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Full text of "A tour in the United States of America [microform] : containing an account of the present situation of that country, the population, agriculture, commerce, customs, and manners of the inhabitants ... with a description of the Indian nations, the general face of the country, mountains, forests, rivers, and the most beautiful, grand, and picturesque views throughout that vast continent likewise improvements in husbandry that may be adopted with great advantage in Europe"

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I N T H B 


O B 


VOL. I. 

I ! 


' :^ i < 

*In ftruggling with misfortunes 

Lies the true proof of virtue. SaAKSPBAM* 

■•^Cold, hunger, prifuns, ills without a cure. 
All thefe men muft, and guiltlefs, oft endure. 

■ Permitted laurels grace riie lawlefs brow, ^ 

Th'unworthy rais'd, the worthy caft below. 

Faith flies, and Piety in exile mourns, 
And Juftice; here opprefs'd, to Heav'n returni. Drto^k. 








o u 




O F 



An Account of the P r e s e n t Situation of 

that Countrvj 

The Population, Agriculture, Commerce, 
Customs, and Manners of the Inhabitants j 

Anecdotes of fevcral Members of the CONGRESS, 
and General Officers in the American Army j 


Many other very fingular and interefting Occurrences, 


A Dcfcription of the INDIAN NATIONS, the general 
Face of the Country, Mountains, Forfclls, Rivers, and 
the mod beautiful, grand, and pidturcfquc Views through- 
out that vaft Continent. 

L I K E W I S L 

Improvements in Husbandry that may be adopted with 
great Advantage in EuRori:. 

By J. F. D. SMYTH, E s q^ 

V O L. I. 


Printed for G. R o b i n s o n, Pater-ncftcr-Row ; J. R o B s O N, 
New Bond-Street ; and J. S e w E L L, Cornhill. 


( 1 


( , 


i ■ i 


r\ r* ^ r V V ' 





>ORD Alhburton 

William Pierce Aflie A*Court Aihe, efq. M.P. 
John Allen, efq. 
Thomas Afhwood, efq, 


Duke of Buccleugh * -f 

Lord Vifcount Beauchamp 2 copies 

Sir Jofeph Banks, bart. Prefidenc of the Royal 

Colonel Byde 

Samuel Baglhaw, efq. of Ford 

Owen Salifbury Brereton^ efq. Vice-Prefident 
of the Royal Society 

Captain Bofville 

W. H. Bevan, efq. Lincoln's Inn 

Mr. William Butcher, Paradife-Rovv, Lam- 

Mr. Champion Brayj Manchefter 

Mr. John Blackwall, Blackwall 


Earl of Carliile 

Earl Cornwallis • 

Lord Cathcart 

Right Honourable H; S. Conway, M. P. * 

Sir Gray Cooper, bart. M.P. * 

D. P. Coke, efq. M. P. 2 copies 

P. G* Crauford, efq. F. R. S. 

A 3 Mr. 



James Cotton, cU\, late of North Carolina 
Mr. Nicholas Crcfvvcll, Eclalc, Derbyfhire, 

3 copies 
Mr. Peter Copland, Jamcs-flrect, Grofvcnor- 

Mr. John Henry Carey, late of Maryland 
A. C. 3 copies 


Duke of Devonfliire * 

Larl of Dartmouth * 

Karl of Dunmorc 

Sir J. Dyer, bnrt. * 

ColonelDonald M*Donald, Highgate 

Kcv. Dr. Downes, Prebend of St. Patrick's, 

Pvobert Dormer, efq. Dukc-ftreet, Weftminfter 
T. Dyer, eU\, * 

Captain Henry Duncan, of the Royal Navy 
Mr. Dennifon, Duke-ftreet, Manchefter-fquare 


Right Honourable William Eden, M. P. * 
Honourable Thomas Erlkine, M. P. * -f 

William Frazcr, elq. Undersecretary of State 

T. Freemantle, efq. 

Captain Frazer, Coldftream Reg. of Guards 

Captain Freemantle, ditto 

Mr. Fifk ^ 

r»Ir. Septimius Furnis, Macclesfield 

Mr. Richard Falkncr, Sheffield 

Mr. Charles Fox, Cornwall -j- 

6 Du 



Duke of Grafton, lo copies 
Lord Grofvcnor * "f- 
Sir Sampfon Gideon, bart. M. P. 
Lady Glynnc, Howardin-Caftlc, Flintfhlre 
Lieutcnant-Gcncral the Hon. T. Gage 
Major John Randolph Grymes, late of Vir- 
Mr. Charles Greatrcx, Manchcftcr 
Mr. Robert Gee, Stockjiort 
Mr. William Greaves, Bakewell 


Earl of Hillfborough * 

Lord Vifcount Howe, Firft Lord of the Ad- 
miralty, &c. &c. * 

Lieutenant-General the Hon. Sir William 
Howe, K. B. &c. 

Hon. Major-General Harcourt * 

Commodore William Hotham, of the Royal 

Colonel Hill, late of the pth. Reg. of Foot 

Capt. David Howell, 15th Reg.Dragoons, M.P. 

Mr. Hopkins 

Enfign Hewgill, Coldftream Gua r 

Mr. Michael Harris, Millbank-row, Wcft- 

Mr. Hairs, Oxford-ftrect -j- 

Mr. Thomas Hall, Macclesfield 

Mr. John Hadfipld, ditto 

Mr. Micha Hall, Cal\leton 


( " 

t s 

William Jones, efq. 
T. L 3 copies 

A 4 



Mr. Thomas Kerfhaw, Dcrbylhire 
Mr. Keriley, late of Philadelphia -|* 
Mr. Daniel Key, Uanchcller 
Mr. Benjamin Kirk, Brough 
Mr. Charles Kirk^ Nevvfmithy 

Lieutenant General Lifter 
Edward Bcachcr Le Croft, efq. f 
Mr; P. Lcyburn, late of Maryland 
Mr. Charles Lees, Derbylhire 
B. L. 


Duke of Montague * 

Major-General Martin, Coklftrcam Reg. Guards 

Colonel Monirefor, late Chief Lngincer in 

America * 
Lieutenant Colonel Morihead 
Mr. Ifaac Martin, Bradvvell 
Mr. Samuel Miller, Bridgehay 
Mr. Mafon, Mattock Bath 
Mr, Richard Mangnell, SheiHcld 

Lord North • 
Lord Newhaven 
Mrs. Ncedham, Perryfoot 
Mr. Robert Needham, jun. ditto 


Sir George Ofborn, bart. M. P. Major Gene- 
ral in the Army, Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
3d Rep;. Foot-Guards, Groom of his Ma- 
jefty's Bedchamber, 8rc. 

4 Mr. 


Mr. Thomas Oycll, Chappcl in Frith. 

Mr. Oppic, Great Quccn-ftrcet, Lincoln Vinn» 

Mr. Oliphant, Fludyer-ftrcct, Weftminftcr * f 


Duke of Portland * 

Lord Vifcount Palmerfton * 

Samuci Phipps, cU\, Lincoln's-inn, 2 copies 

« Pollock, ciq. * f 

Richard Phillips, c(q. Lincoln's inn 

Mrs. Charlotte Pringle, Royal Row, Lambeth 

Mr. Richard Potter, Derbyftiire 

Mr. Robert Poole, Button Hill 

R. P. 12 copies 

R. Quarme, efq. 


Duke of Richmond 

George Rofe, cfq. 

John Randolph, efq. late Attorney General of 

Samuci Remnant, efq. 
Mr. Ru(h, Surgeon of the 2d. Troop of Horfc 

Grenadier Guards 
Mr. John Richardlon, Derbylhirc 
Mr. John Robinfon, Haflbp. 

Earl of Salilbury * 
Lord Vifcount Stormont, 4 copiei 
Lord Vifcount Sackville * 
Lord Soudiampton, 2 lop'es 


!• ' ( 



^1. \ 




Sir Richard Sutton, barr. M. P. ♦ 

Colonel Stevens, ill. Reg. Foot Guards, Equerrj 

to the Prince of Wales, and Aid de Camp 

to the King, &c. 
Colonel Sherriff, Portland Place * 
Governor Sinnott, of Niagara in Canada 
Major Stockton, late of New-Jerfey 
Mr. G. S. 

Mifs Stopford, Stockport 
Mr. John Smith, Manchefter 
J. F. S. 7 copies 

Major General H. Trelawny, ifl Major of the 

Coldftream Reg. Guards 
Mr. Richard Threfher, Strand 
Mr. John Thomas, Dean-ftreet, Soho 


J.ieutenant General Vernon, Lieutenant Go- 
vernor of the Tower 



Lord Weftcote ^ 

Sir John Borlafe Warren, bart. M. P. &c. 

J. W^ilmot, efq. M. P. 2 copies 

Thomas White, efq. Lincoln's-Inn 

Eardly Wilmot, efq. 

Enlign Webb, Coldftream Reg. Guards 

Mr. James Wright, Heafield 

W. Z. 5 copies 


THE late great and very extraor- 
dinary revolution in America, a re- 
volution with its attending circumftances 
unparalleled in the annals of hiftory, 
having excited the curiofity of all ranks 
of people, not only of Great Britain, but 
of every nation in Europe, to procure the 
moft authentic information concerning 
that country, and there being nothing of 
the kind hitherto publiflied that gives 
any fatisfadory account thereof, is the 
caufe of my offering thefe volumes to the 


} ' 

The moft painful talk to me throughout 
this work has been to mention the hard- 



fhips and feverities I have undergone, is 
thefe are now at an end, and freely for- 
given ; for although I may have much to 
lament, I folemnly declare that I have no 
refentments to indulge, no revenge to pur- 
fue ; and the few inftances I met with of 
kind and generous treatment have af- 
forded me infinite gratification and plea- 
fure to relate. 

Far be it from me to wifli to widen a 
breach already too much extended ; but' 
thofe illiberal and vindidive principles 
which hitherto appear to have actuated 
the public as well as private condu<St of 
the prefent prevailing party in Ame- 
rica, feem ill calculated for that conci- 
liation which it is certainly ftill more the 
intereft of America than of Great Britain 
to elfect and clierifh. 

As the fword of war is now returned 
to the fcabbard, and the beneficial arts of 
peace may be iafely and advantageoufly 
cultivated, it would afibrd infinite fatis- 




fadion and pleafure to every benevolent 

jnind to fee, between thefe new American 

republics, and Great Britain their parent 

ftate, a contention in good offices, liberal 

conduct, and gencrofity, and in fhewing 

fubflantial proofs on both fides of having 

buried in oblivion all their former ani- 

mofities and diftrufls. It is evidently 

more in the power of the Americans 

than of the Britifti nation, to evince this 

conciliatory difpofition, by the lenient 

condu6t they may hereafter adopt towards 

Britain's former and now forfaken friends, 

the American loyalifts, whom peculiar 

circumflances may leave or throw into 

their power. 


Why may not this defirable emulation be 
excited and adopted? The demon of dif- 
cord cannot always influence, nor will the 
veil of fa<flious refentments and party- 
fpirit, it is to be hoped, long remain over 
the fight and underftanding of even the 
moft zealous of the republicans ; they ge- 
nerally pofTefs intelligent minds, and con- 



.r ■ i 






fequently muft foon difcover and purfue 
their own intereft, which, beyond all 
doubt, is aclore,eftablifhed,and permanent 
connexion with Great Britain; but it muft 
be a connedlion founded on confidence, 
and the bafis of that confidence muft be 
a reciprocal intereft, urbanity, and friend- 



page 22, line aa, for excurfiftn, ;«7</ exertion. P. 29, 1. io,dt!e been. 
P. 31, 1. 18,/or fervifeable, r. fcrviceable. P. ^2iy '• 3» »"• ^^ thoufund 
pounds weight. P. 36, 1. 15, >•• cxpanfes. P. 41, 1. 7, for excurfioii, 
r.cxertion. P. 75, 1. 2 !,</£•/* upon. P. 7S, 1. 14, r. people's. P. no, 
1. 7, r continues. P. 118, 1. 11, for or, r. and. P. ii<),for Chap. 
XVI. r. XVII. P. 129, 1. 5 of the contents, for Another fingular 
tricK, r. An extraordinary occurrence. P. 129, 1. iS, /or rather, r, 
fomewhat. P. 131, 1. 9, deUw\t\\. P. 132. 1. 21, ;■. high fun. P, 
140, 1. II, for experienced, r. dextrous. P. 145, 1. 15, r. within a 
narrower. P. 155, ftanza iii. 1. 3. /tr the poor, /•. though poor. 
P. 159, 1. 5. /or from, r. form. P. 173 1. 5> ' • the men. P. 182, 1. 
6, r. a variety. P. 199, 1. 3, r. prcpolfcfTed. P. 211. I. 15, r refi- 
dcnce. P. 215, 1. 28, fr fc6l, r. fcx. P. i')o, 1. 1 6, r. as all the rrfl- of 
their. P. 293, 1. 3, </i?/i? the, r. each hufhrl. P. 306, 1. by for pafs, 
r. paffe!i. P. 319, 1. 16, r. Ouaiiotto, P. 335, 1. 2r, 21, 22, 23, r. 
when the inclofurc is formed, thcfe rails are laid zip zag upou each 
other, every one crofiing the other cbliqusly at each end, in regiii;ir 
fucceflion and erection, for ten or eleven. P. 347, 1 16, r. Kal- 
quafquias. P. 349, 1. 13, ao, 21, r. OuifconCns^ Puad». P. 373, 
. 19, /«; land, r, load, 





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ll^ I III 



The Author's Apology. Achnotvledgement of Deficicnces, 
Reafons that induced him to publijh theje Volumes, 5/- 
milies. Solicits for hidulgence and Candor, Profejfes 
Impartiality and Diffidence, - - ■ Page I 


Firfl Appearance of Land, Capes of Virginia, Chefa- 

peak-Bay, Hampton-Roads, Mujketoes, Norfolk, 

JameS'River, Janies-'Toiun, Plantations, Williamf- 

burg - - - « " 7 


IVilliam/burg, Races, Breed of Running Horfes, 17 


The different beautiful Situations, and Gentlemen^s Seats, 
on James-River, - - - - - ^^ 


Richmond, Falls of Janus-River, ^c. - 30 

C H A P. V. 

Inhabitants. Climate. Sky, Thunder and Lightning. 
Face of the Country, Bullfrogs, Strange and tre- 
men dons Sounds, Inchantment, Negroes. 35 







4; ■ 

Vol. I. 


\ r 

i 1 

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Jilatwer of Life of each Rank of the Inhabitants. Hani 
I^at'c and J were Treatment of the Negroes. Page 41 


Hoiifcs. OrdinarieSy or Inns. Aflrange Animal, Black 
Snakes. Devour Frogs and Mice, Fafcinate Birds in 
the Air. Flying Squirrelsy £s*f. - - 49 


^mlitv and Appearance of the Soil. Wheat. Indian-Corn, 

Tobacco. Pc/ciyhurg. Falls of Appamattox. Bland- 

foh-d. Pohnhunfas. Indian Ewperor''s Daughter. 

Randolph and Boiling Families, The River Appa- 

Viatlux. - - " - ^'j 


General Characler, and great Hojpitality of the VirgifjianL 
Number of Inhabitants in Virginia. - - (>- 

C H A P. X. 

A wretched Situation. Nottoway- River, Horfes refufe 
to eat Bacon. Troublcfome Companion, Maherren- 
River, -_-> -. "73 

C H A P. XI. 

North Carolina. Halfax-Toivn, Roanoak-River. Falls, 
Rock Fight. Floods. - - - 84 


Lofty Timber. Method of clearing Land. Woods on 
Fire, Dreadful Conflagratiofts- - - 92 


inhabitants of the Country and of the Towns. Clajfes of 
People. Stores. Planters, Methods of Trade and 

Comtnerce. - - - 9® 

a Tarlurg, 

;*: ; 

e O N T i: N T s. 


Tiu-btirg. Altacked by an itinerant Nctv-light Prtacher. 
Get f.'jj}. Strange Ignoranc' and uncouth /ippearance 
of ti.f Inhabitants. lnj}ance cf extraordinary Jiofpitality 
and Jji.nevoIfna: Chowan Sound. 

Rattle Snakes. Cure for tJ)eir Bite, 






Alociojpjn Snakes. 
Page 101 

7/ an Innlt 

^extraordinary n oinan. yinicruan Ueneral an Jnnleeper, 
Dreadful Thunder^clap. Simplicity of the Negroes. 
j4n extraordinary In/lance thereof. - - n i 


Nutbufj Cn\'h. Alcmher of Congrfs. Anecdotes of the 
famous Hcnderfouy and the Origin of the new Settle- 
ment of' Kentucky, - - - - 122 


Harrifjurg. Tar-River. Taken Sick. Extremely ill. 
Uncivilized Inhabitants. Handfomc ll^omen. Inflances 
of ivorfc than Jhvage Brutalitv. A very fmgular and 
diverting Trick. Meet nvith a beautiful Girl. An 
extraordinary Occurrence. - 129 


Wcods. Glades, or Savannahs. Licks. Hunters. 
IVild Horfes. Peculiar Sentiments of an European^ on 
his Arrival in America. - - 140 

C H \ P. XIX. 

Appearance of the Cowtry. Difeafes of the Climate. 
Snakes. Game. Racoons. Defcription of the Op- 
poffum. Beer made of Perftmmons. Cheapnefs of Land. 
Delightful Climate. Stanzas nvritten in Solitiide. 147 

a 2 Neivfe- 

'\ \ 

} ( 

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i s 


fi I 




New/e-Rivfr. Hill/borough. Strong Po/f. Hmu Fields. 
Singular Phcnoncnon, Accounted for, - Page 159 


HaW'Rivcr, Deep-River. Cape Fear River. Carro^ 
•way AJountains. Grand and elegant Pi. 'fpcciive. Bad 
Aconwiodations. Vnfuitahle to an Epicure^ or a Pet'it- 
Maitre. - - r " '^7 


Tadkin-River. Sali/bury. Beautiful Perfpe^'ive. Tryon 
Mountain. Brttfljy Mountains. The King Mountain 
diflinguifljed for the unhappy Fate of the gallant Major. 
Fergufon. ^- - -- - 174 


Blazed Path. Origin and Ufe thereof. Defrription of a 
Back Wood's Rifleman. Hisflrange Drefs and peculiar 
Sentiments. -'.''': \1^. 

CHAP. ]^IV. 

Catawba Indians. The King. Once a powerful Nation. 
Cufloms. Depopulation. Caufes thereof. Manner of 
Life. Abortions of the young Women. - 1 84 


Catawbds vafl Property. Their Mam failures. Their 
No/line fs, - *! - 1 92 


(^atawba-River. An uncommon Inflance of Penury. 
Rich Mifer. Wretchednefs and Mifery of his Slaves, 
W<iteree-River. Congarees-River. Santee-River. 
Their great Extents Fertility of the Soil. - 196 



' ■ 




Camden. Lands. Rivers, hijecls. Inhabitants. Rice. 
Indigo* Manure. - - I'^ge 202 


threat Curiofity of the loiver Clafs of Inhabitants. Im- 
pertinent ^teflions. Conjeclures of my Guide. Ren^ 
dcredferviceable. - - - 209 

Sail/bury. Moravian River, Moravian Towns and 
Settlement. Salem. Bethania, Bethabara. Their 
Situations. Flourijhing State. Their Mamfailures. 
Produce. Peculiar Cujloms and Police. Women in 
fcmmon - - - - -213 


The Ararat Mountains* Tryon Mountains* Moravian 
Mountains* Carraway Mountains. G rand and beaU' 
tijul perfpeEliveVieius. - - - - 219 


Qreat Allowance, Regulators* Hilljhorough, Colonel 
Mac Donaldf and the unfortunate Loyalijls of North 
Carolina, Their Difajier at Moris Creek Bridge, 
Their hard Fate and barbarous Treatment. - 22c 


Hiiyborough, Courts of Judicature. Numbers of In- 
habitants in North Carolina* Depopt/lation, Be- 
wildered and lofl. Uninhabited Foreft, Wild Beajls, 
Great Danger, Hycoe Creek, CtfuntryLine Creek, 234 

Mr, Hgrt, A mojl hojpitable, benevolent Per/on, An 
accomplijhed Gentleman, Agreeable Surprife. For- 

{ ff \ 




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C O N T E N r S. 



ttwate K/'itJj'i'. Mr. 7Ai/7«v. S/rn//t;(' Manncf of 
J^otl^ifig. A lovt'ly Ciir/. Sdwra ^loivns. Sawi'a 
Niiticii. Uppi'f Sawra Tcwns, - V:i^c 245 


Dnn-Rlver. S/ra>ii^f n/u! /ifigi./ar ]^}\n;''i:trn. Great 
Kxtint. Loivcr Snnvra Toivns, A vnj} aiul pr fituble 
Purrhnfc. H.rtiy or Hyop SfuiLc. My'} y -ifcnotis. 
Alarming AciOUiUs of t]:c bhliaiis, - - 255 


Ford the Dan. Fa// in. Part w'tli m\ /rvc/v Gti'ulf. 
Gd /oj}. Perplexing Si/u,ttion. Come upon a Number 
of Indians. Fheir Behaviour. 7heir Hof/utu/i/y and 
Kindnefs. - - - - - 2^7 


Direcled the Way b\ the Indians. Leathernvood Creel. 
P/antations abandoned. Beaver Creek. Arrive at the 
Fort. Refufed Admittance. - 274 


Threaten to fet Fire to the Fort. Admitted. Shocking 
Scenes of Iniquity and Obfcencnefs within. Ride out and 
viftt the Plantations around. Refolve to fet cut on my 
jfouniey. - - - - 280 


Situation of the Fort. SmitFs River. Soil. Ginfeng., 
Snake-root. Prices of Wheat^ Corn, Beef, Pork, 
Tobacco, ^e. Culture of Indian Corn. Its great and 
itmverfal Utility. - - - 288 


Set out for Kentucky. Vifit the Summit of the Wart 
Mountain, Defcription of a mojl extenfive, grand, and 
elegant PerfpCLllve. Ideas raifed in ike Mind. 300 


• ! 


c o N r E N r s, 


Hifr>i(l the Afrjt/fif.ihi. Crofs the N, w River. JWnhUe 
J'lri- of H'Jjiofi. j-lry'tvc at Stnhlnuik,! f. Cv^fs the 
North Briuuh of Holjlon, Cvcfs C/inrha^Rivtr. 
/Ifiiiid tht' j^rmt jillc^iin^. 

;c pi) 

C H A P. XLI. 

Crofs the luij} yllit^nny Mouutaitis. Fall upon the J^nr' 
rioi's hnmeh, Crofs tre OuJ'iotto Mouutiuns. //>.- 
pt net r able Thul.ts of Laurel. River of Kentiuky, 
u4rrlve at the famed miv Seithtneut on Kentucky. 310 

C H A P. XLir. 

The famed Settlement of Kentueky. Mr. Henderfon m 
tiiilitary Alan. Injtidieious Forts. A fine command' 
ing Situation. Want of Subordination in y/merica. 
Hardy Race, but illiberal. Elephants Bones on the 
Ohio. - - - 326 


The Rivers Kentucky and Ohio. Woods and Inclofures, 
Came. Wild Beafls and Fi/Jj. A general Account of 
the Indians, Their Characler. Difpofitions and 
Numbers. - - « 3^4 


A Lifi of the Niimes of all the different Indian Nations on' 
the Continent of North Americay with their Situations, 
and the Number of Gun-men or Warriors in each 
Nation, - , « 3^iy 


J^eave Kentucky. Sail doivn the Ohio. The Falls of the 
Ohio. A;^reeable Companions, Flnter the Miffffippi, 
^nd proceed down that River. Meet fome Chickefaws, 


' (1 



I i 


Their ^ne Horfes. A gallant Nation. Attacked by a 
vo^ " Superiority of French and Indians, Defeat them* 
Their Origin. Their Coavalry. - Page 353 


Leave Tajfous. Arrive at Hatches. Proceed to New 
Orleans. French Inhabitants averfe to Spani/h Govern- 
ment. InfurreElion quelled. Enrnejlly ivijh for Bri- 
tijh Liberty. Number of Families in New Orleans 
and Louiftana, - - . 365 


Dangerous Alligators. Vc^ Fertility of the Soil. Spanijh 
Beards, Wait on the Governor. New Orleans* 
Great Di/lrejfes offome Englijh and French imprifoned 
by the Spaniards in New Mexico. Vajl Flocks of Cat' 
tie and Horfes. Etttenftve Savannahs. A good Priefl. 
Leave New Orleans. Arrive at Manchac. Coaji 
along the Gulf of Mexico. Mobile ^ Penfacolay Apala- 
chicholof l2fc* - - - - 371 


The Rivers MiJ/tJftppi, Miffourisy Illinois^ TaJfouSy 
AkanfaSy RougCy Apalachicholay Mobile, ^c. Colo' 
rado. North-River, or Rio Bravo. New Mexico. 
Gulf of California, Mines of Potoft. Acapulco. Old 
Mexico. La Vera Cruz. Diftances of Places. De- 
fcription of the Country, - - ' 38S 





The Author*s Apology. Acknowledgement of Defi'^ 
c'lences, Reafons that induced him to publijh tkefe 
Volumes, Similies, Solicits for Indulgence and 
Candor, PrefeJ/es Impartiality and Diffidence, 

THE author of the following fheets 
has no apology or excufe to offer 
for their publication, but fincerely good 
intentions, to which, however, he may 
juflly lay claim ; and an earned defire ot 
communicating, and transfufing through- 
out this the parent flate of Britifh America, a 
more general as well as a more particular 
knowledge of that extenfive and extraor- 
dinary country, • than feems to prevail at 
this interefting period, notwithftanding 
the great, though lately much to be la- 
mented hoftile intercourfe between that 
vail continent and thefe kingdoms. 
Vol. I. B He 



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;r ■ 


He candidly acknowledges a multitude 
of deficlences, originating in want of abi- 
lities. They are written without ornament 
or elegance, perhaps in fome refpe£ts not 
perfedly accurate, being compofed under 
peculiarly difadvantageous circumftances : 
but although the fubjed, as well as the 
matter, be entirely new, yet he has ftridly 
adhered to truth, which has been his in- 
variable guide and director. 

Having very lately arrived in England 
from America, where he had made many 
cxtenfive journies, and fatiguing, pe- 
rilous expeditions, prompted by unbound- 
ed curiofity, and an infatiable enthufiaf- 
tic defire of knowledge, during a refidence 
in that country for a confiderable length 
of time, in which he had become per- 
fedly reconciled and habituated to the 
manners, cuftoms, difpofitions, and fenti- 
ments of the inhabitants, he eagerly 
fought out, and purfued with a degree 
of avidity rarely felt, every treatife and 
publication relative to America, from the 
firil difcovery by the immortal Columbus, 


1 :|. 




down to Carver's late Travels therein, and 
even the Penfilvania Farmer's Letters, by 
Mr. Hedtor St. John (if indeed fuch a 
perfon ever exifted); but always had the 
extreme mortification to meet with difap- 
pointment in his expe(flations, every one 
grafping at, and enlarging on the greater 
objects, and not a fingle author descend- 
ing to the minutiae, which compofe as 
well the true perfpeQive, as the real grand 
intercourfe and commerce of life. 

Aduated by thefe motives, he was in- 
duced to hazard this undertaking, wifhing 
to fupply that neceflary fhare of inferior 
knowledge, which to him appeared to 
be wanting in Great Britain, the original 
feat of empire, from the deficiences al- 
ready pointed out. 

For a defcription of the formation of 
a fingle brick, of a vaft multitude of 
which, artfully arranged, prodigious build- 
ings and elegant palaces are con (lru£ted, 
to a perfon entirely unacquainted with fuch 
a thing, is as neceflary, beneficial, and 
fometimes equally agreeable as the defcrip* 
lion of the edifice itielf. 

B 2 And 

Til I 



t'l ! 



And the particular mode in forming 
the compofition for making the fineft 
china is more fought after, and certainly 
of no lefs value, than the moft elegant, 
rich, and expenlive fet of porcelain of the 
beftDrefden manufadture. 

In one refpedt he folicits the indulgence 
of .the public. As feveral matters related 
in the courfe of the following pages are 
perfedly novel, uncommon, and ftrangc 
to an European reader, efpecially to a Bri- 
ton, who may thereby be induced to de- 
cide againfl the veracity and probability 
of the whole, from the apparent incredi- 
bility, to him, of fuch fmgular pheno- 
mena, and in his opinion, marvellous, 
furprifmg relations; on thefe occafions, 
he entreats the man of candour only to 
fufpend his cenfure arid judgment, in fuch 
inftances, either until he meets with fome 
intelligent perfon in whom he can con- 
fide, and on whofe decifion he may re^ 
ly, who has made a confiderable refi- 
dence in, and progrefs through that 
extraordipary country -, or ijntil he com- 



municates his doubts and difficulties 
through the channel of the public, and 
ballances in his mind the weight of the 
explanation and defence he may obferve 
in reply, fupported by fuch authority as 
may be adduced. 

For however Angular, wonderful, and 
aftonifhing fome things herein may ap- 
pear, yet the author folcmnly declares 
he has been guided folely by nature 
and truth, which, during the courfe of 
his life, as well as in this relation, he 
has always endeavored to purfue, and to 
pay implicit obedience to their venerable 

On this principle alone he has at- 
tempted to folve every difficulty that oc- 
curred to him in his travels ; and fuch 
uncommon appearances, and ftrange phe- 
nomena, as to fome have feemed not to 
be eafily accounted for, he has always 
found more reconcilable to, and confif- 
tent with, the plain and fimple chain of 
events, regularly proceeding from na- 
tural caufes, than the imaginary fplendid 

B 3 embel- 

f ; '. 

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II i' tA;i-|j H «wgi r f g! 


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embellifhments of fidion, however inge- 
nious and elegant. 

Should thefe Volumes be favorably re- 
ceived, and deemed to merit the notice 
and approbation of the public, he means 
to proceed uith a brief account of the 
late war, in regular progreflion, from its 
commencement down to the prefent pe- 
riod. If otherwife, he conceives the pub- 
lication of two volumes void of defert, is 
a fufficient obtrufion on the public, to 
whom, as well as to himfelf, it will be 
moll agreeable, and more difcreet, to can- 
cel or fupprefs the remainder. 

However, he trufts that a proper dif- 
tindion will be made between his capa- 
city and his good intentions, flattering 
himfelf, that what is wanting in the for- 
mer may be fupplied by the latter ; and 
will endeavour to atone for his defi- 
ciences in abilities, by the ftrideft can- 
dour and impartiality. 

On thefe grounds, therefore, he refls 
his expedations, and awaits the decifion. 


*.^ ■[ 

o u 




I . 






Fir/} Appearance of Land. Capes of Virginia, Che' 
fapeak-Bay. Hampton-Roads. Mitfketocs. Norfolk* 
jfameS'River. Jatnes-Town, Plantations. IVil- 

WE came in fight of land, on the 
fourth day of Auguft, in the fore- 
noon, in a fine day, with a clear ferene 
fky. It appeared at a diftance like the 
tops of the trees juft emerging above the 
horizon, on the furface of the water 5 and 

B4 as 




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A Tour in the 

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as the (hip approached arofe higher, but 
only the height of the pines, with which 
all the land on the Tea board is covered ; 
for the whole coaft is very low, and found- 
ings are found at a great diftance from 
the fliore, which gradually decreafe as 
you advance nearer the land. 

This regular decreafe of the foundings, 
and the change of colour in the water, 
are the only prefervatives of lliips, in the 
night and hazy weather, from running 
on this dangerous, ihallow, flat coaft, 
without perceiving it until too late ; for 
there is no light-houfe near the Capes of 
Virginia : a moft laudable intention of 
ereding one on Cape Charles having been 
fruftrated by a difagreement between the 
aflemblies or parliaments of Virginia and 
Maryland, at whofe joint expence it was 
to have been built arid fupported ; and 
by the commencement of the late inaufpi- 
cious hoftilities in America. 

We foon failed within the Capes of 
Virginia, Cape Henry and Cape Charles, 
which lail is an ifland named Smith's. 


United States of America. g 

We paft Lynhaven Bay on our left, and 
the opening of the Chefapeak on the right, 
and in the evening anchored in Hamp- 
ton Road, which appears to be very fafe. 

The diftance between the Capes is a- 
bout twelve miles, but the vaft bay of 
Chefapeak widens after you enter, until 
it becomes about thirty miles over, near 
thirty-five Englifh leagues within land ; 
then the breadth decreafes from thence to 
the head of it, and is generally from fif- 
teen to five miles, which is the breadth 
of it at its extremity, where the Elk and 
the mighty river Sufquahannah fall into 
it, at about three hundred miles difiance 
from the fea, through the whole of which 
vafi: extent the tide ebbs and flows. 

The night being calm we were aflaulted 
by great numbers of mufketoes, a very 
noxious fly, which feems to be of the 
fpecies of gnats, but larger and more 
poifonous, leaving a hard tumor wherever 
they bite, with an intolerable and pain- 
ful itching ; they penetrate the fkin, fill 
themfelves with blood, and make their 


I'll W 

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A Tour in the 

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principal attacks in the night, accompa- 
nied by a fmall, fhrill, difagreeable note, 
the very found of which efFe£tually pre- 
vents you from flcep, after you have been 
once bit. 

On the day following, the captain of 

the fhip, Mr. R , and I went up 

Elizabeth River, in the yaul, to Norfolk, 
about twenty miles, where wc dined 
very agreeably, and returned that even- 
ing to the fhip in Hampton Road, fo 
that I had not at this time an opportu- 
nity of feeing much of the town. How- 
ever, it appears to be charmingly fituated 
at the forks of a very pleafant river, the 
Elizabeth, on the north-eaft: fide, Mr. 
Sprowle's little village of Gofport being 
on the fouth, and the pretty town of 
Portfmouth on the fouth-vveft fide, over 
again ft Norfolk, at the diflance of about 
eight hundred yards, which is the breadth 
of the river there -, with fufficient depth 
of water for a fhip of the line. 

Norfolk is a corporation, with a mayor, 

aldermen, &c. in a flourifhing flate of 

7 im- 

;' . I 

' I, 

United States of America, 1 1 

improvement, and increafing daily ; it 
contains about feven thoufand inhabitants, 
of all colours and denominations, of 
which perhaps more than two thoufand 
are whites. But it was by no means in 
fuch a ftatc of increafe and improvement 
as the more inland towns, at or near the 
falls of the great rivers ; thefe being the 
chief emporiums of trade and commerce 
for the large, populous, and extenfive 
back country, weft and fouth of them ; 
and, having alfo all the advantages of 
navigation, intercept the inland trade 
from Norfolk, which renders it, though 
flourifliing, yet only fo in an inferior 

[Soon after the commencement of the 
late unhappy and ill-fated hofllllties in 
America, the beautiful town of Norfolk 
fell a facrifice to the miftaken fury and 
devaftations of civil war ; in an unfortu- 
nate meafure of the Britifh governor of 
Virginia, rendered excufable however, 
and even very juftifiable, by the circum- 





' ' 1 


1 1 

I ■ < 


A lour in the 

v\ 1 

Aances attending it ; and the more int'* 
prudent, criminal, and even vindidtive, 
favage depredations of a back- wood's mob 
of American foldiery, who feemed then to 
carry their unjuft, barbarous, and ill- 
grounded rcfentments againft all the low- 
country and fea-coaft; having propofed 
even to fpread defolation throughout the 
whole, merely becaufc it was within reach 
and command of the Britifh navy; and 
becaufe the principles and conduct of the 
inhabitants were more temperate and li- 
beral than theirs. 

The American foldiery, chiefly then 
back-woods riflemen, taking every op- 
portunity of firing from under the cover 
of the houfes and wharfs, upon the Britifli 
troops, and loyalifts who had been com- 
pelled to feek refuge on board the fhip- 
ping then in the river, by this means 
picking off a few individuals every day, 
in this fneaking, cowardly manner; a 
meiTage was fent them by his majefty's 
governor, the earl of Dunmore, who was 
then on board the fleet, requefting them 


|r • 

United St at a of /hncrlciu 


to defift from fuch unjuflifiablc pracllccs, 
othcrwifc he (lioukl be coinpcilcd to hrc 
upon the town, perhaps to its dclh'udion, 
though very rekidtantly : but they per- 
filling in their defpicablc iinmilitary of- 
fences, he fent them orders to rCiHovc all 
the women and children out of the place 
by a limited time, when a cannonade would 
certainly be commenced upon the town ; 
> and the fhips of war were drawn near, and 
prepared for that purpofe. This being 
accordingly executed, and the enemy 
galling the troops from the warehoufes on 
the wharfs, thefe were obliged to be fet on 
lire to diflodge them, which was thus com- 
pletely effected ; but it was univerfally no- 
ticed, and particularly obferved by every 
perfon, that almoft at the fame inftant the 
flames broke out likewife in the back part 
of the town,fartheft from the (hipping; for 
the rebels had alfo fet fire to it, in many dif- 
ferent places themfelves, by order of the 
provincial congrefs of Virginia, by which 
means the conflagration foon became gene- 
ral and tremendous, and in a (hort time en- 









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-^ Tour in the 

tirely deftroyed, and confumed to aflies this 
fine town, the firft in Virginia in magni- 
tude, opulence, and navigation. 

The Americans not only burnt Nor- 
folk, but the village of Gofport, and a 
great part of the beautiful little town of 
Portfmouth alfo, fmce that time ; and, 
by an ad: of their legiflature, granted a 
compenfation in money to fuch per- 
fons as were well afFeded to their caufe, 
for the value of their property thus de- 
ftroyed.] ^ 

Oa the fixth, the fhip" weighed an- 
chor, and proceeded up James River. As 
the weather was extremely hot, I preferred 
going up in her to a journey by land ; 
which, from Norfolk to Richmond, at the 
falls of James River, is about an hundred 
and thirty miles. 

After pafling a great number of moft 
charming fituations on each fide of this 
beautiful river, we came to anchor before 
James Town, now a paltry place, not 
by any means deferving even the name of 


United States of America. 1 5 

a village, although once the metropolis of 
Virginia, and ftill pofiefiiiig feveral pri- 
vileges in confequence thereof, one of 
v^hich is fending a member to the afTem- 
bly, or parliament ; who is now Cham- 
pion Traverfe, efq. the proprietor of the 
whole town, and almoft all the land ad- 
jacent, and I believe there are no more 
voters than himfelf. 

On the feventh, Mr. R and I, 

having been furniftied with horfes by Mr. 
Traverfe, made an excurfion to Williimf- 
burg, which is but a few miles dillant ; 
perhaps eight or ten. 

The roads are excellent, the face of the 
country is level, the foil rather fandy, 
but the whole land appears to be one con- 
tinued immenfe foreft, interfperfed with 
openings where the trees have been cut 
down, and the ground is cultivated, of 
larger or lefs dimenfions : thefe are called 
plantations, and are generally from one 
to four or five miles diftant from each 
other, having a dwelling-houfe in the 
middle, with kitchens and out-houfes all 





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A Tour in the 

detached ; at fome little dlftance there 
are always large peach and apple orchards^ 
&c.; and fcattered over the plantations are 
the tobacco houfes, large wooden edi- 
fices, for the cure of that grand flaple 

We dined very agreeably at the Raleigh 
taYern, where we had exceeding good 
Madeira, and afterwards walked out 
to view the town, which is now the 
feat of government^ and metropolis of 




tint ted SfaUs of America^ 1 7 

C 11 A P. 11. 

Williamjburg* Races* Breed if Runntng-Horfes* 

' 11 ■ ■■; 

WILLIAMSBURG is an inland 
town on the higheft land about 
the middle between the rivers of York, on 
the north, and James, on the fouth, at 
the diftance of feven miles from the 
neareft ; and is healthy for the climate. 

There is one handfome ftreet in it, juft 
a mile in length, where the view is ter- 
minated by a commanding object each 
way ; the Capitol, an elegant public build- 
ing, in which the aiTembly, or fenate, and 
courts of judicature are held, at one end 
of the ftreet ; and the college of William 
and Mary, an old monadic ftrudlure, at 
the other end. About the middle be- 
tween them, on the north fide, a little 
diftance retired from the (Ireet, (lands the 
palace, the refidence of the governor ; 

Vol. L C a large 





^ -fell 

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, I 

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j4 Tour in the 

a large, commodious, and handfomc 


[Since the commencement of the late 
hoflilities in America, when the feat of 
war was in Virginia, about the time of, 
or foon after lord Cornwallis's furrender 
at York Town, the Americans converted 
the palace at Williamfburg into barracks 
for the accommodation of their troops; 
who, being by no means remarkable for 
cleannefs or care, by fome accident fet it 
on fire, by which it was entirely de- 
flroyed ; thus occafioned, as many ima- 
gine, by their negled. It has alfo been 
alledged, that fome loyalifts, provoked at 
feeing it converted to fuch vile purpofes, 
fo very difFerer : from the original inten- 
tion of the ftrudure ; and incenfed in the 
highefl: degree at beholding the houfe of 
the reprefentative of their fovereign thus 
polluted by the naftinefs, filth, and de- 
predations of the American foldiery, pri- 
vately fet iire to it in the night : and they 

• are 






United States of America, 1 9 

are not few who believe that to this hift 
caufe it owed its ruin.] 

AH the public edifices are built of brick, 



le generality of the houfes a: 
wood, chiefly painted white, and are every 
one detached from each other; which, with 
the ftreet deep with fand, (not being 
paved) makes a fingular appearance to an 
European ; and is very difagreeable to 
walk in, efpecially in fummer, when the 
rays of the fun are intenfely hot, and not 
at little increafed by the refledion of the 
white fand, wherein every ftep is almo# 
above the (hoe, and where there is no 
ihade or (helter to walk under, unlefs you 
carry an umbrella. 

There is a whimfical circumftance attends 
WiUiamfburg ; which is, a part of the 
town (that has been added to it fince it 
was firft built) having the ftrcets laid out 
in the form of a W. 

Williamfburg is alfo the county-town 
of James-city county ; where the courts 
of common pleas are held monthly, as 

C 2 they 


















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j4 Tour in the 

they are alfo in every county in the co- 
lony j which amount to fixty-eight in 
number. The quarter feflions are alfo 
held quarterly in each county. Befides 
thefe, there are two courts of oyer and 
terminer held annually at Williamfburg ; 
and likewife two general courts in April 
and Odober, which receive and deter- 
mine appeals from every county, and all 
the inferior courts, as well as try orfginal 
caufes for fums above twenty pounds. 

Thefe, as alfo the courts of chancery, 
courts of admiralty, and aifemblies or 
parliaments, befides the college, occafion 
a great refort and concourfe of people to 
Williamfburg ; and are indeed the chiefs 
if not the whole, fupport of the place : 
for her fhare of commerce is very incon- 
fiderable, and (he does not pofTefs a fingle 

There are races at Williamfburg twice 
» year ; that is, every fpring and fall, or 
autumh. Adjoining to the town is a 
very excellent courfe, for either two, three 
or four mile' heats. Their purfes are ge- 



United States of America 2 1 

gerally railed by fubfcription, and are 
gained by the horfe that wins two four- 
mile heat out of three ; they amount to 
an hundred pounds each for the firft day's 
running, and fifty pounds each every day 
after; the races commonly continuing 
for a week. There are alfo matches and 
fweepflrikes very often, for confiderable 
fums. Befidea thefe at Williamfburg, 
there are races eflablifhed annually, al- 
moft at every town and confiderable place 
in Virginia ; and frequent matches, on 
which large fums of money depend ; the 
inhabitants, almofl to a man, being quite 
devoted to the diverfion of horfe-racing. 

Very capital horfes are flarted here, 
fuch as would make no defpicable figure 
at Newmarket ; nor is their fpeed, bot- 
tom, or blood inferior to their appearance ; 
the gentlemen of Virginia fparing no 
pains, trouble, or cxpence in importing 
the bed (lock, and improving the excellence 
of the breed by proper an^ jwdiciop^ 

C 3 Indeed 

B^t ', 11 

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yi Tour tit the 

Indeed nothing can be more elegant 
and beautiful than the horfes bred here, 
either for the turf, the field, the road, 
or the coach ; and they have always fine 
long, full, flowing tails ; but their car- 
riage horfes feldom are poffefled of that 
weight and power, which diftinguifti thofe 
of the fame kind in England. 


Their flock is from old Cade, old Crab, 
old Partner, Regulus, Babraham, Bofphorus, 
Devonfhire Childers, the CuUen Arabian, 
the Cumberland Arabian, &c. in England ; 
and a horfe from Arabia, named the Bell- 
fize, which was imported into America, 
and is now in exiftence. 

In the fcuthern part of the colony, and 
in North Carolina, they are much attached 
to quarter~raci7igy which is always a match 
between two horfes, to run one quar- 
ter of a mile flreight out ; being 
merely an excurfion of fpeed ; and they 
have a breed that perff * m it with aftonifh- 
ing velocity, beating every other, for that 
diftance, with great eafe ; but they have 
no bottom. However, I am confident 






)r tbat 
T bave 


United States of A/nerica. a 3 

that tbere is not a horfe in England, nor 
perhaps the whole world, that can excel 
them in rapid fpeed : and thefe likewife 
make excellent faddle horfes for the road. 
The Virginians, of all ranks and deno- 
minations, are exceflivcly fond of horfes, 
and efpecially thofe of the race breed. The 
gentlemen of fortune expend great fums 
on their finds, generally keeping hand- 
fome carriages, and feveral elegant fets of 
horfes, as well as others for the race and 
road : even the moft indigent perfon has 
his faddle -horfe, which he rides to every 
place, and on every occafion ; for in this 
country nobody walks on foot the fmalleft 
diftance, except when hunting : indeed a 
man will frequently go five miles to catch 
a horfe, to ride only one mile upon after- 
wards. In fhort, their horfes are their 
pleafure, and their pride. 







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A Tour in the 


The different beautiful Situations, and Gentlemen*]; 
Seats^ on James River, 


N the evening, Mr. R- 

and I 

were unfortunately feparated, occa- 
fioned by a very ridiculous and iingular 
accident ; the efFed of which had like to 
have been tragical enough to him. Jufl: 
when we were ready to return to the 
fhip, by fome miftake, wrong horfes were 
brought to the door ; and not obferving 
it, we mounted them : thefe horfes being 
very fpirited, and Mr. R— — , having 
bid adieu to the gentlemen with whom 
we dined, fuddenly clapped both his fpurs 
in his horfe-s fides, inadvertently, with 
great force; the horfe inflantly reared up, 
and fprung forwards, leaving poor R 
upon the ground, at the door, flat on hi^ 
back, with his fkull almofi fradlured. 
By this means the miflake in the change 
of our horfes was difcovered and redified ; 
but Mr. R— — * was fo much hurt, that 


United States of America, 15 

h€ was obliged to be blooded, and carried 
into the Raleigh again, where I left him ; 
and was thereby reduced to the neceiTity 
of returning alone to the fhip. 

On the ninth of Auguft the (hip got 
under weigh, and proceeded up the river, 
paffing the delightful fituations of Sandy- 
Point, Cabin-Point, Brandon, Flower dc 
Hundred, Maycox, &c. on the fouth 
fide ; and Swine- Yards, belonging to Mr. 
Cole, Colonel Byrd's beatuifulfeatof Weft- 
over, Colonel Harrifon's of Barclay, &c. 
on the north fide : we anchored oppofitc 
to City- Point, at the confluence of the 
Appamatox River and the James, and 
about an hundred and thirty miles within 
land, from the capes of Virginia. 

Here the fecond mate was carried on 
fliore to the houfe of a Mrs. Brown, hav- 
ing been for a confiderable time languilh- 
ing, and in great pain, occafioned by a 
violent contufion he received by a fall on 
the deck from the main-yard-arm, reef- 
ing the main-fail in a gale of wind ; and 
^on after he ended his days there. 




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A Tour in the 



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As the fliip was not to go much far- 
nlicr up, and was to receive great part of 
her cargo at this place, I hired a boat and 
four negroes, for one dollar and a half 
per day (about fix fhilJings and nine- 
pence fterling) ; and on the tenth I left 
the fhip moored, and proceeded up the 
river in the boat ; propofing to land ^at 
every place whcfe beauty of perfpedive, 
or fingular appearance of any kind, might 
ftrike the attention, or excite my curiofity. 

I had almoft omitted to mention an un- 
fortunate accivient that happened at this 
place, before I left the (hip. A young 
failor, having killed and cut up a fine 
large flurgeon, that had leaped out of the 
water and fallen into the boat, along fide 
of the fhip, which happens frequently 
here ; bringing in the laft piece himfelf, 
in his hand, his foot flipped oflF the gun- 
wale of the boat, between which and the 
fliip he fell into the river, and was never 
feen or heard of more. 

The principal fituations that com- 
manded my notice and admiration, were 


United States of America, 


Shirley Hundred, a feat of Charles Car- 
ter, efq. at prcfent in occupation of Mr. 
Bowler Cock : this is indeed a charming 
places the buildings arc of brick, large, 
convenient, and expenfive, but now fall- 
ing to decay; they were ereded at a great 
charge, by Mr. Carter's father, who was 
fecretary of the colony, and this was his 
favourite feat of refideiicc. The prefent 
proprietor has a moft opulent fortune, 
and poflefles fuch a variety of feats, in 
fitualions fo exceedingly delightfuV ihat 
he overlooks this fvveet one of Shirley, 
and fuffers it to fall to ruin, although the 
buildings mull have coft an immenfe 
fum in conllruding 5 and would certainly 
be expenfive to keep in repair, which ex- 
pence, however, mufl be greatly increafed 
by this negle£t. 

