200 1 Cows 1,560 1 Swine 2,000 

Oxen 1,400 1 Sheep &,m)\ 

Tiffr.—" Concession du Ime Septembre, 16S3, faite 
par Lefebvre de la Barre, Gouverneur, et de Mrullet, In- 
tendant, au Sieur Lefebvre, des terres nonconcid^es, d'en- 
viron deux licues de front, joignant au Nord-est la terre 
du Sieur Cretii, d'autre au Sieur de la Luitnudiere, au 
Sud-ouest, au Nord-ouosc Bur le lac St. Pierre, !<ur |iureille 

3uantiti de prolbndeiii', k prendre dans le bois vis-4-vis A 
ite largvur, avec les isles, islets, et prairies qui se rc;""on. 
treront sur lo dit espuce. 
intinuatioHi du Contcil Sujiiricurf leltre B.fullo 31. 

B A S 

B A S 





Baik St. Paul, (V. and P.) v. Cotb de 
Bbaupke, S. 

Baib St. Paul (S.), v. St. Paul's BA)f. 

Barford (T.), between Hereford and Bam- 
ston, in the co. of Stanstead, w not a full townahip, 
having only seventeen lots in each range. Isaac 
W. Clarke, esq. obtained a grant of the greatest 
part of it in 1802, and other grants were made 
previous to 1821. No part is settled, although it 
is a tract that promises to become valuable, as the 
land is everywhere excellent and the timber good. 
It is watered by many rivulets and streams, espe- 
cially by a considerable branch of the river St. 
Francis, which traverses the township in a wind- 
ing course near the w. division line. 

Barnstun, township, in the co. of Stanstead, 
is on the province line, and next to Stanstead, 
t. The surface is a continual succession of hill 
and dale. The chief part of the land is good for 
the growth of grain and other usual productions ; 
some swamps are met with in the Iqw parts. The 
timber embraces almost every sort, but the best 
are beech, maple, elm, ash, fir and some oak. It 
is watered by several small lakes, rivers and 
streams, on which there are grist and saw-mills. 
The w. half was granted in 1801 to Alessrs. Lester 
and Jlorrogh, and the greater part of the k. half 
belongs to Sir R. S. Milnes, Bart., none of which 
was settled in 181 1 ; but since that period many 
of the lots have been settled upon, and some with- 
out the permission of the legal proprietor. This 
T. is traversed by several roads of communication 
from the surrounding townships, especially from 
Stanstead and Hatley. The settlements are in a 
tolerably flourishing state, and the population, 
chiefly in the western half, may be computed at 
I,(>oO. — This settlement may be called a continua- 
tion of that of Stanstead, from their relative con- 
nexion. Bamston contains two corn-mills, four 
saw-mills, several schools, several pot and pearl 
asheries. — Ungranted and unlocated, 5,387 acres. 

Bahrk, rivulet, in the S. of Monnoir. Buis- 
scuu Barro rises a few miles from Mount Johnson, 
and, beirg joined by two nameless rivulets, in- 
crc'use.o the stream of r. du Rupide below fief St. 
Michel; their united streams fall into r. des 

Barthklkmy (I.), V. Saouenay, r. 

Basque, du (I ), v. Richmond, t. 

Basques, aux (I.'s), v. Tnois Fistolleji, S. 

Bastonais, river, in the co. of Portneuf, rises 
in a small pond £. of Long Lake, through which 

and the gr. and lit. Wayagamacke Lakes it flows 
and joins the St. Maurice R. a little below the 
Post of La Tuque, and about 10 miles above Isle 
au Noix. — Ascending this r., its width is found to 
vary from 20 to 25 yards ; it flows through an 
alluvial tract of good land, extending to the ad- 
jacent hills, which intercept the course of the r. 
and occasion a fall of near 130 f^., formed of 3 
cascades and presenting an excellent site for a 
mill. The portage here, about 30 chains or 600 
yards n. n. e. of the mouth of the R., is 325 yardf 
long. From this portage, 1| m. upwards, the 
stream is swift and very winding, and the banks 
exhibit a favourable appearance for settlementa, 
although to an inconsiderable width, as the moun- 
tains follow the general direction of the R., which 
suddenly leads s. 8. E. and is seen issuing from a 
small lake, where the land is low, excepting on 
the a. side where it rises at a short distance. 
The prevailing timber from the St. Maurice to 
this L. is red spruce, fir, birch, red pine, and some 
maple. Near this lake the Long Portage com- 
mences; it is nearly 4 miles and leads through 
uneven land, in many places swampy or hilly and 
poor. The swampy parts are very wet and some- 
times rocky, timbered chiefly with spruce, fir, 
birch and cedar ; and on the hills are fir, birch, 
pine and some maple. The soil here is in ge- 
neral sandy or of a light loam. The upper land- 
ing of this portage lies on the borders of a small, 
lake about -\ m. long and \ broad, which is con- 
nected with the Grvat Wayagamacke l. by the 
Bastonais running in a narrow channel. The 
deputy surveyor-general, who explored this part 
of the country, ascended the lake as the sun was 
sinking behind the distant hills. The scene it ex- 
hibited was truly splendid and was rendered the 
more impressive, while he paddled over the un- 
ruffled surface of this beautiful sheet of water, as 
the hills echoed the characteristic song of the voy- 
agers ; and the occasional shrill cry of the loon, 
with which this lake abounds, enhanced the pecu- 
liar interest and wildness of the scene. — This l., 
which is m. from the mouth of the Bastonais, is 
of very irregular figure. Its bays are deep, and it is 
11m. long by 3 in width and contains 4 or 5 islands 
towards its n. side, and several others, at its head, 
where the river enters it. The adjacent land, 8. w , 
is hilly, and on the parts that rise gradually from 
the L. the timber is chiefly spruce, pine and birch. — 
Above this l is the .3d portage on the Bastonais ; 
it extends, e. a. e., 270 yards over very rocky, poor 



it ' ! 


Und timbered with ipruce, white birch, cedar and 
baiswood. The n. rum on the right ride of the 
portage, uad formi a caacade of 30 ft. perpendi- 
cular fall. From thia portage to the next, which 
ia 100 yards, the land is low and of a scanty soil 
with some hills in the background, and the tim- 
ber is chiefly tamaraclc, white birch and pine, 
■ome cedar and red spruce. From the last-men- 
tioned portage to a stiff rapid, impassable except 
for light canoes, the r. is very winding and nar- 
row ; the land, though still low, is of a better 
description, and is susceptible of cultivation. — A 
little higher up is the lalce called the Little Wa- 

Sgamacke, which is 26 m. from the mouth of the 
istonais: it is surrounded by gentle swells, tim- 
bered chiefly with fir, spruce and pine, growing 
on a sandy soil Its greatest length is about 
4j m. and its breadth 2. Near this l. is a very 
long and rough portage, extending 1^ m., and 
traversing a broken, rugged tract, timbered with 
balsam, pine, poplar, fir and spruce. This portage 
leads to a small lake that empties its waters into 
the L. Wayagamackc. Higher up is the 7th port- 
age, which is 135 yards long, and reaches the bor- 
ders o( Long Lake, which is nearly Sj- m. in length, 
und in some places about \ m. broad. The land 
on its borders is hilly, sandy and rocky, clothed 
with white birch, spruce, fir and small pine. It 
lies about N. s. and s. w., and at the head of it is 
the 8th portage, 1150 yards long. This portage 
leads along the elevation that borders on an 
extensive tamarack swamp to a small pond and 
the first wateis of the Bastonais River. This 
small pond, the bottom of which is a deep bog, is 
surrounded by an immense white spruce swamp, 
and affords a subject for geological speculation. 
Here are to be found a quantity of large rounded 
water-worn rocks near the outlet, that are heaped 
together on the borders of the lake and cover the 
land for a few yards. 

Bastonais, Nohth, river, rises in a leech pond 
nut far from the lieud waters of the n. e. branch 
of the Batiscnn, in the co. of Quebec, and falls 
into the St. IMaurice about 1^ m. above the post 
of La Tuque, in the co. of Portneuf. Nearly at 
the head of this r. is Crooked Lake, surrounded by 
low, swampy land, and timbered chiefly x' li ta- 
marack and fir. From this i>. the u. takes a n. 
course through land timbered with red spruce and 
balsam. After running through another small l. 
the R. improves considerably, being about 30 or 
40 ft. broad in places : the banks generally low. 

although oocaiiaoally bold and rocky. The pre- 
vailing timber at this place ii red spmce, a fimwiw 
able indication of the nature of the niL Soon 
aflerwardi the ■. fbrmi a cascade of 15 ft., and 
\ m. lower down is a rapid, whence the current 
runs very swiftly to another rapid or rather caa> 
cade. The country here assumes a mountainous 
aspect; the granite rock forming the w. bonk 
of the R. is nearly vertical, riring to about 50 
ft., the summit covered with moss, while the 
opposite bank is an extensive horisontal plain, 
stretching to the foot of the mountain that ap- 
proaches a cascade, where the n. contracts into a 
narrow channel formed by pendent cliffs, which 
rise about 50 ft. perpendicular. The N. Bastonais 
does not appear to have formed its present l>ed, 
which seems here to have been created by some 
convulsion of nature; for, though the mountains 
are at a distance and the country to the s. w. a 
horizontal plain, the river takes a sudden direction 
towards them and leaves the plain to follow its 
broken course through the mountains. Here se- 
veral hills, unconnected with any adjacent chain, 
rise out of the great plain, generally in conical 
shapes, and may be seen at a considerable distance. 
The R. having passed over a rapid, down which 
canoes are shot unloaded, slopes its course s. s. w. 
between hills over a few rapids to the head of a 
conriderable fall and the portage Dore, 300 yards 
long. — Soon after, the river contracts to a narrow 
channel and falls in a cascade of about 50 ft., 
which is divided by two islands into small chan- 
nels, that increase the rushing noise of the torrent 
as it foams with splendid effect over the rocks. 
The islands are covered with moss and the stinted 
Hr tree, while the surrounding country is gene- 
rally wooded with the tall red spruce, diversified 
by the smooth water-worn surface of the rocks in 
the vicinity of the fall, whose whiteness contrasts 
with the dark shade of the fir tree, giving an in- 
teresting effect^ to the scene. — A mile below Port- 
age Dore is Lake Kajoualwang, which is 10^ m. 
lung. The surrounding land is similar to that of 
Lake Edward. The hills do not rise to any con- 
siderable height and are timbered with spruce, 
fir, white birch and pine. The L. forms a large 
bay on the w., out of which runs the N. Bastonais, 
which penetrates the country for 60 miles and 
discharges itself into the St. Maurice. The ascent 
of the R. to Lake Kajoualwang, hitherto unex- 
plored, is effected by the Indians in 8 days, and 
the descent in 5, there lieing only 5 portages.^ 



At the mouth of this b. raj fine dor6 and pike 
am caught, with which the poet at La Tuqiie is 
amjij supplied. 

Batiscan, river, in the co. of Cliiini|dain, is 
formed by the junction of two branches, <Nie de- 
scending from the m. e., in the oo. of Quebec ; thn 
other from the n. w., in the oo. of Portneuf, and 
falls into the St. Lawrence in the 8. of Batiscan. 
The N. w. branch rises in Leech Pond, near the 
source of the Bastonais and about 11 m. from Little 
Wayagamacke L. This branch, near its source, 
is about 22 yards wide; its banks are low and 
composed principally of white sand, producing an 
abundance of hucklebenies, and the prevalent tim- 
ber is tamarack, fir, birch, and some pine. This 
stream flows with a gentle current through low 
swampy land to a portage about 1| m. from its 
source, where the carrying place, about nine fur- 
longs in length, leads over a rough tract of land 
rising from a wet tamarack swamp up a steep 
mountain, and then descending to another leech 
pond on a level with the swamp on the other 
side of the mountain. This pond is f m. long and 
less than 130 yds. wide. The rocks on the port- 
age are granite and gneiss and the soil is generally 
sand or Ught loam, covered with a thin vegetable 
mould. The bottom of this small lake or pond is 
muddy and shallow. Between this l. and another 
is a portage 130 yds. wide. The features of^he 
last-mentioned L. vary essentially from the other 
mud lake or pond, although so very near each 
other; its bottom is gravelly and its water clear, 
and its level higher ; its shape is like that of a 
bird in its flight and the adjacent land assumes a 
bolder character, although not better adapted for 
agricultural purposes : the soil is sandy and co- 
vered with blueberries. The next carrying-place 
is 1000 yards and lies through tolerably good land 
bearing spruce, some black birch, cedar, fir and 
balsam. Another small lake is at the end of this 
portage, where the land again becomes wet and 
swampy, timbered with spruce and fir, and de- 
scends steeply to the border of the lake, round 
which it is generally low and produces spruce 
and fir. From this l, there is a portage of 290 
yds., over an extensive swamp, to a lake which 
supplies the first waters of the n. e. branch of the 
Batiscan. This lake is about 1 m. long. The 
portage separates the two branches. — The progress 
of this branch to its junction with the n. b. branch, 
in the aug. to Grondines S., has not been ex- 
plored. — The N. E. branch of the Batiscan rises 

in the hwt-mentioiMdl l», at the head of which it 
a portagt of IfiO yds. to the borden of Lake £4- 
wtrti, into which a fine rapid aticam, foUowiag 
the portmge, fails with a caacade of 15 f^., ofier^ 
ing a propitious site for a mill. LmJke Edmerd, 
which derives its name from an Indian hunter of 
Batiscan, is 36 m. fr. the farthest extremity of 
Great Wayagamacke L., and 19 m. from that of the 
lesser lake of that name. It may be said to form 
two lakes, owing to n large island which extendi 
nearly the whole length of it, and which in some 
places is about three leagues broad. The greater 
sheet of water is the N. w. passage. The a. a. is 
used by hunters coming from Batiscan. About one 
m from the ^Ttagp Lake Edward acquires greater 
dimensions, extending e. a. E.— The land, as far as 
Dinner Point, about 9 miles from the w. extremity 
of the V; rises gradually from the l. into gentle 
swells timbered with fir, spruce, white birch and 
pine, and some parts are considered susceptible of 
improvement. Farther n. b the land is more 
prominent and the shores in many places rocky 
and barren. The i.. afterwards contracts to \ m. 
and the land becomes more mountainous and 
broken, rising in many places from an iron-bound 
shore into cliffs of granite; the timber on these 
mountains is fir, tamarack and small white birch. 
At the head of the lake, which is about nine miles 
from Dinner Point, a stream about 18 yards wide 
enters it, with a gentle current, through on alluvial 
soil extending to the foot of some high hills. This 
R. leads to a pretty lake surrounded by mountains 
of no favourable appearance fur settlement. Be- 
yond this l. is a portage of 500 yds. leading to an- 
other i>., whose waters increase the n. e. branch 
of the Batiscan ; the land round this l. is moun- 
tainous and rocky. The next portage is 400 yds., 
and passes over a mountain beyond which the N. b. 
branch appears an insignificant stream. The ge- 
neral course from the n. w. to the N. e. branch, 
up to the last place here described, is about e. n. e. 
30 miles. The latter lies very nearly on a level 
with the former, and, running s, through unex- 
plored lands, crosses the n. part of the S. of Per- 
thuis and joins the n. w. branch in the augmenta- 
tion to Grondines S. — These branches being united 
form the river Batiscan, which then takes a s. 
course and passes diagonally through the 2nd 
aug. to St. Anne S., and then, running through 
the N. w. angle of the Ist augmentation to that 
seignory, it enters the s. of Batiscan, where it 
falls into the St. Lawrence about 2 m. below the 


iii ft t 


B A U 



V. of Batiscan.— The Batiscan ia nearly of the 
same extent as the Jacques Cartier r., and the 
good lands on it extend at least 30 m. in a straight 
line from the St. Lawrence. The entrance of 
the Batiscan is obstructed by a sand bar, but, 
the water being deep, it is navigable fur several 
miles, when the stream becomes impeded by rapids 
and falls. This river affords an abundant supply 
of the petite moiife, a species of codfish, in catch- 
ing which, and in salting it for market, the in- 
habitants arc employed during the winter to the 
latter end of January. In the summer a great 
number of eels are caught. 

Batiscan, Little, is a small river that dis- 
charges itself into the eastern bank of the river 
St. Maurice, about 3 m. below the Rnt R. It 
couimunicntcs with the Batiscan River by 5 port- 
ages and 4 lakes, from which it dcrivt-s its name. 
The first lake of magnitude is only about 1 league 
from the S-t. Maurice. 

Batiscan, seignury, in the co. ofChamplain, has 
the St. Luwrence in front, the S. of Champloin and 
its aug. on the s. w., and Stc. Marie with the aug. 
to Stc. Anne on the n. k. ; its breadth is about 2 
leagues and its depth 20 ; granted March 3d, 1 (S39, 
to the Order of Jesuits, and is now reverted to the 
crown. — This 8. comprises 3 parishes — St. Sta- 
nislas, St. Francois, and St. Genevieve; and its 
settlements occupy three principal concessions or 
ranges — one on tlie St. Lawrence, in front, and a 
double concession along each side of the R. Butis- 
cun. — The number of conceded lands or farms is 
1 13. — liordcring on the St. Lawrence the land 
is low, but it soon obt.iins a gradual rise fur the 
distance of nearly 4 V leagues to the interior ; it 

then becomes mountainous as it gains upon the 
N. w. ru]gi;. The soil in the lower ports, like 
the adjacent seignories, is a light earth, rather 
sandy, covering a stratum of good clay ; but, pro- 
ceeding northward, the soil gets stronger and is 
enriched for a considerable space with fine black 
mould, affording many capital tracts for the growth 
of all kinds of grain. In the front the wood is 
nearly all cleared away and the land cultivated 
for 2 or 3 miles inward, and for rather more 
than 5 miles on both sides of the R. Batiscan, on 
which are many good settlements which 
very neat and well managed. The whole of this 
seignory has not been explored, but, as far as it 
has been visited, it is found to produce excellent 
timber of the best kinds.— LaPetite Riviere Cham- 
plain, with some smaller streams, water the front, 
besides the Great Batiscan River, which, though 
rolling a much broader current, is so shallow as not 
to be accessible for boats higher than (j or 7 m. from 
its mouth. Over this r. and the Champlain are 
ferries, where canoes and scows are always in readi- 
ness on cither side fur travellers, carriages, &c. In 
additiun tu the main road, that crosses the .seignory, 
others ascend, for several miles, on eoeh side of 
the Batiscan and communicate with the adjacent 
grants. About (i miles up on the east Kide uf this 
river is the foundery of the same name ; it con- 
sists of u furnace or smelting-house, a rusting- 
huuse, two forges, dwelling-houses and various 
otlicr buildings. Tiie manufactures once carried 
on here were similar to those of St. Alaurice ; the 
original proprietors being dead, tlie works have 
been stopped and the establishment is abandoned 
and in decay. 

Statistical Table of the Siigmorj of Batiscan. 


St.Stiinislil!! > „-., 

rit. Ofiiivii'vc l.'UI- 
St. Kriinvois 7oi 


3 3 

« 3 


1(1 I 



\nmia) Af^riiMiltnr.-il l*r<Hhi('r, i i hii-^luh. 


I I 
•J(NN I3J(NI KM) lOU^ffNIO j<)l() 

071(i 7M(» 




1 l82>*NJ<)UNI.'i()Ml(l():i73l(iI)7tM), tm 









l(Ni8 5»67 

IkV) I4),5 

rl2H Um 

Till'- ('(moisHlon Hii J.lmc Miirp, IftW, (iiltc piir Alon- 

siciir ill III FirU, i>oiir In ('oni|iui;iiii-, mix ii'vciviiils pcrcH 
J<siiili's, (III lii't' (Ic lliilhniH, jiiiKiiiiiit il'iiii I oic nil i|iiiii't 
di' liriio nil ili'!» <U' lu rivii ri' lic lliilinun iiii NlP^<|.l'^t, ft 
il'iiiili'i' roll' IIII Siiil oiicKl, nil i|iiiirt (If llciic iiii dvU dc In 
riviri'c (7iii»i/i/iiiii I'll la liirtfi'iir, «iir viiitit liiiicH do pni- 
I'oiiiU'iir. CiiMira il'lnlindamt, \o. X li \>, Julio lf)>. 

IJattuhkh a la Caki'k, c. i.. St. Peter. 

Uattdhkm uiix Am.oi.'kttks, i'. Sagiienay r. 

Hai'OKT, au, river, traverses, diiignnally, the T. 
of Lancaster and enters the S. uf New J<i>Mgueuil 
at the 8. w. corner of the concession, CiMe St An- 

B E A 

B E A 


f/i CO 

1 KHiS 267 


1 4i>* I0J2 

dre, and, cutting the division-line in several places, 
falls into l. St. Francis at Potnte au Baudet. 

Baudouin, Dame, fief, v. Tilly S. 

Bay of GAftPE (F), v. Oaspv Bay. 

Bayonnb, river, in the co. of Berthicr, rises in 
several small streams in the extremity of the aug. 
to Berthicr. After the union of these streams, a 
little beyond Custle Hill, the Bayonne enters the 
aug. to Lanoraye, and, taking a 8. course, is aug- 
mented by other small streams near the diurch of 
St. Elizabeth, then turning e. it enters the S. 
of Bcrthier and receives a stream from above the 
church of St. Pierre ; it is afterwards increased by 
the Bonavcnture Creek that traverses the settle- 
ments of St. Esprit ; the Bayonne then hastens to 
the St. Lawrence, with which it unites its waters 
near the village of Bcrthier opposite Isle Castor. 
This R. is deep and navigable for loaded boats for 
4 or 5 m. from its mouth ; higher up its naviga- 
tion is prevented by rapids and fulls. There arc 
2 falls of l(i ft. perpendicular. The great diversity 
of character in the lower one is remarkable : the 
rock over which the river falls is of hard gray 
limestone in deep horieontal layers, marked here 
and there with small seams of quartz ; the bank, 
a little below the fall, is a perpendicular mass of 
blue and white marble, out of which runs a strung 
spring of most pungent acrid taste, with a stnmg 
bituminous smell, and immediately contiguous to 
this the bank if of common limestone; in shallow 
layers, with a dip of 6.1 degrees. 

Bran, a small river in the S. of Bcauhamois. 

BKArrK, county, in the district of Quebec, is 
bounded n. k. by the co. of Bellechiisse, 8. w. by 
part of the H. of Saint (Jilcs, by the townsliips of 
Broughton, Tring and part of Shcnley, to the 8. k. 
boundary line of the S. of Aubert Gallion, thence 
along the b. k. Iwundary of the Itist-mentioned S. 
to the n Chaudiere; thence 8. up the middle of the 
B. Chuudirre, and through the middle of the l. 
Megiintiik, to the entrance of Arnold n.; thence 
up that n. to the s. boundary of the province: on 
the N. w. by the co. of Dorchester, and h. k. by the 
8. boundary of the province.— It comprises the 
seignories of Jolllct. Hiiint Kticnne, Sainte Marie, 
Siiint Joseph, ^'Hnd^e^lil, AuK-rt (Jallion, Aul>ert 
do risle, the town.ships of Franipton, Cranbourne, 
Watford, Jersey, Mnrlow, HixUirough, Spahh'ng, 
Ditclificiil and Woburn. and that part of Clinton, 
i:. of Arnold a —This co. is (W m. in length, and 
its avcro;,'e breudlli is 21 } ; liut at its h. extremity 
it is (iO Its centre is in lat. 40" n., Ion. /(> ' U.V w.— 

This CO., containing 1,987 iq. miles, is uneven and 
mountainous and abundantly watered by numerous 
rivers and streams, the principal of which arc the 
Chaiidicre, du Loup and la Famine. This co. is 
intersected by numerous roads including the new 
Kennebec road, which presents a shorter and more 
direct communication from Quebec to Boston in 
the U. S. The co. of Beauce sends two members tu 
the provincial assembly and the place of election is 
alternately at Ste. Marie and St. Joseph. 


Population 10.66.1 
Oliuri-hi-is 11, C. ;t 
1 'unites .'i 
I'rfsliytfric'S !i 
ScIiuoIh :i 
Tonvints 1 
N'illages 1 

Grist-niillB 8 
Saw-milU 39 
('iinliiijr.niillfi .1 
FulliuK-niili.s ij 
'I'linnorit's 2 
Potteiios ^ 

PotSdluTifR I 
Mfdii'al men 'i 
Slio|iki'P|KTS It 
Noturii's 7 
I'livcrnH 1 1 
ArtisHiig U!) 

Anaiinl AgrlcullHral Pralmr. 

( )ut» 


IVas 2^,%l 
llye 510 
Buck wheat 600 

Indian corn '.^,010 
Mu|)le KUftur 

cwts. 1,9.'« 

Live Slixk. 

1 lonirs 

:^,t^■'>\ t'ows 3,mi 

2,171 1 8lieei> l»,8UH 

Swine 5,97« 

BEAI7HARNOI8, county, in the district of Mont- 
real, is bounded n. k. by the co. of Laprairie, n. w. 
by the H. St. Lawrence, and a. and s. w. by the 
southern boundary of the province, and includes 
tlic Grande Isle and all the islands nearest to the 
CO., which in whole or in part front it. It com- 
prises the S. of Beauharnois and the townships of 
Ilemniingford, Ilinchinbrook and Godmanchester, 
ond the tract of Indian lands to the west thereof, 
extending to the Indian village of Saint Hegis, in- 
clusively, on the 8. boundary of the province. — 
The length of this co. is CtCt m. and its breadth 
22, and it contains "JU) sq. miles. The centre is 
in lut. 4.V' 10' N., Ion. 74" 5 w.— One-third of 
the populatiim is native Canadians and two-thirds 
Scotch, Irish, Americans and Indians. — It con- 
tains several pari,slies and (lourishing villngcR, of 
which the principal are Heauharnois, St. Hegis 
and Dundee. — The principal rivers are the Clin- 
teaguttv, which traverses the entire ccninty, En- 
glish Hivcr, Oiitardcs, Norton Creek and Jlhuk 
Hiver. — This triangular section of the province 
commands c<nisiderable linal advantages, derived 
from its favourable elinuite and very extensive 
frontage on the St. liuwrence. The soil in ge- 
neral is excellent and the linikr of superior 
ijuality. This co. sends two nicmlKTS to the pro- 



B E A 

vincial MieinUy, and the place of election ii St. 


Popnlation 14,164 
ChHrche*, Pro. I 
(.'burchei, R. C. 4 
Cunte* 3 

Presbyteries 4 











Fulling' mills 





Medical men 











Annual Agricultural Proihire. 



Lhc Stock. 
8,070 1 Cows 5,678 1 Swine 

Buck wheat 5,400 
Indian corn 80,!)50 
Mixed Kmin 5,374 
Potatoes U)5,tO0 

Hay, tons 85.300 


Flax . 277 
Butter . 5,080 
.tiaple sugar 1,386 


.%916|Sbcep 17.590 1 

Bkauharnois or Villechauve, scignory, in 
the CO. of Beauharnoig, extends along the St Law- 
rence 6 I. by 08 many in depth (by title), and is 
bounded in the rear by the t. of Hemmingford, 
8. w. by Godmanchester and Ilinchinbrook, and 
N. K. by the SS. Chateauguay and La Salle and 
the T. of Sherrington. — This tract was granted 
on the 12th of April, 1729, to Sieur Claude 
de Dcauhamois, and is now the property of 
Edward EUice, Esquire, M. P. — In this seig- 
niory are the following interior divisions named 
Catherine's Town, Hele.i's Town, Jlary's Town, 
Orme's Town, North and South George Towns, 
William's Town, James's Town, Russel Town 
and Edward's Town. There are three Catholic 
missions, via., St. Clement, St. Timothee and St. 
Martin, not yet erected into parishes. The church 
in St. Clement's parish is an unseemly building, 
and will soon be replaced by a handsome structure, 
as measures to that effect arc in active progress. 
At St. Timothrc there is a neat small church with 
a 8))ire ; and that at .St. 3Iartin, when completed, 
will be large and handsome. On the n. Chateau- 
guay, in the division of b. George-town, there is 
a presbyteriun church. — There are 4? concessions 
in this S. mid the superficies exceeds 2.')4,(ll(i ar- 
]K'nts, of which l.')3 are in concession and 120,2<tti 
rcmuin unconceded. The quality of the timber 
is generally excellent and the pine and oak, the 
latter particularly, have always been esteemed su- 
perior to almost any other growth in the province. 
—There arc tlirce sehiwls cm the foundation of 
the Koyal Institution; one at Williamstown, one 
at North Georgetown and one at Ormstown : 
parts of the seigniory entirely British.— In the 


Canadian part there is no puUic achool. Among 
the few Canadian! who have any wish to give 
education to their cliildren the practice prevail* of 
taking a teacher into the house of one individual 
and collecting there the children of as many pa- 
rents as are desirous of this benefit, each paying 
his quota of the expense. Of these private schools 
there are not more than four or five. Their bene- 
fit is very limited, and little else than the cate- 
chism is taught. — Besides the townships this S. 
contains la Grande He and other smaller isles, a 
village and two domains. — La Grande He is formed 
by the waters of the St. Lawrence and is 21 m. 
in circumference, and has been, in some degree, in- 
habited for more than twenty years. — Reauhamoit 
village, in Ann's-town, is well situated on the K. 
side of the mouth of the R. St. Louis and on the 
bunk of the St. Lawrence. It contains about CO 
houses besides a manor-house, one-third built of 
stone and many two stories high, a grist and 
saw- mill and three taverns, and the steam-boat 
that plies from Lachine to the Cascades stops at 
this village, where it takes in its daily supply of 
wood. — At the mouth of the St. Louis is also the 
domain called St. Louis, and the other domain, 
named du Ruisscau, is in Helen's Town. — This 
S. contains three corn-mills, one at Annfield, one 
at Pt'che au Saumon, on the R. Chateauguay, and 
one at Norton Creek Bridge ; one saw-mill on 
English River, and several considerable pot and 
pearlasheries exclusive of numerous kettles scat- 
tered through the woods. — Many of the cultivators 
having been bred to trades follow them or not as 
convenience or prospect of emolument prompts. — 
There are no fairs, but there is an annual plough- 
ing-match in October. — The general state and con- 
dition of the cattle among the Canadiun uettlers 
in this S. cannot be praised, no care being taken 
by them for their improvement. The horned 
cuttle are diminutive and ill-shaped, the sheep 
small and coarse woolcd. The swine, their chief 
animal food, are of very inferior quality, lung in 
the legs, coarse in the and bad fatteners. 
The reverse of all this may in general be said of 
the cattle lielnnging to the Knglish settlers, who 
pay particular attention to the diiferent breeds and 
keep them in g(H)d order. Tiie Canadian horse may 
be considered as the best bred and most thriving 
animal, but will lie always subject to deteriora- 
tion until the system of emasculation is generally 
practised. From the pains Mr Brown, Mr. El- 
lice's agent, now bestows on this branch of rural 


economy, and from the inclination evinced by the 
Caniidinns to imitate his laudable example, it i» rea- 
sonable to expect that a very great imiwoveraent 
will won take place in every kind of cattle. — The 
principal roads in the 8. are as follow : — Along u. 
Si. Louis; on both sides of the B. Chatcauguay in 
progress of connexion through Godmanchestcr and 
Hinchinbrook, with those leading to the v. of 
Four Comers and Fort Covington in the U. S. ; 
on both sides of English River ; the road into 
the U. 8. from La Prairie by St. Constant through 
Hemmingford ; and the roads in front of each eon- 
cession and their connecting branches. — The prin- 
cipal roads are gencndly kept in very good order. 
— Tliero arc no toll bridges ; but three ferry boats 
are established on the Chatcauguay, the property 
of individuals who take what toll they can get. — 
Several places in this S. are well adapted for the 
cultivation of hemp, particularly a considerable 
tract in the division of James' town, to the west of 
Bluel)orry-pluin. — In agiitultural operations both 
horses and oxen are used. The Canadian settlers 
usually plough with two yokes of oxen and one 
horse, but all other agricultund work is done 
with horses. Tlie best farmers among the British 
settlers use the swing plough with one pair of 
horses, but the new settlers almost entirely use 
oxen. For other purposes horses and oxen arc 
indiscriminately used as fancy or convenience di- 
rects. — The produce of hay is very uncertain. In 
1H2H it was tivc times the amount of any of the 
three preceding years. — The quantity of flax sown 
is generally very smidl ; only (i\ bushels of flax- 
seed are supposed to be sown annually.— The 
quantity of homespun manufactures may be esti- 
mated from the number of biiccp:— 41(H> sheep, 
yielding, on an average, 2 lb. of W(M)1 each, and 1 lb. 
being reijuired to make 1 ell of r/ojf'r ihi j,ni/.i (the 
coiiunon grey ehith) iiro(luce<l2(MI ells, \ of which 
is made into other woollen stuffs, which require 
not, on an average, mure than Jib. of wool per ell. 
— In this 8. Americans sometinii s contract for 
wcMul to make and afterwanls quit the 
liuiiis, wliiili consiquently Ikcoiuc ndurcd in va- 
lue.— In the front are a few swampy places 
covered with cedar and spruce firs, of no very 
great extent and generally k-twten the banks of 
the Chatcauguay and the 8t. LawreiKc, a mean 
breadth of alMUit '< leagues. In the divisions of 
Jiimcs Town and South CJcorge Town is a level 
space alHMit .1} m. I)y 2, called Hli,clir,n/ I'lnm.s, 
an hnri/onial stnitum of nxk, of the quart/ spe- 
CHS, from tlie ereviees of which spring imun.n»e 

quantities of the shrufaa that bear the berries after 
which it is named. — The rivers Chatcauguay and 
St. Louis run through the S. from 8. w. to n. k. 
Out of the former many and not inconsiderable 
streams branch off to the interior, some of them 
crossing the Province line into the American ter- 
ritory ; the principal are called the English River, 
Bean River, Riviere aux Outardes and Sturgeon 
River. By the Chatcauguay, a fine river, navigable 
for boats and the usual river-craft, large quantities 
of the timber felled in Beauharnois and the ad- 
jacent townships of Godmanchestcr and Hinchin- 
brook arc brought down into the St. Lawrence. 
There arc roads leading along it frcmi which others 
branch off to the U. 8. — Previcms to the com- 
mencement of hostilities with the U. S. the jiopu- 
lati<m was a mixture of Canadians and Ameri- 
cans, the latter amounting to alwut 2<M) families, 
who, on that event taking place, imminliately 
withdrew into their own country. — Whether esti- 
mated by the mildness of the climate, the general 
goodness of the land, the variety of timber of every 
description, among which oak, elm, pine and beech 
are in great quantities, the advantage of <vater con- 
veyance at all times, from the breaking up of the 
frost until the commencement of winter, or by its 
contiguity and easy access by main roads to ihe State 
of New York, this may be universally allowed to 
be a most valuable tract of land, affording as good 
a basis for improvement as perhaps any other in 
Lower Canada. This S. is unexceptionable in point 
of locality as well as for all agricultural purposes, 
almunding with many spots particularly congenial 
to the growth of hemp and flax. The relative posi- 
tion of this S, and the adjoining townships with 
the United States ensure great advantages, 
cs))ecially as they lie contiguous to the line iii' icmi- 
numication to Montreal, with roads in many di- 
rections, numerous mutes for an expeditious water 
conveyance and a fertile wiii ; these are solid rea- 
sons for cimjccturing that this j>;irt of the district 
of Montreal will attract the attention of traders 
and cultivators, and vie, in a tew years, with most 
others of the province in population and agricul- 
ture. — The following bays, points, &c. are in 
Heauhamois Channel, in front of the S. — \'\t. Do- 
niaiuc (hi Huisson. I'ointc aux Kralilis, Hapiiic du 
itoiileau, Rapidc Croche, Knight's Island, Les 
Fauiillis (a rapid), IIuii;;iy May, and Cartier's 
Point. — F^anrc lu'c Brown, Kmj , to whom the au- 
thor is indelited for vuiuulile inf'orniatiuii, i.n the 
resident agent. 


B E A U H A R N O I S. 

The Divuions, Concetnons, number of Lands m Concession and their superficial extent, number of Pro- 
prietors and their national extraction, and the quality of the soil, in the Seigniory of Beauharnois, in 
March, 1828, uiere as follow : — 






S p 

Number of Pronrieton, and their na- 
tional extraction. 

TowDihIr, or Diviiion of the 
Seigniory ind Conceuloiu. 










Ann's town. 
Concessioni of Lake St T 

The CoDceuionii lying on the Lake St. 
Louii and River Chateauguay are occupieil 

Louis, Chateauguay R. > 
and La Bcauce J 
Grand Marais 










by good habitant, with coinfartabte houses. 
The land produces excellent wheat : titat in 
the Beaucn, though generally of a light soil, 
■ yields good crups, and seems very (avoura- 
ble for the cultivation of hops. The Umnd 
Mttralt lands are excellent. I'he oihert'on- 
erssioni being recently made show but little 
progress. The soil is various. 

• cote St. George . 

• C6te St. Laurent . 







• River St. Louis • 









Mary's town. 

■» The front of Ihe Ist f 'oneession is stony, 
but gradually improves to the rear; and In 
the3i, a.l, and 4th t'oncessionii the soil is 

Ist, 2d and 3d Concessions 








4th ditto 








»of the best quality. These lands are occu- 

• 5th ditto 







pied by wealthy inhabitants, with good stone 
nouses and substantial barns. The remain- 
der la good land. 

• 6th ditto 








Helen's town. 

\ The extremities of these Concessions are 

Ist Conresoiun 
U ditto . 









f excellent; the middle is rather stony, but 
r well adapted for sheen pasture and orchards. 
) The Ist Concession li well built. 

Catherine's town. 

'\ These lands are of superior nualily and 
f verv nro4luctIve. The Orantie Ih is most 
> vsluable, for the country does not afford 
4 better land. The tie aiu- ChaU makes a 

Ist Concession 







Grande He . 








He aux Chats 








J beauUful farm. 

North George town. 

Ist Concession 








The soil in this division Is good through- 

• C6te St Laurent • 

• River St Louis • 







. out, and the part occupied by the Lowland 
Scotch is cultivated iu a superior manner. 

The 1st Conceasinn Is one of the most 

Ohm's town. 
1st Concession 









flourishing settlements in the province; 
and the lands being altogether of the best 
nuallty. and in the hands of respectable 
' British farmers, are cultivattHi atvording to 

•8d ditto 








•3d ditto 









the most approved system of agriculture. 
In the ad aud 3d Cunuessioua the soil is 

William's town. 

Front Concession • 







Sturgeon Iliver Concession 
Ist Concession 







This township contains every variety of 
soil : much of it Is however of good ((uality, 







and no part ofit unfit for agricoltural pur- 
poses. Thel'oncesslons on tlie lleach Knigr 

8d ditto . 







3d ditto . 







^nnd ICnglish River exhibit the greatest im- 
provement as British settlements t those in 

Beach KidKe • 








the 1st Concession and tm the Hiver Cha- 

* Bean Uiver 
Norton Creek 









te.iuguay and .sturgeon Uiver are the most 
Hounihing Canadian settlements. 

English River 










1 Much of the land in this division is of 

Norton Creek 









>inrerlor quality) the best ofit IswcUcul- 

English River 









1 tivatcd and improving rapidly. 

South (ieorgu town. 

) The soil in this division U of a middling 

Ist Concession 









V nunlily. generally of a light clay ot sandy. 

• English River 









V Settlement is advancing. 

Jamivs' town. 

f Much like the former township, but with 
It greater proportion of good land. 

• Ist Concession 

• Forks of Outard River 












The lands on the Ulack Hlverand Forks, 

Black River . 









fnnnetl by its conHui-m« with Ihe English 

Forks .... 




River, are ^cry rivh and fertile: those in 

Ist and "iA Concessions,") 






.thereat are on a high stony ridge, but afford 

g<MKl pasturage for cattle. There are wmie 

and 1st lid, and 3d > 










eonsiderahle orchards. The small valleys 

Sections J 

or intervals protlucc abuiidanve of hay. 

Villauk of Bbauuarnoib. 









) On the lake the soil is a strong clay i in 
i Ihe rear It is ufa very productive nature. 
























* New Concessions since the census of 1820. 

B E A 

B E A 

Stat'ut'tci of the entire Stignioty. 

Pnpulfltion 7,105 
Churches . 3 
Curates . 2 
Presbyteries 2 
A'illage . 1 

Corn-mills . 3 
Saw-mills . 6 
Pot and Pearl- 

■sheries . 14 
Just, of Peace 3 

Medical men 










^iraiial AgrimUural Produce. 




Buiheli. I Bunheli. 

37,8110 Potatoes 1 10,0(10 

29,inolPeas . 29,;»0 

«>,900 i Rye . l.,500 

Buck wheat 2,()00 
Indian corn 12,000 

A considerable quantity of maple sugar is made in this S. 

Live Stock. 

C en 

1,185 1 Cows . 
2,1741 Sheep 

2,862 I Swine 


r»fr.— Concession du 12me Avril, 1729, faite par sn 
Wajestfe au Sieur Charles Atarquli de Beauhanwh, et au 
Sicur Claude de Bcauharmit de Beaumont son frere, de six 
lifues de front sur nix llcucs do profondcur, Nord-est et 
Sud-ouest ; joignant la Seigncurie de Chateaii^ny le long du 
fleuve St. Laurent, nvec les isles et islets adjuccntes. 
tnilnuatiotti du Cornell Supirleur, letlre V. folio 129. 

Beaujbit, ti. La Colle, 8. 

Beaumont, Seignory and Augmentation, in 
the CO. of Bellechasse, lies between Vincennes and 
La Durantaie and is bounded in front by the St. 
Lawrence, and in the rear by St. Gervais; its 
breadth is | league, its depth 1^ — Granted Nov. 
3d, 1072, to Sieur dcs Islets de Beaumont; the 
augmentation, April 10th,1713, to Sieur de Beau- 
mont and is of the same dimensions as the ori- 
ginal grant : they now belong to Fcrcol Roy, Esq. 
— The farms are 3 arpcnts in front by 40 in 
depth ; and the lands conceded prior to 1 "JaQ 
were granted on the following terms : 20 sols per 
front arpent by 40 in depth, one sol for quit rent, 
one capon, the obligation of grinding corn at the 
Banal mill, and with a reservation of timber for 
the purpose of building churches, mills, &c. — The 
copon is supposed to have been never demanded. — 
A great many of these lundliolders neglected to 
take a legal contract of concession, thinking that 
the seignior's letter would be solely sufficient to 
secure them in quiet possession of their londs. 
Some unfortunately lost their letters and others 
lost the copies of their contracts (the minutes of 
which were burnt at QueW.) After I'J.W, when 
their titles were required to be prtMluced, those who 
were unable to do so were obliged to obtain new 
ones, when, instead of 20 sols being required for 
each front aqicnt, besides the sol for quit rent, HO 
sols were imixiscd, ond more frequently even 40. 
There are, in this parish, only It or 10 persons ut 

moat who pay one sol only by way of quit rent, 
without any other rent. — This tract presents, ge- 
nerally, rather a light and sandy soil and rises 
to a considerable elevation on the bank of the 
river, but preserves a tolerably level surface when 
compared with the adjacent grants. The greater 
part of the seigniory and a considerable portion of 
the augmentation are in a flourishing state of cul- 
tivation. Adjacent to the St. Lawrence there re- 
mains little timber, but, penetrating farther into 
the interior, much may be found of first rate 
quality, Several small streams water the S. very 
plentifully, and the augmentation is intersected 
by the rivers Boyer and du Sud. The church 
and parsonage-house are seated on the bank of the 
St. Lawrence, and a grist-mill is on the Riviere 
du Sud. The seigniory is crossed by several roads 
leading into the adjacent grants. — The parish of 
St. Etienne de Beaumont includes the first two 
ranges of Beaumont and Vincennes, part of Li- 
vaudiere, fief Mont-a-Peine and as far w. as the 
habitation of Jean Boilard. 

Stalistics of the Parish of St. Etienne de Beaumont. 

Population 1009 1 Presbyteries 1 I Corn-mills . 2 
Chunhes . 1 | Curates . 1 I Saw-niills . 3 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 



Uuiheli. I BuihcU. 

. 0,018 1 Barley . 100 
. 5,IKN) I Potatoes . 8,U00 

Peas . :i,OU) 
Hay tons, 7,502 

Lhe Stock. 

40.'« I Cows 
270 I Sheep 

005 1 Swine 


The parish of St. Charles extends over the aug- 
mentation to Beaumont, and is included in the 
description of Livaudicre, S. 

Title. — Concession fiiite nu Siour Dn iileli de Bum. 
mottt, Ic .'inu' Novembrr, l(»72, par Jean Talon, Intendant, 
do la <|uiiiitit(' de torro (|iii se trouvera sur le lleuve .SV. 
I.aurrni, cntro le Siour Biiwl, et Mr. de la Duranlaie, sur 
une liciio et domic do protondour. 

Jii'gMre il'lnlemlanve, A'li. l,/u/io31. 

Aiigmrnlalion. — Coiiocssion du lOme Avril, 1713, faite 
pur I'/iilipjie de Itigaiid, (louvernour, et Mkhel Began, In- 
tendant, uu Siour (/(' Beaumont, tils, d'un terrrin non-con- 
c<'d( conlenunt uno liouo ot doinie en profundcur, et sur 
Ic front ct liirtrour do In Soi|ineiirio de Beanmunl, elltre la 
Soij;nourio de la linianliiie ct colle dcs liiriliers du i'icur 

Sur Ih carte ootto Soi(inoiiric est couolu'o a fpnitre lionx 
do priitiindour, au liiu do tuiiH lioux: I'aulrc lieu ayant 
i-te aprt's aoourdee uu Sieur Jean, dans le litre de' St. 

Htfziiire d'lnlendanee. No. (i, folio 31. 


f «' 



■ 1 



B E A 

Bbauport, riyer, rises about 1 m. above Charl- 
bourg v., in the S. of Notre Dame des Anges, 
and winding in an k. direction falli into the St. 
Lawrence near the s. w. boundary of the S. of 
Beauiwrt. It turns the signorial mill, an oil-mill, 
and a grist-mill at its mouth. 

Bbauport, seigniory, in the co. of Quebec, 
bounded n. e. by the C6te de Beaupr6, a. w. by 
Notre Dame des Anges, in front by the St. Law- 
rence and in the rear by the township of Stone- 
ham. It is one league broad by four leagues deep. 
It was granted, Dec. 31, 1635, to Robert Oiffurd, 
Sieur dc Beanport; but by that concession its 
depth was limited to 1^ league ; on the 31st Mar. 
1653, the other 2^ leagues were added: it is now 
the properly of Narcisse Duchesnay, Esq. The 
original concessions in this seigniory were granted 
prior to 1759, and each farm, extending 3 arpents 
in front by 30, 4(1, or 50 in depth, pays a quit 
rent of 40 suls and one capon for each front ar- 
pent. — The surface of this S. embraces a variety 
similar to that of the neighbouring seigniories, 
being intersected by ridges of dift'erent heights; 
between the first rise of the ground and the beach 
of the St. Lawrence, is a level space ranging 
the whole breadth of the grant, occupied as mea- 
dows, pastures, or gardens ; the soil is black mould 
intermixed with clay or marl : on this flat there 
are many hirge globular fragments of granite quite 
detached and lying loosely on the surface. Hence, 
penetrating farther to the interior, the soil varies 
considerably, almost as frequently as the inequali- 
ties of the land. On the front ridge, where the 
road pusses, are flat ledges of rock, that in some 
places for a considerable extent are quite bare, 
and in others but very superficially covered with 
a layer of earth ; more inward these riK'ks disap- 
pear and are siieeeeded by a dark mould, or a yel- 
lowish luam whii'h continues to the skirts of the 
mountains — In the front parts of the S. remains 
but little wood ; in the interior, however, and on 
the heights, the timber is of the best quality, lieech, 
birch, and luajile. — Tliis H is watered N. e. by the 
River ]M<intmorcnci, over which is a convenient 
bridge u short distance above the falLs, by the Petite 
Riviere de Heniiport, and by many sniiiU streams 
falling into the St. Lawrence forming rivulets 
along the lieaeh at low water : about two leagues 
from the front is situated Lake Buuuport or Water- 
loo, and at a sliort distance farther on the River 
Jaunc ; some small mountain streams How between 

B E A 

the different ridges.— The cultivated land extends 
about six miles from the St. Lawrence and is, for 
the most part, in a state of excellent tillage, pro- 
ducing all kinds of grain abundantly, vegetables, 
&c. In various parts of the S. are quarries of 
stone, that furnish an excellent supply for the new 
buildings in the neighbourhood and in the city of 
Quebec ; there are also in many places indications 
of veins of coal, but no attempt has yet been made 
to work them. A large quantity of maple sugar 
is made here, and indeed in all the adjoining sei- 
gnories. On each side of the rood along the St. 
Lawrence the houses in this S. are so thickly 
placed, that they seem to be the prolongation of 
one town ; the farm-lands and garden-grounds in 
a most flourishing state ; the orchards and occa- 
sional clumps of trees combine to render this road 
one of the most pleasant in the environs of Quebec. 
The roads communicating with the adjacent grants 
are enlivened by houses and gardens at short in- 
tervals from each other, throughout nearly their 
whole distance. — On the road leading to the capital, 
the populous Village of lieauport is situated on a 
gently rising ground ; it contains from 60 to 70 
houses, many of them built of stone and distin- 
guished by great neatness in their exterior ap- 
pearance: the church and parsonage-house are 
situated on the s. side of the road, the former 
much more observable for solidity than for beauty 
or embellishment: regularity and neatness are 
prevalent through the whole village. This vil- 
lage is the residence of many families of the first 
respectability besides tradesmen, artisans and 
farmers. On the declivity of the hill, w. of the 
church, Jtands a manor-house, an ancient irre- 
gular stone building, designed originally for de- 
fence as well as residence : chiefly remarkable for 
the extraordinary thickness and solidity of the 
walls. A little to the w. of this house, and on 
the bank of the River Beauport, are the distillery 
and mills erected a))out 40 years ago by the Hon. 
John Young at a very great expense; they are 
seated on the'w. bank of the river, over which 
there is a bridge leading past them ; the distillery 
belongs at present to Mr. Racy, and the mills to 
the heirs of the late T. M'Callum, Escj. The 
buildings and other appurtenances of the distiller} 
form a hollow square exceeding 200 yards on each 
side : in the middle of this square are several large 
stone buildings, communicating with each other, 
containing a still-house, mult-house, granary, ma- 




B E A 

B E A 

chinerj, &c. of every dejcription for carrjring on 
the whole proceu of distillation and rectifying to 
a very large extent. The R. Beauport is navi- 
gable as high up as these premises for small decked 
vesseb, which anchor along the whurf adjoining. 
The mill is both extensive and complete in a 
building three stories high ; the water for work- 
ing it is received from the Beauport into a large 
reservoir or dam above the road, whence it is 
conveyed to the mill by an aqueduct. — On an 
eminence to the north-eastward are two handsome 
stone dwelling-houses with gardens and summer- 
houses, surrounded by a wall ; from their sin- 
gularly beautiful liituation, and the rich prospect 
they command over the basin of Quebec and sur- 
rounding distant objects, they obtain much notice : 
the Hon. H. W. Ryland is proprietor of both — 
The Falls of the Montmorenci present the most 
majestic spectacle of the neighbourhood, and in- 
deed one of the grandest in the province At the 
foot of the Falls is situated the large timber esta- 
blishment, originally commenced and conducted by 
Messrs Usbome, Paterson, and Co., and now the 
property of Peter Paterson, Esq. It consists of a 
large saw-mill working 33 saws, including several 
of a circular shape ; also a store-house, dwelling- 
houses for workmen, a large and convenient wharf, 
and several booms for the reception of floating 
timber at high water. Ships anchor opposite to 
this establishment and are loaded with the assist- 
ance of scows and flat-bottomed river craft. The 
masts are generally floated along the sides of the 
ships. The handsome residence of the proprietor 
is seated on the summit of the hill w. of the Falls. 
— The late Hon. Juchereau Duchesnay, in 1821, 
commenced a settlement immediately in the rear 
of the lands previously conceded below Lake Beau- 
port or Waterloo. All the proprietors in the new 
settlement formed by Mr. Duchesnay, with few 
exceptions, are English, Scotch, and Irish ; some 
are proprietors and merchants, others merchants 
<mly, artificers ond labourers; several of the latter 
are employed in the king's works. — The settlers 
on Lake Heniiport who could handle the axe and 
were industrious had sufficient employment as 
lulK)urcrs, and were paid by the acre at the rate of 
10 dollars, if clearing for crops, and .'J dollars for 
branching, foiling, and logging only; other settlers 
not iwssessed of capital and who could not handle 
the axe, resorted to Queliec for employment. — The 
quantity of land cleared in these new settlements 

is from 3 to 400 arpenU : the expense of clearing 
10 dollars each arpent, without the removal of 
stumps; there is no land, or lot of land, where 
the stumps have been removed by these settlers, 
an opinion being prevalent among them that fuch 
removals tend to impoverish the land ; the stumps 
therefore arc suffered to remain and decay na- 
turally. — The first and principal settler on Lake 
Beauport is Mr. Shadgett, and the following sta- 
tistical account of the settlement was drawn up 
in 1824. 


Land in cultivation 

51 arpents. 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 

Pntatoen . 1515 
Turnips . lUO 

Buihi'U. I itM. 

Cabbages. I5(X) Maple sugar aUO 

— The Parish of Noire Dame de Misericorde, or 
Beauport, extends, by F Arret de Conxeil Superieur 
du 23 Janv., 1722, one league on the St. Lawrence 
and thence ^ league into the S. of Notre Dame 
des Anges, along the bay of the a. St. Charles, 
extending in depth to Bourg Royale. 

Statislics of the Parish of Beauport. 

Population IH88 
( 'hurclii's, 11, C 1 





Corn-mills . 


Distilleries . 
Ship-timber es- 

.luBtiee of Pence 
Aleilieal men . 
Shopkeepers . 
'I'averns . 
Artisans . 










Uxen . 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Dutheli. Duiheli. I ButheU. 

. I !i,5«X) Potatoes 7.i,4<H) Biiekwlieat KN) 
. S7,fi'i() ' Pens . .V-^K) Indian rorn (iW) 
. :i,-Hm Uye . \,(m\H»y ton8A7(il 

Live Slock: 

l.'A I Cows . . 1508 I Swine 
701 1 Sheep . . 'kSM) I 


Ti//f._" (oneession du ;nme Dfrembre, lf>.35, fuite 
|)«r la Conipiignie a Nobctl CiffUrd, Sieur de Biaupart, de 
la Seih'neurie de Jhniijmrt, ecjiiteiiuiit une lieue de terre, a 
prendre le long de lu cotf <lu tieiive SI. Laiirnit, sur une 
licne et demie de profundenr dans les terres, n I'cndrnit 
oil la rivii're uppeUe Noire Dame de nruu/mit entre (lans 
le di: tleuve, icelli. rivii're i-oniprise Ke plus, prolonce. 
ment du .'il me Mars, I(i5,'{, piir Mr. Laumii, (louverneur, 
de deux lieues et demie de prul'ondeur, laqiU'lle, uvee In 
eoneession ci-dessus, forme une lieue de front sur c|Utttre 
de profondeur."— A,i- Hegliln dct Fuirt Hmnm<if:e, \<>. Iti, 
,/Wio 78, anie /•'cf. 17HI, dit (|ue lu Seigneurie de Hcunpurt 
sVtend en front depuis larixitre de .ViYrc />»wc jum|u'iiu 
Sault de Moiilmorrmij.—Higiilrc d'liilrndnucc. No. 1(1 ,i 
1 7, folio C5j. 

Braurkoard, isles, lie in the St. Lawrence, 
opposite to the ii]' r part of the S. of Vcrchercs 



ii IS 

! ■'! 


B E C 

and fiefs St. Blain and Ouillodiere. Although 
not of great magnitude, theie isles are useful to 
the neighbouring seigniories for the purpose of 
grazing cattle and the soil is good. They lie 
immediately above the Isles Bouchard. 

Title. — " Concedees le I7rae Aoust, 1674, par le Comie 
lie FrmiUnac, Gouverneur, au Sieur ile Beauregard, dont 
I'une est audevant du bout de la Seigtieiirie dii Sieur de 
Vercherci, en tnontant, et les deux uutres ctant sur la ligiie 
qui regarde Ics isles appartenantes au Sieur de Grand- 
maiion." — Righlre d' Ititaidanee, Lei. D, folio 1. 

Beaurivaoe (F.), v. St. Giles S. 

Beaurivage, river, traverses the S. of St. 
Giles diagonally and near its n. angle leaves thatS. 
and enters Lauzon, where it receives the Ruisseau 
Gosselin and the Riviere Rouge, and, meandering 
in its approach to the church of St. Anne, passes 
afterwards through unconceded lands and falls 
into the Chaudiere at the e. extremity of fief St. 
Denis.' This river is in no place navigable; its 
fall is very considerable and its current, in spring 
and autumn, very powerful. In the heat of sum- 
mer the waters are very low and sometimes insuf- 
ficient to drive a grist-mill of one pair of stones : in 
the upper part of St. Giles S. the bed of the river 
is principally solid rock. 

Beavi:r Brook, runs into the R. Assome- 

Bbcancour, a large river, winding beautifully 
in a very devious course, rises in the townships 
of Broughton and Leeds, whence it branches 
into those of Inverness, Halifax, and Ireland, 
wliere many minor streams flowing from nu- 
merous small lakes fall into it. After traversing 
the townships of Nelson and Somerset and the 
fronts of Stunfold and Bulstrode, in an easterly 
direction, for about 40 miles, it alters its course 
to north-west, running about 21 miles more be- 
tween Aston and Alnddington and through the 
seigniory of Bccancour, wliere it discharges itself 
into the St. L.nvrence. The banks towards its 
source are high, steep and frequently rocky, but 
decrease in elevation as the u. descends. The 
current being embarrassed by fulls, rapids and 
sbouls, is navigable only at places for canoes and 
boats. In the broader parts are some small islands 
covered with fine trees, which, viewed from the 
banks, display the varied hues of their foliage 
with pleasing efi'cct. Within the limits of Be- 
cancoiir seigniory are two mills on this river. Isle 
Dorvnl, a small low isliuul, covered with under- 
wood, divides the mouth of the Becancour into 

B £ C 

two channels. The valley which this river waters 
consists generally of cultivable lands, and in many 
places the soil is of the first quality. The scenery 
on the banks of the Becancour is much admired, 
and near the great falls in the front of Blandford 
T. the river is remarkably picturesque. The fall 
is about 24 ft., or, comprising the cascades above, 
about 60 ft., and near it is a superb situation for 
a mill. In this river are the maskinonge, the dor6 
and other excellent fish. 

Becancour, seigniory, in the co. of Nicolet, is 
hounded, s. w. by Godefroi, n. e. by fief Uutord 
and by the townships of Aston and Maddington 
in the rear. 2^ 1. in front by 2 in depth. Granted 
April 16, 1647, to Sieur de Becancour, and now 
the property of the heirs of the late Lieut. Col. 
Bruere, Etienne Le Blanc, Esq. and Ezekiel Hart, 
Esq. The lands, conceded prior to 17^0, pay a 
quit-rent of one livre and a capon for one arpent 
in front by 30 in depth, subject to the obligation 
of grinding com at the seignorial mill, the right 
of pre-emption, droit de relrail, and a reservation 
as to timber. Three-fourths of the property be- 
longing to Mr. Le Blanc, being conceded prior to 
17l)Q, are, consequently, held under these condi- 
tions. Much higher terms are now demanded for 
the unconceded lands. — Towards the St. Law- 
rence the S. is flat and of an excellent and exu- 
berant soil, producing good hemp and flax. — 
The timber is not much entitled to notice, the 
lowlands affording none but of the most inferior 
sorts, and the higher situations only beech, maple, 
birch and a little pine. — Three-fourths of the S. 
are in cultivation, and several of the farms ex- 
hibit a high state of improvement ; the best are 
on the St Lawrence, and on each side of the 
rivers Becancour and Blanche. Besides these 
rivers, this S. is watered by the Godefroi, Lake 
St. Paul and Lac aux Oiitardes. — The main road 
along the St. Lawrence crosses the r. Becancour 
just above Isle Dorval, and tu'o others lead up the 
river, one 'on each .side. The want of proper 
roads has, for many years, been a great impedi- 
ment to the comfort and prosperity of the inha- 
bitants, and has materially retarded the forma- 
tion of new settlements. This inconvenience has 
lately been in some degree obviated, and, by an 
act of the provincial legislature, the sum of £500 
hns been grunted for the improvement of the road 
from Gentilly to Becancour. — From the front of 
the S to Three Uiveri is a ferry over the St, 




Lawrence. — Just aboye We Dorval and on the 
w. side of the B. Becancour was the hemp-miU, 
&c. established by government and placed under 
the late Mr. Campbell. The church, parsonage 
and a few houses surrrounding it, are situated on 
the B. bank of the Becancour: a short distance 
from which is a village of the Abenaqui Indians, 
consisting of a few ill-built wooden houses, or, 
more correctly speaking, hovels; the manners and 
occupations of these people are precisely similar to 
those of the village in St. Francois.— The parish 
of la Nativity de In Ste. Vierge et de St. Pierre, or 
Becancour parish, by virtue of a decree of the 
council of state, March 3, 1722, which confirmed 
the regulation of Sept 20, 1721, comprehends all 
the frontage on the St. Lawrence, extending from 
fief Coumoyer to fief Godefroi, including fief 
Dutord and all the S. of Becancour. — The fol- 
lowing statistical account includes the whole pa- 
rish, viz. the fief Dutord as well as the S. of Be- 


Population 8752 
Churches, R.C. " 








Preshyteries . 1 

Corn-mills . 1 

Shopkeepers 1 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Buihela. I Butholt. 

IV.WH) Potatoes 15,000 
9,909 Peus . . 4,800 

Kye . 300 

Indian com 100 

Live Stock. 

960 1 Cows 
850 1 Sheep 

14201 Swine 


Title. — " Concession du I6me Avril, 1647, faite par la 
Compagnie an Sieur de Bhancour, situ^ au Sud du fleuve 
SI, Laurent, contenaiit deux lieues et un (juart de front 
sur pareille profondeur; tenant du c6(f du Nord-est au 
fief Dulort et du cot* du Sud-ouest au fief Godefroi ,• fve 
devant le tleuve St. Laurent, et par derriOre les terres non 
concedes ; avec les isles, islets et battures qui se trouvent 
tant dans lu riviere de Bicaucour que dans une autre riviere 
appetee la riviOre St. Paul qui se dp('har)(c dans le dit 
fieuve."— Cu/iicri (f/fifend. I(» d 17,/o/<o414. 

Belair (S.), t;. Les Ecureuils, S. 

BsLLEciiAasE, county, bounded n. e. by the 
CO. of rislet; s. w. by the n. k. boundary lines 
of the SS. of Lauzon and JoUiet and of Framp- 
ton, Cranboume and Watford, and thence by a 
line prolonged a. e. to the s. boundary of the pro- 
vince ; N. w. by the b. St. Lawrence, and it in- 
cludes all the islands in that river nearest to the 
CO. and in the whole or in part fronting it ; and 

on the 8. E. by the s. boundary of the province. 
It comprises the seigniories of Berthicr, St. Val- 
lier, St. Michel, Beaumont and its augmentation, 
la Durantaie and its augmentation, la Martiniere, 
Montapeine, Vincennes, St. Oervais and Livau- 
diere, and the townships of Buckland and Stan- 
don. — The centre of the co. is in lat. 46*> 27' n. 
Ion. 70^ 25' w. and it contains 581 sq. m. and seven 
parishes. Its extreme breadth on the St. Law- 
rence is 19 m , its average breadth 1 7 m., and its 
average depth 35 m. — This co. sends two mem- 
bers to the provincial parliament, and the places 
of election are St. Vallier and St. Oervais — The 
surface is uneven and in many places, particularly 
in the rear, mountainous ; the soil nevertheless is 
susceptible of cultivation and produces abundance of 
good timber. — It is watered by the rivers du Sud, 
Boyer, Bellechasse, and their several branches, be- 
sides numerous other streams that fall into the 
St. Lawrence. In the front of the co. is a chain 
of flourishing and interesting settlements. The 
population consists entirely of French Canadians. 

Population 14,965 

Churches, K. C. 8 



Convents . 




Grist mills . 
Saw mills . 
Curding mills 
Fulling mills 
Tanneries . 
Medical men 





Tonna^'e . 








Annual Agricultural Produce, 





Buckwheat 2,5(JO 

Indian com 910 
Mixed grain .'}, 105 
Peas . 17,530 
Potatoes 235,534 

Live Stock, 

Hay tons, 46,508 


Max . . :m 

Butter . 4,787 

Maple sugur .)(i8 

Horses . 5,.'i94| Cows . 8,552 1 Swine . 17,354 
Oxen . 4,202 1 Sheep . 41,7801 

Etofle du 
pays . 50,150 

Domcrtic Maimfacturei 

Flunnel, &c. 



Linen . 3U,IMJ0 
Looms 601 

Belleciiabbe, river, rises in the S. of St. 
Michel, in the co. of Bellechasse, and, traversing 
the adjoining S. of St. Vallier to its n. e. corner, 
falls into the St. Lawrence. 

Belle Fleub, river, falls into the Sagucnay 
below Ha Ha bay and is 66 ft. wide. At its 
mouth is a valley of very good, cultivable ground, 





f h 


containing 15 or 16 acres, behind which are rocks 
tliat rise in gradations. 

Bbllbislb, river, rises in the S. of Descham- 
bault, and, running a., cuts off the s. b. angle of 
the S. of La Chevrotiere, and runs into the n. 
side of the St. Lawrence. — v. Dbschaubault, s. 

Brllb Rivierb, called by the Indians Kuah- 
pahigan, " a place which is ascended," runs into 
the 8. B. side of lake St. John. At its mouth, 
called Kouispigm, the land on both sides forms a 
sheet of fine bright sand, but it improves gradually 
and rapidly as the R. is ascended. For 2 miles 
from its mouth the soil on both sides is an alluvial 
flat, extending some distance from the banks to a 
rising ground which keeps a parallel direction 
with the river ; the soil on this flat is clayey, oc- 
casionally exhibiting a surface of rich loam, or 
vegetable mould, and produces elm, ush, fir, black 
and yellow birch, alders, spruce, and phie. From 
the 2nd to the end of the 6th mile, up the stream, 
the R. is deep and rapid, the banks occasionally 
bold, the land in many places excellent, and the 
timber is elm, spruce, black, white, and yellow 
birch, ash, poplar, pine, and balsam with some 
cedar and alder. The r. then, at the lower land- 
ing of a portage, is contracted to about 10 yards; 
the rushing waters precipitating over rocks, the 
wildness of the surrounding scenery and the cliffs, 
7^ ft. in height, impending over the basin and 
river, form a very interesting and picturesque 
cascade with a good site for a mill. Here the 
portage is upon the n. bank and is \ m. long, lead- 
ing over a very high hill, where the land is again 
level to the upper landing at the head of another 
full of about 20 ft. high, making the difference of 
elevation altogether between 50 and ()0 ft. Here 
the land is of good quality, composed of a dark 
argillaceous loam beneath a rich vegetable mould; 
the varieties of timber ore red spruce, ash, balsam, 
black and white birch, cedar, elm, red and white 
pine. This description of land forms the leading 
feature of the country along the banks of the 
Belle Riv. to the r. des Aulnais, about 2 J m. above 
the portage; the general course of the R. is 8. k. 
Here the Belle Riviere forms a large basin, in the 
centre of which is an island of excellent land. 
The river enters this basin at the ». e. end, with 
a cascade of 10 feet, falling through a narrow con- 
traction not exceeding 2 or !1 yards at most. On 
the N. E. side of tlie basin the r. des Aulnuis 


enters with a gentle current. For about 3 m. 
higher up the Belle Riviere the land is more broken 
and hilly, rising in some places nearly 100 feet 
above the bed of the river, whose general course 
is from the basin about s. s. w., and is not less 
than 30 yards wide. In the vicinity of the small 
streams, that flow into the main river, are some 
valuable beds of blue soft marl and frequently 
much clay forming the sides or slopes of the hills. 
The timber on their bunks is ash, elm, fir, and 
balsam, and, for a few miles in tlie interior, 
spruce, pine, balsam, and birch, and the Lmd is of 
arable quality. — This R. is navigable for large bat- 
teaux for many leagues, and further on for bark 

Beli.evuk, fief, lies between the S.S. of Ver- 
cheres and Contreeoeur in the co. of Vercheres. 
It is bounded by Coumoyer in the rear, and con- 
tains ^ 1. in front, by one 1. in depth. Granted 3d 
Nov. 1672, to Sieur de Vitre, and now belongs 

to Chicoine, esq. All this slip is under 

good cultivation but is not watered by river or 

Tilli'.—" Concession du 3me Novembre, 1072, faite par 
Jean Talon Intondant, au Sieur de Vitrt, d'une demi lieue 
de Iroiit, Kur une lieu de profondeur, a prendre depuis te8 
terros rfi' Cimlie, tetir, en reinuntuiit vers K'.- terres noii con- 
cedees." — Ilrgitlre d'lntnidance, iVo. 1,,/i'i :jl. 

Bei.o;!!,, river, rises near the rear-line of the 
S. of Bclceil, and, taking a n. e. course, is joined 
by a small stream from the n. w., running nearly 
parallel. It falls into the Richelieu opposite Isles 
au Cerf. It works a grist and saw-mill. 

BKLffiiL, seignory, on the N. w. of the river 
Richelieu, in theco. of Vercheres; 
the S. of Chambly, b. by thai of Coumoyer, s. by 
the R. St. Lawrence and n. by lands stretching to 
the rear of the S. of Cap St. Michel and the ad- 
joining small fiefs, and which form an augmenta- 
tion to Belceil. — 2 1. in front by 1 \ deep, and the 
augmentation is nearly of the same superficies. — 
The principal grant was made, January 18, 1694, 
to Sieur Joseph Hertel and the accessory one, 
March 24, 1731, to Sieur de Longueuil. The 
Baroness de Longueuil is now proprietor of both. 
— The soil along the Riclielieu is light, but in 
some places it is as rich as any in the district of 
Montreal. Tlie undrarcd pnrts ufTord some beech, 
maple and birch timber but more of spruce, fir, 
ccdiir and inferior sorts. The n. e. part is well 
watered by the little R. Bclail, along the banks 

B E R 

B E R 

of which is a range of excellent concenions ; some 
smaller streams traverse the lower part and like- 
wise fall into the Richelieu. Various good roads 
lead through the S. and the main road follows 
the course of the R. Richelieu. The houses of the 
settlers, many extremely well built, are dispersed 
through the different concessions ; here and there 
a few together, but no village. The church and 
parsonage-house are near the Richelieu. — A few 
arpents, fit for cultivation, in the p. of St. Anne, 
are reserved in wood, which is becoming scarce. — 
That part of the augmentation that lies at the 
rear of the S. of Varennes is settled, but the 
parts abutting on the rear of la Trinite and St. 
Michel are still covered with wood. — In this S. 
are 260 families. The most flourishing settle* 
ments are in the first three ranges on the r. Riche- 


Poputation 1,788 j Presbyteries 
Churches, R.C. 1 i Corn mills 
Curates 1 1 Tanneries 

Shopkeepers 1 
Taverns 1 

Artisans 12 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Bushels Uushelt. i Bushels. 

31,200 Indian corn 23U 1 Mixed grain 3,000 
Pens 15,600 Maple sugar, 

Potatoes 46,000 i cwts. 36 




Live Stock. 

690 1 





Title. — " Concession du 18nie Janvier, 1694, faite par 
Loiiit de Buttde, Guuvemeur, et y<ran AocAarf, Intendant, au 
Sieur Joseph Hcriet, de deux lieues de terre de front, avpc 
une lieue ot deinie de terre de profondeur, a prendre du 
c6ti' (hi Nord-oucst de la rivit-re Rictulieu, k la Seigneurie 
de Cliamblii, en descendant irelle riviere, vers les terres 
non concodees."— u;^w/rf ^Infendanee, No. i, folio 16. 

Augmenlalion. — " Concession du 24me Mars, 1713, faite 
par Ptiil. de Ri^ud, Gouvemeur, et Franfoit de Beauliar. 
iioit, Intendanti au Sicur de LongueuH, le long de la riviere 
de Rictwlicu, d'une lieue de terre de front sur une lieue 
et deniie de ]irofondeur, en lieu non.concidL-, a prendre 
depuis la Seigneurie de Rcltril, qu'il posside, en tiraiit du 
cott du Sud-ouest, derriere hi Seigneurie de ChambI;/ pour 
le front, et pour la profondeur dans les terres en allant au 
Nord-ouest."— ^egiitre ttlnlendance, No, 6, folio 3, 

Bblsiahite, river, in the co. of Saguenay, 
falls into the gulf of St. Lawrence, a little above 
Bustard Bay. 

Benoit, lake, lies near the R. Saguenay, from 
which it is approached by the portage of Pelletier 
bay. It is of considerable extent, of very irregular 
shape and is surrounded by mountains of no great 

Bkroeronneb, les, two rivers in the co. of Sa- 

guenay, emptying themselves into the St. Law- 
rence, a few leagues below the estuary of the R. Sa- 
guenay. One of these rivers has been ascended 
1 ^ league, and nothing worthy of remark was dis- 
covered except some prairies, which are supposed 
to produce annually from 7 to 8000 bundles of hay. 
The land susceptible of cultivation on the banks of 
this river may extend fnnn4 to 10 arpents from the 
water, and is bounded by rocky mountains, whose 
only ornament is moss and a few tufts of juniper. 
The shore of the St. Lawrence and the interior 
from the point " Des Grandes Bergeronnes," as 
far as that of " Bon Desir," 3 leagues below it, 
have been explored. The shore, which is at most 
100 feet high, on account of its gradual ascent, 
offers a rich vegetative border. 

Berisford, a projected township in the rear 
of Abercromby, in the co. of Terrebonne. 

Berthibr, county, in the district of Montreal, 
bounded n. e. by the co. of St. Maurice, s. w. 
by the co. of Lachenaie, n. w. by the northern 
boundary of the province, and b. e. by the river 
St. Lawrence ; it includes all the islands in the 
St. Lawrence, nearest to the co, and in whole 
or in part fronting it. It comprises the SS. of 
Berthier and its augmentation, Du Sable or York, 
part of Masquinong^, Fief Chicot, the SS. of La- 
noraye, Dautray, Lavaltrie and their augmenta- 
tions, Daillebout, De Ramsay, the t. of Brandon, 
part of the S. of Lanaudiere, the t. of Kildare and 
the islands of St. Ignace and Dupas. — This co. is 
24 m. broad and its depth to the m. w. boundary 
of the province 240 m., containing 5,700 sq. m., 
of which 624 m. are in settlements bordering on 
the St. Lawrence and in the adjacent unconceded 
lands. — The s. extremity of the co. is in lat. 46° 2' 
N., Ion. 73° 12" w. — This co. sends 2 members to 
the provincial parliament and the place of election 
is at the v. of Berthier. It contains 7 parishes, 
besides parts of 2 others. The face of the county, 
for lu m. from the St. Lawrence, is generally 
low and level; it then assumes a bolder aspect 
and becomes uneven, and, in the vicinity of lake 
Maskinonge and the rear of the T. of -Kildare, 
it is mountainous, the land, nevertheless, being 
more or less susceptible of cultivation as far as 
the exploring surveys have extended, beyond which 
little is known of the country ; its general cha- 
racter, however, has been ascertained to be moun- 
tainous, traversed by various rivers and streams, 
and watered by several lakes. The sur\'cycd and 

!» I'!, 


! I 

B E R 

.settled parts of this co. arc abundantly watered by 
the rivers Chicot, Bayonnc, Great and Little Cha- 
loupe, St. Charles, Brook River, St. Joseph, St. 
John, L'Assomption, part of the R. Maskinong^ 
nnd the h. of that name. The Bayonne and the 
Chaloupc spread into several branches and the n. 
L'Assomption, by far the largest, winds and tra- 
verses the CO. in a s. direction. Along the sides 
of these rivers are flourishing settlements and good 
roads. — This co. includes several islands in the 
St. Lawrence, particularly those that lie con- 
tiguous to the S. of Bcrthier To those who are 

desirous of making new settlements this co. pre- 
sents numerous advantages, arising from the qua- 
lity of its soil, population, agriculture, and local 

Population 17,C9j Corn-mills 

r;!!!!!.-!]!'?, R.C. 










Hat munuf. 



Ak'dical men 
River craft 
Keel boats 







Annual AgricuHural Produce. 










7,022 I 

Buckwheat 2,500 
Indian corn 3,296 
Mixed grain 4,085 
Potatoes 470,913 

Hay, tons, 64,111 

Flax 569 

Butter 4,302 

Mapl. sug. 1,0C3 

Live Stock. 


10,756 1 Swine 


Bkrthier, river, is about 10m. from the R. 
ISInskinongu ; it is not navigable for any di- 
stance although there is a considerable body of 

Berthier, seigniory, in the co. of Bellechasse, 
lias the river St. Lawrence in front, St. Vallier 
s. w., St. Thomas n. b., and the Riviere du Sud in 
the rear. It is 2 leagues in front by as much in 
depth. Granted Oct. 29th, 1672, to Sieur Ber- 
thier ; it is now the property of the ladies of the 
General Hospital at Quebec and is held under a 
lease for 29 years by Claude Denechaud, esq., of 
which 13 years are unexpired. He pays an annual 
rent of 60/. and 45 bushels of wheat. This gen- 
tleman holds half the domain by purchase and the 
other half belongs to Jlrs. Ruelle. This seigniory 
is bounded on the map according to a private siir- 
vcv. Its irresrularitv arises from a cession made 

B E R 

by the proprietor, Jan. 22, 1 728, to the seignior 
of Riviere du Sud. — A light sandy earth, varied 
with yellowish loam, is the prevalent kind of soil 
and is highly productive of grain of all kinds ; the 
largest proportion is under culture and an im- 
proved system of husbandry. Many of the farms 
are in a flourishing condition, of which those on 
the Riviere du Sud and the bank of the St. Law- 
rence are perhaps the best and most conspicuous. 
Along the front the ground is rather low, but it 
gradually rises to a small ridge about a mile from 
the shore, from the summit of which a very in- 
teresting prospect unfolds itself; the R. St. Law- 
rence, between 1 1 and 12 m. across, is beautifully 
varied by groups of islands, lying off the w. end 
of Crane Island ; the K. end of the island of Or- 
leans, with all its rich diversity of scenery, and the 
lofty mountains rising behind Cape Tourmente 
complete the distant view ; the descent from the 
crest of tlie ridge down to the shore is a continua- 
tion of well cultivated fields, enriched with almost 
every object that can make a landscape perfect ; 
these, with the addition of the church, and a small 
cluster of houses charmingly seated, almost close 
to the water, on the edge of a little cove called 
Le Trou de Berthier, when viewed from the 
main road, are well calculated to give a stranger 
an exalted idea of the picturesijue beauty of the 
country. Another chain of heights, somewhat 
more elevated, rises between it and the riviire du 
Sud, on which there is some fine timber ; in other 
parts of the S. wood is not abundant. The rivers 
du Sud, u lu Caille and Belle Chasse provide 
an ample and complete irrigation for every part. 
Near the Riviere du Sud stands the church of St. 
Fran9ois and, at a short distance from it, a grist- 
mill worked by a little rivulet flowing into the 
river. Numerous good roads intersect every part 
of the S ; the main or post-road is on the bank of 
the St. Lawrence. — The rivers afford salmon, eels, 
white fish, &c. The horses are, generally, of the 
Norman breed. 

The parish otSl, Franfois is bounded n. by the 
first concession of Bcrthier, s. by the rear-line of 
the seigniory, e. by St. Pierre, and w. by the di- 
vision-line of St. Vallier. It consists of 3 eon- 
cessions, each of 42 or 60 arpents in depth. The 
farms are 3 arpents each in breadth, and extend 
in depth to the rear-line of the concessions. The 
land consists of a good, black, strong soil on a blue 
clav. The timber is not remarkable, and is a 

B E R 

mixture of pine, spruce, maple, birch, &c. Thia 
parish is watered by the river du Sud and by the 
Jyaton which turn 4 mills, vi«., one for grinding 
com, one for sawing, one for fulling, and the 4th 
for carding.— On the n. side of the main ro«d are 
the church, presbytery Hfid u most convenient house 
called a convent or, more properly, a nunnery or 
school for the educatioT of girls. i\ 11 the estaUish- 
memsuf this kind are »u, ?rintended by two or three 
nuns from the congregation of Quebec. — This 
parish produces a considerable number of live 
stock and one half of the sheep and young stock 
are sent for sale to the Quebec market. Among 
the inhabitants enjoying ease and comfort in this 

i: 'y V ?: BE K 

parish may be particularly mentioned Mr. Fntser, 
lieut.-coloncl of militia, whoso residence is on the a. 
side of the B. du Sud and opposite txi a hundsiinie 
bridge; his extensive farm buildings sufficiently 
denote the productiveness of his farm and his cinii- 
paratively numerous stock of cattle, which consists 
of 9 horses, 28 cows, oxen, (JO sheep, &c. &c. — 
The most flourishing concessions arc on the n. 
side of the du Sud, that on the a. side, extending 
to the mountains, is still covered with wood. The 
cure of this parish serves also the parish of Ber- 
thier, between which and St. Frun(,'uis there is u 
good road of communication. 

Statistics of the Parishes of Berthier and St. Frangois. 


Berthier 786 

St. Frun<;oi8 HSU 

I I 

1 11 A 

3 \m 

113 1 

2 1 

Annual AKTicuttural l'r(Klui.'e, in buithfU. 






3MH) 2»iO 



300| 1 22 JO 

LiTu MocK. 



7r)0 1690 UK) 


TUk " Concession du 29me Octobre, 1672, faite par 

Jean TaloH, Intcndunt, au Sieur Berthier, Ae deux lieues 
de terre de front siir parcillc profondeur, k prendre sur le 
fleuve SI, Laurent, depuis I'aiiee de DcUechaiie incluse, 
tirant vers In riviire du Sud, icelle non comprise. 

" Cette Seigneurie est bornce sur la carte suivant un ar- 
pentogc partirulier. L'irregularitt de ce tftrein provient 
d'une cession ijuc firent les proprietaires de cettu Seigneurie 
a ceux de Is riviere du Sua, par une tiansaction du 22nie 
Janvier, 1728." — RSgittrc d Intendance, No. \, folio T. 

Bkrthieb, seigniory, in the co. of Berthier, 
with its fiefs and augmentations, is bounded s. w. 
by the S. of Dautre and augmentation, n. e. by 
those of Dusable or New York and IVIoskinonge, 
in the rear by the t. of Brandon and in front by 
the St. Lawrence. Granted 27th April, 1674, to 
M. Berthier ; the augmentation granted 31st Dec, 
1732, to Sieur Pierre L'Etage. This property is 
now 2 1 1. in front by 4^ in depth, containing 13 
superficial leagues, and the only part not belong- 
ing to the Hon. James Cuthbert, a gentleman re- 
markable for his urbanity of manners and hospi- 
tality to strangers, is a fief comprising one half of 
Isle Dupos and about 2 1. in lengtli. The ma- 
jority of the concessions were granted prior to 
175!), each nit-usuring 3 arpents by 40, 30, 20, 
&c., according to local circumstances, and on the 
conditions usual at the time. — This S. contains two 

parishes and the half of a third, 1(1 ranges of con- 
cessions and an island inhabited. There are 714 
lands granted ; and the most populous concessions 
ore those on the rivers Bayonnc, St. Esprit, and St. 
Cuthbert. Three-fourths of the S. are under cul- 
ture and one-fourth in wood : in the first 4 leagues 
of its depth the surface is level and, in the rear, 
precipitous and rocky. L'Isle Dupas, an arriere 
fief, lies in this S. There are also two other fiefs 
included within the lateral lines of the seigniory : 
the fief Chicot on the n. e. side of the S., and the 
fief Dorvilliers on the 8. w. side. — Iron ore, both 
mountain and bog, of excellent quality, and free- 
stone are found in this S., and an extensive bed of 
pure yellow ochre has lately been discovered by 
fllr. Cuthbert, which, being calcined or heated, as- 
sumes a beautifully red colour; the vein, from 12 
to 14 inches deep, of a tenacious quality, lies alxjut 
() inches under a surface of vegetable eurtli. On 
the best cultivated ranges the wood is nearly ull 
cleared away ; but on the others, und in the buck 
districts, there still remains ubundiince of Luis tic 
chcwffage or fuel with some little maple, bcetli, 
cedar, hemlock, butternut, pine, lurch, elm, and 
birch. The soil in general is good, except to- 
wards the rear, where it is rocky and .sterile ; in 









y 11 i 

ji^ I'll 

B E R T 11 I E R. 

the concrwion called St. Cuthbert it is a tine ve- 
getable earth, several inches deep, on a subsoil of 
strong clay ; in that of St. Esprit a strong deep 
loam; in St. Pierre a rich light earth; in St. 
Cttthcrinc a small part is a g(KNl loum, and the 
rest of somewhat inferior quality ; in St. Jean 
there is a mixed soil ccjual in fertility to either of 
the others. — In front of the St. Lawrence the 
land is low, especially towards the n. k. boundary, 
l)ut the arable is very productive, nnd the re- 
mainder is a succession of very fmc meadows. The 
other parts of the S. are but indiilcrent in quality, 
and some of it about the back boundary even bar- 
ren and unfit for tillage. — Most of the concessions 
are farmed in a very good style ; but those where 
the greatest improvement is visible are St. Cuth- 
bert, St. Esprit and St. Pierre, where industry 
and careful arrangement have pHxluced case and 
even iiHluence. — Wheat is the chief production of 
these lands, which are fit, generally sjK-aking, for 
every siwcies of culture and produce annually 
about 1(K),000 bushels of grain. The imirartant 
articles hemp (which grows spontaneously near 
every ruin) and flax, might be raised in almost any 
■(uantities, if the farmers would adopt a different 
method of cultivatiim. The rivers Chicot, La 
Chaloupo, Btiyonne and the Bonaventure Creek 
rttlord a convenient and equal irrigation. AlMut 
') miles from the v. of Oerthier, on the 8. w. bank 
of the Bayonne, is a very copious salt spring, 
strongly impregnated with indammablc gos, from 
which the inhabitants, when Admirals Walker and 
I'hipps respectively blocked up the St. Lawrence, 
mode a considerable quantity of suit, and they 
now make use of the water to knead their bread. 
The water is always cold as ice, and is found 
itticucious in sprains and white swellings. — Up- 
wards of KMK) able-b(Hlied men arc furnished for 
tiie militia — The main roud by the St. Lawrence, 
ind the diiicrent roads through the concessions, 
are maintained in excellent repoir. The winter 
traverse k-tween Herthier and Sorel is on the ice, 
winding among the islands; it is computed to !« 
aUmt Ct miles and very secure. — The briilges 

across the rivers are free of toll The d(miain of 

Bcrthier, on the 8. w. side of the river Bayonne, 
I ontains X^'t arpents, approaching in gootlnciw to 
the iK'st of the district. In front of the S. several 
line islands form the ». Uiundary of the Clienail 
(111 Xord ; they arc named Isles Kandin, Diipas. 

Castor, &c. — In this S. is a school for girls, well 
attended, under the difection of the sisters of 
the congregation; and there are also 4 private 
schools for boys. — There are 3 villages built, gene- 
rally of wood, Berthier, St. Cuthbert, and Pierre* 
ville. — The village of Berthier is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the N. side of the Chcnail du Nord, and 
funns one principal street, consisting of 125 houses 
placed, sometimes at long intervals, on the side 
of the main road to Quebec : many of them are 
extremely well-built and handsome There are, 
exclusive of dwellings, a great many granaries 
and storehouses fur general merchandise, it being 
a place of some trade, whence British manufac- 
tured goods are dispersed over the neighbouring 
populous seigniories, and whence also large quan- 
tities of grain are annually exported. — The {lopu- 
lation is (iSO. — The church that claims notice not 
only as being a handsome structure, but for the 
elegance of its interior decoration, is situated at a 
small distance behind the main street. This village 
being about mid-way between Montreal and Three 
Rivers, in the direct route of the public stage- 
coaches that have been established uiwn the plan 
of those in England between the former place and 
Quebec, and being also the principal interme- 
diate post-office station, is a place of great resort 
and considerable traffic. At the inns travellers will 
always find good accommodation. On passing 
through the Chenail du Nord, the village with its 
gardens, orchards, meadows and surrounding cul- 
tivated fields, form together an agreeable and 
pleasing assemblage of objects, although from the 
flatness of the country the prospect is not marked 
by any of those traits of grandeur so frcijuently 
observable on the N. side of the St. Lawrence, de- 
scending towards Quebec. The land is here so 
little above the level of the river, that in the spring, 
when the melted snow and ice occasi(m a rise of the 
waters, it is sometimes oveHIuwed to a ccmsiderablc 
distance, and much damage is done to the lower 
parts of the houses in the village and to the goods 
deiHisited in the stores. These inundations have 
occasionally been so jjrcat that it has Ix-en necessary 
to remove large (luantities of wheat from the upper 
stories of the granaries,— In the entire 8, of Ber- 
thier, including the augmentation, there arc 


, ;j 

I'dtimlu'rii's . 

.') I''iilliii|;.iiiillH , 



. Ti 


1 C'lutliivr'a khu)) 



. 3 

B I C 

B I C 

There are artiaans and mechanics of every d«- 
gcription, lieudca some carriage-makers and many 
masons ; among them are 

IH Blacksmitbx 
C Tanners 

1 Watchmakei- 

2 Hanii'ss-makera 
7 Shucmakcn 

3 Tiniiinithii 

3 .MilUvrii^bti 

4 liakerg 
Several whcel- 


1 Silveninith 
'V Uutelu-rsi 
4 Coopers 
above M 

In the pariah of Berthier all the lands are con- 
ceded, except the woodlands near the mountains 
where the suyarieg are, and those lands are rendered 
unfit for cultivation by ravines, hills, rocks and 
sand)), over which there u no road. 

The p. of St. Cuthbert was erected about 5<l 
yean ago and measures three leagues in front, be- 
tween Berthier and Maskinong^, on the road from 
Alontreal to Quebec, and consists of a considerable 
part of the S. belonging to the Hon. James Cuth- 
bert and of three other fiefs. Its K. boundary is 
the N. K. line of the county. It contains .'i(Nl 
families and 300 farm-lots are settled upon, most 
of which are three arpcnts in front by 'M or 40 
deep. The chureh is on the w. side of the R. 
Chicot, about 2 m. in the interior. This p. ex- 
tends over a large portion of Berthier and the ad- 
joining S. N. ■. 


Statistict of the Par'uhes of Berthier and St. Cuthbert. 

I li 

Uertliier .TO39 

St. CiitlilMit «7il 


•^5 H 


Anniiul Af(rii*uUural Piotliici*, tii hiuht'lt. 

I.Ire si.K.fc 1 

















St. Cuthbert 

«)N0() SUNN) 










Ht.!)(> I 1(15.) 
76t)0 1 \Mi 

rif/i-.— ■' CoiiresKion du ii7nie Avril, 1074, faite h Mr, 
liiitlikr, de troiu i|iuirtH de lietie on enviriiii de fruiit mir 
deux lieueH de protoiideur, it prendre Hur le tieuve SI. Lnu- 
mil, demiiK la roneemiian du Sieur ItamliH en deirenilant, 
jii'nHi'i lu livure Chicot i ennernlile unc Isle d'une lieuc en 
HHiK-rlicie^'tant hu deitsuuHet iiii^nHnt prei«|Uel'iHlei}iiHi/fii, 
viN-u-viN Vlilf Diiimi i nUMni ]'Mv qui ent uu bout d'en Iwii 
de Vlile »M Cutlor, uceordec- A Mr. Uilhiir, le 2j Mum, 
l()7.> — 0\\ leH deux roueeKnionH mint Hceiirdces par un 
Heul titre. (Jiiliier* d'Intend. wliere both tlu-He eoneen- 
"iuuK are Kraiiteil by iine title." — Hijiitliv do Foi cl Jlum- 
iiwgi; Xo. », folio .tH, I- 'Ulinf Jtwvlir, I7HI. 

.Hngmnilaliim. — '• ('iiMreHHioMdu3lnie Dt'eembre, I7.'H, 
Cuile pur Vharlii Mmjiih ilc Biniihiiiuoii, (iiiuverneur, et 
tiUht llueijiitiil. Inleiuliint, uu Sieur Plcrn' VKlngi; de 
(Klin lieuen de terre de front, iii telle ipiantiti' Hetrimve 
iiiire la lijfne ipii m'liare le liel'de Ihmlii d'avee eehii el- 
devant appele de roHi/ior*^ (iiujiHird'liui AhI<iijii\ et eelle 
ipii "I'lMire le HeI'du CMcul d'avee le (ief A/(ii</niH(i«A'(' ,• n 
prendre le dit Iront iiu bout de la prol'oiiileur et limite.H 
iliit dilH liel't A'Aiil.ijii et du (V/im/ eiitre leMpu'lH w 
irouve le lift de Oertliirri Kur troiii lieuen de protmideur, 
avee les rivii ren, ruioeaux et lueB (pil pournnit m- reneon- 
frer djuiH lu dileitendue de terre, pour ctre la dite eiini'eiu 
^ion uiiie et joiiite uu dit lief de Bcithkr."—Higiilrc il'In- 
tiMiltimr, iVi). 1, Julio k 

Bir, river, in the 8. of Bic, is about 20 feet widf, 
Hiiiall and well bridged. It is not navigable for 
boaU or even canties and the fulls prevent timber 
from being floated down. 

Bic, seigniory, in the cu. of Rimouski, bounded 
in front by the ». side of the St. Lawrence, n. k. 
by the 8. of Rimouski and 8. w. by u part of thi- 
8. of Trois PistoUcs, culled Richard Rioux.— Two 
leugucs in breadth upon the river by 2 in deptli. 
— Grunted with the Island of Bic, lying in front, 
Muy 8, 1075, to M. de Vitre. The island is 
nearly 3 m. in length by J m. in breadth.— In 
177'1> a dispute huviiig arisen between the pro- 
prietors of Uic and Riinmiski, it wui« determined 
by the Court of Common Pleas that the middle ol 
the cnilwuchure of the river Ilatte should be the 
boundary between the two seigniories. — This .S. 
hiks a few settlers on the coast only, but none on 
the new roud that tmvcrses tliis 8. fnnn Trois 
Pistolles to ISIiti,H. The surfiue of tliis S. is very 
uneven and mountainous; the lii^li lUDimtuins i>t 
Bie und ('np I'Original arc ronspicuoui olijects to 
the voyager as he sails up the St. Luwnnce — 
The iK'st land of this 8. lies in tlie rear raiif;i« 
und in the intervals Ivtween the roi-ky ridges thai 
lie parallel with the 8t. Lawrence. The gcnemi 



qualities of the land and timber are similar to 
those of the Rimouski portage, which lies con- 
tiguous. In the Bay of Bic small craft can lie 
completely land-loclced and on its borders are a 
few settlers. The adjacent low lands produce fine 
hay ; the high lands are rocky and the soil light 
and stony. 



OO Saw-mills . 1 

Keel boats 

. 2 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Buihela. Buihcli. 
Wheat . 52 Barley . 4 Peas 
Oats . 10 : Rye . 100 PoUtoes 

. 16 
. 00 

Live Stock. 


86 Cows . 40 
5J9 Sheep . 120 


. 57 

Title, — " Concession du Gme Mai, 1675, faite par Louii 
ik Buade, Gouverneur, au Sieur de Vitre, de deux lieues 
dc front, le long du flcuve St. Laurent, du c6t^ du Sud, ft 
prendre du milieu de lalargcur dc la rivitre appelr Mitii, 

et qui g'appellera dorrnavant la riviere en montant le 

dit tteuve, et deux lieues dc profondeur, ensemble I'isle du 
Bic qui est vis-a-vis.— £n 1771', dispute s'ptant /'levre 
untre les propri^taires du Bic et de ttimouiky, la Cour des 
Plaidoiers Communs rcndit un jugement, confirm^ en 
appel en 1778, qui d^tcrinina, que le milieu de I'cmbou- 
enure de la riviere Hatti seroit la borne entrc les dites 
deux seigncuries."— /nWnnafiont du Conieil Supirirur, let. 
li. folio 14. 

Bincii Ihland, v. St. Maurice, r. 

Biro Mountain, v. St. Mauhick, r. 

BiZARO, isle, is separated from the h. w. end of 
Isle Jesus by the R. des Prairies. It is nearly of an 
oval form, rather more than 4 m. long by 2 broad. 
— No records relative to this property have been 
preserved in the secretariat of the province ; but 
wlien the present owner, Pierre Foretier, Esq., 
did fealty and homage on the 3d February, 1701, 
lie exhibited proof of its having been granted on 
the 24th and 2.')th of October, l«i78, to the Sicur 
Bisard.— It is a sjwt of great fertility, wholly 
cleared and cultivated. — A good road passes all 
round it, near the river St. Lawrence, and anotlicr 
crosses it about the middle : by the sides of these 
roads the houses are tolerably numerous but there 
is neither village, church, nor mill. — Population 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Iluihrli. I nuilii'li I 

2,.V^» Ikrl.'V . ».'> l'ea« 

I VMH) Pululuvs 1U,()02| 

All r Stock. 

216 C'o\\s 
2 It) !$heep 

'kl5 Sh ino 

. 700 


B L A 

Title.—" Concession du 24me et 25me Octobre, 1678> 
faite }>ar le Comie ie Frontenac, Gouverneur, et Duchet- 
neau, Intendant, au Sieur Bixard, de lisle Bonavcniure 
(Bisard) ensemble les isles, &e. adjacentes."— ilejri**'* 
dciFoi et Ilommage, Xo. IH, folio 90, le 3in« Fevrier, 1781. 
Cahiert d'lntendance, Nu. 4i, folio 141. 

Black Bay, v. Onslow, t. 

Black Bay, t;. Lochaber Gore. 

Black Lake, t;. Ireland, t. 

Black River, in the co. of Saguenay, runs 
through a very extensive and fertile tract of level 
land, the greater part of which is on the King's 
Post side of the river, and on which about 200 
families might gain a comfortable subsistence. — 
This R. falls into the n. side of the St. Lawrence, 
opposite Hare Island and about 20 m. above the 
R. Saguenay. It forms the n. e. boundary of the 
S. of Mount Murray. 

Black River, v. Manicoiaoan. 

Blainville (S.), v. Millk Isles. 

Blairfindir (P. and v.), v. Lonuueuil, b. 

Blanche, Grande Riviere, in the co. of Ot- 
tawa, rises far in the interior and, traversing the 
eastern quarter of Portland, runs through part 
of Buckingham and entering Templeton, between 
the 7th and 8th ranges, winds most singularly 
upon that line as far as lot No. 11. Thence it 
runs 8. to the division-line between the 1st and 
2d ranges, and, winding ic. through the 2d range, 
discharges itself at lot No. 3 into an arm of the 
Ottawa, which connects that river with one of the 
ponds. It is about 130 ft. wide and is navigable 
for bateaux in the spring about 15 miles; it then 
becomes rapid ; its course is about 100 miles, and 
it is well stocked with iish. — Certain lumber 
dealers have destroyed the bridge, which had been 
built over the River Blanche, for the purpose of 
floating their rafts with more facility down that 
river into the Ottawa. 

Blanche, Petite Riviere, rises in the high lands 
of BiirVinghain, in the rear of the 5th range, 
winding n. w. it enters Templeton, where it 
winds transversely through the two front ranges, 
then re-entering Buekinghum, at the a. w. ex- 
tremity of the T., it falls into the Ottawa. 

Blanche, river, copiously waters the t. of 
Lochaber and its 3 principal branches unite ra- 
ther more than 1 m. from its junction with the 
Ottawa, in the centre of the fnmt of the t. — It 
is about l!H>ft. wide and is navigable f>r bateaux 
in spring only, for ulxiut 5 or m. from its mouth. 
It is well stocked xvitli fish. 

B L A 

B L O 

Blanooe, river, ri«c» in the rear of Kildare t. 
and enters the 3d range of Ruwdon, where it 
joins the N. R. branch of the Rivic-re Rouge. 

Blandford, township, in the co. of Nicolet, is 
bounded s. e. by the River Becancour, n. w. by 
Maddington and Gcntilly, N. by Livrard, and 
N. E. by the aug. to Deachaillons — This t. was 
erected, by letters patent, in 1823, and contains 
54,131 acres.— There are 13 ranges of concessions 
subdivided into 214 regular and 72 irregular Jots. 
— The principal grantees of the crown are Louis 
Lagueux, Jean Langevin and Charles Langevin, 
£8qrs.,&c. — The land is generally level with many 
savannas and the soil, for the most part, good. — 
The soft wood consists of fir, spruce, pine, sapin, 
cedar, wild cherry, ash, maple, alder, elm, white 
wood, walnut, &c. — There are some hills, from 
30 to 40 ft. in height, running from N. s. to s. w. 
This T. i« watered by the Gentilly, the Little 
du Chene, lake St. Louis, lake St. Eustache, 
and many smaller lakes. In all of them there 
b fish. — The grunt of this township being so 
recent there is no road, except a good winter 
road from Gentilly to the river Becancour, 15 
miles in length, which traverses the township ; a 
branch of this road, 4 or 5 miles long, leads to 
St. Pierre ; there is also a similar communication 
between Gcntilly and the river Becancour, run- 
ning between Hlandford and Mu'' 'ington, from 
12 to 13 miles in length. — About (iOO acres have 
been cleared, a saw-mill erected, and a patent 
hand-mill for grinding com, imported from Eng- 
land by the principal proprietors, the great utility 
of which has already been experienced by the in- 
habitants of this and the neighbouring townships. 
—The price of labour is Hit. (U. a day without 
IxMrd, and \s. fU. with board. — Much of the land 
in this T. is, probably, adapted to the cultivation 
of hemp and (lax. — Tliere are about fifty or sixty 
settlers on the crown lands along the river lic- 
cancour, six leagues from the St Lawrence. The 
prinripnl grantees of lilandford have e.spended 
iiliout 2a0/. on the promotion of settlements, and 
pving them means of conimuniiation, but nil that 
I10.H been thereby attained is a winter road of no 
me in Kiimmer. The settlements and clearings 
along the river Beiumour have extended con- 
siderably, and the only check wliich restrains the 
youth of the ncighlxniriiig seigniories, who are in 
unnt of land to form settleiiiciits, from coming 

forward, is the want of a communication with the 
settlements in the seigniories. 

Animalt and Poultry in Bhndjbrd. 


. 7 

Heifers and 

Sheep . 

. 14 

Bulls . 

. 8 



Hens . 

. IJG 

Oxen . 

. M 

Pigs . 


Uucks . 

. + 

Cows . 

. 27 

Bleurik, river, rises in a lake in the S. of 
De Lery and running a. falls into Jackson's 
Creek, nearly opposite Isle aux Noix in the R. 

Blrurib, seigniory, in the eo. of Rouville, is 
bounded N. e. by the SS. of East Chambly and 
Monnoir, s. by the S. of Sabrevois, and w, by the 
river Richelieu. — Granted, Nov. 30, 17^0, to 
Sicur Sabrevois de Bleurie and is now the pro- 
perty of Gen. Christie Burton. — According to 
the terms of the original grant it ought to be 3 1. 
in front by 3 in depth ; but as the grants of the 
adjoining seigniories are of a prior date, and us 
such an extent could not be taken without in- 
fringement upon others, it now forms u triangular 
space of much less superficial extent. Although 
lying generally low, with large swamps in many 
places, there arc some tracts of very good land 
and also some fine timber ; the spots that are cul- 
tivated lie chiefly upon the Richelieu, and bear 
but a small proportion to the whole. — A new 
road, called the Bedford Turnpike, crossing it 
diagonally to the river, opposite Fort St. Jolin, 
has been traced and measured in the field and is 
now proceeding upon. A joint company has un- 
dertaken it and obtained an act of the provincial 
parliament for the purpose: when completed it 
will greatly enhance the value of this and tlie 
other properties through which it passes, l)y open- 
ing n shorter communication with Montreal and 
by rendering the intercourse with distant places 
much more easy. 

Tllli:—>' ('oticcKHioii (III aOmc Oct. 17.j<), fuitc jiflr li' 
Miiri|iiiii ik lu Jumiuiiri; (ioiivernt'iir, ct Fran^nli Uiti'l, 
Iiiti'iidant, nil Siriir Sahrrvoh de Blfuri, Ae triiix lit'iit'* (!<■ 
tiTrt' di' t'ritiit siir troi* liciios Av iirol'oiidt'iir, li- lon^ Av In 
riviiTc Vhamhlti, liorii/'e du cbik du Nord iwr In Sci);tu'iirie 
du Sii-ur llcrtel, ct sur la inemu ligiici du HiU- du Slid h 
troix lifucn du la ditf Sfinnrurif jinr iinc liKiii' tir6i' E»t 
i"( ( )iii'st du inoiidc ; *ur li- di'vniit pur In rivk^if Chamhlii vt 
Kur la |iri)fiitidi'ur A trolx IUmipk jiiiK<iiiiit mix tiTi'i" mu 
roiMc UV'K. — U^fiiilre iftiittiuUiHci; No. !), yii/io li. 

IIlondkllk, de lu, river, in the S. of Cnle de 
Bcaupre, rises near the a. bank of the n. Ste. 
Anne and crosses the road to Ht. Paiil's Miiy ; 



after being joined by a smaller stream about 3 m. 
from its mouth it turns a mill. It falls into the 
N. side of the St. Lawrence. 

Blueberry Hills, in the co. of Saguenay, 
arc between Commissioners l. and Bouchette L., 
on the Ouiatchouan communication. 

Blueberry Plains, v. Beauharnoib, S. 

Bois Brule (L.), v. Sbttrinoton, t. 

Boisclere, river, rises near the source of the 
r, Huron in the aug. to the S. of Lotbiniere ; 
being joined by some little streams it enters the 
S. of Lotbiniere, and, near the rear line, joins the 
R. du Chene. 

BoisYERT, river, runs into Lake St. John, 
in the co. of Saguenay. This R. has been ex- 
plored for about ^ m. from its mouth ; it was then 
found too narrow and too much obstructed for far- 
ther progress. Aspin, white spruce and white birch 
form the principal part of the timber, and the soil 
consists of a mixture of clay and sand. 

Bolton, township, in the co. of Staustead, on 
the w. side of lake Memphremagog, is bounded 
N. by Stukeley and Oxford, s. by Potton, vr. by 
Brome. — This is one of the first townships that 
was laid out. — The surface is uneven and rather 
mountainous, being crossed diagonally by an irre- 
gular chain of heights, wherein several rivers 
have their sources, and which divides the waters 
that fall into the Yamaska and other large rivers 
to the northward, from those flowing into lake 
Alemphremagog and the Mississqui in the oppo- 
site direction. The lands on the low parts are 
tolerably good, but those to he e. are the best and 
present some fine settlements, well cultivated and 
producing every sort of groin. On the streams that 
intersect this part are several com and grist-mills. 


ropulHtion 1()08 
Clmrclivfi, It. C. 1 
(Jumtes . 1 
8>'liooU . 4 

Cnrii.niills . 1 
Suw-inillH . ^ 
Fotiislii'ries . a 
PourlHsheries 3 

Shopkeepers . 8 
Tttvenis . 2 
Artisans . 11 

.■iMHiia! Jgrkiiltiiral Produce. 

Whvnt . 
IJalluy . 




lluik-wbfBt aW» 
ri"* Stock. 

Indian com *,\iW 
Potatoes )iU,UUU 


. (ilO 

Cows , (Nil 

Swine . GOj 

Bonaventcrk, county, in the inferior district 
ofOaspc, is bounded e. and N. by the co. of Oaspf, 
and consists of such part of the inferior district of 


Oasp^ as is included between the co. of Gaspe and 
the district of Quebec, including all the islands in 
front thereof, in whole or in part, nearest to the 
CO., which comprises the Seigniory of Shoolbred, 
the Indian Village of Mission and the settlements 
above and below the same on the north of the 
river Ristigouche, the townships or settlements 
of Carlton, Muria, Richmond, Hamilton including 
Bonaventure, Cox including the town of New 
Carlisle, ^'ope including Paspebiac, La Nouvelle 
and Port Daniel. — The length of this co. in front 
is 166 m., its greatest depth 47, and its narrowest 
part, at Seminac river, is 21, and it contains 4014 
sq. m. — The centre on the r. Ristigouche is in 
lat. 48" 3' N., Ion. 66" 3.5' w.— It sends one mem- 
ber to the provincial parliament and the places of 
election are Richmond and Hope. — The popula- 
tion is a mixture of Arcadians, Snglish, Irish, 
Scotch and Canadians. — The extensive front of 
this CO. stretching from Point Macquereau on the 
r. to the Cross near the rise of the s. branch of 
the R. Wagansis on the w., affords considerable 
advantages : the bey of Chaleurs and the r. Ri- 
stigouche, with the numerous bays and coves with 
which they are indented, supply numerous and 
productive cod-fisheries, for which the d. of Oasp^ 
is particularly noted. — There is much land in this 
CO. well adapted for the cultivation of grain in 
general and also for hemp and flax. — The land on 
the Bay of Chaleurs, from Port Daniel to New 
Richmond, a distance of more than fifty miles, 
extending, on an average, two miles inland, is 
a rich soil consisting of red clay covered with a 
thick coating of vegetable mould, easy of culti- 
vation and producing the finest crops. The tim- 
ber upon it is black birch and maple, interspersed 
with white birch of large growth, pine, spruce, 
fir and white cedar. On the Ristigouche are some 
fine spots of meadow and interval lands.— The 
settlers have cleared, upon an average, about 15 
acres upon their lots, which consist of 100 acres 
upon a front of 3 acres ; the old French custom. 
The lots ill the proposed new townships are "". 
rected to be laid ofi' in farms of 105 acres upon 
fronts of 20 chains, which is considered a very 
great improvement. Towards the front the lands 
are generally low and gradually rise to the high 
table land, that spreads over the interior of the 
pc.iinsula formed by the St. Lawrence and Cha- 
leurs Buy, From this high land descend the 



I 1 


rivers that faU into the St. Lawrence and the 
bays of Gaspe and Chaleurs. This part of the 
interior, however, has never been explored ; our 
knowledge of it is founded on the reports of In- 
dians and hunters. — This co. is abundantly wa- 
tered by numerous rivers : the principal are the 

Greut Casrai>on!.ic 
Little Ciiiicaiiediac 
(ircat NmiTelle 
Little Nouvelle 
East Nouvelle 


({rest Wapansis 
Little VVagaiisis. 

The principal bays, &c, in the front arc 

Port Daniel 
Larfier Nouvelle 
New Ciirlisle Hurboiir 
l'as|ii'biae Cove 
liuiiaveiiture Harbour 
Buy of (jood Kortiiiic 

niaek Cove 
( '4isea|>eiliac 13«y 
Hiehmond Harbour 
Traquadii.'aeh Bay 
Carletoii U:isiii 
Hisiijfoucbe Bay. 

The timber is tolerably good, with large quan- 
tities of pine fit for masting merchant vessels, but 
too small for ships of the line — The only road of 
communication is along the front, and its improve- 
ment has been advanced by the judicious expendi- 
ture of a sum of money voted by the colonial le- 
gislature for that purpose. Much benefit will 
arise to this co. and the whole district of Gaspc 
from tlie continuation of Kempt Road, which 
runs from the Kistigouche, along the Matapcdiach 
river nnd lake, mid extends to the N. bank of the 
St. Lawrence through the S. of Mitis. As this 
road joins the former, a communication is thus 
oiiened from Quebec, viii Mitis, to Douglass town 
on the shore of Oaspe Bay. 

Statistics of the County of Bonaventure, 

Population .'>l 10 
CburcheK, a. C. 10 
Presbyteries '.i 
Curates . I 
Toniiii 1 

Court-houses I 
Gaols . I 

A'illuRes . 2 

Houses in do. lUH 
Juit. of peace H 

Sliupkecperg 19 
ArUsuns . .'il. 
Bivcr-cruft tf) 
Tonna(<e . %7,5 
Keelbouta i\)l 

Annual Agricultural Froilucr. 



Duthpln. I 
11,1.1*1 Peas 

ButhcU. I Duiheli. 

' l.MJU PutNtoes 07,710 

Live Stock. 

i-iTi Cow* 
))al I :)lieep 

IOH(i I Swine 
iiUi I 


BoNAVKNTURE, isle, in the co. of Gaspc, lies 
between Cape Despair und Mul Bay, in the Gulf 


of St. Lawrence, and is a little more than 1 m. from 
Perci' Rock on the main land. This isle is little 
better than a barren rock, yet a few persons are 
hardy enough to winter there for the sake of re- 
taining possession of the fishing places they occu- 
pied during summer. 

BoNAVBNTURK, river, rises in high lands near 
the centre of the t. of Cox. It runs s. w. and, 
entering the r. of Hamilton, falls near the di- 
vision-line into the Bay of Chaleurs, forming an 
excellent harbour for vessels of any sise. 

