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Full text of "Historical record of the Sixty-first Gloucestershire Regiment of Foot [microform] : containing an account of the formation of the regiment in 1758 services to 1844"

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1 2 3 




1 


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6 



HISTORICAL RECORDS 



OP 



THE BRITISH ARMY. 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



HORSE-GUARDS, 

1st Jamiariff 18S0. 

His Majesty has been pleased to command, 
that, with a view of doing the fullest justice to Regi- 
ments, as well as to Individuals who have distin- 
guished themselves by their Bravery in Action with 
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every 
Regiment in the British Army shall be published 
under the superintendence and direction of the 
Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall con- 
tain the following particulars, viz., 

The Period and Circumstances of the Ori- 



ginal Formation of the Regiment; The Stations at 
which it has been from time to time employed ; The 
Battles, Sieges, and other ISlilitary Operations, in 
which it has been engaged, particularly specifying 
any Achievement it may have performed, and the 
Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have captured from 
the Enemy. 

The Names of the Officers and the number 

of Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates, Killed 
or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the Place and 
Date of the Action. 



i 



IV 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



The Names of those Officers, who, in con- 
sideration of their Gallant Services and ISIeritorioiis 
Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy, have been 
distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks of 
His Majesty's gracious favour. 



The Names of all such Officers, Non-Com- 

missioned Officers and Privates as may have specially 
signalized themselves in Action. 

And, 



The Badges and Devices which the Regiment 

may have been permitted to bear, and the Causes 
on account of which such Badges or Devices, or any 
other Marks of Distinction, have been granted. 

By Command of the Right Honourable 

GENERAL LORD HILL, 

Commanding-in-Chief, 



John Macdonald, 
A djutant' General. 



P 11 E F A C E. 



Tub character and credit of the British Army must chiefly 
depend upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter 
into its service are animated, and consequently it is of the 
highest importance that any measure calculated to excite the 
spirit of emulation, by which alone great and gallant actions 
are achieved, should be adopted. 

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of 
this desirable object, than a full display of the noble deeds 
with which the Military History of our country abounds. 
To hold forth these bright examples to the imitation of the 
youthful soldier, and thus to incite him to emulate the 
meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him in their 
honourable career, are among the motives that have given 
rise to the present publication. 

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, an- 
nounced in the " London Gazette," from whence they are 
transferred into the public prints : the achievements of our 
armies are thus made known at thb time of their occurrence, 
and receive the tribute of praise and admiration to which 
they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions, the Houses 
of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the 
Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under 




vl 



PREFACE. 



their orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for 
their skill and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by 
the high honour of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute 
the reward which the suldier most highly prizes. 

It has not, however, until late years, l)een the practice 
(which appears to have long prevailed in some of the Con- 
tinental armies) for British llegiments to keep regular 
records of their services and achievements. Hence some 
difficulty has been experienced in obtaining, particularly 
from the old Regiments, an authentic account of their origin 
and subsequent services. 

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His 
Majesty having been pleased to command, that every Regi- 
ment shall in future keep a full and ample record of its 
services at home and abroad. 

From the materials thus collected, the country will 
henceforth derive information as to the difficulties and 
privations which chequer the career of those who embrace 
the military profession. In Great Britain, where so large a 
number of persons are devoted to the active concerns of 
agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and where these 
pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed by the 
presence of ivar, which few other countries have escaped, 
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active 
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even 
during peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part 
of the globe, with little or no interval of repose. 

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the 






PREFACE. 



vii 



Ciiuntry derives from the industry and the enterpriic of the 
Agriculturist nnd the trader, its happy inhahitants may be 
supposed not often to reflect on tlie perilous duties of the 
soldier nnd the sailor, — on their sufferings, — and on the 
sacrifice of valuable life, by which so many national benefits 
are obtained nnd preserved. 

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and 
endurance, have shone conspicuously under great and trying 
difficulties ; and their character has been established in Con- 
tinental warfare by the irresistible spirit with which they 
have effected debarkations in spite of the most formidable 
opposition, and by the gallantry and steadiness with which 
they have maintained their advantages against superior 
numbers. 

In the official Reports made by the respective Com- 
manders, ample justice has generally been done to the gallant 
exertions of the Corps employed; but the details of their 
services, and of acts of individual bravery, can only be fully 
given in the Annals of the various Regiments. 

These Records are now preparing for publication, under 
His Majesty's special authority, by Mr. Richard Cannox, 
Principal Clerk of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while 
the perusal of them cannot fail to be useful and interesting 
to military men of every rank, it is considered that they will 
also afford entertainment and information to the general 
reader, particularly to those who may have served in the 
Army, or who have relatives in the Service. 

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have 



f 



viii 



PREFACE. 



served, or are serving, in the Army, an Etprit de Corps — 
an attachment to every thing belonging to their Regiment ; 
to such persons a narrative of the services of their own Corps 
cannot fail to prove interesting. Authentic accounts of the 
actions of the great, — the valiant, — the loyal, have always 
been of paramount interest with a brave and civilized people. 
Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who, in mo- 
ments of danger and terror, have stood, " firm as the rocks 
of their native shore ;" and when half the World has been 
arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their 
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a 
record of achievements in war, — victories so complete and 
surprising, gained by our countrymen, — our brothers,—- our 
fellow-citizens in arms, — a record which revives the memory 
of the brave, and brings their gallant deeds before us, will 
certainly prove acceptable to the public. 

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distin- 
guished O^icers, will be introduced in the Records of their 
respective Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which 
have, from time to time, been conferred upon each Regi- 
ment, as testifying the value and importance of its services, 
will be faithfully set forth. 

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each 
Regiment will be printed in a distinct number, so that when 
the whole shall be completed, the Parts may be bound up 
in numerical succession. 






HISTORICAL RECORD 



or 



THE SIXTY-FIRST, 



OR, THK 



SOUTH GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT 

Of 

FOOT: 

CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF 

THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT 

IN 1768, 

AND OP 

ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES 

TO 

18 4 4. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH A PLATE OF THE COLOURS AND 

UNIFORM. 



LONDON: 
PARKER, FURNIVALL, AND PARKER, 

MILITARY LIBRARY, WHITEHALL. 



M.I)CCC.X1.1V. 






LONDON: 

ITARni!)ON AND CO., PRINTRRS, 

<<T. MAHTIN 8 f.ANK 



THE SIXTY-FIRST, 



OR, THE 



SOUTH GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT 



OF 



FOOT, 

HEAUS ON ITS REGIMENTAL COLOUR THE WOttl> 

"EGYPT," 

WITH THE sphinx: 

ALSO THE WORDS 

"TALAVERA," "SALAMANCA," "PYRENEES," 

« NIVELLE," " NIVE," " ORTHES," 

" TOULOUSE," « PENINSULA," 

TO COMMEMORATE ITS HEROIC CONDUCT IN THESE ACTIONS. 



THE FLANK COMPANIES 

ALSO BEAR ON THEIR APPOINTMENTS THE WORD 

"MAI DA," 

IN TESTIMONY OF THEIR DISTINGUISHED GALLANTRY 
AT THE BATTLE OF MAI DA ON 
THE 4th OF JULY, 
1806. 



CONTENTS. 



Year 

1 758 Formation of the Regiment 

Names of Officers .... 

. Embarks for the West Indies 

1 759 Capture of Guadaloupe . . . • 

1760 Returns to England .... 
1763 Proceeds to Ireland .... 
1771 Stationed at Minorca .... 

1782 Returns to England .... 
Styled the South Gloucestershire Regiment 

1783 Proceeds to Ireland .... 
1792 Embarks for Gibraltar 

1794 Proceeds to the West Indies . . . . 

1795 Attack on St. Lucia 

1796 Returns to England .... 

1797 Proceeds to Guernsey 

1798 Embarks for the Cape of Good Hope 

1801 Expedition to Egypt 

1803 Embarks for Malta .... 
A Second Battalion added to the establishment 

1804 Second Battalion proceeds to Guernsey . 

1805 First Battalion proceeds to Italy 

1806 Second Battalion proceeds to Ireland 
——> Battle of Maida 



Page 
. 10 



. 11 



12 



15 



16 



. 17 

18 

19 

20 
. 21 







Vi CONTENTS. 

Year Png* 

1807 Second Battalion returns to England . . '22 

First Battalion proceeds to Gibraltar . . .23 

1809 Portugal . . — 

Battle of Talavera 

1810 Second Battalion proceeds to Ireland 

Battle of Busaco 

181 1 Blockade of the Fortress of Almeida 

1812 Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo . 
the Forts of San Vincente, St. Cajetano, 

and La Merced . 

Battle of Salamanca . 

Siege of Burgos Castle . 

1813 Battle of the Pyrenees 

Passage of the Nivelle 

— — ^— Nive . 

1814 Blockade of Bayonne 

Battle of Orthes 

■ Toulouse • 

Embarks for Ireland . 

Second Battalion disbanded 

1816 Proceeds to England . 

Embarks for Jamaica 

1822 Returns to England . 
1 824 Proceeds to Ireland 
1828 Embarks for Ceylon . 
1 840 Returns to England 
1843 Proceeds to Ireland . 

Conclusion . . • . 



25 

27 

28 



29 
33 
35 
37 
39 
40 

41 
45 
46 



47 
49 
52 



i 



CONTEXTS. 



Vil 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 

Year 

1758 Granville Elliott . . . • 

1759 George Gray . • • • • 
1768 John Gore . . . • • 

1773 John Barlow 

1778 Staates Long Morriss . . • • 
1800 Sir George Hewett, Bart., G.C.B. . 
1840 Sir John Gardiner, K.C.B. 

1844 Sir Jeremiah Dickson, K.C.B. 



Page 
. 55 



. 66 
. 57 

. 58 



APPENDIX. 

1801 Lieut-Colonel Barlow's Journal of the March of a 
Detachment from Cosseir to Kene 



59 



1809 

to 
1814 



.Casualties during the Peninsular War 



67 



PLA.TE. 

Colours, and Present Costume, to face page 9. 



:^l 




BIXTT-FIR8T (TEH SOOTH OLOUCE8TEH3H1RE) HFOIMENT OF FOOT, 



//: 



/ 



a ^ 




HIXTV tlKST ,Tnii SOUTH OLODCESTERSHHiF, REumENT OF FOOT. 



[I'll fwc ItllJ' I 



HISTORICAL RECORD 

OF THE 

SIXTY-FIRST, 

OR 

J'llK SOUTH GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT 

o» 

FOOT. 



i»i</f I 



/ 



In the early part of the eighteenth century, the 1755 
British Colonies in North America were extended 
along the coast ; — at the same time, the Indian trade 
drew many persons into the interior of the country, 
where they found a delightful climate, and a fruitful 
soil ; and a company of merchants obtained a charter 
for a tract of land beyond the Allegany Mountains, 
where they commenced establishing a settlement. 
The French laid claim to this part of the country, 
drove away the settlers, and erected a fort to command 
the entrance into the lands on the Ohio and the Mis- 
sissippi rivers. These aggressions giving indication of 
an approaching war, the British army was augmented 
in the winter of 1755-6, and that distinguished veteran 
corpSj the Third Regiment of Foot, or the 
Buffs, was increased in numbers to twenty-two com- 
panies, and was divided into two battalions in 1756. 1756 

In the summer of 1757, the Third Regiment 1757 
formed part of an expedition against the coast of 
France, the land forces being under General Sir John 
Mordaunt, and the fleet commanded by Admiral Sir 
Edward Hawke. The Isle of Aix was captured in 

61 B 



10 



IIIHTORICAL KECOIll) OK 



; 



f 



1757 September, and an attack on Rochefort was Rontem- 
plated; but the wind proved unfavourable, and tlie 
fleet returned to Kngland. 

In the spring of 17^>!^) the second battalion of 

1758 the Buffs was constituted the *' Sixty-first Regi- 
ment/' under the command of Major-Qeneral Gran- 
ville Elliott, from the Austrian service, by commis- 
sion dated the 21st of April; the lieut.-colonelcy was 
conferred on Major John Barlow, of the Buffs, and 
the majority on Captain Christopher Teesdalc, senior 
captain of the Buffs. The Regiment, being thus formed 
from the Third Foot, was permitted to assume the 
Buff facing. 

After its formation, the regiment was encamped at 
Chatham, with the Thirty-seventh and Sixty-fifth, 
under Major-General the Earl of Panmure. 

The following officers were holding commissions in 

the regiment : — 

Colonel, Majob-Genekal Granville Elliott. 
Lieut.-Colouel, John Barlow. 
Major, Christopheii Teesdale. 



James Patterson 
A. Singleton 
Thomas Hardcastle 
M. Brabazon 

John Acklom 
W. Peyton 
John Rowland 
John Waugh 
John Read 
N. Doolan 



Captains. 
Roger Crowle 

William Buckley 
John Barford 

Lieutenant!. 
Peter Maturiu 
S. Pearce 
John Poole 
William Wilson 
F. Blomberg 
A. Leishman 

Ensigns. 
John Keir 
Edward Crowe 
Samuel Homer 



Captain-Lieutenant. 
William Gunning. 



D. Gilchrist 
Thomas Brown 
G. V. Clietwode. 
R. Beatson 
R. KeUy 
J. Badger 



James Savage 
John Arbuthnot. 



John Skinner 
John Ireland 
Jarvis Palmer 

Chaplain, George Shaw; Adjutant, Wil'iam Gunning; 
Surgeon, Peter Johnston ; Quarter-Master, Samuel Grey. 

Towards the end of the year thr. regiment em- 
1)arked for the West Indies, with the arriairient s'^nt 



TIIR HIM'Y-KIIINT FOOT. 



11 



againot tlic Frcndi WeMt Iiidiu IslaiuiH, under Major- 17''>H 
(Jenvral liupsun and Commodore Moore. 

On the IGth of January, 17^^) ' ^ troops landed l7r><j 
on the island of MutHnico; but so many diflliculties 
were encountered, that ihey were re-embarked, and the 
attack on this island was abandoned. 

From Martinico the fleet proceeded to Guadaloupe, 
and the forts and batteries on the shore having been 
silenced by the sliips-of-war, the troops landed on the 
24th of January, and took possession of the town and 
citadel of Basse-Tcrre; the French s(»ldier3 and inha- 
bitants, with their armed negroes, letireil to the moun- 
tains, and prepared for a desperate defence of the 
interior of the island. 