Varina, the feat of Ryland Randolph, 
efq. a moft lovely and delightful fpot; 
an elegant building, but unfiniflied, oc- 
cafioned by the owner's verfatility of 
tafte, and perpetual alterations. 


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ji Tour in the 

Chatfworth, the feat of William Ran- 
dolph, efq. whofe father was furveyor- 
general of the fouthern diflrid of North- 
America, &c, is a very good houfe, with 
an agreeable perfpedive. 

A Mr. Mayho's ; a very pretty place 

alfo. All on the north fide of the 


On the fouth fide are the beautiful 
little towns of Bermuda Hundred, Of- 
born's, and Warwick : and a feat be- 
longing to a Mr. Gary, a lovely f^tuation, 
who has alfo erected fome extremely va- 
luable mills, iron-works, &c. of equal 
emolument and importance to himfelf 
and the community. They are fituated 
near the town of Warwick, about five 
miles below Richmond, and the falls of 

[Thefe valuable mills and iron works 
have been fet fire to, and entirely de- 
ftroyed, during the late unhappy war, 
jin 1781, in an expedition under the 


United States of America. 29 

command of Brigadier General Ar- 

I flept on board the boat ; and on the 
eleventh, in the forenoon, landed at the 
town of Shokoes, at the falls of James- 
River, and immediately difcharged the 

I then waited on Mr. -— .— , a mer- 
chant, at that place, on whom I had been 
been furniflied with letters of credit, &c. 
He was at home, and received me with 
kindnefs, attention, and friendfiiip. He 
offered me apartments in his houfe, 
which I accepted, and he Teemed fludious 
to ferve and amufe me. 



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A Tour in the 

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Richmond. Falls of JameS'River^ &c. 

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T this place the whole appearance 
. of the country undergoes a total 
change. From the fea to the falls, about 
one hundred and fifty-five miles, there is 
not a h^l^ to be feen ; fcarcely a;i emi- 
nence, being one continued flat level, 
without even a fingle ftone to be found ; 
•nothing but fand and fhells on the fhores, 
and the land confifts of loam, fand, and 
clay, but univerfally covered with woods. 

Here a ledge of rocks interrupts the 
whole flream of the river, for the length 
of feven miles ; during the courfe of 
which, that vaft current of water rufhes 
down, raging with impetuofity, tumb- 
ling and dafhing from rock to rock, with 
an aflonifliing roar, that is heard for many 
miles diftance. The land fuddenly fwells 
into hills of a great height, and abounds 




United Stales of America. 3 1 

with prodigious rocks, and large ftones, 

^s well as trees. 

On the fummits of thofe hills, mod of 

which over-look, and many of thenx 
over-hang the falling torrent of the James, 
handfome houfes are built, which com- 
mand a wild, grand, and moft elegant 

The James, here, is about half a. mile 
wide ; the tide flows up to the very rocks 
of the falls, w!ich continue to interrupt 
the current fo' . u length of feven miles 
above. There are feveral iflands in the 
river among the falls, which are chiefly 
covered with wood and rocks ; but are 
of fmall extent: the tide reaches the 
lower end of one of theie iflands, which 
is fervifeable in checking the violence of 
the torrent of the water in the falls, and 
thereby favours the paflage of the ferry 
boats below. 

There are three towns at this plhce. 
Richmond, the largeft, is below the falls, 
and is feparated only by a creek, named 
Shokoes, from the town of Shokoes, which 











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A Tour in the 

joins the lower end of the falls ; thefe 
are both on the north fide of the river : 
on the fouth fide Hands the town of 
Chefterfield, beft known by the name of 
Rocky- Ridge, from its fituation. 

Veflels of fmall burthen come up to 
the rocks of the falls, and large (hips 
come within two miles of them to load. 

At James town, the river is between two 
and three miles wide; and juft above it 
is always frefh water : the breadth de- 
creafes gradually to the falls. 

Dmring my refidence at Richmond, I 
made feveral little excurfions around in 
the adjacent country, on vifits to feveral 
gentlemen, who honoured me with 
invitations. Among thofe, from whom I 
received particular attention and civilities, 
were Thomas Mann Randolph, of Tucka- 
hoe, efq. R. Good, of Chefterfield, efq. 
Mr. Gary, &c- 

I alfo rode as far as Weftham, a 
fmall town on the James, feven miles 
above Richmond, juft where the falls 
commence. Tobacco, the grand ftaple 


11 • 



United States of America. %% 

of Virginia, is navigated down the river 
from the back country to Weftham, inhogf- 
heads of a thoufand weight each, ready for 
exportation, every hogfhead upon two^ ca- 
noes laflied together ; then it is brought 
by land-carriage to Shokoes, or Rich- 
mond, as the falls totally intercept and 
preclude all communication by water for 
their continuance of feven miles. 

In floods, an immenfe body of water down the James, which fwells to a 
great height and aftonifhing widenefs, 
overflowing all the low ground for many 
miles ; but at the falls, where the moun- 
tains arife abruptly on each fide, and con- 
fine the river within more narrow bounds, 
the noife, violence, and impetuofity of the 
torrent, is not to be defcribed. It is dread- 
fully tremenduotis and awful. 

It feems that once, when the river was 
in fuch a ftate, a man, who was bringing 
down his tobacco to market, inflead of 
landing at Weftham, being quite intoxi- 
cated with fpirituous liquor, was carried 
down the torrent ; and, amazing to think 

Vol. L D on I 

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^ Tour in the 
! arrived fafe at Shokocs warehoufe* 

wharf below, with his tobacco ; having 
been brought to the (hore, after he had 
got over all the falls, by boats fent out 
from thence to his afliftance, by thofe, 
who with aftonifhment and horror, ob- 
ferved him in his dreadful rapid defcent 
and paffage over them. When he was 
brought to the fhorci l^e was ftill in a 
ftate of infenfibility and flupefa^ion, oc- 
cafioned by inebriation and terror. 

This is* indeed one of the mod extra- 
ordinary accidents that has occurred, or 
perhaps was ever heard of; but I have 
no reafon to doubt the fad^t, as it v^as re-* 
lated to me, and vouched for, by fcveral 
perfons of credit and veracity, who were 
eye-witneffes of this fingular event. 


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Unitcd States of America i 

C M A ^. V. 



tnhabUantSt Climate. Sky. 'Thunder and Ll^hlnln^t, 
• Fact of the Country. Bullfrogs. Strange and tre- 
mendous Sounds, Inchcintment* Negroes, 

TH E cuftoms and maimer of living 
, of moft of the white inhabitants 
here, I muft confefs, did not a little ifur-^ 
prife me ; being inadlve, languid, and 
enervating to the laft degree. 

Indeed the whole appearance of the 
country, aiid face of nature, is ftrikingly 
novel and charming to an European, ef- 
pecially to a Briton. 

The air, the Iky, the water, the lanci, 
and the inhabitants, being two- thirds 
blacks, are objects entirely different from 
all that he had been accuftomed to fee be- 
fore. The iky clear and ferene, very 
feldom over-caft, or any haze to be ob- 
feryed in the atmofphere ; the rains fall- 
ing in torrents, and the clouds immedi- 
ately difperfing. frequent dreadful thuh- 

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der in loud contending peals ; li.under 
guAs happening often dally, and always 
within every two or three days, at this 
feafon of the year. Erufcations and '^nfhes 
of lightning, conflantly fucceeding each 
other, in quick and rapid traufitions. 
The air dry, and intenfely hot in the 
fummer, cold and piercing in the winter, 
and always keen and penetrating. During 
the night, thoufands of lights, like bright 
burning candles,being large winged infeds, 
called fire-flies, gliding through the air 
in every direction ; frequently vanifhing, 
and perpetually fucceeded by new ones. 
The rivers, large expances of water, of 
enormous extent, and fpreading under the 
eye as far as it can comprize ; nature here 
being on fuch a fcale, that what are called 
great rivers in Europe, are here conu- 
dered only as inconfiderable creeks or 
rivulets. The land, an immenfe foreft, 
extended on a flat plain, almofl with- 
out bounds ; or arifing into abrupt 
afcents, and at length fwelling into flu- 
pendous mountains,^ interfperfed with 



United States of America. 37 

rocks and precipices, yet covered with 

venerable trees, hoary with age, and tora 

with tempefts. The mountains fuddenly 

broken through, and fevered by mighty 

rivers, raging in torrents at the bottom of 

the tremendous chafm, or ghding in 

awful majeftic filence along the deep val- 

lies between them. The agriculture on 

the p jtations is different from every 

thing in Europe ; being either tobacco, 

three feet hip^h, with the plants a yard 

apart ; or Indian corn, at the diftance of 

fix feet h'^tween each ftalk, in regular 

ftreight rows, or avenues,frequently twelve 

or fifteen feet in height. 

While the mind is filled with aftonifh- 
ment, and novel objeds, all the fenfes arc 

The flowery (hrubs which over-fpread 
the, land, regale the fmell with odori- 
ferous perfumes : and fruits of ex^uifite 
relifh and flavour, delight the tafte, apd 
afford a moft grateful refrefliment. 

The prodigious multitude of green 
frogs, reptiles, and large infefls, on the 

D 3 trees, 




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38 -^ I'our in the 

trees, as well as the bull-frogs in the 
fvvamps, ponds, and places of water, dur- 
ing the rpring, fummer, and fall, make 
an inccfliint noife and clamour ; the bull- 
frogs, in particular, emitting a moft tre- 
mendous roar, louder than the bellow- 
ing of a bull, from the fimilarity of 
whofe voice they obtained their name; 
but their note is harfh, fonorous, and ab- 
rupt, frequently appearing to pronounce 
articulate founds, in ftriking refemblancc 
to the following words, Hogjloead tobacco* 
Knee deep. Ancle deep. Deeper and deeper, 
Piankitankt and many others ; but all 
equally grating and diflbnant. They fur- 
prife a man exceedingly, as he will hear 
their hoarfe, loud, bellowing clamor juft 
by him, and fometimes all around him, 
yet he cannot difcover from whence it 
proceeds; they being all covered in water, 
and juft raifing their mouth only a littli 
above the furface when they roa:* out, 
then inftantly draw it under agaiii. They 
^ire of thf fi2;e pf ^ man's fop^ . 



United ^taici of America* 


Nor can you perceive the animals 
from whence the founds in the trees pro- 
ceed, they being moft efFedually hid 
among the leaves and branches. So that 
at firll this abfohitely appears to be a 
country of enchantments. 

As I obferved before, at leaft two- 
thirds of the inhabitants are negroes, 
whole difference of features and colour, 
and rank offenfive fmell, are extremely 
difagreeable and difguftful to Europeans : 
but, poor creatures ! they are all humi- 
lity and fubmiflion ; and it is the greateft 
pleafure of their lives, when they can 
pleafe the whites. 

You cannot underftand all of them, as 
great numbers, being Africans, are inca- 
pable of acquiring our language, and at 
bell but very imperfedly, if at all ; 
many of the others alfo fpeak a mixed 
'''aled between the Guinea and Englifh. 

It is fortunate for humanity, that 
thefe poor creatures poflefs fuch a fund 
of contentment and refignation in their 

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A Tour in the 

minds ; for they indeed feem to be the 
happieft inhabitants in America, not- 
withftanding the hardnefs of their fare, 
the feverity of their labour, and the un- 
kindnefs, ignominy, and often barbarity 
of their treatment. 

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United States of America, 4 \ 


Manner of Life of each Rank of the Inhabitants* 

TO give an idea of the manner. in 
\yhich a white man fpends his 
time in this country, a defcription is ne- 
ceflary of each degree in life. 

The gentleman of fortune rifes about 
nine o clock; he perhaps may make an 
excurfion to walk as far as his ilables to 
fee his horfes, which is feldom more than 
fifty yards from his houfe ; he returns to 
breakfall, between nine and ten, which 
is generally tea or coffee, bread and 
butter, and very thin flices of venifon- 
ham, or hung beef. He then lies down 
on a pallat, on the floor, in the coolefl: 
room in the houfe, in his (hirt and trou- 
fets only, with a negro at his head, nid 
another at his feet, to fan him, and keep 
off the flies ; between twelve and one he 
takes a draught of bombo, or toddy, 
^ liquor compofed of water, fugar, r\xm% 


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^ Taiir in the 

and nutmeg, which is made weak, and 
kept cool : he dines between two and 
three, and at every table, whatever elfe 
there may be, a ham and greens or 
cabbage, is always a ftanding difh; at 
dinner he drinks cyder, toddy, punch, 
port, claret, and madeira, which is gene- 
rally excellent here : having drank fome 
feiv glafles of wine after dinner, he re- 
turns to his pallat, with his two blacks 
to fan him, and continues to drink toddy, 
or fangaree, all the afternoon ; he does 
not always drink tea; between nine and 
ten in the evening, he eats a light fupper 
of milk and fruit, or wine, fugar, and 
fruit, &c. and almoft immediately retires 
to bed, for the night ; in which, if it 
be not furnifhed with mufketoe curtains, 
he is generally fo molefted with the heat, 
and harraffed and tormented with thofe 
pernicious mledts the mufketoes, that 
he receives very little refrefhment from 

This is his general way of living in 
his family, when he has no company. 



■ ' i 



United States of America. 43 

No doubt many differ from it, feme in 
one refped, fome in another j but more 
follow it than do not. 

The lower, and many of the middling 
claffes, live very differently. A man in 
this line rifes in the morning about fix 
o'clock ; he then diinks a julap, made 
of .rum, water, and fugar, but very 
ftrong ; then he walks, or more gene- 
rally rides, round his plantation, views 
all his flock, and all his crop, breakfails 
about ten o'clock, on cold turkey, cold 
meat, fried homminy, toaft and cyder, 
tam, bread and butter, tea, coffee, or 
chocolate, which laft, however, is feldorai 
tafted but by the women j the reft of the 
day he fpends much in the fame manner 
before defcribed in a man of the firft rank, 
only cyder fupplies the place of wine at 
dinner, and he eats no fupper > they 
never even think of it. The women 
very feldom drink tea in the afternoon ; 
the men never. 

The poor negro flaves alone work hard, 

and f^re ftill harder. It is aftonifhing, 

' and 


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and unaccountable to conceive what an 
amazing degree of fatigue thefe poor,' 
but happy, wretches do undergo, and 
can fupport. He is called up in the 
morning at day break, and is feldom al- 
lowed time enough to fwallow three 
mouthful s of horn mi ny, or hoe-cake, 
but is driven out immediately to the field 
to hard labour; at which he continues, 
without intermifiion, until noon ; and it 
is obferved, as a Angular circumftance, 
that they always carry out a piece of fire 
with them, and kindle one juft by their 
work, let the weather be ever fo hot and 
fultry. About noon is the time he eats 
ills dinner, and he is feldom allowed an 
hour for that purpofe. His meal confifts 
of homminy and fait, and, if his mafter, 
be a man of humanity, he has a little 
fat, fkimmed milk, rufty bacon, or fait 
herring to relifh his homminy, or hoe- 
cake, which kind malters allow their 
flaves twice a week ; but the number of 
thofe, it is much to b6 lamented, are very 
few 5 for the poor flave generally fares 
8 the 

United States of Afnerka. 45 

the worlb for his maftcf'n riches, which 
confifting of land and negroes, their 
numbers increafe their hard (hips, and di- 
minifh. their value to the proprietor, the 
expence precluding an extenfion of indul- 
gence and liberality. 

They then return to fevere labour, 
U'hich continues in the field until dufk in 
the evening, when they repair to the to- 
bacco-houfes, where each has his tafk in 
ftripping allotted him, that employs him 
for fome hours. If it be found, next 
morning, that he has negleded, flighted, 
or not performed his labour, he is tied 
up, and receives a number cf laflbes, on 
his bare back, moft feverely infli6i:ed, at 
the difcretion of thofe unfeeling fons of 
barbarity, the overfeers, who are per- 
mitted to exercife an unlimited dominioa 
over them. '^' '''' '''' ^^ " ^^ ^ ^ a-^ 

It is late at night before he returns to 

his fecond fcanty meal, and even the time 

taken up at it, encroaches upon his hours 

of fleep, which, altogether, do never e?!:- 

- - " ' ceed 

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^ To^r in the 

tttd eight in number, for eating and 

But inftead of retiring to reft, as might 
naturally be concluded he would be glad 
to do, he generally fets out from home, 
and walks fix or feven lililes in the night, 
be the weather ever fo fultry, to a negroe 
dance, in which be performs with afton- 
iihjng agility, and the moft vigorous ex- 
ertions, keeping time and cadence, moft 
exa£tly, with the mulic of a banjor (a 
large hollow inftrument with three ftrings], 
and a quaqua (fomewhat refembling a 
drum), until he exhaufts himfelf, and 
fcarcely has time, or ftrength, to return 
home before the hour he is called forth 
to toil next morning. 

When he fleeps, his comforts are e- 
qually miferable and limited ; for he 
lies on a bench, or on the ground, with 
only an old fcanty fingle blanket, and not 
always even that, to ferve both for his 
bed and his covering. Nor is his cloath- 
ing lefs niggardly and wretched, being 
nothing but a fluirt and troufers, made of 










Unite J States of America. 


coarfe thin hard hendpen fluff in the 
fiimmer, with the addition of a fordid 
woollen jacket, breeches, and ihoes, in 
the winter. 

The female flaves fare, laboilr, and re- 
pofe, juft in the fame manner; even 
when they breed> which is generally 
every two or three years, they feldom 
lofe more tMn a week's work thereby, 
either in the delivery, or fuckling the 
child. •■ T ' 

In fobmiiTibn to injur jr and infults, they 
are likcwife obliged to be entirely paflive, 
nor dare iany of them refill, or even de- 
fend himfelf againft the whites, if they 
fhould attack him without the fmallefl: 
provocation; for the Itw direds a nc- 
groe's arm to be flruck off, who raifes it 
againfl a white perfon, fhould it be ozAf 
ill his own defence, againfl the moft 
wanton and wicked barbarity and out-^ 
rage. -' ' "-■' ':"' " •"'•--•i 

Yet notwithftandmg this degrading 
fitua^ion, and rigid feverity to which fate 
has fubje^ed this wretched race, they are 


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A Tour in the 

certainly devoid of care, and adually ap- 
pear jovial, contented, and happy. For- 
tunate it is indeed for them, that they are 
blefTed with this eafy, fatisfied difpofition 
of mind, elfe human nature, unequal to 
the weight, muft fink under the pref- 
fure of fuch complicated mifery and 

•Having had occafion more than once 
to mention homminyt hoe-cake, &Cf it 
may not be improper at this time to ob- 
ferve, that homminy is an American diih, 
made of Indian corn, freed from the 
hufks, boiled whole, along with a fmall 
proportion of a large kind of French 
beans^ until it becomes almoft a pulp: 
it is in general ufe, and to my tafte, very 
agreeable. Hoe-cake is Indian corn, 
ground into meal, kneaded into dough, 
and baked on a hot, broad, iron hoe. 
This is alfo in conmion uic, and 10 my 
palate, extremely harfh and unpleafant. 

n», j'< 


' 'i 

United States cf America, 49 


Houfes. Ordinarlesy or Inns, A Jirangc 
Black Snakes. Devour Frogs and ALce. Fujci' 
nate Birds in the Air. Flying Squirrels^ <sfc. 

THE houfes here are almoft all of 
wood, covered with the ianie ; 
the roof with dangles, the litles and ends 
with thin boards^ and not always lathed 
and plaiftered wi:hin ; only thofe of the 
better fort are finifhed in that manner, 
and painted on the outfide. The chim^ 
neys are fometimes of brick, but more 
commonly of wood, coated on the infide 
with clay. The windows of the beft fort 
have glafs in them ; the reft have none, 
and only wooden (butters. 

There is no diftindion here between 
inns, taverns, ordinaries, and public- 
houfes ; they are all in one, and are 
known by the appellation of taverns, pub- 
lic-houfes, or ordinaries, which, in the 
general acceptance of the names here, 
arc fynonymous terms. They are all 

Vol. I. E very 






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50 A Tour in the 

very indlfFercnt indeed, compared with 
the inns in England : and tlirec- , 
fourths of them are in reality little better 
than mere iTielters from the weather -, yet 
the word of them is by no means defi- 
cient in charging high. 

When a perfon arrives at Richmond, 
his ears are continually aflailed with the 
prodigious noife and roaring of the falls, 
which almoft ftuns him, and prevents 
him trom fleeping for feveral nights, it 
being a confide rable time before he be- 
comes habituated to it. , 

My principal amufement was walking : 
I took great delight in wandering alone 
among the rocks and folitary romantic 
fituations, around the falls. In thefe ex- 
curfions I always carried a book in my 
pocket, and when I came to any place 
that commanded my attention, either 
from the wildnefs and grandeur of the 
perfpcdive, or from the obfervation of 
the raging torrent below, after admir- 
ing the beauties of the fcene, I would 
frequently lie down in the fhade, and 


}/!■ I 

Vnit^d States cf Amcri du c i 

aiTlufc myfelf with reading, until I infcn- 
fibly dropt afleep. This was my daily 
recreation, which I never negleded. 

But I was once extremely furprifed at 
beholding, as foon as I opened my eyes, 
a prodigious large fnahe, within a few 
feet of mci balking himiblf in the fan. 
He was jet black, with a copper-coloured 
belly, very fine fparklinij eyes, and at 
Icaft feven feet long. Ho\vever he- did 
me no injuiy ; for I did not dillurb him, 
nor did he moleft me ; but as foon as 
he heard the ruftling of the leaves, on 
my moving, he went off with great pre- 
cipitation and fpeed* 

Another time, whilfl: [ was reading in 
a very i !itary retired place among the 
rocks and trees, on hearing fome little 
noife near me, I looked around, and juft 
had the glimpfe of a very ftraqge and fin- 
gular animal, fuch as I had never feen 
even any refemblance of before. It ap- 
peared to me more like a fiddle with feet, 
than any thing elfe that I know ; the 
fight I had of it was juft as it was run- 

E 2 ning 

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ji Tour in tie 

nlng behind a rock. I fought there, and 
every where for it immediately, to no 
purpofc, for I could not difcover even a 
trace thereof remaining. 

When I returned, I mentioned what I 
had fccn ; but no one, from my dcfcrip- 
tion, could intbrni me what animal it 



However, nothing is more common 
lie re than the black fnake. He is very 
bold and daring ; yet, to the human race, 
entirely harmlefs and inofFenfive ; nor is 
liis bite poifonous, and is as readily cured 
as the fcratch of a briar : notwithftanding 
which, it is faid, and I believe with 
truth, that he is mafter of all other fnakes ; 
even the rattle-fnake fubmits to him. 
This fuperiority arifes from the ftrength 
and power of his mufcles, for he infinuates 
himfelf in fpiral wreaths around his anta- 
gonifl, and then contrading,by that means 
conquers or kills him. His prey, for 
food, he fwallows whole. 

* For a defcription of this animal, fee chap, xiiii. 
5 It 

Ujiited Suites oJAmcrka, 53 

It is confidently reported, and iiniver- 
fally credited, that they devour fquirrels, 
and that they have been found with 
fquirrels whole in their bellies. I myfelf 
have feen them fwallow frogs of a very 
large fize. After the frog is almoft wholly 
in, if you ftrike the fnake, he will in- 
ftantly difgorge it, and the frog will leap 

The black fnakes are particularly fer- 
viceable in deflroying rats and mice, which 
they feek after very eagerly, and devour 
for food : for this purpofe, they are 6ven 
more ufeful than cats, becaufe, by their 
flender form and peculiar make, they are 
enabled to purfue thefe vermin into their 
lurking holes and hiding places, whicli 
they generally do, and thereby at once 
deftroy the whole progeny. 

But the Americans, one and all, have 
fuch an averfion and antipathy to the 
very appearance of the whole fpecies, that 
notwithftanding this kind of ferpents are 
abfolutely harmlels, and indeed extreme- 
ly ferviceable for the purpofes juft men- 

E 3 tioned, 

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tioncd, yet they are as eager to kill and 
deflroy them, as the mofl: noxious, viru- 
lent, and deleterious of the fpccies, the 
rattle, moccaflbn, and horn-fnakes. 

I have heard many (1 range relations of 
the power of fnakes, in charming birds, 
and drawing them down out of the air, 
to. devour them, by a certain fafcination 
in their eyes. To thefe talcs I formerly 
gave no credit; but I have now had con- 
vidion of their truth, by frequent ocu- 
lar demonftration. 

I have obferved a little bird, fluttering 
in the air, within a fmall compafs, gra- 
dually dcfccnding until it came down on 
a bufh, then hopping from fpray to fpray, 
every time lower, conllantly fending forth 
a tremulous, doleful note, expreffive of 
dread and furprife, until at length it 
would drop into the jaws of a fnake on 
the ground, that was gaping open ready 
to devour it. 

On fuch occafions, I always ftruck the 
fnake, and the inflant he moved, the 

t -i. 

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United States of America. 5 5 

bird became liberated from his fafcina- 
tion, Hying away with the greateft alert- 
nefs, and would chirp, and foar over my 
head in the air, for fome little diftance, 
as if grateful for its deliverance from fo 
formidable an enemy. This very extra- 
ordinary circumftance I have taken parti- 
cular notice of feveral different times. 

Squirrejs of many various kinds abound 
prodigioufly, but the grey fox-fquirrcls 
are the moil plenty, and mod common : 
you may fee them any where in the 
woods, and at any time, jumping from 
tree to tree, and making mod aflonifhing 
leaps, often fifteen, twenty, and fome- 
times thirty feet, from one branch to 
another. Thefe arc the largefl, but the 
flying-fquirrel, though much fmaller, 
jumps twice as far ; and indeed he takes 
fuch prodigious vaults, that he feems to 
fly, and appears to have wings, but they 
are only an expanfion of fome loofe fkin 
on each fide of him, which affords him 
fome little fupport in the air, and breaks 

E 4 his 




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his fall when he mifles his hold, which 
indeed is very feldom. 

The mod beautiful of the whole fpe- 
cics is the ground fquirrel, which isfmali, 
and moft delicately ilriped with qontrafts 
of darker and lighter Ihades. 





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United States of Ai 



CHAP. viir. 

Appomattox, ^"^uies. JThe Rner 

'pHE moft commanding and excel- 

;;; Belvidera. an ele J°;^ t ;T„ ' 
fo?^ r. • ^^''^^' ^nd was alrnoft the 

tt srt; °' ^" '"^ '-'^ ^^^^ 

Juft below the falls there 

•ive fidicries 

on each fide of the 

are very lucra- 

there are many more on ^ r '""'' "' 
ferentr,lac., L;"??''^^>"«-dif- 


places, that yield great profit 

to the 


On the fouth fid 

s and iron-wofks, which 

e are moft valuable 

are worked 


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j^ Tour in the 

by means of a canal, cut from the adjoin^ 
ing falls of the James. 

The low grounds on the James are ex^ 
tr^mely rich and fertile, producing vaft 
quantities of Indian-corn, wheat, and to- 
bacco. The foil is of a dark redifli co- 
lour, and one foot and a half deep pure 

The high land is of an inferior quality, 
yet fufficiently fertile to produce good 
crops of tobacco, wheat, and Indian corn ; 
fome of it is of a redifli colour, mixed 
with clay, which is the beft ; and the 
worft is of a light brown, intermixed 
with fand. 

The low grounds yield an increafe in 
wheat of twenty- five, thirty, and fome- 
times thirty- five bufliels, from one of 
feed : the high land from eight to fifteen 
for one. This is generally the produce 
of one acre. Much about the fame quan- 
tity of Indian corn is produced from an 
acre, according to the quality and excel- 
lence of the foil, though it does not re- 
quire :i 


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quire n,ore than a peck of feed to plant 
>t. The produce of an acre in fi . 

t..rc of tobacco, in the beftLd ,'"'■ 

fixteen hundred nnd ^1/ ' ''''°"' 

ontheworft aCtfi'\P°""''^^^^'feht: 

weight r„\°"\^^'^''""''"-<^d pounds 


=orn, with two, three and 1 ""' 

about five thoufand plants of tobacco 
Above the falls, the hifih land Z 
again tolerably level S "" 

beight to the fL / " ''J"al in 

fc c to the fummit of the firft hills 
^ he towns of Richmond and S ' 

are in Hfnr.v^ '' Shokoes 

- ^o^zr:p- '1 '''''''^^'^' 

Chefterfidd. ^ ' " '" ''" ^"""'^ of 
On the twenty-eighth of Auguft J f,. 

atRichmond.hccau/cli 7 -^°** 
i could purchafe , ' '"^"'"""^ '^" 

^^^' wLich was about 


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twenty-five miles diftant, and direflly in 

my way, I rode a horfe of Mr. 's, 

who prefled me to make ufe of him. 

I was fortunate in the company of a 
Mr. Buchanan, who was alfo going as 
far as Peterfburg. We eroded the James 
in the ferry-boat, early in the morning, 
rode through the towns of Rocky -bridge, 
and Warwick, which is about five miles 
from it. 

We halted at a town named Gfborn's, 
eight miles farther on, to bait our horfcs, 
after pafling Cheflcrficld county court- 
houfe> and a church, or chapel, at this 
little town. Here we dined, and in the 
afternoon, mounting our horfes, we ar- 
rived at Blandford, having crofTed the Ap- 
pamattox river, on a lofty wooden bridge, 
at the town of Pokahuntas. 

Here we put up at Boyd's, which is 
the befl houfe of public entertainment in 
the place. 

1 fhall never forget the prodigious and in- 
cefTant noife and clamour that continually 
aflailed my ears, during the whole of this 


days ride. proceedin,f,.o„nhe„.een-fro,s, 
^"d a multitude of other large 

o- the trees. a»d the bull-fJs ia t ! d ,,,3„,^.^^ 


- - a«o„.hed th^.7:Xo ';S-: 

libly difcover one of them • h^^ ri r 

of the hull ^ but thenoiie 

dous '°^' "^^ ^^''■"'"^'^'y tremen- 

Here, at the falls of the riv^r a 
-"-, a. three tow., lIl^B^^^ 
Peterfburg, and Pokahuntas. 

JeT f , '"^' ^"^' '^^^- ^^e falls, 

own of p rf "^"^^^ ^^^^^ 
rown ot Pokahuntas which ftnnH 

tlie north /]de of rh. ' ^^' 

the d.n.^.. f .Z^^^"^^'^^' "'-^"^ed after 

the daughter of the fai 

Peror, or chief, p 

^^^o the Ind 


ned Indian 
owhattan (which 


James], who gave all th 

f^ appellation of th 


e r4ver 

e land around th 
in marriage, with h 

pJace, as a portion 

^^"^jUicr 1 OKahunti'? f/^ ^ 

vi /- "uuiab, to an ancef}or r.f 

'heprefent Randolph and Boiling taf 

^romwhKhan.ent royal blood, a branch 


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ji Tour in the 

of the Randolphs, and the whole of the 
Boilings (two of the moll refpedlable 
houfes in Virginia), are a^^lually de- 

On the fouth fide of the river is the 
town of Peterlburg, fituated under a hill, 
amongft rocks, and is extremely un- 

A illtle diftance, perhaps half a mile 
below J Kjfi the fouth fide alfo of the Ap- 
pomattox, flands the charming pretty 
tow^i of Blandford, in a beautiful plain, 
on tlic river brink, on a very piearant and 
delightful fpot. 

The town of Pokahuntas is in CheRcr-' 
field county \ Peterfburg is in the county 
of Dinwiddle, in the lower corner ; and 
Blandford (lands in the upper end of 
Prince George'c county j but neither of 
them is a coiinty-town. 

The principal tobacco trade in America 
centers at Peterfburg, or Selling's Point, 
which it is generally called, fuiu the 
name of a family (a branch of whofe 
origin I have juft related), to which the 


Vmted States of America* 


greater part of the town and adjoining 
lands belong. 

It is fomcthing remarkable, that no 
child born at this place ever grew up to 
maturity, excepting the prefent proprie- 
tor, Mr. Boiling, whofe ieat over-looks 
Peterfburg and the adjacent country and 
river i which is occafioned by the infalu- 
brity of the air, and the extreme un- 
healthinefs of the fituation. 

There are alfo fome valuable mills in 
the vicinity of this place, eredled by Mr. 
Bannifttr, a very public fpirited man, 
who refidcs in an elegant houfe near Pe- 
terfburg, which are carried on by means 
of a canal, cut from the neighbouring falls 
of the Appamattox. 

The Appamattox is a fmall river, much 
about the fize of the Thames, and runs 
into the James at City Point, about twelve 
miles, In a dired line, below Blandford. 
Sailing vefiels, floops, fchooners, and flats, 
or lighters, come up to the bridge at the 
falls ; but (hips of burden take in their 
cargoes five and eight miles below. 






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A Tour In the 

In Blandford I found an excellent or- 
dinary at Boyd's, and a tolerably agreea- 
ble mixed company of ladies and gentle- 
men. Amongft the reft, were a couple of 
old gentlemen, one of whom was a ma- 
jor in the army, with gay young wives, 
who did not feem altogether at eafe, nor, 
in all probability, had they every reaibn 
to be fo : however, they afforded us 
diverfion and entertamment enough to 
obferve their various mancEuvres on both 
fides, or rather on all fides ; for each of 
the four appeared to be a commander in 
chief,* and to have different purfuits and 
objeds in view. 


f, i 



C H A P. 

VniUd States ofAftitricai (i 


General CharaSlcry and greaf Hofpltalily of the Fir- 
gittiar.s. Number of InhahitaMs in Firginia^ 

THE Virgiftiang are genetoiis, ex- 
tremely hofpitable, and poffefd 
Very liberal fentiments. 

There is a greater diftitidloh fupported 
between the different claffes of life here, 
than perhaps in any of the reft of the 
colonies ; nor does that fpirit of equality, 
and levelling principle, whieh pervades the 
gfeateft part of America, prevail to fuch 
an extent in Virginia. 

However, there appears to be but three 
degrees of rank amongft all the inhabit 
t?nts, exclufive of the negroes. 

The firft confifts of gentlemen of the 
beft families and fortunes in the colony, 
who are here much mote refpedable and 
numerous than in any other province in 
America. Thefe in general have had a 
liberal education, pofiefs enlightened un- 

Vol. I. F derfland- 

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ji Tour in the 


derflandings, and a thorough knowlcJg-e 
of the world, that furniflies them with 
an cal'c and freedom of manners and con- 
vcriation, highly to their advantage in 
exterior, which no vicifiltude of fortune 
or place can divcn: them of; they being 
adiKilly, according to my ideas, the moll 
agrccahle and befl companions, friends, 
and neighbours, that need be dciired. 

The greater number of them keep their 
carriages, and have handlbmc fervices of 
plate ; but they all, without exception, 
have Ihids, as well as fets of elegant and 
beautiful horfcs. 

Thofcof the fccond degree in rank are 
very numerous, being perhaps half the 
inhabitants, and confift of fuch a variety, 
lingularity, and mixture of charadlers, 
that tlie exatl: general criterion and lead- 
ing feature can fearcely be afcertained. 

However, they are generous, friendly, 
and hofpitable in the extreme ; but mixed 
with fuch an appearance of rudenefs, 
ferocity, and haughtinefs, which is in 
fadt only a want of polilh, occafioned by 


ffi <; 



United States of America, dy 

their deficiences in education, and ia 
knowledge uf mankind, as well as by 
their general intercourfe with flaves, over 
whom they are accuftomed to exerciie an 
harfh and abfoliitc command. 

Many of them poflefs fortunes fuperior 
to fome of the firft rank, but their fa- 
milies are not fo ancient, nJt refpe<flable • 
a circumftance here held in fome eftima- 


They are all exceflively attached to 

every fpecies of fport, gaming, and difli- 

pation, particularly horfe-racing, and that 

moft barbarous of all diverfions, that 

peculiar fpecies of cruelty, c^ock- fighting. 

In (hort, take them all together, they 
form a ftrange combination of incongruous 
contradidlory qualities, and principles di- 
redtly oppolite; the beft and the worft^ 
the moft valuable and the moft worthlefs, 
elegant accomplifhments and favage bru- 
tality, being in many of them moft unac- 
countably blended. 

Yet indeed, notwithflanding this appa- 
rent inconfiftency of charadter, principle, 
. F2 and 




1' 111 












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and condudl, numbers of them are truly 
valuable members of fociety, and few, 
or none, deficient in the excellencies of 
the intellectual faculties, and a natural 
genius, whfch, though in a great mea- 
fure unimproved, is generally bright and 
fplendid in an uncommon degree. 

The third, or lower clafs of the people 
(who ever compofe the bulk of mankind], 
are in Virginia more few in number, in 
proportion to the reft of the inhabitants, 
than perhaps in any other country in the 
univerfe. Even thefe are kind, hofpita- 
ble, and generous ; yet illiberal, noify, 
and rude. 

They are much addided to inebriety, 
and averfe to labour. 

They are likewife over-burdened with 
aii impertinent and infuperable curiofity, 
that renders them peculiarly difagreeable 
and troublefome to ftrangers : yet thefe 
undelirable qualities they poflefs by no 
means in an equal degree with the gene- 
rality of the inhabitants of New Eng- 
land, whofe religion and government 


XJnited States of America, 69 

have encouraged, and indeed inflituted 
and edablifhed, a kind of inquifition, of 
forward impertinence and prying intru- 
fion, againft every perfon that may be 
compelled to pafs through that trouble- 
fome, illiberal country : from which de- 
fcription, however, there are no doubt 
many exceptions. 

To communicate an idea of the ge- 
neral hofpitality that prevails in Virginia, 
and indeed through all the fouthern pro- 
vinces, it may not be improper to repre- 
fent fome peculiar cufloms that are uni- 
verfal ; for inftance: 

If a traveller, even a negroe, obferves 
an orchard full of fine fruit, either ap- 
ples or peaches, in, or near his way, he 
alights, without ceremony, and fills his 
pockets, or even a bag, if he has one, 
without afking permiflion ; and if the 
proprietor fhould fee him, he is not in the 
leaft offended, but makes him perfedly 
welcome, and affifls him in choofing out 
the fineft fruit. 

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A Tour in the 

But this is lefs to be admired at, when 
it is confidered that there is no fale here 
jfor any kind of fruit, and the fineft 
peaches imaginable are fo abundant, that 
the inhabitants daily feed their hogs with 
them during the feafon. 

In the time of preffing cyder, if a tra- 
veller fhpuld call, to enquire his way, he 
is generally offered as much fine cyder as 
he can drink, is frequently requefted to 
|lay all night, and made heartily drunk 
in the bargain, if he choofes it. 

When a perfon of more genteel fi- 
gure than common calls at an ordinary 
(the name of their inns), for refrefhment 
and lodging for a night, as foon as any 
of the gentlemen of fortune in the neigh- 
bourhood hears of it, he either comes for 
him himfelf, or fends him a polite and 
prefling invitation to his houfe, where he 
meets with entertainment and accommo- 
dation, infinitely fuperior, in every re- 
fpe<5l, to what he could have received at 
the inn. If he fhould happen to be fa- 
tigued with travelling, he is treated in, 


United States of America. j i 

the «ioft hofpitable and genteel manner ; 
and his fervants atid horfcs alfo fare plen- 
teoufly, for as long a time as he choofes 
to ftay. All this is done with the bell 
grace imaginable, without even a hint 
being thrown out of a curiofity or wifh 
to know his name. 

However, it liiiiift be acknowledged, 
that many of the fecond, and almoft all 
the lower clafs of the people, are ignorant 
in the extreme. 

Their fentiments, and all their ideas are 
illiberal, narrow, and contracted ; occa- 
iioned l>y their Inadive fituation, con- 
fined to a fmall 'npafs, and very li- 
mited fphere of i: owledge, wherein the 
fame obje(fls are ever prefented to their 
view, without any variation, change, or 
novelty, being thereby precluded from a 
more general intercourfe with the world, 
and the different members of fociety at 

About the commencement of the late 
imfortunate difturbances, and inaufpicious * 
hoftilitics, the American congrefs pre- 

F A tended 

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tended to h^ve a calculation made of the 
numbers of all the inhabitants in each 
province and colony included within thpir 
domination, which they publiflied. 

But I have always concluded that'of- 
tenfible enumeration of theirs to be greatly 
exaggerated, purpofely to magnify their 
Tjefources, numbers, and prowefs. 

' In that oflentatious calculation, Vir- 
ginia was reprefented tp contain fix hun- 
dred and fifty thoufand inhabitants i of 
which near two-thirds ^re blacks, 

I computed the true number of fouls 
\n Virginia to be then about five hundred 
thoufand iji the whole, witl^ a (imilar 
proportion of flaves included ; and they 
have certainly decreafed in popuUtioii 
fincc that tiipe* 



XJntted States if Amtrka, 73 



A wretched Situation, Noiioway'River. Horfes re* 
fufe to eat Bacotf. Troulflefime Companion* Ma^ 

IPurchafed two Jjorfes 9t Pcterfburg; 
for the bed I gave fifteen pound?, 
the worft coft me twenty- five pounds; 
and a negro boy, whofe price was forty 
pounds. ' 

I began to prepare for my journey 
fouthward, having had the honour to vifit, 
by invitation, feveral of the principal fa- 
milies }n and pear this place, among 
whom were Mr. Buchanan's, Mr. Boi- 
ling's, Mr. Bannifter'?, Mr. £ppea's» 
Mr. Bland's, &c. 

I took my departure from Blandford, 
on the fourth of September, in com- 
pany with a young lad from North Caro- 
lina, then on his return. 

After having rode about fifteen miles 
yre (lopped to bait our horfes, and dine, s^t 


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A Tour in the 

Hattaii's ordinary, where the fare wai 
ordinary indeed, and very iudiiFerent. 

The day being extremely hot and 
fultry, it was rather late in the afiernooa 
before we fet out again on our journey, 
and by that means I was prevented fronx 
reaching Stewart's ordinary, the houfe 
I intended to put up at that night ; for 
being taken very ill, and as it was 
growing dark, I was obliged to take 
iheltt • 'in a ihell of a houfe, wherein 
an overfeer lived, and five or fix ne- 
groes befides. 

' 'The young man from Carolina left 
me here, and continued on his journey, 

My accommodation at this wretched 
place was miferable indeed, and it was 
fortunate for me, that I found myfelf 
better in the morning, or I might have 
been in adual danger of perifhing for 
want of common neceflaries, if my fick- 
nefs had detained me therein. ' 

If my fituation, but for one night, was 
fb intolerable, what muft his be, whofe 
conftant refidence it was I • ' 




Vnitai States of America, 75 

It is indeed hardly to be conceived in 
what an uncomfortable (late that poor 
forlorn young man, the overfeer, then 

There might be about fifty acres of 
land cleared of woods, and chiefly under 
culture for Indian corn. 

There was not another houfe nor hut 
upon the plantation, nor a fingle fruit- 

That miferable fhell, a poor apology 
for a houfe, confided but of one fmall 
room, which ferved for the accommoda- 
tion of the overfeer and fix negroes : it 
was not lathed nor plaiftered, neither 
ceiled nor lofted above, and only very 
thin boards for its coveting ; it had a 
door in each fide, and one window, but 
no glafs in it; it had not even a brick 
chimney, and, as it ftood on blocks about 
a foot above upon the ground, the hogs 
lay conftantly under the floor, which 
made it fwarm with fleas 5 water was 
near half a mile diilant, and that 
very bad ; there was not a neighbour 




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ji Tour in the 

iTvithln five miles on one fide, and eight 
miles on the other; no book, no con- 
venience, no furniture, no comfort in the 
houfe, unlefs you call by that name a 
miferu'^le thin chafF bed, fomewhat raifecl 
from the floor, in a corner of the room, 
which alternately ferved him for his 
chair, his table, and his couch. 

In this wretched habitation I had little 
fleep, and no refrefhment, although the 
poor young man permitted me to lie on 
his bed alone, and did not come there 
himfelf, but lay on the floor with the ne- 
groes ; for they were Ihelling Indian-corn 
with their hands all the former part of 
the night, when their fongs kept me 
awake ; and the difagreeable idea of fuch 
a parcel of nafly black devils, all fnoring 
in the fame room with me, with the af- 
fiflance of the mufketoes, prevented me 
from fleep until day-break, when I arofe, 
and having gratified the poor inhabitants 
of this manfion of mifery with a trifle, 
I mounted my horfe, and purfued my 
journey. . ~ . , 


Vfilfed States ofAnttrka. 77 

This morning I croffed over a pretty 
river named Nottoway, at Swede* s-bridgq, 
which is conftru£ted of timber. There 
18 fomc very good land on this river, both 
low grounds and high; it is what i$ 
called mulattoe land by the planters, from 
its colour. 

This river is here about as large as the 
Thames at Kew, but is much incumbered 
with wood and fallen trees, brought down 
by the floods. 

I arrived at Stewart's ordinary to break- 
fafl:, which was toafled Indian hoe-cake, 
and very excellent cyder, after a ride this 
morning of about eleven miles. 

Being always particularly careful of my 
horfes, and they having fared very indif- 
ferently the night before, I ordered the 
hoftler to give them plenty of meat. The 
man ftared at me, and afked me if they 
would eat it ? Being fomewhat irritated 
at his feeming impertinence, and out of 
humour by fatigue, indifpofition, and 
want of reft, I anfwered, that I deiired 
he would make the experiment, and im- 

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A Tour in the 

mediately, turning away from him, went 
into the houfe. 

In a few minutes, on looking out at 
the window, I was much furprifed to find 
all the people of the place in the road be- 
fore the door ; and going out to enquire 
into the caufe of their aflembling there, 
I met the hoftler and my boy, with each 
a large piece of bacon in his hand, telling 
me the horfes would not eat a morfel 
of it. 

They acquainted me, that it was to fee 
the horfes eat meat, by which they un- 
derftood bacon^ that excited the people* 
curiofity, and had drawn them forth into 
the road. I laughed heartily, and di- 
reded the hoftler, fmce the poor filly horfes 
could not be prevailed on to tafte his ba- 
con, to give them whatever elfe they 
would choofe to eat, and as much of it 
as they pleafed. 

By the bye, it was a great inconve- 
nience, and extremely troublefome, that 
my boy, being an African, was of very 
little fervice' to me ; for he fcarcely under- 

3 flood 

United S'tates of America. 79 

ftood a fingle word thai I faid to him, 
nor did I know one fyllable of his lan- 

This ridiculous affair induced one 

Andrew T , who pretended to be 

a humourift, to make me an offer of the 
honour of his company, as he was then 
on his way to Halifax town, in North 
Carolina, whejc he refided. His exte- 
rior being to my tafte peculiarly forbid- 
ding, I declined his propofal, having no 
inclination to fuch an acquaintance. But 
in this 1 was egrcgioufly miftaken, and 
altogether difappointed : Mr. T — — — 
was not to be repulfed with fuch facility : 
he was determined to amufe himfelf at 
my expence, and at my ignorance of the 
cuftoms of his country, and I was al- 
moft compelled to fuffer his company, 
for I certainly did not accept it, but en- 
deavoured my utmoft to avoid that ho- 

I told him, that as it threatened rain, 
I would not rifque getting wet, but in- 
tended to flay fome time, the length of 


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tvhich, howevfer^ might be uhcettain^ 
Well, fo would Mr. T . 

When I found this, I determined to 
fct out in the rain, which Iiad now come 
on: and a£tually did fo to avoid his 
company ; but Mr. T ^ would ac- 
commodate himfeif to every change of 
my mind, and he departed along with 

When t rode faft, fo did he ; when 
flow, he went flow alfo : at length I 
turned fhort from him, along a path on 
the right, but my ftupid fervant con- 
tinued to accompany Mr. T-^ — ^— ^ ; this 
obliged me to return, and gallop very 
fall to overtake him^ as he had thereby 
got feme miles before me^ 

But defcending a declivity too rapidly^ 
and without caution, the road being on 
clay very v/et and flippery, my horfe 
fell down with me in three-parts fpeed, 
by which I was exceflively dirted, as well 
as hurt. 

Having remounted, and rode on again, 
I cut a moft wretched figure, being 




United States of Jmerica, 8t 

daubed from head to foot with red clay^ 
befides the farther injuries I had re- 
ceived from contufions by the fall. 

In this ridiculous plight I overtook 

them : Mr. T fell a laughing fit 

to burft his fides, which adt of rudenefs 
aiid ill manners I did not feeni to notice, 
but was much incenfcd at my flupid 
black, yet could not make him under- 
ftand my expreflions of refentment. This 

greatly encreafed Mr. T *s diver- 

fion, and ill-timed noify mirth. 

In this difagreeable condition, and un- 
courtly guife, we crofled a confiderable 
ftream of water, named the Three Creeks, 
on three wooden bridges; and a confidera- 
ble river named Maherrin, larger than 
the Thamts^ at Hicks's bridge which is 
remarkably lofty, and built of timber, as 
all in the fouthern part of America ap- 
pear to be J having paiTed a fii^e planta- 
tion, the feat of Mr. Willis, a man of 
fortune, and proprietor of the original 
ftock of extraordinary fwift horfes, for 

Vol. I.' . G which 


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A Tour in the 

which this part of America is noted, that 
vanquilhall others in quarter- racing. 