BoNAVKNTURK, Seigniory, was forfeited to the 
Crown in 1785 in consequence of its never having 
been taken possession of by the original grantees. 
It now forms a part of the townships of Hamilton 
and Cox. 

Tillr — " Concession tlu 23me Avril, 1607, faite par 
Luiiit lie Jiiiiidi; tiouverneur, et Jian Bochurt, Intendunt, 
au Sicur (/(• la Croix, dc la rivit'rc de Bonmnnliirc, nwf 
deux lieiies de terre de front, savoir: unc demi lieue d'lcn 
cot^ dc la dite riviire au Sud-ouest, en allant >ers Kitia- 
Uriac, et une lieue et deniic de I'autre au Nord-est, tirant 
vers Piufdhiac, sur ijuatre lieucg de profondcur, aver Ics 
isles, i lets ot Ijatturos (jiii se trouvcroiit dans la dite eten- 
due ; le tout sitiie dunx le fund de la Hale dci Chaleurt."— 
Hfgittrc if liitemhinie. No. 5,fvlio M-, 

Bonaventure (V.), t'. Hamilton, t. 

BoNSRCouRs (P.), i;. Petite Nation, S. 

BoNSECouRB, seigniory, in the co. of L'Islct, 
fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded, n. ■:. by 
the S, of Islet, 8. w. by the S. of Vintelot and it.s 
augmentation and by waste lands in the rear. 
It is 74 arpcnts broad by 2 leagues deep. — 
Granted to Sieur Villeneuve, Apr. 16, 1«{7 — 
This S. differs but little from that of Vincelot, 
which joins it, in soil and timber. About one 
half may be under cultivation and is very well 
inhabited. The system of agriculture is good and 
well adapted to the land, which towards the river 
lies low, with the exception of a trifling ridge that 
runs ne.irly from one side to the other : in the 
rear it is rough and mountainous. — Some gtHxl 
timber, particularly pine, is produced in the back 
part of the grant. — It is principally watered Iiy 
the Bras 8t. Nicholas, the otlier streams being 
very insignificant. — This S- forms part of the 
parish of L'IsIet or Vincelot. — Under the autho- 
rity of the provincial parliament a road was made 
in 1K20, from the front road of the third concession 
in this S., west of the church of L'Islet, to the 
unconceded lands of the crown. It extends I /•> 
arpents »., including about 7 arpcnts in the crown 




lands. The width of the road has heen made, 
wherever practicable, 24 ft. wide. 49 bridges of 
various sizes and substantial workmanship have 
been constructed on this road. The total expense 
amounted to about £.450. The soil of the coun- 
try through which the road passes is generally 
good and fit for cultivation, with the exception 
of certain hills or mountains hereafter specified, 
vie., a high rocky hill at the beginning of the 
third concession, at which the road commences 
and over which it passes ; a high hill facing the 
south, at the distance of 94 arpents from the be- 
ginning of the road, at the foot of which the Bras 
Riche crosses the road ; and another hill, at the 
distance of 111 arpents from the beginning of the 
road, lying south of the Bras de Nord Est, and 
rising gradually towards the s. e. 

Tilk.—" Conoesfiion du ICme Avril, 1687, faite par 
Jacquci de Britay, Gouverneur, et Jean Bochari, Intend- 
ant, Bu Sieur VUteneuve, de la quantity de soixante et 
<liiatorze arperis de front sur le fleuve St. Laurent, du cutr 
du Sud, sur deux lieues de profoiideur, en caa qu'elle ne 
soit conct'd/'C k d'autrcs. Les ditH soixante et quatorze 
iirpens tenant d'un cut^ aux terres des Dames Rel'gieuses 
IVsulines, et d'autre cotr it la veuve DuqueW'—Cahkri 
iV.'nteudattce, 2 d 9, folio 295. 

BoNSBCOURs, seigniory, in the co. of Lotbiniere, 
lietwecn Desplaines and Ste. Croix, is bounded in 
the rr»<- by the former and contains about 1^ 1. 
in b.judth by 2 in depth. Granted July 1st, 
1G77> to Francois BcUanger. The banks of the 
n. St. Lawrence are here hign but the rise is 
gradual. — This S. is abundantly supplied with 
timber of good quality, and large quantities are 
annually felled for firewood and sent to the Que- 
liec market. — There is scarcely any water — The 
8. forms part of the parish of St. Antoine. 

Title " ConccsBion du ler Juillet, 1677, faite par 

Jacqiiei Doiichemaux, Intendant, au Sieur Fran^oii BeU 
iKiigcr, des terres qui sont le lonsdu ileuve St. Laurent, du 
ci'iti- Sud, cntre relle qui appartient A la Demoiselle Gi- 
iieiieve CouUlard, en remontant le dit fleuve, jusqu'i celle 
do la Demoiselle veuve Amiutj contenant le tout une 
lieue et demio, on environ, de front, avec deux lieues de 
lirofondeur."— /H<if>ua(ioNf du Conuil Supirieur Irtire, B, 
folio b». 

B0X8KCOUH8, seigniory in the co, of Richelieu, 
lies between the S. of Sorel and the river Ya- 
muska, having tliu S. of Yamaska for its N. e. 
lM)undary. Granted, August 8, 1702, to Sieur 
Charon and is now possessed by Mrs. Barrow. The 
same kind of land prevails generally through this 
and the adjoining seigniories, of which but a small 

B O U 

part can be deemed of superior quality. Much 

the largest proportion of this grant remains co- 

vered with natural wood; but little good tim> 

ber can be found, though the inferior kinds are 

abundant enough. 

Tiltc.—" Concession du 8me Aofit, 1702, faite au Sieur 
Cliaroii, par Hector de Coliire, Gouverneur, etJean Bochart, 
Intendant, de deux lieues de terre ou environ de front, siir 
pareille prufundeur, le long de la riviere Yamaika, icelle 
compris a |)rendre vis-a-vis celle accord^e au Sieur Rene 
fcsiret, bourgeois de \fontrial, tirant d'un cot^ A la Seig- 
ncurie du Sieur Petit, vt de I'autre aux hrritiers du feu 
Sieur Bourchcmin, avec les isles, islets, prairies et battures 
udjacentes." — Rigintre d'Jntendaiicc, No. b,foHo 36. 

Bouchards, isles, lie in front of the SS. of 
Verchercs and Contrecoeur, in the St. Lawrence. 
—Granted, Nov. 3, 1«72, to Sieur Fortel.— The 
largest is about 5 m. long and ^ m. broad. The 
land, excepting some good meadow and pasture, is 
covered with wood and produces some very fine 
timber. The soil is excellent. These isles are in 
the p. of St. Sulpice. 

Title " Concession du 'imc Novembrc, 1672, faite par 

Jean Tulim, Intendant, au Sieur Fortel, des isles vontenues 
dans Ih curte figurative que le Sieur de Becancuur a donnee 
et qui sont cottrcs A, reservant de disposer en faveur de 
qui it plaira au Roi de eelles cottrs B." — Uigiilre (Tin- 
tendance, No. I, folio 23. 


BoucHERViLLK, seigniory, on the s. side of the 
St. Lawrence, is in the co. of Chambly; bounded 
w. by the fief Tremblay, e. by the S. of Varennes 
and by Montarville in the rear. 114 arpents 
in front by two leagues in depth. Granted, 3d 
Nov. I(i72> to Sieur Boucher and now belongs 
to Aladame Boucherville. — The quality of the 
land, if not of the first class, is far above medio- 
crity, being for the most part a lightish mould 
inclining towards sand, and, with careful hus- 
bandry, by no means deficient in fertility. Nearly 
the whole is under cultivation, and generally 
produces very good average crops of all sorts. — 
The wood remaining is inconsiderable in quantity 
and only of inferior kinds. — Two small rivulets 
that full into the St. Lawrence partially water this 
S. towards the front, one of which works the seig- 
noriul mill. There is no stream in the lower part. 
— A main road leads from the village of Boucher- 
ville to the Richelieu and thence to Cliambly : 
several other roads, well kept up, pass through all 
the settled parts of the S. — All the lands in this 
8. were 'conceded prior to 1759, and have been 
siibdividt'd among a great number of inheritors. 

". I 

B O U 

B O U 

whose mode of concession has not been uniform, 
nor have their conditions, rents, &c., been equal ; 
for the particulars of these ditferences it would 
be necessary to examine the contracts of each fief. 

The village of Boucherville is most agreeably 

and conveniently seated on the bank of the river 
St. Lawrence : it contains from 90 to 100 houses, 
a church and parsonage-house, a chapel and a con- 
vent or rather a residence for two or three of the 
sisters of the congregation of Notre Dame at Mont- 
real, who are sent here from the chief establish- 
ment as missionaries for the education of females. 
There is likewise a school for boys. In this place 
many families, who still retain some of the titles 
of the ancient noblesse of the country, have fixed 
their residence and formed a society, in which 
much of the ceremony and etiquette that used to 
characterise the titled circles of the French nation 
is still obtiervable ; diminished indeed in splendour, 
but unabated in precision. Many of these re- 
sidents have built some very good^ooking houses, 
rendered rather conspicuous by forming a strong 
contrast with the major part of those belonging to 
the other inhabitants, which are by no means cal- 
culated to attract notice, for symmetry and pro- 
portion seem to have been as much set at defiance 
in their construction as regularity has been neg- 
lected in the laying out of the streets. This omis- 
sion, however, detracts little or nothing from the 
general amenity of the situation. — The drain! ig 
of liouchervillc Swamp, very properly, excited tae 
attention and public spirit of the provincial par- 
liament and a sum of money, sufficient for the pur- 
pose, was accordingly voted. The commissioners 
ascertained that it was the excess of water from 
the S. of Montarville which overilowed the swamp, 
and that it was impossible the water could be 
made to pass off through that seigniory, although 
it could readily do so through Varennes and 
Longueuil. Proper water courses therefore have 
been made, which, being established by law, will be 
of great advantage to these scigpniories ; lands of the 
best quality having been rendered useless by the 
sudden and frequent inundations which could not 
be prevented. The whole of the parts of Boucher- 
ville nnd Varennes (from the sources of the waters 
which run eastward) lying near Montarville and 
Belcpjl, are now protected against the Montarville 
waters, and may be cultivated with the greatest 
advantage; the more so because the lands are 

of the best quality — The parith of Boucherville 
comprehends all this S. and port of the S. of Mon- 

Statistics of the Parish of Boucherville. 

Population 2,800 1 Schools . 1 

Churches, R. C. 1 | VillHges . 1 

Curates . 1'.s i 

Presbyteries 1 ' Just, of Peace i 


1 Medical men 

Artistins . 





Annual Agrkultural Product, 



Buiheli. I 
20,800 I Oats 

Buiheli. I Cwti. 

18,&M) I Maple sugar 27 

Live Stock. 

1,206 I Cows 
670 I Sheep 

1,600 I Swine 
5,100 I 


3'i<fc.^" Concession du 3me Novembre, 1072, par Jcn/i 
Talii, Intendant, au Sicur Boucher, de cent quiirtorzu 
ar|>«>ii8 de front sur deux lieues de profondeur, ii prendre 
sur le fleuve St. Laurent, bom/'e des deux ci'it^s par le 
Sieur rfe Varennei ; avec les isles nominees Percecs."— 
Cottiers tTIntendauce, No. i, folio XXi. 


BoucHETTE (L ), t;. Chatham, t. 

BouLEAU (R.)> t^. White Birch, r. 

BouLBAUx, Petite aux, v. Saouenay, r. 

BouRCHBHiN, seigniory, in the co. of Richelieu, 
is bounded s. w. by the SS. of St. Hyacinthc and 
St. Ours, by St. Charles, Yamaska, andde Ramsay 
N. R., and by Sorel n. w. — 1 ^ 1. in breadth on 
each side of the river Yamaska, and 3 1. in depth. 
Granted, 22d June, 1095, tn Sieur Jacques Fran- 
cois Bourchemin and is now the property of Mrs. 
Barrow. — The part intersected by the Yamaska 
is better settled than the neighbouring seignories, 
but cultivation has not made a very favourable 
progress and there is much woodland. 

Title. — " Concession du 22me Juin, 1695, faite pnr Loiiit 
de Buade, Gouverneur, et Jean Bocftart, Intendaiit, an 
Sieur Jacguet Franfoit Bourcliemin, d'unc lieue et demie 
de terre de front de chaque cotr du la riviere Ymnuiku, 
icelle comprise, k prendre une demi lieue au-dessous du 
ruisseau dit Satvai/le, et une lieue au dessus, en lieu non- 
conr/^d^, sur pareille profondeur, courant Nurd-oiicst et 
Siid-cst, avrc les isles islets et prairies adjacetites." — Hi. 
giitrc d'Intendance, No. i,Jblio 27. 

Bourdon, Isle, opposite the mouth of the r. 
L'Assoraption, was once remarkable for un ele- 
gant bridge erected by — Portcus, Esij. over the 
n. des Prairies, and which extended from the S. 
of L'Assomption across this isle to Bout de I'lsle 
at the N. E. extremity of the island of Mont- 
real. This bridge was shortly after its erection 





B O U 

carried away by the waters and ice in the river, 
after the breaking up of the frost in the spring. 

Tiltc. — " Concession du Sine Novemhre, 1672, faite par 
Jean Talon, Intendant, k Mr. de Repentignji, des deux isles 
dites Bourdon." — R6gUtre d'InUndance, JVo. I, folio 6. 

B0UROLOUI8, seigniory, in the co. of Portneuf 
and in the rear of Puinte aux Trembles, is bounded 
8. w. by D'Auteuil, n. k. by Faussembault, and 
ill the rear by waste lands.— 21- leagues in front 
by 3 in depth. Granted, May 14, 1741, to Sieur 
Louis Furnel. This grant still remains in its na- 
tural state and no part is cultivated, although the 
soil is tolerably good, especially on the r. St. 
Anne, being principally a strong loam. — The tim- 
I)cr is various and ash, beech, birch, pine, and 
innplc are found of good quality and large di- 
mensions. — It is watered by the river Ste. Anne 
towards the rear and by many small streams which 
rise in the mountains s. of that river and fall into 
the Portneuf. 

Title. — " Concession du 14me May, 1741, faite par le 
Marquit dc Beaiihamoit, Gouvemeur, et Gillei Ilocguart, 
Intendant, au bieur Loiiit Fornel, de deux lieues et trois 
ijiiarts, ou environ, dc terre, gur trois lieues de prof'ondeur, 
derricre lu Seigneurie de Keuville, appartenunt au Siour 
Dcmiliiiie, bornve sur le front par la ligiie qui sppare la 
ditc Seigiieurie dc Neuville des terres non-oonc^des, au 
Nord-est par la ligiie de profondeur du tlet' St. Auguitin 
prolongi'u uu Sud-oucst par une ligne paralK'le a la pivcr. 
dontc, u prendre bur la ligne du lief de Oiluir aussi pro- 
loiigre, et par dcrritre aux terres iioiiconctdi'es."— Tie. 
ijitlre d'lntcndancc. No. i\Jiilio 8. 

BouKOMARiE, East, seigniory, in the co. of 
Yamaska, is situated in the rear of the seigniory 
of Yamaska and is bounded w. by the river of 
that name, s. by St. Charles, and e. by De Guir. 
It extends 50 arpents in front by nearly 2 leagues 
in depth. Granted, Aug. 1, 1708, to Marie Ft- 
zcrct and is now the property of Mrs. Barrow. — 
This tract is what the Canadian farmers term 
very good land : in fact it is of rather a superior 
quality, and, if moderately well managed, would 
yield abundant crops of grain : at present about a 
tliird part of it is under cultivation. It produces a 
little good timber with abundance of the inferior 
sorts 'such as basswood, spruce fir, hemlock, and 
cedar. — Besides the navigable river Yamaska it 
is watered by the river David, that winils a very 
mazy course and turns a grist-mill ; on each side 
of this river there is a road, and another that skirts 
the Yamaska. — The church has no resident cure, 
and the duties are performed by the minister of 
St. Michael de Yamaska, 






. 371 Saw.mills ... I 
R.C. . 1 PoUsheries . . . 1 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Wheat . 
Barley . 

Buihelt. Buiheb. Buiheli. 
3,00,5 Potatoes 2,993 Buck wheat 100 
2,900 Peas . 1,000 Indian com 120 
200 Rye . 60 

Live Stock. 


. 137 1 Cows . 210 Swine . 898 
. HI ; Sheep . 790 

Title. — " Concession du ler Aout, 1708, faite par Meg- 
sieurs dc yaudreiiil, Gouvemeur, et Itaudot, Intendant, k 
Marie Fi-xret, Ptant un reste de terre non-conc^dr d'en- 
viron cinquante arpens de front sur deux lieues, moins un 
arpent, de profondeur sur la rivi£re Yamatka, tirant au 
Nord-ouost, dans la profomleur, joigiiant uu Sud-ouest la 
ligne de la Seigneiirie Bourgchemin / au Nord-est la ligne 
des terres concedees au Sieur Charon; et au Nord-ouest 
les profundeurs de la Scignsurie de Surd, dans lYtendue 
de la dite concession." — Regiitre drt Foi et Ilommage, 
No. 112,/a«o 6k— C'nAier d'InUnd. 2 o 9, folio 'ilio. 

BouROMARiE, West, seigniory, in the co. of 
Richelieu, extends from the rear of the S. of 
Sorel to the r. Yamaska; bounded s. w. by 
Bourchemin and n. e. by Bonsecours ; about 60 
arpents in front and 1^1. in depth. — Granted, 
Aug. 1, I7O8, to Marie Fezeret and is now the 
property of Mrs. Barrow. 

Title, — " Et aussi nu Sud-est du la dite rivitre un autre 
reste de terre non-conccdi' d'ciiviron soixuntc nrpi'iis de 
front sur une lieue et deinie de profondeur, tirant au Siid- 
(.'st aux terres iion-coiicedpes, joignaiit uu Sud-ouest le tief 
A7. Vliarki, appartenunt au Sieur Fl::hvt, son jiere, et au 
Nord-ouest la Seigneurics de Lavatliire." — li^giitre de* 
Foi ct Hommagr, No. 112,yu/i'o6k 

BouRO Royal, t;. Notre Dame des Anoes. 

Buyer, river, rises in the rear part of Lauzon 
S,, and traversing the fiefs Martiniere, Livau- 
Jlere and the augmentation to Beaumont, enters 
St. Slichel S., and, cutting off the western angle 
of St. Valliir S., runs into the St. Lawrence 
nearly opposite St. Jean in the island of Orleans. 
This small river is about 30 paces wide and so 
obstructed by sand-banks, trees, &c., that the 
lightest canoe cannot pass ; but at its mouth it is 
navigable,' at high water, for small vessels of 30 
tons. There is a bridge of wood over this river 
free from toll. 

BiiANDON, township, in the co. of Berthier, 
adjoins the aug. to the S. of Berthier s. k. and 
is bounded n. w. by waste lands of the Crown, 
8. w. by the S. of De Ramsay, and N. E. by the 
8. of 3Iiiskinon"il' : its n, e. limits arc irrc- 



<k wheat 100 
ian corn 120 

le 298 

i, faite par Mes- 
lot, Intendant, h 
)ii>cone^dp d'eii- 
lieurs, moins im 
natka, tirant au 
uu Sud-ouest In 
Vord-est la ligne 
t au Nord-ouest 
', dans IVtendue 
)< et Ifommiige, 
, folio 2:io. 

in the co. of 
of the S. of 
led 8. w. by 
jrs ; about 60 
th. — Granted, 
d is now the 

: riviere uii autre 
Xante aipunB de 
r, tirant au Sud- 
Sud-ouest le tiet' 
, son pere, et au 
'." — lUgittre det 

des An'oes. 
art of Lauzon 
nil-re, Livau- 
umont, enters 
western angle 
St. Lawrence 
id of Orleans. 

wide iind so 
ice., that the 
ts mouth it is 

vessels of 30 
ver this river 

of Burtbier, 
dier a. k. and 
if the Crown, 
1 N. B, by the 
lits arc irre- 

gular because Lake Maskinong^ being in the S. 
of that name no part of this township extends to 
the lake. It is in other respects similar in its di- 
mensions to other inland townships. It has been 
surveyed and laid out in ranges and lots, and the 
greater part of the lands numbered were granted 
to the officers and privates of the Canadian militia 
who served during the lust American war. Some 
few emigrants have been located in this t. and 
12,000 acres have been granted, under patent, to 
Edmund Antrobus, Esq., where at present there 
are no settlements : in fact there are no settlers in 
the T., with the exception of one English family 
that arrived in the spring of 1820. The lands, up 
to the 9th range, are generally of excellent quality, 
and from the 9th range towards the n. w. the 
surface is uneven and mountainous. — A road has 
been made to the front line of this t. from the 
rear of the last concession of the S. of Berthier, 
4} m. in length, under the authority of the pro- 
vincial parliament. The road is good and prac- 
ticable and is 18 feet wide, except in two places 
where, from the great difficulties arising from 
granite ledges which required blasting, the road 
has been left 12 fit. wide. In all situations where 
the land was low or marshy ditches have been 
made along both sides of the road. The country 
traversed by this road is generally hilly with easy 
acclivity and descent, and although muny ledges 
of rock are to be met with the land is generally 
fit for cultivation. The sum of £.300, appro- 
priated for the making of this road, has not been 
sufficient to enable the commissioners to give it 
that degree of perfection which would be required 
to ensure it from early repairs and give per- 
manency to its advantages, although it now pre- 
sents a smooth and easy surface with twelve 
bridges of excellent and substantial structure : 
the bridges must be materially injured and the 
rood much obstructed whenever pas.sing tempests 
shall uproot the contiguous trees, an event of 
almost monthly occurrence. In addition, there- 
fore, to the propriety of giving a greater per- 
manent width to the road, it would be advisable 
ond highly advantageous to cut down the trees on 
both sides for the space of 25 feet at least, to add 
ditches where they might serve as drains, and to 
blast the obstructing rocks; for these improve- 
ments a further sum of £.150 might be sufficient. 
It will be found absolutely necessary to continue 
this road up to the centre of the townships, us the 

only possible means of bringing it to that degree 
of usefulness and general benefit that must have 
been contemplated by the pecuniary grant of the 
government, especially as it ends in the midst of an 
impervious forest. It might be continued to Lake 
Muskinongc for £.300, and, in a direct line, to the 
front line of the 8th range for £.500, which would 
be of still greater importance. — The t. of Bran- 
don contains an area of 40,000 acres of excellent 
land ; the crown and clergy reserves being among 
the best suited to European settlers. A portion 
has been located to the select and embodied militia 
who served during the last American war, and 
these grantees, or most of them, will be so ex- 
hausted by the expenses incident to their grants, 
that they will not have it in their power to open 
and complete this road of entry, without which 
the labour and expense bestowed upon their lot.s 
will be lost; whereas the following advantages 
must inevitably result from the completion of it. 
— 1st. The speedy settlement of a valuable town- 
ship. 2d. Easy access to the crown and clergy 
reserves. 3d. Immediate relief to the settlers 
already established on the N. w. side of the lake 
and now totally excluded from all communication. 
4th. A great facility to the militia for the per- 
forming of their location duties and their securing 
to themselves the bounty of his majesty. — The 
timber of this t. is generally of good quality and 
many places abound with pine fit for masting. 
Maple is also abundant and leases are granted 
for the purpose of making sugar from that tree. 


Annual JgricHltural Prvduc, 


Oats . 

• Ijti 
. lUU 

Pens . 10 
Indian corn !H) 

Live Stock. 


. 2(H)0 

Oxen . 

. 10 

. 8 

Cows . 29 
Slu'op . 20 



Bhas, le, river, rises in the parish of St. Gervnis, 
and traversing the aug. to St. Jlichcl S where 
it divides the 5th and (ith concessions, falls into 
the Riviere dii Sud about half a league hulow n 
grist-mill in the S. of St. Vallicr. It is ulwiut JJO 
paces wide in the aug. to St. Michel, and so murli 
obstructed by .sand-bnnks, trees, &c , that it is not 
navigable even for the lightest canoe. Over this 
H. is u wooden bridge free from toll. 




Bbab de L'Ebt, riyer, in the S. of L'Uet, 
about 11 yarda wide. 

Bras du Oubbt, river, in the t. of Tring. A 
road ha* been recently opened fhmi this R. to 
Cnug's Road in Leeds. 

Bristoi., township, in the oo. of Ottawa, is be- 
tween Onslow and Clarendon and is bounded in 
front hy the r. Ottawa. It is but thinly settled 
and has no regular roads. 




Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Oats . 


. 75 
. 10 

Indian com 

. 400 
. 300 

Live Slock. 

Oxen . 




. 10 

BaoHB, township, in the co. of Shefford, is 
bounded b. by Bolton, w. by Dunham and Fam- 
ham, 8. by Sutton, and n. by Shefford. — Some 
part of the land is good, but other parts so moun- 
tainous and rocky as to be unfit for culture; the 
best will produce grain of most sorts and hemp 
and flax might also be grown in several places. — 
On the N. w. side, where it is rugged and high, 
some good timber is found and also great quan- 
tities of good bog and mountain iron-ore. — Near 
Lake Brome, about nine miles in circumference, a 
few settlements have been made, that afford a fa- 
vourable specimen of what may be done upon the 
lands that are at all susceptible of tillage. Several 
small rivers fall into the lake, upon which some 
grist and saw-mills have been erected. The po- 
pulation on the I., is about 600. 

Population 1,314 
Churches, R. C. 1 
Curates . 1 
Schools . 5 
Villages . 1 


Houses in do. 
Corn-mills . 
Potasheries . 
Distilleries . 

Just, of Peace 
Medical men 
Shopkeeper!) . 
Taverns . 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Buiheli. DuiheU. Butheli. 

14*000 Peas . 7,508 Potatoes 88,200 
18,000 Buck wheat 2,0<J« i Maple sugar, 
3,800 I Indian corn 5,390 j cwts. 88 

Lix'e Stock. 

. 550:Co«s . 1,010 Swine . 813 
. 708 ; Sheep 8,650 ! 

Brompton, township, in the co. of Sherbrookc, 
is irregular in figure, bounded N. r. and N. w. 





B R O 

by the T. of Melbourne, s. by Orford, b^ by the 
river St. Francis and w. by Ely. In the N. 
part and by the river the land is of a very fair 
quality, fit for cultivation and likely to produce 
good crops of wheat or other grain. The superior 
sorts of timber consist of elm, maple, beech, bass- 
wood and birch. The s. part is uneven, rough and 
rocky and, generally speaking, useless, untracta- 
ble land. — It is watered by several brooks and 
streams and by a lake covering several lots in 
the tenth and eleventh ranges and spreading into 
Orford. — On the r. St. Francis, contiguous to 
Melbourne, Some settlements have been formed 
on which are a few well-cultivated farms. — 
The portages occasioned by the great and little 
Brompton Falls are on the west side of the river 
within this township.— The population amounts 
to about 255. The principal landholders are Mr. 
William Bernard and his associates, the original 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 





, 3,750 
. 2,800 
. 155 






Buck wheat 180 
Indian corn 900 

Lhe Stock. 

190 I Oows 
800 1 ^^heep 

300 1 Swine 


Brouohton, township, in the co. ofMegantic, 
though somewhat mountainous contains much 
land of a good quality. Many of the inferior 
swells, if cultivated, would produce wheat and 
other grain. Some parts are well calculated for 
hemp and flax, and many other parts are tolerably 
good natural grass lauds. — Well stocked with 
beech, maple, birch, elm, and other useful timber 
besides abundance of wood of inferior quality. — 
Watered by several branches of the Becancour, 
some rivulets flowing into the Chaudiere and by 
one or two small lakes. The n. w. half, consist- 
ing of 22,000 acres, was granted to Messrs. Jen- 
kins and Hull and is now the property of the 
latter, who has made some progress in forming a 
settlement and in cultivating a part of it and hat 
erected some mills. From this settlement to 
the S. of St. Joseph, on the Chaudiere, there is 
a moderately good road and another, under the 
authority of an act of the provincial parliament, 
has been opened from the r. Bras du Ouest in 
Tring to Craig's Road in Leeds, 24 m. 43 chains 


rfotd, x. b^ Ihe 
ly. In the N. 
la of a very fair 
kely to produce 
1. The superior 
tie, beech, boss- 
even, rough and 
leless, untracta> 
:ral brooks and 
several lots in 
1 spreading into 
> contiguous to 
re been formed 
vated farms. — 
great and little 
jde of the river 
ilation amounts 
holders are Mr. 
tes, the original 


Buck wheat 180 
Indian corn SOU 


. 210 

M. of Megantie, 
contains much 
of the inferior 
uce wheat and 
I calculated for 
ts are tolerably 

stocked with 
it useful timber 
erior quality. — 
the Becancour, 
audiere and by 
r. half, consist- 
to Messrs. Jen- 
troperty of the 
!ss in forming a 
rt of it and hat 

settlement to 
ndiere, there is 
her, under the 
ial parliament, 
u du Quest in 
4 m. 43 chains 

B U C 

and 20 links. The whole extent has been opened 
12 ft. wide and the stumps cut doae to the ground ; 
no ditches have been made at the sides nor has 
any considerable bridge been made. The country 
traversed by the rood is mountainous but fit for 
cultivation, and in some parts excellent soil ; there 
are seven steep hills over which the road has been 
necessarily carried. The road runs mostly through 
the waste lands of the Crown and which are of a 
description to encourage settlement. The sum of 
i^.300currencyhas been expended in the exploring, 
surveying and opening of the road; and £.150 
more would cover the expenses of constructing a 
bridge over the river Becancour (the only consider- 
able stream, being one chain wide) and of cutting 
the steep hills on the road. — The population is 
about 75. — UngranUd and unhealed, 12,400 acres. 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Oate . 

. 650 
. 610 

Barley . 100 
Pohitoes 1,050 


Mixed grun 200 

Live Stock. 

Oxen . 

. 29 
. 30 

Cows . 55 
Sheep . 110 

Swine . 70 

Bhulees Isles, v. Lauzon, S. 

Bruno (F.), v. Maskinonor, S. 

Buckingham, township, in the co. of Ottawa, 
is bounded w. by Templeton, e. by Lochaber, 
in front by the river Ottawa and by the waste 
lands of the Crown in the rear. — It is divided 
into twelve ranges and each range into 28 lots 
of 25 chains ^\ links in breadth by 81 chains 
60 links in depth, making a superAcies of 200 
acres, exclusive of the usual alluwance of five 
per cent, for highways. The first four ranges 
and one-half of the fifth were surveyed and 
murked in the field in 1802 with the exception 
of the lute Cupt. Robertson's 2000 acres, which 
were laid out on cither side of the river au 
Liivre two years antecedent to that period. The 
land in Buckingham is similar to that of the neigh- 
bouring townships except from the fourth range 
K., when it becomes more bold and conspicuous 
and, rising to a greater elevation, is in various 
places steep and abrupt. From the fourth range 
8. to the borders of the Ottawa the surface is low 
and generally level, occasionally rising and falling 
in gentle slopes of fertile land, covered with large 
and well-grown timber. The major part of the 
first range is overflowed in the spring and fall 

B U C 

by the rise of the Ottawa, which copiously irri- 
gates the soil and leaves, when the waters recede, 
most wholesome and rich pasturage. The sur- 
veyed part of this t. is most abundantly watered by 
the river on Liivre and numerous inferior rivers, 
streams and rivulets, which meander through 
the T. in various directions and discharge their 
waters into the Ottawa and river au Liivre. — n. 
of the basin into which the r. au Lievre dis- 
charges itself is a most propitious site fur a vil- 
lage ; but here the lands granted to the late Capt. 
Robertson are left in an absolute state of nature. 
The next eligible position for a village is the 
crown reserve. No. 10, in the second range, in the 
proximity of the basin, half of which has recently 
been located to an individual who might probably 
surrender his claim if proposals were made and 
compensation tendered. In that case the nearest 
crown reserve to No. 10 would be appropriated 
for the church and other objects. Mr. Bigelow, 
the actual proprietor of a large portion of the 
granted lands in this t., has commenced the erec- 
tion of a saw-mill on the R. au Lievre and cleared 
several acres adjacent. In 1827 he had cleared 
above 400 acres; 300 of which were, the year 
preceding, in crops of grass, grain, potatoes, &c. 
He commenced his improvements in 1824, and in 
three years erected several houses, bams, stores, 
&c. &c., and was still animated with a laudable 
desire to make additional improvements for the 
benefit of himself and other settlers in this and the 
neighbouring townships. — Of the part of this 
township that has been surveyed 16,940 acres 
were granted under letters patent, in 1700 and 
1803, to Capt. Robertson, Elias Hawley, Wades, 
Dunning and others. — The roads are bad. 



266 1 Potteries 
1 Potashcries 


1 I Taverns 
1 Artisans 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 






. 1,555 

. 500 


' Butheli. 
Potatoes a, 725 
Indian corn '■i,i-2H 

Hay tons 142 
Alaplc .sugar, 

cwts. 25 

Live Stuck. 

16 I Cows 

26 I Swine 


BucKLANi>, township, in the co. of BcUc- 
chusse, is bounded n by St. Gervais, La Mar- 





\ ;i 

B U C 

tini^rc and Mont-a- Peine, N. w. by Jolliet and 
Frampton and in other places by the waste lands 
of the Crown. — The surface is much varied, in 
many places rising into considenible swells, with 
intervals rather swampy but the soil is in general 
excellent ; even the wet lands are by no means of 
a bad quality. Every species of grain and grass, 
iK'sides hemp and flax, might be produced in great 
abundance. — Principally timbered with beech, 
birch, maple, ironwood, basswood and elm with 
a great deal of cedar, spruce tir and black ash. — 
Completely watered by several large streams and 
branches of the Etchemin and many rivulets, on 
nearly all of which are very eligible situations for 
mills and much good meadow land along their 
borders. — Large quantities of maple-sugar are 
made here by the inhabitants of St. Oervais. — 
Only \ of the t. has been surveyed, which is now 
the property of William Holmes, Esq. of Quebec. 
— The rear concessions and the 8. e. ends of the 
central concessions are almost, if not entirely, un- 
fit for agricultural purposes and impracticable for 
roads being everywhere rocky, uneven, moun- 
tainous and barren ; the hills bare of trees or ver- 
dure are in general in the form of sugar-loaves, 
perfectly precipitous on all sides, and so close to- 
gether that the space between their bases rather 
resemble ravines than valleys, and are covered 
witli rubbish, rocks, moss and decayed small 
stunted trees. — The highest part of this hilly 
country is a ridge of lofty mountains rising gra- 
dually from the a. angle of the t. and pursuing 
a N. K. direction, after traversing the head waters 
of the R. du Sud, terminates near the source of 
the N. \v. branch of the main stream of St. John. 
In April, 1825, the average depth of the snow 
un this ridge was ascertained to be 9 feet, while 
in the t. of Frampton, at its base, it was hardly 
20 inches — St. Rooiiaes Hill is a very high moun- 
tain in the T. of Buckland about 2 m. n. e. of the 
Crapaudiore Mountain in the S. of Frampton, and 
is the highest land between the St. Lawrence and 
the St. John in that direction. — Population about 
30. — Ungranted and unlocated 20,000 acres. 

Atiiiiial ylffricultural Produce. 



Bushels. I 

•V'J Potatoes 
75 1 Peas 


. i:tu 
. luu 


Indian corn 'iU 

Live Stock: 

B Y 

Bullet River rises near the N. x. side of the 
T. of Ireland, and, running N. w., passes through 
Craig's Road into the t. of Inverness, where, being 
joined by other streams, it forms the b. Clyde. 

Bui.HTROUB, township, in the co. of Drum- 
mond, joins Stansfield n. b., Warwick in the rear, 
Horton s. w. and the river Becancour n. w. — 
The land is level and low with many swamps 
and numerous brules, particularly towards the 
centre ; near the river, and also towards the limits 
of Warwick, the land rises a little and is of a 
moderately good quality: the swamps and low 
lands are in some places of a sandy soil and in 
others a black mould. On the highest situations 
the timber consists of beech, maple and black 
birch ; in the swamps cedar, hemlock and tamma- 
rack. This t. is well watered by the main branch 
of the Nicolet, and by several rivulets running 
into the Becancour.— One-half was granted to the 
late Patrick Langan, Esq. and is now the pro- 
perty of his heirs. — The only settlement is on the 
K. Becancour, opposite to the t. of Blandford, and 
contains about 40 souls. 


Lire Stock. 



4 I Cows 
1 1 Sheep 

20 1 Swine 



Bury, township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, is 
irregular in its figure and bounded n. by Dudswell, 
N. E. by Lingwick, n. w. by Newport and West- 
bury. One quarter only has been surveyed, but 
the land in general is of a moderately good soil, 
very susceptible of cultivation and to all appear- 
ance would furnish good crops of grain of most 
sorts. — The timber is butternut, maple, beech, 
ash, birch, cedar and basswood. — Many little 
streams water it. — An intended road into the state 
of ^'^ermont striking gfF from Craig's Road, at a 
place called Kemp's Bridge in the t. of Ireland, 
will pass through it ; this route has been already 
marked ^nd blazed in the field and mile-posts are 
fixed along the whole distance. — Ungranted and 
unlocated 18,658 acres. 

Bustard Bay, in the co. of Suguenay, on the N. 
shore of the St. Lawrence, lies immediately below 
the R. Belsiamite. 

Bustard, river, in the co. of Saguenay, falls 
into Bustard Bay, below Jeremie, on the N. side 
of the St. Lawrence. 

By Town, v. Ottawa, r. 


M. a. side of the 
paues through 
u, where, being 
he B. Clyde. 
• CO. of Drum- 
rick in the rear, 
uncour N. w — 
I many swamps 
ly towards the 
wards the limits 
:tle and is of a 
vamps and low 
tndy soil and in 
iglicst situations 
laple and black 
lock and tamma- 
the main branch 
rivulets running 
as granted to the 
is now the pro- 
:lement is on the 
if Blandford, and 

jPigs - * 

KRY, S. 

(f Sherbrooke, is 
ivport and West- 
en surveyed, but 
irately good soil, 
id to all appear- 
of grain of most 
t, maple, beech, 
d. — Many little 
oad into the state 
■aig's Road, at a 
he T. of Ireland, 
has been already 
id mile-posts are 
— Ungranled and 

guenay, on the n. 
tmediately below 

' Saguenay, falls 
on the N. side 


C A C 


Cabinrau or Namjambcutcook, river, rises 
in Lung Lake in the co. of Riroouski and taking 
a N. K. course enters the 8. of Madawoska ond s. 
of the portage, 3 m. from Long's, falls into Lake 
Temiscouata, a little below the v. of Kent and 
Strathern. It is said to be 30 h. wide but of no 
great depth. 

Cabinot (R.), v. Cabineau. 

Cachbk, river, rises near the 8. w. corner of La- 
naudiere, and traversing through the n. w. angle 
of Carufel joins the Little Maskinong^- R. in the 
S. of Dusablc. 

Cacheb, river, in the 8. of Blainville, rises s. 
of the Chemin du Grand St. Charles and near 
the adjoining 8. of Riviere du Chene. It runs 8. 
and falls into r. Jesus. 

Cacona or Kacouna, fief, in the co. of Ri- 
mouski, fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded 
N. b. by Villeray, b. by the Riviere Verte and 
waste lands, s. w. by the 8. of Riviere du Loup 
One eighth of this fief is in rocks and savannas ; 
the whole is conceded and divided into 5 conces- 
sions, which diminish in number of settlements in 
proportion to their distance from the St. Law- 
rence. In the first concession the soil is light 
with a clay bottom, the ridge or highlands being 
a mixture of sand and gravel. More than one half 
is cultivated. The soil of the 2d and 3d conces- 
sions is stronger and more clayey and is traversed 
by a ridge of highlands susceptible of culture; 
the lower part in the 2d concession presenting 
the appearance of a valley. Several savannas or 
plains are in both concessions and one-third of 
each is cultivated. The 4th and 5th concessions 
are more level and one-fourth of the 4th and one- 
eighth of the 5th are cultivated. The 4th con- 
cession is divided into two parts by the Riviere 
Verte. — The wood on the highlands is birch and 
maple and in the lower parts sapin, white thorn, 
beech and cedar. — As there is no corn-mill, the 
inhabitants are obliged to carry their corn to the 
Riviere du Loup mill. As horses only are used 
in ploughing, the number of oxen is small. One- 
fourth of all the agricultural produce and one- 
third of the cloth and linen are sold : cloth at 2s. 
3s. 6d. and 5s. per yard and linen at Is, dd. to 
Is. 8d. Every farmer on an average makes an- 
nually SOOlbs. of butter, of which two thirds are 



C A M 







niver rnift 
Keel buats 


Annual Agiiciillural Prahite, 






Barlev . I,(KN) 
Mixed gr. 1,810 


Live Stock. 
ia» I Cows . l.()."/j I Swine 
114 I Sheep . 5,NJt)| 



Caillr, u la, river, rises in the S. of St. Thomas, 
near the boundary line of Bcrthier, in the co. of 
Bellechasse, and running N. k. falls into the St. 
Lawrence about 1^ m. n. of the mouth of the R. 
du Sud. 

Caili.e, a la. Petite, river, rises in the 8. of 
St. Thomas, and runs into the St. Lawrence about 
4 m. from the mouth of R. du Sud. 

Calamy, v. Calumet, r. 

Caldwell Manor, t>. Foucault, S. 

Callemant, v. Caluh&t. 

Calumkt, Calahy or Calleriant, river, in 
the CO. of Two Mountains. The source of this r. 
is unexplored, but it descends in two streams from 
the unsurveyed part of Orenville ; one called the 
Calumet, the other its east branch : they form a 
junction about the centre of the fourth range in 
Orenville, whence their united waters are dis- 
charged into the R. Ottawa at lot 1 6 in the second 
range. Its general course is s., the eastern arm 
running nearly parallel to the river Kingham. 
It is about 60 or 70 ft. wide and very rapid, and 
is navigable to a short distance only. It runs 
about 40 m. and makes fine falls for mills, and 
near it are quarries said to be of marble. It 
abounds with fish. 

Calvairb, lake, in the 8. of Desmaurc, is about 
1^ m. long and lies between the Riviere du Cap 
Rouge and the St. Lawrence. It will always ob- 
tain a large share of admiration when viewed from 
the surrounding heights, where it presents a rich 
and diversified prospect, the margin being charm- 
ingly varied by cultivated lands, here and there 
broken by small woods and numerous clumps of 
trees, rising by gradations from the water's edge 
one above the other. This pretty little lake dis- 
cliarges itself by a small stream into the St. Law- 
rence 1 m. E. of the church of St. Augustine. 

Camouraska, v. Kamouraska. 

Camus, river, in the S. of Berthier and co. of 





if : 



Bellcchasse. The Ruisseau Camus rises behind 
the highlands in the front of the S. and runs 
N. w., then turning suddenly to the n. it empties 
itself into Ance de Berthier, on the s. shore of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Canals. — The advantages to agriculture and 
commerce to be derived from the facilities offered 
by artificial water communications are duly appre- 
ciated by the legislature of this province, and va- 
rious sums of money have been voted and applied 
to this object with u liberality worthy of the im- 
jtortunt results that may be expected to flow from 
such useful labours. Of these sums, amounting 
tojB 180,000, about £ 130,000 have been expended 
in the progress and completion of the Lachine 
Canal, a fact that must prove more honourable to 
the public spirit of the colonial government than 
the most just and eloquent eulogium. The innu- 
merable rivers of Lower Canada will facilitate, 
and their numerous natural and impracticable ob- 
structions will render necessary, a large number 
of canals, in order to develop the almost infinite 
agricultural resources of this increasing colony. 
The experience of the past proves that these ne- 
cessary labours have been successfully begun ; and, 
ai> the prosperity and population of the country 
increase, these enterprising efforts will become 
more numerous and extended. The rivers and 
lakes will ultimately connect the remotest town- 
ships, and convey their produce into the broad 
bosom of the St. Lawrence. Some canals have 
been completed, some are in progress, and many 
are in contemplation. 

The Lachine Canal has been completed under 
an act, passed in the 1st George IV., for making a 
navigable canal from tlie neighbourhood of Mont- 
real to the parish of Lachine. The commence- 
ment of this canal, at first a private undertaking, 
will be ever memorable in the commercial history 
of the province ; for though it is not quite eight 
milos in extent, its advantages are nf the first im- 
portance to the navigation of tiie Ht. Lawrence, on 
which the prosperity of Upper and Lower Canada 
most particularly depends. Uy means of this canal 
two very great obstructions in the river are avoided, 
Sault St. Louis and Sault Norman ; and had the 
canal been continued a little farther to the n. k., 
so as to have entered the St. Lawrence l)elow the 
current of St. Mary, its l)enefits to the navigation 
would have been still greater. As it is. however, 
there can be no doubt of its immense utility, and, 

notwithstanding the enormous sum expended in 
its completion, its eventual profit. Although the 
cost has far exceeded the original expectation, yet 
the execution is such as to do credit to those who 
effected the several departments of the work. The 
rock and other excavations are well and neatly 
done, and the locks and bridges are handsome and 
made with a view to durability, being superior to 
any in America and inferior to none in Europe. 
It will hardly be credited, although strictly true, 
that the gunpowder expended upon the rock exca- 
vation by the contractors cost them above 10,000 
dollars — The length of the river basin and of the 
adjoining wharf is about 350 yards : the latter is 
formed of stout timber placed obliquely on end, 
well tied behind and carefully filled up with 
earth, but it is impossible to speak decisively about 
the effects of its pressure until it is tried. The 
fences have been a source of heavy but unavoid- 
able expense ; therefore a railing of cedar, on a 
more durable plan, being thought the most eco- 
nomical, the commissioners have erected a very 
strong and neat railing of that material along the 
N. w. side, from the banks above the canal wharf 
up to the bridge of the lower Lachine road, 
which, besides being ornamental, will protect the 
canal and allow of an excellent public walk in sum- 
mer. Trees are here planted, which, if they suc- 
ceed, will add to the appearance and form a shel- 
ter from the sun ; these trees have been procured 
and planted by means of voluntary contribution. 
As repairs will always be occasionally necessary, the 
canal commissioners still continue their services, 
which however are given gratuitously. These 
repairs arc indispensable from causes produced by 
the severity of the climate, which no artificial 
means can thoroughly guard against ; but a great 
eventual saving will arise from immediate repairs 
being made when needful. These repairs, how- 
ever, will be chiefly confined, for many years, 1st, 
to the holes caused by the percolation of the canal 
water through the banks where they are raised 
aljovc the level of the solid ground : 2d, to the 
tunnels \yhich convey under the bed of the canal 
the natural streams ; for when the thaw is sudden 
tbcRc tunnels cannot at once discharge the accu- 
mulntiou of water thereby produced, and a breach 
may lie the consequence if tlicy are not projHirly 
attended to. 3d, The passage of the Little Lake 
or river Saint Pierre, across the course of the canal, 
cannot Ik' avoided and must, every spring, be a 

I I 



expended in 
Although the 
peclation, yet 
to thoK who 
lie work. The 
U and neatly 
liandsome and 
ig superior to 
le in Europe. 

strictly true, 
the rock exca- 

above 10,000 
«in and of the 
: the latter is 
quely on end, 
illed up with 
;cisively about 
s tried. The 
r but unavoid- 
of cedar, on a 
the most eco- 
■rected a very 
erial along the 
le canal wharf 
Lachine road, 
ill protect the 
c walk in sum- 
h, if they sue- 
d form a shel- 

bcen procured 
'' contribution. 
(T necessary, the 

their services, 
tously. These 
L'8 produced by 
no artificial 
but n great 
mediate repairs 

repairs, how- 
lany years, 1st, 
on of the canal 
hey are raised 
d: 2d, to the 
i-d of the canal 
thaw is sudden 

urge the accu- 
[|, and a brencli 
■e not pr«)i)crly 
:he Little Lake 
rsc of the canal, 
-y spring, be a 


source of danger to the banks and of expense in 
their repairs, which no art can thoroughly guard 
against, as no tunnel for its passage under the 
canal could possibly have been made of a magni- 
tude to deliver, at once, the quantity of water 
which collects in the low grounds between thcCfttcs 
Saint Pierre and Saint Paul at the breaking up 
of the winter. This tunnel is 5 ft. in diameter. 
— The eventual profit that will arise from this 
spirited enteqirise is placed beyond doubt by the 
following account of the progressiive increase of 
the tolls which have been annually received : 

AtnouHt of the Tollt collected on the Lachine CunaU 

18-24 . 

£*<) 4 (i 

In IH87 

£3051 l(i 6 


ViH) 10 4 

1»«4 . 

■dl^Ti 18 10^ 


SfO-^O IH 5 

Abstract of the act passed (Mar. 14, 1820) to 
establish certain rates, tolls and duties on the 
Lachine Canal, and to provide for the care and 
management of the said canal. 

*■ I. Yrom and nftor the passing of this act tlie folluwiii|r 
ratt'K, tolls Kc. dIuiII bt- iiayalile on buuU, &c pasning 
through the cuiihI ; which wid rati'* shall Ik.' iiuid tor the 
w hole distanri' between Laehine and Montreal in ascend- 
in); or dt'M'ending tl:e i<iiid cuniil, and ho in proportion for 
each and i very mile ot' the mxA distiinee that any mieh 
bout, «ic., or inerohaiuli^e or eflecta, may \Mi» or be eon- 
VI ycd upon the 8aid eunal : 


Firewood in ratts 

Ui.U), in boats or srowk 

lioHi or ve8!iel, H Ions and nnder 

Ditto, between .'> and 21) tons 
Ditto, U'tween -Ai and UO tons 
Ditt(n above W) tons 

Merehandiac and liquors 


lieet and pork 

S<ult .... 

Flour or rice 

Tersons in a boat, not of the crew 

Horse, mare, bull, ox, \('. 

iloK, goat, sliecp, calf, or lamb 

U heat or other grain 




Standard pine staves 

I>er ton 

|ter eord 






per ton 

per Iwirrel 

per ton 
))er tiereo 
per barrel 
per ^ do. 
per busliel or niinut 
per tdise 
|ier hhd. 
per thousand 
















Uundlesofhay . per hundred . . 

" If. !• raciiom of a mile to be considered a w hole mile 

" 3. Uoats, fce. passing below luck No. I-, to pay the 
like tolls as il they had passed all tli.^ lucks. 

" +. Hoats and scows hidcii solely witli lirewiH)d or 
other tinilH'r, i .iviiig pu«scd down ilic and paid the 
rates, exempiid from toll in a>c,iidit>g, if nnliKl.n and 

" .■>, (iovernor aulhori/cd to nppoint commissioners lor 
supchniciMlin; hiiiI kicking in i 'puir the cuniil, and to ap- 
|ioint u si'irclury, treasurer and toll-cuUcclor. 

*< 6. Commissioners not entitled to any remuneration 
for their services. 

" 7. Commissioners declared a body corporate. A sum- 
mons served on the secretary, in any action against them, 
sutiieient to compel them to appear. 

" 8. ('ommissioners may eninloy lock-keepers and other 
assistants, and allow a reasonable remuneration for their 

" 9. Kates and duties to be paid to such persons, and at 
siieh places near tlie canal and in such manner, as com- 
missioners may direct and ap|ioint. 

" 10. in eases of damage done to the canal or to the 
bridges, Ike. by any boat, 8ic., such boat may be seized and 
detained until the injury is repaired. 

"II. Commissioners authorized, where the province 
ought by law or equity to bear the charge of making, Kie, 
fences along the canal, to agree with the proprietors of 
land, on which the fences are, to allow a reasonable in- 
demnity for the trouble of making and keeping the same 
in repair. 

" 12. Tolls to be paid over quarterly to the receiver- 

" 13. Salary allowed to secretary, treasurer and toll- 
collector, not exceeding iiUU/. 

" 14. Secretary, treasurer and toll.colleetor, before en- 
tering into the duties of his said olfiee, to enter into bond 
to his majesty for the faithful discharge of his duty. 

" I.). Commissioners to render an account to the legis- 

" 16. Continuance of this act not to exceed Dec. 31, 

C'hambly Canal, — Commissioners have been 
chosen to carry into effect this important under- 
taking, so necessary to the general interests of the 
province, and particularly to all the settlements 
near the h. Richelieu and the districts of Quebec 
and Three Rivers. Its line of communication is 
to run along the Richelieu from the Chambly 
basin to the village of St. John in the barony of 
Longueuil, a distance uf 11 miles. A sum of 
money lias been aii))ropriated for this pur])oBC by 
a vote of the As.seinbly, Mar. 22, 1B23, and it 
was then decreed that the undertaking should be 
commenced us soon as the Lachine Canal was 
completed. That enteqirise was finished in au- 
tuiuii, lii2(} ; but no steps have as yet been taken 
to open the Chambly Canal, excepting those uf 
surveying and tracing out the line. — It is sup- 
posed that the i>l>jects of this canal might be at- 
tained by u much shorter line and at a much less 
expense than what will be re(|iiired liy the pre- 
sent plan ; unil it has Ik'cu suggested, that if some 
improvements were made in the navigntitm of the 
R. Itichclieu, a canal of five miles only would 
l)e sufficient. The iinprovemcnts suggested to be 
made in the r. St. John, or Richelieu, have lieen 
thus detailed:— " ('(iniincnciiig at the rupids of 
St. John, a channel (Ml or fM) fict wide for cnifts 
drawing 4 or ;'» feet water could lie made over 
these rupids by simply forming a dyke the length 




\ ... 


of the rapidB. A bank answering for a towing-path 
might be made of the stones and rocks in the rapids, 
at the head of which an elbow might be carried out 
the distance required to throw into that channel 
a sufficient quantity of water. From the foot of 
these rapids to the head of Chambly rapids, there 
is no other obstruction than a few scattered rocks 
at the Mille-rochcs and a shallow place at St. 
Therese, each about six acres in length, and both 
of which could be, at a trifling expense, made na- 
vigable for a vessel drawing four or five feet of 
water ; the first by removing the rocks, the se- 
cond by the junction of the two islands at St. 
Therese. By this junction, the great body of 
water which now passes over to the s. between the 
two islands would be retained in the w. channel, 
which would, it is believed, give a sufficient depth 
of water. Should, however, the junction of the 
islands not raise the water sufficiently, by putting 
out an elbow from the head of the main island to- 
wards the east, as much water as could be required 
might be brought into the west channel, which 
channel, being confined to a narrow space by the 
island alluded to above and the main land, could 
be raised to any height, as it would altogether 
depend on the length of the elbow. — These im- 
provements, as simple as they may appear to some, 
and which it is believed would not cost above 
fi or £6000, would undoubtedly give a navigable 
river from St. John to the head of Chambly 
rapids, a distance of about seven miles out of 
eleven, leaving only between four or five miles 
of obstruction, viz., the length of Chambly ra- 
pids. From the heed of Chambly rapids to the 
basin, the river may perhaps ofler but few advan- 
tages. Should it therefore be found necessary 
to cut through the land there, tliere is a tine 
head of water ; and, it is said, by going ))ack a 
few acres, there is a ravine running through a 
barren part of this section of the country, which 
would ofll-r many advantages to such an under- 
taking. At all events, should it be found neces- 
sary to avoid both ravine and river at these ra- 
pids, it would be a work of minor consequence 
wiien compared witit the Herculean tai>k proposed 
by Mr. I'rice's fourteen miles plan, which, liesides 
tile additional expense of making a canal seven 
miles longer than necessary, would involve the 
undertaking in an unavoidable and enormous ex- 
pense fur the purchase of the land, for the making 
and keeping in repair the numberless bridges 



that would be required and the fences that would 
be necessary on each side of the canal." 

GreniUle Military Canal extends from the ba- 
sin to Greece's Point, in the t. of Chatham, more 
than 6 miles. It was opened by the two com- 
panies of the royal staff corps belonging to the 
military establishment immediately contiguous to 
Orenville basin. This important work was con- 
ducted under the immediate superintendence and 
direction of Major Duvemet. This officer having 
sailed for England with his company, the com- 
mand at the Orenville station devolved upon 
Captain Read. The canal is cut through the 
solid rock in various parts, forming an aggregate 
length of about 4 miles of rock excavation, to an 
extreme depth, in some parts, of 30 feet. Its 
average width at bottom is from 25 to 30 feet, 
and at top from 35 to 40, and the depth of water 
is computed at from 5 to 6 feet. The object of 
the Orenville Canal is to connect the navigable 
sections of the Ottawa River interrupted by the 
impetuous Long Sault rapid and other inferior 
rapids below it, especially that in front of Mr. 
M'Robb's property, at the foot of which he has 
very judiciously laid out a village, now called 
Davis Village. 

The Cascade Canal, in the S. of Soulange, has 
lieen made in order to avoid the danger of passing 
the cascades at the entrance of the St. Lawrence 
into lake St. Louis. It is usually called the Mi- 
litary Canal, and is constructed across a point of 
laud through which all boats now make their way 
to the locks at Le Buisson. It is 500 yards in 
length and is furnished with the necessary locks. 
On each side, land 100 ft. wide has been relin- 
quished by the proprietors of Soulange and Vau- 
dreuil, which is reserved for public purposes. At 
the entrance to the canal from lake St. Louis is a 
guard-house, where a small party of military is 
alwa) s stationed. 

Cahanbhino (L.), v. O Cananbhino. 

Canards, aux, or au Canbau, river, is near 
the \i. exta-mity of the S.of Mount Murray. On 
this little a. mills might be erected. It falls into 
tliu St. Lawrence and its mouth forms a safe har- 
bour for boats and small craft, The batlnrtB op- 
IHwito extend about 8 or m. and, being without 
any useful vegetable pn)duction, they continue to 
l)e the resort of immense collections of water-fowl. 
— At Rckavffttud aur Bas^urg, near its mouth, are 
large masses of iron ore in wide veins. 


ces that would 

I from the ba- 
Dhatham, more 
the two com- 
longing to the 
' contiguous to 
work was con- 
ntendence and 
s officer having 
•any, the com* 
devolved upon 
t through the 
g an aggregate 
cavation, to an 
' 30 feet. Its 
25 to 30 feet, 
depth of water 
The object of 
the navigable 
rrupted by the 
other inferior 
I front of Mr. 
f which he has 
E^, now called 

* Soulange, has 
inger of passing 

8t. Lawrence 
called the Mi- 
ross a point of 
nake their way 

500 yards in 
lecessary locks. 
[as been relin- 
inge and Vau- 
purposes. At 

St. Louis is a 

of military is 


river, is near 
Murray. On 
It falls into 
ms a safe bar- 
le batlHrti op- 
being without 
ey continue tu 
its mouth, are 



Canbau, au, V. Canabob, b. 

C.1NIE, island, in the gulf of St. Lawrence 
near the Saguenay coast, between the rivers Ma- 
chigabiou and Chimepanipestick. 

Canot, au, V. TOLBDO, B. 

Cap u TAiolb, v. Isle aux Covobbs. v ^ 

Cap a 1' Est, v. Saoubnav, b. 

Cap Brulr, in Cute de Beaupre, S. 

Cap de 1' Abatis, in Cote de Beaupr^, S. 

Cap de la Oribannb, in Cote de Beaupre, S. 

Cap de la Maodklainb, seigniory, in the co. 
of Champlain, is bounded s. w. by the river St. 
Maurice, v. b. by the S. of Champlain and its 
augmentation and by the St. Lawrence in front. 
— ^The breadth is 2 leagues and its depth 20, ex- 
tending N. into the interior. — Granted Mar. 20, 
1651 , to the order of Jesuits and has now de- 
volved to the crown. — It contains 17>707 arpents 
in concession and the greater part of the lands 
conceded, as well as of the lands unconceded, are 
not susceptible of cultivation. There is, however, 
one concession of 40 arpents wholly settled, and 
one of 20 arpents partly settled with 5 or 6 
houses ii,\ :''■■ St. Maurice, below the Forges. A 
small nuiT^' t He uon-conccdcd lands have been 
enclose^, >.l>. re is no road to them. 800 su- 
perficial . ^. ..i^b were conceded prior to 17^9, at 
the rent of ha copre per arpent, at which rent 
they still continue. — The few young persons who 
take new lands prefer taking them near their re- 
latives or friends, however inferior in quality they 
may be ; and the soil of almost the whole of this 
•S. is a white sand. — The timber towards the in- 
terior has attained a very fine growth. — Com- 
pared with the great extent of the grant, a small 
portion only is under cultivation, which lies prin- 
cipally on the St Lawrence and on the St. Maurice 
almost up to the Falls of Oabelle. The settle- 
ments, however, are not remarkable fur very good 
management; the wheat and other crops, there- 
fore, are but indifferent on land that might be 
made tu yield abundantly ; for the situation of the 
farms on the bunks of the rivers and the quality 
of the soil are both favourable to agricultund im- 
provement. — The Quebec road posses, almost close 
to the St. Lawrence, by the ferry over the St. 
Maurice to the town of Three Rivers. This ferry, 
by which the established post-road is continued, 
is nearly 2 ni. across. The price demanded from 
eacli person is 2«. iid. and in like proportidn for 
hurics and carriages ; but about 1 \ lu. higher up 


the river there is another, where the charge is 
only 3i^ each person, and Is. 3i/. for a horse and 
carriage. By the side of this road stands the 
church with iu presbytery. — At the mouth' of 
the St. Maurice are the islands Bellerive, au 
Cochon, St. Christophc, La Croix and L'Abri; 
they are low and almost covered with wood of 
the inferior sorts, but afford some very good 
grasing land. It was once in contemplation to 
throw a bridge across this river opposite to Isle 
St. Christophe: it would prove of great public 
utility and, on a route so much frequented, such 
an undertaking could hardly fail of being profit- 
able. — Between Isle Bellerive and the main land 
there is a very good situation for laying up river 
craft during the winter, where they remain secure 
in about 8 feet water, and escape injury from the 
breaking up of the ice in the spring. 

Population 572 
Churches, R. C. 1 
(Junites 1 

I'rt'sbytories 1 
Corn-mills . 1 


Saw-mills . 
Tanneries . 

lUver cmft 
Keel boatk 




/finiiia/ Agricultural Product, 






. H,UOO 


Peas . I,8IN) 
Potatoes 7,rNJ0 
Buck wheat SOU 

Indian com (K) 
Mixed grain lUO 

Live Stock. 


m>\ Swine 


TUU.—" Concession du 20me Mars, 1&51, taite par 
Mr. dc la Ferti, aux r'-v^rends litres jiituUei, coiitenant 
deux Heues le long dii Iteuve SI. Laurent, depuis le Cap 
nomm^ des TroU liiviirei, en descendant sur le grand 
fleuve, jusqu'aux cndruits oi^ Ics dites deux lieues se pour- 
ront rtendre, sur vingt lieues de profbndeur du cM du 
Nord, et comuris les bois, rivieres et prairies qui sont sur 
le dit grand fleuve et sur les dites TnAt Hiviirci,"-'He- 
gittrt dflntendanee, Xo.9i 9,Jblio 131. 

Cap Chat, fief, in the co. of Oasp6, lies near 
the N. w. point of the division-line between the 
districts of Quebec and Oosp^ and is bounded in 
front by the St. Lawrence. — The harbour must 
be approached with the greatest precaution, or 
the mariner will be exposed to imminent <langer. 
As shipwrecks have frequently occurred here, the 
provincial legislature has granted £150 per anu. 
tu establish u depot of provisions at the h. .Stv. 
Anne, below and near Cap Chat, for the relief 
(if shipwrecked mariners and others. A salary of 
i'50 is allowed to the guardian of the depot, whu 

i ' 



M ordered to keep a register of the persons re- 
lieved, the quantity of provisions furnished and 
the names of the vessels wrecked. 



80 1 Shopkeepera 1 | Keel boats 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 


Butheli. Butheli. 

fcO Pototots . 250 Peas 

Live Stock. 


4 Cows . 7 Swine 

5 Sheep .13 



Cap Chat, river, in the e. part of the d. of 
Quebec, cutting the division-line, runs into the co. 
of Gospe and soon falls into the St. Lawrence. 

Cap D'Espoir, fief, in the co. of Gnspc, be- 
tween Mul Bay and Little Pabos. 

Statistici, including Ance a Beavfils, 

Population . 184 1 Keel boaU . 40 

Annual AgricuUnral Produce. 



Butheli, I Buiheli, | 

GUO I Potatoes 3,7U0| Peas 

Live Stock. 

3 1 Cows 
3U| Sheep 

30 i Swine 



Cap AIaillari), v. Cotk dc Beauprk. 

Cap Tuurmrnte, v. Cote de Beaupre. 

Cap Rosier, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
about midway between Griffin's Cove and the ex- 
treme point of Cape Gaspe, at the entrance of 
Oaspi' Bay. — Population 54 ; ketl boats 4 ; an- 
nual produce of potatoes 75 bushels ; agricultural 
stock 1 horse, 1 ox and 3 cows. 

Cap Rouor, river, rises in the highlands near 
the roar boundaries of the S. of Desmaure. In 
tiie Kcrpentine course it describes in passing dia- 
gonally through the S. it receives many small 
streams from the right and left; its banks are 
elevated, but the eminence is attained by a very 
gradual slope, or it may be said more correctly, 
that it flows through n narrow vnlley nlxxinding 
in natural beauties of the most picturesque kind, 
and po.ssessing all the charms that can be looked 
for in tlie must skilful landscape com]tositi(m. 
Tiiis n. enters the >S. of Gaudarville and gra- 
dually bending 8. falls into the St. Lawrence near 
the ».w. angle ttf that seigniory. Its course in 


general is eminently beautiful and picturesque. 
In Gaudarville it feek the attraction of the ebb 
tide of the St. Lawrence so strongly, that at low 
water its bed is nearly dry, and can be crossed 
with the utmost ease without the assistance of 
the ferry-boat ; but at high water boats of con- 
siderable burthen can enter it and ascend as high 
as the mill, about f of a mile from the St. Law- 
rence. At its mouth is an established ferry, where 
boats and scows are always ready though not 
always necessary. 

Caps, des, river, in the S. of Blainville and 
Lachenaye, rises in the concession Bouchetteville 
and runs into the St. Lawrence opposite the most 
eastward island of the cluster called The Pilgrims. 

Cap St. Glaude, rivulet, in the S. of Vin- 
cennes, rises in the plains that extend from the S. 
of Muntapeine and discharges itself into the St. 
Lawrence. It works five mills ; one for carding, 
one for fulling, another for sawing and two for 
grinding com. Near its mouth is a fall of about 
150 ft., at the bottom of which is one of the corn- 

Cap St. Ionacb, fief, in the co. of I'lslet, is 
bounded n. e. by the S. of Vincelot, n. w. by 
Gagne fief, in the rear by the S. of Ste. Claire 
and in front by the St. Lawrence. It is ^ 1. in 
front by 1 league in depth and is the property of 
Mons. Vincelot. No document relating to this 
grant has been found among the records lodged 
in the surveyor-general's office. — Well watered 
by the Bras St. Nicholas, which runs transversely 
through the middle of the fief.— Very little tim- 
ber remains. — 3 concessions have been granted, 
and 2 of them are settled. — This fief is moun- 
tainous and rocky, except in the front concession 
which, however, is not entirely without rocky 
places and hillocks. Some rushes that grow here 
are good food for cattle, and without which the 
horses could not be supported. The hordes are 
genpvally of the Norman breed and with little or 
no improvement. Orchards are more numerous 
here than in other parts of the district. All the 
inhabitants living w. of the church carry their 
com for grinding to the Moulin a Cardc in the 8. 
of St. Thomas, which is a loss to the seignior of 
Cap St. Ignace. — The parish of Si. Ignaie com- 
prehends the fief of that name with Goose and 
Crane Islands (Isles aux Oies and oux Grues), 
which arc the property of Mr. M'Pherson and 
contain several settlements, which with the salt 



d picturesque, 
ion of the ebb 
ly, that at low 
can be crossed 
i assistance of 
' boats of con- 
ascend as high 
1 the St. Law- 
id ferry, where 
ly though not 

Blainville and 
positc the most 
1 The Pilgrims, 
the S. of Vin- 
nd from the S. 
If into the St. 
ne for carding, 
g and two for 
a fall of about 
ne ofthecom- 

0. of rislet, is 
elot, N. w. by 

of Ste. Claire 

1. It is ^ 1. in 
he property of 
elating to this 
records lodged 
Well watered 
IS transversely 
ery little tim- 
been granted, 
<icf is moun- 

ont concession 
vithout rocky 
hat grow here 
lut which the 
he horses are 

with little or 
ore numerous 

let. All the 
h corry their 
ardc in the S. 
he seignior of 
Jgnate coni- 
th Ooosc and 

nu.\ Urues), 

Fherson and 
with the stilt 

marshes are very valuable ; the proprietor has an 
extensive fanning establishment and rears a large 
stock of cattle : the excellent butter which he sends 
to the Quebec market in considerable quantities is 
sold for Id. or 2d. per lb. higher than any other. 

Stathtics of the Parish of St. Ignace, including 

Goose and Crane Islands, 
PopuUUon 1,805 | Churches, R. C. I | Presbyteries 1 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Butheli Uuiheli. I Buihel*. 

Wheat . 13,500 Potatoes 18,()0i) I Indian corn 100 

Oats . 0,100 Peas . I,2}i2 Mixed grain 1,000 

Barley . 1,000 Rye . 5001 

Live Slock. 


609 1 Cows 
300 'Sheep 

0051 Swine 
3,000 1 


Cap St. Michbl or La Tbinitk, seigniory, 
in the co. of Vercheres, joins Varennes s. w., the 
fief Ouillaudiere N. R. and is bounded by the aug- 
mentation to Bel(eil in the rear and by the St. 
Lawrence in front. One league in front by 1 J 1. 
in depth. — Granted, 3d Nov., 1U72, to Mons. de 
St. Michel and is now the property of Jacques 
Le Moine Martigny, Esq. — A diversity of soil 
prevails, the greater part of which is good, being 
either a fine black or a grayish mould that proves 
fertile when tolerably well managed. The whole 
'"^Mr ^- '* under cultivation. — The rivers St. Charles 

and Notre Dame run across it, and are sufficiently 
deep to be navigable for boats of burden. — The 
uncleared lands, scarcely half a league square, 
afford hardly any other wood than the spruce fir, 
a species of very trifling value. — On the rivers 
are two corn-mills and one saw-mill. — Part of 
the S. is divided into four small fiefs, held by 
Messrs. Delette, Beaubien, Oauticr and Monde- 
lettc, containing together \ league in breadth by 
J 1. deep. — Two islands in the St. Lawrence, lying 
in front of this grant, are appendages to it ; each 
nearly J m. long and from to 10 arpcnls broad ; 
cattle are sometimes pastured on them. 

riltf.—" Ije litre de cette Concession n'a pas M troiivi 
dans le Sccr/'tariHt, Par iin acte de Foi et llomniiigp, 
rendu le 3ine AiiOt, I67U, derant Mr. Duchenncau, ulors 
Intt'iitlant, il |)aroit que re tiei'duit avoir line liciie de front 
sur unr lit'iie et dvniie de profoiidcur, situ/' tiur le tleuvc 
St. LiiHrrnt, entre Ics conressioiis de Mr. rfc IVitrnnrt et 
l.aurnit WorHfi/, Sirur ile Grandmaiton, aver deux petites 
InU's vis-H-viddc su drriintilrr." — Higitire dti Fui it Horn- 
magf. No. in, folio 1H«, le lOmr Fivricr, 1781. 

Cap Santk (P.), v. Purtnrvf, B. 

Cariboo Mountain, v. St. Mavricr, r. 

Caribou, river, falls into the Saguenay a league 
below the Chicoutiroi on the opposite side of the 
R., at a place called les Prairies, meadows that pro- 
duce the hay that is consumed at the post of Chi- 
coutimi. This r. is inconsiderable and for | mile 
inland is one arpent wide. It runs from the hills 
to the N. w. and forms a good harbour at its 

Carleton, township, in the co. of Bonaven- 
ture, is bounded N. u. by the t. Maria and Cos- 
capediac bay, 8. by the Iwy of Chaleurs, w. and n, 
by waste lands of the crown.— The land rises into 
lofly mountains. — Tiiis t. contains two villages 
and is watered by two rivers, the O. and L. Nou- 
velle, and in its front lies Tracadigash bay. The 
lands fit for cultivation are occupied and amount 
to one or two concessions only. 


Population 570 1 River craft . 18 I Keel boats . 2 
Shopkeepers 4 1 Total tonnage 1350 | 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 


Bushrlt. Buiheb. 
. ^35:^ Oats . 2,100 PoUtoes 

Live Stock, 



83 1 Cows . . 800 Swine 
. 1 Mi 1 Sheep. . 612 

. 690 

Carlisle, New, v. Cox, t. 

Carupkl, fief, in the co. of St. Maurice, lies 
in the rear of the first part of the S. of Man- 
kinongi! between Dusublc and fief St. John. — 141 
arpents in front by 2 leagues in depth. Oranted, 
March, 1705, to Jean Sicard, Sieur dc Canifel, 
and is now possessed by L. A. Duchesnay, Esq. — 
The land is good and fertile mixed here and there 
with a reddish clay and sand. — Almost every 
kind of good timber is found and some of the pint- 
grows to large dimensions. — The R. Masklnongr 
traverses this 8. from the n. w. by which the 
timber felled hero is sint down to the St. Law- 
rence. — The part under cultivation contains some 
very respectable farms and good houses by the 
side of the main road. — This fief contains three 
concessions, each having u road kept in good order, 
and it forms part of the parish of St. Joseph ilf 
Maskinongi'. — 2J0 lands or forms are conceded 
in 5 ranges, called, 1st, Ste. Ocni'viivc ; 2nd, n. k. 
of the Huisseau de Lo|^iere ; 3rd, b. w. of ditto; 
4th, n. k. of the Ruisseuu du Buis Blanc ; Jth, 


.>>t ( «,ijr 





8. w. of ditto.— About 12,000 arpents are in a 
state of cultivation and about 9,000 unconceded, 
the greatest part of which is tit for agricultural 
improvement. — There is a superb quarry of lime- 
stone ; also tt species of potter's earth fit for paint- 
ing. — The cattle is generally good, and the in- 
habitants carefully attend to its improvement.— 
The fief Marie-Anne is in this S. to the N. s. 
of the B. Maskinong^ and enjoys the right of 
banalild over the entire S. The rear joins the 
S, of Lanaudidre. In Carufel are one private 
school, 5 saw-mills, many limekilns, 3 blacksmiths, 
many carpenters and wheelwrights and 10 or 
12 joiners. — This S. produces from 20 to 25,000 
bushels of wheat, 15,000 bushels of oats and as 
much peas and barley. 

Tilfe. — " Concession du mois de Mars, 1703, faite par 
Philippe do Rigaud, Gouvemeur, et Fratifoii de Beauhar. 
not; Inteiidant, an Sieur Jean Sicard, Sieiir de Carufel, 
de Trspnce de tcrre qui rc8te dans la riviire de Matqui- 
tioiigi, dans le lac St. Pierre, depuis celle qui a ^t^ ci- 
deviiiit accordie au Sieur Legardeur, jusqu'au premier sault 
de 1h dite riviere, ce qui contient deux licues ou environ 
de front sur pareiUe profondeur." — Bigiitre d'Intendance, 
No. 5, folio 40. Cahieri d" Intend, more authentic. 

Cascade Canal, v. Canals. 

Cascadbb, des (V.), v. Soulanok, S. 

Cascapbdiac (O.), river, in the co. of Bonaven- 
ture, rises in the rear of the t. of Richmond and 
traversing over a great part of that t., enters the 
adjoining t. of Maria near its s. e. angle, where 
it falls into the bay of Cascapediac and forms an 
excellent harbour for vessels of every si>e. 

Cascapbdiac (L.), river, in the co. of Bonaven- 
turc, rises in the rear of the t. of Hamilton and 
running s. w. enters the t. of Richmond, where 
it empties itself into Cascapediac bay about 6 miles 
from the mouth of the Greater Coscnpcdiac. 

Cassimaquaoan, river, runs from tlic e. into 
the R. Matapediac, affording at its mouth a favour- 
able site for a mill and an excellent situation for 
settlers. It is said to be navigable for many miles 
and abounds with valuable pineries. 

Castor, island, at the n. w. end of l. St. Peter 
and at the mouth of the R. Buyonne, is between 
Randin and Isle Dupas. 

Casupsciill or Cosupscoul, river, in the co. 
of Rimouski, rises in a l. towards the s. boundary 
of the CO. It runs s. w. for the greater part of 
its course, then taking a sudden turn more to the 
w. soon enters the B. side of the Matapediac, and 
is the largest stream that empties itself into that 
river being navigable for 60 or 00 miles. 

C A X 

Cat, river, so called in Algonquin, meaning 
Pole Cat, is a small stream running into the 
western bank of the St. Maurice above the Upper 
Matawin island. 

Catherinb'b Town, t;. Bbauharnois, S. 

Caudik, Grande, river, rises in a lake at the 
N. E. angle of the t. of Dorset, running s. to near 
the centre it takes a sudden turn b. and in the 
5th range leaves the t. for that of Shenley, where 
it falls into the R. Chaudiere near the s. angle of 
that T. 

Cawooo, a projected township in the co. of 
Ottawa, is bounded b. by Shorn, w. by Mansfield, 
8. by Litchfield and N. by waste lands of the 

Caxton, township, in the co. of St. Maurice, 
is bounded s. e. by lands belonging to the Forges 
of St. Maurice, s. by St. Etienne and Dumontier, 
8. w. by Hunter's Town and n. by waste lands of 
the crown. — Here are only a few settlers, although 
a large number of acres were granted to the officers 
and privates of the Canadian militia who served 
during the last American war. The t. is abund- 
antly watered by numerous rivers and lakes, 
among which are Lac O Cananshing and Lac des 
Perchaudes. — As the value of the townships is so 
much accelerated and increased by the formation 
of new roads, the anxiety of the legislature of this 
province ought, in that respect, to be duly appre- 
ciated. The following extract from the report 
of the commissioners appointed to open a road of 
communication from the old settlements of Ya- 
machiche to the T. of Caxton will prove that such 
undertakings are easily executed, and will afford 
some interesting information relative to this va- 
luable though unsettled township. — The report is 
dated Feb. 1, 1830:—" We proceeded to open 
and complete the said road by day labour. Be- 
ginning on the road p{ Picdure, about 12 acres 
from the River du Loup, we opened a new road 
across the concession of Picdure, beginning in the 
division line of one Gilmet and Lachance, and con- 
tinued Northward to the next concession of Belle- 
chosse, distance 24 arpents. The land in this 
route is low with some hills intervening and 
thickly wooded ; one arpent of which was cause- 
wayed, five high hills reduced and made accessible, 
and ten bridges built none of which above 18 ft. 
long ; widening and completing the road on the 
concession of Bcllechasse (which had been opened) 
to the land of one Callier, distance about 6 arpents. 

C H A 

C H A 

From BellechasK, on the line of CalUer's land, to- 
ward St. Joseph concession, a new road is opened 
and completely finished to the concession road of 
St. Joseph, a distance of .'i2 arpents, through a 
thickly wooded country : in the course of this road 
nine bridges were built, none of them above IB ft. 
long ; five hilk reduced and made accessible and 
2\ arpents of road causewayed. Arriving at St. 
Joseph at lot No. 48, the road, which was merely 
opened to the t., we completed by widening and 
extracting all the stumps to lot No. (i!), at the 
township line, distance 42 arpents, in which eight 
bridges were erected, none above 18 ft. ; six steep 
hills reduced and made easy of access and nearly 
one arpent of savanna causewayed, making in all 
about 4^ miles. The whole of the road is 10 ft. 
wide and where necessary ditched ; the stumps 
are every where extracted and the whole line has 
a beautiful appearance. Came to the place of be- 
ginning and continued the road to the bank of the 
River du Loup, below all the chutes and rapids ; 
thus giving a communication from the township 
of Caxton to the St. Lawrence by the river du 
Loup, which from this place is navigable for 
boats and rafts, and also a communication to Ma- 
chiche by the roads of St. Joseph, Bellechasse and 

Picdure A road was opened through the 

1st and 2nd ranges of the t. to the dista ice of 52 
acres, and also across the first six ranges and be- 
tween the 3rd and 4th ranges to lot No. 19 ; and 
another road along the front line of the t. from 
the 2nd to the 5th range, making in all, including 
the road first mentioned, 15 miles. Throughout 
the whole extent the land was found to be of the 
best quality, the wood consisting of maple, birch, 
ix^ech, ash, &c. In some places the land is low, 
where the woods are cedar, spruce, &c. These 
places required to be causewayed or ditched, which 
has been partially done Abo» t i'lOO would 
finish all the roads in this t. We believe that 
with £150 we might be able to go over the 
whole line, and complete what yet remains to be 
done on the 6th and 7th ranges ; and also to open 
a road between the 5th and 6th ranges to the 
Great Lake, which would open a large tract of 
very fine land." 

Crdrrs, des (V.), «; SoirLANOK, S. 

Chaffrrb Brook rises in two streams near 
the 8. line of Inverness and towards the centre of 
that T. joins the R. Clyde. 

Chalkurb Bay may be called an arm of the 

gulf of St. Lawrence and is bounded on the N. 
by the counties of Gaspc and Bonaventurc and 
on the A by New Brunswick. The entire n. coast 
of this extensive bay from the gulf to the river 
Ristigouche, which discharges itself into the w. 
extremity, is in Lower Canada.— This bay ex- 
tends from R. to w. about 88 m. and its greatest 
width is about 20. The navigation of the bay is 
perfectly safe and the anchorage, every where, 
so good that neither ship nor fishing-boat was ever 
known to be lost. Storms are not more frequent 
in this bay than at Quebec, and, although they 
occur here oftener than at Perci'; and in the hay 
of Ga8p6, the air is more humid and colder; 
about the same difference exists between the air 
of Quebec and Montreal. 

CuALOUPK, G. and L., two rivers that rise in 
the S. of Lanoraye and its augmentation. The 
greater river rises in two branches w. of the church 
of St. Elizabeth, and after receiving the Little 
Chaloupe, increased by St. Charles Brook, it takes 
in the s. w. branch and enters the S. of Bcrthlsr, 
where it falls into the St. Lawrence nearly 1 m. 
above the r. of Berthier opirasite Isle Randin. 

Chambly, county, in the district of Montreal, 
is bounded N. w. by the river St. Lawrence ; s. k. 
by the river Richelieu or Chambly, together with 
all the islands in the rivers St. Lawrence and 
Richelieu nearest to the co., and in whole or in 
part fronting it ; a. w. by the n. e. boundaries of 
the seigniories of Laprairie and De Lery, and n. b. 
by the co. of Vercheres ; it comprehends the seig- 
niories of Bouchcrville, Montarville, Longueuil, 
fief Trcmblay, Chambly West and the barony of 
Longueuil. — It is 3!) m. long and averages in 
breadth 11 \ m., and contains 211 sq. miles. Its 

centre is in lat. 45" 28" 30', Ion. 73° 17' 3if 

The popuktion is 12,932, of which ^''^ths are na- 
tive Canadians and the remainder English, Irish, 
Scotch, and Americans — It contains 5 parishes 
and part of the p. of Blairfindie, 4 villages and 
the town of Dorchester (erroncoudy inserted in the 
CO. of Acad'ir). This co. sends two members to 
the provincial assembly, and the place of election 
is Longueuil. — In agricultural pro<luce and po- 
pulation this co. vies with most in the province, 
and the quality of its soil is inferior to none. 
The surface in general is extremely level with 
the exception of the mountain of Bouchcrville, 
remarkable for its conspicuous appearance and 
height: on its summit are two beautiful small 



C H A 

lakes and a corn and saw-mill at the source of a 
small river that runs a. w. and falls into the r. 
Montreal about 1 m. w. of Chambly Basin: both 
these rivers turn several corn-mills. The little 
R. Montreal winds prettily through the co. in an 
K. direction and falls into Chambly Basin. Be- 
sides these rivers thu co. is abundantly watered 
by the r. Richelieu and the beautiful Basin of 
Chambly, by which it is bounded on the E. and 
N. E. — Numerous roods traverse this co. in every 
direction : the principal are those along the rivers, 
the Boucherville road, the Chemin il la Orande 
Savanne and the Laprairie road. — ^Almost the 
whole of this co. presents good and flourishing 
settlements and lands in a good state of cultiva- 
tion. / ■ - _ I,,;,- ...v., :.,-, , v.,i,-i_.. 

'. ' Statistics. •'-■^'^•1 

Population 12,038 
Churches, Prot. 2 
Parsonage-ho. 1 
Churches, R. C. 
Curi's . 6 
Presbyteries G 
Wesleyan chap. 1 
Colleges . 1 
Convents . 1 
Schools . 3 
Towns . 1 

Villages . 4 
Gaols . 1 
Corn-mills 15 
Saw-mills . 5 
Carding-mills 4 
Fulling-mills 3 
Tanneries . 2 
Potteries . 1 
Breweries . 8 
Distilleries . 1 

Founderies . 1 
Ship-yards . 2 
Medical men 3 
Notaries . 6 
Sliupkeepers 22 
Taverns . 25 
Artisans . 190 
River-craft . 4 
Tonnage . 21 
Keel-boats . 5 

Annual Agricuttural Produce, 

Wheat . 
Oats . 
Barley . 
Peas . 




Rye 4s508 
Buck wheat 2,500 
Indian corn 1,985 
Mixed gr. 4^1 15 

Potatoes 247,157 
Hay, tons 30,029 
Hax, cwts, .1(58 
Butter,cwtii. 1,980 

Live Stock. 


. 4s492 Cows . 6,4436 Sheep . 9,872 
. 2,852 Youngcattle2,437 Swine . 2,700 

Domett ic Mnnnfacluni. 



Linen . . 31, IW 
Looms . . .307 

Acni ill CullivatioH. 

Under crop . 

Fallow and meadow land 

Total in culture 

. 30,925 
. 00,580 


. CbAUBLY (R.), t;. RiCHRLIKU, R. 

Chambly, East, and Chambly, West, in 
the COS. of Rouville and Chambly divided from 
each other by the R. Richelieu. — The extent of 
each seigniory is 3 leagues in length by one league 
in depth ; and both were included in one grant 
to M. de Chambly, Oct. 29, 1672. 

C H A 

Chamhlif, East, is in the co. of Rouville, and 
is bounded s. e. by Monnoir ; n. e. by Rouville 
and Beloeil ; 8. w. by the barony of Longueuil. — 
The land, nearly level, is generally equal in qua<- 
lity to any in the d. of Montreal and is, nearly all, 
under a very favourable state of cultivation. — This 
part of the original grant now belongs to the heirs 
of the late Lieut.-col. de Salaberry, C. B. uud to 
Lieut-col. de Rouville. — The r. Richelieu or 
Chambly, whose entire course in this S. is navi- 
gable, by passing through the original grant, di- 
viding it into e. and w., affords many advan- 

Chambly, West, in the co. of Chambly, is bounded 
N.w. by the seigniories of Longueuil and Montar- 
ville and s. w. by the barony of Longueuil : it 
now belongs to Samuel Hat and Henry Bender, 
Esqs. — There are no lands unconceded, and two- 
thirds were granted prior to the conquest. The 
concessions extend 3 arpents by 30 and the rent 
is 1 sol toumois and a quart of wheat. — The 
greater part of the youths in this parish are de- 
sirous of forming new settlements; a few are 
in a condition to do so and others are equally 
desirous but want the means, and yet none will 
settle in the townships. — The surface, like that 
of E. Chambly, is level and the land is good, well 
settled and cultivated. 

Clutmbly Basin is a beautiful (expansion of the 
river, nearly circular, and about 1^ m. in diameter : 
it is embellished by several little islands, covered 
with fine verdure and natural wood, as ornamentally 
disposed as if regulated by the hand of art. Three 
of them lie at the mouth of the river Montreal ; 
some smaller ones, called the Islets St. Jean, are 
spread in a very picturesque manner, at the de- 
scent of the rapid of Chambly; the dark-hued fo- 
liage of the wood, that nearly covers thera, forms 
a pleasing contrast to the brilliant whiteness of the 
broken current. When rowing on this magnificent 
sheet of water, in a fine day, the prospect is truly 
enchanting. The three steeples of Chambly, Can- 
ton and de la Puintc, nearly represent the ex- 
tremities of a triangle, whose sides are bordered 
with objects which by their size, beauty and 
variety, most agreeably interest the beholder. — 
On the rapids above the Basin are the elegant and 
extensive corn-mills belonging to H. Bender and 
S. Hat, Esqrs., seigniors of East and West Cham- 
bly respectively. These mills, 7 in number, work 
24 sets of stones and are never in want of water : 


« ' «t •« 

C H A M B L Y. 

i IBS '•» 

r RouviUe, and 
E. by Rouville 
f Longucuil. — 
y equal in qua- 
id is, nearly all, 
tivation. — This 
ings to the heirs 
y, C. B. uud to 
.. Richelieu or 
this S. is navi- 
^nal grant, di- 
a many advan- 

nUy, is bounded 
ail and Montar- 
' Longueuil: it 
Henry Bender, 
iceded, and two- 
conquest. The 
30 and the rent 
jf wheat.— The 
is parish are de- 
nts; a few are 
lers are equally 
id yet none will 
urface, like that 
md is goodj well 

expansion of the 
^ m. in diameter : 
: islands, covered 
[, as ornamentally 
nd of art. Three 

river Montreal ; 
ets St. Jean, are 
nner, at the de- 
he dark-hucd fo- 
ivers them, forms 
; whiteness of the 
1 this magnificent 

prospect is truly 
f Charably, Can- 
ipresunt the ex- 
dcs are lurdered 
iize, beauty and 

the beholder. — 
e the elegant and 

H. Bender and 
and West Cham- 
in number, work 

1 want of water ; 

their excellence tempts the inhabitants from every 
part of the surrounding country, to a considerable 
distance, to bring their wheat thither yearly; the 
more so, as they are destitute of such an advan- 
tage in their own parishes, owing to the want of 
proper water-courses ; this is imrticularly the case 
below the Charably basin, where the comparative 
stillness of the river precludes the possibility, with 
any prospect of advantage, of building miUsof this 

Chambly Fort is on the w. side of the basin which, 
when seen from a distance, has some resemblance 
to an ancient castle : it wns built (of stone) by 
•* Alons. de Chambly, some years previous to the 
conquest of Canada by the English, and is the only 
one of the kind within the province ; its form is 
nearly square, containing several buildings and all 
the requisite means of modem defence which have 
been put into substantial repair ; the approaches 
to the fort are not protected by any out-works, nor 
Is there a ditch round it. Before the late hostilities 
with America only a small detachment of about 
two companies formed the garrison, but, when the 
war began, the advantageous position and proxi- 
mity to the enemy's frontier pointed it out as a 
strong point d'appui, where troops might be as- 
sembled and an extensive dcpAt formed : during 
the season for operations, in the years 1812, 1813, 
and 1H14, there was always a considerable force 
encamped on the plain near it, which in the last- 
mentioned year exceeded 6000 men ; during this 
period additional storehouses and other buildings 
were erected on the ground that has always been 
reserved by government for such puqioses. 

Chambly Village, built on one of the most beau- 
tiful spots in Lower Canada, is in West Chambly 
and on the bank of the Richelieu, not far from 
the fort : it contains 90 or 100 houses, chiefly built 
of wood, forming one principal street ; many of 
the houses are elegantly built and sliadcd by lofty 
poplars. At the 8. end of the village are some 
large and valuable mills close to the rapid of 
Chambly, and near the mills stands a good manor- 
house. This place is a great thoroughfare, as the 
main road from IWontreal to tlie American states 
passes through it, which, with the continual re- 
sort to the mills, occasions a good deal of activity 
among the traders and mechanics, and contributes 
very much to its cheerfulness as a place of re- 
sidence ; among the inhabitants are reckoned many 

of the most respectable families of the district, in- 
vited hither by its agreeable situation. The land- 
scape nf the surrounding country is rich and well 
diversified, aflbrding several very beautiful points 
of view; and there are many spots whence they 
may be seen to great advantage. The regular 
and venerable fort, the mills, the little elegant 
church of St. Joseph, houses dispersed among well 
cultivated fields, the various woodland scenery 
near and remote, the distant point Olivier with its 
village and beautiful church, the more distant 
mountain of Chambly or RouviUe, the continual 
change of objects on the basin and river, with the 
singular appearance of unwieldy rafts descending 
the rapid with incredible velocity, will amply 
gratify the spectator's admiration. 

Chambh) College is in the village and is a flou- 
rishing establishment, founded by Air. Mignault, 
the cure, aided by the principal inhabitants of 
Chambly. The zeal and liberality of that gentle- 
man on this interesting occasion, have been uni- 
versally acknowledged. — This edifice is at present 
only a one-sided building, to which two wings 
will be added when circumstances require the ad- 
dition ; it is GO French feet long inside the walls 
and 50 ft. broad. There are two stories above the 
ground floor, which contains the kitchen, the re- 
fectory and domestic offices ; the first story com- 
prises the hall of recreation, 35 ft. by 25, a parlour 
and the room of the principal ; and at the back are 
the school-room, the French school, the house- 
keeper's room and a corridor. On the second floor 
are the dormitory, 60 feet by 2.", four chambers 
for the tutors and scholars and a corridor. The 
college is built on ground a little higher than 
the street and is isolated from all other buildings. 
The following inscription by desire of the founder, 
Mr. Mignault, is to be inscribed on the building : 

Fliimina stepe vidcs piirvis c fontiliu!) orta. 

The foundation stone was laid June 12th, 1826, 
and the building was finished by the 1st of Feb. 
following It already contains 74 scholars who 
receive an elementary, mercantile or classical edu- 
cation. Boarders pay 20/. per annum and day 
boys a piastre per month. 

The Parish of Chambly, by a regulation con- 
firmed by a royal decree, M ar. 3, 1/22, extends 
3 leagues in front along the n. Richelieu und one 


Ik ;1i (| 

C H A V.:tl : 

league in depth on each ride of that river ; the 
frontage extends one league above and two leagues 
below Chambly Fort. 

Statislws of the Parish of Chambly. 

Population 4810 
Churches, R. C. 1 
Curts . . \ 
Presbyteries 1 

Corn-mills . 

41 Founderies 




Annual Agricultural Ptoduce. . 



Title,—" Concession du 99me Oct. 1672, faite par Jean 
Talon, Inteiidant, au Sieur de Chamblu, de six lieues de 
terre de front sur une lieue de prot'ondeur, k prendre sur 
la riviere Si. Loui* (Chambly) savoir trois lieues au Nord 
de la dite riviere (deux lieues en de^a du Fort que y est 
biti et une lieue au dela) et trois lieues au Sud de la dite 
riviire."— /i^^»<re fflnteudauee. No. \, folio 10. 

Chahouchouin (L.), v. KiNo'ti Posts. 

Chahplain, county. The boundaries of this 
CO., as prescribed by the recent act of the pro- 
vincial legislature, are found to be impracticable. 
The act directs that it shall be bounded n. e. by 
the CO. of Portneuf ; s. w. by the r. St. Maurice; 
8. E. by the St. Lawrence, and n. w. hif the 
northern boundary of the province. The R. St. 
Maurice had not been so far explored, before the 
passing of the act, as to enable the legislature to 
foresee the difficulty that would arise in carrying 
this part of it into execution. Since that period 
the St. Maurice has been explored far into the 
interior by the deputy surveyor-general, who has 
discovered that its course runs so much more to 
the N. E. than was expected that it entirely crosses 
the CO. of Champlain and enters that of Portneuf. 
By this unforeseen winding of the R. it is impos- 
sible that the co. of Champlain can be bounded 
both by the St. Maurice and the province line ; 
it is therefore more than probable that the course 
of the St. Alaurice will be preferred, being a na- 
tural boundary and rendering the county more 
compact than it would be if bounded by the pro- 
vince line, which boundary would create confusion 
in the administration of justice and be an inex- 
haustible source of inconvenience between the 
inhabitants of the counties of Chumpluin and St. 
Maurice. Takiflg for granted that this co. will 
be bounded by the course of the St. Maurice from 
the St. Lawrence to Portneuf, it will be G6 m. 
in depth by 23 in breadth and ccntain 7^ sq. 

A ■ C H A 

miles.— Its centre on the St. Lawrence is In 
lat. 460 28' N., Ion. 73<> IJ 30" w.— By the act 
above mentioned this co. contains the SS. of Ste. 
Anne and itr augmentation, Ste. Marie, Batiscan, 
Champlain and Cap de la Magdelaine ; it also in- 
cludes all the islands in the St. Lawrence nearest 
to and in front of the county. It contains 5 
parishes and the population is entirely Canadian. 
The principal town or village is Ste. Anne. This 
CO. sends two members to the provincial parlia- 
ment ; the place of election is at the feiry nearest 
to the St. Lawrence on the n, r. side of the r. 
Batiscan — This co. is exceedingly well watered by 
rivers and lakes ; the principal rivers are the Ba- 
tiscan, the St. Maurice, the Champlain, part of 
the R. Ste. Anne, and their tributary streams. 
These rivers traverse the county in every direction. 
—The land in the front of the co. is in general 
level and the soil light, but, towards the interior, 
the surface is uneven, occarionally traversed by 
ridges of hills, and the soil stronger with much of 
it fit for cultivation. 

Population 7,300 

Churches, R. C. 5 



Schools . 




Potattheries . 
Medical men 

■ . . r 

Shopkeepers . 
River craft . 
Keel boats . 






Annual Agricultural Produce. 








Buckwheat 1,760 
Indian cum 640 
Mixed grain 4,380 
Potatoes 238,516 

Flax . 79 

Butter . 2,4.32 
Maple sugar 38(i 
Hay, tons, 21,177 

Live Stock. 

2,."153i Cows 
2,4221 Sheep 

5,7491 Swine 
10,948 1 


Domcitic Muniifucturet. 






Champlain, river, rises in the S. of Cap de la 
Magdelaine and taking a course n. e. traverses the 
Aug. to Champlain and enters Batiscan where it 
turns 8. and after becoming the boundary be- 
tween that S. and Champlain, falls into the St. 

Lawfence i« in 
V. — By the act 

the SS. of Ste. 
Marie, Batiscan, 
sine ; it also in- 
awrence nearest 

It contains 5 
tirely Canadian, 
ite. Anne. This 
rovincial parlia- 
;he feiry nearest 
I. side of the r. 
well watered by 
rers are the Ba- 
implain, part of 
butary streams. 

every direction. 
;o. is in general 
rds the interior, 
ly traversed by 
ir with much of 

hopkeepcrs . 






Jiver craft . 




lix\ boats . 



lax . 79 

litter . 2,4.32 

ilaple sugar 38(J 

lay, tons, 21,177 




S. of Cap de la 
traverses the 
iscan where it 
boundary be- 
into the St. 


Cbamplain and its Augmentation, in the 
county of Champlain, lie between Cap de la 
M agdelaine and Batiscan. The seigniory is J ^ 1. 
in front by 1 league in depth and was granted 
Sept. 22, 1064, to Etienne Pesard, Sieur de la 
Touche. The Augmentation, of the same breadth 
as the seigniory and 3 1. deep, is bounded in the 
rear by the t. of Radnor and waste crown lands ; 
it was granted Apr. 28th, 1697, to 3fad. de la 
Touche, and the present proprietors areAIr.Munro 
and Mr. Poole. — In the front of the S. the soil 
is a yellow loam mixed with sand; in the rear 
it is stronger and better, in many places so good 
for the cultivation of ilax, that it is to be re- 
gretted that so profitable and important an article 
is not attended to. — The timber is various and, 
though not of first rate quality, is not too much 
mixed with the inferior sorts. — This S. is watered 
by the little river Champlain and by many small 
streams, which rise at a short distance in the in- 
terior and, winding down the gradual descent to 
the St. Lawrence in little rivulets, cross the main 
road, agreeably diversifying the meadows and cul- 
tivated grounds along the front. The R. Cham- 
plain works a corn and a saw-mill. — About one 
third of this seigniory is cultivated in a neat style 
and, by the side of the Quebec road, displays many 
good houses with thriving farms almost wholly 
cleared of wood. — A very small proportion of the 
aug. is under cultivation; the remainder conti- 
nues in a state of woodland producing some ca- 
pital timber. — The narrows of the rivers supply 
abundance of the fish called petite morue in the be- 
ginning of winter, and in the spring considerable 
quantities of eels are taken. The corn grown here 
is consumed by the inhabitants, who sell a little 
hay. The horses are, generally, of the Canadian 

The Parish of Champlain, by a regulation con- 
firmed by a royal decree. Mar. 3, 1 722, extends 
2J 1. along the St. Lawrence, viz. from Batiscun 
to fief I'Arbre a la Croix, from Champlain to fief 
de MarsoUet and from I'Arbre k la Croix to Cap de 
la JIagdelaine, comprehending the depths included 
in these boundaries.— A few years since, the in- 
habitants of the V. Hayotte in the p. of Champlain 
were alormed by the following extraordinary oc 
currence : a tract of land, containing a superficies of 
207 arpents, was suddenly moved about 3fi0 yards 
from the water's edge and precipitated into the 


river Champlain, overwhelming in its progress 
bnms, houses, trees and whatever lay in its course. 
The earth thus removed, dammed up the river for 
a distance of 26 arpents The eiil-ct was instan- 
taneous and accompanied by an appalling sound ; n 
dense va^mur, us of pitch and sulphur, filled the 
atmosphere, oppressing those who witnessed this 
awful convulsion almost to sutfocation. A man 
named Dube, who was on the ground at the time, 
was removed with it to a considerable distance, 
and buried up to the neck, but was extricated from 
his perilous situation without sustaining any serious 
injury. The course of the river being thus ob- 
structed, the waters were swelled to a great height 
by this extraordinary event. Dube lost an island 
of 5 arpents, which he had on the river. Anotlier 
inhabitant, named Ilamelin, also suflered a loss of 
land, wheat and hay ; and a third, named Francis 
Gossott, had his hay and grain destroyed. — The 
parish church and parsonage-house arc near thi- 
road. - -, 


Population 7a5 Saw mills 2 Tiiverns . '^ 

(^liiirclies, 11. C. I Tuniieries . 2 Artisans . 12 

Curi's . I Alediuil men 1 Uiver-eraft I 

Presbyteries 1 Notaries . 1 Tonnage . I,') 

Villages . I Shopkeepers I Keel-Urats I 
Corn-mills I 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 




Potatoes 173,.>(M) 
Peas . 1,300 


Mixed grain l,3<Hl 

Live Stock. 

24<) I Cows 
2121 Sheep 

l~.')\ Sninc 


Title.—" Concession dii 22me Septembre, IGC-I., fuitc 
par Mr. rfi- Misy, a Etienne Heaird, biciir de Laloui/ie. 
d'uiic lieue et domic de tcrre de front u prendre Mir Ir 
grand flcuvc St. Lanrcnt, depuis la riiiire Chamiiluiu en 
montiint sur le dif tlenve, vers les Troit Hiiiirc; sur iiiie 
lieue de profondeiir duns les teries; lu dite rivitie Chum, 
plain niitoyenne, uvec cenx que oecnpeiont les tcrres cjui 
sont de I'aiitre cote d'icelle, avoc tons Its bois, pres, rivi>ici«, 
ruisseuux, lues, isles et isletr, et gdii'iuleinent de tout le 
contenu eiitie les dites boriies.— Les Jesuites ajunt |>«r 
leur titre iiiiterieur de Uutiscan, iiii quart de lieu iiu Sjud- 
ouest de In riviOre Champlaih, eetto Omcession ne pouvolt 
s'eteiidrejiinques-lii, miiis Hvaiit I'uiineu 1721, ils eedirent 
o -M, Laloiic/ie Clianiplaiu, ee quart de lieue eonipris eiifre 
leuri. borne et la dite riviire; et c'est uiii-i que la Seigiieuiie 
est Bctiiellement bornce." — Iminuntiunt </« Contiil Siiji. 
ricur, Rif^ijlre M.J'oiu) 7. 

Augmcntiiliun. — " (,'on(rs(,ion du 28iiie Avril, 1()!>7. 
faite par /,u»ir de Bnndi; Jomie de fronlcmir. (ioiivi riuur, 
et JtiiH Bovhart, Iiiteiidant, ti Mad;iine dr l,iil,:Hc/ir, de 
trois lieui s de terre en profondeur, joi^imiit lu derriere de 
sa Seigneurie de Champlain, Mir tout la largeiir d'icelle ; 
tenant d'un ciite au lief de Batiscan, et de I'autre an lief du 


C H A 

bicur llcrtel. — llcrtel ti'eit qu'un arrive fief, cotic/'iK par 
k-» r(v(Teii(ls I'l TbH Jesuiti'H daiiH li'ur Sei),'iicurie du Cap 
ill- Mii/.'(Ulciiie." — Rigitlrc (Tlntnidaucc, No. 5,fullo Itt. 

(JiiAiti.ESBouRa, fief, village and mountainH, v. 
NoTRK Damk dcs Anoeh, S. 

Charleston (V.) v. Hatlky, t. 

Chateauouay, river, in the co. of Bcauharnois, 
men in several branches descending from the State 
of New York into Hinchinbrooke, where it forms 
the Imundary line between that t. and Godman- 
chester; whence it traverses the S. of Beau- 
hamois separating Jamestown from Ormstown, 
South Georgetown from North Georgetown, and 
Williamstown from Anncstown; it then enters 
the S. of Chateauguay, waters the settlements of 
St. Jean, and at the n. r. angle of the S. falls into 
the St. Lawrence, washing two sides of Isle St. 
Barnard. About the middle of the third con- 
cession of Ormstown the Chateauguay receives 
tlie river Outarde and, near the n. w. angle of 
Williamstown, the united waters of North Creek, 
Black River and other tributary streams. The 
Sturgeon river, from the rear of the S. of Chateau- 
guay, falls into it about 1^ m. below the church in 
the Canadian settlements of Williamstown. The 
Chateauguay is navigable to a considerable distance 
a1x>ve its mouth for bateaux, the smaller sort of 
keel boats and canoes. Large quantities of timber 
were formerly conveyed in rafts down this river 
from Godmanchester and Beauhamois, but the 
trade of this article has much diminished since the 
settlements have increased. 

Chateauguay, seigniory, in the co. of Laprairie, 
joins Beauharnois, s. w., Sault St. Louis, n. e. 
and La Salle in the rear ; the front stretches 2 1. 
on the St. Lawrence by 3 in depth. — Granted 
Sept. 29th, 1673, to Mr. Le Moine, Sieur de 
Longueuil, and at present belongs to the commu- 
nity of Grey Sisters at Montreal. — Through the 
whole of this property there is very little variation 
in the land, which lies nearly on a level and is 
generally of good quality ; the arable producing 
very fair crops of grain of all kinds. — All the 
lands or farms are conceded; about 100 were con- 
ceded in 1 7o9, each, measuring 3 arpcnts in front 
by 30 in depth, paying 1 sol toumois per super- 
ficial urpent and a capon for each front arpent. — 
There are some good ranges of settlements along 
the borders of the St. Lawrence, on both sides of 
the rivers Chateauguay and St. Regis and also in 

C H A 

the intermediate spaces, which may be reckoned 
about one half of the whole grant and they 
are under pretty good cultivation. This S. has 
one village and on the west ride of the Chateau- 
guay, near its discharge, stands the church de- 
dicated to St. John and on its banks are also a 
corn-mill and a saw-mill. At the mouth of this 
n. is Isle St. Bernard, sometimes called Nuns 
Island, about one superficial mile in extent and 
very well cultivated. This isle is an appendage 
to the grant and contains a house usually deno- 
minated a convent, a term certainly misapplied, 
for it will in no way answer the description of 
such an establishment, unless the residence of 
two members of the order to which the property 
belongs may be allowed to convert it into a man- 
sion of that description, — The R. Chateauguay 
crosses this S. diagonally and is navigable as far 
as the S. extends. The Sturgeon river rises in 
the rear of the S. and in a winding course runs 
through the w. division line into the S. of Beau- 
hamois. The first waters of the river St. Regis 
rise in the e. part and immediately leave this S. 
for that of Sault St. Louis. 

Population 4396 
Churches, R. C- 1 
Curi's . 1 


Presbyteries . 


Annual Agricultural Produce. 









Rye . 3,800 
Potatoes 60,000 

Peas . U,1U() 
Indian com 6,000 

Live Stock. 

1,219] Cows 


2,700 1 Swine 


Title, — " Concession du 29me Septembre, 1673, a Mr. 
Lc Moinn, Sieur ilc Longueuil, de deux lieues de terre de 
front, & commencer dix arpens au-dessous de la riviere du 
Loup, en montant dans le lac St. Louii, du cot^ du Sud ; 
et de profoiideur trois lieues, ensemble I'isle St. Bernard 
qui est a I'einbouchure de la dite riviere." — Foi et Horn- 
mage. No. W, folio 814., le 21mc Fivrier, I78I. CaAkrx 
d' Intend. No. 10 a ) 1, folio 425. 

Chateau Richer, (P.), v. Cote de Beaupre, 

Chatham, township, in the co. of Ottawa, 
joins Grenville, w., the S. of Argenteuil e., and 
is bounded in front by the Ottawa river and 
in the rear by Wentworth. This t. is 9 m. in 
breadth and 12 in depth; its dimensions, divisions 

■-■■ ^^y 


C H A T H A M. 

»y be reckoned 
rant and they 
This S. has 
if the Chateau- 
the church de- 
inks are also a 
! mouth of this 
s called Nuns 
in extent and 
I on appendage 
! usually deno- 
nly misapplied, 
! description of 
le residence of 
ch the property 
t it into a man- 
I. Chateauguay 
iBvigable as far 
n river rises in 
ing course runs 
the S. of Beau- 
river St. Regis 
sly leave this S. 

Villages . 1 

Corn-mills , 2 


Peas . 14,100 
Indian com 6,200 



mbre, 1673, a Mr. 
lieiies dc terre de 
lus de la riviere ilu 
I, du c6t6 du Sud ; 
I'isle St. Bernard 
e." — Foi ct Hom- 
ier, 1781. Ca/iUrt 

E de Beaupre, 

CO. of Ottawa, 
^enteuil e., and 
tawa river and 
s T. is 9 m. in 
nsions, divisions 

and subdivisions are with few exceptions the same 
as other river townships, some of its original 
grants having been made in i-oropact tracts or 
blocks, which were subsequently laid out so as to 
meet the exigency of the actual settlements made 
previous to the survey in 1U03. The local jw- 
sition of Chatham is highly favourable, and the 
lands may be divided into two classes. The first 
embraces the lands comprised between the Ottawa 
and the seventh range, which are generally level, 
risingin some parts intogentle acclivities commonly 
called maple ridges, and, in other places, fulling by 
easy slopes that terminate in extensive natural 
meads that afford rich and excellent pasturage. In- 
termixed with these are many small cedar swamps 
which are not, however, of any material disad- 
vantage. The land in this part of the t. is cal- 
culated to produce hemp and flax and every va- 
riety of grain raised in Lower Canada. The 
lands compo.sing the second class are compre- 
hended between the seventh range and its rear out- 
line and are higher and more uneven and broken, 
being traversed in various parts by mountains and 
high rising grounds, which are generally inter- 
mixed with intervals of rich soil. The hills arc 
in some places barren, particularly on the borders 
of Orenville. Of this section of the t. ^ may be 
said to be fit for cultivation, and the lands to that 
extent were located to Scotch emigrants in 1814, 
who have since that period improved and culti- 
vated a large portion. — The timber in this t. is of 
a superior description, and, though considerable 
quantities have been felled and disposed of, much 
valuable pine and oak with some elm are still to 
be found, also beech, birch, maple, &c. — This t. 
is watered by the North river, which enters at 
the 5th concession on the e. side and returns to 
Argenteuil at the 3rd concession ; and also by 
the West river, an arm of the North river, which 
strikes into tiiis t. near the Argenteuil Chute 
com and saw-mills, and runs through the centre 
in a s. direction, and is navigable nearly 6 miles 
through the Chatham lots, where, in the 11th und 
12th ranges, it breaks into several lateral streaF^s 
and irrigates the surrounding country. The .'ots 
are finely watered by the number x.t streams di- 
verging from the extreme point of this river. 
In the rear part are 8 or 9 small lakes, the largest 
from 40 to 50 acres. By the Riviere du Nord the 
timber felled in this and some of the adjoining 

townshi|is is floated down to the Ottawa. — Thv 
Grenvillc canal begins about 3 ni. within this v. 
— 34,<i<J9 acres are grunted under letters patent 
to various individuals: the following proprietors, 
in ]80fi and 1812, obtained lands in separate com- 
pact tracts in the first four ranges uninterrupted 
by reserves, vis. the late Cul. Robertson, the late 
Air. SIcDougal, Dr. Simon Frasc*, Lauchlau 
McLean, John Robertson, and Daniel Sutherland, 
Esq. with others of his family. The lands in tlu' 
5th, 6th, 7th and the greater ]>art of the 8th 
range, are also under patent an>< were grurited 
mostly to tl.ic persons ".bove-nam'i an ? ', j Wni. 
Fortune and thf kte P. L. P»,inl whi«.' jnuent 
for 2,200 acres Kin. di*,> u> tar lurk -j IJJH). 
About two thirl) i. Iiereibrii ol'thc Knuts iave been 
granted within the Itat Zi* y.T.ire, when the first 
settlements inChntl.ii/a ■oiumenii —8,000 acres 
ore under coTtivrMrr..— -Thef i'VM range '.'.' this 
township exhibits mni.-'. })ri>?^n-tcua and fl«ui-,^iin^ 
settlements, 'vuli ^o<m\ houies M>d wtil <;u'.' \tcd 
farms, espct-ially aiong the public roa'i ii the 
second range nvv* I'arm-huuse', an!^ extcniiivc im- 
provements are ak:iwise to •<,' >•■.:>■ ^, but they art 
more scattered over the cout -y. Bcjjndtbcrourdi 
range the vast tra.'is cf ^jnEteti lands, up to tiiu 
eighth range (in which ai c situated several blocks 
of crown and clergy reserves) remain almost a 
total wilderness, -lucking the advancement and 
prosperity of the ut;w cmigrrni, ;>ettlement m the 
rear third of Chatham, wIris. uJiabitants are in 
dustriously contending against the disadvantage 
of the want of roads to the Ottawa. This new 
settlement has, however, the advantage of <w' 
easy outlet through the S. of Argenteuil.— There 
is a good road across the front continuing, along 
the Ottawa, the main route from Montreal to the 
upper townslijis -.n ihe bank of that river ; two 
other roads it!. is towu.iis the tcur, one as far as 
the 4th range and one as fur os the 12th which 
ends at Chute uiills; anotlier road lies between 
the 9; and 10th ranges. — In this t. are two 
Dub'r schools under the direction of the Royai 
Institution, each attended by about 50 pupils and 
conducted by male teachers. — Two saw-mills are 
built on small brooks, one on the bank of the (Ot- 
tawa and the other in the 2nd range. — The cattle 
are chiefly of the English and American breeds. 
— Linen cloth is made here to some extent, but 
the principal articles of commerce are tinibt. v and 





c H A T H A ar. 

potashes. — The village is called Davlsville and 

Wl DwelHiif^-houscR 
2 Mcrclmiit Ktorcs 
I I'avfiiis 

I Ulii(.'ksmith'8 shop 

1 'luilorV shop 

2 Curpi-nters uiul joiners. 

The population is 1073 ; and the total quantity of 
grain raised, thiefly Indian corn, is above 20,000 
hushels, one third of which is sent up the Ottawa 
to supply persons engaged in the timber trade. 
— I'he inhabitants of the old patented lands in 
Chatham are English, Scotch, Irish, Americans 
and a few Canadians. The lands held under mi- 
litary locations are chiefly settled by emigrants 
from Scotland and compose the new settlements. 
Scotch emigrants were located to lots of 200 acres, 
which covered the residue of ungranted lands 
in 1819, but 48 have forfeited their lots from 
various causes. — The handsome and well situated 
settlements on the front of Chatham, combined 
with the prospect of the majestic Ottawa, together 
with the flourishing settlements and neat villas 
on the opposite shore, especially the village at 
Point Fortune, form a coup d'lril truly interesting, 
particularly when it is remembered that all thir is 
the work of about 30 years. — In front of the T. 
are some small islands that form several rapids. 

