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1 ) i: 1» A K T M i: N T () F 1' II 1<: I N T E lU O IJ , 

r i; it ACT or ro \ n ii i:s s n r march :ii.. mit. 



piiblifl!jf5 liii ilutjjoritij nf (Coiigrfsfi 


r II I L A D E L V II T A : 







III ilfdiciitiiij,' tliis work to joii, I iii(Iiilj;f nil n|iiir('ciiitiii^! of yuiir 
original approval of iti* plan aiul pro.-'cciitiou ; and your Iriiiidly consiileration in 
placing tliu invi'Htigution in my liundM. 


Tiiu "poor Inilian" hiu Ijoi-n tlio tlicnie of p(K't.s and pliilantliropi.sts for ccntiirifH. 
Kiiropi! Iins viod witli Anicricft on tliu Hubji^ct. It lia« Ik'i'M tlio aim of one ciu-.-* of 
writurH as nuicli to exalt iiis character '»/""•«, i^f* of aiiotlii'r t«> dopresH it /«/"('•, tlw 
proper standard. lint, a« in all other thenicM, whose advocutcH have contented thi'in- 
."eiveswilh the expression of wiwhcM ard nentiniontM, the Indian has. in the ineantinie, 
lived on in hi.s positimi of art rnittil ijlury and iniilirnilnl vilmry, till time has broufrht 
him to the middle of the nineteenth century, with increased claims, as he lias shown 
an increased title, to sympathy. 

The ^''.s rir'il) and their territorial ri^ht are not here alluded to, Imvin'^ over lx)cn 
inviolate under the (constitution. It was not, however, till the twenty-ninth Congress, 
under your administration of the War-Department, that impiiries into their nunial 
and moral character, industrial means, and .social position and pro.spects, were publicly 

Many rpicstions of hi>:h political moment were presented to that Congues.s. Tiie 
invasion of the rights of Texa.s ; the determination of tlic ))oundaries of Oregon ; and 
the overthrow by armies of volunteers, of the ancient empire of Montezuma, were 
the subjects of warm discussion and grave consideration. And if the present theme 




1.0 iiiliiiilc'ly small, coinpaml with acts tliut (liotl tlic iMicrjiy »)!' statcsmon, and the vali)iir 
i-r Wiiriior.-^. tln'ic is some f^ratilicatioii in tliinkiii.^; (liat tiie crisis threw the minds of 
exalted men in onr inihlii- conncils with increased intensity on tiie ancient and wide- 
sinvad Indian race, — a race who were the normal soverei.niis of tlie conntry, and of 
whose fate and fortunes no good man, certainly, can reproach himself for having 
thought kindly, or acted generously. 

1 have the honor to lie, 

iMost res[H'et fully, 
* Your oliedient servant. 


I'll 'I'll UKPOKT. 

To Tin: Hon. ('ommis.<ii).\i;i; m- Ixdia.n Aii'aiks, I)i;i'Ai;tmi;nt of tmi; l.sTKianK. 

W.\>iiiNcir(iN, Jiiiu ;;i), is;).'), 

1 vi.KV r('s|»t'('irully suliiiiit tin- fiftli iv[iiirt dl" my iiivt'.^iiialioiis uiulor w. piovi- 

.sioii (il'tlif !U't (il':!il .M;u(li. \>\~i. \\\ tliis iict tlio l)c|);irliiiciit is dircclid "In CdlliTt 
mill (li.uost siu'li stalistii-'s ;ui(l iiiiiti-riiils as may illiistraU' the liistory. ilic [)rcs('i)t cdii- 
(litioii. ami tlio I'litiiri' |iros[K'cts (if tho liuliau 'J'rilii.',s of tiu' liiitcd Stales. " ' 

To atlaiii ohjcots whicli ww at oiico so di'linito ami coniiiri'lK'nsivc, iVoiu so lai-c ;i 
jjcograiiliical aiva, ami siu-h a ilivorslt_)- ol" tiiljes, ivi|uiiod an iiiioiiiit ami IMicity of 
ifSL'arcli wliicli coidd hardly W' siipiioscd ever to llill to the lot of u .-iiiiilo individual, 
howi'vor favourably situatod, without concurrent aid of ini^uirors in the Held. Each 
of the forty families of trihcM who occupy the American continent, north of the mouth 
of the llio (".ramie del Norte, between sea and ,sea, have more or less claims to nation- 
ality in history and languages, c;ondition and prospects. 

There arc many traits of manners and customs, and their physical and mental 
as|ircts, in which the tribes aiiree. l?ut dillerences of climate and the countries tliev 
inhabit, and modes of procurin,:;- subsistence, create diversities which, without referriiii; 
to those of language, demand notice, in any comprehensive view of them. Not to 
denote these tribal developments in the generic stocks which spread over such vast 
spaces of latitude and longitude, would bo to disappoint e.vpcctation, even where such 
expectation is not directed to the higher requisitions of a peculiar and characteristic 
race. To discriminate between the large and small, the important and unimportant, 
the near and remote tribes, reijuires attentiim. Ceiierally, those tribes whom we have 
longest known, and who have most appreciated civilization, rcipiire fuller notices; 

Vol. V. 

' Aots -Jiltli Ooiig , Wa^li. ('. Alcxan.lor, p. |;J7. 


X FIFTH KFrour. 

whilo the iitti"n[)t to irivo iJiomiiiciico to imiiiiportaiit iiml liavbaroiis tiibos, witli wlioiu 
uc liiivc SL-ari'rly opt'iicd any ivliitions, \v(Uil(l iiol coiiiiucikI itsfllV At Ivoiiio, I'aris, 
or liOiiiloii, tliosi' p'lU'iic traits of a Norlli Ainoiicaii Indian, whit'li satisfy an ctlmo- 
loLiist or a pliiloloiiist. may sivni all that is rciinia'd ; Init to tin' Anirrican statist, 
historian, or moralist, not to disiiiminato betweon the' traditions, history, langnagcs, 
or trii)al oriianizations of an lro(|iiois. a Cherolu'O, a ChicUasaw. a <'h(jcta\v. a Chip- 
pewa, a Shawnuo. Shoshone, or Delawari', uonld bo to leave the knowled.iio that is 
sought without [)reeisi(jn. 

In the preeeding volumes, (I. II, III. IV.) a liody of inlbnnation lias been pii)> 
lished. entirely authentie in its character, and vital in it.s purport. IJeseareh IniK 
been eoneentrated on the several topics into which the subject naturalh' divides itseil'. 
'rin'ir manners and custon.s, tradition, religion and language, have been kept separate. 
In the present volume, the digest and generalization of these topics is commenced, 
if the Indian character has not heretofore Iieen understood, it is apprehended to have 
resulted from the fact that there has been no attemiit at elementary investigation. 
Jlis character has imt been analyzed. Jle has been rt'garded oidy in the con- 

Nothing has had so great a tendency to reveal the tangled thread of his history- as 
the study of the aboiiginid languages. Mr. .leilerson, in 1787, called attention to this 
sidijcct. '• A knowledge of their several languages,"' he dljserves. ''would be the most 
certain evidence of their derivation which could be produced. In fact, it is the best 
proof of the idlinity of luitions which ever can be rclerred to. How many ages have 
elapsed since the Knuiish. th(,' Dutch, the Germans, the Swiss, Norwegi.'ins, Danes 
and Swedi's, have se[)arale'd from their common stock? Yet, how man}' more must 
elapse, before the proofs of their common origin, which exist in their several lan- 
guages, will disappear?" 

It is to be lamented, thou — very much to be lamented, that wc have suffered so 
many of the Indian tribes already to extinguish, without our having iireviousl}- collceteil 
anil deposited in the records of literature, the general rudiments, at least, of the lan- 
guages they spoke.' Were vocabularies to be formed of all the langiniges spoken in 
North and South America, preserving their appellations of the most common objects 



' 'I'lio lii?t gonenil on'ort.s in tliis dirc'tion aii]H;ir to have boon iniulo in 170:!, by the f'alliaiine II., 
wb'i iliiictc'l viii-abiiliirics to be colloeti-d ill baibiiroin langiin^rs, wbiiii were fiiibli.shtd in I'aris in ITl.'i. 
Since tliis period, the topic has engaged philosophic uiiuds, particularly in Germany. 


ill nature — of tliosc wliioli must Ijo i)rcsoiit to every nation, barbarous or civilized, 
with the iuUcctions of their noun.s ami verbs, — tiieir princii)leH of regimen and con- 
cord, and then deposited in all the public libraries, it would fiu'iiish opportunities to 
those skilled in the languaires of the old world, to compare thein with tliose now, or 
at any future time, and hence to construct the best evidence of the derivation of this 
part of the human race."' 

The modern history of the I'nitcd States' tribes it is, indeed, quite within our power 
to recover, — for it dates back but about two and a lialf centuries^ .u'suming as the date 
the first efiectual settlement of Virginia (1007). Yet how little reliance is there on 
Indian tradition for this .short period. The striking events of it, on the aboriginal 
mind, have been tlirowii back, and faded away in that historical oljlivion which hides 
the origin of these, as of the other triljes, from the world. l)e Soto landed in Florida 
in lo40, spending two years in marches and countermarches, conllicts and battles, 
between the sources of the AUamaha, Savannah, and the Lower Missi.^sippi, and the 
St. Francis and Arkansas west of it; and yet there is not a trace left of the events in 
the traditions of the Choctaws, Chickasaws, Chcrokees or Muscogee.s, against 
united power he strove. 

The Dclawarcs have preserved a tradition- of the first arrival of a foreign ship at 
the conlluence of the Hudson ; but it could not be told from their traditions whether 
the vessel which had excited their wonderment was of Italian. Scandina\ian, Celtic, or 
Belgian origin. The Algon((uins of the North preserve the tradition of the first arrival 
of the French in the St. Lawrence, whose nationality they have, however, commemo- 
rated in the term Uitmiii'/o::. But were these fragmentary traditions cntirel}- lost, 
together with all our own records of the times, except those relating to the languages, 
we should know that one generic mother stock, with dialectic difierences, characterized 
the trii)es along tiie Atlantic from the St. Lawrence to tlie Eoanokc. All researches 
respecting the Indian, which tend to reveal intellectual traits, and serve to denote him 
to be a man of thought and ail'ections, enlarge his hold on our sympathies, national 
and personal. By constituting a suljstratum for the man, .such details increase the 
interest felt in his history, condition, and prospects. Thej- give vitality to the Indian 
cause and fate. Such, 1 apprehend, Avere the views which dictated the act of (.'ongress, 
to which I have referred. This act makes statistics the nucleus around which the 
facts illustrative of their history, condition and prospects, are to be thrown. To denote 
the progress which has been made in the census and the collection of statistical ilata, 

' Nntos on Viv'jrinin, p. \(\" 

= ro!I. IVnii. Hist. Soc. 


i i 


togodior with the mcaiiH wliicli, in my view, arc necessary to complete the mvesliga- 
tioii, I beg leave to refer to my report of tlie ISth of October last, — the substance of 
which is given at p. u.'jo. 

To form points of comparison, tlio view of the Indian population has l)ccn oarried 
bacli a cenlmy. One conclusion has been strongly enforced by these tables and esti- 
mates of their former })opulation — namely, that the tribes have maintained a singular 
parity of numljcrs iVom remote epochs, neither rising nor falling much in the com- 
parison of long periods. Thus the Shawances, who were reported by the French in 
17;'>(). at three hundred fighting men, and a total of fifteen hundred, were found within 
a fraction of the same numlicrs in 1S17. The Delawarcs, whose fortunes and move- 
ments, like that of the Shawances, have been very great, extending over many degrees 
of latitude and louiiilude. do not vary ten per cent, in a hundred years. The Chcrokees, 
the ("reeks and Clidctaws. and Cbickasaws, are traced, by very nearly the .«ame aggre- 
gate numbers, tlirough the entire American, British, French and Spanish periods, so 
far as they are gi\en. Even the lro(|uois, who embrace the most warlike tribes of the 
continent, do imt vary greatly in their numbers from 10.000 souls, during the century, 
from I7l"i to JSi-") — the period of the A'ew York Indian census. 

Tliere appears to be some striking and continued eflorts necessary to be made, to 
enidile them to overcome the status of the hunter state. In all attemi)ts to improve 
their present condition, by legislators or humanitarians, it should bo borne in mind that 
the w bole body of the tribes in the Tuited States exist in one of three distinct classes. 
1. The semi-civili/ed group, who arc agriculturalists, and possess li.xed goverinnonts. 
See table, p. I'.iS. "J. Tiie progressive group of the small colonized tribes. See table, 
p. I'.i-'t. ."i. Tiie mass ol" the nomadic and hunter tribes, who rove west of the parallels 
of latitude of tin- nioutii of tlie Hio Oraude. and of the valley of the .Missouri river, 
extending to the Pacific. 

Yours, with consideratiiui, 

JIknhy R. Scuooi.chakt. 

f!]:(ii((ii: W . I\r.\NVi'KVNV, Esq. 























DiVTSiON OF Tin-: sriUKf'T. 

i'M'i:ii i.KTTnii 



ANTI(»UIT1ES (".."... E. 

GEOCnAlMlY I). ...... E. 

TUir.AL ORGANIZATION. v<:c K. • ">. • I'- 




LAN(;UAGE I. . 4. . 1). 

ART L . "... I). 


D.EMONOLOGY, MAGIC, &c L. . :;. . C. 




RIOGRAPHY P. . 2. . P.. 







O 1' 

VOLS. 1., II., ITI., IV., V. 

















• > 






• K 






































VOL. T., r,C,S p., 7C Pi,.\TK>!. 

N... ,.1- r.i.-, -. 

^Icnoval History ''' 

M.iital Tvpo '" 

Anlii|uitit'.s ^' 

I'liysiciil Gcofiriipliy '" 

Tiitial Or^'aniziitioii iiiul llist(ii-y '-'•' 

Iiitc'lloctual Cliaractcr and Capacity 1 '^ 

Statistics ami J'opulation ""« 

VOL. IL, GOS P., 80 Pi.ATKS. 

(Icncral History -- 

Manners anil Customs '- 

Anti'iiiitics '- 

1 'liy sical ( i eography -' ' 

Tribal Organization ' ' 

Intellectual Capacity •'•'• 

Topical History 7S 

riiy.sical Typo -1 

Lanjiuaijc 1 1 - 

Art « 

Future I'rospccts -' i 

Statistics and Population Ci^> 

VOL. IIL, 035 P., 45 Plates. 

Ci oncral History "0 

Manners and Customs -0 

Antiquities -0 

Physical ( i eography S7 

Tribal Organization 1->2 

Intellectual Capacity -1 

Topical History 'i!' 

I'hysical Typo :I4 

Language •!!• 

Art 7 

Condition and Prospects 1-'> 

Dicmonology, Witchcraft, and Magic 14 



1!. A. 

II. A. 

1.-.. ('. 

I. I). 


( '. 







{ ' 



1 '. 













• > 



























Mraical Kno«K-.- I 

Literature' of tlic Imliaii Language .'il 

Stutistii'j uiiil l'<>|iulatii.>u Mi 

VOL. IV., 0(iS P., 11 I'lATKS. 

tliiKiij) History :i2 

>Liiiiieis and Customs 7'' 

Aiiii<|uiiiis 1 1.') 

I'liV.-ioal (iodgrajiliy Iii 

'I'liKal ( >i;rani/.ation .'ij 

lulrlifctiial Caparity l."i 

'rHpical Ilir-tuiy .*<:'. 

riiy-sical Typt' ]M 

Ltinguagc (i:> 

Alt -l-', 

('(Mulitiiin ami I'mspocts ^^'^ 

1 i^rnicindl'iL'y, Majric, \t' 11 

Mil lit a! KiKiwUiIgo 'S-'i 

Litrratiire df the Indian Languages Id 

Siali.-lits anil I'opiilatiun Pi 

l!i..-iapliy -n 

l!(li-i..i, l!l 

and l>. Etliiiulugy Ill 

VOL. v., 71-j r., oi; I'l.ATKs. 

Ccni'ial 1 list. 11 y -J J 

Manneis and ('nstunis (Il) 

.\n til I nit its ;!" 

(i I'l iLTia pliy "» 

Tiilial < irganization 1 1'l 

Intclldiiial Capacity 10 

'I'dpiial Ili-tmy 'M 

I'liysiial Typo S 

Language ! •."> 

Alt 10 

Religion and Mythology IS 

Dii'inonology, Magic, ^c :!:! 

Medical K nowledgo 1 

Ci)iiditii>ii and Prospects 117 

Statistics and Population :>1 

1 'liograpliy -S 

Lituratuio of the Indian Languages ',^2 

AlTE.MJIX I'Al'EKt! ><(> 


F. (i K NK ISA L H ISToi: Y, 

(lii^in «( llf Imlian Uacc y\i,\: liT 

t»liii(lowy <iIr;iinM (if llic Aiiii'iicMii Cuiiliiiciit in <li-oi'iiin Litcrutiiri' -"^ 

Iiilluciiro of Cliissii' FiiMc mi tin- VcvlA of the l>i-i'nvtry -"^ 

Cniibs of tlio Antilles - 

Discovery nf tlie Semi-Clviliziitiuu <<f Mcxioo iin<l I'liii, on liiirli intoiinr Cliiiiiis 

It- 'I'ype ;iiiil Iicvi'liipnicnt nortliward 

It-i Clmiiiftci- in the Arc:i of tlie I'niteil flutes 

SmnniMiy A'iew of tlie Indiun Cliiiraeter 

('MlKuity of the Indiun Itaee to sustain tlic Shock of contiguous (.'iviliziition :'>:'■ 

N.itnnil Tendency of saviiL'c Society to decline ■'•'• 

I'allacidus 'riieoi'ics of the Hunter State •"'•' 

False Estimates of thi'ir Nuinhers •'* 

Kflects of the growth of the Colonies and States, to throw them West of the Mississipiii 4-J 

Their t'oiulitiou and Prospects in this Position H 



Resumi^ of Observations tlius far -l'^ 

Are the Indian Tribes of Foreign Origin '! ''7 

Kxaniinatiou of their Manners and Customs, Kites and Religion, in view of this Question 'iT 

Further Considerations on the Subject of Indian < trigin i!I 

Alb ira t ion of Fire ' '■ > 

Subsisting Customs and Reliefs 7" 

Spirit-Worship 70 

Tutemic Rond of Fraternity 7;! 

]):enionology ''' 

Human Sacrifice 77 

Indian Ideas of the Immortality of the Soul, and Theory of Sensations in Dreams 7'.i 

Belief in the Resurrection of Animals sacrificed on the Grave 7'.i 

Final Tiiadeiiuacy of the Proofs deduced from General Customs M) 

Generic Conclusions !>1 

\'oi.. \. — ;; (xvii) 



xviii CoNTKNTS. 


Soiiip ('.in.<i(li-nitii)ij.-4 im llic Mouiiil-IViiiul dl' ilir Mi.<>is>i|i|ii ^'lllll•y, and on tlio ^rciiciu! State 

111" Imliaii .\rl ininr lu llu' hi-icivriv, in llic |pris(iit .Vi'cii (if tJif I'liitiil State .-< •'^■"i 

Trails ami ('niijp.iri.'uU!! vl' Aiiu'iicaii .\iiti<|iiiiii'H I"'' 

IV. (i EOc; I! AI'll Y. 

I'l'csdit (ic'ipj.'ra|jlii<':il IVisitiun nf tlic linliaii 'I'lilics of tlip I'liiti'l States IJI 

V. TI!II!.\I, (H!(; AN I/ATION, IllSTolJV, AND (I (> V K II N M K N T . 

'I'liiiivi, Imi.i i;m i: wn (!i:m:ii.\i. I'iiakai I-'.' 

Alli'i;liaiis I-!-'" 

Di'lawaris 1:)". 

nii|i|>('\v,'is \\- 

(hii'iila.1 I'lJ 

( tiioiida^'as I.'>~i 

Kt'llistOIMl.-l .. Ill I 

Alliapascas IT J 

niaclvlVit 1T!I 

J'illa;;!. TS. «i- MiilJvUiiilwaH Is I 

Mii'lii<^aiiiio.s ll'l 

I talis r.iT 

Apatlic'i's ijoi' 

( 'ali I'uni ia Triljcs J I I 

I't'MiiaL'uuks I'lT 

^ I . I N 'r i: L L !•; c t r a i- c a i- a c i t v .\ n i > c 1 1 a u a c t i: k . 

The Indian Mind lil:} 


l*o^mn\ vNu Staii: "i 31 \nm:i;s> Amis in tiu: ('iii:i:k Nation, in 17'.i| ;.'."il 

I'c i>olial .loiiriial l'.'.:! 

Skrlrh of l.itllc 'i'iillai-«i('. (ir llic Ili(i^on• (Iloiind ■J."i.'> 

T(ii"i;;raiiliii;al < lliMivatiuiis .,•■ :.'."jii 

(h'i,i5iii of tlio MiiscoLricri or Creek Indians l!."i!i 

" " Seiiiinole-i 'XO 

Ccreinnnics, Cii.stoins. and Opinions :il'i| 

The ('crcliiony of the I5ia(k-J)iink liHi! 

The Cei-emony of the l]usk liilT 

Courtship and Marriaj:e liiiS 

Opinions of the Deity "Jii!' 

Maiiner of Buiyinj; the Dead -70 

(' ( > N 'I' !•: N T S . 

Discuses mill Ucmcdics 

Iliil.ii.i, MiiiiiicrH, mill CustoiiH 

I'l'isniial AiipiMtraueo 


I'lililii' Aiiiii-i iiii'iit.'* 

('(miitiiii; 'rime 

M.iik' lit' (JiivcniiiKiit 

iMutli.r Hiiiiiuki ;iiul Ncitts uu the Crcok Xatloii ami Country. 



1:71 1 


TIk AI"iiiL'iiial l''t.'atiii(S anil I'iiy.siojjnoniy 

IX. l.ANC lA*; K. 

('iiii'i'i;\VA Lanhiahi: 

(,'unjugiitiijn of tin- vi'ili Wauli, •' to sec' 



Syiinpticiil Sketch of Indian .\i-t 


XI. II K L I (J I O N A N D M Y T II O L O Ci Y. 

Tin.' Indian Elysium lOl 

Till' .Myiiiiilogy of the Vesperic Tribes, and its inllucnccs on their Social State lUii 


Ilcniaiks on tlie I'raetices of . orccry and Medical Magic hy the Indian Priesthood, dcMoting 
the true causes which have obstructed the introduction of Ciiristianity araonj;; the Indian 


The Indian as a Piiysician l-t." 


Summary Sketch of the Policy of the United States respecting the Indian Tribes 44'.t 

«« TON '1' K NT 8 . 


?ivN<ii',-i4 ,,y Stmi-iiis: I'ltDiiitK.-s or Tin: Ciixso, AND .Mi:ax;4 Ui:i'u.mmi:mikii mii if' 

('iiMll.irii'.N I"!' 

Talilc I. Iiuliali 'iVilx'^ nl' tlic I'liril'iu uniiitt 't>7 

II. Iiiiliaii l'(i|iul:iii(in of \Vii:>liii);»fipii Tcrritdry I'.'" 

'• III. Tiilics of (iii'irmi Tcrritiiry I'.'J 

" IV. Tiiliis of Nclini^kii Territory I'.U 

" \. l'o|iuliitiuli of ilic ( 'oloiiizcil ami liL(li;.'i'iioiis Triln's of Kaiiza.t I'.'.'i 

" VI. A Statriiiriil cli>i;^iiiiliij>.' llic Iioliaii Trilii"* ill Nrliia>ka ami Kaiii^ai* Tirri- 

torii'.*, willi whom Tn.ilii.* havp lu'iii m>.'oiiatnl diiriiij,', ami iN.'i.'i... I'.i" 

" \ll. Trili.sof flail T.rritory V.>s 

'• N'lll. Sfmicivili/cil Tril/c:) ioin|io<iiijf tlic .Vpiialiuhiaii group of the t'liot'tiiw><, 

('liicka:»aw>. Clii'iukiv's ami < 'rerk'* -I'.'H 

'• l\. (.'ompiirativc \'iiw of tlic> Iniliaii Tnatifs, War^, niiil K.\|u'iitlituri'.i, atti'mlin;; 
tliu iiitroiliictioii of ilio Sysli'iii of Itciiiovat of ilic Triliis from tlio I'rc- 
I'iiifts of llio old Slate.'', iliirin^ llie period lietwceii Mareli llli, l^l^l', and 

fciepteliilier lu'tli, |s:is I'.t'.t 

" X. (Jros.-* .\r<a. \ .liiii', and Uclaiive l'H|iM!.iiioii of the Imliaii Ti^rritorii'S .'lOl 

'• .\l. St;iti«lies of Ivliiealioii and (,'liiistiaiiily 'i>>2 

" XII. Progrc-sivo A•'pel•t^^ c)f the Seini-Civilizcd Tribes of the I'liilcd Stutcs oUt 

\Vl. P.loC I! A I'll V. 

Shenandoah (diieid.i Tribe) ."lO'.t 

Oceiiin (Mahiunn Trihe) .'.IS 

.\dario (Wyandot Trilie) '.lil 

Waul) "jeej.' (('hippewa T'riho) 'i-i 

l'e-hk(«ah (Miami Tiihe) ■'>'!' 

Waubunsec (Pottawattamie Tribe) .VIO 

\ \ 1 1 . LI T K K A T V 1! E F T II E I N I) I A N LANGUAGES. 

(rt) A Li.-t of Aii;:lo-Indian Word-;, incorporated into the Eiigli.*!! Laii<.;ua<;c .'"i-'l.") 

(h) Philosophy of L'ttoraneo .'■jt:'. 

((•) Comparisons of the Lanj^Ma^es cd' the aiu'ieiit Pamptieos and Waccoan of North Carolina ... .'i.'i- 

('/) Original Words of Indian Son;,'s. literally translated ."i.V.t 

(<•) A l.e.\iooii of the Al;:om|uiii Lan;:ua^'e. Parti. <'iiippc\va. A ."iii.'i 

( /') Indian (Jeoiiraphieal Nonienebiture of the I'nited Stat<s. (' .".TO 

(;/) A'oeabularie.s of the Ajiaehee and tin' Mieinac ■'>')< 

(A) The Lord's Prayer in several Aljroiiipiin dialeet.s ')'.") 

( /) Imlian Ktyimdo^'v 'I'.i.'! 

(/') .'^omo data rcs]ieotiiig the Principles o{ the Chippewa and Mahican Lanjiuajres, in a series 

of Letters written durinj; the perioil frcun \X2'2 to l!S:27 'i"l 

(/,) Names based on the Indian \'oeabnlaries, sujrjiested for new subdivision.s of the public 

domain il-l 

) I 




LIST fiK A I'lM \ CI \ I- A I'llltS. 

lliM. uv ; il 

t. >ki'i.ln"t iif till' AiH'ii'iii lli-itury iif tho Six .\iilii)n-<. 1>um>I Ciitic till 

•2. !»kiii'li lit" ilh' Kiiilii'^i lvx|ilin'iitiuns I '" till' Frciicli .n <';iimilii iiixl itir \'iilli'y nf tin' 

Mi!>^iK!<i|>|li ' *> I'i 

M V.SMiliS AM. «'l .-IciMS : '!|l' 

•'!. Iii>liiiii <'ii'>tonis ijf Calirurtiiit. K'l. M. Krrii, Ks.| iM'.) 

I. A Smiic nil ilir I'niiricH. Ki'V. S. M. Irviii I'l.'iO 

.'i. Miiiiiii It mill (,'ii.-<ti>iiiM iif till' liiiliiiiiH III' (tri'^'oii. M:'J. Ili'iijuniiu Alvm.'l. I'.S. A. ... •i.">l 

A.Mivi liii: 

)i. I'mni.iii Aiitii|uitie.'<. l.t. (i. M. (iiiliiH, ('. 8. N 

7. Aiitii|m' Miist'i);^'('i' Hra>s I'lati's. Ki'V. II. M, I.i)ii;.'liiiili,'i' 

.*<. lining 1)1" an .Viiciciit KortrcsH in Oliio. |)r. .loliu Lueki' 

'.1. Nil .\iiiii|uitii>s ill < >rt';»on. Cico. (iililm, V.m[ 

i<i. Aiiii'iiic ('u|i|)ei' Iiii{il('nu'iit8 iliscovurcMl ill the N'allcy of tliu (ircat .Mimni Itlvii', oli 

J I iliii Will mIs 

11. AlM)ri;.'iiial .\iitii|iiitii's anil II istory of Wi'storn Xuw Yurk. Tliumas .Maxwell, lv>.|. 

TllIIiM. lll.-liiUV 

II*. Tlio Inilians of New Brunswick. (J. II. IVrley, Esij 

l:i. Miiravians in l>iitchcas County, New York, ilurin;; the Kaily I'art of the Ki;,'htc('ntli 

Century. M 

14. Manners, Custom!", anil History of the Iniliant nf Suiith-western I'exa-. W'ui. 1!. 


1.V BlacKlVct Imliaiij. D. I). Mitchell, Ksij 

M. Apaehees: Orivriii anil History. Dr. T. C. Hem-y 


17. Letter on the AHinitic3 of Dialects in New Mexico, (iov. Win. Carr l.;nie 

1"^. Kxaiiiples of l'assainai|Uoilily Lanj,'iia;;c. Kreilerie KiiMer 

1'.'. .Miiirite Numerals. Kev. S. T. Kami 

Lm'Ivn Aiir 

i^i'. !>tatc' of Arts and Manufactures with Creek Iiiilians, in 17l'l. Calcli Swan 
'2\. Eiulialiuin^ by the Urej;on Indians. S 

PUKSEXT CoMHTIiiN A.Mi riSosl'iar.s 

'22. Our Nation's Prosperity : a View of the I'lcasinj; Prospects of the Chickasaws. A. .1. 


•J-'i. Ciiiulitiiin ami Hnpeless Prospect of the Apachees. Dr. T. Ciiarlluii Henry 

:21. Kilucation anmns the Dakotahs. Rev. U. Hii'iis 

o en ................. 

:i."). Native Churches 

I •..•,7 






• ^.") 

• !'>',• 






Statistics TOO 

2t!. Lillians of (Iro^'oii. A. Do lliiilcy TOO 

-7. Sioux I'oiniliition of the .Sevon Tiilies, in 1^)1. 1'. rrcscott T^l 

2S. Tribes of South-wi'st Texas. W. 1!. hn-kor Titii 

2'.i. E.stiuKitcs of the Indians in Oregon and Wu.shington Territories. Gov. Isaac 1. 

Stevens • 7<i:> 

SO. InJustry of Ottowas. S T^.S 

ol. Estimate of tlie Number of Indians in the North-Wcst, on the breaking out of the 

War of 181:2 Tns 


'o2. Etymology of the Word Oregon. Maj. 15. L. E. IJonneville, U. S. A TOS 

iV-i. Specimens of the Caddo and Witcliita Languages. Capt. K. ]>. Marcy, U. S. .\. ... 7<>'.' 

t54. Indian Numerals. S 71:2 



I'LATi-: 1. 








Imliun Sccr nttcni])tinf; to destroy a lunialc witli cncliantcd punljciims T'Aiii-; 

Ts octiu'iKil ( ! rave Li j;li t 

Menstrual Lodge 

Xude Females ]icrforniing a cliarmcd cireuit at night to proteet tlio Cornfield 

Jledais and I'roidietii revealing to each other their Necromantic Arts 

Sacrifice of a Female Ca])tivc liy the Riwnees in 1S:]S 

Basket-making hy California tribes 

Antique Sepulchral Stone of Onondaga 

Compari-son of North and South American Mounds 

Antiipiities from a Peruvian Guaca 

Ancient Copper-Axe, and Awl of a Cactus thorn 

Ciieidar Temple of (.'ayamhc, Fig. 1. ) 

Ancient House of the Incas at Quito, Fig. '2. i 
Primitive Water-craft of the Indians — ) 

IJalza, Fig. 1. t)tto\va Canoe, Fig. ± ' ' 

Uemaiiis of a Siou.x Fortification on the Jlissouri River 

Antinue Pietograplis discovered on the silurian sand rocks, hcneath the soil and 

forest, on the south hanks of Lake Eric, at Lidependeuee, Ohio 

Ancient ninde of Mining on Lake Superior... 

Ciii)ipewa IJelle, I'li fdxliimc. 

Manahosho's Hieroglyphics" 





11 1 


1 I •■! 


l.-)0— 1,-, 

lro([uois Scenery 

Present position of the Oneida Palladium, or licacon-Stone, in the I'tica Ccmetry. 

Scarifications during Mourning 



i i 



-C>, Calil'oinia Females tkauiiij: ''vtii-A seed... 



r, " " oii;;ii^cil in j^athfrinj^ fouil 

" " transpurtini^ set'ds and water "JIT 

>. Map of the Ci'eek country in \~[M -^'i'.' 

I. Normal Types of Indian Art in liuilding 

I. Pietoi-ial Tnsrriptiou of Warlike Kxidoits on a IJuflalo skin 

.*. Iteligioud cJiliees: — 1. Oi-aeular Loiljjc for Incantations ^ 

!. '2. Templc-liko Enclosure for the Medaiwin Society J"" 

1. Inilian Doctor preparing a pot of Medicine 44l! 

"i. Portrait of Occuni ."jKS 

jL). Female Snow-Slioc 147 


I. Tiie Tprijilit, or White Stimo of Council of the Oneidas 1.V! 

•_'. Talli.-t'c and tlir llicknry (Iromid J.V") 

i). Creek Square, lint I'.atli, and Chunk-yard J()4 

4. Mounds on the Alabama River •2S2 

"i. Outlines of ail Old Fortilieation J,s:! 

II. Aiuiint Peruvian I'estle and Mortar iU'.\ 

7. Mounds of stored seeds for food, l>y California Indians (Hit 

5. Peruvian Device of Crosses (I.l'.t 

0. C)liject3 found in an ancient I'eruvian tomb tJJS 










Vol. v.— 4 

[5tii Paper, Title I.] 





a. Eai'liost Trailitidiis (if tlio Tiidiaiis rosju'ctini;; tlicir Origin, and tlie Co.smogony of tlio 

Earth. Siuiiinary of the IJoliofs of tlic variou.s Trihcs. 


b. Fir.«t Interview with tlic Tribes of Yir^'inia, New York, and New Enjrland, at the Close 

of the Fifleentli ami Coiimiencenieiit of the (Sixteenth Centuries. General Ethnography. 


c. Spanish Discoveries in Florida, and the present Territories of Alabama, Louisiana, 
Mississip)ii, Tennessee, Missom-i, and Arkansas. Expeditions of D'AlIyon, Narvaez, 
and De !?oto. Discovery of the Mississijipi Hiver. 

TITLE I., liET. D., VOL. IV. 

d. Discoveries on the Rio (!ila, Colorado, and Del Norte. Expedition of Coronado in l.')42, 
and the Comiuest and Founding of New Mexico. First E-xcursions into the present 
Area of Texas and Arkansas. 

S !■ 



<'. Orii.'in of the Indian Race. Shadowy Gleams of the American Continent in Grecian 
Literature. Influence of Classic Falile on the Period of the Discovery. Carihs 
of the Antilles. Discover}- of the Semi-Civilization of Mexico and Peru, on hijrh 
interior Chains, Its Type and Development nortlnvanl. Its Character in the Area 
of the United States. Sunnnary View of the Indian Character. 

/. Capacity of the Indian Haee to su.'itain the Shock of contiguous Civilization. Natu- 
ral Tendency of savage Society to decline. Fallacious Theories of the Hunter State. 
False Estimates of their Numbers. Efl'ects of the growth of tic Colonies and States, 
to throw tiiem West of the .Mississi|(pi. 


f tlio 







on liifili 

tlie Area 

1. Natu- 

ter State. 

id States, 



Amkrican history has had no topic comparable at all, for its ondurinrr interest, to 
that of the Imliau tribes. The remotest records of the traditions and discoveries of 
early nations, in the Old World, give no traces of their former position; and at the 
epoch of their discovery on this continent, they were unrecognized amonft tiie existing; 
varieties of man.' "Discoveries long ago," observes Mr. Jefferson, writing in 1781, 
"Avere sufficient to show that a passage from Europe to America was always practi- 
cable, even to the imperfect navigation of ancient times. In going from Norway to 
Iceland, from Iceland to Greenland, and from Greenland to Labrador, the first trnject 
is tiie widest : and ihis having been practised from the earliest times of which we 
have any account of that part of the earth, it is not difficult to suppose that the sul> 
se([uent trajects may have been sometnnes passed. Again, the late discoveries of 
Capt. Cook, coasting from Kamskatka to California, have proved that, if the two 


' Of the Chinese and .Tapancso history, we arc yet too inipcrfoelly ac(|uaintoil to ^pcak witli ccrtaintv. It 
is stated by a recent writer, that the aneient Chinese reeoLMiized the Aiucrieati Continent under the luinie of 
F()1:-SaX(I. "Vide yi. de (luiiinos, " Mftmiinn <1e IWan/nnir iha Iiixrnj)/iniiK, (fv.," A'ol. .WVIII., p. ."ill;;. 
I':iris, 1(171. Also, M. de Paravcy's "f/ Amcriqiie fuiis ih- Xom tie Pays tlr fou-Stvi;y, <fr." Paris, 1844. 

HuMiboKlt observes, that ''where history, .so far as it is founded on certain and distinctly expressed evi- 
Jence, is silent, there reniaiu only difl'ercnt dejirees of probability; but an absolute denial of id! facts in tin; 
world's history, of which the evidence i.s not distinct, ajipears to me no happy application of philological and 
historical criticism." Cosmos, Vol. II., p. 409. 



I I 




continents of Asia ami Ainorica be soi)aratetl at all, it is only by a narrow strait." 
(Notes on Viririnia. ji. iCili.) TIic lii.story of tlic early imaginative literature of Greece, 
enilnMced among its niytlis the ili'struction of the island of Atalantis, and the ri'cital 
of tiie tale of the garden of the llesperide.s. These shadowy gleams I)e!onged rather 
to the fabulous notions of oriental cosmogony, than to any traditions of sober disco- 
verj-. Still, the Hellenic geography is thought to have been inlluenced in its develo]!- 
niont by these tnulitionary discoveries (Cosmos, Vol. II., p. 4'JO). It is suppo.sed that 
the name of the Canary Islands may be derived from this age of myths. 

It is not probable that the voice of classical fable had much weight on the mind of 
Columbus, who made no scruples, wlien he found a race on the islands of the Antilles 
so nnieh resembling in physiognomy the natives of the Indian Ocean, to refer them to 
that stock of the human family. It Avas obvious that, as newly di.^covered tribes 
were not descendants of the fair-skinned stocks of Europe or Asia, nor of the black- 
skinned race of Africa, neither had they any of the peculiar arts or customs of the 
one. nor the characteristically barbarous ti'aits of the other. India appeared to fiu'nish 
the ethnological link to which the}- must be referred ; and it is that ipiarter from 
which the strongest testimonies of resemblance come. I'elieving himself to have 
landed on a remote part of the Asiatic continent, he had the less liesitation in pri<- 
nouiicing them Indians. Regarded from other points of view besides their features, 
tlu're were concurrent testimonies. They had not, indeed, the fixed industry of the 
[)rominent coast-tribes of the Ilindostanees, or of other Asiatic races. Merc hiniters 
and lisbermen, without any but the rudest arts, without populous towns, and 
roving along the shores nearly nude, with almost the same alacrity as the nudtii)lied 
species of the waters and forests, they had as little thought of fixity of location, or 
curtailment of their nomadic liljerty. 


was at its height to find the Carib race, with whom the intercourse be!rni 


nk so low in the scale of human beings, and so utterl\' unlit to encounter, even the 
lowest tasks of civilization. The whole Caribbean sea.s, extending northward to Cubn, 
and it is tlmnglit at an ancient period, of the history of the Leeward I.sland group, 
even to the peninsula of l-'lorida,' was found to be overspread with this divided and 


race, portions of whom were fierce and courageous. 

' TiacL's of surli alTiiiitics (>xi<t in !an;;iia^'i'. Tiio lirst porwnal iiroiioiui No, or its ci(uivali'iit \, wliifli is 
cDiiiiiioii ti tlie North Aiiicrieaii laii!rua;_'cs, and also the pronominal sign of the second person 1\, arc found 
in I'avis's vocabulary of the Carih lanfiuairi'. London, Itit'ilJ. 

' The Carihs were the ancient inlialiitant- of the Wiiiilward Inlands. Most of tlicse arc represented to be canni- 
bals, who carried on lierce and n letitless ho>tililii's a^'ainst the mild and inoll'ensivo inhabitants of llispaniola. 
The in^idar Caribs are conjectured to be descendants of the (ialibio Indians of the coast of I'arana in .'^outh 
America. It is believed, hy those who have examined the subject, that this hostility towards the Carilis of 
the lar'icr Leeward Islands is fouuded on a tradition that the hitter are descendants of a colony of Arrowauks, 
a nation of ,s!iiuth Anu'riea with whom the eontinenlal Caribs are at perpetual war. t'obnnbus observed an 
abundaiier of cotton cloth used fir L'arments in all the islands he visited. Let^'ou, who visileil liarbadocs in 
1()47, speaks of pottery as beiui; ol' an excellent kind. Mtcdn, Vol. I., p. lilH. 



Such wore the first impressions of tlic race presented to the Spanish mind, at the 
era of tiie opening of the sixteenth century. A few years devoted to exploration of 
tiie continent, and interior discovery, denoted tlic existence of two points of Indiiin 
•semi-civilization of a striking character. These were not found, as it might have been 
expected they would he, on the sca-coast.s, or islands, or at the mouths of 
estuaries, as in India, hut on remote and elevated lal)le-lands, in valleys, having an 
altitude of from .seven to ten thousand feet above the ocean. Such were the positions 
of Mexico, Cu/.co, and Quito. On .scrutinizing this species of civilization, it was found 
to be neither wholly of indigenous, nor wholly of a transferred character, but con- 
taining almost equally unmistakable traits of both ; yet forming *' the nearest 
approaches to civilization to be met with anciently, on the North American continent." 
(Pre.scott, Vol. 1., p. 11.) The idea of the pyramid lirst developed itself in the 
human race in the valley of the Euphrates. It may Ijo said to have culminated in 
the valley of the Nile, spreading over Asia-Minor and along the borders of the Euxine 
and Caspian; and revealing itself in America in the great structure of Cholula and 
of the Teocalli ' of all grades, on the elevated summit levels of Mexico. 

It was on the summit.s of pyramids that the ancient Toltecs, and indeed the 
whole aboriginal stocks of America, at an early epoch, lit up sacred fires in the 
symbolical and mystical adoration of the sun — a species of worship of the great creative 
spirit of the universe, which, .so far as examined, lies at the foundation of all the Indian 
religious systems, north and south. Closely viewed, the t^'pes of the semi-civilization 
of Peru and Mexico were indeed distinctive. In both, however, agriculture, architecture, 
and the working of the precious metals, were well-developed elements of advance. 
The Peruvians had the art of making bronze, (Vol. IV., p. ■1•^S ;) their pottery was of 
a superior kind ; while their civil polity, as evinced in the construction of roads and 
bridges, nnmifested a higher order of civilization. The architecture of one nation 
culminated in the temple ; the other in the terraced pyramid or teocalli. Yet there 
was in both these stocks that nuxture or ill-digested type of ideas, arts, and customs, 
which denote a derivative, rather than aboriginal people. Tiio architecture of neither 
nation, even in its most perfect forms of building, disclosed the arch. I>oth exhibited 
the custom of embalming the dead. No trace appeared of their having burned a 
widow at the funeral pyre. 

All the tribes, semi-civilized and erratic, .south of about latitude 4G° north, l)uried 
their deatl ''out of sight." North of this point, on the .shores of the Pacific, there 
were examples of the incineration of the body, as among the Tecullies (Harmon's 
Travels). In astronomy and in their pictography, the Toltecs and Aztecs held the 
supremacy ; while their cycles and minor divisions of time, embraced features of 
Asiatic origin, as has been shown by Dr. Hawks. (Ant. of Peru.) 

In the hinguago of tlio Aztecs, Tcv signifies the I>eity, ;uid Culli a liouse, or place of dwolling. 




I * 





Tlii'ir stylo of architoctiirc revoalod itself iu oriuunt'iits of sin onlor of qiiito 
iiliorifiinal cast, to wliicli tlu* imnic of Toltec lina been ai)i)licd. The setting apart of 
till' liftli day, as a marked day, and their ancient year of two hundred and sixty 
days, were traits in the chronolojry of oriental nations of ancient date. Their system 
of clirDnoioiry was lonnded on an ignorance of the true length of the solar year; hut 
hy oiiservations on the perioil of the sun's recession, as Mr. (lallatin has remarked, 
corrections were nnidt! from time to time, so that the jieriod of two hundred and 
sixty days was abandoned, and, at the conquest, they had reached within nine 
minutes of the true solar year.' (Semi-civ. Tribes of New Mexico, Eth. Trans., 
Vol. 1.1 

As the Toltec race, ind)ued with these ideas and arts, difl'used itself north 
through the e(juinoctial. and into the temperate latitudes, it evinced a decadence which 
is the probable result of intermixtures and encounters with barbarous tribes. Its temple.'* 
and teocalli dwindled away in almost the exact ratio of the di.stanee which they had pro- 
cecdetl from their central .seats. Yet. there was a strong clinging to original ideas and 
forms. On reaching Florida and the Mi.ssissippi valley, their teocalli a.ssumed the shape 
of large, truncated mounds, still noted as the sites of the sacerdotal and magisterial 
resilience — I'or these i'unclions were here, as there, fuMnly united; while the ailnratiou 
of the sun, as the symbol of Divine Intelligence, was found to be spread among all thi' 
tribes of North America, to the borders of Lake Superior, (Notes to Ontwa), and even 
through New England.^ Viewed hi the present area of the United States, to which the 
dist url)ing impulses of the 1 2th century manifestly reached, there were originally, and still 
remain, great resemblances of customs and arts, and of traits mentally and i)hysically. 
These traits, in connection with their arts and monnmenls, will be more fully con- 
sidoivd as we proceed. It is the mental man we are now more particularly examining. 

Prominent in the Indian inind is the fear of a Deitv. This is the cause of their 
hopes and fears. It does not alter this to say that their deities arc false; 
so far as they are causes of action, they are true. Their theology revealed very 
ancient oriental ideas of the human mind, though much obscured by an indigenous 
development. Zoroaster announced the existence of two leading principles in the moral 
government of the world, to which he assigned the diuU deities of good and evil — the 
one per|)etually acting in diri'ct antagonism to the other.' Sid)ordinate to these, the 
Magii npheld the theory of genii, of inlerior powers, who watched the pergonal fates 
of men, arranging themselves on the side of the antagonistical gods. Such was, in 
fact, the theory of the ancestors of all the American Indians of an early epoch, and 
the belief has descended to those of the present day, who still adhere to their native 

' 'I'liis i]liservatii)n jirnvcs that tlip ciiloiidar .«tnno ut' tlie ancient .^Ic.\it•ans wa.s of a iiKirc umlail poiiod than 
is u'l'iicnilly tliuuu'lit, and had liocii laid aside at the conc|U('st, for it records tlie short Toltec month of thirteen 
days, and twenty nmntlis to the year. 

•' .^ynihois on the Di-hlon Itoek. Vol. I., |,|i. Il.i, lli<. 

■' See A'ol. 1., p. 410, I'or the Iroi|Uois cosmogony. 


religion. Etiiially distinct, in the ancient Indian theology, was tlio system of tlie 
symbolic adoration of the sun, as it exi.stcd among the early iVrsians, and otlier 
oriental tribes. This system was not only inaugurated, with all its imjiosing d 
mysterious rites, at Cu/eo, but it laid at the foundation of the Tolti'C rites, howe. r 
overlaid in the days of the conquest, by the horrid system of human sacrifice. 

Not only so, but the oriental idea of dual deities of good and evil, with an almost 
infmitisimal number of subordinate s[)irits or denii-gods, of benign or malignant 
inlluence, is found to jirevail throughout North America, ijuite up to the Arctic circle; 
and the dogma is as fixed, at this day, among the unreclaimed tribes, of tlu! Mississipiii 
valley, the great lake basins, and the Rocky mountains, as it ever was in South 
America or Asia. 

Early traditions of the eastern nations, of another kind, have been found in the 
Indian mind. Von Humboldt, who visited South America, at the opening of the 19th 
century, found a tradition of the flood among the unreclaimed tribes of the ("ordilleni 
of the Andes, Such traditions, in which heroic traits arc ascribed to the survivors of 
a iniivcrsal deluge, exist in the wild cosmogonies of the heatiien tribes of the ])rairie 
and forest groups of the western regions of the United States, and of British 
America. (Vide legend of Manibosho. Schoolcraft's Algic Researches. 

These allusions will be suflicient to denote how Important to the true history 
of the Indians it is, to examine their mental character and organization, as 
atlbrding indicia of primary traditions, rites, opinion.s, manners, and customs. 
To this end the papers accompanying the present and prior portions of these 
researches are submitted. For it nnist be apparent, that without such distintitive 
tribal desiderata, the generalizations pertaining to the race, as circles of tribes and 
languages, cannot be well undertaken. ()ccupying as they did one-fourth of the 
geographical area of the globe, and having assumed this position at a primal epoeh of 
the continent, before cities, towns, and dynasties, had been established on it, there were 
great inducements for the race to decline ; — to have crossed their track of migration ; 
— to have divided into fragmentary bodies, tribes, and dialects, and, indeed, to have 
fallen from almost every supposable type of foreign knowledge, and sunk down into 
utter barbarism. It was argued at the discovery by grave doctors of philosophy, whether 
terms of humanity should be kept with them, and even doubted, in the Halls of the 
Sorbonnc, whether they had souls. (Ilalket's Notes on the Indians of North 
America.) As a clue to these old mutation.*, and this intricacy of track, we have at 
least their languages and anti(iuarian vestiges or monuments to study, forming a class 
of testimony which was conceded, by the late Mr. Pritchard. to be more important 
than that of even their physical and mental traits. (Phys. Hist, of Mankind, Vol. 1.) 

15ut in whatever else the triljcs difler, or however they have been developed in 
tribal or national distinctions, it is in their physiology, and the general structure of 
mind and thought, that they most closely coincide. Indians seen on the Orinoco, 


tlic Rio Grando, and tlio MisMinnippi, proscnt a net of features ami cliamctoristics 
rt'inarkal)ly aliUo. From l'iitii|,'oiiia to Atlialjasca, and even to the HliorcH of tlio Arctic 
Otraii, tlii'vo is a coiiicidcncc wliioii has been tliu miliject of general remark, Siicii in 
this coin<'ideii('c, oliscrves a recent pliysiolo^ist, wliow attention lias been partieuiarly 
directed to tliis f*iil>jcet, that whoever ha« ween one of tlie trihes lias seen all. 
(Vol. II.. p. .'!l(l.) It is this continental trait, linking the tribe.s together, by a peculiar 
type of leatures and character, and by a unity of tho\ight on the leading changes of 
lil'e and deutli, that is designed to be e.\pres.-<ed by the conunon term, Indhm. 

It is not tiie traits of the man of the Indus, or the Gambia — not llindostanee, the 
(.'iiinese. Tartar, or .Tapanese — not even the segregated yet resembling races of the 
I'aeide. and tiie i.-^les of the Indian Ocean, however approximating in «omc of their 
piiysieal traits — tluit we behold. There is sometiiing more fixed, more homogeneous, 
more indigenous, more etiniic, than these recited varieties of the human race 

The North American Indian is a man gifted with the ready perception of physical 
phenomena which before his eyes. He is vividly observant of the general 
meteoric eliaiiges of the atmosphere. To him there is a wild pictography in the clouds, 
planeis. and electrical displays, wiiicli ht< reads as the manifestations of a great creative 
Deity, who governs and upiiolds the globe. To see wliat is palpable and present, 
or sjicak of what is past, is, however, the habit of his mind. He is not given to 
trains of anticipation. He is not progressive; he is not oven moderately inductive. 
He does not indulge in trains of truthful thought, morally or intellectually; but 
sinking down on the oriental principles of fatalism, he is by no means disposed to call 
in question the dispensations of Providence, or tiio actions of his forefather.'?. Sup- 
posing himself to have been created for the sphere he occupies, with the wild allluouto 
of the zoological creation around him, it is not the habit of his mind to gainsay tlic 
conclusions of those who have preceded him in the nomadic and predatory life. He 
docs not regard the advent of the European races in America, as of auspicious 
tendency. Naturally fearfid. doul)tful, and suspicious, he is emphatically the victim 
of fear, doubt, and suspicion. To him, the moral and the intellectual world stand 
still. Letters and arts are a mystery ; and Christianity a system which was not 
designed it)r him. He is under the influence of a set of dreaming jn-iests and necro- 
mantic manipulators, who, professing to reveal the will of the Great Spirit, bind his 
mind down as with ''hooks of steel," to the dark doctrines of dannonology, witchcraft, 
sorcer}-. and magic. Such is the subtilty of this belief, that even a beam of light, 
emitted through an orifice in the wigwam, can become the medium of conveying a 
malign and deadly influence on the slumbering victim' (Plate 1). Aijove all, he does 

' An incident of tliis liind occurred among tlic Ciiippcwas, during uiy residence at St. Mary's, at tlic foot 
of Lake Superior. 


* ? «i • • 



■ » t ■'; > 

.■\. ;; 

' ^ /•»♦" 


*, » 

- ■« .* 


iJk: "^ 



f ; 



not wish to Ijo what ho is not now. In habits of thought and action, in everything, 
ill fact, that constitutes individuality, he i.s unchanged and indomitable; and after 
three centuries and a half as our neighbor, ho is to-day what Eric, Columbus, Cabot, 
and Vespucci, found him. Such is the unreclaimed Indian. 



That a I'acc so wedded to their peculiar systems of erroneous iliought and action, 
should have so long resisted the teachings of civilization, in all its multiplied forms, is 
a remarkable foiiture in the history of aboriginal races. Fascinated by hunting, in a 
continent of such ample limits as to render the chase long and absorbingly attractive, 
there has seemed to them no end of its pleasures — no end of the wild liberty of roving 
from to place. Attached as they are to localities, so long as their precincts yield 
the means of support, they have readily sought new homes in the forest whenever 
game failed ; and as they wci'o constantly migrating westward, the change seems to 
have well accorded with their belief of a happy final hunting-land in that direction. To 
this race, the offer of the school-book, the plough, and the Bible, has had few attrac- 
tions. Satisfied to live as their ibi'efathers lived, they have had little curiosity to 
intpiire into other truths. Time has, indeed, passed to the tribes who have kept theni- 
.felves in the forest, as if it had no value. Three centuries have produced, apparently, 
no more effect than three years might be expected to do ; and were Columbus or Cabot, 
Champlain, Standish, Penn, or Oglethorpe, to return to-morrow, he would be astonished 
to find the forest tribes so essentially like their forefathers at their eras. The Indian 
has hated letters, labor, and truth, on both sides of the AUeghanies, and on the east 
and the west of the Mississippi. But with these admissions of fixity of habit, it 
is not remarkable that he should have continued, and still, in his strongholds, continues, 
to violate the true principles of population, and of political economy. Less should we 
he surprised that their population has rapidly diminished. It could do nothing but 
diminish. As sure as effect follows cause, it must have sunk in the scale. lie violated 
every principle of increase before the discovery, by a hopeless, purposeless war of 
I)etty trilje against tribe, and by an almost total reliance on the spontaneous products 
of the forests for subsistence, which never mot the demand ; and as soon as the Euro- 
peans arrived, he added to the causes of depopulation by freely indulging his unmea- 
sured appetites, which led largely to disease. To gain these indulgences, ho 
yielded readily to the inducements of commerce, as soon as the country began to 

Vol. v. — -3 



bo settled, l)y rapiilly dcstrojing. with fire-arms nnd steel traps, the races of the forest, 
and particidarly the fur-ljearing animals — his oidy ready nicuns of subsistence. 
The over-stinndated chase at llrst aroused new energies, but left him in a few 
years his innnense territories, which were valueless to him without the deer and 

Let Kiu'ope rate America, indeed, for neglect of the Indians! No country in 
Kuropo has treated its alwrigines half so well; and lea; t of all should .such imputa- 
tions come from our brothers of England. It is a well-known fact of history, that for 
centuries the Ih'itons, though men whom they ack)iowledged to be of noble port, were 
hunted as prey by the Komans; and that on the landing of William the Conqueror, 
both Saxons and Britons were literally swept from the plains, and driven out into 
coverts and fastnesses. Subjected to a series of hard exactions and cruelties, they 
were even compelled to ])ut out their lights, and retire to bed at the sound of the 
curfew. Driven to the primitive pciiks of Wales, even there the Druids, whoso 
monuments mark the island, were dec i mated and exterminated. No wonder should 
be expressed that a leading prince of the race should have assembled his devoted 
followers, as Cambrian history asserts, and attempted to repair his political fortunes 
by tleeing to the West.' 

These remarks may .ser'-c to introduce some considei'ations on the elTects of those 
long-continued violations of the plainest maxims of increase and progress on the 
tribes, which nuivk their hij-toi}'. There are no means of determining, with any 
accuracy, the alioriginal population at the period of the discovery. The Spanish 
authors introduced estimates which are vague, and generally exaggerated whenever 
they refer to the population of tribes who had not been reclaimed, settled in pueblos, 
or at mission stations. Alcedo, who published his geographical dictionary at Madrid, 
in 1787, confines himself exclusively to the population of town.s, districts, and repar- 
timentoes. (Geo. and I list. Die. of America.) The Indians in the Antilles alone were 
stated by him at ;j,ijOO,(K)0 — which is manifestly a most extravagant estimate. It is 

' A.NClENr Uritons in the West. — Tlio storj- of MaJuc is an almost une.xaiiiiiicil pru))lcm in American 
history, having never l)ecn .scrutinized by the liirlit.s of philoloiry, and tlic careful investigation of the monu- 
ments of distinctive intrusion which exist. That the ancient Celtic character lia.s been found in western 
Viriiinia, ajipears incontestable. These evidences were ilr.<it announced in 183S. The fact of the discovery 
of a small, oval stuiic, tliin and fiat, (Vol. T., p. 127), with characters of an apparently alphabetical value, was 
ciiiuniunicated to the lloyal Society of Antii|uaries of Copenhafien, in IS 41. The di.scovery was al.<o announccil 
to the Koyal (ieo;' phical Society of l.nndon. l'rofe.s.sor Uask, in the society's memoirs (1840 to 1S4.'!, p. 
l;ii)), is disposed to ilecm it to be Celteberie (Vol. I., p. 112). It is said by Tacitus, in his Life of Afrricola, 
that one of the distinct dements in character, at the period of the Koniau coni|uest, was of Iberian 
origin. "That the .'^iluros," he observes, "were at first a colony of Iberians, is concluded, not without pro- 
bability, from the olive tincture of th(! skin, the natural curl of the hair, and the situation of the country, .so 
convenient to the coast of Spain." (Tacitus, Vol. VI., p. 20.) Several of these characters are identical with 
the ancient Itritish alphabet. The facts respectinj; the opening of the tumulus which disclose^: this relic have 
been statcil in Vol. 1., p. 100. They are at length about to be put on record, with all the proofs of authenti- 
city, by Dr. Wills De llass, of \'irginia. 



no oliject hero to pursue this branch of inquiry, but merely to add, that if the aborisziual 
liopulation of Spanisli America was over-estimated, tliat of North America was oijually 
so. The country had been known nearly a century before England thought to avail 
herself of Cabot's discovery, by planting colonies. The first landing in Virginia found 
the tribes of Algonquin lineage in possession of the Atlantic coasts, extending 
northwards. The local names of the tribes were preserved, but the limits of their 
possessions, and their numbers, were mere objects of conjecture. Information on these 
points could not be obtained, and the subject was ever a matter of Joubt. As the 
country became settled, other stocks of tribes were found, extending southwardly to 
the Gulf of Mexico, northwardly along the Atlantic, reaching to the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, and westwardly to the Mississippi. Conjecture and estimates scarcely 
aimed to fill up the general outlines of the aboriginal numbers. The Indian mode of 
life is itself calculated to lead to error on this head. Tiioy are a people who rove 
over vast spaces, occupy the land very sparsely, and by their rpiick movements and 
yells under excitement, create an idea of numbers which is very fallacious. Five 
hundred Indian warriors, turned loose in the forest, occupy grounds which would 
suffice for five thousand, if not fifty thousand civilized persons, or regular troojis. 
The celerity with which they move — the tumult they make — and their wild, Aral)- 
like, or oriental costume and arms, give them, at once, a picturesque and formidable 
appearance. It is believed that every officer who has marched against them, from the 
early dajs of Virginia and Massachusetts, to the formidable military expeditions of 
Braddock, Bouquet, and Bradstreet, has greatly magnified their numbci's. yimilar 
exaggerations prevailed in the armies during the epoch of the American Revolution, 
and the succeeding campaigns of Ilarmcr, St. Clair, and Wayne. Nor do the data at 
our command lead to the supposition, that a much greater degree of accuracy in esti- 
mating their numbers was made in the campaigns of Gcnls. Harrison and Jackson, or 
Scott and Taylor, Avhile operating in Florida or the Mississippi valley. It is astonish- 
ing what mistakes this great difliision of the Indian forces, brought into the field, has 
led to in all periods of our history. 

The earliest accounts of the Indian pojjulation begin in this state of conjecture and 
uncertainty. A guess is put for a fact — a supposition for the results of an in([uiry. 
Agreeably to Captain Smith, there were 5000 Indians within sixty miles of James- 
town in 1590. Mr. Jefferson informs us, that when the first eflfcctual settlement of 
Virginia was made, in 1G07, the littoral and forest tribes between the Potomac and 
James river, extending to the mountains, contained upwards of forty difl'erent tribes, 
including the Monacans or upper tribes.' He represents the territories lying south 

' These tribes were of Iroquois iinean-e. Thoy were locatcil entirely aliove the falls of the Icadinjr Virginia 
rivei-s. Their langna<:c was so diverse from tlie J'owhataiiie dialects, whicli were of the Al,L'Oii(|uin jTroup, that 
not a word could be understood without interpreters. They were called also Tui^earoras in the early poriud uf 
Virginia. Mr. JelVersou reveals the faet ( p, 155), that the Kries, called liy him Krigas, who had formerly 




.i '. 

of the Potomac, (omprchondiiip; the Powhatanic confetleracy, to consist of about 8000 
inhabitants, of whom l/mti in t< n wove warriors. This denoted 2400 figliting men. 
(Notes on Virginia: London, A.D. L7SS, p. I-IU.) It apiiears that when the Virginia 
Legishxtnrc turned its attention to tiie number of the Indian tribes within its bounds, in 
Kid'J, (Vide Title XV., Population and Statistics), they were reduced to 518 warriors, oi 
2()00 per.sons, denoting a decline of over two-thirds the entire popnlation in sixty-two 
years. Of tlie forty coast and midland tribes, nothing further api)ears in an olbcial form, 
and tliev seem to liave reached the lowest point of their depression at the date of Mr. 
Jefferson's Notes, in 17S1.' The acconnt he gives of tiic Virginia tribes is the most 
a\ithentic extant. " Very little can now be discovered of the subsequent history of 
these tribes severally. The C/i!vhthonio»C3 removed, about tlie year KlGl, to Mdlnjmii/ 
river. Their eliiof, with one from each of the PuDuuil-ict, and Mattaponies, attended 
the treaty of Albany, in inSo. This seems to have been the last chapter in their 
Instory. They retained, however, their separate name !<o late as 170-j, and were at 
length blended with the Ihyiiim/.lcx and Mattaponies, and exist at present only nnder 
their names. There remain of the ]\Iattaponies three or four men only, and they 
have more negro than Indian jjlood in them. They have lost their language — have 
roiiueed themselves. In' volinitary sales, to about Cil'ly acres of land, which lie on the 
river of their own name — and have, I'rom time to time, been jt)ining the Pammdvies, 
from whom they are distant but ten nnles. The Pamnnkies arc reduced to about ten 
or twelve men, tolerably pure from mixtnre with other colours. The older ones among 
them, preserve their language in a small degree, which are the last vestiges on earth, 
so far as we know, of the Powhatan language. They have about three hundred acres 
of very fertile land on Pamunky river, so encompas.scd by water that a gate shuts in 
the whole. Of the Nottoways- not a male is left. A few women constitute the 

oeeupioil tliu ()\\\o viilli-y (aiul were tlion, h\ iiircicnco, i]i Viiiiiiiiii aiul North Carolina, cast of tlie Alli^lia- 
nics), wrro also nf kiiulroil laiiiruuL'i^ .inil had boloiii:cd to the Aovk of the Tivc Xatioiis, or, as tlicy were i-alled 
b;y' the \'iriiiiiia Indians, Mtismwdmark. 

' ^'crlJal information on wliioh we rely deserihes the existence of a remnant of the Aecomac;; < C \ iri;inia 
in the eount)' of Xiirthani]iton. Of their numbers and eondition nothing is known. It is .'i'lSO stated that 
there are nine deseondants of the Nottoways rcsidini; in that state, in anialL'aniation with the Afriean raee. 
Ilavinj; called the attention of the lion. Henry A. Wise, of \'irL'inia, to this subject, he informs me, through 
the intervention of Dr. (larnett, that the GiiiL'askins, a part of the Aeeomae tribe, had their lands in common 
as late as 1S12. The principal seat of the Acconiae tribe was the upper part of Aecomac — the Oiniraskins 
livin;; near Eastvillo in Northampton county. ]n Jsl2 an act was passed, dividing their lands, which were 
bold by them till the Xata (^Xat Turner) insurrection, say ISol!, when they were treated as free negroes, and 
driven olf. 

- This word appears to be of Algoni|uin orijiin. Nadoway, in the dialects of the western and lake Algon- 
(juins, as the Chippewas, Ottawas, I'ottawattoniics, itc. — is the term for an Iroiiuois. It is a derogative term 
in those languages; e(|uivalcnt to that of viper or beast, from their striking in secret. It is a compound word, 
having its apparent origin in Xtu/n, an adder, and .\ir<isti; a beast. Agreeably to Mr. Jefierson, the Notto- 
ways, together with the Tntcloes or Meherrics, were Monacans — who were of the generic language of the 
Troijunis. It was not, therefore, a term of their own bestowal, but was probably a tribal, or rather a niik- 
namo, of the I'nwhatanic tribes. 



remains of that trilw. Thoy arc soatoil on .Southampton river, on very fertile land. 
At a very early periotl, certain lands were marked out and appropriated to these 
tribes, and were kept from encroachment by tiie authority of the laws. They have 
usually had trustees appointed, wliose duty it was to watch over their interests, and 
guard them from insult and injury." Such was the fate of the coast-tribes of Virginia! 
It exhibits a noble policy of their statesmen and legislators, to stay the decline of a 
race, who were hastening to their extinction by the use, or rather the misuse, of means 
which would, if indulged, consign them to degradation. It was the littoral tribes of 
that state which, however, sullered most severely from the contact with Europeans. 
'J"he upper tribes, who were of Iroquois lineage, were loss exposed to deteriorating 
inlluences. " The Monacans and their friends," continues he, '-better known latterly 
as Tdsninmts, were probably connected with the Massawoinacs, or Five Nations. For, 
though we are told their languages were so dilVerent, that the intervention of inter- 
preters was necessary between them," yet do we also learn that the Erigas,^ a nation 
Ibrmerly inhabiting on the Ohio, were of the same original stock with the Five 
Nations, and that they partook also of the Tuscarora language.^ Their dialects 
miiiht, by long separation, have become so unlike as to be so unintelligible to one 
another. We know that in 1712, the Five Nations received the Tuscaroras into their 
roulederacy, nuvking them the sixth luition. Tliey received the Meherrins, or Tiitelos, 
also into their protecti(ni; and it is most probable that many other of the kindred 
tribes, of whom we find no particular account, retired westwardly in liiie maimer, and 
were incorporated into one or other of the western tribes."^ (Notes on Virg., p. loCi.) 
Without encumbering these pages with details, which are at best fragmentary and 
conjectural, of the aboriginal population, at the epochs of the settlement of the several 
colonies, it may be assumed that the rate of decrease in the littoral trijjes, which is 
indicated in the history of Virginia, prevailed in the other colonies. Glimpses, and but 
glimpses, of this protracted period of decline can be given, but they testily to the same 
general end. ''^'■i; landing in Virginia was made in the far-spreading territories of the 

Smith. ' Evans. 

' Tliis i|ueiition i.< cx.iniinod in Vol. III., p. 2SS; also in A'ol. IV., p. 1!17. Light ia furthermore thrown 
on the obscure topio in Indian hi.story by tlio document respecting the history of the Cutawhas of South Caro- 
lina, published in Vol. IV., p. 29!i. Lewis Kvans, in his Oco.L'raphical Memoir, communicates some valuable 
traditions on this subject, denotinjr the track of the Eries after their defeat to have been, at fivst, into the Ohio 
v.illey ; ami finally south-eastwardly into the reiiion of the Carolinas. (ieoi;raiihical, Historical, &c., Mssays. 
The first ]iart containing an analysis, etc. I'hila., ]5. Franklin and V. Hall, A.D. 175.3. 1 vol. 4to., o2 pp., 
with an elaborate map of Hritish America. 

' This view of the decline of the Monacan stock of Virginia is confirmed by all we know of their history. 
All the sympathies of Virginians were with the I'owliatanic tribes. The Jlouacans, who occupied the eo\intry 
at the foot of the AUeglianies .and above the falls of the Virginia rivers, were their natural enemies at the era 
of the colonization, and indeed during the whole history of Virginia, and when dilliculties occurred with the 
aborigines, they naturally sided with the Powhatanie tribe.i. 




1 If 

: t 



AlgoiKjuin' family of tribes. As tlic oilier colonioH arrived, and planted themselves 
aloii^- the Atlantic northward and eastward, they were snrroinided hy trilies of tiio 
Haine generie stock. Tims, the Englisli in iMassaehusetts and New Kngland geni-ndly, 
tlie Hollanders on tlie sea-coasts of New York and New Jersey, the (^takers of I'enn- 
^^Ivania, and the Dutch and Swedes of the present area of Delaware, were environed 
by tribes of Algonqnin lineage, however they diflercd in names and dialects. The 
tribal names they bore were, indeed, no test of tribal or national aflinity, having 
reference to the parent stock, being generally taken from sonic geographical or other 
peculiarity of an entirely adventitious character. Tims, the generic naniv. of the 
Massachusetts Indians appeal's to be a derivati\c from the Blue Hills of that State, 
visible from the islands off that; the Narragansetts, from an arm of the sea; the 
Pequots, from the blunt-headed arrow; the Mohicans, from a wolf; the Manhattans, 
from a whirlimol ; and the Metoacs of Long Island, from an impression that tlie land 
Wiis under the power of enchantment by their medawas. After passing the Hndsou 
westward, the various tribes were still more closely related to the sub-generic Lenni 
Lenapce or Delaware stock of this group. They extended to, and sontli of, the 
Delaware river, to the confines of the Suscpiehanna, and to Chesapeake ba}'. Here 
were encountered the Susqnehannocks, Nanticokes, and their cognate triljes. The 
same stock prevailed .-outli of the Chesapeake, not only tliniiighont all tlie sea- 
board front of Virginia, but, agreeably to Law.-son, to the Pamticos^ of North Carolina. 
Taking the map of tin; United States, and running back on the ethnological track 
northwardly and eastwardly, the Algonquin trilies extended, throughout New England, 
and New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, to the Micmacs and Melecites of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence and the islands within it. At the settlement of New England, it wr..; 
estimated by Goodwin that there were twenty distinct tribes within its limits. It is 
stated by Edwards ((>I)serv. on the Muhekenew Language) that these all spoke 
dialects of the same language. They agreed, also, in general manners and 
customs, traditions and character. They referred to the Sontli for their origin. 

' Ar.doMEQiTXS. — For this word wc arc imlubttMl to the missionary and historical writers of New Franco. 
Tlic term itself, first enijpaiycd hy the T ench of Montreal, is apprehended to have, originally, meant oidy, 
/III jiii,ji/i ij'ilii- nt)i,r niih . in eoutradistinetion to the Iro(iuois tribes, who dwelt on this (the south) side of 
the St. Lawrence. (Vide Vol. I., p. ."(Jfi.) It was a frreat advance, however, to our means of di.scussion, to 
have a term diually L'eneric to that of Irocjuois, which they also invented from Indian roots, for the wido- 
fpreadin;; .stock of Indian tribes whose migrations extended over so long a line of the continent. 

^ Kiiijlish. Alijiinipuiis. Ptimliiii (jKjh'). 

Awl Mi^rpise Moccose. 

Two Xeshwa Nishinauk. 

Three .Nishtnnna (thirty) Nishwonncr. 

Blanket Hhitattosh (of beaver .>^kin) Malto.'^h. 

AVhite Wabii^haii (thiiii;) Wdp-posliaa-niiish. 

Ucd Mi.-kush (hill)... Miscn>h. 

I'dwdcr I'inkwo (fine grains) l'nn.|iie. 

Axe Tomahawk Tommahick. — [Liiwsun.j 




It wns in that quarter, ogrecably to Kogm- William?, that their benevolent God, 
Kaniantowit,' lived. To him they ascriixd the gift of the Zoa maize; and it is 
inferable, both from Williams and from the other ministerial and missionary writers 
of the pt-.iod, who have recorded the ln<'ian traditions, that the track of migration 
of the ancestors of these tribes had been from the Sontii, and by the shores of the 
Atlantic, till they were arrested by the gn-at estuary of the St. Lawrence. 

Turning the view westward, from this, point, up the 8t. Lawrence river, into the 
great lake basins, and west of them, to the Mississippi valley, the Algonquin class of 
tribes were fomid, on the discovery, to ha -e ovcrsi)rea(l that region. Keeping the left 
shores of the St. Lawrence, and avoiding Il*ochelaga and its southern environs, possessed 
by the L'oqnois, they ascended the Out iwas branch to lakes Nepising and Huron. 
From the latter they migrated, through die straits of St. Mai'yV, to Lake Siq)erior-; 

' KvMANTDWiT. —Of this wunl, its iieiulous, .V.inl'i, doniitps its origin in tlio general torni of the New 
I'hidiinil trilirs for (loci. Kliot spi'lls it .l/a/uV.-., in liis [ntlian Hiblr, hl.xoilns xx. '_', whire he gives tlu^ 
plinise " MMniitfoom" f'nr "my Ooil." A'-i is cniiil(i.yeil in the same work (.kx. 1) as an atlirmative jiartielo. 
It is a term of rrequent ami varied uae in the lanciuage, Tlie intleition iV, is the intcrehangeable for iil, in the 
Chippewa (vide Vol. II. p. 411), where it is used a.s an infleetive pronoun of the third person singular. The 
intleition /./, chanL'es verbs ending; in ',; in the indieative, to the declarative voiec of the infinitive (Vol. II., 
p. !!i)1). This is what liaraija means, in his Oehipoui (iranimar, by the "ehangc." Tbo letter «■, in this 
word, is thrown in for eniihony's sake, and has no meaning by itself. 

-Agreeably to the traditions of llie lale Mr. AV. Warren, of Luke Superior (vide Vol. II., p. l:!.")), the 
Odiiirwa trilie iirst formed aeqnaintanee with the Whites eight generations ago, which, putting the generations 
at thirty years, gives the date A. I>. 1(!1(). This tallies very well with the pi^ietieal settlement of Canada by the 
I'reneli, in ItiDli. Jiut the tradition atlirms that they had long belore had their scat of couneil at Chegoimegon 
on tliat lake, the modern Lapointe. Aecording to eijuiputations made by him, it had taken the tribes, of whom 
theChijjpewas are the eliief nation, eight hundred years, from the time they left the eastern seaboard, to reaeh 
their present position ; eonsequently, they must have left the shores of the .Vtlantie in the seventh eentury .\. n. 
It is the tradition, that one of tlu'ir great wars, on their lim^ of migration, was against a powerful peojile, called 
JIi'.ndvva; and that other enemies, who opposed then> after reaching the lakes, were Nadowaig, Odagumaig, 
AbwoinuL', and Omameeg — which are, rcspeitively lro(|Uoi.s, Koxcs, i^ioux, and Maumes. 

Comparing the Chippewa or Odjihw.i language with the Natic, as recorded by the Indintt apostle Kliot, 
there is an amount of pldlological testimony to this tradition, which is extraordinary, when the great geogra- 
phical distance and the long era of .separation arc considered. 

Kiijllsli. Xnl!'-. O'ljihirci. 

God Manitoo, Kliol's ISible, Vol. I., 2S^* IMcmedo. 

Devil M.nmitoosh 

My father Xoosh 

Kye, face \\'n,ske.-uk 

Tooth AVcepit 

Foot AVusiet 

Heart I'ttah 

Flesh Weyau.s 

Town Otan 

Kettle Olikeck 

Shoe .^lnknssin 

Legging Mctas 

Snow Koon 

tlen. -24. 2(1 .Alouctoush (liad spirit). 

C!cn. 22. V Nos. 

.loh 2S. 10 Oskezhig 

.Iob2i). 17 Weebid. 

liev. 10. 2 Ozid. 

Joh:!l. 17 Oda. 

(len. t!) AVeaus. 

Josh. S. S Odanuh. 

,lob41. 20 Ahkeek. 

Lnke 10. 4 Mnkaziu. 

Han. :i. 21 Metos. 

dob 21. 1 Klin. 


The whole of the vocabularies have striking general reseuiblauees. 



•S 1 

wliencc tlioy proceeded west to the .sources of tlic Missis.sippi river, and ivcrosn tlio 
Kiiiiiy Lake Miiniuiit to the Lake of the Woods, and to Lake Wiiiiii[)eek. Maekeii/ie 
inrorinH UH, that they extended tlieir migration northward to the Ihrtai/i: dn Trait of 
the great Mi.ssinippi ' or Ciiinch-liill river of Hudson's Bay, where tliey encountered 
the Athapasca stock of trihes. (Hist. Fur Trade, p. 73.) 

In tliis diffusion of the Algonquins, north and west of the great lakes, and over the 
barren and rugncd hititudes nortii of Lake Superior and west of Hudson's Bay, 
geograi)hical phenomena and position divided tliem into numerous local bands, wiio 
si)e;ik juere dialects of the parent tongue, and they arc by no means entitled to be 
deemed indei)enilent tribes. Such are the Kebiks,^ or MonUtlii'icru, Maskigos, Nope- 
mings, Nopisings, Crees, or Kenistenos, Odjibway, Odawas, Pottawattomies, Mono- 
monies, Miscotins, &e. — names which, divested of their aboriginal garb, mean, respec- 
tively, Mountaineers, Bogmen, Ldanders, People of the Nepising Lake, Killers, 
Sibilant or Hissing Voices, Trading People, People who make an independent 
Council-Fire, Wild Rice-makers, Prairie Lidians, &c. To search for analogies of 
etymology amid such mere incidental term.s which were sometimes imposed in irony 
or jest,-^ as some writers have done, is a mere waste of philological labor. 

An element of the Algonquin stock, as denoted by vocabularies, is found in one of 
the leading tribes, who inhabit the Saskatchiwine river, between Red river of the 
Winnepock Lake and the Rocky Mountains. The pecple speaking this language 
ajipcar to have been remarkable, wherever they sojourned, \')v their and 
vigor as hunters and warriors. Red river appears to have been the avenue up which 
the Algonquins returned south, to rejoin tribes who had proceeded into the Mississippi 
valley from lakes Huron and Michigan. Their line of migration extends from Pem- 
bina, by the Otter-tail Lake, to the point at Sauc river, above St. Anthonj's Falls, 
where they crossed the Mi.ssissippi, into eastern Minnesota and north-western Wis- 
consin, ultimately reaching the waters of Green Bay and Chicago. Thence they 
spread south, down the Hlinois, to Peoria and Kaskaskia, and the mouth of the 
Ohio. The original area of the States of Illinois, Lidiana, Ohio, and Michigan, was 
occupied, with .slight exceptions, l)y tribes of the Algonquin stock.'' The intrusive or 

' riom miss!, niucli, many, eoiifrrpgatod, an J ni'hl, water — a term carefully to be distiuguLshed from 
Mis.sif^siiipi, meaning great or much and ri.ers. 

^ The name Quebec is believed to have had it.s orii,'in in this word. K'hik is a term of exclamation lor 
Indian eanoeuun passing; tlio rocky coast of the .'^t. Lawrence at this point. It means, Imcarc nf il,i- rnch. 

' The term Ariiinnnhik is the Iroquois equivalent for Algonquin. It means Hark-eaters, liaving been given 
in derision, from the straits to which the Algonquins were sometimes driven in their forays into the Iroquois 
country. Ki</.-iip"'> is a phrase jestingly applied to one of the Algonquin tribes by others of the same stock. 
It is believed to be abbreviated from Xegik-abos, meaning an otter's ajiparition. liu-nin is the Chippewa term 
for a S^ioux. It means, a .spit — a roasting-stiek, in allu.'^ion to the cruelties practised by the Sioux in their wars. 

' Sectional View of tlie Kthnology of the Mii;.sissippi A'alley, I'late 21, Vol. III., p. 90. The leading 
tribes of this valley, of Algonquin lineage, at tlie first .settlement of the country by Europeans, were the 
following : — 

-!i i 


intorcnlatetl tribes in the same area, were mombcrs of tho Iroquois, or cnnfodoration 
of tlie Six Nations of Now Yorit— namely, tiie Oneidas, Mohawk, Onondagas, ( 'a} iij,'as, 
SoiiccaH, and Tiisfiiroras - the hitt(>r of which onl^v, were of modern date in tiieir 
entry into the region. tribes were generally called Mingoes, in the West. 
The Wyandots were of this generic stock, but of far earlier dates of migration ; 
Laving left the valley of St. Lawrence about tho time of the settlement of Canada by 
the French. The Winnobagoes — a Dacota tril)o with an Algoiifjuin name — wore 
celebrated for their inlluence in western Indian aflairM. There had been, at an early 
time, other tribe.'*, who lied lieforo the Iroquois power, taking temporary shi'lter, in 
their Uight, in the Ohio valley, prominent among which were the Erigas, Andastes, &c. 
There were vestiges and evidences of cidtivation and occupancy by .still Kir/irr tribes, 
•who had cast their rude defences, and earthen-works, ditches and mounds, to testily of 
early and forgotten struggles for the occupancy of tho country. Iroquois tradition 
refers these to ancient wars against southern tribes, who were driven, at anto-historioal 
periods, out of the Mississippi valley (vide Cusic). These vestiges and connniniitics 
of semi-civilized and of nomadic tribes will be considered under tho head of Antiquities, 
and may be appropriately dismis,scd in these outlines. 

In this brief view of tho ethnographical track of migration, the Algonquin tribes aro 
perceived to have revolved in an irregular circle, or ellipsis, of some three thousand 
miles diameter, returning at last, to complete the circle, to the Mississippi valley. 


Jlcliiwarcs Lcnno Liii.ipi, Lunps. 

Sliawiioea Osliawniio, Vluilt. 

Miiimis Oiuamcos, Two Twco 

IVorias "j 

Kakaskias I ,,,. 

,„ f Ulintsc. 


I'iaiikasli.'JWS J 

Ottow.ns Atawas, Atowawas. 

Cliiiipowaa ) »t • • x.. . . ^ .... 

Mi<skiu>"cs I ^''P'^'"^""*"'')^'P's''"'g"" Odjibwa, Santcaux, riiil)wi». 

Kii'kapoos 1 ■,,• ■ -^ . ■ -r ,■ 

Mis' tiii3 f Miscatins, Prairic Indians, Mupcodanig. 

rotLiwottomics I'oiix. 

f^aes Os.-iwkccs. 

Fuses Misquckcc, Riynards. 

At later periods : — 

Kcnistcnos Crccs. 

JIuskcn;os •\ 

Titi' Uimh'os C Nopcmings. 

Gins ih. Term ) 

Miinspcs Delawarcs. 

i^tiifklirid^cs Mi)Iioj.'an.«!. 

TSrothortons lVquut«, \-p. 

Wabun.nkies Various Kastcrii tribes. 

VoT,. V. — (i 



Tlioyni'o first hoard of, in onrly anto-liistorionl poriodn, by Lonapi traditions (American 
I'liilos. Trans,"), crossini,' tlic Mississippi IVoiii llic wrst. It is porccivfd, from the 
piiiir details, tliat the most extri'mc soiithorly pdiiit, on the Atlantic honlors, to whii'h 
they Mi'iv trai'i'd, alter tlie era of the discovery, is the location of the Pamticos of 
North Carolina (Lawson). Soutli of tiiis point, bands of the Irocpiois clement were 
seated. The Monaeans of Viri;inia, and the Tn-scann-as of North Carolina, were of 
this stock. It is a peculiarity in tiie ethnoirraphy of bands, that they wore 
loi-ated at the eastern l)ase of the Appal.acinaii chain, extondini,' to the falls of the 
])rincipal livers llowing into the Atlantic. Tlie Catabas do not appear to have been 
tile original inhabitants of the lands they occupied in the npper part of South Carolina, 
and ha\t' not been arranged in the system of groups; leaving it probable, however, in 
oin- present state of in((uiry, that they were of the lineage and language of the 
Wyandot type of the Iro([Uois family (Vol. III., p. ;2'.1.">). Tiie Santees, Wateree.s, 
and otiier small coast tribes of South Carolina, perished without our having obtained 
vocal)ularies for their languages, beyond the mere indicia of the geographical names. 
The term Cliicora, which was early applied by the Spanish to the tri))cs of these 
coiists, is lielieved to ha\e been more .sjn'cially ajiplied to the ancient Utchees. who 
spread over the oonutry and its sea-islands, e.Ntending between the present cities of 
Charleston an<l Savannah. It is the tradition of the Creeks (vide Haw-kins'), that tlii.s 
tribe were con(piered by them, and carried ofl'and incorjiorated into their confederacy. 

A lew more allusions will be sullicient to fdl up tiiis ethnograjjliieal picture. The 
Appalachian group' occupied all the northern sluavs of the (iulf of Mexico, from the 
capes of Florida to the Mississippi, extending U) the Ajjpalachian chain; in the 
lii^vatod valleys of this chain dwelt the Cherokees, a jieoplo Avho are thought to have 
onco occupied the Mississippi valley above the confluence of the Ohio, from which 
they were disa-^trously expelled (Irofpiois Trad., C'usic). 

Three groups, or ethnological families, thus covered by far the largest area of the 
T'nited States, east of the Mi»issippi : nani"ly. the Algonqnin.s, Tro(inois, and Appa- 
lachians — with the intrusion of a single tribe namely, the Winnebagocs, from the 
Dacota group of the west of the Mississippi, and with the diverse fragmentary elements 
of the Ctchees, the Natchez, and the Aehalaiiue or Cherokees. Such is, at least, the 
arrangement of the tribes, by generic groups and languages, as known at the .settle- 
ment of the country. 

It is. with the nniltiplied tribes of these great aboriginal families or generic groups, 
all lying east of the line of tlie Ivocky Mountains, that our has, almost 
exclusively, existed, from the first planting of the colonies, in luSt, to the termination 

' Till' cliict' liH iiitji'is (if this lain'!'- known to us, in iiimlcrn day.s, iire, tlie Muskojioen, C'liickii.saws, and 
riiiii t:i\vs, It iinl)iiii:('il liy (•oii'|iic..-t, Ijiil Hot laiij^iiiiL:c', llir I'tclu'os ami Xati'lioz, iind alisorlicd in it.s liistory 

till' iiumri'nns I I bands and IrilM's cf t'oosas, Alaliainas, AiialMcdn-s, \c., wlio s|iiiki' ('ofiiiatc diali'ds. 'I'Im' 

Clicrokt'i'S wcri' iliU'crcnl 




of Hio Mexican war. in 184S — a period of two linndred and fixt.v-four vear,i. rcacliiiiir 

from (lie rei,i.'n of (^lecii Kli/iiiietli to tlie Presideney of .fames Knox I'olk, l-'or nwf 

liimdred and ninety-two years of tins jioriod, tlie poliey pursned respeeliM;^' tlnin lias 

been tliat of Great Uritain. For tlie last seventy-nine years it has lieeii tliiil o( 

Amerieii. How fir these systems of poliey have run parallel, and at what positions 

they have dill'ered, niny he stated at the se(piel. rom])arisons of the condition of the 

tiilies, are not easily instituted, without appaivnt invidionsni'ss, under phases of the 

Jiidian history so radically diverse. The Kuroiieaii jrovernnients, liaindiu;.' their 

.s(nerei;.'nties on the Jmr ilirinu of univorsiil interpretation, exercised its power over 

the disposal of all lands and territories occupied hy the liarharoiis trihes of IIk! 

countries discovered; taUini; the latter nnder i;uardiaiiship. as not heiiiu: capable of 

soveri'ljiii acts, or sound discretion in the inanaL'eiiieiit of their interests; and inakin^r 

pacilications and " contentments," from time to time, for intrusions on their Icnitoriis 

or huiiliii;,' uroniids. The wild trihes possessed, truly, the l)alance of jiower. They 

could disturb or break np the new settlements; and, had they not been stiikiiidy 

deficient in the power of combination, they would have swept away the colonists at, 

these earlier peritids. To conciliate and pacify, to explain and redress acts of 

incidental injustice, to prevent combinations for hostile pnrposes, and to direct the 

minds of the Indians to the leading truths of labor and civilization, became the 

jreiieral olyects of, as they have been of American poliey. Indian wars 

were occasional, and of short duration, during the whole period, and they were wa;.'ed 

with jirccisely the same ulterior views. The policy was pre-eminently that of ])eace, 

and not of war; and when war ensued, the aim was to reform, nut to destroy them. 

Such was the system of England, Holland, France, and Sweden; as it had previously 

been that of Spain and Portugal in South America. The colonial governors stood 

between the tribes and the throne, as representatives of the king. To prevent 

niisa[)preliensions among an ignorant and ,sn.spicions people, they employed a chiss of 

Executive Agents, to reside near or amongst the Indians. When Kiigland and 

France went to war, the Indian tribes in their int'-rest also engaged in hostilities. In 

the patriarchal language of the tribes, the terius of a father and his children were 

cniplojed. This plea.sed the Inlians; and established n political relation which they 

fully understood. In this system of management of the Indian ad'airs, the dynast ii's 

of the Tudors, Stuarts, and fiuelph.s, were one. The same poliey prevailed during 

the whole history of the colonies. It was indeed an epoch, however long, when the 

European migrations were inmli rale, and rei(uired but little land. The new-comers 

introduced thcm.sclves in an easy way; the Indians lived and died on their ancient 

limits, without seeing their lands torn away, or greatly curtailed; and the tribes 

were not alarmed by threatening tides of Transatlantic migration. 

The theory of patriarchal relations was one very consonant to the feeling.s of the 
Indians. They were poor financier.s; they lacked forecast; they never strove to 





iicciiiiiiiliito wcaltli. iialiitiial or iici'smial ; tlicv w^■\v mow tliaii liair.Hiis|iii'ii)i:M iirix-iii^ 
iiiaili'i[(iatt' ti) the \visi> iiiaiia.:j('iiu'ii( of tiii-ir own alliiiix, ami .sii|i|ii).''i'(l thai the 
I'l'latiuiiM of a I'atlii'r ti) liis I'liiidicn K'cnn'il tlicm, in lui riiiiall ilcj.";!'!'!'. IhiiIi airainst 
wiiiits 1111(1 t'lU'iiiics. It was to npliitlil this iniilual H_ysti'in (if sviii|ialliii's, that Sa;ra- 
raiitii (Kiiiir llrmlrick) It'll, in tlic iVimt uf t hi' Ihiush army, at fjakc (ifoiyc, in I7"i'i. 
(ii'ii. Hradddrk paid the InrlMt nj' his lili.-, in the same year, west ol' tin- Allc^-dianii-s, 
in a stniL'L'le to carrv out tlii' Hrilish policy. Novcr liiul tin re iiicn, in Aim rica, ii 
military oxpcdition at all coinparahU' to this. He liad more than doiililo the nninhcr 
of men with which Dc Soto landed in Florida, in I'llO, and the laiue. peril, ami 
gramleiir ol' the eNjiedition aronseil the intensi'st of all the ('olonies. 

For the nninlier and names of the several trihes; of their popnlalion and streiijrth 
nt various jicriods; and of their history and wai's, ti'aditions and cnstonis, other 
poi'llons of these p;iges are referred to. 

Declension seems to have heen written on their history from the hepinninir. lly 
whatever nnitations of history they were leil to adopt the how and arrow, and to 
pnrsne the clmse, ns means to secure their liappiness, they could not have fallen 
more infiniti'ly .short of the mark, if .snll'erinj? under the Simeonic dcfitiiiy — '"Thou 
slialt not excel." That so many of the sni.'dl and local trihes should have perished 
lieliire they had atlraclcd much attention, and that m.'iny more shonlil have sold or 
e.\i;han,iied their surplus lands for locatiouH in the West, where they would he com- 
jmrutively out of tho way of disii!rl,aii<-e, is undouhtedly true, l^ut the fact is not so 
remarkable, as that niii/ of them should ,so lonj^ have withstood the In IIkiii blighting 
shock of civilization. 

The (irst thoujrht of the Indian, when lie began Kensii)ly to feel thid shock in it.s 
wasting effects, was, to rei)air his fortunes l)y ilccing bo^'ond the Alleghanies. Many 
of the leading tribes attributed their remote origin to that (piarter. They liave, from 
early times of their traditions, as before indicated, regarded the West and South-west 
as the scenes of benign inlluences ; and it i.s, particularly, in the undefined regions of 
the West, that they locate their paradise and hapjiy hunting ground.s, after this life is 
closed. The first tribes who began to repair to this region, and to fall back on their 
original track, by crossing the Mississippi from the East, were the Delawares and 
Shawnecs. two well-known tribes of the Algonquin stock have been intimate 
allies, in peace and war. during the whole period of our history*. From a tra<1ition, 
which is incidentally recorded in one of our treaties, p. ;")l(l, it appears that .so early 
as 17'.)('), they had obtained permission from tho Spanish Govcriior-Cieneral Carondalet 
to settle and hunt in Up|)or Louisiana. 

To employ an aboriginal metaphor, " tho Indian liod long discerned a dark cloud 
in the atmosphere, moving from the East, which threatened disaster to liim. Slowly 
rising at first, it seemed but a .shadow. But it .soon became tiio substance; and. as it 
reached the summits of the Alleghanie.s, deep murmurs, as of thunder, were heard — 




, OilllT 

'\t ai-Miiiiicd a (liirkcr Iiih' — it wiim impcIltMl loiwiinl hy slnmu' t<'m|M'sts of wiml, iiml 
it iliirtfil Diit forkcij liL'litiiiiijr-'." This ciund wuh tin- hmiiIioI til' (•i\ ili/alinii — of 
ictliTH, lalioiir, mill CliriMtiaiiity, wliicli tlnvntciu'tl to Hiibiltio tlio tiilifM JM-I'Dri' il. or 
to Hwocp tlifiii I'loiii tlic coiitiiuMit. I'(iiitia(i ()|i|i(isc(l iiims'ir t(i tliis .xiuiiliri' cloud, in 
I7'»!l, when lio saw tlic French llaj,' stnicU in America, and the Uritish elevated in its 
stead. His stioiifr lijiuie — deli\i'rr(l to the liiitish iiiru'er who came uitli a, Inrcc 
to reap the I'niits ol" the takin;;' of <^iil)(«c — remains, to attest the Indian fei'linj,' of 
the period: "I stand in the [lath!" He saw, in the menacing; An^^lo-Saxoiis, tin- 
element, which was (U-stined, in his view, to exterminate the Indian race. When lie 
liail assemhled the chiefs of the nations in coinicil, to unl'old to them iiis sclK'mcs. his 
tliongiits kindled, as he depicteil the coming rush of the White man from tiie honlers of 
the Atlnntic, till he ronchod his peroration, nnd e.vclainied, to the armed and hrijiht-eyeil 
midtitnde, 'Drive tlioso dogs in rod clothing into the sea!" (Cass' Discourse heforu 
the Micliijian Hist. Soc.) Fifty years later, the Shawanoe leader, Tecniiiseh. repeated 
the attempt to drive back the threatening masses of civilization ; and. like Pontiai-, his 
jirototype, to hurl them back, he made the western valleys run with blood. Ftn* 
many years, his voice had been potential in western nt'gotiations. He plotted the 
consi)iraey of the Wabash. Knowing the Indian character wi'll, ho peni'trated into 
its secret recesses by the Indian priesthood, and roused up the Indian mind to a great 
ell'ort, to stem and roll back the tide of While men. With devotion and heroism 
beyond his Ih-itish allies, he assailed, with entire abandon, the impinging force. 
Tippecanoe and River Kaisin connnomorate his ire. Ambuscade and massacre are, 
with the aborigines, nodes of honorable warfare; but those acts of a mad foe, only 
.served to wake n\} a more determined resistance to the last great rally of barbarism 
and super.stition; and he forfeited lii.s life in this vain ell'ort to restore the hunter- 
empire in America. 

Ihit the war of IS 12, of the Algonrpiin group of the West, did not, however 
disastrous to the aboriginal tribes, arrest the attempt of the Appalachian gnaip of the 
South to make another eflbrt to regain the lost .sovereignty of America. This 
ellbrt was the expiring throe made by the Ap[)alachian family — the Creeks, or 
Muscogees, placing themselves in the front. From the of the war with Great 
IJritain, in ISl-j, they \nu\ continued lor two or three years, with great obstinacv and 
c(jurage, under the leadership of Tuscaloosa, to wage a sanguinary war against the 
Southern frontiers. Tecumseh, who had visited this tribe about ISll, in the days 
of his power, preaching up a crusade against the Whites of the frontiers. Avas, by 
the mother's side, a Creek, and the memory of his stirring ai)peals was yet fresh 
in their minds. The formidable character of this ellbrt brought (Jeneral .Taekson 
into the field, from his retirement at Nashville. Jle prosecuted it with great vigor 
and decision. lie enforced disci[)line among his own trooi)s with the energy of Cu'sar. 
Having overthrown the Creeks in .several decisive actions, and (hiding the war to rest 

! I 



on a Spaiii.sli clement of ullianco and ,siii)port in Florida, ho pursued thorn nnd their 
allies, the Scniinoles, into that |)rovinc'e, and captured its principal lortresses. Those 
events laid tho foundation of the acquisition of Florida. With the .'-Mblinie act of 
the voluntary surrender of himself, made by Tuscaloosa, upon whoso head a price had 
boon fi.Kod, the war closed. Tho Creeks, and the Appalachians generally, ga\e up tho 
idea, so long popular among tho Indians, of opposing force against tho Americans, 
and restoring the Indian power in America. 

Twelve joars later (1832), the restless Sacs and Foxes, instigated by tho counsels 
of the Chief Black Ilawk, renewed the contest in the West; and after a sanguinary 
and destructive campaign, during which Asiatic cholera rtrst broke out among tho 
troops, his army was defeated, and himself taken prisoner, at the battle of Badaxe, 
on the Upper Mississippi. Defeated in the North, tho South, and the West, the 
homo-tribes of the frontiers, east of the line of tho Mississi[)pi, became convinced 
that a peaceful policy was better fitted to promote their prosperity. Since this 
period, they have addressed themselves to agriculture and tho arts. They have 
received teachers, and applied their eflbrts to master tho problem of civilization. 
They have also admitted the axiom, that the Indian communities cannot exist, in 
prosperity, within the boundaries of tho States. One tiibe after another has con.sented 
to (lis[)()se of their lands and improvements; and, carrying along their teachers and 
the arts, have removed to the west of tho Mississip[)i, and to the waters of tho 
.Missouri. A revival and very striking improvement of their condition has been the 
ivsult, with all the industrial and temperate tribes. They have erected schools and 
academics with a part of their aiuniities. They raise large stocks of cattle and horses. 
They cultivate extensive (lelds of Indian corn and tho cereal grains. They erect 
substantial dwelling-houses and farms. They build mills, and manufactories of 
articles of first necessity. They have, to a considerable extent, .idopted the European 
costume and the English language. The principal tribes have organi/od systems of 
government, courts, and civil codes. The writings of their public men compare 
very well with those of politicians of the frontier States and Territories. Men 
of learning and piety conduct their .system of education; and, in the most advanced 
tribes, no small per-centagc of the population, as com[)ared with European comnnniities, 
in that region, are shown to have adopted Christianity. 



i 3 

I \ 



[4tii Paper, Title II.] 


! t 




1 ij 





General A'iow of the Miiimors ami Customs of Man in the Hunter State. Ahorifrinal 
Man, and the Influence of the Continent on liini. Constitution of the Indian Family. 
J' Toacliinfis. Arts of lluntin;^ and Fishing. Incidents of War — of Peace — 
of ]5irth — of Death. Anmsonu'iits and Gaines. iState of Woman in Savajjc Life. 
Ciiaracteristic Dances of the 1'rihcs. 


General Traits of Indian Mind. Dijrnity of Indian Thouj;ht. Basis of Mental Character. 
Customs denotinir a Foreign Origin. IVrsic and llindoi) Customs. Distinctive Pliascs 
of tlio Hunter State. Its (Jovernnu'nt Patriarchal. Influence of the Wilderness on 
the State of Woman. Costume. Male and Female Costume. AVinter and Summer 
Dress. Implements and Accoutrements in War 


Traits of Parental Afl'ection. Regard for the Demented. Cruelty of the Uarharous 
Trihes to their Prisoners. Instance of Gross Superstition. Manners and Customs 
of the Winiieliagoes and Dacotahs. Cliaracter, and striking Manners and Customs of 
the Moipii and Navajo Trihes of New Mexico. Buffiilo-IIunting on the Western 


Resum<^ of Ohservations thus far. Are the Indian Trihes of Foreign Origin ? Examina- 
tion of their Manners and Customs, Kites, and Religion, in view of this Question. 
Adoration of Fire. Spirit -Worship. Totemic Dond of Fraternity. Suhsisting 
Customs and Reliefs. D;emonology. Human Sacrifice. Indian Ideas of the 
Immortality of the Soul, and Theory of Sensations in Dreams. Relief in the 
Resurrection of Animals sacriflced on the (irave. Final Inadequacy of the Proofs 
dc(lueeil from (Jeneral Ciislnms. (ieneric Conclusions. 





It is said by Gomara, in his history nf tlio Indies, that the greatest wealth of the 
North American Indians consists in the imnrenso herds of the bison, mot in the Latitude 
of about 40°, Pii.i iuiL the animal is susceptible of domestication, yielding an a1)un- 
dance of milk. '•; statement is not the less fallacious for its having been in a 

manner galvani ' a justly eminent writer, after the uniform observation of the 

French and Englisu colonists of America, disafTinning, for more than two centuries, 
the practicability of their domestication.- The bison is still found, in the country 
named, roving in vast herds over the plains of Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota, to 
the banks of the Saskatchewino of Hudson's Bay (vide Vol. IV., p. 02). A figure of 
the animal, and another of the domestic cow, is given, from a daguerreotype, in 
Plato S, Vol. IV., p. 93. A description of the buffalo-hunt, on the plains of Pembina, 
is sul)joincd, from the pen of Mr. Sibley, M. C, which is both interesting and instruc- 
tive in its details, and very valuable, as bringing the observation down to the present 
time. The writer lias himself participated in the exciting scenes of the buffalo chase. 
(Narrative Journal of Travels to the Sources of the Mississipi)i, 1820, Alb., 1 vol. 8vo, 
p. 270.) All visitors and travellers, who have spoken on the subject, coincide in the 
opinion, that the bison is incapable of domestication, and that it is not without 
imminent peril to themselves that the fierce and untamable herds of it are hunted. 
Indians have never made the attempt to tame it, nor is its milk an article which they 

' Viilc Cli.ap. 214, Cosmos, Vol. TI., p. .'iST. 

' The calf of the Uson has often been captured on the froTitiers, and brought up with domestic eatllo. It 
is measurably tamed, but produces no cross. It is utterly barren in thia state. It grows to its 
natural size, and is then slaughtered for beef. It is .stouter and loss mild than the domestic cow, and is 
destructive to fences. 

Vol. v. — 7 (4!1) 

: ' 'I 



vnliio. or cvor tasto. Tt is pvizi'd l)y tliciii solely for its liido and tlcsli ; tlio latter of 
Avliicli is jurki'd, iuiii hocoiiios an article of trallle in the condition of poniniican. 

Indiiin customs aro, to a .i^rcat extent, Ibnnded on the fauna inhabiting that counti'v, 
and many of their rites and superstitions take their complexion frona the objects of the 
chase. The 1)ison has ever been deemed by them one of the prime olijects of hunter- 
prowess and skill. l»ut it has been, from tiie days of Goniara, as a wild and uutame- 
able pjjecies, which 1k' has considered one of the peculiar token.s of a kind Providonco 
to him. in his nonnulic state, and which ho regards only as an object of the cha,se. 
In a recent interview of (lovernor Stevens with the prairie tribes of the buflalo plains 
of the north, he inlbrmed them of the scheme of a contemplated railroad to the 
Pacific, which would infei'ce])t their hunting gi'ounds. An evidi'ut abirm was produced. 
Adhering to the idea that the wild herds of bufl'alo were an inestimable boon to tliem, 
the venerable chief .said : *' The Great Father of Life, who made us, and gave us these 
lands to live upon, made also the bull'alo and other game, to afford us the means of 
life: his meat is our food ; with his skin we clothe ourselves and build our houses; 
he is to us our only means of life — food, fuel,' and raiment. I fear wo shall soon lie 
deprived of the buflalo: then starvation and cold will diminish our numbers, and we 
shall all be swejit away. The litifl'alo is fast disappearing. As the White man advances, 
our game and our means of life grow less; and before many years, they will all be 
goi.o." He resumed — "I hear of a great road, to be built through our lands. We 
do not know what the object of this is; we cannot understand it. but we think it will 
drive away the bullalo." (Ann. Eeport Comm'r Ind. AlVair.s, 1804, p. ISO.) The 
advance of civilization to these tribes was eviilently regarded, not as a blessing which 
was to furnish them new means of subsistence, but as a curse which was to sweeii 
them from the earth. This i.s, em]iliatically, Indian opinion among the hunter-tribes. 
They will not even consent to raise domestic cattle, far less wild. They abhor milk, 
as the cup of an enchanter. 

Here, then, is a palpable misconception of the early Spanish writers, which has been 
sufli>red to How down through the works of writers on the subject for centuries, and 
is still allowed to have inlluence on American minds, while tlie statements arc readily 
believed, in all their grossness, abroad. The in(iuiries which were issued at the 
commencement of those investigations, in 1S17 (vide Appendi.x, Vol. I.), were intended 
to scrutinize the jiopular errors on the subject of Indian manners and customs, rites 
and opinions, and to lay the foundation of more correct and pliilosophic views on the 
topics brought into discussion. It was not an object to enter, to any extent, into the 
description of ordinary and well-known customs, but rather to confine the intention to 
characteristic points which had been misapprehended or overlooked, and by definite 

' With tlio iliinl lacis ul'tlii.-^ !iiiiiii;il, iiickctl up on tlic blciik plains', lie '.luilils lii.s fire 





nppcalH to leading topics of history, laiiguago, ami traits, physical unci intellectual, to 
furnish a now and autlientic standard of judgment. The hope was also entertained 
that some lights might bo brought out, which Avould assimilate them with the 
institutions and languages of the oriental world, whence they appear to bo oflshoots. 
It was remembered that Maupertius had suggested to philosophers the princii)les of 
language, or "plans of thought," as a means of comparing the histories of men, and 
that the Vaters, Adeluugs, and Klaproths of Europe, had been distinguished by their 
researches and learning in thi.s line. To be a follower in this department of research, 
so far as it could be incidentally done, appeared one of the surest means of 
''illustrating" the "Indian life." The problem of their origin and history was deeply 
interesting. In one view, they hang as a cord from the lieavcns. It a])peared 
pn)l)able, nay, almost certain, that they had reached this continent prior to the rise 
of Mahomedanism and of Christianity ; for there is not a trait referable to tiiem, nor 
a lisp of allusion in their traditions. Great antiquity had been ascribed to them by all 
iiKpiirers; and, indeed, the more this subject had been scrutinized, the more cause 
there seemed to assign the Indian tribes to a very remote origin. Alcove all, it was 
believed, that by throwing this living drapery around the body of statistical facts, the 
sul)ject would assume a l)rcadth and importance commending it fully to statesmen 
and legislators, who were inspired by the noble sentiment of performing one of the 
highest classes of duties of civilization to a very nmrked, but depressed, family of the 
races of man. Such was, indeed, the original conception of the mea.surc by the 
legislature, which directed that the statistics should be accompanied by a collection of 
facts and materials illustrating their history, condition, and prospects. (Laws of 
Congress, Sess. 184C-'7, Little & Brown.) And, it is cause of felicitation to remark, 
by a recent enactment, extending and completing the inquiry, that those views are 
recognized as their own interpetation of the act. 

Eliot, in 1031, had colled the attention of the colonies to the Indian. The tribes 
are called, by a quaint writer of the time,' "the ruins of mankind." Iiilluenced, 
doubtless, by the opinions of De Laiit and Erasmus, that they were of the lost Hebrew 
stock, a deep interest had been inspired on the subject. Nor has the lapse of two 
hundred years been able to stille the moral sensibilities of America on the subject. 
During this period, tomes had been written ; but tomes had not solved the problem 
of their origin, or of the peculiarities Mhich pertain to them as a race. On the 
opening of the inquiry, in 1847, Avhen these sketches were commenced, the mere 
manners and customs of the hunter life were not believed to be a topic, respecting 
which, a large amount of absolutely new information could be brought forward. Yet 
it was one which by no means ought to be wholly omitted. The race had ever been 
a prominent theme of description by writers and travellers. Much had been hastily 

Ctiitoii .Mivtlipr. 

I i 


■ (i 


,L 111 

■■ ■ ; J ■ 

'' ii 


observed and written. Wliat was true of particular tribes, liviii}^ in soparato latitude?, 
was not so oi" others (lillerently situated : eliniatic phenomena, tlie animals, and geoura- 
plii(;;il jiosition. had done mneh to ereate tribal peculiarities. These tribal diHerences 
reipiired to lie di'noted in any comprehensive view. There was sullieient, after omitting 
every discrepance of this kind, to justify generalizations, and to regard the race as a 
generic branch of the human family. Prior to the American devolution, the Indian 
country had been visited at long intervals by travellers, who aimed to give more or 
less inl'ormation of the aborigines. The theatre of such observations had been 
cbielly the Atlantic coa.sts. The interior had been iiu'tively visited, and to a 
very limited extent. The Alleghanies had not been cro.ssed, except by Indian 
traders for the of connnerce. IJraddock's march over this range, and 
his defeat, in 17oJ, demonstrated how little foreigners knew of the true points 
of Indian character. The great lake chain was chieliy known to readers from the 
pages of tlie old missionary French authors. The Mississippi had actually been less 
explored than the Nile and the Ganges. There was an amount of uncertainty, 
imprecision, or gross error, as to the numl)er of the tribes in tliat ([uarter, which is 
absolutely startling. In a spirit of exaggeration, millions were put for thousands, 
thousands lor hundreds, .'^iieh had been the estimates and the actual knowledge of 
till' French period, and such hiid iieen the estimates and the ideas of Indian nund)ers 
of the Spanish period, from the respective days of Las Casas, De riet)n, Narvaez, and Do 
tSoto. The Indian was regarded as a mere wilil man of the woods, roving with nearly 
the same principles of action as the bears and panthers he chased; and whatever was 
wild and fierce in manners and customs, rites and opinions, it was thought, might be 
attributed to him. (."^eo the ideas thrown out in the voyages of Cabot, Hudson, and 
\'ert'zani.) Tiiere was, in truth, a singidar succession of jirejudiccd, theoretical, or 
grasping discoverers ami travellers, at early perioils. It was not the age of 
exactitude in observation. Nor did the foll(jwing ages rai)idly improve. One set 
of superficial observers piled their ill-digested adventures among the Indians on their 
predecessors, with so little discrimination or judgment, that it is often dillicult to 
separate [)re-existing prejudices IVom personal observations, or theory from fact. The 
old French writers were [irone to exalt the character and intellect of the Indians; 
the Flnglish writers were as prone to depress it ; the one class were ever ready to excuse 
ferocity, treachery, and ingratitude; the other, to behold the man as destitute of every 
element of mental exaltation: one lifted him up to be a sage and a philosopher; the 
other depressed him tcj be a brute. Charlevoix, one of the most learned, benevolent, 
and candid observers, remarks "that, with a mien and appearance altogether savage, 
and with manners and customs which lavoi- the greatest barbarity, the Indian enjoys 
all the advantages of society. At fiist view, one would imagine them without form of 
government, law. or subordination, and subject to the wihlest caprice; nevertheless, 
they rarely deviate from certain nuixims or usages, Ibundeil on good sense alone, 




wliich holds tlie place of law. and supplies in srimc sort tlio want of authority. 
liiMson alono is capable of ictaininf;' them in a kind of siiboi'dination, not the less 
ellectiial towards the end proposed for bein^- entirely voluntary. They manifest much 
stability in the engagements they have solemnly entered upon, particularly in alllic- 
tiun. as well as in their submission to what they ap[)rehend to bo the iippointnient of 
Providence; in all whicli they exhibit a nobleness of soul, and constancy of mind, at 
which wo rarely arrive, with all our philosophy and religion." (Journal of a Voyage 
in North America, 1721.) 

In his preliminary essay. Vol. I., p. 10. this author admits that the study of the 
Indian languages is the only safe mode of investigating *'o question of origin. 
Alaupertius, in ITtiG, may have been cognizant of this sug^. ■>'' ..n, and it was prol)al)ly 
known to the Empress Catherine of llussia, who directed investigations to the topic. 
^Fr. Jeflcrson appears to have been the first person, in America, to point attention to 
tiie true mode of studying the Indian history by means of vocabularies and grammars, 
and at the same time to disabuse the puljlic mind on the characters of their 
iiuli([uities. This was in ITSl. (Notes on A'irginia. pp. 11 'J and l-"ili. London, 17S7.) 
He intended to write on the sulyect at large, but lost his manuscripts b_\' tlie 
carelessness of a servant in crossing the Rappahannock, and afterwards was called to 
a s[)liei'e of public life wliieli l'orl)ade his beginning anew. (My Personal Memoirs, 
Philadelphia, 1S52.) 

After the close of the American Revolution, the attention of Europe was more 
particularly directed to the aborigines.' Rut the character of the men into whose 
liands the task fell was such as to elicit little new information respecting them, 
while these visits exposed the Republic, and its treatment of the tribes, to no little 
objurgation. Mr. Ilalket published, in London, a severe examination of the treatment 

' ClmstcUoux, Voliu'v, iiiul r'liatciiulii-i:ui(l, visited tlio country, unci wrvU' cnnnnonts on it and its al)urii.'incs. 
■William lliiiiiljoldt jilacid himself in tlio fnmt rank of tlio idiiluloiiists of Kiiroiio, but novor visited America ; 
Alexander, his dislin^^uishcd brother, devoted himself almost cxelusivelv to natural history and elimatie and 
philosophie )ilienomena, and conlinod himself to the southern hemisphere. In ]S04, on his return, he landed 
in I'hiladeliihia, from whence he visited 'Washington, then in its fourth year, where ho conversed with 
Mr. .fefleison and >Ir. (lallatin; and, after siieiidiiij,' about two months in the country, returned to Hurope. 
(Kleiieke and Sehlesier's Life, N. V., IS."):!, p. Sli.) He devoted himself especially, says bis biographer, "to 
the study of the p ilitieal relations and conditions of the population." It docs not appear that he made 
inipiiries into the el.araeter, ian;.;uaj;es, or condition of the aliorigines of the United .^tates. In his Cosmos, 
we are astoni.slied at the general learnin<r and research denoted. The origin of nations and discoveries 
(Voiii the fniitful theatre of early human energies, the Mediterranean, is a mine of intelligence to those, 
who like us, are without elaborate libraries, lint we look in vain for any thing that may bo used to .solve the 
i|uestiou of I ndiaii origin. The remarks do not, indeed, aspire to grasp the subject, and we rise from the perusal 
with no new light on a topic which, it wa.s thought, he only could illustrate. Of the United States tribes, 
and their history and languages, ho has probably never mailc a study or even written — at we have never 
read of it. The small charlatans, who, from this country, have tea/.ej the Literaiy and Scientilic I.ion of 
Beriin with misrepresentations respecting myself, and then spread the precious scandals in Anu-rican .ircles, 
m.ay have exalted themselves by putting their hands on the shoulders of Aja.x, and llierebv given themselves 
claims to pity I 

■ II' 

! ' 



of Indians, at tlio linnu.' of boHi tlio colonics and tin' Americans. (Historical Notes 
respecting the Indians of Norili America, London, ISlio.) It is not the United States, 
but tlio aborlLMiies, who have been their own worst enrmics, at all stajres of their 
history. Their general idleness and dissipation are snllieient to account for their 
declension, without imputing the decline to political systems. Travellers of the 
•Fohn Dunn Hunter or I'sahuana/er school, continued to pour out their va|)id 
descriptions and ill-digested theories to a late period. Mr. George (,'atlin, in his 
letters, gives a spirited view of hunting scenes. 

How far the oliject of describing the Indian as he is, has boon attained, the 
preceding volmncs nuist testify. To give additional value and scope to the 
collections made by the author, and to extend the investigations over geographical 
areas which were not visited by himself, the e.\[)erience and observations of a class 
of collaborators on the distant frontiers was a[)|)ealed to. In this reference to 
men of known authority and veracity, /(((■/■•< alone, not lh<i,rli>i, were called for; 
and it is believed that these contributions constitute, in every instance, pertinent 
and valuable additions to the information published. These contributions have 
been almost in(lis[)cnsable. at all times, in the census and statistics of the tribes. In 
this respect, it is the Indian IJureau that has labored. The data accumulated by 
himself, during a residence of four-and-twenty years in tiie Mississi[)pi valle}', and the 
fruits of his studies and researches on the history, anti(|uities, and languages of the 
tribes,' were cliielly relied on. in the invcstigatiims in these departments; the non- 
e.xhanstion of these personal desiderata, as well as the facts and materials ri'S[)ecting 
the tribes of the remote Indian territorie,«, renders the .selection for the future pages 
a task of some intricacy, while it makes the publication of the papers of this sort in 
r.rfrtisn impossiijlc. To rcvisc and publish information on such a theme, and to 
make a formal digest and presentation of it, are very dilferent tasks, for which 
the time, labor, and research, make most une(iual demands. And if my corre- 
spondents have been stijiiulated to intenser exertions by the resi)cct and candor 
evinced for their labors, it is lio[)ed that they will also perceive and ai)preeiate the 
necessities that exist lor the condensations and suunnaries of their contributions in the 
subscfpicnt volumes. 

The two .sources of my information are thus clearly denoted, and having candidly 
done this, I proceed. It was not expected that men, whoso attention is casually, and 

I- !1 

' Tlic aiitlior first entered tlie Iinlian eouiitr)-, wliieh surruumls tlio Imsiii of Lake .Superior, in 1S20, ami 
nililri'ssing liimself with ardor to the Chippewa lanmi go, niado a eoinpleto icxi<'on of it. and .studied 
its j.'raiiiiii:ir eriliealiy. He wrote an clalioratc treatisi' on the .suhjeet, which rceeived (he warm approval 
ul' the late Mr. Dujioneeau, ^Ir. tlallaliii, Mr. Hale, and other iihihilii;;i>l-i, at homo and ahroad. One nl'our 
colh'j^os awarded him the honor of Lfj.D., for his in(|niry into tin' principles of these lani;nai.'os. lie 
has pulilislied sevi'ral chapters of this treatise in \'ol. IF., p. .'iol. For the lexicon he has found no space in 
this work. lhou'_di he has pulilislied several se]iara(e vnoahnlaries I'ram the West, South-west, and tiio 
T.acific CI last. 

•i *i. 




for liiicf [icnod.s (liroctcd to such ii tlitMiie, wimlil furnish liglit on tho obscure mul 
intriciiti- Imuicli of ludiiui liistory which rcvciiis their ori-iu. llmnhi.ldt iiiuis-lf lias 
not hucn iibio, with ull iiis iillhiciicc of lihnvi'ics find puwors of dechictiun, to i)cnotriiti! 
into tlii.s ojjscui'o sulijcct. I liiivc rciid the eialjoiMtc vohnucs of his Cosmos, rei)lfto 
as till')' arc witli the record of the early and continued efforts of luinmn thouj,dit on arts, 
paintinji', poetry, liistory, and astrononiy, and on the diffusion of the luiuum race, 
so fai' as hooivs record it, over tiie gh^he, and tlie reliex inlhiences of the get)gra[iiiical 
phenoniena of climate, scenery, and natural productions, on the characteristic races, 
witiiont llndiii.i'- a single obHcrvation for the searcher after the Indian origin to build 
on.' To e.\|)i'ct fads in evidence of a subject .so confes.sedly involved in the mists 
of auti'iuity, would not be wise, it is admitted, had the idea l)een entertained, 
iiefereuce was made to plain men, for iilain accounts of the Indians as they existed, 
and if such descriptions and materials were not wrought up. on the part of my 
collal)orators or myself witli the pen of a Waverley or Pelham, it i.s, at least in some 
manner, owing to the circumstance that the work was not designed to be one of 
imagination. It was aimed to make it a transcript of the manners and customs 
of triljcs who exist at this day on the frontiers. Above every other re(iuisitc, it was 
designed to make it authentic. 

Whatever has been the amount of information thus far published, respecting the 
coloni/ed, tho Inmter, and the fierce mountain and prairie tribes — tribes widely 
dilferent in customs and character — little or nothing has appeared, in the papers 
of my correspondents, on their origin, or which may be employed to compare their 
ancestors with foreign tribes, who are known to histor}-. And of this little, almost 
everything that may be Ibuiul important to future iu([uirers is compriscil in the 
aboriginal vocabuhuies. Fort\-lbur languages and dialects, of three hundred and fifty 
words each, have been given on uniform principles of orthography. (l"'or their 
enumeration, vide \'ol. IV'., p. o(j8.) A word, it has been ob.sei'ved, i.s a thing, and 
can be studied like a coin or medal. In addition to this contribution to pliilology, 
a bibliographical catalogue has been puljlished, of one hundred and lift^' volumes, 
including pamphlets and books of elementary instruction, and all the translations 
which have been made into the American Indian languages, from tho era of 
Eliot to tho present day — constituting, in truth, the entire literature of tho Indian 
languages. (Vide Vol. IV., p. ■V'ili.) 

Of the facts recorded to denote tho capacities of tho Indian mind — of their power 
of computing nnmber.s — of their craniological developments — of their skill in arts, 

' Cosmos. Ill the topics Imiiillcil, this is .iii c.\;im]ilo of tlio power of intillcctiml iilistnatioii and geiicnilization. 
lie consiilers every ii;;;e, iVoiii tli<! earliest dates, cognizai'.t ol' what liud been done by its predecessors, and 
rosponsildo to them for its energies, its arts, and its diseovoriea, Ions; before tlic invention of printinj;-, and, of 
course, long liefore tliere can be any prcteneo that learnint: was popular, whereas many of the diseoverie.s iu 
arts and in maritime life, prior to the age of Faust, were made by men who had no pretenc' a erudition. 