About thirty miles higher up, on the 
fide of this river, near one Ingram's plan- 
tation, there have been lately difcovered 
fome very valuable medicinal fprings of 
mineral waters, which have already per- 
formed many mofl remarkable and aftoniih- 
ing cures on per fons afBided with various 
kinds of lamenefs, infirmity, and difeafe, 
who annually refort to thefe fprings, 
from an hundred and fifty miles around. 

We took fome refrefhment at Edwards's 
ordinary, an exceeding good building, 
with excellent accommodations, lately 
^re£ted at this place, which is exactly 
twenty- eight miles north from Halifax, 
in North Carolina, and forty-feven fouth 
from Peterfburg in Virginia. . ., 

We refted but a very fhort time here, 
and, although it continued to rain faft, 
proceeded on our journey. . .-jt 

At the diftance of ten miles from 

Hicks's bridge and ford, we entered the 

province of North Carolina, and three 

8 miles 

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United States of America. 83 

miles farther on, crofled a large ftream 
of water named Fountain's creek, fifteen 
miles north of Halifax town, which we 
reached that night, after crofTing the 
river Roanoak, in a flat ferry boat, on the 
foiith bank of which the town is built. 

Towards the conclufion of this day's 
ride, I had the fatisfadion of retorting 

the laugh on Mr. T very hand- 

fomely, for his horfe tumbled down, 
and fairly rolled him in the mire, all 
over, three times moft completely. 

He was in fuch a ridiculous condition 
and lamentable plight, being befides a 
moft unwieldy, uncouth figure, that you 
could fcarcely difcover whether the crea- 
ture was human or not; nor would it have 
been poOble for the nwll rigid Cynic to 
refrain from immoderate laughter, at 
beholding his rueful countenance, and 
wretched guife. 

This was a mod unpleafant journey ; 
bad accommodation, bad roads, bad com- 
pany and attendance, and, m Ihort, every 
thing difagreeablc in the extreme. 

G 2 CHAP, 








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C H A P. XI. 

North Carolina, Halifax Town. Roanoak-Rivtr. 

Falls. Rock Fight, Floods, 

HALIFAX is a pretty town on the 
Ibuth fide of the Roanoak (a river 
larger, or at leaft containing more water 
than the James), about eight miles be- 
low the firft falls, and near fifty miles 
higher up than the tide flows; but (loops, 
fchooners, and flats, or lighters, of great 
burden, come up to this town againft the 
ftream, which is deep and gentle. 

Halifax enjoys a tolerable (hare of 
commerce in tobacco, pork, butter, flour, 
and fome tar, turpentine, fkins, furs, and 
cotton. • I 

There are many handfome buildings in 
Halifax and its vicinity, but they are al- 
moft all conflru£ted of timber, and painted 
white ; among them are Mr. Mountfort's, 
Mr. Abner Nalh's, Mr. Martin's (now 
an ordinary, or inn, built by, and for- 
% merly 

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United States of Amcricu, 


■merly the refidence of a Mr. Elmfley, an 
eminent practitioner in the law), Mr. 
Long's, Mr. Eaton's, and Mr. Jones's ; 
the lafl is in OcconeacUy-neck, an ex- 
treme rich and valuable trad: of land, 
about two miles from town, and is in- 
deed an elegant feat. 

Halifax is twenty- five miles due fouth 
from Peteriburg, and one hundred from 
Richmond, is the capital of a diftrid, 
and the cpunty-town of Halifax county. 

In and around the town the foil is 
fandy ; the banks of the river on the 
fouth fide are high, but low on the north, 
and very fubjed: to inundations, fo re- 
markably, that the ferry-houfe, a wooden 
building, which ftands on that fide, is 
obliged to be fattened with ropes, tied to 
the trees, to prevent it from being wafhed 
away by the floods. 

The quantity of water that comes do\yn 
the Roanoak, on fuch oceafions, is indeed 
amazing and enormous ; trees, fences, 
^oro, tobacco, horfes, cattle, and even 

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houfes, are all fwcpt away by the tor- 
rent, and caried down with the llream. 

There is a fingular phenomenon at- 
tends this river, which is, that during 
days, or feafons of rain, it does not rife 
any thing, or but very little beyond the 
common magnitude; but two or three 
days after the rain has ceafed, when the 
fky and fun are again become bright and 
fine, and the bad weather is forgotten, then, 
and not before^ the Roanoak begins to 
fwell, and encreafes with fuch rapidity 
and violence, that the inhabitants have 
fcarcely time to drive their cattle, horfes, 
Iheep, hogs, &c, off from the low- 
grounds up to the high, before the whole 
are overflowed -, and without this precau- 
tion all their live flock w^ould be fwept 
away and deftroyed, which frequently 
happens, notwithftanding every exertion 
and care. 

There is another peculiarity attends 
this river; that fs, the low grounds are 
generally higher, next the river fide, than 
where they adjoin the high-land j thus, 


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IS are 


United St atei of America, 87 

by means of guts, communicating from 
the river to the back part of the low- 
grounds, which is moftcommonly a miry 
fwamp with cauleways over it, the wa- 
ter of the floods is foon brought there, 
by which the retreat of every living 
creature is cut off in a very fliort time 
after the waters begin to encreafe, and 
confequently 'all included within mud 
inevitably perifli, fhould the inundation 
overfpread the whole. 

However, the floods feldom cover every 
fpot, there being fome particular places 
in the low grounds confiderably higher 
than the refl:, which, on fuch occafions, 
are ct-owded with the poor terrified ani- 
mals : but once every two or three years 
the Roanoak fwells feveral feet above the 
highefl: of thofe places. 

The Roanoak, or as it is fometimes 
called, the Morattuck, is above a quarter 
of a mile over at Halifax, but very deep, 
and is much wider many miles above. 
It empties itfelf into Albemarle Sound, 
at Edinton, where it is feven miles wide, 

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\/i Tour in the 

and •receives on the north fide, the 
Chowan-River, or Sound; which is formed 
l^y the confluence of the three rivers, 
Maherrin, Nottoway, and Blackwater, 
and is fomething more than two miles 
in hreadth. 

The communication with the fea, from 
this enormous body of water, is through 
Roanoak inlet, where there is a bar, 
lludtuating banks, and fhifting quick- 
fands, that prevent fhips of burden from 
entering this extenfive bay. 

I put up at Martin's, the bed houfe of 
public entertainment in Halifax. 

Here I difpofed of my black boy, who 
was in fa£t totally ufelefs to me ; but I 
gained ten pounds by my bargain. 

From this place I macle many excur- 
fions around it, and had the honour of 
yifiting, by invitation, every family of 

note, for a confiderable diftance in the 

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Being one of a party that was to pafs 

fome days on a jaunt in the country, I 

prppofed calling to take a view of the 

^' ■ ^ - ' • • falh 



Vnitid Statei of Afiicrica. J? 9 

falls of Roanoak. We were accompanied 
by Charles Eaton, efq. and Mr. W. Park, 
whole feats are in the neighlxrarhood of 
thefc falls. 

There was nothing remarkable to be 
obferved in them, only a prodighu^ 
body of water, dafliing and tumbling 
over rocks : but to thofe who have iccn 
the falls of the James, thefe are . no 

There is a very extraordinary circum- 
ftance, however, attends thefe falfs every 
fpring, about the eighth of May; it is 
called the rock fight. This is occafioned 
by fuch amazing numbers of thofe fifhes, 
here called Bafs-Rocks, coming up to the 
falls at the fame time to fpawn, that a 
dog thrown into the river then, would 
not be able to fwim acrofs, nor could live 
in it one quarter of an hour : you may 
adually fee them crowded thick upon 
each other, even to the furface of the 

This fmgular phenomenon continues for 
three days, but on one of thefe days, iii 



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jd Tour in tie 

particular, the agitation of the water Is 
moft violent, the whole river being i/i a 

There are many valuable fiflierien at, 
and in the vicinity of Halifax, below the 
falls, on each fide of the river. 

During this excurfion we called at 
Mount Pleafant, the feat of — — ^ 
Daw ion, efq. on the banks of the Roan- 
cak, about eighceen miles above Halifax, 
and in returning ftayed fome days at the 
feats of Mr, Eaton, and Mr. Park. 

About a mile out of Halifax town is a 
creek named Quankey (the Indian ap- 
pellation for red paint, with which it a- 
bounds), with an exceeding lofty bridge 
thrown over it, built of timber, on the 
fouth fide of which is the feat of a Mr. 
Nicholas Long, where we frequently 
walked out in the mornings and even- 
ings to drink cow's milk, which was 
there excellent. 

About five or fix njiles farther on, in the 
fame diredion, is a confiderable fcttlement, 
upon a pretty large water-courfe, named 


f . 1 

United Slates of America. 


the Marlh, where wu fevcral times went, 
on invitation from Alexander M*Colloch, 
cfq. a gentleman of confidcrahle note, 
and Archibald Hamilton, cfc^.^ a mer- 
chant of eminence, who carried on a 
very extenfive and valuable commerce in 
Virginia, as well as in North Carolina; 
and we were entertained with great hof- 
pitality and politenefs b'y each of them. 

We vifited Willie Jones, efq. dodlor 
Cathcart's, William Williams, efq. ^c. 
among many other gentlemen's feats, and 
met with a moft courteous and friendly 
reception from all. 

* This gentleman's brother, lieutenant colonel 
John Hamilton, is now in the Britifli fervlce, and 
commanded a provincial corps, named the North Ca- 
rolina loyaliils, having behaved with great gallan- 
try, both under the eail of Cornwallis and lord 


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A Tour in the 

c H A P. xir. 

Lofty Timber. Afethod of clearing Land, fV^ods on 
Fire. Dreadful Conflagrations. 

TH E low grounds of Roanoak are 
extremely rich and fertile, but in 
general too light and fandy for the cul- 
ture of wheat, which here grows much 
too luxuriant and high, whereby it falls 
and lodges before the ears fill and ripen. 

Tfao foil is a fine black loam, for feveral 
feet deep, and is indeed inexhauflible, 
but extremely fubjcdl to inundations, 
which fweep away whole inclofures, as 
well as the crops9 and often leave the 
land covered with wrecks of the flood, 
and incumbered with vaft quantities of 
large trees, brought down by the tor- 

The low-grounds are generally from 
a quarter to a mile wide ; and it is ob- 
fervable, for the whole length of the 
Roanoak, that the low-grounds are al- 

• ? ;r i 

United States oj ji^erXit. fj 

ways on one fide of the ilver only, iiever 
on both together, but >ill proiuifcuoufly : 
thus, when the low grounds are on the 
north fide, there are high lands on the 
fouth ; and where the low grounds arc 
on the fouth fide, the land on the north 
fide is high, almofl fiufli to the brink of 
the river. It is remarkable alfo, that 
wherever the high lands join the river, 
they arc rich and fertile, but where they 
join the low grounds only, they are of 
a very inferior quality. 

The timber is of an immenfe bulk on 
the low grounds, and confifts of white 
and yellow poplars, black wallnut, horn- 
beam, red bud, fweet gum, dog wood, 
fycamores, oaks, afli, beech, elm, G?r. 
On the rich high land, it confifts of 
hickory, faflafrafs, oaks, &c. and on the 
inferior high land, of lofty pines, of a 
great height, mixed with fcrubby oaks, 
black-gum, and maple. 

In this part of America there are feven 
different fpecies of oak, viz. black-oak, 


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white-oak, red-oak, Spanifli-oak, willow- 
oak, live-oak, and fcrubby oak. 

The appearance and colour of the foil 
in the beft high lands, is dark brown, 
"w^ith a flight tinge of red, 'and covered 
with tall timber. That of the worfl is 
whitifh-brown, either very fandy and 
light, or ftifF, wet, and livery, with low, 
crooked timber, excepting the pines, 
which generally grow large, tall, and 
ftraight every where, unlefi they are 
crowded together. But the worfl timber^ 
on the worfl land, makes a better appear- 
ance, and is larger than the trees in St. 
James's and Hyde-parks. 

The general mode of clearing the land 
in this couBtry, where timber is of no 
value, and labour is of great, is by cut- 
ting a circle round the tree, through the 
bark, quite to the wood, before the fap 
rifes, which kills it ; and they cultivate 
the ground below immediately, leaving 
the trees to rot (landing, which happens 
within a very few years, and they never 
bear leaves more. 

A large 


United States of America, 95 

A large field in this fituation, makes a 
moft fingiilar, ftriking, and tremendous 
appearance : it would feem indeed dan- 
gerous to walk in it, as the trees are of a 
prodigious height and magnitude -, yaft 
limbs, and branches of enormous [vlq 
impending in awful ruins, from a great 
height, fometimes breaking off, and fre- 
quently whole trees falling to the ground, 
with a hor-rible crafli, the found of which Is 
increafed and protradled by the reverbera- 
tion of the furrounding echoes. Yet, not- 
withftanding this apparent danger, very 
few accidents ever happen from it. 
I nevpr heard of any excepting to 

When the timber is cut down, or 
falls, they faw the fmaller trees in 
pieces, and heap ihem up together in 
huge piles, and in many different places, 
where they fet fire to them in the winter, 
at which time the whole country around 
appears in a blaze ; and the atmofphere is 
tlien extremely incommoded, and totally 
pervaded with fmoak. 


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yl Tour in the 

For very frequently the large, dry# 
and almoft rotten ftanding timber, catcheis 
fire, and blazes with great fury : the fire 
is alfo communicated to the leaves on the 
ground, in the furrounding woods, which 
are there accumulated to a great depth, 
by falling from the trees to the earth, 
where they have been encreafing, ftratum 
fuper Jlratum^ from the moft remote pe- 
riod of time; being very dry and com- 
budible, they inftantly catch fire hke 
tinder ; the conflagration quickly fpreads 
many miles on every fide, and at length 
becomes general and dreadfully tremen- 
dous ; for there is no poffibility of ex- 
tinguifhing, or reftraining the violence 
and velocity of the devouring fiames, 
which deftroy and confume fences, in- 
clofures, timber, and all vegetation ; 
driving even the wild beads before them 
in flocks ; and their progrefs, at length, 
is only terminated by fome large river, 
or by heavy rains. 


United States of America^ ^j^ 

This has induced the legiflature to en- 
deavour to guard againft fuch alarming 
accidents, by pafling aifts to prevent fet- ^ 
ting fire to the woods, Gfr. notwith- 
ilanding which, thefe terrible conflagra- 
tions are ftill frequent every year, 



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A Tour in the 





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Jnhahltants of the Country and of the Towns, dlajjes 
of People, Stores. Planters, Methods of Trade 
and Commerce. 


THE inhabitants of this part of 
America may be comprehended in 
a very few claffes. 

All in the country, without exception, 
are planters, flore-keepers or perfons in 
trade, and hunters : thefe laft are chiefly 
confined to the back country and frontiers 
next the Indians. 

In the towns there are fome few 
mechanics, furgeons, lawyers, (lore- 
keepers or perfons in the commercial 
line, and tavern-keepers. 

However, the generality of the towns 
are fo inconfiderable, that in England 
they would fcarcely acquire the appella- 
tion of villages. 

The different diftind branches of ma- 
nufacturers, fuch as hofiersi haberdafhers, 
7 clothiers, 

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Untied States of America, 99 

clothiers, linenTdrapers, grocers, ftatlo- 
ners, &e, are not known here ; they 
are all comprehended in the fingle name 
and occupation of merchant, or ftore« 
keeper. /; . ; ... • ^ 

What are called (hops in England, are 
known here, by the appellation of (lores, 
and fupply the inhabitants with every in* 
dividual article neceffary in life, fuch as 
linens, woollens, filks, paper, books, iron, 
cutlery, hats, (lockings, (hoes, wines, fpi- 
rits, fugars, &c, and even jewelry ; for 
which in return they receive tobacco, 
fkins, furs, cotton, butter, flour, ^c* 
in confiderable quantities at a time, being 
obliged to give a year's credit. 

By this it appears, that there is but 
little fpecie in circulation ; indeed there 
is no great occafion for it 5 for a planter 
raifes his own meats, beef, and bacon, 
his own corn and bread, his drink, 
cyder, and brandy, his fruit, apples, 
peaches, (^c, and great part of his 
cloathing, which is cotton. 

H 2 He 


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A Tour in the 

He has no market to repair to but the 
neareft ftore ; which chiefly fupplies him 
v^ith finery, befides the ufeful and neceflary 
articles for agriculture, and what little 
clothing his flaves require, for which he 
pays his crop of tobacco, or whatever elfe 
may be his ftaple produce, and is always 
twelve months in arrear. 

mi i\ 

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United States of Afnerica, i o i 


Tar burg. Attacked hy an itinerant New-light Preacher, 
Got Loji. Strange Ignorance and uncouth Appear- 
ance of the Inhabitants, In/iance of extrao''dinary 
Hofpitality and Benevolence. Chowan Sound. Moc* 
1 cojfon Snakes. Rattle»Snakcs. Cure for their Bite. 

I Made an excurfion to a little town, 
named Tarburg : it is not half fo 
large as Halifax, being a very infignifi- 
cant place indeed. . 

I was entertained by a Mr. Hall, the 
' night I remained in this place, and re- 
turned to Halifax next day. 

Tarburg is about forty miles due fouth 
from Halifax, and has not been built 
many years. 

The chief produce around this place 
is tar; Indian corn, and hogs. 

There is a large wooden bridge over 

Tar-river, at this town, which is very high 

and wide, yet feveral as good have been 

carried away by the floods, 

,; H 3 I made 

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j§ Tour in the 


I made another peregrination, which 
on account of the fingularity of the ad- 
ventures therein, I Ihall relate. 

It was to Chowan- found. 

I fet out from Halifax, and rode along 
(down the fouth fide of the Roanoak, as 
far as Pul ham's ferry (about fifteen 
miles below the town), where I crofled 
the river, and that evening reached Mat^ 
IhetV Btickle's ordinary. " '' 

Here I found tolerable accommoda- 
tions j but had to defend myfelf againft the 
formidable attacks of a new-light itinerant 
preacher, who had t)erverted this family, 
AS well as mofl of the inhabitants iil the 
vicinity ; and after exhaufting all the fire 
of his artillery, cant, and pretended in- 
fpiration, upon me in vain, he very 
gravely and formally concluded, and pro- 
nounced with great folen^nity^ that I was 
an obftinate unbeliever, and that my 
hour of receiving light and divine grace 
was not yet arrived. ; ; ■ : / ji i.; ; 

Having rode thirty- fix mil^s that day, 
J fet oi|t jiext morning, and proceeded 


■f « 




|t day, 

United States of America, 103 

through the dreary pines, which compofe 
almoil all the woods that grow down this 
way ; and about twelve o'clock, following 
a path that led me out of my road, 1 got 
entirely bewildered and loft. 

Being extremely fatigued, hungry, and 
dry, I called at feveral miferable hovels, 
at the diftances of five or fix miles afun- 
der, but could neither obtain diredions 
on my way, or any kind of refre(hment ; 
even the water was fo very ill tafted, 
and infalubrious, that it could fcarcely 
be drank. ' = ^ - ' ' 

- I rode on in this miferable dilemma 
and precarious fituation, among thefc ig- 
norant wretches, until night approached, 
when they all refufed to permit me to 
lodge under their ihelters : *' Wonder- 
** ing (as they faid) where I came from, 

or why I fhould come there, where 
nobody comes ; but (telling me) if [ 
could get to Mr. Tyers's, about fevcn 
miles off, I might get quarters ; for 
he often had ftrange, outlandilh folks 
to lodge at his houfe ; and was a rich 











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ji Tour in the 

*^ man, and bad a mill, and a black-r 
•♦ fmith's fliop. and a ftill." 

Thcfe people are the moft wretchedly 
Ignorant of any I ever met with. They 
could not tell me the name of the place, 
county, or parilh they refided in, nor 
any other place in the adjacent ccntry ; 
neither could they furnifli me with any 
directions, by which I might again dif- 
cover and afcertain the right way. 

Their appearance alfo is equally fordid 
and mean, being of a fallow complexion 
and yellowifh hue, almofl as tawney a9 
mulattoes, with the fmoak of che light- 
wood (the roots and knots of pine, fo 
pamed here), which is their whole fuel, 
clothed in potton r^gs, that had been 
once dyed of fomje colour, and all en- 
veloped in dirt and naflinefs, < 

With much perfuafion, | procured one 
of thefe lumps of mortality to accom- 
pany me as a guide to this Mr. Tyers's, 
\yhere, after much difficulty, and no fmall 
hazard in paffing oyer feyeral deep and 

1 L'l 

United States of jdmerica, 105 

miry fwamps, I at length arrived, a little 
after dark. 

Here I obtained ample compenfation 
for the churliflinefs of thofe ignorant 
creatures whom I had been among, by 
the hearty welcome, and kind hofpitable 
entertainment I received from Mr. Tyers, 
who appears to be a little monarch in 
this domain, being the only magiftrate in 
this place for thirty miles around, a; d, 
I had almofl pronounced, the only in* 
telligent being. 

His houfe was the feat of plenty and 
plainnefs, mirth and good-humour, and 
genuine hofpitality without oftentation ; 
but entirely out of the way from all 
public roads. 

. Here I found a large table loaded with 
fat roafted turkies, geefe^ and ducks, boiled 
fowls, large hams, hung-beef, barbicued 
pig, &c. enough for five-and twenty 

Mr. Tyers told me, that it was but 
ieldom he was favoured with the com- 
pany of any ftrangers; but when he was 



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yf Tour in the 

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fo fortunate, it always afforded him 
great plcafiire to entertain them, bccaufe 
he was fcnfiblc that they could obtain no 
refreshment any where near him, and 
for that reafon, he had given directions 
to the inhabitants for twenty miles ag- 
round him, to fend all ftrangers to his 
houfe. V 

Mr. Tyers, with a benevolence and 
grace that would do honour to any fta- 
tion, mounted his horfe, next morning, 
to accompany me for the day; both to 
fliew me the way, and the country. 

We arrived at a ferry on Chowan-river, 
or found (named Cotton's): it is three 
miles over ; we croffed it, and rode along 
upon a wooden caufeway, through a 
marfh, which is here called a poccofon, 
growing thick with tall reeds, near three 
miles over. 

Down this way I alfo bbferved great 
numbers of cyprefs trees, tall, ftraight, 
and lofty, in many of the fwamps and 
Jow grounds ; befides multitudes of fm- 


United States of America, 1 07 

gular excrcflences, named cyprcfd knees* 
which make a very odd appearance, arif- 
ing in the form of knees, out of the moil 
miry places. 

We then returned, and reached my 
old fandlified landlord Matthew Brickle^s, 
that night, where Mr. Tyers flayed alfo ; 
and in the morning we parted : he return- 
ing to his houfe, the manfion of benevo- 
lence and virtue ; and I to Halifax, hear- 
tily tired, and fick of my excurfion. 
-'' I cannot omit obferving a fingular and 
V6ry difagrecable fight I noticed in paffing 
Chowan- river : it was numbers of large 
ferpents, lying upon logs and fallen treea 
in the river, bafking themfelves in the 
lun. ' ' ■ ■ ■■ ^ ^v-i-/ • . ',- ^'- ' r 

tt feems this marlh, morafs, or poc- 
jCofbn, as fuch places are named here, 
abounds with thefe noxious difguAful 

Moft of them were of the kind 
called moccofTon fnakes, as large as the 
rattle-fnake, but thicker, fhorter, and 
jdeftitute of rattles, which renders them 




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more dangerous, as by this means they 

bite without previous warning, which the 

rattle-fnake nev^r does, and their bite is 

equally poifonous and fatal; fome fay 
more fo. 

They are beautifully fpcckled, juft in 
the fame manner as the rattle-fnake, 
though they appear duller, the colours 
of each being the fame, but thofe of the 
moccoflbns not fo bright; for the fmii« 
litude between them is fo very ftrong, 
that thefe are generally reckoned the fe- 
male rattle fnakes, by the more ignorant 
inhabitants, , ;, , i 

Although the bite of both thefe fnakes 
have always proved certain death, yet it 
is furprifing to obfcrve, that the inhabi- 
tants are under very flender apprehen- 
fions from them: indeed they feem to 
djreadthemno more thap any other ferpent. 

However, all the Americans appear 
to have a particular antipathy to the 
whole fpecies. 

It has but very lately been difcovered, 
that there is a ren^edy of efficacy for the 



: I 

United States of America, 109 

bite of thofe fnakes, and an antidote a- 
gainft their poifon. 

This is equal quantities of the juice 
of hore-hound and plantain, adminiftered 
internally, largely and frequently, and 
poultices, .of the bruifed plants applied 
to the wound. 

It was a poor negroe flave that fir ft 
difcovered this valuable fovereign remedy j 
and the aflembly, or parliament of North- 
Carolina, rewarded him with his freedom, 
and two hundred pounds for divulging 
it. A laudable example to governments, 
and an inftance of their fuperior huma- 
nity ; which will for ever refledl upon 
them the higheft honour. 

Notwithftanding this plain and fimple 
remedy may be readily obtained, and 
eafily adminiftered by the moft ignorant, 
as both horehound and plantain grow 
fpontaneoufly near almoft every houfe, and 
in moft places where the land has been 
cleared of woods ; yet the knowledge of 
this great benefit to be derived from them 
has extended but very little, oecafioned 





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A Tour in the 

by the fmall intercourfe, and very limited 
communication there is in general be* 
tween the thinly ^nd diftantly fcattered 
inhabitants of this ^ide-fpread country ; 
fo that from this ignorance, the bite of 
thefe noxious and deadly ferp^nts con* 
tinue dill to prove almoft at fatal aa 




i i 

United States of America. 



C H A P- XV. 

Extraordinary ffoman. American Central an Inn* 
keeper. Dreadful Thunder-clap, Simplicity of the 
Negroes, An extraordinary Inflance thereof, 

ABOUT the beginning of Novem- 
ber i departed from Halifax, where 
with great fatisfadtion I had enjoyed a very 
agreeable focicty^ on my route to Hillf- 
boroughj which is juil one hundred and 
twenty-two miles diftant. 

I called at Edmundfon's ordinary to 
bait my horfe, and to breakfaO: \ which is 
about ten or eleven miles from Halifax. 

At this houfe I faw the large ft and 
ftiongeft woman, perhaps, in the world : 
{he was fix feet two inches and a half In 
height, well built in proportion, ftrong, 
robuft, and mu&ular as a man of the fame 
ilature. She pofleffed a boldnefs and 
fpirit inferior to no man ; and there was 
no bully, bruifer, wreftler, or any per- 
fon that excelled in athletic power and 


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A Tour in ihd 

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agility, for fifty miles around, that fhfi 
had not complimented with a fair and 
complete drubbing ; in fhort, flie was a 
perfect virago, of great courage and af- 
tonilhing flrength and ill nature. 

I fubmitted to fome fmall impofition 
in her charge, rather than enter the lifts 
With her in difpute, and run the rifque 
of experiencing her prowefs ; for indeed 
this is only a contribution flie conftantly 
levies or exacfls upon all that frequent 
this houfe, of which fhe is mafter as well 
as miftrefs, her infignificant hufband be- 
ing an abfolute cypher. 

Having received an invitation to fpend 
fome days with Thomas Eaton, efq. at 
his frat on the banks of the Roanoak, 
twenty- eight miles above Halifax, I ar- 
rived there to dinner. 

It is pleafantly fituated on the fouth 
fide of the river, which is one half 
wider here than at Halifax. 

There is a very public ferry at this 
place, belonging to Mr. Eaton, and of 
great emolument to him. < v . 


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Urn fed States of America, 113 


The low grounds are more exten fi vc here 
than any where elfe on the Roanoak. 

Mr. Eaton poflefles a very fine eftate : 
this plantation alone is worth at leaft 
three thoufand pounds, containing about 
fifteen hundred acres ; yg t his father 
purchafed the whole for thirty pounds. 
With fuch aftonifhing rapidity has the 
value of landed property increafed in this 

During the few days that I remained 
at Mr. Eaton's, we made many pleafant ex- 
curfions in the vicinity, on vifits to every 
perfon of any note. 

In a little emigration to Ofborn Jef- 
feries's, efq* on the banks of Tar-River* 
my horfe falling lame, obliged us to 
call and make fome ftay at an ordinary, 
inn, or tavern, at Bute county court- 
houfe, kept by one Jethroe Sumner, 
where we found an excellent dinner as 
well as an agreeable facetious hoft. 

[This inn-keeper fias diftinguifhed him- 

felf in the courfe of the late war, being 

VaL. I. I the 


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i: 14 

A Tour in the 

the general Sumner, of the American 
army, who has been fo a<!^ive in thc^ 

He is a man of a pcrfon luHy, and 
rather handfome, with an eafy and 
genteel addrefs : his marriage with a 
young woman of a good family, with 
whom he received a handfome fortune ; 
his being a captain of provincials laft 
war ', but above all his violent princi- 
ples, and keeping an inn at the couit- 
houfe (which is fcarcely thought a mean 
occupation here), Cngular as the latter 
circumllance may appear, contributed 
more to his appointment and promotion 
in the American army, than: any other 

For it is a fa£b, that more than 
one third of their general officers have 
been inn- keepers, and have been chiefly 
indebted to that circumftance for fuch 
rank. " *■ --..■.. 

Becaufe by that public, but inferior 
ftation, their principles and perfons be- 
came more generally known; and by 




.1 a 






IS he- 
ld by 

Vnited States of AnuTica, ii^ 

the mixture and variety of company they 
converfed with, in the way of their bufi- 
nefs, their ideas and their ambitious 
views were more excited and extended 
than the generality of the honcfl and 
refpedable planters, who remained in 
peace at their homes.] 

There is an extreme valuable body of 
rich high land that extends five miles 
around Bute county court-houfe : this 
whole tradl is ftrong and fertile in an un- 
common degree. There is fcarcely a 
pine-tree to be found within that diftance, 
although the furrounding ^^oods on every 
fide, are very much mixed with them. 

Having been favoured with a kind and 
prefling invitation to vifit Robert Alexan- 
der, efq. I left Mr. Eaton's, and called 
upon him, from whom I alfo received 
every attention and civility. 

Mr. Alexander accompanied me to 
view a remarkable place in the Roanoak, 
named the Horfe-ford ; the only one 
where horfes can crofs the river, in that 

1 2 manner. 


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manner, for a vaft diftance : it is fifteen 
miles above Eaton's ferry, and at this 
place the river is more than half a mile 
wide: it is fordable only during one 
month in the drieft feafon of the year, 
and even then it is extremely hazardous 
and difficult ; the water being never lefs 
than four feet deep, and the current very 

The land on each fide of the river at 
this place is broken and hilly, befides 
being very flerile and poor in quality. 

The weather here, at this feafon of the 
year, is really charming, neither too cold, 
nor much incommoded with heat ; the air 
and Iky being always dear, bright, and 
ferene, and thunder and florms much lefs 
frequent, . 

I forgot to mention, that while I was at 
Mr. Eaton's, one morning having arofe 
very early, ft? iding at the door, I ob- 
ferved a fingle fmall black cloud, and not 
another, of any kind, to be feen in the 
hemifphere, the iky being a pure bright 
azure: that inftant, all on a fuddcn, 


'■■♦ A 


United States of America, 117 

there came the moft violent and tremen- 
dous thunder-clap that ever I remember 
to have heard; the lightning ftruck Mr. 
Eaton's kitchen, fplit down the chimney, 
performed a multitude of fantaftic freaks 
of electricity, and killed two negroe men, 
but lid np hurt to two infants, then in 
their arms. / 

This was accounted the more extraor- 
dinary, as there was only that fingle ex- 
plofion : and in the moft violent thunder 
florms, when peals fucceed each other, in 
loud cpntention, for a confiderable dura- 
tion of time, any accident happening 
therefrom is feldom ever heard of; only 
large, lofty trees in the woods are fre-^ 
quently fplit in (hivers, from top to bot- 
tom, and fet on fire by the lightning on 
fuch occafions. 

Both Mr. Alexander and Mr. Eaton 
poflefs excellent plantations, rich, fertile, 
and very valuable ; they are both great 
and eminent planters, and value them- 
felves highly upoft their fkill, their ia- 
duftry, and their fuperior crops. 



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ji Tour in the 

At xMr. Eaton's I faw the large ft turnip 
that I can rccollcdl ever to have heard of: 
it was four feet eight inches in circum- 
ference, but was of the iiat fpungy kind, 
and not at all thick in proportion. This 
turnip was not cultivated alone, but grew 
in a large field unmanured, promilcuouf* 
1y with many thoufands more, numbers 
of which were perhaps j^ large as this, 
for I meafured it myfelf in the field. 

I fhall here relate a trifling, or rather 
diverting circumftance that may be in- 
terefting to fome, by evincing the great 
fimplicity of the blacks. ,''<ni lo a. 

Having taken with me a negroe named 
P.ichmond, from a plantation here, iVhich 
I had juft purchafed and fettled, to carry 
me over the Roanoak in a canoe, that I 
might contemplate on and enjoy an elegant, 
wild perfpedive, from the fummit of a 
confiderable eminence that arofe abruptly 
on a peninfula, almoft furrounded by the 
riyer, I ordered him to meet me with 
the canoe at the oppofite fide of the pe- 

inlbla. " '" -^''' -■'■ \^'u^.^''- 


! < •' 

V/iitcd States of America, 1 1 9 

When I arrived there, at the time 
appointed, there was no canoe, and no 
iiegroe : I called out for Richmond, as 
loud as I could vociferate, but had no 
anfwer. • ;.. • ,••;.•; • ". -, . > j-'r-t. 

It was about the middle of the day, which 
happened to be uncommonly hot and 
fultry ; I was much indifpofed and reduced 
very weak with an intermittent fe^cr ; ^ 

After waiting until the heat ' of the 
weather and the fever had almoft over- 
come mCj I refolved to walk dowoj along 
the fide of the river, until I fliould meet 
or find him ; as I apprehended he might 
be afleep, which all negroes are extreme- 
ly addided to : but in this attempt I found 
the utmoft difficulty, from the almoil in- 
fuperable impediments of trees fallen, and 
impending over the water, deep miry 
foil and leaves that funk to my knees 
every ftep, impenetrable briars and under- 
wood, black muddy gutts from the ri- 
ver, which compelled me to make cir- 
cuits of half a mile to get round each 
of them, and innumerable fwarms of 

I 4 mufl^e- 





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u^ Tour in the 

mufketoes, ticks, poifonous infcds, and 

Every quarter of a mile I loudly called 
him, but received no anfwer. Frequently 
quite overpowered with weaknefs and 
fatigue, I funk down to reft, and as often, 
for mere felf-prefervation and defence, 
vtSiS compelled to arife again to infup- 
pof table toil. At length night overtook 
me, with my cloaths torn, my flcfh lace- 
rated and bleeding with briars and thorns, 
idung all over by poifonous infe£ls, fufFo- 
cated with thirft and heat, and fainting 
U|ider fatigue, imbecility, and difeafe. 
' In this wretched miferable condition, I 
at length arrived at the place where I had 
landed in the morning, having travelled 
about ^VQ miles in feven hours, through 
a perpetual tjiipket pf jilmoft jippene' 

Here I found Richmqnd, faft afleep iji 

|he cfmqie, exadly in the fame fpot wl^er? 
\ had left {lim in the morning. 

peing incenfed in the higheft degree, I 
{Jjfeatened him ^^ith fevere punifhmeq|:, 

' ' ' 


Iree, I 

United States of America* \ 1 1 

when he begged me to liften to his cxcufe, 

* Kay mafia (fays he), you juft leave 

* me, me fit here, great fifh jump up 

* into de canoe ; here he be, mafia, fine 
^ fifh, mafia; me den very grad ; den 

* me fit very dill, until another great fifl\ 

* jump into de canoe ; but me fall afleep, 

* maflfa, and no vrake till you come : 

* now, mafia, ipe know me dcferve flojg^ 

* ging, caufc if great filh did jump into 

* de canoe, he fee me afler^j, den he 
^ jump out again, and I no catch him ; 

* fo, mafia, me willing now take goo4 

* flogging.' 

My pain and vexation were for a mo- 
ment forgotten, and I laughed heartily at 
the poor fellow'3 ignorance, and extreme 
fimplicity, in waiting there for more fifhes 
to jump into his canoe, becaufe one ha4 
Jiappened to dp fo j and therefore forgave 
Jiis criipe, 


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y! Tour in the 

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Y . .J K 

"i^uihufh Creek, Memher ef dongrefs* Ayiecdotei of 
the famous Header fan, and th Origin of the new 
Settlement of Kentucky, 

.. ij - 

WHEN lieft Mr. Alejcaticler's, 1 
proceeded tip the river fide to 
Taylor's ferry, which is the itioft fre-« 
quented of any on Roanoak, and is fitu- 
ated on the great road leading from the 
jnoft populous parts of the Carolitias, to 
the richeft and moil thick fettled divifion 
of Virginia. 

I then flruck out bii my left hand, Into 
a very fine fettlement called Nutbufh, 
from a creek of that name, v\rhich runs 
through it ; and it is a large body of ex- 
cellent land. ^ * ' ^ ' 

I put up at the houfe of a Mr. Penn, a 
man of fome property, to whom I had 
been furnifhed with letter's of recom- 
mendation and civility. 

From this gentleman I veceived the po- 

}itefl attentions^ and we entered on a 

3 ^^ery 


United States of America, 123 

very ferious and private converfation on 
political fubjedls, wherein he fully opened 
his mind, and difclofed Jiis fentiments oa 
that head with the moft undifguifed cOUt 
fidence, freedom, and candour. 


[The above Mr. Penn was afterwards a 
delegate to. Congrefs from the ftate of 
North Carolina J and a few days fabfe- 
quent to. ^ their declaration of i<id«p.enr 
dence, while*I was a prifojiaer ajtiong the 
Aihericans, having., ah, opp0rttinity of 
cohverfing^ with him,^ ind finding his po- 
litical principles fo totally different from 
what they appeared. tO me to be before, 
I gave him a hint thereof, which: calling 
back his Tcollcdlion to our fQr?nei? confir 
dential converfation, perfedly filenced 
him, fo that he adually was incapablecf 
inaking any farther reply.] .^ ,,; 



Here I alfo called at one Williams's, a 
lawyer, who is faid to be, and is very 
much like a mulattoe, . 

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A Tour in the 

At this houfe I happened to fall in 
company, and have a great deal of con- 
verfation with one of the moft fingular 
and extraordinary perfons and excentric 
geniufes in America, and perhaps in the 

His name is Nathaniel Henderfon; his 
father is ilill alive» a poor man^ whofe 
refidence is in the fettlement of Nutbufh, 
where he was at this time on a vifit.^ 

This fon was grown up to maturity be* 
fore he had been taugjit to vt2A or write, 
and he acquired thofe rudiments of edu- 
cation j and arithmetic alfo, by hjis own 
indefatigable induftry, ' ! j^ (j^ '^■■^lu ^ii:n— 
He then obtained the inferior office of 
cohftable; from that was promoted to the 
office of under-flierifF; after this he pro- 
cured a licenfe to plead as a lawyer, in 
the inferior or county courts, and foon 
after in the fuperior, or higheft courts of 
judicature, " - . > ^ l 

Even there, where oratory and eloquence 
is as brilliant and powerful as in Weft- 
niinfler-hallf h^ foon became diilinguiffied 


1 i 



United States of Am erica, j 2 5 

and eminent, and his fuperior genius fhons 

forth with great fplendor, and univerfal 


He was, at the fame time, a man of 

pleafure, gay, facetious, and pliant ; nor 
did his amazing talents, and general praife^ 
create him a lingle enemy. 

In Ihort, while yet a very young mafli 
he was promoted from the bar to the 
bench, and appointed Affociate Chief 
Judge c. the province of North Carolina, 
with a / . T/ adequate to the dignity. 

Even in this elevated ftation, his repu- 
tation and renown continued to increafe. 
But having made feveral large pur- 
chafes> and having fallen into a train of 
expence that his circumftances and fi- 
nances could not fupport, his extenfive 
genius ftruck out on a bolder tra6t to 
fortune and fame, than any one had ever 
attempted before him. 

Under pretence of viewing fome back 
lands, he privately went out to the Che- 
rokee nation of Indians, and, for an in- 
fignificant confideration (only ten wag- 

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gons loaded with cheap goods, ftich as 
Coarfe woollens, trinkets, fome nre-arms, 
and fpirituous liquors), made a piirchafe 
from the chiefs of the nation, of a vafl 
trail of territory, equal in extent to a 
kingdom; and in the excellence of cli- 
mate and foil, extent of its rivers, and 
beautiful elegance of fituations, inferior 
to none in the univerfe. A doinain of no 
lefs than one hundred miles fquare, fitu- 
ated on the back or interior part of Vir- 
ginia, and of North and South Carolina \ 
comprehending the rivers Kentucky, Che- 
rokee, and Ohio, befides a variety of in- 
ferior rivulets, delightful and charming 
as imagination can conceive. 

This tranfaiiion he kept a profound 
fecret, until fuch time as he obtained the 
final ratification of the whole nation in 
form. Then he immediately invited 
fettkiS from all the provinces, offering 
them land on the moft advantageous 
terms, and propofmg to them likewife, 
to form a legiflature and government 
of their own ; fuch as might be moft 

» conve- 



>n in 




Unhed States of America. 127 

convenient to their particular circuin- 
ftances of fettlement. And he inftantly 
vacated his feat on tlie bench. 

Mr. Henderfon by this means eftab- 
lifhed a new colony, numerous and re- 
fpe£kabl€,*of which he himfelf was ac- 
tually proprietor as well as governor, and 
indeed legiHator alfo; having framed a 
code of laws, particularly adapted to 
their (ingular iituation, and local cir- 

In vain did the different governors 
fulminate their proclamations of outlaw- 
ry againft him and his people : in vain 
did they offer rewards for apprehending 
him, and forbid every perfon from join- 
ing, or repairing to his fettlement ; un- 
der the fandion and authority of a ge- 
neral law, that renders the formal affent 
of the governors and affemblies of the 
different provinces abfolutely necefTary 
to validate the purchafe of any lands from 
the Indian nations. For this inftance, 
being the aft of the Indians themfelves, 









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5:1 1 


A Tour in the 

they defended him and his tolony, being 
iti fad as a bulwark and barrier between 
Virginia, as well as North and South Can 
folina and him j his territory lying to the 
weftward of their nation* 

I beg leave to obferve, that I do not 
prefume to undertake his juftification, 
biit only admire his cnterprifmg policy, 
and the vigour and activity of hi& mind. 








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United States of Americc\ 

C H A P. XVI. 


fiayrljlurg. Tar River. Taken Sick. Extremely 

ill. Uncivilized Inhabitants. Haudlome fVom'en, 

Jnjianees of worfe than fav age Brutality. A very 

fngular and diverting Trick. Meetvoiih a bcautij it 

Girt, Another Jingular Trick, 

FROM tiie eonverfation I had with 
this very extraordinary perfon, Mr.. 
Hedderfod, I entertained a flrong inclina- 
tion to pay a vifitto his domain ; which muft 
certaidly afford a large field for fpeculation 
and enterprifcj being iituated in the very 
heart of the continent of America, and in a 
great degree precluded from the general 
intercourfe of the reft of mankind, and fo- 
eiety at large, being likewife feveral hundred 
miles diftant from any other fettlement. 

However, foirie mifunderftahdings and 
difturbances that I was informed had broke 
out between the Virginians and the Shaw- 
tiefe and other Indians, I apprehended 
would at this particular period render the 
entfcrprize rather hazardous; !4r. Hen- 
derfon himfelf appearing rather intimi- 
dated at the danger. 

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yl Tour in (he 

Having proceeded on my journey, I 
flept at a place where they have dignified 
a few log hovels with thr appellation of 
a town called Harrifburg, from the pro- 
prietor's name. 

On the day following I forded two 
ftreams of water named Fifhing Creek 
and Tar River, fome miles diflant from 
each other 5 the laft of which is pretty 
confiderable, and very rocky. 

Finding myfelf rather indifpofed, I flop- 
ped at a houfe on the banks of a water- 
courfe named Napareed's Creek, and was 
compelled to remain there all night. 

In the morning I became much worfe, 
and foon found myfelf feized with a mofl 
fevere ficknefs, here called a Seafoning 
(to the country and climate.) It was a 
violent bilious fever, and foon reduced 
me to the verge of death. 

There was nothing to be procured in 
this place fit for a fick perfon, not evea 
^ ntirfe. Nature and a good conflitution 
were my only phylicians and medicines* 


( ' 




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United States of America, 131 

I lay for ten days quite delirious and 
tielplefs, and it was five weeks before I 
was out of danger; but even then, fo 
extremely weak and low, that I was 
fcarcely able to walk acrofs the room. 

My ftrength returned fo very flowly, 
that I was obliged to make a long refi-^ 
dence in this folitary places but thereby I be-t 
.ame much more familiarized with, and re- 
conciled to the cufloms, converfation, and 
manners of the people, which, it muft 
be confeiTed, are fufHciently rude and 

I alfo formed particular, and agreeable 
enough acquaintances with the fofter fex 5 
who are, to be fure, very fingular ia 
their manners and behaviour, although 
aimoil the only humanized beings in the 

In their ihape and features fome of 
them are certainly very handfome, yet, at 
beft, little better than beautiful favages. 

But was I to relate the various inftances t 
have feen of the extreme rudenefs and 
brutality of many of the men, they would 

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fcarcely appear credible to the civilized 
part of the fpecies. 

However, I {hall hazard a very fevt of 
the moft moderate, by which fome judge- 
ment of the reft may be formed. . - 

They feem to entertain little or no 
fenfe of religion, and as little knowledge, 
or fear, of a future ftate, God, or Devil. 

But they all, efpecially the women, pro- 
fefs an avowed partiality for Britons, 
whom, notwithftanding, they call out- 
landifh folks, ignorant and unpoliHied, 
thinking themfelves the only polite, know- 
ing people in the World. ~ 

The following are fome of the inftances 
1 promifed to mention of their ferocity. 

They cut off the ears and tail of a fa- 
vourate cat of mine, and called it fun. 

She had young ones, and the barbarians 
cut off the ears and tails of all the kittens ; 
this they called high ; and were excef- 
fively delighted at beholding the poor 
animals agonies and contortions in death. 

I accuftomed myfelf to go out along 
with them a hunting,, fifhing, fwim- 






a fa- 


ttcns ; 




United States of America . 133 

ming, fowling, &c. for my amufcmcnt 
and diverfion. 

Being once on a vifit at a Mr. Glen's, 
he and I went to the river to Avim, it 
being but a very fhort diftance from his 
houfe ; whilft we were there, his wife 
and her fifter, who were both young and 
handfome, came down to the water-fide, 
and in a frolic hid our clpaths. 

After they had laughed at us for fome time, 
they informed us where they were, and I 
put mine on ; but he ran out of the water, 
and purfued the women ftark naked. 

Having caught his wife, he brought her 
into the room where her fifter an^ I were, 
locked the door, took out the key, threw 
her down on the bed, and notwithftanding 
her utmoft endeavours to prevent him and 
difengage herfelf, committed an a£l that 
a mere favage would have been afliamed 
to have attempted in public. 

This he would afterwards boaft of in all 
companies, in the prefence of his wife and 
every other lady, as an e.xcellent joke, and 
prodigious piece of humour, 

K3 I had 


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\d Tour in the 

I had an aycrfion to the fellow ever 
after this, and I believe his wife liked 
bim no better ; for fhe frequently com- 
plained to me how extremely odious he 
was become to her. 

Soon after this I played this biped a 
trick, that afforded me a fufHcient (hare 
of diver fion at his expence. 

Being in a ftorc where Glen had juft 
purchafed a very handfome fowling- 
piece, 1 fecretly took an opportunity of 
loading her with powder, and wadding 
her with fpunk, charge over charge, fe- 
veral times, until the barrel was almofl; 
full, (fpunk is a fungous fubftancc that 
grows on the oak, which catches fire like 
tinder, and confumes flowly, until it com- 
municates the fire to whatever it touches.) 

After he had mounted his horfc to go 
home,l dropped afpark of fire into the muzr 
zle of his gun as I handed her up to him. 

He then rode on very quietly, followed 
at a little diflance by me and another perfon, 
tp whom I had difclofed the contrivance. 


I \' 

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United States of America. 1 3^ 

All on a fudden, as he Wcis carrying 
her on his fhouldcr quite careleC^ly, (he 
fired oflF with a loud report ; his horl'c, 
which was a colt fcarcely broke, being 
frightened, threw him and ran away. 

Being much bruil'ed, he was unable to 
follow his horfe, and limped along to- 
wards his gun ; he took her up, and be- 
gan to walk flowly homewards, but ap- 
peared to be in a ftate of great furprize 
and perturbation. 

' In a little time ihe fired again, when 
recoiling againft the fide of his head, the 
cock-pin almoft tore off his ear, and (he 
fell a fecond time on the ground. 

