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Full text of "The British dominions in North America, or, A topographical and statistical description of the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward, and Cape Breton [microform] : including considerations on land-granting and emigration : to which are annexed, statistical tables and tables of distances, &c."

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THE 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 



IN 



NORTH AMERICA; 



oil A 



TOPOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION 

OF THE l-nOVlNCES OF 

LOWER AjVD upper CANADA, 

NEW BRUNSWICK, NOVA SCOTIA, 
THE ISLANDS OF XEWFOUXDLAXD, PRINCE EDU ARD, AND CAPE BRETON. 



ivci.uniNo 



CONSIDERATIONS ON LAND-GRANTING AND EIMIGRATION. 

TO WHICH ARE ANNKXED, 

STATISTICAL TABLES AxND TABLES OF DISTANCES, &c. 



BY JOSEPH BOUCHETTE, ESQ., 



SURVEYOR GENERAL OP LOWER CANADA, MEIT. OOLONEL C. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF QUEBEC, AND CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE S 



M., VICE PIIESIDENT OF THE I.ITERAHY AM) 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, LONDON. 



Embrllistrl) tnitfi >Tirtos. \i\am of iTotoiis, JiMitouis. &r, 



-5* 



IX TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. II. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED BY HENRY COLBCRN AND RICHARD BENTLEY, 

NEW burlin(;ton-strket. 

1831. 






1 

1 



^^^f$ 



f 



COiNTEX T8 



OF 



VOL. U. 



CHAPTKll I. 



Nova Scotia— Geographical Position— Sketch of the History of the Province— F'ace of tlie 
Country — Hills — Lakes — Rivers — Forests .... Pa^e 1 to l> 



CHAPTER H. 

Divisions and Subdivisions of the Province — County of Halifax — Description — Shubonacadie 
Caniil- 'I'lio Hariiour of Halifax — The Town of Halifax — Its JManufactures, Trade, Exports 
ami Imports — Township of Halifax — To\\iis]iip of Dartmouth — Lawrence Town — Preston — 
Colchester District — Township of Truro — Township of Onslow — Londoiulerry — Pictou Dis- 
trict — Its Harbours — Harbour of Pictou — Town of Pictou — Table of Population, Produce, \'C. 
of the County of Halifax — County ok Svdnev — Township of Dorchester — Of Arisaig — St. 
Andrew's — Tracadie — ]Manchestcr — Guysborough — ^lilford Haven — Chedabncto Day — 
Canseau — Harbour — Town of Wilniot— Township of St. Mary's— River St. JMary — Sher- 
brooke — Table for the County of Sydney — Cu.mbkri.and County — Fort Lawrence — Town- 
ship of Andicrst — Proposed Canal — Settlements on the Alaccan, Nappan, and Hibbert Rivers 
— Tatniaiiducbe Bay — Township of Wallace — Wallace Bay— Pugwash Settlement — Philip 
River — West Chester — Roads — Table — Hants County — Township of Windsor — Town of 
Windsor — Townships of Falmouth — Newport — Rawdon — Kempt — Douglas — Table — 
King's Coi-nty — Township of Horton — Village of Kentville — Townships of Cornwallis 
— Aylosford — Pansborough — INIinas Basin — Table — County of Lunknbukoh — Townshij) 
of Chester— IVIahone Bay — Chester Town — Township of Lunenburgb — Harbour and Town 
of Luuenburgli — Township of New Dublin — River and Harbour of La Have — Statistical 
Table— Quekn's County — Town of Liverpool — Port and Trade— Port Medway — Set- 
tlements on the River ]Med\i'ay — Table — Annapolis County — Town of ^^nnapolis — 
Granville and Wilmot Townships — Annapolis Uiver — (Jlement's Township — Digby — Wey- 
mouth — Township of Clare — Bay of Fundy — Statistical Table — County of Siiki.ul'hnk — 
Shelburne Township— Town of Slielburne— Harbour— Light-house — Barrington Township 
Argyle Township — Tusket River and Islands — Harbour of Pubiiic" — Yarmouth Town- 
ship — Harbour of Cape Fourche— Chebogue River — Village of Yarmouth — Statistical Table 
for the County of Shelburne— For the Province . . . . 10 to 42 

vcjh. II. b 



1 



Vl 



CONTEXTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

Ilarbiiurs of Xovn Scutiii — Ilalifiix— Murjifan't'.s Hay — IMalioiu! Bay — Livorpodl — Sliolluirnc— 
t'omitry Ilarlxiur, CtiiiKcaii, and Cheduljucu — Pictdii Ilarlionr — Wallace Hay — I'lif^wash 
liay — /\iiiia|i()li.s — Diifliy — IMiiias — C'liijrncfto — C'liiiiliiTlaiiil Hay — Hoads — Sliiiliciiacadie 
Canal — I'ropiiscd Canal — ("liniatc — Soil — Natural Productions — Minerals — Salt Si>rinj;s— 
Animals— Hirds—Fisliis ...... Page 43 to 52 



CHAPTER IV. 

Lands ;;ranti'd, appropriated, and un^ranted — First Proci'ss of Cultivation — A}:ricultural 
Produce— Manures — Ilarvests^Iiaiuls cultivated — Climate of the I'rovince — Fruits — Live 
Stock — Price of Labour — IManufactures — Sliip-lmildinf^ — Trade — Fisheries — Table of Ex- 
ports and Imports — Po])ulation — -(leneral .Statistical Return of tlir Province, (orticial) — Elc- 
nu'Uts of the Population — Religion — Ecclesiastical Establishments — Education — Public 
Seminaries . . . . . . . .'53 to ()7 



CHAPTER V. 

Legislature of Nova .Scotiii — The Lieutenant-Governor and the Executive— The Legislative 
Council — The House of Assendily — Courts of Justice — Law of Inheritance — Provincial Re- 
venue — iSable Island — Its Position — An Estalilishment maintained there for the Relief of 
shipwrecked Persons ....... (D! to 72 



CHAPTER VL 

Cape Brkton — Geogmphical Position — General Description — Lakes — Harbours — Bras d'Or, 
Greater and Less — Harbours in these Lakes — Isthmus of St. Peter's — Soil of the Island — 
Extent of Lands — Division into Districts and Townships — Town of Sydney — Settlements 
on the Shore — ]Miray Bay and River — Island of Scutari — Louisburgh — Settlements between 
Grand River and Canseau — Isle IMadame — Settlements on the Shore of the Bras d'Or — 
Northern Division — Ship Harbour — Port Hood — Settlements between Port Hood and the 
Gulf Shore — Settlements on the Dennis Basin and River — St. Anne's Bay — Other Settle- 
ments — Important Situations of the Island . . . • . 73 to 82 



CHAPTER VII. 

Climate of Cape Breton — Natural Productions — IMinerals— Coals — Gypsum — Salt-Springs — 
Iron — Fisheries — Population — Inhabitants — Religion — Education — Government — Revenue 
— Agriculture — Shipping — Trade — Table of Exports and Imports — Island of St. Paul's — 
Report thereon . . . . . . 82 to 91 



CUNTKNTS. 



vn 



CHAPTKH VIII. 

New HiiuNswirK — Its CJiMijtriiphieul I'ositioii — AhsciiiT of IIi;;lil;mil llidjics— Mars Hill- Its 
Situiitioii — Dcscriplidii- niiim(l:«ry f^iiic — ('(timtry in tlif N'iciiiity "f tin" Hcmiiiiiiry liiiic — 
AladiiMlckdiir Hivcr — Scttlciuciit of Iloiiltoii 'I'owii — iViiicritMll Towiisliips iiilj;u'riit to the 
lioiiliilary — Si'ttlcliU'iits tiu'rcill — Meteoric Tultle «in the Western Hollliihiry — (ieiieral Face 
of the Country throimlioul tiie I'rovinee — I listory — Taliiilar Statement of Divisions arui 
.SiiI)(livisions into Connties and l'a'i-.hes — Hivci'St .Fojin's — Its Positions and Course — Ma- 
dinvaska Settlement — County of N'ork — Its Miainilaries - Ilistorv of the .Madawask.i Settle- 
ment — Qnality of the Ijand — The Coiiisc of the U'wi't fur'her traced — Ciraiid Kiver — (Jreat 
Falls of St. John's — Description of the Falls —Further Course of the Hiver — Salmon Hiver 
— Tol(i(HU' Hiver — Histoidi Hiver — Hiver des Chats^l'arisii of Kent — Parish of Wakefield-- 
Woodstock — Maduxnekean Hiver — Scener\ of the Sl.John's — J?ack Settlements — \ortham|i- 
tou — I'rincc William Parish — Lake St. fJeorire— I'ockuock Hiver — Parish ()f Qneinsliury — 
Kiufj's Clear — Islainls in the St. John's — St. Mary'.s and Douglas Parishes — .A(,idand<es\vicli 
and Nashwak Hivers — .Settlements on their Hanks — Cardiunn — Frederickton .Situation — 
Description of the Town and Ilarhonr — Its Puhlie Institutions — \'iciiiity— Taliular Statement 
of the Population of the County of York in 1(124 — .Superficial Content — Sr'NiirnY County 
— Parishes of jMajieeville and Shellield — Linctdn and Harton — Oronioeto Hiver — (ji'kkn's 
Cor. NT Y — Gaj;eto\vn — Ilampstead — \\'aterlioroni_di, Wick ham, and Hrunswick — Produce of 
the County— Washechunoak and (Jrand Lakes — Maj;napit ami French Lidies — Salmon Hiver 
— King's (Bounty — Parish of Kingston — Sussex, Norton, and Hampton — .More particular 
Account of Sussex — .Sussex A'ale — Hiver Kennehecasis— Cointy ok St, John — Litth' 
Falls of St. John — Description of the City of St. John — Its Pnlilie Institutions and Municipal 
Government — The Harbour, Trade, and Fortifications of .St John's — Other Settlements in 
the Count) — Hoads — Table of Distances from St. John's, on the Line of the Hiver to (Quebec 
— Roads of tiie Province generally ..... Pa<;e i)2 to 122 



CHAPTER IX. 



Chablotte County — Town of St. Andrew's — Roads and Settlements in its Vicinity — Pa- 
rishes of St. David a'ld St. Patrick— St. Stephens— Penntiehl— St. Georjfc— River .Alaga- 
guadavick — Cam])o ; ••'lo — Grand Manan and Deer Islands — Harbours of the C'ountv — 
County ok Wkst.moii-.lano — Description, Soil, and Produce— Trade -Pctcondiac River 
— Quality of Land in the District called the Bend of the Petcundiac— Colonel Cockburn's 
Report (juoted — Rivcr.s of the County — Harbours— Tides — Fort Cund)erland— Hoads of the 
County — Statement of Distances -County of Xortlunnberland, comprisinj,'' Kent and (ilou- 
cester — Parishes— Miramichi River and Harbour — Other Rivers of the County — Tind)er — 
Settlements of the County — Lumber Trade - Account of the Procecdinj;s of a Lumliering 
Party — Account of the tremendous Conflagration at Miramichi in Ji!2."»— Lands on the 
Border of the Bay of Chaleurs— Caraquette River— Proposed Xew Roads— Table of the 
Poi)ulation of the Province ....... 123 to 13f{ 



i 



viu 



CONTENTS. 



(HAPI'KU X. 

(icncriil Hciimrks on tlic I'rtiviiicc of New Urunswick— l)('scrii)tioii of Anicricnn Forests— 
UutiT-fiirriuj^f — A>{rifiiltiirf — C'liinittu mid McasoiiM — Roiids — I'mduco — Soil — Fruits — Aiii- 
mills — Fish — MiiuTiils — I'urtlicr Ai-couiit of the Soil and Af{rieiilliire — Fo|)iihitioii — \'ariou» 
Iniiahitaiits — Indians — Acadians- Old Inlial)itants — Kniijjrants — State ot I{eli){ion and Kc- 
clfsiustic Institutions — State of Lenrninj^ — Fiildic Seminaries — Trade — Shiii-huildinj;— 
Linnlierin^ — jNIndo of conducting this Trade considered — Fisheries — iManiifactures — F.xports 
and Ini|iorts — Hevenne — IMilitia— ("onstitiition and (ioverinnt-nt of the Province — Courts of 
Law — Concluding Remarks on the Province .... Page \',W to 157 



( IIAPTKR XI. 

PiiiNCK EuwARU Island — Its Geographical Position — Sketch of the History of the Island — 
Divisions und Subdivisions into C'ounties, Parishes, and Townships, tabularly stated — 
General Description of the Island — Coasts and Harbours — Harbour of Charlotte Town — Of 
(Jeorge Town — Richmond Hay — Others Hays and Harbours — The Harbours round the Coast 
traced — Rivers — Hillsborough River — York River — Elliott River — Cardigan, Rrudenelle, 
and Montague Rivers — Foxley River — Houghton River — jMurray River — Prince's C-ounty 
— Prince Town Lot — Settlements on Richmond Bay — Queen's County — Charlotte Town 
described— Other Settlements in the County — King's County —(Jeorge Town— Other .Set- 
tlements of the County— Climate of the Island— Progress of tiie Seasons — Mr. .Stewart's 
Report on the Salubrity of the Climate (juotcd — Soil— Produce — Timber — Other Vegetable 
Productions — Agriculture — Progress of a New Settler on a Woodland Farm detailed — De- 
scription of a Log Hut — Trade of Prince Edward Island— Society, Manners, and Amuse- 
ments — State of Religion — Revenue — Government — Courts of Law . 158 to 17i> 



CHAPTER XII. 

Nku KouNUi.A.M) — Its (Jeographical Position — Extent — General Ai)pearancc — Historical 
Sketch — Discovery by Cabot — First Attempt at Settlement under Henry ^'III. — Progress 
of .Settlements — Captain Whitburn — Lord Baltimore — Lord Falkland — Conflicting Opinions 
relative to the Administration of the Colony in KUiJ and H)74 — Their injurious Effects — 
From 1702 to 171:1 {ci roiicuiis[ij stakil ]~(it\, p. 1J12), Colony annoyed by the French— 1729, 
C.iptain Henry Osborn aj)pointed Governor — Commission to Captain Drake, 1738 — French 
claim Cape Ray .as being (^ape Richo— Custom-house established in 17(i4 — Disputes with 
America relative to the Fisheries — .Settled by Treaty of 178.3 — Commission to Admiral 
Milbanke, 1 78J) — Acts passed for the Government of Newfoundland— The Colony long deemed 
a mere Fishing Settlement — Improvement in its Colonization — Situation of the Principal 
.Settlements — St. .John's — Seat of (iovernment — Chief Harbour — Lieutenant Chappell's Ac- 
count of it — Latitude aiul Longitude of the Town — Description of it — Population — Settle- 
ment at St. George's Hay— Climate of Newfoundland — Population of the Island — Roads — 
(iovernment — Prospect of an independent Legislature — Incorporation of the Town of St. 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



.TkIiii's n'OommtMnlcd — Fi/^hrrief — Divided IiittTcsts tlicrcin of (irciit Jlritniii, Fniiiri', I'or- 
tii^'iil, mid till' rriitfd Stiiti's — Slii|i|iiiig ciipifU'd tiii'rrin in l."il7. i."'7l'. ^md Kil 'i -Kxtciit 
of tilt' Hi^lit of Krmici' iind tin' Uiiitt-d Htiitfs — Tliird Art of thf Trnity of 17H;i— Convfiitioii 
of IHIH— HinlitH of tlif I'liiti'd St;it('s i-oiitirnii'd— 'JU (tvo. Ill ilmi). 1— :»(n-o. 1\'. ilia|i. 11 
— Kxtciiwivf Adviihtiim's fiijovi'd liy tin- Anicrii-aii (lovcriiiiu'iit on tlic Xrwfoniidland ('o:iNt> 

Page DID to I!).') 

rilAlTKH XIII. 

FiVNP (iKANTiNc— Tliree Classes of fian(l>— (iruiits for Military Services — For Civil Services 
— For the Seltieiiient of the Country — (iraiits to Leaders and Associates — Locations — C'on- 
ditions thereof (Jovernnient Totvnshiji Agents a])|iointed in Lower Canada — EHiciency of 
the System — Land Hoards in Upper Canada — Nnnilter of Tounsliip Aj^ents in 1H2!) — ISFay 
be continued under tlie Xew Lanil (iranting Herniations — Hapid Hise of the Settlements 
in Loner Canada from l)ti20 to l(t'211— Creation of the C'dinmission of (,'rowa Lands, l(iiJ7 — 
Summary of Hegulations — Land Companies— Hcservations for the Crown and the Clergy 

liH) to 204 

CII AFTER XIV. 

KMir.HATioN — Importance of the Sul)ject — Objects to wliich its ('(uisideration is restricted — 
Capabilities of the Hritish Noi'li American Provinces to provide for Kmigration from Home 
— Attractions lield out by tliem — Commencement of Kniigration in IJM") — Its large Increase 
in I(tl7 and IHIM — First systematic F.migration in 1H1."> from (irenock for Canada — Con- 
ditions — Perth Settlement — Emigration from Perthshire in KUJ) — Emigration from (Jhisgon 
and Lanark in 1020 — Conditions tliereof — Subsequent Emigration in 1821 — Success of those 
several Emigrations — The Hev. JMr. Bell — Description of Perth — Emigration of 1823 — Its 
Expense — Its .Success— Statistics of the .Settlement in 182(5 — Emigration of 182") — Its .Suc- 
cess — General Sunmiary of .Statistics — Extent of unassisted Emigration — The .Subject brought 
iR'fore Parliament in 182(5 by the Right Hon. R.J. Ilorton — Select Committee of the House 
of Commons — Its elaborate Reports — Views on the .Subject — Third and final Report in 1827 
— Summary of the various Encouragements offered by Government — Question of an organized 
or unaided Emigration — Advantages of the former — The Colonies benefited by the Accession 
of Labourers — Lord Howick's Bill to facilitate voluntary Emigration — Plan of providing 
Emigrants with Employment in the Colonies considered — Provisions of the Hill — Its Effects 
in the Colonies — Plan of E.mpi.oyment modified to suit the Climate — Plan suggested of 
laying out the Lands — Progress of an individual Case of Emigration— (icneral superin- 
tendents in each Province — Desultory Emigratitm — Its Consequences — Emigration from the 
United Kingdom to the Colonies from 1825 to 1829 inclusive — Co-operation of the Colonial 
Legislatures ........ 205 to 227 



CHAPTER XV. 

General Considerations on the British North American Colonies — Various Opinions touching 
their Value to the Jlothcr Country — Gcnernl Remarks on Colonies — Their Antiquity- 
Grecian, Roman, and Carthaginian Colonies— Colonies in North America considered under 



tOMKNTsi. 



four IIi'uili — Tirritiiry — 'rniilo— Hlii|i|iiiin— I'nlilii'iil Iiitlufiicc ii» A|i|n'inliin»'s to tin- l'!iiipir>.' 

— InI, .Mii};iiltU(li' itt'tlii- Doiniriidiis -(n>(i^ni|iliii'al l*ii>itii)ii -lis Ailvaiit.i^rfs — l'riiN|i('i'tivi> 
l'i)|)iil;itii>ii Density of |ii('M'iit l'ii|iiilatii>ii Miiii^riition — .Mr- lliirkc's ( )|iiiiiiiiis— 'I'liliiilar 
\'if\v of tin- MriiiNli I'oNM'MKioii.t in Nfrtli Aiiu'rim — -illy, Trmli' of tlic ('oloiiics— N'nluc 
— C'oni|mriNoii lict>M'i'ii tin- C'oloiiinl 'rnuU' to tlif Kiwt mid to tin- W'l'st — 'rnulc h itii the 
I'liiti'd Stiiti'>— Xutiiri- of the Traili' uilli the Colonics — Tiiiilicr- Ilciii]), Aslu's, l''i>li, jftc, 

— Colli Aliiu'i - (i_\ pMiiM Alaiiili's liiciraNr of till' Traili- Talilr of Iiiijiort-i and l'!\|ioi't.l, 
1110(1 and lll'J."i — Hilly. Slii[>|iin^ of tin- ( 'olonicN- 'I'alili' of tln' Nniiilii'i' and 'l'oiniii;:i' of 
V'l'KNols, JlKtd and lIlL'.'t — IluTcaM- of Shiiiiiini:— Slii|i|iiin; UnsincMM of tlir I'oit of (Juclioc 
ttloiic— Ca|iital lint alloat liy Kmifrration — ('orn'N|iondinn Incrrasi' in tin' Trailo of tin- otlii-r 
I'orts — Drnionvtrativf of tin- risinjj; lni|itirtani'r of tlioM' I'mvinei-.s — Colonial transatlantic 
Triido, and the Kislu'rioN, Nurst-rirs for llritisli Hi'iinn-n — ('oinpeti'ncy of tl:i' Atlantic XavU 
nation to form stnrily Rlarinrrs - ltld\, 'I'lio Colonii's considcri'd in a iiolitiral li',dit — lirlnlive 
Advantafji'N — InllnriU'i- of thr Colonial ovrr tlir llaltic 'I'radr — Hi'mp- Coiiiiiian.iiii!,' I'osi- 
tion of till' I'rovincTs with rf^ard to the I'niti'd Siati's Ilypotlirtical A.ssnni[ition — The 
C'oloiiius not to sink in tlii' AmcriiMii Coiift'di'riicy — 'I'lifir nuitual IndcpcndtMicc in procfss of 
Yi'iirs, and r,nl)M'i|iirnt Alliance \\illi (ireat Uritaiii — Mcincitc Date iifMieli an l''vcnt from the 
liberal System of Colonial Policy — Solid interests of the Culunies to dim; to the Parent Tree 
— (ihtncc at ('ivil and Helijiioni Kifjhts — \m\\a — Taxation ^ — Defence of the Conntry— 
Coniuicrcc — .Municipal Ottices— I\It'tro|)oliiun and Cohinial Sidijcct compared — Advantufjes 
enjoyed hy the latter — Conclusion ..... Pago 2'2\\ to 'J 17 



APPENDIX. 

Chronolojrical Aceonnt of Pid)lic Events in Nova Scotia 

Extracts from the Journals nf the Assembly of Nova .Scotia— Appropriation of Aloiiies 

for Roads ............. 

Prices Current (Nova Scotia) muy 

Inipoits and Exjiorts at Halifax iu ltt2H 

Valnoj in Stcrlinjr Money, of the Goods imported and exported at the Port of St. 

John's, Ni;w Brunswick, l}t3(l 

All Account of Vessels entered Inwards and cleared Outwards, with the estimated Value 

of the Imports and Exports at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the Year ended 5th January, 

\\\2[\, as compared with the Year ended M\ January, l»2i) 

Revenue of X"w JJrunswick, l}!l?() 

Shulienacadie Canal Company of Halifax, Nova Scotia (Prospectus) . . . . 

Table showing the Variation and Dip of the IMagnetic Needle in various Parts of North 

America 

Regulations for Land Granting in the British North American Provinces 

Instructions to Agents of Townships in Lower Canada . . ... 



Page 

211) 

2:)2 

2j:{ 
254 

2(J4 



200 
2(58 
270 

2-2 
274 
2~,ii 



1 



( ONTI'.NTS. 



XI 



t'uKi' 

Kortii iifa F^icntion Tirkrt tVoiii II l)i-<trift LuMil'IiiHiril ill l'|i|'*'r C'tiiailit . . '2'i\ 

Ki'i'H Mil (, mill (iritiitiii); ill till' ('iiiiiiilii<* ... ,...■, ili, 

lifiiiTiil Siiiiiiiiiiit of (iniiitH dt' l.iiiiil iiiiiilc ill N'ovii Scotiu troiii I7II' tn IH'Jtl, \c. , 27i> 

Ciri'iiliir hi'ttcr iViiiii till- CiiiiiniiNNiiiiitrN of Kiiiii;nitii)ii, lltli .liil\ , DHI . . , JIIO 
Alinlraot of 11 Mill to fucilitiitc voluntary Fjiii|:.'atioii to I lis .Maji'styH I'liNNCNsiiiiiK aliroail. 

lli:tl •Jill 

I'.xtriiris from ilic Tliiril Hi'|iort ol'tli" Scjci't ('niniiiittt>i> on Knii^ration from tlir I'liitt'il 

Kiiipli.iii, it;-J7 -JJIU 

Avi-riip' hMiiiiati'of tli<' I''.x|iciim'Mof Si-ttliiii^ a Family. I'oiisistiii}; of one Man, oiu' U'oiiiiin. 

and tliri'i* Cliililrcn. in tlir llritiHJi North Anu'ricaii PriiviiK't*!), iliHtin){iiiNliin){ tlio Iti-ii>^ 

of l,\|Mii(liliin' i»}l«i 

IVosprctiis of liii- Xi'w JtriiiiNwii-k Land Coiiipany ....... 2H7 

DiiticN on (iihhU imported into (treat liritaiii from the ISaltio, Ilollaiul, \.c. Iiy M (ion. IV'. 

chap. 11 L'Hi» 

Ditto from Mrilisii ,\mi'riea 'JHO 

I'ort of St. .Iniiii's, N'fW IJninswii'k ; Tiibloof Value of Imports and Exports, 11127 — .Siiips 

IinvarilN and Outwards, \c 2*,)] 

Iii>t of I'riies of riand, Proiliin', »\i'. in Prince Mdward Island ..... 2!tl 

Surplus Produce of Prince Kihiard I.sland ......... 2!t2 

l{c|iort of Prince Kdw.trd I.sland, lis directed by the llight Ilunuuralile the principal 

Sc'tTi'tary of State, showing; the Lands (iranted and I'lifjranted .... 2JI2 
Emi,t;ration— Coniiminication froui I'le " (jiiebcc Star" on the subject of the limploymenl 

of Emij^rauts 2!)-l 



CORRIGENDA. 



VOL. I. 



Page 200, line ao.yor 400 yards, trad 400 fet'l. 

VOL. ir. 

Page 1H2, line WJhr 170(!, mut 1713. 



;.1| 



-A 



,1 



LIST OF PLATES. 



View of Halifax 

Sliiibenacadie Canal (Plan) 

Island of St. Paul 

Governnicnt-HousOj Frederickton ( Vide \i. 110) 

Grand Falls, River St. John 

Barracks and Market, Frederickton 

V^icw on the Kennebeckasis 

Project of the Survey of Four Townships for Emigrants 



To face the Title. 

45 

8» 

!»2 

105 

110 

222 



il:' 

i I 



!JJ 



THK 



BRITISH DOMINIONS 



NORTH A M ERICA 



TOroCiUAl'IIlCALLY 1)KS( IIIIJKI). 



J 



CIIArTKR I. 

Skettli of tlio History of the I'rovinco. — (•oiierul I'ace of the Country. — Lakes and 

Rivers. 

Nova Scotia was the name fonncrly given to all that immense 
tract of country boiuuled on the north by I^ower Canada, on the cast 
by the Hay of Chaleurs and the (Jidf of St. Lawrence, including the 
Island of St. John, Ca])e IJreton, and all the other islands on the coast, 
and on the west by the then New England ])rovinces, and contained 
what has since been divided into the separate ])rovinces or colonics 
of New Ih'unswick, Pi'incc l^dward's Island, Ca))e IJreton, and Nova 
Scotia. 

The ])rovincc of Nova Scotia is an extensive peninsula, connected 
with the continent of North America by a narrow isthmus of only 
eight miles in width, between IJay ^\'rte, in the iftraits of Northumber- 
land, and Cumberland IJasin, at the eastern extremity of the Hay of 
Fundy. It is situate between 4.'J" 25' and 46" north latitude, and (il" 
and ()()";J0' h)ngitiide west, from Circenwich. It is bounded on the north 
by the Hay of Fundy, and by the boundary line extending from Cum- 
berland Hasin in Chignecto Hay, to the IJay Verte, which separates it 
from the county of Westmoreland in New Hrunswick ; on the east by 
the Gut of Canseau and the Gidf of St. Tiawrence ; and on the south and 
west by the Atlantic ocean. Its extreme length, from Cape Canseau 

VOL. II. 11 



ill 



f I 



I i 



2 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



on the east to Cape St. INIary's on tlic west^ is about 383 English miles ; 
and its breadth varies from about 50 miles, at which it may be estimated 
from Chester to IJlack llock Pier, to 104, Avhich is its width from Bristol 
Bay to the head of Bay \"erte. It contains about 16,000 square miles, 
or upwards of nine millions of acres. 

Nova Scotia is supposed to have been discovered in 1497 by Cabot, 
then in the service of our Henry the Seventh. The French, under the 
JNIarquis dc la Roche, were the first who attempted to form any settle- 
ment. He arrived with a number of convicts in 159H, and landed them 
on Sable Island, where the greater number perished, and the remainder 
were taken off the island and carried back to France. No farther settle- 
ment was attempted imtil 1604, when Messrs. De IMonts, Champlain, 
and Fetrincourt, and a mmibcr of volunteer adventurers, founded Fort 
Royal, now Aimapolis. De IMonts acted as govci'nor-general under 
a commission from the King of France, and he named the country 
(which included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and part of the state 
of INIaine) Acadia. This little colony was destroyed in 1614 by the 
New Englanders, under Sir Samuel Argal, who transported the inhabit- 
ants to Canada, and cancelled and destroyed the patents granted by the 
French king. These transactions in Nova Scotia are memorable as the 
first instance of hostilities between Great Britain and France on the 
continent of North America, and which scarcely ever entirely ceased 
until, at the cost of infinite blood and treasure, France was stripped of 
all her possessions in North America by the peace of 1763. 

King James the First, in 1621, granted Sir William Alexander, of 
Menstry, a patent to plant colonies in this country, named in the patent 
"Nova Scotia." Sir William despatched a party of settlers to take 
possession of the colony, avIio, on arriving, found that the country had 
been occupied by the survivors of the early French emigrants, and several 
others, who had settled since the destruction of Port Royal by Argal, 
whereupon they returned to England without effecting any settlement. 
Charles the First confirmed his father's grant to Sir William by patent 
dated Jidy 12th, 1625, and reappointed him governor-general *. Sir Wil- 

* On this occasion Charles the First founded tlie order oi knights haroncls of Nova Scotia, 
the primary ohject of which was, that each knight should contribute to the settlement of this 



■'■5 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 3 

Ijam, subsequently, sent out an armament, under Sir David Kirk, or Kirtek, 
Avho in 1628 retook Port Royal ; but tlie Fiench settlement of Cape Sable 
.still held out, nor did tlie English obtain complete possession of the 
country. Sir William Alexander, thus in a great measure disappointed 
in tlie result of this expedition, and having involved himself in con- 
siderable expenses in pushing forward his projects of colonization, con- 
veyed, in 1629, a large section of his territories of Nova Scotia to Claude 
de la Tour *, under tlie title of *SV/- Claude St. Eiienne, knight, Seigneur 
(le la Tour and Vuarse.s]-, creating him at the same time a baronet of 
Nova Scotia. Subse(£uently, by another ])atent in 1630^, Sir William, 
in confirming the dignity of baronet to Sieur St. Eticnne, the son of De 
la Tour, erected two baronies, one to be called the Uarony of St. Etienne, 
the other the Barony of De la Tour, to be held as dependencies of the 
crown of Scotland ; and under this })atent it appears that some attempts 
were made to form a Scotch settlement at Annapolis : but Charles the 
First, by the treaty of St. Germains, in 1632, surrendered all his right 
to Lewis the Thirteenth of France ; whereupon tlie French immediately 
took possession of Nova Scotia, Cape IJreton, and Canada, which had 
been previously conciuered by Sir David Kirk. 

At the close of the civil war in 1654, Cromwell sent a force under 
IMajor Sedgwick, who reduced the whole country, and compelled the 
French to surrender at discretion ; and it was confirmed to P^ngland by 
the treaty of 1655. The English did not immediately form any settle- 
ment, and retained only Port Royal in their possession, so that the French 
were by no means prevented from extending their settlements in the coun- 
try. De la Tour afterwards preferred a claim to a section of the country 
under the transfer from Sir AVilliam Alexander; and having satisfactorily 
made it out, the Protector, by letters patent dated August 9th, 1656, 



:V>^ 



colony, in which he was to receive a large portion of laud. The nunihcr of baronets was not to 
exceed l.'iO: they were to have pre-eminence before all knights bachelors, and to be endowed 
with ample privileges. Those patents were ratified in parliament ; but the knights never applied 
themselves to tlie original purposes of their creation ; notwithstanding which the original titles, 
with all the ordinary privileges of baronets, continued to the original knights and their descend- 
ants, many of whom are now in being. 

* Chalmers's Political Annals, 4to. edit. p. 1)2. 



t Blassachusetts Records. 



Ibid. 



B 2 



m 



!l 

!l 



ii: 



4 NOVA SCOTIA. 

granted liim, by the style of Sir Cliarlcs La Tour, and to Sir Thomas 
Teni])le and William Crownc, the principal part of Avhat now composes 
Nova Scotia and New IJnmswick. In this grant by Cromwell, no men- 
tion is made of the rights of Sir ^Yilliam Alexander himself, although 
his charter, whicli was ratified i)i 1633 by the parliament of Scotland*, 
is made the groundwork of De la Tour's claim to that part of the country 
claimed by him under it. Temple purchased La Tour's share, re-esta- 
blished the different settlements, and kept possession of the country 
until it was again ceded to France by the treaty of IJreda, l(i()7. Nova 
Scotia was in fact during all this ])eriod inhabited by the French ; and 
although lliey made but little progress in settling the country, yet their 
population, principally occupied in carrying on the fur-trade with the 
Indians, was scattered on the several rivers emptying themselves into 
the Eay of Fundy. 

The French court paid but little attention to this colony, which, 
diu'ing the twenty years succeeding the peace of IJreda, enjoyed re])ose, 
and received some addition by innnigration. The French settlers invariably 
entered into close alliance with the Indians, and instructed them in some 
measure in the art of war; so that on the breaking out of war in 1689, 
they became very troublesome neighbours to the English colonies. x\n 
expedition from JNIassachusetts, under Sir ^^"illiam rhi])ps, in 1690, took 
Port lloyal and some other places. The terms of capitulation were, that 
the inhabitants should be protected in the possession of their property and 
the free exercise of their religion. Piiipps, after dismantling Port Koyal, 
and burning one or two other ])laces, ([uitted the colony, without leaving 
any garrison behind him. The French of course resumed the govern- 
ment of the colony. From this period until 1710, several ])redatory 
expeditions were fitted out from the New FiUgland colonies against the 
French settlements of Acadia, some of which were disgraced by horrible 
atrocities. iVt length, in the year 1710, a considerable armament was fitted 
out by the New Euglanders, and the command given to General Nichol- 
son, who proceeded to Port Royal, which surrendered to him after a short 
siege. In compliance with the terms of the capitulation, the French troops 

* ^Vcts of pai'liuinoiit of Scolluiul— I.invs of Scotlaiiil, 



'A 



■1 



l;M 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



i 



M 






p.iul governor were removed from the colony ; and thereupon Port Royal, 
the name of which was changed to Annapolis in honour of Queen Anne, 
was garrisoned hy the Knglish troops, and Colonel \'etch appointed 
governor. The French inhahitants were not hy any means well disposed 
tow rrds the P'iUglish, whom they continually harassed, so that it was 
impossible for them to find any safety outside their fortified places. 

Nova Scotia was under that name ceded to England by the treaty of 
Utrecht, 171.'i; from which ])eriod to IT-t.'j, from the disaffection and 
hostility of the neutral French, and the conse([uent indifference and 
occasional severity of the English, little or no im])rovement in the 
condition of the colony took place. The cession of Nova Scotia to 
England was again confirmed by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapclle in 17^8; 
and the peace ha mg left a great number of military out of emj)loyment, 
tlie idea was formed of settling the disbanded troops in this ])art of 
iVmerica. Land was also offered to civil settlers according to their 
means, with the advantage of being conveyed with their families to 
the colony, maintained there one year after their arrival, supi)lied with 
arms and amnumition for their defence, and Avith materials and utensils 
proper for clearing their land, erecting houses, and prosecuting the 
fishery, all at the expense of the liritish government. Nearly 4000 
adventurers arrived in the colony in June, 1749, under the connnand 
of Governor Cornwallis. They landed at Chebucto Harbour, and laid 
the foundation of a town, which Avas called Halifax, in honour of the 
Marquis of Halifax, then secretary of state, who had the greatest share 
in the fouiuUng of the colony. Here, on .Fuly 14th, 1741), Governor 
Cornwallis foimded the first regular British government established in 
Nova Scotia*. Halifax continued rapidly to improve and increase in 
population, notwithstaiuling the open emnity of the Indians, and the 
secret hostility of the French inhabitants. 

In consequence of an ambiguity in the wording of the treaties of 
Cession, the French government ])retended that Xova Scotia formed only 
a part of what was called ^Vcadia ; the iMiglish, on the contrary, con- 
tended that both names included the whole of the same country. This 
led to continual disputes and conflicts between the governors and subjects 

* TliL' nicinburs of the tirst council appointed by Lord Cornwallis were Paul ^lascareue, 
r.dwai-d Ilowe, John Goreliani, Benjamin Green, John Salisbury, and Hugh Uavidson. 



■'■;* 









M 



6 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



of the rcs])cctivc powers, even in time of peace. Tlie perpetual recur- 
rence of these conflicts at length induced the IJritish government to 
adopt a very decisive measure for the extinction of disputes in this 
quarter : tlie jjrovincial autliorities caused the Acadian settlers *-o come 
together in their respective settlements, under the pretence of making 
some conuninncations relative to their welfare, and then, without pre- 
vious notice, forced them on board several vessels provided for the pur- 
pose, and thus trans])orted and dis])ersed them through New England, 
New York, and A'irginia. The principal motive for this measure was 
the well-founded apprehension that the Acadians would assist the French 
in the event of an invasion, by them, of the colony — an event which, how- 
ever, did not occur. INIany of these expelled and deported settlers, 
however, after the peace of 176.'3, returned to this province, and settled 
in and about the townships of Clare, Yarmouth, and Argyle, where 
their descendants now compose the principal part of the population. 

The ])rincipal events between the settlement of Halifax in 1749 and 
the peace of 1763 were, the establishment of the Lunenburg settlement 
by a colony of Germans in 1753; the siege of Louisburg, and capture 
of Cape Ereton and the Island of St. John, now Prince Edward's Island, 
in 17jS ; the calling of tlie first provincial house of assembly by Governor 
Lawrence in the same year; the settlement of several New England 
emigrants on the former lands of the unfortunate Acadians ; the conquest 
of Canada in 1759; the alteration in the mode of electing the members 
of the house of assembly effected in 1761 — (in which year also a formal 
treaty was entered into with the Indians, whereby they submitted to 
and were taken imder the protection of the king): in 1763, the cession 
of this province, in common with all the jjossessions of the French in 
North America, was again confirmed by France to England ; in this year 
also the township of Londonderry was settled by Irish emigrants, and that 
of Horton by New Englanders*. The population of the province, 
which then included New Brunswick, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward's 
Island, was 13,000 souls ; the value of its imports was 4312/. 9*. 10^/. and 
of its exports 16,303/. 3.?. 4r/. 

The face of the coimtry is agreeably diversified with hill and dale, 

* This fiipid detail, together witli the chronological sketch in the Appendix, comprises as 
imicli of the history of the province as needs to be here separately stated. 



;4^ 



FACE OF THE COUNTRY— LAKES— RIVERS. 



but is nowhere mountainous, the highest hills not exceeding ()()() feet. 
The highlands generally run north and south, branching ofFin all direc- 
tions, terminating in some instances in bold clill's on the coast, the most 
remarkable of which is Aspotagoen, between INIahone and iNIargaret's 
Bay, and is about 500 feet high. Ardoise Hill, between Halifax and 
AVindsor, is the highest land in the province. The Horton mountains 
nm nearly north and south ; and the north moimtains, Avhich are washed 
by the Minas basin, terminate in Cape Blomidcm, whose head may be 
often seen above the clouds by which it is sometimes encircled. The 
highlands which lie in the interior of the counties of Annapolis, Shel- 
burn and Queen's, are called the Blue Mountains, and are said to retain 
traces of volcanic eruption. 

This province contains numerous lakes, which are scattered over it 
in every direction, many of them of considerable extent, and forming in 
several places almost a continued chain of water communication from 
sea to sea. The largest is Lake Rosignol, situate partly in each of the 
three counties of Queen, Shelburn, and Annapolis. It is but little known, 
and said to be thirty miles in length. It is the source of the Liverpool 
rive ■ — the JMersey ; and in the same section of country there are several 
other lakes approaching within a short distance of the IMersey, and com- 
municating with the head of Allan's Iliver, running into Annapolis Bay. 
The Indians pursue this route in passing between Annapolis and Liver- 
pool ; and it is supposed that there are but two short portages in the whole 
distance. Lake George, another considerable lake, and seventy or eighty 
small ones, are situate in the township of Yarmouth. A chain of lakes 
extends from the head of the river Shubenacadie nearly to the harboiu- 
of Halifax, and by the completion of the Shubenacadie canal affords an 
extensive inland navigation quite across this part of the province. There 
are similar chains of lakes between AVindsor and St. Margaret's Bay, 
between the head of the river Avon and Chester, and between the 
river Gaspereaux, in King's county, and Gold River, in the county of 
Lunenburg. 

The rivers that intersect, beautify, and enrich the country are far 
too numerous even to be named. Perhaps there is no country in the 
world better watered, nor any of equal extent containing so many rivers 



' II 



I '! 



I! Hi 



I'M 

'1.(1 

I I 

' I 



I 



II 



ill 



8 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



capable of navigation. The priiu-ipal arc, the Annapolis, ruiniing 
])arallcl with the Hay of Fundy from the township of ConiAvallis, ii. 
King's county, and discharging itself into Anna])olis Hay, navigable for 
small craft and boats the greater part of its course; the Shubenacadie, 
running from the Grand Lake, in the county of Halifax, dividing that 
county from Hants county, and falling into Cobeciuid Hay, receiving 
the tides, and navigable for u])wards of thirty miles ; the Avon, which 
receives the Avaters of the rivers St. Croix, Kermcscook, and several 
others, discharges itself into the Hay of Minas, and is navigable for a 
considerable distance; the La Have, having its source in a chain of 
lakes that also feeds the Gaspereaux river, in the county of Hants, tra- 
verses the whole county of TiUnenburg, and, after a course of about sixty 
miles, discharges itself hito the harbour of La Have ; the JNIersey, winding 
from Tiake llosignol through the Queen's county, and discharging in 
Liverpool Harbour; the ^ledway, connnencing in a chain of extensive 
lakes in the northern part of the Queen's comity, and discharging itself 
into the noble harbour of J*ort INfedway ; the Shelburne, discharged from 
a chain of lakes in the northern ])art of that county (contiguous to the 
sources of the river Hubert in the county of Annapolis), and extending to 
within fifteen miles of the town of Shelburne, where it forms the noble har- 
bour of that na'iic ; the Clyde which rises upwards of forty miles in the in- 
terior in an extonsivechain of lakes, and is deemed oneof the most beautiful 
rivers in Nova Scotia ; the Tusket, with its numerous branches, many of 
which expand into lakes, the princi])al rising in the Blue Mountains, is 
navigable for shipping about ten miles, and for boats above thirty ; and the 
St, INIary, the principal branch of which rises in College Lake, within a 
very short distance of the Antigonish river, and, crossing nearly the whole 
county of Sydney, from north to south, forms the harbour of St. JNIary, 
where it becomes navigable for the largest vessels for about ten miles. 
Besides these rivers, there are several others of nearly equal magnitude 
and importance in all ])arts of the province, particularly those that run 
into Pictou Harbour, Cumberland Basin, and the north-eastern coast of 
the county of Cumberland. These several lakes and rivers beautify 
the scenery, enrich the soil, and afford singular facilities for internal 
conmiunication. 



t 



■'H' 
;--i 



\ii 






FACE OF THE COUXTRV. 



9 



Anteriorly to 174S so little had hvvu done towards the local ini- 
provcnioiit of the eoloiiy, that the whole proviiiec exhibited at that 
late date hut a dense forest ; and although the j)r«)|)ortion of land still 
urn-eelainied from its wilds is indeed very considerable, yet tlu>ri> are dis- 
triets in whieh tlie arts of aorienltnre. j-uidcd by industry, have effeeted 
extensive ameliorations in the condition oi the country. Some tracts of 
the province consist of extensive barrens, interspersed here and there 
amon^- the forests, which forests are generally con.pose.l of hum. and 
lofty timber. 



n 



vol.. II. 



|H 






I Hh 



"II! 



ii. 



• H, 



CHAPTER II. 

Division of tlic Province into Counties, Districts, and Townsliips. 

Nova Scotia is divided into ten counties, ineluding Cape Breton, 
and the counties are subdivided into districts and townships, as follows: 



(,'oiiiilii's. 



Uai.ikax 



LiiNKNni;i((i 

QrKKNS COL'NTV 

Shelburnk 



Annapolis 



King's Coumy 



Dislrkls 



IliUifax 



Cok'liestiT 



Pictou 



Townships. 

Halifax. 

Uartniouth. 
} Preston, 

Lawrence Town. 
C Truro. 
< Onslow. 
^ Loiulomlerry. 
^ Pietou. 
.^ Egerton. 
/ IMaxwelton. 

Chester. 

Luncnlmrg. 

Dublin. 

Liverpool. 
'She! burnt. 

Yarmouth. 

Harrington. 

Argyle. 

Pubnico. 
fDigby. 

Clements. 

Clare. 

Annapolis. 

Granville. 

_Wilmot. 

^ Aylesworth. 

1 Cornwallis. 

"^ Horton. 

^ Sherbrooke. 



f 



t 



'1(1- 






COUNTY OF HALIFAX. 



11 



Cuinilien, 
ccmbkri.and 

Hanth 



Dislricl.f. 



SVDNKY 



Capk Uhkton 



Lowor . 

Upper . 
North Western. 
' North Kiisterii. 
.Southern. 



Townshiji.t. 
^ Walhice. 
' Ainlicrst. 
I l'aiiihoroiii;h. 
'' Kalnioiitli. 
WiKilsor. 
Itiiu'doii. 
K" .ipt. 
Doiights. 
^ Newport. 
^ Ht. Mary's. 
I Guysl»oroii^h. 
"S INIandiester. 
VWilniot. 
Dorchester, or Antigfinisli. 



Tile t()wnslii])s are not all equal in extent. Tlie inhabitants meet 
for the pmpose of votino- money for the sup])ort of their ])oor, like an 
English parish, and the prineipal townships send representatives to the 
House of Assembly. 

The comity of Halifax is the largest in the province, and stretches 
quite across it, from the Atlantic Ocean to Cumberland Straits. On the 
cast of it lies the county of Sydney, on the west the comities of Hants 
and Lunenburg, and on the north the county of Cumberland ; the whole 
shore on the south is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, and a part of the 
north b}' Nortlunnberland Straits. It is divided into three districts, 
and contains ten townships. The districts are Halifax District, contain- 
ing the townships of Halifax, Dartmouth. Treston, and Lawrence Town ; 
the district of Colchester, containing the townships of Truro, Onslow, 
and Londonderry, besides several settlements not yet incor])orated into 
townships, as Economy, Shubenacadie, Stevviack, Tatmagouche, &c. ; 
and the district of Pietou. containing the townships of Pictou, Egerton, 
and jMaxwelton. The division of this county into districts seems to 
have pretty closely followed the natural division of the soil and face of 
the country. All the southern part of the county, which lies upon the 

c 2 



f 



I ' 



'!■ 



f I' 



I 



'ii 



1'^' 



lili 






III' 
11 



12 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



Atliintic, is luf?li, hiokcii, rocky land, interspersed lierc nnd there with 
some good strips, hut in gi lunii barren and mifit for eidtivation. The 
suine remark applies also to all that extensive traet of eountry snrronnd- 
in<^' the (ireat Laki', and extendinj;' several miles both east and west. 
IJiit the eountry extending; from the (ireat l^ake northward to the head 
of the iMinas Kasin, and on both its shores, is alto/.'-ether of a dillerent 
(piality. The land is low and fertile, a(la|)ted to agricultural pm'])oses, 
filled with limestone and gypsum, and affording indications of extensive 
beds of coal and otlu-r minerals. This character applies to the country 
extending along aiul for sevi'ral miles to the east and west of the Shu- 
benacadie River. .(Vgain, that ])art of the county bordering on Xorth- 
und)erland Straits, and the whole district of I'ictou, is every where 
diversified with hill and dale, intersected by streams and brooks, which 
form several rivers. The soil is generally rich and capable of high eid- 
tivation, and this district is in fact one of the best eidtivated in the 
province. iVbout half way between Halifax and the Minas Hasin occurs 
an extensive chain of lakes, the ))rinci|)al of which is called the (ireat 
Lake. The Shubenacadie. the largest river in the })rovinec, takes its 
rise in those lakes. The point where it flows from the (ireat Lake is 
121 miles from Halifax ; and thence to Cobecpiid, or Cund)erland Hay, at 
the head of the Minas Hasin, where it discharges itself, is about 55 miles. 
It is a mile in width at its mouth, receives the tide for about ten miles, 
and is securely navigable for about thirty nu)re. Its banks are generally 
precipitous, fringed and overhung with beautiful trees. In its course it 
receives several tributary rivers of no inconsiderable magnitude, the prin- 
ei])al of which, in this county, are the Stewiaek. St. Andrew's, and Gray's 
rivers. The navigation of this noble river has been eom])letcd, and, by 
means of the Shubenacadie Canal, continued quite to Halifax, Avhereby 
sea-going ships, drawing eight feet water, can be navigated from the 
JNlinas IJasin (head of the Hay of Fundy) quite across the province to 
Halifax Harbour on the 'Vtlantic Ocean. 

The harbour of Halifax is one of the finest in America. A thousand 
vessels may ride in it in safety. It is accessible at all seasons of the year, 
and .»asy of approach. It is situate in latitude 44" '39 iJ6" north and lon- 
gitude 63" 37' 48" west from Greenwich. It lies nearly north and south, 



■m 



t^ 






llAUnol II AM) TOWX or II AI.IIAX. 



VJ 



about sixtcon milivs in length, iiiul tfnuinati's in a luautiriil slioot of watir 
called IKcWord llasiii, uitliin wliiili arc ten s<|iiari' inili-s »)t'sat't' aiu'liora^i-. 
The ciitraiu'e is niarkeil by Sanihro Iliad, on whu'li a li|rlitli()use was 
erected soon afti-r tlic scttlcinciit was cstaMislicd. 'riirct' miles IVmii 
Halifax, near the month of the harboiu', lies M'Nabh's Island, on the 
western side of which stands Shcrbrooke Tower, u circidar stone battery, 
on the toj) of which is a lantern. This island forms two entrances t(» 
tlie harbour — the eastern passaj^i', which is only used l)y small vessels, 
an<l the western, which is used by all ships bomul to and from Halifax. 
Immediately opposite the town is (ieor^^e Island, which is regularly 
fortified, and forms the chief defence of the place. 

The town of Halifax is, in point of extent and population, the third 
town ill liritish Xortli America. It was founded, upon the first per- 
manent settlement of the Kn<;lish in this province, by (iovernor C«)rn- 
wallis in 171J). It is situated on the western side of the harbour, on the 
declivity of a hill 1210 feet above the level of the sea. There are I'if^ht 
streets ruiuiinj;' throui;h the town, intersected by fifteen others, laid out 
with rejfularity, .some of theiu j)aved, and the otiu'rs macadand/ed. The 
town and suburbs are upwards of two miles in len«;th, and about half 
a mile in width. It has been very uuich im])roved within the last five 
years. There are meat, vegetable, and fish markets, all extremely well 
su))])lied. The fish, in })oint of ([uality, variety, and cheapness, may vie 
with any in the world, There are two episcopal churches, two presby- 
terian, two ba])tist, one ]{oman catholic, one methodist, and one Sanda- 
minian, cha])els. The catholic chapel is an elegant spacious structuri', 
built of freestone. ^\mony;st the public buildings is the (iovermuent- 
house, built of freestone, situate at the .south end of the town, and occu])ied 
by the lieutenant-governor of the jjrovincefor the time being. The pro- 
vince building is the best-built and handsomest edifice in North America. 
It is built of freestone, and is 1-K) feet in length, .seventy in width, and 
forty-two in height. It contains all the provincial ofbces — secretary's, 
surveyor-general's, treasiu'er's, prothonotary's, collector's of customs, kv. ; 
also the council-chamber, House of iVssembly room, and superior coiu-ts. 
It is situate in the centre of the town, Avithin a square, which is enclo.sed 
by an iron railing. The Court-House is a plain brick building, in which 



f ! 



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-ill 

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14 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



tlic courts of common ])lcas and sessions of the peace are held, and in 
whicli there is an exchange-room for the merchants. There is also a 
Bridewell or House of Correction, and a poor-house. Dalhousie College, 
established in IS^O, is a spacious and handsome structure, situate at the 
end of the old military parade. 

Halifax has been always the principal naval station of British North 
America ; and here is a king's dock-yard, which is enclosed towards the 
town by a high stone wall, and contains within it all the requisite work- 
shops, warehouses, and stores, besides connnodious residences for the 
officers and servants belonging to the yard ; it is on a more extensive 
footing than any in iVnierica. In the rear of the dock-yard, on a height 
tliat overlooks the works and harbour, is the admiral's house, a plain 
stone building, occupied by the senior naval officer on the station. There 
are also a residence for the military commandant, two barracks, and a 
military hospital. 

Halifax contained, in 1790, 700 houses and 4000 inhabitants; in 
l«128, 1,5S0 houses and l-t,4;j{) inhabitants. It is the seat of government, 
the principal emporium of the trade of tlie province, and returns two 
meud)ers to the House of Assemblv. Besides Dalhousie College, there 
are a grannnar-school, Avith an endowment of 200/. from the province, 
three large schools on the national and T.ancastcrian plan, and several 
connnon scliools. There are no fewer tliau six weekly newspapers pub- 
lished, and it has several charitable institutions. Tlie manufactures car- 
ried on in Halifax are still in an imperfect state : they consist of a sugar- 
refinery ; distilleries of rum, gin, and whiskey ; breweries of jiorter and 
ale; and factories of soap, candles, leather, flour, and cordage, and a few 
other minor articles. Halifax was declared a free warehousing-port in 
1S26, and its trade is very considerable. In 1828, the exports, exclusive 
of the coasting-trade, amounted to 24G,8.'52/. in 55'.] vessels, containing 
()1,.511 tons, and navigated by 332ii men; and the imports 7'33,3i)2l. 
in 544 vessels, containing ()2,829 tons, and navigated by 3340 men. 
Nearly the whole of the import and better than one-half of the export 
trade of the province are carried on at Halifax. There were owned at 
Halifax in 1828 seventy -three square-rigged vessels and seventy-seven 
schooners ; of which seventy were employed in the West India trade, 



k 



I II' 



iiiu. 



TOWNSHIP OF HALIFAX— DARTMOUTH. 



15 



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four between Halifax and (ircat IJritain, six in the trade with foreign 
Europe and Brazil, and the remainder in the fisliery. There is a respect- 
able i)rivate banking-establishnient at Halifax, and the Falnumth packet 
regularly arrives with the mails once a month. The situation of Halifax 
is very beautiful. The noble harbour in front, liedford liasin beyond, 
and the north-west arm in the rear, with the extensix e forests in the back- 
ground, unite in exciting the admiration of everv beholder. 

The township of Halifax extends westward to the boundary line 
between this county and liunenburg county. The land is of the worst 
description in the province, being both naked and barren ; but the coast 
is almost one iminterruptcd succession of harbours. The first is Sauibro ; 
it lies about a league north-west of the lighthouse, is easy of access, dee]), 
and perfectly sheltered. There Avas a small settlement founded on it in 
1780, and it contains a small fishing population. IJetween Sambro 
and jNIargarct's Bay are I'ennant, Upper and Lower Prospect, Molineux. 
Dover, and Indian harbours, u])on each of which are settled a few fisher- 
men. St. ISIargaret's Bay Ls safe and capacious. It is four leagues in 
length and two in width, but at its entrance only two miles wide. It 
contains within it many smaller harbours and coves, affording shelter for 
ships of the greatest burden. The soil about the bay is fertile and well 
cultivated. It was settled by the descendants of some German and 
French families in ITS.'J. Several streams fall into the bay, abounding 
with salmon and other fish. 

The township of Dartmouth lies on the eastern side of Halifax Har- 
bour. The land is of a far better description than that of Halifax town- 
ship. There are some very fine farms belonging to the descendants of 
the original German settlers. A chain of lakes in this township, con- 
nected with the source of the Shubenacadie River, suggested the idea of 
the Shubenacadie Canal, which now completes a water connnunication 
between Halifax Harbour and the Basin of INIinas. The towji of Dart- 
mouth lies opposite to Halifax, on the eastern side of the harbour, which 
is here about a mile wide ; it considerably increased in size, populati* .1, 
and wealth during the late war, but has not since been so flourishing. 
A steam-boat constantly plies between Dartmouth and Halifax for the 
accommodation of passengers. 



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NOVA SCOTIA. 



Tlic townshij) of T^awrcnco Town is situate on the coast to tlie cast 
of Dartnioutli township. It was laid out in llHi, and contains 20,000 
acres. It is well Avatered ; but the soil, with the exception of some marsh 
and interval land, is inferior, bein<^ mostly rocky mid barren. The har- 
bours are Cole Harbour, Tiawrence, and Three Fathom Harbour, which 
are suitable only for small vessels. 

The township of Preston is situated on the cast of the township of 
Dartmouth, and on the north and in the rear of Lawrence Town. It 
was laid out and granted in 178-4 to 388 ])roprietors — loyalists, disbanded 
soldiers, and free negroes. The negro settlers were industrious and thrifty, 
but some agents of the African Company induced them to remove to 
Sierra Leone. The land in this township is inferior and stony, but its 
proximity to Halifax gives it a value it Avould not otherwise possess. 

The tract of country coastwise from Lawrence Town township to 
the boundary line of Sydney county is in general of inferior soil, and 
therefore but thinly settled. There are, however, several small but 
thriving settlements on the harbours and rivers, which are very iiume- 
rous, the inhabitants being mostly engaged in the fishery. A short 
distance beyond Lawrence, the river Musquedoboit discharges itself into 
the sea. This is a fine river, rising near the Stewiack country, producing 
very good timber, and having some thriving settlements on its banks. 
Jeddore forms a long shallow bay, intricate and unsafe. Ship or Knowles 
Harbour is deep, bold, and distinguished by a white cliff resembling at 
a distance a ship under sail. The anchorage is good and safe in every 
part of it. Charles River, which runs into this harbour, proceeds from 
a chain of lakes at a small distance, of about twelve miles in extent, the 
lands on both sides of which are clothed with very superior timber. 
Beyond this lie several harbours, on which there are some small set- 
tlements. 

There are few finer agricultural tracts than the country to the 
eastward of the river Shubenacadie, which composes the district of 
Colchester. It abounds with gypsum, lime, and coal, and is exceedingly 
well watered. About twenty miles up the river Stewiack, veins of coal 
rise to the surface, and freestone, lime, and roofing slate are found in 
the same neighbourhood; salt springs also, of considerable strength. 



1 






'-■-i. 



COLCHESTER— TRURO— ONSLOW. 



17 






n 



occur. There exist no obstacles to this river being made navigable for 
boats of ten tons' bin-den to the canal. On the northern branch of Ciay's 
River, which falls into the Shubenacadie, a valuable vein of coal has been 
exposed to view by the action of the Avater, and iron ore, limestone, and 
slate are found in the same neighbourhood. Pine, spruce, and other 
valuable timber abound in this (juartcr, and the land is of very su])crior 
quality. 

The first township in this fine country is Truro. This township 
was originally settled by the French, who were forcibly expelled in 
1755. It was subse(piently granted, in 17().5, to some Irish emigrants, 
several of whom came to this province, under a Colonel JNI'Nutt, who 
found the remains of the French im])rovements, a quantity of diked marsh 
land, orchards, &c. in a state of tolerable })rcservation. The township 
contains 50,000 acres, and abounds with gypsum and limestone. The 
upland soil is good, well cultivated, and fruitful; and there is a consider- 
able qiumtity of marsh and interval land of extreme fertility. The town 
of Truro is situated on the south side of Cobequid Bay, near its head, 
and contains about 100 houses. There are an episcopal and a presbyterian 
church, a court-house, a jail, custom-house, post-oflice, and masonic-hall. 
There are good roads to Halifax, Pictou, kc, and a handsome bridge 
over the Salmon Iliver. Truro townsiiip returns one member to the 
House of Assembly, 

The township of Onslow adjoins that of Truro, and is situated on 
the north side of Cobequid IJay, by which it is bounded on the south, 
and on the west by the township of Londonderry. The soil, like that 
of Truro, is in general good. The Salmon, Xorth, and Chiganois rivers 
run through it ; the land on the banks of each of which, particularly on 
the North Uivcr, is of very superior quality. Some interval land on this 
river has been known to produce fourteen crops of wheat in succession 
without mamu-e. Salt springs have been discovered, and coal abounds, 
a seam of which has been wui ked for some years. The original French 
inhabitants had settlements in this township, and after their expulsion it 
was settled by Irish emigrants under Colonel JM'Xutt in 17(51, who found 
the remains of the French roads, buildings, and orchards, which they 
of course immediately occupied. The whole front of the township is 

VOL. II. D 



18 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



iitP), 



|i 



cleared upland; there is no town : there are several saw and grist mills. 
Halifax is the principal market for the produce of this and Truro town- 
ships. Onslow returns one member to the House of Assembly. 

The township of Londonderry is situate on the north side of Cobe- 
quid Bay, and to the west of Onslow. It was also originally settled by 
the French, and afterwards by Colonel M'Nutt, 1763. The land is in 
general very good, whether marsh, upland, or interval, of the latter of 
which there is a considerable proportion. There are seven small villages 
in this township, in which are six grist-mills, five saw-mills, two carding 
and two oat mills; and it sends one member to the provincial par- 
liament. Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry, with tlie several settle- 
ments Economy, Stewiack, Tatmagouche, Salmon River, &:c., comprise 
a tract of country which, for richness of soil, mineral productions, local 
convenience, and beauty of scenery, is quite equal to any in this pro- 
vince. Cobequid Bay, around which they are all situate, is easily navi- 
gable on its northern shore by vessels of any magnitude, and on its 
southern by vessels of 150 tons, abounds with fish, and has several small 
harbours and inlets. The produce is carried to Halifax market, and 
exported to St. John's, New Brunswick ; cargoes are also assorted for 
the West Indies, and lumber, in some quantities, exported to Europe : 
it is, in short, one of the best-circumstanced, most fruitful, populous, 
and best-cultivated districts in Nova Scotia. There are considerable 
quantities of land as yet ungranted in this district, estimated at about 
50,000 acres, scattered up and down, about one-half of which may be fit 
for cultivation. 

That part of the county of Halifax called the district of Pictou 
contains the three townships of Pictou, Egerton, and Maxwelton. It 
is a diversified comity of hill and dale, well watered by numerous streams 
and rivers. The soil is very good, and it has been as well cultivated and 
is as productive as any in the province. It abounds with coal, iron ore, 
copper, freestone, and lime. The great coal field of this district is very 
extensive, and the coal is of the very best quality, and is now being 
worked by the lessees of His late Iloyal Highness the Duke of York, 
INIessrs. Rundell and Bridge, of London. It has several good harbours, 
the principal of which are Pictou, ISIerigomish, Carriboo, and Tatma- 



'I'i. 






ti" „ 



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PICTOU— HARBOUR AND TOWX. 



19 



gouchc, in all of Avliich the Shore and I^abrador fisheries are carried on 
to a <Teat extent. The timber of thi-i district is also of a superior kind, 
particularly the birch, -which is considered the best in America. Tliis 
district, though one of the last settled, is the most important ])art of the 
province ; in fertility of soil, abundance and value of its mineral pro- 
ductions, proximity to the fishery, and facilities for carrying it on, it 
has the advantage of every other part of Nova Scotia. The French 
made very few settlements here Avliile the province was under their 
domiiiion. The first liritish settlers were from Philadelphia, in 17^5, 
and some Scotch from the highlands; to these were added further 
emigrants from Scotland, and in 1784 a considerable niunber of dis- 
banded soldiers. The population is principally of Scottish descent, and 
certainly as enterprising, industrious, thriving, and wealthy as that of 
any other portion of this country. 

The principal port is Pictou Harbour. It has a bar at its mouth, 
on which is twenty-two feet at low water : inside the bar it becomes a 
capacious and beautiful basin, with five, six, and nine fathom ancliorage 
on a muddy bottom. It is admirably Avell situated on tlie Straits of 
Northumberland, opposite to Prince Edward Island, on the route from 
Halifax to Quebec, between which places there is not a safer or better 
harbour. 

The principal town of this district is Pictou ; it is situated on the 
harbour of that name, about three miles from the entrance. Although 
not very regularly laid out, the houses are generally better than in any of 
the other provincial towns ; many of them are built of stone. It contains 
four places of worship — an episcopal, a Roman catholic, and two ])res- 
byterian chapels. There are also the Pictou Academy, a grammar-scliool, 
court-house, and public library. The population in 1828 was nearly 
1500 souls, and it has since very rapidly increased ; it cannot now be 
less than between 2500 and 3000. Pictou has been declared a Jree 
warehotisi)ii>' port, and its trade is very considerable in lumber, coal, and 
the fishery. Coasters from all parts of the Gulf of St. T^awrence resort 
to Pictou, and its exports have amounted to 100,000/. in a single year. 
One hundred vessels have been loaded here with timber for Great 

D 2 



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20 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



Britain, and its exports to the West Indies were not less extensive 
and important. 

There arc still in this district some considerable portions of ungranted 
land in the interior, on the borders of Sydney county; the aggregate may 
be about 70,000 acres, u))on the whole tolerably good land ; aiul although 
not immediately adjacent to the sea, yet in no place above twelve or 
fifteen miles from it, and in all instances intersected by rivers which run 
into the sea at Pictou, Merigomish, and Antigonish harbours. 

'riie population of the county of Halifax in the year 1817 was 
30,1 })() souls. The population, live stock, quantity of land cultivated, 
am' produce, in 1S27, as ajjpears by a census then taken, were as foUo^vs. 



Towssmr, Ac. 
Halifax Town 


c 'a 

.-. o 

.=" = 

-y. 




Live Stock. -j 


Agricultural Produce. 


Horses.' 


Horneil 
( attle. 


7. 


. ^1 




Bushels of 
other (irain. 

Bushels of 
Potatoes. 


C r3 


11,4;]!) 


3!)!) 


4.")i! i 3!) 


4!)3' 1,020 


128 


4,1 Of) 23,(501 


1,021 


Halifax Tdwiiship • 


r>,(ii!(i 


}!37 


4..304 i 5,40() 


2,11)4 i),078 


4,223 


2.3,201 101,318 


7,31!) 


Dartmouth ditto 


1,070 


l.M 


2!)2 1 345 


180 (ir.2 


1(53 


1,21.-)! 10,.38() 


422 


I'n'stoii ditto 


1,01:? 


13 


28!) 138 


221 ' !)0f) 


r.(i 


!)21 11,320 


507 


Lanronco Town ditto 


i,:5!)i 


7--i 


l,44(i 1,88- 


78!). l,r.i)8 


774 


2,883 1 .33,7.3!) 


1 ,(5i54 


Suiidrv Si'ttlenu'uts 


1.2(i7 


•2 


7!)!) : 878 


42!) 80(i 


!)0 


9!)7 22,2!)4 


!I2() 


Truro Towusliip 


i,:}!]0 


2})-) 


1,4.-)1 2,2!).". 


8G8 4,r.r.i 


2,787 


12,053 53,545 


2,(554 


(Inslow ditt(» 


1,2:5!) 


24.-. 


I,7(i8 1,2(13 


1.314 r.,72!) 


3,03;-) 


13,031 ' 54,!)35 


2,832 


Londonderrv ditto . 


i,:?i)« 


24!) 


2,04.-) 2,431 


1,330 4,!)24 


4,1!).) 


12,114 .-.5,000 


3,581 


Sundry Si-ttlcnu'iits 


;],()(!() 


cm 


4,!)13 (1,724 


3,400 13,!)31 


8,G27 


2(5,221) 128,755 


7,(58!) 


I'icton Town 


1,43!) 


73 


1!)2 244 


23 ' 7(i() 


474 


2,433 !),815 


.380 


Pioton Township 


4,777 


487 


4,4111 7,.">7-'l 8,r.i.-. ;i7,i)i»<i 


12,8!)() 


2!),7!)3 l!)3,!)55 


4,17(5 


E^icrton ditto 


;").()22 


ai!) 


.-.,.-.!)3 1(),7!I8| 3,374 24,270 


22,121 


51,1. -.2 1.3.3,444 


5.577 


Maxwelton 

Total county of Halifax 


2,111 


230 


1, ")().") 1 2,r.l4j 1,022; (i,14!) 


2,(i07 


14,181 44,445 


1 ,(535 


4(5,r)4n 


4.")3() 


2!),4(i4 :43,.Vi4 24.122 '!)2,!)7(i '(;2,24(; 1!)4,!I02 87(i,r.4(i 


40 3!)7 



COUNTY or SYDNEY. 

The county of Sydney is the most easterly part of the province : it 
is bouiided on the west by the county of Halifax ; on the south by the 
Atlantic Ocean ; on the cast by Cliedabucto Bay, the Gut of Canseau, 
and St. George's Bay; and on the north by Northumberland Straits. 
It is divided into two districts, called the Upper and the Lower District, 



I 



COUNTY OF SYDNEY. 



21 



V 



and contains seven townships, viz. Dorchester, Arisaig-, Tracadie, St. 
Andrew's, Manchester, Guysborougli, and St. INIary's. The soil of tlie 
northern and eastern part of tins comity — interval, alhivial, and npland — 
is e({ual to any in the province. The agricidtnral produce is very con- 
siderable, and large (juantities are exj)orted. The lumber trade is ex- 
tensively carried on, and the lisheries are the best in the province. It is 
exceedingly well watered, abounding with lakes and rivers, and no part 
of the jjrovince aftbrds so many fine harbours. This county contahis the 
greatest (piantity of crown or ungranted land of any in the province. 
It has been estimated at 12(),()0() acres of available land, situate between 
Guysborough and Coventry Harbour in one direction, between jMilford 
Haven and St. (iet)rge's IJay in another, and to the westward of the 
river St. Mary in a tliird. 

The township of Dorcliester.or Antigonisli, is situate on and about the 
bay of tiiat name. Tiie first settlement made by the Knglish was in 1784, 
and it Avas materially increased in 1795 by emigrants from Scotland. Dor- 
chester, or Antigonish, is the shire town of the district. It is situated 
about a mile above the navigation on Antigonish Uiver. It has but one 
])rinci])al street, and contains a court-house, a lloman catholic, a ])res- 
byterian, and a baptist chiu'ch. It is a very pretty village, and is the 
principal trading ])lace in the district. The harbour is about six miles 
in length ; but the entrance is narrow, over a bar with only nine feet at 
high water, and difficult of access. 

The townships of Arisaig", St. Andrew's, and Tracadie are extremely 
fertile, well peopled, and highly cultivated. The iidiabitants are ex- 
tensively engaged in the Imnber trade and fisheries, and are an industrious 
thriving po])ulation. 

The township of Manchester contains all that part of the comity 
1 ing between JMilford Haven and the Gut of Canseau. The soil is of 
an excellent ({uality; lime abounds; coal has been discovered in several 
places at the head of Milford Haven, and is supposed to extend over a 
large tract of country. The population is scattered and not numerous. 

The township of Ciuysborough reaches from Crow Harbour to the 
northern bounds of the Lower District. The original grant was 100,000 
acres, made to some American loyalists in 17S4. The land of this town- 



m 



k 



i 



i H 



1111 
11 



I 

, iiiiiit' 



i 



2 



.;>« 
4 



!li |i 



22 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



ship is extremely good, but the fisheries afford such hicrativc emphiyment 
that very little more land is cultivated tlian is suflieient for internal 
supply ; but great quantities of horses, black cattle, and sheep are reared, 
and several cargoes are annually exported to Newfoundland, together 
•with considerable quantities of butter. 

JNIilford Haven is situate at the head of Chedabucto 13ay. Though 
narrow and diHicult at the entrance, having a bar with eighteen feet at 
low Avater, it opens into a spacious and beautiful basin, about half a mile 
Avide and three miles long, completely sheltered and affording good 
anchorage: after a narrow passage of two miles, it opens into another 
spacious harbour for four or five miles more, navigable the whole way 
for ships of 500 tons' burden. The town of Guysborough is situate at 
the western side, near the entrance of the lower basin, and commands a 
full view of Chedabucto Bay and its southern shore as far as Canseau, 
and few places possess more beautiful natural scenery. It contains a 
court-house, an episcopal, a Roman catholic, and a mcthodist church, 
besides several chapels scattered througli the township. The land on 
both sides the harbour is very good, and has been long since cleared 
of timber, now affording extensive natural meadows and pastures. 

The extensive bay of Chedabucto is formed by Cape Canseau on 
the west, and Cape Hogan, in the island of Cape Breton, on the east, 
and is twenty-five miles in length and fifteen in breadth. It is altogether 
free from rocks and obstructions, and is navigable throughout for the 
largest ships. INIilford Haven and Guysborough Harbour lie at its head, 
and Fox Island, Philip Harbour, Crow Harbour, and Canseau on its 
southern shore. The fisheries of tliis great bay are as productive as any 
in the known world. The inhabitants are all engaged in them, and the 
quantities of cod, herring, and mackerel taken are immense. 

Canseau is situate at the southern extremity of the county. The 
greater ])art of this district is a barren naked rock, with a few^ hills of 
good land. The town-plot, called A\'ilmot, is situate on the south- 
western side of Canseau Harbour. It has lately been much improved. 
The harbour of Canseau is a very excellent one, accessible at all seasons 
of the year. Tiie strait is called Little Canseau, and is navigable for 
the largest ships, affording safe and commodious anchorage. During the 



i 



I 



M 






iillS! 



'%i 



% 



CANSEAU— ST. MARY. 



23 



i 



;,*' 



prevalence of westerly gales, all the vessels to and from tlie Gulf of St. 
liawreiice anchor here, and wait for a favourable wind ; and it is a great 
resort for the fishing-craft in the season. 

St. Mary was forn^-T into a t* wnship in 1818, and contains 280,000 
acres. The lands along A\c shores are stony and barren, but improve 
very much in the interior. Timber of a su))erior description abounds, 
and there are extensive tracts of ungranted crown lands of good (piality. 
The first settlement in this town.ship was made at Coventry Harbour, by 
American refugees, in 1784-, who built a small town called Stormont, 
beautifully situate on the east side of the harbour, where it is about half 
a mile wide, and navigable for ships of the line. Coventry Harbour is 
a noble port, navigable for the largest ships for ten miles above its 
entrance, and forms the most extensive inlet from Halifax to Canscau. 

The river St. Rhiry falls into the Atlantic Ocean about ninety miles 
east of Halifax, and fifty west of Canseau. It has a bar entrance, upon 
which there is eleven feet water at lowest ebb tide, and is navigable for 
vessels of the first class for about nine miles. The river divides into 
several branches, flows through a well-wooded country, and is remark- 
ably convenient for floating down lumber. Sherbrooke is situate at the 
extreme head of the navigation of the river, and is accessible to vessels 
of .50 to 100 tons. A very considerable lumber trade has been and is 
carried on from this place. Several good roads have been opened through 
the township, and its natural advantages are such as to rec^uire only 
po])ulation and capital to make it equal to any settlement in the county 
of Sydney. 



COUNTY or SYDNEy. 

Dorchester Township 

St. Andrew's ditto 

Arisaifi ditto • . . . 

Tracadic ditto .... 

.AIanchestor,Guysborough,and St. IMary's ditto 

Total county of Sydney 


§ 

¥ 


Live Stock. 




Agriculture. 




la 


i 


a 


3 r- 


■^ B.S 




3,387 
2,275 
1,793 
2,557 

5,782 


2,432 
1,032 
1,5(58 
1,471 
5,057 


173 
115 
132 
143 
285 


.3,410 
2,048 
2,257 
2,172 
5,213 


5,090 
3,825 
3,913 
4,1.30 
7,391 


1,450 
1,211 
1.004 
1,.382 
2,052 


H,425 
7,450 
7,901 
(5,509 
8,054 


4,711 
4,287 
4,975 
3,405 
4,541 


9,085 
5,931 
0,1.50 
7,241 
9,7(50 


75,000 

58,297 

50,200 

49,010 

130,001 


12,760 


mi 


15,700 


24,349 


7,705 


.39,405 


21,919 


38,173 


303,288 


15,791 



i 



24 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



I 



'II'. 



t I 



, I 






:i4 



0' 



ml 



■ -.1 

1 Rr 



I i?'* 



,'1 

l!l.ji ■ 
it 



. ri! 



!'H 



|i!i'f| 



liii 



crMiu:uLA\n county. 

This county is bounded on the north-\vfst by the Chi<>nec'to Channel, 
Cuniberhuid IJiisin, tlie Missij^uash Kiver, and the boundary Hue between 
Nova Scotia and New IJrunswick, which runs from the source of that 
river to Hay N'erte; on the east by the Straits of Northunil)erhnul ; 
on tile soutli-east by tlie county of Halifax; and on the south-west by 
the townslii)) of 'ransborou«>;h and ])art of the Ihiy of Fundy. It contains 
two townshij)s, iVndierst and AN'allace, besides the several settlements 
of Fort Lawrence, Maccan, Na])|)an, Mimulie, West Chester, kc. The 
soil of this county is various. On the shore of the Chignccto Channel 
and Cumberland llasin there are considerable tracts of valuable marsh 
land. The uphuul is in general of very superior (|uality, of which a 
large tract, (luite through the county from Minudie to Tatmagouche, 
remains ungranted, and at the dis))osal of l^^hc crown. Coal, lime, 
and gypsum are found almost every wiiere. Iron ore is indicated in 
several places, and copper ore at Toney's lliver ; and there are good salt 
springs at I'hilip River. Tiiis county is remarkably well watered, being 
traversed by several rivers, and it has several fine harbours on both its 
shores. 

The settlement of Fort La^vrence adjoins the boundary line, lying 
between the rivers JMissiguash and I^a I'lanche. It consists principally 
of dike land, and is one of the most productive in Nova Scotia. Vast 
quantities of hay are raised, and herds of cattle fed, upon these lands, and 
the farmers arc generally wealthy and independent. 

Tlie township of ^\mlierst contains 20,750 acres, of which a con- 
siderable quantity is dike land, and the remainder interval, upland, and 
wood. INIcadow and grazing are the ])rinci])al agricultural pursuits, and 
beef and butter are raised and exported to a large amount. The little 
town or rather village of Amherst is in a flourishing condition. It is 
situate near the narrow isthmus which here separates the Bay of Fundy 
from Northumberland Straits; it is therefore connected with the 
navigation of both, and can with the same facility avail itself of the 



I 



rUM «KRI WD COrXTY. 



2.) 



markets of St.. Toliii «1 Miraiiii* h. Thr ri»ir Tidr sh ii ,iin tmriiship 
Hows into Hay Vertc, hrtwooii .ic htsul fwUich ,.ht an' ho sou roc 
of till' livtr Iai I'laiic'lio, which falls iiit lip Bay 1/ Fundy, thcTo is a 
))orta^v of only one niilo. The near .n 'ach of ttno waters of the Hay 
of Fundy and of the Straits of Xorthuml-. . ' toe tt^iotlier at this])()int 
naturally su<;"<;ests the idea of eonneetinjj !henavi<^ation of hoth hy a eanal. 
The jrround has heen examined and surveyed, and the |)raetieahility of 
such a work ascertained. The ex))ense of niakinjif a canal for sea-^oinfr 
vessels of eij^ht feet draught has been estimated at ()7.7-S/. 14.v.; and no 
doubt a work of such im|)ortance, not only to this ])rovince and New 
Hrunswick, but to the whole intercolonial trade of IJritish North America, 
will in a short time be eltected, either by public or private funds. 

The settlements on the Maccan, the Nap])an, and the Ilibbert 
lliver, and at Miiuulie, consist ])rinci])ally of the same (piality of dike 
land as iVmherst, and are cultivated in the same manner, meadow 
and irra/inir. The settlement at Minudie consists of Acadians, the 
descendants of those Avho escaped the "^vneral expulsion of that people 
in ]7 ')■'). They arc a tem])crate, industrious ])eople, forming a little 
distinct conununity, and pursuing their own customs, language, and 
religion with remarkable ])ertinacity. (Jreat quantities of shad are taken 
at jNIinudie, in weirs m the flats, which are cx])osed at low water. A 
quarry of grindstones is worked to a great extent in the neighbourhood, 
and the stones ex])orted in large quantities to the United States. Coal 
also is found here, and if j)ropcrly worked might sup})ly the demand of 
St. John and all the places on the liay of Fundy. 

Tatmagouche Hay is situate at the north-eastern border of the county, 
on the gulf shore adjoining the district of Pictou. The river of that 
name runs into it. The lands on both are fertile and w^ell cultivated, 
and the settlement is in a thriving condition. 

The township of Wallace contains several populous and growing 
settlements. The town of AVallace is situate at the mouth of the noble 
bay of that name. It was settled by loyalists from New York, who en- 
gaged largely in the lumber trade, which is still carried on in this part 
of the country. Wallace Bay is navigable for the largest ships for above 
six miles, and for smaller ones above twelve. The river llemsheg, after 

VOL. II. E 




26 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



f 



Hn 



P' I 






l^l-l 






■ ill I 



lii 



•^ ^!^i' 




i 1 
1 1 



n course of twenty-five miles, diseliitr^es itself into the bay, an<l is well 
stocked with salmon and trout. The lands on the Imy and river are of 
a very superior (juality, and the country is well settled. On the opposite 
side of the buy is Fox. JIarhour. It was settled by hi^hlanders from 
Scotland about twenty years a;i,(), who are now both comfortable and 
uflluent. I'upvash settlement is situated on l*u^'wash liay, the best 
harbour in the county. 'I'lu' shore is so bold, that vessels of .'>()() tons 
may lie with safety, at all times, within twenty yards of it. Above the 
chamiel, which is not more than a quarter of a mile wide, it becomes a 
beautiful basin, into which the river l'ui«vvash, which rises in a chain of 
lakes about seven miles distant, discharges itself. The land on the 
harbour and river is of superior (luality, although not very po])ulous. 
The river IMiilip, which is a imion of several others rising in the interior 
of the county, also discharges itself into the .sea near I'ugwash Harbour. 
This river is remarkable for the quality and si/e of its salmon and trout, 
and gaspereux and .shad are also abundant. There are several salt 
sjirings in this district : the most remarkable is one on the iJlack lliver, 
a branch of the IMiilij), which gives five gills of salt to every two gallons 
by connnon boiling, and the brine is highly medicinal. The settlements 
on this river have not flourished. The iidiabitants are principally en- 
gaged in the lumber trade, and do not pay as nuich attention to agricul- 
tnre as in other settlements in the county. Goose lliver forms a small 
barred harbour betAveen Pugwash and Tidnish. There are some good 
tracts of dike and interval land, but the settlement is as yet in its infancy. 

AVe.st Chester is situated on the summit of the Cobequid highlands, 
in the centre of the county. It was settled by loyalists from New York. 
The soil is naturally good, but the local situation is much against ic, and 
the settlement is on the decline. 

The county of Cumberland is well intersected by roads in all direc- 
tions. The great road from Halifax to Quebec runs (juite throngh it. 
Although containing some of the richest, and the greatest (piantity of 
dike and other valuable land, of any county in the province, agricul- 
ture, with the excc])tion of meadov and grazing, is not as extensively 
followed as it might be. I..ittle grain is exported from this county, but 
the export of beef and butter is considerable. The grazing farmers in 






t 



STATISTICS ()!• ( rMni;iii,A\n ( ointv-iiants. 



•21 



I 



till' districts hordcrin^' on the Hay «>f Fimdy aw as wialtliy aiul iii- 
di'pi'iuU'iit as any in Nova Stotia ; i)nt the siiint' roinaik will imt apply 
to tlif st'ttkMncnts ... the Ciulf shore, where the inliahitants are prin- 
cipally en<;a<;t(l in the hnnher trade, to tlu' nci^lcct of their rich and 
valiiahle lands. 

The eonnty returns two incnd)ers to the jmnincial parliament, and 
the township of Andierst one. The jjopnlation of the whole rounty 
was, in 1H17, '-i!)().5 souls. The census of 18'.i7 gave the followin«;- residts 
as to population, aj;riculture, and sttuk. 



.Ainlicr^tt towiisliip 
W'iilhur (liltii . . . . 

Miiuulic. .\:i|i|i.iii. M:iiiii\\', anil (I 
Ililibcrt Hivcr SfUli'iiictilM S 

Fort Luwrciar, West C'lii'stcr, iS:c. 

Totid county CuiiiIhtIhiicI 




1M,7!>(» 



•7.1 



HANTS COUNTY. 

The county of Hants is bounded on the north by the Minus Ilasin, 
on the cast by the Shubenacadie river, which divides it from Halifax 
county, on the south by Halifax co\nity, and on the west by the Kin^^'s 
county and the county of Lunenbur<>-. It contains six townships : 
AVindsor, Fahnouth, Newport, Hawdcm, Kempt, and I)ou<>las. The 
county returns two nunubers to the provincial ])arlianient, and the town- 
ships of Windsor, Fahnouth, and Newport, each one. The greater part 
of this county was originally settled by the French, who enclosed the 
dikes and marsh lands, and brought them into a state of cultivation 
and improvement, so as to enable them, before their expidsion from the 
province in 17.j.>, to export wheat and other grain to IJoston. After 
their cx])ulsion their farms and improvements were laid waste and aban- 
doned, until within about the last twenty-five years, when the English 

E 2 



li 



lir: 



\\n\ 



$ 



Mi! 



iM 



i* 



ipi" 



28 



KOVA SCOTIA. 



became aware of the value of tliesc tracts, and tliev were "ranted in 
extensive lots to the then members of Council, and others. 

Windsor township was ori<;inally settled by the French, as before 
mentioned. It is an a<>reeably diversified county of hill, dale, and lawn. 
It contains a considerable (luantity of marsh and interval land. The 
climate is considered warmer than either to the north or south of it, and 
it is well adai)ted for the j^rowth of Avheat and other grain. The orchards 
orif^inally planted by the French have been im|)roved and extended, and 
fruit is abundant and <>ood. There is abundance of j4y])sum found in 
this townshi)), and it forms a very considerable article of export to the 
Ignited States. The local scenery is very beautiful, and coming from 
Halifax, the contrast to the general character of the southern j)art of 
that county is striking and remarkable. The river Avon receives tlie 
Kennetcook, St. Croix, and Cocknuigon, and conducts them to the ^Nlinas 
IJasin. The rise and fall of the tide at AViiulsor is thirty feet, and the 
bed of the river is at times entirely exposed. The extreme breadth of 
the river here is about lOOO feet, aiul it is intended to erect a bridge 
over it. Windsor town is the shire town of the county. It is situate 
at the confluence of the St. Croix, ami the ^Vvon rises forty-five miles 
from Halifax ; the great mail-road from that ])lace to Aimapolis running 
through it. AViiulsor contains an univrsity (King's College), an academv, 
episcopal, lloman catholic, presbyterian, ba])tist, and methodist churches, 
a court-house, and county jail. Fackets ply between Windsor and St. 
John's, New Brunswick, and also to Farrsborough, across the iMinas 
IJasin, and the mail-coach runs to Halifax and Annapolis three times a 
week. \Mndsor is the only town in the county of Hants; there being- 
nothing like a town in any of the other townships. 

Falmouth townshij) is situated between W^indsor aiul Horton town- 
ship, in the King's county. It was granted in 17.5J), aiul contains 
.')(),00() acres. A range of nu)uutains form the rear, a gradually sh)ping 
u])land the centre, and a border of marsh the front of this townshij). 
It is well cultivated and thickly settled, and the peo])le are generally in 
comfortable circumstances. 

Xe\v])ort township lies on the eastern side of the river St. Croix. It 
was granted in 17()1, and contains .58,000 acres. There is a good jiortion 



:5 






I 



"^ 



iji 



ilU,'; 



RAWDON— KEMPT, &C.--STATISTICS— HANTS COUNTY. 



'U9 



of dike and interval land, and the upland is generally Acry superior, 
particularly on the river St. Croix and Keinieteook. This township is 
well cultivated by a native population, descended from the first New 
England settlers. 

llawdon township lies between Newport and Douglas. It was laid 
out in 1784, and contains i»4,00() acres. The first settlers were New 
England loyalists. It consists principally of very good upland. The 
chief cultivation is hay for the Halifax market. 

Kenii)t township contains H(),()(){) acres. It is situated on the borders 
of the JNIinas Hasin, and consists almost wholly of upland, which is deep 
and productive. At the ebb of the tide the flat shore is ex])osed to 
view, and the alluvial deposit thereon affords an inexhaustible sup))ly 
of excellent niamnv. This township ccMitains both gypsum and lime in 
abundance, and there is a good cod and herring fishery. 

Douglas townshi)) is bounded on the north by Cobequid J5ay, on the 
east by the Shubenacadie river. It contains 1().'5,0()() acres, granted to 
Colonel Small, for the location of the iid battalion 84th regiment in 
1784. It is one of the finest townships in the province, containing a 
great pro])ortion of marsh, interval, and upland, and abounding with 
coal, gypsum, lime, freestone, and slate. Nothing can exceed the fer- 
tility of the lands on the Siuibenacadie river. 

The population of this county in 1817 was G.'il8 souls. The census 
of 1827 gives the following results as to population, live stock, and agri- 
cultural produce. 



>fA' 



■n- 
ins 
ng 

P- 

in 

It 

Jon 



'3- 

m 



Windsor T()\viislii|) . 


1/' , 




Mvo Stock. 






I'rmluci'. 







1 

c. 1 

4. ' 






II 

"^ 


If 


=3 . 


2,( )(».'» 


1!I!4 


1,042 


2,7<il 


!{(i4 


(;,i!).i 


i,i3:i io,:?:<7 


12,.-):? 1 


:{,-).-.-. 


Fiilinoiitli (littit . 


)!(".) 


241{ 


!{;«!» 


1 ,;')">;"> 


itlVl 


:<.(»i7 


2,1!)0 ■,,2l!t 


2! »,!!»■) 


2,:{!»4 


N'cwport ditto 


\,m) 


52H 


2,7!{1 


4,417 


i,:f<)i) 


11. (»:?.■) 


-i,:{.")(» 1(»,-j:{7 .vi,(i2!» 


:{,(;2(i 


liiiwdoii ditto . 


})({■) 


247 


n!)i! 


1.7li(» 


(;,-)2 


.■i.r.71 


1, ."))!(; ."), .•..")!{ 


2.1,(!(u 


1,!HH) 


Kc'iiij)t ditto 


;")!)"> 


14H 


;">().■{ 


7(ii» 


:5!)() 


2,271 


77:5 2.(t:{r) 


!).:?;-.(» 


!I7(I 


Doiijilas ditto . 
Total Ilaiit.s cduiitv 


2,27:5 


i:ji 


2j.".2: :Mioi 


i,7i>7 


!»,M2 


r.,u!i{ 11,712 


(),.■))« 


.-..4:{(i 


»,()27 


2,iit(; 


!M7.") I4.!t(i:{ 


:),!i27 :i7,r):M 


!in,.-)2() .i-,.:{2!{ 


227,01(1 


1!),!»77 



I' ' 









.ll:!! 



1 1 






I i.'t' 



■ lip 



,# 



li-l' 






Hi 



30 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



KINCrS COrXTY 



Is bounded on the south by tlio counties of Hants and T.unenbur^, 
on the west by the county of Ainiajjolis, on the nortli by the JJay of 
Fundy, and on the cast by the comity of Cumberland. It contains four 
townships, Morton, Cornwallis, Aylesford, and I'arrsborough. 

