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1 2 3
/ - _
HiiMAJEBw has been pleased to command that
with a view of doing the fuUest justice to Regi-
inent., as weU as to Individuab who have «£-
tingUMhed themselves by their Braveiy in Action
witft ^ Enemy, to Account of the Semoes of
e^ Re^meat in the British Arihy shall be pub-
li&ed under the superintendent and direction of
the Adjufittl^General ; and that this Account shaU
contain the foUowing jmrticulars, viz. :—
-~ The FarM and Circumstances of the
On^nd Formation of the Regiment; The Stations
at which It has been from time to time employed ;
l^Jatti^, Sieges, and othe^ )^lilitaiy Operations
m i^h It has been engaged, particulariy specifyinir
any Achievement it may have peribrmed. and the
theSm ^^^^^" ^ "^^^ ^P*""^ ^^
— - The Names of the^ Officers a&d the number
Of ^^on-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed
or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the Place
and Date of the Action. ' ^ ^ ^ "^ '^^^^
— The Names of those Officers who, in con-
sideration of their Gallant Services and Meritorious
Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy, have
heen distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.
The Names of all such Officers, Non-Com-
missioned Officers, and Privates, as may have
specially signalized themselves in Action.
■ The Badges and Devices which the Regi-
ment may have been permitted to bear, and the
Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices,
or any other Marks of Distinction, have been
By Command of the Right Honourable
GENERAL LORD HILL,
•V -i' ,;;■,. .^V-'«''
The character and credit of the British Army must
chiefly depend upon the zeal and ardour by which
all who enter into its service are animated, and
consequently it is of the highest importance that any
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation,
by which alone great and gallant actions are achieved,
should be adopted.
Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment
of this desirable object than a full display of the
noble deeds with which the Military History of our
country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier,
and thus to incite him to emulate the meritorious
conduct of those who have preceded him in their
honourable career, are among the motives that have
given rise to the present publication.
The operations of the British Troops are, indeed,
announced in the " London Gazette," from whence
they are transferred into the public prints : the
achievements of our armies are thus made known at
the time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute
of praise and admiration to which they are entitled.
On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of Parliament
have been in the habit of conferring on the Com-
manders, and the Officers and Troops acting under
their orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks
for their skill and bravery ; and these testimonials,
confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's
approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.
It has not, however, until late years, been the prac-
tice (which appears to have long prevailed in some of
the Continental armies) for British Regiments to keep
regular records of their services and achievements.
Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtain-
ing, particularly from the old Regiments, an au-
thentic account of their origin and subsequent services.
This defect will now be remedied, in consequence
of His Majesty having been pleased to command
that every Regiment shall, in future, keep a full and
ample record of its services at home and abroad.
From the materials thus collected, the country
will henceforth derive information as to the difficulties
and privations which chequer the career of those who
embrace the military profession. In Great Britain,
where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures,
and commerce, and where these pursuits have, for so
long a period, been undisturbed by the presence of
war, which few other countries have escaped, com-
paratively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which,
even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in
every part of the globe, with little or no interval of
In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which
the country derives from the industry and the enter-
prise of the agriculturist and the trader, its happy
inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect on
the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,— on
their sufferings, — and on the sacrifice of valuable
life, by which so many national benefits are obtained
The conduct of the British Troops, their valour,
and endurance, have shone conspicuously under great
and trying difficulties ; and their character has been
established in Continental warfare by the irresistible
spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the
gallantry and steadiness with which they have main-
tained their advantages against superior numbers.
In the official Reports made by the respective Com-
manders, ample justice has generally been done tp
the gallant exertions of the Corps employed ; but
the details of their services and of acts of individual
j - _T - .. )f, .fcj y 'yi.^>.' ^- ;.
bravery, can only be fully ^ven in the Annals of the
These Records are now preparing for publication,
under His Majesty's special authority, by Mr.
Richard Gannon, Principal Cleric of the Adjutant
General's Office ; and while the perusal of them can-
not fail to be useful and interesting to military men
of every rank, it is considered that they will also
afford entertainment and information to the general
reader, particularly lo those who may have served in
the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.
There exists in the breasts of most of those who
have served, or are serving, in the Army, an Esprit
de Corps — an attachment to everything belonging
to their Regiment ; to such persons a narrative of
the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of
the great, the valiant, the loyal, have always been
of paramount interest with a brave and civilized
people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes
who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood
" firm as the rocks of their native shore ;" and when
half the World has been arrayed against them, they
have fought the battles of their Country with un-
shaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,-^victories so complete and sur-
prising, gained by our countrymen, our brothers.
'.ni^ii-w 'm,n-- iw »*•'. ■ ■ "-ii(«
our fellow-citizeni in arms, — a record which revivei
tlie memory of .the bravei and brings their galhint
deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to
Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other
distinguished Officers will be introduced in the
Records of their respective Regiments, and the
Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testify-
ing the value and importance of its services, will be
faithfully set forth.
As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record
of each Regiment will be printed in a distinct num-
ber, so that when the whole shall be completed, the
Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.
The natives of Britain have, at all peribds, been
celebrated for innate courage and unshaken firmness,
and the national superiority of the British troops
over those of other countries 1ms been evinced in
the midst of the most imminent perils. History con-
tains so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery,
that no doubts can be raised upon the facts which
are recorded. It must therefore be admitted, that
the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
Intrepidity. This quality was evinced by the
inhabitants of England when their country was
invaded by Julius Gwsar with a Roman army, on
which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into
the sea to attack the Roman soldiers as they de-
scended from their ships; and, although their dis-
cipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing
intimidated the flower of the Roman troops, in-
cluding Caesar's favourite tenth legion. Their arms
consisted of spears, short swords, and other weapons
^f rud^ construction. They had chariots, to the
X INTRODUCTION TO
axles of which were fastened sharp pieces of iron
resembling scythe-blades, and infantry in long
chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit,
or retreat, sprang into the chariot and drove off
with the speed of cavalry. These inventions were,
however, unavailing against Csesar's legions : in
the course of time a military system, with dis-
cipline and subordination, was introduced, and
British courage, being thus regulated, was exerted
to the greatest advantage ; a full development of
the natitfial character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.
The mihtary force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted
principally of infantry : Thanes, and other mep of
property, however, tbught on horseback. The
infantry were of two classes, heavy and light.
The former carried large shields armed with spikes,
long broad swords and spears ; and the latter
were armed with swords or spears only. They had
also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes
The feudal troops established by William the
Conqueror consisted (as already stated in the Intro-
duction to the Cavalry) almost entirely of horse;
but when the warlike barons and knights, with their
trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a pro-
portion of men appeared on foot^ and, although
these were of inferior degree, they proved stout-
hearted Britons of. stanch fidelity. When stipen-
diary troops were employed, infantry always con-
stituted a considerable portion of the military ibrce ;
and this arme has 'ice acquired, in every quarter
of the globe, a celebrity never exceeded by the
armies of any nation at any period.
The weapons carried by the ih&ntry, during the
several reigns succeeding the Conquest, were bows
and arrows, half-pikes, lances, halberds, various
kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of
time the practice became general for military men
to be so completely cased in steel, that it was
almost impossible to slay them.
The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the
destructive purposes of war, in the early part of the
fourteenth century, produced a change in the arms
and equipment of the infantry-soldier. Bows and
arrows gave place to various kinds of fire-arms, but
British archers continued formidable adversaries ;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and
imperfect bore of the fire-arms when first introduced,
a body of men, weU trained in the use of the bow
from their youth, was considered a valuable acqui-
sition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth
During a great part of the reign of Queen Eliza-
beth each company of infantry usually consisted of
men armed five different ways; in every hundred
men forty were " men-at-arms" and sixty ** shot ;**
the " men-at-arms " were ten halberdiers, or battle-
axe men, and thirty pikemen ; and the ** shot " were
twenty archers, twenty musketeers, and twenty
harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides his
principal weapon, a sword and dagger.