JHe flood fome moments in the utmoft 
terror and amazement, before he dared to 
venture to take her up again; ['which how- 
ever he attempted at laft, with fear and 

Viewing her with the greateft timidity, 
care, and attention, and finding the pan 
(hut, he opened it, and feeing it bright, 
unflained with fmoak, and empty, and the 
whole piece without any uncommon ap- 

K 4 pear^ 


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A Tour in the 

pearance, he faid to himfelf, " Surely 
f* the devil muft have been in this gun, 
^< but I hope he has got out now ; hpw- 
** ever, I muft be careful.*' 

He then walked on once more, holding 
her out at arm's length from his bodyi 
^nd faft with both hands i prefently (he 
fired a third time, when his aftonifhment 
is not to be defcribed : he inftantly threw 
her down, and fled behind a tree, terri- 
fied beyond expreffion, and peeping at 
her from thence. 

In this fituation he continued to watch 
her, as fhe then lay upon the ground, 
until fhe fired a fourth time ; upon that 
he could contain himfelf no longer, but 
affrighted, left fhe fhould turn about and 
fhoot him, for he was now well cori- 
vinced that fhe was animated, he forgot 
his bruifes, and ran away as faft as his 
feet could carry him, keeping under co- 
ver from tree to tree, with as great cau-> 
tion as ever an Indian retreated from a 
fuperior enemy, until he conceived him- 
felf beyond her reach, when he halted 


lJ?iited States of Jmerica, 137 

to reft and breathe, being juft ready to 
fink down with terror and fatigue : at 
that inftant (he fired again, and, hearing 
the report, he took to his heels, and 
never flopped any more until he reached 
his own houfe ; where he declared his 
full afTurance that the devil, or fomething 
worfe, had fixed his head quarters in the 

After he got home, he related to his 
wife, and to all his neighbours, a mofl 
lamentable tale of his atchievements and 
feats of prowefs, in an engagement with 
the devil i embellifhed with many extra- 
ordinary and fiditious exploits in fupcr- 

But the fright, and the fall from his 
horfe, occafioned him a fevere illnefs, 
which indeed had like to have put his 
grand antagonifl in pofleiilon of him as 
well as of his gun. 

After his recovery he could never be 
prevailed on to touch that fowling-piece, 
although he was made acquainted with 
tjie flratagem that had been i^lpofed on 




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A Tour in the 

him 5 and he was fo ridiculed and laughed 
at by every one, that for a long time he 
did not venture to Ihow his face in public. 

This was the only adl of retaliation I in- 
flidted upon this fellow, in return for a mul- 
titude of ridiculous filly mifchiefs, and flupid 
foolifli tricks, or jokes (as he called them), 
which he was (before this one retorted on 
himfelf ) perpetually playing off upon me, 
and every perfoji be happened to fall in 
company with. 

There was a rich planter's daughter, 
of her own accord, undertook to polifh 
me (as flie was pleafed to term it) ; this 
was with the approbation of her parents 
and friends, and certainly fhe honoured 
me with every attention, inftrudion, and 

Indeed, if prefents could have ren- 
dered me polite, I muft have foon 
become one of the moft polifhed youths 
in their country; for every prefent fhe 
received from the young gentlemen in 
the vicinity (which indeed was not a few, 
the girl being exceedingly handfome), fhe 


United States of America, 139 

infifted on my accepting, fo that at laft I 
Jcnew not what to do with them. 

Whilft I remained at this place I met with a 
very lingular occurrence: having purchafed 
a beautiful Chickafaw horfe, named fo 
from a nation of Indiana who are very 
careful in preferving a fine breed of Spa- 
nifh horfes they have long poffefled, un- 
mixed with any other 5 the firll day that I 
rode him, he was feized with a violent con- 
yulfion fit ; the fecond day with another ; 
the third day he was afFeded in the fame 
manner, while at grafs in the pafture ; the 
fourth day he w?i^ taken in a manner 
ftill more extraorcjinary, his mouth was 
drawn up over his back, and he began 
to move on ftraight forwards, in a dired: 
line, with great fpeed and force, beating 
down fences, going oyer the trunks of 
fallen trees, and every, obftrudion in hi^ 
way ; in this manner he rulhed on into 
woods, far diftant from fettlements, and 
was followed for feven miles, but being 
then loft fight of, he was never feen or 
heard of more, 


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JVoods, Glades^ or Savannahs, Licks. Hunters, Wild 
Horfes. Peculiar Sentiments of an Eurcipean, on his 
Jrrival in America, 

HERE, during my flow recovery from 
this dangerous indifpofition, I be- 
gan to accuftom myfelf to walk, or ride, 
little diftances alone in the woods. "When 
I firfl: attempted it, I was fure to get bewil- 
dered and loft, every time ; which indeed 
one cannot avoid, until habituated to 
attend to the fun, the trees, and the 
water-courfes. But it requires the ex- 
perience of feveral years, to become a good 
and experienced wood's- man. 

I obferved here, in different places in 
the woods, fome confiderable glades, fa- 
vannahs, or meadows. Thefe are natural 
openings, of a few acres in extent, quite 
deftitute of timber, aot a tree, nor even 
tJie vellige of one, to be perceived in them; 


I * 

United States of America. 1 4t 

but the ground therein is alwvs covered 
with abundance of excellent long grafs. 

Such meadows are generally to be 
found near the head fpring, or fource of 
fmall branches of running water, and are 
as uncommon in America, as an equal ex- 
tent of natural woods, and large, llately, 
lofty trees are in Europe. 

Throughout this inland country, one 
frequently hears of places called Licks; 
which appellation, being unintellgible to 
any but the inhabitants, I (hall embrace 
this opportunity to explain. 

Licksareparticular places, moft common- 
ly on the banks of rivers, or creeks, and 
fometimes at fpring-heads, where the cUy 
or earth is impregnated with fallne particles. 

Thefe places are frequented by deer, 
elks, buffaloes, horned cattle, and horfes, 
which daily refort to them, to lick the 
earth or clay with their tongues ; this 
they perform with a peculiar relifh and 
gout, and appear to take great delight 
therein, coming there, for that purpofe, 
from the diftance of many miles around. 
9 There 

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There is likewife another kind of licks 
here befides. Thefe are alfo on the banks 
of rivers, lakes, ftreams of water, or large 
ravines and chafms, and confift of chalk, 
or calcarious earth, of a teftaceous quality, 
> /hich is greedily licked up and confumed 
by all thofe different animals I have alrea- 
dy mentioned in the defcription of the 
former of thefe places. 

To the ufe of this latter kind they are 
prompted by nature and inftind, for falu- 
tary and medicinal purpofes, to corrciSt 
the acidity of the fuper- abundant vegeta- 
tive juices accumulated in the ilomach, 
which would otherwife occafion fevere 
gripings, ftridures of the bowels, and 
many other painful difordciS. 

All thefe licks are generally frequented 

by hunters with their rifles, at the dawn 

of day, or on bright moon-fhine nights, 

who, by this means, feldom fail of killing 

fome of the deer, elks, or buffaloes, 

that refort to them at fuch private times, 

for the gi^ater fecurity. 

a Thefe 


United States of America, 14 j 

Thefe places, however, are only to be 
found or heard of in the back country, 
and are generally very confiderable di- 
flanees afunder, fome ten, twenty, and 
thirty miles. 

All the inhabitants throughout Ame- 
rica, that are diftant from the fea, or falt- 
water, give their cattle and horfes fait, 
fometimes once, fometimes twice a week; 
which is not only to promote their in-* 
creafe of flefh, but to render them gen- 
tle and tame, and to allure them to come 
often to their owner's plantations j elfe, in 
the mild fouthern climate, where there is 
no occafion to provide a ftock of proven- 
der for them againft the winter, they 
would otherwife run wild, and roam far 
beyond the reach of their proprietors, 
through this immenfe and unbounded 

Indeed, notwtthftanding every precau- 
tion, very great numbers of black cattle, 
horfes, and hogs adually do fo daily, 
and run at large, entirely wild, without 


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^ Tour in the 

any other proprietors than thofe of the 
ground they happen to be found upon. 

In fome parts, each perfon, in poffefliort 
of a plantation, has what is called a right 
in the woods ; by which he is entitled to 
the property of a certain proportion of 
the live flock that runs wild> fuch as I 
juftdefcribed* f 

This right they difpofe of, and transfer 
froto party to party, in the fame manner 
as affixed property. 

And when they want to catch fome colts j 
to render them tame and ferviceable, it is 
an undertaking of no fmall difficulty to 

Throughout the middle arid back fet- 
tlements of America, there is no other 
criterion to afcertain the property of black 
cattle, fheep, and hogs, but ear-marks 
alone ; and of horfes, than brands with 
red hot irons, and ear-marks alfo. 

Each perfon's mark differs from an- 
other; and they are all fevetally recorded 
by the clerk of the county-courts where- 
in they refide. 




Utiited States of America, i.\^ 

*rhis is fupported by the authority of the 
Icgiflature, who have decreed it felony to 
alter or deface thofe marks or infignia of 

There is an obfervation very remarka- 
ble, which occurred to me, and as I fup- 
pofe to every European on his arrival in 
America^ but I prefume never thought on 
by any native. It is an idea of rellraintj 
or a want of free open air, and an ex- 
tenfion of view, occafioned by the ap- 
pearance of confmcmcnt, and the pcr- 
fpedtive being always bounded by tlie 
furrounding woods, which perpetually 
limit the fight within narrower com- 
pafs than the mind requires ; bcfides an 
univerfal gloomy fliade, rendered difinal 
by the intermixing branches of the l-jfty 
trees, which over-fpread the whole coun- 
try, and the fvjn never pervades. 

This occafioned a fenfatioii rather pain- 
ful to me fur a conTiderable time, wliich, 
however, gradually wore off, until I 
could only juft recollect the idea. 

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A Tour in the 

I acknowledge indeed never to have 
heard this obfervation mentioned by any 
one whomfoever; bqt as it ftruck me 
mofl: forcibly, I have therefore every 
reafon to believe that others have like- 
wife perceived, at firft, the fame kind 
of fenfations, if they began to travel foon 
^fter their arrival in this part of America, 

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UmUj Spates of America, 147 

Appearance cf the Country. Difcafcs of the Climate. 
Snokis. (lumc. Raccoons. Defcnptlon of the Op- 
pojjiitn. Beer made of Perfimmons. Cheopncfs of 
Land, Delightful Climate. Stanzas 'written in 

THE face of the country, ever fince 
I left Mr. Eaton's, has been gra- 
dually fwelling more and more into hills 
and dales, which ace here called bottoms, 
as I advanced weflward; and the land is 
likewife more mixed with ftones, which 
alfo continue to increafe in magnitude. 

The foil is a compofition of reddiih clay 
and loam, flrong and fertile ; the woods 
lefs intermingled with pines, and more 
with oak and hickory; and the water 
every where excellent, running in vaft 
multitudes of beautiful clear dreams. 

The country and climate is in general 
healthy, the low grounds of the rivers 
alone other wife, particularly thofe of the 
Roanoak, occafioned by exhalations arif- 
ing from the damp foil, ftagnated wa- 

La ters, 

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A Tcur in the 

leis, and by the piitlrercencc of the air, 
tvhofe free circulation is prevented, in 
fuch fituations, by lofty thick woods, im- 
|)ervious to the brightefl beams of the 
fun, under which a difmal gloom and in- 
falubrious moifture eternally reigns. 

The inhabitants of thefe places, and 
Iheir neareft vicinity, are fubjed: to ob- 
ftinate intermittents ; thefe, and bilious 
complaints, b;ing the chief and mofl 
^prevailing endemial difcafes throughout 
Ihis country. 

There are llkewife great numbers of 
all kinds of ferpents in thefe fituations^ 
particularly that moil poifonous and 
dreadful of all, the rattle-fnake ; and 
the more filent and dangerous moccoflbns 
alfo abound, efpecially in and near the 
fwamps, guts, and rivers^ but are not 

ftfiet with fo frequently. - . .. 

^ • Game is very plenty here, particularly 
'deer, beavers, otters, raccoons, and that 
very extraordinary animal the oppoffum, 
the female of which has a double, or 
falfe belly ; within it the young ones 


! "1 

s of 







UniuJ States of America* l^^j 

grow to the teats, like fruit to the i\u'ik| 
and drop ofF at a certain period. 

After (he has brought forth her young, 
during the feafon of their infancy, v.-hcn- 
ever they perceive danger nigh, they all 
run into the mother's bag, or falfc bellyi 
for fecurity and refuge. 

Both thefe and the raccoons are u(e4 
for food, generally barbicued, or roafled, 
and their flefli is not unpleafant. 

There are alio fome wolves, and mul- 
titudes of foxes, vi'ild turkies very large 
fat and fine, wild-geefe, duckg, and 
fquirrels innumerable, which make mod 
excellent foup ; alfo wood-peckers and 
jays of feveral different kinds j befidea 
a vaft variety of other animals, biros, 
beafts, &c. too many even to enumerate. 

Great numbers of trees in tbe wqods, 
efpecially in the low grounds, are coverpd 
with vines, and bend under the weight 
of the ripe grapes, which are fufpqn^ed 
in accumulated multitudes of larg? ap4 
delicious clufters. 


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There is alfo a remarkable fruit named 
the perfimmon, growing wild, about a$ 
large as the biggeft Orleans plum, of a 
bright fcarlet colour, with four or five 
very hard feeds in each, nearly of the 
iize and fiiape of thofe of tamarinds, 
an J the pulp of the fruit, when per- 
fedly ripe, is of a Iharp, but lufcious 

As other fruits are ripened by the fun, 
fo the perfimmon is by the froft in con- 
jundion with it ; for although beautiful 
and tempting to the eye, they cannot be 
eaten, and fcarcely even tafted, before 
they are maturated, or meliorated, by fe- 
deral fliarp frofts, previous to which they 
are auftere, rough, and aftringent, to a 
greater degree than any other vegetative 
fubftance, or production, whatfoever. 

All animals are exceffively fond of this 
fruit, particularly the oppoflums and rac- 
coons, who are generally found on, or 
near the perfimmon-trees. Thefc trees 
are as large as oaks, elms, or afh, and 




<i n 

Unite J States of America, 151 

are diftindly divided into male and fe- 
male, the male never bearing fruit. 

In fome places, where apples and cy- 
der are fcarce, the inhabitants gather the 
perfimmons, after they are perfedly ripe, 
knCad them into a kind of dough, or 
pafte, with wheat bran, which they form 
into loaves, and bake in ovens : of thefe 
they brew a fermented liquor, which is 
called perfimmon beer. This ferves for 
their common drink, and is tolerably 
pleafant and wholefome. It is fometirnes, 
though rarely, diftilled into brandy. 

Thefe trees grow chiefly in or near 
about the edges of glades, favannahs, and 
in old fields, as they term fuch places 
where the timber has been cut down, the 
land worn out, impoverifhed, or tired 
with culture, and young trees liave not 
fprung up; for the perfimmon is found 
to thrive in the pooreft foil, almbft as 
well as in the itioft fertile. 

Throughout this back country, there 
are fo many rich and valuable tracts of 
land fret^uently to be difpofed of, for 

L 4 coa- 



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confideratlons infinitely inferior to tlieif 
real worth, that a man of refledion, 
even a traveller, cannot always withftand 
the temptation. 1 

Here I have evinced the truth of this: 
obfcrvation for the fecond time, having 
made a piirchafe of a furvey, containing 
four hiiodred and fifty acres of excellent 
land, adjoining Flat river, with a cleared 
plantation, and a lioufe upon it, for only 
one hundred pounds (lerling. 

The firfi: purcliafe I made was on the 
banks of the Roanoak, nine miles above 
Eaton's ferry; it conlifled of five hun- 
dred and fifty acres, of which about one 
hundred was in Virginia, moilly low 
grounds, and the reft in Norih Carolina, 
the dividing frontier line interfeding 
the land. On this -there is a planta- 
tion, houfes, orchards, (kc. and a public 
ferry. ^ ....,,• 

The fmall part of this trad that lies in 
Virginia, coll me two hundred pounds, 
although I gave buti}ny pounds more for 
all the reft of the - furvcy that is on tjie 

. . ' North 





"United States of Amrica, 153 

North Carolina fide of the frontier line, 
being four hundred and fifty acres. 

On this plantation I fettled an overfeer, 
with a few negroes, and (lock ; and com- 
mitted the whole to the care of my friend, 
Mr. Alexander, with whom I regularly 


But with this lafl: purchafe I was not 
fo well fatisfied, for when I rtfleded on - 
the fituation of it, I found it mufl be an 
incumbrance, being fo far inland, and fo 
far diftant from navigation, that there 
was but a flender prof|.:e£l of my reaping 
any benefit thereby. 

This confideration induced me to 
offer it again for fale, and in the dil- 
pofal thereof, I was more fortunate than 
1 had any reafon to appreliend, hwvr- 
ing fold it for fifty pounds more than it 
coft me, to a planter, who had juft re- 
moved out to this place with his family, 
from the interior part of "^Hrginla, and 
intended to make fome more purchafe-s 
of adjacent trads that were quite con- 
tiguous to this, and thereby, veiy oppor- 
tunely to me, cnlianccd its value. 




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The winter, if you may call fo the 
fineft time of the year, is in this part of 
the continent more pleafant and' agreeable 
than can be conceived ; neither fo hot as 
to incommode, nor fo cold as to difpleafe ; 
but is conftantly a feries of the moil de- 
lightful weather imaginable : ever clear, 
bright, and ferene, the face of nature is 
perpetually fmiling. 

As a fpecimen of the fentiments which 
this lonefome, reclufe fituation infpires, 
the following ftanzas, or ode, may not 
be unacceptable, which claim no farther 
merit than evincing the natural bias of 
the human mind to philanthropy and be- 
nevolence, when detached from the ge- 
neral intercourfe of polifhed fociety, and 
di veiled of the difguife and incumbrances 
of modern company and refinement. 

It was addrefled to Robert Alexander, 
efq. colonel of the militia of the county 
of Mecklenburg, in Virginia, the gentle- 
man whom I have already mentioned. 


United States of America • 155 

Or, an ODE to a FRIEND. 


Whilft my friend Is Improving his fortune and mind. 
On the banks of the rapid Roanoak ; 

Here to filence and folitude am I confinMy 
Like a bird juft efcapM from the hawk*. 


While merchants are fcheming and toiling for gains, 

Ufing means that are honefl-, or vile ; 
Whilft narrow-foul'd mifers are racking their brains, 

To heap up more gold, and more guile. 


Whilft orators proilltute talents for fee. 

And juftice gives way to the cafh ; 
Whilfl the virtuous, the poor are refpe£):ed by me. 

And rich rafc. ij fmart under my lafh. 


While dodlors fell health, by the grain, in retail. 

And barter off death by the lump; 
Whilft int'reft and power againft merit prevail. 

And honour's lopt low to the ftump. 

* The author being then juft recovering from a 
moft fevers ilinefs. 

V, In 



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In obrcurit7 dill -tis my wiih to remaitiy 
Since neglected, forfaken, re(/r'd ; 

For riches and fplendour, with guile, I difdaln. 
Nor by me are high titles defir'd. 


Contentment alone do I covet in life, 
And friendfhip wfth you to enjoy ; 

Thrs adds to our pleafure, and banifhes falfe, 
And wifely our days we'll employ. 


Keviewing pall time, 'tis w'th rapture v^e find, 
That at length we've difcover'd the right, 

Rude, noify enjoyments expel'd from our micid^ 
Each fcene now ferene is, and bright. 


Our aflbciates in former tumultuous life, 
With grief, we fee rufliing along ; 

Contendirg, with eager exertion and ftrife, 
To excel in the culpable throng. 


Let the Mufe their deformities glaringly fliow. 
And Vice in her colours dii;>Uy j 

Awalc'ning reflexion will urge them to know. 
They, like butterflies, blaze but a day. 

X. In 

;4>„:-;i»j8«_ ^ 

X. In 

United States of America. i^j 


In all the gay flutter of fafhion and drefs. 
They approach me,— expe£ling my praife ; 

Since, like them, abandon'd to ev'ry excefs.-M* 
Let them lif^en, with heed, to my lays. 

<< For once then to truth and good-humour defcendy 
** Nor wax thus ill-natuir^dly warm ; 

(' But bear with the cordial advice oJF a friend 
** Who can blufli for himfelf, and reform. 


** Too long, my dear Sirs, have you madly deny'd 

** A rational ufe to your eyes ; 
*< And loolc'd on thofe adlions with envy and pride, 

** Which reflection ujuft hate and defpife, 


** In praife of the fatal excefles of wine, 

** Difdain to be feen with a pen ; 
** Nor boaft of being rais'd into fomethlng divine, 

♦' When 4ebas'd greatly lower than men. 


** Where murder for honour is fliamefully dreft, 

*' O never attempt to defend; 
*' Nor plunge the fell fword, for a cafual jeft, 

" In the breaft of your worthieft friend. 

XV. To 

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<* To a laugh never martyr an innocent name, 
•• 'Tis a malice moft cruelly cool ; ' ' 

^< Nor plunge the fofc virgin in anguifh and fhame^ 
** For the Joudeft applaufe of a fool. 


•* When fatally fond the fweet vi£lim is grown^ ' 

** In pity, in juftice, forbear; 
" And think that a After, or child of your own^ 

<* May be drawn to difgrace and defpair. 


** But let merit, where'er it may chance to engage, 

** Oblige you to praife and protect j 
«• And the filver-white ringlets of reverend age, 

** Still meet with a decent refpeA. 


<< Such condu£l will add to your happinefs more 

" Than all your miftalcen purfuits ; 
'^^ Give zeft to your pleafures, and weight toyour fiore, 

'* Diftinguifhing reafon from brutes." 


I' ''^Z* 1 

Vniicd Staid nf America* 1 59 

}\cvjJc'K\vrr» lTilljl>OYOVgh* Strong Poji, IJcrM 
Fiflds, Singular Phenomenon. Accounted for, 

THE laft two confiderable dreams of 
water that I crofled on my way to 
this place, Fifhing-creek and Tar-river, re- 
ceiving feveral inferior creeks and branches 
in their courfe, from a tolerable large ri- 
ver, which pafling by Tarburg, falls into 
the immenfc body of water, that is known 
by the appellation of Pamplico found, at 
Bath town, after a courfe of about an 
hundred and fifty miles, in a dire£t line, 
from the fource. 

It was in February when I left this place, 
and again proceeded on my journey. 

At the end of two miles, 1 crofTed Flat 
river, and in two miles farther, Little river; 
thefe, with another river (the Eno) wuthin 
a couple of miles more, meet fome fraall 
diftance below, and form the river Newfe. 

Each of thefe fmall rivers, is larger than 

the Thames at Richmond, and the Newfe 

js not much inferior to the Roanoak. 




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A Tuur in the 

After a courfc of more than three hun- 
cired miles, it empties itfelf in Pampiko 
found, about thirty miles below the town 
of Newbcrn, which is fometimes called, 
and lately eftabliihcd as the capital of 

This town is fituated in a very beau- 
tiful fpot, on the banks of the Newfe, at 
the confluence of a pretty dream, named 
Trent river. 

After a ride of twenty-two miles, I ar- 
rived at Hillfborough, where I dined and 
jpafTed the reft of the day. 

Thii IS the third appellation this town 
has already been honoured vith fince it was 
creded, being firft named Corben-town, 
next Childfburg, now Hillfborough ; all 
in lefs ihan thirty years. 

It is alfo the capital of a diftridl, and the 
county-town of Orange. 

Hillfborough is a healthy fpot, en- 
joys a good (hare of commerce for an 
inland town, and is in a very promifing 
flate of improvement. 

6 The 



I of 

e, at 

1 ar- 

d and 

it was 
1 ; all 

id tUc 


[or an 



United States of America. \ 6 1 

The land, forfomedlftance around Hillf- 
borough, confills of a mixture of loam and 
flrong red clay of fo bright a colour that 
white horfcs and cattle, foon after they 
are brought there, become in appearance 
a fine fcarlet. 

In the vicinity of Hillfborough, a to 
the weftward of it, there are a great many 
very fine farms, and a number of excel- 
lent mills. 

The inhabitants are chiefly natives 
of Ireland and Germany, but of the 
very lowed and moft ignorant clafs, 
who export large quantities of exceeding 
good butter and flour, in waggons, to 
Halifax, Peterfliurg, &c, befides multi- 
tudes of fat cattle, beeves, and hogs. 

There is a very fl:eep and high hill, or 
fmall mountain, with two fummits of an 
equal height, on the fouth-wefl: of Hillf- 
borough, which arifes abruptly in the 
middle of an extenfive plain, and com- 
mands the whole country for a great di- 
ftance around. 

Vol. I. M This 

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WEBSTeR,N.Y. 145S0 

(716) •72-4503 























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A Tour in the 

This might eafily ce rendered a ve^ 
ry (Irong poft, by works thrown up on 
the fummits, which are near enough 
to cover and fupport each other, and fo 
fituated, as the communication between 
them could not be interrupted. The 
flanks and rear likewife would be ftrength- 
ened by the river Eno, which runs at the 
bafe of this mountain, and wafhes two 
fides of it. 

The flaple produce of all this coun- 
try being provifions of every kind, a 
fortified poft in this place, would thereby 
be enabled to fubfift and maintain itfelf in 
every neceflary lupply, excepting arms and 
ammunition, and might be defended, by a 
fmall force, againft a very confiderable 
and fuperior army. 

Almoft every man in this country has 
been the fabricator of his own fortune, 
and many of them are very opulent. ^ 

Some have obtained their riches by com- 
merce, others by the pradice of the law, 
which in this province is peculiarly lucra- 
tive, and extremely oppreffivej butmoft of 


p on 


id fo 
at the 
s two 

.ind, ?. 
tfelf in 
ms and 
d,by a 

try has 


)y com- 

Ilc law, 




United States of America. 1 6 3 

them have acquired their pofleflions by 
cropping, farming, and induftry. 

I dined next day, by invitation, at the 
houfe of Mr. Frank Nafli. 

, [Since then it has happened, in the 
viciffitudes of fortune, that Mr. Nafh and 
the author were engaged in battle on dif- 
ferent fides > Mr. Nalh as a General in the 
American army, and the author a Captain 
in the Britifh, at the adion of German- 
Town, near Philadelphia, where Mr. Na(h 
received his mortal wound] 

Here, at Mr. Nafh's, I happened to 
meet a Mr. Mabin (a native of Ireland) 
who very kindly infilled on my accom- 
panying him to his feat on Haw river, 
adjoining the Haw fields, to fpend fomc 
weeks there. 

Having a great defire to view the Haiv 
fields, a place I had heard much about, I 
went along with him to his plantation, 
which is about an cafy day's ride, v/eft of 




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Mr. Mabin's farm is very valuable and! 

cxtenfive, but not particularly remarkable. 

I rode feveral times over the Haw fields, 

but could not perceive any thing in them 


They confift partly of wide favan- 
nahs, or glades* and partly of large 
fields overgrown with fhrubs, brufh, and 
low. under- wood, entirely deftltute of 
heavy timber. 'But there appears many 
velliges of trees, which in all probability 
have been blown down by a hurricane, 
and the young (hoots afterwards choaked 
by the extreme thicknefs of the low 
buOies, and fcrubby underwood. This 
1 have alfo obferved to be the cafe in ma- 
ny other places befides. 

From the efFed of thefe moft violent 
and tremendous hurricanes and torna- 
does, which being fometimes partial, fre- 
quently move in ftrange fantaftic direc- 
tions, and from ^the irrefiflible force of 
the wind, and the vaft deluges and innun- 
dations of water that generally accompany 
them, all the appearances may be readily 

f-if i ii 




Vnited States cf America. 1 6 5 

accounted for in a common and natural 
way, which, however, have lately given 
fcope to an ingenious, celebrated, and ele- 
gant author's (Dr. Dunbar) and others of 
lefs note (Mr. Carver,&c.) vague imagina- 
tions ; hazarding their fanciful and wild 
conjedures of fome of thefe being vjpftiges 
of military works, erected many ages paft, 
by a people the;z conversant in that Tci- 
ence, but whofe defoendants,^///*' mere dint 
of praciice^ (for war and hunting appear 
from the moft early period of time to have 
been the fole ftudy and occupation of their 
lives,) and by fome other equally abfurd 
and unaccountable tranfitions, have thereby 
forgotten, and, at thii day, have loft every 
trace thereof. 

Indeed it muft be confeffed, that the 
elephant's bones, or thofe of fome other 
unknown animal of vaft magnitude, found 
on the banks of the river Ohio, the 
antique fculptures in the Delaware's 
country, on the noith-weft fide of that 
amazing river, the iheils and marine 
f^bft^nces in the Alegany mountains, 

M 3 toge- 


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A Tour in the 

together with many other flrange appear- 
ances and fingular phenomena, fo frequently 
to be met with throughout this moft ex- 
tenfive continent, dilplay a fertile field 
for a creative, fanciful genius to explore, 
and may give rife to the moft novel, ele- 
gant, and beautiful flights of imagina- 
tion, and the brighteft, moft ingenious, 
and fplendid embcllifhments of fiction. 

However, I have reafon to believe, that 
fome of the Haw fields have been cleared 
of woods by the Indians, in ages paft, who 
were undoubtedly fettled here -, many in- 
lignia, and veftiges of the remains of 
their towns, ftill remainitlg. 

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United Slafcs of ^mcruj, 167 


Ilaw river. Dcip rher. Cipe Fear river* Carr:- 
xvay mountains. Grand ami chgant Pcrfpiit'rje. Bad 
Axommodatlons. Unfuitable to an Epicure^ or a 
Fait Afaitre. 

HAVING it in fpeculation to vifit 
Henderfon's fettlcment on Ken- 
tucky, I mentioned my intention to Mr. 
Mabin, who appeared very ftrenuous in 
<:Ufluading mcfrom undertaking fuch an en- 
terprize at prefent, on account of the mif- 
underftanding and difturbances now fub- 
fifting between the Indians and the Whites. 

He informed me of a report, that even 
Henderfon's whole fettlement was either 
exterminated, or in imminent danger of 
being fo. 

For this rcafon, I conchided to poft- 
pone this arduous undertaking, until 
fuch time as more certain and favourable 
intelligence of their fituation in the fettle- 
ment fhould arrive, and a better profpe«£l 
of reaching it without moleftation. 

M 4 On 




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On the third evening after I came here, 
a gentleman, named Frohawk, called at 
Mr. Mabin's, on his return to Salifbury, 
where he refided. 

As he tarried all night, we had much 
convcrfation, and from his accounts of 
the Catawba Indians, my curiofity was 
ftrongly excited to vifit their nation, which 
was only about an hundred miles beyond 
the town of Salifbury. 

Accordingly, having expreffed my de- 
fire and intention to Mr. Frohawk, he was 
fo obliging as to propofe to condud and 
accompany me j an opportunity and eli- 
gible offer, which I with great fatisfadion 
embraced, and fet out along with him 
next morning. 

The road we travelled in is named the 
Great Trading Path, and leads through 
Hillfborough, Salifbury, &c. to the Ca- 
tawba towns, and from thence to the Che- 
rokee nation of Indians, a confiderabje 
diftance weftward. 

We forded the Haw river, which is 
there sibout twice as broad as the Thames 



) I 





t and 







tell is 

Untied States of America, 169 

at Putney, and within a few miles farther, 
in the like manner, we crofied Reedy ri- 
ver, another branch of the fame ftream, 
and as large. 

We dined juft by a Quaker's meeting- 
houfe, and in the afternoon croffed Deep 
river, at a ford. This is alfo about twice 
as wide as the Thames at Putney, and 
joins the Haw river fome di fiance below, 
after wafliing the bafe of the north-eaft 
fide of a ridge or chain of high hills, 
named the Carroway mountains. 

The Haw is then a large river, and 
runs through the fettlement and town of 
Crofs creek, which is chiefly inhabited 
by Scots emigrants from the weftern High- 
lands and the Hebrides* : it then afTumes 
a new appellation, being called the North- 
weft, or Cape Fear river, and pafling by 
the town of Wilmington, which has been 
frequently confidei ed as the metropolis of 

♦ For an account of the unhappy fate of this 
loy »1 and patriotic fettlement, on account of their 
attachment to their King and Countiy, fee Chap, 


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^ Toitr in the 

North-Carolina, on the north-eaft, and 
I3runfvvick, which \s a little lower on the 
wcllcrn bank of the river, it falls into 
the Atlantic ocean at Cape Fear, after sl 
courfe of more than three hundred miles 
from the fource. 

We lodged that night at an inn or or- 
dinary, as it is called here, at the foot of 
the Carroway mountains, which we had 
frequently had a glimpfe of, during this 
day's rid€. 

We purfued our journey early on the 
following morning, which was extremely 
pleafant and fme; and when we arrived at 
the fummit of the mountain^ the fun juft 
began to verge above the horizon. 

Here I alighted, and indulged myfelf 
in gazing with great delight on the wild 
and extenfive profpedl around me. 

On the north-eaft I beheld the mountains 
atKillfborough, diftant above fifty miJes'; 
on the fouth-weft, the mountains near 
Salifbury ; and on the weft, Tryon mpun- 
tains ; with the wide extended foreft be- 
low, embrowned with thick woods, and 



Ufiitcd States rf America* 


latcrfeded witli dark, winding, narrow 
chafnis, which marked out the courfe of 
the diiferent mighty ftreams tliat mean- 
dered through tliis enormous vale ; thinly 
interfperfcd on the banks of which, the 
forms and plantations appeared like as 
many infignificant fpots, that, while they 
pointed out the induftry, ferved alfo to 
expofe the littlenefs of man. 

On this fpot I could with pleafure havq 
pafled the day, had not a craving, keen 
appetite reminded us, that there are more 
gratifications neceflary for our fupport,. 
than feafting our eyes ; fo we defcended 
the mountain, and purfued our journey. 

It was fortunate for me, that at this 
time, my conftitution, health, and tafle, 
enabled me to fubfift on any kind of food, 
without repining, and. with fufficient fa- 
tisfadtion, however coarfe or unufual it 
might be. For this is not an entcrprifc for 
an epicure, or a petit maitre : the apprehen- 
fions of perifhing with hunger and want, 
would as etfedually deter the one from fuch 

. an 

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j1 Tour in the 

an undertaking, as the dread of abfolutcly 
expiring with fatigue and hardfliips, 
would the other; the fare and accom- 
modations a traveller meets with through- 
out this country, being very indifferent 
indeed, even at beft, and generally mi- 
ferable and wretched beyond defcription, 
excepting at warm or opulent planters 
houfes, where there is always a profufion 
of every thing, but in the coarfeft and 
plaineft ftyle. 

The greater number of thofe who tra- 
vel through this country, have acquaint- 
ances among the inhabitants, at whofe 
houfes they generally put up every night, 
and feldom call at ordinaries. 
. Thofe that drive and accompany wag- 
gons on a journey, fleep in the woods 
every night under a tree, upon dry leaves 
on the ground, with their feet towards a 
large fire, which they make by the road 
fide, wherever night happens to overtake 
them, and are covered only with a blan- 
ket. Their horfes are turned loofe in the 
woods, only with leather fpancills or fet- 


United States of America. 173 

ters on two of their legs, and each with a 
bell fadened by a collar round his neck, by 
which they are readily found in the morn- 
ing. ProviHons and provender, both for 
men and horfcs, are carried along with 
them, in the waggon, fufficient for the 
whole journey. 

Even thefe advantages, trifling as they 
may appear, a traveller on horfeback is 
deftitute of, and is obliged to truft to Pro- 
vidence, and the country through which 
he paiTes, for accommodation and fubfifl- 
cnce ; both of which are not always to be 
met with, and even when they are, ar^ 
fel^om as good, never better than the 

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Tcidkln River, Sal'ijlmry. Beautiful Terfpcnhc. Ttyofi 
Mountain, Bruj7)y Alountains. The King Moun-* 
tain dljllngul/hed for the unhappy Fate of the gallant 
Alcijor Fcrgitfon. 

LATE in the afternoon we crofled 
' the river Yadkin, at a ford, fix or 
fcven miles beyond which is the town of 
Salifbury, where we arrived that evening, 
being about one hundred and twenty 
miles weft-fouth-weft from Hillfbofough. 
The Yadkin is a very large ftrtfam of 
water, at leaft three times as wide as *he 
Thames at Putney : it runs through a 
rich and extenfive country, enters South 
Carolina, pafling through the Chaw- 
raws, having a vaft body of low grounds 
and rich rice and indigo lands on each 
lide, before which it affumes the name 
of Great Peedee, and falls into the Atlan- 
tic Ocean a few miles below George- 
Town, which (lands on the weft fide of 

a bay 

t; I 


United States of America, 1 7 ^ 

a 'bay named Winyaw, formed within 
the mouth of this river, receiving a great 
many inferior ftreams in it« courfe, which 
is remarkably crooked, being above five 
hundred miles along with its meanders, 
and more than four hundred miles, in a 
direct line, from its fource. 

Salifbury is the capital of a diflri(5l, 
and is the county town of Roan: it is 
fituated on a fmall creek that runs into 
the Yadkin on the fouth-weft fide. 

This town is larger than Hillfboroiigh, 
and lefs than Halifax ; but does not fhare 
an equal degree of commerce with the 
leaft of them. 

The trade from SaUfbury is pretty ex- 
actly divided between the towns on James 
River in Virginia, and Charles Town in 
South Carolina. 

There is a beautiful romantic moun- 
tain a few miles due fouth from 
Salifbury, which being fecn from the 
town produces a very line effect, as the 
Garroway mountains do alfo, the tops of 
which are Ukewife to be perceived. 

I went 

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I went to the fummit of tliis dellgtit-s 
ful mountain, on the brow neareft to the 
town, and from thence beheld a per- 
fpedive, beautiful, extenfive, and grand, 
as I always do fuch a fcene, with fupe- 
rior pleafure. 

On the north-eaft I obferved the Carro- 
way mountains ; on the north-weft, at 
fifty jniles diftancc, the BruQiy Moun- 
tains, the Montague Hills, and the 
King's Mountain on the weft. 

[It was on this mountain that gallant 
officer and excellent partizan, Major Fergu- 
fon, of the Britifh army, and his whole 
detachment, were cut off, and killed by a 
vaft fuperiority of the rebels, in November 
1780 ; by which misfortune this place 
has unhappily become diftinguiftied.] 

On the fouth and eaft I beheld an 
unbounded plain ; and the whole an im- 
menfe foreft, without limits, interfperfed 
with vaft water-courfes, and thinly fpotted 
with fettlements. 




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United States of America, i yj 

Mr. Frohawk being prevented by an 
unforefeen accident from accompanying 
me to the Catawba nation, I fet out 
alone, and after a fatiguing ride of fixty 
miles, arrived at a little town, named 
Charlottefburg, at night ; having forded 
feveral water- courfes during the day, 
which form Rocky River, a branch of the 

Charlottefburg is an inconfiderable 
place, and in England would not be 
thought deferving of even the name of a 
village. It ftands upon a creek that 
runs into the Catawba River, is not a 
county town, and its trade and (hare of 
commerce is very infignificant. 

During this day's ride, I obferved that 
the fettlemenls are fewer, the plantations 
fmaller, and the land, in appearance, lefs 
fertile, than on the other fide of Salif- 

Vol. I. 





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Blazed Path, Origin and life thereof, Defcription 
of a Bock f Food's Rifleman. HisflrangeDrefs and 
peculiar Sentiments, . 

THROUGHOUT all this country, 
and in every back fettlement in 
America, the roads and paths are firft 
marked out by blazes on the trees, cut 
alternately on each fide of the way, every 
thirty or forty yards : thefe are renewed 
every time the roads are repaiicd. 

A blaze is a large chip diced off the 
fide of a tree with an axe ; it is above 
twelve inches in length, cut through the 
bark and fome of the fap wood, and by 
its white appearance, and brightnefs, 
when frefli made, ferves to diredl the 
%Yay in the night as well as in the day. 
" The miles are chiefly computed, and 
are afcertained by notches chopped in the 
nearefl tree ; a notch for every mile. 

The Hrft blazed paths originated in this 
niaaiier : when any perfon went from 


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h the 







tJnited States of America, 179 

one plate to another through the woods, 
where it would have been difficult, if not 
impoffible, to return upon his track, he 
fell upon this method of blazing each 
fide of the trees, at certain diftances, as he 
pafled on, and thereby retraced his way 
in returning, without the leaft trouble. 

The convenience and fimplicity of this 
mode has rendered it univerfal through- 
out the whole back country. 

It became the more readily adopted, 
as all who travel beyond the roads and 
beaten tracks, always have tomahawks in 
their belts ; which, in fuch fituations 
and circumftances, are more ufeful than 
any thing, except the rifle-barreled fire- 
locks J both of which all the male in- 
habitants habituate themfelves conflantly 
to carry along with them every where. 

Their whole drefs is alfo very fingular, 
and not very materially different from 
that of the Indians ; being a hunting 
fhirt, fomewhat refembling a waggoner's 
frock, ornamented with a great many 
fringes, tied round the middle with a 

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broad belt, much decorated alfo, in which 
is fattened a tomahawk, an inftrument 
that ferves every pur pole of defence and 
convenience ; being a hammer at one fide 
and a Iharp hatchet at the other ; the 
iliot bag and powder-horn, carved with a 
variety of whimfical figures and devices, 
hang from thsir necks over one fhoulder; 
and oh their heads a flapped hat, of a 
reddifli hue, proceeding from the in- 
tenfely hot beams of the fun. 

Sometimes they wear leather breeches, 
made of Indian dreifed elk, or deer ikins, 
but more frequently thin trowfers. 

On their legs they have Indian boots, 
or leggings, made of coarfe woollen 
cloth, that either are wrapped round 
toofely and tied with garters, or are laced 
upon the outfide, and always come better 
than half way up the thigh : thefe are a 
great defence and prefervative, not only 
againft the bite of ferpents and poifonous 
infedts, but likewife againfl the fcratches 
of thorns, briars, fcrubby buihes, and 



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United States of America. 1 8 ^ 

underwood, with which this whole coun- 
try is infefted and overfpread. 

On their feet they fometimes wear 
pumps of their own manufa^ure, but 
generally Indian moccoflbns, of their own 
conQrudlion alfo, which are made of 
ftrong clk*s, or buck's fkin, drefled foft 
as for gloves or breeches, drawn together 
in regular plaits over the toe^ and lacing 
from thence round to the fore part of the 
middle of the ancle, without a feam in 
them> yet fitting clofe to the feet, and 
are indeed perfecHy eafy and pliant. 

Thus habited and accoutered, with his 
rifle upon his ftioulder, or in his hand, a 
back- wood's man is completely equipped 
for vifiting, courtfliip, travel, hunting, 
or war. 

And according to the number and va- 
riety of the fringes on his hunting fhirt^ 
and the decorations on his powder-horn, 
belt, and rifle, he eftimates his finery, 
and abfolutely conceives himfelf of equal 
confequence, more civilized, polite, and 
more elegantly drefTed than the moft bril- 

N 3 liant 

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liant peer at St. James*s, in a fplendi(i 
and expenfive birth- day fuit, of the firft 
fafhion and tafte, and moil coflly ma- 

Their hunting, or rifle (hirts, they 
have alfo died in variety of colours, fome 
yellow, others red, fome brown, and 
many wear them quite white. 

Such fentiments as thofe I have juft 
expofed to notice, are neither fo ridicu- 
lous nor furprifing, when the circum- 
Hances are confidered with due attention, 
that prompt the back-wood's American 
to fuch a train of thinking, and in which 
light it is, that he feels his own confe- 
quence, for he finds all his refources in 

Thus attired and accoutered, as al- 
ready defcribed, fet him in the midfl: of 
a bound lefs foreil, a thoufand miles from 
an inhabitant, he is by no means at 
a lofs, nor in the fmalleft degree dif- 

With his rifle he procures his fubfift-; 
^nce ; with his tomahawk he eredts hia 


Vn'itedStates of America. 183 

flielter, his wigwam, his houfci or what- 
ever habitation he may chufe to refide in ; 
he drinks at the cryftal fpring, or the 
neareft brook; his wants are all eafily 
lupplied, he is contented, he is happy. 
For felicity, beyond a doubt, confifls, in 
a great meafure, in the attainment and 
gratification of our defires, and the ac- 
compliQiment of the utmoft bounds of 
our wifhes. 

This digreflion, which I thought ne- 
ceflTary to imprefs an idea of the fingu- 
lar appearance and fentiments of thefe 
men, for that reafon, I am hopeful, will 
be excufed ; and for which, I flatter my- 
felf, this will be deemed a fufficient apo- 


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j4 Tour in the 


Catdtvha Indians, The King. Once a powerful 
Nation, Cujioms, Depopulation, Caufes thereof* 
Manner of Life* Abortions of the young fVomen, 

ON the morning following I purfued 
my journey to the Catawba town8> 
which are between thirty and forty miles 
diftant from Charlottefburg. 

Having hired a perlbn at Charlottef- 
burg, who was well acquainted in the 
nation, and converfant in their language 
and cuftoms, to ferve as my guide, and 
interpreter, if there ftiould be occafion, 
we arrived at the nation that evening. 

Our horfes were turned out loofe, and 
we lodged in a wigw^am belonging to a 
family of thefe Indians, in which my 
guide was very intimate. 

My bed was a large bear's fkin, with 
a blanket to cover me, and I flept on the 
ground, before the fire. Being very much 
fatigued, I relied tolerably well, and in 

• ' * the 


to a 


United States of Atrurica, 185 

the morning I arofe early, as ufual, and 
walked out to view the town 

This day I had the honour of being 
introduced to the king, or chief of the 
Catawba nation, whofe hard-mouthed 
Indian appellation I cannot recolle(^, but 
his Englifh name was Joe. 

He appeared to be a ftrong, (Iraight, 
well-looking, robuft fellow, little or no 
way diftinguifhable from the reft, other- 
wife than in the accidental gifts of his 
perfon ; for he feemed to me the likelieft, 
beft made, and handfomeft man in the 

I was not a little furprifed to find that 
they all fpoke Englifh very intelligibly ; 
and they informed me that they under- 
ftand, and pronounce it as well as their 
own language. 

This once numerous, powerful, and 
even lately very refpe£table nation, is now 
dwindled away almoft to nothing, there 
being at this time no more than fixty or 
feventy warriors in the whole, and fuch 
they are, as would excite the derifion 


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and contempt of the more weftcrn fa- 
vages, for thefe are in a kind of ftate of 
civilization, which the Indians confider as 
enervating effeminacy, and hold it in the 
utmoft abhorrence. 

The Catawbas afford a melancholy 
example, and ftriking, but infuperable 
proof, of the ruin and fatality brought on 
any Indian nation, by the intemperance 
and vicinity of the fettlements of the 

This aftonifhing havoc and depopula- 
tion, which is indeed mofl alarming, 
grievous, and awful, and truly painful for 
humanity to reflect upon, has been occa- 
iioned, in a great meafure, by the intro- 
dudlion of the fmall-pox and fpirituou8 

Their injudicious treatment of that 
infectious malady, generally renders it 
fatal, for they make ufe of hot ftimulating 
medicines to promote a mofl prof ufe dia- 
phorefis, in the height of which, whilft 
reeking with fweat, and dilFolving in 
ftreams of warm moifture, they rufh out 


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United States of America, 1 8 7 

into the open air, quite naked, md fud- 
dcnly plunge into the deepcil and coldeft 
ftream of running water that can be 
found, iinmcrfmg their whole body in 
the chilling flood. 

It may well be fuppofed, that if their 
recovery was doubtful before, this ren- 
ders it totally impoffible ; and the poor 
unfortunate vidtims fall facrifices to the 
mofl: wretched ignorance and folly. 

The deleterious efFeQs of fpirituous 
liquors are not lefs notorious and exten- 
five ; for thefe unhappy wretches are one 
and all perfedly devoted to the immo- 
derate ufe of them, when to be obtained 
by any means whatfoever in their power; 
and an univerfal inebriation conflantly 
occalions a mofl dreadful carnage, which 
all the perfuafions and power of the wo- 
men, invariably exerted for that laudable 
purpofe, is never able to prevent. 

Yet after the fatal paroxyfm of in- 
toxication has ceafed, no revenge is grati- 
fied, no refentments are indulged by the 


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relations and friends of the murdered, a- 
gainft the fiirvivor. 

The brothers, the fathers, the fons of 
the deceafed, are perfedly reconciled to, 
and in the flridlefl: harmony and friend- 
fhip with thofe that perpetrated the fan- 
guinary deed. All unite in exculpating 
the adtors from intentional crime, throw- 
ing the whole blame and ftigma of evil 
and guilt on the wicked and pernicious 
Ipirits that gave rife to the whole. 

Although every one execrates the abo- 
minable liquor, and appears to ihow the 
dcepeft contrition for the dreadful fcene 
of which that alone was the fole caufe, 
yet if they can procure as much more the 
very next night as will completely intoxi- 
cate them, they cannot refift the tempta- 
tion, even if they were afliired of as 
much mifchief as before proceeding 
from it. 

The women, therefore, as foon as they 
difcover fpirituous liquors in the houfe, 
hut, or vrigwam, begin immediately to 



a hi 
ful i 

United States of Amerka, 1 89 

fecrete and convey away every dangerous 
weapon and inftrument of death. 