For three months hostilities were continued on the 
island, and during this period the officers and soldiers 
of the Sixty-first evinced valour and perseverance 
in carrying operations against, and making attacks on, 
the posts occupied by the enemy. Captain William 
Gunning, of the regiment, was killed at the attack of a 
hill near Fori Louis; "he was an excellent officer, and 
" universally lamented by the army*." Lieut.-Colonel 
Barlow distinguished himself at the head of a detach- 
ment at the capture of St. Maries, when a party of the 
Sixty-first penetrated a thick wood, and gained the 
rear of a strong post, from which the French were 
soon driven. The regiment also made a very deter- 
mined effort to penetrate the woody mountains, and 
turn the enemy's main position, and the operations of 
the day were successful. After much desultory fight- 
ing, the French were forced to surrender the island. 
The Sixty-first had a number of men killed and 
wounded j ' '^ others died from the eflfects of the 
climate : the loss of the regiment in officers was Capt.- 



* Beatsok's yaval and Military Memoirs. 

li 2 



12 



HISTORICAL RECORD OP 



1759 Lieutenant William Gunning killed ; Lieutenant John 
Rowland wounded ; Ensign Samuel Horner died. The 
conduct of the officers and soldiers of the Sixty-first 
was commended in orders. 

On tlie decease of Major-General Elliott, he was 
succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment Ly Lieut.- 
Colonel George Gray, from the first troop, now first 
regiment, of Life Guards. 

The regiment, having become considerably reduced 
in numbers, returned to England to recruit, and in the 

1 760 summer of 1760 it was encamped at '^hatham ; in 
176I it proceeded to the islands of Jersey and Guern- 
sey, where it was stationed until the termination of the 

1763 seven years' war^ snd in 1763 it proceeded to Ireland, 
where it remained seven years. 

On the 9th of May, 1768, Major-General Gray 
was removed to the Thirty- seventh Regiment; and 
King George III. conferred the colonelcy of the Sixty- 
first on Major-General John Gore, from lieutenant- 
colonel in the Third Foot Guards. 

Three years afterwards the regiment was removed 
from Ireland, and stationed at the island of Minorca, 
which had been captured by tlie British in 1 708, and 
was ceded to Queen Anne by the treaty of Utrecht in 
1713. 

Lieut.-General Gore was removed to the Sixth 
Foot in 1773, when the colonelcy of the Sixty-first 
was conferred on the lieut. -colonel of the regiment, 
1778 Colonel John Barlow; who was succeeded, in 1778, 
by Major-General Staates Long Morriss, whose regi- 
ment, the Eighty-ninth, had been disbanded at the 
termination of the seven years' war. 
1772 in the mean time the American war had com- 
menced ; France had united with the revolted British 
provinces in their resistance; and Spain also com- 
menced hostilities against Great Britain, and under- 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



13 



took the siege of Gibraltar in 1779* The capture of 1779 
Minorca was also contemplated by the court of Spain ; 
and in the middle of August, 1781, a powerful Spanish 1781 
and French armament appeared before the island. 
The British troops employed on the detached stations 
were withdrawn, and the whole assembled in the citadel 
of St. Philip, the garrison of which place consisted of 
the Fifty-first and Sixty-first Regiments, two corps 
of Hanoverians (viz.. Prince Ernest^s and Goldacker*s 
regiments), and a proportion of artillery, the whole 
amounting to two thousand five hundred men, com- 
manded by Lieut.-General the Hon. James Murray, 
and Lieut.-General Sir William Draper, K.B. The 
combined French and Spanish forces mustered sixteen 
thousand men, commanded by Lieutenant-General the 
Duke of Crillon, who proved an officer of ability. 
The British garrison, however, made a resolute defence 
of the fortress intrusted to their charge ; and the King 
of Spain, losing patience with the slow progress of the 
siege, caused a large sum of money to be offered to the 
British general, to induce him to betray his trust, 
which was rejected with indignation** 

For several months the British soldiers defended 

" Lieutenant-General the Honorable James Murray's answer to 
this proposal is printed in Beatson's Naval and Militarif Memoirs, 
and is as follows; — 

«,Sir, « Fort St. Philip, October 16, 1781. 

" When your brave ancestor was desired by his sovereign 
" to assassinate the Due de Guise, he returned the answer which 
" you should have done, when the King of Spain charged you to 
" assassinate the character of a man whose birth is as illustrious as 
" yiiuY own, or that of the Due de Guise. I can have no further 
" communication with you but in arms. If you have any humanity, 
*' you may send clothing to your unfortunate prisoners in my pos- 
" session ; leave it at a distance, because I will admit of no contact 
" for tlie future but such as is hostile in the most inveterate degree. 

" I am, kc, 
" To the Due de Crillon." " James Mubhav." 



■. m 



V. -i.":Tx • p. ^-.^ 



u 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



1782 St. Philip with great gallantry; but at length the 
scurvy, a putrid fever, and the dysentery, broke out 
among them with so much violence, that in the begin- 
ning of February, 1782, there was not a sufficient 
number of men able to bear arms for one relief of the 
ordinary guards, and not one hundred men free from 
disease. Under these circumstances the governor 
capitulated. 

Lieut.-General the Honorable James Murray stated, 
in his despatch, — *' I flatter myself that all Europe will 
"agree that the brave garrison showed uncommon 
" heroism, and that thirst for glory which has ever dis- 
" tinguished the troops of my royal master. . . . Such 
" was the uncommon spirit of the King's soldiers, that 
" they concealed their diseases and inability rather than 
'•'go into the hospital; several men died on guard, after 
"having stood sentry; their fate was not discovered 
" until called upon for the relief, when it came to their 
"turn to mount sentry again. . . . Perhaps a more 
" noble, nor a more tragical scene was ever exhibited 
" than that of the march of the garrison of St. Philip 
" through the Spanish and French lines. It consisted 
" of no more than six hundred decrepid soldiers ; two 
"hundred seamen, one hundred and twenty royal artil- 
" lery, twenty Corsicans, and twenty-five Greeks, &c. 
" Such was the distressing appearance of our men, that 
" many of the Spanish and French soldiers are said to 
" liave shed tears.** 

In the articles of capitulation the Duke of Crillon 
stated, — " No troops ever gave greater proofs of hero- 
" ism than this poor worn-out garrison of St. Phili^^'s 
" Castle, who have defended themselves almost to the 
"last man." Beatson, the historian of these wars, 
states, — " The zeal, bravery, and constancy, displayed 
"by all the corps composing the garrison of St. Philip, 
" under an accumulation of nusfortunes, may have been 
" equalled, but never exceeded." 






THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



15 



Returning to England after the surrender of Fort 1782 
St. Philip, the regiment was engaged in recruiting its 
numbers until the termination of the war; in August, 
17B2, it received the county title of the Sixty-first, 
or the South Gloucestershire Regiment: and in 1783 
1 783, it proceeded to Ireland. 

The regiment was stationed in Ireland until the 1792 
spring of 1792, when it proceeded to Gibraltar. 

While the regiment was at Gibraltar the French 1793 
revolutionary war commenced, and in 1794 the French 1794 
West India islands of Martinico, St. Lucia, and Gua- 
daloupe were captured. The French republican govern- 
ment fitted out an expedition for the recovery of the 
conquered islands, and some success attended their 
efforts. This occurrence occasioned an order to be 
received for the Sixty-first Regiment to be embarked 
from Gibraltar to reinforce the British troops in the 
West Indies, where it arrived in December, and landed 
at the island of Martinico. 

From Martinico the regiment proceeded to St. 1795 
Lucia, and was engaged in the attack of the French 
troops on that island in April, 1795, under the orders 
of Brigadier-General Stewart. Some severe fighting 
took place ; the regiment had several men wounded on 
the 14th of April; and on 22nd of that month it had 
nine men killed; Captains Riddle and Whelan, Lieu- 
tenants Grant and Moore, Ensign Butler, seven Ser- 
jeants, two drummers, and fifty-three rank and file 
wounded; five rank and file prisoners. A series of 
actions followed, in which considerable loss was sus- 
tained. The enemy being reinforced, obtained so great 
a superiority of numbers, that it was found necessary 
to evacuate the island in June, when the regiment 
returned to Martinico. 

In the following year an armament, under Lieut.- 179G 
General Sir Ralph Abcrcromby re-captured St. Lucia 



I 



16 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



i a 



1796 and other islands. The Sixty-first Regiment having 
lost nearly four hundred men by disease, killed in 
action, died of wounds, &c., it embarked for England, 
where it arrived in October, and commenced recruiting 
its ranks. 

1797 The regiment embarked for Guernsey in 1797' 
Holland had, in the mean time, become united to 

France, and in 1 795 the Cape of Good Hope was cap- 
tured by a British armament. A rebellion breaking 
out on the frontiers of the colony, the Sixty-first 
embarked for the Cape of Good Hope in the summer 

1798 of 1798; the regiment arrived at that settlement in 

1799 January, 1799, and was stationed there upwards of two 
years.. 

During its stay at the Cape of Good Hope, the 
regiment was employed against the hardy and warlike 
tribes of Kafirs, who committed depredations in the 
colony. On one occasion the light infantry company 
marched upwards of forty miles in one day, to support 
a detachment of the Eighth Light Dragoons, in an 
attack upon the Kafirs, and the timely appearance of 
the soldiers of the Sixty-first contributed to the 
success gained on that occasion. 

The Sixty-first Regiment, with a detachment of 
the Eighty-first, built a block-house, and threw up 
works at Algoa Bay, and thus commenced the forma- 

1 800 tion of a settlement at that place, which has since risen 
into importance. 

On the decease of General Morriss, King George 
III. conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on Major- 
General George Hewitt, from Colonel-Commandant of 
the second battalion of the Fifth Regiment, by com- 
mission dated the 4th of April, 1800. 

1801 ^" February, 1801, four companies of the Sixty- 
first Regiment embarked from the Cape of Good 
Hope, for a secret service ; but they were afterwards 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



17 



directed to join the Indian army commanded by Major- 1801 
General Baird, destined to proceed up the Red Sea, 
traverse the Desert, and co-operate, with the troops 
from Europe, in the expulsion of the French " Army of 
the East" from Egypt. The remaining six companies 
of the regiment sailed from the Cape of Good Hope on 
the 30th of March, under the orders of Lieut.-Colonel 
Carruthers, to join the expedition in the Red Sea. 

The army from India arrived at the port of Cosseir 
on the Red Sea in June, and marched through the 
Desert to Kenna on the Nile, by divisions. The 
four companies of the Sixty-first Regiment, a de- 
tachment of the Tenth Foot, and a party of the 
Eighth Light Dragoons, mustering five hundred and 
eighty-two soldiers, under Lieut.-Colonel Barlow, of 
the Sixty-first*, commenced their march from Cos- 
seir through the Desert on the 18th of July; they 
suffered much from excessive heat, thirst, and the 
fatigue of a long march through a sandy desert, and 
arrived at Kenna in ten days. The other companies 
landed at Cosseir on the 10th of July, and commenced 
their march on the 20th of that month for Kenna, 
where they arrived in nine days, with the loss of only 
one man, a drummer, who died of fatigue. When the 
company, to which the drummer belonged, arrived at 
camp, he was missed, and Private Andrew Connell 
asked permission to return, notwithstanding the pre- 
vious fatigue he had undergone, and assist the drum- 
mer : his humane exertions were, however, unavailing, 
as he found the drummer dead. This humane conduct 
brought Andrew Connell into notice, and he was even- 
tually promoted to a commission in the regiment. 

On the 2nd of August the regiment embarked in 



* Lieut.-Colonel Barlow wrote a journal of this mai'cli, which is 
printed at the end of this Record. 



18 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



m 



1801 seventeen d'jirms (boats), and proceeded down the 
river Nile, about four hundred miles, to Cairo, which 
city had surrendered to the British troops a sliort time 
previously. The regiment afterwards continued its 
route down the Nile to the vicinity of Rosetta. The 
siege of Alexandria was carried on with vigour, and 
the deliverance of Egypt was completed by the sur- 
render of the French garrison in the beginning of 
September. 

The Sixty-first received, in common with the 
other corps which served on this expedition, the honor 
of bearing on their colours the word "Egypt" with the 
Sphinx, as a distinguished mark of His Majesty's royal 
approbation of their conduct: the officers were per- 
mitted to accept of gold medals from the Grand Seignior. 

After the departure of the French troops, the regi- 
ment was quartered a short time at Alexandria, and 
afterwards in Fort Charles. 

1802 The deliverance of Egypt was followed by a treaty 
of peace, which was concluded in the spring of 1802. 
In this year the regiment quitted Fort Charles, and 
encamped near Alexandria. 

1803 Hostilities were resumed with France in 1803; and 
in March of the same year the regimen > embarked 
from Eg5'pt for the island of Malta, where it was 
stationed two years. 

Napoleon Bonaparte having assembled a numerous 
army at Boulogne, and made preparations for the inva- 
sion of England, the British military establishment was 
considerably augmented, and a second battalion was 
formed and added to the Sixty-first Regiment; it 
was composed of men raised in the counties of Durham 
and Northumberland, under the provisions of the Army 
of Reserve Act, passed in the summer of 1 803, and was 
placed on the establishment of the army on the 9th 
of July. 



THE SIXTY-FIUST FOOT. 



19 



The strength of the second battalion was aug- 1804 
mented in 1804, with the men raised in the county of 
Northumberland under the provisions of the Additional 
Force Act, passed in July of that year. On the 10th 
of Octoljer the battalion embarked from Ramsgate for 
the Island of Guernsey, where it was stationed during 
the foUowiiig year. 

While the first battalion was at Malta, Bonaparte 1805 
was elevated to the dignity of Emperor of France and 
King of Italy, and in 1805 he marched his armies into 
Germany to crush the combination forming against his 
interests. 

At this memorable period the regiment embarked 
from Malta, and sailed for Italy with the force under 
Lieut.-General Sir James Craig, designed to support 
the interests of the allies in that quarter. 

A treaty of neutrality had been concluded between 
France and Naples, by which Napoleon agreed to with- 
draw his troops from the Neapolitan territory, where 
they had been stationed since the commencement of 
the war with England; and the King of Naples was 
bound not to admit the fleet or armies of any state at 
war with France into his ports or territory. These 
articles were, however, violated; an English and Rus- 
sian armament appeared in the Bay of Naples in 
November, 1805, and the Sixty-pibst, and several 
other British regiments, landed at that city. This 
provoked the wrath of Napoleon; and the great suc- 
cess of the French arms in Germany having enabled 
their ambitious sovereign to assume the tone of a 
dictator, on the morning after the signature of the 
peace of Presburg, he issued a proclamation declaring, 
"The Neapolitan dynasty had ceased to reign," and 
denouncing vengeance against the family he had thus 
resolved to dethrone, in terms which left no hope 
of accommodation. 