!■ ;! 



iineicnt niul iiKKleni — of their oral nttompts in llctioii iiiul fancy, nml their power of 

jiii'touraphii' notatiuii. — t()|iii'M wiiicli are essential to any |>iiiloso|)iiical view (if tlio 
man, it will lie sullieient here to allude to. In whatever trait they dilVer, or however 
one trihe or elass of tribes may excel another, there is a reniarUahle afireenient in 
their {.'eneral manners ami ensloins anil opinionn, and in their physical and iiuiital 
traits and cliaraeter. An Indian from the Uio Grande del Norte, from the plains of 
Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, and of Minnesota, present strikini,' points of n^reement. 
]5oth their ji/i//s!i/i(i and iit<iralr are one. The pecnliarities of manners and customs, 
where they exist in the most striking forms, are found to 1"' 'lii •, in {(real measure, 
to the diversities of latitude and loniiitnde, the changes of climate, freographical 
position, and thi' natural production and distinctive /oology t)f the country. As 
attention is diri'cted to the tribes oceu[iying — not the tropical and torrid regiitns 
of the South, or of British America, but the area of the United States, the similarity 
of manners and customs, as well as the agreement of tiie entire character of the nnin, 
becomes general and striking. And when the inquiry i.s extendetl to external customs 
and to the i)hysical traits, such as the color of the skin, eyes, and hair, ami tho 
general stature and features, the resen blance is found to be of a character which may 
be called <iiiiti(i< iilal, so that whoever has seen one triije, may ))e said to have seen ail. 
Nor is it less true, whatever elfects civilization and the arts ma\- have had on 
jiarticular tribes or stocks, that they cling with undying tenacity to these, the 
leading characteristics of the race. But two generic stocks, in distant and apparently 
disconnected or non-communicating geographical positions, had, at the opening of tho 
sixteenth century, established regular dynasties, adopted arts, and risen to a grade 
of civilization; while, by far the greatest amount of the aboriginal jiopulation of 
the continent, from Terra del Fuego to the Arctic ocean, roved in the deei)est savage 
state. There was a singular buiU character, as the naturalists express it. Even 
the snlijects of Atahualpa, who liad yielded to a peculiar line of arts, to fixed 
liabits of industr}', and tho polity of a .striking system of government and religion, 
e\inced that singular imperturl)ability to fear, and schooU'd discii)line under danger, 
which mark the wildest tribes of the North. The penalty of instant death, punished 
the violation of this stoicism in an individual, on the snorting of Do Soto'.s horse. 
(Prcscott's ("oncjucst of Peru.) In tho .same tomb in which a noble IVruvian wa.s 
buried, carefully inclosed in walls of stone, was deposited the dog, the most preciona 
sacridce, at this day, of the North American Indian ; and the tyjie, it would si>em, 
there, ajj well as here, of the Indian religious philosophy. (\'ide Appendix, No. '1.) 



AliK Till". IMMAN TltinilS (»!•' I'OIU'.KIN OltKilN?— i;.\'AM!NATM».\ Ol" 'IIIIMU .MANNKU.H 
A.M) (rST()M,>^, lUTKS A.\I» llKLKilUN, IN VIKW ()!■' THIS (ilKSTJON. 


IIy TniliiV i.s iiipnnt tlie const from tlio moiitli of the Tiidiis to Tiipo roiiiofiii. tlii'oiivli 
till- (liiir of Miiniiiir, iiu'liidiii;.' tlic isluml of Ccvlun, iiiiil iiloiif,' tlio CoioiiiiUKk'l iiiid 
Minlins ciiiists to till' iiioiitli of tlio (liiiiui's; miil, fur the i-iirposcs of tliis view, tlio 
(■iilir(> regions of liiilostan ilriiiiicil by the {{raimmpootra; of the IJiirmaii emiiire, 
Siaiii. Canihojii, and the island of Sumatra, (juito to the borders of Cochin-China. 
It is this [)art of Asia wliieh was anciently lilled with the Ceiitoo or Hindoo race, 
prior to the irruptions of tin- Moguls. And it is to these coasts that the writers 
o" the fifteenth century looknl for the physical type which led to the liestowal 
ol' the term lii</!(iii>< on the American aliorigines. (,'omnieice had. prior to this time, 
made the ports and the rich spice islands of this part of the Asiatic continent familiar 
to navigators; and it was, confessedly, to reach repositories of connuercial 
wealth that Columbus biddly ventured to .sail directly West. 

.Right or wrong, the designation obtained currency. The resemblances wore docined 
striking, at a time when the history, manners, and customs of neither race had been 
fully examined ; when the study of the physiology of races had not proceeded to 
distinguish the olive from the cinnamon-colored skin; ■when philology was, in truth, 
unknown; and when favorable comparisons were indulged by the popular mind, 
between two diverse races of man, one of which was the most subtle and profound 
and learned in letters and the arts on that continent, and the other, if wo follow 
Ulloii, in a state of comparative barbarism. And when the progress of geographical 
disco'.ery determined America and Asia to be .separate continents, parted by a wide 
strait, precision was given to descriptive language, by distinguishing the ir.v/ from 
the A'*/ Indian. 

The Hindoos, or Jlindostanee, arc professors of the worship of Brahma. They vie 
with the Chinese in antiipiity. IJrahniinism itself Mas founded on the dogmas of their 
anciei t gymnosophists, who wore the earliest teachers of religion, astrology, and of 
medical and occult knoAvledge. The Brahmin priest was a person absolutely sacred. 
lie allected the greatest sanctity and self-sacrificing spirit. lie retired to deep 
caverns and caves, which led to the erection of a class of mysterious and magnificent 
temples, which form at once a clas.s of the most anticpie and wonderful structures of 
the A'siatic continent. Widows who ascended the funeral pyre, were purified for the 
highest awards of future bliss. Persons who precipitated themselves into the sacred 
waters of the Ganges — a river supposed to origimite in Paradise, — secured the same 

Vol. v. — 8 




■ I' 

rcwiinlf*. Ti) tlic llimlno nice lioloiiiTH tlio SiuiHcrit liiiipmgc; ami to tliis piirt oC tho 
hiiitiiiii Ihiiiily. pliiliilu^istH tciicli iih, Im tu Ih> tniccil the f^iciit Iii(l()-(K<niiiiiiic fiiiiiily 
of l;iin.Miiii;cs. wliicli is f|i()kt'ii ovor ho fircivt ii part of tlii' world. Lcaniiiiv', rcsoarcli, 
and iiifrcniiity, liiivc i'\iiaiisti'd tlioinHclvoM upon the knowlodgo, arts, wornliip, and 
.xiilitio MyMtoni of jiliilosopliy of the Hindoo nationM. 

The inlialiitaiits of India liavo boon, from tho farliost notifos, reinnrkaI)K' for their 
nlotli and cdL-niiinicy. Ahsoliitc idlcni'Hs and inactivity aru dciMned tho ninnniit of 
happiness. Aoconlinj; to thuir Shastcrs, or nacrod Iwioks, Hrahina liiinsolf has licon 
ctornaiiy doin.L' nothin^r, and will he doing nothing to the end of eternity. Professor 
Wilson informs ns, that their ideas un this snhjcct, originally confnficd and oh.scnre, 
have degenerated into monstron.s and siiblinio absnrditie.s. Kralmia Hymboli/eH 
creation. Principles and events are deified. They have thirty thousand gods.' 
Society is arranged in castes, which are unchangeable. To fox'Httko these, is to make 
life despicable and deplorable, living and dying. 

These allusions are sunicient to show the fixed and indomitable state of Hindoo 
society. Of all parts of Asia and the known world, to whicli the Indian manners, 
customs, and opinions, rites and ol).«ervanccs, may be compared, Ilindoostan ofl'crs the 
least in the way of coincidences and observances. If the term Indian i.s thence derived, 
as wo have shown, it is almost the only thing capable of such a reference. In these 
cfunparisons of race with race, no allusion is made to certain personal features, and to 
non-essential resemblancos in tho forms of society and institutions, which are known 
to be the result of the political coni|ueHts of the Mogid or Mongul race; wlio, starting 
up iit the opening of the twelfth century, overran all India, from Persia to tho 
IJurman, and even the Chinese, empire. Thi.s was wholly a jjolitical, not an 
intellcctiuil, or, so to say, psychological and moral revolution. It wa.s a con(piost 
which left tho fundamental mind of the Gentoo nations — their rites, opinion.s, 
philosophy, learning, and arts, unclmngod. 

Ilindoostanco opinions and rites remain essentially tho same, at this day, that they 
were when the Greek history first takes notice of them. Idolatry has, from the 
earliest dates, presented its most fixed and repulsive features throughout India. Tho 
worship paid to Brahma, Vi.shnoo, and Siva, exhibits tho human mind as completely 
lost, in a phihwopliical search after first principles, as it would seem possible to be. 
Ob.servers have been most unfavorably impressed, in modern times, by images erected 
to Gunga and Juggernaut, and the other grosser forms of their endless 
Mahomodanism comes in as an element to divide opinion, but this docs not date 
farther buck, in Ilindoostan, than the close of the sixth century of the Christian 
era, the egira itself not having taken place till 022 a.d. There are throe or four 
fundamental trait.s, which have been employed as means of comparison in contem- 

Two Li'ituri's on tlii' Hindoo?, before llic I'niversity of Dxt'ord. II. II. Wilson. London, IS II. 




pIiiliiiK' tlio iimniicrrt and eiiHtomM of tlio Hiiidot).'*. TIkmc nic, the Haciifico of willows 
on llie ruiici'iil p^ro — tlio fjciiunil iiiciiu'iutioii of tla- ilciiJ — tin? cc'icmony of Imok- 
HwiM>,'iiig of zealous ilovoteoH, and tiio division of' socii'ty into lixod ciiHtt's. Tlio 
burning of widows with the dead bodies of their husbands has been, in recent years, 
interdicted in the districts of India sul)ject to tlio Hritish empire, but the native 
princes sutler the practice still to exi-*l in rciimle districts. An instance of this kind 
was witnessed, in all its cnorn.ity, by the Uev. J. Knyland, so late us iSlid. (Monthly 
Missionary Paper, New York.) 

Tho revolting rite of suspending the living body on hooks of iron, inserted 
nndcr the cartilages of the arms and the back, is one of those ceremonies by 
which the devotee is believed to accumulate meritorious siiU'ering before tho Indian 
gods. Still more revolting are the cusbuns of inliinticism and the interment of 
widows in tho same grave, on the demise of their 1 isbaiids; — customs which are, 
nt this time, nearly or quite conlined to the i.sla ds o'" the East indies and 
South seas. 

With regard to the institution of cush'., it comiiletely pari)!v,,t's tb<' Hindoo mind. 
Bound down as it is, from the cradle to the grave, with their dogmas and j-racticeM. 
it could but happen, that these traits should reai)pear along the i.iagnidceni itreams 
and towering mountains of the American forests, were iis population deri'-nc* ,' from 
that (piarter of tho globe. Yet, from the torrid and throughout tho -oi'ical and 
temperate zones, no such customs have been noticed. Mr. Ilarnin ' .ornis us, iiuleei^ 
that in tlie frigid latitudes, west of 49°, in tho parts of tho coun ry d< rominated New 
Caledonia, tho Taccully tribe of those latitudes sometimes burn their dead. But tho 
custom is local, and does not extend to their neighbors, the Neotetains, as they 
bury their dead. No Indian widow is subjocted to the horrid rit^s of the pyre, or 
interment with die dead. A year's mourning is the most severe iiunishment wo hear 
of. No female or other child is threatened with infanticide. Of ilni doctrine of castes 
wo hear nothing among the aboriginal trilx's of America. They enjoy equal rights 
and privileges, and no child is born with the belief that this dogma is to interfere with 
its pursuits in after-lifo. Nor could an idea, more abhorrent to the independenco 
and free action of tho aboriginal mind, be broached. 

To prepare warriors in tho trial of endurance, there are some of the barbarous 
tribes, on tho U^jper Missouri, who make iucisioi,. -y, the tendons of tho arms, by 
which they assume the hardihood to drag a buita-o bide recently taken from the 
animal. This rite is rare, even among tho most barbarous tribes, and has not often 
been witnessed. But where it exists, it has 71. connection with religious rites. It is a 
mere test and boast of bravery and hardih od. It has been descrilied by Mr. Catlin, 
a well-known author (vide Vol. III., p. 2 34), as practised within late years among tho 
Mandans. Yet tho same writer ascribe,s the origin of this people to tho adventure 

1^: I 

. i i : 



1 1 ' 

1 ^ 

B ■'* 



of the Wc'lcli priuco ]Madoc, in tlic twt'H'tli ctMitiiiy. No author lias, however, 
attrihutoil siicli trial iif eiiiUiraiico to tlio ancient IJriton. Neither Tacitus nor 
Ai;rii'ola, who have written Iar;iel\' on the Ihitons, a.-'cribc; any analoj;;ous I'ites to the 
ancient Cinilirians. Witiiont reuiuil to tiiis theory, however, it is known that the 
jMandans put their young warriors to great trials of their strength anil capacity of 
cnilnrance on certain jjulilic occasions, during which the weight of skins is sometimes 
dragged hy thongs of deer's sinew inserted hehind the solid parts of the larger nniscles 
of the arms. Similar practices are reported, on un(piestional)le authority, to exist 
among otlu'r harharous tribes, on the npjjcr waters of the JSIissouri. (Viile Apiiendix, 
No. li.) What appears to one ol)server, whdse mind is (illed with a certain class 
of prc'conci'ived ideas, in one light, may seem to another, who is relieved from 
such theories, in a dillerent phasis ; and tiiis may account for the opinion, or 
the |)revalence of imagination in the di'seriplions of the Jlissouri Indians, rell'rred 
to hy Colonel Mitchell. (\ol. 111., p. 'JM.) 'J'rials of physical strength and 
endurance are, indeed, one of the couinunest traits of savage nations, and they 
may exist without the least necessity of supposing them to he any e'.idi'uce of a 
derivative origin. There is one trait, iiowevei". among the North American Indians, 
in relation to the state of females muler the inlluciu'e of their periodical illness, 
wiiich is so peculiar and striking, that it may here he nuMitioiu'(l. The catanuMiia, 
are believed to have a necromanti(! efli'ct on persons whose tracks they cross; hut 
females in tliis condition are thought to have, by a nu'ri,' touch, a baleful inlluenco 
on the great business of war and hunling. To i)revent the contact of the warrior 
or hunti'r. during this period, witii an}' vessel or utensil in the wigwam, she abstracts 
herself Irom it. building a separate lodge, near by. wheri> she strictly abides during 
the menstrual season. (Plate No. li.) The custom prevails anu)ng the ninnerous 
Algoni[uin. Dacota, and .\piialacliian tril)es. and. so far as obse-vation extends, among 
all tlu- Indian nations who dwell east of the Kocky Mountains. Oljservcrs nK)ng 
the I'acilic coast tribes have not spoken on this topic. No such custom lias, so i'ar 
as our reading extends, been noticed among .''\> original Hindoos, or Paras, of II in- 
dostan, or their Tartiirie conrpierors, from the Indus to the (ianges. It is hardly 
su[)posable to he a custom of American oiigin. Adair pronounces it a Hebrew 
custom. Abstract notions of cleanliness are not the characteristic trait ul savage 
nations in any part of the world, and in our present state of the knowledge of human 
customs of early rac(>s, this exclusion iVom the douu'stic ciri'le a])pears to reveal 
the idea of "clean anil unclean," denoted in the Mosaical ceremonial laws. 




Jill', if the Ainoricau tribos arc not of Hindoo or Ilimlustiincc origin, ns the 
preceding olwervalions denote, are they not of tlnit great and wide-^iweeping Mongid 
or geiuTal Tartar raee, Mhieii. starting up from the interior [)arts of Asia, overran 
llinddstan. and ereeteti the Saracen eni[)ire? And, mi not tliose customs and traits, 
wiiicii iiave hocn deemed Mongoiie, of tiiat transl'iised stock, of tlie con((uerorsof India'.' 
Jt is believed tiiat they are not. Gengis Kiian elleeted his coiupiests in India al)iiut 
A.I). I'J27. Tiio Tolteo and the Peruvian emjiires were then fully estid)lished in 
America. All tiie authorities concur here. Tlio revolutions that overturned the 
Toltecs were entirely achieved by an aboriginal [)eople, mIio spoke, indeed, the same 
generic language, and had the same fundamental history. The Aztecs, who, according 
to (Mavigero, began their march of conquest (as recorded by tiio picture-wiiting 
(if Mohuini) in ll(iO, reached Anahuac in I'Jt-"), but did not obtain the mastery in 
Mexico, and set up for themselves, till l-"!',l'J. (Amer. Elhn. Trans., Vol. 1, p. Ilil.) 
it is true, in reference to the Tartar coufjuest in India of I'I'll, that data derived 
from the monuments of the Mississii)[)l valley and of Florida, denote the earh- jiart 
of (lie twelfth century to have been an epoch of great changes and disturbances in that 
(|narter. (Trans. Am. Ethn. Soc, Vol. I., p. 4JS.) Of these ancient war.s, the traditions 
of the lro(|uoi.s as recorded by Cusic (History of the Si.K Nations), and bv Ducdiiiiie 
(Vol. IV., p. lo")), both native authorities, represent a period of great ancient wars 
and disturbances in the Mississippi valley. Such i.s, also, the traditionary testimony 
of the ancicut Lcnno Lenapis. (Tran.s. Amer. Phil. Society of ISl!).) The discovery of 
an ancient fort in Adams county, Ohio, by Dr. Locke, pointed to the same general date. 
Ihit a view of the western anliijuities denotes, that the wars referred to. cannot be 
located farther back than about si.K hundred years, which brings the events to the 
era of the breaking up of the Toltec empire, iuid renders it proi)able that they are 
due to the transference or outrush of southern tribes, who obeyed the of that 
leading catastro[iho in the Indian history of North Aiuerica. The Natchez, Chicka- 
saw."', and Choctaw.s, have distinct traditions of such origin in the South. (.\pp. No. ;>.) 
The vestiges of ancient occupancy in the West, are merely adverted to, in this place, 
in connexion with the period of the Mongnl con(|uests. Koi if events of so general 
and overwhehning a character did not proiud the Hindoo raee to seek refuge aud 
enlargement in this direction, of which there is no evidence — yet, what probability 
is there, that the Mongul conqueror.s, who had introduced Mahomedanism into India, 


I ; 




ami who had letters and arts, .should have ncgluctod their conquests and doniiniou 
of that attractive field of human occupancy and triuniplis, to follow a spirit of adventure 
or conijuest in the wilderness of America? 

A peculiar line of mental evidences, bearing on history, may be appealed to, on the 

topic of origin, which commends itself to attention. It is this — if the absence of 

Buddhism and of Brahminism, among the American triljes, is conclusive that they 

are free from an unti(jue Hindoo element in their population, is not the absence 

of tlie Mahomedan religion, rites, and custtmis, equally conclusive of the non-existence 

of the mixed Hindoo or IndoTartaric stock ? Mahomedanism dates its, agreeably 

to the preceding data, about sicti/sircn years after tlie Aztecs commenced their 

migrations. An epoch of one hundred and eighteen years of the Toltcc sovereignty 

then passes. Tiiey had reigned about one hunih'cd and twenty years, wlicn tliey 

were first visited by an invading army under Cortez. Tliis occurred in 1520. Not a 

trace of the wor,ship of Buda, nor of the tenets of Mahomet, was observed. It is 

permitted the incpiirers into the Indian religion to go back a step further. Neither 

were tliere any traces of the Christian scheme found. Every observation directed to 

tlieir rites and opinions, denoted them to be an older race of mankind, or at least of an 

older scheme of religious opinions. Tiiey were, indeed, polytheists, liaving a long ritual 

catalogue of spiritual existences, rei)resenting the deity, well-nigh as numerous as the 

Hindoos themselves. But the.-^e were wholly diverse in their names, odices, and character. 

It revealed a subtle scheme of genii-worship or demonology, the functions of which were 

wiehled by a class of magicians, who assumed the priesthood. It was evidently through 

the fear of this powerful of men, who ab.'^orbed all knowledge, that the sovereignty 

had been reached. The higher, or what the Spanish called "nobility," were 

always of tiie priestly order. Montezuma himself was at once at the head of the Indian 

churcli, so to say, and of tlie government, as his predecessors had lieen. Whatever 

tlie theories of existences were, or liad been, it was then a most incongruous 

and abhorrent system. They worshipjied chieHy the god of War, under the figure 

of a huge idol placed on the top of a teocalli, and to him they offered human 

sacrifices. When Christianity came in contact with such a system, it had no option, 

but to strike it down. Their temples were burned — their idols ovcrtlirown — their 

picture-writing committed to the flames — everything, in fact, which in any manner 

savored of the .system, was destroyed, with a Vandalic spirit, which, as it swept away 

most of their ancient .scrolls, is to bo regretted. Christianity could not tolerate the 

Aztec rito.s, as they were found by Cortez; but it availed itself of a means of 

communicating instruction through the system of their picture-writing — a system 

wiiich arrested tlie .sttention of Europe. Tiiis is the undoubted origin of tiie picto- 

grapliic scrolls, puldished by Ilackhiyt, wliicli have been commented on so much, as 

betokening an inkling of Christianity among the natives. Ciiief among the.«e pieture- 

writing,s, presented by the Kngli.^h collector of voyages and travels, is the figure of a 









sorpont, standing before a female, witli two altars (one of which is overturned, to 
denote Cain's unacceptable oflbrinf''* — the whole being intended to teach the doctrine 
of original sin. Equally pre-eiruien , on another sheet, is the figure of an eagle, 
reposing on a tree, and spitting out tongues; which is designed to symbolize the 
confusion of languages at Babel. Not a doubt can exist, that these drawings are of a 
date subsecjuent to the conquest of Mexico. 

There was a tradition, among the South American tribes, of an universal deluge, 
at a remote ago, which swept off all, but a single family, or pair, to whom 
the repcopling of the world is attributed. Tiiis is variously related, in various 
latitudes. A similar tradition, with similar discrepancies, exists among the North 
American tribes, up to the Arctic circle. To the Toltccs — Coxcox, and to the 
Algoncpiins — Manabosho, was the survivor and hero of this catastrophe. Observers 
have not been wanting, among the arch i tec tiu'al ruins of South America, to recognise 
in some of their ancient paintings the .symbol of an ark, nnder the figure of a boat 
or a sor[)ent. But in a subject of such deep moral interest, there is always reason to 
apprehend that the fervor of imagination, or the enthusiasm of theory, may render 
it easy for such persons to recognise resemblances, of which the colder eye of history 
can see nothing. If, however, there be no evidence of the ancient prevalence of 
Maiiumedanisin, or of the doctrine of Christianity, among the American tribes, their 
manners and customs present some traits, wiiich denote them to be the descendants 
of a more ancient race, opinions and dogmas once overspread the oiiental 
world. Allusion is made to some of the earliest nations, in the worship of the Sun 
and Moox — the adoration of the Puin'cii'LK ok Fihk, and the dogma of the two 
principles of Good and Evil. Without more than an allusion to the empire of Peru, 
where the worship of the Sun existed, with a cercnuniy and intensity as full as over 
was witnessed by the Ghebirs of Persia, it is snflicicnt to say, that there arc evidences 
of tiie ancient prevalence of this worship throughout America. In. Mexico, where the 
doctrine had been overlaid by horrid rites and superstitions, it was still a funda- 
mental belief, and they attributed to the Sun all vitality, power, and intelligence. 
Tribes who pressed, at various eras, from the tropical to the temperate latitudes, and 
who abhorred human sacrifices, carried with them the milder forms and ceremonies 
of this early superstition of the human race. On the banks of the Mississipj)i, the 
rites of this worsiiip were establisiied at an early epoch. De Soto found it among 
tiie Quigualtangi,' a powerfid and determined nation, living on the east banks of tlio 
river, l)elow tlie junction of the Arkansas. He aimed, vainly, to ingratiate himself 
with them by representing himself as the child of the Sun. (Garalasco De la Vega, 
as quoted, Vol. III., p. 40.) It was found, by tlie French, to exist in this general 
geographical position, on the settlement of Louisiana. It is believed that, at ancient 
periods, its sacred fires had been lit on the snmnrits of the tumuli, Avhich are now 
found to bo so widely spread tiironghout this valley. Vestiges of the former prevalence 

' A probnblc ciiuivalent for Natchez. 


i s 

4 i 

t ' 

■ J ' 

i ! 

' 'i 


<l >l 



of fircMvorsliip exist over iiiimentie spaces, and its rites arc found to lie at the 
foundation of the aljoriginal religion throughout the geographical area of the United 
States. In one of the Indian traditions, the preservation of a sacred fire is 
carried to the banks of Lake Superior. Even over fnc bleak latitudes of New 
Enghind, where the sparseness of the native population did not permit largo 
assemblages to assist in such rites, there is the clearest indication that the 
Sun was worshipped as the direct .symbol and visible presence of the Great 
Sjnrit. Cotton Mather observes of the jMassachusctts Indians, '■ there is with them 
a Sun-god and a Moou-god, and the like, and they cannot conceive but that lire 
must Ijc a ]<ind of god, inasmuch as a spark of it will soon produce very strange 
cfleets." (Life of Kliot.) Chingwauk, the Algonrpiin INIeda, detected it in the inscription 
of the Dighton lioek (Plate 15, Vol. I.), and the syndiol is five times repeated, with 
variations of outline, on the sacred pictographic Indian scrolls, published in Vol. I. 
(vide Plates 51 and 52). The same figure is many times employed by the native 
pictograiihists in the synopsis of symbolical devices on Plate 58 (repeated in 87 and 
50), Vol. I. Hymns to the Sun, as oU'ered by a Chippewa prophetess, on Lake Supe- 
rior, are given, with the original words, at pages oUS, 390, 100, Vol. I. The figure 
of the jMoon appears on the scroll of sacred symbols relied on by her, i)age ;'00 
(Figure G, Plate 55, A'ol. I.). 

The mental traits and idiosyncracies of a rude people may be drawn from their 
eariy attempts to depict ideas by syndjolie or representative figures and devices. It 
is quite within our power of referciice to advert to the ideas of Odin. Thor, and Friga, 
in the Saxon mind, from the figures th(>y drew- on rocks and trees, before that mind had 
abandoned its idolatrous objects of worship, and long before it had enil)raced letters 
and Christianity. The Fly-god of Egypt, and the head of Baal, drawn with horns 
ami surmounted by a co^ipound star (Plate 80, \'ol. I.), are not more complete 
demonstrations of the state of thought on the subject of a divinity in Egypt and Syria, 
at the respective periods, tlian the rude North American pictography herein appealed 
to. We must allow the Indian mind the only proof to bo derived from attempts to 
record the outlines of ideas, by rude symbols. The origin of manners and customs, 
of rites and opinions, may thus be often found, which successfully resist other 
modes of investigation. The sacred character of fire is impressed, very widely 
and deepl}', on the Indian manners and customs. Among the Chippewas of the 
North, there is a custom to light a fire, at night, on a newly-made grave. Thi.s 
fire is renewed during four nights. (Algic Kesearches, Vol. II.) Fire, in their minds, 
is regarded, in some manner, as we should the opening of a door into the spiritual 
world. It is believed, that its syndjolical light is thus thrown on the path of the 
deceased, to guide its footsteps, through its darkling way, to the laud of the dead. 
(\'ide Plate li.) The importance whieh the aborigines attach to the substance of fire, 
and its ellects on their superstitious rites and customs, has impressed leading minds, 

lio at the 
he Uiiitotl 
od fire is 
!s of New 
nnit largo 

that the 
the Great 
ivith them 
t that Ih-o 
ry .strange 
■atetl, witii 

in Vol 1. 
the native 

in ST and 
jake kSnpe- 
The fignre 

page ;"J0 

from their 
2viceH. It 
and Friga, 
t mind had 
ced letters 
vith horns 
! complete 
and Syria, 
1 appealed 
ttem[>ts to 
J customs, 
'sist other 
ry widely 
i'as of the 
we. Thi.s 
leir minds, 
e spiritual 
ath of the 
the dead, 
lice of hre, 
ing minds, 

ii ' 111 

,f I 

: ^ U 

i I. 

■ v: , M 

1 1- 



./^,r..tvu,V'' ^^ 





! '. it 

I 1 'j! I. 


! I'll 

^' ,^-- '»*«'*"; 






U i 


Ji ' i 








who have been led to turn their thoughts from the diiily pnHsing oistoms of Indian 
life to the more abstract philosophical considerations on which those customs are 

Hut little satisfaction can bo jbtained by conversing with the Indian sages and seers 
on tliis subject. Few of them arc capable of a chain of reasoning on so obscure a point. 
It is apparent, from an examination of tiieir popuhir traditions (vide Aigic Researches, 
is;!!)), that they entertain niy.sterious notions respecting tlie substance and phenomena 
of lii't'. It is associated with tales of the other world. To behokl a lire rising 
mysteriouslv, in dreams or otherwise, in the j)ath, is syndjolieal of tiie passage of the 
soul to the other world. (Vide Legend of Gitchee Gau/.inee, Algic Researches.) When 
spirits are to be consulted, or the dead addressed, to light a fire is the appropriate 

That the procurement of sacred fire by percussion, the ceremohies of lighting of the 
pipe, and the incineration of the nicotiana' therein, and its being first lifted toward 
the sun, prefigured beliefs in the ancient fire-worship, is more than probable. 
In the ordinary use of the weed, this custom is, doubtless, but the indulgence 
of a favorite pastime. But the moment a sacred use is to bo made of the 
rite, fire for tlio purpose is extracted from its latent form in the flint. It must bo 
sacred, not common fire, with which the pipe is illumined. It is the duty of a 
particular official to attend to this rite, and to perform the genuflexions. A particular 
name is bestowed on this functionary. Not to ob.serve this ceremony, or to employ 
ordinary fire from embers, would appear to have the efl'ect, in their minds, of employing 
"strange fire." Every one, who has negotiated treaties with the tribes, will bear 
record to the existence of this rite, and the .solemnity attached to it. Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie has well described it, as it existed among the Konisteno nation. Their 
medas, or priesthood, erect a particular lodge, or temple of offering, for the 
"The scene of these ceremonies is in an open enclosure, on the basin of a river or 
lake, and in the most conspicuous situation, in order that such as are passing along, or 
travelling, may be induced to make their ofierings. There is also a particular 
custom among them, that, on these occasions, if any of the tribe, or even a stranger, 
should be passing by, and be in real want of any thing that is disjilayed as an 



' Nk'otiana. — Wo should be indebted to some historical botanist, for an account of the orijrln and disper- 
sion of the tobacco plant. It was discovered, in America, by the Spaniards, in 1.5(50. It had l)een used by 
the aborigines from unltnown times, and the greatest value was set upon it. By the Alj^oiiquin tribes it is 
called Usania. It was first sent to Spain from .1 port in Yucatan, named Tiiha(jo, whence the name. Sir 
W.-ilter Ualcigh introduced it into England, about ISSS, and lirst taught the people how to use it. The plant 
is now used among most European and Asiatic nations. The Turks and modern Syrians are as much addicted 
to smoking it as the North American Indians themselves. It is known to bo cultivated in the Levant, on the 
coasts of Greece, in the island of Malta, and some parts of Italy. By whom it w.xs introduced is not known 
There appears to bo no mention of it in ancient history. Herodotus is silent. The pyramids oast no light on 
the topic. It is conceded to be of American origin, and its chief supplies are brought from the United States. 

Vol.. V. — 



* , I 

oircrinp;, lio liiis u ri,i;lit to take it. so tlint lio rcpIad'H it with wimo niticlo tliiit 
lie (Mil spare, tlioiifrli it lio oi' I'ar iiiCerior valiic; lait to taUo or toiicli any thing 
vaiitoiilv ix foiisidiTod ax a sacrih'iiioiis act, and lii^hly insultinj,' to tin- (Ircat Master 
of liile, to use their own expi'i'ssion, who is the sacred olijeet of their (h'votion, 

'• 'I'he scene of |iri\ate sacriTice is the hidjje of tlio person wlio performs it, which i^4 
pi'cpared for tliat pm'pose hy removing cvcrythinj; out of it, and spreadini^' ^irecii 
Itranches in every part. 'I'he (hv and ashes are also taken away. A new hearth is 
made of IVesli eartli, and another lire is liiihiech The owner of the dwelhnfj; remains 
alone in it; and he hciiins the ceri'inony hy spreading' a jiii'ce of new cloth, or a well- 
dressed moose-skin, neatly painted, on which he opens his medicino-hajr. and exposes 
its contents, consisting of various articles. The principal of them is a kind of house- 
liold jidd, whicii is a small carved image, ahont eight incla ■< long. Its first covering 
is of down, over which a piece of liirch hark is closely tied, and the whole is enveloped 
in several folds of red and hlue cloth. This little lignre is an ohjeet of the most pious 
regard. The next article is his war cap, which is decorated with the feathers and 
plumes of scarce hirds, heavers and eagles' claws, v'tc. There is, also, suspended from 
it, a ((uill or feather for every enemy whom the owner of it has slain in hattle. The 
I'emaining contents of the hag ai'e, a piece of Hra/.il tohacco, .several roots and simples, 
whicli are in grciit estimation fur their medicinal ((ualities, and a i)ipe. These articles 
heing all exjHised, and the stem resting upon two forks, as it must not touch the 
ground, the master of the h)dge sends for the |)pr.son he most e-teems, who sits down 
o|ipi)site to him; the pipe is then filled, and fixed to the stem. A pair of wooden 
pincers is provided to \)ut the lire in the pipe, and a double-pointed pin to enn)ty it of 
the remnant of tobacco which is not consumed. This arrangement being made, tlio 
men assemble, and sometimes the women are allowed to be humble spectators, while 
the most religious awe and solemnity pervade the whole. The Michiniwais, or 
Assistant, takes up the pipe, lights it, and presents it to the ofiieiating per.son, who 
receives it standing, and hohls it between both his hands. He then turns himself to 
the East, and draws a few whiUs, which he blows to that point. The same ceremony 
he observes to the other three quarters, with his eyes directed upwards during the 
whole of it. He holds the stem about the middle, between the three first lingers of 
both hands, and raising them upon a line with his forehead, ho swings it three times 
round from the East, with the sun, when, after jiointing and balancing it in various 
directions, he reposes it on the [sacred] forks." (Mackenzie's Hist, of the Fur Trade, 
p. xcv. Vide Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America, 
London, ISOl.) 

The early missionaries of Europe, who visited tlic Indians, were hurried away by 
an entirely spiritual view of the (piestion of his reclamation, without casting a thought 
on Pjjeculative subjects. A later class of ol).«ervers have, however, been impressed hy 
the great stress which all the Indians la\ on the production of a sacred lire, to be u.sed 



ticlo that 

miv tliiiij^ 

lit Master 


, which in 

inn f;i'»'«'M 

licartli is 
j; ivniaiiis 
()!• n wi'il- 
1(1 exposes 
1 of hoiise- 
t coverinj^ 
most [jiowH 
ithers aii<l 
■11 (led t'lom 
ttle. The 
1(1 simples, 
jsc articles 

touch the 

sits (.lown 
of wooden 
mpty it of 

made, t'.ic 
tors, while 

niwais, or 
erson, who 
himself to 
^ ceremony 
(hiring the 
t tiiifiers of 
lirce times 

in various 
Fur Trade, 
I Amurica, 

d aw a}' by 

; a thought 

pressed hy 

to be used 


in their most solemn transactionH. Mr. Cass, who, in IS'JO, visited tlio tribes as high 
as 47° 13' north latitude, saw in this ceremonious respect lor lire, mid in eonteinplating 
their customs, a deepi-r meaning. '"Many of the customs," lie remaiUs. "which existed among the Indian tribes are now preserved only in tradition. 
Of, one of the singular was an institution for tlie preservation of an eternal 
fire. All the rites and duties c(mnected with it, are yet fresh in the recollection of 
the Indians; and it was extinguished after tin; French arrived upon the great lakes. 

"The prevalence of a similar custom among the nations of the Kast, from a very 
early period, is well known to idl who have Inu'ed the history and progress of human 
Biiiierslitions. And from thorn it found its way to (Ireeco, am, eventually to Itome. 
It is not, perhaps, surprising that the element of fire should be selected as the object 
of worship by nations ignorant of the true religion, and seeking safety in that system 
of polytheism, which marked the manners and morals of the most polished people of 
anticpiity. The afl'ections soem to rc(iuire something visilde and tangiljle for their 
support; and this mysterious agent was sulllciently powerful in its cflects, and striking 
in its operation, to appear as a direct emanation of the Deify. Hut there was a 
uniformity in the nrnde of worship and in the principles of its oliscrvance, which 
leave no doubt of the common origin of this belief. The sacred lianie was not only 
regarded as the oliject of veneration, but its preservation was indissolnbly connected 
with the existence of the state. It was the visible emblem of the public safety; 
guarded Iiy chosen ministers, secured by dreadful imprecations and punishments, and 
made holy by a solemn and imposing ritual. The coincidences which will be found 
between tliese ob.servances and opinion.s, and the ceremonies and belief of the Indiaths, 
indii .te, with suflicicnt certainty, that their notions upon this subject were brought 
with them from the eastern hemisphere, and were derived from the fruitful IVrsian 

"I have not ascertained the custom among any of the north-western tribes, except 
the Chippewa.s, although I have reason to believe that the Shawnees were devoted to 
it; and the Chippewa.s, in fact, assert that they received it from the latter. Rut there 
is such a similarity, and even identity, of manners and customs among all the tribes 
east of the Mississippi, that I have but little doubt the same institution would be 
everywhere discovered, if inquiriei? were prosecuted under favorable circumstances. 
It is certain, that the Natchez were fire-worshippers, and without giving full credit to 
all the marvellous tales related of this tribe by the early French travellers, we may 
yet be satisfied, from many concurring accounts, that they were believers in the ellicacy 
of an eternal fire. 

" Traces of the extensive prevalence of this rite, at a former period, among others 
of the tribes of this part of the continent exist, and it is dillicnlt to explain the 
mysterious influence of fire upon the existing customs and opinions of all of them, 
without reference to a system long and firmly established, of which the external 

I I 







ritual has only hocn iviuovcil. ('ii.irlrvnlx ivproHcntH iiioMt of llio triljOH of '. ■ im:. i 
lis liiiviii'j; liml II |)ci'|)<'tiiiil lire in tlicir lfiii|)li'H. Tlic Niitclu'/, who wt-ro wo •• i)|il'i'h 
of tiic Sun. iiiid loiik tiii'ir (■(lunoiiu'ii of |ioliticiil power from tlit> niuiif of that liiiiiiiiary, 
ki'pt its syiiiliol piT|H'tiially luiiniii';. Moth he ami Dii I'riit/ were eje-witiiiwcs of 
this rite. This trilio had a sacred edifiee devoted to it, and the nation pretended to 
he deseendants of tiio Sun. The hereditary di^^nity of Uiiler, or Cliief Sun, deseended 
in the female line, and the lawM of interinarriiigi^ were ho reffiilated, that Iuh desrend- 
iiiits were olilijreil to ally themselves with tlu' lower elasH of the tribe — a system hy 
which all eanie to he Idenlilied and lioniid toirethcr. in their pulitical and reli^imis ties 
and honors. Tlie title of Sun was eipiivalent to that of Inea, or Kinperor. ami he 
exercised a more despotic power than appears to have been awarded to any other 
nation north of .Mexico. This powi-r and this worship were kept np with an oriental 
ili^play, and with an (n'iental use of the hinjiiiage of honor and eereinony, Ion;;- after 
the Krciieli settled in the Mississippi valley, and imieeil up to their destruction 
in ITl'Il. "The Snn ha.s eaten,' proclaimed an ollicial fnnctionary. daily, hel'ore the 
liiiling Cliief of liie Sun. after his nioniinjj;'s repast, and "the rest of the earth may 
now eat."' (Notes to Ontwa.) 

Charlevoix, who visited the Natchez nntion in I7:il, and ins|ieoted their temples, 
pronounces the dcsciiptioiis which had been f^iven by prior writers, of it, and of its 
ceremonies and appointments, as greatly exajrgonited. (.lour. Voyage to North Amer., 
p. 2-")5.) lie observes, that the worship of the Sun had prevailed extensively among 
the tribes tlirouglioiit the country, where the beliefs still remained; and that the 
ceremonies of an eternal lire, kept ii[) in a ]>articiilar buildinir, hail lingered with them 
to the time of his visit. Jle s|)ecilies the Mobiliaiis, orChoetaw-Chicka-aw tribes, who 
liad taken their fires from this altar, and states that the greatest part of the nafioiiH 
of TiOiiisiami' formerly had their temples, as well as the Natchez (p. '27'A). In their 
external appearance they difl'ered nothing from the other Indians of Canada and 
Louisiana (p. lio'.t). The daily rites he describes as follows: "Every morning, as 
soon us the sun appears, the (irand Chief stands at the door of his cabin, turns his 
face towards the East, and howls thrice, prostrating him.self to the ground at the same 
time. A calumet is afterwards brought him, which is never used, but upon this 
occasion : he smokes, and blows the tobacco first toward.s tlu; Sun, and then towards 
the other three (luarters of the world. He acknowledges no nia.ster but the Sun, from 
whom, he pretend.s, he derives his origin." ' (P. 201.) 

Tradition assorts, that an institution for preserving an eternal fire onco existed on 

' A^'ii" ;iblv, if i-nitrsr, to its liimmliiry in IT-I, ;iiiil not in IS,')r>, wlirn it is cnntnictoil to ii .'^lato of not 
fxtniv;if;;int liunnclnrii'M. Tliis di>tinclioii is ovorlookcil, in leffiTUco tu the bufTalo in I'lurida, by the translator 
of Do .Solo's (irst ietlor. 

^ Tliis ccivinony of lifiiiif; llicir jiipes slowly toward llip sun, as if ofTcriiij.' Ilieni to snioko, lio liail bil'oic 
noticed, at two interviews with tlio tribes lie met at tbe nioiilh of the Ilesinoinos or Moniiifiwuiia liver, of tlio 
l'|i]ier Mis>i.-.-i|i)Fi, about \'V mirth latitude (pp. Ill, 'I'A). Ilow perl'eetly does this agree with the oeromonies 
deseribud, as before noted, by Mackenzie, anion;:: tlio Kenistenos, north of liuko .Superior, in latiiudo fi.'i^. 

1 : 

' 1„ . - i„;,i 
vo; .' |i|ttrM 
t liimiiiury, 
ntiii'sscM (if 
rt'ti'iidcil to 
, (IcMcciidi'il 
lis di'MOcnd- 
Hystciii liy 
'lij;iinis tit's 
lor. II lid lio 
any titlu r 
an oriental 
. loiifi ftl'tor 
, liclore tlio 
earth may 

'ir tomiili'H, 
, and of ita 
jrtli Amur., 
vi'ly among 
d that the 
witli thcMU 
trihi's, who 
the nations 
. In their 
!nna(hi and 
norning, as 
n. turns his 
at tiie same 
'. upon tliis 
ion towards 
e Snu, from 

existed on 

a Slate of not 
,• the translator 

, lie liail biliiio 
la river, of tlio 
the cerenioiiies 
itU'.lo ."l.")^. 



the Noiithern sliores of Fiuki' Sii|)erior. 'I'his fire was entrusted to the l<eeiiinir of u 
iiarticiiliir elass, or families of men, whose onieial desiirnalioiis, and the rites ami 
eereinonies to he |»erformed, are yet reineiiiliered. ((Jyeh)i>eiliji Iniliaeiisis, ji. iii.) 
This tradition derives force from the recent discovery, on the coasts of tliiit lake, of a 
d.';.'ree of skill and lalior in iirosocntiiif,' ininin^r. reiinirin"; cnor^ry and system heyoinl 
that supposed to he possessed hy the al)ori)final rare of our day.' It is, also, amidst 
the siihlime and startling; scenery of tlioso h'lijrtheiied shores, impressive ns they often 
are to the spectator, that wc still lind traces of this worship in tlie hieratic songs of 
the Indian priesthood. At pa^'e I HO, Vol. I., are recorded hymns and supplications to 
the sun. rejrarded as the symbol of the (ireal Spirit, or Cud.vtivi; I)i;n v, derived from 
the native Chippewa josakeeds, or prophets, And the elision of their ancestors from 
the wide-spread oriental mass of nations, who adopted this rite, nnist have taken 
place at a remote epoch. 

Facts have been e.xhihited, in preceding pages of this work (Vol. I,, pp. '2S to I'l, 
Mental Type), deiiothig the aiiti(iue character of the Indian opinions of the deity, and 
the ol.jects of worship. Tiieso investigations denote .some striking coincidences with 
tlie earliest forms of hninan opinion on the snhject. They remind the reader more 
of the dogmas of Zoroaster, than of philosophers of later date. Tiiey tell iis of a Dual 
Deity, of Good and Evil inllueiices; siipjiorted, respectively, hy a corresponding 
priesthood of Magi.* They recall the idea of the Author of the creation, under the 
symbol of the Sun; which lies at the foinuhition of the worship of an KiKUNAf. Fiui:. 
This opinion reverts hack, not to the philosophv, rites, and arts of the Hindoos, 
involved in their deep and subtle systems of polytheism, in which the objects 
of worship were rather the elementary principles of the universe, than deified 
men ; but it carries the mind to the original seats of mankind. 

An interest is thus thrown over the history of the races, which, while it eludes 
scrutiny, becomes deeper, the more calmly and soberly wc view it. Tiiousaiids 
of years must have elapsed to produce such diversities of languages and character, 
and general obscuration. Instead of eighteen hundred years, as the period of tlu'ir 
roving in these forests, as the apocryphal S[)anisli pictographs presuppose, there is 
more probability that the period of their abiding on the continent is thrice that 
time. Arts, discoveries, .sciences, religions, have grown np in Asia, and extended 
themselves over tribes and nations who were then nomadic and barbarous. Europe 

' Inimciiso changes have supervened. Nearly four eenturios have passoil, since the Iiulian rule or empire in 
America fell. His ancient arts are );onc. He could Imild niouiiil.i, form entrenehiueiits and uten.sils of clay, 
make axes of copper and bronze, carve iiMaf;e.s, weave nets, make needles, and other fahrics. We have 
trampled upon him with thi^ foot of a f;iant — laughed at hi.s inanncrs and customs — put out his tires, and 
pursued him with the arts of civilization till he has completely lost his own. 

' Willi resjiect to the systems of worship of the Peruvians of the Inea type, or the followers of Manco Capae, 
and of the Toltec type, introduced hy the appearance of Quctzaleoatl — these portions of Indian history constitute 
topics involving the seuii-civilized tribes of the continent, and demand separate consideration. 






haa since become the great tlicalic of liiiiiian kiiowledf-e, letters, an<l arts. And wo 
point our intellectual telescopes toward tin ancient and tinie-lionored shores of Asia, 
as if wc could descry the early tracks of nations in the sand. 


None of the subsisting Indian customs; as living in societies, are more significant 
than those connected with the menstrual IcHlge. (Plate ■).) None exercise a more 
important induence in the circle of the -wigwam. This lunar retreat is always, if 
possilde, in some secluded place,' near and within the supen-ision of the niendjcrs of the 
family wigwam. Adair sees in it a striking Hebrew trait. (P. 12.'1.) The tcmporaiy 
abstraction of the female is always known to the lodge-circle. The lodge of .separation 
is generall\- made of branches, rolls of bark, and light materials. In the summer, 
notliing further is demanded, and no fire is required. Wlien the weather renders a 
fire desiral)le, a very small one is lightwl froui dry sticks. The amusement of the 
inmate, in the interval, is to prepare Hags for mats, to pick up sticks for fii'c, or 
other light lal)ors. The leading idea evinced b}' the custom is, that of a deeply 
seated superstitious fear or dread of C(mtact with any person within the camp. 
Everything which is touched by her hands during this period, is deemed ceremonially 
unclean. She takes with her, in her seclusion, a spoon, a dish, and a small a.\e. If 
her step crosses the path of a Inmter or warrior, it communicates a talisinanic iulluencc 
— the magical and medical charms of his pursuit.s are destroyed — the secret [lower 
of the Meda has been counteraetLd — in line, his panoply of medaic and totemic 
inlluence is, for the time, ppral3zed. The warrior's luck has been crossed for that day. 
Merely to touch a cup, wilh the marks of uncieanness, is equally malign. 

This superstition docs not aione e.xert a malign inlluence, or spell, on the human 
species. Its ominous power, or charm, is e([ually ell'ective on the animate creation, 
at least on those species which are known to depredate on their little fields and 
gardens. Ti> cast a protective spell around these, and secure tiie fields against vermin, 
insects, the sciurus, and other species, rs well as to protect the crops against blight, 
the mother of the family chooses a suitable hour at night, when the children are at 
rest and the sky is overcast, and liming completely divested herself of her garments, 
trails her uiinliinHii behind her, and performs the circuit ol' the little field. (Plate 4.) 

The Indian mind apjiears to be so constituted, that whatever is mysterious, 

' Of the poi'SDiiiil liiiliits dl' (iiir linliiiiis il may Iju .-^aicl, tliiit tli iiKilc iihvaj.s ^it.s ur iTouuhes down in 
urinatinL', while the fi mule stamls. 


i. AnJ wo 

res ol" Af^ia, 


'H ocrui/f 


'iise a more 

iihviiys, if 
nbtTs (if tlio 

f SL'pai'iition 
10 .suiiimcr, 
p renders a 
lent of the 
for fire, or 
)f a deeply 

the camp, 
ill axe. If 
ic inlluenco 
ecret [lower 
iiid toteniic 
ur that day. 

the lunnan 
to creation, 
: fields and 
nst vermin, 
inst blight, 
dren are at 
• •iarments, 
(Plato 4.) 

Liiihos down in 



■ ^* 


f '5 

• >♦■*■ 

^r>.^ - 

^- ,-^: 

K ., 




i r [1 1 




M '- -^ 


Mi I 




h \i 

! 1 



! I 

. .1 


;"^'- '=->?f-^ 


'■ Jv 1 . '.^ 









woiulorfiil, or incompioliensibk', is reforrcil to the agency of spiritH, or local {fods. 
A eelobratcd divine, of the early epoch of New Eiij^land, obscrveH, that ''every 
rt iriu kable creature liaH a peculiar god within it, or about it, and that tiic ills of lilb 
are believed to be due to the anger of these gods, while their succeHs is a.scribttd to 
tlieir favor. Chief over thene local deities, they dcscriljc the Groat God Kainantowit, 
who is represented as tho creator of all mankind." (Mather.) All the tribes found 
in this part of tho Union (New England) were of the group or family of tho Algoinpiin 
stock. Manito' is the term applied to God, in this language. There arc many 
classes of tliem, good or evil, general or local. Two centuries have carried tribi's of 
this ethnological stock to tiie far West, but have not altered the beliefs of tho Indians 
on this multiplied thomo of spirit-worship, or, so to Kay, manitology. Every object 
tliat possesses life, in any department of the, may be supposed to be inhabited 
by a nuinito or spirit. They do not bow down to the images of them, as the oriental 
nations, but merely recognise tlieir spiritual power. Neither do they over worship 
any of them, as a principle analogous to the Brahma, Vishnu, or Siva of the Hindoos. 
The Manito is a god showing himself often in an animal form, or in the higher 
plienomena of the atmosphere, as thunder, lightning, meteors, stars, or the sun 
and moon. Material objects but typify the deity ; but the god, in most cases, is latent 
in the Indian mind. 

Wliether engaged in the business of peace or war, these mysterious inllucnccs are 
ever uppermost in his mind. In war-partie.s, they arc often involved on the use of 
,sinii)les or botanical medicines. 

Th(.'re is a custom, among the Chippewa wfirriors, of eating STnall portions of a 
bitter root, which is supposed to produce insensjibility to pain. This i.s carried, as a 
sacred talisman, and never resorted to till they come into the vicinity of the enemy. 
They call it :.]n-<j<t-wauk. After the warriors have seated them.selvcs in a ring, in the 
prairie, to chew this root, they arise with renewed courage and spirits. 

There are three secret associations or societies in the Indian tribes, which cultivate 
meduic knowledge, and teach occult rites — using pictography as helps to tho memor}-.'' 
They are the prophets, seers, or Jossakecds ; the Medas, or professors of medical magic ;' 
and the Wabenos, whoso orgies are always performed at night. Tho society of the 
Wabonos is deemed the most impure, and is the most diabolical in its rites and 
ceremonies. To, candidates are admitted with great ceremonies, and after long 
trials and preparations, during which the secret charms of the members and fellows 

' For ilcliiiitions of tlio i)lui\il, ilorogativc, ki.\, of those tonus, sec Vol. 11., p. 881!. 

' Having, ill IS'J^, been iiiy.solf iuliiiilteil to tlio of a Meda by the Chippewus, and taken tho initiatory 
steps of a Saiiima and Jksi.kaid, in each of tho other fraternities, and studied their pictographic system 
with great care and i^ood helps, I may speak with the more deeision on tlie subjeet. For some of the initia- 
tory arts and details eiiiplnyeil on those oeeasioii.s, see Vol. I., Essay on Indian I'ictography, p. olio. 

^ 'I'lio Indian dnc-tor or inodical professor, properly so oallod, aflords relief by the use of roots and simples, 
and is not to be coufouudcd with cither of those fraternities affecting occult or magic knowledge. 

I ! 


I • I 





are oxliiliiti-d to each otlior, in [jroloinul st'civcy ami uikUt solcimi obli^'atioiiH. (Plato •'.) 
Tlie initiatory riti's tiiii:;lit in tlio Mociety wliioli is pojjulariy, liut iniproi^'i'ly, ralli'd 
" Modicini'-Dancc," so til'ton mentioned by tnivullerH, IVoni tiie eailiesl jieiiod, are 
di'f^crilied, witii tiie pictograiiliic di'vices nnd Hongs, in Vol. I., pp. .']o8 — liOll. Tlio.^o 
of the WabenoH are exiiibited in tlio caino volume, p. jGO — .'i8l. For detuils of tliu 
f^iuMs and ceremonies used in the prophetic arts, see pp. .'J-VJ, ."lOO, ;'.SS to lUl. ^'ol. I., 
I'lates lU, 00. 'i'he luiion of the medical art with the mai.^ical ceremonies is tlescrilied 
al |i. -'A), Vol. I., illustrated by I'latc 4(J. The art of the class of I'ow-wows, who 
rely exclusively on sorcery, and profess to foreshadow the knowledge of futurity and 
the world of evil spirits, is shown at pp. 18;; to IIM, Vol. III., and I'lates .'Ul. .'IT, I!"^, 
."ill; and at p. 18", Vol. IV., i'hites 10, 11. The aborigimd idea of religion, its power 
and inlluence, as taught by the medieinc-men, is denoted, pp. Goo — G51, Vol. IV, 
A new world of su[n rstition is thus op'iied. 

Less attention to .secure details on these topics would fail to render the facts 
impressive. They present the human mind in one of its most ancient phases, and 
cannot fail to present to the philosojihii^ inijuirer a cliain of curious dognuis, notions, 
and bi'licfs, which carry the mind to epochs of the wcjrld long past. And the subjects 
lia\e been regarded with more interest in the present incpiiry, as thi' time for seizing 
and preser\ ing the facts, in detail, is rapidly passing away, with tiie race itself. To 
one who ri'gards alone the utilitarian side of the (juestion, and who deems nothing 
useful in the in((uiry wliich does not immediately relate to the number of square 
miles of till' Indian territory, and the dollars nnd cents into which these may be 
transmuted, as I hear there are such persons, it may appear, indeed, to be a vain 
labor. To a mind thus clo.«cd to liberal inquiry, it may seem superlhuniH to ask, 
wl.-at the Indian lli'mk-i. Jii!icrr»,ov mentally jo-<(r//,vM, in his darkling jjrogress over 
til" wild peripliei'- -jf the globe. Yet, without a description of these idio.syncrasies 
and this da-mon-phi'iosophy, in w little would posterity know of the inner mm, or his 
opinions, hopes, and fears" 

The study of this complicated system of spirit-craft reveals many of the .shifts 
and resources of the Indian mind in peace and war, and under one of its most 
sul)tle phases, namely, the power of the jos.sakeeds .and medas. In the language 
of the Iro((uois, the supreme god is called Nko, or, as the term is more fre([uently 
heard, in its ])ersonal combinations, Oh'.w.veo. The Dacota group of tribes apply the 
teim Wamcoxda, from W'^ako.v, a spirit. In the Choctaw liirni of the Appalachian, it 
is AnA-1-VKA. These terms are convertible, and are the ideolingual ecpiivalents for 
each other. And the system of spiritual reliances and beliefs is the same, in its 
general leatures. The Indian-man, in all, turns from himself and everything human, 
which lit.' distnist.s, to the spiritual and m_)sterious reliances of his own creation. 
Wonder charms the savage soul, and in this belief we behold his perpetual 
••^ource of it. In theoiy, he refers to o.\i; suriiE.ME, ommi'uesent Cheat isriKiT, 


. (Pluto-'.,) 
lorly, ciilloil 
IR'i'iuil, iiro 
(IC. Tliose 
t-iiln 1)1" Uio 
Ml. Vol. I., 
is ileHCi'ila'il 

-wows, will) 

iitiirity and 

.),< .»•" (»t> 

ill), ■! (, OC>f 

11, it.s power 
)1, Vol. IV. 

T tlio facts 
jiliuses, ami 
las, notions, 
the sulijects 
L' lor seizing 
" itself. To 
ms nothing 
r of square 
eso may be 
) 1)0 a vain 
louH to ask, 
I'ogress over 
m ui, or his 

f the shifts 
of its most 
10 language 
is apply the 
)ahichian, it 
ivalents for 
iame, in its 
ling human, 
\\\ creation. 
s perpetual 

iKAT Sl'llilT, 




^M2A |25 
■tt Uii 12.2 

11^ HI u 










(716) t72-4S03 







: I 




,« . 








. r 



■1 ■ 


■ ■»■ 







^ .^<' 



I } 



^ ■ 





wliilo he rccoirniscs his sulionliiiiites of this dvhy in iiiiiiust vwvy oliji'ut, in lioiivoii 
or c'iirtli, wliii'Ii striiics lii.s I'ancy. Ho thus (ills creation ^vith niyriails of niau'ic. 
divinities, who take siieltor in a bird or a wolf, a turtle or a snake, and really 1111 his 
mind with a succession of false hopes and fears, from the cradle to the ^niive. 
Maniuette and Charlevoix, sailing down the Mississippi, or pausinj: in the niagnifirent 
forests of Ainoriea, observe so many evidences of elevation in the Indian mind, that 
they are captivated by the man, and at a perpetual loss how to regard him. lie is, 
evi<k'ntly in his scope of thought and expression, far above the French peasantry, who 
manage their canoes; and, hence, there is a strain of appreciation of the aborigin.'d 
mind, which sounds oddly beside his want of arts and civilization. 

There is a peculiar form of perpetuating the social bond through a reliance on 
spirits, which has not received the attention it merits. This is revealed in the 
system of Totems. By totemic marks, the various families of a triljo denote their 
adiliation. A guardian spirit has been selected by the progc;iitor of a family from 
some object in the zoological chain. The representative device of this is called the 
totem. Indians arc proud of their totems, and are prone to surround them with 
allusions to bravery, strength, talent, the pow.. <>*" endurance, or other (juidities. A 
warrior's totem never wants honors, in tln'ir reminiscences, and the mark is put on 
his grave-post, or f»'/y'"A>////, when he is dead. In his funereal i)ictograph he invarialily 
sinks his personal name in that of his totem or family name. (Vide Vol. I., p. ;»j(') ; 
also. Vol. I., Pictographs A, B, C, D, E.) There appear to have been originall\ 
three totems, that received the highest honors and respect. They were the turtle, 
bear, and wolf. These were the great totems of the Irofpiois. Other totems appear 
of sccondai'y, subordinate, and apparently ntiocr origin.' 

An Indian sage is a poor pliilosoidier, but is never at a He cannot explain, 
if systematically questioned, the" subtle theory of his beliefs ///, and reliance <;</, spirits 
of the air, wood.s, and waters, and every other imaginable part of creation, where he 
places them; for his fancy peoples the univer.^e. But he .sometimes informs the 

' ToTKMs. — The Iroi|Uuis Iinvo imprcsscil thoiiisclvcs very strongly on our history ; but in notliing hus 
tlicir intorn;il organization boon mure remarkable tban in thoir iiigeninus and coniiilicated .system of toli'ins. 
Kach lit' tlie .«ix tribes or canton.s, of which the leaL'ue I'onsistoil, in its most perfect state, bad eight totems, 
beinir five secondary and three primary totems. Tliero were tlius eight classes of warriors and buntiis, 
including tlieir entire families, in each tribo or canton, raniilics of the same totem, in each canton, eoull 
not intermarry. They were totomically related. The union must be between diverse totems. The bear band 
of a Mohawk could not marry in the bear band of the Oneida, but might in either of the other seven totems. 
There were thus created forty-eight totemie tics, by which the tribes were sociidly ami politically hound together. 
(Ft is to be observed that the Tusearoras have lost one totemic clan, consisting now of but .seven.) 

There was another law, which, at the same time that it regulateil, complicated descents. The descent of 
chiefs was in the female line. A chief's son did not .succeed him, but his next brother — the right of 
sovereignty being entirely in his mother. When, however, the chief's wife had a right, his son would succeed 
him ; not, indeed, in her husband's right, but in hers. Tn this case, the totems entitled to furnish ehitis were 
diverse. This law of dcscent.s has rendered it so didicult for Europeans to understand Iroquois descents, and 
led authors into such errors on the topic. 

Vol. v.— 10 


■M ■ 

.1: 1 



I ' 

iiU|iiiror l)v cxiiiniilf. MvfiT (|ii;i(lniiK'(l. Iiinl, n'litilc, or Ircc. iiiiiv lie a|i|H'Ml«'(l to, ns 
we Imvi' shown, ns the local rt'siilciici' of ii L'od. Tlio wiitoiiiill utters the \oico ol' si 
jroil, and tlio nistlinu Icdvi-s ol'tlic I'orcst wliisjior tliu accents of a (li\inity. lie is tli(> 
true poet ol'tlie pliilosopliy ol'tlio creation. To hint tliei'i' is no place nnoccn|iieil, anil 

lorc IS, in 

truth, no .xolituiki in nature. AViieii ii turtle, hini. (|uailrMpe(l. or other 
form of animated nature, is adoptoil us the j^niirdian spirit or moneto. the piotoun-aiih 
of it I 



the eviiU'Uce of consanguinity. (See \'ol. II., p. 'JlMl.) Thus all liie 
of the turtle, hear, or wolf fauiilv or totem heconu' hrothers of the trihal clans 

of llio turtle, hear, or wolf; and so of all other totems. (Ireat stress is laid on this. 
Thc<e marks are, in one sense, tin- surniune of the clan. The [ler.'^onal name is not 
indicative of an Indian's totem. (\'ol. II., I'late oti.) 

It is not easy to assign a cause for the .i;reat imporlanco attached to totems, or Iho 
respect i)aid to them. TIk'si; symholic di\isions of trilies avouUI appear to have heen 
the orijiinal clan-marks of all the Indian trihes. without repinl to trihal orir.ani/.ations. 
For they are this most ancient traits of association, political or social, we hear of. As 
.soon as they are named or exhibited, they open the door of Indian reserve. They 
ap|iear to link the tie of l>rotherhoi)d. It is not hospitality alone tiiat they ensure in 
till' wiji'wam. Mut the eyes of all the family sparkle as soon ns the amilojjous totem is 
nientioneil. as if it di-closecl lilood-relationship. i-'or a chief or warrior to say to his 
iiuest. I am ol" the hear, the tortoise, or the wolf totem, three honored ehvns, is to 
remove all ceremony, and hreak the ice of Indian stoicism. It appears as if these 
clans had once extended from I'ataiiiiuia tt) Lake Athapasca, and thus to lurnish a 
mode of generalization more im[)ortaul than traditions, and older than dialects. They 
draw these marks on bark-scrolls, and on skins and wood. The Indians hear no ban- 
ners, properly so called; they sonK'tim(\s carry tiaus of leathers. The totemi(! device 
appears to be a re[)resentatiou of the tutelar sjiirit of tiie tiiite, not to be at all wor- 
sliii)[icd, and in this view it resend)les, as Adair reinaiks. the ancient devices and 
carviuLTs of terrestrial cherubim.' 

Manitos, amonj; .all the tribes, of the tutelary tdass, who inhabit lieiists or birds, aro 
particidarly selected for totems. I have known an Indian to be c.alleil the lied Devil, 
when his personal name hail no had signilicancy, being derived I'rom n small red insect 

\ ' 

' " Tlic rcli'stiii) clicruliiin," lii^ rcMinrlis, '■ wire /in-, /i/lit, aii'l <»//•, or spirit, wliiili wore tyiiilicil Iiy tlic /.»//, 
//'Ill, ami iiii//f. Tliosc ili villi' iiiiM;.'i>s, in :i Iihil' cnurso ol' liini'. iii'liircci tlh' :iiicii'iits by ilci'n'cs In (li\iili' thriii, 
anil iiKiki' iinairrs nl' tlic iliviiiu jursnns, piiwiTs, ami .uliniis, wliiirli tln'V lypilicil ami I'stronicil ns j^dils. Tlicy 
i'iiTi<ieraloil the liull's Iicad to firo — tlio lion's to light — an^l tlio ciigle'.-i to tlu- air, wliii-li they worsliippcil .n.s 
;_'oils. Ami, in proportion ns tlicy lost the kn^iwlidw ol' tlie cniblcnis, tlicy multiplieil and ronipoumlcil their 
Iliads with thosr of dillircnt croatuivs. Tlio lv_'yptiaiis cominoMly put tin: lioid of a lion, hawk, or caijlc, and 
siiniotinii's that of a ram or hull, to tlioir imaL"'.s. soiiii' of wliiih ri'si'inMid tlio human Imdy. Their apis or 
osiris i.',ivo rise to Aaron's and apost.ite Isiai Is frolden ealf; ami their s|iliyMX had three heads. Piaiia of 
Kjilicsus was trifonnis; Janus of Itonic liiformis, and sometimes i(Uailrirormis ; and Jupiter. So], Mereury, 
I'roseqiino, luid Cerberus, wore tripledipaded. IFosiod tolls us that the aueieiil hoathoub had nu loss tliau 
thirty thou.sand gods." (Hist. Am. Indians. liomlon, ITio : p. -i*-) 

f i 



oiilli'il Miscdnionitoco, of the p-iiiis clooptoni. The (riiiisliitii)ii, truly, means Imt nil 
iii'^ect — w liifli liittor is ciillrd a spirit. 

MuiiitoH, except of the tutelary class, are Ixjlicved to ho jrenernlly invisil)le ami 
inuiiaterial, hut can assume any form in the ran::;e of the animate creation, anil ev<'n, 
when the occasion calls for it, take their place anionjr inaninnite ohjects. (See Pappa- 
kewis, Altaic Researches, Vol. 1., p. -W, where tlie llyiny manito, to escape tlie ra^i; 
of the Indian iroil Manihosho, transforms him.«elf into a tree, and /inally a rock.) 
Tlie\ also, in eomnninicating with mankind, often assume the human form, and take 
the shapi>s of {jfiants. dwarls. or cannibals. The power of tliis ass\imption is common 
to the evil and to the jrood spirits. In their oral tales, the form is most connnonly 
assumed hy malif^n disturbers of Indian pence, as .sorcerers, witches, itc. (Aluic 
Kesoarches, Vol. II., p. tlT.) The Great Spirit or his messenLrcrs are also reco<:nised, 
sometimes in the lunnan form, as in their cosnio;;raphical events narrated of the ori^iin 
of creation, and in the divine arts of teaching men the knowK'dtro of making fu'e, and 
of killing and roasting the deer. (Personal Memoirs.) Tliey also teach a perpetual 
struggle and fundamental war l)etwcen the two opposing powers or original spirits of 
good and evil. These, Charlevoix tells us (.Journal), were twins, helii'ved by tiie 
lro(|uois to he brought forth by Atahensic, the motlu-r of mankind. Oriwaheimic, a 
Wyandot chief, told me the same tradition, in IS'IS. (Personal Memoirs.) The tril)es 
of the Iroipiois stock believe that Taren^awagon cleared their streams of insujierable 
obstructions, and taught them the arts of life and of government. (Vide Cusic's 
History of the Five Nations, (pioted Vol. HI., p. .■)1 I.) Thus, like the (1 reeks, fust 
converting men to gods, and then a.'scribing to them divine lal)or.s. 

Totemic marks are not only the ideographic signs for families, denoting consan- 
guinity. Ijut they perl'orm an important olVice in the Indian bark scrolls, and 
pictographs, and painted skins, on which the warlike feats of individuals an; 
denoted. These totemic devices are also shown, in their application to public 
transactions. (Vide Plates (iO, 111, ()2, t'i'5. Vol. I.) They are employed, with a formula 
expressing numbers, to denote the census of Indian villages. (Vide Plate r»2. Vol. II.) 
The number of ideographic devices or figures employed to convey information is very 
great, relating, in fact, to all the material or symbolized objects of Indian thought. 
The medas and prophets excel in this. They are employed by them in the cere- 
monies of their secret societies and midnight orgies, in which it is the object of the 
operator to convince his hearers of his magical art, and also as ncmonics. in recinding 
prophecies and enchantment.s, .and hieratic songs. (See Plates 51 and ')'2, Vol. I., p. 
oCiO.) B'or their use in magic dances and religious demoniacal ceremonies, see Plates 
55, Vol. II., Plates .315, 37, 3S, 30, Vol. III., and Plates 4(t and 11, Vol. IV., p. IIM. 
It would seem that the ancient IJabyhmish conjurations of the m.agi(' bowl (\\t\. I\'.. 
p. 41(3), as denoted by Lnyard, could not havt' partaken of a more dreamy and demon- 
iacal character. (Dis. Kuins of Nineveh and Habylon.) 




TIio application of tliosc devicos to the rcrord of triiimpliH in war. ns oinplovod hy 
llio prairie trilit-s west of tlu' Mississippi river on llieir ornamented Iniflalo rolx's. is 
shown in Plate .')4, Vol. I., p. HSO. and I'late ;!l. Vol. IV.. p. ;].'.(l. Tlie Tow- Wows, in 
bringing their notions of niajric to hear t)n the snitject of hnntinji. nse eharnied inedi- 
oinos. These nro snpi)ose(l to be enerjri/.ed hy the devices which are drawn on pieces 
of wood, skins, or bark scrolls. Specimens denoting the snpposed application of the 
charm to the heart of that animal, l»y a line drawn from its month, are oxhilnted in 
Plates -lit. A. \'ol. I., p. :i-J-_'. and on Plates .".S, .V.l. Vol. I., ji. 40S. 

IJepresentalive devices and (ignres in relation to the fabulous jteriod and beliefs of 
Iroipiois history, are given in Plates 70, 71. 7l'. 7.1. Vol. I., p. -I'JO. The application 
of this mode of ai>pealing to the memory in historical events, such as nro inscribed on 
high ]n'i'cipitous faces of rocks, and other localities of generally dillicnlt approach, is 
shown liy IMatcs ;>(! and "17, \'ol. I. .\n improved copy of the former, which has 
ncrpiircd a certain notoriety in New England nntiipiarian history, is given in Plato 84, 

Vol. IV., p. rjn. 

This .sort of ligin'os, which arc called mnz/innl>icks. aspires to the art of teaching by 
rock inscriptions. The art is called K<hi'ii'iii. (\o\. I., p. '.\'\{\.) Further instances of 
these rock inscriptions, on an island in Lake Erie, and also on the .Mleghany river, 
near the ancient \'enango. are exhibited in Plate 11, A'ol. III., p. 84, and Vol. IV., 
Plates 17, 18. 

Tito transition from the Mimefos. or s])irit-worsbip of the North American Indian.^, 
to demonology. is small. This term is l)y some derived from tbeflreek 'V<i/Af<v, knowing 
or intelligence. With the ancients, demons held a middle placo between men on earth 
and the celestial gods. It was belie\-ed that the souls of the men of the golden ago 
became demons after death, iuid exerteil an inlluence on Innnan destiny, f()r good or 
evil. Rut. however the ancient (la>moii Ibictualed in opinion, the American aboriginal 
divmon, or mauitosh.' admits of no doulitful interpretation. Ho is over of malign 
power to the human race. As such he was exhil)ited in lo.'JJ, on th(> St. Lawrence, 
to .Tacipios Carticr, by the followers of Donn.acoinia, to induce that explorer to relin- 
(|uish his contemplated visit to Ilocheloga (tlu- modern Montreal). For this purpose, 
throe of the Indian.s, who had been selected to represent the part, issued from the 
forest (Oneota, p. 278), in the sha[)e of wild and fierce dtvmons, and played tricks 
before the intrepid Norman. In- passing near Cartier'.s vessels in their canoe.s, dressed 
with horns, and singing and yelling like ''devils." 

A similar transaction passed l)efore the eye.s of David Brainerd, the missionary, on the 
sources of the Susquehanna, in 1744. (Works of Jon. Edwards, Vol. X, p. '.Vl'l.) One of 
the Indian sorcerers, on this occasion, onactoil tiie character of an enraged fiend, clothed 
in the hide of a huge bear: He si)rang suddonh' from the sacrod lodge of the Indian 

' Tlii.^ is the ordiiiiiry ilomg.itivp form of tlio Chippewa noun. See Vol. II., p. .'(Sit. 

MANN K It S A N I) C I' S T (t M S . 77 

i)o\v-\vi)\v. mill with iH) sliulit power of (lialxilical rcsiinhluncc, pluyod the |nut ol'ii wild 
(lifiiiuM — suirn'ii'iilly su, ill least, to deter the Indian siieeiiitor.x I'roni lintenin^' any longer 
to the wliite niiin's teach ini,'s. Anid()f,'ouH ^<(•enes of tlio exiuliilion of ii tswut wood 
diiMMoii have heen witne.H.xe<l hy otliers ninon;.' tiio triljcs nituiited hetweeii the iMinleiH 
of the Atlantic and the Koeky Mountains. An instance of this kind is descrihed Ky 
iMr. (ieoiHc' Catlin as havin;^' occurreil anion;: the Missouri trihes during his visit to that 
(|iiiirter. (Cutlin'H Letters.) Tiie niagnilicent and Hoinhrc forests of America, seen iiiuler 
the iiilluenco of twilight, witli the deep shade of its trees and rocks, may Ite sniiposed 
to ha\e originated the idea of (heinons or \vood-spirit.s assuming human forms. It is 
seen, from the works of travellers, that this idea is not confined to tiie forest districts 
alone, hut extends to the prairie tribes. The power of refraction often covers the 
bleakest plains ajid moinitains with strange and startling images, which lead the Indian 
mind to the wonderfid. (Vide Freimmt's "Jd Kxp.) 

It has been doubted wliether human life ha.s ever been sacrificed to duMUoiis. or to 
objects of idolatrous worship, by the I'nited States Indian tribes. The burning of 
prisoners of war at the stake is a familiar phase of Indian character. It is generally 
the tbullition of savage revenge or vengeance, under a highly excited state of lioslililw 
anil, as such, is often known to be the retaliation of one tribe against another. To 
excite pain and to prolong t'ruelty. is one of the highest objects of the successful 
capture of an enemy. To endure this ordeal is the gn^atest glory of the exjiiring and 
di'llant foe. With the A/.tecs. human sacrifices were a religious rite. Nothing wiis 
deemed so acceptable an odering to lIeut/.ila]>ochtli as the human heart, warmly torn 
from the bleeding victim. l»ut the whole history of our tribes may be appealed to. it 
is believed, without finding that the life of the victim has been .sacrificed to a spirit, a 
da'inon, or a god. Smith was not condemned by Powhatan to satisiy a wood-du-mon, 
or evil spirit: Crawford was not tied to the stake by the Delawares and Wyandots as a 
religious victim, demanded by the Pow-Wows. 

In the month of April, IS'IS, an event occurred on the Missu -ri, about one hundred 
;iiiil sixty miles above Council llluns. at which the lu-art sliu i ' 'is with horror. It is 
known that the Pawnees and Sioux have long carried on a most icree and sanguinary 
warfare on that remote border. In the month of February, the former tribe, which 
has long had a name for eriudty, captured a Sioux girl named llaxta, of only fourteen 
years of age. She was taken to their villages, where, during several months, she was 
treated with the usual care and kindness. More than the usual attention was perhaps 
paid to her diet, but not a word uttered respecting her fate. The dreadful truth first 
ilashed on her mind on the 2'Jt! of April, at a time when spring had already assumed 
her mild and genial reign, and the tribe began to plant their corn. At this time a 
council of the chiefs and warriors a.s.sembled, at which her destiny was determined. 
Still the result of their deliberations wns carefully concealed from her. At the 
breaking up of thi.s council, .she was brought out from the h)dge in which she had been 

'I' I w 




iloiniciliutiMl. miil iiccompimietl by tlio whole council, liil iVnm wiu'wiiiii to \vi.;\Miiii. A( 
ffii'li ciiii' 111' tlii'st'. tlicy f-'iiM' litT ;i small liilU't of woi.d ami ii iittli" paint, wliirli >!,(• 
haiuK'il to tlu' warrior m'Xt licr. ims.-iing on tUron^'Ii tlio roimil of visits till slu' liail 
calU'il at I'vory lodjro, wliorc tiio same present of wood and paint was ma<le. 

On the '2'2d of April, two days after this eercnionions round of visits, she was led 
out to the ground which had hcen chosen as the place of her sacrilice, and not till siic 
arrived at this spot did she conjecture the true ohject of the syudiolical conlrilmtions, 
and till' general coueurrencc in the doom she was destined to underjjo. The spot 
selected was hetween two trees, standing live feel apart. ( I'late \'I.) Three imrs 
of wood iiad heen tied I'roni tree to tre(>, as a platform to stand on. A snuvll. etpialily 
hin'uing lire, hml heen kindled under the centre of this stand, the hla/.e of which was 
just sulliciiiit to reach her feet. Two stout Pawnee warriors then mounted the bars, 
taking a lirm grasp of her. and liolding her directly above the bhi/c. Small faggots 
of light dry wooil were then kindled, and held under her ann-pits. 

A wide ring of the assembled population of the village, and its chiefs and warriors, 
Htood arounil to witness this extraordinary spectacle, but not in immediate juxtaposi- 
tion to the spot. Each warrior had his bow and arrow ready. Tlu' moment of the 
ai>i>lieation of the littk' burning faggots muler lior arms was a signal to them to Hro; 
wiien in an instant her bod}' wa.s pierced with arrows m thick, that every vital [lart of 
her body was penetrated. 

fiife being extinct, these arrows were quickly withdrawn, and while the llesh was 
yet warm, it was cut in small jiieces from her bones, and put in little baskets. All 
this was done with almost inconceivable (|uickness. The basket.s of human llesh were 
then taken to a closely ailjacent corn-lield. The princii)al chief took a piece of the flesh 
and sijuce/ed a drop of blood upon the newly deposited grains of corn. This example 
was immediately followed by the rest, till all the corn had been thus bathed in human 
blood, wlien the hills were coveri'd over with earth. It is stated that this is not an 
isolated instance of human saerihce with the Pawnees. Other instances are repre- 
sented to have occurred in the history of that trilK!.' 

The Otoes. who are very near neighbors of the triije practising these atrocities, have 
a peculiar mode of sacrificing a horse at the funeral ceremonies of hi.s master. Having 
been whot while the grave is still open, the animal'.s tail is cut ofl' and tied to a long 
pole. This pole is then planted in the grave, and the carcass of the horse deposited 
in the same grave before it is fdled ii|). The sense of attention and respect of the 
Indian spectator are thus satisfied. He believes that l)y these typical rites provision is 
made that tiic spirit of the horse will carry his master through the land of shadows to 
the anticipated hunting-grounds of the aljoriginal i)aradise. For, with the Otoes and 

' Tho plate represents ,in aii/o ilit fi only, from tlie misapprcboni<ion of the artist, lie iint lieinj aware of tlio 
sudden teruiination nt' tlie cruelty ; or perliaps not lindin;.; it praetieuble to dopiet tbo scone of the arrows. 












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tlio prairie tribes wiiorally. tlie Iiorso and man nro alike believed to jioiasesH sim/.'^. 
Indian tra('itii)n states, that Manaboslio called all the (piadnipods his brothers ; they are 
rcL'arded as but under the power of enchuntmcnt. (Algic Researches, Vol. I., p. \?>L) 
The l)iirial ceremonies among our Indian tribes aro at all times attended with interest, 
from the insight they give into Indian character. Some of those incontcstably disclose 
their belief of the immortality of the soul, while the idea of its lingering with the 
body for a time after death, and rcc[uiring food, denotes a concurrence with oriental 
customs, or, at least, the strong tic of local attachment which pervades the Indian 
mind. Boiuid to earth so long in life, he is loth to quit it even after death. When a 
Chippewa corpse is put into its coflin, the lid is tied, not nailed on. The reason they 
give for this is, that the communication hetwecn the living and the dead is better kept 
up; the freed soul, which has preceded the body to the Indian clysium, may, it is 
believed, thus have free access to the nowly-buried body. 

Over the top of the grave a roof-shaped covering of cedar-bark is built, to shed the 
rain. A small aperture is cut through the bark at the head of the grave. On asking 
a Chippewa why this was done, he replied — "To allow the soul to pass out and in." 
"I thought," I replied, "that you believed that the soul wont up from the body at tlie 
time of death, to a land of ha])pincss. ITow then can it remain in the body ?" " There 
are two souls," replied the Indian philosopher. " How can this be?" I responded. " It 
is easily explained," said he. " You know that in dreams wo pass over wide countries, 
and set! hills and lakes and mountains, and many scenes, which pass before our eyes 
and aflect us. Yet, at the same time, our bodies do not stir; and there is a soul left 
with the body, else it would be dead. So, you perceive, it must be another soul that 
accompanies us." 

It is near this orifice left for the soul, that the portion of food consecrated in feasts 
for the dead, is usually placed, in a wooden or bark dish. It could not but happen, 
that victuals thus exposed should bo devoured by the hystrix, fisher, wolf, or some 
other species of northern animals, which arc known to seek their food by night. From 
whatever cause, however, the Indian makes no scruple in believing its abstraction to 
be the work of the soul, in its supposed visits to or from the body. This is Indian 
philosophy. Simple as it is, it is something to find an Indian accounting for the theory 
of sensations, and the phantastic scenes passing before the memory in .sleep. 

In reviewing the Indian manners and customs, nothing the observer more 
with the responsibility he feels to some unseen supernal power. He is naturally a 
religious being. Nothing is more, general, among all the tribes, than customs of fasting 
and feasting. By means of these rites personal benefits aro supposed to be derived, 
and thanks for benefits expressed. 

The oflering of food and libations to the dead is one of the oldest rites of the human 
family. It has pervaded the whole Indian continent. This rite, as practised by tlio 
American tribes, is described in Vol. I., p. '58, 39. (It is illustrated in Plate 3, Vol. 1.) 


MANN i: lis AN 1) CI" ST O.MS, 

I Mil 


1 1 < 

Tt I'cvoiils a I'lotoiii kiiuwii tn haw i)\v\[\\\cd iiiiimii; tlio iiiitioiis I'lmii tlie river Indus to 
the ]5iiili:iiii|Mi()tcr. Il i>r('vailo(l widi-ly at iuiiii'iit [rtIixIs iunoiig tlie Mongols and tlio 
CliinL'so. ('onl'iK'nis. wlio has boon coniparod to Soonitos for the imvity of liis nuirals, 
onlorces. as a luinio tenet, the resjiect lor ancestors. Funereal ollbrin.iis to the dead 
eonstitiite, at this clay, a i)roniinent custom of that people.' 

It nnist. however, bo conceded, that inanuer.s and customs form but a vafrne and 
unsatisfactory mode of iuvostigatinj;' the oriirin of nations. Their traditions arc variant 
and inconjrruous. Tiio liiiht they cast into the roaches but a short distance, and 
is soon lost in the darkness which onvoloi)es tiieir origin. One generation has forgotten 
the trailitiuns of auotiior. Now events give a brief place, in the Indian mind, to the 
old and clu'rished. Cha.igt's of position — the succession of their celebrated actors — 
and the rapid mutations of their whole history, make but a short-lived imi)ressi()n on 
the memory of hunters and warriors. Those incidents that could not bo written, or 
subjected to any sort of notation, are soon completely Ibrgotten. The customs of the 
same stocks vary much with changes of location, climate, and productions. Tlie 
(k'seendants of the .Sho.-^honces, who live miscra1)ly on larva- and roots, on the eminences 
of the Koeky ^fountains, iniderthe nameof Comanchcs, ride horses in Te.\as, and every 
few degroos of latitude brings a change of f\)od. The ingenious mode ol' basket-making, 
ill California (vide Plate VII.), would have been adopted, in all likelihood, by other 
tribes, under similar circumstances. The Atlantic and littoral tribes lived mostly 
(111 (isli and mollusks, and liave left piles of the ostroa along the borders of the 
sc>a. which serve as monnuuMits of the former places of their residence. I have seen 
these piles in the cotton-lit'lds of the Carolinas, which, to the traveller, remain 
tlie only vestiges of a people who have passed away. In the prairies of the West, 
the bulfalo is the chief reliance for food. In Oregon the tribes always relied, in a 
uieasure, on tiio yam: in California they gather the seeds of spontaneously growing 
lilaiits, witli an amouiu of care and labor that would be sufliciont io cultivate liolds. 

The drt'ss of the tribes is still more changeable and more dependent on climate. 
Tiie skins of the beaver and line-furred animals were extensively used in the north at 
the period of the first planting of the colonies; and it so happened that an Indian was 
often tiiiis clothed, at an expense which would have covered him with the finest and 
lifhest broadcloths. Deer-skins furnished the clothing in doer-yielding districts ; and 
the dressed sl<iiis of the IjulValo did the same throughout the latitudes west of the Mis- 
sis>ippi. leaeiiing from about .'!2° to 'y2°. Kven language changed with more rapidity 
tiiaii writers arc aware of, though it still furnishes tiio best clue to their history. 

' Till' aniii'xi'il iK'ciiuiit of a riri'iil ('liiiu'sc t'micral t'oreinony, wliicli took pliico on the o.i£iplosion of a stoaiii- 
l"Mi ;it Sail l'r;iiKi.<co, is cxtrai-lcil from ('alil'.iriiia papers. " Tlio Cliiiic'sc ccri'iiioiiics were most iiitcrcHtiiin 
to tlii.M' who liail never witiusseil tliiir funeral rites. Their cotlin.s, ,xs were the others, were depasiteJ nloiii;- 
siili' llo' irraves, and larjre i|iiantilies of fooil. prepared fur the ocea.sion, lieside thcni. Anuinjj; otlier arlii les 
was a 'jii.i 1 -i/. il -huat, eooked whole, and another whieh was hand.soinelv dressed. .Fars of ])roserve.s, jellies, 
and till- eli.iiei -t ealces and sweetmeats, wore lionntifully ]irovided to satisfy the wants of the departed spirits in 
tlieir waiidniiiirs to another World. Lighted tapers, eaiidles, and niatehe?, aboundeil Iq profusion, and were 
lilieraliy liest.iwed iinon the departeil Chiuese in other portions of the iiraveyard." 







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Conlil it lio anticipatod that the Indian traditions couhl havo preserved nnich vahio 
under these severe mutations'.' In elleet, tlie tribes s[)ealc but of tlie beginning,' ol' the 
worUl, and ol" its present state. Ail ciso has droi^jed out of tlie Indian uieniory, unless 
it be some shadowy and discordant notions of a universal Hood or delujie. Lil'e to the 
Indian, while in the forest state, has little worth liviui,' for; and, indeed, death as little 
to die lor. He is to lie down, as we see in the manners of the Otoes, the Pawnees, and 
the Niuna, with the iiorso and bear, and flatters liiniself with the hope of rising with 
them. The I'eruvians, who, with consummate art, had built a temple to the Sun, 
buried the dog with their eliiefs (vide Appendix II.). in their tond)s of miisoury. And 
tlie Algonipiin puts a paddle or an apeeun, or carrying-strap, in the grasp of the wife 
who had reareil his family of ehildren, that she may eontinuc her life of drudgery in 
another world, and thus realize that death itself is iiiade(|uatu to free her from the 
bonds of social slavi-ry. 

The forest districts of North America appear to have been more favoralilc to the 
develo])ment of the benign and social alleetions. It is in districts, too, that we 
have witnes.sed the highest instances of the martial sjjirit, the preservation of some 
private rights in government, and a tone of free and bold elocjuence. The Iroipiois 
have taken the front rank in this class; )jut, from the testimony of history, which is 
affirmed b}' recent cranial examination.s, conducted on scientific principles (Vol. 11., p. 
3.3")), the Algon([uin and the Ai)palachiaii groups are not a whit behind them in the 
indicia of intellectual capacit\'. IJut even here the triumph of human greatness is 
founded on the idea of stoicism. The future is a scene of phantoms, tyi)es, and 
shadows, in which the labors of this life will bo re-enacted, but which promised no 
rest to the body or the soul. The Indian heaven is built on the opinions of hunters, 
who will resume the chase there under far happier auspices ; and he will be relieved 
from the cruel ills anil pinching wants which have attended him in this life. In 
passing through this elysium, as we learn from his traditions (vide OneCtta, p. 5), ho 
evinces the imperturbability and obduracy of heart which ho had manifested in the 
present scene. Whole canoe-loads of the disembodied .spirits are .seen, in this tradition, 
to .sink in the lake which separates them from the Happy Isl.\nd, without producing 
any emotion. Still, death to the Indian is rather an event of gladness than terror. 
He passes away to his mortal account as if it were to be a place of rewards, and not 
of accountabilities or punishments. The indiflerenco manifested by the .aboriginal race 
on their e.xit from life, has been the topic of frequent remark, from the earliest period. 
The Indian lies down to die, as if to an assured rest or enjoyment, after a period of 
toil. His mind has been filled, from early youth, with fictions of a future elysium, in 
which the Great Spirit is ever described as the peculiar friend of the Red Race. 

In the ex.amination which has been made of Indian manner?, customs, and 
character, in the first volume of this work (vide Mi;xT.\r. Tvpe ok tiii: Ixdiax Race, 
pages 30 to 4'^), a summaiy of traits is presented which ai)[>ears to connect his origin 
with the orientiil world. Time has not appeared to alter that view. We .are of neces- 

VoL. v. — 11 


sity directed to that quarter. Tlie vorv i)lan of laii,<;un<i;o of the American trilics [loiiits 
in tliat direction. Mr. Dii Ponceau, writin}? in ISl'.l, has called this plan of expression 
jMili/si/iil/i(H<: !.r. many comiKHind. (Trans. Am. I'hi, Soc, p. 370.) To Dr. Francis 
Lieher, an cvudite observer, who has recently favored mc with some remarks on the 
topic (\'ol. If., p. •">4H), it has, IVom its power of comhining ideas, been pronounced 
Jiii/npJiriix/li: It is chielly in the East that languagcH of this character, fomiin,!^ 
" bunch-words," as he terms them, are found in a state of analo/^ous completeness of 
nir<;regation ; although wo have, perhaps, in the Mairyar and the old moimtain dialects 
of Spain, existing European vestiges or examples of this "agglutination" in language. 

Of the Indian manners and customs at large, we have had but little from that 
quarter since the days of Louis XIV., when the Christian church of both France and 
Europe, first essayed to In-ing the tribes under the power of civilization and Chri.s- 
tianity. Cliarlevoix, in a review, in ITlil, of the tiieories which prevailed among 
philosophers of Europe, from Moutanus, Oviedo, and Grotius, to Do llornn, and down 
to his da\'. thinks they have dealt so largely in the marvellous, and in fancifid theories, 
as to have left the subject just where they found it. He points out errors and directs 
attention to the study of the languages. (.Tuurnal, p. 10.) On this side of the water 
we have had little which has fallen in our w.ay, but the reminiscences of Adair, in 
1774, and a revival of the theory ascribing a Hebrew origin to the tribes. It is a 
work deficient in historical research, general or tribal, but with some erudition. The 
ess;iy of President Smith, of Princeton College, proceeils too exclusively in su})i)()rting 
a theory; and that of Poudinot (Star in the West), does not, I think, make so strong 
a case as the facts admitted, from the want of sound nuiterials, while ho over-estimates 
others. Dr. Jarvis ipiestioncd this theory in a public discourse, before the New York 
Historical Society, in 1820, which was deemed a j)apcr of sound induction. The argu- 
ment founded on philology cainiot be properly handled, till we have a larger and more 
elaborate amount of material.«, both from Asia and America, recorded on uniform 
principles of notation. Some evidences for a comparison of the Indian with the 
Hebrew language, have been collected. They denote strong elements of analogy, 
sometimes in sounds, but oftener in principles, with the Shemitic stock. Some of 
these, and particidarly the pronominal phenomena, and the restricted verb for exist- 
ence, have been incidentally adverted to in prior pages (Vol. H., p. .'J5;5, Vol. IV., p. 
")SCi), but the topic is one demanding time, reading, and elaboration, wliieh ill accords 
with the necessities and curt compliances which are often required to a large extent in 
pul)lic and ollicial works. 

It has likewise, thus far, been impossible, in this volume, to bring forward, in a 
digested form, the comparison of manners, customs, rites, and opinions, social and 
religious, which appear to refer the origin of the Indian tribes to an ancient and 
general epoch of political mutations over a wide surface of the Asiatic continent, 
affecting the Mongol, Chinese, and their afliliated nations. (Vide Appendi.x, No. 2.) 





[5Tn Pai'ER, Titf.k III.] 





TiTLK m.-si'iuKcnvi': divisio.x, antiquities. 



(It'iii'i'nl ArcliiOdlii^'v. Anlii|iu' Skill in Furlificalinn. Erection of Tiiintili. Vcstifio^ of 
l.iiljin' ill tlu' Mi^sissijipi N'iilli'V. Aiilii|iii' llnrliciilliifal Hcd;*. Si . c (pI' .\vIm and 
Misccllaiiidii-i Faliric'S. Aiii'miiiIh at Mining; ami Mi'tiilliirjry. Ante ("(ilmiiliiaii An- 
tiiinitii's. (.^hu'stidii III' Aiuii(ia' Iiisfii|iliuMM. Diglituii l{<n-k — an Examplo ol' the 
Indian Ki'kci'win. 


Evidences of Indian Anticiuilies, continued, 'rriineated ^^onnd.s, or Platform JU'.xidences, 
of the Florida rndians. .\nlii|Mi' Enclosures and small Mouinls on Cnnnili};lmnr,M Island, 
Lake Erie. In-cri|itiiin l{nck. Description of Arcliieloirleal .Articles from South 
Carolina and New York. Kmliankment and E.xcuvatiun.s ua an l.slaiid at the Source 
of the Wisconsin and Ontonagon llivers. 

TITLE ill., LET. C, VOL. III. 

Hecord of Nowly-Discovercd Antii|uilies, continued. rictoj;riifihic Inscription from the 
hanks of the Hudson. .Vutiipn' I'^ttcry from the Mounds of Eloridii and (!cor;;in. 
Antiipie Colored I'ntterv from the hanks of the Hiver (iihi. New Mexico. Explamition 
of the Inscription in the Character of the Kekccwin, from Lake Erie. .\neient 
Metallic Plates exhihitcd at the Musco;;et! Busks. 


[a.) A sketch of the Antii|uitics of the United States. The true Type of Ancient Semi- 
Civilization and Ahoriuinal Art, denoted Iiy Antii|uities. Indian Art, Architecture, 
I'ortification, and Agriculture, at the close id" the Fifteenth (A>ntury. Intrusive Elenu'nt.s 
of Art. Considerations of the various prooi's of ,\rt in the Mississippi A'allcy. Their 
Ohject, Character, and A;;e. Testimony of Cieneral (J. 11. Clark, and other Western 
Pioneers and Ohscrvers. Sinnmary of Facts. ^Metallurgy. Pottery. Sculpture. 
Ancient Cloth from the Mounds. Antiipie (Jopper-minin;r on Lake .'Superior. Picto- 
gra)ihic Inscri]itions from the Alleirhuny Hiver. Fort Hill of EIniira. (li.) An Essay 
on the Con;:aree Indians of South Carolina. {<:) New elementary Facts in the current 
dicScovery of American Arch.'colojry. 


Some Considerations on the Moimd-Period of the Mississippi Valley, and on the general 
State of Indian Art prior to the Discovery, in the present Area of the I'nited States. 
Traits and Comparisons of American Antinuitics. 


1 « 




i i 










> ► '11 

?■ '!li 




1 1 









We proceed, by a natural stop, from what the Tmlians iiro, at the present time, to 
what they were, at the era of the colonization of the country. There is a voice taught 
by the antiriuarian vestiges of former periods which cannot be mistaken. It is not 
designed to consider the question of the earliest discover}' of the tribes Ijy Eunijieans, 
but morel}' the state of their arts and industrial powers at the epoch; for, whetlior tlie 
continent was first visited by the Scandinavians, the ancient Erse, or the Celts of 
Britain or of Continental Europe, it is not pretended that the race of lied men are tlie 
descendants of snch visitors. These early visits may have produced a clas.s of Intiu- 
SIVE AxTiQUiTiE-S, sucli as is contended for by the Scandinavians (vide Ant. Amer.). 
Traces of this kind of vestiges, of peculiar type, are shadowed forth by an inscrip- 
tion, in antique characters, found on an elliptical stone in a tumulus in Virginia, 
opened in 1838 (vide Vol. I., p. Hi, Vol. IV., p. 120), and also in the characters and 
figures of the Manlius Stone (Plate 8, Vol. V.), which probably tells the tale of the fate 
of some early victim of Spanish cupidity, during what we may call the mediioval age of 
America!! a!itiquities.' There may also be forms of art, disinterred from Ameiican 
soil, introduced from Asia, or by early adventurers from the Mcditorraneai!, which have 
te!ided to direct the Indian mind to incipient steps of art or civili/.iUio!!. But these 
vestiges only serve to perplex, without unravelling the suliject. For, whoever the 
intrusive visitors or colo!iists were, they did not per!na!iently sustai!! themselves. 

' Very dift'ereiit arc the pietof;rapliio inseriptinii.s ol' the Iiuliaii3, in their .«jstciii nC tlic hi' Liiviti. as rocna- 
iiiscd on the Pijriiton rock, on a cliff of limestone on an islanil in Lake Eric (^I'lates 41, iL', \'>\. ill, ami at 
the VcnanL'o stone on th<' Alleghany river. (I'lalcs I", l!^, Vol. IV. 1 




Almost, as a matter of nocopsity, tlioy mingltHl in, bccamo umalgamalocl with tlicm in 
blood, and wcro finally lost in the Indian raee. Ciisic, the Tnscarora, gives ns a 
irlinilise on this subject, denoting the probable growth and extinction of such a colony, 
veiled jiartly under symbols. (Hist. Six Nations.) We m.ay, indeed, recognise in our 
investigations a .'Scandinavian, a Celtic, or even, as Mr. Jomard (»» Plvrc Gnirc, &c., 
Paris), has suggested, a Libyan, and Lord Kingsborough, a Phwnician clement of this 
kind; but the Indian is, by far, of too marked and peculiar a character, mentally and 
l)hysically, to permit us to confound him with these branches of the human race. Not 
only his physiology, but his languages point in (juite another direction. The only 
nation, it nuist l)e jufessed. with which his origin has been, with some just probability 
compared, is the Hebrew, or at least Shemitic stock — though the questions of ic/ini or 
hiiw he came to the continent, are ijuito as diflicult to answer as the others. There are 
not oidy some striking [)rinciplos of agreement in the plan of utterance of the Indian 
with the Shemitic, but some apparent vestiges of the vocabulary.' It may, however, 
be remarked, in connection with a Celtic or Gothic element in the Indian mind, that 
their beliefs in fairies, dwarfs, giants, vampyrcs, and ghosts, or apparitions from the 
grave, as denoted in their oral legends and tales (vide Algic Researches), smacks 
strongly of idras which were perfectly infdtratcd into the Celtic and Gothic imagina- 
tions: while it is. at tlie same time, to be remembered, that, agreeably to the most 
recent ethnological researches in Europe, both of these celebrated and wide-spreading 
families of mankind were derived from early migrations of Asiatic tribes through the 
Euxine into Europe. (Latham.) It becomes, therefore, less a matter of surprise 
that the Indian tribes, who are manifestly of oriental origin, .should have brought 
thence, along with these apparently European mental indicia, their abundant beliefs 


I J . 

' The Ilobniie tliour^- lias nut, in my opinion, boon tliorouijhly oxaminoJ. The .ittonipt of Jlr. James .\dair, 
in 177 1, to jirovo it, I))- referi'noes to customs and lanL'uajros, is an utter failure on the face of it. Grantinfr tliat 
their feai-ls anil fasts — their |iurificatious — the rites by wliieli they make an areanum of their meilieine-saeks — 
tlieir respect to auiiuries — their mysterious choruses — and tlic overweening opinion they liavc of themselves, as 
a peculiar race who are the favorites.of the (ireat .*^pirit — .idmitting that they are deists and not idolaters in 
the Kast bulla .^ense — grantiiij; nil this, and more, which cannot be denied, the great stress he places on the 
resemblances of laniruaire is utterly inconclusive. Mr. Adair had been forty years in America, a trader among 
the Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws, and Chiikasaws. Three of these dialects, at, have peculiarities. If we 
grant, that of all f 'ur, a group could be made, yet the words he adduces are wholly ditl'erent in the Iroquois, 
the Algom|uin, the Jlakota, and the Shoshoiiee groups of languages. Ills imagination has fpiitc run away with 
his judgment. His eternal reference to certain .'•yllables and words in tlieir sacred chontscs, is urged beyond 
all observation and belief by contemporary or subse(|ucnt writers, and there is no such compounding of words 
fniin the supposed holy name of the Almighl}-, in any tribe known to me. His learning and [licty may both 
be admitted. 1 1 is object was one of the noblest that could arrest the human mind. There were, indeed, certain 
resemblances of graiiimatieal coiistnution. There is more, imleed, of this than he eontcmled for; but what 
proved, in hi- miml, the Choctaw, the Chickasaw, the Mu.skogee, and the Cherokee, to be Hebrew, proved 
that the ]roi|Uuis, the Algnnipiin, and the tran.s-Missi,ssippian tribes arc not. There are, indeed, resembl.ances 
of single words to the Hebrew in all these stoek.s, but they are entangled by the general example. .Strong 
analyses cxi-t to the 11 'brew mode of compoumling wonls — to their making verbs of nouns, &e. — but these 
grammatical analyses relate rather to the .'^hcniitic family. 



in necromancy, magic, witchcraft, sorcery, anil tlio doctrines of a very mnlti])lic(l exist- 
ence of spiritual agencies. Xor is it strimge tluit we should also he conipellod to loolv to 
tiiat qiuuter for the Indian doctrine of nictenii)syc!iose.s, and enchantments, and trans- 
formations, which constitute so prominent a feature in the poetical machinery of tlieir 
traditionary lodge-tale.s. For, it i.s hetter to draw tlieir belief in fairies, dwarfs, vani- 
pvres, and ghost.s, directly I'roni tiie original seats of jnankind, tlian tiirough the early 
barbarous periods of Europe. It is to tiiis ancient centre of migration tluit we are 
driven in seeking for the origin of those doepl3--se.itcd principles in the Indian mind 
which arc at tlie foundation of their cosmogony and religion. It is seen that tiiey 
regard the creation of the world as having risen from chaos ; the idea of an 
universal deluge, by which men were destroyed; the belief in two antagonistical 
principles of Good and Evil; and, finally, the wor.ship of the Sun, as being the s\inbol 
and ell'ulgent representation of the Creator — the Great Manito, the Waconda, the 
Owayneo, and the Abainka of our principal groups of tribes, by whom tiiat luminary 
is regarded as the not only of heat and light, but of liie. These are, in my 
opinion, the four fundamental Ijcliefs in the nninstructed mind of the IJed nuui 
of America, however obscured they may ]je Ity secondary and subordinate dogmas. 
The oriental character of the beliel's have been stated as the sum of ni}- observations 
in the Indian country (where, in former years, I liave been admitted as a ^U:o\ and a 
menil)er of tin-ee of their j);'in('ipal secret orders), as stated in the mental synopsis 
heretofore submitted. (Vol. I., p. 30.) And the same general traits are more or less 
fully described or adverted to by all who, with any attempt to generalize, have 
written on the subject. 

It is not only the country, but the epoch, that is required ; and the latter is oi'ten a 
means of testing the former. An}' attempt to fix on local divisions of tiie orient,.! 
world, as the probable theatre of the origin of the Indian tribes, in the absence of all 
history — without even traditions, poor as they generally are — and on tiie mere basis 
of supposition-s, must prove unsatisfactor}-. But where history is ballled, conjecture 
may sometimes plausibly step in. It is not probable tiiat there are less tha'i ten million 
souls, of all grades, situated between Cape Horn and the utmost habitable parts of the 
Arctic ocean ; for there are, from the last accounts, some five inillii)ns of tlie reelainifd 
trii)es in Mexico alone. Between all these tribes, from the south to the north, tlieie is 
a remarkable general coincidence in color, features, and character. The mere conjec- 
ture that these tribes are the olV-.shoots of tiie Sliemitic race of Asia, is important, and 
becomes deeply interesting when it appears probable, as many men of learning and 
genius have as.serted, that tlieir history, fate, and ibrtunes, can be connected with that 
of tiie Hebrew race.' 



' (Jcnei'iil history ivc|uiri^s irciioral oiioclis. Kvory conjecture ascribes a j^rcat aiitimiitv to tlic Imliaiis. It 
is not wise to reject conjecture wlunv we have uothini; liut eoiijocture to h>an on. I'roni cnn>iileratiiins ol' tin: 
slowness of the formatiou ol" languages alone, >Ir. CJallatin (Trans. Kib. Soc, Vol. !/), thought it not unrea- 

^y',-" ..y ^ " 

1 1 

'!' ■• 





When the Spanish discovorcil America, Europe -was shaken to its centre 1)y religious 
agitations. For tiie Kelbrniation was tiien en the point of breaking forth, and in a 
lew yenrs was at its lieiglit. Lutlier coninie iced liis open career just two years before 
Cortez lirst appeared belbrc the city of Mcxi:o. That part of the Church controned 
by Spain was swayed by tlie zeal and energy of Loyola; and it was a point of deep 
religious emulation and triumph, to show the divided churches of Europe that she was 
euccessfuUv engaged in converting the millions of new-found, idolatrous aborigines, to 
the true faith. In this effort, conquest it,«elf became one of the chief means of securing 
the triumphs of the Spanish Church. The very state of the buildings, arts, and jrower 
of the Indians was exaggerated, to show the greatness of the victory and to enhance the 
glory of the con(iuest. Let the simple journal of Bernal Diaz — nay. the polished and 
elaborate history of De Solis be read, with a view to this general state of things, and 
the observer camiot fail to disco\er, at every step, the strong tendency to over-estimate 
the state of arts, the power (jf the Lidian government, and the general type of semi- 
civilization. A dressed deer-skin, with rude devices of atnmals and men, (bhied in a 
(piadrangular Ibrni, was pronounced '-a book" — the stroke of an Luliau drum-stick, 
'• a gong" — rude walls, without a door or a roof, "a Ibrt" — the merest crude fabrics of 
wearing, without the knowledge of a distalf or a shuttle, were likened to the 
mantles of .Kuroi)ean kings — a caci(pie, with his plutni's, was '-a noble" — and Monte- 
zuma himself, a sagamore swaying chiefs of less(>r power, was exalted 1)v the term of 
'• emperor," a word unknown to the Aztec language. They made pots and vases by 
hand, but had not the knowledge of the potter's wheel or the wooden lathe. What 
sort of a civili/.iition would Kurojie have without these simple arts? They had no skill 
in fusion. Thiy melted no iron — they made no glass. Gold retpiired no skill in 
separation from its n>atrix ; and the rude images of animals Avhich M. .Fomard sliowcd 
me, at the l^ililiotiieipie Royale. in 1S42, as being part of the things sent over to Spain 
by Cortez, did not exceed the art of a Pottowattoinic. 

Did Pizarro, when he accomplished the coni^nest of Pern, evince a juster apprecia- 
tion of tiie condition of the society, arts, and manners of the triijcs whom he treated 
with the spirit of a brigand? The conversion of the tribes here, as in AFexico, was 
still the watcli-cry and sliield of the contpicrors. He held np the banners of the 

sonaliK' lo .suii|»i>c tliiit tlirv iuit;lit have l)t't'ii cliiiiinateil from tlic ntlior stock.'* within five huiulrcd years after 
tho L'rni-i-iil (lisiii'i'sioii (if iri.'iiikiiiil. (A.M. "-'iMT, I'.-licr. ) Letters were invented by Meninon n.c. ]S:i2; 
Cuiliniis iiirryinL' tin' I'lKeiiieiaii letter'* into (irecco ii. c. 1 i'X'>. Iron was found in (irceeo in IttMi, and the 
first sliip was IjrnuL'lit to (ireeee in 14s."i. 'flie date of the exodus frmn KL'vpt is 1 IHl. The kiiejdom of 
}>n\A liiii<hed liy the eaplivity under Shalnianazar in 72'! ; Afrii'a is lirst duubled by the I'lKeiiieians in 001 ; 
abiiiit loill Solcininii dispatehes vi'ssrl'i to fonijin i.,:rls. These simple ehronological facts are sullieient to show 

to theorisis h.iw ditlieult it is to in ad on tlio ^.-rounds of conicetnri. that the race must liave left the .\siatio 

shores before the invention of letters, or prior to tlio discovery of iron, may be aduiittedj for the Indian tribes 
had neither letters nor the kiio\vIeiI'.;c of the use of iron. 

f 7i 

A N 'I' I Q U I T 1 E S . 


Gospel to tlio iiooplo, as n sii1»t(>rrii,!i'o fur pliinilcr aiid iiorfidy. while liis acts and policy 
(iiivorcd far iiioro of tliu " Priiico of the power of the air." liica was the .simple name 
of the trihes for father; but tlie chief and ruling father must also be declared to he 
'•an emperor" — for this conqueror would a|)pear no whit behind, in deeds of glorious 
renown, in the court of Cliarles \'., to his military competitor for fame in Mexico. 

Of the state of civilization in IVru and Mexico, there is nnu'h room, indeed, for 
dotdit. It lias been ju.stly described, we think, by Kobertson (Hist. Am.), and often over- 
de.scribed by Spanish historians. The accounts of the con(|uerors themselves are a 
mass of inllations. It was a civilization which grew up among a rude hunter race 
under the superstitious fears and despotism of the native seers and jiriests. Custcjui 
led the people to look up to the oldest, wisest, or more cunning classes. Prescription 
made law, till the system had become, at the periud ol' the Discovery, as desi)oti(' as 
any of the early superstitious dynasties of the oriental world. It reipiired centuries 
to wean them from the idle habits of the hunter state, in latitudes where, with very 
little toil, the climate furnished tliem, sixmtaneously. the means of subsistence. The 
Incas soon exacted lalior without reward, on public works, and being sustained by 
the Indian priesthood, of whom they were the head, im|)osed tribute. Temples, teo- 
cnlli. and imblic roads, and rope suspension-bridges, could thus be readily I'xecuted ; 
wliile the mud hut, or adolia cottage, was all that remained to tell that the rude and 
pow-wow-ridden people, who bowed under the severest slavery of mind to their 
religious superiors, had any iiome at all. E\'en the domestic circle was not free 
from the intrusion of the ruling chiels; and, as to private rights, they were 
unknown. Yet the race, compared to those trilx's who had made no advances upon 
the simplest forest arts, presented a .singular agreement of general features and 

Of the actual condition of art, there are some striking discrepancies in authors. A 
temple of the Sun, with walls of heavy golden [dates, brings a dazzling image to the 
mind. A governnu'nt house, for the transaction of pul)lie business, creates the impres- 
sion of magnitude and excellence in art. Yet what shall we say when these edifices are 
described by engineers to have l)een nunc squares and ])arallelograms of walls, of o\w. 
story, without roofs, letting the sun shine on their altar, and the rain beat in, and 

' It is roiiiiirki'il l>y tlio leiiriKil imlhnr ut' ('li>iiios, \\.1. II., ]i, (iTl, tlmt '-the raco. wliioli wa.s 
till' siuno IViim >'i')° nnrtli latiliido tu •'•'»" south lilitiuli', passi'il diivctly from tlio life nf linntiTs tu tliiit of 
(Miltiviitnrs nt' the soil, without uiiili;ri.'iiiii!5 tlir intcruioiliatc ixrailatiou ol" a pastoral life.'' Such was llic tran- 
.■-itidn, t'iMiii till' fnivst to the licM, nl' the I'fnivian iiiul .^F^>xicall trihos, ill tlio ooni]itira(ivol_v Miiall ilistriots of 
tho <omiiioiit wlioro oullivalion olilainoil. This tliil not, in Moxioo, aoouviliii:,' to .^li-. Mayor (viilo Moxioo, 
Aztec, ,''<|iaiiish, ami Uo|iiililii!an), exeoo'l a eiivlo of two luimlroil and lifty miles, 'i'lie Tmliaii race has every 
mark ol' ;_'oiiorie unity tliroui;h(jut tho latitudes uainoil : hut there is daii;;er of misapprehension to the Kuropean 
reader in so uni|iialiliod an assertion with rej;ard to llio chaujie.s of hahits of the trihes through so wide an 
extent. The fiiree, iiuiiiadio, predatory, harliaroiis trihes rrom the (!ila ill New Moxioo to the Aivtic oeoaii, 
yet rove in all I heir untamed wildiiess. To tliom the deer and hutValo are still the harvest, and robbery and 
lilunder the eliiel' path cif di.sliiiolion. 

Vol. v. — 12 


A NT 10 LIT I i;s. 

ii' !■ 

; i 

; ' ' I 'I 

ii I 

iitt !ij ^ '' '■ 

without doors that could ho opened or (•h)sod. hut coiisistiii!! of small triaiigulur npor- 
tiiros in tho walls, witlioiit aiiv knowledge of the arch. For a [ilaii and view of tiiesc 
nntir|no structures, see Plate IX. 

I'lloM. to whom we are indi'hted [ov these architectural views, uives the most correct 
auil instructive account of the state of Peruvian ai't. A civilian and an engineer in the 
service of the governnieul. he came with no ulterior views (tf ciuiccaling facts, or ovei'- 
stating accjuiremenls. There is no thsp^itiun e\ inced l>_v iiim. ho\ve\er, to underrate any 
tiling advantageous to tiu' Indian character, industry, or arts of the period. •■ 'i'ho 
ancient inhabitants of Peru." lie remarics, "were far enough from currying the sciences 
to an\- perfection, hefoie tlie coutpicst of the countr\' hy tiie Spaniards. Tiiey weiv 
not destitute of all kuowleiige of them, hut it was so faint au<l languid, that it was far 
from being sidlicient for cultivating their minds. They had also some glinnuerings of 
the mechanic arts; but their simplicity or want of taste, was so remarkable, that, 
unless Ibrced by absolute necessity, tlay never departi'd from the models before them. 
The progress an<l improvements they made were owing to industry, the common 
directress of mankind. A close application supplied the want of science, lli'iico, 
.'d'U'r a long series ol' time, and e\ce>sive lalior. they raised works not so totalis' void 
ol" ai't and beauty but thai some particulars raise the adnnratiou of an attenli\e spec- 
tator. Siudi. lor inslauce. were somi' of those structures of whi(di we have still snpeib 
ruins, in which, considering tho magnitude ol' the works, and tho few tools they were 
nnistcrs of. their eontiivauce and ingenuity are really admirable. And the work itsidf, 
though destitute of European synnuetry, elegance, and disposition, is snrprisiui. oven 
in the veiy perfornninoo of it. 

"These lndian,s raib^d works both for the convenience and veneration of ]io,stority. 
With these the i)lains, oniinences, or icssi'r mountains, are t'osered ; like the Kgyptians, 
they had an extreme passion Ibr reiulering their liurial-[)laces remai'kable. If the latter 
oroctcil astonishing jnramids, in the centre of which their i'ud)almed bodies were 
deposited, the Indians, having laid a body without burial in tho place it was to rest 
in. environed it with stones and brii'ks, as a toud); and tin; de[)endants, relations, and 
intimate aciiuaintancos of tho deceased threw so nuich earth on it, as to l()rm a tumulus 
w enunenco, which they railed guaca. The figure of these is not precisely pyramidi- 
cal ; the Indians .seenung rather to ha\e aU'ected the imitation of nature in motuitains 
and eminences. Their usual height is about eight (U- ten toises, !ind their length 
bi'twi.xt twenty and twenty-fi\'(>. and tho breadth something less; though there are 
others nuich larger. I lunc already observed, that these monuments are very common 
all over this country; but they are niOi?t munerous within the jurisdiction of the town 
of Cayandjo. its plains being, as it were, covered with them. Tho reason ol" this is, 
that formerly hero was one of their jjriucipal temples, which the}- imagined must 
communicate a sacred quality to all the circumjacent country, and thence it was chos- n 



for the biiriiil-placo of the kings ami oaiM(iiics of (iuito; and, in imitation of thorn, 
the oaeii(iie,s of all those villages were also interred there. 

•• The remarkahlo dillerenee in the niagniliule of these monunient.s seems to indieate, 
that the guacas were always suitable to the eharacter, dignity, or riehes of the jiersun 
interred; as, indeed, the great nundjer of vassals under some of the most potent 
caciques concurring to raise a guaca over his body, it must certainly 1)0 considerably 
larger than that of a private Indian wliose guaca was raised only by his family and a 
lew acquaintances: with them also were buried their furniture and many of their 
iustiumenls, both of gold, copper, stone, and earth ; and these now are the (jbjeets of 
the curiosity of the S|)auiards inhaliiting the coiuitry; that many of them make it a 
great part of their business to break up these guacas, in the expectation of (inding 
!<omething valuable, and, misled by finding some pii'ccs of gold here and there, they so 
devote themselves to this search, as to spend in it both their substance and time — 
tiiougli it nnist be owned that many, after a hmg perseverance under disai)pointmei\(s, 
have at length met with rich returns for all their labor and Two instances 
iif tliis kind happened while wo Avoro in the country — the first guaca had been opened 
near the village of Cayambe, in the plain of Pesillo, a little before our arrival at 
Quito; and out of it were taken a considerable quantity of gold utensils, some of 
which wo saw in the revenue oflice, having been brought fhere as e((ui\alents for the 
fifths. The second more recently discovered in the jurisdiction of Pastos, liy a 
Dominican friar, who. from a turn of genius for antiquities, had laid out very large 
sums in this amusement, and at last met with a guaca in which lie is said to have 
found groat riches. This is certain, that he sent some valuable pieces to the 
provincial of his order, and other per.-ons at Quito. The coHionts of most of tliem 
consist only of the skeleton of the [)erson Interred, the eartiieu vessels in whieii lie 
used to drink chica, now called guagueros, some cojiper axes, looking-glasses of the 
ynca-stoue, and things of that kind; being of little or no value, excei)t for their groat 
antiipiity, and their being the works of a rude, illiterates people. 

'•The manner of opening the guaca is, to cut the lower part at right angles, tiie 
vertical and horizontal line meeting in the centre, where the corpse and its furniture 
are fiiund. 

'•The stone-mirrors taken out of the guacas are of two sorts — one of the ynciv-slone, 
and the other of the gallina/.o-stone : the former is not transparent, of a lead color, but 
soft: they arc generally of a circular form, and one of the surfaces fiat, with all the 
smoothness of a crystal looking-glass; the other oval, and .something spherical, and 
the |iolisii not so fine. They are of vdrious sizes, but generally of thn'o or four inches 
diameter, though I saw one of a fiiot and a half — its principal surface was conca\-e, 
iuid greatly enlarged objects — nor could its polish be exceeded by the best workiueu 
among us. The great fault of this stone is, its having several veins and Haws, which, 
bciides the disadvantage to the surface of the mirror, reniler it liable to be broken by 

I i 

i' I 

ll i J 



; 'i: 




miy little acciJont. ]\riiiiy an> iiicliiuMl to tliiiik tiiat it is not nnturnl. Imt nrtificinl. 
'riiciv lire, it iiiii,-t iiidi'L-d lir ouiuil, i^mnc ii})|pciiriiiu'os of tliis, but not siillii'iont lor 
(•on\ictit)ii, Aiuoni;' llu' ln'i'iii'lics, in (his country, soiiu' quarrios of tiiom are Ibiiiiil ; 
aiul ([iiiintitios continuu lo lie taivon out. tlionLiIi no longer worl^eil for the uko tlio 
Imlians made of tiieni. Tiiis docs not. however, absolutely eontradiet the I'lision of" 
them, in order to heighten their (luaiity. or cast thein into a rejiular form. 

'• The giillina/o-stone is extremely hard, but as Inittle as Hint : it is so called from its 
Waek color, in allusion to tiic color of the bird of that name, anil is in some measure 
diaphanous. This liic Indians worlied eiiualiy on both sides, and reduced it into a 
circular figure. On the iqnier part thi'y drilled a liole lor a string to hang it l)y ; the 
surfaces were as .smooth as those of tlie Ibrnu'r, and very exactly rellect objects. Tiio 
mirrors made of tliis stone were of dilVerent kinds — some plain, some concave, and 
others convex. I have si'en tliem of all kinds; and, from the uelicacy of the work- 
manshi)), one would have tliought tliese jieople had been furnished with all kinds of 
instruments, and comiiletely skilled in ojities. Some quarries of this stone are likewise 
met with, Ijut they are entirely ni'glected ; though its transparenc}-, color, and hard- 
ness, besides its ha\ing no Haws or veins, render it very bea\itiful. 

'•The copper axes of the Indians diller very little, in their shape, from ours; and it 
appears that these were the instruments with which they ])erlbrined most of their 
works; for if not tiie only, tliey are the most common edge-tools found among them, 
and the only apjiarent dilferenco betwixt those they use, consists in size and 
shape: for, though they all resemblu an axe, the edge in some is more circular than 
in others. .Some have a concave edge, others a point on the opposite side, and a tinted 
handle. These instruments were not all of cojiper; some having been ibuiul of galli- 
nazo, and of another stone something resembling the Hint, but less hard and pure. 
Of this stone, and that of the gailiiui/.o. are sevend points, supposed to havi; been 
heads of spc;irs, as these were their two chief instruments, or weapons; for, had tliey 
used any other, some would doubtless juive been Ibnnd among the infinite innnber of 
guacas which have been opened." (Illo.a, Vol. I., p. 4i;o.) 

Nothing is more remarkable, in comparing the ancient monuments of the Peruvians 
and Mexicans with those of the Indians of the United States, than that respect tor 
the dead, and veneration for ancestry, whieli eliaracteri/.es both classes of the triJK's. 
The tomljs or guacas of the Peruvians are perceived to have been cjf very various sizes, in 
proportion to the standing of tlie person entondjed. Tiie body, with its ornaments and 
jiersonalities. was simply laid on the ground, and surrounded with earth, stones, or 
adolias. The relatives of the deceased threw on more material, till it a.ssumed the form 
of u tunndus. A man of but little note had a mere barrow — a chief of distinction 
quite a mausoleum or mound. I'iloa gives an account of one of ticse guacas, 
which he llnnl\s had l)('eii used as a look-out. situati'd on a plain nea>' the town of 
Laticunga, in tjuito (l>- "'•'' ^'"'- '■) Thi< rone of cnrth rises to one hundred and fifty 

I I 

t ■' I 











■ f 



!i M 



1 1 

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foot in lioiulit. The shape is tliat of a sugar-loaf, formed witli cxaet coniral roundness 
on every side, so as to present the same aiiLrle with tlie plains. (IMate 0. Fig. 2.) 
Tliia earthen structure nnist impress tiie observer with the striking resemjjlance it bears 
to the most elevated class of tumuli of the Mississippi valley. Six lesser tunnili are 
figured on the same page. These works arc ascribed to the earlier or Atacama period 
of the Peruvians, before the rule of the Titicaca line of Incas. The older, indeed, the 
periods are wliicli wo select to compare the Indian arts and customs of the continent, 
tlie ruder is the state of art, and, at the same time, the more striking the resembliinces. 
ik'vercnce for ancestors was, indeed, one of the earliest forms of idolatrous error the 
human mind assumed in Asia; and we should not be surprised to sec evidences of it 
among the earliest tribes in America. 

Two of the ancient Peruvian guacas were recently opened at Arica, under tlio direc- 
tion of the ollicer' at the head of the Astronomical Connnission sent from the National 
Observatory at Washington, who has furnished us a full descrii)tion of it. (Plates 10, 1 1, 
Figs. 1 to 28.) The contents were the mummies of a male and female, and two 
children, disposed and tied in a sitting posture, and wrapped in the Peruvian manner. 
In their laps were ears of Indian corn. They were accompanied by various household 
articles of pottery, wood and wicker-work. The inner wrappers were of cloth wo\en 
from the wool of the llama; and it was figtn-ed. There was a man's cap of the same 
material deposited in the tomb; a needle made of the thorn of the cactus, with the 
thread still in it, and a gold eylet-hole. There was a marker or punch, with a curiously 
worked head to fit the palm. (Plate 11.) The vessels of pottery were of primitive 
shapes. The wooden vessels contained the remains of the sweet potatoe. Tlierc wi're 
arrow-heads of transparent Hint, or chalcedony. There was also Avhat our northern 
Indians call an tqicciiii, or carrying-strap. The most characteristic object was the 
skeleton of a dog. All the ol)jects of art were boxed and transported to Washington 
lor examination. 