The latent efFeds of thefe are not lefs 
prejudicial and deftruflive to population 
than thofe more immediate and apparent. 
For the warrior neglects his hunting ; the 
fquaw negleds her agriculture ; the ma- 
ther negleds her children; ill health and 
difeafe fucceed, which generally termi- 
nate in the final exit of the unhappy vic- 
tims, by immerfion in the cold bath, 
while almoft in a ftate of liquefadion 
by heat and a moft profufe perfpiration. 

The decreafe and depopulation of the 
Indian nations is alfo promoted by an- 
other caufe befides thefe, which has con- 
tributed as powerfully as either of the 
foi^mer to that fatal purpofe. 

It is the frequent abortions of the 
young unmarried women : for they con- 
fider a promifcuous intercourfe between 
the fexes before marriage as no difgrace, 
nor does it prevent a girl from obtaining 
a hufband afterwards ; but they are care- 
ful to deftroy the fruits of this licentious 


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ji Tour in the 

conned^ ion by medicinal fimples that 
promote abortion, in which fatal fcience 
they are very expert. It produces this 
pernicious efFedt, that fuch pradtices in 
their early youth fubjedt them to mif- 
carriages ever afterwards, and when it 
happens otherwife, they commonly have 
not more than two children, very feldom 
three, during the whole courfe of their 

However, although devotees to incon- 
tinence and the Cytherian rites while 
iingle, yet after they marry they are re- 
markable for their fidelity to the objeQs 
of their choice, unlefs they fhould happen 
to take a diflike to each other; then they 
mutually agree on an immediate fepara- 
tion, or divorce, and each party may 
marry again with any other perfon, with- 
out the fmalleft cenfure, or the Icaft idea 
of impropriety. 

It is cuftomary when a white man 
enters an Indian town, or nation, with 
intention of refiding there for fome 
time, if only a few months, for him to 


m r 

United States of America. 191 

nave a wigwam, or hut, ereded, in 
which he lives with fome young fquaw, 
whom he either courts to his embraces, or 
receives from her parents as his wife and 
fervant, during the time he may flay 
among them. 

In fuch cafes (he is always very faith- 
ful and true, and if (he fhould prove 
pregnant, the child is raifed by the na- 
tion : but if (he be the daughter of one 
of their chiefs, and the father of the in- 
fant be inclined to fix his refidence a- 
mong them, he is prefented with a 
large tra£t of land, feveral miles fquare, 
in truft for the child ; which, as well as 
himfelf, is then formally adopted and 
received into the nation. 





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Catawba^ s vaft Property* Their ManufaSJurci. Their 


THE Catawbas are indeed a poor, 
inoffenfive, iniignificant people, 
enveloped in filth and naftinefs of perfon, 
for no Indian has any ideaof clcaanefs. 

But they poffefs an extenfive and moft 
valuable body of rich, fertile land, con- 
taining more than one hundred and fifty 
thoufand acres, which they hold in abfo- 
lute property and fee fimple inheritance. 

Should their depopulation continue as 
rapidly as it has been hitherto, in a very 
few years this enormous, immenfe eftate 
will center in a fingle family. 

However, this eflate, vaft and immenfe 

as it is, is but a poor compenfation for 

the lofs of a whole province ; for this 

nation formerly pofleiTed, and were the 

adlual proprietors of the greateft part of 

North Carolina. 

I am 

iC I 

i ■ L I 

1 am 

Vni ted States of American 193 

i am told that there can be no certain 
determined judgment formed of the man- 
hers and appearance of the native, uncivi- 
lized, wild, weftern Indians, from thefcj 
who feem indeed, in a great meafure, to 
have lod that martial independent fpirit^ 
for which that whole race of mankind 
have been ever diftinguiflicd, and to be 
finking faft into degeneracy and a ftatc 
of fervility and dependence, inferior evert 
to the moft indigent df the whites. 

The Indian women in general are 
called Squaws, and it is their buHnefs to 
cultivate the foil, as well as perform the 
common menial domeftic fervices ; the 
fole occupation of the men being war^ 
hunting, fi(hing, fowling, and ftiioaking 

The only manufacture that I can dif- 
Cover among them is that of party-co- 
loured little bafkets, table-mats, made of 
ftraw, and chips, or fplits of different 
coloured wood ; aild an ill- formed kind 
of a half-baked earthen ware. 

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Thefe infignificant trifles arc carried 
about by the fquaws for fale, and arc 
piirchafcd for the mod worthlels iiivahi- 
able confiderations. 

Many of the Catawbas have alTixed 
property of various kinds and defcrip- 
tions, and fome of their hunters .difpofe 
of more than one hundred pounds va- 
hie of deer-lkins every year 

Nothing can be more fimplc, fubmif- 
five, and obhging than the behaviour of 
every individual I met with in the Ca- 
tawba nation, male and female : and 
there was only their habitual naftinefs, 
coarfe fare, and rude accommodations 
that were any wife difgultful to me, dur- 
ing my refidence among them. 

However, tbefe people feem to enjoy 
an ample lliare of the moil valuable of 
all human bleiTings, the moft eftima- 
ble of all tranfitory pofleflions, health, 
contentment, and felicity ; their princi- 
pal concern proceeding from the appre- 
henfions of the encroachments of the 
whites, of which all Indians are indeed, 





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lie of 
f the 

United States of America. igj 

tvith great reafon, extremely jealous and 
watchful. For no extehfion of territory 
can gratify our infatiable defires, no 
bounds can limit our perpetual ufurpa- 
tions, invafions, and inroads on the un- 
doubted and fole property and domain of 
thefe comparatively dcfencelefs and inno- 
cent race of aboriginal inhabitants. 

[For a more particular^ account of the 
charader and difpofition of the Indians, 
and of the narhe, fituation, arid ftrength, 
or number of warriors, of each nation oa 
the continent of North -America, fee Chap* 
xliii. arid xliv.] 




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CHAP. xxvr. 

Catawba River. An uncotHmon Injiance of Penury. R'utt 
Mifer. IVretchednefs and Mijery of his Slaves* fVa-^ 
terec River, Congarees River. San tee River, Their 
great Extent. Fertility of the Soil, 

HAVING, m a few days^ fufficiently 
gratified my curiofity amongft this 
finking and degenerating nation, I left 
the Catawbas, and fet out on a journey to 
a very diftinguifhed place of trade, in 
South- Carolina, lately entitled Camden, 
the capital of a diflrid of the fame name^ 
formerly called, and ftill moft univerfally 
known, by the appellation of the Pine-tree. 
Having found my guide, or interpreter, 
ufeful to me a^ a fervant, I continned ta 
employ him to attend me^ which feemed 
to afford him great fatisfadion, although 
he was engaged for the fmall wages of 
half-a- crown per day for himfelf and his 
horfe alfo. However, it muft be acknow- 
ledged, we always lodged and fared aiike. 
The dividing line between North and 
South- Carolina, interfedts the Catawba 




ij to 
;, in 


United States of Jmerka» 197 

nation. The principal town,- however, is 
in South • Carolina. 

We fet out from hence in the morning 
very early, and within the diftance of 
about feven miles, crofled the Catawba ri- 
ver, at a ford juft above the confluence 
of a confiderable rivulet that falls into it 
on the north-eaft (ide named Twelve 
Mile creek, leaving the great road or trad* 
ing path on our right, that leads weft 
towaids the Cherokee country, our courfc 
being almoft due fouth a little eafterly; 
and during all this morning's ride hitherto^ 
we have ftill been upon the territory be- 
longing to the Catawba nation. 

The Catawba is a large and rapid ri- 
ver, containing an enormous quantity of 
water : it is about three hundred and fifty 
yai:ds wide, and, although fordable, is deep» 
aiid runs in a rocky channel with great 

This day we had a dreary ride, and 
miferable accommodations ', having break- 
fafted on fome rice and milk, which it 
w^8 With much difficulty we could pro- 

O 3 cure, 

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j4 Tour in the 

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cure, and we dined wretchedly at an ordi- 
nary of the fame ftyle, on the banks of a 
rivulet, named Filhing creek, which wc 
forded, as alfo Rocky creek, and lodged at 
night in a houfe, or rather a hovel, be- 
longing to a Mr. D—, a private aud pe- 
nurious planter. 

In this habitation, which had many 
ftrong features of indigence, was only one 
room and one bed, which the proprietor 
himfelf occupied, but very benevolently 
afforded us (indeed with fome degree 
of reludance) the accommodation of a pal- 
let on the floor; and after our fatif.Ting 
ride of more than fifty miles, eveii this 
was very acceptable. 

However this houfe, or more properly 
flicker, appeared to me as another man- 
lion of mifery, and ftrodgly recalled to 
jny ipind the poor oyerfper's wretched 
habitation, where I lodged the fjrfl night 
after I left Peterfburg, in Virginia. 

This folitary reclufe I alfo confidered 
a? a pqor, difponfolate, defpifed overfeer, 
in the employment of fpme opi}leiii.t prp- 



United States cf America. 


prictor wallowinc: in the wealth and hix- 
urics of Charles-iown. 

Fully poirdlcd vvitli this idea, which I 
had imbibed ovcr-niglit from every penu- 
rious appearance, I v.alked out early in 
the morning to take a general view of 
the plantation and agriculture. 

After ftrolling about for a confidcrable 
lime, without meeting a fmgle perfon to 
anfwer any interrogation, 1 happened to 
go into a large barn, where to my aftonifli- 
ment, there were near fifty negroes at work. 

I alked them to whom they belonged ? 
They replied, to Mr. D— . Who is Mr. 
D — ? Where does he live ? — And to my 
great furprife, 1 found it was the poor pe- 
nurious wretch qn whofe floor we had 
lodged, that was proprietor, not only of 
this eftate, but of many other plantations, 
together with three or four hundred more 
half-ftarved negroes befides. 

I departed from this place with a mix- 
ture of pity and contempt for the miferable 
wretch, who, polTefllng fuch a fortune, 
was incapable gf ufing it as he ought, for 

O 4 tliQ 




1 1 




i ■'' 

»!-| S' 

Ilii i 



A Tour in the 




W'. ■ f 



the purpofes of benevolence, and the be- 
nefit of mankind. 

But with my heart penetrated with 
pain and anguifli, I commiferated the 
fate of thofe unhappy wretches his 
(laves, whowere not allowed even a fuf- 
ficiencv of the coarfeft common r^cef- 
faries of life, in compenfation for the 
hard labour of their lives, by this griping 
fon of penury, who alfo endeavoured to 
avert his ruin, and fulfilled his confiflency, 
by fending us away without breakfeft. 

After an unpleafant ride of better than 
twenty-five miles, and eroding the river 
Wateree (which is a continuance of the 
Catawba) in a ferry-boat, I arrived at 
Camden, or the Pine-tree, about rioon. 

This river, the Catawba, aflumes three 
feveral appellations, but in different places. 
The upper part is named the Catawba, 
the middle is the Wateree, which appella- 
tion is continued to it as far as the con- 
fluence of the great Congarees river, ,on 
jts fouth-wefl fide, fropx thpnce it is 



United States of America. 201 

called the Santec to its mouth at Cape 
Roman or Carteret 

The Catawba river, from its fource in 
the Apalachian or Alegany mountains in 
North -Carolina, to the mouth of Santee in 
the Atlantic ocean on the coad of South- 
Carolina, is nearly fix hundred miles in 
length, along with its meanders, and al« 
moA: five hundred miles in a ilraight line} 
containing an aflonifhing quantity of wa- 
ter. Including the other branches of this 
river, which alfo fall into the Santee, it 
pafles through a country as rich and fer* 
tile, and contains on and adjoining its 
waters as large a quantity of fine land, a9 
^ny river of its extent in the univerfe, 


^ * 

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h I 




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^ Tour in the 

.CHAP, xxvir. . , • 


Camden. JLands. Rivers. Infers. LihabJtams. Rice, 

,: • '; Jndigo.. Manure » 

' " ' ., ' ■ ' ' 

CAMDEN is a place of confiderable 
commerce, and is improving very- 
fall, but I do not tbink it meriting the 
pains, fatigue, and trouble, I have taken 
to fee it, for I cau difcover nothing parti- 
cularly remarkable, either in the town, or 
in the country around it, ' ' 

It is about an hundred and fifty miles, 
in a dired courfej^ from Salifbury; but is 
an hundred and eighty, or near two hun- 
dred miles, by the circuitous route I made 
by the Catawbas, and between one hun- 
dred and fixty and an hundred and eighty 
miles from Charles Town. 

There is no hill, fcarcely an eminence 
near it, excepting Santee hills, about 
thirty miki, to the eaftward, on the fame 
fide of the river, but at the diftance of fe- 
veral miles from the banks, and they 




U?iited States of America. 203 

pontinue in a chain, nearly in the fame 
d ire dl ion, for thirty or forty miles farther. 

Here the land is divided into firft ancl 
fecond low grounds, and high lands or 
barrens. >> ^/ > - - . •• • •' • *• r - 

The firft and fecond low grounds are 
what is cultivated, and formed into plan- 
tations, producing crops of Indian corn, 
rice, and indigo. '- ► ^ « - 

The high or barren land is divided into 
oak and pine barrens ; of which the oak 
is always the fign of the more fertile 
foil, for the pine barrens ^re only pine or 
fir-trees growing, fcattered promifcuoufly, 
in a bed of loofe, deep land, which fcarcely 
produces afingle blade of verdure, and is 
exceffively fatiguing and troublefomc for 
either horfes or men to travel through, 
every ftep therein finking almoft to the. 

knee. H --yiij«.' ,.*U i an .<.-ii w,i*i- ^i-'V-.^.-. . 

In the woods, efpecially in the low- 
grounds of all the rivers, creeks and 
branches of water, vaft quantities of reeds 
fpontaneoufly vegetate, and are in a per- 
petual flate of verdure, affording moft 


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A lour in the 

excellent food for cattle and horfes, which 
keep fat upon this provender all the year 
round ; for no provilion or forage of any 
kind is required to be laid in for them 
againft the winter, as during that feafon 
they are the fatteft. 

For here all the inclemeilcy of the 
weather is in the fummer, when the in- 
tenfenefs of the heat, and the fcorching 
rays of the fun, the multitudes of noxious 
;ind ' troublefome Hies^ and innumerable 
other pernicious infedls, continually ex- 
hauft, prey upon, and torment every living 
creature in tlje fields and woods, fucking 
their blood, fretting, and torturing them al- 
mofl to death ; fo that at this time of the 
year, every kind of beafl falls away, and be 
comes miferably poor and lean. For 6ven to 
mankind, with all his refources and ad- 
vantages, the heat then becomes intoler- 
able, nor can he find any fhelter or defence 
Againft the afTaults of thefe flies, infedls, 
atid poifonous reptiles, that then infeft the 
whole furface of nature, . 
. - - / ..^ : The 

■i I 


United States of America* 26^ 

The country is throughont one conti- 
nued plain and foreft, with the plantations 
and fectlements formed only upon the fides 
of the rivers and watcr-courfes. The in- 
habitants are a feeble race, of a tawney, or 
yellow i(h hue, and fallow, cadaverous 
complexions ; but many of the rice and in« 
digo planters in this neighbourhood ar« 
very gay and opulent. 

Even the Negroes are (hrivelled, and di-^ 
ininutive in fize, compared with thofe in 
Virginia ; nor is their value equal, as I am 
informed, to theirs by near fifty per cent. 

The culture of both rice and indigo Is 
extremely unwholfome, as the former mu(i 
be covered with water, during the greater 
part of the time of its vegetation ; and the 
putrid exhalations, proceeding from th^t 
ilagnated water, muft be particularly inju- 
rious to health, and Qccalion obllinate in* 

The indigo alfo requires a gf eat deal of 

water in its manufaif^ure, and foon be^ 

comes rotteit and putrid in this fultry 

climate : afterwards nothing can be more 

o offenfive 

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ji Tour in the 

ofFenfive and infalubrious than it is ; yet^ 
in that ftate of the higheft putrefcence, 
they manure their lands with it^ 
ipreading it over their fields whilfl: wet 
and ftinking, which thereby become abo- 
minably noifome, and abfolutely render 
the whole iurrouhding atmofphere, within 
the influence or contad of the ofFenfive 
putrid effluvia, extremely deleterious and 
baneful. r 

South-Carolina was, for a long timef, 
tvithout a fingle court of judicature for 
the diflribution of law, juftice, or equity, 
throughout its whole extent, excepting at 
Charles Town, the metropolis, which was 
a grievance of very great magnitude to 
individuals, and really detrimental to the 
province at large ; to palliate which ^ the 
jurifdidtion of fingle magiftrates was en- 
larged, and extended. However, it was 
peculiarly beneficial to the inhabitants of 
Charles Town, who were in a great mea- 
fure enriched thereby, as a vaft concourfe 
of people from every part of the province. 

United States cf America, 207 

as well as from other governments, were 
then drawn there perpetually. 

But lately, South-Carolina has been 
divided into fix diftind diftridts : viz- 
George Town, Charles Town, Beaufort, 
Orangeiburg, Camden, and Chawraw : 
at the capital^ or chief town of each of 
which, courts of juftice, common-pleas, 
quarter- feflions, &c. are eilabliihed, and 
regularly held. Since that period, the 
whole country has been confiderably be- 
nefited by the meafure, and has flouriftied 

In the calculation, made by the Congrefs, 
of the number of inhabitants in each date, 
South-Carolina is faid to contain two hun- 
dred and twenty-five thoufand one hun- 
dred and fixteen, of which one fifth part 
only are Whites. I have good reafon to 
believe this number to be exaggerated 
about twenty- five thoufand one hundred 
and fixteen. 

This country has alfo decreafed in popu- 
lation confiderably fi nee the rebellion, efpe- 
cially fincethe evacuation ofCharlesTown, 

9 when 

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^heh it 13 fuppofed near ten thoufaiid 
inhabitants left the province. 
- Throughout all this large and valuable 
Jprdvincfe, there are only three fea-ports j 
the chief of which is Charles Town^ 
i«rith George Town on the north-eaftj and 
Port Royal on the fouth-weft : the latter 
has much the beft harbour of the wholcj 
the other two being incumbered with bars 
at their entrance, which render them in- 
ftcceffible to large ihips, sind diffictilt to 
Any, efpecially ^s feveral of thefe bankd 
and quickfands are reported to ilu6ttiate^ 
and frequently change their po(itlon< 

. I I 


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1 1 

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), I' ' 

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United Stiiies of America, 209 


Great Curiojity of the lower Clafs of Inhabitants^ 
Impertinent ^uefiions, Conje^urcs cf my Guide* 

Rendered ferv'iceable. . , ' 

HAVING foon fufficiently gratified 
my curiofity in Camden and its 
vicinity, and hearing much converfatioil 
again concerning Henderfon's fettlcment 
on Kentucky, the rout to which being now 
thought fafe, I changed mydefign of pro- 
ceeding to Charles-Town, for that of an 
expedition to the Ohio, which had long 
been the firft objedt of my wiflies ; in- 
tending to defer vifiting Charles- Town, 
Savannah, Augufta, St. Auguftine, &c. 
until after my return from Kentucky. 

Accordingly I fet out for Salifbury, by 
the neareft way, intending to pafs through 
the Moravian towns on my journey from 
thence to Hillfborough, from which place 
I propofed to begin my expedition to 
Henderfon*8 new fettlement j thefe Mo- 
ravians and their towns having been the 
Vol, I. y- P only 



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y/ Tour in the 

only objeds and places deferving atten- 
tion, that efcaped my obfervation on my 
progrefs fjuthward. 

It was about the laft of April when I 
departed from Camden, the heat of the 
weather was increafing faft, and began to 
be troublefome : but this was the very 
beft feafon of the year to enter upon my 
prefent hazardous undertaking. 

On the third day at noon my guide 
Clifton took his laft farewell of me, being 
nearly oppofite to Charlottefburg, the place 
of his refidence. 

Having found him extremely ufeful 
and attentive, in return for his fervices 
and fidelity, I prefented him with a gra- 
tuity of eight dollars at parting, over and 
above his f.anty wages, at which the poor 
fellow was abfolutely over-joyed, and, 
as I have frequently heard fmce, has re- 
founded my praifes, and his gratitude, 
far and near. ,. . 

It may not be improper here to obferve, 
how very troublefome and difagreeable 
the extreme curiofity of the lower clafs of 

I ••' 



l . 

IS of 

Um'ied States of America, 211 

inhabitants at firfl appears to Grangers and 

I was for a Idrig time exceedingly pef- 
tered with the impertinent interrogations 
of, * What was my biifinefs ? What I 
fought after? Where did I intend to 
fettle? and What brought roe to this 
country ? * 

As I always found fotiie expedient to' 
evade anfwering thefe queftions, each 
refolved his own in the manner his ima- 
ginations and conjectures inclined him to 
believe, and they were all fatisfied ; but 
every one was prefling for me to fix my 
refidenne in his neighbourhood. 

My honeft guide firft took it into his 
head, that I was endeavouring to difcover 
a judicious fituation to Commence and ex- 
tend an European commerce ; but finding 
that I pafled by and overlooked the mod 
excellent fpots for that purpofe, and that I 
took great notice of the face of the country, 
and of the quality and fertility of the foil, 
and examined into the date, nature, and 
mod^ of agriculture, as J pafTed ; all 

P 2 thefe. 

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thefe, with my avowed intentions, which 
I had frequently cxprefled, of vifiting 
Henderfon's fettlement on Kentucky, in- 
duced him at length to alter his firfl; 
opinion, and form an abfolute conclufiooy 
that I was a fpeculator in lands, fparing 
neither trouble, expence, nor enquiry to 
difcover the fined land, and beft bar- 
gains, to make purchafes of. 

This fuppofititious report he conftantly 
circulated, and it fpread with great celerity 
to an aftonifhing extent. However, I 
never found any injury or prejudice attend 
me on that account, but rather the reverfe, 
for every perfon appeared ftudious to 
contribute to my amufement and informa- 
tion wherever I went, and by this means 
I acquired a degree of knowledge, which 
otherwife could not have been obtained in 
double the time ; and befides I was al- 
ways beheld in a refpedkable light. , 

I '■*. 


!.B!": ? ■ '1 



United States of America* 2 1 3 

; 1 1- 1 •' 



S^Ujluty. Moravian River. Moravian Towns and 
Settlement. Peculiar Cujloms and Police, li omen 
in Common. Flourijhing State, Their Manufac- 
tures. Produce. Salem. Bethania, Ecthabara. 
'Their Situations* 

AS I rode eafy journics, it was on 
the fourth day after my departure 
from Camden that I arrived at Salifbury. 

Here 1 remained but one night, and fet 
out next morning very early for the Mo- 
ravian towns, which lie ainioft due north 
from Salilbury. 

I crofled Grant's Creek about four miles 
from the town, and juft above its mouth 
I crofTed the Yadkin, at a very bad ford, 
about nine or ten miles from Salifbury. 

About ten miles farther I forded 
the Moravian River at its mouth, juft 
above where it enters the Yadkin, and 
rode along an exceeding bad rough road 
up the weftern fide of the river, until I 
arrived at Bethania, which is the moft 
wefterly and northerly of all the Mora- 

P 3 vian 

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vlan townsi being about fifty miles froii^ 

It Hand? upon a water-courfe name4 
Bethania dreek, which is a conliderable 
branch of the Moravian River. 

It was late at night before I arrived. 
I was extremely fatigued, and departed 
next mprning for Bethabara, which I 
reached to breakfaft, after fording another 
branch of the Moravian River, about (i^ 
miles on this fide of Bethania. 

This town is ten miles from the other j 
but being informed that Salem was the 
principal, I immediately proceeded on 
after breakfaft, and arrived there about 
noon, this place being only about feven 
iniles diflant from Bethabara. 

This fociety, fe£k, or fraternity of the 
Moravians have every thing in co;nmon, 
and are poffefled of a very large ai>4 
pxjtenfive property. 

They have a kind of monaftic in- 
ftitution in their internal police, and 
in bringing up and educating the younger 
of bptH ff^i^es, who are fo^Jly fecluded 



United Stafes of America, 2 1 5 

from converfation, or intercourfe, with 
each other, until marriage j after which a 
houfe, a portion of land, (lock, and uten- 
fils of every kind, are allotted each couple, 
and the produce of their labour and 
induftry is depofited in the common flock. 

From their infancy they are inftrudted 
in every branch of ufeful and common 
literature, as well as in mechanical know- 
ledge and labour, which even then is 
converted to beneficial and profitable pur- 
pofes, for the emolument of the com- 
munity at large. 

But their peculiar uniformity in drefs, 
and the long beards of the men of that 
particular fedl of them, commonly called 
Dunkaids, have a very fingular, flriking, 
and uncouth appearance. 

The children are feparated from their 
parents during their earlieft infancy, and 
are brought up altogether, each fed dif- 
tind from the other, in a kind of femi- 
naries, as belonging only to the whole 
fociety, to whom colledively a parental 
4%£tion is by this means affiduoufly in- 

P 4 culcated 


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^ Tour in the 

culcated, cheriflied, and eftablifhed \ and 
all perfonal attachments and paternal love 
and regard are as diligently checked, 
difcouraged, diminiihed, and, in a great 
degree, annihilated. 

It is faid that parents adually cannot 
diftinguifti their own offspring from 
others; 'and that the children alfo as foon 
forget every trace by which they might 
recognize their parents : as they are fe- 
parated during the earlieft ftage of in- 
fancy, this is readily accompUlhed and 
eafily accounted for. 

It is alfo reported that thofe members 
of the fociety who have arrived at years 
of maturity, particularly the rulers or 
elders, enjoy their women in common, fo 
that the parents on one fide are difficult to 
be afcertained. This circumftance, how- 
ever, though much and almoft univer^ 
fally credited, they themfelves ablblutely 
deiiy ; and I fliali not undertake to pro- 
nounce a decifion, or even an opinion, 
ppe way or the other. , 

• . The 

United States of America. 2,- 
•^ The Moravians have many excellent 

•nake large quantities of butter, flour 
and provifions. for exportation. * 

They alfo poflefs a number of ufefu! 


k fn' r ^P'^ '^' ^^""^^ ^°""try with 
« for fome hundred miles around 

S;^., and .etached frl ^^^ 
lea, focety, or order of peocle L .l 
«rtai„,y are valuable f'^ ' 'and ^ 

lation and improvement "'*'°^P°P"- 

It IS impoffible for me to relate or 
difcover one half nf ,»,. r ■ ""^ 

Smv'ia! T^'. ^"^ P-"'-"- of the 

SenT ' .r^ ^'^ ^"^ ~«-«ed 
^ wence I made amongft them, for T re 

"•^ed there but thre, days/and ihl; 


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I '' 




A Tour in the 

I have mentioned is only a {ketch of 
their exterior en pajfant. 

And as I have no doubt but others 
have fufficiently explained the principles 
and minutiae of the internal government 
of this fed or fraternity, with the advan- 
tages of a better opportunity of informa- 
tion, and fuperior abilities and. knowledge 
of the fubje£t than I am able to boaft 
of; therefore I conceive it is totally un- 
necefTary for me to enlarge any farther 
upon that head on this occafion. 

Salem, their principal town and fettle- 
ihent, is feven miles from Bethabara, 
feventeen from Bethania, about forty- 
five from Salifbury, and near ninety 
miles from Hillfborough. 

* It (lands on Bellews Creek, a branch 
of the river Dan, which runs into or 
rather principally compofes the Roano^k ; 
although the other two Moravian towns 
are built upon branches of the Moravian 
River, or Creek, which is alfo pretty 
confiderable, but falls into the Yadkin. 



United Sf^fes of America. ^19 


^he Ararat Mountains. *Tryon Mountcfins. Mora" 
v'lan Mountains* Carraivay Mountains, Grand 
and beautiful perfpe^ive Views. 

IN the ride from Sallfbury to Bethania, 
jny fight was frequently regaled 
with a glimpfc of the fummit of Tryon 
mountains or my left, and the (lu- 
pendous iftou. 1. of Ararat diredly be- 
fore me. 

Coming from Bethania to Salem, 
I was extremely pleafed with behold- 
ing the fame mountains of Tryon on 
my right, the Moravian mountain on 
my left, and the Garraway Mountains in 
front, although it was but very feldom 
I could enjoy that pleafure j viz. only in 
palling over the fummits of the high 
hills, appendages of thefe mountains. 

The IVJoravian towns and fettlements 
^re fituated on the bafe of the fouth weft 
fide of the Moravian Mountains, which 
?ire in fa6t only huge protuberances 




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from, or appendages of, the ftupcndous 
Ararat on t!ie north-weft, and the Carra- 
way Mountains on the fouth-eaft, to 
which they appear equally to belong. 

The foil in general is rich and fertile, 
the face of the country rocky, broken, 
and mountainous, though many of the 
Moravian fettlements are choice level 
fpots, and the whole is extremely well 
watered with excellent ftreams of that 
fluid, light, clear, and wholefome, which 
are likewife converted, by the ingenuity, 
labour, and induftry of the inhabitants, 
into the ufeful purpofes of turning mills 
of many different kinds. 

On the fourth day after my ar- 
rival at Salem I left it, and proceeded 
on my journey to Hillfborough ; and, 
defiring to fee as much of the country 
as poffible, 'ntended to take a very cir- 
cuitous route to that place, by the lower 
road over the Allamance, as 1 had come 
out by the upper road over the Reedy 
River on my firft journey fouth- weft- 
ward. ' . 



^"'i'<i States of America. 

For this purpofe it was nece/TarvV 

•"e to take a lon^ ride ., , ^ ^°' 

of fhe Carraway 2un ?^ "''^ ''*'"« 


fummit of the A '"'^"^ "' 'he 

'"e north-ea* i7:7^^°---. ^' 
after fun-rife. ^^' *° h^w 

cultivated fcene of nerfn J "°- 

Perlpeaive around me 

The mountain is nearly half a m-i k . 
°n the fummir o . ^ "^^ « "'■'e broad 

"^ ^ nnt began to take a rpfr^r x.^- 
V- of ,he beautiful fcene ^T 
now leaving behind me Tr J a7 '" 
on the weft, the M .^'^^°" fountain 

'he north bril T"" '^°""'''" ""^ 

""5 'itn, over whiVh t\^r^ • i 
"•^ereaed his ftul/ ^'^^'^^'■*- 
'he thick emb o T "' «'''''^'' h^^'' J 


^"'* ^^e multitude of 


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water-courfes that fall into the mfiahdcr- 
ing ferpentine Yadkin, thinly fpotted, as 
is common in thefe comprehenfive, fylvan 
pcrfpedives, with the fettlcments of the 
inhabitants of the earth, which were 
now darkened with the vaft fh^dow of 
the mountains over-hanging them, that 
had as yet precluded them froni a fight 
of the grand luminary of nature. 

Having lon^ gazed with infinite plea- 
fure, and without an alloy of fatiety, on 
thefe admirable fcenes, time, ever ad- 
vancing, reminded me of the neceffity of 
proceeding, if it w^as only to behold the 
equally grand and delightful perfpedive 
on the oppofite fide of the mountain. 

This was a more bright and fplendid 
fcene than the pad, for here the fun gilded 
every obje<3:, and at the fame time that 
the magnitude, wildnefs, and extent of 
the view rendered it awful, the ferene 
fmiling iky and climate inlp A the moft 
pleafing and delightful fehf? .ions. 

From this fituation I couU perceive the 
mountains beyond Haw River, and above 


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"er , and m front thp fio-i,. 

by the hrsr ^^ ''^^ bounded 

"7 the horizon at an immcnfe ^ft 

''erging above the line o^whkh ^"''' 
♦•-eMIs of AUa^ance, ndth ^17? 
on each fide nf .i, ^'^ '*"^« 

w be,:::^ ttzr ti ^^^^ 

winding in beautiful ferpeletw"' 
as if iffuing fron, under eh .he' 
tain where on I ftoorf Tr ^ "°""- 

"pon a carpet ; with theda;k ' J "^ 

taining Reed, River and ?he„?"°"- 
other branches of the kt r'°"* 

-hole.asisco„fta„t;thfa? ' ''^ 
this country ,„ • ^PP^a^ance in 

^ore.. To S^", .^^ -founded 

covered with thfcfc !„f r '"'' '°'^"5^ 
penetrable wood, .h^th f ^^7 i™- 

-d We^rtsttt/T 

afcertamed by the eye loft f^ ^ 

founded ia the ™ • ^""^ «on. 

the magnttude, grandeur, 


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and immenfity of the general objeds 
which compofe the furrounding, pleafing, 
awful fcene. ^ .. -, 

The trees were all juft putting forth 
their young and tender foliage, over which 
the fun beams difplayed a beautiful chear- 
ful luftre. The birds were warbling forth 
their melodious and vaciegated notes, 
welcoming the vegetation of returning 
fpring. Odoriferous gales, from every 
diredion, pervaded the whole furround- 
ing atmofphere, with the moft elegant 
and grateful perfumes. But fociety, en- 
dearing delightful fociety, was wanting 
to form and complete the felicity of man. 


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United States of America, 225 

." . c H A P. xxxr. 

• t i 

Great ^Uamaucc, Regulators, Hilljborough. Cok- 
nel Mac Donald^ and the unfortunate Loyalijls of 
North Carolina. Their Difojler at Afore* s Creek 
Bridge. Their hard Fate and barbarous Treatment. ' 

WITH a folltary fighi occafioned 
by, and cxpreflive of, the want 
of a proper objed to fhare, increafe, and 
to whom I might communicate the ple»- 
fures of my imagination and fenfes, in the 
enjoyment of this elegant perfpedive, I 
left this charming fpot (defcribed in the 
laft chapter), and proceeded down the de- 
clivity of the mountain. 


Having dined at the ordinary at the 
foot of the Carraway ridge, where I had 
lodged formerly on my firft expedition 
to the fouth-weftward, at the place where 
the upper road from Hillfborough to 
Salifbury crofTes this, I arrived at another 
indifferent houfe of public entertainment, 
where I was obliged to take up my refi- 
dence for the night, after a journey of 
fifty miles, which, in this rough country, 

VgL. I. Q^ , 2"*^ 




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and bad roads, is indeed excefTively fk^ 
tiguing both for the horfe and his rider. 

Ever fince I crofTed the mountain I 
have been defcending all day between the 
Deep River and the bafe of the Carra- 
way Ridge, and never at any confider- 
able diflance from either.. 

This ordinary, where I lodged, is 
fituated at the croffing of two great pub- 
lic roads, viz. that from the Moravian, 
towns (in which I have journied fmce I 
left them), to Wilmington, Brunfwick, 
&c. on the coaft of the Atlantic, and 
the lower road or great trading path from 
Hilllborough. to Salifbury, &c. which 
now was the way for me to proceed by. 

Accordingly, in the morning, I took 
my left-hand crofs-road, and after a 
long, but pleafant, ride down the eaflern 
fide of the Allamance Creek, I arrived at 
night at the houfe of a Mr. Michael Holt, 
a Dutchman, whofe plantation was ad- 
joining the creek, near the place where 
it enters the Haw River; having ob- 
ferved tbat I rode over «i great deal o£ 
6 excels 



Vnited States of America. 2 27 

excellent land during thefe two days^ 
the lafl of which I likewife travelled at 
leafl fifty miles. 

Mr. Holt, although a High Dutch- 
man, or rather the fon of Dutch or Ger- 
man parents, for he himfelf was born 
in America, is a very loyal fubjedt, and 
entertained me with great hofpitality. 
He is a magiftrate, poffefles a confider- 
able property, and has 'a large (hare of 
good fenfe and found judgement, but 
without the leaft improvement from edu- 
cation, or the embcilifhment of any kind 
of polifli, even in his exterior. 

In the eourfe of a long interefting 
converfation, with which he entertained 
me, and really afforded mc a great deal 
of fatisfadion and information by his 
fofible, blunt, and fhrewd remarks on 
every fubje£t occafionally, he explained 
the whole grounds, proceedings, and termi- 
nation of that mod unfortunate and much 
to be lamented affair of the Regulators, 
which made fo great a noife in North 
Carolina, their fcene of adion, as well as 
in- all America befides. 

Qj» But, 



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But, to avoid throwing rcflcclions and 
cenfure, however jiift or other wilb, on tha- 
radlcrs of perfons ftill in exiftence, out of 
whofe power it is now ever to atone for their 
former, perhaps ill-timed, unfortunate, and 
xniflaken condudt, I [hall fufFer it to reft in 
oblivion, only obferving that thofe un- 
happy, ill-fated vidims, the Regulatoi^ 
of North Carolina, were, and ilill are 
among the worthieft, fteadieft, and moft 
refpedable friends to Britifh government 
and real conftitutional freedom. But op- 
prefTion, mifreprefentation, and ill for- 
tune feem ever to have been the attend- 
ants on, and inaulplcious fate of exemplary 
loyalty and virtue, 

I left Mr. Holt on the fecond dav after 
breakfaft, and crofling the Haw River, 
&c. at a very good ford, arrived at Hillf- 
borough to dinner, having rode only 
about twenty-fix miles. 

[This Mr. Holt, of Orange county, 
, fome Americans from Guildford county, 
. almoft all the (^hiefc of the forjftcr Regu- 

V after 
I only 


fators, and about {\ft^r 

. ° fccnerai (now m Lont1nn\ 1 

»ng received creit ph. ''°"^' '■•''^'^ 

particular dire Jl V '"""""cement and 

as militia Tn ^ ^°^'' '"h'^bitants 
miiicia in arms, who nr« 

--OUS f„ this pro iJee he I "^ ""' 

• "oney, and troops, if thpv . u 
penetrate as far as Wi JnVton „?« 'r 
W'cfc, before which he lavT; f " ' 

the river of Gape Fea on h ,°' '■" 

about fifteen hJl , '^ ''""y^^ 

nireen Xumdred men vrithm , f 

days. ' ■' mi- :,. . . "^"^'n a few 

having committed fo^eXtpt:;;"' 
ders and miftake,. which L l™" 

,.^^ «ie meaiure compelled to do. 

^3 much 


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much againft Colonel Mac Donald's incli- 
nations, and out of his power to prevent, 
this afforded the rebels an opportunity 
to affemble and colled in great force 
from every quarter around, to the numr^ 
ber of fix or eight thoufand men, tole-«? 
rably well armed, to oppofe their progrefs. 
• Yet, in the face of fo vaft a fupe- 
riority, this handful of brave men, 
without arms for one-fixth of their num- 
ber, and even thefe almoll entirely def- 
titute of ammunition, marched boldly oUj, 
forcing their way, with great fpirit and 
refolution, for eighty miles to More's Creek 
Bridge, within fixteen miles of Wilming- 
ton, f ' ' 

Here (on finding thenafelves unfup- 
ported. Colonel Mac Donald alfo be- 
ing very fick, and unable to command) 
by falling into divifions and difler^fions 
among themfelves and other injudicious 
meafures, in attempting to crofs this ri- 
vulet in the faqe of works thrown up and 
lined by very fuperior numbers of the 
enemy under cover, and fuppor|ed like- 

<' i ; wife 

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Y on, 
t and 

lis ri- 
ip and 
)f the 

Xinitcd States of America, 23! 

wifeTjy feveral pieces of artillery, at a 
place 'where it was not fordablet upon a 
wooden bridge, the planks of which had 
been taken up, and the beams and fleepers 
greafed and rendered flippery and impaf- 
iable by the rebels, they met with a total 
defeat, feveral being killed, (particularly a 
gallant olHcer, Giptain Mac Leod, &c.] 
fighting bravely with their broad fwords. 
General Mac Donald, who, as I have 
already mentioned, happened then to be 
extremely ilU and almofl: all their ofRcers 
being taken priibners, were treated with 
the utmoft rigour and barbarity, to a de- 
gree fcarcely credible among civilized na- 
tions. > 

Thefe gentlemen were all dragged 
through the country in triurnph, in the moll 
diftreffed miferable condition, deftitute even 
of coinmon nece^aries, and were at laft dif- 
tributed in prifons and wretched places 
of reftraint, conftruded for the particular 
purpofes of cruelty, through the diftant 
inland parts of Virginia, Maryland, and 
Ppnfylvania ; and very few of them in- 

0^4 deed 




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V/ T<?//r hi the 

deed have ever been able to return 
to their unhappy, difconfolate, helplefs 
families and homes*. ,. 

General Mac Donald, Mr. Holt, and 
about thirty of the principals perlbns a- 
mongft them, were brought to Philadelphia 
in that wretched condition, and thrown 
into prifon, where I, being then alfo in 
clofe confinement in the fame plrce, had 
the melancholy, mortifying fatisfadion of 
feeing and converfing with my old friendly, 
hofpitable Dutchman once more: however, 
he contrived to make intereftwith the Con- 
grefs to permit him to return again to his 
family and home, which they alfo granted 
to all of them who were natives of Ame- 
rica, excepting a very worthy officer, 
Captain Leggit. ^ » ^ (• " • '■ * • ' ' 

But the gallant brave old general, a man 
then near feventy years of age, who had 
been almoft half a century an officer in his 
majefly's fervice, was moft ignominioufly 
and inhumanly treated, being rigidly and 

* Sse Chap. xxi. fage 169, 



^"'"'^^'"^^'f America. 33 

mer . for h. ' ''"""S the fum- 

to ;.? '"' '^'*'* the Congrefs 

to «s eternal difirrac*. =>nj • r ^^reis^ 

folutely refufed ff "'^*"'''' ^''- 

- bu't oitlfrofTherfr'^'^" 


Colonel Mar r, j . American 

Sng r"'"' ^' P-'-"^'^ Earl of 


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Hiiljlorougb, Ceurti rfjuduaiure. Numbers of Itt* 
habitants in North-Carolina. Depopulation, Be^ 

. waiidered and loji. Uninhabited Forejl, Wild Beajis* 
Great Danger* Hycoe Creek* Country Line Crxek* 


MY harfe, although an excellent one, 
being, as well as myfelf, a good 
deal fatigued and ftiff with travelling, I 
remained three day« at Hillfborough, for 
the benefit of reft and refrefhment. 

As I obferved before, Hillfborough is 
the capital of a diftri£t, of which there are 
fix in the province, where fupreme courts 
of judicature, with extenfive and peculiar 
j irifdidions, are held twice a year : each 
diftridl contains a certain number of coun- 
ties, of which there are thirty-two in the 
whole ftate. Every county alfo holds a 
court quarterly at a court-houfe erefted in 
.tlie moft central place of each ; befides 
thofe fupreme courts for tfie diftrids. 

Within the whole province of North- 
Carolina, there is not one good harbour, 


' ; ]i'i 


United States of America. 235 

being all obftrufled with bars, and flu6lu- 
ating fand-banks. That of Brunfwick and 
Wilmington on Cape Fear river is the 
beft, but noive will admit fliips of great 

North^Carolina was computed to con- 
tain about three hundred tboufand inhabi- 
tants, in the late calculation made by the 
Congrefs, and to have a larger proport^oti 
of Whites than any other of the fouthern 
provinces, that is, more than a third, and 
nearly one half. But I am well alTured 
that this calculation was exaggerated above 
thirty thoufand at leaft ; and North-Caro- 
lina has decreafed in population very much 
indeed fmce the commencement of the 
late fatal hoftilities, more in proportion 
than any other ftate. 

On the fourth day, early in the morn- 
ing, I fet out in great fpirits for the lower 
Sawra towns, on the banks of the Dan 
river, the largeft and moft fouthern branch 
of the Roanoak, being the firft com- 
mencement of my journey to Henderfon's 
famed new fettlement on Kentucky. 



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In the beginning of this day's ride, I 
was particularly unfortunate in lofing my 
way among the various, different, per- 
plexing paths and tracks that are met with 
on the north-weft fide of Hillfborough, 
among which no particular road can be 
diftinguiflied in pre-eminence. 

It was alfo unlucky for me that the 
greater number of the inhabitants on 
the plantations, where I called to en- 
quire my way, being Germans, neither 
underftood my queftions, nor could render 
themfelves intelligible to me ; and the few 
I chanced to find, that did underftand 
Englifh, being chiefly natives of Ireland, 
moft wretchedly ignorant and uncivilized, 
could give me no directions to afcertrvin 
the right way, having fcarcely ever even 
heard of the name of the Sawras. 

By this means I am confident that I rode 
over the diftance of twenty-five miles her 
fore I had reached, in a dire(fl line, ten 
miles from Hillfborough, from whence I 
had fet out ia.the morning. . 

ii'l* % 


■' ^"""^ ^tata of America. ^3^ 

At length, after infinite diiBculty. I dif 

covered Wthing ,i,e a path or old" however could fcarcely be afcer 

in, "'""=.*°'' '•"'»»•"" kowmrl. 
from u '""^'^ habitation 

111;':"' """■'"• "'*-"« -'Hiur: 

The difagreeablenefs of my fituatmn a 
.heanxietyofmy.,i„,,,J„ --;nd 

S-ated by the uncertainty whether S 
tins path or road, dull diSch a , 



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238 ^ 7o«r /« //6^ 

little glade or favannah, in which I had 
alighted, aad remained half an hour, for 
my horie to feed on the fine luxuriant 
grafs with which it abounded, who was 
ftill lefs able to fubfift without fome kind 
of nourifhment than I v/as, on account of 
the fuperior degree of fatigue he was com- 
pelled to undergo. 

At the approach of night, my uncafinefs 
and anxiety increafed to a very heavy and 
painful degree, for there was no habitation 
within many miles diftance around me, in 
the midft of an immenfe, univerfal, gloo- 
my foreft, abounding, and extremely in- 
fefted with wild beads, whofe difmal howls 
and different horrid yells and cries began 
to refound through the woods on every 
fide as night approached ; and I was abfo- 
lutely deftitute not only of a great-coat, 
cloak, or blanket, to proted me from the 
cold of the night, and the dews, but like- 
wife even of the means of making a fire 
to remain by, which is the only efFedual 
method of preventing the approach of the 
ravenous wild beails of the foreft, that 



United States of America. 2-3 91 

might otherwife be fo daring as to attack^ 
and perhaps devour the defencelefs traveller* 

My apprehenfions were not a little mag- 
nified by a total want of confidence in my 
own abilities as a wood's- man, for in that 
moft necefTary acquifition, and for travel- 
ling in this country, indifpenfible qualifi- 
cation, I was yet a perfe<£t novice, being 
perpetually fubje^fl to get bewildered and 
loft in going only the diflance of five miles 
through the woods without a path. 

In my prefent fituation, I had advanced 
a long day's ride into the l^eart of this de- 
fart and uninhabited foreft, even uncer- 
tain whether the almofl imperceptible 
path I was in, led to the place Lwifhed 
to gain : befides, in the fuppofition that 
it did lead to it, it mufl ftill be at the 
diftance of another day's ride, which, ia 
every probability, was alfo deftitute of in- 
habitants, and equally infefted with and 
abounding in difficulty aiid dangers. 

I had been fo negligent and thoughtlefa 
as to make little enquiry about this circum- 
ilanc© before L left HUllbprough, and in 


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yf 7i«r in the 

what I did make, could receive no kind of 
fatisfadion, for there was not a fingle pcr- 
fon in or near Hillfborough, who had 
ever travelled that way. 

Nor had I been more provident in lay- 
ing in fomc little flock of provi (ion or re- 
frefhmcnt, and other conveniences and 
necfeflaries fdr fuch a journey ; never ima- 
gining that there were no inhabitants for 
the greater part of the way. 

In this difagreeable, diftreffing dilem- 
ma, and anxious uncertainty, agitated with 
every painful refledion, I began to think 
of returning to HllWborough. 

This idea was ftrong on my mind, du- 
ring one hour's time, on the approach of 
night ; but ftill I proceeded on, deliberating 
on the confequences of the determination 
either way. 

At length, recolleding, that even if 
I concluded to return, I (hould be under 
the ncceflity of remaining all night in 
thefe difmal woods, without a lire, or 
covering, and deftitute of every protection 
or defence againft the approaches and at- 


Vnltcd States of America, 2^1 

tacks of the furrouiuling wild beads, whofe 
loud roaring and hideous yells continually 
affailed mine cars, or clfe I mud travclhack 
again all night : in this cafe I confidcrcd, 
that as I found fuch difficulty in afcertain- 
ing and following this dull path in advan- 
cing forwards during this day, with all 
the advantages of light, it would be abfu- 
lutely innpoflible to retrace it one hundred 
yards back in a dark night, the confc- 
cjuences of which muft be, that of being 
entirely bewildered and loft in the woods, 
and in all probability, pcriiLing in the im- 
menfe unbounded forefl:, before I could ar- 
rive at a human habitation. 

Thefe confiderations determined me to 
pcrfift in my journey, and to purfue the 
path forwards to fome fettlement, which, 
in every human probability, it muft at 
length conduct me to. 

In this refoiution I puftied boldly and 
brifkly on, imtil I came to a very confi- 
derable ftrea^n of water, in the, low 
grounds of which I was much puzzled to 

trace the c,ontinuance of the path. 

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A Tourr in tie 

This rivulet is named Hycoe creek ( as [ 
have been informed fince) and the place 
where I crofled was fo very miry, that my 
horfe had almoft funk down in it under 


I was now in great cxpedations of find- 
ing fome fcttlement, the land upon each 
fide of this water-courfe being exceedingly 
rich and fertile, but, much to my mortify 
cation, I travelled through thefe valuable 
low grounds, re-afcended the high lands, 
and rode on fome miles, without the leaft 
appearance of a human habitation. 