Tlie townslii]) of Ilorton was originally settled by the French, and 
in it was situated the French village of Minus, of which no traces are 
now to be seen, except the cellars of the houses, a few old orchards, and 
the constant a])])endage of an Acadian settlement, scattered groujjs of 
willows. It contains J()(),000 acres, and was settled by the English in 
170*0, with emigrants from Ncav England, Avho found the dikes nmch 
dilapidated, and the meadoAvs under water. iVfter considerable difficulty, 
delay, and expense, the tide was at length shut out from all the old 
enclosed lands, by means of tnnbankments. This township has about 
4000 acres of diked land, besides interva nnd salt marshes ; and the 
upland, the hilly and broken, is mostly good tillage land. The only 
village in the township is Kentville, on the borders of Cornwallis. It 
contains several good ])rivate houses, a court-house, u jail, and a good 
grammar school. There are one episco[)alian, one ])resbyterian, two 
ba])tist, and two methodist churches, in the township, eleven grist-mills, 
two oat-mills, five saw-mills, one flax, and three fulling-mills, and two 
carding machines. The river Gas])ereaux, which flows through the entire 
township, abounds with salmon, trout, smelts, and the flsli called gas- 
pereux. 

Cornwallis township lies between Ilorton and Aylesford, along the 
jNIinas IJasin and IJay of Fundy. It was settled at the same time with 
Horton by emigrants from Connecticut. This townshij) is well watered 
by several rivers, and the land throughout is of the very best ([uality, 
every farm having a ])roi)ortion of dike, meadow, and npland, whereby 
the farmers are enabled to keej) large stocks of cattle. There are nume- 
rous and })roductive orchards ; and this township, from its extraordinary 
fertility, has been styled the garden of the ])rovince. There are in it 
one episcopal, one presbyterian, one methodist, one independent, and 



4 



KING'S COUNTY. 



31 



-^ 



three baptist chapels ; also sixteen saw-mills, eleven <>rist-inills, one oat- 
mill, and two carding machines. 

Aylesford township lies between Cornwallis and W'ilmot, in the 
connty of Annapolis. It was settled by loyalists in ITHK The soil and 
productions are similar in all respects to those of Cornwallis. 

Parrsborough township is situated on the eastern side of INIinas 
basin, by which it is divided from the rest of the county. The land is 
nuich broken and hilly, but in general the soil is good and fruitful, there 
being a considerable (juantity of interval. Tlie village of I'arrsborough 
is on the shore, from whence packets sail to and from Windsor and 
Horton twice a week. 

The Minas basin is a large reservoir that receives the waters of 
nineteen rivers, some of very considerable magnitude, and connniuncates 
witli the IJay of Fuudy by a strait between Partridge Island and Cape 
IJloinedon. Tlie tides rise in this basin liigher tiian in any part of 
America, and rushing in with extraordinary velocity from the IJay of 
Fundy, dc])osit vast (juautities of alluvial matter on the shore, whereby 
those tracts of rich dike and marsh land have been formed, which render 
the districts surroiuiding it the most productive, best settled, and populous 
in Xova Scotia. 

The population of this county was in 1817. 7,1 -t.^ souls. The census 
of 1827 gave the following results as to population and agricultural 
produce. 





5h 


Live Steel;. 


c . 

^-= 

if 

< 


I'rmliue. 






1i 

o ^ 


35 


6 

S 
1. 




= 1 

•r. *^ 


it ^ 

3 -r 


•o . 1 

1 


Horton Townsliip 
Coriiwiillis Ditto . 
Aylesford Ditto . 
I'arrsborougli Ditto 


.X014 
4,404 
l,0!)li 
1,()!>2 


()2i» 
2(il 
1()4 
235 


4,121 

r),3i() 

l,li)2 

I, mi 


.^,(i.".0 
!!,4}!4 
2,017 
2,423 


2,7!)1 

3,227 

(i2i» 

l,o8a 


11,280 

13,100 

3,420 

(),33.") 


S),4.-)2 

11, rMf) 

1,042 
3,01!) 


2r,,2r)8 

28,270 

4,r>!ti 
7.'»l» 


148,38(1 

281,727 

2!),!)2r> 

78,80". 


8,251 i 
11,120 
2,581 
3,334 1 


Total Kin<t's couiitv. 


I0,20«il,7!!!) 


12,.")}!0 


in,r)74 


«,232 


34,1.10 


2-),(!G8!(!5,137 


.138,t)(»3 '25,28(5' 



I 



m , 



! ' I !• 



1^ 



(:': 



ti; 



I 



in 

II . 

i-ri! 






I ' 






'"% 






1'|! 



32 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



COUNTY OF LUXENBl'RC. 



Tlic county of liunenburjjf Avas laid out in 1754: it is bounded on 
the north by King's and iVmmpolis counties, on tlie east by Halifax, on 
the west by Queen's county, and on the south by the Atlantic ocean. It 
contains three townships, Chester, TiUnenburg, and New Dublin, and 
returns two members to the ])rovincial parliament. 

The township of Chester was laid out in 1760, and first settled l^y 
emigrants from New England, to whom were subse(]uently added several 
Cierman families. The land is, in general, covered with spruce and fir 
timber, Avell Avatered, and capal)le of cultivation. Indications of coal are 
observed near Chester, and lime, yellow ochre, and pi])e clay, are found 
in several places. The principal harboin* is Mahone Hay, whicjli is very 
extensive, and affords secure anchorage inside its numerous islands, to 
vessels of the greatest magnitude. Chester town is situated on the 
north side of the bay, about nine miles from its mouth, upon a snug and 
commodious harbour. It is a very thriving town, and carries on a very 
considerable lumber trade and fishery. There are seven saAV-mills, two 
grist-mills, and a fulling-mill, in this township, and an episcopal and 
a baptist church. 

Lunenburg township is, next to Halifax, the oldest formed by the 
English in this province. It was settled in 1753, by 400 families of 
Dutch and Germans, who Avere brought out at the expense of the Uritish 
government and Avho received very liberal encouragement and assistance. 
The settlement contiimed to prosper, more or less, and in 1791 the 
population amounted to .'J247 soids ; since Avhen it has increased both in 
population and Avealth. The harbour of liUnenburg is small but easy 
of access, and is avcU sheltered by Cross Island ; vessels can lie alongside 
the Avharfs in fourteen feet Avater. The toAvn of Lunenburg is con- 
structed on a regular plan ; it is the shire toAvn, and contains about 250 
dAvcUing-houses, stores, kc. There are a court-house and jail, and four 
churches, Episcopalian, I^utheran, Calvinist, and JNIethodist. There is 
an extensive trade carried on here Avith the West Indies, NcAvfound- 
land and Quebec. Lunenburg is one of the flourishing tOAvnships of 






I 



^^ 



I 






i Mf'i- 



.■fH 



m- 



LFNEXBrRCi COUNTY. 



33 



the province, and altliougli the land is ncnvliere ricli, yet its contiguity 
to the IlaHfax market enables the settlers to raise and dis])ose of any 
article of ])roduee -with advantage. This township returns one nicmbcr 
to the provincial ])arlianient. 

New Dublin t(/wnship is situate on the river and harbour of La Have. 
It was originally granted to some New Englandcrs, who very soon 
abandoned it, and it was subse(iuently granted to German and other 
settlers. The lands bordering on the harbour and river La Have are 
stony and moimtainous, abounding with tindier of large growth and 
value. The land to the westward, on I'etit lliver and Palnierston IJay, 
is of a better ([uality. The river La Have takes its source far in the 
interior, and falls into the harbour of La Have. This harbour is very 
spacious, forming an inner and outer harbour. The outer harbour 
affords good anchorage, and is formed and sheltered by several islands, 
which are well calculated for drying fish. The iimer harbour is formed 
by the river ; it is capacious, and navigable for fifteen miles. The bar 
at the entrance has twelve feet at low water ; inside there are soundings 
from eight fathoms gradually to three. Considerable quantities of fish 
are taken here, and several vessels are annually loaded with lumber and 
timber for Great Britain. There are on the La Have upwards of thirty 
saw-mills, and on the west side of the river the remains of an ancient 
French fort, built in 1632, are still to be seen. 

27ie Stat'istks of the County, as token in \d>T,, are .shoun hy thefoUomng Table 



Chester Township 
Lunenburf; ditto 
Xew Dublin ditto 

Total Lunenburg county 


d 
c . 

'^ r. 

■= S 


Live Stock, 


Land cultivaud. 
Acres. 


Produce. 


If. 

c 


■33 
11 






o - 
J5 t 






1 

C . 


2,0i»2 

r>,o.s8 
2,27;") 


.38 

105 

i")9 


1 ,045 
5,042 
2,291 


2,412 
($,350 
2,370 


1,151 

2,7«n 

1,414 


3,340 
7,<»H1 
3,040 


558 0,001 

2,008 21,044 

;")51 0,041 


50,800 

193.028 

84,3.35 


1.740 
(i,249 
2,582 


9,405 1 202 1 8,978 


11,238 


5,331 


13,407 i 3,117 33,140 


.334,103 


lo,.'-.77 






VOL. II. 



r 



34 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



'■m 



QUEEN'S COUNTY. 



^r 



i-i 






m: 









m 



,.,.|.|;; 



I 'Kir: 



liHp'' 



This county is bounded on the north by Annapolis county, on the 
east by liunenburj^, on the west by Shelburne county, and on the south 
by the Athmtic ocean. It contains two townships, Ijiverpool and Guys- 
borough, and returns three members to the provincial House of Assembly, 
viz. two for the county, and one for Liverpool township. The interior 
of this county is stony, and generally incapable of cultivation. On the 
sea board it is somewhat better; there are, however, several tracts of 
better soil, and several thriving settlements. 

I^iverpool is the shire town of the county. It is surrounded by 
hills, well watered, and enjoys a pure air. It contains about 2.50 houses, 
stores, kc. ; a coxut-house, jail, and three churches, episcopalian, con- 
gregational, and methodist ; a school-house and block-house. It is one of 
the best built and most regular county towns in the province, and there 
is a handsome drawbridge, 1100 feet in length, over the river Mersey. 
The trade of the place is very flourishing, consisting of the lumber trade 
and fishery, both Shore and Labrador, and carried on with Europe and the 
AVest Indies. The harbour was called bj the French Ilosignol. A light- 
house stands on Officer's Island, at the entrance of the harbour, and is 
distinguished by revo'ving every two minutes. This liarbour never 
freezes over, and is accessible at all seasons ; but there is a bar at the 
entrance of the river, with only nine feet at ebb and fifteen feet at flood 
tide, so that large vessels are sometimes obliged to aiichor at Henry 
Cove. 

Port INIedway is a very fine harbour, capacious, navigable, and safe ; 
having from five to fourteen fathoms. The rivei* Medway runs into it, 
upon which is situated Mill village, containing several good houses, a 
church, and school-house, and the land here is the best in the county. 
There is a considerable lund)er trade and fishery also carried on here. 
Port Mouton is situated to the westward of I^iverpool. A settlement 
was founded in 17H.3, called Guysborough, but subsecpiently in great 
part abandoned : it has never flourished, and is now an inconsiderable 
place. There are also small settlements at Port Jollie and Port Hibbert, 



,'S3i 



''s 



^ 



M 



I 



QUEEN'S AND ANNAPOLIS COUNTIES. 



35 






botli of Avliicli are shoal harbours, yet both the fislicry and himbcr trade 
are carried on to some extent. 

Tlie population of the county was, in 1817, 3,098 souls. The census 
of 1827 ''•ave the following- results as to population and ai»ricult\irc. 



Liverpool Township 
(iuysl)or(i\iu;li ditto 
Brodktiold Settlcnieiit 1 
Caledoniii ditto '- 
Harmony ditto j 

iTotal of the county 




Live Stock. 


-3 

C 

3,(MI() 
452 

2,172 


Produce. 


i 

o 
.-4 


"5 =i 
§3 




a 
•A 


° J 
-2 3 

^ — 
y. V^ 

(i44 
715 


•It 

J- ij 

*:^ ^ 
•^ o 

l,(i24 
ID! 

1,4(14 
3,27(i 


!1 3 


o , 


4,M42 

4-)a, 

4,22r. 


!)1 
4 

(!« 


l,(i(»l 

:u2 

.-.23 
2,43(i 


l,2.'J7 
412 

7H2 


i,r.43 

272 
44i) 


27,430 
7,237 

0,250 


2,220 
331! 

940 


2,737 


2,2(i4 


r.,(i3() 


1,35!) 


53,017 


3.507 



ANNAPOLIS COUNTY. 



■^1 






Annapolis county is bounded on the north and west by the IJay of 
Fundy, on the south by Shelburne, Queen's, and Linienbiu'g counties, 
and on the east by King's county. It contains six townships, Anna- 
polis, Granville, AVilmot, Clements, Digby, and Clare; and it returns five 
members to the p«-ovincial parliament, viz. two for the county, and one 
for each of the townships of Annapolis, (Iranville, and Digby, The first 
European settlements in Nova Scotia were established by the French in 
this county, who made some very extensive improvements. i\fter the 
expulsion of the Acadians, their lands became an object of attention to 
the people of the British colonies, a considerable number of whom re- 
moved thither in 17()4, and obtained a grant of the township of Annapolis. 
This township contains a considerable quantity of valuable dike land; and 
the upland, though stony, is generally good. Amuipolis is the county 
town. It was founded by the French, who called it Port Koyale, and 
was the capital of the province while in their possession. It was also the 
seat of the British government until 1750, when it was superseded as such 
by Halifax. The toM'n is built upon a peninsula, which projecting into 

F 2 



'H: I 



w 



:,!■!! 



36 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



'M 



iffti 



hi ; 



:l 






m 



n ';f- 






'■ih:; 






it 



'If 



ii'4'l 



the river, ft)riYis two beautiful basins, one above and one below the tovvn. 
It has not much increased in si/e or population since the concpiest of 
the province, but it is still a respectable town. It contains a government 
house, a court house, an episcopalian and methodist church, an academy, 
eonnnodious barracks, and several handsome j)rivate buildings. The 
military works erected at various times for its defence are now in a state 
of decay. 'J'here are several good roads leading to all parts of the ])ro- 
vince; a stage coach runs through (iranville, AVilmot, Aylesford, Corn- 
wallis, AVindsor, and Newport, to Halifax ; and a steam packet j)lies 
constantly to St. John's, New Hrunswick. The trade of this town is 
coni])aratively insignificant to what it formerly was, business being re- 
moved to other more convenient and better circumstanced settlements. 

(iranville and AN'ilniot townships comprehend, for 46 miles, the 
peninsula formed by the river ^Vnnajjolis, running ])arallel to the liay of 
Fundy. They were granted in 17(54 to several New England settlers 
Avho came here. The land is of a very superior (piality, consisting of 
dike, salt marie, interval, and upland. The river Annapolis rises in the 
Kiiig's comity, and, keeping its course parallel to the IJay of Fundy, runs 
into and from the harbour of Amiapolis, and is navigable up to Bridge- 
town, in (iranville district. This thriving village is situated just at the 
head of the navigation of the river, and is the place of shipment for the 
produce of these districts. It contams an episcopalian, a methodist, and a 
baptist chiu'ch, some good dwelling-houses, and several stores and shops. 
A small peninsula, extending from (iranville township into Annapolis 
IJay, was the first piece of land cleared, by the French, for cidtivation in 
Nova Scotia. These tovvnshi])s are well cultivated and thickly settled, 
and contain, besides those at Bridgetown, ten churches of various de- 
nominations. The whole coast of these townships, on the Bay of Fundy, 
affords no shelter for vessels ; to remedy which, a pier has been erected 
on the shore in AVihnot township, which answers the purpose of a port, 
and enables the inhabitants to ship their lumber and other produce. The 
farms in these townships are in general well cultivated and productive; 
most of them have orchards ; and the cider and cheese made here are 
equal, if not superior, to any in the ]novince. 

elements township is situated between Annaiwlis and Digby town- 












k 






\ 



M 



H. 



■^«im»m»,~ 



ANNAPOLIS COl'NTY. 



37 



,^ 



■1 

':< 

x< 



sliius. It was settled in 17S1- by some disbanded Hessian and American 
loyalists. The land, tliou^li billy and irro<^ular, is in {general of a sujje- 
vior quality ; ^reat (juantities of fisli, berrings, aluviers, and sbad are 
taken on tbc sbore of tbe basin in weirs. Iron ore exists in tbis town- 
sbip in great abundance ; and bere, and at Moore River, tbe Annapolis 
Iron JNlining Company bave '.rected tbeir works, from Avbicb metal of 
very superior quality bas been produced. 

Tbe townsbip of Digby extends from Clements townsbij) to tbe 
river Sissiboo, and witbin its limits are I^ong Island and IJrian Island. 
It was granted to American loyalists in ITH-l. It contains a portion of 
marsb and interval land, and tbc tind)er is very good. Tbe town of 
Digby is situate on tbe Hasin of Annapolis. It contains about 'JOO bouses, 
a court-bouse, and spacious cburcb. Tbe air is salubrious, and tbe situa- 
tion agreeable; and it is nuicb frcMjuentcd in tbe sununer by coni])any 
from St. Jobn's, to Avbicb a steam-packet runs tbree times a week. Tbe 
inbabitants of tbis town and neigbboiu'bood are 'i.rgely engaged in tbe 
cod and mackerel fisbery along tbe coast. .Vuout tbree miles below tbe 
town of Digby is tbe entrance from the Bay of Fundy to .(Vnnapolis 
IJasin, tbrougb a strait called Digby Gut. At tbis entrance is a ligbt- 
liouse, well situated for tbe navigation of tbe bay. Tbcre is a very ])retty 
little settlement at tbc moutb of tbe Sissiboo, called ^^'eymoutb ; tbc 
sitiuition is peculiarly pleasing, and tbree are a number of respectable 
inbabitants, wbosc farms are in a good state of cultivation. 

Tbe townsbip of Clare, including tbe settlement of New Edinburgb, 
lies between Digby and Yarmoutb, in Sbolburne comity. It is almost 
exclusively settled by ^Vcadians, tbe descendants of tbose wbo were ex- 
pelled from tbis province in 17<j5, and allowed to return after tbe peace 
of I76JJ ; and bere tbose people |)rcserve tbeir distinctive cbaracter and 
customs more especially tban any wbere else in Nova Scotia. Tbis town- 
sbip is in a flourisbing condition. Farming, lumber, and tbe fisbery are 
industriously and extensively carried on. Tbere are se\ eral small vessels 
owned by tbe inliabitants ; tbcy bave erected between tbirty and forty 
saw-mills and several grist mills. Tbe wbole townsbip forms one parisb, 
and contanis two lloman catbolic cbapels, one of wbicb is a very spacious, 
bandsome place of worsbip. 




38 



i"''tl 



ft'' 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



i-'i 'i 






^ ill 



II 






II 



i 



||i,i*ir 



Mi 



I I 



Tlio three towiisliips wliicli eonipose the western distriet of this 
county Imve not the same advantaires of salt-marsh and intervals which 
the other districts ])ossess : hut the upland is in general {^ood, the pasture 
ahundant and sweet, the tindjer of the hest (juality. and the fishery most 
valuable. Much of this tract of country remains as yet uncultivated, 
but is not of a ([uality to invite stranoers to settle in it, however advan- 
tageous it may be for the increasinj^ resident ))oj)ulation. 

The navii'ation of the Hay of Fundy has been re])resented as dillicult 
and dangerous ; but the experience of years has proved the reverse : for 
in fact fewer vessels have been lost in it than in any other etjual portion of 
the .seas of North America. The tide rises to a great height, sometimes 
seventy feet, in the bay, and it flows with great rapidity, running at the 
entrance at the rate of about three miles an hour, and increasing as it ad- 
vances to more than seven, and at length rushing with im])etuosity into 
the Minus Uasin and Chignceto IJay. This rise and flow of the tide 
considerably aids the navigation both in and out of the bay. On the 
Nova Scotia side there are fcAv or no ports from Minas liasin to Anna- 
polis ; but from thence to the entrance, and round to the Atlantic, there 
are several places attbrding anchorage and shelter. 

The ])oi)ulation of the county of Annapolis was, in the year 1817, 
9817 souls. The census of 1812:7 gave the population, live stock, and 
agricultural produce as follows. 



Aiiimiiiilis To^vnshiii . 
(irnnvillc ditto . 
W'ilniot ditto . 
C;it'iiiL'iits ditto . 
l)i,!:I>v ditto 
C'lin-' ditto 

Total Annapolis county 


1 Live Stock. 

s" ' 


1 

i i 


Produce. 


I'opulat 
.Souls 

Horses. 








. 




Bushels of 
other Grain. 




2 57« :U4 
2,r.2(> 2(i4 
2,204 .S2){ 
I, (ill ir,'.\ 
.S,(il4 2 Hi 
2,0;{B 70 


2,7 1:» 

2.7»0 

2,4:{r. 

1.400 
2,700 

1,7:50 


n:\\-> 1,201 
:i7<i7 1,104 
4,17:5 i,:}27 
2,200 014 
;'.,(!().'> 1,0:57 
2,}i02 1,:514 


4,7.'.» 
4,2(tO 
5,100 
2.(i40 
2.402 
2,}»{5 


1,225 

1,714 

1,780 

4(i7 

105 

20 


()5,415 
.54,000 
40,81 () 
.32,0:50 
78,(iH8 
104,2:50 


7,270 

4,125 
5,455 
2,.'507 
4,055 

y,007 


5,182 
4,002 
4,525 
2,051 
.1,0.32 
2,000 


i4,(i()i i.:<r.i 


13,«72 


27,042 0,804 


22,174 


5,410 


:385,478 


20,300 


21, .540 



s 



I 






% 



;J 



%^y, 



■:'^. 



SlIliLULllNE COUNTY AND TO\VNSlIII». 



39 



COUNTY OF SlIKLHrilNK. 



■^ 



r)4!> 



This county is boiimU-d on the north by iVnnapolis county, on the 
east by Queen's comity, and on the soutli and west by the iXthuitic 
ocean. It contains four townships — Slielburne, Harrin^'ton, iXroyk-, and 
Yarmouth, and retm-ns tivc mend)ers to tiie House of Assend)ly, vi/. 
two for the county, and one each for the townships of Shelhurne, Harrin<;-- 
ton, and Varmoutii. The whok> of tlie interior of this county remains, 
with few exceptions, in a wiUlerness state. In some jdaces it is well 
wooded, and the soil of a <j;ood ([uality. The whole ])opulation is settled 
on the sea coast, where the best land is found. 

Shelhurne township lies l)etween Port Ilibbert, on the homidary of 
the Queen's county, and the river CUyde. Tt was granted in 17(»1 to 
Colonel M'Nutt, a spirited adventurer from the north of Ireland, who, 
with his associates, obtained a grant of one million acres in the ])rovince, 
to be selected where he chose. He selected 1 ()(),()()() in this township; 
but having failed to fulfil the condition of the grant, it became forfeited. 
It was subsequently settled by American loyalists, 500 families of whom 
arrived here in ITH.'J, and the number was subsccjuently very much in- 
creased. They erected the extensive town of Shelhurne, on the harbour 
of that name. This town arose with astonishing rapidity, and in the 
course of a year its population was not less than 12,000. Its decline 
was almost as ra])id : owing to many and insurmountable combining cir- 
cumstances, it began immediately to decay, and now is in a most deserted 
and dilapidated state. The harbour of Shelhurne is esteemed one of the 
best in America; it is twelve miles in length, easy of access, and perfectly 
secure, afFordhig anchorage for ships of the heaviest burthen. On ]M'Nutts 
Island, situate at the entrance of the harbour, stands a light-house, in lat. 
4.'i" 40' and longitude 6.5" 8' west from Cireenwich. The lantern is 12.5 
feet above the sea, and has been lately filled with Argand lam])s, which 
may be seen at thirty miles distance. It is in every respect similar to 
to the light-house at Halifax, with the exception of showing an inter- 



40 



NONA SCOTIA. 



il'llf 



n\ 



tr| 



I ™r ' 1 



'Hkii, 






V 



i r'rf 



Mudiiiti' lioht about halfway from tlio laiitrrn t») tlio base. The iImi- 
("lydf rises u])\var(ls of forty miles in the interictr, in an extensive ehain 
of lal\es, and at its jimetion with the sea forms two harboms, ealled (ape 
Neiii'o Harbours. It is said to be (»ni' of the most beautiful rivers in 
Nova Seotia. 'I'he lands surrounding;- the lakes and head of this river 
aboinul with valualiK- timber. 

Harrin<fton townshij) lies between Shelburne andi\r<ryle, and ineludes 
Cape Sable Island. It was ^ranteil in 17()() to 200 proprietors from New 
Kn«>lan(l. It eontains lOO.OOO acres, a {^reat part of which is barren anil 
bog'. The soil is rocky anti stubborn; but in several places, when well 
tilled and ma;nn'ed, yields abundant crops, ])articularly of grass. The 
climate is nuich n.ilder than in the more eastern <listriets of the province, 
and fog prevails in .hme, July, and August. It was originally inhabited 
by the iVcadians. The princi])al occupation of the inhabitants is the 
Shore and Tiabrador fishery, which yields large quantities of fish for 
export to the AN'cst Indies. Tn front of this township is Sable Island, 
Another island forms Cape Sable, the most southern ])oint of Nova Scotia. 
Harrington Harbour is shoal, but safe and convenient for small vessels; 
at the head of it is the inconsiderable village of Harrington. The inha- 
bitants of the township are .scattered along its coast, the better to take 
advantage of the fishery. 

Argyle township lies between Harrington and Varmouth, and is 
bounded on the south and west by the sea. It includes all the islaiuls 
in front of it, aiul eontains about 120,000 acres. It eontains some ex- 
tensive marshes, which, althougli not so valuable as those on. the Minas 
Hasin, aff'ord several good situations for farming. The upland is ge- 
nerally stony and productive, but requires good tillage ; the climate is 
temperate, varying from zero to eighty; the mean about forty-eight. 
Apples, plums, and cherries succeed well ; and })ears, peaches, and melons 
ripen. The i)roduction of potatoc and grass, rearing cattle, and making 
cheese and butter, are more attended to than the culture of grain. At 
the mouth of the Tusket river there are about 300 i.slands, called the 
Tuskcts, many of which are well cultivated, and afford shelter and an- 
ehorage for small vessels. The river Tusket is navigable for boats thirty- 



I 

■^ 



% 



■■M 



^■■^ ft 



siiFJ.mnNi: cocnty— YAUMorTii. 



n 



I 

■I 

'a 



two niilos f'n)m tlio sv;\, and for ships, — t'i<r|it miles; tin* least depth 
duriiiu,- that space hv\\\{f sixteen feet, with good shelter and aneiioratfe. 
Ahoiit thirteen miles from the shore, and twenty-one miles west In- 
north i'rom C'api' Sahle, lies Seal Island. It is emphatieally ealled the 
elhow of the Hay of I''nndy. The Aineriean fishermen resort to it for 
wood and water. There are two i\eadii.n settlements in this township, 
at I'nhnieo and Mel IJrook. Tlu- prineipal harbour is Pnhnieo, from 
seven to twelve fatln)ms water, easy of aeeess, and airordin<;' shelter to 
vessels enterin*;' the Hay of Fiuidy. 

Yarmouth township lies between Argyle and Clare (in iXniiapolis 
county), and contains 1 ()(),()()() acres of land. The soil, productions, and 
climate are the same as those of Arf'yle. There are numerous lakes in 
these townships, upwards of eighty of which have been already exploretl, 
and it is intersected by several rivers. The face ,f the county is diversi- 
fied, and the scenery beautiful. The princi|>al harbour is Cape I''ourche 
or I-'ourchon, which is large, well sheltered, and navigable for ships up 
to Yarmouth village. Chebogne river is navigable for seven miles from 
the sea, and at its mouth expands into a g(»od harbour. The Acadians 
had .several small .settlements in this district ; after tbi'ir ex])ulsi()n the 
township was granted, in 17()7, to settlers from New Kngland. It has 
always maintained a steady state of improvement, and promises, from its 
vari(ms local advantages, to become a jdacc of considerable importance. 
The iidiabitants are industrious and enterprising, and carry on a trade 
of some consequence both with Kngland and the West Indies. Then' 
are in the township a court-house and a jail, four churches of .several 
denominations, eighteen small .school-houses, fourteen grist-mills, and 
upwards of 700 dwelling-houses. Yarmouth village and Melton are 
classed among the towns of the province. Yarmouth contains about 
100 dwelling-houses, and there are nine trading estal)lishments. IMeltoJi 
contains about thirty houses. 

The popidatiou of this county was, in 1817, l.i,()ll ; the census of 
1827 gave the following results, both of population and produce. This 
is the only county in the province in which the population has not 
increased ; a circumstance attributable, not to the v.ant of a due natund 

VOL. II. (1 



42 



XOVA SCOTI.A. 



increase in the resident population, but to be ascribed to eniioration, the 
greater jjurt of the settlers in and about the town of Shelburne having- 
removed from that place. 



Slicibiiriic Towilsliili 
Harriiiutoii ditto . 
Arj;) If' ditto . 
Yariiioutli ditto 


o 

'34 

5- A 




Live Stock. 




Cultivated 
Lands. 




Protluce. 




1 






.5 


o . 
_5 ? 


'=■11 "^ » 

o 'C --J ^ 

-St. -^2 




2,007 
2,1)!0 
2,700 
4,.34-> 


41 

k; 

42 

220 


2,121! 
1 ,323 
2,j()(i 
3,722 


4,003 
4,002 
.3,040 

7.!tl7 


1,7.'4 
1.221 
1 ,;■).-..-) 
l,4.-.(i 


3,133 

i,i;i!7 

2,(i40 
10,030 


20.". 2,011 42,701 
20 ' r.OO 47.020 
I.". 1,003 103,}!37 

1 IT) 4,701! 114,(i02 


2.401! 
l.(ul 
3,212 
r.,022 


Total county of Slu'lliunic 


12,0111 


310 


10,(»30 


20,7.-.2 


.VOliO 


17,420 


44.". 0,002 301i,2.")0 


12,203! 



.ihstraet of flic PopK/afio/t, Ciilt'irdtcd Land, .tii-nciiltiirdl Produce, and Lire Stock ofXoi'u Scotia, 

a.s per ceniiUN taken in 18128. 



'&. 



v." 



;-:r 



■M. 



jUalifax County . 
i.Sydiu'v ditto 
Ciiiiibcrlaud ditto . 
Illaiits ditto . 

Kiiii^'s ditto . 

LiniL'uburjf ditto 

Qiu'cu's ditto 

Amiaj.olis ditto 

vSiu-lbiirne ditto 

Total (fXcliisivi' of C'api' \ 
IJiTton) . . . S 


I'oi.ul 


itioii. 


> r. 




Agrii'ultural I'm 


dui'e and Live Stock. 






i 
1 1. 
1(117 


In 

uvr,. 


i ^ j 
1 1 II ! 

i 

4,.".30 20,4(i4 

nil! l.'.,70(i 
1,204 li.22<) 
2,4!!(i 0.47;'. 
1,700 12,.'.liO 

202 1!.071! 

103 2,430 
1.3.-.1 1. 3,072 

310 1 10,030 






3 -? 


e5 = 


30.100 

7,000 

2,00.") 
0,311! 
7,14.". 
0,421! 
3,001! 

0.1117 
13,011 


10,r.41! 

12,700 

.■.,3.-.0 
0,027 
10,201! 
0,40.'. 
4,22.". 

1 i,0(;i 

12,011! 


02,070 

30,40.". 

20,301! 

1 37,."..31 

3i.ir.o 

13,4(i7 

.'.,()30 

22,174 

1 17,420 


43,5.34 24,122 
24.340 7.705 
ll,50(i 5,.'.33 
14,1!03 5,027 
10,574 !!.232 
11,231! 5,331 
2,737 2.2(i4 
27,040 (),1!04 
2(t,7.')2 5,01!(i 


02,240 104,002 

21,010 311,173 

14,1. '.2 34,007 

1}!,520 45,321! 

25,(i()l! 05,137 

3,117 33,140 

, 1,3.".0 3,27(1 

5,110 20,300 

' 445 0,002 


1!70,540 
303,2! !1! 
200,}!O7 
227.0111 
5.31!, 003 
334,103 
.'.3,017 
3115,471. 
301!.25(l 


40,307 
15,704 
13,700 

10,077 
25,21!0 

10,577 

3,507 

21,540 

12,203 


iJO.Olili 


123,1!0}! 


202,130 


12,0.".2 110,77<' 


174,0."..3 71,004 1.j2,1I3(J 440,400 


3,351!,30010,3,I7(» 



4 

'3 



m 



I I 



I I 



IDii 
U'22 



2l):{ 



'Xova Scotia, 



7(i,.')l() 
(llt.'JIIf! 
()!t,il!)7 
J7.i'»!t 



4(t,:?!)7 
ir).7!»4 
i:},7!»o 

1!»,!I77 






'.:{,!• r 



■.\,:m 



«!:.,47}l 21, Mil 
{(Kf.LV)!) 12,'2!):{ 



}:)!!,:{!)(» i(;;?,i7(t 



CIIArTEK III. 

Harhours — Roads — Canals — Climate — Procluetions, itc. of Xova Scotia. 

No country, in proportiiMi to its extent, possesses a greater number 
of safe and commodious harbours than Xova Scotia. The whole line of 
coast, Avith the exce])tion of a ])art in the liay of Fundy, is almost one 
contiimed chain of bays and harbours, some of them forming- as fine ])orts 
as any in the uorld. Halifax is one of the finest in America; accessible 
at all seasons of the year, remarkable for the facility of its entrance, and 
possessing safe anchorage for 1000 ships. Margaret's liay is both safe 
and capacious, twelve miles in de])th and from two miles, at its entrance, 
to six miles in width. Mahone IJay is etpially extensive and safe, affording 
secure anchorage for ships of the line. liiverpool, a noble deep bay, having 
good anchorage for the largest ships. Shelburne Harbour is esteemed 
(me of the best in America, as well on accoimt of its easy access, as for 
its cajjacity and perfect security. Country Ilarboiu- is navigable and safe 
for the largest ships for ten miles from its entrance. Canscau forms an 
excellent harbour, afibrding safe and connnodious anchorage for the largest 
.ships; and Chedabncto IJay, twenty-five miles in length and fifteen in 
breadth, free from all obstructions, is navigable throughout for the laruest 
ships, and affords secure shelter and anchorage in its several smaller har- 
boiu's. These are but a few of the ])rincipal harbours on the Atlantic 
shore. In the gulf of St. liawrence and the Straits of Northumberland 
there are also several noble harbours: Pictou Ilarbom-, a beautiful and 
capacious basin ; \\'allace liay, navigable for ships of the first class for 
more than six miles; and l*ugwasli Hay, the entrance about a quarter of 
a mile wide, leading into a noble basin, Avhere the largest vessels can ride 
in perfect safety, and anchor within twenty yards of the shore. On the 
liay of Fundy the principal harbours are iVmiapolis. with its two beau- 
tiful basins, and the outer port of Digby ; the extensive basin of INIinas. 



. 11 



II 



, ;Hf 






I ' t., 



il 



;i4i 



44 



XOV^\ SCOTIA. 



with its numerous minor liarbours ; and Chignccto Channel and Cum- 
berland Basin, out of both of which branch off several smaller bays and 
harbours*. 



IIOADS— CANALS. 

The roads of this jn-ovince are, for a new country, inferior to none 
in America. The expense of their construction and repair has been ])ro- 
vided for by annual votes of the legislature ; the sum raised for " road 
service" is very considerable, being not less than 30,000/. a year. It 
forms nearly half the public expenditure of the province. The road 
from Halifax to Annapolis is very good, and kept in excellent repair, 
and a stage coach runs between these towns three times a week. This 
main-road crosses the counties of Halifax and Hants to Windsor, runs 
from thence to Kentville, and so on to Annapolis, parallel with the shore 
of the Bay of Fundy. Another road has been completed from Halifax 
to Annapolis in a direct line, traversing tlie interior of the province in 
that direction. A line of roads, connnencing at Halifax, passes through 
all the townsliips on the southern and western shores, taking in Chester. 
Jamenburg, Liverpool, Guysboro, Slielburne, Barrington, Argyle, Yar- 
mouth, Clare, and quite round through AVej'mouth and Digby to An- 
napolis. Again, good roads run from Halifax into the eastern districts 
of the province ; viz. to Pictou, to Antigonish, to Guysboro, Crow Har- 
bour, Cape Canseau, and the townships in that direction. Other excel- 
lent roads run from Halifax to Truro, the townships of Onslow and 
Londonderry, and the several townships of the county of Cumberland. 
Generally speaking, the road comnumications of the province are very 
good, and are every year extended and improved. 

* The position of Halifax, as well as of all the priiicijial headlands and harbours on various 
parts of the coast, and in the gulf of St. Jiawrence, have been most accurately determined by the 
direction and under the inunediatc conunand of Admiral Sir C. Ogle, whilst commanding on 
that station, by Alcssrs. J. Jones and other oflicers of distinguished scientific talents. A table 
of the latitudes and longitudes of such points will be found in the Aj)pendix. The solicitude 
of tlic admiral in the execution of this important service has produced a degree of accuracy of 
the greatest advantage to the shipping interests employed on these coasts, as has been unequi- 
vocally acknowledged both by the colony und at home. 












i ;' 



m? 



I I- 



r I 



■ - il!.: 




^w 



I:;*'' 



; \ 



''I 



i in 






■'It 



WIA'P aji.l K'l.EYAT'ieK <>rilii- >SWriB!K?<fArA'll)llE nAV'ie.^"ru)5 r. 




Me 



v,l^ 



• NAV'iG.A-noN ivc.n i:i;\.i.i:iv\:k iiMiRiBOir'i^ tou..- b;\.^l^ of vM15K?5 




J A- rtraJIcrrSml/,^ 



I'' l! 



1 1 



■ A 

M 



iC 









.V|: 



■i r 



im 



A-A,. 



the greatest advantage to tne snipping interests employed on these coasts, as has been line 
vocally acknowledged both by the colony and at home. 



'S6 



.1 



SnrBENACADIE CANAL 



4.) 



t 



'.& 



The Sliuhenacadic Canal, wliicli unites the waters of the Basin of 
Minas, or Mines, with Halifax Harbour, is a Avork of infinite importance 
and Aalue to the ])rovinee. It traverses the besfr-eultivated districts of 
the coiuitry, and affords an easy and clieap eonnnunication to Halifax 
market for the ])roduee of all the townships on the Minas liasin ; and 
in the event of a war with the United States, puts the internal trade of 
the province beyond the reach of an enemy. It is fifty-four miles in 
extent, and is constructed for sea-«^oing vessels drawing eight feet water. 
It has been completed for boat navigation, and will be fuliy finished, 
as is expected, in the course of another year. The expense of its con- 
struction wa v> nj.ted at about 40,000/. raised by a joint-stock com- 
pany, who have obtained a charter of incorporation. 

It lias been proposed to make a canal across the narrow isthmus 
(which connects this province with New Hrunswick) between Cundier- 
land IJasin, at the head of the Iky of Fundy, and Bay Verte in North- 
umberland Straits. The distance across is no more than eleven miles, 
and an eminent engineer who surveyed the ground has demonstrated the 
practicability of the work, and estimated the cost of its construction, so 
as to admit sea-going vessels drawing eight feet water, at ()7,728/. 14.«. lOr/. 
Uj)on consulting the map, the advantages of such a canal are most ap- 
parent, and would be equally important to New IJnuiswick and to this 
province. The long and dangerous circuit of Cape IJreton would be 
avoided in the navigation bctw^cen the Bay of Fundy and the St. I^aw- 
rencc, and the communication between the Canadas, Prince Fdward's 
Island, and the country on the Kestigouchc and jMirimichi, and between 
this province and New Brunswick, Avould become so much shorter and 
safer, that there can be no doid)t that the intercolonial trade would be 
increased to a degree not easily to be calculated ; and in the event of hos- 
tilities, j)laced beyond the reach or interruption of an enemy. Another 
benefit arising from this navigation to the trade of the Canadas would 
be, that Halifax, St. John's, and New Brunswick, would become depots 
for the bread stuff intended for exportation to the AVest India Islands. 



II' 



4(1 



NOVA SCOTLX. 



CUMATK. 



R' 



' H^ 



I'nr 



!:jr 
1'^ 



til 



The cliniiite t)f Nova Seotiii is cold, the winter continuiiij^ from 
December to ^fay. Tlie eartii is completely frozen from Christmas to 
April, during which ])criod there are very heavy falls of snow. There 
is scarcely any spring; for so soon as the frost and snow disappear, 
vegetation revives with sucli vigour as, in a few days, to alter the 
whole face of the country, iVbout the 1st of June the fields afford 
suflicient food for cattle. The heat of sunnner is both moderate and 
regular, being greatest in the month of August, and the nights are, 
generally, temperate. The autunni is the finest portion of the year; the 
mornings and evenings are cool, the temperature of mid-day not mdike 
that of June, and the sky generally clear, and cloudless. The month of 
Aj)ril and the autunmal months are the most rainy, and fogs ])revail on 
the southern shore, and at the mouth of the Hay of Fundy, in summer, 
but do not extend inland. The climate is remarkably healthy, and con- 
ducive to longevity. A great pro])orti()n of the inhabitants live to a 
very advanced age, not unconnnonly to ninety and one hundred years. 
This great longevity was also observable among tlie Indians. The air is 
piu'e and wholesome, and there is nothing like that noxious miasma which 
in the C^nited States is the fruitful cause of intermittent fever. The 
intermittent, bilious, and yellow fever of ^Vmei'ica have never appeared 
in the ])rovincc, nor do any diseases prevail that are not usual and familiar 
in England. To say that the climate is not imhcalthy would convey 
but an inadequate idea of it. It is decidedly most salubrious and con- 
genial to the prolongation of human life, and proved by ex])erience to 
be entirely beneficial to Europeans. 



iw 



1 



M 



'-4 



yi\ 



"1i 



!• ! 



SOIL. 



The soil of this province is of the greatest variety ; and although no 
general observations will aj)ply to the Avhole, it may be divided into four 
classes ; vi/. the superior quality of soil, the good, the inferior, and the 
barren, or that which is incapable of cultivation. The quantity of land 



-m 

m 






SOIL. 



47 






1 



I 



of the first class is siijjposcil to be e(|iial to one-foiirtl» of tiie wliole pro- 
vince, jibout 'J,5()(),0()() acres ; and of the second about ,'{,."»()(),()()() acres : 
inferior land about !2,()()(),()()() acres; and ne ly an ecjual jjroportion of 
barren. The same diversity of soil prevails in every county in the pro- 
vince. The best land is <;t'nerally foinid on the shores of the Hay of 
Fundy, the Minas and ('und)erland IJaslns. and the <ifulf .shore ; and the 
inferior land on the southern shore. There are extensive exceptions in 
both eases, particularly on the margins of the lakes and rivers; on the 
hitter of which, espcfially, ••ood land mostly prevails. The (piality of 
the soil is generally indicated 1)y the tind)er it produces. Hlack and 
yellow birch, elm, ash, maple, or hendock, indicate a rich soil. Wliite 
birch and spruce, or timber of a stunted growth and si/e, denote inferior 
land, and ))ine i.s generally found on dry sandy soils. The first class of 
land consists of upland, inter\al. and marsh. Interval is a term peculiar 
to America, and denotes land composed of the alluvial deposit of ri' v rs . 
it is found in every county in the provii'.ce; it j)roduces grain of all 
kinds; and such is its fertility, that it has been known to produce four- 
teen successive crops of wheat without the assistance of manure, ^^arsh 
land is also composed of alluvial sediment, deposited by the tide, and 
when enclosed by dikes, and well drained, exceedingly fertile, yii'lding 
for several years abundant crops of wheat, and subse(iuently alternate 
rotations of grass and wheat, without the aid of manure. The (piantity 
of interval and marsh land in the province has not been accurately ascer- 
tained, nor is it easy to form a conjecture respecting it ; much of it. 
particularly the interval, being yet in a state of natiu'c. The arable 
lands bear as yet but a small ])roportion to the uncultivated, and are 
chiefly confined to the coasts, harbours, and banks of the rivers; though 
several small settlements, invited by local circumstances, are found scat- 
tered in the interior. The a])pearance of some of the old townships will 
vie with any part of America. The extensive and well-cultivated valley 
of the river Annapolis, the diversified and ])ictures(pu' country of llorton, 
Cornwallis, and A\'indsor, the country along the Shubenacadie, and the 
townships of New])ort and Yarmouth, cannot fail to strike the .stranger 
with surprise, as existing in a country which has hitherto almost esca])ed 
notice, and lias been represented as the most iminteresting part of 
America. 



4S 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



:|,ii 



ill 



'!'tl|!|'i 



frit' 



I. lit.' 



lii 



r I 
^1 



I ' 



,. >f 



NATlllAI, l»Il()|)r( TIONS. 

The imtiiral ])ro(liutions of tliis coimti y, like all others in u state of 
nature, eonsist of its timber, minerals, and wild animals. The woods and 
timber are the sanu' as are found in the other northern ])arts of North 
Anieriea: — the pine in all its varieties: ihe hireh. which is eonsidered as 
the best in ^Vmeriea ; oak, suitable for shi|)-bnil<lin<f : sprnee, hendoek, 
beeeh, ash, maple, and elm; all fit lor boards, staves, and lumber, and 
an innumerable variety of other sorts of nreat beauty, but of minor 
value. The ([uantity of valuable timber is very ^reat, and far from 
bein<r exhausted, aiul I'Uables the colonists to carry on a very extensive 
trade in tind)er and lumber, to the mother country and the ^V^•st Indies, 
as well as in the bnildinf;' and sale of shi])s, for which |)urposes it is 
as suitable as the iind)cr of any other section of North America. There 
is a ^i>'reat variety of indigenous plants and flowers, some of them very 
bcautifid, as well as of wild fruits, consistinji of the sorts nio*«t connnon 
in Euro))e. 

MINKUALS. 

The minerals of this province are but little known, and no steps 
have been hitherto taken to ])roenre a scientific ge(»l()<;ical survey of the 
country. With the exception of the coal-fields at I'icton, no excavation 
of any de])th has been made into the earth, and its surface is so covered 
with forests that the greater part of it has never been made the subject 
of investigation. The reservation to the crown (in the grants of land 
made iji this colony) of the valuable minerals has rendered the owners 
of the soil indifferent about the discovery of what tluy could not enjoy. 
All the reserved minerals in the province were granted by the crown to 
His Royal Highness the late Duke of York, and by him leased (it is 
understood for a tt.'rm of sixty years) to Messrs. Kimdell, Bridge, and 
Co., of London, who have as yet confined their operations to a colliery 
o])ened in the district of Pictou, called the ^Vlbion Colliery. The prin- 
cipal minerals hitherto observed arc coal, iron, gy])sum, lead, eo[)pcr. 
manganese, salt, lime, slate, freestone, and granite. 



1 



.7--. -*. 
■1. ■ 



« 



MINERALS— COAL— IRON. 



H) 



'I 



Coal of tlio finest <iuality and in the greatest ahundaiue is known 
to exist iti certain parts of the province. The great eoaUfiehl of IMetou, 
based on limestone, has been traced from Carriboo IIarl)oiir to Merigo- 
iiiish, encU)sing an area of more tliaii 100 scpiare miles, the veins .arying 
in thickness from fifty feet to one foot. The vein opened at the Albion 
coal-mine is upwards of fifty feet in thickness. This field consists of 
several distinct layers, the upper or main base being generally thirty- 
six feet in thickness. The coal is of a highly bituminous <|uality, Inirns 
freely, making a cheerful lively fire in a grate, and casting a strong and 
powerfid heat. It is as well adapted for smiths' use as any coal in the 
world, and has a peculiarly valuable property in preparing iron. In an 
experiment nuide at the Albion works ujjon some iron ore, it produced 
a nu>tal of the very best and finest (juality. It is also ])eculiarly adapted 
for steam-engine boilers, as it ])roduces steam (juicker than any known 
bituminous co.i! ; and b^^^ing free from impurities, has not so great a 
tendency to burn the boilers. The coal-field in the north-western part of 
the county of Cund)erland, between the river .'N'acan ami the shores of 
the C'hignecto cluumcl, is also of considerable extent. There are eight 
veins of coal, one over the other, varying from one to four feet in thick- 
ness. The coal is not considered so good as that of the IMctou Held, nor 
have any works been yet established upon it. There are also indications 
of coal in the township of Londonderry, and at Onslow; on the north 
shore of the Minas IJasin; at the head of I'omket Harbour, in the upper 
district of the county of Sydney ; and on the south shore of Wallace 
Harbour, in tb.e county of Cund)erkuul. I'rom the great abuiulauce, 
su])erior (piality, and facility of raising and ship])ing tlie coal of this pro- 
vince, there is no doubt but it will, at no distant period, become an 
extensive and valuable article of its trade, and an abundant source of 
wealth to the proprietors and the colonists. 

Iron ore abounds in several parts of the province. Some of the 
must valuable is found in great ([uantities, interstratified with the 
coal veins, in the Pictou coal-field. Thin ore is found to be of the 
very best quality, ])roducing from thirty to sixty per cent, of pure 
metjd. There are no iron works as yet established in these districts. 
Iron ore exists in the western parts of the county of ^Vmiapolis in great 
abundance, particidarly in the township of Clements. The " Annapolis 

VOL. II. II 



' t 



It 



50 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



I 



■i HI 



I' ii. 



trfft! 



It I 




7. 



Iron Minin<; I'oinpaiiy" was cstaMislu'd and incoqmnitcd in the ytar 
IS,'.!; tlu'y liavo tTi'C'ti>(l i-xtfusivr iron works on tlif >ro().sc' Uivcr, wliicli 
falls into tlu' Annapolis Hasin. wluiv tlicy niannfacturc holloiv wart; and 
bur iron of very Hnpfrior (jnality. As tlu'rc is no coal <lisi'overi'd i'l this 
j)art of till' ])rovini'(\ charcoal is used in those works, of which the nei^h- 
l)onrin<r forests ail'ord an inexhaustible supply. Indications of copper 
have been found at Cariboo and Toney's lliver, French River, and Mast 
River, near I'ictou; at Tatnia^ouche and ^Vau;^h^s River, and at Minudie, 
in the comity of Cmnberland : in fact, indications of copper are ft)und 
from Cariboo, near I'ictou, (juite throu;;h the whole extent of the county 
of Cumberland to Minudie; and althouj«h no stratum or continuous vein 
has been discovered, with the exce])tion of a small one at Minudie about 
an inch in width, there is every reason to believe that this section of 
country contains some valuable veins of this mineral. \'ery few lead ores 
liave been discovered. Some fine sj)ecimens of sulphuret of lead have 
been found near (iuysboroui>h, in the county of Sydney ; and manganese 
occurs in considerable (juantities near Amherst, in Cund)erland county. 
Thus it should seem that in those sources of riches which lie below the 
surface of the soil, this province excels every other part of the Rritish 
dominions in North America. 

'^Jypsum, or plaster of l*aris, aboimds in the middle and eastern parts 
of the province, and is jrenerally of the best ({uality. It exists in tlie 
county of Hants, and in Windsor and New])ort townships in the greatest 
profusion, formin<if the principal article of export. It also abounds in 
the Shubenacadie River. Considerable ([uantities are raised in the town- 
ship of Dorchester, in Sydney county, and exported from Antigonish : 
and it is very abundant in the county of Cund)erland, especially at the 
Rivers Macan and Napan, in the township of Amherst, and on the River 
Philip. There are varij)ns kinds of gypsum, generally divided into hard 
and soft, the latter of which is esteemed the best ; it is by no means u 
solid body, and is seldom found in uid)roken strata of ])ure gypsiun. It 
is quarried by the aid of gunpowder, and broken into a suitable size for 
exportation by the ]iiek-axe. Its value, as a mainn-e, is well known, and 
highly appreciated in the United States, to which upwards of 100,000 
tons have been annually cx])orted from Nova Scotia. 



m 






'^. 



SALT SIMIINUS— ANIMALS IlIUDS. 



Jl 






SALT Sl'UINdS. 

Salt springs li;ivc lu'i'U discovcrtul in several pluees. At lllack 
River, a braiieli of the I'hili]), a eoiisiih ial)U> ({uaiitity is iiiaiiutiictiMTd, 
|)r<)<liieing twelve per cent, of p\irc salt; at NN'est and Middli- Kivcrs. 
near Pictou, pnuliieing about eight per cent.; at the west river of Aw- 
tigniiish of similar (|iiality; at tlie Uivers Chegenois and Salmon, in the 
townshii) of Onslow; and at the Kiver Stewiaek, in the t«»wnship ot 
Truro. There never has been any extensive manufaeture of this article, 
the price of labour being as yet too high to enable tin- e>)lonists to enter 
into e»)inpetiti()n with that which is imported; but no doubt the period 
will arrive .<\\cn the suppl) of native salt for the fisheries will be an 
interesting object of manufaeture, and source of considerable wealth. 

(iranite, limestone, slate, and freestone are found in several parts of 
the ])rovince, and the uvo latt . in some j)luces worked to sonie extent, 
princi])ally for domestic U' " ; aiid extensive and valuable cpiarries of 
grindstones are work'ul at Svjuth I^ag' 'n, near iNIinudie, in the county of 
Cundu-rland. Thes • gk ndstones are particularly esteemed in the Tnlted 
States, to which upwards of 1 (),()()()/. worth are annually exported. 

ANIMALS. 



-i 



Nova Scotia abounded with a great variety of animals. These were 
soon considerably reduced by the cliase, principally for the purpose 
of obtaining fur and peltry; many s})ecies have consc(iuently become 
extinct, and the catalogue and nund)er of those that rentain are by no 
means considerable. Among these the principal are the moose, cariboo, 
bear, i'ty, iacoon, lynx, cat, weasel, martin, otter, minx, beaver, mus- 
(juash, luirc, woodchuck, rat, mouse, mole, bat, tike. 



BIRDS. 



The birds of Nova Scotia are in general the same as are found in all 
the northern provinces of America. Most of them are birds of i)assage, 

H 2 



r ' r 



52 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



M 



■il'ii 



''h 



¥ 



wr 



but some, such as the jay, crow, partridge, woodpecker, and a few others, 
are to be found during the winter. No perfect catalogue has been as yet 
made of them. 

FlSIIIvS. 

The waters of this province, and the seas surrounding it, aboinid 
with fish in the greatest variety and of the most valuable species. The 
lakes and rivers teem with the usual fresh water fish — trout, ])ercli, 
bream, eels, and many others. The harbours swarm with cod, mackerel, 
herrings, shad, alewives, salmon, halibut, sturgeon, sole, plaice, smelt, 
haddock, lobsters, oysters, muscles, cockles, and an infinite variety of 
others ; and in the surrounding seas arc found all those fish of the whale 
.s])ecies valuable for their oils, as the whale, grampus, por])oise, cVc. In- 
deed the taking and curing of fish may be considered as one of the prin- 
cipal, if not the chief staple of the trade and source of the wealth of 
Nova Scotia; a more particular accoinit of which will be given when we 
come to treat of the trade of the province. 



'^ 



n^ ;H! 



M 



H 



<t 



! i 



M 



I '' 



CIIArTER IV. 



Extent — Grants — Ap;ricnltnrc — Statistics — Clergy — Education, iS:c. 






t 



Nova Scotia contains, exclusive of Ca))e lireton, about J),0()(),()()() 
v)f acres, not includinj^ lakes and rivers, ^'e^y few grants of land were 
made ])rior to 17.50, except town and fisliino- lots. It a|)])ears that from 
17(i() to 1S12, there were passed ISl 6 grants of land, conveying ;5,991,9()1 
acres, and subsequently 127,})7S acres ; on the whole (),119,9.'M) acres : but 
of those 2,152,660. acres escheated to the crown. The (luantity of ap- 
j)ropriated land therefore is .'i,979,ii77 acres, and the quantity ;it the dis- 
posal of the crown about 5,()()(),()()0. In all those grants trifling (juit-rents 
were reserved to the crown, and in most instances all minerals ; but the 
crown lands are now disposed of by sale at public auction ; and as the 
mines and minerals of the whole j)rovince have been granted away, they 
cannot go with the land. The first settlers naturally selected the best 
land, both as to quality and situation ; the luigrantcd, or crown lands, 
therefore, lie in the rear of the townships and in the interior, and consist 
of almost all the inferior tracts, with a very considerable quantity of 
good land. There are extensive tracts of crown lands in the county of 
Cumberland, extending from one end of it to the other, a great ])art of 
which is of very excellent quality. The whole of the interior of the 
county of Shelburnc is still undisposed of; some of it is Avell wooded, 
and the soil in many places of good quality. There are also considerable 
tracts of good crown lands in the interior of the counties of ^Vnnapolis, 
Queen's, and Sydney. In short, considerable tracts of su])erior and good 
land are to be found among the crown lands in all parts of tiie province*. 



* The vnliKMif land necessarily dopi-nds on the Ici.ility "f the soil, local situation, and 
state of iniiirovcnii-nt. It is impossible therefore to form an_v j;eneral estimate of the value of 
imjjroved land. Wilderness, or unimproved land, varies from ')/. to 4(1/. yvr hundred acres, 
About 10/. per hundred acres is the full average value of inii)rovable wilderness land. 



Jri 



i{. 






III I 



'i |:^ 






is 



•1. I 



''til 



i' 11' 



111 




54 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



The process of ])rin<jring the wild huul into a state of cultivation, 
and the operations of agriculture, are much the same in this province as 
in all other newly-settled countries. The first thing to be done is to 
clear oft' the wood. The trees are cut down at about tliree feet from the 
ground, lo])ped and sawn into convenient lengths, and then burnt ; where 
this is not performed by the settler himself, the cost of the whole is about 
4/. 10*. per acre, exceeding the rate at which the same service may be 
jn-ocured in the Canadas by about 1/. lO.y. per acre. The wood, although 
green, burns freely, and the whole clearing may be, and generally is, per- 
formed in one season, from March to September. The land is then j>re- 
pared, by manual labour with the hoe, for tlie seed, and wheat, rye, maize 
sown, or ])otatoes ])lanted ; grass seeds are always sown with the grain crops, 
and after they are taken off, the land remains in grass, i)roducing hay for 
the food of the cattle in winter, imtil the stumps of the trees decay, and 
the plough can be used. The settler is enabled to keep a stock of cattle 
as soon as he can raise Imy oli'liis land, vviiicli is generally the tliird year. 
The settler carries on the same process on a portion of new land every 
year, either until his whole farm is cleared, or until, by the decay of the 
stum])s, he is enabled to cultivate again the already -cleared land with the 
plough, which can generally be done in five or six years. New land 
yields the most abundant crops, and a farm consisting of both new and 
cleared land is considered more profitable than one entirely cleared. Farms 
of the former description are called "half-improved farms." AVheat is 
raised with some difHcidty in Nova Scotia ; if the seed be well selected, 
and sown early on good land, properly tilled, it will ripen in all ordinary 
seasons ; it requires great care in its culture, and if that be neglected, it 
is probable it will not succeed. The average crop on good upland is 
from sixteen to twenty-five bushels; on interval and marsh much more: 
it has been known to yield forty bushels per acre. The ((uantity grown 
in the province is not nearly sufficient for its own consumption, and flour 
is consi (piently imijorted to a considerable extent. The climate is very 
congenial to rye, oats, and barley; they are raised without difficulty, and 
yield abundantly, 'i'he average crop on good land is oats, 25; barley, 20; 
and rye, 1() bushels ])er acre. Maize, or Indian corn, is indigenous in 
America ; it is extensively cultivated in the western districts of this pro- 



7*'' 
,■■'■1 

'-V, 

.'4 



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AGRICULTURK. 



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vincc, and is a most valuable vegetable. It is easily cultivated: the 
leaves and stalk afford {food food for cattle ; tlie grain is the very best 
that horses and swine can eat ; aiul the meal the best for bread, next to 
wheat-flour. Iiulian corn bread, though very little used in this province, 
is in couunon use in the Xew Kngland provinces and New York, iiuleed 
all through the United States ; the average croj) is about twenty-five to 
thirty bushels per acre. 

Potatoes thrive better in Nova Scotia than in any part of America, 
and are very much cultivated ; the ])roduce is about liOO bushels per acre. 
Turnips, beans, and buckwheat are also cultivated very generally, and 
with success. Few j)laces are regularly divided into fields, but a rotation 
of cro])s is generally adopted. On the virgin land, wheat, rye, potatoes, 
maize, and sometimes turnips, comp se the first croji ; then grass for a 
few years. On the breaking up of the grass land, generally oats, then 
potatoes, then wheat, succeeded by potatoes ami wheat, and laid down 
with clover or timothy grass. Hay is indis))ensable for the subsistence 
of cattle in the winter in this province, and the culture of grasses is there- 
fore a primary object with the Nova Scotia farmer, insomuch that the 
land laid down in grass is scarcely ever broken u]) imtil the failure of the 
grass crop indicates the necessity of renewal and change. New land 
requires no manure in the first instance, and some soils, marsh and in- 
terval, have been under crop for several successive yeai's without the aid 
of mamirc. Dung is the most connnon mamire used, particularly on 
u])land ; lime has come but partially and lately into use. Ciypsuin. of 
which such ((uantities are exported to the United States for mamue, is 
not at all used for that pin-pose in this province ; the alluvial de])osit of 
the tide and rivers is, where it can be had, considered the best manure, 
and used as such. 

One of the greatest embarrassments of the fanner arises from the rapid 
])rogress of vegetation. The sj)ring is very short, the time for planting 
extremely limited, and the ])eri()d of harvesting succeeds with rapidity; 
hence the labours of the husbandman are all crowded within the space 
of half the year. Wheat and rye are sown in April ; Iiulian corn, barley, 
and potatoes, in May; buckwheat in June ; and turnij)s in July. Mowing 
connnences in July; reaping begins in August, and is finished in Sep- 



4 



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ii 



1. I 



^P 



:'->''!H]' 



m 



i> 



56 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



ti'inbor. Tliis crowding of the business of the farm is often attended 
with expense, and sometimes, owing to the scarcity of labourers, with 
the K)ss of some part of tiie crop, from inability to harvest it. The 
(juantity of cultivated land, and its produce, was ascertained, by a census 
taken by order of the government in 1S27, which gave the following 
results : 

Land cidtivated, 25)2,009 acres; wheat. 1.52,8.'}6 bushels; other 
grain, 449,626 bushels ; potatoes, .'{,.'}9S,220 bushels ; hay, 168,212 tons. 
From which it would appear, estimating the number of acres imder 
(>ach crop by the average produce ])er acre, that there Avere about 10,000 
acres under wheat, 22,. 500 acres under other grain, 22,500 acres under 
potatoes, and about 164,000 acres under hay ; in all about 220,000 acres 
under crop. 

The climate of this province is by no means uncongenial to the pro- 
duction of fruit. The French in all their settlements planted orchards, 
,soim> of which still remain; the settlers from New England often did 
the same, and the practice has been generally and succes.sfuUy followed. 
Tliere are extensive orchards in Hants, King's, and Annapolis comities ; 
and the cider, which forms a considerable article of export, is inferior to 
none in America. The winter fruit jjarticularly is raised in great quan- 
tities, and is of the most excellent cpiality. Plums, pears, (juinces, and 
cherries are found in all the orchards ])erfect]y naturalized, and bear 
abundantly; and peaches and grapes ripen in ordinary seasons without 
any artificial aid. 

The province is well stocked with horses, horned cattle, sheep, and 
swine. The horses are a mixed race of the American, Canadian, and 
Knglish stock; they are not very good, but considerable improvement 
is being made in the breed by the introduction of FiUglish blood horses. 
The horned cattle arc very superior; the oxen arc large, well-shaped, 
strong, tractable in yoke, and easily fatted. The cows, when attended 
to. are good for tlie dairy. Heef and butter are both abundant and 
cheaj), and not only supply the home consumption, but afford a con- 
siderable article of export. The sheep have been so intermixed that 
they cannot be classed with any particular breed : they are good-sized, 
and hardy; weigh from ten to twenty pounds a quarter, and as nuitton. 



LAliOlR— MA?>rFACTURi:S— SIIIP-BIILDIXC. 



57 



are very good; the fleece is tolerably fine, and always manufactured by 
tlie settler for domestic use. The live stock of the province has more than 
doubled within the last twenty years. The census of 18ii7 j;ave the fol- 
lowing results: horses, li2,().51; horned cattle, 11(),81«; shoe]). 17.'J.7;{1; 
swhie, 71,482. 

Labour, although scarce, cai mot be considered high in tiiis province. 
The expense of clearing wilderness land, tliat is. felling and carry ing off 
the timber, varies from .'i/. to 4/. lO.v. ])cr acre; that of erecting a tolerable 
house for a first settlement, about l.j/. to 2.5/. The yeaily wages of good 
labourers are from 20/. to 2.5/. besides board and lodging: day labour 
from 2.?. to ;j,y. ])er day, with board and lodging also. The demand for 
labom* must suit itself to the su])])ly, but if the supi)ly were considerably 
greater, the demand would increase, at least in an eijual, il' not a still 
greater ratio. 

There are few mamifactures, properly so called, ciUiiiil on in XoMt 
Scotia; but the ])re})aration of hunber, and shi))-building, are sometimes 
so denominated. There are saw-mills in every district of the ])rovince. 
and even so far back as 1785 there were ninety of them i:i the countrv : 
the number has been vastly increased since that period. The <[uantitv 
of lumber prepared and exported is momentous, and it is considered as 
good here as in any other part of America. Ship-building is carried , ii 
to a great extent in every part of the province: in the sliijj-yards of the 
peninsula alone, there were built in the year 182(1, l.'Jl vessels, containing 
1.5,5.'J.5 tons ; and in 1828, 94 vessels, containing (),.)()() tons. The average 
quantity of ship-building is not less than 1(),()()() totis per amnnn, ])rin- 
cipally sh)ops, schooners, and vessels for the fishery. 'I'he mnnber and 
tonnage of the ship])ing belonging to the province, exclusive of Cape 
Breton, was, in 182(5, l,().'il vessels; tonnage, 52,77!) ; nund)cr of men 
and boys employed, 3,407. The mnnber is on the increase, and may 
now be estimated at not less than 1.500 vessels, and 70,()()() tons, about 
150 of which are s(iuare-rigged, and the remainder sloops, schooners, ivc 
There are iron works at Moose Hiver; the cjuantity manufactured is in- 
considerable, but the quality is very good. There are also coal works at 
Pictou, wliich su])ply not only the provincial demand, but also a con- 
siderable ex])ort to the l.^nited States. A few manufactories are csta- 

VOI.. II. 1 



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4 



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.58 



NONA SCOTIA. 



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J'fll 



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hlislu'd at Halifax: siij^ar rc'finiii<»: (listilleric's of rum, gin, and Avliiskey; 
hrowrrics of ale and ixM'ter: soai), candle, and leather factories: the 



latter, with sonic few other articles of domestic consumption, arc indeed 
manufactured by .'dinost every farmer. 

The forei<^n trade of this ])rovince is, in conunon with that of 
the other Hritish possessions in ^Vmerica, re<>ulated by the statute 
() (Jeo. IN', caj). 114, of the British Parliament, which took eU'ect in 1S!2(). 
Halifax and I'ictou were declared free-warehousin<i; ports, under this 
act, for the entry, warehousini!;, traiisportinjj;, and exportation of all de- 
scrijjtion of merchandi/e, with a i'ew triHiu<>; exceptions. The exports 
of provincial produce consist of timber to (ireat Britain and forei<;n 
Europe; of <;y])sum. coal, and grindstones to the United States; of 
lund)er, fish, beef, ])ork. butter. <;rain. ])otatocs, horses, horned cattle, 
and sheep to the NN'est Indies, >s'i'w Brunswick, >>'ewfoun(lland, and 
JJra/il. Besides provincial produce, considerable (piantities of fish. Hour, 
and NN'est India produce are re-exjxirted. The imports consist of British 
manufactures of every kind, wiuis. drieil fruit, tlvc. NN'est Indi;i produce, 
salt. Horn-, and cured fish. The "greatest ])art of this trade is carried on 
at Halifax, which is the <;-eneral jKU't of entry and clearance for the j^reater 
])!U-t of the province, 'i'he value of the exports, and cpiantity of ship- 
pin<;" emjjloyed therein in l.S!2H was, of ex})orted articles, 47.'i,S()l/.; ship- 
ping- em])loyed, l.dijl; tonnage, l.'i'J.7()7; navigated by 7,304 men and 
boys. Among the articles exported were, 17.5,12S (piintals of dry fish, 
and 40,.}2() barrels of pickled fish, the latter consisting ])rincij)ally of her- 
rings, mackarel, salmon, alewives, and shad. The imports the same year 
were of the value of Sf7,5U()/. in l,()f)4 vessels, of !.'{(?, 174 tons, navigated 
by 7,.']42 men and boys. Such a trade, carried on by a province the 
resources of which are scarcely known, much less fully developed, and 
having only a scanty and widely-scattered ])opulation of l!24.()()() souls, 
is powerfully demonstrative of the industry and enterprise of the inhabit- 
ants, and of the value and im])ortance of the colony. Fish is the chief 
staple of the trade of this province. The fishery is carried on princinallv 
on the eastern shore, in and about CMiedabueto Bay : on the southern at 
liUnenburg, Liverpool, and Shelburne ; on the westc>rn at Yarmouth, 
Clare, iVrgylc, and Barrington ; and at Aiuia])olis, in the Bay of Fundy. 



THE FISIIKIUES. 



59 



The fisli principally taken are cod, herrings, niackarel, shad, alewivcs, 
and salmon. 'IMie fisheries of Chedahucto Bay are remarkably ])ro- 
iluctive; indeed cod is taken in the bay, and even in the harbom's, and 
so are herrinjfs; and the shoals of maekarel are innnense. This iish is 
to be found from .rune to October on the shore and in the harbours, in 
such <iuantitics that 1000 barrels have been taken in a sieve at one 
drauj>ht. ^Vt the connnenccmeiit of the season the fisherman obtains 
permission from the ])ropriet()r oC the beach to erect his hut, and occupy 
a certain space for his boat and nets, for which he pays at the end of 
the season a barrel or more of cured maekarel. and one-twentieth of the 
aggregate (piantity of fresh fish besides. The fishery is usually held by 
shares; the owner of the boat and nets taking one half of the produce, 
and the fishermen he em})loys, the other, which is divided amongst them- 
selves. One proprietor has been known to receive nearly !i()()() barrels 
of niackarel in the year for his fishing grounds, each barrel worth 17.v. ()(/. 
The (piantity of herrings that throngSi\imapolis Hasin is almost incredible; 
they are caught in weirs. Herring fishing commences in May and con- 
tinues generally to Septend)er, sometimes until November ; at one time 
the fish remained so long that they were frozen in immense masses in the 
weirs. -^Vfter being properly selected and cleaned, they are smoked, and 
|)acked in boxes of lialf-bushel si/e, iiOO fish in each box, and are shipped 
for the AVcst India market. The herring fishery on the other parts of 
the coast is carried on in the usual way. IJesides this " shore" fishery, the 
Nova Scotians carry on a considend)le cod fishery on the Labrador shore. 
The fish is taken there, and generally brought to the ])orts of this pro- 
vince to be cured. 



m 



l2 



1 



Go 



NOVA SCOTfA. 



rti//K' of Exports from ami Imports to Xox-a Scotia in 182H, distiiis^uishinfr 
tlic scrcral Countries, the iniuiher of Ships t'tiiplojicd, and Tonnaf>r. 



ships. ' T(irimit?i'. 


Onat ' Wist 
IJritttin. 1 InilicH. 


KritiNh 

Norlli 

AnuriiB. 


I'liited 
SlaU'S. 


Itni/il. 


Forci(<ii 
Kuropc. 


Toiiil 
\'b1uo. 


Kxpoits. i,(;:.i i:?L>,7(i7 


n7,H(K»; 23:<,H77 


KJfl.all 


.t' ,u 
r.,7<M) 24,Jtr.o 


1' 
4,!>7<> 


473,0(11 


iinpcris. i.dsii i:JiM7-r :ui,i(Ki, u,wi\m 


13<).(i44 


2i7,9:w 


H7r. 


24,(ino 


H47,r.:m 



Qua I! f if it's of Fish ^ Fhur, and Salt exported and imported, 1828. 



Pl»i.' 



Exported 
Inij)orto(l 


Qviintnls of 
l>ry Ki»!i. 


Ilarri'ls of ; Karrels 
IMikUd of 
Fish. Flour. 


Hogsheads 

of 

Salt. 


17;V12» 
R1,24H 


4n,-i2(i 2(1,721 


•• 


3,4:1!) !7({,(i!t(J 


.'il.ODO 



I 

.» 



t;.»r 



POPULATION. 

Tlio progress of the popuhition of tliis province before the complete 
'.'stablisliiuent of tlie Rritisli dominion was very .slow and uncertain. 
Although tlie colony had been settled for a period of about one hundred 
and forty-four years, the Acadian, or French ])opulatio)i, amounted in 
171() to no nun-e than 18,000 souls. After the expulsion of this unfor- 
tunate people in 17;>;>, the Hritish ])opulation was numbered at 5,000. By 
an estimate made in 17()4, the lunnber of souls was l.'i,000, of whom 2,600 
were Acadians, wlio had escaped the general expulsion, or returned to 
the province at the peace. It was estimated in 1772 at 19,100 souls, of 
whom 2,100 were Acadians, and 8(55 Indians. In consequence of the 
American Revolution it was reduced to 12,000 in 1781, but 20,000 
American loyalists having arrived in 1784, the number in that year was 
com))uted to be ,S2,000, including New Brunswick and Cape Breton, 
which were until then included in the j)rovince of Nova Scotia, but were 



N 



I' 



POPILATION. 



fil 



about tluit timo separatt-d from it ; tlie population within the limits «.t 
Nova St'otia, as it now stands, was istimated to be 2().4(M» souls. This 
popuhition had increased in 17!)<> to :{(),()()() souls; from which time it 
steatlily, and. in many instances, rajjidly advanced. Hy a census takin 
in 1S17. it was found to be H{},(HiH souls, and another census, taken witli 
oreat care and accuracy in l«i>7, gave the results exhibited in the general 
statistical return (<f the province, nuide by the civil secretary .'ilst I)e- 
cend)er, 1S27. 

The population of ("ape Hreton. about !2(M)()(>. is not included in 
this census; and if that amomit bi- added to the returns of Xova Scotia. 
we shall have a pojiulation of l()l,lj)l souls in 1827. 



•i'r 



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rr 



i 



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m 



IViiinsiila of Ilnlilax 



^ l)i>iriii ofilittii 



S--' 



I)i^trili 1)1' ( OKlustir 

|)i>iriii 111' I'iciou 



Il'iiiiii ( uiiniy 



'Kll1^ 

AiHIuIImIU lliKcl 
"■liulininu' ditto 
t^iici'ii'^ (liifi 
liiiiii'li'iirj; ilillo 
( uniliurliiiiil ditto 
.'^\i*n< _v diiiii 

i'otiil 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



./ slatifitival Rcliini of the Pror'nn'c of \ or a Scofia, 'Ms/ dui/ of 





I'll 


I'l 1. V 1 |c)\. 










NtllntH'r nl 










iirtlii'l'liunhnr 


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ittu' i-iuil)tv, 
cxi-tM^IU' 








Nuiiilicr III 

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tlllto, rH- 


iir Mill' 


^irx.iiili 








,ill,il»iuriT- 




Mn.iiil". 


III illllo. 


( iiuiity. 


Kn^'laiiil 


"'t'otliinil 


Uoiiu*. 


or ■.iT\iiiit> 

.-•,r»4(i 










(i.ll^l 


'J,!MH) 




0,l<ili 


l,:ijl 


I.IIMi 


li,i:i!i 


:t,<i-'7 


l,ll!)ll 


l,<ill 


liiii) 


:ii.-. 


lo,4;t7 


:»,7(>!i 


:*,7:»--' 


2,15(1 


;i,()iii> 


:i..".!»7 


:ii.-. 


III.-I 


7J<i:« 


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(i,-.>ii:< 


i:iii 


(!.7"1 


(I.JIM 


lull 


J! Mi 


i:i,!M!) 


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12, IJ!) 


l,oi:i 


1 :(,!Mii 


:t.»iii2 


<;i!) 


n.-. 


I1.UJ7 


1 .!l,">(i 


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i i,7'">'' 


l.r;.-.l 


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jiii 


ID.'.'lIJi 


l,.-.i(7 


j,i:ij 


7-'l 


; 7.I-'--' 


(i.!tl7 


:t;i!i 


■j.rA 


11, mil 


I.IMIII 


100 -.',01 M 


1 (;,i;i:t 


.-..iiiri 


-'7:t 


•jiiii 


I'J.OIII 


■-'.III: J,o7;i i,:i.'(i| 


; l,!l.'li; 


l.'.il") 


L'.-.l 


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i"i."« JI7 


lii.'i 


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lis soi'ius an i-iror, ii> tlu' :iililitiiiii nt' tlic iiiiiiibt'is (if inaK's iiiid I'l'iiwlcs, iiicliiiliiiij: servants, itivt's tlii- nnui 



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4 ' 



It is not easy to ascertain the iiicivase of |)o])ulation dfrivcd from 
('migration as (listinguishcd from tlu- natural incivasc of the inlial)itants. 
It is certain tliat natural incroaso has been very great in tliis jirovincc, 
and such as is only known in newly-.settled countries, Avliere the means 
of providing for a family are easily ac(|uired. It is e<|ually certain that 
there has been u considerable addition made to the ])o|)ulati()n by immi- 
gration even before the last census, 1S27, although this province ])artook 
less of the tide of emigration than the other North -^Vmcrican colonies. 
'IMie mass of the ])resent inhabitants consist of natives, the descend- 
ants of tlie original emigrants from CJreat liritain, Ireland, (iermany, 
New England, and the ^Vcadians. The majority of the people in tlic 
eastern parts of the ])rovince, district of I'ictou, and county of Sydney, 
are of Scotch descent, and are a most indu.strious and enterprising ))or- 



1'()1>1'LATIUN-ISTATISTIC«. 



(13 



i\s( ilai/ iij 



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tion of the j^jpiilation. 'IMic (urnians were settkd at n;ilil';i\, Liiiien- 
bur«4;, and at C'leinenfs. in the eoinity ol' Aniiajxili.s ; tlieir ile.seeiidants 
are munerous, but do not j)reserve any distinct eharaeter. as they have 
always mixed with the jfeneral ma.ss of the inliahitants. 'I'heearlv New 
Kn<i,land settlers oeeiipied the lands of the expelled iVeadiaiis about A\\- 
Jiapolis and the .shores of the Alpinas Hasiii, and the iVnierie.m loyalists 
were located idl over the province; they very oenerally eni^aned in the 
lumber trade and the fisheries, and were a most active and industrious class 
of people. The descendants of those dillerent people now form a poj)ula- 
tion so mixed U]) to<»eti<er, that all distinctive characteristics are lost. Not 
so the Ac;idians; they settle together as much as jjossible, preserve tlieir 

d customs, and never intermarry with their |)r<)- 



rentiion. 



li 



umuaue, an 



tcstant neighbours. As a pet)j)le. they are iiRiral, simple in their habits, 



'I'll 



(H 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



J, i, 



i 



if) 



clui-rrul ill (heir (lispositiuii, iiiiil iiltlioii^ii iicttlKT so intelligent |H'i-|ia|)> oi 
rntciprisin^ as tin* otlur inhabitants, air . (>'i'i titcil ttiul happy; they art 
juinfipally si'ttli'd in the township of t'hin ..iml;' of /Vnnapt>lis, and 
.Minndie, eonnty of ('innl)erland. 'I'here are a tew free blacks, who are 
prinei|)ally employed as ilttniestie and a^rieultiiral servants, but there are 
no slaves. There area few Indians still in the province: in 1772 their 
nnnd)er did not exceed S(l.) sonis, and they have been since then on tlu 
<lecrease. Is«»lated from their red brethrin of tlii' continent, and livinu 
very nnuh amon^f tlu- whiti' inhabitants, they preserve but few of their 
Indian characteristics; they are an indoKiit race, addicted to drunkeii- 
ness, and are seldom found steadily to adhere to industrious habits oi 
pursuits. In a few years not a trace of this onci' numerous people , 
the »)ri};inal jjroprietors of the soil, will be found in this province; on 
the whole, the pri'dominant character of the people is Aii^lo-iVmerican. 
They are ^I'Herally tall; the men stout, nuiseular, active, hardy, enter- 
prisinj>', antl int^fenious; the women, well made, and possessin;;* uuuh 
feminine sctftness of manner. As the ])eople live chiefly on their own 
farms, and rely on their own exertions for support, tliey have uuu-h mau- 
liness of character, and a sinj;ular ai)tness in ac(piiriii<j; a tolerable (le<;ric 
of skill in the more useful and coimnon mechanical arts. A Xova Scotia 
farmer will not only cultivate his own farm, hut l)uil(l his own liousi'. 
njuke his im])lements of husbaiulry, and even shoe his own horses, lie 
is ill a^reat many instances a sailor, and can build and navigate the vessel 
that conveys the |)roduce of his own farm to market. The people are 
hospitable and civil in their manners, ft may be nniarked, thai inn- 
keepin<; alone will not aliord a subsistence in an\- part of the country 
out of Halifax. 

There are i.everal religious denominations in this ])rovince, all of 
whom enjoy the Jjiost com])lete toleration, and are subject to no dis- 
abilities whati'ver on account of religion. The mnuber of each deno- 
mination was found, at the census of 1.S:j7, to be cluuvh of England. 
28,0.51); of Scotland. .'J7,22."> ; of Kome. L'O.lOl ; baptists, li).7i)0: method- 
jsts. and other protestant .sects. 17,771. 'I'he church of England in this 
country is supporteil by the Society for I'ropagating the tiospel in Foreign 



i 



I 



M 



( i,i:u(iv OF Tin: \ auioi s I'I.iiscasio.ns. 



(i.) 



^ 



l*arts and by tlio Iliiti>.li <4(tV("riimciit. 'I'lu' clfigy of tliisriuirclifonsists 
of a l)isli()|). styli'd Mislio)) of Xova Scotia, wliosf jiiris»ru'ti(Hi (>xti>iulH ovit 
Now Hrmiswiik and tlii" Hi rniiidas, — and about thirty niissionaiN iltr^y- 
Mii'M, t'acli of" whom rt'irivi-s a salary of LMH)/, one half from the crown, 
and oiu' half from tlit> siKicty. which, with tlu> proceeds of small glibcs. 
parochial fees, \c. ait'ords a tolerably comfortaiile maintenance. 'I'lie 
churches have been built by sid)scriplion, aidi-d also by funds from the 
crown and the society. Nova Scotia was erected into a bishopric in 17><7. 
The bishop possesses no lay jurisdiction of any kind : his authority is con- 
fined to the superintendence of the church of Kn<^land clergy w itbin his 
diocese. The pri'sbyti-rians havean independent provincial church govcrn- 
niont of their own. upon the model of the church of Scotland. The synod 
generally meets at I'ictou, and contains about thirty meud)ers, who are 
dispersed over this province. New Hrunswick, and Prince Mdward Island, 
und are snpi)orted by their respective ct»n^ref^ations. 'I'lu' Uomaii catho- 
lics are luider the coutrol of a bishop, who resides at Anti^ouisli ; there 
arc about twelve subordinate clergy, who are altogetlu'r supported by 
their respective congregations. The baptist clergy have an aiumal meet- 
ing, called an Association, wherein they arrange the general concerns 
of their church ; but each baptist congregation is considered by them a 
distinct independent church, and as such chooses and supports its own 
clergyman. The nund)er of the clergy of this denomination is scarcely 
sufiicient to suj)ply all the congregations. The niethodists compose 
about one-half of the renuiining sects; they have about twenty missioji- 
arics connected with this ])rovmco and I'rince Kdward Island. This 
church is in all rcs])ects governed in the same manner as the methodist 
church in England, with which it is closely connected. Its ministers 
arc supported by the people of their persuasion, assisted by the English 
Methodist Missionary Society. The other denominations, who are ))rin- 
cipally Lutherans, and what in England are known as Independents, are 
tolerably well supplied with ministers, each congregation suj)porting its 
own. Such is the good feeling that prevails, that it is not uncommon in 
this co\mtry to find the minister of one denomination officiating occa- 
sionally for and in the churches of another. The chapels belonging to 
all the different sects are numerous, and in many instances both com- 



VOl,. II. 



K 



F 



•:'l 



••;" 



i 



ij 



it. I 



111! 



k-ii- 



I 



i!"'H 



It :' 


I 1 

■V : ,1 
1'' ' ' 


Lai,. 



66 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



modioiis iiiul luuulsomc, bcariiij^ aini)le testimony in favour of the religious 
feeling of the country. 

The eclueation of the ])eo])le is provided for as well as in any of the 
IJritish-Anierican colonies. There is an university, called Kin<;'s Col- 
le<j;e, at\\'in(lsor; Dalhousie College at Halifax; academies at I'ictou, 
Anna|)olis, and Ke»itville; grannnar-schools at Halifax, AN'indsor, I'ictou, 
and Kentvillc. The Society for J'ro])a<;ating- the (iospel supjjorts between 
forty and fifty schoolmasters; and schools have been established in all tiie 
townships, aided by a very liberal ])ecuniary grant from the ))rovincial 
legislature. Thi- university of King's College was est:d)lished by royal 
charter in ISOii; it is enabled to confer the usual degrees. The Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury is patron ; and the board of governors is com|)osed 
of the lieutt'Uiiiit-governor of the ])r()vince, the bishop, chief-justice, 
speaker of the House of ^Vssembly, the attorney and the solicitor-general, 
and the ])resident or ))rincipal of the university, all for the time being. 
TIktc are four professors: one of Hebrew and divinity, one of moral 
science and metaphysics, one of ?nathematics, astronomy, and natural 
philosophy, and one of granunar. rhetoric, and logic. The students are 
eligible lor matriculati»)n at the age of fourteen, and the course occu])ies 
from fom* to seven years. There are twelvt- divinity scholarships, en- 
dowed by the Society for l*ro])agating the (ios))el. each enjoying .'iO/. 
per ainuun I'or se\ tii years. 'IMiere are also some scholarships on the foun- 
dation of less emolument. The college possesses a large well-selected 
library, and a \ aluable ))hilosophical a])paratus. Subordinate to the col- 
lege, and undir its control, is the collegiate school; the system of educa- 
tion is preparatory to that of the college, for which it is intended. There 
are twelve divinity scholarships, sup|)orted also by the society, who allow 
each ;{()/. ])vr annum, and they may be held for seven years. 

Dalhousic College (at Halifax) was incorporated in IH'iO; the system 
of education was framed u])on the model of the university of Mdinl)urgh. 
'iMiere are three ])rofessorships : one for the (ireek and Latin classics, one 
for mathematics, natural and ex])erimental ])hilosophy, and one for theo- 
logy ami moral philosophy. The academy at Pictou was ])rojected in 
ISOl. and incorporated by charter in ISHi: it was erected aiut sup])orted 
by sul)scri])tii)ns among the presbyterians, for whose benefit it was prin- 



I ''I 






KDICATION— SCHOOLS. 



(i'l 



cipiilly ])roicc'te(l. TIk' IIoum' of i\sst«ml)ly has voted 100/. annually t'<»r 
.several years in aid of this institution. The eour.se of edueation luM-e 
ineludes the usual hranehes of aeadeinieal instruetion, aiul oeeupies four 
years. There are at ))resent three ])rofessors. It pos.sessc^s a small hut 
valuahle lihrary. and has the hest nuiseiun of natural history in \o\ a 
Seotia. The aeadeniy of Annapolis was estahlished in IH^T. partly hv 
voluntary suhseription. and partly by proxineial aid. There are two 
distinct hut eoinieeted schools — one devoted to the higher hranclus of 
classical education, the other confined to the elementary and higlni 
branches usually taught in English schools. 



.,if' 



'M 



I 



i 
I 




CHAl'TER V. 



Ilic Legislature — Courts of Law — I'liblii.' [{pvonuc — Sable Island. 



fflf 



VJU 



II 

n 

• ( 

\ 



m 



TnK It'oishitiire of the province' is ('om])osc(l of a lieutenant-governor, 
a eoinicil, and an House of ^Vssenibly. The whole of British North America 
is g-encrally comprised imder one conmunid, the captain-general, governor, 
and connnander-i'!-chief, who resides at Quebec. The governors of tne re- 
spective ])rov'.nces are . tyled lieutenant-governors, and in their civil capa- 
cities are quite indc))endent of the governor-general. The governor of 
Nova Scotia has the local rank of lieutenant-general, and is styled lieu- 
tenant-governor, connnander-in-chief, chancellor, and vice-admiral of the 
))rovince of Nova Scotia. The whole executive authority is vested in the 
governor: lie summons. ])rorogucs, and dissolves the coiuicil and general 
assembly ; he appoints to all oflices not disposed of by the crown ; he can 
pardon all offenders but those guilty of treason and nuu'der: he com- 
mands the army and militia, and ])resides in the Courts of Chancery and 
V.rror. IJesides various fees and emoluments, he receives a handsome 
annual allowance or salary. In «'lie event of the governor's death, the 
next senior mend)er of coiuicil, not being the chief-justice, exercises all 
the functions of governor. 

The legislative council consists of twelve members, appointed by 
mandanuis from the king. In their legislative capacity they meet and 
deliberate as a distinct chamber or up|)er house, and conduct their pro- 
ceedings as closely in imitiition of the House of Lords as circiuustances 
allow. Th.ey are also a council of state, or privy council to the governor, 
whose advice he is obliged to obtain and act u])on in a great variety of 
cases. They form, with the governor, the Court of Krror and the l<>ccle- 
.siastical Court, in whose deliberations the governor has only a single 
voice; they are styled honourable, hold their olfice merely diu'ing the 
king's pleasure, and the governor can suspend them until the kings 
pleasure be siguilied. The House of Assembly resembles the British 



IKi 






THE LEGISLATf^RK— COURTS OF LAW 



09 



House of Commons in its formation, powers, and mode of procedure 
as closely as the circumstances of the country permit. The members are 
elected exactly as in England, by freeholders ])ossessin<r real estates in 
houses or lands of the aimual value of 40.v. The assemV)ly continues for 
seven years, and must meet at least once a year, but may be dissolved or 
proroo-ued by the governor. 

The nmnber of mend)ers elected to the House of Assembly is forty- 
one: four for the county, and two for the town of Halifax ; two for I'ach 
of the other nine counties of ^\.nna])olis, Cuu>berland, Ca])e Hreton, Hants. 
King's County, Luneid)urg, Queen's County, Shelburne, and Sydney: 
and one for each of the following towns — Annapolis, Andierst, Harring- 
ton, Cornwallis, Digby, Falmouth, (iranville, Morton, Iiiverj)oo1, liOii- 
donderry, I>uneid)urg, Xew])ort, Onslow, Shelburne, Truro, \\ iudsor, 
and Varmouth. The legislature meets generally in winter, an 1 con- 
timies in session from six to twelve weeks, and the debates are oi'ten 
conducted with ability and spirit. Kvery law in this ])rovince nuist 
have received the concurrent assent of the House of Assembly, of the 
council, and of the governor, before it can be enforced ; and each may 
dissent from any law or bill pro])osed or ap])roved of by the others. I 'pon 
any bill passing the house and council, and receiving the assent of the 
governor, it immediately operates in the province; but to miike it a per- 
manent law it must be submitted to the king in council, who may eoii- 
tirm or disallow it. In the event of its being disallowed by the king, or 
iiof confirmed within three years from the time of its enactment, it be- 
comes void. 

The comty of law are, the Court of Chancery, of which the governor 
is sole judge, I v virtue of his ollice, but where the Master of the Uolls. 
always a piuf( ^sional man, sits as judge in lieu of the governor. 'I'lie 
powers of this court are, within the colony, the same as those of the 
Court of Chancery in iOngland, and its proceedings similar in form. An 
appeal lies from this court to the king in council. The Court of Krror 
is composed of the governor and council. An a))pcal lies from all the 
inferior eom'ts to this, and from this to the king in coum'il. The sub- 
ject-matter of the appeal, in the former instance, nnist exceed .'JOO/. 
in value, and in the latter 500/. The Supreme Court is invested with 



! ■' I 



i .'■ i 



'[A 



M\ 



i^-':: 



\:h- 



I: 



IP-. 