Companies of infantry variesd at thu period io
numbers from 150 to 300 men ; each company had
a colour or ensign, and the mode of formation re-
commended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was : — the colour in the centre of
the company guarded by the halberdiers ; the pike-
men in equal proportions, on each flank of the
halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of
the pikes ; half the archers on each flank of the mus-
keteers ; and the harquebusiers (whose arms were
much lighter than the muskets then in use) in equal
proportions on each flank of the company for skirmish-
ing.* It was customary to unite a number of com-
panies into one body, called a Regiment, which
frequently amounted to three thousand men; but
each company continued to carry a colour. Numer-
ous improvements were eventually introduced va the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found
impossible to make armour proof against the muskets
then in use (which carried a very heavy ball) without
its being too weighty for the soldier, armour was
gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seven-
teenth century : bows and arrows also fell into dis«
use, and the infantry were reduced to two classes,
viz.: musketeers, armed with matchlock muskets.
* A company of 200 men would appewr thus : —
20 2020302(0302020 20
|I*(4<>«b*>*M>Aioben.MuikeU.PIkA. Halbwdi. PikM. MotkeU. Ateharf. HarqaabuM.
The musket carried a ball which weighed lAi of a pound ; and the
harquebui a ball which weighed ^ of a pound.
swords, and daggers ; and pikemen, armed witli pikes
from fourteen to* eighteen feet long, and swords.
In the early part of the seventeenth century
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, reduced the
strength of regiments to 1000 men ; he caused the
gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in
flasks, or in small wooden bandoliers, each contain-
ing a charge, to be made up into cartridges, and
carried in pouches ; and he formed each regiment
into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of form-
ing four regiments into a brigade; and the number
of colours was afterwards reduced to three in each
regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that
his infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated
Polish horsemen and Austrian cuirassiers; and his
armies became the admiration of other nations. His
mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great
was the prejudice in favour of ancient customs, that
all his improvements were not adopted until near a
In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-
service, styled the Admiral's regiment. In 1678
each company of 100 men usually consisted of 30
pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with
light firelocks. In this year the king added a com-
pany of men armed with hand-grenades to each of
the old British regiments, which was designated the
*' grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived
as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets
similar to those at present in use were adopted about
twenty years afterwards.
An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by
order of King James II., to guard the artillery, and
was designated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th Foot).
This corps, and the companies of grenadiers^ did
not carry pikes.
King William III. incorporated the Admiral's
regiment in the Second Foot Guards, and raised
two Marine re^ments for sea-service. During the
war in this reign, each company of infantry (ex
isepting the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14
pikemen and 46 musketeers; the captains carried
pikes ; lieutenants, partisans ; ensigns, half-pikes ;
and Serjeants, halberds. After the peace in 1697 the
Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again
formed on the breaking out of the war in 1702.*
During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were
laid aside, and every infantry soldier was armed
with a musket, bayonet, and sword ; the grenadiers
ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-gren-
ades ; and the regiments were directed to lay aside
their third colour : the corps of Royal Artillery was
first added to the army in this reign.
About the year 1745, the men of the battalion
companies of infantry ceased to carry swords;
*The 30th, Sist, and S2nd Regiments were formed as Marine
corps in 1 702, and were employed as such daring the wars in the
reign of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the
Fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of
Gibraltar, and in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were aftsr-
wards employed at the siege of Barcelona in 1706.
during the reign of George II. light companies were
added to infantry regiments ; and in 1764 a Board
of General Officers recommended that the grenadiers
should lay aside their swords, as that weapon had
never been used during the seven years' war. Since
that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been
limited to the musket and bayonet.
The arms and equipment of the British troops have
seldom differed materially, since the Conquest, from
those of other European states ; and in some respects
the arming has, at certain periods, been allowed to
be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend ; yet, under this disadvantage,
the bravery and superiority of the British infantry
have been evinced on very many and most trying
occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.
Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like
champions who have dared to confront a host of
foes, and have proved themselves valiant with any
arms. At Cre^y^ King Edward III., at the head of
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August,
1346, Philip King of France, whose army is said to
have amounted to 100,000 men ; here British valour
encountered veterans of renown : — ^the King of Bo-
hemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and
nobles were slain, and the French army was routed
and cut to pieces. Ten years afterwards, Edward
Prince of Wales, who was designated the Black
Prince, defeated, at FoicHerSt with 14,000 men,
a French army of 60,000 horse, besides infan-
try, and took John I., King of France, and his son
Philip* prisoners. On the 25tb of .October, 1415»
King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000
rnen, although greatly exhausted by marches, pri-
vations, and sickness, defeated, at Agincourt^ the
Constable of France, at the head of the flower of
the French nobility and an army said to amount to
60,000 men, and gained a complete victory.
During the seventy years' war between the United
Provinces of the Netherlands and the Spanish mo-
narchy, which commenced in 1578 and terminated
in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States - General were celebrated for their uncon-
querable spirit and firmness;* and in the thirty
years' war between the Protestant Princes and the
Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the ser-
vice of Sweden and other states were celebrated for
deeds of heroism.t In the wars of Queen Anne,
the fame of the British army under the great
Marlborough was spread throughout the world ;
and if we glance at the achievements performed
within the memory of persons now living, there is
abundant proof that the Britons of the present age
are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities
* The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes : — " I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the field,
let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the Spanish
infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe. For
instances of valour displayed by the British Infisntry during the
Seventy Year'i* War, see the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or
t Vide the Historical Rec^ of the First, or Royal Regiment of
which confltitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds
of the brave men, ef whom there are many now
surviving, who fought in Egypt in 1801, under the
brave Abercromby, end compelled the French army,
which had been vainly styled Invincible, to eva-
cuate that country ; also the services of the gallant
Troops during the arduous campaigns in the Penin-
sula, under the immortal Wellington; and the
determined stand made by the British Army at
Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte, who had
long been the inveterate enemy of Great Britain,
and had sought and planned her destruction by
every means he could devise, was compelled to
leave his vanquished legions to their fate, and to
place himself at the disposal of the British Govern-
ment. These achievements, with others of recent
dates in the distant climes of India, prove that the
same valour and constancy which glowed in the
breasts of the heroes of Cre9y, Poictiers, Agincourt,
Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the
Britons of the nineteenth century.
The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust
and muscular frame, — intrepidity which no danger
can appal, — unconquerable spirit and resolution, —
patience in fatigue and privation, and cheerful obe-
dience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regu-
late and give a skilful direction to the energies and
adventurous spirit of the hero, and a wise selection
of officers of superior talent to command, whose
presence inspires confidence, — have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British
arms.* The fame of the deeds of the past and
present generations in the various battle-fields where
the robust sons of Albion have fought and conquered,
surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory ;
these achievements will live in the page of history to
the end of time.
The records of the several regiments will be found
to contain a detail of facts of an interesting character,
connected with the hardships, sufferings, and gallant
exploits of British soldiers in the various parts of the
world where the calls of their Country and the com-
mands of their Sovereign have required them to
proceed in the execution of their duty, whether in
active continental operations, or in maintaining colo-
nial territories in distant and unfavourable climes.
* "Under the bleMingof IMvine Proridence, Hit Mai)esty aaeribet the
aooceues which have attended the exertions of his troope in Egypt to that
determined bravery which is inherent in Britons ; bat His Mi^esty desires
it may be most solemnly and fbrdbly impressed on the condderation of
every part of the army, that it has been a strict observance of order, dis-
cipline, and military system, which has given the ftill energy to the native
valoar of the troops, and has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority
of the nations} military dfaSMsler* in ritnations uncommonly arduous, and
under drcnmilances of peculiar diAenlQr." — Cfeneral OrderB in 1801.
In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope (after-
wards Lord Hopetonn), congratulating the army upon the snocessfol result
of the Battle of Comnna, on the 16th of January, 1809, it is stated :— « On
no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more
maniftst At the termination of a severe and harasung march, rendered
necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and which had
materially impaired the effidenoy of the troops, many disadvantages were
to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops dMrnaelves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever adVte-
tages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is inherent in the
British oflcers and soldie;rs a bravery that knows not how to yield,— that no
circumstances can appal,— and that will ensure victory, when it is to be
obtitined by the exertion of any human means."