20 



IIISTOP.ICAL RECORD OF 



Im 



8 



k 



1805 The Russians withdrew from Naples; and the 
British, under Lieut.-General Sir James Craig, were 
too few in numbers to think of defending the king- 
dom against the powerful armies which Napoleon sent 

1806 against that devoted country, in the early part of 1806, 
under Joseph Bonaparte. 

The Sixty-first embarked from Naples in January, 
1806; the King and Queen quitted their capital, and 
proceeded to the island of Sicily, which was preserved 
in their intcicst by the British; the Sixty-first were 
landed at the city of Messina, on the north-east side 
of Sicily, and were stationed there several weeks. The 
Neapolitans abandoned their royal family to its fate, 
and submitted to the dictates of Napoleon, who Issued 
a decree conferring the crown of Naples on his brother 
Joseph: the city of Naples was illuminated, and the 
nobles were eager to shew their attachment to their 
new King. Insurrections occurred in several places; 
but the French arms were successful, and the provinces 
became tranquil. 

On the 26th of February the second battalion 
embarked from Guernsey for Ireland, and landed at 
Cork in March. 

It was important to England that Sicily should not 
fall under the dominion of France, and the restoration 
of Ferdinand IV. to the throne of Naples, Mas never 
lost sight of. Preparations being made on the oppo- 
site coast of Calabria, for the invasion of Sicily, Major- 
General Stuart, commanding the British troops in 
Sicily, formed the design of cutting off the French 
division under General Regnier: the flank companies of 
the Sixty-first* were formed in flank battalions, com- 



* The grenadier company of the Sixty-first was selected hy 
Major-General Stuart, for liis personal escort during the recouuois- 
sanccs which he made before the battle. 






THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



21 



manded by Lieut.-Colonel James Kempt and Lieut.- 1806 
Colonel R. W. O'Callaghan, and being employed on 
this enterprise, they had the honor of distinguishing 
themselves at the battle of Maida, on the 4th of 
July. 

On this occasion the light battalion, commanded 
by Lieut.-Colonel James Kempt, of which the light 
company of the Sixty-first formed part, was directly 
opposed to the celebrated French regiment, Le I" 
Leger; the two corps fired a few rounds at about a 
hundred yards' distence, and then advancing simulta- 
neously to the charge, both preserved great steadiness 
until the bayonets began to cross, when British prowess 
proved victorious; the French faced about and fled; 
they were pursued, and great slaughter made with the 
bayonet. British valour was triumphant at every part 
of ihs field, and the boasted invincible legions of 
Napoleon were proved to be inferior to the English in 
close combat with the bayonet. 

The British minister at Palermo, writing to the 
Secretary of State, observed, — " The battle of Maida, 
"upon the 4th of July, will long be remembered in 
" this part of Europe, as a remarkable proof of the 
" superiority of British courage and discipline over an 
"arrogant and cruel enemy. Of the nine thousand 
"men whom General Regnier commanded in the 
"province of Calabria ulterior, not more than three 
" thousand are left to attempt their retreat towards 
" Apulia; the remainder are all either kL^ed, wounded, 
" or made prisoners. Every fort along the coast, — all 
the stores, ammunition, and artillery prepared for the 
attack upon Sicily, are become the prey of the vic- 
" tors; and what, perhaps, may be considered of still 
" more consequence than these advantages, an indelible 
*' impression is made ia this country of the superior 
" bravery and discipline of the British troops.' 



(t 



(C 



I 



>j 



22 



MISTORICAI. IlKCORO OP 



\ 



180G In forwarding a vote of thanks to Major-General 
Stuart, and the troop under his orders, from the 
House of Lords, the Lord Chancellor stated, — " lle- 
" fleeting upon the disasters which have fallen upon 
** powerful princes, and populous territories, under the 
" pressure of the vast armies of France, I recollect, 
" at the same time, that they were not defended by 
" British soldiers, and that, when the triumphal monu- 
" ments of Paris shall record the victories of Austerlitz 
" and Jena, it shall appear upon the less ostentations 
" journals of a British Parliament, that upon the plains 
" of Maida her choicest battalions fell beneath the 
" bayonets of half the number of our brave country- 
" men, under vour direction and that of the officers 
" who were your glorious companions." 

Major-General Stuart was rewarded with the dignity 
of a Knight of the Bath; and was created Count of 
Maida by the King of the Two Sicilies. Medals were 
given to commanding officers, — the first instance in the 
British army. The word " Maida," on the appoint- 
ments of the grenadiers and light infantry of the 
Sixty-first, commemorates the gallant conduct of the 
flank companies on this occasion. 

Shortly after the victory at Maida, the battalion 
companies of the Sixty-first quitted Messina, and 
proceeded to Scylla and Calabria. 

I8O7 The second battalion, after remaining in Ireland 
ten months, received orders to return to England ; it 
embarked from Dublin on the 4th of February, 1807, 
and landed at Liverpool two days afterwards. 

At this period the decrees of Napoleon, Emperor 
of France, for the annihilation of British commerce, 
were in operation, and the French emperor demanded 
that the court of Portugal should exclude British ship 
ping from their ports, and confiscate the property of 
British merchants. This being refused, a French army 



;( .Ui 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



2.] 



under MnrNhnlJunot, (afterwards Duke of Abrantes,) 1807 
advanced to invade Portugal: when the Sixty-first 
Uegiincnt embarked from Sicily, with the troops under 
Major-Oeneral Moore, to aid the Portuguese; but 
arriving at Gibraltar in December, it was there ascer- 
tained that the royal family of Portugal had abandoned 
the country, and fled to the Brazils : under these cir- 
cumstances the regiment landed at Gibraltar, where it 
remained during the year 1808, receiving reinforce- 1808 
ments from time to time from the second battalion, 
which was removed to Guernsey in the summer of this 
year. 

While the regiment was at Gibraltar, Portugal was 
delivered from the power of France by British skill 
and valour; but Spain was subject to the oppression 
of Napolcoi'j who had removed his brother Joseph 
from the tiirone of Naples, and caused him to be 
proclaimed King of Spain. 

In the summer of 1809, the regiment was ordered 1809 
to proceed to Portugal, to take part in the attempt to 
deliver the Peninsula; it embarked from Gibraltar on 
the 9th of June, arrived at Lisbon in eleven days, and 
aiKancing up the country, joined the army commanded 
by Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, at Oropesa, 
where ii was attached to Brigadier-General Cameron's 
brigade, in the first division, commanded by Major- 
General Sherbrooke. 

The regiment shared in the movements and priva- 
tions which preceded the battle of Talavera; and when 
the army formed in position, it was posted, with its 
division, in the front line, and near the centre of the 
British troops, with the light infantry among the 
underwood and trees in front of the line. On the 
evening of the 27th of July, the enemy made a deter- 
mined attack on the height on the left of the position, 
when the Sixty-first Regiment was moved to the 



n 



94 



IIIHTORICAL RRCORD OP 



... 

f! 



i 



1 






1809 support of the troops nttnekcd, who repulsed their oppo- 
nents with the bayonet, and the regiment returned to 
its former post, having lost tliree men killed ; Major 
Robert John Coghlan, and three soldiers woundtd. 
Another attack on the left was repulsed early on the 
following morning, 

' About mid-day on the 28th of July, the numerous 
artillery of the enemy opened a heavy fire, under the 
cover of which the columns of attack advanced against 
the British line. The French bullets smote the ranks 
of the Sixty-first with fatal eflfect, and one shell 
killed four grenadiers and wounded three others. The 
French battalions cleared the ravine, and ascended the 
position in full assurance of victory; but they were 
received with a general fire of all arms, and charged 
with bayonets with so much vigour, that they were 
speedily forced back : the Sixty-first closed on their 
adversaries with distinguished gallantry, and following 
up their first advantage, drove the French beyond the 
ravine. Having become broken by a rapid advance 
over rugged ground abounding with obstructions, the 
regiment re-formed its ranks under a heavy fire. The 
distinguished conduct of Corporal Rose, on this occa- 
sion, was rewarded with the rank of serjeant in the 
field, and a subsequent display of zeal for the service, 
procured him a commission. 

The French were repulsed at all points, and they 
retired during the night. 

Major Henry Francis Orpen, Captain Henry James, 
Lieutenant Daniel James Hemus, one drummer, and 
forty-two rank and file were killed; Captains Andrew 
Hartley, William Furnace, .Tames Laing, and David 
Goodman, Lieutenants Graves Collins, H. T. Tench, 
George McLean, and James Given, Ensign William 
Brackenbury, Adjutant Richard Drew, ten Serjeants, 
and one hundred and eighty-three rank and file 
wounded ; sixteen rank and file missing. 



1^1 



TIIK SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



M t I 



Licutcnnnt-Coloncl SauiidorH niul Major Co^hliui 180!) 
received gold medals ; and the royal authority was 
niven for the regiment to l)ear the word "Talaveka" 
on its colours, to commemorate its distinguished eon- 
duct on this occasion. 

At the battle of Talavera full proof was given of 
the qualities of British soldiers; but the superior 
numbers which the enemy was afterwards enabled to 
l)ring forward, prevented the victory being followed by 
ilccisive results, and retrograde movements became 
necessary. On the advance of the enemy, the Spa- 
niards abandoned Tulavero, and the wounded officers 
and soldiers of the Sixty-first fell into the hands of 
the French. During the retreat much suffering was 
endured from the want of provision, and while the 
army was in position on the Guadiana, a fever broke 
out which thinned the ranks. In the autumn the 
Sixty-first were gratified, amidst their sufferings and 
losses, by the arrival of Major Coghlan and Adjutant 
Drew, who had escaped from prison at Madrid. 

Three hundred men joined from the second batta- 1810 
lion in February, 1810, and thus restored the regiment 
to its former numbers. In April the second battalion 
proceeded from Guernsey to Ireland. 

Continuing with the first division of the allied 
army, the regiment proceeded to the northern frontiers 
of Portugal to meet the French invading army, under 
Marshal Massena, who boasted that he would drive tlie 
English into the sea, and plant the eagles of France on 
the towers of Lisbon ; and he possessed so great a 
sujjeriority of numbers, that the allied army was forced 
to retreat before him. Suddenly the rugged rocks of 
fiuftaco were seen sparkling with British bayonets, 
assembled to oppose his advance, and the desperate 
attempts made by the French veterans to force the 
position, on the 27th of September, were met by a 

CA C 



26 



IIISTOttlCAL RECORD OK 



1.1 



1810 resistance which they could not overcome. The 
Sixty- FIRST were in position on this occasion, and 
the light company skirmished with tlie French marks- 
men ; but the regiment was not seriously engaged. 

The French having turned the position by a flank 
movement, the British army withdrew to the fortified 
lines of Torres Vedras, where the invading army found 
its progress arrested by a barrier which it did not 
venture to attack, and after halting a few weeks before 
the lines in hopeless inactivity, retreated to a strong 
position at Santarem. 

On arriving at the lines, the Sixty-first were 
removed to the fourth division, and stationed at the 
village of Caxaria, and it was in position every morning 
two hours before daylight to resist any attack tlie 
enemy might be disposed to make. The regiment was 
subsequently removed to the sixth division, with which 
its services are identified during the remainder of the 
war; it was united in brigade with the Eleventh and 
Fifty-third Regiments, commanded by Brigadier-Ge- 
neral Hulse. 

After the retreat of the French to Santarem, the 
regiment was stationed at the Convent of Alenquer, 
where several officers and men were taken suddenly ill, 
and the only remaining monk suggested, that it was 
proljably occasioned by the water, — the French having, 
on their retreat, cast several dead men into the well in 
the centre of the square, to save the trouble of burying 
them : on examination this proved to be true, — and the 
sensations produced by the discovery may be easily 
conceived. In a few days afterwards the regiment was 
removed to the hamlet of Arunda. 

1811 Unable to fulfil his menace of driving the English 
into the sea, and having consumed all the provisions 
he could procure, the French Marshal retreated from 
his position at Santarem, on the 5th of March, 1811, 



THK SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



27 



and the Sixty-first were engaged in following the 1811 
retreat of the enemy to the frontiers of Portugal: they 
were afterwards employed, with their division, in the 
blockade of the fortress of Almeida, and were quartered 
at the village of Junca, from whence they furnished a 
daily piquet near the works. 

The French army advancing to relieve Almeida, 
the Sixty-first quitted the blockade, and were in 
position when the French were repulsed at Fuentes 
d'Onor; but did not sustain any loss. 

Resuming its quarters at Junca, the regiment again 
furnished piquets before Almeida. An unusual noise 
during the night of tlie 11th of May occasioned the 
regiment to assemble at its alarm post, and march 
towards Almeida ; the grenadier company advanced to 
the walls, and Captain Furnace discovered a chasm in 
the works, at which he entered and ascertained that 
the French garrison had blown up a great part of 
the works, and evacuated the fortress; when Major 
Coghlan ordered a guard of one hundred men to take 
possession of the town, which was found much injured 
by the explosions. 

Lord Wellington having undertaken the siege of 
Badajoz, Marshals Soult and Marmont marched the 
armies under their orders to the relief of that fortress, 
when the Sixty-first proceeded with their division to 
the Alemtejo, and were in position on the Caya. The 
French armies having separated, the regiment again 
traversed the country towards the Agueda; and in 
September the light company, under Captain Owen, 
distinguished itself by repulsing, by its steady fire, the 
attack of several squadrons of French dragoons, who 
had driven back a body of British cavalry near Ciudad 
Rodrigo, when Marshal Marmont relieved the blockade 
of that fortress. 

After retiring a few miles before the superior 



ii 






28 



HISTORICAL RFXOllD OP 






1811 numbers of the enemy, the regiment went into winter 
quarters, where it received a draft of two hundred men 
from the second battalion. 

Colonel Saunders being promoted to the rank of 
major-general, Lieut. -Colonel Barlow arrived in Por- 
tugal to command the first battalion, and Lieut.- 
Colonel Coghlan proceeded to Ireland to command 
the second battalion. Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan had 
commanded the first battalion during two campaigns. 

1812 In January, 1812, the regiment was employed in 
covering the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, which fortress was 
captured by assault during the night of the 19th of that 
month. The regiment afterwards traversed the country 
to the Alemtejo, from whence it advanced across the 
Guadiana, and was employed in Spanish Estremadura 
during the siege of Badajoz, which fortress was cap- 
tured by assault on the 6th of April. After these 
brilliant enterprises were completed, the regiment 
retuvned to the northern frontiers of Portugal, and 
marched to sustain the troops which destroyed the 
French works at the bridge of Almarez. 