At length, to my unfpeakable comfort, 
when hope was almoft fled, and the gloom 
of evening had confiderably advanced, I 
heard the barking of a dog, and the low- 
ing of oxen ; I immediately ftruck out of 
the path, and endeavoured, by the neareft 
way through the woods, to gain the place 
from whence thefe agreeable and welcome 
founds proceeded. 

But in this attempt it was my fortune 
to encounter farther difappointments, and 
infuperable obftacles, for I foc^ met with 






c leaft 

It wi<h 

Vnifed States of America. 243 

an impenetrable thicket of young hiccory 
faplings, growing lb near to each other, 
and their branches fo pcrfedly interwoven, 
and entangled together, that it totally ob- 
ftruded my farther progrefs, and com- 
pelled me to return to the path I had juft 
left : even this alfo was a talk of difficulty, 
for in fearching after it I wau for fome time 
entirely loft and bewildered, before I was 
able again to difcovcr it. 

Having at length found the path, and 
purfuing it on very eagerly, I foon arrived 
at the low grounds of another confiderablc 
rivulet, which ran in fuch a ferpentine di- 
rection, and with fo many winding mean- 
ders, that the path crofled it five times 
within the diftance of half a mile. 

It was now become fo dark, and efpeci- 
ally in thefe low grounds, covered and 
overfhadowed with the intermixing bran- 
ches of the lofty thick woods, of which 
almoft every tree was overgrown with 
prodigious vines, whofe numerous branches 
and extenfive foliage added to the gloom 
and darknefs below, that I could no longer 

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A Tour in the^ 

perceive the path, and confequently found 
it impoffible to proceed much farther. 

I was now in a fituation and predica- 
ment the moft difagreeable and diftreffing 
that can be conceived ; the ground beneatli 
me wet miry and fmking under my 
horfe, his legs entangled in the vines, 
bambooes, briars, brufh and under-wood, 
which prevented him from proceeding in 
any direction ; the path entirely loft, not 
knowing even on which lide I had deviated 
from it 5 infeds, reptiles, and ferpents of 
the moft poifonous, deadly, and fatal nature, 
fwarming in the woods, and on the ground, 
and the wild beafts howling hideoufly 
around me ; the night exceffively dark, 
overcaft and threatening rain ; no poffibility 
of ftriking a light, or making a fire, and 
totally unprotected and defencelefs againft 
the attacks of all thofe furrounding, for-^ 
mldable foes. 

! •■ I 


r> ^ 

i ' t' 

United States of America^ 245 

Mr. Hart. A mojl hojphahlc, leni:z'olcnt Per/on, yf;z 
accoviplijhcd Gentleman, Agreeable Surpr'ifc. For' 
iunate Efcape. Mr* Bayly, Shange Alamur of 
Lodging. A lovely Girl. Sawra Tavns. Saivra, 
Nation. Upper Sawra Towns, 

MY fituation, as reprefented in the 
-conclufion of the lafl chapter, was 
not rendered lefs mortifying by the cer- 
tainty of a houfe and inhabitants being 
near, which was put beyond a doubt by 
the lowing of the oxen and the barking 
of the dogs, that I had heard, although I 
had found it impradicable to reach the 
place from whence thofe defirable founds 
feemed to proceed. 

At length I bethought myfelf of calling 
out as loud as T was able. This expedient 
fucceeded to my wifli, for, after I had 
hallooed feveral times as loudly as I could 
vociferate, to my great furprize and inex- 
preffible fatisfadion and pleafure, I was an- 
fwered by a human voice, which feemed to 
come from fome perfon on an eminence, 
jufl above the fpot whereon I was fixed. 

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However, being unable to approach 
the place where he was, I continued to 
call aloud, and was regularly anfwered by 
the fame voice, until in a fhort time a 

Negro arrived at the difmal thicket 
wherein I was faft entangled. 

It was with the utmoft difficulty, and a 
conhderable time before he was able to 
extricate me from this perplexing] and 
perilous fituation, but at length he efFeded 
it, and brought me once more to the com- 
fortable and much-wanted afliftance of 

The poor Negro himfelf, although ac- 
cuflomed to the woods, appeared aftonifhed 
at the dangerous and dreadful fituation in 
which he found me, and fecmed almoft 
equally rejoiced with mj felf at my fortu- 


nate deliverance. 

The houfe and plantation to which the 
Negro Have conduded me, belonged to a 
Mr. Hart his mafler, who received and 
entertained me with the greatcft hofpita- 
ii;y and kindnefs ; but what added to my 
aftjniihment and agreeable furprize was, 


Vtiited States of America » . 247 

1 ^ 
-to find the proprietor, not only a poliftied 

•member of fociety, but almoil an accom- 

pliflied and complete gentleman. 

To meet with fuch a perlon in the 
wild back woods of America, in a fitiiation 
the moft r^clufe, folitary and unfrequented;, 
and at fo great a diftance from the inhabi- 
tants, who are themfelves little better, per- 
haps much worfe, than favages, efpecially 
at a time when 1 flood fo much in ncud of 
afliftance, was altogether unexpected, and 
afforded me a gratification and pleafure, 
thus enhanced by thefe attending circum- 
ftances, not to be defcribed in language. 

The refrefliments, comforts, and con- 
folation he beftowed upon me with a 
liberal Jband, appeared to afford even a 
fuperior degree of fatisfadlion ami felicity 
to him, than to me ; and he prefled me to 
remain there the day following, which 
was w^et and rainy, to reft aid refredi 
both myfelf and my horfe, and to recover 
from the fevere fatigue and hardlhips wc 
had undergone. 

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In the courfe of the enfuing day, We 
took an opportunity of vifiting. and more 
narrowly examining the fpotwherein I had 
been ftopt, and from whence the Negro 
had extricated me. The flave conduced 
us to it. 

It was indeed the moll difagreeable and 
dangerous place imaginable : a deep miry 
fwamp overgrown with briars, bambooes, 
and poifoiious vines, among which myhorfc 
and I had been fo perplexed and entangled. 

Fortur ate it was for us both that we 
met with thofe impediments, for had we 
proceeded only ten yards farther, both my 
horfe and myfelf muft have inevitably 
perifhed in a quagmire, or deep morafs, 
from which no pofTible afiiftance could 
have refcued or prefer ved us. 

We returned to the houfe, admiring 
with gratitude at this hair-breadth provi- 
dential deliverance, and early on the 
morning following I took my laft fare- 
well of the humane benevolent Mr. Hart, 
and proceeded on my journey, very little 
better provided againil contingencies than 


; M 

I i 

^'^it^i States of Amcrka. ^^^ 

-Ifo in high fpirL ^ ' ^"' "^ ^"'^^ 
The laft mentioned rivulet t?,» i 

grounds of which h.rf I I °'^ 

wnicn had been the fcene of 

^y pnncpal difficulties and perils l 
o^ the high land adjoi„i„. it T T 
and benevolent Mr h!?- "'"'^^ 

fituaterl ;c , " ' plantation was 

" f ■ '^. "^-"^d Country Line creek. 
J here is a foall fettlement on the 
choice land on the banks of thef^ tl 

which are confiderable ftreams of ^ 

that run into the Dan River .t Z v' 
«-e of fifty .iles fro. thi; ^'e';^ "" 

forf r;;'arT'' ' 77 '"'>' ''^'^^ ^e- 
A oepartcu, and havinf^ been {f,nxx. 

te continuance of the former di"^,!: 
c, blind path, whofe diredion o the 
fea-vra Towns w^as „o>v afcertained to ml 
^;ffic.entfatisfaaion,l travelled durit"! 
t-noon,,vithcatoncedifcoveri„gt efft 
atr "' ' '""^-- ^-'^--^> or I Ji! 


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But about that time, as I advanced on 
the fummit of a confiderable hill, I could 
plainly perceive mountains, vaft valleyt, 
and deep chafms, precipices, and ravines 
on my right : for I obferved, that the face 
of the country had been becoming more 
and more uneven, broken, and rugged, " the eminences had been gradually 
fwelling into higher hills, as I proceeded 
on, for the laft ten or twelve miles. 

I now perceived a on my right, 
which appeared plainer than that I had 
travelled in fo long : this raifed my doubts, 
but at length determined me to continue 
to purfue that which was the dulleft. 

Fortunately for me, my decifion was 
right in tliis inftance, for in the evening 
I arrived at the Sawra Towns, after en- 
coaucering fome further difRculties in 
afcertaining the right way among the va- 
riety of different tracks I met with imme- 
diately on entering the vicinity of the 

At the Sawra Towns, I lodged at the 
houfe a Mr. Bailey, on the banks of the 


r'i 1 

, ' :. 

Tint ted States of Amerha. 251 

river Dan, a common plain back wood's 
planter, with a large family of Bel Sa- 
vages, a hofpitable,but uncultivated mind^ 
and rude manners. 

Mr. Bailey had only one room, and one 
bed, in his houfe, on which he and his wife 
were accuftomed to fleep ; this they very 
kindly offered to accommodate me with, 
but as they were advanced in years, and I 
was young and healthy, although fuperior 
in rank and appearance to them, I could 
not think of accepting their very generous 
offer, but took my chance on a pallet fpread 
on the floor from one fide of the room to 
the other, on which every perfon of the 
family, excepting the maftcr and miftrefs, 
lay promifcuoufly, men and womenj boys 
and girls. 

The weather being uncommonly warm, 
I found the pallet by far the mod agree- 
ble place of repofe, and I arofe early in the 
morning with the rcfl of the family, 
which confilied, befides fomc Haves and 
his fmall children the little boys and girls, 
pf fevcral fons grown up to maturity, and 


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ji Tour in the 

diree young women his daughters, tKe 
youngeil of whom was juil fifteen years 
old, a moft lovely charming brunette, 
named Betfy, of a Ihapeand features per- 
fedly exquifite and exprefTive, and endued 
with a mind and manners*, mild, gentle, 
and delicate, yet quite in a flate of nature, 
unincumbered with poliftied refinements 
or fafliionable ceremony, and unimproved 
by education, acquired knowledge, and 
modern accomplishments, 

Mr. Bailey and all his family joined in 
entreating me to flay with them fome days ; 
and, as I really flood in greaf need of reft 
and refrefhment, it was with infinite fatis- 
fadion that I complied with their very 
friendly hofpi table requeft. 

During ten days that I remained at the 
Sawra Towns, I found the lovely Betfy 
iny kind friend and conflant companion. 
She endeavoured to pleafe, and fhe gave 
d'«4ight. Although truly, and in the mofi: 
liberal fc nfe, the child of nature, without 
an alloy either of art or difTimulation, I 
aCxually difcovered in her mind a degree 





UnUcd States £if Anerica, 253 

of generofity, fentiment, and the moll: deli- 
cate fenfibility, that very few of the more po- 
lifhed and accompliftied ladies can boaft of. 

She abfolutely gained on my aflfedions 
every moment, ^nd it required the utnioft 
exertions of refolution to tear myfelf at 
laft from her delightful company. But 
the image of the lovely Betfy Bailey can 
never be erafed from my mind, and it is 
with pleafure I cherifli her remembrance. 
The Sawras, although once a confider- 
able nation of Indians, have been long 
extin£l : there is not even a fmole familv 
or trace of them remaining, excepting 
thefe veftiges of their towns, which fiill 
continue to fupport their name, this being, 
fortunately prefcrved as the appellation of 
thefe two fettlements. 

The upper Sawra Tovv^ns are trifling 
andinfignificant, compared with the lower 
Sawra Towns, which is an extremely va- 
luable fettlement : and although I found 
more fatigue, and greater hardQiips, dif- 
ficulties, and dangers in my journey hi- 
ther, than in all my former travels through 
6 America^ 

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A Tour in the 

America, this place is not more than (ixty- 
five miles from Hillfborough, and ninety- 
five from Salifbury, in the fame county 
with the latter, viz. that of Roan, it is fitu- 
ated; being within only a very few miles 
of the northern boundary line of the pro- 
vince of North-Carolina. 




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Vjiiied States of America, i^^ 


f)an River. Strange andfmgular Phenomenon, Great 
Extent. Lowrr Sawra Towns, yl vajl and pr<h- 
ftable Purchafc. Horn, or Hoop Snake. Afoji 
poifonous. Alarming A,., ^mnts cf the hid. 't. 

TH E river Dan, at the lower Sawra 
towns, is near fix hundred yards 
wide, rocky, rapid, bold, and contain- 
ing a vafl body of water ; it arifes in the 
Alegany mountains, near to the fource 
of the river Ararat, a branch of the Yadkin, 
and at no great dlllance from the New 
River, which is the upper part, or moft 
fouthward branch of the Great Kanhaway 
that falls into the Ohio. 

The Dan is the largeft of three great 
rivers, namely, the Dan, the Bannifler, 
and the Stanton, which at their conflu- 
ence compofe the Roanoak, and in all 
appearance this river alone, at the Sawra 
towns, contains a greater quantity of 
water than the Roanoak itfelf at Halifax, 
which is above two hundred miles below, 
and then it has received near an hundred 



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^ Tour /;/ /y(;<r 

large rivulets, befides the other two great 
rivers, the Banniiler and the Stanton, in 
its conrfe between thcfe two places ; yet 
the Dan, at the Sawra towns, is nearly 
twice as wide as the Roanoak is at 

This is a phenomenon difficult to be 
accounted for, and only reconciled to my 
ideas, or underftanding, by the fuppofition 
of the vaft quantity of water evaporated 
by the intenfely hot beams of the fun, 
and by the air, during its courfe, and 
by ftiil a more enormous proportion being 
conftantly abforbed in the fandy foil 
through which it pafles during the latter 
part of its progrcfs. 

I muft confefs that this folution is by 
no means a fufficient eclairciffement, 
therefore I fhall not hazard any farther 
explanation, or conjedure, but leave it 
to the exercife of more ingenious minds, 
contenting myfelf with the bare relation 
of the mere matter of fad. 

The length of this river from the 
fource of the Dan, in the Alegany moun- 




tJniied States of America. ^^^ 

taihs, to Roanoak inlet on ,1. 

cut feeing it. Purchafe wuh- 

In the fpring of the enfuing year h. 
went out toviV«, i.- ^ ^ '^» "^ 

uc to view his new cftate. 

Vol. I. o " '""^ overfpread 

the ' 


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the whole of the low lands on the river, 
of which near ten thoufand acres were 
covered by the inundation. 

This extraordinary circumftance> and 
very awful appearance,aflonifhed and inti- 
midated Mr. Maxwell, who, on his return 
to Weilover, exprefTmg diflatisfadion with 
his purchafe, Mr. Byrd, with a generofity 
for which he was diftinguifhed, returned 
him the five hinidred pounds, and re- 
ceived again the property of his lands. 

That fame year, in the fall, or autumn, 
Mr. Farley of Antigua, being on a vifit at 
Weilover, in Virginia, and having under- 
ftood that Col. Byrd had a large trad of ex- 
cellent land in the back country to difpofe of, 
after being informed of the number of acres, 
immediately offered one thoufand pounds 
for the purchafe, without ever having feen 
it alio; which ofi'er was as readily accepted. 
Mr. Farley, having returned to Antigua, 
fuffered it to remain in this uncultivated, 
unimproved flate, and never went near it, 
until the year one thoufand feven hundred 
and fixtynine, when he fent his fon, James 
7 Parke 

^'"''d States of America. j ., 
Parke Farley. Efq. i„,o Virginia 1. 

Tided .V ^ ^^' or authority, dJ- 

^'ms :r:r"^'°"^ P'-'«-3 and 
arms, which he rented out keenino • 

■»«»>fcd predigiouriy. '"' 

«,»dT"" "'""■"■"• «»««k«»g- 


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his elded daughter, ib that by this means 
the eftatcwas not entirely out of the family. 
During the ten days of my refidence at 
this place, we had frequent alarming ac- 
counts of the attacks, depredations, and 
fliocking barbarities committed by the In- 
dians on the White inhabitants, fome di- 
flance beyond the Dan, about the head of 
Sm.ith's River which falls into the Dan 
on the north fide, almoft oppofite to the 
l6wer Sawra Towns. 

This induced Mr. Bailey and his fa- 
mily, particularly the lovely, amiable 
Betfy, to be very flrenuous and preffing 
in perfuading me to defer the profecution 
of my intended journey, and to proceed 
no farther, on account of the hardfhips, 
difficulties, and imminent dangers I mufl 
inevitably encounter, at this inaufpicious 
period, in thepurfuit of this propofed ex- 
pedition to Henderfon's new fettlement on 
Kentucky, which was Hill a prodigious 
difliance from me, no lefs than five hun« 
dred miles, and through the Indian coun- 
try the greater part of the way, , :-, 


' ^ '1' 

United States of America, 261 

' They all very urgently and kindly re- 
queiled me to remain along wi:h them 
during the enfuing fummer ; and had I at 
that time attended and given way to the 
bias of my inclinations, and the feelings of 
my heart, I fhould certainly have em- 
braced their hofpltable propofal with in- 
finite pleafure. 

But when I maturely confidered the fatal 
confequences of yielding to the pleafing 
allurements of the fenfes, and the uncon- 
trouled fway of the paffions, at my early 
period of life, I fummoned up all my for- 
titude and refolution to fupport and afTiil 
me in the conflid^, determined to perfifl in 
my original undertaking, however peri- 
lous, and tear myfelf from this enchanting, 
but dangerous ftate of felicity, 

I therefore finally concluded to proceed, 
notwithfianding the hazard and jeopardy 
attending my farther progrefs, arifing from 
the alarming commotions of the Indians, 
which were now indeed fufficiently afcer- 

(ained and authenticated. 

S 3 Whea 

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ji Tour in the 

When I related to Mr. Bailey the diiH- 

culty and hardftiips I had already ea- 

countered in my journey out to the Sawra 

Towns, he informed me, that the road 

or path, along which I had travelled^ 

was Aril made and blazed about nine 

years before ; but that it had been fo 

very little frequented, and the bulhes and 

underwood had grown up again fo per- 

fe£tly, that when he had occafion to go to 

Hillfborough, about two years ago, he 

could fcarcely perceive it at all ; but 

having a tomahawk with him, he blazed 

the trees on each fide, as he went along, 

by which means he was enabled the more 

readily to find his way in returning ; and 

that it was the remaining appearance of his 

blazing on the trees, by which I had been 

able to trace the path,elfe it muft have beea 

totally impradticable for me to have found 

or followed it at all ; for he believW no 

perfon whatever, excepting himfelf and 

ine, had travelled it for feveral ycar« pad, 

and very few indeed had ever ufed it, fince 

its fya exiflence. 




United cf America, 203 

Tlie reafoii of its being fo much unfre- 
quented was, becaufe what liliie intcrcowrfe 
and trade the inhabitants of the Sawra 
fettkments carried on with the fea-ports, 
and more cuUivated part of the country, 
was either by roads down ak^ng the fide 
of the Dan and the Roanoak to HaHfax, 
and Edenton, in North-Carolina, or acrofs 
the country to Peterfburg, and Richmond, 
&c. on James River, in Virginia. 

While I was at the Sawra Towns, one 
day a little lad of Mr. Bay ley's came to ac- 
quaint us that he had killed a horn fnake, 
which being a curiofity that I was ex- 
tremely defirous of obferving and ex- 
amining with particular atteition, I ac- 
companied him to the plac. /here he faid 
he had left it ; but when we arrived there, 
to my great difappointment it was not 
to be found. 

He aflured me that it mufl: not ^^ave been 

quite dead, and had recovered fo much as 

to be able to crawl from the fpot on which 

he had left it, and had fecreted itfelf fome- 

wherc among the leaves. 

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However, every one, and all the inha» 
bitants, with the greateft confidence af- 
ferted and avowed their having fcen fuch 
fnakes, though very feldom. 

They reprefented them to me, as the 
moft formidable and direful foes in exif- 
tence to the human race, and to all anima^ 
tion ; poifonous and fatal to a degree al* 
mod beyond credibility. 

He is defcribed as fomething refembling 
a black fnake, but thicker, fhorter, and 
of a colour more inclining to a dark brown. 
He never bites his adverfary, but has a 
weapon in his tail, called his ding, of a 
hard, horny fubftance, in ihape and ap* 
pearance very much like to a cock's fpur : 
with this he ilrikes his antagoniil9 or 
whatever objed he aims at, when he lead 
expeds it, and if it penetrates the ikin, it 
is inevitable and fudden death. 

So very virulent is his poifon, that it is 
reported, if he ihould mifs the objed h^ 
pointed at, and fhould flrike his horn 
through the bark of a young fapling tree, 
if it penetrates jnto the fap or vital juic^, 


) 1 

Vniud States of America. ^g, 

Ae bark or rind will, within a few l.our, 
f^ell, burft, and peel nff 7"''°"". 
"felfwillperifh. ^ < and the tree 


which he alwaysadoptswhnhri-*'""' 
cing hfce , hoop, with his tail arifi„. Za 


Mies, like othr;r;e„t '" "^°" '"^'^ 
From the above circumftance, peculiar 

tothemfe]ves.theyhaveaIfode;iS he 
appellation of hoop fnakes. ^^''^'^ '^^ 

Being firmly refolved to proceed «„ 

expedition to Kentucky Y^T^^ °° "^ 

hire a guide from rl- V"''*'^^"''^^^ to 
guwe trom this place, but everv 

«ufe they were as little acquainted with 

*<^waya,myfelf, and on account ofThe 



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I ( 

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A Tour in the 

<•' i 

didurbances, and violent outrages lately 
committed by the Indians, at which every 
perlbn without exception was terrified 
in the higheil degree. 

They alfo endeavoured to communicate 
their panic, fears, and apprehenfions to 
me; but my ignorancr of the adlual 
danger enabled me to refifl, with effect, 
every attack of that nature, and deter- 
mined me, although I could not obtain 
either a fervant, guide, or companion, 
to perfift in the enterprize, however 
hazardous ; and I even concluded to fet 
out alone. 


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^"i'^d Slaw, of ^,„,rica. jg^ 

^'i^i the Dan: Fall U, t> . ■, 

QN the fifteenth da/ofMay I took 

r ^ -:rc: e:t/r;r '- 

^'^icty than T 11 ^ ^^^^^^ 

"• "^'ng all m tears, and aoneaHn™. 

this jC;;' "'''""" °'P--''-Soa 

Bet? •iS:^^:!;:: -r-^ 

Dan herfelf r,ri, , ^ °''*'" '^e 

" nerieit, rather than any of h^r k 

there, although the ford at this pt. 
extremely rapid, rockv In ? """ 
particularly to thofe nn' • "^''°"''' 
-ith and with tht ^^;T''^''' »here- 
paffin» ,f ,^, ■ . ^"'^"^ manner of 

Pa'hng It. the „ver being alfo very wide. 


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^ Tour in the 

This I experienced to my coil, for being 
rather inattentive in following quite clofe 
to my beautiful young Amazonian con- 
dudoi, who wason horfeback, riding boldly 
like a man, my horfe fuddenly plunged with 
me into a deep place over both our heads, 
and we were carried down the current, 
a confiderable diflance, with great velocity. 

Indeed it was with the utmofl difficulty 
I reached the oppofite Ihore at all, after 
the greateft hazard imaginable of being 
loft, notwithftanding both my horfe and 
pjyfeif were excellent fwimmers. 

The concern of my lovely guide dur- 
ing this dangerous fcene was inexpreffi- 
ble, and only equalled by her joy on my 
fafe arrival on ihore ; the banks of which 
being fo foft, fteep, and interwoven with 
roots of trees, which entangled my 
horfc*s legs fo much, that I could fcarcely 
get him up at all : however, at length I aC'- 
complifhed it after feveral violent ftruggles. 

There being no inhabitants on this 
fide of the river, they having all aban- 
doned their plantations, and fled into a 


United States of Ammca. 269 

f"ge. upon fome of them I.- . 
killed by the In^- x ^'"^ ^"""'^ 

wood, to drv ^'"'' ' '^'^ ■" 'he 

kind J ^ ^ ''°'"^^ •' ■« this my 
«»nd compan on was a. .,r 1 ' 

^iceable to me andTn i , ' ^"^^ '■'^- 
hour we fet ou^ "'""°'^ ""an an 



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kind of languor, or carclefFneri of mf 
fate, my mind and fpirits being enerv- 
ated and foftened down with an inex- 
preflibly painful fenfibility, which ren- 
dered me regardlefs of whatever might 
befal me, and indeed quite inattentive to 
rrty way, fo that iii a very few hour&, 
by purfuing the wrong pcfcth, I fbtind 
myfelf in the woods without afly tradt 
whatever to diredt my cottrfe, that in 
which 1 had been having terfiftinated, be- 
ing only made by the hogs, which run 
wild almoft all over America, and efpc- 
cially in the weftern frontiers. ' '- -^ 

It was this difagreeable fituation that 
firft roufed me from thk lethargic, but 
painful reverie in which I had been ab- 
forbed, and I then eagerly pufhcd on in 
hopes, yet very doubtful, of finding fome 
path to dire£t me, and indeed to enable 
me to travel at all, for ' is with great 
difficulty a perfon on horfeback can pafs 
on through the woods at all where there is 
no path, on account of the roughnefs of the 
ground, the thickets of underwood, the 


« IS impoiTib e for m.* L r . 

how far T La . ,, ^^ afcerta n 

*iuw lar 1 had travelJer] in ^u- 

agreeable of oil- '^'' moft dif. 

»fccnt, I perceived a „u„be of 
««.ng on the ground. a"d U T 
were as I had never ken K f ^^ 

bJacfc and red 71 T °''^' I'^'^^d 
«. ana red, and all armed with fir, 

locks and tomahawks. *'"" 

I was within the diftance of fifty ^,,. 
of them before I perceived .T, - '^ ' 
abiblutel, rgoic^^r^lt^i;;!'^*' 

7 firft idea being that the/Cw^ 
white men. who frequentlv r "' 

«he woods huming t; teTa?'"' ^ 
toe-ethpr „ %u 'everal months 

ants n ' *°"' ^°""S near the inhabi- 
tants, or entering a houfe. 

In this idea I immediately went uo to 

wa^dsthemwithjoyinmycoLtena^', ; 

Peaiure to me to fee any of my fellow- 


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creatures once more, and I did not knoTt^ 
nor conceive danger, even from Indians. 

But the inftant they perceived me, one 
of them fell proftrate on the ground, and 
another jumped on his feet, put his 
hands to his mouth, and fent forth a 
mod dreadful yell that made the whole 
woods refound; and feeing me coming 
boldly up towards them, he advanced a 
few fteps to meet me, fpoke fome words 
I did not underftand, and after paufmg 
a while, held forth his hand towards me : 
I (hook him heartily by the hand, and 
faid I ^as very glad to meet ivith them^ 
for I was loJl\ and tntreated they would 
be Jo kind as direSi me the way to Beaver 
Creek and Smith's River, 

He anfvi^ered again in a language that 
was to me altogether unintelligible, and 
I then found they were Indians ; which 
difcovery, however, did not at all alarm 
orintimidate me, becaufe of my ignorance 
of the danger I was in. 

Obferving one of them point to a broad 
gold lace and (lone buckle which was 




ifnited States of America. 273 

round the crown of my hat and glittered 
In the fun, I alighted from my horfe, 
took it off, and buckled it round the head 
of him who had (haken hands with nie 
cind appeared to be the chief perfon among 
them; He feemed much jpleafed with the 
prefent, and made figns fot me to fit 
down and eat with them : this I readily 
comphed with, and partook of a repaft^ 
which confiiled of venifon, kernels of 
hickory nuts, and wall-nuts, all mixed 
together with wild honey,, and every one 
eat with his hands, dipping one of them 
into the vi(^ualsi . 

To be fure therd was neither delicacy 
nor eleanlinefs in their manner of eating 
together, but the food wad delicious, 2tnd 
exquifitely pleafant to thie tafte; aiid foir 
tny own part, having a keen appetite, t 
eat very heartily, which feemed to siffbrd 
a particular fatisfa£tion to my hofpitable 
favage friends, for fuch indeed they were 
to me. , . ,. ^' .. , . . 

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b.:.a: CHAP. XXXVI. • 

Dire fled the JVay by the Indians, Leatherwood 
Creek, Plantations abandoned. Beaver Creek. 
Arrive at the Part, Refujed Jdfnittance. ' 

Y hbrft, "^ho had quitfe as much 
heed of refrferfiment as me, was 
alfo regaling himfelf dn the herbage, for 
I' had tiiirned him Iboft when I fat down 
to this IndiSin pnWitiVfe feaft. 
■' TThelndiah^ dtdA')na&kt a (hift to keep 
up a kind of converfation by figns and 
gefttireg, for I did tiot underftatid k fingle 
wbrd of their linkage, and I diid not 
then imagine that th'e^ uiidefftood m^ ; 
but fl'iVcef that time I have had many 
reafons t?o beKeve jhat fihgliih was not 
alVbgthei: iJriintdlfgibfe to fome of them, 
klthou^h they dther could not, or Would 
ftdt attempt to fpeak iti 

For after both I and my horfe were 
fufHcient^y refrefhed, having ftaid with 
tlietodL night, one; of the Indians was 

9 dif- 



s ■( 

dJfpatehed sloog with n,. u i- 

-Ho. I had z::i ;i ^ r " 

^omp^nled me for fevan or etfa ' ". 

upon Smith 8 Rivei- . an^ r , , "^'^c*^, 

fo. and pointed ::Vth\1o;t^^^ 
Jl-ed in, we fhoot\rf a ^pT^J^ 

- large sjr:::,^;^^"^''* 

Greet ™,i,- u ' "*■**" ^eatherwood 

r; "' '"'' ""P''" «ftlf into Smith', 
R.ver. a very capital branch of the Da^ 
the confluence of trfiich i, k r ' 

»«=. •!».. ,„ , jf t» T^:. 'z 

the north fide. ' . f ** '*'* 

the^r T'' '^''''* ^"* Potation, oa 
the r,ch low grounds of this creek, but 

hey were all deferted. not a fiiT/e in' 
habitant was to be fee„ . a • ^ . 
horfes Kr^ ' *"*■ *=attle, 

^fters habitations, and conveyed to 

d'fmaHdeas that can be conceived. I 

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yf Tour in the 

About eight miles beyond Leather- 
wood Creek, I met a man on horfeback, 
whofc horfe was covered with foam and 

t * — /-,•% «r« 


He feemed to be in the utmoft aflonifli- 
ment at the fight of me, and afked me, 
'* Where, in the name of God, I came 


" from ?** I anfwered him, I came yefter- 
dayfrom the Sawra Towns, and was on 
my way to the fort on Smith's River. 
' He then exclaimed, '• Good God ! did 
^< not I know that the Indians had taken 
" up the hatchet, and had begun to kill 
*' the Whites ?" and looking on the 
ground, '* declared he faw their tradls," or 
the marks of their footfteps ** there then j" 
and afked me " if I had not feen any of 
them ? But why (faid he) do I afk 
you that ? If you had feen them, or 
they had feen you, I certainly {hould 
*' not have met you here, for they would 
*' either . have fcalped you, or have put 
^* you to death by their tortures." 

I replied, .** he was miftaken, for I had 
** feen them, had ate and flept with them, 





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II did 
to kill 
n the 

any of 
1 a(k 
m, or 
.ve put 

ir I had 


Vnited States of America, 277 

♦* and that they had been very kind to me, 
** inftead of fcalping me, or putting me to 
♦* death, as he imagined :" but he waited 
not to hear the laft words of what I faid, 
for as foon as he underflood that I had feen 
them, he clapped whip and fpurs to his 
horfe back ^gain, as fad as he could make 
him go, while I gazed after him, imagining 
the man was mad or delirious. 

I rode on at my leifure, wondering at 
this man's ftrange conduft, and compar- 
ing it with that of the Indians towards 
me, it was not at all to their difadvan- 

I foon afterwards crofled another large 
water- courfe named Beaver Creek, not 
far from the fort, which alfo empties it- 
felf into Smith's River. 

Upon this ftref.m there was a very 
fine corn or grift mill, which was alfo 
abandoned by the proprietor, and had 
been left fo fuddenly, that the hopper 
remained half full of corn unground, 
while the other half was ground into 
meal, and in this condition it continued, 

T 3 the 

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the water being turned ofF from the 

Here I alighted, and fed my horfe, and 
after he had eaten until he left, fet out 
again on my journey. , • .. 

Jn riding about two or three miles 
farther, I at length came to the fort itfelf, 
which contained all the inhabitants of 
the country around, men, woii^en, and 
children crouded all together. 

I was exceedingly happy at the thoughts 
of being once more among inhabitants, 
but this imaginary felicity was of very 
fhort duration, for when I went to the 
gate of the fort, expedting to go in, I 
was pofitively refufed admittance. 

My aftonifhment at this ftraiige unac- 
countable conduct towards me could only 
be equalled by my concern at fo grievous 
a difappointment and mortification, for 
all my entreaties and moft earneft folicita- 
. tions for permiflion to enter were in vain. 
They within infifted that I was an 
eneniy, or a Frenchman, becaufe I had 

been in company with the Indians, and 



United States of America, 2yg 

had cfcaped unmolefted, and alfo as my 
accent was different from theirs. 

This I found they were informed of 
by the man whom I met on horfeback, 
and who turned ba'-k full fpecd as foon 
as I acquainted him of my having been 
with the Indians. * 

This man, it feemS) had been difpatched 
as an exprefs to the next fort, which was 
a confidcrable diftance off, for afTiilance ; 
and had alfo been direded to reconnoitre 
the country between ; to difcover, if he 
could, what danger was to be appre- 
hended; whether the Indians were doing 
mifchief; and what numbers of them 
were in the vicinity. 

How well he executed his commiflion, 
his conduct, already related, evinces ; as 
alfo how totally unfit he was for fuch a 
purpofe, having fled with the utmoft 
precipitation on even hearing of Indians, 
without waiting to difcover whether they 
were hoftile or friendly. ' •. -. 

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Threaten to Jet Fire to the Foit. Mmitteci. Shock-; 
ing Scenes of Iniquity andObfcemnefs within. RIU 
t and viftt the Plantations around* Refohe to Jt-l 
out on my Jourmy. 

I Continued to entreat for admittance 
until they threatened to fire upon mp 
if I aid not retire, which made me with- 
draw from the gate to confider what fteps 
1 muft purfue, for I never found myfelf 
in fo fingular and unpleafant a predicj^- 
ment in my life. 

Jioweyer, the firft thing I did was to 
turn my horfe loofe into a very fine 
field of green wheat that I obferved on 
the banks of the river ; and I wandered 
all rounc( the country adjacent to the fort 
for feveral hours, totally at a lofs what 
to do, pr in what manner to proceed. 

This was what is called a flopkaded fort, 
but to any perfon, excepting thofe who 
have feen fuch Jn America, it would ap- 

United States of America^ 2% i 

pear in no refpc6t a place of arms, for 
there is nothing like an efplanade, counter-* 
fcarp, nor ditch, neither ramparts nor 
parapet, qo opt-pofl, out-centry, nor vi- 
dettcs ; but it refembled a quadrangular 
polygon, inclofed with large timber, and 
cuts of treesfplit in two, about twelve 
or fixteen feet high above the ground, 
(landing ere^, and about three or four 
feet in the earth, and quite clofe together, 
with loop holes cut through alrout four or 
five feet from the ground for fmall arms. 

There was alfo fomething Uke abaftion 
at each angle, which, however, could 
fcarcely be faid to flank the curtains; 
and a log-houfe, mufket proof, on each 
fide of the gate. 

Within the area, nearly in the centre, 
was a common houfe framed and boarded, 
filled in, to the height of fix feet, with 
Aones and clay on the infide, as a de- 
fence againfl fmall arms ; it was covered 
only with (hingles made of pine, which 

pould be eafily fet on^ fire as well as 

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every other part of the whole ftrudure, 
without exception. 1 i r ,: 

I wandered round and rouqd thia 
fortrefs until night began to advance, 
and then ventured to approach the gate 
once more, foliciting for admittance, but 
with no bdtter fuccefs than before. 

I ufed every argument my mind could 
fuggeft to induce them to receive me j 
put them in mind I was but one man, 
and defired them to put me under guard 
if they fufpeded me after 1 was in, if 
they would only admit me ; and begin- 
ning alfo to be under apprehenfions for 
my own life, as the Indians would cer- 
tainly be tempted to kill a perfon they 
faw ftraggling round the outfide of the 
fort, although they did not moleft me 
when 1 came up to them at a diftance 
from it; and I alfo confidered that al- 
though one party of them fpared my 
life, another party might make no fcru- 
ple of killing me, efpecially in fo unfa^ 
vourable a (ituation ; this certain danger 
infpired me with a defperate determina- 


United States of America . 283 

tlon^ and I refolutely told them at the 
igate, that I muft come in, reprefented 
the fatal confequences of my l?eing left 
outfide,andpofitively declared that I would 
^bfolutely fet fire to the fort if they per- 
illed in refufing me admittance. . 

They qgain threatening to (hoot me, 1 
^iflured them that I would as foon be 
killed by them as by the Indians, and 
fblemnly fwore I would fet fir? to the 

Upon this, I was defired to wait a 
few minutes, until they confulted tOr- 
gether; at the conclufion of which they 
agreed to admit me. 

The wicker gate was then opened, 
and I crept in ; but, good God ! fuch a 
fight as was prefented before mine eyes 
can fcarcely be conceived in idea, much 
lefs defer ibed. 

Such a motley crew of" men, women, 
and children; fuch an abandoned fet of 
mifcreants, void of fhame, but abound- 
ing with fear ; fuch horrid imprecations, 
blafphemy, obfcenenefs, and every fpecies 


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of iniquity, I never before nor fince have 
feen or heard of. 

No fubordinatlon, no regularity, no 
propriety, no good condud, not a fingle 
good word, 1 had almoft faid good 
thought, wa9 there within thofe gates ; 
but all was confufion, naftinefs, and the 
inoft abominable wickednefs. 

To defcribe the deteftable fcefnes of 
depravity that I was hourly witnefs of in 
this place, would be e:ftremely irkfome 
to myfelf, and difgufting to others; 
and on this account I (hall pafs them all 
over, only obferving, that a fet of more 
wicked, abandoned, fhanjelefs, and pro- 
fligate mifcreants never were nor can be 
colledled together. 

On the next day I propofed to take i 
walk about the fort, but they wpuld not 
let me out at the gate. 

However, on the day following I in- 
fifted upon it, and they threatened not 
to admit me again : but notwithftanding, 
I ventured out, and having faddled my 
horfe, rode a great many miles round the 


United States of America. 285 

country, without feeing a Tingle inhabi- 
tant, or Indian. 

I returned to the fort at night, and was 
admitted ; having acquainted them with 
my obfervations, and the diflance 1 had 
reconnoitred around, two young men 
propofed to accompany me next day, to 
vifit their father's plantations. 

Accordingly we three fet out from the 
fort early in the morning, and went to 
one of their plantations, which w^as five 
miles off, where we found ^very thing 
unmolefted, only the domeilic animals 
were almoil (larvedi and appeared re- 
joiced to fee us. f 
• The other plantation was twelve miles 
diflant from this, and we vifited it alfo ; 
here a tame bear, which had been left, di- 
verted us very much with his antic ges- 
tures, and his odd manner of f^^luting his 
two-legged brothers whom I had brought 
with me from the fort : but as, fooner or 
later, all, even the deareft of friends, 
mull part, fo muft they, and the forrow 




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on the occafion Was" great, even ^s tlieii? 
joy had been, when they met.* "*^ "^^ '-"''" 

Wc vifited feveral other plantations, 
and the two young men concluding td 
return next day ^to their plantations to 
remain, we turned our horles heads to- 
wards the fort, where we arrived in thd 
evening* *^"* ' " "'•--si;/ 

Having made our repoft concerning 
the occurrences of the day, and the ap- 
pearance of peace and tranquility we had 
evefy wher^ perceived', it was propofed 
for eacb perfon to return to his refped&vtf- 
haijitation on the day following j but tl-' 
midity, diftruft, and cowardice ftarted i 
number of objections, which occafiohed 
many warm debates on the fubje£t ; and' 
at length it was concluded on to watt 2f 
few days lojiger, but in the mean timd 
to di'lpatch two men on each quarter, to 
fee that all was quiet, ..and that there was 
no appearance of Indians. 

For my own part I determined on fettirtg 
out early next morning to purfue my jour-* 


[r '.r 

XJnitid States of America. ziy 

ney to Kentucky, having hired one of the 
young men, who accompanied me in our 
ride round the fort, to attend me in this 
journey, which he undertook to do with 
great alacrity, and feemed as eager to 
fee that celebrated place as myfelf. 

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' ' C H A 1^. XXXVIII. 

Sltuat'tQn of, the Fort. Smith* s River. Soil. Ghi/higi 
. Srfakc-rootk Prices (^ Ifheat^ Conn, Beef, Pork^ 
itoiaccOf isfc. Culture of Indian Corn. Its greai 
and unlverfal Utility, 

TiHIS fort is (ituated oh a fmall emi- 
nence that commands a very fin^ 
view of Smith's River for feveral miiesj 
and of the confluence of Beaver Creek \ 
but it is only the lov^ grounds of the ri- 
ver and creek on the north-eaft fide that 
can be percieived ; the lofty timber on th<i 
oppofite banks of the river, as ufual all 
over America, efFe£tually jprevents any 
greater diftance being feen. 

But the eminence, the fort is built upon j 
is by no means the higheft in the vicinity; 
there are many, and fome of them almoft 
clofe to it, that altogether command it. 

The lov\r land on Smith*s River and 
Beaver Creek is ifidccd excellent, but 
narrow : the high ground and hills, being 
very near the river on each fide, are ex-^ 



1 ' 

tlnlted States of America. 


,.> >-\, 

ceedingly roeky and fteril ;"] the roads, or 
rather paths, are as bad as can be con- 
ceived ; and the houfes and plantations 
are very indifferent indeed ; but there is a 
great abundance of game, fuch as deer, 
bears, fome panthers, wild cats, otters, 
raccoons, oppoflums, wild turkeys, and 
all kinds of fquirrels. 

The growth of the timber on the low 
land is Very large, but not equal to that ort 
the low grounds of the Roanoak and the 
Dan : the foil is of a deep black colour, 
and rather light, but exceeding deep; 
however it is liable to be flooded* 

The river is about fifty yards wide, but 
very much interrupted with old logs, large 
trees, &c. that have been broughl clo^'n 
the ftream by the floods after heavy rains ; 
it is not rapid, but flows calmly along, in 
a fmooth, gentle current, and it is fordable 
but in a very few places. 

The high land, as I obferved before, is 

very rough, rocky, and poor j fome of it 

is rather light, and there is abundance of 

the valuable plant, or rather root of Gin- 

VoL. L U feng 

! .. 


i;^ I 


A Tour in the 


feng found and gathered in the woods, 
which in China is accounted a fpecific for 
almoll every diforder incident to the hu- 
man frame, and fells for more than its 
weight in gold j here it fells for about fif- 
teen pence currency, or a fliilling fterling 
a pound. 

The inhabitants, and negroes likewlfe 
find and dig great quantities of fnake-root, 
of each of the different kinds, which they 
alfo fell for nearly the fame price as gin- 
feng : this was exported to Europe, being 
fent by land-carriage to James River, 
where it was (hipped, and Britifh manu- 
factures were taken in exchange for this 
as well as the reft of all their commodities, 
at very advanced prices. 

They alfo fell great numbers of deer 
Ikins and furs; but the principal of their 
exports are hogs, which they raife in great 
numbers, and drive them, in droves of 
one, two, three, four, and five hundred to- 
gether, to the falls of James River, and of 
Roanoak, and to the more populous parts 
of the country, as well as the fea-ports. 


• ■■,1 

United States of Am 'ca» 2 9 1 

Sonle few black cattle are alfo brought 
From this part of the frontiers, but in no 
confiderable numbers. 

Deer ikins, dried of cured with the hair 
on, are fold for about a (hilling ilerling a 
pound. Raccoon fkins, about fix-pence 
each. Otter (kins, about two or three 
Ihillings each. Beaver, &c. in proportion. 

Their hogs they fell alive, for about 
twelve {hillings an hundred' weight, that 
is, if they are bought there ; but when 
driven down the country, they coft aboiit 
twenty fhillings fterling a hundred weight. 

filack cattle fell nearly for the fame 

Venifon is exceffively cheap, generally 
about half-a-erown foi^ a whole deer, ex- 
tlufive of the {kin. 

There is alfo a confiderable quantity of 
tobacco cultivated here, which is almoft all 
carried to James River, and fells there at 
the rate generally of fi^teeii, eighteen, or 
iwenty {hillings per hundred weight. 

They make very little wheat, and ufe 
flill lefs J the general price of wheat there at 

tj 2 home 





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A Tour in the 

Lome is about lialf-a-crown per buflicl, 
which is the mearure they fell it by. 

But the great fupport of the country ift 
Indian corn, with which they fubfift 
themfelves, their negroes, their horfes, 
and fatten their hogs, after they are in 
good plight by feeding on the acorns in 
the woods, which are always called Maji in 
America j of this there are fome year* 
amazing quantities, fo that the hogs are 
frequently fattened with that alone, which 
th-sy find themfelves in the woods ; but 
the pork is always foft, and for that re^- 
fon, people generally-feed them fome little 
time upon Indian corn, after they appear 
fufficiently fatted with maft. - «- ' 

Indian corn is the great ftafF of life in 
America, and is meafured by what is called 
the barrel there, which contains juft five 
bufhels, ahd the price then was a dollar, 
or four fhillings and fix pence flerling per 
barrel. v . . ..\ 

This nowever was accounted dear, for 

the general price is only three (hillings 

per barrel, which is itbt quite feven pence 

9 ^ "' halfpenny 

halfpenny a bufliel • tl,^ i 

«% to fiftv (Jv. 'f'" "■'••'Slis from 

Indian corn, whirh ;o ■ r 
• «"ed Maize k ■ " ^"""^ P'^<^« 

■"IS, oemg fomew hat flat nn^ «• . 

yeliowi/h white cow f^^^'°*^* 
«nd fo„,eti.„es fpectS ""'"" '^''' 

^t IS contained \n e-^ro r 
««een inches w" „d f o T "^'' ^^ 
-*« in circum We ? 'T '° '"-^^ 
- a hard fubftance Jed , ;'' "''■'^'''^ 

'^^ grains .ro.e^lXX-r'f 
angles from ,-. a„,, „ 5 ., ' ' "S'" 


covered with 1 th TA '"' "'^ ^^°'« - ' 

-'"Pofed f three :?T "'"^ ••"*' 
^hich adhere ;X tr--'' o-- c^ats. 

fo the whole very dofely, 

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and arc each fomething more than th« 
whole ear in length, to which they are 
united at the ftalk, or lower extremity. 

Indian corn is neither fown, nor reaped. 
It is planted and gathered. 

The ground for it, is firft plowed over 
ope way, quite flufli ; this is crofled by 
furrows five or fix feet afunder, and thef^ 
by other furrows at right angles at fimilar 
diftances, which divide the whole field into 
fquares of five or fix feet every way. 

In each crofling, three grains of corn arc 
dropped , and covered with a hand hoe ; 
this is performed fome time in the month 
pf May, and is termed Planting of Corn. 

After it has fprung up above the ground, 
when any is miffing, or not come up, pro- 
ceeding either from bad feed, or worms, 
vermin, and infects that deftroy the tender 
flioots, the hills are fupplied with frelh 
grains again, which is denominated Re- 
planting the Corn* 

It is afterwards plowed acroft the firft 
furrows: the next plowing is acrofs thefe; 


tbefe ; 

United States of ^Imtrica* 29^ 

and fo on alternately, until it is all plowed 
five times over ; then it is weeded and 
chopped around the roots of the ftalks 
with broad hand hoes j this is called Laying 
bv the Corn* 

In Auguft and September it begins 
to bloflbm and (hoot out ears, which is 
called 7(? tajjelt becaufe beautiful, fliining, 
filky taflels come out from the extreme 
end of the ears, and hang waving down. 

Thefe ears proceed from the joints, from 
the height of three to fix feet above the 

There is alfo another beautiful bloflbm 
at the very top of the whole, which is in 
reality the male flowers, or farina, as the 
elegant fhining filky taflfels are the fe- 
male ; for this plant is both male and 
female in itfelf. 

Thefe taflels are as foft as filk, and of 
all different colours appearing very bright 
glofly and delightful to the eye. 

This fl:ate of it is denominated T^he 
Com being in Silks, 

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It has been difcovered that the fine fa- 
rina from the male flowers, being carried 
by the wind and agitaiion of the air upon 
the female filky taffels, impregnate them, 
&nd fill the grain in the ears ; for there is a 
taffel or filk proceeds from every fingle 
grain ; and experiments have evinced, that 
one male will impregnate five hundred 
plants, when all the reft of the tops, which 
contain the male bloflbms, are cut off, and 
only the female, qr ears in filks are left. 

It has been experienced alfo, that if 
there be a field of corn within a mile or 
two of one where all the tops or male 
bloflbms are cut off entirejy, yet ftill the 
cars will be impregnated and filled by 
the male farina brought by the agitation 
of the air and the winds ; but the ears wil) 
not be all full. 