70 



X()\A SCOTIA. 



i 'h 



tlie powors of tlie Kin<;'s Ik'iu'li, C'oiinnoii Picas, aiul Kx('Iic(1Uct. It is 
couiposcMl of a cliicf and tliivc ))uism' jiulocs, and a circuit associate. 
'I'lic jurisdiction of the court is l)otli criminal and civil, and extends over 
tlic whole ])rovince, inclu(rm<;- t'ape IJreton ; it holds four terms in the 
year at Halifax. The whole ])rovince is divided into four circuits, Cape 
Mreton heiui; one, into which the judges u{) and hold courts of assi/e, iVc. 
Tile practitioners in this court unite the business of barrister and attor- 
ney. The inferior courts are courts of conimon ])leas in each county, 
having jurisdiction in all civil matters under the value of .'5/. There are 
three distinct connnissioners, or judges, e;ich of whom holds a distinct 
court in every county within lis circuit, the ])rovince being divided into 
tlnee circuits for that pur]>ose. The ])rocess and course of ])ractice are 
similar to those of the Su))reme Court. The process issued by the cor^'ts 
of the province is of the same natiu'e and operation as the ])rocess of the 
courts at Westminster; besides which there is a ])eculiar ])rocess affecting 
absent or absconding debtors, by wiiich their pro])erty in the colony is 
attached, and mdess security be given, is sold for the benefit of the 
creditor. There are also courts of general and <piarter sessions, similar 
in all respects to sucli courts in I<'ngland. held in each county: and in 
every township small debts are recoverable before courts consisting of 
one or more justices of the ])eace. Tlie governor, being ordinary of the 
province by virtue of his oHice. a])])oints surrogates in the several coun- 
ties, by whose ])robates letters of administration, \c. are granted. 

The statute of distribution in Nova Scotia is different from the same 
statute in England, in so far that tiie real estate is divided into shares, 
according to the nund)er of children, and the eldest son takes only fico 
of such shares. The reason for this alteration of the law of the mother 
country is, that in a new country the iin])rovement of the landed estate 
is likely to absorb the whole ])ersonal property of the ])ro|)rietor. and that 
if it went to the eldest son. there would be no provisi(>n for the other 
children : on this groi.nd it was that this law, which prevailed in all the 
Knglish-Ainerican colonies, was appro\'ed of by the king in council. 

There is also a Nice-Admiralty Court at Halifax. This court has 
the usual aihniralty civil jurisdiction. It has i\]so a peculiar revenue 
jnrisiliction. and in time of war a ])rize jm-isdiction ; the duties of judge 



f 



\4..i ^i 



PUOVIXCIAL RKVKM K. 



71 



aro at ])rcsent pcrf'ornied by tlit* c'lru'l-iuslitv of tlu> Snpivnu' Court. 
There are shcrills and Justices of the peaee in all the counties, l)oth ap- 
j)ointed exactly as such oflicers are in Knj;lan(l. 

From this sketch it will ai)pear that the g-overiuiient and institutions 
of this province are in all respects as similar to those of Kn<>land as the 
nature and circumstances of a new country will allow; the lun-ivalled 
constitution of the mother country heinji; the ^rand model by which 
the institutions of this mino;, but not unimjjortant portion of her de- 
pendencies have been framed and established. 

The provincial revenue is not very lar^v, nor are the demands upon 
it very considerable. It consists jjrincipally of custom and excise duties, 
trifling in amount, and by no means onerous to the colonists. The whole 
is applied to ])rovincial purjHVses, the greater ])art in the making of roads, 
bridges, tVc, and a considerable sum in ])romoting education. There is 
a custouj-house I'stablishment at Halifax, which, considering the nature 
of its duties, and the amount of revenue collected, is remarkably elegant. 
The gross amount of the customs in the year 1827 was, i>5,41()/., out of 
which a sum of S,8<)()/. was deducted for the fees and salaries of the cus- 
tom-house ofliccrs. The collector at Halifax has, in salary and fees, i2, ()()()/. 
and the comptroller I, ()()()/. a year. The recei|)t and expenditure ol' the 
])rovincial revenue for the year 1828 were as follows: 

Rcirirrd. I Paid. 

,i. s. (I. i 

. .'?."),(iitil 17 ]••■ ('I'ViTiiuifiit ilt'iiartnii'iit 

111.(1(1(1 Iii'i;isl;itiire 

\:M,\ !» () Judicature 

7()2 Hi 4 Ktviiiu'- . 



iCxiMM' (llllicS 

Customs (litti) 
Li<j,ht ditto 
Sundries 



.Alilitia 
NavijiiitiiiM 
Itoad service 
Education 
.Miscellanies 



iV>,l7() :< !!■> 



,1. .-. ,/. 

2.7(i:2 K; 11 

M,(L'ii (> (I 

■),l'.(» I}'- (i 

l,.".ll l!t 7 

2, ].")(; !({ !l 

.•M7!t I.') -' 

2!),7(L' (I :{ 

:?.;(}7 :5 '2\ 

W.H'iW \\\ <)', 

.•.!i.7,')l 1(» 7 



T'.e ditferencc was ))aid from a balance remaining- in hand from the 
prior year *. 

* For a great part of the valualde details conveyed in this and the preceding chapter \v<- 
are indelited to the lucid, accurate, and comprehensive laliours of Mr. Ilalliliurton, which we 
are most happy here, as el.sewhere, to ackuou ledge. 



i 




\m 



7'2 



NOVA SCOTIA. 



il'll:- 






^H 



*i : 



t: , 






f 



iil-'ll^ 



isLK or sAiJLi;. 

Siihlt' Island, or Ifi/c itii.v Sah/c.s, altli()ii<!;li distant c'i<;lity-fivi: miles 
from Nova Si'otia. is coiusidort'd as hcloiinint;' to that j)roviiuv. The west 
end of the island lies in latitnde V.i" Mi' i'2' north, and lon^itnde ()()" 17 1;>' 
west, and the east end in latitude -l.'J" o})' 5" and lonj^itude .»})" Hi" : it is 
about thirty mile; in len<j;th and fifteen in hreadtli. It consists entirely 
of an aeeumulatit)!! of loose white sand, utterly barren, prtMlueini;' nether 
tree Jior shrub. It lies in the direet traek of vessels Iminid to and from 
Kurope, and upon it very many have been wrecked, and numerous lives 
lost. An establishment was formed in 1H()+ u])on this island for the 
pur])(>se of assistino' ])ersons wrecked: it consists of a superintendant 
and about ten assistants, who constantly reside on the island, and have 
in ehar<;e a competent supply of such articles as would be useful in 
cases of shipwreck. The establishment was maintained by the province 
of Nova Scotia from IHOl- to 1827 at an annual expense of about .500/.; 
but in the latter year the IJritish pnernment inidertook to add a fur- 
ther sum equal to that voted by the |)rovince, whereby the establishment 
has been enlarged, and its usefulness very nuich increased. The su])er- 
intendant and his assistants continually perambulate the island. There 
are several signal-posts and flag-staffs to direct vessels, and huts to shelter 
the sufferers. The island is regularly visited to convey supplies, and 
bring away those who nuiy have been thrown upon its shores. The supply 
of stores and ])rovisions is always abundant, so that .'JOO persons at once 
upon the island have been liberally subsisted and su])])lied with all neces- 
saries. There never were any inhabitants on the island but those con- 
nected with the establishment. The oidy native animals to be met with 
are some wild horses, whose ilesh has been occasionally found a ])rovidential 
substitute f r betl; • food; a few seals are caught upon the shore. The 
coast is excceaingly dangeron*, and almost everywhere surrounded with 
breakers. 



■J 






ill 



n 



CIIAl'TKR VI. 



C Ai'i. BuKl'oN — Sitiiatiitii — I'xti'iit — Divisions Harbours — Soil — SottliMiuMits. 



Thk island of C'ait, Hki.ton constitutes a founty of the ])rovince of 
Nova Scotia. Its extent is e(|iJal to about one-fourth of that of Nova 
Scotia I'n>|)er, and its ])o|)ulation hears nearly the same pronortion, yet 
it returns only two nienihers to tlie |)rovincial House of Assembly for 
the whole county. This island, formerly called by the French when 
they held it L'Isle Uoyale, forms with Newfoundland the entrant e of 
the Gxdf of St. Lawrence, and is situated between the latitudes -t.')" ^7' 
sind IT' •'>' north, indudiii''" the islands of Madame, Scatari, Houlardrie. 
St. Paul's, and minor islands, and loi'<;itude ;>f)" .'iS' and ()1" .50' west; 
it.s "greatest length north-east and south-west bcin<? about 100 miles, and 
the u'ri'iitesc width from south-east to north-wes*^ about ei<ihtv miles, com- 
prisinj^ an area of abo.it ',*. 000,000 acres, exclusive of the j>reat nias.scs of 
water contained within it. It is distant from the south-western extremity 
of Newfoundland about sixteen lea<i;ucs, and is divided from Nova Scotia 
by St. (ieoroe's Hay and the (iut of Canseau, twenty-one n)iles in lenoth, 
and varyinj^' from one mile to one and a half in width. Its shape is nearly 
triangular, indented with many dee]) bays, and nearly se|)arated by the 
waters of the liras d'Or into two natural divisions; the one to the north 
being high, bold, and steep; the other to the south, low, and intersected 
by water; diversified with moderate elevations, and gradually rising from 
the interior shore of the liras d'Or, until it j)rescnts abrupt difls towards 
the ocean. There arc not any mountains, properly so called, in the 
island; the highest ridges in the southern division do not [)erhaj)s ex- 
ceed an altitude of ()00 feet. The highlands in the northern division 
are more elevated, bolder, and continuous ; but even there the supposed 
highest point. Smoky Cape, does not ))robably exceed five hundred yards. 
There are several fresh water lakes, some of which arc of no inconsiderable 
magnitude. The largest are Lake Marguerite, in the northern division. 

VOL. II. L 




« 




W'\ 






74 



caim: liKi/ro.N. 



about forty miles in circ'iinifi ri-iicc, iind tlu'Cirand Ilivcr and Mire Lakes 
in tlu' soutiurn division: hcsidi's several others dilleriim- in size and 
sliaj)e, and scattered all over tlu- island. The rivers, or rather rivniets 
and hrooks. are nnnierons, hut small, and not navi<;'ahle. Tlu* \vhole eoast 
of the southern division is broken into harbours, nianv of them of ureat 
depth and magnitude: l)Ut thi' northern eoast does not afford nearly so 
many. The principal harbours for vissels of burden are the llrasd'Or. 
with its imnnnerable minor harbours. Sydney, Louisbur<>-, Arichat, Hasin 
of Inhabitants, Ship I larbour inC'anseau Strait, J'ort I lood, aiul St.i\nne's: 
besides si-veral others of less im])ortanci'. 

The Hras d'Or is a vast internal sea, oecu])yin<i; a considerable por- 
tion of the area of Cape Breton, intersect inj;' Avith its innnerous arms 
every part of it, and <lividin<i; it almost into two islands. The entrance 
is on the eastern side of the island, faciny; Newfoundland, and it is 
divided into two passaj^'es by Houlardrie Isl, lul. 'I'lie southern j)assa^e 
is calli'd Little IJras d'Or ; the northern ])assa.,(', (Jreat llras d'Or; and 
the lar<>v sheet of inland waters itsi-lf, IJras d'Or, or the (Jrcat Lake. 
A sunken bar at the mouth of tlu' Little Hras d'Or renders it unnavi- 
<i;able for vessels of heavy burden, and it is therefore never used. It is 
about twenty-three miles in length, and IVom a (piarter of a mile to 
three miles wide. The (Jreat Hras d'Or has no impediment to its navi- 
gation : it has above sixty fathom wiuer, is from two to three miles wide, 
and about twenty-five miles in length : when at the bead of Houlardrie 
Island it is joined by the Little IJras dOr and a few miles further on 
enters the (Jreat Lake through the Straits of Harra. The (ireat Hras 
d'Or. before its junction with the I-ittle one. or with the lake, connnuni- 
cates with, or rather sends its waters intt> the interi'or. lorming se\iral 
excellent harbours to the nortb-A> est of the Great Lake. 'Vhc first is 
IJedecpie l?ay, and larther on a fine sheet of water called \\'bycocomagh 
IJasin, U])wards of forty mile^ from the main sea, and where the timbtT 
ships from Knglaml usually load. iVfUnr ])assing the Straits of Rarra tfct' 
Great Lake sends oft' a munbor of bnwicbes. On the northern side the 
Hrst is IJrooklesby Hay, which runs to within half a mik of Whyeoco- 
uiagh Hay: next is the Hiver Denys Hasin, six miles long, and two 
broad, with niuucrous smaller branches, in which also the timber vessels 



Tin: liUAS IVOR -ST. I'KTKIl— SOU,. 



75 



load; next follows St. (u'or^i's C'liiiniul, wliiili is six iniU's widi- at its 
opi'iiing, is filled with crivks .nul inli'ts, and runs iij), towards tlu' (iut ot 
C'uiisoaii sidi" oftlic island, tif'tccii niili's. On tlif soiitlii'rn slDrr the irntri' 
procfi'cis south-wrstcrly throii};li a nund)i'r of small islands to tlif isllnnns 
of St. IVtcr; tlicncr a^ain iiortli-i'astcrly, it makes a foursi- of tliirtv-onf 
miles to tlif iicad of Kast Hay, or St. jVndrew's Cliaimel, terminatiiij;- in 
the (jarrasoi, or Laj^une of Tweed noo«4;e, (this hay is eighteen niiUs m 
length); from t!ie north-eastern point of whieh at Ilenakady. it is live 
miles to the Straits of Jlarra. on whieh terminates thi' eirenit <>f the IJras 
d'Or. l"'rom the entranee ol'the(ireat Hras dOr to the head oftheCireat 
Lake at St. Peter's is ahove fifty miles in a slraiyht I'oiirse, and its <rreatt'st 
width ahont twenty mill's. The depth varies from twi'lve to sixty fathoms, 
and it is evi'r\ w here secure and navi«;al)le. This exteiiiiive slieet of in- 
ternal waters is of jieeuliar advanta'^e to the island, for, exelusive of the 
fislu'ry, whieh is carried on there to a eonsiderahle extent, it s])reads out 
into sueh an extensive and ramified navi;i;ation. as to afford every part 
of the island the henefit of water eonnnunieation, and enahles every dis- 
trict, almost every farm, to ship its own pr(»duce without the inter- 
vention (»f laiul earriaj^'e. 

The Isthmus of St. Peter, which divides the waters of the liras d'Or 
from the Atlantic Ocean at St. Peter's Hay, is so narrow that a canal coidd 
he e;isily niadi' lu'twcen tlu* two waters for shij) navi<;ation. 'I'he <;round 
has heen examined and surveyed hy an eminent enj^ineer. who has ri'- 
ported u])on the complete praeticahility of sueh a work, and has estimated 
the expense at no more than I7.1.>()A Thi' whole length of the canal 
required would not exceed :i. ()()() feet. The principal ])art of the ex- 
pense would he the necessary works at the j)oints of coimmmication with 
hoth seas. 

The soil of Cape llreton is considered quite eipial to that of Nova 
Scotia, or any of the neij^hhouring- countries. There is no dike land, 
such as is found in Nova Scotia, but the iq)laiul is of an excellent ipia- 
lity, and very productive: the increase ofwhe.it on new land being in 
general ten or twelve fold. It is found capable t)f producing wheat, 
barley, oats, maize, potatoes, turnij)s, buckwheat, ])eas, beans, i\:c. It 
has been before remarked, that the area of the island comprises about 



•| 



. '1 




I i ' ; 



7() 



CAi'i: luiivroN. 



b,'» 



iijii-.'' ■' 



t 



'i.ono.noo acres, t>xt'hisivf of tlii' ^nrat salt wati is. Of this, (;h").()K) acres 
were j^ranted away to settlers hy the crown up to the year IS'JI ; of the 
reinainder, ahoiit SOO.OOO acres arc sii|)])osc(l to 1h< contained in the small 
lakes, hills, harrens. and swani])s, leaving ahont "lOO.OOO acres ,tf land fit 
for cultivation undisposed of and distrihuted in sevi'ral parts ol' the island. 
The greater ))art of the disposahli' land lies i't the inti'rinr of the northern 
division of the island, hctwcen tin- gulf shor* -iud the llras d'Or wati-rs. 
Ill the section of eonntrv hctwcen l*< vt Mood. W'hvcocoinagh, the llivers 
Si. Denis and lidiahitants, the Bras dOr and the (iulf Shore, it is esfi- 
tnated that there are ahout l!JO,(KU) acres of g»»o<l upland, lit lor settle- 
ment ; and in the north-eastern pi'iiinsida. from St. j\nnc's Hay on 
the one side and r^ake Marguerite on the other to Cape St. Lawrence, 
then are supposed to he ahout l.'iO.OOO acres more. In the southern 
division through its win Ic length, from St. Peter's on the west to Sydney 
on the ( .)st. in the interior, including the lands on the (irand-Hiver Lake 
and Mile Lake, there are su|)pose(l to he no less than 'JOO.OOO acres ()♦' 
good laiul undisp'>sed of: hesides which there are several other smaller 
portions scattered through the island. 

The Island of Cape Hreton, as has heen hc>fore ohserved, is naturally 
divided hy the lir.is d'Or I^ake into two |)arts, the northern and the 
south'jrn. i\s a county, it has heen divided into threi- districts — the 
nor<»-i astern, north-western, ami southern, without any respect to its 
natuiiil divisions. The north-eastern district has heen suhdividi-d into 
the townships of Sydney, St. Andrew's, and St. I'atrick : and the north- 
western district into the townships of Canseau, Port Hood. Ainslie, ami 
Marguerite; the southern district, heing hy much the smallest of the 
three, has not heen as yet suhdividcd into townships. In descrihing the 
country, we shall adhere to the natural divisions. 

Sydney is the shire town and capital of the island, and a free j)ort. 
It is sitiuitei' on the liarhour of that name, on the eastern coast of the 
southern di\ i^ion of the island. The courts of justice and puhlic ollices 
are kept here, aiul here also the ])rincipal oflicers of the island reside. It 
contains ahout sixty houses, hesides a government-house, government- 
stores aiul harracks, a court-house; likewise episcopal. Homan catholic, and 
tlissenting churches. The streets are regularly laid out, the hou.ses tolerahly 



i 






.1 



ii 



' 



.svDXKV-crniKU sivni.i:.Mi:NTs. 



?7 



1 



_K 



j^ooil, aiul till* ;fnmiHls in the vicinity ciiltivatid with sonii' taste, so that 
on th(> u'holi' it prrscnts a |iK-asin;r appearance. 'I'hi- pnpulation isahont 
.'iOO s(Mils. The harbour is one of the most capacious and s(>cure in the 
proviiu'cs; it is two miU-s wi(h' at its entrance, lour miles ahove wliich 
it diverges into two extensive arms, upon one o|' which, ahout seven 
mih's f'ronj tlie sea, the town of Sydney is built, (»n a peninsula alVordinj^ 
abinuhmt suitabh> situations for wharfs, dock-yards, iVc. The surromidinjf 
I'ountry is one of thi' finest ai^ricultural tracts in the ishuid : the advan- 
tajj[es for carry inj;- ol the (ishiry are excellent. The principal coal-W(»rks 
are carried on in the neighbourhood, where useful tiudjcr aboimds. The 
vicinity of these works nnist eventually render .'^•. viiu >' a place of con- 
sidera' importance. 

i ' \h( settlemi'Hts in Cape Hreton have!(i''n maileou the shctres of 
till' \' •. of the (Jidf, and of the Urns d( )r. None have as yet been 

niadi' I.. an\ ( >nsiderable distance in the interior: and all the jjoints on 
thoM- shores lit tor set; lenient are occupied. The line of coast from the 
Hras (!"( )r to COw llav mav be called thi' coal coast, the whole ranm" bein<f 
faced with dills streaked with veins of that mineral. 

The priiu'ipal settlement is Sydney. There are si-veral other small 
settlements idong" the shore, upon Liu<;i-n Hay, NN'indham l{i\er «)r(ilace 
Hay, and Cow Hay, all of which have bars at th-ir entrance, aiul are shoal 
harbours; but tin- adjaceni laiuls are very fertile, and abound with tine 
tind)er. The settlers, con >istiniL!,- princi))ally of the di'sceiidants of i\ merican 
loyalists. Scotch, and Irish, ari' industrious and comlortable. Miray \hi\ 
is a lar^e arm of the sea into which falls the Uiver Mirav. This river, or 
rather succession of narrow lakes, has its source about forty miles in the 
interit)r, but its entraiu-e bein«;- obstructed by a bar. its naviiiation does 
not al!ord all th«)se advantaiics that otherwise beloU"' to it: the lands 
upon it and around the bay are <;()od, but the s«)il li<;ht : the best portion 
of it. consistintf of about 1 ()(),()()() acres, althouj^h juniiited some years a<jfo 
to 100 individuals, has nevi-r be(>n settled on or improved. There are 
several settlements on the bay, wherein a<;ricultural operations are not 
considered as secondary to the fisheries. Heyoud Miray Hay lies the 
small harbour of Menadon. or Main-a-dieii, on wl;ich is a settlement of 
active fishermen, who arc also en<iai;ed in the coal and coastiu"; trade from 



il 

4 



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IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




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Ifri^ IIIIM 
^ ^ IIIIM 



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14 111.6 




Photographic 

Sciences 
Corporation 




23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 









pu^^ #^ 



f<^'4?. 






i/x 




7H 



CAPE BRETON. 



li^' 



/ I 



;s*^^ , 



Sytlney to Halifax : tliis is one of the busiest and most thriving settlements 
in this part of the coast. Op])osite this pLice is the island of Scatari, the 
easternmost dependance of Ca])e Iketon; and I'ort Novy T^and, or Cape 
Breton, from which the island has been named, the most easterly point of 
IJreton Island itself. The once-famed harbour of Louisburg is utterly 
deserted ; although capacious and secure, no settlement has been made 
upon it since the destruction of the town. ; and what was once, if not the 
largest, certainly the most splendid town of I^a Nouvelle France, is now 
without an inhabitant, lieyond liouisburg the deep bay of (iabarus opens ; 
and from thence to St. Esprit there are three or four small fishing inlets. 
The tract of country from Miray to St. Es])rit is of inferior quality, de- 
stitute of timber, barren, and hilly; and with tlie exception of a fine tract 
here and there, unfit for settlement, and uninhabited. At St. Esprit the 
country again improves ; and u])on the banks of the Grand lliver, and 
the chain of lakes out of Avhich it issues, the soil is of an excellent qua- 
lity, and is now being settled by Scottish emigrants. 

From Grand Kiver to the Gut of Canseau, the whole shore, including 
the Isle IMadame, is of the same general character ; it is indented by a 
great number of small coves and inlets, and occupied by Acadians, who 
are chiefly employed in the fisheries. The land on the whole of this part 
of the coast is of superior cpiality, and the settlements are populous and 
thriving. These are ])rincipally situated at Ardoise, Kiver Tillard, lliver 
Bourgeois, False IJay, Grand Anse, the inlets on the northern shore of 
Lenox Passage (itself a harbour of great extent, separating Isle Madame 
from the main land). Inhabitants River, and Caribacou Cove, where this 
series of Acadian settlements terminates. A number of Scotchmen have 
settled at the upper end of Grand Anse Bay, and are chiefly engaged in 
agricvdture, the land being very good ; but the Acadians whom we have 
just mentioned devote themselves almost exclusively to the fisheries and 
the coasting trade. Both sides of Inhabitants River, which runs parallel 
with the Gut of Canseau for nearly fifteen miles, are settled nearly down 
to its mouth, and also across to the shore of the Bras d'Or Lake, and in 
the direction of the River St. Denis. 

The Isle JNIadame, separated from the main land of Cape Breton by 
St. Peter's Bay and Lennox Passage, is about sixteen miles in length 






SETTLEMENTS OF SOUTHERN DIVISION— NORTHERN DIV 



79 



and live in hreadth, indented witli numerous liaibours, and possc,ssinj>- 
u tolerably good soil. It is situated near to the .\tlantic side of the (Jut 
of Canseau, and peculiarly calculated for prosecuting the fishery. The 
principal port is Arichat*, now, and for many years past, the seat and 
centre of the fishing establishments of the .Jersey merchants, Avho export 
their produce hence to the AVest Indies, the Mediterranean, and the IJra- 
zils. It is a fine harbour, accessible at all times. The town is situate on 
the harbour, and is fast increasing in size, appearance, and population, 
and is the most important couuuercial port of Cape IJreton. 

The JJras d'Or shore of the southern division of the island is settled 
more or less along its whole length, commencing at that ])art of the 
(irand Lake called St. (-eorge's Channel, and bending round to St. 
Peter's ; there are settlements every where, })rinci])ally composed of Scot- 
tish highlanders, formed at various periods since 1800 ; and from St. 
Peter's, the coast, to the head of St. ^Vndrew's Bay at Tweednooge, and 
thence again on the north side of that bay down to IJenakady, the same 
settlements are continued along the shore, but do not in general pene- 
trate far inland. To give a general idea of the settlements on this 
southern division of the island, it may be observed, that from the liittle 
Bras d'Or to Miray Bay on the eastern shore, and thence to the Grand 
River on the southern shore, the settlements ai'e scattered along the coast 
at every available part, the population being comj)osed of English, Irish, 
Scotch, and American loyalists, mixed together, who are equally en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits as in the fishery; that from Grand lliver 
the whole western coast to Caribacou on the Gut of Canseau, the settle- 
ments are all composed of Acadians, engaged principally in the fishery, 
coasting, and boat-building; and that the Bras d'Or coast is occupied by 
Scotch settlements, whose poj)ulation is certainly agricultural, though 
partially engaged in the fisheries. 

Tlie noiUiern natural division of the island conunences at Ship Har- 
bour, on the Ciut of Canseau, from which to Port Hood there is no con- 



1 

1. 1 



J :ln 



pit 



* Some years back I sailed from Quebec to ^Vrichat, and thence ti» Halifax, in a small 
schooner which belonged to the former port, and was somewhat jieculiarly circumstanced : she 
was called the Mother, was commanded by tXwfnlhcr, and navifjated by his three sons ; on her 
next voyage she was wrecked, and the whole family unfortunately perished. 



HO 



CAPE BRETON. 



siderablc harbour, although there are several inlets. The land on the 
whole of this coast is good, and thickly settled by Scottish emigrants, 
who have extended themselves four or five miles inland all the way, and 
are employed in agriculture. Port Hood is a spacious, safe harbour, fit 
for the largest vessels, and is the most important place in the northern 
division. The courts, kc. are held here, and it carries on a considerable 
trade in agricultiu-al produce to Newfoundland. From Port Hood to 
Marguerite, on the Ciulf Shore, the same line of Scottish agricultural 
settlements continues \ipwards of thirty miles along shore, and extends 
some distance back towards the interior. These form the largest series of 
continued settlements in the island. The coast is high and bold; there 
are no harbours except that of JNIabou, which admits only small vessels. 
Lake JNIarguerite lies between the (iulf Shore and the Bras d'Or, from 
which Salmon lliver runs into Port JNIarguerite. The land on both sides 
of this river for several miles, and along the coast northward for sixteen 
miles more, as far as Chetecan, the most northern settlement on this shore, 
is entirely settled by -tVcadians. These ])eo])le, although necessarily agri- 
cultural, still devote much attention to the fishery. There is a consider- 
able village at JNIarguerite, and the Jersey markets have an establishment 
at Chetican, in both of which places a considerable trade is carried on. 

Returning to the IJras d'Or coast of this northern division of the 
island, the next considerable places of settlement after St. George's Kay 
are the IJasin and lliver Denis and Brooklesby Inlet ; the former is a 
noble harbour, where the timber-ships load, and where a ship-yard is 
established, wherein good ships have been built for British owners. The 
whole coast is settled by Scotch emigrants. The land is every where fit 
for agriculture ; and as tlie settlements do not extend far back from the 
shores, there is yet a considei'able quantity of disposable land in these 
districts. The same observations apply, in short, to the whole coast — 
on the Straits of Barra, from Whycocomagh Basin, Bernakady Bay, and 
the numerous creeks, inlets, and rivers branching out from and falling 
into them, the land is every where of 1 quality, agricultural settle- 
ments are very frequent, and their popuiavion is fast increasing in num- 
bers and wealth. Without the BriiS d'Or, is St. Anne's Bay, by the 
French called Port Dauphin. This is a fine harbour, about eight miles 



t 



SETTLEMENTS— POSITION OF THE ISLAND. 



81 



in length and three in widtli, and afterwards branching out into two 
extensive arms. The whole country around the bay is settled by Scot- 
tish emigrants, whose chief employment is agriculture, as well as the 
fishery. The settlements on this bay, though founded scarcely ten years 
ago, are now amongst the most flourishing in the island, and the popula- 
tion marked for its industrious habits. The only settlements on this 
coast farther north arc the Niganish IJay and at Aspey liay, where there 
are a few families engaged in the fishery. AVith the exception of these 
settlements, the northern division of the island, from St. Anne's Har- 
bour on one side and Cheticamp on the other, to Cape T^'orth, is wholly 
unoccupied, and little known, but it is represented as containing a con- 
siderable quantity of good land perfectly adapted for settlement. At 
this, its northern extremity, the island is only eight miles in width from 
Cape St. Laurent to Cape North. The shore between these capes forms 
a crescent, and the land sloping down to the shores of the bay is re])re- 
sented as possessing an excellent soil. 

The island of Cape Breton, forming the eastern barrier of the gulf 
of St. Lawrence, commands the usual, and indeed (with the exception of 
the circuitous route of the Straits of Belleisle) the only access from the 
Atlantic by the Gut of Canseau on the south, and the passage between 
this island and Newfoundland on the north. It is, in fact, from its relative 
situation, the key of the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; and being provided with 
excellent harbours, the naval power in possession of it will be the arbiters 
of the commerce of the Canadas, Prince Edward Island, and all the coast 
bounding that gulf. 



,< 1 



\ 



H 



> I 




VOL. II. 



M 






ilu- i 



CPIAPTER VII. 



Climate — Mines — Resources — Population — Agriculture — Fisheries — Trade. 



m 




The climate of Cape Breton is very similar to that of Nova Scotia, 
and is considered by the inliabitants to be quite as conducive to hcaltli 
and favourable to agricultural pursuits as that of any of tlic IJritish- 
Anierican provinces. The winter lasts from the beginning of November 
to tjie end of April. The cold is sometimes intense, and has been known 
at thirty -two degrees below zero; .';, is not uncommon, but the fluctuations 
are more frequent than on the continent ; a partial thaw jenerally takes 
place every day, and the mercury, often, below zero in the morning, rises 
to sixty or seventy at noon. Frequent thaws of a fortnight's continuance 
are experienced in the winter, followed by renewed frost and snow, vicis- 
situdes which render that season ])erhaps more disagreeable here than on 
the continental provinces. The summer months are usually dry and 
warm on the eastern coast, but rather moist on the western ; fogs do not 
prevail in the eastern and northern parts of the island, but along the 
western and southern coasts they are more common. The mean heat 
in summer is about 80° in the shade, but it often increases to ninety -six 
(in the shade) and 120° in the sun. The spring, as in all cold countries, 
is short — the summer intensely hot — vegetation rapid — and autumnal 
maturity quickly succeeds; thus are three seasons all included between 
INIay and October. Planting and sowing take place in May — flowers are 
out in Jimc — fruits in July — reaping engrosses August and September — 
all must be safe in October. On the whole the climate of Cape Breton is 
somewhat colder in winter and hotter in summer, more irregular, and 
tliereforc less pleasant than tliat of the neighbouring peninsula and pro- 
vinces, although perhaps quite as favourable generally to health and agri- 
cultural productions. 



COAL MINES— SALT SPRINGS. 






4 



The natir il productions of this island are in all respects similar to 
those of Nova Scotia. The timber on the island is of a sturdy growth, 
iu)d differs but little in its varieties and character fiom tliat of Nova 
Scotia; and it is every Avhere very plentiful, and within reach of ])laces 
of shipment. 

The coal found in Cape IJreton is of the best quality; a specimen 
has been carefully analysed, and found to contain only three-(iuarters of 
an imit per cent, of extraneous substance. Coal is traced in tiie western 
part of the island, on Inhabitants Kiver, at Port Hood, and at JNIabou. 
This field has never been worked or examined, but the indications are 
decided and numerous. The eastern, or Sydney coal field, is very ex- 
tensive : it commences at Miray IJay, and follows the course of the shore 
all round to the Great IJras d'Or, being in length about forty miles, and 
averaainsj five miles in width. From a minute calculation, after de- 
ducting harbours, bays, and all other interpositions, it appears that thert> 
are 120 square miles of land containing available veins of coal. It is 
supposed the veins in many places run out into the sea ten miles from 
the shore. There are fourteen distinct veins, one over another, varying 
from three to eleven feet in thickness ; and there are extensive works 
now carried on at Sydney Harbour and at Lingan by the lessees of the 
late Duke of York, JMessrs. llundcll and IJridge. Ciypsum is found in 
almost all parts of the island. In the Island of IJoularderie it forms 
a cliff several miles in length, where large vessels may take it in. It 
is found at IJedique, at AVhycocomagh on tlie lliver Denn, or Denis, 
at liarra Straits, at St. Anne's Harbour, at Aspey Bay, at Cape North, 
and at Plaister Cove on the Gut of Canseau, where great quantities have 
been annually exported. It is every where of the very best description, 
and may be conveyed immediately from the quarries on shipboard. 

Several salt springs have been discovered ; the principal at Eedeque, 
at AVagamatcook, at AV^hycocomagh, and other places on the IJras d'Or 
Lake. They vary in strength, ])roducing from six to twelve per cent, of 
salt. Situated in the heart of the best fisheries of North ^Vmcrica, and 
where coal is so abundant, the manufacture of salt promises to become 
hereafter a most valuable source of wealth to the colony. 

>i 2 




84 



CAPE BRETON. 



Ife 



Iron ore abounds every where in tlie eoal field about liingan, Sydney, 
&e., and at Ca))e North and Aspey IJay: speeiniens from tlie latter place 
have yielded sixty per cent, of pure metal. 

The natural riches of tiiis island seem to consist preeminently in its 
fisheries. There is no ]?laee along the coasts of America, with the ex- 
ception of Newfoundland, where the fish is so abundant and so good, or 
which is so well ada])ted for taking and curing it. The fish, consisting 
of those varieties taken in NewfouiuUand — cod, herrings, mackarel, (Sec. 
swarm on the whole coast, and in all the harbours, exterior and interior. 
In fact, every farmer and settler in Cai)e IJreton may, and in general does, 
become as nmch a fisherman as an agriculturist, uiiiting the two ])rofitable 
occupations, drawing wealth alike from the land uul the ocean. 

The ])opulation of Cape Breton is, like tl.at of Nova Scotia, a good 
deal mixed, being composed of Acadians, and people of Scottish, Irish, 
Knglish, and iVrminian origin. The most numerous arc the Scotch, who 
spring principally from the Highlands. The Irish do not permanently 
settle in any considerable numbers, and the inhabitants of English de- 
scent arc few. Next to the Scottish, the iVcadians are the most numerous 
class; they are industrious and active, principally employed in the fisheries, 
preserving, but not in so marked a manner as in Nova Scotia, their own 
language, customs, and religion. The settlers from Scotland and of Scot- 
tish descent are equally noted for industry, uniting more than the Aca- 
dians do the occupations of farming and lumbering with the fishery. 
All the Acadians and the greater number of the Scottish are Koman 
catholics. Presbyterians are few in number, nor are the members of the 
church of England at all numerous. There is no public provision made 
to suppoi't the clergy of any denomination, and therefore every sect pro- 
vides for its own pastors. From the absence hitherto of competent schools, 
there being merely one or two at Sydney and at Arichat, the native part 
of the population have been almost wholly without the means of becoming 
educated, and the population on the whole may be considered therefore 
as very badly provided with the means of acquiring even the first rudi- 
ments of education. The number of the inhabitants has been lately 
estimated as high as 30,000: in ISll it was, upon a census taken that 



m 



POPULATION— REPRESENTATION— AGRICULTLRK. 



«J 



year, rated at 8,000 : it therefore appears to have more than trebled itself 
in about sixteen years. There are about iiOO Indians still remaining- in 
Cape Hreton, which arc included in the above-stated p()i)ulati()n : they 
are scattered on five small tracts of land reserved for them, upon whicli 
they grow maize and potatoes ; some of them ])ossess cattle, but their 
principal emjdoyment is hunting and fishing. They are generally sta- 
tionary during the winter, remaining at their settlements ; in the summer 
they wander along the shores, and skirt the inland waters of the island. 
All the distinctive traits of Indian character are softened down or lost, 
and they are a quiet, temperate race. 

This island having been annexed to Nova Scotia in 1820, the govern- 
ment, laws, (Sec. are of course the same as in that colony. Indeed the laws 
and ordinances of Nova Scotia were, by an express act of the provincial 
legislature, extended to Cape Breton. It was erected into a county, and 
now sends two members to the House of Assembly ; a nund)er certainly 
not commensurate with its relative extent, population, wealth, and im- 
])Grtance, in all which respects this island is probably equal to one-Hfth 
of the whole colony, while its share of representation in the legislature 
is scarcely in the proportion of one-twentieth. 

There existed a small revenue, arising from a duty of one shilling 
per gallon on imported spirituous licpiors, collected before the island was 
utmexed to Nova Scotia, which had been expended in local improve- 
ments, &c. That revenue, which contimies to be exacted since the union, 
amounts to about four or five thousand pounds ])er annum, which sum 
is applied generally to the domestic ])iu'poses of the colony. 

Agriculture is here quite in its infancy, and there are few persons 
whose pursuits are confined to that >>;ect, and none but the settlers who 
labour on their own lands find it ans*. er at all. The soil, productit)ns, 
and seasons are similar to those of Nova Scotia, and the system of farming 
less perfect, bears still a close analogy to that of the peninsula. The ex- 
pense of clearing new land is about three pounds per acre, not including 
buildings of any kind. The Avages of labour from twenty to thirty 
pounds per annum, besides board and lodging, ^^^leat is not very gene- 
rally grown, but oats and potatoes are raised to a considerable extent, so 



/ 



8G 



CAPE BRETON. 




as iiulccil to iifTortl ii sur])liis of hotli for exportation. I^ivc stock tlirivcs 
as well as in the neighbouring colonies, and also affords a moderate sur- 
plus for ex])ort. 

The colonists build all their own vessels in Ca])e Breton, and a few 
ships are aninially built there for Ihitish owners. The number of regis- 
tered vessels behmging to the island in IH'iS was iUO, varying from 30 
to SOO tons; the average about fifty tons each. About fifty s((uare- 
rigged vessels are built every year, besides schooners, shallops, and boats; 
the whole imniber of all descri|)tions is estimated at about 1,500. 

The trade of the island is (piite in its uifancy : fish is the staple article 
of export. The })rincipal establishments are at Arichat, Ship Harbour, 
Ardoise, Sydney, JNIenadon, St. Anne's, JNIargueritc, and Cheticamp. The 
mode generally is for the merchant to supply the fisherman with all 
necessaries, and take the fish in payment. The quantity of fish ex- 
ported in 1S2H amounted to 41,000 quintals of dried, and 18,000 barrels of 
pickled fish. Coal forms, next to fish, the largest article of export. The 
mines were for a long time worked on the part of the government ; but 
since their occu])ation by INIessrs. Kundell and Bridge, the quantity raised 
and exported has been very considerably increased, and will be still more 
so: from 15 to 20,000 chaldrons are annually exported, principally to 
Halifax and the United States. The timber trade is not so active as it 
has been ; the facilities for shipping it are decidedly greater than in any 
of the continental provinces, and the (piality of the timber itself is not 
inferior to any ; yet there arc not more than twenty to thirty cargoes an- 
nually ex})ortc(l. The ex])ort of gypsum has also declined, but not from 
any want or difficulty in the supply, for, as before observed, it is found 
in vast ([uantitics, of the choicest quality, and can be shipped with the 
greatest facility. There is a partial export of agricultural produce, live 
stock, ])otatoes, oats, butter, cheese, and some beef and pork, principally 
to Newfoundland. 

The ])rincipal imports consist of flour, rum, molasses, and British 
manufactures. This trade, both export and import, is carried on with 
the British North American colonics. Great Britain, and the West Indies. 
The amount and value in 1828 were as follows : 



I 



EXPORTS AND IMPOllT.S— ST. PAUL'S ISLAND. 



87 



Exportn. 



Dry Fish 


. 41,01)0 (|uiiitals. 


ricklod ditto . 


. UM»<M) liarri'ls. 


('oiils 


. 10,000 chaldrons 


Potatdus 


. 1'2,0(M) Imxhfl.s. 


Outs 


. 5,000 ditto. 


Traill Oil 


. 2,200 l.arnis. 


Live Stoclv 


700 hoad. 


Timber . 


. 10,000 loud. 



Vuliii' of Exports to (Jroat Britain 
Dritisii America . . 

WcNt Illllil'S .... 

United States . . . 

Other places .... 

Total value of Kxports 



7,:iOo 

w.ooo 

r>,.')0() 

1,000 
10,000 

7i),(t(io 



Imports. 



L 



Flour 
Kuin . 

JMolasses . ■ 
British inunufactures 



40,000 barrels. \'alue of Imports from (;rcat Britain 2l',0()0 
40,000 pilloiis. 
30,000 ditto. 



British America 
West Indies . 
Sundries 

Total value uf Imjiorts 



jD.OIIO 
;»,.")(I0 

r)(io 

7(!(((l() 



ShoAvin«r n balance of trade in favour of tlie island. 

Sydney was declared a free port in 18128, a circumstance which will 
no doubt be of infinite advantage to the develo])nient of the resources, 
and increasing the trade and wealtli of the island. 

About ten miles north-east from Cape Nortli lies the Island of St. 
Paul, a barren precipitous rock, upon which munerous ships have been 
wrecked, and thousands of lives lost. From the high importance that 
attaches to this island for navigators, it is expedient to insert the following 
important reports, made and grounded on the information of gentlemen 
of science and experience. 



Sir, 



" II. JM. Sloop Columbine. 
' Halifax, 20th October, lli2<). 



" I have the honour to represent to you, that having landed on the 
Island of St. Paul's on the 16th instant, in order to determine its geogra- 
phical position, assisted by INIr. Jauncey, admiralty mate, with a reflecting 
circle, sextant artificial horizon of quicksilver, and chroiiometer, No. 102, 
being compared with our standard on board, that it lies in lat. 47" 12' .38 ' 
north, and long. GO" 11' 24" west of Greenwich. It being the most ad- 



it 



8» 



CAi'i: hiii:T()\— ST. p.\n;s isi.wi). 



M!f. 





vantiigfoiis |)liui' in my (tpiiiioii of all otluTs in or about tliis ^rroat 
tliorou^lilair of .sliippiiio- to i-ivct a li<;lit-liousi', J was vcrv jjarticiilar 
in examining its Ku-al situation, wlu'tluT a landing foultl bo convcnicntlv 
cilW'ti'd so as to sui)|)ly a li^bt-bousc witli stores, iVe. In staiuliufr close 
to its nortb-wcst and north-cast sides in the ship, where we had been led 
to believe there was an anchoracrc, we had no bottom, with seventeen 
fathoms, at a distance of two cables' len/jjth from shore: but it has two 
coves, one on the north-east and the other on the north-west side; there 
is no possibility of landing- at the former, the rocks bein^ |)cri)endicular, 
but at the north-west cove, which is an iiulent of about two cables' Icni'th. 
and about three cables' len«;th broad, there is a shelter for small vessels, 
with the wind from south-west southerly to north-east, in ten fathoms, 
at two cables' len«>th from shore (then Cape Hreton will ap])ear over the 
west side of the cove), the depth gradually lessening;- to five fathoms close 
to the rocks. At the north-east side of this cove there is a small creek, 
large enough for a line-of-battle shi])'s launch (a vessel about ten tons), 
to lie well sheltered, where stores could be landed whenever u vessel 
could show herself oil' this side of tlie island. The surface of the liills 
is covered with stinted firs, and between them are patches of fiorou 
grass, which would feed cattle. The great mass of the island is composeu 
of floetz stone (the stratum vertical), which seems to crumble away, and 
not very good for building ; but there are here and there veins of red 
gneise or granite, from six to ten feet broad, running across the island 
from nortli to south. At the head of the north-Avest cove is a fine run 
of fresh Avater. In a])])roaehing the island from south-east and north- 
west, it appears in three hills, the bighcst being in the middle. At the 
head of the north-west cove, and about half a mile north-east from the 
middle hill, and near the brook of fresh water, is the spot where we took 
our astronomical observations. On the top of this bill is the site I humbly 
recommend to have a light-house built, its elevation being 229 feet above 
the level of the sea by our measurement ; therefore a light-house 100 feet 
high could be seen over the other hills and from every direction, and 
ships could run boldly for it, and never could pass on either side in the 
fair way without seeing it. A light-house in this island would also 
answer to distinguish it from the neighbouring land during snow storms 



(•Mr. 1' Vi vy I V w I'liA.". tk V I !••, vv.M, 

III Hie lot, mil III 

*'iilr*nir ■nh.- v*»nll ..i 1^' lattunii-r. 

111 I. "IK' II ii » , , .w ,, » 

„iii ' 17 r.' .;« , *■" -" ''^ * 

Ai ■/<*// .V ./i*,N A » Aiy"/.' ,V 

IMJi) 
1)'. ///t.V'W/'/"- ..,«,/ ..,../..'.«^./ 



"'m**. 




'"*n 






. w4B?siB»WPWWW' 



-'■; t>*»«;'.''4v tr*pi|y«gj^ .._ 



I'M l,',i ISI.ASli I ,, .N .V i,v , Im'.i... I ■ Ml 




il I..-. ISLAM p, |..,.iii-. W S VI ,|i»i.ii,.,- I. lAii.' 



/ 



•0. 







N-illi I'.' 




.DifkHaghr I.Mi'' h''iir Hinfl'/ (■nu H'l.iiK I»H F** 



\ ' 



% 



, "I 



"M f 



: 111 



I! 



m 



' f 



lii 



'HaL 




Eii 



ij? 



ST. PAUL'S ISLAND. 



S9 



and hazy wcatlier in the day, as avcII as its li^ht at ni«>ht; and if there 
was a great gun to he fired, or a bell to he rung at intervals in foggy 
weather, it wouhl sliow its position, and enable a shij) to sliapi' her course 
accordingly. The want of this I have no doubt has been the cause of 
many shipwrecks in the CJulf of St. Lawrence, south coast of Newfound- 
land, and Cape IJreton Island, together with the extreme inaeem-aey of 
the latitudes and longitudes of the different headlands, Avhieh has been 
proved by minute astronomical as well as chronometrical observations 
made on the spot at the respective headlands under your orders. 

" I have the honour to be, 
"t^c. cVc. 
" To Kciir-Admiral Sir Charles Ojilf, IJurt. •• JO] IX JON" KS, 

" Conunumk.r-iii-Cl.ict; &c. .-vc. &c." u Master — II. JNl. S. Hussar." 



" The Island of St. Paul, according to the most correct accounts that 
have been procured, lies in a direction north 7.'}" east by tlu' magnet, or 
north 52" cast, true, from Cape North, the north-east point of the island 
of Cape lireton, distance ten miles to the southern extremity, being in 
length about a mile and a cpiartcr from north to south, and inclining to 
the eastward at the north end ; and in average breadth about a (juarter 
of a mile. The margin is rocky and precipitous nearly all roiuul, in- 
dented on the north-east and north-west sides by two coves, in both of 
which boats may obtain shelter during the prevalence of certain Avimls. 
The cove on the north-west side afibrds a small and bold beach, about 
150 feet long, where a landing may be etTected, but generally with 
difficulty, by reason of the continual swell of the ocean. The interior 
of the island rises into three hills, the highest being nearly in the centre, 
and terminating in a square smnmit of about fifty feet on each side, and 
nearly perpendicular, which is estimated to be about 25H feet above the 
level of the sea. The surface of the island is in general rocky, with some 
spots of marsh or bog, which probably supply the fresh water found issuing 
from the rock. Stunted fir and white birch trees are the only products 
of the island, but some drift wood may be picked up. It is not known 
what animals, if any, inhabit the place, 

VOL. II. N 



: LK\ 





90 



ST. PAIMAS ISLAND. 



" 'I'hcre is "'oocl unchorai^e nil rovind the island, and close in shore, 
V Inch circumstance enables vessels to lie there with any winds by slnftins^ 
their stations as the wind and weather re(inire — a mode ])ractised by the 
privateers of the Ignited States durin<jf the last Avars. There are tolerably 
rejijnlar .soundinf>s off the north-west side, at the distance of half or three 
(]uarters of a mile; on the north-east side a bank lies off about three 
(juarters of a mile, with from seven to eight fathoms of water. The 
general depth of the soundings round the island, half a mile from the 
shore, is from twenty to forty, but the water soon deepens to one hnn- 
dred fathoms. The current runs generally about four miles an hour, 
about south-sonth-east. There is a ])lentiful fishery of cod and mackarel 
round the coast of the island, and also an abundance of seals. 

" The situation of this island, in the very entrance of the great 
thoroughfare leading from the Atlantic to the Ciulf and Kiver St. Law- 
rence, together with the abrn])t nature of its shore and the depth of the 
sea around, admitting a shij) to rnn her jib boom against the cliff before 
she strikes the bottom ; the frec^uent fogs and tempestuous Aveather ; the 
inicertain currents ; and, at the o])ening of the navigation of the St. Law- 
rence, the large bodies of ice ; all these circumstances combine with the 
inaccuracv of many of the charts in general use, to render the island of 
St. Paul probably the most dangerous to shipping that is to be fomid 
on the coast of British America. It has been the scene of innumerable 
wrecks since the first settlement of the colonies, many, perhaps most of 
Avhich, are only told by the relics strewed upon the rocks. So constant 
are these disasters, that it is the custom of the inhabitants of Cheticamp 
(a French settlement on the north-west coast of Cape IJreton) to visit 
the island regularly every spring for the pur])ose of collecting the spoil. 
Ilinnan bones are to be seen scattered in various parts, and very lately 
fourteen large anchors were couJited lying at the bottom of the sea near 
the shore. The destruction of life and property on this fatal spot has 
been incalculable. For the future it might doubtless be prevented, in 
great measure, by the erection of a light-house, provided with a great 
gun or a gong, to be used in foggy weather. The central eminence, 
already mentioned, appears to be the best site for this purpose. Stone 



ST. PAUL'S ISLAND. 



91 



may of course be procured in abundance on tlie island, but tind)er, and 
probably lime, with all other materials, nnist be imported, and can be 
supplied from Cape Breton. 

" The folloAvino- vessels have been ascertained to be amonj; the nuni- 
her that of late years have met their fate on St. Taul's Lsland : 



" The Horatio, of London 
A ship from Prince Edward's Ishmd 
TJie Canada, of Aberdeen 
Duncan, of Hull 
Venus, of Aberdeen 
Ship, name unknown 



Pecember, Ja2(i 
. Ui27 
. ll{-->7 
. lilL'if 
. U!2!) 



" Not many years aoo a transport, full of soldiers and their families, 
struck on St. Paul's, and went down ; the bodies Hoated into all the har- 
bours alon^ the north-east coast of Cape IJreton. Two hundred ])erished. 



Sydney, Ca])e Breton. 2M Jnnv, l«2i). 



"(True Copy) J. LAMBLY, H M. 

" Quebec, August lUth, 1}!2!)." 



4 



i4 



m 



N 2 



CHAPTER VIII. 

New HitiNsu u k — The Territory on tlic Banks ot" St. John's — Madawaska Settlements 
— Yolk — Siinl)ury — Queen's County — King's — St. John's City and County — Ilar- 
lidurs, Itoads. 



Mm ■ 



m\^ 



iir 



Tins I'roviiic'o is situated betwocMi the parallels of latitude 45" 5" 
and -IS" 4' .'30" iiortli, and between 6;J' 47' .'iO" and (57' .'j.'J' of longitude 
west from tlie meridian of (Treenwieli. It is bounded on tlie north by 
the I»ay of Chaleurs, in the Ciulf of St. liawrence. and by the river Risti- 
irouehe. Avhich in its whole course from its source to its estuary in that 
bay, divides the province on the north from the county of Ronaventnre. 
in Lower Canada : on the south by the bay of Fundy and Cliignecto, 
which indenting from the Atlantic, sc])aratc it from Nova Scotia, Cum- 
berland Basin, a deep inlet from the latter bay, and by the boundary line 
drawn from Fort Cumberland to Bay N'erte. in Xorthumberland Straits, 
which separates the county of Westmoreland in this province from that 
of Andierst in Nova Scotia. Its eastern boundary being Xortlunnbcrland 
Strait, which ilows between it and Prince Kdward's Island, and the Ciulf 
of St. T^awrence : its eastern limit, commencing at Passanuupioddy Ray, 
is the river Scodie or St. Croix, the river Chiputnetikooh flowing into 
the former, and a chain of lakes, the principal of which is termed Grand 
Lake, extending north-westerly to the source of the Chiputnetikooh, 
thence by the boundary line se])arating it from the United States' pro- 
vince of Maino, and from I^oAver Canada. The difference between the 
Rritisii and xVmerican commissioners as to the position of this line, the 
decision of the King of the Netherlands, the \nnpire agreed to, and the 
considerations enforcing the view of the British commissioners, have 
been amply treated of in an earlier part of this work, and therefore require 
no further mention in this place. To this province also pertain the 
islands in tlie Ray of Fundy as far south as the 44" 3G' of latitude nortli. 



m |! 




■ I 



'h 



NEW BRUNSWICK— MARS HILL. 



93 



the principal of which are Deer IsUmd, Canipo Hello, and Grand Monan. 
Tlie superficial content of the whole province exceeds 27,704 square miles, 
comprising 17,730,560 acres. 

In surveying this extensive and important portion of the Hritish 
dominions, we are not guided hy any of those continuous ridges of 
elevated land, by which nature itself separates one district from another, 
and which have diviiled and regulated some of our former descriptions. 
It is not less remarkable for all those grand features which stani}) and 
characterize the operations of natiu'e in this ((uarter of the globe, amongst 
them comprising many towering heights and precipitous elevations, but 
these being isolated and detached, rather claim our attention as they 
occur in following another species of division, than of themselves direct 
us in our general view of the ])rovince. As JNIars Hill, however, is in- 
vested with a ])eculiar degree of interest, from the circumstance of its 
being the point fixed on by the British connuissioners as the connuence- 
ment of the range of highlands, forming the boundary of the United 
States, we will step a little out of our way to take a rather close survey 
of it. It is about five ami ii half miles to the west of the river St. John, 
about 100 miles above Frederictoii. The mountain is about three miles 
in length, its lower base four and a (pi.irter; it is very narrow and divided 
by a hollow near the centre ; its highest elevation above the level of the 
sea is about 12000 feet, and about 1200 above the source of the St. Croix. 
The early part of the ascent is easy to the height of about half a mile, 
beyond which it becomes uuich more abrupt, and near the summit 
almost perpendicular. The ])rospect viewed from its crest is extensive 
and connnanding, as it is the highest point in its vicinity. Innnediately 
beneath stretches the vast forest of which the adjacent country is com- 
posed, whose imdulatory swells, clothed with a brilliant green, resemble 
stupendous waves, the more elevated s})ots rising from the bosom of the 
others like towers above the ocean. 

This conspicuous mountain lies west of and close to the me- 
ridian or exploring line, run from the source of the river Chi- 
putnetikook, called the source of the St. Croix, and so determined 
by commissioners in 1798, and at wOiich place a new monument or 
boundary was erected in 1817 (vide vol. i. p. 14), and from whence the 



11 






'•( 


4 


' iU 


'1 


1 






ij 





;' ]W 



$\-nm 



• 1 1 






94 



NEW imUN.SWICK. 





m 



exploring lino diif north -was run tliat yt'ar tliroiiu;li the country, and 
|)a.ssin<;east of Mars Hill at the distanec of forty-one miles, and travcrsinjr 
the St. John at seventy-seven miles five chains, two and a half miles 
ahove and west of the great falls, and finally ending at the waters of the 
Uistigouche or Wagansis, at ninety-nine miles four chains. The year 
subse(|uent the same ex])loring line was ])rol()nged forty-four miles beyond 
this ])()ini: to the head waters of Mitis. 

Having thus alluded to this extensive line traversing l-i'.i miles and 
four chains of vast forests and Avilderness, and intersecting in its course 
numerous rivers and streams, a few observations relating to the face of 
the country along its whole course may not be deemed unacceptable, 
also a table of barometrical and therinometrical observations, taken by 
us whilst nmning the line in 1817. 

From the monument at the source of the St. Croix to Park's at 
Houlton Town, a distance of thirteen miles, the country is generally low, 
with the exception of a few gentle swells of land, becoming more con- 
spicuous, however, in ap])roaching Park's farm at Houlton town-road. 
From this fine elevated position the country can be viewed with great 
advantage, and especially the principal range of highlands, extending from 
Mars Hill west to the Catahden mountain, remarkable for its height and 
diversity of scenery, the land descending by gradual ridges and slopes to- 
wards Houlton town. The country from Park's to River Maduxneke.ag 
is low and marshy, but in approaching the river the land rises, and its 
banks are high and steep, where the line traverses the river at seven miles 
north of Hoidton town-road, which extends westward to a large bend of 
the river about five miles west of Park's farm, up to which place the 
author explored the river from its estuary in the St. John's. 

This river has numerous windings, and spreads into several large and 
inferior branches. The chief fall is about three miles east of the exploring 
line, at which place there are falls of fourteen feet nine inches high, and a 
])ortage of sixty rods. It is rapid and shallow in many places, and contains 
numerous islands. Four and a half miles above the line are the settle- 
ments that connect with the Houlton town-road ; from thence to Presq' 
Isle river the land ascends gradually, until approaching the river where the 
ascent is conspicuous. From the summit of the high banks of this river 



COUNTRY ALONU TllK I-XPLOIli:i) lUJlXDAIlY. 



y/5 



Mars Hill is seen, bearing north 21" west, and a rant^c of ln<,'li lands 
streU'liin<r to the south-west, with other hi<i;lu'r but more distant objects 
in the rear. From hence the land rises considerably, but on a|)j)roaciiin^ 
Mars I [ill it descends into a valley, until it a<;ain ascends at the river 
Goose(iuick inunediately north of JNIars Hill — then a most cons])icuous 
ascent presents itself between the river and that of river des Chutes, 
which seems to connect Avith Mars Hill hi<;hlands. At this point hijih- 
lands are seen at the distance of eigiit or nine miles in the direction of 
iiorth-north-west and south-south-east ; from hence the land ascends by 
<>Tadual slopes towards the river Aristook, and where the line traverses 
the river there are two beautiful small islands, called Connnissioners 
Islands ; between this river and the St. John's, in the direction of tin- 
line, the land is extremely high, and more conspicuously so between 
the sixty-ninth and seventy-fourth miles, and like the other ridges of 
hisih land directs its course towards the soutli-south-west. 

The generality of land throughout this large extent of country 
is of a good quality, fit for cultivation, and the timber is by no means 
inferior. 

From the river St. John northward for a distance of about fourteen 
miles, the ascents and descents are not materially conspicuous, nor is the 
land of so good a (piality as that south of the St. John, presenting how- 
ever large tracts of ])ine ridges, also large swamps ; the land again rises 
beyond the ninety-first mile on proceeding north, and is high in the 
vicinity of the llistigouche or Wagansis, between which river and the 
head of the (irande lliver lies the llistigouche portage, about seven 
miles in length, passing over fine elevated land, I'nd strikes the headwaters 
of the Grande River, which falls into the St. John below the Madawaska 
settlement. 

This extensive line forms the base of a double row of American 
townships, laid out by the government of the province of Maine, 
seemingly granted for the support of agricultural societies, academies, 
colleges, &c. ; these townships are named Westford, (iroton, Houlton, 
Plantation, Williams, Framingham, IJelfast, Limerick, besides one for 
the agricultural society. These eight townships are well situated, cover 
a fine tract of country, most abundantly Avatered by numerous branches 





' ' km 


.'mi 

fin 



^,_...^l 



on 



NEW nnrNswicK. 




I 'I 



of the rivtr Miuluxnekcaj; and scvonil sniiiU lakes : faitliei- nortli along 
the exploring line are situated the townships of Portland, Hridgewater, 
IMars Hill, Durlield, and WVstHeld, composed of good land, and although 
uneven and mountainous, is fit for cultivation, and well watered by 
several branches of tiie river Presif Tsle. 

There are at present some settlements in several of these townships, 
besides the chief one already mentioned, lloulton-town Plantation, 
and a road of comnnmication is now o])ened from the l'ei>ol)scot near 
Sunkaze stream, traversing diagonally a range of townships to the head of 
the St. Croix, and thence to Iloulton-covvn, and is either continued or will 
be carried on to Mars Hill, o))ened as a military road ; and as iSfars Hill is 
a connuanding position, it is ])robable the American govcrmnent will avail 
itself of its advantages and position, and will occupy it accordingly. 



Table of liaro)iui rival and Tltcnnomct rival Ohsvrvation.s, talcen hy the Author 
ivhiLst niiinin^ the K.rjUoriiig- Line northward from the Source of the St. 
Croix in ISI7. 







Time. 






ISarniiictcr. 


Thtniioni. 


Date. 


I'liice of Observation. 




\\'onthfr. 


Wind. 








11. 


y\. 


s. 




rm-li. 


Tlioii. 


1). 


.M. 


July 10. 


Fjong Island, 32 miles alxive St. John 


12 






rain 


N.N.K 


;]o 


170 


71 


;«) 


12, 


Krederieton 


12 










2!) 


970 


H4 




19.!At Eol River 


11 


30 






calm 


2!) 


ft;} 


«(i 




20. 


At Kieliard Smith's 


10 


1;-) 






s.w. 


2i> 


.'■).-) 


815 




2\V 


Xear Iloulton Town 


10 


20 




clear 




29 


'X\ 


(iit 






."Meduxnekeig (Jreek 


!) 










29 


m 


()l) 


30 i 


, , 


Three miles on the fiine 


4 


2.-) 








29 


13 


(i7 


30 


24. Five and a (piartor from the iMoniimcnt 


10 


:io 








29 


■A 


79 






Three from ditto 


7 










29 


<(7 


51 




27. 


At JMonument Camp 


12 










29 


(57 


87 




, , 


Ditto .... 


2 


30 








29 


(5j 


78 






Highland before Camp Ridge 






. . 






29 


(i(i0 


77 




Aug. 3. 


At Monument Camp 


12 










29 


40 


}« 


30 


6. 


One mile and a half from the Rlonunient 











calm 


29 


07 


49 






Ditto at the Camp . 


1 


4.") 






s.w. 


29 


47 


74 




7. 


Ditto 





40 




, , 


, , 


29 


(if. 


(50 






Ditto 


12 








calm 


29 


()(> 


7« 




8. 


Ditto 


9 


Ui 




cloudy 




29 


4;-! 


71 




11. 


At Park's House . 


12 






clear 


N.AV. 


29 


50 


74 


30 




Ditto 


.'■) 


40 






calm 


29 


5(5 


71 




12. 


Ditto 


8 


1.5 




rain 


S.K. 


29 


4« 


CO 






Ditto 


5 10 






calm 


29 


43 


64 




13. 


Ditto 


12 








29 


45 


(55 








MI'TKORIC; NOTES ON THE WESTERN HOINDAHY. 



97 



VOL. II. 



o 









TiiiK'. 






llurDiiivlcr 


TluTiiumi. 


D»tv. 


PIms of ObacrvRtion. 






\Vcathcr. 


U'iiul. 








II. 


M. 


.s. 


llicll. 


12 


0. 


.M. 


Aug. 14 


At I'ark'N IIuunc 


(! 


25 




fair 


south 


20 


00 






Ditto 


H 


10 






, , 


20 


.■i(t 


05 


1 




Ditto 


11 








9.\V. 


20 


."i(» 


0.1 






Ditto 


12 






eloudy 




20 


02 


80 






Ditto 


4 


20 






W. 


20 


.38 


81 




15. 


Ditto 


!) 


24 




rain 


H.W. 


20 





00 






Ditto 


12 


45 








20 


40 


77 






Ditto 


4 


30 




eloudy 


w. 


20 




70 




l(i. 


Ditto 


(i 


3 




eleur 


N.W. 


20 


.32 


58 


25 




Ditto 


(i 


10 








20 


.30 


54 


30 




Ditto 


() 


30 




fair 


N. 


20 


30 


70 






Ditto 


12 










20 


30 


72 


40 




Ditto 


(i 


15 






i;. 


20 


3li 


(il 


30 


17. 


Ditto 


)l 


55 




cloudy 


.S W, 


20 


30 


71 


20 


la 


At five inilu Camp 


H 


30 






calm 


20 


37 


74 


.30 




Ditto 


12 






Clear 


, , 


20 


32 


81 


10 


1!). 


Ditto 


)i 


31) 




cloudy 


K. 


20 


02 


05 


10 




Ditto 


12 


20 






calm 


20 


02 


71 


10 


2(). 


Ditto 
Swimip .... 


•1 
12 


10 




rain 




20 
2it 


70 
43 


03 
.■iO 


25 


21. 


At the seven mile Ciunp 


o 


.30 




, , 




20 


20 


Ofi 


10 


22. 


Swamp .... 


12 






doiuly 




20 


25 


02 






Hiittom of hill 


2 






clear 




20 


27 


(iO 


10 


, , 


Top of hill 


2 


15 




, , 




20 





00 


40 




Hiseofhill 


1 








, , 


20 


22 


7<i 


.30 


23. 


At Park's .... 


<) 


35 




chaidy 


w. 


20 


35 


(il 


25 




Ditto 


1 


3(» 






.V.N.K. 


20 


32 


.50 






Ditto 


(! 


.30 




rain 


N.K. 


20 


20 


53 


35 


24. 


Ditto 


12 








, , 


20 


20 


50 


10 




Ditto 


7 










20 


30 


4(i 


10 


25. 


Ditto 


7 


22 




fair 


calm 


20 


41 


57 






Ditto .... 


1 


30 








20 


41 


(i4 


10 




On the rise 


(! 


15 








20 


87 


47 


10 


2(i. 


Swamp .... 


12 


30 




cloudy 


west 


20 


81 


(57 


5 


27- 


On the rise 


7 


45 




fair 


N K. 


20 


88 


55 




2H. 


At IMaduxnikeag . . , 


(i 


47 






H.W. 


30 


4 


47 






Ditto .... 


12 








calm 


20 


!)8 


70 


50 


29. 


Twenty miles from the Monument . 


it 


5 






N.W. 


20 


70 


5() 


40 




Top (if the ridge . ' . 


12 


15 






calm 


20 


81 


(iO 


it 


30. 


On the Island of Madox 


8 










20 


05 


00 


20 




Thirty-two miles from the Monument 


12 






cloudy 




20 


!t5 


()4 


35 




Bottoin of the hill . 


2 


15 








20 


!)1 


(Hi 




, , 


Top of the hill 


2 


18 i 




, , 


20 


80 


(i7 


25 


31, 


Three miles from north branch 


8 


1 




N.W. 


30 




51 


30 


Sept. 1. 


Ridge, ^H miles from the jMonumeiit 


7 


30 






.30 


2 


43 


.30 


^ , 


Rise, 2{{^ miles from the Monument 


12 


40 : 






20 


•)() 


()(; 


10 


2. 


Thirty miles from the Monunmet . 


8 






W. 


20 


85 


50 


5 




Hise, 31 miles from the iMonument 


12 


45 


fair 


calm 


20 


7-2 


74 


45 


3. 


Hise, 32 miles from the ]M(mument 


8 




chmdy 


N.K. 


20 


57 


(iO 






Topof hill, 33m.52chs. . 


10 


40 1 




calm 


20 


50 


08 


30 




Bottom of ditto 


10 


45 I 


fair 




20 


i)it 


70 


1 




Bottom of hill, 34 miles 


10 


50 i 






20 


i'ui 


(iO 






Top of ditto 


11 








2it 


40 


74 


40 



.\t 



-I 



» Id 

I 



m 



m:\v iumnswick. 



f 










Tlnii'. 




DiiroiiK'Icr. 


Tluniiuiii. 


I)ati>. 


riiuuiit'Oliiijivnllon. 






WtHllllT. 


ii'i_.i 






II. 


.M. 

1!) 


s. 


liu'h. 


Thou. 


1). 


M. 
40 


Sept. ;J.T..|. of till' hill 


fair 


calm 29 


30 


TT 


. . liottiiin of ditto 


12 


:<o 






29 


01 


74 


50 




N'ortii Hide uf the river, Hd iiiilet 


12 


no 




cloudy 


29 
29 


7I» 


7(1 
■a 


:io 

30 


. . piliiii. ;'i2clis. *i(>IkH, (K'sct'iit . 


*i 








.. 29 


4:. 


71 


30 


4.('iiih|) .... 


7 








. . 29 


M 


(II 


30 


.. Misc, ;j7mi. U/clis. rioikx. . 


11 


4.") 




clear 


29 


.'lO 


72 


30 


ri.<('aiii|), .'Ulin. [iUcliN. 


!» 


"i 




rain 


29 


(to 


(l'> 


30 


fl.! 


7 


-If) 




cloudy 


29 


79 


r>7 


30 


7- Forty-oiio iiiili'8 (Jiiini) 


11 






fair 


29 


92 


r>\) 




. . I'l'op of 11 ri(lj{t! 


11 


If. 




, , 


29 


94 


.'i9 


30 


H.Ciiiiip north of the river 


(i 


1.-. 






29 


9(1 


00 


30 




Top of ll ridp- 


(i 


20 






29 


93 


41 


30 




At a siniill creek 


7 


If. 






N. 29 


92 


40 






On a rise .... 


7 


10 






29 


7^1 


M 






Ditto .... 


7 


r>o 






29 


7-2 


')0 






Top of a hill 


>l 








29 


71 


-.1 


25 




Hottoiii of ditto 


K 


in 






29 


(i(i 


:.2 


20 




To)) of a hill 


« 


:)o 






N.K. 2!l 


•'? 


:.4 






Top of the mount . 


H 


40 






29 


.irf 


.'i4 






Hottoni of ditto 


SI 








29 


r>7 


.'-.(> 


30 


. . iMottoni (if a liill 


<l 


k; 






\. 29 


.■)4 


••7 


10 




'I'op of ditto 


10 


;«) 






29 


r.o 


(iO 






Mottom of a hill 


1(1 


4.» 








29 


9(i 


04 


10 




Creek ditto 


11 










29 


»7 


07 


40 


l((.|I.H»i. 2()ciis. from the nionunu'iit 


7 


4(; 




cloudy 


s. 


29 


09 


01 


50 




Top of a ridge 


H 


17 




fair ■ 


S.K. 


29 ' 01 


01 


30 




Ditto .... 





•Ml 






N. 


29 • 31 


03 






Bottom of a hill 


10 


1!) 








29 42 


0.'. 


20 


• • 


Ditto .... 


10 


:)2 






N.W. 


29 


37 


Of) 


35 




Top of a hill 


11 








N.K. 


29 


3.'-. 


or) 


40 




Ditto .... 


11 


9 








29 


32 


(iO 






Top of the rise 


11 


40 








29 


32 


00 


10 




Hottom of ditto, a creek 


12 


:) 








29 


42 


05 






'J'opofahill 


12 


11 






K. 


29 


37 


05 


30 




Bottom of a hill 


12 


39 




cloudy 
rain 


S. 


29 


37 


05 


30 


' 


Top of ditto 


1 






S.W, 


29 


37 


05 


10 




Bottom of ditto 


1 


19 






, ^ 


29 


43 


fi7 




ll". 


Fortv-nine miles from the monument 


n 


27 




fair 


N. 


29 


02 


55 


40 




Bottom of a hill 


11 


l(i 








29 


()2 


00 


30 


. 


Top of a hill 


11 


2". 








29 


'iO 


04 






Descent .... 


11 


30 








2!) 


44 


01 


30 


1 


Top of an ascent 


12 


43 






.. 


29 


4i\ 


04 


10 




S\\ am > . . . . 


•^ 


41 








29 


r>7 


03 


30 




Top of liill .... 


3 


.•)0 




,. 




29 


r.i 


04 




12. 


Bottom .... 




4H 




sultry 


S. 


29 


40 


61 


30 




Top .... 


H 






, , 


SK. 


29 


31 


05 


15 




Bottom .... 


i\ 


22 




, , 




29 


42 


00 


25 




Top .... 


H 


4r, 








29 


40 


00 


40 




Bottom .... 





17 




, , 


, , 


29 


48 


03 






Top .... 


11 


47 




, . 


, , 


29 


r.3 


(i7 




, 


Bottom .... 


12 








, , 


29 


(!.•» 


(i7 


.30 




To]) .... 


2 











29 (if) 


74 


.30 



mi;ti:()|{|c notiis on riii: ui:sri:i{N uoindauv. 



})y 



Dui.. 


I'lni'u iif ( )biii'rvutliiii. 


Tim*. 




Wlna. 


Iliinmitur. 


Thirniimi . 


11. 


.M. 


1 


Ini'li. 


I'liini. 


II. 


.M. 


Hqit. li! 


T.,|, . . . . 1 


a 


13 


1 


iiultry. 


H.K. 


21 » 


.'.It 


71 




, , 


Ditl.i 






3 


47 1 


• ■ 


, , 


2!> 


lit 


?i 


30 


J , 


Hi>ttom 






4 


l!2 






H. 


20 


ii 


00 


3(1 ; 


13, 


(.11111) 






7 






cloudy- 


, , 


20 


11 


47 


:> 


, , 


Hise 






7 


Kl 




fair 


N.K. 


20 


07 


41 


40 


^ , 


Tup (if liill , 






7 


3'i 






N.W. 


20 


.Vl 


43 


30 i 


^ ^ 


Dottoin uf ditto 




, 7 


•|«l 






, , 


21 1 


"1 


43 


4.*. ' 


, , 


Top 




1(( 






' . 


, , 


20 


70 


40 


2:» i 




Ditto 






1 


20 






Ntronu 


20 


112 


•"'i 


30 ' 


14. 


nJNtook Caiiii) 






12 








X.W. ' 


:«(» 


20 


■|'» 


:to 


15. 


On tliL> line 




a 


4:> 




elenr 


calm 


30 


20 


02 




, , 


. . 




4 


7 




H.U'. 


20 


It:. 


02 


.'-lO 


10. 


On till' lino 






l» 


10 


cloudy 


H K. 


20 


i(0 


(12 


JO 


, . 


• • . . * 






111 


i:. 




calm 


20 


7i'» 


03 




, . 


At the niinp 






r. 








20 


•'•7 


70 


1 


17 


Top of the Mioinitain 






10 


iri 






H.H.K. 


20 


3-. 


71 


1 


, , 


liottiiin of ditto 






10 


ir. 




f • 


^ ^ 


20 


47 


70 


"lO 


, , 


Ditto 






1 


:. 






calm 


20 


4.-) 


70 ; -lO 


^ , 


Ditto 






3 


10 




clear 




20 


r.o 


07 


, , 


.Vt ciiinp 






3 


i(» 




dondy 




20 


i'i7 


07 1 


u\. 


On the line 
Hdttiini ofa inoiintiiin 
To|i of nionntuin 
Itottoni of a mountain 
On the line 






5) 
11 
11 

1 
1 


13 
30 
37 

lit 

23 




* 


8.H.K. 


20 

20 
20 
20 
20 


40 
.3.') 

no 

37 
4:. 


(iO 
01 
(II 
(12 
02 


1 


\\). 


Camp 






m 
i 






clear 


calm 


21 » 


2il 


"lit 






Line 




12 








N.W. 


20 


(>.■> 


02 




, , 


Ditto 






3 


1-) 




... 


20 


70 


00 




, . 


Camp 






T) 


fiO 




. 




20 


70 


00 




2(». 


Ditto 






({ 


11 




.. 


calm 


20 


"I'l 


04 




, , 


Ditto 






3 


2.-) 




, , 


S.U-. 


2i) 


•.3 


03 




, , 


Top of liill . 






3 


30 




, . 




20 


44 


JO 




, , 


• • • • • 






10 


11 






calm. 


20 


411 


04 




. . 


• • • • 






10 


lit 






s.w. 


20 


i'l i'l 


03 


30 


21 


70 miles 32 cliains, at foot }. 
Nearly ri.se of the hill 


'rent risi 




7 
7 


27 
37 


A.M. 


cloudy 


•• 


20 
20 


:i3 

43 


40 
4(i 




, , 


Top of the hill 






7 


13 








20 


30 


4-. 


30 


, , 


Still rising 






it 


]() 








20 


3it 


4-| 


30 


, , 


Hiffher land cast 






;i 


23 








20 


:ti; 


4(i 






Supposed top of hill 






it 




30 
1") 






•• 


20 

20 


34 

:t(i 


44 

40 


.33 


^ 


Gradual descent 






!) 


27 








20 


3(t 


4(i 






Ditto 






10 










20 


37 


4(1 




• • 


• • • . • 






ii 


3 






, , 


20 


41t 


47 




, , 


• > • • • 






12 


4". 


P. iM 






20 


.-)2 


JO 




•• 









3 
3 


25 
3,-. 






•• 


20 
20 


40 
4.-) 


r.i 




. . Tdj) of liill, near brook 






3 


4.-. 








20 


4(i 


4i} 




. . At l)rook . 






;') 


r» 








20 


'>: 


4lt 




22 


Top of hill before brook 
















20 


.'to 


4r) 


20 


23 


Hottom ditto 
















20 


44 


.'■)0 1 30 


Oct. 1 


Top of ri.se 






n 


r.o 




clear 


N.W. 


20 


23 


' 3(1 ! 




Bottom 






10 


If. 








20 


34 


! 3ii i 



o SI 



^ 



m 



■ [It 



ffil 



■^if 



:^i 



«!!f 



M 



i 



\y'« 



I 

Iti- 



100 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



Dutc. 


Place of Observation. 




Time. 


Wcnllicr. 


M'inil. 


liaronicter. 


TlKTiiioin. 


II. 


M. 


.s. 


Inch. 


Thou. 
24 


1). 


M, 


Oct. 1. 


Ciinil) .... 


1 


40 




clear 


\.w. 


2!) 


52 




2. 


Ditto 






7 


4.-. 




calm 


20 


2» 


20 




, , 


Top 






11 


.'10 i 




N. 


20 


l(i 


54 




. , 


Rottiim 






12 


40 








20 


15 


55 




M. 


Camp 
Ditto 






it 



7 




•• 


calm 

N.W. 


20 
20 


17 
17 


51 
51 




'4. 


Ditto 






H 


r. 






culm 


20 


17 


;{2 




. 


Top of hill 






11 


7 






N.W. 


20 


20 


51 




5. 


Camp 

Top of hill . 

Bottom 

Descending 

('amp 






H 

12 

2 


7 
la 

7 
10 




dondy 
clear 


calm 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


10 
15 
17 

i:? 

11! 


50 

r.7 

(iO 
58 

;'>7 




'a. 


^\'agansis . 

On the line 

At the Grand River 

Top of hill 

Bottom 






10 
!) 
!) 

;? 

4 


ir. 

10 




clondy 


:: 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


21 

17 

;«) 

11 


5(i 
44 
45 
5(i 
Hit 


15 


7. 


Ditto 






7 


4". 






S E. 


2« 


»i 


•>7 




, , 


Top 






« 


40 




rain 




28 


78 


5H 




" • 


Ascending . 

Ditto 
Top 






!) 
!) 


10 
.10 
40 




• . 




2H 
2» 
2H 


80 
82 
87 


54 
5a 




'«. 


Camp 






!) 


4r> 




clear 


N.W. 


2» 


80 


48 




, , 


loj) 




10 


30 








2« 


7n 


44 




, . 


Descending 




12 


40 




.. 


.. 


2!! 


8:{ 


40 






Top 




12 


r.7 








2t! 


85 


52 






Ascending . 






1 


17 






J , 


2H 


v;.\ 


52 




1 


Ditto 






.•? 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


15 
:«) 

40 

55 

5 

7 
12 
20 

2!) 




snow 


• • 


2« 
2ff 
2« 
2» 
2« 
2» 
20 
20 
20 


82 

87 
80 

7(i 
85 
01 

.'■• 
15 

18 


45 
4(i 
45 

■i:\ 

4H 
4:) 
44 
45 
4(i 




!>. 


Wagansis . 






n 


10 




cloudy 


calm 


20 


21 


32 






.. 






<) 








N.W. 


20 




4:3 





The foregoing tahle is extracted from the field hook of our ojierations as surveyor-general 
of the houndary under the treaty of Ghent, and it is inserted here with a view merely of showing 
the general state of the l)arometer and thermometer at the season of ohservation on that frontier 
of the province of New Brunswick, and not as a systematic scries of remarks to ascertain heights, 
although taken with Ingletield's mountain barometer, which was used by us for that purpose 
upon tliat service. 



ClENliRAL FyVCE OF THE COUNTRY. 



101 



On the opposite side of the St. John,iit tlie distaiioe of nine miles, is 
Moose nionntain, nearly of the same height as Mars Hill; on the rii^ht 
lies the American plantationof Houlton, on the left thellestook ran<^eof 
mountains, and behind lie the lofty Katahdin and its subsidiary heiohts, 
stretching- in the direction of the Penobscot. Mars Hill is a very conspi- 
cuous height from all the eminences in this vicinity. 

In common with every portion of those regions, the province en- 
joys that grand advantage and distinguishing feature, abundant irri- 
gation and water connnimication ; not a section of it but is traversed 
and intersected by almost innumerable streams, whilst the greater rivers 
form accessible channels of intercourse from its heart to its extremi- 
ties, and into the interior of the adjacent provinces ; and bounded almost 
on two-thirds of its circiunference by the ocean, it invites the com- 
merce of the Avorld. X'^ast plains, princi])ally covered by immense forests 
of timber trees, forming in the early stages of colonization an im])()rtant 
article of commerce, and indicating the richness and fertility of the soil, 
occupy the intervals between the scattered settlements; whilst the pros- 
perous and flourishing a])pearance of the latter seem prodigal induce- 
ments to colonists to occupy the tracts of valuable land courting their 
acceptance. 

The general face of the country may be described as composed of 
bold undulations, sometimes swelling into the height of nu)untains, and 
again subsiding to vale and lowlands, principally covered by noble forests. 
not so dense as to be inaccessible, diversified by occasional swamps, and 
tracts of level, settled, and cultivated country. The banks of the larger 
rivers for the most part disclose a country of the latter description, though 
in some places they are enclosed by lofty and precipitous rocks ; whilst 
the abundance of inferior streams produces frequent slips or spaces of 
what is termed interval, which, overflowed by these during the wet 
season, become, at stated intervals, distinguished by extreme fertility. 
The borders of the rivers and the islets with which they abound furnishing 
extensive tracts of pasture, and flourishing crops of Indian and European 
corn, attest on multitudinous chosen spots the diligence of the husband- 
man, the general adaptation of the soil to the most j)rofitable uses of 
agriculture. 



A' 



I'Mi,. 



M^ 


m 


||; 






m ■ ii 



is- 



lilt 






1!| 



lO'i 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



As this province formed part of Nova Scotia up to a comparatively 
recent period, it is useless in this place to trace its history from an earlier 
date. It formed part of the territory granted by the charter of James I. 
to Sir \Villiam Alexander, and shared in all the vicissitudes of that pos- 
session, ■which have been noticed elsewhere, till 1784, when it was de- 
clared a separate province. In 1785, a separate constitutional charter 
was granted to New Urunswick, describing its limits, and Major-(ieneral 
Carleton was the first governor appointed. At this time the country 
was very tiiinly settled ; its population being composed of merely a few 
French Acadians, who had clmig to the soil through every difficulty and 
change of government, and some straggling settlers, whom the profits of 
the timber and fish trade had attracted from the New England States. 
Governor Carleton was invested with authority to locate the disbanded 
soldiers of the American Avar, and also the loyalists who had sacrificed to 
tlieir fealty their former possessions ; these laid the foundation of the pre- 
sent most advanced settlements. The strenuous efforts made by the first 
succeeding governors to improve the province, and the advantages held 
out by the timber trade, have, from time to time, drawn emigrants from 
Europe and America, which, together with the natural increase, have 
swelled the jjopulation to its present amount — large, indeed, as respects 
the extent of cultivated territory and its capabilities, but astonishing 
when we consider how few years back the entire province was but a 
vast unpeopled forest. 

The following table will show the divisions and subdivisions of the 
province : — 



Coiintici 



York 



Parishes. 

■ Kt'iit. 
\\'ukeficl(l. 
Woodstock. 
Xortlianipton. 
Prince William. 
Qut'L'iisbury. 
King's Clear. 
St. Mary's. 
Douglas. 
Fredcricton. 



Counties. 



SuNBunv 



Queen's County 



Paris/ies. 

f Lincoln. 
IJurton. 
iMagerville. 
Slifffield. 

' (Jagc Town. 

Ilanipstcad. 

•^ Watorborough . 

Wickliam. 

Brunswick. 



DIVISIONS— RIVER ST. JOHN'S. 



1():j 



Counties, 



King's County 



St. John 



Chaklotte 



NonXHUMBERLAND 



Parishes. 

WfStfifld. 

Circeinvicli. 

Kinipton. 

Spriiigtielil. 

Xortdii. 

Sussex. 
^ Huniptou. 
' St. Joliii, city. 

Portland. 
' Lancaster. 
^ St. IMartin's. 

St. James. 

St. Andrew's. 

St. Patrick. 

St. David's. 
<{ St. Steplien. 

Pcanfield. 

St. George. 

Cainpo Bello. 

Grand ^lanan — Id. 

Northesk. 

Alnwick. 

Newcastle. 



Counties. 



NoilTIIU.MBKllI.ANl) 



Westmoheland 



Gloucester 



Kent 



Panshes. 

fCluitliani. 
) (ilcneig. 
I Lndlow. 
L Nelson. 
'■Westmoreland. 

Sackville. 

Moiikton. 

Hopewell. 

Dorchester. 

Ilillsborougli. 

Salisbury. 
, IJotsford. 

Kldou 

Addington. 

Heresford. 

Hathurst. 

Saumarez. 

C'arleton. 

Harcourt. 

iluskisson. 

Dnndas. 

Wellington. 

Liverpool. 



As the principal settleincnt.s of this province are on the banks oftlie 
great rivers, and as, of these, the St. Jolni's in every respect chiinis tht> 
pre-eminence, we shall, in our further account, trace tlie course of this 
river, noticing in succession the counties through which it flows, the 
towns, villages, and settlements on its banks, with all the otlier pai-- 
ticulars of such counties as claim attention, and afterwards proceed to 
describe every other noticeable feature of the province, and the ])arts )iot 
com])rised in our view of this most important tract. 

This river intersects the province in or near latitude 47" north, and 
winds through it in something like a regular semicircle of about 220 miles 
in length, falling into the liay of Fundy, in lat. 45" 20' north. Its source 
is in the same chain of highlands as that of the Connecticut, in ])arallel 
of latitude not far north of the latitude of its estuary, Avhence it stretches 
northward beyond the forty-seventh degree, and then descending in a 



iii 



• ■!( 



if 






% 



m 



i 



If' 






I III 



8 



It 



'if 



104 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



south-ciistcrly direction, traversing New Brunswick, and performing a total 
length of course exceeding 350 miles. 

Hcginning then at the north-western extremity of the province, 
where it is entered by this river, on the line prescribed by the British 
commissioners, and near the point where it receives the waters of the 
JNIadawaska, the first settlement we meet with is that of JMadawaska, in 
tlic county of York. 

This county is bounded on the north by the river Ristigouche, on 
the south by Charlotte county, on the east by the co\inty of Northum- 
berland, south-east by the county of Sunbury, and on the west by the 
j)rovince of Maine, from the source of the St. Croix to Mars-hill, on a 
due north line, and thence by the division line between this province and 
Lower Canada. It extends on both sides of the river St. John, to the 
boundary of Sunbury county, two miles below Frederickton, the shire 
town, and also the capital of the province. 

The Madawaska settlement is chiefly composed of French Acadians, 
formerly settled in the neighbourhood of Frederickton, whither they had 
been located by the British Government ; but the tenure of their lands 
being little better than sufferance, when it became desirable to locate 
the American loyalists and the disbanded soldiers of the American war, 
they wei'e dispossessed by the government of Nova Scotia ; and after 
the separation of the provinces, invested by the government of New 
Brunswick with the lands they now hold at Madawaska, as a compensa- 
tion. This settlement, though considered within the boundary of Lower 
Canada, has always been subject to the jurisdiction of the government 
of New Brunsw^ick, being contiguous to the latter province, whilst it Avas, 
till lately, se})aratcd by an almost impenetrable barrier of wilderness from 
the former. The land on both sides of the river hei'e is exceedingly 
fertile, and well adapted to the growth of wheat, which is assiduously 
cultivated by the inhabitants, who, after grinding it into flour, send con- 
siderable (quantities to the market of Frederickton, where it meets with 
a ready sale, at an abundantly remunerating price. 

Continuing its south-easterly course, the St. John's receives, a few 
miles below this settlement, the waters of the Grand River, which flows 
from the northerii extremitv of the countv of York ; and at the distance 



m 

fJiifel 



"^1 



m 




\ 



\ 






X 



N 



\ 



CiUKAT FALLS— RIVER ST. JOHN. 



10.5 



of about forty miles below tins settlement arc the (irand Falls. A 
sudden tiuni of tlie river, forming" a little bay a few rods above the 
cataraet, offers a safe and connnodious landing-plaee for boats; inunedi- 
ately below tliis the river rushes with great fury over a rocky bed, till 
it is suddenly narrowed by the j)rojection of the rocks ; from tlie 
western side it rolls with irresistible impetuosity over their ledges, and 
is precipitated in a perpendicular line forty-five feet into a narrow basin 
of pointed rocks, amidst which it foams and rages till it escapes thrt)ugh 
a narrow rocky channel, over a series of declivities half a mile in con- 
tinuance, enclosed on each side by craggy cliffs, overhanging its course. 
and almost completely intercei)ting the view. IJelow tlie whole series 
of cascades is another small bay, in which are collected such timbers as 
have been committed to the falls ; for though the trees are sometimes 
ground to powder in the whirling abyss, or are sometimes tapered to a 
point, and fre(juently broken, yet the great saving of labour induces 
many to incur this risk, rather than drag their weighty conunodities 
over a distance of 100 rods of hilly portage. This bay is the station a\ here 
all boats proceeding up the river stop and commence the portage. From 
St. John's to this ])lace Hat-bottomed boats of twenty tons burden 
ascend, but above the falls no craft larger than canoes is used. A mile 
below this landing-place connnences a succession of rapids, whirling in a 
narrow bed amidst craggy rocks. 

The river then takes a course, with some involutions, nearly due 
south, bounded on either side by precipitous eminences or dense forests, 
whose solemn gloom has not yet been cheered by the busy hand of man. 
Here is an abundant and inviting field for new settlements to an immense 
extent ; for whilst the growth of timber proves the fertility of the land, 
the vicinity of the iver affords a ready intercourse with the ca])ital of 
the province, and the situation being on the direct road from St. Jolms 
to Quebec renders a constant communication through it inevitable — 
advantages which are constantly attracting new settlers, and hence tending 
to a rapidly progressive amelioration. 

About ten miles below the falls, on the eastern side, is the mouth 
of the Salmon River, and twenty miles lower still that of the Tobique 
River, which extending by a chain of lakes and inferior streams from 

VOL. II. p 



;i 



^t 



a (■ 



I 

m 



F'i; 



lOf) 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



the imniediute nci<>libourlu)od of tlie source of the soiitli-wcst branch of 
the Miramiclii, to which there is ii portage, constitutes a connuunication 
entirely across tlie breadth of the province from west to east, frou) the 
St. .lohn's to the Gulf of St. I^awrence. The whole of the banks of this 
river are composed of <?ood land, producing great cjuantities of the red 
pine, and affording line slips of interval, whilst the islets in the river 
are most favourable for agriculture. A little above the mouth of the 
Tobi(|ue, on the o])posite or Avestern side, the St. John's receives the 
waters of the llistook or Aroostook River, flowing from the interior 
of the state of Maine. The whole course of this river is considered 
to fall within the United States; there are, nevertheless, many IJritish 
settlers on its banks, who are not restrained by this consideration 
from felling the timber. Hence the St. John, pursuing the same 
southerly course, is entered on the same side by the lliver des Chutes, 
and continuing the same direction to the point where it receives 
the Presqu'isle, on the same side the stream, winds through a chain of 
highlands, well settled on both sides by the disbanded soldiers of the 8th, 
98th, and 104th regiments of the \Vest India rangers and New IJrunswick 
fencibles, and exhibiting every appearance of good cultivation and pros- 
perity. Near the confluence of these rivers, on the western side of the 
St. John's, and on the south of tlie Presqu'isle, is a military post, situated 
on an elevated plain, and commanding an extensive view of the adjacent 
country. The settlements on the St. John's to this point constitute 
the recently erected parish of Kent, so called in compliment to His late 
Royal Highness the duke of Kent. 