The superiority of the British infantry has been
pre-eminently set forth in the wars of six centuries,
and admitted by the greatest commanders which
Europe has produced. The formations and move-
ments of this arme, as at present practised, while
they are adapted to every species of warfare, and to
all probable situations and circumstances of service,
are calculated to show forth the brilliancy of military
tactics calculated upon mathematical and scientific
principles. Although the movements and evolutions
have been copied from the continental armies, yet
various improvements have from time to time been
introduced, to insure that simplicity and celerity by
which the superiority of the national military cha-
racter is maintained. The rank and influjence which
Great Britain has attained among the nations of the
world, have in a great measure been purchased by
the valour of the Army, and to persons who have the
welfare of their country at hearty the records of the
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.
II ■■ —— 1 ^ •'ij'-'lii ti- "-'*»T'>*'"''^— r ■ f .'T ,. » '.
'■— "'"^ 1 I 'M )* — !
THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK,
REGIMENT OF FOOT,
M ACGOUirr OF THE FORMillON OF THE BEGDIENT
AND OF IIS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
RICHARD CANNON, Esq.
AMIITAliT-0SiaBlI.'8 OmCS, HOB8B QUABIM.
ILUU8TRATKD WITH PLATES.
PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
30 CHARING CROSS.
H DCCC XLVin.
LoNoow : rHiNTKD >( W. Clowik a Sun>, SrAMrORD STKEIIT)
Fun Hi* MAisnir't Stationiibv Orricc,
THE EAST NORFOLK, REGIMENT OF FOOT,
Bears oo its Regimental Colour
THE FIGURE OF BRITANNIA,
AND TM WOBDS
" ROLEIA,"— " VIMIERA,"— '^ COBUNNA,"— " BUSACO,"—
" SALAMANCA,"—" VITTORIA,"— " SAN
IN COHHEMOBATION OF TT8 SEBTICES DUBIMO THE FEMXNBDLAB WAR
ntOH 1808 TO 1814;
ALSO THS WORDS
"CABOOL, 1842,"— "MOODKEE,"— " FEROZESHAH,"—
IN COHHEHORATION OF ITS SEBTICES IN THE EAST INDIES DDRINO
THE WABS IN AFFOHAMISTAN AND IN THE PONJAUB
FROM 1841 to 1846.
1685 Formation of the Regiment.
Rendezvous at Gloucester .
Names of the Officers .
Establishment of the Regiment
1687 Encamped on Hounslow Heath
1688 The Revolution .
1689 Proceeded to Ireland
— ^ Relief of Londonderry.
1690 Battle of the Boyne
1691 A£^r at Molhill .
Surrender of Ballymore
Assault and Capture of Athlone
'— Battle of Aghrim.
Surrender of Galway . .
— — — — Limerick.
— - Termination of the War in Ireland .
1701 Embarked for Holland .
1702 Siege of Eayserswerth . .
Venloo, Ruremonde, Stevenswart,
1703 Proceeded to Maestricht .
Siege and Capture of Huy and Limburg
1704 Embarked from Holland
— — Proceeded to Portugal . . .
— — Defence of Castel de Vide . .
1705 Firooeeded to Spain
•— — Siq;e and Oapture of Valencia de Alcantara
- ■ Albuquerque .
—— Siege of Badiyoz
1706 Si^ and Capture of Alcantara .
1707 Siege of Villeca . .
"—— Battle of Almanza .
Marched to Alcira
—' Proceeded to Tarragona
1708 Returned to England .
1709 Embarked for Ireland .
1718 Embarked from Ireland for Minorca .
1746 Embarked fiom Minorca for Gibraltar
1749 Returned to Ireland ....
1751 The Colours, Clothing, &e., r^^ulated by Royal
Warrant of King George 11.
1755 Returned from Ireland to England .
1756 Proceeded to Scotland
1758 Re-embarked for Ireland . . .
1759 Returned to England
1761 Embarked on an Expedition against Belle Isle
— — Returned to England . . . . .
1762 Embarked for the Havannah
■ Si^ and Capture of Moro Fort
1763 Proceeded to Florida
1769 Returned to Ireland . . . . .
1776 Embarked for Canada . - . . .
1777 Engaged at Fort Ticonderago .
■ ■ Skenesborough . , ,
' Castletown . . .
' ' Fort Anne, Wood Creek .
Surrendered Prisoners of War at Saratoga
1781 Returned to England . . ...
DedlgiMiied ' Tarn Nihtb, ob Eaot Nobvolk,'
Marahed to SooUaad ...... —
Embarked for Ireland . . . —
Embarked for the Weit Indie* . . . . »—
Oaptureof Tobigo ....... 84
Proceeded against Martiaic^ • • • —
Capture of St. Lucia . '. . . . ° • 86
■ — Guadaloupe ..... —
Rebellion in Grenada supprewed .... 86
Re-embarked for England ..*,.. 37
Proceeded to Guernsey —
Returned to England ...... —
The figure of ' Britannia 'confirmed as the badge
of the Regiment -—
Formed into three Battalions .... 88
Encamped on Barham Downs .... —
First and Second Battalions embarked for Holland —
Action at Bergen —
— — — — Egmont op Zee 89
Re-embarked for England 40
Proceeded on an Expedition to Ferrol . . —
Returned to Eugland 41
The Second and Third Battalions diabanded .
Embarked for Ireland ...... <^ —
Second Battalion added 42
First Battalion embarked for Service. . . —
Returned to England . . . . . . 48
Embarked for Ireland —
Battle of Roleia 45
Second Battalion embarked for Portugal . . 46
Battle of Vimiera —
First Battalion proceeded to Spain under Lieut.-
General Sir John Moore .... 47
1809 Battle of Corunna . . . 48
First Battalion returned to England ... 50
— — Second Battalion engaged in tlie passage of the
Embarked for Gibraltar <—
1809 First Battalion embarked for Holland . . 52
Returned to England .*...• —
1810 Embarked for Portugal 63
Battle of Busaco . . i . . . . —
Stationed at Torres Yedras 55
1811 Second B(Utalion emhax\L.ed from GihniLtax . 56
Battle of Barrosa . . • . , . —
Embarked for Tarifa 51
— — Returned to Gibraltar ...... —
First Battalion proceeded in pursuit of the
French Army on its retreat from Santarem . 58
Action at Sabugal —
Battle of Fuentes D'Onor ..... —
—— Second Baitalion embarked from Gibraltar to
aid in defence of Tarragona .... 59
. Proceeded to Minorca >—
— — First Battalion returned to Gibraltar . . . -—
1812 Si^^ and capture of CiudadRodrigo . . . —
Siege and capture of Badajoz .... —
Battle of Salamanca 61
Advanced to Madrid 62
Siege of Burgos —
1813 Second Battalion embarked from Gibraltar for
England . 63
Battle of Vittoria 64
Siege of San Sebastian ... . . 66
Reduction of San Bartolomeo ....
— — Storming and capture of San Sebastian . . 69
Passage of the Bidassoa 70
'I Attack of Croix de Bouquets .... —
1818 Passage of the Nivelle 71
Battle of the Nive ...<.. 7S
1814 Blockade of Bayonne 74
— — • Abdication of Napoleon Buonaparte . . . 75
Tennination of the War • —
Embarked for Canada 76
1815 Returned to England ...... 78
-— Proceeded to Ghent —
Marched to Paris —
— — - Formed part of the Army of Occupation . . 79
Second battalion disbanded . . . . . —
1818 Embarked for Enghind 80
1819 the West Indies . . . . — .