Advancing into Spain, the allied army drove a 
French corps from the city of Salamanca, which was 
taken possession of amidst the rejoicings of the inha- 
bitants, and the Sixty-first Regiment was one of the 
corps employed in the siege of the forts of San Vin- 
cente, St. Cajetano, and La Merced, in which the 
French had left garrisons. On the night of the 
22nd of June the light company was engaged in an 
attempt to capture St. Cajetano and La Merced by 
escalade, when Captain John Owen led the assault 
with distinguislied gallantry; he had gained the top 
of one of the ladders, and was in the act of entering 
the fort, when he was shot through the left arm, which 
was dreadfully shattered, and the next moment another 
shot in the shoulder precipitated him into the ditch. 



THE SIXTY-FIHST FOOT. 



29 



Private Charles Carr saw his Captain fall, and leaping 1812 
into the ditch under a heavy fire raised the fallen 
Captain, — called a comrade to his aid, and they carried 
their officer to a place of safety. The attack failed. 
Captain Owen was promoted to the rank of major, 
and on receiving the usual pension for the loss of his 
arm, he settled an annuity upon Private Charles Carr. 

The regiment sustained considerable loss on this 
occasion in killed and wounded, and among the latter 
was Lieutenant Given. 

Some delay took place in the capture of the con- 
vents, from the want of ammunition; but a supply 
having been received, they v/ere reduced before the 
end of June. 

From Salamanca the regiment advanced to the 
banks of the Douro, and when the French army passed 
the river and advanced, the British fell back a few 
stages. 

On the 22nd of July, the opposing armies ma- 
nojuvred near Salamanca, and the French commander 
making a faulty movement, the British general ordered 
his divisions forward and commenced the battle. For 
some time the Sixty-first were formed, with their 
division, behind the village of Arapiles, to support 
the fourth division, which was engaged upon a rising 
ground beyond the village; the regiment was exposed 
to a heavy cannonade; and the village was soon in 
flames from the bursting of shells. The fourth division 
being pressed by very superior numbers, the sixth 
division advanced at a running pace to its support, 
and on passing the village of Arapiles the Sixty-first 
opened their fire ; but the French soldiers were so min- 
gled with the men of the fourth division, that the regi- 
ment ceased firing for fear of destroying friends as well 
as enemies. The French carried the hill, and, elated 
with success, rushed forward with great impetuosity; 



PL 

III 



'iOM 



30 



HlSTOllICAh UKCUHU OK 



1812 but tlie Eleventh and Sixty -first gave three cheers, 
fired a volley, and charged with bayonets with so much 
resolution that the torrent of battle was arrested, and, 
after a desperate effort, the French were overpowered, 
and the hill was re-captured. Lieut.-Colonel Barlow, 
Major Downing, eight other officers, and about a 
hundred soldiers had fallen ; but the survivors pressed 
upon their opponents with the bayonet until ordered 
to halt on the low ground beyond the hill. The 
French rallied under a cloud of skirmishers, and ap- 
peared intent on attempting to recover the hill. At 
this moment the regiment was exposed to the fire of 
a number of sharpshooters, and a numerous artillery, 
it was threatened with a charge of infantry, and a 
hostile body of cavalry was manoeuvring on its left, 
yet it was as steady as on an ordinary parade; the 
surviving officers and soldiers formed four divisions 
two deep, and prepared to charge with their gallant 
associates of the Eleventh Regiment. Colonel Napier 
states, in his History of the Peninsular IVar, — "The 
"struggle was no slight one. The men of General 
" Hulse's brigade, which was on the left, went down 
"by hundreds, and the Sixty-first and Eleventh 
" Regiments won their way desperately, and through 
"such a fire as British soldiers only can sustain." 
The southern ridge was regained, and " the reserve of 
" Boyer's dragoons coming on at a canter, were met and 
" broken by the fire of Hulse's noble brigade. Then 
" the changing current of the fight once more set for the 
" British." In this second advance the Eleventh and 
Sixty-first drove the enemy before them a consider- 
able distance. The two regiments then halted, and 
being within range of the enemy's artillery, Major- 
General Hulse directed the men to sit down ; but the 
French fire occasioned many casualties, and the major- 
general called the commanding officers of regiments 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



31 



forward and directed them to acquaint their men with 1812 
his intention of attacking the heights in front. This 
was answered by three cheers from the surviving 
officers and men, and an immediate advance, under a 
destructive fire from the French artillery and skir- 
mishers ; but the brigade pressed gallantly forward and 
speedily gained the summit. The French formed 
column. The Eleventh and Sixty-first changed 
front, and opening their fire, soon forced the enemy 
to retire. The officers and Serjeants with the colours 
of the Sixty-first fell under the enemy's fire, when 
the colours were seized by Privates William Crawford 
and Nicholas Coulson, who carried them to the top of 
the hill. Crawford was instantly promoted to serjeant; 
the same rank was offered to Coulson, but he answered 
that he was over-rewarded already by the cheers and 
thanks of his comrades, and the approbation of his 
officers. Serjeant Crawford fell a sacrifice to his gal- 
lantry in a subsequent engagement. 

Lieutenants Wolfe and Armstrong took charge of 
the colours, and the regiment continued to advance. 
The sixth division was engaged towards the close of 
the action, in forcing the French from the last height 
on which they ventured to make a stand: and when 
darkness put an end to the fight, the British were 
victorious at every part of the field; at the same time 
the broken remains of the French army were hurrying 
from the scene of disaster in confusion. 

The loss of the Sixty-first on this occasion was 
very severe,— Lieut.-Colonel Barlow, Captains Stubbs, 
Horton, and Favell, Lieutenants Chawner and Parker, 
Ensign Bere, three Serjeants, one drummer, and thirty- 
five rank and file, killed; Major Downing, Captains 
Oke, Mc Leod, and Greene, Lieutenants Falkner, 
Daniel, Chapman, Chipchase, Furnace, Gloster. Col- 
lis, Wolfe, Brackenbury, Royal, and Toole, Ensigns 



32 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



4 : 



1812 White and Singleton, twenty-two Serjeants, one drum- 
mer, and two hundred and eighty rank and file, 
wounded. Major Downing died of his wounds*. 

Captain Annesley, who commanded the regiment at 

the close of the action, received a gold medal ; and the 

word "Salamanca" was inscribed on the colours, 

by royal authority, to commemorate its distinguished 

. gallantry on this memorable occasion. 

Shortly after the battle of Salamanca the command 
of a brigade in the fifth division was conferred on 
Major-General Hulse, who took leave of the brigade he 
had previously commanded in the following orders : — 
" His Excellency the Commander of the Forces having 
" been pleased to remove Major-General Hulse to the 
" command of a brigade in the fifth division, the major- 
" general cannot leave the officers and soldiers of the 
" brigade he had the honor and happiness to command 
" for nearly two years, without assuring them how fully 
'• satisfied he has ever been with their excellent con- 
" duct, both in quarters and in the field, during that 
"period. The major-general wishes, most pointedly, 
" to express how much he feels indebted to them for 
" their steadiness and determined courage displayed in 
"the action of the 22nd instant. It will ever be to 
" him a source of the greatest pride to have had the 
" honor to command them on that glorious day. Never 
" did British troops acquit themselves in a more gallant 
style ! and Major-General Hulse hopes all will accept 
his best thanks for their exemplary conduct, and his 
" warmest wishes for their future welfare.'* 



«, 



«i 



! * Casualties at the battle of Salamanca, 


_ 


Soldiers. a| 


1 




Officers. 


Strength in the iield 


. 


27 


420 ■ 


Killed and wounded 

! 


• 


24 


342 ■ 




Remainiiig 


3 


1 


Six ri'liofs of ofticei-s and 

1 

1 
1 


Serjeants were 


shot under the colours 



THIi 81XTY-F1KST FOOT. 



,i.i 



After pursuing the broken remains of the Frencli I HI J 
army to ValladoUd, the Britisli General marched to 
Madrid, leaving the Sixty-first, and a few other 
corps, at the town of Cuellar, situate on the declivity 
of a hill in the province of Segovia. The French army 
being reinforced, advanced down the Pisuerga valley, 
when the British infantry removed to Arevalo, and the 
French took possession of ValladoUd. Lord Welling- 
ton returning from Madrid, the French again retreated, 
and the British advanced up the beautiful Pisuerga and 
Arlanzan valley to Burgos, and commenced the siege 
of the castle, in which service the Sixty-first were 
engaged ; many of the officers and soldiers having re- 
covered of their wounds, were again at the post of 
honor, and the regiment mustered about two hundred 
men, under Captains Sparrow, Greene, and Annesley, 
Lieutenants Mc Lean, Furnace, Wolfe, Armstrong, and 
Harris. Lieutenant Stuart was attached to the engi- 
neer department, and was severely wounded. 

For a short time the regiment was encamped about 
a mile from the fortress, but afterwards removed to the 
Hopital del Rey. Captain Annesley and a party of 
the regiment distinguished themselves at the storming 
of the outworks on the 4th of October, for which they 
were thanked in orders by Colonel Bingham, the field 
officer on duty in the trenches at the time. The dis- 
tinguished gallantry of Private Edmonstone, on this 
occasion, was rewarded with the rank of serjeant. 

On one occasion, the post occupied by a small 
piquet, under Lieutenant Armstrong, was destroyed by 
a mine, which killed and wounded two-thirds of the 
piquet ; the enemy at the same time making a sortie. 
The lieutenant was thrown some distance by the ex- 
])losion, but was not seriously injured; and he took 
possession, with the surviving men, of some houses, 
and by a steady fire forced the French to retire within 






34 



III8TOUICAL RECURI) OP 



18:2 their works; — Lieutenant Armstrong humorously ob- 
serving, " My cloak is on the post, and the French 
" shall not even possess that as a trophy." On another 
occasion, Lieutenant Harris and a party of the regi- 
ment evinced great intrepidity on the glacis. 

The concentration of the enemy's numerous forces 
rendered it necessary for the British to raise the siege 
of Burgos Castle and retire, and the Sixty-first 
shared in the fatigues and privations of this retrograde 
movement. On one occasion the light company, under 
Lieutenant Wolfe, was employed in retarding the pas- 
sage of a river by the enemy; and the regiment also 
aided in the destruction of one of the bridges across 
the Douro, The regiment arrived at the frontiers of 
Portugal, without losing more than one man during 
the retreat. It proceeded into quarters under the 
orders of Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan; and was joined by 
a strong detachment from the second battalion during 
the winter. 

1813 The progress of military organization in Portugal 
and Spain, with the arrival of reinforcements from 
England, enabled the British commander to take the 
field in May, 1813, with a formidable army. lie drove 
the French from Salamanca, turned their positions on 
the Douro, and forced them back in disorder upoji 
Burgos, when they destroyed the castle and retreated 
to the Ebro, the passage of which river they were pre- 
pared to defend; but he turned their position by a 
flank march, and obliged them to fall back upon Vit- 
toria, where they formed for battle. The sixth division 
was left behind at Medina de Pomar, to cover the 
march of the magazines, and the Sixty-first were 
thus prevented sharing in the victory at Vittoria on 
the 21st of June. They were sufficiently near to hear 
the firing, and arrived at the field of battle on the fol- 
lowing day, to take charge of the captured artillery and 
stores. 



THK SIX'IY-KIUST FOOT. 



85 



The regiment was subsequently employed in at- 
tempting to intercept the French division under 
General Clausel, and when this I'orce had escaped to 
France, the regiment proceeded t,o Pampeluna, to take 
part in the blockade of that fortress, from which duty 
it was relieved by a Spanish corps, on the 14th of July, 
and advanced into the Pyrenean Mountains to San 
Estevan, situated in a beautiful valley, where it halted. 
Thus, after marching nearly six hundred miles in seven 
weeks, passing six great rivers, gaining one decisive 
battle, and investing the two fortresses of Pampeluna 
and San Sebastian, the allied army stood triumphant 
on the lofty Pyrenees, and the officers and soldiers 
panted for opportunities to acquire additional honors. 

The French army having Y. m reiniorced, and re- 
organized, advanced under Marshal Soult, and attacked 
the British posts in the mountains, when the allied 
army fell back to a position in front of Pampeluna. 
The sixth division, to which the Sixty-first con- 
tinued to belong, quitted San Estevan to support the 
troops first attacked ; but when advancing, Lord Wel- 
lington rode up to the division, and ordered it to halt 
for the night. It afterwards retired through the moun- 
tain passes, and bivouacked, during the night of the 
27th of July, in a pine-wood. At daybreak on the 
following morning it resumed its march ^ and joining 
the army in position in the mountains, formed for battle 
across the valley in the rear of the left of the fourth 
division, its right on the village of Oricain, and its left 
on some heights. 

Soon after the regiment had taken its post, columns 
of attack were seen in motion to commence the battle 
of the Pyrenees, where the Sixty-first had another 
opportunity of distinguishing themselves. A body of 
French troops moved along the valley of Lanz towards 
the mountain at its extremity, and the Sixty-first, 



^mi 



3fi 



IIISTOIIICAL IIECOHII OK 



1813 with two other British corps, were ordered to move nt 
a running pace and occupy the mountain. The Sixty- 
first hastened up the hill on one side, as the French 
skirmishers ascended on the other; but the British 
gained the summit first, and opened their fire with 
terrible effect. The French were encompassed in the 
valley ; two brigades smote them from the left, the 
Portuguese smote them from the right, and the sixth 
division forced them back with a terrible carnage. The 
enemy retreated behind the village of Sauroren. The 
Sixty-first, and two other regiments, advanced to a 
post near the village, and the fire of small-arms was 
kept up until dark. 

No serious fighting occurred on the 29th of July ; 
but on the morning of the 30th the British batteries 
opened from the heights, and a cloud of skirmishers 
advanced against Sauroren. The firing at this point 
afterwards subsided ; but was eventually renewed, and 
the Sixty-first had the honor to participate in 
storming the village and heights of Sauroren, and in 
forcing the French from a position, which, from its 
natural strength and advantages, appeared almost im- 
pregnable. The pursuit was continued until night, and 
many prisoners were taken. 

The regiment had seventy men killed and wounded; 
Captains Charleton and McLean, Lieutenants Wolfe 
and O'Kearney, and Volunteer Leebody, were wounded. 

Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan received a gold medal ; and 
the word " Pyrenees" was placed upon the colours of 
the regiment, as a mark of royal approbation of its 
gallant conduct. 