W^e have now entered the parish of Wakefield, which extends on 
both sides of the river in a southerly direction from the Presqu'isle to the 
adjoining parishes of Northampton on the east and Woodstock on the 
western side of tbe river. AVakefield settlement was originally begun 
by a few individuals who had drawn bad lots in the parishes below, and 
were tempted by the superior quality of the soil to move further up ; the 
military post at the Grand Falls above them, and that at Presqu'isle, 
securing them from all dread of interruption by the Indians. They were 
considerably reinforced by a number of the non-commissioned officers 
and privates of the late New Brunswick regiments when those cor|)s were 




COUNTY OF YORK— WOODSTOCK— XORTIIAMPTOX. 10? 

disbaiulod, and wlio wore induced to prefer this loeation with a view to 
rendering the main route to Canada more easy and safe. The settlement 
generally, and especially those parts neares' ''e river, is in a very tolerable 
state of cultivation, which is rajiidly extenuing towards the interior. 

We now reach Woodstock on the western hank. At the ujjper or 
north-westerly extremity of this settlement, the Meduxnikea"^- lliver 
empties itself into the St. John's, at the distance of about fifty miles from 
Frederickton. This is a broad rapid river Howing in almost inmmierable 
branches through the woody highlands, which form part of the disputed 
territory. It is here that the more grand and sublime features of the scenery 
of the St. John soften into the beautiful and the picturescpie. The towering 
and abrupt eminences, the precii)itous crags, the darksome and unjiene- 
trated forests here open into smiling plains and cultivated farms ; and 
the numerous beauties which nature has lavished on the scene, heightened 
by the hand of art, enrich the landscape with the cheering prospect of 
human comfort and prosperity. The land on both sides of the river is 
here well cultivated, whilst the numerous islands that stud its surface 
yield large quantities of hay. From this place to St. John's the river is 
navigable for rafts of all kinds of tind)er, here produced in almost inex- 
haustible profusion ; and though the rapids may occasion some little 
addition to the labour, they offer no danger either to rafts or boats going 
down to the sea. The lands of this settlement are throusihout excellent ; 
they extend about thirty miles on the western bank of the river to Queens- 
bury, and are traversed about the centre by the Eel Hiver : the settle- 
ment is provided with a handsome church. 

Although the present settlements are principally confined to the 
banks of the river — a situation invariably chosen by early settlers — they 
comprise a vast extent of country stretching westward and northward to 
the American line, the whole of which has been ascertained by explorers, 
as well from the quality of the timber it produces, as from other circum- 
stances, to be equal in quality of soil to that already cultivated. The 
woods are open and easily traversable. 

The parish of Woodstock, as well as the opposite one of Northamj)- 
ton, was established upon what were termed the upper blocks of land, 
laid out after the last American war for the officers and men of the 

r 2 



i 



!i 



T 

I 

I 



I 



t 



i! ! 



ion 



NEW lUU'XSWK K. 



(lisbiiiuli'd provincial rt><j;iim'nts; but few of those to whom lots in a situ- 
ation so remote devolved felt inelined to take jjossession of thei i. The 
establishment of the upper j)osts, however, having- removed al. a])pre- 
hension of injury or depredation from the Indians, the settlers proceeded 
with a degree of alacrity which has been abundantly rewarded; and this 
district, which some years back was so wild and solitary as to be dreaded 
by travellers between New Hrunswick and Canada, now affords conve- 
nient acconnnodatioji, and exhibits a scene of industry and cheerfulness. 
On the opposite shore is the ])arish of Northam])ton, to which most of the 
preceding remarks will apply: in produce and fertility it is similar to 
Woodstock, was similarly settled, and enjoys the same advantages. 

The next ])arish to Woodstock on the northern bank of the St. .lohn's, 
which from the Meductic rapids, between the parishes of AN'oodstock 
and Xorthampton, takes ajj easterly course, is I'rince William. In this 
parish the land does not boast the same agricultural advantages that are 
met Avith in others, inson:uch that the odicers and men of the Kmg's 
American dragoons, who were the original settlers, after making some 
considerable efforts to reclaim it, abandoned the attempt. It is wrong, 
however, to decide prematurely on the ca])abilities of soil; some of 
the most industrious and persevering, who chose to remain, have suc- 
ceeded in ))roducing tolerably good farms. The settlements here extend 
backwards to the Lake St. (ieorge, on the margin of which .ire several 
flourishing establishments. From this lake the river I'ockuock discharges 
itself into the St. John's over a trcmeiuhms fall occasioned by the rocks 
aiul precipices that hem it in and narrow its channel. 

On the o])positc side of the river we find the ])arish of Qucensburj', 
originally laid out for tlie Queen's Rangers, who have made so good a use 
of their advantages as to raise considerably more grain than they can 
consume ; they have also erected many mills, and made meritorious 
exertions in clearing roads through their settlement. 

Adjoining Queensbury, in pursuing the easterly course of the river 
on the southern bank, is King's Clear, which extends to the parish of 
Frederickton. It was first settled by the second battalion of New Jersey 
volunteers, many of whoni still remain, and its vicinity to Frederickton 
has induced a number of gentlemen to settle in it. The front lots are 



ST. MAUV'S— l)()r(;LAK^ f^RF.')l.l{in TON. 



almost imivorsally umU'i- cultivation, '^notlicr :i ;iiit;ii,'r 'ii^oycd l> 
tills ))arlsli and that on tlio opposite hank of thr \> r. ■■ li mdcfd » 
shart'd hy tlir parisht's hcCoiv dfscrihi'd, is the multitude > inIuijUs h «il 
strips of intiTval* with which the river ahounds. The u i >le «)f tin • 
l)eini»" annually overflowed hy the river produce rich crops of |j,i,iss h| 



Ind 



lan corn. 



riie principal islands are St. Anne's, Sava^v, and S 



uii'ar. 



At the foot of Sava{;e Island, ahout six or seven miles ahove Frederick- 
ton, are the last ra|)ids in our course towards the sea. 

()p])osite to Kin^'sClear and Frederickton.on the north hank of the 
river, extendinj;" from the houndary of Sunhury County to that of the 



sh of V 



Willi 



St. Ml 



divided into two 



sh 



s, now cuviuea mto rwo pansnes. 
one of which is named Dou<''las (in honour of the late licutenant- 
^ovcnior),t which extends northward to the houndary of Xortlunuher- 
land and the source of the south-west or main hranch of the ^liramichi. 
It is traversed by two considerable rivers, the Madandveswick and 
the Xashwak, which latter connnunicates by a portage with the Mira- 
michi, thus affording" an outlet into the Ciulf of St. I^awrence. On 
the banks of the first river is the settlement of the York volunteers, 
and on the latter that of the forty-second re|;iment. The whole space 
between these two rivers is thickly settled and well cultivated; nor are 
the settlements confined to the front lots on the St. John's — they extend 
up both sides of the Nashwak to a distance of thirty miles, and boast a 
([uality of soil c(jual to any in the ])rovince. There is also a settlement 
called Cardigan, in the rear of those on the Nashwacksis, formed by a 
nuinber of families from the place of the same name in Wales, located 
by government in 1819. Though the navigation of the Xashwak is 
considerably interrupted by shoals and rapids, the inconvenience is 
compensated by a good road, running parallel with the river, to the 
])ortage before mentioned. 



:l>il' 



* As tin's is ii word constiintly occiirriiiji in tlicso iU'scriptii)iis, it iiiiiy lio us well to explain 
tiic sensL' in which it is usnally useil. It aj)[)lies to land sd situated \\ itli respect to some iut- 
jacent stream or streams as to be occasionally overHowcd by them, and thus to enjoy the ad- 
vantajre of alluvial deposits, 

t General iSir Howard Douglas, Bart. This distinguished olHcer has done much for the 
province over the administration of which he was a]>pointed to preside ; and wo note with satis- 
faction the nomination of an equally distinguished general otlicer, Sir Archibald Canii)bell, as 
his successor in that government. 



110 



M-w nidNswicK. 



.1 



( ; 



,; 



Wo liave MOW arrived at Fri'dfricktou, the sent of |rovcrnmcnt and 
capital ol" tlie ])roviiUT, situated on the west side of the river, whieli 
a^aiii takes a more southerly direction, in latitude +.5" 57' north, ()() 4()' 
lon}j,itudi' west, and ei/^hty-tiM' miles distant fr«)ni the sea-eoast at St. 
.It)hn's. The situati«)n of the town is pceuliarly fav(tural)h', heinj; on a 
flat fronting the river, which is here three-cjuarters of a mile wide, and, 
making an elhow, encloses the town on two sides, whilst on the land 
side the plain is likewise enclosed by a chain of hills, iuid opposite to it 
the Nashwak rolls its hroad stream into the St. .lohn's. To this point the 
river is navi<;al)le for vessels of fifty tons, and the town hence becomes the 
chief entrejjot of commerce with the interior, receiving and distributiufr 
large cpiantities of Hritish merchandise, whilst the tind)er and hnnber 
from the upjjor district are here collected before they are floated down 
to St.. lohn's for exportation. The town is laid out in blocks of a ([uarter 
of an acre scpiare, of which there are eighteen. The streets are disposed 
rectangularly, some of them being a mile in length, and for the most 
part continuously built, though the houses arc chiefly of wood and of 
very irregular heights. The public buildings consist of the province 
hall, where the Provincial Assend)ly and Courts of .lustice assenible; the 
ottices of the surveyor-general and secretary of the })rovince; the barracks, 
with adjacent storehouses; the county eoiu't-house, which is also the 
market: one church; three chapels for ba])tists,niethodists, and catholics; 
a gaol ; and a meeting-house of the kirk of Scotland. To these have 
recently been added a handsome college, of Avhich we have given a view. 
The government house is a handsome building of three stories, with one 
ving and a circular stone portico ; it is situated in a ))leasant park, at 
the upper end of the town, and near the banks of the river; but though 
a creditable and comfortable building, it hardly comports with the 
resources and consecpience of the colony, and will most likely be soon 
superseded by something still more worthy His Majesty's rej)resentative 
in that flourishing province. The accompanying correct view% for which, 
as well as for other views in New Urunswick, Ave are indebted to the 
politeness of an accomplished young lady, will give a bei er idea of its 
pretensions than any description of ours could do. The public institutions 
of Frederickton are a public library, a savings' bank, the Frederickton 
Emigrant Society, the New Brunswick Agricultural and Emigrant Society, 



COINTY or VOUK-POPrLATION— COl iNTV SlNHrRY. Ill 

u branch of the Society for proniotiiif)- Christian Knowlcdfro, tlie Bible 
Association of the city und its vicinity, and a branch of the Methodist 
jMissionary Society. 

The town is surroiuidcd by a level plot of lowland extendinjr over 
a surface of about four miles by two, on the sides not innnediately bor- 
derint;' upon the river. It was founded by SirGuy Carleton in ITS."), shortly 
after the erection of New Hrunswick into a se[)arate province. It forms an 
admirable central depot for military stores, being eighty-tive miles from 
St. John's, ninety from St. iVndrew's, about as distant from Northiunber- 
land, l^O west of Fort Cumberland in Westmoreland, and from the upper 
settlement at JNIadawaska, about the same distance. 

Tiiis concludes our account of the county of York, tlie ])opidation of 
which by the last returns was as follows : 



Parishes and Settlements. 

IMailawiiska to the Great Falls 

Kent 

Wiikefii-hl 

Woodstock 

Nortlr.inipton 

Prince William 

Queensbury 

King's Clear 

St. Mary's 

Frederiekton 



Total Amount of Men, IVomen, and Children in 1824. 

22S)7 

2t>!)7 

1010 

HKi 

r>m 

iA', 

710 

!)72 
1H49 

n,!)02 



The content of the county is estimated at 7,S48 superficial statute 
miles, and it returns four members to the Cieneral iVssembly. 

Next in our ])roj;Tess down the St. John's, whicli from Frederiekton 
assumes a south-easterly direction, occurs the comity of Sunbiuy, lying 
on both sides of the river, bounded on the north-west by the county of 
York, north and north-east by that of Northumberland, south by Char- 
lotte County, and south-east by Queen's County. It contains four parishes 
— jNIageeville and Sheffield on the north-east, and Lincoln and Burton on 
the south-west side of the river. The two first may ])crha])s bo deemed 
the most productive tracts of the province. They are subject to the 



I t-i 




\''M 



112 



NF-:w r.iu'xswicK. 



r 



same inconvenience that we have ah-eady noticed as incidental to the 
islands in the St. John's, viz. of heing ainiually overflowed; bnt the con- 
se(juence of this irrigation is so ahnndant a fertility as indnces settlers to 
give it an eager preference. It is impossible to conceive a scene more 
luxnriant than these tracts exhibit in the season of harvest. Scarce! v an 
iniimprovcd spot is to be found on either bank of the river for twenty 
miles below Frederickton, the whole of which tract is connected by a good 
carriage road. These parishes lun o also the advantage of a string of islets 
in their front, productive as their own lands — more so it is scarcely ])os- 
sible they should be ; and in their rear lie two lakes, the Magnapit and 
the French Lake, both abounding with tish. Magecville ])ossesses a 
church with a resident pastor; and in Sheflield are two meeting-houses, 
each having a domiciled minister. 

On the o])posite or south-westerly side of the river lie the settle- 
ments or parishes of Lincoln and Burton, separated by the Oromocto 
River, which flows in a north-westerly course from the lake of tie same 
name, in the rear of the parish of King's Clear, till it reaches the St. 
John's at this point. IJoth these ])arishes are situated on highlands, with 
valuable sli])s of interval, the whole of which are in a high state of cul- 
tivation, besides considerable tracts of wild meadow, annually overflowed, 
j)roducing an abundance of coarse grass and valuable pasturage foi- cattle. 
The settlements are by no means conflned to the frontage of the St. John's, 
but extend on both sides of the Oromocto to a considerable distance in- 
land. Abuiulance of materials for ship-building are found in the neigh- 
bourhood of this river; several large vessels have been constructed at its 
mouth, and large numbers of masts are annually sent to other parts of 
the country. The soil is also considered favoiu'able to the production of 
flax and hemp. Burton has a church at the mouth of the Oromocto, the 
duty of which is performed by the rector of IMageeville, as also a court- 
house for the county courts. In the middle of the St. John's, opposite 
these parishes, are Oromocto, Middle, INIajor's, and Ox Islands. 

The ctmnty of Sunbury is computed to contain 40,000 acres of pas- 
ture and tillage groimd, and upwards of 20,000 of meadow land. It sends 
two members to the General Assend)ly. Next to Sunbury, and where 
the river again takes a more southerly course, is Queen's County, ex- 
tending on both sides of the river, and bounded on the nortli-we^t by 



QUEEN'S COrXTY— GAZETOWN. 



11:3 



Sunbury, ot the nortli by Xorthuiubcrlaiul, on the north-cast by Kent, 
on the south-cast by King's County, on tl»c south and south-west by 
Charlotte County: it contains four parislies — (Jazetown and IIani])stead 
on the south-east of the river, and W'aterborough and W'ickhani on tlie 
other. Of these, (iazetown is the shire town, for whieli a plat of hmds 
has been appropriated and hiid out on Ciriniross Creek, about half a mile 
from where it communicates with the St. John. It has a handsome 
church with a resident clergyman, a court-house, and a gaol. The creek 
is about thirty or forty rods in width, and extends about three miles from 
the river, where it widens, and forms two lakes several miles in circum- 
ference, affording a secure and excellent harbour during the breaking up 
and running of the ice in winter, having depth of water suflicient for 
vessels of any burden that can navigate the river St. John. Another 
important advantage is its vicinity to the Washedamoak and Cirand 
Ijakes, on the north-cast side of the river, by the former of which a 
communication is afforded to the north-east extremity of the county of 
Westmoreland, thence by the IVtcondiac lliver to Chignecto IJay, or by 
the Shediac to Nortluunberland Straits ; it is also the central station be- 
tween Fredcrickton and St. .lohn. A new ])arish has recently been erected 
in the I'car of AVaterborough and Wickham, called IJrunswick, which 
comprises the settlements on the banks of the Washedamoak lliver. The 
produce of this county is various, comprising wheat, rye, maize, barley, 
oats, beans, flax, potatoes, and other conniion esculent roots and ordinary 
vegetables, all in the highest perfection. It affords abundant sustenance 
to horses, horned cattle, sheep, hogs, poultry, and from the excellence of 
its pasture produces a considerable quantity of butter and cheese. It is 
also believed that hemp might be most successfully cultivated in this 
district on the rich slips of interval and other fertile tracts ; the want of 
persons skilled in the culture of that article, as well as the numerous 
other products offering tempting compensation to the farmer's care, have 
hitherto prevented its being produced in any considerable quantity. 
Timber of every description applicable to ship-building, such as masts, 
spars, &c. are also furnished by the woodlands in large quantities. Several 
ships, brigs, and schooners, have annually, for several years past, been 

VOL. II. (i 



I 



. . ys 



114 



M:\V BRUNSWICK. 



built ill this district, the workmen l)ciii<>' supplied witli provisions by the 
inhiibitants. Fish is also plentifully ])rodueed. 

The Cirand liake, a conspicuous feature of this district, is situated 
in the ])arisli of AN'aterborough ; it is about thirty miles long and three 
miles broad, and its entrance lies at Jemscg, opposite to Ciazetown. At 
this port is a de])ot of provisions for the aeconnnodation of troops passing 
betwixt Frederickton and Fort Cumberland. On this lake and on the 
two creeks, named respectively Coal Creek and Newcastle, both eni})tying 
themselves into its basin, are extensive veins of coal, lying a few feet 
above the level of the w;iter, and running horizontally and parallel thereto ; 
tliev are worked by mines, and considerable (quantities consumed by black- 
smiths and other manufacturers, but they are not found to burn well in 
grates. A little further to the east, and o])posite to I^ong Island, is the 
Washedanioak I^ake, of dimensions nearly equal to the Cirand Lake, and 
like it conmuniicating with the St. John by a narrow water channel, 
navigable at the driest season of the year for such vessels as arc usually 
em]:;loved in the main river. There is a communication between the 
(iraiid Lake, the JNIagnapit Ijake, and French Lake, on the banks of all 
which there are several flourishing settlements. 

At the head of the Grand Lake enters a large stream, called Salmon 
River, flowing in different channels from the neighbourhood of the JNIira- 
michi and llictubuctoo llivers, with both of which there are communi- 
cations by easy portages of from three to seven miles. Rugged as was the 
wilderness on which the settlements of this county were originally made, 
scanty the mniiber of labourers who woidd undertake to reclaim them, 
and ill provided with means as those settlers were, being ])rinci])ally com- 
posed of indigent American loyalists with large families, the number of 
well-cultivated farms, with neat dwelling-houses and well-stocked barns, 
thriving orchards, numerous flocks and herds, and large exports, prove 
not only the patient industry of those who have raised an oasis in the 
desert, but also the fair and fruitful field still open to the cares and 
exertions of others. This county contains about 1,520 square miles, and 
it sends two representatives to the General Assembly. 

Next on the descent of the St. John, the long reach of which takes 



KING'S COUNTY-KINGSTOX— SlSSl'X, kc. 



11.) 



aratlicr westerly direction, -wliilst the IJay of lielle Isle stretelics iij) into 
the country towards tlie north-east, occvu's Kin<^-'s Coiuity, bounded on the 
north-west by Queen's County, on the north-east by Westmoreland, on 
tlie west by Charlotte County, south and south-east by St, John's County. 
It embraces the whole of Belle Isle IJay, the Ion*)- reach of the St. .John. 



and tlu 



le estuary of the Kennebccasis, including;' Long Island and Ken- 
nebecasi-s, and comprises seven parishes — W'estfield, (Jreenwich, King- 
ston, Springfield, Norton, Sussex, and Hampton. The largest of these is 
Kingston, which is quite a peninsula, enclosed by the long reach and Helle 
Isle Bay on the north-west and south-west, and by the Keiuiebecasis 
on the south-east, conununicating Avith the main land only in a north- 
ea.sterly direction, where it adjoins the ])arish of Sussex. In the centre 
of this parish u plat has been laid out for a town, which already can boast a 
handsome church, with a resident minister, a court-house, and a number 
of neat buildings. Kingston docs not enjoy that degree of fertility which 
characterizes some of the neighbouring tracts ; for though almost sur- 
rounded by water, it is not intersected by that abundance of streams which 
produces interval-land. The parishes of Sussex, Norton, and Hampton, 
lying on the north-east side of the river, are better cultivated and more 
productive ; the two former are traversed in their whole length by the 
Kennebccasis. which takes its source amidst the highlands that bound 
Sussex y-d\c, in tie inuuediate neiuhbourhood of the source of the I'et- 
eondiac. IIam])ton is likewise intersected by the Hannnond liiver and 
its various branches, till it lo.ses itself in Darling liake, communicating 
with the spacious estuary of the Kennebccasis. But perhaps no part of 
this tract of countiy has exhibited a more rapid improvement, or can 
boast a more substantial degree of prosperity, than the parish of Sussex. 
A few years back, and it was the most forlorn and dreary part of a ,ast 
desert, exhibiting no other nnu-ks of the hand of man but the trui. - of 
enormous pines encumbering the ground, blackened by fire, and lying in 
heaps : persevering and active industry have now transformed it into 
a lovely and luxuriant valley, smiling with abundant harvests and ricii 
pastures ; lunnerous houses, barns, and other domestic establishments 
attest the prosperity of the Inhabitants, whilst their roads, bridges, and 
public works evince their public spirit. At Sussex A'ale is a decent 

a 2 



■»■ It' 



I!. 



m 



\\G 



NEW HTirNSWICK. 



I^f 



flmrc'li, cret'tt'd by the inhahitants without any assistance from <rovern- 
incnt; alsou haiKlsoiiicacailciny for tiK'])iirpose()f (•iviliziii<j;an(l f(liicatiii<r 
a certain number of Indians. The Uiver Kemiebecasis is navigable twenty 
mik's for vessels of anv bur(U'n, thirty miles for vessels (h'awin<r seven 
feet water, and thirty miles more for Hat-bottomed boats. The produce 
of this county consists of the same articles enumerated in our account of 
Queen's County, and in ('(pial abundance. Numerous large vessels are 
also annually built on the Kennebccasis, and the vicinity of St, .John's 
affords a ready outlet for every species of merchandise, A high road 
runs fiom Kingston, nearly ])arallel to tlie Kcnnebacasis and IVtcondiac 
Rivers, at a short distance from their banks, through Sussex Vale into 
the head of Westmoreland. Fifty miles from the mouth of the Kenne- 
bccasis are two large (piarries of gypsum. This county contains about 1 ,.'{;J.5 
square miles, and it sends two rejjresentatives to the (Jeneral i\ssend)ly. 

We now come to the county of St. John, the last on the line of the 
river, being bounded on its whole length south and south-easterly by the 
liay of Fundy, on the north and north-west by King's County, on the 
east by >\'estmoreland, and on the west by Charlotte County, It is 
divided into four parishes — that of the city of St. John, the parishes of 
Portland and Lancaster, and that of St. ^Martin's. A few miles above 
the city of St. John the river is contracted from the spacious opening of 
Kennebccasis IJay, and its channel runs over and amongst a bed of rocks, 
which seem as if, having been undermined by the current itself, they 
had been detached from the land, and had fallen into it. These con- 
stitute what are termed the little falls, which, though there is no con- 
siderable descent, occasion a tremendous roaring and foaming of the 
river, from the narrowness and rudeness of the channel ; shortly beyond, 
the river forms the Harbour of St. John, and falls into the IJay of Fundy 
in latitude 4.5" 20' north. 

The city of St, John is situated on a peninsula ])rojecting into the 
hu'boiu', at the mouth of the river of the same name; its latitude !-;>' 120' 
north, longitude ()()', 'J' west. It stands on rugged, rocky, and uneven 
])lots of ground, the general character of that in its vicinity, and contains 
about 700 houses. The streets are laid out at right angles, and in many 
])arts dis])lay fine ranges of building, which are now principally of brick. 




I II 



. ill' 



1 



1,1 



!.,.( 



'(R 



'411 



■"I'liii, 



ii 



'< 



f' 



mn 



•m 



ift 



Jiiu. 



'llHiH ,,nK!l 



It:- i 


1 

4 


'U'*'^ 


1 


f'l 


i 



CITY OF ST. JOllX. 



117 



Considerable pains have also been taken to level and sniootli the rugged 
roeky surface, so that there is now a {^ood carriage road tlirou'.'h most 
parts of the city, thoiij;h it occasionally is carried up ratlier steep ascents. 
The city is divided into what are called the up[)er and lower coves by u 
projecting rock ♦'ic latter of which is the more backward in inijjrove- 
ment ; government however, by l)uilding a new range of barracks on the 
point, have materially contributed to better its appearance. The ])rin- 
cipal of the wharfs and warehouses are situated in the uj)per part of the 
city, where eonse(|uently the traflic is most considerable. 

"The city of St. John contains two churches, on the eastern side of 
the river, one of which is neatly finished and has an elegant organ ; a 
handsome kirk, belonging to the members of the churcli of Scotland ; n 
catholic chapel, two mcthodist chapels, and a neat baptist meeting-house. 
The other public buildings are a poor-house, a gaol, a marine hospital, 
two handsome ranges of barracks at the lower cove, with government 
store-houses, kc. 

" A scjuare near York Point, reserved for a market, hi.s an old 
building in the centre, the up])er part of Avhich has served for many 
years as a court-house, and the under part as a flesh-market ; a fisli and 
vegetable market having been lately built contigtums to it, at the edge 
of high-water mark, and a handsome flesh-market in the lower cove, 
which are well supplied. King's-square is situated on the height of land 
in King-street, and is reserved for public use. It is a very pleasant 
situation, commanding a fine view of the city and harbour. It is in 
contemplation to erect a court-house on the east side of this square, on 
a liberal scale. Queen's-square is situated in Duke's Ward, and is also 
reserved for public purposes. 

" The public seminaries in St. John's are a gammar school, the 
Central Madras School, and a niunber of Sunday schools. There are 
two public libraries in the city, a vaccine establishment, three printing- 
ofliccs, with the following religious, humane, and useful societies : — 
a branch of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ; the Xew 
Ikunswick Auxiliary liil)le Society ; St. John Sunday School Union 
Society ; St. John lleligious Tract Society ; St. George's, St. Patrick's, 
St. Andrew's Societies, instituted for the purpose of aiding their re- 



I 






n 






lis 



m:\v niuNswK k. 



spi'ctivt' countrymen in distress : New Hnniswick Society tor the Pur|>ose 
of Ini])r()vin^' the Hreedof Horses, and other Cuttle ; Female Henevolent 
Society for the Kelief of Indi«^ent Females, and a branch of the Wes- 
leyun Missionary Society. 

" A provincial IJaidv is established here, with a ca])ital of J.U(),()(>(), 
ijicreased by an act of the legislature of lSi2;5 to >l\50,()00. A Marine 
Insurance C"oni])any and a Water C(>mpany have lately been incorj)o- 
rated; the latter is not yet in active o])eration. There is a Chamber of 
Connnerce for the re<4nlation of the trade of the city, and a Savings* 
liank tV)r depositin<;- the small savinj^s of the lahom-ing- chisscs. Carleton. 
on the opposite side of the river, is com))rehended in the limits of the 
city. It is situated on the ])oint fronting- Navy Island, and com])rises 
the ruins of old Fort F'rederick. It contains a neat church, a meeting- 
house, Avith several Hue buildings, 

"St. Jolm being an incorjjorated city is governed by a mayor, 
recorder, six aldermen, with an equal nund)er of assistants, under the 
style of * The Mayor, Aldermen, ami Connnonalty of the City of St. 
.Tohn." The other oHicers are a sherifl' and coroner (who likewise act 
for the county), a conunon clerk, a cluunberlain, a high constable, six 
inferior ones, and two marshals. The mayor, recorder, common clerk, 
sheritt", and coroner are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices 
during his pleasure, from year to year. The aldermen, assistants, :ivd 
inferior otHcers are chosen annually by the freemen of the city ; the 
chamberlain is appointed by the mayor, recorder, aldermen, and assistants 
in common council. The nuiyor ap})oints the high constable, marshal, 
criers, ])orters, bellringers, &c. 

" The mayor or recorder, with three aldermen and three assistants, 
constitute a conunon council, Avith ])ower to make laws, ordinances, (?^c., 
which are to remain in force for one year only, xmless confirmed by the 
governor m council. They also constitute a court of record, or inferior 
court of conunon pleas, for the city and comity of St. Jolm. The mayor 
by virtue of his office possesses extensive ))owers, such as making free 
citizens, regulating the markets, &c. ; and the aldermen are justices of 
the peace for the county as well as for the city of St. John. The cor- 
poration have at their dis[;osal an annual revenue of about .^2000 for the 



|M)I{T OF ST. .1011 \'S—T1{.\ 1)1".. 



11}) 



iinprovfincnt of the city. It must, howevt'r. he observed, tliat no j^reat 
attention lias yet been ])ai(l to ornanientini;- tlie eity. A lew seats have, 
liowever, lately been hej^iin on the marsh near the eity, whieh will soon 
make an alteration in the appearance of the suburbs *." 

The ])ort of St. .Fohn, the prinei])al harbour in this eonnty. aiul 
indeed on the whole line ol' coast, is eonvenient and safe, and sufliciently 
deep and spacious to acconnnodate a considerable number of vessels. 
About the centre of the entrance is a small island, called l*artrid<i;e 
Island, on which is situated a li<;ht-house, and further in the harbour a 
bar, e\ten(lin<r across from the western side beyond the point of the 
])eninsula on which the city stands. This bar is furnished with a beacon ; 
it is entirely dry at low water, though in the channel there is a sutlicient 
de])th for larf>;e ships. Within the harbour is a valuable tishery. in 
which are anmially taken from 10 to 1. >,()()() barrels of herrin<rs. from 
2 to ,'}()()() barrels of salmon, and from 1 to 2000 barrels of shad. A i)ro- 
fitable cod fishery might also be carried on without its limits, but little 
care has hitherto been bestowed on this object. The ebb and flow of the 
tide in this harbour is from sixteen to twenty-four feet perpendicular ; 
d one of its most im])ortant advantages is, that in the most severe 



an 



winter it is free from the encumbrance of ice. 

The im])orts into this city consist chiefly of Hritish manufactures 
and colonial ])roduce; the exports, lumber, fish, furs, lime, with which 
the rock forming the basis of the town abounds, masts, spars, and other 



timbei 



I ted out 



)th 



nuDer, m such ])roportions as are pomted out \\\ another ])art ot our 
account of the province. The fortifications in and near the city are not 
iaiportant ; the principal is Fort Howe, situated in the parish of Port- 
land, about "! mile distant from the centre of the city, mounting about 
six pieces 01 from six to eighteen pound calibre, and two small mortars. 
There are likewise three small block-houses — one near the fort, another 
near the Iving's-scjuarc, in the centre of the city, and a third at the point 
below it, mounting a few guns and mortars. 



m 



I .1 ill 

I!' 



m 



m 



* " Skctclies of New Brunswick, &c. By an Inhabitant of tliu I'rovinci-. St. Jolm, 
1825." 



I ' ■ hffii! 



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Ml'f 

m 



?i' 






ill 



120 



m:\v inuNswicK. 



h 



Ni'iir the last-nuM>ti()iic(l Mock-limise are tlircc small imtti'rics called 
Priiur iMlwanl, l-'ort Fridiiu'k, and (iravc-yard ; upon tlu' liri^dit, bc- 
y(»nd Fort Frcdt'iTk, u fourth hlock-lioiisi' has bt'cii rri'i-tcd ; the whole 
mounting about twenty ;;un,s of from six to twenty-four pound ealibrc, 
and a few mortars and howitzers: there is also a small fort on Partridge 
Island, furnished with two or thrie ^uns. Near Fort Howe is a ranj^e 
of very old barnicks, with a eonunissariat store-house and fui'l-house, 
from which extends a wharf, where vessels drawing- no more than seven 
feet water may at hi^h tide discharge their cargoes aloiij^-side, but for 
the unloading' of all otlu-rs scows or boats nnist be used. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the city are five saw am! two grist mills, which are a {^reat 
accommodation to the inhabitants; and also an extensive salt marsh, 
partially diked, the convenience of which is materially felt. The artillery 
barracks are in the city, in the main street, near the lower cove; the 
ordnance stores front upon Union-street, near the u])])er end of the 
town. The city of St. John's is ))lentifully suj)plied from the adjacent 
counties with all kinds of butchers' meat, vej^etables, fruit, poultry, and 
wood durini;- the summer months, and before the formation of the ice, 
and whilst it is sufliciently formed to afford a means of comnnmication ; 
durin<;- the spring- months the supply is less abundant. Fish is generally 
rather scarce. 

The other parishes of this county are but thinly settled, the habita- 
tions being j)rincipally confined to the sea-coast, where the advantages of 
the harbours make them a medium of comnnmication with the interior. 
The principal harbours of this county, besides that of St. .John, arc Quaco, 
situated about forty miles north-easterly from St. .Tohn, up the ]Jay of 
Fundy ; Manawaganiche, in the same bay ; the ISIus(iuash Cove ; the 
Dipper and the I. ittle Dipper Harbours, situate a few miles to the west- 
ward. They are all small, but afford safe anchorage to vessels of from 
.'iOO to 400 tons, and at all these jjlaces are settlements n a flourishing 
state. -^Vgriculture has recently occupied a good deal of attention, and 
is rapidly improving; and the country adjacent to the shore is consi- 
dered to be rich in minerals. 

Abundant as are the water communications throughout the vast 



nOADS— DIST.WCKS TO Qii:nr,c. 



121 



'^1. 



tract of coiiiitrv \vv luivc now traced, vi/. the wliolc coursi' of tlu' St. 
.lolin's from Lower Canada to the Hay of I'midy, I hire are likewise 
rcKids wherever a chain of settlements has shown the expediency of com- 
municatiop hetween one |)hice and anothir. It cannot he said, however, 
that these roads are continnally ellicient, or can becaUidated on as a con- 
stant practii-ahle mo(U' of conveyance. Few of tliem are passable for 
cnrria{fes for any continnous distances, and at many seasons of the yi'ar 
they are totally untraversuhle. The principal canses of these deficiencies 
are the facilities of water-carriage ; but the roadways are cl(>ared m.d the 
foundations laid, and as the ])opulation of the si'ttlements increases, they 
must, for mutual accommodati»»n, be projfressivi'ly |)erfected. The most 
important of these, perhaps, is the post road from Nova Scotia to Canada, 
which traverses this i)rovince diaj^onally from the city of St. .lohn, and 
rii'arly |)arallel to the rivi'r. This road, which runs on the western sule 
of the river, is passable for carria<;es as far as fourteen miles above Fre- 
derjckton, to which place the distance is ei<;hty-two and a half miles : l)ut 
it is only in sununer that it is practicable; in sprin<> and autunm it is 
very wet, and in winter the only mode of comnumication is by the ice 
on the river. From Frederickton to tlie (Jreat Falls is ])assable only for 
f()ot-i)asscngers. The distances by this route to Quebec are as follows : 



To FrciliTiektoii 

Fniin Kri'dcricktoii to I'resqu'isli' 

From Pri'siprisli' to tlic (Jreat Fulls 

Thunct! to till- JMiidawaska Falls 

To the River du Loup 

Thence to Quebec 



naj, miles. 

m' 

4") 

84; 
1071 



455' 



There is likewise a road on the eastern side of the river, by which the 
distance to Frederickton is increased to eighty-six miles ; but this extends 
no further than the Meductic Uapids, in the parish of Northampton. 

Almost all the great streams have, in like manner, a road running 
near and nearly parallel to them, which usually joins with the road of 
the nearest river on any great line of communication. Such is that 
which, running side by side with the Nashwak River, joins the road of 

VOL. II. 11 



MiilH 



i 



122 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



the south-west braneh of the IMiraniichi, thus forming a line of com- 
munication from Frederickton to Miramiclii Bay in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence ; also that which, skirting the Keimebecasis in its whole course, 
communicates with that which accompanies the channel of the Petcon- 
diac. A like road attends the course of the Oromocto ; and in fact there 
is no chain of settlements in any part of this tract which has not a similar 
mode of connnunication, accompanying and supplying the deficiencies of 
those water channels, which are a preferable medium for the transporta- 
tion of heavy merchandise. 



tl 



CHAPTER IX. 

Cliarlottc County — Campo Hello — (Jrand Manan and Deer Islands — Wcstmorolaiid, 
and the remaining Counties — Miramichi Conflagration. 



TuiiNiNG to tlie westward from the St. John, on the southern boun- 
dary of the province, we come to Charlotte County, whicli is boiuidcd 
north by York, Suiibury, and Kings counties, cast by St. Jolui's, south 
])y the liay of Fundy and Passamaquoddy Hay, and west by the St. 
Croix, which separates it from the United States. It contains eight 
parishes, viz. St. James's, St. Andrew's, St. Patrick's, St. David's, St. Ste- 
phen's, Pcnnfiekl, St. Cieorge's, and comprises also the Island of Campo 
Bello. Of these the principal is St. Andrew's, which is the shire town. 
It is situated at the north-eastern extremity of Passanuiquoddy IJay, on 
a narrow slip of lowland fronting on the bay, at the distance of sixty miles 
from St. Jolm's, and three from the American shores. In its rear rises 
a range of highlands ; its two principal streets run parallel to each other 
tlic whole length of the town on its water front, and arc intersected by 
several others crossing them at right angles. They are almost entirely 
built up with substantial houses of decent appearance. It has a church 
of the regular establishment, and one of the kirk of Scotland, presented 
to that community at his own expense by INIr. Christopher Scott. There 
are also a coin-t-house, a gaol, a grammar-school, and many handsome 
private buildings. There is a chamber of conunercc, an Agricultm-al and 
Emigrant Society for the county, a savings' bank, and a liible Society; 
also barracks and commissariat stores. The military force stationed here is 
trifling. There are no fortifications but two small block-houses aiul two 
batteries, composed of half-a-dozen pieces of ordnance. As a frontier 
town on the Tnited States, in the event of hostilities with that power 
its means of defence would become an object of important consideration. 
It is conveniently situated for commerce, and especially for the fishing- 
trade, which is carried on here to a large extent, for which the neigh- 



^ 



124 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



bouring islands afford inany facilities, and abiuidant supplies of cod. 
liaddock, tSiC. arc yielded by the adjacent waters. The lumber trade is 
also actively prosecuted here, and ship-building carried on to a consi- 
derable extent. 

The conununication with St. John's is principally by water, though 
there is a good road passing round the head of Passaniaquoddy and JNIace's 
bays, and crossing the xMagaguadavick lliver in the parish of St. (ieorgc, 
in the innnediate vicinity of Trout Lake. The whole of this line of 
road is ])retty well settled. The princi])al settlements arc on the lliver 
Dignadegwash, about twelve miles from St. Andrew's, at the Magaguada- 
vick Falls, four miles further, on I^-ake T^'l^ltang, at IJeaver Harbour, and 
at Dipper Harbour ; all those situated near the banks of rivers, extending 
some miles on their shores up the country. There is also a main road to 
Frederickton, ])assing through all the principal settlements in that part 
of the country; to that on the Magaguadavick lliver, on a north-easterly 
course, the distance thirty-five miles; to the Oromocto settlements, 
thirty-five more : it then follows for about twenty miles the course of 
the Oromocto nearly due north till it reaches the banks of the St. John's, 
and thence to Frederickton, on the banks of the river, ten miles. There 
is a considerable (piantity of reserved crown lands in this parish, com- 
pletely surrounding the town on the north and south-east sides; they 
are most desirably situated, commanding beautiful views adjacent to the 
lines of the principal streets, and well watered by numei'ous streams. 
There are one grist, and four saw-mills in this parish. 

The town of St. Andrew's is abundantly supplied with provisions of 
every description, and provender for cattle, at very moderate prices. In 
IS^-i its population amounted to !2:,268 souls, but at present it may be 
said to be about .5, .500. 

The parishes of St. David and St. Patrick, on the cast and north- 
east of St. Andrew's, are pretty thickly settled, and are furnished abund- 
antly with saw-mills, by which means large (piantities of boards are an- 
nually cut hero, su))))lying a most desirable and necessary article to new 
settlers, besides feeding an important branch of trade. In the latter 
parish a considerable (piantity of wheat and Indian corn are raised. 

St. Stephen's parish, on the west, is also remarkable for the quantity 



CHARLOTTE COrNTY— ISLANDS OF CAMPO BKLLO, Sec. l'i.5 

of lumber it furnishes, the activity of its saw-mills, generally situated on 
the Sehoodiac River, and the <iuantity of boards they jjroduee, aniountiny; 
to some millions of feet in the course of a year. Tiiis ])arish likewise com- 
prises a considerable nund)er of farms in good cultivation. An average of 
.'}0()0 barrels of alewives are amiually taken at the falls of the Sehoodiac. 

The parish of Pennfield, which forms the easternmost division of 
the county, though of wide extent, is thiidy settled. The inhabitants 
arc principally ([uakers, and are settled on fertile tracts of land. The 
sawing of timber into boards by means of mills seems here likewise to 
be the chief employment of their industry. Several vessels have also 
been built here, at the mouth of the Poklogan Kiver ; but the ])o))ulation 
of the district is thin. 

The parish of St. (ieorgc is in the very heart of the coimty, and is 
traversed in its whole depth from Lake T/Ktang to its northern limits 
by the river Magaguadavick. This river was formerly contended by 
the Americans to be the true St. Croix, and consecjuently the western 
boundary of the province of New lirunswick — a claim, could it have been 
substantiated, which would have given to them all the valuable tract of 
country lying between this river and the Scodic. This ])arish is ra])idly 
rising into importance ; the tilled lands yield very fair crops of wheat, 
oats, potatoes, and flax, but are not favourable for ])asturing cattle. 
Large (piantities offish, which are annually caught in the lake and river, 
and cured, form an article of extensive internal commerce as well as 
of exportation. liime has also been ^jroduccd and mamifactured here 
to a ccMisiderable extent. The chief we;ilth, however, of the district 
consists of the immense ([uantities of excellent pine which are fomul in 
the interior parts of tlie jjarish ; they are admirably adapted for masts 
and spars, of which they furnish an almost inexhaustible supply. This, 
together with a vast ])roduce of other useful tind)er, furnishes constant 
employment for a considerable number of saw-mills, which cut up 
amnudly from .'},()()(),()()() to 4,()()(),()0() feet of deals and boards. This 
profitable application of human industry has spread wealth through the 
j)arish, now perha])s one of the most flourishing in the i)rovince. 

Ap])endant to the county of Charlotte arc the islands of Campo 
Hello and Cirand Manan, and Deer Island. The former was a few years 



1 1 
i 

4i' 



! 



^ip 



! 



7"t I 



m 

I 



m 



'liiif 

.: ML 



% 






IIG 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



ilf 



back constituted into a parish, including all the smaller islands in Pas- 
samaquoddy liay; its length from north to south maybe estimated at 
eight miles, its average breadth about two miles, and its superficial con- 
tents about 4000 acres. It might, with little expense, be so fortified as to 
render it im])regnable. It is for the most part in a state of cultivation, 
and other tracts of it are very capable of tillage. The produce in timber 
has enabled the inhabitants to build several vessels of from 40 to 100 tons 
burden. The island has, since the year 1794, been a considerable entre- 
pot between Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the United States for 
the trade in gypsum, of which many thousand tons were landed previous 
to the last war, and reshipped in American vessels for various ports of 
the United States. A large trade is likewise carried on with the Ame- 
ricans in fish, caught by boats belonging to this island, and sold to them, 
imcvired, in exchange for ordinary provisions and contraband articles of 
trade. The principal harbour of the island is Harbour de I^ute, on its 
western side and near its northern extremity; this is a large and safe 
haven, having near its entrance a sj)ace nearly a mile square, which at 
low water is left dry, and might, without much expense, be converted 
into a dock. 

Grand Manan Island lies about seven miles to the southward of Campo 
IJello, a little west of I*assama(pioddy liay, and near the entrance of the 
Hay of Fundy. Its length is about twenty miles, and its mean breadth 
about five. On its south-east side lie a number of small islands, the 
largest of which does not coniprise more than 900 acres. The abund- 
ance of rocky ledges renders the navigation between this island and the 
smaller ones dangerous ; there is no landing-place on its northern shore 
but in two small coves, but these disadvantages do not prevent the in- 
habitants from carrying on the coast herring-fishery to a considerable ex- 
tent. The greater part of the island is under cultivation, the higher tracts 
producing various kinds of grain and potatoes, whilst the lower lands 
yield good grass. The face of the island is varied by many large ])onds, 
almost approaching to lakes, being from fifty to a hundred acres in ex- 
tent, besides some spacious tracts of salt marsh. It is sufficiently ftivour- 
able to agriculture to induce a large proportion of its inhabitants to con- 
fine their attention to farming oidy; there are, however, considerable 



DEER ISLAXD— COUNTY OF WESTMORELAND. 



1-27 



i^i 



portions still occupied by valuable timber, such as birch and white j)ine ; 
and minerals have been found, but the search has never been prosecuted 
to any material extent. No kind of animals seem indigenous to the soil; 
it is without bears, foxes, or any other race peculiar to the climate, and 
is equally free from every sjiecies of reptile. It derives some importance 
from its situation, overlooking the entrance into the IJay of Fundy, and 
is so far fortified by nature that a little assistance from art would render 
it almost invulnerable. There is one saw-mill on the island, and one or 
two for grist. 

Deer Island lies at the entrance of Passamaquoddy IJay, to the north 
of Cam])o IJello ; it is of triangular form : its extreme length from the 
southerly point to that on the north-east is six miles and tlnee-quartcrs, 
and its greatest breadth three miles. It is surrounded by a multitude 
of islets, and abounds in strong positions easily fortified. The number of 
its inhabitants is not large, so that one grist-mill suffices for them all. 
Their principal occupation is fishing, the produce of which they usually 
dispose of to the American traders. 

The county of Charlotte abounds with spacious, safe, and easily- 
accessible harbours, comprising the whole of those in Passamaquoddy 
Bay, those of JNIace's IJay, and L'Etang and Heaver harbours between them. 
It sends to the General Assembly four representatives. 

Directing our attention to the eastern side of the St. John, we come 
to the county of Westmoreland, situated at the head of the IJay of 
Fundy. It is bounded on the north by the coimty of Kent ; east by 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence; south by the boundary line separating it 
from the county of Cumberland in Nova Scotia, Cumberland IJasin, 
Chignccto IJay, and the county of St. John's; and on the WTst by a 
north line, drawn fi'om the northern boundary of St. John's County 
to the southern boundary of Northumberland, and separating it from 
King's County. It is divided into eight parishes, vi/. Westmoreland, 
Hillsborouj','h, Dorchester, JMonkton, Salisbury, Sackville, Hopewell, and 
IJotsford. 

No county in the province is more flourishing in proportion to its 
population, or offers greater capabilities for almost unlimited improve- 
ment : bounded on almost two-thirds of its extent by water, from which 



rv 



!* 



i 



\l 



II 



!■■ 



128 



NEW nRlNSWICK. 



lar^c tracts of valuable salt marsh have been rescued, readily communi- 
cating;- with the St. Lawrence and the Atlantic, it has every facility for 
trade, increased by the rivers which traverse it in every direction, and 
forward its p'-oduce from its interior districts to its shores. It was originally 
settled by French Acadians, wliose descendants are still mmierous, strongly 
reinforced by steady and industrious settlers from England, who apply 
to farming with ])erseverance and intelligence. The ])roduce in corn is 
very considerable, as likewise in hay; but the most profitable product of 
the county is the rearing of stock, for which the extensive tracts of diked 
salt marsh aitbrd inuuense advantage. A^ery considerable (juantities of 
butter and cheese are j)roduced here and ex])orted, and during the Anie- 
rican war from SOO to 900 head of fat cattle, and above 800 firkins 
of butter, were anmially sent to Halifax. The lliver Petcondiac, rising 
at the western extremity of the county, traverses about one half of its 
extent eastward, then making almost a right angle, flows in a course 
nearly southerly till it empties itself into Shepody IJay, an indentation 
from the IJay of Chignecto, thus flowing through the very heart of the 
county. The land on both sides of this river, especially on the northern 
and eastern sides, in the district termed the IJend, has been reported by 
Colonel Cockburn to the emigration committee of the House of Com- 
mons to be fit for the highest and most profitable ])urposes of agri- 
culture. 

" The land about the IJend in Petcondiac River (for so the place is 
called) was for a long time considered of inferior (piality, and was thereby 
prevented from being settled as soon and as thickly as might have been 
expected. The importance of the situation, however, at last brought it 
into repute, and the soil now proves to be as productive as any in the 
province. The number of houses that have lately been erected give it 
the a])pcarance of a town ; and although no .ogular village has been laid 
out, there is already some difficulty and much expense in procuring a 
space sufficient for a building-lot. This place stands on an isthmus, 
through which place the land communication between Nova Scotijvand 
all i)arts of New Brunswick and the Canadas does and must continue to 
pass. The distance from it to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, at Shediac, is 
only sixteen miles ; to the Bay of Fundy, either by land or water, twenty; 



WKSTMORI'LANl) COUNTY— lUVKRS—FOUT (TMnKUI^AND. 129 

the river beiiijif navigable so far up for schooners of tlio largest class, and 
the road to Halifax good for any description of carriages the Avholc way. 
With such advantages of situation, the settlements at the IJend of IVtcon- 
diac cannot fail of rajjidly increasing in jjopulation and iui])ortanee. Tliere 
is a tract of vacant land on the other side of the river, said to amount to 
20(),0()() or .'i()(),()()() acres, and to be throughout of first-rate <iuality.' 

The other principal rivers are the Missicjuash, the Medamcook. and 
the Shediac, on the banks of all which are numerous and flourishing 
settlements. INIost of the ])arishes have conunodious ])Iaces of worship 
and settled 'Ministers; there are also several lloman catholic chapels, with 
mi^ iva. "iiisters. belon"ii)ir •! Acadian settlers. IJcsides its acrri- 
cultural produce, one part of the wealth of this county arises from the 
immense sup])ly of grindstones furnished by some of the rocky districts, 
especially the Shepody mountains, near the shores of the Hay of Fundv, 
of which as many as i2(),()()0 have been exported in one year to the United 
States. There is little of the bustle of trade in this comity, but it is 
steadily progressing to ))rosperity by the certain though slower advance 
of agricultural improvement. 

The harbours ar(> not numerous, and the coast on the Ray of Fundv 
is for the most part rocky. The tide of the IJay of Fundy towards its 
head is remarked by that ])eculiar ])henomenon termed the IJoar, by 
which the receded waters seem to accmnulate without advancing, till 
the waves attain a considerable per])endicular height, when they rush 
forward with an incredible velocity and irresistible force, their roaring- 
noise striking terror even in the animals near the shore, who fly to the 
highlands in awe. 

Along the whole extent of coast, from Fort Cumberland to Cape 
Chignecto, and thence to Ca])e Enrage, the s})ring tides rise from forty- 
five to fifty-five feet, whilst in IJay \'erte, on the other side the istlunus. 
the common tides are from eight to ten feet perpendicular only. .At a 
place called the .Toggin, about fifteen miles from Fort Cmnberhuul, is 
found abundance of coals. The breed of horses and cattle h--'" been most 
sedulously improved by numerous settlers from Yorkshire in England. 

Fort Cumberland is situated one mile from the Missiciuasb lliver, 
on the boundary line between New IJrunswick and Xova Scotia, and 



i 




-•.I 'ii 



VOL. II. 



Iil> 



v\ 



* ^ 



111 

iij! 



130 



^'E^v URUxswic'K. 



tluvc'-(|uartcrs of ii mile from C'liigiit'C'to l};iy. It was formerly a f2,()()cl 
fortification, bcitig a rf<j,ular pentagon, with a erown-work ; but that, as 
well as the barracks, was siifl'ercd to go to ruin, tiiough both are now 
imderg'oing considerable repairs and improvements. The distance fron) 
the fort, across the isthnnis, to Hay \'erte, is about fifteen miles; near 
to which line, on the eastern extremity, and bordering on Cumberland 
Jlasin, is the great salt marsh called Trantamaire. The roads in this 
county arc generally good ; that from St. .John, on the banks of the Ken- 
nebecasis and I'etcondiac Rivers, is tolerable dm-ing the summer, l)nt in 
spring and autunni is very wet. and in winter scarcely passable. The 
distance from St. John to Ilannnond's Uiver is fourteen miles and a half; 
thence to IIam])ton Ferry, ten miles; to Studville, eighteen; to Sussex 
Vale, six; thence to the liend of the Petcondiac, fifty; to JNIedamcook 
Bridge, fourteen; to Westmoreland Court-house, nine; to Sackville, ten; 
to Fort Cumberland, thirteen; making in all a distance of 14 1 1 miles. 
There is also a road from I-'rederickton to FortCundierland via tlieAVashe- 
damoak, by which the distance to the ferry over the W^ishedamoak is 
thirty-nine miles ; thence to Helle Isle, twelve; to the court-house, eighty- 
nine; and to the fort, three; in all, 1 4.'j miles. The only water route 
from the Fort to the Fetcondiac is by way of Cund)erland Basin, round 
Ca))c Maramguin, to Shepody Hay; but this navigation is far too rough 
for boats, none of which would venture the ])assage on ever so pressing 
an emergency. Westmoreland covers a surface of 2,120 square miles, 
and it returns four representatives to the Assembl3\ 

Turning now to the more northerly region of this extensive pro- 
vince, Ave have to contemplate the tract hitherto composing the county 
of Northumberland, which embraces more than one third of the whole 
))rovince ; it is bounded north and north-west by the Bay of Chaleurs 
and the Iliver Ilistigouche, separating it from liower Canada, cast by 
the Gidf of St. I^awrencc, south by tiie county of Westmoreland, south- 
west by its own boundary line, separating it from Queen's and Sunbury 
counties, and west by the county of York. It comprises the parishes of 
Eldon, Addington, Beresford, Saiunarez, Bathurst, Alnwick, Newcastle, 
Northcsk, Gleneig, liUdlow, Chatham, Carlton, Nelson, Ilarcourt, IIus- 
kisson, Dundas, and Wellington. It has recently been divided into three 



m. 



COUNTIES or NOUTlUMnKULAM), KKNT, (iLOlCKSTKR. l.il 



counties, Gloucester and Kent l)einjT taken from it; tlw< first about 
.'],!){)! miles in superficies, stretcliin<( inon}T its Aviiole northern evtent, 
and I'omprisin^ Eldon, A(idin<fton, Heresford, Saumarez, and M.n hurst 
parislies; the latter, in surtaee about l.HOl s(|uare miles, cuttin-r in from 
the east side, southerly of the Miramiehi, and comprehendint;- Carlton, 
lluskisson, Dundas, aJid Wellington ])arishes; but for the ])ur])()ses of 
general description it Avill not be necessary to adhere to these divisions. 
In contemplating this vast section of the province, exceeding in the 
aggregate 1(),.'J(){) square miles, the mind is struck no less by its extent 
than by the mnnber and grandeur of the rivers by which it is Matered, 
and the length of coast it occupies. Of the rivers, the Miramiehi, opening 
into a spacious bay of the (iulf of St. liawrence, and stretching through 
the county to its south-western extrennty, and coimnunicating by easv 
portages with the St. .Fohn, is the most remarkable. It enters the ))ro- 
vince in latitude 17" 10' north, ami in longitude ();>" Avest. It is navi- 
gable for large ships for more than thirty miles. There is a sand-bar 
oil' the entrance, but it is at all times covered with a suflicient depth of 
Avater to tloat the vessels entering its mouth, wliich have rarely been 
either destroyed or injured. Near the sea the land is low, and covered 
oidy Avith dwarf trees; but as Ave advance into the coimtry, Ave soon 
find tracts of heavy tind)er. This river, at the distance of about fifty 
miles from the coast, separates into tAvo branches, Avhose direction is 
indicated by their names — the north-Avest and the south-Avest or main 
branch ; these receiving the Circat and liittle ScAvogle, the JJartholomcAv, 
the ]{enous. the Etienne, and the Taxis rivers. 

On the same shore, near its southern extremity, this ])rovince has 
the Cocagne River, and ])roceeding northerly the Chibouctouche, Uichi- 
buctoo, Konchibougouacisis, Konchibougouac, I5ay du \'in, and Nassau 
rivers, all emptying into the (iulf of St. JjaAvrence, and nortlnvard of the 
IMiramichi the Tabasintae and Tracadie rivers. On its northern side, bor- 
dering on thclJay of Chaleurs, are the Caraquctte IJiver. near its eastern 
extremity, falling into the harbour of the same name, and more Avesterly 
the Nipisignit, Avhich empties itself into the s])acious Ni])isigui<" 13ay ; 
still further Avest the Eel riAxr and the T'psahjuish, besides almost 
inmnnerable streams of less note. The whole tract abounds Avith 

s 2 



M 



-\ 



;.*i5:< 



1 32 



NEW IJUlNSWItK. 



tif 



timber of the most valuable ileseription — white ami ivd pine, birch, spruce, 
lieiiilt)ck, and iiuiple, wiiich the immerous streams afl'ord the most easy 
and commodious means of tor\vardin<^ ti> the market on llie seaboard. 
The soil, .IS is attested i»y tlie (piality of the tiMd)er, is of the best de- 
scription, and the fre(|uency of the streams leaves numerous ^•alnabIe 
slips of interval ; yet, notwithstandin*;' these advantaj^es, tliese counties 
are tiie thinnest settled and the worst cultivated in the whole pro- 
vince. There is scarcely any collection of houses worthy the name of a 
town in any of them : the port of Miramichi, the settlement of Chatham 
on the southern side of the ri\ er, and that of Newcastle on the north, are 
the principal, between which are the loading- establishments of Messrs. 
iVbrahams and Co. and of Messrs. Kankins, Though many wealthy 
merchants are settled at both these places, and each jmsscsses a church, 
court-house, gaol, \.c., there is nothing that can accord with the ex])ecta- 
tions that would naturalls be formed from the iimnense resources of the 
country. The wln)le of this desolation is probably accounted for by the 
temi)tation which the hnnber and tind)er trades furnish to the new settler, 
especially if j)ossessed of any ca|)ital. These counties produce in pro- 
fusion the finest tiud)er of America, and the convenience of transportation 
o])erates as a further inducement to settlers to contine their cares to this 
branch of labour and conunerce ; and there is no doubt but the preference 
given to this ])ursuit has materially retarded the im|)ro\ement of the 
province generally. Originally the iVmericans were permitted to act at 
j)leasure in the forests of the Miramichi — the jjrivilege has since been 
confined to JJritish subjects; but the conse(pience is that the finest of the 
timber has been destroyed, and the ])ersons so engaged maintaining no 
ijjterest in the country have wholly neglected to take any steps towards 
its improvement. The prospect of an immediate return still attracts 
])ersons of small capital to embark in the lumber trade, but many have 
been ruined by that trade in the ])rovince of New IJrunswick, whilst 
liundreds have been gradually advancing to certain independence and 
prosperity by a steady attention to agricdture. 'I'he ((uantities of 
tind)er that have been felled, s([uar(xl, and exported from this part of 
the colony are enormous, and yet no one presents so few syniptonis 
of improvement. The pursuit of lumbering (perhaps a necessary evil 



LI .Miw:ui\G. 



i;3.j 



in coloni/in^ u Avildiriicss) soonis iiuU-rd of a (liinorali/iiiff ti'ndt'ncy, 
sonii'tiiiu's (U'priviiij^ its followiTs of tlii' iiiclination and oven t'aj)al)ilitv 
for c'oiisistiMit and steady industry. This uill he more apparent from 
a view of the method in Aviiieli u lund)erinif party is formed and eon- 
<hieted, and uhieh we have borrowed from a eursory view of these pro- 
vinees, i)y an inteHi«>ent and eandid writer*. These are composed of 
j)ers()iis Avlio are all eitiier liired by a master hnnherer, who ])ays them 
wages and finds tliem in provisions, or of indiviihials who enter into an 
understandin};' with eaeh otiur to iiave a joint interest in the jjroeeeds 
of tiieir labour. The necessary supplies of ))rovisions, elothinj;', iVe. are 
jUfeiierally obtained from the merchants on credit, in consideration of re- 
ceivintj; the timber which the hnnberers are to brinj;- down the river the 
following' smnmer. 'I'he stock deemed re(iuisite for a bnnberinjr party 
consists of axes, a cross-cut saw, cookin<;" utensils, a cask of rum, to- 
bacco and pipes, a sutlicient (piantity of biscuit, pork, beef, and fish. 
j)ease and ])earl barley for souj), with a cask of molasses to sweeten a de- 
coction usually made of shrubs or of the toj)s of the hendock tree, Jind 
taken as tea. Two or three y,)kes of oxen, with sufllcient lii'y to feed 
them, are also recjuired to haul the tind)er out of the woods. 

" \"\'hen thus prepared, tliese people ])roceed up the rivers, with the 
provisions, lVc. to the place fixed on for their winter establishment, which 
is selected as near a stream of water and in the midst of as much ])ine as 
possible. They eonnnence by clearing' away a few of the surroundin<r 
trees, and buildin*^ a camp of round logs, the Avails of which are seldom 
more than four or five feet high ; the roof covered with birch bark or 
boards. ^V j)it is dug under the cam|) to j)reserve any thing liable to 
injury from the frost. The fire is cither at the middle or at one end; 
the smoke goes out th.rougb the roof; hay, straw, or fir-branches are 
sjiread across or along the whole breadth of the habitation, on which they 
all lie down together at night to slcej), Avith their feet next the fire. 
AN'hen the fire gets low, he who first awakes t)r feels hiujself cold springs 
up and throws on five or six billets, and in this way they manage to have 
a large fire all night. One ])erson is hired as cook, whose duty is to have 
l)reakfast ready before daylight, at whicb time all the party rise, wlien 

* Historical and Di'scriptivc Sketches of the JIaritinie Colonics of British America. By 
.f. IM'Grcnor. Lomloii, lOl't!. 



1! 



l:U 



NKW r.lUNSNVltK. 



t'iU'li luiiii t;il<t> Ills morning- (tr tlic indlspcnsahlc (lr:iiii of rnw rum 
lu'toiv bri'iikfast. 'I'liis humI consists of i)ri'!i(l or occiisioiially potatoes, 
with hoili'd bcrf, jjork, or lisli, and tea swci'tfiu'd with niohisscs. Diiiiu-r 
is usually the satiu\ with |Uiisc-stMip in place of toa, and the supper re- 
st'Uihh's the breakfast. 'I'hese men are enormous eaters, and they also 
drink _<4;reat <piantitii's of rum. which they scarcely ever dilute. Im- 
mediately after breakfast they divide int«> three jj;an;;s, one of which 
cuts down the trees, another hews them, and the third is employed with 
the oxen in haulin<{ the timber, either to one .ncneral road leadinj;- to 
the banks of the nearest stream, or at once to the stream itself. I''allen 
trees aiul other impediments in the way of the oxen are cut away with 
the axe. 

" The whole w inter is thus spent in unremittini;- labour. The snow 
covers the <;round from two to three feet from the setting- in of winter 
till A])ril : and, in the middli' of lir forests, often till the middle of May. 
When tlu' snow begins to dissolve in ^V])ril. the rivers swell, or. according; 
to the lund)erer's phrase, the freshets come down. At this time all the 
tind)er cut during the winter is thrown into tlu Avatcr, and floated down 
initil the river becomes sulliciently wide to make one or more rafts. The 
water at this period is exceedingly cold, yet for weeks the lumberers are 
in it from morning till night, and it is seldom less than a mouth and 
a half from the time that tl» ating the tind)er down the stream com- 
mences until the rafts are delivered to the merchants. Xo course of 
life can undermine the constitution more than that of a hnnberer or 
raftsman. The winter snow and frost, although severe, are nothing to 
endure in comparison with the extreme coldness of the snow water of 
the freshets, in wliich the hnnberer is day after day wet iij) to the middle, 
and often inunersed from head to foot. The very vitals are thus chilled 
and sa])])cd; and the intense heat of the suunner sun, a transition which 
almost immediately follows, must farther Aveakcn iuid reduce the whole 
frame. 

" To stimulate the organs in order to sustain the cold, these men 
swallow innnoderatc <pumtitics of ardent spirits, and habits of drunkenness 
are the usual consequence. Their moral character, with few exce])tions, is 
dishonest and worthless, Premature old age and .shortness of days form 
the inevitable fate of a lum])erer. After selling and delivering \\\) their 



\'^\ 



MIUAMKMII CONrLACilLVriON. 



ld.j 



rafts, tlu'V |>i»'*'< soine weeks in in(liil;;ciu'c'. (Ir'mUiiiu-, smoking', and 
«lashin^f oiriii a lon^ coat, llasliy waisti-oat and ln)usii's, Wellington or 
Hessian boots, a liandkeiTliiel' of many colonrs round the neek. a wateli 
with a long chain and nund)erlc.sH brass seals, and an unduelhi, Itefore 
winter they return again to the woods, and resume the pursuits t)f the 
preceding year. Some excepti(»ns I have however known to this ge- 
nerally true character of the hnnherers. Many young men of steady 
hal)its, who went from I'rince Kdward's Island and other placis to Mini 
michi. for tlu' express purpose of making money, have joined the linn- 
hering parties for two or three years, and after saving their earnings 
returned and purchased lands, \c. on whiih they now live very com- 
fortahly.' The backward state o!' the settlements «)n the banks of the 
Miramichi, and thence south-eastc y across the country, may perhaps be 
in some degree referred to the terrific conflagration which in ()ciol)er, 
lS!i.>, devastated iv tract of country upwards <»f .'{()() miles in extent. It 
is not an uncommon thing for liri's to be ligl.ied in t'.* woods, sometimes 
for the j)rotection which the suutke ailords from n s\itoes and flies, and 
sometimes for the assistance it aflonls the limdjerers in clearii' • the brush- 
wood ; and it appears that from some circujusi; ncc of this sort the woods 
on both sides of the north-west branch of the Miramichi and in the rerr > '' 
Newcastle had for some time been on fire, without exciting either alarm or 
attention : but when once these fire.s are fostered by the wind to a certain 
extent, their fury becoii.cs boiuidless; the rarefaction of the air produced 
by the heat occasions u rush of air from all (puu'ters, which constitutes a 
hurricane, and thus they are urged on by an irresistible and still increasing- 
power. The first indication of tlie ap))roaching calamity received by the 
settlers was a tremendous roaring in the woods, succeeded byvoliunes of 
dense smoke that darkened th ^'h-o of day : then burst forth the terrific 
element above the trees, strettiii.g its flaming colunms to the skies, and 
rolling forward wiHi impetuous fury, till in an hour the towns of Douglas 
and Newcastle Avere envc'-'ped in the dreadful vortex, which involved 
them with so unexpcftrd a rapidity, that many of the ill-fated iidiabitants 
contributed to the vast mound of ashes. A Miramichi paper of the 
11th October. 182.^, thus states the devastation: 

*' 31ore than a hundred miles of the shores of the Miramichi are 




i1i!i 



V36 




SVAV 


BIU'NSWICK. 










laid waste, iiulci)cndent 


of the 


north 


-Avcst branch, 


the liai 


•tibog 


and 


the 


Na])|)an 


settlements. ] 


'roll) one to 


two hundred 


])eople 


have 


peris 


bed 



within iinniediate observation, and thrice that number are miserably 
burnt or otherwise wounded ; and at least two thousand of our fellow- 
creatures are left destitute of the means of subsistence, and thrown at 
present upon the humanity of the i)roviiice of New IJrunswick. 

" The number of lives that have been lost in the remote part of the 
woods, among the lumbering ])arties, cannot be ascertained for some time 
to come, for it is feared that few were left to tell the tale. 

" It is not in the power of language to describe the unparalleled 
scene of ruin and devastation which the ])arish of Newcastle at this 
moment presents; out of upwards of 2,}() houses and stores, fourteen of 
the least considerable only remain. The court-house, gaol cliurch, and 
barracks, Messrs. (iilmour, Kankiii, and Co.'s, and Messrs. Wm. Abra- 
hams and Co.'s establishments, with two ships on the stocks, are reduced 
to ashes. 

" The loss of property is incalculable; for the fire, borne upon the 
wings of -a hurricane, rushed U])on the wretched inhabitants witli such 
inconceivable rapidity, tliat the preservation of their lives could be their 
only care. j\mong the vessels on the river a number were cast on shore, 
three of Avliich, viz. the slii))s Concord of AMiitby, and Canada of North 
Shields, together with the brig Jane of Alloa, were consumed; others 
were fortunately extinguished after tiie fire had attacked them. 

" ^Vt Douglas Town scarcely any kind of property csca])ed the 
ravages of the flames, Avhicli swept off the surface every thing coining 
in contact with them, leaving but time for the unfortunate inhabitants 
to fly to the shore; and there by means of boats, canoes, rafts of timber, 
timber-lop, or any article, however ill calculated for the purpose, thev 
endeavoured to escape from the dreadful scene, and reach the town of 
Chatham, numbers of men, women, and children ])enshing in the attempt. 

" In some ])arts of the country the cattle have all been destroyed, 
or suffered greatly, and the very soil has been in many places parched and 

ision to si)eak of has been rescued from 



pn 



spej 



burnt up, ana no artick 
the Haines. 

" The hurricane raided with such dreadful violence that larye bodies 



:!l 



MIRAMICHI CONFLAGRATION. 



137 



of timber on fire, as also trees from the forest, and parts of the flaming 
houses annd stores, were carried to the rivers with amazing velocity, to 
such an extent, and affecting the water in such a manner, as to occasion 
large quantities of salmon and other fish to resort to land, hundreds of 
which were scattered on the shores of the north and south-west branches. 

" Chatham at present contains about 300 of the unfortunate sufferers, 
who have resorted to it for relief, and are receiving some partial assist- 
ance, and almost every hour brings with it, from the back settlements, 
burnt, wounded, or in a most abject state of distress ; and it is reported 
that nearly two hundred bodies have been actually destroyed." 

This fire extended as far northward as the Bay of Chaleurs, and 
south-eastward to Frederickton, to which town it communicated, de- 
stroying the governor's residence and about eighty other houses. The 
total loss of life could not be numbered at less than 500, whilst that of 
property defies calculation. 

The colonists met this dire calamity in the true spirit of charity, 
lavishing on their suffering fellow-scttlers every aid in tlieir power, 
stimulated and encouraged by the example of the governor, Sir HoAvard 
Douglas, who immediately repaired to the spot, and assisted by a noble 
subscription raised in Great Britain, in the otlier British colonies, and in 
the United States. 

The towns on the Miramichi have now nearly recovered from this 
devastation, and present as good an appearance as formerly; but the 
land will not soon recover from the loss of its timber, and the actual 
injury done it by such a combustion. 

At Caraquette, near the western extremity of the Bay of Clialeurs, 
(so named by the French navigator Cartier, from the excessive heat he 
experienced there), there is a pleasant village, with a church, the inha- 
bitants of which are descendants of the Acadians, with some admixture 
of Indian alloy. The land about it is good, but their principal subsist- 
ence is fishing. Along the eastern shore from INIiramichi north to the 
Bay, the land is low, and but thinly settled, and ill cultivated, the 
inhabitants dividing their attention between agriculture, fishing, and 
hewing timber. The same remark will apply pretty generally to the 
whole northern shore of the province along the Bay of Chaleurs, and the 
Ristigouche. The small settlements along their banks having been 

VOL. II. T 



If I 



M' ' il 



i M 



.J 13 



138 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



si! 



formerly principally engaged in fishing, but which they now seem dis- 
posed to abandon, for the sake of the timber trade. 

An improvement winch has been long in contemplation, whicli was 
strenuously urged by Colonel Cockbin-n, and is now in active progress, 
cannot but very materially assist the advancement of this county. This 
is the new road from Halifax to Canada, along the eastern portion of the 
province, from the head of the liay of Fundy, through Westmoreland, 
on the bank of the Pcticoudiac lliver, through the county of Northum- 
berland to Chatham, across the smaller branch of the IMiramichi, and 
thence by Newcastle and IJathurst, on the banks of the Ristigouche, till 
it joins the Kempt road at IMatapediac, most desirable in every point of 
view, both as a shorter and safer communication between Halifax and 
Canada, and as establishing a line of communication through a chain of 
the most fertile settlements in the province of New Brunswick. There 
is not the slightest doubt that this important advantage will more than 
any thing contribute to the rapid improvement of the liitherto too much 
neglected county of Northumberland. 

The population of this county at the time of the census in ISS-t, 
and by the most recent computation, together with that of all the other 
counties, is stated in the general population table below. 



Population of New Bnnisuick hi/ Counties. 



u 



f * 



COINTIES. 


No. of 
Parishes 
in each 
county. 


Population. 


Remarks. 


York County 

Charlotte ditto . 

Siinbury ditto . 
Quct-n's ditto . 
Kinji's ditto 

St. John's ditto 

Wi'stniorcland ditto 
(iloucfstor ditto 
KtMit ditto 
Nortinmiburland ditto . 


10 

!) 

4 

7 
3 
I? 

^1 


10,(»72 

J),267 1 

3,227 
4,741 
7,5)30 

12,!»07 \ 
15,»2<J 


Iiiclndinfi the population of Frederickton. 
Thi.s county includes the pojiulationofthc Islands 
of Canipo Bcllo, Grand Manan, and the West 

Isles. 

Including the population of the city of St. John's, 
which amounts to t3,4Uii souls. 

Total in 1824. 
Increase since that year. 


G4 


74,1 7<i 
l!),r.24 


!»3,70O 


Population of the province in 1(131. 



J i^' i 



CHAPTER X. 

General Remarks — Soil — Climate — lloads — Produce — A^rieiiltiirc — Population — In- 
Labitants — Religion — State of Learning — Trade — Exports and Imports — Lumliering 
— Revenue — Militia — Government — Tribunals. 

Having tlius cursorily traversed the several departments of this 
province in detail, we will proceed to a few general remarks on its re- 
sources and capabilities. AVe use the term cursorily, because, when all 
the information we have given is com])ared with the inunense extent of 
the domain, it may appear meager and unsatisfactory; bu. througliout 
this vast expanse of territory, the resting places (if we may use the term), 
or particular points requiring local description are comparatively so few, 
as to give to any account of it a vague and sketchy appearance. Great 
as is its extent, and almost incalculable as are its resources, so small a 
portion of the former has been a])propriated, and so little of the latter 
called into action, that it may almost yet be termed a vast wilderness. 
Enough however has been seen, and done, and acted on, to convince us 
of its immense value as a possession, of the advantages it enjoys as a 
field of colonization, and the probabilities of its becoming as fruitful, 
populous, wealthy, and hap])y a portion of the British Empire, as any that 
art, perseverance, industry, and policy have rescued from the dominion of 
desolation and barbarism. New Hrunswick, after all that has been liitherio 
done towards reclaiming and settling it, may still be considered as a 
vast forest : but then it is a forest ])ossessing such advantages, its present 
wild luxuriance bearing such strong testimony to its fertility, its great 
extent of coast and abundance of harbours so inviting to conmierce, its 
multiplicity of navigable streams affording ready access to its very heart, 
furnishing such facilities of intercourse, and its intersection in every 
direction by chains of settlement and civilization, giving at once an 
earnest of what may be done and an assistance to the doing of it, as may 
convince all those who have the hardihood to tax the productiveness of 
nature for subsistence, and to subdue her ruggedness to the sagacity and 

T 2 



V:' 




*rtB 




140 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



industry of man, that nowhere can a more profuse reward, a more certain 
and profitable result, be promised to their perseverance. Tlie immense 
tracts of country covered by forest trees may, to those who have been 
used to the beaten paths of society and civilization, convey an appalling 
idea of gloomy desolation, but yet they possess such features of romantic 
grandeur and picturesque beauty, as cannot fail to raise in every mind 
at all tinctured with the love of Nature's charms, emotions of the liveliest 
admiration and delight. We cannot present this effect to the reader 
more agreeably than by the following vivid descrij>tion, from the pen of 
a writer, to whom we have in the course of this work been before obliged. 
" The magnificent splendour of the forests of North America is pecvdiar 
to that vast country. In Europe, in Asia, in Africa, and even in South 
America, the primeval trees, how much soever their magnitude may 
arrest admiration, do not grow up in the promiscuous style which pre- 
vails in the groat general character of the North American woods. Many 
varieties of the pine, intermingled with birch, maple, beech, oak, and 
other numerous tribes, branch luxuriantly over the banks of lakes and 
rivers, extend in stately grandeur over the plains, and stretch proudly up 
to the very summits of the mountains. 

" It is impossible to exaggerate the autumnal beauty of these 
forests ; nothing imder heaven can be comi)ared to it. Two or three 
frosty nights in the decline of autumn transform the boundless verdure 
oi' a whole empire into brilliant scarlet, rich violet, every possible shade 
of blue and brown, vivid crimson, and rich yellow. The fir tribes alone 
maintain their unchangeable dark green ; all others, on mountains or in 
valleys, burst into the most glorious vegetable beauty, and exhibit the 
most s])lendid and the most enchanting ])anorama on earth * " These 
very forests too furnish the first and most practicable source of wealth 
to the settler; for though they must needs be felled before he can 
apply himself to the only certain and j)ermanent source of subsistence, the 
actual tillage of the ground, the valuable timber they afford, is the most 
tem])ting, because the earliest available fund of reuumeration. It has 
another reconnnendation too, it is a fund almost inexhaustible ; for 



* Historical and Descriptive Skotclies, &c. J. IM'Grogor. fide ante. 



FORESTS— STREAMS-PRODUCE. 



Ul 



centuries has the axe of the woodman pursued its prostrathig course in 
the woods of America, and for ages it may yet do so, and millions, yet 
unborn, carry on the work before these worlds of timber shall be re- 
moved, or even thinned. 

Uut little wouhl this advantage avail either the settler, the mer- 
chant, or the mother country, unless these immense tracts of woodland 
were traversed by some ready means of transporting their valuable pro- 
duce. ^Vere there no means of conveying this produce from ])lace 
to place, and most of all to the seaboard, but by land carriage, then 
must it flourish or rot on its native soil, for human industry could 
not remove it, but by an expense far exceeding even its important 
value. Hut, as has been observed, that one great characteristic of the 
American countries is the number of streams by which tliey are, in all 
directions, traversed and intersected, so have we seen that, in this grand 
advantage, the province of New Brunswick liberally participates. Almost 
entirely bounded by water, salt or fresh, we have also found its various 
counties irrigated and connected by spacious and navigable lakes and 
rivers; insomuch, that throughout its vast extent there are very few 
leagues destitute of the advantage of water carriage. A recapitidation 
of the rivers would here be needless ; all the principal have been named, 
and their courses described in our topographical sketch of the various 
counties by which they are traversed. And though agriculture has as 
yet extentled itself over a comparatively small portion of this province, 
the success which has attended it in all places where it has been perso- 
veringly pursued, furnishes adequate data of the capabilities of the soil ; 
and did these require confirmation, not only docs the quality of the 
timber now growing attest the fertile properties of the land ; but ex- 
plorations, made for the express pur[)ose of ascertaining its value, concur 
in representing that there are few, very few tracts of land in the province 
unconvertible to the very highest purposes of productive science. On 
this head we have much pleasure in referring to extracts from the valuable, 
intelligent, and accurate report, so diligently collected by Colonel Cock- 
burn, for the information of the colonial department of the British go- 
vernment, to be found in our Appendix, and from which it appears that 
many interior parts of the country as yet but very thinly settled, and 



111 



-t» 



tl 



142 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



others, before unexplored, offer tlie most tempting capabilities to the 
operations of agriculture. 

Perhaps the shores of the Bay of Fundy being bold, rugged, and 
rocky, offer fewer inducements to tillage than any other part of the 
country; but this is abundantly compensated by their mineral products 
(though not extensive), and more especially by their harbours and their 
fisheries ; tiie latter forming a valiuible article both of subsistence and of 
commerce, whilst the former necessarily make this tract of country the en- 
trepot of a very considerable ])ro])ortion of the trade of the whole province. 

The climate of this country, though to Kuropoans it may appear 
severe ar.d dreary, seems to occasion no important disadvantages either 
to health or the pursuits of husbandry. It would be superfluous here to 
re-argue the causes of the atmosphere in certain latitudes of America being 
colder than in the same parallels of latitude in Europe ; in our remarks 
on the climate of the Canadas were mentioned the o|)inions of men of 
science on the subject : b\it we may notice that the climate of New 
Brunswick has been graduajly ameliorating for some years past, as the 
thermomctrical tables will show ; the excesses botli of heat and cold 
having considei'ably moderated. In 181() the weather was excessive, 
and it lias been gradually improving since that time. 

To incpiire further than v»'ehave done into the causes of this change 
would perhaps exceed our capacity, as it certainly woidd the room we 
coidd spare for such an investigation in the present work. The clearing 
of liind inthdiitably tends to moderate the excess of cold, as observation 
lias abundantly proved ; and this perhaps by ex])osing the surface of the 
earth to the beneficial action of the sun's rays ; but tliis operation has not 
been carried on in New Brunswick to a suflficient extent to account for 
any general alteration in the climate of the province. The seasons corre- 
spond nearly with those in England ; that is to say, the hottest month is 
•July, and the coldest .Tanuary, the thermometer in the former month rarely 
reaching much above })0", nor in the latter lower than from 10" to 20" below 
zero; thougli these are not given as the actual maximum and minimum, 
so much as a mean of its general range. The winter commences with 
November, in which montli snow usually falls and the streams freeze, nor 
arc they relaxed from this bondage till April. December, however, is often 



lii 



CLIMATE— ROADS. 



143 



a month of moderate cold, and by no means unpleasant. 'Die weather in 
April is j)t to be dull and heavy, but in May the spring advances with 
an asto»iishing rapidity to the luxuriant fertility and glowing fervour 
of summer. The very rapid transition from one season to the other in 
America has elsewhere been adverted to, and the ^onsecjuent sudden 
progress of vegetation whicli occasions the soil to engender and to yield 
luxuriantly all its valuable products within a space which to Kuropcan 
husbandmen would seem almost impossible. It is the fact, however, 
that the seasons here rarely fail by reason of any extreme of the weather. 
Frosts occasionally occur throughout the sununer months ; and in those 
of spring and autunni the change froiM cold to heat, and vice vcraa, are 
frequently both sudden and excessive. This is attributable to the varia- 
tion of the wind, and the different effects it has, according to the ([uarter 
from which it blows, and the tracts it may have traversed. Neither these 
sudden changes, however, nor the extremes which the op])osite seasons 
include, ever seem to Involve any consequences hostile to the health of 
natives or Europeans. 

The length of the winter in a country so peculiarly situated as this 
is not without its advantages. In many of the least-thickly settled tracts 
the winter snow-roads are more practicable, and afford better access than is 
to be obtained at any other time, whilst the ice on the streams affords a 
facile means of communication, cf which in the season the ])ostman to 
Canada avails himself. Without the length and intensity of the winter, 
too, the lumberer would scarcely be able to carry on his laborious piu'suit. 
The excessive heat, no less than the immense multitude of flies and other 
vermin with which the woods swarm in the sunnner, would render it 
almost impossible for him to endure the fatigue and suffering, nor could 
he transport his manufacture through the forest with a tenth part of the 
facility which snow roads afford ; the melting of the snow in spring, if 
the timber be favourably })laced, often serving to float it to the nearest 
navigable stream. This leads us to speak of the roads, and it must be 
admitted that they are an advantage for which New Brunswick is not 
at the present period remarkable; indeed in a coiiiitry so thiidy settled 
it is scarcely possible thai they should be maintained in any degree of 
perfection ; but perhaps a greater draAvback on their efHciency than the 



i;, 




' 1: 



4 



144 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



! 



I 



|! 



r 



f! 



H 



ijl 



paucity of population and traffic, is the abundance of water conveyance 
in sununer and tlic practicability of the ice and snow in the winter, Avhich, 
by diminishing the necessity of a regular land carriage, of course decreases 
the incitement to provide it. The principal roads have been noticed as 
they occurred in our survey ; that from St. John's to Frederickton, and 
thence to Lower Canada, following the course of St. John's river, is the 
most important ; but during the spring and fall this is often scarcely 
passable. The new road from Halifax to Quebec, along the eastern side 
of the province, crossing the Miramichi, is in great progress, and the 
earnestness with which Colonel Cockburn has dwelt upon its advantages 
will no doubt hasten its completion. This will be a most valuable im- 
provement, affording a regidar and certain means of communication 
between Nova Scotia, the advancing settlements on the Peticoudiac, and 
the rapidly-improving tract of country between it and the flourishing 
settlements on the IS^iramichi, thence through the County of Northum- 
berland to the Risiigouche, across Gasp^ to the St. Tiawrence, and so to 
Quebec. As the settlements advance, however, which they are rapidly 
doing, the construction of roads must necessarily keep pace with them. 

The principal produce of this vast country, as we have already seen, 
is timber, which, in every part, except on the immediate coast, exists in 
almost inexhaustible profusion. It consists chiefly of pines, firs, spruce, 
hemlock, birch, beech, maple, ash, elm, and poplar ; oak is also found, 
but by no means in so plentiful a degree as the other woods before- 
mentioned. Of these the most valuable for commercial purposes is 
undoubtedly the pine. 

The soil seems favourable to the production of most of those grains, 
fruits, and vegetables which are in general request in Europe ; together 
with maizo, or Indian corn, in America always, from its being so extra- 
ordinarily prolific, a favourite article of culture. The soil, of which we 
are scarcely enabled to give a correct geological description, has been 
found in all those parts yet subjected to tillage favourable to the pro- 
duction of wheat, rye, oats, barley, beans, peas, buckwheat, and flax. 
To these may be added the ordinary esculent roots of Europe, such as 
turnips, carrots, parsnips, onions, beet, radishes; with domestic vege- 
tables, as cabbages, salads, cauliflowers, peas, &:c. not omitting that in- 






V1:GI:TAULI:s-1'KI ITS— AM MALS, \c. 



145 



valuable root tlio ])otat<u', Avliich lu-rc yields as l)ountiful an incroasf as 
in any country in whii'h its a(lvanta«;cs have yet Ihtu iiitrodueed. The 
islands, islets, and slips of interval near the beds of streams adord oood 
pastiu'e and abundatiee of hay, whieli render the rearinjf of live stoek 
easy and profitable. IJotanieal investigation, wv believe, has not yet 
been ])ursucd to the len<j,th of ))rodueiiin' a eatalo<;iie of the various 
plants and j^ra])es indi<ienous to the soil ; but white and red clover, 
timothy, lucerne, browntop, saintfoiu. and others, ordinarily urow in 
this country and produce satisfactory crops. 

A])ples, plums, cherries, currants. <;oos(.'bc'rries, strawberries, rasp- 
berries, and cranberries are plentiful, and form the ordinary produce of 
gardens; some jfra])es, of small size but •••ood flavour, are also produced; 
whilst ha/el mits. beech nuts, and butter nuts abound in the woodlands, 
and fallinn- on the yround after the j^reat frosts in lar^e (piantities, fur- 
nish a seasonable assistance towards the fattenini;" of ho^s. There arc, 
besides, a variety of wild ])lants of triHin<;- Aalui'. which it would be here 
superfluous to enmnerate, esj)ecially without a scientific classification. 

The animals found in this country differ but little from those which 
characterize the imited states. The moose deer, or elk, has been nearly 
extinguished by the avidity with which it v.as pursued by the early 
.settlers for the .sake of its skin. Hears, foxes, wolves, cariboo, sables, 
racoons, the minks, scpiirrel, weasel, nmsk rat, wild cat. and that valuable 
animal the beaver, are also natives of the .soil, and though not abundant, 
are not extinct. 

The ordinary domestic fowls of Kurope, such as turkeys, geese, 
ducks, fowls, are here reared with every facility; whilst partridges, wild 
geese, and ducks and pigeon.s, furnish objects for the sportsman. Crows, 
owls, and swans are also found, with many small birds, offering no pecu- 
liarities worthy of descri])tion. 

The rivers abound with salmon, .shad, eel.s, trout, ])erch, chub, and 
smelt ; and the harbom's, coasts, and adjacent fishing-ponds supply large 
([uantities of cod, haddock, mackerel, and herrings. 

In a country who.se productive capabilities have been so imperfectly 
called into action as have those of New Brunswick, the knowledge of its 
minerals must necessarily be far from complete. Unless some peculiar 

VOL. 11. U 



».,' 



■'•♦iffl'f'! 



11 



14(5 



NEW imi'NSWICK. 



clrcuinstanco directs tlie c'\ii)ltlity of man to the interior of the earth as 
a source of wealth, he will more naturally, and (always ultimately more 
profitably) eoiiHne his eares and researches t() its surface; and thouf;;h 
this province caimot he reckoned entirely unproductive as respects sub- 
terranean treasures, notliin<jf has yet occm'red to indicate such an abund- 
ance of any as may readily become a means of riches, ()r tempt the 
employment of laboui and capital below o-round. Scarcity of labour 
and of capital will generally check such speculations in a new country; 
and a forest of pines oilers a more temptin<;" Held to a small achenturer 
than an uncertain vein of <'()ld or of copper. The only mineral found 
here that has become an article of trade to any extent is o;ypsun), which 
is met with in lar<^e <piantities all alon<j,- the shores of the IJay of Fundy, 
and formed an im])ortant article of export to the I'nited States. To this 
may ])i'rlKips be added grindstones, j^n'cat numbers of which have been 
cut from (piarries near the eastern extremity of the same bay antl amongst 
the Miepody mountains, and lia\e found a ready sale in the same market. 
Coals are found in considerabl" <piantities in the neij^hbourhood of 
the (irand liake, as has been oefore noticed, and the indications are 
such as to lead to the assurance that no scarcity of this valuable mi- 
neral can occur in this province. Limestone, of {^ood quality, is also 
found in various parts, and many kinds of stone useful for buildin<;"s. 
]Man<;anese likewisf has bc'n met with on the shores of the IJay of 
Fundy. 

With regard to the state of agriculture in Xew lirunswick. there does 
not remain a j^reat deal to be added to what has been before observed. 
The temptation^ olVered by the hnuber. tind)er, and Hsliin^- trades have 
too nuich diverted the minds of early settlers from the more certain 
mode of establishinu' tlieir own wealtli and inde|)endence, and advancing- 
the interests of the colony. The cultivated lands lie principally on the 
mari>ins of the j>Teat streams: and thoujih they extend in some places 
backward to a distance of twenty or thirty miles, they form, we must 
sav, an almost insi<;niticant portion of the extent of the jjrovince. Their 
capabilities of |)roduction have been before noticed, and we believe that 
in no instance has any steady and persevering effort to render them pro- 
ductive been attended with loss or disappointment. It is true that many 



jhi 



ACiUICl'LTl UK— .STOCK. 



14^ 



of the early settlers, deHeieiit in ])erseveriii^ industry, removed from one 
loeation to another, and some of them even to the rnitetl States ; hnt the 
very spots soahandoned have, l)y the eonsistent applieation of snhse(|uent 
oeenjjants, heeome jjroduetive somres of eondort, if not of wi idth. Tiie 
proeess of elearin^j; and rednein;;' to tillaji;e waste or forest lands wv shall 
not here enter upon; and althou«;h the suhjeet has heen but sli<i,htly al- 
luded to in other parts of the work, en()u<;h has heen seen to show that 
the land of this provinee has seareely ever refused an ade<|uate renui- 
neration to the eonsistent Inishandman. The advaneement of ayrieulture 
was nuieh promolerl throuf^hout the ))rovinee hy the New llrunswick 
Agricultural Society, foundc(' in 1H','*>. Fr(»m two to live bushels of 
wheat are usually sown per acre, and they produce on an averaj^e from 
twelve to twenty-four bushels. Uye, which is eontini-d to the |)oorer 
lands, yields crops in about the same proporti«)n. Oats are a favourite 
crop, sown about two to three bushels per acre, and yieldinjf };cni'rally 
nearly lliirty. Maize flourishes abundantly on the low rich watered 
soils, producinj;- from ft)rty to forty-tive bushels ))er acre. I'eas and 
beans also thrive on the li<;hter soils, but an- not cultivated to any con- 
siderable amount : but on the newly-burnt lands, or those imperfectly 
cleared, the surest and most productive crop, yieldinj;'. in situations which 
can be applinl to no other sort of cultivation, from !.>(> to 'JOO bushels pir 
acre, and re(juirin<»- no labom* but that of the hoe. is the ])otat(H'. The 
Swedish turnip has also been found a profitable crop on new lands, beinj;' 
generally sown broad-cast, and not by drills. 