1826 England . . . . . 82
1828 -Ireland. . . 84
1833 the Mauritius . . . . —
1835 Bengal . . . . . 85
1841 Proceeded to Affghanistan . . . , \ .»
1842 Engaged at the Khyber Pass .... 87
Actions in the Valley and Pass of Tezeen. . 94
Proceeded to Cabool 98
Assault and capture of Istalif . . . .99
1845 Proceeded to Umballa ...... 101
Formed part of the Army of the Sutlej . . 102
— ^ Battle of Moodkee —
Ferozeshah . , . . . . 105
1846 Sobraon 108
Marched to Lahore 109
Proceeded to Calcutta m
1847 Returned to England . . . . . . 112
The Conclusion . . , , , . . 114
.Si nil u
SUCCESSION OP COLONELS.
1685 Heniy Cornwall . . . . .
1688 Oliver Nfchulas
— — John Cunningham .....
1689 WiUiam Stewart ... . .
1716 James Campbell
1717 Hon. Charles, afterwards Lord, Cathcart .
1718 James Otway
172*5 Richard Kane
1787 William Hargrove , .
1789 George Beade
1749 Sir Charles Armand Powlett, K.B. .
1751 Hon. John, afterwards Earl, Wald^pruve .
1755 Hon. Joseph Yorke, afterwards Lord Dover
1 758 WiUiam Whitemore .
1771 Edward Viscount Ligonier .
1782 Thomas Lord Say and Sele .
1788 Hon. Aiexaudftr Leslie
1794 Albemarle Bertie .
1804 Peter Hunter
1805 Sir Robert Brownrigg, Bart., 6.C.B.
1833 Sir John Cameron, K.C.B.
1844 Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, K.C.B. .
1848 Sir James Archibald Hope, K.C.B.
Memoir of Colonel Sir John Mc Caskill, K.C.B. . 181
Lt.-Colonel A. Beresford Taylor, KH., C.B. 1 32
List of the principal Battles, Sieges, and Actions
during the Peninsular War, from 1808 to 1814. 133
The Colours of the Regiment
The Battle of Boleia .
The Costume of the Regiment
W WM»»i|» i
n i m [ »«i
NINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.
[To fart pay \.
THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK,
REGIMNET OF FOOT.
Four months had just elapsed, after the accession 1685
of King James II., when the din of hostile preparation
was suddenly heard in the land, and James Duke
of Monmouth, natural son of King Charles II., ap-
peared in arms in the west of England, and pro-
claimed himself sovereign of these realms. Among the
augmentations made to the army on this occasion a
regiment of foot was raised in Gloucestershire, now The
Ninth Regiment, of which Captain Henry Cornwall
of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, was appointed
Colonel, by commission dated the I9th* of June, 1685.
The general rendezvous was at the city of Gloucester,
and the regiment consisted of eleven companies of pike-
men and musketeers, of three officers, three Serjeants,
three corporals, two drummers, and one hundred private
soldiers each, and the several companies were raised by
the undermentioned gentlemen, who evinced their
loyalty on that occasion by coming forward in support
* Not 12th, as stated in the Annual Army List.
2 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1685 of the throne ; the royal warrants authorising these gen-
tlemen to raise their several companies were dated the
22nd of June : — Colonel Henry Cornwall, Sir John
Morgan, Richard Kidley, Esq., John Powell, Esq.,
Thomas Coxe, Esq., John Boothe, Esq., Jeremiah
Bubbs, Esq., Sir Francis Edwards, Thomas Williams,
Esq., Daniel Wicherly, Esq., James Purcell, Esq.
Before the regiment was complete and prepared to
take the field, the rebel army was overthrown at Sedge-
moor, and the Duke of Monmouth was captured and
The rebellion was thus suppressed ; but the King
being a Roman Catholic, and having secret designs
against the laws and established religion of the country,
resolved to retain many of the newly raised corps in
his service, and Colonel Cornwall was directed to reduce
his regiment to ten companies of sixty men each, and
assemble the whole at the city of Gloucester, from
whence he marched to the vicinity of London, and
towards the end of August the regiment was encamped
on Hounslow-heath, where it was reviewed by the
King, who expressed his approbation of its appearance,
and thanked the officers and soldiers for the cheerful
alacrity with which they had come forward in support
of the crown at a period of danger.
From Hounslow the regiment marched, in September,
to the north of England, and it passed the winter at
Berwick ; many of the officers quitted the service, and
returned to their estates and farms in Gloucestershire,
others were appointed, and the establishment was
fixed, on the Ist of January, 1686, at the following
M v)Wi.Mi<y^ u-MbtiziM^in^
REOIMEXT OF FOOT.
Colonel Cornwall's Rboimemt.
1 Colonel, as Colonel. . . .
Liea^Colonel, as LietU- Colonel
Major, as Major ....
Chirurgeon 4«.; 1 Mate 2s. 6d.
Quarter Master and Marshal .
Total for Staff
Thb Colonel's Compant.
1 The Colonel, as Captain*
2 Serjeants Is. &d each. .
3 Corporals Is. each
1 Drummer . . . • .
50 Private Soldiers %d. each
Total for one Company
Nine Companies more at the same rate
Pay per day.
£. I. d.
2 5 2
1 13 4
2 15 4
Total per day
Per Annum £10,922 12*. 6(/.
29 18 6
Returning to the south of England, the regiment
pitched its tents in May, 16S6, on Hounslow-heath,
where it had Captain Sir Thomas Haggerston's inde-
pendent company of grenadiers attached to it. It was
several times reviewed by the King, who used great
diligence to bring his army into a state of discipline and
efficiency, that it might be available to support him in
his measures to establish papacy and arbitrary govern-
In June the regiment struck its tents and marched
to Portsmouth, and it was stationed in that fortress
until the summer of 1687, when it was again encamped 1687
on Hounslow-heath, where a grenadier company was
again attached to it.
At this period the following officers were holding
commissions in the regiment : —
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1687 Henry Cornwall (col). J. Cornwall (cap.-lt). Jonathan Driver.
James Purcell (It. col).
James Lacy (mtyor).
Rd. Fitz. Patrick,
Thomas Love, sen
Thomas Love, jun.
William Burton, Chaplain.
Charles Stone, Adjutant.
I Grenadier Company.
William Thomas, Chirurgeon.
William Bissell, Quarter Master.
At this camp the King again reviewed the regiment,
and ordered the grenadier company to be permanently
attached to it. On the 4th of August a route arrived
for the march of the regiment to York, where it was
stationed duiing the winter.
1688 The proceedings of the King towards the establish-
ment of papacy and absolute monarchy having alarmed
the country, the Prince of Orange arrived on the 5th of
November, with an armament, to aid the nobility and
gentry in opposing the designs of the King. This
regiment had, in the meantime, been withdrawn from
the north, and Colonel Cornwall was, for some cause
which has not been clearly ascertained, removed from
the colonelcy, and succeeded by Oliver Nicholas, from
the lieut-colonelcy of Prince George of Denmark's
regiment, — a corps which was afterwards incorporated
in the second foot guards.
King James If.. 6nding his army would not fight ih
the cause of papacy and absolute government, fled to
France. The Prince of Orange, assuming the reins of
government, ordered the regiment to march to Wor-
cester; and Colonel Nicholas refusing to take the
REOIMENT OF FOOT.
prescribed oath, was replaced in the colonelcy by John* 1668
Cunningham, from major in Major-General Werden's
regiment of cuirassiers, which corps was disbanded in
Ireland in 1690.
The elevation of the Prince and Princess of Orange 1669
to the throne produced tranquillity in England, but
Ireland was convulsed by civil war ; the catholics being
in arms in favour of King James, who arrived in Ire-
land with a French force, and the protestauts espousing
the interest of King William. The protestants in
Londonderry were besieged by the forces of King James,
and the Ninth and Seventeenth regiments of foot,
commanded by Colonels Cunningham and Richards,
embarked at Liverpool on the 3rd of April, 1689, and
sailed for Londonderry, under convoy of the Swallow
frigate ; they were driven by contrary winds to High-
lake ; they again put to sea on the 10th of April, and,
on the 15th, arrived in sight of the besieged fortress.