Chatham Gore. — The emigrant settlements in 
the Oore in the rear of Argcnteuil are chiefly 
established on the borders of a tine lake about 
1 ni. in length by \ m. in width. The land com- 
posing this tract or Gore it> U, general (it for cul- 
ture, and the front part has been recently surveyed 
and divided into 4 ranges containing several beau- 
tiful lakes, on the l)orders of which are the houses 
of the new settlers. Tiie surface is mountainous 
and the soil rocky, but not so much as to prevent 
the establishment of excellent farms. The soil is 
A clayey sandy loam, for the growtli of wheat and 
Indian corn not to be surpassed, and is generally 
lit for any other grain. The timber is chiefly 
maple and beech, but there are many other va- 
rieties of useful wood: the maple afl'ords large 
({uantities of sugar. h'lOO acres and upwards 
are under cultivation : the annual pr<Mluce per 
acre is 20 bushels of wheat, 30 uf Indian corn 
and other grain in prniMjrtion. The average price 
of labour is from 2.<. to half a dollar a day, but in 
summer agricultural labourers are scarce at any 
price, the difl''erent canals employing at high wages 
all the superfluous population. Hemp could, 

doubtless, be cultivated to great advantage and 
flax is already grown on most farms. — Three 
roads lead from the S. of Argenteuil, but they 
do not afford a comfortable conveyance. If the 
contemplated road to the Rideau should ever be 
cut, it would of course tend materially to improve 
this part of the country. — A meeting-house has 
been lately erected, and the rector of St. An- 
drew's performs service at stated periods. The 
settlers in the Oore are all Irish and exclusively 
of the church of England. — A school-house has 
also been lately erected, and the scholars are from 
30 to 40. — One of the proprietors of lands in the 
Gore is Mr. Perkins, a naval oflicer, whose re- 
sidence is near lake Bouchette. Here are several 
potash factories but no corn-mill ; the inhabitants 
are obliged to take their grain for grinding and 
their timber for sawing to the Argenteuil seig- 
norial mills, a distance of 6 or 7 miles. — Here arc 
about 300 head of neat cattle, chiefly of a mixed 
breed between the American and Canadian ; if 
they are not so profitable as the new breeds they 
are, at least, useful and hardy animals. — Several 
beautiful lakes in the t. and the Gore abound 
with trout, pickarel, eels and other varieties of 
flsh. The waters of lake Bouchette are clear as 
a diamond and afford abundance of fine salmon* 
trout : it is about one mile in circumference, and 
is bounded by Chatham, Wentworth and the 
Gore. These lakes, when the country becomes 
more clear of timber, with the flne diversified hill 
and dale scenery, will afford one of the most pic- 
turesque and romantic spots in the province. — 
When it is considered that only a few yean ago 
this whole tract of country was a dense forest, se« 
veral miles from the residence of a human being, 
it must strike every one with surprise that so 
much has been effected by poor settlers without 
capital or any other resource but their labour. 
Branches of each family having been in the habit 
of working during the summer on the canals, they 
have, by saving the produce of their industry, been 
able to cover this extensive tract with their herds 
and flocks. These people left their native land 
with trifling resources, without patronage, guides 
or protectors, and are now living in comparative 
plenty without excepting, ])erha]w, a single fa- 
mily ; and there is not a finer looking company 
of militia in the province than the settlers of th« 

C H A 

C H A 

StatutifB of Chatham and the Gore. 

■Population 1,473 
Cbuifhex, Prot. I 
Saw-millii . i 
Potaslieries 1 

Potteries . 2 
Tanneries . 2 

Medinil men 
Utacksmitbs , 
Millerx . . 
Millwrights . 









Uxen . 

Annual Agiiculltiral Pioiluce. 

BuihcU. Buiheli. . Cwtt. 

13,5<)« Potatoes l»».j(JO| Maple sug. . 95 
<J,(MX) Indian corn \,MM\ 

Live Slock. 

220 1 Cows 

(i<)0| Swine 


Chats, ties, (L.), t: Ottawa, b. 

Chaudirrr Falls, t-. Ottawa, r. 

CiiAuniKRB or Kkttlr Lakk, v. Ottawa, n. 

CiiAUUiKRR, river, in the cos. of Bcauce and 
Dorchester, derives its origin from the springs 
and streams that fcwl Lake Megantic, which 
separates the t. of Marston from Ditchfield ; it 
flows N. from this lake 4(5 m. to the s. of Aubcrt 
Oallion and then N. w. into the 8t. Lawrence, a 
distance of fil m., making its whole course 102 m. 
from Lake Megantic. — The first stream of any 
magnitude which falls into the Ciiaudierc is the 
R. Eugenie in the projected t. of Gay hurst; it then 
forms the R. Imundary of the x. of Dorset, where it 
receives numerous tributary streams. The Chau- 
dicrc is joined by the Grande Coude near the a. 
angle of the t. of Shenley, and after receiving 
many rivulets it becomes the partition boundary of 
the S. S. of Aubert Gitllion and Aubcrt de I'lslc, 
receiving near the ». w. angle of the latter tlie r. 
du Loup ; hence it proceeds to tlic b. of \'uiidreuil 
which it divides into two nearly equal parts with> 
out being much increased, the small stream Touf- 
frc des Pins being the only h. it receives in that 
8., excepting perhaps cme near its n. division 
line, which is at present unexplored ; after this it 
enters tlic S. of Ste. Marie which it traverses, be- 
coming . ic partition boundary of the S. 8 of St. 
Ktienne and JoUiet, and in its course receives nu- 
merous additions but no waters of any note. It 
then traverses the 8. of Lauion and, alxiut 4 ni. 
from its estuary, receives the H. lleaurivage and 
still nearer itn mouth takes in le Grand Rulsseau 
and then disembogues itself into the St. Law- 
rence, about ii m. below QiuUt on the oi)jM)!tite 
side of the river.— Although the Chaiidicrc is not 
navigable througltout for boats or even canws, on 
account of its numerous nipidii. falls and other 

irapedimentji, yet it maintains a character of some 
importance, being equal if not superior in mag- 
nitude to tlie St. Francis. — The length of country 
which it traverses is about 100 miles, and the 
breadth probably not much less for the most part 
than 30 ; the extent of land, therefore, which it 
clear* from redundant waters must be from 2,500 
to 3,000 square miles. In breadth it varies from 
4 to 600 yards, and its stream is frequently divided 
by islands, some of them containing many acres 
and covered with timber-trees: the lianks in ge- 
neral are high, rocky and steep, rather thickly 
clothed with wood of indifferent growth ; its bed 
is rugged and much contracted by rocks jutting 
from the sides, which occasion violent rapids. The 
descent of the stream over the different shelves oc- 
casions falls of considerable heigiit, one of which 
is particularly celebrated for its beauty and sur- 
rounding scenery, but the cause, which contributes 
so much to the grandeur of its api)earance, ren- 
ders it unserviceable as a water communication. — 
Although of no utility as a water conveyance, yet 
the Chaudiere traces out a route whereby an easy 
lu-cess may be had into the American territories, 
during the whole year. From Quebec, along the 
R. bank, there is an excellent road for about TtO m. 
and thence a tolerably good one in continuation as 
far as r. du Loup, where tlie < 'anudian settlements 
at present terminate. — The most celebrated of th« 
Vhautlirre Falh arc about 4 ni. from its mouth. 
Narrowed by salient points extending from each 
side, the precipice over which the waters rush ii 
scarcely more than \\M) yds. in breadth and the 
height from which the water desce;ids is about as 
many feet. Huge masses of riH-k rising above the 
surface of the current, just at the break of the fall, 
divide the stream into three portions, forming 
partial cataracts that unite liefore they reach the 
liasin which receives them below. The ccmtinual 
action of the water has won» the rock into deep 
excavations, which give a globular figure to the 
revolving ImmIIcs of brilliant white foam and 
greatly increase the Iwautiful cfl'ect of the fall. 
The spray thrown up, being (|uickly spread by the 
wind, produces in the sunshine a most splendid 
variety of prismatic colours. Tho dark-hued 
foliage of the wiaids, which on each side press dose 
niton the margin of the river, forms a striking 
contrast with the snow-like cfl'ulgcnce of the fall- 
ing torrent : the hurried motion of the AinhI, agi- 
tated among the rucks and hollows lu it forces itH 




way towards the St. Lawrence, and the incessant 
sound occasioned by the cataract itself form a 
combination that strikes forcibly upon the senses, 
and amply gratifies the curiosity of the admiring 
spectator. The woods on the banks of the river, 
notwithstanding its vicinity to the capital, are so 
impervious as to render it necessary for strangers 
who visit the falls to provide themselves with a 
competent guide. Few falls can be compared 
with this for picturesque beauty. The best view is 
to the left from a ledge of rocks that project into 
the basin, from this spot the scene is surprisingly 
grand ; the next point of view is from a parallel 
ledge behind the former ; there is also another good 
view from the ledge of rocks above the fall, look- 
ing down and across the fall and up the river. 

Chawoib or OcAu Droushta, a large Like 
N. N. w. of Lake St. John. It is on the R. St. 

Chbnb, du, v. Dv Chene. 

Chertbey, a projected township in the co. of 
I'Assomption. In this t. is a chain of mountains, 
beyond which are 3 leagues of rich meadows on 
which some persons, without any right whatever, 
have mown upwards of 6,000 bundles of hay. On 
these mountains are two or three lakes abounding 
with fish ; beyond which for upwards of 6 leagues 
the land is very fit for cultivation and produces 
hard wood, oak, pine and a great quantity of 
maple from which 50,000 lbs. of sugar are made 
annually. — At the outlet of the lakes many saw- 
mills might be erected. — Oood roads are opened 
as far as this t. — Some of the inhabitants of St. 
Sulpice settled here before 1821 ; but, having lost 
their settlements by means of persons who obtained 
grants from the Crown, they declined settling 

Chksham, a pn>jected township in the co. of 

Chester, township, in the co. ofDrummond, 
lies between Tingwick and Halifax, and is bounded 
N. w. by Arthabaska and h, e. by Ham and Wolfes- 
town. This t. has great advantages in )H)int of 
locality with a soil, in every respect, fit for all the 
purposes of agriculture though still remaining 
almost unbroken by the plough. The timl>er is 
mostly beech, maple, pine, birch, elm, basswiKxl, 
butternut, cedar, spruce and hemlock. — Wiitorcd 
by largo branuhes of the Nicolot and Btcantotir, 
which wind through it in various directions. — 
The whole T. has been surveyed and two quarters 


of it were granted in 1803, one to the late Joseph 
Frobisher, Esq. and the other to various indi- 
viduals ; the other two quarters have been located 
to the officers and privates of the Canadian mi- 
litia who served during the last American war. 
Two or three farms are settled along Craig's 
Road which traverses this t. diagonally. — Uti' 
granted and unhealed 4,97^ acres. 


Population . 10 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 




. 30 

Barley . 10 
Potatoes . 250 

Indian com 18 

Live Stock. 



. 3 

Cows . 5 

Swine . 

Chevrotiere, t'. La Cuevrotibrb. 

Chibouet, river, rises in the recesses of the 
forest in the co. of St. Hyacinthe ; it waters the S. 
cf De Ramzay and, running in an irregular course, 
falls into the R. Yamaska near the w. angle of 
that seigniory. 

Chichester, a projected township (i ontingthe 
Ottawa and lying between Sheen and Whatham. 
It is watered by a stream called the Black River. 

Chicot, fief, v. Dupab, F. 

Chicoutiui Post, v. Kino's Posts. 

Chicoutimi, river, or Shekutisiish which 
means " further out it is still deep," forms the s. 
boundary of the peninsula near Lake St. John in 
the CO. of Saguenay. It rises in Lakes Ouiqui 
and Kenwangumi, between which and its fall into 
the Saguenay, about 7^ m. to the s. w., are 6 or 
7 portages, otherwise the Chicoutimi would be na- 
vigable for bateaux ; but on account of the cascades 
and rapids which render these portages necessary, 
canoes only can pass up the R., with which the 
inhabitants of the Post maintain a traffic with 
those of L. St. John, the more direct communi- 
cation by the Saguenay, through the Grande DO- 
chargc, being impracticable. — Soon after the Chi- 
coutimi has left L. Kenwangomi it falls 16 ft. 
into a basin surrounded by high mountains, and 
this fall causes the first portage, called Porlage 
de.* Horheg or Amini CapntagaH, which extends 
200 yards and leads over the rocks which in 
spring arc covered by the R. The basin here 
formed by the Chicoutimi is nearly } m. in length. 
Tliis n, then runs down with considerable swift- 




the late Joseph 

various indi- 
ave been located 
e Canadian mi* 

American war. 

1 along Craig's 
iagonallf. — Un- 


Indian com 18 

Swine , 9 


recesses of the 

it waters the S. 

irregular course, 

the w. angle of 

ship lontingthe 
I and Whatham. 
lie Black River. 




' forms the s. 
akc >St. John in 

Lakes Ouiqui 
and its fall into 
e 8. w., are 6 or 
mi would be na- 
it of the cascades 
tagcs necessary, 
with which the 

a traffic with 
lirect communis 
the Grande Dc- 
n after the Chi- 

it foils 15 ft. 
mountains, and 

called Portage 
which extends 
rocks which in 
The bosin here 

j ni. in length, 
isidcrablc swift- 

ness for about 1| m. and u embanked by high 
rocky hills rising to about 200 feet; there the 
mountains terminate, resting about the region 
of L. Kenwangomi. The land on the banks then 
becomes level and appears to improve being tim- 
bered with spruce, fir, pine, a few elms and cedar. 
Occasionally on the left, when the fire has burnt 
up the vegetable mould, the soil is discovered to 
be rocky and barren. — About 3J ra. below the 
Portage des Roches is the Portage de I'lslet, or 
Ministouki Caputagait, so called from an islet in the 
middle of the R. ; this islet is longer than the 
portage which is about 700 yards and lies through 
good land, a rich dark loam timbered with black 
birch, spruce, pine and ash. The river is then 
divided into two channels by a large island ; the 
B. w. channel is broken by cascades and rapids, and 
the N. E. is a long rapid, which is frequently passed 
down by canoes. — From the foot of this portage 
to the Beau Portage, or Milow Caputagan, is two 
miles; the river averages about 80 or 90 yards 
wide, its right bank tieing hi^^h and rocky, while 
its left is good soil timbered with elm, ash, spruce, 
birch and pine. On approaching the Beau Portage 
which lies on the right bank the land is a light, 
coarse, yellow loam possessing a great proportion 
of sand and is timbered with spruce, white birch, 
pine and some elm. Beau Portage, alwut 2.')0 
yards long, lies through tolerable land, chiefly 
sandy loam timbered with white birch, red pine, 
poplar and spruce and avoids the cascades about 
20 feet in elevation. — 7i miles hence is the Port- 
age de I' Enfant, or Waghkow Caputagan ; the bunks 
of the R. exhibit in this distance much impra\e- 
ment in soil and timber, the former gcncriilly an 
argillaceous loam and the latter spruce, elm, ash, 
fir, pine, black and white birch and some cedar. 
The river, which varies from 4 to 6 chains in width, 
is occasionally interspersed with wcU-tiinbcrcd 
islands, most of which are alluvial. The general 
course of the river Ictwccn Beau Portage and the 
Portage de I'Enfant is about N. N. w. ; between 
these portages the latest explorer met a canoe con- 
taining an Indian family'; their astonishment at 
beholding a canoe of strangers was singularly ex- 
pressed by a smile or rather a silent laugh, for 
which peculioritT the Montagnois nation is di- 
stinguished by the Indian nuinc Papinoshuuh, 
which signifies laughers or sneercrs. Four uiiles 
from Portage de I'Enfant is Itlr nu Srjiiilrhre, 
which derives its na..ic from having liecn the 

burying-place of two persons who were drowned. 
The Portage de I'Enfant, about 200 yards long, 
is so caJied from an accident which occurred about 
50 } L>ar8 since to an Indian, who, in passing this 
portag., left a young child in his canoe which 
was carried off by the current and passed over a 
very considerable fall without upsetting, to the 
great surprise of the father and of all who have 
seen the place. The Falls of I'Enfant are between 
40 and 50 ft. taking the cascades collectively. The 
portage lies over tolerably good land, a yellow 
loam timbered with spruce, ash, cedar, poplar, 
elm and pine. From the lower landing it is but 
20 chains across the basin ut the foot of the falls 
to the Portage du Chlen, on the right bank of the 
river. — The Portage du Chlen also about 200 yds. 
in length, leads over very good ground and avoids 
a cascade of about 15 feet in height; it is tim- 
bered with cedar, fir, birch, red spruce, white and 
red pine. The land down the R. preserves that 
character of fitness for settlement which it more 
or less exhibits from the Portage de I'lslet, and a 
few streams discharge themselves on both sides. 
— 1 >, m. farther down is the landing at the Port- 
age de la Poussiere or Meia Caputagan, vulgarly 
culled Ka-Ka, at the head of u high full which 
at its edge is divided by a small island. The 
portage is nearly 200 yds. long und the falls about 
45 ft. — At the Portage of Chicoutimi, above the 
falls, the river contracts to less than 25 yards while 
opposite the portage it is about 120. This port- 
age is about a mile below Ka-Ka. The land in that 
distance is of an excellent description and the tim- 
ber is elm, ash, pine, fir and some white birch. I'he 
Portage of Chicoutimi or Shekutiminh < 'aputagan, 
2 ro. in length on the left bank of the river, is 
very level with the exception of a gulley formed 
by a small rivulet near its 8. w. end.— The Falls 
of Chicoutimi are about 40 or 50 ft,, tumbling 
through a contracted channel over the rocks that 
interrupt its rapid course into the basin that forms 
part of the harbour of Chicoutimi, — From an 
eminence, which overlooks the harbour, the noble 
stream of the Haguenay is seen to flow in majestic 
silence towards its confluence with the St. Law- 
rence. Although not })ossessing the bold features 
of L. Kenwangomi, the great breadth of the river, 
the striking scenery, the group of buildings in the 
foreground and the small solitary chapel on the 
iidjactnt eminence, form a combination of most 
Interesting objects,— The banks of the Chicoutimi 

I 2 

:^^ r 


C H O ■ ' ' ■ ' 

are not above 30 feet in height near the R., but 
at the distance of about 10 chains on each side there 
is a second bank about the same height. The 
timber and soil are the same as in the peninsula 
formed by this B., the Grande Dccharge and the 
B. B. side of Lake St. John. — However safe the 
harbour of Chicoutimi may be as to winds and 
moorings, it cannot accommodate ships of consider- 
able dr. ught without their groundingat low water ; 
for vessels that draw more than 1 ^ fathom caunot 
reach the basin of the Chicoutimi River, on account 
of the narrow channel between the shoals that set 
out from Pointe uux Trembles and the Chicoutimi 
Point, and in the channel the water is at most 
but two fathoms. Outside of the shoal, which ex- 
tends about 300 yards into the stream of the Sa- 
guenay, vessels can anchor in 3, 4, or 5 fathoms, 
nearing Cape St. Francis about a mile below tlie 
post. Vessels are also exposed to a very strong 
current at t)ie ebb tide, which would require their 
being moored to the shore, besides the anchor. 
The tide rises between 16 and IB ft. perpendicular 
in 4\ hours flood. — The harbour and this part of 
the Sagucnay are frozen over from the 1st or 5th 
of December to the 10 or I ")th of May. 

Chibns, avx, river, in Blainville, rises in a 
small lake or pond about midway of the line that 
divides that S. from the S. of Kiviire du Chcne. 
It runs N. E. past the v. of Stc. Therisc and with 
a gentle inclination b. discharges itself into the R. 
St. Jean or Jesus. 

Chikn, w, u small stream that runs into the 
R. Sagucnay. 

CiiiouuBiciiB, river and lake, in the iSaguenay 
country. The River tornis the lake and has two 
branches forming an angle like that of the rivers 
Richelieu and St. Lawrence. — The Lake is about 
3 1. long and is shallow though deep enough to 
carry large boats. It is 8eparat(!d by one carrying- 
place only from Lake C'huamoushuane. 

CiiiMBi'ANiPKsricK, river, in the co, of Sa- 
gucnay, runs into the mouth of the St. Lawrence 
about 1(1 m. above the bay of Seven Islands. 

CUIN0UA»USII (L.), t'. KlorAOOMI, h. 

Chinouaoomishimh (L.),t'. Kiguaoomimiiish. 


CiiiSBOUKHATOU, river, rises in the highlands 
B. of Mistissinnys Lake and running N. w. falls 
into the Assuapmoussoin nut far from the L. in 
which that B. rises. 

Chumonchoan, lake, in the Sagucnay coun- 

• * • C L I 

try, not far n. from the l. in which the R. As^ 
suapmoussoin takes its rise. 

Chobbe, h la, river, runs into Lake St. John 
from the n. w. 

Christie IManob, v. Novan, S. 

Chuamoubhuanb Post, v. King's Post, 

Chuamoushuane, river and lake. The river 
runs into l. St. John and is navigable for large 
bateaux for many leagues and farther up for 
bark canoes; on the right and left are several 
small lakes. Lake Chuamoushuane is formed by an 
expansion of the B. ; it is nearly ^ 1. long and is 
shallow though deep enough to carry large boats. 

Chub, river, runs into the St. Maurice from 
the N. E , between the Iroquois rapids and the 
mouth of Ribbon River. 

Cinqs, deb, river, falls into the B. St. Mau- 
rice opposite Lower Matawin Island. 

Clahenwon, township, in the co. of Ottawa, is 
bounded 8. by Bristol, w. by Lac des Chats, N. by 
Litchfield and e. by waste lands of the crown. — 
It possesses numerous small streams, including 
Prendergast river, all running into Lac des Chats 
and the Ottawa ; and on the boundury-line sepa- 
rating the Rth and 9th ranges are two small 
lakes called Lake Irien and Decoy Lake. — This 
township is but thinly settled in front and has no 
regular roads. It is the last t. settled on the N. 
bank of the Ottawa and is 150 m. from Montreal. 
— Ungraiited and iinloraled, 31,729 acres. 



9H ; Corn-mills . 1 Artisans . .'i 
I ' Putusheries . 1 

AiiHiuil Agricultural I'roduie. 

Oats . 

Buiheli. Dutheli. BuihcU. 
. Wt) i'otntoes 39HI) [ndian corn 1380 
. 450 Peas . . :«) Map. su|j. cwts 18 

/.in- Simk. 

Oxen . 

5 Cows . . Iti Swine . 10 
. 14 Sheep . . 41 

Cmkton, township, in the co. of Shcrbrooke, 
joins Compton w., Auckland b , Eaton n.. Bar- 
ford and Hereford s. The surface is mountainous 
and broken ; the soil good and genendly clothed 
with bir<ch, maple and beech interspersed with 
spruce, fir, and a small proportion of pine and 
poplar. The settlements ore chiefly on the rood 
to Eaton in the 2d and 3d ranges, and in the 
corner of the T. on Sidraon river. The soil, which 
is unexceptionable, would produce grain of every 
kind abundantly. Some swamps covered with 



cedar and black ash iprcad in different directions 
and might be drained with the greatest facility. — 
The timber is spruce, beech, ash, maple, birch and 
basswixid; the spruce greatly predominating. — 
Watered by 2 or 3 rivers and by many less consi- 
derable streams, all of which ultimately fall into 
the St. Francis ; it is also watered by some small 
lakes in which are trout, succors, chub, perch and 
eels. — Though large grants hare been made to 
several persons since the year 17^9. they have at- 
tracted but few settlers. — The roads improve but 
slowly, and there is one bridge. — At a private 
school from 12 to 15 scholars are instructed. — The 
population in 1027 was 60 and is now 83. — Un- 
gruHted and unhealed, 1,000 acres. 



. 83 Corn-mills . 1 Potashcries . 2 
1 Saw-mills . 1 Pearlasherics 1 

Anniinl j1griciiU»ral Produce. 

Wheat . 

Buiheli. Buiihelt. i Buiheli. 
\,-m\ Barley . 90 Peas . . 90 
1,020 PoUtoes . 1,510 1 Indian corn 310 

lAve Stock. 


51 Cows . 78 Snine . 05 
. 02 Sheep . 170 

Clinton, township, in the co. of Shcrbrooke, 
is a small tract, only equal in dimension to the 
quarter of a township. It is most agreeably situ- 
ated at the 8. extremity of Lake Megantic, joining 
Maratun n. and in other directions surruunilud by 
Chesham and unsurveycd wastes. The soil in 
general is of the very first quality, exhibiting 
many large patches of luxuriant pastures. The 
timl)cr is pine, beech, maple, birth, tir, spruce and 
cedar. — It is watered by the river Arnold and 
some other streams falhng into the lake. No part 
is settled, nlthdugh the t. abounds with numerous 
excellent situations, where the land is fit for every 
species of agriculture. 

Ci.oRiiM>N, seigniory, in the co. of Bonaven- 
ture, fronts the h. Ristigouche. The Iwundaries 
of this S. were formerly settled by an agreement 
between the heirs of Rini- d'Encau and Mr. dc 
Fronsac. This S. extends from the mouth of the 

n. Percepic up the b. Ristigouche It has never 

been settled and is now the projuirty of the crown. 
An historical account of it and its extent arc in- 
cluded in the title. 

Title — " Par Acte de Foi et I{ommai;r reiidii le .'Jme 
Jiiiii, IT.'Ki, iHir Jtiiii Cluiide l.uuci, an mini A'.tiini- Muiiii, 
«on (•|imi«(', vciivi' de Hint if Hnnin vt iiii iioiii dii ('ii|ii. 
tainc Hini d'Eiitau, sun tils, pour It- (\ci d'Encau il |iuruit 

. COM 

qu'il esbiba une ordonmnce de Mr. de Champigny, In- 
tendant, du 28nie Murs, 1691, annexre a une requete, 
faite par feu le dit Siriir d'Eiitau, ex|>0!«nt que scs titrcH 
lui avoient ^t^ enlev^ii par les Anfrlois, et demandant 
d'etre maintenu dans sa |)oi>!iesBion de la riniiie Rittigouclui 
avec huit lieues de terre de front sur pareille profondeiir, 
le long de la dite riviere, et le« isles et Itnttures qui m> 
trouveront devant de la dite <'tonduc,avec droit derluiHse, 
peche, Xic. La stisdite ordoi'nanco accordant le contenu 
de cettc requete, sauf seulenient les oppositions que |iourTS 
iiiire Mr. dc J-'rousac, SeifOicur de Miiamichi. I>c plus 
un accord cnire les h/'ritiers du dit feu Sieur Rini d'Eiuiin 
ct Mr. de Fiontac, par lequci Clorldim fut bom# coinnie 
suit, savuir, cvmmnifiint i reuirie dc h ririere au Porci'pic, 
qui tombe dunt celle dc Ristigouche, en montant la dilc ri- 
viire Ristigouche ; cl que let rumbt de ivw/ del ferret i/n dit 
Sieur d'Kneiiu loUiit Nord-ett el Sud-ouett pour la pro- 
fondeiir., cmifiinneniriit d leiij: du dit Sieur de Fronsac, et a 
I'effard du front ou liirgeur Sud-nt et Xord-ouett.' — tn». 
Con. Sup- leltie I), folio XI. 

Clyde, river, rises in Lake William in the t. 
of Halifax, whence, through the line that divides 
that T. from Inverness, it enters Lake Lomond, 
taking an a. course. After running through that 
L. it is soon increased by the Black River from 
the N. and the Bullet River from the s. After 
receiving Chaffer's Brook it runs to the division- 
line of Inverness, near which it enters the R. Be- 
cancour in the 14th range of the t. of Nelson. 

CoATicooK or Kawatikouck, river, in the co. 
of Sherbrooke, rises in the state of Vermont and 
a little below the v. of Norton enters the rear line 
of the T. of Barford at its s. w. angle ; then run- 
ning along the boundary-line it enters the 7th 
range of the t. of Conipton and running through 
that T., bearing to the n. k., enters the 7th range 
of the T. of Ascott, where, near the v. of Len- 
noxville, it empties itself into the R. 8t. Francis. 
— In Compton it turns Conroy's mills in the 5th 
range and Pennoyer's mills in the 2nd. It is so 
much obstructed by falls, which form good sites for 
mills, that its only advantage fur transport is the 
running of logs to the different mills. 

CoLKiiAiNK, a projected township in the co. of 
Megantic, bounded n. by Thetford and Ireland, 
B. by Tring, s. by Winslow and w. by Garthhy. 
Watered by lake St. Francis and some small lake*: 
and streams. 

CuLiTMBiA Falls, v, Ottawa, u. 

Columbia Pond is a small lake in the T. of 
Hull at the k. extremity of the fith range. It is fed 
by a stream that rises in the 7th range, which pantien 
through the lake and conducts its waters to the Ot- 
tawa a little B. of the estuary of the Gutineau. 

Comkathiki;k, (R), v. Kacitatiiibue. 

CoMMi(*8iONRRn' Lakb, in the co. of .Saguenay. 
is on the r. Ouiatchouan and is separated frmii 



Bouchette L. by Bluebeny hills. It receives so 
veral rivers, among which are Red river from 
the N. Wi and the rivers Davis and Oouldie from 
the w. 

CoMPTON, township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
joins Ascot n. w., Bamston and Barford b. b., 
Hatley s. w. and Clifton n. k. and is in no re- 
spect inferior to Ascot. In various parts it has 
many wide spreading but gentle rises of most ex- 
cellent land thickly covered with pine, maple 
and beech timber of fine quality and large size. — 
Completely watered by the rivers Coaticook and 
Moose, the former connecting with Lake Tome- 
fobi and both with the St. Francis, besides many 
less considerable streams near which are some 
fine breadths of luxuriant meadow and pasture. 
—An industrious population, about 120U souls, 
inhabit numerous settlements on the banks of 
the rivers, where most of the farms appear to 
be in a very thriving and excellent condition, 
generally producing crops of wheat of excellent 
quality, and in quantity far beyond the home 
consumption. Many large patches of land might 
be very beneficially employed in the culture of 
flax and hemp. The principal rivers work se- 
veral mills and there are some manufactories of 
pot and pearl-ash. — Through the most cultivated 
parts roads have been opened and bridges thrown 
over the rivers, all kept in good repair, by which 
a communication is formed with the main road to 
Quebec and with the state of Vermont. — There 
are a few traders and artisans, who, in following 
their respective trades, create something like the 
first rudiments of commerce and confer a com- 
parative importance upon this increasing settle- 
ment. Thu township was erected by patent in 
1802, when 26,460 acres were granted to Jesse 
Pennoyer, Esq. and several associates, much of 
which was immediately cleared and is the best 
settled and best cultivated part of the t. ; the 
greatest portion of this grant is at present held 
by various settlers, M. Pennoyer having retained 
no more than a sufficiency for his own use. In 
the year 1810, 13,110 acres in the castemly part 
were granted to Sir Rob. S. Alilnes, Bart., and 
several lots of it are now in an advanced state of 
cultivation ; the whole, from the general quality 
of the soil, by a little industry and good manage- 
ment, might be turned to a very profitable ac- 
count. — The common price for clearing lands in 
this T. is from 10 to 12 dollars an acre. 

Population 180S 
Churches, Pro. I 
Schools . 1 
Com-niills . 8 


Potasheriet • 

Pewlasheries 1 

Shop-keepers 8 

Taverns . 8 

Artisans . 9 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 

Buiheli. BiuheU. Buiheli. 

Wlient . 17,510 Rye . 2,0(X) Peas . 5,100 

Oats . 13,160 Buckwheat 1,911 PoUtoes 88,800 

Barley . 1,313 Indian com 4^150 , 

Live Stock. 

Horses . 803 1 Cows . 1 150 1 Swine . 1870 
Oxen . 986 1 Sheep . 8480 1 

Connecticut Lake, in the t. of Drayton, 
forms part of a large R. of the same name that 
runs into the state of Vermont. 

CoNTRKCtEUR, Seigniory, in the co. of Ver- 
cheres, is bounded by Bellevue and Cournoyer 
B. w., St. Ours N, E. and by St. Denis in the 
rear. — Two leagues in front by two in depth. 
—Granted Oct. 29th, 1672, to Sieur de Con- 
trecoeur and is now the property of the heirs of 
Monsieur de Laperriere. — The land is rich and 
fertile, in some few places flat and low but 
almost every where in a favourable state of cul- 
tivation ; it produces good crops of grain of ex- 
cellent quality. So much of this S. issettled that the 
tracts of woodland are insignificant, in proportion 
to the whole extent, and in these tracts timber of 
large dimensions is scarce. — The Ruisseau La 
Prade, rising about the middle of the S., and 
several smaller streams contribute to the fertility 
of the soil and in their course work some mills. 
— All the lands are conceded and most of them 
prior to 17^9, on the royal terms. There are 
five ranges of concessions of different depths, se- 
parated by as many public roads intersected by 
others running from the Saint Lawrence, and also 
by the main road extending from St. Denis and 
St. Antoine, on the r. Richelieu, to the St. Law- 
rence, u distance of 2 1. whence there is a ferry 
to La Valtrie on the opposite shore; the fare 
is 2s. for a foot passsenger and 78. 6d. for a 
horse and carriage. In the second range of con- 
cessions is the Br(tl6 St. Antoine and in the 
fourth Le Orand BrttU' : these places derive their 
appellations from the method, sometimes adopted, 
of clearing the lands by burning the wood upon 
the ground where it is felled, after such parts of 
it as are wanted for immediate use are removed ; 
or else by setting fire to the trees and underwood 
while i-tanding : when once fairly on fire, they 


h i\ 


'eariagheriM 1 

ihop-keepcn 8 

''avemi . 8 

Irtisana . 9 


>eas . 5,100 
'outocs 82,800 

Iwine . 1870 

r. of Drayton, 
une name that 

le CO. of Ver- 
mel Cournoyer 

Denis in the 
two in depth. 
Sieur de Con- 

of the heirs of 
ind is rich and 

and low but 
le state of cul- 
of grain of ex- 
settled that the 
t, in proportion 
tracts timber of 

Ruisseau La 
of the S., and 

to the fertility 
)rk some mills. 

most of them 
s. There are 
ent depths, se- 

intersected by 
rrence, and also 

St. Denis and 
to the St. Law- 
lere is a ferry 
hore; the fare 

78. 6d. for a 
1 rang;e of con- 
le and in the 
ces derive their 
etimes adopted, 
the wood upon 
r such parts of 
e are removed ; 
and underwood 
ly on fire, they 

will ofken continue to bum for weeks before the 
flames are subdued. How far the conflagration 
has spread is shown by the blackened and scorched 
appearance of the contiguous woods, and by the 
many half consumed trunks and roots that remain 
for yean in the ground, being extirpated only as 
the fanner's leisure offers convenient opportunities. 
Accidental fires sometimes occur in the forests, 
which, being spread by the wind, and no means 
taken to extinguish them, occasion brfiles to a 
great extent. — There are two neat churches and 
parsonage-houses in this S. but no village; the 
houses however are numerous, distributed along 
the different roads in the concessions and towards 
the banks of the St. Lawrence. — The group of 
small islands in front, called Les Islets de Con- 
trecoeur, is an appendage to the S. 

Title—" Concession du 29me Octobre, 1672, faite par 
Jeau Talon, Intendant au Sicur de Conlrecaur, de deux 
lieuen de terre de frunt sur autant de profondeur; ii 
prendre sur le fleuve St. Laurent, depuis les terres du 
Sicur de St. Ourt, jusqu'a celles du Sieur de VUkray."— 
Calikrt d' Intend. 2 i 9, folio 190. 

Coo Coo Cash, river and lakes, in the co. of 
Quebec, are between the rivers Flammand and 
Vermilion which fall k. into the St. Maurice 
above the North Bastonais river. 

Copps Village, v. Stanstbad, t. 

CoRiBOu, river. This small stream runs into 
the Saguenay just below Cap St. Francois. 

CoBUPscouL (R.) V. Casupsgull. 

CoTB de Bbaupbe, seignory, in the cos. of 
Saguenay and Alontmorenci, joins Beauport a. w. 
and reaches to the r. du Oouifre n. b. extending 
16 leagues on the St. Lawrence by 6 in depth. 
—Granted Jan. l.'ith, 1636, to Sieur Cheffault 
de la Regnardicre ; now the property of the eccle- 
siastics of the seminary of Quebec. — This very 
extensive seigniory is more mountainous than any 
other in the province, yet it contains a large pro- 
portion of rich and fertile land. The niture of 
the soil varies much ; on the low grounds along 
the front, from BcHuport to Cap Tourmente, is a 
dark-coloured mou)d of good quality, occasionally 
mixed with sand, clay and marl ; on the higher 
lands is for the most part a strong black earth, 
which, as ic approaches the mountains, gives place 
to a yellowish loam. — Beech, maple, birch, pine, 
hickory and basswood are very abundant, also the 
inferior kinds, cedar, spruce fir, hemlock, &c.— - 
From the n. b. extremity of this S. to Cap Tour- 
mente, rather more than 22 m., is a strip of land 

vnyiiig in breadth from ^ m. to 1 m. bounded n. 
by an eminence of considerable elevation : the part 
of this space not under tillage is very excellent 
meadow land ; the outer margin, at low water, is 
a continued marsh of not much less than 1 m. in 
width visited by wild-ducks, snipes and plover in 
nmasing numbers. Beyond this level the ground 
continues to rise by gradations until it reaches thc' 
lofty mountains in the rear. Cap Tourmente is a 
bold bluff point, rising 1892 ft. above the St. Law- 
rence and a very prominent object ; hence to Cap 
Maillard, another bold promontory about 6 1. down 
the river, there is a continuation of capes and 
projecting points, which, varying greatly in their 
size and height, rise abruptly from the beach; 
at their base is the roule called Le Chemin des 
Caps, which is the only means of communication 
between the two places and not passable at high 
water. From Cap Maillard to Cap de la Baie, 
nearly 3 1., is a narrow space between the river 
and the rising ground in the division called La 
Petite Riviere, similar to that westward of Cap 
Tourmente, which u very well cultivated. Pro- 
ceeding by the Bay of St. Paul and the river 
du Gouffre, the country is exceedingly moun- 
tainous; but the soil is good, thickly inhabited 
and well cultivated. — This seigniory is watered 
by a great many streams running into the St. 
Lawrence and the river du Gouffre; the more 
considerable are — 


Du Sault k la Puce 

Au Chien 

Ste. Anne 

Du Domuine 

Du Sault au Cochon 
Bras du nord^ouest 

Des Mares 
Remus, &c. &c. 


The corn-mill, formerly on la Petite Riviere, is 
now erected on the river du Sault k la Puce. 
The old mill on the r. Remus was on the b. of 
the road ; the new one is built on the w. side about 
1^ aipent from the old site. — This seigniory is 
divided into 8 parishes, viz. — 

Ange Uardien 
Chateau Richer 
Ste. Anne 
St. Joachim 

In each of these parishes are one church, one 
parsonage-house, one corn-mill and several saw- 
mills. — The best cultivated and most populous di- 
visions of the seigniory are Ange Gardien, Chateau 
Richer, Ste. Anne, St. Joachim and the settlements 
of St. Fer^ol. Between the settlements of St. Fi- 
r6ol and those of La Petite Riviere a barren tract 

St. FMo\ 
La Petite Riviere 
Baie de St Paul 
St. Urbain, 


', [ 


T f; 


intervenes 5 1, in length, which has always proved 
most injurious to the progress of the settlements 
about St. Paul's Bay, there being no means of 
communication between the two settlements, ex- 
cept by water and the uncertain route of Le 
Chemin des Caps. — The roads in this important 
S, have undergone considerable improvements 
latterly. The road traced in 1815 by the Dep. 
Grand Voyer, Chevalier D'Estimanville, which 
runs circuitously along the front of the 8., being 
found inconvenient, a new one has been opened by 
order of the legislature and money for its com- 
pletion voted. This road was opened in 1818 by 
Mr. Foamier, under the direction of the commis- 
sioners of roads appointed by the Assembly; it ex- 
tends from the n. w. end of the Route de St. An- 
toine to the r. Ste. Anne, 29J- miles. The sum 
of 1000/. having been voted for the purpose of 
making settlements on this road, 13 settlers were 
established previous to the 8th Jan. 1830, and a 
house was then being built for a settler at the 
14th or last post. — The mean depth of the cul- 
tivated lands in this S., measuring from the front, 
is as follows: 

Aiige Gardicn 30 
Chateau Richer 30 

Ste. Anne 40 
St. Joachim 2o 

St. F^r^l 30 

The height of the most elevated parts of the S. is 
as follows: 

Cap Tourmente . 1802 feet, measured. 

Montagne Ste. Anne ISHX) feet, supposed. 

Cap Maillaid . 2200 feet, supposed. 

Mountain Remy from 6 to 700 feet. 

The Parish oJ'Ange Gardien, by a regulation of 
Feb. 20, 1721, confirmed by a decree of Mar. 3, 
1722, extends 1| 1. along the St. Lawrence and 
is bounded w. by the r. Montmorenci ; s. by the 
R. du Petit- Pre which separates it from the p. of 
Chateau Richer ; it comprehends the whole depth 
of that part of the S. All the farms in this p. 
.v'ere conceded previous to 1759, each extending 
3 arpents in front by 1 \ league in depth, at the 
rate of 20 sols for each front arpent. This parish 
is populous and well settled and the main road, 
passing along the eminence almost fronting the 
river, presents a number of very good houses on 
each side, which, with those on the rising grounds 
more in the interior, have a most picturesque effect. 
Many young ngrijulturists have lefl this p. and 
that of Chateau Richer and settled in the districts 
of Montreal and Three Rivers ; but none go to 
the townships. 

The Parish of Chateau Richer, by a regulation 
confirmed by a royal decree of March 3, 1722, 
in which it is called la Paroisse de la Visitation 
de Notre Dame, extends w. from the a. du Petit* 
Pr^, which separates it from the parish of Ange 
Gardien, to the r. au Chien k. which divides it 
from the p. of Ste. Anne. It runs 2^ 1. along the 
shore of the St. Lawrence and comprehends the 
whole depth of that part of the S. In this p. are 
the ruins of a Franciscan monastery, built at the 
beginning of the last century, on a little rocky 
promontory on the bank of the St. Lawrence ; its 
destruction took place at the time the British army, 
under General Wolfe, was encamped on the e. side 
of the river Montmorenci : the exterior walls and 
part of an adjoining tower still remain. On a 
rising ground, in the rear of these ruins, stands 
the parish church, rather a handsome structure 
with two spires : from this spot a wide-spreading 
and beautiful prospect unfolds itself, comprehend- 
ing a large portion of the river. Cap Tour- 
mente, the Island of Orleans, Cape Diamond and 
the intermediate scenery of well-cultivated tracts 
hounded by distant mountains to the n. and s. 
About \ league from the church is a charming 
cascade on the river Sault a la Puce. — All the 
farms in this parish were conceded before 1 759, 
each 3 arpents in front by IJ league in depth, 
paying a quit-rent of 20 sols for each front arpent. 

The Parish of Ste. Anne, by a decree of the 
council of state, Mar. 3, 1722, which confirmed 
a regulation of Feb. 20, 1721, extends one league 
in front along the St. Lawrence and is bounded 
w. by the p. of Chateau Richer and b. by the 
p. of St. Joachim from which it is separated by 
the R. Ste. Anne, and stretches to the rear line of 
the S. — All the lands or farms in this p. were 
conceded prior to 1759, each extending 3 arpents 
in front by 1^ league in depth, subject to the 
moderate payment of about 2 livres old currency 
for each front arpent as a kind of quit-rent. 

The Parish of St. Joachim, by a regulation 
made Sept. 20, 1721, confirmed by a decree of 
the coifncil of state, March 3, 1722, extends 
l.V leagues along the St. Lawrence from Cap 
Tourmente B. to the R. Ste. Anne, w. and n. — 
This is one of the most beautiful parishes in Lower 
Canada ; it is thickly inhabited and the lands arc 
of good quality and in high cultivation, pro- 
ducing wheat and other grain very plentifully ; 
it contains also some very luxuriant pasturage. 


-, by a regulation 
' March 3, 1722, 
e de la Viritation 

I the R. du Petit* 
le parish of Ange 

which divides it 
us 2^ 1. along the 
comprehends the 
S. In this p. are 
itery, built at the 
on a little rocky 
it. Lawrence ; its 
the British army, 
tped on the k. side 
ixterior walls and 

II remain. On a 
lese ruins, stands 
ndsome structure 

a wide-spreading 
self, comprehend- 
iver. Cap Tour- 
ape Diamond and 
l-cultivated tracts 
to the N. and s. 
ch is a charming 
I Puce.— All the 
ded before 1769, 
league in depth, 
each front arpent. 

a decree of the 

which confirmed 
(tends one league 
and is bounded 
!r and k. by the 
t is separated by 
10 the rear line of 

in this p. were 
tending 3 arpents 
h, subject to the 
rres old currency 
f quit-rent. 

by a regulation 
I by a decree of 
I, 1722, extends 
rence from Cap 
nne, w. and N. — 
parishes in Lower 
ind the lands arc 

cultivation, pro- 
very plentifully ; 
iriant pasturage. 

Nearly all the farms in this parish were conceded 
prior to 1759, each extending 2 or 3 arpents in 
front by 1^ league in depth, subject to a quit- 
rent of about 2 livres old currency per front ar- 
pent ; for the small number of farms conceded 
since \^aQ the seigniors must pay very moderate 
rents, for the fanner, who pays most, is annu- 
ally charged for his farm only 9«. Q\d. in money 
and u quarter of a bushel of wheat ; the greater 
number pay much less. The forms in this pa- 
ri!i!i are very unequal in extent and much di- 
vided ; many on the St. Lawrence are 1^ league 
in depth by 1, 2, or 3 arpents in front ; others 
are bounded N. w. by the river Ste. Anne, s. r. 
by the St. Lawrence and the road called Trait- 
carri and some on that road by a concession 
called St. Elzeard ; so that the depth of these 
farms varies from about 25 to 76 arpents. Be- 
sides the farms of a uniform breadth, there are 
others varying from a quarter of an arpent to 
15 or 20 arpents. The only part of all these 
farms (it for cultivation is that extending from 
the St. Lawrence to the foot of the hills ; it would 
be useless to attempt to turn the other parts to 
profit. These farms are so much divided that a 
farmer sometimes possesses land in 5 or 6 difTerr-nt 
places. The farmers, in general, rear their la- 
milius in rustic respectability aud nothing more. 
All the lands fit for cultivation are occupied; 
many are unconceded n. e. of St. Fcrtol, but 
the climate is there so severe that com cannot 
generally be grown to advantage; the farmers, 
therefore, instead of breaking up new lands, have 
neither the courage nor the means of cultivating 
the lands conceded between 1740 and 1750. — 
The new road communicating from St. Paul's 
Bay to this parish traverses some good lands 
lying N. B. of St, Joachim parish and n. w. of 
la Chaine des Caps, extending from Cap Tour- 
mente to Cap Maillard. — The parochial church has 
nothing remarkable in its exterior, but the in- 
terior is decorated in the most elegant manner, 
and it would be difficult to select a parish in all 
the province whose inhabitants excel those of St. 
Joachim in social, moral, and religious duties. — 
In this parish, delightfully on a rising 
ground, at a short distance from Cup Tourmente, 
is u chuniiing country residence called le Coteau 
Fortin, with a chapel and various outbuildings, 
belonging to the seminary of Quebec, to which 
many of the superiors retire every year during the 

summer. — From 150 to 200 barrels of eels arc 
caught by the inhabitants in this p. and at les Caps. 
The Parish of St. Fereol lies N. w. of the parish 
of St. Joachim and is about 2 1. in front. The 
settlements range chiefly along the w. bank of the 
R. Ste. Anne for about 6 m. ; and the cleared lands 
commence 5 or arpents k. of the Riviere a la 
Rose. Some of the inhabitants are sufficiently 
rich, but many of them ore poor and receive cha- 
ritable assistance from the inhabitants of the ad- 
joining p. of St. Joachim. 

The Parish 0/ Petite Riviire, by a regulation 
of Sept. 20, 1721, confinned by a decree of the 
council of state, Mar. 3, 1722, extends one 1 in 
front along the St. Lawrence. The road through 
the settlements of this parish is, for about 6 miles, 
well settled on each side, the houses neat and the 
farms in a respectable state of tillage. The road 
continues to La Martine, a settlement about 3 m. 
in the interior, whence it goes through Cote St. 
Antoine and C<^te St. Gabriel, as far as the R. 
Remus, about 10* miles. At short intervals 
through this route are houses and forms in a 
flourishing state. From 8 to 900 barrels of eels 
arc annually caught by the inhabitants in this 
parish and at des Caps in the neighbourhood. 

The Parish of Baie de St Paul, by a decree of 
the 3rd of March, 1722, which confirms the re- 
gulation of Sept. 20, 1721, includes the S. of du 
Goufire, .1 1. ou the St. Lawrence s. w. and the 
Isle aux Coudres. In St. Paul's Bay and along the 
river du Gouffre the settlements are girted by a 
lofty range of mountains, stretching n. from the St. 
Lawrence and enclosing a valley about 13 m. in 
length and from 1 to 1 1 m. in breadth, the greatest 
part of which is numerously inhabited and very 
well cultivated, notwithstanding the land is in 
many places very rocky and uneven : several spots 
on the sides of the hills, being difficult of access 
from their elevated and precipitous situation, are 
tilled by manual labour and are extremely fertile 
in grain of most kinds. On this tract the houses 
of the inhabitants are nearly all of stone, very 
well built and whitewashed on the outside, which 
greatly adds to the gaiety of the general prospect 
of the settlement, as well as to the neatness of 
their individual appearance. Several small streams 
descend from the mountains, and after meander- 
ing through the valley fall into the Riviere du 
Gouffre, turning in their way several saw and 
corn-mills. The main road passes at the foot of 


^' ^1 






c o u 

the bounding heights to the extremity of the cul- 
tivated land in Cdte St. Urbain, and on each side 
presents many neat and interesting farms and set- 
tlements in a very improved state. The church 
of St. Pierre is situated on the banJi of the Riviere 
du Goufire. 

The Parish of St. Urbain, by a decree dated 
Sept. 8, 1827, extends about 9 miles along the n. 
du Oouffre by about 9 miles in depth. — This p. is 
watered by two arms of the du Gouffre. — The soil 

c o u 

is sandy.— Several saw-mills are about ^ 1. from 
the chapel ; and on the rivulet Remy is seated the 
new seignorial mill at a short distance from the 
old one. In this p. is a consideraUe quantity of 
iron ore and a magnetic ore, a large specimen 
of which the author laid before the literary society 
of Quebec with specimens of white lead : this ore 
was found in the vicinity of the lower corn-mill 
at St. Paul's Bay. 

Statistical Table of the Seigniory of Cote de Beaupri. 


































Annual Agricultural Produce, iii bnihel-^. 

Live snick. ! 




: 2132 
1 9340 





















Ange Gardien 701 
Cliateau Richer J037 
Petite Kivitre .337 
Sainte Anne 692 
St. Fer6ol 519 
St. Joachim 689 
St. Paul and > .,i-ou 
St. Urbain \ f^^ 







































590 1888 
900, 2880 
210 450 
1755, 1872 
430 1376 
600; 1920 

1810 3664 





Total . . 









45696295 1405oi7354t 

Title. — " Concession du 15me Janvier, 1636, faite par 
la Compagnie, au Sieur CheffauU de la Rignurdiirc, situce 
du c6tc du Nord du fleuve St. Laurent, contenant I'etendue 
de terre qui se trouve depuis la borne du cbtk Sud-ouest 
du dit fief, qui le s^parc d'avec cehii ci-devant appartcnnat 
au Sicur Gijiird, en descendant le dit fleuve St. Laurent, 
jusqu'4 la riviere du Gouffre, sur si.x lieucs de profondeur 
dans les terres ; avcc les isles du cap bruK', I'islet rumpu 
'et autres islets etbattures au devant de ladite Seigneurie." 
—Rtgiitre d'lntendufice. No. 10 li 17,/o/io 667. 

CouDEE, Grande, river, rises in and runs 
through waste lands belonging to the crown, and 
empties itself into the R. du Loup, opposite the t. 
of Jersey in the co. of Beauce. 


CouLANGE (L.), V. Ottawa, b. 

CouLES DE8 Roches, river, in the island of 
Montreal, rises in the COte de St. Leonard, and 
running N. e. for about 3 m. turns n. and falls 
into the r. des Prairies opposite the n. e. end of 
Isle Jesus. 

CoUIiEUVRES, DES (L.), l'. L. St. JoIIN. 

CouHNOYKB, fief, in the co. of Nicolet, lies 
contiguous to Dutord and is bounded n. e. by 
Gentilly. — J 1. in front by 3 1. in depth, but the 
original title has not been discovered. It now be- 
longs to Etiennc Le Blanc, Esq. — Towards the 
rear the land is higher but in all other respects 

precisely similar to Becancour, and the timl)er is 
nearly of the same species that prevails there. 
Two-thirds of the land is well settled and in a 
superior state of cultivation. 

Title.—" Situe au Sud du fleuve St. Laurent, contenant 
une demi lieue de front sur trois lieues de profondeur, 
tenant du cote du Nord-cst au fief de Gentilly et du cote 
du Sud-ouest nu tief de Dtitort, appartenant uux heritiers 
de feu Sieur Linetut — Par le reglemcnt des paroisses fait 
par le Gouvenieur et I'lntendaut, cet fief est cite pour 
avoir deux lieues do front sur trois de jjrofondeur."— /?e- 
ffislre du papier Terrier, folio 204, le 'ime Mart, 1725. 

CouRNOYEB, seigniory, in the co. of Vercheres, 
is bounded n. w. by Vercheres and Bellevue ; a. w. 
by Beloeil ; n. e. by Contrecoeiir and in the rear 
by the r. Richelieu. — 1 J leagues in front by 2 in 
depth. Granted March 1st, 1695, to Sieur de 
Coumoyer, and is now possessed by Joseph Tous- 
saint Drolet, Esq. — All this S. is conceded and 
settled and the land is nearly similar to that of 
Vercheres and Contrecoeur, chiefly of good qua- 
lity, producing wheat and other grain in abund- 
ance. The best cultivated part is on the banl; of 
the Riclielieu and towards Contrecoeur; the quan- 
tity under management is about two-thirds of the 
whole. The uncleared lands are chiefly at the 
N. w. angle, and aflbrd wood of inferior kinds 
onlv. — It is watered by the Richelieu and the 


about ^ 1. from 
any u seated the 
stance from the 
aUe quantity of 

large specimen 
e literary society 
tc lead : this ore 

lower corn-mill 

6 331 
o! 171 

i: 258 
Oj 3C0 












1376 344 
1920 480 

1810 36642270 

I } 

6295 140,5017354) 

nd the timber is 
t prevails there, 
settled and in a 

Laurent, contcnunt 
ues de profondeur, 

GentHly ct dil cute 
tenant uux heritiers 
It des |)aroi88es fait 
; fief est citr pour 

jnofondeur."— Re- 
ne Mars, 1725. 

CO. of Vercheres, 
1 Bellevue ; s. w. 

and in the rear 

in front by 2 in 
95, to Sieur de 
by Joseph Tous- 

is conceded and 
imilar to that of 
;fly of good qua- 

grain in abund- 
is on the bank of 
;caeur; thequan- 
two-thirds of the 
re chiefly at the 
of inferior kinds 
ichelieu and the 

c o u 

Ruisseau Oaudete. — The roads are generally good 
and an excellent one leading from the village of 
Vercheres, close to the St. Lawrence, and follow- 
ing (he Richelieu joins the main public rood to 
Chambly, &c. — Although there is no village there 
is one school for boys. — Oxen ns well as horses are 
used in agricultural labour. One-half of the wheat 
grown is consumed in the S., the other half is sold 
either as com or flour. — Three ferries over the 
Richelieu. — Three concessions in front, of an 
irregular shape, arc in the Parish of St. Mark; 
tlie church, 120 ft. by 50, is on the bank of the 

Statistics of the Parish of St. Mark. 

Population 1173 
Churches, R. C. 1 
Presbyteries 1 










Annual Agricultural Produce. 






, 15,(iOO 



Buihelf. I Duiheli. 

Potatoes 21,5(X) Indian corn 100 
Peas . 4,0(X)i aiixedgnun 910 
Rye . 2,600 1 Maple sug. cwL 28 

Live Stock. 

420 1 Cows 
380 1 Sheep 

620 1 Swine 
2,100 1 


Title. — " Concession du Icr Mars, 1695, faite par Louii 
dr Buade, Gouvcrneur, et Jean Bochart, Intendaiit, au 
Sicur de Cournoyer, de deux lieues de terre de front siir 
|iareille profondeur du cute du Nord de la riviere Hiche- 
liciii a commencer a la Soipneurie du Sieur Joseph Ilerlel, 
en descendant la dite ri\i'ire."—mgistrc d'Intendance, 
Xo. i, folio 19. 

CuuRVAii, seigniory, in the co. of Yamaska, is 
in the rear of Bale St. Antoine or Lefebvre and 
extends to the t. of Wendover. — 2 1. in breadth 
by 3 in depth. Granted Sept. 25th, 1754, to Sieur 
Cressc and is now possessed by — Badeam, Esq. 
— But little of this grant is cleared ; the land how- 
ever is much above mediocrity : in a fe .. swampy 
places is found the timber usual on a wet soil ; the 
uplands produce beech, maple, birch and pine. — 
This S. is watered by the 8. w. branch of the 
Nicolet and by the St. Francis, on which is a 
corn-mill belonging to the seignior. — The settlers 
are established upon the banks of the two rivers 
and have improved their farms very fast ; their 
number would have been greater if the rents im- 
posed were more easy. — The only road is that from 
St. Antoine to the new townships. 

TK/c— " Concession du 25me Septembre, 1754, faite 
au Sieur Crcsse, par le Marquis Duqucme, Gouvemeur, et 
Fratifoit Bigot, Intendant, de deux lieues de front sur 

t o x 

truiii lieuoB de |>rolundeur, situic au bout de In profondeur 
de la Seipieurie vulKuireniriit iiumm(e la Bait SI, Antoine 
oil du I'eivrr, au bord du l«o St. Pierre, Iaf|uellr Selgneurie 
li deux lieues ou environ de front, sur deux lieues seiile- 
inent de profondeur, et »e trouve enclavie cntre le lief du 
Sieur Vresti nerr, an Nord-cst, ct im autre fief appartc- 
naiit au Sieur I.Hisaudiire au <aaA-wua»t"—lUgulrt d'ln- 
tendance, No. 10, folio 19. 

Covey's Hill, t;. Hhmhinoporu, t. 

Cox, township, in the co. of Bonaventure, is 
bounded e. by the t. of Hope ; s. by the bay of 
Chaleurs ; w. by the T. of Hamilton and N. by 
waste lands of the crown. — It is watered by the 
R. Bonaventure and contains the town of New 
Carlisle and the village of Faspebiac. — Xew Car- 
lisle is partly in Cox and partly in Hope, but the 
greater part is in Cox. It is a small fishing town 
and is laid out with a view to future compactness 
and regularity. It is centrically situated on the 
Bay of Chaleurs ; the houses are built of wood 
and a gaol, a court-house, a custom-house and a 
school have been erected. The situation is very 
healthy, and the adjacent lands rank among the 
most fertile in the district. Numerous settlements 
extend on each side, occupying nearly the whole 
front of the townships of Cox and Hope, and 
which, including the town, contain nearly one- 
half of the whole population. These settlements 
are in a much more improved state than any of the 
others. The want of corn-mills is seriously felt 
by the inhabitants, and greatly retards the pro- 
gress of agriculture : there arc good mill sites on 
a river that takes its source in a small lake in, 
the T., and which runs near these settlements. 
In front there is an excellent beach, where the 
fish is cured and dried. — The Village of Paspibiac 
is s. w. of New Carlisle, and is seated on the mar- 
gin of the Bay of Chaleurs. This village is the 
principal commercial depot of a company of mer- 
chants trading under the firm of Robins and Co. 
The Company made its first establi.shment at Pas- 
pebiac in 1 7^7 and was obliged to abandon it, 
from the autumn of 177^' to the spring of 1 783, 
on account of the depredations of the Americans. 
Since that period they have continued it unre- 
mittingly to the present day. They have built 
20 square-rigged vessels, which carr)' 3790 tons, 
besides a number of small ones, for the coasting 
trade, of 30 to 65 tons each. Their establishment 
comprises 8 dwelling-houses, 10 store-houses, with 
a sail-loft, rigging-loft aod mould-loft for ship- 
builders and 1 1 sheds. The annual amount of out- 
fits and supplies imported from Europe is upwards 



6 i ' 

lA : 


r. I 





I. I 

C R A 

of £ 10,000 Rtcrling. They export annually from 
22 to 27,000 quintals of dried codfish, about 100 
barrels of pickled fish and 30 to 50 tons of cod-liver 
oil. Besides this establishment the company have an 
extensive fishing-post at Perec, one at Grand River 
and one at New Port, where the ships' crews and 
a number of servants from the parishes in the en- 
virons of Quebec, in all about and sometimes above 
350 men, are employed from the beginning of May 
to the latter end of August, and about half that 
number till the close of the navigation in the latter 
end of Nov. The trade they carry on in the district 
of Gaspe supports about 800 families, which are 
supplied by the Company with all necessaries for 
the fisheries, wearing apparel, &c. &c. 


comprehending Paapebiac and part of Carlisle in 

Hope T. 

Population CC7 
Churches, R.C. 1 
Presl)yteiies 1 
Court-houses 1 

Gaols . . 1 
Villages 1 
Artisans . 18 

River eruft . (i 
ToiuiRxe . 450 
Keel boats . 37 

Annual AgricuUural Produce. 

Wheat . 

Buthels. : Buaheln, 
1,800 Potatoes . . 7,050 
1,020 Peas ... 400 

Live Stock, 



Cows . 149 
Sheep . 374 

Swine . ;«.') 

. 1 


Tille of Paipibiac. 

" Concession du lOme Novembre, 1707, faitc par Ri- 
gaud, Gouverneur, et Haiidot, Intendnnt, uu Sieur Pierre 
Leymar, de la pointe de PutpSbiac, dans le Buic det 
Chaleiirt, avec une licue de front du cOtt de I'Est de la 
dite pointe et une lieuc du cote de lOuest, avci; les isles 
et islets qui se trouveront au devant de I'^tendue de la dite 
concession, sur trois lieues de profondeur." — Iiitiniiutioiii 
till Conscil Siipiricur, IcIIre C, folio 38. 

Craig'8 Road, x\ Roads. 

Cranbourne, township, in the co. of Beauce, 
is bounded n. by Frampton, e. by Standon and 
Ware, s. by Watford, w. by Aubert de I'lsle and 
Vaudreuil, and is 45 m. from Quebec. — The lands 
are surveyed and divided and are with few ex- 
ceptions of good quality. The part, between the 
main branch of the R. Etchemiu and the lake of 
that name, consists of an excellent upland soil 
well calculated for settling. The price for clear- 
ing land in this t. is 50s per acre. — Cranbourne 
is watered by numerous streams and several lakes, 
the principal of which are the rivers Des Fleurs 
and Guillaume, Lake Etchemin and Petit Lac. — 
Ungrantcd and unlvcated 40,000 acres. 

D A U 

Crawforp Lake, in the first lot of the 3rd 
range of Chatham Gore, between Lakes Nesse 
and Bouchette, near the boundary line of Went- 

Creux, rivulet. — The Ruisseau Creux is a small 
stream that rises in the 8. of Terrebois ; it runs 
N. B. into the S. of Itiv. du Loup. 

Crocub, a name given to the North Basto- 
nuis R. 

Cromer Lake, t;. La Noraye, S. 

Crooked Lake, v. N. Bastonaib, r. 

Cross, the, v. Wagansis, r. 

Crossways, lake, is an expansion of the earlier 
waters of the h. St. Maurice; it lies between 
lakes Chawgis and Oskelanaio. 

CuLOTTE, la, lake, lies in the centre of a range 
of lakes forming the first waters of the river aux 

Cumberland, fief, in the S. of Aubert de 
I'lsle, fronts the R. Chaudiere and is bounded N. 
by Vaudreuil. 

CusHcouiA, bay, v. Baduely, r. 



Daaquam, river, rises in the t. of Ware and, 
running e. through waste lands of the crown, 
enters the co. of L'Islet ; being increased by the 
waters of the Eseganetsogook river and lake it 
soon after falls into the R. St. John. 

D'AiLLEBOUT D'Arobnteuil, seigniory, in 
the CO. of Berthier, is bounded in front by the 
river L'Assomption ; s. w. by the t. of Kildare ; 
N. E. by the S. of De Ramzay and in the rear by 
waste crown lands.— 1^ league in front by 4 leagues 
in depth. Granted, Oct. 0, 1736, to Sieur Jean 
D'Aillebout d'Argenteuil and now belongs to the 
heirs of the late Hon. P. L. Panet. — It contains 
about 40 houses along the road near the front. 

Title. — "Concession du Ome Oct., 1736, feite par 
CharJea, Marqiii» de Seauliarnoii, Gouverneur, et Gillci 
Ilocgiiart, Inteiidant, au Sieur ./fnn SAillehout d Argrnteiill, 
d'une lieue et dcinie de terre de front sur quatre lieues de 
prol'ondeui^ derriijre la Seigneurie de Lanaiirair, laquelle 
sera l)orn<>e pour la dcvanture pur la rive du Nurd de la 
riviere de V A»»ovif.tion ; du cot* du Sud-ouest par la ligne 
de la continuation de la Seigneurie de Luvaltrte ; d'autre 
cott', ail Nord-cst par une ligne parnlUle, tenant aux tcrres 
non-concedees, et dans la profondeur par une ligne pnrnl- 
Ule a la devanture; joignant aussi uux terres non.coti- 
ci'dces." — Itfgiatre it Intendance, Ko, H, folio 14. 


DAuniiN, river, in the island of Orleans, is a 

D A U 


ITE, S. 
)NAIB, R. 

sion of the earlier 
it lies between 

centre of a range 
of the river aiix 

3. of Aubert de 
1(1 is bounded N. 

. R 
<s, R. 

T. of Ware and, 

s of the crown, 

increased by the 

iver and lake it 


X, seigniory, in 

in front by the 
J T. of Kildare ; 
id in the rear by 
ront by 4 leagues 
6, to Sieur Jean 
w belongs to the 
et. — It contains 
ear the front, 

., 1736, faite par 
ivcrnt'ur, et GWcs 
'lebout d AvgrnUuU, 
ur quBtre lieues de 
Lanttiirttlr, luqiielle 
'ive dii Nord de la 
l-ouest par la ligne 
Luvaltric ,■ d'uiitre 
', tcimnt aux terres 
ar une lignc pnral- 
IX terres nun-con- 
fulio U. 

, S. 

of Orleans, is a 

small stream formed by three rivulets. It turns a 
mill at its muuth on the s. e. side, opposite Isle 

D'AiJTEUiL, seigniory, in the co. of Portncuf, 
is in the rear of the ungmentation to Bclitir and 
is Ijouiided N. e. by Bourglouis ; a. w. by the 8. of 
JacqucsCartier; N.w. by waste crown lands. — Half 
a league in breadth by 4^ 1 in depth. Granted, 
Feb. H), 1693, to the Sieur d'Auteuil.— This 
mountainous tract is still in a state of nature, and is 
indeed likely so to remain. It produces some good 
timber and, judging from the different kinds, the 
soil may be considered above mediocrity. — The h. 
Ste. Anne traverses it near the middle. 

Title. — "Concession du 15me Ftvricr, 1693, fuitu par 
Loui» lie Biitidc, Gouvprncur, ct Jean Bochart, Intcndant, 
uii Sieur ly.liiteitil, d'un reste de terre non-eonc/'de, qui 
H pour de front la ligne de profondeur du Sieur Toiipin 
Dusaull ; ail Nurd-est la ligne du Sieur Diipnnt, an Sud- 
oucst eelle du fief du dit Sieur D'Auteuil; ct an Nord- 
Duest Itt ligne qui sera tir<''« au bout de quutre lieue.s et 
demie; ensemble les ririi-res et ruisseaiix et tout re que 
s'v trouvcra coinj)ri«."~rtt^i»/rc ttlntcmlancc. No. •!■ fuliu 

Dautre (F.), v. Lanorayb. 
David River, in the co. of Saguenay, runs 
from the north and empties itself into the right 
bank of the R. Peritonea, 3^ miles from i^. St. 
John ; it appears to be navigable for canoes for a 
great distance and continues about 10 chains wide 
as far as the iirst portage, which is about 9.V miles 
from its mouth. 

David River, in the co. of Yamaska, is formed 
by the Ruisseau des Chtnes and other small 
streams rising in the t. of Upton, which meet 
in tlie S of Deguir and that of Bourgmarie East, 
where this r. waters the domain of J. Wurtell, 
Esq. and turns the mills belonging to that gen- 
tleman ; it soon after enters the S. of Yamaska 
and falls into the R. of that name a little above 
Isle Joseph. 

Davis River, in the co. of Two Mountains, is 
formed by the waters of several lakes in Chatham 
Gore, and running s. into the S. of Argenteuil 
falls into the North River. 

Davis River, in the co. of Saguenay, runs into 
Commissioners' Lake from the w. opposite Blue- 
lierry Plains. 
Davis (V.), v. Chatham, t. 
Dawson's Lake, in the Gore of Chatham, lies 
in the 2nd and 3rd ranges and in the centre of that 
part in front, which has been surveved. 

Deadman's Islr, t'. Maodm.rn lai.ANUii. ^ 

Debartcu (S.), v. Sr. Hv *< intiie, S. 

Decoy Lake, in the t. i Clarendon. lies b. 

of Erien Lake, near the ct ntre of the T., between 

the 0th and 10th ranges. t 

Dkep River, i« Ihr co. of Quebec, runs 

through waste hinds s. w. into lake Quaqua- 


Deguir, seigniory, in the co. of Yamaska, 
bounded n. and n. k. by Pierreville and St. Fran- 
\'ois; s. and ss. k. by the township of Upton; a.w. 
by Bourpiiai-u' East and N. E. by Courval. — Its 
figure i^ 1 1'"' ^lar, the greatest length being 2^, 1. 
but its extent docs not agree with the original 
grant, which specifies 2 1. of front by 2 1. deep. — 
Granted, Sept. 23, 1751, to Sieur Jasephe De- 
guir, called Desrosiers ; the property now be- 
longs to Josius Wurtell, Esq. who has about 300 
settlers. — In many places the land is low but, if 
cleared, fit for pro<luctions of every sort common 
to the country. The timber is generally of a su- 
perior class. Several branches of the river David 
water it and along them are dispersed a few set- 
tlers, who have their farms in a forward state of 
cultivation. — Were a critical revision of the boun- 
daries to take place, some of these tenants now 
holding from the seignior of Degiiir would prove 
to be located within the township of Upton — The 
road to Drummondville (v. Grantham) is now 
finished ; a better road to the borough of Sorel is 
much wanted, the present one being long, very 
winding and passing over a great many hills, it 
would be advisable to give it a straighter direction 
towards the r. Yamaska at some place fit for the 
erection of a bridge. The cost of this alteration 
has been calculated at about £400. 

Title. — " Concession du 2.3nie Scpteinbre, 1751, faite 
par le Marquit dc la Janqiiiire, Gouverneur, et Fraiifoii 
Bigot, Ititciidunt, au Sieur Joseph Drgiiir, dit Dcirotieri, 
de deux lieues de terre dc fiont ou environ, sur deux lieues 
de profondeur, a prendre au bout de la profondeur de la 
Seigneurie St. Fraiifou, borm'e d'un v6l(; au Nord-est, a 
la riviere St Fraitfuis, au Sud-ouest a la Seigneurie de 
la Vame Petit, sur le devant au trait quarr£ de la dite 
Seigneurie de St. Fraiifois, et dans la profondeur aux 
terres non-eoncedies, ensemble la riviere David qui se 
trouve dans I'enteiidue du dit terrein." — Higittre d' Intend- 
ance, No. 9, folio 82. 

De Lerv, seigniory, in the co. of Acadie, 
bounded n. e. by the barony of Longueuil ; w. 
and N. w. by the t. of Sherrington and the S. of 
La Prairie dc la Mugdeloine ; s. by the S. of La 



|- !! 

I i 



V ! 




■I ir 


Colle and b. by the r. Richelieu. — 2 1. in front 
by 3 in depth. Granted, 6th April, 1733, to 
ChauMegrog de Lery and is now the property of 
General Burton.— The whole of this tract is low, 
having in many parts cedar swamps and marshes 
that spread over a large space : where the land is 
dry a good black soil generally prevails, which, 
when cultivated, proves very fertile. The pro- 
iwrtion settled is much less than that in the 
adjoining grants, a large part still remaining in 
its natural state of woodland. — The river Jlont- 
real runs through this S., and the r. Blcuric and 
Johnson Creek rise and fall in it. A .small lake, 
near the middle, frequently overflows the sur- 
rounding low lands and makes a marsh to a con- 
siderable distance ; but neither the marshes nor 
swamps are so deep as to prevent draining, which, 
'■idiciously performed, would in a short time ren- 
der the land fit for the plough or convert it into 
excellent meadows ; however, while there remains 
so much land of a good quality to l)e granted, which 
comparatively requires so little trouble to clear 
and improve, it is most probable tliat those tracts 
will long continue in their present condition. The 
liest settled parts are about the woods of Acadie, 
and by the road lending to the state of New York, 
which, with a few other dispersed settlements, 
may amount to about one- third of the whole seig- 
niory. The road that passes through the woods 
of Acadie, being the military route to the fron- 
tiers and the line of march for troops moving in 
that direction, has been benefited by some sub- 
stantial repairs and has, in many parts, been cause- 
wayed for the passage of artillery and heavy bag- 
gage. — Near the boundary of La Colle is a small 
place called Burtniwille, composed of a few houses 
distributed without regularity on each side of the 
main road. — In the Hichelicu, near the mouth of 
the Blcuric, is hte aujr Xoix, formerly the property 
of tlie late General Christie but now belonging to 
the Crown : it is a flat, a little above the level 
of the river, containing only JI5 acres; it lies 
10^ miles from the l)oundiiry-line, in an excel- 
lent situation to intercept the whole communi- 
cation by water from Lake Champlain ; it is, con- 
sequently, a most important military stuti(m and 
has been fortified with all the care its command- 
ing position deserves. In this isle is a place for 
building ships, where the Confiance of 32 guns 
was launched. 

D E R 


Populalion . 
('hurelics, R. C. 

. 1,531 Presbyteries 
1 Saw-milU 

. t 

Annual Agricnllural Produce. 

Diuheli. Dushelt. 
Wlicnt . 27,000 Pttatoes aS,(KX) 
Oats . aO.(XX) Peas . 8,000 
Barley . 4,900 Rye . 1,000 

Buck wheat 2,0(Hi 
Indian cum 1,!)80 
M. sugar, cwts. 38 

Live Stock. 

Horses . 1,010 
Oxen . 2,118 

Cows . 3,010 
Sheep . 9,060 


. 3,000 

Title " f'oncession Hii Cme Avril, 173.'*, faite par 

Charlci, Marquii dc Biauharnoii, (Jouverneur, et Gillei 
lloii/uart, Intendaiit, au Sioiir Chausscgrot dc Ury, de 
deux lieues de front lo long de la riviere de CtmrnUi/, sur 
trois lieues de |irot'ondeur; les dites deux lieues de front 
u prendre depuis la home de la Scigticurie du Sieur dc 
Ijongueuil, qui va iiii Nord-ouest, en remontant vers le lac 
Champlain, iV uno liguc tirie est et oucst du nionde, et 
joignant la profundeur aux terres non-eonc^dees." — Ile- 
gtttrc d'Inlcndamc, No. 7, folio 13. 

De l'Isle, seigniory, in the co. of Beauce {vide 
Aubert Gallion), lx)unded N. by Vaudreuil ; w. by 
the Chaudicre, which separates it from Aubert 
Gallion ; e. by Watford ; s. by Jersey and waste 
lands. — It is 2 leagues square. Granted, in 1730, 
to Sieur Gabriel Aubin de L'Isle and now belongs 
to M. de Lery. — This fief is watered by the rivers 
Cliaudidre, du Loup and la Famine. In the 
vicinity of r. du Loup are many extensive tracts 
of excellent meadow land. 

Tilh "(Concession du !il-me Scptcnibrc, 17.10, fnitc 

piir Charkf, Marijuit de ticauhnrtioit, (Jouverneur, et 
(iilici llix-quart, Intendnnt, au Sieur Gabriel Aubin, Mv 
li'l>U', d'un terrein de deux lieuesi dc front sur deux llenoh 
dc profondcur, du cote du Nord-est de la riviere du Saull 
de III Cliaudiire, avec les isles et islets ijui sont dans lii 
dite rivijrc du coti' du Nord-est; a euniMU'iicer a la fin 
d'uutrt's trois lieues conc/'d^es an Sieur Jonfh Flcuri/ dr 
la Corgrndicre et tinir aux terrce non>cuncedrei."— Mif- 
gUln d'lnlcnduHCC, JVu. 8,yi)/(i» 12. 

Dk Peirab, f. MiTid. 

De Kamzay, seigniory, in the co of Berthier, 
joins d'Aillebout and is bounded n. k by the t. 
of Brandon. — 1 J 1. in front by 4 1. in deptli. 
(iranted 7th Oct., 1730, to Dame Genevieve dc 
Kumzay, widow of Sieur de Boishi'lwrt, and is 
now the property of the heirs of the late Hon. 
P. L. Panet. — This grant, as well as d'Aillebout, 
consists of good rich land in the lower part, but 
in the rear, approaching tnc mountains, the soil 
is either a hard unfruitful clay, upon which the 
farmer's lalxmr would be thrown away, or irre- 
gular and broken strata of rock ; it is however 



1 . 

D E R 

D E S 




Buck wheat 2,000 


Indiun corn 1,080 


M. sugar, cwts. 38 


Swine . 3,000 


il, \73:i, fuite par 


uvcrneur, et Gillei 


isigroi lie Ury, dc 


re de ChamUy, sur 


cHX lieui'8 de front 

■ ''m 

picurie du Sieur dc 


'moiitunt vers le lac 


Ducst du nionde, et 


n.conc6d<'e8. " — tti- 


[}. of Bcauce {vide 
'^audreuil ; w. by 
it from Aubcrt 
Jersey and waste 
Granted, in 173G, 
and now belongs 
Bred by the rivers 
''amine. In the 
y extensive tracts 

itcnihre, 17.30, faite 
il, (touveriieur, et 
Gabriel Aubiii, De 
front Hnr deux licue.s 
c i« riviere An Saull 
;t» qui Kont dans lu 
euiniMeiicer a In iin 
cur Jmcfih Flciirii de 
>n-coneedeeii. '—Hi- 

e CO of Berthier, 
d N. K by the t. 
|r 4 1. in depth, 
mc (Jenevii've de 
)oisht'l)ert, and \r 
of the late Hon. 
ell as d'Aillebout, 
le lower part, but 
lountnins, the soil 
, upon which the 
rn away, or irrc- 
•k ; it is however 


tolerably well timbered with beech, birch, maple, 
some oak and a little pine, besides the common 
sorts for fuel. — A small range on the w. Iiank of 
the It. L'Assomption is all that is under culture. — 
The village lies on the main road that leads to* 
wards Berthier from the B. L'Assomption; it 
consists of 2/1 or 30 houses, of which the most con- 
spicuous is that of Mrs. Panet. The highlands 
stretching across the S , in the rear of the v., 
produce a very pleasing effect. 

Tille — " ("oncession du Tine Octobre, 1730, fuite |mr 
t'liarlfi Marqiiia de Beauharno'tM, Gouvenieur, et Gillet 
lliici/uart, Iiiti'i.duiit, k Uuine CenevUic dc Kavuiiij, veuve 
(hi leu Siciir dc Hniilu'lirrt, d'une lieue et dcniie de tcrre 
de front Kur (|uutre lieueii de profondeur, boni/e sur la de- 
vantiire par lu rive du Nord dc la rivii're de tAaamplkm, 
dii cotr dii Siid-Ouest par la lignc dc la cuncesKioii iiou- 
vi'llcinciit Hccordie au Sieur d^Argentcuil; d'autrc, au 
Nurd- list par une lignc parallele, teuiint aux pruluiigutiun 
de lu Sei),MUMiric d'Anlnijn ; et dans lu |)rufondeiir pur une 
ligne panilli'le i la dcvanturc, joigtiunt ausxi aux tcrres 
non-conccdic's." — Uee'ulrr d'Inlendanee, A'li. 8, ,/o/io l.i. 

Dk Ramzav, seigniory, in '-he co. of St. Ilya- 

einthc, is bounded 8. w. by the 8. of St. Ilyucinthe ; 
K. and N. K. by the t. of Upton ; 8. w. by St. 
Charles Yamasku and Bourchcmin. — .'i 1. in front 
by '^ in depth. Grunted 17th Oct. 1710, to Sieur 
de Hanizny and is now the proj)crty of the heirs 
i)f P. Lungan, Esq. — Wry little of this S. is cul- 
tivated, or even cleared. Judf^ing of the quulity 
of the land from the timber, there is every reason 
to suppose tiiat it might be brought into use with 
very good prospects. Towards llu' N. K. arc 
some swamps thickly covered with cedar and 
spruce fir, the certain indication of such a soil ; 
tlie wootls on the higher parts are of much iietter 
kinds and, in some places, show the ground to he 
(if a stnmg and good quality. This S. is watered 
liy the river Chibuuet. 


l'ii|iiilnlioii ,'{80. ('orii-niilU . I Nolurics I 

( liiirelics, I'ro, 1 i Sinv-inilU . I 1 'Javerim . I 
( iiivit . 1 1 Mcdicul men 1 1 Artisans . 

Anniiiil Ajfileulliiriil I'loduer. 
■luillrli. UiuhiU. I lliiihtia. 

.'i,l^!l I'l.liilnex .'{.MM IJiickwliciK lllll 
'■i,\H») \\»- . I.lio.i! Inilinii corn ll!l 
KNI Hye . WOi 

Mir .S7i«A-, 

Horns . It.3 Cowii . .'HiHi Swine . VJl 
Oxen . Ii;j| Sliccp . 7781 

Tilli: — " Conccsdldii du I7iiic Octolirc, 1710, fuite an 
Sirur i/r Hiim^au, de ri'teniliic ilc troin liciii^'t dc lirre dc 
front -iir trois liciies dc prol'ondciir, Kuvoir, line liciie ct 
dcniic HiidcHMHis de la riviirc Sillmml, ipii tuiiibe daii*< lu 
livicrc )'iihii(jA,i. et line licue et dcniic uu dc«Min, coiirant 
iln Nordcit uu "^iid-oiiest, avce lea» et isletn i|ui »e 



troiireront dans la ditc riviere, vifua.vis de la dite con- 
cciiiiinn : et domiunt k la dite concession le nom de Hiim- 
xiit/." — Hegiiirt del f'vl et llomnuige. No. 96,/o/lo (iV, It 
•Zme Jativter, 1781. t'a/iifr» d'lnlcndaHce, No, 8 .1 !», 
fulio 33K 

Derby, a projected township in the co. of 
Ottawa, lies b. of Portland and n. of Buckingham 
and Lochaber. 

Deschaillonb, isle, in the r. Richelieu and 
in the centre of the S. of St. Ours. The Ruis- 
seau la Prade falls into the Richelieu n. w. of 
this isle, and the v. of St. Our?* is about 1 m. to 
the 8. E. 

Di:8('iiAiLi.0N8 (S.), V. St. Jean Debchail- 
L0N8, S. 

Deschambault, seigniory, in the co. of Port- 
neuf, is bounded N. K. by the barony of Portneiif ; 
a. w. by La Chevroticrt ; by the St. Lawrence in 
front ; by waste lands of the Crown in the rear. — 
One 1. in breadth by three in depth. Grunted 
Mar. 1, 1().'»2, to Demoiselle Elconore de Gruude 
Muison and now lielungs to Louis de la Gorgeu- 
diere, Esij. and the Hon. Juchereau Duchesiiay. 
— This, in almost every resiK'ct, is a very valuable 
property ; the soil is of unexceptionable quality, 
being a mixture of go<Kl clay with a little sand, 
a fine yellow loam and in many places a rich 
lilack mould, which in the vicinity of Point Des- 
chumbault bus a stratum of rock beneath it. The 
surface is uneven, and from iK'iiig a fine level 
ilat near the river, it rises in small ridges mount- 
ing, by gradations, one above another nearly to the 
rear limits of the seigniory. From the w. also 
there is a gradual acclivity from the plain to the 
height of Point Descbambault ; on this plain the 
land is every where fertile ; the greater part 
being in an excellent state of cultivation, the nu- 
merous farms on each side of the main road, with 
their substantial bouses and every requisite up- 
IK-iulage, lUinl pleasing evidence of the industry 
and good liuslianilry of the proprietors. In this 
H. are ranges of concessions, 4 of which are oc- 
cupied in farms and another is in progress of l)eing 
settled. On the ranges towards the interior mnny 
of the lots display an equal share of g(HM| uumiige- 
ment, which is the case with nearly uU the land 
under tillage, amounting to a full third of the 
whole Seigniory. — The timl)er is of a imHlerately 
go<Kl quality and is mostly lieech, maple and 
piue : there is, however, some wixmI of inferior 
descriptions. — The livers Ste. Anne, crossing the 
rear. La Chevrotiere, Bellei.sle and u few smaller 


.i I 

D E S C H A M B A L' L T. 

streams contribute to the luxuriant fertility of the 
soil. In the R. Ste. Anne, which is rapid every 
where in this S., is a iall of about 130 ft. At 
the mouth of the Belleisle, when the tide flows, 
the water is 10 or 12 ft. deep and admits boats 
and schooners, which arc there protected from the 
ice during winter. It meanders through this S., 
where it is remarkable for its subterranean chan- 
nel of about 7 or 8 arpents in length ; and in the 
line, that separates the lands of Joseph Baronet 
and Joseph Morin, this n. runs under a ruck by 
means of holes formed by nature and thus tra- 
verses the lands of the latter a. k. A little short 
of the place where the water rises out of the 
earth is a crevice in the rock, which seems to 
have been occasioned by an earthquake. In this 
crevice many attempts to catch fish have been 
made unsuccessfully; but about an arpent lower 
down is a second crevice, about a foot wide and 
GO ft. 'ong, where very fine trout have been 
caught and even eels — The Point of Descham- 
bault has a considerable elevation, and strctclics 
Iwldly into the river to the Richelieu rupids ; the 
face of it appears a firm clay and sand without 
any interposition of rock or stone. On this point 
the church of Deschambault is built, and on the 
suunnit of the salient extremity is a very beauti- 
ful grove of pine-trees, remarkable rather for re- 
gularity and equality of size than for individual 
magnitude. A little l)elow the church, on the 
sloping side of the point, is the manor-house of 
Monsr. de la Gorgendiere. The river St. Law- 
rence forms u large curve between Cap S^antc and 
Point De8chamb.iult, and either in ascending or 
descending th^ combination of objects that it pre- 
sents is highly interesting and agreeable. The 
point was formerly a sort of military post, as the 
French, in 175}), had a battery upon it for 
the puqx)8u of defendir.g this pass of the river 
against any force that might have been sent up- 
wards; indeed, this situation with the superior 
height of P!aton, on the ojiposite side, might easily 
be Cortiiied so as completely to command the pass- 
age either way, and, together with the difficulties 
of the Richelieu rapid, would render any attempt 
lo force it very disastrous. — In this S. is one vil- 
lap', ronsisting of If* houses of W(xxl, 1 inn, 
4 dealers, 2 shoemakcii, 2 blacksmiths, 1 miller. 
— The etl-lisheries in front of the H. are pro- 
ductive and almost every inhabitant has a fishery ; 
liesidcs eels, dure, carp, achigtui and a number 

of sturgeon arc caught ; in autumn the epland 
abounds and in the winter the petite morite, a spe- 
cies of small codfish. In the r. Ste. Anne salmon 
and salmon-trout are taken in abundance. From 
July to the beginning of October the salmon is 
caught by the light of a torch. In the winter 
bears and wild deer are hunted — The parish 
of Deschambault is 2 1. in front by 3 in depth, 
and is divided into two seigniories; the more 
considerable, belonging to Sir. Louis Fleury de 
la Gorgendiere, is 1^ 1. in front by 3 deep; the 
other, belonging to Mr. Louis Garriepy, is half 
a league in front and 3 leagues in depth, and 
is to the 8. w. The church, by virtue of a de- 
cision. May 14, 1731, the seignior of Descham- 
bault, who oflcrcd to furnish land to build a church, 
upon which the copyholders of the S. were obliged 
to build a presbytery and provide for the expense 
pro rata. This judgment, which gives the right 
of patronage to the seignior, was made by virtue 
of an edict of Slay, 1079. — The presbytery is 
prettily described in the following verses sent to 
the author, with information relative to the parish, 
by Mr. J. B. B. — C. P. 

Sm um iiiunt c'scai'iii que cent lieaux pins roiironiieiit, 
De leur fi'iiilliiKe i\m\H les ombres t'eiiviroiiiiiiit. 
I, IS Mipeiirs et les vents euiiiliiisunt li'S VHisseaux 
Sur un tleiive u tes pieds i|iii <li'jiloie ses eiiiix. 
Siir toi srjonr Iieiiivux soiitle le iloiix z/'pliire; 
Tour Toriicr avcc I'art la nature eunspirv. 

N'eiir tlie church is a little village of 12 houses 
(Illy, and in the second range of concessions art 2 
other little villages of 12 or 15 houses each in a 
tolerable state. The church is agreeably situated on 
Cap Lauzon in the first range. There are 2 public 
schools in which reading, writing and arithmetic 
are taught ; there are also 2 privote schools. — Th 
cattle are generally good and their different breeds 
carefully attended lo, particularly shecj) and swine: 
every farmer, one with another, winters 12 to 15 
sheep, about 3 pigs, 5 cows, 3 calves 2 or 3 
horses. — All the wheat and peas grown are con- 
sumed in the p., and about 1730 biisluls of oats 
are annually sold. — The roads are sufficiently good, 
with the exception of some which are in a bad 
state. There are n(» bridges of consequence. — The 
soil in general is congenial to the gn)Wth of hemp, 
and every farmer makes un an average from 25 
to 30 lbs. of flax ready for spinning. — In several 
places are i|uarrie8 of stone, but the liest is in the 
concession called St. Francois. — There arc two 

itumn the cpland 
ctite moriie, a spe- 
Ste. Anne salmon 
bundance. From 
XI the salmon is 
li. In the M'inter 
ted. — The parish 
t by 3 in depth, 
liories; the more 
Louis Fleury de 
t by 3 deep ; the 
I Garriepy, is half 
Lies in depth, and 
iy virtue of a de- 
Tiior of Descham- 
1 to build a church, 
he S. were obliged 
le for the expense 
;h gives the right 
as made by virtue 
rhe presbytery is 
ing verses sent to 
itive to the parish. 

IX piim cuiMoiiiieiit, 
t li's vaisscuiix 
ir soH t'liiix. 
iix zi''|iliirc ; 

Inge of 12 houses 

concessions art 2 

houses each in a 

ceably situated on 

There are 2 public 

ig and arithmetic 

ate schdoLs. — Th 

ir diHcrcnt Iireeds 

sheep and swine : 

winters 12 to 1.5 

calves 2 or 3 

8 grown are con- 

)0 bushvls of oati 

sufficiently good, 

oh are in a bad 

nseiiuence. — The 

growth of hemp, 

average from 25 

ing. — In several 

the l)est is in the 

-There are two 

D E S 

mineral springs ; one on the farm of Louis Delisle, 
the other on the farm of Pierre Perrault. — Each 
family makes, on an average, about 15 ells of 
flannel stuff annually.— Horses are generally used 
in husbandry, oxen very seldom. — In the parts 
bordering on the St. Lawrence a great number of 
small cwlfish, f elites monies, are caught from the 
middle of Dec. to the middle of Jan. They always 
come at the same time of the year, and, passing all 
the rivers as far us Three Rivers without entering 
any of them, come up the St. Lawrence for the 
purjiose of spawning, and always ascend through 
the lirst channel of Three Rivers. — In this p. are 
4 ship yards, in which 5 vessels have been built, 
varying from 40 to 1(50 tons each. 

S/atisties of t fie J'arish of Deschamhnult. 

ruimliition l,>7() 
CliurcliL^, U. C 1 
Ciirrs . 1 
I'rci-liytt'rit's 1 
Sclidols . 1- 

\'illi,Kl'H . 1 

(uni-iiiitls . 2 
('uriliiiK-iiiills 1 
S,,\v.inilN . 5 
.Sliip-yiirds . 4 
.Mi'dii'iil iiU'M 1 
Notaries . 1 

Slio|iki'i'i)t'rs ,1 
'I'avi'riis . 1 
Artisans . i.i 
Hivcr-craft . 1.1 
ToniiuKc . .537 
Ki'cl-liuiits . -^ 

A nil It 

al ^-tffr'u'iiltitrttl J'rodiur. 



liilllcy . 1,1,,0 

rolatocs i.v;«Ki 

Tens . (),,j(K) 
Imlian corn IU() 

I. ill- AV 



. lii) 

. bo 





Swine . !(«() 

mii: -" ('oiiceii!iion flu ler Mum, I03K, Cuitc par Air. 
ill- l.aiciiii a Ilt'inniNcIlc Eli'ninrc ilr (iriiiidmuiwii, silili'i' 
an Niiril du tlcnve .SV. I.niirnil, runtennnt iiric lienc de 
Iriint »ur trois lieni's de prutundeiir, tern nt du cote du 
N(ii(l-r-t an liit' de /'nrliiriij', appartciiant uu Sieur 
rri'hill,; ct du (lite du Sud-oiie<it BU tief de la C^hevrc- 
ti. ri. '—lUgiitrc J'liileHdiiiice, A'o. 10 a 17, folio M», 

DKH.MAi>nK or Sr. August; seigniory, in 
the CO, of Portncuf, is Iwundcd N. k. by Gaudar- 
villc ; H. w. by Pointe aux Trembles ; in the rear 
by (luillaume Bonhonune and Fausembault; in 
front l)y the St, Lawrence.— No official record 
has l)ccn found relative to this grant, c('tly 
its original dale and dimensions are not 
known. Les Dumis Kiliijieiiyps of the fJencral 
II().spltaI of QucIkc, to whom the proiH.rly iKlongs, 
in lurforniing fealty and homage, lilfli Ular. I7III, 
pr(uluic<l as their title an act of adjudication, dated 
Sej)! 22, 17H;< ; but which wasindeci.sivc of the ili- 
mensions of the S., no notice whatever being taken 
of the extent. Ily the regulation of llie parishes of 
the province, it is designati'd us containing 2{ 1. in 
breadth l)y 1| 1. in depth.— \\itb u surface varied 

1) E S 

and uneven this .S. posscs.scs a rich and fertile roil. 
which on the large swells and high lands is a 
lightish loam, but in the hollows and valleys, lying 
between them, it is generally n good black mould. 
The situation is so favourable for all works apper- 
tainin>r to agric\ilture, that full three-fourths of 
the whole seigniory is under tillage; the farms. 
and indeed the major part of the concessions, ap- 
pear to great advantage and display many f ivour- 
able .specimens of careful husbandry. In propor- 
tion to the increase of cultivation the quantity 
of timber has diminished and little of .superior 
ipiality i^ standing ; the ccminion kinds are not in 
nuuh greater abundance. — It is watered by the 
Riviere du Cap Rouge, between which and the 
St. Lawrence is Lac Calvaire. — The land lK)rder- 
ing the St. Lawrence is the highest in the seig- 
niory, wlience there is an alternuti(m of ridges 
and valleys, the former diminishing in height as 
they apjiroach the rear boundary, composing to- 
gether a nu)st agree.ible undulation in the j)er- 
.spective scenery. This property is very conveni- 
ently cro.ssed liy roads, in almost every dirccti(m, 
and most of them are kept in good repair ; that 
along the front is called the post road ; another, 
passing in the rear to .Jacijues Cartier bridge, is de- 
nominated the stage road; on each side of the 
Rivlrre du Oap Rouge a road leads to the S. of 
Pointe aux Trembles, with .several intermediate 
roads in connexion ; by the sides of each are many 
line .settlements, the houses well built and the 
farms showing every appearance of comfort and 
even afHtience. The church, .seated on a point 
projecting into the St. Lawrence, a corn and a 
saw-mill upon a little branc!i of Riviere du Cap 
Rouge, between two lofty banks where it dis- 
charges into the St. Lawrence, compose a pleasing 
point of view either from that river or the emi- 
nence just alwve the mills. On Imth sides of 
the mouth of the Cap Rouge are the ixfensive 
timber establishment and ship-yard belonging to 
Alessrs. Atkinson, who hold a government con- 
tract and furnish tiniKr and nutsting fm the use 
of the royal navy. An ixttiisive shoal, or rather 
reef of nnks, lioiind.^ the whole fnmt of the sei- 
gniory: the Islets Donlxiur lie upon this reef, the j*. m . iHiuiidary. This S. is in the 
I*, of St Augustin with the exception of La Ct'ito 
St. Ange in the Urd concession, whiili is served 
by the cure of \'ielle Lorette to whom it j>uyR 




D E S 

The Parish of St. Auguslin comprehends parts 
of the SS. of Desmaure, Fausembuult and Be- 
lair, and belongs to the ladies of I'Hotel Dieu at 
Quebec. It contains 4 concessions, those nearest 
the St. Lawrence the most populous, ^ths of the 
p. are under cultivation and 4th in wood. There 
is one school, supported by the parish, in which 60 
scholars are instructed in French and English. 
Near the church, 130 ft. by 52, built on a point 
projecting into the St. Lawrence, is the small but 
pretty village of St. Augustin, consisting of 14 
houses including an inn, through which the post 
road passes. The horses are of the Canadian 
l)recd and though small sufficiently good. Nearly 
idl the grain grown is consumed in the " The 
roads are not kept in good repair, and there is one 
bridge over the r. Cap Rouge. Both horses and 
oxen are used in agriculture. Some surjilus ma- 
nufactured articles are produced for sale. Although 
tlic soil is not generally adapted to the growth of 
hemp, yet it is in some degree cultivated. — The 
lands in this p. were all conceded prior to 1759. 

Slatistics of St. Augustin P. im-titding St. Catherine 
of FuHScmbttult. 

HopulHtion 1,0!).'} 

(huri'lies, R.C 


1 I Saw-niills 
t ArliMinB . 





Ammat AgrleuUnral Produce. 

BuihrU. I Quahrli. 

Il,60!l| I'otutoes . IH,(KIO 

13,(MH» P»'«s . ;JO()0 

Lhc Stork. 


l.(H)<1| Swine 


Title. — " I^'Kriir(,'i«trcinpiit dc ret octroi n'li |mi« I'tr 
iroiivi' jiiscjirici an SecritHriiit (Ir la I'rovincc. I.cs lliiiiii« 
vflitiieuscH di' rHopitiil, i|iii iiossfdi'nt actucllciiuMit ce 
lid, cii rciHlaiit Foi et HointnHKO lo Iflinc Mnrs, 17H1, 
ii'oiit iiriidiiit (jn'iiii Xcto d'lidjiidii'atiDn I'li d«to dti :i'in\v 

Scptcnilirc, I7.'i'<, d«ii» lc(|iicl iii Ics dimensions ni li u 

du I'linicssioiiniiircdrcftlf concosKioii nc sunt mrntionnes. 
— I'lir Ic r6Klcnn'iit dcN parciisscs du cetto priivincc, IVtcii. 
due dr cftlc Nc'i«ninrii' sc dctrrininc a di'ii\ lirnis ct 
Arm'w dc fnint, mir une ct dcniio du protondcur." — Hi- 
liUlee (Us F'Wl IliiiMiiitigt, A'li. iiiffolio lUb, /. litwii Mars, 
I7HI.— /"I. Coll. Sup, 

1)|>PI.AINK«, seigniory, in the vo. of Lotbinii're, 
is bounded K. by Tilly and Gaspr ; w. by IJonhc- 
lours and Ste. Croix and by St. tJiles in the rear 
— (inuitid ill two parts : the first, / 1- in front by 
I J leagues in depth froui tiie rear of fWf .Mpruiiiia, 
to Demoiselle I 'barlotte Lagnrdeiir, 4ih .Fun. 1 7<17; 
the second, iibout "♦ nrpeiits in front by 1 JiMgiie 

D I S 

60 ai-pents in depth, being the space between the 
preceding grant and the S. of Ste. Croix, to the 
same person; the whole intended to form only 
one seigniory. 

Title. — Parlk Xord-Eit.—" Concession du 4me Jan- 
vier, 1737, f'aitc i Demoiselle ChurloHc Liigardeur par le 
Marquis de Bcauharnoh, Oouvcrneiir, et Gillct Ilocquart, 
Iiitcndant, de trois quarts de lieue de terre dc front i la 
Cote du Sud du tleuve St. Laurent, sur trois lieues de pro- 
fondeur, a prendre uu bout des profondeurs du tief Ma- 
randa ,• born^e d'un cote, au Sud-ouest, a la Seiffiieurie de 
BoHiecour/, d'antre au Nord-est a celle de 7"i//.i/, ct par 
dcrrkre aux terres non-concedees." — Regittre iPIuleiid- 
ancc, Ko. H, folio 19. 

Partie Sud-Ouesl. — " Concession du Stime Mars, 1738, 
fuite par le Marquis de Oeanliarnoii, Gouverneur, et Gillei 
Hticquart, liiteiidunt, a Demoiselle Charlotte Liigardeur, 
d'une aiignieiitation de teirein d'environ soixante et qua- 
torze urpens de front, qui se trouve non-concede, et en- 
clave entre la concession a elle faitc le 4me Janvier, 1737, 
et la Scixiieurie de St. CroU; tenant par devaiit au tief de 
Uimacctiuri ct Amiot, et par derrierc uux tcrres non-con- 
ci'dees. sur unc licue ct soixante arpeiis de profondeur, 
pour ics (lits soixante ct (|uatorze arpens ajoutes nc faire 
avec Ml i)ieniiere concession (prune meine Seigneuric." — 
liigislrc il'Iiitcnilauce, \u. 9, Julio .i, 

Despi.aines, seigniory, in the co. of Terre- 
bonne, bounded N. and s. by the S. of Terrebonne 
and its augmentation ; k. by Lachenaye and w. by 
Bluinville. It is watered by the Mascouchc and 
the St. Pierre Est. 

Dkvebbois (S.), 1'. Tkuuebois, S. 

Districts. The province of Lower Canada is 
divided into 5 districts. The three si'perior di- 
stricts arc l•■,\\\^:d^fontrcll/, Three Rivers and Quebec, 
being so niuned from the principal town in each 
district. The two inferior districts are called St. 
Franii.i and Gasp^. The districts are the judi- 
cial divisions of the province having courts of 
superior and inferior jurisdiction sitting at pre- 
scrilK'd tcniis, which are generally the same as 
those in England. In the superior districts the 
jurisdicti(m of the Court of King's Bench is un- 
limited ; but in the inferior districts the civil ju- 
risdiction is, in some degree, circumscribed by the 
power of appeal in cerlaiu cases, and all prose- 
cutions ior capital crimes must be carried on in 
the courts of the superior districts. The scats of 
jurisdiction are as follow : 




Tliiei' Kivers 

Inf. o. of St. Fruneis 

Inf. II. lit (inspe 

Seuti ofjurltdlcliiiii. 

City of yiiebec 
City of Montreal 
Tow II (if Tlirce Hivrrs 
Sliei lii'iiiikc, in tbc r. of iV'Cot 
New ( urlisle, in the r. oft ox 

Priy.iuilal Court of .ijipeuli Fsti.blisla'd by tlic 3!th 

(ico. III. (;. (I, J •^.'1, for the bearing of idl iippeals from 


ace between the 
ite. Croix, to the 
d to form only 

ssion du -l-me Jan- 
te Lagardeur par le 

ft Gillct llocquart, 
! terre dc front \ la 

truis lieues de pro- 
ndeurs du fief il/u- 
;, a la Seigrneurie de 
lie de Ti////, et par 
-RigUlre tTIiileiid- 

1 2Gme Mam, 1738, 
ouveiiieur, et Gillei 
'hurloltc Lagardeur, 
on soixante et (|ua- 
non-concedr, et en- 
' 4-nie Janvier, 1737, 
lar devant au fief de 
!iux terres non.con- 
eiis de |)rofondeiir, 
ens ajoutes ric faire 
lenie Seigneiirie." — 

;he CO. ot'Terre- 
S. of Terrebonne 
henaye and w. by 
e Aluscouche and 

018, S. 

Lower Canuda is 
Ihree si'perior di- 
Uvcrs und Qiicber, 
ipal town in each 
cts are cnllud St. 
ets are the ,judi- 
liaving courts of 
n sitting at pre- 
uUy the same as 
irior districts the 
g's Bench is un- 
ricts the civil ju- 
iiniscribed by the 
s, and all prose- 
be carried on in 
:t8. The seats of 



I'hiee Hivers 
lisle, in the T. t)f( ox 

l)li^lK•d by tl<e 3!tli 
ufiill iippealu truin 

the Courts of King's Bench of Superor Jurisdiction in 
tlic province. 

Cimrt ofKing'i Bench Estiiblislied by the 34 Geo. 1 1 1. 

c. 6, § 2," BR a court of original jurisdiction, in all matters 
over XIO sterling, or relating to any fee of olhce, duty, 
rent, revenue, or other «um puvable to liis Majesty, titles 
to lands and tenements, annual rents, or such like matters 
and things, where the rights in future may be bound, ex- 
cepting thoM- purely of Admiralty jurisdiction. An in- 
ferior tribunal of the same rourt is also held for the trial 
of all eases wliere the subject of eontest is X'lO sterling 
and under. The Court of King's Bench has also cog- 
nisance of all criminal pleas. 

Prmincial Court of Three liiveri — Established by 34 
(Veo. 1 1 1, c. 6, for tlie trial of nil matters amounting to 
X'lO sterling or under, in which the provincial judge sits 
alone and gives judgment, from which there is no ap|)eal. 

I'ro-.imial Court fur the Inferior DistrkI of Cmpi. — 
This court, established by 'iV (ieo. III. c. (i, § 14, and its 
powers extended by subseiiuent enuctuients, has cogniMinee 
of all matters of i' 100 currency and under, with un apjieal 
to the Court of King's llench, (Quebec, in all matters 
above tiV). At New Carlisle un Inferior Court for sums 
under i'iJO steriing is held, and u Superior Court for the 
sums above aCiiO. 

J'ruiiiieial Court for the hfirior Distriit of St. I'raucit. 
—Established by the 3 Ceo." iV. e. 17, has coiinisance of 
all matters amounting to £-M and under, with appeal to 
the Courts of King's Itench, JMuntreal or Three Kivers, 
accoriling to the situation in the Superior District of the 
place of action. 

The names of the counties, seigniories, ficfs and 
townships included in each district being given in 
Vol. I. p. 17!', and each of ihetn being parti- 
cularly (leserilHjd under their respective names in 
this dictionary, it will Ik; here necessary to give 
only a general and brief view of eadi district, par- 
ticularly as many of their important features are 
described in the general description contained in 
the preceding volume. 

The District of Quebec extends, on the north 
side of the St. Lawrence, from the n. e. boundary 
of the 8. of Stc. Anne, or b. w. boundary of the 
county of Portneuf, to Anse Sablon on the La- 
brador coast. On the «. of the St. Lawrence this 
district extends from the n. k. boundary of the 
S. of Livrard or St. Pierre Ics Bccipicts, (.r n. k. 
Iwundaries of the cos. of Nicolet, Diummond and 
Sherbrooke to Cap Chat, where it is tnet by the 
w. limit of the Inferior District of Oaspc. On the 
N. w. this district is iMiimdcd by the Hudson's 
Bay territory or East Maine ; smd cm the h. k. 
by the )T()vince of New Brunswick and the state 
of Maine in the U. S. This part of the Nnindary 
is, hovievcr, at present still unsettled, thi govern 
nients of (ireat Britain and the United States 
licing e(|ually dissatisfied with the decision of tiie 
King of Holland. This subject is treated more at 
hirge in the 1st Vol., under the head of B(Hir.('. . 
ries, to which the reader is referred. — This di- 

strict embraces the most magnificent portion of 
the great St. Lawrence ond many of its Taluable 
islands, the important river Saguenay, and the 
whole extent of lands known by t)ie name of the 
Saguenay Country, large sections of which have 
been recently explored, and are described at length 
in the 3rd section of V^ol. I. — The general feature 
of this district is bold and mountainous, presenting 
a range of high lands on each side of the J^t. 
Lawrence, particularly on the north ; from these 
ridges, in many places, is a considerable extent of 
fine land gradually sloping to the river, and from 
Alatane to Quebec, in particular, the shore of 
the proud St. Lawrence is fringed with lieautiful 
settlements, ai'omcd with the most interesting and 
picturesque scenery. Although the general cha- 
racter of this district is uneven and mountainous, 
especially in the interior, the quality of the soil is 
not inferior to that of any other district. It is 
traversed in every direction by roads and enriched 
with flourishing settlements, especially along and 
nenr the St. Lawrence, and on the borders of the 
rivers generally. The roads more particularly de- 
serving notice ore — the Mitis or Kempt road, re- 
cently traced and opened, which offers a convenient 
route of communication from the St. Lawrence 
to the Bay of Chaleurs and the w. and b. parts 
of the district of Gaspe ; the Teiniscouata Portage 
road leading to New Brunswick ; the Kennebec 
road communicating with the U. S. ; Craig's 
Road ; and the new and useful communication 
from St. Joachim to St. Paul's Bay, known by 
the name of Commissioners' Road, or C/icmiii 
Nouveau de la liaie St. Paul (vide Cdie ite neat/pre). 
This district includes the city of Quebec, the 
capital of the province, from which it derives its 
name, and is abundantly watered by numerous 
and imiwrtant rivers and lakes ; the more con- 
siderable of which are us follow : 


North if the St. Liirrrcnce. 
Ste. Anne 
.)(ii'i|ties Carlier 
Itutiscan, part of 
St. Charles 
Mill Itav 
llliiek Itiver 
St. John 
Ste. Anne, I, 

.South of the .St. I.ineremr. 