Continuing the pursuit of the enemy to the extre- 
mity of the Pyrenees, the regiment ascended the sum- 
mit of one of the highest mountains on the 2nd of 
August, and as the soldiers beheld the beautiful plains 
of France, which Napoleon had often declared to be 



TIIK SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



37 



inviolable, spread in rich landscape scenery before ]8i3 
them, they experienced emotions of exultation in the 
anti(!ipation of future conquests. In the afternoon the 
rej;itnent encamped on a piece of high ground, sur- 
rounded by inaccessible rock, the only entrance to 
which was through a chasm; a beautiful stream ran 
along the hollow below, with a cannon foundry on its 
banks. Two days afterwards it marched to the vale of 
Los Alduidos: and afterwards penetrated France some 
distance; but withdrew towards Maya, and relieved 
the second division on the heights commanding the 
pass of Maya, where the soldiers threw up breastworks. 
The prospect from these heights was particularly inte- 
resting: on the left was seen the sea, and the fortress of 
Bayonne ; on the right the thickly wooded plains of 
Cias(!()ny, interspersed with towns and villages; in 
front was the French army ; and in the rear of the 
right and left, the lofty Pyrenees crowned with the 
tents of the British army. 

On the 1st of September the division drove the 
enemy from two heights in its front ; ana on the 9th 
of Octoljcr, it again attacked the French, to favour the 
operations of the British troops which had passed the 
Bidassoa. Three companies of the Sixty-first were 
engaged on this occasion. 

Invigorated by the mountain air, and impatient to 
win the fair plains of France before them, the soldiers 
received with joyful anticipations the orders to advance, 
and attack the enemy's positions on the Nivelle. The 
Sixty-first descended from the mountains by moon- 
light on the night of the 9th of November, and lay 
concealed near the enemy's piquets until the following 
morning. The day broke with great splendour, and as 
the first rays of light gilded the summits of the moun- 
tains, three guns gave the signal for the attack, and the 
French beheld "ith astonishment the allied army rise 



3H 



HISTORICAL RBCOKI) OP 



181.3 from its concealment, and rush to liattle with an impe- 
tuosity they were not prepared to withstand. The 
Sixty-first passed the Nivellc river, and marched 
'trough a rugged country towards the bridge of Amotz, 
to attack the works at that place ; the skirmishers of 
the regiment were in front under Lieutenant Harris. 
Advancing up a difficult ascent, covered with bushes, 
under a sharp fire, the regiment drove a body of 
French troops from a semicircular breastwork ; several 
officers of the regiment outran the men, who had 
knapsacks to carry, and first jumped into the works : — 
Captain William Henry Furnace, who had repeatedly 
distinguished himself, fell a sacrifice to his gallantry ; 
and Lieutenant Christopher Kellet was killed about 
the same time. The regiment pressed resolutely for- 
ward to storm a redoubt at the top of the hill; its 
commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Coghlan, re- 
ceived a shot through the cap, which grazed the top of 
his head, — several officers and men fell, but the regi- 
ment continued its rapid advance, and Lieutenant 
Harris jumped across the ditch of the redoubt, when 
the French fled in dismay, and many of them were 
intercepted in the rear of the redoubt. Lieutenant- 
General Sir Rowland Hill came up to the regiment, and 
thanked the officers and soldiers repeatedly for the very 
gallant manner in which they had ascended under the 
enemy's fire. A second redoubt was captured at this 
part of the enemy's line, and afterwards a third. The 
Sixty-first penetrated the enemy's camp, which had 
been abandoned and set on fire. The light company 
of the regiment was detached on this occasion, and 
distinguished itself. A decisive victory was gained, 
and the British army established itself in tlie French 
territory. Captains James Horton, Marcus Annesley, 
and Hugh Eccles, Lieutenants Robert Belton, and 
Archer Toole, were all severely wounded. 



TIIK «1XTY-FinST FOOT. 



3U 



le 
Id 



Lieutenant-Colonel Cojriilan received nn honorary 1«1.1 
distinction ; Major Oke was promoted to the rank of 
licut.-coh)nel ; and the gallantry displayed by the regi- 
ment on this occasion, was rewarded with the word 
" Niveli.e" on its colours. 

After this success, the regiment occupied quarters 
at Ustaritz, which was found an agreeable change ; the 
bleak summits of the mountains, on which it had been 
long stationed, having become extremely cold. The 
moral and physical energies of the men were in full 
power, and nothing could have withstood their con- 
quering progress had the weather been favourable. 

Early in December a forward movement was 



ordered ; and on the morning of the 9th of that month 
a beacon lighted on the heights above Cambo gave the 
signal for the attack, when the passage of the river 
Nive was forced, and the enemy driven back towards 
])ayonnc. The sixth division passed the river on float- 
ing bridges. The advanced-guard (in which was the 
light company of the S i xt v-fi rst, formed in a light bat- 
talion under Captain Greene, of the regiment,) evinced 
great gallantry, and surprised the first French piquet, 
which fled in dismay. Some sharp fighting occurred ; 
Captain Greene was wounded, and Captain Charleton 
was sent from the regiment to take command of the 
light battalion. The swampy nature of the country 
retarded the advance of the division, and gave time for 
the French troops to effect their retreat towards 
Bayonne. The enemy advanced and attacked the 
British troops on the three following days, but were 
repulsed. 

At the passage of the " Nive" the regiment earned 
another honorary inscription for its colours; and Cap- 
tain Greene received a medal. Its loss was limited to 
Captains Greene and Charleton wounded, and a few 
private soldiers killed and wounded. 



L iLlB.^ i !L-.'J"ag ' IiJ-> ' J 



40 



HISTORICAL RECORD OP 



1S14 The regiment was stationed at Ville-Franque from 
tlie middle of November until the 22nd of February, 
1814, assisting in the blockade oi Bayonne. On one 
occasion, when the regiment had gone out for field 
exercise, leaving the officers, bat-men, pioneers, and the 
quartermaster-serjeant in quarters, a heavy fall of rain 
so swelled the stream of the Nive, that the pontoon- 
bridge of communication was detached from its moor- 
ings, and was seen floating down the stream. Quarter- 
master-Serjeant Rose (who distinguished himself at 
Talavera) and Private Thomas Dawson got hold of the 
bridge, and, at the hazard of their lives, succeeded in 
securing it, by which much inconvenience to thfe service 
was prevented. The quartermaster-serjeant was re- 
warded with a commission, and a sum of money was 
given to Private Dawson. 

Quitting Ville-Franque, the regiment advanced up 
the country, and passing the river near Bereux, by a 
pontoon-bridge, on the morning of the 27th of Feb- 
ruary, it afterwards ascended by a narrow way between 
high rocks to the great road to Peyrehorade, which 
brought it into the presence of the French army, under 
Marshal Soult, in position near Orthes. The action 
commenced in the forenoon. The third and sixtli 
divisions won, without difficulty, the lower part of the 
ridges opposed to them, and endeavoured to extend 
their left along tlie French front with a sharp fire of 
musketry. On the other flank the French defended 
their post with more resolution. During the early 
part of the day, the skirmishers only of the Sixty- 
first were engaged, and the regiment was in reserve; 
wlien the French army gave way, two fine battalions 
were seen attempting to cover the retreat, and Lieut.- 
Colonel Coghlan led the Sixty-first Regiment against 
them at a running pace. The two battalions fired a 
volley and retreated, pursued by the Britisli light 
cavalry. 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



41 



Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan received another honorary 1814 
distinction for this battle; and the word **'Orthe8," 
on the colours, commemorates the gallant bearing of 
the regiment on this occasion. Its loss was limited to 
one Serjeant and ten men, killed and wounded. 

Pursuing the retreating enemy on the following 
day, the regiment took some prisoners, and, being in 
advance, discovered part of the French army on an 
eminence near St. Sever; the enemy again retreated 
after dark, and was followed on the succeeding days. 
On one occasion the regiment lost a serjeant and seven 
men in a skirmish; and Lieutenant Furnace, of the 
light company, had a narrow escape, a ball having 
passed through the collar of his coat. 

The regiment again came up with the enemy on 
the IGth of March, near Tarbes, and had a few men 
wounded. The weather was fine, the soldiers healthy, 
vigorous, and animated with their uninterrupted career 
of success, so that they were ready for any service; 
but the French continued their retreat without hazard- 
ing a serious engagement. 

Marshal Soult concentrated the French troops 
under his command in a fortified position at Toulouse; 
and on the morning of the 10th of April, the Sixty- 
FiusT Regiment was in motion with the fourth and 
sixth divisions, under Marshal Beresford, to turn the 
enemy's right fiank. The regiment being halted be- 
yond the river Ers, while Lord Wellington and his 
staff reconnoitred the enemy, Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan 
took that opportunity to address the officers and men 
in a short and animated speech, which made a great 
impression on their minds. Immediately afterwards 
the regiment advanced; it^ crossed the river Ers, and 
marclied along the left bank exposed to the enemy's 
cannonade. On arriving jit its destined point, the 
brigade was wheeled into line by Major-Goneral 

61 i> 



48 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 




1814 Lambert, who led it forward to attack a formidable 
height occupied by French troops. The enemy de- 
scended with loud shouts to meet the advancing line, 
and opened a heavy fire of musketry; the Sixty-first 
rushed forward without firing a shot, the officers ani- 
mating the men by their example, and answering the 
French shouts with a loud and confident huzza ! They 
carried the height with fixed bayonets, but sustained 
severe loss. Many. of the officers having outrun their 
men, who were retarded by the weight of their knap- 
sacks, entered a French redoubt at the moment the 
defenders were quitting it, when a number of French 
soldiers turned round and fired with fatal effect: of the 
Sixty-first, Lieut.-Colonel Oke, Captain Charleton 
(who was calling to the enemy to surrender), and 
Lieutenant Arden, were wounded, — the latter mortally. 
The regiment advanced along the height until it was 
ordered to halt under an earthen fence, which par- 
tially sheltered it from the enemy's guns. Early in 
the action its gallant commanding officer, Lieut.- 
Colonel Coghlan, was mortally wounded*. In the 
afternoon the regiment, much reduced in numbers, 
supported the attack of the Scots brigade on a range 
of redoubts, from which the enemy was driven with 
loss: and the Sixty-first were directed to occupy 

* Lieut.-Colonel Robert John Coghlan was a most distin- 
guished and gallant officer, and highly respected and beloved by the 
SixT YFiBST, who chcrishcd the memory of his exalted virtues with 
peculiar veneration. The regimental record shows the number of 
times he led the corps to battle and to victory, and the honorary 
distinctions he had acquired. The Duko of Wellington directed liis 
remains to be removed from the grave in which they had been 
hastily laid, on the field of battle, and honored with a public funeral, 
himself attending to pay the last tribute of respect to departed 
valour. A marble slab, placed by his brother officers in the Pro- 
testant churchyard of Toulouse, murks the spot where the remains 
of this gallant officer are deposited. 



rilE HlXTY-FIUaT FOOT, 



43 



le 



;he 



one of the captured redoubts. The French advanced IBM 
to recover the redoubts; when Major-General Lambert 
directed a division of the Sixty-first to cross the 
road, which was commanded by the enemy's fire, and 
reinforce the troops in another redoubt. This was a 
perilous movement ; but Captain Cmarleton, whose 
wound was dressed in the field in time to enable him 
to rejoin and command the regiment in its second 
attack, placed himself in front of the division, exclaim- 
ing, "I will show the way!" Serjeant Fra^er stepped 
to follow his captain, and, encouraged by this example, 
the division made the movement at a running pace; 
several officers and soldiers were, however, hit by the 
French marksmen. The regiment defended the post 
committed to its charge, and the French were driven 
from their works, and forced to take refuge in the 
suburbs of the city of Toulouse. At the termination 
of the action, the surviving men of the regiment were 
brought out of the field by Adjutant B . assisted by 
two ensigns and Serjeant Robert He . hose name 
merits notice from his zealous exertions during the 
action. 

The Sixty-first was included, in Lord Welling- 
ton's despatch, among the corps which had sustained 
severe loss, and were highly distinguished throughout 
the day. 

Lieut.-Colonel Coghlan, Lieutenant H. Arden, and 
Ensign W. A. Favell, were killed on this occasion; 
Major J. Oke, Captains W. Greene and E. Charleton, 
Lieutenants A. Porteus, N. Furnace*, T. Gloster, 
D. O'Kearney, J. Wolfe, E. Gaynor, W. White f, 

* Lieutenant Norbury Furnace had fought with his regiment in 
every battle and skiimish in which it Ixad been engaged in the 
Peninsula and South of France, and liad, lost two brothers gallantly 
combating in the same cause. 

+ Lieutenant William White was on his way to join the rej^i- 

U 2 



44 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



1814 J. Harris, G. Stewart, and J. H. Ellison, Ensigns 
J. Wright, Cuthbert Eccles, and S. Bartlett, wounded. 
The regiment had also eight se'-jeaots and one hundred 
and fifty-three rank and file kiUecl and wounded. 

Medals were conferred on Lieut.-Ce^'Miel Oke, 
Captain Charleton (who was twice wouiiojd), and 
Adjutant Bace: and the vord "Touvhse** was 
added to the inscriptions o i the colour:i of the regi- 
ment. 

The French retreated frjm Toulouse, followed by 
the British army, and at I5t. Felix five officers and 
seventy men joined the Sixty-first, from the second 
battalion in Ireland, und<ir the orders of Captain 
Hamilton. 

Hostilities were terminated a few days afterwards ; 
the power of Bonaparte had been destroyed, and the 
Bourbon dynasty was restored to France. The gallant 
veterans of the Sixty-first were thus gratified with 
a complete triumph over the enemies of their country. 
They had traversed kingdoms, fought battles, and con- 
quered powerful armies for the good of Europe ; their 
valour had exalted the glory of the British arms, and 
preserved their native country from the presence of 
war: and the word "Peninsula" was added to the 
numerous inscriptions on their colours, to commemo- 
rate their heroic conduct. , 

After reposing a short period in quarters, the regi. 
ment marched for Bordeaux; and at Bazas the Por- 
tuguese brigade, which had long served with the sixth 
division, was separated from it to return to Portugal ; 
a feeling of respect for these brave companions in 



ment from Ireland; hearing at Tai-bes of the probability of an 
action at Toulouse, he travelled by post to arrive in time to take 
part in it. He was twice wounded, and, although bleeding pro- 
fusely, be refused to quit his post. A general officer saw the state 
he was in, and directed him to be taken to the surgeons. 