The cnd)alming had been imperfect, and the bodies were deca3ed ; the tomb 
emitting a strong efUuvium on being opened. " These tombs," says my informer, '• are 
believed to be several hundred years old." * 

If the earlier guacas were rude and inartistic, the same remark may be made of the 
stone edifices and public buildings of the corresponding period of art. '•' Palaces" and 
'•temples" were the current terms the Spanish applied to these structures. They 
came to America to find empires and temples that might bear to be compared to those 

' l,t. (iilloss, r. S. \. 

^ There was also communicated, alonj; witli this antiriuiirian information, the cvidenee of an attempt, bv the 
Spanisli <Ieri;y, to impress the natives witli miraculous phenomena, nnule by the insertion of white stones in 
tli(^ fiiee of an imniense precipice, in tlie form of a, triple cross — one of those essays at jiions fiaml hy the 
Spanish priesthood, which only servo to demonstrate a peculiar species of liunian vanity and folly. (^\'idc 
Appendix No. ;!.) 



' It 


! ■' ■ 

cif Mexico, ami tlic coiiqnci'ors often luisapiilicd the plirascs to vestiges of .1 jicriod 
before the Iiica s\>teiii luid l)eon even coiiiiiieiieed. 

'I'lie greatest jiait <if (nie of tlicse celebrated t(Mii[)les, denoliiifj; the ancient ••rusticity 
of tlieir architecture" (p. 107), is situated near tiie town of C'ayanibe. (I'late 12, Fig. 1.) 
It stands on an eminence : it is a perfect circle of fortN-eiuht feet diameter: its wail.s 
are about thirteen feet six inches high, and four or five in thickness, built of .sunburnt 
bricks, or adobus. It has a small, sijuare door at one side, and is open to the sky, like 
the ancient amphitheatres, that the sun and liiiht might freely i)enctrate. 

In the remains of the house of Incas, of (Juito, at ('alio (Plate I'J, Fig. 21. the walls 
are built of a species of trap or greenstone, well cut and adjusted. They consist of 
six princii^d rooms, with ante-rooni.s and entrances — the whole occupying a large 
ground-plan, but the entire edifice is of but one .^tory, without windows, or an aperture 
to admit light. The inference i.s, that orifices for this jjiirpose were made in the roof, 
if, indeed, it was deemeil ne<'essary to have a permanent hk)!' over the entire biiildiiiii', 
in these mill, serene latitudes. There is no evidence that either the knowledge of the 
arch, or of the stair, existed. Entrances were made by means ol' the usual leaning 
Avails, or what has sometimes be n called the '■ llat-arch." 

In the citadel and palace of Canar. depicted by him, we have a eombiuafion of the 
purposes of an otlieial residence for tlu; Incas, with those of a fortress. The same 
rustic style of architecture and geometry — the siime want of architectural cai)acity 
for admitting light, for rooting, and for rising by a series of ste|)s, is evinced. A 
battering wall is surmounted by a small watch-tower. The height and thickne.-^s of 
the walls, and the nature of the stones,' which are. however, unequally laid, are like 
those of Callo. 

By far the most imperfect and rustic state of Peruvian art existed while the Tneas 
liad their residence at Atacama and at ({iiito.' The most numerous monuments and 
vestiges of art are found scattered throughout that quarter. But while the of 
the tribes assembled, under their caciques, to work on public edifices, they them.selves 

' I'rniii a rciii;irl; uii tlio articulation of those stones, it may be coiijeeturcd that thise parts aru uf volcanic 
origin — a>>uiiiiiig tlic usual pentaL'uual form of crystallization, with concave and cutivcx surfaces. 

- The I'eruvians of the Atacama type are the oldest in af;o. The whole race of I'crn were a people of a 
complexion and features (oincidinL' in every thiui; with the Toltee and other Indian stocks situated ncnth of 
them, and not superior to theui in their mental trails. The appearance of the lihehir. Maiii'o Capne, among 
them, ]iut a new complexion on every thing, lie was evidently an adventurer of later origin. He domesti- 
cated himsell', evidenily in conecalnieiit, a long time at Lake Titac.ica, where he idoscly studied their Idstory 
mill languages, lie then announced himself as the me.s.<engor of a now dispon.sation of the ,*»un, and set up 
the worship of that lundnary 011 broader grounds, at (Juzco. Every nutliority denotes the Inca race to have 
been of a distinct blood and lineage, and of a liiuher type of civilization. The Incas were a riis/r. The late 
])r. Morton of I'liihichlpliia has. by an elal/orate admeasurement and examination of the .\taeama crania, 
demonstrated thi< in an admirable manner. (Crania .\niericana.) AL'rccably to him, they were a people 
pijssessing small skulls — of that diagonal f.irm called c<ini|)ressed or tialheads (vide \'ol. II., p. It'JTl, who.«e 
mental capacity, as determined by the rule of internal cap.icity, did not reach to that of the Iroijuoi.s, Appala- 
chians, or Algoniptins, as denoted in the cranial admeasurements at p. G.'i"), idem, Vol. It. 




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ANTi<,»r I'll i:s. itfi 

livod in tptnjuirnrv ImtH of tlio frailcsl cliurMclcr. Tlic i)riiici|iiil inntcriiil iiscil in llio 
coiislniction of tliiM' lints was ciincx ; and tlii.-' plim ni' hnildinu is vi't InllowLMl aiiin,-,' 
the liaiiUs dl" the .Marit'iiilH) and otln r slri'anis jjuwin^' into liic I'arillc. Tlie mctlind 
is. to li\ in till- ciii'lii ten or twelve I'oilvcd [licccs of ti('cs. Cross tinilicrs aie laid on 
tlicni, aliont twelve H'ct iVoni tlio ;.'ronnd. Over tlioso a flooring ol'tlK! sanif nnitcri;d, 
or a kinil of lioards, is laid, wifli a roof covered hy tlie lon,L' leaves of tlic vijaliiia. 
uliicli are IVeiinenlly tliree I'eet in len^itli. Iiy one! hroail. 'I'lie jiliant Itejucos \ine is 
nst'd as 11 eord in IIil'so nimble strnetnres. The trronnd story is nnoccnjiied, to avoid 
the intrusion ol' heasts, inse(;ts, or lloods: (p. IS(I). 

ir it was an oliject with the ('onqnerors, to o\-erriito tlio arts of the Indians in these 
serene and huhny rejiions, at the era of the discovery, it had been C'(|nally so in tin? 
trojiieiil hititndes of Mexico, where the nations may bo said to have heen wilhin 
strikini:' distance of the ^lississippi valley. 1'he time re(|nii'ei1, nt liie jiresent period, 
to tra\crse the imnunise plains from Santa l''e. on the l!io (Iraiuh' d(d Norte, to Inde- 
jiendcnce. on the .Missonri, where a mail is now rejiidnrly carried liy the I'nited Stntes' 
tioxernment, is twelve days. The Indians, who, I'rom the lirst landinn' of Corte/,. have 
hiid ajjivat repntation as messengers and rnnni'rs, conid hardly, if the occasion rci|nircd 
it. have (lonsnmed nu)ro time. They went from Vera Cruz to Mexico and hack in seven 
days. (I)e Solis.) The wiiole region, from the month of the Itio (Irande I'xtending 
west to l(i((° of longitude, was covered with the hullido. elk, deer, and sniidler animals, 
whicli alVorded al)nndant nutans of sulisistcice. if the\- crossed the plains of Texas, 
literally the [)aradis(> of hunters, as tiie name is said to import, the general fertility 
of the country, and the means of living. alVorded them still easier access; and if the 
trihes chose to resort to their canoes, and followed the coast of the (Inlf to the Atchefa- 
layn, or the other mouths of tho Mississip[)i, they hail still a move easy mode of reach- 
ing its waters, and one unite as agreeable to their habits and tastes. 

The passage from the peninsula of Yucatan to Cuba is not, by any means, bcyoiul 
the capacities of the Indian sea-canoo,' and certainly not in the proper seasons, of the 
bal/a, with its temfiorary board keel and power to lufl'. (I'latc 1-"1.) And thence to 
Florida, is a transition not beyond the enterprise of tho maritime tribes. 

The Toltocs settled in Mexico, according to ITAloa, in oST, founded Tula in -I US, 
and terminated their monarchy, according to Clavigero, in Id-Vl. Agreeably to tho 
most authentic writer.s, the Chiehcmecas and Aeolhnans, or Te/.cocans, settled in the 
valley of Mexico in OOn. They were displaced by the Tecpanecs of Acajinlco in 1012. tribe.s, agreeably to all authorities, caino from points and nortli of the valley 

' Speaking of tlio I'loriila coast, Kartraiu remarks : — " Tlic-o Fiuliaiis liavo lai-L'o, Iiainlsniiio canoi's, uliiili 
tlioy form out of tlic tniiilts of cypress trees, sonic uf llicin I'lininicHlious ciiini;_'li Ici aceoiniiiuclate twenty or 
tliirty warriors. In these laruc canoes tliey (leseend the river, on trailiiiL' ami liuntiiii;' exjieililiniis tn the sea- 
coast, neij;hliorini;' islands and keys, iniile to the point of I'lurida, and sniiielimes aeniss the (iiilf, extending 
their navigation to tho liahama IslaiiiN, and I'vcn to Ciilia. A erew of these adventurers had just arrived, 
having ventured from Culia liut a tew days before our arrival, with a cargo of spirituous lii[Uors, coffee, siii;ar, 
and tobacco." 13artram's Klorida, p. •J2ri. 



of Moxico. It is tlKniijht tlio uwst iiorlhorii horilos had I)ccii seated on tlio eastern 
slioivs of tlie (iiiir of Calilorniii. Dill'er as tlu>y may liavc done in languMfivs and 
dialects, the e\|ierinieiit of migratinii' to more southerly and tropical latitndcs. which 
yielded abundance of the banana and other tropical fruits, of which they were cxces- 
siv(dy Ibnd, apiiears to have produced ii strong sensation among this genus of 
trilies. As time elapsed, horde tbllowcd luu'de; and it happened, indeed, as in Kuro- 
])ean ])rior history, that the most barbarous tribes conquered those that jiossessed the 
elements of civili/ation, and soon partook of these higher modes of life and subsistence. 
Civili/ation. even in its rudest forms, ap])ears to have been a prize to barbarians. The 
delightful climati> of .Mexico itself was a pri/.e. New iinpidses, of the same general wave 
of nuLiration. succeeded. The Nahuatlacs had peculiar traditions of having issued 
IVom caves. Tiio last horde that came to dispute for sovereignty in the Mexican 
viilley, was the A/tecs. The}- left At/lan, their reputed starting i)oint. in IIOO. They 
ad\aiicc(l by distinct stages, dwelling a time in each place. At length, having reached 
till' valley, and pas.sed Tula, the old Toltec capital, they came, in l.'!2."», to Lake Tez- 
coco; and tiuir priests, having here verified a prediction of the discovery of an eagle 
sitting on a cactus, with a snake in its claws, they founded their capital in this lake, 
which has risen like another \'enicc. Here Cortoz l()un(l their decendants under 
Mdiitc/uma. in lolH. in a city built on islets, connected by causeways, after they had 
snstiiini (I theniH'lves through many wars with the other tribes, agreeably to Meiiduza, 
for a period of 111 \ea4's.' 

' Mr (l;illaiiii liiis im |i:iruil llio i'ullowiiig clirouolojrical tabk's iit' tlio various Indian (l^na.'^tic.'', iVoui the 
llKi>l ii liaMr suiuVL'S. 

AXCiK.xT MEXICAN rnitoxoLor.y. 





Ai-rivcd nt niKliiutlaliiallan 

I>r|iarlril IV"111 '' 

'I'lirv liniml Tula 

M..naivliY l"'-iiis 

.Munarcli) riuN 

Clii'i liiiiiiiiix Kill/ .|iv.//i/'j(H.<, ()(• Ti::'iKii>is. 

.Xulnii, l>t Kiii^'. iii'iiiiiiis tlio valli'V 111' .^Il'xi('0 

Nap'.llziii, -il KiiiL'. a.-cciiils llic lliriHic 

Illli'tzin ( oil KillU, Micallril I ri-nin'nii~l_v ] 

'riol/.in I asi-riiils ilii' tlirciii.' ) 

(,liiiiiaiil/iii, llli KiiiL', a-^cTii'ls tlii' tlirniic 

'I'liill' I'atzin, 1st Kini;, aciuiilini: li' .'^aliauuii, asei'liils tliu tlinim'.. 

'rnlinlliilalziii .'nil C-M .'^aliii'.'iiii I, asciiTids llu' tlininf 

IxliU.iiliill t'llli t'-'A ."^aliaL'Miri 

Nilzaliiial-Cnvatziii Till ( llli ."^alia'^iiii ). a-crmls llir llinini' 

.N''ilzinili '^lli c'lili .sialia^'iin >, asiiinln tin: tliroiit' 

Ni'IzalHial-l'ilziiilli dies 








I KlL' 



I. ".1(1 



11 -JO 


1 lilts 


I Id!) 





I (I.". I 



14 I'on, 

14 .on. 





'I ^i I I 



Tlirco Tnilian dyiiastios lisid procedod tlio A/.tccs, jn'odiicing inignitioiis towiinls tlio 
south, oast, and nortli. (iuateuialii luid Yucatan aro beliovod to have been tlius 
iK'opk'd. Tlioy oseapod from the invader.s on all .sides. When the ll3in<^ tribes iiad 
ivaclied Tainpii'o, the access to the north was ready. The Mississippi valley was thus 
within roaeli, the Allejrhanies crossed, the Atlantic .shores peopled. The tribes who 
had lieen inlVinjicd on in tiie soutli, inlVinged on others in tiie north. They drove tiic 
Skni'llings, who, in 1000, lived in New England (Antiipiitates Anier.), across tiie 
(lull" of St. Lawreneo to Labrador. The early traditions of all tlic New England and 
Atlantic coast tribes, point to a migration from the south-west. Such were the 



I Siilminill. { 

Tfjxiiiir.i, iir Tcijxiiiivn, iif Aiiipiilin. 

AcoUiuii iirrivos 

AiHilhua 2(1, sou of AcoUiuii Ist 
Tczozoiniic, sou ai'coi'ilini; to l>'Alva, uraiulson ] 
accorJing to V<\ytia, of llic 1st Ai'olliua, airivos | 
Maxtlan, sou uf Tezo/.ouiac, arrives 

Mi:ririi»a, or . I .Vies. 

Mcxicaus Ii'avo .V/.IIan 

" arrive at Hiu'IcdIIhi 

" " Cliii'iiniotznc 

" " Vallry of Jlo.xiio 

« " Cbapultojioc 


I nil) 



Mixiidiix, nr A:.lic«. 

Koiimlatiou of Moxiro, or Touoihtitlau... 

Acaiiiaiiirlitci, t'lcctcd Kinj; 

Iluil/,ililuiitl'.s atTOssiou 



Montt'zuMia 1st 




Montoz\Mia "Jd . 

D .mlioii iif rei'i/iiK "/ Mi.ii 





Montezuma 1st 




Montezuma -i\ 

(in kiii'iK. 















1 :!!(!» 
II to 

AiMstn. I Si>.'iM>n7n. D'AIvn. Snlmjiciiti. | Vovtiii. [ t'i:ni_'' 






I 1 1'.) 
1 ;".():! 


• I 






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1 liw 
1 ISO 






1 1 10 
1 111'.) 


i:525 I 

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1402 ' 



1 10'.) 
1 12;! 







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Vol,, v.— i;} 

1st vol. Ethnological Trans., p. l(i2. 

!' i 




triulitions of tlio Massacliusctts uroiip of siiiiill trilx's. iiiid of tlio Narrauiiiisetts or 
Waiiipanoags, of tln' Moliii'aiis, ami tlu' niaritiiiie coast (ribos. Tlio liOimi lA'iia|n't's 
of Poiiiis\lvania told this tradition to tiu' Moravian inissionarii's. dotailiii"' tlio crossini' 

of till' Mississippi, lonir aftor tlio passago of tlio Iroquois and tlio Alio; 





800., Vol. 1.) Tlio sontliorii Indians roinvscnt thonisolvos as having oonie originally from 
the west; and. aftor crossing the Mis.sissippi at higher or lower points, and at oras more 
or loss ronioto, as having coiii|Uero(I tlio original Florida trihos, ,'ind takon thoir places. 
They told this tradition to Adair (Hist. Inds.). to ISartrain (Travels), and to Hawkiihs 
(Sketches. iS;o.). tiiroe ol' our most relial)io anthorities. Such were the iic<'onnts of the 
Cluckasaws. Choctaws. Creeks, and Cherekeos. The Crooks prooi'oded eastward, across 
Florida, to the Oakniidgeo hranch of tiie Aitainaha. their oldest town and pormaiiont 
I'osting-placo. vestiges ol' which still exist. Tlie old trilii'S against whom they fought 
^voro the Yamacraws, Ogocheos. Wapoos. Santees, I'dii's. Vamaseos, I'tinas, Paticas, 



-terms, some of wliicli, onlv linger in their verbal traditions. 

When the old tribes west of the !Mississi[)pi are asked the dirocticm they caino frc 


they point south. They came up over the fertile, level iilains, and hilly uplands east 
of the forbidding and impassable peaks of the liocky mountains. Such is the account 

of the <,hipiias (Kiipahas of Do Soto's da\-. vide 
generality of the great prairie or Dacoti 
lowas, Siouv, and W 



, Cadrons, Kansas, and the 

I group west of the ^Mississippi, and of the 
nnoljagoos. wiio iiad erossod the stream at and below St. Anthony's 
iiid above the junction of the Missouri. (\'ido Iowa maj), A'ol. III., Plato ;>(•.) 

ho Sioux pro[)er, who are 

the t\ 



ype. and wore tuo juvcnrsors or pionoer.- 

.f th 

ifoiip of trilx's. ultimately reached the head waters of Lake Superior (vide D'Abl 
uid Manpiette). and tlus sources of the Mississi[)pi river, at Leech and Cass lake.- 




(.Summary Narrative ol' K\. Iv\p. to Sources of the Mississippi, p. 2'>'2.) F 
position they had begun to recede, about the period of the discovery of ('anaila bv tl 




Olicn. UIK 

lor tho severe attacks of the Chippewas of Chegoime 


ol" Lake Suiior 


under IJainswa and Noka, two prominent chiefs, and by the military band of the 
Mnkmuhva of Leech lake. In L'^2o, the Sion.v had retraced thoir stops south nearly 
five hundreil miles, having entirely abandoned the n])per coasts of Lake Superior, and 
retained lands liut a day's march (an Lidian term of measure). 011 the St. Croi.v anil 
Kum rivers. (Vide Treaty of Prairie dii Chien. lUtli Aug. ISli-j. U. S. Laws.) Thoir 
soutiiern boundar\' was (ixed at the I'ivor Watal) ; and. but I'or this gnarantv of i)ositi 


by tho United States, the Sioux triiios would, ere this, have been driven, by tlic fierce 

' This iiiii'iint trilio. wlup Iiiivc left tlicir name in llio )iriMci|iMl niniiiilain cliain nl' '.lio cilil ariii nC llic I'liilcil 
Slates, liavo ilisiiiipi'aiiil as a iiMciiiiiisnl tiiljc. The li'aclilinu stato.s tlu'iii to liavo boon (ivi'i'|Hiwei'f(l li_v llio 
Iti'Iawari's ami IriKjUuis, and iliiven dnwii tlic Oliio and Mis>i,-si|i|ii. Tlioy an: railed, in tliis aniient relalidn, 
Talla'.rewy — a name luit very diverse from Clialakeo — a iieii|iie ajrainsf wliom a liilter tend was still nrt'ed, at 
and after tlie enlunizatiou nl' the emintry. In this war, dilelies and lirenmvallaliniis were used, the vesti^'es 
of wliieli still exist. Irii(|iinis traditiun, as related liy Ciisie (Hist. Six .Vatiniis), conlirins lliis. See my Xutes 
on the Irocjuuis, Alb. Is.'i.j. 



spirit of the Chippcwas and Pillngcrs, to llic line of the St. Pctcr'n — now called 
Minnesota river. 

In leaving the sources of the Mis.'^is.sippi, the Sioux tribes abandoned to tiieir fate 
the Assinabwoines of lied river, of Lake Winnipek, a Sioux tribe with a Chippewa 
name, who had, in fact, revolted from their rule — and this tribe, who speak the 
Dacota language, have made their political alliances with the Chippewa and other 
Algon((uin tribes of that quarter. 

Of the ancient Indian tribes of Florida, who existed there before the coming of the 
whole Appalachian group, we have no traditions. If wo are to believe Dristock, who 
wrote one hinidred and forty-five years after the conquest of Mexico, these Floridians, 
or "Apalachites," had a system of sun-worship, with a class of priesthood, and rulers, 
and jurisdicti(ms, which appear to be almost wholly imaginative. (Davies' Hist. 
Carribees.) That some of the descendants of these primordial Floridians still exist, 
as elements, in the great Mnscogulgee confederac}', as the Utchecs, &c., is [)iist doubt; 
but their nationality has departed with the fall of the primitive falcon Hag, under 
which they fought. 

By the term Vesperic tribes, wc mean the entire aboriginal stocks of Mie United 
States, comprehending Ajjpalachians, Clierokees, the Powhatans of Mr. Jenersou, the 
Alu'ou(iuins, quite to and tliroughout New England, the tril)es of the upper lakes, and 
*.]\'^ sources of the Mississippi, the Irtxiuois, or Six Nations, the Monacans of Virginia, 
i> VVyandots of the west, and the Dacota group of tribes of the western shores of the 
!.. i.'sissippi and Missouri. The point of migration of all these tribes was, generally, 
from the west; before crossing, it had been, generally, prior to crossing the Mis- 
sissippi, from the south. It is the geographical area occupied by these tribes, after 
they came to the east of this river, that constitutes the principal theatre of American 
antiquities. It was also the location of some anti([uities of the prior tribes, of a more 
anti(|uo and rustic class. (15artram, 1S2, ."370, Ki;!.) Tiiese vestiges, of both epochs, 
denote a state of art, which is in no respect, superior to that of the .semi-civiii/.ed stock 
of the south; but the grade of it i.s, generally, quite inferior to it, if we excei)t tlie 
vestiges of labors in mining, of which the evidences have been recently discovoreil, 
and the features of intrusive arcluvology existing. These latter are thought to be due 
to Celtic, Scandinavian. Iberian, or, at least, European sources; and can. by no means, 
bo assimilated with any of the Indian renuiins, whether of ancient, the mediaeval or 
middle period, or existing state of aboriginal art. (Anti. Amer.) 

The Lenni Lenapees tell us that they had been preceded by the Iroquois and the 
Talligewi, or AUegans. (Ileckeweldor.) The Muscogulges, or Creeks, landed above 
the Natchez, or Chigantualga of De Soto, who were then the groat power. The 
Clierokees, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, speak of tribes having two different languages; 
of which we hear of the dialects of the Natchez, Taensa, Savanuca. and other 
above mentioned. All the southern tribes of the secondary period of the Appalachian 



I : 

group npppar, IVom their traditions, to liavc crossed the Mississippi river at 
coiiipanitively high points, extciulinu,' sis far as the iiitliix ol" tlie Arkansas. They 
had, acconlin,;; to then' traditions, liniglit tiieir Avay, during all their migratory 
track, ol' the Mississip[)i, and Ibund the same dilliculties to be encountered 
on its eastern borders. The Creel:s told Mr. Bartram, that their ancestors 
had reached the Oakmidgec, after contests with valiant tribes over the entire 
country from the Misisissipni to that place. Here they made n stand, and fortified 
tiKMiisclves : it is the site of their oldest anti(|uities, which arc pronounced, by this 
reliabl(> traveller, of a striking character — "A stupendous conical pyramid, or artificial 
moinil of earth, vast tetragon terraces, and a large sunken area, of a cubical (.s((uare?) 
form, i'nc(jnipassed with banks of earth :" (p. ."7.) The latter is what is now popu- 
larly called a CHINK VAiii); and though he regarded these as of the ancient period, 
at first, he was convinced, on entering the Creek country, that they were duo to that 

The tribes who had reached the Mississippi in their migrations, are traced on their 
back track by their peculiar kind of earth-works and vestiges, which arc the chief monu- 
ments of their history. They did not come down to the forest and fertile prairie lands, 
on the west bank.s of this river, from the elevated, bleak, and barren deserts stretching 
at the east foot of the Eocky mountains. There are no indications that they crossed 
that broad and forbidding barrier, where travelling, in modern days, lias required the 
utmost capacities of European and American skill, energy, and endurance. Fremont 
takes no notice of antiipiities of any kind. (Exp.) Lewis and Clarke found the 
Indians of the Missouri to possess the capacity of fortifying involutions and strong points 
on the Missouri river, extending to the tribes in their ethnologic dispersion nortli- 
wird, as high as the country of the Tctons — a Sioux people. For this species of 
fortification see Plate 14. It is remarkable, as embracing the principle of the Tlas- 
callan gateway, of which the i)rincipal forms, existing in the earth-works of the 
Mississi])pi valley, are shown in Plate 4, Vol. 1. A prominent object in these forms, 
as in the instance before us, seems to have been, not so much absolutely to bar 
approach, as to put the enemy in doubt which way to go. A detailed description 
of this earth-work is given in Api)endi.x No. o. It is the most northerly locality of 
an earth-work, of this kind, which has been noticed on the Mis.souri, if we except, 
perhaps, the remains of a simple ditch across the prominent doubling of the river, at 
the old Mandan site.' 

' Teto!J FoilTIFlCATloy. — It is interesting to traen the art of fortificatioii, of the Mississippi tribes, <lown to a 
comparatively recent poriod. The same natural prnciples of del'cnee prevai'cJ — namely, lines, trciiclu's, au 
ciiviilve'l L'atf, anil a nunuit, nr rcilcmlit, to (leloiKl it. In the contentions of the ^arions UailinT bands of Indians 
fir llio pns' of tlie profitable ijanie binds and hnntin;; ran^res of the Missouri, no aiitii|uilics have been 
noticed by the modern traveller more .-triking than the remains of entren jheii or ])alisadoed villages, endjankmi'nts 
which were designed as curtiiins to bowmen, and small mounds, or pyrola — intended, generally, as redoubts for 







To (Ictpviniiic tlin point, whcllior tlio Imlinn migration had crossed tlio Rocky moimtains 
\}y tlio usual pusses ol'tlioCuluuibla, nttcntion lias boon devoted to tho state olantitiuities 
in Orcf^on, California, and Wasliinf,'ton. Tlio result lias been decidedly luilavorable to 
tlie existence of anti(iuitios in tliat (juartcr. Those tribes seem to have roved over 
the iniuicnso regions of the Pacific coast, with nearly as little evidence to mark their 
ancient residence, as the deer and bear they hunted. There is not a mound or earth- 
work analojfous to of tho Mississippi valley, or indeed of any kind, in Oregon 
and AViisliington. The testimony of Mr. Ogden, for many years the chief factor of tho 
Hudson Hay Company in that (piarter, is conclusive on this head. J lis employees have 
often [)assed over those regions from I'uget's Sound to the IJay of San Francisco. Ono 
of my correspondents in that cpiarter has been a zealous inquirer on this head, during 
a residence of four or five years on that coast ; and luvs been unable, north or south, 
to find a mound, or any thing resembling it. I had Ijoeu led to urge this inquiry with 
the more zeal, on account of some rumors on this head, relative to the valley of tho 
Uiic/iiifes, but such vestiges on that stream have proved to be entirely ajiocryphal. Tho 
must recent researches Imve discovered some slight vestiges on the Yakama river, a 
stream rising in the Cascade mountains ; but, on close inspection, they are i()und to 
enclose two old ctdlars, or perhaps traders' caches, and are evidently of little antiquity. 
1'he notes of Mr. Ast(U'"s factors, emi)loyed l)y Mr. Irving, in the preparation of "Asto- 
ria,"' do not ajipear to have contained any antiquarian notices. Captain Wilkes found no 
mounds or earth-works on the coast; nor is there the slightest notice of such works in 
the journey of Lt. Emmons, U. S. N., which is related in a prior part of these pages, 
Vol. III., p. liltO. In the journey of Col. M'Kee, on Indian buisiness, in California, 
from IJenicia to the Klamath, bordering tho Pacific coast, he notices nothing of the 
kind. (Vol. III., p. !tO.) Small eminences resembling barrows arc stated to exist near 
Puget's Sound ; but it is doubtful whether these are of artificial construction. 

If it be conceived that the Toltec", Tezcucos, or Aztecs of Mexico passed this coast 
prior to their arrival at the IJay of California — a prime point in the archivology of the 
semi-civilized tribes — it must have been before the tumuli, tho pyramid, or the toocalli 
forms of art were developed. For, if people with their strong traits had made 
points of occupancy in the course of their exodu.s, as the Boturini picture-writings 
attest, there could not fail to be .some vestiges of this kind. And this may serve to 
create the belief, that tho Aztalan of their story was south of these latitudes. It may 
also serve to denote, that the Toltcc race originally struck the jcoast probably as low 

liiinil-to-liaiul conibatiints. In these cases, the artificial mound, or cone of earth, occupios the position of a reiloubf to 
pates, or an open space in tho cutrenebinent. Sometimes, in this plan, this elevation constituteJ a conical tower 
or ]iinnaclc in a rectanirular wall, or line of embankment. There is also niimistakiable eviilencc. in these 
locations, of ancient .strife for tribal mastery, at the zig-zag gate — an entrance peculiar to the Tnilian tribrs, 
which is so contrived that the assailants are left in doubt as to the right way, and led into u cu/ ila .vcir-, tVuui 
which retreat is either impossible, or very perilous. 



I I! 



down as tlio Hay of California, or olso proci'cdod in tlioir canooH. or linlzan, to tliat 

Till' ris(< of nations iVoni liarliarisni seems to i'e(|nire some indi\ idnal to hnw^ tliein 
to tiie eulniinatini; [mint. A Coxcox. (iuef/.alooati, a Moeliica, ort'apae, appear to liavu 
l)een neeessary to lijrlit the (lame of iinprovcinont in America. It Iwis ever lieen tlnm 
in tlie history of the old world; and if even tho labors of a .SujU()i.\ii (Cherokee Alph., 
\o]. II.. |i. -liS), are deemed to have jiiven an impnise to his trilie in our day, it nuist 
be remembered, that of him, as of his celebrated predeees.sors in the semi-eivili/ed 
tribes, it may be atlirmed, that European blood llowed in his veins. To disentanjile tliu 
tlnvad of Mexieim history was not, perhaiis. praetieable, had it been attempted at I lie 
periotl of the eoiKpiest ; and when the study was eonnneneed, writers seem to ha\i' been 
carried away by lonkinir for perleetions in art, or attainments in unvernment and [xiliey, 
whii'li never existed. What was rude in art, was described as p' dished — the iirotesipio 
was deemed artistic, and the irregular elaborate. Vet, in art, they were incomparably 
ahead of their morals. Their system of religion was so completely pervaded by tho 
darkest spirit of divmonology. that tho Hisbop of Ziirraga directed as many of their 
}iieture-writings, the only I'ecords they had, as he coidd collect, to bo pileil together 
an<l burned. The loss is not, ])erha[)s, as great as might be expected. " It has been 
shown," say.s ^Ir. (lallalin. "that those which have been preserved contain but a 
nii'Mgre account of the Mt'xiean history fur one luuidred years prt>eeding the conipiest, 
and hardly any thing that relates to prim' events." (Ktb. Trans, Vol, I., p. 1 1">.) iJotli 
the true state of their arts and of their manners are left indeterminate, '"There were 
strange inconsistencies in the principles and conduct of the Mexicans," oI)serves a 
recent writer, "and strange blendings of softness and brutidity — for the .savage was, as 
yet, but rudely grafted on the citi/en; and the wandering and jjredatory habits of ti 
tribe were scarcely tamed by the needful restraints of nnmicipal law." (If. Mayer's 
iMexieo. p, '.HI.) 

•• It is to be regretted," .s.iys the same writer, 'Mhat we are not more fully informed 
of the condition of [iropi'rty among the masses of this singular empire. The eonipierors 
(lid not trouble themselves with ac(piiring accurate statistical information, nor do they 
,«i'em to have coinited nnnd)ers carefully, except when they had enemies to concpier, or 
spoil to divide," (Ibid. p. .'>('•.) 

There was but one class of the A/tecs who had rights. They were the caciques. 
The lower orders had none. ''The masses," observes the same writer, ''who )elt they 
had no constant abiding-place on earth, did not, in all probability, build for themselves 
tiiiise substantial and beautifully embellished horns, nmler whose inlluence modern civi- 
lization has so far exceeded the barren /iiniiniii^iii of the valley of the Nil(\ It was 
useli'ss. they deemed, to enshrine in marble, whilst li\ ing, the miserable spirit that, 
alter death, might crawl in a crocodile or burrow in a log." (Ibid. |). Ul.) 

Cortez and Pizarro sought rather to make tho heart of Charles V. wonder at what 



tlic trilics in rr, tliiiii wliiit tlioy //<»«/ /"'//. '* Tlif coiKiiicro's luid tlicir siiocomsois were 
not men (Icvoti'd to tlio iiiitinnilii'x cil' tlii' Mcxiciiiis, with tlu' f^ciicniiis lovi' of ciitlui- 
siiists wliii (li'lifrht in disc-losiiiu; tlio incaiis l)y wliicli ii pcoplo einei'^cd iVoiii obscurity. 
Ill most ciisi's, tiic Diily (iWji'ct they liud in 11111,1:11 ityiiif:', or ovt'ii iiiaiiilt'stiiij; tlic iviil 
(•Itiinictcr 1)1' tlio Mfxioiuis, is to he Hnind in tlioir desire to Mitisfy tlieir coiiiitry 
and i\u\ world, tlmt they hud iiidci'd i'i)iii|iii'red an ('mpin', and not waj^cd an extcrini- 
natiii}; war nguinst naked and weultliy savajjes." (Ihid, p. HI.) 

When (,'orte/. ascended the great leocalli of .Mexico, lie I'oniid two altars to the Snn, 
on wdiich a perpetual lire was kept huniiiig. This had, alone, hi'en the elder and 
original form of worship. The theory of sun-worship was still believed and kept up; 
but the prnclieal working of the .system had introduced hiiinnn sacrifice. It was. at 
least, wholly eorriipti'd by that sanguinary and l)rutal system. Saeriliees were ollcred 
to lleiitzilapochtli, the god of war, who had supplanted the oriental rite.s, and Xolotol, 
who had created all things from iiilinitesimal [)arts of matter, licfoie the rude and 
gigantic! statues of these idols human hearts, warmly torn iVoni the victim, were 
oflered. ft was here that the Spanish prisoners, taken in conllicts with ^hmtezuiiia, 
]iaid the forfeit of their lives. And it was this horrid ritual which doubtless induced 
/iurragua to obliterate, as far as po.ssible, every trace of tiie history of such gross 

It may be allirmed, that it was these sanguinary rites — this departure from the 
more simple and symbolic rites of the worship of the sun. unmised witii bloody Saeri- 
liees, that, if it did not raise dissensions among the Indian priesthood, made the outer 
tribes the more willing to scatter them.selves abroad. IJnt, from what we know of the 
Indian character, there is every reason to believe that the non-sanguinary sun-wor- 
shipping tribes were compiered and rudely driven oil". The dominant tribes liad 
created ivjw gods, and assumed the power to control tiiem ; while the people were 
coinmandcd to worship thein. Asia had done the same thing before. 

When we turn the view from this picture of the A/tec society and its rites — from 
the power, political and ecclesiastical, Avliich their priests had ncrpiired — fixun the 
utter, iK tliingiu'ss, in point of rights and happiness, to whii'h the lower classes were 
reduced — wdieii, indeed, wo leave this prospect of a wild, dieinoniacal Indian priest- 
hood, striking for power, and sealing their accpiisitions in blood, to survey the manly, 
council-governed, and independent hunter and w.arrior tribes of the north, it is not 
dillieult to perceive the causes of the disturbances and .separations of the tribes of the 
(Mpiinoctial latitudes. Nor is it dillieult, in viewing their manners and customs, to 
recognise, as a .substratum of their religions system, t'\idences of the former existence 
of tho wide-spreading rites of the adoration of the Sun. 

The devotion to the principles of this worship prevailed extensively over the North. It 
was not inaugurated in these northern districts with all the same cc'remonious rites as 
among the Natchez, Chiekasaws, ami Choc taws, and the Cherokees on the banks of the lower 


)i : 



I ' 

MiMiMippi ; Iiiit it piM'vailotl tlioso iUhikthimI (ril)t'M to tlio nlioroH of Laki" SiipcriDr. It 
ci)roiiil to tilt' imimiiH'iit [u'liks ol" tlit- MoimUiiook. uiiil to tlio wiiters ol' the N:iiritvuii- 
fi'tt. (Viilt! mitiiiiio coiiy of |)icto;nai)liH on Taimton rivrr, Vol. 1.) In our virw. the 
tril)('-i of till' Vi'sprriii ' aiUH'iir to l»f of tho oldest cm iiinonj,' tlio North Aini'iiciin 
HtniUs. and tliosc stocks fcom to liavo Inrn piishid on by luoR' rccfiit liordcs, wlio 
I'onti'ndi'd for tlicir trilial seats in the niildor latitudes. The wor.-^Iiip of fiiv, in it.s 
niodilications. Iiad evidently Jirevailed, in tliu fn'st aj,'e.>4 of the oeeni)ani'v of tiie conti- 
nent, fi'oni I'atiiL'onia to the Arctic; and its rites were !jrou<^ht to these temperate 
re^'ions, wiili tlieir admired zca-niai/.e and nicotiana. The batata found in the guaeas 
of Arica is tlie same species raised in the Carolinas. They liad also, ami they still 
possess, the same veneration for ancestry as the soutiiern tribes. The latti'r ereett-d 
their nuacas and earthen tumuli from Peru to Mexico. Tiie H)rmer imitati'd them — or 
ratiier persevered loiificst in the simple practice of using earth alone in tlieir .sepulchral 
constructions, ioiij;- after the southern tribes had learned the art of cuttinir, or, at least, 
of iniildinir with stone. Kviilences of the parity of the art ofercctinj; earthen tunndi, 
in both iiemispberes. are exhil)ited in Plate XII. If the southern tribes erected their 
I'lii'tiien tunudi. larne and small. atCayambo and I'anacillo, the N'esperie triites did the 
siime alon;,' tlu' coasts of Florida and throuj^hout the Missi.xsippi valley, to the highest 
latitudes to which they reached. The tumulus was never n part of the entrenched 


or village, either tlure or here. It is almost always found nc 

ar su(;n 

camp, town, 

works, but is or never within them. The tunndi lu're are largo or small, 

agrecalily to the respect signiticd, or as they are public or private. 

N'ciihi'r in the .'^oi rn or Noimu were the spirits of ancestors worsliippod. but they 
were revere<l ; there was a great respect jiaid to their memory. Their spirit> were 
recognised as hovering aroinid the lodgc-fn-es and the burial-ground; and though they 
were ne\c'r wursbipped. the Indian theory of immortality was such, that both food and 
liliatiiins wHTc (ill'rreil at the giaves as a token of this resjject and 8acre<l remembrance. 
(Vide Plate :l. Vol. I., p. .'IS.) 

To raise a heai) of stones, as that of Oclupiaga or Niagara, was a memorial of boun- 
dary, or some important transaction between the tribes, })artaking, more or less, of a 
natii)n;il eJKUMitcr. Dui to raise a pile of earth, large or small, was a sacred memento 
to soiue chief or sage who had deserved well of his village or tribe. The s[)irit of the 
person wIkjsc bones had been buried under a motuid had gone to the Indian elysium. 
It was a point in his religion to t)elieve so. The resurrection of the dead is a truth 
universally conceded by the Indians, however erroneous may be their views of the 
trui' purpiise of such resurrectit>n. And if they lit a fire to the Sun, which was 
the symbol of the Deity, on the apex of such of" these structures as asi)ired into the 
air. it was a rite ipiite germain to their forest theology. What they wire, they still 

' Tlii- t. iiii was |.i'p i-<.,|. >• ■Mil' viiirs !i;;ii, Iiv llie latr .luilgo Story, to the N. Y. lli>t. Soi'ii'ty, as a national 
cognomen lor tliu regions umbracinj.' tliu Uniteil ."^tatcs. 



iirr. TUcy iiiDiini tlu'ir lii'iul with pimis liuiiciiliitioii. Tlicy <A\on vixit tlic .Mpnt, 
anil linger iironml it, witii ii licliot' tliiil mik'Ii visits iiro known Id Ir' a;,'ivt'»ltli' to tlio 
(lo|»arti'<l spirit. TliiH trait of reverence for the dcpurtcd Ih one of the immt nniverxally 
olworvinl cliiirttctoristicH of Intliim life. And it in (inc wliicli, at the miino titn< , most 
ein|iliiiti('ally dcmiti's tlic Indiiiii to lie ii niiiii nl" licnrt. Here is a more pulpiihlo 
ri'i'ojrnition of tinit i'.;i„'inal unity witii tiio civilized and rodnod liranclicM of tlio liuinan 
family, than is linrid in all other ritos and cnistonis. Stoioal ho is, hy his very position 
as an outcast amon;:; men. Tiie hard lessons of war and plnnder have steeled his heart 
against ail expressions of synipiitliy. Hi; has heen said to he as iin[icrtnrl)al(le as the 
clill's he often jra/es on with lixity of nuiscle. Ho recounts his atrocities and achieve- 
ments in war, at tlic ivcitations of the war-post, with sliouts. lie maintains his stoical 
indill'erenco at tho stake, and e\i'n lireaks fortii in a funend son;^ of trimnpii ; hut ho 
is suhdued hy the stroke of dealii in his so, ial and family circle. It is at this moment 
that he fnids hi' has a heart. Tomhs, ce. otaplis, and mau> le.a have nuirkeil tho 
history of tiio mast civilized and relined nations cf antiij ;ity — tin,' pyramids of the 
Nile thenisolveH rose to testify to thi.s fact. And if the No'sh American Indian evinccn 
a scnsihility at this point, which he has at no othei' — if ho ncUn()wded;j;es the hand of 
ri'ovidence. and nmnrns his in'ieavcnu'iits with a manly diunitv —when lie piles iij) 
tho lertilo soil of his mother earth to mark llie pi 'co, it i^ an i'"Wi , li'diiini'iit that his 
hosom is made of tho general materials of tho h'lman alfoctioii , and at the ,suine time 
does honor to hiu head and heart. 

COMPAUl,>^()NS AND TRAILS O l' A M I) lU (J A N A N T I (J I I T li: .S. 

What Manco Capao did in the civilization and arts of Peru, (iuotzalcoatl' did in 
Mexico. Ho tan,i;ht them arts, and drew them into hahils of fixed industry. Tho 
native autlioiities all ivirard him in this light. They rotor to him as ii Ixmefactor who 

' Tliii* term appears to bo a conipdiinil fimii llie word inall, a sorpoiit, iiml mm u'ljottivc phriisc xii^nityinjr, in a 
traiisitivi' wiisc, jiroiit. It 1i;i« iinicli lli ' inciiiiiiij; u{' ijiolii/.-iiitihih luiuiiig tlic Al'j;nMi|uins, Tin: ThUocm, like tho 
old l'li(i'nii.-i;iiis (.'^aliioiiiatliii, I'.Mli, ilcinu'd tlio sci-pciit trilie tu lio tlie iiiu~t ^'il'li'd iil'tlii' :iniiii:il croatioii ; it 
was ri'j:ardcd as tlif most licry, saori'd, and subtle ; its iiuairi' was sculiitiind in ^tone, as an iirnanii'mt to their 
arehitecturi', and its tiL;nr<' drawn in their pieturo-writiiii;. It was the sjnibol of wisdom, as it had buvn anions 
many of the aneient nations. All otlier spoeico ;' •''<> ereatioii moved themselves by fcvt or winj;M, but tho 
siTpent glided over the grcmnd with irroat I'i'ler.i; .'■. iiont cither. All other animals and reptiles have eye- 
lids to shield the brightness of tlieir 'jaze, but this has imne. Its glanees are the iii^^t piercing, betok. iiiii;; 
tho deepest spirit and guile. liy haviiii; poison at the mot of its fangs, it possesses another source of ilread 
It aseoiids trees and rcieks, and appears to iiioNc as if by magic. It lives to a great age, and his the power of 
casting its skin, and renewing its youth. 1;, is dreaded for its .subtlety as mnch as it was respected for its 
wisdom. I!ut it was never worshippr !, :.s it is represented to have been by a recent writer. (Squier's .'Serpent 
Symbol.) Its .sculptured image wa.s placed at the foot of public stairways, by the natives of Mexico and 
Vucatan, precisely as the linn is sculptured in Itritish architecture, and the eagle is painted in .\nicriea. 
Iteeausc an Indian cirves an owl, hawk, lizard, or Miakc, on his pipe, does he, therefore, worshii) the owl, 
hawk, lizard, or .snake t 

Vol. v.— 11 






had liircd thorn from the forest. They dopict him as a man superior in knowledge and 
energy of character; and tlie A/tecs, wlio had .shrouded his disappearance under some 
form of an allegory or mysticism, expected his return from the land of the East. Tiiin 
had been the national expectation; and it was one of the Spaniards being liailed, 
ns if Quetzalcoatl iiad made a new advent in Mexico. Montezuma plainly told Cortez 
this, after he had, liowever, in vain exerted his power to resist him. 

There was another benign element of civilization in tiie central American tribes, 
of wiiich history has lost the trace ; though its vestiges present themselves to us in a 
very strii;iug .shape. But whether a portion of the Acolliuan or Tezcocan stock who 
reached Mexico, according to (Mavigero, in 1170, had lied there, or these ruins are due 
to some foreign source, is unUnowiv. We allude to the people who left the ruins of 
I'a'.eiique, which were first described by Col. Galindo, and have been elaborately illus- 
trated by AVahleck, and more recently by Mr. Stephens. (Incidents Trav. in Cent. 
Am. and Yucatan.) 

This elenu'ut appears to us, indeed, to be of more ancient date than cither that of 
Cuzco, or Cholulo. Tlie projecting ornament in tlio ruins of Uxmal, which has Ix'eii 
called the elephant's tooth (Stephens' Inc. of Travel in Yucatan, Vol. I., p. 171), 
re.semliles the Cliinese structures of the oldest dynasty, and is not far removed in stylo 
I'rom tli'^ angles of tiie pagodas oi" tiie existing period. Nor is the compound cubical 
ornament of tbe I'l^ade ol'lteu It/.a, dissimilar to a very common ornamental geometrical 
figure in liie buildings, arts, and manufactures of tiiat people. In the ornamental sculp- 
tures al)ove tiie main entrance of tiie principal edifice at this place (Plate 1, \'ol. II., p. 
ICiS). wo have, in the extravagant and heavy-feathered ornament above the faUeii 
figure, an unmistakable evidence of tiie Toltec style. Tiie mere fact tliat these ruins 
were overgrown by the forest, and Ibrgotteu in the traditions of Analiuac, at tlie period 
of tlio discovery, ami not. indeed, found or rcveakv in any manner to tlie Siiaiiish, 
till a very late period, is presumptive evidence of groat comparative antiquity. 

It is denoted liy the investigations in Vol. IV., p. 4.'>S, Plate ."9, that the ancient 
Peruvians posses.sed Ijronzo instruments. Both the groups of the tribes of Peru and 
Mexico were without tlie ancient di t-lf; but they pos.sessed the art of drawing out 
the thread, in a maiiiier which is believed to be precisely analogous to that which 
now prevails among the Navahoos, and M(.)i(ui, and other indigenous tribes of New 
Mexico. Hand-weaving ajipears to have been performed in the same manner. (Vol. 
IV., p. 4oG, Plates 3(), ;57.) Their workers in metallurgy had the blow-pipe and the 
crucible. (Vol. IV., p. 448.) Not having the ox or horse, or having domesticated any 
animal capable of labor, they had no plow. Lands were cultivated by the use of 
wooden instruments hardened in the fire. 

Allusion has been made to these elementary vestiges in the anti(|ue semi-civilized 
tribes of the south, but as a mere point of transition to the antiquities of the Missis- 
sippi valley. In mo,-;t things, the character of the antique civilization of the soutlieni 




tribes has been viewed very favorably to their advance in arts and knowledge. In a 
lew particulars, but little noticed, this has not been done. The art.s of the seiiii- 
civili/ed tribes of Mexico extended to north latitude about o-l°. Towns, with muni- 
cipal regulations and the industrial habits and manners of the people, were found l)y 
the Spanish in the area on the eastern borders of the Gulf of California; extending 
northward to the river Gila, and to Cibola, the modern Zuni, reaching onward north- 
eastwardly to Isleta, on the Rio Grande del Norte, and to Quivera and to Pecos, the 
ancient Cicuy6, east of that stream.' The route of Corouado, in lo 10-41. is described, 
in prior pages, from personal examinations of the country. (Vol. IV., p. 21.) It is 
denoted that the Spanish commander finally reached the sources of Ked River, of 
Louisiana, and the Canadian fork of the river Arkansas. Tiie expedition reached 
longitude about 104°, and north latitude, 30° — which latter is, indeed, north of the 
position of Natchez, in the Mississippi valley. 

When the English (half a century after Coron ado,) landed on the coasts of Virginia, 
in lat. about 35°, the tribes whom they encountered resemljlcd, indeed, in tiieir pliysi- 
cal traits, those of Mexico; but they were in the state of savage hunters. Hudson, 
in UiO'J, found the same remark applicable to the and Moiiicans of New 
York ; and the same observation was made by the English pilgrims wlio landed in 
New England in 1G20. Their early writers describe the tribes as Ijcing in a very low 
state of barljarism ; and, as da>mon-wor.sliippers, under the power of Ka-mato-wit. 
(liife of Eliot.) Cartier, who had discovered the St. Lawrence in l")3r), six year.s 
before Coronado's expedition to New Mexico, describes them as having only the 
manners and arts of hunters. (Vide Oneiita.) Champlain, the real founder of Canada, 
in IGOO, takes the same view ; although he found both generic stocks of the Irociuois 
and Algonquins, as is perceived from comparisons, a decidedly more athletic, vigorous, 
and brave people than the Tras-Gila or Mexican tribes. Among the Iroquoi.s, espe- 
ciiiUy, he noticed them to be cultivators of large quantities of the zea-maize, very brave 
in war, and actuated by the centralized and progressive principles of a confederation 
of cantons. Colden, indeed, informs us, that the Algonquins had preceded the Iroquois 
in their attainments; but leaves ns to infer, that they fell behind in their power and 
inlluence in consequence, mainly, of their want of confederation, the existence of which 
rendered the Iro([iiois OXK and united in their eflbrts, external and internal.- (Colden'a 
History of the Five Nations. London.) In this respect they stood out prominently 
among all the northern tribes, evincing a degree of wLsdom and policy that would 
not have been unworthy of Greeks ; and they continued to exercise this inlluence 
and standing through all the colonial period, till the close of the American Revolution. 

As the other colonies were planted, tl ir leaders concurred in the views originally 

H / 



' Sec Plate I!, Vol. IV., p. SS. 

' liel'iiri' this, tlic I'ivo Nations fouglit against each uthcr, ami huilt lorls to ihloud thomsclves. (^OriolitH, 
N. Y. 1S4.-..) 


A N T I Q U r T I E S . 

r .1 

J I 

expressed by tlioir predecessors, of the Indian tribes ; and also in the opinion of the very 
obvious advimtiiue wliii'li the politiciHigricidtural element had given to the Iroipiois. 
lu)l)L'rt de 111 Sidle, in 1(17S, laid tiic foundations of Fort Niag.ara, and iirocecdcd, the fol- 
lowing year, to tlie Mississippi river; of which, through Joliet, the commissioner, and of 
Miirquottc, ho is the discoverer, at the influx of the Wisconsin. These explorers found 
the western tribes, as well as the Iroquois, to be cultivators of the zea-maize. But 
neither liiniself, nor an}- of his lieutenants or missionary teachers, make detailed 
ohsorvfitioiis on the history, migrations, anti((uitios, or traditions of the tribes. It was 
not. ill faet, tiie age for this species of researcli. The subject of anti(juities is never 
named. It does not appear, from this comparative silence, that during the settlement 
of New France, tlie active adventurers and missionaries of the period observed any 
evidences of skill or arts, which they did not sup])ose to be common to the existing 
trilies, or which tlioir predecessors had not erected. Pipes, the nicotiana, sea-shells, 
copper ornaments, mica, liint-stonos. and Indian corn, were oly'ects of native traffic. 
Tliey viewed the entrenchments and ditches formed to protect villages from the sudden 
attacks of hostile bands, as recjuiring no labor which the pojiulation was not adecpiatc 
to bestow, or which called for remark. The heaps, or mounds of earth, at that period, 
were regarded as simjile mausolca for the dead. It was not necessary to imagine a 
state of arts and semi-civilization which, at best, was ver}' far inferior to what the same 
race of tribes had performed, a few degrees further south, in a far superior manner. 

When De Soto marched thi'ougli Florida, searching for cities, and towns, and mines, 
and arts, which he did not find, he observed, as he passed through the magnificent 
plains and forests, tetrahedal, or platform-mounds, and small tumuli or burial-mounts, 
and other elevations, which were liimiliiir sights to the Spanish eye, accustomed as it 
had been to the monuments of the soutli. They resisted him in one or two strongly- 
1)uilt, wooden forts. It did not ajipear to the historiographers of the times, as denoting 
nations of greater degrees of civilization than the North American Indians generally. 
lie found the fortifications of Mauvila, on the Mobile, and of Alabama, on the banks 
of the Yazoo, capable of sustaining sieges. It was not remarkable to him that the 
Chitanqualgi worshii)[)ed the Sun. This was a familiar thing to him in scenes where 
he had before fought. He had himself taken the scejitre out of the hands of Atahulpa, 
on the heights of the Andes. 

Louisiana was colonized late in the 17th century. Lasalle made the effort in IGS.'] ; 
a settlement had been made at I5olixi, in l(i9(), but New Orleans was not founded till 
1717. This was ten years after the settlement of \'incennes in the country of the 
Illinois (Law's paper), and sixteen after the establishment of a military post at 
Detroit, ami full eight-and-thirty \i'ars agreeably to my own researches, after the 
foundation ofoM .Micliilimackinae — the J'"7,-irii/iiiiiiii/ of the Indians — on the peninsula 
of Michigan. This \ icw ojiens the panorama of the settlements in the Mississippi 
valley, and the great eliaiii of lak(>s. The French admired the tribes, and spoke well 




and warmly of their character; but it did not appear to them that tliey possessed arts, 
or any power of applying lahor, heyond that of their actual condition as foresters. 
Tiioy made k > v, and arrows, clubs, and spears, skilfully. They carved their pipes 
artistically, iVoni statites and other soft material. They chose the sites of their villages 
often on eminences, which denoted good taste, and a poetic feeling, and surrounded 
them often with pickets. They buried their dead in mound.s, or simple graves, with 
pictographic head-posts. Fires were often lighted on these at night. No discrimination 
was made between no-y and ancient works of this kind, which latter had been often 
abandoned from sickne.s.s, fear, or superstition. When the Neuter Nation and their allies, 
the Andastes and Erics, built forts to sustain themselves against the attacks of the 
Iroquois, between 1G35 and 1055, the period of their first overthrow, it did not appear 
to the French an exercise of military art beyond the general condition of the tribes. 
Neither did such an impression result from the train of explorers, civil and religious, 
who, in 1G78, followed in the track of La Salle, in his explorations of the west. 
Marquette expresses no surprise at tiie "earthen pots," or shapely " calumets" of native 
manufiicturc, in the tribes he pas.sed amongst. He saw nothing of antiquarian value 
to notice, though he must have seen the Totemic mounds of the Wisconsin, and the 
])latform mound at the ancient site of Prairie du Chion ; nor do D'Ablon, Alloez, Le 
Clerq, or Membro, in their numerous adventures, extending through the whole area 
of the Upper Mississippi valley, at that period, express a S3llable on the topic. (Vide 
Slioa.) Charl'noi.K, in 1721, travelled through the Indian country of New France, 
from Quebec to Michilimackinac, and thence to the Mississippi, which he descended to 
New Orleans, without .seeming himself to have passed anti(piurian vestiges attributalilo 
to any other races of men except the ancestors of the existing tribes. He regards the 
tribes whom he had visited — namel}', from the moutli of the Mississippi, lat. 30°, to 
the banks of Lake Superior at Chagoimegon, or Sandy river' — as one in manners, 
customs, and hisiory. 

In the year 17tl>, the Manpiis de la Galissoniere, Governor-General of Canada, 
directed medals, with inscriptions, to be deposited in the soil at the mouths of the 
jjrincipal rivers in the west, as an evidence of the occui)aney of the country by the 
French. One of these, consisting of a leaden plate, was discovered near the contluence 
of the Muskingum witli the Ohio, about ISIO to 'liO. (Arch. Amer., Vol. II., p. 535.) 
The contest for the possession of that country, between the French and English, began 
so early to assume importance. Sir William Johnson had sent his agents to the far 
west, as far as the Scioto, in 1748. (Vol. IV., p. 005.) In 1754, Fort Du Quesnc was 
founded at the junction of the Alleghany and the Monongahela. Tlio only remains 
of it known to posterity were discovered in the summer of 1854 (just a century after 
its erection), by some workmen engaged in excavations for a rail-road, who found 
vestiges of the magazine. (Brad<lock's Exp., p. 184.) ]5y fur the most striking 

I liiit. M", ;!:>', -JO". Doiigla.sV N:ir. Kx. K\. .Snirn^s nP llio Missi>,-i|.|ii, p. vl'.Ml. 





\ ; 

i i. 









evidence of the French strugfrlo for doininion, is the iiiess-liousc of old Fort Niagara, 
built ill 1078. well-ceinentcd .stoiio walls are in a good .stiite of preservation at 
this day. 15iit tiiis is far from lieing the varVunt evidence of French enterprise. The 
stone bastions of old Fort Michilimackinae, cemented in like manner, still exist to tell 
the wide-spread inlhience the French exerted over the Indian tribes. (Vide Plate 5:!, 
Vol. II.) There is reason to believe that the zealous missionaries had founded the 
mission of St. Mary, at the outlet of Lake Superior, in 1054. The only vestiges of 
the mission and post, in 1S2'2, when an American garrison arrived at tliat position, 
consisted of some of the bones interred in the grave-^ard of the chaixd ; and the rude 
brass handle of a sword, tiie blade having been wholly oxydi/.ed, which was disclosed 
by some excavations. 

It is imp(jrtant carefully to distinguish between the antiquarian vestiges of the early 
French, and of the Imlian occui)ancy. Many of tiic articles of each period have been 
confounded, because they have been found in the same locations, and some of them in 
the same graves or sepulchres. This is the case with all articles of glas.s-beads, enavnel, 
and porcelain, transjiareiit or opake, and all substances retpiiring vitrifK-ation. (\'i(lo 
Vol. I., Plate l'-j. Fig. 7 to 1.'!.) It has even been thought, that pipes of pottery, of the 
peculiar kind figured in Plate H, A'ol. I., were used, at ancient dates, by the connnon 
people of France, (lermany. and Holland, and are conse(piently of European make. 
Man\- antiiiuo articles of emimel, glass, lead, kc, found in the settlement of the 
Onondaga eountr}', and in upper Louisiana and Illinois, are wholly due to the early 
French periods. (See Appendix No. ;!.) The antique Indian gorget and medal, Fig. 
20, oU, Plate 25, Vol. I., and Plate 18, Fig. 3, were made from the conch. 

Prior to the confederation of the cantons of the Iroquois, tribes erected forts, 
to defend themselves against each other. The Muscoeulges and ("hoetaws i)ractised 
this art of defence during the early expeditions of the Sjjaniards in Florida. The 
Wyandots were fou d to have a notable work at Ilochelaga. on tlie first visit of Cartier, 
and the Tnscaroras might have successfully defended themselves, in I7I2, (ui the 
Neiise, in North Carolina, had not the colonists l>rought cannon. It is surprising how 
soon the Indian arts fell into disuse, after the introduction of the higher order of 
Kuropean arts Bartram, on entering Georgia and Florida, in 177.'), found the remains 
of earthen structures on the sources of the Atamaha, which, from their plan and out- 
line, ho pronounced as of a former race; but after he became familiar with the Mnsco- 
gees. he found the same arts and plans still in use. (Travels, 5o, 0;!.) He mentions a 
peculiar species of earth-works, which were erected, by the existing race, as mmnids 
of refuge from the cfTects of floods: p. ."23. It appears that the rivers which ])our 
from the Appalachian .south, into the Gulf of Mexico, rise with such ra])idity as often 
to endanger villages on the bottom lands. Artificial mounts are erec^ted on these 
bottoms, for escape, and have a raiseil way, to connect them with the high 
grounds. Col. Hawkins, in his sketch of tho(^reek country, in 17'JS, mentions similar 



mounds of escape on the banks of the leading rivms. Those observers disclose a fact 
believed to be of some importance in estimating the age of antiquities. It is this — that 
vestiges and remains of ancient towns and viihtgcs are on the lowest grounds, Ijeing 
the Hrst positions selected. In these places they rctiided till the suddeiniess of the rise 
of the rivers taught them their insecurity. 

There is another fact, in regard to American anticpiitics, which deserves attention. 
It is the geological changes, in the snrlace of the country, which have supervened. 
Accumulations of soil along the rivers have Ijuried the older anti<piitios to a consider- 
able depth, and large forests are found, in some situations, growing on these new 
di posits of alluvion. Such is the case on the haidvs of the Arkansas and White rivers, 
where tiie arcluvological evidences of ancient metallurgic operations are covered by the 
river soil and forests. (My Adventures in the Ozarlcs.) Such is, also, the position of some 
of the antiquarian vestiges in the great lake basins. In 1S;!4, a vase was discovered 
at Thunder Bay, on Lake Huron, at the base of the roots of a large hemlock tree, 
wdiich had been torn up by a tempest, bringing to the surface a large mass of clay-soil, 
many feet in depth. This vase c(nitained a pipe of earthen-ware, which is figured in 
Plate 8 (1, 2, 3,) Fig. 1 ; together with some dorsal fish-bones, which may have been 
employed as instruments. In the St. Mary's valley, a well-hammered copper chisel 
(Plate 21, Fig. '1, Xo\. I.), was raised from the soil, at several feet depth. 

In the beginning of 18-5-"). discoveries were made on Isle Eo}al, Lake Superior, by 
2)ersons mining for copper there, which denoted that antique labors of the same kind 
had been performed at the same place. A series of ancient pits were opened, on the 
lino of one of the copper veins, to the depth of four or five feet. In these excavations, 
now filled with accumulations of soil, pieces of flattened copper were found, together 
with stone hammers, with the marks of hard usage. These old excavations in the 
trap rock seem to have been made by burning wood in contact with the rock, and then 
breaking it np with stone lianuners. A large (piantity of charred wood, coal, and 
ashes, is invariably found in these pits. A piece of oak wood, in the bottom of 
one of ti- . was, with a portion of the bank, in a good state of preservation. 
One end shows the marks of the instrument by which it was cut as plainly 
as if it had l)een just done. It is the most i)erfeet specimen of the kind yet se(.'n. 
The stick is about live inches in diameter, and seems to have been cut standing, 
by a right-handed person, with an instrument similar to an axe, having a bit at least 
two-and-a-half inches broad. The first blow penetrated, in the usual slanting diicc- 
tion, about three-funrths of an inch, cutting the bark .'<moothly, and leaving at its 
termination the mark of a sharp-edged tool. The antiquity of these excavations does 
not appear to be great — not probably anterior to the first arrival of the French in this 

On the banks of the Ontonagon river, there were found several implements 
and pieces of native copjier, of the same apparent age. In preparing a 

i i- 

(i : 



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• > 


V- mSR 



, !• 













l)rick-yar(], about a mile above tlio ninutli of the river, two feet of sand was removed 
from the surface, wlicn a stratum of clay was exposed. Dijiging still lower, about six 
or eight inches, into the clay, and overturning a stump, these articles were brought 
to light: — 

First, a copper spear, about fourteen inches in length, and at its base a groove or 
dovetail is made, in which to insert a wooden shaft or handle. 

Two other spears, each about twelve inches in length, and similar to the first. 

Third, two pieces of copper that had evidently been very nicel}' forged, but for what 
purposes they could ever have been applied, is by no means plain ; and it is quite 
difllcult to give in writing a clear description of them. 

These are about fourteen inches long and two inches wide. Upon one end there is 
the appearance of an attempt to make a cutting edge. 

They weigh about three pounds each, and are specimens of good workmanship. 
Similar indications of metallurgic industry, at a former noch, have been noticed iu 
California, in the gold mining districts. 

About a mile above the town of Portcrsfiold, or lower crossing of Sutter's Creek, 
some miners, while engaged in mining in a tlat, at the depth of five feet from the 
surface, discovered a rastra or mill, such as is now used for grinding qunrtz. Tiiere is 
every appearance of this rastra having been used, as a quantity of crushed stone was 
found in it. Extensive veins of gold-l)earing quartz and rich ravines, have been found 
in this vicinit}', near one of which this wonder is to be seen. 

From New Mexico we hear like accounts of the labors of a civilization which claims 
to bo due to very ancient and forgotten periods. " Properly speaking," says a corres- 
pondent, " there are but two valleys in New Mexico — the most extensive is that of the 
Rio Grande; the other, as yet, the Peco.s, is not fully explored — on these streams 
depends the agricultural interest of the country — .should either go dry, starvation and 
famine would ensue. From north to south they flow nearly parallel, and distant fifty 
miles from their sources (which are near together), about sixty miles apart until they 
flow into Texas. The valley of the Rio Grande is thickly inhabited in all its length; 
not .'io with the Pecos, for the habitations of cultivators <^f the soil do not extend 
fartlior than Anton Chicon. There are many evidences existing, however, that in 
olden times the Pecos valley was the most numerou.sly inhabited, and report says that 
a reservoir leads from that river as large as a wagon-wheel, full forty miles in length, 
to the ruins of a town near the east side of the Sarento mountains, that covers in 
si)ace over two miles square — some of the corne'- of the houses still exist, three stories 
high, built of sun-dried brick, and the st'-r^cts regularly laid out in rectangular form — 
there are no signs of cultivation neia* this town — directly before it, /. e. to the east, 
lies a kiw, fiat prairie, frequently a lake, but in dry time a salt plain ; wood is exceed- 
ing scarce near it — and why, or for what purpose this town was built, at what date 
settled, and when destroyed? — are mystifications that puzzle all." 

i i 


'ii i ,1 

l! ! :rtl 



"^ 111 ft- t-" -1 • .^Ji'i 


I ! 






' 'i ■ 
"I * 

■ 1 

i 1^ 


i 4 



A strong disposition to cxufrgorato tiio iiiiportiinco of tlioso, and tho like discnvorii's, 
is inmiirc'stod by tlio inihlic prt'SH. Kfryi)t and Assjriii, and tlic Oriental \vorid, iin- 
at onco (iiioted, witln)ut ronicnilHTing tiiat tlic art of mining and tiio nu'cininical powers 
wrrc porli'ctly iK'Vciopcil, in tiioso countries, at very early epoelis, ami not, \>y any 
moans, conlined to the nioro hammering out of copper, and other native metnls in 
very rude forms. This disposition shows itself, not only in respect to the working of 
mines, but to other classes of antiipiities. 

Prior to ISliO, an owl, well carved in stone, and of artistic; i)roportion.-i, was found in 
a tumulus in Ohio. Suhsecpiently, a lizard, carved as an ornament to a [lipe, was disctv 
\v\vd in some excavations in the St. JIary's valley. What rendered this romarkalilo 
was, its being carved out of a I'ompact piece of carbonate of lime. About IMT, nume- 
rous specimens of these imitalion.s were found in the class of small altar-mounds in 
the valley of the Scioto. They are, in all cases, it is believed, ornaments of the «tonc- 
pipe, which appear, in the latter cases, to have been acted on by fnc. They were, 
generally, carved from the secondary grits of the Silurian strata of Ohio. Ihit are 
these discoveries evidences that the people were sculptors of a higher grade than the 
Ked — or that they possessed maimers of superior relinemcnt and polish? 

Attention has been called, in tho prior volinncs (I., II., III., IV'.), to the readiness 
and dexterity of the hunter tribes in pictography, as a mode of ideographic notation, 
inferior, indeed, both in its stylo and execution, t( be Mexican ]>icture-writing. Init 
still exhibiting, in the rock in.scriptions, that general desire of the human heart, to be 
remembered. This method has been traced, in its various forms, fron\ New England 
to the Rocky mountains. Uecently, a specimen of this pictography, rude indeed, has 
been found on the shores of Lake Erie, at Independence, in Ohio. (Vide Plate XV'., 
Fig. 1 to 1.'].) "The stone," observes an eye-witness, "was taken from a sand-stone 
(piarry. This sandstone belongs to the formation wdiieh oiu" geologists sometimes call 
the ' sandstone grit,' and is tho same as the Berea stone. The rock to which this ])ii'ce 
belonged tho quarrymen found covered with earth and trees ; and a maple, not less 
than eighteen inches through at the stump, stood on this particular portion. When 
the surface of the rock was uncovered, there appeared thirteen figures, of ditlerent 
sizes, cut into tho rock with great distinctness and much mechanical skill. Sharp- 
pointed metallic tools were evidently n.sed by the sculptors. Some of the figures are 
cut a full inch deep. That they arc not fossil, as has been suggested, but mechanical, 
is most obvious. 

Of tho thirteen figures, two were figures of men, of life size. These were ruined 
before their importance was perceived by the discoverers, and no good description of 
them is i)reserved. 

The remaining eleven figures occupy the slab mentioned above, which is six foot 
by four. They consist of — 1, a large, crooked serpent, with a Hat head. This figure 
occupies the centre and left of the slab, and is about six feet long — 2, over it is a cut 
Vol,. V. — lo 



« I 



roHomhlinij u lolwtor, very iliHtiiict — :!, lonvanl, or imiiu'dintcly to the ri^l • .i.'tl'.in c'lt, 
U ii lifriiic tiMi iiiiii'li ilol'iiooil U> hv idontilii'tl. I)iit wliiili iipitoiirH to hoiuo . to no im 
v.i'Ao. It in. |K'rliii|iH. niK' I'odt lonjr. nnil nt" <'i|ii!il l)n'ii(ltli — 1 hihI •'. to tin' rivilit nf I 
iiiitl "J, aw two cl('('|i|_\-riit li'^iin-s, ri-.^ciiiMing ii liiiiniiii liiiinl, hut of .small .■^i/.c, and 
oiippiwd to III' tiai'Us of aniiimls — C>, 7, 8, 9, 10, aiul 11, nro trnrkn of aiiiiimis, npiiii- 
ii'iitly liullalocH. and occupy the lower part, nnd oxtromo right of tin; hlult. Tlio 
po-ition of tlic.ii' lii,'nro.x indicates that all tlie ohjccts whicli they represent looked or 
niovi'd north-west. 

In respect to date and forniation, thcso fignren evidently Ix'long to the class, ft 
Hpecinien of whieli has heen found on the rocks of (^uniinL'iiani's Island, near Sandusky 
City. Does the inscription on the Diirhton rock helonir to the same? .Mr. Schoolcral't has 
copied tin- inscription of ('unnin,i:ham's Island into thi' work on the Indians which ho 
has edited under the direction of the general government. (IMates l(>. tl, \'ol. III.) 

'I'lii'ic are e:ulh-wori;s on the Cuyahogii river adjacent to the original location of 
these inscriptions, sueli as ahouml in this State, and which are ascrihed to ancient 
races of Indians. The mounds and the .seulptinvs will he naturally attriliuted to the 
work of one people, though the inscriptions are not known to have heen I'oinid near 
till' mounds elsewhere, as in this instance. Have readers simihir facts which will throw 
light on the oi'i;^iu and meaning of those works?" (Vide Appendix No. .".) 

'riii'ic is notliing. [lerhajis. which constitutes an ohject of greater interest, as traits 
of existing Indian art. than those delicately-wrought and artistic arrow-heads of 
ohsidian which the I'acilic coast trihes of Oregon and Calitiirnia execute. Even the 
trihes on the lu)cl<y mountains, who draw their means of subsistence from the lowest 
orders (if aniniiitt'd nature, exhihit the same .skill in the construction of this instrument. 
(\'ide I'late 'M, Vol. I.) Yet these trihes are of the most normal grades of himter.s, 
living ill shelters and caves, little superior to the beast, and have never erected, so 
far as we can infer, a building e([ual, in its mechanical requisites, to the granary, or 
even poultry yard, of civilized society. 

Of the principles of natural fortification, by occupying hills and defiles, the ancestors 
of the present race of Indians have availed themselves often, in a most admirable manner. 
Their works were accurately suited to the enemy they had to encoiinter, and the locali- 
ties where they were likely to meet in conlllct. They surrounded a camp or village with 
a ditch .111(1 i)ali.sade. They occupied a defile, in which a few could resist many. Tlioy 
threw lunettes on a commanding eminence. They excavated orifices in the earth, to 
•shield themselves from arrows. They made the entrances to the gates of forts intricate Ibr 
the enemy to penetrate. They .«ometimes constructed a hay-cock mound or ramiiart 
before it. They even occupied, with lines and works, the entire summit of a narrow 
abrupt hill, making a talus, as that which Dr. Tiock has described, in IS.iS, as existing 
in Adams count}', in Ohio. (\'i(le Appendi.x 3.) Their works were all intended for 
defence against the simple missiles of the hunter state. IJut they and their generations 



wcro striin;,'ors to tlio liip;licr i)rinci|)K's of tlio V'auliaiilc art. Uftrtram, ii wrilor ainl 
fniVL'llcr 1)1" I'liiini'iit iiii'i'it, ivM ft luiliii'ulist, ami flosc olisiTver of tlio Imliaii arts anil 
Hocii'ty, who, ill I77.'l. passoil tliroui^li tlifir tcnitoiii-'s iVoni Florida to the Mississippi, 
Hpoaks ol'lcii ol'thf '• Indian inonnls or tnniiili, and tcrraecH — niouunicnts ol'tlio ancii'nts" 
terms ap[ilii'd liy him to Indian nations who hud prccoded the then existin;; stockM. 
'rradition amon^j; them had denoted sneli prior occupants, of manners and cnstoms like 
thems(dves, whom they had displaced. The frreat Miisc(i;re or Mnsc();;nlf:;ee confederacy 
was then at its heij,dit. The Natchez had fallen forty years liefore. The lUches had liei.-n 
compiered ; ami. with tlio (Joodidas and Alaliamas, liad hecome a part of " The Nation," 
a term commonly applied to tlieiii in the south. Jle iiad oh.served some works of this 
ancient race ol' triln's. loid partit'idarly a stone sepulchre at Keowe (p. ;>7U), of which 
trailition ascrihcd the origin to '•ancients." Vet. he closes his travels witii 
this observation — ''Concerning' the nioninncnts of Americans, I deem it necessary 
to observe, as my opinion, that none of tlieni that 1 have seen discover the least sij^ns 
of the arts, sciences, or architecture of the Europeans, or other inhabitants of the old 
world; yet evidently betray every mark of the most distant anti(iuity:" {p. ')2l.) 

In the view whicb Inis been given of antiipiities, wliicli Ibrmerly covered the 
American forests, it appears evident, if we dismiss the class of intrusive vostij^es of 
the Copenhagen period, that they preserve a jmrallelism with the manners, customs, 
and arts of the tribes. They seldom or never rise above it — and where they do. we 
have rea.sou at once to suspect the intrusive loot of the ante-Columbian European. 
AViiile the arts of the northern tribes had a manifest prototype in the tril)es of the 
central and erpiinoxial regions of the continent, they diil not keep a parity of advance 
with the southern tribes. The arts of the latter culminated in teocalli of stone, tumuli, 
and temples — and in despotisms Ibunded on a very strong religious element. Tiie former 
terminated in terraces of earth, square platforms, mounds of refuge from floods, and 
of sepulchre, and of sacrifice ; and continued to retain the government of chiefs and 
councils, composed, iii, of the independent warrior class, with a voluntary priest- 
hood, sui)ported by oiiinion, and having so simple and typical a ritual, that they often 
apiieared to have none at all. The very magnihcence of the Ibrests, rivers, and lakes 
of the northern hemisphere, wooed them to the life of hunters and nomades. The 
division into clans, and tribes, and langu.ages, became multilbrm, sin a matter 
Where there is no written language, and of course no standard of comparison, the 
change in the sounds of words goes on r.apidly ; while the great principles of utter- 
ance, or general grammar, remain. Mere change of accent, under such circum- 
stances, produced a dialect. The exi)loits of hunting and war were carried to the 
greatest extent. Agriculture and drudgery remained, as we found it in 1000, in the 
Lands of females, and boys, and old men. The w.av spirit led to Ibrtifications. They 
felled trees, not by cutting them down with sharp instruments, but by surrounding the 
trunks with girdling tires, and the use of the coal-hatchet, or peck. (Vol. I., Plate XIV.) 





ANTl QU ITl i:S. 

Tliov fortilloil tlio stnuiii- iiml (■(iiuiiiiiiuliii^' i)iirts of liills luul iioiiinsiilaH, hv tlisrcintr 
ditolios avoiuul tlioiii — olU'ii a wliolo vilhip- was lliiis (k'li'iuk'd. Tlio iirin(-i|>lc> of tlio 
Tlascallan ,uati' is louiiil in s" .oral of tlio still oxistiiiu,' vosti^os. (I'lato 1. \\)\. I.) 
Tlioy raised larw tumuli to the (load, as at Caliokia and (Iraw Cirek, wlicrovor tlio 


stroiiiith of a \ illaL:(> liad aduiiltod. ov tlio ivspoet pai<l to their lioroos or sajios douiaiu 
it. Tlioy pursued veins of native eopper on the surfaoo, as wo soe on l.ako Superior, 
or a few foot helow it. by hnildinu; fires to heat the matrix or enekisinu' rock, and 
]iouriii,a on water to oriiniblo it. Mauls of hard stone were used to heat olf the nx'k, 
alter il hud lieen rendered fiial)le by heat. A saplinir, with its limbs cut short, made 
a praetical ladder to descend into pits. (IMate 1(1.) Did not the Toltcos and Aztecs 
mine the same metal by the same rustic proeess'.' 

AVitli rojiaril to uarnionts. the dressed skins of animals formed the staple I'oliancc. 
They were often prepared with ureal skill, and ornamented with the ([iiills of the ]H)r- 
oiipine, dyoil j;rass or si 


and .sea-sii 

Court dro.sse.s had a mantle of .soft 

.'skins, covered with plates of mica, whicli made a conspicuous covering. Small and 
beautiful species of se.a-shells were striiiiL'- with wreaths for the neck. The heavy 
conch, with its llesh-colored nacre, was cut into medals, witli orifices artistically bored 
hmi/ontally through the plates. (Plate •_'■.. Fig. l^'.l, .')().) They wrought disks for public 


OS out of the hardest porphyry. { 


\'ol. II.) Their canoes of l)ark and wood. 

their war-clubs of heavy iron-woe. i. or maiilo. their bows and arrows, tijiped with the 
finest darts of chert, (piartz, or chalcedony — their bowls, pot.s, and household imple- 
ments of wood, stone, and pottery, have been often the topic of admiration. 

Their old men liked to talk of their ancostv 

All nations like to d 

isomirse on iliis 

leir duel 



subject. The old times wore always the Ijost, with our Indiai 
hiws, their manners, their very morals and languages, as they told me in the north, 
were purer and bettor. Speaking of the earth-works of the Mississip})i, Uecoigii of 
Kaskaskia referred them to his ancestors. (Vol. IV'.. Antiipiities.) As to the class of 
intrusive antitpiitios. Indian traditions have not entirely failed to reach them. AVap- 
pockanita, a Sh'.vvnoe chief, one hundred and twenty years old, referred them to white 
men w!;o hac'i once livi'd in tho(*liio valle\. (.Maciilloch, p. -11.) It .seems, therefore, 
tliat both in North, as well as South America, the white man has had an inllucnce on, 
if he was not the originator of. the higher arts ol civilization. The progress of di.s- 
covery leads to the expectation, that wo may yet, by a course of iiatient investigation, 
receive new lights on this subject. 

liut human art cannot long withstand tlie pliasis of barbarism, any more than 
Indian sl^ill in works or fabrics can resist the introduction of civilization. How long, 
il may be iiKpiired. would these arts continue to be cultivated, after Kuropean fabrics 
were inlroduceiK when the price of a few beaver-skins would clothe a man in a rcjbe 
of scarlet or green list cloth, or fine blue broad-cloth, from English looms? When a 
few pounds of stout linen not twine could be bought for the skin of the smallest 

•->■ •. * i. 


/■I/I I 

f ^ 







mustcla, and half-a-dozen muskrats would procure as many of the best steel fish-hooks 
and needles as an Indian family would require in a year? How long would an Indian 
use a stone, after he could get an iron tomahawk — or a blade of flint or obsidian, after 
he could get a knife of steel ? Would the heavy, clumsy Indian clay-pot, the fragments 
of which now cover, or lie scattered over the territory of the United States, stand long 
in the commercial contest against the light brass or copper kettle ? Would the heavy 
■iniitliik)K, or state beaver-robe, l)c worn by the Indian cliiefs and magistrates, when its 
value in merchandize would clothe a family? Would the bow and arrow compete in 
trade, as an arm, in hunting or warl\ivc, a single year, in a band that could procure 
fusils, and powder, and flint ? A rude Indian breast-work, or an open Tlascallan or 
barricade gate, could not bo long trusted for defence, when a few cannon-shots would 
demolish these light structures. Instead of the Vesperic tribes maintaining the arts 
which they knew and practised at the opening of the lOtli century, to the present 
time, against the influx of the far better and cheaper articles of European manufac- 
ture, it would be most extraordinary if tlic native skill and handicraft cunning had 
no; rapidly declined. It would be remarlvable if such a race of men, who have only 
verbal traditions to refer to, and who, living under the stimulus of indulgence and 
enmity, forget to-day what they knew yesterday, should not, with their sensual and 
nonchalant iiabits, have Ibrgotten even a knowledge of their antiquarian vestiges. 



[5tii Pai'kr, TiTLi; IV.] 




TITM: IV.-Srn.lKCTIVK division, Ol'OdUAlMIV. 

TITLE IV.. LET. A., VOL. I. [1st Pai'i;k.] 

(iriij;rn|iliic':il Data rospi'fliiif; tlio I'licxiilorcil Aroii at t\\o roninto .*^.iiii'ccm of llu" Mlssia- 
^ii|l|li. ('liariictcr ol' llic (inlil l)c|i(isil ilisi'(ivi'V('(l in IStS, im llic 'I'crritdrics (if tlio 
('alilnriiia Indians, licpoitcil hiscdvcvy of 'I'iu iin llio Kansaw T/inils. Lriiil, ("o|i|ii>r, 
ami Silver Oro.s on tlic Ltimls nl' llic Winiiclmj^ocs. Mcnimionics, ami (.'liijipcwas. IVtro- 
li'inii iin till' Ciiivkasaw Lamlf, West. Saline l^)i'iii;;s in the (.'(umlry <il' tlic (•minila;.raH. 
(_Jeiii;raphy of tlie Aneient Domain of llie Jro(|uii!.' in Vt'eslern New York. Lake .Vetion 
in tlio Ai'i'a of Lake Siipiiior. Anlii|Me liones iliseovereil on tlie (Ii'onml.i of llie 
Ocnjres. Descrililiou of the Oiieiila Slone. he:-eii]ilion ol' ijje Cliipliewa ami Sinux 
Lands wliicdi constitute the Territory of Minnesota. 


TITLE IV., LET. P.., VOL. II. [21)'Kr.] 

Natural Caves in tiu' Siiuix Pountry, (Ui the Upper Mississip]ii. Data illustralin;.' the 
Cliaraeter ami ^'alMe of the Coinitry of the Yuma ami J>iei.'unos Indians, in Southern 
California, alou^' the surveyed line of boundary lietween San Diego and the mouth of 
the IJiver tiila. 


TITLE IV., LET. C, VOT>. III. [;;t) P.\n:i;.] 

Inipiiries I'espeetiui: the Cliaraeter ami ^'aIue of the Indian Country in tlie I'liited State-, 
with a Map of the Area siill piwse-^sed liy them. Further l''aets resp<'clinL.' the Saline 
Strata of Onondajra. \ (!eo;^raphieal Iteeonnoissanee of the Indian Country iu Cali- 
fornia, situated lietween San Kr-anciseo and the houndary ol ()re;;on, lieinj: west ol'lhr 
Sacramento Kivcr, with estimates of the Indian P(»puhitiun, and sundry illustrative facts. 


TITLE IV.. LET. D., VOL. IV. riiii P.\ii;i!.] 

Cleorrraphy of the Lidian Country. 'I'lic .\rea of the Tniteil States still |)nssessed liy tlio 
Indian 'I'rihes. ancl its ultimate division into States and Territories. The I'ldiey of early 
(lesiijnatinii I{efu;:es for the Tribes. Sectional \"\f\\ of the (iretit Lake ISasiiis — beiii;; 
the ancient seats of the .M^'ompiiti and Iroipiois power, and their strikiiiL? inter-oeeanie 
position betweeti the Atlatitic atid Mis-issippi Valley Trilies. The Sources of the Mis- 
sissippi a suitable ]iosilion as a Hefii;^c for the Chippewas. 

TITLK IV.. i,i:T. !•:.. VOL. V. [-Vrii Pai'ki!.] 

I'resent (ieojrra[ihical Position of the Tiidian Tribes of the United States. 




The changes which have occiirreil in the position of the Indians of this country, 
constitute one of the most striking traits in tiieir history. Once spread out along tiie 
Athxntic and the Gulf coasts, from the St. John's, in Maine, to tiio inoutiis of the Mis- 
sissippi and the Kio Grande, not a tribe remains on its original hunting-grounds. Soni(> 
remnants of them have bctakc!i tliemselves to nooks and corners of their once wide 
domain, where they linger, in dreams of a pleasing forest philosophy, in thinking on 
the past. A few men, who yet show, by a piebald costume, a preference for the tastes 
of their fathers, iirc found to gain a subsistence as lumbermen on the banks of the 
Penobscot — delighted with the fierce and wild currents of waters, where IIrh once 
guided their canoes. Others, living on the stormy coasts of Cape Cod, and the islands 
of Massachusetts, attached as gulls are to their sea-rocks, have adopted the vocation of 
seamen and whalers. The converts of the days of Eliot and the Mayhews, are gone. 
The fiery and subtle Pokanoket, King Philip, no longer alarms the disturbed Pilgrims of 
England ; who dared hardly turn to the right or the left for fear of the scalping-knife. 
Uncas has joined his great rival, Miantonimo, in the land of spirits; and if the ghosts 
of red men come back to visit their hunting-grounds, Tamenund, the St. Tannnany of 
our history, stalks over his old island of Manhattan, literally, the place of the whirl- 
pool, called IlcU-gate, to ask what all this incessant clamor of ships, and buildings, and 
temples, and the endless roar of wheels and carriages, night and day, imports? The 
once haughty Iroquois, who trod the earth with a high step, has withdrawn to one of 
those nooks on the western skirts of his once lordly patrimony, where he ploughs the 
soil and drives oxen. He no longer, like the ancient Idumien chiefs, holds the olive- 
branch in one hand and the tomahawk in the other, to sway the destinies of councils. 
His simple and proud eloquence is no longer exerted to hurl irony at La Barre, from 
the tongue of a Garrangula, or touch the deepest recesses of the human heart, with 
the appeals of a Logan. The conquered Lcnni Lenapecs are no longer cowed ilown in 

Vol. v.— 1G (121) 

{ 1 zi 







(! i;0(i llA I'llV. 

("ouiii'il, witli till' koon rcprool' of ii ('iiiiii.>iMiili,L;i) — " wlio ^avf .voii iiiitlioi'ity to sell 
liiiid- '.'" 'J'lic I'liii'-i liiivo mil coiiu' liack to ik'imiiiv tlic [xisiliou IVoiii wliicli llicy wito 
tliivi'ii. iVoiii iR'iir tlif vii'iiiiigi! of till' coiiM-'li'SH roiiriii;;' of tlu> N'iii.miiii. Tin' Sii,s(|iu^- 
liaiinorlxs luui' ni'vcr wnmlt'voil iVoiii tlic Hyiiiliolie liimtiiij;'-jii'oiiu(lrt to which they wiic 
.-iiidilonly (lispMtc'lieil hy tho Inxjiioi-* loiiialuiwks. Tin.' i'owliutiiii.x, who oiico .swept 
till' fcinstH of the, tlu' l!:ipp:ih;miio('k, and the in'hiccly .laiiu'^ rivci', aic no 
moil' alairiiod hy traci.'.-* of the foot.sti'ps of tlio fianj;uiiiary Ma^sawoiaack,-', who have 
ranwd the hoij;hts and skirt' of tlic Alh'glnuiios a thou.saiid niik's, to wrench oil' tho 
pcalps of a Mannalio.if, an Erie, a ('atawl)a. or a Cherokee. 

Tlie ]iosition of tlie trilies i.x wliolly ehan^ed. The Araljian inaiiieian could .scarcely 
liave done it more ipiickly, or, at least, more cllectivoly. The Alle^hanics, which coHt 
a Ih'itisli anil colonial army such peril to cros.><, in IT")'), have heen surmounted without 
an ell'ort ; and tiie Hhio valley, so often esaayeil hy the sword, has at last heen con- 
quered liy tho plough. The trilics luive learned this ait from the white man. And 
they have iroiie west, hcyond the Father of IJivers, with tho imi)lements of jieacc in 
their hands. Tho Delawares now plant corn on tho hanks of the Kansas, or hunt 
the deer in Texas. The Mohicans, who once attracted tho love of Zinzendorf and hia 
brethren, and who so long and i)roiniiiently, nndor Edwards, enjoyed tho care of tho 
Lniidoii Society lor propagating tlie (K)spel, yet linger, in fragmenlary bands, in eastern 
AVisconsiii, or share the hospitality of their Didawaro brethren west of the Missouri. 
There are found, also, sjiread out over the territorial length of Kansas, the Shawanees, 
the true Parthians of our history — the Miam'is, who so long battled for tho Wabash — 
the elenu ntary bands of the once famous Illinois — and the numerous other tribes of 
rhe wide-spreading Algoniiuin stock. Pontiac no longer battles for nationality at 
Detroit, nor jMinniwawinna at Michilimackinac. 

Tlie whole Atlantic coasts arc as free fniin tho footsteps and pro.senco of those once 
proud, pupulous, and douiinait races, as the ruins of Palmyra are from the tread of 
their builders — unh'.-N, iiideed, we ;idinit an cxcei)tion in behalf of those delegates from 
tho tribes of the west, who. having adopted arts, letters, and Christianity, visit tho 
City of the Republic periodically to iii([uire into their alfairs. 

The wilderness has ever been a very attractive position to the Indian. If it is em- 
blematical to him of the promised paradise to the hunter soul hereafter, apparently it 
is not loss so to the man while here. .So early as 17!)Q, before the I'nited States were 
developed, while Louisiana was still under rule, two of the most active, rest- 
less, and enterprising of tho Algonquin group of tribes, namely, tho .Shawnoes and tho 
Delawares. made arrangements for cro.ssing the Mi.ssissii)i)i, and occupying positions in 
the central and wild parts of that province. They were followed, in the design of 
liiidiiig better hunting-grounds, about 181G, at tho close of tho war with Groat IJritain, 
by a part of the Cherokees, who. in the treaty with the United States, of 1S17, secured 
the right to occupy a tract therein referred to, lying on the northern borders of the 

(i F.Od |{ A I'll V. 


ArkaiisaH. Small Imndn ai\(l rorniianl.s uC IiUms, dI" tlic (lull' nIkhi',-' ninl lower \M\tr* 
ol" liOuixiana, liiui, at ciirliiT dates, pii-HSod into llic icqioii of tli.' lied llivcr mid its 
ti'ilmtaricH. It is not the oliji'ct of this sUi'tch to di'scrilii- tlic oidtT imd iproiii'i'.xs of 
tlu! inoveiueiit of tliu trilics west. (,'aiiscH wtru in o[K!iiiti()n, as the si'ttleiiients were 
developed, to produce voluntary migration to a region which oll'ered advantages to a 
hunter po[)ulation. It will snllicc to say, that a period of forty years, from the llrst sepa- 
ration and emigration of the Cherokees, has transferred to the west of the Missi^sipp[ 
all the elder, and what nuiy he termed, /loiitc tribes, who were situated soath of north 
latituilc W l-V ."..v. (Douglass" Ex. Exp. Som'. Miss., p. 1 Id.) 

The introduction of gunpowder and fire-arms among the American tribes, has [pro- 
duced the great changes in Indian industry. The fur trade had, at lirst, stimulated 
the chase, and roused up the Indian hiniter to greater activity. IJut it at len);th 
reacted; and, by furnishing him greater facilities to gratify his tastes, produc^-l de- 
popidation and weakness. Ilis l.nuls have been (piickly denuded of game, remaining 
an cncumbranco on his hands : ' I the same time, best fitting it ll)r an adviiiaing 

white agricultural popidation. ... ceding these surplus territories, from time to time, 
he has repaired the declining fortunes of the fur trade, and had the means of sultsist- 
onco and clothing. Taking annuities in money has had a dissipating, if not a para- 
13/ing efiect ; for, while the |)erio(lical po.sse.ssion of wealth, wliich could not be ]iru- 
dently ex]iended, has not only operated as a bar to industry, but I'ostered his native 
l)ias for a life of case, freedom, and idleness, scarcely any thing has been thought of, 
when want began to impinge, but to ccmtinue the of cession.s, and lly to remoter 
locations in the West. Thus the entire maritime borders of the colonies were origi- 
nally relin(|uished ; and we have seen him in our own day crops, at separate points, the; 
Alleghauies and the Mississippi; and the east line of the expatriated and colonized 
tribes now rests on the Missouri. 

For the names and relative positions of the tribes in their western locations, refercnco 
is made to Plate 21, Vol. IV. Tlicir numbers, names, and statistics, generally, are 
given in detail in the succeeding tables. (Vide Population and Statistics.) The present 
location of all the tribes within the Union. Is shown by Plate lil, Vol. III. The 
position of the tribes in Oregon is delineated in Plate 2G, Vol. III. Recent information 
from that region, derived from an oflicer who has served in the country he describes, 
is exhibited in the Appendix, No. 4. 

The name of Oregon is derived from the Spanish word for the artiniesia. or wild 
sage. This plant is found in the country east of the (,'a.scade mountains, to the IJocky 
mountains, and to the sources of the Nebraska. By the t irly Sjmnish traders from 
Santa Vl; it was called (>r(';iiiin>. The oldest mountain men corrui)ted this term to 
Oriiidii. (Appendix. No. I.) 

■! ^.1 

• ! 


i I ^ 












ut Ui2 12.2 













WfBSTn,N.Y. 14SM 




[5Tn Paper, Title V.] 






TITLE v., TiET. A., VOL. I. [1st Papek.] 

Gkxkuic Rkmakks o\ tiik Gkoi'ps of TniUES in tiii; rxiTr.n Statks. 

1. Shoshoncc or Siuike Imliuns. 

2. Imlians of Oregon, the Hi>cky Mountains, and I'acilic Cuasts. 

3. Coinanclios, and Texas Tribes generally. 

4. Indian Tribes of New Mexico. 

5. Dacotabs of tbe Mississippi, with respeot to tlieir Medical Knowleilgc. 
(!. Missouri Valley Indians, as afleeted by Smallpox. 

7. Tribes on the Santa Fe Trail. 
<<. Miiseogees or Creeks, 
it. Massaolmsetts Indians. 

10. Indian Population of Kentucky. 

11. Menonionies and ("liippewas. 
1:2. Maseotins and Assiguai;.'s. 
1:5. Cliickasaws. 

TITLE v., LET. B., VOL. II. [2i) I'aier.] 

14. Niuni or Cdtn.inebe Nation. 

15. OJibwas — tlieir Traditions. 
10. Siou.x or Dacotabs, {it.) 

TITLE v., LET. C, VOL. TIL [:;i) P.mkk] 

17. Iro([Uois Republic. 

IH. Tribes of Oregon and Califcirnia. 

10. Sioux or Dacotab Proper, {/>.) 

20. Mandans. 

21. lowas, {(1.) 

22. lowas and Sacs, (b.) 
2.3. Ilocliungaras. 

24. Winnebagocs, (ii.) 

2.'). Eries, (-/.) 

2t>. Catawbas. 

27. Piinos of tbe Oiia. 

2H, Miiipii of New Mevieo. 





TITI.K v., \A]T. I).. VOL. IV. [Ini 1'.\ii;k.] 

ii'.t. Kii.;', {':) 

:io. The Niiitiiil Nsiiii.ii. 

;51. Niiviijm.'* Ill' Ni'w .Mexico. 

:!l'. Niw Moxiciiii Trilics jiciu rully. 

;>;>. l{(iol-l>i;:^'iT.'<, iVi'., of Culiloriiia. 

<J4. M'iriiR'l>;i;.'oc'.-<, (A.) 

3o. Ma.>-t'outins — a lost Ti-ibo. 

TITLE v., Li;r. E., VOL. V. [jtu Pai-ku.] 


W. .Mleiilians. 

37. Dflawari'S. 

3M. Cliippewas. 

o'J. OuMas. 

40. ( >noiiilaga.s. 

41. Kenistenos. 
■12. Atliapa.ieas. 
43. ]5laiktVi't. 
14. l'illM;.'or.t. 
■i'l. Mii-liij;ainie^. 
4t;. I'tali.'*. 

47. .\|)ac!ioo8. 

4H. California Tribes. 

411. rcmiacooks. 




1. TlJIHAl, I M' I, r i; N (' K ANI» (iMMlUAl, ('II A I! AC 

K 1! . 

Iv tlioir iiiamiors anil (Mistoins, arts nnd aiiti((Miti('s. and in tlnir |iliy.<icnl and mental 
traits and cliaractor. tlic Indian trilios aiv very inucli alike. Ail tlinl icjales tn their 
»)riL;in and jieneral Iiistor\'. admits of the same deiiive ol' jicneralizatinn. It is tlie same 
witli tliii.-e characteristii! traits wiiich constilnto the olijeet ol" |iartii'ular imiiiiry hy the 
|'h\sii)lii.;ist, the moralist, and the |iliilosni)h(>i'. It is only when we cume tu discnss 
their laniinaws. and their trihal histories, within the jieriod of their \ icinaLii' to I'iuro- 
|)ian cis iii/ation. sinee the discovery ol" the continent, that their history heuins vividly 
to iiistrnet. and assnmes ooluM'ence. It is as trii)es that they attract that species of deep 
interest which links the sympathies of the hnnian heart in the late and I'ortnnes of a 
race, who appear to have lieen the first jiioneers. in the dispersion ol' man. on the 
continent. All which we can he truly said to possess, is their modern history; and it 
i.s desirable that we should ,i;atlier this, in ndation to every prominent triht in the 
land, while we still have the means to do so. 'J'h(> antiquarian may discourse ol" the 
monuinent.s and vesti.L'cs which are liuried in the soil, and the |)hilolo;iist spi.'culate 
prorouiiiUv on the ])rinci|)les of the lanpnaj;es, which denote coincidences with other 
parts of the world. Wiien all has been done, that is practicahle, on these heads — and 
wo confess thoiu to he themes of deej) humanitarian and pliiloso]>liical interest — it is 
but tryini;: to prove, by physical and mental data, and from the remains of objects of 
human art. what we knew very well before — namely, that man, in a stale of bariiaiism, 
will adopt habits and arts very nuicli alike, notwithstanding long epochs of separation, 
without proving, by such resemblances, the history of his descent, from i)articidar 
nations, in any ajjprociablo epochs. Craniological deductions, however profonnilly 
drawn, if not warped by imaginative theories, may denote varieties of development, 
which arise from various causes, without overturning the fundamental fact, that man 

Vor.. v. — 17 





Tin I! A I, o|{(! AN l/ATIoN, 

WUH di'siiriioil til scpiiriitc into varii'tios, wliicli arc iiiliii>tctl to I'viTv climntc of tlio 
globe. OriL'iniill}' ('i'oatt'<I in iiiiltl ami L'ciiial ("(Mitral latituil(\>'. wliicli it'i|iiirc(l tiic least 
j)()ssil)l(' exertion of lahour lor tlie siij>|iort of lil'e. lie lias been dispersed over every 
rei:ion of the jilobe, and HC(|iiired lialjits, nnd skill, and adaiitations. which lit liini lor 
all climates, from the torrid to the IViirid zone. To borrow a term from natnral iiistory, 
il is still the .-//"/«.<, and not the i/'iiini. that we are most interested abont. 

The Vesperic' stocks of the Indian carry a i)e(Mdiar typo of those traits, and of this 
family likeness of character. No one is at a loss to know what constitntes the phy- 
siojrnomy or manners of an Indian — his easy, irlidinir steps, and statel\- deportment — 
his impertnrltaliility ni.der excitements of art or fashion — his stoicism of lile, his 
contempt of death — his coidldence in looking np to thedreat Spirit, and as his ])ccnliar 
LTuardian — his nonchalance at the irreat pro,i;ress of the world in arts, letters, and life. 
All knowledge which has broken in >ipon the world, at least since the advent of Chris- 
tianity, he cavils about or resists. No one need to mistake him in this point; nor, 
while the eye or mind of the observer is directed merely to his jjiMieric trails or cba- 
racter. is there awakened a clo.scr or holier sympathy. Ihit the moment he sinks the 
race in the individual, or the nation in the tiibe. there is a new historical interest 
excited — a new and specific point of attraction. It is no longer merely the Indian 
who is contemplated, but the Cherokee, the Chippewa, tlie Choctaw, the Delaware, the 
lown, the .'^iiawanoe, the Chickasaw, the Sank or the Pottowattomie, the Winnebago, 
or the Iroi|nois. 

Mnch attenticm has been given to this tribal feature of the Indian, in the preceding 
volnmes; and it is one to which is allotted a prominent space in the jiresent. Olj.ser- 
vation on this part of the Indian history was more readily made, as it reijuired. in most 
eases, but to elicit and collate the traditions of their oldest men, and to compare tiicm 
with the recorded traditifjn.s of prior eras. It is in this department that the tribes, 
too. assmne their relative rank and importance. Of the more outer forest band.s and 
tribes, who rove over the sm'face of the (\artli, and have done nothing but kill animals 
and men. little need be said; lor they have excited little interest. In proportion as 
the tribes have produced exalted leailors, who have assumed a heroic position — speakers 
who have risen to cloipience in their oratory — and coiniciHor.s or captains who have 
exhibited powers of condjination, the measure of interest has increased. The reader 
of these sketches of tribal history advances in knowledge when ho is rcnnnded that 
rhili[) was a Pokanoket, Miantonimo a Narragansett, Uncas a Mohican, Tamenund a 
Manhattan, Skenandoah an Oneida; and. in this manner, of the other Hagca, warriors, 
and orators, who have ligiu'cd in the moving panorama of aboriginal history. 

That mere savages should have arrived at these positions, without letters, or 
teaching, or rennements of any kind, is, indeed, the most striking and wonderful 
problem. And when it is considered, that civilized nations liavo reached their points 

' Of the territorial area of tho United States. 



of I'lovntion hy means nf nelioolM iiml ncadoiiiios. ami in cnlli'ircs, in wliicli. to use tlio 
Jill nisi- (if an Knirlisli ilisiiic tlicy liiut- ol'lcii " liail to I'aii lianl," ' or to lie conrnH'd. fur 
years, in tlie studies of pi'ofessional men. or in \voik-siio[)s and mannfiictuiies, while tlio 
Indian has had no such iidviintau'cs, it should teach us ii lesson of hninility, since lie lias 
often exhibited a nohility of .sentiment, a power of eloquence, or a disrejrard of >elf, 
which are ahove all praise. 

The author formed liis first accjuaintance with the Indians while lie wr,s a \ounj,' 
man, and wlu-n his opinions were much like those still entertained hy many persons 
nt the present lime. Ma rei.'anlcd them as hut little elevated ahove the laiites ; and 
believed them to he. in a j;reat measure, destitute traits of character, and that 
intellectual capacity, whii'h helonj.' to civilized men. Such more favorahlc views of 
the Indians as he may jjresent, may, thcrelc)re, he justly rejiarded as the results of con- 
viction torched upon him hy facts, and by no n\eans the pictures of a romantic fancy. 
He be^'an his observations with too many impressions ibmnled on theories, such as 
those learned in books are prone to inculcate; and .some of these he yielded with a 
de^'rce of reluctance, as he had been tau^dit to rely upon them as just, ami feared the 
want of .something in their jdace. llajipily he was not too strongly wedded to his 
jtrejudices to be drawn away from tlu'm by the force of eviilence, and I'arly began to 
e.xamiue with candor in the light of truth. 

This course he has prosecuted for a series of years, and among scenes and circmu- 
Ktanccs peculiarly favorable. In the course of twi'nty years, he has met with many 
characters among the wilds of America, who would have struck any observer as origi- 
nal and interesting. With numl)ers of them ho has formed an intiuuite ac(|uaintance, 
and with not a few contracted a lasting friendship. Having been iu)t merely a long 
resident among them, but closely connected with them, he has Ijccn, lor some years, re- 
garded as one identified with them, and received many marks of their entire confidence. 

The Indians have .some peculiar views, which arc not easily discovered by a 
foreigner, but which yet exert a powerful inllucnco on his conduct and life. These 
c;innot fail to escape the ol-servatiou of a superficial or a hasty observer ; Jind the 
author had passed many ; .'-.Mths in constant intercourse with the Indians before ho 
luid any suspicion of their e;. stencc. Ho witnessed many practices and observances, 
such as travellers have often noticed; but, like others, attributed them to accident, or 
to some widely distant from the true one. Hy degrees, however, he became 
mcn-e acquainted with their opinions on certain subjects, which exert a dominant 
inlluence on their actions; and the life of an Indian no longer appears to him as a 
mystery. He sees him acting as other men would act, if placed exactly in his condi- 
tion, prepared with the education he has received, and surrounded by the same 

The gentler allections have a much more extensive and powerful exercise among 

' .Imv's t.ifo. 

i .1. 





Tl! I n.\I, f»IM;.\M/ATI(>N. 

till' Imliiiiis tli:iii is ^(Micrallv lidii'Mil ; iiltlioii;.'li to u less (Kyrcf tliiiii in <'ivili/f(l 
Mcicly. Tlii* WHS mil' nl' tin- tiullis Kusl ('Xjifclcd l>v tlio luillior; hut it wasfiuly 
tiuiL'lit liiiii l>v I'lict'* M liicli tMiiic iiiiilcr liis |K'rs(inul oliNi-rviitioii. An int^'^c'^<tin>,' Kcono, 
wliich first j;avi' ii diani-M' to iiis (ipiiiiims nil tiiis sulijcct, nuulo a lastinj^ inii)ri'.s»it)U 
uii lii.s niiiul. iinil will \>o iiairati'il in tlu> lU'Xt clKipti-r. 

Tlic iiowi'il'iil .siMircc iil" iiilliu'iicr wliii'li alli'cls tlic IJcd Man. is his n'ii.L'ion. 
Tliirt in a 0(ini|)cnMiil of pt'ciiliar liitctrini's ami ()l)>('rvanr('s, in wiiicii all arc early 
instniftod ; and tanulit. l>y pri'i't'iit ami t'xain|iU'. tt) conni ot witli cvciy act and >ceno 
of life. It wmdd .surprise any person to heooine aoi|uainted with the variety and 
extent to whieli an Indian is inlhienrod liy his reliirious viewH and superstitions. To 
the author, the facts have heen devdopini; thoinselvi's for many years; ami. while he 
is able to account for the peculiar ditfcrence.s lictwi en the conduct of Indians and that 
of \vhil(! men. in tiiven cases, he can easily perceive why tiie latter have so often lieeii 
unable to calculate on the actions of the former, ami even to account for them after 
the_\ have taken place. 

It nmy be here remarked, that the clvili/ed man is no less a mvHterious. inuiccount- 
nblc beinir to the Indian : and because his s|>Iieii' of action is idiUo nninlellii;ible to 
liim. If the followiuu' panes shall afford the pid)lic any means of judiiin;,' of the Indians 
with greater acein';icy. he hopes they may leail to our Irealinu' Ihein with irreater 
justice and humanity. The chanjie of o|iinion which has been wnmjrht in his own 
mind liy the facts he has witnessed, has been accompanied by a still more important 
chaniie of views with re.spect to their intidlectual capacities, moral snceeptibility, and 
claims on their civili/.e(l brethren. He would esteem it a (pialification of the hii-hest 
kind, if he nii,i,dit so display the facts liefore his countrymen, as to enable them to see 
as he sees; beinn' confident that nothing else would bo wantin,^ to make them feid as 
lie feeds. His desires are still not limited to this object, interestini; as it is. He would 
fain hope to ilo sumethin;.' to Iireak down the wall which so jrenerally divides civili/.ed 
and savaiio men, all over the continent. 

There i.s one more point to which he will here invite a momentary attention. thou<rli 
one les.s immediately connected with .subjects of a moral natui'e. and plans and exer- 
tions for the improvement of the Indian race. Some of the most venerated writers 
present a theory on the origin of nations, governmenl.s, lanuuaires. and institutions, 
diflicnlt or impossible to be conformed with the nature of man in society, and nnsnp- 
porteil by such evidence a.s their doctrines re([uire. Such I reLMrd the doctrine of 
SiK'ial Compact, except it bo viewed in the most midelined and jreiieral sense ixi.ssible. 
Such also is the theoi'v of the oriiiin and iin])rovement of lanunajres. The .system of 
government generally prevailing among the Indians is, indeed, so simple and natural, 
under their circumstances, that it is thought no person would long hccU for the traces 
of any groat legislator, giving them laws in .some past period. When, however, wo 
coiLsidcr the curious .structure of their languages, we find an ingenuity and comi)Iexity 

II ISToUY. A NI> (i()\ i:il NMKNT. 


iif ririiis mid coiripiiiiiitlH Tiir Mii|ins>iiiL: imvll.iin; to lie di^covi'ird in tliiit nf tlicdrcokN. 
As tlic liittor toiiLnio lias ln'cii Iimilt lii'ld up um ii iiinilcl. and tlie cxcrlli'iicii'i iil'ils plan 
iillriliiilcd til ."iimc nnkiiiivvn, hiil r>avai-iiiiis, k'ariicd, and n liiiid mind, wc iiii^lii 
li'i 1 justiCicd ill as.Mij,'iiin},' tlio iuvoiitinii nl' (lie vvoudi-Triil oxotdU'iici(.'H uf ilu- Indian 
toiijrneH to a mind of lur superior wisdom, in^'cunity, and I'Xpfritiicc. Ytl iiow (^niliii- 
tous would this Itc! All history hears tc.«tiinnny auainst llu! human inveiiliipii and 
di'si;;ned alteration of lanjruaj.'e; and nunc hut a mere liii'orist can ever einhraee the 
idea, that it is, or ever was, in the power of any man to rahriciilL' niul introdiico ii new 
liuij^iiafre, or to elleet a I'undaniental chaiijrci in the f^round-work ul' any one hel'oie in 

Tiiis, at least, is the decided opinion of the author; and he lirnily helieves, that 
whoever will contemplate the siihject, aniiilst such wones as he has lon;< heen accus- 
tomed to. will inevitalily come to the «ame result. lie has seen chanm'S in dialects, 
i'ominenced ami proL^ressive. and indications of many others ^Miim^ on; lint these owed 
their ori;riii and impulse to accidental eircinnstances. ami wi'ro not the result of any 
plan or de.-ij.'n. Necessity and the laws of custom ; these two powers, if properly 
iipprociateil in their inllueiiee, and traced with care to tlnir elfeels. will develo[i the 
causes of many thiuL's, whose ori;,'iii has heeii soujrht at too ^'ivat a distance. 

Itooks. and the readers of l)ooks. have done much to liecloud and perplex the stiuly 
of liie Indian <'liaiacter. Fewer theories and more ohservatioiis, less fancy and more 
fact, lui^ht have hrouyht us to mueli more correct oi»iiiioiis than those which are now 

Ai. 1. i;a II AN s. 

The oldest trihc of the United Stales, of which there is a distinct tradition, woro 
tlic Alle^jlians.' The term is perpetuated in the principal chain of mountains traversing 
tiie country. Thi.s trilx', at an iintiipie period, had the seat of their power in the Ohio 
valley and its continent streams, which were the wites of their miincrou.s towns and 
villages. They apjiear originally to have home the name of Alii, or Alleg, and Iieiice 
the names of Talligewi and AUegewi. (Trans. Am. I'hi. Soc, Vol. I.). \)y adding to 
the radical of tiii.s word the particle /co/// or i/Ikiii//,' meaning river, they descrihed the 
jtrineipal scene of their residence — namely, the Alleghany, or Iliver of the Alleghaiis, 
now called Ohio. The word Ohio is of Iro(|uoi.s origin, and of a far later period; 
having lieeii liestowed hy them after their comiuest of the country, in alliance with 

' Tlii; //'//(I ul' llic Siiutli Atlantic euasis are of a prior iia ; Imt tlio traililioii, ri'sliii;; uii a -^iiii'lo audmrily, 
lias iKit bcin cxaniiiwil. 'I'lio saiin' nniark may be- apiilinl to tin.' Iliiias, jcusaiis, Savaiiiicas. I'altiias, \Va]i.)iis, 
.iihI sdiiio otliorn of the I'loridian n'^imis, ixtomliii;.; to tlio Mississippi, who con.stitutc iiitorestiiif,' tliciiiLS of 

' This iiillt'cticiii is written liuniiii/i in Siisiniohannah ami Ijoyalhaniiah, ami hniiiini-h in Itappahannnck ; hut 
retains its original shape ofi/tiiii/ in Ynjihioirany. the main fork ot'tlie Mononi^ahela. These rivers all originato 
in the \llei.'hany ran'.;e — the eastern preiinets nf the aneient Allev'hans 






1 ' I 
:! ii 


TI! I I! A I. nltt; \ N 1/ AT I ON, 

tin- r.onnpo('«. (»r iincii-nl IKhiwimx. (I'lii. 'I'liiii-.) The Iciin wns ii|>|ilii'(l |i» llio ciitiro 
riN'T, I'lDiii it- rciiilliu'iii'<" villi till' .Mi-M---iiiiii, ti> ilx (iri;:iii in ilic ln'oad .M|)iir.s nf llio 
All)';:liiinii.'n, ill Now York ami l'ciiiix\lvaiiia ; ami tlio (li>r*ii.'iiati(in. to itH huiii-cch, ix 
Htiil (•iiiiiimii'il ill use liv tiiat im'ii|>1c, (Ni)t(.'s mi lIic IrdiiiioiM.) Tlii' lniiis|iari'iu'v ami 
Itiijiiliii'-s III' llio waters nl' lln- Alli';;liaiiy livtr. ami llic iivclim—* ami linco of itn 
I'liriciit. ionvs|ioml strikiii^ily with tlio.ic of tin- Oliio, attcsliii;; tin- tliM'riiiiiiiatiini niid 
liro|iriity of the original ilcsiiniatioii ; wliilu llu' .Moiioiipihi'la. \ln wmtliiTii foiU, is u 
htill, (lurk, ami tiirhiil >tn>aiii. 

Till- l-'rciicli. wlicii liicy camo to licliold tlio Oliin' rivor, niid to adiniri' tlio cncliaiit- 
iiij: vista-' ini'si'iitctl liy its hanks, as ccciu' al'ii r si'dio o|pcn('(l up tti tiu'iii, like; tlio 
scrolls lit' a licaiitil'iil paiioraiiia, litcially traiislatcil tlio li'iii|iiiiis iiaiiio, ami callod it 
J.ii mil It'lri' r> . 'I'll I'liiiloml till' llic po.iHosxinii of tliis coiiiitiy. lilossod with iv lorlilo 
Hoil, gonial oliiiiato. ami a iiiiioli-pri/.oil fauna ami iiatiiial pvodnotions, jiad hoon tho 
oaiiso of uroat aliiiri'jiiiiil wars. ai:i's hofuro ('oliiiiiliiis tiiriu'd his prnw towards tho now 


rid. Kmni the traditions of tin- lioniipi 

ivoii to llio .Moravian inissionano.x. 

whilo tho laiiip of Ihoir tradilionarv history still throw out its lliokoriiij^ hut ciilivoiiiiig 
ilaiiH's. tho Aili'iihans had hoon a siroiii; and nii,i;lity poopio, rajiahlo of groat oxortioiiH 
and doiiiL' wimdors. Thoro woit i^iants aimiiiL' thoni. Tho l.oiiapoos oaino IVuiii tho 
wosi : on roaoliing tho .Mississippi, thoy liiiind tho Alloj:haiis oooiipying its oastoni 
liordns. Thoy also found tho Irmiuois. whom thoy oall i Nt l.K. soatod north of thoiii. 
A liniu' war oiisuod. in whioh those two piinio storks woiv alliod. To dofoml tlioni- 
colvos. tho Allovdians siirroumK'd thoir villagos with intronoliinoiits. and luiilt fortili- 
rations. ( I'hi. Trans., p. oil.) This lolation is siistaiiiod, and onlargi'd, in soiiio 
partioulars. hy Irmpiois tradition. (Ciisio's History. \ ido Appondix 1.) \\\ it. tho 


lination of tho mulhorn a'jainsl tho 

siiuthoin trilios, is niado to appoar iiion' 

o.xtcnsivo. and tho powor possossod hy tho lattor. in lniildini,' forts and ooinpolling 
lahiir, is ooiisidorod as very strong. Agiooalily to hoth tho traditions (piotoil, tho 
Alloghan oonfodoracy was finally dofoatod. jind drivon down tho .Missi.-sipiii. 

Wo ,«caii tlio jilnins of T: 

•o\- am 

1 .Marathon, to dosory wstigos of ovoiits recorded hy 

liiston-. IJallioo is visited to woiidor at its Inokiii ooluinns, and dooiphor its.iniitilateil 
inseriptioiis. The valley of the Eiipliratos lias lieon ransaokod, in inodorn days, to 

disoover vi'stigo? 

if l{ah\Ion ami Nineveh. There are indeed no niiitilated colunin.s 

or insoriiitions to guide tiio antiipiarian in his rosearolies. lint there are a species 

of areluoolouioa 


iliioh carrs' historical iiroofs of tli 

state of arts 

nnd manners of the trihes. wlio lia\e left tlieir rude vestige.s hi'side the hanks of 
the Ohio and the Missi-'^ippi. These vestiges suiUciontly toll the story of the 
people who once dwelt lu-ro, and are as well adaiitod to show their arts and 

' The li 


III is Olirii. Imt, a.-i llic Irttir / in I'nncli iirlliiiL'nipIiv rrjiri'siMits \.\w Kniilisli .. Imij.', 

it tniik tlii- Inriii 111' ii'ilatinii. 

I'xclainatiiry tran^i'ivc parlic 

k'-.. wlii'ii iPioi-c'li"! liy till' inlorji'i'tiMii (Hi ! slmri/i/ 


Ik. t 


iiril in tills wiml, ami in (Iritar 
1 — How lioautifnl a imciu' ! 

II iSToltV. A N !• tiuV i;i( N M IINT. 

1 11.1 

ciiiiilitiiin, IIS (lie niiiis <>|' cIn ili/cil iiiilini|.< i|>i l!ii irs. A |ii|ii' ul' tin- lupis ullmis, nr 
III' .xi'i|H'iiliiic — MM iiw I, lislwliiHiU, III' iiiiillf 111' lioiii' — ii Uiiil't' III' iliirl nf (ili>iiliiiii III' 
Hint — 11 tlisciiidiil stoiu', to !«• UKctl in iilliiclii' iinin.Tiiu'nts — ii ini'dul ul" m-u-vIu'II — ii 
jrnrL'ct of mica — an arni-lmiitl of native cnpiici' — n tiiiniiliiH uwoil over tin' ili'iul — ii 
niDiinil of sacriliri' to tlic fini — a ."iiiipli' rin'iiiiixallatiun, or a crinrtiM'il a.x.-'cnililni.M' of 
ilih'lii's. iiKtiiinls, ami lines, ainiiinl a \ ilia^'c — a riiin'-tiiit on a hill — nr, in liiu', a liiraci li 
|)lalti)i'ni of eai'tli to Mistain tlio huci'imI ivsiilcnce ul' tiic liiiiiaii prie.Ht anil op-nia — 
tiicsi' imist l>i> iU'ciikmI cviiicnros wliifli accurately restme. Id the niiinl oi'liie iiii|iiii'er, 
tile ai'lH oi' tlieir autiini'H. 'I'liey an>\ver. I am iin'liiieil |u tliiiil<. tlie uri-maili' iiii|nii'\ — 
wlio eiecteil tiiese I'artli-works '.' If llie Allciilians Imilt altars In the mim. mi wiiich 
lliey olVei'i'il the \)\\)vh which had lieeii ii-eil in Inirniiii the incense nl' the nicoliaiia — 
ir they raised mounds and iiKiiisolea to the (risliiiiriiished dead — if they i'nililied their 
|)iisilioiis to resist sudden attiicKs — ii' lliey worked, hy a rude ]iriice>> ol' miiiiiij. as we 
see on Lake Superior, prominent veins ut' iiali\<' copper, and eMhaiiLnd the products 

I'or the obsidian of Mexico or the lloikv ninnnlaiiis. tin 


-hells of the West Indies. 

the Lditterim; mica of distant re.;ions, us their tumuli 

lieate — th 


nothiiii;' wondorl'iil in it. The only woinli'r is. that, with such vi,L'or ol' chara«'ter. as 
the traditions denote, they had no) done more in arts and relinemenls. It is not to 
the rude hunter and nomailic tiihes. cnnlined in position, and willioiit imluslry. that 
\vi' are to attrihiite tiiese relics. Horde ai'ter horde doiihlless'il in. Trom the 
and south-west, diirinir a Ioul' lapse of centuri(>s. It is the natural ell'nrt of the wild 
and unmitigated trihes of harliarians. to destroy the l)eL;innin'_''s ol" civili/ation nmonj; 
their lellows. if they (>aiinot siiare them. It is not. at least, to such hordes that we 
can ascribe the vestige.s and monuments of the Oiiio and -Mississippi valleys, or ol' the 
borders of the flreat liakes. 'I'liere are e\ ideiu'es of antique lalmrs in the allmial 
plains and valleys of the Scioto. .Miami, and Miislciiij:um, the Wabash. Kaskaskia, 
("aliokia, and Illinois, denoliiiji that the ancient Alleudians. and their allies and con- 
fedenvte.s, culti\nted the foil, and were semi-agriculturists. These evidence.s litivi- been 
traced, at late periods, to the fertile tabl(>-lands of Indiana and Michi;:an. The triiu-s 
lived in (Ixed towns, ciilti\ itiiii;' extensive fields of (he /ea-maize; and also, as denoted 
by recent discoveries (^IMatesil. 7, Vol. I.), of some .species of boan.s, vine.s, and esculents. 
Tiiey were, in truth, the mound-builder.s. ^ ^ 

Dr. I. AWA i: i:^ 


At the beginnhig of the lllth century, tliis tribe occupied the banks of a large river. 
Hewing into the Atlantic, to which they applied the name of Lenapihittuk. This term 
is a compound of Loki/h', the name given to them.selve.s. and i/ln/,: a geographical 
term, which is equivalent to the Knglish word domain or territory, and is inclusive 





■: »' 




? . 

of the sjiocific "ijin. tlicir iiaiiii' I'm- !i river. After tlio siiccos.-^l'iil [)lMiitiii,n' of a colony 
ill \'ir,t;ini(i, tlic coast lii'caiiic more siilijoct to ol)servatii)n, than at prior pcrioils, hy 
vessels lx)uml lo .lainestowii uith sii[)|)lies. (►n one of these voynsres. fionl l)e la 
Warre jiut into the cajies of the river; aud hence the present name of Iwtli tlu- river 
and the tribe. 