Chaudiere, part of 


Du Slid 

Du Loup 

(irrcii Itiver 


Tiois I'istulcs 


1 aitigo 



St. I'lBiicis, part of 

St. John, part of. 



' 'If 


North of the St. Lavrciice. 
St. John 

CoinmissionerH' Lake 
St. Charles 

South of the Si. Liiwrence. 





Long Lake 




St. Kniiicis, part of 



The District of Montreal is bounded k. by the 
N. K. boundary of the fief DusabK- or Nouvelle 
Vork, on the n. side of the St. Lawrence; w. by 
the CO. of St. i\Iaurice; s. by the counties of Ya- 
maska, Drummond and Sherbrooke ; w. and s. w. 
by the province of Upper Canada, the river Ot- 
tawa, and the most western limits of the province ; 
s. l)y the province line, lat. 45 n. from St. Regis 
to the river Connecticut, and thence by that river 
to its source in the high lands ; thence by the N. 
Ix)undaries of the states of New York and ^'cr- 
mont. — The general character of this district is 
low and level, especially the settled parts, with 
the exception of a few isolated mountains in the 
s, .section; the land, however, rises towards the 
province line and assuming a bolder outline is in 
some parts even mountainous, particularly in Ilem- 
mingford and liolton and the vicinity. On tlie N. 
side of St. Lawrence the range of higli-lands, so 
remarkable in the district of Quebec, traverses this 
district about G or 7 leagues n. of the Lake of 
Two Mountains, and stretching w. to tlie Grand 
Calumet on the Ottawa traverses that river, n. 
of this ridge the country is more or less uneven 
and mountainous and meets the range of high- 
lands that divides the waters running into Hud- 
son's Hay from those that empty themselves into 
the St. Lawrence. — The soil, which is in general 
excellent and offers the greatest advantages to 
agriculture, is traversed in every direction by nu- 
merous public roads and by-roads, thickly settled 
and presenting well cultivated farms. The climate, 
locality, .•mil and other advantages, ri'uder this 
the richest and most populous district of the pro- 
vince. I( ccmtains the city anil island of Mcmt- 
rcal and the towns of William Henry and Dor- 
chester, besides numerous llourLshing villages. — 
Tills district is Iwjundcd by the ()ita\v;i or (iraiid 
Hiver for 'SX) miles, and is amply wateied by other 

rivers, streams and lakes, the principal of which 
are as follow : 


North o/the St. Lawrence. 

Li: res 
Fetito Nation 
Ki\-iere Blanche 
Ri vitro du Nord 
Du Chcnc 

South of the SI. Lawrence. 



Yamaska and its numerous 


Montreal, I.. 

Chnuteauguay and its nu- 
merous branches 




Alissiskoui, part of. 


North of the St. Lawrence. 

White Vhb 





La Kcque 






South of the St. Lawrence. 



iMissiskoui Bay 

Scaswaninepus, part of 

Yamaska Bay 

St. Louis 

Two Aluuntains 

St. Francis. 




Tfie District of Three Rivers is bounded n. e. 
by the boundary of fief Dusablc ; B. by the N. k. 
boundary of the S. of Ste. Anne ; on the n, side 
of the St. Lawrence : on the s. side of tliat n. 
this district is bounded by the \v boundary of the 
S. of Yamaska and the n. e, boundary of Livrard 
or St. Pierre les Becquets ; s. w. by the boundaries 
of the counties of Berthier, Bichelicu, St. Ilya- 
cinthe, Shefford and Stanstcad ; n. e. by the s. w. 
boundaries of the counties of Portneuf, Lotbini6re 
and iMegantio, the river Chaudiere, Lake Megan- 
tic and Arnold River ; n. w. by the Hudson's 
Bay territory or n. w. limits of the province ; 
8. K. partly by the province line lat. 4.'»° n., the 
Connecticut and the high-lands stretching *'om 
the head of that river eastward. — The surfiik,' of 
this district is, n. of the St. Lawrence, level in 
the vicinity of that river, and farther in the in- 
terior it assumes a bidder aspect and, liceoming 
mountainous, partakes of the character of the 
Quelwe district. South of the St. Lawrence it 
is level until it approaches the tnwnships in the 
neighlK)uriiood of Ascot, where it ristes into large 
swells and is in many parts mountainous. The 
soil in this section of the district is excellent, but 
on the borders of several of the rivers and nearer 


1/ r, fK 

rincipal of which 

fthe SU Lawrence, 

a and its numerous 

il, I.. 

URuay and its nu- 

>us branches 

jui, part of. 

'Ihc St. Latercnce, 



)ui Buy 

inepufi, part of 

a liay 





s bounded n. e. 

K. by the n. k. 

on the N. side 
side of that n. 
boundary of the 
idiiiy of Livrnrd 
y the Ixiundaries 
lelicu, St. Ilya- 

E. by the s. w. 
[leuf, Lotbini^re 
c, Lake Alcgan- 
f the Hudson's 
r the province ; 
lat. 4.'io N., the 
stretching *'onj 
-The surfiu,- of 
vrence, level in 
thcr in the in- 

nnd, Iwconunj; 
lanicter of the 
Lawrence it 
jwnships in the 
rises into large 
ntainous. The 
s excellent, but 
vers and nearer 

to the St. Lawrence it becomes light and sandy ; 
towards the border of the province it is infinitely 
better. The soil n. of the St. Lawrence is de- 
cidedly light and sandy but susceptible of the ad- 
vantages of good cultivation, and in the interior 
of the country it is stronger and stony. This 
district is traversed by numerous roads in every 
direction, for although n. of the St. Lawrence the 
roads do not extend above 5 or fi leagues, on the 
8. side they extend as far as the province line, 
branching off into the southern townships. — The 
o.'d settlements or seigniories in this district cx- 
tc.'id along Ixith sides of the St. Lawrence and up 
each side of the principal rivers. The townsliips 
chiehy ''■; in the s. sectiuii extending from the 
province line northward. Several villages are in 
this district : iNIachichc and Riviere du Luup on 
the N., and Nicolet on the 8. side of the St. Law- 
rence ; also Shcrbrooke and Stanstcad in the town- 
ships ; besides these is tlie town of Three Rivers 
from which the district derives its name. — Tliis 
district is exceedingly well watered by numerous 
rivers, streams and lakes ; the principal of which 
are as follow : 


\uith ofllicSt. Lawrence. 

St. Maurice and its numcruuH 

liiiliscun, purt uf 
Du Loup, (!. and h. 

Soiil/i of the SI. Latercnce. 

St. Kraiu'is luid numerous 

N'iculi'l and numerous 

Vainaska, part of. 


Xitrl/i iifihe St. Lawrence. 
()'( 'iinansliiiig 
< "ro^iswavH 
Ulark Ui'avcr 

Sunlh iiflhc St. Lawrence. 

St. Francis, part of 
St. Paul 
Back Lake 

Smswaiiincpus, part of 
St. Pottr. 

Inferior Dislrict of St. Franrin.—TUia district 
was established by an act of the provincial legis- 
lature, cliap. 77 of the Jrd year of Geo. III., and 
is in the form of a parallelogram, more than 50 m. 
in width from w. to i:., and upwards of KM) m. 
from N. to c. Its superlui.'l extent is supiH)sed to 
cover M (MM» si]. miles or 2,(MK((KM» of acres — 
Alfiiough this, district is includ.d in that of Three 

Rivers and is therefore deicri?jed with it, except- 
ing a small part in the district of Montreal con- 
taining 4 townships and part of a 6th, a farther 
notice of it is deemed proper as it is perhaps the 
most fertile tract of the province. It extends 
from the a. bounds of Wickham, Simpson, War- 
wick and Arthabaska to the a. boundary of the 
province ; its w. limits are Lake Memphramugog 
and a line traversing Bolton between the 22n I 
and 23rd ranges, and extending along the K. 
boundaries of Stukely, Ely and Acton ; on the b. 
it extends to the w. bounds of the cos. of Megantic 
and Beauce. The general surface of this district 
is rather level, but towards the boundary iii.c, in 
lat. lo" N. and the n. Cimnecticut, by which the 
district is Imunded s., it rises into large swells and 
is rather mountainous. It is most ubund.mtly 
watered by nunicroiis river.s, streams and lakes, 
and is traversed by many roads on which are new 
but flourishing settlements. Its chief villages are 
Shcrbrooke and Stanstcad and Jie court-house is 
at the former place. The chief and most interest- 
ing settlements lie in the first three ranges of 
townships from the province line. — This district 
contains about .IjOOO square miles, in which arc 
thirty-eight townships and part of another, which 
are particularised in the list given for the district 
of Three Rivers and marked with an Vide 
vol. \, jKige DCJ. — The population is alxmt 13,5(X>. 
The Inferior Dintrivt of duq/f lies on the E ex- 
tremity of the i)r()\ince and on tlu- s. side of St. 
Lawrence. It is bounded w. by the district of 
Quebec; v. and N. e. by the river and gulf of St. 
Lawrence, and s. by the province of New Bruns- 
wick and the Bay of C'lialeiirs. The land in ge- 
neral, which is of an excellent quality, abounds 
with a variety of timber, us maple, beech, birch, 
spruce, &c. &e. and almost inexhaustible pineries, 
which, together with the cod and salmon fisheries, 
supply the staple commodities for exportation. 
The whole district is remarkably well watered 
with numerous streams, which take their rise in 
the mountains that i)oiind the a. St Lawrence 
and run in various directions to the liay of Cha- 
leurs and into the gulf attd it. St. Lawrence ; 
they alxrund with various kinds of llsli, and most 
of them traverse tracts of land clothed with inr- 
nreirse iiincries. Xdtwithslaiiding its advairtii"es 
in richness of soil, &c., the district of (ia.sji' is ob- 
viously backward as respects agriculture. Tlii'< 
may in some measure be attributed to the extcn- 


1 ; 

^, i 


t : 




! L*!i 


sive fisheries and lumber trade, which form the 
chief occupation of its inhabitants. Between Cap 
Rosier and Gap Chat the coast is mountainous 
and barren. The industry of the inhabitants is 
chiefly employed in the fisheries, regulated by an 
act of the assembly of the 47th of Geo. 3rd ; they 
also carry on a trifling trade in peltry and build on 
an average one ship and 3 or 4 small vessels an- 
nually. — The communication between 6a8p6 and 
Quebec may be kept up by three different routes : 
one by pursuing the coast of the gulf and river 
St. Lawrence ; the second by following the course 
of the K. Ristigouche as far as the r. Matapediac, 
and along it as far as h. Matapediac ; thence by 
Kempt road to the St. Lawrence near the com- 
mencement of the old settlements : the third route 
is by proceeding along the Ristigouche river nearly 


up to its source, whence there is an Indian foot- 
path or portage road of 9 miles to the r. Ouiauk- 
squack, which runs into the river St. John, 15 
miles above the Great Fall, whence the traveller 
proceeds in the road of the Temiscouata portage ; 
this is th? least difBcult of the three, and the 
distance by it from New Carlisle to Quebec is 
390 m. ; this may be shortened 18 or 20 m., by a 
road that has been blazed from the R. Wagansis 
to Green River, which descends into the R. St. 
John in the Madawaska settlements. — The prin- 
cipal town is New Carlisle — This district, from 
its peculiar situation as a peninsula, the capabilities 
of its soil, its abundant and valuable timber and 
its extensive fisheries, is susceptible of being made, 
at no very distant period, equal to any other di- 
strict in Canada. 


Hctnoeii the 
|i:ir;illcls of 

Between the 
dffrrees of 












Superficial extent of tile 
Selgliorlal Orantl. 

Mdrenr le«s 
unfit forciil- 
tivaiion in 
nui tiefii. 

Granted&loeateil ' 
in fri'e and com- 
mon soecage in 
ttie province up 
to Sept. 1810. 





Quebec, including 'i 
Anticosti and other > 
islands > 

Montreal, includ- ? 
ing islands ^ 

Three Rivers, in- 1 
eluding St. Francis > 
and islands ) 

Gasp/', including > 
islands J 

' " 

J2 O''- 

49 30 O"^" 

49 O"' 

17 18 0„ 
49 12 0^- 

' " 

.>7 50 0, . 
72 4 O"- 

72 54 

80 6 O"^ 

72 4 
72 54 0*- 

64 12 0„ 
67 53 0*^- 



826 1 
52 •£ 



















About Jths of the whole 
may be said to be com- 
prised within the di- 
stricts of Montreal and 
Three Rivers. 







.% 179,694 

! ,■..! 

X ■! 

DiTCHFiKLD, a projected township in the co. of 
Benuce, borders the e. side of Lake Alegantic and 
is bounded a. by Woburn and n. e. by Spalding. 

DiTTON", township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
is bounded w. by Newport ; b. by Marston and 
Chesbam ; n. by Hampden and s. by Emberton. 
The surface is irregular, in several places rising 
into large eminences, but in general of a mode- 
rately good soil timbered with beech, birch, bass- 
wood and maple, intersected by some large streams 
that fall into the St. Francis. The s. w. quarter 
lias been surveyed iind granted, but no part settled. 
— ViKjranlcd and unhcntal, .13,(XK). 

Du.MAiNE, du, river, in the S. of Cote de Beau- 

pre, rises in two lakes in the rear of Cap Tour- 
mente, at least 800 ft. above the level of the St. 
Lawrence,, into which this R. falls. 

DoNBOUR, isles, in the n. St. LawTence, are 
3 islets lying off the S. of Desmaure, midway be- 
tween St. Augustin and Pointe aux Trembles. 

Dorchester, county, in the district of Quebec, 
bounded n. e. by the co. of Bellechasse ; s. e. by 
the CO. of Beauce; s. w. by the co. of Lotbiniere 
and N. w. by the R. St Lawrence. It consists of 
and comprises the S. of LauOTn nly, to which S. 
the reader is referred for additional particulars re- 
lative to this CO. It is 18J, ni. in length by 18j in 
depth and contains 342 sq. miles. Its centre on 

an Indian foot* 
} the R. Ouiauk- 
er St. John, 15 
nee the traveller 
scouata portage ; 
> three, and the 
le to Quebec is 
8 or 20 m., by a 
the R. Wagansis 
into the R. St. 
ents. — The prin- 
lis district, from 
a, the capabilities 
lable timber and 
le of being made, 
to any other di- 

(irt* or less 
ifit forcitl- 
vatton in 


in fne and com- 
innn soccage in 
the province up 
til Sept. 1810. 




About fths of the whole 
may be said to be com- 
prised within the di- 
stricts of Montreal and 
Three Rivers. 



;ar of Cap Tour- 

le level of the St. 

La>»Tcnce, are 
lure, midway be- 
aux Trembles, 
istricl of Quebec, 
echasse ; b. e. by 

CO. of Lolbini^re 
e. It consists of 

nly, to which S. 
lal particulars re- 

Icngth by 18> in 
s. Its centre on 


the St. Lawrence is in lat. 46" 38 long. 71" Iff. 
It sendd two members to the provincial parliament; 
the election is held at the place nearest to the R. 
Etchemin, between the parishes of St. Henry 
and Pointe Levi, md at St. Nicolas. 

Statistics. , : , 

Population 1!, 158 

Towns . I 

Shopkeepers 12 


Pro. 1 

Schools . 3 

Taverns . 13 


-ho. 1 

fVn-mills . 7 

Artisans . 97 



Saw-mills . 5 

River craft . 5 



Carding-niills I 

Tonnage . K3 

Presbyteries 4 

Fulling-mills 1 

Keel boats . 1 1 


. 3 

Ship-}-ard8 . 3 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Duiheli. nuihcla. 



55,(Xm Biickwhotit 14."i 

Maple sugar 1,810 


43,.i()0 , Indian corn l.nUi 

Flax . . 355 

Bariey . 

6,450 , Mixed grain 5,500 

Butter . 3,3.31 

Peas . 

19,(K)0 Potatoes 93,100 

Hay, tons 29,100 


4,058 1 

Live Slock. 


3,709 i Cows . 6,795 , Swine . 7,756 



Sheep . 21,902 

Dorchester (V.), v. Lonoueuil, b. 

D'Obsainvili-e, fief, in the co. of Quebec, 
N. E. of I'Epinay, is a small grant containing only 
a superticies of 3575 arpents made May, 1675, by 
Letters Patent, to the Rellgieuses of the General 
Hospital of Quebec from whom it has never been 
alienated. — The soil is a light sandy earth in- 
termixed with clay about the front: proceeding 
inwards it changes to a black mould, and in the 
vicinity of the mountains it is a good yellow loam. 
From the river St. Charles the surface is uneven 
and continues ridge above ridge to the rear, wliere 
it is still more abrupt and broken. Near the 
river are fine meadows and pastures. About 
one-half of the arable is in a state of very good 
culture, producing wheat and other grain abund- 
antly, also garden vegetables in great quantity 
and variety. The lower parts are but scantily 
timbered ; but on the rising grounds and the 
skirts of the mountains there is a profusion of 
fine beech, maple, birch and other woods of the 
best description. The little river Jaune and 
several small streams, all flowing into the St. 
Charles, amply and convenit-'-.iiy water the culti- 
vated lands. 

Tilli: — " Concession dii nio's <Io Miiy, 1675, fuite par 
Lotties I'lttcntes <le Sa Majcsti', aiix Duines rcligiciisi's 
lie rili'i|iitul (ii'iu'm), du C'limtr tVOnnhivillc, continunt 
I'n siipcrficiu truis millecinq ceiis suixant et quinzearpen*. 


et de la profondeur de quatre lieues ; k prendre du liord 
de la riviere St. Charkt, sur diif^reiites largeurs, tenant 
par devant a la dife riviire et par dcrriire aux terrcs non- 
cMees, d'un c6t^, au Sud-Oueat & un tief appartenant au 
Sieur de VEpinaij par une ligne qui va au Nord-Oiiest 
quart de Nord de la profondeur drs dites i|uarte lieues, et 
du cote du Nord-Eit au fief dc Notre Dume dei Augei ; 
le Comte i'Onaittville, et la Seigiieurie de Xolre Dante 
det Aiiget ^tant «ei>ar^s, i commencer par le front du dit 
Comt£, par le ruisseau dc St. Michel, suivant aes contours 
et serpentemens jusqu'A envirdii ijuinze arpciis de prufuii- 
deur, ofi le dit Cointi d'Or (ii«fi//(f commence a etic <lc 
onze arpens de front, jutqu'a la hauteur de trentC'Cinti 
aqiens du bord de la dite riviere SI. CharUi par une ligiiie 
qui court Nord-Oucst quart dc Nord, au bout desquclii 
trente-ciii<i arpens commence uno autre ligne qui court an 
Nord-Ouest la longueur de quanuite arpens, au bout des- 
quels la dit<; ligne fait un tour d't'(|Uerrc de trois arpenii, 
au bout desquels rrprend tine nouvelle ligne la(|iielle 
forme la largeur des dits onze arpens, la({uelle ligne va au 
Nord-Oiicst quart de Nord, jusqii'iiu smplus dc la pro- 
fondeur des dites quatre lieues." — Fnpicr Terrier, No. 71, 
folio 324, It 24ot« Avril, 1781 — Cuhieri d'lntendance, 10 d 
M, folio 730. 

DoBRET, township, in the co. of Megantic, on 
the w. side of the river Chaudiere, joins Shen- 
ley N. and is encompassed on the other sides 
by unsurveyed lands. This is a large township, 
consisting chiefly of fine rises of good land, very 
fit for tillage and almost every where favourable 
for the culture of hemp and flax, though no set- 
tlements have hitherto been made in it ; the most 
inferior part is along the rocky bank of the river 
Chaudii're. It is well stocked with basswomi, 
birch, maple, beech and elm timber : some of the 
swamps are covered with cedar and hemlock. Ad- 
mirably well watered by large lakes and a num- 
ber of rivers that wind through tlie t. ; the more 
remarkable are Lakes M'Tavish, Oliveira and 
Marguerite, and the h. M'Tavish : the waters of 
all the rivers, streams and lakes fall into the Chau- 
diere : on their banks are found some tine breadths 
of excellent meadow land. The whole was granted 
to IVfr. John Black, but now belongs to the heirs 
of the late Simon M'Tavish, Ksij. 

DoRVAL, isle, in the S. of Becancour, divides 
the mouth of the k. Becancour into two parts ; it 
lies about 1 m. n. of the v. of Becancour. 

DoRVAr. or Isles Courcklles, in Lake St. 
Louis, lie on the s. w. side of the island of JMont- 
rcul, opposite the mouth of a n. of the same name. 

DoiiVAii, river, rises in Ci to St. Franc;ois in 
the island of Montreal ; this small stream runs s. 
in a very irriguous course, and falls into Lake St. 
Louis in front of Isles ('ourcelles. 


DuRvri.LiKR, fief, in the co. of Champlain, is 
bounded N.E. by Francheville ; n. by the first aug. 











'; •:-:|-:t 


r ! 

'i 1 



i 111 

i' E' 

i' I 

D R U 

to Ste. Anne ; 9. w. by the S. of Ste. Marie and s. 
by the St. Lawrence. — It is ^ league in front by 
1 league in depth and belongs to the Hon. James 

Douglas, town, in the r.o. of 6asp<>, i» at the 
entrance of the n. St. John and on the a, side 
of Gaspt- Bay. This town was laid out about the 
year 1785 and named after Adm. Sir Charles 
Douglu:!, theti commanding on the Canada station, 
the father of the present Sir Howard Douglas. — 
For Statistics, vide Gaspe Bay. 

Dkayton, township, in the co. of Sherbrookc, 
lies E. of Hereford, in the rear of Auckland and 
Emberton, and is bounded s. by the main branch 
of the R. Connecticut. This t. has not been sur- 
veyed and subdivided and no grants have been 
made, although a tolerably large settlement has 
lieen formed on Indian Stream and n. Connecticut 
by persons from the U. S., who affect to have 
commenced their settlement, in 171^2, under the 
auspices and by virtue of a proclamation of Sir 
Alured Clark, at that time governor in chief. 
1 his settlement consists of 20 families, who have 
made extensive improvements and are respect- 
ably settled. The lands which these persons oc- 
cupy form one of the points in dispute Ix^tween 
his majesty's government and that of the United 
States. The popidation is about 60 ; tiie principal 
settler is Dr. Taylor, who occupies 1,''00 acres 
of which 100 are cleared ; this gentlemiin has a 
good house and a distillery. This t. is watered 
by Indian Stream and Hall's Stream, also by Back 
Lake and other small lakes, all of which contain 
trout, succors, chub, perch, eels, &c. Over the 
rivers two bridges have been built, but the rouds 
improve slowly. At a private school from 12 to 
15 scholars are inJ^ructed. 





Annual Agtlctiltural Produc,\ 

Bushels.! Bushels.; Bushels. 

. 4<)0 1 llye . . 2j Potatoes . MH) 

. 3(H) Mi.\c(l gruiii 180 Peas . . 130 
• 31)1 I 

Lhc Stuch. 

18 I Cuws 
lil I Sheep 

28 1 Swine 



Drummoni), county, in the d. of Three Rivera, 
bounded n. by the cos. of Yamaska and Nicolet; 
E. by the co. of Jlegantic; s. by the co. of Sher- 
brookc ; w. by the co. of Shefford. It contains the 
townships of Aston, Bulstrode, Stanfold, Artha- 

D U 

baska, Chester, Ham, Wotton, Tingwick, War- 
wick. Horton, Wendover, Simpson, Kingsey, 
Durham and Gore, Wickham, Grantham, Upton 
and Acton, together with all the gores and aug- 
mentations of those townships. — Its extrciise length 
is 06 m. and its breadth 47' , and it contains 1,674 
sq. miles. Its centre, on the St. Lawrence, is in 
lat. 4(iP. 0". long. 72". . — It sends one member to 
the provincial parliament and the place of election 
is Drummondville. — The surface of this co. is 
very diversified and there are considerable swamps. 
— The principal rivers are the Becancoiir, which 
bounds the co. n. b., the St. Francis, the main 
branches of the Nicolet, and their tributary streams. 
The only lake of any magnitude is Lake Nicclet 
in the augmentation to the t. of Ham. — The chief 
roads are those along the n. St. Francis, one from 
Three Rivers to Shipton called Bureau's Road, 
Craig's Road, and the road recently opened from 
Drummondville to Sorel. These roads are tole- 
rably good in the more settled parts of the co.,but 
quite the reverse in other parts, where the lands 
are in a state of wilderness, on account of the dif- 
ficulty of keeping them in repair. 


Populiition 1,857 1 Villages , 1 Tanneries . I 

Clmrelies, Pro. 1 'Corn-niill§ . l Potasberies , 4 

Parsona(,'e-lio. 1 | Saw-mills . 7 Pearlaslierie.s A, 

Cliiiiclies, R, C. 1 , CardifiK-mills I Shopkeepers 4 

CJur/'S . 1 I KiiUing-mills J Taverns (j 

Schools . 2 1 Paper-mills . I Artisans . 20 

Annual Agricnlturul Pioducc. 







Bushels I Bushels. 

18,()80' Buck wheat 170 

14,003, Indian corn 8,,'i31 

1, 09 1- Mixed gr. o,100 

2,931 i Potatoes 2T.:i30 



Maple sugar 30«) 
Flax . . 52 
Butter . 827 
Hay, tons 17,900 

Live Stock. 

716 1 Cows 
9121 Sheep 

1,280 1 Swine 


Drummondville (V.), v. Grantham, t. 

Du CuENE or PoiNTE du Chenb, river, rises 
in a lake in the fourth ranj^ of the aug. to Gren- 
villc. It runs e- to another small lake and turn- 
ing suddenly s. directs its course to the Ottawa, 
which it enters at the s. extremity of the division 
line that separates the t. of Grenville from its 

Du Chene (G.) or Belle Riviere, rises in 
the aug. to the S. of Lac des Deux Alontagnes, 



Hay, tons 17,900 

and, penetrating the division line of the S. of 
Riviere du Chine near the n. w. angle, runs 
through and nearly across the seigniory to the v. 
of St. Eustache where it falls into the Ottawa. 
This R. is about (30 or 70 feet wide and is not 
navigable. It turns several mills and abounds 
with fish. 

Du Chknb, river. Petite Riviere du Chene 
rises in the p. of St. Benoit in the S. of Lac des 
Deux Montagnes, and running n. k. receives the b. 
au Prince one mile below the church ; continuing 
in the same direction for about 2 miles it joins the 
greater Rivii-re du Chrnc. 

Du C'henk, river. Petite Riviere du Chene 
rises in the t. of Blandford, and running n. and 
N. B. traverses tiie S. of Livrard and enters the 
S. of Desehaillons where, at the N. k. angle, it 
falls i"t.o the St. Lawrence. — Navigable for canoes 
and ». is below the saw-mills. 

Du Chknb (S.), v. Rivikrf. du Chrnb. 

Du Chknk (V.), t'. RiviERB i>u Chknb, S. 

Duck Lakes, in the co. of Quebec, arc .small 
and lie between Lake Kajoualwang and Crooked 

DuoswELi., township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
is bounded by Westbury and Stoke s. w. ; by Wee- 
don N. B. ; by Wotton n. w. and by Bury s. k. — 
The land where it is level is applicable to the 
culture of grain : in some places it is uneven and 
from the sixth range rises into a considerable 
mountain that stretches westward into Wotton ; 
its top is flat table land and, from its being wholly 
free from trees or underwootl, derives the name 
of the Bald Mountain. In this x. is a great va- 
riety of timber, beech, maple, birch, basswood, but- 
ternut, elm and some oak, pine, spruce and cedar. 
— The St. Francis with many smiiU streams pro- 
vide an ample and complete irrigation. — Only one 
quarter has been laid out, which was granted to 
Mr. John Bishop and others ; he is now the prin- 
cipal landholder: on this part some farms have 
obtained a very respectable state of prosperity. — 
This T. will doubtless be much benefited by a line 
of road now in progress, pursuant to an act of 
the legislative assembly granting a sum for that 
purpose, which was passed Mar 14, 1820. The 
extent of road to be made under this act is 21 
miles, commencing at the north line of Duds- 
well and terminating at the district line of Quebec 
and Three Rivers. This road has Wn oj>cned by 

contract, the whole distance, 1 1 feet wide. The 
surface of the country generally traversed by this 
niad is good and suitable for cultivation and, with 
the exception of a few lots, will make excellent 
farms ; there are on this route but few hills, and 
none which would offer any great obstruction ; 
the most considerable is about 11 m. north of 
Dudswell- To bring this road into use and make 
it ansv/er the intended purpose, the following ad- 
diti(mal improvements should be made. 1 st. The 
road heretofore opened but now grown up with 
buslics, from Craig's Bridge in Ireland to tlie 
Dudswell road, about 10 miles, should be re- 
opened and completed, which would require alwut 
,f 50 per mile. This section of the road is mostly 
very good land for settlement and the hills not 
bad ; the lands on these 10 miles arc nearly all 
granted. 2nd. A road should be opened from 
Dudswell line to the settlements in Diulswell, 
about 5 miles, which would also recpiire £50 per 
mile ; this distance is through ungrantcd lands, or 
mostly so, which are of the first quality for settle- 
ment and there arc no bad hills ; the whole of the 
lands on this route are well watered, and there is 
an excellent mill site about 10 miles north of 
Dudswell line, and another near Nicolet lake about 
8 miles north of that line. 3rd. From the settle- 
ments in Dudswell a road has been opened through 
Westbury, Eaton, Clifton and Hereford, to the 
province line, about 50 miles ; the land through- 
out is good, but, the settlements being few and 
scattered, the road has been but little used and 
is in a bad state. The completion of this road 
would be highly beneficial in promoting the settle- 
ment of that section of the province, and would 
thus render a direct communication from the pro- 
vince line at Hereford to Quebec practicable, the 
distance being about 140 m. As part of this last- 
mentioned road includes the settlements of Duds- 
well and Eaton, the expense of completing it 
would be <l!50 per m. for 30 m. 4th. A road has 
been opened from Lennuxville in Ascot, up the St. 
Francis r., through the settlements in Westbury 
and intersecting the Dudswell road, 17 m. ; this 
road is important for the convenience of Ascot, 
Compton, Ilatley, Bumstun and Stanstead, being 
the most direct route to Quebec, and its com- 
pletion is an object of the utmost importance ; 
there are a few settlers upon this road, which runs 
through good lands and would probably also ro* 

\ i 



^ vr ^. 





iM Ki2.0 


IL25 i 1.4 







i' 1 







' j 





; 1 



j 1 


t 1 





D U M 

quite £50 per mQe to complete it; upon tUa 
route the landi are all granted. 6th. The road 
from Aicot to Eaton should he completed, about 
fire miles uniettled and the road extremelj bad ; 
it would require £250 ; in Mmie partt of this road 
the lands are poor, but it connects extensire settle- 
menU in Ascot and Eaton. — Ungrmted and m- 
locattd, 18,603 acres. 



166 I PotuherieR 
1 PewiMheriM 

Jnnual Agrictdlurul Produce. 

Wheat . 8,680 
Oata . 1,740 
Barley . 300 

Rye 28 

Indian com 


Potatoes 2,100 
Peai 300 

Livt Stock, 


90 1 Cows 
96 1 Sheep 

1 451 Swine 
310 1 


Dv Loup, river, in the cos. of Kamouraska and 
Rimouski. The course of this r. has never been 
explored: it is supposed to take ita source near 
the a. angles of the townships of Ixworth and 
Woodbridge ; whence running n. b. through the 
T. of Bungay, it enters the S. of Lachenaye and 
afterwards traversing the S. of Terrebois it enters 
the S. of Riviere du Loup at Du Loup bridge ; it 
then forms an acute angle, turning suddenly to 
the 8. w., and again touching the boundary line 
of Terrebois for a moment strikes off to vhe 
N. N. B. and in a maxy course passes Caldwell's 
mills ; about 2 m. from which it runs between 
the manor-house and the village and is turned 
suddenly to the n. w. into the 8t. Lawrence by a 
point of land jutting into that R. in the form of a 
Du Loup, (S.), v. Rivibrr du Loup. 
DuMONTiRR, seigniory, in the co. of St. Mau* 
rice, is bounded s. by Orosbois; r. by Oatinenu ; 
». by Hunter's Town; w. by Orandpr^. — 1^1. 
in front by 3 1. in depth. Granted to Sieur Du- 
montier, Oct. 24, 1708, and is now the property 
of the Hon. Louis Ougy. — The soil is similar to 
that of the contiguous seigniories, Oruibois and 
Orandpr6 ; and the 8. is principally watered by the 
B. du Loup and partially by the Grande Rivirre 
Machiche, on both of which are some settle- 

^ * 


rufe.— « Conecsiioa in Mote Oetobn, 1708^ &ite an 
Sicur Dmmoiitter, d'une lieue et demie de teire de front 
sor troi* lieoes de profondeur, i prendre an bout de la 
profondeur de b Seigneurie de OrottotM, bomfe de chaqns 
c6ti aus terres non-conctdie*.' — tUgiiIrt ict Fol el Hamu 
mage, Xo. 10, ^io S», le 26mc Janvier, 1781. CaMeri 

DuNDRB (V.), V. Indian Lands. 

Dunham, township, in the co. of Missiskoui, 
between the S. of St. Armand and Famham, ad- 
joins Sutton and Brome R. and Stanbridge w. 
The situation and quality of the land render it a 
valuable tract. It has plenty of timber, such as 
maple, beech, birch, elm, butternut, iron-wood, 
white and Uack ash; also good oak and pine. 
The upper lands are rather hilly, having many 
horisontal seams of rock lying a little below the 
surface; but on the more level parts the soil is 
generally a rich Uack mould with, here and there, 
a mixture of sand. This t. yields all sorts of grain 
in abundance, and, in many places, is peculiarly fit 
for the growth of flax and occasionally for hemp. 
Swamps, not very extensive or numerous, are 
covered, generally, with cedar and tamarack; 
but they might be drained without much trouUe, 
and cleared to great advantage. — Watered by se- 
veral branches of the Yamaska, by Pyke River 
and two beautiful little lakes, the largest spread- 
ing over about 600 acres in the 6th range. Here 
are a greater number of roads, mostly kept in good 
repair, than perhaps will be found in any other 
T., leading through Famham to the Yamaska 
and also to the state of Vermont. The Pyke 
River and some of the smaller streams work 
several mills. This was the first t. erected, in 
Lower Canada, by letters patent, bearing date 
I7O6; it was granted to the late Hon. Thomu 
Dunn, whose heirs are at present the greatest 
landholders. Nearly the whole is settled, and 
many extensive farms arc worthy of notice for 
their flourishing and improved state, producing 
great quantities of wheat, barley and oats, besides 
most other articles peculiar to the country. Per- 
haps no tract of land of similar extent, through 
the whole of the province, is better calculated for 
a judicious experimental farmer to demonstrate 
how much the present stock of agricultural know- 
ledge among the Canadian husbandmen may be 
increased. — In this t. are several ''•ot and pearlash 

manufactories, a church, u mcthodist chapel and 
25 houDcs calle<l Frost Village. 

D U R 


Population 8,121 1 Corn-milli 1 

Cliurchea,R.C SlCarding-niilli 1 

Curis . 1 1 FuUing-iniUs 1 

PresbrteriM 1 Saw-milU . 8 

Schools 1 PoUdwriet . 8 
Vmiget . 1 1 

PearlMheriet 8 

Breweriei I 

Shopkeepers 4 

Tsverns . 3 

Artiwns . 18 

AmmMil JgrieuUurtl Prvdtue, 




Maple sugar 

Peas . 
Rjre . 
Buck wheat 
Indian corn 
. 118cwts. 

Lhe Stack, 

1,1741 Cows 
l,fl05 1 Sheep 

8,1801 Swine 






DuPAB including Chicot, seigniory, in the co. 
of Berthier. This S. contains the Isle Dupas and 
extends \ 1. above and below the R. Chicot and 
1^ 1. in depth. Chvnted, Not. 3, 1673, to Sieur 
Dupas. The rents of the S. are 4 French livres 
for each farm. Isle Dupas, which is a long nar- 
row island, lying nearly parallel with the m. shore 
of the St. Lawrence, between the S. of Berthier 
and Sorel, is an arrih-efief, ti 1. long by IH acres 
broad ; one-half belongs to the Hon. Jas. Cuth- 
bert, the other half to Mrs. Enenu and is subject 
to the annual payment of a nosegay to the sei- 
gnior of Berthier. Mrs. Eneau is also proprietor 
of fief Chicot. All the lands in Isle Dupas are 
conceded and the greater part prior to 17i>0. 

Statitlic*. ' 

Population . 477 1 Churches, R. C. . I 
Annui^ Agricultural Produce. 




. 4t800 
. 8,.'ifl0 
. 100 

Potatoes 8,500 
PcM . 800 

Rye 800 
Indian com 90 

Llvt Slock. 


. 193 
. 170 

Cows 405 
Sheep . 1,008 

Swine 371 

Title. — " Concession du 3nie Noverobre, 1078, faite par 
Jean Tttkm, Intendant, au Sieur Dujm; de X'ltk Dupai et 
a^jacentes, ensemble un quart de lirue audeiius et iin 
aiwrt au dessous de la rivti^re de Chicot, tur un lieuc «-t 
oemie de profondeur, sumHMMi que cette qiiantiU' iie touchr 
pas i celle accordte k Mr. Legtrdeur, flis."— M^j«/rr d'iu- 
ttnianct. No. l,fiHo 30. 

DiiaaoiB, river, in the 8. of Stc. Marie. 

DtTRHAM, township, in the co. of Drummond, 
on the west side of the river St. Francis, joins 
Wickham n. w.; Melbourne b. k. ; Acton and Ely 
B. w. The land is generally good, presenting He- 
veral extensive and improvable tracts that might 

D U R 

be turned to advantage. Beeeh, maple, fasich, 
buttenut, pine, aih and cedar an found in great 
plenty ; there is some oak but it ia lets abundant. 
— Watered by numerous small rivuleti. — The 
principal proprietorB are the heirs of the late 
Thfmias Scott, Esq. The Abenaqui Indians of 
the village in the 8. of St. FraD<;oiB hohl 8150 
acres by letters patent.— The DnanmondviUe Road 
runs through this t. above 10 m. Near the centre 
is a new bridge built over the Black River and 
another over a ravine, 210 ft. wide, in which the 
high waters of the ■. St. Francis rise to 8 feet. 
The old bridge over the Black River, built 13 
yearn since and cost £7^> had only one pier and six 
stringers; the new bridge has 3 piers and (il 
stringers, with a solid causeway of logs covered 
with earth and sand 200 ft. in length. The 
bridge over the ravine is a cross log bridge, ex- 
cept two piers to let the water of a small brook 
pass; the whole built of large hemlock timber. 
The extent of road made is 4 m. and it is opened 
to 40 ft. and more ; 3 miles of it are ditched and 
drained, and the width between the ditches is from 
18 to 30 feet, having 16 small bridges or drains to 
let the water pass from one ditch to another across 
the road, with nine large bridges, from 30 to 100 
ft. in length over brooks and ravines. The line of 
the DrummondviUe road through this t. is partly 
settled, and it runs nearly between the 3rd and 
4th ranges, until it otimes to the large bridge over 
the ravine at lot No. 8 in the 4th range', where it 
approacher the river St. Francis. The soil is good, 
with hardly a bad lot in the whole line. There 
are several steep hills over which the rontt has 
been carried in the upper part of the t. i;!135 
have been expended and to complete the road 
through the t. a further sum of nearly £400 will 
be necessary .^This t. is considered one of the 
best amongst the eastern townships, having nine 
of its ranges fit for actual settlement, and being 
well watered with good springs and small brooks. 
There are most superior mill seats on the Black 


3U7 I Saw-mill* 8 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 

Biidwl*. ButtMb. 

Barley . 3UU Peas 700 

Potatoes 4,390 Indian corn 1,460 

Live Stock. 

Cows 810 1 Swinr 1?J0 

Shii'|i . 518 1 







D U T 


DvsABLB or NooTBLLK YoBK, wigiuoiy, in 
the CO. of Benhier, is in the rear of Mukinong^ 
between Berthier and Carufel — 1 league in front 
by 3 in depth. Granted, Aug. 16, 17^9, to Louis 
Adrien Dandonneau DumU^ ; now the property 
of the Hon. Rosg Cuthbert. — A small ridge of 
rising ground crosses this grant, a little north 
of the road to Quebec, which seems to separate 
the fertile from the barren parts ; south of it the 
■oil is rich, productive, well settled and under 
good cultivation ; but on the opposite side of the 
height it is very indifferent and thinly settled by 
a few farmers, who are compelled to exert their 
utmost industry to procure a living. The whole 
tract is almost free from wood, the little remain- 
ing only fit for fuel. A small stream, called 
Rividre Cach^, runs through the lower part and 
works one com and one saw-mill.— This S. is in 
the parish of Maskinonge. 

Titk.—" Concession du Ijine Aout, 1730, faite par 
Charlei, Marquii de Brauharnoii, Gouverneur. et Gillei 
Hoeqtiarl, Intendant, au Sieur Luuit Adrien DuHdontuau 
DiiiMi, il'une rU'iidue di* Cerrviii d'uiiviriiii une lieuc de 
front 8ur trois lieues de profondeur; laqiielle sent Iwrn^e 
pour la deranture au bout de la prut'undeur de la eouces- 
tioii aecordee par Mr. Taloii au Sii'ur Jean Baptltte Lc- 
gardfVT le 3me Novembre, 1(172, appartenant aujourd'hiii 
•u Sieur Petit Bruno; au Nord-est par leg terrea con. 
c^di-es par le dit Sieur Talon, le ^me Octubre, 1672, aux 
Sieurs Pierre ct Jean Baptlite Lrgardeur, dont le dit Sieur 
Petit est aussi propri^taire, et par lu ligne de la Seif^ieurie 
du Sieur Sicnrd de Carufel ; au Sud-uut't>t uu fiel du Chicot, 
Ct continuation du dit fief; et par derrii'rc aux terres non- 
concedees." — Rigittre d' Inttndancc, No, H, folio 30. 

DuTORT or LiNCTOT, iief, in the co. of Xicolet, 
is bounded N. K. by Coumoyer ; 9. w. by Becaocour j 
in the rcur by the t. of Sfuddingtun and it fronts 
the mouth of the R. Becancour opposite Isle Dor- 
val. The original title of this concession has not 
been found, therefore its date and dimensions, as 
granted, are both uncertain ; it is however at pre- 
sent a quarter of a league in front by nearly 3 
leagues in depth, and is the property of Muns. 
BcUefeuille. — The soil and timber are similar to 
those of Becancour. 

Title. — " On n'a pu trouver le titre de rette Conceision 
ni dans le Secretariat ni dans le bureau du I'apivr Terrier, 
du sortc qu'ou ne cuniiuit ni I'i'tenduu de sun front ni le 
nom du concessionaire origiiiairp. Elle est plarte sur la 
carte d'aprfs les lunii^rcs qu'un a pu lirer des titres des 
rcm-easions voisines.— i'ar le r^Kleiiient de I'elendue des 
{ruruisscs fait |Mir le Oouverneiir et I'lnleiidant, rot fief 
paroit avoir un quart de lieue du front du precedent fief 
de Decanruur <|ui devgit avoir deux lieues et truis quait 
de front." 


Eaolb Lakes, called by the Indians Chipi- 
logini$$ii, in the co. of Rimouski, consist of five 
or six lakes, connected with each other by a 
line of water running from N. to 8. Their accu- 
mulated waters run n. w. into the a. St. John, 
with which these lakes are also connected by an 
Indian line of communication branching into two 
portages, one leading to the b. a little below the 
mouth of the r. Marienequacktacook, and the 
other opposite the mouth of the r. Madawaska : 
another portage connects one of these lakes with 
a stream that flows into the K. Restook. 

Earoly, township, in the co. of Ottawa^ is 
bounded B. by Hull ; w. by Onslow ; n. by 
waste lands of the Crown ; s. by Lake Chaudiere. 
Its breadth is the same as that of other river 
townships, but its lateral lines, running mag- 
netically N., differ widely in their depth, the e. 
line being 1,099 chains, the w. line only 325, 
owing to the curves in the shore of the lake, 
which runs about n. w. and presents a diagonal 
front to this township of 14 miles, from its E. 
boundary in the 1st range to the w. limits of the 
9th. This T. is indented by two large bays : the 
first lies above a small river which falls into the 
Lake at lot 8 ; the second extendi from lot 21 to 
the w. bounds of the x., and in this bay two 
other small rivers discharge their waters, which, 
with several inferior streams, fertilise the front 
ranges. The soil, in many places suited to the 
cultivation of hemp and fiax, does not yield in 
fertility to Hull. This t. is well timbered with 
elm, beech, maple and pine, and may be said to 
possess every local advantage met with in the 
townships below it. From the foot of the hills, 
which lie along the 6th range, to the margin of the 
lake, the country is generally level or rising into 
rich and gradual swells of excellent land.— This T. 
is but thinly si^ttlcd and in front. It is well watered 
by small lakes bitt contains no considerable rivers, 
and has no regular roads. — A tract of 6,41 1 acres 
of the K. section of this t. was granted, in 1805, 
to the Sandford and Lukin families and others, 
the greater part of which has been since conveyed 
to other individuals ; subsequently, 2,600 acres 
were patented to the Maclean family ; these two 
grants occupied nearly the whole of the front. 
Large tracts of excellent land are yet ungranted. 



which, if placed under the superintendence of an 
active agent, may in time become a lettlement of 
interest and consequence. Out of the prosperous 
colony of Hull the settlements of Eiudly may 
be said to have originated; they are chiefly in 
the B. quarter and are traversed by the Hull 
road, which extends to the 14th or 15th lot ; many 
neat and well-cultivated farms are on this part 
of the road as well as a school-house, which is 
attended by 2U to 25 youvhs of both sexes. — Uh- 
granted and unlocated, 19,590 acres. 


Population . 156 

Annual AgrkuUurat Produce. 

Wheat . 
Oats . 

Barley . 


770 Peas . 
. 2,030 Rye . 
. 2,4o0 Indian com . 
Muple sugar . 56 cwts. 

Live Stock, 




. 710 


. 21 1 Cows . 34 Swine 
. 18 1 Sheep . At 


Eaton, river, is formed by two streams which 
water the townships of Ditton, Newport and 
Auckland, and meet in the t. of Eaton about 
2 m. N. B. of the church. The R. then winds a N. 
course into the t. of Westbury, where it falls into 
the St. Francis in the 1 4th lot of the 2iid range. 

Eaton, township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, is 
bounded k. by Newport; w. by Ascot; N. by 
Westbur) and s. by Clifton. — The w. half, of 
which a great part is settled, was granted in 1800, 
to Air. Josiah Sawyer and others. The farms by 
care and industry are brought into good condi- 
tion, assuming a very flourishing aspect. This 
tract is of a uniform and favourable quality, 
generously repaying the farmers wherever it is 
under tillage. The N. w. part generally is low 
and swampy ; the other parts may be called hilly, 
being a scries of bold swells whose bases may be 
traced by the courses of the streams. The soil in 
general is stony and occasionally sandy. Towards 
the N. w., at an angle with the horison of be- 
tween tiO and 70 degrees, masses of granite are 
occasionally met with on the surface, as well as 
large masses of alluvial rocks, some having the 
appearance of vitrifaction. Slate of excellent 
quality for roofing is abundant, and black-lead 
ore has been found. The rocky strata are inva- 
riably argillaceous. — The timber is more remark- 

able for diversity of kind than excellence of qua- 
lity; pine, birch, haaswood, spruce and hemlock 
are plentiful ; that whidi onvera the summits 
of the ridges is generally hard wood, vis. maple, 
beech, birch and basswood; on the slopes is a 
mixtiuv of spruce with occasional patches of cedar 
where the land is very wet- — This t. is not wa- 
tered by any stream of magnitude, but intersected 
by numerous small rivulets and brooks. On the 
principal river, called Eaton River, are several 
good mill sites, of which some aro occupied, and 
two bridges. Several com and saw-mills have 
been erected on some of the streams. — Flax suf- 
iicient for domestic use is grown ; and though 
hemp has not yet been tried there is no doubt of 
its answering, particularly in places. The annual 
produce per acre, which might be increased under 
a better system, is, wheat 15 bushek, oats 20, rye 
15 to 20, potatoes from 250 to 300. Indian com 
is not much grown. — A considerable number of 
horses and fat cattle are sent annually to market. 
The cattle, in general, are of the breed common to 
the eastern townships, and aire considered good of 
their kind. The wages of agricultural labourers 
2«. 6d. a day, and the highest wages in harvest- 
time 3«. id. There is a fair proportion of artisans, 
but they do not follow their trades separately from 
fanning pursuits, but when they ore employed in 
mechanical trades they receive 5^. a day. — A large 
quantity of pearlushes is produced. — This t. is di- 
vided into two parishes by a line through the 6th 
range of concessions : the N. portion is called St. 
Peter's, the a. part St. Paul's. There is a church 
in each parish. There is one school, provided by 
the Royal Institution, in which ore 50 Kholars on 
the average ; there are likewise 2 or 3 private 
schoob. — The roads are not good though in an 
improving state. — About 9000 acres are cleared. 
— Vngranted and UHlocaled, 3100 acres. 

Population 805 
Cburi-heH, I'ru. 2 
Curn-inilli . .3 
Carding.inilli I 


I'aniieries , 

Prarlanberieii I 

Uintillerieii . I 

I'uveriiii . . 2 

Artisans . 10 

.iHiiual AgrictiUural Produce, 









Buthclt. I BuihtU. 

PnUtoet lU,IOO.Kye . 3.100 
Peas . 4,500 ! Indian com 1,000 

Lire Slock, 


■ tn 


5621 Cows 
tiltil bh««p 

084 , Swine 



\ i 


E B O 

Eao Cnaudb, de 1', river, at the s. b. angle 
of Bucklond, is a large, deep and rapid itream 
and foidable during one or two numtlu in the 

Eboulbmbnb, lbs, seigniory, in the ca of Sa- 
guenay, fronts the St. Lawrence and lies between 
the seigniories of Le Oouffre and Murray Bay and 
is bounded in the rear by waste crown lands. — 3 1. 
in breadth by 2 in depth. — No record of this grant 
has been preserved but it appears by an act of 
fealty and homage performed Apr. 3d, 1723, by 
Pierre Tremblay, then proprietor, that he pro- 
duced a concession of this tract made to Pierre 
Lessard, but the date was not quoted. It is now the 
property of Marc P. de Soles La Terrike, Esq. 
M. P. P. — The name of this seigniory indicates 
convulsions of nature of which we have only some 
very loose traditions. According to the histmy 
of Canada by Charlevoix, some violent shocks 
of an earthquake were felt in 1663 throughout 
the whole of Labrador to the Bay of St. Paul. 
Others say that, before 1663, this part of the coun- 
try had experienced shocks of earthquake, and they 
believe that Jacques Cartier, in his first voyage to 
Canada, sailed up the St. Lawrence from the 
north without meeting any obstacle ; and that on 
his second voyage, wishing to follow the same 
track, he was stopped between the Inle aux Coudres 
and the north by a considerable renversement des 
terret, and this diplacement has ever since been 
called la Grande Pointe des Eboulemens, which 
forms almost an island considerably serrated by 
the R. St. Lawrence. The traditions prevalent 
among the oldest inhabitants support this opinion 
and also the idea, that the creeks formed near the 
point were formerly only one, or that the passage 
followed by the first explorers of the country has 
undergone some change. This coast has been 
subject to frequent shocks of earthquake; the 
most alarming in the memory of the oldest inha- 
bitants was in Jan. \^&^, when the earth cracked 
in many places without any accident except the 
fall of some chimneys. During the winter of 
1791 this part of the country was again agitated 
by shocks that continued during 40 days, but they 
were less violent than the former. These exi:ru< 
ordinary efforts oi nature are still often felt every 
year, and occasion sudden transitions from heat to 
cold and vice versd. The shocks are more per- 
ceptible in winter than in spring or autumn, and 

E B O 

those in summer are the least felt. From theae 
natural causes without doubt this seigniory has 
derived its name. The lateral parts of the great 
Pnnte des Eboulemens, which is almost an island 
of 14 square arpents, form two large creeks into 
which many little rivers discharge their waters, 
which at high tide are sufficiently deep to receive 
vessels of above 100 tons and which there ride in 
safety in all weathers. These rivers are fordaUe 
at low water and wind across 10 to 12 arpents 
of breakers, which produce an abundant pasturage 
and a quantity of dlierbe salU. This seigniory, 
particularly the beautiful settlements whose ver- 
dant fields crown the summits of the sloping 
hills which rise amphitheatrically from the St. 
Lawrence, and all the coast extending from St. 
Paul's Bay to Malbay affi>rd the most agreeable 
and picturesque variety and are comprehended 
in one view. The face of this seigniory is in 
general excessively mountainous ; but the soil is 
not inferior to that about St. Paul's Bay, and is in 
many parts equally productive. The shore of the 
St. Lawrence is here very lofty, especially about 
Cap aux Oies ; but the edges of the bays, between 
the different projecting points, afford some good 
patches of meadow and pasture land: from the 
elevated bank of the river the ground continues 
to rise ridge over ridge until it reaches the moun- 
tains in the rear, which arc at least 1800 ft. above 
the level of the sea. In the concessions called 
Oodefroi, Dorothee, St. Joseph, and St. George, 
some very good settlements, in an improved con- 
dition, present themselves on the slopes of the 
high lands and in the intervals : the whitewashed 
cottages and farm-houses, frequently embosomed 
in thick clumps of trees, have an appearance sin- 
gularly picturesque. The inhabitants are chiefly 
settled in 3 ranges of concessions ; the first range 
occupies the borders of the river and comprehends 
a ridge of land of the greatest fertility, producing 
com, roots and all the fruits grown in Lower 
Canada, to a degree of perfection only to be ac- 
counted for by its favourable situation, which it 
at the base of mountains that protect it from the 
inclemencies of the north. The second range is 
on the highest elevation, where the road from St. 
Paul's Bay to Malbay passes over a distance of 9 L 
The inhabitants have built extensively in stone and 
wood, and, in spite of the unavoidable difficulties 
of the mountainous situation, the roads are good 


/ \ 

tr'^ i? 




and punUe for ereiy dMeription of carriage. The 
vaUej that containt the viUagei of St. Joseph and 
St. Oodefroi, on one side of which is seated the 
parish church, is at least 3 leagues in circum- 
ference and the church, 120 ft. by 60, presents 
one of the finest prospects. From this eminence 
the view commands the Isle aux Coudres, sepa- 
rated from the land by a channel one league in 
breadth, and all the country, on the opposite side 
of the St. Lawrence, from Kamouraska to the en- 
virons of St. Thomas and even to the lower part 
of the Island of Orleans. The manor-house is 
in the centre of this valley on the bank of the 
little river, Ruisseau du Moulin, near which is 
built the seignorial mill which never ceases to 
work in the driest summer, being constantly sup- 
plied with water t. Ji the river which is fed by 
two small lakes. Oti this river, which conveys the 
purest water to the door of every house, is another 
corn-mill and also two saw-mills, in which a large 
quantity of timber is cut for exportation. The bene- 
ficence of theCreator, every where apparent, seems 
to have united in this S. numerous benefits as a 
counterpoise to the disadvantages of a mountainous 
region. The different valleys on the sides of the 
mountains present nearly the same picture. — In 
the second range the soil is a light yellow, more or 
less mixed with marl, and extremely fertile. The 
climate, in consequence of the varied exposure of 
the lands, is very various and the difference is 
even perceptible in going from one farm to an- 
other ; nevertheless, corn and leguminous roots of 
all kinds prosper as well here as in the first range, 
although sown and harvested fifteen days later. 
In the first range the autumnal mists dissolve in 
rain, in the second they descend in snow. The 
north and north-west winds are frequent. — A large 
portion of the third range is cleared from wood, 
and the soil is less flinty and generally more level 
than in the second range. This part of the seig- 
niory is behind the front chain of mountains that 
bounds the St. Lawrence and extends over a plain 
from 6 to 7 leagues in depth to the great chain of 
mountainous rocks. The newly settled inhabit- 
ants of this range produce an abundance of com 
from their lands, which are cultivated with the 
hoe. The autumnal frosts are later here than in 
the second range, which causes the belief that the 
surplus population, which migrate to this conces- 
sion and multiply rapidly, will find abundant means 

of lufaiistence. In qnte of the local dindvaBtafca, 
which entail on the inhabitants Uborious nodes 
of cultivation, instancei of emigration to the plauu 
are rarely known. Their well aired climate and 
their vigorous corporeal powen appear, as it were, 
identified. This little colony of Canadian moun- 
taineers may be compared to the inhabitants of 
Switzerland, or the Scotch highlanders.— This S. 
is watered by several streams, but principally by 
the rivulets du Moulin, du Mouton, de L'£|^iie 
and du Cap aux Oies, which descend from the 
rear and wind between the different ridges in a 
manner truly decorative. — On the du Moulin, 
near its discharge into the St. Lawrence, are 
seated an excellent corn-mill and saw- mill ; at a 
short distance from which stands the manor-house, 
a large and substantial stone building, with nu- 
merous appendages. — Several roads lead along the 
St. Lawrence, where the ground is practicable, 
and in other places over the ridges ; they are in 
general tolerably good but frequently ascend some 
very long and fatiguing hills. The want of a road 
to Quebec is one of the greatest disadvantages of 
this and the adjoining seigniories. The industrious 
inhabitants are, as it were, imprisoned during six 
months of the year, and can only export their sur- 
plus provisions while the navigation is open. The 
different sums appropriated by the House of As- 
sembly for the purpose of opening a communica- 
tion between St. Joachim and St. Paul's Bay have 
been expended cliiefly in searching for a convenient 
line of route, and have been totally lost by aban- 
doning the road opened in 1815 or 16 by the 
Chevalier D'Estimanville, at that time assistant 
chief overseer of roads. The sum of £1900 ex- 
pended since, under the management of com- 
missioners, was only sufficient to open a com- 
munication of 9 leagues across difficult pUccs, 
where there are many expensive c6te» and bridges 
to make. This road can never be finished without 
the intervention of the legislature, the inhalHtants 
being insensible to every thing to which they 
have not been habituated, and without this road 
this interesting part of the country will remain 
for a long time neglected. This S. and those of 
Le Oouffre and St. Paul's Bay, being denied ac- 
cess by land with other seigniories, owing to the 
intervention of a barren tract in Ctttv de Benupre, 
the principal part of the disposable produce is 
transported to Quebec by water, in which trade 




i i. 


1 i 

E B O 

many ichooners are almost continually employed 
during the leason of navigation: their cargoes 
consist chiefly of grain, live cattle and poultry, 
besides large quantities of pine planks. — In the 
bays are some good hanks for fishing, which is 
resorted to as a means of livelihood. Great abund- 
ance of excellent fish and large quantities of her- 
rings are caught, besides loche, cod, sardenne, 
I'eplans, caplans, pilchards, eels and some salmon. 
The porpoise, which was formerly taken in abund- 
ance near the coast, is now become more rare; 
nevertheless, there is still oil made sufficient for 
the consumption of the inhabitants. —All the front 
of this S. contains limestone; the more elevated 
peaks are granite and there are many quarries 
of freestone of superior quality. — The timber is 
of vigorous growth ; the woods contain but little 
maple and much wild cherry, birch, pine, spruce, 
poplars, cedar and in general all the dwarf trees 
usually found in the forests of Canada.— Sul- 
phureous springs of various strength and aggrega- 
tion are very common ; there arc also many fer- 
ruginous springs, but their medicinal qualities are 
not sufficiently appreciated by the inhabitants. — 
Ten schooners and four chaloups, carrying nearly 
300 tons, continually ply to and from the port of 
Eboulemens to Quebec, and the chief articles of 
trade are deals, boards, firewood and some wheat. 
—In the 8. are many potters, 2 joiners, 2 ship- 
wrights and 6 blacksmiths. — Each of the 3 corn- 
mills drives 4 pairs of stones. — The horses are ge- 
nerally of the original Canadian breed and, though 
small, are extremely docile and willing. The 
homed cattle which the late Colonel Nairne, the 
seignior of Malbay, imported from Europe have 
multiplied and bring greater prices than any 
others, and, notwithstanding the degenerating in- 
fluence of the long Canadian winters, they pre- 
serve the shape and qualities of their superior 
breed. Sheep are reared in great numbers, but 
the inhabitants pay no attention to selection. — 
The nuuiber of farms conceded in this S. is 284, 
containing 24,(i07 arpents. 17>729 arpents re- 
main unconccded.— This S. is in the parish of 
Notre Dame He Boh Secours, which also includes 
a small portion of the S. of Murray Buy. The 
population of this p. amounted, in 1826, to 
IHOO, although, by an error in the census taken 
in that year, the number is said to have been only 


of the Parish of Notre Dame de Bon Seemirt. 

Populstion 1,632 
Churchn, R. C. 1 
CurcR . . 1 
Preibyteries . 1 

Com-milla , 3 
Fulling-mills 1 
Saw-mills . 7 

River craft . 5 
Tonnnge . . 885 
Keel boats . 4 

Artiuuig . 10 1 Ship yards 

Annual Jgricullural Produce, 












Maple sugar 02 
Hay, tons . 138 

Live Stock, 

Sto I Cows 

750 1 Sheep 

500 1 Swine 


TW:. — " Le litre de cet octroi n'a paa encore iti trowi 
•i: ilureau du S^rrtariat, mais il paroit par un Acte de 
Foi et Hommage, rendu le 3me Avril, 1723, par Pierre 
Tremblay, alors propri^taire de ce fief, qu'entr'autres titres 
il produiHit une concesgion taite i Pierre Leuard, portant 
que toutes les terres en Seigneuries qui 8e trouvent depuis 
la Seigneurie, du Sieur Dupr4, jusqu'a celle du Sieur de 
Comports, nommre la Malbaie, demeureront et appartien- 
dront a I'avenir au dit Pierre Leuard (Pierre Tremblay, 
probablement )" — Mg, Foi et Uommoge,folio 55, April 3, 
I72a— CnAiiTf d!' Intend. No. 2 a % folio 3, April 5, lOai 


Echo Lake, in the e. part of the t. of Aber- 
cromby, is one of the sources of a nameless stream 
that descends to New Glasgow and joins the 

EcuHRUiLs, les, or Belair, and its augmen- 
tation is a seigniory in the co. of Portneuf. It 
fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded s. w. by 
the S. of JacquesCartier; n. e. by Point aux Trem- 
bles and in the rear by D'Auteuii. — It is ^ !• in 
breadth by I league in depth. Granted Xov. 3rd, 
1672, to the Sieurs Toupin. The augmentation, 
of the same breadth as the seigniory and 2 1. in 
depth, was granted Jan. 20th, 1706, to Marie 
Magdelnine M^cerai, widow of Jean Toupin. — 
Though composed of a soil nearly similar to the 
front part of the seigniory of Jacques Cartier, 
Belair cannot vie with that property in fertility. 
— The lands are all nearly conceded and most of 
them settled. Many of the concessioni were granted 
before 17^i)t and those that have been granted 
since are held on the same terms as the former. 
There are some neat and well managed farms. 
The unconccded lands are of indifferent quality, 
and many of them totally unfit for agricultural 
purposes — The river Jacques Cartier crosses the S. 
diagonally, and it is also watered by the Rivirru 
aux Pommes, a pretty winding stream that flows 





into the former. The timber has been nearly all 
cleared off, and what remains is very inferior both 
in kind and value. — Several roads cross this grant 
and one, intersecting them at right angles, runs 
from the banks of the St. Lawrence to the Jacques 
Cartier. — The augmentation is generally moun- 
tainous, but the land is not of a bad quality ; it 
is only partially cultivated near the seigniory and 
is tolerably well timbered with beech, ash, maple, 
pine and birch, and is watered by the River Port, 
neuf and some of its branches. The road from 
Jacques Cartier bridge crosses it, on each side of 
which there are a few neat settlemenU.— The 
Parish of St. Jean Baptitte des Ecureuih is divided 
into three fieft, belonging to Messrs. Deschenay, 
Hart and Alsop. The church, though small, is 
large enough for the congregation. The parish 
contains 60 families, three-fourths of whom, appre- 
ciating the advantages of education, supply the 
means of supporting a public school to which all 
the children of the parish can easily huve access ; 
in this school the elements of the French, Latin 
and English languages, arithmetic, &c. are taught. 
—There is no want of tradesmen in the S. This 
V. was for a long time celebrated for the quality of 
its com, but for some years this reputation has been 
on the decline. The presbytery is spacious and 
very commodious. The church, though small, is 
large enough for the congregation, and the pa- 
rishioners are inspired with an extraordinary seal 
in its decoration ; their contributions for this pur- 
pose have frequently been surprising. 

Population 518 
Churches, R. C. I 
Presbyteries . 1 
Com-mills . I 
Cording-mills 1 



River crsft 




ylnnual AgrieuUiiral Produce, 


Oxen . 




. 90 Peas 
. 5,100 1 

Live Slock. 

206 1 Cows 
190 1 Sheep 

510 1 Swine 
1,035 1 



TUIe.—" Concession du 3nie Novembre, 1672, faitepar 
Jean Talon, Intendant, aux Sieuis Toupin, Pere et Flls, 
d'une demi licue de front, sur line lieiie de profondeur, i 
prendre sur le fieuve St. Laurent, moiti^ au dessus et 
moitii au dessous de la pointe Bouroila (aux Ecureuih) 
aboutissant des deux c()tt» aux terres non.^oncM^cs,"— 
lUgUtre d'Inteniance, \o. 1,/o/io 3.9. 

AugmeMtttlUm.—" Concession du 20nie Janvier, 1706, 
faite par Philippe de Rigaud, Gouverneur, et Fraufoii 
de Btttuitarnoit, Intendant, i Marie Magdelaitie Mezerai, 

E S H 

veuve de feu Jean Toupin, d'une demi lieue de teire de 
front sur deux lieues de profoiHieur dentil la Seigneurie 
de Btlair, le front k prendre immMiatenient k une lieue 
du fleuve St. Laurent."— Mgiitrt d'tnltndanet, JVo. S, 
Jblio 41. 

Edward (L.), v. Batiscan, r. 

eowards-town, 0. brauaarnoib, s. 

Ely, township, in the co. of Shefford, bounded 
K. by Melbourne and Brompton ; w. by Roxton ; 
N. by Acton and b. by Stukeley. The whole of 
this T. has been surveyed and the s. ■. quartet 
granted. The laud is good and, if cultivated, 
would prove fertile ; the low land, though rather 
wet, is not unfit for tillage and produces some 
of the best kinds of hard, black woods. — This T. 
is watered by branches of the Yamaska and other 
streams. — Here are very few settlers.— 950 acres 
were purchased by Mr. Wm. Hall of Quebec for 
£100. — Ungrauted and unlocated 2,800 acres. 

EuBERTON, a projected township, in the go. of 
Sherbrooke, is bounded by Ditton, Auckland and 
Drayton, and is watered by the R. Margalloway. 

Enfant Jbsvs, de 1' (P.), t;. Montrbal. 

Enolibh Bay, on the n. shore of the St. Law- 
rence, in the co. of Saguenay, lies between St. 
Panovace and Manicouagan Bay. 

English Rivbr, in the S. of Beauhamois, 
rises in several springs in the rear of William's 
Town and, winding to the front, joins the Cha- 
teauguay nearly 1 m. above the church. 

Ennies, des, river, rises in waste lands in the 
rear of the 2nd aug. to Ste. Anne, in the co. of 
Champlain, and watering the rear part of the S. 
of Batiscan fulk into the r. of that name. 

Entry (L), i;. Maodalkn, i's. 

Erien Lake, in Clarendon, lies near the centre 
of the T., between the 9th and 10th ranges and 
B. o'' *)pooy Lake. 

L'-r^.'HAiNE, river, in the co. of Saguenay, 
falls ill. J the n. shore of the St. Lawrence about 
10 m. below the r. Grande Berxeronne. 

EsROANETsooooK, rivcr and lake, in the co. of 
rislet. The river rises in the mountainous and 
waste country lying s. of the rear boundary of the 
T. of Ashford ; running b. it receives one stream 
from the n. e. and another from the m. w., both 
descending from small lakes. The R. then forms 
the lake of the same name and, taking a a. w. di- 
rection, joins the Daaquam about 6 m. above the 
junction of that river with the a. St. John. 

EsHRR, a projected township, fronts Lake des 
Allumets, in the co. of Ottawa, and lies between 





1 I * 

!! : ' 

1 ' 

■ 1 

li : * 


the projected townahipe of Hastings and Sheen. 
In Esher the Hudson's Bay Company have a Post. 
Etchbhin, lake, is in the cos. of Bellechasse 
and Beauce and lies in the angle formed by the 
junction of the townships of Ware, Standon and 
Cranbourne ; it supplies one of the main branches 
of the R. Etchemin. — No part of the District of 
Quebec is better calculated to be the centre of an 
extensire and flourishing settlement than the vi- 
cinity of the Lake Etchemin ; no inland situation 
could be selected better adapted for the site of a 
village than the margin of this beautiful sheet of 
water, which is somewhat more than 4 m. long, 
navigable from one end to the other and abound- 
ing with fine tifh. The shores of the lake, without 
assuming the appearance of rocks, are bold and 
picturesque and the margin in most places either 
pebbly or composed of the finest sand ; it is sur- 
rounded by excellent land, presenting on all sides 
a moderate and gradual ascent from the water 
and three or four good mill-streams enter the lake 
at different points. On a small peninsula on the 
N. side is every appearance of an extensive mine 
of iron ore: bog ore has been found in great 
abundance not far from the s. w. side, and indeed 
on all sides, for many miles round the lake, there 
are strong indications of this valuable mineral. 
This lake is in a most central situation ; at the 
head of a considerable branch of the b. Etchemin, 
and within a mile or two of the head waters of the 
River St. John and of considerable streams com- 
municating with the Chaudiere ; it is in the direct 
line of the nearest and only practicable route of 
communication with the River St. John, and is by 
nature appointed the great highway between Que- 
bec and the lower provinces ; it is also in the line 
of the nearest road to the State of Maine and 
enjoys, moreover, the advantage of proximity to the 
road lately opened to the Kennebec settlements, 
wherefore the distance by that road may be short- 
ened by descending in a direct line down the valley 
of the Etchemin to Pointe L6vi, in lieu of the cir- 
cuitous route by the Chaudiere : so situated, few 
inland places in the province possess superior ad- 
vantages as a commercial entrepot to the Lake 
Etchemin. A village in this situation, commu- 
nicating with Quebec at the short distance of six- 
teen leagues, would, when the country in the vi- 
cinity has somewhat advanced in settlements, offer 
a most convenient place of deposit for the produce 
ef the neighbouring country, as well as for that of 

B T C 

the St. John district and the slate of Maine : being 
in the high road from the capital, at the distaace 
of a short day's journey, it would also form an in- 
termediate point of departure for all the extensive 
countries lying to the south, south-east, east and 
north-east. The value of an easy and safe inland 
water communication with the lower provinces 
must be obvious, and will ever be an object of the 
utmost importance to the inhabitants of the British 
North American colonies. 

Etcbbuin, river, in the cos. of Beauce and 
Dorcheriter, rises on the s. b. boundary of Stan- 
don, and, having the t. in a direction at right 
angles with its general course, it enters Cran- 
bourne and, sweeping along the s. w. base of the 
mountains, again returns n. e. before it enters 
Frampton, forming in its course a rocky penin- 
sula of 6 m. in length by half that in width: 
a good water communication exists round this 
peninsula, the Etchemin being deep and navigable 
from lot 19 to lot 28, but not lower, for it be- 
comes a wide and shallow stream on a rocky bed ; 
the rapids in the 10th range extend only a short 
distance. After watering the t. of Frampton 
and the S. of Jolliet, it enters Lauzon and tra- 
verses the whole of that S. to the St. Lawrence, 
into which it falls between the domain and fief 
Ursuline. — When the extensive country through 
which this b. runs, now wholly uninhabited, has 
been settled and brought into a state of improve- 
ment capable of reimbursing the cost, an inland 
water communication from Pointe L^vi to Ma- 
dawaska, and perhaps eventually even to the 
Bay of Fundy and the distant Atlantic, would 
neither be doubtful as to its beneficial result 
nor very costly in the execution, by simply im- 
proving the bounty of nature furnished by the 
rivers St. John and Etchemin. — At the Upper 
Falls of the r. is an Indian carrying-place and 
the remains of a canoe have been there found, 
which indicate, perhaps, a nearer route to the na- 
vigable waters of the St. John than that disco- 
vered by Mr. Ware. From Lake Etchemin to 
the Middle Falls the descent is very trifling, so 
that, it is believed, the dicharge du Lac might by 
embankment be made navigable for boats : the 
descent at the falls is not more than twenty feet, 
and the ground is favourable for the construction 
of locks : from the falls to Ware's River, at the s. 
angle of Buckland, eight miles, the Etchemin is 
narrow, deep and navigable, flowing through an 

'^ A It 

P A tJ 

alluvial valley : from the last-mentioned place to 
the Bridge of Ste. Claire, 18 m., is over a hilly tract 
of country, but in a gradual slope, affording numer- 
ous and considerable streams as feeders to a canal ; 
and, lastly, from the Bridge of Ste. Claire to Pointe 
L£vi, about 21 m. is over a fine level country very 
favourable for the excavation of canals, so that the 
whole length of the canal connecting Puinte L6vi 
with the River St. John would not, in all probo* 
bility, exceed (iiVy miles, if so much. Perhaps 
the bed of the Etchemin, above.the Lower Falls, 
might, by embankment, be made navigable for a 
great part of the distance, the fall being in most 
places very inconsiderable. 

£uoEME, river, rises in l. Oliveira in the t. 
of Dorset, in the co. of Megantic, and taking a b. 
course enters the t. of Oayhurst, through which 
it winds gracefully in a gentle current until it falls 
into the Chaudidre near Pointe Ronde. 

Famine, la, river and lake. The river rises 
in several branches, in the T. of Ware, which 
unite vrith other branches, one of which descends 
from Lake la Famine in the t. of Watford, and 
tunning into the S. of Aubert de L'Isle falls into 
the Chaudiire near the w. angle of the p. of St. 
Barbe. The lake is in the extensive swamp lying 
in the rear of Ware and Watford. 

Farnhau, township, in the co. of Shefford, is 
bounded N. by the t. of Granby and the b angle 
of the S. of St. Hyacinthe ; a. by Stanbridge and 
Durham ; E. by the t. of Brome, and w. by the 
aug. to the s. of Monnoir. It is watered through- 
out by the first branches of the R. Yamaska. The 
land is of good quality, generally similar to that 
of Stanbridge though perhaps with a greater pro- 
portion of indifferent tracts ; in the n.w. parts are 
wide-spreading swnmps. — The best parts arc tim- 
bered principally with beech, elm and maple ; on 
the marshy parts are the usual inferior sorts.— 
Watered by large branches of the river Yamaska, 
on which are many com and saw-mills.—- Several 
roads cross in every direction. Along the banks 
of the streams nre some good patches of settle- 
ments. Nearly all the land is granted. In 1798> 
Mr. Samuel Gale and others obtained a large por- 
tion and still continue the greatest landholders: 
in 1805, a grant was made to the family of the 
late Colonel Cuyler, and in 1809 the westemly 

part, being the " rest and reiidtte of Famham," 
was laid out and 10,170 acres granted to Jobs 
Allsop, Esq. and others, his associates, who still 
retain the property. — UmfraiUed and utUeaMd 
1372 acres. 


PopulRtion 835 
Churches, Pro. 8 

Villages . 
Corn-mills . 

Saw-mills . 


Tanneries . I 
Hat Dianiiract. 1 
Potteries . « 
Potaaheriea 4 

Distilleries . 
Medical ttcn 
Tarema , 






Annital jigricullnral Product. 

Biuhclt. Buihrii. Buthcb. 

. 0,010 PoUtoes tU,UUO Buck wheat 5,800 

. 9,IM Peas . 4,9 jO Indian com 5,460 

. 1300 Rye . 100 Map. siig. cwt 35 

Live Stock. 


305 1 Sheep 

G60 1 Swine 


Fausembault, seigniory, in the co. of Port- 
neuf, is bounded n. E. by Guillaume Bonhomme 
and St. Gabriel ; s. w. by Neuville and Bourglouis ; 
8. by Desmaure and n. by waste lands. This S. 
is irregular in front and depth ; its superficial ex- 
tent about 12 1., one-third of which is in lakes, 
rivers and mountains. From the S. of Desmaure to 
the R. Jacques Cartier it is only a narrow slip of 
land, 1 1. broad, and 3^ 1. deep ; beyond that river 
it spreads to a breadth of 8 m. with an additional 
depth of 3 1. granted Feb. 20th, 1693, to Sicurde 
Gaudarville and now the property of Juchereau 
Duchesnaye, Esq. The front of this S. is 3 1. from 
the St. Lawrence and its first two ranges of con- 
cessions are settled by natives of the country; a 
third range is conceded to natives but is not settled. 
The principal settlements are on the Jacques Car- 
tier, consisting of about 80 farms on each side of 
the R.i there is also another settlement more to 
the N. besides those on Lac St. Joseph, on the 
discharge of which are an oatmeal mill, a saw-mill 
and a bridge 60 feet by 18. A great part of the 
lands were conceded before 17^9, and more recent 
concessions have been made which are held under 
the ancient tenure. The land that remains un- 
conceded is of very indifferent quality, and much 
of it is totally unfit for agricultural purposes. That 
part of the seigniory lying between Gaudarville 
and Guillaume Bonhomme, though rather moun- 
tainous particularly towards the river, is of good 
quality; the land rising gradually affords many 


H ■■ !■■! 1 ^ 1 . J, ,..1 



t I: 


I i 

') ■ 

\ '. 



1 , ; 



P A U 

opportanities for cultivation ; the loil is either a 
middling lort of loam or a lajer of Uack earth, of 
no great depth, upon a stratum of sand : the farms 
exhibit good tillage and are by no means defective 
in fertility. — There is a tolerable variety of tim- 
ber ; the maple, beech and birch are particularly 
good : inferior wood is in great abundance. — Se- 
veral roads lead to the adjoining seigniories on 
each side, and one from Desmaure up to the 
Jacques Cartier, but there is scarcely a stream to 
be met with until reaching that river; thence 
northward, this S. is mountainous, continually 
rising until it approaches the great N. w. ridge, 
and is very well clothed with timber but it is ge- 
nerally unfit for cultivation. — This S. is watered 
partially by the R. Jacques Cartier, by Lac St. 
Joseph and Lac Bonhomme tiesides some smaller 
lakes in the ravines, and also by several little 
branches of the r. Portneuf which rise in the 
sliirts of the mountains. — Part of this S. is in the 
parish of St. Augustin and part in the r. of Ste. 
Catherine, which lies behind it and is served by 
the same cur^. ( Vide Gaudarville, and for sta- 
tistics of Ste. Catherine, f. vide Desmaure.) 

of the Settlement of St. Patrick. 

Population 883 

Aqienta under cultivation . . SIO 

AimHal Agricullural Produce. 





. 1,172 



Peas . 

. M 
. 76 

Hay,«[c. . 850 
Butter cwts. 18 

Horses . 

Live Stock. 
10 1 Homed cattle M | Smne . 


Tille—" Concession du 80me F^vrier, 1693; faite par 
iMkit de BMttde, Gouvemeur, et Jean Bochart, Intendant, 
au Sieur de Gaudarville, de trois lieues de profundeur au 
derri^re du fief de Gaudarville, ensemble toutes les terres 
attenantes qui sont derrit!re les fiefs des Sieurs Deimauret 
et Guiltaume Boufumme, et jusqu'i la profondeur de la 
ineme li^ne du Nord-est au Sud-ouest, <}ui terminera les 
dites trois lieues, ensorte que tout ce qui est compris en 
la pr^sente concession sera borne d'un bout, par devant, 
au Sud-est, (Mr les lignes qui terminunt les profondeurs 
des dits fiefs de Gaudarville, Bouhomtne et Detmaure, et 
par derrierc au Nord-ouest par unc ligne courant aussi 
mrd-est et Sud>ouest qui terminera la profondeur des 
dites trois lieues par derrierc le dit fief de Gaudarville, et 
sera prolong^ droit jusqu'au fief de Neuville, ct par un 
c6t^ au Nord-est, d'une partie des terres du fief de SUlery, 
d'une iiartie de celles dc Gaudarville, et des terres du dit 
BoHhommcf et de I'autre c6t^ au Sud-ouest, boni^ des 
terres du fief de NeHville:'—Regittre d'tHlendance, No. 4, 
/blio II. 

P o u 

Fbmmbb, ruisseaa des, a small rapid stream 
descending into the N. shore of the b. Saguenay, 
nearly opposite Ha Ha bay. The Descents de$ 
Femmes forms a good harbour for vessels. 

Fbrb, river, rises in a small Like behind the 
high lands near the rear line of the S. of St Roch 
les Annais, and taking a w. course washes the 
boundary line of that S. and Reaume, where it 
receives a small rill from the s. and turns a mill, 
from which it strikes off to the N. and running to 
the village in St. Roch des Annais falls into La 
Grande Anse in the r. St. Lawrence. 

Ferub, petite, river, rises and falls in the s. of 
CAte de Beaupr6; it runs through the domain 
of St. Joachim into the St. Lawrence about 4 m. 
from the mouth of the R. Ste. Anne. 

Fbrrb, river, rises in several lakes in the waste 
lands in the rear of the S. of Bourglouis ; it runs 
B. w. through the S. of Perthuis into Long Lake 
which is the source of the R. Noire. 

Fitch's Bay is a long sheet of water in the t. 
of Stanstead emptying itself into Lake Memphra- 
iQBg<>&- It receives the waters of a considerable 
lake that cuts the division line of Stanstead and 
Hatley. At the mouth of this bay is a small 

Flamuand, river, runs into the R. St. Mau« 
rice above the N. Bastonais R. 

Flbur, la, river, in the Island of Orleans, rises 
in the high lands, and taking a a. w. direction runs 
through the fief Mons. Poulain into the south 
channel of the R. St. Lawrence. 

Forges of St. Maurice, v. St. Etiennb, f. 

FovcAULT or Caldwell Manor, seigniory, in the 
CO. of Rouville, is bounded n. by the S. of Noyan ; 
8. by the state of Vermont ; e. by Missiskoui Bay, 
and w. by the r. Richelieu. Granted, Ap. 1, 1738, 
to Sieur Foucault ; 2 1. in front by 2^ 1. in depth, 
— The line of boundary between LowerCanada and 
the United States runs through this S., by which a 
great part of it is placed within the state of Ver- 
mont — The face of this S. is generally level, though 
slightly undulating and regularly interspersed with 
swamps and gebtly rising grounds; the land though 
low is superior in quality to the other low lands on 
the east bank of the Richelieu, and may be cultivated 
with thegreatfest success ; but this superiority ,joined 
to the benefit of having water communication at 
its east and west boundaries, has yet attracted but 
few settlers, who are chiefly American farmers, 
and are settled in different parts of the S. — Apple 

F O U 


orchards flourish nrell in this S. and various kinds 
of the plum and cherry are cultivated with success. 
The forest timber consists of white pine, white oak, 
cedar, ash, elm, maple, beech, hemlock, larch and 
fir. — The roods are mostly in good repair ; 5 prin* 
cipal roads are established by law, 4 of which lead 
froci the province line n. through the a. and one 
from Missiskoui Bay w. to the river Richelieu ; 
these are intersected by several shorter roods- 
There is a ferry over the Richelieu at the province 
line, where the river is one mile broad; the rates 
of ferriage are, for a waggon drawn by two horses 
3s. 9d,, a waggon with one horse 2«. 6d., a foot 
passenger \t. — This 8. and that of Noyan ad- 
joining are divided into 2 parishes ; the w. parish, 
which includes the protestant episcopal church of 
Foucault, is called St. Thomas ; there is no ptuvon- 
age house nor public school, but there are 4 private 
seminaries in each of which are taught, on an 
average, 25 scholars. — Foucault is about equally 
and uniformly settled in every part. The popu- 
lation in 1825 amounted to 1051 ; the number is 
now increased. About -Jths of the land are under 
cultivation, and the soil is highly favourable to the 
growth of hemp and flax ; the latter is cultivated 
by every family for domestic use. — The average 
com produce is about 20 bushels per acre: wheat, 
rye, Indian corn, oats, barley and buck-wheat 
are raised in abundance, and peas are cultivated 
to a considerable extent. The annual consumption 
of wheat, rye and Indian com, for food, is about 
8400 bushels of each ; and of Indian com, peas, 
buck-wheat and oats, for fattening cattle and pigs 
and feeding horses, about 9000 bushels. — One 
com-mill and one saw-mill have been erected on 
Wolf Creek by Captain John Taylor, which, from 
the smallness of the stream, con work only about 
4 months in the year. There are 4 permanent 
potash factories and several private ones of minor 
importance : there are also 2 tanneries. — Potash, 
lumber, beef cattle, pork and grain are the prin- 
cipal articles of traffic, which are exchanged for 
merchandize. — The price of agricultural labour is 
2s. 6d. a day; and a mechanic earns 5«.— Among 
the tradesmen are 1 saddler, 1 wheelwright, 3 
blacksmiths, 3 cordwaincrs, 1 hatter. — Milch cows 
and labouring oxen prosper well, and sheep are 
reared in sufficient numbers to supply each family 
with wool for winter clothing. — Although no mine 
nor mineral has been discovered, some specimens 
of rock crystal, garnet and emerald have been 

found, also various petrifactions on the shores of 

the Richelieu.— This S. is watered by Wolf Creek 

that flows into South River, also by Missiskoui 

Bay on the e. and by the R. Richelieu on the w. ; 

these rivers abound with fish of delicious flav')ur. 

Title. — " Concmiion du Utat Avrii, 1738, fait* par 
Charles, MarquU de BeauhtrnoU, Oouverneur, et GUkt 
Ilocijuarl, Intcndant, an Sieur Foucault, de detix lieiin de 
teire de front, boni^ea du cb%t du Nord par la Seigiieurie 
nouvellement cuiif<'dr« hu Sieur de Soytn, et rur la meme 
li(:ne, et du i-itte du Siid \ deux lieue* de la dite ligne par 
une ligne ]iarullele tirre Est et Uiient du monde ; lur le 
devnnt par la rivit're Chambln, et lur la prol'undeur par 
la Ilaic de M'utUquouV—Rtgiilre d'lutendance. No. 7, 

FouQUET, a small stream in the S. of Orand- 
ville and Lochenaye ; it turns a cora-mill at its 
junction with Riviere des Caps. 

FouRCHE, grande, river, runs through the Cdte 
de la Grande Fourche across theTemiscouata Port- 
age into the n. w. branch of the B. Trois Pistoles. 

Fourche, petite, river, connects the small lake 
that receives the waters of r. des Sangues with 
the 8. w. branch of the R. Trois Pistoles. It runs 
across the Temiscouata Portage, s. E. of the r. 
Grande Fourche. 

Fourche, la, a river in the S. of St. Giles. 

FouRNiER, fief, in the co. of L'Islct, fronting 
the St. Lawrence, is bounded s. w. by L'Epinay; 
N. E. by Gagnier and Ste. Claire ; in the rear by 
waste lands of the crown. — SOarpents in breadth, 
by 2 1. in depth. Granted Nov. 3rd, 1672, to Sieur 
Foumier. — It is watered by the Bras St. Nicholas 
and two other streams, besides a fourth which rises 
in a small lake near the s. w. angle. 

Title.—" Concession du 3me Nov. 1678, faite par Jean 
Talon, Intendant, au Sieur Foumier, de trente ai'peng de 
terre sur deux lieueH de profondeur, it prendre sur le lleuve 
St. Laurent I tenant d'un ci>tk au Sieur itt VEpiimy, et 
d'autrc aux terres non-concidecs." — Rigiitre d^Intendancc, 
No. \,foli,> 28. 

Fox, rivers. Great and Little Fox rivers arc 
about 2 m. from each other, both falling into the 
gulf of St. Lawrence, between Griffin's Cove and 
Little Vallee in the co. of Gaspc. Great Fox 
river runs through the s. angle of fief Anse du 

Statistics of Great Fox River. 

Population . . 57. 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 



■M) Peas 

Live Stock. 




IG Sheep - 
iO Swine . 




I I 




F R A M P T O N. 

Frampton township, in the co. of Beauce, in 
the rear of the 88. of St. Joseph and 8te. Marie, 
on the river Chaudicre, bounded n. k. by the t. of 
Buckland ; s. w. by the 8. of JoUiet and 8. k. by 
the T. of Cranbourne. This township is sitimted 
at the commencement of the mountainous tract of 
country separating the waters of the St. Lawrence 
from those of the St. John, and consequently prc- 
lents, on its near and farther sides, very different 
appearances. The s. k. hide, from about No. 16 to 
28, is intersected from s. w. to N. e. by a chain of 
elevated mountains, in many places impracticable 
for roads, frequently rocky and otherwise unfa- 
vourablu for immediate settli.-raent. Like the other 
parts of the township the elevated portions arc, 
however, very much superior to the valleys, which 
arc generally swamps covered with stones and 
producing inferior descriptions of timber such as 
sapin, spruce, some birch and ccdei'. — As far as is 
now known, neither this nor any other portion 
of the T. contains any limestone or sand. — The 
N. w. half of the t., although also hilly, is mucli 
superior to the opposite side ; all the hills may 
be cultivated to their summits, the valleys are in 
general good soil or cedar, alder and ash swamps. 
The land is every where stony, but the stones are 
loose and on the surface. Tlic soil is a strong 
white or yellow clay, producing very superior 
crops of wheat and other grain, potatoes, turnips, 
Sic. The gra8.s, in the cultivated valleys, is very 
dnc and is thought to be the cause of tlie su- 
perior quality of the butter made in Frampton. 
Tlic uplands are timbered principally with maple 
and birch witli a mixture, more or less, of ash, 
sprui-e, iron wood, beech, hemlock, \c. In the 
valleys and alluvial points on the river are cedar 
in great abundance, alders, elm, ash, spruce, pine, 
with many other kinds of soft timl)er, and occa- 
sionally also birch and maple, but there is no 
white birch. — In the valleys are found consider- 
able quantities of potter's earth. — The wh(de of 
the township is uncommonly well watered, and 
there are a great nmny very excellent mill seats 
on the various brunches of the n, Ktchcniin, as 
well as on the waters communicating with the 
Chauditre. — This township will be costly in 
bringing into cultivation from the number of 
stones on the surface ; but, once cleared, it will 
become a very valuable and prmluclive settle- 
ment, particularly to graniers. — The most con- 
spicuous luuuatain is called the i'tajiaudiire i it 

is in the 0th and 10th ranges. No. 15 to 20, 
and is only a link of others as high or higher, 
extending from it to the n. s. and s. w. — The 
N. B. half of the t. is traversed by the river 
Ktchemin in its whole extent. There are two 
small lakes in the 3rd range, abounding with 
excellent trout; both communicate with Pyke 
River, a branch of the Etchemin. — Roadi have 
been opened and made passable for wheeled car- 
riages in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 9th and 11th ranges, 
nearly halfway through the T. ; and a cross road, 
in very tolerable order, has been made between 
lots No. 2 and 3, from the front to the rear the 
whole way. The road in the Oth range is opened 
and passable for 7 miles, and that in the 3rd 
nearly as far. Other roads are projected and in 
progress, and a road in continuation of that in the 
9th range has been traced to the river 8t. John 
(distant from the s. e. side of the t. 17 miles) by 
order of government.— There are no bridges or 
ferries established over the Etchemin in this T., 
but it has now become absolutely requisite that a 
bridge should be built over that river, as the com- 
munication between the inhabitants is often cut 
ofi' by floods, &c. — This T. has not been erected 
into a parish yet, and there is only one place of reli- 
gious worship, a lUmian Catholic chapel, recently 
erected in the 3rd range, where service is occa- 
sionally performed. From the situation of this 
township it ought to be divided into two parishes, 
for the N. E. and a. w. sides ought to be distinct. 
On the south side an appropriation of crown lands 
has been ma'le for the supjwrt of the school ; on 
the N. R. side there is no reserve for this purpose 
or any other of the kind. The h. w. side of the 
T. in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th ranges has been 
settled from 1010, and at present contains the 
greatest population, about 170. The settlement 
on the N. E. side war. begun in 1H23, 7 years 
later than the other side; the total number of 
s<mls on the n. e. side is 101. — The chief pro- 
prietors in this township, enumerated accord- 
ing to the extent of l.ind they re!i|H?ctively hold, 
are, Air. Gilbert Henderson, Colonel Jacques 
Voycr, Air. P. E. Desbarats, Hon. Air. Justice 
Pyke, Air. William Henderson, Hon. James Ir- 
vine, heirs of Labrucrc, Colonel Vassall, Colonel 
Armstrong, l)esides several other (Kirsons who pos- 
sess from KM) to (UN) acres each. — In the n. e. side 
IMN) acres of forest are cut down, of which 018 are 
cleared and cultivated. Un the • w. ride it ii iup< 

F R A M P T O N. 

poied that the quantity of land improved is about 
one-third more than on the n. b. side. — There ii 
no village although there may be about 60 houaea 
in the township, and no trade is as yet carried on. 
—The average annual crop of wheat produced on 
an acre of new land is 20 bushels, potatoes from 
18 to 25. The produce on the n. k. side of the 
T. was nearly as follows, in 1027, ^nd very much 
under an average crop. 

4,8()0 busliclii of potatoes 
dJO ditto turiii|i!i 
415 ditto wlieat 
730 ditto oats 

50 bushels of barley 
HO ditto |icus 
IG5 ditto rye 
2,500 bundles of hay 

The total produce is more than is required for the 
consumption of the growers ; the surplus is, how- 
ever, in great demand for new settlers (many of 
whom hod no land cultivated in 1)127), and in 
the adjoining seigniory. It is supposed that the 
produce of the 8. w. side was more than double 
the above, as there are fewer new settlers, and 
also a greater surplus for sale out of the town- 
ship. The seasons for sowing and reaping ore 
about a fortnight earlier than in the vicinity 
of Quebec. On the a. r, side Mr. DcsborHts 
has erected a saw-mill, corn-mill and oittmeal- 
mill: on the N. r. side Mr. O. Henderson has 
a saw-mill, corn-mill and oatmeal mill. — There 
are many tradesmen, particularly masons, brick- 
layers and joiners, who, in most instances, work all 
summer in Quebec while their families look after 
their farms. There are also shoemakers, weavers, 
cattle doctors, wheelwrights, blacksmiths and other 
mechanics settled in both sides of the township.—- 
The average price of agricultural liilmur is from 2«. 
to 2«. 6d. per day, the labourer boarding himself, 
or from 1«. lid. to 2«. with board.— There are ap- 
pearances of iron ore in several places; the stones 
arc clay slate interspersed with a few lioulders of 
granite, and some few detached pieces of poq)hyry 
have also been seen; quarta and quartistonc 
clay slate is very common. — Flax grows well but 
hemp has not been tried, nlthoiigh there is no 
doubt of its growth ; hops are found indigenous 
in several places. — The neat cattle hitherto in- 
tnxluccd are of the common Canadian breed, 
which, |K!rhups, with ioimc imprtivenient by ju- 
dicious crossing, are the best calculated to tlirivc 
in a hilly country. — There is Kurccly uny part of 
the T. where the stumps have as yet rotted out 

from the cleared lands, consequently very little 
ploughing is performed, and when it becomes ne- 
cessary it is probable that oxen will be used ex- 
clusively. The average price for clearing is from 
.£2 1Q». to £3 per acre. This sort of clearing 
leaves the stumps on the land, but it prepares it 
for seeding. Considerable quantities of saw-logs 
were cut on the N. x. side previous to the lands 
being grunted ; in fact, the land was in general 
stripped of all the pine and spruce timber fit for 
logs in the vicinity of the river. This illegal con- 
duct has been very injurious to the interests of the 
grantees, who have thereby been deprived of the 
only immediate source of commerce to enable them 
to carry on their settlements. — Out of the money 
granted for the improvement of internal commu- 
nications the sum of i.'300 was here expended. The 
opening of the projected road to the R. 8t. John 
would bo of the greatest advantage to the t. gene- 
rally, especially if carried on to the United States, 
to which it would then be the direct road from 
Quebec. — This t. is considered decidedly superior 
in soil and situation to Uuckland, Cranboume and 
Standon ; and, of all the settlements in the rcur of 
the French grunts below the B. Chaudiire, it is 
the most forward in improvements and population. 
It has been occasionally visited by a great many 
bears, which destroyed some cattle and lacerated 
others ; active measures, however, have been taken 
by the settlers to prevent the future intrusion of 
such troublesome visiters. — As the progress of 
settlement in this part of the province mainly, if 
not entirely, deiiends on the state of the roods 
through this t., the House of Assembly has wisely 
contributed sums of money for the ptiquMes of 
opening new roads nud the erection of a bridge 
over the Etchemin. Commissioners were appointed, 
whoso judicious and faithful discharge of their im- 
portunt duties is alike honourable to thcuiselves 
uiid the assembly which selected them. They 
were appointed under the provincial act, l)th 
Oeor(;e IV. chapter 1!), " to (qtcn and make two 
rtNuU in the county of Dorchester, whereof one 
shall lead from the old settlements eikst of the 
Kiverl-huudiire oh fur as Luke Etchemin, and the 
other fnmi the settlements in the ninth range of 
the township of Fruropton, as fur us Luke Etehe- 
uiiu on the north-east side of the River Etche- 
min." The 1st road m that from the h. Chuii- 
ditre tuwurds i.. Etiheiiiin, through the T. of 
Cranliuurne, ubout 33 miles, via. 


■; U 


1 i i 

I I! 

I' I I 

1: i' 

I ,l! 

' I I 

ii ' 


F R A M P T O N. 


lit. From St. Joseph Mill on the Chaudirre to 
rear line of St. Joseph, or front line of Cmnboumc 6 

Snd. From the end of said road to the inter- 
section of road number three, carried through 5th 
range of Cninbourne . . . .3] 

Sri, From 4tb range of Frempton to 8th range 
of Cranboume, carried through between lots H and 
lA of Cranboume . . . . C] 

4th. From end of last-mentioned rood to inter- 
section of the rear line of Cranboume, between 
the 7th and 8th ranges . . . 74 

5th. From termination of road carried through 
Frempton on the north-east side of Kivcr Etche- 
min to Luke Etchemin, carried on, as nearly as 
possible, the rear line of Cranboume - . .9 

Total . .13 

Of the above rouds, the first three have been 
opened about 16| miles fit for winter roads. There 
are no ditches, and no stream requires a bridge 
above or 8 feet span, but no bridges have been 
made. The width of road opened is 10 feet. 
The whole of this part of the country is hilly and 
extremely well watered, but no portion of it is 
mountainous; the road is not carried over any 
steep hills, nor are there any streams requiring 
public bridges ; but the portion of the road leading 
from the Chaudi^re as far as the crown lands in 
Cranboume is extremely swampy, and could not 
be made passable for carts without a very heavy 
expense. The timber on the adjoining lands has 
been mostly destroyed by accidental fires, and the 
quality of the soil is entirely unfit for settlement. 
The remainder of the road is on the crown lands, 
which are every where tolerably good, and in some 
places excellent and very (it for settlement. The 
remainder of the road proposed to be opened passes 
entirely on the crown lands, which, with the ex- 
ception of a small portion in the peninsula in the 
N. R. comer of Cranboume, are of good quality 
and well adapted for settlement, when the roads 
from Frampton, by which alone they can be ad- 
vantageously approached, are made good. There 
are no hills to impede this road, nor any swamps 
of any extent to increase the expense of making 
it, but there ore two considerable streams to cross, 
which will require public bridges, vii., one over 
the main brunch of the river Etchemin, and the 
other over the outlet of the take of that name. 
These roads lead directly to a very valuable por- 
tion of the waste lands of the crown (exclusive of 
those they mure immediately pass through) in 
Standon, Ware and Watford, all of which are of 
a description to encourage immediate settlement 
when rwuls are made to them —The other road 

is from the 9th range of this T. on the V. c. side 
of the B. Etchemin to the N. angle of the t. of 
Cranboume. The whole extent of this road it 
about 0\ miles, commencing on lot No. 10 in the 
0th range of Frampton, and thence following the 
general course of the r. Etchemin. It has been 
opened and made passable for carts as far as the 
river de I'Eau-Chaude at the s. angle of the T. of 
Buckland 5^ miles. There are one large and two 
smaller bridges built over streams in this space ; 
but the road has not as yet been ditched, although 
it will require it in many places. It has been 
opened 11 feet wide and in places where nn 
settlements are commenced, the wood has been 
cleared to the distance of a chain on each side. 
A considerable portion of this road, and more par- 
ticularly the first two miles, runs through low land 
and requires logging at an expense of from £50 to 
£()0 a mile. The country traversed by the road, 
so far as it is made, is all good soil and mostly in 
progress of settlement; there is only one steep 
hill, beyond which the road is excellent ; it is at 
the commencement and does not exceed an acre in 
descent. That part of the road which remains to 
be opened traverses a fine tract of country on the 
s. side of a gentle slope, forming one side of the 
valley of the Etchemin usually called Le$ AuU 
naiti. Inhere is only one hill to ascend, which 
may be done gradually, and a space not exceeding 
1 mile of low land requires logging and ditching; 
one large bridge and five smaller ones will be 
required before the road can be travelled. No 
road in this ; part of the country can be more 
important than this, it leads and indeed pasaeR 
through in one place the unsettled lands in Buck- 
land, and passes through the first range of Stan* 
don, at the distance of from 4 to f m. from the 
most valuable portion of the crown lands in Stan- 
don, and thence directly to Cranboume Road now 
opening ; which until this road is completed will 
be entirely useless, and the only road by which 
the waste lands of the crown in Standon, the 
N. E. part of Cranboume, the fine tract of country 
on the T. of Ware surrounding Luke Etchemin, 
and a considerable portion of Buckland, can be 
approached. — The bridge over the r. Etchemin 
in this T. is erected on lot 9 in the 0th range. 
The length is 331 ft. with two arches of 64 ft, 
each arch 17 ft> high in the centre by 13 at top; 
centre pier 50 ft. long by 30 wide at base ; the 
abutments from 34 to 45 fti wide. The expense 

P R A 

of building this bridge hu been about £435, 

Voted by the House of Asxembly . ^00 
ApproacDes and bonwiogstion, abotit SO 

Subicribed by the settler o, aboiU . . 65 

Total expense of the bridge . ^4.33 
In rendering an account of their proceedings to 
the House of Assembly the commissioners very 
justly remark that no similar work could be con- 
structed in the province for less money. It is 
here not improper to observe that the long ex- 
perience of the author, as surveyor-general of this 
province, and the evidence of facts prove how ju- 
diciously the commissioners for the opening and 
improving of the internal communications are 
chosen ; the economical and judicious manner in 
which they direct their important labours, par- 
ticularly the personal supervision which they be- 
stow, ensures promptness of execution and con- 
fines the expenses within the limits of the esti- 
mates; therefore the sums voted for such pur- 
poses are never exceeded without attaining an 
adequate and generally an unexpected benefit. 
The money expended on these roads and bridges 
has, exclusive of the object in view, been of the 
greatest possible advantage to the adjoining coun- 
try, both seigniories and townships, and a small 
additional sum granted for improving the roads in 
this valuable t. would have the immediate effect 
of settling the principal main roads up to the 
boundary of Cranboume, and theieby open the 
most valuable portion of the lands in that t. for 
immediate settlement, which cannot otherwise be 
effected. The commissioners strongly recommend 
the opening and making passable, for summer car- 
riages, three main roads in this t. leading to- 
wards the waste lands of the crown beyond, and 
traversing a tract of excellent country offering 
every inducement for immediate settlement : vix. 
1st, a road on the N. k. side of the R. Etchemin ; 
9nd, a wheel-carriage road on the s. w. side of the 
B. Etchemin, from the new bridge to Cranboume, 
almiit ten miles. This road will open a direct com- 
munication with the upper valley of the Etchemin, 
called Lef Anlnniei dm Mine$, and lead directly to 
the best lands in Cranboume ; 3rd, improxnng the 
present main roads in the 3rd and 4th ranges of 
this T., by which alone the road at present opened 
in the 8. w. part of Cranboume can be approached, 
Knd the communications from the parish of Ste. 
Claire through Frampton and Cranboume to the 
>. Cbaudiirc, opened for carts. 

O A D 

The author cannot conclude this account of 
the T. of Frampton without publicly expressing 
his acknowledgments to Wm. Henderson, Esq., a 
large landed proprietor, whose public spirit and 
enterprising talents render him a most valuable 
member of the Literary Society of Quebec, and 
are highly useful to the pros)ierous advancement 
of the best interests of this part of the province. 


-m. •* 

Population 2G3 1 PotashericR . 2 
Corn-mills . 1 j Pearlasherics 1 


. 1 

Annual Agricullurat Produce, 

BiuhtU. Biuhcb. 
Wheat . H;«> Peas . UdO 
Oats . 8,500 Rye . 3.-J() 
Bailey . 100 , Indian com 160 
Potatoes 0,000 { 

Mixed gnin SO 
M. sugar, cwts. 31 
Hay, tons Itt 

Live Slock, 

Horses . 18 Cows . 1061 
Oxen . C5 Sheep . 68 


. 17a 

Fbanchetillk, fief, in the co. of Portneuf. 
This small f. fronts the St. Lawrence and is 
bounded N. B. by La Tesserie ; n. w. by Reste dei 
Grondines and N. by the b. Ste. Anne. 

Fbanciievillb (F.), v. Oronoinrs, S. 

Franchbvillb (F.), t^. La Tkssebib, S. 

Fbrlitrboubo (V.) V. St. Armano, S. 

Fbkneb, des, river. Kuisseau des Prunes rises 
in a concession of the same name in the S. of Mur- 
ray Bay, and passing through the n. k, angle of 
the Coucesaion called la Riviere Malbay falls into 
the B. of that name. 

Fbiponnb, la, river, in the S. of Cote dc Beau- 
pr6, rises in Petit Lac in the p. of St. Joachim 
and, ranning first n. w. and then n. w., enters the 
St. Lawrence nearly 6 m. below the mouth of the 
B. Ste. Anne. 

FBO^T Bbook rises from several springs and 
a lake in the 5th range of the t. of Clifton and, 
ranning n. through the w. angle of Eaton, falls 
into the a. Salmon in the first range of Ascot. 

Fbobt Village, v. Dunham, t. 


Gabbllb, Falls of, v. St. Maubioe, S. 


rises in two lakes in that part of the district of 
Quebec which borders on the n. w. angle of the co. 
of Bonaventure, and, mnning through that part 
of the CO., becomes one of the chief sources of the 
B. Riktigouchc. 






( ■ 




I :i 

. j 


Oaonisb, fief, in the co. of L'lilet, U bounded 
N. E. by Cap St. Ignace ; a. w. by Fournier ; in the 
rear by Ste. Claire, and in front by the St. Law- 
rence. — 10 arpents in front by one I. in depth. 
Omnted, Sept. 3, 167<'>, to Sieur Louis Gagnier. 
— The Mil is tolerably rich, productive and in good 
cultivation, particularly along the St. Lawrence 
where the surface is level ; the rear part is rugged 
and mountainous.— > Well watered by the Bras St. 
Nicholas and another river from the e. 

Tltk.—" Concession du Sme Scptembre, 1675, faite par 
le Comic de Frontenac, Gouvemeiir, a iMuit Gngtikr, dit 
Belleavanee, de dix arpeiis dc terre de front, u eummencer 
depuis sa concession, en montant le flcuve St. iMurent, 
dans les terres non-concedees, 8^|>arant icelle et ce qui 
appartient au Sieur Fournier, avpc unu lieue de profondeur, 
pour Stre unie k sa part du fief Lqfrenay, qui lui a tti 
concede conjointemeiit avec le Sieur Gamache, part qui 
lui apparticndra." — Hig'utrc d'lulendaHce, No, 2, folio 15. 

Oaonon, river, rises in the lakes of Abercromby 
in the co. of Terrebonne and falls into the Riviere 
du Nord or North River. 

Gaonon, river, in the S. of Riviere du Loup. 

Gaoodchioaou or Oaoovcuisaouiiy, river, 
falls into the s. bank of the r. Ristigouche. 

Gamache (F.), t;. Cap St. Ionace. 

Garnet, river, in the waste lands in the co. 
of St. Maurice, runs w. into Lake Kempt. 

Garthby, a projected township in the co. of 
Sherbrooke, lies n. e. of Weedon. The Lake 
St. Francis severs this tract into two nearly equal 

Gabpb Bay, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on 
the 8. B. side of the co. of Oaspe, lies between 
Cape Gaspe and Whale Head ; it runs about 16 
miles into the land and is about 6 miles broad : 
from its extremity two inlets, called the N. w. and 
a. w. arms, penetrate a considerable distance into 
the interior and receive the waters of several 
streams that flow from the mountains: the bay 
itself is deep and well sheltered; the shores are 
lofty and the settlers are nearly all fishermen. 
The basin is said to be one of the best and most 
commodious harbours in America, and is capable 
of containing more than 300 vessels in the most 
perfect security. It is easy of access and may 
probably become of importance, /« a rendesvous 
for the homeward and outward-bound fleets. At 
present, it is frequently resorted to by ships on 
their way to and from Europe, meeting with tem- 
pestuous and adverse weather in the Gulf. This 
place deserves attention from persons skilled in 
nautical affairs, and competent to give a correct 
view of the advantages it possesses as a port. Ap- 


plications have been made for grants of water lot* 
in the basin, which it might be expedient to grant 
under certain conditions, such as the immediate 
erection of wharfs and store-houses for the con- 
venience of shipping and trade, taking care, how- 
ever, to make suitable reserves for public purposes, 
such as laying up and repairing vessels, &c. The 
whale fishery is carried on with some success by 
a few active and enterprising inhabitants, who are 
almost exclusively employed in this kind of fishery. 
Four or five large schooners, manned each with 
from eight to twelve able and skilful persons, are 
occupied in whaling during the summer months. 
This business yields about 18,000 gallons of oil, 
which is principally sent to Quebec. The num- 
ber of hands employed in reducing the blubber to 
oil, preparing casks and other incidental labour, 
may amount to about 100. In summer the bay is 
refreshed by a sea-breese which commences about 
nine in the morning and lasts till sunset, and 
is succeeded by a land-breexe that continues till 
the morning. The singular reflection of objects 
on the shore during calm weather is remarkable 
in this bay ; the whole face of the shore, opposite 
to that on which the spectator stands, suddenly 
appears to change and presents the most fantastic 
appearances, which continually vary until, by de- 
grees, the whole disappear and leave nothing to be 
seen more than the natural appearances. — Grande 
Grioe is a tongue of land projecting into the gulf 
that forms the e. shore of the entrance into Gasp^ 
Bay. This place, with its environs, is settled 
by fishermen. The population amounts to 352. 
The live stock is 3 horses, 21 oxen and 25 cows. — 
VielleFemme or the Old WomaH is a rock contiguous 
to the cape and is evidently a fragment or section 
of it, the space between them having been evi- 
dently worn and carried away by the sea, or 
broken off from the cape by some convulsion of 
nature. In fine weather this remarkable rock 
offers to the eye of the spectator at Douglas t., 
15 leagues off, the appearance of a ship doubling 
the cape with a fair wind : this appearance is ren- 
dered still more striking by the reflection on the 
rock, on which appear shades of coloura that look 
like the flags of a ship streaming in the air. — Se- 
veral rivers empty themselves into Gasp<l- Bay : 
the principal are called the n. w. and a. w. arms 
of the bay and St. John's river. The a. w. arro« 
in particular, affords good anchorage and an easy 
resort for vessels during the most violent tempests, 
which prevail in the gulf at certain seasons of 



the fear. — On the v, ode of Oasp^ Basin in the 
O'Hara estublithment, commenced in 1764 by 
Felix O'Hara, Esq. late judge of the District 
of Oasp^: this gentleman, who was moat de- 
servedly and highly esteemed, emigrated from 

Slatistics of the Settlements of Gaspt Bay. 

Ireland and was the iiiat person who settled here 
for agricultural purposes; he was the father of 
the present Lt-Col. Edward O'Hara, who has 
heen created a Companion of the Bath for his 
meritorious public services. 


Gaspj Basin 
Haldimand . 
Douglas Town 
Grand Greve 

Total . 



I I 5 




0751 III 

\nnux1 Aeridiltiiniri'rtxi. in hii-'h. 





