Colonel Cunningham, having orders from King William
to follow the directions of Colonel Lundy, the governor
of Londonderry, immediately acquainted him with the
arrival of the two regiments, and solicited orders. The
governor directed him to leave the regiments on board
and come, with several other officers, to the town, where
a council of war was assembled : the governor, having
secretly resolved to give up the town to King James,
gave the council of war a false statement of its condition,
represented that there was not provision for more than
a week or ten days, and his assertions induced the
council of war to decide that it would be imprudent to
land the two regiments. The inhabitants were so en-
raged at the conduct of their governor, that they deter-
* Not Thomae, as stated in the Aanual Army List.
■"■ ' ■ ! V ' l
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1689 mined to depose him, and they sent an officer. Captain
Cole, to offer the government to Colonel Cunningham
of the Ninth, who answered, that, * being himself,
' commanded by the King to obey the governor, he
• could not receive any application from persons who
* opposed that authority,' and the two regiments re-
turned to England. The governor escaped from
Londonderry in disguise, and the inhabitants made a
most gallant defence, under the direction of the Rev.
George Walker, and other persons of distinguished
fortitude. King William was so displeased with
Colonels Cunningham and Richards, for not having
investigated the representations of the governor suffi-
ciently, and for yielding so readily to his suggestions
when there was reason to doubt his integrity, that Y'a
Majesty deprived both these officers of their com-
missions. Several historians have charged the two
colonels, Cunningham and Richards, with cowardice,
but there is no evidence to support such a charge.
King Wiriam conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth
on William Stewart, from Lieut. -colonel of the Six-
teenth foot ; and towards the end of May the regiment
embarked at Highlake, with the Second and Eleventh
foot, under Major-general Kirke, to make a second at-
tempt for the relief of Londonderry. Sailing from
Highlake on the 3 1 st of M ay, the fleet experienced m uch
severe weather, and did not arrive in the Lough until
the 15th of June, when both banks of the river were
found entrenched by the enemy, with batteries of twenty-
four pounders at the narrowest part, which was not
more than pistol-shot broad, and a boom of cables,
chains, and timber was stretched across. Colonel Stew-
art of the Ninth landed with six hundred men on the
island of Inch, which communicated with the main land
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
by a ford. At this place the soldiers threw up en- i689
trenchmentSj constructed redoubts, and, crossing to
the main land, surprised some of the enemy's out-posts,
and captured a great quantity of cattle : a detachment
under Captain Echlin also established itself at the
town of Rathmullen. The Duke of Berwick advanced
against Stewart's men with twelve hundred Irish horse
and dragoons, and attacked the post at Rathmullen on
the iSth of July ; but he was repulsed by the soldiers
of the Ninth, after two hours' fighting, and withdrew
with the loss of several officers and two hundred
troopers. The Ninth had Lieutenant Cunningham
and five men killed.
The island of Inch became a refuge for the pro-
testauts of the surrounding districts, and so many of
them arrived at the head-quarters of the regiment,
that Colonel Stewart equipped a sufficient number to
form fifteen companies of musketeers; five of these
companies were attached to each of the three regiments
in the expedition, viz.. Second, Ninth, and Eleventh
foot. Communications were opened with the Innis-
killing protestants, who were supplied with arms and
ammunition; and Captain James Wynn, of the Ninth,
was appointed colonel of a regiment of Inniskilling
dragoons, afterwards the Fifth, or Royal Irish dra-
goons : other officers of the regiment were also pro-
moted in the Inniskilling forces.
The provisions in Londonderry being exhausted,
preparations were made to throw a relief into the
town by water, and a detachment of musketeers of
the Ninth, was put or board the vessels designed for
this service. At six o'clock on the evening of the 28th
of July, a favourable gale springing up, the Dartmouth
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1689 frigate, commanded by Captain Leake, moved up the
river, and opened a heavy cannonade on the works
occupied by the enemy. Under cover of this cannonade,
the ship Mountjoy sailed up to the boom and Icoke it,
but was, by a sudden rebound, forced aground. The
enemy opened a heavy fire of all arms upon her, and
were preparing boats to board her ; but she gave them
a broadside, and, being loosened by the shock, sailed
under a storm of cannon and musketry, from the banks
of the river, up to the town, followed by the ship
Phoenix. Londonderry was thus relieved ; and on the
following morning the soldiers of the Ninth saw clouds
of smoke rising in the air. which gave indication that
King James's army was raising the siege in dismay,
and laying the country waste.
Soon after the raising of the siege of Londonderry,
an English army arrived in the north of Ireland under
Marshal Duke Schomberg: the Ninth remained a
short time at Londonderry, and afterwards marched to
Dundalk, where they joined the army on the 8th of
September. Being encamped on low wet ground, the
regiment lost many men from disease ; in the beginning
of November it struck its tents and marched into
quarters at Newry.
1690 In January, 1690, a detachment of the regiment
was engaged in an excursion into the cantonments of
King James's forces, and captured much cattle ; and
in February, another party of the Ninth was em-
ployed in an enterprise to Dundalk, under Major<
general Sir John Lanier.
King William arrived in Ireland, in June, to
command the army in person, and the regiment had
the honour to serve under the eye of its sovereign at
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
the battle of the Boyne, on the Ist of July, when it i(i9o
forded the river, and took part in driving the army of
King James from its position.
From the Boyne the regiment advanced with the
army to the vicinity of Dublin, and it afterwards
marched towards Limerick, which fortress King Wil-
liam had resolved to besiege. On the 10th of August
the Ninth passed the river, and pitched their tents
beyond the ford, where the Second and Eighteenth foot
were also encamped. The regiment took its turn in
the trenches during the siege, and it was one of the
five regiments selected to support the storming party
at the assault of the works on the 27th of August.
The attack was gallantly made ; the soldiers evinced
intrepidity and firmness under numerous disadvantages,
but, after several hours' sharp fighting, the English
were repulsed. The Ninth had Captains Lindon,
Farlow, and Lieutenant Russell killed ; their Colonel,
Brigadier-general Stewart, with Major Cornwall, Cap-
tains Palfreey, Galbraith, Stewart, Casseen, Lieu-
tenants Stewart, Cornwall, Carry, and Ensign Stewart
wounded. The number of soldiers of the regiment
killed and wounded has not been ascertained.
The weather becoming severe, the King raised the
siege and returned to England. The Ninth were
selected to guard the battering train, which they
escorted to CuUen, and from thence to Tipperary , and
on the 7th of September they marched for the north
of Ireland, where they passed the winter.
In April, 1691, the regiment was stationed at 1691
Belturbet, from whence fifty musketeers, accompanied
by twenty dragoons, advanced on the Qth of April to
scour the county of Leitvim. Arriving in the vicinity
olMolhill, they discovered two troops of Irish dragoons,
THE NINTH, OR F.A8T NORFOLK
1691 and a company of foot, guarding a large quantity of
cattle at pasture. Undismayed by the superior numbers
of their opponents, the soldiers of the Ninth advanced
boldly to the attack, and, after firing a few shots, they
slung their muskets acvoss their shoulders, and rushed,
sword W hand, upon their opponents. A few moments
decided the contest ; thirty of King James's men lay
dead upon the spot; five were made prisoners, and the
remainder escaped ; many of the Irish dragoons left
their horses behind them, and when the soldiers of the
Ninth returned to head-quarters, nearly every man
was mounted. The records of this gallant action do
not mention the loss of a single man of the regiment.
The regiment left its quarters in May, and on the
6th of June it joined the army under Lieut. -General
De Ginkell, then on its march for Ballymore, where the
Irish had a garrison, which refused to surrender. A
breach having been made in the works, and a detach<
ment of the Ninth and other corps embarked in boats
to attack the place by storm, the garrison surrendered
From Ballymore the Ninth proceeded towards
Athlone, and, on the 20th of June, they supported the
storming party in the attack of the Westmeath side of
the town, when the Irish were driven across the river,
and that part of Athlone was occupied by the English.
The regiment lost several men on this occasion, and
its colonel, Brigadier- General Stewart, was wounded.