The true meaninir of the term /.cini/)! has been the snhjcct of various intorpretation.s. 
Tt appears to carry the same meaning as fiKifxt. a male, in the otiier AlL;c)ni|uin dialects; 
and ihe word was i)rol)ahly used, nationally, and with I'mphasis, in the ol' men. 
For wi' learn, IVmn their traditions, that thi'V had rcjrarded them.selves, in past aj;es, 
as holding an eminent position for antiipiity, valor, and wi.sdotn. And this claim 
appears to he recognised hy the other tribes of this lineage, vho apply to them the 
term of (;iiANi)-i atiikh. To the Iro((Uois they apply the word iNci.i:; and this relation 
is reciprocated by the latter with the term Ni:i'iii:w. Tlie other trilies of Algoiuiuin 
litieage the Delawares call hhotiier, or voiNiiKU liiioruKU. These ncimes establish the 
ancient rank and inliuenco of the tribes. 

Most of the tribes are organized on the principle of cnibloinatio totems. The 
Delawares originally consisted of three of subdivisions. They were, the turtle, 
or iniiiiiii, the ininsi, or wolf, and the lOKihuJili/n, or turkey-. The French, who had 
little intercourse with them till they crossed the AUeghanies, called the whole nation 
Liiiifi,i, or wolves; from confounding them with the Mohicans of the Hudson, who 
ajipear, in the formative tribal ages, to have been descendants of the wolf totem.' 
The Delawares. from all accounts, held a prominent place in Indian history. Their 
wars against the ancient tribes of the Ohio valley — the great influence they ^xisscsscd, 
for .<o long a period, among tlie Algonritiin tribes along the Atlantic coasts, extending 
from the Xanticokes on the Chesapeake to the Hudson, and quite into New England — 
the wisdom of their ancient chiefs and councillors — and the bravery of their warriors 
— these are the themes of their ancient traditions. And these reminiscences of the 
Delaware golden age appeared to rest upon their minds, at late periods, with more force, 
in ])roportion as they became weak and lost jiower. It is, indeed, characteristic of the 
Indian, that his pleasures arise more from reminiscence than from anticipation. lie 
appears to be a man with little hope. Their ancient alliance with tlie Iro(iuois, during 
the war against the Alleghans, continued, we may iiiftr, while they retained their 
ancient character for military prowess and enterprise. After the Five Nations confede- 
rated at Onondaga, a new impulse was given to tribes. No longer engaged in 

' rill- Fiviii li writer?, from tlio c.irlicst period, uniformly class tlieiii as Alj;on(|iiins. Ilail tlioy invpstifjatoil 
tin; I'eliiware claim? to antiquity, tlii? tribo would liavo boeii found to a??uni(i a liiirli po>ition. Tlio attiinpl, 
iTi iTiodorn days (.Vrch. Anicr., Vol. IF.), to restore their name to the Al'.ronr(uin family, is a just appeal to 
tlieir antiipiily; but, in point of history and plintsrolo^'y, we gain little by the cnnipcund term " Jjena|)i- 
.Mi;nni|uin," unless it bo by .sulistitutini: two terms for one. l'liiloloi.'ieally considered, the tribes of the 
l,i'na]ii braiieli ol' the .\l'_'0Mi|uin substitute tlie letter / for ii. In this respect, the I'uxcs deiinte a high anti- 
ijuity among the lake tribes. 



potty i|iiiii'rels anionii' tlionisclvi's. the Iroiinois miiti-d tlioir ciK'rjrios n^'ainst tlic trilius 
east, west, north, niiil sutitli »[' tlieiii. 15y cultivating tiie /oa-niai/.e, they liail an element 
(if .<iilisislen(,'e to Ihll l)aok on, al'tiT the si)i'iiig ami early sunnner si'ason of war was 
over. The accidental circumstance of their living on the genial snmmit-lamls of 
Western New-York, which originate many of the leailing streams of America, gave 
them a great advantage in descending, in their canoes, suddenly on tiie jjlains of their 
enemies. They descended the .St. liawrence. the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susi[ue- 
liannah, and the Alleghany, from their own hunting-grounds. The whole range of 
the great lakes, from Ontario to Michigan, and even Sujicrior, was soon at their 
command. They repaired the losses of battle by adopting tiieir prisoners. In this 
manner, their jiopulation began at once to increase. They not only subdued the 
Moliicans of the Hudson, and placed them in the condition of tributary wards, but 
carried on a most persevering and unsparing war against the whole Algompiin stock, 
whom they called, ironically. Adirondacks, or bark-eaters; but warred, with even more 
fury (for it was a i'amily cpiarrel), against the W\andots, or Hurons, of the lower St. 
Lawrence, whom they defeated finally, in llil'.t, and drove entirely out of that valle\-. 
The Neutral Nation, the Eries, and the Andastes, of the southern borders of Lake 
Erie, having compromised themselves in the war, shared the same fate of expulsion. 
Th ' Sus((uehannocks, who ajipear to ha\ e licen ol" tiie Alk'ghan lineage, alter admoni- 
tions, were suddenly fallen upon and extinguished. The Nanticokes and Conies, and 
the Tutelos, had been brought off from Virginia. 

In the rise of the L'ocpiois power, the Delawai'es lost their independence ; and ajjpear 
lo have been placed under a ban. Wc have no date lor these mutations. They were 
most kindly treated, in ICSL', by William Penn. We hear of no L'0((uois protests 
to their selling their lands, at that era. It is probable none had been made. The 
progress of the settlements, however, shows that, in a few years, such a power to 
control the Delawares was made. A very striking evidence of this occurred in a 
treaty at Lancaster, in 1711. The h'oquois, at this large assemblage of the tril)es, 
denied the right of the Delawares to alienate lauds. t'anassatego, one of their 
chiefs, upbraided them, in public council, for some former act of that kind. 8|)eaking 
in a strain of mixed irony and arrogance, he told them not to reply to his words, 
but to leave the council in silence. He ordered them, in a peremptory manner, to 
quit the section of country where they then resided, and to remove to the baid\s of 
the Sustpiehannah. (Vol. HI., p. ID".) Whatever may have been the state of sub- 
mission in which the Delawares felt themselves to be to the confederate power of the 
Iroquois, it does not appear that the right to control them had been publicly exer- 
cised, prior to this time, it was, however, with this jjrond nation, but a word and 
a blow. They accordingly quitted I'or ever the baidvs of their native Delaware, the 
scene of many memories, and the resting-place of the bones of their ancestors, and 
turned their faces towards the west. 

Vol,, v.— IS 

I >, - 



T II T n A L OK « f A N I / A T ION. 

31 1 1; 


Twelve years ai'tciwiinls. iiaiiiclv. in I7"il. we liiid tlieiu living at Sliuiuokin. and 
at Wyalnsinji', mi tlie Siis(|iielianiiali — i)i)siii(ins in wliieli |Ik'\ were tlireateiie(|. on tlie 
one liaud. liy tlie intrusive tread ol' tlie while eiiiiiiiMiit, and, on tlie other, iiy the 
iiiimieiitary dreati of the Iroquois tomahawk. It was tlie inisi'ortinie of the Delawares, 
that Mil iiii|)re>siiin |ii'evailed in the KnL:lisli eoloiiics, tliiit tiny wt'iv uiiiU'r Freiieli 
iiilhieiice. (\'ide lioskiel.) This ini|iression. whethei' well or ill Unnided, iieivaileil 
society, ill southern New York, to sueh a decree, in 1711. that the Moravian mission 
at SliiUoinieo. in Dutchess ("oiiiify. was hroken up and transferred to r>ethlelieni. on 
the Sus([ueliaiiiiah ; where ("omit Zinzeiidorl", three years liefore, had estahiishcd the 
seat of his operations. (\'ide Appendix \'.) 'i'lie impression lost none of its Wnw from 
an avowal, hy the hand at Wyalnsinji', of the principles of ])eace and iioii-resistaiiee 
tau;.rlit hy the conscientious disciples of hotli I'eim and /in/eiidorl". This doctrine was 
cmhraci'ii. with iireat /.eal. hy one of their speakers called I'apanhank; who. in IToll, 
visited i'hiladelpiiia hy a journey of limi miles, where he aildressed an asscmhlaiie of 
moral jjcrsons, and concluded hy kiieeliiiti down and makiiiij; an impressi\e prayer. 
(Heiie/.et's Ohservations. ]). IS.) 

Men who devoted themselves, willi sinijilicity of intention, to one ohject, did not 
I'l'iilialily make n< much ell'orl to disahiise the puhlic mind on this head as would 
appear to have heen desirahle at tlie period. The country was engawd in an Indian 
war. which raued on the frontier, from <^>ueliec to New Orleans. IJraddock had heen 
defeated the year hefore. most clearly owinii' to the want of a proper force of Indian scouts. 
I"' ranee was makiiiir a most formidalile elVort to save her Indian empire; and Knjrlaml 
and .\nierica. as formidalile a one, to destroy it. It is certain that this impression fol- 
lowed the Delawares in their removal across the Alk'uhanies, and during their settle- 
ment, tniiler the auspices of their teachers, on the waters of the Mnskin;;iim. Nor did 
their position here tend to remove the impression, hut rather to streiiiitlieii it. (Inaden- 
hiitteu hecaiiK' to the Delawares in heart, as it was in name, the Tents of Peace. 
They addressed them.selvi's to agriculture and grazing. They were devoted to their 
teachers. They refused to join all warlike parties who [las.sed through their towns, on 
their forays of murder and plunder against the frontiers. It was not in their jiower to 
refuse these jiarties victuals, hut they su|)plied them with no means of olVence, ami 
expressed their jirinciples of peace, hoth as among thi! Indian trihes and the whites. 
But the impression grew stronger and stronger in the Ohio valley, that thoy were in 
commniiication with the enemy. The Itorder.s of the new States were literally 
drenched in hlood hy marauding parties of Indians, who hutehercd the pioneers in 
their cabins, and led their children away in captivity.' And this impression against 
the Delawares linallv led to the most tranic results. 

' liilwriii llir vcir 17T7 iinil IT"!', iint Irs^ tli;iii luiiiloi'ii ]M|-Mi|is ut' I 111' iiMiiir iil' tile ;mtlinr (VelaliiMisi, wcru 
killiil h\ llir Iiiili:iii.-, in llnir IiuUm.'.-^ nr uu tlii'ir in'oiiiii^os, in (.'l;irk (■uuiitv, \'irj;iiiia, by >kiilkiiig \var|iaitios. 
(Jlo Ihiis's Uorder Warl'aiL'.) 



But it was not iilonc tlio froiitiers-mon wlio were cxcitoil. Tlic Indian trihi's. lo 
wlioni tlicy had ol)sorvod tiio polioy of neutrality, were alike dis[)loascd. Councils of 
peace to tlieni were thrown away. Thoy could neither understand nor tolerate such 
n course. They lived in war and i)lunder; and the result was. after repeated threats, 
that a Wyandot war-party suddenly appeared on the Muskinjiiini, and ordered the 
Delawares to upper Sandusky. It was in vain that excuses were pleaded. The 
party were ine.xorable. They killed many of their cattle and luws, and in 17S1 
removed the population of three towns, numbering between three and four hundred 
jiersons. After living at Sandusky a year, they were permitted to return to the hanks 
of the Muskingum. When the alarmed settlers on the Monongahela heard of this 
return, they regarded the movement in a hostile light. The Jhitish not having yet 
.surrendered their northern posts on the Miami of the Lakes, and at Detroit and 
Michilimackinac, and the ludians througliout that vast region continuing to manifest 
the deepest hostility, as shown by the fierce battles against (Jenerals Ilarmer and 
St. Clair, the return of such a body of men, who had been, it seems, removed by the 
authority of the commanding ofliccr at Detroit, (Beno/et, 20) appeared in a threatening 
light. Such it was not, as is now known, for the Moravian converts among the Dela- 
wares had been instructed in, and sincerely adopted, the principles of peace and non- 
resistance. Ol' all doctrines, these were the least understood iiy the hardy frontier.s-men, 
who. through a long and bloody experience, had been led to deem the Indian, when 
inider tlic excitement of war, as a tiger in his thirst for blood, and alike destitute of 
mercy or sympathy. Tiiis may bo said in apology for the inhuman and unjust itialjlo 
massacre in 178- of the mu'csisting Moravian Delawares, who witnessed, in their sul)- 
missive deaths, no little share of the spirit of St. Stephen. This massacre wrought up 
the ieelings of resentment of the Wyandots and other hostile tribes of the west, wiio 
were imder the inlluence of the basest white counsellors, to the highest pitch of fury. 
And hence, when at a later period of the same year Colonel (Crawford anil his command 
were defeated on the plains of Sandusky by the Wyandots and their allies, they 
assumed the of fiends in human sha[)e. and in the presence of .some of their 
renegade white counsellors, sacrificed that ollicer and his son-in-law at the stake.' 

The Delawares, along with the Wyandots, Sliawanoes. Miamies. and other western 
tribes, who had been in arms on the frontiers, were parties to the general treaty of 
Greenville of 179o, and were admitted to the terms of peace. These relations were 
furtlier strengthened by the treaty of Fort Wayne, in 1803, and of Vinconncs in 1804; 
and from the earliest of these dales the frontiers were relieved of their war-parties, 
and rested in a general peace with all the tribes, till the primary movement made by 
Tecumseb. in 1811-12. The idea of Indian supremacy in America, .so strongly incul- 
cated on the tril)es by Pontiac in 17(1."), when (Ireat Britain was the impinging power, 

r i 



' The i1;iy !s yit to iirrivi' wlu'ii AiiiiTicuis will oroft !i inomimont tn the iiicmnry of this patriotic ofiioer. 


Tl? r n.A I- OUii ANIMATION, 


was re-oiiaotcJ hy tliis li'udtr after llu' litpso of fifty yoars. But fifty years' (lecliiic 
hail Slink tlio scalo of tlu' |io|)iilatioii and almost aiuiiliilati'd Indian natinnalil\. 

Tlio Dilawaivs liavo lioen iviiunl.'d l>y .some as an aneient tiibe in llie Ohio valK\v. 
(('■en. Ifariisoifs Mist. Di.s.) Tlieir traditions denote, indeed tliat tliey iiad. in former 
auis, crossed the Mississipjii from the west ; hut their domieiUatioii there, as a trihe. 
was recent. Tlieir lirst movement from the Dehiware river towards the west appears 
to Iiave Iteen within lii'ty years of Penn's hindinu:. We (hid hy the manuscript journal 
of Conrad Wiser (\'oh IV.. p. (iO")) tliat he reported the numhcr of Dehiwares in tiic 
Oliio valley, in 17 IS. at one hundred and sixty-five warriors, which. a,i:recalily to the 
usual rate of computation, would >A\c S\H) souls. By goin,t;' hack from this dale, 
naiiuly to the French tahles of 17-10 (Vol. III. j). •"i-")!). it is [lerccived that there were 
no Delawares in the west at that time. So that it is in a period of twelve years from 
IT'Ii) to 17 is. that they must have arrived from the east of the Alleirhanies. Yet 
■within sixteen years of this time. Colonel IJouipiet estimates them as capahlo of bring- 
in,^' ")(HI warriors into the (ielil (\'ol. Ill, p. 5")N), a manifest e.\aj:geration. 

Once west of the Alleiihanies the Delawares, at least the hody of the trihe, do not 
aj)pear to have adhered with much tenacity to the ONcellent teachinjrs they iiad 
received on the hanks of the Delaware and the Susi)uehannah. The lahors of the 
l)low, the loom, and the anvil, do not make much impression on a tribe after it has 
fjiiit the precincts of civilization, and come under the excitinj:' inlluence of war and 
hunting. After a lew years they took shelter on the White Water river of Indi- 
ana; and from this position, finding them.selves pres.seil hy the intrusive feet of a 
rapidly gathering civilized popuhation. ceded their lands, and went over the Mississippi. 
The author visited their cottages in the njiper valley of Maramec, in 1818 (Scenes and 
Adventures in the Ozark Mountains) ; they are now situated on very eligiljle and 
fertile tracts on the waters of the Kanzas, in the new Territory of that name. 

Delaware history has little to distinguish it. in the principles of action, from (liat of 
the other tribes. They sometimes agreed, in their negotiations, to perform what they 
could not acconijilish ; and were iiersuaded into measures which they could not well 
comprehend, and had. perhaps, no heart to execute. The west had been regarded in 
their traditions as the paradise of hunters; and when they were disturl)ed by the 
footsteps of Mhite men. they lied in that direction. Eviilences that tlie pressure they 
felt in the east would follow them a long time in the west, are found in the permission 
to .settle in upper Louisiana, by Governor Carondalet, on the Ith of January, 17'.i;5. 
(Indian Treaties, p. oIliK) In a treaty c6nclnded at Fort I'itt in 1778. during the hot- 
test of the Kevolutionary war. they entered into terms of amity with the I'liited 
States, granted power to march armies through their country and procure supplies, in 
return for which it is stipulated to Ijiiild a fort for the protection of their women and 
children a'j.ainst the hostile tribes. This was the origin of Fort M'Intosh. This alii- 



mice wn." seven years liclnre the Iroquois suecuinbed at tlio treaty of Fort Stamvix. 
(Iiul' 'W Triatii's. p. I.) How wi'll tliis treaty was kept liy the nation at hn\m'. appears 
iVoiu tlie >uppleiiientar_\- artieles ol" tlie treaty of Fort M'lntosh of lilst .lannary. l7^"l. 
the year alter the war. in which it is agreed hy them, that Keleliniand anil other cliiefs 
who had taken up the hatchet for the Uniteil Stales, shoidd full\' partici[)ate in all 
the bcnelicent provisions of the treaty. (Indian Treaties, p. 7.) This is further per- 
ceived by the treaty of Fort llarnier, of the 9th of January, 1789. in which they 
renew certain unfnlfdled conditions of the prior treaty, and aurec to deliver u[) all 
American prisoners in their liands. 

It will Ije snilieient to state the commencement of our intercourse with this tribe. 
To continue the record of these negotiation.s, from era to era, would only exhibit dr\- 
details of facts, similar, in their general aspect, to the changes in residence, and nuita- 
tions of time and [dace, which have attended the transference of most of the tribes 
iVom the Atlantic borders to the west of the Mississi[)pi. There is nuich resemblance 
in the princi[)les and general incidents of these removes. There is one generic truth 
which api)lies to all. Thoy were perpetually at open war, or variance, with ciich 
other. They had not elevation of mind enough to appreciate each other's motives, piin- 
ciples, sentiments, or character. The suspicion they had of their chiefs. })riests. anil 
warriors. ke|)t them in contiinial dread. They believed firndy in witchcraft and necm- 
mancy, which could be e.\ercise<l on all. present or absent. Treacherous themselves, 
in point of fealty, the\- expected treachery from the neighboring triljcs. Tiood motives 
were ascribed to l)ad actions, with a plausiljility which would have done credit to a 
Talleyrand or a Metternich. Tarhc was burned at the stake under the accusation of 
witchcraft, but really to take him out of the way of Elksotawa and Tecumsch. 

The tril)es agreed also in this. Each remove was at the loss of something in civili- 
zation, which they had before attained. By throwing them into new regions of 
wilderness, it exposed them to new temptations in the line of hunting, and rivalry for 
distinction in the war-path. Thus, a considerable portion of the Delawares, when 
they had reached Missouri, and the Indian territory west of It, went into Texas, where 
they have the reputation of Hrst-rate guides, hunters, woodsmen, and, if necessity call 
for it. warriors. All the tril)es felt sensibly the cflects of the failure of game on their 
laiuls, as they pursued their line of migration west; and would have suffered miser- 
ably, had it ncjt been for the increased demand for. and value ascribed to, their refuse 
hunting-lands. Acres took the place of beaver-skins. I>ut while this gave them, at 
least ]icriodically, a plethora of means, it exposed them to the inlluencc of indulgence. 
The Indian who hail lost the industr\- of lumting. had no other kind of in(liistr\-. It 
was noble to hunt, but mean to labor. And when he found that, in the shape of 
ainiuities. his lands could be brielly turned into money, he fell into the snare of 
luxury. The hunter and nomadic Indian has but little idea of the value of monc}-, 
or silver coin : he appears to regard it as something to dispossess himself of, and ol'ten 






II r 



deals it out frocly to tlioso wlio Imvo, indcc'd, ininisterod to Iiiin in some of lii.s minor 
ni-edn, wliicli he warmly ajjpreciate.x, Ijut wlio have rendered but inade(inate services 
for the prineely rewards. Hiw aeres have thus, too often, rapidly vanished : aprreeablv 
to the strong figurative expression of Canassatego, at a council, in 17J4, the trilx's 
have literally "eat up their lands." (Vol. 111., p. l'J7.) 

The i)eriod from 1814 to 1824, made it evident that the tribes, and remnants of 
trilies, could not reniain in prosperity, in the growing American settlements of the 
States and Territories, without certain and speedy destruction. President Monroe 
took the initiative, in recommending their removal, with their own con.scnt, to a terri- 
tory to be set apart for them, west of the Mississippi, (Vol. 111., p. A".').) Congress 
formally sanctioned this plan, in iS;)!). The number of Uelawares west, in 1840, was 
830. (Vol. III., p. (lO'.l.) The entire population of the tribe, in 18")0, was returned 
at l-')()0. Their present population, west of that great line of demarcation, is estimated 
at 2"»00 .souls. They possess ;>7o,000 acres of fertile land at the mouth of the Kan,«as 
river, in the territory of Kansa,s, besides about thrice this amount of acres lying at 
liigher points on the same river and its tributaries. A considerable portion of the 
population resident on these tracts, are cultivators of the soil — raise horses, cattle, 
and hogs —, in most respects, in civilized costume — and are under favorable 
intluences. The long-i'oretold time of the counsels and visions of their ancient wise 
men, recorded in their cherished Oi..v, prefiguring a land of prosperity in tlie 
west, may, indeed, be deemed at hand, if they are true to themselves. 


I J" 

H '5 


This term is derived from 0,iiiiw.\, the cognomen of the tribe for themselves. Its 
meaning has not been satislactoril\- given. .Mr. XicoUet, in his etymology (Appendi.'c 
X), is Ijclieved to be mistaken. Although they live in a lanil of lakes, and are cele- 
brated for the use and artistic structure of both the canoe .and paddle — the r/ii- 
iumiii and uhw! — there is no instance of a tribe having named themselves in this 
manner, besides that the proposed compound is at variance with the principles of the 
grammar.' The inimc of the tribe appears to be recent. It is not met with in the 
older writers. The French, who were the earliest to meet them, in their tribal seat 
at the falls, or tSmi/f <fc Sfe. Murk; named them Saultcur, from this circumstance. 
M'Kenzie uses the term JiBWA, as the equivalent of this term, in his voyages. They 
are referred to, with little dinerencc in the orthography, in General Washington's 
report, in 17o4, of his trip to Le Jiiuf, on Lake Erie; but are first recognised, among 
our treaty-tribes, in the general treaty of Greenville, of 1794, in which, with the 

' Tt is iiffiniieil by sonic persiins Cainiliiir with tlio Cliippcwii history, that tlio term is prefigured by a condi- 
tion disclosed by the pictosrnipliic figure No. IS, Pliito T)!, Vol. T. 



Ottnwna, tlicy ceded tlio inlaiid of Micliirmmckinac, and certain doimndencicH, conceded 
by tliPin, at iurnior periodx, to the Frcncli.' 

To tlic laniily of triljcs who speak this languago. tho Ficndi uniformly apply tlio 
term Algon((iiin; and, if M'Kenzie's vocahidary of tiiis hinguu;.'e, as spoken at the 
Lake of Two Mountains, near the conlhience of tlie Utawas witli tho St. fjawrence, 
lie taivon as the standard, admittinj^ tlie principles of the Freneli ortho,[?rai)hy, notiiing 
could more completely represent the language, as spoken at this day on Lake Su[HMior. 
The Ciiippowas arc conceded, hy writers on American philology (Arch. Amer., \'ol. II.), 
to speak one of the purest forms of the Algonquin ; and may he reganled as identical 
in history, manners, and customs. 

History is clear as to the iniit}' of origin of the Algonquins and Chippewas, while 
it fails to inform us when or why the latter term was adopted. The Nipissingo, 
also written Nipissiriniens, are the basis of botli triljes. This was a term applied 
to the ])eo|)le who lived on the banks of Tiako Nejiissing. at the source of Ficiich 
river, of the north shores of Lake Huron. This lake, lying <m snnnnit-lands, oocu[ii('s 
the line of the portage between Lake Iliu'on and the great Outawas river, of the St. 
Lawrence, and was the route of communication, and the transportation of nierchan- 
diy.e, from Montreal to the great lake basins, and to tho uttermost regions of the 
sources of the Mi.>*si,s.xippi, and tho trading-posts of Hudson's Bay. It avoided altoge- 
ther tho hostile Iroquois country, liy tho route of Niagara; and was, at the same time, 
by far the nearest route. 

In tixing on early points of movement of the Indian tribes of the North, it is a 
point of primary importiuice to refer to tho period of ICilO. It was in this that 
the Irof(uois finally succeeded in overthrowing, and driving the Wyandots, whom the 
French call Hurons, out of the lower St. Lawrence. They lied up the Outawas to 
the lake, since called Huron, after them, where they finally settled ; after having been 
pursued by the infuriated IrcKjuois to their refuge on the island of Michilimackinac, 
and even to the upper shores of Lake Superior. Their llight carried with them their 
allies, the Atawawas, or Atowas, and other Algonquin bands, who had been in 
alliance with them. 

A more particular reference to the events of this period, as detailed by mis.-iionary 
Avriters, may be made. 

Le Jeune, and the early writers of Lettres Edifiant, inform us, that at the earliest 
known period, there was a group of tribes living in tho northern latitudes of thedreat 
Lakes, who called God. Mauito ; the rest of their vocabular}- answering to this test, 
and showing them to be of one family or mother stock. The most ancient point to 
which they refer, as the place of their origin, is the summit of Lake Nepissing, north 
of Lake Huron — a sununit which cast oil" its waters, easterh'. thronirh the Utawas 


- i 

' This grant lieoanic tho ha.sis of the cession made by them at Sault Ste. Mario, in tho treaty of June IGth, 
1820. (Ind. Treaties, p. 280.) 





livor iiit(^ till- St. LiiwiVMi'c. anil soiitliwnnllv, tliroujth French river, into Lake 
Huron. Tiiis wan tlu; ancient Indian route of travel, lonj,' bclbre ('anucla wnw scttloil, 
between tlie valU-y of the h)\ver St. liawrenec and tiie f,'reat aiea of the upper hikes. 
It was not oidy llie shortest lino of tra\el, hut avoided the nunienuLS cascades and 
ra[)ids of the St. Lawrence, ahove Montreal, which appeared so formidable to Cartier, 
in l')'M ; as well as the portajxe at Niagara. IJosides these great advantages in point 
of time and distance, it was entirely ivilhia their own territory; and although the ele- 
vation of the sunnnit was reached by numerous rapids, these were easily overcome by 
.short portages, whicii |)ermittcd them to transport their light canoes by liand. This 
was the route which the Indian trade from New France first took, and long main- 
tained ; even IVoni the period of Champlain down to the close of the supremacy of the 
North-west Company, about 182(t. After this time, all the main supplies of goods and 
merchandi/.o were shipjied direct from Kngland into Hudson's J5ay. 

To the people who were early found on this summit, and who had migrated down 
the I'tawas into the St. Lawrence valley, occupying its north bank b<.>tweeu Montreal 
and (^Iebec, the French at first applied the name Algonipiin. This became a generic 
for all the imnJs and tribes of the same language, of the continent, whom they 
suljseipiently discovered ; however widely dispersed from their sunnnit home, and liy 
whatever other tribal or local names they were called by thcnuselvcs, or by other 
tribes. Tiiu French, indeed, kept up and multiplied these local names, by applying to 
each ol'tho new-found bands a imminr <l< (jutrrc ; which was done that they might lull 
the active .«uspicions of the natives, l)y apparently making no reference to them in 

To such of this peojjle as had migrated doAvn the French river to Lake Huron, and 
along its north shores to the Mississaging or Big-mouthed river, they gave the term of 
Mississagies — a people who. at a later day, migrated eastwardl}' to the head of Lake 
Ontario, and the valley of the river Niagara below the Ridge, where, according to 
Indian tradition, they were in bonds of close alliance with the Iroquois, and aided 
them in exterminating the Wyandots from the territory in Canada, whicli is still 
occupied in i)art by the Mississagies. 

To those of the Algonquin or '■' Nipcrcinean'' type who had, prior to the di.scovery, 
proceeded north-west through the Straits of St. Mary into the basin of Lake Superior, 
and to the countries north of it, they ,«imply gave the name of Situ/tmur, or Falls- 
men. three local tribes, that is to say, the Nipercineans, or Algoncjuins proper, 
the Mississagies, and the Saulteaur, or Odjibwas, were originally one and the same 
people. They spoke, and they still speak, the same language. 

It would be to pursue this ethnographical chain, denoting names, bound- 
aries, and events, which mark the nudtiplication of the numerous North American 
family of the Algonquin tribes. But it is unncces.sary to the purposes in hand. It 
will be suflicicnt to say that the new names given by their enemie.^, often in derision. 





or nssiinipd by tliciusclvos, coiitMiii no (•\ idciiLL' wliiitovcr of tlicir iintioiml fioiioalojry. 
To a particular Imiiich of those wlio (listiiijriiislu'il llii'insolvcs ihiriiif; tlioir lesidciR-i.' 
in tlio St, Lawrcnco valloy, and aftorwaid.s in Laixo Huron, tlioy applied tlii' name of 
Traders, or Odawas, denoting a falling oil' in the habits of the pure ImnterH and 
warriors, or a proltahlo industrial trait, whieli is yet strikinuly observable in the 
descendants of that band. To another, and one of the latest multiplications of the 
tribe, they gave the name of Jhl/mni/fniiiirs, or Fire-niakcrs, that is to say, a people 
who arc building their own council-firo, or setting up a sejiarate goverutncnt. To 
another, they gave the name of Iveiilufciins, or Killers, on account of the sanguinary 
character of the war which they maintained north-west of Lake Superior. This 
people the French call ("rees. Another l)ranch, who subsisted on wild rice in tla; 
int(,'rior or lliec liakc region, between Lakes Superior and Winnebago, they called 
Mttu<iiiH»ia(i, or Wild Rico Men. The bands north of Lake Ncpissing, extending to 
Hudson's Bay and Lake Abittabi, they called People of the Swamps, and Lowflrounds, 
or Muskigoe.s. Others of the same latitude, but more westerly in longitude, they 
called Nopemings, or Inlanders, named by the French (•< ns i/'s trrrr.'i. The Saganaws 
are so called from Sank-i-nong. Sauktown, from the Sank tribe who lived in Michigan 
in the 17tli century. 

To a band of energetic warriors who went to Leech Lake, on the sources of the 
Mississijipi, but who, at a subse(pient period. ])lundered the boats of a leading trader 
while lying at the mouth of the Crow-Wing rivor, they gave the name of Mukkund- 
was, or Pillagers, literally Takers. This summary penalty was inflicted for his 
temerity in disobeying the commanders of these fierce barbarian.s, interdicting him 
from selling arms and ammunition to their enemies, the Sioux. All the local tribes 
above named, althougli dispersed at various and distant points, call thcm.selvcs 

The Miamics, Woas, and Piankcshaws, the Sacs and Foxes, Kaskaskias, Peorias 
and Kickapoos, the Shawnees, Munseos, Stockbridges and Mohicans, together 
with several tribes not here recited, constitute another clas.«, or more properly, 
sub-genus of the Nipcrcinean or Algonquin type, in whose history, liowever, the 
date of their separation front their present stock, whether that was the immediate 
Algonquin or remoter Lenapian branch, is shown by dialectic evidences to have lieen 
more remote ; while at the same time the strong afTniilies of language, and its absolute 
agreement in grammatical forms, are not less hxed or certain proofs of a common 
origin. Call them Algonquins, or Lcnapi-Algonquins, with a recent writer," wo are 
equally on safe grounds. 

It is seen from the text of Eliot's translation of the Bible into the Natic or Massa- 
chusetts language in the year 1004, that the language he employs, as Avell as that of 

' Aiiicr. Arclia., Vol. II. 

! i 


' 'i 

Vol. V. — 19 

■ I 





10 Nnrrnfrannpt. nH given in Ri)i,'or Wiiiiiinin' koy. tiro iikcwino of flio AI},'nn(|niM typo; 
wliilo tlic plnnsi's cinljoilitul in tlio curly. Iiiwtory ol' Vir^rinin, and tlio Htill cxiHtin^ 
names of jn-oinincnt sticnniH of that coiiMt, denote the imeient extenHiou of tliis generic 
form of speeeli very extensively along the Atlantic InirderH. 

By denoting thin enlarged oxtenMion of the parent Algoncpiin language in former 
eras, its importanec in the Vesperic circle of triltcs is indicated. In the eourne of cen- 
turies they must have revolved curiously, making almost tlie entire circuit of the United 
States, Nor can wo conceive that, in so long an epoch as they have taken to march 
roinid the I'nion, fewer discrepancies and changes of language should have occurred. 
Tiicre is no reason whatever to holievo that the Algoiupiin group of trihes, a.s assimi- 
lated In' language, came from more northerly jioints (o the Nepissiiig summit. Tho 
parent language, varying as it progressed, appears to have been propagated from tho 
south and soutii-west to the Virginia, tiie ChesaiK-ake, and the Pennsylvania coast ; 
and it was thence dellected oil", nndtiplying in dialects exceedingly, t»)wards the east 
and NOHTii-K.\ST, along the north Atluntic, and linally it extended noutii-wkst up tho 
St. Tiiiwrence valley into the region of the lakes. All the American tribes appear to 
have migrated tribally — in small ijodies — abiding for periods at n place until the pres- 
.Kures of population, wiint. or feud.'*, pu.shed them finther — a result which may bo 
!<upI)o.sed to have giv<'n great scope for the muUii»lication of new trilx?s, and the forma- 
tion of new diiikrts, by wiiieh tiie parent language of each tribe was more and more 
shorn anil deinivcd of its verbal integrity, while its grammar or plan of ntteranco 
itself essentially remained. This result is indicated by language. 

Tliese preliminary remarks denote the position, geographically and cthnologically, 
in wliicli the modern C'liippewas, or Algoncjuin Chippcwas of Lake Superior, stand, iu 
relation to the other members of the general group, and their absolute identity of 
origin with the Nipercineiuis, or the old Algoncpiins of lOOS, this being tho assumed 
period of tho di.scovory of Canada. The C'liippewas of the lakes occupy now tho same 
general district of country which was ascribed to the old Algonqnins of tho St. Law- 
rence, and to the Atawas, and Nipercineans, ornatives of Lake Nepissing. They.<(peak 
the .xanie language, if we examine the earliest recorded vocabularies of tho missionary 
fathers, remembering only that the latter used the French system of notation. They 
relate the same ancient traditions, have the same manners and customs, tho same 
mythology and religious rites and opinions; and, for all the purposes of general history 
and philology, may be regarded as identical. 

It was with this stock of people that the French formed an early and unbroken 
alliance. They ascribed to them, in ancient periods, a degree of progress superior to 
that of any other tribe inhabiting the northern latitudes.' They learned their 
language, which they found easy and copious, and by which their traders and mission- 

■ »■ 

Vide Colden. 







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nries could pcnotrato to tlic lUitlicst points in tlu) early admired countries of the 
Illinois, the Lakes, and to the farthest Mississippi. They called it i>ur rxrcf/cntr, the 
court language of the ahorigincs ; and they spread abroad the praises of the people 
throngliont Europe. Nor were these vain praises. The fur trade, which immediately on 
the settlement of Canada started into activity, was by far the most lucrative branch of 
their counnerce ; and they relied on the far-reaching and numerous group of the Algon- 
quins not only as active hunters, but as their best and only eflicient local allies in their 
wars against the English colonists and the Iroquois, the latter of whom carried desola- 
tion in 1G87 to their very liresidcs at Montreal. The grasp with which the French 
took hold of the Algonquins was therefore a firm grasp, cemented by interest as well 
as friendship; and it was soon perpetuated by the more enduring tics of intermarriage 
with the native females. (Plato 17.) 

That the Chijjpcwr^, along with all their afliliatcd tribes in the west, should 
preserve at this day the liveliest recollections of the era of French rule, and the 
strongest attachments for the French as a race beloved above every other European 
stock, is very natural. I have found this feeling universal, and without an exception. 
Not quite ninety years have elapsed since the con([uest of Canada and the fall of 
Montcalm, but the tradition is as fresh as if it were but an event of yesterday. Their 
reminiscences run freely back indeed to the era of the first arrival of the French in 
the St. Lawrence — an event which they have perpetuated by the conuuon term for 
that people, namely, Wa-mit-i<j-<ch, or People of the Wooden Vessel. 

Chippewa tradition relates that they came from the east — a term whicli is to be 
understood as relating to the track of their migration on this continent. Thej' call the 
north-west wind Kc-wa-din-oong, or the home-blowing wind. They refer to having 
descended a large stream and visited the ocean, where they first descried the signs of 
white men. Tiiey speak of old wars with the Mungwas, and other tribes. They 
refer to Chcgoimegon on Lake Superior, and Poiwatceg on the straits of St. Mary's, as 
ancient sites, and seats of central power. They represent themselves as having been 
under the government of a Mudjekkewis — a magistrate ruling by descent of blood. 
Some traditions state that they kept an eternal fire burning at Chcgoimegon. 
Formerly, they say, their language was spoken with greater purity, and their lives 
and manners were less barl)arous. Eelations and reminiscences of this kind are not, 
perhaps, peculiar to this trilie. The Lenapis also spoke of a golden age in their history. 
The L'oijuois trace themselves to Atahentsic, the ijueen of heaven. The Dolawares 
dwell much on their ancient glories. The Chippewas trace the mother of Manabozho, 
their great mytiiological creation, to the Moon. This is very difl'erent from the 
, predatory Osages, who ascribe their origin to a humble shell. There are few tribes 
who do not attempt to solace themselves by reminiscences, which arc some compen- 
sation to the mind for tlieir loss of consequence in the circle of tril)es, or the actual 
miseries by which they are surrounded. 

l.i 'A 



Abandoning the pcrioils of Indiiui cosmogony and I'ablo, most of the tribes liave 
little worth respect. The Chipjiewa traditions, such as may be relied on, reach back 
about -oO years. Tliey aver that their first knowledge oi" white men was of the 
French in Lower Canada, whose rule they regard with admiration. In 1821, they 
asserted that but seven generations had passed since the event. Their reminiscences 
are fresh of tiie fall of Canada; of the great chief Montcalm; the stand made by 
Pontiae to repel the British at Detroit; and the massacre of old Fort Michilimackinac 
on tlie Peninsula. Of men who have reputably led them in battle, they mention 
Noka. ])ianswa, and Waub-Ojoeg, or the White Fisher, imder the latter of whom they 
coiKpiered the region of the St. Croix valley, and defeated the Sauks, Foxes, and Sioux. 
Ondaigweos of Chigsimegon, and .Shingabwassin of St. Mary's, were men of wisdom 
and benevolence, whose menuiry is res[)eeted. 

It is the remote past, however, which is the favourite theme of Chippewa glory and 

The Chippewas relate the following oral tradition of the creation of this continent, 
and of the Indian tribes. They call the continent a little island, nameh*, Mixxis^v.' 

When the Good Spirit created this island, it was a perfect plane, void of any trees 
or shrubs — he fust created the Indian man, and then the Indian woman. They mul- 
tiplied — and when they nuinl)ered about ten persons living, death was known to come 
in the midst of them. The fu'st man that was created lamented his fate — he went to 
and fro over the earth, and, addressing himself to the antlior of his being, said, " Why 
did the Good S[iirit create me, that I should so soon know death, weakness .and 
frailty ? " The Good Spirit from on high heard the man lamenting his condition. 
Touched l)y the appeal, he commanded his angels, or those beings whom he had 
created in heaven, to assemljle to a great council. The (iood Spirit, addressing him- 
self to his conclave of counsellors, said, "What shall we do to Ijetter the condition of 
man? fori have created him frail and weak." The host of assembled ang'ds answered 
and said, •• Oh, Good Spirit, thou hast Ibrnuil and created us, and thou art sclf-oxistent, 
knowing all things, and thou alone knowest what is best for thy creatures." 

The consultation lasted six days; and, during this time, not a breath of wind blew 
to disturb the surface of the waters — this calm is now called Uniratlij by the Indians. 
On the seveirth day, not a cloud was to bo seen, the sky was blue and serene — this is 
now called Xaijcczhi;/ by them. 

The Good Spirit having consulted his angels during six days, on the seventh day 
sent down a messenger to the Indian, placing in his right bosom a piece of white hare- 
skin, and in his left. i)art of the head of the white-headed eagle — the hare-skin, and 
the part of the head of the bald-headed eagle, were painted blue, representing a blue 
sky — the syndjol of peace, observed on the si.K days' consultation in heaven. The 

' The cedilla to the tcimimil a, iu this wonl, is intended to carry the inflection aiice. 





mossciiMi" AV .. directed to tell ■ man who lanioiitcd, tliat his words were hofird, and 
that they had coiuc bofuro tiie v.ood Spirit — that he was the messenger of ghid tidinirs 
to him. And tliat ho must conform him.self strictly- to the Good Spirit's command- 
ments — that ho had brought a piece of wliite hare-skin, and part of a white 
eagle's head, which they must in their Medawi (or Grand Medicine Feast) — and 
whatsoever they should ask on those occasions, M-ould be granted to them, and a pro- 
longation of life would be given to the sick. Tiie messenger also presented the Indian 
a white otter-skin, painted on the l)ack of the head with a blue stripe — the paint used 
being, in fact, a piece of the blue sky which appeared so beaut. fnl in their eyes. [The 
blue earth now-a-da^s used as a paint on pijies, pouches, and other cherished articles, 
is typical of peace and kindness.] The messenger held in his hands a ijunch of white 
llower.s and plants, and .said — '"This will be a medicine for the healing of your sick- 
nesses ; I have been directed to scatter it over all the earth, so that it may be readily 
found when the Indian needs it" — scattering it over the earth as he spoke. 

At this time, a very large tree was sent down from heaven, and planted in the midst 
of the island ; its roots, which were very large, extended to the extremity of the earth, 
cast and west, so that the winds could not root it up ; on the cast side of it a blue mark 
was set, representing the blue stripe of the sky. The messenger instructed the Indian 
how to make use of its bark, as a mixture to other medicinal herbs and roots ; cau- 
tioning them always to take it from the east side. 

In the traditionary reminiscences of the Ciiippewas, they embrace quite a body of 
mythology. It is not only the Great Good and Great Bad Spirit that plays the chief 
part in tlicir cosmogony, with the whole endless catalogue of minor dcitie.s and spirits, 
good and evil; but they profess to have been visited l)y beings, of a power superior to 
mere men, from the land of spirits and dreams, and from the sacred precincts of the 
dead. One of these is called Chebiabose, or the keeper of the country of souls. They 
tell of Pauguk, who is a human skeleton, armed with a bow and arrows, tyi)ifying 
drath. Many of their winter's tales — for winter is the season of stories — are of 
fairies, having supernatural powers ; many of tiiem ai'c of giants, who are generally 
rei)resented as cannibals ; and still a greater number of these oral narrations are con- 
nected with sorcerers, wizards, and the wide agency of evil spirits of the land and 
water. The author has collected, both from this and other tribes, and published, in 
18;')'.\ two volumes of these oral, traditionary, and imaginative legends; gathered Irom 
the Indian wigwams, with a view of illustrating Indian opinions and beliefs on tiic 
great mysteries of life, death, good and evil spirits, and divmonology, witchcraft, 
magic, and immortality — for there is .scarcely one of these relations which does not 
exhibit the belief of the tribes on these sulijects. (Algic Researches, '2 vols. 8vo., 
N. Y., 18:i9.) 

Very prominent among the mythological legends and lodgo-storics of the Ciiippewas, 
are the acts of Mauabosho. He appears in a thousand forms, assuming as irnvit a 


l: 3 



contrariety of character as Mercury liiiusell'. For, while the theory alwajs retards 
him as a god, he is often put to the lowest shifts of a man. Though he can transform 
birds and quadrupeds into men, he is often necessitated for a meal ; and resorts to 
tr'cks of the lowest kind. But he has always his magic drum and rattles with 
him, to raise up supernatural powers to help him out of his straits. He has the 
[jower to send the birds and beasts on all sorts of errands, yet will .sometimes, as when 
they danced betbre him (Alg. Kes.), snatch a fat duck or two to make a meal. ]Ie 
survived a general deluge of the earth, and afterwards re-created it, by telling the 
beaver and muskrat to dive down after a little mud. If the Indians are often pinched 
by want, during the season of tales, they are c.vcessively amused by these grotesque 

Besides his wisdom, they a.scribed to him groat necromantic power; and the tradi- 
tion aiTirms, that he drew out for them, on strips of betula bark, for tlic use of all 
good hunters, and zealous followers of the original arts and maimers of their 
forefathers, the subjoined pictographs, (Vide Plates IS. K). 20, 21, and 22.) They 
have been collected from Ciiippewa hunters on the banks of Lake Superior. What 
adds prodigiously, beyond all doubt, to the interest and value of this occult species of 
knowledge, is the assurance, given by one of my Indian informants on the path of 
the hunter, who says of these devices, " that he had tried them, and found them to 

Viewed as a distinct and leading branch of the Algonquins, the Chippewas are, 
pre-eminently, expert and brave warriors, and woodsmen, and foresters — dL-lighting in 
seclusion, forests, and mysticisms, but placing their main stake in life on the chase. 
As such they may be described during the period we have known them, and as con- 
temners of arts, fi.\ed industry, and letters. They have regarded the use of the bow and 
arrow, the war-club and spear, as the noblest employments of man. War is pursued Ijy 
the northern Algoncjuins as the only avenue open to them which is capable of satis- 
fying the thirst for glory. Their appetite for praise is strong, and is gratified, ordina- 
rily, in surmounting tiie dangers of the f(jrest, or the vicissitudes of climate. Wild 
adventures of the chase occupy a large space in their lodge remini.seences, mingled, 
as the recitals usually arc, with tales of the supernatural, and the developments of 
mysterious agencies. But it is success in war, alone, that fdls the highest aspirations 
of the Chippewa mind. To hunt well and to fight well, arc the first and the last 
themes of their hopes and praises of the living and tiie dead. 

Assuming these pursuits as the best guarantees of their hiq)piness and indejwn- 
dence, they have ever looked upon agricultural and mechanical labors as degrading. 
In all their history, they have ever, till within a few years, steadily and uniformly 
opposed the introduction of schools, as well as plans of husbandry. The little corn 
that their women plant, the wild rice that they gather, and the esculent roots 
which they dig, sufficed, in all time past, to fill their views. On the same principle 

ii3's i'C!;arcl3 
II traiLsfoim 
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lo has the 
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use of all 

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they have also opposed Christianity. Thoy luivc regarded it, wlieii their views could 
bo obtained, as a system designed to al)ridge their natural freedom, and to bring 
them into a state of society which was not originally meant lor them, but which is, 
on the contrary, as their jossakeeds tell them, suited to destroy them. They have 
ever been nervous and restless when talking on these subjects, under a])prchensions of 
the disturbing and blighting forces of civilization upon their simple and precarious 
forest system Hence their chiefs and wise men have planted themselves on the basis 
of their ancient manners and arts, and given an emphatic negative to the propositions 
of all teachers, missionaries, and humanitarians. This was the doctrine of Pontiac in 
17G3, and of Tecumseh, and his wily priest-brother, the pi'ophet Elksatowa, in 1812. 
They resisted the white man as the advent of a destroyer. AVe should not deceive 
ourselves as to the native Indian opinions of themselves and of the European race. 

Such has been the thread of argument, or rather the tissue of Indiaji opinion, down to 
the present day, in the discourse of their best and most eloquent si)eakers. They iiave, 
with intuitive correctness, conceived the idea that two states of society so antago- 
nistical as the hunter and the civilized state could not long exist prosperously in juxta- 
position. They have continually felt, if not realized, that the stronger or superior 
state would absorb and destroy the weaker or inferior (me. '•' I wandered about," said 
a Chippewa chief to me in 1822, " after yifi ' first arrived at these falls, like a bird, not 
knowing where to alight." '' Let us drive these dogs in red clothing into the sea," said 
Pontiac in 1703, in reference to the colonies. "Throw away your fire-steels," 
said the Prophet of the Waliash in 1811, '-and use the old method of making fire; put 
on skins for clothing, as our fathers did, if you would escape the anger of the Great 
Spirit." It is from such expressions, and a close observation for years on the various 
tribes of this people, that the foregoing conclusions are drawn. And I iiave found the 
sentiments more fresh and vigorous in the northern tribes in proportion as they had 
felt less of the inlluences of the frontier life, and occupied profounder and remoter 
positions iu the great and unchanged wilderness. 

The writer first visited the Cliippewa territories north of latitude 4G° in the north- 
west in 1820. At that time the attention of the War Department was strongly 
turned to the native population, character, and resources of that hitherto neglected 
portion of the Union. The public expedition for exploring it, of wiiich he was a 
member, was organized at Detroit in the spring of that year, and extended its explora- 
tory journey around the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, to the sources of the Mis- 
sissippi. Tlie expedition returned l)y the way of the Falls of St. Anthony and Pi'airie du 
Cliion to Green Bay, and around the shores of Lake Michigan to Chicago, St. Joseph's, 
Grand Kiver, and Michilimackinac, where tlie outward track was intersected. The 
next year (1821) he was secretary to the commissioners who were appointed to treat 

' Meaning the American Garrison and Agency. 

S if 


1 ;; 




at Clilcago for the Intlian lands in northern Illhiois. In the outward track thither, ho 
\ i.sited tlie valluy.s of the Miiuni and Wiibash, sonic sections of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rivers, and the entire valley of the IllinoiH. A large number of the bands of the 
Algonquin famil}' were met at several places on the route, and in very large numbers 
at Cliicago, the terminal point of the journey. These opportunities of witnessing the 
leading traits in the race, prepared him to assume the oflicial position presented to him 
in 1822, when the Government determined to establish a military post and agency in 
the basin of Lake Superior. At this place, and subserpiontly at Micliilimaekinac and 
at Detroit, he resided several years, dcAoting attention to an investigation of the history, 
language, and traits of this leading branch of the AlgoiKjuin family. These remarks 
appear to be proper, as indicating a basis for the foregoing observations. 

The Chippcwas are an active, generally tali, well developed, good looking race of 
men. Tiie chiefs of the bands of St. Mar\'s, Lake Superior, and the upper Missis- 
.sippi, arc a manly, intelligent body of men, with a bold and independent air and 
gait, and possessing good powers of oratory. Of stately and easy manners, they enter 
and leave a rooni witliout the least awkwardness or embarrassment. And if one did 
not cast his eyes on their very pictures(pie costume, and frontlets, medals, and feathers, 
he might suppose himself to have been in the company of gr.avc elders and gentlemen. 
Their marked repose of chai'acter and ease of manners cannot fail to strike one ; but 
what is still more remarkable, is to hear one of tlieso noble men of nature, when he to speak, fall into a train of elevated remarks, which would often do honor 
to a philosoplier. At the same time that he is thus maintaining a pride of charac- 
ter in tlie cuuncil-cliamljcr, his family, who, perhaps, occupy a wigwam on the shore, 
arc without a loaf of bread or a piece of meat to appease their hunger. 


Tiie name of this tribe holds a prominent place in the aboriginal history •.. A\e 
country. Irocpiois tradition regards them as one of the youngest members of their 
confederacy ; but as far as the deeds of this noted confederacy were known, the Oneidas 
ever held a prominent rank. It is averred that an Oneida sage first suggested in 
council the plan of this confederacy; and the tribe has been noted, down to modern 
days, for a succession of wise counsellors and benevolent men. The name of Oneida 
is indicative of the origin of t'le tribe. They had lived at a prior period on the banks 
of Oneida Lake, at the confluence of Oneida Creek. They migrated from their first 
position up the beautiful and fertile valley of the Oneida to Kunaliia, the present site 
of tlic town of Oneida Castle, and subsequently to the most elevated lands at the 
source of the stream. The sachems pitched their wigwams near a large crystal spring 
on these heights, in a small rural valley, shaded profusely with the butternut tree. 





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The site was defended from the eastern v/inds by the contiguous summit of an elevated 
hill. Its western borders afforded a range for the deer and elk to the banks of the 
Susquehanna. Near this spring, resting on the grassy plain, stood an upright boulder 
of white rock — a species of Silurian limestone — which is figured in the following cut. 
This has sometimes been called by Europeans the Oneida Stone ; but not truly. 

Some iivo or six hundred yards cast of this secluded and romantic location, the 
sheltering hill reached its apex. On this elevated position they found an orbicular 
biiulder of rock, partly embedded in the soil, at which they built their council-fire 
while assembled around it to deliberate on their national aflixirs. This spot became 
the site of their beacon-fire when it was necessary to summon the tribe to war. For 
it was the apex of the summit lands, and a beacon-light erected here could be seen 
for a distance of forty miles. Oneida Lake can be clearly seen from it, and the curl- 
ing smoke of this light, kindled by their friends at that place, was the rallying sign. 
Plate 23 presents a view of the landscape, as it appears at this day, taken from 
this summit. 

The name of the trilie is derived from this council-fire and beacon-stone. The term 
O'lico, in the Oneida language, signifies simply a round stone, and is probably derived 
originally from the Iroquois on, a hill; its local and participial forms in ia, and (iinj, 
being dropped in usage. Nationality, with our Indian tribes, is dated from the 
period of their assuming to build a separate council-fire. Viewed under these striking 
circumstances in their history — always present in the minds of the Oneidas — the term 
carries the signification of the Tribe of the Light of the Council-Fire, and Council- 

Actuated by the respect which is felt for the tribe, the people of Oneida County 
(N. Y.) have, within recent years, transferred this monument of Oneida history from 
the ancient resting-place on its sunnnit, between the waters of the Mohawk and the 
Susquehannah, to an artificial mound prepared for its receiition ia the cemetery at 

Vol. v. — 20 








ITtica. The accompanying view of it (Plate 24,) is taken in this position. The 
Oiieidas have ever maintained a high rank for the urbanity of their manners, and the 
wisdom of their counsels. Brave in war, mild in peace, and hospitable under all 
circumstances, no visitor or wayfarer, white or red, ever entered their cabins without 
having his wants supplied, and being kindly put on his tr.ick. Humanity, thus 
appealed to, quenched the spirit of vengeance ; and it was only necessary for the weak 
to fall into their jiower, to be assured of kindness and safety. During the course of 
our history, they have uttered expressions which would not disgrace the lips of a 
Grecian sage; and, as the claims of civilization were understood, they have given 
utterance to lofty sentiments, which embody the very essence of Christianity. No 
maxim of Seneca equals, in its sublime simplicity or truthfulness, the expressions of 
the venerable Skenandoa, uttered in view of his death, when the years of more than 
a century had passed over his head, and he waited in total blindness, and calm sub- 
mission, for the hour of his recall from earthly scenes. (\'ide Biography.) 

The French called this tribe Oalouts ; and the Canadian authorities made early and 
strenuous eflbrts to bring them under their iniluence, during the entire period of the 
Dutch rule and the early English epoch, n\) to the building of separate military works 
at the confluence of Oswego rivci", on Lake Ontario, and at Fort Stanwix, at the source 
of the Mohawk. These early transactions are succinctly and consecutively described by 
Coldcu, in his History of the Five Nations. Antiquarian eviuL-nces of these eflbrts 
to exert jm-isdiction over the country, yet remain, or remained but a few years since. 
In 1812, the author visited and examined remains of ancient Avorks, called the "Fi-ench 
Fields," situated in the town of Lenox, but a few miles west of Oneida Castle. For 
a plan of these remains, see Oneota, p. 17-3. 

The relations of the Oneidas with the European races, were friendly, peaceable, and 
consistent from the beginning. With the United Provinces of Holland, from the era 
of Hudson, in 1009, they were ever on terms of the closest amity. When Great 
Britain assumed the sovereignty, in 1004, the same close relations were continued. 
Ti-ade was uninterrupted — peace was faithfully preserved on both sides. Not a drop of or Oneida blood was knowingly and intentionally shed, to disturb the long 
period of harmony ; and when, after a rule of more than a century, the United States 
a.ssumed the sovereignty, the Oneidas, still true to a line of policy due to their ancient 
chiefs, sided with the rising colonists, and remained their allies throughout the contest. 
It is an honor to them to say, that, as a tribe, they shared the resjx'ct and esteem of 
Washington, and that their noble sachems stood by him in the dark and perilous 
days of the Revolution. 









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Ti-oquois history, like that of so mnny ancient nations of other lands, and of far 
higher pretensions to wisdom and glory, begins in an obscure and fabulous period of 
idol-deities, giants, monsters, and nondescripts. Their cosmogonies arc not a whit 
behind those of early Greece for their extravagance and incongruity, though they are, 
perhaps, less so for the imagination in which the tlieorics are clothed. Beginning, like 
the tribes of the Mediterranean, in the acknowledgment of a First Great Cause, and 
recognising, in their history, the general events of a deluge, the Iroquois take into the 
councils of their Owaynco, a great antagonistical power called Kluneijlux, and a multi- 
tude of lesser agencies of demoniacal and magic power ; and they soon end by getting 
the creation under the intluence of conflicting spirits, which the Evil One alone could fui*- 
nish with principles. Neither arc they behindhand in their fabulous accounts of the 
origin of things, except in the clumsiness ff their narrations. The Arabs themselves do 
not exceed them in their wild beliefs in the power of necromancy and transformations. 
Their actors slip themselves into the shape of beasts and birds, reptiles and insects, 
dancing feathers or sunbeams, and even trees and stones, and inanimate forms, in a 
twinkling; and as for .sorcery and medical magic, Nineveh and Babylon could not 
exceed the assumed powers of their priests, prophets, wabenos, and medas. Ata- 
hentsic, the Iroquois afTirm, is a goddess in heaven. To see her, six of the original 
men ascended to those regions. The ruler of the skies, having discovered the ainour. 
cast her headlong to the earth. Water alone then filled the abyss. She was received 
on the back of a turtle, which rapidly extended itself, and grew to the dimensions of 
the earth. Here she was delivered of male twins. One was called Youskika, the 
other Thonitsanon, who typified the conflicting powers of Good and Evil. Youskika, 
the elder of these, finally killed the younger. Soon after, Atahentsic resigned the 
government of the earth into the hands of the murderer. Atahentsic is regarded in .1 
symbolical sense, the same as the moon ; and Youskika is identical with the sun. 

The origin of the Iroquois they ascribe to the general vicinity of Oswego, and from 
thence they dispersed over New York. An old tradition related by Cannissatigo, a 
venerable chief, speaking of the lapse of other days, is in the following words : 

" When our good Owayneo raised Akanishiogeny out of the waters, ho said to his 
brethren, ' How fine a country is this ! I will make Red men, the best of men, to 
enjoy it.' Then with handsful of red seeds, like the eggs of flies, did he strew the 
fertile fields of Onondaga. Little worms came out of the seeds, and penetrated the 
earth, when the spirits who had never yet seen the light, entered into and united with 



' The term aijn, in the Iroquois, .signifies place or localitj-, and ia the criuivalent expression for the English 
terminations in hij, hiiri/,JirM, hdiii. Sec. On, in compound words, denotes a Iiill ; its duplication duplicates 
and gives intensity to terms. In tliis manner, the expression Onondaga (/. c, place of hills"), has its origin. 






thorn. Miinoto watoivd the cavlli witli lii.s rain, tlio sun wannod it, tlic worniH with 
the spirits in them grow, putting forth Httlo anus ami K-gs, and niDvod lUv liglit eartli 
that covered them. After nine moons, they came fortli perfect boys anil girls. 
Owaynco covered them with his mantle of warm, purple cloud, and nourishiil them 
with milk from his fingers' ends. Nine summers did he nurse them, and nine summers 
more did he instruct them how to live. In the meantime, he had made for their use, 
trees, plants, and animals of various kinds. Akanishiogeny was covered with woods, 
and fdled with creatures. Then he assemhlcd his children together, and said, ' Yo 
are five nations, for jo sprang each from a dilVerent handful of the seed I sowed, but 
ye are all brethren : and I am your father, for I made yo all : I have nursed and 
brought you up. 

" ' Mohawks, I have made you bold and valiant; and .see, I give you corn for your 

" 'Oneidas, I have nunlo you patient of pain and hunger; the nuts and fruits of the 
trees are yoiirs. 

" ' Senecas, I have made you industrious and active; beans do I give you for your 

'• 'Cayugas, I have made you strong, friendly, and generous; groundnuts, and every 
root, shall refresh you. 

" ' Onondiigas, I have made j'ou wise, just, and eloquent; s(|uashes and grai)OS have 
I given you to eat, and tobacco to .smoke in comieil. The beasts, birds, and fishes, 
I have given to you all in common. 

" ' As I have loved and taken care of you, so do you love and take care of one 
another. Communicate freely to each other the good things I have given you, and 
learn to imitate each other's virtues. I have made you the best peoi)le in the world, 
and I give you the best country. You will defend it from the inv.nsions of other 
nations — from the children of other gods — and keep possession of it for yom'selves, 
while the sun and moon give light, and the waters run in the rivers. This you shall 
do, if you observe my words. Spirits ! I am now about to leave you. The bodies I 
have given 30U will in time grow old, and wear out, so that you will be wear}' of 
them ; or from various accidents, they may become unfit for your habitation, and you 
will leave them. I cannot remain here always, to give you new ones. I have great 
affairs to mind in distant places, and I cannot again so long attend to the nursing of 
children. I have enabled you, therefore, among yourselves to produce new bodies, to 
supply the place of old ones, that every one of you, when he parts with his old habi- 
tation, may in duo time find a now one, and never wander longer than he chooses 
under the earth, deprived of the light of the sun. Nourish and instruct your chil- 
dren, as I have nourished and instructed you. IJo just to all men. and kind to stran- 
gers that come among you. So shall ye be happy, and be loved by all, and 1 mvself 
will sometimes visit and as.sist you.' 



"Saying this, ho wrapped himself in a brigiit cloiul, and wont li!<n a swift arrow to 
the Hini, where his brethren rojoiced at hi,H return. From tiienco ho often loolanl at 
Alvanishiojj;eny, and pointing, showed with pleiiMiu'e to iiin bretliron the eoiiiiliy ho 
had formed, and tlio nations ho Imd produced to iiduiliit it." [T. Maxwclh] 

The next wo hoar of tlicso kindly instructed and i)rophetically cared Jbr Akani- 
shiogony, is their cndurauco of a long period of conllicts with giiints, serpents, 
and monsters of the lakes and the dry hind ; and of terrible visitations from meteors 
and lire-balls. They had also, in these primal ages of their history, most redoubtable 
and cruel enemies, against whom thoy fought with mortal arms. And tliis was also 
a period of jars and quarrels amongst themselves. Their riso as a nation and con- 
federacy is thus symbolically related. According to the traditions of the wise men, 
Ta-ron-ya-wa-go was their divine patron. Ihit ho assumed tho shape of a man, being in 
nil things like tho rest of them ; and in this shape ho visited their original point of 
origin, near tho borders of Lake Ontario. lie had a wondcrfid and magnificent canoe, 
with which ho passed over the lakes, and visited the streams and rivers. This cnnoo 
was of tho purest whiteness, and appeared to move, when ho was .seated in it, with tho 
power of magic. With the touch of his paddle it ascended tho rapids of the Oswego 
river. In this cauoo ho ascended all tho lesser lakes, carefully examined their shores, 
and placed all things in proper order for the sustenance and comfort of good men. Ho 
had taught the people of the dillerent tribes tho art of raising corn and beans — articles 
which bad not before been cultivated among them, llo made tho fishing groimds 
free, and opened to all the uninterrupted pursuit of game. lie had distributed 
literally among mankind tho good fruits of the earth, and had removed all obstruc- 
tions to tho navigation of the streams He now directed and encouraged tho people 
every where to a more faithful observance of tho laws and requirements of the great 
and good Spirit, that these blessings might be perpetually continued to them, and that 
the nations he had visited might be tho favoured recipients of his choicest bounties. 
Those things being accomplished, he deliberately resolved to lay aside his divine char- 
acter, and in after years to make his abode among the children of men. He accord- 
ingly selected for his residence a beautiful spot on the southern shore of Cross Lake, 
(or " Tv-iiitijJct'-io(>" as called by tho natives.) Ho hero erected a suitable halntation, 
after a time formally relinquished his divine name and title of Ta-ren-ya-wa-go, and 
in all respects assumed the character and habits of a man. Nevertheless, he was 
always afterwards looked up to as an extraordinary individual, as one possessing 
transcendent powers of mind and consummate wisdom. He lost I'ttle or none of his in- 
lluenco by this change of state. A new name, Ili-a-watrha (signil/ing very wise man), 
was spontaneously accorded to him by the great mass of people who resorted to his 
presence in throngs from all quarters for advice and instruction. Tho companions of 
the Spirit-iMan were at a subsequent council each rewarded with a seat in tho councils 
of their countrymen, and thoy became eminently distinguished for their superior prow- 





CSS ill war, and for tlioir iliu'iiiru'il bi'iuinj,' in tlio rouncil-ruom. After the pivliiniimrios 
of si'ttli-moiit wt'io made at liis new hoiiip, and lli-a-wat-iia liad heroine firmly fixed 
in Ills mw leNideiiei', tiio lit,'lit canoo in wliicli liiH former nuliiovoineiitH had been 
lierliirmed was eurefiiily seemed, and it was afterward laiinelied only on im|)ortant 
oeca.-<i()iis, and to eonvey the wise man to the great national eonncil of the eonntry. 
Notwitlistandiii),' its possessor now elaimed to bo only an Iniinble individual of liiH 
adopted country, yet there waH a charm in tlie white canoe. It possessed a sort of 
magic which still roiuU-red it to him an object of solicitude and respect, if not of 
adoration ; for it had borne liini safely through many perils, ami it had ever lieen a 
sure prompter and talisman, continually urging him forward to accomplish the 
magnilicent deeds he had performed during the i)rosccution of the magiianiinous mis- 
sion lately so liappily consummated. Years pas.'^ed away, and every thing nourished 
under tiie .superintending hand of lli-a-wat-ha. Tiider his gnidaneo and administra- 
tion the Onondngas atlvaneed in consequence ; and in his time they ii.ssumcil an 
elevated position among the surrounding tribes. They were looked up to as a people 
counselled by a wise and judicious chief, Hcnt among them for their special benefit by 
the great and good Spirit. To coni})Ieto his inlluence, he married an Onondaga wife. 

After a (|iiiet residence of a few years at his new location, the inhabitants of the 
country became greatly alarmed by the sudden approach of a ferocious band of 
warriors from north of the great lakes. As they advanced, indiscriminate slaughter 
was made of men, women, and children. Many had been slain, and ultimate destruc- 
tion secmi'd to be the conseciuencc either of bold resistance or a quiet reliiniuishinent 
of absolute rights. During this signal agitation of the public mind, people from all 
qiiarter.s thronged the dwellng-place of lli-a-wat-lia for advice in this most pressing 
emergency. After a deep and thnuglitful contemplation of the momentous subject, he 
informed the principal chiefs that his advice was to call a grand council of all the 
tribes that could be gathered from the east and from the west; "for," said he, '-our 
safety is in wise counsels and in speedy and energetic action." Accordingly runners 
were despatched in all directions, notifying the head men of a grand council to bo 
held on the banks of the Lake Oh-non-ta-liai (Onondaga Lake). This council was 
held on the high ground where the villages of the Saline now stands. Li due time the 
chiefs, warriors, and head men from lar and near were assembled together, with great 
numbers of men, women, and children, to devise means for their general safety and 
defence. All the principal men had arrived except the wise man Ili-a-wat-ha. Tlie 
council-fire had been kindled three days, and he had not yet arrived. Messengers 
were despatched for him, who found him in a most di'jected and melancholy mood. 
He told them that evil lay in his path ; that he had a fearful foreboding of ill-fortune, 
and had concluded not to attend the council at Oh-non-ta-hai. " IJut," said the 
messengers, '• we have delayed the deliberations of the grand council on account of 
your absence, and the assembled chiefs have resolved not to proceed to business till 




your nrriviil." After ii full iliHciisMiou of tho wiilijoct, ami bciiij^ ovcr-pcrHimdcd, Im 
voliictaiitly viclik'ii to tlioir pcrsoviTiiij,' HolicitatioiiH. From the inception, lii-ii-wat-liii 
iiiul liiirlioii'd II xtroiij; proHcntiincut tliiit lie mIiouM not return from the coinicii, nor 
over iijiiiin Ik- checroJ by n night of Iuh earthly homo, nnil tho peculiar ondenrmcMtH 
whieh rendered that homo attractive. After making a suitahio disposition of liis 
dumesfic aH'iiirH, with a heavy heart ho launched his majiie canoe, placinj; therein such 
provisions as mijjht l)c needful for his journey, lie kindly bade his only dau;.'iiter to 
nceompauy him. She modestly took her scat in tho frail ves,sel, and forthwith they 
mado all possible speed to tho council-ground. 

Nothing occurred to interrupt a i)rosperou.s voyage. Tho white vessel glided silently 
down the deep waters of the Seneca, contrasting beautifidly with their dark brown 
hue. The current was suflicicntly rapid to preeludo tho necessity of using [mddles, 
and tho only ellbrt necessary wos to keep its head with tho stream. Arriving at 
iSohak'-ho (Onond.iga outlet), tho wise man now plied their paddles vigorously and 
"apid'v against tli current, till fairly upon tho bright bo.som of tho Onondaga. 
The cMineil-g ound was soon in view, and as tho aged and venerable Ili-a-wat-ha 
ai)proa''hcd, n general shout of joy resounded throughout tho assembly; and every 
demonstration of resp3ct was paid to this illustriou.s sago and counsellor, lie soon 
liinded, auc while pa,'- ;.ig up tiie stoop bank towards tho council-ground, a loud sound 
was 1 card, like a ^•'(l' ■, and rushing wind. Instantly all eyes were turned upwards 
to thj sky, and a '■i.uul speck was discovered rai)idly descending from tho clouds. It 
apparontl, ,-• w larger and 1,-^.r as it ncared tho earth, and was dosccn'^'ng with 
fearful v locit; into their very midst. Terror and alarm seized every breast, and each 
seemed anxious only for his own safety. 'I' :, greatest confusion prevailed tin-oughout 
the assembled nndtitude; and idl, except ihe venerable lli-a-wat-ha, sought safety by 
tliglit. Ho gravely uncovci'ed his silvered head, and besought his daughter to await 
tho approaching danger with becoming resignation. At tho same time, ho brielly 
remindeil '.i )• of the great folly and impi'opriety of attempting to obstruct or prevent 
tho designs or wishes of tlie Great Spirit. '• If he has determined our destruction 
now," ho said, "we .shall not escape by removal, nor ovado in any manner his unalter- 
able decisions." She mildly ac((uicscod in his suggestions, and with the most patient 
submission waited the approaching crisis. 

All this was but tho work of an mstant. No .sooner had the resolution of the wise 
nan become fixed, and his last words been spoken, than an immense bird, with liMig 
and pointed beak, and wide extended angs, came down with a mighty swoop in the 
direction of the girl; and while all was fear and confusion, it pa.«sod with the swiftness 
of an arrow, and crushed the lieautiful object to the earth. With such Ibrco did tho 
monster-bird descend, and so great was the connnotion of the air when it struck the 
ground, that the whole assembly were thrown violently back on tho groiiiid- Hi-a-wat- 
ha, as if inllucnced by a supernatural agency, alone remained unmoved and upright, and 


' t 



silently boliclil the molancholy catastrophe, lli.s darling daughter had been killed 
before his eyes in a marvellous manner, and her destroyer, the white-winged mes- 
senger, had perished with her. Thi.s sudden bereavement had the eflect completely 
to paralyze his faculties, and for a time he stood fixed and innnovablo as a rock. The 
dismayed warriors cautiously advanced to the spot, and calmly surveyed the dismal 
scene. It was found that the bird, in its descent, had completely buried its head, 
beak, and neck, in the ground. This rare bird, the messenger of Owayneo, was 
covered with a beautiful plumage of snowy white leathers. Every warrior, as be 
approached, plucked a plume from it, with which he adorned his ci'own. This 
unlooked-for visitant thus became the means of furnishing to the warriors a precious 
ornament hitherto unknown among them, which was ever afterwards held in high 
estimation, and never omitted in decorations for the war-path, or the important 
councils of peace. Succeeding generations substituted the plumes of the white heron, 
as approaching nearer to of the heavenly bird, than any other. 

Uiion the removal of the carcass of the huge bird, the body of the innocent girl was 
found completely crushed and annihilated. Nothing could be recovered of her to 
indicate that she had ever been a human being. At this distressing sight, the 
bereaved and dejected parent yielded himself up to the most poignant sorrow. His 
moans spoke the keen anguish of his heart. He spurned all proffers of consolation, 
and yielded to feelings of unbounded grief He became an object of despair, and 
in desponding hopelessness threw himself down upon' his face to the earth, spirit- 
broken and disconsolate. The few shattered fragments of the innocent girl were care- 
fully gathered together, and interred with all the tenderness and solemnity of grief. 
All seemed to participate in the alllictions of the aged father and venerable counsellor, 
and to sympathize in his woe — still, no comfort came to his soul. He remained in 
this prostrate situation three whole days and nights, unmoved. The fears of the 
assembled chiefs were aroused, lest he might become a willing victim to his melan- 
chol}-. Nothing had as yet been done in the grand council ; and such had been the 
causes of delay, that many began to despair of accomplishing anything, and some 
, i> ught seriously of returning to their homes without an eflbrt. A few of the leading 
chiefs consulted together as to what course it was most expedient to pursue. It was 
at once resolved that nothing should be attempted until the voice of the wise man 
could be hoard. A suitable [lerson was despatched to ascertain whether he yet 
breathed — so fatally had the doleful spell enchained him, that as yet it had not been 
broken. Report came that ho was yet alive. A kind-hearted chief, named Ho-see'- 
noke, was directed by the council to make to the prostrate mourner a comforting 
speech, and to whisper kind words of consolation in his ears. After a deal of formal 
ceremon}-, he gradually recovered from his stupor, and began to converse. After a 
while, Ili-a-wat-ha gradually rose upon his scat, embracing his knees, while his silvered 
locks fell down loosely over his haggard cheeks. His looks were sad and ghastly — 



liis liirge dark brows knit firmly and Holomnly over the white of his dcop-pot eyes. 
His dejected countenance cxprcsfsed painful thought and long suflering — the suH'ering 
of one fallen IVoni a high estate. The Avholo man seemed lost in the contemplation of 
the past. 

During this interview between Ili-a-wat-ha and Ilo-sce'-noke, several messages were 
passed between the chiefs in council and the wise man, all continually urging him to 
an immediate attendance upon the duties before them. Hi-a-wat-ha at length arose, 
and desired refreshment. He ate and drank of such food as was hastily provided for 
him. lie acknowledged himself strengthened and refreshed. He was now conducted 
to the presence of the council. His courtly gait, his majestic mien, his venerable form 
and noble figure, attracted the gaze, and commanded the respect and admiration of 
all, as he strode along with his simple wolf-skin robe. All acquiesced in obeisance to 
the venerable sage. A conspicuous place was assigned him in the council, and all 
eyes were riveted upon the man who it was supposed could with precision foretell their 
iiiture destiny. The sul)ject of the invasion was discussed by several of the ablest 
counsellors, and boldest warriors. Various schemes were proposed lor the repulsion 
of the enemy. Hi-a-wat-ha listened in silence, till all had finished speaking. His 
opinion was earnestly sought by the surrounding chiefs. Alter a brief reference to 
the calamity, lli-a-wat-lia said : "This is a subject that requires mature reliection, and 
calm deliljeratiou. It is not fitting that one of so much iipportance should be treated 
lightly, or that our decisions should be hasty and inconsiderate. Let us postpone our 
deliberations for one day. During that time, we will weigh well the words of the wise 
chiefs and bravo wai'riors who have already spoken. If they arc not good, I will then 
communicate to you my plan for your consideration. It is one which I am conlidcnt 
will succeed, and ensure our safety if adopted." 

After another day's delay the council again assembled, and all were anxious to hear 
the words of Hi-a-wat-ha. A breathless stillness reigned throughout the vast assembly 
as the venerable counsellor began. '• Friends and brother.s — you are members of many 
tribes, and you have come here, many of you, from your homes a great distance. We 
have convened for one common purpose — to promote one common interest, and that 
is, to provide for our mutual safety, and how it shall best be accomplished. To 
opiiose these hordes of northern foes by tribes, singly and alone, would prove our 
certain destruction. Wo can make no progress in that way. We must unite ourselves 
into one common band of brothers. Our warriors united would certainly repel the 
enemy, and drive them from our lands. This must be done, and wc are safe. You 
the people sitting under the shadow of the great tree, whose roots sink deep in the 
earth, and whose branches spread wide around, shall bo the first nation, because you 
are warlike and mighty. And 30U the people who recline your bodies against tho 
everlasting stone that cannot be moved, shall be the second nation, because you always 
give wise counsel. And you the people who have your habitation at tho foot of tho 

Vol.. v.—n 






great mountain, and are ovcrsliailowcd by its crairs, filiall ho tlio third nation, hocanso 
yon aro all irroatly gifted in speech. And jon the people whose dwelling is in the 
dark forest, and whoso homo is every where, shall be the lonrth nation, beeanse of 
your superior running in hunting. And you the people who live in the open country 
and possess much wisdom, shall bo the fifth nation, because you understand better the 
art of raising corn and beans, and making cabins. You five great and powerful nations, 
with your tribes, must unite and have one common interest, and no foe shall disturb 
or subdue yon. You the people who aro as the feeble bushes, and you who are a fisli- 
ing people, may place yourselves under our protection, and we Avill defend you. And 
you of the south, and j'ou of the west, may do the same, and we will protect you. 
We earnestly desire the alliance and friendship of you all. Brothers — if we unite in 
this bond the Great Spirit will smile upon us, and we shall be free, prosperous, and 
happy, liut if we remain as we are, we shall be subject to his frown. Wo shall bo 
enslaved, ruined, perlKH)s annihilated forever. We may perish, and our name be 
blotted out forever. Brothers, those are the words of Ili-a-wat-ha; let them sink doe}) 
in your hearts. I have said it." A deep silence ensued, and the council was again 
postponed to the following day for a final decision of the important question Ix'foro it. 
The chiefs, after duo deliberation, again assembled, and declared the counsel of the 
wise man to be good, and worthy of adoption; and iminediately was formed the cele- 
brated A'/ii!iiii''i'Iiii>ii!. or amphyctionic league of the griMt confederacy of Five Nation.s, 
which to this day remains in fidl force. After the deliberations of the great council 
liad been brought to a close, and the assembly were on flie eve of separation, lli-a- 
wat-ha, the divine teacher and counsellor, arose in a dignified manner, and said, 
'•Friends and brothers, I have now iulfdied my mission upon earth; I ha\o done 
every thing which can be done at ])reseut for the good oi' this great jn'ople. I have 
removed all obstructions from the streams; the canoes can now saloly pass every 
where. J have given you good fishing-grounds and fair liMnting-grounds. 1 have 
taught you the manner of cultivating corn, and many other arts and ))lessings I have 
bestowed liberally upon you. And lastl}', I have now assisted you to form an I'verlast- 
ing league and covenant of iViendship lor your future salety and protection. If you 
preserve it without the aduiission of other pooi)lo, j-ou will always he free, numerous, 
and happy. If other nations or triljcs are admitted to your councils they will sow 
jealousies among you, and you will bocouio enslaved, i'iiw, and feeljle. liemember 
these words; thc}' are the last you will hoar from the lii).s of Ili-a-wat-ha. Listen, my 
friends; tlie great master of breath calls me to go; I have patiently waited his 
summons; I am ready — farewell." As the man closed his speech, cheerful sounds 
burst upon the cars of the assembled multitude, as of myriads of the most delight- 
ful singing voices from above. The sky seemed to be filled with the sweetest 
melody of celestial n.usic, till the whole vast assendjly were comi)letely ahsorb(>d in 
rapturous ccstaey. Aniidsi the general excitement, and while all eyes were tin'ued 





towarl^s tlio heaveiihi, Ili-a-wat-liu was !*cci\ majestically seated in his necromantic 
canoe. He rose graceliilly from the coinicil-jiroinuls, rising higher and higher throiigli 
the air, nntil lie became nearly lost from the view of the assembled and admiring 
throngs, while the fascinating music gradually became more and more plaintive and 
low, itnd finally it sweetly expired in the softest tones npon their cars as Ili-a-wat-ha, 
the godlike Ta-ren-ya-wa-go, entered the celestial regions of 0\vayi;eo. 

8uch is tlie legend which the fancy of the Oiiondagas has constructed to account 
for the origin of the ancient league once formed by the warlike and illustrious Five 

The Onondagas early attracted notice for their expertncss in the cliase, and their 
bravery and enterprise in war. They were also celebrated for the wisdom of their 
counsellors, and the elo(iucnce of their speakers. The name of Garangnla will long 
continue to bo known for the elorpience of his woi'ds, if not for the keen irony of his 
satire, when addressed to an unsuccessful invader of his country. (La Hontan.) N<j 
person in their early history, however, appears to have so fully concentrated the 
popular applause of the tribe as Atotarho.' lie was not only a hunter and warrior of 
great renown, but had a reputation for the arts of sorcery and necromancy, which 
made him the dread of his enemies. When the question arose of placing a permanent 
presiding ofliccr over the deliberations of the general confederacy, the situation was 
oU'eied to him. The Mohawks, who appear from tlic first to have been the advanced 
or foremost tribe in a military point of view, sent a delegation of their chiefs to 
announce the choice. Thoy found him, after a search in the forest, sitting in an open 
space in low grounds deliberately smoking his pipe. His body was surrounded and 
defended, such was his power of sorceiy, by a throng of serpents, who darted out their 
tongues towards the intrusive delegates. These delegates stood before him with 
unmoved composure, with their bows and arrows, and spears. Their heads Avere 
crowned with the flowing white plumes of the heron, and their necks and breasts 
ornamented with warlike insignia. Tliis scene, ao drawn by an Indian artist, is 
depicted in Plate 70, p. 420, Vol. I. Atotarho accepted the trust ; and hi.s name, like 
that of Cit'sar, became, in after times, tiie title of this oilicer, althougli it had no ot/icr 
point of analogy with the history of that proud line, for the Iroquois government was 
ever strongly federative and representative. Agreeably to the annalist Cusick, there 
were thirteen successors to this title before tlie era of Columbus — a circumstance which 
may be named without attaching any value to the chronology of this writer. (Notes 
on the Irocpiois, p. 91.) 

The first attempt of the French to explore the Onondaga country from Canada, and 
obtain a footing in it, was made in 1(553. Le Moine gives us the details of this 
journey. (Notes on the lro(iuois, p. 332.) The war with the Erie..- was then liotly 


' Tliis nauio is t;iven in tho Seneca diak'ct in Morgau's League of the Iroiiuuis. 


T R I n A L U II A N I / A T 1 N , 

wagcJ, and the tribe waft finally conqiicrcd, as we learn from other sources, and cither 
killed or expelled the country the next year. Tliis visit uf the French was Ibllowed, 
in alter years, by the establishment of a mission and a French colony in the conntry 
of the Onondagas. A chief named Karrakouta appears to have been the principal 
person who extended this invitaticm. Tiio chiipel and fort were located within the 
present limits of the township of Dewitt. (Vide Sketch, Notes on the Iroquois, p. 178.) 
The incipient colony extended southerly from that point across the elevated lands to 
the site of Pompey. It does not appear that either the mission or colony existed in a 
state of prosperity more than a few years. The native priesthood opposed the intro- 
duction of principles which contlicted .so directly with their own. Tradition asserts 
that the entire settlement was secretly risen u[)on, every soul mas.-'aercd, and the torch 
applied to the houses, in one night.' 

When the Onondaga country came to be explored, and surveyed, and settled, after 
the close of the Kevolutionary war, much int^ivst and curiosity were excited by finding 
a class of antifiuities in tiie soil, in the same localities as the relics of Indian arts, 
wliieh betokened a prior period of civilization.^ Such interest ceased as soon as the 
sources of the French missionary labors became accessible to American readers. 
That tlie event should continue to be unknown to modern inquirers into American 
archaeology, does little credit to our national acumen. (Appendix, No. 5.) 


This word is derived from the animate (transition) Chippewa verb NIxmt, to kill. 
The people are an early oflshoot of the Algonquin family, the language of which they 
speak, but with less purity and richness of intlection than the Cbippewas. We are 
informed by Mackenzie, that they "are spread over avast extent of country, and that 
their language is the same as that of the people who inhabit the coast of British 
America on the Atlantic, with the exception of the Fstpiiman.x, and continues along 
the coast of Labrador, and the gulf and baid<s of St. Lawrence, to Montreal. The 
line then follows the Utawas river to its source, and continues thence nearly 
Avest along the highlands which divide the waters that fall into Lake Superior and 
IIud.son's Biiy. It then proceeds till it strikes the middle part of the river Winipec, 
following that water through the Lake Winipec, to the discharge of the Saskatchiwinc 
into it; thence it accompanies tlie latter to Fort fieorge, when the line, striking 
by the head of the Beaver river to the Elk river, runs along its banks to its dis- 
charge in the Lake of the Hills; from which it may be carried back east, to the Isle 

' This event nppcars to have occurred in IGlJO. 

' A Frencli liorsc-slioc, a brass pocket-compass, and the gnomon of a dial-plate, are Cgured in Plato 51, 
Vol. II. 



h la Crosse, and so on to Churcliill by the Mis><ini[)i. The wliole of the tract between 
tliis lino and llndson's Hay and Straits (except that of the Ks(|uininux in the latter), 
may bo said to be exclusively the country of the Knistenoaux. Some ol' them, indeed, 
have penetrated further west and south to the Red river, to the south of Lake 
Winipcc, and the south brtmch of the Saskatchiwino. 

They are of a moderate stature, well proportioned, and of frreat activity. Exam- 
ples of deformity are seldom to be seen among them. Their complexion is of a copper 
color, and their hair black, which is conmion to all the natives of North America. 
It is cut in various forms, according to the fancy of the several tribes, and by some is 
left in the long, lank liow of nature. They >-ery generally extract their lieards, and 
botli sexes manifest a disposition to pluck the hair from cver^' part of their liody and 
limbs. Tlieir eyes arc black, keen, and penetrating ; their countenance open and 
agreeable ; and it is a principal object of their vanity to give every possible decoration 
to their persons. A material article in their toilettes is vermilion, which they contrast 
with their native blue, white, and brown earths, to which charcoal is frerpiently added. 

Tiieir dress is at once simple and mmodious. It consists of '..h ' loggins. 
reaching near the hip; a strip of cloth or leather, called assian, about c foot wide, and 
five feet long, whose ends are drawn inwards, and hang behind and before, over a belt 
tied round the waist for that purpose ; a close vest or shirt reaching down io the 
former garment, and cinctured with a broad strip of parchment fastened with thongs 
behind ; and a cap for the head, consisting of a piece of fur, or small skin, with the 
brush of the animal as a suspended ornament ; a kind of robe is thrown occasionally 
over the whole of the dress, and serves both night and day. These articles, witli the 
addition of shoes and mittens, constitute the variety of their apparel. The materials 
vary according to the season, and consist of dressed moose-skin, Ijeaver prepared with 
the fur, or European woollens. The leather i.s neatly painted, and fancifully worked 
in some parts with porcupine tpnlhs, and moose-deer hair : the shirts and leggins are 
also adorned with fringe and tassels; nor are the shoes and mittens without somewiiat 
of appropriate decoration, and worked witii a consideralile degree of skill and taste. 
These habiliments arc put on, however, as fancy or convenience suggests ; and they 
will sometimes proceed to the chase in the severest frost, covered only with the 
slightest of them. Their head-dresses are composed of the feathers of the swan, the 
eagle, and other birds. Tlie teeth, horns, and claws of different animals, are also the 
occasional ornaments of the head and neck. Their hair, however arranged, is always 
besmeared with grease. The making of every article of dress is a female occupation; 
and the women, though by no means inattentive to the decoration of their own per- 
sons, appear to have a still greater degree of pride in attending to the appearance of 
the men, whose faces are painted with more care than tliose of the women. 

Tlic female dress is formed of the same materials as those of the other sex, but of a 
dilTerent make and arrangement. Their shoes are conunonly plain, and their leggins 



1'^' 1 

gartoivd bciioixtli the kiioe. The coiit. or iKxly-covcriiiii'. fulls down to tlio middli' of 
the Icji, and is lasteni'd over tlio slioiddcrs witli conls, a llai) or capo turnini^ down 
about oiglit inclics liotli boforc and beldnd, and njn'ocably ornamented with (inill-work 
and IVinge; tlie bottom is also IVinjifd, and I'ancil'nlly ]iain(ed as liif.di as the kneo. As 
it is very loose, it is enclosed round the waist with a still' belt, decorated with tassels, 
and fastened behind. The arms are covered to the wrist with detached sleeves, which 
are sewed as fur as the bend of the arm ; from thence they arc drawn up to the neck, 
and the corners of them fall down behind as low as the waist. The caj). when they 
wear one, consists of a certain (luantity of leatli' or cloth, sewed at one end, by 
which means it is kept on the head, and, hiinjjfinjx down the back, is fastened to the 
belt, as well as the under-chin. The upper garment is a robe like that worn by the 
men. Their hair is divided on the crown, and tied behind, or sometimes fastened in 
largo knots over the ears. They are lond of European articles, and prefer them to 
their own native commodities. Their ornaments consist, in conunon with all savages, 
in bracelets, rings, an ' similar articles. Some of the women tattoo three perpendicular 
lines, which are sometimes double ; one from the centre of the chin to that of the 
under lip, and one ])arallel on cither side to the corner of the mouth. 

Of all the nations which I have seen on this continent, says the s.amo writer, the 
Knistoneaux women are the most comely. Their (igure is generally well proportioned, 
and the regularity of their features would be acknowledged by the more civili/.ed 
people of Europe. Their complexion has less of that dark tinge which is common to 
those savages who have less cleanly hal)its. 

These people are. in general, subject to few disorders. The liii''< n m mi, however, 
is a connnon complaint, but cured by the application of simples, with whose virtues 
they appear to be well ac(|uainted. They are also subject to ihixcs, and pains in the 
breast, which some have attributed to the very cold and keen air which they inhale; 
but I .should imagine that those complaints must fre(|uently proceed from their immo- 
derate indulgence in fat meat at their feasts, particularly when they h.avo been pre- 
ceded by long fasting. 

They are naturally mild and aflable, as well as just in their dealings, not oidy 
among them.selves, l)ut vith strangers. They are also generous and hospitable, and 
good-natured in the extreme, except when their nature is perverted by the inllamma- 
tory influence of spirituous liquors. To their children they are indulgent to a fault. 
The father, though he assumes no command over them, is ever anxious to instruct 
them in all the preparatory rpialilications for war and hunting; while the mother is 
erpially attentive to her daughters, in teaching them everything that is considered as 
necessary to their ch.aracter and situation. It does not appear that the husband 
makes any distinction between the children of his wile, though they may bo the oil- 
spring of (lifl'erent fathers. Illegitimacy is only attached to those who are born before 
their mothers have cohaljited with auv man bv the title of husband. 

-^ ■ i'- 




Notwithstanding tlio assertions of tnivt'llei's, it aiipoars tiiat cliastity is coiisi- 
tlcrod liy tlicin as ii virtue, and that fidelity is hciievod to ho essential to the hapiiiness 
of wedded life; and it sometimes iiaijpens that the infidelity of a wile is punished 
hy the husl)and with the loss of her hair, nose, or perhaps life. Sueh severity pro- 
eeetls, perhaps, less from rigidit}' of virtue, than from its havin.L; Ijeen ])raetised without 
liis i)ermission; for a temporary inteirhango of wives is not uneoinnion, and the oiler 
of tlu'ir persons is considered as a necessary part of the hospitality ilue to strangers. 

AV'hen a man loses his wife, it is considered as a duty to marry her .sister, if she has 
one; or he may, if ho pleases, have them hoth at the same time. 

It will appear, from the fatal consecjuences I have repeatedly imputed to the use of 
spirituous li(|U(n\s, that I more partieularl}- consider these people as having heen, 
morally speaking, great sull'erers from their communieation with the snliji-ets of civi- 
lized mvtions. At the same time, they were not, in a state of nature, without tiieir 
vices, and some of them of a kind which is (he luos* al)Iiorrent to cultivated and 
roUecting man. 1 .shall only ohserve, that incest ami liestiaiity are among them. 

When a young man marries, he immediately goes to live with the father and 
mother of his wife, who treat him, nevertheless, as an entire stranger till after the 
birth of his first child: he then attaches him.self more to them than his own parents, 
and his wife no longer gives him any other denomination than that of the father of 
her child, //'• iiii/i<i!iii. 

The profession of the men is war and and hunting; and the more active scene of 
their duty is the field of liattle, and the chase in the woods. They also spear fish; 
hut the management of the nets is left to the women. The females of this nation are 
in the same subordinate state with those of all other savage tribes; but the severity 
of their labor is much diminished b}- their situation on the banks of lakes and rivers, 
where they employ canoes. In the winter, when the waters arc frozen, they make 
their journey.s, which are never of any great IcMigth, with sledges dr. .vn l)y dogs. The 
women are, at the same time, suliject to every kind of domestic drudgery; the}- dress 
the leather, make the clothes and shoos, weave the nets, collect wood, erect the tents, 
fetch water, and perform every culinary service; so that when the duties of maternal 
care are added, it will appear that the life of these women is an uninterrupted succes- 
sion of toil and pain. This, indeed, is the sense they entertain of their own situation ; 
and under the inlluenco of that sentiment, they are .sometimes known to destroy their 
fennde children, to save them from the miseries which they themselves have suiVered. 
They also have a ready way, by the use of certain simples, of procuring abortion, 
which they sometimes practice, from their hatred of the father, or to save themselves 
the trouble which children occasion : and, as I have boon credibly informed, this 
unnatural act is repeated without any injury to the health of the Momen who 
l)erpetrate it. 

The funereal rites begin, like all other solemn ceremonials, with smoking, and are 





H I 

concliulcd by a toast. The bixly is tlrosscd iu the best liabiliments possessed by the 
deeensc'd, or liis reliitiDiis, nnd is tiieii deiiosited in a grave lined with brunches; some 
domestic utensils are placed on it, and a kind of canopy erected over it. During tliis 
ceremony, greiit lamentations arc made; and if the departed person is very much 
regretted, the near relations cut olV their hair, pierce tiie fleshy part of their thighs 
and arms with arrows, knives, &c., and blacken their faces with charcoal. (Vide Plate 
25.) If tlicy have distinguished themselves in war, they arc sometimes laid on a 
kind of scalTolding; and I have been informed that women, as in the East, have been 
known to sacrifice themselves to the manes of their husbands. The whole of the 
property belonging to the departed person is destroyed, and the relations take in 
exchange for the wearing appai'el any rags that will cover their nakedness. The 
feast bestowed on the occasion, which is, or at least used to be, repeated annually, is 
accompanied with euUjgiums on the deceased, and without any acts of ferocity. On 
the tomb are carved or painted the symbols or Totems of his tribe, which are taken 
from the diflerent animals, birds, or reptiles of the country. 

War is. however, tiic ])riuie pursuit. Many are the motives which induce savages to 
engage in it. To prove tiieir courage, or to avenge the death of relations, or in conse(pionco 
of some portentous dream. If the trilje feel themselves called upon to go to war, the 
elders convene the peojjle, in order to know the general opinion. If it bo for wai", the 
chief publishes his intention to smoke in the sacred stem at a certain period, to which 
.solemnity, meditation, and fasting, are rerpiired as preparatory ceremonials. When 
the people arc thus as.-^embled, and the meeting sanctified by the custom of smoking, 
the chief enlarges on the cauf:c.' which have called them together, and the necessity 
of the measures proposed on the occasion. lie then invites those who are willing to 
follow him, to smoke out of the sacred stem, which is considered as the token of 
enrolment ; and if it should l)e the general opinion that assistance is necessary, others 
are inviied, with great formality, to join them. Every individual who attends these 
meetings, Ijrings something with him as a token of his warlike intention, or as an 
object of sacrifice, which, when the assembly dis.solves, is suspended from poles near 
the i)lace of council. 

They have freijuent fc'sts, and particular circumstances never fail to produce them, 
such as a tedious illness, long lasting, &c. On these occasions, it is usual for the 
per.son who means to give the entertainment, to announce his design, on a certain day, 
of opening the medicine-bag, and smoking out of his sacred stem. This declaration 
is considered as a sacred vow that cannot Ix; broken. There are also stated periods, 
such as the spring and autumn, when thny engage in very long and solemn ceremonies. 
On these occasions, dogs are oHo'od as sacrifices; and which are very fat, and 
mil/i-icJiifc, are preferred.' They also make large oflerings of their property, whatever 

' la this trait of sacriflcc, resembling, perhaps, the lamb of the Orientals. 


i , 'I 




it mny Ik*. The hwiw oI' tlioso cereiiioiiu's i« in mi open iiiclosiiro on tlio Itaiik of ii 
river or litko, and in tliu nuixt cun.x|iiiMi()UH Hitiuilii)ii, in urilor that hucIi nn are piiHMiii^ 
alon^ or tnivfilin;^. may l>u iniluccil to iniiiiu tlioir ()norin;^'?<. Tlicru i.< also a parliciilur 
custom amiin;j; tlii'm, tluit on thcMu ocfasion.x, if any of tiio tribe, or oven u ^^trall;^l•r, 
hIiuuIiI lit- paMHin^ liy, and Ihj in real want uf anything that i^ ilisphtyotl a^ an (iH'crin^s 
he has a right to tai<o it, no that lie ruplaceH it with Noniu article he can npare, though 
it he of far inferior vahie; hut to take or toucli anything icinilniihi, is considered an a 
wicrilegion.s act, and iiighly inHultiiig to the great Ma.ster of Life, to use their own 
exi>reMnion, who m the Hacred object of their ceremonial devotion. 

The Hccnc of iirivato sacrilico is the lodge of the pcrMou who iiorforms it, which in 
prepared for that piu'poso hy removing everything out of it, and spreading green 
l)ranciie.s in every part. Tiie (ire and aMlies are also taken away. A new liearth is 
made of fresh earth, and nnotlier lire is liglited.' Tlie owner of tlie dwelling remains 
alone in it, and ho begins the cercinony by spreading a pioco of new cloth, or a well- 
dressed moose-skin neatly painted, on which ho opens his medieine-bag, and exposes 
its contents, consisting of various articles. The principal of them is a kinil of houso- 
liold god, which is u small carved image about eight indies long. Its liist covering is 
of down, over which a piece of birch bark is closely tied, and the whole is enveloped 
ill several folds of red and blue clotii. Tliis little figure is an object of the most pious 
regard. Tiio ne.xt article is his war-cap, which is decorated witii tiie feathers and 
plumes of scarce birds, the fur of beavers, eagles' claws, &c. There is also sus- 
pended from it a quill, or feather, for every enemy whom the owner of it hnw slain in 
battle. The remaining contents of the bag aro a piece of tobacco, several voots and 
simples, which aro in great estimation lor their medicinal (jualities, and an "/uru'ijim, 
or pipe. These articles being all exposed, and tiio stem resting upon two I'orks, as it 
must not touch the ground, the master of the lodge sends for the person he most 
esteems, who sits down opposite to him; the pipe is then filled, and fixed to the stem. 
A pair of wooden pincers is provided to put the lire in tlio pipe, and a double- pointed 
pin, to empty it of the remnant of tobacco which is not consumed. This arrangement 
being made, the men assemble ; and sometimes the women aro allowed to be humble 
spectators, while tlio most religious awe and solemnity pervades the whole. Tho 
Michiniwai, or Assistant, takes up the pipe, lights it, and presents it to the olliciatiug 
person, who receives it standing, and holds it between both his hands. He then turns 
himself to the cast, and draws a few Avhifls, which ho blows to that point. The same 
ceremony he observes to the other three quarters, with his eyes directed upwards 
during the whole of it. lie holds the stem about tho middle, between the three first 
fingei-s of both hands, and raising them upon a lino with his forehead, ho swings it 
three times round from the east, with the sun ; when, after pointing and balancing it 

This was also done by tbo Indians in Mexico, on receiving the luwfiir from the Aztec priests. 

Vol. v. — 22 





f' I 

I : I 

I I 

^^ \ 

n \ 



in various tliroctions, ho ivposos it on du' forks.' lie tlicii iiiiikos n spcccli t<» explain 
tlio ili'siiiii of tlu'ir lieiiin' I'alk'd tojrethcr, wiiicli cvincliKlcs willi iiii aclviiowli'dmiient 
for past niercii's, and a prayer for the continuance of liieni, iuldressed to tlie Master 
of Life. He then sits down, and the wliolo conij)any di-i'lan- tJicir apiirobalion and 
thanks, hy ottering tiio word /in! with an einpliatii' prolini,L;atioii ol' tlic last letter. 
Till' Miehiniwai then takes \\[) the pijie, and holds it to the nmulh of the olliciating 
person, who, after smoking three wliills ont of it, utters a short |irayer. and then goes 
round with it, taking his eoui'se from east to west, to every jierson ])reseiit, wIk) indi- 
vidiiall}' says something to him on the occasion, and thus the pipe is generally smoked 
ont; when, after turning it three or four times round his head, he drops it downwards, 
and replaces it in its oiigiiial situation. He then returns tlie company tiianks for 
their attendance, and wishes them, as well as the whole trihe. liealth and long life. 

Tlu'se smoking rites precede every matter of great importance, with mure or less 
ci'remouy, hut always witii eijnal soleuniity. The utility of them will a[ipear from 
tiie loUowing relation. 

If a chief is anxious to know the disposition of his people towards him, or if he 
wishes to st'ttle any diirerence hetween them, he announces his intention of opening 
his meilicine-hag and smoking in his sacred stem; and no man who entertains a grudge 
against iuiv of the |iarty tlins assemhled can snu)ke with the sacred stem ; as that 
ceremony dissipates all ditreri'uces. and is never violated. 

No one can avoid attending on these occasions; hut a person may attend and bo 
excused iVom assisting at the ceremonies, Ity acknowledging that he lias not undergone 
the necessary purification. The having cohabited with ids wife, or any other woman, 
within twi'nty-four hours preceding the ceremony, renders him unclean, and, con- 
seiinently. disiinalilies him from performing any part of it. If a contract is entered 
into and solemnized by the ceremony of smoking, it nexcr fails ol' being faithfully 
fullilled. If a pei'.son. pre\ious to his going a journey, leaves the sacred steni as a 
pledge of his return, no consideration whatever will prevent him from executing liis 

The cliief, when he proposes to niidvo a feast, sends (piills. or small pieces of wood, 
as tokens of invitation to such as he wishes to jjartake of it. At the appointed time 
the guests arrive, each bringing a dish or platter, and a knife, and take their seats on 
each side of the chief, who receives them sitting, a.ccording to their respective ages. 
The pipe is then lighted, and he makes an equal division of every thing that is pro 
vided. While the company are enjoying their meal, the chief sings, and accompanies 
his song with the tamboiu'ine, or shishiqnoi, or rattle. The guest who has (irst eaten 

' This ccroiiiiiny ricalls ("li;irlcviii.\'s dlFsirv.ations, in 1721, on tlic jFriu.'^t standing, at sunrise, in tlic door 
of tin; Ti_'ni|ilc ol' tlio Sun, at Xatclie/, inakinj; liis gcnulluiMions witli tlic |ii|io. 

' It \<, liowcvir, tu Ijo iainentod, that of late tlicrc is a rcla.xation of tlic ihitics originally altailied to these 



his portion is considorod us tiio most (listin;^i\i,slRMl pcM'soii. If there should be an}- 
who ciumot liiiisii the whole of their mess, tliey endeavor to prevuil upon some of their 
friends to eat it for them, who are rewarded for tlieir assistance with amminiition and 
tohaeco. It is proper also to remark, that at these feasts a small quantity of meat or 
drink is saerificed, before they begin to eat, by throwing it into the fire, or on the enrtli.' 

These feasts ditler according to circumstances: sometimes each man's allowance is 
no more than he can disfjatch in a couple of liours. At other times the (piantity is 
sullicient to supply each of them with food lijr a week, though it must he devoured in 
a day. On tiiese occasions it is very dillicult to [irocure substitutes, and the whole 
must bo eaten, whatever time it may re(piire. At some of these entertainments tiiere 
is a more rational arrangement, when tiie guests are al!:)wed to carry home with them 
the superlluons part of their portions. Great care is always taken that the bones 
may be burned, as it would be considered a profanation were the dogs permitted to 
touch them.^ 

The public feasts are conducted in the same manner, but with some additional cere- 
mony. Several chiefs ofliciate at them, and procure the necessary provisions, as well 
as prepare a proper place of reception for the numerous eomi)auy. Ilep t\n' guests 
discoiu'se u])on ))ublic topics, repeat the heroic deeds of their l()refather: , and excite 
the rising generation to follow their example. Tlie entertaiinnents on these occasions 
consist of dried meats, as it would not be practicable to dress a sullicient ([uantity 
of fresh meat for such a large assembly'; though tlie women and children are 

Similar (leasts used to be made at funerals, and annually in honor of the dead ; but 
they have been for some time growing into disuse, and I never had an opportunity of 
being present at any of them. 

Tlie women, who are forbidden to enter the places sacred to these festivals, dance 
and sing around them, and sometimes beat time to the music within them, which 
forms an agreeable contrast. [Mackenzie.] 

With respect to their divisions of time, they compute the length of their journeys 
by the jnunber of nights passed in performing them; and they divide the year by 
the succession of moons. In this calculation, however, they are not altogether correct, 
as they cannot account for the odd days. The names which they give to thi' moons 
are descriptive of the several seasons. They are, in their order, beginning with the 
month of May, called the frog moon ; the moon when birds begin to lay their e i:s; 
the moon when birds moult, or cast their feathers; the moon when i)irds l)egin to lly; 
the moon in which the moose casts its horns; the ratting moon; hoar-frost moon, or 
ice moon; whirlwind moon; cold nu/.m ; big moon; eagle moon; and goose moon, 
which is their Ajjr'l. 


V .M 

i -n^f 

' I 

Tliix Alixoinniiii ( ii..tMm |i;is linii ;ilso imticiMl :il ]i. I!!', \ ■'!. I 
'I'liiv i.i mil' of ill.' 1 ii-(ciins ml wliicli stfos i< liiid liy Ail:iir. 




>■' 1 
i I 

• ■■ I 

;■ ! 



Superstition holds its iisiiai plupo witli tlio Kciiistcnos. Among their various 
bcliels arc that of ii Funereal I'liantoni, and the personality of tlie Ignis Fatuns. 
They believe that the vapor which is i-cen to hover over moist and swampy places is 
the spirit of some person lately dead. They also fancy another spirit, which appears, 
in the shape of a man, upon the trees near the lodge of a person deceased, whoso pro- 
perty has not been interred with liim. He is represented as bearing a gun in his 
hand ; and it is believed that he does not return to his rest till the property that has 
1)een withheld from the grave has been sacrificed to the dead. If philosophy cannot 
protect the con.mon masses in civilized life from similar fancies, we should not regard 
it as strange that the Indian tribes yield to sucli impressions. For it is from dream- 
land and spirit-land that they also, together witii the aborigines, draw much of their 

At II A r AscAs. 

This name has lieen apijlicd to a class of trilx's who are situated north of the great 
ClnnvhiU river, and north ol' tlie source of the fork of the Saskatchawine, extending 
westward, till witiiin about oir' hundred and fifty miles ol' the Pacific Ocean. The 
exceiitious consist of tlie tenitory of the Esquimaux, along the coast of the Arctic 
Ocean, and the location of tiio FiOc (,'hoos. All the rest of .lie tribes within this wide 
boundary, speak dialects of the same generic language. Without counting the Loo 
Choos. these thirteen tribes arc estimated to numl)er about twelve thousand souls. 
(Vol. II.. p. 'JlT.) Tlio grouping of these tribes, at points of latitude north of the 
utmost line to which the Algoiupiin family had reached, forms a convenient basis for 
reference. The name is derived, arl)itrarily. from Lake Athabasca, which is nov.' more 
generally called the Lake of the Hills. Surrounding this lake, extends the tribe of 
the Chippewyans. a people so called by the Kenistenos and Chippewas, because they 
were found to be clolhcd, in some primiiry encounter, in the scanty garb of the fisher's 
skin.' According to Franklin, tliey call themselves SKtv-assdir-i/iiniKli, Kising-sun- 
men ; or. as the ])'irase seems, People who face the Uising Sun. The}' number about 
four thousand souls, and speak a language of a peculiar character. Thi.-i language 
forms the type of the group. The tribes who use it appear to have migrated from the 
Avest, since it is perceived, from observations of Mr. Harmon (vide Travi Is), that the 
Tucnllies, and sonic other kindred tribes among whom he sojourned in New Caledonia, 
west of the Rocky Mountains, (or several years, speak the Athapasca. 

We are informed by Mackenzie, that the territory occupied by the Chippewyans 
extends between the parallels of 00° and 0-5" north, and longitudes from 100° to 110° 
west. Ho aflirms that the language is traced directly to the waters of Peace river, 
tlie great Unjiga of the natives, and through that river and its connecting portages 

' From ojccff, a fislier, and iri/an, & skin. 

i; i 

It ^ 



west of the Ivocky Moiintiiins. to tlic nortliern soiirccH of the Columbia, wliicli it, fol- 
lows down to iiitiliiilo i'l"" 2i', where it comes into the iieijiliboi'liooil of tlie Atnah, oi- 
Cliiu nation. From this point, he ileserihcs the lungiinge as dill'iising itself to the 
sc'i-coiist, within which the country is possessed l)y a people who speak their laii.iiiiago, 
and are consequently descended Irom them : tlierc can be no doubt, tlierefore, of their 
progress being to the eastward, A tri'io of them is evi'n known at tlie npper csta- 
blislimenls on the Snskatchawine, and I do not pretend to ascertain how liir they may 
follow the Rocky Mountains to the east ' 

It is not possible to form any just estimate of their numbers ; but it is apparent, 
nevertlieless, that they are by no means proportionaie to the vast extent t)f their 
territories, which may in some degree bo attributed to the ravages of tlie small-pox, 
which are observed more or less evident throughout this part of the continent. 

The notion which these people entertain of the creation, is of a very singular 
nature. They believe that, at the first, the globe Avas one vast and entire ocean, 
inhal)ited by no living creature except a mighty bird, whoso eyes were fire, 
glances were lightning, and the clapping of whose wings were thunder. On his 
descent to tlie ocean, and touching it, the earth instantly arose, and remained on tlie 
surface of tlie waters, Tiiis omnipotent bird then called forth all the varict\- oi' ani- 
mals from the eaitli, except the Ciiippewyans, who were [)roduccd from a dog; and 
this circumstance occasions tiioir aversion to tlie llesh of that animal, as well as the 
pcoi)le who cat it. Tliis extraordiuar}- trailition proceeds to relate that the great bird, 
1 iving finished his work, made an arrow which was to be preserved with great care, 
and to remain untouched; Imt that the Chippcwyans were so devoid of understanding 
as to carry it away, and the sacrilege so enraged the great bird, that he has never 
since appeared. 

They have also a tradition amongst them that they originally came from another 
country, inhal)ited b}- very wicked people, and had traversed a grei-t lake, which was 
narrow, shallow, and full of islands, where tiiey had sullered great misers', it ijeiug 
always winter, with ice and deep snow. At the Copper-Mine river, where they made 
tlie first land, tlie ground was covered with co})[)er, over which a body of earth had 
since been collected, to the de})th of a man's lieight. They Ixdievo, also, tiiat in 
ancient times their ancestors lived till tiieir feet were worn out with walking, and 
their throats with eating. They describe a deluge, when the waters spread over the 
wliole earth, except the highest mountains, on the tops of which they preserved 

They Ijelicvo that, immediately after their death, they pass into another world, 
where tliey ari'Ivc at a large riser, on wliii'li tiiey embark in a stone canoe, and that a 
gentle current bears them on to an extensive lake, in the centre of wliich is a most 

' Aimlngics liiivo been observed between tlii^' language and tbat of the Apaebuod uf N'ew INIexieo, who trace 
their orifiin lo the norlli 






I ^' 

I i' ' 



beaiitirul island; aucl that, in the view of this tloliirlitl'ul abode, they receive that 
judgment for their conduct during life, which terminatos their final state and unalter- 
able allotment. If their gootl actions arc declared to predominate, they are huKknl 
upon the island, where there is to be no end to their happiness; which, however, 
according to their notions, consists in an eternal enjoyment of sensual pleasure and 
carnal gratification. But if their bad actions weigh down the balance, the stone canoe 
sinks at once, and leaves them up to their chins in the water, to behold and regret tlie 
ren-ard enjoyed by the good, and eternally struggling, but with niuivailing endeavors, 
to reach the blissful island, from which they are excluded forever. 

They have some faint notions of the transmigration of the soul; so that if a child 
be born with teeth, they instantly imagine, from its premature appearance, that it 
bears a resemblance to some person who had lived to an advanced period, and that he 
has assumed a renovated life, with these extraordinary tokens of maturity. 

The Chippowyans are sober, timorous, and vagrant, with a seltish disposition, which 
has sometimes created sus])icions of their int(>grity. Their stature has nothing 
remarkable in it ; l)ut though they are seldom corpulent, they are sometimes rol^ust. 
Tlieir complexion is swarthy, their features coarse, and their hair lank, but not always 
of a dingy black ; n(jr have they universally the piercing eye which generally animates 
the Indian eountenanee. The women liave a more agreeable aspect than the men; 
but their gait is awkward, wliich proceeds from their being accustomed, nine montiis 
in the year, to travel on snow-shoes, and drag sledges of a weiglit from two to lour 
hundred pounds. They arc very submissive to their husbands. Avho have, however, 
their fits of jealous}- ; and for very trilling causes treat them Avith such cruelty as 
sometimes to occasion their death. They are frequently olyects of traffic; and the 
father [jossesses the right of disposing of his daugliter.' Tiie men in ireneral extract 
their beards, tliougli some of them are seen to j)rci'er a bushy blacic ])eaid to a smooth 
chin. They cut their hair in various forms, or leave it in a long, natural flow, accord- 
ing as tlieir caprice or fancy suggests. The women always wear it in great length, and 
some (jf them are very attentive to its arrangement, if they at any time appear 
despoiled of their tresses, it is to be esteemed a proof of the husband's jealousy, and 
is considered as a severer punishment than manual correction. JJoth sexes have blue 
or black bars, or from one to four straiglit lines on tlieir cheeks or fbrehead.s, to distin- 
guish the tribe to which the\' l)clong. These marks are either tattooed, or mad'- i.y 
drawing a thread, dipped in the necessary color, bi^neath the skin. 

Tlierc are no people more attentive to tiic comforts of their dress, or le.«s anxious 
rcsjiectina: its exterior appearance. In the winter it is composed of the skins of deer 
and their fawns, and dressed as fine as any chamois leatlier. in the hair. In the 
summer their apparel is the same, except that it is prepared witliont tiie hair. Tlieir 

' Tlicy il) nut, liowcv<'r, sell them i\>i slaves, but a.s eoiuiiaiiious tu tlioso wliu are .supposed to live more 
ooiiilorlaljly tliaii llieuisilves. 



shoes nnd Icfrgins arc sewoil togctlior, tlio latter reaching upwards to the middle, and 
being supported by a belt, under which a small piece of leather is drawn to cover the 
private parts, the ends of which full down both before and behind In the shoes they 
put the hair ol" the moose or reiu-dcer, with additional pieces of letither as socles. The 
shirt or coat, when girted round the waist, reaches to the middle of tlie thighs; and 
the mittens are sewed to the sleeves, or arc suspended by strings IVom the shoulders. 
A I'ufV or tijjpet surrounds the neck; and the skin of the head of the deer forms a 
curious kind of cap. A robe, made of scvei'al deer or fawn skins .sewed together, 
covers the whole. This dress is worn single or double; but always in the winter with 
the hair within and without. Thus arrayed, a Chippewyan will lay him.self down on 
the ice in the middle of a lake and I'cposo in comlbrt ; though he will sometimes liud 
a (lilliculty in the morning to disencumber himself from the snow drifted on him 
during the night. If in his passage he should be in want of provisions, he cuts a hole 
in the ice, when he seldom liiils of taking some trout or pike, mIiosc eyes he instantly 
scoops out and cats as a great delicacy; but if they should not be sufliciont to satisfy 
his appetite, he will, in this necessity, miilce his meal of the fish in its raw state; but whom I saw preferred to dress their victuals when circumstances admitted the 
necessary preparation. When they are in that part of tiieir country whicii does not 
]irodu('e a suilicient quantity of wood for fuel, they arc reduced to the'same exigency, 
ihougli tiiey generally dry their meat in tiic sun.' 

The (hvss of the women diilers from that of the men. Their leggins arc tied 
lielow the knee; and their coat or shift is wide, hanging down to the ancle, and is 
tucked up at pleasure I)}- means of a belt, which is fastened round the waist. Tiiose 
who have children have these garments made very full about the shoulders, as wlu'u 
tiiey are travelling they carry their infants upon their backs, next their skin, in 
which situation they are perfectl}' couUbrtable, and in a position convenient to be 
suckled. Nor do they discontinue to give tiieir miik to them till they have another 
cliild. Chiklbirth is not the object of that tender care and serious attention among 
the savages as it is among civilized people. (Vol. II. p. 00, Plato 20.) At this 
jicriod no part of their usual occupation is omitted; and this continual arid regular 
exercise nui.-t contribute to the welfare of the mother, both in the progress of parturi- 

' 'J'lu' [irovisioii called roiiiicali, on wliieli the ('liiii|K'\v):iiis, as wuU as tlii; otlk-i' s.ivages cil' this cimiitry, 
ihiiflv subsist in their journoys, is prepared in the followiiii; manner. The lean jiarts id' the llesh of the 
l;i L'er animals arc cut in tliiii .slices, and arc placed on a wooden jjratc over a shiw fire, or cNpo^cd to the suii, 
and sometimes to the frost. These operations dry it, ami in that .state it i.s pounded lietween two stones ; it will 
then keep, with care, for several years. If, however, it is kept in largo (piantities, it is dispnsed to feriueii,. in 
the spring of the year, when it nnist bo exposed to the air, or it will soon decay. The inside fat, and that of 
tlie rump, which is much thicker in these wild than our domestic animals, is melted down and nii.xed, in a 
boiling state, with the pounded meat in ccpial proportions; it is then put iu baskets or bags for the convenience 
of . arrving it. Thus it becomes a nutritious food, and is calon without any further preparation, or tbo addi- 
tiiiti of spice, salt or any vegetable or farinaceous substance. A little time reconeiles it to the palate. Then; 
is another sort made with the addition of marrow and dried berries, which is of a superior ijuality. 


1 Hjii^s 










tion and in the nioniont of delivery. Tiio women have a sinjriilar custom of cutting 
oil' a small piece of the navel-string of the now-born children, and hanging it about their 
necks; they are also cinious in the covering they make lor it, whic'i they decorate 
witli ijorciipine'is quilLs and beads. 

Though tlio women arc as much in tlio power of the men as other iirticlcs of their 
property, they are always consulted, and possess a very considerable inlli.enee in the 
trallic with Europeans, and other important concerns. 

Plurality of wives is conunon among them ; and the ceremony of man'iage is of a 
.simple nature. The girls are betrothed at a very early period to those whom 
the parents think the best able to support them; nor is the inclination of the woman 
considered. Whenever a separation takes place, which sometimes hajjpen.s, it depends 
entirely on the will and jjleasure of the husband. In common with the other Indians 
of this country, they have a custom respecting the periijJical state of a woman, which 
is rigorously observed : at that time she must .«eclude her.self from society. (Plate 3.) 
Tliey are not even allowed in thai situation to keep the same path as the men when 
travelling : and it is considered a great breach of decency for a woman .so circum- 
stanced to touch any utens'i> of manly occupation. Such a circumstance is sujiposed 
to defile them, so that ficir subsequent use would jje followed by certain mischief or 
misfortune. There are particular skins wiiich the women never touch, as of the bear 
and tiic wolf; and those animals the men are .seldom known to kill. 

Tliey are not remarkable for their activity as hunter*, which is owing to the ease 
with whic', tiiey snaro deer and spear fish; and these occupations are not bcy(jnJ the 
strength .if their old men. women, and boys, so that they participate in those lab(n-ious 
(ji'ciip.uions whieli animitr tlieir neighbors are confined to the women. They make 
war on the ]Os(iuimaux, who cannot resist their su|)erior ninnbers, and put them to 
dealli, as it is a |irinci[ile with them never to make prisoners. At the same time tliey 
tamely submit to their enemies, the KniaiLhcaux, a people who are not so numerous as 

Tlii'v do not aflcct that cold reserve at meeting, either among them.selvcs or 
.strangers, which is connnon wilh the Knisteneaux, but connnunicate mutually and at 
once all the information of which they are possessed. Nor are they rou.sed like them 
from an ajtparent torpor to a state of great .activity. They are consequently more 
unit'orm in this respect, though they are of a very [jersevering disposition when their 
interest is concerned. 

As these peoi)le are not addicted to s])irituous li(|nors, they have a regtdar and 
unintcrru])ted use of their understanding, which is (dways directed to the advancement 
of ll ci'' own interest; and tills disposition, as may be readily imagined, sometimes 
occasions them to be charged with fraudulent habits. They will submit with patience 
to the severest ueMtmcnt, when they are conscious that they deserve it; but will 
never forget or forgive any wanton or unnecessary rigor. A moilerate conduct 1 never 




found ti) fail ; nor do I hositatc to represent tliem, altogetlicr, as tlio most peaceful 
trilie (if Indians known in North America. 

Tliere are <■ njurors and liijih priests, but I was not present at any of tlieir eere- 
nioni<'s, tlioiigh tliey certainly operate in an extraordinary manner on the imaginations 
of tiic jieoplo in the cure of disorders. Their principal maladies arc rheumatic i)ains, 
the llux, and consunqition. The venereal complaint is very common ; hut though its 
progress is slow, it gradually undermines the constitution, and brings on a prematun; 
decay. They have recoiu'se to superstition I'or curing diseases, and charms are their 
only remedies, except the bark of tiie willow, which being burned and reduced to 
powder, is strewed upon green wounds and ulcers. They also use vapor baths, or places 
contrived for promoting perspiration. Of the use of simples and plants they have no 
knowledge; nor can it bo expected, as their country does not produce them. 

Though they have enjoyed so long an intercourse with Europeans, their country is 
so barren as not to bo capable of producing the ordinary necessaries naturally intro- 
duced by such a communication ; and they continue, in a great measure, their own 
inconvenient and awkward modes of taking their game, and of prej)aring it when 
taken. .Sometimes they drive the deer into the small lakes, where tiiey spear them, 
or force them into inclosurcs, where the bow and arrow are employed against them. 
These animals are also taken in snares made of skin. In the former instance, the 
game is divided among those who have been engaged in the pursuit of it. In the 
latter, it is considered as private property; nevertheless, any unsuccessful hunter 
passing by. may take a deer so caught, leaving the head, skin, and saddle, for the 
owner. Thus, though they have no regular government, as every man is lord in his 
own family, they are intluenced more or less by certain principles which conduce to 
their general benelit. 

In their quarrels with each other, they very rarely proceed to a greater degree of 
violence than is occasioned by blows, wrestling, and pulling of the hair; while their 
abusive language consists in applying the name of the most oiVensivo animal to tiie 
object of their displeasure, and adding the terms ugly, and chiay. or still-born.' 

Their arms and domestic apiiai'atus. in addition to the articles procured from Euro- 
peans, are spears, bows and arrows. Their lishing-nets and lines arc made of green 
deer-skin thongs. They have also nets for taking the heaver as ]u> endeavors to escape 
from his lodge, when it is broken open. It is set in a particular manner for the pur- 
pose, and a man is employed to watch the moment when he enters the snare, or ho 
would soon cut his way through it. lie is then thrown upon the ice, where he re- 
mains as if he had no life in him. 