The number of the efleetive hands of the province, however, em- 
ployed in the hunber trade and fisheries, renders the quantity of grain 
produced very inadeijuatc to supply the demaiul ; and till the import- 
ance and Avorth of agricultiu-al pursuits are better a])preciated in \ew 
Urunswiek, grain, of which it might ])roduce incalculable (piantities, 
must be an article rather of import than of export. 

The islands and low interval lands produce hay in great quantities, 
and almost spontaneously : horned cattle, which have been brought from 
America, are plentiful ; horses are likewise numerous, and the breed has 
been of late years considerably improved by importations from York- 
shire and other northern parts of England. Sheep and swine prosper 

u 2 



\i 




14S 



M-w nui xswicK. 



^ 



I • 



very well, iiiiiny ^ood l)ro«'<lM ut' tlicsi- rxistinj; in larf^c mimlvT, .»ul 
throii^lioiit Nortlminlu'ilaiul tlity pride tliiinsclvcs on tlu'ir daiii. 

Tlu' |)t»|)iilatioii of Ni'W Hiiniswick licars no proportion to its > iist 
extent ; bnt the ratio of its inerease advaneis rapidly, as will he seen liy 
the (ieneral Tahli'. introdiieed in a sid)s((|iunt ehapter : in 1H17, the po- 
pulation of the province amounted to al)out 'i').(M)(», in 1H'J4 it had 
increased to Tl'. I7<'. n'xl it is now estimated at upwards of j).{,7()(). How 
this p()|>ulation is distributed throughout the |>rovince will appear, in sonio 
nieasin-e. from the tahic in p. I;{S. and further from the statements from 
time to time made of the population of various towns and districts in our 
topo^iraphical survey. 

These iidiahitaiits are composed of six diflerent classes. The Indians, 
or al)orij;inal natives, eomjirise the followin<j,' nations, whoareemnnerated 
hy the Maron de la Iloutan as natives «»f the Old Nova Scotia (including 
\e\v Brunswick), tlii' Ahenakie. Micmac. Canahas, .Mahin<>ans. Opeii- 
an^ans, Soccokis, and Mtchemins. from which last trihe tlu- j^ri-aler part 
of those who now remain are di-scen 'cd. This race of people, from their 
utter incapal)ility of associatinjT with pi-rsons of civilised habits, or bein^ 
weaned from tiieir native barbarism, haxc di'»'lined to a diminutive 
few; thev still adhere to their former mi^ratorv habits, but. thouuh 
freipiently ri'duced to extniiu' want, seldom commit depredations on 
])roperty. The j;reatcr part of them profiss the Uomish reli^fion, to 
which the) havi' l)i'en coUNcrted by catholic missionaries. The men 
continue to wear the conical cap, skin garment, lej^fiinijs, and inoccassins, 
thi'ir national costume: l)Mt the fcniidis have, for the most part, adopted 
the round hat, shawl, and short <j;own and petticoat. rcseiMblino; those of 
the French and l-'lemisb |)easantry. Th-j iVcadians, or neutral French, 
form, in order of priority, the next class of inhabitants: their history, 
manners, and settlements ha\e been n(>ticed in precediu};- ])arts of this 
work, .(\nother class of ancient resjjcv'tability, and not inconsiderable 
in point of innnbers, are what may be termed the o/(/ hiliahitaiifs and 
their descendants, who comprise those settled in the country before the 
conclusion of the American revolution, and so distinctively named 
by the iVmerican hiyalists and disbanded troops subse<(uently settled 
in the province. They were found well settled at Mangeeville, since 



Tin: IMlAinTANTS— |{i:i,l(i|()\. 



\M) 



wliifli tlifir progeny liavf spread tluiiisilvt's all over tlic ])roviiicr. 
Till' hulk of the population, however, is eouiposed of the Anieriean 
loyalists and their descendants, who, havinir saerifieed their possessions 
at the shrine of loyalty, converted large tracts of this vast wilderness into 
conifortahle independencies for their families; and with this class may 
he reckoned the disl)andi'(l soldiers, who, at the conclusi(»n of the war, 
received allotments in this province as a reward for their services and a 
nieans of future ct)mfort and ])r()sperity. To these must he added the 
Kin'opean emigrants, who at various times have swollen the popidation, 
and either formi'd separate settlements or, hy intermarriages and other 
coniU'xioMs, mixed themselves up with the more original population. 
There are also many free |)eopli' of coloju' settled throughout the 
pro\ ince ; in some ])la<'es seM>ral familii's together settled as farmers, 
hut in this occupation thi-y seldom thrivi-, tlwir unsteadiness more fre- 
quently reducing them to want, when tlii'y hecome the menial servants 
of others, a station for which they seem ln'tter fitted. 

The persons of the inhahitants of New Hrunswick are tall, well 
projjortioned, and athletic, and those horn in the ])rovince generally 
excel in stature those from whom they are descended. 'I'he spirit of 
manly independence, naturally inspired hy a e»)urse of life which throws 
man entirely on his own resources and energies, hringing him in contact 
with the grandest ohjects of nature alone, with little assistance from, «)r 
association with his fellow man, ,. rongly characterises the inhahitants of 
this province. They are tlevotedly loyal, hut it is fn)m correct jiulgment 
and good feeling, utterly removed from servility, whilst their maimers 
are marked hy a freedom rather amiahle than rejudsive. 

" In noticing the state of religion in this ))rovinee it may not he 
amiss to ohserve, that the old inhahitants, who came originally from 
New Kngland, where the genius of their church govermuent was rc- 
puhlican, were generally C'alvinists in their nu)des and doctrine, whilst 
the loyalists and others, who came to the coimtry in 17H.S, were generally 
churchmen, (piakers, or mcthodi.sts. The emigrants who have come since 
that period include all denominations. 

" The Church of Kngland is in a flourishing state in this province ; 
there are nineteen clergymen l)elonging to the estahlishment, who are 
under the jurisdiction of the IJishop of Nova Scotia. Many of them 



^i! 



■ '!■> 



1.50 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 



liavc liandsonie eliurchcs with numerous congregations. Two of tliem 
are emjjloved as itinerants for tlie vacant districts of tiie ])rovince, and 
several of tlie others serve two or more ])arishes. An ecck^siastical com- 
missary has the superintendence of tl>c whole. 

" The catholics have a few chapels, and aj)pear to he on the increase. 
Their congregations are chietly composed of emigrant Irish, French, and 
Indians. There are six clergymen in the province, some of whom are 
settled and others are employed as missionaries amongst the scattered 
French and Indians. 

" There are hut two ministers of the Kirk of Scotland in the 
province ; they have handsome churches in St. John's and St. Andrew's. 
There are, however, a mnnher of seceders from the preshyterian form of 
church government, hut all holdi/.g the doctrine of Calvin ; several of 
them hav? conunodious places of worshi]) and respectahle congregations. 

" Thore are no ])laces of worship helonging to Indians in this 
province, Tliere are, however, a few of these primitive worshippers 
scattered through tlie country, who, joining sincerity a:Hl honesty with 
plainness, are excellent memhers of society. 

" The methodlsts are a numerous and rcs])ectal)le hody of peo])le. 
There are four \\'csleyan missionaries in this ])rovince, with a nuuiher 
of methodist ])reach''rs w'no, although not immediately in coimexion 
with the missionaries, adhere strictly to the old methodist discipline and 
doctrine, and usually attend the conferences, which are held once a year, 
either in Nova Scotia or New Tirunswick, where the missionaries for the 
two jH'ovinces and the adjacent islands assemhlc to arrange the different 
stations for their preachers, and regulate the affairs, temporal and spi- 
ritual, of that hody. 

" The haptists are the descendants of those followers of jMr. Whit- 
field, who formerly were very numerous imder the denomination of 
new lights. They are a numerous class of people, and have several fine 
chapels. In general, a desire for the christian ministry is increasing in 
the province. Places of worship are erecting in most of the settlements, 
and such other ])rovision for the support of the gos])el provided as the 
ahilitics of the settlers will admit *." 



•r<i 



* Skutclies of New Brunswick, &c. 



!!f- 



STATE OF EDl'CATIOX. 



1.51 



The state of learning in a province so comparatively new as this, 
(that is, new in political importance and improvement, tlioiigh old in ex- 
istence), requires to be looked at with an eye of some indulgence. Not 
that any indifference to so important a consideration has ever been ma- 
nifested either by the government or the inhabitants, and a most marked 
improvement in this particular, within a few years, botli as res])ects the 
means and the etliciency of the ])ublic institutions, attests the anxiety of 
both to keep ])ace with their rising capabilities. It was not an uncommon 
thing, a short period back, to find ])ersons filling ))ublic situations most 
deficient in all beyond the bare rudiments of learning; but the liberal 
grants since made, for the purpose of advancing literature in the ])rovince, 
effectually guards against the recurrence of so degrading an incon- 
veniency. The principal and indeed the only collegiate institution is 
the college of New IJrunswick at Frederickton, endowed with a block 
of (5,000 acres of land, and established by royal charter. Tiie go- 
vernor and trustees of the college, however, finding their utility cir- 
cumscribed by a defect of powers and of nu'ans, siu'rendered their charter 
to the king, at the same time petitioning for an eidargement of both, in 
conseciuence of which, a new charter, of a more liberal character, was 
granted to them, dated ISth November, 182.'J, accompanied by a grant 
out of the royal reveimes of the ])rovince, for the ))urp()se of creeling a 
new college building, and providing a library and philosophical appa- 
ratus. This liberality of the crown was seasonably aided by a grant 
from the legislature of the province, which enabled the trustees to erect 
the handsome and commodious building, a view of which forms one of 
the gra])hic ornaments of our work. This establishment was opened for 
the rece))tion of students. 

liesides this college there are grannnar schools in every ])arish. sup- 
poi'ted partly by a grant of .f'.iO annually allowed by the legislature to 
every such ))arish-school, and another of L'.iO ))er aniuuu by the like au- 
thority, collectable from the inhabitants; so that there is no ))art of the 
province destitute of the means of education for its youth. Ihit the 
seminaries most resorted to by the bulk of the youth of the province 
are those under the ^Madras establishment, which extends its cares to 
every settlement. The number of pupils attendant on these institutions. 



\h %■ 



'•' i 



\\V. 



'I4#'^ 



l.J2 



KKW lUnXSWKK. 



in "? 



^' !i 



as coIU'cted from tlic ro]iort of the <>ovcnK)r ami trustees, was in I82.'J, 
;j,.'J.'{!); and in IS'JI. 4,,'i7i) *. j;ivin<;' an increase of upwards of 1, ()()() in one 
year, wliieh is demonstrative of the advance both of j)opukition and 
habits of civiH/ation. 

The track' of tlie ])rovince is confined, as respects exports, to the 
tind)er and lund)erin^' trade. sliip-buihiin_i;-, and the Hsheries ; tliese take 
])hice to the \\'est Indies and (ireat Hritain, from the former of which it 
receives in return rum, colfee, sugar, and molasses; and from the hitter, 
grain, sj)irits, and Hritisli manufactured goods. The trade in gypsum, lime- 
stone, and grindstones to the I 'nited .>ates is now nearly extinct, tliough 
they still furnish a market for that o^'tlie fish caught in the Hay t)f Fimdy. 

The ship-building is a trade which at one time involved a great 
amount of ca])ital, and emj)loyed a large iUU)d)er of hands; but from 
being overstrained, and other concurrent causes, this branch of connnerce 
became a source of so nnich loss to nndtitudes engaged in it, that as an 
article of trade for the IJritish market, the construction of ships has been 
comparatively abandoned, and is now confined almost exclusively to 
those made for the carrying trade and for the use of the fisheries. 

The tind)er and Imnber trade are avowedly the sta))le of the })ro- 
vince : the former being exj)orted to (Jreat Hritain, and the latter to the 
West Indies; and J.ese being tlu' natural imassisted produce of the ])ro- 
vince. they nmst for many years to come be the most ])'entiful article it 
can have to dispose of. Hut though the fine growth of timber has always 
furnished an abuiulant sup))ly to an ever-demanding market, yet has 
not this trade ))roved by any means a permanently profitable one to 
those largely engaged in it. From s])eculating too extensively, and 
engaging too many hands on the spot, to whom advances of money and 
provisions have to be made, and drawing bills, which have become due 
before a fair market could be found, the stock has been sold at any ])rice 
that could at the monient be obtained, to satisfy ♦^he more pressing de- 
mands, so that the speculation has ultimately turned out of infinite loss ; 
and in this way multitudes of timber and lumber adventurers have been 
ruined. Xow against improvident undertakings or monopolies of timber 
it seems peculiarly desirable to guard, because the standing trees, judi- 
ciously managed, furnish a permanent and lasting stock, ■which, sent into 



LUMBERING—TIMBER-TRADR. 



153 



market in a just proportion to tlie demand, will contribute to defray the 
expenses of all improvements, and materially faeilitate the means of 
amelioration to the province. Ti»e -wholesale and imjjrovident imoads 
upon the forests made by American and other speculators, dis])roportion- 
ably decrease the main stock, at the same tin)e that they lower the market; 
and by the injudicious mode adopted in fellinj^ and collecting, frecpiently 
injure the land, whilst the removal of them in nowise contributes to the 
elearinj^ ; because as not above one tree in a thousand answers the s])ecu- 
lator's purpose, he proceeds throuj^h the forest, thinning" it of its wealth, 
but not in the slightest degree f^flbrding a facility to the subse(iuent 
settler. The best and most wholesome way in which this trade can be 
conducted appears to be, when the settler of restricted means finds him- 
self located upon lands, which in the first place have to be cleared, and 
in the winter months, when he cannot be advancing his agricultural 
operations on the portion of land he may have cleared, he turns to the 
adjacent forest as a source at once of employment and profit. With no 
more costly nor complex apparatus than an axe, he fells and squares the 
pine ; if he have a team, he employs it to draw the produce of his labour 
to the nearest stream ; if not, he either goes on shares with some neigh- 
bour who has, or joins in a party with several settlers near him, who 
amongst them are able to furnish a team, and so ])romote the views of 
each other. In this manner the tedium and idleness of the winter months 
are avoided, a fund is provided for the maintenance of the settler's family 
or the reimbursement of ex])enses he has already been at, the land is 
cleared of its valuable timber only in proportion as it iiecomes settled 
and cultivated, the market is suppli^ •! more gradually and steadily, and 
the wealth bestowed by nature on tl i soi' f'^uls its way into the ))ockets 
of those who seem legitimately cntilied to it. The disorders j)roduced 
by the lumbering and timber tiade, when j' ;:r;ued as a wholesale specu- 
lation, have been before poinicu out: in justice liowever to the early, 
though improvident adventurers in this branch of connnerce, we must 
admit, that to the rigour with which it was pursued, St. John, Fre- 
derickton, and St. Andrew's owe their rapid rise, advancement, and pros- 
perity. The only other branch of trade for which tliis province at pre- 
sent offers facilities is its fisheries. As has been noticed, all the harbours, 
VOL. II. X 



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NEW URUNSWICK. 



iiiul the wliole line of coast of the Bay of Fuiuly, the north-eastern coast 
above Miramichi, and the IJay of Chaleiu's, afford abundant produce of 
this kind, Avhieh is cured, furnisliino; a plentiful supjjly to the home 
market, and a larf;e fund of ex])ortation to America, the mother country, 
and the AN^est Indies. 

ITnder the head of manufactures little can be said in a ))rovince so 
imperfectly po])ulated, cultivated, and im])roved as is New Brunswick. 
The jrrindstones, formerly cut in large (piantities from (puirries near the 
Hav of Fundy, the ciu'ed fish last noticed, the scjuared tiud)er and sawn 
boards furnished in large (juantities by all its most flourishino- districts, 
com])rise all the ])roduce that can in any way be termed manufactured. 
The quantity of tind)er shijjped from the various ])orts of this province 
in 1S1»4. was 3121, 211 tons. 

Comparing the ex])orts and imports of New Brunswick with the 
po])ulation, they will tend to furnish a very favourable view of the ac- 
tivity, comfort, and wealth of the inhabitants, and of the productiveness 
of the countrv. 

Wv shall take the year lS2-t, confessedly a prosperous one, but 
sufficiently remote to afl'ord a fair average. The im])()rts in that year 
were, including the port of St. Andrew's, in 1,070 vessels, of 2M),05if 
tons, navigated by 11,:3.'57 men; the cargoes valued at 514,.';.57/. ; the 
exports at the same period were, in \,2il'i vessels, measuring li74-,17'i 
tons, navigated by 12,2iii seamen, the value of their cargoes amounting 
to 4()2,()4.'j/. sterling, to which may be added the price of sixty new 
vessels sent to (ireat Britain, as payments, and ^\hich, estimated at 10/. 
])er ton, the whole measuring 1(),4SS tons, may be reckoned as 1()4,S80/., 
making the whole amount of exp(n*ts ()'J().J)2.'}/. — no contemptible ])roduce 
for a population of from 7*>.000 to 80,000 souls. The tables of exports 
aiul imjjorts state these matters nu)re ])articularly, and bring them down 
to a later date ; showing how inevitably a tract of country ])ossessed of 
so great natural advantages nuist advance in prosperity, increasing its 
own wealth and that of the mother country. 

The revenue of the province in the same year amounted to 44,()70/. 
2s. ()(/. currency of the province, and in 1S30 to 4i),070/. O.y. 5\</., the 
Avhole of which is applied to local improvements and j)rovincial purposes. 



MILITIA— GOVERNMENT— COL jlTS. 



155 



The militia of the province consists of twenty-three battalions, each 
conii)risini;- from six to eif>;ht coni])anies ; a company consisting of one 
captain, two subalterns, three scrjeants, and sixty rank imd Hie. The 
enrolling; of the militia is effected in districts, into which the province is 
divided as res))ects this pur])ose only, and each district furnishes two 
companies, but in some of those more remotely situated and thinly 
settled, which cannot ])r()vide two companies, but exceed the number of 
sixty-five, they are allowed to enrol eighty men m one company. The 
entire effective force usually amounts to about 1 2,000, which are under 
the orders of the connnander-in-chief, who ap])oints an inspecting field- 
ofllicer, before whom they are assembled by companies, two days in each 
year, for drill, and in battalions or divisions whenever the connnander- 
in-chief thinks ])roper to appoint. The regulations for this force, how- 
ever, are frecpiently varied by the provincial legislature. 

The constitution and government of New lirunswick are assimilated, 
as nearly as circimistanccs will allow, to tliose of the other British Ame- 
rican provinces and of the mother country. The executive power is 
1 ested in the lieutenant-governor, who is assisted in his administration 
Ity a council of twelve members, which council has also a legislative 
capacity, resembling that of the house of peers in (Jreat Britain. There 
is likewise a representative assend)ly, consisting of twenty-six members, 
electei by the different counties, as follows : — for St. John, Westmore- 
land, Charlotte, and York, i'our each ; for King's, Queen's, Sunbury, and 
Northumberland counties, two each ; besides two for the city of St. John. 
To all local and financial laws the consent of this assembly is recpiisite. 
Those interfering Avith acts of the British legislatmv cannot be in force 
till they have received the sanction of his Majesty. Tlie assembly sits 
for a period of about two montiis, during tlie winter, at Frederickton. 
whither it is sunnnoned by ])roclamation of the lieutenant-governor. 

The other tribunals of the province are, the court of chancery, of 
which the lieutenant-governor is chancellor, and the judges of the su- 
preme court, assignees, and which adds to its e<|uitable jurisdiction that 
of a prerogative court, as respects the regulation of wills, dvc. The go- 
vernor and coimcil likewise constitute a court for determining all cases 
of divorce. The supreme court of judicature consists of the chief-justice 

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and tlirce ])uisnc justices, and holds its sittin<js at Fredoiickton ; its juris- 
diction combines that of the courts of kin<>'s-hench, connnon-))leas, and 
exche(|uer in Kn<fhind, and determines all causes of importance whether 
civil or criminal. The judges of this court likewis(> hold circuits throuffji 
the diflerent counties; their salaries are 500/. each ])cr anmnn, that of 
the chief-justice 7')()/. per annum. There is likewise an inferior court of 
common-pleas, consistin<^ of two, three, or more justices, assisted by the 
county nia<;istrates, and which holds its sittinj^s occasionally; its juris- 
diction extending; to all maimer of civil causes, where the jjroperty con- 
tested is not of lar<fe amount, and also to criminal matters not ])nnis)ial)le 
with death. To this court the .-ounty graiul juries present all bills of 
indictment, and if found to be beyond the jurisdiction of the court they 
aresciii to tiie court above. This court has also the control of the police 
throu! "*ut the counties and ))arjshcs, and usually holds 1'au or more 
>.itti!iii; - umally in each, for the regulation of such mutters. i\t these 
■•■ittings I'll dilVerences respecting taxes are decided, parish accounts 
a;ali'("tl. parish ollicers a])pointed, licenses to innkeepers and dealers 
issued. :,H, in short, nmch the same routine of business takes jdace at 
the (juait'-ily-sessions in Middlesex. There are, moreover, inferior local 
coiu-ts, under the presidency of a magistrate, for the recovery of small 
debts inider five pounds. 

From the view which we have given of this vast province, it will 
be found not to be an unimportant part of the liritish iVmerican Do- 
minions. In resources it ))resents a field of riches almost incalculable; 
tiiey wait but the acce])tance of man, at the \)m-c of that reasonable in- 
dustrv. without which nothing tridy valuable can be obtained. Our 
o])inions I'.pon emi.>Tation will be found at length in another part of this 
work, and we won fl not wish here to anticipate them ; but if there be a 
redundant population in the mother country, which it is advisable to 
remove to another, here is indeed a tempting arena for settlement ; — u 
valuable stock on hand awaitin but he axe of the woodman, and ca- 
pabilities of ])roducing every s]>'cies of comfort ;■ .d even luxury almost 
beyond calculation. Fortunes .re not to be rapidly made in new 
countries, but if the certainty of providing for a family, and placing them 
all in independent circumstances, at least so far as to be beyond the reach 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



l.>7 



of want, is (lesirable, then is the temptation to colonization in this j)art 
«)f Americr- considerable, as the acconiplislunent of such an object is cer- 
tainly attainable. There is a severe but not an oppressive or unhealthy 
climate, there are lands that ask the hand of culture only, and tind)er 
and fish to afford a preliminary supply. If we were to contemj)late this 
large tract of territory adetjuately peopled, and its resources employed to 
their utmost extent, we should behold an em])ire, for wealth and power, 
excelled perhaps by few in the world. ^Vith rej;ard to the location of 
emigrants, or any other means of advancing coloJiization in this ])rovince, 
wc may be permitted to remark, that iis adjacency to the I'nited States, 
and that on a disputed line of boundary, is one strong inducement to 
reinforce the .settlements near the border ; no defence is so sure and effi- 
cacious as an attached and loyal ])opulation : and were the line of the 
Madawaska thickly settled, and that of the St. John, as far as Mars Hill, 
they would aflbrd a better security against the encroachments of iVme- 
rican cupidity than any chain of military })osts can ever furnish. Thus 
it will aj)pear, that no portion of our trans-atlantie ])<)ssessions better 
merits the attention of the Uritish government, or of purposed colonists, 
than New Brunswick. 



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CIIAPTKR XI. 

I'ltiNcr. Kduaki) Island.— Cipofjraiiliiial I'ositioii — History — Divisions and Suii- 
(livisions — Gonoral Surface — Ilarhours — Rivers — Settlements ^Climate — Soil — 
IVodnee — Aj^ricultiire — I'opiilation — 'Iiade — Society — Religion — (lovernnient. 

Tiii.s island i.s situated in the (Julf of St. Lawrence, in a kind of 
bay or rcce.ss, lyiJij? between t'apc IJreton, Nova Seotia, and New JJruns- 
wiek. It ranges in somewhat of a C're.seent form, between 4(5' and 47 " 7' 
nortli latitude, and 6'2 and ()4" 27' longitude west, from Greenwich. Its 
length, traced in this direction, is Iti't miles ; and its breadtli in the widest 
part, which is from Ueacon Point to Kast l*oint, towards its ca^'ern ex- 
tremity, thirty-four miles. Its form, however, is exceedingly insular, 
being in .some places indented with deej) harbours on both sides, making 
its width insignificant, and at others stretching boldly into the sea in 
projecting promontories and spacious headlands, swelling its breadth to 
the extent we have mentioned. It lies conveniently near to the provinces 
before named, the distance from AN'est Ca])e to Richibuctoo being eleven 
miles, from Cape Traverse to Nova Scotia, across the Strait of North- 
umberland, nine miles, and from Kast I*oiiit to Cape IJrelon twenty-seven 
n)iles. From the nearest point of Newfoimdland it is 12;5 luib's. 

This island was amongst the early discoveries of Cabot ; but no 
claim was ever made by the Knglish on that account. The French 
afterwards assumed it, as ])art of the discoveries of Verazani ; and in 
KJU.'J a grant of it was made by the coinpany of New France; but the 
anxiety of the goverimient of France to foster the colony of Cape lireton 
induced them to afford little counteuance or eticouragemont to that of 
the island of St. John. The natural advantages of the island, in respect 
of soil and its situation for fishing, however, induced maiw families both 
from Cape Breton and Acadia to settle here after the i)eaiv of Utrecht. 
The surrender of I^ouisburg to (ireat Britain in 1*58 was followed by 
the cession of this island : from several a[)pcarances observed on the 



HISTORICAL SKKTCH— OlKi: (M- KKNT. 



\:>v 



it was interred tlmt tlio |)riiieipal part of it 
by tribes of iMicmac Imliaus, with wlioiu the 



ishind at this possession, 
had lon^ been inhabited 
Acadians had, in a j^reat measure, assimihited. St. John's was asst)- 
ciated with the ^overnnjent of Nova Scotia in 17().'i, and in 177') the 
oflieial survey of it luuler the JJritish <;'overninent was aeeonipUshed 
by the hite Major IIoHand, then his majesty's surveyor-iicncnil in 
North America, whose family now reside «)n the island. Tiie island 
was shortly afterwards divided into sixty-seven townships, containing 
about !2(),()()() acres ciich, which were granted severally to such indivi- 
duals as government conceived to have claims upon them. One con- 
dition (amongst others) of the grants was, that they should be settled 
within ten years, in the ratio of one person to each !>()() acres, one 
fourth of such settlement to })0 ellccted within the first four years 
with emigrants from Kuroj)e or other ])arts of ^\merica. iNIany of 
the original grantees, however, surrendered, or alienated their property, 
which in a short time became monopoli/ed by a coui])aratively few 
individuals; but when the lands of the adjacent colonies became more 
thickly ])eoplcd, the value of the land in this island became more justly 
appreciated and in greater recpiest. In 17()S the island was erected 
into a separate government, though at that tin)e it possessed not more 
than five resident proprietors, nor did its total munber of inhabitants 
exceed l.'iO families. For the subseciuent five years nuu'h pains were 
taken to increase the settlements by importations of Acadians, High- 
landers, and other disbanded troops. In 177.'i the Hrst house of assembly 
met, and the constitution of the colony was definitively settled under 
the administration of Ciovernor I'aterson, which lasted from 17()H to 
178J). The colony seems to have sufl'ered greatly by the attem])ts of 
this governor and his successor to de])ri e the settlers of their lands and 
monopolize them to themselves. In 17J)}) the colony was honoured by 
the notice of that illustrious prince and intelligent ollicer, his late lioyal 
Highness the Duke of Kent, who ordered the barracks to be rebuilt, and 
caured three troops of horse to be raised ; and in compliment to him the 
name of the island was altered from St. John to that of I'rince Edward. 
The Duke of Kent resided in the colonies for about ton years, at two 
different periods, and during the latter of which as conunander-in-chief 



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PRINCK KDWAHD ISI,AND. 



of the IJritisli forirs in America. Tlif liciul-cjiiartcrs were at Halifax, 
wlienc'c his lloyal Iligliiit'sssaileilfoi- Kiij^land on tlie.'Jrdof Aufjfust, IKOO, 
carrying with hini the sincercst regrets, the respect and attachment not 
of the inhabit ints of Nova Scotia alone, but of all the sister prox ..ices. 
The go\ernnicnt of the island is now administered by (lovernor Ueady, 
under whose authority a new assembly enactetl numerous laws for tin' well- 
bein,; of the coK>ny, imder which it has steadily and rajji'lly advanced to 
that degree of prosperity which now renders it one of tiie most envial)U' 
portions of the king s extensive dominions in that tpuirter of the world. 
Prince Kdward Island is divided into three counties, these again 
into fourteen parishes, and these fiu-ther into sixty-seven townships, in 
the manner sho\v!i l»y the following tabular statement. The town- 
ships (!> not all contain exactly the same number of acres ; but, as before 
stated, they average about '2(».()00 acres each ; .some a little above, and 
some a little below that i uiiber; which variations, however, we have 
not thoui';ht it material to point out. 



Counties. 



Parishes. 



St. Andrew's 



Townships. 



St. Oi'orge's 



Kino's County 



St. Pntrick's 



East Parish 



No. 50 
53 



r»() 

()(), and 
George Town. 
3}{ 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
40 
47 



h * 



DIVISIONS AND SrHDIVISJOXS. 



161 



Counties, 



I'lirithcs 



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Ilillsliorou^li 



Grenvil!( 



Quekn's County / 



iiliittr 



Bedford 



St. Jolm's 



North Parish 



Egniont 



Piuncb's County ' 



Halifax 



Richmond 



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HiotDgraphic 

Sciences 
Corporation 




23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. MS80 

(716) 872-4503 












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169 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



Counties, 



Parishes. 



I 



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Townships . 





' 


■ No. 1« 
19 
25 


nce's County < 


St. David's . . ., 


26 
27 
28 and 




to 


Prince's Town. 


Prince's county contains 


467,000 acres 


Queen's .... 


480,400 


King's .... 


412,000 


Waking the total surface of the island . 


1,305,400 acres 



From this it will appear that a town plot is reserved for each 
county; viz. George Town, in King's County; Charlotte Town, in 
Queen's County; and Prince Town, in Prince's County. 

The general appearance of Prince Edward Island is picturesque and 
attractive, destitute of those bold romantic features which form the 
characteristic of most parts of the adjacent continent ; it presents a sur- 
face naturally, where it is not artificially, fertile, swelling in gentle undu- 
lations, and clothed with verdure to the water's edge. There is no con- 
tinued tract of absolutely flat country, nor does it any where reach the 
elevations of mountains. The principal high lands are a chain of hills, 
traversing the country nearly north and south from De Sable to Grenville 
Hay : with this exception, the land has few inequalities which interfere 
with the ordinary pursuit of agriculture. 

The island is so indented and intersected by numerous bays, creeks, 
and inlets, there is scarcely any part of it more than eight miles distant 
from tide water. From this circumstance the coast furnishes several 
convenient harbours. The principal of these is that of Charlotte Town, 
situated on the south-west side of the island, at the bottom of Hills- 
borough Bay, and at the confluence of the three rivers, Hillsborough, 
York, and Elliott. It is one of the most secure in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and though not more than half a mile in breadth at the entrance, 
it soon widens into a capacious haven, into which flow the three 



BAYS AND HARBOURS. 



\63 



rivers we have named. It is not very strongly fortified, but is sur- 
rounded by many situations which could easily be placed in a state to 
defy any naval attack. A battery in front of the town, another near the 
barracks, and a third on Fanning Bank, with a block-house at the western 
point of entrance, constitute all the defences that are regulai'ly kept up. 
The harbour of George Town is also spacious and commodious, situated 
on the eastern side of the island, and also at the entrance of the three 
rivers, the Cardigan, Brudenelle, and JMontague ; it possesses the advan- 
tages of being frozen later and opening earlier in the spring tlian any 
other harbour in the gulf, and of lying in the direct track of vessels from 
Europe to Quebec. Its entrance is wide, deep, and free from sand-bars : 
the whole inlet abounds with fish and facilities for taking them. Darnley 
Basin formed by Prince Town on one side, and Alanby Point on the 
other, is the harbour for vessels belonging or trading to Prince Town ; it 
is on the south-east side of Richmond Bay, but affords no accommodation 
for large vessels. Richmond Bay is a very spacious inlet of the sea on 
the northern side of the island, stretching ten miles from its entrance 
inland, and being nine miles wide, it almost divides the island, leaving a 
narrow neck from Webber Cove to Wilmot Cove, on the south-east side, 
of only one mile in width. The entrance to it, however, is contracted, 
but on the east side only, by a long narrow island stretching across 
its mouth. Several creeks, rivers, and smaller bays indent its shores, 
and no fewer than six islands stud its surface. Ship-building for export- 
ation, the fishery, and the timber trade have been carried on to some 
extent in this port. Turning on the north from Richmond Bay, at about 
sixteen miles distance, we find Holland Bay, which resembles the former 
in having its entrance almost entirely closed up by islands ; it is, how- 
ever, safely accessible: its principal harbour is called Cascumpecque, 
which is commodious and secui*e, and favourably situated for the fisheries. 
From this bay to the north point of the island the distance is twenty-four 
miles. South-eastward from Richmond Bay is Grenville Bay, possessing 
the harbour of New London, at the mouth of Stanley River, which af- 
fords good anchorage for small vessels, but not for such as draw more 
than twelve feet water. About eight miles fartlier, in the same direction, 
occurs Harris's Bay, equally remarkable for having a long slip of an island 

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lying across its entrance, accessible, however, on its northern side, to 
Harrington, or Great Rustico Harbour, which will admit schooners and 
small brigs. Into this bay flow Hunter's and Whatcly Rivers. On the 
southern side of the bay, entered beyond the southern extremity of the 
island before mentioned, is Stanho])e Cove, or I^ittlc Rustico Harboiu", 
N'ery delightfully situated, but accessible to small vessels oidy. Five 
miles further, in the same direction, is Bedford Ray, indenting deeply 
into the land. Its entrance is much narrowed by sand-hills stretching 
across from its eastern side; it will admit schooners and small brigs. 
Savage Ilarboiu-, about six miles eastward of IJedford, will admit only of 
boats. Saint Peter's, distant but a few miles, in the same direction, has 
a sand-bar across its entrance, and will admit small vessels only. Into 
this harbour falls the River IVIorel. Hence to the east point of the 
island no harbour occurs. Along the south-eastern shore, between East 
Point and George Town, or Three Rivers, there are Colville, Rolls, 
Fortune, Howe, and Rroughton IJays, all small harbours, calculated for 
light coasting vessels. Southward of George Town is Murray Harbour, 
enclosed by Rear Cape, and receiving three rivers, the JNIurray, the Fox, 
and South Rivers, on its southern side, and two, the Green and JNlink 
Rivers, on its northern. This is a spacious and well sheltered haven, 
but its entrance is rather difficult, nor can the vessels of a large class, 
loading outwards, take in the whole of their cargoes till they have passed 
the bar. Along the southern shore of the island there is no harbour of 
any im])ortance till we come to the spacious Ray of Hillsborough, re- 
markable for the harbour of Charlotte Town, which we have before 
noticed, and receiving the waters of the Hillsborough, York, and Elliott 
Rivers on its northern and western sides, and several others of inferior 
note on its eastern shores. Tryon Cove is a pleasant little harbour for 
small vessels, situated about twenty miles to the westward of Charlotte 
Town, and nearly opposite the Bay Verte in Nova Sco • it has a very 
dangerous sand-bar at its entrance, and will admit Oi <oats and very 
light schooners. Pursuing the line of the coast towards the west, we next 
encounter, at the distance of about eighteen miles, Halifax Ray. The 
harbour lies on the eastern side of the bay, and its entrance is sheltered by a 
small island ; at its head it branches into two rivers. It boasts several 



RIVERS. 



If) J 



shlp-buikling yards, and is a considerable port for tlie sliipping of timber. 
Westward of this again is Egniont Hay, a spacious estuary of about 
sixteen miles in width and stretching ten miles inland. It receives the 
Percival and Enmore liivcrs, and two smaller ones, but possesses no 
harboin* that is safely approachable cither by large or small vessels, being 
almost entirely blockaded by shoals which stretch far into the sea. ^Mong 
the extreme western shore of the island, from \W'st Cape to North Cape, 
there occurs no harbour whatever. 

Our account of the harbours has shown the multiplicity of rivers by 
which this island is traversed ; some of the j)rincipal of them demand a 
more particular notice. Hillsborough lliver is the most magnificent 
stream the island boasts. It rises near the north-eastern coast, at no 
great distance from Savage Ilarbom', in liedford parish, Queen's County. 
It flows in a south-westerly direction, through the same ])arish, gradually 
widening, and receiving in its coiu'se many tributary streams, the j)rinci- 
pal of which are, the I'isquit, which traverses, in a direction nearly due 
north, the township No. !i7 and Johnston llivers, which last has a similar 
direction, and falls into the main river in township .'J5 ; it forms, moreover, 
several bays and creeks, making in the whole a course of about thirty 
miles, till it falls into the bay of the same name at Charlotte Town, of 
which it constitutes the south-easterly boundary. The scenery on the 
whole course of this river is delightful ; it is edged by numerous flourish- 
ing farms, whilst the back ground of stately timber furnishes a majestic 
finish to the landscape. The tide extends its influence twenty miles 
beyond Charlotte Town. York River, which meets the Ilillsborough 
at the south-easterly angle of Charlotte Town, takes its source in Char- 
lotte parish, about five miles north-west of the town, and flows in a south- 
easterly direction, skirting the town on its south-west side, and receiving 
a large creek, which indents deeply into the town allotment, till it reaches 
the bay, its whole course being about ten miles, of which the tide extends 
to nine. Its banks are, for the most ])art, well settled, and furnished 
with farms in a respectable state of cidtivation. Elliott lliver takes its 
source in township No. 31 in Hillsborough parish, considerably to the 
west and a little to the south of Charlotte Town, and for some miles 
pursues a south-easterly direction, then turning north-easterly, and 



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PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



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widening in its course, receiving numerous creeks and small streams, till it 
reaches the bay, and forms a junction with the two other rivers, about a 
mile below Charlotte Town, and innnediately above Fort Amherst. The 
whole course of the river is well settled, and displays Nourishing farms, 
with scenery as romantic as any the wild features of the country afford. 
The three rivers, wliose conliuence forms the port of George Town, are 
the Cardigan, which rising in township No. .52, in St. George's parish, a 
few miles Avesterly of the town, pursuing a direction due east, forms the 
northern boundary of the town, and reaches the sea opposite IJoughton 
Island ; the IJrudenelle, whicli has its soiu'ce a few miles south-easterly 
of the town, and pursuing a course nearly parallel to that of the last 
named river, constitutes tlic southern limit of the town plot, and there 
meets the JNIontague, which, from this point, stretches south-westerly 
into the county to a distance of about ten miles. The other jn-incipal 
rivers are the Foxley, which, stretching from Holland Bay, south- 
easterly, through Egmont parish, terminates in a spacious lake bordering 
on Halifax parish, about eight miles from its mouth. This river, from 
the western side of Richmond IJay, stretches about a dozen miles, through 
townships l-t and 16 in Richmond parish, in a south-westerly course, and 
branches into various inferior streams, pursuing different directions, and 
extending to within a few miles of the southern shore. Roughton River, 
on the eastern side of the island, reaches the sea in Roughton Bay, a few 
miles to the northward of George Town ; for about seven miles from the 
sea it is a broad stream, of serpentine course, with wide sand banks ; to- 
wards its source it is much narrower, flowing south-easterly from town- 
ship .^-i. On tiie same coast, about twelve miles south of George Town, 
we find INlurray River, flowing into the harbour of the same name, whicli 
it reaches at about ten miles from its source, flowing in a north-easterly 
direction, between townships 63 and 6i, in St. Andrew's parish. The 
other rivers, which are of minor importance, have been named in our 
notice of the harbours into which they flow. 

Prince's County forms the north-western division of the island, ex- 
tending from North Point to some miles on the south-east of Richmond 
Bay, where it is separated from Queen's Comity by a division line, run- 
ning nearly due north and south from Cape Aylesbury to Brockelby's 



PRINCFS COUNTY— QUEEN'S COUNTY. 



1()7 



Cove. It contains 467,000 acres, besides the 4,000 assigned to the royalty 
of Prince Town. The lot assigned for the town is a peninsula, projecting 
into Richmond Bay on its eastern side ; the building lots, however, do 
not yet boast any houses ; but the whole of the pasture lots are settled, 
and converted into flourishing farms, stretching round Dandey liasin to 
Alanby Point on the gulf shore. The entire vicinity of llichniond 
Bay is well settled, comprising the villages of Ship-Yard, Indian lliver, 
St. Eleanor, Bentick River, Grand River, and a considerable village on 
the banks of Goodwood Cove, in township No. 13. Near the Nortli 
Cape is the settlement of Tigniche, in which the land has been found 
productive of wheat, barley, and potatoes to a very satisfactory extent. 
The shore from North Cape to AVest Cape is perhaps the least thickly 
settled of any part of the island ; but it boasts a rich soil, covered with 
lofty trees, and abounds with streams and ponds of water. The whole 
line of coast is w^ithout a harbour; but it is practicable for landing in 
boats, and no doubt its many advantages will quickly attract an adequate 
population. At Cape Egmont there is a settlement of Acadian French. 
The county is reported by Colonel Cockburn to contain equal quantities 
of good and indifferent land. The whole of it has been granted by the 
crown, but the township No. 15 has reverted to its possession. 

Queen's County adjoins Prince's County on the south-east, and 
extends about forty miles, embracing the whole width of the island, to 
Savage Harbour on the northern shore, whence it is separated from King's 
County by a line running nearly due south to the south-eastern shore, 
about ten miles eastward of Hillsborough Bay. It contains 486, 1 00 acres, 
besides 7,300 apportioned to Charlotte Town and Royalty. The prin- 
cipal settlement in this county is Charlotte Town, the seat of govern- 
ment and metropolis, if it may be so termed, of the island. The situation 
of this town, as mentioned in our account of the harbour, is at the con- 
fluence of the Hillsborough, York, and Elliott Rivers ; the two former 
of which bound two of its sides, the first on the north-east, the second 
on the south-west sides. It stands nearly in the centre of the island, 
with all parts of which it has ready communication, either by water or 
good roads. The ground on which it is built rises with a gentle slope 
from the river's edge to a moderate height ; the streets are regularly laid 






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IMUXCK KDWAIll) ISLAND. 



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out ill rcctan<;los, in buil(lin<^ lots of SOi'cot froiitaj>e and 160 depth, with 
vacancies at chosen intervals for stjuares; the number of houses already 
built amounts to nearly 400, several of the more recent being of very hand- 
some appearance. The public buildings are the court-house, in which 
the legislative assembly and the courts of chancery and judicature hold 
their sittings, the episco])al (church, the ne v Scotch church, a catholic and 
amethodist chapel, and the new market. The barracks are situated near 
the water. The as{)ect of Charlotte Town from the water is pecidiarly 
pleasing, rising in an amphithcatrical ascent from the water's edge, com- 
posed of gay and lively buildings, separated from each other by groves 
and gardens, whilst the quantity of land assigned to each house gives it 
tlie appearance of nearly twice its actual size. The fort lies on the south 
side of the harbour, and commands a charming view of Charlotte Town, 
the course of the Hillsborough lliver, parts of York and J^Uiott llivers, 
and of the various thriving and picturesque settlements on the banks of 
all three. 

On the northern shore of this county is the settlement of New 
London, in the district of (irenville IJay, including a very interesting 
new settlement called Cavendish. This district includes Elizabeth Town, 
Campel Town, and the whole chain of settlements round the bay and on 
the borders of the Stanley, Hope, and other rivers that fall into it, the 
Avhole of which are cultivated and thriving. At Rustico, on the same 
shore, are two Acadian French villages; and the banks of Hunter's 
and AVhately llivers arc thickly settled, principally by emigrants from 
Scotland. Between this and Stanhope Cove, Breckly Point presents a 
pleasantly situated and flourishing settlement, whilst, at Little Kustico, 
the extensive and well cultivated farms afford the most cheering and in- 
viting prospects. Along the coast to Bedford Bay, and thence to Savage 
Harbour, the land is pretty well settled, chiefly by highlanders. On the 
southern shore of this county, and on the eastern side of Hillsborough 
Bay, we have the district of Belfast, including the villages of Great and 
Little Belfast, Orwell, Pownall's, Perth, Flap River, and Belle Creek, 
and indeed the whole eastern and northern shore of the bay, from the 
estuary of the river to Beacon's Point, is thickly settled and in most 
flourishing circumstances. This part of the island was originally peopled 



KING'S COUNTY-CLIMATE OF Till-: ISLAND. 



\()9 



by about 800 emigrants froin Scotland, brought by tlie I^'arl of Selkirk, 
in ISO.'i, wlio, together with their descendants, are now as ])rosj)er()us as 
any inliabitants of tlie ishuid. The soil is favourable, agriculture Avell 
attended to, and crops are raised which furnish exports to New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. 

King's County comprises the eastern division of the island from the 
boundary line before mentioned, as dividing it from Queen's County, 
surrounded on its northern, eastern, and southern sides by the waters of 
the gulf. The town j)lot for CJeorge Town has been laid out, as before 
mentioned, at the contluence of the Cardigan, Montague, and IJrudenelle 
Rivers: but little progress has as yet been made in the erection of build- 
ings. The banks of the rivers in the vicinity are, however, tolerably 
well settled, and shi])-building and exportation of timber are carried on 
to some extent at the port. On the northern shore of this county, ad- 
jacent to Savage Harbour, and stretching thence to St. Peter's IJay, is 
a ])leasant line of settlement, with good farms, fronting on a small lake, 
and thence term*. I the lake settlements. The borders of St. Peter's liay 
and the banks of the River Morel are also thrivingly settled, and in 
rapid advancement towards improvement, from the exertions of Messrs. 
V\'^orrell, to whom the lands principally belong. On a peninsula, en- 
closing the bay from the gulf, is a very pleasant settlement called Cireen- 
wich. The whole line of coast thence, to the east point is cleared, set- 
tled, and cultivated by Scotch farmers, whose husbandry is greatly as- 
sisted by the quantity of marine productions thrown on shore, afford- 
ing valuable manure. Colville, Fortune, How, and IJoughton Rivers, 
stretching from the eastern shore deep into the land, :--v settled on both 
their banks, principally by Acadian French and Hi^^hlanders. The 
county is on the whole so thickly settled, and the villages lie so near to 
each other, that where water-carriage does not afford a complete and con- 
venient connnunication, good roads have been established, and are kept 
in constant repair. 

Though sitviated in the Gidf of St. I^awrence and surrounded by 
Canada, Nova Scotia, Labrador, and Newfoundland, the climate of Prince 
Kdward Island is by many degrees more mild and favourable than that of 
either of those colonies. The winter is two months shorter in duration, 

VOL. II. z 



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PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



and the frosts much less severe with a considerably less fall of snow. 
Another material advantage is the absence of fog, a vapoin* of very rare 
occurrence in this island, although in the immediate neighbourhood of 
places which are perpetually overhung by it. The sunnner season is 
considered to connnence in April, and during the month of May pro- 
gresses rapidly to its zenith. The trees acciuire their foliage, the flowers 
blossom, and the whole face of nature assumes a luxuriant appearance. 
Throughout .Tune, July, and August the heat is excessive, the thermo- 
meter rising from 80" to 90', and during this period thunder storms are 
frequent. About the middle of September the weather becomes cooler, 
and continues to increase its Avintry aspect throughout October, but even 
in November the weather is moderate and far from unpleasant. It is 
not till the middle of December that the frosts become severe and con- 
tinuous, and .January fre(juently arrives before the lakes and rivers are 
frozen over, or the ground covered with snow. The frosts generally 
continue throughout the months of .January, February, and March, 
during which the thermometer sinks many degrees below zero. About 
the latter end of February and the beginning of March the island is 
visited by severe snow-storms, accom])anied by hurricanes of wind, which 
})roduce iiauiense drifts. The duration of the winter cannot, however, 
be reckoned at more than four months at the utmost, its greatest 
severity not continuing more than eight or nine weeks, and the general 
freedom from moisture during that ])eriod induces some to give it a pre- 
ference to that of Great Britain. AVith regard to the salubrity of the 
climate, we may be allowed to quote the opinion of Mr. Stewart, whose ac- 
count of Prince Edward Island is somewhat scarce : "The fevers and other 
diseases of the United States," says that intelligent writer, " are unknown 
here. No person ever saw an intermittent fever produced on the island, 
nor will that complaint, when brought here, ever stand above a few days 
against the influence of the climate. I have seen thirty Hessian soldiers, 
who brought the disease from the southward, and who were so much 
reduced thereby as to be carried on shore in blankets, all recover in a 
very short time ; few of them had any return or fit of the complaint, after 
the first forty-eight hours from their landing in the island. 

" Pulmonary consumptions, which are so common and so very dc- 



SOIL— TIMRER— FRCITS. 



171 



structivc in the northern and central states of America, arc not often 
met with here ; probably ten cases of this com])laint have not arisen 
since the settlement of the colony. A very larjfe projmrtion of the 
peoj)le live to old age, and then die of no acute disease, but by the gradual 
decay of nature *." 

The whole of the land in this ])rovincc has been granted by the 
crown, but the townships 15 and 55 have again become vested in it. 
The soil may be appreciated by the species of tindier which it ])roduces ; 
maple, beech, black birch, with a mixture of trees, generally indicating a 
rich land, whilst fir, spruce, larch, and the various descriptions of pine, 
are foimd on inferior tracts. There are very few portions of land 
throughout the island not a])])licable to agriculture, the soil being mostly 
light, of easy tillage, and remarkably free from stones. The deviation 
from this general character is found in the SAvamps and bogs, which, 
when drained, form good meadow laiul ; there are indeed . ome tracts 
termed barrens, but these bear a very insignificant proportion to the 
good land, nor are there any of them but what good management might 
reclaim. The marshes on the sea-board, which are occasionally covered 
by the tide, produce a strong grass, which is consumed by the cattle in 
winter, and when they are enclosed and drained become either excellent 
meadows, or, if ploughed, afford good grain crops. The land has, for 
the most part, been cleared of its heavy timber, which has been an im- 
portant article of export to Great Uritain, Pines of various descriptions 
are found, but they do not aboimd sufficiently to form an article of 
commerce. The red and pitch, and the yellow or white, pine are the 
most frequent. There are several varieties of the fir, the spruce, larch, 
and hemlock, red and white ; beech of a majestic size is iniiversally met 
with ; sugar maple in several varieties ; birch, white, yellow, and black ; 
oak of indifferent quality and in small quantities ; elm, which is scarce ; 
black, grey, and white ash ; poplar and white cedar complete the list 
of trees that may be denominated timber. The ordinary fruits of 
England, and which have been mentioned as common to the other 



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* Account of Prince Edward Island, by Jolin Stewiirt, Esquire, late Paymaster, St. John's, 
Newfoundland. London, 1806. 

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I'llINC K KDWAIU) ISLAM). 



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Hritisli North American (((loiiios, arc ])l('ntifiil licrc, and frrnw to j^rcat 
pcrffction. 'riiori'urc hcsidcs sarsa])iirillii, f^insciif^, and many otlier mc- 
difal lirrhs. Niitlier limestone, gypsum, coal, nor any valuable mineral 
lias yet been diseovered. Hed clay for brieks, and white fit for i'onimon 
))()ttery works, are met with in abmulanee. The animals found here are 
nearly the same as those wo have mentioned as inhabitin<5 our other 
Ameriean eolonies, to whieh may be added otters, lou])-eerviers, (>r wild 
cats, iuid seals, which are to be found in the bays aiul creeks ; walruses used 
formerly to be found, but of late years the breed appears to have become 
extinct. Of birds, fish, and insects, the catalojifue is nearly the same, and 
it therefore would be superfiuous to enumerate them ; but we may ob- 
serve that all round the coast and in all the bays and creeks, the more 
valuable sorts are found in the greatest abundance, furnishing not only 
a plentiful sujjply for the consumption of the island, but a considerable 
article of conuucrce. 

The nearly level surface of the ground through the greater part of 
the island, the (juality of the soil, and the favourable nature of the climate, 
are pccidiarly calculated to invite the settlers to a steady ))ursuit of agri- 
culture. The tind)er trade and the fishery have here, however, as in 
other colonies, seduced the short-sighted and those eager for rapid returns, 
to their apparently more productive employments ; but the timber is now 
so far cleared, and the pros])erity of the consistent agriculturist so pal- 
pable, that the cultivation of the earth seems from this time forward 
likely to be looked to as the most certain and profitable occupation of 
time, labour, and capital. Wheat thrives well here, and has furnished 
not only an abundant supply for the consum])tion of the inhabitants, but 
also for exportation to Nova Scotia. As agriculture improves, no doubt 
the quantity prodiiced will increase, and the A\'^est Indies aftbrd a ready 
market for any tpiantity that may be raised. Kye, oats, and barley also 
succeed. Eeans and peas are not cultivated to any extent, but generally 
yield average cro])s. Indian corn does not seem to thrive in this soil. 
Flax is raised for domestic purposes, jmd the success that attends its 
culture seems to promise well for its growth as an article of exportation : 
hemp does not succeed so well. Wheat and oats are sown in the latter 
part of April, when the weather is favourable, otherwise in May ; barley 



IIAUVr'STS— CATTLK-FAHMING— CLK.\inN(i LANDS. 



173 



ns lato as Juno. Fruit, flowers, jfardcn-vc^ctiiblfs, \('. occupy tlic atten- 
tion of tlic liorticulturist in tlic month of May. On tin- low and marsh 
lands ^rass grows in hixuriant cro])s ; timothy, red and white clover, and 
some species indigenous to the soil are plentiful ; haymaking connuencing 
and generally concluding in the month of .Inly ; hut barley harvest com- 
mences in iVugust; that of wheat and oats in Septend)er. The cattle 
here thrive Avell, and produce good beef, but do not grow to the same 
si/e us in England. Sheep and swine also answer well. The breed of 
horses is small, and by no means beautiful ; but they are hardy, and can 
bear nmch fatig\ie. The farms arc us\ially laid out in 100 acre lots, of 
10 chains frontage by 100 depth, and wherever it is practicable, fronting 
on a river, creek, bay, or road. The agricultural system pursued here, 
however, is defective in the last degree, and were not the soil by nature 
exceedingly productive, the little skill employed on it would aflbrd but 
small assistance. The farmers are exceedingly negligent in apjjlying 
manure, though that of the most eflicacious kind abounds in all direc- 
tions. Great quantities of sea-weed are constantly thrown on shore, 
which is an excellent manin'e ; and in all the bays and creeks may be 
collected, to an incalculable extent, that composition of nuid, decayed 
vegetable and animal substances, shells, &c. called nmscle-mud, remark- 
able for its efficacy as a manure. The introduction of some intelligent 
farmers from Yorkshire and the southern ])arts of Scotland, has, within 
these few years, done mucb towards improving the usual mode of 
cultivation. 

As peculiarly apposite to the purposes of tins work, and as it has 
not been laid down in any other part, we will here give a brief sketch 
of the progress of a new settler, located upon uncleared forest land ; and 
we do not know that we can better do so tlian in the words of a writer 
we bave before thought j)roper to ijuote. 

"The first object is to cut down the trees, which is done by cutting 
with an axe a notch into each side of the tree, about two feet above the 
ground, and rather more than half through on the side it is intended the 
tree should fall. The lower sides of these notches are horizontal, the 
upper make angles of about 60'. The trees are all felled in the same 
direction, and after lopping off the princi|)al branches, cut into twelve 









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PllLXCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



or liftcen feet lengths. The wliole is left in this state initil the proper 
season for burning- arrives, generally in INIay, when it is set on fire, which 
consumes all the branches and small wood. The large lops are then either 
piled in heaps and burnt, or rolled away to make fencing stuff; some use 
oxen to haul them off. The surface of the groimd, after burning the 
wood on it, is quite black and charred ; and if it be intended for grain, 
it is now sown w ithout farther preparation or tillage, other than covering 
the seed with a hoe. Hy some (i.e. by those who have the means) a 
triangular harrow, drawn by oxen, is used, in preference to the hoe, and 
to save labour. Others break up the earth with a one-handled plough, 
with the share and coulter locked into each other, and drawn also by 
oxen, a man attending with an axe to cut the roots. Little regard is 
paid to making straight furrov.s, the object being no more than to work 
the ground, that the grain may be more easily covered. Potatoes," 
(which, by the by, to settlers with limited means are, from their easy 
culture and cpiick production, as an article for food the very first object 
of attention,) "are planted in roimd hollows, three or four inches deep, 
and fifteen to twenty inches broad ; three or five sets are planted in each 
of these, and covered over ; the hoe alone is used ; with such preparation 
a plentiful cro}) of grain or potatoes is raised the first, second, and often 
the third year without manure. Wheat is usually sown the second year 
after potatoes, without any tillage except harrowing or rolling the seed 
in. Along with this second crop, timothy or clover seed is sown by 
prudent farmers, after which they leave the land under grass until the 
stump can be got easily out, clearing and bringing in new land in the 
same manner each year until they have a suflUcient quantity enclosed. 
The roots of the spruce, beech, birch, and maple, will decay sufKciently 
to take out the stump in four or five years. The decay of pine and 
hemlock requires a nuich longer time. After the stumps are removed^ 
the plough is used, juul the same system of husbandry is pursued as is 
most approved of in Great Britain. 

"The habitations Avhich the settlers first erect are in imitation of 
the dwelling of an American backwoodsman, and constructed in the 
rudest manner. Round lops, from fifteen to twenty feet long, without 
the least dressing, arc laid horizontal over each other, and notched at the 



A NEW SETTLER'S LOG-IUJT. 



i75 



corners, so as to let them down sufficiently close ; one is first laid to 
begin the walls of each side, then one at each end, all crossin<5 eacli 
other at the coi'ners, and so on until the wall is raised six or seven feet. 
The seams are closed up with moss or clay, three or four rafters are then 
laid for the roof, which is covered with the rinds of birch or fir trees, and 
thatched either with spruce branches or long marine grass that is foinul 
washed up along the shores. Poles are laid over this thatch, together 
with birch wythes, to keep the whole secure. The chimney is formed 
of a wooden framework, placed on a slight foundation of stone, roughly 
raised a few feet above the ground. Tins framework goes out through 
the roof, and its sides arc closed with clay and a small (juantity of straw 
kneaded together. A space large enough for a door, and anotlier for a 
window, are cut through the walls ; under the centre of the cottage, a 
square pit or cellar is dug, for the purpose of preserving ])otat()es and 
other vegetables during winter ; over this a floor of boards or logs, hewn 
flat on the upper side, is laid, and another over head, t(. form a sort of 
garret. AVhen the door is hung, a window sash, with six, nine, or twelve 
frames, is fixed, and one, two, or three bed places are put U]) ; the habita- 
tion is then considered fit to receive the new settler and his family*." 

Tliis is what is termed a log hut, and, as well as the mode of clearing 
and cultivating the farm here described, is conunon to new settlors in all 
parts of the British North-American dominions. Those who have the 
means, however, even in the first instance, jirocced somewhat further in 
decorating and rendering commodious their habitation, such as covering 
the roof Avith shingle boards, and lining the Avail, floor, cVc. with ])lanks, 
and covering them Avith matting or baize ; so that the house, though 
presenting a rugged and uncouth appearance, is by no means destitute 
of comfort. In raising this first habitation, if any Avliere adjacent to a 
settlement, abundant assistance is A^oluntarily contributed by the neigh- 
bours, inuler the denomination of a Jrolic, and is afforded at the price 
merely of a fcAV regales of meat, fish, ])otatoes, and rum, being often 
thus accomplished in a single day. The estimate of a ])oor settler's 
expense of fixing himself upon his land in the Avoods, until he can uiake 

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PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



it productive, will be found in an extract from the evidence transmitted 
by Colonel Cockbiirn, with his report, inserted in our Appendix. 

The trade of this island is inconsiderable. During the time it 
was in the possession of the French, their jealousy on behalf of I^ouis- 
burg- prevented them from at all cultivating it. The locality of the 
place seems as well to adapt it for a fishing station as Newfoundland, 
and the facility with which supplies are raised would seem to offer a 
temptation greater than any which that island possesses ; nevertheless the 
curing of fish for exportation has never been carried on here to any 
great extent. A good market is afforded at home for the consump- 
t -n of cured fish by the timber and ship-building trades. In all new 
,\ Iderness countries the timber trade is the first object of attraction ; 
bi)t the quantity that has been felled, and the small proportion of un- 
cleared land that remains, have reduced the timber trade of this colony 
to a trifling amount. Ship-building is still a branch of trade of some 
moment; and the vessels built here have a good reputation for trim 
and durability. Numbers of vessels, from 150 to 600 tons, are readily 
disposed of in the Ikitish market ; and to this may be added a large 
number constantlv constructed for the Newfoundland fisheries : a con- 
siderable supply of live stock, ]irovisions, corn, and vegetables is also 
uniformly forwarded to that country, from which West India produce 
is received in return. Large exportations of agricultural produce also 
take ])lace to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and of provisions of every 
description to the Bermudas. The amoimt and description of exports 
and imports during a series of years will be seen by tables contained in 
the Appendix. 

The population of the island, by the census of 1827, was taken at 
'i6,000, but since that time the increase has been so considerable, that it 
may now be estimated at about 50,000. Society, which has here ad- 
vanced rapidly, is not distinguished from the society in the other colonies 
by any peculiar features, and its different classes are very similarly 
divided. A decided aristocracy is of course wanting, but the members 
of the council, the employes of government, the superior classes of the 
military, merchants, and traders of all sorts, who have attained a tolerable 
degree of affluence, constitute here an upper class, who are by no means 



CHARLOTTE TOWN— CLASSES OF SETTLERS. 



177 



backwards in cultivating the amusements and refinements of civilized 
life. Charlotte Town is the only place where people are sufficiently 
congregated to form any thing that can be termed society, and, this being 
the capital, possesses of course persons of every class. Those who 
are received at the castle, or government-house, being deemed the su- 
periors, liave assemblies, balls, dinners amongst themselves, and sometimes 
amateur theatricals. Others indulge in pic nic, or what in England would 
be termed gipsy parties, in making country excursions, and each taking 
his own provisions. As almost every housekeeper is the owner of a 
horse and a carriole, or winter sledge-carriage, they are readily able to 
procure such indulgencics. The farmers and husbandmen comj)rise every 
class — American loyalists, Acadian French, and emigrants from England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, whose manners, even in this distant but desirable 
exile, are in a great measure influenced by their national characteristics 
and peculiarities. English settlers are distinguished by the cleanliness, 
neatness, and ])ropricty of their establishments ; Scotchmen by their 
patient endurance of the hardships incidental to early settlement, and 
their persevering pursuit of Avealth and substance, with much more neglect 
of what we term comfort ; and the Irish by a more eager desire to se- 
cure temporary advantages and the means of ])resent indidgcnce. AH 
those occupied in husbandry and farming, to which many join some share 
in the fishery, timber, and ship-building trades (though the advantage of 
such a multiplicity of piu'suits is somewhat more than equivocal) find 
abundant employment during the year, without seeking to share the 
amusements of the town, or substituting others of a more rural descrip- 
tion. The amassing of money, it maybe here observed, and the remark 
applies equally to all the American colonies, is absolutely impracticable. 
From nothing a man may rise to independence: he may find the means 
of comfortable subsistence assured to all his family and their future ge- 
nerations, but the realization of sums of money is not to be acc()ni])lished. 
The American settlers, peaceable and industrious, are remarkable for the 
variety of occupations which each individual unites in his own person. 
The facility of obtaining ardent spirits, and the free use made of tliem, 
operates here, as in all our other colonies, as a serious drawback on the 
morality and prosperity of the colonists. 

VOL. II. A A 



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178 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 



!jl'!i 



Tlie French Acadians, probably about 4,000 in number, and settled 
principally along the coasts, retain much of their primitive simplicity 
in dress, manners, and j)ursuits. A round jacket and trousers is the usual 
habit of the men, any instance of departing from whiclv*would be treated 
with the utmost ridicule; and the women exhibit an appearance very 
similar to that of the Bavarian broom-girls so connnonly seen in this 
country. They are rather looked down upon by tlie European settlers, 
but are nevertheless perfectly inoffensive, and for industry they arc not 
to be surpassed. They, however, apply this \ irtue to such a diversity of 
pursuits, — those who live on the coast following ship-building, lumbering, 
fishing, and farming — that they seldom advance in wealth so much as 
those Avho steadily follow any one of those occujnitions singly. The 
women, as housewives, are perfect patterns, and such is their activity, 
that they have seldom to go beyond the precinct of their own establish- 
ment for any necessary whatever, the Avhole of their clothes and other 
articles for home use being the product of domestic manufacture. 

The established religion of the colony is that of the Church of Eng- 
land, though it has perhaps fewer professors than any denomination known 
there; the members of the Church of Scotland claiming, in consequence, a 
right to use the church of St. Paul, in Charlotte Town, equally with those 
of the established form. The only other English cluux'h is at St. Eleanors. 
The Kirk of Scotland have a large and elegant building at Charlotte 
Town, and another, built by the Earl of Selkirk in ISO.'i, in the heart of 
the Belfast settlements. A class of dissenters from the Kirk of Scotland, 
called ante-burghers, have several places of Avorship in various parts of the 
island; the baptists have two or three, and the methodists about eight. 
There is a spacious catholic chapel at St. Andrews, about eighteen miles 
from Charlotte Town ; to this communion all the Acadians belong, as 
do the remains of the tribe of Mic-mac Indians, who have a chapel on 
Lennox Island, Richmond Bay. 

Tiie government of Prince Edward Island, although the population 
is comparatively small, is perfectly independent of the control of any of 
the adjoining provinces, and constituted on the same principle as those of 
the other British-American colonies; viz. as close an approximation to 
that of the mother country, in principle and form, as the variation of cir- 



GOVERNMENT— COURTS— CONCLUSION. 



17i) 



cumstancGs will admit. The executive power is lodged In the liiinds of the 
lieutei)ant-governor and a council ; this council holds likewise a senatorial 
office,somewhatsiniilartothatof the uprer house of the IJritish parliament. 
There is also a representative body, elected by the colonists, called the liC- 
gislative Assembly. Its functions, the qualifications of its members, and 
the limitations upon its authority, as well as upon that of the other bodies 
named, are similar to those wliich have been before detailed with respect 
to the other provinces of the Anglo-American dominions. There is a 
Court of Chancery, over which the governor presides, and the ])ractice 
of which is regulated by that of the same court in Kngland. There is 
also a Supreme Court of Judicature, which decides 'nth in criminal and 
civil causes, wherein a chief-justice presides, its practice assimilating as 
nearly as possible to that of similar courts in liritain. The same persons 
fulfil I 111' offices both of attorneys and advocates, and plead indifferently 
in both courts. There is one liigh-sherifF for the island, appointed an- 
luially by the governor. Small debts are recoverable before local magi- 
strates, and minor offences are adjudged by justices of the peace. 

We shall conclude our account of this interesting section of the 
British dominions, with another short quotation from Mr. M'Gregor's 
work, and we do so merely by wa)'^ of expressing our entire concurrence 
in his opinion, and confirmation of the inference at which he has arrived: 
— " When we view the position of Prince Edward Island, in regard 
to the countries bordering on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the excellence 
of its harbours for fishing stations, find take into accoimt that the whole 
of its surface may, with little exception, be considered a body of fertile 
soil, it does not certainly require the spirit of prophecy to perceive, that 
unless political arrangements may interfere with its prosperity, it Avill in 
no very remote period become a valuable agricultural as well as com- 
mercial country." 

For a list of the prices of land, produce, and other various articles of 
common consumption, we refer the reader to the Appendix. 



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CHAPTER XII. 

Newfoundland. — Sitimtion, Hoviiuliiries, and Extent — Historical Summary — Settle- 
ments — St. Jolin's — Soil — Timber — Climate — Population — Ciovernment — Fisheries. 



The island of Newfoundland lies on the north-eastern side of the 
entrance into thd^Gulf of St. Ijawrence, between the latitudes 46' 40' and 
.51 " 39' north, and longitudes 5'2" 44' and 59" 31' west. Its form is some- 
what triangular, but without any a])])r()aeh to regularity, each of its sides 
being broken by numerous harbours, bays, creeks, and estuaries. It is 
separated on the north-west from Canada by the gulf; its south-Avest 
point approaches Ca])e lireton : north and north-cast are the shores of 
I^abrador, from which it is divided by the Straits of IJclleisle ; and on its 
eastern side expands the o])cn ocean. It lies nearer to Europe than any 
of the British American colonics, or indeed any part of America. Its 
circuit is not much short of 1,000 miles; its Avidth, at the very Avidest 
part, betAveen Ca])e Hay and Cape Ronavista, is about ;>00 miles, and its ex- 
treme length, from Cape Race to Griguet Hay, about 41 9, measured on a 
curve. From the sea it has a Avild and rugged a])pearance, Avhich is any 
thing rather than inviting. Its interior has been very im j)crfcctly explored, 
and is therefore but little undcrstooil. in 1823, a Mr. M'Cormach suc- 
ceeded in traversing its breadth from Conception IJay on its east to St. 
George's ]5ay on its Avestern side; and, from his account, it appears, that 
this district is much intersected Avith lakes and rivers, is poorly Avooded, 
and of a rocky and barren soil. Newfoundland, in this respect, thus differs 
amazingly from the other American colonics, producing little timber 
but Avhat is dwarf and stunted, except on the margins of bays and rivers, 
Avhere spruce, birch, and poplar sometimes grow to a considerable size. 

NcAvfoundland Avas first discovered by Cabot, though the French 
formerly founded a claim on the ground of the discoveries of A'erazani. 



HISTORICAL SUMMARY. 



181 



The first attempt at forming a settlement was made in the reign of Henry 
VIII. by two persons of the names of Elliott and Thorn, wliich set- 
tlement was subsequently followed up by another eminent mercantile man 
of the name of Hare. The ill fortune that attended these attcm])ts dis- 
couraged all future ones, on the part of the English, for some years ; till, 
in 1.579j a fishing adventure, commanded by Captain AN'^hitburn, was 
so successful as to induce him to repeat it : in the meantime, posses- 
sion was taken of the island in the name of Queen Elizabeth, and the 
Portuguese, who had established themselves upon the coast, were driven 
away. In the next reign a charter was granted to the " treasurer and 
company of adventurers and planters of the cities of T^ondon and Bristol 
for the colony of Newfoundland," which association located a colony at Con- 
ception Bay in 1610. In 1614, the before-mentioned Captain AVhitburn 
received a commission to establish tribunals and punish offences committed 
in this colony and the adjacent fisheries, from which we may conclude 
they were then in the exclusive possession of the English. Two persons 
of the names of Dr. Vaughan and Sir George Calvert in the next year 
procured grants of parts of the island, formerly granted to the above 
company: the latter gentleman succeeded in establishing a very flourish- 
ing colony at Ferryland, where, having been created Lord lialtiniore, he 
erected a fort, and resided many years. About the same time a colony 
was sent from Ireland by I^ord Falkland, the lord-lieutenant, and shortly 
afterwards Lord Baltimore returned to England, continuing to govern 
his pro])erty by deputies. Sir David Kirk, in 1654, obtained grants in 
this island, previous to his settling in Canada. Settlements now con- 
tinued to be made all along the eastern coast of the island ; and the 
French succeeded in establishing themselves in Placentia Bay on the 
south. In a few years after Lord Baltimore's leaving the island, it was 
computed that not fewer than 350 families were settled there, though 
scattered through fifteen or sixteen different points of settlement. The 
various measures tending to the amelioration of the colony seem always 
to have been a subject of dispute between the settlers on the island and 
the English merchants trading in the fisheries there ; the former, in 1667, 
applied for the appointment of a local governor, which was vehemently 
resisted by the latter ; and on a renewal of that a])plication in 1674, when 



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^'l•WFO^XDLAND. 



it was jcforred to the Hoard of Trade and IMantations, tliey, influenced by 
the representations of the latter body, not only reported against the 
project but also ndvocated the total discourag'ement of all ])lantations 
whatever oil the island, even reconnnendin^ the forcible de])ortation of 
the settlors. A cruel persecution of this sort ensued, and representations 
on one side, and counter-representations on the other, in 1()97, at length 
elicited another report from the same board, in which they certified in 
behalf of a moderate number of settlers, limiting them to 1,000. An 
act for the regulation of the colony (10 and 11 AVilliam and Mary) was 
))assed in 16})S, whicli did little but enforce the former barbarous ])olicy. 
In 1701 a report was made by JNIr. I^arkins, who had been sent out by 
oovcrnmcut expressly to obtain information as to our American pos- 
sessions, and the picture of misrule and disorder Avhich he gives, in 
mentioning Newfoundland, speaks all that can be said of the policy by 
Avhich it had been hitherto regidated. 

From 1702 till the peace of Utrecht in 1708, the colony was much 
disturbed by the I'rench, whose establishments in Canada, Cape JJreton, 
and even on the island, at Placcntia, afl'orded them abundant opportunities 
of annoying our settlements and fisheries. Soiree representations had, in 
the meantime, been made to Queen Anne's government on the state of 
this colony by the House of Commons, and the inhabitants had them- 
selves instituted some useful regulations, when at length, in 1729, a Cap- 
tain Henry Osborn received a connnission as governor of Newfoundland, 
v.'ith powers to a])point justices of the peace, administer oaths to them, 
to erect a court-house and prison, and other authority calculated to sup- 
port his administration. The same petty, factious, and interested oppo- 
sition which had been manifested by the traders and fishing adniirah, as 
the commanders who arrived first on the coast were ludicrously nick- 
named, to the appointment of a civil government, were continued against 
the administration of it, and every species of opposition practised for 
several years, till, in 1738, after repeated references to the Board of 
Trade, and to the opinions of the law officers, as to the powers possessed 
by the governor under the existing commission, an enlarged one was 
issued to Captain Drake, including a power to the tribunals there to 
try, convict, and punish felons. 



HISTORICAL SUMMARY. 



1«3 



In 1754- Lord Baltimore clainicd tlic part of the island formerly 
granted to his ancestor, but the Board of Trade reported it as unsub- 
stantiated. About the same time the French claimed the privilej^e of 
fishing as far as Cape Hay, contending that it was the san>e as I'oint 
lliche, mentioned in the treaty of Utrecht. This unfounded demand 
was also rejected by the IJoard of Trade. Hy the reeommemlation of 
the same board, in 17(i-l a custom-house establishment was also formed 
on this island, with a comptroller and collector, ap])ointe(l by the com- 
missioners in England. 

The revolutionary war in America occasioned fresh disputes as to 
the right of fishing on the banks of Newfoundland. The New Kng- 
landers had theretofore exercised such a right to a very considerable 
extent, and on this being resisted, they declined su])plying the colony 
and fisheries with many articles of provision (which they had been in the 
habit of doing), to the great distress of the inhabitants and those engaged : 
this power of reciprocal annoyance occasioned the subject to form one 
of the articles of the treaty of peace, signed at Paris in ITH.'i, by which 
it was stipulated that the inhabitants of the United States should have 
liberty to take fish of every kind on such part of the coast of Newfound- 
land as IJritish fishermen should use, but not to dry or cure their fish on 
the island. The question of the supplies from America was diversely 
agitated on subsequent occasions, being always opposed by the western 
merchants; it has, however, always continued, and was authorized by 
act of parliament in 1822; limiting these supplies, liowever, to such as 
should be made in British bottoms. 

The imperfect administration of justice amongst the colonists for 
years continued a subject of just and constant complaint. A commission 
was granted to Admiral JNIilbanke, in 1789, to establish local coiu'ts in 
the colony, on a more satisfactory footing than those previously in exist- 
ence ; but nothing that he was able to accomplish placed the proceedings 
of the civil courts in any better point of view. In 1791 a new bill on 
the subject passed the British parliament ; and in 1792 another, amending 
the former, both being considered as mere experiments. In 1824 another 
act of the Imperial Parliament regulated afresh the administration of 
justice in Newfoundland, but was limited to the continuance of five 



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184 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



1.1 



years. This, like all its prodecossors, has failed to give satisfaction ; a 
constant ojjposition of interests and views seems to have existed amongst 
the inhabitants of that colony, and the merchants of this conntry trading 
thither and engaged in the fisheries, a collision which, it is hoped, the 
advance of intelligence, and the increasing wealth, prosperity, and nume- 
rical force of the colony, will soften down into an enlightened and nuitual 
effort to ))r()niote interests which are inevitably reciprocal. IJy this last 
act, a chief-Justice, and two assistant judges, are a])pointcd ; the island is 
divided into three districts, and a court is held annually in each. The 
ex])ense attending the circuits of the judges occasions a strong feeling of 
discontent amongst the colonists, even with this last effort of the legis- 
lature to bestow on them the boon of a steady, consistent, and constant 
administration of justice. 

For a long series of years the colony existed merely as a fishing 
settlement, the fisheries being carried on entirely by merchants residing 
in (ireat Ihitain. These considered the small aiul insignificant number 
of planters resident in the colony as persons by no means entitled to 
interfere with their interests or dispute their pleasure, and therefore 
always resisted any measures for the amelioration of the situation of a 
body of peo])le whom they treated as subservient to themselves ; the 
increase of the population however, now amounting to not less probably 
than 75,000 souls, and the advance of agriculture and commercial pur- 
suits amongst the residents, render them entitled to be placed a little 
above the caprices of the body of traders, however the interests of the 
last, duly considered, are identified with those of the British empire at 
large. It is stoutly contended on the behalf of the fisheries, that they 
are utterly inca])able of submitting to any burthen or contributing to 
any expensive form of government for the colony; and their vast im- 
portance as a nursery for British seamen, and a source of employment 
for British shipping, renders their situation a subject of anxious attention 
to the British legislature, which must, however, keep on its guard against 
the representation of that ruthless selfishness which is but too frequently 
the characteristic of those absorbed in a commercial speculation. 

As all the importance attached to this colony has arisen exclusively 
from its fisheries, little has been done on shore to claim our attention. 



S !• TT LI- M i: NTS— ST. JO H N 'S. 



lO.' 



Tlic (liftbicnt scttleinonts amount to about sixty or seventy in nuinbor, and 
are scattered on the shores of the eastern and soutliern sides of the island, 
but principally the former; there are indeed some iidiabitants on the 
western shore, near its southern extremity, but they do not extend north- 
ward of St. George's IJay, though the vicinity of that bay has proved ex- 
tremely fertile. IJoth the eastern and southern shores are broken by several 
dcej) bays; on the former, the principal are Hare IJay, very near the 
northern extremity ; and jiroceedinj^ southerly, \N'hite Hay, Hay of \otre 
Dame, Hay of ICxploits, Hay of Honuvista, Trinity Hay, and Conception 
Hay; on the southern shore are Trepassey Hay, I'lacentia Hay, St. Mary's 
Bay, and Fortune Hay. It is about the heads of these bays that the 
settlements are found. On the whole shore of Conce])tion Hay, thence 
to St. John's, and southward to Cape Race, the settlements arc niunerous 
and populous ; the principal arc, besides St. John's, the Hay of Hulls, 
Brigus, Cape Broyle Harbour, Ferryland, Fermore, and Renowes ; but 
there is little in any of these settlements to demand particular attention. 
Ferryland is the first that was ever brouf)ht into cultivation and iniport- 
ance, by the early settlement of I^ord Haltimore ; and even now there is 
a greater extent of land under tillage there than at any settlement on 
that coast. 

St. John's is the principal settlement, and only town in the island ; 
it is the seat of government, and chief harbour for our vessels. As Lieu- 
tenant Chappcll's is perhaps the most accurate account of the harbour 
that can be furnished, we shall insert it here. "The entrance to St. 
John's Harbour forms a long and extremely narrow strait, but not very 
difficult of access. There are about twelve fathoms water in the middle 
of the channel, Avith tolerable good anchorage ground. The most lofty 
perpendicular precipices rise to an amazing height upon the north side, 
and the southern shore a^ipears less striking in its altitude, only from a 
comparison with the opposite rocks. There is a light shown every night 
on the left side of the entrance, where there are also a small battery and 
a signal post. Other batteries of greater strength appear towering above 
the rocky eminences toAvards the north. At about two-thirds of the 
distance between the entrance, and what may properly be termed the 
harbour itself, there lies a dangerous shelf, called the chain rock, so named 

VOL. II. u B 



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NEWFOINDLAND. 






friv.M a diain wliicb extends across the strait at that phiee, to prevent the 
ailnussioii of any hostile Heet. Mariners on entrriiiq; tlie ])hu'e ought to 
beware of a|)|)roaehing too near the n)eks heneatli the Hgiit-hoiise point. 
In atUlition to the fortifieations ah'eady nolieed, there are several other 
strong fortresses upon the heights around tlie town, so as to renck'r the 
pUiee ))erfeetly secure against any su(hlen attack, l-'ort Townshend is 
situated imnieiUately over the town, and is the usual residence of the 
governor. Forts ^Vmherst and W'illianj are more towards the north, and 
there is also u small hattery perched on the top of a single ])yrauiidul 
mount, called the crow's nest." 

The latitude of St. John is 47" 35', its longitude ."52 ' iH' ; it is situated 
ahout seventy miles to the north of Caj)e Race, and ahout 1120 south of 
Twillingate Island, in the Jlay of Exjjloits, our most northerly settlement 
on the island. The town forms one long straggling street, extending 
nearly j)arallel to the shore on the north side of the port, from which 
branch out several narrow lines of houses, which will hear no designation 
snperior to lanes. The houses are built chicHy of wood, though diversi- 
fied by some of brick, and a few of stone, but the)' are most irregularly 
placed, in lonsequcnce of an act of the liritish legislature, passed in 1820, 
after the great fires, and whicli directs, that where the houses are built 
of stone, the street shall he forty feet in width, and where of wood fifty, 
so that all the stone houses project ten feet into the street. The jmncipal 
feature of the town is its multitude of wharfs and fishing stages, which 
entirely line the sliore. The government wharf is a fine broad quay, 
oi)en to the accommodation of the public. The number of taverns and 
public-houses seems very disi)ro]K)rtionate to the ])lace. The roadway of 
the main street is very rugged and irregular, and in wet weather scarcely 
passable for mud and filth. The general appearance of the town in- 
dicates exactly what it is — a mere fishing station. 

It is difficult to calculate the population of a town which varies so 
constantly. At the height of the fishing season it is perfectly crowded, 
but the greater part of this population eturns with the vessels to Europe. 
The resident population may be fairly rated at about 11,000. This town 
has suffered frequently and severely by fires: in 1815 a great amount of 
property was destroyed by a visitation of this sort, which was repeated 



ST. JOHN'S— SETTLKMKNTS. 



1H7 



in November, I8I7. will; incTcascd st'verity, 1 K) houses and proptMty to 
the amount of .'5()(),()(M)/. heiii^ then eonsumed. NN'itliin a few (hiys 
after anotlier eonHajrratioi) destroyed nearly all of the town lliat was 
left by the former one, and, iit the Auj^usl of the same year, a fourth 
calamity of the like kind inflicted another loss upon the town. There 
are places of puhlie wt)rshi|) of various denominiitions at St. .lohn's, and 
two school-houses, one established by Lord (iambier, in 18012, for children 
of both the protcstant and Homan creeds, who attend to the lunMber of 
300, and another, erected by the eilbrts of the IJenevolent Irish Society, 
the benefits of which are extended to 700 or HOO children. There are 
three weekly newsj)a|)ers {)ublished,andabook society has been established. 
Since several merchants, dee])ly en<faned in the trade, have settled 
here, and many industriovis inhabitants have by their consistent eilbrts 
raised themselves to comparative wealth, and since the administration of 
justice has been placed on a more j)crmanent and certain footinj^ than 
formerly, the state of society has continued raj)i(lly advancing in re- 
spectability and civilization, and is now better than coul ! be exjjectcd 
from a fishinj>; station, the internal improvement of which has been so 
luiiformly discouraged. The settlements continue almost continuously 
along the southern shore, as far as Fortune IJay, and at most of the 
harbours there are places of worship. The settlement at St. George's 
Bay is perhaps more agricultural than any other on the island. "There 
are tracts of excellent land, with deep and fertile soils, covered in many 
places with heavy timber ; coal, limestone, and gypsiun abound in great 
plenty in this part of the island. At the heads of the bays and along the 
rivers there are many tracts of land, formed of deposits washed from the 
hills ; the soil of which tracts is of much the same quality as that of the 
savannahs in the interior of America. These lands might be converted 
into excellent meadows, and if drained to carry off the water, which 
covers them after the snows dissolve, they would yield excellent barley 
and oats. The rich pasturage, which the island affords, adapts it in an 
eminent degree to the breeding and raising of cattle and sheep, insomuch 
as to authorize the belief that it might produce a sufficient quantity of 
beef to supply its fisheries. Firs of various sorts, poplars, birches, and a 

Bl) 2 



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NEWFOUNDLAND. 






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.ulil-ii 



few maple trees are found in Newfoundland, Avitli a variety of shrubs. 
JMost of the English common fruits arrive at perfection, and various 
grasses grow spontaneously in all tlie plains. The wild animals are 
nearly the same as those of l*rince Edward Island, and indeed of our 
other -^Vmerican colonies. The Newfoundhuid dog is an animal whose 
peculiarities and virtues are too well known to need any detail in this 
place; it is, however, generally considered, that the true original breed 
exists now oidy on the coast of Labrador. 

The climate is severe and the winter h)ng, but it has generally been 
re))rcsented more imfavourably than strict truth will warrant. The 
excess of humidity and constant visitation of dense fog, which have been 
commonly ascribed to these coasts, is by no means a continual visitation; 
the sea winds often bring a considerable (pian.tity of vapour to the 
southern and eastern coasts, but it is only when the wind blows from the 
sea that tliis inconvenience is felt. The range of the thermometer is 
nearly the same as in Canada, but as the length of tlte island extends over 
nearly five degrees of latitude, it will of course vary. The harbours on 
the Atlantic shore are generally freed from their icy bonds earlier than 
any other within the (iulf of St. liawrence, and the western sliore is 
seldom visited by fogs. The heat of tlie sununer is sometimes oppressive 
in the daytime, but the mornings and evenings, as in ahnost all insular 
situations, arc temperate and agreeable. The breaking up of the winter, 
when the vast shoals of ice formed in the northern regions are driven 
along the coast by the winds, is the most disagreeable time of the year. 
The inhabitants, however, maintain excellent health, and, notwithstanding 
the exposure and hardships of a fisherman's life, frequently attain a re- 
markable longevity. 

Tlie population of tlie island lias greatly increased of late years. The 
census of 18127 gave .3(),0()0 as the gross amount; it has been recently 
rated as high as 90,000, but truth will })erhaps be more strictly consulted 
in fixing the number at 7;>,000. There are no good roads in the island 
but those in the immediate vicinity of St. John's. As has been before 
remarked, the fisheries are the chief business of the island, agriculture 
being pursued to an amount far from suflicient to supply the wants of 



FISHERIES— HISTORY. 



180 



the inhabitants. The niinibor of vessels eni])hiycd in the fislieries in the 
year 18.'i() was 700, and tlie amount of imports into the island (j lO.OOO/. 

The nature of the institutions by Avhieh tliis island is governed has 
been explained in our sliglit sketeh of its history. Applieation has been 
recently made to the Ihitish parliament for the institution of an inde- 
pendent colonial legislature. Tiiis, like every other attempt to improve 
the colony, is resisted by those ])rineipally engaged in the fisheries; but 
as neither parties nor jealousies can, at the present day, be expected to 
influence the inquiries or decisions of the IJritish legislature, there is no 
doubt that all •will be done Avhich the Avelfare of the colony rcipiires. If 
the ])arliament does not go the lengtli of granting an independent legis- 
lature, the institution of a corporate body in St. .John's might in some 
measure sup])ly the deficiency, and it seems one to Avhich the advanced 
wealth, number, and intelligence of its inhabitants entitle them. 



Ul 



FISHERIES. 

TiiF, fisheries are entitled to a few words of se]iarate consideration 
in concluding our chapter on Newfoundland. They iiave ever since the 
discovery of North America been the theme of the particular solicitude, 
not of Great liritain alone, but of France, Spain, and Foi'tugal, and sub- 
sequently of the United States of America, and have evidently been 
esteemed a subject of the utmost importance in the negotiation of all 
treaties involving the Ih-itish, French, or American interests on the 
western side the Atlantic. It a])pears that as early as 1.517 about fifty 
French, S))anish, and Portuguese vessels were engaged in the cod-fisl.^ry 
of the Banks, Avhilst England had but one .ship enqdoyed in that quarter ; 
and although this unit a])pears to have, in 157S, increased to fifteen, the 
fishing trade of the other powers had improved in a far greater degree, 
France having at that ])eriod no less than l.'JO ships engrossed by it, 
Spain 100, and Portugal 50*. The liritish ship]>ing occupied in the 
Newfoundland fisheries some years afterwards, liowever, increased apace, 
and in 1615 it amounted to 250 vessels, whose aggregate burden was 1,500 



* Iliikluyt — Herrara — quoted by IM'Grogor. 



ti 



190 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



\'i 



u 



tons ; the total niimbci' of Frencli, IJiscayan, and Portuguese ships em- 
ployed at the same date were 100 *. 

Anterior to the Treaty of Utreeht, the extent of the respective rights 
of those nations who participated in tlic advantages of the Newfound- 
laiHl fisheries was never defined, but that treaty placed matters in rather 
a more distinct light. Newfoundland itself, and the islands adjoining, 
were thereby exclusively left in the possession of Great Britain, the 
French retaining, under the thirteenth article, the right of fishing on 
the banks and using the shores of the islands between particular points, 
viz. from Point Kiche (which the French afterwards pretended to be 
the same as Cape Hay), round the north extremity of the island, to Cape 
Bonavista on the eastern coast. By the treaty of peace concluded in 
1763, this privilege w\as condrmed to France, and the right was extended 
to fishing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the distance of three leagues 
from all coasts belonging to Great Britain, Avhether continental or in- 
sular. Tlieir fisheries out of the gulf were not to be carried on but 
at the distance of fifteen leagues from the coasts of Cape Breton. By 
another article of the treaty the islands of St. Pierre and INliquelon are 
ceded to France as a shelter for French fishermen, under an express 
stipulation against their being fortified, or guarded by more than fifty 
men for the police. 

AVhen the United States, hi 178.3, took their station in the list of 
independent nations, they laid claim to a participation in those treasures 
which the waters of the Newfoundland banks and of the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence contained. As colonies they had reaped no inconsiderable benefits 
from those fisheries, and tluis knowing their full value, stipulated and 
obtained particular privileges, which were agreed to by the third article 
of the treaty. These extensive privileges are expressed in the following 
distinct language of that part of the treaty : 

" Article III. It is agreed tliat the people of the United States shall 
continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every kind on the 
Grand Bank, and all other banks of Newfoundland, also in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea where the inhabitants of 



• Lex irercatoria. — M'Grcgor. 



If 



FISHERIES— UNITED STATES OF AIMERICA. 



191 



botli countries used at any time heretofore to fish ; and also that the in- 
habitants of the United States shall have liberty to take fish of any kind 
on such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall use 
(but not to dry and cure the same on that island) ; and also in the bays 
and creeks of all other of his Britannic INIajesty's dominions in America ; 
and that the American fishermen shall have liberty to dry and cure fish 
in any of the unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks of Nova Scotia, JMag- 
dalen Island, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain luisettled ; 
but so soon as the same or either of them sliall be settled, it shall not be 
lawful for tile said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such settlement with- 
out a previous agreement for that purpose with the inhabitants, proprie- 
tors, or possessors of that ground." 