One-half of the town having been captured, the
siege was prosecuted with vigour, and a detachment
of the regiment was employed in storming the other
half of the town, which was captured in a very gallant
manner on the 30th of June, the soldiers forcing the
passage of the river, and overpowering all opposition.
IIEOIMENT OF FOOT.
• It irould be difficult,' states the Kev. John Graham, 1691
in his History of Ireland, ' to find in history a parallel
' to so brave an enterprise as the assauU ind capture of
' Athlone, in which three thousand ni3n attacked a
' fortified town across a rapid river, in the face cf a
• numerous army, who by their entrenchments were
• masters of all the fords.' The grenadier company of
the Ninth formed part of the body of troops which
first entered the river under Colonel Hamilton and
the Prince of Hesse D'Armstadt, and highly dis-
tinguished itself. According to Smollett — 'there
' D<. ' er was a more desperate service ; nor was exploit
' ever performed with more valour and intrepidity.'
When General St. Ruth, who commanded the French
and Irish forces, heard that Athlone was captured
in so bold and hazardous a manner, he would scarcely
believe the intelligence until he had ocular demonstra-
tion of the truth ; he then retired to Ballinasloe, and
afterwards to a position near Aghrim, where he was
attacked on the 12th of July, «vhen the Ninth had
another opportunity of distinguishing themselves. This
regiment was one of the corps employed in forcing the
passage of a large bog, and in driving the enemy from
behind the edges of the enclosure beyond the morass,
in which service the grenadiers again signalized them-
selves; the musketeers also behaved gallantly, (,nd
the charge of the pikemen completed the ov ''i.nrow
of their opponents. The Freuch general, St. Buth,
was killed ; his army routed and chased from the field
with severe loss.
The regiment had Major Cornwall, one ensign, ar a
sixteen private soldiers killed; one captain, one en-
sign, and forty- three soldiers wounded.
Continuing its advance, the army appeared before
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
*^^* Galway, and after the capture of some outworks, the
garrison surrendered on the 21st of July.
The French and Irish forces which escaped from
Aghrim took refuge in the city of Limerick, where they
resolved to make a desperate stand in the hope of re-
ceiving succours from France, and the Ninth regiment
of Foot was one of the corps which advanced against
this fortress, to complete the deliverance of Ireland
from the power of the enemy. On the 25th of August,
the English army appeared before Limerick, and cap-
tured Ireton's and Cromwell's forts. The Ninth were
employed in the siege, and they continued to take part
in the prosecution of this enterprise, until the sur-
render of the fortress by the celebrated capitulation
which extinguished the power of King James in
The authority of King William being firmly esta-
blished in Ireland, the army was withdrawn ; it was,
however, deemed necessary to leave a few corps in
that country, besides the Inniskilling and London-
derry forces, and the Ninth regiment of Foot was se-
lected to remain in Ireland.
1692 The regiment being appointed to remain in Ireland,
was thus prevented sharing in the campaigns in the
1697 Netherlands, which were terminated, in 1697, by the
treaty of Ryswick : but, in the beginning of the
1700 eighteenth century, when the ambitious Louis XIV.,
king of France, procured the accession of his grandson,
Philip Duke of Anjou, to the throne of Spain, in viola-
tion of existing treaties, and also seized the Spanish
provinces in the Netherlands, thus uniting two potent
monarchies, to the destruction of the balance of power
in Europe, the Ninth Regiment of Foot was one of
the first corps selected to proceed on foreign service.
HEaiMENT OF FOOT.
The change in tho dynasty of Spain affected the 1701
interests of every state in Christendom ; the British
government did not, however, declare war immediately ;
but hostile measures having been adopted by tho
house of Austria, King William III. sent, in the sum-
mer of 1701, a body of troops to the continent to act
as auxiliaries. To engage in this service, the Ninth
embarked at Cork on the 15th of June, with eight
other corps ; but when the fleet arrived off Portsmouth,
orders were received for the regiment to land at that
fortress. The Ninth were, however, not detained
long in England, and on their arrival on the continent,
they were placed in one of the frontier garrisons of
In the spring of 1702, the British troops assembled 1702
from their quarters and encamped at Rosendael, where
they received information of the death of King William
III., and of the accession of Queen Anne. They sub-
sequently traversed the country to the Duchy of
Cleves, and encamped at Cranenburg, to cover the
siege of Kayserswerth on the lower Rhine. When the
French army passed the forest of Cleves to cut off the
communications with Holland, the British and Dutch
fell back upon Nimeguen, near which fortress some
sharp skirmishing occurred on the 11th of June, on
which occasion the British soldiers behaved with great
Queen Anne declared war against France and Spain,
anr^. sent additional troops to the Netherlands, where
the Earl of Marlborough commanded the British,
Dutch, and auxiliary forces, and the Ninth joined the
camp |it Duckenburg on the 10th of July. The regi-
ment took part in the movements by which the French
forces were driven from the frontiers of Holland; it
THE NINTH, OR BAflT NORFOLK
1702 also formed part of the covering army during the
sieges of Venloo. Ruremonde, and Stevenswart. On the
10th of October, the army advanced towards the city
of Liege, which was delivered up. but the citadel held
out, and the Ninth were engaged in the siege; their
grenadier company highly distinguished itself at the
capture of this fortress by storm on the 23rd of
October. The chartreuse surrendered a few days
afterwards, and this splendid campaign terminating
with the reduction of Liege, the regiment marched
back to Holland, where it passed the winter in garrison.
1703 From its winter cantonments the regiment was
withdrawn in the spring of 1703, and it was afterwards
quartered in villages near the Maese. When M arshals
Villeroy and Boufflers endeavoured to surprise the
British in their quarters, the Ninth made a forced
march to Maestricht ; they were subsequently formed
in brigade with a battalion of foot guards, and the first,
fifteenth, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth regiments,
under Brigadier-General Withers. The army being
assembled, advanced ; the French fled behind their
fortified lines; the Duke of Marlborot'oh was
prevented attacking the lines by the Dutch generals
and field deputies^ and he besieged Huy, a fortress on
the Maese above Liege, which he captured in ten
days. Another proposal to attack the lines was re-
jected by the Dutch, and Limhurg, a city pleasantly
situated on an eminence near the banks of the Wesdet,
was besieged and captured.
After taking part in these conquests, by which
Spanish Guelderland was delivered from the power of
France, the Ninth were selected to accompany the
Archduke Charles of Austria to Portugal, and to take
part in the attempt to place him on the throne of
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
Spain. The rcjj;iincnt embarked from Flolland in 1703
November, arrivod.at Spithoad about ChristmaR, and,
after much delay from contrary winds, arrived at
Lisbon in March, 1 704.
Duke Schombcrg, who commanded Queen Anne's 1704
forces in Portugal, was desirous of keeping the British
together, but the king of Portugal was afraid to trust
the defence of his frontier towns to his own inex-
perienced troops, and the British were placed in
garrison ; the Ninth were posted at CasteJ-de- Vide, a
frontier town and castle in the Alemtejo, situate on a
hill about nine miles from Portalegro. The dilatory
conduct of the Portuguese retarded the preparations
for taking the field, and Portugal was invaded by the
French and Spaniards under the Duke of Berwick
before the allies were prepared to commence operations.