The snow-shoes are of a very superior workmanship. The inner part of their 
frame is straight, the outer one is curved, and it is pointed at both ends, with that iu 

' This name is also applieiiblo to tlio lu'tus I'l' an animal, wlieii killod, wliitli is considered as one ol" the 
greatest delieaeie.s. 

Vol. v. — 'J3 

i W 

i i-i 





front tiirnod up. Tlicy sn'c also Iiu-cd witli jrrcat lu-atiii'ss with tlmiiirM made of doer- 
skin. Tiio sli'ducs aro I'ornu'd of liiin sii|)s of lioanl. turned np also in front, and aru 
liiiildv polisln'il witli rrookcd ivnivcs, in order to slide alonij; with I'a !lity. Clost-- 
griiined wood is. on that account, tlii' best; hut theirs are nnide of the ivA or swamp 
spruee-fir tree. 

The I'ounti'v which tiieso people claim as their land, lias a verv small (piantity of 
earth, and produces little or no wood or herhano. Its chief vcffctahle suhstance i.s the 
moss, on which the deer feed; and a kind of rock-moss, which, in times of scarcity, 
is 11 resource auainst starvation. When boiled in water, it dissolves into a clammy, 
glutinous substance, that affords a very sullieient nourishment. Mat notwithstanding 
the !)arron state of their country, with proper caro and economy. thcs(> people mifjlit 
live in ;.:reat comfort, for the lakes abound with lisli. and the hills are covered with 
deor. Thouuli, of all the Indian jieoplo of this continent, they are considered us thu 
most provident, they suffer severely iit certain seasons, and particularly in th(> dead of 
winter, wbi'u they are under the necessity of retirinu' to tlu'ir sciinty. stinted woods. 
To the westward of them the musk-ox may be found, but tlioy have no dopondence 
on it as an article of sustenance. There arc also larire harps, ii few white woIvch, 
])ccnliar to these rcfiions. and several kinds of fo.ves, with white and grey jiartridge.s, 
&c. 'JMio lii'aver and moose-deer they do nt)t lind till tliey come within bO" north 
latitude: and the bulfalo is still farther south. That animal is known to frequent a 
higher latitude to tlie westward of their country. These jieople bring iiieces of beau- 
tiful variegiited serpentine or steatite, which are I'nnid on the surface of the earth. 
It is easily worked, Ijoars a Ihie polisli, and hardens with time; it endures heat, and 
is manufactured into pipes or calumets, as they are very fond of smoking tobacco, a 
luxury which the Europeans communicated to them. 

Their anuiseinents or recreations arc but lew. Their music is so inharmonious, and 
their dancing so awkward, that they might be supposed to be ashamed of both, as they 
very seldom practise cither. They also shoot at marks, and play at the games 
common anioi'g them, but in fact the\- prefer sleeping to either ; and the greater part of 
their time is })as.sed in procuring food, and resting from the toil necessary to obtain it. 

They are also of a (picrulous dispi)sition, and are contimially making complaints, 
which they express by a constant repetition of the word edui}-. "it is hard," in a 
whining and pliiintive tone of voice. 

They arc su])(>rstitious iii the extreme, and almost every action of their lives, liow- 
cver trivial, is more or less influenced by some whimsical notion. I never observed 
that they bad any jiarticidav form of religious worship; but as they believe in a good 
and evil spirit, and a pecidiar state of future rewards and punishments, they cannot 
be devoid of religious imi)rcssions. At the same time, they manifest a decided unwil- 
lingness to make any coimniuiications on the subject. On this subject .all Indians are 



! fi 

Tlie Atliivpnscns have boon ncciisoil of ubiiiKloniiig their a;^oil niiJ infirm people to 
perisli, and of not buryinj; tlieir iloiui ; l)Mt the,so arc nielanoholy noeessitioH. wiiiob 
proooed from tiieir wandering way of life. Tlioy are by no meunn uiiiversid, for it is 
within my itnowledgo that a nuin, rendered heiidess by tlie palsy, was cairiod about 
for many years, with the greatest tenderness and attention, till ho died a natural 
death. That they should not bury their dead in their own eoimtry, cannot be 
imputed to them as a custom arising from a savage insensibility, as they iidialiit such 
high latitudes that the ground never thaws; but it is well known that when tiny are 
in the woods, they cover their dead with trees. Besides, they numili'st no eounnon 
respect to the memory of their departed friends, by a long period of mourning, cutting 
oflf their hair, and never making use of tlio jjroporty of the deceased. Nay, they 
fre(|uently destroy or sacrifice their own, as a token of regret and sorrow. 

If there bo any people who, Irom the barren statu of their country, might be sup- 
po.scd to bo cannibals by natm'o, these people, from the dillicnlty they at times expe- 
rience in procuring food, might be liable to that imputation. But, in all my knowledge 
of thom, I never was ac(|iiainled with one instance of that disposition; nor among all 
the natives which I met with in a route of live thousand miles, did 1 see or bear of 
nn c.vaniple of cannibalism, but such as arose from that irresistible necessity which 
lias been known to impel even the nu)st eivili/ed people to eat each other." 

Of the Strongbows, Copper-Mine Indians, and other tribes' of the widelx-spread 
Athapasca family, we are loss fully informed ; and distinct from their language, the 
interest they have excited is loss i)erfectly developed. Nor have they, so far as our 
knowledge of their ethnographical movements extends, exerted nuieh inlluence on 
the tribes of the southerly latitudes of the continent. 

B I, A r K K K F. T . 

The Saskatchawine river of Lake Wiiniipeck originates in the Rocky Aronntains. in 
north latitude about 50° and o-t". Between its great southern and northern forks, in 
a fertile, game country, arc found the Pecanoaux, Blackfeet, and Blood Indians. 
Those tribes constitute a group which is diU'orent from their neighbors, speaking a 
language on the lower parts of the river, agreeing with that of the Assiuaboines. who 
are Dacotas, or the Kenistenos, who arc Algonquins. Traders and interpreters of the 
region pronounce it peculiar. Mackenzie informs ns, that their track of migration has 
been towards the north-west, expressing the opinion that they have a *• language of 
their own." From a vocabulary of it exhibited to the late Mr. Gallatin, he was 
inclined to deem it referable to the Algonquin family, and has so classified it in his 

' The Snrst'cs of the Siiskatclmwino aro .\tlmp!isc!is 

;i ¥^ 





1' '.• 







li ■ 

IJ )i ■ 

i i 




'Synopsis of Trilx's." llic tribe constitiitiri.u; fiimiu'unffo 01 of Family III (Vide Vol. 



lOl.) irtiii< -n 

well tiikcii. in wliicli. Iiowcvor, we lin\i- iu'cn nniilili' 

to olitiiin till- ciincnrrcnoc' of tiio Missonii interpreters iinil I'm' ti'inlerM, tliey prui)iil)ly 
Inive iilllnities witii tlie Kenisti-nos, ImvinL'. n,ij:i'c'eiii)ly to tlio iiutlioiity iibovo oNpresseci, 
niiuTJiteii IVoni tlio Hontli-east. 

In \vli:ue\er those triljoH ■iiiier, however, from their neii'lihors. and the rest of the 

Indian stocl\s. thev ai'ree v.'ith 

.'in in tlic'ir hostiiitios to each other, and in tlieir 

continnoMs hmils and dis])uti>s. These ]iepetnally I'l'enrrini^ distni'l»inices iinuily led 
t(»a general fend, in wliieli lliey separated into two parties — tlu' onedistinguisiied \>y the 
Ived, or bloody llajr. and the otlu'r. from roverenco to a noted leader, who had fallen, the 
IJlaeU llau'. Tin' younL'' and more warlike warriors, gonerally ranjj^ed themsolvos under 
the Ued baiuier; tiie more elderly and sediite. nnder the IJlack ensijrn. After nnmorons 
skirmishes, and endeavors to entrap eaeli other, a iireat battle was linally l()n<iht. in 
whieh the ])arty of the IJotl Hair trinmi)hed. This led to a final separation. The 
])arty of the Black Hag lied towards the south. Continuing on in this direction, they 
reached the banks of the IMissniiri. This flight appears to have taken ])la(re in the 
autumn, after the prairies had been burmnl over, anil the black ashes of the grass and 
shrubbery I'olored tlieir moccasins and leggiiis. In this plight, they were first met by 
tiie Upsaroka. or Crow Indians, who called them IMackfeet. The term was adopted 
liy the (Iros N'entres and Mandans. and soon spread among all the tribes. They had 
extended their hunting and war iiarties to the head waters of the river Merias. and 
never proceeded farther east than Milk Hiver. — a stream falling into the jMi.ssouri on 
the west, about one hundred and fitly miles above the Yellow Stone. 

]5\- tliis lliglit. they had now found a new country, abounding in every requisite of 
Indian life. ]>iit they had not left behind that spirit of iiiti'riial dissension and discord 
which had iinidiiced the sjjlit on the .'^askatchiwine. A n>'w feud arose among the 
Missouri IJiackfeet, which resulted in another division of the tribe, under an ambitious 
leader, called Piegan. or the Pheasant. After several defeats, hi' was driven across 
the Missouri, and took shelter in the mountains. The three recognized divisions of 
the trilie. are. therefore, in the oriler of their organi/.ation — the IMoods. the IJiackfeet, 
and the Pieuans. (Vide Appendi.v, No. o.) The whole number of these divisions has 
been estimated at nine thou.sand six hundred, occupying twelve hundred lodges. 
(Vol. 1 1 1., p. iJ'2'.K) They were greatly over-estimated in former accounts, received from 
peixais residing in the Indian country, who, without the slightest intention to deceive, 
liave not had the means of accurate computation. They suflercil much from the 
nuagis of small-pox. which swept through the Missouri valley, in IS.'iT. 

The character and reputation of the Blackfeefc nation, has been, perhaps, under- 
rated, from occurrences which transpired in ISOo, during the celebrated expedition of 
Lewis and Clark. They are described by later observers, as having more decision and 
fixity in tlieir camp regulations, or laws and customs, than other tribes on the Mi.s.souri, 



but not UN licinu: u\i)\v cnifl. or Monil-tliii'Mtv, while tlifso very traits nro It'-i^iiod U) 
iipliold llic two f;rt'iit i)rin('i|ilt's of tiicii' iisNociiitidii. iiiiiin'ly. wnr ami I'uuinjf. 'jiko 
nil in'iiii'ic liilics. tlicy wiimlor (tvcr t\n' idains, tiiUowiiif; llic liiilliil >, niil liiiviiif; no 
jiiTnianent locution. Priding tliiMiiMi'lvoM on frrcat conrajii', tlipy liiinu; np tlii'ir yonllis 
to follow in tlioir lliotHtcii.-*. As soon as a yonng man is capuMt' of drawing tlio bow, 
\h' cMilists inidur tiic wolt-sUin liannor of sonic aniliitions I'liicf, and takes Ids lirst lesson 
in war and hatred lo Ids lellow trilies. To bring luick the sealp of an enemy, is tin? 
great object of ambition, ai.d this alone settles bis position and eli.nacter in tbe loilgo 
circle, and nt tlio festive and conncil board. Tlic tribe holds itself nfi as surpassing 
nil others on the war-path. 'I'hey disdain alliances with the other tribes, and bid 
defiance to them all. 'I'lieir enemies on i\\o ^lissouri are the Dacotas, Ciros Ventres, 
and Crows. I>ut they push thi'ir I ostiie oxi-in'sions over the Itocky Mountains in 
rpiost of the Indian horses of Ore;.* ,;, where tlicy fight the Fhitlieads, 1) nth it'Onl/h-i 
nnd A' ■; l\r<rn. They can endure the extremes of savage life with stoicism. They 
never complain in hunger or siilfcring. 'i'he jirairie is their spontaneous garden. It 
yields them roots and medicines. They cultivate nothing, They have abundance of 
food when game is plenty, and starve when it is .scarce. The only enter[)rise in which 
they engage, besides war and the chase, is liorso-stealing ; and this too is an IioiK)rabic 
nchievemont, and u point of great distinction for the young, the brave, and the active. 
Human scalps are their glory, and the bufl'alo their reliance. They are the most 
perfect .spccimen.s of savage life found on the continent. 

Yet there arc always .some abatements to the .severity of the nmnner.s and customs 
of even the most barbarous tribes. A person of good judgment and observation, who 
lias spent the better part of his life in commercial dealings with these, and the neigh- 
boring tribes of the Sioux, Ujisarokas, Mandans, &e., makes replic- vvlii' h furnish 
the grounds of the following observations. 

The character of the Indians is composed of two things — ferocity and goodness. 
That these Indians are of a cruel, treacherous, and inexorable disposition, that, to take 
vengeance on an enemy, they often pass many days, ti>rgetting the calls of nature, 
crossing forests and prairies without paths, .subsisting on wdiat the woods and plains 
furnish; that they will listen without i)ity to the piercing cries of the unhappy victims 
that fall in their hands, and receive a diabolical pleasure from the tortures they intliot 
on their prisoners, is only too true. 

Accustomed from their infancy to bear pain, they .soon become superior to the 
dangers of fear: forest precepts and practices never cease to precede or follow one 
another ; however they may fail in their enterprises, they at once flatter them.selves 
with the hope of better success in the future. They are as sly ns a fox. jio.s.sess the 
agility of a deer, the eyes of a lynx, and the unconrpierable ferocity of the tiger. 

They are gcmerally well pro|)ortioned, tall, and straight, and there is seldom a deformed 
person among them. Their skin is of a reddish or copper color, their eyes large and 

' im 

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blnck, tlicir liair onal-lilnck and straiulit. and vcn seldom onrly ; tlioy liavo vorv pood 
teeth, and tlioir Ijivatli is as pure as tlie air tlii-v inlialc. The bones ol'tlie ehci-ks are 
n little liigh. hut more partieuhirly in tlie women. Tiie hitter are not as tall as the 
European Ic-males, although there are ol'teii avrreeahle and i)retty (i^'ures ainouf; them ; 
they ineline more towards fatness than the other sox. The men liate beards, or being 
hairy excei)t on the head, and take great pains to pull out the beard. For this pur- 
jiose they take their gnn-worins, or split pieces of hard wood, and by a sudden jerk 
cxtraet the hair. The men of the upper iMi.ssonri nations dill'er very little in their 
dresses, cxeept tho.w that tndlie with whites; these ehange their peltries for blankets, 
elotli, Ike, with wliieh they adorn their i)ersons for promenailing in their eamp, or for 
visiting some of their friends in other camps; but iu their dancing, they never wear 
this apparel. 

Tho.xe men that wish to ajipear more expert than others, pull out the hair of their 
head, except a bunch that they leave on the top of the scalp. The}- paint themselves 
fantastically with retl, 3('llow, or black paint, men as well as women. 

Their shoes or moccasins are nuidt' with the skin of deei', elk, or buffalo, well 
dressed; they are garnished with beads, or dyed porcupine-quills. The Indians in 
general pay more attention to their ornaments, than to the dress itself, or the accom- 
modation of their wigwam. 

The tools which they use in fabricating their utensils are so defective, that they 
very .seldom work anyt'.iing but what they arc absolutely in want of, as wooden bowls, 
spoons, stone-pifies, pi[)e-stems, bows and arrows, and war-dubs. Their principal 
implements are knives, heated awls for boring holes, fire-.steels, and small hatchets, 
which they obtain from the whites. Knives and llre-stcels arc two very essential 
articles in war. The European costume sits badly on the Indian ; in general, they 
make a Ijctter appearance in their native than anything they can procure from 
the whites. In their own costume, tiiey are more free in their movements; when 
they have foreign clothing on, they have the appi'arance of being confined. 

When the female scats herself, she places her limbs decently, both knees together, 
and turns her feet side-ways; but that posture helps to make them walk badly, so 
that they seem to be lame. They have no niidwives among them, nor do they sutler 
much in parturition ; they often aljscnt themselves from their daily work but a couple of 
hours. The men take little notice of domestic afl'airs; indolent Irom pride and custom, 
they leave the women not only t'> <lo all tiie internal work, but often scMid them after 
the meat of the game they have killed, although sometimes at a great distance. 

Tiie women i)lare their children, as .soon as born, on a piece of hooped boanl, stulVed 
with; the child is laid on its back, on one of this kind of cradles, and enveloped 
with pieces of skin or cloth to keep him warm. This forest-cradle is tied with pieces 
of leather bands ; to these they tie other straps, to suspend from their heads, or hang 
them to the limbs of trees, while the mothe" does the necessary work of the lodge. 




TIip Tiulian women arc rciimrkahly •leooiit at the time of tlioir periodical illness. 
They make a little lodiro close to the large ones, wiiore they retire. At that period, 
tiie men dehar ail intercourse with tlicm; not even (ire is brought from the lunar 
retreats of women. They are very superstitious in tiiis matter; if one of their 
pipe-stems splits, they believe that the pipe has l)oon lit atone of these menstrual fires, 
or tlint the smoker has been speaking to one of these secluded women. 

If an Indian of tliesc bands has been absent from his family many months, on a 
war or hunting excursion, when tho wife and children go to meet him at a little 
distance from camp, instead of tiie natural affections that would rise in the heart of a 
civilized people, and mutual pleasure of meeting, the warriors continue to walk on their 
course witiiout paying tiie least attention to these feminine visitants. Wiien the 
warrior gets to his lodge, he sits down, and smokes with the same imjierturbability 
and apparent insensiliility, as if ho had been absent only a day or an hour. 

If the Indian is insensible in his feelings or manners towards the female, it is an 
insensibility wliich he ap})lies to himself. He goes several days without food, anil is 
too i)roud or stolid to murnuu'. If you toll him that one of his .sons lias killeii many 
enemies, and has brought many scalps, and taken many prisoners or slaves, liis eyes 
glisten, but he expresses no rapture. Instead of this, if you tell him that one of his 
sons has been killed or taken prisoner, he receives the intelligence in silence; nut 
a looiv or a word .shows the feelings of iiis heart. Notwithstanding examples of 
apparent iiidillerence, 1 have never seen, says my informant, among other people, 
more real examples of paternal aiTectioii, than among these mute foresters; and the 
men, in general, are not without conjugal allection. Their children are loved; and, 
according to their manners, loving to their parents. (Mitcell.) 

Tiiere are some particular rules as to visits from wigwam to wigwam. If an Indian 
goes visiting to a particular lodge, he naiiies the person tiiat he comes to see. and the 
rest of the family innnediately depart. The same method is practised in regard to tho 
other se.\, but then lie must pay particular attention not to speak of love as long as 
the sun is above the horizon. 

The IJlaekfeet have words in their language to e.xprcss the general of time ; 
they do not count tho hours, but the days. They count time by winters, or ms they 
express themselves, by snoics. They count their years l)y moons, making them con- 
sist of twelve moons ; but after observing twelve moons, tiiey add one nunc, wiiich 
they call the lost moon. 

Every month, with tiiem, is an expressive name of the season. They call Maich 
the green moon; April, the moon of plants; May, the moon of tlowers ; June, the 
hot moon; July, the motm of the deer; August, sturgeon-inoon, for in that montii 
they catch that fish ; September, the fruit-moon; October, tlie travelling-moon, lor at 
that .season they leave their dwellings, and go to their liunting-grouiids tijr the winter 
season ; November, tlie beaver-moon, for at that season tliese animals commence to go 






in their ilwellin<^H, liavinir L^itlioicd their winter Ibotl ; Dceoiiihor, tiie linntiiig-iiioon ; 
.Fiinuary, the ci)l(l-iiio<)ii ; Feliniary, the Hiiowy-moon, Tiiey ninlic' use of .siirnilioant 
liierojilyphics. Tiiey also draw, itu bai'k, correct maps of the country they are 
ac(|uaintetl witii, altliougii very ignorant ol" general geography. 

Tliese traitit, derived from the social life of the Indians, mitigate our ideas of a 
people who have been pronounced savage, cruel, perliihous, voracious, and adilicted to 
thieving, murder, and plunder; without forecast or precaution, idle and improvident. 
if they siiow some glinunerings of knowledge (iiat could he improved l)y culture, and 
some manliness of character that could he directed to better energies, they also e.xiiiltit 
a class of .suite features in the Indian race, that, modilied as it may l)e. are essentially 
the same that it was found in the valley of the Ohio, throughout the basins of the 
great lakes, and along tiie wide-spreading borders of tiie Atlantic. 

r 1 1, r. A G i: u .s , () K M u k k u n d w a s 

I I 

t i 

I I 

! I 
i I J 

' i ! ii 

Tliis term is derived from a verb in the (.'hippewa language, which dtK?s not imply 
stealing, but taking openly, v an exertion of sell-constituted authority, and as such, 
tiie tribe rejoices in it. They went out, origin.alty, from the ancient capital of tiie 
Ciiippewas at Chegoimegon, on Lake Superior. The whole tribe of this name, have, 
IVoin early days. Ijeon progressive towards the north-west. Language denotes that the 
race liail, in early epochs, dwelt on the shores of the Atlantic, and their own traditions 
confirm this view. I5ut what changes of name they had undergone, it is impossible 
to tell : all the names of trilial divisions of the stock, which have reiiched us, seem 
modern. Thi'v are identical with the great (.'hippewa family. 

Tiiey were found I)y the Freneli. in their discovery of the country, at the central posi- 
tion of tiie large group of islands which occu[)y this commanding lake, about L<i Jhui/i; 
C/irijoliii<(/vii, on Lake Superior, which has been shortened to Lai-oixtk. This magniti- 
cent body of water, with its conlluent rivers, allords them an opportunity for the display 
of tlieir skill in canoo-eraft and navigation, in which thev have .so much excelled. The 
variety of (ish in its waters all'orded a reliable resource at all seasons. The surrounding 
shares were celebrated li)r their abundance of the heaver, and snmll furred animals, 
so much valued on the opening of the fur-trade of Canada; and were equally celebrated 
for the deer, elk, moose, and bear. It was here that the i'rench established their first 
mission in the upper lakes, under D'AI)lon, Manpiette and Marcst. Tiieir early 
traditiims of concpiest speak of celebrated men called Noka, Hianswa, and Waub Ojeeg. 
Under these, the martial spirit of the triljc drove the Ontaganiies, and the Sanks, from 
the country, at the source of the Ontonagon, Montreal, Wisconsin, and Chipiicwa; 
expelled the Sionx, or Naiidowessic, from the Ui)per St. Croix and Rum rivers, and 
carried them to Sandy lake, and Leech lake, at the sources ol' the Mississippi river. 




Tlir con(|iierors fixoil tlicmsclvcw first, coiitially, iit Siindy liiUc. and fiiiiilly nt Loocli 
Idko, tlio largest of all tlio tril)utark's iif tin- rppir Mississippi, and this lias rontiniicd 
to bo tlioir location from the earliest times, so far as positive history jmidcs us. It is 
this tril)c, and the Sandy lake Chippewas, that have hccn the severest, and most 
ufl'ectual enemies of the Sionx. These hanils have often fouj^ht with Spartan valor. 
Their devotion is worthy of a hettcr cause. Hctter woodsmen and foresters than their 
enemies, they have often pouneed out of their forests, in comparatively small parties, 
led hy the spirit of hereditary rcveufre. and defeated their more numerous enemies. 
Even down to the present <lay. such leaders as I'uL'asninjigun. and llole-in-the-Uiiy, 
leave us to wonder at the efleetivc vindication of their acts. 

The ])rincipal seats of tiie I'iilaf^ers are at lit>ech lake, and at Otter-Tail lake, the 
latter of whicli is the eastern source of Red river of lake Wiunipec. They also have per- 
manent villajic's at lake \Vinnil)eeu;ish, and at the ancient Upper l{ed Cedar, or Cass lake. 

They number about lliOU souls, who occupy a country .some four hundred miles in 
circumference, interspcr.sed with innumeraljle lakes, well sup[)lieil with fish of dilferent 
species. The and trout e(inallin^' those of hake Superior. (Vide Plate.) 

Their country has Ijoen well adapted to Indians livinjr in the iiunter state; but at 
this day they have nearly exterminated the furred animuls, and they are obliged mostly 
to foUow the chase in the hunting grounds of the Sioux. 

Formerh' the Pillagers resided altogether at Leech lake, but within a few3ears they 
have made a gradual advance westward. The band at Otter-Tail lake, once on the 
very outskirts of their country, now number .'100. The Sioux have gradually receded 
westward, and they have followed them closel}-. taking possession of their deserted 
vilhua's. An informant asserts, that within a little more than a hundred years, they 
have advanced from the shores of Lake Superior to their present position, a distance 
of .")(>(» miles. 

The Pillagers, according to the accounts of tlioir old men, separated from the main 
body of the tribe, at the general council-fire on Lake Suiierior, and before the settlement 
of (.'anada, and, ascending the St. Louis river, wrested Sandy Lake from the Dacotahs, 
and drove them westward, taking possession of their country around the sources of the 

The name by which they arc at present known, has its origin in the following 
circumstance, which they themselves relate. 

The band, while encamped at the month of a small creek, known to this day as 
Pillage creek, ton miles above the mouth of Crow-Wing river, wore visited by a white 
trader who had entered the Mississippi, and followed it a great distance with a canoe 
load of goods to barter with them for furs. Ho arrived among them sick and unable 
to trade. His goods having been wetted by a rain, he ordered his men to untie the 
bales and spread them out to dry. The Indians, being on the point of holding a grand 
medicine dance, were eager to trade, as on those occasions they spare no expense for 

Vol. V. — 21 




iliicn . Till' j:oo(ls spvi'iiil out liolorc tlioir ovcs woiv a ti'iiiiitation tliiit llicv cmilil luit 
resist. A \inmj; iiiaii cumiiu'iiccil the pilliifio l)_v toiuiiii; oil' a hivech-clotli. ivmarkiiig 
nl till' Miiiio tiiiii'. tliiit hi' liail liirs to pay tlii' trail(>r. Others rollowrd his cxaiiipli', 
till it lii'i'aiiii' a ^I'lUM'al se'rainhii', mid tlio sick man's },'ooils wi-ro all taUi-n Irom him. 
1h' lol't tlie inliospilahio camp tlie next day, hut died on his way down the river, at 
Sank litipiiis. 

Kiom Indian ai'Connts, tliis circumstance happened nliout the time of the (list settle- 
ment of St. lioiiis, liy the Freni'h. Ahont tliis time, tlie Fnr Company of liaeiedo, 
Maxaii, iS: Co., eommeni'eil operations, and it is not an improhalile surmise to suppose 
that till' trailer here nuntioneil was sent up hy them. Another tradition denotes that 
the liuods had eome from Canada, hy the wa^-of Lake Superior, and the name of Ilerti 
is given as the name of the unfortunate trader. The aet has ^iven the name of 
I'illaiiers to this hand ; — a name that they are proud of, and it must be said that in 
modern times they have acted honorably in their intereourso with tlie whites. 

Thi'v ail' a warlike people, and iiave always been the advanced bulwark of the 
Cliippewas; havinir been in the van, they have been in the very midst of the lire of the 
enemy, and stood the brunt of the war with the Sioux. 

It is impracticable to mention all their battles, surprises, and massacres, during this 
fend, and only two or tliri'e notices of these incidents, of modern date, will be given. 

TIkIi- present eliiet", called (iio I I'ltil by the Krench. Flat-Month, or />// In /»i(f r innhf, 
who is now an old man, he distinguished himself in his younger days by heading awar- 
jiarty of l(i(t warriors, who fell on a camp of fifty lodges of Sioux, and destroyed all 
but six men. This happened at the northern end of Long Prairie, where the Winne- 
bago Agency is now located. A severe tight occurred here also, previous to the aljovo, 
ami during the life-time of Flat-Mouth's father, many men were killed on both sides, 
and the Sioux men driven olf the prairie. 

A brave warrior by the name of JiUnk l)tir].\ tibout forty years ago, raised a con- 
siderable war-party, and proceeded into the Sioux country about the head waters of St. 
I'l'tci's river. All of his party returned but forty tried warriors : with these he pro- 
ceetli'd into the very midst of the Sioux country, and falling on a large village, destroyed 
mail} lives, and would have killed all of the inhabitants had not a friendly Assineboinc 
warned them in their own language that a large vilkige of Siou.x was near by, and 
that the attacked party had .sent for the warriors to come to their aid. On hearing 
this, Hlack Duck suddeidy struck his blow and reluctantly retreated, their ammunition 
bui'."' also exhausted. They had not proceeded far, when, while traversing a wide 
])rairie, clouds of dust from the direction of the massacred village, told tliem that their 
eiK'iay was approaching. 

At this time, liad they separated and each sought to escape, many might have 
retunird home safe, but preferring to meet death together, they seated themselves on 
the piairie and Ix'gan smoking their jiipes, ijuietly waiting the enemy. Tiuee hundred 



mounted Sioux warriors iliislicd up to, and Hiirroimdod thoiii : tlip strn-rs.'lo wax with 
kiiivoH, toiiialiawks, and Hpt-ars. It was .xjiort and hloodv. and lint one Cliippcwa 
escaped to toll tlio talc. The lo.-^s of so many of llair iiravcst warriors at one Mow, 
wart a stroke on the Pillaj^ers that they did not recover for some time. Mr. Warren 
observes, "At tlic time of Mr. Schoolcraft's visit to licech lake, in IS'Ili, l-'lat-Mouth 
had just returned from the war-path. The Pillager warriors luid attccked the larjre 
Sioux village at Lake Traverse, on the head of tin; St. IVtcr's. and iiad suH'ered a ton- 
siderablc loss in killed ami wounded, not greater, however, than they inllicted on the 
Sioux. Tiiis net ho carefully concealed." 

For the last hundred and (ifty years, hardly a ^ear has passed between these two 
tribes in peace. War has become a pastime among them. !5y their indiseretion. tlu; 
Pillagers have often caused much loss of life to their brother Chippewas of llie 
Mississippi, who have, of late years, been more peaceably dispo.sed towards the 

The great massacre of the Chippewas by the Sioiix, in 18.">7, at Stillwater and Hum 
river, was caused by two Pillagei killing a Sioux for the sake of his scalp. 

The last considerable light bLtween these two hostile tribes, tot)k place in the winter 
of 1S17. A war-party of tilty Sioux fell on a camp of twenty-six Pillagers, while on a 
bnllalo-hunt within the country of their enemies. The Sioux were driven olf with the 
loss of one killed and si.x wunniled. The Pillagers lost one of their principal elders and 
warriors; they had also four severely wounded. Three livi-s were also lost in a skir- 
mish which took place towards the spring of the same year. 

In the summer of 1810, a son of Flat-Mouth, with six Pillagers, joined a war-party 
from Red liake, numbering SO men. Falling on an eipial numlior of Sioux, a light 
ensued, in which the young chief, with his Pillagers, are said to have greatly distin- 
guished themselves. One of them was severely wounded, and they brought a .scalp 

It will re(|uire time and strong inlluence to induce the Pillagers to live at peace 
with the Sioux. Nothing has so much hurt Flat-Mouth's inlluence among his bunds, 
as his disposition lor peace. In ISltl, he signed a treaty of peace with the Sioux at 
Lapointe, through the importunity of the Sub-Agent, who gave him a Hag and nu-dal. 
For this act, ho was obliged to tlee his country for his life, and remained away nearly 
two years. lie has never regained his former inlluence since, and he is now canlul 
that he does nothing without the con.sont of his warriors. (Warren.) 

The Pillagers, as a body, are living in the hunter state, but the game in their own 
country is fast disappearing; and it is evident to themselves, as well as to people 
ac(piainted with their habits and feelings, that in order to continue in this state, 
they must emigrate further west, which it is noticed they are gradually doing. II', 
otherwise, and they are forced to remain in their own country, they must turn their 
attention to agriculture ; and for this they need and reiiuire the aid of the Govern- 










f i 



mc'iit, wliii!li aid mii.«t, in the imtmal coiir.^o of ovciitM, Ijo given ns nil c(iuivalont for 
tlu< call' of laiitln.' 

Ol' tlic CliipiH'waH rcsiiling williiii tlie limits of the Uiiiti-il Stntos, tlio PiliafriT biuid 
is till! ioast cimtaiuiiiati'd with tho i-viis coiisi'iniciit on tho iiitcivourfo with whites; 
but siiicc tho coiniiuMU'oiiu'nt ol'aniiuitios, a oliaiifri' is taking |)hR'c, and in a I'ow^oars 
they will put oUtho wiM. IVi'o habits and manners of tho sons ol' the forest. 

They speak the same langnage. in pronunciation and idiom, with the Cliippowas of 
Lake Snperior and the Mississippi ; have the snino cnstonis, and arc, in every respect 
but their predatory haliits and name, the same people. It is to bo regretted that they 
were not included in the first treaties with those bands. At the treaty in IS:!?, at 
St. I'eters, it was understood amongst themseb "s that they would sell as a nation, and 
.xhare alike the annuities. Under this understanding. Klat-iMowth was the fn'.st to sign 
thai treaty; but tho matter being lett to the Indians, sellishness and cupidity induced 
the Cliippowas of Sui)erior and .Mississippi to deny, the ensuing year, the Pillagers n 
share in the annuity. This ciroumstaneo caused a temporary breach between them 
and their lellow-t 'hippewas ; but it has Iwcn Inippily adjusted ; and a few years of inter- 
course with tho government has li'd to harmony of interests, and all arc now pursuing 
tho same ]v)liey of improvement and industrial progress. 

The Leech Lake Indians have no missionaries residing among them. Two attempts 
have been made to establish a mission; one by Hov.W. V. IJoutwoll, under tho auspices 
of the American lioanl of Foreign Missions, and one by P. O. .fohnson, for the Western 
Evangelical Mission Society. IJoth of these attempts failed ; the Indians killing the 
cattle, and in every way annoying them, soon caused them to desist from their cUbrts, 
and leave the country. 

Their traditions say tlmt the old French first traded with them, and sold them fire- 
arms, which enabled them to drive the Sioux from their country. The English came 
after tho French ; and of late years the Lou;/ h'nliis, or Americans, have become their 

Within tho remembrance of tho old men, beavor were once plenty in the country 
they now occupy; and it was as in those days to trap a beavor, as it is now to 
trap a muskrat. A1)0ut thirty-five or forty years ago, beaver suddenly died ; their 
dead bodies wore found lloating on lakes and ponds, and only a few living in running 
wivter escaped tlie beavor pestilence. At this day, there arc none found in the 

Until late years, tho Pillagers have had more intercom'so with the British than with 
tho Americans. They li.ave in their possession more British medals than American, 
and within a .short time have evinced a in their favor. Tho government 

' The Pilliiirors, oarly on tlio 2'2cl of Folinmry, 1S."i.'), with a wise forecast of their affairH, coded their nitiro 
territories to tlie t'liited States, for a vaiiialile annuity ; seeiiring reservations, of wliieli the lee-simple ia ia 
tho Government, the latter stipnlatinj; to introduce ajrrieulturo, tcaeliers, and the arts. 





of tliin tii!)(' is that of the iinriont Imliims. by (."liiols and councilH. The PillumTH 
liavo IV printiiiiil cliicf, siilwliii'ls, war-cliiflV, wanidis, and nudicine-nii'ii.' Flat- 
M(i\itli is till' iniiK'ipal by lun-ditary dt'sct'iit. /i'^/«/.v, or Hull'ult). is tin- iii'iid war- 
chief. TiiL'io are ^ix milK-hicfs, wlio preside over tlie din'crciit viUajrcs alxjut rjoccii 
and Otter-Tail lakes. The principal of is the chief of Otter-Tail lake, (inliim- 
nUriio, whose band iiiunl)er3 .">(J(( sonls. They have twcnty-eij:ht noted warriors, at 
the hca<l of whom is (lijtr/inliin; chief of frreat darers, a name they have earned by re- 
peated acts of bravery in their war with the Siou.v. They can raise at least liOlj men 
cnpal)le of bearinL' arms. They have not snIVercd as much loss of life in their wars, a.H 
woulil be snjtposed, on account of the ^reat adaptation of their country for defence. 
Sioux war-partii's seldom, if ever, cuter their lauds to attack their villaj;es; their coun- 
try being so broken up into lakes and swamps, the key to which only they know, 
that it is danj^erous for an enemy, however strong, to penetrate to their villages, even 
with guides. In this respect, it is eciual to Florida; and the warlike disposition of 
the I'illngcrs and northern Chippowas, is not surpas.sed by the Seminoles. 

Among the I'illagers, all the old men, and many of the old women, are mii/mns, 
and practise medicine. There arc a few, say seven, who are noted medicine-men, 
having passed thro\igh the eight grades of mo-da-we. which makes them liigli priests, 
or initiators. They are deemed masters of their religion and medicine. As priest.s, 
they liave no reco^ni/ed authority in the councils of the tribe. Flat-Mouth, and the 
older chiefs, are priests at the same time. 

Soon after the death of the great Shawano prophet, brother of Tecumseh. who 
caused such rommotion among nearly all the western and northern tribes, a proi)het 
arose among the ("hippewas of Lake Superior, whose creed spread like wild-fire among 
the Pillagers. Flat-Mouth himself, who is more intelligent than the generality of his 
fellow.s, believed, and even acted as a messenger for the prophet to the IJritish Indians. 
The excitement, however, like that caused by the Shawano, soon died away, and the 
ludiitus returned to their old customs. 

;"iU within ten years (to IS.'iO). the British supplied the Pillagers with fire-water at 
thc! trading-posts on the frontier-lines. Four and five hundred miles were not consi- 

Chicfs or I'artizans, anJ 
principal men. 

' Lnc/i Liib' Chlrfs In l>*:!Oi. 
Flat-Mouth — K.-<Iikibo!,'ikozIii ( licrcditary chief). 
The EKIer Hrotlicr — Ozawikinebilf, or thc yellow snake. 
The Chill" of the Karth — Ohigwailens. 
Ma/.if:al)au, or Lathrape. 
Little Hufi'alo, or IJizhikiri.'i. 
The Male Hiiffalo — A vahai Ri/.hiki. 
The Youiii; Man — Oshkiiiawen.s. 
The ],ittle ."^liouMer — Uilenigans. 
Shagi>l)ai — The Six. 
l!i^ ("loml — Kiihi .Viiakwoil. 
.The Yellow (Sown — Wez.iokouayc, thc yellow coat. 





i f 

(leivd liy thoHo Iiiilians iih too Car In ^'n, in order to |irociiri' li(|ii<ir. During tliiM tinio, 
iimuy inmlc yoiuly viititH to .MitliiliiiiacUiiiiic ami Caiiaila lor fpiritu, ami to nccivc tin- 
pri'soiits tliat (iroat llritaiii, till williiii tluvi' vcarH, lias Iktii atTiistoiiied to jiivi- to tlu' 
diU'i-rciit Indian triltcM on tho liiifs. in ordi-r to Ki'ciirc tlu-ir ludp or neutrality in eaxu 
of u war with the Inittd States. This praetiee. however, has heen lately stopiied, at 
the remonstrance of our (iovernmcnt; and tliu ChippcwuM iv) longer make tiieou yearly 
visits as Ibrmerly. 

Since the St. I'eter's treaty, in IS.'}", when the Ciiippowns ceded their lands to tlio 
month ol' ('row-Win^ river, within a day's journey of the L'illafrer country, they have 
lieen i>lentifully supplied with ardent siiirits from tho refrion of St. Anthony's Falls. 
Whi.-^key-traders followed up tho lino of the coded territory, and ItK-ated thomselves at 
the eonlluence of tho Mississippi and Crow-Win^' rivers. They snpplii'd tho l'illafrer.s 
and Chippi'was of Mississippi with all that their hunts eotdd pay for. From that time 
to the removal of the Winiieliauoes, in ISIS, upwards of sixty barrels of whiskey have 
been sold to them yearly. They were fast degenoratiu};, and hecoininf.' miserahly 
j)oor; li\es wore lost, also, in drunken hrawls and t|uarrels. Since the removal of the 
Winnoltagocs, however, and the huildinj.' of Fort (iaines (now IJipley), this state of 
tilings has been stopped iiy the indefati.i:al>le exertions of their ajients. At their 
nmiuity payments in ISol), tho l*illaj,a'rs unanimously promised their agent to allow 
no li(|Uor to bo intrudnced into their country ; and to this time, not a drop has, to tho 
knowleilgi- of the writer, been introduced among the Pillagers, and this line body of bold 
and manly men are free from this bane of tho l!ed man. 

To this outline of a nnirtial tribe, who coidossedly stand at tho head of the Chippewa 
tribes. u\i\y bo added some notices of the country they inhabit, and its advantages, 
present and prospective. The chioi", and central jjoint of attraction, at this time, is 
Lki:( M Lake. 

The poriniotor of this lake i.s about ItiO miles. Twonty-.scvcn rivers empty into it, and 
one departs from it, called Leech Lake river, which falls into the Mississippi. It has 
nine largo bays, and many small ones; ten largo projecting capes, and a groat nundier 
of small ones. Its population (Indian) is above lOdlt, of which there are liOO warriors. 

The soil of tho borders and about tlii' lake is suscoi)tible of ii high degree of culture, 
and can be successfully tilled as gardens and .as farms. Several varieties of clay occur, 
of which .some are very fine, .sometimes mixed with sands of talcose rocks, and somotiinos 
these rocks are suporpo.sod, but always covered with a bod of rich vegetable earth. 
The forest trees are of a line growth, many of them very old. They appear less subject 
to the diseases which destroy tho forest trees of tho .south and the west : elm ; maple, 
hard and soft; oak, rod, white, post, and others; rod and yellow pino; balsam; cedar; 
basswood ; birch; poplar; ash, and quantities of sngar-niaplo. Shrubs, wiUI plum, 
wild-pear, cherry, bluul)orry, blackl)erry, raspberry, hawthorn. 

Tho lake furnishes great (juantities and great varieties of leeches, from which it 

i t i|-^i 



ilorivt'M its imiiii', knh SiiijitMliifi'ijiina luhj, or Iccclii'.x. It prodiiccH wliito-ri"!!, tiililiop, 
iiiiisliknn(ishi*i. piUf, hiickrr or ciirii, i>icki'ivl or goldoii ciirp, iiiul .xi'vcrul otlu-r kimN. 

Its ;:iiiuc ciinsists of diick.i of hcvoiuI kinds; liiistiirds ; ^'fcsc; pplicaii^ l-ioiis; 
fridl.s; iisii-liiiwks; hidd-fii^'lo ; wolf; bear; luiisknit; mink; nicfoon ; fox; niulfn ; 
piircnpini' ; |?roimd-liog, or wood-clmck ; wcasid ; sfpiirroln, red, .xtriiiod, luid living; 
tliri'o kinds of turtle, one from ten to fourteen ineiifs louir. 

The eliniatc is conducivo to health, liie winter iuinir less ^ullject to sudden and 
fre(|uent chnn^'es than in the New England States. 

The Heasi»ns aro rejrnlur, with oiio or two storms of hail, in the mouth of .Inly of 
every year, and sometimes land water-spouts, hut rarely. 

The hays of the lake, and tlie shoroparts of the rivers luruish ahuudaiK f wihl 

rice. During the harvest, they go to these places with u canoe, oni- perMin lieniU over 
the stalks, another strikes or threshes them, ami the canoe is soon filled. For this, see Plate IV., page Go, Vol. III. In the early days of the fur-trade, this article 
was nuicli relied on hy the traders, lor Mipportim; their men while en;jM'^>(l in this 
business, ami no place was so celebrated for it as this lake. 

The (,'hippewas of Leech Lake, or the Ilobbers as they are often called. li\c much 
on islamls in the lake. Their country is the region of the hike, 'i'licy have lieen 
nettled there from time immemorial. If they absent themselves tor weeks, or mouths, 
they always return. In this respect they are not, jierliaps. more nnmades or cii-mopu- 
lites than the whites, who travel I'or months and liir years about tlu'ir alVairs. Tlio 
Chippewas, and all Indians when they travel take with them their house, their mouage, 
and their family. Hut it is only for a limited time — they ri'turu to their own cmmtry 
as soon as they can. The whites do not take their houses with them, because they 
build them wherever they have to all the .seasons of the vear. Ihit the Pillagers, 
lik(! all savage nations, are distinguished as fixed or permanent, and as nomade or 
travelling. All the .savage nation.s found on the borders of the .settlements, are the 
descendants of those who lived on the .same .soil — .some have been forced olV by 
wars, by treaties, and by the exhau.stion of the country. l>ut does not the whole 
face of the globe oiler nnmy similar examples, from similar causes, among the most 
civilized people, ancient as well as modern ? 


M IV II Id .\M IKS. 

This term w.ns applied by the French to several tribes and bauds of Indians of the 
Algonquin lineage, who clustered aroiiml the borders of Lake Michigan. The lake 
itself takes its name from them, being a compound of two words which signifv great 
and lake. Of the once noted Mascotins, or Pire-lndians. have ilisaii[)earcd. 
Of the several bands of the, who dwelt around the head of the lake, and extended 
along the bank.s of the Illinois river, the country has long been destitute of a trace, 


f : 1 


f i 







('M'(<|it in tliii^c wiuk-* III' (li'li'iii'c (if II iiDiimilii* iiiiil |irt>(lut(ii-y |i(<(>|ili>, \vlii<-li mv Htill 
iiliHi-rvi'il ill tiitiiiili, ilitclif^, I'lti'tirKil I'lifl-*, and iniucc^^ililo dciilt'.^. wliifli tlicv wt-ro 
oxpi'il til ii(iii|ty. Siu'li nri* tlio pii'tiiroMiiiii' lontiirfM dI" the >*n ciillcd Sluvi'd UiK-k. 
.Miiiiiit .liilicl, iliiiiii;li of urtiHriiil ('oiiitnu'tiiin. is niic of tliiis(> tt'ittiirt'M cii|iiililo u( 
inniind uses, wliiili tlicy oiici" dmll)llt•^<H ocrii|iiL'il. And the iiiitiniiiiry may taUn li 
inilanrliiily plcasmv in Hi'ckin;? out tlio nito i»l' tlii* ouco Cflcbtatt'd work.'*, of which 
Kurt Cii'vi'ou'nrwii.M tho oiirliff*! nltonipt nl' Kri'nch military turnpalion on thai utrt-am. 
'I'hr liiiiiian iMdic. llic piiii', tlio (*toiu' axe and arniw-ht'ad. which arc turned up ahnoHt 
cvcrv MMfion, l>y the [ilnuiili, nerve to recall the Imnti'r aj^e of the country, and tho 
history of ii peop|i« who are exterminated, or have foliowcil their I'avorite piirmiitH in 
rcfiions hctter adapted to tlieiii. Thoii^di tho lUinese have passed from their ancient 
haunts, Mimu of their descendants are yet livinj; in the I'corias and the KiLsknskias, 
west of till' Mississippi. The I'oiis, or I'ottowattoinies, who once ilwclt on the islandu 
at tiie entrance into (ireeii IJay, and who, hcin^ mixed with the (.'iiippewas and Otto- 
was, once njado ('hica|.'o the central point of their residence, or periodical jratheriiifrs, 
have also joined tho coloni/od triljcs west. The Miamis, dwelling on tho St. ,foseph, in 
the early history ol" Tia Salle and the missionary lathers, retired to the Waliash, in ko 
iiiipeic 'ptilile a manner, that history hardly takes any notice ol" tho movomont. Several 
hands of the Ottowas and ('liip|)ewas remain. The ensuinj; observations on the tradi. 
tioiis and tho actual state of tho Chippewa hands at (iraiid Traverse Hay. on thu 
peninsula, are derived from personal visits to the princiiml villages, together with tho 
explorations of others in this field. 

The (oniinon opinion of these p('o|)le is, the Indian tribes were created by tiie CIroat 
S[iirit on the lands which they occupy. There is a discrepancy in tiio accounts. Somo 
say that the Cireat Spirit created one man and one woman, in the beginning, from whom 
all tlie Indians sprung. Others say. (lod made one pair of each distinct tribe, and 
gave them dill'orent languages. The details of this latter opinion are as follows : This 
continent is an immense island; at first it had been an extended plain. One large tree 
was created, from the seeds of wiiich, carried by tlic winds, this plain was in time 
covered with trees. The lirst man and woman created were called Shah-wah-no. and 
were placed in the centre of the island, .south-east from this lake. This family, or triljo, 
still live in tho south, and have always been held in the higiiest respect on account of 
their wise and peaceful character. Tho Oshali-wah-noes, or Oshah-wa-niig, are known 
liy no other name. The no.xt pair created wore named 0-l)uh-no-go. Their exact 
location is not known. They say there are bands of them now living in Canada, some 
distance up the river Thames. 

The next pair wore called 0-dah-wah, to whom was given tho country they still 
occupy, viz.. the peninsula soutli of the straits of Miehiliniackiiiac. Tho next i)air 
were called 0-jib-wa, and the country lying north of the straits of Mackinac w as given 
to them. Some of the 0-jil>wa bands occupy part of tho 0-dah-wah country south 

i t 




nl'll'i' j-lniit.". It WM.s ;.'ivi'ii liy tlic liiltir to llic liiiiiirr fn Ht'tlli' II ililViiMilty \vlii(li lod 
iiriwii U'twuiii tlu' liilit'H. Tlu'S(! Iiaiiilft uoi'ii|)y (IimihI Ti'iivithc M.u. Tint tiailitinii 
111 tlic (iriniii olMiiriTfiit trilx'M and laiiu'iiiijji'.-i, is hiiiipli' cmkhixIi. ifiinl -ali-rai-lury. It 
in II vrry iialmal way fur iiiiiiil.M like tliriis. to account for lads wliirli tliry cMiinni as 
i*alisraet(»i'ily I'xiilaiii as ntliiT occiiirciiccs. It is iikhc con-isti'iit, iMTliaps, llir iiiil"t- 
tiTuil iiu'ii, ignorant of n'Vi'iatinii, uy tin- cnIi nt ul" the Imiiiihii linnily n\( r llii' jilnlic, 
tliaii to trace hii-.i to n\w coinnKui .stock. 'J'licic aiv trilics of wliicli tiny ^'i\(' no 
account, aiitl with wliicli llicy do not acknowl(Ml;ie any ndalioushiii. as the O-liwali-nug 
or Sioux, and the Nali-dali-wai^' or Iroi(uois. 

If till' Indian trilics liavi; not much liistory. tli(>y ar<» not, Iiowevcr, di-liciont in a 
(•jHTics of iinaL'iiuilion ; and, wlicru there is liltli- or no tradiliou, they often vom r the 
deficiency wilh a letreud, or an allegory. These talcs and alle^ciries do not. neueralix, 
nuree. hut diil'er wiilely in tlii'ir details, wliich arises from the narrator haviii;: no suit 
standard, and iitteiniitini,' to supply from fancy, wiiat ho, perhaps, cannot extract from 

The IndiauH of this portion of country liave no idea of having emigrated from any 
jiart of the r)lil world to this continent. 

Their oldest people rehited that this continent is an i-I.ind. and speak of it as iiein;^ 
a uiini-'liiiiii, , i.e., a small island ; at its creation, it was a perfect plain, de.-tilute of trees, 
and after its creation the flood Spirit planteil trees. After this, ho fia-ined the Indian 
with red clay, and f.'ave him life, and then formed the woman. He ni-xt made all 
manner of lieasts and li\in,;i aiiiinals, for tho use of tho Indian, which would lie food 
for him. The master of life and the (iood S|)irit. saw that the Indian needed assi<t- 
anci' in the chase, and the dot; was given to him, that ho might find gunu', jiml hark. 
The dog was not created here on earth, he was formed in heaven and .sent down to aid 
the Indian in the chase; the master of life gave it power to .scent, and spoke to 
him, saying, "You will do all that lies in your power to assist and be f.athfiil to the 
Indian, and lie will in return take good care of you, and you will and multiply 
e.\ 'eedingly, hut the Indian will have power to kill }(iii and oiler you up as a sacrilice, 
not that I need a sacrifice, hut it will ho habitual for him to do so." 

Manabozho was called at this time, and directed to give names to all things living, 
and to trees and herbs, which were created liu" the use of the Indian. Corn first grew 
in he.ivcn, and tho Good Spirit commanded it to come upon earth, but being a sentient 
being, it felt reluctant to ((j) so. and the Good Spirit said to the corn, ''Go down upon 
earth and do good to the Indian, and he will do good to yon in return ; the Indian will 
kill game of every description, and season you with all manner of meat; this will afTord 
you an opportunity of eating tho same food with tho Indian, while yon will bo beneficial 
to him ;" so corn came down from heaven to benefit tho Indian, and this is the reason why 
they esteem it. and are bound to take good care of it, and to mirtnro it, and not 
more than they actually rerpiire, for their own consumption. True Indian philosophy! 

V,,,,. V. _:;.-) 





i !l' 



A whole town of tlic Miaiiiis \\v\v severely punished for a disregnid to this rule : 
they raised iiu immense erop, and liid it under ground, and paeked a great quantity 
lor immediate use. in hags; but the erop was so great that the Miami young men and 
\()uths were regardless of it. for many ears of et)rn remained on the stalks; the yoinig 
men eommeneed playing with the shelled cobs, and threw them at one another, and 
linally broke the ears on the stalks, and played with them in like nmnnor as with thu 
eobs. After this, the whole of the -Miami made preparations to (juit their village, in 
order to spend the winter where game was in abundanee : they loaded their eanoes with 
eorn, and moved to their limit ing-groimds and eneami)ed ; all the men who were capable 
of piu'suing game went out to hinit. as deer seemed to abound, and when the Indians 
returned in the evening, they Inought no game; not proving successful, these hunting 
excursions were rejieated from day to day, but still unavailingly. 

An old man who had an tmly son. said one evening to him, '"My son, I feel hungry 
(or meat and broth, try and get me some." The young man, answering his father, 
said thus: '' How can I get meat tin you, when all tln' hunters of our village cannot 
kiil any deer, although so abundant."' At this time, the elders of every family began 
to apprehend that ilie\- would starve to death, as their tempting supply of the 
article was now exhausted ; their young men set out on the folh)wing day. The old 
man who had an only son. rose earlier than usual, and again recpiested his .son to try, 
if j)i)ssible. to bring in some meat ; in the meantime, he told his son, he would recpiest 
.some of the men who were going to get corn, to bring in some lor them; upon this the 
young hunter started for the chase in oltedience to his father's will : he walked all day 
and saw numerous herds of deer, but could not kill any. lie became faint, weak, and 
exhausted; wandering, he knew not whither, he suddenly emerged from the woods, 
striking the borders of a fine wide stream : lie looked every w.ay, and admired it. At 
some distance from him he saw smoke issuing from a small lodge, and on reaching 
it, he went cautiously, and pee|-.ed throiigb. the lodge door; saying within himself, 
I will encamp here for the night, as I feel too weak and exhausted to return 
home; and besides this, I Ikuc no Ncnisdii to carry home to ni}' aged father, who so 
anxiously expects soini! from me. On this reilection lie walked iiuo the lodge, and 
discovered a ver\ aged man lying on one side of it witli his back turned to the fire. 
The old man groaned, and, lifting \\[) his head, turned him.self and saw the young 
hunter. "Oh ! my gr.andfather," ejaculated the young hunter, " I am benighted, faint, 
weak, and hungry ; we. the peo[)le of our village, cannot kill any game, although it 
aixiunds in the }ilains and f(n-ests. Our ])eo[)le are nigh starving. We have eaten up all 
our corn, and our elders have .sent olf their young men this morning to our summer 
village, to bring in supplies which they have hid under ground." 

The decrepid old man, in whom we see a magician in di.sguisc, replied, saying, " Aly 
grandson, the Indians have afllicted me much, and reduced me to the condition 30U 
now .see me in. Look, look to this side of the lodge and you will find a small kettle, 



take it, cat ami ivplenish yoiirseir, ami when you liiuo !<;itisfied your hunger, I will 
tijH'uk to yon." 

Tlio '^[wst linding the kottlo near the walls of the lodge, it was full of fine sweet 
corn, superior to any he had ever eaten ; alter his repast, the old man again spoke and 
said, — '• Your people have wantonly abused and reduced nie to the state you now see 
mo in : my hack-bone is broken in many i)laccs ; it was the foolish young men and youths 
of your town that have dt)ne me this evil, for 1 am the Mondamin, or corn, that came 
down from heaven, for they placed and threw corn-cobs iind coin-eiirs at one another, 
thus thinking lightly and contemptibly of me; I am the corn spirit they have so 
injured. This is the reason you experience bad luck and famine, lamthecnuse; 
you feel my just resentment, and thus 3our people are punished. This is an injury I 
do not experience from other Indians ; those tribes who regard me, are well at present. 
Have }ou no old men in your town, to have checked their youths in such wanton 
ami niiUicious sport? You are an eye-witness to my suflerings. This is the result of 
the cruel sport you have had with my body." The old man groaned and covered 
himself up. 

The young hunter rose early in the morning, and on his return home, killed a 
very large, fat porcupine, and presented it to his father, but did not relate anything 
concerning his adventure. 

The party .sent for corn, on arriving at the Miami town, commenced opening their 
corn-repositories: they were dismayed to Iind them all emi)t\-, and not containing even 
a single grain. After this disappointment they returned to their temiiorary homes, 
exhausted and hungry, and they were so reduced that they could scarcely raise their 
voices to tell the sad tale. 

The benighted young visiter to the hnlge of the corn-spirit, at this time mentioned 
to his father the adventure he had had, relating all that tiie oUl broken-l)acke(l man 
had said to him. Indians are very cautious, and do not now i)lay with corn in the ear : 
they are careful not to break the ears when gathering it. After the harvest is over, 
the corn returns to heaven, the ears that are in good condition come back again the 
next spring, upon eaith, if the Indian who raised such corn paid [)ro})L'r attention to 
it. Here ends the talc of Ogimawish, one of the old sages of the village of (ira-id 
Traverse Bay. 

It is thus, by reminiscences and fancies of the past, that the Indian tries to ^olacc 
hiin.self for the miseries of the present. He often clothes instruction in a symbol, and 
hides truth in an allegory. It is surprising that such a vein of thinking should run 
through the minds of a race, who scarcely have, from day to day, a meal to keep 
them from starving, who are whirled in a constant change of trying vicissitudes, and 
who struggle with the very beasts of the forest for mastery. 

The .Michigamies, as their traditions are given by this band, hold the Shawanoes in 
the higliest respect, believing that they iiad the original precedence among all the 

i - > j 

5: . ta 




tribi's; and if any tribe lias tiio riiilit to call sionoral councils, it flionltl bo tliom. 
Tln'V i'c'C(.'ivt'il I'loin Sliawni'c, about I'oil v Noars ivj^o, a mos.^agc lor a groat council, to 
bo belli on tbo Wabasli, and gladly sunt dok'gatos to attend it.' They call the 
OuiNKGOS grandfather, but give no reasons why. The Shawanoes are called Eldest 
IJrotber; the Odawas, Elder Brother; the PedaduniicH, Brother. They say that these 
terms are descriptive of the relationship in which they have been placed to each other 
by the Great Spirit. 

I'iaoli clan or family has a totem, which serves to keep up the lino of descents. 
This is dift'erent, in iirinciple. from the system of guardian spirits. Every individual, 
male and female, has one of the latter, no matter what the totem may be. Totems 
are by descent — guardian spirits by choice or ex})ericncc. This experience is chielly 
sought in fast.s and dreams, a series of which arc undertaken for this purpose, at the 
age of puberty. The fast is undertaken to prepare the body for the dream. Those 
dreams an? continued until some animal or bird, or other animate object, appears, 
which is fixed on as the genie, or guardian spirit. Thus the mind of the Indian, dark 
in itself, grofios after truth. Feeling the need of .some supernatural power, it aims to 
strengthen itself by reliance on the shadowy, the mysterious, and the symlMdic. It is 
believed that the guardian spirit leads the man safely through the vicissitudes of life, 
])ros('rves him in l)attle, and gives him success iu the chase. 

With the rest of the Algoiupiin tribes, they believe in magic, witchcraft, sorcery, 
and the power and inlluence of minor monedos, as well as one great ruling good 
monedo, and one great counteracting bad monedo. Like these tribes, too, they are 
under the direction of their forest-priests, medals, prophets, and medicine-men ; 
lor with them medicine is generally, but not always, exhibited in connection with 
necromancy, incantations, and songs. The ties of consanguinity are apparently upheld 
with a gootl deal of strength. Marriage is observed in a manner which is beneficial to 
the Indian state of society. Polygani}' is rare, and has been for yeari? almost unknown 
in their villages. Children are loved, and wives, in general, well treated. The 
greatest evils known have resulted, heretofore, from intemiieranco ; but this is greatly 
abated. The tribe has been under teachers for about sixteen years, i. e. since 1839. 
Schools are kept, under the care of ellicient instructors, where the children are brought 
forward in the elements of knowledge, civilization, and Christianity. Farming, and 
some of the mechanic arts, have been taught. They dress, in some measure, after the 
civilized costume, and wear hats and store-bought shoes. Their houjses are small 
tenements of logs. They split rails, and put up their own fences. A limited number 
of the adults are united in the obligations of church-fellow.ship, under the care of 
a regular pastor. Temperance, industry, and morals, thus go hand-in-hand ; and 
notwithstanding some adverse circumstances, their prospects are such as to inspire 
bright hopes for their advance. 

|l I 

This wa.s evidently the call of thu great Sliawanoe prophet, in 1812. 

B; I 





The Rocky Mountains luivc, from immcnioiial ngcs, been the location of certain 
tribes of Indians, wlio appear, at first, to have soiijilit sliolter there from sanguinary 
hunter-tribes, roving over the phiins or slopes on cither side of the chain. Or it may 
be thought that the mountain tribes have reached these eniiiicncos in search of the 
Imilalo, which are known to retire into, or pas.s through its gorges, at certain seasons. 
Lewis and Clark, who in l.Sd.j crossed the range between the sources of the Missouri 
and the Columbia river, found its sunnnits in possession of the Shoshone group of 
tribes. These people, in their divisions, appear to have been progressive, at least, 
from this point, towards the south ; from about 42°, which is the verge of the Great 
Salt Lake basin, they have diverged towards the south-west into California, and tiie 
soutii-east into Te.\as, at the same time continuing the track southerly into New 

Two distinct tribes, speaking dialects of other languages, appear as intrusive, or at 
least to have shared with the Shoshone group this general pt)siti()n; namely, the 
Ujjsarokas, or Crows, and the Utahs. Tlie Upsarokas, by some traditions, lied from 
the Missouri valley, during a time of extensive connnotions of the trilies in that 
(piarter. The Lotahs appear to have been progressive from the south, where from an 
early period they have, with the Apachce tribes, been residents of the elevated plains 
and geologically disturbed districts, of New Mexico. The great Colorado river, of 
California, has its principal origin and course through the T^tah territories. Our 
knowledge of the vocabularies of the mountain triljes, is not suflicient to enal)l<> us 
satisfactorily to classify them, and deduce their history. It is evident that the wide- 
spread Comanche tribes of Texas are of the Shoshone stock. (Vol. IL, p. 125.) It 
is i'(|ually so that the Root-diggers or Bonacs, of north-eastern California, are likewise 
so. (V^ol. IV., p. 221.) 

The present point of inquiry is with respect to the Utahs. Of a good, middle-si/.ed 
stature, and much strength of nuiscle, they are predatory, voracious, and perfidious. 
Plunderers and murderers by habit, they have long been the terror of the Spanish 
settlements of New Mexico, and have thus far taxed the energies of the Americans 
to keep them within bounds. The use of the horse has doubled their power of 
depredation, and excited their energies and ambition. To kill and rob on foot, is a far 
less exciting species of Indian ambition, than to perform the same atrocities on horse- 
back, and fly to their recesses for safety ; and this llight, too, leads to and through 
impassable gulfs and canons, which put a dragoon at defiance. The Spanish never 
dreamt that, when they abandoned some of their first settlements, and turned the 
horses loose in the pami)as and prairies, they were thus furnishing the predatory wild 
tribes with one of their most eflectivc njeans of aggression. 

^1' I 

I ::| 




or a ti'iljo wlidso liistory is m) olisciuv, and wlio liuvo hut rorontly conio undor 
AiiRMicaii jiirisilu'tiuii, wo must ,jiiil;:o. in a j;rcat iiicasuri-, \>y ilotails transinittcil In- 
tho agiMitH of the (JovormiuMit in i-liarj-e of thi'iu; and tiicsc arc rotartU-d hoth hy tho 
groat distance of tiio country tiioy occnp}', and the dilliculty of obtaining roliahlo 
information. It is l)iit rocontly that tlioy nuirdorcd Capt. J. Gunnison. U. S. A., and 
liis party, while oxocuting a roconnoissance in that (piartor; and when their ferocity is 
not excited, (iieir suspicions arc so great, as to render what they say unrelial>le, if 
tliey do not remain altogether incommunicative. 

The following facts are drawn from information chiefly communicated b^- Mr. J. II. 
Ilolman, the agent for I'tah. 

For the last llfty \ears, a large tribe of the Shoshonies, who are .sometimes called 
Snakes, inhabited the Upper Missouri. Thi>; tribe in bands, under some favorite chief, 
occupied tho country ni)on the head waters of the Arkansas, and all the country 
e.Ktending as far as I'ort Hall, Salmon river, &c. They were at war with all tlie various 
tribes by whom they were surrounded ; and by wars and the small-pox, which 
was very fatal among them, they were reduced in number.s, and split up into small 
bands. In the spring of 1822, a war broke out between them and the Crown, a large 
and warlike trilte, which continued for .several years, when tho Shoshonies were finally 
driven from tho country on the Upper Missouri. In past times, a village of abimt 1">() 
lodges, from tho south, nnder the chief Nat-che-to, .settled on IJear river, some 200 
miles from the present location of Fort Hall. They had been in the neighborhood of 
the Spaniards, but had had but little intercourse with them, and, as reported by these 
traders, had never seen a white man, meaning an American. Their first meeting 
caused much sur[) ; they had, as they asserted, never seen a looking-glass, and were 
much astonishe<l at seeing themselves reflected in the They had no knowledge 
of the use of fire-arms, and would fall to tho ground on hearing the report of a gun. 
Their only weapon was the bow and arrow. They would give a horse for a common 
butcher-knife. Falling out with the Spaniards, they were travelling to join tho 
Bonacks, and finally took possession of the comitry about Fort Hall. Their present 
chief is the celebrated Snag. A few years subsctpiently, several other bands of the 
Shoshonies. umlor the chief Tan-a-kee, one of the best Indians known to tho whites, 
came to the present territory of Utah, anil .settled in Salt Lake Valley, extending their 
boundary to what is now called Cash A'alley, lying between Salt Lake and Fort Hall. bands occupied Salt Lake A'alley until driven out by the Mormons, tho chief 
being killed by a Mormon, while walking through his farm. A jjortion of this band 
still reside in Cash Valley and on Bear river ; some have joined the " Diggers" who live 
principally on the waters of tho Humboldt, and tho moimtaius bordering on Oregon. 
The Digger Indians, who may be called a tribe, arc very numerous; the\- are the 
poorer class of all the tribes who formerly I'osided in this section of the country 
When th(! Mormons and whites commenced their travel to California and Oregon 





unfrioiully feelingH arose. Tlio Indians wore badly treated — the ISIorindns would 
frc(iuently profess friendship, j^et tlieni into their camps, slioot them down, take tlieir 
horses, and by forced marches leave the Indians to seek revenge on tiie first party of 
emigrants who travelled the road. The enmity between the whites and the Indians 
became general. Scarcely a train passed that was not robbed. Many were killed on 
both sides. The Indians, having no weapon but the bow, fniding they could not com- 
pete with the ritle, determined to leave the country ; those who had horses generally 
went, leaving only those who were too poor to travel. Thus the '• Diggers." as they are 
called, arc a band made up of the ])oorer and fragmentary classes of the Shoshonies, 
the Utahs, the IJonacks, the Sosokos, and the Washano tribes. They live, during the 
summer season, on the Humboldt river and its tributaries, north-west of Salt Lake: 
they suljsist principally on fish and roots; the roots somewhat resemble the jjotato. 
are very nutricious and palatable; they roast them when in a green state; tin y dry 
large quantities for winter use. They are very destitute generally, having l)ut few or fire-arms, and little clothing. It is thought that tiiere arc abandoned white 
men among tiiein. who have induced them to depredate on the emigration, and that 
the whites receive the benefit of the spoils. The oldest traders, wlio have been longest 
ac((uainted with these various bands and tribes of Indians, report them as having 
been friendly, until they were provoked and excited by the Mormons. 

Alxtut ISiili. or ISlJ:'), the hand of Shoshonies, who now reside on the Sweet Water, 
and fireen river, and al)out Fort Uridger, consisting of some l")(l or "JOO lodges, settled, 
and occupy the country from the North Platte to IJear river, under the chief. Petti-coat 
(a great niedicine-num). This baud is at )»resent controlled by the celeljrated warrior, who is a devoted friend to the whites, and his band frecpiently render 
service to distressed anil sullering emigrants. 

To the south of the Shoshonies, or White river, and on Green river and it.s 
tributaries, there resides a large band of the I' tab trilje, under the chief IJirne (One- 
eye) — about IjO lodges; they live on friendly terms with all the Indians, and are at 
])re!<ent kindly <lisposcd towards the whites, although they have heretofore been bad 
Indians ; being some 100 miles from the emigrant route, they have but little intercourse 
with the whites, except the traders who visit their country. 

They are a part of the Utah tribe, who resiile on the KIk mountains, towards Taos, 
in New Mexico. This tribe is very large, and claim the country from the Elk moun- 
tains, west, and south-west of Salt Lake, to the Sierra Nevada, iind are controlled by 
various chiefs, wiio command separate bands, all being of the I'tiUi tribe, though some 
are called Pi-Utahs, who are friendly towards each other. Some of these bands have 
been inclined to rob and murder the whites, siuci> the first settlement of Salt Lake 
Valley — occasioned, it is said, by the forcible oceui)ation and settlement of their land 
by the Mormons, against whom they make many grievous complaints. 

Another band of Utahs, called the Uwinty-Utahs, under the chief Castel, arc the 






reiiiiiiiis of a IjiaikI formerly iiiulor tlio chief U\v'm(y, from whom the band, and tlio 
Viilley ill wiiii'li tJH'v rosidi', Uikc (lioir luuiie. Tlioy inimbor about 1((0 lodges. 

There are other Ijaiids of these Utahs — one under the celebrated chief Walker, the 
other under Ins lirother, Sa\v-ry-ats; they reside in and about Sanpltch Valley, about 
loO miles I'rom Salt Lake: thoy number 150 or liOO lodges. They have been much 
more numeious, but were driven o([' and killed by other tribes, with whom they have 
been at war. Walker, although a prominent chief, with much inllucncc in his tribe, 
is not considered a great warrior ; his high .standing is in coiisciinenco of his daring 
and ingenious thefts ; he makes his annual visits to the Mexican or countries, 
south, and steals horses, sometimes hundreds in a drove. Upon one occasion ho left 
the Spanish country with about 3(100 ; he was closely pursued, and drove so hard that 
half of his lot gave out, and were left, lie got in safe with the remainder. I'ixmi 
another occasion, after collecting a large drove, he was pursued by a strong force of 
Mexicans, lor several huiidied miles. Ik'ing aware of the pursuit, he knew he must 
be overtaken or aI)andon his drove, as the animals were much fatigued, unless he could 
extricate himself by stratagem. Late in the evening he selected a point suitable for 
oiicrations, and encamped. The Mexicans came in sight, and from the careless manner 
of Wa.ll<er's camp, concluded that he was not aware of the pursuit, and being fatigued 
themselves, they determined to rest for the night, and capture Walker and his party 
in the niiiriiing, as they considered it impossible for him to escape. Conscrpiently they 
laid down to sleep, not dreaming that the eye of Walker was upon them. They had 
no sooner become quiet, than Walker and his band surrounded their horses, and 
•piietly drove them to their own camp, when, putting all in motion, they were soon 
safe from their pursuers. In the morning, the Mexicans found themselves on foot, 
and unable longer to continue the pursuit, and had to retrace their steps home the 
best way they could ; while Walker, now conscious of his safety, leisurely pursued his 
course homeward, with the addition of some 100 fine horses to his band, and arrived 
in safety. He had been so successful in these thefts, and they have been no numerous, 
that the Mexican authorities have ofl'ered a reward of 5000 dollars for his head. This, 
however, does not deter this mountain-chief from his forays. Whenever ho wants he knows where to get them, and never fails to secure a good drove. 

A very large band of Utahs and Navajocs, residing on the lower waters of Green 
and Grand rivers, and extending to the Colorado, arc the most treacherous and bad 
Indians in the country; they raise considerable stock — horses, cattle, and sheep; they 
manufacture very beautiful and .serviceable blankets; thoy cultivate corn, vegetables, 
\c. Green river heads in the Rocky Mountains, as it pursues its course, being enlarged 
by the various streams which put into it — the river changes its name from Green river, 
and is called Grand river, thou (^jlorado, &c. In conscrpience of the many mountain 
gorges, through which the river passes, and its immense rocky falls, this river is not, 
and perhaps never can be, made navigable farther up than Grand river. 



Anotlior large l)an(l of tlio I'i rtalis ivsiilc in tlio country south anil Honth-wost 
of Salt Lake, ou aiul about Laku Suvicr, anil Walker's rivor, and occupy tlio country 
as far as Carsuu liver, and Sit;rra Nevada; tlioy arc in bands from litlO to 41)0, inidcr 
ponif favorito bravo or chief, but all friendly, as composing one united band. 

Tin re are ,*<ov(>ral tribes or bands residing on Goose creek, the lluinl«)ldt anil Carson 
rivers, and in the mountains adjacent to these rivers. A largi' band of about odH, 
a mixture of IJonacks and Sliosiionies, under the chief Too-ke-mah (the l{abl)it), of 
tiie Honack tribe, claim the country about Goose Creek mountain, .*<pring Valley, and 
west as far ns the Humboldt, extending north some 'JOO miles towards Fort Hall. 

There are two liaiids of the "Diggers," as they are called, principally of the 
Slioslionie tribe, who reside on the Humboldt river, and in the adjacent mountains. 
Tlie fust under the chief Ne-me-te-kah (Man-eater), whose band nundjers al)uut 5(IH; 
they occupy the country around and about the junction of the north and south forks 
of the Humboldt. The other, nuinbering aljout 4oO, under the chief Oh-halHiuah 
(Yellow-skin). This band reside in the neighborhood of Staiiij Ihliil, a place made 
noted from the frequent difTiculties between the Indians and emigrants. Within the 
limits of the country claimed by this band, the celebrated Birkr liiKkinll, a 3Iormon, 
being the same man who attempted to assassinate Governor Boggs, of Missouri, killed 
six of this band. There was a large party, mostly .Mormons, returning to Salt Lake, 
from California; Rockwell, seeing these Indians at a distance, called thorn into camp, 
professed towards them the greatest friendship, gave them provisions, and while they 
were eating, he drew his revolver and killed the whole .six. He took their horses and 
arms, and left the Indians lying on the plains. Many of the Mormon company, how- 
ever, were much opposed to this brutal transaction. Upon another occasion, an Indian 
was killed while in the act of being persuaded to join a company of Mormons; while 
one of the company drew his attention by giving him a piece of tobacco, another shot 
him dead. Tiiey took his horse and arms, and left him as the others. These, and 
other acts of nnkindness and bad treatment, produced the dilllculties which afterwards 
occurred with the emigrants on this whole route, all these Indians being previously 
friendly to the wdiites. 

Near the sink of the Ihuuboldt, there is a band, chiefly of the lianock tribe, under 
the chief Tc-ve-re-wcna (the long man), numbering about 000. 

In Carson Valley, and the country south, there are several bands of the Pi-Utah 
tribe, numbering GOO or 700, under their favorite chiefs, and scattered over the country 
from the head of the valley to the sink of the river. It is a curious fact, that while 
Carson river heads in the Sierra Nevada and runs eastward, the Humboldt river heads 
in the range of the Humboldt and Rocky Mountains, and runs westward. 

The waters of both rivers form large lakes, and sink, there being no outlet 
between the sinks of these rivers, some 50 miles apart. It is this district that forms 
the Great Desert; t-he crossing of which has cau.sed so much suft'ering to the California 

Vol. v. — 2() 


' r ; 






* ! ^i 


oiniiriMiits. Wiill<('r'M river, liciidin;.' in tlic Sierra Neviiiliv. also ninkH in tlio same 
maimer, as alsn Deep Creeiv, a stream Iwtwoeu Salt Lako ami the Goose Creek moun- 
tains. (Viilo Appendi.v, No. -j.) 

A r.vcii KS. 

The elevated siiniinils of New Mexico lyiii,i.' north oC the (lila, and west tif the 
n|)|)er Kio (irando, nniy ho said to he rather inlested than ocon[)ied, i»y this iire<latory 
nation. Tlioy are the most completely nomadic, in their hahits, of any triho in North 
America. They have no permanent towns or vilhifros. lint rove over innnense tracts 
in small bands, in ipiest of snhsisteno(> and plunder. They are the dread of the con- 
tijruous Spanish settlements, from whose ranches they steal, cattle, and sheep. 
They fall upon the nnwar}" travellers who are weak in numbers, and unprotected; 
and lor the .sake of the liooty. also take life. They rely u|)on their bows and darts for 
everything to sustain life; ami when this resource fails, as it often does, they wander 
about wretdu'd and poor, witliont a morsel to eat. and with scarcely a shred of 
clothiii}! to hide their nakedness. Wiietiier such a people should be most despised, or 
pitied, is a question. 

The Apaches speak a hinLnifiji(>, the tones of which are difllcult to be eanjrht and 
recorded by the Jjijrlish alphabet. It abounds equally with <riittural, hissinir. and 
indistinctly littered mi.xed intonations. A full vocabulary of it has been obtained. It 
is very meagre in sounds, and in eq\iivalents for Knglish and Spanish words; and .so 
deficient in grammar, that their verbs appear to have no tenses. Deficient as it is, 
bowever, many of its sounds are peculiar, and denote it to be tbe parent language 
of the surroumling tribes. It abounds in the sound of f::. .so common to the Sho- 
mitie languages; of:./, of'/, and the rough rr, which arc wanting in the old Atlantic 
trilws,' It is cfpially removed from the mountain genus of languages, the Shoshonees, 
and from the great and wide-sjircad Dacota st<xk of the Mississippi Valley. Yet, 
their traditions are that they came originally from the north ; and they would appear, 
in past ages, to have migrated along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains. Until 
vocabularies are obtained for investigation, which record the i«tmr words on the mmc 
system of notation, it will bo impossible to determine the jioint, and give them their 
just rank in the scale of language. But it may be suggested that its proper affinities 

A fow instances uf this total disagreement of sounds, may .«iiflieo to sliow the jiistiee of tlii.s remark : 

M. (i .1 N (J I 1 \ . 

. Monedo. 

KMi T I sir . A r M"ll Y 

God Ki.sneereo .. 

Devil Zleem Matelii nioncJo. 

Man .\ik'0 Iiiini. 

Woman Kctzan Kipia. 

Head Sezoo Ostifrwan. 

Kyo Sleeda ( )skc'ezliig. 

Bone Sctzec Okiin. 

1. >'i M S H. 


Nigiit .... 

A r A tin.. Al. (ioNgi'i.N. 

Eotz Weds. 

Cla Tihbik. 

Snow Zahs Konc. 

Fire Koii Isheoda. 

Water Tiia Nehe. 

'j\i sec ( )(iskee Waub. 

To speak.... Kuthec Fkedo. 



are to bo fouiul in the Atlmpiisea, of tlic IIikIsou'h IJay territory — tlius droppinjr out 
two tiionsiuid mill's in tliu tribal lini<, wliidi lias Ijoen liik'd up l»y the central Vesporio 
tril)os who opcnpy the eastern slopes ol" the lioeUy Mountains and the western bor- 
ders ol" the Mississippi Valley. 

Nor, initil we increase tiie means of comparison hy receiving vocabularies of those 
ton^ies, and construct grammars of tlio language, can it bo expected that wc should 
be set right in both the history of this people and their languages. In the meantime, 
every addition to our information on these heads, is importanf. " The Apaches." 
observes (jovcrnor Lane, •■ the Navahocs, and the Lepans of Texas, si)eak dialects of 
the same language. The .licarillas (llic-ah-ree-ahs), ^luscaleros, Tontos, and Coya- 
teros, are all bands of the Apaches; and I am induced to think the CJaroteros (who 
handled Aubrey so roughly) are also an oil-shoot of the Apache tribe." (Appendix. V.) 

The traditions given to Dr. Ten IJroeck (Vol. IV., p. 7-), by the Navahoes, only go 
to prove a general parity of beliefs on this subject by the Indian tribe.s, from the .\rctic 
circle to the Straits of Magellan — namely, that they originally dwelt in some c(jncavity 
of the earth, located according to their varying geography, from which they, with the 
quadrupeds, emerged to the surface. The introduction of the "horse" (only known 
In America about three centuries) into the tale of the Hood, together w ith its symbolio 
allusions to modern moral tenets, denote that the web of this story has been woven from 
mixed materials, furnished .since the advent of the Spanish in Mexico. (Vol. IV., p. ,S'.I.) 

From the remarks of Lieut. -Col. Eaton, U. S. A., the southern and .south-western 
portions of New Mexico, and mainly the valley of the Gila, are the princii)al seats of 
the Apaches, who rove, however, over two-thirds of the territory. He expresses no 
opinion whether the Pueblo bands are derived from this, or other definite stocks. Ho 
deems the dialects of Navajoes, Jicarillas, Coyateros, Muscaleros, Gilenos, and some 
others, cognate with the Apaches. He repels the idea of the Navajoes having "a 
civilization of their own ;" remarking that they do not live in houses of stone — do not 
make butter or cheese — that they are not remarkable for personal bravery — have 
scarcely any government at all — and are thieves. Against these particidars he sets 
the facts that they cultivate corn, pumpkins and melons, and a little wheat; that they 
are semi-graziers, raising small or ponies, sheep, and a few cattle ; and that they 
make a species of basket, of a very close texture and durable colors. 

With regard to their history, he was informed that they attribute their origin to the 
north-east, which, in their present jjosition, agrees generally with the Apache tradi- 
tions. The account he gi\es of their origin diflers, in its details, from that above 
narrated, but coincides in the general Indian opinion of their being extricated from the 
bowels of the earth, through the instrumentality of the animated creation. In 
manners and customs, he notices a coincidence of their carrying a waving brand of 
lire, which is mentioned in the narrative of Coronada as being observed on the banks 
of the Colorado, in 1512. (Vol. IV., p. 210.) 




« < 


Tjiciit.-('i)l. HiickiiH. V. S. A., complt'tcs tliis pictun' l)_v tlctnilinj? tlip mode of fiirniing 
tlio tlircail. Mini wciiviiii; tlic liliinkct. tniioiiir tlic Xiivajo and M(ii|ni tribe;', tit wlioiii 
this Hit is alike known. (Vol. IV.. p. l:'.i;. IMatcs XXVI.. XXVII.) Tn »l.>tailin^' tlio 
loadinj; cvi-iits of tlii' inlrodmlion of a fort into tin- tunitory of tlii' nation, in IS.'d, 
tliiH olliror ol)8t'rvoa, timt tlio Navajocs laiso no cotton, and of oourHO Imvc no fabrioH 
of thin Hort ; while tho MoqniH, who cultivate the plant, make notiiinj; hut fa])rics of 
tlie coarsest cloth. He rejiresents many of the principal Niivajoe.s n.s Ikmiij; ricli in 
sheep, which they drive from valley to valley to find jrras.s and water. Hut these men 
possess IK) houses; and. hy an anecdote he introduces, they sleep like tlic wheep they 
(hive, on the <rras.s and chilis, '•just like a dojr." ( Voh W., p. 'J01».) 

To these details of tlie state of art ainoiifr tiie Navajoes and Mo(piis, wo add one or 
two indicative facts, llaviiifr oliservcd descriptions of the Navaho dwellin;; denotiii}^ 
ft hiiiher state of the .social condition than thi.s tribe have any claims to, drawiufis of 
this structure, from persons on the spot, have been given in Vol. IV., Plato 37. 
This structure depicts a lodge of dellected pole.<<, tied nt tho top in tho Sioux manner, 
and forming a pentagon, or a, many-sided figure, jiartially covered with Hat stones — a 
mode ovidontly adopted from tiic scarcity of bark or wood in those bleak positions. 

Popular reports and publications exaggerate tho general state of advance of lliesc 
tribes, while these notices denote them to have tho manners of a shepherd life curiously 
engrafted on the savage stock ; and this fact shows what may be im])ortant in our 
future elTorts with tho nomadic prairie and mountain tribes — namely, that the care 
of cattle and sheep, and the introduction of grazing, form the true links here, as they 
did in Asia and Europe, between the Inmtcr and the agricultural state. The change, 
at once, from the bow and arrow to the plough, is too violent. Arts ever advance 
in the aboriginal stocks but slowly. 

It has been represented that these tribes wear leather shoes. The application of the 
chemical principle of tanin, converts hides into leather, imparting so'idity and firm- 
ness of texture. Inquiry from persons who have visited or been stationed in New 
Mexico, disaflirms this observation, showing that in all cases the Navajo shoes are 
skins, dre.s.sod and smoked after the Indian method. Another fact of equal signifi- 
cance is connected with the use of wool. Wherever the sheep is kept for its wool, 
among civilized nations, the fleece is sheared at the proper season for this 
No process of thi.s kind is at all known in that quarter. When its tlcsli is required, 
the sheep is kille(l. and its skin stripped off. after the method of the hunter. The 
wool is then cut ofl' with a knife b3- the Indian women, who are exclusively the pos- 
sessors of the bl.anket-making art. In this case, "the wind does not rcqnirc to be 
tempered to the shorn lamb," though the hand of Providence be leading these tribes 
"in a way they know of;" and the entire amelioration of their condition, through the 
arts of peace, appears to be (juitc practicable. 

The history ol" the Apache tribes appears to bo one of mucli interest, although 



involvoil ill oliiciirity. 'I'licir |ni.siti(iii. at (lie ciuTnsl duti's. was llio i('.;ii>ii lying 
Ik'Iwc'i'U Sjiioni iiiiil ("liiliniiliniv. At tlii-* era, tlicy liiil imt appiiri'iitly piirtiikf <il' tlu; 
Ciiliiaean »'iviii/atinii. Tliey wt'ii' on tiic outer circle id' iIiom- iil-aiiial'-'amated ami cuii- 
llictiiii: j^r.Miiisof triltesoii itw west ami iiortii-wet^t |)eri|iliery. wliicii acUiii>\vie(l;_'eil lealty 
t(i Moiite/.miia. Tlioy did not, lit lirst, ri'acli to the lianUs nf the IJio (!ilii, and when 
clicckfd by tlio Spaniards for their depredationn, nholtered theiiisehcs in the Los Mini- 
lires mountains, or the Sierra Madre. They have, for freneratioiis, Ikvh rotracin>< their 
track oi" niiirratidu from the noi'tii ; and there seems Imt little (pie-tii>n that they were 
the destroyers, not the authors, oi" that semi-civilization of \vlii<h there are ruins on 
the hanks of the (iila. 

The following; (jbservations on the history, manners, customs, and coiulitiou of 
this leadin;^ triiie of New Mexico, are from Dr. Charlton Henry, l'. S. A., who has 
been several years stationed in the coinitry of the Apsiches, and has devoted conside- 
rable attention to the snliject.s discussed. 

'• It would seem that the Apaches took Imt very little part in the events which 
occurred at the period of the discovery and conquest of Mexico. This is the more 
readily explained when we view the L'cojrraphical position of their country, and also 
that they had less to do with ^lon'e/.nnni than other Indian tribes. Ilnwevcr. it is 
probalile, by the veneration they have until this day for tlu' name of .Munte/.uma. that 
they acknowledj^etl and were undi-r the sway of his powerful empire, and had attained 
a certain dejrree of civilization ; because, accordiiit; to their tradition, tlicy were livin-j; 
in peace, and cultivating the land. The banks of the Del Norte, the (iila and Los Mini- 
brcswcrc covered with rich crops of corn; and their caravans freiiuentini: the principal 
towns of the empire of Montezuma procured luxuries and food of every kind. Ihit 
niter the fall of Montezuma, when the gnat tcm[)lo of the sun had been pillaged, and 
the cross of the Si)aniard was everywhere displayed, their extreme rapacity for gold 
led large and numcnms parties toward the high and distant lands where the Ai>aehes 
dwelt. While .searching lor gold, the Castilians met with these bands. At lirst the 
pimple and pacific natives, allured by trilling presents and protestations of friendship, 
i-eceived the invaders graciously. But among the Spaniards were many prii'sts of the and Jesuitical orders, who, Ibrwardiug the conquests of the (.'lunch of Home 
inuler cover of the Spanisli sword, had idready succeeded in planting the cross among 
the more pacific natives of the plains. But this method of introducing religion met with 
no .success in the case of the Apiiches. The holy doctrines of the Cross were losing 
their force under this mode of treatment, and could not suit the wild temper of the 
mountain tribes; therefore they were forced to retreat and discontinue their inis.^ion. 
They, however, established missions along the Bio (Irande, from which the Ap.ichcs 
kept far aloof. Ere long a series of hostilities ctmimenced between the mountain 
Apaches and those Indians who had settled on the idvins in company with the S[)aniards. 
The latter had by this time made settlements as far north as Santa Fe, a central post, 



i I 




IVoin wliicli fiirtlH'i' cxploiutiims mcit niailf. iiml (•iiiii(iif."«J« t'Xtt'iidiMl. In tlic iNiiii'''«M>r 
time llir S|iinii''li liinl pi'iii'liati'il wi'.^t U> tluMini.-l of tlic I'licilif, (o vvliicli llicv l'uvc (lie 
iiiiiiii' III' Calirurniii. uliiuh .-uiiu' wiitor,-* tiiiiik wan [Uolialily tlio Aiiiva CliciMini'a nf 
tlic aiu-ieiits. 

Itiit at tliu Haiiie tiinu tlioir iiuMva,Miiig rupacity tor K"I*^ (toil tlu'ir ONnctioiiH npiiiist 
tlic Indians, wlumi they kept in a state of sorvitntlc. soon raised ill-rod injrs n).'ainst 
tlu'iii. Till' yt-ar liiSS hmuLdit aliiait iv rcvulntiiin. in wliicli tlio Apaclics joined in 
a connntin canse wilii tin* I'uflilo Indians |\aja canipanal, I'lr tin- purpdso nf driving 
the Spaniards mit ol' tlic land; and as this rcvolutiiMi was i<cpt sciTct, and hroko 
out at (ini'i- in i'mmt point, takinj? the Spaniards by Hurpriso. tlie assailing party (hove 
liii'ni out III' New Mcxiro to tlio other side nl' the I'assos del Norto, wln'ro the assailed 
made a stand ; sunn new reinl'mvenients onaliled the Spanish to rooonipier thi'ir lost 
griinnd. and hring a;:ain to siiliniissinn at least tlio " I'uohlos." 

lint nuieii nii-oliiof had ahoady iieon done. Tlio missions had Ik'cu dcclroyod, and 
their priests massacifd. Must of tho mines wore in the hands of the insnruonts, and 
any Spaniard wlio went toward thorn was massaored without pity. In this state of 
atl'airs tiie Spaniards ^'avo u[i the Indians, and eontented themselves in holilin;.' their 
own i-'round till more reinforcements arrived. Hut tho nll'airs of tho metropoliH being 
on a decline, matters remained in statu ipio until the natives uf S|iauish blond, 
onilMildcned by their own increase, and sinartiiiL' undi'r tho tvranny of iho Spanish 
government, took arms in turn, and with tho help iA' the Indians (I'ueblo mostly), 
in nuuiy instances drove the Spanish troops from place to place, until the di,scondituro 
of Murillo in modern times, when his army emibled Iturbidc tocomplcto the overthrow 
of tho Spanish dominion, himself tlu'u a.ssiimin;.' the supremo power. 

Hut .soon dissensions and iironuneiamentos throw tho states of tho north into con- 
.xtant trouble. The Apaches fre(|uently sided with either one of the opposinjr parties, 
and often again bara.ssed both conjointly. The States of New Mexico. Chihuahua, 
and Sonera, sull'ored the most from their incessant inroads; on both side-s tho most 
barbarou.s war was carried on. In those times the various Apache tribes liad 
one common chief of great valor. The latter was linally killed, some say, by tho 
uuoxpectod discharge of a cannon in tiio hands of an American, a trader with tho 
Sonorians; others say, in a pitched battle between the Apaches and the people of the 
State of Sonora. His death caused di.-'sensions among the various chiefs of tho 
respective Apacho tribes, each ono a.ssuming to tho supreme command. Since then 
the Apaches have never been imited in a common cause, carrying on war only in 
small marauding parties, ami ceasing to be a very dangerous enemy. 

Tho following are tho difTerent tribes, with their respective chiefs, and range of each. 

Jicarillas — under Chacon Rouge — they range about the Sacramento Mountains, (iila 
A})aches — Mangus Colorado, chief — range about the (Iila river. A Jew snndler tribes 
under Ponci, whose range is up and down tho valley of tho liio Mimbres. An attempt 




IiiiH Iiccn iiiiiilc rc<'i'iitly to coiicliitlo a trviiiy ol' liciuc witli tlu'sc Irilifs. oiilv imrtiiilly 
mii'ci'.>^.-<l'iil, lidwcscr. 'I'licy an' vt>ry iivt'iHt! to fctiliii,' duwii to ciiltiviitc tlu' xn\\; anil 
iniieli |ii'c|i'r to li\(' hy .Mtciiliii}.'. 'I'Iil' l);iil ailiiiiiii>tratiiiii ol' tli" SpMiiisli and .Mcxiciiii 
f,'<)ViM'mm'MtH is priiu'iimlly to l)luiiu« for tliis. It in vi ry iloulitl'iil wlullii'i' tlie^u di'luiloJ 
H;ivai,'('fi will over \ki iimtcrialiy imindvcil. 

Till' jti'oj^rapliy nC (iif country iidiuhitid liy tin' Aii.irlic nation is couiparativi'Iy 
lillli' known as i'i'p;ards its inccisc iiounds ; and as tiit'ii' i'\i>ts iit ini'M'iit no ndiaMo 
nni|i of it, we fan ilo no iiioic tiian ^ilvr iin ini|»'ili'i't skt'lili of il, wilii no rcliivnco 
to its prei'irtu latitude anil louj^itiulc. 'I'liis can he ni'irc readily di'tcrndni'd liy otiicis 
when wo statu that tiicic ranj,'o (». <. tlnit of llic Apaili<'>.) scarcely extemls I'arllier 
nortli tliaii All)U(|neriine. except tiie .Masceleros; nor more tinm two liundred miles 
soutii of Kl I'aso del Norte; ea-^t, the vii'inity of tlio White Mountains; west, jruneridly 
no further than the liorders of Sonora. unless when they vi'it the inoro (-cttled portions 
uf that Htnto on maranding cxcnrsiouH. 

The niinics of the diderent triljos have reference to their location generally, 

" Los A|)aches tontos," so named l>y the Mexicans for their notorious imiiecility, 

greatly heyond that of the other trihes; the word "tonto" meaning " idiot " in tiio 

Spanish language. The low .stage of the mental faculties of this trihe (which is very 

numerous.) socnis to have its oi'igin in the slight interconrsi' they have had with tlu; 

ley seem to range ahoiit the head springs of the (lila. situated on the 

en. Tiiis mountain si'cms to he the licad-cpuirtcrs ami Mie .strong- 



Sirrra (U'l Mogoy 

hold of all the Apaches on the western side of the IJio flran le. They hoast of lieing 
niiU' within a few days, liy means of signal-fires, to nnister a I'orci' of (l\e hundred 
warriors; and as they have their "caches" full of mescal and have pKiity of live- 
stock, they deem the ])lace impregnable. 

Los Ciilenos, or Gila Apaches, seem to range as far as the Rio San Francisco, and the 
range of mountains of the same niinie. They are tin' best warriors of any Apache tribe. 

Los Mind)rerios, who derive their name from the Sierra del Los .Mimbies. and Rio 
del Los Mindjres, their hunting-grounds, have their range from the Sierra San Matteo 
to the nortli, to the Sierra .Florida to the south, Sierra de los IJnrros to the west, and 
tine of the spurs of the Mogoyen to the east, on which latter is situateil the old 
Mexican mine of Santa Rita del Cobre, being itliout fifty miles east from the llio (lila, 
and ten westerly from the Rio Mimbres. This mine will probably belong to the State 
of New Mexico, when more perfect observations shall have determined the true 
boundary line of that territory. This iiortion of the country ap[iears very rich in 
minerals of every description, but especially in co[)pcr and gold. 

Los Apaches Mascaleros seem to range from La Sierra de Guadalupe to La Sierra de 
San Andre north, and south to the Rio I'ecos, and to the Rio Grande to the west — 
which range includes mines of silver worked in former times b^- the Spaniards ; but mine.s have Ixjeii in possession of the hostile Mascaleros since the revolution of 



> 'T 
si i 







loss. Tlio niinio wliioh is borno by tbis tribo is vory probiibly derived from a certain 
phiiit, CivlU'd meseiil by tbe Apaeiios iiiid Mexicans, wliieb iibuit, beiiij; roasted in boles 
in tbe ground covered over witii bot stones, and reibieed to u pidpy mass, is tbe prin- 
cipal Ibutl of tbe Apacbes wben liard pressed by tbeir enemies, or from otber causes. 
Tbis phnit grows in abundance all over tbo country wbere tliey range; its taste wben 
raw is very bitter, and seorclies tbe tongue and lips; but wben baived, it tastes sweet, 
lint soniewbat astringent. Tiie leaves are sbarp-pointed and lanceolate in Ibrui ; no 
doubt tiiis species is allied to tiie African Pabna. In fact, tiie mescal, as found in 
tiiis Indian country, resembles greatly tiie Rabout dcs Arabes. Tiiis plant no donbt 
possesses medical properties; and pr('|)arations of it must be eOicacious in pectoral 
diseases, or ratber deunilcent from tlie nnicilage it \ields. It luis been conjectured 
tbat tbe manna of tbe ancient Israelites miglit bave not been unlike tbis j)lant. Tbe 
liiiHans and Mexicans maivc a ratber palatable iiip. " from tbe juice. 

Los Apacbes .licaiillas bave witbin tbeir range on tiie Sacramento Mountains, some 
stril<ing ruins wiiieb tiie Mexicaius call tbe Gran (Juivera. From tbe appearance of 
tliose ruins, and from traditional accounts, it appears tbat tbere existed tliere, at tbe of Moiite/uma, a large Indian city, witb a Temple to tbe Sun wbere a continual 
lire was kept i)nruing, until tbe Sjiauiards took tiie town, and converted tbe temple 
into a Catliolic C'burcb, wben tliey were driven out of it in lOSS; but as tbere were 
ricii mines around it, and many riclies in tlie cbiircli, it was destroyed and j)lundered 
by tbe insurgent Indians. In general, all tlic country inbabited by tbese tribes par- 
takes of tbe features of tbe rest of tbe country of New Mexico, witb tbe exception 
tliat tlie Ap;icbes are tbe lords of tbe I'yged and Mist-lJefringed Mountains, generally 
clnosing for tbeir abiding-place tbose most inaccessible. Tbe fertilit}- of tbe country 
is ipiite considerable wlierever irrigation can be conducted. Tlie banks of tbe CJila 
and .Miiubrcs can yield aliundaut crops of corn, as well as tbose of tbe Eio Grande; 
and wbeat, and most garden vegetaljles, attain perfection. As a grazing country, it 
stands justly bigb. Tbe siirfice of tbe country is but scantily snpiilied witii wood on 
its aiiproacbing towards tbe plains, plateaus, and level lands generally. Witbin tbe 
deep mountain eanon.s, bowever, grows tbe Pinus Altissimus; and tbe Pinus Mono- 
pb\ Ibis, and \'esinosiis, are also coininon in similar situations. Tbe scarcity of timber 
on tbe plains, is perbaps caused by tbe iiifre(pieucy of rains. Tiie Avbole range of tbe 
Apaclie country presents traces of a general conllagration. Tbe ".Tornadas" or deserts, 
so ('oiiimon in tbis country, are generallv between two ranges of mountains — tbo 
interval ininiediately between tbem ; and altbongb tbere is a total ab.sence of spring.s 
or streams in tliem, tliey yield nearly- tbe wbolo year round an abundance of wbat tlic 
Mexicans call gramma-grass (AetberomaOligistarcbon), very nutritious to cattle. Tbe 
climate of tbe Apaclie range is one of tbe bealtbiest in tlie world; and to it iiuist bo 
due. in a great measure, tbe great longevity of many of its inbaliitants. Maii_\ of tbe 
Indian cbiefs number over a bundred summers, and are still capable of undergoing all 



the fatigue and exertion of a man of inicldlo ago. The principal feature of tlic climate 
in it.s dryness. The nights are, in general, cool and bright. The winters are (piite 
sever-^, some seasons, in the mountains; hut the cold is never of long duration conti- 
nuously. In June, July, August, and September, rains or rather hard .showers are 
frequent; during the rest of tiie year, very little rain falls. 

Snow falls during December and January, in the mountains, not nnfrequently, hut 
seldom in large (piantity. Tiie prevailing wind is north, except during the rainy 
season ; then the south prevails. East and west winds arc very rare. It is highly 
probable that caves are to ho met with in the mountains, where saltpetre or nitrate of 
potussa is found nearly pure, since the Indians are able to manufacture a kind of 
coarse cannon-powder, in cases of einergenc}' ; in fact, they say as much. 

Tiic prin('i[)al animals found within this range are wolves of two species, deer of two 
species, hears of two species — grizzly and black bear — wild cats, antelopes, and many 
smaller (piadrupeds. 

Their catalogue of birds includes the turkey, and two species of eagles. The more 
barren and sandy portions of tiie country abound in rattle-snakes of highly venomous 
character. The Apaches dread them ; and on their list, they hold the place ol" evil 
spirits, or the abode of the souls of pernicious men. From this, it is to be inferred 
that the Apaches believe in metempsychosis ; for the same reason, they are observed 
to piiy great respect to the bear, and will not kill one, nor partake of the llesli ; and 
cherish the same opinion with regard to the hog as the Asiatic tribes, viz. : that it is 
an unclean animal. They have a great respect for the eagle and owl, and appear to 
think there are spirits of divine origin within, or connected with them. The same 
holds true with regard to any bird which is perfectly white. 

Among the Apaches are found no ruins or mounds which might throw any light on 
their former history, or which might prove them to have once been civilized; still, 
however, there are some ruins of houses to bo found along the Kio Cirande, Ciila, &c., 
which might go to prove they formerly lived in villages. During the time of Monte- 
zuma, they claim to have had the art to manufacture a kind of pottery, painted with 
diil'erent colors of imperishable hue; but if so, they iiave now entirely lost the art, 
with that of building; and when asked now why they do not build houses, they 
reply they do not know how, and those of their nation who did know, are all dead. 
Some, however, give as a reason for not building, that, it is Ijecause they alw.tys move 
a camp when any one of their number dies. Tiie calumet, or pipe of peace, is not 
now used by tlie Apaches; they use instead the corn-shnck eigarito of the Mexicans. 
Their utensils for the purpose of grinding breadstulV, consist of two stones ; one Hat, 
with a concavity in the middle; the other round, fitting partly into the hollow of the 
thit stone. 

Their arrows are ((uite long, very rarely pointed with Hint, usually with iron, and 
are feathered mostly with the plumes of the wild turkey, nidess they can procure 

Vol.. v. — 27 

1 1 ■ 

\i ii m 


i ■ T 



tlioso of tlio caL'lc. wliii'li tlicy arc raivly able to do. Tlu' li'iitlicr ui)on tlio arrow is 
pliicc'il or hound down witli line sinew in tlirecs, instead of twos; that is, wc may say 
on three sides of the arrow-shaft — a ratlier iinjiroper expressicjn, becanso the arrow- 
shaft is ronnd. Tiie arrow-shaft is nsually made of some pithy wood, generally a 
species of yueca. 

Beside the iron-]iointed arrows, tliese Indians use others, with the heads simply 
of wood hardened in tiie fire, for tlie jjurpose of kiilini:' small iriime. The generality of 
thcin have no guns, though there are a li'w in their jiossossion, in tiie use of which they 
are far from expert. All are mounted on s;nall ponies, descendants of the wild breed, 
and capable of great endurance. The women all ride a-straddie. The Spanish bit, or 
simply a cord of liair pas.-cd !< Iween the Jaws, are tiie bridles used by tliem. Panniers 
of wicivcr-work, for lioldiug pro\ isiuiis, are generally carrii'd on the horse by the women. 
The shells of the pearl-oyster, and a rough wooden image, arc the liuorite orna- 
ments of botii sexes, to whieii they attach great value. They are also fond of beads 
and metal buttons. Tiieir fiet are protected hy high buckskin moccasins with 
lengthened S(|uare toes, pierced at tlie solo near tlie end with two or tiiree holes to 
admit the air. The principal articles of clothing are made out of coarse cotton goods, 
Avliich they seem never to wash. TJieir quivers are usually made of deer-skin, with 
the hair turned inside oi' outsi(h\ and sometimes of the skin of the wild cat, with the 
tail appended. The organization of the .Vpaches is much like that of some of the 
ancient tribes, the chiefs being the wealthiest men, the most warliice, the first in 
battle, the wisest in council ; and the more popular take a wife, whom they buy from 
another tribe, giving in exchange iiorses, blanket.*, and trinkets of various kinds. 
Tiiese can have any number of wives they choose; but one only is the favorite. She 
is admitted to his eonlideiice, and superintends his household alfairs; all tlie other 
wives are slaves to her; next come his peons, or slaves, and his wife's slaves, and the 
servants of his concubines; then the young men or warriors, most generally compo.sed 
of the youth who have deserted other tribes on account of crimes, and have tied to 
the protection of the chief uf this tribe. (Tiiis does not protect tiieni from the chances 
of private revenge.) Tiien come the herdsmen and so on. 

Tiie strength of a tribe ranges from lUO to 200 souls, and can muster from 25 to 50 
warriors, headed by a capitancillo, or capitan, under the chief's command, who mostly 
remains at home, and very seldom leads in a foray, taking the field only in eases of 
emergency. Tiiis captain is often the oldest son of the chief, and assumes the com- 
mand of the tribe on tiie deatli of his father, and then he chooses a captain among his 
bravest warriors. A council of chiefs is assembled in cases of undertaking a maraud- 
ing expedition. .Should the .son of a chief prove unfit for the situation of captain 
from want of courage, energy, or otherwise, he soon finds himself deserted by all his 
■warriors, who go and join a more expert captain, or chieftain, leaving him (the former) 
at the head of a crowd of women and cliildren. Many of the Apaches dress in the 



breccli-clou ,>nly ; but they iire beginning now to imitate the Mexicans by wearing the 
scrape or blanket pretty generally, and not a few wear the straw hat or sombrero. 
The women wear a short pettieoat, and wear their hair loose over the naked shoulders. 
The women, in mourning ibr husbands killed in battle, cut their liair oil' short. The 
younger children go mostly entirely nude. Those under the age of two years arc 
carried in a kind of osier basket by the mother, in which the child is fastened in a 
standing posture. There is a cover fits over the head of the child, much resembling 
the niche of a statue of a saint as seen si .nding at the corners of the streets of the 
cities in Si)ain. When on a roving expedition, if on loot, the mother fastens this 
basket to a strap, which depends from the forehead, while the basket is swung to the 
back as tiioy progress, in a stooping position. When on horseback, the basket is 
fastened to the saddle on the near side. 

The women dye their faces with a kind of paint, black and red, or one of those 
colors ; and the men daub vermilion on their faces, all over evenly ; when they are 
about to go to war, they also grease their bodies. The captains of the bands wear a 
kind of helmet made of buc'kskin, ornamented with crow or turkey feathers. The 
Apaches wear no beards on their faces ; they are naturally rather bare of this append- 
age, but otherwise they pull away by the roots whatever hair may present itself on 
my part of the body. The women do the same ; but they allow the hair of their 
liead to attain its greatest length. Their hair is very black and straight, much 
resembling horse hair. In general the shape of the head and body of the Apache 
appears to belong to the Asiatic type of the human family. Their l)ehavior is grave 
and often passionate ; they are naturally inclined to intemperance in strong drinks, 
though necessity often obliges them to adopt restraints, which they seem to bear with 
great ease. 

Promiscuous intercourse between the sexes seems to bo common among them, 
although they are very jealous of their women; any one found guilty of in(ldelit\' is 
barbarously nnitilated by having her nose shaved off even with the face. And yet it 
is but too true, that the tenor of such a punishment is not always a restraint to the 
commission of crime; for at Fort Webster, while stationed on the Kio del Mimbres. no 
small number of Apache squaws came in with their comrades repeatedly thus mutilated. 
Rut since their recent intercourse with the Americans, this custom seems to be less 
observed, as many have been known to prove unfaithful, and. yet escape the usual 

The same observer connnunicates the following additional facts. 

"They have a tradition that in the time of Montezuma a bear went into his palace 
and carried away one of his daughters to a cave, where he had ofl'spring by her. All 
the Apaches can understand the language of the Navahoes and Camanches. and 
vice vers.H. 

There are no lakes of any si/.c within the Apache range but the Ojo Calienta, or hot 




( 4 



spring, which is ssltiiatcJ on the Minihrcs, some fifteen miles south-cast of El Cobre, or 
the copijoi-minos. The water is somewhat below 210° in temponitnre. \'iirious salts 
of lime and miigncsia exist in a state of solvency in it. The minerals arc block-tin, 
gold, silver, and lead, mostly mixed with cretaceous formations. Shells there arc none. 
The knowledge of medicine is very limited ; they seem to be hydropaths mostly. 
Tiiey have not any fixed rates of barter. Their animals (wild) are becoming less and 
less every year. A great part of the Indians arc addicted to falsehood. They l»elievc in 
oiir God. They are very much given to IVotpient "fiestas," or feasts, on which occasions 
the females do the principal part of the dancing. The women and children captured 
from the Mexicans they treat very cruelly. They have no respect for female virtue 
in the case of their enemies or captives. They ivill often furre the very young girls 
they take captive. Such cases have fallen under my own eye. They do not scalp 
their enemies. They dread to have the body of one of their people killed in fight fall 
into the hands of their enemies, and make every eflbrt to prevent it. Probably they 
bury their dead in caves; no graves are ever found that I ever heard of. They are 
fond of smoking; do not rJinv tobacco. They a//// hunt, mostly, except antelopes, 
which they surround on horseback in large parties. Their lodges arc built of light 
boughs and twigs; they never remain in one encampment long at a time. Have probably 
no knowledge of taking game by means of traps or snares. They arc somewhat given 
to a monotonous kind of singing when idle. Are fond of cards, which they learned 
Jrom the Mexicans. When fighting, they keep their horses in rapid motion, and are 
never at rest in the saddle. Am not aware they respect the wolf. They have no 
idea of boats. There are several species of weeds, the seeds of which they cat ; also 
pinons and cedar-berries." 

Not ten years have yet elapsed since the Americans came into possession of the 
Apache country. Agreeably to their own traditions, they have held pos.session of 
these latitudes since the conquest of Mexico by Spain. What condition they were 
in, at that time, with regard to arts and civilization, is doubtful. Coronada, and 
his successors, found them fierce, sanguinary, and treacherous. They assailed detached 
parties with fury and cruelty. They appear, by their manners and habits, to be as 
nomadic as the wildest Bedouins of the Arabic deserts. Their country was soon 
overrun and subjugated. They ar luiesccd, for a time, in receiving missionaries and 
teachers from the Spanish ; but they soon became restless imder a system that con- 
demned unrestrained vice and passion, and having, in 1088, organized a rebellion, and 
secured the concurrence of other tribes, they expelled the Spanish from their terri- 
tories; and although this expulsion did not become permanent, they never afterwards 
received any instructors or missicmaries who might teach the maxims of civilization, 
or at least narrow the limits of tiieir indulgence. The years — nay, ages — which have 
rolled over their heads since, have been ages of predatory wandering, want, and bar- 
barism. They seem willing to take the credit of having, by their ancestry, been the 



builders of the Anuo lioii^es wIioho ruins arc foimd along tlie valley of the Gila, ami 
of having made the painted pottery which is found scattered aljout these antique 
vestiges; but there is little reason to believe that their ancestry had anything to do 
with such arts. 

Had such a wild and roving tribe, who set the law.s both of fJod and man at defi- 
ance, by their manners and acts, been annexed to the United States on a territory 
whoso soil and advantages admitted of general cultivation, white settlements could be 
formed, at various points, to serve as checks in keeping them within limit f. IJut with 
three-foin'ths of the whole area of the Apache country consisting of barren volcanic 
rocks, or sterile ridges, where no plough can be driven, and no water is found, there is 
little hope of surrounding the lawless tribes with settlements. Our chief resource to 
bring them under government, is to advance military posts and stockades into the 
country, along with executive agents who shall keep the government well informed of 
their condition and wants, and at the same time discharge the civil duties required. 
In the meantime, these duties are of the severest charnctcr, imposing privations and 
dangers which are peculiar to very remote and isolated positions in the wilderness, 
which are often subject to be cut off from the means of supply or reinforcement. The 
soldier who upholds the flag of his country in these desert positions, is cheered by no 
stimulant but that of duty. lie is called on to repel the assault.s, or avenge the fre- 
quent depredations, of these western Arabs, without the hope of glory to reward 
success, lie leads a few men over barren plains, or through diflicult defdes. and falls 
— a bright example, indeed, of fortitude, strength, and courage — with the bare hope 
that savages will be restrained by principle, or appalled by daring. But the labor 
seems almost as endless as it is often fruitless. It is to be recommenced every spring, 
and is but jjcriodically stopped every fall. The Apache sweeps over the barren and 
bleak plains, like the furious winds of autumn. He often pounces down from his 
hiding-places, like a pestilence, on a village. Its inhabitants fall, l)C'fbre an alarm can 
be spread ; its flocks arc driven off to satisfy the rites and demands of a demoniacal 
priesthood, and its women to fulfil the basest purposes of human passion. 

Ilelations of such atrocities committed on the frontiers, characterize the pages of our 
diurnal press. For awhile, they rouse up the deepest feelings of the human heart ; 
but the account of one atrocity rapidly succeeds another, and the intelligence at last 
partakes of that class of passing events which rather palls by its frequency, than 
excites. Pity is the common expression for weakness and ignorance, though, as in 
this case, it be clothed with temporary power. It is one of the noblest attributes of 
our nature to forgive the erring and the ignorant; and it is found that before our vials 
of retaliation are half exhausted, the inquiry returns with force, what can be done for 
the Ai)aches ? 

There is an American missionary residing at Laguna, another at Fort Defiance, in 
the heart of the N.ivajo country, and another at Santa F«'. in adilition to the operations 

, II 



of the Roman Catholic bishoprii- of that city, whicli embraces the care of all tli'« 
jmehlos of the Rio Civande. and, it is helieveil, of New Mexico. 

The Indian triljcs arc l)oni to respect all that pertains to war. Tiiey learn its art.s 
as soon as they are able to bend a bow. It is the dream of their yoiitli, the pride of 
their manhood, and the pleasing reminiscence of their ajic. To expect to control tiic 
■wild and fierce tril)es without it, is indeed a fallacy ; but it nnist only be resorted to 
as a means to an end. It is undoubtedly by the arts and counsels of peace, reiterated 
at every proper pause in the howling of tiie human tempest that sweeps along our 
frontiers, that it becomes practicable or possible to lead them forward in the scale of 
society, and to induce their sages to place a veto on the maxims of tlieir ancestois. 
(Vide Appendix, No. 5.) 

C A M F U N I A T K I n K .S . 



Diu'ing the intervening period ))etween the years 1 "Gi* and 1 "Ttl, the Spanish organized 
eigliteen Indian mis.sions in California, embracing, at their highest period of prosperity, 
l(i.:i:!l .«ouls (Alcedo). The di.sbandment of these missions, and the dispersion of the 
population which iiad been thus brought under the inlluencc of instruction, has rendered 
it impracticable, were it even now attempted, to distinguish the variou.s grades of the 
aboi'iginal population. When tiie Americans succeeded to the occupancy of Cali- 
fornia, the sites ai I buildings missions were observed on the coast, from San 
Diego to San Francisco; but they appeared to have been abandoned, as centres of 
teaching the natives, for long periods. Lieut. A. W. Whipple, U. S. A., who passed 
through the bands on the line of survey between San Diego and the coast opposite tlie 
mouth of the Gila, found the Diegunos laying stress on the fact of the ti'ibes iiaving 
been formerly organized in a Si)anish mission, and speaking many Spanish words, and 
evincing some evidences of improved manners, without nuich industrial or moral 
character. But before reaching the (.'olorado, ho entered the territories of the Cushans 
or Yunias, who arc the merest barliarians. "Warriors dye their faces jet black, with 
a strip of red from the foreheail, down the, and the chin. Women and 
joung men usually paint with red, and ornament their chins witli dots or stripes of 
blue or black ; around their eyes are circles of black. (Vol. II., p. Ilo.) Tiiere were 
also encountered, on this part of the route, other bands ; and he pronounces those 
living near the mouth of the Gila, as '"a desperate set of rascals" (p. 110). 

In the manners and customs of the tribes living in the circle of country around San 
Diego, we perceive nothing that lifts them above the darkest superstitions of the most 
degraded hunter-tribes of other latitudes. " In tlieir religious ceremonial dances," says 
an ol)server on tlie so-i. '• hey dill'er much. AViiile, in some tribes, all unite to cele- 
brate them, in otiiers, men alone are allowed to dance, while the women a.^sist in 


t<in,ii;iii.^. Of tlicir dain'os, tlio most CL'lcl)rated are tlioso of tlio lia\vk-fi>ast, the tlanco 
of peace and jiloiity. tlie dance of victory, that ol' iMiljcrty. and tliat of deprecation. 
These are all considered ndigions, and apart I'roni tiioso of mere anuisement. 

That of deprecation obtains wiion any person of the trilie falls sick nnacconntably. 
All believe it to be the work of witches, or rather ol' wizards; for among them the 
males are more liable to \n\ ai'cused, and in this their ,ualhintry is superior to ours. On 
this occasion, all the members of the tril)e assendile, bringing' witii them eacli an oll'er- 
inir of the products of their jiaflierinj:'. The whole is deposited in a basket, and the 
dance bcfiins. Signilicative words are sum:- by thi> wtjuien. children, and the old, 
while generally the warriors alone dance to time, kept in tiieir ordinary way. by 
arrows, used as castanets. This is ki'pt up till a late hour, when the jiriest rises and 
presents the oilering, waving it high from right to left, and shouting at each wave, the 
tribe responding by a deep groan. During this part of the ceremony, no other noise is 
heard, but all is deep and respectful attention. Here the dance breaks up. and all 
disperse. The oilering is pre[)areil and (looked on the following day; and in the night, 
the ineilicient old men of the tribe alone, meet mid eat it. Here the ceremony end.s, 
and they conclude that the evil genius should be appeased. 

On the first proof of womanhood in the maiden, a great ceremonial feast comes olf. 
The girl is interred, and the ground beaten, so that a profuse sweat succeeds, and is 
kept up for twenty-four hours. During this interval she is withdrawn and washed 
three or four times, and reimliedded. Dan<'ing is kept up the whole time by the 
women, and the ceremony ends l)y all joining in a big feast, given liy the piirents of 
the girl. 

One of their most remarkable superstitions is found in the fact of their not eating 
the ilesh of large game. This arises from their belief that in the bodies of all large 
animals the souls of certain generations, long since jiast, have entered. It is not the 
metempsychosis of Pythagoras, but one of their own, as they always saj' they were 
people long since passed away, souls have been thus translated. It is probable 
that the superstition, in its purity, extended to all largo animals ; but the Mission 
Indians, being fed entirely on beef, and their robberies consisting mostly of herds (jf 
liorses, the superstition has been removed from the domestic animals, excepting the 
hog. This was preserved in the Missions for its lard, and was dillicult to steal in 
quantity — hence the continued prohibition of its Ilesh amongst them. These prohibi- 
tions are set aside in case of the old and ineilicient men of the tribes, as they can eat 
anything and everything that comes in their way. A white man at llrst finds it dilli- 
cult to believe in their good faith, but a couple of proofs may be adduced here: On one 
occasion, a half-Indian wished to amuse himself at the expense of the devout. He 
prepared a ilisli of bear-meat for them, and saying it was beef ;ill eat heartih'. When 
the trick was nnule known to them, they were seized with retchings, which only ended 






witli tlieii" cause. A term of reproach from a wild trilju to those more tamed is,'- They 

Klf I'LllixOII !" 

On an eclipse, all is consternation. They congregate and sinjr, as some say, to 
appease, and others to frighten, the evil sjjirits. They helieve that the devils arc eat- 
ing up the luminary, and they do not cease until it comes forth in its wonted splendor. 
All pregnant women are confined within their huts during the eclipse, as they helicvo 
them to be engaged with the devils. 

This does not certainly look as if tliero were any remaining traces in their minds 
of any teachings that ever were brought to their notice at the Mission of San Diego. 

An opinion has been expres.sed that the California Indians are of Malay origin. 
This idea is mentioned by Dr. Pickering, (Races of Man, p. 1(15.) who observes that 
their complexion is too dark for the Mongolian race, (111). It is not conceived that 
the remark is generally sustained by the particulars introduced by him, ph}siological 
or philological. Repetitious syllables arc connnon to most of our tribes east as well as 
west of the Kocky Mountains, who have scanty vocabularies.' Tattooing also prevails 
in many of the Vesperic tribes east of these northern Cordilleras. The old (.'reeks 
formerly practised it; the Knistenos still do. A peculiar softness of the skin (p. 107,) 
is a noticeable trait with tlie Indians of the Mississippi Valley, and of the Appala- 
chian group. The a.«scrtion (108,) that language radically changes, on migration, into 
(liver.«ic stocks, requires examination. The remark that syphilitic di.seases (109,) are 
derivetl through "converted natives," appears designed to be severe. 

Most observers in California, although admitting them to be a degraded type, liavo 
deemeil the Indians to coincide in their general features and character with the 
general race of these tribes in the older jiarts of the United States, as remarked by 
General Hitchcock, U. S. A.'' 

'' It is a mistake, in my judgment, to suppose that the Indians on this, except, 
perhaps, a few 'digger bands,' difler materially from those found by the pilgrims at 
Plymouth, from whcise descendants there sprang up in time a Philip or a Tecnmseh. 
It is by no means certain that the seeds of dreadful massacres and barbarities are not 
already .sown." 

The manners and customs of the California Indians, while they denote a lower grade 
of art and ingenuity than the tribes in eastern longitudes, are, at the same time, 
general. They do not erect a lodge of the least pretensions to architecture. Tliey dwell 
in roofed pits. Tiie Bonacks subsist on the pajvpa, or wild potatoes, and on berries, 
acorns, and seeds, which arc procured by the labor of the women ; the men obtain 
fish in most of the streams, and sometimes kill small game. l>ut the chief reliance, 
summer and winter, is on seeds. The females construct, with much ingenuity, baskets 

' Thus the rhippcwa-Algonquins s.iy puzhik for one ; p.t-buzhik for several. 
■' Kx. J)oc. No. •)'■ 'ilid ('uiigrcfs, 2tl Sos«., p. 1" 




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of willow or osior, for {,'atliering and ck-aiiiiig those seeds, and for transporting tlicni to 
tlioir lodgi's or places of depot, to be stored np for future use. Those several opera- 
tions arc e.\lii')ited in Plates 20, 127, 28. The men are described by Mr. Pickering as 
being generally of tall stature. They make a beautiful and delicate kind of dart from 
obsidian, <jr chalcedony, for the purpose of killing small game. The objections of the 
California tribes to eating the llosh of the bear, whiih has been IVoquentl}- stated, is 
peculiar. Some of the customs of these peoi)le re.sendjle those of the Hindoos ; but it is 
believed that these traits may bo accounted for on other princii)l('s. They burn their 
dead. They also sacrifice widows on the pyre with their deceased husbands, an 
instance of which, by the tribes occupying the sources of the Jlercedo river, within 
the range of the Nevada Mountains, is described at page 220, Vol. IV'. The coast 
tribes manufacture the bow and arrow with great skill; but they are destitute of the 
war-club, the tomahawk, or the battle-axe. There arc no ruins or antiquarian monu- 
ments in the country, to denote that it had ever been occupied by a peo[)le more 
advanced in arts. Mentally, their asi)irations are not high. They do not ap[)car to 
refer their creation to a Diniv. They ascribe their origin to the cojote, or wolf. 
From the decay of its carcass they date the origin of other iiuadrupeds. To prevent 
the process of putrefaction, and avoid the multiplication of insects in the world, they 
adopted the custom of burning the dead. 