In negotiating the convention of 1818 the subject was not lost sight 
of by the United States' plenipotentiary, and the opportunity was seized, 
not only of confirming but of extending the stipulations of the above 
article of the treaty of 1783. " Whereas," says the convention, " dif- 
ferences have arisen respecting the liberty claimed by the United States, 
for the inhabitants thereof, to take, diy, and cure fish on certain coasts, 
bays, harbours, and creeks of His Britannic INIajesty's dominions in 
America ; it is agreed between the single contracting parties, that the 
inhabitants of the said United States shall have^or ever, in connexion 
with the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, the liberty to take fish of 
every kind on that part of the southern coast of Newfoundland, Avhich 
extends from Cape Hay to the Ilamcau Islands, on the western and 
northern coast of Newfoinidland, from the said Cape Ray to the Quiperon 
Islands, on the shores of Magdalen Islands, and also on the coasts, 
bays, harbours, and creeks, from Mount Joly, on the southern coast of 
Labrador, to and through the Straits of Belleisle, and thence, northwardly, 
indefinitely along the coast, without prejudice, however, to ;iny of the 
exclusive rights of the Hudson's Bay Company." But the limitation 
contained in the former treaty, relative to the settlement of the coasts, is 
further continued. Besides these express rights, the Americans long 
enjoyed the advantage of supplying Newfoundland with provisions and 
stores used in the fisheries ; but the jealousy of colonial traders being 
awakened led to the enactment of the 26 Geo. HI. chap. 1, which ex- 



1"; , 'I 

(I. y 
1-5 



llff 



mm 



192 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 



eluded American ships from the riglit of im])orting into Newfoundland 
bread stuffs and live stock, the trade being exclusively confined to 
British shipping. The law was, however, in a great measiu'c evaded ; 
indeed the difficulty of enforcing it must have been a])parent, when 
United States' vessels had a right to enter our waters, lie along our fishing 
coasts, and use our shores; and therefore enjoyed numerous opportunities 
of eluding discovery in their violation of the statute. A more recent 
enactment *, however, offers probably a better guarantee to the British 
merchant against the competition of American produce in Newfoundland, 
certain duties being imposed upon all foreign goods and provisions im- 
ported into that island, whilst the exports from it, to any foreign state, 
are to be made in British built ships only. 

Thus stand the rights and privileges of the United States with re- 
gard to the Newfoundland and I^abrador fisheries, and it is evident that 
with the exception of the mere ownership of the adjacent countries, the 
Americans are, as fully as Great Britain, participant in the direct and in- 
cidental advantages attached to those fisheries, viz. the prosecution of 
a lucrative trade, and the practical education of mariners. Possessed as 
England was of the surrounding fishing coasts, it was in her power to 
secure to herself the exclusive enjoyment of those immense aquatic 
sources of wealth and power, since the mere privileges of fishing on 
the banks, which might, without injury to herself, have been tolerated 
in foreigners, would have been of little avail Avithout the right of using 
the shores of the adjacent territories and islands ; and if it be asserted 
that, in the nature of things, the one privilege could not be granted 
without the other, since the one is accessory to the enjoyment of the 
other, still we may say, that had the restrictions been far more cir- 
cumscribed than they are, British subjects engaged in the fisheries would 
not be aggravated to the extent they now are, by the abuse of the pri- 
vilege by American fishermen, who, relying upon the latitude allowed 
them, are emboldened to acts of outrage against the more legitimate 
tenants of the shores, and assert a superiority which should belong to 
Great Britain alone in that quarter. The exercise of the rights of the 



* 3 Geo. IV. chap. 44. 



SIIORE-FISIIERY— HOW CONDUCTED. 



193 



nations concerned in the Newfoundland fisheries, viz. England, France, 
and America, calls loudly for ulterior regulations, and we can only say, 
that such a measure is of vital importance to the preservation and future 
value of the fisheries. 

We shall conclude our remarks by an extract from the voyage of 
Lieutenant Edward Chappell, R. N. to Newfoundland and Labrador, 
descriptive of the mode of conducting the shore finhery. 

" There are a number of boats, fitted with masts and sails, belonging 
to each fishery, two or four men being stationed to a boat. At the earliest 
dawn of day the whole of these vessels proceed to that part of the coast 
where the cod are most plentiful, for they move in shoals, and frequently 
alter their position, according to the changes of the wind. Wlien the 
resort of the fish has been ascertained, the boats let fall their anchors, 
and the men cast over their lines. Each man has two lines to attend, 
and every line has two hooks affixed to it, Avhich are baited either witii 
caplin or herrings. The men stand upon a flat flooring, and are divided 
from each other by a sort of bins, like shop-counters, placed athwart 
the centre of the boat. Having drawn up the line, they lay the cod 
upon the bin, and strike it upon the back part of the head with a ])iece 
of wood in the shape of a rolling-pin ; this blow stuns the fish and causes 
it to yawn its jaws widely asunder, by which means the hook is easily 
extracted. Then the fish is dropped into the bin, and the line again 
thrown over ; Avhilst the fisherman, instantly turning round, proceeds to 
pull up the opposite line, so that one line is running out and the other 
pulling in at the same instant. Thus the boatmen continue, initil their 
vessel is filled, when they proceed to discharge their cargo at the sort of 
fishing-stage represented by the vignette to chapter IT. The cod are 
pitched from the boat, upon the stage, with a pike, care being taken to 
stick this pike into their heads, as a wound in the body might prevent 
the salt from having its due effect, and thereby spoil the fish. When 
the boats are emptied, the fishermen procure a fresh quantity of bait, and 
return again to their employment on the water, whence, in the course of 
an hour or two, perhaps, they again reach the stage with another cargo. 

" Having thus explained the method of cod-fishing, it remains only 
to describe the manner of curing. Each salting-house is provided witli 

VOL. II. c c 



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194 



NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERIES. 



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one or more tables, around whieh are placed wooden chairs and leathern 
aprons for the cut-throats, headers, and splitters. The lish having been 
thrown from the boats, a boy is generally employed to bring them from 
the stage, and place them on the table before the cut-throat *, who rips 
open the bowels, and, having also nearly severed the head from the body, 
he passes it along the table to his right-hand neighbour, the header, 
whose business is to ])ull off the head, and tear out the entrails : from 
these he selects the liver, and, in some instances, the sound. The head 
and entrails being precii)itatcd through a trunk into the sea, the liver is 
thrown into a cask, where it distils in oil ; and the sounds, if intended 
for preservation, are salted. After having imdergone this operation, the 
cod is next passed across the table to the splitter, who cuts out the back- 
bone as low as the navel, in the twinkling of an eye. From hence the 
cod are carried in hand-barrows to the Salter, by whom they are spread 
in layers, upon the to]) of each other, with a proper quantity of salt be- 
tween each layer. In this state the fish continue for a few days, when 
they are again taken in barrows to a short wooden box, full of holes, 
which is suspended from the stage in the sea. The washer stands up to 
his knees in this box, and scrubs the salt off the cod with a soft mop. 
The fish are then taken to a convenient spot, and piled up to drain ; and 
the heap, thus formed, is called "a water-horse.' On the following day 
the cod are removed to the fish-flakes, where they are spread in the sun 
to dry; and from thenceforward they are kept constantly turned during 
the day, and piled up in small heaps, called Hackets, at night. The upper 
fish are always laid with their bellies downward, so that the skins of their 
backs answer the pur[)oscs of thatch, to keep the lower fish dry. By de- 
grees the size of these flackets is increased, until at length, instead of 
small parcels, they assume the form of large circular stacks ; and in this 
state the cod are left for a few days, as the fishermen say, 'to sweat.' 
The process of (U(riui>- is now coni])lcte, and the fish are afterwards stored 
up in warehouses, lying ready for exportation. 

" With such amazing celerity is the operation of heading, splitting, 
and salting performed, that it is not an inuisual thing to see ten cod-fish 

* Thisj wc presume, is a technical expression. — Author, 



NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERIES. 



19.5 



decapitated, their entrails thrown into the sea, and their back-bones torn 
out, in the short space of one minute and a half. The splitter receives 
the highest wages, and holds a rank next to the master of a fishery; but 
the suiter is also a ])crson of great consideration, u])on whose skill the 
chief preservation of the cod depends. 

" There are three qualities of cured cod-Hsh in Newfoundland. 
They are distinguished by the different titles of merchautahlc Jifilt, 
those of the largest size, best colour, and altogether finest (piality. Ma- 
deira Jh7f, Avhich are nearly as valuable as the former. This sort is 
chiefly exported to supply the Spanish and Portuguese markets, fj^^'v/ 
Iinfia Jf.s/f, the refuse of the M'hole. These last are invariably sent for 
sale, to feed the negroes of the Caribbee Islands." 



c c L' 



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CHAPTER XIII. 



f 



Land Oraiitiiig — Plan licrctofore pursued — Sjstciti now adopted. 

TiiK lands in the colonies may be classed under three general heads. 
1st, Lands belonging- to his majesty's subjects ; 2nd, Lands appropriated 
by government as reservations for particular purposes ; and 3d, those that 
come under the denomination of grantable, or waste lands of the crown. 
The property of the first class comes not within the limits prescribed to 
the present chapter, \vhich is intended merely to explain the various 
means whereby lands have hitherto been, and now are, transferred from 
the crown to the subject. The reservations constituting the second class 
Avill be spoken of in treating of the lands of the third class. 

The whole of the ungranted lands in his majesty's colonies are, by 
the constitution, vested in the crown, and as such are liable to be dis- 
posed of, and to be administered in any manner that his majesty may 
constitutionally think fit. The Imperial Parliament, however, in its 
political omnipotence, exercises also a control over them, and by its enact- 
ments sometimes prescribes broad rules for their administration. 

The royal prerogative in this respect was formerly exercised in 
granting proprietary charters, by which vast sections of territory in the 
colonies were vested in persons of great influence, rank, capital, and 
enterprise, to whom extensive privileges were delegated to plant and 
govern colonies ; such were the charters of Pennsylvania, IMassachusetts, 
&c. ; such is now the Hudson's Bay charter. The waste lands also 
afforded a wide field for the exercise of the king's bounty towards 
such of his loyal subjects as had served him in war, and hence we find 
that at different times a scale of allotments was prescribed, by which 
officers retired from service, and disbanded soldiers became entitled to 



MILITARY GRANTS— OTHER GRANTS. 



197 



a stated quantum of land. This scale, in the king's famous proclamation 
of 7th October, 1763, stands as follows: 



To every person having the rank of a field officer 

To every captain .... 

To every subaltern or staff officer 

To every non-commissioned officer 

To every private man .... 



>0 acres. 
3,000 
2,(M)0 
200 



These proportions, however, subsequently imderwent considerable 
modifications, and as the value of the lands advanced by the progress of 
colonization, the liberality of the crown became less lavish, and the 
following scale was substituted in lieu of the former, viz. : 



Field officers . . . 


1,200 acres 


Majors .... 


1,000 


Captains 


800 


Subalterns 


noo 


Non-commissioned officers 


200 


Privates 


100 



In conformity with this scale, lands were located to the military 
up to 1 828, when the plan of grant'mg waste lands was superseded by 
the existing system of selling them, in the manner to be hereafter ex- 
])lained ; but militia locations still continue to be issued under the former 
system in I^ower Canada. 

The waste lands in the colonies were likewise granted in extensive 
tracts, either as rewards for civil services or with a view purely to the 
settlement of the country. In furtherance of the former of these objects, 
a quarter, a half, or even a whole township, was, in several instances, 
patented to a single individual ; and although the titles derived from 
the crown for this purpose contained specific conditions of settlement, 
the lands thus granted have generally been left in their pristine state of 
wilderness, and have, owing to that circumstance, proved extremely pre- 
judicial to the improvement of the province in which they were situated. 

The tracts granted with a view purely to the encouragement of set- 
tlements were also very extensive. These grants were made by the 



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i*' 




Hi 





i 
I 



1<)8 



LAND OUANTING IN THE 



I 



governor of the provinces, under the sanction of instruction from his 
majesty's ministers, to individuals wlio were su])i)osed to chd) to<i,ether 
for the |)uri)os(.' of colon i/inu,' a j>iven tract to them allotted hy the said 
letters patent, in which, however, a specilic (piantity (1,1200 acres) was 
assigned to each individual*. One of the ])arties, in general the only 
ca])italist of the association, was called the leader, the others were styled 
axHonatea \ hut these were ol'ten persons of little interest, and)ition, or 
suhstance, and were even sometimes fictitious, the leader hcing the osten- 
sihk^ ])arty looked u]) to, and, in fact, the only individual largely inter- 
ested in the grant, inasmuch as the <is,so(i(iti's universally made over to the 
leader 1,000 acres at least, and in some cases even 1,100 of the 1,1200 acres 
to which they were respectively entitled under the letters patent. 

The consideration given hy the leader for this transfer from the 
associates of almost the whole of their lands, was the trouhle he was 
deemed to be at in forwarding the applications Avith the executive 
government, and the expenses he usually incurred in obtaining surveys 
and ])lans of the tract which was to be patented to him and to them- 
selves in c(|ual shares. These expenses, if for the survey of a whole 
township, amoimted to about .'3.30/., — which sum was in most cases first 
disbursed by government, — and the patent fees on the grantable lands 
thereinto about 150/. more; thus the leader became possessed of tbout 
40,800 acres for the sum of 4;5()/., equal to about two-pence ])cr acre. The 
expenses for a quarter or a half township were in a proportionate ratio. 

The ostensible object of this mode of granting the waste lands, a 
mode, as we before stated, avowedly meant to encourage the settlements 
of the country, entirely failed ; the leaders of townships, in nine cases out 
of ten, once secured in the legal possession of the lands, wholly neglected 
the improvement of them, and thus, histcad of tending to accelerate the 
opening of the country, this system operated most seriously in impeding 
the progress of agriculture, and especially so in I^ov/er Canada, where 
the vast tracts granted upon the principle we have just exposed have 
and must, until brought under cultivation, stand, with their sturdy 
forests, insuperable obstacles to the growth and continuity of settle- 

* This at least was tlio practice which obtained in Lower Canada. 



.i ; 



imiTISII NORTH AMERICAN COT.o^ ?ES. 



l})f) 



iTients. Had the association bocn a scrit)us, anil not a nicrt* sinuilatod. 
association, in Avliich each associate would have possessed the means niid 
the desire of convcrtiiif; his wihls into corn-fiehls, nnich j^ood to Ihi 
province might have resuUcd from the a(h)ption of sncli a phm ; hut, on 
the contrary, it has tluown in the way of new settlements considerable 
embarrassments, for the removal of whidi a court of escheats has, oidy 
recently, been created in the colony. 

In ])roces.s of time it was discovered that the plan of immediately 
issuing letters patent to the grantee, and thus giving him ut once his 
title to the land, as in the case of leaders and associates, led to pernicious 
consc(picnces, of nuu-h importance as affecting the clearing and o))cning 
of the country, and it was therefore devised, that in all minor grants a 
preliminary title should be given to the party, whereby the settlement 
of his land was declared a condition precedent to his obtaining the patents 
for the same. This ]n-elinnnary title was styled a location, or ticket of 
location *, the conditions of which were somewhat dift'erent in the various 
colonies, though their general tendency was the same, that is, the actual 
settlement of the land within a prescribed time. In Nova Scotia, and 
we presume in New Brinisvvick up to 1784, the conditions of the grant 
were, " within three years from the ])assing of the grant, to clear three 
aciTS for every fifty of ])lantable land, and erect a dwelling-house of 
twenty by sixteen feet, and keep upon every fifty acres accoimted 
barren three neat cattle, and in any quarry to keep one hand in dig- 
ging and working said quarry." These conditions, however, never were 
strictly adhered to. In Upper Canada the period was two years, at the 
expiration of which, upon due proof of having cleared and cropped five 
acres, and cleared half the road in front of his land, of having erected 
and inhabited a house thereon for one year, the settler became entitled 
to a grant upon paying the patent foe, iil. 1-4*. Id. sterling. In Lower 
Canada the term was extended one year longer, but if the party sooner 
complied with the conditions of the location, he was entitled, upon due 
proof of the fact, to receive his letters patent for the lot assigned to himf . 
Under these regulations were made all military grants (though Avith 

* A statement of the fi-os upon liind-nrunting in the Canadas is contained in the Appendix, 
•f See the form of the location tickets, in the Appendix. 



» 1.1 



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3 



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200 



LAND GRANTING IN THE 



soim* inodiHcatioiis in particular iustaiu-t's), and also the locations to 
emigrants; and the settlement of the waste lands, to any extent in the 
C'anadas at least, can be fairly considered to have connnenced with the 
introduction of this mode of location. 

In the outset, nevertheless, it was liable to some objections, arising 
from the dillicidty whivli the locatee, and especially the emigrant locatce, 
was left to encounter in tracing his lot in the wilderness, whert' the 
boundaries and lines of demarcation, thou<;h sufliciently obvious oriiiinally, 
became defaced, and sometimes entirely obliterated, by years clajjsed since 
the Held survey. To obviate this end)arrassment in Lower Canada, a 
judicious system was devised and applied to the surveys in I^ower 
Canada, by which not only great facilities were offered to the i)arty 
in this respect, but considerable ellicacy was given thereby to the whole 
system of location. This consisted in the a))pointmcnt of resident agents, 
whose duty it was to point out, to the emigrant, the lot assigned to him, 
to direct him in the conunencemcnt of his operations, and to advise him 
in all matters connected with his settlement. Thus the emigrant, upon 
landing, received first the advice of the resident government agent at 
Quebec, with whom he consulted, and who directed his course to the 
agent of a given township in any part of the province in which he, the 
emigrant, felt disposed to settle ; and the resident agent, in the township, 
was there, in person, to assist him with his counsel, and assign to him, on 
the spot, any vacant lot that he might select. The results of this plan 
were, practically, very beneficial ; and a con)])arison of the progress of the 
settlements of tovnships utider agency with those of townships nof under 
agency, incontestably prove its advantages. For instance, the mass of the 
lands in the townships of Ciodmanchcster, Ilinchinbrook, and llennning- 
ford had, in 1820, when an agent was appointed, been granted at various 
periods, twenty -fi\e, thirty, or even thirty-five years, but yet the whole 
population of those townships did not then amount to 8.50 souls, and the 
extent of cultivation did not cover more than .'J,500 acres. Nine years 
afterwards, under the operation of the agency system, the popidation had 
increased to 3,313 souls, and the lands in tillage exceeded 11,000 acres. 

The efficiency of the plan stands also strongly confirmed by the new 
settlements on the Ottawa River, all of which, excepting tliose of Hull, 



HHITISII NOllTII AMKIUCAN COf.ONIKS. 



?()l 



linvo bocM fornu'd imdt'r it, in townships, the most i'liuil)li' lands wluTcof 
wnv MiiiiittMl thirty years a^o, notwithstanding' which they still rrniain 
fovort'd with tori'sts, whilst the tracts remote from the river have been 
hronj^ht under cultivation. Indird, so encoura;;in<i," has proved this 
means of providing;' lands tor the settler, that C"laren«lon, a townshij) on 
the Laedes Chats, at the remotest extremity of the surveyed lands on 
the Ottawa, has been coloni/ed undi-r the snpi'rintendence of an active 
Uf^'cnt; and it is not too nuich to say, from a personal knowledni- of 
the ditlieulties that must have been surmounted in eflectini;" a settlement 
at so ffrcat a <listance, without the advantaj^'c of roads, ami with dan- 
gerous and terrific raj)i(ls to aseeiul, that it rc(|uired all the facilities and 
inducements, held out by the system under consideration, t(» realize an 
undertakinj;' of that natinv. 

There were, in IS'ii), about twonty-Hve of these township aj;ents in 
Lower Canada, residinj; within the districts assii;iied to their respective 
superintendence. 'I'heir duties were distinctly ])rescribed by the in- 
structions to be found in the Ajipcndix. and their reward, for the discharjie 
of the trust to them confided, consisted in a per-centage of five acres 
upon the locations by them made to actual settlers ; but they were not en- 
titled to letters-patent from the crown, until the settlers themselves, by 
i\\c houa Jide improvement of their lands, became also entitled to their 
j)atents. The aj>,ents were latterly allowed, besides this ])er-eentage, 2.v. (ul. 
upon each location as a compensation for stationery and postage. Thus 
the maintenance of an agent was but little onerous to his majesty's go- 
vernment, and of the greatest possible service to the settler ; and there 
can be little doubt that, with such modifications as may comport with 
the scheme of selling the waste crown lands, the general principle of the 
system might be very advantageously followed up. Instead of townshij) 
agents, land-boards were established in the dift'erent districts of Upper 
Canada, with a view to facilitate the location of settlers in that ])rovince, 
and the system was found to answer, remarkably well, the ends of its 
adoption. 

In tracing the history and progress of the township settlements 
under the different administranous in liower Canada, we find that at no 
preceding period were these settlements so marked for their frequency 

VOL. II. D D 



It • 



* i' 



,1* 



202 



LAND GHANTINCJ IX TIH' 






IJ 



and tlie rapidity of their jvrowth as between IH'20 and ISSiS, during his 
Excellency the Earl of Dalhousie's administration of the government of 
that province ; and it is imjjossible not to ascribe the fact to the peculiar 
zeal and ability with which his lordship devoted himself to that iin])ortant 
branch of the local aihninistration, and the judicious measures he ado])ted 
in furthering it ; amongst which must be ranked, as a leading measure, 
the system of township agency. 

The creation of a new commission in 18iJ17, operated a considerable 
change in the administration of the crown lands in the colonies, and in 
Lower Canada it did away with the agency system, at the same time 
that it substituted the .m/c, in jdace of the }>:raiit, of his majesty's \niap- 
])ropriated lands. There is nothing, however, in the princijjle of seUing 
the lands repugnant to the existence of township agents, inasmuch as 
these might be continued for the benefit of the emigrant, in connexion 
with a general and organized ])lan of emigration. 

The regulations under which the crown lands now pass from the 
sovereign to the subject are to be found, at length, in the i\])])endix, to 
which we Avould refer the reader. These regulations contain in substance, 
that, after having submitted to the governor a report of the total quan- 
tity of land proposed to be sold the ensuing year, with the upset prices 
at which the same may be valued, the connnissioner will proceed to the 
sale of such lands by public auction. That public notice in the gazette 
and otherwise be given of the time and place of sale, and the upset price 
of the lands. That no lot contain more than 1.1200 acres: that the 
purchase money be paid by four instalments, the 1st at the time of sale, 
and the i,'d, 3rd, and fourth at intervals of a year : that if instalments be 
not regularly paid, the deposit money will be forfeited and the land again 
referred to sale: that purchasers, imder 200 acres, unable to pay the 
purchase money by instalments, may be put in ])ossession under a quit- 
rent, equal to Hve per cent. u])on the whole amount of the purchase 
money, to be paid amnudly in advance ; upon failure, the lands to be again 
referred to auction : that the quit-rent be subject to redemption : that the 
party who shall have paid an instalfnent towards redeeniing his tpiit-rent, 
and shall afterwards neglect to i>ay the accruing quit-rent, be liable to have 
his land resold so soon as the arrears of iiuit-rent shall have covered the 



i 



T.HITISH ?»()UTll AMi:iUCAN COLO.MI'S. 



203 



amount of the instalment : that tlie names of purcliaseis, failing" in tlie 
regular payment of their ])urchases or (|uit-rents, he made ])uhru', and 
their lands the first to be ])ut up to auetion the following year : that no 
lands be granted but at the current sales in each district, except to 
poor settlers who may not have been in the colojiy more than six months 
preceding the last amuial sale, in which case such poor settlers are en- 
titled to purchase the lands at the upset prices fixed for the same at the 
previous year's sale: that settlers may, at any ))eriod within seven years 
from the date of those regulations, obtain lots of 200 acres, but no more, 
in unsurveyed districts u))on a quit-rent, equal to five ])er cent, on the 
estimated value of the land at the time of occupancy, and that such (piit- 
rent may he redeemed before theex])irationof that term, upon " j)aynK'nt 
of twenty years' ])urchase of the amount, and afterwards upon ])ayment 
of any arrear of (piit-rent which may be then due, and twenty years' ])ur- 
chase of the annual amount of the rent." No patent or transfer to be 
granted until the purchase money, or arrears of instsdments or quit-rent, 
shall have been ])aid : that the purchase money and (juit-rents be ])aid to 
the commissioner, or his delegate, at the time and place named in the 
condition of sale. 

Such are the regulations that govern thedis])osal of the crown lands 
throughout the British North American Colonies ; the principle iq)on 
which they ai'e ])redicated, /". c. the sale of lands, was ])robably suggested 
by the formation of couq)anies of large capital and considerable influence, 
one of which, the Canada Conq)any, has been mentioned at some length in 
Chapter 5th of \'ol. 1. This company being exclusively confined in their 
speculations to the province of I '^pper Canada, associations of a similar 
nature are on foot that have contem])lated the lands in the sister provinces, 
and it appears indeed desirable to encourage such associations, sii\ce they, on 
the one hand, offer a convenient and advantageous means to Ins majesty's 
government of disposing of its waste lands in the tjlonies, aiul on the 
other, are conducive to the settlement of the country and the furtherance 
of emigration, upon both of which subjects the govermnent has mani- 
fested the greatest solicitude, from their intimate connexion as well with 
the interests of the mother country as with the prosperity of its vast and 
flourisiiing colonies. 

D I) 2 



■m,'^ 



li 



/'', '1 



,j'' 



till 



:| 1 


i\ 


r k i 



204 



LAND CiRAMIXG. 



1 



Tlic reservations, that is, certain proportionate tracts reserved in 
TjOU'crand Upper Canada, nnder the provision of 31st (ieo. III. chap..'il, 
and anionnting to 12l-7ths of the hvnils "granted in each townshij), Avere 
formerly Uiid out in the field in so injudicious a manner as to hreak the 
continuity and check the pro-^ress of settlements. Those townships, in 
which the reservations are continued in their original coHocation, present 
tlie aspect of chess-boards, every second and third lot, alternately, in each 
range being a reserve, one of which is for the maintenance and support of 
a ])rotestant clergy within each province, the other for the future dis- 
])osition of the crown *. This mode of distribution was foinid so inconve- 
nient in practice, that, in Lower Canada, the far better plan was adopted 
in IS'Jl, of forming tlie reserves into com])act blocks, by which means, 
not only was the embarrassment removed, which their interloping amidst 
grantable lands generated, but their value, and utility hereafter, Avere 
considerably enlianced. The crown reserves continue to be a])propriated 
in the j)roportions prescribed by law, under the new system of land 
granting, but they are afterwards disposed of in the same way as the 
grantable lands at stated u])set prices. The clergy reserves, Avhen appro- 
priated, are generally leased by the corporation, to Avhicli their admini- 
stration is confided. The terms of these leases, until lately, were ns 
follows, viz. : For the first seven years, twenty-five shillings, or eigl t 
bushels of wheat per annum ; the second seven years, fifty shillings, or 
sixteen bushels of Avheat ; and for the remainder of tiie jjcriod, seventy- 
five shillings, or twenty-four bushels of wheat ])er lot, the lessors having 
the option of re([uiring payment to be made in either of the modes sti- 
pulated. So early as 181'2 the munber of lots thus leased, in I^ower 
Canada, amounted to .'36.'}, but this number has nmch increased since, 
and the terms of the lease have likewise been extended, in duration, to 
thirtv-three vears, and otherwise modified. The crown reserves, which 
were also leased under similar conditions to those first above stated, will 
no longer, Ave presume, be oceuj)ied under so tem])orary a title Avhen 
they can bo obtained under the more substantial tenure of letters-])atent, 
by sale. 

' Till' (linicnsions, divisions, and snl)divisi(ins of tlif townships in Lower Cunadii are stated 
witii precision i:i the note, vol. i. p. li!!?. The principle is the same in the uppor province. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

E.MiGUATioN— Capabilities and Attractions of tlio North American Colonies— System- 
atic Emi^mitions, 1815, 1818, 1820, 1823, 1 825— Perth, Lanark, and l{ichm(.i.(l— 
Reports on Kmij^ration of Select Committee of the House of Commons— Lord 
llowiek's Hill- Employment of Emigrants— Proposed Plan of hiyiny out the Lands 
for tiiem. 

Havinc endeavoured in these volumes to convey to tlie reader as 
accurate and conipreliensive a view of the IJritish colonies in North 
America, Avith regard to tlieir vast extent, their ocography, topogra))hy 
and statistics, as the scope of our information would allow ; and havint;- 
in the last chapter given a sketch of the various modes by which the 
crown lands in those colonies are granted, disposed of, and appropriated, 
we find ourselves naturally led to the consideration of a subject of para- 
mount importance, Avhich at the present moment peculiarly claims public 
attention. The political economist, the philanthropist, and the statesman, 
are alike involved in the investigation of the momentous (juestion of 
emigration ; and inasmuch as that interesting section of the IJritish em- 
))ire which has furnished the subject-matter of the present work is pre- 
eminently ])ut forward as the theatre of that emigration, it may not be 
irrelevant to the matter in hand, to take a cursory view of the history of 
the recent emigration to the colonies, the various schemes suoycsted for 

*^ ^ OCT 

its ])rotection or promotion, and, finally, the most effectual means that, 
in our opinion, could be adopted to ])rovide for emigrants after their 
landing on the other side the iVtlantic. In thus taking up the subject. 
we are far from presuming that our humble lights will, in any great de- 
gree, contribute to elucidate the difficulties and perplexities Avith which, 
judging from the contrarieties of opinion which it has elicited, the ques- 
tion seems frauglit ; but our task will be accomplished if, from our intimate 
knowledge of the provinces to which the tide of emigration is directed, 
and our long experience and observation, wc can point out the most 
feasible and advantageous manner of dis])osing of the British and Irish 
emigrauts that land on the Nova Scotian or Canadian shores; touching 



II: ;t 



mr\ 



'i 1 



m 



ii^'''!i 



t ' e' 1 



:! 



^h 


fl »} 


;''•'• 


i ' 


''ill 


If 



m 






I 



iii 



206 



EMIGUATIOX. 



I 



but slightly, or perhaps leaving altogether to the province of political 
economy, the consideration of the policy of emigration from home, the 
extent to which it should be tolerated or encouraged, the source whence 
the provision is to be derived, and the regulations by which it ought to 
be governed. 

Of the capabilities of the British North American colonies to pro- 
vide for a large accession of population no doubt appears to be enter- 
tained, since their inmiense extent and exhaustless natural resources have 
become tolerably well known. The provinces alone, which form com- 
paratively but a small section of the aggregate of the British possessions 
in the western hemisphere, occupy nearly 400,000 square statute miles 
of land, of which superficies scarcely 9»S00 square miles have been as j-et 
brought under cultivation, leaving 390,200 square miles still open to the 
progressive extension of population. Allowing that of these 390,200 
square miles one-third will be found covered by barrens, and otherwise 
unsusceptible of tillage, a surface will still remain, i. e. more than 260,000 
square miles, sufficient to sustain and nourish a population exceeding 
.*jO,000,000 of souls, admitting that its density should be in the same 
proportion in which the population of the provinces now stands, that is, 
about 122 inhabitants to each square mile of cultivation. 

Of the attractions held out by the British North American colonies 
as a field for the pursuits of agriculture, the prosecution of commercial 
enterprise, and the formation of flourishing settlements, enough will 
probably have been collected, from the previous pages of this work, to 
render it unnecessary to dwell upon them incidentally here. If a soil 
rich and productive in all its varieties, abounding when in a state of 
nature Avith trees of the greatest utility and value, and watered by in- 
mimerable rivers and streams — a climate salubrious in the extreme, and 
congenial to the growth of the luxuries, as well as the necessaries, of life 
— skies that are bright and cheerful — can, as far as natural advantages are 
concerned, be esteemed attractive, they are indeed attractions that emi- 
nently belong to these colonies ; but if, superadded to these advantages, 
the freedom of the institutions and government of the provinces, modelled 
in their principles upon their prototypes in the mother country, be taken 
into consideration, and that we also reflect upon the great commercial 



EMIGRATION. 



'J07 



avenues wliidi present themselves, connectin<]f the exti'emities of the cohv 
nies, and throwing Jilike all parts of them open to a particijjation in the 
benefits of extensive trade ; it hceomes not a matter of surprise that a 
numerous chiss of his majesty's subjects at home shouUl have directed 
their views to that side of the western ocean, and cast tlieir h)ts in so 
favoured, flourishing, and hap])y a section of the empire. 

Soon after the peace of 1S1,3, the return of the gallant army whicli 
iiad achieved the long and sanguinary, but glorious campaign which 
terminated in the memorable Battle of Waterloo, produced a strong 
impression u])on the almost exhausted resources of Great Britain ; and. 
as a cessation of the war, and a consequent reduction of the army, threw 
considerable numbers out of em])loy, th(^ attention of many was directed 
to the colonies, where his majesty's waste lands were granted, in due pi'o- 
portions, to officers and soldiers, as rewards for military services ; these 
military emigrants were soon followed by otlier individuals, whose for- 
tunes or circumstances had mediately or innnediately been impaired by 
the political state of affiiirs in Europe ; and tlnis may be said to have com- 
menced to flow that tide of emigration which has since increased to a 
degree that has rendered its direction and its control great questions of 
state policy, intimately connected with the interest and the well-being as 
well of the mother country as of the colonies. Partial emigrations had. 
indeed, for years before, occasionally taken place, but their limited sphere, 
and the circumstances by which they were influenced, seem to distinguish 
tliem from those of a more modern date, whose urgency and extent mark 
them witii peculiar features. It was not imtil 1817 or 181S that the flood 
of emigration burst forth upon the British North American provinces 
with such force as to fix public attention, and attract the notice of his 
majesty's government ; but since that period up to the present time, say 
thirteen years, no less than 200,000 persons, from all parts of the United 
Kingdom, have been landed at the seaports of the different colonies. It 
is true that from the commencement of this general emigration, down to 
the early part of the administration of Lord Dalhousie as governor-in- 
chief in Lower Canada, it was a subject of concern to witness thousands 
who crossed the -(Vtlantic, with a view to settle on the vacant crown lands 
in the Canadas, pass through those fine provinces, and become, more 






>i>l' ! 



208 



E]M[OUAT!ON. 



through necessity tluui choice, the subjects of a foreign government. 
The tedious and long-protracted formalities that were then necessary, in 
order to obtain grants of lands, are well-knoAvn to liave been the cause of 
tliis secondary migration ; but the salutary measures mentioned in the 
previous chajitcr having been ado])ted to facilitate the location of emi- 
grants with des])atch, the mass of the people who landed in that character 
at Quebec or Montreal have, since, been ])rovided for in one or the other 
of the Canadas, and were thus retained as members of the empire instead 
of being thrown in the opposite scale of national strength and power. 

The first systematic emigration which Ave have to record took place 
in 181.5. It consisted of about 700 of the natives of Scotland, for whom 
transports were ])rovided by government, and in the month of June of 
that year they sailed from Greenock for Canada, where they were located 
to lands in the district of Johnston, in the U])per I'rovince, and com- 
menced, in 1816, the now flourishing settlement of Perth, which after- 
Avards received a considerable increase of population from the accession 
of soldiers of the regiments disbanded in the colony after the war. The 
encouragement under Avhich this emigration proceeded consisted in a 
free passage across the Atlantic, the grant of one hundred acres of land 
to each head of a family, and to each s(m having attained tlie age of 
twenty-one year ' together Avith implements of husbandry, besides rations 
for one year. As a security to gOA^ernment against the abuse of this 
encoiu'agement, a deposit of 167. Avas exacted of the grantee for himself, 
and tAAo guineas for his Avife ; but two years after the bona fide settle- 
ment of the lands, this deposit-money Avas to be returned to the party. 
Three toAvnships had been surveyed for their rece])tion, and in the spring 
of 1816 the settlers repaired to the lands allotted to them. In the foUoAving 
year the population of the settlement stood thus : 





3/e«. 


Women. 


Children 


Eniifrants 


239 


Ill 


3()(» 


Disci arged soldiers 


. 70« 


179 


287 



947 



290 



6;)3 = 1890* 



* " Hints to Emigrants ; in a Series of Letters from Upper Canada. By the Rev. William 
Bell, Minister, Pres. Church, Perth, U. C." 



EMIGRATION. 



2oy 



No settlement in the province can be considered to luive more fully 
succeeded than this one, inasmuch as we find from a long scries of testi- 
monials collected by Colonel Cockburn, in a report to which we already 
have often appealed, that most of the settlers in Perth and the townships 
circumjacent have completely surmounted the vicissitiules incident to 
their ori^jinal situation as emigrants, and arc now in circumstances of 
ease and comfort, which would put it amply in their ])ower to refund to 
liis majesty's government, the sums advanced to aid and assist them in 
their emigration, were such a condition attached to the disbursements. 

In 1818 another emigration was effected from Perthshire, in Scot- 
land, under the direction of ISIr. Kobertson. Their passage out they 
themselves provided for, but the government paid the expense of their 
removal from Quebec to the township of Beckwith, in Up})er Canada, 
where lands were allotted to them. They are represented as having proved 
active and industrious, and as now enjoying " independence and plenty*." 

The settlements of Lanark, near Perth, were formed out of a sub- 
sequent emigration from Scotland. Nearly 1,100 persons from Glasgow, 
Lanark, and other places, embarked in 1820 for Canada, and arrived in 
safety at Quebec, whence they were immediately forwarded to Perth, 
and afterwards located to the lands they now occupy in the townshi])s 
of Lanark and Dalhousie. The boon granted them by government con- 
sisted in the location of one hundred acres of land to each head of a 
family, and in the sum of 10/. sterling to each individual emigrating; 
but this, though sufficient to enable the mass of the 1,100 above-men- 
tioned to remove to Canada, proved inadequate means to some of them, 
and it was not until 500/. were collected by subscription in London, in 
addition to a minor sum raised in Glasgow, that the remainder, amount- 
ing to nearly two hundred individuals, were able to follow their country- 
men to America. In the course of the following year, upwards of 1880 
persons took the same course, and under similar encouragement from 
the government, sailed from Greenock in the spring of 1821, on board 
of transports prepared for their accommodation ; but they were, never- 
theless, expected, and did in fact pay their own passages, and defray all 



) ^ 




tm4 



* Hints to Emigrants. 



VOL. ir. 



E E 



% 



i". l-l 



J 



L'lO 



EMIGRATIOX. 



other expenses incident to tlicir removal. These new settlements, viz. 
those of 1S20 and 1821, were placed under the superintendence of Cap- 
tain Marshall, to whose zeal and ability much of tlioir subsetiuent pros- 
perity is ascribed ; and it is worthy of remark liere, that few instances, 
if any, arc known in which settlements, under the direction of immediate 
superintendents, have failed ; Avhcreas we find that emigrants, left to them- 
selves, arc generally very languid in their progress, and not unfrcquently 
desert their lands in disgust, having nobody to prop their energies, and 
point out the advantages of perseverance. 

The complete ouccess of these several Scottish emigrations is thus 
jiortrayed by the llev. IMr. Bell, in one of his letters from Perth in 
1S24: "Although it is only seven years since the settlement at this 
))lace was commenced, astonishing improvements have been made. 
Many of our settlers, it is true, liave gone away to other places, but 
they were generally those who could be most easily spared, and their 
places were speedily supplied by persons of a more substantial and in- 
dustrious character. Tiie woods are gradually disappearing, and luxu- 
riant crops are rising in their stead. The roads are improving, and the 
means of communication between different parts of the country becoming 
every day more easy. The habitations first erected by the settlers were 
of a very humble kind, but these are gradually giving place to more 
comfortable and substantial dwellings. The military superintendence * 
of the settlement was removed on the 24th December, 1822, and we have 
now all the civil privileges enjoyed by the rest of the province." 

The following description of Perth, from the pen of the same writer, 
will not perhaps appear out of its place here, as connected with the 
emigrations under consideration, and as offering a very fair instance of 
the consequence which new settlements may acquire in a comparatively 
few years, under judicious encouragement and active superintendence. 

" Perth is the capital of the district, and the courts of law and 
justice are held in the town. It contains a jail and court-house, four 
churches, seven merchants' stores, five taverns, besides between 50 and 



* Perth, Laiiurk, and Riclimond were called military settlements, and from their being in 
a great measure composed of discharged soldiers, were placed under the control of the quarter- 
master-general's department until 1822, the period above stated. 



EMIGRATION. 



211 



100 private houses. The houses are all built of wood except the jail 
and court-house, and one merchant's store, which are built of brick. 
There is also a stone house erecting this summer by one of oiu* merchants. 
The villages of llichmond and Lanark are not making great progress, 
but this is not to be won'' A at in a country where all are living by 
agriculture. Unless manufactories be established, the population of our 
villages will always be small. ^Vhen strangers arrive at Perth and com- 
pare the number of churches with the population of the village, they 
conclude that we either are a very religious people, or, in building them, 
have taken care to provide accommodation for our country friends as 
well as for ourselves. There are in the county one episcopal clergyman, 
four presbyterian ministers, one American methodist preacher, two Roman 
catholic priests, besides a gi'cat variety of lay preachers in the remote parts 
of the settlement." 

The causes which led to these emigrations, meanwhile, were gaining 
ground ; the increase of the operative population in Great Britain and 
Ireland rapidly out.s< ripped the demand for their labour, and the appli- 
cation of new agents in manufactories, and the more general use of 
machinery, increased the evil to a degree that arrested the attention of 
parliament, and measures were adopted to alleviate the distress of the 
country by encouraging emigration. The idea, however, of a grand 
national scheme of emigration was novel, and most minds were unpre- 
pared to point out any decisive plan for carrying it into effect on a large 
scale without some previous experiment. Consistently with these views, 
his majesty's government, in 1823, provided for the removal of 568* in- 
dividuals, from Ireland, to the North American colonies, whither they 
were desirous of emigrating. The expense actually incurred in their 
passage to, and location in, Canada, amounted to an aggrega.:e sum 
of 12,593/. 3*. sterling, or 22/. Is. 6d. per head, and the direction and 
superintendence of the emigration were confided to Mr. Peter Robinson, 
a gentleman whose zeal and exertions in the discharge of his arduous 
task have secured to him, not only much deserved popularity in the new 

* 182 men, 143 women, 57 boys between fourteen and eighteen years, 106 children under 
fourteen. 

E E 2 




■'iwir!' 7' 



ml 



N 






EMIGRATION. 



settlements of l"'))pcr Caiuula, but the coniinciulation of tlic select eom- 
inittee of the House of Connuons on eniij^nition. The esthnate hiid l)eforc 
j)arlia!nent was ealcuhited upon the followini^ data, viz. : a man iiUf., a 
woman iiO/., and two chihlren It/, each, forming a total of 88/., from 
which a deduction had been made of a little more than nine per cent., it 
being presumed, "that a cond)ined emigration would be less expensive than 
an individual case;" but the total absence of all previous preparations, and 
a high rate of ])assage, carried the actual cx])onse beyond the estimate *. 
Although the emigrants of 1823 suffered some hardships in the 
outset, the result of the experiment appears to have been, on the whole, 
quite satisfactory, as may be seen by the following statistical exhibit of 
the state of the settlement in 182G, oidy three years after the first tree 
had been cut down upon the lands assigned to them. 

Siimmanj of the Emigration oflS'23. 
182(5. 













firain 












Townships. 


Number 

of 

souls. 


nirths. 


Deaths. 


Number 
of acres 
cleared. 


ruiseil 

since 

arrival. 


Potatoes. 


Turnips. 


Cattle. 


Horses. 


Hogs. 


Huinsiiy - 


2.-)l 


.31 


11 


430 L 


3,31H 


13,130 7,!»."'0 


Kil 




13« 


Huiitk'V 


71) 


l.l 


7 


\Ui\ 


4(;!) 


3,}!32l 1,430 


43 


2 


17 


(idiilboiirii - 


.'il) 


2 




!H> 


4i)2 


2,307 H2!) 


:«) 




27 


I'akoiiliam - 


5(i 


11) 


2 


!H 


llC) 


1,100 4}i(i 


3(5 




") 


Bi'ckwith - 


1» 


1 




2(1 


1!)2 


(iOO l-)0 


7 


« « 


2 


Lanark - 


(5 


2 




10 


(iO 


lOo! 200 


5 




(i 


Batliurst 

Totals 


a 


2 




t{ 


100 


400 100 


7 







477 


()3 


20 


77«! 


4,«20 


21,401)11,145 

1 


2<J({ 


2 


201 



In 182.7 a further ex))eriment was tried by parliament, upon a much 
larger scale, the number of emigrants included in that year's plan, ex- 
ceeding 2,000, among whom were 415 heads of families. They, like the 
emigrants of 1823, were taken from one of the distressed parts of Ireland, 
and the men were particularly chosen with a regard to their capability 
of laboiu'ing. Mr. llobinson was, in this instance also, appointed to su- 

* Report of tlie Select Committee on Emigration from the United Kingdom, p. G, anno 
1027. 



E.MIGRATIOX. 



213 



pcrlntcntl their emigration to Ui)])cr Canada, and, in the autunni of that 
year, he saw them loeated to their lands in several of the townships si- 
tuated on the Trent, in the district of Newcastle. The expense of this 
emii^ration amonnted, in the aggregate, to 4;j,l 4.5/., including- the location 
and sustenance of the emi<^rants up to the period at which their first 
crops enahled them to provide for themselves *. This sum, if divided 
by the nvunher of individuals removed, will ^\\c iil/. ().v. k/., or some- 
thing less than the estimate of 1S2.'J, but if viewed, Avith relation to the 
actual heads of families, it will be found to have exceeded that estimate 
by ujiwards of 120/. ))er family. 

The success of this emigration as an experiment appears to have fully 
succeeded in corroborating what the first had in some measinv served to 
prove, namely, that emigrants.fostered and encouraged in the outset, would 
soon be placed in a situation to be able to refund the monies advanced 
for their removal, whether by government, by individuals, or i)articular 
societies. The following general summary, taken from the Appendix 
to the 3rd Report of the select connnittee (1827)of the I louse of Commons 
on this subject, will show, in the clearest manner, the ])rogress made by 
that new settlement in the com'sc of one year. 

General Summarij of the Emigration o/'1825. 

182G. 











I'rotUico raised this year. 


Busliels 


U.S. of 


Piirclinsed l)y 


No. 


Towiisliips. 


N'umbcr 
if loiM- 


Nipiibir 
of acres 




of wlieat 
sown this 


ina]ile 

sugar 
iiiadethis 
spring. 


tliemselvcs. 


Potatoes. 


Tunilps. I'-Ji"" 










tioiis. 


cleared, 


Itiishels. 


»--^- aXi,. 


lull. 


Oxen. 


Cows, llo^s. 

( 


1 


Douro - - - 


(ID 


24.'. I 


0,251 


4,175 1,777 


00? 


1,159 


11 


10 ! 22 


2 


Smith - - - 


.{4 


:Vl 


4,000 


1,550 037 


40' 


009 


(i 


7 


21 


a 


OtoiialtW' - - 


51 


\:,{') 


10,500 


4,2.50 1,305 


30 


1,419 


4 


13 


11 ; 


4 


Emily - - - 


142 


.^51 ', 


22,200 


7,700 3,442 


44 \ 


2,000 


(> 


10 


J", 


.'■) 


Eunismore 


<i7 


1!)5' 


0,000 


3,0(K)! i,042A 


44 i 


1,330 


4 


9 


10 


(I 


Aspliodt'l - - 


'M\ 


17.'{ 


J),l."iO 


2,050 i 1,7.33' 


00- 


1,345 


2 


« 


32 


7 


^liirmoni - - 


(i 


.15 


1,100 


540 1 207 


2 


45 


5 


4 


7 ■ 


w 


llamsov - - 


5 


:«) 


000 


750 


120 


l(i 


, , 


2 


4 


1 


!» 


Ops ■ - - . 


7 


12 


000 


100 


, , 


2 






, . 


2 


10 


(loulbourn - - 


4 


1» 


()00 


.5(N) 


10 


2 


, . 




3 


1 i 


11 


Iluntli'v - - 
Totals 


;{ 


l«i 


(iOO 


200 75 


7 


•• 


•• 


4 

00 


5 
KiO 


415 


1,380:; 


07,790 25,G23 10,430 A 

1 i 


3G;h 


9,007 


40 




II ' 1 1 



* Third Report of the Commons' Select Committee. 



i 



*! 



uu 



I'M IG RATION. 



Whilst these organi/ed euiij^ratioiis were going on, ninnerous ta- 
niilies, uneonneeted with them, left the I'liited Kiii;;(U)in to resort to 
tlie North Anicriean eolonies, where they were h)eateil to hinds, and 
settled themselves withont any further aid from government than that 
of u grant of land, upon the payment of oflieial fees oidy, whieh, in 
Lower Canada, amounted to a triHing sum, 1/. 7.v. Ht/. ])er lOOaeres; in 
Upper Canada the fees on KM) aeres were mueh higher, viz. lii/., payable 
by instalments, but there were no fees whatever upon grants of 50 acre 
lots. This desidtory emigration was by far the largest, and inasmuch 
as tlie greatest nund)er of the individuals of this class found the means, 
out of their own resources generally, of establishing themselves in the 
townships, it furnishes an argument in favour of leaving emigration to 
take its own course, abstaining from promoting it by any pecuniary 
aid, yet affording the new settler all the assistance that can be derived 
from the direction and superintendence of government agents. 

In 18'JG the subject was solemidy brought before the JJritish par- 
liament by K. J. \\'Umot ilorton, Kscjuire, and a select committee of 
the house of commons was appointed " to in([uire into the expediency of 
encouraging emigration from the United Kingdom," iVc. The inde- 
fatigable labours and researches of this connnittee were presented to the 
House in a series of important reports, containing the most invaluable 
information upon all points connected with that momentous question ; 
and they constitute, we believe, the first public documents extant, of 
any consc(iuencc or authority, that have fully investigated and discussed 
emigration as a great national measure. 

In their first lleport the committee begin by establishing three 
general positions : Firstly, The redundancy of the population, that is, 
the excess of the demand beyond the supply of labour in certain districts 
of Kngland, Scotland, and Ireland, and the distressing effects of this re- 
duiulancy. Secondly, The capabilities of the IJritish colonies to subsist and 
provide for this surplus ])opulation; and, lastly, The beneficial tendency of 
emigration upon the colonies themselves, and upon the national wealth, 
considering the colonies "as integral parts of the nation at large." Upon 
these grouiuls the expediency of emigration is recommended ; but the 
connnittee, in perfect accordance with those free principles for which 









U.MICi RATION. 



stly 



J 15 



(1. 



•I the i(l( 



tlio institutions of Great Britain arc ,s( 

I'ocrcivo i'mi<;rati»)n, and advise none that is not '* fusontmlh/ rohnitanj.'' 

These Reports natnn.lly apply inueh more to that hraiieh of th<' 
■snbjeet whieh involves t'.ie eonsideration of the efleets sueh a removal 
of the surplus ))opulati(Mi of the I'nited Kin<;(loin would have at home. 
than the investi«^ation of its tendeney, as relates to the eolonies; and 
we are therefore ])reeluded, eonsistently with our plan, from enterinj^ 
more fidly into their eontents, exeept insonuieh as may serve to eluci- 
date the various means proposed of providinj;' finids, aiul the amoimt of 
those funds, neeessary to defray the expenses attendant upon a |)au])er 



emigration. 



The eomniittec, in their third and final Report in 1H27, recommend 
a ])ccuniary advance, in the nature of a loan, for the purpose of faeilitatin<; 
emijjjratiou, f^roundin<^ their recommendation ii])on the success of the 
experiments made in IS'iU and ISii.'i, by which the ability of the eini<^rant 
eventually to refund, Avith interest, the monies advanced him, is abundantly 
established. That the settler would be able to meet sueh a claim stands 
also corroborated by the testimony of the Perth emigrants, who almost 
uniformly admit their capacity to do so, in kind generally, and even in 
some cases in currency, had such been the stipulations entered into*. 
Up to the period of this Report, the monies applied in the removal of 
emigrants, and their location in the colonies, whether out of individual 
or national funds, had been disbursed, without contemplating the pro- 
bability of their being refunded. The return for the cii])ital thus ex- 
pended was supposed to arise from the benefit accruing to the community 
by the abstraction of un])rofitable inhabitants, who consumed a ])ortioii 
of tlie aggi'cgate stock, without contributing any thing, by their labour, to 
the national wealth. This return, however, was probably found more 
theoretical than substantial ; and when the encouragement of emigration 
upon a large scale, by votes from the national funds, was taken into con- 
sideration, the expediency of exacting a direct return either in money or 
in produce suggested itself as not only feasible, but just: the committee, 
in consequence, proposed a plan for doing so, and by a series of tabular 

• Colonel Cockburii's Report. Ai)peii(lix. 




i '-A 



m 



21() 



EMIGRATION. 



'J 



u 






',, 



i 



calculations and schedules, framed upon an hypothetical case, exhibits a 
mode in which competent interest for the capital laid out might be fairly 
expected. The case assumed involves the emigration of IQ.OOO families in 
the course of three years, at an expense of ()0/. each. This sum would, 
it is stated, begin to be refunded after the expiration of the first three 
years (which are left ])erfectly free), njjon the following principle : — each 
family woidd pay ten shillings in money or in produce the foiu'th year 
of their location, one pound the fifth year, and so on, increasing regularly 
by ten shillings every successive year, imtil the sum amounted to five 
pounds, when it should reniain stationary imtil a period of thirty years, 
com})uting from the date of their emigration, would have ex])ired, when 
the anmiity would totally cease, the capital advanced finding itself, by that 
time, refunded with interest. The ingenuity and the simplicity, at once, 
of the plan, entitle it to a more particular consideration than we can devote 
to it here ; but the tables explanatory of the scheme arc thrown into the 
Ap])endix. 

I^ooking now, retrospectively, at the various means of encouragement 
that have been hitherto adopted, and the extent to which, at different 
times, that encouragement was held out, we find that the IJritish and 
Irish emigrant was, at one period, allowed — afree passage — a grant of land, 
— implements of husbandry — and rations for one year. As a check against 
the abuse of these advantages, each head of a family was bound to deposit 
eighteen pounds, which were restored to him when he had become a Ijohu 
Jide settler. The Perth settlement in 1815 was formed under these cir- 
cumstances. 

At another period, we find the emigrant left to provide for his own 
passage and that of his family, but government paid — the expense of 
his removal to his land after arrival, — and ffra/iti'd him the lands. The 
emigration from Perthshire in 1818 proceeded upon these terms. 

Subse([uently, the regulations were again altered, and the Lanark 
emigrants in 1820 received — the usual grant of land — and the sum of ten 
pounds per head. These various changes and modifications led to the 
same general result, inasmuch as the greater number at least, if not all 
the individuals who availed themselves of some one or the other of the 
above conditions, have derived material benefits from their emigration : 



EMIGRATION. 



217 



tlicy serve to show that encouragement, in ahuost any shape, is likely to 
realize extensive emij^rant settlements in the North American colonies, 
where the efforts of industry are so ])eculiarly seconded by the circum- 
stances of the country. AVc shall not dwell upon the })lan suggested 
by the select committee on emigration, whereby they rely upon the expe- 
diency of allowing a sum of sixty pounds for the removal, to the colonies, 
of each family desirous of emigrating. If the scheme proposed had been 
carried into effect, we fully concur in believing, tliat the allowance made 
would have been quite sufficient to locate the parties to lands in the 
Canadas or the other provinces, and secure to them the means of be- 
coming independent farmers, capable as such of eventually meeting the 
claims of iiis majesty's govermnent to the reimbursement of the monies 
expended on their behalf. But the apparent abandonment of this plan, 
and the adoption of a system different in principle, yet tending, we be- 
lieve, to the same beneficial ends, render the consideration of the select 
committee's proposition too speculative for our ])urpose; but wc refer to 
the lleport itself, as highly interesting and im])oi-tant. 

A\'^hether emigration should be fostered and encouraged by funds draAvn 
from the British treasury, or be left to take its own course, is a question 
that has not escaped the notice of the Select Committee of the House of 
Commons, whose enlightened rc])orts we have so often adverted to ; and 
it is the opinion of the connnittee, that the latter principle is entirely 
sound, and that with some modifications, it might be beneficially acted 
upon ; " but they conceive that it is utterly erroneous to suppose that a 
redundant population of absolute paupers can be removed by casual and 
unassisted emigration*." In giving their farther consideration to this 
branch of the subject, the committee go on to give as their decided 
opinion, "that if the principle of casual and independent emigration 
were to be preferred to that of a regidated and located emigration, — if 
it were to be laid down as a princi])le that there could be no limitation 
to the absorption of labourers either in the United States or in our own 
colonies, and that we have only to build a bridge as it were over the 
Atlantic to carry over the starving poor of the mother country to secure 



• Third Report, page 3G. 



VOL. II. 



F F 



:i. 






' i'i 



ii 






il! 



I'H' !■ !•'' 



'tfli^r' i 



,n>M;,| 

■il 



!! 



H 



218 



EMIGRATION. 



I 



their advantage and prosperity, it will be found that the evils ■which 
would be thereby inflicted upon our pauper po])ulation would be hardly 
less than those from which they had escaped. If an attempt were mavi.c 
to pour them indiscriminately into the United States, without reference 
to the demand for labom* that may exist there, the laws of that country, 
already hostile to such an introduction, woidd probably be made still 
more effectual to prevent it ; or if it be proposed that our colonies should 
receive them in inilimited numbers when transmitted Avithuut selection, 
without reference to the real demand for their services as labourers, and 
imaided by capital, upon the principle of repayment, there will be no 
bounds to the complaints which the colonies will raise against the in- 
justice and short-sightedness of our policy*." 

In these views of the policy of a well-regulated emigration we most 
fully concur, experience having already abundantly proved the distress 
and mischief consequent upon the absence of a regular system. The 
deluded pauper may gather a trifling pittance to transfer him to the 
colonies, and may by such a removal relieve the mother coimtry of the 
burden of maintaining him and his family; but arriving in a state of 
absolute destitution, he finds his condition still worse in the colonies than 
at home, no laws existing there for the relief of the poor, indeed no such 
laws having been thought of in the country, from the absence of such a 
degree of pauperism as rendered them necessary. 

It may be said, that in a country where the supply of cultivable 
land is exhaustless, as is the case in the IJritish North ^Vmerican colonies, 
pauperism cannot long exist if the lands themselves be distributed to the 
needy upon easy conditions, and that therefore the accession of population, 
whether composed of indigent or wealthy individuals, provided it consist 
of able-bodied men, is such an accession as must be desirable in a country 
where the soil is so abundant and the inhabitants comparatively few. 
The truth of this position must be readily admitted, but the benefits to 
arise, from such an emigration, would essentially depend upon the facilities 
with which the new comers might obtain the soil which w^as to convert 
them from paupers into farmers ; and if, for the sake of argument, it be 

• Third Report, page 3(J. 



I 



EMIGRATION. 



219 



assumed that the colonies had the direct control and administration of 
their lands, we have no doubt that the policy Avould be to let no man be 
idle whilst a farm remained to be cultivated ; and thus, whilst on the one 
hand it would be for the interest of Cireat Britain to relieve herself of an 
unproductive labouring popidation, as regards their situation at home, it 
would, on the other, be no less an advantage to the colonies to receive it, 
liaving the means of providing for them immediately, even at the exp;.'nse 
of an outlay of provincial capital, for which adequate returns might after- 
wards be received. 

But it is no less the policy of the mother country than of the colo- 
nies to improve the condition of the pau])cr emigrant, and the solicitude 
of his majesty's government on the subject is manifested by the attention 
which has been devoted to it, as well in, as out, of parliament. The large 
sums of money .already voted by the IJritish legislature, in aid of emi- 
gration, are evidence of a desire not to burthen the colonies with the 
surplus and unprovided ])opidation of the United Kingdom, and if a 
further proof could be required of the existence of such a feeling, it is 
to u found in the reports of the emigration committee, and in the tenor 
of '' )id introduced in the House of Commons by Lord Howick, "to 
faci. ' .. voluntary emigration to his majesty's possessions abroad," an 
epitome of which bill is given in the Appendix. 

The vicAvs of government upon this subject appear manifest again, 
from the plan more recently contemplated of providing needy emigrants 
with employment in the colonies. The ap])lication of their laboin* in the 
construction of works of public utility, such as opening roads and canals 
in various parts of the country, cannot but essentially benefit the pro- 
vinces to which the system would extend, not only from the local ame- 
liorations that would naturally arise from such works, but from the 
capital that would immediately be put afloat. The source, whence go- 
vernment calculate a return for the capital thus expended, is to be foiuul 
in the system of selling the crown lands, in the maimer stated in the 
foregoing chapter, and we have no doubt that, under judicious regu- 
lations, and with the co-operation of the local legislatures, this mode of 
providing for emigrants in the colonies would be attended with complete 
success. 

F r 2 



!i| 



'I J 






m 



m 



'.If 



I 



ii 






\i 



i9 9i| 



M 1)1 



1 m 



' 



220 



EMIGRATION. 



Before entering more fully into the subject of the employment and 
the location of the emigrants in tlie matmer contemplated, it may not be 
amisrj to give some account of Lord Howick's bill, that we may know 
what class of individuals is held in vie^v', and under what circumstances 
they are to emigrate, and be landed upon the British trans-atlantic sliores. 

The bill in question provides for the appointment of commissioners, 
styled commissioners of emigration, who are to act under the instructions 
of the colonial secretary of state, to whom they are to report to his ma- 
jesty twice a year. It leaves the parishes to determine, themselves, upon 
the expediency or non-expediency of the emigration of their pauper pa- 
rishioners ; and, after the affirmative determination of the vestry, the 
commissioners are authorised to enter into contracts with the overseers 
of the poor for the removal to the colonies of such parties as are disposed, 
voluntarily, to emigrate, and who become likewise parties to the contract, 
the commissioners undertaking to provide for their passage, " their main- 
tenance and support during the voyage, and from the time of their dis- 
embarkation until the period of their arrival at their ultimate destination, 
and also to provide them, in the first instance, with the means of ob- 
taining their own subsistence ;" the overseers obliging themselves, on the 
other hand, on behalf of their respective parishes, to the payment, out 
of the parish rates, into the treasury, of a certain sum in the contract 
stated, by equal half-yearly instalments. The commissioners are, more- 
over, authorised to enter into similar obligations with private individuals 
for like purposes, provided sufficient securities be tendered by the parties 
with whom they may be entered into. This clause, we presume, is in- 
tended to meet the circumstances of Ireland, where there are no poor 
rates out of which the parishes could derive the requisite funds, to meet 
such engagements, for the removal of pauper emigrants. 

It is foreign to our plan to investigate into the probable operation 
of this bill in the metropolitan country ; how it will affect the colonies is 
a question which comes more within our province, and giving to it, under 
that aspect, the most attentive consideration, we have been led to infer 
most favourably of its tendency to promote the settlements of British 
North American provinces. It ensures, in some degree, the respectability 
of the emigration ; it restricts it, at least as far as the aid is concerned, 



EMIGRATION. 



221 



to able-bodied labourers and their families ; it guarantees the provinces 
against the })auperism of the individuals who emigrate under its pro- 
visions, by providing them with the means of subsistence for a time, and, 
by its contemplating the scheme of their employment upon public works, 
promises also to contribute vastly to the Improvement of that part of 
his majesty's dominions abroad. But there are considerations of great 
weight, which it is necessary to bear in mind, in the application of sucli 
a system to the North American possessions. These consideratio'^s relate 
chiefly to the climate, which is generally so rigorous us to interrupt 
fiel'l labour during nearly half the year, except, however, lumbering, 
which is, for the most part, carried on in the woods in winter. But the 
oj)cning of roads, the excavation of canals, the erection of mills, are all 
the labours of milder seasons, and cannot be })rosecuted amidst deep snows 
and intense frosts, especially by people little inured to the severity of 
almost Siberian cold. 

By a cessation of labour for nearly six months, admitting employment 
to have been constant dining the other six months, it is scarcely possible 
to presume that the emigrant, at the year's end, would be more competent 
to purchase his land of the croAvn than he was at the beginning, nor 
could he even be considered better capable of setting himself, with his 
family, down, upon even a free location, to commence a settlement for 
himself. 

Instances, indeed, are known, and they are not rare, of emigrant 
labourers having saved, out of two years' earnings, a competent sum to 
comknence the improvement and settlement of lands of their own ; but 
these labourers were, for the most part, peculiarly situated, and they are 
found to belong to that class who have generally been employed in the 
towns, and obtained lands by grant, sale, or copyhold in the neighbour- 
hood. The case would be somewhat different if the scene of the emi- 
grant's labour were a wilderness, remote, as it probably Avould be, from 
towns and settlements, ,^Jid to which he could not take his wife and 
children. Their resources would thus necessarily have to be divided and 
their expenses increased. 

Notwithstanding these objections, the principle of providing em- 
ployment, in the colony, for the pauper emigrant, and thus enabling hiiu 












MM I 



222 



EMIGRATION. 



IV 



eventually to purchase his allotment, remains incontestahly correct ; it 
requires but one or two modifications in practice, when applied to the 
trans-atlantic ])rovinces, which the circumstances of those countries point 
out as expedient. These modifications should consist in two things, 1st, 
providing the pauper emigrant Avith an allotment at once, at an etjuitable 
upset ])rice, taking into the estimate its additional prospective value arising 
from the road or the canal which it may be intended to open through or 
near it (assuming that such allotments are generally to be made in spots 
where such improvements are contemplated) ; and 2nd, the forbearance, 
by government, of the exaction of any ])artof the purchase money, until 
the expiration of two years from the date of the deeds, which should be 
of a temporary nature, and recpiire confirmation by letters patent, after 
their conditions should have been complied with. The advantages likely 
to flow from this immediate allotment of land, are, that it will prevent the 
separation of families, remove the emigrants bodily from the cities, lay 
the ground-work of a settlement directly, and throw the settlers much 
sooner upon the produce of the soil for subsistence. JNIuch of the realiza- 
tion of these advantages, however, would depend npon the plan that 
might be adopted in distributing the land and locating the settlers. Any 
system that would disjoint a settlement should be studiously avoided, and 
every possible means studied of concentrating the labour and energies of 
an infant colony, ^^'ith this end in view we have imagined that the 
following plan, deviating as little as could conveniently be done from the 
usual mode of laying out the townships in the colonics, w^ould be calcu- 
lated to facilitate the object intended. The economy of the survey is 
simple in itself, and it will at once be understood upon an inspection of 
the illustrative graphical delineation annexed. 

The ])lan represents a com])act square of four complete townships, 
equal to 246,400 acres. The blocks lightly shaded exhibit the reserves 
for the crown, the darker shades those for the clergy, and they are all 
so placed in the angles of each townshij), as not in the least to interfere 
with the roads or the settlements. 

The reservations, in the four townships, amount together to 35,200 
acres, leaving 211,200 acres to be disposed of to emigrants, and capable, 
therefore, admitting all the lands to be cultivable, of providing for 






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»•." ? 



ll"'RaiHi,- 

.»*A .Iri-f Int.s- 



Miiiii 



IV 



( om 



I'll III iiiiiii 



■>t -1.1 ?;' 




Road 



^^^1^^'^ 



. Iitf l.itt.t 



I'.' Ha n fie 

100 ,4crf l.nli 



\"'l 



n^Kunif- 

(ilr 



V"t- 



,iO .iff' /<*/»• ! 



Scalf ot" Mik.r 



,U',I I! 
|<l<lh 

riA's 



f 

'-»«-! rill 
< 'I I 



m|j 



EMIGRATION. 



223 



2,112 families, or 10,560 souls, allowing five in number to each family. 
At the contiguous angles of the four townships, a.^ a general central 
position, is projected a village, one mile square, Avitli a common, half a 
mile in width, about it. Tliis village shouui be laid out to suit the ground ; 
a river or brook capable of turning a mill ought either to flow through it 
or be found in the vicinity, and, in the event of the village being near 
the frontier, its situation might also be selected with some regard to its 
military defence. 

The roads, being disposed of in the maimer shown by the plan, would 
become, severally, the front of a line of settlements, lots being surveyed 
along them of 28 chains 75 links in breadth by bG chains and 52 i links 
in depth, giving a compact farm of 105 acres, or the exact half of a 
regular township lot. The roads should not be less than 66 . cct wide. 
The labourers employed in opening a new road, or cutting a canal 
through townships, thus laid out and subdivided, might also be occupied 
as they proceed, in making heftcnnents, that is, preparatory clearings, and 
erecting rude log huts, of which hdtervientu they themselves might become 
the proprietors, by pui'chasc from the crown upon the indulgent terms 
proposed, /'. c. withholding any exaction for two years. The log-houses 
might be, when practicable, built upon the division line between the lots, 
and sufficiently large for two families, by which means the clearings of 
two of the settlers would generally come in conjunction, and they would 
thus dei'ive the advantage of their mutual improvements, from their ex- 
posing a larger surface to the action of the sun, — no mean advantage when 
it is considered, that the lofty forests of America are such as to throw a 
small clearing into perpetual shade, to the great prej udice of all kinds of crops. 

Saw-mills are important in the formation of new settlements, and 
their construction might advantageously be thrown into the general scale 
of employment to be given to emigrants. Such saw-mills as would be 
required could be erected for less than 150/. each, a sum that might soon 
be refunded out of the sale of boards to the emigrants themselves. 

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to carry the object fully into 
effect without the previous adoption of preparatory measures for the in- 
ception of the emigrants. The spots destined for their labour should 
be chosen in each of the provinces ; the lands should be surveyed ; a 






"I 11 



iii 



224 



EMIGRATION. 



govcnmu'iit store-house, under the manngeuicnt of the c'oniuiis>ariat de- 
partment of the eolony, should be estabhslicd in some eentral position of 
tlic traet whieli is to he made tlie scene of action. This store shouhl he 
|)rovide(l with provisions, Wankets, tents, and inn)lements of hushanchy. 
AVith these preparatives nothing can prevent the emigrant's removing 
with his family at once to the theatre of his labours, inasnuich as he 
would arrive there at a mild season, where he could easily provide suf- 
ficient temj)orary shelter, until, in the progress of his work through the 
season, he would, if iiulustrious, be able to erect a more solid habitation 
for his reception in winter, or ])robably become the occupan.t of one of 
the betterments previously mentioned. This, in fact, is the mode in which 
the l*erth and IV'terborough settlements in I'^pper Canada were cftected, 
and the plan of o])ening roads, and settling emigrants simidtaneously, 
is instanced in the Talbot settlement of the same province, where the 
labour of the settlers was judiciously divided in the opening and ame- 
lioration of roads, and the clearing of their own lands. 

A\''e have alreaily hinted at the advantage of removing the mass of 
the emigration bodily from the towns as soon as j)ossible — this advantage 
would become still greater if they were not allowed to enter them at all, 
but were innnediately, upon their landing, conveyed to the place of their 
destination. 

An individual case of emigration would then stand thus : — ^Vn 
emigrant's family is taken up by government under the provisions of 
TiOrd Howick's bill, aiul shipped on board a transport, say for Lower 
Canada. The vessel arrives at Quebec, and the resident government 
agent for emigrants takes charge of them. They land at Point Levi, 
opposite the city, and are immediately forwarded, by means previously 
prepared, to the Kempt lload, the Ottawa, or any where else where 
lands have been surveyed for them, and the other preparations formerly 
mentioned await their arrival. Arrived there (we suppose at the end of 
]\Iay or the beginning of June) the overseer of the works intended to be 
done, or perhaps a township agent, points out how tley are to house 
themselves immediately ; the father, and such i.f his sons as can labour, 
arc forth witli set to work, and they have on the spot a store where they 
can purchase their food. A hundred acre lot, or perhaps only fifty acres, 



I 



EM Ifi RATION. 



m mm* ' 



i 



I 



arc nssij^ncd to the head of each (iiinily, at a fair vahiatioii, imdcr the 
conditions either of a (init-rent or payments by instahnents, with a 
f()rl)earancc of the exaction, for two years, of any monies or produce 
whatever. He is eniph)yed in the public works from ei^ht in tlie 
morning till six in the evening, and has therefore two hours bef')re he 
begi.iS his day's labour, and nearly as nnich after he has finished it, 
(from the length of suninier days,) which he may, if industrio.is, devote 
to the erection of a log-house for himself, and in clearing his lands. Tiie 
following year he would, ])rohabIy, he able, with very little assistance, to 
support his family out of his first cro])s. 

Emigration, carried on to any extent in this way, could not be 
directed to one spot oidy, in any one »)f the colonies, but would neces- 
sarily be divided, and placed in various eligible situations in dillerent 
parts of each province; but the settlements in each colony could, ne- 
vertheless, be ranged imder one general superintendence, as it is well 
knowu that the complete ( tticiency of any extensive system much de- 
pends upon imiformity of prim i pie and action, which establishes order 
and economy in the arrangements, and infuses additional vigour in the 
prosecution of any great imdertaking. 

In laying open our view of this momentous subject, we are aware 
that there are a variety of topics, involved in the consideration of the 
question, Avhich deserve to be investigated, but which wo have merely 
hinted, or passed entirely, ftith xilcuiio. A\'e have before given our reasons 
for doing so. Of the topics alluded to, perhaps none is more susce])tible 
of discussion than that which relates to the ])olicy or the necessity of 
encouraging emigration at all, or the wisdom of leaving it to itself; and 
we confess, that Avith the foUoAving statement before us, we should be 
disposed to espouse the latter opinion, especially when viewing emigration 
as a relief to the mother country. IJut loi)king at the subject, not only 
under that aspect, but also as it affects the condition of the emigrants 
themselves, and operates upon the colonies, we do think that an organized 
system is attended with the more extensive advantages, both national 
and individual, since the reduction of pauperism in any part of the em- 
pire must tend to improve the wealth, strength, and independence of 
the nation as a whole. The scenes of human misery that are exhibited 

VOL. II. G G 




1:1: 



!IHil 81 1 



i\ 



4: i 



\\ 






226 



K.MKiUATION. 



I 



on the wliarfs in the tolonit's, by the swarms of fnii^iants that arrive 
t'roiu Ireland and otiier parts of the United Kin(((h)in, are too appallinj; 
to allow ii!» to ar^ue in favour of an unproteeted and unrej^uliited enii- 
<>ration. His majesty's ^overmnent has ever been too ])aternal to eon- 
si^n those of the kind's siibjeets, whose eireunistanees jjfive them no alter- 
native between emij>ration and famine, to sueh wretehedness; and it is 
in that s])irit which ha** ever distinguished the Hritish government, that 
the sui))eet was taken u]) as one of a national nature, and measures pro- 
posed and adopted to alleviate the miseries of emigration, and ensure to 
those. Avhose destiny removed them from their birthplaee, a comfortable 
asylum, under the protecting jvgis of the same constitution, in u remote 
part of his majesty's dominions. 

I'hiiigratioii Jhm the United Kingdom to the Colonics *. 



Vtnrs. 


Norlli 
Aimritiin 
t'liliiiiies. 




ChIU' (if 
(iond lliipi'. 


New Soiiili 

Willis, Sw;in 

Hivcr, \i'. 


Tumi. 


J ({2-, 
lH2(i 
1H27 
l}t2f{ 
1H2!» 


>t,7ll 
12,HU< 
]2,(ilf{ 
1 2,011-1 
i;».!»07| 


10112 

iin:! 
iir>(; 

1211 
12.-.1 


lit 

IKi 
111 
lUJ 

1U7 


4H-. 

!io:{ 

71.-. 
i,or.() 

2,01(1 


10,422 

ir.,7r)0 
i4,(i;»:i 

14,4H({ 

17,:<7i 



That the views of the imperial government, as regard emigration, 
would be essentially promoted by the interference of the local legislatures 
of the different colonies, and their adoption of measures calculated to 
facilitate the carrying into cfleci; the objects contemplated, cannot be 
doubted, and indeed their co-operation was, by the emigration committee, 
esteemed material to the success of a general system of emigration. The 
language of the committee is so distinct upon this jwint, that although 
it is applied to a different system which was then contemplated, it is by 
no means inapposite to the more recent plan of employment, inasmuch 
as the funds out of which the labour of emigrants is to be paid might be 
greatly aided by colonial votes, to be ap])lied towards the local improve- 
ment of their respective provinces. 

* Year Book, IftU. 

t By oluciiil returns in Qut^bcc papers of .Ird August, lf!31, this year's emigration appears 
to be 15,945. In 1830, it was 28,075, and on the 23rd August, 1C31, 40,300, at Quebec alone. 



liMICiUATEON. 



P.Q7 



" Vour comtnittc't' hi'ir most distinctly to be uiulcrstood, tliat tlicy 
rest their cnse entirely npon the presumed co-«)|)erati()n and assistance of 
the colonial lej^islatures. Unless this can he obtained, tlu-y IVil that 
rcpayinetjt woidd be impracticable ; it' it be obtained, they entertain con- 
fident hopes that it may be reduced to a regular and eileetive system ; 
aiul thou<;h they could not go st tar as to require a guiU'antce upon the 
part oi' the colonial li';;ishitures, they should exi)ect them to make sm'h 
provisions as shouhl tend to eid'orce aiul secure the validity of the en- 
gagements made. Nor upon a very mature examination of the subject 
can your conunittee be iiuluccd to conceive that the local legislatures can 
Imve any disinclination to enter into such arrangements. The intelligent 
inhabitants of those colonies cannot fail to hv aware, that vhen those 
emigrants repay the loan which is jjroposed lo be lent t'> each head of 
a family, they will only repay a very small part of the Avcdth which they 
possess, and which has been created by their e'uigratioM, They will hv 
aware also that the projected emigration will consist exelusivel; ^f able- 
bodied, healthy ])ersons, selected upon system in the mother cuitry, and 
introduced upon system into the colony, and that it is . ^♦^ to be u casu. , 
desidtory, and unprovided-for emigration. Under ucb circumstances 
your conunittee cannot doubt the disposition of the local legislatures of 
the colonies to encourage the measure aiul to facilitate the ])rocess of 
repayment, an opinion which is expressed unanimously by the colonial 
witnesses examined before your conunittee*." 

As far as our own conviction goes, founded upon the a])proved li- 
berality of the colonial legislatures of the Hritish North American pro- 
vinces, towards the amelioration of internal comimuiications and the 
prosecution of public works, we have no hesitation in lielicving, that 
those legislatures will co-operate most - ><• lially with government at 
home, in any measure calculated at the same time to forward the set- 
tlements, to imj)rove thereby the wealth of the colonics, and to provide 
for a numerous class of fellow-subiccts from the bosom of the mother 
country, who throw themselves upon the agricultural resources of those 
parts of the empire for support. 



Third Report. 



G G 2 



t 1 



11 








$ 


,i^'': 


1'. 

■,/,sl ", 




11' 1 



CIIArTER XV. 

CuMioral ConsitliM-alions on tlie Hritisli North AnuM-icaii Coloiiios — Tlioir Iinportaiuv, as 
aiisiiiii; tVoni 'IVnitory, Tratli', and Sliippiiii^, and tlu'ir political ^^'oil;llt its Apiioii- 
daijes to the Knipire. 

Till'. go()oTa])liy ami statistics of tlie IJritish Nortli American pro- 
vinces liave now been fully laid, in tojjoofraphical detail, before the 
reader; and, ;dt!ioui;!» in the multitude of <»l)jects presenting themselves 
to our observation, in the coiu'se of a work of so eom])rchensive a nature, 
some facts of more or less moment may possibly have esca])etl us. 
abundance has yet, we believe, been shown to demonstrate the intrinsic 
worth of those vast and tlourishino; regions of the Ih'itish eni])ire. Indeed, 
if the absolute value of those colonies, as <lemonstrated from their ter- 
ritorial extent, their situation, fertility, and ])opulousness, were the only 
(picstion involved in the consideration of their imjmrtance. that (piestion 
might be answered by a referetice to the work itself; but, viewed as 
integral |)arts of a great empire, though ])hysically separated from the 
metropolitan coimtry by intervening tu'cans, they become a topic of still 
deeper interest, and unfold, under that as])ect, a variety of ])oints of 
iiKpiiry, as bearing uj)on national ))olicy, that have led to some discussion ; 
one set of o])ini()ns putting those colonies down as burthens to the ])arent 
state, whilst another, by far the most numerous and weighty, maintain 
with s»)und argument, their incalcidable value and imj'ortance to the 
national resources and maritinie ])ower of (Jreat Britain. Ksjmusing as 
we do, without (lualiHcation, the latter o|)inion, we shall endeavoin- to 
state distinctly ami briefly our grounds for so doing, prefacing our reasons 
by a few general remarks on colonies. 

The term colony, in its restricted sense, is defined to be "a company 
of people transplanted into some remote province (or region) in order to 



ANTIQUITY OF COLONIES. 



C2}) 



cultivate and inlinbit it * :" in its more <ijenenil :u'ee])tatioii. it a))])lies not 
only to ])lantiitions, hut to tlistant (le|)en(leneies, ae(|uii'('(l as well by 
conquest as first occu])ancy. If we look at llieanti(|uity of" colonies, avc 
shall find it coeval with the earliest af;es of history: so nuich so, indeed, 
that many of the nunieroiis mijiirations mentioned in Holy Writ are in the 
nature of colonial |)lantations, and ori<;inated, in some respects, from 
similar causes to those that led to the formation, in later times, of new 
settlements in distant c(nmtries, viz. redundancy of |)o|)ulation, the desire 
of esca])in<;from religious or civil persecution, and con(|uest. The modern 
class of colonies, coming under the denomination of co/oit/iw of comiin'rcc, 
are more recent in their origin, hut they are ])rol)al)ly to he traced as far 
hack as the time of the IMurnicians. the (irecians, and the Uomans. Of 
the former may he mentioned the emigratii)n of Ksau from the laud of 
Canaan | to dwell in ^Nlount Seir. and the pi ssession of the land t)f Canaan 
by iNFoses. 

The overwhelming populousness of the north is ascribed as the cause 
Avhich urged the flood of emigration that eventually subdued the south 
of Europe, and made the Homan empire, in the height of its greatness, 
a prey to gotliic hordes, who, in their de\astating progress, came in 
collision with the Huns from central Asia, and thus hastciu'd the ruin of 
their more civilizecl conleni])oraries. Hut these barbarian \ emigrations, 

* Kiu'yi'l(i|)C(li:i HritiiiiiiiiM. 

t Tlicrcasdii assij^ticil is, " For tlicir rirlics were niiirc lli;iii tliMt llicy iiiij;lil ihvcU toi;ctlu'r : 
and till" land in wliicli tlicy ncrc stranj;i'rs I'liuiil not lii-ar llicin, ln'causi' of tlu'ir o.iUlc." (Jcnt'sis, 
I'liiip. xxxvi. 

X 'I'liis tern; is ajiiilicd, Iiv all IJonian writers, as a p'nuini' demonstration otall tlie trilies 

of tlie north of I".nro]ie and the centre of .\>ia. 'i'iie (iolli and tlie Homan are llins ( Irasleil 

l)y the anthor of •■ Teutonic Antiqnilies," ((". tUiatlield, Ks(|nire) : — " Far from tindin^' iironnds 
to sustain that wciyhl of jnejudiee, wldeh aliixes an oj)|)roi)rium to the term of (ioth as di- 
still^ilislied from tin- Homan of tins era. tlie two races were, in fact, sini^idarly marked h\ I lie 
reve^^e of tiie character nsnally affixed to tlieir names; for the Homan cili/en had snnk into 
the corrnptinf; snares of shith and shiveiy, w liilc tlie harharian lireathcd that lone of inde|ieiideni\ 
and of ('(inality, which constructed the ;^ronnd-\vork of the fendal consiitntions of l''.nro|ie, iiii! 
which elevation of principle, modified liy circumstance and climate, leil to every advanlajic which 
i.s enjoyed hy her respective stales at the present day. Had iMirope sustained the yoke of Home 
in its state of deliasemciit, the \»orld had remained in the same moral de;rra(lation and slaver\ ; 
lint the niiconiiiieralile spirit of the northern warriors elevated them to an eipiality with the 
proudest of their rulers, and this ineipiality anionu; the nohles estalilished the fixed rights of 



"S^ 






\i^ 



ill/'? 



M' 



m \\ 



iill' ',! 



'1 

I ■ 5 






230 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



thoufvh tlicy laid tlic foundation of new settlements and new ])rovinces, 
bear no striking analogy to modern colonization. The (ireeks, the 
Romans, the Carthaginians a])pear to have been, in ancient times, those 
who best understood the systematic establishment of colonies. Carthage 
is considered by Aristotle * to have derived her long stability and greatness 
frcmi that cause, and Rome is probably no less indebted to the extent of 
her colonial ])osscssions for the herculean power she attained over the 
destinies of the world. We have, therefore, the experience of ages past, 
and of nations the most puissant on the face of the earth, to show that 
colonies are an accession of strength, and not a diminution of power, to a 
parent state; and if, indeed, we had not the examples of Rome and 
Carthage before us, the advantages of colonies, ])roperly regulated and 
governed, are of too ostensible and extensive a nature to need such foreign 
corroborative testimony. 

Narrowing down our view of the subject to the consideratioJi of the 
colonies of Great Britain in North America, it will not, we apprehend, 
be a task of much difliculty to establish their importance to the mother 
country, the advantage of the mother country to them, and consequently 
the nuitual benefits conferred, upon both ])arts of the empire, by their 
union, under a liberal and enliuhtei 



sy; 



V 



After all that has been said and written on this branch of the sub- 
ject, few arguments of any weight can, probably, now be urged that will 
be novel ; but we shall endeavour to place our canvass in such a light as 
may, we hope, serve to bring out n)ore forcibly those points upon which 
the merits of our view principally rest. To this end we shall consider 
four points: viz. 1st, The territorial extent of the Ikitish dominions in 
Ts'orth America, and its conseijuences ; 2i\, The trade of the North 
American colonies ; ',k\, Their shipping ; Ith, Their political weight as 
appendages to the IJritish crown. 

tlu'ir fi'ii'.liitorv system. It is tlius that liistory iin., iMv records tlieiii as bcariiijf fortli from 
central Asia a restless iiiic(»ii(iiiere(l spirit, a relijiioii simjile and martini as themselves, and in- 
stitutions ctiiitaininjr ;;erms of lilierty destined, in a future day, to rijien into princijiles decisive 
of the pre-eminence and happiness of Kurope, therelty makinj; a large amends to mankind for 
the calamities attendant on the overthrow of the Roman Kmi)ire." 
* Politics, (", xii. liij. ii. 



MAGXITUDE OF BRITISH DOMINIONS IN N. A. 



231 



1st. The magnitude of the North American dominions of Great 
Britain is nearly equal to the whole extent of the two llussias; it is 
almost double that of the totality of the European continent, and is 
more than twofold greater than the Persian empire under Darius, or 
the lloman empire, in the i)lenitude of its power. As will be seen by 
the following table, the dominion of the crown of England extends over 
an aggregate svu'faco of about •4,000,000 of geographical square miles, or 
upwards of i, 700,000 scjuare statute miles, of which superficies a little 
more than .'J, 400,000 s(piare miles are land, and about l,.'i00,00() water, 
including, in the calculation, the arctic waters intervening between the 
remotest discoveries of Tarry and the coasts of the continent, which 
waters, though they nuist eventually come under the denomination of 
an o))en sea (mare liberum), after the full establishment of the existeiice 
of a north-west ])assage, may probably be at present considered closed 
(luare elausum), (Jrcat Hritain being, in fact, possessed of its shores as far 
as discoveries have gone. He this as it may, however, we have comprised 
its surface, in the gross estimate, upon the grounds that we have just 
stated *. 

If the mere magnitude of these immense possessions is of a nature 
to arrest attention, their geographical position is no less calculated to 
open our eyes to their importance. On the east they confine the broad 
basin of the Atlantic Ocean, on the west their coasts are lashed by the 
surges of the Pacific, on the nortli they stretch to the utmost bounds of 
the known polar regions, and on the south they are bounded by an 
almost innneasurable frontier, extending across the whole continent, and 
separating them from the territories of one vast and anibitious rej)ublic. 
Touching at some points, the very temperate latitudes of Vi" and 41" 
north, an immense habitable section enjoys a climate, in every respect 
suitable to the cultivation of the earth, the maturity even of delicate 
fruits and flowers, and highly salubiious to the health of man. A soil 

* Such a proposition, if docmcd too comprehensive, is not, however, more extravagant than 
the claim, propiiuiuled h\ Russia, to the exchisive navigation of part of the Pacitic Ocean lyinjj; 
between tlie north-west coast of America and the north-east and opposite coast of Asia. \'ide 
Correspondence between the Chevalier de Politica, Russian Ambassador t') the United States, 
and John Quincey Adams, Secretary of State. 1822. 





: II, |i 






m 

III ' 



:m 



ii .H 



232 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



equally adapted to the pursuits of a<5neulture, and possessing exliaustless 
stores of minerals and timber. The most splendid river on the globe 
throws open to them an internal navigation of 2,000 miles, whilst the 
numberless large tributaries to this ehieftain stream open a thousand eol- 
lateral avenues to the heart of the country, north and south, and ofier to 
the trader and the agriculturist a convenient means of carrying their goods 
and their produce to the shipping, which is to convey them to JJritish and 
foreign markets. 

Of the great aggregate superficies, as luentioned Jibove, not more 
than ] i2(v)0() s([uare miles appear to have been as yet surveyed, actually, 
or merely ex})lored, and of this extent, about six millions and a half of 
acres {/u/mcro rotundo, about one-twelfth), are now inider cultivation, in 
the whole of the colonies. This mere twelfth of the lands, hitherto ex- 
plored, sustains a population of about 1,400,000 souls, and assuming that 
the lands thus explored (which are but a comparative fraction to the 
whole) should, alone, be settled in the same ratio, the population they are 
capable of su])p()rting woidd exceed 1(),000,000. How soon this large po- 
pulation will be computed in the western possessions of IJritain, may 
fairly be collected from the t'traordinary increase which has taken 
place within the last six years. In 182.5 the North American colonies, 
and other parts of the continental dominions in America, contained about 
900,000 inhabitants ; they are now, fi"om correct data, estimated at about 
1, 400,000, and thus ap])ear to have increased in the ratio of 44. ))er cent, 
during the short term of six years ; continuing to augment in the same 
pro])ortion, the population would about double itself every l.'J years. 
\\q may, then, compute, without subjecting ourselves to the charge of 
being visionary, that, in less than half a century, the number of in- 
habitants spread over the British possessions in America will not fall 
short of 1(>,000,000. 

In considering the density of population with reference to three 
objects, — one as regards the lands in cultivation, — another as relates to ha- 
bitable territory, — and a third as refers to the gross surface of the JJritish 
possessions in question, — we shall find that, as to the first point, the density 
stands in the proportion of .51 acres per person, or about 116 persons to tlie 
square mile; as to the second, that there are about two souls to the square 






COLONIES— THEATRE OF IMMIGKATIOX. 



233 



mile; and as to the third, that there arc at least tliree iniKs and a half 
to each piison. ^^y habitable territory, we mean such parts of the coun- 
try as lie to the south of latitude tS" nortli, and within the probable pale 
of eventual settlement in the lapse of half a century or thereabouts. 

Vast as is the field we have just described, for the support of a very 
large population, possessed as it is of every rctjuisite to render it de- 
sirable as a re<j;ion for the abode of man, how important do not these 
colonies become as the theatre of liritish emi<fration? C'ontem|)latin<^ 
them in that light, they ])rescnt to the mind various ])oints of deep 
interest. That there exists, in the mother country, a redundancy of 
labouring population, seems to be imiversally admitted, and hence it 
becomes desirable to throw oil the superHuity, to prevent tlie evils of 
})auperism ; yet this labour itseif, which exceeds the demand at home, 
is a valuable connnoditv, and should still, if jxjssible, be directed to- 
wards augmenting the national wealtli, instead of its passing to a foreign 
land, to cjn-ich a rival state, and ])robably add strength to the sinews of 
an enemy. The IJritish colonies oder the means of, hai)pily and advan- 
tageously, retaining this valuable connnodity, within the precincts of the 
realm. The subjects of the metropolitan country, transplanted to the 
Ikitish soil in ^Vmerica, continue as closely as ever linked to the parent 
state, equally, if not far more useful to it in enhancing the national 
wealth, and become an additional rampart to repel any invasion of ter- 
ritory, co-o])erating. as tliev Avould do, with the standi and loyal native 
inhabitants of those jirovinces. in the defence of their adopted country — 
a country that nuist be endeared to emigrants IVom tlie I'nited King- 
dom, if it were but for the analogy of its free institutions. The value 
of colonies, and the bencHts arising to the mother country from the 
emigration of the unproductive or restless class of its inhabitants, are 
sketched in a work attributed to Mr. IJurke : — " It may be reckoned one 
very great benefit of our possessions in that part of the world (meaning 
America), that besides the vast cpumtities of our fabrics which they con- 
sume, or seamen that they employ, and our revemies that they support, 
they are a vent to carry off such spirits, whom they keep occupied, 
greatly to the public benefit. Our dominions are so circumstanced, and 
afford such a variety, that all dispositions to business, of what kind 



i; .1' 






.ill I 
, (■ I 



I " 



VOL. II. 