But it has likewife been difcovered by 
experiments, that if all the tops of male 
bloffomsare cut off in afield of corn, ancl 
there be not another field within fix or fe- 
ven miles, the whole field will be ufelefs ; 


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I !v: * 

ZhiiteJ States cf America^ 


ihere will be no grain on the ears, v/.iich 

will not iiU, bccaufe the female part of the 

plant has not been impregnated by the 


The height of the flalks, when in a 

ftate of perfect maturity, is from eight to 
twelve feet and upwards ; with joints at 
the diftance of eight or ten inches from 
each other, at each of which are tv*'o 
leaves or blades, from one to two feet in 
length, and two or three inches broad. 

The male flowers, as has been jnft ob- 
ferved, grow at the top of all, and appear 
fomethuig like to the heads or ears of rice, 
or large oats, after the fine farina is blown 


The female flowers are rather below the 
middle of the ftalk, at the extremity of 
the ears which proceed from the joints in 
that part of the fl:alk:. 

In 0(flober the blades, or leaves, which 
^re broad and long, are pulled off, and 
tied in bundles, being left in the field to 
cure, and are excellent provender for 
}\orfes ; for thofe who are accufl:omed to 


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ji Tour in the 

this will not eat the very fincft hay ; then 
the tops are alfo cut ofFjuft above the ear. 

And during the latter part of November, 
and all December, after the frods have 
come on, the corn is gathered, two, three, 
and four ears from every flalk, and the 
ftalks, each of which is generally above 
an inch in diameter, are left ftanding in 
^he field. 

A bufhel of corn will plant near twenty 
acres ; and on the Ticheft lands twenty 
acres will produce two hundred and fifty 
barrels, or one thoufand two hundred and 
fifty bufhels. A moil aflonifhing increafe 
indeed 1 

The land is firft plowed with two horfes 
in the plough, becaufe the labour is then 
harder ; but every ploughing befides is 
done with one horfe only; and one plough 
will work between thirty and forty acres 
in Indian corn. 

The whole of this excellent grain is 
ufeful, and there is no part of it ftiould 
be thrown away. 

United States of America f 299 

The leaves cured are excellent proven- 
der for horfes ; the tops, ftalks, and hufkft 
are exceeding fine fodder for cattle, and 
the grain itfelf fupports the inhabitants 
themfelves, both white and black, befides 
feeding their horfes, and fattening their 


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^ Tour in the 



6V/ out for Kentucky, V'ljit the Summit of the IVart 
Mountain* Difcription of a mojl extcnjive, grands 
ond elegant Perfpe^ive. Ideas raifed in the Mind, 




AFTER this long digreflion on 
the cuhure of Indian corn, the 
grand ftaff of life throughout this 
continent, I fhall proceed with an ac- 
count of my journey to Kentucky ; for 
my white favage and I fet out from the 
fort early next mornings 

I had procured rifles, ammunition, atid 
Indian drefles for us both, which are by 
far the moft convenient for travelling in 
that country ; a$ alfo blankets to cover us, 
asweftiould be obliged to fleep in the woods 
every night ; befides bells for our horfes, 
to enable us to hear them at a diftance 
when they were turned loofe to feed, ancj 
hobbles, or fpancils, made of ftrong 
Jeather, and faftened on their legs, to 


.-. S-> 

United States of American 3 o i 

prevent them from wandering out of our 
reach where we remained all night. 

I myfelf was provided with pocket 
comDafTes before I came here, and had 
befides a very juft idea of the geography 
of the country, 

I muft beg permiffion at this place 
to correal an error I have obferved in all 
the maps of that country, which give 
the name of Smith's Rivter to the Stan- 
ton, for this is a very great miflake, as 
Smith's River is that which in the maps 
is named the Irwine River \ and it was 
on the north^eail fide of it, near the con* 
fl<iience of Beaver Creek, where the fort 
I juft left was ere<^ed 5 the whole coun- 
tty round, for a very great diftance, being 
now denominated Pitfylvania county, 
which is the fouth-w^ellern frontier of 
Virginia. ' ' 

Having heard much of the Wart Moun- 
tain, one of the firil, but moft confider- 
ably of the Aleganies, or rather the Blue 
Mountains, for height, as well as for its 
amazing extent of perfpedlive, I deter- 





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mined to vifit it, and afcend the fummit 
thereof on my way; for which reafon 
we bent our courfe towards it, and croflfed 
Smith's River about nine miles above 
the fort, at a very bad fOrd, which was 
deep and dangerous. 

After travelling through an exceedingly 
rough country, and in extreme bad paths 
indeed, frequently without any, as alfo 
crofling feVeral deep creek s> or water- 
tourfes, we found ourfelves at night be- 
ginning to afcend the Wart Mountain^ 
which is upon the fouth-weft fide of 
Smith's River ; and We alighted on an 
agreeable and convenient fpot, near the 
lide of a brook of water, to put up for 
the night, turning our horfes out with 
their bells and hobbles on> to prevent our 
lofmg them. ' . 

We ftruck up and kindled a large fire, 
gathered leaves for us to lie upon, eat 
heartily of our jerked (or dried) venifon^ 
drank fome brandy and water, (for w« 
had brought a pretty large flock along 
Us), wrapped ourfelves up in our blan-* 
• kcts, 






e of 

ft an 

United States of America, 303 

kets, and lay down under a liirgc tree, 
with our feet towards the fire ^ having 
travelled about forty-lix miki that day. 

I cannot undertake to pronounce 
whether ir is owing to the falubrify and 
elaflicity of the air, thus in fice cir- 
culation, and totally unconfined, but cer- 
tain it is, that I never found myfe)f de- 
jected, indifpofed, or low-fpirited in the 
morning, after paffing the night in this 

I arofe in the morning as gay and 
chearful as a lark, and fet out at the 
dawn of day to afcend the mountain, 
with my mind filled with the moft agree- 
able expectations of the vaft pleafure I 
Ihould enjoy from the amazingly great 
extent of the perfpedive from the fum- 
mit, which is reckoned equal, if not fu- 
perior to any, even the higheft and moft 
commanding inland fituation in the world, 
at a diftance from the fea. 

As we approached the fummit we 
found the journey exceedingly trouble- 
fome, the afcent becoming more ai^d 



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yl Tour iji thi 

more perpendicular, until at length We 
were obliged to alight from oisr horfes, 
and lead them after us. 

Even this we found the greatefl diffi- 
cuhy in performing, and we (hould not 
have attempted it had there been any 
place, where we could have left our horfes 
whh the leaft certain profpeft, or indeed 
probability of being able to find them 
again wnen we returned. 

The height of the Wart Mountain may 
be about fix or eight miles; but the extreme 
fteepnefs thereof towards the fummit re- 
tards the progrefs of a traveller fo very 
much, that it is abfolutely a fevere day's 
journey to vifit the higheft part and re- 
turn, making but a very fhort ftay to 
enjoy the beauties of the almoft un- 
bounded and wonderful perfpedive. 

After many halts we reached the fum- 
mit of the mountain about eleven o'clock, 
and were then amply rewarded for the 
great perils and fatigue we had undergone 
to attain it. ■ 

' Lan- 

■I -v. 


Vnited States of A?Jierica» 3 d 

Language fails in attempting to de- 
fcribe this mod aftoniflilng and almoffc 
Unbounded perfpedtive. 

The mind was filled with a reverential 
2kwe, but at the fame time the ideas, and 
I had almoft faid the very foul was fenil^- 
bly enlarged* 

The reflexion oh our own littlenefs 
did not diminilh our intelledual faculties 
nor confequence ; and the mind would 
boldly foar over the vaft extent of the 
earth and water around, and even above 
the globe itfelf, to contemplate on, and 
admire the amazing works of the great 
Creator of all. 

In fhort, th6 ftrOrtgj mighty, pointed, 
and extended fenfations of the mind, at 
this aftoniihing period are far beyond the 
power of human language to defcribe, 
or convey any idea of. ,j.,, ; 

On the eaft you could perceive the 
deep and broken chafms where the ri- 
vers Dan, Mayho, Smith's, Bannifter's, 
and Stanton direi^ their courfes ; fome 

VoL.L X ,.:^- raging 

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yi Tour in the 

raging in vafl: torrents, and fome gliding 
in lilent gentle meanders. 

On the north you fee the Black "Water, 

. a branch of the Stanton ; and the break 

in the mountains where the Fluvannah, 

a vail branch of the James, pafs through 

in a north-eaft diredion. ;- 

On the north-weft you will obferve 
with great aftoniflimcnt and pleafure, the 
tremendous and abrupt break in the 
Alegany Mountains, through which the 
mighty waters of the New River, and the 
Great Kanhawah pafs, the latter dired- 
ing its courfe northward, a diftance no 
lefs than two hundred miles from its 
fource,, where the New River meets the 
Green* Briar river which comes from the 
north- eaft, a diftance alfo of an hundred 
and fifty ihiles. 

After the confluence, being then named 
the Great Kanhawah, it proceeds weft- 
ward inclining to the north, until it falls 
into the mighty river Ohio, after a courfe 
of more than two^ hundred miles from 
thejunOion. ^'^ ^ ''^"^ 

• 9 Cn 

XJfiited States of America, 307 

On the weft ycni can very plainly dif- 
tovcr the three forks or branches of the 
Holfton, where they break through the 
Great Alegany Mountains, forhxing ftHk- 
ing and awful chafms. 

And ftill beyond them you may ob- 
ferve Clinch's River, or Pelifippi, thait 
is almoft equal to all the three branches 
of the Holfton, with which it unites, 
after a courfe of three hundred and fifty 
or four hundred miles : the length of 
the courfe of the Holfton being alfo 
above four hundred miles before they 
unite and form the mighty river Ho- 
gohegee or Cherokee^ which afterwards 
flows a courfe of two hundred and fifty 
miles in extent before it falls into the 
Ohio, to which it is at leaft equal, in 
the vaft quantity of water it contains, 
&s well as the fertility of the foil on itsi 
banks, and far fuperior to it in the excel- 
lence of the climate it pafles through. 

On the fouth you can fee the Dari, 
the Catawba, the Yadkin, and the Haw, 
breaking through the mighty mountains 

X 2 that 

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^'7 T(>//r /// ibe 

that appear in confufcd heaps, and piled 
on each other in ahnoll every dircdtion. 

Throughout the whole of this amaz- 
ing and moft extenfive perfpedtive, there 
is not the Icaft feature or trace of art 
or improvement to be difcovcred. 

All are the genuine efFedls of nature 
alone, and laid down on her moil ex- 
tende.d and grandefl fcale. ; . 

Contemplating thereon fills the eye, 
engroQTes the mind> and enlarges the 

It totally abforbs the fcnfes, over- 
whelms all the faculties, expands even 
the granded ideas beyond all conception, 
and occafions you almoil to forget that 
you are a human creature. ^ . ^ 

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Vmtcd States ofA,„.r!,a, 


J Remained on the fu«m,of.hi3„,o„„. 

. ^^ ^^'"oft as much furprifed .f tX. 

"^attention and difre^ard ofi 

back x;irr.^ 1' ""'^^gafU ot the youn/r 

1;™ -'"''" »- «he beauties and gran! 
tieur of the perfpedHve ao r »„ u 


«o«„ta.„ and was abfent fron, n,e above 
^n hour ;.n that tinae I heard the report 

a fine wdd turkey which he had ihot 

djfs^ for fupper where we ftouid halt at 

We defcended the mountain on the 
north-weft, and ftaid all „i„ht at 7 
to'der of a beautiful f.,„ S^;/; 

•^ nica- 

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A ^our in the 

meadow, a little way from the bafe of thq 
mountain, having turned our horfcs out as 
ufual, kindled a fire, roafted our turkey^ 
and made a delicious repall upon it. 
What remained we faved for the riext 
(day's provifion. 

We fet out on our journey on the fp}^ 
lowing morning, and fleered our courfe as 
pearly weft-north-wefl as the mountains 
would permit us, intending to crofs the 
great Blue ridge, or South mounjtain, 
through a gap that is only ufed by the 
hunters, \yhich is about twenty miles 
fouth-wefl of that which the grfiat trading 
path goes over. 

By this way we propofed to fall on the 
head waters of Little River, which run§ 
into the New River jufl above thecrofling 
place, and thereby fave a diftance of more 
fhan twenty-five miles travelling. 

In this attempt we were fortunate 
pnough to fucceed, after a mofl fatiguing 
^ay'$ journey of forty miles at leaft, and 
after croffing a number of large flream§ 
of watpr. 






United States cf America* 3 1 1 

We halted for the night on the fide of a 
large rivulet, which we conjedtured to be 
either Little River itfelf, or fome of the 
waters of it, having crofled the great Blue 
ridge at a mod difagreeable and dangeroi& 
gap in the afternoon. > 

Here we killed another wild turkey, 
and drefled it for fupper as before ; indeed 
they were fo very numerous that we could 
have eafily fubfifted a company of men 
upon them, and might kill almoft any 
number we pleafed. 

Next morning weYet out early, and tra- 
velled down the north fide of the rivulet, 
which we found to be Little River, until 
we arrived at New River, and at laft came 
to the ford. 

The New River is broad, deep and rapid, 
frequently impaffable, and always dan- 

However we crofled it in fafety, though 
with great difficulty, and hazard of being 
carried down with the ftream, and we 
looked out for a convenient fpot on the 

X4 weft 

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A Tour m the 

h^ it' 

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m :?fl 

weft fide, where we now were, to remain 
on for the night- 

This we foynd neceffary to do, both 
becaufe our horfes were greatly fatigued 
in proffipg the river, and alfo to dry our 
cloaths which had all been foaked in the 
water; although we had not travelled more 
than twenty-five or thirty mijes during 
this day. 

The low ground pii the New River is 
narrow, but exceedingly rich and fertile ; 
the high land is alfo very fine in many 
places, but exceflively broken, rocky, and 

The timber on the high land is very 
large and lofty, and that oil the low ground 
is almoft equal to the prodigious heavy 
trees on the Roanoak, already defcribed. 

The New River, which is only the 
upper part of the great Kanhawah, not 
being navigable, nqr indepd the Kanhawah 
itfelf, the extreme roughnefs of tjie coun- 
try, £^nd difficulty of accefs to it, the roads 
or rather paths being npt only almoft in^' 
paljable, but tot?illy impoffible ever to be 
- ' jrendered 

United States of America. 313 

rendered even tolerable, by any human 
efforts, will not only greatly retard tbe 
lettlement of this country, but will always 
reduce the price and value of the land, be 
it ever fo rich and fertile. 

In the morning, our horfes and our- 
felves being very much refrefhed, we fet 
out again on our journey; and after tra- 
velling ten or twelve miles, crofled a pretty 
Jarge water- courfe named Peak's Creek.; 
and foon afterwards a large branch of 
Reedy Creek. 

In the afternoon we crofled another 
great ridge of the Alegany mountains at 
^ gap, and in the evening came to the 
waters of the middle fork of the Holfton, 
where we halted for the night ; having 
travelled this day near fifty miles, and over 
a vaft quantity of excellent land. 

Next morning we purfued our journey, 
and travelled down the fide of the middle 
fork of the Holfton, which we crofled no 
Jefs than three times this day ; and at 
night came to Stahlmaker's, where a few 
neople, indeed all the inhabitants, had alfo 


I i. 

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A Tour in tie 

r! :&i 




eroded a kind of a wretched flockade fort 
for protedion againfl: the Indians ; but 
they had all left it a few days before our 
arrival, and returned to their refpedive 

* ■ . * - 

Here we remained for two days at the 
old Dutchman's houfe for reft and re- 
frclhment for ourfelves and our horfes, 
which we had really very much need of, 
and alfo to make enquiry ocncerning our 
future route. 

The land on the Holfton is certainly 
excellent, and fertile in the higheft degree ; 
the climate alfo is delightful. 

But the value of eftates here cannot be 
confiderable for many years, perhaps cen- 
turies to come, for the fame reafons that 
have been mentioned to afFed t! :)fe on 
the New River, 

Here we gained intelligence of a nearer 
way to Kentucky than that commonly 
made ufe of, which had very lately been 
difcovered, viz. by crofling Clinche's Ri- 
ver about fixty miles froni Stahlmaker's, 
going over the great Ridge of the Alegany 



•;■: I 

United States of America, 3 1 5 

fit Apalachian mountains, at a gap which 
had been ufed only by a few of the bed 
hunters, and falling down on the waters 
pf the Warrior's Branch, a, river that runs 
into Kentucky. 

With this route pretty exadly laid 
idown we fet out from the Dutchman's 
houfe on the third morning after our ar- 
rival, and after travelling over a vaft quan- 
tity of exceedingly ftrong rich land covered 
with lofty timber, we reached the banks 
pf the north branch of the Holfton, crofled 
the river, and put up for the night ; having 
gravelled that day more than thirty miles. 
The ford of this branch of the Holfton 
is, if pofTible, worfe than any we have 
hitherto met with, and is indeed ex- 
tremely dangerous. 

But we were fo familiarized to danger 
and fatigue, as to regard any thing of that 
pature but little. 

On the next morning we fet out on 
pur journey by the route which we had 
been direded to purfue, and at noon ar- 
jrived at the fummit of a vaft chain of 


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A Tour in the 

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' 'tt .,f' :»! 


mountains which feparate the north branch 
of the Holfton from Clinche's River. 

Hfere I had the pleafure of enjoying an 
extenfive, wild, and romantic view, parti- 
cularly that ftupenduous ridge of the Ale-^ 
gany, or Apalachian mountains, which 
is the chief and moft lofty of the whole. 

It was rendered the more interefting to 
me by refleding that I mud crofs it on my 
journey, our route being diredly over it ; 
and the fiimmit of this vaft chain was at 
the leafl: fixty miles from the ridge whereon 
we then flood. 

We made no unnecefTary delay how- 
ever on this commanding fpot, but de- 
fcended the mountain, and purfued our 
route with all the expedition we could ; 
and we arrived on the banks of Clinche's 
River late in the evening, fo that we could 
not venture to crofs the ford that night. 

This circumftance was a very great 
inconvenience to us, becaufe we always 
got our cloaths wet in pafling thefe great 
anu »pid torrents of water, which fitua- 
tior »o particularly difagreeable in the 


m. ,' i 


United States of America. 3 1 7 

morning, becaufe we muft either delay 
our time by making fires to dry them, or 
travel with them all wet upon us, which 
is the moft unpleafant of the two, as well 
as being prejudicial to health. 

Thefe vaft ridge* of mountains which 
we crofled renderea this day's journey 
extremely fevere and fatiguing both for 
ourfelves and our horfes, although we did 
not travel more than about thirty miles. 

In the morning we undertook the ha- 
zardous talk of fording Clinche's River, 
and accomplifhed it after feveral plunges, 
as ufual, over our heads ; neither did we 
halt to dry our cloaths until noon, when 
we refled at the fide of a favannah, fpread 
all our wet cloaths on the grafs to dry in 
the fun, which was then intenfely hot, 
turned our horfes out to graze, and after 
finifliing a hearty meal, lay ourfelves down 
to fleep. 

Here we remained for two hours, and 

then arofe exceedingly refreflaed, and pur- 

fued our journey. 





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ji Tour in the 

On the evening we had reached half 
way up the ftupendous weftermoft ridge 
of the Alegany mountains, the laft, great- 
eft, aud loftieft of the whole. 

Here we remained all night, concluding 
to attempt the fteepeft and moil difficult 
afcent in the morning, when our horfes 
were refrefhed and ftrong, and ourfelves 
alfo'lefs fatigued; for we alwav alighted 
and led our horfes up thefe prodigious 
ileep, and perilous afcents* 

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United States of America, 3 1 9 

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Crofs the vajl Alegany Mountains. Fait upon the ff'atm 
rior*s Branch, Crofs the Oujiotto Mountains. Im- 
penetrable Thickets of Laurel. River of Kentucky. 
Airivi at the famed new Settlement on Kentucky, 

WE purfued our journey up the 
mountain next morning, but the 
fun was feveral hours high before we 
could poflibly reach the fummit> notwith- 
ftauding we made all imaginable difpatch. 

This ridge of the Alegany or Apala- 
chian mountain^ is indeed of a moft 
ftupendous and aflonifhing height, and 
commands a profp«<St proper tionably ex- 
tenlive. ^;"5> ■ •" : *-'^- ■•; ■' 

I took a retrofpeditive view, with fatis- 
fa<5tion and pleafure, of the vaft chain of 
mountains beyond Clinche's River, which 
I had crofFed : and I koked forward, with 
interefting anxiety and eagernefs, towards 
the Oufiotto great ridge of mountains, 
which I had ft ill to pafs over, and were at 

leaft fifty or fixty miles diflant before me. 

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A Tour in the 

The fiimmit of this ridge, the moft lofty 
of all the Aleganys, is near a mile wide, 
and confifls of excellent llrong rich land, 
of a deep red, or a dark reddifli browii 
colour, with very large tall timber ; and 
there are fprings of water almoft on the 
very fummit of the mountain. 

But as foon as we began to defcend on 
the north-weft fide, we found the declivity 
exceedingly fteep. jv. ;i ./ « 

Yet the afcent oil the foutH-eaft fide 
where we came up was regular and gra- 
dual Confifting geherally of good landf 
and covered with lofty timber. ; . 

This north-weft fide was almoft bare of 
foil ; the trees and all the vegetation poor^ 
fcanty, and miferable'; and quite incum- 
bered with rocks and loofe ftones, which ex- 
ceedingly impeded our way, and retarded 
our progrefs. ' ' 

^ By thefe obftacles this day's journey 
Ivas rendered intolerably dif.. ^reeable and 
cjangerous. , 

But we forgot our toils, perils, and 
fatigues, when at night we reached the 




United States of Amerha. 3 2 i 

waters of the Warrior's branch, where we 
halted and remained until morning; having 
travelled about twenty-five miles during 
the day. 

At the enfuing dawn we again renewed 
our journey, direding our courfe down 
the Warrior's branch until we reached the 
foot of the great ridge of the Ouafiotto 
mountains, where we put up for the 
night ; having travelled above thirty milea 
this day. 

On the morning following we began to 
afcend the mountain, and reached the Turn- 
mit in about three hours. 

This lad chain of mountains is covered 
with laurel, and fo exceflively thick in 
many places as to be abfolutely impe- 

Here ihe great mafs of mountains ter- 
minated on the north- weft; excepting 
fome fpurs of the mountains that fome- 
times extended feveral miles into the more 
qhampaign country. 

The fummit of this ridge is not more 
than a quarter of a mile over, and the 

Vol, I. Y ground 

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A Tour in the 

ground as well as the growth of the timber 
is Very poor and mifcrablc, being almoft 
entirely covered with univerfal and impe- 
netrable thickets of laurel. 

From the brow or edge of the fummit, 
looking back we could fee the huge Ale- 
gany mountains which we had crofTed ; and 
on the other edge of the fummit, as we ad- 
vanced, I was delighted with a view,novel 
indeed to me at this time^ and uncommon- 
ly beautiful and pleafmg. For the eye was 
now relieved from being conftantly filled 
with the vafl exuberances of nature, which 
alone it had beheld for fo many days, by 
viewing a beautiful champaign country, 
covered with prodigious woods 'tis true, 
but at the fame in full verdure, and inter- 
feded with vaft rivers, and prodigious 
water-courfes, which all terminate in the 
mighty majeftic Ohio. 

Some of the courfe of this amazing and 
moil beautiful river was alfo to be difco- 
vered by a chafm or break in the woods, 
where it flowed in awful folemn filence. 

I en- 


••WW "I' 



JJmtcd Stales of America^ 323 

I enjoyed infinite delight in viev/ing the 
beauties of the perfpedive here for a con- 
fiderable time, and at hill left it with equal 
pleafure, eager to penetrate into that beau- 
tiful country, which 1 had beheld with 
fuch delicious gratifica ion at a dirtancc. 

I defcendcd the Ouafiotto mountains, 
and in a fhort time fell iiito th great War 
path, which has been ufed by the Irdians 
time out of mind. 

This afforded me very great faiisfa£lion, 
for the road was now much better than 
any I had travelled in ever fnice 1 had firft 
entered the mountains, and thereby en- 
abled me to gain greater dillahces in each 
day's journey. 

But although we had now left the moun^ 
tains, and although biiore when I beheld 
all this country to the weftward of them it 
appeared as a beautiful level extended 
far beyond the view, and all the horizon 
was as ftraight and even as a line, or as the 
ocean itfelf, yet now we had defcended 
intp it we found it extremely broken, with 
abundance of rocks, and thickly inter- 
fered with water-courfes. 

Y 2 How- 

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-^ Tour in the 

.if ,'1. ; •■ 

However nothing could be more plea- 
fant than the pure and limpid ftreams, 
that either glided along in fweet and filent 
meanders ; or tumbled and daflied from 
rock to rock, juft firfficiently to give plea- 
fure without an alloy of fear or pain, as 
pellucid and tranfj.jarent as cryftal. 

I obferved that almoft all the rocks, not 
only here, but every where between the 
mountains,confiftedof a blackifh grey lime 
ilone ; and where that did not prevail, the 
earth, rocks and every loofe ftonc appeared 
to be (Ironglyand richly impregnated with 
iron ore, which certainly abounds through- 
out this inland part of America. 

We flept that night on the banks of a 
creek, that runs into the Warrior's branch, 
at the diftance of about a mile from the 
river itfelf, as we difcovered in the morn- 
ing when we went to look for our horfes 
to proceed on our journey. 

The Warrior's branch is a confiderable 
river, and after its confluence with two 
more rivers, neither of which is fo large as 
itfelf, forms the Kentucky which it indeed 

a very 









I I 

, not 
I, the 
. with 

of a 





Ith two 

large aft 
a very 

United States of America. 325 

a very fine river, wide, deep, and with a 
very gentle current gliding along almoft 

The whole length of the Kentucky, in- 
cluding its meanders, from the fource of 
the Warrior's branch in the Alegany 
mountains, to the confluence of the Ken- 
tucky with the Ohio, is certainly between 
four and five hundred miles, containing a 
body of land on each fide, that cannot be 
furpaflfed, and fcarcely equalled by any in 
the univerfe, for fertility of foil, abundance 
of game, excellence of climate, and every 
other beauty and advantage imaginable, 
excepting the difficulty of accefs to it. 

In five more eafy days journeys, the 
particulars of which are not worth relating, 
as being not materially different from 
what has been already mentioned, we at 
length arrived at the famed fettlement near 
the mouth of Kentucky, on the eighth day 
qf June, after having travelled at leafl: four 
hundred and ninety miles, from the fort on 
Smith's River, to thisplace, in nineteen days. 




< a. 


A I'oiir in the 

'\r\ !■: 

CHAP. XLir. 

^be famed Seitlemcnt of Kentucky . Air. Hendcrfon n9 
military Alan. Injudicious Forts. A fine com-' 
manding Situation. PVant of Subordination in Ame- 
rica, Hardy Race, but illibcruL Elephants Bones 
on the Ohio, 


f :■! 


:i ' \ 

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I Was foon d'redled to the houfe of 
Mr. Henderlbn, where I found a mod 
bofpitable and kind reception. "• ' 

We walked over his plantation, which 
was really a very fine one ;. and being 
furnilhed with fre(h horfes we rode 
round feveral of the improvements in the 

He recolleded me perfedly, but ap-. 
peared very much furprifed at the hazards, 
as well as the fatigues I had encountered 
to pay him and his fettlement this vifit, 
at this critical time, which it feems had 
been apprehended by every one to be 
particularly dangerous. 

All the inhabitants of this fettlenfient 
li^4 ?^lfo prepared for an Indian war. 


I:: J 






United States of America, 327 

liaving ereded three ftockaded forls, into 
which they had thrown themfelves, their 
wives, and famiHes ; but had remained 
only a very fhort time within them, and 
had left them and returned to their 
refpedive habitations not more than a- 
bout a week or ten days before my arri- 
val, which totally diffipated all their re- 
maining apprehenfions of danger or dif- 

Almoft every houfe in the whole fet- 
tlement was built of logs, which are 
proof againft fmall arms, but being co- 
vered as well as entirely conftruded of 
wood, nothfng would be more eafy for 
an enemy than to fet them on fire, which 
prevents any idea of defence againft fuch 
numbers as might be able to approach 
dole to them. - ^ - i .; . . 

The three ftockaded forts alfo, though 
intended to cover the country againft the 
attacks of the Indians, were neither calcu- 
lated for that purpofe, nor indeed were 
they tenable againft an enemy of the 
leaft military knowledge, whoie power 





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yf Tour in the 


or f( r:e might enable them to command 
the open country; for neither of the 
forts either communicated with, nor fup- 
ported the other, at lead what they in- 
tended as means of communication and 
fupport defeated the very purpofe they 
expeded it to promote. ,. , 

The impropriety and total unfitnefs of 
thefe forts as places of defence 1 foon 
convinced Mr. Henderfon of, as well as 
the reft of the principal inhabitants, and 
pointed out a commanding fpot of ground 
to ere£l a fortification on, if ever they 
fhould again have fuch an occafion ; 
which was indeed abfolutely neceffary, 
in their fituation, for every reafon. 

It was a peninfula, containing above 
an hundred acres of rich low land, fur- 
rounded with the river Kentucky, and 
a large creek, on three fides, and on the 
neck of the peninfula, or rather juft 
within it, there was a remarkably high 
and fteep hill, which appeared to be com- 
pofed of a folid rock very (lightly covered 
with foil, but abuoilantly with loofe ftones. 





"^M m^ r 


in the 


United States of America, 2^9 

Juft before the neck of the pcninfula, 
in a fmall circle round the bottom of the 
hill, there was a large morafs or fwamp, 
broad, deep and miry, which was co- 
vered and overflowed with water, after 
heavy rains, as well as during the pe- 
riodical floods of the Kentucky. 

In ihort nature feemed to have formed 
this commanding eminence for a moft 
delightful feat, as well as for the purpofe 
of defence ; and it required but very 
little afliftance of art to render it ex - 
tremely ftrong. 

Mr. Henderfon was beyond all doubt 
a man of a vaft and enterprifing genius ; 
he might be an excellent judge, as well 
as a great legiflator ; but he was cer- 
tainly not at all calculated for arms, be- 
ing void of any talents that way, and 
totally deficient even of a military eyc^ 
judgment, or difpofition. 

I have obferved that throughout all the 
back country, indeed I had almoft fald 
throughout all America, there feems to 


ii )■: 

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1 1'^ 'I 





S I, 



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be no fiich thing as any idea of fnbordi- 
nation, or clifFerence of ranks in life ; 
excepting from the weaker to the ftronger ; 
and from the flavcs to the whites. 


, In any of their foits it was all anarchy 
and copfulion, and you could not dif- 
cover what perfon commanded, for in fad 
no perfon did adually command entirely. 
This total want of fubordination ren- 
ders the whole country particularly dif- 
agreeable to ftrangers, fuch efpecially as 
have been accuftomed to the poliiheJ in- 
tercourfe of Europe ; for in the back-woods, 
and frontiers efpecially, thtre is no de- 
gree of irfolence, impertinence and rude- 
nefs but they think themfelves juftifiable 
in pradifing, either to one another, or 
towards fuc^.i as may come among them, 
and in a manner, as wqll as to an extent, 
that could not be credited by Europeans, 
had not fo many fecn and experienced it. 

Mr. Henderfon had epitomifed, and 
fimplified the laws of England, for the 
government and internal police of his 
fcttlemtat* . > 





I the 


tJnited States of America, 331 

Magiftrates were chofen by the inhabi- 
tants, but with his approbation ; and fuch 
difputes as could not be decided by one or 
two magiftrates were determined by fome- 
thing Hke a jury, whofe decifions were 
alfo regulated, and indeed in a great 
meafure directed likewife by Mr. Hen- 
derfon himfelf. 

Although the inhabitants are in reality 
a rude, barbarous and unpoliftied fet of 
men, yet you will frequently find plea- 
fure in their converfation ; their ideas are 
bold and fpirited, but their fentiments are- 
not liberal. 

However, they are certainly a fenfible, 
enterprifing, hardy, unpoliflied race, yet 
open, free and hofpitable. - ' ' 

Pufillanimoufnefs, cowardice and mean 
fpirit appear not there; hitherto they 
have not reached fo far, and as yet are 
generally confined on the c^ift of the 

In our rides through, and around this 
fettlement we vifited the confluence of 
the Kentucky with the Ohio, and ftrolled 



' i jf 




A ^our in the 

J! ,1 f 






for many miles on the banks of the lad 
mentioned river alfo. 

Near the confluence is the place on 
the banks of the Ohio where the fkele- 
tons of nine elephants, as they are called, 
though many fay erroneoufly, were dif- 
covered; which has given rife to fuch 
multitudes of conjedures among the 
naturalifts and philofophers, without one 
of them being able to account for this 
very fingular and extraordinary circum- 
ftance in a manner reconcilable to com- 
mon fenfe and reafon. ' 

For there certainly is none of the fpe- 
cies (of elephants) now in the whole 
continent of North and South America. 

It has been lately denied that they 
are the bones of elephants ; and they 
are afferted to be the bones of fome 
other very large animal, of which like-* 
wife at prefent none of the fpecies is to 
be found. . , ,:,,,.,.. 

I would not venture to pronounce 
upon my weak judgment^ whether they 
are the bones of elephants or not, I mean 






United States of Amet tea, 333 

thofe few that I faw there, however I am 
very certain that they are much larger 
than belong to any other quadruped in 
the world, that J ever faw or heard of. 

But to what fpecies they did belong, 
or in what manner they came there, is 
more than I can undertake to afcertain, or 
even to guefs at. 









i i 

,1 t! 







A Tcur in the 

l! ;;;■ ! 






r^'ir ir 


7 he Rivers Kentucky arid Ohio, fVoods and hulofurer. 
Came. Wild Bcajh and FIJI). A general Account 
ef the Indians. Their Chara'^er. Dlfpojitlons and 

THE breadth of the Kentucky at the 
■ confluence is between three and 
four hundred yards ; and that of the Ohio 
between eight hundred and nine hundred 

The low ground on both rivers is ex- 
cellent ; on the Ohio it is about a mile 
wide ; on the Kentucky about half as 

The high land alfo between the rivers 
is exceedingly rich, and of a reddifh brown 
colour, with large lofty ftraight timber. 

The foil of the low grounds is a very 
dark brown, almoll a black. 

The woods confift of walnut, poplar 
yellow and white, red-bud, hiccory, fafla- 
fras, wild cherry, oaks of many different 
kinds, fuch as red oak, Spanifh oak, white- 



Vnlicd St at a of Ameridf* 335 

oak, black oak, fcrubhy oak or black- 
jacks, chcfnut-oak, willow- oak, and live- 
oak, maple, black gum, fvveet gum, fyca- 
more, horn-beam, dog-wood, pine, chef- 
nut, beech, hoiry, maple, cedar, and many 
other kinds peculiar to the country, all of 
an aftonifliing fize, efpecially in the low 
grounds, many trees being twelve and 
fifteen feet diameter in the trunk. 

Thefe are ufeful in America for many 
purpofes ; for houfes, which are almoft all 
conftruded, and even covered entirely 
with wood ; as alfo for fences and inclo- 
fures, thefe being all compofed of what is 
called there fence rails^ which are made 
out f£ trees cut or fawcd into lengths of 
eleven or twelve feet, which again are 
mauled or fplit into rails from four to fix 
inches thick. 

When the inclofure is formed, every one 
croffing the other obliquely at each end, in 
regular fucceffion and erciflion, thefe rails are 
laid zig-zag upon each other for ten or eleven 
rails in height, then flakes are put againft 
each corner double acrofs each other, with 
the lower end funk a litde into the earth, 
St and 

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A ^i'Jur in the 

and above thcfe (lakes, one, and fometimes 
two more rails are laid, which lock up 
the whole, and keep it (leady and firm. 

Thcfe inclofures are generally feven, 
eight and nine feet high,and are very ftrong, 
as well as convenient, as they can be re- 
moved at any time to any other place 
where they may become more neceffary. 

Timber alfo ferves for fuel, as no other 
is made ufe of, all over America. 

The Ohio here has two banks on each 
fide ; when the river is low, the waters 
are confined within the lowed banks ; at 
this time the batteaux come up the flream, 
which is then fmooth and gentle. 

But when the periodical Hoods hagpen, 
which are always twice a year, the river is 
then fwelled to the higheft part, of the 
upper banks, and runs with much greater 
rapidity and force, batteaux and vefTels of 
all kinds then defcend with the ilream, 
and frequently attain the diflance of an 
hundred miles a day. 

At fuch times, fhips of fmall burtheiv 
might go down from Pittfburg to New 


I 'I. 


United States of J,ncrica. ^ 

Orleans &c. i„ u.e g.oatcft faf,,„ ,. ' 
being then fcldom lefs fi.,„ / ^' "^ 
feet water. '" 'wenty-five 


'■"'e iiable to S;;e^'°^^ '''«' '^^^ 

they are eafily caught '"<= ^>^'' ^nJ 

Game of all. VX.A, ;, ,„„ ^^ 
Ijen^ ; a „3„ ^3y j^.„ ^^ ^ ng y 


djce and public lofs of fh, ^ ^ 

large. * "''' community at 

a JftV "''T "^^'^ '^^^^ ^"'I fat.' are ' 

tW ^^""^ ""'"''^^' '"°'"^'""es five 
tnoufand in a florlr „f l- i 

kill iuft ' '*'"'='' * »"*« «ay i 

k'lljuftasmanyashepleafea. ^' 

Vot, I. y 

* Eltj 

'I ' 




A 'Tour in the 




n' :'' 

Elks are alio very plenty, as well as ra^ 
cooPxS, oppoflums, foxes and wolves. All 
thefe 2l:c found in the lofty woods, while 
in the favannahs or meadows buffaloes 
abound. And on the rivers multitudes of 
almoft every kind of water fowl. 

There was another animal that parti- 
cularly engaged my attention, it being one 
of the fame fpecies that formerly I jufl had 
a glimpfe of among the rocks at the falls 
of James River, when it ftruck me with 
the ftrange idea of its refembling a fiddle 
with feet. 

Thefe animals are called here Tarapem^ 
and are both of the land and water kinds. 
They are all however of the fpecies of the 

One kind of them bites very fiercely 

when incenfed, and keeps his hold fo te- 

nacioufly that he will fuffer decapitation 

before he quits it; thefe are called Sjiap- 

ping Turtles : but every fpecies of thefe 

animals is fo generally and perfectly 

known as to need no particular defcrip- 

tion here. 


-A II 


United States of America » 339 

Some of them however are extremely 
beautiful, and are adorned with all the 
elegance of the brighteft colouring,and the 
moft fanciful engravings, or lines in regu- 
lar and exa£t uniformity : this kind is per- 
fectly inofFenfive and harmlefs, nor are they 
larger than two or three pounds weight. 

Thefe animals will live, it is faid, for 
feveral hundred years. [See chap, vli, 
pages 51 and 52.] 

During a ftay of fix weeks, I made 
many excurfions in the country around, 
and fometimes went very confiderable di- 
ftances,foas to take feveral days in going 
and returning ; and they were chiefly by 
water, on the Ohio, and its branches. 

Finding every thing in tranquillity, and 
the Indians perfedly quiet and friendly, I 
accompanied a Mr. Mac Gowaa to one of 
the Shawnefe towns, and another time to 
one of the nearefl towns of the Miniamis 
or Tweetwees. 

Both thefe excuriions v/ere by water; 
and I found that there was fcarcely any 
variety in the manner of living and 


1 1 

r: 1 1 



II '^ i 



ii ■ I : 








• I -fiJi r 

340 A Tour in the 

cufloms of the different Indian nations or 
tribes ; for feeing one nation will enable 
a perfon to form a very juft and exai^ 
judgment of all the reft. 

So that the defcription already given, 
of the Catawba Towns, reduced and 
enervated as they are, is an exa£t repre- 
fentation of the Shawnefe, Miniamis, &c. 
as well as every other nation of thefe 
kind' of Indians. [See chap. xxv. 
page 195.] 

However fome farther general obferva- 
tions on the different tribes and nations 
of Indians in North America may not 
be unacceptable here ; but it is rather a 
difficult talk for me to give the proper 
and diftind: account of every different 
nation, and their refpedlive charadlers, 
&c. fiiendl) or otherwife, (their general 
character and difpofitions, as I have juft re- 
marked, being pretty much the fame), be- 
ing not only unacquainted with their 
language, but having never been longer 
than a few days together in their towns 






Umted States of America^ 341 

So what I relate miift confeqiiently be 
chiefly"/ from the information of others; 
however it is from fuch authority as I 
judge may be depended upon. 

The general charader of the Indians 
is, that they are crafty, fenfible, refolute, 
very fufpicious, and very vindidive. 

An Indian will travel on foot five hun- 
dred miles, through the woods, in night 
and darknefs, fecreting himfelf during 
the day to revenge an injury done to his 
relation, or to any one of his tribe. 

However in every thing, but their cruel 
and revengeful difpofition, J admire and 
refped the real character of the native 
imcivilized and uncorrupted Indians. 

Their fentimcnt; 1, with all the difad- 
vantages of pior iiicxpreOive language, 
and of what is v:c\riQ^ a Jot, dull, and de- 
ficient interpretuiion, contain and convey 
the moft elevatjd, noble, fpirlced, and juft 
ideas, delivered in that beautiful and ele- 
gant Timpliclty and allegorical figures of 
^explam.tion, which add digu'ty and grace 

^^ 3 




\ ■ 1 ■■ 

I I 

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i i 


mi a ■ 



,i rt 




^ Tour in the 

to the fubjed, and are fo much admired 
in the Bible and facred fcriptures of the 
Chriftians, in the Jewifh Talmud, the Ma- 
hometan Alcoran, and in all the oriental 

Their fenfual appetites however they 
have no great command of, cfpecially in- 
ebriation, which they are particularly ad- 
di£ted to. 

But the truth is, they are Corrupted by 
the whites ; for they copy after, and fall 
into oitr vices, thefe appearing in the 
moft confpicuous point of view -, and I 
am afraid that our external virtues are fo 
few, and even thofe fo difficult to be difco^ 
vered, that the poor Indians cannot dif- 
tinguifh any of them to follow after. 

They have alfo been fo treachcroufly 
and barbaroufly mailacred by the whites, 
and fo often deceived by them, that the 
memory thereof is carefully preferved, 
and handed down from father to fon, in 
order to keep the rifnig race fufliciently 
on their guard againft our future fnares 

and treacherous defigns. 



United States of America. 343 

, This I look upon to be the true caufe 
of the great caution, and complete dif- 
fimulation the Indians are become fo 
perfedly mafters of. 

Indeed they have arrived at fo eminent 
a degree of duphcity, and difguifing their 
fentiments and intentions, that without 
the affiftance of the arts of writing, read- 
ing, or committing their thoughts and 
tranfa(flions to record, they far excel us at 
our own weapons of fubtilty, craft, and 

In (hort they are zealous fteady friends; 
but rigorous implacable enemies, until 
fatisfadion. or reparation be made them 
for the injury they think they have fuf- 

However let their inclinations at this 
prefent time be either amicable or hoftile, 
they all are not now fufEciently powerful, 
either to contend againft the w^hites in 
arms, or to do them any other material 

Whites who behave to them with up- 
rightneis and affability are greatly re« 

Z 4. fpc£led 








If . ' 



j4 I'cur in the 

rpcdcd by them, and obtain an amazing 
iiiHuencc; over them. 

But they mufl: firft be fufficiently con- 
vinced of the integrity and difinterefted- 
neis of the perfon ; after which they are 
more at the command of fuch a man 
than of one of their own chiefs. 

Kings they have none, and the princi- 
pal men of their nation become fuch 
by their merit alone. Thau this there 
is no other precedence, or difference of 
rank among Indians. 

They enjoy the fweets of liberty and 
freedom in the truefl: fenfe, and cer- 
tainly are not guilty of the many ini- 
quitous and fcandalous vices that difgrace 
Chriflianity and Europeans. 

7 heir numbers on this fide the MiiTif- 
fippi are confidcrable. 

From the Gulf of Mexico to the 
Lakes of Canada inclufivc, it is computed 
there riv.cj be about thirty- five thoufand 

Beyond the MifTiHippi they are much 
more numerous, and many people, that 


-■ iX i'H 

m w 





United Stales of Americal 345 

have travelled there, fay they are very 
open and hofpitable. 

The little intercourfe between them; 
in that diftant country, and Europeans, 
renders them lefs fufpicious, lefs fubtle 
and defigning, and not fo cruel and vin- 
dictive as thofe on the eallern fide of 
that extenfive river, whofe greater ex- 
perience, communication and tranfadlions 
with the w^hites produce thofe pernicious 
efFeds. A reproach more fevere upon us 
than on them. 

Here I miift beg leave to make one par- 
ticular obfervation; left, from v^hat has 
been faid, it fhould be thought that the In- 
dians have a particular diflike to Europeans 
more than to the whites born in America; 
but the very reverfe of this is the truth, 
for it is the v/hite natives of the country 
that the Indians have the greateft a\rer- 
fion to, and by v>7hom they have been 
fo often mofttreacheroufly and barbaroufly 

The white Americans alfo have the 
moll rancorous antipathy to the whole 





; i 

in if [1 } 





2^6 A Tour in the 

race of Indians ; and nothing is more 
common than to hear them talk of ex- 
tirpating them totally from the face of 
the earth, men, women, and children. 

The Indians indeed do not appear to 
entertain any diflike to the Britifli or 
Trench, I mean thofe that are natives of 
Europe; nor have the real Britifli or 
French any particular averfion to them, 
as the Britifli Americans have. 

1 ■ t, 



United States of America. 


^I-ift 'f thi Names cf M ,he j;ff . r ,. 
"•ch Na,k„. °^ '""'■'""» <"■ fTaraors i„ 

T^HE names of the different T„^- 
follow : * to'icct, are as 

Names of the Nations. 

The Choaaws or Flat-' 

The Natches 

TheCherokees. behind South Car .• 

Tl- Catawba, between N^^ ''" 

South-Carolina . ™ ^"^ 

The Piantias, a wandering t"rih» " 
^ ^o'^ fides of the Miffi^p"":- 

tstifr ^'"^^ ■•" - 

between tK« /-I i ^'^^ and 

" 6oo 

Situation. t^„„.^^^_ 

On the Mo. ^^oo 
bile and xco 



1 !'pi 

i' ;i 

la ' 

:ii:^i I I 


y^ Tip/zr /« /he 

Names of the Nations. 




The Piankifliaws '\ 250 

The Ouachtenons I On the Ouabache 400 
The Kikapous J 300 

The Shawnefe, on the Siotto - - 500 
The Delawares, on the weft of the Ohio 300 
The Miamie, on the Mifamis river -j 
fallirig into Lake Eric and the ["350 
Miniamis J 

The upper Creeks, back of Georgia " 
The middle Creeks, behind Weft- 
The lower Creeks, in Eaft-Florida 
TheCaouitas, on the eaftof the river 

Alibamous - - - - 
The Alibamous, on the weft of the 
Alibamous - - . - 
The Akanfaws, on the Akanfaw river 
falling into the Mifliflippi on the 
weft fide - - - - 

The Ajoues, north of the Miflburi 
The Paddoucas, weft of the Mifliflippi 
The white sPanis -» South of 2000 

The freckled or pricked > the 















United States of America. 349 

Numcs of the Nations. Situation, Warriors. 

The Canfes -j South of 1 600 

The Ol'ages V the 600 

The Grandes Eaux JMiflburi 1000 

TheMiflburi, upon the river Mi flburi 3000 
The Sioux o^ '\e woods •% towards the 1800 
The Sioux ui the mea- i heads oft he 

dows J MifTiffippi 2500 

The Blancs, Barbus, or white Indians 

with beards - - - - icoo 

mi- A/r M -1 1 far north near the 
TheAffiniboils ( ,, r, r 1500 

rru nu -a I lakesof the fame ^ 

The Chriltaneaux 1 'jooo 

•' name ^ 

The Ouifcanfins, on ja river of that 
name that falls into the Mifliflippi 
in the eaft fide - , . mm^ 

The Mafcoutens -^ roo 

The Sakis i South of Puans Bay 400 

The Mechecouakis J 

I-'olle Avoine, orthe"j 

Wildcat Indians | Near Pucans Bay 

The Pucans J 

The Powtewatamis; near St. Jofeph's 
River, and Detroit - - 350 

. The 




'1 \. 


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I ii i 







m Bii §2.2 
:^ L& 12.0 

lijj MjiM WA 







(716) S72-4903 








350 ^ Tour in the 

Names of the Nations, Situation. Warrioij, 

The Meffefagues, or River Indians, 

being wandering tribes on the Lakes 

Huron and Superior - - 2 coo 

The Ottahwas "1 Near the Lakes Supe- 900 

The Chipwas j rior and Michigan 5000 

The Wiandots, near Lake Erie - 300 

The Six Nations, or as the French call 

them, the Iroquois, on the frontiers 

of New- York, &c. - - 1500 

The Round-headed Indians, near the 

head of the Ottahwa River - 2500 

The Algonquins, near the above 300 

The Nipiffins, near the above alfo 400 

The Chalas 1 c t t j- no 

ot. Laurence Indi- *^ 

ans, on the back of ^^ 


^, ., . , Nova-Scotia, &c. 