THE SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



45 



ns 
;d. 



in 



te 



Si 



war pervaded all ranks of the British army: many jgj^ 
reciprocal acts of kindness had marked the estimation 
in which the soldiers of the British and Portuguese 
armies held each other. 

On the 30th of June, the regiment embarked for 
Ireland, when the following order was issued: — "Major- 
*' General Lambert cannot allow the regiments com- 
posing the left brigade of the sixth division of the 
army under the Duke of Wellington, to separate 
"without requesting the oiBcers, non-commissioned 
"officers, and soldiers, to accept his best thanks for 
"their services while under his command. Though 
"the period has not been long, yet it will be ever 
memorable; and the distinguished good conduct of 
the brigade, so repeatedly mentioned during this 
period, especially in the action of the 10th of April, 
" will ever make him consider his appointment to the 
brigade as one of the most fortunate events of his 
military life." 
At the close of the services of the regiment in the 
Peninsula and South of France, the names of the 
following non-commissioned officers, whose meritorious 
services had been rewarded with commissions, were 
inserted in the Record Book, — 



(e 



te 



ee 



te 



ei 



William Douglas. 
William Hack. 
James Nevin. 
John Abraham. 
John Robinson. 
William Fortune. 
George Armstrong. 
John Thompson. 
Simon Musgrave. 
William Hall. 
John Mc Kav. 



William Bace. 
Patrick Melvin. 
Andrew Connell. 
Thomas Williams. 
W'illiam Scott. 
Francis Begg. 
Christmas Knight. 
John Bell. 
George Tyrrell. 
Samuel Rose. 



46 



HISTORICAL RECORD OP 



I?' 



■J' ■ 



1814 The regiment landed at Cork in July, and marched 
to Dundalk, where the second battalion was disbanded 
on the 24th of October; the men fit ic duty being 
transferred to the first battalion. 

1815 From Dundalk the regiment marched to Newry, 
where it was stationed during the year 1815, — a period 
memorable in the history of Europe, on account of 
the return of Bonaparte to France, — his overthrow on 
tlie field of Waterloo, — and his removal to St. Helena. 

ISIG In June, 1816, the regiment embarked from Ire- 
land, and proceeded to Portsmouth, where it landed, 
and was stationed during the summer months at Fort 
Cumberland. In the autumn it embarked for Jamaica, 
and arrived at Spanish-town in December. 

I,sl7 The regiment was stationed at Spanish-town, Up- 
park camp. Stony-hill, and Kingstcii, in Jamaica, 

1821 upwards of five years, during which period it lost by 
disease seven officers, and three hundred and fifty- 
six non-commissioned officers and soldiers. 

1822 Having transferred the men who volunteered to 
remain in the country to other corps, the regiment 
embarked from Jamaica in March, 1822, and landed 
at Plymouth in May following. 

1824 The regiment performed garrison duty at Plymouth 
until the spring of 1824, when it proceeded to Ireland; 
it was stationed at Cork until October, when it marched 
to Limerick. 

1825 Leaving Limerick in 1825, the regiment proceeded 
to the counties of Roscommon, Leitrim, Longford, and 
Westmeath. 

1826 In 1826 the head-quarters were established at 
Athlone, with detachments at various stations in the 
neighbouring counties. 

1827 The regiment was assembled at Birr, in June, 1827, 
and in July marched to Richmond Barracks, Dublin, 
where it was divided into six service and four depot 



TUB SIXTY-FIRST FOOT, 



47 



companies; the service companies embarked in October 1827 
for Liverpool, from whence they proceeded by canal 
to Fenny Stratford, and afterwards marched to 
Chatham. 

On the 30th of June, 1828, the service companies, 1828 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel G. E. P. 
Barlow, embarked from Gravesend for the island of 
Ceylon where, they arrived in November, and landed at 
Colombo. 

Lieut.-General Sir Edward Barnes inspected the 
Sixty-first on their arrival at Ceylon, and inserted 
the following statement, in his own hand-writing, in 
the Record Book of the regiment : — 

" Having inspected the Sixty-first Regiment, 
" commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Barlow, it affords me 
" much gratification to place upon the Records of the 
" Regiment an expression of my admiration of its 
" appearance and high order, — of the coolness, celerity, 
" and precision, with which it performed the several 
" evolutions, and of its system of interior economy: 
'* such a state of things evinces the great ability, assi- 
" duity, and perseverance of the commanding officer, 
" and the able support of Major Wolfe and the rest of 
" the officers, and is in the highest degree creditable 
"to the non-commissioned officers and soldiers; and 
** greatly enhances the pleasure which I feel in the 
" renewal of my long acquaintance with the Sixty- 
" first Regiment, and adds very materially and essen- 
" tially to my satisfaction in having it under my 

" command. 

" E. BARNES, Lieut.-General." 

" Colombo, December 18, 1828." 

The depot companies were withdrawn from Ireland 1 833 
in November, 1833, and proceeded to Chatliam; they 
retiirned to Ireland in 183G. 1S3G 



48 



HISTORICAL RECORD OF 



II 



1834 Tlie service companies remained at Colombo until 
16th October, 1834, when they embarked for Trin- 
comalee. 

1837 ^" *'^® 22nd May, 1837, the regiment sustained a 
loss of three officers, viz.. Lieutenants Shaw and Hark- 
ness and Ensign Walker, who were unfortunately 
drowned, while on a shooting excursion, by the upset- 
ting of a boat, in a squall off Cottiac. 

The service companies re-embarked for Colombo in 
July, and after being inspected by Major-General Sir 
John Wilson, they marched for Kandy, where they 
arrived on the 22nd August, 1837. 

1838 On the promotion of Colonel Edward Darley to the 
rank of major-general, on the 28th June, 1838, Major 
Charles Forbes was advanced to the lieutenant-colonelcy, 
and the command of the service companies devolved on 
Major Simmonds. 

While on duty at Kandy, the following order was 
inserted in the Regimental Record Book, by Lieutenant- 
General Sir John Wilson, K.C.B., in his own hand- 
writing, viz: — 

" Being on the eve of my departure from Ceylon, I 
" feel much pleasure in adding to the honourable testi- 
" monies contained in the regimental records, the 
" expression of my approbation of the general good 
conduct and military discipline manifested by the 
Sixty-first Regiment, during a period of seven 
"years that it has served under my orders, it having 
"been, during a great part of that time, under the 
" command of the present Major-General Darley. 

" It is gratifying to me to be able to state, that at 
*' the present half-yearly inspection, after a lapse of 
" so many years, I find the regiment in the same high 
*' state of moral and military discipline, in whicli I had 
" the satisfaction of finding it on my arrival to assume 
" this command, and which had previously called forth 
" the highest eulogiums from my predecessor. 



(( 



THB SIXTY-FIRST FOOT. 



49 



il 



a 



" To have maintained this character during a period 18.i8 
"of more than ten years' service in this colony, is a 
" circumstance which cannot but h^ considered to reflect 
" great credit on the officers, non-commissioned officers, 
" and privates of this distinguished corps, and will, no 
*' doubt, meet with a just appreciation in their own 
" country, to the shores of which (as the regiment is 
" about to return home) I earnestly wish them a speedy 
" and prosperous voyage. 

" I cannot conclude without requesting the present 
" commanding officer. Major Simmonds, to accept my 
" best acknowledgments for the zeal and attention dis- 
" played by him in the command of the Sixty-first 
" Regiment. 

(Signed) « JOHN WILSON, Lieut. -General, 
" Commanding the Forces" 

Dated " Kandy, 2'Jth December, 1838." 

On the 12th February, 1839, the regiment marched 1839 
to Colombo, preparatorily to its embarkation for Eng- 
land; and on the 3rd March, Her Majesty's troop-ship 
ship "Jupiter" came to anchor in Colombo roads, having 
on board the service companies of the Ninety-fifth 
Regiment, under the command of Colonel James Camp- 
bell, intended for the relief of the Sixty-first Regi- 
ment; but in consequence of disturbances in India, the 
embarkation of the regiment was directed to be delayed. 

After performing duty in various parts of the island 
of Ceylon for eleven years, during which period the 
regiment lost six officers and three hundred non- 
commissioned officers and privates, it embarked for 
England on board of Her Majesty's ship *^ Jupiter," and 
the following general order was issued by the General 
Officer commanding, dated " Head Quarters, Colombo, 
22nd October, 1839:"— 

" In taking leave of the Sixtv-fiust Uegiiucnt, 



50 



HISTORICAL KECOUD OK 



1839 "which will embark to-morrow for England, Major- 
" General Sir Robert Arbuthnot should not do justice 
" to his own feelings, and this distinguished corps, 
" whose gallantry he has so often witnessed in the 
" field, if he did not express the great satisfaction he 
** felt in assuming the command of this island, to find 
" at his first and last inspection, that the same cxcel- 
" lent system, discipline, steadiness under arms, and 
" interior arrangements existed in time of peace, which 
" had been the means of gaining them so great honour 
" ill time of war. 

" In wishing Major Simmonds, the officers and 
" soldiers of the regiment, a prosperous and speedy 
" voyage to England, the major-general must express 
" his warm acknowledgment to the former for the 
" anxious zeal displayed by him while in command of 
" the regiment; to the officers for the able support 
*' they have given him, * and which is so essential to 
" ' the well-being of any corps,' and to tlic noii-com- 
" missioned officers and privates, who merit all the 
" praise he can bestow, and who, in quitting the 
" colony, leave behind them the regrets and good 
" wishes of all classes, which of itself, after a resi- 
" dence of eleven years, is sufficient proof of the good 
" system, discipline, and general respectability of a 
" corps." 



1840 In consequence of meeting with stress of weather in 
the British Channel, Her Majesty's sliip "Jupiter" put 
into the Cove of Cork, on the 4th of Murcli, 1840, and 
was towed over to Southampton, l)y the steam-frigate 
" Cyclops," having on 1)oard the depot companies from 
Ireland. The whole regiment landed at Southampton 
on the 12th of March, and proceeded l)y railroad to 
Wincliester; where it was inspected by Major-General 
♦he Honorable Sir Hercules Pakenham, commanding the 



Tim HIXTY-KIRST FOOT. 



51 



South-West district, and subsequently by Lord Hill, 1810 
the General Commanding in Chief, Iwth of whom were 
pleased to express their entire approbation of its ap- 
pearance, discipline, and interior economy. 

In August following it was removed to Woolwich, 
and performed the dockyard duties there, and at 
Deptford, until the summer of the following year. 

General the Right Honorable Sir George Hewett, 
Bart., G.C.B., died a few days after the arrival of the 
regiment in England, and Her Majesty was pleased to 
confer the colonelcy of the regiment on Major-General 
Sir John Gardiner, K.C.B., Deputy Adjutant-General 
of the Forces. 

In June 1841, the regiment proceeded by railroad 1841 
to the Northern district, and was detached in the coun- 
ties of Northumberland, York, and Lancaster. 

In consequence of the reverses sustained by the 
British troops in Affghanistan, in the winter of 1841, 
the Sixty-first Regiment was ordered to recruit to 
the Indian establishment of one thousand rank and file, 
and to prepare, with the Fifty-eighth Regiment, to 
embark for India. 

The successful camj^aign of the following season, 1842 
and the withdrawal of t. <i troops from the AiFglian 
territory, occasioned an alter...tion in the destination of 
the regiment. 

In August, 1842, two companies, under the com- 
mand of Major Burnside, were called upon ])y the civil 
authorities of Halifax, to suppress a formidable and 
organised riot which broke out in that town: numbers of 
the rioters had assembled from the adjacent towns, and 
were so confident in their strength and numbers as 
to attack a party of the Eleventh Hussars, several of 
whom were severely injured. The detachment of the 
SiXTV-FiiiST Regiment was fired on by the mob, and 
Captain Iloey and five men were wounded with slu^ 



igs. 



52 



HISTORICAL RECORD UV 



1842 Tlie order was then given to the Military to fire, when 
the peace of the town was speedily restored. The 
owners and occupiers of the mills and other property 
at Halifax, and in the neighbourhood, conveyed a vote 
of thanks to Major Bumside for his services on this 
occasion. 

1843 In March, 1843, the regiment was directed to fur- 
nish, by volunteers, two hundred men to the Ninety- 
eightlj Regiment, in China: the required number were 
immediately produced; and the detachment embarked 
on the 1st of April, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, for Winches- 
ter, to join the depot of the Ninety-eighth Regiment. 

In the spring of 1843, the regiment proceeded by 
railway to Carlisle, where it embarked for Ireland, and 
landed at Dublin on the Gth of April; and was shortly 
afterwards inspected by Lieutenant-General the Right 
Honorable Sir Edward Blakeney, Commander of the 
Forces in Ireland, who was pleased ^-o express his 
approbation of the appearance of the regiment in the 
field, and of its conduct in quarters. 

On the 3rd June, five companies, under the com- 
mand of Major Mc Leod, embarked on board of Her 
Majesty's steamer " Rhadamanthus" for Waterford, 
on a particular service: the detachment landed on the 
following day, and re-inforced the garrison in barracks 
until the Gth June, when it re-embarked and returned 
to Dublin. 

During the stay of the regiment in the garrison 
of Dublin, Lieutenant- Colonel Forbes died after a 
protracted illness. This distinguished officer had com- 
manded the Sixty-first Regiment five years, and by 
his impartial and temperate exercise of authority, he 
had rendered hinr elf respected and beloved by all who 
had the good fortune to serve under his command. 
Upon bis decease, Major Henry Bumside was promoted 
to the lieutenant-colonelcy on the 9th May, 1843. 



THE 8IXTY-PIRBT FOOT. 



53 



Id 



In July, 1843, the regiment proceeded from Dublin 1843 
to Limerick, where it is stationed at the commencement 
of the year 1844, to which period this record of its 
services is brought. 

On the 20th January, 1844, Her Majesty was 1844 
pleased to remove Lieutenant-Qeneral Sir John Gar- 
diner from the Sixty-first to the Fiftieth Regiment, 
in succession to Lieutenant-General Sir Hudson Lowe, 
deceased, and to appoint Major-General Sir Jeremiah 
Dickson, K.C.B., to the colonelcy of the Sixty-first 
Regiment. 

Few regiments have been engaged in services which 
have called into exercise the moral and physical ener- 
gies of the officers and soldiers to a greater extent than 
the duties in which the Sixty-first Regiment has 
been employed; and none have displayed the heroic 
virtues of the British military character more fully 
than this meritorious corps. 