The numerous small tribes and bands of north-western California are described in 
the Journal of Mr. G. Gibbs (Vol. III., p. 99). Their population (given on page GIU) 
is estimated to c.Kcced 9000 souls. Ample specimens of eighteen of these dialects of 
tribes, dispersed along the coast between San Francisco and the Klamath river, reach- 
ing inland to the Shaske or Slnishtl Mountains, are inserted in the same volume, at 
pages 428 to 415. For additional information, vide Appendix, No. 5. 

With regard to the -classification of the California tribes, the state of our vocabularies 
from that quarter is still too scanty to make the attempt. The dialects of the Bonacks, 
together with their manners and customs, prove them to be of the Shoshonie stock of 
the summits of the Rocky Mountains. This stock, known under the names of Snakes 
and Bonacks, on that range, are perceived by the vocabulary transmitted by Mr. 
Neighbors (Vol. II., page 494), to have been the parent tribe of the present Camanches 
of Texas, where the po.ssessiou of the has exalted them into a new existence. 

P E N N A C O K S . 

This tribe, Mr. Potter informs us, formerly occupied the Merrimack valley. Their 
seat of power was at Amo.skeag' Falls. They were in amity with the surrounding 
tribe.s, amongst whom they exei'cised an important inlluence. They were under 

' Amnsl,; in this ilialoot, iiieans a Leaver, and riii/ — JeriveJ from i/iimcrij — tlio plural of water, i. o., bodies 
of water, as tliey arc spread abroad in lakes and rivers. 
Vol. v. — 28 

i. ■ ,i 



' "^ 

■ i 




the {^ovcniniont of a powoifiil sajfitiiioro cnlli'd Passaconnawav, wlio \\i\n at oiu'o tlio 
depositary of political ami religious power. His wisdom in council was ri'spccted, JMit 
bis power as a native priest and sorcerer made him to be feared. lie resisted tlie 
gospel, when it wa.s first oil'ered hiui and his band by Kliot; and they regarded the 
advent of the whites in the country as fraught with inlhiences adverse to their pros, 
perity, and destructive to .aboriginal tribes. Thi'y made tijc most determined resistance 
to the .settlement of New England and New I!amp.shire especially, of any tril)e on the 
iiorders of the North Atlantic; and when they were expelled from the Merrinmck, 
they returned from the north and west, whither they had ilcd, with a degree of fury, 
and spirit of vengeance, wiiich is idinost without a parallel. These events arc .stated, 
ill tiieir order, in the following observatit)ns, as gleaned from the authorities by a gen- 
tleman resident in the district of country whose aboriginal history is under discussion. 

'• The voyagers to the coast of New England, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century, found nndtiidicd divisions among the several tribes of Indians, though ail 
si)eaUing radically the same language, namely, the Algonkin. Cai)tain .lohu Smith, 
one of these early voyagers, gives the most minute account of these tribes. He says : 
' The princii)al habitations I saw at Northward, was Pennobscot, who arc in Warres 
with the Terentines, their next northerly neighbors. Houtiierly up the Rivers, and 
alnng tlie coast, wee found Mrcadacut, Segocket, I'ennnaipiid, Nusconcus, Sagadahock, 
,Sat(piin. AnmugliL ingen, and Kenabeca : to those belong the countries and people of 
Segotago, I'auhuntanuck, Pocopassum, Taughtanakagnes, Wabigganu.s, Nassarpie, Mau- 
herosipicek, Warigwick, Moshorpien, Waccogo, Pasharanack, &c. To those are allied 
in c jufederacy the Countries of Aucocisco, Accominticus, Pa.ssataquak, Augawoam and 
Nacmkeck ; all, I'or any thing 1 could perceive, difl'er little in language, or any 
thing, though most of them be Sagamos and Lords of themselves, yet they hold the 
IJashabcs of Penobscot the chiefe and greatest amongst them. The next is Mattahunt, 
Totant. Massachu.set, Paconekick, then Cape Cod, by which is Pawmet, the lies Naw.set 
and Capawuck, ncere which are the shoulcs of Eocks and sands that stretch themselves 
into tlie maine 8ca twenty leagues, and very dangerous, betwixt the degrees of 40 and 
41.' ' Most of these tribes named by Smith occupied the same relative positions for 
more than a century after the country was permanently settled by the English. 

West oi Cape Cod were the powerful tribes of the Narragansets and Peipiots, while 
in the country, upon the rivers and lakes, were several powerful tribes; the Nipnmcks, 
in the interior of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and occupying the valley of the 
Meriimack, in New Jlainpshire and Massachusetts; and the Norridgewocks, seated 
upon the branches of the Kennobcck, and the lakes in the northern interior of Maine. 
This last tribe was called Abanakis by the French, and principally noted for their 
adherence to the French interests, and their inroads upon the French settlements, 
which their C(mnection with the French led them to undertake. 

' Sou .Mass. ('..11., Vol. III., tliiiJ serit's, pago :iO. 




East of tho Penobscot wore tlio ScootiU'ks, or Pnssainnqiioddics, inlialutiii^- tin- 
Scootiick or St. Critiv river, and llio .slioro of tlm PiissniniKjiioddy Hay; tho iMilicL'tc,**, 
ill tlio viilloy of tho river St. Joiiii ; and tiie Mic Mac.>j, occupying the re.«it of New 
BriuLswii'lt, and the peninMidn of Noviv Scotia. 

Tho Mic Macs were, and still are, a warlike people. Living mainly npon the sea- 
shore, athletic, of powerful frame, and most expert canoe-men, they wore fond of war- 
like e.vpeditions, and often were a source of fear and anxiety to their western neigidjors. 
nnder the dreaded name of Tarratines. They even extended llieir war expcditimis 
against the tribes of Massacliusett.s, witiiin the knowledge of the Englisli; and in some 
of the earliest stipulations between the tribes of New Hampshire and Massaciiusctts 
and their English neighbors, mention is made of their dread of tiie Tarratines. 

When Captain Smith coasted along tlio shore of New England, in 1014, making the 
island of Monheagan the centre of his operations, the Penobscot tribe was one of tlio 
most powerful in New England. Tliey were under the control of a bashalia or chid", 
who held tho tribes of Maine, as far west as tho Saco, as triiiutary, or subject to him. 
He was then at war with the Tarratines; and in 101."), that warlike people sent an 
expedition against him, witii such secrecy an<l consequent success, that they took him 
by surprise, and put him and his family to death. Divisions arose as to the succession 
of the bashaba, of which tiie Tarratines, taking tlie advantage, soon overpowered tho 
other tribes of Maine, and extended a war of exterininatitin along the coast of Massa- 
chusetts. Hand in hand, as it wore, with war, stallvcd pestilence, so that in lO'JO, 
tiie tribes upon the sea-coast, from tho St. Croix to Capo Cod, had Ix-come greatly 
deiireciated in numbers, and some places had become almost entirely depopulated. 

Speaking of this depopulation, Captain Smith says : •' Tiiey had three plagues in 
three years successively, neere two hundred miles along the .sea-coast, that in some 
places there scarce remained five of a hundred," * * ''' '•' '• but it is most certaine 
there was an exceeding great plague amongst them ; for where I have seeno two or 
tlireo hundred, within throe years after remained scarce thirty." ' 

Whatever this disease may have been, it seems to have extended little farther south 
than Cape Cod, and to have been limited in violence, at least, to the tribes of the sea- 
coast, so that tho Pilgrims in 1()20, and for many years subsequent, had but little to 
fear from the once powerful tribes upon the sea-shore north of Cape Cod ; but, on the 
contrary, had to use every precaution, and much vigilance, against the power of tlie 
southern tribes and those of the interior, which had been less alllicted by disease 
and war. 

At this period, the most powerful tribes of the interior, and probably of New 
England, north of the Pequots, had their residence in the valley of the Merrimack, 
npon tlie productive falls and fertile meadows of that beautiful river. These meadows, 
or "intervales," as they are usually called, are l)asins made up of alluvial and vegetable 


' Ma.s.s. IIL^t. Coll., Vul. III., tlilnl sorios, pngo Hi. 

!' ! 



ilopositH. and woiv, doiilitloss. <nici' covciv'd witli wntor, wliicli liiin priuliinlly pansod 
iiwiiy tlirniiiili till' McniiniuU, tliiit, continually dccponing its cliannol, lian Inirst tlio 
i(ni<y liairicrs of tiiL'so hnyi*, or lakes, and K'i't tlioir lornicr bods dry and anil)!c' land. 
'I'liat llifse •' intcrvak's" wciv s;il)nu'riri'd. and at a comparatively lute period, hardly 
admits ol' a diinl)t, as tlio l)aniers of tiieso ancient liays can be readily traced above 
I'awtneket. Amoskeafr. llooksot, (iarvin's and Sowell's Kails; and upon most of these 
basins, or intervaU's. have been found, far below their surface, logs, frosli-wator shells, 
and other inimistakaiile evidences of submersion. The Merrimack, then, was a suc- 
cession of bays, from Lake Winneitesaidice to the ocean; a part of which now remain 
at Sanboruton and .Mereditii, and wliicli add .so nuich of beauty to the .scenery of tiiat 
neiuldtorhood. These intervales were of very great fertility, and of such ready pro- 
ductiveness, as to all'ord an abimdant harvest to the scanty husbandry of the Indian. 
Mure tlian two centuries t)f c\dture have hardly decreased their fertility. 

Tiien, the Merrimack alVorded other superior advantages for Indian settlements. 
Rising in the White Mountains, at an altitude of six thou.sand feet above the level of 
tlie ocean, its waters find their way to the Atlantic, through the distance of two hun- 
dri'd and fd'ty miles; of course tiiere arc rapids and falls through most of its entire 
length. These an'orded tlie most ample fishing-grounds to tlie natives, whereat to 
spear, and take with di[)-net and seine, the myriads of alewives, shad, and salmon, 
that literally crowded the ^Merrimack during certain seasons of the year. Then, the 
woods upon its banks were fdled with moose, deer, and bears; whilst the ponds and 
lakes, the sources of its triljutaries, were teeming with •. -atcr-fowl. 

In this beautiful '"valley of the Merrimack," with all these attractions of fertile 
planting-grounds, an abundance of fish, and hunting-grounds of unlimited extent, the 
iirst English adventurers found several trMjcs of Indians, occupying localities chosen 
with Indian taste, and with special reference to his condbrt and his wants. From its 
mouth far above its allluents, the V/innepesaukee and Pemegowas.set, the shores of this 
'• silver stream" were dotted with Indian villages. It was the very paradise of the 
Indian imagination. Is it a wonder that the wresting of such a home from " iho lord.s 
of the soil," should have been accompanied with strife and bloodshed? That tho 
Indian, in his ignorance and wildncss, when driven from the graves of his fathers at 
the hands of strange r.s, siiould have left the marks of his vengeance behind him, traced 
with all the horrors of tho .scaliiing-knife and tomahawk? It is not strange; nor is it 
so singular, or so much a matter of reproach, as that a people, fresh from the lash of 
oppression, laying claim to much of humanity, and ever l)earing upon their arm the 
shield of morality and religion, should have driven the simple-hearted natives from 
their binds without even color of right, except what comes from that precept of bar- 
barism that " might makes right ;" and without even color of title, when title was 
pretended, except what was purchased for a few blankets, a trucking-coat, a few beads 
and baubles, or perhaps still, for a runlet of "occupce," or "fire-water!" 



TIii>s(> trilics n|M)ii the Mcrrimin'U wcic tin- .\';a\\Miii. Wnmc^it (ir P;i\vtiuki't, 
Naslmii, Soulic^riiit, Nainiio.xUi'ii.L', I'l'iiiiiH'ook, aiul Wiiini'|iosiuikt'e. Tlio A;j:a\viiin 
trilto oci'miiod tlio oastcni part of wliat is now K^scx Coiiiit}', in >ra.-<facliiis('tts, 
cxteiiiliiii; IVuiu t'ult'-wtiter upon the MorriinacU, roiind to <';iiic Ann. 'I'lu-ir tiiiiturv, 
Bkirti'd upon two sides by tlio Murriniack and Atlantic, indi'ntcd In' liays, intoi'soctod 
liy riviTH, anil intorspcrsi'd with jjunds, was appropiiiitidy ralU'd Wonncsfpianisauki', 
jni'aning literally, tho Pleasant Water- I'lane; the word lieinu' a enniponnd IVoni woiuie, 
pleasant, nsipmni, water, ami nuke, a place. This word was smnetinies contracted to 
Wonnesqunm, ol'ten to S((uanisauke, nnd still ol'lener to .Sjiiain. or Asi|nani. The 
dt'e|) fxnttnral pronunciation of (^«/"(0// liy the Indians, sounded to the Mnjrlish like 
ii'/inniiii, and lience the word as applied to the Indians of that locality. Several 
localities in Kssex County are now known hy names contracted and derived from this 
Indian word Wiiinirnfiinniisitiikc, as "Scpiam," the name of a jileasant harhor and villa;fe 
upo-.i the north side of (Jajie Ann, and "Swamscot," the name of a pleasant village in 
the eastern p;irt of liyiui. The Wamesits occupied the forks of the Merrimack and Con- 
cord rivers, near to the Pawtucket Falls in the former river. Wamesit is derived from 
wanie, nil or irlt ilc, and auke, a /ilmr, with the letter v thrown in lietwixt the two 
syllahles. for the sake of the .sound. The Indian villai^e at this place undouhtcdiy 
received this name from the fact that it was a Inn/r village, the /ilitn where <(ll tlie 
Indians collected together. This was literally true in the spring and summer, as the 
Pawtuidcet Falls, near by, was one of the most noted lishing-phices in \ew England, 
whore the Indians from fiU' and near gathered together in April and May. to catch 
nnd dry their year's stock of .shad and salmon. Wamesit is eml)raced in the present 
town of Tewksbury, and the city of Lowell, in Middlesex (\>unty. Massachusetts. 

The Indians in this neighborhood were sometimes called Pawtucket, from the falls 
in the Merrimack of that name. Pawtucket moans the./M/7j.*, being derived from the 
Indian word Pixliultik, a branch. Pawtucket seems, however, to have been applied by 
the English rather to all the Indians north of the Merrimack, than to the particular 
tribe at the falls of that name. The Xashuas occu[)ied the lands u[)on the Nasliua, 
nnd the intervals upon the Merrimack, opposite and below the mouth of that ri\er. 
Nashua means the rivir icith a jnhlili/ Intttom, a name said to have been peculiarly 
appropriate before art had deprived it of this distinctive beauty. 

The Souhogans lived upon the Souhcgan river, occupying the rich intervals upon 
both banks of the Merrimack, above and below the mouth of the Souhegan. Souln-giin 
is a contraction of Souhekenash, an Indian noun in the plural number, meaning tvuni- 
oiif liDiils. These Indians were often called Natacooks, or Nacooks, from their occujjy- 
ing ground that was free from trees, or vliand laml — X(ilit<o(ik meaning a ihiirim/. 

The Namaoskeags resided at the falls in the Merrimack, known al present by the 
name of Ainoskeag, and lying mainly in the city of Mauohester. This word, written 

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I a: 
i i 








Tl! I n.\I. OR (I AN I 7. AT I ON, 

variniisly, NiuiinMkt'. NiimMoski'ii;.'. Nuiiinkoag, uml Niiimlu'iiU, im-aiis x\w jls/ilinj-iilurr, 
tVom iiinii'iiiM. IV li.sli. ami mi/,-'-, a place. 

Till- I'l'imacdolis (icciiim'il the licli iiitcrvals at I'l'iiiiacooK-. now ciiibnu't-d in llic 
liiwns (if How, ("tiiiciinl, ami nnsiMwi-n. in tlic Cdmity of .Mcrriiiiai'k. Tlu-y wi'iv tliiis 
calli'd IVoiu /"/(;«(/y(//. croDlviMl, and ct'/.'. place; the intervals at Concord, which aic 
oxtonsivo. heing cniltiacod witliin tlic I'oldH of the JMcirinnicU, wiiich winda its way 
ulonu' ill a vi'ry crooUcd manner.' 

The Winncpe.sanUii's occupied the lands in the vicinity of the lake of that name, 
one ol' their noted tisliin^'-places hcinji at the outlet of the Wiiniej^esankee. now known 
ns the Weirs, the paits of permanent Indian weirs havin;.; remained at that place lon^ 
al'ter the advent of the whites. Winnepcsaukco is derived from vhnif, heautifnl. «//"', 
wati'r, /." •>■. hij-h, and 'm^/,v, place ; meaning literally, /Ac haiillfnl irn/ir <i/ l/ir /lii/h 

Of these several tril)i>s. the I'cnnacooks were the most powerful; and i-itlier from 
their suju'riority. arisiiifr from a long residence upon n fertile soil, and iience more 
civilized ; or from having been, for a long period, under the rule of a wise chief; and 
|)('rhai)s from lioth causes united, had become tlio head, as it were, of a powerful 

It is wi'll known that the Winnepesaidvoe, Amo.skcag. Sonhegan, and Nashua tri!)es, 
were coin})letely subservient to the Pennacooks ; while the W'amesits were so iiiler- 
inarried with them ns to be mainly under their control, acknowledged fealty to Passa- 
cnnnaway, and fnially, with the other tribes upon the Merrimack, became merged with 
the Pennacooks, and cea.sod to be distinct tribes, in fact or name. 

The AgawauLs wore also intimately connected with the Pennacooks, and acknow- 
ledged fealty to them, and doubtlcs.s were one of the earliest tribe to become merged with 
them; but still they ceased to exist as a distinct tribe at so early a date, that few 
particulars of their history have been preserved. 

IJcsides the tribes in the valley of the Merrimack, the Pennacooks had control over 
the most of the tribes from the Concord river in Massachusetts, to the sources of the 
Connecticut,^ and from the highlands betwixt the Merrimack and Connecticut, to the 
Kennebec, in Maine. It is known that the Waehusetts, from Wm/rlni, (a mountain.) 
and ..I"/.'' (place), near Wachn.'^etts mountain in Ma.ssachusetts ; the (,'oosucks, from 
Corxixli (pines), upon the sources of the Connecticut river; the Pecinarpiaidvcs, from 
Piijiiiniiii-s (crooked), and Anlr (a place), upon the sources of the Saco, in Carroll 
county, in New Hampshire, and Oxford count}-, in Maine; the O.ssipees, from Cixms/i. 
(pines), and Si/ir (a river), upon the Ossipee lake and river, in Carroll county, in New 
Hampshire, and York county, in Alaine ; the Spiamscotts, from Wiinw (beautiful), 

' It limy lie that I'lniiaeiiok lucaus //ic i/rnninl-iiut p/iicr, iii which it would bo JorivcJ from pinak, a 

prciuiiil-iuil, iiiiil r/»/.' , a phico. 

* Connecticut is derived from (,)iiiiiiir Cloiij;\ Atlii'li (u dccr\ and Au/.c (a place"). 

FI I S T R Y, A N I) (J ( ) V K II N M K N T . 


Axqiiiiiii (wiit(M'). (iiiil Aiiht (|il:ii'o). Upon Ivvt'tcr river, in Kxi'tcr, mitl Stnvtliiiiu. in 
l{(M'kiii;.'liiun coinilv; tiic WiiUH'Cuwott.-*. Cioin Wninr (liciiutiriil). CmHt-fi (iiint'?'), and 
All/,' (place), ill tile lliiiiiptonH in tlio Miiiie ('(lunty; the I'i>ciila(|iiaiii\es, iVdiii yi« 
(^reat). Athnk (a deer), mid Aiild' (ii jilHce), iipini tlie l'iceatu(|iia river, tlie Ijuiindai'y 
lietwixt New Ilaiiipsiiire and Maine; tiie NcwicIiewannociiH, IVoiu .V" (my). II'"// (u 
conliactitin ol' irii/.irinii, a iioii^c). and OiniiunK/.- (conie), upnii diie nf llie np|ier 
Laaneiies of tlie .xanie river; tlie SaciiM. Iriini Siiim (lairnt). ('tm ([liin'), and A>i/,i 
(plaw), upon the Sae(t river, in York county. Maine; and the Aniari.xeojiiiiiix. iVom 
Xdiiiiiiin (li.xli), Am.v (hifili). and An/.i (place), upon the Anlori^'co^r;iin river, liaviii;^' its 
."'oiii'ce in New llanipshiro. and emptying its waters into the Keiiiiehec! — all aekimw- 
ledfii'd the power aixl contixd ol' the IV'iinacooks, and were niemhers uC the conledeiacy 
of which that powerrnl triho uas the head, and I'as^aconiiaway tho leading fiagiunore, 
or bashaha. These Indians from the interior were known and called among the trihci 
upon tho Hciirshoro by tho general iianio of Ni[imncks. or fresh water Indians. 
Nijinuick is derived I'rom X!/> (still water), and Anki (place), with the letter /// thrown 
in for the sake of euphony. And, true to their name, the Ni[imucks usually had their 
residences upon places of still wafer, the ponds, anil lakes, and rivi'rs of the interior. 

Hut the Indians in tho Morriniack valley, aUIiou,,'h properly Nipnuick.s. and living 
in distinct bands or trii)es, were usually called by the Knglish I'emuu'ooks. from tho 
fact that the tribe at Ponnacook was tho most powerful one in the valk'v; and under 
the rule of I'assaconnuway, had become, as has already been seen, tho head of a 
powerful confederacy. This position of that tribo brought its pi'ople in contact with 
the Knglish on all occasions of moment, such as conferences and negotiations; and 
lu'uco the English, nu'eting on such occasions Ponnacuoks almost exclusively, a})plicd 
tho name of Pennacooks to tho tribes generally inhabiting the Merrinuudv valley. 
Aiul in of time, as the Indians bccnnie reduced in mnnbers by emigration, war, 
and contact with civilization, tho smaller tribes became united with tho larger ones, 
till, in l()7'j, tho Penn.acooks were the only tribo in, and had exclusive possession of, 
tho Merrimack valley. 

The Morrinuxck, naturally, was but a series of falls, rapitls, and rij)plcs from tho 
Souhcgan to the lower Poiniacook falls (now Garvin's). These allbrded tho most ample 
opportunity for fishing, and the name of Nainaoskeag was doubtless applied to that 
section of the river and the adjacent country around; but in course of tiino, as (ish 
became more and more limited, the name Namaoskeag came to be applied to the 
immediate neighborhood of the principal falls, now known as Aiiioskeag. 

The fish at these falls were most abundant, and the facilities for taking them supe- 
rior to tho-^o of any other place upon tho Merrim.ick. The river below the main fall, 
in the course of a few miles, is entered l>y a number of rivers and rivulets having their 
sources in the lakes at no great ; and of course at certain seasons it was filled 
with nlewives, waiting an opportunity to pass up those small stream.-., thus both on 




the Mcrriiiiack iind in those stroamy, aUbrding ready opiwrtimity to take thctii in any 
((uantity. Tlieii at tlie same season tlio great basin or eddy at the foot of these falls 
and at tiie inoiitli of tlie riscatafiuoi;' ri\-er was literally fdled with eels, shad, and 
salmon, waiting a passage np the falls oecnpied by their earlier or more expert eom- 
piuiiuns, over and among whieh the Indian, in his canoe, eonld pass and spear or net 
at his will. Again, at the foot of the main fall, and npon the western branch of the 
liver, here dividing and passing among and aronnd certain small islands, was, and is 
at the present time a basin or edd\-. emi)tied l»y a small passage easily rendered impass- 
able for lisii by a weir, and ever lilleil with (ish in the season of them from the falls 
abo\e, the force of the water rnshing over the nniin pitch of the falls natnrally and 
inc\ italiiy driving into this pool those fish that, in the rnsh, did not sncceed in passing 
np the fdls. Here they were as secure as in an eel-pot, and the lndi;ins could take 
them at their convenierice. 

Then at the main lall, and at the Islands below, the river passes through the ledges 
and rocUs in narrow channels; and upon these rocks and channels the Indian could 
stand through day and night, if he chose, and throw spear or di[)-net without nussing 
a fish at each '•throw." And last, the various did not usually arrive at these falls 
until after the liUth of ^Ia\', when the planting season was over; thus allbrding the 
Indians i)lenty of time to take and cure them without interruption from their agricul- 
tural pursuits, however scanty. Whereas at I'awtucket, and the rapids in that 
neighbt)rhootl, the lish arrived usually alwut the first of May, and continued through 
the busiest time of corn-planting. These peculiar advantages pertaining to the fishery 
at this place, made it, pur cxi-dhnvr, the fi.shiiig-place ; hence, as before suggested, the 
Indian name of Namaoskeag. 

These were no ordinary advantages to the Indian, depending, as he did, for subsis- 
tence upon lisii, llesh. ami Ibwl, and such vegetables as his limited agriculture might 
produce. Hence we can readily suiipose, that where iish were so abundant, and so 
rcailil}' to be taken, that there the Indians would Hock together in vast numbers, to 
su[iply their future wants, and that the jjlace would be one of great importance. 
Such was the fact ; and Namaoskeag, lor a long time, was not only the great 
point of attiai'tion to all piox ideiit Indians, but wiis the royal residence of the ancient 
sagamores of the ^Merrimack valley. 

At Namao.>^keag, upon the bluff inimediatel}' cast of the falls, was the main village 
or town occupied by the Indians, as is plainly shown by the abundance of arrow and 
spear-heads, and the debris of stones from which they were manufactured, together 
with pieces of pottery, and other unmistakable evidences of an ancient Indian town, 
still to l)e seen and found ; while down the river to the Souhcgan, there wore smaller 
settlements, wherever were good iisliing or planting-grounds. In Bedford, opjiositc 
Carthagena Island, on laud of lion. T.-.-mas Chandli'i", and opposite the mouth of Cohas 
river, such settlements existed, the vestiges of which still e.\ist at the Ibrmer place, 



and (lid at tlic latter, till the hand of iinproveniont swept them away. Rut, as before 
siii.'gested, the main Indian villayo was at the "Falls," called by Mr. Eliot "a great 
lishing-place, ^V(0/*((*7.-(', upon Merimak," and whieh, he sajs, "bolongeth to I'apassa- 
coiiiiaway." ' 

Here, prior to Ifl-jO, Passaconnaway had a principal residence, and was so anxious 
to have the Itev. Mr. Eliot come here and establish his conununity of (Jhristian, or 
"' Praying Indians," as his proselytes were called, that he oU'ered to I'lirnish him with 
any amount of land that ho might want for that purpose. Tlie old sagamore held out 
such inducements, and the place was of so much importance, that Eliot, at one time, 
had serious thoughts of establishing iiimself here ; but the distance was so great to 
transport supplies, and the natives in Massachusetts were so averse to going farther 
north, that he thought " the Lord, by the Eye of Providence, seemed not to look 
thither,"- he located himself at Natiek.' 

There is no doubt that Mr. Eliot afterwards found opportunity to visit Nauiaoskeag, 
and to preach and establish a school there, as Gookin, in his account of the '•Christian 
Indians," names *' Naamikeke" as one of "the places where they (the Indiaus) met to 
worshii) Cod, and keep the sabbath; in which places there was, at each, a teaclier, and 
scliools for the youth at most of them."^ And as no other man established schools or 
]ireaching among (he Indians of the interior, save JMr. I'Miot, it follows, conse(pK'ntly, 
that he both preached and taught at Xamaoskeag. So that Nauiaoskeag, now Man- 
chester, not only has the honor of having been the scene of the philanthropic labors 
of '• the Apostle Eliot," but also that of having the " preaching and school" esta- 
blished within its limits, that were established in the State north and west of Exeter, 
however remiss its white iidiabitants may have been in these particulars. 

There was another noted ilshing-place within the territory of the Pennacooks. whore 
shad alone were caught, and which was almost oipially celebrated with those at 
Xamaoskeag and Pawtucket. It was located at the outlet of Lake Wiiuiepesaukco, 
and was known by the name of Aquedaukenash, meaning literally stopjiunj pluciii or 
(hiDhs. from A/ii/iir (to stop) and Aiifi-c (a place). This word Inid for its plural Ahuue- 
daukenash, hence, b^' contraction of the English, Ah(|uedauken, and again, by corrup- 
tion, Aipialoitmi, a name which was extended by the whites to the whole Winncpe- 
saukee river. It is a curious fact in the history i4' the fisheries upon the Merrimack, 
that while alewives, shad and salmon passed u|) the lower part of the Merrimack in 
company, yet the most of the alewives went up the small rivulets before coming to the 

' Sec Kliof.s Lott.T, Mnss. lli^t. Coll., Vol. IV., tliinl sciios, pp. S'J, 123. ' Ilii.l., pp. ]'2:!, 124. 

' Rotiio make Natiek to moan a p/air n/liilh ; but wo are inolinod to think that S'llirl; moans a iknriinj, or 
(ilaco Iroo IVoin tieos, tVnni tlio Indian worcts ViVc (hare) ami ttikv (a place). Honeo, Xrihlm-I; (a i;ipo in 
York County, Me.) and Nattieook, or Xacook, the ancient name of Litohlield, the town upon the oa-t side of 
the Morrimaok, and joining Manchester, N. II., on the soiilli. 

' ■'^('0 Tran.«. and Coll., Amcr. Aut. Society, pa^'o 51^. 

Vol,, v.— 21) 


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1 ' " "'H^^ 



i. I 


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T R 1 15 A L ( > K n A N I Z A T ION, 

Turks oftlio ML'ri'iiiiiU'k at Kruukliii. whili' tin; siilinoii and shad paili'd ooinpany at the 
lurlis. l\u' ronniT ;r()iiig ii[) thi- Pciiii'iicwassi'l,' and the hitter passiii;^- up ihc Wiiinepc- 
fiauUoe. Thiri peculiarity was owing to the natures ul" thoso llsli. Tlie alewives were 
a small lisli, and .sDiiiiht small lakes or ponds to ileposit their '• spawn," that were easy 
of access, warm, and free i'rom large (Ish, that would destroy tiieni and their jMogeny. 
Tiie shad was a much larg(>r fish, and sought largo lidves. for spawning, where the 
water was warm and iibundant ; while the salmon delighting in cold, swift water, 
sought alone thoso waters, fed I>y springs, or formed hy rivulets fiom the ravines and 
gorges of the mountain sides, which, meandering through dense forests, rijipling over 
jielihly bottoms, or rusiiing over rocks or ])recipict'S, formed those ripples, rapids, whirl- 
pools and falls, in which the salmon tlelights, and those dark, dei'p, cool basins t)r eddies, 
in which to deposit their spawn. Hence the fact that alewives were seldom found aliovo 
the forks of the Merrimack, and that the salmon hidd exclusive possessii)n of the cool, 
rapid, dark Pemegt'wasset, while the shad appropriated the warm, clear waters of the 
AViunepesaukee, neither trespassing upon the donniin of the other. The Alapiedauko- 
nasli, then, of the Indians and the A([uedauken and A(|Uodoctau of the English, were 
one and the sume name, applied to the fishing-i)lace of the Indians, at the outlet of 
L;d\0 Winnepesaukee. now known as •'The Weirs." This was called Ahquedaukee, 
or the Weirs, from the fact tlint tlit^ dams or weiis at this place were /x riini/Kiit ones. 
'J'ho Vr'innepesaukee is not a varialile river, and at tin- < l-'t of the Lake, the water 
for some distance passed over a hard pebbly bottom, ai, )t average more than 

three feet in depth. This was an excellent i)lace for r-' . ^ l v.aukenash or dam.s, and 
could not fail of being duly impro\ed by the Indians. Accordingly, as before suggested, 
they had here permanent weirs. Not ijcing able to drive stakes or j)osts into the hard, 
pebbly bottom of the river, they placed large rocks at convenient distances from each 
other, in a zigzag lino across the river. Against these they interwove their brushwood 
weirs, or strung their hempen nets, according to their aljility. Such weirs were used 
in the spring and fall, both when the lish rini »/* and </nirii the river. Such A(iuedau- 
kenash were freipient upon this and other rivers ; and the rocks thus placed in the 
river by the Indians renniined in their position long after the settlement of the English 
in that neighborhood, and wore used by them for a like purpose; hence the name of 
the Weiis, as continued at the present time. 

The valley of the Connecticut, in the north part of Massachnsotts and the south 
parts of New Hampshire and A'ermor.t, was a kind of "debateable ground" bctwi.\t the 
Mohawks and Pennacooks, between which tribes there was continual war; hence few 
places in it were occupied permanently by the Indians. At Bellows' Falls, and below, 
occasional parties of Indians were to be found, both of the Mohawks and Pennacooks ; 

' I' iih^/i imnfrt lucans, litoniUy, Thf rrdnl-ftl munntnui-piiir pfuri', frnin IVnnaiiuis (crnokeil), Wmhlne (n 
iiKiiiiilaiii), cooasli (pines j, and aukc (a place). Uy eoutraction, it bucamo Pcnna-cLu-ash-auke, nuJ by oorrup- 
tiuu, I'oiurgewassct. 




yet neither made permanent settlements there, for fear of the other, and neither made 
mueh stoi) tiicre, or in its neigiihorhoud, unless they wore in such force as to ho 
regardless of an attack from the other. 

On this account, the upper Connecticut valley affords few materials for Indian his- 
tory. The Coos country, extending from Haverhill to the sources of the Connecticut, 
is an exception to this remark, as it was occupied hy a hand of Peiinacooks, attracted 
there hy its hunting and lishing-grounds, and who kept a kind of armed possession of 
that country for the protcctiou and relief of the frequent parties which were passing 
and repassing from the various points upon the Merrimack to the Aresaguntacook' 
Indians upon the river St. Lawrence, a triho with which the Ponnacooks over main- 
tained the most friendly relations. 

With this tribe the Ponnacooks were allied by frequont intermarriages, and with a 
band of this same triho, located at the " Tliroo Rivers," and known as the St. Francis; 
the remnants of the various New Kngland tribes continued to unite, under l''ren(;h 
policy, till at length it became a powerful tribe, and jjrovcd an iiio\haustil)l(' source of 
annoyance and hostility to the colonists of New England. In fact, from l(j'.)(l to I TOO, 
most of the war parties that visited the New England frontiers started from St. Francis 
as a rendezvous, or had pilots and leaders fronr that tril)e, naturally so hostile to the 
English. It was during this period, from iG'tO to \~'2'>, tiiat the Indians of the Merri- 
mack valley wore, in any degree, ibrmidable to the English colonists. 

Having thus given a general account of the localities occupied b\' the Ponnacooks 
or Nipnuicks in the valley of the Merrimack, as well as of the several bands or trilics 
under their control, or coiiuectcd with them, we shall follow out their history more 

Passaconnaway was at the head of the [powerful Indian tribe, or virtual confederacy 
of the Ponnacooks, when the whites first settled in this countr}'. His name is indica- 
tive of his warlike character — Papis.soconcwa, as written by himself, moaning "•Tiio 
Child of the Bear." ^ We first hear of him in 1027 or S. Tiiomas Morton, '-mine 
host of Maremonnt," as he writes him.solf in his "Now English Canaan," thus speaks 
of him, being in this country at that time. •• That Sachem or Sagamore is a Powah 
of groato estimation amongst all kind of Salvages, there iieo is at their Revels, (which 
is the time when a groato company of salvages meete from soverall parts of the 
Country, in amity with their noighljours.) hath advanced his honor in his foats or 
jugling tricks, (as I may right toarmo tiiom), to the admiration of the spectators, 
whome hoe endeavoured to perswadc that hee would goc under water to the further 
side of a river to broado tor any man to undertake with a breath, winch thing hee 
performed by swimming over and deluding the company with casting a mist before 
their cics that see him enter in and come out; but no part of the way ho has bin .soono: 

' 8iii(l to nioau the plwi- itf thlnl mcnt. 

'' Tills iiauiu Is dorlvod IVoiii papoclf, i\ oliiM, ami /i-hiiihul-oi/, ii bear. 

1 i , ^ 


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V i> 



likewise by our English in the heat of all isuiuiner, to make ioo appcarc in a bowlo of 
tiiii'e wiitcr, having tiie wator sot L'jfoio him, hoc hath Iic^^iinno his incantation 
acL'onling to their nsuall accustom, and liofore tiie same hatii bin ended, a tiiiek clowde 
has darkened the aire, on a sodanc a thunder clap hath bin hoard that has amazed 
tlie natives; in an instant hee hath shewed a finnc pecce of ice to flotc in the middcst 
of the bowlc in tlie presence of the vulgar people, which doubtless was done by the 
agility of Satan liis consort."' Fi'om which marvellous story we are to infer tiiat 
Piissaconnaway, to the character of a brave warrior, added that of a clever juggler. 
In fact, he held his people in great awe of him, the Indians supposing him to have 
supernatural i)owers ; to have control over their destinies; that he coidd make a dry 
leal' turn groen ; water burn, and then turn to ice; and could take the rattle-snake in 
his hand with impunity. 

With such reputed powers, his acknowledged aljility as a warrior, and wisdom as a 
sagamore, Passaconnawa}', as before suggested, was the acknowledged head of the 
most powerful Indian tribe cast of the Mohawks; and as such, received the title of 
Bashaba, a title much of the same import as that of emperor. 

Prior to lOlii), tiio tract of land extending from the Piscattvqna to the Merrimack 
westward, and from the line of Massachusetts thirty miles into the country northward, 
had been explored ; and Mr. Ei. "-rd Coloord, at the recpiest of certain gentlemen of 
Massachusetts, had stipulated with Passaconnaway,the sagamore of the Pennacooks, and 
certain tributary chiefs, for its purchase. And on the 17th day of May, ItiliO, a deed, 
conveying the above tract, Avas executed at Sriuamscnt (now Exeter), Avith due form 
and cercmon}-, con\ eying the same to John Wheelwright and his associates, for certain 
stipulated and valuable considerations. This deed was signed by Passaconnaway, the 
sagamore of Pennacouk, liunnawit, the chief of Pawtucket, Wahongnonawit, the chief 
of Swamscut, and Kowls, the chief of Newichawanack ; and was witnessed by two 
Indians, and some of the most respectable men of the plantations at Piscataqua and 

This transaction was one of importance. It .shows that Passaconnaway, as early as 
l(j2y, was not only the chief of the Pennacooks. but that he was a sagamore at the 
head of a powerful confederacy; and that thus early he had the sagacity to .see the 
superiority of the English, and to wish them as a liarrier betwixt his people and their 
eastern enemies. Tiie deed expressly acknowledges, on the part of the chiefs of the 
Pawtucket, Scpiamscut, and Newicdiawanaek, their being tributary to the sagamore of 
Pennacook; the seventh and last article stipulating that "every township within the 
aforesaid limits, or tract of land, that hereafter shall be settled, shall pay Passaconna- 
way, <iiir chii f sa<i(unure that note lo, and to /ils fiiicccssdrx/nnrir, !/ Ikic/kI/i/ iliinamhil, 
one co''.t of trucking-cloth a year."^ 

' Seo Force's His. Tracts, Vol. II. N. E. Cauaan, pp. '.'.'), M. 
' Belknap, Appendix No. 1 , of Vol. I. 



Tt lins lipon sii^wstcd (Iiat llic Pcmmrooks wcro nu od-slioot of ono of tlio Routli- 
wpstoni \('\v Kii!2l;ni(l ti'ilios; iiml it is riTtnin tiint tliov spoke t!io smiic IniiL'tiaso with 
tho Miissncliiisctts .'ind liliodc Tslaiul Iniliaiis. Soino rend may have driven tlio 
ancestors of Passaconnawny to sock an asylum upon tlicso meadows of the Merri- 
mack, wliero lie could find for himself and companions ready subsistence by takinp^ 
game In tho forests, fish at the falls, and raising corn and other vegetables upon tho 
intervales. And here wo see the striking cfiect that tho cultivation of Indian corn 
has upon Indians. At tlie present time tho Indians of the west who plant corn are 
more civilized than their neighbors who live by hunting. They are less inclined to 
rove, are moro rol)ust and intcllecttuil. Planting, matin-ing, and gathering corn detains 
them longer in tho same locality- than any other occupation; and this detention makes 
them moro social, more friendly and hospitalile among themselves, and less ,'icliued to 
a roving life. Tho result of this is, that such tribes become more civilized, moro 
l)0])ulons, and more powerful. 

Tills position is true of tho former state of tho Ponnacooks. They were a semi- 
.(gricuUural tril)u ; and this fict, coupled with anotlier, that they were (br near a 
hundred years \inder tho control of a wise and politic sagamore, accounts for their 
acknowledged superioi'ity and ]iower. 

It may be that their ]io\ver had been increasing witli the increase of the trilie for 
centuries; but as nothing is learned from tradition or otherwise of any sagamore of 
the Ponnacooks prior to Passac(nniaway, it is fair to presume that the Peiniacooks. as 
a tribe or nation, rose and fell with tliis sagacious, politic, and warlike chief Nor is 
this a strange presumption. AVhen wo first hoar of Passaconnaway, in 1(V29, he had 
doubtless l)een at the heail of his tribe for many years ; at least a suiricient length of 
tiuie for a sagamore like him, jwssessing both jioiitical and religious authority, to have 
increasetl the number and power of his tribe, and the numerical strength and power 
of his people to tho height at wliich our fatliers (bund it at that time. In 1G20, 
Passaconnaway was one hundred years old, as (Jookin, who spoke their language, and 
was acqauintod with their manners and customs, sa^s of Passaconnaway: "'•lie lived 
to a very groat age, as I saw him alivo at Pawtuckct when ho was about ono hundred 
and twenty yoar.s old." lie wrote this in 107"), when from this language we should 
infer that the old chief was at that time dead. General Gookin prolxiljly saw him in 
ICilS. Eliot visited Pawtucket in l(it7, at which time Passaconnaway k'ft, and would 
not hear Eliot, or sufi'er his children to hear him ; but in the spring of 1G48 he again 
visited Pawtu(dvot, and found the Ponnacook chii'f there, who showed no repugnance 
to his preaching, but, on the contrary, listened with attention. As Gookin assisted 
Eliot in his labors and visited the Indians witli him often, it is probalile that he saw 
Passaconnaway at ono of these visits. This would make him an hundred years old 
at the time of making " TIio AVheelwright Deed," in l&l'.h Still it is possible 
that Gookin is the man whom Iluljbard refers to, when ho savs that in lllCiU. '-one 






miicli c'()iivci>;mt willi tlio Indians about Merrimack rivor" was invitod to a daiipc, 
AviuMi I'assnoDniiaway made '•ids last and farowoll spci'di to ids ciiiidrcii and iicopic." 
If tills he so, it would make Passaconnaway twelve years younger iu U'lli'.t than he is 
made hy other accounts. IJe this as it may, in l(i2t) ho was an '* ancient Indian," and 
had doubtless been at the head of his tribe more than sixty years. 

The Penuacooks must have nuud)ered at this time from twelve hundred to fifteen 
hundred souls, as Dudley mentioned, in lOol, that Passaconnaway had '"under hi.s 
command four or live hundred men," plainly uieaning warriors; and to allow the tril)C 
to consist of three times the number of fighting men is not an exaggerated estimate, 
when this cstinuite includes women and children, and old men and others \ndit for 
duty. Two thousand would doubtless be a fair estimate for the tribe. Tiiese were 
scattered up and down the Merrimack, occupying the intervales from the Pawtucket 
Falls in Ma.xsachussetts, to Lake Winnepesaukec. Passaconnaway and the chief men 
of tiie tribe resided at Pennacook, Amoskeag, and Naticook. Ainoskeag was the place 
of their abode during the fishing season, when the banks of the river were thronged, 
as is evident from the vast quantities of arrow-heads, pestles, pieces of pottery, and 
the large number of graves that have been discovered up and down the river ; while 
in the planting season the residence of the IJashaba was at Peiniacook and Naticook. 
In time of peace. Pa.ssacounaway had liis principal summer residence upon the large 
island in the Merrimack, in Concord, known as Sewall's Island. This island contains 
some forty acres of excellent intervale; and being situated at the foot of the I'all.s, 
where was most excellent fishing, it was douljtless the favorite retreat of this powerful 
chief. In time of wax he retired to his fort, which was at Pennacook, as Major Wal- 
dron states, in a dc|)Osition made for the information of the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, in lliOo, that six years previous he visited the fort of the Indians at Penna- 
cook. at tlie invitation of Passacoiniaway, and found there a large gathering of 
Indians.' Tradition, well preserved, has ever located this fort upon one of tiie head- 
lands, either next north or next south of the intervale known as '■ Sugar Ball," iu 
Concord. From a personal examination of the headlands in that neighborhood, made 
within a short time, we have no d()ul)t that the Pennacook fort occupied tlic hendland 
next soutli of "Sugar Hall;"' and. in fact, there are unmistakable signs of this i)i'ing 
the locality now plainly to be seen. In this situation, ecured by nature and art, the 
Bashaba could bid defiance to the Moiiawks and others of his enemies. Directly west 
of, and overlooked by the fort, were extensive planting-grounds, of access, and 
under ciilt;\ation. In fact, within the knowledge of the writer, the old " Indian corn- 
hills" have been plain to )je seen at this jjlace, never having been disturbed by Uie 
settlers, this part of the intervale having been found cleared by the whites, and having 
been used fiir pasturage until a few years last i)ast. It is probable that soon alter the 

Dciiosition in Secretary's Office iu Massachusetts. 

^1! i 




occiipiition of IViiniiooiik by the trDdurs, in lOG"), and the building of trudinj^ and 
l)li)ck-lioiist's tlu'iv, tliat I'ax.saconn'iway took his i-csidcncc mainly at the islands of 
Nattioook. Tliosc romantic and lovely spots upon tlio bosom of the Morrininck, 
cliosen as chiof rosidoncos, even now, shorn of their beauty, and deprived of the gran- 
deur that surrounded them then, bespeak tiie taste of the Pennacook IJashaba. 

Passacunnaway saw the sui)eriority of the English, and with his usual sofracit}-, ho per- 
ceived the entire hoi)elessness of the atteuijjts of his people to subdue them. J lis poliey 
was to mid<e term.s of peace with them ; and it was in pursuance of this policy that 
he dis[)osed of his lands to Wheelwriulit, reserving alone his right to fishing and hunt- 
ing. It was that lie might have the English as a protection against his enemies, who, 
since the plague had thinned his people, were becoming a source of terror to theni. 

The Tarratines of tlie east, and the Maquas of the west, were making continual 
inroiuls upon the New England Indians; and the Pennacooks, like the Moliegans, 
were (|uite willing to s('<MU'e the friendship and protection of the colonists. Yet in 
111:)!, the prejudice of Dudley led him to denounce Passaconnaway as a '•witch,"' 
when tlic old sagamore was exerting himself to keep on terms of friendship with the 
colonists ; and in .Septemljcr of the following jear, when Jenkins, of Cape Porpoise, 
had been nunxlered upon the territory of the old chiel". while asleep in the wigwam of 
oni! of his tiilie, Passaconnaway anticipated the English in the arrest, and though the 
murder was committed ni)on his extreme limits, he sent with prompt (les[)atch, had 
the nuirderer arrested, and delivered to the English. 

In li'A'2, upon suspicion that a conspiracy was forming among the Indians to crush 
the English, men were sent out to arrest some of the principal Indian chiefs. Forty 
men were des[)atched at this time to secure Passaconnaway, but he escajjcd them Iiy 
rea.son of a storm. Wannalancet, hi.s son, was not so fortunate, lie was taken by 
the party, while his .squaw escaped into the woods. But while they barbarously and 
most insidtingly led Wannalancet with a rope, ho loosened it, and attempted to make 
liis escape, his captors firing at him, and nearly hitting him with their shot. He did 
not ellect his escape, but was retaken. 

For this outrage, the govornmont of Massachu.setts feared the just resentment of 
Passaconnaway, and they sent Cutshamekin, whom they had r.rrested upon the same 
occasion, and had discharged, tt! excuse the matter to the old chief, and to invite him 
to go to Boston, and hold a coulerence with them.'^ The answer of the old sagamore 
savors a good deal of an independent spirit; and had ho been younger by a h.alf cen- 
tury, his rejjly might liiive been still more proud and haughty: ''Tell the English," 
was his rejjly, ''when they restore my son and his s(piaw, then will I talli with them." 
The answer was that of a man who felt he had been most deeply wronged. Ilia 
haughty sjiirit must have chafed under such wrongs; ajid it is possible, under the 

' Hop his k'ttcr to tlie Counlrss nf Lii In, lAnit's Ili>t. Tnats, Vul. II., p. G. 

' Wimhrop's Hist. New Englund, Vol. II., pp. 7!", SO. 

'il i 




'2?,2 T 11 1 15 A I , oik; a n I z a T 1 O N , 

fating sitoli uiitragcK coiilil nut Ihil to iiillict, lie iiiiglit hiivo ivgrottcJ the polioy lie Iiad 
nmrUed out tor himsoll". It is jirobablo that this oiitrago upon tho I'aniily of Passa- 
coiuiaway made a dirp iinpivssion upon liis mind, and h'd Iiini to doubt the sincerity 
of tlic professions of tho English towards him; and in ItilT, iio oxhil)ited this distrust 
in a most summary manner. At this time, the llcv. Mr. Eliot visitotl I'awtncket for 
the purpose of preaching to the natives. It was the fishing-season, and a vast multi- 
tude of Indians were present. Among them was I'assnconnawny, with two of hi.s 
sons. Tho old chief, doubtless smarting under his wrongs, and thinkir.g that a religion 
which tolerated such wrongs was not wo li\- his attention, refused to sec Mr. Eliot, 
and retired imuu'diately from the neighborhood, taking with him his son.'*, saying "ho 
was afraid the English would kill them." 

In 1018, however. Mr. Eliot visited Pawtuckct with better success; for it being the 
fishing-season, he I'ound Passaconnaway there, and in a mood to hear his preaching. 
j\Ir. Eliot preached to the assembled luilians from Malachi, i. 11. This verse ho para- 
])lirased thus: "From the rising of the smi to the going down of the same, Thy name 
.«liail be great among tlii' Indians; and in every place prayers shall bo made to Thy 
name, pin'o prayers, Ibr Tii^- name shall be great among the Indians." The Indians 
jiaid the most respectful attention ; and after the discourse was closed, proposed niiiny 
ap])roi)riate (piestions. After others had sugLiested (piestions and matlo remarks, 
Passaconnaway arose amid the most profound attention, and announced his belief in 
till- (!oil of the Knglish. "He remarked," says Mr. Eliot, in a letter of 12th Nov., 
Ilil8, ••that indi'cd ho hail never prayed unto (loii as yet. for he never had heard of 
(k)i1 liL'fore as now lie doth. And he said further that he did believe what I taught 
them to bo true. And for his own part, ho was purposed in his heart from thence- 
fortli to pray unto fioil. and that liee would persuade all his sonncs to doe the same, 
pointing to two of them who were tlieio ])resent, and naming such as were absent."' 

The old sagamore was. doulitless, sincere in his chaugo of religion, and continued in 
the Christian belief till his death. For, ''long after," s.ays Eliot, "he said to Captain 
Willanl. 'that he would be ulad if I would come and live in some place thereabouts, 
to teach them. * * * * And that if any good ground or place that hoc 

had would bo acce[)tablo to me. he would willingly let me have it.'" 

In this same letter, Mr. Eliot intimate^ his intention of visiting Amoskeag the fol- 
lowing sjiring. as thus: '• There is another great lishing-place about three score miles 
from us, whither I intend ((.iod willing) to go ne.\t spring, which bolongeth to the 
belbre-named Papassaconnaway ; which journey, though it be like to be diilicult and 
chargeable for horse and men. in fitting provisions, yet I have sundry reasons which 
bow and draw my heart thereto." 

Mr. Eliot, in a letter l)earing date October 29th, 1019, thus speaks: "I had and 
still have a great desiie to go to a great fishing-place, Nauiaske, upon the Merrimack 

' Mass. Ili-t. Cull,, Vol. IV., Thin! S.Tios, p. 82. 



river, and because the Indi;in'H way lictli beyond the great river, which wc cannot 
pass with our horsew, nor can we well go to it on tills side of the river, unless wc go by 
Niishaway, which is aljout and a bad way unbeaten, the Indians not using the way; I 
therefore liircd a hardy man of Nashawuy to beat out a wa\', and to mark trees, so 
that he may pilot me thither in the spring. And he hired Indians with him and did 
it, and in the way he passed through a great people called Sowahagen Indians, some 
of which had heard nio at Pawtucket and Nashua, and had carried homo such tidings 
that they were goncrilly stirred with a desire that I would come and teach them ; and 
when they saw a man come to cut out the way for me, they were very glad ; and when 
he told that I intended to come that way next spring, they seemed to him to be full 
of joy, and made him very welcome." " But in the spring when I should liave gone, 
I ira.s t/of veil, it being a very sickly time, so that I saw the Lord prevented me of that 
journey. Yet when I went to Pawtucket, another fishing-place, where, from all i)arts, 
they met together, thither came diverse of these .Sownhagon and heard me teach." ' 
And in this same letter Mr. Eliot goes on to say that Passaconnaway, the "CJreat 
Sachem" of all the tribes that dwelt in the valley of the Merrimack, "did exceeding 
earnestly and importunately invite me to come and live at his i)lace, and teach them. 
He used many arguments ; * this was one, that my coming once a year 

did thena but little good, because they soon forgot what I had taught." He enforced 
his meaning thus : " You do as if one should come and throw a line thing among us, 
and wc should catch at it earnestly, because it appears so beautiful, but cannot look at 
it, to .see what is within ; there may Ix; in it something or nothing, a stock, a stone, or 
precious treasure; but if it be opened, and we sec what is valuable therein, thou wo 
think much of it. So you tell us of religion, and we like it very well at first sight, but 
we know not what is within; it may bo excellent, or it may be nothing — we cannot 
tell ; but if you will stay with us, and open it to us, and show us all within, we shall 
believe it to be as good as you say it is." 

This comparison seems more like one from civilized life, than from a savage chief 
just embracing Christianity, and is one of those unmistakable marks in the life of 
Pa.ssacoinmway that show him a man of elorpience and wisdom. 

Those extracts from Mr. Eliot's letters establish important facts as follows : The 
usual trail or path of the Indians from Sowahagen, Namaske, and places above, upon 
the Merrimack, to Pawtucket, was upon the east side of the IMorrimack, and doubtless 
down the Beaver Brook. The first bridle-path from Nashua to Namaske was marked 
and beaten in 1G18, for the accommodation of Mr. Eliot. That Eliot, before this date, 
had preached at Nashua, where the Sowahagen Indians had heard him. That a large 
body of Indians, known as Sowahagen Indians, lived upon the Merrimack, upon its 
west bank, above Nashua, and at and upon Sowahagen river. And lastly, that 

\ fi 

' Miis^. Hist, ('nil., V"l. IV , tliiril .series, page Si. 

Vol. V. 

■ no 



Namaskc, or Nivmoflkeko, was upon the Morriiiiiick above Sowahagon, and at the place 
iKiW known its Nania>*koko or Naniaxki'. Aniofikeivg, anil not in the ncijj'liUirhood ol" 
I'liwtiickot Fulls, a.s is ononeouMly claimed by sonic writers. 

We hear nothing more of Pawsaeonnaway, or hin people, till 10(10. At that time, 
))eing of very great age, he wa.s seen by an Englislunan, at Pawtnckct, who was much 
conversant witii the Indians upon the Merrimack. It is possible, as before suggested, 
that this Englishman was General Gookin. 

There was a va.Ht assemblage of the Indians at Pawtnckct, and borne down with ago 
and cares, the old sagamore, at a puljlic feast, made his farewell speech to his people. 
On such occasions, the old sagamores relate the pnmiincnt incidents of their lives in 
songs and speeches, and give their advice to their peojdc. It is highly probable that 
the fact had been announced to the confederate tribes that Passaconnaway was about 
to make his farewell address to his people. The anticipated event called together an 
unusual assemblage of Indians. The chiefs were gathered from all the confederate 
tribes, eager to hear the last words of their "Great Sagamore," who, by his wisdom, 
iiis natural powers of clo(iuence, and his supposed knowledge of the mysteries of nature, 
possessed an unbounded inlhience over the Indians. 

The occasion fdled all with sorrow, in spite of Indian stoicism. Passaconnaway was 
deeply ulVecti'd, and his voice, tremulous with ago and emotion, still was nuisical and 
powerful — a splendid remnant of that, whoso power and beauty, in the fulness and 
vigor of manhood, bad soothed or excited the passions of assembled savages, and 
moulded them to suit the purposes of the speaker. 

'•Hearken," said he, '" to the words of your father. I am an old oak, that has with- 
stood the storms of more than .an hundred winters. Leaves and branches have been 
stripped from me by the winds and frosts — my eyes arc dim — my limbs totter — I 
must soon fall ! But when young and sturdy, when no young man of the Pennacooks 
could Ijend my bow — when my iirrows would pierce a deer at an hundred yards, and 
I could bury my hatchet in a sapling to the eye — no wcokwam had so many furs, no 
pole so many scalp-locks as Passaconnaway 's ! Then I delighted in war. The wdioop 
of the Pennacook was heard upon the Mohawk — and no voice so loud us Passaconna- 
way's. The scalps upon the pole of my weekwam told the story of Mohawk sufTering. 

The English came, they seized our lands; I sat me down at Pennacook. They 
followed upon my footsteps ; I made war upon them, but they fought with fire and 
thunder ; my young men were swept down before me when no one was near them. 1 
tried sorcery against them, but still they increased and prevailed over me and mine, 
and I gave place to them, and retired to my beautiful island of Natticook. I, tliat can 
make the dry leaf turn green and live again — I, that can take the rattlesnake in my 
palm as I woidd a worm, without harm — I, who had communion with the Great 
Spirit, dreaming and awaking — I am powerless lx>fore the pale faces. The oak will 
soon break before the whirlwind — it shivers and shakes even now; soon its trunk will 



bo prostrate — tlio nut ninl tlio worm will Mport ii|)i)n it ! Tlion tliink, my cliildnn. of 
wimt 1 .Miiy ; I comnimio witli thn firciit Spirit. Iln wliispcrs iiic now, ' 'I'dl your 
people I'eiiee, IVace is the only hope of your nice.' I have given lire ami tliinider to 
the paie-l'aees for weapons — I have made them plentier than tiio leaves of the forest, 
and still they shall Incrcdur! meadows they shall tiu'n with the plough — 
these forests shall fall hy the axe — the pale-fares shall live upim your hunting- 
grounds, and make their villages upon your fishing-places I The Great .S[)irit sa^a 
this, and it nnist be ho! We are few and powerless hefore them! Wo nnist bend 
before the storm ! The wind blows hard! The old oak trembles ! Its branches aro 
gone! Its sap is frozen! It bends ! It falls! Peace, peace with the white men is 
t\u' eommaud of the Orcat S[)irit, and the wish — the last wish — of Passaconnaway." 

It has been sup[)o.sed that Passaconnaway died about this time, and our histories aro 
silent of him after the time of the delivery of " his dying speech to his children." Hut 
this supposition is erroneous. Passaconimway was alive in 11103, and at the head of 
his tribe, so that liis speech of lOOO can hardly be considered his "dying speech," 
without some stretch of the imagination. (Jaiitains Willard and .lobnson, and others 
of the Commission of 1052, Avero rewarded by grants of land near Dunstalile, upon tho 
Merrimack. In lOoO, a grant of land was made to William Hrenton, of lihode Island, 
at Natlicook, upon both sides of the Merrimack, including what is now Litchlleld. and 
the part of Merrimack below Souliegan river. Tlu- grant was nnido to IJrenton in 
consequence of his assistance in furnishing the colonial troojjs with hor.scs, in their 
expeditions against the Narragansets and other Indians. The grant was known as 
" IJrenton's Farms." About lOo-"), Major Waldron traded in furs at Pennacook, and 
had a truck-house there. 

In lOol), October KHh, he petitioned tho Legislature of Massachusetts for the grant 
of a township at Pennacook. In this year Waldron had visited Pennacook in person, 
at Passaconnaway's invitation, and found him with a largo gathering of Indians at tho 
fort on Sugar IJall Hill. A personal view of the intervales at this place, then under 
cultivation by the Indians, doubtless raised in the mind of Waldron the desire to pos- 
sess so fine a spot. Passaeoniniway told him that Merrimack was the proper name 
of the river, and that Pennacook and Nattieook were names of places ujwn it. AVal- 
dron's i)Ctition was received with favor, and a towiiship was granted him and his 
associates at Pennacook. 

Pa,ssacoiniaway Ix'ing thus "hedged in" above and below by trader.s, and by those 
having grants from the government of Massachusett.s, already deprived of his planting 
grounds at Nattieook, where ho liad planted for a long while, and the Legislature 
having announced their intention to grant his lands at Pennacook whenever "so many 
should jiresent to settle a plantation there," began to think he .soim should not have 
land enough to erect a wigwam upon. Accordingly, May 9th, 1002, ho i)rescutcd tbo 
following petition to tho Legislature : 

I: Si 






Till UAL ()U(i ANL/ATION, 

"Tho IIuiiiIjK' I'cMjiii'st ol'v'r iH'titinnor is tlmt tliis lionevd Coiirto wolilo j)loas to 

jri'iiiite vnto v.s n ixircell of Imul lor o'r ('oiiirortiiblo cituatioii; to bo ^^tutl;(l lor or 

InjoyiUL'iit, fiH aho Ibr tlit' coiulbrt ol'otliV after vs; as also tliat this honcnl ("oiirt wolil 

j)loas to tiiko iMto_\'rsorioiis miil ;^ravo rviiisitlenitioii the condition and nlw) tiio ri'(|iic'sto 

y'v i"iiv Siiiiiiaiit and to a (lo^nto two or three jjursoiis as a (."oiiimitti'O to Ahthsmii (Hic 

or two Indians to vew aiitl determine of some place and to Lay on,, the same, not 

fiutlier to trouble this honerd Assembiv, humbly erasinj^e an expected answer this 

present sesion I remain yr humble Servante 

PAri?Si:CONK\VA." ' 

The order of the court upon this petition is as follows, vi/.. : " In answer to the 
petition of Papisseconneway. this Court Judjreth it nieoto to "irant to the saide Papisse- 
conneway and his men or associates about Nattieot, above Mr. llrcnton's lands, where 
it is free, a mile and a half on either side of Merrimack river in breadth, three miles 
on either side in length, ))rovided he nor they do not alienate any i>avt of this jrrant 
without leave and license from this Court, first obtained." ' Two j'Ci'sons were 
appointed surveyors to lay out this townsliip for Papisseconcwn and his as.sociatcs — a 
duty which they executed promptly, and with faithfulness, giving him an ample tract a 
mile and a half in depth along the Merrimack, together with two smrdl islands in the 
river. One of the isbinds^ Papisseconneway liad lived upon and planted a long time. 
They also allotted him '•about forty acres, which joyneth their land to Souheijau 

Tt thus ajipiNirs that in loss than twenty years from the time that Passaconnaway 
first snljinitlotl liimself to tiie colonists, and put himself under their protection, he and 
his tribe were literally reduced to beggary. The bashaba of the Merrimack valle}-, 
and the rightful owner of all its broad lands, had become a '"pore petitioner" for a 
plantation of jiine plains, and did "earnestly request the Ihmerd Court to grant two 
ffinall islands uuil ye patch of Intervaile" to them — receiving them, doubtless, with all 
due submission and thankfulness, if not humility ! Old age. a.s well as contact with 
civilization, must have done its work upon the spirit of this haughty sagamore, for 
him thus to have meekly asked his usur[)ers to grant him what was properly his own; 
for his sale at Kxeter did not embrace "these two small islands or yo jiatch of inter- 
vaile ;" and Massachusetts never pretended even a purchase from the Indians of the 
Merrimack valley, till after the date of this transaction. 

Passaconnaway had four sons, if no more, and probably two daughters. Ilis oldest 


' Ariliivos, Soei-ctaiy's Dflicc, MassU'liusctts. - Ibid. 

■' 'J'liise islands aio now kimwii as KccJ's fsland.s, and it would bo a tribute worthily bestowed upoii ii 
wnrtliv uian, should tlioy bo known horoal'tor as Passacuntiaway'n Islands. In fact, tlio ofipo.-ile ^\rl ■<, i tico 
tiji' lionio of bis tribo, would bavo a more apiirojiriatc and inoro oupliouiou.s name, were tiny eallcd I'a.sita- 
enunaway, rather than Liteblield; and the inhabitants of this towii Would display good ta.-te should ihcy liillow 
the example of .'"unnapec, and by Aet of Legislature assume the appropriate am': euphonious name of 
" l'a.«.<aeonuaway.'' 

• it 

■ 'flf 

'■ ''-it 



Hon, Naiianmcoimick, was tlio ciijiiiiiii>n> of Waclmsct, tlio section of coiiiitrv alioiit 
WacliusL'l ^loiiiitain, in MaMsaclnisotts. Mr. Kliot saw liini nt I'awtucki't, in Id IS. 
IIo at tlwit time proiuised to bocoino a pra^iiij,' Inilian. IIo was inimical to tho 
Knjjlisli, and roinovcd to tlio Aniaris;,'o;i:jrin conntry, in Maine. Ho was latlicr of tlio 
afterwards noted chief Kaucaniaj,Mis, or John llod;,'kins. In a [x'tition to ''the Wor- 
shipful llichard IJellinjrliani Msi|. (iov.," si.qned hy Wannalanci't and other Indians, 
they slato that they sold a certain i>laiid, to redeem an Indian out of "hondajic whoso 
name is Nanamocomuck, the oldest sonn of hissuconnaway." This .scttloH a, much 
mi)ote<l question, and shows conclusively the name of I'assacoimaway's "Kldi'st Sonn." 

Tho second son of I'assaconnaway, and his successor, was Wainialancet, of whom 
we shall speak hereafter. We think V'nawuiKpiosett and Xonatoinennt, wetv tho 
names of two other sons of Passaconnaway, as thoir names arc attached to the peti- 
tion referred to above. The wife of Nahhow appears to have boon tho dau;j,hter of 
Passaconnaway. Another dau;^liter of his married Montowampato, tho .sa;4amoro of 
Sanjxns, prior to llJliS; and was separated from him in coii.<o(jnenco of ii dilliculty 
betwixt him and her father. 

Pussactmnaway died prior to ICit'iO, full of years and honors; and was spared tho 
pain of witnessiiif^' the overthrow of his triljo. The year of his death is not known. 
Jle was alive in IliCi-!; and as Wiuinalancet was at the head of tho tribe in UWX and 
i.uilt the fort at Pawtucket at that time, it is evident that Passaconnaway was then 
'.!• ad. 

\lo was a wise, brave, and politic sagamore. ITe <rainod his great power and control 
o\i'r the ';!''; 1. IS of Now Knglaiid. by his wisdom and bravery, but more by his great 
cunning, lie was an accomplisheil juggler ; and being a man of superior intelligence, 
he tiniu'd his juggling skill to the best account for his own personal aggrandizement, 
and that of his trilie. A .xorccrcr was supposed i)y the Indians to have intercourso 
not only with the ilevil, the Had Spirit, but with Manit, the (ireat Spirit; hence, a 
skillul juggler had most unbounded inlluence; and when to this character was united 
that of Powah or priest, and physician, in one and tho same man, as it was in Passa- 
connaway, we can most readily account for his great poAver and influence. 

In reilecting u]ion the character nf tho Merrimack sagamore, tho conviction forces 
itself upon oiw that, at the head uf a ])owerful confi'ilerac}' of Indian tribes, honored 
and feared by his ])eo])le, and capable of nujuldiug their fierce passions to his will, tho 
history oi ^ow JiUgland would have told another stor' iiad I'assaconnaway taken a 
din'erent view (>( his own destiny and that of his tribe, and e.Kerted his well-kt'own 
and acknowlcilged power against the enemies of his race. But Providence sccus to 
have temiiered the (ierce savage for the reception and triumph of tho Anglo-Saxon 
race in a new world." ' (Appendix, 5.) 

C. E. I'ottor, K»i(j. 






[Gtii Paper, Title VI.] 






TITLE VI., LET. A.. VOL. I. ^st Paiki!.] 


1. Ii-oiiiiois (."(isiiiiignny. 

L'. (»i-i;riii i->l' ^^^n — nl' Miiiiiibozlu) — of Magic. 

."!. Alloiriiry I'l' tiic Origin of the <,)s;igos fi-om ;i Snail. 

4. l'ott;nv;itoniic Allcjiorics. 

5. Story of the II^mtor"^i Dreiim. 

6. Story of tlie Ri.l ireatl. 

7. Story of tlic Mni.'ic Kini.' in the Pruirics. 

8. Story of the White Feuiiior. 


Chap. 1. rnliniinary Considerations. 

" '2. Extreme anticpiity of I'ietorial Nutation. 

" 3. Elements of tlic Pictorial System. 

" 4, Symliols emiiloyeil in the Kekocnowin iinil Medawin. 

" .'J. Rite- anil nioile of Nutation of Walicno Soni_^s. 

" (1. Symliols of llnntin;:, ami Feats of the Cliasc. 

•' 7. Symliols of the Trojihetie Art. 

" 8. Symliiils of Love, War, and History. 

" !•. Universality nf tiie Pielonrapliie System, with the E\|ilanation of I'ark-roU 

inseriptions [ire-enlcd from Lake ."Superior. 
'' 10, Comparative A'iews of the Symliols of the Samoides, Tartars, and LapLmders. — 

Iroijuois ]'ietoi.'raph>i, 



TITLE VI., LKT. 15., Vor.. II. ['Jd I>aim:h.] 


1. Choctaw (J. C'liippowa. 

2. Diiootah. 7. Wvaiidot. 
;!. Clicrukof. 8. llitcliittee. 

4. Ojiliwa of Chogoimcgon. !». Cinnaiicho. 

5. AViiiiK'tiago. 10. Cuchun or Yunm. 


1. Census Roll of tlic Ojibwag. 

2. SIcdicinc Animal of the Winncbagoes. 

3. Ilaokali, a Uacotah God. 

4. Indian Signatures, by Symbols, to a Treaty. 
[). Mcnomonio Symbol.-i for Musi(?. 


(a.) Cherokee Syllabical Alphabet. 

(J.) Story of the Prodigal Sun in this Charaeter. 


1. Allegory of the Transformation of a Hunter's Son into a Robin. 

2. Allegory of the Origin of Indian Corn. 

3. Fraternal Cruelty, or the Allegory of the Wolf-Brother. 

4. Wyandot Story of Sayadio, or the Sister's Ghost. 


I i- 

1 ' 


' ta 


TITLE VI., LET. C, VOL. III. [.'Id Paieh.] 


1. Hiawatha, or the Iroquois Quetzalcoatl. 

2. A Fairy Tale of tlio Boy-man, or Little MoneJo. 

3. Trapping in Heaven. 

4. The Story of the Great Snake of Canandaigua — an Allegory of the Origin of 

the Seneeas. 
.'). Shiiigeliiss — ail .Mlegiiry of Self-reliance in the Forest. 


li. Snnc' of the Okiwis. 
7. Chant of the Hawks. 
Vol.. V — :il 



TlTi-K \ I.. I,I;T. I). \"<tL. IV. [Iiii I'AiKii.] 


1. (Vrllalii Diiiwii 

Uiiiruhi lit. 1m 

2. ('ouiiinclii' Iiisci'iiiliiiii III! the SiM|iiihi of ii I> 

Sviiilmls nil ilic trunk (if ii Ti'ci' in Califi 

4. S 


IVoiii a SiiuilstiiMc Hi 

till' '■ittlo ('(ildrailo, in New ^Ii'xii 

"). Sviiiliolic Transi'ri|it rniiii ti Hnck in New ^IcxiiM, in alimit ;{4° 40', 
t). Sviiiliiilic ('liniiictfvs fViiiii till' ^'llll(•v 111' till' (iila 

7. I 

t. I iflci;;ra)iliii' liisiTiiitlnM tioiil I tall 


S. Mixi'il, 111' liiilo-Eiir(i|H'ii Insi'i'iiition liy a I'tali Ii 



nri' I railitinii |iiir|iiiilniL' to liu 1 1 istnnca 

■J. Tliaiiavi'iMin, a Wistrrn IriM[n(iis, tn Cniivail Wiser at I\a-Ka-l<ia, in I7(S. — Ai 
Alli';:iiriral Arcniint of till' tirst coniin^ of llii' Wiiitis. 



It i) 

ii'cr at I'rmiinHiii 

1 Island, lit till 

1. Waliasliaw lirl'ori' tlio Dritisli Cniniiiaii 

closi' ol' till' AViir (if IMl'. 

2. The Slnnvni'o rnipliot iii'forc the 1'. S. At.'iiit at ^Yilllgllllt■kL'llOta, Oliio, on agroi;- 

ini: ti) iiiiiirato to tlic Wi'st, in 1S2T. 

TITLE VI., I.KT. !•:., VOL. V. [.Viii P.mku.] 





TiiK tlioory oi .lotormiuiiij; llio ciijiacitios of tlu iiiiiiian iMiiid. In- tlio I'MictitiuU' of 
<:cniii('trii'iil ailnu'iisiircmi'iit" oCtlie I'raniiim. .iml its I'orins, lias liut'ii strenuously a(l\o- 
catod, and as strenuously dfuicd. The means adopted by the late Dr. Samuel (Jeoriie 
Morton, in tlie elaborate .study of his exteusi\'e naiseum of Indian crania, to ascertain 
the volume of the brain, were of the most mech;inically precise and imionious character. 
When the cubical volume had been obtained by tlu'se means, it was the result of an 
almost necessary indui'tion. that it should be taken as the measure of the mental 
cajiacitj'; and until prolbunder investigations shall be made, this standard of c()m[)ari- 
son of the American ]51umenbach must be regarded as fixed. 

When we come, however, to apply it to the wide-spread tribes and families ol' the 
continont, as they exist, the laws of physics and mind do not appear completely to 
coincide; at least, tln're appears to be a necessity of discrimination between what may 
bo termed the jtrimordial measure of the intellect, and its active or expanded powers or 
(inalities. It is IVom this. view, that classi(icatit)n.s of barbarous iind civili/ed tribes, on 
merely ph^-sical data, appear to be untenable. Thus it is perceived that the Pi'ruviansof 
the Atacama period (and this was ♦! „ common Peruvian mind, as well before as under 
the rule of tlu' Incas) had less cranial capacity, jmlu'cd jyy the .Mortonian standard, than 
other tribes in more northerly latitudes, who were yet exclusively in the hunter state. 
The examination of the Tlascalan and .V/.tee sUuUs, compared with tril)es in the Missis- 
sippi valley, denoted similar results ; while the Iro([uois, and some other leading stocks, 
who were not advanced in arts or skill beyond the hunter and warrior state, had a 
volume of brain superior in cubical capacity to the South American tribes. The 
Irotjuois were, together with the Lenapes and original Algonquins, and Appalachians, 


f (' 



.superior men in tlu'ir general jJi//'<!ijin; tone, nerve, bravery, and oratory, to the Tolteos 
anil Peruvians. The i)riiieiple.s of tlie system of the Crania Americana proeeetl on tlio 
tlieory tliat tlie cranial power, at assumed periods, i.s exhausted, and tiiat its develop- 
ment nnist he reirarded as concluded hy its ji((f<f, and cannot he awakened into higher 
ai'tivit\- ]>y its fiilnrc history. This does not, as we api)rehend, conform to natural 
laws, pliysieal or mental. If so, tlie classification of groups of tribes into " civilized 
ami harharou.s" stocks, on mental indiciie alone, encounters an olijeetion. It may ho 
doiihtcd whether the physical volume of the Hellenic brain was not as physically great 
ill its inchoate state s after the (ireeks reached tlieir highest refinements; or whether 
the vigor of the Itoinan cranium were not equal hi'/oro and ofkr tlie building of Home. 

This (piestion may be examined in relation to the ^''esperic tribc.'s, without Ibllowing tiio 
ingenious author over the .southern latitudes of the continent. Tiie author is indebted 
to iMr. I'liillips, who was the assistant of Dr. Morton, in his elaborate and carefully 
conducted cranial admeasurements, for re-examinations of the several groups of the 
home tribes, as established on the principle of languages. By these it is shown that 
the Iroquois, who evinced a superiority of mind by a confederacy of cantons, but who 
were still in the hunter and warrior state, had, in their highest specimens, a cranial 
volume of idlij ; while tlie .VlgoiKpiiiis, as examined in a Chippewa cranium, giwe 'Jl ; 
a Miami, S9 ; and a Xatic, So ; the Appalachians, judged by a Muscogee, 00; aUtchee. Sj ; 
a Cherokee, 87. At the same time, the tribes of inferior manners and customs reached 
ill the predatory Ottagamies. 92 ; in the idle and dissiiiated IVittawattamies, 92 ; in 
tlie IniUiilo-hunting Assineljoins, lOl ; the fierce Dacotas, 99; and even in the degraded 
Ciiinooks and other Oregonian.s, SO. (Vol. II., p. ooO.) We sliould be cautious in 
prescribing the range of intellect by arithmetical data, when w; perceive such develop- 
iiit'iits in the intellectual standard adopted. 

The power of numeration, in the United States' tribes, has been deemed, from the 
earliest voyages, to bo very low. IJy recent inquiry it is seen, however, that they are 
by no means deficient. They generally reveal a decimal system, having original names 
for the digits to 10. They then repeat names, with a conjunction thrown between 
tlieni, till 20, for which there is a se[iarate intlection to the decimal, and this inllection 
is added to the primary i>article for numbers till 100, for which there is a separate 
denomination. IJy awaking the latent powers of computation, most of the tribes, and 
all the instanced ones, it is l)elieved, are found capalde of denoting higli numbers. 
IiKluiiies made of the Choetaws prove that they can compute, by doiiblin;. their 
dciioiiiiiiators, or by new inllections, to 1,000,000,000; the Dacotas to the same; the 
Cherokees to ;J00,000,000 ; the Chippewas to 1,000,000,000; the Winnebagoe.s, the 
same; the Wyaivlots, .1,000,000; the Ilitchite.s, but 1,000; the Pillagers, 100,000 ; 
tlie (.'amanches, but .'iO, &e., and even the wild and predatory Yunias have the decimal 
system. (Vol. U., p. 204. 

i i 



Tlicro have lioon, until vory recently, no attempts liytlie Indians to invent a symbol 
for a sonniK nnless we consider sncli tliosc devices for the fewononiapoetie names whidi 
all barbarous nations acciilentally possess. The devices which tiiey draw on trees, 
l)ark scrolls, or sometimes the Hxces of rocks, arc merely ideo,i,'rai)hic symbols, the 
general puriM)rt of which is understood by their trilM'smen. Such devices are also 
drawn on the tabular jiicces of cedar placed at the head of their graves. (Plate •'jti, 
Vol. I.) When this mode of commemoration aspires to any thing higiier, as an ideo- 
graphic or pictorial record of success in hunting or war, or skill in necromancy, it 
is called by the Algonipiins hhnrln, meaning instructions. (Vol. I., j). o-")(t.) in all 
the latter instances, it is particularly deemed the art of their Medais, doctors, prophets, 
or priests, and becomes a branch of aboriginal learning; and the art then reaches beyond 
the knowledge of the commonalty. Its proper explanation, at all times, depends on 
the memory of the inscrii)er, fcjr this knowledge of sei'ret and occult things belongs 
only to the hieiali(^ class, whe derive their inlluence, chielly, from tiie tenacity with 
which they keep this reserved knowledge. The sacred .songs of their jossakeetis and 
powwows are also recorded by these pictorial ap[)eals to the eye and memory. To the 
neophyte they reveal the agency of the spiritual and the mysterious; and tiiese pioto- 
gra[)hs are not understood by the mere hunters, or eonnnon people. They are taught 
iiy tin- medais and i)i'iest-class. (jften at great exiuMise, and are carved on wood or itark 
by the piii' tly soiiliomores of the medicine-dance society. A hors(! is l^nown to have 
been given for one of these annotated songs. This system of pictographieal wpresen- 
tation has been exhiliited, in its details, in relation to each of the great topics of Indian 
life. (Vide Vols. 1., II., III. and IV.) Nothing of a higher character of notation htis been 
observed, until the invention of the syllal)ical .symbols of the Cherokee alphabet, repre- 
sented, with examples, in Vol. 11., page 228. 

Surrounded l)v the fore'st, Vvith the great phenomena of light and darkness, meteors 
and lightning, and the wild tumult of to'-uidoes, lakes and waterfalls, means are ever 
present to excite his wonder or fancy. A (irm believer in divmonology, and a subtle 
svstein of genii, giants, dwarfs, and magical agencies, the Indian mind is filled with 
l)anoranias of the most vivid and sublime images. To him the wilderness is a storehouse 
of .symbols; and when the mood for conversation and amusement comes in his lodge 
circle, he relates to the wondering listeners tales and legends, which have sometimes 
their origin, perhaps, in traditions, but are generally the combinations of a wild and 
grotesque fanc}-. In these tales of the wigwam, the sounds and sights of the wilder- 
ness are so many voices, which he understands. The world is a phantasmagoria; 
every thing is wonderful, when the mind is prepared t(. see wonders. The birds and 
(piadrupeds he encounters arc enchanted human beings. lie .sees the little ibotprints 
of fairies on the sands; the creaking of the iiranches of the antitpie trees of the forest 
arc voices of spirits and monedas, who hover around his path for good urevil. lie sees 

I r 






i •' 








1 1 



H 1 


i \ 


iNTi:i,f,i:cTr A i, c a I'Acitv 

trnnsliiti'd in the lilittcriiig stiirs alti)\i', licnics of uldi'ii tiiiicM. Iv\iiin|ili's of tliis 
sprt'ioti of till! lodge stories of tlK> liidiiiiis, di-rivcd from tli'< ivliitiniis of various trilii's, 
liavc boon givon in tlio pivcodinj; voliiinos. Tiioy iffiiorally denote ti Iialiit of 
annisiiij; thought, often a disjjosition to account for the existonco of peiMdiaritios in thi^ 
animals, hirds and other natural olijoetH, and the creation oi' tilings around him. 
(Vide Vol. II.. p. 'J2!»; Vol. HI.. )). .",1;!; Vol. IV.. p. liol.) These oral tales frcMpieutly 
hetiay a disposition to siijiply hy imagination the lapse of their aetual history. 'riii'_\' 
are liased on a (to us) now and aboriginal poetic machinery, namely, tliiit of the 
agency of monedos, spirits of the woods, nir nnd waters, the impersonation of thunder- 
gods, and the whole catalogue of the Indian mytiiolog\- and cosmogony. Sometimes 
there is a moral, either plainly exi)ressed, or shining out amid \\\<.\ grotes(|ue heap of 
■wild imaginings and superstitions. A rebuke is shown to fratormd neglect by the talu 
given (\'ol. II.) of the wolf brother. An admonition to over-severity in fasting is 
imi)lied by the transformation, to a bird, of the young hunter (\'ol. II.). who undergoes 
his stated characteristic trial of endurance at the age of assuming maniiooil. A ])leasing 
fancy is tin-own around the story of the magic ring in the jirairie (\'ol. I.). Tiie pas- 
sage of the varying .seasons, under the benevolence of the fireat Spirit, is brought 
imiM'essively to mind in the allegory of spring and sunnuer; and it would not be eiisv 
to iuNi'iit and throw more mitural nnd vivid iiiingcs around a tale of .■iyndiolic hunter 
life, than is shown by the allegory of the origin of Indian corn. The thread-worU, and 
all the elements of these legends, have been gathered, witli no small degree of literary 
labor and scriUiny. from the actual narratives of tlii' natives in tlu'ir own wigwams, 
omitting grossness. and the reiietiliou of tedious verbal details, which serve \w, 
in the originals, but to while away the time, while they hinder the denouement of 
events of the story. 

I'ecause iui Indian is furinus in bis resentments, in a state of war or (icrce jiersonal 
feuds, or cruel and nnsparinu' in his wrath, it is not to bi' inferred that this is his 
natural or ordinary mood. Ihit. it may be asked, is this luiscrupulous fury, undi-r such 
circumstances, greater than that of a brutal couUMander. who puts a whole garrison to 
tiie sword merely because liny have defended a work with heroic braverv. Is hi.s 
enilmance at the stake, ami his shouts and songs of ti'iumph under torment, moie 
sti'ange than the firnniess which has sustaint'd nnirtyrs in dying for a principle. We 
sboidd regard the dawning t)f light in the Indian minil with u just appreciation, since, 
if \s\\\\ bis imperfect glim|)ses of the true pur[)oses of life, he evinces the intelligence 
di'uote'l, it would seem to be only necessary to enlarge the circli; of his knowledge to 
enable bim clearly to see, and warmly to admire, the beauty and comely proixirlion of 
the entire fabric of eivili/ ition. Hut wlu'n the Indian (piits the field of his imagiua- 
ti<jns mul superstitii^ns. leaving, liir a moment, the id(^d regions of iiis hop(>s and feais, 
which ba\e been created by the teachings of his Indian priesthood and ghostly coun- 



Hollors ol" fioi'ccrv mill nitiiiic — wlu'ii llu'si' iittnictivo hcciiuh ol' lii.s oiirly lH'ri"rs and 
boyhood arc Id'l licliiiid. and lie conu's to consider tlionu'.s of icid and vital intfivst, 
Hiieii as lands. pro[n'rtit's, ami his ivlativc i)osition as a num in souicty. as jv nnm of 
wants and di'sircs, who sulVurs in poverty and ri'Joiccs in pi\)sin'i'ity — we jjchold no 
hu'k of mental vision, no want of shrewd intellect to guide the utterances of his ton;:ue. 
Our earliest notices of him denote ii man of excellent jjowers in oratory. Nothing tiiat 
actually e.\ists in his life and traininj^s would seem, iiuleed, to justify the i'N|iectatiou 
of so nnii'h viuor of thouuhl and proiiriety of ex[)ression. l»ut it is not recollected, in 
this view, tliat he has heen ljrou;iht up in the school of natni'e, wlu're his mind, from 
childhood, has heen impressed by Iniafros which are hold, \ivid, and fresii. His 
books, truly, have heen the In-avens, with all tlieir liri,t;ht phenomena; and when lie 
takes the oratorical attitude, and eni|)lo\s figures to enable him to oxiiress his mean- 
ings, within the compass of a limited vocabulary, it is from this storehouse of his 
thoughts that the selection is made. These illustrations are striking and pertinent, 
because they arc simple and true. lie is shrewd ami cautious in dealing with the 
whites, because his .susi)icious have been schooled and awakened, all his iife. by his 
position of danger, and distrust, and i)er(idy from his own race. 

Nor is he ileficient when he comes to discourse of thiu'is of the heart and of its alU'c- 
tioiis. Stoical and iiuperturbable, indeed, he is in his manner; but it is suillcient to 
allude to the ninues of (larraiigula; of Logan; of Sagoyawatha; or l!ed .larket ; of 
Cannasatii.''o, Pontiae, Skenaudoa, of the once i)owerful I'assaconnawav, and a line of 
renowned aboriginal speakers, to sustain the conclusion thatj-tbey have produced men 
of intellectual, energetic, and eloipient minds. 

So long as the North American Indian is in civili/<'d society, he is much under the 
inlluence of its precepts. i'.ut when he retires irom the council-house to his natiso 
woods, and hears the wild nnu'iuur of nature around him, he subsides into that state 
of domestic repose, nonchalance and indolence which are so characteristic of the Indian 
life. It is then that the aboriginal .state assumes its most poetic garb. With the o]ien 
heiuens continually before him, his thoughts and dreams are of the spirit-world ; and 
as a social being in his wigwam, ln' aims to illustrate Hie, in every aspect, by ap|ii'als 
to the wonderful and the mysterious. 

Wonderful, indeed, in many respects, is the man : but he is not altogether inexpli- 
cable. If the physiologist does not perceive why the Indian should not develo|i mind — 
if be aims to preserve ideas of tlie strength and skill of his distinguished men. Iiy 
mnemonic apjieals to a, rude pictogra[ihy — if he invents fictions to amuse his hearers — 
if he is eli.<iui'nt in council and debate, when he has great things at stake — if. in line, 
his faculties can be stimnlalcd to nnderstaud the mental o])''ratioiis of iirithmetic, and to 
coini)relieiul ihi' (dements of knowledge — it is not pi'rcei\('d \\li\ the aboriginal man is 
deficient in his natural intellectual powers. The gospel mystery of the union of (loil and 


• '^1 






iii;m lins liccn disMolvcd bi'lorc liis cvi's \>y Kliot and !Jriiiii(>rd, and a lio^t orHUcroftsorH liavo 
iiiiilc li'mi ll'i'l Ills di'lii'iciicii's ill prcscntiiijr liiinscit', in liis own HtrciiL'tli imd power of 
ulii'iiionco. bol'oiv his (!ri'iitt)r. liCttcr.H liavc (ipciicd tliL-ir jioldcn caski'ts to niuiiy incn 
and women, ol" tlio wild rovcu" of the woods, lie has boon nuule to hcc tlio lolly of 
intcmpcraiicc as of a consnining firo. Industry lias scoinod, to the man thus awaki-nod, 
us a golden yoke, which is not only easy to bo borne, but redounds to the plensun; of 
the wearer. Art is not without attraetimis to the reelaimed Indian, who lias execdient 
imitative I'aoulties; and we have examples to show, that even .strains of harmony and 
elegiac poetry liave sometimes sprung t'rom his lips. 

Is not the race, then, worthy of the highest liumanitie.s bestowed on tlieni ? 

! H) 



[iTii Tai'i;!!, TiTi.i; VII.] 

i " nl 


'i ' f r 




Vol,, v.— ;]2 


'- '';;« 


(I E X K H A L A X A L V S 1 S () V T 1 T I. K \' 11 . 

I V' 


Trn.K VII,. I-KT. A., VOL II. [Isr I'aiku] 

1. Maiiiliins. 

'2. l'ip|iti;u' Maiiiisi'i'ipt — It .Tournnl kept liy ii ('i\iliaii williiii llio Fort, iliiviii;.' llic Sii '.'!■ of 

I)i'ti'iiil, liy the fcmfcilcrnti' Iiiiliaiis. in ITii'i. 
D, Tl'mliticiiinn' (lli'iiiiis f'runi llic I.->liiiicl nl' Iliiyti (llio aiicitiit San |liiiiiiii;.'ii) nf Anacuaiia, 

till' uiil'ortiiiiatc (Jiici'ii (if till' ('aril>s. 

TlTr-K VII., r,KT. 15.. VOL. HI. [l'd P.mki!.] 

]. SirriiLrili 111' till' iippiT T(i.-ts (if 17"''^. finiii a Manuscript ruiiiul in Ills own Ilainl-wiilinfT, 

anioML' tlic I'lipi TM of .lanii's Madison. 
'2. Mciiiiiianila of a .loMrncy in llic Wc-lcrn Parts of |]i(> rnitcil States of Aiiipvica, in 

ITS'"). Hy 1,1'wis {{raiilz — IVoiii tlic (Mii.'inal M.'^S. 
3. Itclation of tlic Vovajrcs iiml .Vilvciitiircs of a Mcrcliaiit Voyajrcr, in the Indian Tcrri- 

torics of North .\niirica, in 1"So. l?y .lohli ISaptistc IVirault. Fidiu the unpiib- 

lislicil MSS. 

TITLK Vn.. M:T. C, vol.. 1\'. [.Id Pai'ki!.] 

1. ])iai'_v of Matthew (/larkson on a Coniniereial E.xeni'.sioii Went of the Alleglmnics, in 

ITti'I. Fii'in the ()rij.'inal MSS. 
'2. Tn.^'sa^'cs of the Incidents of a Tour in the Scnii-.Mpine llc;.'ioii traversed Iiy He Soto, 

in l.")4l'. West (if the Mi>>issippi Hiver, from the Original .Journal. Hy Henry 11. 

Schoidcraft. [Defcricd from Vol. 111.] 
ii. Narrative of a .loiiriicy, in IT'!", from 'rolpehoekcn, in Pennsylvania, tliroiiL'h the Forests 

to ()nondaj:a, the Seat of the Iroipiois I'ower in New York. l>y ("onriid Wiser, 

Esip, Indian Anient and Provincial Interiireter. l''i'oiii the translated MSS. 
4 Remarks concerning the Savages of North America, in the Kiiropcan Magazine, \'(d, 

VI., A.I). 1T.S4. liy Dr. li. Kranklin. 
/). Seneca Traditions of the Krii of the Ucvolutioiiary War. P>y .\slicr Tyler. 

TITLH VII., I,|;T. I).. VOL. V. [Ini 1'ai'i:i;.] 

IV'sition and Slate of Manners and Arts in the (.'reek Nation, in ITi'l. 


^ ' 1-*^^ 

i J:;'? 


[The I'lllnwiii.' mIVk i;il iL'ttcv, jiinrniil, iiinl iili.i rv.itiiiti< (if ('. Sw;iit, I'. H. A, in ITl'l, pri'iciit llio 
liiip>l full aljil s;ili«rii|ciry arnmnt nl' llic Crnk .\;iti.m ni' llic t'M, wliii'li \t:\^ ouinc tn iiur linlifLV Tlif iii;iiiii- 
Brii|i|. Iiavinj; lircii ulilifiinirlv ]il;ii'ril iit 'iiir ili-|i'i-ia|, mv ii.iw lir-l |iiilili-li.'c| ; .'iii<| will wril ri|ia_\ |pi'i-ii?al liy 
all wliii lake nil iiiti'ri«t in iiii< onw jiruniiui'iit mul still impurtant In liaii nati'Hi.J 


PlIir.AliKl.l'llIA, .ly./iV J'.l, 17',l.'>. 

Sill: — I'lirsiinut to tlio letter of iiistnu'lioii wliicli I IiikI tlic Iiuiior to receive from 
Voii (111 tlie IStli of Aiijiiist, IT'.HI, 1 aceoiiipiiiiied I5rij,';iilier-(!eiieriil MTiillivray iiml 
the eliiels iiiiil wiirriors of tlie t'reek iiiiui',]. wlio atteiulod at tlie treiity in New Yoik. 
from that pluee to their nation. Fortunately no diNinter liaiJiiened on our V03 ajic to 
St. .Mary'.s river, or on our journey hy laml throupli the country, that oeeasioned nio 
to use the authority yon were plea.sed to j;ivo nie of drawini; 011 you, in ease it should 
he found necessary, and wo all arrived safely at the lirst Indian village, on the Flint 
river, the latter ])art of Septeniher. 

Situated as I found myself among these people, it was not only my inrlination. hut 
1 found it my interest, to hecome as u.seful as possible to the great ehii'f; ami on all 
occasions I endeavored to imjiress on the jealous minds of the Indians in general, 
that the wliite people of the United States were sincere and candid in all their over- 
tures of peace and friendship towards them ; and that, being niy.self in their power. I 
^vils pledged to them for the truth of what I had told them, and which their friends 
liad been of at the great white town. 

I conceived that General M'dillivra}' viewed me for some time rather in the light 
of a sjiy than otherwise; but from a \iniform declaration to the contrary, and a perse- 
\eriug attention to his person, I was flattered that all his suspicions were removed ; 
and from an alteratiim in his conduct towards nie, I have reason to believe that I 
uained hi.s confidence elVectiiallv. 




2-/2 Tone AT. HISTOKY. 

I roiiml IVoiii i'\[)oriiiK'iit tliat to Iwuii the liiniiiiajxc, and to in'oiioiinco it WfU, iiiii^t 
be a tusk of several yoiitlifiil years; therelbrc, after obtaining a vocabulary of tlieir 
princii)al words and some familiar sentences, J directed my imiuirics more particularly 
to Mie other olijccts contained in your letter. 

Ill making notes while in the country, I found myself watched with an eye of 
joaluusy, and therefore thought it prudent to keep them out of sight, which I always 
did, even from my only friend, Mr. MXiillivray himself 

Going into the country down at the southern corner of it — travelling up the Chatta- 
lioosce rivi'r to the ('owcta district — from thence crossing the country westward to 
little Talhissie — and by coming out of it l)y the route through all the districts and 
trilx's of the I'.pper Crei'ks and N'atclie/., together with a variety of jaunts and visits to 
the dilVci'ent towns and villages of tiie Coosades and Alabamas while residing at little 
Tallassie, has aH'orded me a comprehensive view of the whole country of the lower 
and up|ier (."reeks, and an oppcu'tunity of seeing all their largest villages, and of becom- 
ing generally known among them. 

The following sheets contain the results of my observations thu'ing the excursion, 
which 1 humbly beg leave to have tlu' lumor of oU'ering to yon, with a hope that they 
contain such information, with respect to the natives and the fine coinitry they possess, 
as may be pleasing and satisfactory to j'oursclf, as well as interesting and useful to 
the government. 

To be attached to the Indians and their manner of living, is at once sacrilicing all 
the social \ irtues to the disgusting habits of savage barbarism. 

It is ii custom with M'dillivray to spend his winters on the sea-coast among the 
Spaniards, leaving his wife, servants, and horses at a plantation he has near Tensau, 
within the borders of West Florida, aliout 180 miles down the Alabanui river; and of 
returning to pass his sunmiers in the nalii^n. I therefore could not have remained in 
the country through the winter season without snil'ering the inconveniences of cold, 
and ])robably of hinii/( r, and these without an associate or com))anion. 

Tliese, sir, are the reasons that induced me to leave the country so soon ; and I 
jiresume that whoe\er may tr}- the experiment, even lor no longer a time tiian I have 
done, will find suilicicnt exercise for their patience, fortitude, and solitary philosophy. 
I have the honor to be, sir. 

With the most ix'rfect veneration and respect, 
Your devoted and obedient .servant, 
Calkh .Swan, 

iJeput)' Agent, Crock Nution. 
IIox. IIexuy Knox, 

f^i'cretaiy of (lii; AVar jtopartincnt. 



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Vol V Pa^e i'.b 


^^■y'" .,,„' On/u'.' 

\ i Pvva, iC'" s'ooii liil r''-'S 

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[I i 














Aiiifu-il 19//(, 1790. Sailed from New Yovk with Urijradicr-Goneral M'Gillivray, ami 
tlic Indian cliiofrt of tlio Crceii Nation, lioimd to St. ]SIary"s river, in Georgia. 

Sipknihcr Inf. Captain Smith, of the .schooner wo were in, imprudently run the 
vessel throti,i,di a Large breaker, at the north end of Cumberland Island. The vessel 
htnick on the sands several times, and afterwards went over. 

S'l't. -<L Arrived all safe at Captain llurlK^ck's ])ost, on St. Mary's, and received a 
visit of compliment from Don Carolus Caxton Howard, Secretary of the (jovornmcnt 
of East Fl(jrida, Mr. Leslie and otiiers, from St. Augustine. 

Ac/)/. S//(. Proceeded up the river, and remained three days at Colonel L. Marbery's, 
procuring horses. Hero several ul the chiefs of the lower Creeks separated, and 
pursued their own routes homeward. 

Sfif. 11///. Took our (li'p;uture from Spanish Creek, at the head of St. .Mary's 

S'l^t. Villi. l;;/A, \UIi', l.j///, Kill, i~lh, ISl/i, VJtli, and 2U//(. Incessant rains, and five 
of our horses died on the way. 

S</)f. 21 v/. Came to the Alabaha, a branch of St. Mark's river, and found it Hooded 
by liie late rains for half a mile on each side, over its natural Ijanks. Oiu- present 
pros[iects are gloomy: our pro\isions and clothing wasted and spoiled b}- the rain?, 
our progress impeded by the Hoods, and we arc ITH miles advanced fi'om any white 

Stjif. 22(/. Endeavored to build a canoe; having but one small hatchet, the attenipt 
was fruitless. 

Aty)/. 2;j(?. The waters continue to rise. 
*S'<y(/. 24//(. The waters come to a stand. 

Sijit. 25//(. The Indians killed a stray cow in the woods, and stretched her skin 
over hoops, into the shape of a bowl, with which to nuike the experiment of getting 
over the river. 

,Sjil. 2(i///. Early in the morning the Indians connnenced tiie business by swimming 
and towing the skin boat by a string, which they hold in their teeth, getting up a 
general war-hoop, to frighten away the voracit)u:i alligators that inhabit this river iu numbers. By uncommon and hazardous exertion, we Avere, with all our baggage 

1 f 

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M- ' 



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IS ' ■ 



I I' 

2rA Tonr.NL history. 

snCi'ly towctl nvor, ami laiidoil (to our groat joy.) on tlio oppoi^ito x'uh about dark, 
liavinu: luct witli no acciilont t'xct>[)t the lo.s,< of four horses, which were entangled in 
tlio vinos, and drowned in swimming throngli the waters. 

Si /if. '11 III. Sii]i|)liod onrsolves with firicon fresh lior.sos, taken from J. Kimiard'.s 
negroes, whom wo mot in the woods, lionnd to St. Mary's with a drove for sale. 

S I'l. 'l>lli. -\>i/i. .lonrnoyod in the wilderness, heing nmeli e.\liausted with fatigue, 
and on siiort allowanoe of provisions. 

A'/'/. .'l(i//(. Arrived at the Chehaii towns, on Flint river; foniul the Indians 
assomltlod in great numbers to hear the tiiling.s from their ehiof. whom they had given 
np for lost. 

( hlul., r X-i. Knoampi;d at .Tohn, or .Taek Kimiard's, living on the borders of the 
lower Crocks and Soniinolies, and bore re|>lonisbed our pro\isions. 

(><t. 7)tli. CrossiMl tiic ( battaboosee ri\or at the Ib'okon Arrow, twelve niiles below 
the Cassi^a and Coweta towns. 

(hi. ~ll\ Crossoil the Tallapoosoo iit tbo town of the Tuol\abatebos. Here the ehief 
( M'( iiilivray I niado some further oounnunioations to the poopb'. who were assembled 
to hoar bis /((//•. 

Oil. S/Ji. Arri\cd at T.ittle Tallassio, on tbo Allabamous river. 

Oil. 'JO///. Attended a goneral Uiooting called by the Mad Dog. king of the Tticka- 
batehes. where M'dillivraj- made .some further (communications to tln' Ketl people. 
Some see. 'I pleased; others throw their tobacco into the fire, in disgust. 

Oil. 2\sl. Snow fell an inch deep in this country. 

Oi I. '2-iL The moon totall}' eclipsed,' and served to regulate my account of time, 
wbieb iVoui a variet\- of causes I have not bec!) able to keep accurately. 

Oil. 'I'.^lli. A young woman, sister to IM'Ciillivray's \\\[\', hanged horsi'lf in a lit of 
violent passion, but was cut down and saved. 

Xurnnlii I- 'l\Uli. A woman related to M'GilJivrav banged herself at Little Tallasse. 
and was privately buried in the village tbo same evening. 

Xnr. H'llh. Cbarlos Weatherford brought a letter from the Secretary of War, dated 
loth Septondior last. 

' Till' Iinliiiiis in !i11 tlic siivrnuii'lini.' villnircs ari' yiHini; willi fear, anil firing' uniis in all dirrctinn.M. Tlu'V 
have an I'liini'in, on tlm.-io occasions, that a iVu;^ is swallmvinL' tlio iimun; an<l niaki' all Ihcir most liiilcmis 
jjoioes tu IViglitcn it aw.ay. 



Dcremlitr Villi. Luft Littlo TiiUas.sic I'or the upper country, and arrived at the 
Nutclie/. villages in two (\\\y». 

JJcr. 2()//(. Went over to tlie district of the Hillaljes. 

J>ir. 21s/. Anivctl at tlu' Ulhlas, and attended the Sq'iare tlirce times to the cere- 
mony of the hhu'lv-ilriids, at the pressing invitation of the \V/ii/( l,i\ iiliindit.' 

I'll'. 2'2ii'. Crossed the ('Inittalioossee h}- the upper war-path, at the horse-ford, sixty 
miles above the Cassitah and Coweta towns. 

I))': 2[l/i. Crossed Flint river at the upper falls, and stretched down the country 
in a south-east direction. 

Drr. 2~/Ii. Crossed the Oaknnd|j,ec at the upper falls. = 

l)i<: '2S//i. Crossed the Oconee at the falls ten miles above Captain Savage's post, at 
the Rock hinding. 

1791. Jdiiiiiin/ \~lli. Lel't the lioek landing;', and arri\e(l in Philadelpliia. via New 
York, on the l.'.th March, ITDl. 

SKKTcni 01' fjiTTi.i: T A i.i,.\ss I ic, OK Till; IIh;k(i|!v Ground. 

.Sfjilc lliri''' itiilt's to ltd inch. 

rfir\ Tiuli.111 inwri?. O], M'(iillivriiy's plintation. 4. ('lis. Wo.itliprlbrd's pluoo. 
lA Old l'"ri'ni;h fort Alabama. n'2. .^^(lilliv^,ly's ap|ile-grovo. T). M'liillivrayV sister's plaoe. 
Iiidiuii paths. I). M'dillivray's cowpcii. 0. Molt'cird's plnce. 

' Tlic White Lieutenant, a halt'-brceil Indian, is the great Mar Min, of the whdle distiiet of the O.akfuskies. 
In point of appearance, and aliilities as an orator, ho i-taud.s unrivalled by any chief in the eountry. He is 
about fifty years of a;;e, six feet two inches hiirh, and well made; and is said to have the sole influence over 
IWM) jruu nu'n. He has a certain benevolence in his countenance, and gentleness in his nianner.s, 'hat savors 
more of civilization ihaii any other Indian that I have seen. 

' All tli(! lands iiu this path, I'rom the Imlian villaj;cs on the Chatlalioossee river eastward to the Oakniulfiee, 
and even to the Oeonec rivers, are of a most superior :|uality. It niiiihl give pain to a Iravdji'r, who nnw 
must view it but as a forlorn rude desert, which with a little labor might bo made to '' blossom like the rose." 


I T! 





I ;r.' 

r 41 1, 

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Im "ill 







T(U'0(i I! A I'll I" A I, OliSKUVATIONS. 

St. Miiiv's liver is very crooked, witli a wiile open iniirsli oii encli side, IVoiii its 
iiioiitli iijiWiirds fill' tliirly iiiiies, wlieve llie iiiui'sli is li'iniiniitod by tliieiv wooil.s; tlie 
ri\i r then lieconies iiciirly struiiilit lor thirty miles I'nrtiier. np to Allen's, an Imliiin 
trader at the head oi' its iiaxiuation. At this tradiiej-stalion, tlie river is like a deail 

ei k. alniiil lour lathoms deep, ami ten i 

ods wnle 

It is well laid down in the l!ev. 

.Mr. M 

or-e -i in 

lip. hut the ureal Okalaiioka Swaiuii. \\hieh is the souree of the rixi'i', is 

nil-placed eiitiri'ly; in 


>l>reailiii"' i 

ts' ir noilh-westwardly into Geoi'uia, it 

oxteiids :\\vav southerly into East Floridii 

The old path from St. JIary's to the Creek Nation, is dillieult to he traecd, ]ia\ ii 

lieen little usi'il sinei 

Alter loaviiii;' St. M;ir\'s, for iH'l miles westward it is .-i 

cMiitinual soft. miry. ]iine liarreii. aH'ordinu" iieiliier water nor food lor men or horse? 

poor, iiideeil. that the eominon game ol" the woods is not to he lound in it. 

It IS so 

The Alaliaha is a eoiisiderahle ri\er, not laid down in an\' of the eoiiimon maps of 
tlie southern eoinitry, KM' miles west Irom the head of St. Mary's, and runs in a 
southerly direction. It is ol'teii dillieult to he crossed; tlii' hanks are low, and a trilling 
iMJii >\\ills it to more than a mile in width. In a freshet the current is ra[iiil. :ind 
passengers are liahle to ho entangled in vinos iind hriars, and drowned; tliori' is also 
real danger, from its great niimhor of hungry alligators. 

From tho Alahalia it is ninety miles to the Clu'liau villages, low down on Flint 
riM'r; and a continual pine harrcii all the way. though less sterile than that left beliind. 

Flint ri\er is aliout thirty rod.s wide, and i'nnn twelve to lifteon foot deep in summer 
time, with a gentle current. It is thirty miles from tho \illago.s of tho Cludiaus to 
Jack Kinnard's. a rich half-hii'ed chief 



e lie tees, i- 


eii:ht\- mi 


from Kinnard's to tho trihos of tlu' Fuchee.s 
the path crosses tlio C'hattalioosoo riser. 


tw(d\c miles below the Cus.-ilah and Coweta towns, at n village called tho Urol 

TI;(> (.'hattahoosee rivi'r is about thirty rods wide, and very rajjid and full of shoals. 
The lands in general upon it !iro light and sandy, and tho clay of a bright rod. U'iio 
hiwer Creeks are settled in scattering clans and \ iUagis, from the head to the mouth 
(if this river: and from the hi'jh culor (jf the cla\-. thrir huts and ealiins. at a little 


100, rosem 

bio el 

listers ol iiew-iiuriieil hrii i\-iviiii.s. 


l-'ioin the Chattahooseo to the 'J'allapoosoo river, is about seventy miles, by tho ii 
path wliicli crosses at the tails jii.-t above tho town of the Tiickabatches. 

The Tallapoosco rises in the high-lands near the Cherokeos ; it runs through tho 
high country of tho Oakfiiskio tribes in a westerly direetion, and is full of rocks, falls, 

I shoals, until it reaclic's the Tuekal.>atchees, where it becomes deep and (piiot; from 




tlionro tlio ooiirso of it is west for silioiit tliirly miles tu Little TalliisHio, wlicic it 
nniti's witli tlif Coosa or Coosaliiiti'liu. 

The Coosii river also rises in the liijrli-lamls near the Cjierokees; its course is ,i;ciie- 
railv south, riiiiniii;^ throii;.rli the eoinitrv oftiie Natciie/ iind other trilu's ol' the upper 
Creeks, tiie roiijihest ami most hrokeii district in the whol(< nation. It is ra|iiil. ami so 
full of rocks and shoals, that althoiiuh there is a >nHi('iency of water, it is hardh' navi- 
^'alile even f)r eanoes. It joins with the Talhqtoosee, iit little Tailassie, and tlu're 
forms the heantifid river Ahihama, \vlii<'h continne.s in a .southwestwardly direction to 
the hay of Mohile. 

This lonu' I'iver, and its main hranches. form the wes'ern line of settlenu'iits or vil- 
la;j:es of the Creek nation, l)ut their hnntin,i.'-,ij,ronnds extend lidd miles heyond. to the 
TomIpi,!.diee river, which i.s the dividing line hetween theii country and that of the 

Tlie Alabama river is romarkahle for it.s gentle rnrrent. pnre waters, ami liood (ish ; 
it runs ahont two miles an lioin- ; it is seventy or ei;;hty rods wide at the head of it, 
and from lifteen to eiiihteen feet deep in the driest season of the v' ar. The hanks 
are ahont lifty feet hiirh, ami seldom, if i'vvv. o\-erllowe(I. Travellers \vIio ha\t' navi- 
jrated it in larire hoats, in the month of .Mav. have irone in nine days from little Tai- 
lassie to .Mobile hay, and I'ompute the distance liy water to he aliout Jl'iH miles. This 
river, for Ibrty miles downward, and proliably mncli firther, is vi'ry Icantifnl ; it has 
Inuh, clear fields all along the hanks, that alVord romantic vii ws of its diilerent courses 
ami windiuL's for miU'S toi;('ther. Having no shoals, or sand might he navigated 
with large hoats up to M'CiUivray's, at Little Tailassie, through the centre of an 
inviting, fertile and extensive country, capable of ])roilucing every thing ne»-essary to 
the comfort and convenience of mankind. The snrnauiding country is well watered; 
the soil is of a dark brown color, with dei^p sti'ala of red or l)rown clay, and with the 
slovenly management even of the .ravages, it produces most aliundantly. 

It is well timbered with oak, hickory, nndberry, poplar, wild cherry, wild locust, 
laurel, cypress, bay, gum, cedar, iron, and white cork woods. The low-lands and bot- 
toms are interspersed with numerous cane-brakes, of enormous growth; and the higher 
gnjnnds. and banks of rixers, produce ginsen;r, and the seneca, or snake-root, and the 
genuine sarsaparilla of Mexico in perfection. 

There are also a great variety of other medicinal plants and herlis. which remain to 
be analv/.ed by the skilful botanist, and, without doubt, will be found as valuable and 
important as any hitherto di,scov( -ed. 

There arc abundance of small waterfalls, and mill-.seats of constant water to be had, 
in all parts of the country, witliin a few miles of each other. 

There are useful mines and minerals on tlie Alabama, some .specimens of which I 
liave colh'cted and have the honor her(.'with to present. 

The western part of the country of the Creeks particularly, though but small com- 

VoL. v.— ;;••) 


■ i .,,( 



4' At 

W "I' 

1! ^il 



., Ji I 




jiinil to tlic wlioli'. is wiiliii\it iloiilit. IViiiii its imtiinil iiJvaiitnyvs. itl' nuu'i' ri'iil viiliio 
tli:iii nil tlic ivst III' tlu'ir tciiitory. 

'i'lic ulii>lo of till' nmiiti'y cliiimod hy llu> Crci'ks. witliiii tlio limits of tlie I'nitid 
Sillies, iit ii iniultMiitt' coiiipiitatiiiii. iinist cniitiiiii ni'iirly Sl.OOO s(|iiiiri' iiiilcs, nci'mdiii'^' 
til I5i>\vi'ii's iiKi|is ami siirvi'ys, aimi'Xfil lii'ivto, wliifh, hy gijoil Jiuljics, nw ailii'iiK'tl tu 

he ici'iiraii' 


■111 il i- hut a iiitlc uiliU'iiii'-s. i'\liil)itilii: iiiaiis' iialui'al luaiil 

Irs. wlihii arc 


y ii'inli'i'cii iiiiitliasaiil liy lii'iii>;' ii> |»issfssi(iu dI' tlic jcaluns iiatisi 

'I'lli' I'nlllltrv I 

IIISSI'SSOS t'V('r\' SlII'l'ICS o 

f Wdiiil iiiiii day i)i'(i[)('i' Itir Imiliiinu. ami lli 

soil and (Tniiali' scciii well ,-iiiicil to tin- ciiltiirc of corii. wine. oil. silU, lii'iii|i. lire. 
wIhmI. tiiiiafi'ii. imli^ii. cvci'y s|i('i'it's ol' iViiit trrcs, ;im,| I'jiuiisli ^rass ; ami iiiusi. in 
jirnci'ss (if tiiiu'. In.'1'oim' a most ilcU'ctahlo [larl nl' tiu' I'liiitMl States ; aiid wilii a lin' 
iia\ i>:atioii tlii'ouiih the bay of Mobile, may [irobably. one day or oilier, lie the seat of 
iiiaiiiil'aeliiri's and i-ommeice. 

Tlie eliinale of iliis inland coiintry is remarkably lii'altliy ; the wet ami dry seasi 
are regular and |ierioilieal. The I'ainy season is from Chiistmas to the bei;iiiiiiiu .a' 
31aicli, and from the middle of .Jiil_\- to the latter end of Si'|itemliei'. lU'tween these 
two peiioils there is seldom miieii rain or elomly weather. 

The eoii-lant bree/es. which are probably occasioned b_\ the lii!.;li hills and numerous 
rapiii waler-eourses. render tlii' heat of summer very temperate ; and to^\•ards aiitiinni 
they are delight fully perfumeil i>y the ri[)eniii,i;' iiroma.ic shrubbery, whicii aboinids 
tbnuiiihout the country. 

'I'lie winters are soft and mild, and the summers sweet and wiiolesomo. 

Tiiere are no staL:iiant waters or inieelioiis foirs about the rivers; c(in-e(|iiently, 

ver bi 

cell known to infest this 


Ueither alliiiatoi's. inos(|uitoes, or saml-llies. lia\o o 
fiiui country. 

The animals of the lores!, in this country, diller little from tho.^c! ut the northward; 
the tiger, or imnther. is more common here, but of less si/e than these taken towards 
Canada : lar,^i' black wohcs are plenty, and. 1 belie\c, pi'ciiliar to the country. 

The birds in this rejiion resemlde ours, in the northern Stati's, in cvi'ry respect; but, 
ill addition, may be counted the land stork, of prodii;ious si/e, commoiiK' called the 
j)ine Ijarren li()oi)ing crane. There are also f;roat nimiiieis of paro((iiets, ;ind the beaiili- 
fnl red bird, su much sought lin' by Kuropeaus, and called by them the \'irgiiiia 

The rejitiles liere are (c.\ce[it beinu' generally larirer, and more thrifty) very much 
like those I'oiiiid in the northern climates. ]]nt the gofer, ii species of the land 
tortoise, might deserve some attention from the curious naturalist. Tills creature li\es 
on the land altogether, feeds on grass, and chews the cud like a slieep. Me I'clires to 
his hole, in some sandy jilace, in day-time, and at night comes out to li'cd. lie is of 
the shape of common land tortoises, and of enormous strength; altliough liutof ;d)out 



pijjlit i>i' It'll , iclit's ill Ii'ii.utli, iiml "iv or fi^ilit iiulics in lircmllli, lie i.-* iildc to WiilU mi 
liiinl ;.'roiiiiil, fivrryiii,i< tlu' lioiivicst iiuim on I 'n. ;.. with toloralilo onsc Tlic ImliniH 
Iiiivc II lii'lid' that IIiIm aiiiiiiiil liiin the prv, r (ifciui. i^iir droiiulits or tloodn ; tlic} llicn- 
fore, wlniKivor tlioy moot one, dusli liiir i. ^ iiiocos with religions violence. 

O IMC IN' or Tin; Mrsrociiis ok Cur. i;k I n hi .\ \ .4. 

Moil of till' IiohI, inroriiiiition (iiul loiii^c.-t acfiiiiilntaiu'c with llic-^i' fmlianM i^ive tho 
liillnwiiijr account of the rise ami proLric--^ of the nation. 

'I'mtlitioii, haiuk'il down from oni- '.'cncralinii to aiiotlicr. lias cstaMi 


11 ''I'licral 

lirlicf aiiio!ii{ flit'jii (which may ho tnic). that a loiijr tiiiic nj;o moiuc stranjic, wandcnnix 
clans of Indians from the iinttli-in.^l found their way down |o Ihc |iieseiit country of 
the Semiiiolies : there meeting with plenty of iraine, they .settled theiiL-^elves in the 
vicinity of the then powerful trihos of the Florida and Appalaohian Indians: that Ww 
time tiiev reiniiincd on a friendiv footini'with each other, 'i'iie new-coinurs wire 


.st\ leil .V )uiii(illi 

■ii'jnil\inLr wain 

lerers. or lost iiiei 

Tiiese wanderers from the north increased, and at It^iiMth hecanie .so ])oweriul a hody 

as to cNcite the jealousy of their Appalachian nei.Ldih 

Wars ensued, and linally 

the Si'miuolies hccame masters of the emiutry. " 'l"he remnants of the .\p|ialailiians 


re totally destroyed hy the CreeUs in ITl'.l. 


|)roeess of time, the jiame of the country was lound insuHleient to snp])ia't their 
iiicreasinn' numliers. Some claiis and lamilies emiiiialed northward, and took posses- 
sion of thi> iiresent district of the Cowetas; havin,!^' estalilished themselves tiiere. oilier 
emijii'ations followed, and in time spread thenist 'ves eastward as lar as thi' OaUmuljico 
river, and other waters of (leoruia ami Niniii Carolina, and westward as far as tho 

loosco am 

1 Coosa rivers, which are the main hranchos of the Alahama. Hero 
they were encoimtered hy tho Alahama nation, whom th(>y afterwards com|uered ; and 
by restoring to them their lands and river, gained their attachment, and they were 
incorporated with tho Creek nation. The Crei'ks heoame famous lor their ahilities and 
warlike powers; and heing jiossessed of a well watered country, were ilistingiiished from 
their ancestors (tho Sominolies of tho h)W barren country) by tho iiaiiu! of Creeks or 

The kind soil, pure water, and air of their country being l'aviu'al)le to their constitu- 
tions as warriors, has perhaps coiitribnted to give them a character superior to most of 
tho nations that surround them. 

Their numbers have increased faster by the acquisition of foreign subjects, than by 
the increase of the original stock. It appears long to have been a maxim of their 
policy, to give erinal liberty and protection to tribes oompiered by themselves, as well 
as to those vamiiiished l>y others — although many individuals, taken in war, are 


■^ ... / 

' I, 



\ Ml' 

1 \ 

I . f 'i 


i-i ' ,-l 


« I. ' , Ml 


^ ^Q^ 




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lis ^^ ^™ 

IL25 III 1.4 



















slaves anioiif; them ; niul tlieir cliililivii aio calli'd. of tlio slave race, and cannot arrive 
ti> luiicli lioiioriiry disliiu'tioii in tlie coniitry on that account. 

'I'lic Al!il)iiiiia> iiiul Coo.siuli's arc saiil to bo tli(.' Ih^t who ailoi)ti'il the ceronionios and 
nistoin.x of tln'<'iei.'ks. and hiranic part of tlio nation. The Natchez, or Sun.set Indian.^, 
iVoiii the .Mississippi, joined tiie ("reeks ahoiit (ifty years since, after being driven out 
of liouisiiiua, and added coiisideral)ly to tlieir eoidediTativo body. And now the Slia- 
wani'se, called by them Sawanes, are joining theui in largo numbers every year, having 
already four towns on the Tallapoo.sec river, that contain near .'jUU war men, and more 
are soon e.\pected. 

Si;m inom ks. 

Tiie Seminolies are in small wandering hordes tlirough the whole country, from the 
point of Kast Florida to the Appalachiocola river, near which they have Micasuka, 
and some other permanent villages. Their country being sandy and barren, occasions 
those who cannot live by lishing along the sea-shoro to scatter in small clans and 
lamilies through the inland country, wherever they can find hommocks of rising ground, 
npon which they can raise corn, or in other places accommodated with water, which is 
very scarce throughout the countr3\ They arc considerably numerous, but poor and 
mi.serable Ix'yond descrii)tion ; being so thinly sc.ittored over a barren desert, they sel- 
dom assemble to take black drink, or deliberate on public matters, like the np[»er and 
lower Creeks. 

The Seminolies are the original stock of the Creek nation, but their language has 
nndergone so great a change, that it is hardly understood by the upper Creeks, or even 
b}' themselves in general. It is preserved by many old people, and taught by women 
to the children as a kind of religious duty; but as they grow to manhood, they forget 
and lose it by the more frequent use of the modern tongue. 

They are more unsettled, in their manner of living, than any other district of iieople 
in the nation. 

Their country is a i)lace of refuge for vagrants and murderers from every part of the 
nation, who, by Hying from the upper and lower districts to this desert, are able to 
elude the pursuit and revenge of even Indians themselves. 

The term Seminolies (signilying wanderers) is well a|)plied to them, for they are, 
most of them, continually shifting from one place to another every year. 

The foregoing account of the Seminolies was given by General M'Gillivra}, who .sel- 
dom, if ever, has visited their country. He is known to them a.s their great chief, but 
few of them have ever seen him. 

The Seminolies are said to be principally under the iulhicncc o^ Jack Kin imnf, a 
rich Scotch half-breed, living on the neck of land between Flint and the Chattahoosco 



rivers, ninety miles bulowthe Ciissitnh and Coweta towns — and of n Spimisli half-breed 
cliiil'. livin;,' on llic Apiialacliiaeola river, near the Micasuka village, called the ISulhi. 
Mill ilic tnilli is, they h:ive no uuverniiient aiiioni,' them. 

KiiMiaril is a noted trader, farmer, and lnT(l>iiian. lie has two wives, ahont forty 
valuable negroes, anil some Indian slaves. He ha.s from 1200 to loOO head of cattle 
and horses, and eommoidy from oOOO to 0000 Spanish dollars in his, which are 
the produce of cattle he sells. 

He accumulated his property entirely by jdnnder and freebooting, during the 
American war, and the late (leorgia (piarrel. This rai.xed him to the dignity of a chief, 
and enabled him to go largely into trade, by which he supplies all the Indians around 
him, who are dupes to his avarice, lie cannot read or write, and commonly has some 
mean person about his to do it for him. He is addicted to excessive drunkenness, 
and, like all hall-breeds, is very proud of l>eing white-blooded. He is a desjiot, shoot.s 
his negroes when he, and has cut oil' the cars of one of his favorite wives, with 
his own hands, in a drunken fit of sus[)icion. 