850| 818 336 870 

Gabpe, county, in the Inferior District of Oasp^^, 
is bounded a. w. by a line commencing at Point 
Maquereaux on the north side, and at the entrance 
of Chaleurs Bay, running thence n. w. 47 miles, 
then south, 69 degrees west, until it intersects 
a line running from Cap Chat on the St. Law- 
rence, due s. k. ; on the w. by the last-mentioned 
line, and N. B. by the river and gulf of St. Law- 
rence, including the island of Bonaventure and 
all the islands in front, in whole or in part nearest 
the same, as well as the Magdalen Islands. It 
comprises the fiefs Ste. Anne, Magdaleine, Grande 
Vallee des Monts and Anse de I'Etang, the Bay 
of Gaspe and settlements therein. Point St. Peter, 
Malbay, Perce, Anse 4 Beaufils, Cap D'Espoir, 
Grand River, Little River and Pabos, and New- 
Port. — Gasp6 may be esteemed among the most 
eligible situations for commerce in British Ame- 
rica, from its numerous harbours, wherein vessels 
of any burden can lie in perfect security ; two in 
particular — the south-west arm of Gaspe Bay and 


Population 8,507 
Churches, Trot. 8 
Churches, R. C. 9 
Curates . 1 
Schools . 1 
Court-house 1 
Gaols . 1 

VilUges . 1 
Corn-mills 5 
Saw-mills . 3 
Ship-yards . 4 
JuHt. of Peace 3 
Medical men 1 
Notaries . 1 

Taverns . 6 
Artisans 7 
River-craft . 15 
Tonnage 1,185 
Keel-boats . 441 

Anniul Agricultural Prodticf. 

Wheat 878 
Oats . 3,803 
Peas . 1,805 
Indian corn 196 

Mixed grain 580 
PoUtoes 108,010 
Maple sugar 

cwts. 800 

Hax . 
Hay, tons 



. 010 


Live Slock. 

Horses . 908 
Uxen . . 590 

Cows . 000 
Sheep . l,m 



Gaspb DisTaicT, v. Districts. 

Gaspb, seigniory, in the co. of Lotbiniere, in 
the rear of the S. of Tilly, is bounded n. k. by 
Lauson ; n. w. by Desplaines and St. Giles. — 
1^1. in breadth and depth. Granted, Mar. 25, 
1738, to Dame Angelique Legardeur, widow of 
Aubert de Gaspe^ — There is not an acre of tillage 
in this S., and it is scantily supplied with water, 
although it gives rise to 5 or 6 streams besides the 
Riviere Noire and Ruisseau Gosselin in the s. a. 
angle. . ' ....... • ;{ 

Title " ConcrsHion du 85me Mars, 17.38, faite par le 

Marquis de Beauharnoit, Gouverneur, et GUki Hocquart, 
Intendant, a Dame Ani^lique Legardeur, veuve du Sieur 
Aubert de Gaijie, d'une licuc et demie de terre dv front, der- 
rifre la Seigneurie de Tllli/, appartenant aux hf ritiers de 
feu Sieur Le^rdeuri k prendre le front au bout de Iapro> 
fondeur et limite de la dite Seigneurie de 7*1%; tenant 
d'un cAt^ H la Seigneurie de Lauzon, et d'autre i celle ac- 
cord^e a DemoiKelle Legardeur Ha soeur, ihu" concession 
du 4mu Janvier, I7.'i7, ct par derrijrc aux terres non-con- 
cHiQt."—HiiiUtre d'lntcndance. No. 9,Jbllo I. 

Gatinkau, river, rises in some large lakes far 
in the interior of the country, between the rear of 
the T. of Hull and Hudson's Bay: these lukcM 
have been visited by the Indians only. It enters 
Hull at lot 23 of the 16th range and traversea 
the T. diagonally, varying in width from 10 to 
20 chains, and finally diser-.bogues into the Ottawa 
in the t. of Templeton, about half a mile below the 
B. outline of Hull. — Steam-boats have ascended 
this R. for 4 miles, and it is navigable for the 
heaviest bateaux and other small vessels for ft 
miles from the Ottawa : then it becomes rapid for 
about 15 miles and turns two mills. It is navi- 



' 1 




' j 




. ' 










' , 

\ f 



: ! 








gaUe' for canoM, it is said, for above 300 miles; 
and the Indiana aioend this b. when they go into 
the back country for the purposes of trade. It is 
a large, wild and rapid stream, and above 5 miles 
from its movith in so obstructed by falls and rapids 
that timber cannot be brought down it— at least 
the experiment, it is believed, has never been tried. 
It abounds in views of the wildest and most ro- 
mantic scenery. At its confluence with the Ot- 
tawa in lot 37 of the front range of Templeton, 
this a. is nearly 20 chains wide. It is well 
stocked with fish and the usual sorts are bass, 
pike, pickerel, maskinong6, cat-iish, sturgeon, eels, 
&C. On the B. bank is a hill which may become 
an object of notice in a military point of view from 
its shape and commanding position. Ascending the 
B. beyond this point, cascades and rapids are not 
unfrequently to be met with, some of which are 
remarkable for their beauty and variety, environed 
as they are by a rather picturesque scenery, par- 
ticularly in the 7th range of Hull where a small 
saw-mill, situated at the foot of a rapid, breaks 
into view. The agitated waters, flowing fast be- 
tween a small island and the main bank, which, 
on this side as on the other, is much elevated above 
the bed of the river, produce a fine efiect. This 
river, though well worthy of research, is remark- 
ably little know i. It is the largest of the Ottawa's 
tributaries anil Joins it 3 miles below the Chau- 
diere Falls, nearly opposite the Rideuu, discharg- 
ing at least five times as much water as that river. 
Our ignorance of it is partly explained by the 
common report of its course ; because, for up- 
wards of 100 miles before it joins the Ottawa, 
it flows parallel with and but a short distance 
from it, so that no Indian traders have found 
it worth their while to make establishments on 
it. This river has been wholly unfrequented by 
the lumber-dealer on account of the great rapids 
and fulls near its mouth, at one spot said to be 
100 feet perpendicular. It is supposed that the 
Oatineau will present one of the finest pieces of 
river navigation in Canada, after passing the 
heights fWnn which it descends near its mouth. 
The variety of minerals known to lie on the 
banks of this R- renders it an object of still higher 

Oatinrau and Augmentation, seigniory, in the 
CO. of St. Maurice, is bounded w. by Orosbois; k. 
by Pointe du Lac ; in tlie rear by the t. of Caxton 

O A U 

and in front by Uie St. Lawrence.—} 1. in front 
fay Ij L in depth. Granted, Nov. S, 1673, to 
Bieur Boucher, junior. The augmentation, of a 
similar breadth and 4 1. deep, was granted, Oct. 
81, 17S0, to Oemoiaelle Marie Josephe Oatineau 
Duplessis. — The land is of rather a lighter soil 
than that of the adjoining grants, but it is equally 
fertile and under nearly the sbme mode of culture. 
— Watered by the two rivers Machiche, whose 
banks for a considerable distance upwards display 
some good and thriving settlements, which are 
connected by many good roads besides the public 
road that crosses them. 

Title.:—^* Concession du 3me Novembre, 1672, foite par 
Jeau TaloH, Iiiteiidant, au Sieur Boucher, fiU, de trois 
quartii de lieues de terre de front sur une lieue de pro- 
londeur, a prendre sur le Lac St. Pierre, depuis la conces- 
non du Sieur Boucher son p^re, jusqu'aux terres non.con. 
cidiee."-HigUtre di'IuUuiance, Jfo. I,/o<io37. 

Augmtnttttion.—" Concession du 21me Octobre, 1750, 
faite par le Marguit de la Jonquiire, Gouvenieur, et 
FranfoU Bigot, bitendant, i Demoiielle Marie Joiephe 
Gatincau Dupkstit, de quatre lieues de profundeur der- 
ri^re le fief Gatineau, situi sur le Lac St. Pierre, et sur le 
mime front d'icelui."— A^gii(r« dMendance, No, 9, JUio 

Oavdaryillb or Ouardarvillb, seigniory, 
in the co. of Portneuf, is bounded n. b. by SiUery 
and Noire Dame des Anges ; n. w. by Desmaure 
and Ouillaume Bonhomme ; in the rear by the r. 
Jacques Cartier and in front by the r. St. Law- 
rence. — 45 arpents broad by 4 leagues in depth. 
Granted, Feb. 8th, 1652, to Louis de Lauson, Sieur 
de laCiti^re. The present proprietor is Juchereau 
Duchesnay, Esq. — This grunt consists of nearly the 
same species of soil as Desmaure and the lower 
part of Fausembault, but superior in fertility and 
good cultivation. For nearly 3 1. from the St. 
Lawrence it is entirely settled; thence it be- 
comes mountainous with scarcely any part under 
tillage, though many patches appear to be tolerably 
good arable land. — The front being thickly inha- 
bited has but little timber, but further on good 
beech, maple and pine are found in plenty. — Its 
general fertility is aided by several little streams 
that trace a mazy course through it and run into 
the R. St. Charles, and also by the lower part of 
the Riviere du Cap Rouge. On the west side of 
this river, near its discharge, there is a gradual 
slope from the high bank down to a delightful 
and well-cultivated valley extending almost to the 
R. St. Chiurles, and joining the level tract of low 
land that spreads for a great distance in the rear 



of Quebec. — This S. if intersected by numerous 
good roods in all directions : the main one, along 
the St Lawrence, ascends several steep acclivities, 
cspcciitlly in the vicinity of Cap Rouge, of whicl\ 
travellers seldom fail to feel the effect, particularly 
in the summer. 

The following account of the new settlements in 
Guadurville and Fausembault was given before a 
committee of the House of Assembly in 1823, by 
Lieut.-Col. Duchesnay, the proprietor. — " These 
settlements, mostly of Irish emigrants, wore com- 
menced in Oct. 1820. The number of grants 
amount to 232 ; and there are about 225 resident 
proprietors, about 80 children or more, and about 
70 or 80 labourers employed. Very few of the 
settlers had any capital to begin with, most of them 
had hardly any thing ; they were, therefore, ob- 
liged to overcome the difficulties incident to new 
settlements and the want of capital by great pri- 
vation, extreme economy, occasionally labouring 
for money to provide provisions, working industri- 
ously while provided, and when unprovided re- 
peating the same means. — During the summer 
many of tbe settlers obtained employment as 
tradesmen or labourers in the lung's works in 
Quebec; others could not, from the number wanted 
being supplied. The wages to tradesmen were 
from 4a. to 5s. a day. and to labourers from 2s. to 
2s. 6d. a day. To these settlers the Quebec 
Society of Emigrants gave five ^Munds currency 
in provisions for the use of those ia urgent ne- 
cessity, and lent to others 10/. currency for the 
purchase of seed. Provisions were besides given 
to 4 or 5 families and some of the women were 
assisted by the Quebec Benevolent Society. Some 
clothing was also charitably given by Mr. Le 
Francois, cure of St. Augustin, to some of the 
men, women, and children. In order to assist the 
aeltlers, the proprietor (Col. Duchesnay) liberally 
advanced to them provisions and seed, opened roads 
and procured work for some and employed others ; 
and the sum of 25/. currency was expended by the 
commissioners for the internal communications to 
assist in making a road to the settlement. — The 
rents are 30«. currency per lot of 90 arpcnts, de- 
ducting the usual charges for the difference of 
money {argent toumois), wheat, capons, corvies, 
&c. : for nearly 4 yean no rent was required. 
Above 670 arpents of land have been cleared 
(1823) in St. Patrick settlement. For clear- 
ing out the stumps, 50s. per innate arpeut are 

1' ;i :a. .:••, gen 

generally paid. — As no capital is required to ob- 

tain lands, and as no rent is paid for the tint 

3 or 4 years, the settlers are highly pleased with 

their lands and the tenure ; and if there were more 

lands in the seigniories similarly situated there 

would be no difficulty in obtaining more settlers : 

the only obstacle now (1823) u, the lands to be 

conceded are at a greater distance, which however 

would cease to be an impediment if roads were 

made," &c. 

Title. ** Gontenant quanuite>dnq arpens de front sur 

quatre lieues dc profundeur; tenant du c6te du Nord-ost 
HU fief dc Sillery, appartcnant aux r/'V^Tcnd» ]\im Ji'«iiite§, 
et du cAli du Sud-oueit au iief de Detmaure, ap|)urtenant 
Bu Sieur Hubert.— Ceite concession a pour date It 8 de 
Fevricr, 1C.W, ct fut accord^e ru Jjouis de Luukom, Sicur 
de la Citi«re."— AVe Cahier$ dlHtendance, No. 10 a 17, 
folio 63U. 

Oauthibb, river, rises in the lakes of the T. of 
Ahercromby and falls into Riviere du Nord. 

Gayhurbt, a projected township in the cos. of 
Megantic and Sherbrooke, lies between the T. of 
Winslow and the b. Chaudiere and is bounded 
N. E. by the t. of Dorset. The b. b. angle of this 
tract is watered by the b. Eugenie and by another 
B. whose precise course is unknown : both rise in 
the w. angle of Dorset. 

Gentilly, river, rises in Lake St. Louis and 
several other sources in the t. of Blandford. It 
runs w. into the T. of Maddington, where it has 
many branches. Below the saw-mill in Blandford 
it is navigable for canoes and rafts. From Mad- 
dington it runs in a serpentine course through the 
S. of Gentilly from a. to n. and falls into the St. 
Lawrence about a mile N. K. of the church. 

Gentilly, seigniory, in the co. of Nicolet, 
fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded n. e. 
by Livrard ; b. w. by Coumoyer ; in the rear by 
Maddington and Blandford. — 2V 1. in front by 2 
in depth. Granted, Aug. 14th, 1070> to Michel 
Pclletier, Sieur de la Perade, and now the property 
of Messrs. de Lery. — For a great distance the h. 
bank of the St. Lawrence is low, in many places 
but little above the water's level ; it here assumes 
a different character, rising high and steep, wlience 
there is a gradual descent towards the rear. The 
soil in front is a sandy loam and good clay, but 
further back it changes to a strong black mould 
very favourable to agriculture. The first and se- 
cond ranges of concessions near the St. Lawrence, 
and on the river Gentilly, exhibit Judicious ma- 
nagement: the land in cultivation amounts to 
about j of the S.— 4 ranges are conceded, 3 of 

4 := I ' 


<}t9 re .../rs. 

G E N T I L L Y. 

which are in a great degree inhabited : the grantees 
of the 4th labour industriously, each on his re- 
spective farm. The farms in the 1st concession, 
via. those that front the river St. Lawrence, ex- 
tend 40 arpents in depth ; those of the other ranges 
extend to only 30. — There are no roads across the 
non-conceded lands, nor arc they surveyed. The 
seignior lays out a range, and, when all the lands 
or farms of this range are conceded, he lays out 
another, and as soon as possible the grantees apply 
to the grand-voyer to open the necessary roads.— 
The lands conceded before 175!) were granted in 
lots or farms of ^ or ^ league in front, 40 arpents 
in depth, and oftentimes the depth was only li- 
mited by the extent of the seigniory: since that pe- 
riod, an arrangement being made with the grantees, 
such lands have been reduced to 40 or 30 arpents 
in depth, and were charged by the seigniors with 
very moderate rents, which have not been in- 
creased. — The youths are in general desirous of 
making new settlements. The fathers take in con- 
cession as much land as they are able, in order to 
provide for their childrto who settle as near as pos- 
sible to their relatives and friends. There are still 
about 2 ranges of 30 arpents in depth unconceded. 
Among these there are, as in every other part of 
the S., good and bad lands : the latter are generally 
taken by the grantees for wood. — Nothing in this 
S. retards the establishment of new settlements, 
which are increasing fast, and the seignior de- 
mands moderate rent only. — The timber on the 
banks of the Gentilly is of the best kind and qua- 
lity, but that in other parts is only fit for fire- 
wood, and, for that purpose, large quantities are 
cut and rafted down to Quebec. — This property 
is watered by the river Gentilly and two or three 
smaller streams, which work one com and one 

Road from the S. of Genlilli) to the R. Becan- 
rour. This important road has been commenced by 
commissioners chosen for the purpose by the pro- 
vincial assembly, as its general utility to the town- 
ships on the Bi'cancour is most obvious, particu- 
larly to Blandford, Maddington, Bulstrode and 
Stundon, which will thereby be connected with 
the old settlements on the St. Lawrence : it will 
also become in a short time, if it be continued to 
Somerset and Nelson, ptrt of the line of com- 
munication between the St. Lawrence and Craig's 
Road. Notwithstanding the care and attention 
to economy evinced by the superiutendant, the 

commissioners have been unable to make this road 
but in a very imperfect manner, on account of the 
nature of the ground over which the rood passes. 
From the St. Lawrence, as far as the rear of the 
S. of Gentilly, the ground is tolerably favourable 
to the opening and making of a road; but from 
the point last named to the river B6cancour the 
land is for the most part low, wet and difficult to 
drain, unless some labour be spent in clearing and 
opening the rivers and water-courses which cross 
the road. The timber on almost the whole of this 
ground is of large size and consists of cedar, hem- 
lock, ash, larch, &c. — an evident proof of the fer- 
tility of the soil, as well as of the difficulty of 
clearing the road and freeing it from stumps and 
roots, which must nevertheless be taken out before 
the work can be made durable. These difficulties 
inevitably made the performance of the work now 
done on the road tedious and expensive, at the 
same time that they convinced the commissioners 
that when once well made the road in question 
would yield to none in the province in facility of 
repair or in goodness. The commissioners caused 
the part of the road first commenced to be cause- 
wayed and ditched. Perceiving in a short time 
that the funds placed at their disposal were insuf- 
ficient, they thought it their duty to open this 
communication from one end to the other, even in 
an imperfect manner, rather than complete a part 
and leave the remainder unopened. They were, 
however, able to do no more than to cause the 
timber to be cut down, the roots and stumps to be 
taken out, and 18 ft. in the middle of the road to 
be levelled, leaving uncausewayed and without 
ditches a multitude of places which it becomes 
every day more and more difficult to pass with 
safety. The last-mentioned inconvenience has 
been in part diminished by the work done on the 
road by the owners of lands in the t. of Bland- 
ford, by the causeways they have made, and by 
their clearing out the river Gentilly and two of 
the principal water-courses. — Of the sum appro- 
priated (,£-170 currency) there remains in the 
hands of the commissioners £'24. \s.2^d. To pre- 
vent the total loss of the money already expended, 
it would be necessary that a further sum should 
be appropriated for the completion of the work 
already commenced, and for making the necessary 
ditches, bridges, causeways and clearings. Inde- 
pendently of the work which remains to be done 
in order to complete this road to Blandford, it 




would be desirable that the legislature should grant 
to the persons, to whom lands have been conceded 
in the back concessions of the S. of Gentilly, an 
aid to enable them to finish more promptly a road 
which was verbalized in 1828 and in great part 
opened bj them, ill 75 currency would be suf- 
ficient to finish this road together with that to 
Blandford, and thus an easy and uninterrupted 
communication would be established between the 
new settlements on the river Becancour, in the 
townships above mentioned, and the settlements on 
the St. Lawrence from which they are distant 
about 17 miles. 

TUU. — " Concession du Ume AoAt, IG7G, faite par 
Jacquet Ducheneau, Iiitcndant, a Mic/u-l PiUetier, Sieiir 
lie la Perade, de la Scif^neurie de GenlUhi. contenant deux 
lieues et deiiiie de front sur le Heuve St, Laurent, a prendre 
aux terrcs du Sieur Hertel en descendant, et deux lieues 
de profondeur.*— il^^Wre d'lHtendance, Ifo. 2, folio II. 

Gkoroetown, v. Bbauhabnois, S. 


Glaises, aux, river, in the S. of Pointe du 
Lac, falls into Lake St. Peter between the rivers 
St. Charles and aux Loutres. 

GoDBRET, river, in the co. of Saguenay, falls 
into the mouth of the St. Lawrence between Cap 
St. Nicholas and Cap des Monts Peles. 

GoDEFBOi, river, rises in Lake St. Paul, of 
which it is the main outlet into the St. Lawrence. 
Its whole course is short, not above 2 m., and fonns 
the division line between Becancour and Gentilly. 

GoDEFROi, river, rises near the front of the 
S. of Roquetaillade and running n. e. traverses 
Godefroi, and near the n. e. angle of that S. falls 
into the St. Lawrence. 

Godefroi, seigniory, in the co. of Nicolet, is 
bounded n. e. by Becancour and the most n. ex- 
tremity of the T. of Aston ; s. w. by Roquetaillade ; 
in the rear by Aston and its aug., and in front by 
the St. Lawrence. — 1 1, in front by 3 1. in depth. 
Granted, Aug. 31, 1(S38, to Sieur Godefroi and is 
now the property of Etienne Le Blanc, Esq. and 
Slons. Loiseau. — Estimated generally, the land is 
valuable ; in the front, indeed, it is rather light 
and sandy, but it soon loses that character and 
towards the interior improves into a fine black 
mould ; in the rear it lies low and has one or two 
small swamps and, perhaps, as many bruUs: a 
little draining would, in a short time, convert the 
first into fine meadows, and the latter might be as 


easily improved into good arable land. — Wood it 
plentiful, although there is little of first-rate qua- 
lity. — The rivers Ste. Marguerite and Godefroi, 
with many small rivulets, wind through this S. 
and water it completely. — About two-thirds are 
settled and partly in a state of superior cultiva- 
tion, particularly on the road or Chemin du Village, 
as it is called, that goes from Becancour to Nicolet, 
the CAteaux Vuide Poche, Beaus^jour, St. Charles 
and COte du Brule. Between the different ranges 
there are roads leading to the Route de St. Gre- 
goire, which communicates with the main road 
near the ferry across the St. Lawrence. The 
church of St. Gregoire, surrounded by a few well- 
built houses, is situated on the east side of the 
route near the Chemin du Village. The e. 
boundary of Godefroi is supposed to pass down the 
middle of the river Godefroi from Lake St. Paul. 

Title.—" Concession du 31me AnAt, 1G38, faite par 
Charlet Iluol de MontmagH;/, au Sieur Godefroi, de trois 
quarts de lieues de terre le luni; du ileuve St. Laurent, sur 
trois lieues de profondeur "lans les terres; et sunt les dites 
terres bomees du c6t^ di Sud-ouest d'unc ligne <jui court 
Sud-est et Nord-ouest, au liuut de laquelle, du oHe du 
Nord, a tti enfuuie une grosse uierre avec des briquetons 
aupr£s d'un sicomore, sur luquelle une rroix a iti gravre, 
le tout pour scrvir de marque et trmoignage, ct du coti 
du Nord-est de la riviere nommre la riviere du Lac St. Paul, 
sans ntenmoins que le dit Godefroi puisse lien pritendre 
en la propri^ti du tout ou de purtie de la ditc nvitire, et 
icelle y etant, ni du Lac St. Paul, encore bicn que la ditc 
liunc s'y rencontrasse."— CaAlfr d'lHtendance, Xo. 2 d 9, 
fulio Id], 

G0DMANCUE8TEB, township, in the co. of Beau- 
hamois, on the s. side of Lake St. Francis, is 
bounded in the rear by the a. Chateauguay, that 
separates it from Hinchinbrook ; by a small part of 
the province line that divides the British from the 
American dominions, and by the Indian lands.— 
This T., in situation, climate, local advantages, 
soil and timber may be considered as one of the 
most valuable tracts in Lower Canada. It is 
14^ m. in front by an average depth of 7 miles, 
and is divided into six ranges, each being sub- 
divided into 61 lots, averaging 107 chains in 
depth by 19 chains in breadth, and a space, one 
chain wide, is left between the ranges for a road. 
This T. is watered by l. St. Francis, Dead Creek 
and the rivers Chateauguay and u la Guerre. The 
generality of the lands on the borders of the lake 
are low, but the soil is good and in many partN 
aflfords excellent meadows. Most of the lands 
along the river Chateauguay may also be said tu 




be low and of a good quality. Towards the in- 
terior the country throughout ascends and forms 
large swells of hard timbered land, traversing the 
township nearly in a parallel direction with the 
front and intermixed with tamarack and alder 
swamps, which are more extensive in the e. part. 
The soil generally is a yellow loam mixed with 
various sorts of sand, clay and marl and in some 
places stony. The timber is chiefly beech, birch, 
maple, ash, elm, some pine and the remains of 
oak: the swamps are principally timbered with 
tamarack, cedar and spruce. — This t. was sur- 
veyed in 1788, when the greater part was allotted 
and located to the Canadian corps employed in the 
first American war ; since which the greater part 
has been granted, under patent, to sundry in- 
dividuals who had purchased these lands of the 
original locatees. — The settlements in this town- 
ship may be divided into parts, viz. the first, em- 
bracing the whole front of the township, extends 
along the lake, and is chiefly settled by Canadians, 
among whom are intermixed a few more recent 
settlers, principally Scotch emigrants ; the second 
part, called the Irish Emigrant Settlement, is 
more immediately towards the centre of the 
township, w. of the Riviere ^ la Guerre and the 
road traversing to the Chat^auguay — they occupy 
lots in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th ranges; the third 
settlement is that which extends along the banks 
of the Chateauguay, composed of American and 
Scotch emigrants. Many of the American settlers 
along the river have settled without authority 
since the last war. The fourth and last settlement 
consists of the lands of Edward Ellice, Esq. M. P. 
and are chiefly occupied by Americans. In various 
parts of the t. a few persons hold permits of 
occupation, but the majority have settled with- 
out leave or any sort of authority whatever, — The 
Canadian settlements along the borders of the lake 
have improved since 1820, but in no degree pro- 
portionate to those of tlie Americans and emi- 
grants who have settled since that period. It ap- 

pears obvious, that, before that time, the old Ca- 
nadian settlers chiefly depended for their support 
upon the resources of fishing, hunting and the 
cutting and rafting of timber ; the last resource 
has been carried on extensively for many yeort, 
and in consequence timber of a large lire, prin- 
cipally oak and pine, has become rather scarce 
in the vicinity of the lakes, rivers and creeks. 
The road which extends along the borders of 
the lake is in many parts very indifferent. — Mr. 
Wm. Hall, of Quebec, purchased 700 acres in 
this T. for £120, and the whole has been settled 
without his permission. The lots in the first 
range (all of which border upon the Lake St. 
Francis) are, by means of the windings of the 
shore and the headlands and points which pro- 
ject into the lake, considerably augmented in their 
length, and their superficial contents are much 
beyond the portion of 100 acres assigned by go- 
vernment. Although the quantity of land in this 
T. actually under improvement is very limited, 
but a small number of the lots remain ungranted, 
unoccupied or unclaimed. — The Village of God- 
manchester is at the second fork of the R. k la 
Guerre and is built on government land : it con- 
tains 82 persons in 16 families, who are traders, 
mechanics or labourers. — The rapidly increasing 
population and importance of this t., the general 
fertility of the soil and its favourable situation 
between the St. Lawrence and the province 
boundary line, render it extremely probable that 
in a few years it may become the channel and 
centre of an extensive commercial intercourse with 
the inhabitants of the United States. 

The following statistical tables give an interest- 
ing view of the progressive adrnncement of the 
settlements in this township. — In 1828 there 
were 240 families, viz. 71 Irish, 69 Scotch, 60 
Canadian, 30 American, 7 English, 3 German, 
making a population of 1413; and the land im- 
proved was 2503 acres. 





2298^ 2036} 







Lire .Stork. 









G O U 

O O U 

Population 1,340 

Corn-mill* . 1 

Saw-milli . 5 

PotMberies . 3 


Uistilleries . 





Annual Agricnllitral Product. 

BiuhcU. I Biuhtb. 

PcM . (i,dUO I Indian com 3,1100 
Rye . 6,000 M. sugar, cwtx. 13 
Buck wheat 1,000 Max, cwt*. 160 

Wheat . 10;830 
Oats . (>,200 
Barley . 1,000 
Potatoes 33,700 

G088ELIN, river. The RuiMeau GosBelin rises 
in the rear part of the S. of Oasp£, in the co. of 
Lotbini^re, and running into the S. of Lauzon is 
joined by the Riviere Noire and falls into the r. 

GouFFRE, Du, or St. Paul's Bay River, in the 
CO. of Saguenay, rises partly in several streams 
running s. from the rocky hills called Mont des 
Roches and partly from others that run n. from 
the centre of the t. of Settrington. These streams 
unite in the waste lands n. of Settrington and 
form the Gouffre, which winding s. divides the p. 
of St. Urbain, in Cote de Beauprc, from Racour- 
cie, and descending towards the St. Lawrence 
receives the waters of several rivers, particularly 
from the n. w., and enters that R. nearly oppositp 
Isle aux Coudres. This river may be considered 
ns one continued rapid, though of moderate vio- 
lence : the only obstacles to its free navigation 
arise from an accumulation of boulders in several 
parts of its channel, over which it is difficult for a 
canoe to pass without striking. It is in most 
places shallow, but its shallowest places might be 
easily rendered navigable, and without doubt for 
bateaux by removing only such of the boulders as 
are most in the way of the channel. To drown 
these boulders would not be easy and would occa- 
sion a great loss of excellent land, unless ex- 
pensive banks were formed to retain the waters. 
This river is surprisingly circuitous, considering 
the rapidity of its current, and is perhaps one-third 
longer than the road between St. Urbain's parish 
and the bay. Although the R. is not easily 
ascended, being full of rapids, the excellent road 
on its right bank renders this inconvenience lighter. 
— In the parish of St. Urbain and in Racourcie, 
on both banks of the river, are mines of ore ex- 
tending from 100 yards to 2 miles ; the ore is of 
that excellent quality called by mineralogists mag- 
netic oxide of iron and by miners rock ore. There 
is also bog ore in the low grounds adjacent to this 
R., in the beautiful valley through which it cir- 

cuitously takes its course. The valley commences 
in the parish of St. Urbain and continues 6 or 7 
leagues to the St. Lawrence, and is perhaps half 
a league wide. There is also a cross valley on 
the left bank of the B., which is said to communi- 
cate with the volley of the Molbay river. These 
valleys are exposed to injurious frosts on account 
of the north winds that rush down them early 
in the fall. — It appears that the river is rapidly 
gaining on the w. bank and receding from the 
eastern, owing to the alluvial section that the 
former presents in many places, while the latter 
forms in general a gradual slope to the foot 
of the mountains, which on the eastern side is 
much nearer the river than on the western. The 
spring torrents rush with such impetuosity as to 
tear away a portion of the feeble borricr op- 
posed to them, particularly at the sudden bends of 
the river where their effect is greatest. These 
torrents by undermining the bank soon make it 
top-heavy, and the superincumbent mass falling is 
gradually removed to the bay, where a species of 
delta is forming. The height of the Iranks on 
each side of this r. varies from 1 to 50 ft., and 
near its entrance into the boy one small limestone 
rock lifts its head above water in mid-channel. 
The sandy nature of the soil at the mouth opposes 
little resistance to the action of the current, which 
when strongest steals upon the shore contiguous, 
leaving a proportionable space dry on the opposite 
side, and in this way one proprietor of lands finds 
himself possessed of the property of his neigh- 
bour. When property in this place becomes more 
valuable, and this natural encroachment more 
aggravated, it will probably become a subject of 
litigation. The estuary of this river, with the 
exception of its bed, is almost dry at low water, 
but it affords a convenient strand for river-craft 
and boats. 

Gouffre, du, river. Brag du Nord-nuest, in the 
S. of Cdte de Beaupr^, rises in a lake in the p. of 
La Petite Riviere and takes a n. k. course until 
it reaches the concession St. Gabriel, when it turns 
to the 8. E. and soon enters the R. du Gouffre, 
about 1 m. above the ferry that lies near the mouth 
of that R. 

Gouffre, le, seigniory, in the co. of Saguenay, 
fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded w. by the 
r. du Gouffre; k. by the 8. of Les Eboulemens, 
and in the rear by waste crown lands. — It is about 
^ 1. in front by 4 1. in depth along the r. du 



' I 



O R A 

Goufiie. Granted, Dec. 90lh, 1682, to Pierre 
Dupr^l and ii now the propertj of Madame Dra« 
peau. — This 8., on the k. tide of the river, is 
nearly the counterpart of the opposite settlement in 
C6te du Beaupr^, possessing almost the same kind 
of soil and cultivated in a similar manner. — The 
capes Ckirbeau and LaBaie, projecting into the St. 
Lawrence, are of great height and rise abruptly 
from the water's edge : they are connected with 
the chain of mountains that ranges along the r. 
du GouiTre far into the interior; diverging at tint 
a short distance from it, leaving an intermediate 
tract of good land, but afterwards drawing quite 
close upon its bank.— The first concession, border- 
ing upon St. Paul's Bay and coasting the river, 
shows a range of settlements where agriculture 
has obtained no small degree of improvement : 
some trifling degree of amelioration has also been 
obtained in the rear of this range. From the 
capes, that form the exterior points of the bay on 
either side, the ridges of high lands describe a cir- 
cuit before they close upon the river: their lofty 
and craggy summits form a grand amphitheatric 
back-ground to the picturesque and highly ro- 
mantic situation generally known as the St. Paul's 
Bay Settlement. — There are several routes or 
concession roods that lead into the interior to the 
concessions of St. Ours, St. Croix and the village 
of St. George. 

Title.—" ConcesMon du aOme Dfeembre, 1C88, fute 
par Lefebre de la Barre, Oouverneur, et De MeuUet, In- 
tendant, h Pierre Dupti., d'une demie lieue de terre de 
front surquatre lieiies de profondeur, joignaiit douze arpens 
de terre qui sont .depiiis la borne dc .Uuiwcigiieur I'Ev^que 
de Qitihcc, en descendant vers le cap aux Oiei; le tout 
concMe a litre de tief et Seigneurie, avec le droit de 
chasse et de |.eube ; pour la dite concession et les douse 
arpens plus haut mentionn^s (4 lui concM<s par Mr. ile 
FroMtenac) ur faire qii'une seule et meme Seigneurie."— 
iHsinuiition- du ConieU SMpirieur, Lcttre B. folio 10. 

GouMsiiTZ, river, rises in the s. angle of the co. 
of Bonaventure and runs into the R. Ristigouche 
between the rivers Ooduamgoushout and Pscudy. 

Grais la (Fulls), v. St. Maurick, r. 

GuAisBE, u la, river, in the seigniories of Vau- 
dreuil and Soulunge, traverses C6te St. Louis and 
uppeurs to connect the waters s. of Isle Perrot with 
those N. of Grande Isle. 

Granbv, township, in the co of ShefTord, is 
bounded n. e. by Milton ; E. by ShefTord ; s. w. by 
Famhum and N. by the S. of St. Hyacinthe. — The 
land is generally of a useful quality, principally 
composed of a bla< ' ish loam, over which, in some 
places, there is ti layer of fine vegetable mould. 

O R A 

from which good crops of wheat and other grain 
might reasonably be expected; many parts are 
particularly eligible for the growth of hemp and 
some for flax. The timber consists of beech, elm, 
butternut, maple, pine and a little oak. The parts 
laid out were granted in 1785 to officers and pri- 
vates of the British militia, who served during the 
blockade of Quebec in 177fi-8- — Watered by vari- 
ous streams running into the N. w. and a. branches 
of the B. Yamaska. 

Grand Calitiibt (I.), v. Ottawa, ■. i 

Gbandb Couobr (r.), v. Coudeb. 

Gbandb Dbcbabob, v. Saocbnay, b. 

Gbandk Grevb, v. Gaspb Bay. 

Grandfond, du, river, runs w. into the b. Sa- 
guenay above Chicoutimi. 

Grande Isle lies between l. St. Louis and L. 
St. Francis and fronts Catherine's Town and part 
of Helen's Town in the 8. of Beauhamois. — It is 
4^ m. long by nearly 1^ m. broad. On the s. side 
a redoubt was thrown up and a road made across 
the isle to communicate with Cuteau du Lac, in 
the S of New Longueuil, by Col. de Lotbiniere 
in 1813. This isle, with 2 or 3 smaller ones ad- 
joining, are appendages to Beauhamois. The 
Grande Isle divides the stream of the St. Law- 
rence into 2 channels ; that on the a. side is called 
the Beauhamois Channel, in the course of which 
are the rapids Croche, Les Faucilles and De Bou- 
lean, the latter both intricate and dangerous to 

Grand Lac, v. Lac St. Joachim. 

Grande Mere (Falls), v. St. Maurice, r. 

Grand Pabob, seigniory, in the co. of Gaspe, 
extends along the entrance of the Bay of Choleurs 
2^ leagues e of the river of Grand Pabos, and 
half a league w. of it towards the river of Little 
Pabos. — Granted to Sleur Rene Hubert, Nov. 14, 
1696.— On the w. side of the bay is the little v. 
of Pabos and on the opposite side on an eminence 
are what the fishermen generally call their sum- 
mer-houses. Many currents of water descend into 
this bay from a chain of numerous small lakes on 
the 8. w. 

Population . . iO \ Keel-boats . . 5 

AimHtil Atfriciiltural Produce. 



500 1 Indian com . 

live Stock. 



2 Cows 
8 Sheep 


O R A 

TitU.^" ConeeMion du Ume Novcmbre, 1606, fiiite par 
LohIm He Buade, Oourerneur, ct Jeam Bochart, Intendant, 
wi Sicur Hint Hiiitfl, •\e la rivitra du Grand Pahoi, autre, 
nent dite la riviere DuimI, aitiite dan* la Bale dei C'ukur; 
avec deux lieues et demie iv front du c6t^ de I'Eat de la 
dite rivi^ie, et demi licue du cui^ d« TOuect, en tirant Tera 
la riviire du Petit Patnu, icelle compri*'' 'ur ixtreille pro. 
fondeur."— Urf^lre iflHleaiance, IVo. b,J'Mii X 

..OsANDPEK i>r Madrid, lelKniory, in the co.' 
of St. Maurice, i» w the n. side of Lak« Bt. Peter, 
between the Aug. to Kivirre du Loup and the HH, 
of Orotbois and Dumontier.— One league in front 
by 3 in depth. Granted, July 30, 1695, to Pierre 
Boucher, Sieur de Oraadpre and now belongs to 
the Hon. Louid Ougy. — This seigniory is singu- 
larly overlaid by that of Rivi^ du Loup, which, 
from being a prior concession and the term of the 
grant expressing half a league on each side of the 
river, leaves but a small irregular frontage on the 
lake for Grandpr^. This tract, in soil and tim- 
ber, strongly resembles that of Riviere du Loup, 
but it is by no means so well settled; there is, 
however, every probability of its becoming, in a 
few years, an estate of considerable value. 

Title—" Concession du 30nie Juiilet, 1695, faite par 
Louit de Buade, Oouvemeur, et JtuH Bocliari, Intendant, 
i Pierre Boucher, Sieur de Grandpri, d'une licue de terre 
de front dans le Lac St. Pierre, tenant d'un c6tr aux terres 
concM^es de la riviire Yamachiche, et de I'autre k celles 
de la Riviere du Loup; ensemble lea isles, islets et battures 
adjacentes."— AiJlg'Mrc d'Intcndance, No. it, folio 18. 

Grande Riviere or Quiadksquaok, rises 
near the Portage of Wagansis and the extreme 
point of the co. of Bonaventure, near the first 
waters of the Ristigouche ; it runs 8. w. into the 
B. St. John about 5 m. above the Great Falls. This 
river would be navigable for canoes if cleared of 
trees. The greatest part of its borders is covered 
with maple, building wood and mixed wood. The 
land through which it runs appears fit for culture, 
for its whole course, 8 leagues, is through good 
land, and the people on the Madawaska settle* 
ment have commenced other settlements near the 
mouth of this r. which promise well. The navi- 
gation is in many places obstructed by jambs of 
drift-wood, torn away by the floods in the spring 
which form dams across the R. and which, gradually 
filling up with soil, sometimes divert the course of 
the river into new channels. 

Grande Riviere, seigniory, in the co. of 
Gaspe, lies in the Bay of Chaleurs and extends 
1^ 1. in front by 2 1. in depth. It is between the 
S. of Grand Pabos and Cap D'Espoir towards Isle 


O R A 

118 I Kcrl-boals 




Aanuat Agricaltural Produce. 
Biulwta. I Buihtli. I ■wkeh. 

IM I Potatoea lt,m) \ Iiulian com (iH 

Uv* Stock. 
8 1 Cows . SSiSwine . Oa 

. Xi I Sheep . 101 I 

TUk.—" Conces«ion du SloM* Mai, 1697, faite par 
l.oiiii de Buade, Gouverneur, et Jean BiKharl, Intendant, 
au Sii'iir Jaci/net Cochu, de la Grande RivUrr, silute dans 
la Bale det Chalfiiri, avec une lieue et demie de terre de 
front sur deux lieues de profondcur, a prendre de|Miis la 
Seigneurie du Grand Pabot, appartenant au Siviir Hfn^ 
Hubert, en tirant du cult du Cap Ktpolr, vers I'isle Perctt." 
— Regittre d'Jntendance, Ko. b,fiilio lH. 

Grand Ruisbeau rises near the s. w. boundary 
line of Lauzon, and running N. e. falls into the 
R. Chaudi^re about 2 m. from its mouth. 

Grand Ruisbeau, river, rises in two small 
streams in the S. of Riviere Quelle. These little 
streams, at whose confluence and between the forks 
are some settlements, unite near the boundary line 
of Ste. Anne, and in that S. run a short course 
into the St. Lawrence. 

Grande Vallee des Montb, seigniory, in the 
CO. of Gasp^, lies between Anse de I'Etang and 
Magdalen, on the a. side of the St. Lawrence. — 
2 1. in front and 3 I. in depth. Granted to Sieur 
Francois Hazaeur, Mar. 23, 1691 . — It is 2 1. from 
the R. Magdelaine and 4 1. from L'Etang. — A 
river of the same name divides this S. into two 
nearly equal parts. — This S. also includes the isles 
and islets in front and in the R. Grande Vallee 
des Monts. 

Title — " Concession du 23me Mars, I69I, faite par 
Louit de Buade, Gouverneur, et Jean Bochart, Intendant, 
au Sieur Franfoit Hazxeur, d'une itrndue de terre de deux 
lieues de front, au lieu appclr la Grande I'allie dei Montt 
Notre Dame, dans le tieuve St. Laurent, du rot^ du Sud, 
i deux lieues de la riviere Magdebtine, et quatre lieues de 
VEtang, en descendant vers Gaipi, avec la riviere qui sv 
rencontre i la dite Valtie drt Montt, <|ni sere dans le 
milieu des dites deux lieues de front sur truis lieues de 
profondeur dans les terres, avec les isles et islets cjui pour- 
ront se trouvcr sur la devanture des dites deux lieues, et 
dans la dite riviire sur la profondeur des dites trois lieues. " 
— RigiHrc d'lntendauce, No. i,Jblio 3. 

Grand Village, v. Lauzon, S. 

Granovillk, seigniory, in the co. of Kamou- 
raska, is bounded n. k. by the S. of Islet du 
Portage ; a. w. by the S. of Kamouraska; in front 
by the St. Lawrence ; in the rear by the unsur- 
veyed t. of Bungay. — | league in breadth by 4 
1. in depth. Granted, Oct. 5, 1707, to Marie 
Anne de GrandviUe, widow of Sieur de Soulange. 



! ll 


' 's'^^^ft^K ' 

' • I 

I .!p 

1 4%t 

O R A 

O R A 


'\ V 


One half now belongs to Mr. Toche and the other 
half to Mr. Joseph Fnuer. — 4 ranges are con- 
ceded and subdivided into 126 lots or farms. One 
quarter of the S. is unfit for agricultural purposes. 
The parts under cultivation are, all the two front 
concessions, three-fourths of the 3rd and the front 
road of the 4th. — In this S. are pineries. 

Tillr — " Concroiiion du 5mc Octobre, 1707, fiiite i 
Dainu AfarU Anne dc GrimdvilU, veuve du Sieur de Soii- 
langf, d'une lieuc ou environ dc front »ur In fluuvc St. 
iMurenl, 4 comnieiicer joigUHnt le Sicur dc Foitlon, dont 
la cunve88iun cumnicnce a deux lieues audessus de la 
rivii)rc de Kamouratka et fiiiit unc licue audcHsoiis, et en 
descendant au Nord-est, joixnant son aiicienne concession, 
Hvec les isles et islets, bancs et battures qui se trouveront 
vis.a-vis ici'lUV luquvlle sera incorporre ct jointo avcc la 
ditc iinciennc coni-cssion, pour desdeux n'en I'aire f|u'une." 
—Rigiiire det Foi el llommnge. No. 107, fiilio 107, 2me 
.Inul, 1781. Cu/tkrs d'lHlaiduHce, 10 d 17,/)/iu jSk 

GiiANUViLLE and Lachknayb, seigniory, in 
the CO. of Kamouruska, fronts the St. Lawrence : 
it is bounded s. w. by Islet du Portage and the 
unsurveycd lands of Bungay ; n. e. by the S. of 
Terrebois ; in the rear by the i. of Bunguy and 
waste lands. — 2 leagues in breadth by 3 in depth. 
Granted, June 2nd, l(il)0, to Sieur dc Grundville 
and de la Lachcnaye. — There are isome very fer- 
tile patches of land ; a small portion of the 8. 
is cultivated, but it is not at present in a very 
Huurislniig condition. Tiie best farms are near 
the main road that passes close to the river. — 
Timber is sufiiciently plentiful and some is of the 
best kinds. — This S. is but sparingly watered by 
a few small streams that descend into the St. 
Lawrence, and possesses nothing worth notice: 
there are indeed ranges of concessions marked out 
which bear the names of St. Andre, Bouchette- 
villc, Marie Louise Adelaide, Ste. llachel and 
St. Theo<lorc : of these St. Andre only is in a 
good condition ; in the others tl-.e ground has 
scarcely Iwcn l)rokcn. A curn-mill is seated on 
the llivitre des Caps at its jimclion with the 
little stream called Fouquet. — The Parish of St. 
Andre comprises, Ix-sides this S., the S.S. of Islet 
du Portage and (trandville. In this parish is a 
eonsideralile extent of land unconceded, although 
it is very lit for cultivation ; there is no road 
across fluse lands and but few have Ixjcn even 
laid out. It does not np]>ear that any of the con- 
cessions were grunted previously to I'Jit'i); it is 
ditheult to discover why some farms extend •!() 
arpents in depth while others extend to DO only, 
and why 40 sols were at lirst exacted per ariH'Ut 
and tliu rent afterward'' increased with the addi- 

tion, in many instances, of a sugar rent, sugar 
being very often the only return made from the 
new lands. A considerable number of persons are 
both willing and able to make new settlements ; 
and a great number of farms remain unoccupied 
in the neighbourhood, some of which are of very 
good quality. The principal obstacle that retards 
the settlement of these lands is the want of roads 
across them. The church is seen to emerge very 
prettily behind two or three hills, and, combined 
with the Pilgrim isles to the northward, forms 
an interesting subject for a sketch. Mr. Marquis, 
a very respectable landholder at this place, is the 
first who has yet tried the use of embankment of 
low land in this province to prevent its being in- 
undated; he has found the principle to answer 
perfectly, and means to extend his labours to other 
inundated parts of his estate. Two leagues be- 
low St. Andre is the entrance to the Temiscouata 
Portage, and alx)tit 14 acres west of it stands a 
comfortable inn kept by Madame Pirron. 

Statistics of the Parish of' St. Andre. 

Population ino.'i 
riiiirrlios, R. C. I 
Currs . . 1 
I'resbyforics 1 

Corn-mills . 




Annual AgriiuUiirul Prndiicc. 





, ll,.'i7l 

llutheli. I Buihcli. 

Potatoes •i7,m) fiidian corn 5»,000 
Peas . (MN)! Maple su);ar, 
Hyc . 300 1 cwts. 134 

Live .Slock: 

KiOr Covv« 
230 1 Sheep 

920 1 Swine 


Tilt::—" Concession du iinu- Jiiin, IfiOO, faite piir I.nuU 
lie lluiidc Coiiite do I'nmlrtmc, (iouvcriicur, et Jnin 
lliuliiirt, Iiiteliilant, au Sieur ile (Irundvlllc ct dc /<i Im- 
iliena'u; dc deux lieiu's dc tcrrc <lc front, sur trois licucs 
dc profondcur cii licux iioii-conccdrs, joinnaiit d'liii ciitc 
111 tcrrc dii dit Sicur de Grdiidtitlr noninii'c I'islct du I'ort- 
iifTt: ct dc I'uutrc la Scit;ucuric dc TirriMt, uppartinante 
lui dit Sicur i/r l.iilirnu'u: rcpn'-iciitHiit Duuliri: hitiifcs U"» 
diti's coMct ssious sur Ic ticuvc St. I.intriiil, du ciitr du Sud, 
miilcsnus (Ic la riviirc du /.nw/i." — Hi'ghlrc d'liiliiidanir, 

\o. :>,j\ii'H> I. 

GiiANTii AM, township, in the co. of Drummond, 
fnmfs the w. side of the n. St. Francis : it is 
Ixiuiuled H. by Wiekham ; n. and w. by I'pton. 
On the St. Franci-i the gniimd is high and broken 
by several deep ruvines. — Much iron ore is found 
in the neifjliliourhooil. — Larfje extents pnKliice line 
luxuriant iialiirul (, wliiih, after eonn'nj; to ma- 
turity, dries upon the gn)und and is little interior 


to good meadow hay. — The prindpal pioprieton 
are the hein of the original grantee, the late 
William Grant, Esq. About one half of the 
clergy rewrvea are leased and have been rapidly 
improving since the terms have been rendered 
more favourable. The front ranges are the most 
settled, some as far as the Uth range. The chief 
proprietors in the township of Grantham are the 
Hon. John Richardson of Montreal, Lieut.-Col. 
Heriot of Drummondville, Major Ployart, Capt. 
Steigar and the heirs of the late Col. De Cham- 
bault. Mr. Richui-dson has about 30 Canadian fa- 
milies improving land for themselves which they 
have purchased from him at Cts. per acre upon 
credit. Col. Heriot has built a large house, round 
which he has cleared about 20() acres of lund. A 
corn and saw-mill are now in operation, and a 
stone corn-mill is erected at the Drummondville 
Falls. That gentleman has likewise several lots of 
land with clearings which arc cultivated by others 
on shares, i. e., he receiving one half of the produce 
in lieu of rent. There are two bridges of note 
in this T.; the Prevost Bridge over the Prevost 
river near its mouth, on the high road from 
Three Rivers, where Col. Heriot has mMls ; and 
Richardson Bridge, two miles ubovc, upon the 
Yania.sku road lending to S^trcl. — The average 
produce per acre is from 16 to 2() bushels of wheat, 
and every kind of gniin is raised. The cattle is 
of the American breed, and good breeds of sheep 
and swine have been introduced by Col. Heriot. 
The price of agricultural lalwur is, with board, 
.i2 u month during harvest and 'Mh. at other 
times ; young men <i,'12 per aimum. — The post- 
road pusses through this r. and Wickham, and the 
ninil goes tlirougli once ii week from Quebec to 
Rustou. There is also a road from Drummondville 
to Sorel and to Lung Point in the adjoining t. of 
Wifkhani. The provincial legislature has ex- 
]icnilt'(l i'2(H) in making a road from Drummond- 
ville ferry to the upper lino of Wick hum, joining 
Durlmm, KiJ m , wliicli, when completed, will 
lie the liest cotnnumiciition from tlie eastern town- 
.ships to iSoril and Alontreul : iiii additional ex- 
penditure of .i'7(M> will lie rc<|iiisite to complete 
the roud in a ninnner which will enalile the biu'k 
settlers, who are |KM)r and few In number, to keep 
it in rcpuir. The coninii.sNioncr hai cleared the 
road of trees, undcrwiHNl and windfalls aJMUt Mi 
feet wide, and has in geiicnd t'cllcd all the leaning 
trees and most of the dry trees close to the road: 

he has erected two large bridge! and MTenl smaller 
with squared timber coverings ; he has also made 
several new causeways and repaired the old, cover- 
ing thei.i with earth although not deep enough : 
he has also made several ditches on each side of 
the road in the wettest places, and has cleared of 
stumps and roots about one-third of the breadth. 
The face of the country through which tlie road 
passes is, in general, flat and sandy, very tit for a 
road but not for cultivation, except a few lots on 
the last 2 m., where the land becomes good and is 
settled. The continuation of the rood through 
Durham, Melbtmmc and the townshiits on the 
side of the St. Francis to the province line, is 
well settled and traverses good land, capable of 
maintaining an immense population. — The road 
from Drummondville to the 8. of Deguir has also 
experienced the enlightened liberality of the pro- 
vincial legislature. The sum of i;!90(> has been 
voted towards its improvement and 1827 Uio. 3</. 
expended : the additional sum of £'l*iO will be 
rei]uired to finish it. As the public utility and 
convenience of this n>ad are unquestionable, no 
doubt can be entertained rtf the liberality of the 
provincial assembly, more esiiecially as without 
this additional grant the money exiiended will be 
entirely lost. Had the stiil over which thi:< rouil 
runs been any other than whut it is, the sum 
voted for the puqMKie would have been suflicient ; 
but the country being very low and flat, and the 
soil u deep black earth intersected by many swamps 
of greater or less extent, the waters having nu 
outlet spreiul over a great part of it and the 
ground adjacent, which created a vast deal of 
additional ex[H-nse and labour. The road being at 
first made only 'X\ ft. wide was liable to be blocked 
up by trees blown aiTuss it, whenever the wind 
was high, as well as to other accidents; it has 
therefore been ojM'ned throughout its whole length 
to the breadth of from lIMt to 110 feet, leaving 
ttbtmt a(> feet clear of every obstacle that might 
impede the traveller. A bridge across the river 
Prevost, which crosses the road near the village 
of Drummondville, has been built in a more hiiIi- 
stuntial manner with the heaviest uiul most diintlile 
wo(hI of the neigblxiurhiHHl : it cimt .i'4.'t IH.v. Tlie 
length of the road is Hi\ miles. I'ntil this roud 
is completed, the inhabitants of Drumnnrndville 
are obliged to transport their pnKluce ti> Mi>rel 
cither by the n. .St. Francis or by the present cir- 
cuitous route, a distance of no less than 17 I-a 


* 'i 


'. i 





G R A 

while Drummondville ii only 9 1. distant from 
Sorel in a straight line and across a fine level 
country, most suitable for a road, having no hills 
and but one river to impede the progress of any 
carriage, while the present mode of conveyance is 
attended with innumerable inconveniences &om 
the unevenness of the road, ferries, &c. if the 
goods are sent by land, and by many rapids, 
portages, &c. if conveyed by water, together with 
the great distance of the journey, which consi- 
derably increases the expenses of transportation. 
— The Parish of Drummondvilk extends over the 
township of Wickham as well as Grantham and 
contains two churches, both situated in the village 
of Drummondville : one is attended by members 
of the Church of England and the other by Roman 
Catholics. The village is on the R. St. Francis 
and was built under the direction of Lieut.-Col. 
Heriot, C. B. for the accommodation of disbanded 
veterans. It was destroyed by fire June 22, 1826. 
Its chief trade is in grain and pot and pearl ashes ; 
it carries on an extensive traific with Sorel as well 
as with the neighbouriug townships and those more 
in the interior to the south. It contains 2 schools, 
one public and the other private, in each of which 
20 scholars are instructed. The settlement of 
Drummondville was commenced in 1816, during 
the administration of Sir George Drummond. It 
is particularly indebted to Col. Heriot, member 
of the provincial parliament for the co. of Drum- 
mond, for its original establishment and progressive 
advancement. That gentleman has been at con- 
siderable expense in building several com and saw- 
mills : his house and establishment, erected on an 
eminence at the n. w. extremity of the village, 
add materially to the beauty of the scenery when 
viewed from the opposite bank of the St. Francis. 
— Vngranted and unlocaled, 13,315 acres. 

Statistics of the Parish of Drummondville. 

Po|iiilnti()n 380 
Cliiinlies, RC, « 
Cur^a . I 

Schools . )i 
N'illiiges , I 

Corn-millg , 
Siiw-inilU . 

Potaihcries . 







Annual Agricultural Produce, 








Potatoes j,j(H) 
i'eas . JIO 

Rye . «X) 

Indian corn 6()0 

the Slock. 

175: Cows 
•iV) I Sheep 

.3101 S^Wne 




Obbbn Island, v. Isls Vertk, S. 
Gbbkn Point, v. Odiatobouan, b. 
Gbbbn Rivbb discharges into the B. St. John, 
6 leagues below the church in the settlements of 

Grekn Rivbb or Quahqubrticook, in the 
CO. of Rimouski, rises n. e. of Middle Lake, and, 
running a. through the country, receives the 
waters of several smaller streams; it passes w. of 
the Quamquerticook mountains and joins the B. 
St. John about 3 m. below the church belonging 
to the Madawaska settlements. 

Orbnvillb, township, in the co. oS Two 
Mountains, with its augmentation, is bounded in 
front by the Ottawa; e. by Chatham; in the 
rear by the waste lands of the crown and by 
La Petite Nation. It possesses many local ad- 
vantages besides the Military Cannl. The front 
was surveyed and subdivided in 1788, in 1807 
the a. E. section was laid out and subdivided, 
and in 1821 and 2 the survey was extended to 
the 7th range. The lands thus surveyed are not 
of a very favourable description, being bold, abrupt 
and mountainous, in many parts divested of soil 
yet offering at the foot of frequent mountains 
rich, fertile and in some places extensive intervals, 
composed of a siliceous earth very fit for cultiva- 
tion. The hills and cliffs are chiefly of a condensed 
granite of various colours. The most conspicuous 
ridge of highlands rises not far from the St. Law- 
rence at the B. w, angle of the T., and, extending 
n. e., traverses it obliquely as far as the 6th range, 
where it enters Chatham. The meadow-land, which 
lies at the base of these hills in the front, is over- 
flowed in the spring of the year by the Ottawa, 
from lot No. 8 to the w. line of the t. This part 
and the remainder, comprehended between those 
highlands and the St. Lawrence, form a trian- 
gular ^ace of fine level and well irrigated soil, 
which was at the time of making the old grants 
considered by the grantees as the only cul- 
turable section of the t. Proceeding northward, 
from the Orenvillc heights to the 7th range, the 
face of the country presents only a succession of 
ascents and descents, abrupt hills and stupendous 
mountains, interspersed, nevertheless, with rich 
vales whose fertility is almost an adequate com- 
pensation for the many sterile and unarable parts 
of the T. On the banks of the Calumet lime- 
stone of a superior species is to be found in 
abundance, also stone of various colours with 


/>?-1>'- ,1 


n ?r n 

which mantdiMcei have been made ; and in Na 
10 at the 5th range a biack4ead mine if worked. 
The surface of thii t. ii in general mountainoiu 
with manf imall valleyi of excellent soil, and 
some of the hills afford good land for tillage. The 
soil varies from the richest clay loam to the poorest 
fox-land, and in many places would produce hemp 
and flax. The mountains in the t. are more pro> 
minent about the centre, drawing towards River 
Rouge, but in the aug. they prevail moat on the 
B. side towards the b. of Petite Nation, rising to 
great heights in cliffs and broken surface, ap- 
proaching a great lake in the 10th range, then 
stretching s. crossing the line to the a. Rouge. 
An extensive valley embraces the r. part of the 
augmentation firom about the 4th range, and 
spreading along the Denver Meadow Creek from 
the R. Rouge on the e., and embracing variously 
from No. 1 to 3 in the augmentation until it 
reaches the base of the mountains in the 9th 
range, still bounded by the R. Rouge, from which 
there is an easy and gradual ascent, generally, 
throughout the whole extent. The soil in that 
valley is chiefly argillaceous, sometimes becoming a 
surface of strong yellow loom mixed occasionally 
with a siliceous rock, timbered with elm, maple, 
birch, tamarack, some cedar and ash, pine and 
hemlock, and is particularly watered by large 
rivers and their tributary waters flowing to the 
Rouge. The numerous valleys, particularly the 
one just mentioned, offer the best situations for 
settlers in the township and its augmentation. — 
This T. is abundantly watered by many rivers, 
rivulets, small lakes and ponds, which traverse it 
in every direction. The principal rivers are the 
Kingham, the Calumet and the river Rouge. 
Many o'' the lakes are well stored with trout. 
West of the river Rouge, and in the 3rd and -Ith 
ranges, are five small lakes, into which flow many 
rivulets and inferior streams that rise in the upper 
part of the t. ; the waters of the lakes, issuing by 
several small channels, meet and are discharged 
into the Ottawa between the front lots Noti. S24 
and 35. On the Kingham is the only saw-mill 
in this T. ; it belongs to Mr. Kainc. — The south 
and only surveyed half of this townsltip is tra- 
versed by several roods, the principal uf which 
being that opened at tlic cx|]ense of the province, 
which runs almost parallel to the n. bank uf the 
Ottawa, entering Urcnvilic at lot No. 1, above 
the cimul ; passing through the military dc]Kit ut 

the basin, it crosses the Kingham over which 
there u a good bridge, and thence continues w. to 
the B. boundary of La Petite Nation. This road 
appears to have been marked out with little judg^ 
ment, as a comparatively trifling deviation from 
the existing line might, in more than one place, 
have rendered it. much better, and the necessity of 
so many bridges and causeways would have been 
avoided. This high-road is good as for as the 7th 
lot, after which it becomes impassable. Along the 
Kingham there is a tolerably good road, leading 
to Mr. Koine's residence and saw-mill. The 
rivers generally in this t. present numerous mill- 
sites which must ultimately prove highly advan- 
tageous. Westward towards the river Calumet, 
over which there is a bridge, the road is tole- 
rably good and has many new settlements with 
some well cultivated and prosperous fields; but 
the habitations and bams arc by no means cal- 
culated to impress the traveller with un idea of 
ease and comfort. A few such settlements arc 
scattered along the remainder of the road to the 
division line, between the S. and the augmenta- 
tion of Urenville. Along the road w. of the Ca- 
lumet bridge to the lofty ridge of highlands nre 
excellent patches of good land clothed with hard 
timber, which are, however, by no racuus so ex- 
tensive as to make up for the stony and uncnl- 
turable parts of the T. This road continues, 
though very bad, along the k. branch of the Ca- 
lumet, and, passing occasionally by the door of 
a solitary settler, terminates in the 7th range. It 
should be observed, in justice to the inhabitants 
of these parts, that they have surmounted, with 
the most industrious and praiseworthy persever- 
ance, the various obstacles presenting themselves 
in regions so hilly and forbidding, and have suc- 
ceeded in the attainment of a degree of rustic en- 
joymeut beyond what might have been reasonably 
antici)Hited to exist in the 4th, 5th and (ith ranges 
uf Grenville at so curly a period of its settlement. 
Several other by-roads comnumicatc with the in- 
terior settlements and are more ur less of the same 
description. The best si'ttlenients arc in the east 
section, most of which is gnuited under letters 
patent. — This t. ap|M:ars to Ix; jiurticulurly luluptid 
to the breeding uf cattle of all kinds, fur ull that 
have been introduced have thrived amaiingly. 
The extent of land under cultivation is U'O arres 
and UK) of pasture. The average proiliiie jior 
acre is, wheat 10 bushelt, Indian cum 15, and 

I' I 


r m 


I < 

I I 





Oats 20. Wages vary from 8 to 10 dollan a 
month.— The village contains 60 inhabitants and 
is biiilt in No. 7 of the 2nd range, and in 1788 one 
squat'e mile was set aside for the purpose, and 400 
acres allotted to the church and other public insti- 
tutions. In 1821 the s. half of lot 7 was surveyed 
and laid out in streets and in two-acre lots of 4 
chains in breadth by 5 in depth. Not more than 
6 or 8 houses have been erected, and these with- 
out the least regard to regularity. Locations are 
made to those who are desirous of settling here, 
and will contract to clear their lot and buUd a 
house within one year from the date of their 
location ticket. In the village is one school at- 
tended by 40 scholars. — The Military Establish- 
ment cliiefly consists of the staff corps. The dwell- 
ings of some of the soldiers and labourers are scat- 
tered on each side of the Grenville Canal, and 
others live in tents. The houses of the officers are 
new, neat and comfortable. This important canal 
has been chiefly cut, blasted and excavated through 
solid rock : it is nearly completed, and tl i work 
is solid and durable. (For farther particulars of 
this canal see " Canals" and vol. i. page 1.55.) 
— The principal landholders in this t. are Archi- 
bald M'Millan, Esq., the heirs of the late Col. 
Taylor, Major Ritter, and Capt. John M'Oil- 
livray, besides several others who hold grants to an 
inferior extent. Air. M'Millan obtained in 1808, 
for himself and others, 1230 acres under letters 
patent and subsequently a grant of lot No. 8, in 
the 2nd range, which it is to be regretted was not 
reserved for the use and disposal of the Crown on 
account of its contiguity to the village. — Ungranted 
and unlocated, in the t. 10,200 aires, in the aug. 






I'ottcriefi . 
I'otHslieries . 
Medical men 






Annual Agricultural Produce, 





IJariey IM 

Potatoes ]5,UU0 

Peas . lOU 
Indian com 2,UU0 

Live Slock. 

59 I ( 'own 
(U I !)liepp 

am I Swine 


Orby Pink, river, runs into the Grande De- 
charge that connects the Sag. r. with L. St. John. 

O R O 

It is 1^ chain wide and in places very rapid; 
the banks are low and the soil on each side sandy 
but very level. It appears to run nearly parallel 
to the river Terres-Rompues. At 3{ m. from its 
mouth there is a fine little cove on the left, and, a 
few chains higher up, another on the right. One 
mile from this is a portage, 2 miles long, that runs 
towards the n. b., leading to lake Patisphcasmetche, 
which is altogether irregular, and round which 
are first seen small and very low rocks, extend- 
ing but a small distance from the banks. Having 
passed these, the land becomes level and sandy. 

Griffin's Cove, in the co. of Oaspt', lies n. 
of Gasp^ Bay, between Great Fox river and Cap 

Population . 63 | Keel-boats . 4 
Annual AgricuUurul Produce. 
Potatoes . . 300 bush. 

Live Stock. 




21 I Swine 

Grondines, les, seigniory, in the co. of Port- 
neuf, is bounded s. w. by the 8. of Ste. Anne 
and its augmentation; n. e. by La Tesserie; in 
the rear by the projected t. of Alton and waste 
lands of the crown; in front by the St. Law- 
rence. — Granted in three parts, viz. the w. part, 
one league in front by ten in depth, 20th Mar., 
1638, to the Duchess d'Aiguillon for Les Dames 
Hospitalieres of the Hotel Dieu of Quebec ; the 
K. part, { 1. in front by .3 1. in depth, 3rd Nov., 
1672, to the poor of that hospital; the aug. 
to the B. part, 2 1. in depth by ^ 1. in front, 
2oth Apr., 171 1> to Louis Hamelin: the whole 
is now the property of Mr. Charret.— Through- 
out the greater part of these grants the soil is in- 
different ; a thin layer of poor earth upon a solid 
bed of stone : here and there a few patches of 
better quality may Ix: found, and all the known 
lands on the Grondines' side of the rapid of the 
r. Ste. Anne urp of good quality. — Five conces- 
sions have been conceded and part of another ; the 
first 4 are cultivated and the first 3 settled. — A 
small ridge extends across the S. near the front, 
between which and the St. Lawrence there is very 
good meadow land. — The timber is of inferior qua- 
lity. — The principal settlements lie on the main 
road just beneath the ridge and on the r. Ste. 

6 RO 

Anne. The soil and timber in general are barely 
above mediocrity, yet there are some well cul- 
tivated farms, owing to the industry of the oc- 
cupiers rather than to the fertility of the soil. 
Somewhat more than a fourth part is under cul- 
ture. — This S. is very well watered by the Ste. 
Anne, the Blanche, and the Batiscan which tra- 
verses its N. extremity, also by u small river in the 
front that falls into the St. Lawrence ; the last 
turns a com and a saw-mill. — This S. has a church 
and a parsonage-house, but the service is performed 
by the cure of a neighbouring parish. — The main 
road crosses the S. near its front : a road ascends 
the Ste. Anne on each side and another leads 
to the back concessions. In the St. Lawrence 
the extensive shoal, called Les Battures des Gron- 
dines, stretches along the front. There are two 
small iiefs in this S. called Francheville, which, by 
default of inheritance, have reverted to the crown. 

TUle.—Partle Ouett " Concssion du 20me Mars, 

1038, faite par la Compagnie, a Dunie Dnchmc tVAguil- 
lon, pour les Dames Hospitalii'res de I'Hotel-Uieu de 
Qitibec, de la Seigneurie des Gromlinet, coiitenant unv 
lieue de terre en lap^eur sur It- grand fleuve St. Laurent, 
■urdix lieues deprofoirdeur; savoir: est, dopuis In pointe 
de I'ance des GroudiHey, du cut^ du Nord-Est, un quurt 
de lieue audessous de la dite pointe, en tirant vers le Cap 
de Luuzon, bornr par une route qui court Sud-Est et 
Nord-Ouest ou environ; et d'autre cut^ au Sud- Guest 
trois quarts de lieue, bomr aussi par une route (|ui court 
Sud-Est et Kord-Ouest, d'un Imut au Nord-Otii-iit par 
une route qui court Sud-Ouest et Nord-Est."— W^'iifrr 
iet Foi et Ilommagc, Jblio 47. Aussi Reg. d'lntctidance, 
et CaMeri d'lnlmdancc, 

Partie Eit.—" Concession du 3me Novcmbre, 1673, 
faite jMiJetm Talon, Intendant, aux Pauvres dcl'Hopital, 
de trois quarts de lieues dc terre sur trois lieues de pro- 
Ibndeur, k prendre sur le fleuve St. Laurent, au lieu dit 
les Grondinei, tenant d'un c(Ai a lu Conression appar> 
tenante aux religieuses du dit Hopital, de I'autre aux tor- 
res non-conc^dies ; tirant eu detteendant le rieuve \ers 
Chavigni/.'^K^gitlre dtlnlrndanee, A'o. \, folio 34>. 

Augmentation. — A la Partie Ett — " Conecssion du 25me 
Avril, 1711, faite par Baudot, Gouverneur, et PauJreuil, 
Intendant, h Louit Hamtlin, de la continuation de deux 
lieues de profondeur sur le front de trois quarts de lieue 
non-concM^, iVmt au bout des trois quarts de lieue de 
front sur la profondeur de trois lieues, en quoi consiste 
r^tendue de la dite Seigneurie des Grondiiirs ; born/- d'un 
cAt* aux terres du Sieur de lu Vhcvrotiirf et d'un ciite a 
celles du dit Sieur Luiti* Hamctiti." — Mgiitrc rfci Foi rt 
JHommagt, folio i7. 

Orobboir or Machiche, seijniiory. in the co. of 
St. Maurice, on the n. side of Luke St. Peter, is 
bounded n. k. by Pointe du Lac and Oatinenu ; 
8. w. by Rivit're du Loup and Orandprc and in 
the rear by Oumonticr. — 1\ 1. in front by 2 1. in 
depth. Granted Nov. .% \i\'2, to Sieur Boucher 
and is now the property of the Hon. Louis Gugy, 
Mr. Johnstone and Mr. Dumoulin.— Thiit S. is 

G P O 

rather low towards the front, but retiring from 
the lake there are some few rising grounds. The 
soil and timber are very similar to those of lUvicre 
du Loup and Grandpre. — Watered by the r. du 
Loup and the great and little rivers Machiche, 
over which, where they are intersected by the 
main roads, are bridges substantially built of tim- 
ber and possessing a light and plea.sing appear- 
ance. About ^ths of the S. are conceded and the 
settlements, in front and on the banks of the ri- 
vers, are very flourishing ; the houses and farm 
buildings, well constructed, prove their proprietors 
to be very industrious and in cosy circumstances. 
On the east side of the main or Quclicr road, 
that here resumes its course close to the r. St. 
Lawrence, are the church and presbytery of Ma- 
chiche with a cluster of houses, forming a small 
neat village. — The interior is traversed by many 
roads leading to the seigniories in the rear, as well 
as to those on each side.— On the different streams 
are some good com and saw-mills. 

The Parish of Ste. Anne de Yamacfiichv com- 
prehends Gatincau, Pointe du Lac and tlie front 
part of Grosbois or Alachiche. Sonic lunds in 
the P. are still unconceded, and, although not 
of a rich quality, they are susceptible of cultiva- 
tion. About one-third of the conces-sions in thi.s 
p. were granted before 1759 and gcntruUy mea- 
sured 3 ari)ent8 by 40 and were let at low rents, 
via. 2 or 3 capons and a crown in money. — All 
the young persons ore desirous of settling either 
at home or abroad, but would universally prefer 
settling near their relations, particularly as it 
would be the least expensive. — Here arc two 
schools, one for boys and the other for girls, both 
supported by the parish ; the numl^r of scholars 
is 28 boys and 30 girls, who are instructed in 
English and French. — The p. contains 2 villages, 
one near the church on the B. Petite Machiche, 
the other on the Grande Machiche ; each con- 
tains about 30 houses. — The church is 120 ft. by 
4(*, besides which there is a chapel. — There are 
3 corn-mills ; 2 of them on the Grande Machiche, 
which arc built of stone and are 2 stories liigli, 
the other is on the n. du Loup.- O:io-fuurth of 
the grain grown in the parish, in gooti seasons, is 
sohl in meal or flour and much provision is sent 
to the Quebec market. 

The PnrM o/St. Leon comprehends the rear 
part of Grostmis and Maciiichc and tlie whole of 
Dumontier and Grandpre. In this p. are (i coui 





' t 




O U E 

cesrioni and 400 fanns ; the 2nd concession w. of 
the R. du Loup is the most inhabited. This p. is 
watered by the Ruisseau Chakouna and by the R. 
du Loup, which is very rapid and in general na- 
vigable for bateaux. A little village surrounds 
the church ; the houses are built with wood and 
the church is 120 ft. by 52. There are several 
saw-mills, one on the r. du Loup, 2 on the Cha- 
couna and 2 in the ravines, — In this p. are some 
non-conceded lands susceptible of cultivation, in 
different places, amounting altogether to 1 league. 


including lands kept for the purpose of wood only. 
Over these lands there is no road, but the grantees 
form roads as they are wanted.— The non-con- 
ceded lands are not surveyed, and no concessions 
were made, within the precise limits of this p., 
before 17^9. — The number of persons desirous 
and able to make new settlements would be con- 
siderable if they could procure farms in the non- 
conceded lands, which would supply 60 farms of 
a tolerable quality. 

Statistics of the Parishes of Ste. Anne de Yamachiche and St. Leon. 


Ste. Anne de > 
Yamachiche } 
St. Leon . . 

.M76j 1 
1792' 1 

3 1 






AniuiRl AdrifiiUural Proiiiice, in bu«hell. 

Live stiiek. | 












1 < 1 

Ste. Anne dc ) 
Vamachiche ^ 
St. Leon . . 


23400 32jO 
7800 2C0 











Title.—" ConcesBion du 3me Novembre, 1672, faite par 
Jean Talon, Intendant, au Sieuri'<erreBouo/i«r, de Grand- 
pr^, d'une lieue vt demie de terre de front, sur deux de 
]>rofoiideur, \ |)rendre, savoir, trois quarts de lieue au des. 
SUB dc la riviOre & Murcht (Machichej et autant audessous 
de la dite riviere." — Uiglsire d'/iileHdance, No. I, folio 39. 

Orgs Ruissbau, a rivulet, in the S. of Murray 
Bay, rises in the concession St. Jean, and running 
8., dividing concession Joyeuse from the 2nd con- 
cession of Terrebonne, it divides the 1st concession 
of Terrebonne into two nearly equal parts, and 
then falls into the St. Iiawrence. 

Orossrs Rochks, des, is a rivulet that runs 
from the N. e. and joins the Saguenay near Bay 
St. Etienne ; about 14 m. from the St. Law- 

OuEHRK, a la, river, iti the township of God- 
manchester, rises about the middle of the 2nd 
range, and running n. w. falls into Lake St. 
Francis. At the upiier forks of this r. is built 
the V. of Godmanchcstcr. The navigation of this 
R. and its brunches is of material advantage to the 
inhubitiiiits of that township. This r. is navi- 
gable fni canoes fur some little distance above the 
Forks; but at there is a sand bank or bar at its 

mouth, with only 18 inches of water, it is there 
navigable only for flat-bottomed boats. About 30 
chains from its mouth are two small farm-houses 
on the E. bank, opposite to which is a chantier. 
The depth of the water from the lake to the iirst 
forks varies from 5 to 8 ft. and thence to the 
second forks from 3 to 4 ft. 

GuiLLAUDiERB, fief, in the co, of Vercheres, 
fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded n. e. by 
St. Blain ; s. w, by Cap St. Michel and in the rear 
by the aug. to Beloeil — 30 arpents in front by a 
league in depth. — Granted, Nov. 3, 1672, to Lau- 
rent Bomey, Sieur dc Grandmuison, and now be- 
longs to -^— Hertel, Esq. 

Title.—" Concefision du 3me Novembre, 1672, f'uite par 
Jean Talon, Intendant, i. Laurent Bornnj Sieur de Grand- 
maiton, de trrntc urpenH de front sur une lieue de pro- 
fondeur, k prendre sur le fleuve St. Laurent, depuia let; 
terres du Sieur de St. Michel, en deBcciidant vers Ivb terres 
non.concrd^e8."^/It!^f<rre d" Inlendanec, So. \,fMo 2K 

GuiLLAUMB BoNHOMME, seiguiory, in the rear 
of Desmaure, is bounded v r ' y Gaudarville , 
8. w. by Fausembault and u. Uy the R. Jacques 
C'artier.— One league in breadth by two in depth. 


Granted Nov. 24th, 1682. to Ooilkume Bon- 
homme. — This tract is uneven and mountainous ; 
near Desmaure, the lowest and moat level part, 
the soil is a black mould, but, receding towards 
the Jacques Cartier, a light-coloured loam pre- 
vails much covered with loose stones: only a 
small portion of the land is in cultivation. The 
timber is both abundant and good, particularly on 
the high grounds towards the rear. Scarcely a 
stream or rivulet traverses the interior. 

Titk. — " Concession du Sime Novembre, 1083, faite 
par Leftbre, Oouvemeur, et De Meulki, Intendant, k Gail- 
laume Bonhomme, des terres C|ui sont au bout de celles de 
Mr. Juchereau de la Feiii, tirant vers la riviere Jacques 
Cartier, bomies d'un cdt^, au Sud-ouest, de Mr. Dupont, 
Consdller, et de I'autre k Mr. ie Metner, GrefBer, au 
Nord-est ; d'un bout, sur Ie dit Sieur de h Ferii au Sud ; 
et de I'autre au Nord-ouest i la dite riviere : la ditc terre 
contenant environ une lieue de front avec deux lieues ou 
environ de profondeurdans les dites terres."— //winiMfioHf 
du Conieil Supirieur, Lettre B. folio 26. 


Ha Ha Bay, or Baie i>rs Has! v. Saoue- 

NAY, R. 

Ha Ha, seigniory, in the co. of Rimouski, is 
between Trois Pistolles and Bic. It is but thinly 

Hail Bay, in Commissioners Lake, b. \v. of 
Lake St. John. 

Haloiuand, a town in Gasp^ Bay, situated on 
a tongue of land formed by the estuaries of St. 
John's River and the e. w. arm of Gasp6 Bay. — 
This town was named after General Haldimand, 
who, about the year 1785, was Governor of Ca- 
nada, which at that time was called the Province 
of Quebec 

Halifax, township, in the co. of Megantic, 
between Chester and Inverness, bounded N. w. by 
Arthaboska and Somerset, and 8. k. by Wolfcs- 
town and Ireland.— The soil is generally excellent 
and would yield abundantly under almost any 
system of agriculture, and in many places would 
produce hemp and flax : in the n. e. part, which is 
low, are a few swamps, which might be easily re- 
claimed by ditching; in the opposite direction the 
land is uneven and rises as it inclines towards the 
8,— The timber is similar to that of Wolfcstown and 
Ham. — Watered by some small rivers and streams 
and the picturesque little Lake Pitt. The s. e. 
half has been laid out and granted, but none uf it 


if cultivated : Craig^s Road passing through a part 
of it may be, perhaps, the means of attracting some 
settlers. The principal landholders are the heirs 
of the late Joseph Frobisher, Esq. and Mrs. Scott 
and family. — Ungranted and unlocated 7900 acres. 


Population . 15 


Annual Agricultural Produce, 






. 3S0 

Live Slock. 


. 1 Cows 
5 Sheep 

. 9 Swine 
. 8 


Hall'8 Stream rises in the t. of Auckland ; 
running s. through the n. w. part of Drayton it 
enters Hereford at the 6th range, and continuing 
in the s. k. quarter of that t. joins the r. Con- 
necticut on the boundary line. On this stream 
are good sites for mills ; but as its course is o)>- 
structed by falls it is of no other navigable advan- 
tage than for the transport of logs to the mills. 
Its middle branch waters the N. R. quarter of 
Hereford and its n. w. branch circulates about the 
centre of that t. 

Ham, township, in the co. of Drucimond, be- 
tween Wotton and Wolfestown, joins Tingwick 
and Chester n. w. and Weedon s. e. One half 
has been granted among several individuals. The 
land might be brought into cultivation with great 
advantage, and would produce wheat or other 
grain, and many parts are dt for flax and hemp. 
The surface is diversified by many large swells of 
inconsiderable elevation, covered with wood and 
some few places in the valleys ore rather swampy. 
— The timber is maple, beech, basswood, birch, 
hemlock and cedar. — Watered by part of the river 
Nicolet, which here has its source in the beautiful 
lake of the same name, near which the road com- 
municating with Craig's Road is designed to pass. 
— Ungranted and unloratcd 18,500 acres. 

Hamkl Lake, called by the Indians Assini- 
gaashtets, " a rock that is there," is the largest 
Inke on the r. Postagoutsic, which runs from 
Lake Kenwangomi b. e. of Lake St. John. 

Hamilton, township, in the co. of Bonavcn- 
ture, lies between Cox and Richmond, and is 
bounded in front hv Chulcurs Bay and in the rear 




1 . 

ifpBfai '1 


< I 

I I: 


I'll ^' 

1 li 

H A R 

by waste lands — The Village of Bonaventure is 
pleasantly situated on the w. side of the harbour 
of the same name. The land on each side of 
the town is level and good and produces great 
quantities of grass for cattle. The soil is a fine 
gray earth on a clayey sub-stratum, which appears 
fit for the cultivation of hemp and flax ; but the 
season is supposed to be too short for the growth 
of grain, the frost generally commencing in the 
beginning of September and continuing to the 
middle or end of May. This village or town is 
advantageously placed for the cod-fishery, and is 
susceptible of great improvement. The bank on 
which the fish are generally cured is very extensive 
and is divided into 95 lots, each extending 40 ft. 
in front and 120 ft. in depth, sufiicient space for 
curing the fish taken by one shulloup. A vacancy 
of 10 ft. is left between the lots for the purpose 
of piling up the fish when cured; and 100 ft. 
is appropriated, at the point of each beach, fur a 
public landing-place. In the roadstead there is 
good anchorage for shipping, and the common 
tides rise from 7 to 8 ft. The town lot consists 
of 60 acres ; and 1040 ft. of ground divided into 
36 lots, each 240 ft. square, to be subdivided 
into 8 divisions, each 60 ft. in front by 120 in 
depth, with 200 acres adjoining for the benefit of 
the town. This v. is only a small place, contitin- 
ing about 25 houses and a church : its whole de- 
pendence is in the fishery. 

Hampden, a projected township in the co. of 
Sherbrooke, is an irregular tract of land lying 
between Marston, Ditton, Lingwick, Stratford, 
and Onyhurst. 

Hare Island lies nearly in the middle of the 
St. Lawrence, and fronts the S. of Riviere du 
Loup and that of Terrebois : it is nearly 8 m. in 
length by an average breadth of about half a mile. 
It is low and flat, extending in a direction nearly 
parallel to the shores of the St. Lawrence. The 
soil is good, but wholly uncultivated. At each 
extremity are long and dangerous shoals stretch- 
ing from it. On the s. k. side lie the three small 
islands called the Brandy Pots : on the w. side is 
placed the telegraph No. 13, the lust in the chain 
from Quebec. 

Harrinoton, a projected township in the co. 
of Two Alountaius, lies between Wentworth ond 
Pnnsonby and is bounded in front by Grcnville. 
Its B, w. angle is watered by the R. Rouge. 


Hastings, a projected township in the co. of 
Ottawa, fronting Lake des Allumets and lying w. 
of th T. of Esher. 

Hatley, township, in the co. of Stanstead, is 
bounded s. by the t. of Stanstead ; n. by Ascot ; 
B. by Compton ; w. by the Lake Memphramagog, 
a branch of the river St. Francis, and Lake Sca- 
swaninepus. The surface is irregular, in some 
places hilly, and the quality of the land very 
variable. The soil B. and n. e. is good and most 
kinds of grain might be grown ; and w. it is rather 
superior ; the middle very indifferent, rugged and 
swampy. On the best lands beech, elm, maple 
and ash grow in abundance ; in the swamps spruce 
fir, cedar and alder. Towards Ascot and Compton 
are some extensive settlements, where the houses 
and out-buildings are substantially constructed, the 
farms cultivated with industry and much ability 
and well stocked with cattle. On the border of 
Lake INIemphramngog is another range of im- 
proving settlements. — Watered by several lakes 
besides Lake Tomefobi, which is entirely in this 
1'., and by some small rivers and streams, which 
as they wind through the cultivated lands turn 
corn and saw-mills. Many roads lead to the ad- 
jacent townships, and others communicate with 
main roads leading to the states of Vermont and 
New Hampshire. One of the most extensive 
landholders is Henry Cull, Esq., lieut.-col. of the 
militia ; a gentleman highly esteemed for his public 
spirit and the industry and good-will with which 
he encourages every species of improvement. The 
first settler in the t. was Capt. Eb. Hovey. 

The Parish of Charleston commences on the 
line between Stanstead and Hatley, and on the 
line between the 8th and 9th ranges of Hatley ; 
thence N. on the same line it crosses Lake Tome- 
fobi ; thence on the w. shore of the lake n. until 
it intersects the line between the 4th and 5th 
ranges; thence n. on the same line to the N. line 
of Hatley ; thence e. on the same line to the line 
between the 2nd and 3rd ranges of Compton, and 
8. across that t. to the line between the 2nd and 
3rd ranges in Barnston, and then w. to the w. 
line of that t., and then N. to its N. w. corner ; 
thence w. to the place of beginning. — In this 
parish stands the Village of Charleston, near the 
N. £. corner. It is very pleasantly situated on the 
main road leading from Sherbrooke to Stanstead 
Plain : it contains about 20 neat houses and 115 







inhabitants: it has a protestant episcopal church, 
a school-house, a breweiy and a distillery. The 
dte of the v. is in Not. 5 and 6 of the 1st and 
2nd ranges. — Robt. Vincent, Esq. was the first 
inhabitant and settled here about 20 yean rince. 
—Ungranted and unlocated 12,641 acres. 


Population 1,573 
Churches . I 
Curates . i 
SchooU . 8 
VUlages . 1 
Corn-mills . 7 
Carding-mills 3 

Fulling-milU 2 
Saw-mills . 1 1 
Tanneries . 1 
Hat-manufact. 1 
Potteries . 2 
Potasberies . 6 

Pearlasheries 5 
Distilleries . I 
Notaries . 1 
Shopkeepers 3 
Taverns . 2 
Artisans . 17 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Wheat . 
Barley . 

Buihela. Buiheli. 

18,0:J0 Potatoes 29,420 

26,5iK) Peas . 4,063 

3,865 Rye . Sai 

Buck wheat GO 
Indian corn 5,020 

Live Stock. 

Horses . 


Cows . 1,598 
Sheep . 3,169 

1 Swine . 830 

Hautkville (V.), V. Kamouraska, S. 

Hayottk (V.), V. Champlain, S. 

Hblbnstown, v. Beauuarnoib, S. 

Hbmibon, river and lake : the r. rises in the 
T. of Buckland and partly in the lake ; taking a 
8. w. course, it enters the t. of Frampton and 
joins the r. Etchemin a little below Papa Isle. 

Hbmuinoford, township, in the co. of Beau- 
harnois, is on the boundary line between the pro- 
vince and the United States, having n. w. the S. 
of Beuuharnois and N. e. that of La CoUe. This 
township has been laid out for close settlements, 
that is, to be granted by single lots to persons, 
upon condition of immediately taking possession 
and beginning to improve them ; a large portion 
of the T. is settled and some of the farms are in a 
thriving state. There are five complete ranges 
of 200 acre lots, and the remainder of the t. is 
divided in a similar manner to Ilinchinbrook ; but 
a proportion of these reservations has been let 
under lease. Although the surface is very un- 
even and several high ridges rise in various di- 
rections, with many large seams of ilat rock a 
little below the surface, there are many tracts of 
superior quality fit for the growth of grain, hemp 
and flax. On the n. b. and N. w. sides are some 
swamps covered with cedar, spruce fir, tamarack, 
&c. On the high lands the timber is beech, maple, 
elm, birch, &c. : along the 2nd range are some 
oak and pine of large dimensions and good qua- 

H E M 

lity. — This t. is well watered by the B. Montreal 
dooending to the Richelieu, and by many small 
streanu that descend from the heights tu the Cha> 
teauguay— There are many roads, but most of 
them very indifferent, and practicable only in 
winter when rendered firm and solid by the frost. 
—There is only one com and saw-mill in this t. 
buUt in the 6th range. — The population consists 
of 150 families, of whom 70 are from Ireland, 24 
from the United States, 19 from England, 11 
from Scotland, 10 American loyalists and 3 from 
Germany. Of the population 345 souls arc on 
the crown reserve without any title. — This t. 
consists of 58,600 acres ; about 6067 acres are 
under improvement, of which 4242 are among 
the granted lands, 1320 on the crown reserves and 
505 on the land located by the agent.— Hemtning- 
ford Mountain or Covey's Hill has about the same 
perpendicular elevation as the Rouville cone and 
commands an extensive horizon. This mountain, 
from its conspicuous height, is worthy of notice. 
It occupies a space of about 3^ miles in length by 
2 in breadth and rises by gradations, almost about 
1,100 feet from the level of the St. Lawrence. 
The ascent on the N. side, though rather abrupt, 
is notwithstanding easy of access, but on the b. it 
is more gradual ; on the s. side it rises out of a 
low swamp in the vicinity of 2 small lakes, and 
rises nearly 200 feet in a perpendicular cliff. 
From the top of this mountain can clearly be di- 
stinguished the mountains of Montreal, Pinacle, 
Mansfield and Camel's Rump, and a most com- 
manding view of the surrounding country. 

Population . 980 
Churches, R. C. I 
Corn-mills . 1 
Carding-mills 1 


Potasheries . 

Taverns . 



Annual Agricultural Produce, 




. 7,(H)0 
. 6,000 
. 100 

PoUtoes 3;i,000 
Peas . 4,000 

Buckwheat 1,000 
Indian com 3,000 

Comparative Statement of Increaie. 









Live StiH'k. 1 


















' ■' f. li 


Hkiwinoway Brook joins the r. Connecticut 
near the most a. point of the t. of Drajton on 
the boundary line. 


Hbrbford, township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
ia bounded n. by Clifton and Auckland ; w> by 
Barford ; B. by Drayton and s. by the boundary 
line. The greater part may be called tolerably 
good land and generally applicable to any kind of 
agriculture : the surface is uneven and, approach- 
ing the river Connecticut, rather mountainous. — 
The 8. part of the t. is partially settled, 1600 
acres being under cultivation : most of the settlers 
are on the banks of Hall Stream and Leech Stream 
and the lands between them. — There is only one 
reserve under lease; it is in No. 7 of the 7th 
range and belongs to the clergy. — The timber is 
various and in general good, consisting of maple, 
beech and birch, mixed with spruce fir and a 
small proportion of pine and poplar. — In the year 
1800 the southern half was granted to James 
Rankin and others; but a very small progress 
has been made towards its settlement: a few 
farms, however, are in a tolerably good condition. 
— This T. is well watered by several branches of 
the Connecticut, aided by many small streams de- 
scending from the high lands. The branches of the 
Connecticut are called Hall's Stream on which 16 
families are settled, and Leech Stream on which 
10 families reside, and on both streams are good 
sites for mills ; it is also watered by Leech's Pond 
and other small lakes, in which are trout, suc- 
cors, chub, perch, eels, &c. — There are 4 bridges, 
two king's highways and 2 or 3 cross-roads : one 
of the highways extends from line 45 to Eaton 
through Clifton, the other from line 45 through 
Barford to Compton. — The Hereford Mountain is 
in the 5th and 6th ranges and in the N. w. part 
of the T. — The land under crop averages 180 acres 
and about 500 acres are annually mowed. Flax 
of excellent quality is produced, and hemp grows 
luxuriantly but is liable to the effects of early 
frosts; wheat is the staple commodity and its 
produce from new land is from 15 to 20 bushels 
per acre and other grain in proportion. The an- 
nual consumption of wheat is about 7^0 bushels 
and that of other grain 1000 bushels. — This t. 
is well adapted for grazing and rearing neat stock, 
horses and sheep, and also for dairy farms. Some 
of the settlers keep 30 head of neat cattle, besides 
horses and sheep. Agricultural labour is high; 

H I N 

from 1 to 1^ dollar a day without board, with 
board from 10 to 12 dollars a month, or |ths of a 
dollar per day in summer and 6 to 8 dollars in 
winter, or S». 6d. a day.— During hajrmaking 
wages are 3«. 4(/. a day, at other times from 8 to 
12 dollars a month. Mechanics are paid one dollar 
a day. — The articles of trade or rather traffic con- 
sist in beef, cattle, butter, cheese, pork, pearlash 
and grain. — In this t. are two private schools: 
in each from 12 to 15 scholars are instructed. — 
Ungranted and utdocated, 16,200 acres. 


Population . . 160 Corn-mills . . 1 
Peailasberies . 1 Saw-mills . . 8 

.,.,'. , Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Buheli. Buihelt. 
Wheat . 1,500 Potatoes 8,810 
Oats . 1,:280 Peaa . 210 
Barley . 800 

Rye , 4d 
Indian com 580 

Live Stock. 

Horses . 64 Cows . 1*) 
Oxen . 70 Sheep . 300 

^mne . 128 

Hertel, fief, fronts the St. Lawrence and lies 
N. K. of Champlain and s. w. of Batiscan. It has 
one corn-mill on the r. Champlain, which waters 
it through its whole extent. It belongs to les 

Hertbl, rivulet, in the S. of Champlain, turns 
one flour-mill. 

HiNCHiNBROoK, township, in the co. of Beau- 
hamoii), is bounded a. by the boundary line ; N. b. 
by Beauhamois and is separated from Oodman* 
Chester by the R. Chateauguay. This t. contains 
38,000 acres, of which 18,850 have been granted 
by letters patent: from 11 to 12,(X)0 acres were 
granted to non-resident persons in 1821, many of 
whom were then residing in the United States ; 
soon after these lands were granted some of the 
grantees died, and some left the country and were 
never afterwards heard of: on this tract are some 
few families without titles to the lands they o6i 
cupy. This t. is divided into 8 mnges and every 
range into lots of 200 acres each. From the pro- 
vince line N. are three full ranges, but the re- 
mainder is more irregularly divided and is appro- 
priated to crown and clergy reservations, in large 
portions or blocks as itiey are technically termed. 
The surface is somewhat uneven but the soil, 
although rather light and in many places stony, is 


1 ' 

i J 

H I N 

good, excepting only ■ rety few nrampy tracti 
which ore covered with cedar, spruce fir and hem- 
lock trees. The large knolls, or rising grounds, are 
thickly clothed with good timber. Towards the 
Chateauguay, in some places, the surface subsides 
into valleys and gentle slopes, where there are 
large breadths of fine meadows well watered by 
several branches of that R. The settlers are ge- 
nerally near the river's side and in eligible situ- 
ations along the frontier, in which direction 
there are several roads passing into the state of 
New York. The roads are in many parts bad, 
but are nevertheless frequented by loaded wag- 
gons. An immense stock of fine timber still re- 
mains in this township, although, fur years past, 
vast quantities have been cut and rafted down the 
Chateauguay to Montreal and Quebec. — In this 
T. are 225 families, of which 79 are from Scotland, 
78 from IreLind, 22 from the United States, 15 
from England, 12 American loyalists and 5 from 
Germany ; making an aggregate population of 1214 
■ souls. 5549 acres are claimed under orders in 
council, of which 2595 are under improvement. 
16,t325 acres are settled upon under the authority 
of the agent, of which 3044 are under improve- 
ment. — The Village of Hinchinbrook, called Hunt- 
ingdon, is built on each side of the b. Chateau- 
guay i the portion in Oodmanchester on govern- 
ment ground and the other side on the property of 
Wm. Bowron, Esq. acquired by purchase. The 
village is laid out in 3 rows on lots 1 and 2 in the 
front range of this t. in extensive village plots of 
ftt>m 10 to 20 acres each, which have been mostly 
located ; and those in the 1st and 2nd ranges, bor- 
dering on the river, are nearly all settled upon or 
occupied. The village lots Nos. 4 and 5, in the 
front of the front range, are reserved for public 
purposes, where the inhabitants are about to erect 
a schoolhouse. The village of Huntingdon, lying 
partly in Hinchinbrook and partly in Oodman- 
chester, is connected by a strong bridge across the 
river Chateauguay, made of timber and stone, 
240 feet in length, which cost the inhabitants 
£250. This village is inhabited by Irish emi- 
grants and contains a population of 125 souls ; and 
although the number is not so great as it was 
some time ago, yet the present residents appear to 
succeed in their diiferent occupations and are likely 
to become permanent settlers : they are composed 
of small farmers, mechanics, traders, Stc— 'Vacant 
lands, 19,160 acres. . . .^ . . 

li ) R 


Population 1,814 1 Carding-miUs 1 1 
Village* • I Fulling-mills I I 
Corn-mills . 8 1 Saw-mills . 7 ' 


uMns . 




Amtual Agriemltural Pndw 

BiuImIi. Butheli. 

. 6,885 PoUtoes 30,000 

, 5,360 Peas . 8,000 

3,000 Kye . 1,050 

Buck wheat HOU 
Indian corn 8,UJ0 

Comparative Stalement <if Inertate. 




3 T^ 





I.l» st(x-k. 1 

























. |30M 








HoPR, township, in the co. of Bonaventure, is 
bounded s. by Chaleurs Bay ; w. by Cox ; R. by 
the settlements of Port Daniel and N. by waste 
lands. It is watered by the Lower r. Nouvelle, 
and a part of the town of New Carlisle and its 
settlements range along the front from the s. w. 
angle to the r. Nouvelle. 


Population <j74 
Artisans . 9 

River craft . 8 
Tonnage . 150 

Keel-boaU . 33 

Annual Agricultural Product. 

Wheat . 1,050 
Oats . 1,450 

Potatoes . 7,000 
Peas . . 100 

Indian com 800 

Live Stock. 

Horses . 80 
Oxen . 80 

Cows . 99 
Sheep . 878 

Swine . 197 

HoRTON, township, in the co. of Drummond, 
is bounded s. by Warwick ; n. w. by Simpson and 
Wendover and n. r. by Aston and Bulstrode. — 
This small, irregular tract has htxn surveyed and 
granted to the militia, but it at present contains 
only one settler. The main branch of the Nico- 
let runs through the centre and its B. branch 
waters the N. B. angle of the T. 





Annual Agricultural Produce. 

. 15 Potatoes 
. 10 Indian com 

. lUO 
. id 

Live Stock. 

1 1 Cows . 
2 1 Sheep . 

3 I Swine 






H U L 

H U L 

I I I [ 



I ! 


n I 

Howard, a projected townihip in the co. of 
Two Mountains, is bounded N. b. by Abercromby ; 
in front by Wentworth; in the rear by waste 

Hubert, seigniory, in the co. of Quebec, is in 
the rear of 8t. Gabriel and St. Ignace, and other- 
wise bounded by waste crown lands. Two leagues 
in breadth and depth Granted June 10th, 1698, 
to Sicur Ren£ Louis Hubert. — Being far north of 
nil the cultivated lands, the quality or worth of 
this S, is wholly unknown; even the timber 
seems never to have been an object of inquiry. 
It is watered by the n. Talayorte, wliich tra- 
verses it from the n. r. 

THtk,—" Concesdion dii lOme Juin, 1608| fuite par 
LoMit de Buaie, Oouvemeur, et Jean Bochart, Intendant, 
ttu Sieiir Rent LouU Hubert, fiU, de deiix lieues de terre 
dc front Rur pareille profondctir, aitu^e au derriirc des 
Stfigneuries nomm/'es St. Gabriel vt St. Ignace, apimrteiiuiit 
aiix ptlres j/'suitcs et aux religieuscs Hospitali^res de 
Quebec: le dit terrein tirant au Nurd-Ouest, born£ d'lin 
bout dcs ditcs Seigiieuries, d'autre bout et des deux cutrs 
des terres noii-concedi'cs."— Tf^^Wrt' d'lntendance, iVo. 5, 
folio 23. 

HuDDKitSFiELD, a projected township in the 
CO. of Ottawa, is bounded s. by Clarendon ; k. by 
Bristol and Aldtield ; N. by Shorn and Cawood ; 
w. by Litchfield. 

Hull, township, in the co. of Ottawa, is lx>unded 
E. by Terapleton ; n. by Wakefield ; w. by Eard- 
ley and s. by the river Ottawa. It contains 82,429 
acres, and was surveyed and subdivided in 1801 
under a warrant of survey issued in favour of 
Philemon Wright, Esq., two of his sons and seven 
associates, who obtained a grant of 12,000 acres 
under letters patent in 1806. The order of coun- 
cil was granted Mar. 22, 1800. The grant to 
Mr. Wright, &c. embraced the whole front of 
the township and comprehends the ranges 1, 2, 3 
and parts of 4, 5, 6, with 2 lots in the 7th range, 
through which the r. Oatineau runs. The as- 
sociates in this grant reconveyed, as was the prac- 
tice at that time, the greater part of the lands to 
their leader, as an indemnification for expenses in- 
curred in the survey and for patent fees on the 
grant, by which means Mr. Wright became the 
principal and almost sole proprietor of the lands 
thus granted, upon which it appears he and his 
sons have made improvements to the considerable 
extent of 4703 acres in culture, 24 houses, &c. — 
This T. extends 16 ranges in depth ; each range 
being subdivided into 28 lots of 26 chains in 
breadth, by 80 chains 80 links in depth. Such 

are the authoriied dimensions of the lota of land 
in river townships throughout the province, ex« 
cepting, of course, the lots broken and indented 
by the sinuosities of the river or lake upon which 
they front, as in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd ranges of 
this T. — Hull is 120 miles from Montreal and 
is in ihc centre of a fertile country, possessing 
every agricultural advantage in soil and climate. 
The general features of Hull are mountainous : 
a range of hills, named by the Indians Perguatina, 
runs through the middle from r. to w. ; the highest 
part is not supposed to exceed 900 ft. above the 
level of the Ottawa : on each side of this range 
and occasionally upon it are tracts of excellent 
land and the swamps are comparatively few and 
of small extent. The front of the t. is, generally, 
a plane undulated by gradual swells as far back 
as the highlands in the 6th range, which traverse 
the T. in a curvilinear direftiun almost parallel 
with the Ottawa. Beyond these the surface rises 
into more frequent and abrupt slopes, though by 
no means unfit for tillage, and becomes a rich 
pasturing and grazing country, much prized as 
such by the inhabitants. The soil in the level 
parts and in the intervals frequent in the hilly 
sections is excellent, and, when under proper cul- 
tivation, produces in abundance wheat, rye, bar- 
ley, oats, potatoes, &c. In the immediate vi- 
cinity of the Chaudiere or Columbia Falls the 
soil is poorer, being very rocky and sandy; but 
at a little distance this inferiority disappears and 
the soil becomes a strong loam. — This t. is tra- 
versed by several roads ; the principal begins at 
the steam-boat landing, passes through Wright's 
Village and running along the front strikes the 
Chaudiere Lake between the 2nd and 3rd ranges ; 
thence it follows the margin of the lake and en- 
ters Eardley : this road is very good and on it is 
the greater portion of the most flourishing settle- 
ments of Hull. This road is called Britannia 
Road and extends 7 m. Being the first road made 
in this T., the mode of forming it may be inte- 
resting 08 well as useful ; Mr. W. first marked it 
out as far as the lake, then ploughed it on each 
side and threw the earth to the centre to form 
it oval; he then levelled the hills and laid the 
stuff from the top into low places, built bridges 
and paved the road, where necessary, with broken 
stones; he also built stores at each end for the 
deposit of different kinds of goods for the ac- 
commodation of the upper country.— From Co- 

; i 

le ac- 
\ Co- 

H U L L. 

lumbia Fann two mods branch oflT in different 
directions. One, passing along the edge of Co- 
lumbia Pond, leads to the Oatineau Farm, re- 
markable as being the spot selected by Mr. Ph. 
M'right in 1001 for his first and original habita- 
tion, and as such is not divested of interest, 
being, as it were, the parent of the actual flourish- 
ing settlement of Hull. The other road dircct- 
im: its course w. winds suddenly at lot No. 8, 
•ii.i rejoins the main front road; meanwhile the 
Columbia Road continues towards the n. until 
it meets the River Oatineau in the 7th rang^, 
where Mr. Christopher Wright's new farm is 
situated. A road from Chaudirre Lake, cutting 
at right angles the Britannia Road, leads into 
the back settlements, where, of course, no good 
roads can at present be expected : on this road 
few settlements are to be seen beyond the 4th 
and 5th ranges, frpm which to the 3rd range 
the farms progressively increase and towards the 
Chaudirrc Lake the road passes apparently through 
an old-settled country. The road communication 
from Hull to Montreal is bad and in 1821 was 
impracticable for any horse or team. A road, 
16 ft. wide, has been cut by the government 
commissioners, over 04 miles, to the head of Long 
Sault and 71 bridges built. There are 4 places 
where either ferries must be established or large 
bridges built and the ravines or gullies filled 
up to enable teams to pass. The remaining 60 
miles to Montreal are passable. Mr. Ruggles 
Wright, the postmaster of this t., in his evidence 
as to this road, said, that the inhabitants and tra- 
vellers of every description have suffered great in- 
convenience for the want of a road, that there 
have been several mails lost and horses drowned 
by attempting to transport the mail on the ice 
early in the fall and late in the spring (there 
being no land road), and that not a year has passed 
for the last twenty-five years buck that accidents 
have not occurred either in the loss of property or 
men's lives, as there arc about four weeks at these 
seasons of the year, between the opening and closing 
of the boat navigation, when the river is not pass- 
able, owing to the ice at the Chaudiere breaking 
up 15 days earlier than it does 60 miles below, and 
that this is the only possible communication they 
have to and from a market. Mr. Wright has, 
with some assistance, opened all the roads to make 
it possible for his people to pass and repass. One 
stone causeway, in particular, cost him above £ 1000. 