II il 



234 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



soever, may have exercise without pressing upon one another. It is, 
besides, a great happiness, that unfortunate men, Avhom unavoidable 
accidents, the frowns of fortune, or the cruelty of creditors, would have 
rendered miserable to themselves and useless to the public, may fiiul a 
sort of asyliun, where, at least, tliey often succeed so well as to have 
reason to bless those accidents which drove them from their country, 
poor, deserted, aiul despised, to return to it in opulence and credit*." 
Such are the opinions and sentiments of a great statesman, upon this 
subject, and their wisdom and justness arc corroborated every day by 
the circumstances of the Ihitish North American colonies. How these 
have benefited from emigration may be seen l)y the rapid increase of 
population shown in the following table. 



Account of the Eiiropcuii settlements in Aniiric 



I 



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I 



III 



ii: 



irwill 



236 



GENKRAL COXSIDEllATIONS. 



2tl. Colonics arc not only inijjortant bcciiusc of tlicir territorial ex- 
tent, and tlieir emisc(|uent capabilities of supiiorting a large ])opiilation, 
but their ini])ortanee may be also measured by the nature and scope of 
their trade. The transatlantic possessions, at large*, of (Jreat IJritain, 
tested by this rule, will be found to yield to no part of her colonial 
empire ; indeed, if we look at the superior ])()pulousness of our oriental 
dominions, as compared with those in the Mcst, and contrast the amount 
of the Ilritish trade in those opposite quarters, we shall find that the 
western has a decided advantage over the eastern trade, even in the 
strict computation of iigures. 

The aggregate amount of Hritish and Irish ])roduce and manufac- 
tures e\])orted in 1S2S ajjpears from the Year IJook (IS.'Jl) to have been 
.'J(),812,7.^()/. sterling, declared Aalue. Of this sum the colonial trade 
covers about 1(),0()(),()()()/., and this latter sum is chietly divided between 
the east and the west, in the following manner f: 



r 



PKIXCH'AI. COI.ON'I.M. TIIADH 

■|<> Tin: i.Asr. 



Kast Iiidiii CoimKiiiy'.s tt-rritorics, Ci'vl 

ChilKi 

T New Soiitli Willi's ;iiiil \'iiii Dii'incn's Liind 
I 



oil a 



m\\ 



4i:{,aT.» 



/- Hritisli Xortli Aim'riciiii ciildiiii's . I.(i;)l,()-I4 

( 

Excess of the aiiKiunt of tin- wi'stcrii, ovit tlic eastcriij culuiiiul tradi' 



4,7(t(»,42I 

4,0!i(>,71» 
,t 280,327 



The population of liritish India probably exceeds seventy-five mil- 
lions ; that of Australia is comparatively insignificant (about 40,000 
.souls). On the other side, the po])ulation of the ^Vest Indies and the 
North ^Vmcrican ])rovinces cond)ined scarcely amounts to 2,000,000, and 
of this number nearly half a million are blacks t; avc therefV)re have a 
British population, beyond the western ocean, not one thirty-ninth in 
number of that in the IJritish P^ast Indies, employing a larger capit.d in 



Indudiii}' therefore the West Indies. 



t Year Bwk, London, I ({31. 



; Guthrie's Athis. 



VALUE OF THE WESTERN' COLONIAL TRADE. 



237 



I <\ 



trade — a capital increasing every year in a rapid ratio, keeping pace with 
the fast increase of popuhition. 

If, again, we compare the western colonial trade with the British 
commerce carried on with the United States of America, and measure it 
by a similar scale of population, the colonial trade will be found to enjoy 
the same advantage in this case as in the former. The United States 
contain about 1 ;2,00(),()0() of inhabitants, and the declared value of ex- 
ports from the United Kingdom to that country, in 1H2S, is st lUul at 
5,81 0,;i 1.5/.'* sterling, or in the jn'oportioii of about 9*. Sr/. per ))erson, 
whilst the demand for IJritish and Irish produce and manufactures 
in the North American colonies is nearly <iuadruj)le that amount per 
person ; and if the proportion be taken with reference to the white 
population of the IJritish ^V'est Indies, and that of those colonies com- 
bined, the ratio of the colonial and the American demand will stand as 
seven to or.e, nearly (7 to 1). 

The value of imy i)articidar trade, to any given country, can also be 
ascertained by the nature of the article Avhich is its object. Thus tind)er 
and hem]), to a maritime country, are of vital consccpience, and such articles 
ought to be encouraged ])referably to the importation of diamonds and 
pearls. The staples of our cotjtinental colonies in America are tind)er. 
ashes, peltries, bread stuffs, and salt ])rovisions, besides fish from our New- 
foundland and St. liawrence Gulf fisheries. Ilemp must eventually be- 
come another and a very abundant and valuable staj)le, as it requires but 
a first and judicious im]>ulse, to render its cultivation universal in the 
Canadas, New IJrunswick, and Nova Scotia, whose soils and climate are 
so well ada])ted to its production. Flax can scarcely yet be deemed an 
article of trade, it being raised in bare sutliciency for domestic use, but 
this also might be advantageously encouraged for ex])ortation. The lower 
colonies aboinul with exhaustless mines of valuable coal, and England 
may boast of another Newcastle and Sunderland in her Ca])e IJreton and 
Nova Scotia, to say nothing of New Urunswick, in which j)rovince con- 
siderable veins of coal have also been discovered. Ciy])sum is con)mon 

• Year Book, 1831. 



J^ 



n 



M., iTj 



I* 



■ry 






I 



l!i 






•238 



(jKNKIUL CONSIDKllATIONS. 



ill all tlu'sc proviiu'C's, and inarbUs, of various (U'scriptions, arc fomul 
ill I'xteiisive ((uaiTios in Canada. In fact the mineral treasures of the 
eountry, thoufrh seareely yet explored, are of vast intrinsie worth, and 
we have no doubt l)ut that the |)ro<^ress of improvement, and the pur- 
suits either of seienee or speculation, will lead to the development of 
many other of the dormant souncs of cinnmercial wealth, lying beneath 
the earth's surface, as well as above it. 

Tiie trade of the colonies of (Jreat IJritain in America is ra])idly on 
the iiUTi ase, and is susceptible of almost unlimited augmentation. Some 
opinion may be formed of the fund of trade which they offer, by the 
fact, thai the fisheries alone, by a temporary stimulus created during the 
war, exported jjioduce to the amount of upwards of 2,000,000/. sterling *. 

The following table | will show the steady value of the colonial 
trade, under its oflicial estimate, np to 1825: — 

* J. 3I'Grt>j;or. The details arc as follows: — 

1»14. 

1,200,000 quintals fish . . . at 40,9. 

20,000 (litt.) core fish . . . 12,v. 

(i,(MM» tons cod oil . . . 32/. 

l.".(i,(MM I seal skins , . . .'").?. 

4,<)6() tons seal oil . . . 30/. 

2,(K)n tierces salmon . . . f)/. 

liW};) barrels inackarel . . 30* 

44,000 ca'-ks caplin sounds and tongues 

2,100 bands herrings . . 25s. 

beaver and otter furs ... 

pine timber and ])lanks ... 

400 puncheons of berries ... 

t Third Report of the Select Committee on Emigration. 



X2,400,000 





12,000 





192,000 





39,000 





107,97(5 





10,0(K) 





2,r.27 


10 


44,000 





2,02.'> 





000 





800 





2,000 





£2,873,528 10 



SHIPPING— NORTH AMKRICAN COhOMKS. 



'2^9 



Table qf' Imports and Exports into am/ from the I 'tiitcd Kin^i^dom and the nnder- 

viciit'ioned ( 'oionies. 



I'nOVIKCES. 


IMPfHJTS 


KXI'OUT.S from the I'liltuI KinKdoin. OtlUlnl ViUuv. 


inin t)K' I'liiic'il KiiiK(1uiii. 
Official value. 


llrltUli I'mliicc 

anil 
.Munut'iu'turi'H. 


FoniKn hihI (olnniul 
.MiriliiiiMli/i». 


1 
ToTAl. Km'oiiis. ' 

1 


inofi. 


IH'.'.V 


liioi;. 


IILV.. 


IIKHI. 

,t' 
HI, (Kilt 
5,1(19 

:r.,ii;(i 
77.ii''''i 


III'.'.-.. liiof). ; iiu.v 


Lower Canada . ) 
I'pjier Canada . j 
New Urunswick . 
Nova Heotia . 
Cape Mretiin . 
Prince Kdward Island 
Newfoundland 

Total . 


X' 
15n,l(!0 
l!),5t;H 

29,720 

i7i{'.0(;4 


,i' ; .t I 

731,1155 ' 319,(132 91(!,0,"" 

3I9,5.".9 4(!,(ifi(» I(l2,0."il 
44,5 91^ 227,11.-.:'. (» 
(l,)l(i4^ l.'»./ll^ 11. (II IS 
9,241 1,20(1 32,I.M1 
2(MM141 211,221 27(',2n2 


I 

22!>,405 

71.993 
31,313 i 
1,105 S 
(l.l(!5 
40,9(13 


.1' L 

401,7(K» 1,14,-. Itli 

5:«,i!.M 471.011 
o.,,,.,,- .S25H,(l9(i 

1,42(1 :i(t,(;:«i 
2i!(i,4iio ;«i7,2(r. 


3(i.". !(|2 


I,312,!I1I 775,(142 l,(t.'.9,2ll 


200.4 Ki 


31(7,014 ' 97(1,051{ 2,21(1,22:! 



HI 



■'{d. Tlic trade above-niontioncd finploys about ^,000 sail of liriti.sli 
.sliippin^, giving;' an agifiv<;atc' of about ;>()(),()()() tous, and iiavii^ated by 
from <2(>,()()() to ';2.5,00() seamen, exchisive of the eoastin<if trade in tlie 
River and (iidf of St. Tiawrence, and alon<j; the sliores t)f Newfoundland, 
in Avliicb a considerable number of minor vessels is engaj^ed in the j)ro- 
sccution of the fisheries. The ratio of the distribution t)f the above, 
amongst the North American colonies, is shown by the following table, 
calculated for the years 1806 and 1812;), and taken from the same source: 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels to and from the United Kingdom and the 

Colonies. 



PnoviscEs. 


Inwards. 


Outwardii. 


1)10(1. 


1112.'.. lltOti. 


1112,-.. 


.Ships. Tons. 


Sliips. 


Tons. Ships. 


Tops. 


iShips. Tons. 


Lower Canada . ^ 
I'pper Canada . \ 
New Brunswick 
Nova .Scotia . . 
Cape Hreton . . 
Prince Edward Isl. 
Newfoundland 

Total 


1 

90 21,095 

23 (!,(MH 
57 12.200 

147 l<>-0()9 


732 

H42 

109 

15 

32 

12(5 


203,H}5(5 97 

235,097 20 

25.570 70 

.3.2011 J 

(),({97 (i 
14,447 27(5 


22,5:J2 

5,(5:57 
15,471 

3(5(1 

1,572 

35,H94 


(5(52 

705 

101 

15 

1(5 

310 


l7B,7fi5 

210,071 

24,092 

3,2(5(5 

:5,:i51 

43,590 


317 5(5,242 

1 


1,}!5(5 


4159,090 470 

1 


»1,472 


1,095 


403,155 



il 









h^m 



1 . 

ill 



if J' 

if" 



;?4() 



(iHNKllAL ( ONSIDKH ATIONS. 



I'lom tlio forc^foiii^ table we collt'ct that, in niiictccii years the 
iiiimhcr of ships, iinvanls, from the coloiiii's. increascil more than sixfohl, 
and the t«)nna<^e, at the eml of that period, was S.tJ times as hirj^e as it 
was at the be{;iimiii<;'. The shipping- and tonnaj^e, oiitwiirds, frt)m the 
I'nited Kinjj;(h)m, di<l not increase in so jjfreat a ratio, hut its increase is 
nevertheless eonsiderahle, the s|iip])ini; havin<i; nuieli more than doubled 
itself, and the toima<i;e swelled in its amount almost sixfold «)f what it 
was in ISOd. 

The increase of later years ap))ears to have been far <^reati'r. AVe 
are not in possession of re<;ular shippin*^; lists for the whole of the 
colonies in North America, but, in a doi'innent before us*, we have the 
following; statement of the arrivals at the I'ort of (Quebec a/oiw : — 



^'l•ll«^l!l arrived. 


Tdiiiiniti'. Mvn. 


Knii^Tniitu 

1-J..".0(» 
17,(I(M) 


Ill lltL'7 . . 

lliL'H . . 
1)1L"J . . 


(MM 

71)1 
vm 


i-.i,:.-)f 7.i.'ii» 
2:i(i„'.(ii) i(t,r»(;7 


')7I,<MM> 2.'),!)!t!t 



We (ind here an advance u])on the number of ships, in three years, equal to 
sdiout 40 per cent., and ii]H)n the tonnage, sometbinjr more than 'y.i per cent. 
In the number of seamen employed a larj;e increase is also conspicuous, 
and amounts to more than iG and u half per cent. A'iewin<r the fore<roing 
statement as the shipping;' operations of one port only t)f the IJritish 
North American colonies, the prosperity of the trade of the country, 
whatever may be the outcry aj;ainst the re))uted depression of com- 
mercial activity, is sufliciently manifest, and it is, we believe, further con- 
firmed by the fact, which appears acknowledged, that liritish merchants 
are seldom involved in considerable losses in the course of their colonial 
transactions in that (piart*^'-, but that, on the contrary, they ^^fnerally 
meet with pimctual payment, either in money or ])roduce, from their ])ro- 
vincial correspondents, — a circumstance worthy of note, as establishing 
the respectability and stability of the IJritish trade to British America. 

« The Quebec Star, February, 1H30. 



SlIIIMMNf}— NOUTII AMI'RICAX rOI.ONirs. 



JvMl 



Tlic c':i|)ital put iiflttat by I'lnij^ratioJi iilonc is hy no iih'miis iiisi^^iii- 
finmt, for tlic iinnu'y paid t«> masters and shi|) owiurs by emigrants, for 
tlii'ir iTinoval to the (dloMK's, is ostimatrd at al)oiit 7(),<H)(>/. during the 
years IK'J7. IH'iH, and IK!.'}), "'riuis it appi-arM," says tlu' (jiu-Ikt Star*, 
*• that .57 !■,()()() tons of sliippino; liavi' arrived at lliis port in tlircc years. 
At two pounds ])cr ton register, tliis will amount to 1,1 M). -<)()/. This 
is exclusive of a consich'rahh" sum tor the inward freio;ht of mereliandi/e 
from the United Kinj;ilom, eomputed, in three years, at oO.OOO/. This 
sum, added to the 70,()()()/. gained hy the eonveyanee of settk'rs, and the 
freiifht above-mentioned, will ^ive a total for tlie shippinjj,' interest en- 
gajjred in trade with (^nebee of l.UOO.OOO/. sterlin^f, a little less than half 
a niillioii annually. All this is obtained by the vessels en<«a^ed in that 
trade oidy six or seven months in the year, many of them bein<^ enabled 
to make an additional voyaj^e to the West Indies or the southern states." 

It is pri'tty well known, though wi- have not the re<!;ular statement 
of the faets before us, that a correspondinir improvement has taken place 
in the ship|)infj; business of the other seaports of those provinces, as well 
as at Quebec. >\'ho, then, after };ivin<>- his candid consideration to the 
subject, could fearlessly assert that those colonies are idle or burthen- 
some, whose trade and shippinj^ are increasing in so prodij^ious a ratio — 
a ratio keeping pace with their fastly nudtiplying jwpulation, aiul the 
rapid development of their inunense resouices? When we reflect that 
every sail that enters our transatlantic ports is built, owned, and maimed 
by British subjects; that the freight consists, mainly, of Hritish produce 
and manufactures, and colonial staples; that the wealth of both countries 
is merely exchanged, and that consequently each confers commercial 
benefits upon the other — benefits that have a twofold eflicacy, from the 
relation subsisting between jjarent state and colony — whereby a kind of 
reaction is produced, the prosperity of one section of the empire con- 
tributing to the independence and affluence of the whole : — when, indeed, 
we take up the subject in this light, the importance which attaches to 
those provinces becomes too palpable lor reasonable denial. 



m 



i^l' .III 



' I 



• February, 1830. 



VOL. II. 



I I 



,1. ■ 



i ' '1 '' 



m 



242 



fil'NKRAL CONSIDKRATIONS. 



I [J MM 
i 



I 



b 



Kugliiiul's transatlantic colonics have always been hiji^hly valncd as 
the nursery of Hritish seamen, and they must still be continued in great 
and growing estimation when considered in that light, notwitlistanding 
tiie endeavours that are sometimes used to im])ugn their maritime im- 
))ortance. It should not be forgotten that the existence of the Canadas, 
New Hnmswick, and Nova Scotia, as Hritish colonies, is intimately asso- 
ciated with the ])reservation of the AVest Indies, and with tlie control 
of the Newfoundland and St. Lawrence (Julf fisheries. Tluis the ])ro- 
bability, at least, if not the certainty is, that if the North American colo- 
nics were ever wrested from (Jreat liritain, Kngland would at once be 
bereft of her \N\'st Indian ])lantations, and her inunense and valuable 
fisheries, and thus would her " wooden walls" ..e weakened to a degree 
conunensurate with the magnitude of her present colonial trade to the 
west. 

Doubts have been thrown out in .some quarters, questioning the 
advantages offered by the Avestern colonial trade in the education of 
mariners; but such doubts nnist be at once dissipated in the minds of 
those who have crossed the Atlantic, especially if they have j)enetrated 
into the (iulf, and ascended the lliver St. Lawrence. The storms of 
the Atlantic yield in nothing to those of the Pacific Ocean. The voyage 
is indeed shorter, but the seamen are the more active for it, since their 
lying in ])ort often continues a laborious ])eriod of their service, they 
being then emj)loyed in landing their inward, and receiving their out- 
ward, cargo. It is, in fact, generally believed that there are more 
energy and activity in the seamen employed in the western than in 
the eastern trade, and the rigour of the climate, westward, is doubtless 
one of the t.iuses of this sujieriority. Itut if the traverse navigation of 
the ^Vtlantic be still deemed only a secondary sch(K>l for the formation 
of a good sailor, it will not be denied that the fisheries are admirably 
adapted to supply a formidiible marine. The daring enterprise of the 
fisherman is known on this side the ocean as well as on the other : it 
would therefore be idle to dwell upon the boldness, the activity, the 
extreme collectedncss and presence of mind, that characterize that class 
of navigators, who, apparently naturalized to the element, buffet the 



I 



•i'l 



POLITICAL WEIGHT OF TllK COLOMKS. 



<) .1' 



43 



heavy swell of the Atlantic in their frail fishing smacks anil vessels, and 
seem to laugh tlie ocean's storms to scorn. 

-tthly. The imi)ortance of the North American colonies, as arising 
from territory, trade, and sliipping, may he considered to result from 
these sources as direvt advantages. Viewed in a ])olitical ligiit, they 
present other advantages that may he called rc/udrc, thougli the heneHts 
conferred upon the motlier country hy these are cpiite as direct and 
demonstrahle. 

The supjdies of timber which (ireat Hritain derives from them arc 
such as to render her, in a great degree, independent of the Norwegian 
and Baltic trades, should any political event supervene that wouhl in- 
terrupt the conunercial relations subsisting between this country and that 
part of the continent. It has been stated, that the Haltic tind)er trade 
deserves a decided ])reference over the colonial, from the (juality of the 
article imported; and it seems that some inattention in the culling of 
colonial lumber, for Hritish markets, has justified the remark: but tlie re- 
proacli originates far nu)re in the neglect of the trader, than from any real 
demerits of the article itself. IJut, however this may be, the colonial 
tind)er trade shouUl, nevertheless, l)e fostered and encouraged, if it were 
with a view, nierely, of carrying on the Baltic trade upon terms the most 
advantageous ; for there is no doid)t that the bare knowletlge that ex- 
haustless supplies of tintber can be drawn from our own colonies, operates 
as a check u|)on the exaction of exorbitant terms in our foreign trade ; and 
thus, whether in peace or war, the beneKts of our colonial supplies of a 
valuable maritime article are eiiually obvious, and too important to be 
overlooked. 

Kngland could easily become equally independent of Russia, as the 
country whence she derives her stores of hemp, were the cultivation of 
that plant encoiu*aged in the North American colonies, whi)se soil and 
climate are well known to be completely adapted to its growth in great 
perfection. Thus would the British em))ire have, withiu its own bosom, 
the means of j^erpetuating and extending its maritime ))ower; aloof 
from the caprice of conunercial treaties, hostile to its naval interests, it 
might stand conHdently upon its own internal resources, and might semi 
forth at all times a vast commercial marine and powerful Heets, built, 

1 1 2 



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(i i:\Kir\l. CONSiDl-UATIONS. 



i-ig-irf(l, jM'ovisioned, fortified, and manned, through the means at its own 
exehisive disposal, and beyond tlie eontrol of foreign interl'erencc. 

Tnrning our eyes from Kiirope towards the United States of Ame- 
riea, to eonsider their position with regard to our eohuiies in the west, 
the politieal weight that attaches to the latter, as ai)])endages to Great 
Britain, strikes the mind A\ith very great foree. 'i'he I'nited States have 
a seaboard frontier exceeding !.',()()() miles, and although its defence has 
been a lavourite object with the government of that republic, the ef- 
ficient attainment of that end must hi', and indeed, we believe, lias been, 
found extremely perplexing and dillicult. 'liu- I'nited States, lu)wever, 
have another frontier no less extensive and far more vdnerable — it is tlie 
frontier on New Ih-unswick and theCanadas; three IJritisii ]>rovinces, 
wliich, to use the words of an able writer *, '• hang heavily on their Hank 
and rear, and (extending the remark to Nova Scotia) overhang and com- 
mand their coast." Here, the geogra])iiicai position of the Ih'itish do- 
minions offers a powerful check to the I'nited States, and gives tt)Kngland 
a guarantee against their connnercial, maritime, and political ascendancy. 
\a'\ us for a moment suppose that the provinces are invohed in the vast 
American confederacy, and that, therefore, tlu- mouth of the St. Law- 
rence is in the keeping of iVmerican siii]).s-o;"-v>ar and American forts. 
The efl'ects are t)l)vious. The whole agricultural wealth of the inmense 
fertile regions, drained by the St. Lawrence, would be ])onred into the 
coH'ers of the repul)lic, the maritime energies of the country would be 
more than <|uadrup!ed, its territorial aggrandi/ement would be almost 
incalculable, anil yet its chances, and means, of defence be amazingly en- 
hanced, inasnuu'h as the extent of frontier would be tliminislicd l)y about 
one-half, and the ])iactical)ilily of its protection augmented in a pro 
portionate degree. In the same ratio that the power of the I'nited 
States would, under such a supposition, l)e heightened, should the ma- 
ritime preponderance and the resources of Cireat Ib'itain l)i' weakened, 
and she would behold the fairest portion of iVmerica in the hands of a 
rival nation, di.'ijoscd, already, to measure its strength with her in the 
contest for Jiaval and connnercial superiority. 



Henry Bliss, Esquire. 



FUTURE PERSPECTIVE OF THE COLONIES. 



245 



IJiit the supposition we have indulged may, by some, and we 
apprehend with justiec, be considered very speeidative : we liave enter- 
tained it, nevertheless, with a view of pointing out a few of tlie advan- 
tages that would be thrown into the opposite scale, were the colonies 
ever to ])ass, by concjuest, from their i)resent allegiance to another. 
Nature, however, seems, in some respects, to have designed things other- 
wise, and, casting a glance into futurity, when, at some after ])eri()d, the 
colonies shall have grown into o])ulence and power, we dwell far more 
upon that section of the enii)ire, as forming one collective and independent 
nation, than as sinking into the American confederacy, as an integral part 
of their, even now, overgrown union. The St. liawrence jjresents to our 
mind the trunk of a tree that has no necessary aHinity with the United 
States, and .seems destined to bear difTerent fruit. It is the prop of a 
new nation, the avemie to an inde])endent em])ire, the great highway of 
a rival, not a dependency; and, therefore, in our contemplation, •when 
that day arrives, which is to witness the Uritish colonial tran.s-atlantic 
dominions swerve from the jegis of IJritain's ])rotection, it wil! be to erect 
themselves into a free, indcj)endent, and .sovereign state, \mited Avith the 
country that l\>stere(l them in their infancy, by ties and treaties of per- 
manent friendship and alliance, calcidated to perpetuate reciprocal com- 
mercial benefits and consolidate their nuitual power. 

At Avhat distance of time such an event may be consunnnated, it is 
more diflicult to foretel than .some imagine, who calculate the duration 
of our ])resent colonies, upon the data ailorded l)y I'Jigiand's fir>t ) lanta- 
tion in America; there is between them ii'. vuritv. The rule of jto- 
vernment, in the earlier history of Hritisl! c<^looi/ati'>!,, is widely different 
fron» the modern system of enlightened ;ir.(i '.ioeral colonial policy. Co- 
lonies are no longer treated like step-cliiiilren — nay tiie connexion be- 
twi'en the metropolitan and the coloniiii j.Nirtof the em))ire, is considered 
as more analogous to the relation between bridegroom and bride. The 
colonies are more the consorts* than the daughters of Cireat liritain, and 
are, as such, more inunediately ])articipant in the honour,'!, privileges, and 
prerogatives of their lord. It is, therefore, fallacious to say, that because 



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* Cuptiiin Basil Hall, H. N. 



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246 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 






w 



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one set of colonies, at a time when the policy, by which they were ruled, 
was illiberal and injurious, threw oil' their allegiance as soon as their 
energies began to ripen, another set, governed by principles widely dis- 
similar, should follow the example. The best interests of men are ge- 
nerally the most powerful incentives to action, and mo think it would 
be a task of little difficulty to show, that the coloiues would be consulting 
their own solid interests, by clinging, for years yet, to the parent tree on 
which they are ingrafted. 

What essential privileges would the colonies command beyond tliose 
they now enjoy, if they were either independent, or a section of the United 
States of America ? How would it affect their civil rights ? Tliey freely 
elect their representatives, have thus a voice in legislation, are taxed by 
their own consent, and have a direct control over all public monies; 
would they have moi-e in this respect? In the exercise of religion, 
they are perfectly free; all sects and denominations are, not only to- 
lerated, but protected. In their judiciary, they sit as judges on juries, 
and their lives and their property are thus in their own hands. Their 
laws are defined, and their burthens are extremely liglit, — indeed, direct 
taxation is almost imknown and, in fact, unnecessary in the colonies. 
The onus of tlicir defence falls upon the mother country, and, although 
she commands for this boon the control of her colonial commerce, that 
control is not injurious, since, by throwing o])en the liome markets to 
their produce, the best o])portimities and means are probably thereby 
given to the colonists, for its sale. They also enjoy several privileges in 
the Uritish markets, which they might not have in foreign ones, and it 
is therefore problematic, whether the trade and connnerce of those co- 
lonies would be very materially improved by a more extended sphere 
of trade, under other circumstances. 

These are the leading features of the subject, as tliey suggest them- 
selves to us; we are aware that there are numicipal ollices wliicli, in the 
United States, are elective — in the colonies, (lonative; that is, in the gift 
of the crown; but, generally spr.-aking, the ])atronage of the crown is ex- 
ercised with wisdom, and consistently with the interests of the governed : 
and, in truth, should such, from mistaken causes, not be the ease, the in- 
habitants have the right of representation by constitutional means. In 



CONCLUSION. 



247 



p 



fact, the IJritisli colonist is in full possession of rights, privilcj^cs, and im- 
munities commensurate with those of subjects in the I'nited Kingdom, 
without being nevertheless burthened with one hundredth part of the 
weight of taxation. How far such a liappy state of things may be de- 
sitable to perpetuate, cannot be doubted ; and, however there should exist 
those who entertain visionary notions of the jjolitical greatness of inde- 
pendence, there are others who look to solid blessings, and the latter will 
be sure to find them in the Biirrisii colonies in North America. 



i 



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§1 




^ 



A P P E N D I X. 



I. 



Chronological ^Icconnf of Piihlic KccnLs in Nova Scotia. 






X'M. — TiiK town.sIii|is of (iranvillc, M'iiidsor iiiul Slu-lhurnc wore foniicd ; and tlio Aca- 
diuiis wen; |)i-t'iiiittc'd to hold lands in the ]irovini'c upon taking tlu> oath of allci^iaiu'c. 

IJti'i. — Nova Scotia snhniittcd to the crli'lirati'd Stani]i Act, and {'a|ic ISrctoii was erected 
into a eonnty, and entitled to seiul two niendievs to the IIou.se of Assenildy. 

17''7- — 'I'he township of Varniouth hiid ont. The fjovernor and council constituted a 
court of appeal, and a new provincial seal received from Kni;land. 

l/'ili- — The township of Clare was laid out. 

177'' — The rate of interest I'U money was fixed, liy a provincial law, '* six per cent. 
The General Assembly cuuvened this year continued ftir 11 jears, until 17fi'l. and htdd seven- 
teen sessions. 

1771- — The township of Arf:yle was laid out. A lottery established to raise IKKH) to 
repair roads. Horse-raciuf; at Halifax forbidden by (Jovernor Lord ('ani])li(dl. 

177-- — The imports this year were valued at .i'(!ll,(MM> and the exports at ,t'r»;5,Ji7'"»- The 
population estimated at ll{,l!l20 souls besides i!(i"> Indians. The fees for the rej^istry of deeds 
at Halifax .i.'H^t ; the registry of probates LiiO; and the provost marshals ,110. 

177'i- — The crown or nn<;runted lands ordered to be sold to persons desirous of settling in 
the colony, with the exception of IJoman I'athidics. 

177'"'. — A Court of Kxelie(juer established. The circulating medium of the province sup- 
pose<l to be less thai X 1,20((. Orders received from Knglaud to make free grants of land to 
loyalist refugees from the other colonies. 

1777- — '^"he inha')itants of the township of Truro having refused to take the oath of 
allegiance, the House of iVssembly resolved that they had thereby forfeited their right to 
representation, and refused to admit tlieir mendier to the Assembly. 

177't- — The Act of the British Parliament, renouncing the right of taxing the colonies, 
passed this year. 

]77!'. — The Indians of the river St. .lohn assend)led in great force and threatened to make 
war on the Knglish. This was the last threat of an Indian war. 

17if<'. — 4V sum of i'loOO granted for the erection of a schocd-liouse e.t Halifax. Sherilfs 
first apjioii'.ted for the several counties of the province. 

17111. — Tlie townshijis of \\'indsor, New])ort, Falmouth, «!v:c. erected into a county called 
Hants County. The ))opulation supposed to have been considerably reduced by per.sons leaving 
the coli'uy. The number rennuuing estimated at no more than 12,(;(K(. 

iOI-. II. K K 




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2M) 



APl'KNDIX. 






H. 



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i 



I7IIIJ. — '1 111' iiiniilirr of liiyalist rci'iinccH I'nini the ntlicr colonics xvho liiiil nrrivcd in Xovii 
Hcotiii this yi'iir «'c:tinmtc(l at 2(i,(M»(». Tlic county of Sliclburnc erected. Xcw Kilinliuri^li, in 
tlic county of Annajiolis, settled liv ;i ]i:irtv of refiiiiecs. 

17'!l- — N'ew IJrunsuick iind(':i|)e IJretoii fornied into distinct p>vurnnu'ntH. Tiie lowii- 
siiips of Clements, I'reston, and Aylesford laid out and settled. The jirovince divided into 
eifilit counties. Tlie luendiers of asseinlily were thirty-six, receiving ten shillin;;s per diiy ; and 
the nieinliers of council lifteen shi]lin;;s )ier day. 'I'he |io]iiilation estimated, after tlie separa- 
tion III' New lii'uiisw ick and ('ape Ureton, at L'O.KHt souls. 

17'l'>. — 'I'lie lioundaries of the .sever.d counties defined, descrilied, and pidilished by order 
•if the pivernoi in council. Line of packets estalilished lietwcen Halifax and Fahnoiith. 

I"!!''- — Halifax .\lariue Association formed. 

I7''7- — Nova .Scotia erected into a liishop's see and Doctor InjjHs appointed first liislio]). 
I'rince William Ilenry, his |iresent nnije;ity, accepted an invitation to a liall and entertainment, 
u'iveu in honour <if him, at the pulilic expense, and was pleased to express his apjirohation of 
the manner in which it \ias conducted '■'. 

IJU'l. — First vote of the Iloii-e of Assendily in aid of Kiny's Collej^e, \\'in<I.sor, I'UH). 
lluuse of Assendily address the ;;inernor against the judges of tlie Snproine Court, which the 
council vote to he altonether groumlless. 

I7!"* — Ihi- House ot'Assemiily preferred articles of inipeuchnient ngninst the judges of 
the Supreme Court. 

I'm. — Xisi I'rius Courts estalilished in the counties of Sydney, Linieniinrg, Shellinrne. 
and (Queen's. 

17!'*>- — -Alarooiis arrive from .lauiaica. 

I7!*7- — 'ihe La Triliuiie frigate wrecked at tlie eutranci' of Halifax Harhour, 2^(5 soiils 
perished. Contrilintion.s. in sup]iiirt of the war with France, from this province amounted to 
l(i,)li»4 U.S. 11,/. 

17!'<J-- -V dreiidfwl storm at Halifax, by which shipping and other property amouiitiii^ t:' 
{.lOIMMMI w^is destroyed. 

17!'!' — The Isl.md of St. John nanu'd " I'rince Kdward's Island." Prices of prnvlNions 
at Halifa.x ; beef, by the (piarter, ."k/. per lb. ; mutton }{(/. jier lb. ; pork Cul. per lb. ; veal IV. 
per lb. ; fowhs I--, each ; butter Is. <!,/. per lb. ; oats .'{.<. jier bushel. 

KliM). — The foinidatiou-stoiie ot' Mason's Hall at Halifax laid by His Royul Highness the 
Dnke of Kent. 

1}{((2. — A royal charter granted to King's College, \\'inds(ir. 

U!0!J. — The estalilislimeiit formed on the Isle of .Sable for the relief of shipwrecked ma- 
riners, and .i.'4(M) per annum granted by the Assembly for its sup|Hirt. The University of 
King's College, at ^\'in(iMlr, opened. 

IJiO-l. — No Aiip.'opriatioii liill passed this year, in conseiiuvnce of a disagrx-ement between 
the House of Assendily ami Council. 

!}!(((!. — Keveniie of the province this year ,t2<l,.'»77 ^*- •'"'• 



I lis iirc'SLiit innjc'sty allords tliu only instance of any of our kings liaiipcning to visu niiy of tlii' Uritish 



toloniL-s 



APPENDIX. 



2.51 



1JU>7- — District »tf Pictoii diviiU'il into tlircf towiisliips, I'lctoii, Egcrton nnil l\[uxnTlti)n. 

1HI(». — The niuil from Prince Kdwartl'M Island broiijiht ti» Pictcm on tiie ice, with tlie ex- 
cepliiiM 111' iiair ii mill'. 

mil, 1(112. — The House (if Assenihly mliiress the (Jiivernor to .solicit tVoiii his Majesty ii 
suspension of the (|uit rents ; to which iiis iMajesty eon.sentH, if the asseiiiiilv will make a suitalile 
provision for the clerjjy of the ehnreli of Kn^lalul : the- Assenilily declines doinj; so. The annnul 
amount of i|nit rents, if collected, was Xi),ri()(J, and there was an arrear of C-t(),(M)() due to the 
crown. 

IHIU. — New national school opened at Halifax. A lireirifid pile of wind experienced at 
Halifax on the 7'h Novi-ndier: upwards of 7'* vessels lost and dainafied. 

1)111. — Parliament f^raiited I'lJ.OOO fur iTectiii;; the admiral's house at Halifax; the 
Assendily vote t'l.'iKO to eompletc it, tl2."»(l(( j;ranled to aid the sufferers in the late war in 
Canada. 'I'he exiieilitiou under .Sir ,Iolm Sherlirookc aj^ainst the Ignited States sailed from 
Halifax. The hud) of Major-General Uoss, who fell at Ilallimore, interred at .^t. Paul's 
cliureh-yard Halifax. 

llll"). — Police court estahlished at Halifax. The smallpox prevails at Halifax, (loals are 
lirst exported from the mines at Pietoii. 

IJIKI. — Stajfe coach first set up hetween Halifax and A\'indsor. Destructive (ire at 
Halifax. liiNs estimated at t'-l(*,(MM>. 'J'nistees of I'ictmi Acadenn' incorporated. 

1(!17. -lind May. — Tliree sliocks of an eartlupiake t'elt at (Iraiiville, Annapolis, W'ilmot, 
J)ij{hy antl Luneid)ur};, no damage done; a shock was at the same time felt at Kredericton, N. 
Urunswick, and at Huston, I'nited States. ,t5>,7'"»" Jiranted towards the estalilishment of Dal- 
Innisie College at Halifax. 

KM)!. — Halifax declared a free port 27th iMay, and at the same time .St. .lohn's, N 
Brunswick. Halifax harliour closed hy the ice fnim the lltii to l21th Kehriiary. The (Central 
Aj^ricultnral Society estahlished at Halifax. The township of .St. Mary, Sydney County, laid 
oni. The census of the jmpidatinn of tlie ])roviiiee 7(!.'<l.'> souls ; Halifax contained 1 1,1,")(!. 

nil!*.— 12.0(10 voted in aid of Dalhoilsie Collciie. Halifax. A lottery for raisinj; tO.OOO 
to erect a hridp- over tlie Avon at Windsor. A new ircneral connnissiini of the peace issiu'd. and 
a new provincial ^reat seal received from Kniiland. 

1>>20. — The Poor Man's Friend Society estahlished at Halifax. Kiiifl (ieoriie the Fourth 
proclaimed April 7th. Cape Hreton reannexed to Nova Scotia, constituted a county, returns 
two meiidicrs to the (leneral ,\sscnd)ly, and the laws and ordinances of Nova .Scotia are extended 
thereto. 

J>t21. — Halifax liarlxmr fro,.en over. A destructive tire occurs there. 

11122. — The French frisiate L'Africane wrecked on the isle of Sahle, crew saved and brouj;ht 
to Halifax. CJhandxT of Connnerce estahlislied at Halifax. 

1}12I{. — Halifax harliour froieu over. Pulilie snliscriptiou library established at Halifax. 
Roman Catholics first admitted mendters of the House of ..Vssemhly. 

1)124 — Nova Scotia divided into three districts, eastern, ndddle, western. Commissioners 
appointt'<l to hold Courts of Common Pleas and Quarter Scssiens in eacii district. Cape 
Breton divided into tliree districts, north-eastern, siauhern, and north-western. Shubenacadii- 
Canal Company incorporated hy act of legislature. Township of Kemptj Hants County, 
laid out. 

KK2 



1*1 

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ill! 

' 1 






APPKNDIX. 



lH2'i. — Till' Halifax niul LIvitjhmiI Trailiiij; ('iiii))miiy rdtiiltlislird. Inni-workfi istaMislied 
•it ]\Io<MC rivtr, Annapolis. Anmnnt ofpmvinoial ri-vt-nni" this yrar t •!>,! l'.\ iJKv. ;W. Hritifili 
ni'lillic iMirrcMcv cstalilislicd us 'Ijc circnlatiiij; luciliinn iif tlii' jirDviniv. A liank (privatf) 
entiililislicd at liaiiluN. A tiirf(liili i'stal)lislii'(l at Halifax. Tlif reserved niinrs nf tin.' j)ro- 
vini-e jirantcd by thr rnmn to ilu- Duke nf V<irk, and hy him IcnHcd to Messrs. Knndcll, 
Urid^f, and Co. ; tin- rcMTvcd ])rolits of tin- mint's to lio applied to provincial pur|Misi'8. 

llt'J(» — l;U vesM'ls liiiilt in the pnivini'i' this year, uhaso tonnage ainonntcd to I't.aS.Ti 
tons; nnndier of vc^.x'ls of all sorts rc^isliTcd this year I'di ; total numJK'r of vi's.sels hcliin^fin^ 
to the proviiu'o, exi Jiisive of Cajic Unton, 1 .0.'U , toninfjo 52, //J^ navipitcd hy M,-l(»7 ' in ami 
Iwys. The first rcfxatta at Halifax, i 1 fi(M» voted hy the Assemhly, and t4.."i()» ».«. !W. sul)- 
scrilied hv the inhalnlants, in aid of the sutferers hy the great Hre at iMiriinachi, \'C., whose 
loss :inionnted to i.Ji>7<71'( I*-'- "''■ The inlluen/a, whieh jirevailed throiiL'hoiit X. America, 
is .severely felt in thi.s province. Thf townships of Dorchester, Arisaij;, St. Andrew's nnd 
Traeadie. in the eonntv of Sydiu-y, hnd out. 

IIIU"— The Uritisji 'jinvernnn-nt onlrrs th.it the crown lands he in fntnrc disposed of hy 
sale and not hy j^r.tnt. That all arrears of (piit rent he remitted, and that the (piit rents of the 
province should he did\ collected in future ami ai)plifd to jmivincial purposes. Three MikkI 
horses and two mares imported ('mm Rni;Iar.d. 'I'iie seal fishery first eonnnenceil from Halifax. 
A steam-en<;ine erected at the Alhion coal niiiie^. Pictou, the first erected in this province. 
.Small'Mix and fi'Ver prevail exceedin{,'ly at Halifax ; there were U\ 1 deaths in that town. 

1U2H. — I'icton ami Sydney, (.'a])e iSreton. made free ports. Stajie coaches estahlished 
hetwei'i! Halifax and Annapolis. A steam-packet estahli.shed l)etween Annapolis and St. 
.John's, X'W Hruusw ick. The hijjhest titles ever kIl■l^vn in th" rivers fallini^ into the hay of 
Fundv. liv whiih the dykes at AiMi.ipolis, Horton, CNirnwallis, .''\dniouth, &c. arc broken. A 
cen:.i;.i of the jjrovince made, which j;i"es the popnlatioc at 12;i,}.4U souls, showing an increase 
in ten vears o»" 41 ,7;'">. exclusive of Cape Breton. 



II. 



E.cfract.sfrom the Joiiruah of f lie AsscmHij of Xova Scotia. 

Tui'iihiy, Fibruary ii. 

Mr. S. Humbert. Chairman, from the Committi lo whom was referred the subject 
relative to roads throujilaait the jirovince, reported, tli.it they had taken the same into con- 
sit' ration, and he was directed to present the following, which he read, viz.: — 

" That they arc of opinion, that the sum of seventeen thousand pounds should be applied 
to the improvcn'ient of the roads throughout the province, to be equally divided between the 
great roads and by-roads ; that is, the sum of eight thousand five hundred pounds for the great 



AIM'KNDIX. 



'JjS 



r.Mi.l«, nud th.. liko 8uin of .-inlit Jh.ms.ui.) (ivo hurulre.l pundH f..r tlu" l.y.ro,als, uliicl. Uwy 
rucoiiiiiiond ti> be ai)|>roiiriati'(l a.-* fdlluWM: — 



(MIKAT iU)AI)H. 

St. John til Novii Sititiii line 
Do. til Saint i\nilrc\v 
For till' \iTi'|iis Houd 
Dori'liolrr to SluMliiie 
Sliiiliui' I. tin- Ucntl of Poticoiliiic 
Slii'diac to Hichiliui'to 
Kicliiliiu-to to Chatliani 
N^\\lM^tll• to HiMtijrimi'lu' 
Kirdfrii'ton to tlic Canada line 
Do. do. Fiii;;or lioai'd 

Ili'li.sii' to .Saint Jiilin 
(Jn-at .Marsh in WiMinonlmd 
Do. di(. .Saint .Folin 

I'Vi'diricton to New castle 



Hal) 

my 

'2(H) 

ll(N) 

II ).')() 

ItfiO 

.'{IM> 

]'2r, 

200 
i.'(M) 
XINI 



BY-Ho 



.I'flrioo 



York 

Wcstinori'land 

Kini;'s 

(jiiri'n's 

Snidiiiry 

Nnrtlnindicrland 

(ilolUT.sttT 

Kent 
Cliarlottc 
'Saint .John 



All which is rcspct fully stdiinitti'd." 
Ordvml, that the report he accepted. 



.112.-.0 

iir>o 

•CiO 

-17'. 

XI N) 

77-"» 

!t."»0 
01 Kl- 



-d.-.oo 



.£17«M(0 



Novastotiaii. 



PRICES CUIIMENT.— 1829. 

American and Quebec. 



Alewivcs 
Hoards, pine 
Codfish, nierchantahle 
Do. West India 
Herring 

Rlackerel, No. 1 
No. 2 



Salmon 
Irish pork 
Quebec do. 



No. ;{ 



noiu> 

70.>-. per M. feet 

1. '{.•.•. per (piintal 

11.S-. ;w. 
ir,s. 

17.V. 

15s. 

none 

JtO.s-. per barrel 

Uos. 



West Indian. 



Coffee 
Molasses 

Rum, West India 
Do. Jamaica 
Sugafj good 



I.*. JUT pouiul 
Is. C)i/. per gallon 
2.V. 10,/. to as-. 
4s. 3d. to 4s. lid. 
35s. to 42s. (id. 



Corn, Indian 
Flour, Am. sup. 
Fine 

Quebec, fine 
American rye 
IMeal, Indiaii 



4s. (hi. per bushel 

r,'2s. (h/. 

none 
:<2,s'. <J(/. 
!().«. cut. 



Potatoes 
A])ples, good 
Ueef, best 
Irish do 
Quebec do. 
Hutter, tub 
Cord wood 
Coals, I'ictou 
Do., Sydney 
Hay (market) 



Agriculliiral. 

2s. per bushel 
I.'),'--, jier barrel 
4d. to li(/. per pound 
none 
cargo .lOs-., prime .W.S-. 
1 .•>'. 

J Its. j)er cord 
'1"-. per chaldron 
4.").s-. 
70s. per teti. 



^■"1" 



:li 



i 



I' 









if- 

u 



1? 



iO 



»'.'i|i 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




k 




/ 



o 




// 





A. 



^ J 






/. 




f/j 






1.0 



I.I 



1.25 



I Iff Ilia 

If 1^ 12.0 



18 



JA 1116 



V] 



<^ 



/2 




/ 










Photographic 

Sdences 
Corporation 




33 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 





\ 




•n>^ 





:\ 



\ 






^9) 



V 



# 






# 





o^ 






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'io4 



APPENDIX. 



III. 



POUT OF HALIFAX. 



Ah ylhstract of Imports and E.vporh at thin Port and District in IS'^S. 



INWARDS KnOJI GUKAT BItlTAIN. 





Vessiilh 


105 


Tons 


, 27.')0H 




IMen 1298 






All' and porter 


casks 


650 '■ 


Carts 


No. 


10 


Grindstones 


chldii. 


12 




jarrels 


135 


Co])peras 


casks 


28 




No. 


138 


Anchors and G 


raplins 


270 


Corks 


bags 


80 


Gin 


pipes 


75 


Anvils 


No. 


■17 




cases 


5 




hlids. 


198 


Alum 


casks 


32 


C(!rk wood 


bundles 


40 




bbls. 


7 


Beef and pork 


bbls. 


174 


Cologne water 


cases 


3 




case 


1 


Imlf-bbls. 


10 


Cheese 


cases 


10 


Ginger 


bags 


13 


Brandy 


pipes 


110 




hamps. 


27 


Glassware 


. mats 


370 





hhds. 


185 


Caiidli's 


cases 







casks 


291 


Barrows 


No. 


22 





boxes 


720 




crates 


310 


Brimstone . 


boxes 


14 


Cordials 


boxes 


2 




boxes 


1034 


Blocks 


casks 


2 


Cloves and cassia l)aj>s 


2 




haiujier 


1 


Bricks 


No. loOiJoO 





chests 


2 


Gunpowder 


lalf-bbls. 


74 


Barley 


casks 


15 


Cocoa 


bags 


39 


Glue 


bags 


2 


lialf-l)l)ls. 


30 


Cabinet ware 


casks 


1 




. bales 


1 


•••••* • 


liags 


G5(i 




cases 


3 




. casks 


14 


Bread 


casks 


2 


Currants 


butt 


1 


Hardware 


barrels 


19 




bags 


140 




casks 


3 




cwts. 


17 


Blacking and bruslios 




Chalk 


tons 


100 




casks 


2085 




casks 


1(13 


Dry goods 


. bales 


2110 




cases 


499 




liamp. 


2 




cases 


1443 




bags 


803 


Beer 


kegs 


llf) 




caslvs 


7 




pieces 


0()40 


Blackload . 


bbs. 


2 


boxes & sacks 


355 


Hats 


cases 


371 


Blue and starcl 


I cases 


2 


Engravings 


cases 


2 




hampers 


23 




casks 


23 


Eiiiiines 


. No. 


2 


Hams 


casks 


f) 




boxes 


2573 


Earthenware 


crates 


511 


Honey 


kegs 


2 


Boat, life 


, 


1 




casks 


.353 


Indigo 


casks 


9 


BelloM's 


pair 


14 




boxes 


370 




chests 


26 


Butter 


casks 


13 




pieces 


20750 




serooiis 


9 


Bronze figures 


cases 


2 




baskets 


3 


Iron and steel bars 


20395 


Boiler, steam 


No. 


1 


Feathers 


bales 


2 




bdls. 


2244 


Clocks 


cases 


4 


Furs 


cases 


4 




boxes 


4 


Cordage 


bales 


02 


Fruit, dried 


boxes 


270 




tons 


3751 




coils 


320(5 




cases 


70 


Indian rubl 


er shoes 




Cal)les 


No. 


70 


half-cases 


100 




boxes 


4 


Coal 


tons 


13ai 




carrotes 


3 


Jewellery 


boxes 


4 


Copper 


casks 


54 




barrels 


70 


Lead 


rolls 


40 




bdls. 


20 




drums 


415 




sheets 


401 




cases 


55 


half-drums 


250 


Leather 


bales 


47 




bolts 


310 


Flour 


tierce 


1 


nianufact. casks 


11 




sheets 


149 


Fowling-pieces boxes 


3 




trunks 


3 




c^vts. 


97 


Furniture 


packs 


7 




cases 


79 


Cambouers 


. No. 


11 


Fish 


boxes 


7 




boxes 


42 


Confectionery 


cases 


10 




jars 


1 


Lard 


kegs 


20 




boxes 


12 


Fish, pickled 


casks 


2 


Marble 


case 


1 



APPENDIX. 



255 



INIarmahule 


boxes 


7 


Plough moulds 


No. 


Mats 


No. 


4 


Pepjier 




boxes 


jMedicine 


. cases 


(]!» 


Plants 


, 


boxes 




casks 


TiU 


Pickles 


, 


boxes 




bales 


1 






case 


IMustard 


. kegs 


225 






cask 




boxes 


3 


Printing-iiress 


No. 


]M>isical inst 


r. cases 


23 


Plate 


, 


cases 


IMatheiiiatici 


d do. do. 


;} 


Puttv 


, 


casks 


Nets, lines and twines 




Rum 


puncheons 




bales 


3") 


Shells 


, 


case 




casks 


]2i> 


Soap 


, 


boxes 




cases 


2!) 


Seeds 


, 


bis. 


Oil-cloth 


cases 


2 






casks 


Oatmeal . 


barrels 


275 






boxes 


Oats 


bags 


'M 


Stoves 


, 


No. 


Oranges 


boxes 


14 


Sliot 




casks 


Paint and oi 


[ casks 


472 






bags 




,)"«» 


19(12 


vSugar 


, 


hhds. 


Oalcnm 


cwts. 


.'■'7 


Stationery 


, 


cases 


Paintinjj 


case 


1 






bales 


Perfumery 


. eases 


22 






trunks 


Peas bis. 


and bags 


166 






boxes 




kegs 


6 






buns 


Ploughs 


No. 


40 
V 


Saltpetre 
aluc 




bis. 



a:? 


Saltpetre 


. boxes 


20 


;^;{7 


Salt 


tons 


7770 







bags 


32(i 


■37 


Sails 


No. sets 


20 


1 


Slate 


No. 


12', 


] 




cases 


4 


1 


Spices 


casks 


3 


i) 




bag 


1 


4 


Sheathing 


pap. cases 


5 


4 


Tar 


barrels 


205 


1 


Tea 


chests 


4 


4:5 i(i 


Tallow 


casks 


28 


l(i 


A'iiiegar 


casks 


4 


3 


Vitriol 


carl)ovs 


2 


i! 


Tobacco 


hhd. 


1 


i.->a 


\^irnish 


casks 


23 


108 


Upholstery 


packages 


10 


32 


Whiting 


casks 


4(5 


133 


M'hisky 


pipes 


10 


224 


Walnuts 


box 


1 


110 


Wine 


pipes 


4a 


10 




hhds. 


243 


14 




qr. casks 


58 


17 




eases 


107 


33 




dozens • 


3 



ite 



! ': 



M 



£311,100 



INWARDS FROJI THE WKST IXUIKS. 





^'essels 


209 


Tons 27724 




Men 1055 






Arrow-root 


. bbls. 




Gin 


hhds. 


10 


Lignum vitic 


tons 


25 




boxes 


24 




cases 


4 




logs 


12 




bbls. 


280 


Ginger 


bbls. 


27 


Lard 


kegs 


3 


Anchors 


. No. 


3 




boxes 


4 


IMolasses 


puns. 


4452 


Boat 


No. 


1 


Gig top 


No. 


1 




tierces 


2 


Brandy 


pipes 


2 


Ilorsc 


No. 


1 


Mahogany 


• logs 


62 




hhds. 


2 


Hides 


No. 


7484 


Oil, sperm 


boxes 


4 


Bed- feathers 


pun. 


1 


Hats, straw 


puns. 





Oil, castor 


barrels 


3 


Bread 


lags 


28 




trunks 


11 




.i"gs 


.33 


Cortee 


tierces 


59 




barrels 


24 




bbls. 


18 




barrels 


200 




No. 


{!07 


Onions 


lbs. 


2000 




bags 


504 


Horns, ox 


. No. 


1387 


Pencil 


case 


1 


Cop )cras 
Cab es 


. bbls. 


42() 


ILniey 


bbl. 


1 


Platted straw 


bbls. 


13 


No. 


3 





lars 


7 


Posts, bed 


. sets 


.30 


Cotton wool 


bales 


01 




cases 


32 


Preserves 


box 


1 


Cigars 


I\I. 


10 


Junk 


cwts. 


01 




case 


1 




boxes 


94 


Iron 


cwts. 


.si 


Pimento 


bbls. 


21 


Cocoa-nuts 


casks 


2 




barrels 


3 


Rum 


)uns. 


5292 




No. 


400 




casks 


5 




ihds. 


73 


Cocoa 


bags 


104 


Lime juice 


casks 


12 


Shrub 


pipes 


4 


Candles 


boxes 


59 


Leather 


bale 


1 




hhds. 


51 


Cedar 


logs 


13 


Lemons and 


oranges 




qr. casks 


20 


Dry goods 


bale 


1 




barrels 


115 


Silk goods 


trunk 


1 




trunks 


5 




box 


1 


Sugar 


hhds. 


1117 




cask 


1 


Limestone 


tons 


30 




tierces 


392 


Flour 


])arrels 


43 


Lead 4 cwt. 1 (ir. 


21 lbs. 




bbls. 


1185 


Fruit 


drums 


3 


Logwood 


tons 


6S 


Syrup 


box 


I 






I-,i l\ It 



Ill 



256" 



APPENDIX. 



Salt . lihds. 


2749 


Tallow 


bbls. 





Wine . tierces 


27 


Skins, calf and sheep 


(J29 




kegs 


15 


qr. casks 


4 


Scale and beam set 


1 




tierces 


3 


cases 


104 


Spoiif^e . bale 


1 


Tobacco 


kegs 


1« 


Wood-dye cwts. 


25 


Snuff . bl. 


1 


Ten 


cliests 


10 


^Vool, sheep's tierces 


2 


Steel . boxes 


2 




cannisters 


lU 


bags 


8 


buns. 


] 


Work-table 


. No. 


1 


Wax, bees barrel 


1 


Skins, goat 


72 


Wine 


pipes 


5 







Value 



„£'1C3,548 



INWARDS COASTWISE. 





Vessels 


1140 


Tons 50018 




]\Ien 3545 






Apples 


bhls. 


4fi 


Coffee 


bis. 


1 


Laths 


. 7 


16000 




boxes 


.35 




bags 


5 


Leather, nianui 


. box. 


4 


Anchors 


No. 


25 


Cotton 


bales 


11 


Leather 


sides 


2'23 


Ale and porter 


casks 


83 


Cordials 


casks 


4 


Logwood 


cwt. 


147 




hanips. 


4 


Carriages 


. No. 


2 


Lime 


hhds. 


56!) 


iVpj>arel packages 


8 


Dry goods 


bales 


141 


Lard 


kegs 


185 


Ashes, pearl 


bis. 


!) 


trks. 


md boxes 


14(5 


Lead 


ro Is 


48 


Beds, feather 


No. 


10 




casks 


33 


Lamj)s and glasses No. 


4 


Butter 


firkins 


53 




buns 


00 


Lampblack 


casks 


11 


Books 


box 


1 


Earthenware 


crates 


72 


Molasses 


casks 


52 


Bread 


barrels 


2(i2 




casks 


4 


]\Iills (black) 


No. 


3 




bags 


8(i4 


Furs 


boxes 


2 


]Ma )le sugar 


box 


1 


Barrels, emptv 


No. 


(i5 


Fish, dry 


(jtis. 


81. 372 


Malt 


bush. 


2040 


Boards & plan 


<s ft. 1,547,000 1 


Fish, pickled 


bis. 


3747 


Mustard . 


kegs 


49 


Barley 


bushels 


lOOO 




tierces 


54 


Musical Ints. 


cases 


4 


Brick 


No. M. 


!)1J 


pW " . 


bis. 


13841 


Mill cranks 


No. 


2 


Beef and pork 


bis. 


2377 




half-bls. 


570 


Nails 


kegs 


79 


half-barrels 


201 


Flax-seed 


puus. 


20 


Oil 


tuns 


32 


Beaureans 


. No. 


3 




bags 


327 


Oakum 


cwt. 


45 


Brandy 


pipes 


15 


Figs 


drums 


2 


Oats 


bush. 


6053 




bbl. 


1 


Furniture 


packs. 


1!>3 




bis. 


10 


Boiler & ps. of engine 


1 




cases 





Onions 


casks 


9 


Blacking 


case 


1 


(iin 


bis. 


4 




buns. 


300 


Cheese 


boxes 


4 




hhds. 


15 


Oysters 


bis. 


30 





No. 


45 


Gunpo\\der 


kegs 


10 


Oil, olive 


j)ipes 


5 


Cables 


No. 


27 


(iypsum 


t(UlS 


70 




jars 


113 


Coals chaldrons 


143 


Grates 


boxes 


32 


Oil, linseed 


casks 


5 


Candles 


boxes 


7 


(lig 


No. 


1 


Pickets 


No. 


1000 


Chairs 


No. 


170 


Glass 


cases 


20 


Pork 


barrels 


54 


Copper 


barrels 


2 




boxes 


72 


Peas 


bush. 


326 




cwt. 


8 


Hides . 


No. 


608 




bags 


145 




bars 


48 


Herrings, sm 


oked 






kegs 


3(i8 


Corn, Ind. 


bushels 


35.58 




boxi's 


1172 


Paint 


kegs 


188 


Combs 


trunk 


1 


Handspikes 


No. 


216 


Posts, cedar 


No. 


129 


Clothing 


trunk 


1 


Hams 


bis. 


25 


Pei)j)er 


cases 


IG 


Cordage 


cwt. 


1.50 




casks 


7 


Bum 


casks 


247 




bales 


4 


Hats . 


cases 


2 


Bice 


tierces 


7k 




coils 


324 


Hops 


bales 







bbls. 


13 


Cyder 


barrels 


67 


Horses 


No. 


4 


Raisins 


boxes 


101 




pipes 


1 


Hardware 


casks 


7(i 


Rigging 


tons 


10 


Casks, empty 


No. 


154 


Iron 


tons 


51 


Sonne's & tong 


lies kegs 


7 


Caps, si. skin 


puns. 


3 





cwt. 


10 


Salt 


hhds. 


3928 




case 


1 




bars 


307 


Stoves 


No. 


81 


Cigars 


cases 


32 


Indian meal 


bis. 


403 





cases 


13 



r 



Shingles 


M. 


Slei{,'h.s 


No. 


Rounds bbls. 


and kegs 


Sugar 


lihds. 
barrels 


Soap 
Seeds 


boxes 
casks 


Seals 


No. 


Still, copper 


No. 


Skins, seal 


. No. 


Skins, calf 


. No. 


Stationery 


cases 



1231 i 

2 

4i:{ 

(i 

1)2 

44!) 

12 

2nf/() 

1 

19012 

2:i 

'A 



APPENDIX. 








2d/ 


Stationery 


packages 


12 


'\'^in('gar 


casks 


22 


.Sliooks 


i)uns. 


221) 


\'('getablos 


bush. 


cm 


Staves 


.M. 


(M; 


Wlieat 


bush. 


22 


Tar and pitc 


h bbls. 


]<)2 


^\'a^!i•(ln» 


No. 


2 


Tobacco 


. kegs 


21M 


Whiskey 


puns. 


5 




bales 


(i 


Wines 


})ipes 


27 




cwt. 


(i 




half-jiipes 


1 


Tea 


chests 


4!) 




hhds. 


4(5 


Trees, fruit 


bdls. 


4 




qr. casks 


13 


Timber 


pieces 


lo:^ 




kegs 


3 


Twine 


mats 


i> 




cases 


24 


Tombstone 


No. 


1 


Walnuts 


case 


1 



I' 



Value 



ct 129,544 



OUTWAIIDS TO GREAT BRITAIN. 



Apples 
Apparel 
Arrow root 



Bees wax 



Bones, ox 

CoHee 

Copper 



No. of Vessels iJ(! 



Tons 223{)0 



Copper coins 
Cranberries 
Cotton wool 
Cassia 
Canoes 

Coal specimen 
copper 



barrels 

chests 

barrels 

boxes 

casks 

bag 

casks 

b.igs 

casks 

ton 

cwt. 

box 

casks 

barrels 

bales 

boxes 

No. 

and 

bbls. 

boxes 

cask 

ft. 



Capelin 

Deals 

Essence spruce boxes 

Furs . puns. 



4 
4 
3 
3 
51 
1 

n 

!.■)» 
(J 
1 

17 
1 
2 

27 

235 

3 

3 

21 

T 

41(5190 

3 

41 

Vi 



Furs 



Fish, dry 
Fish, pickled 
Flour 
Hides 
Horns, ox 



truss 

bbls. 

qtls. 

bbls. 

barrels 

No. 

bnds. 



Herrings, smoked bxs. 



IIands])ikes 
Indian boxes 
Iron 

Knees s])ruce 
Liitnum vitie 



Latlnvood 

L()g^^'ood 

Molasses 

iMasts and sjiars No. 



No. 
sets 
].igs 
No. 
pieces 
tons 

C\\'t. 

cords 

tons 

puns. 



lAIats 
Oil, castor 
Oils, fish 



Oars 
line 



sets 
casks 

tons 
gals. 

No. 



I 
10 

107 

119 

3 

25 

1 

]()() 

3G4 
}{ 

293 

m 

12<i 
2 
2 

323 i 

25 

114 

539 

1 

19 

3» 

3(i 

94(5 



Men 1033 

Plants . boxes 
Poles and rickers No. 
Preserves 



Paintings 
Plank, pine 



Plank, 

Rum 

Seeds 

Shooks 

Staves 



hardwood 

2 feet 
puns. 

box 
hhds. 

No. 
billets 
puns. 

No. 
boxes 
boxes 

No. 



cases 

box 

box 

])ieces 

feet 1821777 



2 
108 A 
5 
1 
I 
3881 



Skins, seal 

Skins, moose 

Stoves 

Shells 

Shingles 

Timebr, hardwood 

tons 

pine tons 

Treenails . No. 
Treacle . hhds. 



122 
1 

28 

lOllf 

45(57 

10 

18 

3 

1 

7900 

328(5 

20859 

13000 





£94,101 



OUTWARDS TO THE WEST INDIES. 



Apples 

Ale and porter 



Almonds 
Anchovies 
Anchor stocks 
Baskets 
Beef and pork 



No. of Vessels 332 



Tons 31803 



Butter 



barrels 
casks 
case 
bis. 
kegs 
No. 
dozen 
bis. 
half-bls. 
cwt. 
firkin 



558 

92 

1 

6 

5 

22 

1 

580 

389 

55 

305 



Board and plank I\I. 

feet 

Buckwheat meal 

Bread 



^bl. 



Brooms 
Blocks 



Beans 



puns. 

biigs 

cwt. 

kegs 

doz. 

It. 

boxes 

bushels 



5739J 

10 

11 

509 

28 

887 

5 

17 

12 

218 



aien 1896 

Barley 
Brandy 



Bricks 

Boats 
Heets 
ChocoLitc 
Cigars 



Cranberries 



ushels 


9 


])i])es 


2 


hhd.s. 


3 


M. 


8 


No. 


9 


bis. 


6 


boxes 


11 


boxes 


07 


cases 


17 


bis. 


5 


boxes 


9 



VOL. 11. 



L L 



258 



APPENDIX. 






Candles 
Cordage 

Cotton 
Chairs 
Cider 



Cordials 



boxes r>()9 

coils 7 

casks lOi) 

bale 1 

dozen !•[ 

puns. 2 

bis. ;■)(> 

case 1 

cases 2 

boxes () 

casks i! 

box 1 

bl. 1 

case 1 

bush. 1079r> 

bl. 1 

cases 6 

pkg. 1 

casks 34 

barrels 1(5 

boxes 24 

cwts. ()7 

boxes 10 

bales 20 

cases 38 

trunks ]}{ 

boxes 4 

kegs 2 

boxes 52 

No. 1 

dozen 20 

box 1 

barrels I^.^IS 

half-barrels 1290 

Fish, pickled tierces 8 

bis. 35348 

l'«lf-Ws-J 2245 

kits ^ 

Fish, dry qtls. 133744 > 



Currants 

Caps 

Corn, Indian 

Corks 

Copper 

Confectionery 

Cheese 



Capers 
Dry goods 



Earthenware 
Essence spruce 

Engine, (ire 
Eggs 
Fusees 
Flour 



Furniture pkgs- 

Figs . frails 

Glass and manufactures 
cases 

casks 

crates 

hamps. 

boxes 

bis. 

M. 

No. 

tons 

puns. 

casks 

cwt. 



Gypsum 

Hoops, Avood 

Horses 

Hay 

Heading 

Hams 



8 

27 

8 

14 

3 

3 

8 

12 

348i 

25 

110 

2 

10 

3(5 



Ilams 
Herrings, 

Handspikes 

Hops 

Hardware 



No. 
smoked 
boxes 

No. 

bags 
I)oxes 

Pkgs. 

Hats . eases 

Indian rubber shoes 

cases 

dozen 

bbls. 
puns. 



Indian meal 



Ink 


case 


Indian rubber sheathing 




cases 


Knees spruce 


No. 


Lard 


kegs 


Leather & manufacture 




pkgs. 




cases 




Ids. 


Latliwood 


cords 


Lobsters 


boxes 


Laths 


M. 


IMaccaroni 


pkgs. 


IMusts and spars 


No. 


Mustard 


kegs 




cases 


]\Iast hoops 


No. 


aiarble 


cases 


Nuts 


bbls. 



Nails 
Oilcloth 
Oars 
Oil, fish 
Oil 



Oats 
Onions 



Oxen 

Pitch and tar 

Pickles 



Prunes 

Potatoes . 

Peppermint 

Pumps 

Pepper 

Preserves 



bags 

casks 

pieces 

No. 

gallons 

baskets 

cases 

jars 

bushels 

barrels 

bunches 

No. 

bbls. 

boxes 

bushels 

kegs 

boxes 

bushels 

casks 

No. 

bags 

cases 



475 

1(542 

1303 

12 

4 

4 

4 

(5 

I 

4221 

40 

1 

3 

30 

21(5 

(iH 

10 

143 

3 

3 

12 

12 

203 

18 

2 

6294 

12 

9 

9 

3 

12 

9707 



Value 



3 

5 

44 

008(5 

112 

7338 

84 

851 

10 

1690 

20 

3 

17(527 

48 

3 

9 

18 

£224,221 



Pencils 
Pipes 
Paintings 
Rice 



Raisins 

Resin 

Staves 

Shooks 

Steel 



Soap 

Sheep 

Salts 

Sugar, refined 

Siiingles 

Skins, calf 

Sounds and 



Spices 
Starch 
Snuff 



Stat'onery 



Sausages 



Saratoga-water 

Seeds 

Syrup 



box 

boxes 

cases 

tierces 

r tierces 

bags 

boxes 

barrels 

M. 

No. 

boxes 

bun. 

boxes 

No. 

bl. 

bbls. 

M. 

. No. 

tongues 

casks 

kegs 

boxes 

boxes 

cases 

bis. 

boxes 

. cases 

cask 

boxes 

boxes 

boxes 

box 



Spirits, turpentine bis. 

Sand 

Sugar candy 



Tobacco 



Tea 

Treenails 

Turnips 

Types 

Truck and 

Timber 

Varnish 

Verdigris 

Waggon 

Wine 



barrels 

. tubs 

kegs 

. hhds. 

bales 

kegs 

cwts. 

+ kegs 

chests 

canisters 

No. 

. bushels 

boxes 

wheels 

feet 

barrels 

boxes 

. No. 

cases 

barrels 

qr. casks 



1 

4 

2 

1(57 

54 

28 

3(57 

214 

1957 

450 

10 

5 

417 

656 

1 

25 

44561 

40 

2 

153 

2 

4 

r. 

dm 

2 

7 

13 

1 

4 

3 

5 

1 

6 

23 

11 

2 

22 

12 

117 

10 

9 

166 

25 

1350 

2040 

5 

1 

9512 

15 

25 

1 

2 

8 

22 



Vessels 12r)0 

Apples . barrels .'j(i47 

Apparel . cases 11 

Ale and porter casks 4H1 

Anchors . No. 17 

Arrow-root boxes 38 

Almonds . barrels 5 

Axes . No. 7^* 

Ashes, i)earl . bl. 1 

puns. 2 

Beef and pork bbls. .^094 

h barrels (57 

quarters 232 

Boats . No. 4 

Butter . firkins 2191 

cwts. H.'j 

BoardsiV plank U.ft. 11()"» 

Barley . bushels 2517 

Brandy . pipes 34 

..'.... hhds. 5 

Bread . puns. 

bis. & bags 9(i] 

kegs 213 

cwU. 71 

Brooms . dozens 10 

package 1 

Brushes and blacking 

casks 7 

Balsam . boxes 7 

Bricks . 31. 29 

Bags, empty . No. .500 

Beans . casks 157 

kegs 2;! 

bags 22 

bushels 71 

Bark . cords 1.3 

Beets . bushels 215 

Bowls . case 1 

Blocks . casks 50 

No. 17 

Oorn, Indian bushels 2fi()9 

Chocolate . boxes 314 

Cider . hhds. 53 

barrels 3560 

Cheese . cwts. 547 

Copper . casks 1 

cwts. 9 

bolts 33 

box 1 

Cigars . boxes 70 

M. 2 

Cordials . casks 11 

Cordage . coils 156 

Coffee . tierces 3 

barrels 61 

bags 34 



APPENDIX. 



OUTWAllDS COASTWISE. 

Tons 70744 

Cable . No. 9 

Currants . casks 2 

Cologne-water box 4 

Coals . chaldrons 25 

Cotton . bales 141 

Cajiers . boxes }) 

Cocoa . bis. 5 

Carriages . . 2 

Cambooses . No. 2 

Confectionery . case 1 

Casks, empty . No. 3152 

Caps . box 1 

Cotton . boxes 2 

Ury goods . bales }(3 

cases (i5 

trusses 1 ()2 

Drugs and med. cases 4 

])aekages 5 

Earthenware crates 8 

case 7 

box 9 

Eggs . dozens 11582 

Essen, of spruce kegs 133 

Furniture packages 44 

pieces 807 

Fish, dry . qtls. 4.348 

Do. pickled tierces 5 

barrels 9754 

J. barrels 133 

Flour . ■ barrels 8597 

i barrels 55 

Furs . casks 10 

dozens 43 

packages 5 

Feathers . bags 1.3 

Furnaces, clay casks 1 

Fruit, green boxes 149 

bags 5(i 

Figs . bags 12 

drum 1 

Gypsum . barrels 7 

tons 2IG74 

Gin . pipes 11 

hhds. 26 

cases 24 

Glass, and manufactured 

casks 39 

boxes 37 

Gunpowder . kegs 15 

Grindstones . No. 4800 

Groceries packages 50 

Ginger . bis. 2 

Hoops . M. 28 

Herring . boxes 2953 

Handspikes . No. 9008 



Men 4093. 

Hops . bales 

Horses . No. 

Hums . cwts. 
Hardware . casks 

cases 

packages 

Hay . tons 

Honey . box 

Hats . cases 

dozens 

Horns . casks 

Hides . No. 

Indigo . bale 

boxes 

l^t-'g 

Iron , tons 

cwts. 

bundles 

bars 

Ink . keg 

Lard . kegs 

Lignum vita; cwts. 
Leather . bales 

cases 

casks 

bundles 

sides 

Lime . lilids. 

Lime-juice casks 

Laths . M. 

Lead . roll 

Loaf sugar cask 

Alolasses . casks 
Mutton . cwts. 

quarters 

ftlasts and spars No. 
iMarmalade . boxes 
iVIeal, Indian puns. 

bbls. 

iMeal, oaten casks 

l>"g» 

tons 

cwts. 

IVIattresses . No. 

iMustard . kegs 

jMahogany . logs 

Malt . bags 

Nuts . bbls. 

Nails . casks 
Nets and lines casks 

bbls. 

Oats . bushels 

Onions . casks 

bushels 

Oar rafters . No. 

ll2 



259 



41 
26 
.33 
52 

127 

33 

1 

11 

3 

4 

28 

1 

2 

1 

8 

3 

9 

708 

] 

47 

142 

34 

8 

105 

26 

189 

21 

6 

6 

1 

2 

1614 

22 

283 

125 

6 

2 

3447 

58 

224 

2 

7 

8 

16 

2 

4 

9 

19 

2 

18 

5030 

90 

826 

3906 






f r 



I? ill 



Si' 



■ i t 

.1 I!!' 



;;> 



'260 



APPENDIX. 






Oxen 


No. 


002 1 


Sbooks 


casks 


12'.»!» 


Sui;ar, refined bis. 


3 


Oil, fioli . 


gallons 


2l!)lll ' 


Seeds 


casks 


lit 


Tea 


chests 


313U 


Oil, olive 


cases 


IttO 




biixes 


3 




lioxes 


2(i 




', casks 


4 


Sausaf;es 


kejjs 


4 




canisters 


3") 




jars 


!> 


l^hinj^les 


M. 


1(10!) 


Toliacco 


Idids. 


73 


Oiikinii 


cwts. 


(i.-. 


Soap 


>.ases 


» 




barrels 


21 


Oriiiijics 


boxes 


nil 




l)o.,i's 


l(l.-.2 




iiales 


4(5 


Ox llOllL'S 


. No. 


31(1 


.Staves 


.\» 


1}!24,', 




kegs 


1)2.^) 


Pitch and tar lilils. 


i.')!i;{ 


Shot 


bai;s 


Hi 


Tind)er 


tons 


1072 


Pl()ll;^llS 


No. 


!.-. 


.Stationery 


cases 


•Mi 


Turpentine, 


spirits of 




Puas bbls. 


and bajis 


k; 




])aekau;es 


22 




barrels 


10 




busiii'ls 


2.-. 


■Skins, calf 


. ids. 


lit 




jars 


3 


Potatoes 


bushels 


4i)71H 


Skins, seal 


. No. 


7!)tt 


Tonyue ai 


d sounds 




Pimento 


. bbls. 


2 


Skins, rabbit 


dozens 


JOO 




kegs 


4 




I'i'K 


1 


Salts 


tons 


2»)3 


Talh.w 


casks 


4 


Pickles 


boxes 


131 


.Sjeifjhs 


No. 


It 


\'inenar 


casks 


23 


Pcjilier 


baj,'s 


4(1 


.Sugars 


hhds. 


40.') 


W'tteiables 


liusliels 


H7i:i 


Paint 


casks 


)! 




tierces 


1!> 


Wax 


b.des 


3 




kefjs 


rii 




bis. 


load 


\\'ool 


cask 


1 


Peppermint 


casks 


4 


.Sheep 


N... 


2!)!)3 


\\"hiskev 


cask 


1 


Preservi's 


boxes 


2 


Stoves 


No. 


3ti 


^\'a^ruons 


No. 


(i 


Pilttv 


bladders 


}i 


Sauces 


cases 


3 


^^'eifihinf; machine No. 


1 


Prunes 


boxes 


r,.'} 


Shriilt 


])uns. 


7 


Wood, tire 


cords 


.33 


Poultry 


c:'.sks 


43 


Snutl" 


', I)arrels 


2 


W(Mid-dye 


. c«ts. 


10 


l{ice 


tierces 


7<' 


**(••• 


kejfs 


43 


Wine 


]npes 


r> 


Hum 


puns. 


irm 




jars 


4 




hhds. 


i) 


Raisins 


casks 


4 


.Shoe tiiread 


packaj;e 


1 




\ casks 


(i 




bipxes 


413 


Sails 


sets 


7 




cases 


110 


Resin 


bis. 


1!)7 


Slate 


tons 


2 












y 


alue 




X'171M»10 







iNWAiins Fnoji THK united statks ok amkhica. 



\'cssel 


s 131 




Tons 


KiO.')!! 




iAIeu 721 






Apjdes . barrels 


U)0 


Books 


, 


parcels 


(!0 


Clock 


boxes 





Ashes, pearl . cask 


1 


Basins, wooden 


dozs. 


30 


Cradles 


No. 


2 


barrels 


3 


Billet h( 


ads 


i)oxes 


(i 


Drugs iSc nu;d. 


casks 


2 


Axe handles dozens 


12 


Corn, In 


dian 


nisheis 


44.-)r)4 




pkgs. 


44 


Bedsteads . No. 


() 


Cigars 


, 


hhds. 


1 




cases 


2 


Buckets . No. 


12 






cases 


20 




bales 


2 


Balance, patent No. 


1 




, 


boxes 


2.")!) 




barrels 


10 


Boats . No. 


l.'i 


Candles 


, 


boxes 


37!) 





boxes 


9 


Brooms . No. 


30(iO 


Cider 


, 


bis. 


1){ 




bag 


1 


Bread and crackers 




.... 




boxes 


12 




jar 


1 


barrels 


2()4() 


Cards, w 


ool 


casks 


!) 


Eggs 


dozen 


35 


cwts. 


101 






boxes 


11 





barrel 


1 


,', barrels 


430 


.... 


loo 


se, do/,. 


(5 





box 


1 


boxes iS: kegs 


\r>ni 


Cotton 


, 


bales 


3". 


Earthen\\arc 


box 


1 


Butter . firkins 


373 


('ond)s 


, 


cases 


9 





basket 


1 


Bran . barrels 


J)4 


Clieese 


, 


No. 


120 


Engine, fire 


No. 


1 


bushels 


141 


Ciiase, printer's No. 


2 


Furnaces, clay 


casks 


a 


IJlocks . casks 


13 


Chocolat 


e 


boxes 


2!) 


Flags, cooper's 


bdls. 


9 


Buck wheat barrels 


24 


Cranberries 


barrels 


12 


Fire-.stone 


lbs. 


7200 


.'r barrels 


9» 


Coaches, 


stage 


No. 


2 


Flour 


barrels 


01379 


I barrels 


7« 


Carts 




No. 


1 


half-bls. 


3744 


Boards M. feet 


13».', 


.... 


. . sets & wlieel 


i a 


Furniture 


])kgs. 


323 


Books . boxes 


5 


Calashes 


, silk 


No. 


2 


loose articles 


981 



APPENDIX. 



261 



Fruit, ^rccii casos 
l)arrcls 

ll(»\l'.S 

Glass & manufactures 

casi's 
casks 

V^ii^- 

crates 

Grain, rye l)Usii. 

Ildopa . bundles 
Honey . kefjs 

Hams . bundles 
No. 
Hardware cases 

packages 

casks 

Ho])s . i)ales 

Hides . No. 

Ink eases 

kci^s 

Leatber & manufactures 
boxes 

bundles 

Lard . key;s 

lialf-kejrs 

barrels 

Aleal, Indian bbls. 
IMelons . N.I 

JMustard . kesjs 
iVIill-boards bdis. 

IMaps . packajies 
Nuts . barrels 
Nails . casks 

Oysters . barrels 
Onions . barrels 

bunclu's 

Oats . buslicls 






itt 

7 
!):t 

•.V2 

:i 

1({4 

II 

r>7 
() 

•11 
i\ 

5 
!) 

(i 

21 
400 

32 

:$ 

1070 

47 
1 

20->l 

11»7 

2 

504 

97)«> 

275 

Value 



Picture frames pk};s. ^ 

No. 4 

Peas . tierces 14lt 

bbls.\baf,'s ;i2}; 

Pork and beef bliils. 4 

barrels .'JO.'Mi 

half-hls. 20 

Pickles . boxes I!) 

Preserves boxes 'A 

Plouijbs , No. .'I 

l'aper-lianginj;s cases 2 

Hice . tierces (KW) 

lialf-tierees ii'2 

Rosin . barrels 44!( 

Hoots, Howcr barrels 2 

boxes 4 

Hakes, bay bundles 1 

Hockini^-liorse No. 1 

Snurt" , jars I5II 

box 1 

bis. 14 

Soap . boxes (172 

barrels 2 

Staves . No. 9»i»2!>r) 

Sboes, Indian rubber 

boxes (! 

Skins, liutFalo No. 7 

Sliiu-les . .^1. 4!)(); 

Stoves . No. ir> 

Seeds . casks r>7 

boxes 2;i 

Saratojja water boxes 7 

Stationery . bales 31 

cases 7 

bundles 1(12 

Sliooks . No. 157 

Silver cup No. 1 

£170,843 



"^beaves 


bundle 


1 


Sieves 


do/eu 


10 


Sumac 


bn''s 


.) 


Straw-cnttinji maeliine 






No. 


I 


.Spinninj;-macliines 






No. 


2 


Types 


boxes 


!) 




11 ircels 


;> 


Tobacco 


. hhds. 


2:»<> 




bales 


)!(> 




barrels 


;»> 




kej^s 


22!H 




half-kegs 


243 


Tar, pitch. 


and turp. 






bbls. 


4!)f)3 


Turj)entin( 


, spirits of 






barrels 


33 


Trees 


bninlles 


lOH 




boxes 


3 


Threshing- 


machine 






No. 


I 


Tables 


No. 


4 


Therinoineters No. 





\'arnisb 


barrels 


13 


A'incfjar 


barrels 


2.". 


W'^etables 


bushels 


(> 




boxes 


2 


Wei^^liing- 


machine No. 


1 


W'abuits 


b/iiis 


l.l 


Warp cotton bales 


){ 




box 


1 


Whips 


do/en 


12 


Wax, bees 


barrels 


n 




b..x 


1 




cask 


;■»(> 


Watrgons 


. No. 


'2 


4*-. U. 







ikr 



\ \r 



i I 



INWARDS FROM FOREION KUHOPK. 





Vessels 11 


Tons 14n4 




]Mc . {ir; 






Almonds 


seroons 


4.') 


Brimstone 


casks 


2 


Cream 01 tartar 


bo.x 


1 




casks 


2 




boxes 


30 


Carpets ])ackagcs 


fi 


Aloes 


bo.x 


1 


Brick 


M. 


i-.l,7H» 


C'hest of drawers No. 


1 


Anchovies 


boxes 


2;-) 


Bags, empty 


bundles 


108 


Crape 


case 


I 


Alabaster 


cases 


11 





No. 


1000 


Cotton goods 


case 


1 


Bells compositor 


7 


Bear's fat 


boxes 


2 


Caps 


box 


1 


Baskets 


case 


1 


Brooms 


No. 


ir)()0 


Co )per 


cwt. 


20 


Barley 


binjs 


21! 1 


Bristles 


cask 


1 


Co oune water 


cases 


2 




bush. 


11(10 


C'antharidcs 


box 


1 


Cordage 


coils 


(i'U) 


Bread 


bags 


12i)4 


Cassia 


boxes 


5 




jiakgs. 


2.-)8 


Beef and pork 


bis. 


«4 


Cork 


pkgs. 


IKi 


C;heese 


boxes 


15 


Beans 


bags 


17!) 




bags 


9;') 


Codlines 


bdl. 


I 


Brandy 


pipes 


12 




baskets 


6 


Candles 


boxes 


800 




barrel 


1 


Capers 


boxes 


30 


Carriages, child 


ren s 


4 


Brandy fruit 


bo.xes 


20 


Cream of tartar casks 


2 


Deer's tongues 


box 


1 



J', 

' 'It 



i 



2G2 

Filberts . bftffs 

Ki{5H • SOHMtll 

frnils 

Flour . burrils 

Kfutlicrs bu^s 

Furs bale 

biiski^ts 

trunks 

(tlasswarc cases 

casks 

box 

Gum . !)oxes 

Gloves . bale 

box 

Gin . pipes 
lihds. 

cases 

casks 

Houcy cases 

tubs 

Hemps . tons 

bundles 

bales 

Hops . bales 

Horse hair bales 

Hats, straw cases 

No. 

Hardware . box 

Hawsers . No. 

Hams . casks 

No. 

Junk . cwt. 

qrs. 

lbs. 

Iron . tons 

bars 

pkgs. 

Leather . bales 

trunks 

boxes 





APPENDIX. 




1(1 


LeathiT 


bundles 


10 


1 


Linseed oil 


casks 


2 


u\ 





jars 


3r)2 


9r»:» 


Lead 


1I1(,'S 


122 


:u 




bdls. 


r. 


1 


Lifpioricc 


boxes 


3 


.'} 


fjookiufi-jflasses No. 


2 


4 


Alaecaroni and Vermi- 




14 


celli 


cases 


15 


f) 




baskets 


20 


1 




boxes 


55 


(i 


Mats 


N(.. 


1450 


1 


INIattrcsscs 


bale 


I 


1 


Marble 


cases 


«7 


14 




tiles 


2(H) 


10 




mortars 


34 


317 


Oil, olive 


cases 


14(5 


4(» 




ciusks 


70 


3 




pipes 


4 







|ars 


250 


81 




boxes 


20 


118 


Olives 


mats 


4 


119 




cases 


20 


13 




jars 


50 


5 


Opium 
oil cloths 


box 


1 


3 


boxes 


fi 


300 


Oakum 


bales 


100 


1 


Pepper 


bags 


(50 


4 


Pickles 


boxes 


180 


2 


Pocket-books 


trunks 


1 


r)0 


Potter's earth 


box 


1 


5 


Paint brushes 


box 


1 


3 


Paper 


bales 


30 


21 


packages 


1 


40 


Paste-board 


pks. 
dask 


8 


1014 


Quicksilver 


1 


52 


Quills 


baskets 


7 


13 


Raisins 


boxes 


1200 


1(5 


Rudder pintles set 


1 


10 


Salt 


tons 


100 



Sennft . pack. 

.Storak . fioxes 

Silk . cases 

Slops . case 

parcel 

Soap . boxes 

baskets 

Scammcmy box 

Sailcloth packages 

bales 

boxes 

bags 

parcel 

Skins, calf bales 

No. 

Sausages . boxes 

I'i'K 

Tea-boards No. 

Twine . bales 
Tallow . casks 

Verdigris . bbl. 

Vinegar . bis. 

Wheat bags 

White lead boxes 

Walnuts bags 
Wooden bowls boxes 

No. 

Wax . box 
Wine . pipes 

half-i)ipes 

hhds. 

qur. casks 

\ casks 

'|^ casks 

hamper 

barrels 

cases 

dozen 

Woollens . bales 



Value 



i.'105,619 



INWARDS FHOM CANTON. 



INWAHD FHOM AZORES. 

Vessels 1 Tons 49 



Men 6 



Brandy . ankers 

lialf-ankers 

Oranges and lemons 
boxes 



10 : Onions 



3 



200 



Potatoes 
Raisins 



lbs. 

bushels 

boxes 



Valmj 



6000 

160 

25 

£609. 



Sweetmeats 
Wine 



pipes 
bbls. 



1 
1 

10 

1 

1 

938 

100 

1 

161 

76 
6 
3 
J 

16 
1440 

7 
1 
2 

13 

42 

1 

25 

250 

10 

26 

3 

50 

1 

4 

2 

9 

177 

37 

28 

19 

35 

342 

34 





Vessel 1 Tons 871 Men 74 




Canes 


packages 4 


Lackered ware cases 2 


Toys 


package 1 


Hats 


case 1 


Pictures packages 3 


Tea 


chests 14394 




Value 


£97,283 i 


»*. llrf. 





3 
6 

7 



AITKNDIX. 

IN\VAH»8 FHOM MADKinA. 

Vessels 1 Tons lOfi 



Baskets 


No. 


4 


Citron 


boxes 


21 


Clay figures 


box 


1 



aien 7 



Fruit preserves boxes 


n 


Wine 


Wiix-wurk box 


1 




Wine . pipes 


2 




line 


X'4.')7. 



Cotton 



INWAIina KHOM BIlAZILfl. 

Vessels 11 Tons 1541) Men 92 

bules no ( Coffee . bogs 

Value . . X426. 



27 



26:\ 



Iiluls. 7 

qur. easks 1 7 






,|, 1111 



OUTWARDS TO TIIK UNITED STATES OP AMEIIICA. 



Vessels 137 



Coals clinldrons 3202,, 
Copper, old 12cwt. Iqr. 121b. 

Canoe . No. 1 

Fur caps . case 1 

Gypsum . tons 247Gi 

Grindstones No. 8(52 
Herrings, smoked 

boxes 30 

Horns, Ox casks 8 

No. loose 0520 



Hats 
lee 

IMdosc 

Nuts 

Oil 

Oats 

Potatoes 

Porter 



Tons l(iH86 

dozen 
tons 
No. 
barrels 
gallons 
bushels 
bushels 
barrels 



Sounds & tongues bis. 



Val 



3 

255 

1 

!) 

53()3 

k; 

(537fi 
2 

1 



aien 786 

Starch 
Skins, shcej) 



Skins, seal 
Tobacco 



Wood 
Wool, sheep's 



boxes 

casks 

No. 

c.isks 

No. 

barrel 

kegs 

cords 

sacks 



<i 

147J) 

2.3 

21447 

1 

12 

4!)7 

77 



ue 



£15,240 



Vessels 16 



Beef . barrels 
Boards and plank ft. 
Candles . boxes 
Crackers . J, bbls. 
Dry goods . bales 
i'^ish, dry . qtls. 



25 

9744 

100 

110 



30160 



OUTWARDS TO BRAZIL, 



Fish 



Flour 



Oil 

Porter 



Tons 2486 
pickled bbls. 
,>, bbls. 
. ' bbls. 
J, bbls. 
gallons 
barrels 



Value 



990 

5(5 

901 

75 

24(J0 

2 



Men 136 

Staves . pieces 1.300 

Smoked herrings l)xs. 42 

Soap . boxes 600 

Vermicelli . boxes 9 

Window-blinds parcel 1 



£35,006 



III' :t»l 

■III., :,»' 



OUTWAR])S TO AZORES. 



Board and plank 

Butter . firkins 

Dry goods trunks 

cases 



Vessels 3 
ft. 29000 



1.' 



Tons 219 
Fish, dry . qtls. 
Fish, pickled bbls. 
Oil . casks 



Value 



1241 
95 
24 

£2,233. 



Men 14 

Oil , gallons 2903 

Staves . pieces 6000 

Sounds & tongues bl. 1 



li f. 



204 



Al'l'KNDIX. 



IV. 



POKT Ol' ST. .JOHN, NEW BllUNSWKK. 

Jw Account of the fa/ucjn Stcr/ltti>; of Goods Imported and Exported of 
thin Port dnrin^- the Year ending- 5th Jannari/, 18^0. 



IMPORTS. 



KnOM TIIK irNlTKD KINGDOM. 

Articles the produce of foreign Kuropo 

Hritisli ]i()sst'ssioiis in Africu 
places within the liiiiits of the East 

India ("oinpaiiy's Ciiarter 
forcifin states in Asia not within the 

limits 
Colond)ia and other foreign states in 

South America 
British West Indies 
... Jiraxil 

Produce and manufacture of the United Kingdom 

Total from the United Kingdom 

Total value of imports from British possessions in Africa . 