Whether at the Fort of St. Piiilif, in Minorca, — 
in the valley of the Tagus, at Talavf.ra, — on the 
plains of Salamanca, — on the lofty Pyrenees, — or 
in the southern provinces of France, the same valour, 
constancy, patience, and perseverance, have shone 
forth with a splendour which has elevated the reputa- 
tion of the corps; and its conduct in quarters has also 
elicited the connnendations of the general officers 
under whom it has served. Deriving its origin from 
the Third Regiment of Foot, or the Buffs, the Sixty- 
first Regiment has inherited the same spirit which 
animated the officers and soldiers of that veteran corps 
during the wars of three centuries. 



1844. 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS 

OF 

THE SIXTY-FIRST, 

OB, 

THE SOUTH GLOUCESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OF 

F GOT. 



Granville Elliott. 
Appointed 21 st April, 1758. 

Granville Elliott served with distinction in the army 
of the Emperor of Germany, and returned to England with 
the reputation of a brave and experienced officer; he was 
admitted into the British service, by King George II., in 
1758, with the rank of major-general, and was appointed 
colonel of the Sixty-first Regiment, on its formation from 
the second battalion of the Third Foot, or the Buffs. He 
commanded a brigade, under Charles, Duke of Marlborough, 
in the expedition to St. Maloes in 1758; and .afterwards 
proceeded to Germany, where he served as major-general, 
under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. His experience in 
continental service induced him to suggest to the British 
government the advantage of having a considerable portion 
of light cavalry in the army. The subject was previously 
under consideration, and the formation of regiments of light 
dragoons was commenced in the following year. He died in 
Germany in 1759. 

George Gray. 

Appointed IQth July, 1759. 

George Gray was many years an officer in the house- 
hold caval-y, and in July, 1749, he was promoted lieutenant- 



5G 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 




It 



colonel of the first troop, now first regiment, of Life Guards. 
In 1759, King George II. rewarded him with the colonelcy 
of the SiXTY-FinsT llegiment, from which ho was removed, 
in 176fi, to the Thirty-seventh. He was promoted to the 
rank of major-general in 1761» and to that of lieut.-general 
in 1770. He died in 1773. 

John Gore. 
Appointed Qtk May^ 1768. 

The early services of this officer were in the third regi- 
ment of Foot Guards, in which corps he was promoted captain 
and lieutenant-colonel, in 17^0, first major, with the rank of 
colonel, in 1760, and lieutenant-colonel in 1771- On the 10th 
of July, 1762, he was advanced to the rank of major-general; 
and in 1768 he was nominated to tlie colonelcy of the Sixty- 
FinsT Regiment : in 1772 he was promoted to the rank of 
lieut.-general, and was removed to the Sixth Foot in February 
of the following year. He died in November, 1773. 

John Barlow. 
Appointed 19th February, 1773. 

John Barlow was many years an officer in the Third 
regiment of foot, or the Buffs, with which corps he served at 
the battle of Dettingen. He was promoted captain of a 
company on the 22nd of February, 1745, and afterwards 
served with the Buffs at the battles of Fontenoy, Falkirk, 
and Culloden; also at the battle of Val in 1747- I« 1755 
he was promoted major of the Buffs, and on the formation of 
the Sixty-first Regiment, from the second battalion of the 
Third Foot, he was nominated to the lieut. -colonelcy of that 
corps, which ho commanded in the expedition to the West 
Indies, and distinguished himself on several occasions at the 
reduction of Guadaloupe in 1759. His services were re- 
warded with the colonelcy of the regiment in 1773; and in 
August, 1777> he was promoted to the rank of major general. 
He died in 1778. 



SIJ 



CCES%ION OV COLONELS. 



57 



Staates Long Mou.uss. 

Appointed Uth May. 177B. ^ ^ ^ 

T.„s office, served ^^^^^^ ^^ "^^ ^^ IJ^e 
George II.; was P-n-ted to U ^^^ .^ ^^.^ ^^ ^, 
Thirty-sixth Regiment ;« ^^^^'J^^ ^j^^,,,, nnder Charles, 
,„.ployod in the exped.t.on to St. ^^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^^. 

Dulco of Marlborough "y; /„ ,f ^hich he was ap- 

„.ation of the l^^^S^^ V" \Sant in (3ctober, 1759 : he 
pointed lieutenaut-c.lone— ^^,3^ ^,,, ,t was 

Urved at the head of tl"« J ,,„^ „f cohmel m 

disbanded. He was V^^^^^.^l^^^ . ^.d in the following 
1772 ; to that of -«J-S7;^ XelcV of the Sxxxv-..usx 
year he was nominated to the . ^^ Ueut.-geueval 

Regiment. He was advanced to the .^ ^^^^ 

fnV, and to that of general m 1796. 

Sxu George Hewett, Bart., G.C.B. 

A«»oin<.^ 4<A April, 1800. 

«« many years an officer of the 
GEonGK Hewett .^^« J";"^ ^^^ ,oted to the rank 
SeventiethFoot, in w neh c r^ he w ^ J^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ 

of captain in June, 1775, *n^ December. 1781, he 

during the war o^ -^^P-^^^^^^^^ 

.as promoted to a -^J^f ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ and was advanced to 
.hich corps he served -^^J ^^^ ^^ . j^ May, 1796, he was 
the rank of colonel .n ^^^^ ' ^^^^^^ and on the 5th 

promoted to the rank of '"^^'^^^ ^^^ commandant of the 
August. 1799, he was «;-"^^;^; ^ 1800, King George III. 
second battalion of the Fifth Foot g^^.^.^^RsT Regi- 

Inferred upon him the ^^^^^^J^^^^^, also in the West 
™ent. He served m th«^-\;^^ ,J lieut.-general m Sep- 
Indies; was promoted to th a" ^^ ^^^ Recruitmg 

tember, 1803- "^^ J^^te'coUence^^^^^ of tl. vvar 
Department m 1803, and a ^^, ^is orders all the 

.ith France, the Government pla-d ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^, 

Irpsraised under the P-^^JJ^^^^^ I Ireland ; and m 
He^assubsequen^y^^^^^^^^ in the East 

1806 he was appomteu ^, 

61 



58 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



Indies, the duties of which important situation he performed 
five years. On the 4th of June, 1813, he was promoted to 
the rank of general, and in November of the same year he 
was created a baronet : he was afterwards honoured with the 
dignity of Knight Grand Cross of the most honourable Order 
of the Bath. He performed the duties of barrack-master- 
general for a short period. He was of a kind and benevolent 
disposition, was highly esteemed for his social virtues, and 
distinguished as a benefactor to the poor. He took an in- 
terest in the Sixty-fibst Regiment, of which he was colonel 
forty years, and expressed a wish to see his corps once more ; 
but took his bed on the day it landed at Southampton, from 
the island of Ceylon, and died on the 21st of March, 1840, 
at his seat at Freemantle Park, near Southampton. He was 
a member of the privy council for Ireland at the time of his 
decease. 

Sib John Gardiner, K.C.B. 
Appointed 30th March, 1840. 
Removed to the Fiftieth Regiment in 1844. 



Sir Jeremiah Dickson, K.C.B. 
Appointed 20th January, 1844. 



APPENDIX. 

, ,.fn March of a Detachmenl of Troops- .."*'■ 

I xnmvED in Hi. Majesty « «^»'P f^^^^ j,,y, igOl, after 
Sind, at Cosscir, from Mocha on the 14 
a paUge, against tke monsoon of two .^ ^^^^.^^^^ 

J.i^ I7th.--I was oi^^^^- I ^.y,^ , distance of 

„,arch across the ^-J^\lS ^ -Y -'"-^"'^ '?' T '^t 
about 130 m leB, a-^^^^^^,;^^^^ ReoLcnt, and a detaehnu^nt 
,Ues of His Majesty sbixTVjm ^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ,^ 

of His Majesty s Tenth Bc^gm^e^^,^ 
smanpartyoftheE^ghthL^^^tl rag ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ , 

582 soldiers;-twenty b^x s J ^^^^^ ^^^^,, of up-d^ 
under my escort The im ^^^^^ camel-dn>trs, 

of 850 men, including Indian 

&c., ^^' , „n mv iournal of the very fatiguing 

Before I F^'^^f ^^^^^^T/ention a few observations upon 

„.arch I underwent 1 shall ^^^^^^J^ ., ^,n known as a 

Cosseir, in Upper EgyP • J^ ^^^^, ^.^.erable spots m 

of UPF' Eaypt. A^""' ' ^'^,,\;,,cr» tl.e Indian arn,y »=« 
t^Jara of it, «a» the g onnd > ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^„,^ a 

arid, not a Uado of any k« d » /^ „^„Un '-and the weaned 
vvhich bound the m^w ^ g 



CO 



APPENDIX. 



country appears quite unfit for the existence of human 
beings : nature baa furnished it with no sources of fresh 
water, and that indispensable necessary of life is only to be 
obtained by digging wells in the sand, into which oozos a 
kind of bitter salt water, the most offensive thing to the taste 
imaginable; and its effects arc no less noxious, — as people 
who drink it are always (at first) attacked with a violent 
vomiting and purging, which is accompanied by the nvist 
intolerable and burning thirst. Oui soldiers wore nearly to 
a man, in a more or less degree, afflicted with this disease, 
and though it only proved fatal to a few, still it handled very 
roughly all those who were under tlio necessity of using this 
detestable water. The heat when 1 was at Cosseir was 
almost intolerable. Provisions were plentiful and cheap, — 
the fish excellent ; but although i\w i::habitai)ts possess as 
fine wheat as any in Europe, tlieir bread w;i3 detestablf, 
being a kind of dough cake half-baked, or rath- r burnt, in 
the du)^ty I'-ihes. 

July inth. — Every preparation having been in^.^lo, I 
marched at six o'clock, p.m., >vith the troops, I'olli/vvers, 
drivers, &c., a** already stated; avkd our lino of inarch was 
considerably iucreaseJ by a number of asses, the property of 
individuals, wIjo had loaded these useful animals with an 
independent supply of water. We continued our route, 
keeping a large range of n^cky and burnt-up hills on our 
left ; a very fine moon shono only to render this dreary scene 
the more awful ; the setting ssun brought us little, if any, 
relief as to heat. After marching; about five miles we came to 
some springs, or rather a black rivulet of water, very bitter, 
which crosses the valley through which the road leads. I 
endeavoured in vain to prevent the soldiers from drinking of 
this infernal brook ; thirst was too imperious^ and I soon 
four d that my orders had been disregarded by all the rear. 
Many of the men soon felt the ill effects of their folly, and 
began to fall back faint and oppressed, and this was much 
aggravated by the very extraordinary closeness of the boat : 
what air did exist, was like the breathing of a furnace. 

At twelve o'clock we reached the new wells. I reckon 
the distance about thirteen miles, where I found a subal- 
tern officer and a few Sepoys stationed to take charge of, 
and protect them. After placing the necessary guards, &c.. 



APPENDIX. 



61 



I ordered the detachment to lie down, and we enjoyed a most 
refreshing repose for about three hours. At this time the 
captain of the rear-guard came up, and reported that a great 
many stragglers were still behind. 

I ordered the drums to beat half an hour before day, 
when tlio camp was pitched, and the men sheltered from 
the sun, which rciso with a most blazing and fiery aspect. 
From nii'ijnglit, imtil a little after sunrise, the air in the 
desert is del i<j;htf ally <•(. >! and refreshing (I mean compa- 
ratively witli tlx: iCSt v\' i .iC twenty-four hours); nature, I 
suppo .;», has kindly ordained this comfort to the unfortunate 
traveliers, and still more miserable inhabitants of this dreary 
waste. 

yfuli/ J9th. — It vvas ?^te in the day when all our strag- 
glers oame up. I was much c(mccrned to find that the mus- 
saclcs* (or w.ftor-bags) had leaked considerably, and that I 
should bo unci:", the nocessity of replenishing them from the 
wells of this poSt. I must hero observe, that General Baird 
had caused, both at this and other posts on the desert, wells 
to be dug, in order to procxire a supply of that greatest of 
all necessaries of life (in such a climate as this) — water. In 
these scanty sources, it was thick and muddy; however, 
oven this, could we have obtained it in abundance, would 
have been reckoned a luxury ; but, alas ! a very limited 
supply was all wo could get: therefore, at half-past five, p.m., 
I inarched. We passed for some hours through a long and 
winding valley; high, brown, rugged mountains, with here 
and there a solitary eagle perched upon a projecting crag, 
were the only gloomy objects that presented themselves. 
We continued our route northerly, through the same desolate 
wilderness, and at one o'clock I judged it necessary to halt ; 
but this halting-place was not to be distinguished from any 
accommodations, not from a spring or rivulet of water, not 
from any shelter from the scorching sun, and more suffocating 
hot wind, but it became a place of repose merely from the 
total incapacity of the troops to move a mile further: hero 
then I ordered the baggage to be unloaded, and the detach- 
ment to lie down to rest. I never suffered the tents to be 



* Mussacks are largo leatlieni bags made so as to 'lold water, 
and are placed on the backs of camels like panniers. 



(52 



APPENDIX. 



pitched until just before sunrise, as I found tho soldiers 
always inarched more refreshed by letting them take their 
rest the instant they halted, than to undergo the fatigue and 
confusion of pitching their tents in the dark. No di-w falls 
in the desert ; the air is so greedy of moisture, that the least 
wet is instantly absorbed, and sleeping in the open air was 
here a luxury. 

J^dy 20th. — I was much grieved at daylight to find that 
about forty men were still behind. I trembled at tho horrors 
these poor fellows would be exposed to, should they be left 
destitute and forlorn in the desert. After seriously reflecting 
upon this most melancholy circumstance, I sent for the chief 
Arab, who, as a kind of sclieik, had some sort of control over 
the camel-drivers, and ordered him to eollcct some of the 
principal ones; as soon as they came to my tent, I told them 
the apprehensions I was under, and proposed to them to 
return in the track we had come the day before for at least 
seven miles, and promised to reward them lfl)orally for every 
soldier they should bring up. All their attention was called 
forth by the mention of money, and they became eager to be 
useful. Twenty camels set off, and my brother, Captain 
Frederick Bailow, SiXTY-FinsT Regiment, very humanely 
volunteered, notwithstanding the Intolerahle heat, to attend 
the camels. I filled a cag with a mixture of port wine and 
water, which he took with him, and it proved of the most 
essential service. At the distance of from four to six miles 
from camp, he picked up twenty-one poor exhausted fainting 
wretches, who, without this assistance, must have died in a 
very few hours : some not able to speak, and the whole 
totally incapable (»f walking a step further. One fine lad in 
particular, was so far gone, as to lay stretched out on the 
sand as if expiring ; but upon pouring some of the wine and 
water down his throat, he gradually recovered, and he was 
brought into camp in a man's arms on a camel. Water, and 
afterwards some wine, soon restored him to sufficient strength 
to enable him to proceed on a camel, with other sick men, 
that afternoon : before two o'clock all the absentees got into 
camp. This day we contrived to dine tolerably well; but 
for want of water to wet the bags, our wine was as hot as 
milk immediately from the cow, — the water we had to <lriiik 
■was the same, therefore to quench our thirst was impossible. 