The total sum expended by htm and some of his 
neighbours upon these roads, during the 20 years 
after he first obtained the property, amounted 
to £2211 17«. Qd. Iwsides .t055 expended by 
the government commissioners making a total of 
cC31<i6 17«. (W. The extent of roads made with 
this money is about thirty miles. — This t. alKiunds 
with excellent timber, which is chiefly beech, 
birch, maple, pine, elm and some oak, Imsswood 
and hemlock ; the oak is fit for naval purposes and 
much of the pine for masts of large dimensions. 
Of the oak there are 4 siwcics : the white, rwk, 
scarlet and red. Of the pine kind there are 10: 
the white spruce fir, balsam fir, shrub pine, hem- 
lock spruce, yellow pine, Amcricnn larch or tama- 
rack, black spruce fir, pitch pine, red or Norway 
pine and white pine. Of tlie birch 5 .sorts : the 
yellow, black canoe, white and dwarf birch. Of 
the maple 6 : the soft or white maple, black sugar 
maple, red or hard maple, sugar maple, striped 
maple or morsewotxl, and another species for which 
there is no English name. Of the beech 2 spe- 
cies, and also of the ash 2 species, the white and 
black. The walnut, the hickory and the butter- 
nut, a species of the walnut, and red and white 
cedar. Of the cherry there are 3 kinds ; of the 
willow 6; of the basswood 2; of the elm 2, the 
common and slippery elm: &c. There are in 
all, ns far as have been observed 42 species of 
forest trees and upwards of 60 shrubs. — Hull is 
abundantly watered by rivers, lakes and numerous 
tributary streams ; the Gatineuu is the princi]ral 
river, and in a large and rapid stream runs dia- 
gonally through the T. from n. e. to 8. w. and is 
only navigable for canoes. In the chain of high- 
lands arc a great many lakes, some of which are 
exceedingly beautiful and abound with excellent 
trout, The principal lake lies in a transverse po- 
sition from lot 23 in the 11th range to the com- 
mencement of lot 28 in the 13th range ; it is 3 ni. 
in length by ^ m. in breadth and forms a narrow 
pass of about 10 chains wide on the division line 
between the 11th and 12th ranges, which inter- 
sects a small island situate about midway from shore 
to shore ; its shape is extremely irregular and nt lot 
28 it branches off into Eardlcy ; its waters discharge 
into the Gatineau at the line between the 15th 
and 16th ranges, thus running in <'. contrary di- 
rection to the current of that river — a singularity 
occasioned by the highlands which stretch across 
the 8th, 9th and 10th ranges, and form a natural 

I i !l 









i' ' 

divinon of the waters flowing north and south. — 
The Columbia Pond is a small lake lying at the 
extremity of the 5th range ; its waters fall into 
the Ottawa a little south of the estuary of the 
Oatineau. — An iron bed of great richness has been 
discovered :n the township, but it has never been 
worked. There is also a lead-mine on the Oati- 
neau River, known only to the Indians, who have 
Itrought down quantities of it ; but the situation 
has not been precisely ascertained, owing to the 
reluctance which the Indians have to communi- 
cate discoveries of this nature. Marble of the 
finest quality is abundant : there is a very fine bed 
(if this mint-rul on the Oatineau River, near the first 
rapid, about 4()0 yards above the still water, where 
a steam-boat may float with ease and safety. This 
bed of marble is supposed to be of immense ex- 
tent ; it appears in the neighbourhood of the iron- 
mine and the Lac des Chiits abounds with it ; that 
witich appears at the surface is of inferior qua- 
lity : this quarry forms a precipice one mile in 
length and (iO or 70 ft. high and is of a remark- 
ably white u|)pearancc ; it is a fair species of white 
marble without vein. There is limestone of the 
licst quality on the borders of the Oatineau, and also 
a leud-minc in the lUth or 12th range. Oninite is 
found in the interior, on the ranges of rocks or 
mountains. — Li this t. are several excellent and 
well-cultivdted farms, and Mr. Wright has from 5 
to 6,00(> acres under cultivation ; his son, Mr. T. 
Wright, bus two establishments in the 7th and 
Rth ranges on the k. bank of the Oatineau ; his 
lands are advantageously situated and in a high 
state of culture, aflbrding excellent pasture. — The 
Volumhiii Farm is situated in the 4(h range, alMiut 
1 j mile from the Ottawa and w. of Mr. Wright's 
house. The extent, position, and culture of this 
farm deserve to be particularly commended. The 
convenient and judicious sulxlivision and economy 
exhibited in the management of this farm arc 
truly meritorioui, and reflect great credit upon 
the enterprise and judgment of the pniprietor. 
All kinds of grain are produced in abundance and 
hemp and flax may be cultivated with great suc- 
cess. Mr. Wright one year raised a vi^ry con- 
siderable quantity of hemp and sent a very fine 
sjiecimen, measuring 14ft. in length, to the Ilemp 
Committee of Montreal ; he also tent two samples 
of the se '' with two bundles of the hemp to 
the Society of Arts at Quebec, and was compli- 
mented in nitum with a silver medal ; from a 

certificate which he received from the Hemp Com- 
mittee it appeared that he raised, that year, 11 
parts out of 13 of the total raised in the pro- 
vince. Although this is a very fine country for 
the growth of hemp, Mr. Wright was obliged to 
discontinue growing it on a large scale on account 
of the expense of preparing it for market, the 
hemp-peelers charging him one dollar per day, or 
one bushel of wheat, labourers being very scarce : 
he saved nearly 100 bushels of seed, which he sold 
in Montrerd at a fair price, and was obliged 
to send the hemp to Halifax in Nova Scotia for 
sale. He now grows only ivaoll quantities for his 
own use. — The expense and process of clearing 
and fencing an acre of wild land, its usual pro- 
duce, and the process of clearing, according to 
Mr. Wright's evidence before the Committee, are 
as follow : — The process of clearing consists in 
three things: cutting down the under brush at 
7*. 6t/. per acre ; chopping down the wood in rows, 
two rods wide, at 25*. per acre ; firing, bunung, 
and branding fit for the harrow, at 27». 6(/. per 
acre, after which the work is done. The total 
ex^iensc of clearing is therefore £ .3 per acre, and 
the common price of putting in the crop is lOf. 
per acre. The poorer settlers find themselves oc- 
casionally wnstraincd to adopt a more imperfect 
mode of clearing: they first cut out the brush 
and small trees, leaving the larger trees standing, 
which shade the land so that they do not get 
more than half a crop. The produce per acre is 
from 2 to 400 bush, of potatoes, 25 bush, of oats 
or wheat, 30 bush, of Indian com, 200 bush, of 
turnips. — JMr. Wright's constant aim to improve 
the breeds of cattle has been attended with much 
success ; he brought over from England, many 
years past, at great exiiense, some of the best 
Herefordshire and Devon breeds, by way of ex- 
periment; these cattle crossed produced u breed 
justly celebrated, which also, crossed with the Ca- 
nadian breed, pnxluce excellent cattle. — Wright 
Village is pleasantly situated at the a. R. angle of 
the T. iKH-upying the front of lots No. 2, 3 and 4 in 
the 3rd range ; it contains a handsome church, 
6i< ft. by ilR ft.' with a steeple 121 ft. high, it 
stands on an eminence facing the river, decorated 
with much taste and surmounted by a neat spire- 
Nearly in front of the church, close by the high- 
way, stands a stone house of two stories, where 
an hotel establishment is carried on, affording 
comfortable accommodations. Opposite to these. 


on the other side of the main road and on the bank 
of the river, are the corn and saw-mills, a black- 
smith's forge, stores, &c. and a spacious and con- 
spicuous stone edifice with a cupola, often mis- 
taken for a church from its singular construction. 
The miU-dani projecting out upon tlie reef of 
rocks, towards the rapid, is remarkable fur its ex- 
tent and solidity, w. of the mill are the long 
causeway and bridge, over which the public road 
is continued. On the first rise of tlie hill, w. of 
the bridge, is the handsome and comfortable ha- 
bitation of Philemon Wright, Esq. There is also 
a pust-oflice. As the present village is exclusively 
the property of Mr. Wright and his sons, conii)e- 
tition in trade is not so active as iKrhups the ge- 
neral interests of the t. rei^uire. It might there- 
fore be cxi)edicnt to establish a government vil- 
lage, open to emigrants settling there ; and lot 21, 
in the 2nd range, appears to be a verj' projiitiuus 
site for that puqxtse, on account of its contiguity 
to the Chaudii re Lake, an expansion of the Ot> 
tawa; lot 14 in the range also aflbrds an advan- 
tageous site fur a village, which might be built ut 
the junction of two roads, near wliiih there is a 
saw-mill and also a tolerably well-cultivated farm. 
Mr. Wright curries on the timber trade to great 
extent and bus u large manufactory of ]K)t and 
pearlushes. His tirst export of timber was to Mont- 
real, and, in l>t07, he arrived at Quebec with the 
first timber ever tent there frcnn tlie bunks of the 
Ottawa. The expense of conveying timber to 
Quebec being less than to Montreal is the reason 
why, in 1)123, above 30<> cominun cargoes were 
sent to Quebec and nut one to Montreal through 
the some channel : in a few years, without duubt, 
this (juantity of timber sent to the QueU-c market 
will be quadrupled, and the exports from this t. uf 
various other articles, such as tluur, beef, |K>rk, Sue, 
will be increasixl in the same ratio. — In this -r. are 
3 schools attended by about lAO scholars, who are 
instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic ; 
they are 8up))orted by voluntary contributions and 
two of them are under the patronage of the Koyul 
Institution in Canada. The t. at present con- 
sists of one (Htrish, in which are a protestant epis- 
copal church and a methodist episcopal cliu))el, but 
there is no parsonage-house. — The |Mipulali(in is 
constantly and rapidly increasing and, with the 
exception of the rising generation, is almost en- 
tirely AmericHn. The inhabitants in 11121 were 
placed under the su|ierintendeiice of iMr. Wright, 
who has adopted various means to excite the in- 

dustry and secure the comfort and happiness of all 
classes of his little colony; and perhaps in no {Hirt 
of the province will be found more industry and a 
better understanding among the settlers, for they 
seem universally to enjoy a degree of case and 
comfort seldom to be met with in settlements of 
such recent date : every thing exhibits a degree of 
afSucnce and social prosiierity not reasonably to 
be expected in settlements formed within 'M) years ; 
— neat dwelling-houses, many uf them two stories 
high, extensive bams, &c., wcU-cultivatcd tields 
and enchisures, numerous cuttle grazing, lurge 
ilocks of sheep wandering over u grateful soil and 
cropping an abundant pasturage, — these objects, 
happily combining the pleasures and advantages 
of rural and pastoral lite, not only delight the oc- 
casional visiter, but are calculated to inspire the 
emulation and encourage the hopes uf many a de- 
sponding emigrant. The reader will not fail to 
ask, " From whom are all these benefits derived ? 
Whose jH;rsevcring talent and enterprising spirit 
first pierced the gloom of these forests luid con- 
verted a wilderness of trees into fields oriorn? 
Whose industrious hand first threw into tliis na- 
tural desert the seeds of plenty and prosperity ?"— 
Tlie answer is, JMr. Philemon Wright, iiii humble 
American from Wobum in the state of Mussucliu- 
sets: through hurdships,privatioiis and dangers that 
would huve appalled an ordinary mind, he pene- 
trated an almost inaccessible country, and where he 
found desolation and solitude he introduced civiii- 
Kutiuii und the useful arts ; by his almost unaided 
skill and indefatigable industry the savage paths of 
a dreary wilderness have liccn changed into the 
cheerful haunts uf man ; the gloomy upland forests 
have given way to smiling corn-fields; the wet 
und wild savannas, sinking under stunted spruce 
and cedar, have been cleared und drained into 
luxuriant meadows ; the |)erilous wutcrlull, whose 
hoiirse noise wiu) once the frightful voice of an 
uwful solitude, is rendered obedient to tlic laws of 
art, and now converts the majestic tenants of the 
forest into the habitations of man and grinds his 
food; tlie rivers und lakes, once fruitful in vuiii, 
now breed their living pniduce for the use of 
human beings, and, with deep und rapiil current, 
traiis]iort on their smiNith and glusny surface the 
fruits of his industry ; the deep recesses of the 
earth are made to expose their luincrul treasures, 
from the Lirtliday of time concealed. In fine, 
the judicious and persevering industry of imc sue- 
cetiful adventurer ho* converted all the rude ad> 



I Ifl 




ji ii| 


vantages of primeval nature into the germs of 
agricultural, manufacturing and commercial pros- 
perity. Mr. Wright, however, has been amply re- 
warded for his honourable exertions; his private 
fortune has been increased in proportion to the good 
he hag created, and the liberal conduct of the pro- 
vincial government towards him has been un- 
bounded: 9,145 acres have been granted to him 
and his family in Hull and Lochaber, under letters 
patent ; 7.000 acres in Hull have been reconveyed 
to him by his associates and not less than 5,000 
acres in Templeton, making altogether 21,145 
acres. The proceedings of Mr. Wright in form- 
ing the extensive and important settlements of 
Hull have been detailed by him, and are highly 
interesting and useful ; interesting as developing 
the successful exertions of an enterprising and 
indefatigable settler, and useful as being well 
adapted to guide and encourage others in forming 
settlements in a countiy as remote from civiliza- 
tion as from assistance. After having visited the 
o>iionsive tract which was destined to become the 
theatre of his exertions and the reward of his use- 
ful enterprise, he returned with his two companions 
to his native home, Wobum, in the state of Mas- 
sachuscts, having determined on the measures 
proper fur him to pursue. After hiring about 
25 men and providng himself with mill-irons, 
axes, scythes, hoes and all other tools thought by 
him to be the most useful and necessary, together 
with a number of barrels of clear pork (pork freed 
from the bones), he commenced his journey with 
14 horses, ti oxen, 7 sleighs and 5 families. This 
emigration took place on the 2nd of Feb. 1800. 
On the 10th of the same month Mr. Wright ar- 
rived at Montreal and then proceeded towards 
Hull, travelling generally among the old settle- 
ments only 15 m. a day for the first 3 days, be- 
cause the sleighs were wider than those used in 
that country and because it was necessary that the 
horses and oxen sliould go abreast. During these 
:i nights he stopped with the habitans, and arrived 
on the Ith day at the foot of the l.ung Sault, 
which was the extremity of the travelled roads in 
that part of Lower Canada. From this place he 
was still 80 miles from his plitce of destination ; 
and there not being any road und the snow deep, 
he was obliged to halt and alter the tennis so as to 
go singly, while a part of his men proceeded for- 
ward to cut a mad through the snow. After 
tliesc necessary prcpiurutions he pn)cee<led on for 
the head of the Long 8ault, observing in due 

time to fix upon some spot near water to en- 
camp for the night, particularly observing that 
there were no dry trees to fall upon them, and if 
there were to cut them down. Then he cleared 
away the snow and cut down trees for fire for the 
night, the women and children sleeping in covered 
sleighs and the men with blankets round the fire 
and the cattle made fast to the standing trees ; in 
this situation about SOpersons spent the night. Be- 
fore he retired to rest he prepared sufficient food for 
the next day so as to lose no time when daylight 
appeared, always observing to keep the axemen 
forward cutting the road and the foraging team 
next the axemen, and the families in the rear ; in 
this way he proceeded on for 3 or 4 days, observing 
to look out for a good place for the camp, until 
he arrived at the head of the Long Sault. From 
that place he travelled the whole of the distance 
upon the ice until he came to the intended 
spot, about 65 miles. The guide whom he had 
taken with him on bis first journey was as much 
unacquainted with the ice as the whole of the 
party, not one of them having ever travelled up 
this ice before. Their progress was very slow and 
impeded by their fear of losing any of the cattle, 
and the axemen in the front were obliged to try 
every rod of ice, which, being covered with snow 
about a f(X)t deep, it was impossible to know 
whether it was safe without sounding it with the 
axe. On his journey up the river, the first day, 
Mr. W. met a savage and his wife drawing a child 
upon a little bark sleigh, who gaied at the party 
with astonishment, more especially at the cattle ; 
as if they had come from some distant part or from 
the clouds; their astonishment appeared to in- 
crease as they walked round the teams, the party 
having halted ; ^ind they tried to hold a conversa- 
tion concerning the ice, but not a word could be 
understood. The Indian pointed to the woods, ai 
if giving directions to his squaw to go there and 
make herself comfortable ; she immediately went 
oif and he proceeded to the head of the company 
without the promise of fee or reward, with his 
small axe trying the ice every step he went, as if 
he had been the proper guide or owner of the 
projKjrty. They passed on until the approach of 
night ; when, the banks of the river being high, 
about 20 feet, it was found imposMible to ascend 
them with tiio sleighs ; they therefore left them 
on the ice and ascended the banks of the river, 
and clearing away the snow cut down large 
trees as usual to make a fire« carefully obierving 




01 if 
I of 



that no stooping or dead trees could fall upon 
them, and after cooking supper and getting regular 
refreshment they spread their bedding round the 
fire and made themselves as comfortable as they 
could, having nothing over them but large trees and 
the canopy of the heavens. Before daylight they 
cooked their breakfast and provisions for the day 
and, as soon as daylight appeared, they vere ready 
to proceed. The Indian, who had behaved with 
uncommon civility during the night, having taken 
his regular refreshments, proceeded to the head 
of the company as he hud done the preceding day 
with uncommon agility. All being under weigh as 
soon as daylight appeared, they proceeded as usual 
without meetingwithanyaccident; when nightwas 
approaching they did the same as the night before 
and began their march early in the following 
morning, the Indian taking the lead as before. 
Owing to the deepness of the snow, it took them 
about 6 days in passing up this river, about 04 
miles, when they all arrived safe at the township 
of Hull. After some little trouble in cutting the 
brush and banks, they ascended the height, which 
is about 20 fevt from the water. The Indian, 
after he had seen them safe up the bank and spent 
the night with them, intimated that he must re- 
turn to his squaw and child ; and after receiving 
some presents for his great services, he took his 
departure for his squaw, having to go at least 6U 
miles. The party thanked him in the best manner 
they could make him understand, and three times 
hu^ezaed him ; and he left in great spirits, being 
well pleased. Mr. Wright arrived Mar. 7th and 
immediately, with the assistance of all hands, 
felled the first tree, for every person who was 
able to use the axe endeavoured and assisted in 
cutting; after which they commenced cutting 
down and clearing a s|N)t for the erection of a 
house, and continued cutting, clearing and erecting 
other buildings for the accommodation of the fami- 
lies and men. As soon as they commenced cutting 
and clearing, the chiefs of two tribes of Indians 
who live at the Luke uf the Two Mountains came 
to them and viewed all their tools and materials 
with astonishment and would often h<N)p and 
laugh, being quite unacquainted with tools or 
things of that nature. They also viewed with 
astonishment the manner in which the oxen and 
horses were harnessed. They seemed to view all 
things with great pleasure. Home of them fetched 
their children to see the oxen and horses, having 
never seen a tame animal before, being brought 

up near the great lakes to the westward : they 
would also ask the liberty of using one or two 
axes to see how they could cut down a tree with 
them, as their own axes are very small, weighing 
only half a pound and Mr. Wright's axes weighed 
from four to live pounds. When they had cut 
down a tree they would jump, hoop and huzsa, 
being quite pleased with having cut down the tree 
so quickly. They received a glass of rum each 
and returned to their sugar-making in the greatest 
harmony. They continued very friendly to pass 
backward and forward for about ten days, often 
receiving small presents, for which tlw,« made re- 
turns in sugar, venison, &c. Their chiefs assem- 
bled together and procured an English interpreter 
George Brown, who had an Indian wife and 
family and who spoke both languages. They re- 
quested him to demand of ISIr. W. by what au- 
thority he was cutting down their wood and taking 
possession of their land. To which he answered 
— by virtue of authority received at Quebec from 
their great father, who lived on the other side of 
the water, and from Sir John Johnston, the agent 
in the Indian department, through whom they 
receive their yearly dues from government. They 
could not be made to believe that their great 
father or other persons at Quebec would allow 
them to cut down their timber and clear their 
land and destroy their sugaries and hunting- 
ground without consulting them, as they had been 
in the peaceable and quiet possession of their lands 
for generations past : and in this part of the 
country were their chief hunting-grounds, su- 
garies, fisheries, &c. ; and they were afraid the 
settlers would destroy their beaver, their deer and 
their sugaries. After a long conference, carried 
on with good temper on both sides, and with 
sound argument on the side of the poor Indians, 
it was agreed to leave the question to the decision 
of the pn)per authorities at Quelwc, which after- 
wards decided against the Indians, Ix^causu their 
ancestors had been compelled to cede their country 
for certain annual presents, which the Indians con- 
ceived to be an inadequate compensation ; they, 
however, submitted to the decision with go<Ml faith 
and almost without a murmur. They then tigreed 
that Mr. W. should be a brother chief ; and if any 
difficulty occurred, it should be settled aniimg the 
chiefs. They then proceeded to crown him in their 
usual manner as a brutln chief; after which they 
dined together and kissed each other's cheeks, and 
a number uf other ceremonies paiwd too numerous 







'v I 

■I ! 

■ 11' i -I 

1 I 


to mention, such as burying the hatchet and a num- 
ber of other usual Indian formalities. After this 
ceremony the settlers and the Indians often as- 
sembled together in the greatest harmony in both 
villages upon various occasions and always with 
the greatest friendship and good understanding, 
without having to revert to one question fur the 
law to decide. The judicious and just eulogium 
which Mr. Wright has passed on the Indians 
ought not to ))e omitted : — " / viust acknowledge 
that I never was acquainted with any people that 
more strictly regarded justice and equity tlu those 
people have for these twenty years past." — After 
having arranged with the Indians, Mr. W. con- 
tinued cutting down and clearing a spot for the 
erection of a house and other buildings for the 
accommodation of the families and men. — Thus 
were the important settlements of Hull com- 
menced ; and it is to be regretted that the plan 
and extent of this work will not allow the author 
to trace their gradual increase and improvement 
to the present date; for a more ample account 
would prove very beneficial to all who are de- 
sirous, by imitating Air. Wright's laudable ex- 
ample, to obtain affluence and happiness through 
the medium of emigration — unfortunately so ne- 
cessary at present to the superabundant popula- 
tion of the mother country. — IJngranted and ««- 
located 21,250 acres. — The following statistical 
statements, made in the years 1820 and 1828, 
will show the increasing prosperity of the settle- 
ments in Hull. 


Cliurt'hi's, Pro. 
Curates, Epia. 
Mills for grind- 
ing bark 

1830. Win. 





I Lime-kilns 

i Luoiiis 

I I'otasherira 

I l'i'nrlaHlii.>ric's' 

1820. I82II. 





Annual AgricHllHral Produce, in huihelt. 

% ■■ 

Wheat , 


Barley . 




Oxen . 
Cows . 
















Hye . aoi9 i,:m 

Indian rom H,tio 84,000 

Map. sug. cwt*. . U3 
Hay, tuns :i,237 
Flax, lbs. 7H0 

Li't Sloct. 

imn. iim. 
4IN mm 




. A* 



. Mi 


I N D 

HuMouiN, river, in the co. of Rimouski, runs 
into the 8. w. side of the R. Matai)ediac, about 
3 m. below Lake Matapediac. 

HuNORY Bay, in Lake St. Francis, expands 
into the w. side of Catherine's Town in the S. of 
Beauharnois. A canal is projected to extend from 
this bay to the first waters of the R. St. Louis. 

Huntkr's Brook, at the s. w. extremity of 
Drayton t., joins the R. Connecticut between 
Hall's Stream and Indian Stream. 

HuNTKRSTOWN, township, in the co. of St. 
jVIaurice, in the rear of Riviere du Loup, Grand- 
pre and Dumontier : bounded b. by the projected 
T. of Caxton; w. by lands claimed by the late 
Charles Lanaudicre, Esq. as belonging to the S. 
of Maskinonge ; N. w. by waste crown lands. — 
A tract of very little value, being a continued 
stratum of rock lying very near the surface ; to- 
ward the rear it rises into broken and almost 
mountainous ridges. Pine and maple are abundant, 
but redur, spruce and hemlock much more so. — 
The Rivitre du Loup with some small lakes and 
little rivulets water it very well. 24,620 ocres 
were granted in 1800 to Mr. John Jones, the 
present proprietor. 


Huron Village, i;. St. Gabriel, S. 

HuRONB, des, river, rises in the S. of St. Charles, 
in the co. of Rouville, and running s. w. traverses 
the S. of Rouville, where it receives a small stream 
that rises in a lake on the summit of the Rouville 
Mountain and then striking into Chambly East it 
receives the united waters of the rivers Barre and 
du Rapide : after this increase it runs more to the 
w. and loses itself in Chambly Basin. The course 
of this A. is only 20 miles, although it is of con- 
siderable magnitude: it not only contributes to 
the fertility of the soil, but by its sinuous mean- 
ders forms a strong feature of euibellishuient. 


Indian LANbB and Inoian». Adjoining God- 
manchcster on the wp"* * > space reserved fur the 
use of the tlomiciliated Indians of St. Regis and 
commonly known by the name of the Indian 
Lands: it forms a triangle bounded by Lake St. 
Francis, Godmanchester and the line of 45" : itx 
side on the lake is about 10 miles and that on the 
line 12^ miles. The land is, generally, of supe- 



rior quality and well furnished with fine timber. 
Of the I7.320 acres of leased lands in this settle- 
ment, there are upwards of 4000 low and unfit 
for cultivation, except at a great expense; on 
these grow black ash, elm, cedar, pine and tama- 
rack. There are besides about two thousand acres 
of open marsh, not leased, which grow nothing 
but coarse grass, bushes of various kinds, wil- 
lows and alders. — These open marshes were of 
considerable use to the settlers on their first ar- 
rival in furnishing winter food fo:- neat cattle, 
but now that the inhabitants have all got part of 
their farms sown with tame grass, these marshes 
are comparatively of little value and are likely to 
remain so for generations to come, as nothing but 
the lowering of the Coteau dii Lac rapid can make 
them fit for cultivation. This, if not done by the 
hand of man, but left to the gradual ojierations of 
the stream of the St. Lawrence, will take a longer 
time than is ensy to be calculated. — The remain- 
ing part of the leased land consists nf rising grounds 
of no great elevation, which, if cleared, would look 
like so many islands in the midst of those swales. 
Where the ridges are highest the is rathe 
stony, but taking the dry lands on an average the 
soil is good and fit to raise any sort of crops, with 
respect either to quality or quantity, that will grow 
on any other part of Lower Canada. The timber 
growing on these ridges consists of maple, birch, 
beech, basswood and occasionally some hemlock ; 
and these ridges once produced considerable quan- 
tities of white pine and oak. The only stream of 
consequence in the settlement is Salmon River, 
which, from its mouth to the province line, a di- 
stance of four miles and upwards, is navigable for 
vessels not drawing more than four feet of water : 
this R. is a great thoroughfare for the admission of 
American produce. — Among the various obstacles 
to the improvement of the settlement, the want 
of roads is not the least. The difticulty and ek- 
(lense attending the bringing of the Grand Voyer 
to such a distance has, no doubt, been one of the 
causes of the want of roads in this place ; and now 
that part of the difficulty has been surmounted 
and a road laid out, there remains a still greater, 
vis. the doing the necessary work. Owing to a 
great proportion of the St. Regis Indian reserva- 
tion being low and swampy marshes, it is neces- 
sary to pave the way over which the line of rood 
runs with logs, which makes the labour neoe^ 

sarily so heavy, that unless some legislative aid 
is obtained, it must be a long time before any 
road can be in such a state as to render travel- 
ling comfortable. Although the marshes in this 
tract are mither few nor small, there is not the 
slightest vestige of any of the diseases which 
usually attend such places. In fact there is not 
a more healthy people on the whole continent 
of America. 

StaHsticg, including the Dundee Settlement on pari 
of the Indian Lands. 

Land payinf; rent .... 

I^nd cleared ..... 
Lund paying rent, but low and unHt fur cultivation 
Manh meado«', unfit for cultivation and nut 
rented . . . . . 

Total population 


Tfae others cbiefly Roman Catholics. 



Potash kettles . 
Pot and pearl asbcries 

70 I Houses in Dundee 
2 Distilleries 

Live Slock, 
exclutlve qftlte Slock of Hit Indiani, 


Working oxen 
Milch cows . 

132 Young cattle 

200 I Sheep 

341 i Swine . 






The Indians, who were the alx)riginal inha- 
bitants of the province of Lower Canada, have 
not been nearly exterminated without leaving 
materials for melancholy reflection. Even tribes 
of savages cannot be swept away from the earth 
without creating a sentiment of regret and a moral 
derived from the mutability of every thing human. 
Their extinction having been principally effected 
by the thirst of dominion and the hunger of ava- 
rice, assisted by superstition, leaves no enviable 
trace of the milder virtues of the christians. The 
few remains of these i)er8ccutcd tribes are scat- 
tered about the province and peaceably submit to 
the slow and gradual amelioration of more civilised 
habits. Their rude principles of unenlightened 
faith are already supplanted by the doctrines of 
the Roman Catholic creed, to which they uni- 
versally subscribe; and if a greater number of 
schools were established among them, it is pro- 
bable that in a few years their origin would be 
only known by their colour.— The names of the 

iii ' 





I I 






! \ 

5 , 


I I 


existing tribes and their places of residence in 
this province are as follow : 


Placci or reiidcnce. 

IroquoiH or Mohawks. 

Algoiiquins and Nipissin- 



IMirmacs, MalMtes 
Anml ('cites, 


; Montagnex 

Lac des Deux Montagnes. 

Village of St. Fraiigois ; 

the S. of llecancGur; from 

the R. St. Fraiiris tu the 

Chaudi^re; and at the 

mouths of the Kistigouthe 

and the Madawaska. 

Village of Jeune Lorctte. 

or 5 Towards the Gulf of St 

I Lawrence. 

5 Lake St. John and the 
I Sugucnay country. 

Indians of the Algonquin and Tete do Boule na- 
tions hunt along the h. St. jVIauriee. The fa- 
milies that occupied the hunting-grounds between 
the rivers Ste. Anne and St. JMaurice are entirely 

The Abenaki Tribe reside in the Indian Village 
in the cast side of the b. St. Francis, in the S. of 
St. Fran<;oi8. The village consists of about 40 
cabins or houses of wood indifferently built. These 
converged Indians subsist upon their own lands in 
that seigniory by raising, in their peculiarly care- 
less manner, some Indian com and potatoes, and 
by rearing poultry and pigs : they sometimes in- 
crease these means by (isliing and sometimes by 
hunting parties : the latter is but a precarious re- 
source, as they are compelled to go to an immense 
distance before they can meet with game to repay 
their labour ; for as the habitations of civilized 
men have spread over the province, the animals 
that were the prior occupants have ilcd for pro- 
tection to the recesses of more distant forests. 
This V. contains a church and a parsonage-house, 
at which the missionary who superintends the re- 
ligious concerns of the tribe always resides. An 
interpreter also has a permanent residence among 
them. Some of this tribe inhabit an Indian v. in 
the S. of Bi'cancour, which is a little below the 
V. of Ui'cancour and consists of some houses of 
wood, ill-built, or rather cabins. The manners 
and occupations of these Indians are precisely the 
same as those of the v. of St. Francois. They 
have also a village in the co. of Riniouski, at the 
confluence of the rivers Madawaska and St. John ; 

and another at the mouth of the R. Ristigouchc, 
in the co. of Bonaventure, called the Indian V^il- 
lage Mission. — The Abenaki Indians of the v. of 
St. Francois hold, by letters patent, 8150 acres in 
the T. of Durham. 

The Algonquins and Iroquoin Tribes inhabit an 
Indian village in the S. of the Lake of Two 
Mountains, which is agreeably seated on a point 
of land projecting into the lake and consists of 
about 60 houses, a church and a parsonage-house, 
where a missionary always resides. The Indians 
of this village are the descendants of a tribe that 
inhabited or frequented the lands bordering upon 
Lake Huron; the few who survived the mas- 
sacre of that race by the treachery of their ene- 
mies effected their escape, and their progeny now 
occupy 2 or 3 small villages in different ports of 
the province. Those of the village of the Two 
Mountains are become civilized and have adopted 
many of the manners and customs of the Canadians 
and acquired a knowledge of the French language, 
which they use fluently : they are quiet and inof- 
fensive and preserve the greatest harmony among 
themselves and civility towards the other inha- 
bitants. They place an implicit confidence in the 
resident minister, whose influence over them is 
unbounded. Some lands are assisned to ^hem near 
their village, which they cultivate with wheat, 
Irdian corn and other grain ; of late years they 
have also planted potatoes in considerable quan- 
tities : from these sources, increased by the pro- 
duce of the chase, which a part of the men follow 
during the winter season, a subsistence is derived 
which, apparently, they enjoy with some of the 
comforts of civilization. 

The Montagnais or mountaineer nation, called 
in the Cree language Papinashuah, which means 
" laughers or sneerers," are descended from the 
Algonquins and frequent the immense tract of 
country lying from the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence northward to the Hudson's Bay territory ; 
they are generally a harmless people without any 
fixed habitations, wandering in the limits assigned 
among themselves us hunting-grounds, their only 
means of living l)cing by hunting and fishing. In 
1804 there were about 1000 of these Indians, 
women and children included, between the River 
St. Maurice, King's Posts, Mingan Seigniory and 
coast of Labrador. In 1809 their number hud dimi- 
nished to about 800 and in 1824 it amounted to onlv 





700 at most, owing to stan'ation, small-pox, fevers 
and the inordinate use of spirituous liquors. When 
they go on board of vessels mm is their principal 
object, by which they get so much intoxicated that 
often in getting ashore they upset and many are 
drowned. When in a state of intoxicatioi they 
often sleep in damp places, by which chey get 
their death. During summer they subsist on fish, 
fowl and eggs, of which they have great plenty ; 
nnd in winter on beaver, deer, partridges and porcu- 
pines ; and, when they are near lakes, by cutting 
holes in the ice, they get trout and white fish : 
the former they take with hooks, the latter with 
nets ; but as this is a kind of laborious work, the 
ice being from 3 to 4 feet thick, they seldom try it 
except when in a state of starvation. They have 
u great repugnance to agricultural labour and have 
no traditions among them besides a faint idea of 
the order of the Jesuits, who taught them the first 
principles of religious worship, and, having the 
greatest influence over them, converted almost all 
of them to Christianity. When the Jesuits first 
settled among them, in the reign of Louis XIV., 
on the borders of Lake St. John, the Montagnais 
nation was in its greatest prosperity. The num- 
ber of Indians in the vicinity of l. St. John is 
now very inconsiderable; there are only 10 fa- 
milies on the border of the lake, about the same 
number in the Chicoutimi country, and about 15 
families on Lake Chuamouchouan, which is 50 1. 
w. of Lake St. John ard the last post in the 
jagucnay country. 1 . eir numbers have also 
greatly diminished in the wretched country round 
Lake Alistassinni, which abounds with peltries of 
various kinds, since the time when the North- 
West Company held the King's Post, and more 
particularly of late years, since ardent spirits have 
been introduced among them. Their number 
has also been reduced by the small-pox, brought 
from Europe in the apparel and blankets given 
to them in exchange for their furs : with this dis- 
ease from 60 to 100 have died in a day. There 
arc now only 50 or 60 families who trade at the 
posts of the company : without these causes of 
mortality the number would have been at least 
500. Their number has also been decreased by 
starvation, from the want of those animals which 
were once used for their sustenance and which 
they first began to destroy in too great profusion 
many ages ago. The Company of the Indies^ 

which had an exclusive right to the trade, having 
greatly enhanced the value of elk-skins, which 
then abounded in this country, induced the na- 
tives to destroy that animal merely for the sake of 
its skin; thus that improvident people destroyed 
almost totally the species of animal which sup- 
plied their chief subsistence. From that time 
their numbers gradually decreased. Whenever 
one of the members of a Montagnais family dies, 
a victim to want, he is buried on the spot by the 
others, who immediately afterwards remove their 
camp to another place and so on until only one 
remains, when he abandons the place altogether 
and rushes heedless through the woods till he him- 
self drops, the lost victim of despair and starva- 
tion. — The dress of the females of this tribe is 
singularly varied in colours, and it usually con- 
sists in a loose piece of blue cloth trimmed with 
scarlet for their lower garment and a mantle of 
printed calico. Their hair is rolled up on each 
side of the head and twisted round with red tape, 
or with ribbon, to which they are very partial ; a 
cap of a conical shape made of red, blue, green 
and white cloth, is generally worn, from beneath 
which a long queue of hair, twisted round with red 
tape, hangs down their back. The women smoke 
and drink spirits like the men. The usual dress 
of the men is very slovenly; it consists, gene- 
rally, in an old blue coat or frock, or calico shirt, 
with linen trousers. The whole native popula- 
tion now does not much exceed 300 - in a few 
years the race will be extinct, fo>- he chase is 
continually diminishing. — Mr. ' .ler Chasseur, a 
mineralogist of Quebec, in his communication to a 
committee of the House of Assembly, speaks of 
the present condition of these destitute human 
creatures in the following affecting terms : — " In 
mentioning White Birch Point I should add, that 
the tract is of no value to the Company of the 
Northern Posts, because it can in fact be useful 
only to those whose intention it is to render the 
productions of the soil profitable, instead of spe- 
culating upon the imbecility and ignorance of a 
tribe which is kept in a state of dependence pro- 
bably as revolting to humanity as the slave-trade 
in another hemisphere. The visitant of that wil- 
derness, which is in our immediate vicinity, can- 
not fail to experience the most afflicting senti- 
ments on observing the natives of the soil, whom 
the weight of years prevents from gratifying the 

1; ! 

K I 

t : 






I N D I A N S. 

excessive avidity of a foreign master, contesting 
for the remains of the most worthless animal 
which I had stripped of its skin. The slave 
knows that laws exist which at least protect his 
existence, but of that our Indian has not the 
slightest idea. The number of those unfortunate 
persons who die of hunger and want would be 
yet more considerable if the humanity of the ser- 
vants of the Company of the Posts did not fre- 
quently supply their wants." 

The Iroquois or Mohawks live in the villages of 
St. Regis, at the head of Lake St. Francis, and 
Coghnawaga, in the S. of Sault St. Louis, of 
which seigniory they are the proprietors, as well as 
of a tract in the nei^bourhood of St. Regis called 
Indian Lands. — Coghnawaga is on the banks of 
the St. Lawrence and consists of a church, a 
house for the missionary and about 140 other 
houses, principally built of stone, formed into 2 
or 3 rows, something resembling streets, but not 
remarkable for cleanliness or regularity: their 
occupants may be about 900, who chiefly derive 
a subsistence from the produce of their corn-fields 
and the rearing of some poultry and hogs, some- 
times assisted by fishing and hunting, which how- 
ever they do not, as in an uncivilized state, con- 
sider their principal employment. This tribe, the 
most numerous of any brought within the \>eXe of 
Christianity in Canada, has long been settled within 
a few miles of their present village. That the 
Aerce and restless spirit of the wandering savage 
can be, in a great degree, civilized, these Indians 
are a proof: some of the men of this village and 
of the village uf the Two Mountains were em- 
ployed in the British army, and no difficulty was 
found in bringing them under strict discipline, or 
in confining their operations within the laws of 
modern warfare. — The Village of lit. Regis, also 
inhabited by the Iroquois tribe, is in a rich and 
beautiful country and well situated at the western 
extremity of the Indian Lands. The boundary 
line between Canada and the United States passes 
through it. About 50 houses or rather hovels, a 
church, a chapel and a house for the catholic mi- 
nister, who is a missionary from the seminary of 
Quebec, compose the village. The habitations are 
poor, ill-built and more than commonly dirty ; 
attached to them are small gardens or rather 
enclosures, where Indian com and potatoes are 
planted, which, with what they raise on the Petite 

Isle St. Re^s and some other isles in the St.^Law- 
rence near the village, all of which are their own 
property, added to the produce of their fishing and 
sometimes hunting parties, constitute nearly their 
whole means of subsistence ; for indolence, mis- 
taken for the spirit of independence, destroys every 
idea of improving their condition by the profits 
of agriculture. — A reservation of land has been 
made for them by the American government simi- 
lar to the tract called Indian Lands. 

Slatistics of the Village of St. Regis. 

British Indians . 352 I Churches, R.C. 

American Indians . 369 Shopkeepers . 
Houses . . 1 10 1 Artisans 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Peas . . 1 t'iiO Indian com . 

Rye . . 1,000 Potutoes 


. 4,800 

The Hurons, or Yendat Tribe, in industry and 
a genius fruitful of resources, in bravery and 
eloquence, always surpassed all the other tribes 
of this part of the North American continent. 
Charlevoix accuses them of consummate treachery, 
and says that they united higher virtues with 
greater vices than any of the Indian tribes ; his 
testimony, however, should be viewed with suspi- 
cion, for the historian of an invading and extermi- 
nating enemy is not the best evidence to prove a 
want of good faith in a cheated and ruined race. 
When the French first settled in Canada, the 
Yendat nation comprised 40,000 souls and occu- 
pied the fairest portion of the North Ame- 
rican 6ontinent. This once powerful tribe were 
treacherously destroyed by the Iroquois, who, un- 
der the specious pretence of alliance, obtained the 
confidence of their opponents, and by an indiscri- 
minate massacre nearly extirpated the whole race : 
the few who escaped fled towards the habitations 
of civilized man and established themselves in the 
rear of Quebec, many hundreds of miles from 
their native country on the borders of Lake 
Huron. In the year 1642 their celebrated chief, 
Ahatsistari, was baptized and the Yendat war- 
riors soon followed the example of their favourite 
chieftain. The melancholy remains of this war- 
like race are chiefly living in a village in the S. 
of St. Gabriel called La Jeune Lorette, where they 
live by the chase and by fishing, drawing no part 
of their subsistence from the regular pursuits of 
agriculture. The Indians of this \illagc arc the 


descendants of the Huron Indians formerly domi- 
ciliated at Sillery. They are a quiet, pcaceahle, 
honest, industrious people and loyal subjects ; have 
always been very faithful and devoted to his ma- 
jesty's service waen required, although on one 
occasion their answer to the governor was misre- 
presented. They are extremely useful both in 
peace and war, being always ready to go on pub- 
lic duty. Their number has been so much reduced 
that it is now become quite inconsiderable; in 
1821 the population ofLa Jeune Lorette was 137, 
including only 32 heads of families, 3 unmarried 
young men above 21 years of age and 2 unmarried 
young women above 18; in the preceding 10 years 
there were 45 baptisms, 8 marriages and 29 burials. 
Inl824,the priest says, there were 28 or 29 families 
and about 70 communicants ; by another account it 
appears the families amounted to about 35 and 20 
persons were absent. — Alarch 13, 1651, a grant of 
21 1. in the S, of St. Gabriel was made to these 
Indians, and the settlement at La Jeune Lorette 
was made in 1697 ; this Indian village is between 
8 and 9 m. from the city of Quebec and is seated 
on the R. side of the R. St. Charles, on an emi- 
nence commanding a charming view of the river 
tumbling and foaming over the rocks and ledges 
to a great depth ; the prospect is also in other re- 
spects most interesting, varied and extensive, com- 
prising the beautiful city and environs of Quebec 
and extending wide and far over the southern 
shore of the St. Lawrence, terminated by the 
softened forms of the distant southern mountains. 
The number of houses in the v. is between 40 
and 50, with something like the appearance of 
neatness in their exterior ; they are chiefly built 
with wood nnd a few of them with stone. The 
church was built in 1730 at the expense of the 
Jesuits, the Indians working at the building and 
defraying part of the cost in furs : in 1824 the 
church and parsonage-house were much in decay, 
but, since the extinction of the order of Jesuits, 
the Indians have been no longer able, on account 
of their poverty, to make the necessary repairs. 
A Huron schoolmaster is supported partly by the 
government, but chiefly at the expense of the poor 
inhabitants. The mill was built in 1731 by the 
Jesuits out of the revenues, as the Indians suppose, 
of the estate belonging to the Huron nation. 
When the mill was first erected the Jesuits 
allowed the Indians a bushel of wheat annually to 
each family, but this allowance did not continue 

long ; it was soon reduced to one-half, that is, the 
Indians paid half-price for it: for the last 46 
years they have had none of this allowance ; the 
schoolmaster however had, till the death of the 
last of the Jesuits, nn allowance of one bushel of 
wheat per month ; the commissioners now allow 
him 5s. a month in commutation. The Indians 
know not on what account the Jesuits discon- 
tinued the allowance of wheat, but when it ceased 
they began to ask the Prre Giroux for their lands 
at Sillery. The allowances at present made to 
the Lorette Indians by the military government 
consist in annual presents in clothes for the war- 
riors, women and children and eight days' rations ; 
they are also allowed arms and ammunition aa 
warriors always ready for military service : these 
allowances were formerly made by the French to 
the Indian tribes. Mr. Berthelot, agent to the 
Jesuits' estates, demanded rents of the Indians, 
but they refused ; he threatened to prosecute, they 
wished him to do so, but no prosecutions have taken 
place. The articles manufactured in the village of 
Lorette and carried to market, or out of the village 
for sale, are mocassins, snow-shoes, sashes, baskets, 
Indian sleighs, fur caps and mittens, collars of 
porcupine quills, purses, reticules, bows, arro^vs, 
paddles, small canoes and little figures of Indians. 
The bows and arrows and mocassins arc very 
neatly finished by the squaws. For these articles 
they occasionally find a sale, but at half the price 
they formerly obtained, and are often obliged to 
barter them for merchandise. Some of these In- 
dians are joiners and house-carpenters and others 
are obliged to work as day labourers, there being 
much poverty; and four families, consisting of 
about 20 persons, are reduced to absolute want. 
The greater number have no land, but merely an 
emplacement I 40 arpents, however, are allotted to 
them in common, and some plant a few jiotatoes 
and sow a little Indian corn and a few oats on 
some little pieces of land, which they have re- 
ceived from their parents or purchased. Hunting 
and fishing, by which they support themselves, 
are very precarious modes of living. The Huron 
nation had, formerly, for their hunting and fishing 
limits the country extending from the R. Chicou- 
timi as far as the mouth of the r. St. Maurice ; 
they used also to hunt and fish on the south shore 
of the St. Lawrence as far as the river St. John. 
Before that time the Hurons had no limits for 
hunting and fishing, and were masters of the 




! ; 


f! J- 



' i! 


country as far as the great lakes ; their ancestors 
IKsnnitted no one to hunt or fish on their lands, 
and in former times if a nation came to hunt upon 
the lands of another nation, their so doing became 
a cause of war. Nearly 200 years ago the Seven 
Nations made an alliance with each other, to live 
in peace and in common, that is to say, that they 
were to eat with the same spoon, micoine, out of 
the same porringer ; which signified that they were 
all to hunt together on the same lands to avoid all 
disputes with each other. For the last 50 years 
the Abenakis of the river St. John, the IMicmacs 
and the Mulecitcs have hunted over the lands of 
the Hurons and destroyed all their chase. When 
the Hurons had their chase entirely to themselves, 
it was a law among them to kill full-grown animals 
only, and to spare the young ones. Beaver they 
did not kill from June to August, because neither 
the fur nor the flesh was good for any thing at 
that season ; the infringement of this law was 
considered murder; nor did they kill partridges 
during that season, because they were sitting. 
The other nations, who came to hunt on their 
lands, were not so considerate ; those foreign In- 
dians killed both the full-grown animals and the 
young, and especially the beaver which always re- 
sides in the same place. In consequence of this 
lawless conduct the chase has been destroyed and 
the Hurons reduced to want ; for they cannot, as 
their ancestors did, kill the strangers who intrude 
on their lands. The Hurons complain that even 
the Canadian peasantry take upon themselves to 
hunt and fish and destroy every thing, spreading 
snares for wild pigeons. The Indians frequently 
complain of want of means to suppress the dis- 
orders frequently occasioned by white people re- 
sorting to their village, and say, that they can 
easily keep their own people in order, but that they 
have no authority over the whites. Tiie Lorette 
Indians now hunt as far as the sources of the Ste. 
Anne and the Batiscan. They take beaver, otter 
and martin, though these animals are less nu- 
merous tlian formerly. Their hunting season 
begins about the 2uth Alarch and towards the 
end of May they return. Some hunters begin 
about ISIicIiaelmos and return when the rivers are 
frozen. When the Indians meet with ravines, if 
they are not too wide, they cross them by means 
of a tree which they fell for the purpose ; %vhen 
they are too wide to be passed in that manner, 
they use small rafts. The moose-deer or elk, for- 

merly very common round Quebec, is now very 
scarce ; it was once one of the chief sources of the 
wealth of the numerous savage tribes. It is only 
in the fine days of spring, when the snow-shoes 
are easily borne up, or when in the early part of 
the day, after the usual frost of the night, large 
tracts of the country can be visited on the hard 
even substance without this encumbrance; and 
when the open rapids are the resort of water- 
fowl, and the lakes afford an ample supply of fish ; 
that the vast solitudes, in which the moose-deer is 
found, can be advantageously visited : these soli- 
tudes are diversified by scenes of the wildest gran- 
deur. The moose is the largest quadruped of the 
continent, often standing seven feet high ; its im- 
mense palmated horns, its downcast head and short 
body give it a savage aspect, but it is of a timid 
character. It weighs as much as 10 and 12 cwt. 
and its flesh is of the most delicate flavour and 
considered very nutricious. It is not gregarious 
like the other species of the deer, but generally 
the male, female and one or two fawns accompany 
each other. In summer its swiftness makes its 
pursuit almost hopeless, and it is only in deep 
snows that it becomes a prey to the hunter. Its 
hoofs, unlike those of the rein-deer, are much 
sharper and more stiff, and during the whole sea- 
son at each step it sinks to the ground. It cannot 
therefore travel far in the winter, and it early se- 
lects with its mates a spot for its beat where the 
bark and tender shoots of the hard wood abound ; 
the formation of its teeth and its huge powerful 
upper lip, are well calculated to strip the bark from 
the trees, which in summer it does to the height 
of 40 or 50 feet. At each new fall of snow the 
party tread it carefully down throughout their 
beat. If surprised by the hunter they will some- 
times not flee, but with the stupid defiance of the 
sheep paw the snow and threaten resistance ; if a 
dog approach them, the male, with a blow from 
his foreleg which he uses very dexterously, will 
lay it dead at his feet : in this case they easily fall 
a victim to the gun. Generally, however, their 
acute senses of he&ring and smelling apprise them 
of tiic approach of the hunter, and they run off 
at great speed, until overpowered by their own 
timorous efforts they sink. When the hunter ap- 
l)cars on his snow-shoes he finds them out of 
breath, floundering in the snow and turning a 
very piteous look towards him, claiming his kind- 
ness. They however often again suddenly take 

if a 


ly fall 



ill off 


I N D 

new life, and turning round several times on the 
same spot, beat a solid place to give combat ; the 
gun soon despatches them. If they continue to 
run the hunter pursues, and coming up cuts with 
his tomahawk the tendons of the hind legs and 
soon secures the prize. The skin is made into 
shoes, and the hair of the mane is dyed and em- 
ployed in the elegant ornaments of bark work, 
shoes, &c, : the hair is now so highly prized that 
ns much as can be held in the hand sells for a 
dollar. The extension of the settlements and the 
incursions of otlier Indian tribes upon the hunting 
grounds of the Lorctte Indians, to prevent which 
all their applications have failed, have so com- 
pletely destroyed their chase that it is with the 
greatest difficulty they contrive to get a bare sub- 
sistence. Tliese reasons induced them, in 1824, 
to subscribe a sum sufficient to defiay the expenses 
of some of their chiefs, who undertook to cross the 
Atlantic in order to petition the king to redress 
their grievances. The object of their petition 
was principally to obtain the possession of the sei- 
gniory of Sillery, near Quebec, which was granted 
to their ancestors in 1651 and to which they be- 
lieve they have a just right. The grand chief, 
the second chief, the chief of tlicir council and the 
chief of the warriors arrived in England and were 
introduced to his majesty George IV. and had the 
honour of a long conversation with him, each 
wearing a gold medal which had been presented 
by the king. They appeared in their grand na- 
tional dress : their faces were painted and their 
hair, long ond flowing, was decorated with fea- 
thers and with the tails of various animals. To 
their ears were appended large silver rings of rude 
and fantastical v/orkmanship ; their noses were 
decorated with similar ornaments and they wore 
silver plates on their anns. They were armed 
with tomahawks and scalping knives, which they 
wore in ornamental belts. The kind reception, 
condescension and gracious manners of the king 
tended much to alleviate the severity of their dis- 
appointment by being referred to the Canadian 
government, whose duty it was to examine into 
their claims. The Notes of Jlr. Neilson on the 
attorney-jeneral's opinion on these cbims, a copy 
cif which is in the hands of the author, seem to 
prove much in their favour ; but these Christian 
Indians are poor and friendless; it appears that 
Providence alone can help them. — For Statistics 
of Lorctte, vide St. Gabriel, S. 

Indian Stream, in ihe t. of Drayton, is 


formed by 3 branches descending from the t. of 
Auckland ; the eastern is called the Rapid Branch, 
the western is named the West Branch ; all of 
them meet in the 8. angle of that t. and their 
united streams immediately enter the t. of Dray- 
ton, where, continuing a s. course, this R. entirely 
traverses the t. and in its ». w. angle joins the R. 
Connecticut. On this r. are good sites for mills, 
but OS it is obstructed by falls, the only navigable 
advantage it affords is the transport of logs to the 
different saw-mills. 

Industry, Village of, v. Aug. to La Val- 
LIERE. - ' 

Interior Village, v. Shipton, t. 

Inverness, township, in the co. of Jlegan- 
tic, lies between Halifax and Nelson and is 
bounded n. \v. by Somerset and part of Nelson ; 
s. E. by Leeds. The land in the s. quarter is of 
superior quality, and in the other parts generally 
above mediocrity, except an extent of swamp of 
about 8000 acres to the northward, which is 
covered with hemlock, spruce fir and cedar. On 
the dry lands, timber is in great abundance and of 
an excellent description. — Watered by Lake Wil- 
liam, ond several small rivulets. — The s. w. part 
was granted to the late Joseph Frobishcr, esq. and 
now belongs to his heirs. — The settlements have 
been rapidly increasing during the last few years. 
— Ungranted and unlocated, 15,500 acres. In 
1828 there were 

Under cultivation 

( Icarcd but not cultivated 

< 'ut down but not cleared 






117 Saw-millH 





Amiuat Agrleultnrul Froducc. 

Uushtli. I Bushcli. 

j«H Potatoes 700 

00 PcaH . 100 

. aZO Rye . iO 

Buck wheat 10 
Indian corn -io 
Hay, tunH 70 

Live Stock: 

+ Cows 
aa I Shevp . 

.% Swinn 


Ireland, township, in the co. of Alogantic, 
joins Halifax and Inverness n. w. ; Wolfcstowii 
s. w. J Leeds and Thetford n. e. — The n. w. part 
consists of land of an unexceptionable quality and 
fit for the growth of grain of all kinds, hemp and 
flax. The s. e. part is not arable, being only a series 
of rugged mountains running to a considerable dis- 

,-^^ pM 


i ii!l 


■A ; 



I' i' 

I I' 

I: i I i 




I I . 

« ■ '!f 

I S L 

tancc, with many imoll lakes and twamps in thift 
intervals. The n. w. quarter, the only one thai 
has been surveyed and granted, now belongs to the 
heirs of Joseph Frobisher, esq.: this is a fertile 
spot, and inhabited by a few families, forming 
what is called Lord's Settlement.-— Beech, maple, 
birch and many other sorts of timber, are found in 
great abundance. — Watered by several rivulets and 
by Trout Lake. — Craig's Road passes through this 
T. and crosses the Bccancuur at Kemp's Bridge. 
The com and saw mills arc found of great utility 
in this interior part of the country. The settle- 
ments have rapidly increased of late years. — Un- 
granted and unlocated, 14,014 acres.. 



181 I Saw-mills 
. 1 1 Shop-keepers 

2 1 Taverns 
2 Artisans 



AHnual Agricultural Produce. 

BuihcU. I Buaheli. 

36o Barley . M 
3!M) Potatoes 37G 

Peas . 9*) 

Indian com 89 

Live Stock, 






IsLA Watkr, a stream that rises in Buckland 
and enters Frumpton where it joins the Etche- 

Isle aux Coudres, seigniory, about 2 ni 
from the N. shore of the St. Lawrence, nearly op- 
posite to the Bay of St. Paul, is in the co. of 
Saguenay. — 5 m. in length by 66 arpents in 
breadth and x> leagues in circumference. Granted 
Oct. 29th, 1687, to the ecclesiastics of the semi- 
nary of Quebec, to whom it still belongs. — Com- 
pared with the neighbouring mainland, liie island 
is low, though near the centre are some few rising 
grounds: the shore in one or two places rises 
abruptly from the water, and is covered with 
thick creeping shrubbery, but in general the ascent 
is gradual and easy. The soil throughout is of a 
good, prolific quality and nearly all under tillage, 
producing grain of all kinds fur beyond the con- 
sumption of the seigniory : there are a few mea- 
dows and pasture grounds. The farms, 400, are 
divided into two divisions, called Cote du Cap a 
lu Branche and C«'ite de la Baleine, which are 
very little watered by streams of any description j 
in the former, which is at the w of the island, the 
soil is light and the farms are 50 arpents by 2 or 
3; in the latter or east end the farms are 33 
arpents by 2 or 3 ; the centre of the island is a 

I S L 

strong black soil, but its general character through- 
out is light. The hay grown on the beach is rich and 
abundant, and about 63,00U bundles are made an- 
nually. The price of oxen is 30 dollars, sheep 6s., 
pork Is. per lb., turkeys and geese 5s , fowls from 
is. to Is. 6d. — North of the island there is an- 
chorage for shipping. — Alex. Tremblay, a miller, 
has erected a stone mill, 36 ft. by 30, on Rivitre 
Rouge, which works 2 pairs of stones. A small 
quantity of wood of very inferior kinds still remains 
on the high ground, about the middle of the island. 
— There is one parish, in which ate a church and 
a parsonage-house, and the inhabitants live in neat 
well-built houses on each side of a good road that 
makes a complete tour of the island. — The bat- 
tures and shoals near its low and sandy shore arc 
very productive fishing-banks ; the little bays are 
the rendezvous of numerous small craft, employed 
in transporting toQuebec the surplus produce of the 
island and of the opposite seigniories. — The prin- 
cipal mineral production of this island is the garnet 
of Cap h I'Aigle which is there found in as great 
abundance and in as much purity of colour as at 
any other place in the known world : — This beau- 
tiful island Charlevoix represents as having been 
detached from the main land by a violent earth- 
quake, but it exhibits no other symptoms of such a 
catastrophe than a whirlpool between it and the 
opposite shore ; this channel, at low water, is 
dangerous for boats and canoes, which are liable to 
be thrown on the limestone rocks to the right of 
the entrance into St. Paul's Bay. It is, however, 
more probable that this island, which is formed on 
a rocky basis and covered with alluvial soil, has 
obtained its present appearance from the gradual 
accumulation of alluvial soil brought from the 
mountains by the r. Gouffre and other streams in 
their rapid descent into the bay, where the water 
is turbid and discoloured ; the whirlpool naturally 
concentrates this constant efflux of soil and forms 
the island. 

Population 6.V2 
Clmiches, R.C. I 
Cures . 1 

Presbyteries 1 


Medical men 

River craft 
Keel boats 






Annual Agricultural Produce, 

Bushels. I 

, 0,!»0 } Barley 
TH) Potatoes 

Peas . 208 
Map.sug. cwt. a 

Live Stock. 

1G3 I Cows . 400 1 Swine 
3-^7 I Sheep . 1,0J0| 



I 8 L 





vt. ii 


Titlf.—^* Concedie le 'iOmc Octobre 1667, p«r le 
Afarquii de Britay, Gouvcmcur, et Jtan Bochart In- 
tcndant, au StmiHaire de Q»thec, aver lo» Imlturps qui 
sont autour d'icelle." — RigiHrt d'jHlendancc, A'u. 3, Jbih 

IsLR Aux Noix is in the river St. Slauricc. 
The land is of good quality and contrasts strongly 
with the banks of the river, which discover, par- 
ticularly on the w. side, nothing but hills and 
lurrcn cliffs of granite. 

Isle aux Reaux, in the St. Lawrence, lies off 
the N. E. end of the Island of Orleans. It is 
about half a league long and about 8 orpents 
broad. It was given to the Jesuits, Alar. 20, 
1638, by Mr. dc Montmagny. 

Till,- " Coiiccdc'e le 20mc Mars, 1638, par Air. de 

JUoiitiiuigiiy, aux reverends pOres Jrsuites." — Vahkri d'Jn- 
tfiid. 2d 'J, folio 11. 

Isle Jesus, seigniory, in the co. of Terrebonne, 
in length 21 m. and 6 at its greatest breadth ; it 
lies N. w. of the island of Montreal, from which it 
is separated by the Riviere des Prairies, and from 
the main land by the Riviere St. Jean or Jesus. — 
Granted, with the Isles aux Vaches adjacent, 23rd 
Oct. 1689, to the bishop and ecclesiastics of the 
seminary of Quebec, by whom it is still possessed. 
The original name was L'Isle de Montmagny; 
but soon after its grant the proprietors thought 
proper to bestow on it the appellative it now bears. 
— In size this island is second to Montreal. The 
land is every where level, rich and well cultivated ; 
on the s. e, bordering the river, are some excellent 
pastures and very fine meadows ; the other parts 
produce grain, vegetables and fruits in great per- 
fection and abundance. Almost every comer being 
turned to agricultural uses, very little wood re- 
mains, except what is left for ornament on the 
different farms. There is one road entirely round 
the island, and one runs through the middle 
lengthways ; these are connected by others, that 
open an easy communication between every part 
of the island. There are 3 parishes, St. Vincent 
de Paul, St. Rose and St.. Martin. The houses, 
mostly built of stone, are dispersed by the sides of 
the roads ; now and then a few are placed close 
together, but nowhere in sufficient number to be 
called a village. Around the island are several 

com and saw-milli on the two large rivers ; in the 
interior there is no stream of sufliiient force to 
work cither. The saw-mill on the Itiviirc des 
Prairies is never stop])cd for xvant of water, hut 
sometimes by a superabundance. Atiout niidwny 
of the Riviere des Prairies is the strung' rnpitl 
called the Sault au RecoUct. The raftn of timlK.'r 
that are brought down the Ottawa frum the upper 
townships descend this river into the 8t. Lawrouiv 
at the Bout de L'Isle. The communication Ik.-- 
tween Isle Jesus and the islands of Montreal iiiul 
Bizard and the main land is kept up by scvenil 
ferries in convenient situations for miiiiitaining ii 
continual and sure intercourse.— The farms being 
all occupied, some persons arc desirous of making 
new settlements but have been dcttTred by the 
high rents demanded by the seigniors and by t)u' 
free and common soccage tenure of the townships. 

The parish of St.^ Vincent de Paul is in the 
centre of the s. part of the island, and the farms 
are conceded, some of them prior to 1 750 ; the 
rates on which they are held are, 1st. 2 sols for 
each superficial arpent, and 1 sol as quit rent for 
each front arpent. — 2nd. 2 sols tournois for each 
superficial arpent, and 1 sol as quit rent for each 
front arpent.— r3rd. 1 sol tournois for each super- 
ficial arpent, half a bushel of wheat for every 20 
superficial arpents, and 1 sol as quit rent for each 
front arpent. 

The parish of St. Rose is in the n. w. part of 
the island, and all the farms are conceded. 

The parish of St. Martin lies in the s. w, part of 
the island. All the farms arc conceded, some 
prior to 1759, on the same terms, viz. 2 sols for 
each superficial arpent or 1 sol tournois for each 
superficial arpent, and half a bushel of wheat for 
every 20 superficial arpents, or 2 sols tournois fur 
each superficial arpent : the quit rent has always 
been the same, viz. 1 sol for each front arpent. 
The church, 126 ft. by 40, is 1 J m. from the n. 
des Prairies. The soil of this p. is not very fer- 
tile nor is it turned to the best advantage. 3Iany 
of the inhabitants carry fire-wood to Quebec mar- 
ket. — (For a farther description of Isle Jesus, vide 
vol. i. p. 211.) 

I S L 

I S L 

StatisticB of the Seigniory of Isle Jesus. 



























St. Martin . 
















Ste. Rwe 

















St. Vincent 
de Paul \ 





















3 ! 2 











Annual Agricultural produce. 

l.neMiKk. 1 













St. Martin . 
Ste. Rose 
St. Vincent ) 
de Paul . ) 











49000! . 

36000 . 





















85000 500 



2540 i 3088 4161 


I i ' 


Title.—" Concession du 23me Octobre, 1680, faite par 
tledor de Calliere, Gouverncur, et Jean Boc/tarl, Intend- 
ant, i FEvdiue de Quebec et Messrs. dii Siminaire, de 
FMe Jiiu; des itlei aux I'aehet et autrcs adjacentvs." — 
Higlilrc del Foi et Uommage, No. 62, folio 289, /c 19nif 
Mar,, 1781. 

leiiE MoRAN, on the s. side of Lake St. Peter, 
lies at the estuary of the R. Nicolct, dividing its 
stream into two channels. — Granted, Oct. 29, 
I672, to Sieur Moran, now the property of Mr. 

Title.—" Concession du 29me Octobre, 1072, faite par 
Jean Talon, Intendunt, nu Sicur Aloran, de I'ible ditu 
Moran, qui sc trouvc a IVniliouchure de lu riviire Nirohi, 
au bord du flviive SI. Laurent.— Rrgittre d'/ntendaner, 
Xo. 1,/o/lu 16. 

Isle St. Christophrr, about one-eighth of a 
league from the Cai)e of the Three Rivers, nnd 
about the same distance from that called Cape dc 
la Alagdelainc ; it contains about HO superficial 
urpcnts and was granted to the Jesuits, Oct. 2(1, 

Isi.R St. Paul, seigniory, in the St. Lawrence 
a little above the city of Montreal. — A grant of 
two-thirds of this island was confirmed to Atr. Ic 
Ber, April 23, I7OO. The grant of the other 
third was made July 18, \0^^\, toCluude Rubutcl. 

Title — ■• Confirmation du 2.')mp Avril, 17011, |>ar le 
Roi, d'uiip roni'i'ssioii faite k Mr. le Iter, dps deux tiers 
de I'isle de St. Paul. Plus concession de I'autre tiers fait 
k Vlaudt Hobutel, Sieur dc SI. Andr4, le Ulnie .luillrt, 
1076."— t'(m». Caltieri d Intend. 2 d l», folio 282, rt Rat, 
(Tint. Com. Sup. LeIIrt li, fblhi \i\.—Vahleri d'lnlend- 
2 i V,JbHo 391. 

Isles and Islets. — Those not included in the 
following alphabetical list are inserted under their 
specific names. — Birch Island, in the R. St. Mau- 
rice and in the t. of Radnor. — Brand;/ Pots, 
several small islets in the St. Lawrence, lying s. 
off the N. E. end of Hare Island ; on the largest 
a Telegraph is erected. — Crane Island or Isle aujc 
Grties, opiwsitc Cop St. Ignace, S. — Des Cinqs 
Island, in the R. St. Maurice. — Esquimaux Isles, 
near the coast of Saguenay in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. — Fox Island, near the n. e. extremity 
of the Saguenoy coast in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. — Goose Island, in the b. Ottawa, midway 
between the t. ofTempleton and the opposite 
shore, aliout 3^ m. below the mouth of the R. 
Rideau — Another, v. Cup St. Ignace, S. — Grande 
Isle, V. rivers Batiscan and Saguenay. — Grosse 
Isle, one of the Kamouraska Islands. — A small 
island in Lake St. John. — Hamilton Isle, in the R. 
Ottawa, lies off the t. Luchabcr, about one mile 
long; near it N. R. is another isle of smaller 
8i«e. — Hare Island, lies off the e. end of Mount 
Murray, S. — Holt's Isle, in Lake Memphra- 
mugog; this little islet lies within 1| m. of 
the commencement of the R. Mugog and if in 
the 14th range of the t. of llatlcy.— Hospital 
Island, in the R. Richelieu below Ash Island, and 
between the SS. of Foucault and Lacollc. — Isle H 
I'Aigle, at the mouth of North Channel, where it 
enters Lake St. Peter, — Isles t) la Basade, in the 
St. Lawrence, lie off the n. k. angle of the >. of 

! ';i 



Trois Pistoles. — I$le au Caitot, in the St. Law- 
rence, lies N. of Crane Island and is about I^ m. 
long. — IsleMau Ctrf, in the r. Richelier., between 
the SS. of St. Charles and Beloeil.— /«fe au Chat, 
in the mouth of Lake St. Francis, off the 8. w. 
angle of Grande Isle.— /«/r oh Foin, v. An- 
taya, S. — Isle au Heron, at the Sault St. Louis, 
at the mouth of Lake St. Louis, hie au Rai~ 
son, at the entrance of Lake St. Peter, lies 
between the isles La Pierre and Du Moine, and 
is on the s. side of South Channel. — Isle au 
Sepulcre, v. Chicoutimi R. — Isles avx Basques, in 
the St. Lawrence, lying off the mouth of the r. 
Trois Pistoles. — Isle aut Chutes, in the r. du 
Nord, about one mile from Davis, v. in Chatham. 
— Isle aux Cochons, in the St. Maurice, lies op- 
posite the mouth of the R, St. Maurice. — Isle aux 
Corneilles, one of the Kamouraska Islands. — Isles 
aux Praises, in the R. St. Maurice, is a fine island 
near ^ mile long. — Isle aux Gnies, v. Crane 
Island. — Isle aux llarangs, lies off Cap au Diable 
in the 8. of Kamouraska. — Isle aux Herons, in the 
St. Lawrence, n. w. of Crane Island. — Isle aux 
Noix, in the R. Richelieu, at the mouth of John- 
son's Creek — Isle aux Oies, v. St Ignace, I. — 
Isle aux Pommes, lies off the s. of Isle Verte to 
which it ^jelongs. — Isle aux Raisins, in Lake St. 
Franci.% -it the mouth of the R. aux Raisins. — 
Isles aux Sapins, in the R. Chaudi£-re, is in the S. 
of St. Marie.— /»/«• aux Tetes, v. La CoUe, S.— 
Isles aux Tourtes, two small islands in the Lake uf 
Two Mountains, between the b. w. extremity of the 
Island of Montreal and the S. of Vandrcuil.— /«/« 
Baraboult, near the estuary of the Stc. Anne, di- 
vides that R. into two streams. — hie Bellerive, the 
largest islet in the mouth of the r. St. Maurice. — 
IsleBic, in the St. Lawrence, lies off the a. of Bic in 
the co.of Rimounki. — Isle Biquette.m the St. Law- 
rence, N. of Isle Bic. — hie Bouquet, v. Laprairie, 
S. — hie BruUe, in the St. Lawrence, lies nearly 
opposite the mouth of tnc Kamouraska; on this isle 
aTcIcgmph is stationed. — G i" of the Kamouraska 
islands.— y.v/r Carillir>i; nt the cntrnncc of the Lake 
of Two Mountnins, lies off Argentcuii, in which 
8. it is included. — hie Vasradvs, in the s. w. chan- 
nel of Lake St. Louis, lies about midway between 
Isle Pcrrot and Mary's-town in the 8. of Bcau- 
harnois. — hie Chareau, v. Isles Communes. — 
hirs Communes or hies Perries, consist of Isles 
St. Jo'oph, ik la Commune, Chareau, and two 
others without names ; this rango of isles extendi 

along the front of the S. of Boucherrille on the s. 
side of the St. Lawrence, and are included in the 
grant of that S. ; the largest is about } m. in breadth ; 
they are quite flat and level; some of them 
afford good meadow, and others common pasturage 
made use of by the inhabitants of the village 
of Boucherville. — Isles de Contrecmr, on the a. 
shore of the St. Lawrence, lie off the S. of Contre- 
coeur to which they belong. — hie de Grace, in the 
St. Lawrence, lies nearly midway between the S. 
of St. Thomas and the parish of St. Joachim in 
the S. of Crite de Beaupr£. — v. St. Ignace Isle. 
— hie de Gramont, a little islet lying s. w. of the 
v. of Kamouraska in the S. of that name. — Isle de 
la Providence, one of the Kamouraska islands. — 
Isles de la Valtrie, on the n. shore of the St. 
Lawrence, lie off the S. of La Valtrie to which 
they belong. — hies des Sables, several islets lying 
N. E. of Isles aux Oies and at the entrance of Lake 
St. Peter. — hies Deschaillons, in the R. Richelieu, 
at the mouth of Ruisseau la Prade in the S. of St. 
Ours. — Isles des deux Tetes, in the St. Lawrence, 

N. w. of Crane Island. Isle des Peiras, in the R. 

Yamaska, about 1 J m. above the mouth of the R. 
David. — Isles Donhour, 3 small islets lying off the 
front of the S. of Desmaure, in the St. Lawrence. — 
hie du Grande Decharge, at the N. k. side of Lake 
St. John, fronting Grande Isle. — Isle du Lahri, in 
themouth of the r. St. Maurice. — Isle du Milieux, a 
small isle in the mouth of the river St. Maurice.— 
Isle du Moine, at the entrance of Lake St. Peter, 
lies 8. w. of the mouth of the r. Yamaska. — hie 
du Portage, lies at the N. r. end of the Island of 
Alontreal, a little below Isle Ste. Thercse, and 
is of no value. — hie du Sable, off the n. shore 
of the St. Lawrence, near the front of iief 
Dorvillicr in the co. of Champlain. — !sle Fou- 
quel, V, Laprairie S. — Isle Jatobois, in the R. Ya- 
maska, a little above Yuinaska church. — hie 
Joseph, in the R. Yamaska, nearly one m. beluw the 
mouth of R. David, in the S of Yamaska. — hie la 
Peche, in the n. St. Maurice, lies at the n. r. ex- 
tremity of the rear of Batiscan. The Indians and 
the inhabitants of the post of La Tuque frequently 
resort to this little island for the purpose of fish- 
ing, and an abundance of white fish. dor£, carp, 
boss, pike and eels are caught every year. — hir la 
Pierre, at the entrance of Lake St. IVter, lying 
on the N, side of South Channel.- /»fr la Porvitr, 
in the r. Yamaska, a little below the church of 
Yamaska.— i*/f Madame, in the St. Lawrence, 






'I ' i 


Ues B. off the v. a. point of the Island of Orleans^ 
about 1^ m.b]r ^ m. broad.— v. St. Ignace Isle. — 
I$le Patience, in the St. Lawrence, lies N. of Isle de 
Grace. — Isle Percdes, 3 islets in the St. Lawrence, 
lying off the a. of Riviere du Loup. — v. Isles 
Communes. — Isle Plate, at the entrance of Lake St. 
Peter, lies midway between Baie St. Frangois and 
Maskinong6 Bay. — Isle Randin, in the St. Law- 
rence, lies between the S. of Berthier and the 
8. w. end of Isle Dupas. — Isle Konde, v. Isle St. 
Ignace. — Isle St. Alexandre, in the R. Etche- 
min, and in the S. of Jolliet. — Isle St. Barnahe, 
in the St. Lawrence, lies off the S. of St. Bamab6 
opposite to the mouth of the R. Rimouski. — Isle 
St. Bernard, or Nun's Island, on the s. e. side of 
Lake St. Louis, lies at the mouth of the Chateau- 
guay, dividing that R. into two streams. — Isle Ste, 
Catherine, in the R. Etchemin and in the S. of 
Jolliet. — Isle St. Elzear, in the R. Etchemin and 
in the S. of Jolliet. — Isle St. Ignace, the largest 
isle at the mouth of the R. Ste. Anne, — v. St Ignace 
Isle. — Isle St. Jean, in the R. Etchemin, and in the 
s. of Jolliet.— Another, in the S. of Yamaska, is 
formed by the two branches of the R. Yamaska, 
one running into Baie St. Francois and the other 
into the Bay of La Valli^re. — Isle St. Joseph, 
in the r. St. Francis, near its mouth, lies in the 
N. angle of the S. of St. Francois. — v. Isles 
Communes. — Isle Ste. Marguerite, 3 isles in the 
St. Lawrence, one at the mouth of r. Ste. Anne, 
another, n. w. of Crane Island, and the 3rd 
is the smallest islet in the mouth of the r. St. 
Maurice. — Isle Ste. Marie, in the R. Etchemin 
and in the S. of Jolliet. — Isle St. Pierre, in the 
R. Etchemin, and in the S. of Jolliet.— /#/(> Ste, 
Sttsanne, in the R. Etchemin, and in the S. of 
Jolliet. — Isle Ste. Therese, in the r. Richelieu, 
between the four connecting angles of the n. of 
Longucuil, K. and w. by Chnmbly ond Blenrie. — 
Another at the lower end of l\rontreal .'slund.— 
Isle Si. Thomas, in the r. Etchemin, an I in the 
S. of Jolliet.— /»/e Smidt, in the R. Vamaska, 
opposite the church of Yamaska. — Isle Vaudrenil, 
in the Lake ofTwoAIuuntains, lies near the S. of 
Vaudreuil to which it belongs. — Inle Vrrte, v. 
Vertc. — Kettle Island, in the R. Ottawa, lies off 
the T. of Tcmpleton, a little more than 2 m. below 
the mouth of the R. RlAcnu— Knight's Island, in 
the Bcauhumois Chunnel, between Grnnde Isle 
and the N. B. angle of Catherine's Town. — La 
Croix Isle, v. Cap de la I^iaJaleinc, S.—Long 

Island, in the co. of Ottawa, is in the R. aux 
Lievres at the head of Lake Mistake. — Murr 
Isle, near the coast of Saguenay, in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. — Malawin Island, in the n. 
St. Maurice, is about \ mile in extent and the 
land is very g(xxl. — lAncer Matawin Island, from 
this island there is a route by 5 lakes and 4 
portages to the great Lake Matawin. — Murr 
Isles, in St. Lawrence Gulf. — Nun's Island, v. 
Isle St. Bernard. — Old Fort Isles, near the n. b. 
extremity of the Saguenay coast in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. — Papa Island, an islet in the 
R. Etchemin in the t. of Frampton. — Petite 
Isle, in the R. Yamaska, u little above the a. 
point of Isle St. Jean. — Pine Island, in the r. 
St. Francis, between Wickham and Upton. — 
Prison Island, in the mouth of Lake St. Francis, 
lies about midway between the w. part of Grande 
Isle and the estuary of the Riviere de I'lsle. — Pro- 
vince Island, in Lake Memphromagog, near the 
province line and between Stanstead and Potton. 
—Red Island, in the St. Lawrence, lying about 6 
m. N. of Green Island. — St. Mari/'s Isles, near 
the Saguenay coast in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
opposite the mouth of the r. Watoguia. — St. 
Regis Isle, in front of the mouth of the R. St. 
Regis, belongs to the Indians of the v. of St. 
Regis. — Traverse Isles, in the R. Ottawa, lying 
off the 8. w. line of Lochabcr Gore, arc several 
small isles between Black Bay and the n. w. 
angle of the t. of Plantagenet in Upper Ca- 
nada. — Washmisker Isles, near the Saguenay coast 
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. — White Island, 
in the St. Lawrence, extends down the n. ut the 
N. B. end of Hare Island : about 5 m. long and 
^ m. hroaA.—lVolf Island, near the Saguenay 
coast, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence near South- 
aker ledge. 

IsLBT DU PoRTAOR, suigniory, in the co. of 
Kamouraska, is bounded n. r. by Lachenaye; 
8. w. by Granville ; in front by the St. Lawrence. 
— One league in front and one in depth. Granted, 
Oct. 2i), 1073, to Sieur de Granville.— Isle du 
Portage forms part'of this seigniory. 

Title— ^^ ConcMiiion du 20m* Octobre, 1072, fsitc pnr 
Jran Talon, Iritcnd»nt, au Sicur de Granvllli; do I'lule 
iiointn^'O (III Portage «iir lo tlouvc SI. Laurent., bvpc unn 
drriii lipiic do tcrrc pii do<,'ik et line uutrc iiii deU de la ditc 
Isle, Bur iinr lieue do profondcur."— Wr'^'iz/rf (TlnUndaHCC, 
No. \,jyio u. 

Isi.KT no PonTAOB, V. Chicoutimi, H. 
IsLBTTKB AVX JuNBB, f. Lapruin'c, S. 

J A C 

IsLK Vbrtk (S), V, Verte. 

IwASBEOA or TwASHEOA, Hver, runs from the 
V. w. into the R. Aisuapmoussoin. 

IxwoBTH, township, in the co. of Kamouraska, 
is an irregular tract in the rear of the S. of Ste. 
Anne and the Aug. to the S. of Rivii<re Quelle. 
No more than 1200 acres have been surveyed, 
which were granted to Matthew O'Meara, the 
whole of which is most excellent land : it joins 
Ste. Anne and some part of it is in a very forward 
state of cultivation : on the remainder of the t. is a 
large quantity of excellent pine timber, much of 
which is transported by the Riviere Quelle to the 
St. Lawrence and thence to Quebec. — XJitgranted 
and unhealed 32,000 acres. 

Jambs-town, v. Beauhamois, 8. 

Jacques Cartier, river, derives its name from 
the celebrated navigator, who discovered the 
country and wintered in the estuary of this R. 
in 1536. It takes its source from several small 
lakes in the exterior near the parallel of lat. 4(f n. 
and about Ion. 71° 20' w. After running a very 
circuitous course through a mountainous country 
that is but little known, it reaches the townships 
of Tewkesbury and Stoneham; passes through 
them and runs in a s.b.w. direction about 46 
m. through St. Ignace, St. Gabriel, Fausem- 
bault, Neuville, Belair and the fief Jacques Car- 
tier, where it falls into the St. Lawrence. From 
the townships its stream displays a character of 
great wildncss; grand and impetuous, hurrying 
through valleys between the lofty mountains, and 
frequently dashing with violence over the pre- 
cipices and immense fragments of rock that op- 
pose its progress. The bed being extremely rocky, 
the great number of falls and rapids and the ve- 
hemence of the torrent, particularly in the spring 
and after the autumnal rains, render it generally 
impassable for canoes or boats of any description. 
The banks are exceedingly high, and at intervals 
for considerable distances, are formed of strata of 
limestone, or of granite rock, in many places lofty, 
rugged and majestic, partially displaying a few 
stunted pines in the interstices, or covered with 
creeping shrubbery, and in many parts presenting 
only the frowning aspect of huge barren masses 

J A C 

heaped perpendicularly one upon another. From 
the heights on each side of the river spread ex- 
tensive forests, through which are various paths, 
kept open during all changes of season by the In« 
dians, and chiefly by those of the village of Lo> 
rette, who consider the lands to an immense di- 
stance northwards as their hunting-grounds. The 
general view along the course of the river is va- 
ried, picturesque and extraordinary, presenting a 
thousand combinations of unrivalled grandeur, 
beauty and wild magnificence. In its course 
through St. Gabriel it approaches within 16 m. 
of Quebec ; about nine miles before it reaches the 
St. Lawrence is the highly in: ^i-esting and ro- 
mantic new bridge of Jacques Cartier. The 
stream is here precipitated over many large frag- 
ments of granite that occasion a perpendicular fall 
of considerable height, the effect of which is greatly 
increased by the incessant roar of the torrent, as it 
forces its way through the hollows and excava- 
tions which it has made in its rocky bed and in the 
sides of the channel. This bridge is worthy of no- 
tice for the lightness and solidity of its construc- 
tion ; the natural high bank of the river on each 
side is finished with masonry into solid piers, whence 
the arch, entirely of timber, forms a handsome 
and lofty segment : near the w. end is a small, 
well-built cottage, most romantically situated, in 
which the collector of the bridge-tolls resides. 
From this bridge the river continues its impe- 
tuous character until its waters are lost in the 
current of the St. Lawrence. The river Jacquei 
Cartier, viewed with a military eye, forms a must 
powerful natural barrier and may be termed one 
of the outworks to the city and environs of Que- 
bec: the velocity of the stream would moke it 
extremely dangerous to attempt fording it; the 
height of the bunks renders them inaccessible, ex- 
cept in a very few places, and those could only be 
ascended with much difficulty by a small number 
of persons at a time, which, with the numerous 
advantageous iNisitions along the whole range of 
the river for posting a defensive force, would al- 
together constitute it a complete line of security : 
the French, after they were expelled from Quebec 
in 1 759, retired behind this river. Qn the eastern 
side of the river, at a short distance bcl'orc its con- 
fluence with the St. Lawrence, where its high 
bunk, receding considerably from the margin, 
leaves a rather extensivt flat a little above 


i ■ I 

1 1 


< H 

: n 

i i:i 






J A C 

the water's level, are some corn-mills and several 
stores belonging to the heirs of the late Mr. All- 
sop of Quebec. They are the remains of a much 
greater and more valuable establishment. — This 
highly interesting and romantic river appears to 
run a course of about 50 miles and to collect its 
waters from a space of 20 to 30 miles in breadth, 
comprehending about 1250 square miles. — This 
celebrated river was formerly the terror and often 
the grave of travellers. — For some years past it 
has become the object of public attention ; three 
bridges have been erected over it, and the citizens 
of Quebec visit it at proper seasons in parties of 
pleasure. It abounds with iish, especially salmon, 
works numerous mills and a distillery, and is 
particularly remarkable for the sudden swelling 
of its waters after rain ; almost the least shower 
produces an instantaneous effect. Many of the 
more majestic features of the sceneiy on this b. 
are seen to the greatest advantage in winter, when 
the severity of the congelation exhibits the banks 
and the bed of the stream in every variety of fan- 
tastic appearance, and when its frozen artificial 
pendants in all the diversity of figure and size re- 
semble the stalactics of the richest natural grotto. 
Jacqubs Cartier, seigniory, in the co. of 
Portneuf, fronts the St. Lawrence and is bounded 
a. w. by the b. of Portneuf; n. e. by Belair and 
its aug. and in the rear by waste crown lands. — 
It is ^ league in breadth by 5 1. in depth. Granted 
Mar. 29, 1659, to Dame Oognier, widow of Jean 
Clement de Wauls, Chevalier, and Seigneur de 
Monceaux. Now the property of Messrs. de Lcry 
and Mr. Allsop. — Although the surface is very 
irregular and broken, the land in general is of a 
moderately good quality j in some places the soil 
is light and sandy, in others a layer of black ve- 
getable mould upon a stratum of limestone, and 
to the rear, where it becomes rather mountainous, 
a good light loam; each of these different kinds 
is Buiiiciently fertile and several ningcs of eon- 
cessions are in an excellent state cf cultivation, 
containing many productive and valuable farms. 
The timber is various both in kind and quality ; 
the maple and birch arc good, and, along the 
banks of the rivers, are some superior pines : the 
common sorts are very abundant. — The Rivers 
8te. Anne and Portneuf cross this S., but the 
principal K. by which it is watered is the Jacques 
Cartier. The main road pusses along the front of 

J E R 

the S. and crosses the Jacques Cartier by a ferry 
about 300 yards broad, where, on account of the 
violence of the stream, the boats are traversed 
from side to side by means of hawsers stretched 
across; the charge for a foot-passenger is 3d., for 
a horse 6d., a horse and carriage Qd. and Is. 3d. 
for a carriage and two horses. The road, as it 
passes in the vicinity of the river and winds up 
the lofty banks, is exceedingly steep ; but never- 
theless it is much frequented, althou^ there is 
another road from Quebec that passes over Jacques 
Cartier bridge and which is rather shorter and by 
which almost all the inequalities of the ground 
are avoided — Less than one-third of this S. is 
cultivated ; some of the best farms are near the 
rood that passes along the St. Lawrence, and, on 
the 8. w. side, near the road leading from the bridge 
to the barony of Portneuf. —Jocjim's Cartier fief 
is included in this S. and lies on the s. w. side, 
extending to the entire depth of the S. It has a 
frontage of about ^ m. on the r. Jacques Cartier. 

Tilk.—" Concession du 89me Mara, 1659, faite par la 
Compagnie, & Dnnie Gagnkr, veuve de fi'U jean Clement 
de Wauli, Chevulier, Seigneur de Monceaux, d'une demi 
lieue de large sur le bord du fleuve St. Laurent, nveo cinq 
lieue» de profondeur de tcrre en tcl endroit qu'il plaira i 
Mr. D'Alllcbout,(iouveme\XT, — Ennuitede cette concession 
eat une copie d'un rertiflcat du Sieur Bourdon, du 25nie Oc- 
tobre, 1669, que la Dame de Monceaux lui ayant remis la 
concegsion ci-dessux, par ordre de Mr. D'Aillebout, lors Goii- 
vemeur, pour prendre par la dite Dame possesfiion de la dite 
deini lieue ; avec demande de lui arcorder la dite concession 
depuis U rivifre Jaa/uei Carlier, jusqu'n la concurrence de 
la dite demi lieue, dexrendant en baa, par lequel 'Certiticat 
il lui donne acte de diligence, comme ellc prenoit le dit 
lieu pour I'emplacement et le cboix de m dite conc«s!iion." 
— Papier TerrUr, page 96, lime •/«<», 1781. Ca/ileri 

Jeremib Isles, in the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence, lie near the Saguenay coast, about 9 m. 
above Belsiamite n. and Pointe. Near these isles 
is a north-west post that derives its name from 
them. Tlie northern shore of the St. Lawrence, 
here and ut Belsiamite, is not so high us the 
southern shore op^iositc, which may be distinctly 
seen from the n. shore. The soil of the Saguenay 
const, hereabout, is composed of a white and yel- 
low sand and presents to the view, from the river, 
a pleasing succession of white cliffs intersected with 
forest trees. Rehiamite Pointe is a low sandbank 
extending far into the St. Lawrence and is over- 
grown with spruce and sapin : on its s. shore are 
a few Indian wigwams inhabited by some of the 



Montagnais tribe, who traffic in seals and fur« 
skins when ships arrive near the coast and the 
weather allows them to go on board for that 

Jkrbby, a projected township in the co. of 
Beauce, is a triangular tract lying between the 
rivers Chaudiere and Du Loup and is bounded s. 
hy Marlow. A small part in the a. b. angle has 
been surveyed and granted. — Ungranted and un- 
located, 33,000 acres. 

Jksuits, des (F.), r. Lauzon, S. 

Jesuits' Estates. — The Jesuits, in this pro- 
vince, were at first only missionaries; they after- 
wards obtained a patent which enabled them to 
purchase lands and hold property as in France. 
The property they afterwards possessed in this 
country was very considerable and was acquired 
by grants from the kings of France, by gifts or 
donations from individuals and by purchase. On 
the death of Father Casot, the last of the order, 
in March, 1800, their property became vested 
in the English crown. — Their very extensive pos- 
sessions in this province may be inferred from 
the following description of part of their property. 

Batiscan.—Qy deed, Mar. 13, 1639, James de 
la Fert^, abbot of Ste. Mary Aladeleinc of Cha- 
teaudun and canon of the king's chapel in Paris, 
gave this seigniory irrevocably, and in the strong, 
est terms imaginable, to the Fathers of the Com- 
pany of Jesus settled in New France, and their 
successors. — The depth of this seigniory seems to 
have been omitted in the original deed through 
error, but it was afterwards ascertained to be 20 
leagues. — This seigniory was given to the reverend 
fathers settled in New France for them and their 
successors, to be held as an absolute fief with the 
right of holding high, inferior and petty courts of 
justice and subject to fealty and homage to the 
said James de la Ferte and his heirs, according 
to the usage and customs of fief in the provostship 
of Paris, subject also to the payment of u silver 
of the value of sixty sols at the end of every 
twenty years to the same James de la Forte and 
his heirs, from such time as these lands should tie 
cultivated, to be possessed by the futlicrs Jesuits, 
or applied and transferred to savages ur others 
iMicoming christians, and in such mnniicr as the 
fathers shall think proper, so that these lands shall 
not be taken out of their hands while they shall 
think proper to hold and possess them. — Molivei 

ami consideration!. — This seigniory was given for 
the love of Ood. 

Belair, or Bonhommea Mountain. — By deed of 
Nov. 24th, 1662, Messrs. Lefevre de la Barre 
and Demeuilles, governor-general and intendant 
of New France, granted this seigniory to William 
Bonhomme, to be held as a fief and seigniory with 
right of holding high, inferior and petty courts of 
justice, together with that of hunting and fishing, 
but subject to fealty and homage. — By deed 
April 15th, 1684, the above grant was confirmed 
by the king. — This seigniory was purchased in 
different parcels by the reverend fathers of the 
Company of Jesus (with the right of holding 
high, inferior and petty courts of justice, and that 
of hunting and fishing within the limits thereof) 
subject to fealty and homage, from some of the 
descendants of William Bonhomme, and from 
other persons who had purchased some parts of his 

Cap de la Madeleine, — By deed March 20th, 
1651, James de la Ferte, abbot and canon, gave 
this seigniory as a gift irrevocable to the reverend 
fathers, together with the right of seigniory and 
privileg;es that he had and might have in and to 
the lands so conveyed, which were granted to him 
by the New France Company; with the re- 
servation, that all former grants made and signed 
by him should from that time forward be de- 
pendent of said seigniory, and held under the 
same reverend fathers, Jesuits of Canada, in the 
manner they were before held under the same 
James de la Ferte, which lands appear to be 
two arriere fiefs, Marsolet and Hertel. — Motiven 
and considerations. — This seigniory was given to 
the reverend fathers in Canada for their colleges 
and houses, to be by them held in the same man- 
ner as they were before that time jiossessed l)y 
the donors, to be enjoyed, done with and disposed 
of by the fathers, Jesuits, and their successors in 
New France, as they shall think proper for the 
benefits of the savages converted to the christian 
faith, and in order to help towards subsisting the 
Jesuits in tlie said county ; the whole confbmi- 
uble and according to the customs and consti- 
tutions of the Company of Jesus without any civil 

Isle niu ReaHjc.— By deed Mar. 20, I63JJ, tlie 
New France Company granted these isliinds to 
the reverend futberv Jesuits uiid their Mic- 




oessors as a seigniory. — Motives and comidera' 

tions This island was given to the religious 

order of Jesuits and their successors for ever 
for the purpose of feeding cattle for their 
houses, in consideration of their exposing their 
persons to the greatest dangers that can be en- 
countered among the savages, in endeavouring to 
bring them to a knowledge of the true Ood and to 
lead a civilised life, and on this sole condition, 
that the Jesuits should acknowledge to hold the 
same under the New France Company and report 
the state of the culture and improvement of this 
island at the end of every twenty years. 

Laprairie de la Madeleine. — By deed April 1st, 
1647t Francis de Lauzon, king's councillor in the 
court of parliament of Bordeaux, gave and granted 
this seigniory to the religious order of the Com- 
pany of Jesus. — Motives and considerations. — This 
seigniory, including the islands of Bouquet and 
Fouquet and the small islands called Islettes au 
Jones, was given and granted to the religious 
order of the Jesuits, on condition that they should 
send such persons as they might think proper to 
cultivate the lands, and that the donor should 
be a partaker of the benefit of their prayers and 
holy sacrifices, and in consideration of the assist- 
ance given by that religious order to the inhabit- 
ants of New France, and of the dangers to which 
they daily exposed themselves in bringing the 
savages of that country to a knowledge of the 
true Ood. 

Notre Dame des Anges. — By deed. Mar. 10, 
1626, Henry de Levis, duke of Ventadour, vice- 
roy of New France, granted this fief and seigniory 
to the religious order called Jesuits. 

By an edict of the French king for the esta- 
blishment of the New France Company, all 
gifts and grants made prior thereunto were re- 

By deed Jan. ir*, 1637, the same lands under 
the same description given of them in that by the 
Duke of Vcntaduur, were given by the said com- 
pany to the said religious order with this excep- 
tion, " the river of Notre Dame dc Ueauport ex- 
cluded;" but adding such meadows, lakes, rivers, 
ponds and quarries as may be found within the 
said lands." 

By deed Jan. 17, 1652, John de Lauzon, go- 
vernor of New France, granted to the said reli- 
gious order, the same lands specified in the pre- 

ceding deeds to be held en Franc aleu, with 
all the seignorial and feudal rights, and with 
these conditions ; " The right of fishing on the 
rivers opposite to their said grant, to the exclusion 
of all other persons, and granting also to them the 
meadows that were covered and uncovered by the 
tides." — Motives and considerations. — This seig- 
niory was granted to the fathers of the Company 
of Jesus and their successors, to be by them en- 
joyed for ever as their property en Franc aleu, 
with all the seignorial and feudal rights, on con- 
dition, that in appeals from the decision of the 
judges by them to be established in said seigniory, 
resort shall be had to the grand senechal of New 
France, or his lieutenant at Quebec, in considera- 
tion of the services they rendered as well to 
the French as to the savage inhabitants of the 

Isle St. Christopher — By deed October 20, 1654, 
John de Lauzon, governor and lieutenant-general 
of New France, gave this island to the reverend 
fathers of the Company of Jesus, in Franc Almoin. 
— Motires and considerations. — Tliis island was 
given to the reverend fathers, by them to be held 
in Franc Almoin for ever as a fief, with power to 
concede the same or such parts thereof as they 
may think proper, to tenants subject to cens et 
rentes, but without being themselves subject to 
any charge or condition whatever, in consideration 
of the zeal manifested and the care taken by the 
said reverend fathers, and the benefit that religion 
receives from them in the conversion and instruc- 
tion of the savages, which could not be sufficiently 

Sf. Gabriel, or the Two Lorettes. — By deed 
November 2, 1667, Robert Oifibrd and Mary 
Renouard, his wife, gave to the reverend fa- 
thers Jesuits the seigniory of St. Gabriel, with 
the benefits and prerogatives thereunto belong- 
ing, excepting half a league in front by the 
whole depth of this seigniory, which they had 
on the same day given and granted to the 
hospital of nuns settled in the city of Quebec, 
and now composes the fief called 8t. Ignatius.— 
Motives and comideratioiu. — It was given to the 
reverend fathers, in consideration of the great 
friendship that subsisted between them and the 
donors, and in order to reward the suld fathers 
for the many good and agreeable services they had 
rendered to the donors. 

as. — 


SelgiHory of Sillery. — By deed October 23, 
1699, Messrs. de Callieres and Bochard, general 
and intendant, granted this seigniory to the re- 
verend fathers Jesuits. — Motives and considera- 
tions. — This seigniory was granted to the re- 
verend fathers Jesuits, by them to be enjoyed for 
ever as their property, with the same rights and 
privileges with which the same lands were given 
to the savages by deed from the New France 
Company, bearing date 13th March, 1651, viz. : 
as u freehold («i Franc aleu) with all the seig- 
norial rights that the said New France Company 
had, or pretended to have in them ; together with 
that of fishing in the river St. Lawrence along 
the front of the lands so given to them, to the 
total exclusion of all other persons without their 
leave and permission ; together with all the mea- 
dows, herbage, &c. lying along the said river, and 
those that are covered and uncovered by the tide. 
In fine, with all the rights and privileges that a 
seigneur can enjoy ; together with the right of 
holding high, inferior and petty courts of judi- 
cature. — Motives and considerations, — In consider- 
ation of the great spiritual and temporal assistance 
given by the said reverend fathers to the savages 
of this country, and the enormous expense they 
had been at in supporting the missions to the said 
savages for whom they had purchased lands in 
several places at a great expense. 

Three Rivers — Fief Pachingny. — By deed Oct. 
23, 1699, Hector de Callieres, governor, and John 
Bochard, intendant of North France, granted this 
fief to the fathers Jesuits with the rights and 
privileges annexed to the seigniory of Sillery, 
both of which are comprehended in the same deed. 
— This fief consists of four perches of land in 
front by eight in depth and twenty toises square 
added thereto, bounded N. e. by St. Louis-street 
and B. w. by St. Anthony's-strcet ; in front by 
the street that divides this fief from the in- 
closure of the town of Three Rivers and in the 
rear by Notre Dame-street. — Motives and con- 
siderations. — This fief was granted to the reverend 
fathers Jesuits, to be enjoyed by them as their pro- 
perty for ever, according to the customs of Paris. It 
was given to them in consideration of the spiritual 
and temporal assistance they rendered daily to the 
savages of this country, and of the great care they 
took and the enormous expense they had incurred 
in sup|iorting the missions to the said savages.— By 

deed nf Feb. 15, 1634, the New France Company 
granted this fief and seigniory to the reverend 
fathers of the company of Jesus. This deed con- 
tains a direction to Mr. de Champlain, then com- 
mandant of the New France Company, to put the 
said fathers into the possession and enjoyment of 
the 600 arpents of land so granted to them, at or 
near the place called the Three Rivers, where the 
New France Company was then forming a settle- 
ment ; but Mr. de Champlain having died before 
this mandamus came to hand, the following was 
obtained.— By deed, Aug. 26, 1637, M.deMont- 
magny, the king's lieutenant in New France, by 
order of a mandamus of the 26th Feb., 1037, to 
him directed by the said New France Company, 
put the company of Jesus in New France into the 
real and actual possession of a tract of land, 
which he then caused to be bounded and limited in 
the following manner : 1st. By erecting a wall at 
the N. B. side, near the said brick manufacture, 
to serve as a boundary mark, under which he 
caused coals and bricks to be put, which wall and 
boundary runs from the s. E. to the N. w. back 
into the country. On the s. w. side he caused 
another wall to be erected, running also from 
s. E. to N. w., from the extremities of which he 
caused a line to be drawn along the road leading 
along the river St. Lawrence to serve as a boun- 
dary line along the front, which measured 190 
perches ; that is to say, from the wall or boun- 
dary at the N. R. and near the brick-kiln to the 
rivulet called St. Magdalen's, that falls into the 
river St. Lawrence at the point of the Iroquois, 
150 perches; and from that rivulet to the end of 
the other wall or boundary at the 8. w. side 40 
perches. N. B. The depth from the front to the 
rear is not mentioned in this deed, but it is found 
to be no more than 25 arpents in depth ; it was 
therefore erroneously stated in this deed as con- 
taining 500 square arpents, because 19 urpciits in 
breadth by 25 in length make only 475. — By 
deed, Aug. l.j, 1640, the reverend fathers of the 
company of Jesus gave 1 \ arpent in front by 25 
in depth to serve as a common for the inhabitants' 
cattle, reserving to themselves the right of pasture 
therein for lit head: aval ity deed, June 9, 1650, 
the Jesuits transferred for the same puqmsc 14 
arpents of land in front by 25 in depth, the almvc 
arpent and a half included, making 350 square 
arpents, out of which they reserved 35, the real 







'„ il 



amount i« therefore 315 ; 5 arpents in front by 
25 in depth, making 125, above and joining the 
common, 35 square arpents joining the rear of 
the common, which they reserved. They also 
made a temporary grant of 16 arpents, which 
have since been united to the common. They 
also reserved some land back of the common within 
the same lines above the hill, which did not belong 
to this parcel, and does not therefore cause any 
diminution of the 315 given for the common. — 
By the same deed Mr. de Montmagny gave to the 
reverend fathers 14 arpents of land in front, join- 
ing to the 5 arpents by 25 that remained to them 
at the 8. w. side of the said 5 arpents in front. 
By deed Mr. de Mezy, governor, and Francis 
Delaval, bishop of Quebec, granted to the reverend 
fathers of the company of Jesus 4 arpents in front 
by 25 in depth, above the 14 arpents given them in 
lieu of what they gave to the common and joining 
to them at one side ; the side lines of which also 
run 8. E. and -N. w., making 100 square arpents 
given them as a gratification on account of the 
lands they gave being of greater value by their 
contiguousness to the settlement than those they 
got, which lay at a greater distance. This parcel 
now consists of 23 arpents in front, running along 
the river St. Lawrence, by 25 in depth, joining 
on one side to the common, from which it is di- 
vided by a line running 8. e. and n. w., and the 
other side of the second rivulet that runs into the 
river St. Lawrence in the way to lake St. Peter, 
making 525 ; and 2f arpents in breadth between 
the rear of the common and the hill, and thence 
running along the whole back line of said com- 
mon, making 35 square arpents, out of which they 
reserved 5 arpents in front by 25 in depth, making 
125 above and joining the common, 35 square ar- 
pents joining the rear of the common which they 
reserved. They also reserved, or rather made tem- 
porary reservations of 16 arpents, which have since 
been united to the common within the same lines 
above the hill, which did not belong to this parcel 
and does not therefore cause any diminution of 
the 315 given for the common. By the same deed 
Mr. de Alontmagny gave to the reverend fathers 
14 arpents of land in front, joining to the 5 ar- 
pents by 25 that remained to them at the e. w. 
side of the said 5 arpents in front. — By deed, 
Aug. 8, 1664, Mr. de Me«y, governor, and Francis 
Delaval, bishop of Quebec, granted to these re- 

verend fathers 4 arpents in front by 25 in depth, 
above the 14 arpents given them in lieu of what 
they gave to the common joining to them at one 
side, the side lines of which run also s. k. and 
N. w., making 100 square arpents given them as 
a gratification on account of the lands they gave 
being of greater value by their contiguousness to 
the settlement than those they got, which lay at 
a greater distance. This parcel now consists of 
23 arpents in front, running along the river St. 
Lawrence, by 25 in depth, joining at one side 
to the common, from which it is divided by a line 
running 8. K. and M. w., and at the other side of 
the second rivulet that runs into the river St. 
Lawrence in the way to lake St. Peter, making 
525 square arpents. — By deed, Aug. 26, 1637, 
Mr. de Montmagny put the reverend fathers into 
possession of 96 arpents of land at a place called 
Coteau de la Descente, lying N. w. behind the 
fort or habitation which he the same day caused 
to be laid out by John Bourdon, engineer, &c. 
This parcel consists of 96 square arpents of land 
joining on one side to the road that runs along 
the said Coteau de la Descente, bearing e. quarter 
8 , and at another side by a wall then erected, 
under which he put coal and bricks, running w. 
a quarter n. w. or thereabouts ; at another side 
by a little hill, which they then named Coteau de 
St. Louis. — By the same deed and on the same 
day, Mr. de Montmagny put the fathers into pos- 
session of 4 arpents and 8 perches, or thereabouts, 
lying very near the habitation or fort of Three 
Rivers, on the N. B. side of it, which he then 
caused to be laid out by the same engineer, by 
erecting a wall at the part most distant from the 
fort or habitation, running in a straight lino from 
8. e. to N. w. ; and on the opposite side, next the 
fort or habitation, by erecting another wall run- 
ning also 8. K. and n. w. The distance between 
the end of these two walls being 1 1 perches, and 
the depth of the lot running back from the line 
of 11 perches, 34 perches from the road that then 
went along the river St. Lawrence and thence 
running back into the country. This parcel is 
erroneously stated in the deed as containing 4 
urpents 8 perches, because in describing the boun- 
daries to be a square of 1 1 perches in front, be- 
tween two parallel lines running buck 34 perches, 
it will make the real contents only 3 arpents and 
74 perches. 

J O L 

K A M 

Grants made to the Jesuits for religt 

ous Purposes. 

Namn of the prlniipal Granlt. 

f.fiij;uri« in 
Icnuih aiul 

« » i SqMarc 
k -i arjietitk. 

ft' 1 


2 by -M 

40 282,240 ' 


1 by 2 

2 14»112; 

Cap de Itt Madeleine 

2 by 20 

40 282,2401 

Ute aux Reaux 

, , 


La Prairie du la Madeleine 

2 by 4 

H ' 56,448 

Notre Dame des Anges 

I by 4 

4 1 28,224 

Isle St. Christopher 

. ! 80| 

St. Gabriel 

. ! 104,850 


. i 585' 

La Vuclieric ( Quebec) . 


St. Nicolas in Lauzon 


Sillery .... 

8,!)7!> 1 



N. B.— Besides other mil 

or cranta, and valuable nro-l 

pcrties in the cities of Quebec and Montreal and'thel 

town of Three Rivers, 


Johnson's Creek, river, in the s. angle of the 
S. of De Lery, runs into the R. Richelieu. 

JoLLiET, seigniory, in the co. of Beauce, is in 
the rear of Lauzon, separated from St. Etienne 
by the Chaudiere, and bounded on its other sides 
by Frampton, Buckland and the S. of Ste. Marie. 
— It is of an irregular figure; its greatest length 
along the rear line of Lauzon is about five leagues, 
occupying a space of about 1 ^ league in width along 
the Chaudiere, and is in depth along the E. line of 
the S. of Ste. Marie about 3 leagues. — Granted, 
Apr. 30th, 1697> to Sieur Louis Jolliet, and is 
now the property of the Hon. Thomas Taschereau, 
one of the judges of the Court of King's Bench at 
Quebec. — This seigniory, in soil surface and qua- 
lity of timber, bears a great affinity to the rear 
part of the adjoining seigniory of Lauzon, being 
much diversified by hill and dole and in many 
parts rocky, especially near the borders of the 
Chaudiere. It is most abundantly watered by 
numerous rivers and streams which traverse it 
diagonally, the chief of which is the Etchemin 
that crosses the S. from rear to front. Along the 
borders of these rivers are situated flourishing and 
well cultivated farms with comfortable dwellings. 
The roads are numerous o.iJ have been judiciously 
laid out at the suggestion of the seignior, who de- 
votes much attention to those and other objects 
(particularly the bridges erected over the various 
rivers) tending to the comfort of the inhabitants 
as well us to the general advancement of his S. 
and other properties which he holds in its vicinity. 
The road of communication from Quebec to the 
United States runs through the westeru extremity; 

a road also traverses the centre to the Etchemin, 
and many other roads communicate with the ad- 
joining seigniories. 

Slulistict of the Parish of Ste. Claire. 

Population 1,600 
Clmrchcs, R. C. I 
Cures . . I 
Presbyteries . I 
Corn-mills . 1 

Potteries . . 1 
Brick>kilns . I 
Custoni-liuuscs I 

8 Notaries 

Taverns . 
ArtiMHs . 





Anttual Agricultural Produce. 




. 7,800 

. 5,:i0o 

. 3,900 
. 21,200 



Buiheli. : Cwti. 

Peas . 3,801 ! Maple sugar .-il2 
Rye . 80 1 Hay, tons . 1,022 

Indian com .501 
J!blixed Grain 80 1 

Live Stock, 


. 72S 



Ti'le. — " Concession du 30me Avril, 1697, faite par 
Louit lie Buade, Gouvenieur, et Jean Boehart, Intendant, 
au Sieur Loui$ Jolliet, des islets qui sont dans la riviere 
des Trccliemiiit, au dessus du premier sault, contenant 
trois quarts de liouc ou environ, avec trois licues de terre 
de front sur pareille profondeur k prendre detni lieue au 
dessous des alts islets en montant la dite riviere, tenant 
d'un c6t^ k la Selgiieurie de Lauzon, et de I'autre aiix terres 
non-concedees."— Ar^Mrf ifliitendancc, JVb. 5, folio 15. 

JuGLBRs, River of, runs into the r. St. Mau- 
rice below the R. Pisnay. 

Jupiter River, runs into the St. Lawrence 
and is on the s. side of the Island of Anticosti. 



river, runs into l. St. John. It is the only r. 
between the grand outlet of that lake and the 
R. Peribonea. It is of very little consequence and 
its stream is so much obstructed that its ascent is 
very difficult if not impracticable. 

Kacouna, v. Cacona. 

Kacuatiiieue (R.) v. Kacouatimi. 

Kamouraska, county, is bounded n. e. by the 
CO. of Rimouski ; e. w. by the n. e. boundary line 
of the S. of St. Roch des Aulnets, prolonged to 
the southern boundary of the province ; n. w. by 
the St. Lawrence, together with the islands in 
that river nearest to the county and in whole or 
in part fronting the same ; s. e. by the southern 
boundary of the province. This county comprises 
the seigniories of Terrebois, Granville and La- 
chenaye, I'lslet du Portage, Granville, Kamou- 
raska, St. Denis, Riviere Quelle and its aug. and 


t V! 


K A M 

8te. Anne ; alio the townships of Bungay, Wood- 
bridge and Ixworth. Its extreme length is 168 m. 
and its breadth 40 ; it contains 4320 square miles ; 
its centre is in kt. 47> 3' n. long 600 12 w. : it 
sends 2 members to the Provincial Parliament and 
the place of election is at Kainouraska. — The sur- 
face of this CO. is uneven and mountainous, par- 
ticularly in the s. e. section. The soil is in many 
places excellent and such as may be expected in a 
tract so much diversified with hills and dales. 
The principal mountains are the Machagos, the 
Esockominoc, the Bunjauohen, the Ootaquisque- 
gamook, the Machios, the Upquedopscook and the 
AUagash. This county is exceedingly well wa- 
tered by rivers and lakes ; the chief rivers are the 
Kamouraska and the St. John, which traverses the 
centre of the county from s. \v. to N. k., present- 
ing excellent lands for new settlements : farther 
in the iuterior are the rivers Allagash and Aroo- 
stook with their various branches. The most re- 
markable lakes are the Chipitogmisis, the Panta- 
guongamis and part of Eagle Lakes. — The front 
of this CO. along the St. Lawrence exhibits hand- 
some and flourishing settlements. The roads in 
general are very good, and the scenery is highly 
diversified and interesting. — It contains 5 parishes 
and 2 extensive and beautiful villages. 


Population 13,744 1 Corn-mills 
Churches, R. C. 4 1 Sun'-mills . 
Cur^s . 4 : CardinK-inills 
Presbyteries 4 ' Kulliiig-miUs 
Convents • 1 Tanneries , 
Colleges • 1 , Potteries 

Schools . a Hat-nmnufuc. 
Villages . 'i Medical men 

Taverns , 
Ship yards . 
Tonnage . 



Annual AgricuUural Produce. 

Wheat . 
Barley , 




241, OoO 

Peas . 22,840 
Rye . 10,275 
Uuck wheat 1,200 
Indian con. 5,0(30 

Mixed gr. 12,100 
Maple sugar, 

cwts. 121 1 
Hny, tons 32,91 1- 

Live StMk, 

3,058 1 Cows 
2,852 1 Sheep 

8,955 1 Swine 
26,490 I 



Kamouraska, river, is formed by the junction 
of two considerable branches called the Grand Bras 
and the Petit Bras, the latter rising in the S. of 
Rivirre OucUe and the former in the waste lands 
in the rear of that seigniory : these arms run N. k. 
and meet in the 4th concession of Kamouraska. 
The united streams run through the centre of that 

K A M 

S. in a very circuitous course and fall into the St. 
Lawrence opposite to Kamouraska Islands. The 
seignoriol mill is on this R. nearly 1 mile w. of 
the church of St. Pascal. 

Kamouraska, seigniory, in the co. of Kamou- 
raska, is bounded in front by the St. Lawrence ; 
N.K. by Granville; s. w. by St. Denis ; in the rear 
by Woodbridge and part of Bungay. — 3 leagues in 
depth by 2 in breadth. Granted, July 15, 1074, 
to Sicur de la Durantaie ; now the property of 
Pascal Tachi', Esq. — This very valuable and pro- 
ductive seigniory is remarkable for its salubrious 
climate, its population, the fertility of its soil and 
its delightful scenery. In the vicinity of the river 
the land is rather low, forming an extensive plain 
broken here and there by a few singular hillocks 
or rather rocks, crowned with a few dwarf pines 
and low underwood : it abounds with rich natural 
meadows and excellent pasturage that sufficiently 
account for the quantity and quality of the Ka- 
mouraska butter, so much esteemed in the Quebec 
market. The soil, in the front part generally, is 
excellent, being either a rich black mould, a yel- 
low loam, or a mixture of clay and sand : towards 
the rear it gradually becomes less fertile and one- 
fourth of the S. is occupied by ridges of rocks un- 
fit for cultivation. — Four concessions and part of 
the 5th are settled, and some of the redundant po- 
pulation occupy a portion of the waste lands to- 
wards the rear. The number of farms is 495. — 
There is not much timber except in the moun- 
tainous parts, which produce tine beech, birch, 
maple, basswood and pine. — This S. is watered 
by the R. Kamouraska, which runs from the rear 
through the centre to the St. Lawrence, and 
also by some small streams. — Several roads lead 
into the adjoining grants and many others open a 
communication with the different concessions, on 
which are numerous farm-houses in the midst of 
fields of most luxuriant fertility : the road leading 
from the church in the 3rd concession is particularly 
fine and beautiful, skirted by houses and agricultural 
buildings kept in the best order. — About one half 
of the S. is under cultivation and agriculture has 
made great progress : wheat and all kinds of grain 
seldom fail of abundant harvests; but these are 
not the only dependence of the farmer, for here 
are some of the best dairies in the province. — 
19,000 bushels of wheat are sold out of the S. in 
grain and flour. Poultry is scarce. There is one 
corn-mill that drives 4 sets of stones ; it is built 


K A M () U R A S K A. 






of stone, 2 stories high, and stands on the h. 
Kamouraska, in the 3rd range. The rent in ranges 
1, 2 and 3 is 1^. 8d. per front arpent, and 2s. 6d. 
in the 4th range — The Parish of Kamoxraska 
includes the whole of this 8, and half of the iS. of 
Granville. There is no place in the county where 
flax is more cultivated than in this and the adja- 
cent parish — so much so that the inhabitants, above 
20,000, make sufficient linen cloth for their use. 
The site for the new church of St. Pascal is 10 ar- 
pents in superficial extent, of which 4were liberally 
given for the purpose by Mr. Robertaille and (i were 
sold by that gentleman for £60, much under the 
value. — The Village oJ'Kamouraskais in a pleasant 
situation on the main road near the St. Lawrence. 
It consists of a church, a presbytery and about 
60 houses, mostly uf wood, but a few arc built with 
stone in a style much superior to the others. 
Some families of great respectability have fixed 
their residence here, also some very reputable 
shopkeepers and artisans; it can likewise boast 
of one or two inns, where travellers may be well 
entertained. During the summer this village is 
enlivened by numerous visitors, who come hither 
to recruit their health, as it has the reputation of 
being one of the healthiest spots in the province ; 
it is also the watering-place, where many people 
resort for the benefit of sea-bathing. The manor- 
house, which is the residence of Air. Tach^'-, is eli- 
gibly situated near the river, at a short distance from 
the village. — There are only 2 schools at present 
in this rich and populous 8. ; one, supported by 
the Fabrique, is attended by about 30 scholars, 
including 10 girls ; the other, under the auspices 
of the Royal Institution, has about 40 scholars, 
including 10 girls : in the latter the English lan- 
guage is taught. A petition for the erection of a 
college in this parish was recommended to the 
House of Assembly by one of its committees, but 
without success. Mr. Tache, with his usual li- 
berality, offered to give a piece of land on which 
it might have been erected. — This seigniory is not 
without commercial advantages, besides its pro- 
ductive fisheries; and the Kamouraska .schooners 
are well known at Quebec for the large quantities 
of provisions they are laden with, such as grain, 
live stock, poultry, butter, maple sugar, &c., be- 
sides considerable freights of deal planks and other 
timber. — The Kamouraska Islands, in front of the 
seigniory, not only embellish the landscape but are 
highly useful as the sites of the fisheries, which 

are here carried on to a considerable extent, par- 
ticularly the herring fishery : they arc appendages 
to the S. and are almost bare rocks, of great utility 
as they aflbrd a safe shelter to small vessels, of 
which great numbers arc always passing to and 
from the numerous coves in the vicinity. The 
names of these small islands are Isle Brulc'e, on 
which stands a telegraph, Urossc Isle, I. au Patin, 
I. de la Providence, I. la Plaudre, I. auxComeilles. 
There are 6 fisheries, viz. 

2 at I. mix Coriifilli-fi 
I lit I. aiix lluraiiirfi 
1 near (Juj) uii Diable. 

1 at I. ail I'ntin. 
I at I. UruKe. 