The Abenaquis J 3 5^ 

The Conawaghrunas, near the falls of 

St. Lewis - - - - 200 

The Amaliftes 
The Michmacks 

Total amount 58,93^ 

. i 


■^ ', 




United States of America, 3 5 1 

This being the whole number of mca 
fit for bearing arms, from hence we may 
be enabled to form fome idea of the num- 
ber of all the Indian inhabitants, men, 
women and children, on the continent 
of North America; which calculation, 
however, I am ready to confefs can be but 
rather a vague conjecture. 

There being fifty-eight thoufand nine 
hundred and thirty warriors, it is computed 
that about one-third of the fame number 
more are old men unfit for bearing arms, 
which makes the number of males come 
to maturity amount to about eighty-eight 
thoufand five hundred and feventy ; and 
multiplied by fix will produce five hundred 
and thirty-one thoufand four hundred 
and twenty, which I confider as the whole 
number of fouls, viz. men, women and 
children, cf all the Indian nations that 
are come in any degree within our know- 
ledge throughout the continent of North 

It is a moft melancholy confideration to 
reflect, that thefe few are all that remain 
6 ' of 


i i 




I 1 I 

•l 1 


A Tour in the 

of the many millions of natives, or ab- 
original inhabitants with which this vail 
continent was peopled when firft difco- 
vered by the Whites ; and that even thefe 
will foon be extind and totally annihi- 
lated) confidering the amazingly rapid 
depopulation they have hitherto experi- 
enced, fince that (to them) fatal period, or 
9cra of the fird arrival of the whites in 



United States of AmeHca, 353 


Ltave Kentucky. Sail down the Ohio- 1'he Fulls of 
the Ohio; Agreeable Companions. Enter the Alif- 
Jlffippii and proceed down that River. Alcet fome 
Chickcfawst Their fine Horfcs. /I gallant Nation. 
Attachedly a vafl Superiority of French and Indians. 
Defeat them. Their Origin, Their Caz'alry. 


ABOUT fix weeks after my ar- 
rival at Kentucky two gentlemea 
from Virginia, on a tour from thence to 
New Orleans, called to view the fettle- 

They came from Pittfburg, by water, 
in a very fine batteau which they had 
purchafed, and intended to proceed in the 
fame manner down the Ohio and Mif- 
fiffippi, being furniflied with letters of 
recommendation to the Spanifli governor 
of New Orleans, &c. 

Having remained along with us at 
Mr. Henderfon's fome days, I difcovered 
them to be uncommonly fenfible intelli- 

VoL. I. A a gent 

R I 



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i il 



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Ill , 


^ Jcftr in the 

gent perfons, poffefling an extraordinary 
Ihare of genius, fpirit and enterprize, 
and was not difficult to be perfuaded to 
accompany them in their batteau to New 

For I promifed myfelf abundance of 
fatisfadion and gratification in this voyage 
down the Ohio and Mifliflippi. 

Befides I had been fo exceffively over- 
fatigued in my journey liere, over the 
mountains, that I abfolutely dreaded the 
thoughts of returning in the fame man- 

For thefe reafons I embraced this offer 
with great pleafurc, and after returning 
Mr. Henderfon, and feveral other of the 
principal inhabitants of Kentucky, many 
thanks for their civility and hofpitable 
entertainment, I embarked on board Mr. 
Wood's and Mr. Lewis's batteau, along 
with my young favage whom I brought 
from tlie eaft fide of the Alegany Moun- 

This young man, whofe name was Wil- 
liam Forlune,folicited memoft earneftlyfor 


- t .1 






Vnited States of America, 355 

permiffion to attend me this voyage, which 
I very readily granted, having hitherto 
found him of great ufe to me in every 
refpedt^ and an excellent hunter and 

In both thefe offers I confidered my- 
felf extremely fortunate. Firfl in my at- 
tendant, whofe fidelity I had already ex- 
t>enenced ; and next in the company of 
thefe gentlfemen who appeared equally 
gra':ified by having fucceeded in perfuad* 
ing me to undertake the voyage, and in 
being able to furnifti me with very to- 
lerable accommodations. 

My prefent companions and fellow-tra- 
Vellers were two gentlemfen^the firft named 
James Wood, efq. who was member of the 
affembly of Virginia for the county of Fre- 
derick, was young, adive and vigorous, was 
frank, open and communicative in his difpo- 
fition, and pofTeflfed a degree of candour and 
liberality of fentiment, that rendered his ac- 
quaintance valuable in the higheft degree i 
the other was Charles Lewis, of Augufta 
county in Virginia, efq. fcarcely inferior to 

A a 2 Mr. 

1 \ 


\ N i 





yf Tour in the 

Mr. Wood ill every ellimabic qualification 
and defert. 

They had tv/o Chickefaw Indians, and 
three white men in their batteau, and as 
they juft wanted one man more to com- 
plete their number, my fervant fupplied 
the place. 

However, although I now call this man 
my fervant, yet he himfelfnevcr would have 
fubmitted to fuch an appellation, although 
he moft readily performed every menial of- 
fice, and indeed any fervice I could defire ; 
yet fuch is the infolence, folly, and ridi- 
culous pride of thofe ignorant back- 
woods men, that they would conceive it 
an indelible difgrace and infamy to be 
ftyled fervants, even to his Majefty, not- 
withanding they will gladly perform the 
loweft and moft degrading fer vices for 

At the dawn of day on the nineteenth 
of July we left the Kentucky, and had a 
very plcafant voyage down the Ohio and 
Mifliflippi, if one can give that appel- 
lation to fuch a one, where we flept every 






fire ; 
ve it 

Ihad a 
Lo and 
1 every 

United States of America. 257 

night on terra (irma, or at the (horc in our 

We paflcd by the mouth of a muhi- 
tude of fine rivers, and feme of vaft 
"magnitude, that empty thcmfelv:s into 
the Ohio and Mifliflippi. 

On our right were the migtty rivers 
Ouabache or St. Jerome's, and Buffaloe 
River, befides a great many inferior in 
fize, whofe names we could not difcover, 
that run into the Ohio before the con- 
fluence thereof with the Mifliffippi. 

On the left, the following rivers empty 
themfelveeintoitjviz. Rotten or Bear Creek, 
Reedy River, the prodigious river Che- 
rokee or Hogohegee, Muddy River, Deep 
Creek, belides many lefler ones. 

As we failed down the Miififllppi, on 
our right were the rivers La Sonde, Aux 
Prunes, Metehigamias Lake or River, the 
river St. Francis, the White River, the ri- 
ver Sotouis or Akanfas, Red River, Piake- 
mines River, befides a vaft number of 
others, fome of a prodigious extent, as 

■ Aa3 well 



1 f 


: 1. 


It 1^ 

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1 «'' 

f iii 




i^ ■ i '■ ! 

: i: 




j4 Tour in the 

well as many inferior one6^ whoic namc(> 
we never heard. 

And on the left fide were the Ka(ki- 
r>ompa,the Chickefaw, Prudhoinine River, 
Maggotty River, or Margot River, Ba- 
youc River, Soto River, Yaflbus River, 
Tioux F iver. Petit Gouffre River, Little 
River, and the Ibbervjlle which fcarcely 
fieferves the name of a river, and i^ only 
known by bjsing the Eaftern bqundary 
of the Spaniards, forming the illand of 
New Orleans, whofe territory, from 
the Ibbervillc Soutl^vvard includes both 
banks of the MiiTiilippi ; beHdes a mul- 
titude of water-courfes, whofe very name^ 
we could not poifibly learn. 

The day after we left Kentucky we 
pafled the falls of the Ohio very fafely, 
by keeping w^ell over on the right o^ 
Borth-weftern fhore, for thefe falls are 
by no means dangerous; and after we 
had pafTed them we obferved the low 
grounds on each fide of the river widen 
yery confiderably, as weU as the river 
itfelf, until we entered the Mifliflippi, 





^t or 
1 river 

United States rf America, 3 y) 

where the land is fo low that it is fubjcifl 
to frequent inundations. 

After we had got fome diftaifce down 
the Miffiffippi, the high land> and fome- 
times the mountains approached the river, 
(b as to render the low grounds on eacli 
fide very narrow, which however were 
luxuriantly rich and fertile, even beyond 
a poflibility of defer iption. 

There arp likewife iflands in many 
places, and fome of them almoft covered 
with reeds. 

As we defcended the ftrcam of the 
Mifliflippi we obferved feveral lakes, or 
as they are termed here Lagtmes^ fome- 
times on one fide, fometimes on the other 
fide of the river. 

Thefe lagunes generally had vafi: quan- 
tities of large reeds growing round the 
edges ; and within them there were 
thoufands of water fowl of every fpe- 

Although there was no difficulty in 
killing multitudes of them, yet it was 
ajmoft impoffible to get them, becaufe of 

A a 4 the 


' ' B J 


Hi ' 






\l V 

mh I 


ji Tour in the 

the reeds, which rendered that part of the 
laguiic, where they were, ahnoft inac- 

Thefe laguncs were formed by the vaft 
body of water, that comes down in the 
annual periodical floods, forcing its way 
acrofs the necks of many different penin- 
lulas formed by the extreme crooked 
and meandering courfe of the MiffifTippi, 
and diverting the channel of the river 
itfelf, from its old diredion around the 
peninfula, to this new one acrofs the 
neck of it, by which means the place 
where the river formerly flowed becomes 
a large lake of Handing \yater, here de- 
nominated a lagune. 

One day while we were on fhore at 
\he mouth of the Yaflbus, a placid, beau- 
tiful, and noble river, a fmall hunting 
party of the Chickefaws came up to us, 
and at the requeft of our two Chickefaw 
Indians, as well as the others, we re- 
Kiained there two days along with them. 

The Chickefaws are a very brave and 
refpedable nation, not for their numbers, 






Vnited States of America. 361 

for they arc few, but for their virtue, 
and unconquerable fpirit. 

They arc alfo remarkably handfomc, 
and what is very fingular, have a beau- 
tiful breed of horfes amongft them, which 
they carefully prefer ve unmixed. 

The ChickefawSjit is faid,and I make no 
doubt of the faiSt, came originally from 
South America, having travelled acrofs the 
continent for upwards of two thoufand 
miles, and brought thefe horfes along with 
them, which art: of the breed of that much 
admired kind called Spaniih gennets, 
haying long fince taken them from the 

There is no Indian nation on the con- 
tinent of North America near fo hand- 
fome as the Ghickefaws. The Hurons 
come next them in beauty. 

The Chickefaw nation have always 
been fteady friends and allies to Britain, 
and their fidelity was never fhaken, al- 
though the French have often attempted 
it, by promifes, threats, and the mod 
formidable attacks with a force confider- 



I' B I 


r I, 

\'l'{ i ^ 

ii^'i |i-. 





^ Tour in the 

»bly more than four times the number of 
ail the warriors in the Chickefaw nation, 
either to detach them from the intereft 
of Great Britain or tp put them entirely 

In the former war, while the French 
were in pofleffion of Canada, they dc-? 
tached about fix hundred and fifty regular 
troops, ^nd more than two thoufand five 
hundred Indians from Canada and lUi* 
nois, againfl: this fmall, but heroic com- 
munity, for the avowed purpofe, and 
with pofitive orders, of completing a total 
conqueft, and even extirpj^tion of the 
whole Chickefaw nation. 

They fet out on this expedition with 
all the fecrecy and confidence of fuccefs 
imaginable, at leafl in their own minds ; 
but they little confidcred what fort of 
men they were going to attack, and foon 
found, by dire experience, that no fupe- 
riority in numbers is equal to a deter- 
mined valour and innate heroifm ; for 
the whole detachment was totally de- 
teated, the French regulars being almofl 


■ I, .'r 

1 ,ii5 



United Slates of America. 363 

|:o a man cut off, and the Indians their 
allies faved only a fmall proportion of 
their number, by a precipitate flight, 
leaving behind them multitudes of 
HTvounded and (lain. 

This was the laft formidable attack made 
on the Chickefaw nation, either by the 
French, or the northern Indians; for there 
always has beeri^a rooted enmity between 
the northern and fourhern Indians, who 
have been almoft perpetually at war with 
each other, without any real, and indeed 
without any oftenfible caufe. 

But the Chickefaws have always been 
idiftinguifhed for their gallant adions, 
and feats of the highefl heroifm, which 
has rendered them, even individually, to 
be particularly refpedted throughout all 
the nations of North America. 

For which reafon Chickefaw guides 
are more fought after, and are much 
more fervice^^le than thofe of any other 

For although their language is not 
commonly made ufe of in any nation but 



; ! 

i r 


i J! 

h ! 






1 ■ 

1 ' ' 

I : 

i ', ■ 

,1 ' 


'. *' ;■ 



?■ ill 


. <'■ • ilil 


A Tour in the 

tlieir own, yet it is uiiderflood by all, 
and among Indians is confidered as the 
language of politenels and univcrfality. 

Another fingularity that feems to be 
peculiar to this nation is, their frequently 
going out to meet their enemies on horfc- 
back, wliich, with their very fine horfes 
that they take fuch delight in, renders 
them in fact a nation of cavalry. 

This i^ideed is the cafe with no other 
nation either in North or South America, 
unlefs we except the Patagonians, thofe 
men of vaft and uncommonly large 
flature, lately difcovered by admiral 
Byron, and the other circumnavigators, 
&c. on the coaft of Patagonia, nei\r thg 
ftreights of Magellan. 


■ 1; ! 




1 i::' 


* ■ tH 

United States of America, 



Leave Yajfous. Arrive at batches, Prcc^cd to Krjj 

Oilcans, French Inhabitants averjc to Spani/o 

Covcrmncfit, Lifurrcc^iion quelled. Earnejlly wtjh 

for British Liberty. Number of Families in, 

New Orleans and Loui/iana. 

/^N the third morning we let out from 
V_-/ ^aflbus River, on our voyage down 
the MifTiffippi, after taking an affec- 
tionate leave of our friendly, and as wc 
really found them, hofpitable Chickefaws. 
We met with nothing very material nor 
interefting until we arrived at the Natches, 
which we did on the 20th of Auguft* 
being juft thirty-two days from the time' 
we left Kentucky. 

Here we flaid three days, and in that 
time received many civilities and marks of 
kindnefs from Major Fields and Mr. L. 
Claiborne, who were fettled on very fine 
and valuable plantations, upon the banks 
of the Miffiffippi, having come there from 
Virginia, of which colony they were alfo 

^ natives ; 


,! f 

: \ 

W I 

:!■■ ir;' 



^ tour in tke 

natives j arid we really found them to be 
very entertaining, fenfible, and enter- 
prifing men. 

From Natches we proceeded on our 
Voyage on the fourth morning, and arrived 
at New Orleans in four days, being on 
the twenty-feventh of AuguQ. 

Here we found almoft all the inhabitants 
tvcte French ; very few of them eten un- 
derftanding the Spaniih language ; and 
they entertained the moft rooted and im- 
pi cable averfion to the Spanifti nation 
and government, as well as a ftrong pre- 
diledlion for the Britifli. 

As a proof of this, although there is a 
penalty incurred, by proclamation of the 
Spanifli Governor, of four hundred or five 
hundred dollars, for even admitting a Bri-» 
tifli fubjcd into one of their houfes, unlefs 
they immediately make government ac- 
quainted with it, yet they make no fcrupld 
nor difficulty of receiving any Englifliman, 
and entertaining him in the moft generous 
and hofpitablc manner openly ; at the 
fame time taking care to enhance the efti- 


United States of jlttierica. 367 

mation of their kind reception, by making 
him acquainted with the rifque they run^ 
and the penahy they incur the forfeiture 
of thereby. 

This is the general practice in the ifland 
of New Orleans, at fome diftancefrom the 
town, which however being the feat of 
government, and being alfo occupied with 
a Spanifh garrifon, it would be impojffible 
for the French inhabitants to fulfil . fucH 
hofpitable intentions and purpofes therein 
with fafety. 

They were at this time extremely mor- 
tified, humbled and intimidated by a cir- 
cumilance that had occurred but a Ihort time, 
at lead but a few years before our arrival. 

Soon after the territory of New Or- 
leans had been ceded by France to Spain, 
the French inhabitants aflembled together, 
in a large body, on the thirtieth of October, 
one thoufand feven hundred and fixty- 
eight, determined to expel Don Antonio 
d'Uloa the Spanifli Governor, and all the 
other Spanifh officers ; accordingly on the 
fccond of November they fent them on 
9 boaid 




■! . !• 



i li\ 


l> >. 


t|, it 

i I 


368 ^ Tour in the 

board a large Spanifh fhip in the harbour, 
with orders to leave the ifland imme^' 

Previoufly to the above exploit they 
confined M. Aubry, who was Command- 
ant while the place belonged to France. 

The occafion was, the Spaniards want- 
ing to introduce their commercial regula- 
tions, \^hich the inhabitants refufed to 
fubmit to, and declared they would be 
either French or Britifli fubjedts, but never 
would confent to be Spanifh. 

The Governor and the reft of the Spa- 
hifli OfRceirs failed for the Havannah, and 
left in the harbour a Spanifh frigate with 
the marines, not in a condition to put to 
fea, and two hoflages for payment of debts 
due to the French. 

Four of the principal inhabitants em- 
barked foon afterwards to lay a reprefenta- 
tion of their affairs before the Court of 
France, and folicit redrefs of their griev- 

Things continued in this condition for 
fome time, but at lafl General Count 




XJnited States of Amei'ica, 369 

O'Reiley, a brave experienced officer of 
irifh defcent, (who claims the ifland of 
Jamaica in the Weft Indies, as lord pro- 
prietor when the Spaniards poflefled it,) 
tvas ordered there by the Court of Madrid, 
and landed at New Orleans, with three 
thoufand Spaniards, and three or four 
ihips of waf . 

The inhabitants then immediately fub- 
tnitted ; and General O'Reiley ordered 
thirty of the leading men in this affair to 
be executed, and confifcated the eftates ot 
about two hundred more. 

This fe verity reftrained their adions, 
but cannot command the will. 

At this time fo great is their defireto be 
under Britifh government, and fo general, 
fo hearty, fo rooted is their deteftation to 
that of Spain, that only a dozen or two 
of BritAns, of fpirit and enterprize, would 
be able to wrcft all that country from the 
Spaniards ; as the inhabitants are all 
French, excepting the garrifon which con- 
fifts only of a handful of lazy, proud, mi- 
ferable Spaniards, who defpife the French 

Vol, I. Bb fettlers 

I A 


J V 

> % 

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f K.' 


? 11 


Wi 1 1 




A Tour in the 

fettlers as cordially as they themfclves are 
hated by them in return. 

At this time there would be nothing 
wanting or neceflary but to eredt the iland- 
ard of Great Britain, and the French 
inhabitants would one and all fupport il; 
fo much dc ih^ wifti for Britifh liberty, 
and .to fuch a degree do they deteft th« 
arbitrary government of Spain. 

The number of families in the town 
and ifland of New Orleans, and on the 
weft fide of the Mifliffippi, may amount 
to twelve thoufand at leaft, all of whom 
are thus avcrfe to be governed by the 


t*' ! 

J(i?: :''W, 

i >r lit 

.11 I 

■ f. 1 

<. - 


.i> ^ t. 

United States of America. 37 1 












Dangerous Alligators, Vafl Fertility of the Soil* Spa* 
nijh Beard,!,, Wait on the Governor, Nenv Orleans, 
Great Dijlrejfes of jome Englijh and French impri* 
foncd by the Spaniards in Nnv Mexico. Vafi Flocks 
of Cattle and Horfes. Extenjive Savannahs. A good 
Prieji. Leave New Orleans. Arrive at Manchac. 
Coaji along the Gulf of Mexico. Mobile ^ Penfacola^ 
jfpalachicohf l^c, 

IN the river Miflllfipi, and on the 
banks, are many very fingular ap- 

In the river, and in the creeks, rivulets 
and water-courfes falling into it, efpecially 
near the mouth, are large dangerous ani** 
mala named alligators, from ten to eigh- 
teen feet and upwards in length ; they are 
a fpecies of the crocodile, and equally, if not 
more dangerous than thofe of the river Nile 
in Kgypt ; thefe alfo devouring men, oxen^ 
or whatever elfe they can get within their 
horrid jaws, in that crafty fubtle manner, 
fo often defcribed already in different 

B b 2 Thefe 




I .1 

' 1^ 


A ; 

« I 

V , 


It i 





11: i; 

15 ' '-'fs 

1 1 mi 


yl Tour in the 

Thefe render it dangerous to flcep In 
open battcaux on the Mifliffippi, and on 
this account travellers are obliged to He 
on fiiore every night, near to a large fire, 
which always prevents the approach of 
any beads of prey. 

On this river the foil is fo extremely 
rich, and fo luxuriantly fertile,, that reeds 
grow . even on the high land ; a cir- 
cumftance that I believe is not to be 
paralleled any where elfe in the univerfe. 

The grand culture and ilaple here being 
indigo, this amazing fertility of the foil not 
only produces larger crops thereof than are 
obtained from equal quantities of ground 
in any other land or country, but alfo en- 
hances the value of the quality of it, 
which is always greater according to the 
^fuperior richnefs and depth of the foil., ^ . 

Another very fingular and linking ap- 
pearance is a kind of niofs, in! long aodl 
numerous filaments, here called> Sfamjh 
i>ifjr^i, which, hang in prodigious quan- 
tities) impending in hoary majefty^ from 



d a 

United States of Amerh -a, 373 

all the large branches of the lofty oaks, 
ibmetimes touching the very ground. 

Thefe convey a venerable idea of vaft 
antiquity, and ftrikc the mind with in awe, 
and a fenfation of reverential regard that 
can fcarcely be defcribed. 

This has alfo its ufes, being extremely 
ferviceable and convenient to make our 
beds when we fleep in the woods 5 and it 
is clean, foft, agreeable, and abundant. 

The town of New Orleans is fituatcd 
on the eaftern banks of the Mifliflippi, 
about ninety miles above Cape Laos or 
Mud-Cape, where that river falls into the 
gulf of Mexico. 

The banks of the river are fo perpen- 
dicular, and the water is fo deep, that a 
ftiip of any burthen may lay her broad- 
fide to the bank, to land and unload, and 
is moored by a cable failened to the trees 
on the fhore. 

The river is above a thoufand yards 
wide, and the current runs all down- 
wards, as the tide does not reach near the 
^own \ indeed the tide is fcarcely perceived 

Bb3 at 

r ' 

i V, 

. ! 


I i: 







y^ Tour in the 

at all within the mouth of this aflonifhing 

river, whofe waters, efpecially during the 

periodical floods, may be didinguifhed in 

the gulf of Mexico for many leagues, fome 

fay above an hundred miles out at fea. 

The ftreets of New Orleans arc laid out 

in redangular directions, the houfes are 

generally only one (lory high, yet many of 

them pretty good, and they may amount 

in number to three or four hundred. 

The ifland of New Orleans is generally 

pretty good land, and all of it very low 

and Hat. 

It is about an hundred and eighty or 

ninety miles in length, but not more than 

five miles from navigable water at any 

place throughout the whole of it. 

On the very next day after our arrival 

at New Orleans, Mr. Wood, Mr. Lewis 

and I waited on the Spanifh Governor ; but 

being informed that he was engaged for 

that day, my companions declined fending 

him any of the letters of introduction and 

recommendation they were furnifhed 



jji \i I 

United States of America. 37 J 

Indeed thefe haughty Virginians were fo 
extremely incenfed at this refufal of admif- 
fion, that it was ^\ith the utmoll difliculty 
I could prevail upon them to confent to 
pay their perfonal refpedts to the Governor 
any more at all, or to fend or prefent their 
credentials ; efpecially as it did not appear 
to them, nor indeed to me, that he was 
really engaged at the time we received 
that meflage and apology of excufe from 
him, as we could plainly difcern him« 
through a window, obferving and making 
his remarks, as we judged, on us, while we 
were walking backwards and forwards in 
the piazza, in expectation of his anfwer ; 
walking in that manner being a kind of ex- 
ercife a Spaniard holds in great contempt. 
However we were ad m itted on the day fol- 
lowing, and were even honored by a very 
friendly reception ; though I muft confefs 
that there appeared to me a AifFnefs and 
formality, in his Excellency, that indicated 
a didrufl, and feemed to fay that he could 
have difpenfed with our vifit ; not that 
there was any thing perfonal meant to us, 

B b 4 for 




■H. ' 



1 1 


^ Tcur in the 

for the frequent proofs of civility, iin4 
(Bven generous attention, we received fron^ 
him afterwards, evinced the contrary. 

But we imputed it to that narrow, illi- 
beral, and jealous policy of the Spaniih 
government, by which they endeavour tQ 
preclude all other nations, not only fron^ 
any communication with, but even as 
inuph from the knowledge of all their 
American fettlements as pofFible. 

The reftridions of the Spanifli govern- 
jnent on commerce render the prices of all 
European goods here very much advanced, 
and they would adually be almoft intoler- 
able, if the inhabitants did not contrive to 
get many things underhandedly from the 
Englifli, French, and Dutch, by ipeans of 
an illicit trade. 

Indeed almoft all the flour that fupports 
New Orleans is imported from Philadel? 
phia, in veflels belonging to a commerciaj 
houfe there, viz. Meflrs. Willing and Mor- 
ris, who have obtained an exclufive privi- 
ledge, for that fole purpofe, from the King 

pf Spain. 




^ri vi- 


United Stdles of America. 377 

From this the Governor makes a per- 
quifite of twenty thoufand dollars annu- 
ally, as all the flour, being configped to 
the King of Spain, is paid for by the Go- 
vernor, who orders it to be diftributed 
to the inhabitants at the rate of a dollar a 
barrel, clear gain advanced on the price, 
after the dedudion of all cofts and 

During the time I was at New Orleans, 
^ gentleman from Maryland, who had 
fallen, by a very unfortunate accident, into 
the hands of the Spaniards in I^ew Mexi- 
co, and with feveral other Britifh fubjeds 
had been mod cruelly treated by them, 
arrived there. 

Having at length obtained his liberty, 
for he had been a confiderable time very 
rigidly confined,^ he came to New Ot- 
leans, to endeavour to procure a paflage, 
either to Virginia, Maryland, or Phila- 

This gentleman, defcended from a Ro- 
pian Catholic family in Maryland, was 
mafter of a veflel belonging to his brother 







! ■, 

















llF P:^'. 

1 ; ^itm 


'1; JP-f 

1 ■ , • 


j4 Tour /;; /i&^ 

Athanafius Ford, of Leonard Town, in St. 
Mary's County, and had failed from the 
river Potowmak, loaded , with the French 
Neutrals (as they were called,) who had 
been removed from Nova-Scotia by the 
Briti(h government on account of their 
flrongprediledion to the French intereft 
there, which at every rifk they were al- 
ways ready to promote and fupport. 

The vefTel was navigated by Brltifh 
failors, and was bound to the Miffiffippi, 
in order to carry thefe French Accadians 
to their country- men there, where they 
intended to fettle. 

But having got into the trade-winds, and 
being unacquainted with the navigation of 
that part of the gulf of Mexico, after having 
been reduced to thegreateft diftrefs for want 
of provifions, their whole (lock being ex- 
haufted for fome time, having fubfiftedon 
the rats, cats, and even all the (hoes and 
leather in the veifel, they ran into Ber- 
nard's bay, and landed at the mouth of 
Rio de la Norte, or Rio Grande, in the 


I '^ 

Vmte4 S totes of America. 

- .J . 

kingdom or province of New Mexico 
infteadoftheMifliffippi ' 



repaft. when the veflel was feized on by 

o^ the K,ng ; and they were carried, moll 
of them to the town of New Mexico and 

2T 7' ■'""""''^ ^"'"■" '^"«J from 
he place where they came on fhore on 

this mhofpitable coaft. 

Here they were all clofely confined for 
lome time. 

But at length the common people were 
permuted to go at large, in the day. on 


Yet the officers belonging to the vefTel 

*s we as all the Fno-lin, r -i ' 

^"^ ^ngiifli failors, were ftill 


i f, 

I.: H 

I ! 

|J >] 

II T v. 



j4 Tour in the 

imprifoned with the moil rigid and bar*» 
barous feverity. 

However they were alfo offered a H- 
jnited enlargement, on condition of their 
figning a paper, written in the Spanifli 
language, which however they privajely 
contrived to obtain a tranflation of, and 
found it contained zn acknowledgment on 
their parts of having been guilty of the 
moft unjufllfiable and aggravated crimes, 
and of being treated with, the greateft hu- 
manity and tendernefs during this their 

This they had the refolution and virtue 
of refufing to fubfcribe to, although they 
were adually in danger of ftarving and 
perilhing for want of neceflaryfood. 

At length a prieft, poflefled of more hu- 
manity than the reft of the barbarous 
inhabitants of that country, having called 
to vifit them, took compaffion on their 
extreme wretchednefs, made them a pre- 
fent of a fat bullock every day, and inte- 
refted himfelf fo effectually for them as to 

obtain their enlargement. 





United States of America, 381 

But fo numerous were this man's flocks 
of cattle, as well as of horfes, that although 
thcfe poor unfortunate creatures received 
above an hundred oxen from him, yet they 
could not be mifled out of the whole flock. 

And Mr. Ford aflured me that he pof- 
fefled more than fifteen thoufand horned 
cattle^ and near ten thoufand horfes and 
colts, which were kept fat without any 
trouble the whole year round by the lux- 
uriant pafture which that country affbrds. 

For it feems the land there is not over 
grown with woods, as in the reft of Ame- 
rica, but is univerfally a rich meadow, 
abounding with the fineft grafs in the 
world, and interfperfed here and there 
with clumps or clufters of tall and ftately 

I made no confiderable ftay at New 
Orleans, which to me as wdl as to Mlr.^ 
Wood, Mr, Lewis, and Mr. Ford, was 
rather a difagreeable place; and Mr. Lewis 
and I fet out in a batteau for Manchac» 
leaving both Mr. Wood and Mr. Ford 
there, who were about engaging a paflage 
9 for 




! r 

ii ti 



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"■... /h 


i. .! >i Ty ']i 


382 ji Tour in the 

for Philadelphia in one of Willing and 
Morris's veflels. 

It was live days before we firrived at Mr. 
Edmund Gray's near Manchac ; but here 
I was mpft agreeably furprifed at meeting 
with an old acquaintance from Georgia, 
along with whom I had been initiated 
into the the myfteries of free-mafonry, in 
my journey through North-Carolina. 

His name was Allan Groves, and as he 
propofed returning to Georgia by the 
fame route as I did, we all agreed to join 
company together. 

Having procured a batteau on the Ib- 
berville, or Amit River, which falls into 
Lake Maurepas^ we embarked, andcoafled 
along the lakes, viz. Maurepas and Pon- 
chatrain, paffing by the mouth of the Nita 
Albany River, the Tangepahoa River, 
the Chefondo River, and the Pearl River 
which is divided into two branches, called 
Weft River and Eaft River, when it falls 
into the lake or bay of St. Lewis ; alfo the 
river Ookahootoo, the Chencala River, 
the Booka Hooma River, Hunting River, 


United States of America , 383 

Pafquagoocula River, Cedar River, Pines 
Bay, and Pool River. 

Having touched by the way at a vaft 
many iflands, among which are Mattheu- 
raux Ifland, Roebuck Ifland, Cat Ifland, 
Ship Ifland, Broad Key, and Dauphin 
Ifland, we arrived at Mobile point, at the 
mouth of the great bay of Mobile, which 
is formed by a vaft concourfc of mighty 

Here we made no (lay, but Immediately 
proceeded on our coafling voyage ; pafling 
the mouth of Perdido River, Efcambe or 
Jordan River, Middle or Governors Ri- 
ver, Cheiler River, St. Rofa River, Bay 
and Ifland, Chatahooche River, St. An- 
drew's Bay, River, and Ifland, Roebuck 
point, St. Jofeph's Bay, Cape St. Bias or 
Efcondido, and St. George's Ifland which 
forms the mouths of the river Califl:obole, 
and of the mighty river of Apalachicola, 
which is the eaftern boundary of the, 

province ot Weft Florida. 

^ The 

II t! 



^ Tour in thi 

The lands in this province are indeed 
moft amazingly fertile and rich, cfpecially 
on the banks of the Miffiffippi. 

' Old plantations, cultivated by the French 
fifty or fixty yeafs, produced laft year, 
tTiat is the year before I was there, ftom 
forty to' fixty bufhels of Indian corn to 
the acre'. 

'- The culture of every thing here is at- 
together by hand hoes, and manual labour 
of flaves, without the affiftance of horfea 

or oxen. 

... c 


?: . 

• " .ft., • 

' i »^ i 5 I 

*; o't; j. i 

■ . t « ; 

t J >• 





5 " 


it , 

1:1! ii 

■ i \ JU *1 


V>>it^d States of America. 


rado. North Riv.r, or Rio Bravo. W^ 
Gulf of California. Mine, of PoJflT' 
Old Mexico. UV^aCruJ Trn ''"'"' 

^'finp,:onof.UC:^;:- ^^"""-Z^'- 

gEFORE I take „,, leave of the 
JLJ province of Weft Florida, it r..y 
not be improper to give a /ketch of the 
courfes, extent, and combination of the 
nvers; the diftances between different 
places, as well within the province as 
on the weft fide of the river^M/r' ? 
al o the ftate of the colony, culture of tl" 

of ^Slc^r °'''^^^' -' ^°P"'--. 

Weft Florida is bounded on the fouth 
b7 the Gulf of Mexico, including a , 
iHands &c within fix leagues of the 
coaft. from the mouth of Apalachicola ,0 
the lake Ponchartrain ; on the weft it is 
bounded by the lake Mauripas. and 
Vol. I. Q ^ ^ 

^ ^ A canal 




»' I 


A Tour in the 

a canal, or river, named Ibbervllle, that 
joins the laft mentioned lake to the Mif- 
fiflippi, and by the Mifliflippi itfelf; 
on the north by a line drawn due 
eaft from that part of the river Miffif- 
fippi, which lies in the latitude of 
thirty-one degrees north, until it inter- 
feds the river Apalachicola or Catahoua- 
chee ; and on the eaft by the faid river, 
until it falls into the Gulf of Mexico. 

Its greateft length from eaft to weft, 
viz. from Apalachicola to the Mifliflippi, 
is about four hundred ftatute miles ; but 
its breadth is inconfiderable from north to 
fouth, being in few places fixty-nine 
miles according to thefe boundaries. 

From Rofe Bay, and St. Mary's Bay, 
to the north line, is not more than forty 
miles, which is the general diftance 
acrofs, as far weft as the lakes Poncharti*ain 
and Mauripas. 

From the mouth of the rivers Callfto- 
bole and Apalachicola to the north line 
is eighty-five miles, which is the wideft 
part of the province. 

5 From 


^'^^d^^icsof^,,: erica, 3?- 

Fror^ ^H Loas or Mud ^pe at fh^ 

Ciit by the 1 1 I r '^''^^ 

-■•ghty miles bv knd. '"'^ 

Th ,,-idcfl ,art of the ifla„d of New 

" -Uix AfRettes, oppofite to C^t in i 
to the Miffifllppi, and is L. ''• 

fort, miles atl;: 3 "l^'^.f" 
ahniif ♦!,• * r P^^'» Which IS 

ivir real!" ^'°'''= "'^ --'• 
c river, then above that place frnrr, 

akes Ponchanrain and Mauripas: :„d 

WtheAmitandlbberviiieHvL it' 
not more than fiv^ «,;] • ' ^'^ is 

theMiffiflippi "'"""S^--'.to 

The town of New Orleans is in that 

lake V"h'' '^•""" *^ ^°-'' -"5 
lake Ponchartrain and the MifUffi. 

abcK ninety miles fouth fro„,^^^:^; 

or nver of Ibberville and ». 

fame diftance north L u ' "'" 

the Miffiffippi. ^'""^ •''^ '"°""' of 

^'^ From 


A T^our in the 

\ I 

( \:- 

From the uppcrmoft, or moft northerly 
end of the Ifland of New Orleans, to 
that part of the MiflilTippi at the thirty- 
fir ft degree of north latitude, is juft fifty 
miles. ^ 

Thefe diftances are in dircdt courfes 
over land, by no means following th« 
meanders of the rivers, which would 
generally render them double. 

This boundary, already mentioned, was 
that firfl eflablifhed for the province of 
Weft Florida ; but I have underftood that 
the north line has been extended farther 
up the river fince, to include the Natches, 
and the mouth of the river Yaflbus, to 
which lafl place it was carried back by 
Governor Johnftone's proclamation. 

From the upper part of the ifland of 
New Orleans to the confluence of the 
YaflTous is about a hundred and thirty 
miles north. 

From the mouth of the river Yaflfous, 
fouth to Natches Old Town, is about 
eighty miles; from Natches, fouth to 
l3aton Rouge, and Fort Bute, is about 

i» feventy- 

From the mouth c f the V=. /r„ 

*«coaftoftheGulfof4l t"^ 
Jong the rivers M.ffifl- • ,'"'="'' and a- 

«- hundred Li^ ^IT"^' ^ 
the chief of „;.,• u ^^^" "f rivers ; 

No«h Amir'i ir ^^ "' ^" 

^orld. is the m- 1 ^^'P' '" the 

^^^^pi/nlviSVt'"?^ "■-' 
AiMhony. which L ^^"' "^ ^t. 

hundred ml^^;r 7"''' ^"''"'ehteea 

•^ climates, 

) ■ 


m !1! 

'! I, !■ 


! '■ ■ - 


' I! 


i 1 i' 








j4 Tour in the 

climates, and paffing through the largeft 
and finefl: country upon earth. 

Where it derives its fource is not 
known, having been traced as far as 
fifty-five degrees north latitude, and an 
hundred and ten degrees weft longitude 
from London ; being even there a very 
large river. 

The country in that part is very flat 
and marfhy, and the Indians themfelves 
cannot tell how inuch farther north and 
wefl it has its fource. 

From that place it runs in a fouth-eaft 
diredion to the forty-fecond degree 
north latitude, and ninetieth weft longi- 
tude ; then with many vaft bendings, 
continues almoft a dye fouth courfe, yntil 
it falls into the Gulf of Mexico in north 
latitude twenty- nine degrees ten mi- 
nutes, and eighty-nine degrees thirty- 
five minutes weft longitude ; having re- 
ceived a vaft number of wide, extenfive, 
and mighty rivers, and having ftretched 
along this globe in a di'^edl courfe, which 
has been traced, above three thoufand 

iniles ; 

United States of America. 39, 

n^iles.and including the prodigiousnu-x.- 

S than"; > '"' "'^-''- -t 
iefs than fix or feven thoufand miles. 

Its name in the Indian Ian. .age is 

laid to flgnifv narenf ^f • ^ 

foncfthfoian ' ™'°'-^'''^ft. 
. ^'/«"'ves more than an hundred 
confiderable rivers in its courf. "^ 

A^- W thoufand m C :t "7 ''^ 

chiefofwhich on the eftern ;?'''' '''^ 
following, viz. . ^'^"''^° fide are the 

; J^^ft 'he Illinois, whofe fource is , 
tweea the lates Illinois or M eh 

Huron, and Erie, as the Mi4;''r/ 

The fecond is the vaft river Oh- r- 
River, anrodio-;. """^"^ Ohw, or Fair 
' P'^oaigious concourfe of „ ■ , 

waters, extendin<. behind n ° ™'S'"y 
Settlements, whofe fo ' .' ^"'"^ 

New York srov.r " ^''""'^ ^n 

^" ^arge LC? :i ^'^ -^^^^'e 

oflakeErie;rothat :t:7V;'- 
«he co„,„eft of Canada b'The 'b i^' 
S-t three thoufand men. :i;,';^So^ 

C C 4. ... 

^ niiiitar/ 



': If- 






A Tour in the 

jnilkary ftores, bagj^-'ge, &c. from Que- 
bec to New Orleans ; viz. up the river St, 
Laurence, acrofs lake Ontario, and lake 
Erie, and down French Creek, the Ohio, 
3nd the Mifliflippi. 

The Ohio itfelf receives above an 
hundred rivers in its courfe, feme of 
which (particularly the Cherokee cr HogOi- 
hegee) are equal to the largeft in Europe. 

The laft river that falls into the Miffi^ 
iTippi on the eaftern fide, that I (hall take 
notice of, is the Yaffous, a fine, placid, 
(deep, and beautiful ftream, being navi- 
gable near an hundred and fifty miles. 

It takes its rife ne^r the falls of the 
Cherokee, or Hogohegee River, and runs 
through the Chickefaw nation, receiving 
many branches, but none very confider- 
able, in its coiirfe of three hundred miles 
to the Mifliflippi, which is in a direct 
line, or five hundred miles with Jts 

From the fource to the mouth of this 
very fine river, it is a moft delightful open 
puntfjp, ^ith few mountains or hills, 



United States of America. 593 

confidering its inland fituation, and is 
the happieft, and moil excellent and agree* 
able climate in the world. 

It is poffeflcd chiefly by the Chicke- 
faws, a very gallant, brave, and refped:- 
able nation, and firm Allies of Great 
Britain, as has been already mentioned. 

On the weftern fide of the Mifliffippi 
are many vaft rivers, but none more con- 
fiderable than the Ohio. However not 
one of them is fo well known. 

The largeft is the PohitenousjOrMifouri^ 
whofe fource has not been difcovercd, 
and whofe courfe extends (perhaps) fome 
thoufand miles, before it enters the Mif- 
fiflippi, which is almoft oppofite to the 
confluence of the Illinois, only about 
twenty-feven miles below. 

A large river north of the Miflbury is 
the river Moingona, and ftill farther 
north is St. Peter's River. 

South of the Miflburi is the river St. 
Francis ; proceeding fouthward, the next 
i? the Imahans or Akanfaw River. 



yf Tb/zr /;i //6^ 

Then that moft excellent, valuable, and 
delightful river, named Rio Rouge, or 
Red River, which is of vaft extent, ex- 
tremely crooked, placid, and beautiful 
beyond defcription. 

The Red River receives two very large 
branches on the north fide, named the 
Black River, and Ox River, and falls 
into the. Mifliffippi almoft oppofite to 
Tonikas in Well Florida: this is the 
laft river I fhall take notice of on the 
weftern fide of the MifTiflippi. 
,' The moft remarkable places weft, a- 
long the coaft of tl e great Bay of Mexico, 
from Cape Laos, or Mud Cape, at the 
mouth of the Mifliffippi, is firft la Balife 
Fort and Illand, fome diftance weft is Enfe- 
nada de Palos, then Woods Bay and Ifland, 
Ouachas Lake, Afcenfion Bay, Vermillion 
Bay, then from Ouachas Lake to North 
Cape are eight fmall rivers, and two lakes. 
There is alfo an ifland at the Cape, 
in which indeed is the Cape itfelf, firft 
difcovered in the year one thoufand fe- 
ven hundred and twenty-fix. 


Vmted States of America. 39, 

Weft of the Cape, the firft is a fmall 
nver, and a large bay named Jacdaiches 
Bay, with three rivers running into if- 
the next is Mexicana River, which fome 
diftancefrom thefea is named Adayes River- 
then a fmall but long ifland; then the river 
Flons; a long ifland ; the river Magdalen • 

R'o de la Trinidad j Dun River which 
falls mto la Maligne River ; Colorado or 
Cane River; little Cane River; and 
Guadaloupe River; Leon River 5 Rio del ; and Honda or Deep River, all fall 
into St. Bernards or St. Lewis's Bay and 
tbeBayofSt.Jofeph. ^ ^ 

On the fouth weft of Maligna River 

M. la Salle fettled in the year X 685, and 

was blled about three hundred mifes up 
Tnmdad River, in the year 1 687 

On the river Sablomini is the town 

andfettlementofPrefidio; within the bay 

f;!/!V^°''« ^ -«d "Pon the bants of 

t^fe different rivers and tneir branches 
f '' '^' "^^'""^ °f Killamouches and Al- 
Ja.cappa, wandering Indians, 



A Tour in the 


♦ t*i 

The rivers Guadaloupe and Leon fall 
into St. Jofeph's Bay, on the fouth-weft 
of which is a very long and large ifland 
named St. Jofeph's ifland 3 and the rivers 
Honda, Del Vino, Sacro, and Nuces 
or Nutts, fall into a Bay on the fouth-weft 
of it, forming St. Jofeph's Lake or Bay. 

Gn the fouth fouth-weft is the mouth 
of the great river Bravo, or De la Norte, 

- • 

which bounds on the nor^h and eaft the 
kingdom of New Leon, and is indeed a 
very large and noble river. 

The next river of any note is Rio de 
Iks Palmas, which is named Rio de las 
Nacos at fome diftance from the fea. This 
id a fine beautiful large river, and derives 
its fource within an hundred miles of the 
Gulf of California in the South Sea. 

Rio de la Norte or North River is alfo 
a very extenfive and charming river, con- 
fiderably larger than the laft mentioned 
one, running in a courfe about middle 
way between the Mifliflippi and the Cali- 
fornian Gulf, and the rivers Colorado, 
le los Martyree, and Rio Grande le lo$ 


'United States of America. 39^ 

Apoftolos, or Del Coral or Blue River 
which form or fall into the Gulf, but 
IS nearer to California by five or fix 
hundred miles than to the Milfiffippi. 

Thefe vaft rivers, efpecially Rio de la 
Norte, and the Miflburi, head very near 
each other, about the forty-fixth degree 
north latitude, and the hundred and fifth 
Weft longitude. 

I have thus inveftigated the fource of 
l^iefe prodigious and extenfive waters, 
on a foundation that may be relied on ; 
and it will give power to form a more 
juft and perfea idea of the country, by 
mentioning the diftances thefe vaft waters, 
and principal places, are from each other! 
From Cape Loas to Bernard's Bay 
is about four hundred and fifty miles, 
thence to the mouth of Rio de la Norte 
two hundred, then to Rio de las Palmag 
IS feventy.five miles, which make alto^e- 
ther feven hundred and twenty.five miles. 
The courfe of Rio de las Palmas is 
yearly eaft, and the extent of it about 
five hundred and fifty miles. 

. From 




A 'tour in the 


From the mouth of Rio de las Palmas, 
in the Gulf of Mexico, weft to the South 
Sea, at the mouth of the river Culiacan, 
the beginning of the Californian Gulf, 
is fix hundred miles. 

From Tonikas on the Miffiffippi to 
Mexico^ or Juan Baptifta on Rio de la 
Norte, is fix hundred and fifty miles ; 
viz. to the crofting of Red River an 
hundred and fifty, to Adayes feventy- 
five, to Trinidad feventy-five, to the Rio 
St. Marco is an hundred and fifty, to 
Mexico on the North River two hun- 

From Mexico to. California, at the Bay 
of St. Luccis, Pearl River, or the Bay of 
St. Mary's near Cinaloa, or to Culiacan, is 
five hundred and feventy-five miles ; viz. to 
the head of Pearl River three hundred and 
feventy-five miles, to the mouth two hun- 
dred and fifty miles, this being in the 
fouth part of New Navarre. 

New Mexico or St. Paul's is about fix 
hundred miles, up the North River, from 

the Gulf of Mexico. 

From ' 

United States of Amoica. 399 
From Mexico, on the North River to 

to Old Mexico feveu ht^ndred. to Aca- 
pulc^o^„.„e hundred, and the fame to La 

Froni Acapulco to La Vera Cruz is three 

hundred miles, from Old Mexico to La 

Vera Crt^z two hundred and feventy, and 

to Acapulco two hundred and feventy 

All thjs country, to the weft of the Mif- 

ligSui." '"'°'"P"''''''y P'^'''^"' and de- 

m.ldneft of the climate, in the foftnefs and 

dance and excellence of moft beautiful 
water-courfes. it is not exceeded, perhl 
not equalled, by any other part of h . 

whole ,mme„fe continent of America, ll 
deed U can be furpafled by „o country i„ 
theumverle. The multitude of moft ele 
gant and charnung fltuations that excel 
m grandeur and delightfulnefs of perfpec as well as the aftonifl,i„g lu.uriLe 

of the fod. are far beyond any thing that 
can be conceived. S,, 

1 here 


A Tour^ G?r. 



%! f 

• There are alfo vaft numbers of excellent 
harbours, and beautiful cxtenfive navigable 
rivers. The earth pours forth every ve- 
getable produdion in the moft abundant 
profufion, almoft fpontaneoufly, and in a 
manner without labour. Black cattle, horfes, 
and every ufeful animal, multiply to an in- 
credible degree, without any kind of trou- 
ble, as there is no occafion for providing a 
flock of provender for them againft winter. 
In fhort, there is no advantage, charm, or 
defirable qualification, that bountiful na- 
ture can beflow, but is heaped, with a de- 
gree of profufion, on this lovely country, 
that is not to be defcribed in language, or 
conceived in idea. For it really is capable 
of being rendered, not only the garden of 
America, but of the whole world. 

Yet this fine country is at prefent little 
better than an uncultivated defart, owing 
to the miftaken and narrow policy of the 
Spanifh governmv^nt, under whofe abfo- 
lute, and uncontrouled domination it has 
ever remained. 





n a