A numerous body of the enemy appeared before
Castel-de-Vide ; the town was not strong; but the
Portuguese, being encouraged by the bearing and
assurance of the Ninth, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Thomas Hussey, refused to open the gates. The
Marquis das Minas advanced to relieve the place with
fifteen thousand men ; but his movements were not of
a decisive character, and the French prosecuted the
siege. The enemy's batteries having damaged the
wall, the governor desired to surrender; the Ninth
demanded permission to retire into the castle, and to
defend it to the last extremity ; but the Duke of
Berwick, knowing the resolute character of English
soldiers, declared that, if they entered the castle, he
would destroy the town, and the governor refused
them permission. Lieut.-Colonel Hussey, being de-
termined to do his duty, marched the Ninth up to the
castle, and demanded admittance, but the governor
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1704 persisted in his refusal, and ordered the gunpowder to
be thrown into a well. Some altercation ensued ; the
Portuguese opened the gates of the town to the
besieging army, and the Ninth were thus treacherously
delivered into the power of the enemy and made
prisoners of war : two Portuguese battalions were also
delivered up and made prisoners. The Duke of
Berwick states, in his memoirs, that the English
colonel swore and stormed furiously; and his grace
admits, that he should have found much difficulty in
reducing the place, had it been defended with reso-
1705 The regiment was not long in captivity before it
was exchanged ; it received a body of recruits and new
clothing from England, and when it took the field in
the spring of 1705, its appearance and discipline were
admired. The capture of Gibraltar had produced a
favourable change in the affairs in the Peninsula, and
the Ninth formed part of the army of twenty-four
thousand men and fifty guns which invaded Spanish
Estremadura; the English being commanded by the
Earl of Galway. ^ »
Having penetrated Spain, the regiment was em-
ployed in the siege of Valencia de Alcantara, a small
but strong town, which was captured by storm on the
8th of May. The regiment afterwards took part in
the siege of the town and castle of Albuquerque, which
surrendered on the 22nd of May. After these con-
quests, the weather becoming very hot, the regiment
marched to Beja, a city of some antiquity, called by
the Romans, Pax Julia, and delightfully situated on
the side of a hill in the Alemtejo. At this city the
regiment remained several weeks, and afterwards
crossed the Guadiana river and took part in the siege
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
of Badajoz, the capital of Spanish Estremadura, where 1705
the Earl of Oalway'lost his right hand by a cannon
ball. The army not being of sufficient numbers to
invest the place^ the enemy relieved the garrison in the
middle of October, and the siege was afterwards raised,
and the Ninth were quartered on the frontiers of
Several incursions were made into the Spanish 1706
territory, in February, 1706, and in March the army
took the field. The Ninth were engaged in the siege
of Alcantara, a town built on a rock near the bank of
the Tagus in Spanish Estremadura, which surrendered
in the middle of April. The regiment was next em-
ployed in the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, and this cele-
brated fortress was captured in May.
At this period the brilliant success of the troops under
the Earl of Peterborough in Catalonia and Valencia,
with the raising of the siege of Barcelona, held out the
prospect of Spain being speedily delivered from the
power of King Philip. The army left Ciudad Kodrigo
on the 3rd of June, and arriving at Madrid on tl
27th, caused Archduke Charles to be proclaimed king
of Spain with great solemnity. Thus the tide of success
flowed rapidly onward ; but the King made unnecessary
delays in his journey to the capital ; his friends were
discouraged ; the partisans of King Philip took arms,
and the Duke of Berwick was soon at the head of so
numerous a body of troops, that the allies were forced
to evacuate Madrid. The Ninth retired with the
army to Chinchon in the province of Toledo, and
afterwards fell back to the mountains of Valencia, where
it passed the winter in quarters more than four hun-
dred miles distant from those it occupied in the pre-
ceding year. ^
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
170*7 In the early part of Aprils 1707, the regiment was
again in the field, and took part in driving back several
of the enemy's detachments; it subsequently proceeded
towards Villena, a considerable town, situated at the
foot of a mountain in a beautiful, and rich plain on the
borders of Valencia. As the army approached, the
gates of the town were thrown open, but the citadel
refused to submit, and the Ninth were employed in the
siege of this strong post, in which service they had
Lieutenant Robert Stewart, junior. Ensign Bussiere,
and about twenty soldiers killed.
The regiment was suddenly called from the siege of
the castle of Villena, and after marching several hours
along the rugged tracts of Murcia under a burning
sun, the soldiers arrived in the presence of the army
under the Duke of Berwick at Almanza about midday
on the 25th of April. About three o'clock the battle
commenced. The Ninth were formed in brigade with
the eleventh, thirty-sixth, and Lord Mark Kerr's
regiments, under Colonel Hill, and having Mino's
Portuguese dragoons posted in the centre of the brigade.
This brigade was stationed in the second line; but
nine of the enemy's battalions having attacked Major-
General Wade's brigade, consisting of the sixth,
seventeenth, thirty-third, and Lord Montjoy's regi-
ment, the Ninth moved forward to their support, and
were sharply engaged. Seven French battalions
attacked the five Eng;lish in front, and the two others
advanced, one against each flank. The British were
thus invested with a girdle of fire, and they fell back,
fighting, to extricate themselves ; but superior numbers
came upon them from all quarters; they were forced
from their ground by the pressure of crowds of op-
ponents, and their ranks were broken. Roughly and
REOIMENT OF FOOT.
sternly did the soldiers of the Ninth bear up against 1701
the multitude, and struggle vehemently to liberate
themselves; eight officers, and about a hundred men
were killed; fifteen officers aiid nearly two hundred
men were wounded, and, although Harvey's horse
(now second dragoon guards) charged the flanking
battalions with great gallantry, yet the flight of the
Portugese squadrons had left the British and Dutch
exposed to the weight and power of the enemy's superior
numbers, and no hope of victory remained. The Earl
of Galway effected his retreat with the dragoons.
Several general officers collected the broken remains of
the English infantry, which fought in the centre, into
a body, and uniting them with some Dutch and
Portuguese, formed a column of nearly four thousand
men, whicj .treated two leagues, repulsing the
pursuing < % from time to time. On arriving at the
woody hills of Caudete, the men were so exhausted
with fatigue that they were unable to proceed further:
they passed the night in the wood without food, and on
the following morning they were surrounded by the
enemy. Being without ammunition, ignorant of the
country, and having no prospect of obtaining food, they
surrendered prisoners of war.
Thus ended a battle in which the Ninth raiment
of foot behaved with signal gallantry, but was nearly
annihilated. According to the official returns, the
regiment took four hundred and sixty-seven soldiers
into action, and only about one hundred escaped being
killed or made prisoners. Captains Campbell, Wallace,
White, Philips, Gregory ; Lieutenants Wilcox, Robert
Stewart, senior, and Ensign Casey were killed;
Captains Dansey, William Stewart, Hill, Carleton;
Lieutenants Hussey, Bell, Johnston. James Stew^rtf
THE NINTHj OR EAST NORFOLK
1707 Carr, Constable ; Ensigns Adams, Smith, James
Str.wan, Montgomery, and Irwin, were wounded and
ta^iea prisoners; Lieutenant Ash was also taken
prisoner, but .var not wounded. The commanding
officer of the re riirent, Lieut.-Colonel William Stewart,
a ad three or u .' other officers and a few men, escaped
fi'om the £eld of battle and proceeded to Alcira, a
strong town on the river Xucar, where they joined the
cavalry with which the Earl of Galway had made good
The approach to Alcira being by almost inaccessible
mountains, the Earl of Galway halted there a few days
to reorganise the army. He afterwards retired from
this place, leaving Lieut.-Colonel Stewart of the Ninth
there with a few men. In May, Major- General Count
Mahoni besieged Alcira with a body of French and
Spanish troops, and Lieut.-Colonel Stewart having
provision for only five or six days, was soon obliged to
surrender. The conditions were, that the officers and
soldiers should march out with the honors of war, and
be conducted in safety to the allied army in Catalonia.
The words ''by the shortest and most convenient route"
were accidentally omitted, and the enemy caused the
troops to march by long and circuitous routes among
the mountains, until their strength was exhausted.
Several men ' died of fatigue, and others joined the'
miquelets, or guerilla bands, in the mountains. The
march from Alcira to the allied army in Catalonia,
might have been performed in a few days, but the
garrison was detained nearly three months, and was
much reduced in numbers.
At length the Ninth arrived at Tarragona; many of
the wounded men had recovered, and they joined the
regiment at this place ; othera joined from prisoners of
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
war, and, according to the official returns, in the 1707
beginning of November, three hundred and eighty
officers and soldiers were present at head quarters.