Aladeini 



FROM BHITI8II NOIITII AMEHICAN COLONIKS. 

Articles the produce of the United Kingdom 
foreign Europe 
places within the limits of the East 

India Company's charter 
Nova Scotia and the Canudas 
British West Indies . . 

United States 

Total from British North American Colonies . 



FROM BRITISH WEST INDIES. 

Articles the produce of the United Kingdom 
foreign Europe 
New Brunswick (returned) 
British ^Vest Indies 
United States (returned) 
Braxils 
Cuba 

Total from British West Indies 



Value In 
Stcrliiin. 


Total uinoiint 
.Sli'rling. 


III 


f. 
8771 15 
14 


11 



X'. 1. 


■/. 


3633 5 









98 









.398 10 

29 

4 10 

162407 


/ 





175356 1 








6 


• •• 

• •• 




375 1 
107 5 


1 



499(i 15 
547 19 


10 
8 






5718 8 

383(i4 9 

2187 18 

67 15 



6 




51883 6 




... 







830 2 

30 8 

3 

48222 17 

43 15 

75 16 

137 10 





8 

7 
5 



49343 9 




... 




8 



aim'i;m)I\. 

IMVnms.—Coiiliniirif. 



Ilroii^lit I'lii'wurd 

KIIOM Tin; I'NITKr) STATKM. 

Valiii; of imports from the United Hudvs in lliitisii vessels 

fon'i;fil vessels 

'l'ot;il IVom the United States . 

\'ahie of imjiorts from the llra/.ils 

from St. Tlioniiis's— prodnco of forei<;n Kurojju 

Total value of imports at the port of St. John in 1)12!) 

. K.Xl'OHTS. 

TO Tin; iNirKi) MNfiUdji. 

Articles the produce of IJritisli possessions in Africa 
New iiniMswick 
(islieries of do. 
Nn\ii Seotia 

• •• Uritish West Indies 

• •< Cnha 

United Slates 

Total to the U'nited Kinjfdom 



TO nUITISII POSHK.SHIONS IN AKUK ,\. 

Articles the produce of forei-jn Kuro])e 

foreign states in Asia 
«•• Ne\v Hrnnswiek 

tisheries of do. 

• •• Nova Seotia 

British West Indies 
Danisii West Iiulies 

• •• United Statics 



Total to British possessicms in Africa 

TO BRITISH NonTIt A.MKKK AN COI.ONIKS. 

Articles the produce of the United Kingdimi 
foreign Europe 
British |)ossessions in Asia 
foreijin states in Asia 
British ])ossessions in Africa 
• •• New Brunswick 

fisheries of do. 

other British North American colonies 
British M'est Indies 
United States 
Brazil 

Total to British North American colonies 



'265 



VjiIiii' ill 

Slirliii>{. 




Tllllll lllllllllMI III 
Slirliii(i. 


fid 1!) 

721 Id.-. i;( 


(1 


t. ... ,/. 

277()U.'i :i ;» 


z 




72!»i(; :j (I 
;{:<! (i 11 

ID III 




;{:)o:if!;{ ii « 


\'aliu' in 
Mcrling. 


Tutal iiiiioiint in 
StirlJMn, 




!»Jli03 11 7 



(J81(» if 



Carried f()r^va^d 



VOL. ir. 



ininfi t) 


11 




(■)',-2 10 


3 




:r. HI 







40(1 14 







7:\ ir, 







ir>n 14 


n 




(i(MI 17 


2 




(10 ■) 







(ifiiii ;j 


r, 




10(»7}{ -) 


1) 




l."iO 











:W5G5 13 3 


... 


13030J) 13 3 






M 31 



m 



,.», 



2()G 






APPENDIX. 

F.XVOWTH.—Conliiuied. 



Brought forward 

TO BRITISH WKST INDIKS. 

Articli's the jiroduco of till- riiitcd Kiiif^dom 
foreii^n Kiir(i])e 
IJritisli jiosscssioiis in Africa 
Xi'w IJniiiswit'k 
tislu'rifs of do. 

other llritish North Aiiu'riciin adoiiics 
I'liitcd State's 

Total to British M'ost Iiidii-s 

TO TiiK vnitkh states. 

Articles the produce of the Cnited Kiiindoin 
New IJruiiswick 
fisiieries of do. 
Nova Seotia 
United States (returned) 

Total to the United States 

TO TIIK HIIA/II.S. 

Articles the j)roduce of the United Kiiijidoni 
New Ikunsw iek 
tislieries of do. 
United States 

Total to the Brazils 

Total value of exports at the Port of St. Jolin, in tlie year ]{li2i) 



Vnliif ill 




Total nmoum in 


Slurliii};. 




StlTlilli,'. 


.1'. ,v. 


,/. 


u?();«)t» i:5 :t 


3m 







1!) 4 





• 


'2-2 Hi 







l!L'li.-| 


1 




l(i.">i)."i (! 


!) 




]!)ili) 10 


11 




ll2!t:iG (i 


1 





r)02(i.i 



10 



d21 3 

2r)W 10 

i2()i);? 17 
l(i 1 


4 

5) 

(! 
•) 




... 




71'»« li) 4 


".() 

:i()f! 1 

121 14 



(> 

1) 




... 




(!i)f{ 1) •^ 



1 1!)07.'5L' 7 fi 



./w .Iccoiint of the Vahi(\ in Sffr/iitii;, of Goods Tmporfcd and K.vporfi'd 
at till' Port of St. John and its Ont-hai/s* in the Year ending 5th 
January, 183U. 

lAiPoirrs. 



Articles the produce and inannfaetnre of the United King- 
dom and imported from tlienee — at St. John 

Out-hays 

Articles not heing the growth or nianufajture of the United 
Kingdom and imported from thence — at St. .lohn . 

Out-huvs 



^^lllle ill 

Siirliii};. 



](;2-io7 

r)!!L'()2 11 1 



12!I4!» 1 (i 

(ii;i!) H 11 



Total 



Total ainoiiir in 
Slcvliii!,'. 



21.')()0!) 11 1 



1!);1H{] 10 .") 



2;?4!l<Jlf 1 (! 



* The places comprised iindor the ileiioniination of " ()iit-t:ays" im-Unle all pons of entry witliin the province, 
St. Andrew's only excepted. 



APPENDIX. 

nu\mTs.-co„n,m-,i. 



267 



Broiitilit rorwiird 
Total value of imports from France at iMiruiiiii'lii 

Uritisli possessions in Africa at St. John 
IMaileira do. 

JJritisli North v\nierica do. 

at Out-bays 



British West Indies — at St. Jolin 
at Out-hays 

I'nited States— at St. John 
Brazil at do. 

St. Tlionias's at do. 

Total value of imports at St. John and Out-hays in l!!2i) 

EXPORTS. 



Exports to the United Kingdom — at the Port of St. John 

Out-havs 



Exports to British possessions in Africa — at the Port of St. John 
British North American colonies — at do. 

at Out-bays . 



Exports to British West Indies — at the Port of St. John 

at Out-bays 



Exports to the United States— at the Port of St. John 
Brazils at do. 

Total value of exports at the Port of St. John and its Out-bays, 
in 1821) . . . . ; 



V»hw ill 




Total :iiiimiiit in 


Miiliiii,'. 




.'^k■l■l 


"i'.- 


r. ,._ 


</. 


f. 


,v. ,/ 






2.1l!t!)!! 


1 (! 






:M7 









;{7.-. 


1 1 






107 


:» 


.".1.'!!!,'? (i 









7:il2}! 1){ 


11) 


12.^>(»12 




Tot 


d 


4 10 


4!):M,'? !» 


it 






4.'} 1» 





J!):{(!7 




Tot 


d 


7 if 


.. . 




7-J!)l(i 


:{ (i 


■ ■• 




;);il 


(i 11 


... 




40 


lit 


• • • 


4!!;{.V1.", 


8 (> 



1 \'iiliif ill 
St.-rliiijr. 


'i'ovA IllllcMlIlt ill 

St;rliiiL;. 


L. X. <l. 

iU!to;{ n 7 
i:{!):i:i:{ lit .") 


f. <. ,/. 


'I'otal 

XW)-) i:i ;{ 

10(17!) 1!) 7 


2:512.-57 11 
(iiilO }{ ;-. 


Total 

r)02(!ri f) 10 
r.i22 7 7 


4421.''. 12 10 


Total 


■..■i;5f!7 1:5 :. 

74.V5 10 4 
O!))! !) :5 



|.34.".8(i« 14 ;5 



M Jl '2 



268 



APPENDIX. 



V. 

PORT OF HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA. 

.tn Accovnf of Vmscls entered Inwardti and cleared Oitticards, with the 
estimated Value of the Iniport^s and E,vport.s at this Port, in the Vear 
ended 'tth Jan. J 8^8, as compared with the Year ended 5th Jan. 1829. 



i'nilcil Kiiu o'.ii 
liriiisli Wls Indies 
lirilivli N. A .lerica, viz. i 
( .mad.i. N. ISnmswick, ^- 
niul Ncwl'oiimlland . 5 
Kdri'is^n ( Jiiptrics . 

Total . 



^■ear undud .jth .Tamiary, 1 (i2(l. 



Ill 



Tons. 



m™. ,-;';';'"(-' 

\aluc>. 



•.'l.-i!i:t !)i;:i;tn;!i7M 



2711! :.'(<7(ii \:>M i!i(i:i(iii 

iL'iul (i;t.-.(i;{,3ii(i;)n7Hi(i 

17!» i7!i!»« !).'t4;ii_'fio:t 



l!iL'2,12!Ull.')(l7J(l!)211(;:t7 



OITW.MIIIS. 



Ton-;. Mfii. 



71 l(10f!-.> (II J 

•J)1H ■.>(u:ti) 1 7J,-) 

i:U4 74(127 S'Ktii 

i 

l.'>4 17412 101.-. 



l(i.")7i:i»7.'>!) 74(12 



V:.lin'. 



f. 

I2U1I7 

1:1(17:1(1 
i:t(i:i42 

ltiil22 



4!)l(ll!l 



Vear ended 5th January, 1829. 



IWVAIIDS. 



NO. 



10,-, 
2;)!» 

1140 

ir.( 



2(i:tf>(i 

.-lOOlIl 
20130 



i2<)>i;tiiioo 



OI'TXVAIIDS. 



No. 



ToiiSi 



HO 22:t!)o!io.'t:i 



1 (;,-,.-( io;).->4(i :t:i2, :ii!!o:! 

;t.-i4.-> i2!»r)44i2rio 70744 

' i 

!)(iri:ini2:t()j i.m; iii.'ioi 



i(i:Mi 
409:t 



1700 i;t.->i20i74(i:i :i(i.-i4;ioli(i24,i44r.2« 7!i.-)ii 



Valm-. 



•MIOI 
224221 

I7i)01() 

-,247!» 

ri4!mil 



VI. 



Rerenue of New lirunswiehfor 1830. 

The conimittoe iipjioiiitod to c.siimiiie tlie trciwurcr's accounts for the year ending .Slst 
DeccnilxT List have Liid their repint before the House of Assenddvj witli a copy of which we 
have been furuisiied, and from which we gatiier tlie following summary : — 



Total gross revenue at .'>t. .lolni for Iii;t0 
I'roiii H'liieli to l)j deducted for drawbacks, iVe. 
Nftt r.'venue at .*<t. .lolin 
Total gross revenue at St. Andrew's 
l>rawbacl<s, ^;c. 
Nett revenue 
Total gross revenue at AVcst Isles 
Drawbacks, &.e 
Nett revenue 
Total gross revenue at IMiraniichi 
Drawbacks, \c. 
Nett revenue 
Total gross revenue at Ricliibucto • 
] )rawbacks, iVc. 
Nett reveiiue 
Total revenue secured at .Sliedinc 

Dalliousie 
Hatlmrst • 
Fredericton 
Sackville • 
Petrieodiac 
... Bay \'erte 



X'' X. 


•I 


f. 


A. 


</. 


■ :{2:t77 12 

4(144 10 


',* 












27.'.:j:t 


•» 


<'i 


• 12410 2 


!H 




2l;t4 1(1 


:j 


1027.'> 


4 


1:1 


.•((i;)2 .j 
II 


0" 


•'-• 






;tc(ii 


V 




• o440 10 


'H 






,-,4 1 


^ 


5;t(io 


ir. 


4 


IOO,-> 1(1 


<) 








:t;< 12 











.,..., 




io:!2 





fl 






242 


5 


0', 






470 
24(1 


14 


Oi 
10.' 






m 

52 


10 


3 






-.1 















10 


7 




4U070 





5i 



APPENDIX. 



269 



ahif. 

t'. 

IlOl 

IJJI 

!)()10 

•24 70 

!)K11 



Tlie committee remark " The above is the total reroniic of the province for the year 1830, 
agreeably to the foregoing returns. 

" Your eoinmittec, with great submission, however, beg leave to remark, that from the 
unusually large quantities of West India produce on hand in the province on the rjlst Dec, 
1H30, tlie exportations have been and will be very large the present vear, and that, c(.nsenucntlv, 
at least 2()(tO/. will be drawn back. 

" Total l)alauce in the hands of the province treasurer, Dec. 31, 1)1.30, 1(1 237/. 13.-'. 3^(/. 
Of which there are in bonds 13,722/. 2,s-. \(/.; in cash S,.")!")/. ll.s-. 2h/" 

The committee further remark, " These accounts are clear and metliodically stated, and 
they give your committee very great satisfiiction." 

Amount of auction duties at St. Jolin in the year 1830, 770/. IHs. 7'.</. 

Tlie revenue for 182!) (auer allowing for drawbacks, &c.) was 34,70.V. 1 -)...— I, 



Increase ni 



1830, ll,3(i4/. r,x. r,>,d. 

Of tlie warrants (44.307/. 4*. hi.), which have been paid by the provincial treasurer in tlie 
year 1830, the objects may be classed under tlie following heads, viz. 



E(luc;ition. 



Uoiintics. 



IJoads and 

hriilgc's. 



( I'arisli siliooh 
7 (iraiiimar sdiools 
^ .Aliidras schools 
(. College {-2 years) 



Fishin 



S 



( Fish 
) (irai 
i Oat-niill 
(, Des 



struction of bears 



nircat roads 
-, l?y-roads and > 
( bridges J 



Kxpcnses of the legislature 

militia 

Apprehending deserters 

I'liblic buildings 

liight-liouses 

Packets and couriers 

Law expenses, including printing laws and journals 

Charitable purposes 

Province contingencies 

Miscellaneous 

t'olkction and nrotection of the revenue 



f. 


.V, 


(/. 


f. 


.?. 


-/. 


4!l(ll 


i:i 


4 








7'!l 


i:i 


11 








100 














J-.'OO 








)!Hi;i 


7 


•» 








•> 


.•!744 


!» 


4 








•iflll.'f 


2 


r> 








■2-2r) 














102 








(i!Mi4 


11 


(t 


7.'fiiO 


(» 





it 


r,v,-2i 


14 


7 














i;tiioi 
■jriiio 


14 

l,-> 


_ 








/ 









l.'lliL' 


14 











2r> 


(1 





•Mon 


!) 


!• 








i:t4(i 


(i 


o 














44.-i(; 

L')!0 


1 - 


11 



















l.-)i;t 


(i 


(i 








i(i4:t 


o 


.i 








4;{)! 


(i 


H 








Kllil 


1 











■2li'.Hi 


!) 


•> 



•if 
■i 

:i 

i' 
I. 

M 



I 'I 



III ■ 

'II : 



Total 



I i;ill7 4 1 



If 



mo 



APPENDIX. 



VII. 
T/ie Sliuhenaead'ie Caual Company of Hdl'ifa.r, Xova Scotia. 

PRESIDKNT. 

The Hon. :MiclKiL'l Wallace. 

VICK-PRKSIUENTS. 

The Hon. Thomas N. JeH'rey. Samuel CunarJ, Esq. 



DIRKCTORS. 



Thomas Bogjjs, Esq. 
R. J. I'niacke, jun. Esq. 
James Bain, Esq. 
Stephen W. Dcblois, Esq. 



^^'illiam Pryor, Esq. 
jMichael Tobin, Esf[. 
JMartin G. Black, Esq. 
Lewis E. Piers. 



James N. Shannon, Esq. 

Charles R. Fairbanks, Esq., Sccrcluri/ and Agent. 
John Bainbridge, Est[. Agcnl in London. 



BANKERS IN LONDON. 



iMcssrs. 



The Company is incorporated, under an ^Vct of the Provincial Legislature, by a charter 
dated the 1st of June, lf{2(i, granted by His Excellency Sir James Kempt, then lieutenant- 
governor, and confirmed by a subsequent statute. The responsibility of subscribers is, expressly 
and in the strongest terms, limited to the anu)unt of their shares. 

The management is in the board of directors at Halifax. By-laws, passed at a general 
meeting, and approved by the lieutenant-governor and his majesty's council, regulate the pro- 
ceedings and choice of Officers. Absent .shareliolders vote by proxy. 

Tlie canal-works commenced in July, Ui2Ci, and have been successfully ])rosecutcd under 
the direction of an able engineer from England. The navigation is constructed for sea-going 
vessels drawing eight feet of water j ])assing through the centre of the province from Halifax 
Harbour to the J5asin of Klines — an extent of from fifty-four to sixty miles. There are fifteen 
locks, each eighty-seven feet long and twenty-two feet six inches wide. The space of twenty- 
four miles, including five locks, will be comj)lete and open for vessels in October next : the 
remainder in \U3l. — By boats, the whole distance from the Basin of Mines to within half a 
mile of the harbour will be navigable this autumn. 



APPENDIX. 



271 



To aid the Company the Le{,'islature in ]f!2(i granted a donation of t'l'i.OOO; and fiirtlicr 
in l>i2!), as an induccnii'iit to future suliserihers, liy an act of the (Jencral Assembly, appro- 
priated an annuity of l'l,r)0() eurreney. for ten yeai . from tlic l.st of January, \H'.]0, to guarantee 
an interest upon the new subscrij)tioiis. 

The capital consists of 2,400 shares, each 1'2."> currency, or 100 dollars t'fiO.OOO 
Subscribed in Halifax 7-^> ... Ul 000 



There remains for.disjmsal 1 ,(i(!0 Shares 
E(|ual to . . 



Currency 42,000 



Sterling ;J7,({00 



These will be preference shares, that is to say, shares entitled tn live per cent, interest in 
])reference to subscribers at Halifax. For these a subscription is s >\- o])ened under the fol- 
lowing terms, viz. : 

The sum subscribed (each share being ,t'22 lO.v. sterling) to i)e paid in London to the 
bankers tif the Company, in four equal payments; one on the ist of Sejitendier next, and the 
other : ssively on the 1st of JMay and October, Ifl.lO, and the 1st of I\Iay, 1J131. 

The shares to be transferred in London or Halifax. The certiticates to be delivered at the 
first payment. 

Each subscriber in England to receive an interest of five percent, on his investment. 
For this purpose the Company expressly guarantees to them, for ever, a yearly dividend of five 
per cent, on every share ; to be paid in London. 

Towards this interest (amounting yearly to .I'l.fiDO sterling) the Company will remit to 
London the provincial annuity of .i'LoOO currency for ten years, above mentioned : declaring 
that it shall only be api)lied to this purpose. Tin balance, with all charges, will be provided 
by the Company. 

This interest on the preference shares, or the balance of it, remaining after the ap])lication 
of the £1,500 thereto, will be first ])aid out of the nett canal revenue. An equal dividend will 
then be made from the surplus to the subscribers at Ilalifas. Any income which may arise 
above five per cent, will be apportioned upon all the shares. 

I,omloti, -.Mtli of July, UiJ.'i. 



I 



"^' If 
II! .[' 






'2T2 



APPENDIX. 



VIII. 



7\t/}/c' ,s'/ioti'i)i^i>' the Variation and Dip of the ^[(l}>'^l('t'n^ Accd/c of rariott.s- 
ff<'(\i>raf)/tic(f/ jHi'inl.s in Xorth ^Inicrica, compiled J'ruin the Jounnd of 
CapUtin Sir John Fran/cUii, li. X. and other anthorilie-s' (herein 
named. 





















i %- 5 












Ijiin;4 


itiidc 


w. 










1 = - 
1 b !* 








Latiui<U' 


\, 


of ( i 


cell W it'll. 


X'ariatinn. 




Dip. 


15::' 


Names of places. 


Autlioritics. 




.■)7 (M) 


" 1 '■• 

.3 02 


2(i 


00 (5 10 


" 1" 
21 1:. 7i» 


29 


7i 


York Fiictory, II. B. 






i;i3 41 


3ii on 


1 


2414 12 


41i.:.n3 


40 


10 


Xorwixy-lumsc 






.-.3 :.o 


40102 


1(5 


4117 17 


20 k. 83 


12 


50 




Cumberliiiid-liDUse 






.■.2 oO 


4710(5 


12 


4220 44 


47 k.: 










Carltdii-lumse 






■)3 00 


00 107 


in 


j«20 30 


lOK.i 










IriKiudis Lake 






')4 00 


00107 


20 


r)2 22 G 


35 K.I 








II. ]5. Fort 




; 


;55 2r> 


3") 107 


.■)i 


(to 22 ].". 


4nK.n4 


13 


35 


Isle a la Crosse Fort 




';')."* r)3 


00101! 


.".1 


1022 33 


22K.i 








IJurtalo Lake, P. 


1: 






!'.(! 24 


20100 


2.3 


(122 .".0 


2nK.' 






^ 


iMithye Lake 




Wi 41 


401(»0 


r>2 


r>] 2.-) 2 


30 k. 


f{5 


7 


27 § 






1 


.. Ill 


n 


4224 m 


20 k. 








H 






;(io r)4 


r,2113 


2") 


3(527 2.") 


14 k. 












i' 




lol 11 


8113 


r>i 


372.1 40 


47 k. 








" 






;(il 50 


1H113 


21 


4(131 2 


()K. 








Co 








(52 17 


10114 
.. 1114 
.. 1144 


27 
2 


2n33 3.1 
.3.33 00 
132 30 


C)5 K. 

4k. 

40 k. 


8(5 


38 


2 




Fort Providence 


!2! 






.. I1I3 


40 


3.13(5 4.1 


30 k. 87 


11 


48 










(14' 1-) 


17113 


2 


.30 3(5 50 


47 k. 87 


20 


35 










(i7 42 


ir>ii2 


30 


0047 37 


42 k. 










Polar Sea 






;(i7 .w 


4->110 


41 


2040 40 


34 k. 










Detention Bay 






(57 1!) 


231(»0 


44 


3041 43 


22 k. 8)! 


58 


48! 


Hood River 






|(1« 15! 


;■)(> 100 


2,-) 


00 44 1.1 


4(5 K. 


80 


31 


12 








4(5 -).") 


0(t (iO 

i 


4(5 


00 lU 00 
.. 1.1 30 


00 w. 
OOw. 






1(540 
1()8(5 


Quebec 
Queliec 


Ucs Haves 

Ditto 




4(5 40 


'bo 71 


;") 


0012 30 
.. 12 5 


OOw. 
OOw 




• • 


1785 
17!)3 


Quebec 


Major Holland, S. 
Ditto 


Gen.i 

1 
1 


4(5' 48 


40 71 


11 


5 1 1 45 


30w. 






180(1 




Bouchette, S. G. 






, , 






.. 11 50 


OOw. 






1815 




Ditto 












.. 13 51 


2\v. 








I8I7 


Source of tbe St. Croix at 


Ditto 














1 
1 












1 the Moiiimient 














, , 


,14 45 


5\v. 












Ditto 




, , 










15 20 


OOw 










! 


Ditto 














1(5 10 


5w 












Ditto 














12 10 


OOw 








182( 




Ditto 














12 .38 


30\v 








182r 




Ditto 














12 48 


OOw 








1827 


1 


Ditto 





ArPENDIX. 



273 



Tahle showing the Variation and Dip of the Magnetic Needle, (Sjc. continued. 



t! 







liongitur 


e w. of 










= 1 






Latitude N. 


Greenwich. 




Variation. 


Dip. 




Namea of places. 


Autliorities. 


' 

40 48 


49 


' 

71 11 


5 




12 


54 


20w. 


' "j 

1828 




jBouchettf, S. G. 


• • 


•• 


71 16 


255 


12 


54 


00 






. . . . 


Capt. IJaylield and I\Ir. 


46 48 


49 


71 12 


30 


12 


54 


20 




1828 


. . . ■ 


Jones 
Bouchette, jun. D. .S.G.'.s 


• • 






, , 


16 


45 


OOw. 




1 
182}{ Sambro Light-house 


map 
Jones and Horatio 






















Jauncey 


43 23 


57 


65 38 


3 


12 


24 


OOw. 




1828 Cape Sable, s. point 


Ditto 


47 12 


38 


60 11 


24 


23 


45 


OOw. 




18291 St. Paul's Island 


Ditto 


45 41 


66-7 


62 42 


00 


19 


00 


OOw. 




1829 Pictou Harbour 


Mr. John Jones and IMr. 


48 45 


14 


64 13 


38 


21 


33 


OOw. 




1829, Cape Gaspi', s. e. point 


Horatio Jauncey 
Ditto 


46 27 


36 


62 00 


8 


21 


00 


OOw. 




1829 Prince Edward Island, 


Ditto 


47 16 


7 


61 47 


26 


22 


23 


OOw. 




1 R. point 
1829 Entry I., w. s. w. point. 


Ditto 




















Gulf of St. Lawrence 












24 


2 


OOw. 




1829 


Point aux Basque, 
Kound I. 


Ditto 


44 39 


262 


63 37 


48 


17 


00 


10-30 




1R30 


Halifax 


Ditto 


46 30 


00 


•• 


•• 


10 


00 


OOw. 




1828 Falls of Shawenogan, St. 
IMauricc 


Bouchette, jun. D. S. G. 


47 18 


32 


• • 


• , 


11 


10 


OOw. 




1828 Latuque^ King's Post 


Ditto 


47 52 


00 


. . 


t • 


14 


45 


OOw. 




1828 Division of the waters of 


Ditto 




















the St. JMaurice and 






















Ouiatchouan 




48 17 


00 




• • 


15 


00 


OOw. 




1828 Head of Commissioners' 
1 Lake 


Ditto 


40 30 


15 






14 


45 


OOw. 




1828]Mouth of the Ouiat- 


Ditto 




















chouanj Lake St. John! 





1 

i ', 



VOL. ir. 



N N 



II 



I,'' 



II ll 



274 



APPENDIX. 



IX. 



llcff Illations Jor gniiifi/{i>' Luiidn in the British North American Provinces. 



For the informiitioii of persons desirous of proceeding as settlers to His Majesty's Pro- 
vinces in North America, the foHowing summary of the rules which have been establislied for 
tiie future regulation of grants of lands has been prepared by the direction of Earl Bathurst, 
His iAIajesty's principal Secretary of Statu for the Colonial Department. 

The conmiissioner of crown lands will, from time to time, and at least once in every year, 
sul)mit to tlie governor a report of the total quantity of each district of crown property, so far 
as he may then have ascertained the same, together with his opinion of each description of 
property which it n)ay bo expedient to offer for sale within tlie then ensuing year, and the 
upset price ])er acre at which he would recommend the several descriptions of property to be 
offered, provided that the land j)roposed to be oflered for sale does not contain any considerable 
quantity of timber tit for His ^Majesty's navy, or for any other purposes, it being the intention 
that no grant of tlu; land upon which such timber may be growing should be made until the 
timber is cleared. 

If the governor should be pleased to sanction the sale of the whole or any part of the land 
reconunended to be sold at the upset price proposed, or at any other price which he may name, 
the commissioner of crown lands will proceed to the sale in the ft llowing manner : 

He will give public notice in the Gazette, and in such other newspaper as may be cir- 
culating in the province, as well as in any other numner that circumstances will admit of, of 
the time and place appointed for the sale of the lands in each district, and of the upset price at 
which the lots are proposed to be offered, that the lots will be sold to the highest bidder, and 
if no offer should be made at the upset price, that the lands will be reserved for future sale in 
a similar maniier by auction, 

Tliat no lot should contain more than 1200 estimated acres. 

The purchase-money will be required to be paid by four instalments, without interest ; 
tlie first instalment at the time of the sale, and the second, third, and fourth instalment at 
intervals of a year. 

If the instalments are not regularly paid, the deposit-money will be forfeited and the land 
again referred to sale. 

Purchasers of land at any sale not exceeding two hundred acres, being unable to advance 
the purchase-money by instalments, as proposed, tlie commissioner may permit the purchaser to 
occupy the same upon a quit-rent, equal to tivc per cent, upon the amount of the purchase- 
money, one year's quit-rent to be paid at the time of sale, in advance, and to be paid annually 
in advance afterwards ; upon the failure of the regular payment the lands to be again referred 
to auction and sold. The quit-rent upon lands so purchased in this manner to be subject to 
redemption upon payment of twenty years' purchase, and parties to be permitted to redeem the 



V 



APPENDIX. 



27.5 






same by any number of instalments not exceeding fimr, upon tlic |)aymcnt of nut less, at any 
one time, tlian five years' amount of quit-rent, tlie same ])ro](orti()n of riuit-rcnt to cease. 

In case, however, the parties slionhl fail regularly to ])ay the remainder of tlie (luit-retit, 
the same to be deducted from the instalment paid, and the lands to hi' re-sold bv auction when- 
ever the instalment may be absorbed by tlie accruing payment of the remainder of the fiuit-rents. 

Public notice will be given in each district in every year, stating tlie names of the persons 
in each district who may be in arrears, either for the instalments of their purchases or for (juit- 
rents, and that if the arrears are not paid up before the C(mimencement of the sales in tiiat 
district for the following years, the lands, in respect of which the instalments or quit-rents may 
be due, will be the first lot to be exposed to auction at the ensuing sales ; and if any surjilus 
of the produce of the sale of each lot should remain after satisfying the crown for the sum due, 
the same will be paid to the original purchasers of the land who made default in payment. 

No land will be granted at any other time than at the current sales in eaeli district, 
except upon application from poor settlers who may not have been in the colony more than six 
months preceding the last annual sale ; settlers so circumstanced may be permitted to jjurchase 
land, not exceeding two hundred acres each, at the price at which it may have been offered at 
the last annual sale and not purchased, and may pay for the same, or by quit-rent computed at 
five per cent, on the sale price, and thenceforth these persons shall be considered as entitled to 
all the privileges, and be subject to th<! same obligations as they would have been subject to if 
they had purchased the land at the last sale. 

In cases of settlers who shall be desirous of obtaining grants of land in distinct districts 
not surveyed, or in districts in which no unredeemable grant shall have been made, the com- 
missioner of crown lands will, under the authority of th(! governor, at any time within a period 
of seven years from the date hereof, grant permission of occupancy to any such settlers for lots 
of land not exceeding two hundred acres, upon consideration that tliey shall pay a quit-rent for 
the same, equal to five per cent, upon the estimated v.-ilue of the land at the time such occupancy 
shall be granted, and the persons to whom claims of occupation shall be made shall have ''bcrty 
to redeem such quit-rents at any time before the expiration of the seven years, upon the pay- 
ment of twenty years' purchase of the amount ; and at any time after the termination of the 
seven years upon the payment of any arrear of quit-rent ivhich may be then due, and twenty 
years' purchase of the annual amount of the rent. 

No patent will be granted until the whole of the purchase-money shall hav '. been paid, 
nor any transfer of the property made, except in case of death, until the whole of the arrears of 
the instalments or quit-rent shall have been paid. 

The purchase-money for all lands, as well as the quit-rents, shall be paid to the com- 
missioner of crown lands, or to such person as he may appoint, at the times and places to be 
named in the condition of the sale. 






1, i,:; 



iiil 



1 1\ 



<i i.i 



I ■•" 



N N 2 



270" 



APPENDIX. 



X. 

Instrudionn to the jiffntf/i of Townships. 
LOWER CANADA. 

To ugoiit for superinteiuling the settlcmont of tlie 

township of 

Till' govcrnor-in-cliicf (i)r licutoiiiint-govornor) Imviiig been pleased to appoint you ngent 
for suporinteniiiiif; the settlement of the township of 

1st. You are to reside within the township to the superintendency whereof you arc ap- 
pointed, or in its vicinity, in order tlu> better to ucconii)lish the end of your nomination. 

2nd. Your next duty will he to lay otf, with the advice aiul j)articipation of the surveyor- 
general, a block of . '5(10 acres, as a site for a village, of which 20() acres will be set apart for a 
church, school-house, and court-house for the sessions of the peace j the remaining 300 acres to 
be granted into lots of the average dimen.sions of one acre, by ticket of occupation, on condition 
that a comfortable log-house be built thereon ; and in conformity to other conditions therein 
contained, a projected plan of the sub-division of such a village to be submitted by the surveyor- 
general to the governor (or I'eutenant-governor) for approval. 

3rd. The lots to be granted to be one-half of an ordinary township lot, divided through the 
centre, not longitudinally, but so as to give to each settler nearly u compact square farm of 100 
acres, and the usual allowance of five j)cr cent, for highways. 

4th. Each applicant to receive from you a location certificate, of which printed forms will 
be furnished you, for the half-lot you will assign to him, (each settler being entitled to the 
vacant half lot next after the number of the last preceding certificate, provided he be the first 
applicant), and no such location certificate to be granted, unless the applicant be of good 
character, a British subject, and upon the s])ot ready to conniience the performance of the con- 
ditions of his location ticket. Such applicants, however, of good moral character, having large 
families and probably some of a sufiicieut age and cajiablc of improving land, should be par- 
ticularly encouraged and recommended by you to government for an additional portion of land, 
as contiguous as possible to the land already located to them ; and such of the sons as arc above 
18 years, being desirous of cultivating lands for themselves, provided they appear to you capable 
of undertaking the management of a farm, ought in such case to be located to a half lot nearest 
that of their father. 

5th. You will quarterly transmit to the surveyor-general's office exact returns, in the fol- 
lowing form, of the locations nuide in the township you superintend, accompanying the same 
with remarks on the general state and prosperity of the settlements therein. 

Quarterly Return of Locations made in the Township of between the and the 182 



Xa.mks. 


3 

"Z 



o 


6 


Date of 
Ticket of 
Location. 


Families. 


Whether 

Kmitirants 
from the 
United 
Kingdom, 
or what 
other 
country. 


t'haractcr, 
how, and 
by whom 
recom- 
mended. 


c 


3 
7. 

3 


Whether 
occupied 
and by 
whom. 


Whether the road 
and settling duties 
have been m-ule in 
whole or in part, 
what extent of land 
cleared and in cul- 
ture. 


Tickets of Lo- 
cation that have 
expired, whether 
the lots are whol- 
ly unoccupied, or 
what has been 
done. 


Remarks 




i 


2. E 

1 


V 

1 

7. 



I 



APl'rADIX. 



277 



A copy of which return the siirvoyor-gcncrnl will trnnsmit to tlu- civil sccrctiiry's office, to 
ohtiiin tlirou^li its iiiLMlitini the ratification and iijiproval of goverinnent of the location^' therein 
stated to ha\x' licen made ; the N.inio to he Mul)sc(|uently forwarded to yon, throU(.'h the surveyor- 
general's ortice, wheru entries of the ratified list and return will he first duly made. 

(ith. You will make a separate report, for the cousiderntion of fjovernnient (to accompany 
each (piarterly return), of such lands where the conditions of settlement have liei-n wholly 
neglected, and the time for performing them, or any of them, lias expired (after giving due no- 
tice to that effect to the parties interested), hut you are not to proceed to a new location of tiie 
lots until you receive an authority to that effect from this oflice. 

7th. Every settlor to he held to clear the roml in front of his lot to the width of 20 feet 
within froni tlie date of his location ticket ; and in default of 

fo doing, his location ticket to bo null and void, unless satisfactory reasons arc given why the 
same could not he performed, in which case discretion is left you to act thereupon with e(iuity 
and justice towards the individual. 

flth. Every person who shall he located shall be held to clear the entire front of his half 
lot, by the depth of one acre from the front, within two years from the date of his location cer- 
tificate ; and in default thereof, sliall forfeit his right to the half lot for wliich he may have been 
Iwated, but at the same time shall be entitled to his grant of such half lot upon producing the 
certificate of the agent of the township in which such lot is situate, of the performance of the 
above conditions, at any time before the expiration of the two years allowed for the performance 
of tlie said conditions. 

9th. You will take care to reserve and point out the grounds for by-roads to communicate 
from one range to the other, and with the roads running in front of the lots ; which by-roads 
you will lay out at convenient distances from each other, as near on the division lines of the lots 
as practicable, five per cent, being allowed for that object. 

10th. With reference to the crown and clergy reservations, you will be governed by the 
diagram hereunto subjoined ; and you are to refrain from granting such parts of the township 
under your superintendence, as you may think proper to be retained in the jiower of the crown, 
for its future disposition, according to the circumstances accompanying the settlement of that 
townshi]), of which you will give an early communication to government. 

1 1th. You are to consider yourself as the guardian of the ungranted lands of the crown 
and of the reservations in block, or otherwise, set apart for the future disposition of his IMajcsty, 
within the limits of the township under your superintendence ; and as such you are to report 
to this office the trespass and depredations committed thereon, that instructions may in conse- 
quence bo given to the law officers of the crown to prosecute the individuals concerned. 

12th. You will be entitled to a per-centagc of five acres on every hundred located by you 
as agent, iind it will be optional with you to take in each range yonr per-centagc on the lands 
located therein, or to select it in block in the rear of each half of the township ; but it is to be 
understood that the same will be secured to you by letters patent, so soon only as the conditions 
of settlement shall have been complied with by the settlers on their respective lots. 

13th. In consideration of postage, stationery, &c. you will be entitled to demand for yourself, 
upon each location made by you, a sum of 2s. Gd., accounting to the surveyor-general for his 
fees. 

14th. You will consider yourself as linked with this, the office of his IMajesty's surveyor- 
general, from whom you shall receive, from time to time, such further communications as the 






n 



I'Hl 



■i 



I 



Ml! 



270 



APPENDIX. 



cxifToncy nnd nutiiro (if this hriuidi of tin- piiblic wrvice may require, nnd through him make 
all your reports or ciininiuiiiciitinns to tiie noveriior. 

]ly his L'xci'llcney tiie governor- in-chief 'h uoniniand, 
Surveyor-(ieiicrai's oHiee, 
Quebec, 183 JOS. DOrclIKTTK, 

Miirvi-yor-generul. 



XI. 

Form of a lAtvutUm Tkhet from a Dintrict TmikI -hoard in I 'pper Canada. 

Land- lioaril, Dhtrivt. 

A. H. horn at in of tlie aj^o of years, having arrived in 

this ])nivince and iH'titi(»ned to become a settler therein, lias iieen examined by \is, 

and we being satisfied with his character, and of the ]>roj)riety of admitting liim to l)ecome a 
.settler, and having administered to him the oath of allegiance, do assign to him one hundred 
acres of land, being the half of lot No. in the concession of the 

in , for wliicb, upon due proof of having cleared and cropped five acres, and 

cleared half the road in front of his land, of having erected and inhabited a house thereon ftir 
one year, he will be entitled to receive a grant to him and his heirs, he paying the {mtent fee of 
5/. 14a'. J(/. sterling. 

N. JJ.— If the settlement duty is not performed within two years, this location to be of no 
value, but assigned to another settler. 

TARLK OF FEES. 

Upon all grants of land issuing under orders in council, bearing date subsecjuent to the 1st 

January, 18:20, the following sums will be paid by the patentee. 

Acres. £, 

On grants of .'iO 



100 

200 

300 

400 

.lOO 

(iOO 

700 

800 

1)00 

1000 

1100 

1200 



12 
30 
00 

;■' 

125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 



In three equal instalments. The first on receipt of the location ticket, the second on 
certificate filed of settlement, the third on receipt of the fiat for the patent. 

No petition can be entertained unless accompanied by a written character or a satisfactory 
reason shown for such not being ])roduced. 

(Signed) JOHN SMALL, 

Clerk of the Executive Council. 

The fees in Lower Canada are low, and bear no proportion to those demanded in the 
sister provinces. The fees on land granting in the lower province have uniformly been 
3/. Gs. Qd. per 1000 acres granted under letters jiatent; and an average of from 10*. to 15*. for 
the survey of each 200 acre lot. 



Al'PKNDIX. 



27!) 



Ciem'ral Stdtfinciit of the Cimtils of Land m(i<lc in Xova Scotia Jhnii tho 
Yenr 17M) /" 1«2(), shua'nig the Uiu'rmtionH ^j' Mincn unU MiiH'talft 
to the Crown. 



I'( ridiN (if tliL' 

(imiils. 



From 1741) } 
to l/.VJ s 



From 1 
to ] 



17.V2 ; 
7»-' \ 



♦iimniity id' Of which 

l.iinil has hi't'ii 

Krunlcil. vti'livHtt'd. 



AiTl'S. 



12,(MH) 



Acrut. 



im 



From ]7«3 
to liiOil 



From 1»()!> ) 
to tlif pre- |- 
sunt time 3 



iTotal amount 



2,a«)0,(l(ii'l,04r),:]72 



1,07.%!)41 



1, 343,930 



(iimntliy of 

liunil Kiili 

h> III liy 

liruiii. 



IlmTvation 

of 

Mines til till' Crown. 



AcrcH. 



ll.iiOO 



"j In Nome oC tlic-ic 
jinints, mines (if <i»\{\ 
iiml silver, jtret'idus' 
stones, anil hijiis l,i- 
/uli are reserved, lint 
in most of them tlu'n!! 
i(t no reserviition wliiit- 



l(t.'iimrk» 



I'ver. 



206,790 



C Mines of gold and 

9:.o,(i9o|'*''V,'''i."'7'""r.^t""'''^' 

J and lajiis lazuli are re 
t served, and lU) other. 



IMines of pild, silver, 
1 «/!«? I -1 5 lead, eoiiner, and coals 
i lire reserved, and no 
( lother. 

C All mines and mitie- 

1 343930}'''"''' "^ '■"''■>' •l'''*c'-il'- 
' " ' i i''"" '"'*-' reserved to 
f itlie crown. 



0, 1 1 9,9.39 2, 1 •)2,0(J2 3,979,277 



Those grants include the 
town, snliiirhs, and ]ienin- 
) sula of Halifax. Farm lots 
on the liarhour and vici- 
nity of Halifax. i 



These lands were es-' 
cheated for tlie reee|»ti(m 
of the great bodies of 
loyalists and disliaiided 
corps, who settled in this 
province in the years 17H.3 
anil l/tl4, and consisted 
chiefly of large tracts, si-i 
tuate in the ('oiinty of 
Shelhurne, .Sidney, I'oictou.i 
(^lunty of Hants, Ciimher-' 
land, and Halifax. \ 



By the above statement it will ajjpear, 

That <», 1 19,939 acres have been granted. 

Of which 2,1")2,(!()2 acres I..;"e been escheated. 

And that 3,979,277 acres are still held by grants. 

It furtlier appears, 

That upon 1 1 ,r>l)0 acres there is no reservation of any mines and minorals (ex- 

cept in a few grants to the crown.) 

That upon . 950,099 acres, mines of gold and silver, precious stones, and lajiis 
lazuli, are reserved. 

Tliat upon . l,()07,liJl acres, mines of gold, silver, lead, copper, and coals are 
reserved. 

And that upon 1,343,93(5 acres, mines and minerals of all descriptions are reserved to 
the crown. 

Halifax, (Signed) CHARLES IMORRIS, 

April 17th, 1826. Survcyor-General. 



M 



■H 



liiii 



'280 



APPENDIX. 



XIII. 



I 



Circular Letter from the Commissioners of Emigration. 

f'olonial Office, fith .Inly, \V,'A\. 

In order to prevent misconception, the commissioners for emigration, appointed by His 
JNIajesty on tlie 24tli of June, llUl, liereby inform persons wisliing to emigrate to His Majesty's 
possessions abroad, that no funds have been phiced by the lords commissicmers of His IVIajesty's 
treasury at their disposal, for defraying the expense of conveying emigrants to those possessions. 

The commissioners have, however, receivcil instructions, that in the event of iidiabitants 
of j)arishes subscribing to raise funds, or individuals providing funds for that purpose, they are 
at tlie re(iiiest of tlic parties and on conditions which will be stated in j)rintcd forms to be had 
at this ortice, to undertake the application of the funds so raised, and, through the proper 
doi)artments <)f government, to contract with ship owners and other persons for tlie passage of 
emigrants and for their provisions during the voyage to such colonies as the persons raising the 
funds may select for their destination. Emigrants so proceeding will further be placed in 
communication with authorized agents in the colonies, from whom they will receive information 
for their y;uidance on landiuii. 

In conformity with their instructions, the commissioners have prepared printed statements, 
containing information which they think likely to be useful to persons proposing either them- 
selves to emigrate, or to supply others with the means of doing so. 

The commissioners have directed that all persons applying for information respecting the 
jmrposes of the commission should be furnished with a copy of this circular; and tiiat persons 
wishing to avail themselves of the powers vested in the Commissioners, and of the general 
information respecting His Majesty's possessions in North America, Australia, and South 
Africa, which has been hitherto collected, should also be furnished with the different printed 
statements containing the same. 

By order of the conmiissioncrs, 

T. FREDERICK ELLIOT, 

Secretary to the commission. 



APPENDIX. 



'J8l 



XIV. 

Ahstrni't of a BUI (a.s amended hy the Committee), to faeUUate Vohiutanj 
Emigndion to Hi,s jMajesti/s Ponaess'ionfi Abroad; hitrodtteed in the 
House of Commons of the Imperial Parliament, llith ^ipril, 1S31. 

[1 William 1\'. Session IRW-l.] 

WluTcas it is cxiH-diciit to facilitate voliuitary I'lnifjratioii, i!vc. 

His IVIajesty may a])p()iiit three or more eommissioiiers of eiiii};ration, and a socretarv to 
such commissioners. 

Tliese commissioners to act under the instructions of oiu' of the principal secretaries of state, 
and to report their jiroceedinj^s twice a year, which reports are to be laid liefore parliament. 

Any one or nu)re person or jhtsoiis, assessed to one-twentieth of the whole amount of the 
poor-rates of any parish in Knjrlaud or Wales, may conveiu' a iiu-etinj; of the rated inhabitants 
to meet in the vestry, to decide upon the propriety of applyinjl to the commissioners to contract 
for carrying into elFect the voluntary emigration to the colonies of any ])orsou or jiersons charge- 
able, or likely to become chargeable on the jiarisli. Tlie form of the re(Hiisitiou is preseribcil 
(A). The overseer shall endorse the requisition and appoint the tinu- and place of such meeting, 
which time cannot be sooner than one week or later than three after the receipt of the re(|uisi- 
tion. — The notice of such meeting to be read in the parish church, or chapel of such parish, anil 
a cojjy of the requisition to be attixed to the church door. 

A preparatory meeting to be holdeu, at s)icli tinu' and place, of the general or the select 
vestry (as the case may be), at which the (jnostion j)roposed in the recjuisitiou shall be jjut to 
the vote, when two-thirds of the persons present, or votes to the amount of one-half the a.ssessed 
rates, shall make it pass in the allirniative. 

When qm!stious shall thus have ]iassed in tiie atlirmalive, a iiook shall lie opened to 
receive the names of anv of tlie rated iidiabitants, either as assentin<: to, or dissentinsj; from, the 
proposition. Such book to be open fourteen days, exclusive of Suiulays, and the result oi the 
votes inscribed to be afterwards declared at a meeting nf the general (or select) ve.-trv. If a 
majority (to be ascertained on the principle of nund)ers or of the amount assessed) have assented, 
the qiu'stiou shall then j)as.s detinitively in the aHirniative. 

iV minute of the proceedings at such pre])aratorv ami final meetings to be authenticated 
nnd laid before one of Ilis INlaJesty's justices of the peace for the county, iSic. Such justice to 
countersign the same and transmit a copy thereof to the commissioners of emigration. 

A transcript of such copy, sigiu'd by the secretary of the commissioners, shall, upon proof 
of his signature, be suthcieut jiroof of its contents in law. 

The conuuissiouers may contract with the parishes for the removal of emigrants, after a 
resolution to that effect has been passed by the vestry. 

The form of such contracts prescribed (U.) to be signed by the secretary of the com- 

missioiu'rs, and by some or one of the overseers of the parish, and by such of the persons willing 

to emigrate as are of the age of twelve years and upwards. Such persons to sign before a 

justice of the peace, who is liimself to subscribe as a witness. Every contract to be signed in 

VOL. II. O O 



283 



APPENDIX. 



triplicate j one part thereof to be recorded by the commissioners, another by the overseer of 
tlie parish, and the third to be delivered to one of the parties emigrating. 

A certiHed copy of the contract, under the signature of the secretary, to be sutiicicnt proof 
in law of the matters contained on the face of such contract. — Secretary to give copies thereof 
for a foe of sixpence, and no more. 

Tlie commissioners may contract with private persons for the removal, to any of His 
IMajcsty'N possessions abroad, of emigrants from any part of Great Britain and Ireland, provided 
that the sum to be charged for carrying every such contract into effect be specified therein, and 
provided, also, security be given for the repayment of the monies to the cro\vn within ten years. 
Form of contract jm'scribed (C.) Xo extent, or extent in aid, issuable against the lands, Ike. 
of such suri'tv, and such surety or sureties not to be deemed an accountant or accountants. 

The lords cimmiissioncrs of the treasury may take the necessary measures for executing 
such contracts. 

Tlic expenses of such emigration to be, in the first instance, defrayed out of monies to be 
advanced for that pur])ose by parliament. 

His iMajesty, in council, may make all the necessary subordinate regulations, to ascertain 
tlie voluntary nature of the emigration, to ])revent the removal of intirni, weak, and sickly 
persons, or of children unattended by parents or other responsible persons ; to prevent any 
parish being charged with the ro.noval of such as have the means tif removing themselves; for 
maintaining discipline on board emigrant vessels; for the protection of emigrants against frauds; 
for the econouiieal and expeditious conveyance of such emigrants to the place of end)arkation, 
and from tlie j)lace of disembarkation to tlieir ultimate destination ; for their orderly settlement 
on new lands, and their emj)loyment as labourers and artisans in the colonies. Orders and 
regulations may be revoked, amended, renewed, vS:c. Such order to be laid before parliament. 

The penalty for every violation of the before-mentioned regulations sliall not exceed 10/. 
or imprisomnent for any time not exceeding one calendar month, with or without hard labour, 
or both tine and imprisonment within the limits aforesaid ; to be recovered and inflicted by 
summary process before any two or more justices of peace in any part of His ^Majesty's 
dominions. 

The overseers of the poor to pay, \\ithin two , the sum by such contract agreed to 

be paid, out of the rates for the relief of the poor in the parish, when the emigration shall have 
taken place. 

Persons returning from emigration, being of the age of 18 years or upwards at the date of 
the contract, are declared indebted to the overseers of their parish in a sum equal to the amount 
of the sum stipulated in such contract : said sum recoverable as money lent and advanced. 

This act may be amended in the present session. 

Every separate parish or township, or extra-parochial or other place, maintaining its own 
poor, deemed a pnris/i ^^•ithin the meaning of the act, and every overseer or other officer, by law 
charged with providing for the poor therein, deemed the overseer or one of the overseers, as the 
case may be. 

The powers, &c. of the connnissioners shall continue for five years, and from thence until 
the end of the next session of parliament, and no longer, except so far as may be necessary to 
give effect to contracts incomplete. 



APPENDIX. 



XV. 



283 



Extract from the Third Beport of the Select Committee on Emigration from 
the United Kingdom. The expedienci/ of a pecuniurij advance, in the 
nature of a loan, to facilitate a regulated system of Emigration. 

Your committee, taking into consideration tlie evidence which they have received of the 
state of the population in Ireland, England, and Scotland, as well as the nature of the colonial 
evidence with respect to the success of the emigrations of 1823 and 1825, and tlie probability 
of future success, to which they will presently refer, arc prepared distinctly to recommend a 
pecuniary advance, in the nature ot a loan, for the purpose of facilitating emigration, 

In order to show practically how such a loan might operate, your committee projioso to 
state a /ii/jiothetlcal case of a loan advanced to the extent of 240,000/. in the year l(!28-29; 
of 360,000/. in the year 1829-30; and of 540,000/. in the year 1830-31; in the aggregate 
1,140,000/. These sums to be applied to the purpose of emigration, in the manner which 
your conunittee will proceed to describe. 

The interest at four per cent, upon 1,140,000/. amounts to 45,600/. ; the interest at five 
per cent, (that is, four per cent., with a sinking fund of one per cent), amounts to 57,000/,; 
but at the present price of the funds this annual interest would be less, as it is calculated on the 
presumption of the funds not being higher than 75. Your committee do not presume to suggest 
how an emigration loan (were it to be decided upon) should be raised, or when raised in what 
manner it should be charged; but for the purpose of bringing tlieir proposition to a practical 
issue, let it be supposed that this sum of 1,140,000/. is raised in certain proportions during 
three successive years ; namely, the first year commencing October 1828 and terminating in 
October 1829, the second year terminating in October 1830, the third year terminating iu 
October 1831 ; and in the following proj)ortions during each period : 



Periods. 


Capital to be raised. 


Aiimial interest at .j jut 

(■out., that is, I ]ior cent,, 

and a sinking fund ot 

I ]ii'r cent. 


First period . 1828-1820 
Second do. . 1829-1830 
Third do. . 1830-183] 


£. 
240,000 
360,000 
540,000 


£. 
12,000 
18,000 
27,(H)0 


1,140,(X)0 


57,(»0() 



In this case, on or before October 1831, a capital will have been raised of 1,140,000/. 
Your committee now propose to suggest the manner iu which this capital of 1,140,(K)0/. might 
be applied for the purposes of emigration, and which may be conveniently illu.^trated by the 
following table : 



Years. 


Families ot'cmi- 
grants to be located. 


, . . , . ,r . AnuiuMt ot interest at 
Persons, allowing (ap.tal necessary to eireet ^ ,,. ^^. ^^.^^.^^ 

five to each fUn^. ^'^^l^'^' 1 pUnr. ^ to_Jn„ a 


1828-1829 
1829-1830 
1830-1831 


i £. £. 
4,000 20,000 240,000 i 12,000 
6,000 i 30,000 ! 360,000 1 18,000 
9,000 45,000 j 540,000 j 27,000 


19,000 95,000 ' 1,140,000 57,000 






m 



002 



5 



284 



APPENDIX. 



The transaction then will stand thus: — Let the consolidated fund be supposed to be 
charged with an outlay of 57)W)0/. for that period, which will enable a sinking fund of one per 
cent, to liquidate a loan of 1,140,000/.; on the other hand, if the annual payments by the 
emigrants, to which your committee will presently refer, be transferred to the account of the 
consolidated fund for the pt^riod of thirty years, the country will neither be a gainer nor a loser 
by this transaction, as a mere iicciiniary transaction, inasmuch as supposing an equality of the 
riite of interest to pervade tlie period, the annuity received will be equivalent to the annual outlay 
from the consolidated fund. It may perliaps be observed, that the removal of 19,000 families 
would produce little effect in remedying the redundancy of any superabundant portion of the 
jxipulation in the mother country; and your committee feel that it would be extremely diHicult, 
if not dansrcrous, to attempt to lay down, with any pretension to accuracy, the pri'cise number 
of tlie iiiipiilation which it might be ncc.'ssary to remove for such a purpose. The progress of 
the measure would furnish the best commentary upon that point ; but under any circumstance 
it would he necessary to cominenco «ith comparatively small nnnd)ers, and to increase them 
progrrssivt'lv. The principle of increase in this liypothetical proposition is, that each succeeding 
vear should carry out emigrants in the ratio of four, six. and nine, in other words, increasing in 
tlie proportion of one half, as compared with the number of the preceding year ; and it appears 
to vour committee, from thv nrcrna'ity nfJoodpvccviJimj /lopiifafioii, that whatever nui.iher may be 
selected for tlie experiment of the first ;/crir, the siu'cossive emigrations must be regulated by 
some principle of this nature. A\'ith respect to the numbers that might be sent in the first year, 
provided ude(iuate means be taken for preparing for their reception, and provided that the ex- 
pense of food, in consequence of their nundicrs, be not increased beyond the rate of the estimate, 
no necessary limitation would be prescribed. The loan suggested by your connnittee has refer- 
ence to numbers which it ^^■onld he clearly practicahlc to locate. The proposal, as involved in 
this hypothetical case, stands thus: — the first year, 4,000 families; the second, 6,000; the 
tliird, !>,000; making in the wliole If), 000. If, after that period, parliament were disposed to 
carry on emigration in the same ratio, the number of families to he removed in progressive years 
Mould aniouiit as follows: the fourth year, 13,.')00; the fifth year, 20,2")0 ; the sixth year, 
^().'^~^t ; the seventh year, 4"), "1(52 ; the eiglith, Ofl.Hi;^ ; and if these sums be added together they 
^^ ill form an aggregate of 107,0:10 families, which, multiplied by 5, will give 91}"), 150 individuals. 

In this estimate no calculation is made for the casual, collateral, or unlocated emigration ; 
although as an auxiliary circumstance, it will operate, together with regulated emigration, in 
lessening the redundant pop\ihition to a considerable extent. 

It apjiears, then, that for an aninud outlay of ")7,000/. for a limited period of years, nine- 
teen thousand families may lie located in the British North American Colonies ; and if the 
principles laid down by your committee he correct in themselves, and duly acted upon in the 
selection of those 19,000 families or 95,000 persons, if those persons are in the strictest sense 
redundant labourers in the mother country, their abstraction will create no diminution of pro- 
duction, whereas their presence imposes upon the community a heavy annual expen.se, the ex- 
tent of which it is diHicult to analyse. This proposition therefore involves the locati(m of 
19,(l(»0 emigrant settlers, heads of families, consisting of five persons each ; and !«• will he per- 
ceived, that if the following scale of progressive annuity and repayment, calculated in the case 
of a single head of a family, and spreading itself over a period of only thirty years, be realizedj 
tlie 1,140,000/. will have been actually repaid; and the receipts of this thirty years' annuity will 
restore the capital advanced, together with 4 per cent, accruing interest upon that capital. 



APPENDIX. 



cs:> 











A^Kregate amount 








Amount to be received from the 


of Slims to be 


Year ending in 
October. 


Aninnnt to 

be rt'CL'ivcd 

from one 

fiouily 
loeiitcd in 


different sets of emigriiiits, forming 
19,()()(> families, located in tlie space 
ofthree years. I'idc preredinj; Table. 


annually received in 
li(|uidation of tbe 
sums of 
f. Year. 
•<il(),(l(l{» . l!s-^S 


First set of 


Second set 


Tliird set 






lHi8. 


emigrants, 
1K->H. 


of 

emijirants, 

1 H-J') 


of 

emigrants, 

IK'JO. 


.•JUO.ddO . \h-M 
oKMRNt . IKid 










IO.»,7. 




l,lRI,OtHl 




£ 


,^. f/. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


£. 


1«28 to 1»2!) 




• 1 ■ 




• * • 


• t • 




UWO 




• t • 




• •• 


*.* 


... 


i«:m 





10 


2,000 


I • • 


2,000 


um 


1 





4,000 3,000 


7,000 


]>«;] 


1 


JO 


(i.ooo 0,000 ' 4,r)00 


1(1,550 


lii-M 


2 





}{,000 j IMMIO 0,000 


2(),(<00 


m.w, 


2 


10 


10,000 12,000 


13,.".00 


35,500 


mm 


3 





12,000 


l."),(M)0 


18.000 


45,000 


i»37 


3 


10 


14.000 


18,000 


22,500 


.54.500 


i}!:{n 


4 





l(i,000 


21, (too 


27,000 


04,(»00 


i}!;«t 


4 


10 


18,000 


24,000 


31,000 


73,500 


1}!4() 


r> 





20,000 


27.000 


30,000 


83,000 


1}{41 


5 





20,000 


30,000 


40,500 


00,500 


liM2 


a 





20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


1)5,000 


1!M;j 


ii 





20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


05,000 


1H44 


5 





20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


05,000 


U!4.-) 


T) 





20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


05,000 


184(i 


f) 


20,000 


30,000 


45.000 


05,000 


11!47 


5 


i 20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


!)5,000 


lf{4!! 


5 





20,000 


30,000 


45,000 


05,000 


1»4!) 


'> 





20,000 


.30,000 


45,000 


05,000 


l)i;>(» 


') 


20,000 


30,000 


45,(100 


95,000 


1 !!;•)! 


5 


20.000 


3(»,000 4."),0(I0 


05,0(10 


lf!.-)2 


r> 


1 20,000 


30,000 4."),000 


05,000 


iHr>:{ 


.') 


i 20,000 


.30,000 ! 4j,000 


05,000 


l}!r)4 


.') 





20,000 


30,000 1 4."),000 


05,000 


]}!")■) 


;") 





20,000 


30,000 ! 45,000 


05,000 


IJUi 


.5 





20,000 


30,000 4r>,ooo 


05,000 


IfiiV 


f) 





20.000 


.30,000 


45,0(10 


05,000 


1 {{;■)« 


.'■) 





20,000 


.30,(»00 


45,000 


95,000 


]«.')!> 


5 





20,000 


3(),(M)0 


45,000 


95,000 


IfidO 




. . . 




30,000 


45,(X)0 


75,000 


]8«1 






... 




45,000 


45,(X)0 



iiJ 



The House will not fail to perceive, on reference to the abot'c tiible, that at the end of 
three years, the 4,000 heads of families located in the first year will be called upon to pay 
2,000/. ; and upon the fact and facility of that payment will depend the probability of future 
annual payments being realized according to the scale proposed. In the fourth year the first 
set of emigrants will have to nay 4,000/., and the second set 3,000/. and so on. 

It will also be observed, that under this table the settler is not called upon to make any 
repayment until he has been actually located for the space of three years, reckoning 1828 as 
the year of his location. He is in 1831 to pay in money or produce the value of 10s.; and 



i 



286 



APPENDIX. 



ench succeeding year an additional lO.s-., until the annual payment amounts to 51., when it is to 
remain stationary and no longer to be paid in kind but in money. Your Committee propose 
that the emigrant should at all times have the opticm of redeeming the whole of his annual 
payment ; but that he should also have four special opportunities of redeeming portions thereof. 
If he were to have at all periods the opportunity to redeem a portion, it might produce com- 
jilexity in the accounts. He might be allowed to redeem one quarter, one-half, or three-fourths 
of this annuity payment at his own option, at the stated periods, and this permission would 
operate as a stimulus to his industry. 

It is superfluous to remark that, in case of his non-redemption, the proposed scale of annual 
payments for tliirty years A\'ill of course redeem the original 60/. advanced in his location. 



XVI. 



Average Estimate of the Expense of settling' a Family, consisting of one 
Man, one Woman, and three Children, in the British North American 
Provinces; distinguishing the various Items of Expenditure. 

Expenses of conveyance from the port of disembarkation to place of location . .flO 
Provisions, viz. rations for 15 months for 1 man, 1 woman and 3 children, at 
1 lb. of flour and 1 lb. of pork for each adult, and half that quantity for each 
child, making 3.^ rations per diem, pork being at 41. per barrel and Hour at 
1/. 5.V. per barrel* . . . . . 40 6 10 

Freight of provisions to place of settlement . . . 1 10 10 

House for each family . . . . .200 

IMPLK.^IENTS, ETC. 



4 Blankets 


£0 14 











1 Kettle 





5 


10 








1 Frving-pan 





1 


3 








3 Hoes 





4 











1 Spade 





2 


9 








1 Wedge 





1 


4 








1 Auger 





2 


2 








1 Pick-axe 





2 











2 Axes 


1 














Proportion of grindstone, whipsaw and cross-cut 














saw .... 





14 











Freight and charges on ditto, 15 per cent. 





10 


2 


(equal to currency) 


4 6 




Sterling 


3 


18 





8 


Cow .... 




, 




, , 


4 10 





filedicines and medical attendance 


. 






. 


1 





Seed corn 








■ i;o 1 6 






Potatoes, 5 bushels at 25. 6d. 




• 




12 6 


14 

1 






Proportion of the expense of building for the depot 








• • 


Ditto for clerks, issuers and surveyors to show the lots 




• 


• • 


1 5 






60/. sterling is equal to 



66 13 4 



APPENDIX. 



287 



XVII. 



1^ 



Prospectus of the New Brunswick Company. 

(From tlie Liverpool Courier, June 8th, 1831.) 

The company lias been formed with the view of purchasing extensive tracts of hind in tlio 
Province of New Brunswick ; of bringing those lands into cultivation bvthe labour of emigrants 
from Great Britain and Ireland ; of facilitating the emigration of families, and of assisting them 
upon their landing and tirst settlement in the colony. 

To accomplish these objects, it is proposed to raise a capital of 1,000,000/. by a distribution 
of 20,000 shares of ;")0/. each. No proprietor to hold less than 2 or more than 100 shares each. 
Each proprietor to ])ay 21. per share upon becoming a subscriber, and a further sum of .3/. per 
share on executing the deed of settlement, or when called for by the directors within twelve 
months : further calls not to exceed 5/. per share in any one year. 

As soon as the affairs of the company are sufficiently matured, it is intended to apply to 
the crown for a charter of incorporation. 

The Province of New Brunswick contains vast tracts of fertile forest lands, watered Ijy 
numerous rivers, for several of which tracts tiie company are in treaty ; and they are enabled 
confidently to state, from information grounded on experience and acquired by Jiersons prac- 
tically acquainted with the province, that it not only produces all the kinds of green and white 
crops coumion to England, but that it is particularly well adapted for tlie culture of hemp and 
flax, with a climate perfectly congenial to British constitutions ami habits, while it will at the 
same time require only a moderate share of the labour of able-bodied emigrants, with a small 
amount of capital, to bring the purchases contemplated by tlie company into a high state of 
cultivation. Nor is the experience by which they are infiuenced confined to the result of a few 
individual instances, as experiments have been made on a larger scale in establishing the New 
Bandon and Cardigan Settlements in New Brunswick, and by the Earl of Selkirk in the con- 
tiguous colony of Prince Edward's Island. 

The Canada Company, whose lands are at a far greater distance from the parent state, and 
who have consequently had more iuconvi iency and expense to contend against, have fully 
realized the most sanguine expectations of tlie proprietors. 

Indeed, the productiveness of the new settlements of Canada has awakened the curiosity 
and alarmed the jealousy of the Congress of the United States ; yet, in agricultural resources. 
New Brunswick is by no means inferior to Canada, while it is far more conveniently situated 
for the importation of the necessaries required by an infant settlement, as well as for the ex- 
portation of its produce. New Brunswick being less distant from Great Britain than New York, 
and one-fourth nearer than any part of the United States where lands can be obtained by 
emigrants, while the ports in the Bay of Fundy are not closed by the ice in the winter. 

The extent of the company's purchases will enable them to make suitable arrangements in 
this country, both with persons possessed of capital willing to emigrate, and with parishes or 
districts desirous of sending to the British Colonies their able-bodied paupers, for whom they 



288 



APPENDIX. 






cannot find oniploymcnt, and the rt-liuf of whose neccssitios presses so heavily on the interest of 
the United Kin<;doni. The eonipuny will be uhle to give immcdUttv employment t<i able-bodied 
panpers in the opening of roads, clearing of lands, erecting of honses, mills, \c., it being thi; 
want of such Immvd'mtv vmploji which pnicca so distn'sslng lit emir/rants on thvir first arrival. 

The company will aflbrd every facility and assistance to officers of the military and naval 
service, and retired officers of the civil service, who, wearied under listless want of occupation, 
may be desirous to emigrate and settle in the British America for the purpose of increasing, by 
industry and exertion, their present incomes, and securing to their oHspring a comfortable 
indepeiulence. 

The company will have competent agents residing in New Brunswick to superintend their 
affiiirs, and a sufficient number of commodious and well appointed vessels will be provided to 
ensure the punctual fulfilment of all their engagements. A medicel officer will accompany each 
vessel, and attend the emigrants until settled upon the lands to be assigned to them. 

Under these circumstances, while the company can confidently hold out to the cajjitalist 
a secure and advantiigoous return for his investnumt, they can also justly claim the co-operation 
of the patriotic and humane, from the conviction that, by the aid of this company, parishes now 
burdened by a suj)erabun(lant population may be relieved speedily and econtmiically, and at the 
same time settlements essential to the British will be rising up to the north of the United 
States, calculated to be of important service to Great Britain in her political and conunercial 
relations. 

Another important advantage resulting to the public will be that of affording correct 
information to persons desirous of emigrating, thereby preventing the calamities which those 
invariably experience who are inveigled by a class of men who exist by plundering the unwary, 
and inducing them to emigrate in ill appointed and crowded ships, mvrc/i/ fur the gains of 
j)assaffc-moiipi/, and whose frauds are not detected till it is too late to obtain redress. 

Subscription books are now open for shares in the New Brunswick C/'omj)any. 

Resolved, that 3,000 shares having been already subscribed for, the managing directors 
shall have power to allot, among such applicants as they may deem eligiiile, any further number 
of shares, not to exceed 12,000, and the remaining r),000 unappropriated shares shall be disposed 
of by the directors in such manner as in their opinion will best advance the objects of the 
company. 

Applications for shares to be made to the managing directors at the banking-houses of 
Messrs. Fletcher, Roscoe, Roberts, and Co.; the Bank of Liverpool; and at the Office of 
Rlessr-s. Lowndes and Robinson, Solicitors, Brunswick Street, where books are opened for that 
purpose, and all further information may be obtained by applying (if by letter post paid) to the 
managing directors at their office, 19, Water Street, Liverpool. 



APPENDIX. 



289 



XVIII. 

Diit'icn on Goods imported into Great liritain from the Baltic, 
Ilollund, (§t'. li Geo. IV. eh. \i. 



AsuKS, jwarl and pot 

Wool) — Riilks, uikIlt r» in. square and undiT 24 

lonj; . . . ,ilR 

IJallvs, iiiidor ") in. sq. and above 24 feet Ion;.; 27 

Battens, (i feet and not exceodinj; HI ft. 7 in. 

10 

11 

20 

3 



ns, 
broad and 2 ; thick 





10 







GOO 



Battens, above Hi feet nnd not exceeding 21 feet 

Battens, exeeedinj; 21 feet 

Battens, ends niider (! feet 

Battens, ends under (i feet 7 '"• broad and ex- 

ceedinj; 2 j 
Deals, feet lon<i and not above Hi, above 7 i"- 

and not exeeedini; 3| 
Deals, above Ki feet Ion j; and not above 21 
iJeals, above 21 feet lonj; and not above 45 
Deal ends inider G feet, 7 in. broad by 3| thick 
Fire-wood, G feet vide and () high 
IIands])ikes, under 7 feet 
Handspikes, 7 feet and upwards 
Knees of oak, under ;"> in. .srpiare 
Knees of oak, ;") in. and under H 
Knees of oak, n in. or U])\\ards 

Lathwood, under "> feet, (i feet liigh by G wide . .. 

Latlnvood, h feet and under Ji, G feet high by (i wide G Hi 
Latiiwood,){ feet and under 1 2, () feet high by G wide 
IVIasts, &c (5 in. and under }i in. diameter 
Jlasts, i^e. {! in. and under 12 in. in diameter 
Oak ])lank, 2 in. thick or upwards, the load of 50 

cubic feet .... 

Oars . . . . 

Spars, under 22 feet and under 4 in diameter . 
Spars, above 22 feet and under 4 in diameter . 
Spars, above 4 in. and under (i in diameter 
Spokes for wheels, not exceeding 2 feet 
Spokes for wheels, above 2 feet 
Staves, not exceeding 3 feet long, 7 in. broad by 

3 in. thick ... 

Staves, above 3 feet to 4 feet 2, 7 in. broad by 

3 in. thick ... 

Staves, above 4 feet 2 to 5, 7 in. broad by 3 in. thick 
Staves, above 5 feet to G, 7 in. broad by 3 in. thick 
Sta\'es, above G feet 
Ti.MBKU — Fir, oak, and wainscot, 8 in. square and 

ujjwards . . 



G 



4 

16 



7 per 120 










to (i per cwt. 

3 0', per piece 
4 G 



(» 1 H 

1 11 

3 4 

G 

1 



m 








3 


2 


22 








3 


8 


44 








7 


4 


G 








1 





li) 


per fathom 








2 


per 120 








4 each 


4 











8 ... 


10 











1 ... 


4 











8 ... 


1 G 


.W c. feet 








(> [ per foot 


4 r. 


Tier fathom 








3 G Hi 


... 








10 4 











« 


each 








1 2 











4 








1 


1\ per foot 


14 19 


3 per 120 





2 


G each 


2 8 











4J ... 
8i ... 


4 f) 











9 








1 


G 


3 7 


4 per 1000 








G 14 


8 









1 3 per 120 2| 










4| 

G 

0}} 

1 



'I 
1| 



2 15 50 c. feet 1 1| per foot 



VOL. II. 



r P 



290 



APPENDIX. 



FROM UniTISII AMKRICA. 



WiiKAT, JUT (|imrti'r 

Woon— Mulks, iiiulor '» in. sf|ii;in', under 21 lon<; 
Hulks, under "> in. sijuiire, 21 feet long or ui)\viirds 
Hiittens, /in. I)v2|, (5 to 1(1 feet 
Battens, 7 in. h"y 2[, l(i to 21 feet 
Hiittens, 7 in. hy 2;, 21 feet and upwards 
Hatton ends, 7 in. by 2|, and under (! feet 
Batten ends, 7 in. and above 2 J ami uinler fi feot 
Deals, above 7 in, liy H',, (i to Hi feet long 
Deals, above 7 in. by 'A\, Hi to 21 feet long 
Deals, exceeding 21 feet long, above 7 i". broad 

and not exceeding 4 in. tliick 
Deals, above 7 in. by 3i, (5 to 21 feet long 
Deal ends, above 7 iv 'jy 3 1 and under (i feet long 
Deal ends, upwards of fjij 
Fire-wood, 6 feet wide and (i feet high 
Handspikes, under 7 feet 
IIaud.spikes, 7 feet or upwards 
Knees of oak, under "» in. square 
Knees of oak, r> in. and under M in. square 
Knees of oak, 8 in. .scpuire and upwards 
Lathwood, under ;> feot, G feet high by (3 wide 
Lathwood, above 5 feet and (» by (5 ' . 
Masts, fi in. and under Jt in. in "diameter 
IMa.sts, 8 in. and under 12 in. in diameter 
Oak plank, 2 in. thick or upwards 
Oar.s • . . . . 

Spars, under 22 feet and under 4 in. in diameter 
Spars, above 22 feet and undcT 4 in. in diameter 
Spars, above 22 feet and under in. in diameter 
Spokes for wheels .... 

Staves, not exceeding 3 feet long, 7 i". broad by 

3^ thick . . . , 

Staves, 3 to 4 feet long, 7 in. broad by 3i thick 
Staves, 4 to 5 feet long, 7 in. broad by 3i thick 
Staves, 5 to 6 feet long 
Staves, 6 feet and upwards 
Timber.— Fir and oak 



, 


, J 


CO 


5 







13 5 


per 120 








(1.1 


each 


4 17 


(i ... 








'•';i 


*t« 


1 











2 


> . . 


1 3 











2) 


*•• 


2 











4 


... 


7 


(5 








0{ 


• « ■ 


(» 15 











ll 


.* . 


2 











4' 


. . • 


2 10 











5 


... 


5 











10 




4 











8 


• • • 


15 











1:V 


... 


1 10 











3' 


... 





10 per fathom 










2 


(iper 120 








0'. 


... 


5 


... 








01 


• •• 


2 













15 











H 


... 


5 


50 c. feet 










15 


per fathom 










1 5 













1 


(J 










4 













15 


per 50 feet 








Hi 


[)er foot 


1!» 


(i per 120 








2 each 


9 













1(5 













1 15 











3i 


... 


<J 


4 per 1000 










2 


Oper 120 










4 













6 













8 













10 













10 


per 50 c. feet 












APPENDIX. 



291 



XIX. 

Port qfSt, John, XfW Il/iohiitic/,: 



IMl'OUTS IN TlIK YI;AU Isy". 


KM'OKTS IN Till.; VKAll 


^^7. 


I'l^liiimtcd N'lilui' ill Curivncy, 


Kstinmti'd \'iiliio in Ciirri'iicy. 




From 

(llCllt 

liiitiiiii. 


Di'itisli Colonics. 


III 




Totiil. 


To 

(ill'llt 

liritiiiii. 


Hritisli Coloiiii'H. I h 


Is 


Totui. 


Indies. 


Norlli 
.Aiiicr. 


\Y. liid. 
umlAfri, 


North ,'':2 
Aiiicr. -' e 


l!»l(!57 




in:«tii 


1011)t2154(i 


,1 

47)»ii)7 


iM(;<)]<) 


£ 


,f i £ £ £ 
71042 5()()();«)j((ii;}()7730 



From fJrciit Britiiiii 

Hritish Colonies 
Uiiiti'd .Stiitcs 
Foreign States 

Total 



To Grout Britain 
British Colonies 
United States 
Foreijin States 



SUIl'S INWAHUS. 






No. 


Tons. 




•Am 


ii;m:ii 




115(i 


<i(;io2 




115 


14259 




5 


i;h7 




1(J59 


195109 . 


flien, 98({0 


SHIPS OUTWARU.S. 






No. 


Tons. 




3!)! 


1.30997 




1 ()!)({ 


(;(M{02 




100 


113)12 




3 


305 




1590 


20354G 


Men, 11311 



Total 

The following Sliipn and Vessels, with their Tonnage, built within the Port and District of St. John, 

New Jiriinswirk, in the year IS'J". 

77 Ships and ^^'ssels, measuring .... 10323 Tons 

1 7 Ships and Vessels, built in Nova Scotia, for owners at this Port 377-4 



Total 94 



20097 



XX. 

List of the Prices of hand. Produce, and other rarions Articles of common 

Consumption in Prince Kd ward's Island. 

£ s. (I. £ .<. d. 

Land (woodlands) to buy, per acre . . . 5 to 2 

To take on lea.sc for 999 years, rent per acre . . 10 2 

A good horse . " . . . . . 20 30 

Serviceable ditto, for farmer's work . . . 10 IH 

Foal, five or six months old . . . . 3 

A yoke of oxen . . . . . . 10 If! 

A cow . . , . . , 4 10 0700 

A calf three or four months old . . . 12 1 

p p 2 



OQO 



29 



AlM'ENDiX. 



A wctlicr >Iit'<'i) 

All I'wc iirid iiiiiil) in the n\m 

Stiilibu' ffoi'se 
Ducks 
Fowls 

Fri'sli lici'f , per Hi. 
\'im1, ]it'i- 111. 
Hiittcr, |ii'r 11). 
Flour, prr 11». 
Wheat, IH-r lillNlifl 
lliirli-y, I'i'v liiislit'l 
Oats, JUT liusht'l 
Hum, ])er piUoii 
Hraiidy, [ut j;u1Ioii 
Ilolliimis, per gallon 
Aladi'iru, per gallon 
Port, jMT gallon 
'I'ea, per lb. 



"K 



t 


*. 


if. 


i' 


n. 


<l. 





1'2 







1.-. 


{) 





ITi 







1)1 








"2 


(t 




:» 








o 







2 


a 





II 


10 




1 


:i 








li 







10 








2' 







-♦i 








2( 







r.^ 








» 




1 











2 







.'( 





4 







(i 








2 


(1 




A 








1 


:» 




o 








4 







I 








)l 







!• 








(1 







11 








10 







1.-) 








10 







12 


(» 





5 







7 






XXI. 

Prince Kdaanl'fi Inland. 



Cuj,!/ of II l.i'l/rr/riim Mr. Richard Yiitcs to Ilk Exvcllcnry the Ueutcnant-Covcriior. 

Charlotte Town, 20th May, 1«27. 
Hichard Yates's respectful coniplinicnts to his IJxcelleney the Lieutenant-(iovernor, hegs 
to state, from a hasty calculation, also from other information, he thinks the nnder-nientioned 
is a toleriilile near account of the surplus produce, as may he expected any fair year under 
present circumstances, viz. 

100,000 bushels of potatoes, 
17,000 bushels of oats as meal, 
2,r)00 bushels of barley as meal, 
1,000 bushels of wheat as Hour. 



Report of Prince Edward's Island, as directed hi/ the Right Honourable the Principal Sirretar;/ 

0/ State. 

PiiiNci: County.— 407,000 acres, divided into 23 townships ; quit rent 2*'. per 100 acres 
per annum. Township No. 15 revested in the crown in the year HUB. Terms prescribed by 
his Majesty's royal instructions, in the projwrtion of one settler to every 200 acres ; the county 
in general containing an equal pro))ortion of good and indifferent land. 

Kino's County. — 412,000 acres, divided into 21 townships; quit rent 2.s-. per 100 acres 
per annum. Township No. 55 revested in the crown in the year ; on ^^■hicll the quit rent 

is 6s. per 100 acres. 



APPKNDIX. 



'jya 



Qiikrn'h CorNTV. — lltii, t(K»ucrfH, ilivulod into 'JM tiwiisiliipx ; ,, '.t rent 2s. |ht 10<) ucri's 
|)or miiiiiiii Tirnm tlif wuiii' iw aliovc. 

OiiAiii.oTTK TiiwN ANi» HovAt.i V ANI» I'oMMtiN. -J.lMMl lUTi's ; Clmrlottu Town ilividi-d 
into litiiulr. <1>, oontiiininn I'.Mi town lots, 'Jl wiiti-r lotn, 4.1 of wliidi do not iipiu'iir on rocord. 
Hoyidty iMintiiininn Ct\)2 lots of I '2 ucii-h i-ucli, iM) of wiiidi do not iiiiiuiir on record ; Mfi common 
lots of 12 acres nicli, two of wliidi do not upi.ciir on record. Quit rent on town lots 7.v. per 
unmnn ; pusuirc lotn M.y. per iiniinm. l.".l town lots ^jnmted within lli.- hist i>(t yeiirs. Ki water 
lots, 1117 pasture lots, 2 common lots. Terms prescrilied l)y (grants on town lots, to Imil.l a 
hoiim-, 10 feet by 12 ; and pasture lots, to clear three acres previous to oiitainin^ a jjranl and 
pay the annual (|uit rent. 

(JiiomiK Town an-d llovAr/rv.— l,(IOi> acres ; (Jcorne Town divided into 12 rnnnes. con- 
tainiui; l!>2 town lots, of which KK* do not apjiear on record, Hoyalty containing '1(>."» lots of 
eight acres ei.ch, ;177 of wliich do not apju'ar on record. (Juit rent on town lots .'i.v. per annum, 
I)asture lots 2.V. per annum. Three town lots jj;rauted witliin the last 20 years ; live jiasture 
lots. Terms the same as ahove. 

I'uiNcK Town anu Hovat.ty. — i,(l(M) acres, divided into :U( rows, coulaininj; 'MM town 
lots, of which 22)1 do not appear on record. Hoyalty containini; XU'i lots of eijfht acren each, 
121 of which do not appet.i uii record. Ijuit rent of town lots .'is. per annum, pasture lots 2,s-. 
per aniuini. Granted within the last 20 years live town lots, ThJ pasture lots. Terms the i-uine 

as uhove. 

(Sifrned) J. K. CAH.MICIIAKL, 

Col. Secretary, 



Lilts granted within the lust tiroit;/ Vatrs. 



Charlotte Town 
Oi'orjie Town 
Prince Town 



Charlotte Town 

Georjje Town 
Prince Town 



Town lots 
Water lots 

Total of town a'ld water lots , 

C in7 pasture lots, 
I 2 contnu)n lots, 

( lit!) 

r> pasture lots, 
r»Il pastnre lots, 



l.ll lota. 
.1 do. 
5 do. 

1;V.) 
10 



i7:> 



2 17 total of pasture and contmoii lots, 
RECAPITULATION. 

Acres. 

4()7.0IM) Prince's County, 

412,0(10 Kiuft's C(mnty, 

480,4"** Queen's Comity, 

7,.;(iO Charlotte Town and Royalty, 

4,000 fieorj;e Town and Royalty, 

4,000 Prince Town and Royalty, 



1,380,700 total. 



294 



APPENDIX. 



Kdurn of the Avimj Survpnor-Grncral of Prince Edward's Island to Colonel Cuckburn. 

Otlici- of the Surveyor-General, Prince Edward's Island. 
It iijipears by the oHice plans of townsliips, No. ')"» and No. 15, that the following number 
of acres are held by grant, and also l)y lieenee of oeeui)ation, as ordered by the Secretary of 
State, shortly after these townships were revested in the cro\\ii. 



Townshij), No. "),"), granted 
Ditto, under lease 



Acres. 

mo 
r),()Oo 



The to\\iiship contains 20,0(10 acres, which leaves 14,400 acres in the crown. 



Township, No. 1;"), granted 

Ditto, under licence of occupation 



Acres. 
1,'JOO 

(),700 

7,!»00 



The township contains 20,000 acres, which leaves 12,100 in the crown. 

(Signed) J. E. CARAIK^IIAEL, 

Acting Surveyor-General. 



XXII. 

I'hiiigratioti. 

The following coniniunication is from tlie Quebec Star, conveying some correct views in fur- 
therance of the plan of vmiiloyinij cniiynints in the colonics. We insert it as an useful appendaae 
to our Chapter on Emigration. 

As connected with the subject of the settlement of the waste lands in this vicinity it is 
rather surprising that no jierson has as yet adverted to the advantages in that point of view 
tliat might be derived from tlie works now carrying on upon Cape Diamond. 

It is not to i)e (piestioued that the city and trade of Quebec have reaped very considerable 
advantages from the annual expenditure on the fortifications. But it apjjears to me that other 
and perhaps still more beneficial results might be obtained — it is to be feared that no small pro- 
portion of the Mages of labour earned on tlie Cape has been distributed among the rum sellers, 
M liicli with a little precaution might be diverted to very nnich better purposes. 

To tlie good elieets arising from tiiis great distribution of jiublic money, the corresponding 
evil is that it is tlie indirect cause of greatly augmenting the nundjer of paupers dependant 
upon charitable contributions during the winter numtlis. 

Of the vast influx of emigrants during the summer months, it may be oliserved tliat few if 
any remain in this part of the province, e.xcei '"ng such as possess neither the persevering spirit 
or industrious liaiiits re(piired to enable a man to succeed as a new settler in the woods.— The 
op[iortiinity of obtaining a precarious supply from comparatively easy labour during the summer 
months at Quebec, is a bait too enticing to be resisted bv those who li.ave not the fortitude if 



ArPENDIX. 



2<).") 



they even were possessed of the means of encounterinjt tlio harilsliips and privations tliat must 
be endured hy all tliose who arc in scareli of independenei; in the forests. The (jnestion of how 
they are to be provided for durinfr the live lonj; and niiprodnetive months of winter is one that 
never once entered into the ealeulatioa of persons who liave nnhappily lieen too well af(juuinted 
with the trade of paupers to shrink from its exercise in a new land. 

The natural eonseiinenee arising; from this state of affairs is that tlie inliahitants of Quel)ee 
are saddled durinj:; the winter months with a fearful addition to the ordinary nundier of local 
j)oor, that have to be provided for at a season of the year when it becomes peculiarly bnr- 
thensonu'. 

It is at all times nnich easier to point out evils than to propose remedies that upon trial 
will be found to operate as a cure. I cannot pretend to sn^'uest such nu-ans as would entirely 
obviate the dirticnlties existing from the eircuni>tauces stated, "i.ut 1 think that thesi" may he 
very much lessened, and the way opened to future ameliorations in the system by a very -simple 
measnr(>, resting entirely at the discretion of the ollicer at the head of th(! department euMiiected 
with the employment of labourers and artilicers upon the work now carrying on upon the Cape. 

The means I should respectfully propose would he that of reserving a ])ortion of the daily 
wages of the persons eniploved on tiiese works as a fuiul for their fnture sidisistence. 

The iiulustrions and saving would most readily agree to the [)ro[)osition, A\hile the idle and 
dissij)ated, on the other haiul, will most proljably dislike it, ami be thereby deterred from 
remaining in Quebec; the public works would be benefited by having at their coniniand an 
incomparably better set of labourers, while the public would be lelieved from the burden of 
maintaining a set of worthless j)aupers for nearly one half of tin- year. 

But it is not sufticient barely to save the money for future aid to these persons ; nu-aiis 
sliould be also adopted to employ it so as to beconu- of permanent benefit to themselves and 
families, aiul what is perhaps of nearly equal importance, of substantial advantage to the im- 
provement and prosperity of the province. 

A few, and only a very few of the labourers hitherto employed on the Cape have had the 
foresight to place a portion of their summer earnings in the Savings Bank, but as this has 
invariably been withdrawn in winter, the labourer still renuiins in the same state of dei)endence 
upon labour in towns; he can pernninently save nothing ; old age, sickness, or death finds him 
equally unprepared to encounter extraordinary expenses, and leaves his family to be supported 
by public charity. 

A common labourer can only have one road to permanent future subsistence, tliat of laving 
out his small savings upon a farm. The labourers in Quebec have the great advantage ofiered 
of being enabled to obtain lands at less than a day's journey distance from their work. Uiuler 
existing circumstances it might not be advisable to delay the execution of the ])lan ]iroposed 
until grants of government lands could be obtained, and the forn.s gone through to open them 
for immediate improvement. Great quantities of uncultivated lands are in the possession of 
individuals anxious to settle them ; in the near neighbourhood of this city, on the luirth side, I 
may instance the townships of Stoncham and Tewkesbury, the seigniories of St. Gabriel, Fans- 
sembault and Beauport. On the south side are the townships of Frampton, Staustead and 
Buckland, and the townships on Craig's Road, also the seigniory of St. Giles ; any (piantity of 
lands may be had in these places at small rents. What I woidd propose, that no labourer 
should be admitted into the government employ but such as were anxi(ms to become agricul- 
turists, and willing to save a portion of their wages to prepare their farms for future supj)ort. 



296 



APPENDIX. 



These labourers should be allowed three days to visit such places in the vicinity as they might 
be inclined to ])r('])are as a place of future settlement, and to select the h)ts of land they might 
wish to obtain. They should be obliged to point out some respectable person residing upon the 
spot, or interested in the settlement, to receive the amount of their saving and lay it out 
agreeably to an apjiroved j)lan ; these persons may be required to give security for the proper 
expenditure of the money intrusted to them. 

I should propose that each labourer should be obliged to devote the sum of 4.v, per week, 
to be expended upon improvements on his location as follows, viz. : 

One and a half arpents of land to be cut down, burned off and made ready 

for the hoe, in the course of the summer months, would cost . ,£3 

Proportion of a log-house, calculated to accommodate three families, during 

the first winter . . • . . ];") 

Proportion of rent of a stove . . . . .034 

12 niinots of seed potatoes to be delivered the settler in the month of 

May following . . . . . . If) 

£4 13 4 

Allow each labourer an average of 24 weeks' work on the Cape during the seamni, this, at 
4s. per week, would cover the aforesaid expenditure. 

The labourer would gave house rent and fuel for the winter, which form heavy items on 
his list of absolute necessaries in towns. The succeeding year he would have the land prepared 
and seed .sutlieient to furnish his family with potatoes for the ensuing season, and would more- 
over in all probability be enabled during the winter to cut down four or five acres more for 
grain crops. In short, the foundation of his future independence would be laid, and tlie stinuiliis 
given to his exertions would, by opening prospects of future provision for himself and family, 
act in the most powerful M'ay upon his habits of industry and economy. In most instances he 
might be permitted with all safety to dispose of his earnings as he pleased after the first season ; 
the advantage of two years' labour in the public works would be sufhcient to make him inde- 
pendent for life, an useful member in the community, and an addition to the stock of public 
wealth ; the city of Quebec would be greatly relieved from the burden of pauperism, and by 
withdrawing a very considerable portion of the funds now expended in rum shops, the public 
morals improved ami crime lessened. 

This communication is hastily written ; but the objects recommended appear to me 
susceptible of being so very easily adopted and put into execution, that they re(piire only to be 
named in order to be fully understood. If the hints I have thrown out are so fortunate as to 
attract any favonrable attention in the proper quarter, I shall most willingly furnish any other 
details that may be deemed necessary. 

PuBLicor.A. 



THE END. 



London ; printed by 'I'liomas Davison, Wliitefriiirs.