The fish caught are herring, shad, salmon, sardine, 
flounders and smelts, and the average annual pro- 
duce, besides what is consumed by the inhabitants, 



Herrings, about 

. 370 

Sardine, about 

. aoo 


. 150 


. 150 

The prices at which these fish are generally sold 
are — 

r barrel. 

Herrings, at from I3<. 6d. to 17f. dd. per barr 
Shad . . 20«. to 2m. ditto. 

Salmon . 10 to 1 2 dollars ditto, containing 

from 26 to 30. 
Sardine • 2'W. ditto, containing 8 tinettes. 

The fishing-seasons are during the months of May 
and June, and from the 15th of Aug. to the 15th 
of Oct. ; the best fish are caught in the autumnal 


Population 5,495 


Churches, R. C. 1 


CuTts . 1 

Saw-mills . 

Presbyteries 1 


Schools . 2 

Medical men 

Villages . 1 


Corn-mills 1 

River-craft . 
Keel-boats . 





Annual AgricuUural Produce, 






Potatoes 1I0,(KI0 
Peas . 9,100 

Rye . 5,000 

Mixed grain 5,000 

Live Slock. 


2,5501 Swine 
6,650 1 


Title. — " Concession du 15me Jiiillet, 1674, faite par 
le Comtc dc Frontenac, Gouvemeur, au Sieur de la Duran- 
laif, qui contient trois iieues de terre de front, sur le 
Ceiive St. Laurent, savoir deux Iieues au dessus de la 
rivifre appeli'e Kanwuratka et une lieue au dessoua, icelle 
comprise, aver deux Iieues de profondeur dans les terres; 
ensemble les isles (taut au devunt des dites trois Iieues,"^ 
Ue^i$tre d'Intendance, Let. B. folio 30 el 31. 








I :,' i! i 

K I G 

KANAfUROOMicHR, Uke, IS oit the N. K. side of 
the R. Ht. Maurice, into which its waters run. 
It lies at the s. w. end of the Iroquois portage, 
which leikds from it to the upper port of the R. 
Windigo. » 

Kaoihsa, river, rises in v. Wiscouamatche and 
runs into l. St. John ; it is 1 {, chain wide and 
runs from k. to n. ; the stream is very rapid and 
ii bounded on each side by high rocks. 

Kawatikouck (R.), v. Coaticook. 

Kkmpt Road, v. Roads. 

Kknnrbkc Road, t>. Roadh. 

Kknt and Stratiikrn (V.), v. Teuiscouata 



Krnuagohisiiish (L.), v. Kiouaoomisbish. 

Kknwangomi (L.), v. Kiguagomi. 

Krnmvanoomisiiihii (L.),t). Kiouaoomisiiish. 

Kesikau, river, fulls into the St. Maurice 
above Mont au Cht^nc, about 300 m. above Three 
Rivers. The head of this tt. is connected by port- 
ages nnd lulccs with the r. Assuapnioussoin. 

Kktti.g Lake, v. Ciiaudierg, l. 

KicKANDATCH, river and lake. The R. runs 
through waste lands from the north into the head 
of the lake, which is the last of the chain of lakes 
that supply the first waters of the St. Klaurice. 

KiGUAOoMi, or Long Lake, called also Ke- 
Huagumi, Kemvangomi, K'mogami, Chinouagomi, 
Tsiamagomi and Tshnuagami, This beautiful lake 
lies on the left of the Chicoutimi and 7 leagues up 
that river. Its length is variously represented by 
travellers as from 5 to 9 leagues long and from 
half a mile to two miles in width, with an average 
breadth of nearly a mile. It is navigable for vessels 
of (JO or 80 tons, and by some accounts for vessels 
of at least 100 tons. An explorer, who states its 
length as only 5 or G leagues, says that it is so 
narrow that it resembles a river more than a lake. 
It is separated from another lake called Kigua- 
gomishish by a species of dividing ridge, about a 
mile or 1 \ mile long and half a mile wide, which 
separates tlic waters flowing southward directly 
into the Saguenay from those which, by pursuing 
a northernly course, first enter Lake St. John, a 
to{)ogruphic'al feature of rather unusual occurrence ; 
but it is said that this is not, strictly speaking, 
the case, because a small stream falls from Lake 
Kiguugomishish into Lake Kiguagomi. Although 
unusual, this is not a physical impossibility, with- 
out, indeed, as has been asserted, the waters of the 

K I G 

latter are higher than those of the former.— Sur- 
rounded by high rocky hills, some of which have 
barren cliffs about 200 ft. high. The southern 
borders rise into hills of about 300 feet high, 
timlwred with spruce, white birch and aspen ; the 
land is so rocky, and the cliffs appear in so many 
places, that this side of the lake is quite unfit 
for culture. The northern side, although not 
so mountainous, frequently rises in perpendicular 
cliffs of granite, whose base is bathed by the 
waters of the lake: their summits are clothed 
with cypress and a stinted description of pine, 
sometimes called Norway pine. The prevailing 
timber is white birch and there is neither ash 
nor elm — Po'mte au Sable, or Sandi/ Point, is a 
low bank of alluvial soil stretching into the lake 
from the northern shore. It lies at the entrance 
of a river and would be an excellent situation for 
a village. Opposite to it on the south side a 
small stream falls into the lake from between the 
high mountains which form its bed, and the 
cascade at its entrance afibnls a good site for a 
mill and similar establishments. About 4 miles 
from Pointe au Sable is a dry green bay, which 
appears to enter deep into the northern shore 
and to be free from mountains and rocky pre- 
cipices for some distance. It is the only place 
between Portage de I'Enfant, on the R. Chicou- 
timi, and the portage of Kiguagomi, where land 
fit for farming might be ex])ected to occur in any 
considerable extent. — Little can be said of Lake 
Kiguagomi in an agricultural point of view, but 
its sublime and beautiful scenery is highly extolled. 
Its length, its numerous rocky capes and bays, and 
its precipitous shores, cause it to resemble the Sa- 
guenay, hut its mountains are neither so high nor so 
barren. — The Portage Kiguagomi, also called In- 
sula Formosa or Belle Isle, is 96 chains in length 
and lies on the height of land which separates Lake 
Wiqui from Lake Kiguagomishish. 

KiGUAOoMisHisH, or Little Lake, called also 
KeiiuagomiKhish, Ketiivangomisfiish, Kinogumishish, 
Chinouagomin/iicfie, Tsiamagomishish and Tshmm- 
gamkshish. This lake, though 9 miles long if fol- 
lowed in its windings, is only 3 miles in a straight 
line, and varies in width from 220 yards to one 
mile. It is navigable for vessels of 30 or 40 tons. 
The narrow outlet that connects it with Belle 
Riviere, by which its waters are conveyed to Lake 
St. John, winds through alders and is called 
Riviere des Aulnais, This lake is about half a 

' I 

K I L 

K I N 

league from Lake Kiguagomi, with which it ii 
suppiwed to be connected by the R. Baddcly. Its 
shores are low, interspersed with elm and ash and 
fit for cultivation, particularly the northern side. 
Although the immediate shore on its s. side is 
low, on retiring back from it the lands become 
ultimately as elevated as those on the northern 
shore of Lake Kiguagomi, of which they are pro- 
bably a continuation. 

Kii.DARK, township, in the co. of Derthier, lies 
in the rear of the aug. to La Valtrie and is bounded 
N. B. by D'Aillebout, D'Argenteuil and the aug. 
to Lunoraye and Dautraye; 8. w. by Rawdon 
and St. Sulpice ; in the rear by waste lands. — 
This tract is less than the half of a full inland 
township and was divided into 12 mnfres, eaii: 
of which is subdivided into ]2j^ lots. 11, OC''' 
acres were originally granted, under letters patent, 
to the late Mons. de la Valtrie, and recently a 
tract of 3,600 acres was granted to the Pasturus' 
family, leaving consequently, after deductin^^ iron, 
the whole extent of the township 2-7th8 as the 
reservations for the crown and the clergy, v.-hnli 
are laid out in blocks, but a small qMit-ntity of 
land for the military locations, still reduu:ci b. 
Major Colclough's grant of 1,800 acres, at present 
under letters patent. This t. is most eligi'.'iy 
situated and contains excellent lands, which arc 
as far as the 9th range generally level ; beyord 
this it assumes an uneven and mountainous ap- 
pearance. Most of the lands are susceptible i>^ 
cultivation ; there are some rocks, and the soil is 
a gray earth and clay covered with black mould ; 
some parts are yellow and sandy but fit for agri- 
culture. The portion granted to the late Mr. 
Vondenvelden has been about 20 years settled. 
The timber is chiefly hard wood, and the t. is 
watered by the rivere L'Assomption, Rouge, iind 
Blanche. — The road traversing this t., Ix"' .en 
the 5th and 6th ranges, is in high order ari vv.-ii 
settled on both sides by Canadians ; it is the Ici^ti- 
ing road into Rawdon. The Canadian settle- 
ments in the 4th, 5th and 6th ranges, p»-» cularly 
the 5th and 6th, are in a flourir^liir :; conditio^. 
The new emigrant settlementf, f' ^.od under the 
care of Major Colclongh m J8il, have made 
much progress; and onntain a neat vilkge built 
near the n. e. line ; it is approached by a fine road 
that traverses the greater pnrt of the t. between 
the 7th and 8th ranges, having good bridges and 
from the village it leads into Berlhier. All the 
Canadian settlements are worthy of partic^ilar 

notice, in consequence uf the domestic happiness 
and rural comforts of the inhabitants and the good 
state of their roods and bridges. — The lands arc 
conceded on terms similar to those of the seignio- 
ries. — In this T. is a great natural curiosity, a 
cavern discovered by two young Canadian pea- 
sants while hunting the wild cat. — I'ltgraHted and 
unlncaled, 874 acres. 

KiLKBNNT, township, in the co. of Lachenaye, 
is bounded n. r. by Rawdon ; !<. w. by Aber- 
cromby; in front by the S. of Lachenaye and the 
aug. to Terrebonne ; in the rear by waste lands. 
Although it has the usual breadth of an inland 
to'vntihip, it (Yintains a loss than usual superficial 
extent on i»>\o'jc'f el' the obliquity of the rear 
lin- .1 of ihfj s«;ig»ior!"s in its front. The general 
leaUiTts <>r ti\r. x. 's mountainous and uneven ; 
ar\r^ ).a siAine vUce^ it rises in grradual swells, in 
ot'.K.'T pv.vU til'? surface is broken and rocky. The 
Tjiotit mouniji.nDUS |)art seems to traverse the 0th 
and 10th Yi.ngei; the"?- n. iin ImuI descends '^y 
ciisy filopfjs beyond tho • nr oatlinuandforiris . vulley 
ihrnu;;;!! \v.»ich it '« "jj-jiospd Ncr*h Riv( r .lows, 
Vei:iilii.'irig the Ipnd. on each side- ivh 'ch are r-puted 
to be ex:' ;knt. Notwithstanf^i . ?'ie unevenn; ■' 
ard ir"',-iii\iluKity of the surfatt, the soil generally 
is by vio means unfi' lof the plough, thctigli ^'n- 
ferju- to th'^t of JRawdun and Kil^hre.— ii> (. 
i» nbundantly watered by rivers and numcr</us 
loVes. 'ILc River Achigan rises here in a great 
ni'Tibtr of small srrea'as issuing, chiefly, irom the 
lakep ;>.'■ stjd near the rear boundary line; the w. 
bTunrii t i the r. Petit Esprit also risr . in the 
N. K. part of this t. The principal mkcs are 
called Killamey ; t?iBy lie in the :;. w. t.ngle ; the 
largest is studded with ):ilaniis and extends 6 m. in 
length and its extreme width is 1^ ni.— There 
arc no roads, not even one to the settlement of New 
Glasgow, lyins less than 1} m. from the s. e. 
hoiindary. — Tho Rev. Mr. Burton, who resides in 
Kawdon, the agency of this township, but 
from its having l)een only recently surveyed, little 
or no progress has been made in respect of settle- 
ments, except by a few Irish emigrants, who have 
without any legal authority settled, promiscuously, 
in various parts of the t. 

KiNGiiAN, river, rises in 2 small lakes in the 
6th range of Grenville, and winds to the s. w. to 
its junction with the Ottawa at the basin, about 
8 chains above the w. extremity of the cunal. 
This river is not of great magnitude, bi:' it is ex- 
tremely rapid down to ihe 2nd range. 

■i s 

) )l 

. ! ! V 

I 31 


II ! 


KiNOSEY, township, in the co. of Druniinond, 
lies on the e. bank of the b. St. Francis and is 
bounded N. w. by Simpson; b. k. by Shipton and 
in the rear by Warwick. A line drawn from w. 
to E. would nearly separate the two qualities of 
land that compose this t. The front and the side 
next to Shipton arc of the best quality, and 
produce beech, birch, maple, butternut, bass- 
wood and oak timber. The parts adjoining 
Warwick and Simpson are low and swampy, 
covered with cedar, spruce fir and similar woods. 
— Several branches of the Nicolet water it advan- 
tageously enough ; on the banks of these streams 
a few settlers have established themselves, but the 
greatest appearance of cultivation is in front, on 
the St. Francis, where some industrious farmers 
have made great progress ; their successful ex- 
ample will be likely to attract other settlers of 
.similar habits, and in a few years, from the na- 
tural fertility of the soil, aided by their exertions, 
this in all probability will become a popukns and 
thriving township. The principal proprietors are 
the heirs of the late Major Sam. Holland, late sur- 
veyor-general, and the heirs of the late Dr. Geo. 
Longmore: » small proportion is held by the 
family of Donald Maclean. — Ungruntcd and un- 
located, 12,100 acres. 


Pupulutiuii . 30(i 

AiiHiiiil Agricultural Produer. 





. .t,7<Kl 

. 3,()MI 


Poliitoes (i,.'m 
I'eiis . (J7() 
Rvc . 1,000 

Huck wheat 100 
Indian I'orn 700 

Lhr Slock. 


. la-t 

C'DWd ;jo.') 

Sheep . (flO 

Swine m^ 

Kinh'h Popts. — The extensive tract of ter- 
ritory known by the name of the King's Post* 
couuncnces at the cape and river of Curnioran on 
the N. H., and extending due N. strikes through 
the highlands and divides the Hudson's Buy ter- 
ritory from the province of Lower Canada ; thence 
following the course of the highliinds it strikes 
ncro.s8 Luke Mi.stussini, and thence following tlic 
division of the waters of the St. Maurice, Lake 
cit. Joiin and Uutiscan to the N. w. angle of the 
•S. of liutiscnn ; then it runs K. along the rear of the 
seigniories (o the Dluck liiver, or euutern limits 
of Mount Murrav, und follows the course of that 


river to the St. Lawrence, and descending the 
northern shore of the gulf reaches to Cape Cor- 
moran. The frontage of this immense tract on the 
St. Lawrence and the gulf is 140 leagues and the 
SS. of Portneuf and Mille Vaches, which lie in this 
extent of coast, are excepted. — The country of the 
King's Peels is leased to Mr. M'Douai for £1200 
per ann. — In the posts and fisheries 450 men are 
employed and 500 in the Indian trade. 300 tierces 
of solrnon are annually sold ; and 2 schooners, 80 
boats and 15 canoes are engaged in the fisheries. 
— The animals in the country commonly called 
the King's Posts are, caribou, beaver, bear, lynx, 
fox, wolverine, porcupine, otter, hare, ground-hog, 
polecat, and the elk which has nearly disappeared. 
— The timber is white, yellow and red pines; 
white, red and gray spruce ; elm, white and black 
birch, maple, poplar, ash, linden and cedar. — 
There are 7 trading posts, at each of which about 
30 men are employed on an average. — The prin- 
cipal posts of the company are at the following 

Lake St. John 




Moiiic, R. 
Seven Islands. 

Lake Chamachouin is the last of the Saguenay 
Posts, where about 15 families live. It is 50 1. 
w. of Lake St. John. 

The Post of Astuapmoussoin is on the R. of that 
name. The land near the post is low and swampy. 

The Metttbetshuan Post is near the mouth of a 
R. of that name and situated on an alluvial bank 
at the most southwardly point of Lake St. John. 
The establishment consists of a dwelling-house 
for the resident clerk, a store, a bakehouse and 
stubles or barn, with a spacious garden yielding 
abundance of vegetables, particularly potatoes. It 
is situated on the site where the Jesuits, in the 
Itith century, hud an establishment. The fur- 
rows made by the plough are still seen in tlie 
lands near the garden : these lands, which "* that 
period were entirely cleared, are now overgrown 
with spruce, aspin, fir, beech and pine ; some part 
of it, however, produces timothy hay. The apple 
and plum-trees, which existed in the memory of 
persons now living, have disappeared. At this post 
the company of the King's Posts carry on the In- 
dian trade. The soil and climate must be good, 
because not (mly corn and various vegetables, but 
cucumbers and melons grow to perfection. 

"VXwi'hicoutimi EitablithmeHl, tthovii 5U m, from 


Tadoussac and 67 m. 68 chains from h, St. John, 
is at the r. extremity of the peninsula at the con- 
fluence of the Rivers Chicoutimi and SaguenajT' 
It is a factory of the King's Posts' Company and 
the only trading post on the Saguenny. It con- 
gists of a dwelling-house for the clerk or agent, on 
a rising ground, commanding a view of the Sa- 
guenay and the harbour, a store judiciously placed 
near the landing, a bakehouse, stables and bom : 
several pieces of tilled ground furnish various ve- 
getables, particularly potatoes, and even some luxu- 
ries for the table. The chapel, erected by the Je- 
suit Labrosse in 1727, stands on a rising ground 
projecting into the basin at the foot of the fidls : 
it is about 25 ft. long and 15 wide: the altar, 
which is plain, as well as the pictures or engrav- 
ings, evidently betray the hand of time : the tomb- 
stone with a long inscription, recording the death 
of Father Cocar in the last century, is broken in 
several places and the Latin inscription can with 
diiliculty be understood. A Catholic missionary 
visits the post twice a year and teaches the natives 
the first principles of the Catholic religion, of which 
the Jesuits framed a catechism in the Crce lan- 
guage and circulated it among them. The house 
at the iK)st was built in 1794-5. At the distance 
of 170 ft. from the banks is a rock 11 ft. high and 
the tide rises 5 ft. above it ; to leap upon it was 
a favourite amusement of the people of the post a 
few years since ; this encroachment of the river has 
been made within the lost 40 years. — Only lU 
families live in the neighbourhood of the Chicou- 
timi post. — The hay consumed at the post is cut 
from considerable prairies bordering 5 leagues of 
the R. Snguenay from Rocky Point to Terres Rom- 
pues; these prairies or meadows are U m. below 
the post. The tide rises here 10 ft. ]ierpcndicular 
nt spring tides.— The climate is favourable to ve- 
getation and it has licen found by cx])eriment that 
grain will ripen much sooner at Chicoutimi than 
at Quebec. Vegetables of all kinds and cucum- 
bers succeed very well, and stmwberrii's were eiitcu 
by Mr. dc Sales Laterrirre, who visited this part 
of the country in 1M27, on the 17th of Juno. 
The frost regularly sets in at the latter end of 
October and continues till the end of April or 
jjeginning of May ; it always freoxcs hero 10 or 
12 days so<mer than at Luke St. John. The views 
round Chicoutimi arc sutticicntly pleasing and the 
land, witii the exception of some rucks scattered 
here and there, is fit for cultivation. Chicdutiuii 
U the only place on the Sagucnay where the soil 


is fertile ; it is a blue clay too little mixed with 
loam or sand and produces an abundance of timber 
of excellent growth. The greatest impediment to 
the population of this tract is its distance from un 
inhabited country, for, as soon as the navigation is 
closed by the frost, aU intercourse with the rest of 
the world is entirely cut oiT. The distance to Mal- 
bay, in a straight line, is 60 m., and the journey bus 
been accomplished on snow shoes in two days. If 
the government, or rich proprietors, would be at 
the of forming a military route (in the 
manner of the Romans,) to Malbay, or Baie St. 
Paul, it is supposed that a numerous population 
would settle here in a few years : without this 
facility it is probable that all the advantages 
ofTered by the Saguenay country will remain for 
a long time unenjoyed. 

KiNLRPAHinAN, is part of the Belle Riviere, 
which runs into Lake St. John. 

KoTACiiAU, river, fulls into the w. angle of l. 
Si. John, near the mouth of the Assuapmoussoin. 

KusHi'AHinAN (R.), V. Bellk Rivirrk. 

KuHPAHioANiHii or KNOSHPYnisH, river, runs 
into the s. side of lake St. John. On this small 
river is a grove of maple, where the sugar used at 
the Post of Chicoutimi is made. The Deputy 
Surveyor General ascended this r. about 7 miles, 
and found its banks composed of an alluvial clayey 
loam ; and where the banks are at all elevated 
the clay lies beneath a stratum of light loam and 
the vegetable mould. The land is, in general, 
excellent, and is timbered with elm, ash, black 
birch, basswood, maple and fir : on the higher 
lands the timber is, chiefly, pine, spruce, flr, white 
birch, cedar and balsam : the white and red pine 
arc of go(Ml quality. — The current is rapid, and 
its ascent obstructed by large trees that fall across 
the river and prevent the traveller from proceed- 
ing more than 7 miles, where the river Ixicomes 
very narrow and the passage com|)letely impi^ded 
by the fallen trees. The numerous tracks of the 
l)eover and otter prove that this river is but little 
frequented by the Indian hunters. 


Labadik, fief, in the S. of Stc. Marguerite, in 
the CO. of St. Maurice, extends along the St. Law. 
rence \ league in fnmt by } league in deplli, lying 
between llic grant made to Mr. Severin Iluineau 
and Boiiclicrville fief.— (irantetl, Nov. 3, U\^2, 
to Sieur Labudie. 

4 < 







in ' 

! ' 



< i 





Tilk. " Concession du 3me Novembrp, 1672, faite par 

Jean Talon, IntenduDt. au Sicur Labadie, d'un quart di* 
lieue de front Riir une demi lieue de profondeiir, & prendre 
Kur le fltftivc St. Laurent, depuis la coneefi«iun de Mr. 
Severin llaineau, tiniiit vers cclle du Sieur Pierre Boucher," 
—R(gutre J'lnlendunce, No. l./o/fci 27. 

Lac des Deux Montaones (S.)> v. Lakb op 
Two Mountains. 

Lacuenaye, county, in the district of Mont- 
real, is bounded n. k. by the co. of L'Assomp- 
tion ; 8. w. by the co. of Terrebonne ; in the rear 
by the province line; in front by the St. Law- 
rence. It comprehends the parishes of Lachenaye^ 
St. Henry de Mascouche and St. Roch, and the 
townships of Kilkenny andWexford. Itsextremc 
length is 39 miles and its brendth 13, containing 
299 square miles ; its centre is in lat. 45° 43' n. 
long, 73" 30* w. It sends two members to the 
Provincial Parliament and the place of election is 
at St Roch. The principal rivers are the Achi- 
gan, Mascouche and St. Esprit, and it contains 
the Killarney and several minor lakes. The sur- 
face, generally, is level, except in the township of 
Kilkenny, where there are a few rising grounds. 

Populntion I4,H7.5 j Com-mills . 
Churches R.C. 4{Saw-inillH . 
Churches, Pro. I . Carding-milU 
Cur** . \ Fiilliiif^-niills 

Presbyteries ■!■ : Potanlierics . 



.Inst, of Peace 

.Medical men 







Annual AgiicuUural Produce. 





Potatoes 2UI,57U 






Peus . 2I,58H 
Hyo . 3,(tl0 
Uiii'k wheat 7(10 
Indian <-oni 9,UU0 

Live Slock. 

8,2.WI Swine 

.Mixed grain l,!K)0 
Maple sugar, 

cw t». 401 
Hay, tons .•J.I.IOO 


Lachrnaye, seigniory, in the co. of Lache- 
naye, is bounded n. e. by L'Assoniption ; ». w. by 
Terrebonne, Desplaincs and the augmentation to 
Terrelxmne; in the rear by the t. of Kilkenny ; 
in front by the ii, St. Jean or Jesus. — The originnl 
extent included the fief L'Asaomption, and was 
granted April 1(J, 1047, to Pierre Lcgardcur, 
Sicur de Ilepcntigny, and contained 4 le»giies in 
front by (i in dcptli : this tract wiis afterwards 
equally divided into the present seigniory and f'lcf, 
and the former is the property of Peter Panginan, 
Es<i.— Tlie quality of the land is various, but 
tolerably good : the usual sorts of grain and other 
produce are cultivated here with much success; 
.ind many places arc well suited to tlie growth of 
flax, which might lie rui.tcd to u considerable ex- 


tent. On the borders of the St. Jean, Achigan, 
Mascouche, Ruisscau des Anges, St. Pierre and 
other streams, are nine ranges of concessions, con- 
taining together 456 lots, nearly e<iual to one half 
of the seigniory ; of this number rather more than 
400 are cleared, well settled, and much improved. 
The rivers Achigan and Mascouche, with several 
smaller streams and rivulets branching from them, 
water the S. very favourably ; and, although 
neither of these rivers is navigable for boats, tim- 
ber is brought down them to the St. Lawrence : 
in spring and autumn their waters greatly increase, 
and in these seasons some rapids in them are very 
violent ; but even in the usual periods of drought 
there is seldom any want of a sufficient supply to 
keep the mills at work. On the Achigan is a corn- 
mill, and on the Mascouche a com and a saw-mill. 
Over the different rivers are good bridges, and 
from Lachenaye church are two ferries, one to the 
Riviere des Prairies, where Is, 6d, is charged for 
each person, the other to Isle Jesus, where \0d. 
is charged for each passenger. About 1 mile from 
the R. St. Jean is a fief of 18 acres in front, that 
runs into the S. of L' Assomption as far as the limits 
of St. Sulpicc, which belongs to Mrs. Deviene. 

The Parish of St. Henry de Mascouche extends 
from the church n. e. about 2 leagues ; by the 
Grand Coteau ». « ' league; w. and n. w. 1^ 
league; and R. 1,^ league, comprehending the 
Cabanne Ronde. In this P. the lands conceded 
prior to 1 750 are charged at the rate of one pint 
of wheat and 1 sol for each sup<.rficial arpent, and 
3 sols, tournois, quit rent, on each concession, with 
other usual charges and reservations. The present 
rents are ut the rate of 2| bushels of wheat and 4 
livres 10 sous, for each farm of 3 arpents by 30, ex- 
cept in the Crtte de Grasse, where the rent is A\ 
bushels of wheat and one pistole. In this parish 
()(MM)ari)ents tit for cultivation remain unconceded; 
these lands have no road, and have not been sur- 
veyed. There arc a sufficient number of persons 
lioth willing and able to settle on these non-con- 
reded lands, and |he causes that retard their settling 
are supposed to lie the high rates rei|uired by the 
seignior for encli conccssiim, and tin- preference 
given by him to strangers, particularly tlie Ame- 

In the I'nrish of Lachenaye, which occupies the 
front of the S., all the limds arc conceded and liave 
been surveyed. The rents of the concessions granted 
before 17<'>9 arc the same as those charged at that 
time for the lands in the parish of St. Ilenry. 

Iiic8 the 

|ul linvc 


jut thut 


LA ^ ^ 

Statistics of the Parishes of St. Henri/ de Mascouche and Larhenaye. 


St. HcnrydcMagcoucbe 
Lachenaye . . . 






1 1 

1 : I 


I I 1 

1 1 5 

8 1 

I I 1 



XdiiuaI \iiTicullurnl Pritdure. in tmstit'U. J 

Live Stock. 







1 f 

St. Ileiirj'deAIuscoiiche 
Lacbenaye . ■ . . 











6000 . 2500 

;«K)o 1 mxt 

■^(»i(x» 1 lanoo 


2iJjO ' 27j(> 

yj/Zf. — •' Confession en date Au IGmc Avril, Iftl7, fiiito 
par la Coinnugriie, a I'krre Lrgardiiir, Siciirrff rtc/iciifi^'fii/. 
de (iimtre liiues de ttrre d prendre 1,' lon^ dii Heuve SI. 
Laiinnt, du eoti; du Nord, tenant d'une jmrt mix terres ei- 
devaiit foni'^ilees aux Sieiirs Cherrkr et Lrrni/cr, en nioii- 
tnnt Ic long dii dit lle\ive St. Liiiirriit, depiiis la ho.-ne <|ui 
sera niise eiitre Ics dites terres de° Sieurs Clurrlrr et l.c- 
royer et cdlen-ri a present eone^dees, jnMni'aii dit espaec 
de quatre lieues, au(|uel endroit sera niise nne mitre borne ; 
la dite rtendue de qiiutrc lIciieB sur six lieues de profoiu 
deur dap« Ics terres." — Cahkrs d'Inlcnd. Xo. 10 <! 17, 

La Chevrotikhk, river, is formed by tlic 
junction of three streams, two of whiih rise in 
the S, of Deschumbault, and being united receive 
the third in the S. of Lu Chcvrotiire and run 
into the St. Lawrence. — It is naviguble for boats 
about 5 m. up to tlie scignoriiil mill. Near its 
mouth it turns a mill, below which it is about 10 
or 12 ft. deep when the tide flows, where it admits 
boats and seh(X)ners to load and unload , and protects 
them from the ice during the winter. 

La CHEVHOTiEiiK or f^'nAViONY, seigniory, in 
the CO. of Portneuf, is Iwunded N. K. by Dcscham- 
Imult ; f». w. by La Tesserie ; in the rear by waste 
lands of the crown ; in front by the St. Lawrence 
— One league in front by H in depth : the date of 
the grant is uncertain, as tlic original title has 
never Wen found among the records of the pro- 
vince, or among the registers of fealty and homage ; 
but, from the tenor of tiu' grants of La Tcsserie 
and Descbanibault, it appears to have l)een con- 
ceded simie tiiiie before tlie year U>.')2, to IM. 
Chavigny de hi Chevrotit re ; it is now possessed 
by Ikl. de la Chevrotit re, a lineal descendant of the 
I)enon who first received the grant. — The soil 
generally possesses considerable fertility, and is 

well suited to the produce of wheat and other 
grain, though not more than one third of it is 
under tillage. The surface is uneven. The banks 
of the St. Lawrence in this S. arc high, the beach 
rocky and irregular, and the batturcs or shoals run 
out to a considerable distance. — Beech, maple, and 
some excellent pine timber arc found close to the 
river. — The S. is watered by many small streams 
besides the river Stc. Anne, that crosses it near 
its rear limit, and the Chevrotiere, that winds 
along the middle about (i m. ; this little river rolls 
its slender stream between two lunks of con- 
siderable elevation, and, after crossing the ridge 
in front, descends into the St. Lawrence through 
a valley, in which by the side of the main road 
are a dwelling-house, a corn and a saw-mill, 
most delightfully situated. On the west bank of 
this river the road is rather difficult, from its steep- 
ness and circuitous course ; but, on the opposite 
side, the rise is gradual and easy of ascent to the 
top of the eminence along which it passes onwards 
to Quebec: Ix'-sides thi.s main road, there are 
several others running in diil'erent directions. On 
the siiminit of the elevation, and on each side of 
the iiighway, are many handsome farms, in a gootl 
state of improvement. — Many of the inhabitants 
are cither sailors or shipwrights, and l\ or 4 
sduKaiers. and sometimes a brig of 200 tons, are 
built within the year. 

Tillf " Oil n'u pii Ini'ivir le litre de I'elte roiiees>.ii)ii 

nil Itiireuii (111 Si'iretaire, iii duns le i<c„'i»(ie des Kui et 
Hoiniiiiige. 11 puroit feiilenieiil par les eoiieessiiiiis Mii- 
•ilicR de ttiMihumhuull it de lu 7'tmri', ((ii'elle lilt (aite 
Hvuiii mil MX cent rinqiitiiite-deiu, u iiii .Mr. ClmvlgHii ilr 
la CVii. iu/UM,qui, uii sts u)uiit>cuutis, k li'ilu au priipiii- 






L A 

(aire de Deichambaull, i laquelle elle est restre reiinie M)ug 
le nom de cette demiere. Suivant les arpentaf^es que nous 
avons de cette partie, ce« deux concessions r^unies occu- 
pent deux Ueues de front sur trois lieues dc profondeur." 

Lachine Canal, v. Canals. 

Lachink (V. and P.), v. Montreal, S. 

Lac MiTia (S.)> v. Mitis. 

La Colle or Beaujeu, seigniory, in the co. 
of Acadie, is bounded N. by Ue Lery, s. by the 
state of Vermont, in the rear by Hemmingford, 
in front by the r. Richelieu. — 2 leagues in breadth 
by 3 in depth. Granted March 22, 1743, to Sieur 
de Beaujeu, and is now the property of General 
Christie Burton. — Towards the front the land is 
rather low, with some few swampy patches, which 
excepted, the soil is in general good and very well 
timbered : in the rear the land is much higher, 
and, although partially intersected by strata of 
rocks and veins of slone, lying a little below the 
surface, the soil is rich and perhaps superior to 
the lower lands. On these upper grounds there 
is much beech, maple and elm timber ; the wet 
places afford abundance of cedar, tamarack, spruce 
fir and hemlock. Although the greatest part of 
this S. is very eligible for the purposes of cul- 
tivation, and would produce all sorts of grain 
abundantly, besides being peculiarly well suited 
to the growth of hemp and flax, there is not more 
than one third settled. — The river La Colle, 
winding a very sinuous course from west to east, 
intersects it and falls into the Richelieu. — A 
number of houses, situated on each side of the 
road tliat runs along the ridge from the state of 
New York, about '2\ miles towards La Colle, 
have obtained the nome of Odell Town from Cap- 
tain Odell, who was one of the first and most 
active settlers in this part : he is an American by 
birth, and so are the greatest part of the other 
inhabitants, but they are now in allegiance to the 
Englinh go- ^rnment. The effect of the activity 
and good husbandry, natural to American farmers, 
is much to be admired in this small but rising 
settlement: the fields are well tilled and judi- 
ciously cropix'd, the gardens planted witli economy 
and the orchards in full bearing; above all, the 
good roads in almost every direction, but par- 
ticularly towards the town of Champlain, attest 
their industry ; and it is likely, from its vicinity 
to the thickly inhabited townships on the American 
side of the boundary, the small distance from 
Champlain, Plattsburgh and Burlington, the easy 

L A 

access to the Richelieu for expeditious water car- 
riage, and especially from the persevering labour 
of its population, that Odell Town will advance 
in agricultural improvement and become wealthy 
and flourishing. — This S. is divided into 9 con- 
cessions, which are all settled. — The village of 
Burtonville is one mile s. w. of the road leading 
from Montreal to Champlain. — Lacolle Parish 
includes all the seigniory only, and the church is 
on the Montreal road 2 miles from the province 
line. — Near the mouth of the river La Colle is 
Isle aux Tetes, or Ash Island, on which there is 
a redoubt commanding the whole breadth of the 
Richelieu. This little spot and the flotilla moored 
between it and La Colle, in July 1814, formed 
the advanced naval position towards Lake Cham- 
plain, at which period the American flotilla was 
stationed at Pointe au Fer and Isle a la ^lotte, 
about ten miles distant. 


Population 1,081 : Hat-manufuct. I 

Corn-mills . 1 | I'otterics . 1 

I I Putiisherios . 3 

1 I Pearlusberies 'i 

4 I Distilleries . 1 

I Just, of Peace 1 

C Harding-mills 
Fulling-mills Is 

Medical men 










.Itiiiiiiil .tj;i\ciiUural I'lViliice. 





llusheU. Buihett. 

19,(KH)! Potatoes :^J,000 

1G,0(K) ; Peas . -^.(lao 

.i,0«H) Hve . 280 

Indian corn 2,3(H) 

Lite Stock. 

OfKII Cows 
1,0001 Sheep 

1,560 1 Swine 



Tilli:—^' Concession du 8me Avril, 173.'J, faite par 
Charhi Marquii de Bcniiharmih, Uouverneur, ct Gtlle-i 
lloequart, luteiidant, au Sieur Louit Dciiit de la Monde, 
de deux lieues dc terru de front sur trois lieues de profon- 
deur, bornei- du cot^ du Nord par la Seigneurie nouvelle- 
nient concedee au Sieur Clmunreroi de Leru, et sur la 
meme llgne ; et au Sud par une llgtie tir/e Est ct Ouest 
du niondc ; sur le (levant ])ar In riviere Chamhiy, et sur le 
derriire a trois lieues joignant aux tcrres non.conetdics, 
et en outre lu petite isle <|ui est audcssus de I'isle aux 
Tilet. — Cette concession est iiccordtc de noiiveau au Sieur 
Daiiirl LUiiard de Beuujeu, par litre date 22me Mars, 174«J. 
Vo)e» Reg. d' Intend. Xo 0, folio 10."— Hdghtrc d'Jiilend. 
(HUT, Xo. 7,J'(i!iii Hi. 

La Colle, ri\'er, in the >S. of La Colle, winds 
a very Kinucnis course from w. to k. and fulls into 
the R. Richelieu ()pix)sitc to Ash island. It i.s not 
navignMe even fur canoes. Odell Town is built 
near its southern source, and La Colle mill is 
erected about one mile from its mouth. At the 
numerous rapids on this r. are many excellent 
situations fur mills. 


Lac Ouabbau, v. Ouareau. 

Lac Vkrt, near Lake St. John, is called by the 
Indians KatushikSomi, the " lake of clear water," 
a name very well applied, as the waters are so 
''lear, that the bottom of the lake can be discovered 
at the depth of several fathoms ; possessing, at the 
same time, a green tinge that has given it the 
French name: the waters of this l. contrast 
most singularly with those of Lake Tsiamago- 
mishish, which are of a whitish colour, not pos- 
sessing any degree of transparency. Lac Vert is 
about 1| m. long and almut f m. brond, exhibit- 
ing on its borders a boldness of scenery peculiarly 
attractive. A succession of high mountains ranges 
from the west along the south borders of the lake, 
leaving but a very narrow strip of culturahle 
ground between it and the foot of the monntiuns, 
which are clothed with spruce, fir and pine. On 
the north side there is but a narrow tongue of 
land, which divides Lac Vert from l. Tsiamago- 
mishish, on which is some tolerably good red pine, 
some white pine, spruce and white birch. The 
west end of the lake is low and level for some 
considerable distance, the land is of good quality 
and well timbered with spruce, birch, cedar, 
fir and some pine. In the channel between the 
two lakes, during a late survey, a piece of 
bark folded, and set in a particular direction on 
a pole, was seen, on which was delineated by 
some Indian hunters the course that they had 
taken up some particular river, and which had 
most probably been leCt there ns an information 
for some other Indian hunters who were about 
to join them. This is a mode of rendezvous used 
by the Abenaquis and Algonquin nations, who 
very likely harl visited this place, and were then 
returning towards their own grounds, as appeareil 
by the direction of the rivers. 

La Durantaie, seigniory, and augmentation, 
in the co. of Bellcchnsise, front the St. Lawrence. 
Bounded k. \v. by Beaumont ; N. k. by Ber- 
thicr ; in the rear by the t. of Armagh and the 
8. of St. Oervais. — 2 leagues in breadth by 2 in 
depth. Granted Oct. 20th, 1672, to Sieur de la 
Durantaie : the augmentation, of the same dimen- 
sions, was granted to Sicur do la Durantaie, May 
1st, l(ti>3 — The grant and augmentation arc now 
divided in equal proportions into the two seigniories 
of St Michel and St. Vallier, to which the reader 
is referred. 

L A K 

TUIe.—" Concenion du 29ine Ortohre, 1672, faite par 
Jean Talon, Iiitenilant, au S'?>.;r de h Durantaie de d«ux 
lieues de terre df front Kiir autaiit de prcfundvur, a prendre 
sur le rieiive SI. Laurent, tenant d'un 'cott k demi arpent 
au deli du Sault qui est sur la terre du Sieur Dctitleti, et 
dc I'autre le raiial Brllechaitr, icrlui lion romprix, par- 
devunt le fleiivc St. iMurent, et piir drrrif re les terrea non- 
conc^di'es.— Le canal dc BcUechaiK etoit si pcu ronnu au 
terns de cettc conression, que les parties y int<'res!i<'es ne 

})ouvant convenir de Icurs burnes, des experts iionimt's par 
a Cour detcrmindrent que la pointe de Bclkchatte stpare- 
roit les deux Seigneiiries de la Durantaie ct de Berlhicr.'^ 
—Rigiitre d'lntendance. No. I, folio J. 

Aiigmentalion. — " roncession du Jer IVIdi, 1603, faite 
au Sieur de la Durantaie, par Loui' ae Buadc et Jean Boc- 
hart, Intendunt, de deux lieues "c terre de profondeur a 
prendre uu bout et oil se terinine la profondcui de son fief 
de la Duranlttic, sur pareille largcur du dit lief, qui a en- 
viron trois lieues de front, borne d'un c<"it£ au Siid-onest 
Riix terres do Beaumont et au Noid-est aiix relies de Ber. 
tliier. — La Dnraiilmc diSere, i|uant au front dc celui de 
I'auginentation : ce front, est sur le tcrrein de deux lieuee 
eiiiqiiante arpeiis. Par ordre de la four rctte Seigncurie 
avvc son iiiipneiitatioii a ctediviscc en deux parties I'-gales 
I'diinui's iiujdiird'hui, savoir, eelle du Sud-oiirst sous le 
iioni de St. Michel, et eelle du Nord-est sous celui dc St, 
Valirr."— Uigi$tre d'lntendance, Let. I), /olio 13. 

La Frksnay, fief, in the co. of L'Islet, was 

granted, Nov. 3, 1672, to Sieurs Gamache and 

Bclleavance. f league in front by 1 league in 

depth along the St. Lawrence, between a conces- 

si(m granted to Demoiselle Amiot and that of Sicur 


Title. — " f'oncession du 3me Novenibre, 1672, faite par 
Jian Talon, Intendant, aux Sieurs Camache et Billravance, 
d'uiie deini lieue de terre sur line lieiie de profondeur. i 
prendre sur le lleiive St. Laurent, deiiuis lu concession 
de la Ueinoiselle Amiot, tirant vers eiile du Sieur Four- 
iiler."^Kigistrc d'liitenilancc, \o. i,J'olio !i6. 

Lait, au, a small stream that falls into the 
s. w. side of the n. St. Maurice, above the N. 
Bastonais, r. 

Lake Temiscouata (S.), t^, Madawaska. 

Lake ok Two Mountainh, seigniory and aug- 
mentation, are bounded w. by Argenteuil and 
Chatham Gore; e. by Biviere du Chi'ne; in the 
rear by aug. to M illes Isles and waste lands ; in 
the front by the lake of Two Mountains — This 
S. and its augmentations were granted at three 
scpnrnte periods ; the S. was granted Oct. 1 7) 1 7' 7. 
and contains, ae by title, 3 J leagues in front by 3 
in depth. The Ist augmentation was granted 
Sept. 26, 17-^i and contains about 2 leagues in 
front of the lake. The 2nd augmentation was 
gnmted Mar. 1, 173<'>, containing 3 leagues in 
depth and in the rear of the former grant. The 
entire property was granted to the ecclesiastics of 
the seminary at Montreal, from whom it has never 
been alienated. — The soil is very favmirutile, in 




11' ~ 







1 ^ 

'i ■' 

1 '^ 




• 1 1 



many parts consisting of a fine strong loam with 
a mixture of rich black earth. The surface is 
uneven but never varies into prejudicial extremes ; 
bordering on the lake, in the vicinity of the Indian 
village, it is of a moderate elevation, thence w. to 
the Ebotdis it gradually sinks into a flat, from 
which it rises again near the boundary of Argcn- 
teuil : E. of the village, nearly to the S. of Riviirc 
du Ch^e, runs a low heath having a large bay 
on one side of it. At a short distance from the 
front are the two conspicuous mountains tliut give 
the name to both seigniory and lake ; one of them 
is called Mount Culvaire, on whose summit are 
the remains of some buildings which have long 
borne the appellation of the Seven Chapels. To- 
wards the interior the gi'ound declines below the 
level of the front ; further to the rear are some 
ranges of heights that assume rather a moun- 
tainous character, but in the spaces between them 
are many excellent situations for settlements. — 
This S. is very well watered by the Grande and 
Petite Riviere du Chrne, the Riviere du Nord 
and the Riviere au Prince, which in their course 
work several corn and saw-mills. — Tiie influence 
of the reverend proprietors in promoting industry 
and directing it towards useful labours is strongly 
exemplilicd in the flourishing state of their pro- 
perty, as upwards of three-fourths of it is divided 
into 6(il lots or concessions, by much the greater 
number of them settled upon and well ci'ltivated, 
producinir grain of all sorts, pulse and other crops, 
with a suHicient ((uantity of good meadow and 
p..sture land. Alwut KKJ farms are unconcedcd, 
of which about ITjO are on the mountains and are 
generally considered unfit for eultiv.ition; there 
are no roads over these londs and they are not yet 
surveyed. No farms were conceded prior to \1>>9, 
the first concession being made in \'Ki. — The 
rivers are small and are called La (irar.-v.- ^iuie, 
which never wants water for the mill, Le Ruis- 
seau Glaise and Le Ruisscau dcs Nigres, ull well 
adapted for mills. The augmmtitiou in the rear 
is traversed by the llivirre du Nord. — Some ouk 
and pine tinilierare found in some places, hut beech, 
maple, birch and other inferior kinds are plentiful 
in the woods. — In this S. are two Indian villages, 
one inhaliited l)y the Algonquins, the other by 
the Iroijuois. The former contains 7<' houses, the 
latter Tili ; U leagues are reserved for the use of 
the Indians and the whole i* fit for culture, ex- 

cept the summit of the mountains, which is in 
pinery and contains perhaps half a league square. 
Besides the grounds where they cut beech hay, the 
Indians have grazing land, extending ^ a league 
in front by 15 arpents in depth, from the mission 
farms. — The Indian population amounts to 887, 
viz. : — 

Missionary establis^bment!) 



Chiefs of Iroquois 

Cliic'fs of Algonquins 











The village of the Algonquins is a liule lower 
down than that of the Iroquois. Of the two 
tribes the Iroquois are the more agricultural and 
industrious ; but the Algonquins, though more 
indolent, are more addicted to hunting. They 
cultivate patches of land in ditferent parts of the 
S., selecting other places for tillage after culti- 
vating those for a few years. There are 132 con- 
stantly resident, each of whom may be said to cul- 
tivate 3 acres, which are cropped with Indian 
corn, peas and potatoes and a iew oats. The 
priests are entitled to tithes of the Indian corn. — 
This mission was originally placed on the moun- 
tains of Montreal, ui'terwards transferred to Sault 
Ics RecoUets, and lastly to this place. The mis- 
sion consists of ;i priests and 2 sisters of the con- 
gregation ; the latter are occupied in imparting 
religious instruction to the Indian children : the 
priests are a superior and 2 missionary priests, one 
for each tribe. There is one chapel in each vil- 
lage, and U houses, including the seminary and 
nunnery, are built of stone. The Calvaire con- 
sists in 7 chapels ))laccd on the suuunit of the 
mountains; they are built of stone, about ar- 
pents from each other except the lust tiiree, which 
are together : the principal chapel, where the Cal- 
vaire is, may lie about 2'> ft. by lo, the others 
alxjut 12 ft. by lo. Tliere are mis.sion farms, 
which are very productive, all at the foot of 
the Calvaire, or Seven Ch.ipels ; some of them 
are 22 arpents in front by •{(( in depth, otliers It 
aqicnts iii front by 25 in depth. They are all in 
high cultivation, and -rds of the total are under 
crops and ]rd in good meadows along the moun- 


tains. The priests have a corn-mill on the river 2 farms are attached to it, each 3 arpents in front 
of the Great Buy, about 2 m. from the village, and hj 15 in depth. 

Slatulics of the Parishes of St. Benoil and St, Scholastique. 


St. Benoit 

St. Scholastique 






3 I 
>: i 



Anmial AKruullural Hi<«lut'e, in l)U»hil«. 

l.l\e.M(K'k 1 






£ 1 


1 1 




St. Benoit . 
St. Scholastique 



520 9100 
200 5200 














780 14300 1950 




te par 

Philippe de Jiigaud, Gouvcnieur, et Michel Btgon, In. 
tcndant, aux Eccle-iiastiqiies du Srininaire de SI. Sulpiir, 
I'tabli a Monlrial, d'un tcrreiti de truis licues et deinie de 
front, a commencer au ruisseau qui tonibe dans la gninde 
bale du Lac dei Deux Mtnitagnri, et en remontant le long 
du dit Lac dei Deux Monlagitet et du lleuve St. Laiirenl, 
sur trois lieues de profondeur." — Rigiiire it Iiitendance, 
Xo. a, folio 9. — Cahiert d'liiteud. Rat. de la Conceitimi. 

" Vn brevet de ratification de I'octroi immrdiatcment 
suivant, en date du ler Mars, 1735, acrordc une auginen. 
tation de trois lieues dans les terres faisant ensemble six 
lieues de profondeur pour cette Seigncurie." 

Autre Augvientation au Lac dei Deux Montagiiet. 

" Concession du 26me Sejpte-.iibre, 173.'J, faite par Cliarlm 
Marquii de Beauhnrnoit, Oouverneur, et Gillct llocquart, 
Intendant, aux EccU'siastiques du Si-minaire de St. SuU 
pkt, de Parit, d'une rtendue de terre non concedi'e, entre 
la ligne de la Seigneurie a])partenante aux representans 
Ics feus Sieurs de Langluiurie et Pelit, et cclle de la Sei- 
gncurie du Lac dct Deux Afunlagnet, ajipartenante au dit 
S^minaire sur le front d'environ deux lieues sur le 
del Deux Mmitagnei, le dit luc aboutissant a un angle 
forme par les deux ligncs ci-dessua, dunt Ics rumbs de 
vent ont M r^lfs savoir, celle de la Selgneurie du Lac 
del Deux Moutiignct, Sud quart de Sud-uue!>t ct Nord 
c)uurt de Nord-cst par arret du (Jonscil Snprritur du 
5me Oetobre, 1722; et celle des Sieurs Langloitrrie ct 
Pilit, Sud-oufht et Nord-ouest qui est le runib de vent 
regie pour toutes les Seigncnrics situt'es sur Ic Heuve 
St. Laurent, par reglcmont du dit Conscil du 2(imc Alai, 
1070, Art. 28; avec les isles et islets nun conttdi'-s et 
batturcs udjiiccntcs a la dit rtendue de terre,"— H^giitre 
d'lntcndancr, No. 7, folio H. 

Lakks. — Those not indmhd in the futlou-hig 
alphubetkal list are desci ilird under t/idr ajmijic 
names. — L. Burnston, in the t. of Burnston, near 
the rciir line, is the expansion of a considerable 
stream that runs into Lake Tonicfubi. — L, Benoit 
lies on the n v.. side of the n. Siiguenay and dis- 

charges its waters by a small stream into that li. 
nearly opposite Ha Ila Bay. — L. Bewildered, w. 
of the n. St. Alaurice and on the route towurils 
Great Goldfinch Lake. — Black Lake, in the ."Jth 
range of the t. of Ireland, a small part of it lying 
in the waste lands between tliat t. and Culeraine. 
Its waters are supplied by many small streams 
from Thctford and by several lakes in Coleraino 
and the intermediate waste lands. It gives rise 
to Black Stream, which runs into Trout Lake. — 
L. Bon/iomme, in the S. of Fauscmbault. — /.. a f '«- 
poc/ie, in the S. of St. Vallier, is one of the sources 
of a small stream that runs into the N. k. side of 
the R. du Sud. — L. of Clear Water lies near tlic 
N. K. end of L. Oskelanaio. — L, la Cnlullr, in 
shape something like the article of dress from 
which it appears to t)c named, is part of the chain 
of lakes that supply the first waters of the n. aux 
Lievrcs. — L. i'ulintcndi, v. Aux Pins, n. — L. 
D'ahaouilo, v. Noii-oui-LOO.— L. Eqiierre, in the 
T. of Buckland, is one of the sources ot the Riviere 
des Abenaquis. — L. a Gendron, in the concession 
Ste. Marguerite, in the S. of St V'allicr; the 
source of a small stream that runs into the n. n. 

side of the b. du Sud. L. Goldfinch, the first 

of the chain of lakes that supply the N. E. branch 
of the H. aux Lievrcs. — Grand Lac, v. Lac St. 
Joachim. — L, of the Graves, in the waste lands of 
the CO. of Bcrthier, lies near the district line and 
». of Lake Kempt, into which it empties itself — 

1 ' 

;M i 



. ! , 

i Hli 


) 1 





L. dea Hurons, in the 8. of St. Vallier, gives rise to 
the N. branch of a small stream that falls into the 
N. E. side of R. du Sud. — Indian Grave Lake, in 
the CO. of St. Maurice, near the head waters of 
the R. Matawin. — L. Irion, nearly in the centre 
of the T. of Clarendon, divides the division line 
between the 8th and 9th ranges. — L. John, near 
the 8. w. angle of the aug. to Monnoir, is the 
source of South- West River : on the front line of 
Chatham Gore it discharges its waters into Davis 
River. — L. Kajouula ng, v. North Bastonais, r. 
— L. Kasnshikiomi„v. ^ . Verte — L.Kawashganish, 
near the s. w. bank of the St. Sfaurice, into which 
its waters run, a little below Rat River. — L. 
Kempt, a large lake with numerous islands, be- 
tween the head waters of the r. aux Lievres 
and Matawin r. and lake. — L. Kenuagomi, v. Ki- 
OUAOOMI. — L. Kenuagomishish, v, Kiouaoomi- 
»Hi»n. -Kettle Lake, v. Chauoiere, l. — L. Ki- 
larnei/, v. K i lkenn Y, t. — L. of the Lievres, a chain 
of lakes running from n. to s., forming the com- 
mencement of the N. w. branch of the r. omk 
Lievres. — Little Lake, in the S. of Madnwoska, 
empties itself into Lake Temiscouata by a small 
stream that crosses the Portage. — Little l. Ste. 
Marie, towards the rear of the S. of Malhay ; it 
empties itself by a stream into the R. Malbay. — 
L. Lomond, in the 8. w. part of the t. of Inverness, 
is fed by the waters of several streams and lakes 
descending from Halifax, and discharges itself into 
the R. Clyde. — Long Lake, s. w. of the S. of Ma- 
dawaska, is about 16 m. long and its average 
width about a mile. It is the source of the R. 
Cabineau. v. Kiguaoomi. v. Bastonais, r. — L. 
Macanamack, in the t. of Woburn, is of a very 
irregular shape ; it discharges itself into L. Me- 
gantic. — L. Mantalagoose, near the head waters 
of Ribbon River: its shape is singularly irrc- 
gtilar. — L. a Maria, in the S. of St. Vallier, dis- 
charges itself into the Riviere Noire. — L- Matawin, 
between lakes Kempt and Shasawataisi, gives rise 
to a short river of the same name. — L. a Michel, 
in the rear part of the S. of Berthier ; one of the 
sources of the Riviere Noire. — Middle Lake, v. 
Necsiwackiha. — L. Mistake, an expansion of 
the R. aux LitWres just below Long Island — 
L. Morin, in the concession St. Louis, in the 
S. of St. Vallier, discharges its waters into the 
N. E. side of the r. du Sud. — L. Naime, of a 
circular form, cuts the rear of the S. of Murray 
Bay : it receives the waters of h, Anthony and 

empties itself by a stream that runs into the R. 
Malbay. — L. Necouta, v. Assuaphoussoin, l.— 
L. Necsiwackiha or Middle l., one of the sources 
of the R. Toledo. — L. det NJiges, the source of the 
R. Montmorenci. — L. Nekoaba, v, Askatiche, r. 
— L. Nemicachinqni, a long lake extending n. and s. 
containing several small islets, between lakes Cu- 
lotte and Goldfinch, forms part of the chain of 
lakes at the n. b. source of the R. aux Lit-vres. — 
— Nesse Lake, in Chatham Gore. — L. Nixon, 30 
chains from the R. Baddely on the same side of 
L. Kiguagomishish ; 36 chains long and 10 wide : 
its banks do not exceed 25 ft. in height ; the 
land is of a strong and superior quality. — L. Noh- 
oui-loo, V. Pkribonka, r. — L. O'Cananshing, in 
the T. of Caxton; its n. w. end penetrates the 
county division-line separating Champlain from 
St. Maurice. It empties itself into the r. Sha- 
wenegan. — L, Ontaritzi or St. Joseph, in the S. 
of Fausembault, receives the little r. aux Pins 
and discharges itself into the R. Jacques Cartier. 
— fj. Orsale Wallayamuch, v. Abawsisquash. — 
L. Oskelanaio, the source of the R. St. Maurice, 

is 27 m. long from n. r. to s. e. and 4 m. wide 

L. Papineau, is a large lake lying partly in the aug. 
to Grenville and partly in the S. of La Petite 
Nation. It gives rise to the main branch of the 
R. Petite Nation. — L, Patitaouaganiche, v. Aska- 
tiche, R. — L. Peakquagomi or Peakuagami, the 
Indian name for Lake St. John. — L. des Per- 
chaudes forms the s. w. comer of the t. of Cax- 
ton; it is about 1 m. nearly square. — L. Pitt, in 
the t, of Halifax, about 5 m. long and ^ m. wide, 
extends nearly from the 6th to the 10th range 
and communicates by a small channel with l. 
William, whence the waters discharge into the r. 
Clyde. — L. Pothier, one of the lakes that supply 
the N. E. branch of the R. aux Lievres. — L. Pre- 
vast is near the n. k. angle of the S. of Kboule- 
mens ; its waters supply a small stream that runs 
into the Little R. Molbay. — Pyke's Lake is a 
small lake on Pyke's Settlement, in the t. of 
Frampton. — L. Quaquagamack and l. Quaquaga- 
macksis, v. Ouiatchouan, b. — Red Pine Lake, one 
of the sources of the middle branches of the h. aux 
Lievres. —L. Rocheblanc lies between lakes Po- 
thier and la Roque, both of which are among the 
first sources of r. aux Lievres. — L. des Roches, in 
the S. of Beauport. — L. la Roque, the head of one 
of the smaller branches that supply the first waters 
of the r. aux Lievres. — Round Pond, near the s. 



boundary of Emberton, empties itielf into Con« 
necticut i.. — L, de$ Sables, an expansion of the 
B. aux Li^vres ; near its lower end the Hudson's 
Bay Company have a post. — L. St. Eutlache, in 
the T. of Blandford, is about 100 acres in super- 
ficial extent and discharges itself into the b. aux 
Originaux. — L. St. Joachim or Grand Lac, in the 
S. of Cote de Beaupr^, discharges itself into the 
R. Ste. Anne. v. Ontaritzi. — L. St. Louis, in the 
T. of Blandford, about 100 acres in superficial ex- 
tent, forms one of the sources of the B. Gentilly. 
— L. St. Pierre, a narrow lake about H m. in the 
S. of Riviere Quelle. — L. Scaswaninejms, in Orford 
and Hatley, is a large expansion of the R. Alagog, 
about 5 m. long and from ^ m. to a mile broad. — 
L. Sebastian, in the S. of Notre Dame des Anges, 
is an expansion of a small stream that joins with 
the R. Jeaune in its way to the n. St. Charles. — 
L. Segamite, in the S. of Notre Dame des Anges, 
is an expansion of the r. Jeaune, which runs into 
the R. St. Charles. — L. des Sept Isles, in the S. 
of Fausembault. — L. Shapaigan, in the highlands 
above the source of the St. Maurice. — L. Sliasa- 
Kataisi, of a long and very irregular shape, col- 
lects the waters of the Matawin and other lakes 
and discharges them by a connecting stream to the 
St. Maurice near the mk...<th of Ribbon River. — 
L. Sqiiatteck or Last l., one of the sources of the 
R. Toledo. —L. Temiscaming, the source of the R. 
Ottawa. — L, a la Tortue, in the concession Ste. 
Catherine in the S. of St. Vallier, discharges itself 
into the Riviere Noire. — Trout Lake, in the 4th 
range of the x. of Ireland, receives the waters of 
Black Stream and many other rivulets in that t. 
Its waters are conducted through Halifax and 
Inverness by several lakes and connecting chan- 
nels into the B. Clyde. — L. Tsiagomi, v. Kioua- 
Gosii. — L. Tsiagomishish, v. Kiau^ooiuisiiisM. — 
L. Wayagamack, G. and L., v. Bastonais, r. — 
While Fish Lake, N. w. of the R. aux Lievres, 
empties itself into that R, by a small stream fall- 
ing into it a little below l. des Sables. — L. JVil- 
liam, in the t. of Halifax, discharges itself 
through L. Lomond into the R. Clyde. Another 
in Chatham Gore, discharges itself by a small 
stream into Lake St. John. — l. Young, in the co. 
uf Saguenay, near the r. Baddeley, is a small 
lake about fiGO yards long and about 220 wide. 

Lamartinierk, fief, in the co. of Bellechasse, 
is bounded s. w. by Lauzon; n. k. by Montapeine ; 
in the rear by the t, of Bucklund ; in front by the 

St. Lawrence. — In breadth only 33 arpents, but 
6 leagues in depth. Granted, Aug. 5, 1692, to 
Sieur de la Martinis and is now the property cS 

Reid, Esq. of Montreal.— The soil is nearly 

similar to that of Lauson and is in a forward state 
of cultivation, two-thirds of it being s'ttled upon. 
It is well watered by the river Boyer and some 
inferior runs of water. On the Boyer is a corn- 

Title.—" Concession du 5ine Aoflt, 1692, faitc par 
Louii dc Buade, Uouverneiir. et Jean Bochart, Intendant, 
BU Sicur de la Marlinlin, de I'cspace de terre qui su 
jKiiirra trouvcr, si aiicun il y u non-concrdr, ciitre la 
Seigiieurie de Lausoit et oelle de Mont-a-peine, uu Ic lief 
du Sieur Vitri,%m In profoiideur scmbluble a la Seigiieuric 
de Lauzon, si persoiine n'en est proi)rirtairc. — N. U. Ce 
fief sur les lieux a trente-deuxarpcns de {wnW'—Hegiitre 
d'lntftidaiice, JVo. i, folio 7. 

Lanaudierk (S.), v. Mabkinonoe. 

Lanoraye and Dautre with their augmenta- 
tion. These two fiefs form only one seigniory, 
which lies in the co. of Berthier, and is bounded 
N. K. by the S. of Berthier; 8. w. by Lavaltrie ; 
in the rear by D'Aillebout and De Ramzay ; in 
front by the St. Lawrence. — Lanoraye is 2 1. 
broad and 2 deep and was granted, April 7> KiBH, 
to Sicur de la Noraye. Dautr£ was granted in 
two portions ; the w. part, ^ league broad by two 
leagues deep, to Sieur Jean Bourdon, Dec. 1st, 
1637; the e. part, of the same size, Apr. 16, 
1647, to Sieur Jean Bourdon also. The aug- 
mentation, under the title of Derriere Dautre 
and Lanoraye, being the breadth of the two 
former (three leagues) and extending to the Ri- 
viere L'Assomption, about 4 leagues, was granted, 
4th July, 1739, to Sieur Jean Baptiste Neveu. 
The whole is now the property of the Hon. Ross 
Cuthbert. — The extensive tract included in these 
grants contains a vast quantity of excellent arable 
land, that lies in general pretty level. The soil 
is various, in the front a light reddish earth with 
some clay, and towards the rear it grows stronger 
by the mixture of different loams and becomes a 
strong, rich, black earth. — The timber embraces 
almost every variety, with much of n superior 
quality and some very good oak and pine. — It is 
conveniently watered on the s. w. side by the 
rivers St. Joseph, St. John, and the little Lake 
Cromer ; a little westward of the St. John is an- 
other small lake connected with that river by u 
short canal that always ensures to it a permanent 
stream. The rivers La Chaloupe and Bayunnu 
cross the n. e. side into Berthier, and turn several 

! '1' * 

: 1 


good com and saw mills. — In thu rear, towards 
the R. L'Assomption, is an eminence called Castle 
Hill, commanding a diversified and beautiful pro- 
spect over the surrounding country. — In this S. 
cultivation is in a very advanced state, about two- 
thirds being thickly settled, of which the parish 
of St. Elizabeth in the rear, the bunks of the St. 
Lawrence, the ct^teau St. Alartin and that of Ste. 
Emily are perhaps the most flourishing. There is 
no village ; but good houses, with substantial and 
extensive farm-buildings, are dispersed over it in all 


parts.— Some of the concessions were granted prior 
to 17&0f on the usual selgnorial terms. — Some of 
the unconceded lands are good, but the greater 
part are of bad quality, and there is no road leading 
to them. — In this S. are many persons desirous 
of making new settlements. — In the Parish ttfSte. 
Elizabeth the extent of ungrantcd lands is sup- 
posed to be equal to 50 farms, without a road and 
unsurveyed. The lands granted under French 
tenure are held at 4 livrcs per arpent. 

Stalistics of the parishes of St. Joseph and Sle, Elizabeth. 




















.Annual VKrHMilliirul l'r<Hltirt>. In buahcU. 

Live Mock. | 
















St. Joseph 
St. Elizabetli 



23900 aaooo 

.•jOOl :j2000fi005 
















.U'JOO 48600 

4o01 54500 








Tula — Part'ir oiictl lie Dniilii " (Concession (hi ler 

Di'ceinbrc, 16.'(7, faitc piir la C'onipaf^nie, au Sieiir Jean 
Bourdon, du (ief Dautri, contenaiit line demi lieue <lc terrc ; 
a prendre sur le fleiive St. Laurent, sur dtux lieucs de pro- 
fondeiir en avant dans Ics tcrres ; u j)rendre en lieu noii- 
conceAt."—Rigtitre tTInlendance, No. 10 a 17, /oHo 435. 

Partic ett de Dantre.— " Concession du 16mc Avril, 
1647, par la Cumpugnie, an Sieiir Jnin Bourdon, d'une 
demi lieue de terre, a prendre le h)ng du grand Heuve St. 
Luiircnt, dii cot^ du Nord, entre le Oiip L'Aiiiumption et les 
7'roit Rhiiret, i I'endroit oil le dit Sieur A'unrrfon habitue, 
suivant pareille concession sV lui ci-dexiint laitc, en 1637, 
et de proche en prochc icelle, sur jjareille profondeur, re- 
venant I'une et I'autre a line lieue de front sur deux licues 
de profondeur." — Rigistre d'lntciidancc. No. 10 u l7,folh 

La Noraye. — " Concession du 7ine Avril, 1688, faite 
par Jacques de Brhai/, (louverneur, et ,/ean Boeliarf, In- 
teiidant, au Sleur dc La Norai/e, de I'rtendue de tene de 
deux lieues de front, sur le Heiive ,S7. Laurent, et deux 
lieues de profondeur; i^ prendre entre les terres du Sieur 
Dautri et celles du Sieur de Luxallric tirant vers Mont- 
tdal." — Uigiilre d'lntcndanev, No. 3, folio 16. 

Derrihre Dautri et La Noraye. — " Concession du 4me 
.luillet, 1739, faite par dtarlen, Afanjuii de Bcauliarno'ii, 
(louvemeur, et GUlei Ilocqunrt, Intendant, au Sieur Jean 
BantUte Ncveu, d'liii tei rein non-concedc, I prendre depiiis 
la ligiie qui borne la profondeur des fiefs de La Noraye et 
Dautri, jusqu'h la riviere de Z.'Wi«>»i^)/ion, et dans lanieme 
etciidue en largeur <iue celle des dits fiefs; e'est-a-dire, 
bornfe du cMe du Sud>Uuest par la ligiie ipii ^t;<Jare la 
Seigneurie de Lavallrie, et du c6t^ du Nord-Est par une 
ligne paralli'le, tenant uux prolongations de la Seigneurie 
A'Anluya ; leipiel terrein ne fera avec cliacun des dits fiefs 
dc La Noraye et /)««/r(? qu'iiiic seule et mcme Seigneurie." 
—nigiitre'd'Itttcndanec, No. S, folio 29. 

Lapraihie, county, in the district of Montreal, 
is bounded n. w. by the St. Lawrence ; s. e. by 

the township of Sherrington, and part of the 
barony of Longueuil ; n. k. by theco. of Chambly; 
and 8. w. by the S. of Beauhomois; and com- 
prehends the seigniories of Laprairie de la Mug- 
deleine, Snult Saint Louis, La Salle and Cha- 
teauguay, and the isles in the St. Lawrence, 
nearest to the county, and either wholly or in 
part opposite. Its length is 18^ miles and its 
breadth 13|, containing 238 sq. miles; its centre 
is in lat. 450 19" 36' v., long. 73" 36' 30' w. 
This county sends two members to the pro- 
vincial parliament, and the place of election is at 
St. Constant. — The soil is equal, if not superior, 
to any in the province, as is sufficiently proved 
by its population and produce. The surface, ge- 
nerally, is low and level, exhibiting a great ex- 
tent of pasture and meadow land. It is watered 
by numerous rivers and streams, whose borders 
present lands calculated to support flourishing 
settlements; the chief rivers are the Chuteau- 
guay. La Tortue, St. Regis, St. Cloud, St. Lam- 
bert and part of the Montreal. — It contains 5 
parishes and the villages of Coghnawaga, La- 
prairie, and others of minor extent ; all of which 
add to tlie beauty and prosperity of the countv. 
— Of the numerous roads which traverse this 
county the main route or stage road from the 
V. of Laprairie to St. John's is the most deserving 
of notice. 


Population 16.081 

Cburchef, R.C'. 5 













Potasheries . 


Just, of I'eace 
Medical men 
Notaries . 








Annual Agricultural Produce. 






Buck wht. 
Ind. corn 


Mxd Rrain ■lt910 
Maple iug. 

Hay, tons 


Live Slock. 

Cows . 12,3291 Swine 
Sbcep . 40,3691 


Laprairik DE LA Madeleink, seigtiiory, 
in the co. of Laprairie, is bounded n. k. by Lon- 
gueuil ; s. w. by Sault St. Louis ; in the rear by 
the barony of Longueuil ; in front by the St. 
Lawrence — 2 leagues in breadth by 4 in depth. 
Granted, 1st April, 1647, to the order of Je- 
suits, whose possessions were once so large and 
valuable in this province. On the demise of 
the last of the order settled in Canada, it devolved 
to the crown, to whom it now belongs. — This 
grant is a fine level of rich soil, with some of the pasture and meadow lands in the whole di- 
strict, always yielding most abundant crops of good 
hay. The arable part is also of a superior class, 
upon which the harvests, generally speaking, ex- 
ceed a medium produce. In Cute St. Catherine 
there is an extensive bed of limestone. The 
ranges of concessions contain about 300 lots of the 
usual dimensions, in general settled and in a very 
favourable state of cultivation, almost entirely 
cleared of woo<I, and possessing very little timber 
of good dimensions. Numerous rivulets cross this S. 
in every direction, and it is watered by the three 
rivers La Tortue, St. Lambert and La Riviere 
du Portage, all of which traverse it diagonally 
from 8. w. to N. K., and have bridges over them ; 
neither of them is navigable for boats to a greater 
distance than half a league from its mouth, and 
that only during the spring freshes ; they afford, 
however, always sufficient water to work several 
corn and saw mills. There is a bridge at IVIouille- 
pied which separates the parishes of Laprairie 
and Longueuil. 

The position of this S. is extremely favourable 
on account of the numerous roads that pass through 
it in several directions, and particularly from 

being the point where an established ferry from 
Montreal communicates with the main road lead- 
ing to St John's, and thence by Lake Champlain 
into the American States : the general route for 
travellers between the capital of Lower Canada 
and the city of New York. In the iK)int of view 
before alluded to, viz. encouraging the transit of 
produce from the countries bordering on the fron- 
tiers to the ports of the St. Lawrence, the seig- 
niories adjoining this line of communication are 
most eligibly situated ; and if measures having that 
object in contemplation should be encouraged, 
they would indubitably attain some eminence in 
commercial importance. These objects have at- 
tracted the attention of the colonial legisliiture, 
and during the last year commissioners were 
appointed to manage and superintend the ex- 
penditure of two thousand ))ounds currency, 
appropriated by a provincial act of the 10th 
George IV. to be employed in repairing and 
improving the road between St. John's and La- 
prairie; but considering the inadequacy of that 
sum to repair the road in its whole extent, it 
ought to be applied in repairing the parts in the 
worst state and those that arc at the charge of 
the public, called by-roads fchemins de month et 
de desceiitej, which arc not front roads. The sum 
so voted is notoriously insufficient to make that 
road solid, hard and of permanent utility. The 
length of the road from Laprairie tu St. John's 
is six leagues; and about 180 arpents are 
by-roads at the charge of inhabitants residing 
in a distance of one to five leagues; these by- 
roads are no more than 15 to 25 ft. wide, not 
being front roads — There is another part of about 
80 arpents, called Chcmin de la Savannc, which, 
though a front road, is not more than 18 to 24 ft. 
in width, and is edged on each side by water- 
courses of 7 to 8 ft. in width by 4 to 5 ft. in depth, 
which renders it dangerous to travellers, espe- 
cially in very dark nights; and it is almost im- 
possible, or at least it would be very expensive, to 
widen it, on account of those water-courses on 
each side, unless such ditches were filled up, and 
new ones opened at a greater distance from the 
road, for the wutcr-courses undermine the road 
every year, and make it narrower. The sum of 
2000/. currency will scarcely suffice to make 
partial repairs in the parts that are in the worst 
state, and which repairs cannot be of any dura- 
bility on account of the remoteness of the residence 


:'•■ i 

- 1 


A i 

I tfl 






of the penoni bound to keep them in good order, 
the great traffic on the road, and the quality 
of the loil. To render the road of permanent 
utility and durability, it should be macadamized 
from end to end, widened at some places and 
turned in its direction at other places, which 
would coot at least 15,000/. ; or it should be con- 
verted into a turnpike road, cither at the expense 
of the province, or by granting that privilege to 
private individuals; otherwise it will ever be 
bod and dangerous ; for there is not in the province 
a road more frequented by carriages and tra- 
vellers, and at the same time more necessary. As 
long as this road is to be kept up by the inhnbit- 
ants, it will be bad and dangerous — The n. and 
K. parts of the parish of St. Phillip are in this 
S., the w. part is in La Salle, the f. part is 
in the t. of Sherrington. The lands or farms 
in this parish, conceded prior to 17^0, were 
each 3 arpents in front by 30 in depth, and 
at first were charged with the payment of two- 
thirds of a quart of wheat and a sol tournois 
per arpent, or 1^ bushel of wheat and 4 livres 
10 sols, old currency, for a farm of 00 superficial 
arpents; afterwards the rates were a quart of 
wheat and 1 sol tournois per arpent, or 2\ bushels 
of wheat and 4 livres 10 sols tournois for a farm 
of 00 arpents. The quit rent was in proportion 
to the extent of the farms. In Laprairie, 30 
sols were exacted for the privilege of turning 
cattle on the common called the Commune de 
Laprairie de la Madeleine. There are two roads, 
St. Phillip and St. Barth6lemy, which commu- 
nicate with the townships. Many persons in 
this parish are desirous and able to form new 
settlements, but the parts of the parish that lie 
in the seigniories are already conceded, and 
these persons object to settle in the townships. 
In the Parish of Laprairie, or La Pinicre, all the 
lands were conceded prior to 1759, with the ex- 
ception of two concessions, one of which, La Pi- 
nicre, forms part of the line a. s. w. of the b. of 
Longueuil, and the other, I'Ange Gardien, be- 
longing to the S. of Laprairie. The usual size 
of the farms was 3 arpents by 30, with the ex- 
ception of some continuations whose depths were 
irregular ; the usual rent was a capon, valued at 
20 sols, for each front arjient by 30, and 2{ 
bushels of wheat for every 90 square arpents. 
Many persons in this p. would make new settle- 
ments if there were any non-conceded lands very 

near tlicm, but a few only leave the parish to 
settle in the townships. — In this parish and in 
front of the seigniory is the Village of La Nalivile 
de Xotre Dam>; or Laprairie, formerly called 
Fort de la Prairie, from having once had a rude 
defence, honoured with that name, thrown up tu 
protect its few inhabitants from the surprises or 
open attacks of the five native tribes of Iroquois, 
who possessed the country in its vicinity. Such 
posts were established at many places in the early 
periods of the colony, while the Indians remained 
sufficiently powerful to resist and often repel the 
encroachments of the settlers, although at present 
none of them retain a vestige of their ancient 
form, and very few even the name by which 
they were originally known. Laprairie is now a 
flourishing handsome village of 200 well-built 
houses; some of them are two stories high and 
built with stone, in a very good style and covered 
with tin, giving an air of neatness and respect- 
ability to the whole. This village has the ad- 
vantage of any other in the province in trade and 
population; its streets are more defined and its 
buildings more contiguous. Tradesmen of every 
order, mechanics and shopkeepers are to be seen 
in every direction, and all appear to be thriving. 
The constant arrival and departure of steam-boats 
and stages contribute to enliven the place and 
produce an almost ceaseless bustle and novelty of 
scene. Here is a catholic church and also a con- 
vent of the sisters of Notre Dame, missionaries 
from the community formerly founded at Mont- 
real by Madame Bourgeois, where all the ne- 
cessary and some ornamental branches of female 
education are conducted upon a very good system 
with a success highly creditable. This village is 
the principal thoroughfare between Montreal and 
St. John's and the landing-place for the northern 
trade of Lake Champlain. Its population is about 
1800, including about 30 artisans, 2 notaries, 4 
merchants and 4 justices of peace. This v. is 
distant from 

The churches of Blairfindie and Ohamlily 
The presbytery of St. Luc, and the littlo hill 

des Hetres .... 

The churchts of LonKuouil and Sauk St Louis 
The churches of Sf. Phillip and St. Constant 
Montreal . . . . • 

—Isles Fouquet and Bouquet %vith Islettes aux 

Jones, lying in the St. Lawrence opposite, were 

given to the Jesuits along with this seigniory, 

April 1, 1647. 






•. IS 

L A 

I. A 



Lapruiiiu . 
St. I'liilip 



•i I 2 

A i I 

I £ 


- I 5 

1 I 2 I 

J_2] • 

1 i I I 4 ' 1 

TT r 


































It I U> ' 2 

Patinhci. Auricultural imKluii'. 

I,i*p st(ick. j 

3 ' 1 1 = 















Laprairie . 
St. Philip 



168(X) 2IHMI .-niKX) U(iO 1 l*)t) 
I'JHOO t(«H) GO 100 19000 , 80(X) 

2010 j 


36000 6000 67 KM) 123100 ■ 8100 ' 7910 



Title. — " Conrcfision du ler Avril, 10+7, fiiite pm' le 
Sieur de Laiizon hiix roveronds pins Jr.sidtos, tic deux 
lieuca de terre le lung du Heuve SI. Laurent, du cotr du 
Sud, a eommeiicer dcpuis 1'is.le Ste. llilhie jiiscpi'ii uii 
quart de lieue uu dulii d'unc pniirie dite de hi Atadilahir, 
vis-a-ns des isles qui sont iirochex du Suult de Tisle de 
Afoiilrail, espcc qui roiitient environ deux lieucs le long 
de 1b dite riviirc St. Laurent, sur quatre lieucs de pro- 
foiideur dnns les terres, tirant vers le Sud." — Rightrc 
d'lnloidanee, No. 2 <i 9,jfolio 123. 

Large, Isle du (F.), in the St. Lawrence, 
oflFthe S. of Ste. Anne in the co. of Champlain. 
These islea lying at the mouth of the R. Ste. 
Anne were granted, Apr. 6, 1697, to the widow 
of Sieur de Lanaudiere. 

Title. — " Concession du Oine Avril, 1697, fiiite par 
Lmiit de Jliiade, Cmnte de Fronteitac, Gouveriieur, et Jean 
Bochiirt, Intetidant, a la veuve du Sieur de Lanaudiere. 
des isles qui se trouvent devant sa terre de Ste. Anne, et ii 
I'entree de la riviere et entr' autres celle ou est soil nioulin, 
appclee Vlale dii Large." — lUgutre d'lnteiidancr, No. 5, 
folio 12. 

La Salle, seigniory, in the co. of Laprairic, 
consists of two portions of land adjoining the rear 
boundaries of Chateauguay and Sault St. Louis, 
enclosed between the lateral lines of Beauhamois 
or Villechauve and Laprairie de la Madeleine; 
both pieces extend 1-^ league in depth, bounded in 
the rear by the t. of Sherrington. — Granted, Apr. 
20th, 1 7>">0, to Jean Baptiste Le Ber de Senne- 
ville, and is now the property of Ambroise San- 
guinet, esq. — Very little difference is perceptible 
between this S. and that of Chateauguay and the 
lower part of Sault St. Louis, with respect to 
the quality of the land. The river Ln Tortue, 
La Petite Riviere and Rui.sseau St. Jacques run 
through both divisions of the S. — The road called 

the Black Cattle Road is only a winter road for 
timbcr-carriiiges, and it is impossible for any 
wheel carriage to pass on it in the spring, not 
even over that part which lies in this S. If this 
road was put into proper repair, it would not only 
materially benefit the adjacent farms, but prove 
generally useful. — The church of the Parish of 
St. Constant is near the n. La Tortue in the 
N. E. division of this S. At least one-half of the 
lands of this parish were conceded before 1759 
on the following terms, viz. each farm, measuring 
3 arpents by 30 or thereabouts, was rented at 1, 
IJ or at most 2 bushels of wheat, with 40, 50, 
60, or 80 sols tournoh, according to the length, 
breadth or even the situation of the conceded 
lands. jNIany inhabitants of the parish are de- 
sirous and able to erect new settlements, provided 
they could obtain lands near their relatives and 
friends or not far distant from them ; the greater 
part of these young persons, instead of travelling 
in the spring to other countries, and living during 
the winter like vagabonds, spending the prr.'uice 
of their travels at public-houses in default of 
better occupation, would prefer taking farms in 
the seigniories and would zealously attach them- 
selves to the cultivation of their lands ; and there 
are certainly excellent lands fit for the purpose 
in the vicinity, for the S. of Beauhamois and 
the townships of Godmanchester, Ilinchinbrooke, 
Hemmingford and Sherrington do not yield in 
quality of .soil to any other places in the district. 

More than 100 families belonging to this 
parish have settled in the t. of Sherrington, 





I '' 


till ^ 

V \ ' 



L' A S 

holding lands on conditions similar to seignorial 

Title.—" Concession dii SOme Avril, 1750, faite par le 
Marquis de la Jonquiere, Gouverneur, et FranpiU Bigot, 
Intendant, au Sieur Jean BaptUtc Lc Her dc Senneville, 
d'un terrein non conr^d^, situ6 nu bout des prot'ori- 
deurs des Seigneuries du Sault St. Louii et CliatmMeuai/, 
et qui se trouve rnclav6 entre la Seigneiirie de Villc- 
chauve et ee.le dc la Prairie du la JUadeluiiir, sur uiie 
lit'ue et demie de profondeur."— 7?(?^i*/;e d'lntendaiice. 
No. % folio ^. 

L'AsBOMPTiON, county, in the district of 
Montreal, is bounded n. e. by the co. of Ber- 
thier; s. w. by the co, of Lachenaye; in the 
rear by the province line; in front by the St. 
Lawrence. It comprehends the parishes of Saint 
Sulpiue, comprising Isle Bouchard, Repcntigny, 
L'Assomption, and St. Jacques a'^d the townships 
of Rawdon and Chertsey. Its extreme length is 
30 miles and its breadth 11, containing 208 square 
miles; its centre on the St. Lawrence is in lat. 
45" 47 N. long. 73° 23 w. It sends two mem- 
bers to the provincial parliament and the place of 
election is at St. Pierre dc L'Assomption. This 
county is abundantly watered by the River L'As- 
somption and its numerous branches. The surface 
is level except in the township of Hawdon. 


Population lO.lM 
Churches. R. C. 3 
Cures 3 
Presbyteries . 3 
Sehoo s . 7 
Villages . 2 
Cum-mills . 4 
Saw.mills . d 

Carding-inills 4 
Fulling-mills 2 
Tanneries . 1 
I'otteries . 1 
Potaslieries lA 
Peariasheries 7 [ 
Breweries . 1 
Distilleries . 1 i 

.Tust. of Peace 2 
Medii-al rien 8 
Notaries . 2 
Shopkeepers 13 
Taverns . 21 
Artisans . 54 
Keel-boats . 3 

/Inniial Agricultural I'todiice. 

Wheat . 




P.ns . lJ,3,J.j 

Hye . :um 

liut'k wheat .j(NI 
Indian corn 3,(iU() 

Mixed grain 5,2U0 
Maple sugar, 

c«tR. ;«i2 
ilay.tons, 25,U00 

Live Stock. 



Cows , 7,n«il 
«lieep . 22,lHi 

Swine . 9,7,'W 

L'AsROitiPTiDN, river, is supposed to rise in a 
large lake in the unconi-edcd lands far beyond any 
actual settlement and 200 miles from its mouth ; 
it may be railed a large river, and aAer Imund- 
ing the augmcntiition to Lanoraye and intersect- 
ing the augmentation to Lavaltrie, where it is 
broad and shiillow, it traverses the parish of St. 
Pierre in the S. of St. Sulpice in a scq)entine 
direction nearly from n. to s., and after severing 


an angle of the S. of L'Assomption, discharges 
itself into the St. Lawrence above the village of 
Repcntigny, and where the united waters of the 
rivers Jesus and Des Prairies enter the St. Law- 
rence. The R. L'Assomption runs through much 
rough and mountainous country, and is navigable 
for l)ateaux to a considerable distance, and much 
timber is sent down it to the Quebec market in 
the spring. Its breadth at the village of L'As- 
somption is about 500 ft. and it is so far navigable 
for crafts at certain periods ; but as its current is 
obstructed by many battures, the navigation is dif- 
ficult. This R. abounds with fish. 

L'A8soMPTioN,seigiiiory,in the CO. of Lachenaye, 
is bounded k. e. by St. Sulpice; s. w. by the S. 
of Lachenaye ; in the roar by Kilkenny and Raw- 
don ; in front by the St. Lawrence. It formerly 
formed part of the land grant^'d, 16th April, 
1647, to Pierre Legardeur {vide the Title of 
Lachenaye) ; it now belongs to the heirs of the late 
P. R. de St. Ours, Esq., except a small portion 
which is the property of General Christie Burton. 
This fief possesses many local advantages, and a 
variety of soil favourable to cultivation. In the 
rear the land is higher than in the front, con- 
sisting chiefly of a yellow Iram, mixed in some 
pLices with sand, which when tilled is very fer- 
tile, but still perhaps something inferior to the 
lower parts, where there are many exceedingly fine 
tracts. Very few grants exceed this property in 
the proiiortion of cultivated land, four- fifths being 
cleared and well settled ; the number of farms 
conceded is 020, equal to 4173 arpents; 300 
lots are in woodland. The must improved settle- 
ments are those situated on the banks of the two 
large rivers. On the uplands, birch, beech and 
maple are found in great perfection, with some 
pine of a good growth; but in the valleys th" 
wood is inferior — The principal rivers by which 
this S. is abundantly watered are the L'Assomp- 
tion, the Achigan and the St. Esprit ; the upper 
part is intersected by some smaller streams that 
contribute greatly to its fertility, and are no less 
oniamental. The L'Assomption and Achigan may 
be called large rivers, but neither of them is na- 
vigable, al' hough both are made use of to convey 
the timl)cr felled in the upper parts of the ad- 
jacent seigniories and townships. The Achigan 
turns 2 corn-mills and 1 saw-mill. — The t'uritfi 
of SI. Knpril is in the rear of the fiel. The first 
settlement is on the n. branch of the R. St. Esprit 

L' A 

and encroaches on the patented lands in the 
neighbouring township; it is about one league 
N< of the church, with which it communicates by 
an excellent road. The second settlement is on the 
N. w. branch of the same river and also encroaches 
upon the t. of Rawdon, particularly on the crown 
reserve, No. 2 in the Ist range: the settlers are 
Canadians who have possessed this tract for many 
years. — The Paritk of St. Roch occupies the centre 
of the fief; its handsome church and a few well- 
built houses round it are seated on a beautiful and 
well-chosen spot in a bend of the h. Auhigun ; 
this small village contains a good public school, 
for the establishment of v»hich M. Kaizennc, the 
cure, expended 500/. in the space of 10 years, 
endeavouring, not without success, to prove to his 
parish'oners the advantages of education. Nearly 
half the lands in this p. are of indifferent quality. 
There is a mineral water, on the farm of L(;vy 
Martel, which has been known for more than 

L A 

half a century as only a saline spring ; the salt 
extracted from it is as pure as that of Liverpool ; 
it is said to be medicinal, and many respectable 
persons, who pretend to have tasted the waters of 
Saratoga and who have also drank of this spring, 
declare that there is no difference in the taste : 
it still increases in reputation. — The Parish of 
RejKntigny or Sotre Dame de tAssomptioH is 
nearly in the shape of a Presq' Isle in the front of 
the fief ; it extends to the b. w. limit of St. Sul- 
pice, und is otherwise bounded by the rivers L'As- 
sumption and St. Lawrence, including the settlers 
on the N. bank of the former river and Isle 
Bourdon at its mouth. All the lan.'.s in this p. 
are conceded; those granted before 17^0 are 
charged with the payment of a pint of wheat and 
1 sol argent tournois per superficial orpeni ; the 
front lands are also charged with the payment 
of a capon for every 20 arpeuts. 


\ i 
































St. Roch 


















St. Oursdii Grand ) 
St. EHprit . S 













































\|I1I(1H| \|/IM'lllU>r:|l I'dhtllf-i'. IX lillnh. 

l.npsiiM'k. 1 
















St. Koch 

8t. OiirH dii Grand ) 
St. Ksprit . J 




2 KM) 











La Tkhskrik, fief, in the co. of I'ortncuf. is 
bounded 8. w. by Grondincs ; n. k. by L« t'lii- 
vrotiiTc or Thavigny ; in front by the St. Liiw- 
renoe. — Haifa league in breuiltli by \\ leagues in 
depth, (iranted, Nov. W, l(i72, to Diiiioiselli' dc 
l.t Tcsseric. — The land greatly resenibics that of 
(irundines, although, pcrhups, a little l)etter in 
quality. Tiirte concession ure settled und u fourth 
conceded, — The rear part is iruvcrtcd by the 

11. Ste. Anne, und on the «. Chevroti< re or Tcs- 
K'tic is a corn-inill, 'J stories high, built of utone, 
having .'t sets of stones ; but one puir only can 
work when the water in slack : the mill is prettily 
situated in a pictureMqiie valley formed liy the 
cniirse of the river. Captain Curinpi lives mi the 
w. bank below the mill und schooners come up 
nearly to his door — This lief is in the parish "f 


«. ' 





Titk.—" ConccHiiion dii 3me Novetnbre, 1672, faite 
(lar Jean Talon, Intemlunt, i DvinoiHi'lle de la Tmcrie, 
de 1b qiiaii-!^^ dc terrc qui se trouvera entre la concoRsion 
faite aiix pauvres dc I'HOpital de Q/ieirr, iusqu'a celle de 
C/i<ivignii, sur pareillu profoiidciir que celle du dit Cha- 
vigny."— Mgiilre dUntcndance, No. I, folio HH.—Righlre 
t'oi et Ilommage, 

La Tbinite (S.), v. Cap St. Michel. 

Latuque, a small stream or outlet of a lake a 
few miles n. e. of the post of La Tuque. It runs 
into the n. Bustonais R. 

La Tuque (Post), v. St. Maurice, h. 

La Valliere, v. Yamoska, S. 

Lavaltrib and its augmentation, seigniory, 
in the co. of Berthier, is bounded n. e. by La- 
noraye and its augmentation ; s. w. by St. Sul- 
pice; in the rear by the T. of Kildare; in front 
by the St. Lawrence. — The original grant con- 
sisted of 1 i league in breadth and depth, and was 
made, Oct. 21), l(i72, to Sieur dc Lavoltrie : the 
augmentation, of the same breadth and 2^ leagues 
in depth, was granted to Sicur Jlarganne de La- 
valtrie, April 21, 1734. Both grants remain in 
the possession of the heirs of the original grantee. 
— This is a very valuable property ; the land is 
generally level from the rear to the St. Lawrence, 
whose bunks here are rather low. The <iuality of 
the soil varies a little, but the major part is good 
and productive, and is either a light-grayish earth, 
a yellowish loam, or clay mixed with sand ; nearly 
the whole is under culture, and yields ample 
crops under a system of husbandry in several 
respects creditable to the farmers. Wlicat and 
grain form the chief part of the disposable produce 
of this tract, and good hay in great abundance is 
made from some very extensive ond excellent 
ranges of meadow land. The n. L'Assoniption 
winds its broad but shallow stream through the 
upper part of the seigniory, and the lowur portion 
is watered by the rivulets Point du Jour and St. 
Antoii<c and the little river St. John, wiiich turns 
a corn and saw mill near the St. Lawrence into 
wiiidi it fills. — The original grant forms tlie 
parish of St Antoinc de Lavaltrie. The 2nd 
grant or augmentation iorms the parisli of St. 
Paul dc Lavaltrie, and the church and the chapel 
ore in the concession 8. of the rivulet St. Pierre, 
over which i» a bridge, near the church, com- 
miinicating with a little village, from which a 
gmMl road leads to the \'illage of Industry. This 
seigniory contains Hi ranges of concessions, divided 
into 740 lots, and about :i2,01K) acres are under 


good cultivation. Houses are spread among the 
concessions, and thickly placed by the sides of the 
roads that lead along the St. Lawrence; the 
presbyterian church, the parsonage, a chapel, the 
manor-house, with a few others, are situated a 
little B. of the r. St John, and at no great di- 
stance from the wood of Lavaltrie ; which, even in 
Canada, is worthy of notice for its fine, lofty and 
well-grown timber-trees of various kinds. — The 
main road from Quebec to Montreal passes through 
this wood and along the St. Lawrence, presenting 
for several miles a succession of beautiful and 
romantic scenery. Besides the main read, there 
are several that lead into the populous seigniories on 
each side, which are intersected by others running 
at right angles into Kildare, and opening a most 
convenient and easy intercourse with the neigh- 
bouring townships. The rear boundary line of 
this seigniory had not, until the year 1811, been 
accurately measured ; when it was discovered, that 
in addition to its proper depth of four leagues, 
there was still a space of abou*; a mile in breadth 
between it and Kildare, which had always been 
supposed to form part of the grant, and many 
persons had settled thereon with titles from the 
seignior of Lavaltrie ; this extra space is very well 
cultivated and has a church with a great many 
houses, which were built under the belief which 
all the parties entertained that they were within 
the just limits of the grant : under these circum- 
stances a compromise was made, and an order 
passed the governor and council, in 1812, to grant 
the cultivated part to the present proprietors of 
the seigniory, and to reserve the remainder for the 
use of the protestant clergy and future disposal of 
the government. — The Village o/ Luvallrir is in 
the P. of St. Antoine, and is sc'.ed at the f(M)t of 
a small declivity on the verge oi the bank of the 
St. Lawrence, which is at that place very low. — 
From the appearance of the settlements in the 
vicinity the inhabitants appear to be in easy cir- 
cumstances.— In ihe I'arinh of St. Paul all the 
la'uls are conccdc'd and surveyed, but none of them 
%vcre conceded prior to 17«'»W. The roads in this 
parish are very indifferent. — The Village of In- 
dimtri/, alM)«t 3 m. from the church and village of 
St. Paul, is prettily seated on the right bank of 
the n. L'Assoniption and near a waterfall, many 
feet in height, the noise of which is heard at a 
considcnible ilistance. Only a few years ago the 
site of this v., before the mills were built, was 


L A U 

L A U 

covered with forest : there is now much land in 
cultivation, and 40 houses have been built, besides 
two fine mansions inhabited by Messrs. Joliette 
and Leodle, who are the joint proprietors with 
their brother-in-law, M, de Lanaudiore, the 
seignior of Lavoltrie. It is to the spirit of enter- 
prise evinced by these gentlemen that all the im- 
provements in this place must be attributed ; the 
most curious and the most worthy of the traveller's 
attention is the mill, which was begun by the 
proprietors June 1, 1823 : it is solidly built with 
stone, three stories high, 120 ft. long and 45 ft. 
wide ; it contains 3 sets of stones for grinding 

wheat, besides others for grinding barley; also 
conveniences for carding, fulling and sawing, and 
machinery for raising timber into the mill. The 
river L'A^nniption supplies the iiiill with water, 
and, near the mill-head, it is of immense depth ; and 
at the distance of a few feet is a chain of pebbles, 
scarcely covered with water, forming the fall of 
the mill, which is thereby most advantageously 
situated : the mill-dam is remarkable for its size, 
construction and solidity. — In front of the 8. are 
the two Isles de Lavultrie, appendages to the 

Statistics of t 


'aris/ies of St. Paul and St. 



















































St. Paul . . 
St. Antoine 










St. Paul . 
St. Antuine 

Annual Agncultuial l*rffliu><>, in IniihetH, 











MM) I 2()INN) 
*i!KH) I'KKHi 

lino: l.'I'KHHi! 


























fl I 

Ti(/c. — " rriicchsiondii29me Octoliro, 1072; f'aite par 
,ttan TuloH, Iiitondi .it. an Sioiir ile Lavnilricdunv lii'iic ot 
dviiiio lU'ti'iTf (le IVunt siir iiureillo iirutondfiir; h iircndrc 
8iir Ic tliMiVf Si. Lmirrnl, IwriW't' d'lin I'l'ito par ii-s terrcR 
appiirti'iiiiiiti-s uii Scmiimirc de Afoiili^al, et di' I'aiitrf pur 
ovIlcN noii-L'oiK't'dfcK ; par dovatit par le dit fli'iivi' ct par 
dcrriiro piir tcrros iiun>('Oiirtdi''('ii, iivec Irs dciix inliti 
i|ui soiit dovHiit la ditc i|imiitit<'' de terre. et la riviirc SI. 
Jean coiiiprise." — llif^iilir il' I nti nilaiiri; A'u. l,/o/i(> (i. 

Aiigiiiciildlidii. " ( 'ofircs-ion dii 'iline Avril, I7.'U, 

tuile par Vlmrltn. Mniqiilt ilr niiiiihanidi/i, (ioiiviTiuiir, et 
(Ullii //ii(i/«iji7, liilciidiiiit, all Sii'iir Moigiiiiiir dr l.tvul- 
Iric, d'line lii'ur it di'Miie de Icrrc de Irdiit Mir (Iciix liciii « 
et deiiiie de prol'iiMdeiir, I'l prendre li' dit tVont an Ixint de 
la prol'ondunr et liinite de la lleiie et deniie de pridoiideur 
dn tiel de l.inulItU- ; p(>nr etre la dile |<r(iliini,'>ili(in rii 
prufundenr unie et jointe au fief ile l.initllr\r. et ne fair • 
qii'une nii-ine Selnnenrie, l«i|nelle, par ee nioyeii, se Inm- 
veru elre d'nne liene et deniie de tront snr ipiiit'e lii'ins 
de protondenr." — lirfiitlrc il'Inlniildiin; yv. T^/oIId 24. 

Lai'Kon, seigniory, forming the co. of Dorches- 
ter, is lioiindi'd n. k. by La Aliirtinierc ; », w. by 
Tilly, (Jnsp ■ and St. (Jilcs ; in the rcir by Ht. 
Kticnne uiid Jullict. — () 1. in brcudtli by U in di pth. 

Granted Jan. Ifith, 1(130, to M. Ninion Lcmaitrc 
— The soil throughout this extensive property, 
which contains the whole co. of IJorcbcster, is 
generally of a superior description ; it ineliules 
almost every variety, Imt a rich liglitisii loam ))rc- 
dominatcs, and, in situations lying ratlier low, u 
fine dark mtnild. In the inmt but little tinilMr 
remains; in the interior and towards the rear 
simie oak and la'ceh, pui]ile, birch ami |>iiu' in grcnt 
plenty ; of tlie inferior sorts, cedar, l.cmloek and 
sjiruce are ver>' abundant —It is watered by the 
rivers C'hiuidii're, H.nurivage, Ktelicinin, Iloyir, 
and liy several oilier inferior rivers and strcanl^. 
The Chandiire and Ktcheinin troverse the M. h.k. 
and the Ik-auiiviige n. w. N'citiier is navigable for 
l)oats or even cunoi's to any distance, on account of 
the great nunil)cr of falls and rapids: their bsinks, 
lint most pnrti<'ulurly those of the Cliaiidii re, are 
lofty and steep, presenting in niuny phucs almost 




L A U Z O N. 

perpendicular rocky cliffs. The banks of the St. 
Lawrence are also high and steep, covered with 
trees of small growth in some places, hut cleared 
and cultivated in other<i: the beach is sandy, con- 
siderably encumbered by rocks, with almost a re- 
gular reef stretching along the low water line ; 
from the top of the bank the land rises by ridges 
and small hillocks (many of which are rocky) gra- 
dually to the rear. — There are two extensive do- 
mains, several small fiefs, and four churches dedi- 
cated to Ht. Joseph, St. Nicolas, St. Henry and 
St. Anselme. The cultivated land, which amounts 
to one third of the whole, is divided into nu- 
merous ranges of concessions, besides five ranges 
of concessions in wood-lands towards the rear. 
The most thickly settled and best cultivated parts 
of this valuable property ate situated along the 
fnmt and towards the interior, throughout which 
may l)c seen a succession of fine arable land under 
a very good system of husbandry, rich meadows, 
go<xl gardens and orchards; but the produce of the 
latter is not of a very superior kind ; the farm and 
othei scs are neat and .substantially built. In 
the other concessions agriculture is not so far ad- 
vanced ; on the Chaudierc the best lands lie at 
some distance from the banks, nearly the same is 
the with those on the Etchcniin, the margins 
of both l>eing generally flat rock with only a shal- 
low covering of soil. Aliijjst all the ranges are 
intersected by roads, and the main roads arc very 
good and kept in excellent repair. Nearly op- 
posite to Quel)ec, and on a little river which dis- 
charges itself into the St. Lawrence, are the ex- 
tensive and valuable premises called the Fointe 
Liv'i Mills, and farther w., at the mouth of the 
Etchcnin, tlie no less important establishment 
called the Elthemiii Mills, from Iwth nf which 
large exportatioiis of flour arc annually made. 
From Pointe des Peres to the n. l-baudicre, the 
beach is almost wholly occupied ns timlier grounds. 
From Pointe des Peres and other places, in fnmt 
of the S,, arc ferries to tjuebcc. — This S. is very 
p<i])ulous : its ipiota of militia is large, and well 

In till' I'liriuli of St. If run/ ilr Lauxnn the lands 
granted liefore IJ-'iO were \\ arpents in front, hy 
30 and Ntnue by 40 arpents in depth : 20 sols per 
arpcnt were paid, with one sol (juit rent, ami ii 
reservation of sufficient timber was made for the 
pur)H»es of building mills, rhurches and other 
puUic edifices. — The uncuacvdcii lands in this 

parish are considerable, and all fit for cultivation ; 
but there is no road across them, and the greater 
part has been surveyed. Many young parishioners 
are both willing and able to make new settlements 
if they could obtain lands near home, or at a little 
distance, and there are more lands than could be 
required to satisfy this demand, and those lands 
are in general of good quality. 

The Parish of St. Joseph de la Pointe LM, by 
the regulation of Sept. 20, 1721, confirmed by an 
order in council. Mar. 3, 1722, extends 3| leagues 
and 4 arpents ; viz. 21 arpents in Mont-a-peine, 
beginning at the house of Joseph Turgeon, fief de 
Vitre 10 arpents, Alartiniere 15 arpents, and 3 
leagues of Lauzon to the R. Chaudiere. At least 
one half of the lands in this p. were conceded be- 
fore \^^9, each containing from 4 to 12 arpents in 
front by 30 or 40 in depth. These lands were 
granted on the conditions of paying to the seignior 
annually one sol for each superficial arpent, and to 
give for each land of 3 arpents in front, two days 
de corvies and some capons, with a reserve of oak 
timber for the building of ships and mills. A con- 
siderable number of persons are desirous and able 
to make new settlements if they could obtain lands 
in the vicinity of their parish, or at a little distance 
from their jiarents or friends ; and there are, near 
the limits of the parish, a certain extent of lands 
that are considered to be of good quality. — No one 
goes hence to settle I.t the townships. — Some of 
the youths who leave this parish settle in the 
Tjcighbouring parishes, and others leave their homes 
to undertake long voyages, from which few return. 

The Town of Auhigny, near Pointe L^-vi, was 
so called in honour of the late Duke of Richmond, 
and was laid out by Sir John Caldwell in 1818. 
It is built opposite the city of Quebec, to which 
steam and other boats ply almost every minute. 
It contains from 40 to M houses and a Protestant 
church ; some of the houses are built with suf- 
ficient taste to entitle them to the appellation of 
elegant cottages. The streets and building-lots 
are regularly laid out and of sufficient size; but 
the place has not increased in buildings and po- 
pulation so nnich ns might have Ik-cu exj»ectcd, on 
account, chiefiy, of the high price demanded for 
l)uilding-ground. The site of this little town is 
very elevated, the bank of the St. Lawrence being 
there very high. Below the town is a low of 
handstmie cottages with an hotel, carried on by 
Mr. .M'Keiuie in a very elegant and (.jpcrior 



style: here the citizens of Quebec have their 
country-houses, to which they retire not only for 
recreation but convenience, as the river is crossed 
in 15 minutes. In the rear of Aubigny arc the 
heights of Pointe Levi, where batteries were erected 
by the Americans. A little below Mr. AI'Kenzie's 
hotel and between it and Pointe aux Peres is the 
place where the Indians chiefly encamp every 
summer when they repair to Quebec for the pur- 
pose of receiving their annual presents, and, the 
weather being fine, a concourse of visitors from 
Quebec is attracted to view the Indian camps and 
to enjoy the country. Aubigny may be considered 
almost a suburb of Quebec. The episcopal church 
is remarkable for its commanding position and is a 
neat edifice of wood. A great number of ferry-boats 
ply to and from Quebec at a fixed moderate price. 
The watermen, in all seasons, are ready with their 
ranoes, which are large, very strong and made out 

of a single trunk of a tree and often out of two 
trunks strongly united together; they are ma- 
naged with much dexterity and sometimes carry 
as many as 8 passengers each, betides 3 or 4 men 
employed as rowers. 

The Parish of Si. Nicola.^, by the regulation 
of Sept. 20, 1721, confirmed by an order in coun- 
cil of Mar. 3, 1722, extends 3 leagues and 1? ar- 
pents in front from the r. Chaudiere to fief Bau- 
douin in the S. of Tilly ; and by the same order 
the church, cemetery, presbytery and garden for 
the cure were directed to be placed, pursuant to 
the wishes of the inhabitants, on two superficial 
arpents, given for the purpose by Jacques Beau- 
fort ; besides which Sieur Charest voluntarily gave 
4 arpents in front by 40 in depth. — In this S. arc- 
several fiefs abutting on the St. Lawrence, among 
which are those called Ursuline, Jesuits, Vilmai 
and Maranion. 

Statistics of the Parishes of St. Henri/, St. Anselme, St. Joseph and St. Nicolas, 























■i 1 ■ 












St. llcnryiSi St. Aiistlmc 
St. .Tosopli . . . . 
St. Nicolas . . . . 





6| 1 


St. Henry Kf St./\iikiliiii 
iSt Jofiepb .... 
I St. Nicolas . . . 


Mtnuiil ARriuiiltural I'rratucu. 

1 1700' -^iOO. (3000 360(1 
I1(N)0'I<I60{.'«MMIO TsilN 
\V\Wi\ iHIO-iO]U<ll j(HMI 

4«5OOi3<)H0oLM,'io'a3 1 (10 1 1 J8(:0 






a 7 

7W)•^00; J80 

Live stock. 


KKUOO] l7hlK58Jj bl(i 
!»i' 1 KIO V)0 I i«);)|7 1 W )''3.'«!) 










ow of 
on 'ly 

Vi(it'._" ConcrKKJon du I Jtiic Jmivicr, 1030, faite par 
Ih CompHKtiir, K Mr. Simtm l.i lunilti; liv lu i("i(<> de Luiuon. 
coiiteiiiirit I'l'ti'iidm' de trrrc iiiiihi (in'il suit siivoir; lu 
riviOre UniyniU, ( C/iiii(tlleri) >iliu'i' nil pays dc In jVim. : Ih 
f'fiyici: .wf nix liiiii's df priiCiindiiir diiim l(■^ imts rt 
troii. Iiciuii il iliHipu- :>i[t de In cliti- rivid'-t'." — Hig'uln- 
iVlnleniUincf, A'». 'i,Jiillii ',i7. 

Lekcii Pond", v. Bastonaih (R.) 

I^RKCIIKH PoM) ANO SiMKASt, in the T. of 
Horeford. Tiiis snuill strtmm kises in Walls Pond 
imd is obstructed by falls, making jpnid sites for 

mills ; its only advantage of transport is the running 
of logs. The pond, in the 8. w. angle of the r., 
luljoiiis the province line ; it is nearly 2 miles long, 
and alH)vi- half a niili- broad. 

Lkkuk, township, in the co. of Megantic, is 
bounded n. k. by Ht. Giles ; h, w. by Ireland ; 
N. »'. by Inverness, Nelson, and Ste. Cwix ; n. k 
by Thetford and nroughton. — Except in the n. w. 
quarter, where the land is poor and very stony, 


L E P 

L E P 

it' 1 



'' ' 't'l 

the soil if generally of excellent quality, fit for 
the growth of all kinds of grain, flax, hemp, &c.— 
This T. is well stocked with various timber, as 
beech, birch, maple, basswood, elm, ash, ironwood, 
spruce fir and hemlock. — It is very well watered 
by the Becancour, which divides itself into several 
branches, and by many small streams. — In the 
last few years cultivation has made considerable 
progress, and the settlements have increased, par- 
ticularly along Craig's Road and in its vicinity. 
One quarter of the t. was originally granted to 
Mr. Isaac Tudd, but at present that tract belonf^ 
to the heirs of Joseph Frobisher, Esq. Several 
individuals have obtained grants, and George 
Hamilton, Esq., of Quebec, holds 8000 acres by from government, as lands were sold for 
the purpose of defraying some of the expenses in- 
curred in constructing Craig's Road. — Uagranted 
and unlorated 5,225 acres. 


1 73 I Saw-mills 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 

tlimhcli.l Bushelt. I Pushcli. 

. l,0.i(i I Bail-.y . . 1(H) I Peas . . JO 

■too ! PoUitoos . 0,400 1 IiHiaii corn -R) 

I.hc Stuck. 

H I Cows 
.'JO I Sheep 

3(1 1 


Le Gouffhk (S ), t;. Gouffhu. 

Lknnoxvillm (V.), V. AsCOT; T, 

Lkpaok and Tibikhgk, seigniory, in the co. of 
Riniouski, is lx)'jndcd N. e. by Pachot ; 8. \r. by 
Lcssard ; in front by the St. La\"rence. — This S. 
and its augmentation tippcur to have been granted 
at two different times, with an interval of a few 
mouths only: the S was grunted Nov. 14, ICDO, 
and the augmentation on the 7th of May foll,)w- 
ing. The gnintcos were the same in both in- 
stances, vi«. the Siei.irs Louis Lepage and Gabriel 
Tibierge. The title to the first grant represents 
it to extend from Pachot to Lessard, with a depth 
of one league ; the grant o^ augmentation was for 
2 lci\guo8 in depth, adjoining the rear of the first 
grant otid extending, on one side, to the grant of 
Sieur Pachot and on the other to the grant of 
Sieur Lcmnml, comprising the breadth of both, 
wilh tlw ig/en tuid inlets, in that extent As there 
can be iio ititii and itleU in the augmentation, pro- 

bably it was granted in Ueu of the original con- 
cession, particularly as the dates are so nearly 
coeval. If this idea be correct, the ambiguity will 
cease and the depta of the S. be easily proved to 
be 2 leagues from the St. Lawrence and not from 
the original grant, and its width. In front, from Pa- 
chot to Lessard, and in the rear from the N. e. line 
of the former to the s. w . line of the latter. Thus 
the rear line will run as far back us the first lake 
in the b. Mitis. 

Title. " Coneession dii Itrne Novembre, 1G90, faite 

aux Sieurs Lonli Lrpa/jr et Oiilir'nl Tiii\cr/;r, d'nn terrein 
qui ^e trouve entre la concession tin Sieur Pachot, et celle 
fill Sieur Lctsard, sitner an lieu (lit R'wmusliij, sur le fleus-e 
St. I,<iiirnit.<]» cite du Slid, sur line limie de profondeur." 
Rightrc d'Intcndnnce. No. ii^fol'io .'J. 

Aiigmrntuliun " Concession du Tine Mai, 1697, faitc 

par f.tinh dc HmtJc, Gouvcrneur, et Jinn Bmliait, In- 
tendant, an Sieur Louh Lepage et Gabriel TiMerge, de 
deiix lieues en profondeur, joifsnant le derriero de la con- 
cession k enx dtju iU'<'ori!ce, sitni'e an lieu dit Itimoiiskii, 
sur le lleiive St. Liinrrnt, dn cote dii Si.'i, 'enant d'un cfite 
a la terre du Sieur Pachot, et de I'autre i ceile du Sieur 
Lciiard, sur toute la lurpeur d'icelle, avec les isles et islets 
(|ui se troiiveidiit dans la dite ftenduc." — Rigistre d'la- 
tenJaiicc, JVi.-. d, folio 16. 