Al'PKNDIX. 



68 



At half an hour past nine I marched, and we had not pro- 
ceeded two miles, the heat absolutely suffocating, when we 
were met by a convoy of camels, loaded with most excellent 
water. This very seasonable supply had been forwarded to 
us from Moila, owing to my having sent on to the officer 
commanding at that post, to say how distressed I was for 
water from the leakage of our niussacks. Many of the sol- 
diers quitted their ranks, and eagerly ran up to the camels to 
seiicc upon the water. I had no little difficulty in restraining 
them. I even told the officers to acquaint their men, that I 
would not permit the camels to be unloaded if the least 
irregularity took place. This had an immediate cffiict ; and 
ns the detachment stood in o])en column of half companies, 
the whole, in less than an hour, were regularly served with 
an ample supply, besides filling their canteens ; as this water 
came in largo earthern jars, it was quite cool, and had such 
an astonishing effijct upon the troops, that wo were enabled 
to get on with great vigour, and at half-past one on the 2l8t 
of July, we reached Moila. 

This extraordinary spot is situated in a ravine between 
steep and rugged rocks, and is uncommonly romantic. Here, 
then, I found it absolut<ily necessary to halt, that is, to 
remain till the evening of the ti2i\d, as the men stood in the 
greatest need of a little repose. In the course of the day 
many Arabs came to the camp with various articles of provi- 
sions for sale. Mutton we received as rations in abundance, 
— indeed at every post in the desert where water was to be 
had, even in the smallest quantity. General Baird had made 
depots of provisions; therefore we had only to carry the 
necessary supply for those halting-places where no water 
icm to he found. All our stragglers reached the camp before 
two P.M. of this day. 

July 22nd. — 1 this day ordered the men to wash their per- 
sons, and otherwise to put themselves into as clean and good 
order as circumstances would permit. At six o'clock p.m. 
we marched. The road leads through a most romantic 
valley; at about six miles' distance, under some craggy rocks 
on the left hand, are three wells or springs of water. Three 
miles from these are the nine mile wells, where we arrived 
at about ten p.m. Here I found an officer and a party of 
Sepoys, but was informed by him, that my detachment was 



CA 



Al'PKNUlX- 



.>muncrous '. would ^^;^j;'Zy^Xv^ZJ^ 
,vaH postod at; and the -f 7i",,,,ehed, and just before 
bo got from them. ^'^'\^'\^,^,^, proved to bo a ion. 

We continued our route o^^^^^^^^ J;„,,„ ,vere excessively 
.vaste for seven bour« wlu.nl found ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

fatigued. AcH^ordmg y { J^_;7;ji,tance between the mnc 
bad not arrived at ^l^^^-''^l% down upon a large and 
„,ile wells and Logattah. AVe U y ^^ ^^^^^ , ^j^^ , 

extensive desert plam, and at (^^^ - '^^„,,i or - omedary 

iCtched. n-^t£t^' '«^-'^ «^^*'^""^' ''"^' 
to Legattah with a lette > ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ,^^^ 

requesting him to send a up >y ^^ ^^ ^.^ ,,,, g able to 
„,areb to that place; 7^';^ .^d the nninsaeks before I 
comply with my request, I nnpt^^ ^^^ ^^.^st we had 

cfttb- clreary ^-^\-^"^'^;" 'birched from this abomi- 
asyet experienced. ^ ^ ^^r six hours' march the men 

nable and bum ng ^r** , ^^ fto,n the want of water, and I 
Lean to complain f ^«^«"^ y/^er at Legattah had not 

confess I almost f-^^;;\ tX-l^«^'^^^""'%'^''r"t 
found it possible to -"d a supi^^ i„,,pressible f if f ^ ^ 
a little aft^r midmght, I haa t j _^j^^ ^.^t thing 
; ceive a large «-«'\?^"*'"?, rglittering of the Sepoys 
Tat attracted my -^'^'^llZV\^!^onr,--y^^^^^^ F^^^^ *" 
arms, the moon shining m groa sp^l^o ^^.^^^^ ^ ^ 

Ttienty-eight c-^^^^f ' ^^^^^^^^^ when I rode along 
expressthesensations of our po ^^^ ^^^^^, ,. „ 

th! line of '"a-^\*^""^"^''";^^^^^ 

front. I halted, and upon inquiry ^^^^^^^ .^ ^,^ ^^ i^ 

ad fallen behind ; after Bupply"^g * ^^^ ,,,en camels 

t!ly, I caused a captains g"-^;;^; \t and unloaded camel 
Toad of water, together wih ev ry g _^^ ^^^^^ ,, ^r^ng up 

U could spare to ---" ^^^^ ^^^ that those able to march 
the stragglers. 1 then told tl r ^^^^^^,^ ^^^^ ^ ^ ,^ a 

„,gUtgoonwith m,^^^^^^^^^^ aistant "j- ^ ^ J, 1^^ 
to push on tor i^e^'^" >^ capable ot proctt h 

the treasure and those of the trooi 1 ^^.^ ^^^^^ la 
To my great surprise, ajmos the w ^^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

LcWrom the comfortable JP^J^;^^^^^ ,^,,,,,,e, after 



APPENDIX. 



(55 



tornn, ono Burgeon, tho water and camels aa ahovo stated, I 
continued my route, and after two hours' march had the 
natiHfuction to come in night of thv lights of TiOgattah cam)i. 
80 fatiguing was this forced inarch, th;it I was frequently 
in dangf^r of falling from my horse from sleep. An officer of 
tho Tenth Regiment f<-11 from an ass he rode, and hurt himself 
conHiderably. I got in just Ijcforo the dawn of day, af/ of uh 
excwdxTnyly exhausted; and it was not until three p.m. that 
tho captain with the rear-guard and stragglers came up; 
this made it impossihl ■ for mo to leave the camp until tho 
evening following, — the poor fellows who dro])jH'd in during 
tho day, jianting and fainting, wore incapable of further 
exertions. Tho thermometer in my tent was here at 114°. 

At Legattah wo found a largo detachment of Sepoys, 
under Captain Mahony, of tho Seventh Bombay Regiment : 
ho behaved to us in the most attentive and liberal manner. 
Wo were supplied with every necessary by this officer; and 
ho fulfilled the duties of his post, not to the strict letter of 
his orders, but to the fullest extent of every humane and 
hospitable construction of them. Tho ensuing march t(» 
Buramba was to bo a very long one ; and I found it necessary 
to make it in two, as follows: at six p.m. of tho 2()th, we 
loft Legattah, and continued our route for six hours and a 
half by my watch, when I ordered the detachment to halt, 
caused the treasure camels to be unloaded, and directed 
tho rest with tho tents, baggage, sick, &c., to proceed on 
Buramba. I then ordered the detachment to be served with 
plenty of water, when we all lay down and enjoyed three 
hours' most refreshing sleep. A little before day the drums 
boat, tho treasure was reloaded, and we proceeded, and 
arrived at Buramba at six a.m. of the 27th. Here we first 
saw verdure: this agreeable prospect opened to us imme- 
diately upon the dawn of day, and infused spirit into every- 
body. This village seemed to us a little paradise, and, like 
sailors arrived at a shore of plenty and ease, after the perils 
of shipwreck, distress, and want, was looked upon by all as 
a blessed haven. At noon I despatched an officer with a 
report to General Baird, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian 
army, who was at Kene on the Nile, of my having reached 
Buramba without the loss of a single man; and at two o'clock 
A.M. on the 28tli. I marched (having previously at midnight 

Gl P 



fjf5 



APPENDIX. 



sent on tho tents and bnggago). Shortly after daylight we 
passed two niiserahlc Arab villagos; wo then found ouraelvoi 
in cultieated ground, and were eagerly looking out for the 
glorious Nile, whoso direction wo could easily trace from the 
duto-trees and vegetation api)arcnt upon its banks, although 
wo could not see that noble river; shortly afterwards we got 
sight of Kene, and a mile or two from it wcro met by 
(ienoral Daird and his suite. Me ordered mo to proceed to 
the banks of the Nile, and at seven o'clock we encamped 
about a quarter of a mile westward of tho town of Kene, and 
fifteen yards from the brink of the river. One cannot picture 
tho joy wo all felt lit arriving amongst our brother soldiers, 
after tho ten days of uncommon fatigue wo had just 
oxjieriencod. Kene abounded with every kind of provision, 
such as mutton, poultry, fish, milk, vegetables, &c., tho 
whole at the most reasonable rates. Tho heat in this eau)]) 
was excessive, certainly greater than at Cosseir. The General 
ordered tho troops to be in readiness to embark in d'jirms, 
already collected to convey tho army down tho Nile, and 
which were to rendezvous at Cairo, where the Ooncral meant 
to collect all his army, in order to carry it entire to Rosetta, 
from which place ho could make every arrangement for our 
junction with tho English army before Alexandria. We 
embarked on the 2nd of August ; the SixTV-PinsT Regiment, 
about 900 strong, was allowed seventeen d'jirms, and fell 
«lown with the current. Tho distance to Cairo is about 400 
miles. Wo arrived at that celebrated place on tho 11th. 
Tho army encamped on the island of Rhoda on tho Nile, 
between Cairo and Gaza; and on the 28th, tho whole being 
collected, we re-enibarked and proceeded towards Roaetta; 
and on the .Slst we landed and encamped at El Ilamcd, 
four miles to the southward of that town; two days after 
which the General changed his camp to Aboumandour, so 
called from the tower which stands just above the Nile, about 
one mile and a quarter to the S.E. of Rosetta: it was from 
this tower that Pousseilgue made such accurate remarks upon 
the memorable battle between the English and French fleets 
in Aboukir Bay. 

.1. J. Barlow, 
Lieut -Colonel, Gist Re(jiment, 



APPENDIX. 

SIXTY-FIRST REGIMENT. 
Return of i .^blalties during; the Peninsular War, from 1809 to 1814. 



67 











Total LoM. 1 




NAMU-S OF 


OFFICERS. 




1 


Place and Dato 










J 


. 




of Action. 








1 


a 


1 


Rank 
and 








Killed. 


Wounded. 




_ 


t 


1 


File. 






Major R. J. Coghlon 














Captain A. Hartley 
















„ W. Furnace 












Buttle of 

ni^AI AVITBA 


Major II. F. Orpen 


„ J. Laing 
„ D. Goodman 


KlUad 


3 




1 


46 


87th and 28th 
.fuly, 1801). 


Captain II. James 


Lieut. G. Collins 


Wounded 


11 


io 


. . 


186 


Lieut. D. J. llomiis 


„ II. T. Tench 
„ G. Mc Lean 


MlMing 


•• 




. a 


16 






„ J. Given 
















Ensign W. Brackenbnry 
















Adjutant II. Drew 












Storming the 






Killed -i 
and \ 










Forts at 




Captain J. Owen 




1 




1 i% 


Salamanca, 




Lieut. J. Given 




2 


1 




12 


22nd June, 1812. 






WoundedJ 














Major J. Downing (died) 
















Captain 8. FavcU (died) 
















„ J. Oke 
















„ W. Mc Leod 
















„ W. Greene 
















Lieut. S. Folkner 














Lieut.-CoI. F. Burlow 


„ II. Daniel 












Battle of 

Salamakca, 

22nd July, 1812. 


Captain G. Stubbs 


„ J. Chapman 












„ P. B. P. Ilorton 


„ J. Chipchase 


Killed 


6 


3 


1 


36 


Lieut. A. Chawncr 
„ J. Parker 


„ T. Gloster 
„ N. Furnace 


Wounded 


18 


22 


1 


280 




Ensign II. Bere 


„ J. CoUis 
„ J. Wolfe 
„ W. Brackenbury 
„ J. Royal 
„ A. Toole 
Ensign W. White 
„ J. F. Singleton 












Siege of the 
Castle of 
BuRoos, 




Lieut. G. Stuart 


Killed 
and 


I 






10 


in October, 1812. 






Wounded. 











G8 



APPENDIX. 



Place and Date 
of Action. 


NAMES OF OFFICERS. 




Total Loss. 1 


1 


1 
I 


1 


Rank 
and 
FUe. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Battle of the 

Pyrenees, 

28th July, 1813. 




Captain E. Charleton 

„ G. Mc Lean 
Lieut. J. Wolfe 
„ G. O'Kearney 


Killed \ 

and > 

WoundedJ 


4 




• • 


70 

82 
8 


Battle of the 

Nl/ELLE, 

10th Nov., 1813. 


Captain W. H. Furnace 
Lieut. C. KeUet 


Captain J. Horton 
„ M. Annesley 
„ H. Eccles 

Lieut. R. Belton 
„ A. Toole 


KUlcd \ 

and > 

WoundedJ 


7 


5 


Battle of the 

NiVE, 

9th Dec, 1813. 




Captain W. Greene 
„ E. Charleton 


Killed \ 

and \ 

WoundedJ 


2 






Battle of 

Orthes, 

27th Feb., 1814. 






KUled \ 

and \ 

WoundedJ 


•• 


1 


• • 


10 
4 


At Tarbes, 
:8t March, 1814. 






Wounded 




» • 




At Grenada, 
2nd March, 1814. 






Killed 
Wounded 


. . 


•• 


• • 


1 
4 


Battle of 

Toulouse, 

loth April, 1814. 


Lieut. -CoL R. J.Coghlan 
Lieut, n. Arden 
Ensign W. A. Favell 


Lieut.-Col. J. Oke 

Captain W. Greene 
„ E. Charleton 

Lieut. A. Porteus 
„ N. Furnace 
„ T. Gloster 
„ D. O'Kearney 
„ J. Wolfe 
„ E. Gaynor 
„ W. White 
„ J. Harris 
„ G. Stewart 
„ J. II. Ellison 

Ensign J. Wright 
„ C. Eccles 
„ S. Bartlett 


Killed 
Wounded 


3 
16 


1 

7 




13 
140 



rotal Loss. 



Rank 
and 
File. 



70 



2 . . . . 



82 



10 



13 
140