He is of so much consi'(|uence, in his own country, as to threaten the Spaniards into 
compliance with almost any thing he demands. 

The following is a copy of a letter he dictated and sent to Don Jimii Nepoinecena do 
Qucsada, the Governor of St. Augustine, in August, 1790. The (lovcrnor, in coiise- 
cpience, relea.sed Allen, the priscMier, and sent an express near 7(10 miles, up to Little 
Tallassie, with a statement of the afl'air to Mr. MXiillivray. 

" I send you this talk. Our pet)plc have had a talk given ont here, that our beloved 

white man, James Allen, is put in jail by your talk, for making the red men take 

away Lang's cattle, when Lang owed him 170 chalks, which was right. James Allen 

is our beloved white man, and nuist be given to us in twenty days back again, to buy 

our, as he did before. Now — give him back, and save yon trouble — which 

shall he — now. This is my talk ! Ins 

John x Kl\n.\ud." 

The Bully is a man of ns much property and inllucnco as Kinnard. lie is about 
fifty years old — keeps three ^oung wives. For size and strength, has never yet found 
his equal. He is master of the art of English boxing — and has been the Sampson of 
these Philistines from his youth upward. 







I'i' 5 








r o l- r I, A T 1 n N A N 1> M I I. I T A li \ S T i: V. N (I T II . 

TliL' smiiUost ol' tlu'ir tDwn.s liave from 2(1 to ;!0 lioiiscs in lliciii. ami some ol' tlio 
larircst contain IVoiu loO to 'JOO, tliat are tolerably fonipact. Tiirso lionsfs .stand in 
cliistor.s of four, live, .six, seven and eight togetiier, irri'gnlarly distributed np and 
down the hank.s of river.s or small streams; each cluster of houses contains a clan, or 
family of relations, who eat and live in common. Kach town has a iiuhlic scjuare, hot- 
house, and yard near the centre of it, appropriated to various puljlic uses — of which 
I shall endeavor to give a jtarticular description, together with the ceremonies per- 
formed therein, hcreafler, 

The following are the names of the jirincipal towns of the ujjjier and lower Creeks, 
that liave public scjuares, beginning at the head of the Coosa or Coosa-hatcha river, viz: 

1. I']i[)(r ri'iila-J, 

2. .\l)l)!U'(liK'llC('S, 
:1. Xllt.-llrz, 

4. (.'iiosa.-', 

;'). OteetoofliOPiias, 

G. I'iiifJatcliiis, 

7. IVicmitulialiasos, 

8. WlMMlkrCS. 

!'. Little Tallas.i.-, 

10. Tiiski'cgoi'.'*, 

11. ('Doiailas, 
ll>. Alaliatnas. 
l:!. Tawasas, 
14. I'awai-tas, 

1'). .\utolias, 

lli. .\iiliol,a, 

IT. Wtlimi|ik('('s, Mg, 

1H. Wotiiinpkcos, little, 

10. AVaca.M.ys, 

'20. AVafks(ivoclicc3. 

Central, inland, in the high country, between the Coosa tmd Tallapoosee rivers, in 
the district called the llillaboes. arc the following towns, viz: 

til. Ilillabi 

■2± Killee-k.i 

•2-\. Oakchovs, -24. Slakagiilgas, 2."). Waeaoys. 

And on the waters of the Tallapoosee, from the liead of the river downward, the 
fiiUowiii'i. viz : 

2ti. Tuckaliatclieo Teeliasiia, 

27. Totaeaga, 

2H. New York,' 

21>. Clialaacpaiiley, 

.'JO. !S(i;;ils|Migll<, 

31. Oakfiiskee, 

:^2. I'fala. little, 
;i:!. ITala, liig, 
;!4. .'^iigaliatelies, 
•■>•'). 'fiiekaliatelH'eS, 
'■'Ai. liig 'fallassie, or 
liall-wav house, 

;57. Clewaulevs, 
tlH. Coosaliatelies, 
3!t. Coolainies, 

40. l^liawanese, or Savanas, 1 Sliawanoso 

41. Keiilmlka, j Refugees. 

42. Miiekeleses. 

Of th(> lower Creeks, beginning on the head-waters of the Chattahoosee, and so on 
downward, are the towns of 

A'-), ("lielneeoiiiiiny, 
44. f'liattatioosoo, 
4."). llolifatojra, 
40. Cowetas, 
47. CiLssitalis, 

48. riialagatsea, or liroken arrow, 

411. Kiieliees, several, 

T)!). Iliteliatees, several, 

51. I'alaeliiiola, 

">2. ( 'liewaekala. 

Namod by Coliintl Itay, a New York Uiiiisli luyalist. 


Besides near 20 towns and villages of the little and big Chelmus, low down on Flint 
and Cliattahoosft! rivers, tlie n:inu's of wliioli I eotild not ascertain. 

From their roving ami unsteady manner of living, it is inipossihle to determine, with 
mneh precision, the nmnlter of Indians tiiat compose the Creek nation. 

(Jeneral M'dillivray estimates tiie numher of gun-men to he Iictween 'lOOd and (KldO, 
exclusive of the Seminolies, who are of little or no account in war, e.\cei)t as snnill 
parties of marauders, acting indeiH'udent of the geut'ral inti'rest of the others. 

The nseless old men, the women and children ma}- he reckoned as three times the 
number of gun-men, making in the whole about '_'j,(IO0 or li(i,(MlO .souls. FiVery town 
and villiig(! has one estal)lished white trader in it, and there are several neighborhouds, 
bi'sides, that have traders. F^ach trader commonly emi)Iovs one or two white pack- 
horse men; besides these, there is, in ever\' town, one fainilv of whites, and in 


two, who do not trade; these last are 


le who have lied from suine part of 

till' frontier, to this asylinn of liberty. 

It may be conjectured with salety, that, to includo the whites of every descript 


throughout the country, they will amount tct nearl\- .'!Ufl perfoiis — a number suilicieiit 
to contaminate all the natives; for it is a iiiet that every town is j)riiicipiiliy iiiitlcr 


u- iiitliieiice of the white men residiiiir in it; ami as most of tlii'm have liecn nttaehetl 

to the British in tlie late war. and of course have, from loss of friends and property, or 
p.ersccuti(jn, retained bitter resentments iigninst tlie peojjle of the I'nited States, and 
more especially against those living on the frontiers. They often, to have revenge, 
and /<> (ililiihi /i/iunl' r that may bo taken, use their inlluence to send out predatory par- 

ties auainst the settlements in 


r vieinitv. 

The Creek Indians arc very bailly armed. Thec/((V/'has made it a point to furnish 
them with nuisktts in prelereiice to riiles, which, from the necessity of being wiped out 

after ever\ shot, have 1 

leen ton 

nd liss convenient than the former. Their muski'ls are 

of the slender, French mamdaeture, procured through tlic Spanish goNcriimenl at 
I'eiisacola, but are so slightly made, that they soon become unlit for any service. 

If the Indians were able to purchase for them.selves, they would, however, jirefer 


es in 


cases, ix'ca 

use thev find them more sure and lastii 

irood one will, at 

any time, command the price of lUO chalks, or $-jU, to bo paid in skins or horses in 
the eoinitry. 

The mo-st inlluential chiefs of the country, cither in peace or war. are the Hallowing 

King, of the Cowetas ; the White Lieutenant, of the Oakfnsk 

les : 

the Mad J)og KiiiL', 

)f the Tuckal)atcliees ; tlie old Tallassie King Opillli-.Mico, of the Half-way House at 

1 Old Bed-shoe. Kin-- of tl 


Big Tallassie; the Dog Warrior, of the Natchez; am 
Alabannis and Coosades. A treaty made with the before-named chiefs would, pro- 
bably, bo coininunicated to all the 


Ic of the countrv, and be belieseil and relied 



ill t ■■ 'I 

I U 





C i;k K.MUN I i:s, C'u stums and OriNinxs. 

1. Siiiiiro. 2. llot-li.iiiMrt. :i, rlniiik.\ _v;ir.|. 

Sirf. Ill- TiiK I'liii.ic S.jiAiiK, Hiir-iiiiisK \\ n Cm .\ kkv-v a imp 

i' \ 



Or TiiK. SiiLAKK. — The public squares, placed near the centre of each town, arc fornied 
In- lour buililiniis of equal size, facing inwards, and enclosing an area of about tiiirty feet 
on each siile. Tiicse houses are made of tiie same materials as tlioir dwelling-houses, but 
diller byliaving the front wiiicli iiices the square left entirely open, and the walls of tiie 
back sides Iiave an oj)en s[)ace of two feet or more next to the eaves, to admit a circu- 
lation of air. Kadi of these houses is partitioneil into tiiree ajiartuK'nts, nudiing twei\e 
in all, which arc called the cabins; tlic partitions wiiich si'parate these cabins are 
made of i'h\y. and only as high as a man's shoulders, when sitting. Each cabin lias 
tinve seats, or rather platforms, being broad enough to sleep u[)on. The first is rai.^ed 
about two feet from the ground, the second is eight inches higher, and the third, or 
back seat, as much above the second. The whole of the .seats are joined together by 
a covering of cane-mats, as large as cariiets. it is a rule, to have a new covering to 
the seats every year, previous to the ceremony of the busk ; therefore, as the old cover- 
ings are never removed, they have, in most of their s(pnires, eight, ten and twelve 
coverings, laid one upon the other. 

The squares are generally made to face the east, west, north and south. The centre 
cabin, on the east side, is always allotted to the beloved, or first men of the town, and 
is called the beloved seat. Three cabins, on the south side, belong to the most distin- 
guished warriors; and those on the north side, to the .second men, i^c. The west side 
is appro])riated to hold the lumber and apparatus used in cooking black-drink, war- 


physic, &c. On tlio post, or on a i)Iiiiik over oncli of llio oaltiiif. mr paiiitod llio cinhk-ins 
of the fiiinily to wliom it is alidttuil, to wit: tlio l)iilViil() liimily liiivi' tiiu biilliilo 
paiiitcil (III tlicir ciihiii ; tlio boar has tho hoar, ami so on. 

rp iiiiiliT the roiils (if tho housos are siis|iciiile(l a hctcmirciu'oiis rulicclioii of cnilpli'ins 
ami tro|ihi('M of poaoo and war, \ iz : oa^'k's' fiMtiiors, swans' wiii.^s. w(xnlcii mmIiiJiii:- 
kiiivcs, \var-('liil)s, rod paintod wands, hnnclics of hoops on wiiioii to ilry thoir ,-i'alps, 
ronuiants of scalps, Imndlt's of snako-root war-physic, haskots. &o. 

Snoh |)osts and other tiinhers about tht? sipiaiv as arc smooth I'lionuh to admit of it, 
have a variety of rude paintinjjs of warriors' hoails with horns, hornod rattlosnaUcs, 
hcn'ncd alligat(n's, &c , &c. 

Some of tho sqnarcs in tho rod or war-towns, wliich have always boon frovornod by 
warriors, aro called paintod s(piares. havinj; all the posts and smooth tiniiior about them 
painted rod. with white or bkuk odiies. This is considered a peculiar and very honorary 
mark of distinction. Some towns also have the privilege of a covered s(piare. which is 
nothiim more than a scafloldini;' of canes hiid on polos over tho whole of the area 
between the houses. Whence those privileges arose, I could never learn ; and it is a 
doubt with me if they know Iheinsolves. 

Travelliiii: Indians, having no relations in the town, often sleo]) in tho public s(piare 
as they are passing on their journey. This is one of their ancient rites of hospitality. 
And poor old men and women, sutVeriiig lor want of clothes, aro entitled to sleep in 
the hot-houses of tho town they live in, if they please. 

The square is the place for all public meetings, and the performance of all their 
principal warlike and religious ceremonies. 

If a man dies in the town, tho sipiarc is hung full of green boughs as tokens of 
mourning; and no black-drink is taken inside of it for four days. 

If a warrior or other Indian is killed from any town having a sipiare, black-drink 
must be taken on tho outside of tho Sipnire ; and every ceromon}' in its usual Ibrm is 
hiid aside until satisfaction is had lor the outrage. 

Each s(|naro has a blifih--<lriiih- cmth, and two or three young warriors that attend every 
morniiig when black-drink is to be taken, and warn the people to assemble by 
beating a drum. 

Each s(piarc, as necessary appendages, has a hot-house at tho north-west corner of 
it, and a May-pole, with a large circular beaten yard around it, at the south-west 
corner, which is called the chunke\'-yard. These two places are chiotly appropriated 
to dancing. The yard is used in warm, and the hot-house in cold weather. 

The hot-house is a perfect pyramid of about twenty-five foot high, on a circular base 
of the same diameter. Tho walls of it arc of clay, about .six feet high, and from 
thence drawn regularly to a point at tho top, and covered round with tufts of bark. 
Inside of the hot-house is one broad oircular seat made of canes, and attached to tho 
walls all around. The fire is kindled in the centre ; and the liouse, having no 

Vol. v. — 34 




■ ;, I 






vi'ii(iliiti)r, soon bccojiios in tolerably hot ; vet tin* Knvii^ros. amidst all tiio smoke and 
dust raised from the eartiieii lloor liy tlieir violent manner of dancing, bear it lor 
hours together without the least aiii>arent inconvenience. 


T II K Ceukmdnv ui' Tin: lli.Af k-Dki x k 

Is a niilitiii'v institution, blended with religious opinions. 

The biaeU-drinli is a strong di'eoelion of the shrub well known in the Carolinas by 
the name of Cassina, or the Uupon Tea. 

Tiie leaves are eolleeted, jiarehed in a pot until brown, boileil over a fire in the 
centre of the ,s(|uare. dipiied out and poured from one pan or cooler into another, and 
back again, until it ferments anil produces a largi- ((uaiitity of white froth, from whieli. 
with thi' [)urif\ iiig ipialitii's the Indiiins ascribe to it, tliey style it ii'/iifi-i/rink ; but the 
liipior of itself, which, if strong, is nearly as black as molas.scs, is by the white peoi)!e 
universally calleil him l.-.ilrinh. 

It is a gentle diuretic, and. if taken in largo (piautities, sometimes allects the 
nerves. If it were ((iialilied with .sugar, &c., it could hardly be distinguished in taste 
from strong bohea tea. 

Kxeept rum, there is no litjuor of which the Creek Indians arc so excessively fond. 
In addition to their habitual of it, they have a religious belief that it infal- 
libly possesses the following ([ualities, viz. : That it ])urifies them from all sin, and 
leaves them in a state of jicrli'ct innocence; that it inspires them with an invincible 
prowi'ss in war; aiul that it is the only solid cement of IViendship. benevolence, and 
hospitalit_v. Most of tiiem really .seem to believe that the Great Spirit or Master ol' 
breath has connnimicated the virtues of the lilack-driidc to them, and them only (no 
other Indians being known to it as they do), and that it is a peculiar blessing 
Ix'stowcd ou them, his chosen people. Therefore, a .stranger going among them cannot 
recommend himself to their protection in any manner so well as by ollering to partake 
of it with them as often as possible. 

The method of serving up black-drink in the square is as li)llows, viz. : 

The warriors and chiefs being assembled and seated, three yoinig men acting as 
masters of ceremony on the occasion, each having a gourd or calabash full of tiie 
li((uor. place them.sidves in fnmt of the three greatest chiefs or warriors, and announce 
that they are ready by the word choh ! After a short pause, stooping foiward, they 
run up to the warriors and hold the cup or shell parallel to their mouths; the warriors 
receive it from them, and wait until the young men fall back and adjust them.selvcs to 
give what they term the ynhiilhili, or black-drink note. As the young men begin to 
as|)iratc the note, the great men place the cups to their mouths, and are obliged to drink 
during the aspirated note of the young men, which, after exhausting their breath, is 
repeated on a liner key, until the lungs arc no longer intlated. This long aspiration is 


oontiniicd near half a niimiti', niul tlic cup is taUi-ii from llio moutli (if tin- wiininr 
wlio is drinkiiifr at tlio instant tlio noto is linislu-d. The young men then nerivc (In* 
cups from the I'liicl's or head warriors, and pass it to the others oCiurerior r.iiiU. ^.'ivini^ 
them tlie word choh ! but not the yoIiuUah note. None are entitled to the loiijj; lilaek- 
drink note but the great men, whoso abilities and merit are rated on this occasion by 
the capacity of their stomachs to receive the li(pior. 

It is generally served round in this manner three times at every meeting ; during 
the recess of serving it up, they all sit quietly in their several cabins, and anmso theui- 
si'lves by smoking, conversing, exchanging tobacco, kc, and in disgurgiug what black- 
drink they liavo previously swallowed. 

Their mode of di.sgorging, or spouting out the black-driid<, is singular, and has not 
the most agreeable appearance. After drinking copif)Usly, the warrior, by hugging his 
arms across his stomach, and leaning forward, ilisgorges the liipior in a large stream 
from his month, to the distance of six or eight feet. Thus, innnodiately after drinking, 
they begin spouting on all sides of the srpiare, and in every direction ; and in that 
country, as well as in others more civilized, it is thought a handsome accomplishment 
in a young fellow to be able to spout well. 

They come into the s(juare and go out again, on these occasions, without formality. 

T 11 K Ceukmony of the Busk. 

The ceremony of the busk is the most important and serious of any observed by 
the Creek Indians. 

It is the oflering up of their first fruits, or an annual sacrifice, always celeljrated 
about harvest time. 

When corn is ripe, and the cassina or new black-drink has come to perfection, the 
busking begins on the morning of a day appointed by the priest, ov jln-innktr (as he 
is styled) of the town, and is celebrated for four days successively. 

On the morning of the first day, the priest, dressed in white leather moccasins and 
stockings, with a white drcs'- ^ i deer-skin over his shoulders, repairs at break of day, 
unattended, to tlie !<qnarc. i' ,-• first business is to create the new fire, which ho 
accomplishes with much labor uy the friction of two dry sticks. After the fire is pro- 
duced, four young men enter at the openings of the four corners of the .iciuare, each 
having a stick of wood for the new fire ; they approach the new fire with much reve- 
rence, and place the ends of the wood they carry, in a very formal manner, to it. 
After the fire is sulliciently kindled, four other young men come forward in the same 
manner, each having a fair ear of new corn, which the priest takes from them, and 
places with great solemnity in the fire, where it is consumed. Four young warriors 
then enter the sipiarc in the manner before mentioned, each having some of the new 
cassina. A small part of it is given to the new fire by the priest, and the remainder 

1 ■ 



J' i;) 

ii |C 


1 H^ 

1 'il' 

' 1 

: ' 1 

' - M 





is iiiiiiiciliufcly pfirclicil and cunkcd Inr iisi', Dmiii.' llic."!' liirmiililios, tlio ]irit'f<t '\n 
niiitiniiiilU' iiiiitlci'iiiv; .voiiic iiiN^ti'viDiiM jui'LTDn wliicli iiolioilv iiMdcrstiiiMl-', nor i>< il 

propor liii' iiii_\ mi|iiiiii's 


tC llliKiC t' 

II tl 

l(< MlllllCC 

t: III 

le pfoiik- III jii'iK'fiu lulicvi 

1 lu'li 


lie i?< llu'ii (■iiiiniiiiniciitiiiji; witli tin' .'/'•"»' um^li r nf lirnilli. 

At this time, tlic wiirriurs ami others liciiiir assoiiildcd. Ijicy proceed to drink Idack 

drink in their iisnal manner. 


•f tl 

le new 

lire is next carried and left on ti 


le women allowei 


d t 

> collie aiu 

I take it to 

oiil.-ide of the sipiaiv. for piiiilio use; and li 
their several houses, which have the day lieforo ln'cii tdeaned. and decorateil with 
frreeii hoiiprliH. for its reception; nil tho old lire in the town having; been jtrevioiisly 
extiiiiruislu'd. and the aslu's swejit clean away, to make room for tho new. Diiriiij^ 

this (lav. the women ai 

illered to dance witii tiie ciiiidren on tho outside of the 

Minare. Imt hy no means sulVeiod to eoiiio into it. The men Uoop entirely hy tliom- 
Mdves. and sleep in tiie sipiare. 

The second day is devoted liy the men to taking their wnr-ph^sic. Tt is a stronir 
dccoclion of the Imttoii snaki'-root. or seiineca. which they use in such ((iiantities as 
ofieii to injure their health hy ])roducinj,' spasms. &e. 

The third day is spent liy liie youiii; men in liiintinj? or fisliinjr. while tho elder ones 
riMiiain in the si|uare and sK'ep. or continue their hiackdriiik. war-physic. iSic, as they 
eiioosc, Duriiin tlie lirst three days of l)iiskinL'. while the men are physickinjr. the 
wiiiiien are constaiitiv lintliiiiii. Il is unlawful for aiiv man to toiicii one of tiieiii. 

e\('u witii the tip of his til 


and hoili sexes abstain i'i>;idly from all kind of food 

or sustenance, and more particularly from salt. 

On the foiirtii day. tiu! whole town are assemhled in the sfpiaro, men. wotiu'ii, and 


reii proiuisciK 

luslv, and devoted to coiivivialit v. All the ,i;aine killed the day 

before by the vouiig hunters, is jiivi'ii to the public; lai'Lic (|uantities of now eorn. and 
provisions, are collected and «'ooked by the women over the new lire. The 



wiiole body ot' tiie sipiare is occupied with pots and pans of cooki'd provisions, and 
tliey ail partake in jreiioral festivity. The evening is spent in daneiii}^, or other 
triliiiijr amusements, and the ceii'iiiony is concluded. 

N.13. All the provisions that romaiu are apen|uisite to the (dd priest, or firo-maker. 

AxTir'. Al.K.X. MGlI.MVKAV. 

( ! o r u T .s u I r A n d M a k k i a (! i: . 

ronrtship is always bofrun by proxy. The man. if not iiitimatoly acf|iiainted with 
the lady of liis choice, sends her his tiilh (as it is tcriiUMl). accompanied with .small 
])resents of clothiiiii. by some woman of Iier nccpiaintanco. If the yoiinj; woman liih-i.t 
his tiilh. his proxy then asks tlie consent of Ikm' uiudos, ;iunts, ami brothi-r.s (the fatiier 
haviiiir no voice or authority in tho business), which beinjr obtained, the young woman 
goes to him, and tlioy live together during plea.sure or convenience. This is the most 
common mode of taking a wife, and at present the most fashion;ible. 

Tone A I. II ISTiHl Y. 



II n iniin 

tiiki's fi wife (•(iiirniiniililv tn llic inmi' iiiicii'iit tiiiii HcrioiiH cii-'tiiiM nf 

tiic I'oiiiitrv, it I't'ijiiirt's a l(iii>r<'r ('iiiii'Ulii|i. ami moiiic I'stiilili^licij liu'iiiulilii'i. 

'i'lit' mail. Id ^iniiily his wixiirH, kilU a hear willi liis nwii liami-', iiiul m-imU ii iiaiilnl 
(if llif nil to lii-< iiiislrcr's. ir hlic rt'ccivcs the nil. In- iicxl atli'iuU ami licljis her lino 
till* viini ill licr ticlil; al'lcrwarils |)laiit!4 licr Ixmuih ; ami wlun (licy {■oiiii' ii|), lii> ccIm 
|inl('H I'nr llu'iii to niii ii|Hin. In tin' iiicantiiiic lie atti'inls In r cniii. until llic Ihiiiis liavo 

run ii|> and cntwim 

il th 

ir \\\H'^ alinilt till- pnli'S 

'I'liis is tlinuulit ctiilili'matiial nl' 

tlicir npiti'iiacliiii;:; uniiui and Iximlauc ; ami tlu'V llicn take caili ntlirr Inr lictli r nr I 


vorsc, and arc Imiiml to all iutcnls and |inr|ii>si'; 

widow havinu' liicii liniiml in iIk 


Mivi' inanncr, is cmisn 


an adull( 

ss it' 

■i|i('aKs nr ma 

k.'S I' 

lie Willi aii\ iiiaii. 


tliiii i 

niir sum 

iiit'is al'U'r tlic death nl' her liiishaiid. 


With a couple united in tin' ahove niannor, tliu tie is considered niori! slrmi'^Iy hiiid- 
ir than in the other case; lieini; under tliis ohii'/alion to each other, the least rreedniii 

vitli any other person, either in the man or woman, is considered as adultery, and 
imarialily punished by the relations of the nlVeiidcd part)-, hy wliip|iiii.L', and cutting 
oil' the hair and cars eInM' to the lieail. 

The ceremony of croppiiifj. as it is called, is done in the liillowiim nianiier. The 
Vehitions of the iiijiircd jiarly assemhle and use every stralauem In cninc at tlio 


Each ol' tilt; 

IIS IS called. Ill the phrase nl the cniiiilr\', fitf^nii/ 


!/""'./ "l"'ii 


carries a stick nearly as larj^e as a hoop-pole. iiaviiiL' cauiiht the 

oHender, they heat him or her. as the case may he. until senseless, and then operate 
villi the knife. Il is exIiUMiiely dilticidl to evade this punishmeiil ; liiil it' the olt'eiider 

until they lay down their slicks, the la 

can keep clear of tliem hy tliiilit or otherwise uiilil tliey lay iinwii liieir siicKs, iiie law 
is satislied, and they (one liiinily niily e\cepte(|) hasc no rii;ht to take them up ajaiii. 
IJut the ^Mcat and powerful Wish Kamii.v. of whom Mr. .M'(!illi\ ray is a ilescendaiit. if 
defeated in the first attempt, have the riirlit of niixinti f/n ijtni;/ and /i/lin;/ lln rm/iiils 
us often as they please until piinishinent is duly inllieted. 

OrixioKS Ol' TiiK Dkity. 

The f'roeks helievo in a good and had .spirit, and in a future state of rewards and 

The p)od spirit tlioy style Hesakadiim Ksee. which siiiiiilies (lod, or Master of 

The had sjiirit is styled Stcfiits Ase^^n, which sittnifies the devil, or rather sorcerer. 

They ludieve that the good sjjirit inhahits some distant, nnknown rcuinii, where 
game is plenty, and goods very cheap! wlu>re corn grows all the year round, and the 
springs of pure water are never drii'd up. 

They believe, also, that the bad spirit dwells a great wajs oil', in some dismal 




n\viiiii|), wniili is full (if pillinj; luiiirs, tiiiil tliiit lie in cixmudiilv hall' fliuvtil, Inning 
III) ^'lUiii-. or lioarx oil, in nil liis tiTiitoricH. 

'I'lii-y liu\c iiti <i|iiiiioii that (IrDii^ht", IIinxIf*, and rainiiiit. ami tliiir iniMMiniiipM in 
war, arc producctl \>y tin' aircnry of the hail K|iiiit. Ihit of tltcM' ihinfrs, (hey all 
niipcar to have confiisi'd and inc^^ular idoas, and .xoniu ni'i'iilical oi)inion«. 

Mannku of Uikvinm; rnK Dkad. 

WInMi one of a laniily diiv. the Kdatinns hury tho cor|»M' about Htm' H'c) dccii. in a 
round hoK' tlii.r diiiclly under tlu' cahin or rock uhi-rcon hu died. Tin- t'(ii|).x(' is 
]ilai'i'd in the hole in a .•'iltinu: |io>.tur(', with a lilanki't wrappod aliout it, and the Ic^'h 
Ixnt iMidfr it and tied to^rctlur. If a warrior. hc> is painti'd, iind his |)ipi<, ornanicnts, 
nnd warliiio append, mcs are depo.-^ited with him. 'J'he jrrave is then covered with 
canes tied to a hoop round the top of the hole, and then a fniu layer of clay. suHicient 
to support the v.eij;ht of ii num. Tho relations howl loudly and mourn puldidy tor 
fiMirdnNs. If the debased has U'cn a man of eminent character, the family iinme- 
diati'ly remove from the house in which ho is huried, and erect a new one, with a 
ladief that where the hones of their dead are deposited, the place is always attended 
by ■• ;.'ol)lins and chimeras dire." 

They believe there is a state of future existence, and that accordinj; to the tenor of 
their lives, they shall hereafter be rewarded with the privilege of hiniting in tho 
realms of the Master of Ibeath, or of laromin^' Scminolics in the rej^ions of the old 

Itut as it is very dillicult fur Ihein to draw any jiarallel between virtue and vice, 
they are most of them llattered with the expectation of hereafter Iwcoming yreat war- 
leaders, or swift hunters in the beloved country of the {ireat liesakadinn Esl'U. 


1) I s K A si:s A \ 1) 11 i:m i: n i i:.s. 

The Indians eat every jireen w ild fruit they can lay their hands upon, which is said 
to engender the fevers that somelinies attack them in the latter [lart of summer; 
and their children are ofti'U alUii ted with worms from the same cause. 

The riinsiii j'l.'.ltiliiraix, or pod of the wild locust, which grows here in abundance, 
furnishes them late in autinnn with a kinil of sweetmeats, which they gather and 
bring home wherever they can Iind it ; and it is esteemed a giwd antidote in the com- 
plaints of their children. 

Their di.sease.s are real and imagimiry. In their complaints and disorders, tli.'v 
sometimes emi»loy male, but more fi'ei|ucntly female pi'act it loners, whom the}' call vi'i'y 
cunning men (ir women, to atteml them ; ami as all their disorders are to be cuicd by 
the herbs and styptics of the woods, assisted by maiiic, their m(jde of proceeding is 



H(it \^'»!* miijrnlar limn HU|)crHtitit)iiH. All |)li)f<ic mul doooctioiis must mulcrjio a pntoctii 
(if iMiiliiiL', Hlinin^r, or liltnitidii, nttciuliMl witli lilowin^', Hiii^'in<:, liisxiii;.'. iiiiittfriii^. 
mul a varii'ty of invstciiouH and HiiMiinc oiK'nitinns, lu-luiv it ix littcil l\>v nsc If tlio 
liliv^iiian fails in tlio ciiri'. hi' will a.xciiln' it to cuts or ilo'.'s that inav !>«' aliinil tlio 
lioiiMc-, ami tlii'v aiv oitlicr kilU'il iiintantly. or nvwt out of llii> iii'iL:lil>iiilinoi|, If jiftn- 
all tli<> patient ilics, tin* clianco is two to one tli:it tlic ilmtoi' i^ coifiiltMCil as a 
witcli or soncrcr. inlhuMiccil liy tlio dovil, anil is |iiirsu(Ml. licutiMi. mid Mnnctiinrs killcil 
liy tlio surviving.' relations; liut if successful in lesloriuir the patient to health, he in 
paid almost his own price for his services, in skins or cattle. 

Stitches in the side, or snn\ll rheumatic pains, wlii(di are freipient with them, are 
often considered as the elVect of sonu' mai;ic woinid. Tiiey firmly helicve thiit their 
Indian enemies have the power of shooting tlu.'ni as they lay asleep, at tin- distuncu 
of '>(MI miles. They often complain of havin;: lieen shot hy a Choctaw or Chickiisaw' 
from the midst of these nations, and send or 'fi) diiectly to the most ciinnin.ii and 
eminent doctress for relief. The cunninsr woman tells tlieiii that what they have 
apprehended is verily true, and proceeds to examine ami make the < iiic. In these 
rases, scratehin^r or cuppini; is the remedy; or. as is often the c.iso, sucking' the alli'cted 
part with her mouth, produces to their view souu- fra'-'iMent of a luillet. or piece of 
a wad, which she had purposely concealed in her mouth to conlirni the truth of what 
she had asserted ; after this, a Ivw iiimlmc draughts of their physic nuist he 
administered, and the patient is made whole. 

(lonorrliieas are common amonjj: them, hut not virulent. Contrary to what has heen 
helieved, their euri's are undouhtedly imiierfect, and not to he dept-iideil u|nin. 

It is an i'stalilished rule, that prcffuant women he entirely alone at the time of 
delivery; and this rule is rijridly adhered to. Nature seems to have fortifieil them 
with strength to nnder^'o the operation without assistance. On the 1-lh of Ueceinlter, 
17'.H», four wdiiicn came from the ir/iih i/mini'/. U'U mili's from l/ittie Tailassie, to sell to the l>eIoved man. The day was cold and rainy, with a sleet of snow ; 
thev staved all nii^ht. Alioiit midniirht, one of them, a \oun'' woman, was taken in 
travail; her mother was with her, and immediately ordered her to take some liie and 
jro into the swamp, ahout thirty rods iVoni the out-house wlu-re they slept. .She went 
alone, was delivered of her child, and at ten o'clcick next morning, heing hare-footed 
and half naked, took the infant on her hack, and returned home ihiough the rain and 
snow, which still continued to fall, without the K'ast apparent iueonvi'uience. 

This circumstance, had I not hoen present and seen the woman with the infant on 
her hack, I might have heen donhtful of its po.ssihility. 

In their periodical habits, the women are equally teiuicious of being seen or toucheil, 
and never leave their hiding-places iluring the continuance of thuin. 

' «i 


I i I't 


1 1 A II I T S , ^^ A X N E I! S A X I) C V S T O M S . 

Tlicv liave an opiiiioii that, to sloop \vitli woinoii, oiiorvatoH ami rondors tlicm unfit 
for warriors ; nioii thon-roro hut soldoni have tlicir wives in tlio apartnionts wlioro tlioy 
loilw. Evory rainily lias two huts or cahins ; one is tho man's, ami tiio other belongs 
to his wil'o. whoro sho stays and doos her work, seldom or over coming into the man's 
lion-ie, unless to bring him victuals, or on other errands. 

Tho women perform all the labor, both in the house and field, and are, in fact, but 
slaves to tho men, l)oing subject to their commands without any will of their own, 
except in the management of tho children. They are nnlver,sally called iociii7ic.s ; and 
the of'y distinction between them and the negro women is, that they have Indian 
children ; and when a man would have you understand that he h speaking of his wife, 
he designates her as his son's mother, !kc. Yet even in this unhi'Pin', servile state, tho 
women are rei'uu'knble for their care and attention to the men, constantly watching 
over them in their desperate and (luarrcls, with the utmost solicitude 
and anxiety. 

IJeauty is of no estimation in either sex. It is strength, or agility, that recommends 
the yiiung man to his mistress; and to be a skilful or swift hunter is tho highest merit 
with tho woman ho may choose for a wife. He proves his merit and abilities to her 
as often as he can, by presenting her, or her guardian uncles and aunts, with bear's 
oil. and venison of his own killing. 

Simiile fornication is no crime or reproach among the Crocks ; the sexes indulge 
their propensities with each other promiscuously, uiu'estrained by law or custom, and 
without secrecy or sliame. If a young woman becomes pregnant before she is married, 
which most of them do, the child is maintained in her clan without the least mur- 

If a young woman becomes pregnant by a follow whom she had expected to marry, 
and is disap|)oiuted, she, in revenge, is autliorized by a custom of the country, to 
destroy the infant at the birth, if she pleases, which is often done, by leaving it to 
perish in the swamp where it was born, or throwing it into the water. And, indeed, 
to destroy a new-born infant is not uncommon in families that are grown so numerous 
as to bo supiwrtod with difTiculty ; it is done by mutual consent of the clan and parents, 
and without remorse. 

Tho refined passion of love is unknown to any of thcni — although they apply tho 
word hivii to rum, and every thing else they wish to bo possessed of The very frequent 
suicides committed in conscquenco of the most trilling disappointment, or ([uarrel, 
between men and women, are not the result of grief, but of savage and unbounded 

Marriage is considered only as a temporary convenience, not binding on the parties 



more than one year. If a separation ia desired by either the man or his wife, it is 
commonly con.sen ted to, and takes place without ceremony; but he or Aiti is not at 
liberty to take any other person as wife or husband, until after the celebration of the 
ensuing busk, at which, if they attend and partake of the physic and bathing, they are 
at once exonerated from the marriage-contract, and at liberty to choose again : but to 
be only intimate with any other person, between the time of separation and the cere- 
mony of the next, is deemed as adultery, and would iiu^ur the penalty of wiiipping 
and cropping, as the custom of the country requires. This puni.shment, however, 
depends, sometimes, on the superior strength of the clan to which the injured party 

The married women are termed bomid wenches — the single girls, free wenches. The 
least freedom Avith a bound wench is considered criminal, and invariably punished, or 
attempted to be punished by the cropping law. 

A plurality of wives is allowed of — a mother and her two daughters are often kept 
by one man, at the same time ; but this is most frerpiently by white traders, who are 
better able to support them. A large portion of the old and middle-aged men, by fre- 
quently changing, have had many different wives, and their children, scattered around 
the country, are unknown to them. 

Fc'v women have more than two children by the same father ; hence they have 
found the necessity of conferring the honors of chiefs and micos on the issue of the 
female line, for it would be impossible to trace the right by the male issue. 

The custom of frequently throwing away their old wives, and taking new ones, is 
well adapted to their barbarous mode of life. The total want of that conjugal aftec- 
tion which dignifies families in civilized society, perhaps arises from the little pleasure 
that can be experienced in the arms of women continually harassed by hard labor, and 
dirty drudgery. Therefore, this inconstancy is favorable to their population : without 
it they could scarcely keep up their numbers ; and even with it, they increase very 

By a confused intermixture of blood, a whole tribe become uncles, aunts, brothers, 
sisters and cousins to each other ; and as some members of each clan commonly wan- 
der abroad, and intermarry in distant towns, and others from those towns come in and 
supply their places, the whole body of the people have become connected by the tics 
of blood and hoftpitality, and are really but one great family of relations — whoso 
ceremoniey, manners, and habits are nearly alike, though their language difl'ers 

The father has no care of his own child. The invariable custom is, for the women 
to keep and rear all the children, having the entire control over them until they arc 
able to provide for themselves. Tliev appear to have sufficient natural aflection for 
them ; they never strike or whip a child for its faults. Their mode of correction is 
singular: if a child requires punishment, the mother scratches its legs and thighs with 
Vol. V. — 35 


t 'lj 

\ ': 



I '« 



!') m 



tin- |)()int of ii pill or lUH-rile, until it bloetls; some keep the jaw-bone of a gar-fisli, 
liiiving two tec'tli. CMitirely for the purpose. 

Tiuv say that tlii.s piiiiisiimeut hii.s several good cfT'eets; that it not only deters the 
child IVum iiii.schief, hut it loosens the skin, and gives a pliancy to the limlis; ami the 
jn'ofusion of blood that follows the operation, serves to convince the child that the los.s 
of it is not attended with danger, or loss of life: that when he heooines (t iikiii <niil a 
van-inr, he need not shrink from an enemy, or api)rehend that the wounds he may 
receive, and loss of blood, will endanger his life. 

Si'ratebing is also [)ractiscd among young warriors, as a ceremony or token of fiiciid- 
ship. When ihey have exchanged j)romiscs of inviolable attachmeiit, they proct'cd to 
scratch each other before they part. This is more frequently done in drmiken frolics 
tiKiu at any other time. After a rum-drinking, numbers of them ap[)ear covc^red with 
bloo<l, and lacerated from their shoulders down to their heels. Siiiih marks of frieiid- 
.ship are iii(k'Iil)le, and elVectually remind them of their friendly promises as long as 
they live. 

The eomiiion food of the Creek is Indian corn, pouniled and boiled, with which they 
mix a small (piantity of strong lees of th(> ashes of hickory wood. It is boiled until 
the corn is tender; and the Thpior i)ecomes as thick as rich soup. The lees give it a 
tart taste, and preserve it from sonring I)y the heal of the climate. From da}' to day 
they have it constantly standing in large pots or j)ans, with a sfjoon in it, ready for use. 
It is called by the Indians (hij'ht, and by the whites, Tliui-<lrliih. Those who have 
been long used to it an; excessively loud of it. Tiie Indians, who eat not much of any 
other food, go to it, and eat of it, about once an lionr all day. 

They are without .system or rule in any thing. They have no regular meals. 
Tliougiitless, negligent and wasteful, they sometimes have abundance, and at other 
times notiiing at all to cat. ]?ut in all their vicissitudes, they betray no appearance 
of f eling distress. They are so extremely indolent, that, from the time they have 
consumed the meats killi'd in tlie winter, until the ripening of tlie new corn, they are 
ail straitened, and many of tiiem mucli distressed for fool, ami sull'er under an annual 
famine of abont two months every .sniuiiier. 

t i •■ m 

I'KliSO X A I, A I' IM:A Ii A NCK. 

TIk^ men. in general, are of a good si/o. stont, athletic and hamlsonie : the women 
are also of a good heiglit. but coarse, thiek-neckeil and ugly. IJeing condemned, by 
the custom of the country, to carry bnrdens, pound corn, and perform all the hard 
labor, tiiey are universally masculine in apiiearauce, withont one soft blandishment to 
render them desirable or lovely. Both .sexes have a phlegmatic coldness and indif- 
fi reme, uncommon and unknown to most white people. When a man meets his wife 
and children, after an absence of .some months, in which time she has not heard a word 



from him, it is with a perfect Heeming iiidifrereiiee. Perhaps the first word spoken will 
he — So, you have got back again, I see. He answers — Yes. She may then reply — 
Moinmcha, i.e., Very well — anil there ends the conversation. The man reserves the 
tale of his adventures, to be told to his other friends over a cup oi hlutlMlrinh the next 
morning, at the square; and there it i.s retailed, in a tedious, circiunlocutory conversa- 
tion of many hours. 

All the children in the country, up to the age of twelve or fourteen years (to judge 
from appearance), go stark naked in sununer and winter: and the women, in general, 
wear no clothes in summer, except one single, simple, short petticoat, of blue stroud, 
tied around the waist, and reaching only to the upper part of the knees; and in winter 
they have only the addition of a blanket (if they can got it), thrown over their 

A stranger going into the country must feel distressed, when he sees naked women 
bringing in huge burdens of wood on their backs, or bent under the scorching sun, at 
hard labor in the field; while the indolent, robust young men are riding about, or 
stretched at case on some scaflbld, amusing themselves with a pipe, or a whistle. 

The Indians are credulous. Enveloped in dark ignorance, and shut out from all 
communion with the enlightened world, the few of them that liave a desire lor 
knowledge are deprived of the means of obtaining it. They are naturally fickle, 
inccuistant, and excessively jealous of the encroachments of the white people. They 
easily become the dupes of the traders that live in their towns, who have established 
.so com})lete an ascendency over them, that, whatever they tell them is iin|)licitly 
believed, \mtil contradicted by some more artful story. Thus situated, it is in th(i 
power of an ignorant vagabond trader, at any time, over a pipe and cup of black-drink, 
to persuade them that the most solemn treaty is no more than a well-covered plot, laid 
to deprive them of their lands, under the specious pretences of friendship and presents, 
and that the sooner they break it the better. This arouses their jealousy, which, with 
their insatiable thirst for plunder, will probably, so long as the white villains are 
among them, continually destroy the good eflects intended by treaties. 

For near forty years past, the Creek Indians have had little intercourse with any 
other foreigners but those of the English nation. Their prejudice in favor of English 
men, and English goods, has been carefidly kept alive by tories and others, to this day. 
Most of their towns have now in their pos.session British drums, w ith the anus of the 
nation, and other eml)lems, painted on them; and some of the srpiares have the rem- 
nants of old IJritisb Hags yet preserved in them. They still believe that the '• ijrctit 
kill'/ oirr till' uvfcr" is able to keep the whole world in subjection. 

About three ^-ears ago, a Mr. Howies, of the IJahamas, formerly a lieutenant in the 
Pennsylvania loyalists (aided and abetted, as is said, by Lord Dnnmure, in order to 
disturb the trade of the country, of which he had been disappointed by the superior 
address of Panton Ijcslie & Co.), availing himself of the prejudices of the Indians, 




II i 

Ii\iuI(mI in Kiist Floridii, witli si'vcral old ciuiiioii, taken IVoin tlio wrecks on the Florida 
Kcvs. and .sumo iumniinilioii, luxsmuoil liie title of l(rij;iuiior-}j;oiicriil, and, with tlireo 
captiiiiiM of iii.s own inoinotin}!, viz: Kol)in,'<, Wellhiiiiks, aiul Dalton, and tliirty-seven 
wliitos uiid nuiliitliii'.s. wliieii tlicv juoi'urcd out of Providence jiiil, lie proceeded to llio 
lower ('reeU,«, gave out word that he was immediately Irom liondon, that an Enj^ 
nrmy of :20,(MMI men were on the point of liindiiifr, nnd were come to Join the Creeks 
in the war against the State.x. The Indians and traders lielieved every word of it — 
even the sagacious chief him.self was, for some time, duped hy this impostor. 

Mr. Howies remained several months among the Indians, and after having run him- 
self in tleht to many of the traders from 2000 to .'1000 chalks each, he was ordered hy 
jMr. M'Ciillivrny to quit the country. Captain Daltou, to save his life, lied in disguise 
to I'ensacola, where he obtaini'd a passage to Ireland. Captain Welihanks lied to the 
CheroU(>es. and remains lliere. And Captain Uohins, a carpi'uter hy trade, was detained 
in the nation iis a useful artificer, anil was employed hy M'tiillivray to huild him a 
house; after working near three years, he lell it unlinished, and in Noveniher last 
stole two horses and a negro wench from M'Giliivray, with which he ran away. 

When Air. Howies lell the countr\', he jKUsuaded several Indians and half-hreeds, of 
note, to follow him ; they stole a vessel in Mobile hay, and went over to the Bahamas, 
wheiH) Howies selected five of the hand.somest. of his followei's, viz : three Chcrokces 
and two ("reeks, and soKl the others to the wreckers. With these five ho wont to 
Nova S'otia. and liH>m thence to liOndon. 

Arriving in lioudon at the time of the expected S|)anish war, ho represented that 
'Jtt.OOO Indian warriors (of whom those with him were the principals) were zealous to 
drive the Spanianls all out of Mexico, and had scut to rc<piest the aid of their old 
English friends — in conseipience of which, they were much caressed at court! 


C O U N T I X G T 1 M K . 

The new year conuncnces with the Creeks immediately after the celebration of the 
husU, at the ripening of the new corn, in August. They divide the year into two 
.seasons only, to wit: winter and summer; and sulxlivide it by the successive moons, 
beginning the Wintku with the moon of 

August, calloil Trcycltlilt'icco Or, tlie big vipoiiiiig moon. 

!So|>ttMiil)i'i'. " Ot;\u\voMski«'lioo Litllo cliosnut moon. 

October, " Otiuiwooskdliu'oo Big olipsnnt moon. 

Novonibor, '' IIoowooK'^c R-dling b>af moon. 

llecembcr, " Ttil;iflolnoi"o Hig winter nmon. 

Jannary, " TlilalViietnwce bittle winter moon, nlins big 

winter nioun'H ^'oung brother. 



Sim m i; k. 

Fcbnmry, called Hoi)ti'ilil.'ili.''issc(> Tlio wimly iikkiii. 

Miifi'li, " Tiirisiiritcliiiiisco I/iltlt- s|iriiij; imioii. 

Ajiiil, " Tarisaiitulu'cliiccu Iti;; Mjiiiii;; iiinciii. 

May, " Kot'lui.swo MuIIkti'^ iiuion. 

•Tiiiio, " Kiii'li(iliassi'0 Itlarklicn-y iiiixiii. 

•Inly, " lli'pyuik'liee Litllu rijii'iiinj^ iikhhi. 

Tlu'y count tlio iiumhor of days or years, cither past or to come, l>y tens. Havini^ 
no exact method of keepiiif^ or reckoning their time, they eiiii wehhjni tell nearer lliaii 
within one month of tlie tim(> any remarkable occurrence took place in the preceding 
year; hut circumstances, or any speeehcs that might have attended su(di occurrence, 
theyrememher accurately. There is not one in the wliole nation linows how old he is. 

'I'hey know when the winter or hiuiling-season approaches, l>y a change of the face 
of nature — and they also know when the summer or planting-season advances, hy the 
increasing licat and vegetation — and take little pains to inform themselves further on 
the sul)jecl. 

The sununer-season, with the men, is devot(>d to war, or their domestic amusements 
of riding, horse-hunting, ball-plays, and dancing; and liy the women, to their cus- 
tomary hard labor. 

• '■ f !' 

P U B M C A M U S K M K N T S . 

Tlieir various dances are indescril)al)le. They arc always designated by the name 
of tlio animal which they exhibit in them, viz. : tlic fish-dance is led down by the 
most c.\pert woman or man, having a wooden fish in his hand ; the snake-dance is 
performed in the same manner; the bnflalo-dance is distingui.shcd by tiie most violent 
exertion of the feet, legs, and slionlders. Ihit the most favorite dance in the country 
is the eagle-feather dance, which is conducted with a degree of moderation. 

In general, their dances are performed with the most violent contortions of the 
limbs, and an excessive exertion of the muscular powers. 

They have sometimes most farcical dramatic representations, which terminate in the 
grossest obscenity. 

Their ball-plays are manly, and require astoni.xhing exertion, 1)ut white men have 
been found to excel the best of them at that e\ercist> ; they therefore seldom or ever 
admit a white man into the l)all-gn)und. Legs and arms have often been broken in 
tlu'ir ball-plays, but no resentments follow an acciilent of this kind. 

The women and men both attend them in large numbers, as a kind of gala; and 
bets often run as high as a good horse, or an e<iuivalent of skins. 

H' 1 



FiusT Intkkcouusk of Tin; (Jur. i:ks with tin; Whiti: IMiori. k. 

Soon after the si'ttU'iuoiit of Soutli Ciirolinii, iin iiitoivoiirso aiiil triidc look pljici' 
IVdiii I'\)rt Moor, in tliat province, bctwotMi tlio white pi'ople unil llie lower d'ceks, 
^^■|li('ll ap|)ears to liiive lieen the (irst oomnuinieation tiiev had with ihitisii siilijects; 
hel'ore tiiis, tiiey traded altofiether with the French of liOtiisiana. and thi' jieople of 
I'oMsacohi and St. Mark's. The upper C'reek.^ contiiuied to send all their skins to the 
French of Mohile for many years after the trade of the lower ('ree]<s had lieen drawn 
into Sonth Carolina. 

In IT'.li, when the colony of (Icor^^ia was foinided hy (ienei'al Ojj;lethorpe, he called 
eidit trilics of the lower Creeks to a treaty in Savannaii. lie st;it('s the nunilier of 
warriors in tiiese tribes tlien, to he 1 •")()(). l?y the kind treatment and good manaiic- 
ment of (lovernor Oglethorpe, they soon liecanie strongly attached to tlu! Uritish 

'•The French of Louisiana, jealons of this .'(tep, immediately sent troops and agents 
among the np[)er Creeks, and erected a I'ort at Little Tallassie. of fourteen ginis. l?y 
establishing a post in the midst of them, they fomid means to attaidi them to the 
French peopli' — the Choctaws being before in their interest, as well as the Ciiickasaws, 
and lower Cherokees. In IT-'!'.', (leneral Oglethorpi' called his allies (the lower 
Cieeks), to a conlorenci- at the (.'owelas, and atti'iided in jjcrson, renewed the former 
treaties, and conlirnied them in their attachment to the Uritisii Clovernment ; at this 
conference, deputies attended from the Oakfuskies. Choctaws. Ciiickasaws, and Cluro- 
kces. The Cherokees and Creeks afterwanls Jdimil the Ibitish in an expedition 
against the Spaniards at St. Augustine, in the year 174"2." ' 

It appears that from 17.')!*, the allections of the upper anil lower Creeks were divided 
between the French and English, until the jieace of ITd-'I; when the Floridas were 
ceded to the Knglish, ,and the French fort '* Allabamons," at Little Tallassie. was then 
abandoned liy them. Tiie Ibitish ke|)t n[i a caiitain'.s command, at this fort, for some 
years after the peace of ITtl.j ; but at that time, jiosscssin^i all the country eastward 
and southward, to wliicli the Indians were obliged to come to trade, the I'ritish with- 
drew their troops, and sent nnmljcrs of agents and commissaries among them, by which 
they cnbctually attached them to the "great king over the water." l?y pursuing the 
same policy with the Choctaws, Chicka,saws, and Cherokees. they nionopoli/eii all the 
trade of tho,<*e lour great nations, until the American Revolution; and indeed during 
the late war, and ever since the peace of 17S3, the trade is, in fact, l)enelicial only to 
British subjects. 

Their stnnig prejudices in favor of tlie English nation, and of everything they s^n 

' Viilo Dr. Harrison's ('fill. ^'||p^'lP, Travels, ami Settlements. - vol. I'ol., l.oiid. 170 1. 



ilint 1ms 1)0011 inaiiiifiicturod in it, and of ovcry i)or.son coiinoctod with it, (\ro carofully 
i<o])t alive liy torioH and ronof^adoH of ovcry sort, who aro constantly among them; and 
thoir hatred of the Spaniards i.s ecjually evident and implacable. 

M () D i: OF ri O V r. K N M K N T . 

The frovornniont, if it may Ikj termed one. is a kind of military ilomocracy. At 
])ivs('nt, the nation has a chief whoso title is S/i ii/sii'ird'.P/ni'n/d', or the i/rittl litlirnd 
iiKiii. He is eminent with the poo[)l(? only for his superior talents and political ahilities. 
Every individual has so hii,di an oi)inioii of his own im|)ortaiicc aiul indepondenoy, 
thiit it would 1)0 didioult, if not impossible, to impress on the community at large the 
neeessity of any social compact, that should lie binding upon it longer than common 
danger threatened them with the loss of tlieir laiuls and hunting ranges. 

Kaoli town has its chief or iiiini, and some experienced war-leaders; it has also 
what they style hiJiivtd nccchkJ im n, whoso business is to regulate the ])olice of the 
town and public buildings. They are generally men of the best memories, that can 
tell long stories, and give minute d(;tnils of ancient customs. 

The mioos arc coinisellors and orators, and until very lately had a control over the 
warriors and leaders, whoso business was to conduct the scouts and war-jjarties. 

The niicos were formerly styled the kings, or beloved men of the u'liii< /r<(^((s', which 
wore (as they say) once C(jnsidered as places of refuge and safety to prisoners who 
could I'scapo death or torture by llight, and find an asylum in these snored places. 

Other towns were called war, or red towns, and dill'ered from the white towns of the 
micos, by being governed entirely by warriors. 

This is said to have been thoir former government, Init is now done away. 

In conformity to the nioilorn government, the chiefs and principal warriors have 
annual meetings to deliberate on public alliiirs. The time and place is fixed by a 
chief; and the space between the time of warning and that of a.xsem])ling is called the 
broken days. They assemble in the pulilic sf[uare of ,«ome central town, drink black- 
drink, exchange tobacco, and the chiefs and orators afterwards proceed to give or 
receive advice with profound gravity and moderation. 

The inthiencc of the groat beloved man, on all occasions, consists in the privilege of 
advising and not in the power of commaniling. Every individual is at liberty to choose 
whether or not ho shall engage in any warlike enterprise. But the rage of young 
men to acquire war-names, and the thirst of plunder in the older ones and leaders, are 
motives sufllciont to raise gangs of volunteers to go in cpiest of hair and hoiises at 
any time when they are disengaged from hunting. It is little matter with them what 
the pretence for going to war may be. They think that force constitutes right ; and 
victory is an infallible proof of justice on their side; and they attack as boldly as 
they are indefatigable in .securing a scalp, or to obtain plunder. 


■• li 





Young moil n'lniiin in a kind of ilisj;riuu*, iiml iin- oldif^i'tl to lij^lit \)'\[n'n, hrinj; wcmhI, 
niid liclp cook liliu'k-driiik lor (lie warriors, mid luM'tonn all llie nu>iiial HtTvit'cs of (liu 
juililii' Hi|iiarc. until tiicy hIiuII liavo jHTloiint'd hoiiio warlike exploit tliat may |trociin> 
tiiom a wai'-iiimi(>, ami a soat in the s(|muv at the hlack-drink. This slimiilatcs tlicin 
to push aliroad, and at all lia/ards olitain a scalp, or as tlicy t«>rm il, lirlii;/ in hulr. 

AVIii'ii the vouiifj; warrior, al'ter a sneoessfid expedition, approaches (he (own lie 
lieloiigs to. he announces his arrival hy (he war-Ii(M)p. which can lie heard a mile or 
more, ami his iViemls go out (o meet him. The scalp he has taken is then suspended 
on (he end of a red paiii(ed wand, and, amids( the ytdling muKilnde, necompanied 
with the war-soiii;. is hrought in (riumph hy him in(o (he stpiare, or centre of (tie (own, 
where it is eidier deposilcd. or cut up and divided among his friends, who (hen dull 
him (( iiuiii mill n viirrlcr. worthy of a iriir-iiiiiiii; and a seat at the ceremony of the 
lilack-driuk. which he receives ac(H)rdingly. 

Those who have seldom been abroad, and arc not dislinguished liy war-names, are 
slyled ii/il irtiiiiiii, which is (he greidest (erm of reproach that can he used (o them. 
They have also one odier common term of reproach, viz. : Kste dogo, i. e. i/mi lu-r 
iiiilKxh/ ; (his is a very oll'eiisive expression, and cau(ioiisly to be n.sod ; lo say, i/oii nrr 
a liiir, is a common and harmless reply ; but (o use eidier of (he other two expre.ssion.s 
would bring on a (piarrel at once. 

'I'he comiilcte e(piipmen( of a war-party is simply (o each man a gun and ammuni- 
(ion, a knife, a small bug of grit/., or pounded ctU'ii, and two or three horse-ropes, or 
b:iltcrs. These parties are eomiiionly small ; nevermore (ban forty, lif(y, and sixty 
go out together, as may be seen by their war-oamps fre(|uently to be found in the 
woods, which are so constructed (hat the exact number of men in the jiarty can at 
once be asci>rtained. 

They make a jMiint of taking boys and girls pri.sonors, whom tliey carefully preserve 
to supjily the places of such <if their jieoplo ns have been, or may be killed from 
among them. Hu( they save grown men and women as i)risoners only when avarice 
takes precedi-nce of barbari(y ; and (bey set the price of ransom upon (hem accord- 
ing to the rank ami estimation in which they may be hold among their countrymen. 

When pri.soners of (be la((er description are brought in(o any of their towns, the 
Indian women, by paying a small premium of tobacco to the victorious warriors, are 
permitted to have (lie honor of whipping (hem as (hey pass along. This is often 
practiseil. to the pain and ridicule of the unfortunate victim of their sport and 

It is asser(ed. that in most cases, if (he Indians are warmly attacked by their enemy, 
and can once be dislodged from their several trees, that they will content themselves 
with one scalp, which they divide among (he whole, then .scatter and make the best 
specil home ti) their several towns (o tell their friends of the allair. Tliey are much 
given to lying and exaggeration on these occasions. 

I 1 1 




'I'licir ruling piissiiin st'ciiis to be wiir; iiiiil llicir iiiodc of CDiiiliK-lin'r it cnnstiliili'H 
s'liMc |iiirt til' tlirii' <;('ii('i'iil <r(ivcriiin('iit. And next they arc (Icvott'd In liiiiiliii<r. 

Till' pri'Mi'iil L'li'iit IxMiiVfd iiiiiii, who li-l't (Irnijiiii in diM;j;iist iiliiiiit. tlii' \<'iir 177li. iind 
allmdii'd liiin.McH' to llic iippi-r Cii'i'kH, wlifio In- was Imrii, l)y tin- advifi' of liis lallirr 
iiiinirdialrly set aliiint placiiii; liiinsi'll' at lli*> licad nl' tlit> iialimi. Mis kiiidrfd and 
family t'Diiiii'xioii in (lir conntry, and Ids i-vidfiil aliililit's, sunn ^avc iiiin siirli iiiliiii'iirr 
ainnn^j; tlitin tliiit tin* KritiMli niadi- liini tlirir ciiniinissiiry, willi tin- rank and p:iy <>{' 
l>ii'iili'nanl-( 'itliincl, nndi-r 4'olonrl Itrown, llirn siiiiriinlrndanl. 

Al'liT till! Kn^lisli liad aliandoncd tlit> nation, in ITS-, tliis liilnsi'd man loiiiid it 
iit'iM'ssary, in order to i-arry on llic war with siiccrss a^niinst. tlii' <iror;fians, to nndi-r- 
tak(> a rcl'orni in tin; |)olify of tin* nation, which had for a loni^ time incn dividt'd liy 
fart inn. 

Ill' I'll'i'i'li'd a total ri^voliiliiiii in oni' of thcii- most ancirnl. rnsloms. liy plarinir the 
till' mii'os or kiniis, who, liioii'di not arlivf as wari'iiirs. were 

warriors in all eases ove 

alwavs eonsii 


us important eoiinsellors. 


e micos 

resisted this measure lor soiii 

time; and the stni<;<{le lieeanie at last so serious, that the heloved eliief had one Siiili- 
\an anil t wo ollieis. parti/ans of the mieos. |iiit to death in the pultlie sijiiares. 'I'liey 
\veri' all three irhih iiini who had nndertaken to lead the faetion against him; i)iit he 
linally ernshed the insiir;j:eiits, and elfeeted his purposes. 

'I'lie spirit of opposition still remained a.<:ainst him in the olil Tallassie kin^. Opillh 
jVIii'i), who, with his elan, prononni'ed .M'dillivray a lioy and an usurper, takinj^ steps 
that must lie deroL'alory to his family and I'nnseipienee. And under these eireuiii- 
staiu'i's he nnilertook to treat separately with the (leorifians. The eonseipiences were. 

his honse.s were linrnt in his ulisenee, and his eorn and cattle liestrosi 


slandin^, lie remained refrai'torv for a loiijr time, as well as some of the most import- 
ant of the lower towns, until, linilin.!:: tin* (icorj^ians ainu'd al them indiscriminately, and 
a Mr. Alexander had killed twelve of their real friends (the Cnssitahs), they droppi'd 
their internal dispiitos, and united all their efliirts, iimler the liieat chief, a'jainst tlii- 


There is lint one institution in the nation Unit resemlilcs civili/;iti 

it was iiilro- 

tlnccd hy M'dillivray, and althoiifih .sometimes oliserved. is oftencr dispensed with. 

If an Indian steals a liorse, lie is lialile, liy this law, to return him, or aiiotlier of 
equal value, and jiay a fine of thirty chalks, or fifteen dollars; if he is nnalile to do 
so. he may ho lied and whipped thirty lashes hy the injured party. Hut. ;is in other 
easi's, the inllie.tion of punishment depends, at last, on the superior force of the 
injured clan. 

When tlic iiiliiiliitants of any particular town are notorious for liorse-stealinjr, or 
have acted iinadvi.sedly, the chief has the entire power of punishing tlicni 
collectively hy removinj:; tiie white man from among them, and depriving them of 


Vol.. V 




\ m 




trmlc. TIiIm nt onrc lmml>I<'n tlirm iimst t'lVrctiiiillv ; I'nr flicv ('(nicrixc llic piivili-^i' 
ol' liiiviiif^ II pnnl wliilc Iriuli r in tlicir (own. to !•<• ini'»<liitiiililc. 

Sciiicrly II iliiv piiKHCH liiit compliiintM or iiciMisiitionH, of momh- kind or oilier, iiri' luiil 
Ix'Torc Mr. M'liillivriiv l\v soiik' Imliaii or uliilc Irmlrr. \\\x iiniliinn nirllioil of pi'o- 
tMM'iliiiR iH Clint ioiiMlv (o In-iir llif rxiilcncc of (lie |iiirtit',M. inul ncvrr to (Icciilc on (lie 
ciiMc. \\y |iiittiiij; olV tin- trial IVtun oni> tinio to iinotlicr, Ilic |>inti(<M iit Icnj'tli liiru^ct 
tlirii' rcMMtlnu'Mts, iukI ol'ti'ii coiniironiisc (lie i|n.irri'l lictwcKii tliiMiiHi'lvcs. It is ^^ood 
|)olic\ ill tlic cliifl' not to j^ivi' dccisioiiM in (Ih- dispiitrH of liis |m'o|iIc ; for nil Imh hvh- 
tt'tHH would not defend liiin iii^iiiiist tlie elleets of tlie reseiitinent of tlie piirtv nj^iiinst 
wlioiii lie niiirlit in justice lie olilijred to i;i\" iin opinion. 

Some yoiiii'i men of liis relitimis. iiml •icvi'ml ,'icli\e wnrriorn livinjr iiIhuiI F.ittle 
'riitl:i!<>ic. wlioin llic cliief l\<<cps contiiiiiiilly iill.'iclicil lo liiin liy fi'ci|nciit iind profi 
jircsents. scive liiin ii 


Kind of wiitdi. iiiid often in tlie ciipiicitv of constuMi'H — 


lime IK 


ki- lip. uiKl piniisli, siK 
ii.-* exccutioiier.«. 

•Ii clii\riictcr.>< ii.« lie iniiv direct : anil on f<on 

le occiisioiiH 


is a niMviin of lii.'' policy to uive protection to outlaws, dehlors. tliieves, and 

iiiiirdercrs from all parts of tlie conntrv. wlio li.ivc lied in trrent iiiimlierH from tlie 
liMiids of jiislic'c. ami found an as\lnni in the Creek nation. The wliiti's liviii!:; amonji; 
the Indians (uilli very few eveeplions). are the most ahandoiicd wretches that can Im« 
found. |M'rhaps, i 

n this side of nolaiix Hav; there is scarcely a crime Imt 

some ol them 

f th 

has li(<en jtiiilly of. Most of the trailers, and all their hirelings and pack horsc-mei 
are of the nlnne description. 

All the traders have licenses, and particular towns allotted to the 

111 rcspei 


■with the lilH'rIy of selliiiLr their places to such |>nrcliasers as .shall lie approved of liy 
Mr. M"(!illi\ray. or of cNchaiiuina with each otht>r; hut the Indians don'l siilVer them 
to ciillixate much land. iii>oii the siip|>ositioii that if the trader.s raise produce tlicni- 


cs. lliey will not \ 

t imrchiise the lit lie thcv liave to scl 

FrUTlIKU 1! K M A K K S ,\ N l> N (I T 11 .'^ ON T II K CuKKK N ,\ T I O N AM) T II K 

Cor X TU Y 



Tell miles helow T.ittle Tallassie. 
on the Alaliama river, there are 
three inoiiiid.s w liich appi<ar to havo 
licen intended as works of defence. 
Tiie annexed .sketch is the copy of 
one taken on the spot on the iStli 
Novcinhcr. IT'.H). 

No. I i.s a moinid 'J-") feel liiirli.on n 
haseof .">.'i leet diameter hv niea-^iire- 


t ; th 

sides of it are i<o iijiriylit, 


To I'M' A I, II IS TO It V 


Hint tli(- ciitlli' ciinniit ^I't ii|iiiii it to I'iimI. 'I'lir )n|i JH Hut, niid Iimh Mcvrnil tii'is 
mowiii;; ii|Hiii it. 'I'hc hirp-Mt wuh ii liii'knr^ \n\r\y ciil ddwii ; the }<tiiiii|i is (•i;;liti'(ti 
itirlii's ill iliiiiiH'li'i'. 'I'lif lui'^<- iiiDiitid ii|i|icMi's til liiivc In'cii u ciisIIc IViuii wlii'iir)* 
to iiiiiiiiy III! I'tii'iiiy (III the wiktcr ilinitlv iH-liirc it ; iiiiil tin; (wu It'Rscr (hich, Inu iiit; 
a fair view ii|i iiiul tlowii tin' livrr liu- tlnrf-iimnlcrH of n unU> ciicli way, ii|i|iciir to 
liiiM> Im'cii pliiccH of liidk-oiit. Tliu invHciit liiiliiiiiH kiiiiw mil wliiil tlu'y were iii- 
tfiiilci! l(ir, (ir Ikiw Imi;^ siiici' llicy wtTc iimdc 

III tlii> lii^di cuiiiitry (iftlH- ii|i|i<'r<'i('iks. fivr iiiilcH Uddw tin* tdwiis ni'tlii' Niitilii/.. 
Iiclwccn Iwii iiiiiimtiiiiiM, tlii'if me the; tiiircH of ii iifiiilnr forlidni- 
tioii, of jin nl)loii<r Hi|iiiirr, ruiitiiiiiiii^ iirm- mi acn' of ^Tuiind, liMviii;r ' 
four liiiNtioiis and a )^alc-\viiy 'I'Ih' liaiiks aro alioiit tliii'c liit aliovc 

till' Hurfaci' of till- I'loiiiid, and tlii> ditcli, wliicli is tlii> in 

nil', as niiiiMi 


Ill-low tli(> Hiii'fari 

of tlio liastiiHiM conlaiiiM a lar;;r linii'stonu 

H|iriiij; of wiitor, wliicli rises in tliiH H|iot, and lias nearly water enoiif^li to raiiy a mill, 
'riierc are |iieserved in tlie 'rnekaliatelies' town, on the 'rallii|ioosee river, sciine 
tliiii jiieees of wniii^lit lirass, found in tlie earlli wlieii tlie Indians first dii^ liir ekiy lo 
liiiild ill this (ilaee. Nolmdy ean tell liow loii^ ^inee tliey were dn;r ii|i; Iml the 
Indians |ireserv(' tliein as proois of their ri^Iit to the ;,',(iiind. Iiivvinji deseendeil to 
theiii hy their ileparled aneeslois, friiin time iinineinorial. 



> V^El 



t' i^Bfl 










[4tii Pai'ku, Titi.k VIU.] 






TITLE VIII., LET. A., VOL. 11. [1st PArKK.] 

A. .\n Essay on tlio I'liysical Clinriictcristics of the Indian, with 10 Phitcs of ('rania. ]5y 
Dr. Sanuicl (ioor^o Moi'ton. 

1. Ostcolo.uical ('haracter. 

2. Facial Anj;Io. 
;>. Stature. 

4. Fossil Remains of tlio Amcricnn Race. 
.'), <'onii)li'xion. 

i\. Hair. 

7. Fyc... 

5. .\riincial Modifications of the Skull. 
!•. Viiliunc of the Brain. 

R. 10. Admeasurements of Crania of the various Groups of Tribes. 

TITLE VIIL, LET. 15., VOL. HI. [Jd Taier.] 

1. rrcfatory Note on the Unity of the Human Race. 

2. E.xaniination and Description of the Ilair of the Head of the North American Indian. 

I5y Peter A. Rrowno, LL. D. 
Collection of Indian Pile. 
Deficiency of Lustre, ic. Description of the Hair of different Families. 
Elementary Parts of the Pile. 

Button, Follicle, Slial't. Cidor, Fibre, Ductility, Tenacity. 
Ancient Specimens of Indian Hair. 

TITLE VIIL, LET. ('., VOL. IV. [.'.d Papkk.] 

1. Remarks on the Means of obtaining Information to advance the Inquiry into the Physical 

Type of the Indian. 

2. Considerations on the Distinctive Characteristics of the American Aboriginal Tribes. 

TITLE VIIL. LET. I)., VOL. V. [4rii Pai-ku.] 

The .Miniiginal Features and Pliysiojinomy. 




From the earliest period the Iiitliiin tiiljes have been rcjranleil as possessinjj; what 
naturalists term a set of nui/e features — such as are not only peculiar in their ilevelop- 
nieut and physical type, but forming one of the distinct varieties of the human race. 
Tiiat a delinite basis might be established for making oI)servations on their manners, 
habits, and condition, it appeared necessary to determine this type. ira\ing referred 
tlu' question to medical and scientific gentlemen, eminent in this line of res<'ar('h, the 
results of their investigations have been submitted in prior volumes. It only remains 
definitely to allude to these separate papers. 

The cranial mu.seum of the late Dr. Samuel George Morton is believed to bo 
larger, and to embrace a greater variety of the luunan species, than any other on this 
side of the Atlantic' His "Crania Americana," embracing his elaborate studies 
of the subject, is, however, beyond the reach of most readers. In 1851, at the 
request of the author, ho consented to review his collection of Indian crania, in con- 
nexion with a consideral)le number of new specimens, collected on the Oregon and 
Pacific coasts by Captain C. Wilkes, in his Exploring Expedition, whicii that gcntle- 
nnui, with the concurring as.scnt of the National Institute, had given me permission to 
examine, and which were transported for this purpose to Philadelphia. Lithographs 
of ten of these crania are submitted with the paper he furni.shed on this occasion, 
which contains a synopsis of the physical typo of the Red Man. (\'ol. H., p. .'Ilo.) 
lie iuul entirel}' completed his observations on this subject prior to his decease. Wish- 
ing to apply the results more particularly to the families of the Vesperic^ trilx's, the 
author requested Mr, Phillips, the confidential and operative assistant of Dr. .Morton 
in his craniological labors, to re-examine the entire collection of skulls, with a view to 

' Tlic author cnniiiieneod, in 1S37, a collootion of Indian crania for Dr. Warren, of Hciston ; but, owing 
to tlic doniiso of William Ward, l']s(i., tlio medium of communieatioii of tiicso examinations, tlioy were never 

• A term derived from a susgestion of the late Judge Stnrj- respecting a national name. It is applied to all 
the ludian families of tribes within the bouiularies of the United .Slates. 


' 'm 





( i' ". 



! ' i i' 

U ■■ i 

! i: 

apply tlio facts to the goiieiic groups dtMiotoil by the chissiCication of Lingiiagcs. The 
investigations of the cranial volume of the home-tribes of our history are ajjpenJed to 
Dr. Morton's paper; anil the combined result maybe referred to as containing the 
most closely arranged and accurate comparative view of the Indian crania which has 
yet ai)peared. (Vol. II., pp. 315 to iloo.) 

Natural history is greatly indebted, in modern days, to the enlarged scope of observa- 
tion and minute examination of animal organizations which have resulted from the 
improved construction of the microscope. In repeating the observations of the dis- 
tinguished French and German savans on this subject, and carrying them Ibrward to 
new fields of research, particularly on the tissue of wool and hair, Mr. Peter A. Browne, 
LL.D., has elicited a class of valuable and curious discoveries in these branches. 
The delicate olyects, when placed under a strong magnifving power, reveal the most 
exact forms of organization. Tlie principal varieties of the hair of the human race 
denote peculiar forms, which are exactly reproduced by races vindicating their integrity 
of organizations. Tiie several latitudes and varieties of the Indian hair, when obtained 
from the scalj) of full-blooded natives, exhibit a remarkable agreement. From tlio 
collections this observer has been able to make of the species of Indian pile irom a 
wide circle of tribes, he reaches the conclusion that the form of the aboriginal hair, 
when not modified by intermixture of blood, is uniformly round or circular; tlie 
external surface of the shaft or colunm, being at exactly eijual distance from its central 
stamina, lie observes that the straightness and lankness of the Indian hair is purely 
the result of this geometrical organization. At the same time, the Anglo-Saxon hair 
is ovoidal, and the Negro hair eccentrically flat, which disposes it to felt or crisp. 

It was deemed imi)ortant to secure these principles of microscopical investigation, 
which are given in Vol. III., p. o7o to 39o. 

A broader aspect is given to tlie indicia of the physical organization of the Red Man 
in the researches of the late Dr. Samuel Forrey, in the paper recorded in Vol. IV., 
p. ;!54 to oG-j. From the anatomical structure of the individual he argues the antiipiity 
and identitv of the organic forms of the race, and their general and entire unit}- of 
type with the foreign varieties of the species. A still more elaborate view, morally 
considered, has been presented by Dr. Thomas Smith, D. D., in which the theory of the 
unitv of the human species is maintained on the basis of history and induction.' It 
is inferred that tlie varieties existing in the races of man are, to a large extent, the 
results of the phenomena of climate and geographical |)osition. and of the diflerences of 
subsistence and employments. These are held to proiluce, in the savage and ignorant 
tribes, traits and developments of features of inferior and depressed t}-pe, whilst the 
nervous energy of the most refined stocks have as certain a tendency to elevate the al> 
normal phijxi'jiic. It is by this means he avers that arts, science, and knowledge, and above 
all, a true idea of the Deity, and the purity of principles required by him, tends to 

' The Unity of the Iluiuan Itaeo, 8vo., 40:i pp., Ivi in burgh, 1851. 



produce, morally and physically, tlio iii .^icst stocks of men. Still, the primordial tyi)0 
is the same. Mr. Smith observes, p. 18, that man, in the most degraded condition of 
savage life, stands out, in his organization, from the inferior orders, to which he has 
been likened, alone; and is stamped hy nature, as prominently in his iihysical organi- 
zation, as he is a being of enlarged thought and action. 

The elVects of thought, language, and education on the development of the tribes 
before us, must bo of striking moment, whether we regard their past, present or future 
history. Nor is it conceived that the most elaborate scrutiny ol" ob. jrvation on the 
classes of facts brought into discussion, could add force to the following views: — 

" Tiie observed Hicts which first had a tendency to disturl) the notion of the nnily 
of the American tribes were, most probabl}'," says Dr. Latham, '■those connected with 
the languages. These really difl'er from each other to a very remarkable extent — an 
extent which, to any partial investigator, seems unparalleled ; but an extent which 
the general philologist finds to be no greater than that which occurs in Caucasus ; on 
the Indo-Chinese frontier; and in many parts of Africa." 

'"The likeness in the grammars," says the same writer, " has been generally con- 
sidered to override the difl'erencc in the vocabularies ; .so that the American languages 
arc considered to supply an arginnent in favor of the unity of the American i)o[)ulation 
stronger than the one which they suggest against it. The evidence of language, then, 
is in favor of the unity of all the American populations, the Eskimo not excepted." 

" Difi'erent," says Vater, '• as may bo the langnages of America from each other, the 
discrepancy extends to words or roots only, the general internal or grammatical struc- 
ture l)eing the same for all." Of course, this grammatical structure must, in and of 
itself, be stamped with some very remarkable characteristics. It mnst difier from those 
of the whole world. Its verbs must be difi'erent from other verbs, its suljstantives 
other than the substantives of Europe, its adjectives imlikc the adjectives of Asia. It 
must be this, or something like this; otherwise its identity of character goes for nothing, 
inasnuich as a common grammatical structure, in respect to common grammatical 
elements, is nothing more than what occurs all the world over. At present it is enough 
to say, that such either was, or appeared to be the case. " In Greeidand," writes Vater, 
"as well as in Peru, on the Hudson river, in Massachusetts as well as in Mexico, and 
so far as the banks of the Orinoco, languages are spoken displaying forms more art- 
fully distinguished and more numerous than almost any other idioms in the worhl" '' When wo consider these artfully and laboriously-contrived languages, which 
though existing at points separated from each other 1)y so many hundreds of miles, 
have assumed a character not less rcmarkaljly similar among themselves than difl'erent 
from the principles of all other languages, it is certainly the most natural conclusion 
that these common methods of construction have their origin from a single iwint ; that 
there has been one general source from which the culture of languages in America has 
been difiused, and which has been the common centre of its diversified idioms." 

Vol. v. — a? 












' i 












j: 1^ 

■ 'i 

5 ,-T'J'''. 


riIY!!<lCAl, TYPE OF 


: I 

"Til America," wijs Hiniiboldt, " IVoin the coimtiy of tlio Eskimo to the banks of 
ihc Orinoco, ami again, iVoiii tiu-so (oniil banks to tlio IVo/.on climate of the Straits of 
.Magellan, nioth< r (ongncs, cntir('l\ ilillcrcnt with regard to tiieir roots, have, if we may 
use the exjjress on, the same physiognomy'. Striking analogies of granunatical con- 
struction are acknowledged, not only in the mon; ))erlect languages, as that of the 
Incas, the Aymara. the (luarani, the Mexican, and the Cora, hut also in languages 
extremely rude, hiioms, the roots of which do not resend)le each other more than the 
roots of the Sclavonian and JJiseayan, have those resend)lances of internal mechanism 
which are found in the Sanscrit, the Persian, the (Jri'ek, and the (lernnin languages. 
Almost everywliere in the New World, we recognise a nndtipiicity of forms and tenses 
in the verb, an industrious artilice to indicate beforehand, either by inllection of the 
j)"rsonal iironouns which form the termination of the verb, or by intercalated suHix, 
the nature and the relation of its oliject and its subject, and to ilistinguish whether the 
object be animate or inaninuvte, of the masculine or the feminine gender, simple or 
complex in number. It is on account of this general analogy of structure, it is because 
Anu>ri<'an languages, which have no words in common — the Mexican, lor instance, 
and the .luichua — resemble each other by their organization, and form eomj)lete con- 
trasts with the languages of liatin Europe, that the Indians of the missions familiari'/.c 
thcniselves more easily with other American idioms than with the language of the 
mistress country." 

"The details of the ethnology of America," says Mr. Latham, "after a long inves- 
tigation, having been thus imperfectly exhibited, the first of the twotpiestions indicated 
in |)p. iiol, )>r»2, still stands over for consideration : — 

'*A. The unity (or non-unity) of the American populations one amongst another; 

"B. The unity (or nou-unity) of the American populations as compared witli those 
of the Old World. 

"In p. ."lol, it is stated that the two (three) sections of the American aborigines 
which interfere with the belief that the American stock is fundamentally one, are — 

'• I. The Eskimo. 

" 11. The Peruvians (and Mexicans). 

" I. Taking the Eskimo fnst, the evidence in favor of their isolation is physical 
and moral. 

"The latter. I think, is worth little, except in the way of cnnuilative evidence, i.e., 
when taken along with other I'acts of a more definite and tangible sort. The Eskimo 
civilization (such as it is) is dillerent from that of the other Americans; and how could 
it l)e otherwise, when we consider their Arctic habitat, tiieir i)i.scatory habits, and the 
difVerences of their faunas and floras? It is not lower, /. '., not lower than that of" the 
ruder Indians, a point well illustrated in Dr. King's paper on the Industrial Arts of 
the Eskimo. 

il ^t; 



'• Tlie pliysioiil clifl'crciKT is ofnioiv importance. 

"And, us U) stiitiiro. — Instead of being shorter, the Eskimo arc, in reality, 
taller than hull' the tribes of South America. 

" Next, us to color. — The Eskimo are not copper-colored. Neither are the Amcri- 
can.s in general. It i.s only best known in those that are typical of the so-called Hcd 
race; there being but little of the copper tinge when we get beyond the Algonkins 
and Iroipiois. 

"Lastly, as to the conformation of the skull, a \w'mt where (with great deiercnce) 
I dilVer from the aiithor of the excellent Cruniu Americana. — The Americans are said 
to 1)0 bnikley-cephalic, the Eskimo dolikho-cephalic. The American skull is ol" smaller, 
the Eskimo of larger dimensions. I make no C(jnnnent ui)on the second of these 
opinions. In respect to the first, I submit to the reader the following extracts from 
Dr. Morton's own valuable tables, premising that, as a general ride, the difl'crcnco 
Ix^twccn the occipito-frontal and parietal diameters of the Eskimo is more than seven 
inches and a fraction, as compared with live inches and a fraction ; and that of tiio 
other Indians less than seven and a fraction, as compared with five and a fraction. 
The language, as before stated, is admitted to be the American, in respect to its gram- 
matical structure, and can be shown to bo so in respect to its vocables. 

"II. The Peruvians. — Here the cpiestion is more com[)lcx, the argument varying 
with tlu> extent we give to the class represented liy tiie I'l-nivians, and according to 
the test we take, i.e., according as wo separate them from the other Americans, on the 
score of a superior civilization, or on the score of a dill'ercnt physical conformation. 

"A. When we separate the IVruvians from the other Americans, on the score of a 
superior civiliy.atit)n, we generally take something more than the proper Peruvians, 
and include the Mexiciuis in the same category. I do not trouble the reader with 
telling him what the I'eruvio-Mexican or Mexico-Peruvian civilization was ; tiie excel- 
lent historical works of Prescott show this. I tmiy indicate two [joints : — 

" 1. The probability of its being over-valued. 

"2. The fact of its superiority being a matter of degree rather than kind," kt;. 
(See pp. 451 to toO.) 

What breaks down, ho concludes, the distinctions between the Peruvian and 
Eskimo, breaks down a portion of all those lesser ones by which the other members 
ol" the American population liave been separated from each other. 

"In the consolidation of the Mexican empire," says Dr. fiiitliam, "I sec nothing 
that difl'ers in kind from the confederacies ol' the Indians of the Algonkin, Sioux, and 
Cherokee families, although in degree it had obtained a higher development than bus 
yet appeared ; and 1 think that whoever will take the trouble to compare Straebey's 
account of Virginia, where the empire of Powhatan had, at the time of the coloniza- 
tion, obtained its height, with Pre.scott's Mexico, will find reason l()r breaking down 

r t. 

, i.i: 



I nl 

i I 



i I 1 

tliixt ovcr-broail line of (Icmarcatioii wliicli is so IVLMjucntly drawn between the Alexicana 
and the otlior Anierieans. 

'■ 1 think, too, tiiat tiie social peculiarities of the Mexicans of Montezuma arc not 
more remarkable than the external conditions of climate, soil, and land and sea rela- 
tions ; for it must be remembered that, as determining inlluences, towards the state in 
which they were found by Cortez, we have — 

" 1. The contiguity of two oceans. 

'■ 'J. The range of temperature, arising from the difl'erences of altitude produced by the 
existence of great elevation, combined with an intertropit'al latitude, and the conse- 
quent variety of products. 

" ?». The absence of the conditions of a hunter state, the range of the buffalo not 
extending so far as the Analuiac. 

"•1. The abundance of minerals. 

" Surely these are sullicient predisposing causes for a very considerable amount of 
difference in the social and civili/.ational development." ' 

If the pi'oduction of these opinions, by men eminent in their lines of inquir}', convey 
little which is new to the physiologist or the philologian, their exhibition in this con- 
nection will bo deemed pertinent. Mr. Latham's opinion of the over-estimated charac- 
ter of both the civilization and languages of the tribes of the southern hemispheres, are 
strikingly in accordance with the view of American anti(iuities, presented in Section 
III. And while the information is thrown into a condensed form, it falls in with an 
original object, deemed to be important in the introduction of this Section (VIII.), 
that wherever the features or physical traits of thi Indians are referred to, there is an 
invariable allusion to an established and fixed type. 

' Lnthani, pp. tOS, 409. 


1 '1 






[iTii Pai'kk. TiTi.i: IX.] 





' ' ft 




I "ff^ 

I I > & 








Voe. 1. Niitic, or Massacliiisotts Language. 
" ± Sliosliom-o. Fnlio 216. 
" 3. Yuiiiii of Californiii. 

TITLE IX., LET. A., VOL. II. [1st (Ei.EMKNT.vnv) papku.] 

Art. 1. Inilian Lanpiiigi's of the I'liitod Slatos. 
" 2. i'laii of Tliou-ilit of the Aiuoricaii Laiijiuiigps. 
" 3. .All Essjiy on tlio CJraiiimatical Structure of tlie Algoiuiniii Li 
" 4. Ueiuarks on the I'rineijile.s of tlie Cherokee Language. 

VOCADI'LAUIK.*. P. 4")". 

4. Cliippewa. Dialect of St. Mary. 

•'>• " Dialect of Lake Michigan. 

l). " Dialect of Saginaw. 

7. '•' Dialect of Micliiliuiaekinae. 

8. Miami. 

!'. Meiiomoiiie. 

10. Shawnee. 

11. Delaware. 

12. Moha«k. 

13. Oneida. 




14. Oiiniiilnj^a. 
I.-). «' 
It!. (' 



iiniaiiclic, or IMmi 
17. Siilsikiii, or Hliickt'ci't. 
IH, ('iisluiii).s III' ('alil'iii'iiiii 
1!). Ciisliiia of (Jikliroriiia. 


TITLE XI., LET. IJ., VOL. IIL [Jd V.wv.n.] 

Art. 1. (Icncrif Talilc ol" Imliaii Families of I/aiij;ua;^i'!4, 

'• ■_'. Ilistoiicai and I'liil(iliij,'ii'al ("oiiiiiifiitM. 

" :!. (^hicrics on I'roiiominal ami Vi'riial I''orni«. 

" 1. Coiiinicrits on tlicsc Forms. 

" T). (Iliscrvalions on llic Indian Dialects of Norlliwe,>*tein t'alifn 


•JO. Delaware of Ivi^'piiliik, N. J., 17tt2. 

•21. 'IVl.o-ko-yen. 

2-2. Top-ell. " 

t2f'l. Knla-napo. 

24. Yask-ai. 

2"). ("liow-e-sliak. 

2ll. l>alein-da-kait'C. 

27. Wee-vol. 

28. Wish-osk. 
2!». Weil.s-pek. 
!50. Hoo-pali. 
31. Tal.-le-wali. 
3'2. Eh-nck. 

33. Mandan. 

34. Arapahoe. 
3"). Cheyenne. 

3(1. I'nehlo of 'resiique. 
37. IMmo of the Itio Gila. 


TITLE XL, LET. ('., VOL. IV. [.'.d Pai-ku.] 

Art. 1. Oh.sorvationa on the Afanner of Conipoundinj^ Word.s in the Indian Lairi'iiai'cs. 
Art. 2. A Memoir on the Influence of the Chippewa Tongue. 

" 3. Uemark.^t on the Iowa Language. 

" 4. Languages of California. 

'.' al 




i'lS. (Mii^T. 

;!!>. Tii'i!iiiinu'i>. 

40. ('lJ-l'(l-l|il(IIIS. 

41. Si 


4'2. Miiscii;j('('. 

4:i. A>siiial)iiir 

4t. Niiviijo. 

4"). Zimi. 

TITM-; IX., I.I-;T. D., VOr,. v. [4tii Pm-kk.] 

Mililu'Wa l-:ni;;ilii'_'i\ 


itioii ol' tin- VL'il) W.Vl'n, to see. 


C II I P P ]•: W A I. A N G U A G E. 

5' I 


Tin: personal and tonsal iiillfctiun.s of tliis laii,uii!i;.'o, arc given in tlio foUowinji conju- 

ir unusual terms are nsi-cl to oimveyniennin.iiS 

fiations of one of its most eoninion verlis. 

wliieli seem to re((niro tlieni, it is witii a liesiro to exliihit tiie langnaue as it is, and to 
eualilo the .stnilent of it to ariixc at ]ir(i|)er generalizations respecting its principles. 
Notiiing else, inilei'tl, is (lesiyn<(l, I'artlier liian to lay materials lor examiMatinn hcl'.iro 
llie inquirer, that he may reduce and hring it within its true limits and proimrlions. 
That !i sa\age language should have lornis and niodi's of expression which rcijuire tiiis 
jiruning and study, is to he expected. Wiien we consider tlie manners and customs of 
tlie peojile, it may he expected, as wo fmd it, to alionud in many phrases oi' duhious 
meaning, and doulitl'ul and imi)reciso expression. Tlu' I)ouudaries lictween truth and 
error, in tin- natural and intellectual world, lU'e not as well-delined as witli educated and 
eiviii/.ed nations, and there is greater scope for verhal ohscurities. When tlie state of 
society is such that great decision of character would sometimes involve the life of 
the speaker, ho may ho expected to turn and halanco his words, and often llee tlio 
])oint at issue. Tho Indian is, hesides, of so .suspicious a nature, and so perpetually 
on the watch against evil intentions, tliat he is often nnwilling to tell directly what ho 
knows, and apt to conceal truth in a douhtful expression. If he often speaks in a duhita- 
tive, plaintive, or interrogative voice, it is hecause he often douhts, complains, and 
seeks knowledge hy interrogation. 

Tiicse voices have heretofore complicated the consideration of the grammar; they 
are not diflerent moods, hut merely variations of tho same mood — as if we should say, 
1 saw him indistinctly, I did not .see him indistinctly, &c. &c., forms of expresssion in 
daily nse in all languages, J)ut which, if wo should go through their conjugation llir 
mood, tense, (U" adverhial changes of expression, would load down our grammars with 
verhal distinctions of no value. Changes are rung on the root-forms ad ln/tiiitaiii, 

Vol. V. 




!,.\N(! r A*; i:. 

! ;! 

until tiic i)inlti|ilii-atiiiii cNcilcs Hiii'ini'^c, iiiid llic llu't is Iciirnoil tliiit tlicro !m littli' Imt ii 
jirdiiciiiiiiml varii'ty in tlicso f^tiinil". nr in tlu> piini'iiili'x of f^raniinaticiil ('(infitrno 
tion. Kvcn tlic.^c inlli'dions <|i) not alwiiys strii'lly niiiinlaiu their intcjirity. I>nt 
arc often Hitpplicd to tliu iniiul of the xpcaUcr, in tlioir |i!nral:4, liy the inlli'ctions for 
luiniliiT. It is tlii'Ho voices wliicli Inivo pii/./li'il in(iuin'rs. Tlicy form, iiitk'iMl, tlii' \wy 
to nnloek the Hiiva^u gmuunarsof this eoiitiiioiit ; iviid when tlii'so voices ufo taken from 
tilt' fonjiij-'ations, tiiey are roiuli'reil siiniiK', and i'onf(irmai)lo to tlio traiisitivo, or wliat 
iiavi- lictMi called tlie iiolysyiitlietic American lan^'najics. 

The lan;;iiajrt' under conf^ideratioii has, in addition to these Honrces of complexity, 
the want of the pronoun ^/f, as coiitrailistinj;;iiifihed from /n ; heinj^ in this respect 
like tlie old Hebrew of the epoch of the Pentateuch, ns tleiioted l»y Gcsenins; it is also 
wholly dolicient in the ileliiiife article. 

Its prepi^'iitioiis. like its verbs and adjectives, lake the transitive form; and even its 
conjunctions and interjections are clutteri'd with the same principle. A savaj^o iiuist 
see. and paint to the eu' of his hi'arer, every minntia- of his M'rhal laws, or he is not 

The most intricate jmrt of the lanp;iia,ire is the Sulijnnctive mood; yet not one-half 
of the forms in this mood express aii}- condition at all. The Potential mood is formed 
ill tli(> same manner as the Indicative; but it is tli<)ii<:ht there is a Potential mood 
formed after the manner of the Subjunctive, as well as of the Indicative, i:</. : 

Willi hii mil i/r Jiiiii, nen dau ^eo e nau . If I had seen him, I Hliould have told liim. 
Dan neen ga e so vnn Im nm i/i Imn . . How can I see him '.' 

These two forms are precisely the same, yet one refers to the past, and the other to 
the future. There is also a second future in the Su))Junctive mood, '..'/. : 

(til inni fill 111111/ When T saw him. 

15au man </" mm hii iniii/ .... When I shall have seen him. 

It is said l)y some j;ood speakers, that there is a second future tense in the Indicative 
mood : 

Nen gu gee wan bii man .... I will have seen liii i. 

I do not recollect that I ever hoard this form used in common conversation. 

There is some variation in the language as spoken by the Indians in diflerent parts 
of the country. A few I will notice : 

Ne wail bun dau naun We see it — E.' 

" "• men We .«ee it — W. 

Nin noo je moo c go iiaun .... It cures us — E. 

" " men .... It cures us — W. 

' E, cast ; W, west. 



Gnu wGon-f;o wan l)ii iimii zoo iinun 

— K Wo do not i<co him. 

fiiui wt'cii-^c Willi bii mini /oo wan 

iiiiiiii — W " " 

Wivii liim jt! gii Miiiif? — I'i 

" " Hc Cling — W. . . . 

Tlic plaintive particlo w luoro freciueutly HtanOri iw a Hopamtu m^IIuIiIi! ut tliu Wcf*t, 
tliaii III tliu Must. 

Wliiit inv rallod roppiiting nm\ cliixractcri/ing forms, must liiivi" a piirtiolo siicli ns 
i/iiii i/ii-iriiii ])refixoil to tlu! root "■«'" ; or tiic root ii''iii must Im' ('Iiiin;.'('(l to nii-nni, to 
niiiUo tlio sense eompii^to. Tiioso two forms nevi-r express conilition or supposition, 
but directly allirm a thing; yet they arc formed after the manner of the Suiijunctivc 

Hut we are writing a di.«(|uisition, where it waH only intended to introduce an 
example : 


This is the root-form of the verb, dissected from nil its transitive and pronominal 
forms, animate or inanimate. 


IxiucATivi: Mood. 
PrcMnt TciiKi'. 


1 No wall 1)U iimu' I soo liim or lior. 

L' {\v " " " Tiioii. 

;{ () " " mmin He. 

(( <( (t 



I No wail 1)U mail naun We; Ex. 

1 Go " " " " We; In. 

'2 " " " " wail Yon. 

no " " " wann Tlioy. 

4 " " " " ni Theirs. 

' Tbo foUowiDg iiro the aljilmbotical values of tbo ICuglisli vowols iisoJ : 
KmjUsh voivds. 

A M a in state, as (ii in maid, and mi in liaak. 

A' as in pio. 

/'as in gun. 

.Ill as lar ill law, a\i in auction. 

Ki: as rr in bcc, sec. 

Oo as in food, mood. 

Vowels marked — bavo a nasal sound, as nres, nu"r.4. When the double or diphtbongal vowels are vr . cm. 
pldjed in tliuir full power, a diicresis is used. A vowel marked thus /. denotes that the ."ound mu.-t be sud 
dcnly suspended as mo, o-da, eoo. 

adu, ma. 
en-' nc 

mil no dno a Ulu in. 
Waub, to see. 
tiMf net;. 

! ni 


Hi'' • '-■ 





Impfrjicl 'J\ 


;! o 

(• \v;iii 1)11 iiiiui Imu 

r saw 1 

iim nr iicr 

1 N 
1 (.!( 

^• wall Im iniiMinc iiau Imii . 



Wo; Ii 



Pi'rf,-ct Time. 

1 Xeii I'oo wan l)it man 

i5 (> " '• iiiaiiii 



avo seen liim. 

lau nu ... IIi:<. 

1 N 

1 G( 


on j'c'i' wail Im man iiauii 


"Wo; Ex. 
Wo; ]ti. 



Tliifcrfirt Tense. 

1 Noil i:oo wan bii man In 

I liail soon hi 

1 X 
1 G. 

on Kcowaii Ini man mo mm hnn. 


" ... llo. 
nc bun lUi. 

a o 

wan liiui 

" no bim 

Wo: E 
Wo; In 



lire TiHSC. 

1 Xoii ira wan bn mini I will see li: 

'J (io " " '• Tlion. 



1 X 
1 (! 

on 'M wan l)ii man naiin , 


Wo; E.\ 
Wo; In 



PoTKN'TIAr. Aliion. 

VKOif nr Fttturc Te, 

1 Non (li 

ui AViui Im man , 

may oi' can .sco 1 X^on ilan wan bii man i 
liim. 1 Go '• " 

Wo; E.v 
Wo; In 


iiiaiin , 


uiun ne. His. 

3 O 




Perfeet Toiar. 
1 Xon ilau '100 wan bn man... I mitrlit, cniiM, &o. 1 X'on ilan fcoo waii bninauiiann Wo; Ex. 

2 Go 

lavo soon him 

1 G 

mann.. ]lv. 

IlKlllllO Ili.J 


W,.; h 


Ih ^ \ 

LANdUAdE. ;'.iil 

From tlic present tense of tlie indieative mood, the perfect tense is fonnctl, by adiliii.t; 
ijtc between the pronominal prefix and the root iraii. The future tense is formed by add- 
in.ii i/ii in the same manner. For tiic present of the potential mood, add ifan ,- for the im- 
perfect, adil i/au ijrr. From the imperfect of indicative mood, the pluperfect is formed, 
by adding i/n: in the same manner as those above ; remembering always to change the 
^V( of the lirst person into X<ii. Tiie potential mood will not be introduced any more, 
iieitlier the three last tenses of the indieative mood. The present and imperfect tenses 
of the indieative, with attention to this note, will always render the formation of the 
others easy. 

Ni:<iATi\i: YuicR. 
I'rcsciit Tcnoc. 

SiiiJIthir, l^hiral. 

Gauwccn. 1 Nowaubuiiiauzcc... I do not sco 1 Xlmvuu buiuau zoo iiiiuii' Wo; Ivv. 

liim. 1 (io " '• " Wo; fii. 

" 2 Go " " " .... Thou. 2 Go " " ouu Ytm. 

" 3 " " zpon... llo. 3 " " oiiun Tlioy. 

" 4 " " " zoo no. His. t " " " no Tlioirs. 

1 nqta-fiYt I'ensi'. 
1 No wan l)u niau zoo bun. 1 No wan Iiii man zoo nio iiau liun. 

3 O " " " 2 " '• " wan liuii. 

4 " " " no Imn. 3 O " " " 

4 " " " no Um. 

Tn the indicative and potential moods, the negative form reipiire.s a separate nega- 
tive to precede the verb, besides the iiarticle .-.(v inserted. 

DoiDTFiL Voice. 
Present Tcitsc. 

1 No wiiu 1)U man diig Porliaps I sco him. 1 No wau Im man mo nun diig Wo ; Ex. 

2 Go " " " Thou. 1 Go •■ " '• '' Wo; In. 

3 '< " diigannn... Ho. 2 " " " wau dug Yon. 

4 " " *' ucdiiganun. His. 3 '• '• '• diigannn 'flwy. 

4 " " •' no " Tlioirs. 

Perfect Tense, or Pusf Time. 

1 Nou gee wau hu man diig. 1 Non goo wau bu man nic nau diig. 

2 Go " " " 1 Go 

3 O " " dii ga nun. 2 " " " wau diig. 

4 " '* " no dii ga nun. ',) " " " <li! ga nun. 

4 « <t " „p " 

' Till! Chippcwas of tho West vary this form a little, by inserting a syllable after -re, as Ne wau bu niau zeo 
)'•((!' naun. 

4. i' 


|i i;jfci 




1 Neil gu wail Im man lUig. 

2 tie 

3 " " cKi ga nun, 

4 " '^ " uc lU! ga nun. 


Future Tense. 

1 Nen gu wall bu niau mc nau dug. 

1 tie " " '• 

2 " " " wau " 

3 " •' '• (lii ga nun. 

4 " " " no " 

III the doubtful voice, there arc three tenses iu the inJicative, and two in the poten- 
tial mood. Tlie present of the indicative mood will only be given iu i'utiiro, 
from which the others can be formed, by attending *o the directions in the first above 

1 Ne waubumauzcedog.. 

2 Gc 


4 « 

" " iliiganun, 

" nediiganun His 

Negativi; and Doibtfil Voicks. 

Present Tense. 

Perhaps I do not 1 Xe wau bu niau zee mc nuu dog 

see him. 1 Ge " " " 

Thou. 2 " " 
He. 3 

4 a a 

We; Ex. 
Wc; In. 


" wau diig 

" '* dtiganun. Tliey. 

" no " Theirs. 

Plaintive Voice. 

Present Tense. 

1 Ne wau bu mau so nun I see liim with pity, 1 Nc wau bu mau so naun We ; Ex. 

2 Gc 


4 " 


sorrow or contempt. 1 Ge 


,, a 

. We; In 

Thou. 2 •• 


" wau 

. You. 

He. 3 


" waun 

■ Tiiey. 

His. 4 " 


" no 

. Tiieirs. 

Tmjieiieet Tense. 

1 Ne wau bu 

mau sc me nau bun. 

1 Ge 


o ., 


" wau bun. 



u u 

4 " 


" ne bun. 

1 Nc wau bu mau sc nau bun, 

2 Go 

3 O " " " 

4 '' " " nc bun. 

Plaintive and DornTFUL Voices. 
Present Tense. 

1 Newauburaauscnuudog... Perhaps I see liim 1 Ne wau buraau seme nuu diig We; Ex. 

with pity, sorrow 1 Ge " '* " " We; In. 

or contempt. 2 " " " waudiig You. 

2 Gc " " " "... Tiiou. 3 0" " " dfiganun They. 

,1 t) " " " dii ga 4 " " " ne " Theirs. 

nun. He. 
4 " " " " no •• His. 


L A N (j U A tJ E . :io;i 

Tlie pliiiiitivo Ibnn is very rarely iiseil ne.uatively, thoiigli it is sometimes l>y tiie 

best speakers. Wlieii, however, this I'oriii is used negatively, the negative particle :."' 

is placed after the plaintive one w ; thus, i'or instance, Gau wccu, Ne wau bun dii 

Me zeen. 


Woo Wisli, (Icsiro. 

Bo Cdiniiig. Ijthiiul. 

Ne Uoforc, future. 

Dii Al)lc. in time. 

Wee, be Wish to come. 

■Woe no AVish to go. 

Woo (lii Wish to bo in time, or to be able. 

Woo no (la Wish to go in time. 

These particles arc capable of being connected with nearly all the forms of the verb, 
in the indicative and potential moods, c. g. 

No w'l'i' wau ba muu I with to see him. 

Nom ?(t' " '• I cdHk' to see him. 

Nongaxc " '• I will i/o ami see him. 

" i/(i " '• I will lio in tuno, or able to SCO him. 

"No ii'Ci: he '' "• 1 wish to como anil soo him. 

" tie " '• I wish to go ami soo him. 

" (li >' " I wish to bo in time, or able to ."00 hiui. 

" ne thi wau ba mu I wish to go in time to sec him. 

A repetition of the I'oot irdii. in the indicative and potential moods, expresses re- 
peated action; but in the subjiuictivo mood, it is a particle nearly allied to nrc. 

No wall wau bu mau I soo him rcpoateiUy, or I inspect liiin closely. 

In Chippewa, words combine and coalesce almost without end. 

Ncn gu nu wau bu mau I look at him. 

No mou wau bu mau I soo him with pleasure. 

No nos gau bu mau I see him with anger. 

No sen gau bu mau I seo him with hatred. 

( A froo translation of this would perhaps bo, I 
Nc na 2oau bu mau < i- i * • -i • 

*' I see hnn by turning my eyes sidowise. 

Non daun goau mau bu mau I see him standing steadily, faithfully. 

No mau nan bu mau I see him with disgust. 

Non du goau bu mau I see him in conjunction with. 

Ncm bu goc zau bu mau 1 see him with desire. 

Non go do mau pan bu mau I see him with pity. 

Nen da bau bu mau I see him in the distance. 

Ncm bu gu gau bu mau I see him plainly. 




I \^ 


I H 






Si lurxi Tivi; Mood in man 

Tlic foUo\vin,t^' is a list of iparticlcs iiscil in tliis mooil besides those beforo. 

AVuu AVliiit is to 1)0; wliiil iswisliiMl or (Ic-IiimI. A no Ik-foro, an to plaoo (I'litiiro). 

; who; wlion ; wlioio. V. no liot'ino, as to ]ilaco (past). 

to lio. Ooo I'ast tiiiu'. 

(iaii AVliat ; tliat wlii 


... I liat It may 
lia AVill: sliall. 

Ml' uoo (('((» wail bii uw^ That is ho wliom T am ilosirous of sooiiii.', or am goinj; to soe. 

AVa nan ;/<( 
(iocs pin ircc 


;.,.., l,e 

)(• nc 

Tliat is lio wjiom I saw. 
'fliat is lie wlioni I sa 

w in ooiinnir. 

I/'IH '• " 

(/(/« he *• '• 

//(< /((' " " 

lid In' " " 'fiiat is ho whom f sliall oomo t( 

H'l./.r » « 

That is ho whom I shall s 

00 on mv \va\ 

That is ho whom I miirhl or shoohl have soot 

" 'fliat is ho wiioni 

^aw on niv wav. 

'I'hat is ho whom I 

If I 
If I 

If I 

II 1 

io snail 1 soo 

wisli to soo Inm. 

oomo an 

il ,M.o I 


nil Ml limo III M'(>, 

If 1 wish to oiimc ami soo him. 
If I wi,-h lo lio in time to soo him. 

l"or tlii< oaiiso 1 

i'"or this oaiiso 1 shall 

hall soo liiiii. 

•VI' liini on niv way. 

I'ov thi'^ caiiso F shall cli"-ii-o 1' 

,10 ,L't 

jo ila '• 
_/'r ICcf )U' 
jo woo 110 ila 

•or lliw caiiM' 

or ilii> oanso 

1 shall 

1 shoiihl ha 

I soo hi 

oomo ami soo linii 

vr soon liim 


ih wan im mm.'. 

mil ''!.• inin. 


l''or this oan-o 1 sliall lio ahlo to soo him. 

Vol- this oaiiso [ wish to soo him on my way. 

for this oaii>o I wish to lio in timo, or to bo ahlo t 

on my way. 
AVhon I soo him on my way (fiitiiro). 
When I saw him on mv wav. 

o soo linn 

I 'l\ 

ffseiit /(;(.«( 



lion.' 1 W 

111 ini miiL'. 

I soo h 

(iocs lion. 1 Wan lin ii 
1 '■ in 

• him ; K 

mail 1101 

1... Hi 


111. Till 


I 111- i< imt a iKir 

lii-li'. liiil iiiiTi'l 

V a viiri.itiiiii 111' till' niiit n-nu ; alllininjli all tlio liirnis in tins niooil Ik 

with "11", vol a ;_'iiiiil |i:irt ol'lluin tiin>( ho iliangi'il in 

<.» mil, or Olio I 

i tlio piirliclos aiMoil to iiiako the nc 


It is at lea>t a L'cncral tliiiiL' that tlio root is varied when tl 

10 wuril stamls ni' 

lepomleut of all others. 

This wunl is pronoinieeil hy sumo of the eastern hands as if writtiu Knsh-pi 

Gees Inn. t Willi Iiii inii j^e hull. 
" -2 " " <le " 

" 3 " man " 

" 4 " II ,1Q " 


Imperfect Teusc. 


I '1,1, -a/. 

Gees Iji'ii. 1 Wmi Im mini ^o dv 1)un. 
" 1 " " <ro " 

" 2 " mil " " 

" 3 " muu Avail " 

" 4 " " no " 

The present tense of this mood is also future : Wan hu muij zu nen on c nun ; If [ 
sec liiin \ will toll liini. The iniiierfeet tense is, in eortaiu oases, used to express 
future time: Au neen nau, ya-e-sc wan ha. nut ,/c Inia; How shall I sec him. Cvr, 
added to the present, forms the perfect tense ; and f/ec, added to the iniix'rfect, forms the 
pluperfect tense. 

Negative Voice. 
Present Tense. 
1 Wail bu tnau zc wiig If I do not sec 1 Wan bu man zo wun jjcd 




" wild 
ze noj;. 







wun <;cd... 

.. Wc ; Ex 

wung ... 

.. Wc; In. 


.. You. 

;,'oau ... 

.. Tlioy. 


.. Theirs. 

1 Wan hu mau zo ou gc bun 

2 " " <t (( ^Iq u 

Imperfect Tiiikc. 

1 Wiiu hu mau zc wun gc do bun. 

' " " (TO " 

" go " 
" nc go " 

nc go 



DouBTFi'L Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau hu mau ou gan If I chance to see 1 Waii hu mau wun ge dan. 

liim. 1 ■• •• '• goan . 

2 " " " dan Tlioii. 2 " '■ wa 

3 " "■ goan lie. 3 '• " wau 

4 " '' lie goan His. 4 '' " nc '• 

AVc; Ex. 
We; In. 

1 Wau bu mail wu ge bu nan. 

2 do " 

3 " " go " 

4 " " no " " 

Zee after mau forms the negative. 
Vol. V. - 3'J 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau hu mau wun ge do hu nan. 
























1 Wiiu bu mau 8ug 

2 " '• sml 

3 '• " scd 

4 " " se neil 

1 AVau l)ii iiiau su ^o bun. 

2 (le " 

!• " " se bun. 
4 '• '• «• no •• 

1 AViui I 


ui hu miiu so ou gan .... 

' " dan .... 
' " goan ... 
' " no ffoan 

1 Wall bu man so ou go l)u nan 

*ri uo ... 

3 " " go l)u nan .. 

4 " " ncKobunan 

1 Wau bu niu gcii 

2 " mudjcn 

3 " mau " 

4 " " nejcn 

1 Wau bu inu go bu noon 

2 " " do " 

3 " mau bu noon ... 

4 " " ne bu noon 


ri,AiNTivi; Voici;. 

J'rinciit Taisc. 


If I SCO luin with 1 Wau bu mau sun god Wo; Ex. 

pi'y- 1 " " sung Wo; In. 

Thou. 2 " >• sag You. 

Ho. a » " so waud Thoy. 

His. 4 " '< " nod Thoirs. 

Imperfect Tense, 

1 Wau bu mau sun go do bun. 

1 " '' " go bun. 

2 " " sa '• " 

3 '• " so wau •• 

4 " " " lie " 

J'fefie7tt Tense. 

If I obancc to soo 1 AVau bu mau so wun ge If wo cliancc to sec 

bim witli i>ity. dan liim with pity; Ex. 

Tiiou. 1 " " '> goan.. Wo; In. 

Ho. 2 " " ivii " ... You. 

His. 3 " " wau " ... Thoy. 

4 " " ne " ... Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau se wun ge do bu nan 

1 " '" " go bu nan ... 

2 " " wa " 

3 " " wau « 

4 ' "no " 

EKPE.VTrxG Voice. 
Prexent Tenitc. 

At tlio times I soo 1 Wau bu mun go jon Wo; Ex 

'■""• 1 '■ " gon We; In. 

Tiiou. 2 " ma " You. 

lie. 3 " mau wau jon Thoy. 

His. 4 <' " no " Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mun ge do bu noon 

1 " " go bu noon 

2 " ma " " 

3 " mau wau bu nocn 

4 " " nc " 



Neoative Repeatixq Voice. 

J'resi'itt I'ciise. 
Siiii/uhir. Piiiritt. 

1 Wau bu man zo ou j^on .... At the times that I 1 Wau Iju man zc wun };o Jen Wo; Ev. 

do not SCO Iiiin. 1 " " " };ou Wo; In. 

2 " " Willi jcn... Thou. 2 " " wa " You. 

3 " " gou " ... llo. 8 » " goaunon Tlioy. 

4 " " uc gon His. 4 " " ue goii Tlicirs. 

1 Wau bu mau zo ou gc bu 


2 " " do bu neon 

3 " " go 

4 " « no " 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau zc wuii go do bu noon 




" go bu noon.. 




wa " " ... 




goaul)U noon 




ne go bu nccn 

Plaintive RKPEATixa Voice. 
J^rrsent Toise. 

1 Wau bu mau su gon At tlic timos T soo 1 AVau bu mau sun go jon Wo; Ex. 

liim witli jiity. 1 " " gon Wo; In. 

2 " " jcn Tliou. 2 " " ya " You. 



nejen , 




" so wau jon Thoy. 

" no " TiioiiN. 

1 Wau bu mau su go bu nccn 

2 " " do " ... 

3 " " so bu nccn... 

4 " " ne bu nccn 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau sun ge do bu noon . 
1 " " go bu necn 








se wau 





I'r i^^ %\ 

Thorc ifl a characterising form of voice both in the conjugations in man and in mrff, 
and ouglit to have been inserted, though the same forms are found elsewhere. Without 
the particle, the characterising form stands thus : 

Wau oau bu mcJ The person who sees Wau oau bu mcd The person wliom 

mc. I soo. 

" mog Thoo. " mud Tlmu soost. 

... Ilim. " 

1110 go jon. 

mun jon. 

no )on. 



no jon . 




' ki' 

11 '1 . 






n ■ 

I :i 

I liiii 



Indicativk Rfooit in vkiiii/. 
J'fisi'iit Tcnof. 


1 NtMvaii l)u mnng I soo them. 

2 do " '• Thou. 

a " maun He. 

4 " " niau nc nc Ilis. 


1 Nc wau Iiu man iiau nof; AVc ; Ex. 

1 Go '• •• We: In. 

2 " " vrnj; You. 

8 0" " waun They. 

4 " " nc TIC Theirs. 

Imperfect Tenne. 

1 Ne wau bu mau bu necg... 

2 Go " " " ... 
S O " " nccn... 
4 " nc bu nccn... 

1 Ne wau bu mau me nau bu nceg.. 

1 Gc " " " 

2 " " " wau bu nccj;. 




4 » 


Neoative Forji. 

Presiiit Ti-nsc. 

1 Nc wau bu mau zccg I do not see them. 1 Ne wau bu mau zee nau neg We ; Ex. 

2 Ge " ' Thou. 1 G" " " " We; In. 

3 " zccn He. 2 " " " waug Ymi. 

4 " zecnene. His. 3 " " waun They. 

4 " " " nc nc Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense, 

1 Nc wau bu mau zee bu nceg. 

2 Ge " " " 

3 O " " l)n ncen. 

4 " " " ne bu nccn. 

1 Ne wau bu man zee me nau bu nceg. 

1 Ge " '< " " 

2 " " " wau bu nceg 

3 " " '« ncen. 

4 " " " ne bu ncen. 

DouDTFUL Voice. 
Present Tennc. 

1 Ne waubumaudoganng... Perhaps I see tliem. 1 Ne wau bu mau mc nau Jo ga nug. We; Ex. 

2 Ge " " '• '• ... Thou. 1 Ge " " " >' " Wc: In. 

3 •' '■ '• nun... He. 2 ■■ ■■ •• wau '• " Ydu. 

4 '' " '' nech)};aiiun liis, " () " " *' >• uuii. Tlicv. 

4 •• '• •• nc '• •• Tiuirs. 

Zee after man .stands for the negative. 

L A N n IT A ( ; E . 

T'l.AiNTivK Vmci:. 
I'lrxi'itl T'Hir. 

1 No Villi 1)11 iiiiiu se nil" I bcp tliciii wiili pity 1 No wau Iju miiu so iiiiii no 

mill sorrow. 1 (Jo " '• 



2 V,i, 

3 O 

4 " 

no no.. 




•i " 

Wo; Ex. 

" Wo; In. 

wan;; Ynu. 

waiiu I'"'}'. 

no no 'I'lioirs. 

1 No wall Im man so nau l>u noc<;. 
O (Jg .. l< " '• 


4 " 

" " noon. 

" nc Ini " 

Imperfect Tennc. 

1 No wau Ini mau so mo nau Im noof;. 

1 (Ic '• •• " 

2 •• '• " wau Im noog. 

3 () '• '• •' nocn. 

4 •• '* '• nc bu noon. 

DouDTFi'L rr.AiNTivi: Voice. 
Pirscnt Ti'iisi'. 

1 Newauljumauscnaudogamig. Perhaps I sec 1 Nc wau bu mau seine nau do ganug. Wc ; Ex. 

tboin witlipity. 1 (<e '" 
" Tbou. 2 •• 

nun. Ho. 3 O 

'• His. 4 •' 

2 Oe 


4 " 


Wo; In. 

wau ilo jra luij;. You. 

'• •• nun. Tboy. 
no '• " Tlioirs. 

SiD.nxcTiVE Mood in mau;/. 
Present Tense. 

1 Waubumagoau If I sec tliom. 1 Wau bu man go iloau Wo; Ex. 

2 '• " (loau Thou. 1 " " goau Wo; In. 

3 " maud il(!. 

4 " mau nod His. 



ma '• Yiiii. 

mau waud Tboy. 

" nod Tiioirs. 

1 Wau bu ma gnau bun. 

" doau " 
mau bun. 
" nc bun. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu inun go doau bun. 

1 " " goau bun. 

2 '■ nia " 

3 " mau wau 1)un. 

4 '• " nc 


Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau zo w.n "oau If T do not <oo 1 Wau bu mini zo wau <«' 'Itiau ^\ o : Ex. 


2 " " " iloau Tbou. 

3 " mau zog He. 

4 " " ze ncg His. 




'• goau Wo; In. 

wa •• You. 

goau Thoy. 

nog Tlieira. 



L A N < i r 






1 U'uu I>u mau zc wa froau bun. 

1 Wau bu 

mau ze wan j^e ibijiii bun. 

2 " " *• (loan '• 


" '• goau bun. 

3 " '• gi. Iiiiii. 


" wa 

■1 " " no go Ijiiu. 






jroaii bun. 

1 Wau bu mau wa goauoan.... If I olianco to sec 

1 Wau bu 

mau wan gc doau can 

We; Ex. 




'' goauoan 

We; In. 

2 " •• .loau •• .... Tli.iu. 

o .. 

mau wa '• 


3 '• mau goan He. 

4 " '• nu j^oau Hid. 

8 '< 

" wau " 





*• no ** 


1 Wau bu mau ou jjoau bu nan. 

1 Wau bu mau wun f,'e (biau bu nan. 

2 "• •■ (loan •• 


j,'oau bu nan. 

3 " mau go liu nan. 

2 " 

mau wa " " 

4 " *' nc j,'o 1)U nan. 

8 '< 

" wau go " 
" no " " 

Ze after man stands for the negative. 



1 Wau Im inau su goau Tf I see 

tlieni with 

1 ^\■au bu 

mau se wan ge (hiau 

We; Ex. 



" sun goau. 

2 " " " (loiiu Thou. 

2 " 

" sa goau. 

3 " " sell He. 


" se watid. 

4 " " se nod His. 


" " ncJ. 

1 Wau bu mau su gnau bun. 

2 " " •• (loan " 

3 " " so bun. 

4 " " " ne bun. 

ImperJ'ict Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau sun go (b)au bun. 

1 " " " goau bun. 

2 " " sa " " 

3 " " so " " 

4 " " " no " 

Doubtful axd Plaixtive Voices. 

Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau so na goau can. If I clianee to seu 1 Wau bu mau so wan go doau oan. We; Ex. 

tliem with pity. 1 " " " " goauoan We; In. 

2 " " " " dun " Tliou. 2 " " " wa '• " You. 

<i " " " goan He. 3 " « "wau " Tliey. 

4 " " " nu goan Hi,s. 4 <' " '< ne " Theirs. 


1 Willi lu mail 90 wii goiiu bu nan. 
o .. .. » t< ,i„|,„ <l 

8 " " " no bii nun. 
•I " " " no g(j bu nun. 


Iiiii>crfcct Tiunr. 


1 Wau bu niau so wan gc (loan bu nun. 

1 " " " '• {^oau 1)U nan. 

2 " " " wa " " 
8 " " " wau |,'o '« 
4 " " t< im I' u 

Repeatixh Voice. 

Pirnciit Tilinr. 

1 Wau bu ma goau ncn At tbis time 1 sec 1 Wau bu man go (biau ncn. 

tbcm, 1 " " goaii iiou 




" <loau 
mau jon' 


lie J on 




nia *' 

mau wau jen 
" lie •• 

Wo; Tlx. 
Wo; In. 





1 Wan bu nia goau bu noon. 



*• (loan " 



mau l»ii iioen. 



" nc Im necn 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau gc (b>au bu noon. 
1 " '" fioiiu Iiu iR'en. 



ma " 



mau wau 



" no 

Negative and REri:ATiX(i Voices. 

Prcnent Texsc. 

1 Wau bu mau zcwa goau ncn At the times I do 1 Wau bu mau zo wan gc doau ncn. Wo; Ex. 

not SCO them. 1 " " goau nen Wo; In. 

2 " " iloau " Thou. 2 " " wa " ... You. 

3 " " gon " He. 3 " " goau ncn Thoy. 

4 " " no gon " His. 4 " " no gon Theirs. 

1 Wau bu man zo wa goau bu 


2 " " doau " 

3 " go bu noon 

4 " no go bu noon 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mau zo wan go doau bu 




" goau bu noon 

" oa " 

" wau go " 

" no " 

' There U a diversily of acceptation to this form, Wtm cau — p. ;U0: 

r At tlic tiinort he sees thoni 

l>((i( bu mau jen^ „, , , 

1 1 liosc whom he sees. 

The one whom he sees. 

' I 

1 1 






I'l.AlNTlVi: ,\NI> HlM'IIATIMt Vdli'KH. 


I Willi liii iiiuu Hil gomi iii'ii . At till' tiiiirx I si'c 1 Wail liiMiiiin sun j^i' iliiai 


icm Willi |iiiy. 

;;i>iiu IK 

" ilnini " Tliou. 

HC jl'll. 


111' jrll 


HI' Willi Jl'll 
" IK' " 

W.. ; Kx. 

Wr; 111. 




1 Wuu Ini man ><ii j;ii:iii liii iii'iii 

2 " '* iliiaii " 
8 " Ml' liii nri'ii 

Iiiijii rfi'cl Ti uoi' 

1 Willi 1.11 

liiail sun ;»i' ilnaii Ini iii'cn 
'• >riiiiu 1)11 lu'on 

111' Im nri'ii 

Hc wan 
'■ no 


I Wan liii Ilia I'l'''. 


mail H'li. 

Ill' It'll. 

Wan Im ma pr liu lU'Cf; 
•• ill' 
" man Ini nocii 

" no bu neen 


'nxiiit 7V»Ki 

Tliiiso wli'iiii I 


1 Wan Ini man 

" II' 
ma " 
mail w 

Wi' ; T.x. 
W, .; In. 