L'Epinav, seigniory, in the co. of L'Islet, lies 
in the reui' of St. Thomas ; 3 Icajrues in breadth 
by ] J ill depth on a" average. Grunted, Apr. "th, 
1701, to Sieur de L'Kpinay. — The soil is good, 
b?ing ii yellowish loum, or a good black earth ; in 
front the surface is rather irregular, and towards 
the rear it becomes mountainous. The part ad- 
joining St. Thomas is thickly settled and there 
cultivation has niude considerable advances; but 
thij portion is small compared to the extent of 
the S. The timber consists of maple, liirch and 
beech in profusion, with soioc very good pine, 
besides a plenty of inferior sorts. — Watered 
by a few sniitll streams descending from the moun- 
tains and running into the Riviere du Sud.— In 
the rear of this S. are some fine valleys, parti- 
cularly at the distance of alwut (I leagues. 

Title " Concession du 7me .A\ ril, 1701, fiiite jiar Ifrc. 

lor de Calliere, (ioiiverncur, et ' .vi Riuliart, Intendant, 
an Sieur dc I'Kiinaij, du pen do t ' 'in cpii se tnuive entre 
la Sei>;npuric di- Jean dc Paris et celle de la tivii're du Sud, 
prrs de QiiHice, lequel terrein se fermin<r en triangle au 
llenve .S7. f.mircnt, et tieiit il'liii liout aux terres non-con- 
ei'dees, et de rantrr par hi pointe iiu dit tl»uvc; ensemblu 
que le dit tern in sera liorii/' fi In hauteur de lu eoneeHsiuii 
du dit Jean dr Paria, piir uiie ligne paraliele qui sera tiree 
Nord-est et Sud-oiii'st jusqu'ii celle de la petite rivit're du 
Sud." — liepittrc d' 'ntcnda'ice, Xo. 't.fnUn'.H. 

L'Epinav or St, Johmph, seigniory, in the co. 

L E S 


of Quebec, joins St. Ignuce and is bounded by the 
R. St. Charles in front and the t. of Stonehnin in 
the rear. Eleven arpents in breadth byfoiir leagues 
in depth. Granted, on the last day of February, 
1626, to Lt)uis Helxirt. — The soil is light and 
sandy, intermixed with clay about the front; pro- 
ceeding inwards it changes to a black mould 
and near the mountains is a good yellow loam. 
Near the river St. Charles are fine meadows and 

Tilk. — " Conopssioii du dernier jour de Fevricr, ICrid, 
faite par Mr. le Due dc Vanliiiioiir, a Louii Ilibirt, d'lliio 
lieuo de terre do front, |>r«)s dc la ville de QiiiUc, sur In 
riviOre St. Charlctj sur quatre lieues de prutbnduur."— 
Papier Terrier, Ku. l-5,./('/i» 7j, .'J /Verier, I7H1. — " This 
liet is miid to coiitiiiii hut one quiirtcr of a leHgiie in front 
upon four in di"|)tli, by u ccrtilii-iite of cxaniinutioM ot tlic 
title of Coneossioi! j as also by nieiilioii in the act of donu- 
tionofthis (iefiii niarfiaije with Demoiselle Cliavipny to 
Sieur de I'Epinay. N. B. 'I'liis lief, by aetual nieiisure- 
nient, only eleven arpents in front." — Cuhiirs J'liitiiul. !(• 
d \T,f(iliu j77. 

Lessaru, seigniory, in the co. of L'Islet, h 
bounded n. k. by the augmentation to Ashford ; 
s. w. and in the rear by wa.ste lands; in lont by 
the S. of L'Islet. — One leagac square. Granted, 
June 30, 16i)fl, to Pierre Lessard, and now be- 
longs to Andrew Stuart, Escj. — This small tract 
is valuable- though uncultivated, and lies on the 
brow of the ridge of rising grounds extending 
more or less along the rear of the seigniories front- 
ing the St. Lawrence. Although the surface is 
broken and uneven, the soil and timber are unex- 
eeptionably good; the timlx;r is maple, beech, 
birch, ash, pine, &c. — It is well watered by a 
branch of the n. du Sud called Bras St. Xicolas 
and by minor streams running into it from several 
small lakes in the S. — Should the road from 
L'Islet to St. John's bo opened it would ma- 
terially encourage the making of new settlements 
here and in the adjacent country. 

Title.—" roncession dn .'iOnne Juin, 1098, faite par 
/.(>»(/ dr Buiide. Comtc do Froiifemic, liouvemeur, et 
Jean BikIioiI, Inteiidant, li /".I'rrc l.eitard, d'uiie lieuc de 
tirn de front, snr imreille profondenr, silui'e sur le fleuve 
.ft. l.tturnit, proehe I'JKlet .S7. Jean, an lerriOre de la 
Seiijneurie de Mademoiselle Hulartre ; tenant d'un cdtrf' 
■ hi ttrre dn Siuir de In Clieniiie, et de I'autre a eelle de 
Fraiifdii Helluiigrr; d'un bout » la SiiKnenrie de dite 
Demoiselle JJnlarire, et de I'uutre aux terres noii-coii- 
eedfes." — Mgiilrc d'luleiidanee, No, .'>,Jiiliv ^. 

Lrrrard, sei^iory, in the co, of Rimouski, is 
liounded n. k. by Lepage ; s. w. by St. Bamab6 ; 
in front by the St. Luwrencc. — 1} league in front 

by 2 leagues in depth. Granted, Mar. 8, 1696, 
to Pierre Lessard. — At Fa'.ier Point, at the n. w. 
angle of this S., the St. Lawrence pilots reside, 
in the enjoyment of a competent degree of ease 
as a reward for the perils they encounter and the 
responsibility for which they are held. 

Title.—" Coneession du Hnie Miirs, 16f)6, faite par 
Louis de BiiaJe, (iouverneur, et Jean Bmliarl, Intendunt, 
ii Pierre Lettard, d'nne lieue et ileniie de terre de front 
sur deux lieiies de profondeur, sitnee au lieu dit le Bie, 
le dit front i prendre depuis la pointe aux Perf$, appur- 
tenant au Sieur Hini Lrpiigc, u euuse d'un ^eliange fait 
avee le Siirnr de la C(irdi»iii.r, et eonlinue le dit front au 
Nord-est en allant le lont? du tleuve St. Laurent, tant que 

la dite liene et deinie pourru s'^tendre." HigUtrc din- 

tciidaiiee, A'o. ♦, fuliu liH. 

Levhard or St. Pikrrb i,ks Becqukts, 
seigniory, in the co. of Xicolet, is bounded in 
front by the St. Lawrence ; n. k. by the district 
line between Quebec and Three Rivers; s. w. by 
the S. of Gentilly : fu the rear by the t. of Bland- 
ford. — 2 leagues in front by 4 in depth. Granted, 
together witli Isle Mudunie below the Island of 
Orleans, Apr. 27, KiliJl, to Sieur Lovrurd, and is 
nov the property of A. Lanaudit re, Escj. and the 
Honourable F. Baby. — This seigniory is but very 
little settled, although the soil in fertile and yields 
good crops of grain. The soil is generally a fine 
clay mixed with a rich black mould. This S. is 
plentifuUj stocked with timber, some of which is 
of the best description, but much the greater pro- 
portion is cut for firewood, which is sent in large 
(juantitics to Quebec. It is watered by part of 
the Kivit're du Chine ai^d .some small streams. In 
the first and setuiul ranges of concessions are a few 
farms in a very improved state. The church of St. 
Pierre, tiie parsonage and a chnpel are situated 
on the bank of the St. Lawrence, along which 
the main road passes. 


Population I ,()j3 1 Presbyteries 
t'huri'hes, K.C. I Corn-niills 
('ur*t . .1 





Annual Agrirullural Produet. 
RuihcU. Buihela. 

HOJO Potatoes <>,(KIO 
♦,WX) Peas . Ji.tKX) 


Rye . . Kill 
Indian com 15 

Live Stock. 


l.3/A)| Swine 


Titlf — " t onression du !«7ine Avril, \m i, faite par Iw 
Sieurs Lefclvre de la Barrt, (iouverneur, et de MeuUt; 
Intendant. au Sieur Leirurd, dune itendne de terre de 



'•H • 







1 '. 


II ' 


L I E 

ileux lieues ou environ de front sur le fleiive St. ' -^rent, 
du cdt^ du Sud, ot grn^ralement tout ce qui se rencontre 
untri' la Scigneurie de GrntUly et celle de Detchaillont, 
avec lea isles et batures qui eont dans 1c dit fleuve, au- 
devant du dit espace ; aussi I'isle appeKe Madame siture 
au Sud de I'isle et comte dc St. Laurent, d'une lieue de 
tour ou environ." — B^gUtre Slntendance, Let. B,/blio 38. 
— " Acte du premier Avril, 1751, fixe la proi'ondcui ie la 
Scigneurie qui sc trouve entre Gcniilhj ct ■JeiclmiUn,:^ 
{Lcvrard) k quatre lieues." — Mgiitre d'lntcidaiice, No. 9, 
fnlh 78. 

LiEVRRs, aux, river, rises in numerous lakes 
lying far in the waste lands in the rear of Buck- 
ingham and Portland. It !s a large, wild and 
rapid stream, remarkable fur the peculiar sin- 
gularity of its bends and the varieties of its width. 
Its source is near that of the Gatineau, with which 
it runs parallel for a considerable space. It tra- 
verses Buckingham in a general course from n. to 
s., winding variously and forming, at intervals, 
several buys and spacious basins, until it reaches 
the middle of the first range, where it divides into 
two principal channeb, that of the s. e. running 
towards the Ottawa, while the other running 
8. w. disembogues into an extensive pond lying 
parallel to the Ottawa and extending from lot 
No. 15 to 22. This pond communicates with the 
Ottawa through the entrance of the Licvres, whose 
width at its juncture with the former is about 5 
chains. About 2 miles up the river, and upon 
the division line between the 1st and 2nd ranges, 
is a basin nearly circular perfectly accessible by 
the steam-boat, which plies between Grenville and 
Hull : for about 4 m. above the basin the rapids 
impede all navigation, after which, for 30 m., it 
is navigable for bateaux and the water is very 
smooth : about 90 m. up this r. is Lake des Sa- 
bles, at the head of which this it. is still navigable 
for a great distance to other lakes. The Indians 
who trade in the back country ascend this n. in 
canoes. Along the first thirty miles of the nux 
Lidvres, as far as the Falls de iVIontagne, there 
appear to be considerable tracts fit for settlement, 
but after ascending the ridge which occasions these 
falls and following the northern waters of the r. 
upwards of 150 miles, or perhaps about iiO miles 
in a direct line, it appears to he almost entirely 
what is called a good hunting country, which may 
be interpreted i» very bad settling country, being 
rocky, swampy and hilly, with but little good soil 
which is confined to the valleys here and there. 
The hills frequently rise abruptly to a height of 

L I S 

400 or 500 feet above the general level, and there 
are abundance of small lakes well stocked with the 
finest trout. — The banks of this R. are elevated 
and afford many very excellent mill-sites, besides 
those in the 4th range of Buckingham, where the 
mills of Mr. Beaumont and Mr. Bigalow are 
erected. — This r. is well stocked with fish. 

LiNowicK, township, in the co. of Megantic, 
is bounded N. e. and in front by the unsurveyed 
townships of Stratford and Hampden ; s. w. and 
in the rear by Bury and Weedon. — This tract is 
very similar in quality to the level district of 
Dudswell : the timber is also of nearly the same de- 
scription. — Watered by several streams of tolerable 
size that run into the St. Francis. The w. half has 
been surveyed and granted to divers individuals. 


L'IsLE, de, river, rises in the t. of Roxborough, 
in Upper Canada, and, traversing the t. of Ken- 
yon, enters the lower province at the s. w. angle 
of the T. of Newton, and running for some distance 
near its s. boundary traverses the location of Lt.- 
col. de Longucuil ; then intersecting the N. angle 
of New Longueuil it enters the S. of Soulange and 
falls into the St. Lawrence at Coteau du Lac a 
little below Lake St. Peter. 


L'IsLET, county, in the district of Quebec, is 
bounded n. e. by the co. of Kamouraska; h. w. 
by a line parallel thereto running from the w. 
angle of the S. of the river du Sud, prolonged to 
tlie 8. boundary of the province ; n. w. by the St. 
Lawrence, together with all the islands in the St. 
Lawrence nearest to the county, and in the whole 
or in part fronting it ; and a. e. by the a. boundary 
of the pro...ii;e. — It comprises the seigniories of 
Sc. Roch des Aulnets, Rcaume, St. Jean Port 
Joli, Islet, Lessard, Bonsecours, Vincelot and its 
aug,. Cap St. Ignace, Gagnier, Ste. Cluire, Ri- 
vit're du Sud and Lcpinuy. — Its extreme length is 
82 miles and its breadth 37^, containing 3034 
square miles j its centre is in lat. 46° 40* 30" n. 
long. 69° 52' w. It sends two members to the pro- 
vincial parliament and the place of election is at 
L'Islet. — The surface of this county is uneven and 
mountainous, being traversed by detached rocky 
ridges which appear i'rom the St. Lawrence like a 
continued range of mountains, presenting a back- 
ground to hoi ';:ome and flourishing settlements. 
The scenery in many places is varied and inte- 

L I S 

resting. The county is abundantly watered by 
rivers and several beautiful lakes; the principal 
rivers are the Riviere du Sud and its various 
branches, the Trois Saumons, Port Joli and Ri- 
viere Ferre, all of which descend to the St. Law- 
rence. In the rear it is most beautifully watered 
by the R. St. John and its large and wide spread- 
ing branches : this river runs an average course of 
about 50 miles from the St. Lawrence in a pa- 
rallel direction towards the n. e. ; the land on 
its borders and in its vicinity is of good quality 
and fit for settlement. Although this county 
appears mountainous it presents many tracts 
of good arable land. The houses and cultivated 
farms in the front grants, particularly on the 
shore of the St. Lawrence, are remarkable for 
handsome villages and churches, which consider- 
ably heighten the beauty of the scenery : the 
most conspicuous is the village of St. Thomas in 
the S. of Riviere du Sud, which, from its size, 
the elegance and magnitude of its conspicuously 
situated church, its handsome houses and edi- 
fices, and the bridges, called the Regent and the 
Prevost, over the du Sud and the Bras St. Ni- 
colas, deserves the particular admiration of the 
traveller. The population consists of French Ca- 

Populiition 12,777 

Churches, K.C. 





Corn-mills . 


Saw-mills . 




Medical men 



Ship yards . 
River craft 
Keel boats 





Amwal Agrknllural Produce. 










Indian corn l,dM 
Mixed grain 6,.jf)8 
Buck wheat a, lot) 
Potatoes at7,I37 

>raple sugar Ub2 
Klax . :A:i 
Butter . .3,9(ij 
Hay, tons 11,033 

Live Slock. 

3,201 1 Cows 
2,!)10 1 Sheep 




L'IsLRT, seigniory, in the co. of L'Islet, is 
bounded by the St. Lawrence in front ; by Lessard 
in the rear, and lies between Bonsecours and St. 
Jean Port Joli. — One league in breadth by two 
in depth ; granted May 17th, 1(577. to Demoiselle 
Genevieve Couillard. — The front is low, but re- 
ceding from the river towards the mountains the 
land rises gradually ; the soil in general is good, 
producing grain of uU kinds ; in the rear it is a 

L I V 

light-coloured loam that continues up to the high 
lands. Aboiit one-third is under occupation and 
is tolerably managed and thickly inhabited. — Wa- 
tered by a continuation of the Bros St. Nicholas 
and by several small runs of water. — Beech, birch 
and maple are the prevailing knids of timber, but 
there is likewise some pine of very gooil growth. 
— The church and parsonage-house are close to 
the St. Lawrence, near a point of land on which 
is placed the telegTuph station. No 7- At high 
water this point is completely insulated, from 
which circumstance it derives its name of Islet de 
St. Jean. — This S. is divided into 4 ranges of 
concessions ; the 1 st and 2nd are settled, and tlie 
3rd and part of the 4th are fit for settlement. 
Almost all the land in the 3fd and 4th ranges 
belongs to proprietors of land along the St. Law- 
rence, who thence derive their tire-wood, which 
circumstance in some degree prevents the settle- 
uient of those ranges. In consequence of there 
being no other lands to concede, many of the 
youths desirous of settling quit the seigniory. 

Ti//c. —" Concession du I'inc Mai, lfi77, 'a'''' l""" 
f.diiis lie HihiiIi; Comte dc Frontiiiac, (iouvenieur, 4 
Ik'juoiselle (iiiievirve Cviiillaril, d'unc lieuc dc terrc dc 
front Ic long dn llcuvc .S7. iMiirenl, du cotr du Sud, a 
coniuiencer depuis Ics deux lieucs |)roniises n A'«t.7 
Laiiglvii, en reinuutaut le dit Heuve, \ crs celle qui appar- 
tioiit a la Demoiselle Aiiiiol, iiVf<' deux licues dc pro- 
fiindcur, (iiseinlile un islet t'tanl dans le lleuvc, an dcvimt 
dc la dite liene de front, eonteuant <|uatrc i cinq arpcns ou 
environ." — Inshiiuit'wns ilii (uii.'Cil Siqiiiiciir, l.rt. H. 
Jblw 39. 

L'Islet, Notre Dame de (V.), v. Bonse- 
cours, S. 

L'Islkttk, rivulet, runs into the n. Saguenay 
above Ila Ha bay. 

LiTciiKiKLD is a projected township in the cu, 
of Ottawa ; it is a triangular tract bounded w. 
by the R. Ottawa where it forms the island of 
Grand Calumet. This t. will become a subject 
of con.siderable interest on account of the Falls of 
the Grand Calumet which are in its front. 

Little Rivkii, in the co. of Bonaventure, 
fulls into the mouth of the Ristigouchc. n. v.. of 
this K. and at the head of Ristigouche Imy is un 
Indian village mission, which has a churrli and is 
a small fief. 

Little \'i llaoe, v. Notre Dame dcs Anges, S. 

LivAuoiERE or Dksciiknau.x, in the cu. of 
Bellechassc, is bounded in front by Vinccnnes ; 
N. K. by the augmentation to Beaumont ; s. w. 
by Jlont-u- Peine; in the rear by .St Gcrvais. — 

I i! 




■ ! 


:*i| ] iigl 'I 


. 'if 


L I V 

About ] of a league in front by 3 leagues in 
depth. Granted, Sept. 20, \T.i4, to Sicur Pcan 
de Livaudierc. — Upwards of one-tliird of this 
tract M in a very high state of cultivation. The 
soil, rich and fertile, produces large crops of grain, 
&c. ; the surface is somewhat uneven, but not to 
such a degree as to cause serious impediments to 
agriculture, except near the rear boundaries where 
the elevation is abrupt. Tlierc is a great quan- 
tity of beech, birch and maple; fn m the latter, 
considerable quantities of sugar arc made every 
year. — All the lands are conceded and the farms 
are 4 arpents in front, but the grantees pay for 
only 3 because they are not 40 arpents in depth, 
and the rent is 40 sols per front arpent and 1 sol for 
quit-rent. This S. is well watered by theriver Boy er, 
each side of which presents some of the best cul- 
tivated land in the different concessions : towards 
A'incennes are also many specimens of very good 
husbandry. Roads, generally kept in thorough 
repair, pass through the S. to the main road on 
the river Etchemin. — The Parish of St. Charles is 
Jwunded by the 2nd concession of Beaumont ; s. e. 
byanarmofthcB.duSud; n. St. Michel; s.w. 
by Lauzon. All the lands are under cultivation, and 
those parts that lie in Beaumont, Livaudiere and 
Alartinir^re are supposed to have been conceded, at 
least the greater part, before 1 759. The extent of 
each farm is 3 arpents in front by 40 in depth, pay- 
ing 1 ,sol qi;it-renl and the annual rent of 2 or 3 
livres, argtnl lournois, for each arpent, with an 
obligation of grinding their corn at the seignorial 
mill, and a reservation of timber materials for 
works of public utility, such as ?hurches, presby- 
teries, and manor-house, also the right of retraite 
and the obligation de lenirfeu et lieu dans I' an ct 
jour; a breach of covenant occasions the forfeiture 
of the land. The church and parsonage are on 
the N. w. bank of the Boyer. 

StalUlics of the Parish of St. Charles. 






2,' 80 1 Churches, R. C. 

Annual Agricultural Produce, 
Bushcli, I Buihcli. 

1 1,4<X) I Potatoes 40,000 Rye 
21,600 Peas . U,iM) Hay, tons 

Live Stock. 

. 800 1 Cows . 1,600 1 Swine . 
. WO I Sheep . 4,800| 






Title.—" Concession du 20nie Septenibre, 1734, faite 
par le Marquis de Bcauhamolt, Gouvenieur, et Gilk$ 
llocqnart, Intendant, uu S:vur Pcau de Livaudiire, de troii 
quarts (le liciie de I'lont ou environ, sur trois lieues de 

L O C 

profondeur; bornee pa; devant au bout dc la profundeur 

df 1h Seigiieiirie de VimCHuci, d'uii tott au Nu:'d-('»t a la 
li(,'ne de hi Si(?npurie dc ncaiimiiul, d'luilre rf,tt au Sud. 
ouest a la Seigiifuriu de Moul-ii-peiiie, et par derrierc aux 
tcrrc:4 noil coiire<I<''cs, puur lu pri-sente cuiu'cssion ne fuire 
n6i.nnioMiH nu'unc scale ct tncini' seigiicuiic avoc la moiti^ 
de cello dc la Durantaie ir it ie dit Sieur Pean est pro- 
prittuire." — Utgitire d'lrlcinl.uur, AV 0, Julio ii>. 

LocuABER and Guhi: oi augmentation, some- 
times called Suffolk, in the co. of Ottawa, is 
bounded N. e. by La Petite Nation ; s. w. by 
Buckingham; in the rear by waste lands; in 
front by the R. Ottawa. — This t. is equal if not 
superior in fertility of soil to Hull, Templeton, or 
Buckingham, and is well timbered. 13,261 acres 
were grunted in 1807, to Archibald M'Millan and 
others, emigrants from Scotland ; of this portion 
very little has been cultivated. Along the front, 
the river forms several deep bays, in which direc- 
tion the land is so low that it is frequently over- 
flowed ; but if the settlements .should become 
more numerous, embankments might be raised to 
repress the incursion of the waters ; this part 
would then become good meadow, and, at a short 
distance towards the interior, much of it would 
be good arable, Proceeding to the rear, the land 
is broken and rugged up to the ridge of moun- 
tains, beyond whicli there is no part improvable, 
at least in their vicinity. Aluch of the timber, 
both oak and pine, is fit for naval purposes. Se- 
veral rivers and streams wind througli the town- 
ship, but neither of them is navigable for boats, 
though timber may be floated down them to the 
Ottawa, which here expands greatly in breadth, 
and has several islands all well covered with 
wood; the largest is a mile long, and about a 
quarter of a mile broad. The Blanche, which is 
the principal river, spreads into 3 branches, rather 
more than a mile from its junction with the 
Ottawa into which it falls near the centre of the 
front of the t. — Black Buy which lies in front of 
Lochaber Gore is about 41 m. long and its ex- 
treme width is 1| mile. — Vngr anted and unlocaled 
in the t. 17,600, in the Gore 3,388 acres. 



148 I Potasherics . 
1 1 Pearlasherics 



Annual Agricultural Produce. 




r aoo 

Bushels. I Buiheta. 

Potatoes 1,8!J0 1 Indian corn 930 
Rye 2J0|Hay, tons . 126 

Live Stock. 

19 I Cows 
37 I Swine 



I ; 

L O N 

LoMBRRTTB, river, in C6tc de Beaupn'<, riaes 
in the s. w. extremity of the parish of La Petite 
Riviere, and traversing the p. of St. Joachim, 
crosses the road to St. Paul's Bay and joins the r. 
Ste. Anne. 

LoNGUEUiL, seigniory and barony, in the co. 
of Chambly. — The seignior if is bounded n. k. by 
Tremblay and Montarville ; 8. w. by La Prai- 
rie ; in front by the St. Lawrence ; in the rear 
by the barony and West Chambly. — 2 leagues 
in breadth by 3 in depth. Granted, January 
26, 1700, to Sieur Lcmoine de Longucuil and 
is now the property of Madame Grant, baroness 
of Longucuil. — This tract from front to rear is 
quite level, the soil generally a fine black mould, 
very congenial to the growth of grain and most 
other agricultural produce; towards the middle 
is a swampy patch, called I-a Grande Savanne, 
and at a little distance from the front is another, 
called La Petite Savanne; but a good system of 
drainage has proved so beneficial, that they arc 
both nearly converted into good fertile land. 
Almost the whole of the S. is conceded, and full 
two-thirds arc in a good state of cultivation ; it is 
more sparingly watered than, perhaps, any other 
seigniory on the banks of the St. Lawrence, as the 
little rivulet St. Antoine near its front, and another 
equally insignificant that cro.sscs the lower comer 
into the n. Jlontreal, are the only streams. Many 
good roads cross it nearly in all directions ; but 
the most public are, one leading from the village 
of Longucuil to Fort Chambly and Fort St. John's; 
the middle road of Cote Noir to Longueuil ferry ; 
and the upper road from Laprairie to the same 
place. One-third of the annual produce, except 
peas and potatoes, is generally sold. The S. is 
divided into oeven concessions, which are settled as 
follows : 

1. Rangdii Fleuve 

2. Coti-HU Range and Riiisseau St Charles 

3. Tromhlre and Savanne 

•li. Gcntilly .... 

5- (iraiid Ligiiy, or Cote Noir 

6. Cliciniii d« Cliaiiibly 

7. Isle Stc. Marguerite 

. (it) 
. 38 
. 20 
. (il 
. 114 


The Village of Longueuil is on the shore of the St. 
Lawrence and near the rivulet St. Antoine; it 
contains 65 houses including a parsonage and 2 
schools, at each of which 16 scholars are in- 
structed. Near the village was the ancient fort 

L O N 

of Longueuil, one of the many ft)nnerly raised an 
harriers against the Iroquois nation ; but its site 
is now covered by a very handsome well-built 
church, 130 ft. by 55, which stands on the west 
side of the road to Chambly. The situation of 
this little place and its vicinity is so pleasant, that 
many persons of the first respectability reside 
hereabout; it was long the favourite retreat of 
the late catholic bishop of Quebec, RI. Deneaux, 
who when raised to that dignity would not for- 
sake the spot he so much admired. The Isle Stc. 
H^lcne, which belongs to government, lying 
nearly in front of Montreal, Isle Ronde with 
several of smaller size, and Isle uu Heron, arc 
appendages to this S. St. Ili'li'ne, being rather 
high, commands a view of the city of Quebec in 
its most favourable point ; it is very fertik', ex- 
ceedingly well cultivated and embellished by sonic 
very fine timber. On this island are the exten- 
sive mills called Grant's Mills. 

The Baronii of Longucuil is lK)unded N. v.. by 
Chambly; s. w. by Luprairic and De I.<<;ry ; in front 
by the Richelieu ; in the rear liy the seigniori/. — 
3 leagues in front. Granted July 8, IJH', to the 
Baron de Longueuil and is now the property of 
Madame Grant, baroness of Longueuil. — This is a 
very level and exceedingly fertile tract, well set- 
tled and cultivated ; it is traversed by the great 
southern road and by several other roads. — The 
concessions made prior to 175!) were gi-antcd on 
the terms which the grantees now pay, viz., 4 
livres 10 sols and 2| bushels of wheat for each 
farm of 3 arpents in front by HO in depth. — This 
barony is watered by the Richelieu, and is con- 
veniently situated for water-carriage. It contain.s 
the town of Dorchester and Fort St. John. Dor- 
chester scarcely merits the name of a town, but 
will probably in a few years rise to some import- 
ance, from being so favourably situated as to iie- 
come an entrepTit for merchandise in its transit, 
either by land or water, between this province 
.ind America, both in summer and winter : during 
the latter season a very brisk intercourse takes 
place by means of sleighs travelling upon tlu; 
frozen surface of the lakes and rivers. Before 
the last war the timber trade was carried on here 
to a great extent. A large proportion of the in- 
habitants are American emigrants, who have sworn 
allegiance to the British government ; some of 
them keep the best inns in the place, and are pro- 
prietors of tlie stage coaches that travel rcguhirly 







1.0 £1^ Bi 
M» m 12.2 

£ |£& 12.0 


IL25 lu 11.6 

I^^^^^^^^B mVI^H^^^^B ^^R^^^^HB 






II wht mam itint 








L O N 

to Lapnirie and to the itates of Vermont and 
New York.— For/ St. John, on the w. bank of 
the Richelieu, ii of an irregular figure, and ia an 
old frontier peat ; but little can be laid in favour 
of iu construction, or of the defences that lurround 
it, as they are merely field works strengthened by 
palisades and picketings ; within the fort are 20 

L O N 

houses, including puUic storehouses, magaxines, 
&c. The British naval force employed on Lake 
Champlain has its principal station and arsenal 
here, where vessels mounting from 90 to 32 guns 
have been built. — The seigniory and barony are 
within the limits of the parishes of St. Antoine, 
St. Luc and Blairfindie. 

Statittict of the Paruhct of Blairfindie, St. Antoine aid St. Lue. 


St. Antoine 
St. Luc 





1 ■ 

1 ! 1 

s"! a" 

1 13 

3 i 4 





St. Antoine 
St. LuR 

Annual Agrn'ttUurai i'ro«iuf». inbmhfh. 








1 1010 
























Tillii t:> irlgmonj and Iiarimy.—" Lettres du SCme 
Jaiivit-r, 1700, faite par w Majnt^ i Mr. Lemoine de 
LoHgiMuU, ^riK^ant en Uaronie la SviKneurie de Longueuit, 
*ituh' dans le diNtrict de Mmlrial eontonsnt dviix liciie!* 
oil environ de front mir le fleiive SI. l^urtnl, Riir trois 
lieuea et demie de prul'oiideiir. Autre roncemiioa du 8ine 
.luillft, 1710, fHltu |Mii- Mr. (/c Vatiriniiil, Gouverneiir, ft 
Hauilot, IntcnHant, au Baron de LrmgnruU, de truia lieuea 
de trout, ayaiit proluiideur juiiqu'it la rivii're Chambly, 
Muvuir, Iu cuiitiniiatidii d'uiie lieuo et demie de front au 
bout de la profondeur de i» Uaronie de LimgHehll, devant 
iiW'Cendre jusqu'a la dite rivii!re CHambly uwc une autie 
lieui' It dcniie de iiiAinu front au Sud-oucst de la pre- 
iniCre, •'MendHiit pareillement junqu'll la riviere Chambly, 
aiir le ruinb de vent de» uutren SeiKneurics du [lays ; /■tant 
lc» diton ponecnnionii en Hiigmeiitatiun de la Baronir rfc 
LoHfaiHU."— HfgMn driFoi rt llommagt, Ifo. M,Ji<lloW, 
«»/ir ^Vi'il<r, MM.— HfffMrf d' iMiKdaHce, No. i,,fi>JloiX 
—liiiiHualUnii du Ctmirtl SHpfrlfur, letlre B. folio 131. 
— t'liAiiri dInlfHd. No. 8 d l>,/i/lo 81U. 

LuNOUKUii., Nkw, seigniory, in the co. of 
\'uudrcuil, is scpuratetl from Upper Canada by the 
province line which forms its s. w. boundary ; ex- 
tending along the n. shore of Lake St. Francis it 
18 Uiunded N. a. by Soulange, and is separated on 
the N. from the t. of Newton by the location of 
KKMl acres granted to the late Lieut. Col. de 
Lonjfiicuil.— 2 leagues in front by 3 in depth. 

Granted to the Chevalier de Longueuil, April 12, 
1734, and now belongs to Saveuse de Beaujeu, 
Esq.— This tract lies rather low ; on the n. r. 
side part of ft great swamp spreads over a large 
space covered with cedar, spruce, fir and hemlock, 
the usual tenanu of such a soil, but which re- 
quires only draining to become good and profit- 
able land. To the a. w. the ground rises much 
above the level of the opposite side, and abounds 
with man/ spots suitable to the production of 
grain, henp and flax. — The woods aiTord abund- 
ance of fine trees, but beech and maple most pre- 
dominate. — The rivers Delisle and Baudet, on 
which are 2 bridges, a corn-mill and two saw-mills, 
water this S. very conveniently : the first crosses 
it diagonally from Upper Canada, where it has its 
source, into the S. of Soulange ; and the latter, at 
the 8. w. angle, descends from the upper part of the 
T. of Lancaster to Pointe au Baudet : neither is 
navigable, though on the latter, whose banks are 
much higher and current stronger, large quan- 
tities of staves and timber felled in its vicinity are 




floated down to the St. Lawnnoe in the qwing, 
when the itream if swelled bjr the melted mow 
ud ice; thejr both turn lome good cam and nw- 
mQla. — The front of the Kigniory, along the St. 
Lawrence, between Ante aux Bateaux and Pointe 
an Baudet, ii rerjr low, and overflowed lo fre- 
quently ai to make it impracticable to maintain a 
pnqper road; but in winter, the route upon the ice 
along thii part, and on the north side of the lake 
into Upper Canada is preferred, ai being shorter 
than the road leading by the side of the river 
Delisle: this road is, however, called the prin- 
cipal one between the two provinces, but it will 
require much amendment to render it so con- 
venient as it ought to be for the increasing inter- 
course between these parts. — The grentest part of 
the concessions are near Anse aux Bateaux and 
Pointe au Baudet; on each side of the river 
Delisle ; and still farther to the rear in the Cdtes 
St. George and St. Andr6, where a number of 
Scotch families are settled, whose industry has so 
far benefited their lauds, that they are now among 
the best parts of the seigniory, although the other 
conceded lots are in a very fair state of agricul- 
tural improvement. The mole inhabitants are 
moltly voyageurt, a name given to the persons em- 
ployed in the n. v. (m trade, whose wandering 
mode of life, toilsome and laborious in the ex- 
treme, has more charms for them than the more 
regular*and profitable pursuits of husbandry.^ 
All this 8. is tit for cultivation, and it is supposed 
there are about 200 farms unconceded which 
would be soon taken if they were surveyed and 
the terms not too severe; these non-conceded 
lands, which for the most port are behind at the 
ends of the farms of 20 arpents, would be pre- 
ferred by the inhabitants provided their lands 
were thereby increased to 40 arpents. There 
ia no rood across the non-conceded lands, and 
all the lands on the COtc north of the r. De- 
lisle have been conceded, which extend only 20 
arpents, but at the end of these 20 aqM.-nts the 
lands have neith^ been conceded nor surveyed ; 
these lands the grantees ardently desire to have 
in concession, in order to lengthen their farms, 
although all the wood has been cut down and 
removed. — No lands were conceded previous to 
1769. — The Par'uk of St. Poly carp is co-exten- 
sive with the 8., and contains a chapel and about 
500 families; although there is no village, this 
r. contains blacksmiths, Joiners, carpenten and 


tannen.— There are 6 small islet in front which 
are appendages to the 8. 

Population S,7M 

Chapela I 

Cur^ . 1 

Com-milU I 



Pcarlatberics 3 

8hopkceperi 3 

Tavern* 9 

Artiwni 19 


Ammal jlgrkuUmral Produce. 








Live Stock. 
Honei . 7MI Cowi . I,I76| Swine . 1,190 
Oxen 700 1 Sheep . 8,001 1 

Title.—" Conceuion du 8lnie Avril, I73t, fsite par 
Charlft Marquh ie BeatiharnoU, Ooiivemrur, et Gillfi 
Uocquart, Intendant, k Joiepit Umuim, Cbevslier de 
LongueuU, de IVtendue de tcrre qui »e trou»e »ur le bord du 
fleuve St. Laurent, au lieu ippeli let Cateadei, depuin Is 
borne de Is Seigneurie de SotiUmge jusqu'it la Poinit d» 
Baudet incluoivement ; faiunt environ deux lieues dc front 
sur trt)ig licues de profondeur; Hvec ie* i«les ixletn ot 
Iwtures y adjscentes."— J7rf Jttr« i' Intcndunee, No. 7, 
fvlio iii, 

LoNOVK Points, la (P.), v. Montreal, S. 

LoRBTTR (V.), V. St. Gabriel, 8. 

LoRMiBRR, river, rises in the rear part of 
Carufel, and after intersecting the a. w. angle of 
Maskinong^ joins the Ruisseau du Bois Blanc, 
and their united waters fall into Lake St. Peter a 
little B. w. of the mouth of the R. RIaskinonge. 

LoTBiNiBRB, county, in the district of Quebec. 
is bounded n. b. by the 8. w. boundary line of 
the seigniories of Lauson, St. Etienne, and Ste. 
Marie, to tl<e south angle of Ste. Marie ; h. w. 
by the south-west boundary of the S. of St. Jean 
d'Eschaillons and its augmentation ; s. k. by the 
rear lines of the seigniories of St. Giles, Ste. 
Croix, and the augmentation of the seigniories of 
Lotbini^e and St. Jean d'Eschaillons; s. w. by 
the St. Lawrence. It comprises the seigniories 
of Tilly or St. Antoine, Oaspt*, St. Giles des 
Plaines,Bonsecours, Ste. Croix, Lotbinii-re and St, 
Jean d'Eschaillons, and their augmentations. — 
Its extreme depth is 34 miles, and its breadth 2U, 
containing 7^5 square miles ; iti« centre is in lul. 
40° 3K" N. Ion., 71° 37 30' w. It sends two 
members to the provincial parliament, and the 
place of election is at Ste. Croix. — The surface is 
generally level, rather low in the centre, and in 
some parts swampy. The lands near the St. 
Lawrence are, however, elevated and bold, and 
towards the a. ■. extremity of the co. rise into 
large swells of hard timbered land. The roil is 
generally excellent, and fit for the cultivation of 

A A 



7 i 




ttaj wpedet of grain. On the elevtted grounds 

the timber it beech, maple, Urch, hickory and 

pine ; on the low parti spruce, basswood and fir. 

This 00. is not so abundantly watered as the 

generality of the counties in the province. The 

rivers which traverse it are the Grande and Petite 

Rivi^ du Ch£ne, the Beaurivage and Rivi^ du 

Moulin. The Orande Riviere du Ch£ne runs 

through the western section, and the Beaurivage 

traverses the S. of St. Giles, and spreads its 

branches over the rear part of that seigniory 

The chief settlements are along and in the vicinity 

of the St. Lawrence partly on the Grande Riviere 

du Ch^ne, and along the whole extent of the n. 

Beaurivage, near which passes the main route 

leading to the southern townships which connects 

with Craigs Road in Leeds ; another road traverses 

St Giles, and enters the S. of Ste. Marie; the 

main road, along the borders of the St. Lawrence, 

exhibits flourishing and well cultivated farms with 

substantial and comfortable dwellings; several 

other roads traverse this co. in various directions. 

Much of the fire-wood consumed in the city of 

Quebec is cut in this county, and conveyed away 

in rafts. 


Population 7,718 
Churchei,RC. 5 
Curts 4 

Pretbyterin i 
Schools 9 

Com-milU . 6 
Saw-milU . 18 
Ju8t. of Peace 3 
Medical men 1 
Notkriea . 8 

Shopkeepers 6 
Tavern* 6 

ArtiHuis . 86 

Annnal AgrieuUural Produce, 



DuihcU. Buiheli. 

5!),7UO Peas . II.UOO 

, 48,8.50 Rye 8.4!tO 

1,991 Uuik wheatl,(JUU 

30,440 Indian corn 1,8M 

Live Stock. 

. 8,808 I Cows . 0,684 1 Snrine 
1,094 I Sheep . 17,468 1 

Mixed grain 4,3M 
Maple sugar, 

cwts. 047 
Hay, tons, 88,818 


LoTBiNiBM, seigniory, with its augmentation, 
in the oo. of Lotbini^re ; bounded R. by Ste. Croix; 
w. by Deschaillons and its augmentation ; in the 
rear by the townships of Somerset and Nelson ; 
in front by the St. Lawrence.— This S. was 


granted in several parcels, via. — Nov. 3id, 1073, 
half a league in front by \^ in depth, on the w. 
side to the Sieur Manolet. Nov. 3rd, 1673, 3| 
leagues in front by 3 in depth, adjoining Ste. 
Croix, to Sieur de Lotbini^re. April 1st, 16BS, 
half a league in front by 3 leagues in depth to 
Sieur de Lotbiniire ; being the vacant tpace be- 
tween the two former grants. The augmenta- 
tion, 3^ leagues in front by four in depth, 
35th Mar. 1693, to Sieur de Lotbini^re. The 
whole, being 3^ leagues in front by 6 in depth, 
is now the property of Gustavo Joly, Esq.— 
The soil in general is excellent and so advan- 
tageously varied, that every production of the 
country may be raised. It is well stocked with 
fine elm, ash, maple, beech, plane, wild cherry 
and other timber: the banks of the riven du 
Ch^ne, Huron and Baisclere produce pine of first 
rate growth. This S. is very well watered by 
these three rivers: the first is navigable at all 
times as far as the place called the portage, distant 
about two miles from the St. Lawrence ; but the 
two latter only during the rise of the waters in 
spring and autumn. Notwithstanding the superior 
fertility of the soil, about one-sixth part only of 
the grants are settled. There are seven ranges of 
concessions parallel to the St. Lawrence, and one 
perpendicular to it, which contain 580 farms, of 
3 acres in front by 30 in depth ; of this num- 
ber, 405, under the management of indu:;trious 
tenants, who are good cultivators, yield abundant 
crops of grain, &c. Near the middle of the front 
stand a handsome stone church and parsonage- 
house, and near to them a few neat and well-built 
houses. On the R. side, near the St. Lawrence, 
is a small domain of only twelve acres, wholly un- 
cultivated, thickly clothed with timber-trees of a 
superior description, and containing the seignorial 
mill. On the different streams are six saw-mills, 
and five manufactories of potash. — All the roads 
in the S., as well as the main road along the St. 
Lawrence, are always kept in excellent repair. 

Slalulic$ of the Paruhee of Lotbrniere ami St. ^ntoiite. 


LotbiaWie . :>406 
81. Aniolne . 90II9 

44M S 

8 8 8 


1 I 

5 I 1 


Annual AxrlniHural PMducf , In buihcl*. 

18400 I IMKI 
STOOff 80406 


1001 H»0 






LIvr KliMk. 

m 800 

im lAmiwii 


700 4111 









I '' 

i '^ 



L U 8 

TUk.—Pnmkr* Ptrtk.^"' CoMewioa du 3b« Ne> 
vembre, 1678, bite par Jean Tabm, Intendant, au Sieur 
Mar$olit d*uiie demi lieue de front lur unc Heue et demi 
de profondeur, i prendre lur U flcuve St. Lmirtul, depuit 
la graiide riviere dm CMm, jiuqu'auz term non concM^ca, 
tirant Tcra lea terrea de St. Ctnix.'—CMert J'lmUnd. Ko. 

StecomJe Parlle.—*' Conceeaion du Sine NoTembrr. 1679, 
fitite par Jcaa Takm, Intendant, au Sieur tie LMUntirt, «fe 
ritendue de terre qui se trouve sur le tieuve SI. Laurent, 
depuia la conceaiion du Sieur Martolel juiqu'i cclle dei 
Religieuiea Urauliiiea (Sle. Croix), sur deux lieuea de 
profondeur."— CoAier* ttlnlend. JVo. 10 d 17,/o<io 4»k 

TroUhuPartie.—" Conceiaion du premier Avril, 1669k 
Cute k Mr. de Lolbinlere de trois quarts de lieue ou environ 
de terre non concM^, k prendre d'un bout le long du 
fleuve SU Laurent, k la nuide riviere iu CMue, joignant le 
commencement de la demi lieue de concession, nite au 
Sieur Marsolet, et de I'autrc en remontant vers la petite 
rivi£re du CMne, aux terrea du Sieur Si. Our; avec deux 
lieues de profondeur."— Jtc^btr* det Foi et liommage. 
No. 42, Page 183, le 23me Fivrier, 1781. Cakkri tlit. 
tendance, No. 10 d \1, folio 602. 

Qualriime Pariie, ou AugmenlalUm. — " Concession du 
85me Mars, 1693, faite par Louii de Buade, Uouvcmeur, 
et Jean Borhart, Intendant, au Sieur de Lotbinlete, de trois 
Ueues et demie de front avec quatre lieues et demie de 

Srofondeur, k prendre au bout et ou se termine la profon> 
eur du fief de Lotbtnfere, et celui appeK' la putite riviere 
du Chine (les trois concessions pr^^deiites a lui apparte- 
nante) ensemble tons les boiit, pr^, isles, rivitres et lacs 
qui s'y trouvent"— CaAi«r« d^lntendance. No. 9, 10, d 17, 

Loirp, DU (R.), in the S. of Riv. du Loup, v. 
Ou Loup. 

Loup, av, (S.), v. Riviuns du Loup. 

LouTRKs, aux, river, rises in the s. w. part of 
the fi^f St. Etienne, and traversing the 8. of Pointe 
du Lao runs into the N. side of Lake St. Peter. 

LuBSAUOisBB, seigniory, in the co. of Yamaska, 
is bounded n. b. by Baie St. Antoine ; s. w. by 
8t. Francois ; in the r-ar by Pierreville ; in front 
by the St. Lawrence. — One league square. Con< 
eeded Oct. 22, 1672, to Sieur de ia Lussaudiere, 
and after it had lapsed to the French crown it was 
granted, July 26, 1603, to Sieur de Lamotte de 
Luci^re. — The land is generally of a better quality 
than that in the adjoining seigniory of Yamaska, 
with less of a sandy description : the front is so 
low as to be overflowed in the spring by Lake St. 
Peter, and consists of very tine meadow and good 
pasturage: towards the rear the ground rises 
gradually, with some patches of fair arable land. 
The timber is not of the best kinds, particularly 
ia firont. About one-third of the seigniory is cul> 
tivated, and the most improved settlements are 
contiguous to the main road on either side, where 
some of the lots and farms denote a favourable 
state of husbandry. . 


rufa.— " Conccaaion du a6m« Juillct, 1663^ fcite par 
Messrs. Lefelwn de la Barre, OouTemeur, ct d* Meulltt, 
Intendant, au Siour dt Lamotte dt LmeUrt. de la terre ct 
seigneurie de la Luamudlere, rooeUim par Mr. Talom, In. 
tendant. le tiMme Octobre, I67t, au 8ieur de la Lutiau dk r t, 
et r^unie au domaine de ta M^jesti par rOrdonnance du 
86me Mai, 1063, eonaistaat en une beue da fhmt aur ma 
de profondeur, a prendre depuis lea terrci du Sieur Cr*' 
w(er, en descendant vera la riviere Nkolel, le chenail Urdif 
y comprii."— CaAier* dintendanei, No. i m9, JbHo SOt. 
Jmimualiont du ConuU Sufdriettr, leUre U. fiUo 136. M- 
gittte d'intendauee. No, itJbUo 22. 

LuseoN, seigniory, in the co. of Saguenay, lies 
along the St. Lawrence and extends 1 league in 
front, and is i league a. w. of the little river be« 
twcen Echaffaud au Basque and the k. Saguenay. 
Granted Nov. 7, 1672, to Sieur de St. Lusson. 

Title " Concession du 7me Novrmbre, 1678, (kite par 

Jean Talon, Intendant, au Sieur de St. Lnimm, dHine lieue 
de terre de front sur (en hUmc^ de profondeur, k prendre 
sur le fleuve St. Laurent, savoir, une demie lieue en dcfa 
de la petite riviire qui est entre I'K^aJaud au Batqae, et 
le Saguenap, et une demie lieue au deU ; ensemble lisle 
nomm^e I'lsle au Sieur.'— lUgitlrt SIntendance, No. \, 
folio 46. 


Machichk, rivers, in the co. of St. Maurice. 
The Grande Rivi^e Machiche, or Riviere li Max- 
cin, rises in a large lake near the n. w. extremity 
of the rear boundary line of Caxton, and running 
B. tlirough that t. traverses the rear part of Oa- 
tineau and enters Dumontier ; where, meandering 
on the boundary line of those seigniories, it pene- 
trates the N. E. angle of Orosbois or Machiche, and 
in that S. taking a sudden turn to the a. w. falls 
into Lake St. Peter. — The Petite Rivit^re Ma- 
chiche rises in several small lakes in the t. of 
Caxton also, and, running a. through the lands 
belonging to the Forges of St. Maurice and part 
of fief St. Etienne, intersects the n. w. angle of 
Pointe du Lav and traverses the front of Gatinoau ; 
it then enters Grosbois and soon after falls into 
Lake St. Peter one mile m. of the rhuruh. — These 
two small rivers are about 18 m. from the n. St. 
Maurice and are of sufficient force to drive mills 
but are not navigable, the Greater Machiche being 
capable of carrying bottatix <mly as far up as the 
mill, half a mile from its mouth ; down this B. 
however lumber has been floated. 

Machichb (8.), V. OBoaaoia, 8. 

Madam B Dbapbau, fief, in the 8. of Eboule- 
mens, fronts the St. Lawrence, opposite Isle aux 

A a2 





■!■ ! 

Madamb Diapsau, fief, in the Island of Or- 
leans near the a. w. end. 

Maoamr Rbid, fief, in the S. of Livaudi^re. 

Madawabka and Tbhiscouata, iiefs and settle- 
ments, in the co. of Rimouski, extend along Lake 
Temiscouata and the a. Madawaska, and are likely 
to become of consideraUe importance on account 
of their situation on the only land-route of com- 
munication between Quebec and Halifax in Nora 
Scotia; they must therefore become the medium of 
intercourse between the sister provinces. The soil 
of these tracts is considered to be generally good 
and is timbered chiefly with maple, birch, beech, 
and the several species of pine, of which the white 
and yellow predominate. Numerous small rivers 
present advantageous sites for mills, and both the 
rivers and lakes are well stocked with superior 
fish of various kinds. Limestone and iron ore 
have been found in abundance. The scenery in 
that part lying near the lake is bold and beautiful ; 
the gentle slope of the land verging to the water's 
edge, the broad expanding lake bounded on the 
opposite shore by abrupt cliffs and stupendous 
hills, at the base of which several streams dis- 
charge themselves into the lake, form a tout en- 
semble in the highest degree interesting. This 
large portion of these extensive settlements has 
made some progress since Alex. Fraser, Esq., a 
gentleman of known wealth and the chief pro- 
prietor of these fiefs, has established his residence 
at the village of Kent and Strathern, which is at 
the 8. a. extremity of the portage on the borders 
of the lake. The inhabitants of this settlement 
are not numerous, and almost all of French ex- 
traction and Catholics. Near the Little Falls of 
the R. St. John the Madawaska settlement begins 
and continues, by intervals, on each side of the B. 
St. John for about 25 miles ; it consists of about 
200 families of Acadians and Canadians. The 
cottages are for the most part neatly built, and 
both fields and gardens well cultivated. On the 
east side of the R. at the beginning of the settle- 
ment are a church and parsonage-house ; there 
are also 3 corn-mills. From the termination of 
this little colony to the Great Falls of the r. St. 
John the distance is 15 miles, where there is a 
military post, or more properly speaking a few old 
houses occupied by a non-commissioned officer and 
a few privates, detached by some of the corps 
■erving within the province of New Brunswick. 
From this post down to Prcsqu' Isle is 52 miles. 

where there is a similar eataMishment. — The pre- 
sent pn^rietors of these extensive properties are 
Col. Alex. Fraser, Dan. Sutherland, Esq. and Fir. 
Languedoc, Esq. ', 



. 66 1 Com-niUs . 1 | Saw-milb . 1 

Amiual AgricuUural Produce. 

^Vheat . 



Bu-ley . 85 
Potatoes iSO 

Peas 100 
Mixedgimin 100 

Live Slock. 


. 5 
. 10 

Cows . 15 
Sheep . 18 

Swine . 4S 

Title.—" Vne tutre concession de Mr. Lc Febvre, dela 
Barre et de Meulles, Oouvemeur-G^n^ral et Intendant, 
en ce pilie, en dstte du 25me Nov. 16H3; par laquelle sur 
la representation du Sr. Aubert de la Chesnaye, j'ac- 
cordent et concedent k Antoine Aubert et Marguerite 
Angelique de la Chesnaye, sea enfans, une etendue de 
trois lieues de terre lc long de chacun dei deux bord 
de la rivHre nommie Madouitka, proche la Riviire SL 
Jean, avec le Uc appelle Oumiskousta, et deux lieuei de 
profondeur dans lea terres, le tout i titre de fiefs et 
seigneurie haute, moyenne et basse justice, avec droit de 
chasse de pesche dani I'etendue des dits lieux, pour en- 
jouir eux, leurs boirs, et ayaiis cause \ la charge de la foy 
ct bommage au rendre au chateau St. Louis de Quebec. 
Ke(;u a foy et hommage aux fiefs et seigneuries, Riviire 
du Loup, Fief Aladouiska, circonstances dependances k 
lut|uelle Moua ravoiis re^us, &c." — Rit^lttre dee Foyi et 
Hommagtt pour leijleft du Canada, Fev. 1783. 

Madawaska, river, in the rear part of the co. 
of Rimouski, rises in Lake Temiscouata, and run- 
ning 8. falls into the R. St. John at the head of 
the Madawaska settlement. The land on both 
sides of this R., from its source to its confluence 
with the R. St. John, 10 leagues, is of excellent 
cjuality. This r. is navigable for canoes and flat- 
bottomed boats, excepting where there are falls 
which occasion portages. Above the Little Falls 
to Lake Temiscouata the current is gentle and 
the navigation easy and periodically fit for steam- 
boats. The banks are generally low and the lands 
fit for settlements ; some indeed are now in pro- 
gress near the Trout and Birch rivers, and the 
settlers are composed of disbanded veteran soldiers. 
In this R. the waters rise considerably in spring 
and ..utumn, and there are shallow places but no 
rapids. Its breadth varies from 90 to 150 yards, 
and in many parts is so very shallow during the 
summer that it is not navigable for any thing 
larger than a canoe ; it is, however, passible that 
it might be navigated by very flatly constructed 
boats even during that season, but the strength of 




the curtent would nuke it difficult to get them 
up again ; in the ipring, it b laid, large rafts of 
timber denend this rirer. The Little FalU , which 
are near its junction with the St. John, render a 
portage from 60 to 100 yards necessary even with 
a canoe. — There is a great abundance of the usual 
Tarieties of Ash in this river, as well as in the 
Bouleau, Perche and Trout rivers, all of which 
mingle their waters with the Madawasku. — ^The 
lands on the banks of this river and its tributary 
streams are considered to be, in most places, of a 
superior quality. — A road from Long's, at the end 
of the portage to Degele, passing near the edge of 
the lake, is very much wanted ; the distance is 
about 16 miles: it would connect the portage 
with a road opened a few years ^ art by the pn>> 
vince of New Brunswick, which cost 300/. and 
extends S8 miles and is 12 ft. wide— Every part 
of both sides of this r. would be without doubt 
soon settled if good roads were made. 

Maddinoton, township, in the co. of Nicolet, 
is bounded n. b. by Blandford ; n. and n. w. by 
the seigniories of Gentilly, Coumoyer, Dutort 
and Becancour ; it fronts b. and 8. w. on the r. 
Becancour, which separates it from the townships 
of Bulstrode and Aston. — The land is level in the 
interior and towards the s., but more elevated to- 
wards the w. and a. w. in the direction of the r. 
Becancour. There are many savannas and the soil 
in general is tolerably good; in some places of a su- 
perior quality, in others rocky and very inferior. 
Some parts would produce hemp and flax. In the 
surveyed parts, lying contiguous to the river, the 
land is of the same nature and quality as that of 
Aston, and equally capable of being turned to good 
account in the hands of able farmers. On the 
higher grounds some excellent timber may be 
found, but on the lower parts only the indiiferent 
assortment of cedar, hemlock, and similar kinds. 
This T. is watered by the Oentilly and the Be- 
cancour, and the latter, which winds in a circular 
direction ft^mi the a. b. to the n. w. angle, 
presents several very eligible situations for the 
erection of mills, — The principal proprietors are 
Mr. Allsop and the heirs of the Hon. Jenkin 
Williams. — A winter road traverses this t. and 
communicates from the village St. Antoine, in 
Becancour, to the river of that name, about 13 m. 
in length.— There is only one settlement near the 
river Becancour, on the side of Blandford, on 
which are 12 persons. 

Population 90 

Ammal AgrituUunI Prtiaet. 

BuduU. I BiHlMlt. I BatlMlt. 

Whemt . 30 Pototoet . M Indian com *> 
Oati . . 40 Peas • . l»l 

Lhie Slock. 


8 1 Cows 
3 1 Sheep 

i I Swine 

Madrid (F.), v. ORANDrai. 

Maodrlainr, fief, in the co. of Gasp^, is 
bounded r. by the S. of Grande Vallte des Monts ; 
w. and 8. by waste lands ; in front by the St. 
Lawrence. — One league in breadth by 2 leagues 
in depth. Granted to Sieur Rirerin, March 28. 
1680.— This p. is traversed by the R. Magdehune. 

Title " Conresuon du 88nie Mars, 1689, faite par 

Jaeauet de Britay, Oouverneur, et Jean Bofharl, Intendant, 
■u Sieur Riverin, de U rivi«re de la Maedelaine, rCant su 
desRUS des monts Notre Damr, du cot^ du Sud, eniemble 
demi lieue au desaus et demi lleue au desaous de la dite 
rivifre, le long du tieuve St. Laurent, avec deux lienes de 
profondeur."— fl^^iJre d^Inttndanct, Xo, 3,/Wio 1J6. 

Maodrlainb, river, rises in waste lands in the 
CO. of Gasp^, and traversing the S. of Magdelainc 
falls into the St. Lawrence. 

Maodalrn Islands are in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, between the parallels of lat. 4?* 30' 
and 47° 38! n. and the degrees of Ion 61o 37 and 
62° w. from the meridian of Greenwich. — These 
small islands are in a cluster and are 1 1 in num- 
ber, and are included in the co. of Gasp<>. Five 
of them are inhabited. They are called 

Magdalen lalund, IsleRoyalc, 

or Coffin's Island 
Orion, or Cross Island 
Bird Isles, two 
Sbug Isle 

Saniidf'r's Isle 
Wolfe's Isle 
Entry Isle 
Deadman's Isle 
Amherst Isle- 

Magdalen Itland (n. b. point) is in lat. 47° 37' 37' 
N. and in Ion. 61° 26 51 ' w., the variation of the 
compass being 22° 26 w. This island, which is 
also called Isle Royale and Coffin's Island, is in 
general barren and mountainous. It contains 
some settlements and is 17 leagues in length ; 
in some places it is about 1 league wide, while 
in other places it is only one arpent wide. In 
the lower parts the land is sandy and soft, com- 
prising a number of quicksands, occasioned by 
several small channels that originally had a com- 
munication with the sea, but which have since been 
filled up by the violence of the winds. It is uni- 


rfi t 

1 3 ■■ 

, 1 -I 

[■ I 


:t! ?p 

vemlljr declared by the old inhabitant* that into 
the largest lake, which ii near the k. point, they 
have seen ships of 3 masts and tolerable burthen 
go in and out with safety, though the entrance is 
at present dry at low water. 

BrioH Itlani, containing about 60 or 70 square 
arpents, bears n. by the compass and is about 10 
miles from Magdalen Island. It is nearly sur- 
rounded with high capes, and on the n. side is 
some dear land of tolerably good quality. Its 
lat. (N. B. point) is 470 48* 8' w. 

Bird hltmda, northernmost, in lat 47° 50^ 28" 
and in Ion. dP 12* 33" w., are two in number and 
contain about 4 square arpents each and consist 
of two rocks, elevated above the water upwards 
of 100 feet ; their flattened summits, each not ex- 
ceeding in circumference 300 paces, exhibit a re- 
splendent whiteness produced by the quantities of 
ordure with which they are covered from im- 
mense flocks of birds, which, in summer, take 
possession of the apertures in the perpendicular 
difis, where they form their nests and produce 
their young; when alarmed they hover above the 
rocks and overshadow their tops by their numbers. 
The abundance of their eggs affords to the in- 
habitants of the neighbouring coast a material 
supply of food. 

Entry Isle contains nearly 100 square arpents. 
—The population of these islands, although it 
does not exceed 1000, has considerably increased 
nnce 1703, when, it is said, there were only 10 
families. In \^^\ there were 13 heads of fami- 
lies; in 1707 the population amounted to 500; 
in I7O8, when Sir Isaac Coffin took possession of 
these islands by virtue of a grant from the British 
crown, there were 100 families, the descendants 
of Acadians or Canadians ; in 1821 the number of 
fiunilies had increased to 133, and now amounts 
to 163, the present population being about 1000, 
chiefly French Acadians, among whom there are 
5 Irish families and 11 English women. They 
are all catholics, except 4 or 5 families. The in- 
habitants, who derive their subsistence chiefly from 
the fisheries, are in general remarkably hale and 
healthy, with light complexions and flaxen hair. 
They are cheerful in character, and the females 
remarkably modest and ingenuous. Xka inhabit- 
ants suffer great inconvenience fro^^he ship- 
wrecks which frequently happen on these islands^ 
when each family is sometimes obliged to support 
'3 or 4 persons, who would perish without such 

succour; this indiqiensable charity, added to their 
remoteness from any provision market, frequently 
creates a suardty of provisions, more especially as, 
for 6 or 7 months in the winter, their cmnmuni- 
cation with every other part of the world is cut 
off. So frequent have shipwrecks been on these 
islands that Capt. Fougire, for 10 successive years, 
brought off these islands annually about 200 ship- 
wrecked persons, who, without the chaiitafale 
assistance of the poor native inhabitants, would 
have perished. — The houses are built with timber 
only, and are in siie from 26 to 30 ft. by 18 to 
20 feet wide ; the chimneys are built of clay or 
earth of a iicd<1iili odour.— There are but few 
roads in these islands, and to pass through the 
woods on the high capes is very difficult. — The 
quality of the wood is very inferior and chiefly 
consists of sapin, red and white epinette, and birch. 
— There are no minerals of any consequence in 
these islands, although in some places are found 
plaster of Paris and ochre of various colours, red, 
yellow, white and some bordering on sky-blue, 
and Entry Isle produces fine red. — These islands 
are totally unfit for the general purposes of agri- 
culture, or, at least, that means of subsistence ia 
wholly neglected, the inhabitants relying entirely 
on the profits of their fisheries ; potatoes, which 
however generally fail, are the only produce of 
the soil, with the exception of forage grown on 
the natural meadows and pastures, with which a 
tolerable proportion of live stock are sustained. 
Some fowls an bred but no geese, and bustards 
are to be met with in spring and autumn. That 
agriculture ought not to be so entirely neglected 
may be reasonably inferred from the fact, that 
every season produces a great quantity of juniper 
berries, strawberries, raspberries, &c. — No reptiles 
of any kind are to be found in these islands, 
and the only wild animals are rabbits and a great 
number of foxes of a silver or gray colour.— 
There are two churches and a presbytery for 
the resident missionary ; one church is 60 (t. by 
30, the other 65 ft. by 33 ; the presbytery, which 
is built of wood, is 36 feet by 26 and has the 
convenience of a stable and garden. The tithes 
payable to the missionary consist in half a quintal 
of fish frtmi each fiimily, which is generally sold 
at 10«. per quintal. — The fisheries constitute the 
only wealth of these islands and the sole means of 
subsistence for the inhabitants. The fisheries an 
chiefly for seal, herring and cod; ceb are cau^t 



ur. — 
ft. by 
M am 



with the harpoon, fine trout* are also harpooned 
in the rireia at the flambeau ; and flattana, a fish 
measuring about 3| ft. long hy T at 8 inches, are 
caught and also macrow lofasten, which are oon« 
sumed by the inhabitants. Codfish, valued at 
14». per quintal, is exchanged for pork valued at 
JL per barrel, and when it is sold for cash it 
brings 10s. per quintal. 900 quintals of codfish 
and 3000 seals are caught annually, and each seal 
generally produces 7 gallons of oil. Some of the 
fisheries are conducted on shares, which are divided 
among 5, 6 or 7 men, who are employed in one 
vessel; the fish caught are divided among them 
equally after reserving one share for the owner 
of the vessel. The fisheries were described, in 
1821, to have been reduced to one-third of what 
they were 15 or 16 years before that ]ieriod. The 
inhabitants earn their living chiefly by the cod 
fishery, and in the spring some of them go in 
pursuit of seals. Formerly the sea-cow abounded 
here and a considerable trade was carried on in 
the sale of that animal ; but it is no longer found 
and the trade has ceased for nearly 40 years. 
The sea-cow is an unwieldy amphibious animal, 
resembling in figure and colour the toad, with 
a he»d bearing some resemblance to that of the 
ox. The sea-cow fishery has ceased to be prac- 
tised in the Magdalen Islands, very probably on 
account of their being frightened away by unskil- 
ful fishermen, the too frequent approach of boats, 
or an indiscreet use of fire-arms in shooting them 
in their echouages or strands, where they were 
formerly taken by 300 or 400 together. The 
sea-cow fishing was an object of considerable in- 
terest from its immense produce, and it is much 
to be lamented that so valuable a branch of the 
St. Lawrence fisheries should have been thus dis- 
continued. In order to protect the fisheries, French 
vessels are not permitted to approach these islands 
nearer than 3 leagues. The Americans, however, 
fish there and anchor in the harbours, and about 
20 vessels come every year and sometimes all of 
them arrive in the space of 8 days, viz. between 
the 8th and 16th of May. — There are about four 
harbours on the Magdalens, vis. that of Jupiter, 
Amherst, Basque and Haywood. The harbour 
of Jupiter has most water upon the bar. At 
Amherst harbour, which is esteemed the second 
best, the proprietors have their house and carry 
on the cod fishery ; the harbour of Haywood has 
only 6 feet at low water upon the bar. Three of 

M A L 

these are very safe fat such vessels u can enter 
them. Basque harbour was fotmerly very good, 
having had three channels into it and a great 
depth of water ; hut at present it is so choked up 
with sand, which the sea has thrown up, that 
there is not above 3 or 4 feet of water at the en« 
trance, and it is, eonsequently, impracticable for 
any thing but shallops or boats. — The Magdalen 
Islands were granted to Sir Isaac Coffin as a re- 
ward for his naval services. — The inhabitants are 
very dissatisfied and have required by petition the 
repossession of their fishing-grounds; and say, that, 
instead of being discouraged by annual rents, they 
ought rather to receive encouragement to remain, 
and that stores ought to be established in the islands 
on account of the shipwrecks which annually occur, 
these islands pnKlucing absolutely nothing. — There 
are no crown reservations in these islands, although 
there are clergy reservations. 






. too 

. 316 
. 140 

Home-made cloth 


Sheep . . iSa 

Swine . . SCO 

Some fowls and buttsrds. 

1875 yards. 


30 from 86 to 30 tons each. 


Magog, river, in the cos. of Stanstead and 
Sherbnxike, rises in Lake Memphramagog, from 
the N. E. extremity of which in the t. of Hatley 
it issues, and running through Lake Scaswani- 
nepus forms the boundary line between Ascot 
and Orford, and falk into the b. St. Francis at 
the village of Sh** i rtmke, where it constitutes 
the Forks of Ascoi -i ^amonly called the Lower 
Locks. — It runs aboui 14 miles from the Lake 

Mauku, river, rises near the centre of the 
island of Orleans, and running s. falls into the 
St. Lawrence. It drives a mill near its mouth. 

Mailloux, river, in the S. of Murray Bay, 
rises in the concession of Lisle, and running 8. k. 
traverses the concession of St. Charles, and falls 
into the St. Lawrence. It drives a saw and a 
corn-mill near its mouth. 

Malbay, river, rises in the Montagnes des 
Roches in the co. of Saguenay. It runs a. to the 
St. Lawrence between the seigniories of Murray 
Bay and Mount Murray. 

Malbat (S.), i;. Murray Bay. '' • 







I'l . 

I I 

f I' 



Mal Bat, in the co. of Oaip^, lies b.w. of 
Oaip^ Bay. It ii about 6 milet deep and 6 milei 
wide at iti entrance. Very near its loutliwardly 
point u a remarlutUe rock rinng about 300 feet 
out of the water and of about 1300 feet in length, 
in which there are three arches completely wrought 
by nature ; the centre one it sufficiently large to 
admit a boat under sail to pass through it with 
ease: from this rock, round Malbay to Point 
Peter, there is an excellent beach for fishing, part 
of which is named La Belle Anse, or Lobster 
Beach : close to this place is the house of the late 
Governor Coxe. — Mal Bay River empties itself at 
the head of the bay; its estuary, with the ex- 
ception of the bed of the river, is almost dry at 
low water and affords a convenient strand for 
river craft and boats. 

Manicouaoan or Black River, rises in the 
territory of Labrador and entering into the n. b. 
part of the co. of Saguenay falls into the St. 
Lawrence. It is a considerable stream. The 
Manicouagan Shoal advances from the n. shore of 
the St. Lawrence upwards of 2 leagues, and de- 
rives its name from the river. 

Manioousito (R.), v. Shawenegan. 

Mansfield, a projected township fronting the 
N. channel of the Otlawa, which divides the t. 
from the Island of Grand Callumet. Midway of 
the frontage of this t. are the Little Falls of the 
Ghrand Callumet. The n. w. angle is watered by 
the B. Coulonge. 

Mabaib, des, a small river running into the B. 

Mabanda, fief, in the co. of Lotbiniere, fronts 
the St. Lawrence for three quarters of a league, 
lying between the seigniories of Tilly and Bon- 
secours. It was granted in equal moieties to the 
Sieurs Duquet, father and son, Nov. 3rd, 1673. — 
This fief is watered by the b. Vilieu. 

Tilk.—Partte nord-eit. — " Concpssion faite au Sieur 
Duquet, Pire, le Sine Nuvembre, 1672< por Jto* Tahm, 
lotendant, de trrnte arpviis de terre de trout 8ur vinquante 
de profondeur, il prendre siir Ic fleuve St. Laurent, depuia 
U conceMion du Sieur Duquet son fils, juaqu'aux terrea 
non-conotd^."— R^l^'red'/Ntenddiire, No. \,Jblio1A. 

Partit lud-oueit, — *' Concesaion faite an Sieur Duquet, 
fila, le Sme Novembre, 1672, par ./<.-«» TaUm, Intendant, 
de trente arpena de terre de fVont aur cinquante de pro> 
fondeur, sur le fleuve St. Laurent, depuis la riviere Vilieu 
juaqu'aux terrea wm^ottctdte».''—Mgiitre (Tlntendanee, 
JV(>. l,/l)Ho36. 

Mabanion (F.), v. Lavzon. 

Mabeb, des, river, in the S. of C6te de Beau* 

pr^, rises in the rear of ^he concession St. Gabriel 
which it travenet, and, in the concession of Mare 
i la Trinity, it runs into the B. du Ooufire. Near 
its mouth it turns a saw-milL 

Mabia, township, in the co. of Bona venture, 
fronts the Bay of Chaleurs and is bounded x. by 
Richmond, w. by Carleton, and in the rear by 
waste lands. The front of this t. forms the w. 
side of an open bay called Cascapebiac, where the 
anchorage, even for vessels of the smallest bur- 
den, is a mile from the shore, on account of the 
shoals at low water. In this t. are lofly moun- 



SS2 1 River-craft 
8 1 Tonnage 

3 1 Keel-boaU 




Annual Agricultural Produce. 

ButhcU. I 
1,760 Potatoes 

Live Slock. 



181 1 Swine 
618 1 



Mabib Annb (F.), v. Carufel, S. 

Mabienequataoook, or " The beautiful land 
turtle," river, in the co. of Rimouski, rises in two 
lakes, one n. a. and the other b. of Long Lake, 
with which they are connected by portages. It 
runs B. B. into the b. St. John. 

Mabioban, river, in fief Lepinay in the co. of 

Mablow, township, in the co. of Beauce, ex- 
tends N. R. and s. w. from the b. du Loup to the 
B. Chaudiire, and is bounded on the other sides by 
Jersey and Risborough. 

Mabbolbt, fief, in the S. of Cap de la Made- 
leine, is half a league in front on the St. Law- 
rence and 3 leagues in depth. 

Mabsolbttb, river, in the p. of St. Joachim 
in Cdte de Beaupr^, falls into the St. Lawrence 
opposite the n. a. point of the Island of Orleans. 

Mabbton, township, in the co. of Sherbrooke, 
is bounded b. by Clinton and Chesham, n. by 
Hampden, and fronts the w. side of Lake Me- 
gantic. The whole of this t. has been surveyed, 
but only one quarter of it granted and no part 
settled. The land is irregular, hilly and fre- 
quently very stony, but mostly of a moderately 
good soil, and many spots present eligible situa- 
tions for the culture of hemp and flax. The 



'.\ r 






I w. 



' the 


. IB 



in two 
ei. It 




to the 




N. by 
ke Me- 
no part 

id fre- 


timber forms but an indifferent mixture of maple, 
fir, hemlock, cedar and spruce. — Watered by 
several streams and small lakes, besides Lake Me- 
gantic, near which are some very excellent mea- 
dows. The scenery in the vicinity of the lake is 
beautifully picturesque, as the lund rises gradually 
from its borders clothed with a rich verdure, and 
embellished by large groups of stately trees rang- 
ing above each other until they crest the summit, 
and exhibit a most enchanting variety of foliage. 
The waters abound with excellent fish, and the 
country around this sequestered and romantic spot 
is the resort of almost every species of game. — 
Ungranled and unlocated, 43,996 acres. 

Martel, fief, is in the S. of L'Assomption ; its 
centre is about 4 m. from the R. L'Assomption. 
In this small fief rises the Ruisseau de la Cabunne 
Rondc, which runs into the r. Mascouche. 

Marystown, v. Beauhamois, S. 

Mascouche (R.), v. Ste. Anne, r. in the S. 
of Lachenaye. 

Mascouiaxe Lake is connected with Lake 
Wiscouamatche by a short portage. It is 1 >, m. 
wide and about 4 m. long ; it is very deep and 
abounds with excellent fish. There are several 
islands in this lake on the east side, and on that 
side the mountains rise to an extraordinary height. 

Maskinonob, river and lake. — The river rises 
in the lake which lies in the n. angle of the t. 
of Brandon. It runs through much rough and 
mountainous country, and 200 miles from its 
source falls into the St. Lawrence. After leaving 
the lake, this r. directs its course s. e. and then s. 
passing through the S.of Lanaudirre, then through 
fief Carufel, and lastly through the S. of Mas- 
kinonge, where it foils into the bay of that name 
and loses its waters in the St. Lawrence. About 
8 miles from its mouth it is navigable for boats 
and canoes as far as the Great Rapids, where 
there is a great, fall of more than 300 ft. The 
banks of this r. are from 10 to 18 ft. high, and 
over it a new bridge has been erected near a 
small village that contains a church, a few taverns 
and some shopkeepers. — Along this r. are many 
mill-sites, particularly at its mouth, where there 
are, for about 12 arpents, cascades and rapids 
which offer successively the most advantageous 
situations for the erection of mills. In the vicinity 
of its fall is a number of iron mines, where forges 
might be established at little expense. — Mas- 
k'lnonge Lake is about 4 miles long, \\ m. broad 


and m. in circumference. It is well stocked 
with various kinds of excellent fish, particularly 
that called Maskinong^, and around it is a consi- 
derable extent of marshy ground producing wild 
hay. The surrounding scenery possesses many na- 
tural beauties of a wild and sublime description, 
presenting an amphitheatre of rising grounds and 
lofty hills, backed by the magnificent ridge of 
mountains running westwardly from Quebec, and 
many other bold features of a romantic country. 

Maskinonob or Lanaudierk, seigniory, in 
the CO of St. Maurice, lies in the rear of Carufel. 
It is 2 leagues in front and extends in depth so far 
as to comprehend Lake Maskinong^. Granted, 
Mar. 1, 1750, to C. F. T. de Lanaudi^re, and is 
now the property of the Hon. T. Pothier, — This 
seigniory includes Lake Maskinongt', by which it 
is watered as well as by some small lakes, but 
principally by the river Maskinongt. — No part of 
this S., except the fief Marie-Anne, is conceded, 
and there is no road across the non-fltnceded 
lands, which were partly surveyed in 1804. The 
number of concessions is, therefore, small in pro- 
portion to the extent of the S. 



109 1 Saw-milU . .1 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 

Oats . 

. .380 
. 500 

BuihcU. Budicb, 
Potatoes 3,000 Indian com 100 
Peas 800 

Live Slock. 



Cou-8 . 78 Swine . OU 
Sheep . 50 

Tilk: — " Concession du premier Mars, 17u0, faite pw 
le MarquU de la Jonquiere, Gouvernenr, ct Franfoli Bigot, 
Intendant. au Sieur Churlei Fraufoit Taricu de LunaudSre, 
de deux lieues ou environ de front, it prendre au bout du 
lief Carufel, sur la profondeur qui se truuve jusqu'au lac 
Ma$kinimgi, le dit lac compris dang toute son ^tendue, 
avec les isles, islets et batures qui se trouveront en icelui." 
—lUgistrc ittntendiince, \o. 9, folio 48. 

Maskinonge, seigniory, in the co. of St. Mau- 
rice, is bounded n. k. by the S. of Riviere du 
Loup; s. w. by Berthier; in the rear by Dusabk- 
and Carufel; in front by Lake St. Peter. It 
contains two separate grants: that of the N. B. 
part, 1^ league in front by the same depth, was 
made, Nov. 1672, to Peter and John Baptiste 
Legardeur, Sieurs de St. Michel ; and the s. w. 
part, a league in front by a league in depth, on 
the same day to Sieur John Baptiste Legardeur. 
The soil is rich, and in some places would be ex- 

, >! 


'Hi 1 



r i 




':■ !■■ 


1!', ■ 




' „ , 


; .1' 

,' '■ 1 

'.r J 

i _] '■ 

l' 1^ 

' 1 




cellent for kemp and flax. The land in general 
il rather flat, and towanU the front U lo low as 
to be lometime* overflowed in the spring; but 
this only serves to enrich the fine meadows and 
good pasture-grounds that border the river. The 
timber has been very much thinned. This 8. is very 
well watered by some small streams and the large 
river Maikinongti, which winds through the centre 
and is navigable for boats and canoes for several 
miles up.— About two-thirds are in cultivation. 
Thebestsettlementsare on the borders of Chenaildu 
Nord, on both sides of the road leading to Quebec, 
and on the east bank of the Maskinong^, over 
which there is a bridge. There is no village in 
the seigniory, but it has a church and parsonage- 
house, one corn-mill and one saw-milL At the 
entrance of the Maskinong6 there are two or 
three large islands, forming difierent channels 
into it; they are all flat and low, but covered 
with various sorts of inferior wood. Timber from 
Carufel, &c, and the townships in the rear, is 
brought down the Maskinong^ into the St. Law- 
rence. — The fief Petit Bruno lies at the a. w. 
angle of this S. ; it is nearly square, and fronts the 
North Channel, which separates it from Isle Dupas. 
— The Parish of Matkinongi, by an Order in 
Council, dated Mar. 3, 1722, extends 2} leagues 
in front, viz. 1^ league square N. k. and 1 league 
square s. w., including Carufel. Many farms in 
this p. near the river Maskinong6 were conceded 
before 1 759 and measured 4 arpents by about 90 
in breadth, each paying to the seignior an annual 
rent of one pistole. 


Population 3,770 1 Pulling-mills 
Churches, R. C. 1 Saw-miUs . 




Villages . 



Distilleries . 
Just, of peace 
Medical men 



Taverns . 








Annual AgricHUiiral Produce, 









Biuhclt. I Buiheli. 

Potatoes 29,200 Rye . 800 

Peas . 4,000 Indian corn 75 

Live Slock. 

750 1 Cows 
805 1 Sheep 




Title. — Parlie nord'Cst. — " Concession du 3mt Novem- 
bre, 1071, faite par Jean Talon, Intendant, k Pierre et 

Bf A 8 

Jean Baplltle LegarJenr, Sieurs de St. Michel, d'une licue 
et demi de lerre de front sur pareille profondeur; i pren> 
dri- sur Ic Chenail du Nord du fleuve St. Laurent, savoir: 
trois quarts da lleue au dessous de la riviere Matkinongi, 
et BUtant au dessus ; la ditc riviire comprise."— ff^^Mrr 
tlnlendanct, No. I, folio 84. 

Parlie tuj oueit.—" Concession du Sme Novembre, 
1678, fiiitc par Jean Tahm, Intendant, au Sieur Jean 
Baptitle Lrgardeur, d'une licue de terre de front sur une 
licue de profuiideur, k prendre sur le fleuve SI. Laurent, 
depuis les trois quarts de lieues act^ord^s au Sieur Le- 
gardeiir de St. Michel, sur trois audessus de la rivliTe dc 
Matkinongi."— Mgiftre d" Inlendance, No. I, folio 3^. 

Massiwippi, lake, in the co. of Stanstead. 
CommiiisionerB were appointed in 1829 by the 
House of Assembly to superintend the making 
and repairing the road from Lake Massiwippi to 
Yamaska Alountain in the S. of St. Hyacinthe, 
and the sum of .£1,500 was voted to carry the 
necessary measures into efiect. As this road is 
the grand thoroughfare to Slontreal for the town- 
ships of Hatley, Bamston, Stanstead, Ascott, Or- 
ford, Eaton, Newport, Compton, Hereford and 
the country east of Lake Memphramagog, it must 
be regretted that the sum appropriated is not ade- 
quate, according to the report of the commission- 
ers, to meet the expense any farther than Stuke- 
ley line, which leaves ShefTord and Stukeley 
without any assistance, a distance of more than 20 
miles. The mode in which this sum of ^1,500 
has been expended is as follows : 

On the 7t miles of wilderness from Lake^ 
Massiwippi to the outlet of Lake Mem- > 
phramagog . . ,3 

55 rods w. of Orford Mountain 

00 rods round the base of Orford Mountain 

600 rods in the t. of Gninhy 

£ t. d. 
603 10 


187 10 


Expended in day labour on the road from 
the outlet of l. Memphramagog to 
Stukeley line 




The sum already granted appears to be very in- 
adequate to the end proposed, especially as more 
than usual difficulties occur in ShefTord on account 
of the disproportionate extent of crown and clergy 
reservations in that township. The commissioners 
report thut an additional sum of at least £2,000 
will be required to effect the object in view. 

Massiwippi, river, rises in Lake Tumefobi in 
the T. of Hatley, and afler traversing the Ist, 2nd 
and 3rd ranges runs through the n, w. angle of 
Compton to Ascot, where it joins the Coaticook 
at the 8. extremity of the 7th and 8th ranges. 
The junction of these rivers is remarkable for 



having been the site of the fint lettlements fonned 
bjr Mr. Hyatt. 

Matane, rirer, rises in the rear of the Papa of 
Matane in the T. of St. Dennis, and taking a cir- 
cuitous course enters the S. of Matane at the a. w. 
comer, and in the middle of the front of that S. 
falls into the St. Lawrence. — A sand-bar across 
the muuth of the river obstructs its navigation at 
low water, but schooners ascend about 40 or 50 
yards up to the manor-house at high tide. Far- 
ther up are the rapids, which offer a propitious 
situation for a mill, and also contribute to the 
embellishment of the scenery, which is by no 
means uninteresting. These rapids are stated by 
Indians to be the only impediment to the naviga- 
tion of the river, for above them the course of the 
B. is uninterrupted. 

AIatank, seigniory, in the co. of Rimouski, is 
bounded n. b. and in the rear by the t. of St. 
Dennis; s. w. by the t. of Matane ; in front by the 
St. Lawrence. — This S. with its augmentation is, 
according to title, 2^ leagues square; and was 
originally granted to Sieur Damour, June 26, 
1677' — The soil is excellent and consists, gene- 
rally, of a thin stratum of sand on a rich sub- 
stratum of marl. The principal settlements 
occupy both banks of the B. Matane, and extend 
about a mile above its mouth ; they cover a super- 
ficial extent not exceeding 600 acres of cultivated 
land, and their population is about 300. A church 
built of wood stands a few perches k. of the 
manor-house, and, at some distance below it, is 
built the seignorial mill on a little creek too small 
to work it effectually. These settlements are but 
partially seen from the St. Lawrence, being in- 
land and, in some degree, concealed by the bluff 
point or mound, that rises singularly abrupt and 
isolated w. of the mouth of the h. Matane.— The 
Parith of Matane lies about 30 miles below 
Mitis. The intermediate distance being a total 
wilderness, without a road of communication 
traversing it ; the intercourse between these places 
is kept up by water, and, sometimes, with 
difficulty, by the beach; which, being a beau- 
tiful firm sand, is used as the high way at 
low water; the accumulation of drifted timber 
and rubbish above high water mark render- 
ing the communication by land impracticable at 
any other time — A few wretched habitations are 
scattered along the beach to the eastern extremity 
of the seigniory. The fisheries in this 8. and its 

vicinity are worthy of enoouragement, and might 
produce very considerable advantages to the in- 
habitants. The cod fishery, which is the principal, 
may be said to commence at Matane. The seasons 
vary consideraUy in their productiveness, and it is 
not at all times that the fishing boats can be sent 
out on account of stormy weather, and even in a 
productive season the result is but casuaL The 
produce of the Matane cod fishery is salted and 
dried, and disposed of on the spot to the inhabitants 
of the neighbouring parishes and settlements, and 
for home consumption. No fish is taken to 
Quebec, though much might be sent, owing to 
the want of encouragement in the Quebec markets. 
From 9*. to 10s. is the price offered for it there, 
per cwt., which does not reward the curer for his 
labour and expense. He would not be satisfied 
under 12«. 6d. to 15<. The fisheries of Cape 
Chat and Ste Anne, particularly that of Cape 
Chat, are considerably more productive in cod 
fish than the Matane fishery. — The produce of 
those fisheries, like that of Matane, is generally 
sold in parishes above them, after being bartered 
fur dry goods and liquors. There are salmon 
fisheries at all these places, which, with encourage- 
ment, might be rendered much more productive 
than they are : only about 6 to 8 tierces are taken 
to market from Ste. Anne's, and as many from 
Cape Chat ; from Matane about 10 tierces. The 
average price of salmon per tierce is 4/. The 
river Matane abounds with trout of from 4 to 7 
lbs. weight, which is an excellent fish when pro- 
perly cured, but it is an article not much attended 
to from the little sale it meets with. With 
judicious encouragement all these fisheries might 
be made much mure productive, and prove a 
source of advantage both to the seller and buyer. 


Population ZiS f Presbyteries . 1 
CburcLe»,R.C. llCom-miUs . 1 


Annual AgrkuUural Produce. 

Wheat . 780 
UhU . 1,010 
JJurley . MO 
Potatoes 10,000 

Peas . 400 
Rye . 50 

ludian com 60 
Mixed grain 50 


Maple sugar lH 



Live Stock. 


57 I Cows 
50 I Sheep 

98 I Swine 



Tille. — " Cunccssion du 26me Juin, 1677, frits par 
JaejHA Duchemcau, Intendunt au Sieur Damour, d'une 
lieue et denie de terre de front, sur une lieue de pitrfon. 


A ),' 



^ii m> 



ilcur, (avoir, ime demi lieue au de^a et une deoii lieue «u 
fIcU de la riviere Matane, ct jiar augmrntatioii uiic mitre 
lieue de terrp de front, aiisai aur une lieue et deinic de 
profondeur, y joiKiuint, ■ prendre du e6t« de la riviere 
Mith.' — iHtimmHom du ConteU Sipericur, Let. D. folio 9. 

Matanb, township, in the co. of Rimouski, is 
bounded n. k. by the S. of Matane ; s. w. and in 
the rear by waste lands; in front by the St. 
Lawrence. It is about 9 m. in breadth, 1 1 miles 
in depth, and is well watered. The principal 
rivers are the Grande Rivi( re Blanche and the 
Matane. At the mouth of the Blanche is an ex- 
cellent mill site. — Vngranted and unlocattd 55,556 

Matapkoiac Lakk lies in the co. of Rimouski, 
and in the rear of the crown lands lietween the t. 
of Matane and the S. of Mitis. This spacious 
lake is in the high lands that separate the waters 
running into the St. Lawrence from those that 
run to the bay of Chaleurs. — A grant of this lake, 
and one league of land round it, was made May 
26, 1694, to Sieur N J. Daraour : it now belongs 

to Grant, Esq. and others The lake is 

tmta 15 to 16 miles long, and not above one 
league in its greatest breadth ; it is about 31 m. 
from the St. Lawrence, and lies s. s. b. of the S. 
of Mitis. The surrounding lands form a valuable 
tract of country, and would doubtless become by 
due encouragement to settlers a flourishing part 
of Canada, as the lake, with other advantages, 
possesses abundHnce of salmon, trout and white 
fish, and is na.igable for rafts of all kinds of 
timber, with which the batiks of the noble river 
Matai)ediac are in vnrious parts thickly covered. 
— Lake Matapediac piesents a charming combina- 
tion of .scenery ; the face of the country is elevated 
and bold, composed of a succession of hills, rising 
from the waters itnd terminating in distant ridges 
to the northward : the centre of the lake is 
(iiversifled by a cluster of islands, which, with the 
extensive surfaee of water, the projecting points 
of the lake, ond the grandeur of the surrounding 
scenery, attracts the attention of the traveller. 
The land on both sides of the lake is covere<l with 
pine, birch, k-ech, maple and a variety of other 
trees. The western shore appears rather more 
level OS the mountains recede from the lake to 
the s. w. Besides the cluster of islands, there are 
3 or 4 other islands mostly disiiersed along the 
eastoni shore ; on which side a few small streams, 
particulttriy the Wugansis, fall into the lake, and 
on the other tide une or two itreami enter it 

front the interior of the country.— The portage, 
or Indian path, which communicatea from the 
head of the lake to the St. Lawrence, is traversed 
by one or two prominent ridges of mountains ; the 
one near tu the lake called Let Mtrntognt* de Notre 
Dame, commands a view of the whole country to 
the southward, which appears to extend tolerably 
level for many miles. The other is situated 
about half way across the portage, between the 
rivers Tuctigoo and Tuctigoo»hiche ; but the most 
remarkable highlands are those which bound 
the St. Lawrence. The land throughout the 
portage is commonly good for cultivation, with 
the exception of a few spots of swamp and a few 
steep mountains, which, however, could be easily 
obviated by making a circuit of the mountains, or 
causewaying the swampy portions. The portage 
is at present merely an irregular Indian path. A 
road along this tract has for many years been 
thought an object of the first importance, not only 
to the improvement of the country, but to the 
immediate interest of government, as promising 
great advantages in the safe conveyance of the 
mails from Quebec to Halifax, and as the means 
of conveying troops from the R. Ristigouclie to 
the settlement of Rimouski, which would be 
an eligible route of five or six days' march. A 
projected road has been traced from Mitis to 
the lake, at the expense of Mr. M'Niders, the 
seignior of Mitis ; it takes an eastwardly course, 
winding occasionally, until it reaches the lake. — 
The land, except immediately passing the high- 
lands, is reported generally level and fit for cul- 
tivation, and requiring very few bridges or 
causeways; the distance is twenty-seven miles 
from the St. Lawrence to the lake. More than 
eight townships might be laid out on this com- 
munication ; at least, the front of townships might 
be marked in laying out the road. The rqrart 
of the exploring party, appointed under an act of 
the provincial legislature, states that it will require 
tlie sum of 326()/. to form a good road along this 
portage, and extending to the New Alission Point 
at Ristigouche, about 1(1 miles from ihe head of 
Chaleur Bay. To this point from the St. Law- 
rence is about 98 miles. 

Title " ('oiKTuiiimi du V^mp Miii, initl., fnit<'iMir./.-(7M 

Bvihtirl, Intciulaiit, nu Sii'iir Nicholot Ju»ejih Outiwur, du 
lar appvl^ MnliiiirHttch, avt'i' iinu livur ilt- ItTie lout uutuur 
A'iKKlMi'—lUgMre d'tntendatue, tia. i,JbHo 17. 

Matapediac, river, in the cos. of Rimouski 
and Donavcnturc. — The river rises in the lake of 

i< . 



the same name, whence it tniTenes in a 8. b. e. 
course through a valuable country till it disem- 
bogues into the R Ristigouche, about 3 leagues 
above the Indian village called New Mission Point. 
The numerous and extensive tributary streams 
falling into this b., particularly the Piscamineau, 
theCastimaquajfait, the Ca$up$c»ll atoA AeHuniquiH 
rivers, water and enrich a larg? tract of excellent 
country. From the mouth of the Matapediac to a 
small creek on the east side, the land rises gmduully 
into steep and lofty mountains ; about a mile and 
a half above this creek at a sudden bend the range 
of hills, which commences at Mr. Adam's and runs 
thence in a N. b. course, bears a prominent appear- 
ance, the principal mountain, called Pectianook, 
rising from the river about 300 feet. — The 
western shore also bcurs a bold aspect and 
gives to the waters an apparent tinge of obscu- 
rity. — This mountainous appearance, however, is 
not so prevalent on the eastern shore, towards 
the R. Piscamineau. From this river on both 
sides of the Matupcdiuc the land, with little ex- 
ception, although mountainous, is (it for agricul- 
ture to the river Cassimaquagan, which is navigable 
and abounds with valuable pineries; within 4. 
miles above this river are two handsome and 
navigable streams, also lined with extensive pine- 
ries. The banks of the Matapediac, from the river 
Cassimaquagan upwards, rise boldly, timbered 
with maple, birch, and pine ; and though the 
river is frequently interrupted by rapids and 
strong currents, its navigation is not obstructed. 
— The islands are numerous, and some of them 
are of handsome extent. The soil in general, 
from the quality of the timber, is of a dark yellow 
loam, sometimes consisting of e subordinate bed 
or stratum of clay, which scums to predominate 
only in the valleys and intervals. From the Cas- 
simaquagan to the river CusupscuU, the largest 
river that flows into the Matupcdiuc, the general 
surface of the land sccnis to present i^su excellent 
spots for cultivation, as the land commonly descends 
by gradual swells to the banks, which are clothed 
with almost all the varieties of timber peculiar to 
the growth of that part of the district of GusiM*. 
From the CusupscuU the land is level, upi)earing 
to be in some (Htrts swampy and low, until ap- 
proaching the lake Ubntc/iquiiiiquHm, where it rises 
in gentle slopes to the mountains. The surround- 
ing scenery of this lake is beautiful, and fumu 

M E O 

a happy relief to the sameness of the river. 
About one mile higher up is a handsome stream, 
on the western side, about 20 yards wide, said to 
be navigable. About half a mile higher the Ma- 
tapediac is interrupted by a great rapid, called the 
CasupscuU Rapid. — From the Ob»tchquo»ijmm 
lake to the chain of the Obswantel lakes, about 4 
miles, the Matapediac is constantly winding in a 
very irregular manner, and is more frequently im- 
))eded by rapids. Leaving these small hikes, the 
Matapediac is found to issue from a beautiful lake 
to which it gives name. The rapids in some 
places of the river, although of magnitude, will 
cause no injury or impediment to rafts going down 
to the Ristigouche, while canoes can ply for more 
than 7 months of the year Ixitween the Portage 
and the Indian Village. The country is in the 
greatest part wild and barren ; the soil and timber 
are, however, of the best quality. The scenes 
which present themselves along the shore of tho 
Matapediac are in some places of a romantic de- 
scription, and in others beautifully picturesque. 
The river is in many places diversified with 
numeroub islands and handsome windings ; some- 
times its waters are contracted between stupendous 
mountains, and at other times expanded to u great 
extent between a fine open country. This r, in 
spring and autumn is navigable for small vessels, 
of 10 to 20 tons, with the greatest safety and 

Af ATAWIN, river, rises in a lake in the co. of 
St Maurice, and running r. and then r. e. joins 
the R. St. Maurice in the S. of Cap de la Made- 
leine, in the co. of Champluin. 

Mattouin, river, runs from w. to e. and falls 
into the w. side of the St. Maurice about 23 
leagues above Three Rivers. It is of considerable 
long h and alM)Ut one quarter of the size of the 
St. Maurice. It is navignlile for canoes. 

Mkcatina Ihlks, in thcUulf ofSt. Lawrence, 
ore two small islands lying off the coast of Sa- 

Mkoantick, county, in the District of Quebec, 
is bounded n. w. by the s. k. Ixiundury lines of 
the augmentation of Lothinicre and pnrt of St. 
Jeun d'Eschaillons to the River Bccuncour, being 
the e. E. boundary lines of the co. of Lotbiniire ; 
N. R. in part by the west lateral lines imd rear 
lines of the seigniories of Stc. Croix and St. (iilcs; 
w. by the east bounds of the towuihip of Stanford, 

[ I 



> 1 







M E O 

then eastcrnly along the N. w. bounds of the town- 
ship of Arthafaoska to its intersection with the N. w. 
outline of the township of Halifax, thence b. w. 
along the n. w. bounds of Halifax to the n. angle 
of Chester, thence s. k. along the n. e. bounds of 
the townships of Chester to the most eastemly 
angle of that township thence n. k. along the 
N. w. outline of the township of Wolfstown to 
the most northemly angle of the said township, 
thence s. k. along the M. b. boundary line of that 
township to its eastemly angle, thence s. b. to the 
river Chaudicre or Lake Megantick. This co. 
comprehends the townships of Somerset, Nelson, 
Halifax, Inverness, Ireland, Wolfstown, Leeds, 
Thetford, Broughton, Coleraine, Tring, Shenley, 
Oulney, Winslow, Dorset, and Oayhurst. Its 
extreme length is G5^ miles and its breadth 28, 
containing 14()5 sq miles. Its centre is in lat. 
400 5 30" north . long. Jl" 12* 5 ' west. It sends 
one member to the provincial parliament, and the 
place of election is at Leeds. The surface of 
this CO. is mountainous and broken, presenting, 
however, large swells of excellent land and mea- 
dows, uiid, notwithstanding the irregularity of 
its surface, it possesses considerable advantages 
in its soil and timber. It is most conveniently 
watered by numerous rivers, streams and lakes. 
The R. Bccancuur spreads its large and nu- 
merous branches over the N. w. section of the 
county; and the 8. k. section is traversed by a 
number of rivers that wind from the interior in 
various directions, and fall into the Chaudicre, 
the chief of which are the Bras Grand Coude, 
Muctavish, Eugtnu, &c. There are also many 
lakes, and those in Thetford, Coleraine and Dorset, 
arc most worthy of notice. Lnke Alcgnntick, by part 
of which this co. is bounded, is remarkable for its 
sise and its beautiful scenery, and for its giving 
name to the county. It is traversed by Craig's Road, 
on which, und in its vicinity, are the chief settle- 
ments, and which ure principally in Leeds, In- 
verness and Ireland, where the timber is unex- 
ceptionable. The township of Broughton, which 
is well settletl, communicates by roads leading to 
St. Joseph on the Chaudirre and to Leeds. There 
are no seignorial grants in this co., and the popu- 
lation is therefore English, Irish, Scotch and 
American, without any native Canadians, 


. 8 
. 6 











Annual Agrieullural Produte, 



. 3,066 

. 506 



Buiheli. 1 





Buck wheat 


Ind. com . 


Mxd grain 1,800 
Maple (Ugar, 

cwts. 176 
Hay, tons ■ 870 

Lhie Stock. 





Mboantick Lakb, separates the townships of 
Wobum and Ditchiield from Marston, in the cos. 
of Beauce and Sherbrooke. It is 9 miles long 
and averages 2 miles in breadth and forms several 
bays in the t. of Marston. Around it, generally, 
are excellent meadows.— This lake still retains its 
Indian name. 

Mrlbournb, township, in the co. of Sher- 
brooke, is bounded n. r. by the r. St. Francis ; 
N. w. by Durham ; s. w. by Ely and part of 
Brompton; s. by Brompton. This t. is well 
furnished with good maple, beech, elm, pine and 
oak timber. Several rivers and streams spread 
over it in every direction and fall into the St. 
Francis. Large settlements have been made, and 
considering them as lands but newly redeemed 
from a state of nature, great advances in cultiva- 
tion are perceptible. The soil is so good that it 
requires but little aid to become uncommonly fer- 
tile, and in several parts flax and hemp could be 
raised in great quantities. Pot and pearl-ash are 
made here, and with wheat form a principal part 
of the traffic carried on ; there are, however, se- 
veral saw-mills in almost constant work. A com- 
munication by roads in various directions has been 
opened with the adjacent townships. In the b. 
St. Francis there are several small islands along 
tlie front of this tract, and, although they are 
rather obstructive to>the navigation, their l)eauty 
and the picturesque variety, exhibit(.>d by the fo- 
liage of the different species of trcen with which 
they are covered to the water's edge, almost 
utone for that inconvenience. A large extent of 
this valuable land is the property of the Hon. 
John Caldwell. Considerable progress has been 
made in forming that }>art of the Drummondvillc 
and Brompton Hoad which lies in this t. The 



entire line, with the exception of one bridge, ia 
now pasted with sleighs, although there is but 
one mile as yet completed of the requisite width. 
Ditches on both sides of the road have for short 
distances been made, but generally only on one 
side. Seven bridges have been erected, two of 
which are eleven perches each, with about 70 or 
80 rods of causeway. The land bordering on the 
road is favourable for settlement, and, with the 
exception of four or five lots, is actually settled. 
Many of the rear lots in the north half of the 
township are also actually occupied. Nearly all 
the south half, originally granted to the late Hon. 
Henry Caldwell, is in a state uf wilderness ; but, 
being susceptible of extensive settlements, they 
would, if this road should be properly finished, be 
immediately settled. In order to complete the road 
throughout the entire breadth of this township, 
10 miles, and to render it such a road as the eastern 
townships require along the River St. Francis to 
William Henry and Three Rivers, a further sum 
of at least £400 currency will be required to be 
judiciously expended. 



Population . . 586 

^ ■ '">.'. 

Annual Agricultural Produce. 




. 9,800 
. 8,400 
. 300 

Buiheli. ; Buihdi. 
Potatoes 10,600 ; Buck wheat JOG 
Peat . 1,810, Indian com 8,000 
Rye . 100 1 

Live Stock. 


. 484. 


Cowi . 603 {Swine . 518 
Sboep . 1,01 li 

Mbltallabetinb, river, near the source of 
the St. Maurice. 

Mkhphkamaooo, lake, is in the co. of Stan- 
stead, stretching its southern extremity into the 
state of Vermont. It separates the townships of 
Stanstcod and Hatley from those of Potton and 
Bolton. It is of a semicircular shape, 20 miles 
long and very narrow. It empties iticlf into the 
R. St. Francis by means of the n. Mugog, wiiich 
runs through Lake Scaswanincpus. — In this lake 
ore several kinds of flsh, particularly salmon-trout. 

Mbtabbtshuank Pobt, v. King's Posts. 

Mbtabrtohouan or Mbtabitshuan, river, 
enters the s. side of Lake St. John near the King's 
Post. The Metabitchouan or " The place where 
the course uf tlie water ends," is in lat. 40" 23' 12" 
and is a fine broad stream, deep at its mouth as 

far as a large basin, spreading to the foot of the 
rapids, where the surveyors who explored this part 
of the Saguenay country landed and ascended the 
summit of the hills that lie about 3 miles from 
the post. The land was found to be of a tolerably 
good quality, being chiefly a red loam mixed with 
very small gravel, and clay not far from the sur- 
face. The prevalent timber is spruce, black and 
yellow birch, bosawood, fir, pine, poplar and some 
maple. On the bank of this r. at the post are a 
variety of marine shells and other organic remains, 
many valuable specimens of which were collected 
by Mr. Davis and Mr. Baddeley, the companions of 
the deputy surveyor-general who explored Lake 
St. John, &c. Mr. Baddeley, an officer of the 
Royal Engineers, volunteered his services on that 
occasion in pursuit of his favourite science, geology. 
— The B. bank, as far as the rapids, forms an al- 
luvial ridge from 50 to KG ft. high ; the w. side 
of the R. is low. — This r. is navigable for many 
leagues for bateaux and farther up for bark canoes. 

Metabithhuan, t. Metabrtshovan. 

Mrtgermettb, river, rises in the Metger- 
mette mountains, on the boundary line, in the co. 
of Beauce : after it receives its n. w. branch it 
crosses the Kennebec road and joins the r. du 
Loup, by which its waters are carried to the r. 

Mktinac, river, runs into the r. bank of the 
St. Maurice, about 11 miles from the Grand 
Pilles. It communicates by portages and lakes 
with the post of La Tuque. 

Metis, v. Mitib. 

MiOKiNACK, river, falls into the St. Maurice 
on the east side, about 19 leagues from Three 
Rivers. — It is navigable for canoes. 

MioBON, river, runs through Quebec suburbs 
near the t. of Montreal into the St. Lawrence. 

MiLiNcii KiLooK, river, rises in waste lands 
and runs n. b. into the u. Matnpcdiac above the 

Mill Brook runs into the s. side of Lake 
Kiguugomi, nearly opiiosite Ptc. au Sable. 

MiLtR Isles and Augmentation, in the co. of 
Two Mountains and Terrebonne, lie on the N. 
side of the river St. Jean or Jesus, The original 
grant was 4} leagues in front by 3 in depth. 
Bounded s. w. by the S. of the Lake of "Two 
Mountains; n. b. by Terrebonne and in the rear 
by the t. of Aliercromby : grunted, May A, 1714, 
to Sieun Langloiscrie and Petit. 


I' 1 



i !■ 

\ H 


The Augmentation is bounded in front bjr the 
original grant ; in the rear by the T. of Aber> 
cromby ; w. hy the augmentation to Lake of Two 
Mountains ; n. e by Terrebonne. Granted, Jan. 
20, 17^2, to Eustache Lambert, Sieur Dumont, 
and is now the property of Eustache Nicolas 
Lambert Dumont, Esq. and the heirs of Antoine 
Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, Esq., represented by 
Eustache Antoine Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, Esq., 
both of them descendants in u direct line from the 
grantee. — The title of concession gives the same 
extent of front to the augmentation as to the 
original grant, viz. 4^ leagues in front by 3 leagues 
in depth ; but, as the grant of M. M. de St. Sul- 
pice of their augmentation to the Lake of Two 
Mountains was anterior to this grant, they, in 
taking their grant, cut through this seigniory dia- 
gonally and reduced its front nearly 2 leagues. 
Messrs. Bellefeuille and Dumont pretend that 
they ought not to be restricted by the precise 
words of the title of concession as to the extents 
of front and depth, but to the superficial extent 
which the King intended to grant, and this prin- 
ciple has been frequently recognised by the courts 
of justice in this province; consequently they de- 
mand an indemnity in depth for their loss in front. 
This question is now pending in the superior court 
of King's Bench for the district of Montreal. — 
These grants are well watered by an innumerable 
number of rivulets and springs, and especially by 
tlie river Du Nord or Ste. Marie: the rivers 
Gautbicr and Gagnon also contribute to the suc- 
cess of the establishments. The surface in general 
is much intersected by mountain8,hills and ravines; 
the soil, being always kept in • certain degree of 
humidity by the numerous springs that descend 
from the little mountains, is very fertile, and this 
property cannot fail to become very important. 
It is covered with every description of wood that 
grows in the province, especially cedar and pine ; 
it also abounds with natural meadows, first made 
by the lieavers, that have left marks of industry 
worthy of the imitation of those who settle on 
undenrcd lands. The lakes, particularly thos. in 
the rear of the seigniory, contain superb salmon- 
trouts from 6 to 20 ft in length, and otlier kinds 
of fish ; there are also bustards, wild ducks and 
huardt in abundance, and the gray eagle inhabits 
the mountains in the vicinity of the lakes, on 
whose surface are seen some beautiful swans. 
Tliesv mountains are pregnant with mines and 

minerals. The proprietors possess, mi the river 
du Nord, an excellent corn-mill with 3 sets of 
French stones and a good saw-mill. Mr. de 
Bellefeuille, who has for a great number of years 
rented the part belonging to Mr. Dumont, has 
built a carding and fuUing-mill and has also esta- 
blished a stocking-manufactory. Besides the very 
extensive domain belonging to the proprietors, on 
which a church and a presbytery have been built, 
Mr. de Bellefeuille possesses, opposite the mills, 
some valuable lands, on which may be seen beau- 
tiful deserts and meadows as well as the best 
kinds of cattle. The money he has expended on 
this establishment, which he has had in his pos- 
session only a few years, and the roads which he 
has opened at his own cost, have been very bene- 
ficial to the industrious poor and to the neighbour- 
ing establishments, while the example which he 
has given, by following the most approved systems 
of husbandry, cannot fail to be extensively u.seful 
to agriculture, the knowledge of which is so uni- 
versally useful and necessary. The original grant 
and augmentation are now divided into 2 distinct 
seigniories, which lie in the 3 parishes of St. Eu- 
stache de la Riviere du ChCne, Ste. Therese de 
Blainville and Ste. Anne de Mascouche. 

l)u Chine, the first division, is in the co. of 
Two Mountains and belongs to Eustache Nicolas 
Lambert Dumont, Esq. and to the heirs of the 
late Antoine Lefebvre de Bellefeuille, Esq. This 
seigniory joins the S. of the Lake of Two Moun- 
tains and is 2^ leagues in front by 3 in depth. 
The land is good and in general fertile, and the 
soil being of a various nature is proper for the 
cultivation of all kinds of grain, flax and hemp, 
and fur artificial meadows. It is extremely well 
watered by the rivers Du Chene and Chicot and 
by an infinity of smaller streams and rivulets that 
in fertilicing the londs and favouring the farmer, 
in a thousand ways enrich the proprietors. These 
rivers and streams turn corn-mills with 1 1 sets 
of stones, 5 saw-miUs, a carding-mill and a fulling- 
mill, which belong to the proprietors, who are the 
lineal descendants of the original grantee, Mr. 
Petit. This property, all of which is conceded, 
supplies the inhabitants with beech, spruce, pine, 
ash, elm, oak, maple and the wild cherry-tree. 
It is divided into 23 ranges or concessions and 
contains a population of about 6,000 souls, equi- 
valent to one soul to every 10 arpents. Three- 
fourths of the proprietors and farmers are in easy 

I i 


circumstance! and pay a connderable amount of 
tithei to the cur^. At the mouth of the river Du 
Chftne is the Tillage of St. Eustachb, one of the 
handsomeit and most populous in the province, as 
well aa one of the most salubrious. It contains a 
large, handsome church, a spacious presbyterian 
chapel and about 150 houses, some of which are 
remarkable for situation, sise and elegance. This 
village, seated on an elevated spot fronting the 
grand domains of the seigneurs, presents a 
thousand charming prospects: the fine, y/eU- 
stocked settlements on Isle Jesus, the superb 
basin terminated by the rapid SpSnard at the dis- 
charge of the Lake of Two Mountains, the nu- 
merous and well-diversified isles with which the 
river is studded and the magnificent curtain of the 
distant forests, present altogether one of the hap- 
{Mest specimens of the picturesque. At each ex- 
tremity of the village is a bridge over the river 
Du Chene that does honour to the inhabitants of 
the parish. The population of the village amounts 
to about 1,000 souls, among whom are many mer- 
chants carrying on a lucrative commerce, a brewery, 
a potash-work, a pottery, two tanneries, a manu- 
factory for cigars and tobacco in great repute, one 
for 4iats and another for chairs, all enjoying con- 
siderable reputation. Joiners, turners, blacksmiths 
and other artisans, amounting in number to 25, 
enjoy an easy and honest livelihood. Mr. Dumont, 
having obtained the consent of the Assembly, is 
now building a superb bridge with 4 arches, 60 fit. 
each, over the river Jesus in front of the village, 
to which it will prove an ornament and of great 
utility to persons travelling to the settlements on 
the Ottawa and who do not wish to go by water. 
: Blainville, the 2nd division of Mille Isles, 
extends 2\ leagues in front by 3 in depth 
and is subdivided into two equal parts, belonging 
to Donteuil Lacroix, Esq. and to the heirs of the 
late Hon. William Claus. This seigniory differs 
much from that of Du Chi-ne in soil, local varieties 
and in timber ; it contains more hills and less low 
land than the S. Du Chene ; it is less covered 
with bois franc, but produces a larger quantity of 
pine and red tpinette, which are of great utility to 
the inhabitants for building. Nearly all this 
seigniory is conceded in lots of the usual extent, 
3 arpents by 20 or 30, in 10 ranges or conces- 
sions ; and all the land is under cultivation, ex- 
cept one-third which is retained in woodland, and 
which is of too bad a quality for cultivation and 

is under water nearly all the year. Although in 
many parts of this S. the land is light and sandy, 
it can be rendered very fertile by means of the marl 
which is found in many places. In this S. is Stt. 
Therete, 21 miles from Montreal ; it is a consi- 
derable village of 00 houses and enjoys an ex> 
tensive commerce. A whisky distillery, a strong 
beer brewery on a large scale belonging to James 
Porteus, Esq., and a little distillery established 
by Dr. Buchanan, bring hither a great number 
of farmers from the adjacent seigniories, where 
they find an excellent market for the sal