Imperfect Tcn»i\ 

1 Wan liu mall ;;o ilc bn ncog 


L'o Im nci'ii 

man wau Im neon 

1 Wan liii man zo \va ''i>u' .. 

,1 i,'.' , 

NioiiATivi; AN'ii CiiAiiArriMiizrNii Voii'i:.-^. 

J'nuiiit Tiime. 
.. Tlmso wlioni I ill) 1 AViin Im mail zo wun w 

n u 

Willi I 

fion " 
no iron. 





goau ncn 
no ffiw . . 

Wo; Ex. 
Wo; In. 





1 Wau bu raau zo wii jri' Im noo;; 
o » u i. ,1^, .. 

"o l)U noon. 

nu 20 bu noon. 

Imperfect Tens'' 

1 Wau bu man zo wuu ko do bu nooi 


(( tt 

a a 

u a 

a i( 


f;o bu noo} 


wau fro nil noon 
no " " 

i i. 

LANG II A (ill. aia 

ItuMini'i. .\M> ('inimrKiii/iMi VmrH.i, 

I'llHilll 'J'lllHl'. 

■Nn../».'./C. l'/in„l. 

1 Wall liii ni;iii wii ;.'a iiii;^... 'I'Imi-c wlnnii I rliiilicc I Wiiu Im man wiiii ^'c da iiii;/ We; V,\. 

tip SCI'. X " •' ;.'iia iiii;; We; In. 

2 " " ilii " ... 'riimi. 9 " Illiiil wa •• Ycm. 

8 " mail ^'iiii mill 111'. 8 " " Willi ^011 nun 'I'ln'y. 

4 " " nc ){i(ii nun. ilia. 4 " " no •• 'I'lnii's. 

hiijurtWl TiHKi'. 

1 Wail Im mail wa ;^i' Im na tin;;. 

2 1.' 

■T " man f;o Im na inin. 

4 " " no go Im lui niiii. 

J Wail Im man wan ).'i' ilt' Im na nii;». 

1 " *• ^'ip Im na nii;:. 

2 " mull wa 

8 " " wail " na niiii. 

tt It 


Plain'Tivk AM) (.'iiAiiAi ii;iiiziMi Vi>n'i:!*. 

J'lrgfiU Tt'/Mi'. 

1 Wall Im man Hii f»Pf; 'I'linsi' wlidin I xco 1 Wan Im man sun ^<> Jcj; We; Ex. 

with pity. I ^o;; We; In. 

2 " '• siiiljo;^ Tliipii. "2 '• " sa fi"^ Yim. 

3 " " HI" Jen He. 8 " " ccwaujcii Tlicy. 

4 " *' aoncji'U His. 4 " '• soiii'jcn Theirs. 

Imperferf Tiiise, 

1 Wau bu man su ji;o Im ucvg. 

2 " '• su do " 
;{ " " .se liii noon. 

4 " " so no Im noon. 

1 Wall Im niuu sun go do Im noof;. 
1 " " " 1'" I'll iioo;;. 



** t*a 



** HO W!IU lui IK't'll 



*• .S(> IIL' ** 




. 'If 



DouBTFi'L Plaintive and Ciiaiiacteuizinu Voioics. 

Pngvut Tenxc. 

1 Wauhuinausewaganug.. Those whom I clmnoo 1 Wait Im mau so wiin go da iiiig ... Wo; Kx. 

to SCO with pity. 1 " " wun goa iiiig Wo; In. 

2 " " wadninig. Tliou. 2 " " wa " Yim. 

3 " " goaniin... He. 8 " " wau goa nun Tlioy. 

4 " " negoanun. His. 4 " " no '* 'Theirs. 

Vol,, v. — 40 

i< ' 

- ""HI 



I ! 

• i M 

W . ^1 



1 Willi )m man so wii j;e Ini nil iiiig. 

2 '• >• wa cK. 

y '■ '• <;o Im iia iniii. 

*! " " III' ^'O Ijll llil Mllll 

Imperfect Teiixe. 

I Wail III! mail sc wiiii f;i> do l)ii na iiiif,'. 

1 '■ " Willi g(i Im na iiii^. 

2 " '■ wii 

8 " " uaii " na nun. 

4 " " no 

JmiIi'ativi-; Muiin in meif or m- n,:,j. — Ixvekse Thaxsitiox. 
Present Tense. 

1 No wan liii iiii'LT IIo soos me. 

2 Go " " llo SOO.S tlioe. 

!3 O " 1110 ;;(iiiii.. Iliiii. 

4 " " niO''ci(ino His. 

1 No wail liii ino f;o iiauii T's ; Et. 

1 Go " " " Fs; Tn. 

" '■ wan Yiiii. 

•) >> 

4 " 

" waiiii Tlioni. 

" nc Theirs. 

1 No wail Ini nio go Imii. 

2 (lO " " " 
8 " " " 

4 " " " nc bun. 

1 No wail 1)11 nip tr'io zoo... 

2 Go •• '• " .. 

3 O '• " zoon. 

Imprr/i'et Temie. 

1 No wan Im nio go inc nan Iiiin. 

1 Gc " " " " 

2 " " " wan bun. 

3 " " " 

4 " " " ncbim. 

NixiATrvK Voice. 

J'resent Tense. 

IIo iloos not soo inc. 1 Ni' waii bii mo goo zoo naun... 
Tlioo. 1 Go •• '• '• " .. 

Him. 2 " •• " •• wan.... 

T's; Ex. 
Wo; In. 


zoo no... His. 

4 •• 

Imperfert Tcnxe. 

" waim Thoni. 

" no Thoirs. 

1 No 


.lU 111! mo ,i;n 

) ZOO bun. 






1110 goo 

ZOO 1110 nan liun. 

2 Go 

ik i. 






(( fck 


.. 4£ 

zoo bii noon.' 





zco wau bun. 

i " 

li ii 

" no liii noon.' 




" bu ncen.' 





" nc bu neon 

;ill thi; fnrnis, till' lliiril .in.i f.uirlli jn'i'snns of the past tiiiio arc! oapablo of tin! tonuiiiation hcw/, tlio 
I'wliiuli is to r.\|iri'>s [irc'vious or iiinrc loiiiotc time. But it doos not appear to bo abholutoly noecssary 
to tli« i'oriiialiou of jiast tiiiio. 

' 111 



Dorm'iTi, Voice. 

Prcsoit TfHuc. 
Siiiijufar. Phnitl. 

1 Nc wau 1)11 mo go (li!g rcrhaps ho sees mc. 1 No wau bu mo go me nau diin; T's; Ex. 

" " Us; in. 

wau (liig You. 

" iHi "a nun.. Tlicni. 

2 Go 


4 " 

(( a 

" Thee. 

(liigiinun Him. 
no '• His. 

1 Go 

2 " 


4 '• 

u a 

u u 

<t it 



Zee after <jo stands for the negative. 

Plaintive Voice. 
Perfect Tense. 
1 Ne wau bu me siis He sees mo with 1 Ne wau 1)u mo go so naun. 

Us; Ex. 

2 Go 

3 O 

4 " 


. Thou 

mo gii sun.... 

. lie. 

" so no.. 

. His. 

pity, sorrow, con- 1 Ge 
tempt, &c. 2 " 


4 " 

u u 

(( u 

" Us; In. 

so wau You. 

so waun Them. 

sene Theirs. 



!') i 



1 No wau bu mo go so ))un. 

2 Go " " " 

3 O " " " 

4 " " " 80 ne bun. 

Jtnperfei't Tense. 

1 No wau hu nu" go so ir,e nau bun. 

1 (!o " " " " 

2 " " " so wau bun. 

3 () " " " 

4 " " " so no bun. 

Plaintive and Doiisti'il Voice. 

Present Tense. 

1 Ne wauliumegosotb'ig Perhaps he sees me 1 Ne wau Ini me go sc me nau diig.. 

with pity. 1 (!o " " " " ... 

<t u Thoo. 2 " " 

"sedoganun Him. 3 O " 

2 Go 


4 " 

(( " 

sc ne 


" se wau (big 

" " do ga mm 
" sc ne " 

T's: Ex. 
Us: In. 

Tlu in. 

SuiurNCTIVE Mood in mer/. 
Present I'ense. 

1 Wau bu mod If he see me. 

2 " meg Thee. 

;! " me g'lil Him. 

4 '• '• gii 00(1 Mis. 

1 Wau bu me eu nuMi god. 

1 •• '' nniig 

2 >• " nag 

3 " " go wand 

4 '■ " *■ ned 

Us; Ex. 
Us: In. 



' ""if 

111. I ^''11 

' 4^ 



Jniperfi't't Tense. 

Siiii/ufiir. Phinil. 

1 Wall bu mo bun. 1 Wau bu nic cu men f;o de bun. 

2 '• " go bun 1 "■ " nun go bun, 

3 " " go bun. 2 " " na '• " 

4 " '• '• no bun. 3 " " go wau " 

4 » » u „(. u 

Negative Voice. 
I'rewnt Tense. 

1 Wau Iiu mo zcg If he do not see mo. 1 AVau bu me zo cu men ged We; Ex. 

2 " " ze nilg Tlioc. 1 " " " no wung Wo; In. 

8 " "gozog Ilini. 2 " " " "wag You. 

4 -' "• zo nog His. 3 " '' go zo goau Tlicm. 

4 " " " nog Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu me ze go bun. 1 Wau bu me ze eu men go tie bun. 

2 " " " no go bun. 1 " " " no wan go bun. 

3 " " goo ze go bun. 2 " 'i •« " wa " 

4 " " '• no go bun 3 " " goo ze goau bun. 

4 " " " no go " 

DoniTFlL VoifE 

Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mo goan If he Imppen to see 1 Wau bu me no wun ge dan AVo ; Ex. 

me. 1 " " " " goan Wo; In. 

2 " '• no goan Thee. - " " " wa " You. 

3 " " gdo " llim. 3 " '• go w;iu '• Tliom. 

4 " " " no goan.. His. 4 " " "no " Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu me go bu nan. 1 Wau bu me no wun ge do bu nan. 

2 '• '• noo go 1)u nan. 1 " " " *" go bu nan. 

3 u " goo " " 2 " " " wa " " 

4 ^^ " " " " 3 " " go wau " " 

4 " " no " " 


I'resent Tense. 

1 Wau bu me zee goan If lie do not happen 1 Wau bu mo ze no wun ge dan .... Us; Ex. 

to -ce me. 1 " " " goau Us; In. 

2 " " no goan .. Tluo. 2 " " wa '■ Ymi. 

3 " " goo zee Him. 3 " goo zee wau " ... Tliein. 

4 " » no goan His. 4 " " ne " Theirs. 


1 Wan Im mc zee j;o bu nun. 

2 " " ze no go bu mm. 

3 " " ^00 zc " 

4 " '* " ne go bu nan, 


Imperfect Tense, 


1 WttU bu me ze no wun ge de bu nan. 

1 " " '■ go bu nan. 

2 " " " wa " 

3 " " goo zee wau " 

4 " " '• ne 

PiiAi.NTiVE Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu me sed If ho sec me with 1 Wau bu me so eu men ged We; Ex. 

pity. 1 " " nung We; In. 

go sell Ilim. 

so ned His. 




" nug You. 

" goo so wauil Them. 

" " lied Tiieirs. 


Wiui bu me se bun. 



" " go se bun. 


" " " ne l)iin 

Imperfect 2'ense. 

1 Wau bu mc se eu men ge de liun. 

1 " " nun go Imn. 

2 " " na " 
8 " go se wau bun. 
4 " " ne " 


Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu me sc goan If he cbanee to sec 1 Wau bu mc se eu men ge dan 

me witli pity. 1 " 

2 *' " no goan .... Thee. 2 " 


4 " 

goo se " ... llim. 
" ne goan, Ilis. 

Ill) wun goan 
'• oa 
goo se wau '• 
" ne '• 

We; Ex. 

We; In. 




1 Wau 


me se go bu nan 

2 " 

" no go bu nan. 


" goo se " " 


" " ne go bu nan 

Imjyerfeet Ten-ie. 

1 Wau bu me se eu men ge de Im na 
1 " " no wun go l)u nan. 

*. W til 


goo se wau 
" no 

Repeatiso Voice. 

Prem'nt Tense, 

1 Wau bu me jen At flic times he i^ees 1 Wau bu me cu men ge Jen I's ; Ex. 

me. 1 " " nun gon Is; In. 

2 " " gen Thee. 2 " " na " You. 

3 " " go jell Iliiii. 3 " '' go wall Jen Them. 

4 " " " lie Jen His. 4 " " " ne '• Theirs. 


t, A N(l V A(JK 


I W.'iii liii nil' liii iii'cii 

;(■ liii lu'i'ii. 

hiiiu-rlWl T> 


I Willi liii inc I'll iMi'ii irr ill' liii 



nil i;i> 111! tiri'li 

lie I'll iici'u. 

'II Willi liii iircn. 

Ni'iiMivi: l{i:ri:\ri\ii N'nu 

1 w 

III ini nil- /i> I'Mi... 

.\( llll'lillll'-llClllMM I Willi llll 

liol MM- iiir. 


nil' /,(• I'll men iri' ji'n 1'^; K 

llll u nil .'nil I's ; li 

iiir LV'ii v^i' iji'mi Urn. 

1 W.iii I'll nil' ■/!' I'll 

UK !r<' nil nci'ii. 

Im/rifirt 7' 

1 W:iii llll nil' Zi' en iiii'ii I'l' ilc Ini iii'i'ii. 
I " •• llll Willi i;!! llll lu'i'ii. 

;•!' Ml iii'i'it. 

nr llll iiccii. 

nil' ;:ii.i Zi' :ri':in nil lii'i'li. 

l'i.\i\Ti\i; Ki'i'iMisii \'i 

rn!<,nl T, 

1 w 

111 Ini inc si' n' 

n \tllu'l 

lll'.i"; 111' SC1"< 

llir \Mlll I'll V. 

I Willi llll 

nil' SI' I'll llU'll !'!' ll'll. 

llll Willi ;;iiii. 

I'm; V. 
Is; h 

llll w:i Lrmi . 

>(' H'll I llll 

SI' lie ji'ii... His 

1 W 

llll llll nil' si' llll iii'i'ii. 

no :;.> lui iii'i'ii. 

nil' lT''!' sc 

nil' i;iiii SI' Willi ji'ii. 

SI' 111' jl'll. 

InnurUrt '/', 

I w 

111 nil nil' SI' I'll iiii'ii 

-,' lIl' 111 

llll Willi to iHl lli'cll. 

nil' ^iii> SI' w:iii 

Isiiii Mn i; Miinii 

1 Ni' Willi 1 

II nil' iTiii' 


nu' L'lii' I'.i' nc. 

Ill ;!•'.• I. - 

In\i:i;si: 'I' 

l; VNSllliiN. 


ii'v si'i nil', 

1 Nc Willi 1 

1 <; 

1 I'll nil' irn IKIll 111'; 

3 O 

Ts: V. 

r-; ii 

wiuiir N' 

LANdHAi; i:. 


1 No 

Si II '/lift I 
iiii liii nil' >'« liii HIT' 

lie III! iircli. 

Jlll/ififirl Tit 

I Nc wall III 



III iiif mill Nil iicci'. 

wail iill lire''. 

Ill' till 


NiMIA'I'lVi; \'ii|('l 

I'vcunit T.iiii<\ 

1 Nc wail Im liir ;^'nii /.('i';j 'I'licy il" not m'r mi'. I Nc wall I 

'J (i '."Inc. 

•'! (> " " /cell Ililll. 

Ml iiic I'd!) zee nail nec''.. 

I (; 

Cs; III 

zee lU' lie I lis 


I N 

c wall Ml me L'(ii) zee liil nee! 

Iiilln-it'.rt '/'■ 

I Ne wan 1 

wan hii nil' ■'im zee ine nan Im nei'''. 

:i () 

zee liil lie 

lie Ml lieen. 

zee wan Im nee; 


zei' lie till liecil. 

DiiniTii 1, X'liiii;. 
I'riKiiil Till Hi-. 

I Ne wan lin IIIC ;^(ii) ilii ^'a nil;.' rcilKi|is lliey I Ne wan Ini me ltoh ine nan ilo L'a nii'^. Is; I'! 

t^ce me. I ( Jc '" '■ " " •• I s • 1 

•_• (I 


linn . I iH'iii. 

lie (III 'M mill.. I li.s. 

lie ilii )ni linn. 

/.,;■ a I'll 

r '/()(', Inr llie iie;ralivi 

I Nevuil 

m me j;!)!) sii;;. 

'J (Jo 

;5 (.) 

riaiNTivi; Vdiri;. 

/V,.v. »/ 7V».vv. 

Iiev sec iiic willi I Ni' wall Ini nii 


.se nc lie llis. 

I <i 


.'Oil sc nan ne; 

Is; i:> 

We; li 


I Nc wan liii nic iri'" ^c In 

Iiinifrl'iit 7' 

I Nc wan I 
I <ic 

111 IIIC '"Ml M' IM" nan I'li iicc''. 

no 111 

.•>(" no Ml 


.•-e wail 111! nccj'. 








Dui nil ri. I'LAiNTiVK Voicks. 

J'irsciil Tense. 
Shi'iitlnr. IViiriil. 

1 Ni' \viui1iiiiiioj^oi)simI<)j;iiihij;. Porliups tlioy sco 1 Nt'WimliuiiU'f^ddsciiii'iiaiiclajiiiiuig. We; Kx. 

■1 " 

1110 with jiity. 1 Gu '• 

" " " Thee. 2 " " 

" " jriimin. Iliiii. 8 " 

" sonodo" His. 4 *' " 

\\\. ; lu. 

" scMviiii ilo jra nil;:... Ymi. 
" '• " '• nun... Tlii'in. 
" " nc do }^u nug ... Theirs. 

SuDJUNCTiVE Mood in pnog. 
Present Tenxe. 

1 Wau 1)U mc waud If thoy sec me. 1 Wau hit mo cu men f^e iloaii Us; Ex 

'1 " " fToau Tliee. 1 " " nun goau Us; In 

8 " •' jriiil Him. 

4 " " goneil His. 

1 Wall bu mc wan Imn. 



" na " You. 

" {,'0 wand Them. 

" '• ned Thoira. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu me eu men go doau bun. 


'• goau 
" go 

U k( t> 



" nun giiaiibun. 
" na " 

" go wau bun. 
" '• no " 

NEG.4TIVE Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mc zegiiau If they do not 1 Wau bu mc ze cu men go dliau Us; E.\. 

" " no wan gliau Us; In. 

" no giiau. 

me go zeg 

" zonc''.... 

sec mc 








1 Wau bu me zo wau bun. 

'• " wa '■ Yuu. 

" mc go zc gliau Thorn. 

" '■ nog Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu mo ze eu men go (b'laii bun. 



" no gllau bun. 



goo zo go " 



" no go bun 



" no wun gi'lau bun. 



" wa " 



goo zo giJau bun. 



" nc go bun. 

Doi'iiTFrt Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mc wau gJIan If they chance to see 1 Wau bu mc eu men go iblaii wau. Us; Ex. 

me. 1 " no wun gilau wan Us; In. 

'2 " " no gilau wan. Thee. 2 " " wa " Y'ou. 

3 " " goo giian Him. 3 " go wau gl Ian Them. 

4 " " ne gi'lan. His, 4 " " nc " Theirs. 



1 Wall 1)11 1110 wan j.'o Ipii nan. 

2 " '• no wan ffi Im nan. 
n " " goo };o Im nan. 

4 " " " nu go bu nun. 


Imperfect Ten»e. 

1 Wall bn me ru mun go diiau Im nan. 

1 " '• no wan giluu bu nun. 

2 " " 


goo wau go 
lie '• 

8 " " 

Neuativk Doultfll Voices. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wa" ' ,110 zoo wau giiun If tlieyilo not chance 1 Wau bu nio zo no wuu {or on men) 

to SCO me. go ib'iau oaii Us ; Ex. 

2 " " zo no g!iau oan Tlioo. 

3 " " goo zoo giian. lliiii. 

4 "• " " no giian His. 

1 Wau bu nio zo wau go Im nan. 

1 Wau bu nio zo no wiiii giiaii wan . Us : In. 

2 " " wa '• " ... You. 

goo Zoo wau giian I lioiii. 

•' " ne " Tboiis. 



" no wuu go bu nan. 
'• goo zoo go )m nan. 
" " no go bu nan. 

Imperfect Ti/ 

1 Wall bu 1110 zoo no wuu {ar on 
iiicii) go (b'iaii liu nan. 

1 Wau bu mo zoo no wuu gilaii bu iian. 

2 " " " wa >' " 

3 '' " goo zee wau go " 

4 U .4 4. jjg t4 14 

Plaintive Voice. 
Present Tcnsr. 

1 Wau bu me so wauil If they sec mo with 1 Wau bu me so cu men go diiau ... Us ; Ex. 

pity. 1 " " " nun gliau Us; In. 

2 " " giian Tliee. 2 " " na " You. 

3 '■ " go sod Iliui. 3 " '■ go so waud Tboiii. 

4 " " so ncd IIi8. 4 '• '• " nod Thoirs. 

1 W^au lui luo so Avail Iiun. 

2 '• •• diiau " 

3 " •■ goo so " 

4 " " ne bu neen. 

Vi.i,. v. — 41 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wall bu 1110 so no wun {or on men) 
go diiau bun. 

1 Wau bu ino so nun gliau bun. 

2 •• •• na 

8 " goo so wau bun. 

4 " '• ne " 




/ 7V 

nxi'iit Jiiini 



1 Waul 

1 liii iiir sc Willi fiiian... irihcyi'lianci'tDsco 1 Wan Ijii mo so no wuii (<i>' cu ini'ii) 

iiiu with Jiity. 

I'c (lipiiu wail , 


Ill' ''iiali Ills 

IK) I'liaii (laii 

i;ti(i su ;;iian. 

1 Willi Im iiic sc tiiiii ;;Iiiiil wan. 

I's; h 

<li^C> SI' wail ;:iian. 


1 Wau 1 

)U nil' M' wau "■() Ijii nan. 

no wan m Im nun. 

:oo SCI' till 1)11 nan. 

Jnipcrffc/. 7V 

1 Wau 1 

1 Wi 

u III! nil' SI' 111) Willi (i);' I'll iiii'ii) 

re il'laii liu nan. 

Ill till iiic SI' no wiin I'l'Ian hu nan 

no ;;o III! nan. 

;;oi) so wall <'0 

Ki:ri:ATi.Mi Yoici:. 

J'rvfiiiit I'cnsc. 
1 Willi hu nio wau jcn At the times thoy 1 Wau hu me cu mon i;c illlau ncn. 

SCO ino. 

nun trnau noii. 

Us; En 
Us; In 

;o joii. 

no leti. 


go wau jell , 
'• no " . 



1 Wau hu mo wau hu nocn. 

Imperfect Tense 

1 Wau 1 

au liu nic cu men gc iloau 

iliiau bu 

\ M 

nun gniiu Im noon. 


a a 

go wau 


Neoativi; and RErKATixn Voices. 
Present Tense. 

1 AVau hu mo zc gtiau non... At the times thoy 1 Wau hu mo ze cu men gc 

do not ijco me. 

'■ no gilau non. Thoc 
;roo 7.0. 

(loan non. 

no wun giiau non. 

(. .( u 


goo zo wau Jcn. 
" no giiii . 

Us; Ex 
r.s; In 


1 Wan bu me ze gonu Im nccn 




" no gliau bu ncen 




f;iio 7.0 ffi " 




" ne ao " 


Iiiijicrffii Ti.nae. 

1 Wail Im ino zo cu iiioii go 

(1ii:iu 1)11 iH'oii. 

1 " " '■ no Willi giiaii 'm ni'i'ii. 

2 K a <t 

3 '* *' JTHfl 7(» Willi m\ *< 


wa *' 

goo zc wan go 



Present Tense 

1 AVini Im me so wan jon At the tinios they 1 Wan Im ino sc oii nioii gc iVIaii non. T< ; Kv. 

see niL' with pily. 1 " '' •• nun gnau iicii .... l'^: hi. 

2 •' •' •• gnau ncn... Tlii'c. 2 " •' •• na '• .... Y^n. 

3 " "goose Jon Iliin. 3 " " gon so wan Jen TlioMi. 

4 " " '• no jen.. His. 4 " " " ne " Their.-'. 



1 Wan bu me .=o wau bu nccn. 

2 " " '• gilau " 
8 " " goo 8e " 

< " " " nc bu nccn. 

Imperfeet Tense. 

1 Wau bu mo so ou men go ih"iau bu iieeii. 

1 '' " '* nun giiau bu neen. 

2 " " " na " " 

3 '' " goo so wau " 

4 no " 

i;i^IMi VoiCK. 

Present Tense. 

1 'Waubumojcg Thoso who seo nie. 1 Wau bu mo eu men go jog Us; Ex. 

2 " ■' geg Tliop. 1 '• '• nun gog I'.,; In. 

3 " " go jen Him. 2 '• '■ na •■ Ymi. 

4 '• '• go no jen His. 3 " '• go wan jen 'riieiii. 

4 " " •• no " Theii-H. 

1 Wau bu mo bu noog. 

2 " '* go bu ncog. 
8 " '■ go " neon. 

4 " " " no bu noon. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bu ine eu men go de nu neeg. 

1 " '' nun go bu neeg. 

2 •• •• na 

3 •• '• go wau bu neen. 

4 ne 

' In the cliiinu'lrriziiit; voice, the lirst ,«_vll:ihie mast cither be eh:iiigeil, or ii |i,irticli' pri.'li\iil. Wnu i.s 
changed to Ha aiu, ikid to ihkiii, me to man, br to la. 




h A N r, V A E . 

Nkoativi: <"iiMiACTi:nt/iN'(i Voipes. 
J'riHt'Kt Tiiinc. 

Sin;/i(l,ir. I'hirat. 

1 Willi 1)11 1110 zo f^lij.' Tliiisc wlio ilo uut 1 Willi lilt me zc (11 iiK'ii (no nii) go jc;;. 

si'c me. 

2 " " no (JOS Tlici". 

3 " mo goo zo fioii. 

4 " " " no gon. 



** no Willi \:o\i. 



" •• wa go;:. 



1110 goo /.(' ;.';iaii noil 



" ' no gon. 

1 Wiiu 1)11 iiie zo Im noog. 
:.' " " no 1)11 noog. 

zo go III! linri. 

•' no tro Ini neon. 

Imperfect Toisr. 
1 ^V 

iiii Im ino zo on nion go do bii ncog. 
" '* nu Willi go 1)11 noog. 

nio goo zo Willi '* noon. 

u a 

Doi UTFi I, CiLuiACTKiuzixu V'oici:.- 

Prexcnt Teiisc. 

1 Willi 1)11 mc glla iiug Those who cli 

to soo me. 

no goii nii!». 

''oo iMji nun. 

no ''o.iii... 


nice 1 Willi l)u mo on men mo iiii) godiinug. T's; Ex. 
1 " " no oiin goa niig V»\ In. 

go oiiiigoii nun Till 

" no " Th, 

1 Wau bit ir.o mi Im na niiir. 

(; (( 

no go 1)11 nil niig. 
goo go 1)11 na mm. 
" lie go 1)11 na nun. 

Imjvrffcl Tciix 

1 Wau bu 1110 oil nioii (no au') go ilc bu na niig. 
1 '• •■ no Willi go bu na iiiig. 


Nkhative DoiiiTFii. YdIC 


J'nseut Tiiisi 

1 Wau bu mo zoo goa niig Those who do not 1 Wmi I 

(•haneotosoonio. 1 '• 

2 " " no gllii iiug... 'I'heo. 2 " 

3 " me goo zoo giia nun., lliin. JJ ■' 

4 " '• •• iioi'naniin His. 4 " 

)U 1110 ze no wun j;e da nuj.', 


(ifiicriilly, cither form is correct. 

I's; Ex 
I's: III 

1110 goo zo wau goa nun... Tin 
" ... Th, 


\ Willi liii me zrp ^'fi liii nil iiiirr, 
2 '• " III) j;ii liii iia iiii^. 

>i *' WW j,'c)o zt'c p) 'hi nil mill. 

•1 " " *' 111' ''!> till u:i null. 

/miirr/rrt 7' ilge. 


1 Wail Im mo zo no wiin ^c ilc Im na niijr. 


t( tt 

;.'i) Im na niij;. 

lid \\:l 

iiic f.""i zc wall '■ na nun. 


ri.MXTivi; riiAiiACTintiziMf Vinci:.-!. 

J'nscnt Tiiinr. 
1 Willi Im mo Hu ji'i^ Tliosp wlio soo mo 1 Waii Im me sp r 

11 men ;.'i' 

Willi lilt 



'• no i.'o^'... 

mo ;;no so jrll , 

no ji'U. 


III) Willi jrii;.'. 
" \va •'If' .. 

l^; Ks 
Ir.; In 

1110 ;;oo so Willi Jell. 

Iir Ji'li 

1 Willi liu 1110 so )m not 

111) Im iiooit. 

8 " 1110 ^1)0 so Im 'iron. 

Imperfect Tenxe. 

1 Wail Im mo si' cii nun '^r ilc Im nocg. 


111) Willi I'll Im iico''. 

no Im noon. 

mo 1:00 so wall 1'" im noon. 


ri.AiNTivi: AND Diinsrrii, fiiAUArTiniiziNu Vi 

t Tc 

ixscnt Ii'iiHC 

1 Wan I 

111 iiu' SI" i;iia nil 

•X Tliiiso wliorliaiiooto I Wail Im mo so 

no 1:1 la inii'., 

spo mo with jiity. 1 
Tlico. -2 

mcf^oo so i^iiii nun.. Ilim 
no " .. His. 

oil inon ;ro ila iiiij.'., 
no wiin I'liii nii;r.... 

1110 goo so wall ;:iia nun. 

Is; Es 
Is: In, 

it a 

Imperfect Ti use. 

1 W 

111 l)U mo so j,'i) Im na nil 

1 Wail Ijii 1110 so oil 

nii'ii L'o ilo Im na nil;: 

no I'D l)u na iiu;;. 

no Willi I'll liii na nii" 

mc goo sc 


" '' no ''0 bii na nun. 

mo goo so wail 

IxDioATivK Mood in tltun. — I.nanimati: Vmn:, 


t Tc, 

resent Tenm 

1 No wan Imn ilaun I sco it. 

2 do 




1 No Willi Imn ilaii iiKii We: Ex. 

1 (I 

Wo; li 

ilaii iKiu Willi. 



T, ANci' \<!r:. 

1 N 

(' w.iii liiiM ilau null liiiii. 

;< o 

ilu UR' iiu bun. 

rl\rl '/'. 


1 Nc Willi I'llli ililll UK' li:lll lillll. 
1 (k- 


(lull 11,111 ^Mlll iiiiii. 

(Ill nil' nc lillll. 

Nkuativi; Viiii'K, 

t Tc 

fitlfllt ICIlHi 

1 Ni' wnu liiin iln r.vcn I ilo not seo it. 

•2 Cn' 


I III zof nio 111'., MIS. 

1 Ni 
1 (i 


c Willi liiin (In zoo mon , 

nie III'. 

W, : Fx. 
\\v: In. 


Iiii/iirJ'tct Tiiiiii' 

1 No wail Imii (111 zoo naii Im 

2 (io " " " 
8 " " " 

1 No wan lillll (III /.cc mo nun linn. 
1 Go " " " 

O t( It 

nail wall bun. 

ino no bun. 

3 O 

DiiniTi-ri, A'liii 

t Ti. 

riSi'iir linn. 

1 No wan bun (Ian nan tlii^..,. rovbaiiH I soo it. 1 Nt- wan Iniii di 

II 1110 nan aif'.. 

2 (!c 
:i O 


1 V,c 

2 " 

(Ian nan wan il 

■\Vo: E 
Wo: I.I 


(In ino no (luir., 

NiKiATiVF DorirrFcr, Vnici's. 

t T, 

frsi'ii! /(«.v, 

1 No wau bnii ihi ZOO nan (b'Jj:. rorliaps I do not 1 X 

1 (!o 

2 '• 


w.iii iiim iln zoo 1110 nan (Inc'. 


II '1' 




SOO It. 

nan wau doi'. 

no nnn 

Wo; En 
Wo; In 

ri.AixTivi; Voici:. 
Present Tenni: 

1 No wan linn (In son I soo it with |iilv. 1 No wan bnii iln so nion Wo: Ex. 



1 (J 


Wo; 1 1 





rlWt 7V 




1 Ni' wii\i liim ilii so nail I 
■1 (!o 

I Nl' \MUI lillll llll SI' IIIC llllll llllM. 
1 («l ' 




J'lrnnl Ttiigc. 

I Xi> witu bun ihi Bc niiudii^. ... Pi'ilia|is 1 soo it 1 Nc wau Imn lUi .10 

nan >vaii 


mc niiu doir. 

with III 


•J (ic 

" .... II.'. 
iirnaii'li''.' Hi.-'. 


We; Ks. 
W,.; In. 


Siii.ii N( rivi; Mmii) in J.m 

/ T, 

rcninl tiiixi 

1 \Vi 

n llllll llll iiiaiiii. 


(li; nio iK'il 




see it. 1 Wan llllll (111 niaiini,' AVc ; K 

1. 1 •' '• iiiuni' Wv, III 

iiKi wainl Tbi 

nic iR'il Till 

i.iipvrt\cl Ti')isc. 

1 AVaii Inn 

1 lilt aaiiiii '<in. 

I W 

111 llllll (111 maun iri' 

ino wau 


me lie 

Nicd ATivi; Vuiii;. 

Present Tiituc. 

1 Wall bun (111 zc waiinj; It' I ibi nut see it. 1 AVau bun du ze «aun AVc ; V.k. 



We: 1 1 

I -is. %■• 





1 Wall bun ibi ze waiiiii baiiii. 

2 " '• wiiiii bun. 
8 " '• !,'n " 
i •' " ne ''» " 

Imperfect Time. 

1 Wan bun du zc wnun ge bun. 

1 •• '' wiin j.'ii 

2 " " \VA " " 

15 " •• j.';i.iu " 

4 " " ne •'() " 


LAN(il' A(; I'] 

J)i)i iriiri, Vol 
I'riKiHt 'I'ciixi 


I '/in;,/. 

1 AViHi liiiTi ilil 1110 Willi null.. If T I'liiiiico to .si'r it. 1 Wiiii Imii tl 




u 1110 wauii iraii 

Willi troan 

Wo; Kx. 
We; 111. 














(III 1110 waiiiii liaii nan. 

(Ill iiic no ''() 

TwjH'i-jWt Tots 


1 Wall liuii (III mo wauu m" Im iia 

(111 mo no 

M > 

1 Wau bun dii zo 

o u >. t 

3 " 

.1 « u . 

c wail nan. 

no jioaii , 

Nlid.MlVK .Axn DiUnTFfL VOICKS. 

J'trxc'iit Ti'ni>e. 

If I do not oliaiioo 1 Wau liiin du zo 

wauiu iraii 

to soo It. 




wuii yoan 


Wo; Ex. 
Wo; In. 




1 Wau Iniu du zoo waiim liau 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bun du zee waun I'o bu nan. 

1 m 

4 " 

1 '■''uu bun 





ne I'D 

Plaintive Voipk. 
J' intent Tense. 
du saiiii Tt'T soe it witli jiity. 1 Wau bun dii 

(( a 

se iic( 




(( it 


AVo ; Ex. 
Wo; In. 




Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wall bun du sauni bauii. 

2 " *' Huni Imn. 

3 " " so " 
•1 '. " '■ no " 

1 Wall bun 

(Ml saiiii I'd ijun. 

so wait 




f T, 

ri'xi'iit ii'*(K( 

1 Wan bun ilii !<o 

2 " " 

3 " " 

4 " i- 

laii... It" I t'liance to si'o 1 AVaii biiii d 

it with pity. 

u sc waiiii fiaii.. 
Willi I'iiaii . 


Wo; h 




Imperfect Ten^e. 

1 Wan bun du sc waum bau nan. 


1 Wau bun du sc waun go bu nan. 
1 " " wun " " 



bu 1 

Imiicativk M(ioi) ill daii, nun. 
Present Tense. 
1 No wall bun dan nun I sco tliem — tliinirs. 1 No wau bun tbi 

u me nau noii. 


1 <le 

2 " 


Imperfect Tense. 

nau wall. 

(In mo no , 

Wo: E 

Wo. Ill 


No wau l)un <lau nau bu noon. 

a (( 

1 Ne wau bun Jau mc nau bu noon. 
1 C.c 

(( (i 

ii <( 

du mc no bu neon. 


nau wau 

du me no " 

Nkoativk Voice. 

I*re.teHt Tense. 

1 No wau bun du zoo nun I do not soo tlioin. 1 No wau luin du zoo mo nau iioii... Wo; Ex. 


... Til 

... Ho 

no.. Hii 

1 G 


Wo; I 


nau waun. 



Imperfeet Ten,u'. 

1 Ne wau bun du zee nau bu noon. 

2 Oc " " " 

3 O " " >' " 

4 '' " " mc nc bu nocn. 

1 No wall l)un du zoo mo nau Im 
1 Go 







Vol. v. — 42 


DdiiiTiii, Voice. 
J'rcucut Tense. 

Siii'iiiliir. I'IkiiiI. 

1 Ni' wnii limi (lull iiiiii do gu iimi. I'filiiips I sre 1 Xe wan Imii dan nic iiiiu do jra iiuii. We; Ex. 

tluin. 1 (!o ' '■ We ; In. 

•1 (le •' ' Tliou 2 '• " •• nan wan " " Von. 

." ' " Ho. ;'. <> •• '■ " " " Tli.y. 

4 " '* diimeiiedo " \\\i. 4 " '• dn mo lie " " Tlioiis. 

NiMATivi-; DoriiTFir, Vl)u■l:^'. 

I'rfxiiit 2'cusf. 

1 No wan linn dn zoo nan do ;.'a linn. Porlia|)s I do 1 Nowan Imn dn zoo nioiian do j:a nun. \Vo; Ex. 

Mot sootliom. 1 (io •• •• •• '• •• Wo; In. 

- ''0 •• '■ '■ '■ Tlioii. 2 •• •• " man wan do '• Yon. 

;i O ' Ho. a " '• ' Tluy. 

4 " " " me no do " His. 4 me no " " Tlieirx. 

Plaixtivk Voick. 
J'rcsi-nt TiHst'. 

1 X(^ wan Iniii dn 8011 una ... I see tlioin with 1 No wan Imii dn so nan iion AVo : Ex. 

I'ity. 1 Go Wo; 111. 

2 (io •• ■■ •• 'J'lion. i •• •• " nau waun Yon. 

3 He. a O '• " " Thoy. 

4 " " '• no mo no His. 4 " " '• nc me nc Theirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 No wan Iniu dn ?o nan Ini noon. 1 No wan liuii dn po me nan bn n(>oii. 

•2 (;.■ 1 (le 

•' ()•••••• 2 •■ •• •• ii;in wan " 

4 " '• ■■ lie me no Iju neon. o " '' 

4 " '• " no mo no bii neon. 

Donnrn, Plmxtivi: Yokks. 
Present Tense. 

1 No wau bun du so nan do Poilia|)s I sec thorn 1 No waubun du .•so mo iiambi jra nun Wo; Ex. 

pa nun. with jiily. 1 Ho " " " " Wo; In. 

2 Oe ' Thcni. 2 " " '• nau wau" Y'ou. 

3 0" He. 3 O '• " " " Tliey. 

4 " " " "no mo His. 4 " " " nemo no do jra nun Thoii's. 

ne do L'ii nnii. 



SuBJUSCTivi: >[ooi) in Jau vun. 
I'nscnt Tenne. 

1 Willi Imn clii 1111111 la'ii If T see tlieni. 


mil •' 

iiiiiiij iron . 


(Ill UK' IK' ii'ii Ilin. 

1 Wau Imii ilii mr.Min Iiaii neon 

2 " '• iiiinii 1)11 neon. 
8 " dun ge 

4 " (111 nio no Im noon. 

1 Willi liiin (Ui tiKiun .^'('11 Wo: Kx. 

1 '• •■ iiiuu i.oii We; In. 

2 '• '' iiiii •• Ydu. 

3 " '• UK) Willi joM Tlicy. 

4 " '• nio lie '• Tlioirs. 

Imperfect Ti use. 

1 Wall liuu ilu uiiiuii ^o Im noou. 

1 '• " uiiiu " 

2 •' •■ ma '• " 

3 " '• mo wau •' 

4 " " mo no 

NixiATivi' Voice. 
Present Teiixe. 

1 1 



ilu zo wau uon .. 

. ]r I ,lo 





" '• wu ■• . 

. Tliuii. 



" " glin 

. Ho. 



" " no ;;iin .... 

. His. 

1 Willi linn ilu zo waun fron Wo; E.k. 

1 •' •• '■ Willi jroii Wo; In. 

2 •' " " wa '• .... Y..I1. 

3 '■ '• " giiau lion 'I'lioy. 

4 •' •' " no L'dii 'I'lu'irs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau bun dii zo waum ban noon. 

2 " " wum Im " 

3 " " jro " " 

1 Wau bun tin zo waun go bu noon. 
1 " " wun " 

no go 

ii a 





DounTFiL Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau bun dii mo wau na nun. If I obanco to soo 1 Wau bun du ino waun ca nun Wo ; Ex. 

tlioiii. 1 " " Willi jriiii •' Wo; In. 

2 " " wu " Tlioii. 2 '• " wa " '■ You. 

8 '' '■ f;iia nun ]lo. ',) '• '• wau " " 'Hioy. 

4 " du nil' no ;;i!ii nun.. His. 4 " du mo no " ■• 'riiiirs. 



I! W ^ 


rip .11 

^^■2 LANnrAfJE. 

]injh<rfit-t Titmr. 
Slmjular. ' Pliirol. 

1 Wmx bun (III mo wiium ban iia imii. 1 Wa,i Imn du mo wiiun n;o l>n nii nun. 

2 '• '■ wnm l)u •' 1 " 14 ^.„„ It ii 

3 " '• ,-.". " '• 2 " " ,va 

4 " ilu nv -.0 ^'<> '• '• ?, <• <i „!iu " '• 

4 '• (1m mo 110 " " 

Zee is cxchaugoil for mo, ami in tlu' fourtli i)ci'son for vi,\ coiistitutos the no.'ative. 

ri.AtXTIVK VorcK. 

J'irsnit Tensr. 

1 Wail l)un (lu sua iicn If I sec tliom with 1 Wau Inm du saun gen We; Ex. 

r''y- 1 " " sungon We; In. 

~ •' " *» " Thou. 2 " •' sa " You. 

•■' " '• ^c,],-n He. 3 " '-sowaujen Thev. 

■* " " ">H.jen His. 4 '• " ne " Theirs. 

Imperfict Tcnsr. 

1 Wau hun (lu saum neen. 1 Wan hun du saun go I)u neen. 

2 " " sum l)u " 1 •' .' sun go 

3 " •• se " " 2 '• '• sa " '< 
I " " " nc " " 3 '• " St wau « 

4 " '• " no " 

IxmcATivi'; Mood in (/un. 

1 Ne wnu lie e gon It eauses me to see. 1 Ne wau he e go men' Us- Ex. 

2 00 '• •' Thee. 1 Ge '• •> Tsjln.' 

3 " •' Him. 2 " " nuiwau You. 

4 '• " goiic His. 3 " " Them. 

4 " " no Theirs 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Ne wau he e go nau hun. 1 Ne wau be e go me nau bun, 

2 r.o " " 1 Ge " " " 

3 0"-' 2 " " go nau wau bun. 

4 '■ " ne liun. 3 '> " '• 

4 " " go ne liun. 

' Xctun is usoil Ii)- sotiie hamls at the oast. 

LANdFAGE. 888 

Nkhativk Voick. 

I'ri'sent Tense. 
Si'mjuhir. PUtriil. 

1 No Willi Ijo o "0 ZOO It ilocs not cause mo 1 No wan 1)0 o ;^o zoo men' T's: Kx. 

tosoo. 1 (!c '• " '• Ts: In. 

2 Go 




4 " 




2 " 


4 " 

" iiiiii Willi Yoii. 

" >• Tliom. 

" no Tlioiis. 

1 Nc wail lio go zoo nail Imn. 

2 Go 

4 " '' " nc liiin. 

Imperfect Teme. 

1 Nc wall Ijo go zeo mo iiau liiiii. 

1 Go 

2 " " " nan wmi ■• 

3 " " '• ■' 

4 " '■ " no Imii. 

DoiBTKi-i. Vol ■ . 

I'lrxcnt Ti'Hi'e. 

1 No wiiiibcogonaiiililg Porliaps it causes 1 No wau 1)o o go mo nan ilng Us: Ex. 

nic to SCO. 

2 Go " " " Thoc. 

3 " " " II""' 

4 " •' " (liiganun. His. 

Zee after go, stamls for the negiitivc. 








" " •■ Us; In. 

" " nail wan '• Yuu. 

" " nail do jj;a nun Tiioii-s. 

Plaintivi; Voice. 

Pirsicnt Tensr. 

1 No wan 1)0 I'o son It causes me to 1 No wan be o go so men Us; Ex. 

see poorly. 1 Ge " " '* V:'-, In. 

2 Ge 
4 " 

so no. 


:! O 
4 •■ 

nun wan Yim. 


nc Theirs. 

1 No wan be e go so nan bun. 

2 Gc " " " 

3 O " " " 

4 •' " " no bun. 

Imperfcft Tonne, 

1 No wan bo o go so mo nun bun. 

1 Go " " " 

2 " '• '• nail Willi •• 

:'. O " 

4 •• •• " no bun. 

Xauii is used by some bamla to t'ne east. 






PorilTKl I. I'l.ATNTIVi; V 


! ;■!■-!■ 


PiYSciit Tri 



1 Newaii1i('i''<:;nsoniui(lii;,' I'crliiips it ciiiiscs 1 Nc waii lio (• ;.'n sc nic iiim dclfr I's ; Ex. 

iiii'tosee pooily. 1 (Jo 



Is; li 

' nau il 

ujiaiiuii Ills. 

t< t( 

mill iln ira nun,. I lii'irs. 

Sni.iixt Tivi: >[iMii) in //i)«. 
t T, 

rrsiiit liiiH' 

1 Wall 1 

III I' I'd caiin. 

If it 


oauso mo 

to 1 W 

111 lie (• iTD oatiiii:. 

I'lintr • 


(( ti 

I's; T. 
Vs; Ii 

Iinpcrfi-rt Tciint: 

1 Wail ho v jro cauiii Iiaii 

1 AVau lio i' <ri 

I) rami "o Imii. 

Ni-dATivi: Ydick. 

f T, 

■n-siiit T,n 

1 Wail tie i' i."' Z(> waiiii Tf it ilo nut , 

1 Wail lie ;■' jro !.!' wai 

tii sec. 


Ts; Ex 
I's; In 

^riiaii , 

Tmpi'rfi't'l T<\ 

1 Wan lie i' H' 

II zo wann haun. 
wiini Inin. 

1 Wan lie i' fro 7.C Tviinn ^o bun. 

'( It 1. 


LANC!UA(!K. iiS6 

DipiiiTi'ii, Voici:. 
J'nxiiit Tennc, 

.S'('/i./»/.(y. I'hiitil. 

1 Willi be i' jri) wall nail It'it clialirc tocaiisc 1 AVaii be i' ;:o waiiii ;rali Is; V.x. 

1IU' 111 si'c. 1 " " Willi jriiaii Ts ; In. 

•2 " " wa •• :.. Yclll. 

8 '• " wall '■ Tliiin. 

4 " " no " TheiM. 

a >i 

lie giian. 


1 Wan be e jro waiiin ban nan. 
•J " '■ wiim bn •' 

il " '• ■.MO pt '• 

4 '• '• " lie ''11 liil '* 

Imperfect TcHKi'. 

1 AVaii be e jid wauii j:n lin nan. 

1 •• '• Willi '• " 

2 '• •• wa '• " 

3 " '• wail " " 

4 " " no " " 

Zf al'lei- ijii stamls fur ibe iiofrative. 




rr.AiNTivi: VoiCK. 

Prcxriit Tcitxe. 

1 Willi be e 1:11 saiin ft' it canse nie to sc" 1 Wan be e ;:o sannu' l'^ : ^■^• 

linuilv, niiwurlliily. \ " '• sniiir ''>; In. 

2 " '• Min Thee. 2 " '• saj; Y.m. 

j< " " seil Him. 3 " " se waiid Tiiem. 

4 " " seneil His. 4 " " ncd Theirs. 

1 AVaii bo e ;;o s<aum banii. 

2 '" " .sum bun. 

;J u II jiy " 

4 '. " " „e " 

'mpcrf.ct Ti 





in be 

V fro 

se waun 

po bun 




■• wiin 





" wa 





" Avau 





" lie 


1 Wiiu be e no se wan nan. 


J'irsfiit TfiUi:. 

Jl'it ehanectocanse 1 Wan lie e po se waun ^ran I's ; I'x. 

me to see powly, 1 "' " " wim glian I's; In. 










* wa 

<( ' 

• " wii ■• 





*' wail 


(( k 

' " j;ilan 

. Ilim. 




'' ne 


a 4 

' " lie jriiaii.. 

. His. 





\ m 



LAN<;i'.\(; !■: 


I \V:ni I 

If «• i;(i .HI' \\:iMiii hull liMll 

lliljn 1-1'ii't 7' 

I Wini 1. 

l.NPicAi'ivi: MiiiiD ill ijii mm. 
I'rtHriit Tiimr. 

1 Nc «:iii lie (• ''II iiilM 'riirv ((IlIllLr-^'l t'niisi' I N'l' Wiiii 1 

II' I' i.'i) null licii . 


Ill Sl'C. 

1 (i 

■2 (1,. 

'• .... 

... Till'.'. 

• > .t 

:'. (» 

•• .... 

.. Mini. 

:; () 

4 » 

Ill' III'... 

.. His. 

1 - 

Is; K 

•• '■ Is: li 

" illllll N nil. 

" 'riu'IM. 

Ill' III' 'riii'iis. 

IwjurjWt T,-it!>,\ 

1 Ni' Willi 111' 1' jrii nil" null liii iiri'ii. 

1 Ci' ' " 

'J •■ " " nun Willi •* 

» •• " " no m> " 

/.r lifter </i). lu'rl'iirnis tlio nffu'o of tin- noixiilivii. 

1 Xi' \Miii 111' 1' iT'i null liii noon. 

i: Ci 

;. jj .. u .. 

4 " " " no no " 

I ii., 

Ponirrn. Vmcr. 

Present Ti-iiH.' 

1 No Willi l'oi';ronuuiloj;u mill. IVrliupstliovouuso 1 No wuii Iio o' l'h nto nun iln l'u niiii. I'-j; V,\. 

nio til soo. 1 l!i' " •• •• '• '• Ts : In. 

- <io " " '• " Tlioo. ll •• •• •■ nun Willi '• •• Ymi. 

;! <> Mini. ;! () 'I'liiiii. 

•1 noiioilii '• His. t •• •• '■ no 111' •• " Tlioiis. 

1 No wan 1)0 o ;io so 

■2 C„ 
:! O 

Pr.AiNTivK Vorci'. 

J'rrii'iil 7V)i.'ir. 

'PIiov ouiiso 1110 to I No wall lio i' i;ii so nun non I's; Ex. 

sir |iiiiirl_v, nil- 1 do " " ■■ ... Is; In. 
wurtliilv. 2 " " " wuiin ^'mi. 



no... llil 





1 Nc W;ill lie i' ;;o He mill liu ncotl. 

2 (Jo 

a o 

11(1 IU> llll IICCII. 

LA Nil II A*; r, 

Iminificl Tt'iitii: 


1 Nc 
1 (I 

(' Willi lie ['• go Hc iiu' null liii iiccii. 

null \Miu 

8 () 

Doi'iiTFi 1. ri.Aixrivi: V 
J'rist-tit Tinxr. 



1 Ni' villi 1 

II' r };i) so iinu ( 

lo Prrliiiiis tlicy ciiiiscl Nc wan lie v ^'o sc mi> iiiiu (Id ;;a iiiiii I's ; V, 

^a HUM , 

ll(,'lns('('J)(i(illy,«.Vc.l (ic 

;3 <) 




nc III' ill) I'll nun lli.i. 

4 '• 

nc nc " 

r,s; 111 





Siiur.Mrivi; Miiiin in //o nu». 
J'rcsrii/ TiltKr. 

1 Wait lie c r-o can ncn' If tlicy oansc iiic 1 Wau lie c i:o caiin ;rcn fs; |vv. 

<"^''f- 1 '• " oiiii ;,'(in Ts; 111. 


'• cii " 

" .it'll 

" nc icn. 

I licc, 


" ca '• 

" wan jcn Tlicm. 

" no •' Tlicirn. 

1 Wau be go cnniti ban nccn. 

2 " " cum liu " 
S •• " llll nccn. 

4 " " " no go Iju nil nun. 

Impcrfvct Ti')in,\ 

I Wau lio I' f»o oaun <»e Im noon. 

1 " " oun fft " 

2 " " oa •• 

3 "• '• wall l)u noon. 

4 " " no 

Neiiativk Voick. 
PrcHcnt Toise. 

1 Wau lie e wau non If tlioydonotcausc 1 Wau lie c ;;o ze waiin j,'oii I's; Mx. 

mo to SCO. 1 " '• wnn^rmi I's; hi. 

2 " wu " Tlico. 2 " " ,va '• You. 

8 " .jf" Him. ;j " " wnnjcn Tlirm. 

4 " "o,it'» His. 4 " " no •• Tiicii-.s. 

' This form lias anotlier Hij;nitio.ition liosidos tlie one given ; it in used to express ropoatcd action, as 

Wau be 6 go cau uun ... At tlio limes it mc to sec. 
Vol.. v. — 43 


" i'iJ.l' 


1 W 




III lie i' j:i> 7,0 oniiiii liMU iiocn. 
" wiiin l)u " 

III' im nrcn. 


1 'I unit. 

1 Willi III- i' ;,'n Z(> wiiiiii gv liii iicen 

1 " " Willi fifi " 

8 " " wa " " 

8 " '• wiiu " 

4 " " no '« 

1 W 




DolllTFlI, VliU'b'. 

J'irstnt TfiiM. 
;i nun... If tlioy cliiuico to 1 Wiiii lie »■ ;;o wn 


;'oa nun. 

iR' jxnii nun. 

cause ino to si'O. 


wun goa nun. 

Wil " 



1 Willi lir 

• ^'11 Wiuiin li 



1 nun 


'• wuin liu 



'■ A^ " 



" nc go " 


Us; K 
Is; h 

1 AV 


Imperfect Tviixi: 

1 Wau lie i- jrii waun jro liu na nun. 
1 " " wun go " 

3 " '• wail " 

4 " " no " " 

Nkuativi: DoniTi'i'L Viin'i:s. 

nil be (.'go zi' Willi na nun. Il'tlieydonot eliaiice 1 Wau lie e go ze waun ga nun Us; Ex. 

to cause mo to see. 1 " '' wun giia " 

O a (h 


Wll " 


glkl " 


ue^flia " 





. ''-I In. 

" " "iou. 

'• " Them. 

" " Theiis. 


Wall lie e 


ze waum liau 

na nun. 



■• Wlllll llll 




" no go bu 


Iniperfi'ct TiUn'. 

1 Wau be i' go ze waun ge bu na nun. 

1 " " wun go " 

2 " " wa " " 

3 " *• wau " " 

4 '■ •' no " " 

ri,AiNTivi: Voice. 
Present Teiigr. 

I Wau be e go sau nen It' tliey cause nic 1 Wau be e go saun gen U.s ; Ex. 

to sec poorly. 1 " sun gon Us; In. 


sii " ... 

se Jen 

KC ne jell.. 





sa " You. 

scwaujen Them. 

" no " Theirs. 


1 Wiiu 1)0 i' go saum ban nei'n. 

2 " Bumbu " 

8 " HO " " 

i " " HO bu " 


Imverfect Ti imc. 


1 Wiiu be o go Rftiin f»o bu nccn. 

1 " nun \io " 

8 " tta '• " 

8 " 80 Willi " 

4 " " no '• 


Dot'OTFri, ri,.\iNTivi: Voices. 
Prfnent TiiiHc, 
1 Wuuboijgosowaunttnuii. If tboy cltuuco to 1 Wuu bo o go su waun j^ii mm 

cuuso mo to Hoo 1 " " wun giia " 

poorly or unworthily. 2 " 


2 " 

3 " 

4 " 

" wu " Thco. 
" giiu nun.... Iliin. 
" ne giia nun. Ilia. 




Us; Ex. 

Us; In. 




1 Wau be o go so wauin l)au na nun. 

2 " " wum bu " 

3 " " go " " 

4 " " no go " " 

Imperfect Tcnue. 

1 Wau bo o go se waun go bu na nun. 

1 " " wun go " 

2 " " wa " " 

3 " " wau " " 

4 " " no " " 

Indicativk Mood. — Slmiilf Cmijugation. 
J'ri'senl Teiinc. 

1 No waub I wo ; I havo sight. 1 Nowaubonipn We; Ev. 

2 Go " Thou. 1 Oo " " WV; In. 

3 Wau bo lie. 2 " "bom You. 



1 Nc wau bo nau bun. 

2 Go " " 

3 O " bun. 

4 " " bu noen. 

IIi.s. 3 " bewiig They. 

4 " " " wun Thcir,s. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Nc wau bo mo nau bun. 

1 Go " " " 

2 " " bcm wau bun. 

3 " be bu nceg. 

4 " " '■ neen 

Neoative Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Nc wau be zoo I do not see. 1 No wnu bo zoo men Wo ; Ex. 

2 Go " " Thou. 1 Go " " Wo; In. 

;! " " lie. 2 " '• zoom Ydu. 

4 " " " wun Ilis. 3 " zoo wu',' Tlioy. 

4 " " •' Willi Thoirs. 






I Ni' \\M\ 1)0 zoo nau luin. 

iJ U '• " liiin. 

4 " " ♦* l)u necn. 

Tuiti'it'x: Teme 


J Wo *nu Ijo zoo m« iiiiu bun. 
1 Oo '• " " 

8 '• " zt'cm wail liuii 

'8 " zoo lui ni'cj^. 

4 " " " noon. 

DounTFrL Voick. 
Prcnenf Tcntc. 

I No wiiu 1)0 mo (liij; Porliapjt I soc. 

II do " " " Tl)oii. 

.". (» " wo' '• IIo. 

•1 •• " " do ;;;) nun.. Ilis. 

1 No wau 1)0 mo nan iil'ift . 
1 (io " " " 

'J " " liom wan illlj^... 
8 " 1)0 do |;ii nuj;. . . 
4 " " " " nun... 

Wo; Ex. 

Wo; In. 




Nkuative DorilTFt'L VOICKS. 

J'nxcnt Tcnur. 

1 No wau bo zoo di!g Porlmps I do not 1 No wau bo zoo mo nau di!g Wo; Ex. 

soo. 1 Go " " " W.s In. 

2 (io " " " Tiiou. 2 '• " zoom wau dii^' You. 

;! " " " lIo. 8 " zocdo;;anu;; Tlioy. 

4 •• » " do<'iinun. His. 4 " " " " nun Tlioiis. 


Plaintive Voice. 
Present Teiisc. 

1 No wau bos I soo i)noi-ly, un- 1 No wau bo so mon Wo; Ex. 

worthily. 1 (io " " Wo; In. 

2 (U' " " Tbdu. 2 •• " som You. 

:•> O 

be S( 


3 O 

4 " 

,«o wu;^ They. 

" wun Thoirs. 

1 No wau be so nau bun. 

2 Go " " " 

3 " " bun 

4 " " " bu noon. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 No wau bo so mo nau bun 

1 Go » " " 

2 '' " som wau bun. 

3 " so bu noor;. 

4 " " " necn. 

' Tl)i3 particle is used by tlio Indians for the sahe of euphony. It is not found in all words of this con 

.') li 

LANOUAdK. 841 


J'nuriit Ti'ilur, 
Siii'iiihir, I'liiiiil. 

1 Nc wan 1)0 J^c me il'i;.' I'crlm|w Fni'i'iioiirly, 1 Nc wan Iji' xo iiic iiaii ili!;,' We; Ex. 

iiiiwoitliily. 1 <!f " " " We; In. 

2 (iu " " " " Tlioii. 2 " " scin wail iln^f Y.m. 

I! () " " (liij; III'. :i O " Nc ilo pi iiii;r Tiny. 

4 " " " ilo ga nun... His. 4 " " " " nnn Tlioiis. 

Slll.ll NcTIVi: Mniil). — Siiiqilf Cdlijlli/illivll. 

I'rcni lit Tiiw. 

1 Wau Iio ottiin Tr F scr. 

2 " " pan Them. 

3 " ImmI ITo. 

4 " be ncd His. 

1 Wan lio rauni liann. 

2 " I'um l)un. 
8 " lam. 

4 " nu l)un. 

1 Wau 1)P cnitti;; \Vp ; Ex, 

1 " cuii;; \\\'\ In. 

2 " ca;: You. 

3 " oauil Tluy. 

4 " lied TIairs. 





Wau lio laun i.'o l)un 



" c'un go " 


" wiiu bun. 


Negative Voice. 
Prewnt Tenve. 

1 Wan lie zc wann Tf I do not sco. 

2 " '* wan Tluiu. 

8 " /.(>' W'y. 

4 " zp nc'' His. 

1 Wau be zc waiuijr We; Ex. 

1 " " wunf: Wi-; In. 

2 " " waj; Y(iu. 

3 " " gllau Tliry. 

4 " " ncg Thciid. 



1 Wau be ze waun baun. 

2 " " wuni bun. 
8 " " bun. 

4 " " no gc bun. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wau be zc waun gc bun. 

1 " " wun go " 

2 11 'f ^va " '' 

3 " " goau bun. 

4 " " necre " 







i IIHfi 

Plaintivk Voice. 

Pirsvnt Tense. 

1 Wall be saun If I see poorly, un 


2 " sun Thou. 

3 " scd IIo. 

4 " so nod His. 

W(< ; Ex. 

1 Willi ho saiiiii; 

1 '* siinj; We; In. 

2 " siij; You. 

8 " 80 warn! Thoy. 

4 " nod Theirs. 

Imperfect Ti 



Wail be 

.■satin f;e bun 



sun j;o " 



8a " 



so wau '• 



" lie " 

1 AVau be saiini baiin. 

2 " 8uni bun. 

3 " so " 

4 " " no bun. 

Doubtful Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau lie wau nnn If I chance to see. 1 Wau bo waiin f;an We; Ex. 

2 " wu " Thou. 1 '• wun jjiian We; In. 


<:;iian lie. 

no giian ... Ilis. 







1 Wau bo waum ban nan. 

Imperfeet T use. 

1 Wau be wauu jje bu nan. 



wuin bu " 



po " " 



no go bu nan 


wun i;o 



wa '• 



wau " 



no " 

Zee after be, is indicative of the negative. 

RiirKATi.NO Voice. 
Present Tense. 

1 Wau be nen At the times I see 

2 " eu " Thou. 

3 " jen He. 

4 " ne jen His. 

1 Wau be eauii gon We; Ex. 

1 " eiiu gon W'o; In. 

'- ■' ea " You. 

3 '• wau jen Tliey. 

4 " ne •• Theirs. 

; n 





Pri'seiit Ti'iinc. 
Si'iii/ular. Plural. 
1 Wuu l)c se wau iiiui if I cliaiico to sec 1 Wuu bo so Wiiuii gaii Wo; Ex. 

ou " 


uo giian 

jiooi'ly, unworthily. 1 

Tliou. 2 

llo. 3 

His. 4 

" wun jiiiaii AYo ; In. 

'' wa " You. 

" wau " Tlioy. 

" no " Thoirs. 

1 Wau 1)0 onum ban noon. 
12 " ouui bu " 

3 «' };o " " 

4 " lie m bu noon. 

Imffrfcct Teit8('. 

1 Wau bo oaiiii go bu noon. 

1 " oiin go " 



\Yaii ' 

NllilATlVi: lilll'KATlXii 


1 Wau bo zo wau nen .\t tho tinics I tb) 1 Wau bo zo wauii gon We: Kx. 

not soo. 1 " wuu gon \\'. In. 


wu " 
gon .... 
no gon 

I To. 

wa " You. 

goau non Tbcy. 

no gon 'riiiirs. 

1 Wau bo 7.0 wauni ban noon 
-1 " " wum bu " 

3 " " go '• " 

4 " " no go l)u noon- 

Iiiiprrfri't Tiiiitr. 

1 Wau lio zo waini go bu noon. 



• Present Tiime. 

1 Wau bo sau non At tbo tiuu-s I soo 1 Wau bo paun go 

8U " 
80 jon 

no jon 




rtbily. 1 

su wau ion 

Wo; V. 
Wo; 1 1 


Imperfeet Te 

1 Wau bo samn bau neon. 

2 " sum bu " 
8 " so go bu neon. 
4 " " no go bu ncc 

1 Wau bo saun go bu noon 

iro 1 

wau iro hu noon. 

'« Vm 







1 Willi 1)0 se wiium biiu nan. 

2 " " wum bu " 

3 '• '• go '• " 

4 " " ne ^'o bu nan. 

LAN (J IJ A(iE. 

Iiiqiirfcct Tciiiic. 

1 Wall be se waiin go bu lum. 

1 " wun go " 

2 " wa •• " 

3 " wan " " 

4 " no " " 

N. B. The sign of tlic future tense in the intransitive voices, is not yu, in tlie third and fourth 
persons, tlie same as it is in tlie transitive, but dii, e. g. : 

lie will see. 

His " 

Non gu waub I will see. Go du wau bo 

Go gu waub You" " •' " wun 

Tlie Potential Mood is conjugated thus : 

Nen dau waub I may or can see. Go dan wau bo He may or can see. 

" Thou. " " " wun His. 

IXDICATIVK Mood in t/oo. 
Prcicnt Tciisc. 

1 Ne wau bu me goo lam seen. 

2 Gc " " Thou. 

3 " mail Ho. 

4 " " mo maun His. 

1 No wan bu mo goo men Wo; Ex. 

1 Ge " '■ " AVo. In. 

2 '• " mo goom Von. 

CO " mau wug 'I'hoy. 

4 " " ine maun Theirs. 

Imperfect Tenw. 

1 No wau bu me goo nau bun. 

2 Go " 

3 " niau bun. 

4 " " mo nuiu no bun. 

1 No wau bu mo goo mo nan bun. 

1 Ge 

2 " " me goom wau 1ium. 

" niau bu noog. 

1 "' " me inau no bun. 

NiodATivE Voice. 
Prc»ent Tense. 

1 No wau bu mo goo zoo T am not soon. 

2 Ge " " " Tliou. 

3 " mau zoo II . 

4 " " mo " wun... Ili.s. 

1 No wau bu nu' goo zoo men Wo; Ex. 

1 (io " " '• Wo; In. 

2 " " " zoom You. 

3 " man zoo wug '''loy. 

4 " " 1110 mau zoo wun Theirs. 



1 TS'<' Willi Im iiic ;;iiip /.I'l.' iKiii liiiii 

:i (.ii 

'A O '• iii:iM zrc liiiii. 

■k " " liic iiiiiu zvi: 111' Iniii. 


Jiiijicrfifi-I Tcnxi'. 


1 Nc wall 1)11 iiK' ^'0(1 zc'O 1110 nun Iniii. 

1 (i. 


:l () 
4 •• 

/.(■(■111 Willi llllll. 

llliill zee III! Iirc;^. 

luu llliill Zfu no llllll. 

Doubtful Voice. 

Prewnt Tense. 

1 Xc Willi Iminpfrnnnio cH'i^... Porliaps I iun scon. 1 No Wiiii Im mo jroo mo nnii iliii: Wo; Ex. 

'2 do ' ... Tlinii. 1 Co •■ '• ■' •• ... AVo : 111. 

!J () ■' iniiii illii; IIo. 2 ■' '' iiK\L'i'o Willi iliiir Vnn. 

4 •■ " iiioiiiiiiiilov'ii nun His. '■) O " iiiiiu iln j.m nii;r Tiicv. 

4 '' " 1110 niiiii (111 ;.M mm 'riioirs. 

Xi:('.ATlVH J)01I!T11L VoiCK. 

J^/Vs('iit Tciis-r, 

1 iSow'.iilmmogoozoo illij: I'l'iliiiiis 1 nm not 1 No wiui Im mo poo zoo mo niiu diii.'. Wo: Iv\. 

soon. 1 (io •• '• " " Wc: In. 

i! do '• '' '' Tlidu. '2. •• '■ '■ zoom ■wnn di'ljr... \nn. 

!) O •' niiiu zoo (I'ijr IIo. o O •• iiuui zoo ilci jrii iiiiir 'I'licy. 

4 " '• me'" dof'anun His. 4 '' '• " mo mui •• Tiioirs. 

ri.AIN'TlVi: VOICK. 

J'rcKnit Titisr. 

1 Nowiuibumogoo.a liimsi'onwitii jiiiy, 1 No w;iu Im mo goo so mon Wo: Ex. 

iinw(i;'tliily. 1 (io '• •' '• Wo; In. 

2 (!o " "• 'I'lidu. 2 •• " " soni V,,ii. 

y U '• mail so Ho. 3 •' niiiii so wiig Tlioy. 

•4 " " mo iiiiiu so nun. His. 4 '' " mo iiiau so nun Tlioirs. 

Impcrfi'i't Tiiisi'. 

1 No Willi Im me goo rp n.iu Imn. 

2 (io ■• '• •• •' 

1 No Willi liii mo goo so mo ikui Imii. 

1 <;,■ ' 

3 O 

mau so llllll 

mo mau so no inin 

.3 () 

sclll Willi Illill. 

man so ini iioog. 
me mau .so no bun. 

Vol.. v.— 11 


■■ ' !'i 



846 LANM!rA<iR. 

Dm iiTii I, I'l.MNTivi; Viit('i:s 

J'rrncilt 7V».«i'. 
Simjiil,!,: IViinil. 

1 NLMvaiilmim'goosoiiUMln;,' I'dliiips I niii 1 Nc wiiii Im inr l'uci .-t' iiic iiuii ilii,L'... We : V.\. 

seen willi |iilv, ] (i(. ■• •• >■ .. \\v; In. 

UMWoilhilv. •_' ^-ciiiwni; do;: Voii. 

- ''L' ' .-. 'I'llnll. .■'. U •■ lUlUl SC llo LTI Illl;r Tiu'Ml. 

'' ^' ' iiuMiM'illli.' lie. 4 •• •• 1110 niiiii so (1(1 jrn mill... 'I'liriis. 

4 " '• iiiL' iiiause (I'l'MUiiu... lli^. 

Srii.n-.NCTIVK >r(i(H) in j/oo 
7'n:<t,nf 7' //.v.. 

I \\ :ni liii iiic --...i caiiii 1 1' I mil seen. I Wan liii ihc ;r(i(ic:iiliii.' WC ; K\. 

- ■■ ■■ I'lii,^' 'riii.n. 1 •• •• onn^' \Vc : In. 

■' •• "h'IkI Jl>'. 2 - •• caLT Vdii. 

•1 ■' iiiuuu'inl lli.-i. 3 •■ 111(11 (loan Tlicv. 

4 " me iiioiid 'Clu'irs. 



it ■! 1 





I Ji 

Jllipi'f/crt TclISi'. 

1 Willi liii iiic mw oainii lianii. 
- '■ •■ fiiiii liim. 

•5 " IlR'Il (Ic lillll. 

4 " mo Miou do bull. 

1 Wan Im iiic jroo caiin go Imn. 

1 •• •• CUM (TO '• 





liu'ii di'iau bun 


1110 mou do " 


■AT[\i: "\'((i(i:. 


■rfiHl Ti IlKl'. 

I Wan till iin' LT'"! zc "anil 

II ■' •• '• Ullll 

;> '• man 7.C wend 

4 " 1110 man zo woiid 

... ll' [ am soon. 1 Wan Ini inc ;;■((. i zo \\aniiL' 

••• 'I'll. 111. 1 VMllI- 

... lie. -2 ,va;: 

■ • His. (3 '• mini zo Well diiaii 

4 ■• mo mini zo woiid 

1 Wan Ini mo g^m zo wainii bann. 

2 " " ■' wiim lillll. 
J5 ' iiiaii zo won do 

4 '• 1110 man zo won do biin. 

ImpcrtWt 'JViisr. 

1 Wan bu mo iron zo wanii I'o bun. 


'■ ■■ Willi «.'() 

•■ wa " ' 
man zo won (b'iaii " 
mo man zo won do bun 

Wo: Kx. 
Wo; 111. 






DoriiTiTL ViPici:. 
I'nsciit Tt'iisc. 




i ',V;iii Im me "iw 

If porailvL'nlurc I 1 Wau Im iiio l''") waiiii ;.'an. 


Willi ":nall , 

mail wcu Man. 

1 W 



no man wen ilaii. Hi 

111 I'll nil' lT'"! waiiiii hail nan. 

man wrn >lnaii wan. 

MIL' man wuii dan. 

vlWt 7V 


W,.; K 
W,.; Ii 


1 Wan liii m(> 

wiiiii Im 

man wni ilc 

;ix) waiiii ;;i' Im nan. 


iiic man win iw Im nan 

•> " man Well ilnuii " 

4 " mr man wen dc 

/.'■ al'iiT </.!.'. ill llic first ami sccoiiil [lorsdns, ami after man, in tlic tliinl aiel fmirtli, stamls \\>t 
rlic ncL'ativc. 

1 Wan liii iiic L'iii> sa 

I'l. MNTlvi: Vnic'i;. 

Pi; X, lit T,iis,\ 

If [ am s(>i'ii \villi 1 Wau Im mc l'ii'> saimir We". I'lx. 

pity, iiiiwciriliily. 1 ■" " sun We; in. 

2 '• " sun TliiMi. 

:! •• man si'iiil lie. 

■t ■• mr mail sc meml. I lis. 


man sen iliiaii 'I'liey. 

me mail se weiid 'I'lieirs. 

1 Wall lilt me ^.'nn sautn liaitn. 

"2 " " sum Imn. 

',] " man sen de Imii. 

4 " me niau se men ile Ijuii. 

Imperfect 7'i'iine. 

1 Wan !m me iTno saiin L'e li'iii. 

1 '■ •• sun l;ii •• 

2 •• •• sa •• •• 

3 '• man sen ilniiii " 

4 •• me man se men de Imn. 

DoriiTi-ii. I'l.AixTivi: X'uni:. 

J'rexeiit Ti iixr. 

1 Wanlmme jiiiose wau nan.. If |ieradventiire I 1 Wan Im me irm) si' waiin jran We: Kv. 

am seen with pity, I •' "' wiiiiL'''aii We; In. 

iiiiwiinhiiy - ■• " wa " ^'eii. 

2 ■' " WW '■ 'I'liim. '■'> '• mail se Well dn.iii wan They. 

3 " mail se wi'ii dan.... Ile. 4 " me mail se Well dun Tlieirs. 

4 " iiie mini seoeii dan.. His. 

I : 1 >■ 



Iiii/ifii/'vcf Tiiise. 
Siih/ii/iii: I'/iini/. 

1 Willi Im 1110 jroo kl' wiiMiii liaii mm. 1 AVau Im iiic j;i"i si' wuiiii {.'c Im iiiin. 

2 " " " wiiiii 1)11 '• 1 " " '• Willi i;o '• 
'A " man so won do Im nan. 2 " " " wa " " 
4 " iiic iniui so won do Im nan. 3 " man so won dilau " 

4 " 1110 mail so won do ' 

I{i:i'i:ATix<i Vdii'i;. 
Pn'soit Tfime. 

1 AVaii liii nip LTOO can noil.... At tlic tiiiios lain 1 Wan Im mo ireooann poii AVo ; Ex. 

soon. 1 " " oiin j:(in Wo; In. 

2 " " on •' ... Tlidii. 2 " " oa " Yim. 

•') '• moil joii Ho. 3 " mon dilau lion Tlnv. 

4 " me nion Jon His. 4 ■' nio nioii jon 'I'tioirs. 

Tmp-rfci Ttuxi . 

1 Wan Im mo frno wauiii liaii noon. 1 Wan Im mo ;;oo oanii go Im noon. 

2 '• '• wiiin Im ■' 1 " " onii f;i) " 

3 " moil do Im noon. o n i. ,>.j .. u 

4 " nio nioii do Im noon. 3 " mon dJiaii Im noon. 

4 " mo mon do 

Xi;iiATi\i: Ki !'i:ati.\(; Vnici:.-:, 
J'ri'sriit Tciisi: 

1 Wan Im ino fTiio 7.0 v,.iii noil. .Vt tlio tinios lam 1 Wan Im n.o jriio zo wauii jriii Wo; F.x, 

nut soon. 1 '• '• " Willi j.'im AVo; In. 

2 " " •■ wu '• Tic. II. 2 ■ wa " Y,.ii. 

3 '' man /.o won ji'ii — lio. '» " man 7.<' Wcii diiaii noli I'luv. 

4 " 1110 mail zo xsonjrii. His. 4 '• iiir man zo wen jcii 'I'lioirs. 

LnpcrJ'icf T'lisc. 

1 Wan im mo jrini zo waiiiii liaii iioi'ii. 1 Wan Im mo i^nn zo wanii <ro Im noon. 

2 •• '■ '• wnm Im ■• 1 '• •• " wnii l'o '' 
:> " man zo wen di' Im iiorn. 2 " " " wa " " 
4 '■ mc man zo won dr Im norii. 3 '< rnan zo won do Im noon. 

4 '• 1110 mau zo won do dn noon. 

Pr.AiNrivi: I!i:i'i:\ti\i; A'mci^.s. 

I'ns:,if 7'/(.v,'. 

1 AVau Im mo j;i)0 sail Mon ... .\t tlic times lam 1 Wan Iiii mo l"iii .'-aim ^'on AVo; Tvx. 

soon witli |iit_v, 1 •• '• sun ■.Mil We: In. 

nnwortliily. 2 " " sa •' Y<iii. 

2 " '" sn " ... "I'l'iii. !> '■ man so Wen dilaii lion 'I'lioy. 

3 " mau "<■ Won jon Hi. 4 '• mo man so wen Jon 'I'licirs. 

4 " nio man so Wfii Jon. His. 


1 i 


1 Wan Im me frno saiiiii liau iiccti. 

2 " " sum 1..1 " 
8 " mim s(" well (Ic liii " 

4 " iiic man sf Well ilu Im lu'i'ii. 


Jiiijirrfi'i't Tinnc, 

1 Wan 1)U ino goo saiiii ;;t' Im iiccn. 

1 " " sun i.'i> '• 

2 " " sa '■ " 

3 " man sc wen illlini " 

4 " 1110 man se wen ile " 

I.NlUCATlVi: MiiOlP in (/aZ. 

I'risoil Tfn«c. 

1 Xe wan Im mo i^oz ' lam seen willin;.'ly, 1 N'e wan Iju iii" ;.'o zo men AVo ; Ivv. 

liy niy (iwii |ir(i- 1 <ie '• '' " " AVe ; In. 

ourinj,'. -2 " " " zem Vmi. 

2 (io " " " Tliim. \i O " " zo wii- Tliey. 

3() " " K" zo lie. 4 " " " " -wan 'I'hcli-s. 

4 " " " " wun. His. 

1 No wan Im mo j.'o v.v nail Lnn 

2 Go " " •' 

3 " " " bun. 

4 " " " " bn noon. 

Imperfect Tfiise. 

1 Ne wan liu nie j^o zc nie nan bun. 

1 Gti '• " 

2 •• ■' " zem wa\i Imn. 
;! () '• •■ ze liU nee;;. 

4 •■ " " '• neen. 

Nkiiativi: Voici:. 
.P/Y.ii'iit Tense 

1 No wan liu nio ;;n zo zeo I am not scon, v<;o. 1 Ne wan bn mo ^'o zo zoo men AVe ; Ex. 

2 (le " " '• Tlum. 1 (io '■ ■' •• '■ Wo: In. 

;! O " " '• IFo. 2 " " " " zoom Yon. 

4 •' " " '• wnn. His. 3 O " " " zoo wuir.. 

i. a (( 


I '"■ f 

1 Ne wan liu mo rro ze zoo nan bun. 

2 (le 

3 () " '• " Imn. 

4 '• '• " " bn ncen. 

Tmpcrfeet Tense. 

1 No wan bn mo ,l;o zo zoo mo nan bun, 

1 Cn ' 

2 ■' " '' ze zoeui wan Imn. 
;! () '• '' Zi'o bn noo,;:. 

4 ■• " '• •• neen. 

' This fiirni is si'liloin used as it sfaiiils here; it goueraily voiiairos the aiMitinn nt' oae nf tiio purtiek'S to 
make tlio sense C'liiijiloto ; ine mnst frc(|acnlly, as 

ir.r waa liu me fin ze . He wisliis to slmw liiuL-elf. 

1 I 

H ! 


• 't 


flfio I, A N r; r A < : F . 

Dili III ri I, \'(ii(i;. 

J'i'lXIIlt TlllKl'. 

Si'iii/ii/iir. I'liinil. 

1 XiMvau liumc I.'" /.(• iiic (In;:. P(>vliii|)s I am soi'ii. 1 Ne wan Im iiic ;.'o /.c me iiau illl^'... We; Ivv. 

2 (ic Tlliill. 1 (If '■ '■ >■ •• ... (\'(. ; 111. 

;'. " " ze '* Ho. 2 " " '• ziin wan d.^'.... Ynii. 

4 •' I. -a :'. O " •' zed.) -iiiiii-.... Tliry. 

nun.. Ili:<. 4 '• '• " '• nnii.... 'I'k'iis. 

Nkiiativi; nonrni'i, A'orcKs. 

1 No «aii Im iiK' J.M Zf zee iliii.'... I'dliajis 1 am nut 1 Xr wan Im iiic jro zo zee iiic nan du'.'. We; I'.x. 

-ci'n. I (ic " " *' " .'(■ . 111. 

2 Go " " '■ •• ... Tlinii. -J zccm wail d.i;.'.. Vnll. 

" O '• ' IK'. ;! () '• " zeo dii jra niiL'.. 'I'licv. 

4 " " "■ '• do j.'a 4 " " " " 11,111.. 'riii'ii-s. 

mill.. His, 

ri.AiNTivi; \'iiiri:. 

J'rr.-ii III Tiillic. 

1 N(.- wan liii mo go zcs T am seen with |>il_v 1 Xc wan )m mo go zo so men We; lv\. 

ninvoitliilv, (ii- am 1 lio " " " \Vc ; In. 

doiroiis of lii'ing - " " '" som Voii. 

>((ii witli |iilv. ;! (> •• '• ,<(.'wiig 'riicm. 

'2 Ho ■• '• '■ 'I'liHii. 4 •• •• »• ■• Willi 'riirirs. 

:! () •• •• zo so He. 

4 " '■ '• '■ Willi. His. 

7//iy/iv;/'< (7 Tiiisi'. 

1 Xc w.'in liii mo go zo so nan Inin. 1 X\' uaii !in mo go zi^ sc iiic nan liiin. 

•J (io ] Cl 

i! U " •• •' liiiii. -1 •• •• •■ zo som wan 

4 " " '• •' Iju noon. :i () •• •• " .s^ Im iioog. 

4 ■• " '• " '• I.CI'H. 

Dorinrii. Pi.mni'ivk A'tiici:.'^. 
l'r,.K,iii yV)i.v.'. 

1 Xo wan Ijiiniogo zesomoilng IVrliaps 1 am I Xo wan Im iiu' go z.' sc mo nan dilg. \Vr : Iv\. 

soon with I (ie •• •• '• " •• W, ■: In. 

])itv, \o. 2 •■ •• •• zo si'iii w;iu •• 

2 (io " '• '• " ... Tliuii. :; () so doganiig.. Tlicv. 

3 " " '• diig lie. 4 '• " " " ■• imn.. TIaiii. 

4 " " " " do git linn.. His. 



L A N O U A ( ! !•: 

SUUJl'MTIVi: MniiK in ijiiz. 
J'ir.ii'iil TeuKf. 


1 AVau 111! mu I'll zi- I'liun.... If \ 

nil seen, or 

.Ic- 1 \Vi 

II liii inc' ;;o zc (Miiiiu 


>i|l'llllS(l| IK'IIIL'SCI'II. 

ZC llfl 


I Hi; 

1 Wail lin me \:n zo onuni liuii 

'1 " " CIIIM llUIl 

Linicrfcrf Te\ 

1 Willi liii 11)0 pn Z(> Pillin ;!(' Ill 

1 '• " Cllll I'll 

•* lie riiiM. -1 •• ■■ \v,-|ii 1,1111. 

4 " '' lie •• 

Ni:i!Aiivi; \<i\cv.. 

1 Wall 111! iiic L'o zc zc Wiinii... Tf iiiii not seen. 1 Wiiu Kii imol'o zc ziMvaiiiiL' We; Kx. 

2 '• " •wiin.... Tlioii. 1 •• '■ .' „„,|j; w,,. 1,1. 

8 " '• Z,- If,.. -2 yy,.^ V„„. 

4 " '■ zi'iic- lli^. n •• " " ir|;,|,i Tlicy. 

4 " " " IK- Tla^iiN. 


1 Willi liii nil' j;o 7.0 zo waiiiii li;iiiii. 

2 " '• wuiii Imn. 

3 '• " liiin. 

4 " " no no liiin. 

Iiiiiieii'ict Tense. 

1 Willi liii mo .i;o zo zo «;iiiii l'o Inin. 

1 " •' Willi j_f|) 

•J '• " Wil •• '• 

;5 " '• j:n,iii 

4 " " no no 

Dm-irmi, Vmri:. 

1 Willi bu 1110 go zo Willi iiiin. If [ olianoo to Ijo 1 Wan Lu mo l'o zo Wiiiin i.mij Wo; Ivv. 

soon, or ilosii-ims 1 '• " wiingiiaii \\\': In. 

of lioiiiLT soon. - " " ivii " You. 

2 " " wii •• Tlioii. 3 " " wail '■ TIhv. 

3 " " -nan Jfo. 4 " " no " Tlioiis. 

4 " " lie <:"!iii" His. 

1 ^' ■« 

Ji i 


H I 1 I '■ 

iJF 'I- 


L.\;;(i I' At; i-; 

1 Willi lill liH' ^'1 /.f »iilllll li;iil null. 
'J, " '• Wlllll bll 

4 " " III' ''(. Im '• 

I linn- )■!',, -I Ti lisr. 


1 Willi I'll nil' ;.'o /.i' waiiii j;i' Ini mill. 

I " '• Willi i;i) *' 

•J ■• •• «ii - " 

•'? '• •• Willi " " 

4 >• " „e " " 
Zee iil'tcr zc, sliinds fur tlii' iio;^iiiivc in tlic.-ie voi(;e.<. 

I'l.Aixrivi; N'oicK. 
J'ri'.ioil Tiiisc. 

1 Willi 1 III iiH" i.'n /,(> .xinin If I iini srcii with 1 Wuu Im nu' jro zc siiiiii;; AVo ; V,x. 

]iil y, iinwiPi'tliily. I " '* sun;.' Wi' ; In. 

2 '' " siiii 'I'lioii. '2 *' '' sair Ymi. 


ih (( 

sell III'. 

so IR'll... His. 


" SI' wiiinl 'I'licy. 

" nc'il 'riii'ii's. 

1 '\Vaii liu nil' ;.'o zc sanin Imiin. 

IJ " " siini tiiiii. 

8 " " so " 

4 " " se no Iniii. 

Impcrfict Tcniti'. 

1 Wan liii mo go zo saiiii ''o Imii. 

sun ;.'') 
sa " 
so wau 
" no 


Pirgcnl Tfiinf. 

1 'Waiiliiunogcizo.sowaiinaii. If iicrailvontiire I I Wan Im ino irii zo so waun jrati Wo; Ex, 

am soon with (lily, 1 '• " «iiii;.'iiaii Wo; In. 

&o. - " '■ wa "• Ynll. 

2 " " wii •• 'fli.m 

3 " " ,L,"ian Ho. 

t " " no ^'lian.. His. 


" wall " 
•' no 


Imjterfcct Tense. 
] AVaii ]iu mo <ro zo so wanm )iau nan. 1 Wan Im mo j;o zo sc waun r;e bu nan. 


wiim Iiu " 

jrO '• « 

no ;:o " " 


Willi go " 

I. AN (MA OK. 


llti'iiAi'iMi Vmci:, 

Siii;)u/iir. I'/iiiii/ 

1 Willi liU lilL- ;,'o zo I'liu IR'II. At tlic tiiili'^ I iim 1 Wall lill mo ;:o 7.0 niii ;.'iii We; lv\. 

sccll,oriilii(l('.'*il()lls 1 " •' ciiii ;.'(]|| We; III. 

Ill' Ipi'iiij; sicii. 2 " " I'll '• YiiM. 

2 « " oil •• Tli.m. a " " wmijon Thcv. 

8 " " JiMi 111'. 4 " " ne '• Their.'*. 

4 " " lie jon... Ili.f. 

ImihrJ'ixl Ti-i)iii\ 

1 Willi Im 1110 1^0 zo oaiiin Imii ikmii. 1 Wan lui mc go ze oaiin go liii noon. 

2 " " oiim Im " 1 " " oiiii gi) " 

4 " " no go Im noon. 3 " " wan '• " 

4 " " no " " 

Ni:<J.\'llVK TlKI'KATrN'tl VoK'KH 

PrcHint Tviine. 

1 Wail Im 1110 go zozowiiiuion.. .\t tlio tliiiO'< 1 am 1 Wan Im mo go zo zo waun gen We: lv\. 

lint soon. 1 " " Willi goii Wo; III. 

2 " " wu '• Tlioii. 2 " " wa •' Vim. 

8 '' " gon Ilo. 3 " " giiim lion Tlioy. 

4 " " nc gon... His 4 " " no gon Theirs, 

Imperfect Teime. 

1 Wan bii mc go zo zo waum bau noon. 1 Wau bu mc go zo ze wniin go Im neon. 

2 " " wuin Im neon. 1 " " wiin go " 
8 " " go '• 2 " " wii •• •' 
4 " " lie go " 3 « '■ wau " " 

4 " " no " 

Pl.AI.NTIVK Hiil'KATlXii VoiCK. 

Present Tense. 

1 Wau bu mc go ze aunen.... At the times I am 1 AVau bu nie go ze stann gin Wo; lv\. 

scon with pity, 1 " " .sun gon Wc ; In. 

unworthily. 2 '' " sii '• You. 

2 " " sill " .-. Thou. 3 " " so wall jon Tlioy. 

;! " " se.jon lie. 4 " " "no " Theirs. 

4 " " " ne jon. Tlis. 

Vol.. v.— 10 

1 f I 


I i\ 

1 'I'll 

^ ^ 



Am ^^ v^ 



1^128 125 

|5o ^^ H^H 

■^ Uii 122 




1.25 ||, .4 J4 









(716) S72-4S03 


Ul n 


1 Willi I 



Iiiiji't/ii-I T, n.ic. 



11 111! iiic ■'II •/.(■ Miiiiii liiiii men. 

sum liii mil:. 

I Wan liii nil' ;:n /.c >i\u\\ ire Ini nooiit 


IK' yo bll lll'l'l 

i-iiii jilt 

.-!• wail ''o bll iifcn. 

Indicativi: Mouii 
J'riKiiit Tiitxi 


1 N. 

:! O 

wall hull ji' 

I fci' — look cm— 1 1 Xi- wan 1 

I- wan liiiii |c jsn iiu'n. 

am a sini'latur. I (! 

a hh 


.'1 O 

III! perfect Tiller. 


pii wii;:.. 

'• Willi.. 

W( : Ivv 
W,.; Ill 


1 No wail Iiiiii ](' <'n nail I 

|(' ^a nan liiin. 

1 Nc wall bun jc jra mc nnit bun. 


" a 

u n 

bu nocn. 

1 r.c 


(( (( 

j:aiii wail Imn 
pa bit nccp. 

U t( 


Nkhativk Yoici:. 
J'ri-seiit Tiime. 
1 Ne Willi liun jo >':i zee I (bi not soo— I am 1 No wan 1 

iiin JC <ia zee men. 

not a siiootator. 1 (!o 

2 Gc 


zeem . 


wun. His 

Jmjierfeet Teune. 


We; E.N 
We; In 


1 No wail bull Jo <:a zoo nan bun. 

2 (io ' 

;J (» bun. 

4 '• " " '• bu noon. 

1 No wail bll jo ;.'a zoe nio nan Imn. 

1 do 

- ■■ '■ " zoom V, ail bun. 

;! () '• " zoo bu neeg. 

4 " " " neen. 

DornTFiL Voice. 

Present Tcnge. 

1 Ne wan bun je jriv mo ib'ii;. I'erbaiis I sec, or 1 Ne wan bun Jo jra me nau ib'!}; We; Ex. 


2 fie 


u u >• 

" Tlio 

lb;-... He. 

iiu ga nun.. His, 

1 C 


We; Ii, 

gam wnu dog You. 

a u 

ga do ga iiiig.. 


a ik ii ii ii 





Nkiiativi; Doihtfi'I, Voirns. 


( Tt'i 

regent Jenm 



1 Nc Willi liuii Jp ;ra 200 ililg.... Porliaps I do not 1 No wau Imii jc iiu zco mo iiaii dn;:. Wo: V,\. 

SCO. 1 Ge " •■ '• •• Wo: In. 

' ... TIiou. 2 " " " zoom «:iM illl.L'.. Yon. 

' ... He. H " '• z..o(lu-„ 111,;:.. Tlioy. 

(locanun. Ills. 4 " " " '• " nun.. Tlioiis. 

2 Go 

3 O 

(( U li 

II, li u . 


.AINTtVK Vi.iICi;. 


1 Nc wnu l)un jo j^aa. 

I 800 poorly — I 1 No wau btin jo j»a so mon 

8 O 

am an imwo 


rtliy 1 G 


Wo; Tlx. 

" Wo; In. 

som Yon. 

so ww'ii 'I'lioy. 

" wuii Tlicir.-'. 


if BE 

; fi 


1 No wan Imn jo ^a so iia\i 1)un. 

2 Go " " " 

3 " " " Imn. 

4 " " " " bu neon. 

Imperfect Teime. 

1 No w,-in Imn jo j»a so mo nan Imn. 

1 Go " " " " 

2 •■ " " som w;iu bun. 

3 () " '• so Im noo^'. 

1 " '< " ..n..n 

DovnTi'iri, Pi.aixtivi: Voin;.". 
Pretent Tense. 

1 Nowaubunjogascmoiliig Porliaps I soo 1 No waii bun jo pa so mo nan clil;r 

poorly, or am 1 Go 

an unwortliy 2 " " 

spectator. 3 " 

2 Go " " " " ••• Thou. 4 " " 

3 «« " " (lojr He. 

4 " " " " Jogaiiun. His. 

Sun.ii'XCTiVE AIooD in ija. 
Present Tense. 

a i. a .t, 

" " som wau (b'lf: .... 

" so llo jra nufr 

" " " nun .... 

Wo; Vs. 
Wo; In. 




1 Wau bun je ga oaun If I sec, or am a 1 Wau bnn jo ga eaunp ..., 

spectator. 1 " " oiin;.' 

2 '> " " eun Thou. 2 " " eag 

3 " " -rail He. 8 " " oaml 


led . 



Wo; Ev. 
Wo; 111. 

.5.4 31 




1 Wini Imn jo jm onuiii Imii 

2 " • t'liii bun. 

3 " " Imii. 

4 '* " 110 liiiii. 

JiiipcrjWt 7V 


1 Wan Imn jo pi oiiiin gc Imn. 

wall 1)1 

Nkoativk Voici;. 

J'rcsillt Tillsr. 
1 Willi Imn jo j:a zo waun... ll'l ilo not see. — If [ 1 Wan Imn jo <:;\ zo waiiii 

mil nm a siioctator. 


(fc a 

ZO no; 


Wo; Kx. 

wiiiif; Wo; In. 

\ft\'^ YdU. 

^I'lixn Tlioy. 

lu'i' Tlioiw. 

1 Wnu 1)1111 jo ^ra zo waiiiii I)i 

2 " •■ wmii Imi 
a " •• bun. 

ne jic luin. 

Iin/ierfcrt Ta 

1 Wan liiiii jo '^;i zo 

wiiuii ;,'o liun. 
Willi jro 

wa '• " 

j^iiau " 

no ^fc " 

Plaixtive Voice. 

J'risritt Tcnur. 

1 Wail bun jo ga saun If I hco poorly, uii- 1 Wan bun jo 

worthilv, or am an 1 '* ' 

unworthy spoctator. 




" sun Thou. 

" soil Ho. 

" sc noil... His. 

■aun^' Wo; K.v. 

" Miiij; Wo: In. 

" sa^' You. 

" HO waiiil Thoy. 

" '• noil Tlioii'ij. 



1 Wau bun jc ga sanni baun. 

2 " " .>'iini bun. 

" " so '• 

4 " " " ne I)un. 

Imperfict Titme. 

1 Wau bun jo jra saiin <n- bun. 
*' " sun jjo " 


sc ouu 

'' ne 

DornTFfL Voice. 
PrcHi'nt Till III'. 

1 Wau bun jo ;;a wau nan.... If I ohaiioo to soo, 1 Wau bun jo 

or bo a sjiootator. 1 " ' 

2 '• " wii " ... Tlion. 2 


Lra waun jran. 

wiin I'oan.. 

Wo; Ex. 

AVo; In. 

1 ; 






Iniperfcct. Tunte. 




1 Wan 1(1111 jc jra waiim tiau nan. 

1 Wall Imn jo ;.'a waiiii ;;o 

Iiii nan. 

2 " " winii liii '' 

1 " " Willi p.") 


8 " >' ,-„ •• " 

O u .. „.^ .. 



•1 " '• nc L'li Ml <> ■• «all lTh 

4 » '• ,„, •• 

Zee after iji, is i"(ir llic nc^'ativo ; aihl .i. after //'(, fur tlii' duiilttl'iil iilaintivc voici'S. 

Hi:i'i:.\Tixii Vdki'. 
J'reKi'iit Tciine. 

1 Wail Imn jc ;.'ii call ncn .Vt tlio times 1 sec, 1 Wan Idiii jc jra eaiin jrcn Wc ; Tv\. 

(ir am a luuker-on. 1 '■ '• eiiii ;.'hii We; In. 

2 " ■• cii '■ Th.m. -1 '• '• ea '* Ymi. 

a •• " jc He. 8 " '• wan j. II Tliev. 

4 '• " licjcii Iliu. 4 " '• nc •• Theirs. 

IiiiiicrJ'i'cl ToiKi'. 

1 Wall liiin jc pa caiini liau necn. 

2 " '■ eiiin Im " 

3 " .' jr„ " 

4 " *' no 'M bii " 

1 Wall Imn jc ffi eaiin i.'e Im necn. 
1 " '• Clin ''i> '' 

U (i 






Present Tense. 

1 Wall Imn jc j:a zc ^Yall lien. .\l tlic times I do 1 Wan Imn jo pa zc waiin jzen We: K\. 

not sec. 1 '■ ■■ Willi L'lin We; In. 

2 '• " wu " Tiiiiii. 2 " " wa •• Ynll. 

S " " jriMi Ho. 3 " '• piiau ncn Tlie.v. 

4 '' " nojxon... His. 4 " " no pon 'I'lieirs. 

Imperfect Tense. 

1 Wan linn jc pa zo waiim liau neon. 

2 '• " wiini Im " 

3 " <> po " " 

4 " " nc po bii " 

1 Wail linn jo pa zp waiiii po Im noon. 

1 '• '• Willi pii '• 


wa ■■ 
wail ■' 
lie '• 

I. :!1 



1 ■ iR 


,1 1 1 ■ 


r, .\N<; [■ Ai; i;. 

Vi.MNTivi: l!i;i'i:\iiN(i V(iii'i:,-<, 

J'n ... i,t Tni",: 

Sni./ii/.ir I' 

1 \V:ni liilli ji" ;.'.l >:iil lii'ii... At till' tillir.x I si-0 1 Wail lillli Jc ;.':! sum jri'tl \Vr ; V.\. 

l"i,,il_v. nr am an 1 •• '• mih l'"Ii \Vr; In. 

iiiiHHiiliv >|jiriaiii". - '■ " sa •• Yuii, 

2 " '• SU •• ... Tllnll. :? •• .. ^,. ualljlll 'I'll.'V. 

•■> " " '■'•.i''!! III'. 1 " " " 1,0 •• Tii.ii^. 

•t •■ '■ " 111.' jell.. Hi". 

1 Wail liiiii jc :.M saiim tiaii iici'li. 
- •• •• .■iiim Ipii iii'i'ii. 


'• III' '.'ii lill lU'CM. 

Jinprifn't 7' iiiii' 

1 Wan liMii jc L'H saiiii ;.'!' I'll iii'Oli. 

1 " •• SMll L'l" 

O .( a ^.^ .. 

n *' " SI' wall IT" liu lui'M. 
4 * IK> " 


Inhhativi: Mnnn in ,;,.:. — UrrLKcTivi-: Vmci:. 

J^riSiUt Tiiisc. 

1 \i' wan liiin iIi'Z I sec iiivsclf. L 1 Nc wan t.iiii dc zaii hkmi Wo; F.\. 

•2 Ci Tlinn. 1 C, ' Wo. III. 

•^ <> '• lie Z.I') 111'. -J Ziinlll You. 

4 " " '■ Willi His. :! (» >• " ziiii wiiL' 'i'lioy. 

4 '• '• '■ " Willi 'riii'ii'j. 

1 No wail liiin ilr zoii nan Imii. 

•_' <i 

;5 O •• ■• l.iin. 

•1 " " •' Im iRoii. 

J/iijifrfii-t TfiiHC. 

1 No wan Iiiiii ilo "Oil 1110 nan luiii. 

1 (;,, .. 

•J ■• " •• zii.ini wan Imii. 

;> I ( " " zoK liii iico;; 

4 " " •• " noon. 


Ni:iiATi\i: ViiU'i:. 
I'l-is.nt T.iinr. 

1 No wan linn ilo zui v.pc 1 .In imt soo iiivsolf. 1 No wan Inin ilo zmi zoo nion. 

2 <io Tllnll. 1 do ' 

4 " 


Willi. Hi.-i. 

;! () 

4 " 

Wo: Vk. 
Wo: In. 

" zo.'iii Villi. 

Zio will' 'i'lli'V. 

" " Willi Tlioir.s. 


L.\N<ir\<iK. afio 

tiiifii I Jvrl 7'i (Mr. 

.s;„.,„/.,,: f:„nii. 

1 Nt' wail liiiii lie /uii /.('(' nail liiin. I Nc vtail l>iiii ilr /on /re iiir liail luili 

•1 (ic •* 1 (io " '• •• " 

•> " " •• liiiii. 1' " '* " /ci'iii wall liiin. 

■1 " " " " Imi ikcii. ;! U " •• zr,' Imi no.';,'. 


|)nl IITll 1. VdlCK. 

y V(»( Hi T ».-r. 

I Nr wall liilli ill Zdii iiir i|iIl'. l'('llia|i-< I m'i' iiiv- 1 Nr wan Ipiiii dc /.on mc nan iIm;:... Wr ; l".\. 

siir. 1 (i( ... Wv: In. 

- (^0 '• '■ " '■ Tlimi. "J ■• •• '• wail iliii;: Vmi. 

;! () •■ "we •• II. •. :•. (> " " z In ija iiiiir 'I'lny. 

4 *• " " (111 j.;a nun. Ili.-i. t '• " *' ' iiii 'I'liiiis. 

Ni:i:\iivi: l>iii mil 1, Vmiic^ 

1 Nl' wan llllll ill' /.no Zl'O llllir I'rlllil]!- I iln lint I Nc Wall llllll llo Znn Zi'O 1)11' IKI 11 iln^'. AVr ; l''v. 

Ml' iiiv-iir. I ( If " " •• •• W,' ; In. 

•J(il" '• '• '• '• 'I'llnll. -2 " '• " ZCClll wall llnu' ... Vnll. 

:!<> 111'. ;'. O •' •• zic iln^-a mil.'... Tiny. 

4 " " •* " ilii LM nun. His 4 '• " " •' '• nun... 'i'luiis. 

ri.MNTivi: VoicK. 

J'riHiiil 'J'lii.iL. 

I Ne wan liiin ilo zods I sic iiivsclf with 1 Nc wait Inin ilc zoo .sc nu^n W'r: K\. 

I'iiy. 1 <it' " '• '■ \Vr: 111. 

•_' (U- " '• " 'I'llnll -J SIMII Vnll. 

;: (» •• "> !i^^ II,'. :; () •' •• >.' w:-,i; Tiny. 

4 '• '• " " Willi. His. 4 •• '• •' " Willi 'I'laiis. 

I/iijiir/ict Tiitisi: 

1 No wail liiili ilo zoo sc nail Imii. I Xc wan luin ilc zno so ine nan liiiii. 

•J (It 1 <ii 

;i O " " ■' liiill. - " " '■ sciu w.iii liiin. 

4 " " " " liii nci'ii. ."> O " " sc liii nci'.i.'. 

4 '• '• " " lu'i'ii. 



1, A m; I A li !•: 

m i 


Uoi I'.n 1 I, I'l MN in I. \i'ii i;s. 
J'iii<tnl 'l\iii>i\ 

1 No w.mliiiniloziHisonu'iliiL.' I'crlmp- 1 sci' 1 \i' waii luin il 

inv^i'll' with I (ic 


a O 


/.I'll >i- 111!' nan I 

Wr: In 

.i;;.'.... V. 

M' i|i« I'll llll'J 

llllll... Illl'll'^, 

(III ;:ii null.. Ili.'<. 

1 Willi liUti ill' Zi> car 

zo ni 

Si iiUM rn i; Munii in 7i :. 
I'rifi lit 7' «.«. . 
It' I M'l' iiiv-(ir. 1 \Vaii Inin di- zn can 


il Hi 



Wr: K 
W,': Il 

ca;: . 


1 Wan llllll ilo Z'"i cauiii lia 

2 •• ■• iiiiM Imn 


lie llllll. 

Imiwrfiit Ti 

1 Wan lull! (I 


7.11 lauii iio llllll. 

wail Imn. 
no '• 

Nkoativi: VoirK. 
1 Wan llllll do 7.1) ze wauii.... If I do nul .<oi' inv- 1 Wan Imn do zn zc wanii;,' Wo : Iv\. 






Wo: In. 

hi- I 

1 Wail Imn do zo zo wann liaiin. 



no po 

Jiiivi-rl'ict 'I'l 

I Wail llllll do zo zo wann j;o Imn. 

1 " '• Willi I'll " 

f.'i lau 
nc go 


i-ANt; r A (i H 

|)i>i hill I. \ i>i< 


r,;>iiit T, 



1 \V;iii liiiii ilr /.'I wall nan... IT I cliaiii'i' in .'ii' I Wan Imn ilc /a uaiin ira 


Willi ^r''aii., 



tmi>iri,,t 7*1 

1 Wan Iniii d 

nil ilr /.<) waiiiii Mail nan. 

I Wan Imiii ill' Zii 

111 L'l' 1 

) «aiiii L'l' nil nan. 

lie j;ci im 


1 Wail lillll ilr /I 
>> .. 


I'i.mmim: \ii|i k. 
I'r.s.-iit T,iis.. 

-anil ir 1 -IT ni\ -ill' villi I Wan luiii ili- /'> -anii^ W r . I!v. 

|iil_v. I '■ '■ Mini.' \\f. 111. 

Mill 'I'lpiii. i ■■ •• i-a;^ ^l'll. 

-r.i l!,-. 3 •• •• -,• wan.l 'I'll. v. 

sr llnl lli.f. I " *• '' llC'l 'riirilr*. 

Iiiij',rt\yt 7'. 

1 Wan liiiii ill' /■'> i-aiiin liaiiii. 
'J " " .Hiiin liiiii. 

I W an liiiii ill' •/.» -anil ■/>• I 
I •• •• sun i;i) 

DoiiiTKn. I'l.MSTivi: Vi':"!:.-'. 
J'ri\ii'iil Tills,, 
1 Wau liun ill' zo so wan nan... If 1 cliaiu'c Id see I Wan Inin ili' /.n si' wai 

iiiv.-i'lf with I'll V. I 

Willi L'"an. 

• ) a 



Wi ; li 


p i:\li . 

Ill" ^iian... ili^<. 

hii/'ii-i'ii-t 7' 

1 Wall Imu lU' /.use wanni lian nan. If 1. 1'ti'., M\. 1 Wanlniiiil 

1' /.D.'ii' waiiii I'l 



liii nan. Ilwc, \r. V. 

Vol. V. — 10 



T, .\N«;r \fiE. 

Hii'iMivii Viiiii:. 

I',:>:nl 7' 


1 \V;|'I liiiii ill' Y.'i liiil III 11 \t lln' tilllC't I MT I Willi lilili lie /.. 

1 rami ;.'rn. 





lie |i II. 

»ail |i'li . 

Iiiijii'fl'it 7' 
1 Wan liiiii ill' z.i laiiiii tiail liiTii I: V.K. I Wai 

1 li'iii ill- /.I rami I'v Im lii'ili. 


h li 


W,': i: 

W,.; li 

NniMivi: IJi:i'i:\riNu Vuni:.-. 

I'll !<■ Ill TlllM'. 

I Wall liiiii ill' z 1 /r Wan ill' \mIii' tiiiir- I il'i I Wall liiili ili' zii /i' Haiiii l'i'II Wr ; \'.\. 

II' ll Ml' IllV-l If. 1 

Wll '• ... 'I'll. III. J 

;;■". Ur. :! 

lie j-iiii Ili-i 4 

Willi L'i'ii \\ 1' ; 111. 

wa •• ^^|ll. 

,L''''aii iii'li 'I'lii'V. 

Ill' 'MM 'I'iu'ii-.-. 

1 Wail Imii ill' Z'l zi' wiuiii liaii iii'i'ii. 

\Mini Im lu'cli. 

Jllipcrfirt TiliKI' 

1 Wail tiiiii ill' zii zc wiimi ;:i' I'li iici't 

1 •• •• Willi I'D " 


ri.AiNTivi: I{i:i'i:\TiMi Vnni:.-^. 
J'rfgiiil TiiiKi'. 
1 Wail liiiii lie Z'l sail iini \l llic liiiii'-< [ si'i" 1 Wan lniii il 

If willi liilV. I 

sil " 
sr jrli. 


IK'Jrll.... Ilis 

z.ii .'^aliii L'i'li. 


SI' wail ji'ii. 

We: 111. 




T, AN<: |- AilK. 

ImiuriWt Tiiitr. 


Si II 1/ II 1(1 r. 

1 Wmu liiiii do /.o s:niin Inm noon. 

'J " '• Slim Im '• 

;} i. .. ^j, ^,„ .. .i 

4 " " •• lit' j^'t liii lu'iii. 

1 Willi liiiii ill' Zii •>ailli L'l' 'ill I II. 

1 •• •• silii j: 

2 " •• -a 

') " •• M' wan j.'ii liii mill. 
4 n- 

IsiurvriM; Mmiii in ./« iihia. 
J'fiiiciit Tiiisc. 

1 Nc «aii I'Uii ilii man' T soc. 

•2 do '• '• Tlioii. 

:l O " " II.'. 

4 " " '• Willi., liii. 

1 Ni 



liiiii ilii mail moil 

Wr: Kv 

1 Co 

W,.; 111. 

•1 .. 

" iiiaiuii 


:l () 

111. ill wiii: 


4 '• 

'" " Willi 


1 No wail liiiii ilii mall nan luin. 

'J Ci 

;! t) " " iiiiii, 

4 " " •' Im noon. 

Jinjur/irt Tnint. 

1 No wan liiiii ilu man mo nan Iniii. 

I i;,. 

■J •• ■• inaiim wan Inin. 

:> () •• man liii iiori.'. 

4 •• " •• mvn. 

Ni:i;ativi; A'nui 
J'lysiitl Tiimr 

1 No wail liim ilii iiinu zoo I ilu not .xoe. 

2 Go " •* Tliou. 

3 •' '• Ho. 

4 '* " '• oun. His. 

1 No wan liiiii ilii man zoo iiioii \Vr : K\. 

1 <i. Wo; In. 

■J '• '" •• zoom Yiiii. 

'■) (> ■• ■• Zoo wiijr 'I'lioy. 

4 '• '* '• " Willi 'rinirs. 

1 No wau Imn ilii man zoo nau bun. 

2 (ie •• " " 

8 " " " Inin. 

4 " " " " 1)11 noon. 

ImperfM Tcn^i'. 

1 No wan Iniii ilii man zoo mo nan Imn. 

1 Ci 

'1 '• •• •' zi iin Imn. 

:'i (> •• " Zoo liii not'i;. 

4 •• " " •• noon. 

' Tlioro is a ililloiviu'o lu'twooii lliis fnriii ainl A' ir.inh. S'- n-nii lim itn nt'iu .-iL'iiilio^ tlu' oxi. ivi^o of -iijlit, 
as: 1 oiiii SCO; it i.H iiut daik ; tlioio is no obstiiH'tinii to my >ooiiig. .V. iniii/) is : I liave .-iKlit ; I am not 




: "m 



l.ANC IA«iE. 


Si II I / II f It r. 

I»"i nil I I. N'ciicK. 

I'll HI lit TiiiKi: 


1 Ni' «;iii Ipiiii ilmimii iiirilil;: I'iili,i|n I HIT. I Ni' Willi liiiii ilii mail iiif imii ilil;.'... \\'<-. V.\. 

' W. : In. 


;i O 

it tt 

(III ''II nun . 

I C 

!J O 

ti II 

llllllllll Willi ilii;; ... Villi. 
Illilll i|ii ;.'il nil;:... TlirV. 

" " mill... Tiiiii'!*, 

Nkhativk Dmiiin I, \»\tv.. 

I'l-.niit Tin*-. 

1 Nc wail liiin liii Illilll zrc ijil;.'.... I'rilia|is I ill) nut 1 Ni' wall liim ilil iMiiii Zi r iiii' iKiii ilil;:. Wr; K\. 


' •• ... II-. 

lit) );ii mill Hi.4 

I <: 

a o 

\V. ; 1 1 

/ri'lil wan 

iIm;.'.. V. 

Zii' il'i ;.'il nil;:... I lit'V. 

" " null.. Tlii'ii'.i. 

I'l. MNTivi; Vnirn. 
J'riKiiil TiiiKi'. 

1 Nr wail lain ilii nmiiH. 


•KM" IliMirlV, III! 


1 \i' wan liiin il 

II nun iiii nviii sc nifn. 

Wr: En 

•2. (Ir 
4 •• 

" Til. 111. 

mail ><■ III'. 

" Willi.... Ilij. 

1 N'l' wail liiin till man m' nan Imii. 

L' (ic •' " •' •' 

:! <» Iimi. 

4 " " " •• liii iictn. 

•-' • " " .''I'lii Yi.ii. 

;'i O " " SI' WIlL' 'I'liry. 

4 " " " " Willi... 'riiiiiw. 

IlUprr/irt TilISi: 

1 Ni' wan liiiii ilii mail si' mr nan luiii, 

1 lie '• " " " " 

2 ■■ '• '■ scm wan luin. 
.1 O '• » SI' liii ni'.';r. 

4 •• " " " nrrn. 


D^fiiTFi I, l'i.AiMi\i: \'iiici:i'. 

J'l-inrnf TiiiK,: 

1 N'r wan liuii .111 mail >(' I I'ig.'.. Prrliaiis I sci' 1 Ni- wan l.iiii ilii man si' nir nan illi;.'. Wr : V.x. 

\\\- In. 
" •' sriii wan ilili'.... Yiiii. 


ii'lv. nil- I (! 


li Ci' 

ii II >i 



He Mil .'a mil 


4i tt 

il*» trJi mm.. His 

r. .\N<:r' \<;f. 

f 1 11.11 N< rn i: M'"'i. jn ,/,( ,„,,,t 

I'll m lit V' iiJir, 




1 W.iii Imiii iIii mail iiiiiti IT I 'ir, 

I nil. 


1 Wail IpimmIii iiiiiil r!iilli;r \Vr ; \'.\, 

1 " '• iilli;.' WC; In. 

I'a;; . 

Iiiail III' 

■ 1 Ill 

///(III rl'i <7 7'. 


1 Wan liiiii (III liiail I aiiiii I'aiili. 

•J •■ •• Mini liilll, 

:! •• " I. nil. 

■I " " l|r I. nil. 

1 Wan I'nii <in man i ann ''i' l>iin, 


inn t'li 

Ni ■. \ii\ i: \'<'\i i:. 

I'l.^.ni '/'■ iiK' . 

1 Wan liiiii ilii man zi' wami. If I di imt >ir. 1 Wan I.iin iln man zc wami;.' We; \',\. 

'2 •• •■ •• \Mlli.. I ■• •• Willi;.' W. : III. 

8 •• " 7.'-^ lie. S w!i- V..n. 

4 '• "' ziiii'L'... 111-. 8 '• " "--an Tliry. 

■I ■• •• '• 111'' 'I'lii'ii.'., 

Illll'i rt\ rt 7' /(«!■. 

1 Wan liiiii iln man zc wanm lianii. 1 Wan 'iiii 'In man /.i- waiiii jf Imii. 

• I (4 

\Mim liiiii. 


Ill' fjc liiin. 



I'l.MMivi: \'nn i:, 

J'fl 'I III T< lIKi . 

;.'"an l-ni. 
lie L'l' lillli 

1 Wan Imii ilii man sann If I sn- pnuily, iiii- I Wan liiiii iln man ■^aiiiiL' Wi' : I"v. 




11 II 

Wr: 1 1 

I ■«' 


.1... Ill 

1 Wan liiiii ilii man -aniii '>anii. 

r-lim iHlll. 

Jiiir.rf.ct T, 

1 Wan liuii ilii 

nan >anii l'i' i>nn. 




l)ini;Ti-n, Voiri;. 
J'lY.trnt Trnse. 

1 Wall Inin ilu iikiu wan nan. Tf I clunu'C to si'O. 1 Wan Imn du man waun lmm We: l!\-. 

2 " " WW " 'I'liou. 1 " " AMiii ,;;ilaii \Vc ; lii. 

8 " " finan lie. 2 " '• wa •• 

4 " " lie gnan. His. 3 •' " wan " They. 

4 •• " no '■ TIkIis. 

Iinperfccl Ttunc. 

1 AVaii Imn ilii man wamnlian nan. 1 Wan luin iln man wann no Im nan. 

'l '■ ■' wuiii liii " 1 '• •• wnn L'li '■ 

3 " " -o •' " -2 •' " wa •• " 

4 " " no ^'o Im nan. ?, " " wan " '' 

4 '• " no >• 

Zi- al'lor mail, staiuls for tlio noirativc ; and hc aftor imm, o.'^tablislios tlio jilaintivc climljifiil 

l{i:i'i:ATi\(i A'oni:. 


1 Wan I'nn dii nmn oan non.. At tl\o times I soo. 1 Wan Imn dn man oaun iron Wo ; V,s. 

2 " " on •• Tiion. ^ .4 i> oiMi gun Wo: In. 

8 " " jon lie. -2 '■ '• oa " Y.m. 

4 '• " noj<ii His. 3 '■ " wm •• Tlioy. 

4 " " ne " Tlioii's. 

Iiiij'cr/iit 'I'ciitii'. 

1 Wan Imn dn man oanm ban noon. 1 Wau Imn dn man oaun go I)n nccii. 

2 " " oum Im " 1 " ■• oiin go " 

3 " " go " " 2 " " oa " 

4 " " no go Iiu " :! " " wan " " 

4 •' " no '• 

NKii.vrivi: Hi:i'i: aii.mi Vnici-s, 
J't-niiHl Tense. 

1 Wan Imn du man zo wan non. At tlio tinioH I do 1 Wan Imn ilii man zr waun gon Wo: Ex. 

not soo. 1 " " wniigon Wo: In. 

2 '• " wii •• Tlinn. •_> " '> Ava ■• Ynn. 

3 " " g'O IIo. .'! '• '• guau 11(11 'I'liov. 

4 " '• nogon... His. 4 " " no gc-n 'I'lioirs. 


/iiij>< rjWt TiUKC. 


1 Willi lillli ilil lii;iu '/c «aiiiu liiiii iit'rl 

2 " " wiilii liii •• 

1 Wan liuii 


ilii iiKHi zi' waiiu ''(• Iju lii't'li. 


i I? I si 


111' '•» liii men. 


ri.AlNTIVK KKI'KATrNii Vniri::?. 
I'rcm lit Tciim: 
1 Willi bull (111 iniiu.^au lien... At tlii' tiiius I sec 1 Wan liiiii dii mail saun ^'on. 

l)0(irly, iiiiwortliilv. 1 " " sii 

Wo: V 

ill We: II 

SI' jell. 

Ill' Jell Ills 



1 Wail liiiii ilii mail saiiiii liaii 


Slim lui iiri'ii. 

lU' L'll lill IKH'Il. 


so wan jrii. 

rlWt T, 

1 Wall lilili (1 

II mail saiiii l'c lni nci'ii. 
sun ;m 
sa •• '• 
so wail no liii noei 

Till' rnllnwiiii:; wcii'ils Mil' ciiiiju^ati'il In tlio saiiio innniioi' as tlio pivi'i'iliiig vuicos, 
rroiii \)XS'' •)|ll, till' |i:irtii'lf ;/" ' i'XO('|)to(l. All iiitransitivi' vorlis aiv ooiijiiLiatril in tiio 
sanu' iiianiKT. tla^ tliinl ami I'oiirtli pcrsoiis el' tlio voice in ;/'/" brin^;- the only i'Xci'[)tioii. 

-V Tlio tormination csi/ is useil only in a liail souse, as 
No wail liosii I am a sior. (lo iro tlo iiux// You are la/.v. 


o ''0 moo ili'.M./ 


No wail 1)0 L'aii zns'^ 

1 am a nroloiiiloil soor. 

iiiz L iii'otonil ti 

or I imitato a scor. 

liii nia woz I am soon, in ooiiso((uoiico of my sacrilicc. 

1110 !_'0 Wo/. 

I am soon liy llic Deity. 

Iiiiii ilu man Z'lii. 

I see it f 

or invsoi 

Some ll'w words liavii a tormination oxpivssive of thanks for favors roo'civi'il; as 

r<o mail moo on wa ii miiii.t. 
No moo jo j;ii ii niauz. 

Words witi 

1 fill/, l/illl. l/:l/l. Illllll, Kin, 

iScc. cxitross that the action is in the mind; as 

Neil ire do luau 



Non jro lie man ;/((» iliiiii I am poor in my miml ; I am sorry. 

No man nan iliz 1 am ilol'ormod. 

No man luiii ilmii I am ilororinoil in my mlml. 

Noin till nail doz 1 am doslroyod. 

Neni Im nau dan duiu I am destroyed in my mind; my i'oolings are hurt. 


J f'* 






l.NiiicATivi: MiKiD in uuuin. 

,Siii'/ii/.ir. J'liiiii/. 
1 X>' wall Im 1110 luuuii' 1 scoliis, ortlii'irs. 1 No waii liu mo man nau lu'ii Wo; V,\. 

•J (io " •• Thou. 

no '■ " Ho. 

4 " " me mail no.... llin. 

1 (ie •• '• " \Vo: In. 

2 '* " •' waun Ymi. 

o « " '• Tlioy. 

4 " " " no Theirs. 

i ' 

1 No wan hu mo mail hiiii. 

:: (!o 

;! () " " )m noon. 

4 •• *' *' no hu noon. 

liiqicrjWt Ti')iKr. 

1 Ne wan Im me mau me nan hun. 
1 (io " •' 
•2 " " " wall hun. 
■ • () " " " hii neon. 

4 ne " 

NE(iATivi: Voici:. 
I'nsint Tiiisc. 

1 No wan hii mo man zeon... 1 ihi not soo his, or 1 No wau Im me man zoo nau non.... Wo; Kx. 


2 (le " " "... Tlioii. 

3 O '• *• " ... Uc. 

4 " " " zee ne. Ilis. 

1 Co 



'• ... Wo; In 

2 '• 



waun Yoii. 




" Thoy. 

4 " 



lie TlioiM 

Impcrfict Ti)ise 

1 No 


Im iiic 

man 7.0c 

me nan hiiii. 

1 (ie 




.> ..