Many men were, however, unfit for active service, and,
during the winter, the regiment was ordered to transfer
its service men to other corps and return to England to
recruit. It arrived at Portsmouth in the summer of
1708, and was stationed at Worcester and Hereford. 1708
In February, 1709, the regiment marched to Man* 1709
Chester and Stockport, from whence it proceeded to
Chester, in June, and it embarked for Ireland soon
The Ninth were stationed in Ireland during the 1713
remainder of the war of the Spanish succession, and at
the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, their numbers were
reduced to a p«ace establishment.
Queen Anne died in 1714, and King George I. 1714
ascended the throne. In the following year the active 17 15
exertions of the partisans of the Pretender created gre^t
political excitement, and, for some cause which has ncc
been explained by historians. General William Stewart
was removed from the colonelcy of the regiment. He
was succeeded by Lieut. -Colonel James Campbell, from
the Royal North British dragoons, by commission dated
the 27th of July, 1715.
Colonel Campbell commanded the regiment eighteen 1717
months, and in February, 1717, he was removed to the
Scots Greys, at the head of which corps he had distin-
guished himself in the Netherlands ; and King George -.
I. conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth on Lieut.-
Coloncl the Honorable Charles Cathcart, from the '
Scots Greys. ..,;... .
After commanding the regiment twelve months. 1718
Colonel Cathcart retired, and the colonelcy was con-
THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1718 ferred on Lieut.-Colonel James Otway, a very meri-
torious officer, from Pitt's horse, now * ^ond dragoon
guards, by commission dated the 7th r anuary, 1718.
In the summer of this year the regib'.ent embarked
from Ireland to relieve the Seventh Royal Fusiliers at
Minorca, the second of the Balearic islands, situate in
the Mediterranean, near the coast of Spain, which was
captured by Major-General Stanhope in 1708, and
ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht.
1725 On the 23rd of December, 1725, Colonel James
Otway died; and was succeeded by Brigadier-General
Richard Kane, who commanded a regiment of foot
in the reign of Queen Anne, which was disbanded at
the ptace of Utrecht.
1737 Brigadier-General Kane commanded the Ninth
eleven years, and died on the 9th of February, 1737,
when King George II. conferred the colonelcy on Briga-
dier-General William Hargrave, from the thirty-first
foot. This officer was appointed, in 1 739, to the seventh
royal fusiliers, and was succeeded by Brigadier-General
George Reade from the twenty-ninth regiment.
1739 During the war which commenced at this period,
1739, and was terminated by the treaty of Aix-la-
Chapelle, in 1748, the Ninth did not take the field;
1746 but in 1746, the twenty-ninth and forty-sixth regi-
ments having been removed from Gibraltar to North
America, the Ninth were withdrawn from Minorca,
and proceeded to Gibraltar, where they were stationed
during the remainder of the war; and in 1749 they
returned to Ireland. ^^
1749 Lieut.- General Reade was appointed colonel of the
ninth dragoons, on the 1st of November, 1749, and
Mp was succeeded by Brigadier-General Sir Charles
Armand Powlet from lieut.- colonel of the tenth marines.
REOnUBNT OF FOOT. 33
Sir Charles A. Powlet was appointed to the thirteenth nsi
dragoons in January, 1751, when King George II.
conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, on Colonel
the Honorable John Waldegrave, from major in the
In the royal warrant regulating the standards,
colours, and clothing of the army, dated 1st July, 1751,
the facing of the Ninth Foot is directed to be oi yellow.
The King's, or first, colour, to be the great Union ; the
second, or regimental colour, to be of yellow silk with
the union in the upper canton ; in the centre of each
colour lY in gold characters, within a wreath of roses
and thistles on the same stalk.
At this period the costume of the regiment was
cockedhatsbound with white lace; scarlet coats with
yellow lappels and cuffs, and ornamented with white
lace having a scarlet worm down the centre ; white
cravats; scarlet waistcoats and breeches, and white
On the 22nd of January, 1755, Colonel the Honor- 1755
able John Waldegrave was removed to the eighth dra-
goons ; and two months afterwards, the command of the
Ninth foot was conferred on Colonel the Honorable
Sir Joseph Yorke, one of the King's aides-de-camp.
The regiment left Ireland in the same year, and,
hostilities having commenced in America between
Great Britain and France, the establishment was
augmented. v,. n
In 1756 the regiment proceeded to Scotland, where 1756
it was stationed during the following year, and in 1758* J LI
it returned to Ireland. . :(.v.i., ; •
Major-General Sir Joseph Yorke was appointed to the
eighth dragoons, in October, 1758, and was succeeded
THE NINTH^ OR EAST NORFOLK
by Major-Gencral William Whitemore, from the fifty-
1759 I'he Ninth returned to England in 1759, and in
1760 i7go they were encamped at Chatham under Majorr
1761 Leaving Chatham, the regiment proceeded to
Portsmouth, where it embarked in March, 1761, with
the expedition, under Major-General Studholme
Hodgson, against Belle Isle, a French island off the
coast of Brittany, noted for its extensive pilchard fishery.
The Ninth embarked, eight hundred rank and file,
under Lieut.-Colonel Rowland Phillips. The expedi-
tion arrived off the island on the 7th of April, and
found it about nine miles long from two to four broad,
surrounded by steep rocks forming a natural fortifica-
tion, and defended by numerous works at every point
where a landing was deemed practicable. On the 8th
of April the troops proceeded towards the shore in
boats ; the Ninth leapt on the beach in the face of the
enemy's entrenchments, and rushed up the steep
acclivity to storm the works, but were unable to gain
the summit without ladders. Very gallant efforts were,
however, made ; Major Lewis Thomas of the regiment
was wounded and taken prisoner ; two Serjeants and
nine rank and file were killed ; Lieutenants Samuel
Surnam, William Ryder, one Serjeant and forty rank
and file, having ascended higher than the other men,
were intercepted by the French and made prisoners.
Being unable to overcome the difficulties, the troops
^ returned to their boats and proceeded back to their
;: several ships. - v ..v,?, ^^^^
On the 25th of April another attempt was made to
effect a landing, while the enemy's attention was
diverted by two feint attacks. Brigadier- General
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
Lair.jert landed with a few grenadiers near Lochmaria, 1761
and climbing a rock of so difficult ascent that the
enemy was less attentive to that part of the coast, he
gained the summit without opposition. The enemy
detached three hundred men against the grenadiers,
who took post behind a wall and defended themselves
until other troops climbed the rocks to their aid, when
the enemy was driven back with the loss of three pieces
of artillery. Having thus made good their landing,
the British dragged their cannon up the rocks, and
carried the lines which covered the town of Palais by
assault. The siege of the citadel was commenced;
the governor, the Chevalier St. Croix, made a vigorous
defence, but he was forced to surrender in June, and the
reduction of the island was thus effected with the loss
of about eighteen hundred men killed and wounded.
Success attending the British arms in variour parts 1762
of the world, the court of Paris induced Spain to
engage in hostilities with Great Britain. While ne-
gociations were pending, an armament was prepared
for an immediate attack on the Spanish possessions in
South America, in the event of hostilities taking place,
and the valuable settlement of the Havannah, in the
island of Cuba, being looked upon as the key to the
Spanish colonies in the West Indies, was selected to
be the object of the first attack. The Ninth having
been joined by a fine body of recruits, mustered a
thousand officers and soldiers, and they were selected
to proceed on this enterprise with the troops under
General the Earl of Albemarle. They sailed from
Spithead on the 5th of March, 1762; the fleet was
separated by a storm, but was reunited at Barbadoes,
and war having been declared against Spain, the troops
proceeded upon the projected enterprise. Sailing
26 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
along the intricate and dangerous passage called the
Straits of Bahama, the troops arrived within six
leagues of the Havannah on the 6th of June; a
landing was effected on the following day, and, on the
9th of June, they took up a position between Coximar
and Moro. The Ninth, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Rowland Phillips, mustered nine hundred and seventy-
seven men, and were formed in brigade with the
twenty-seventh, twenty-eighth, and forty-eighth re-
giments, under Brigadier-General Walsh. One hun-
dred men were mounted on horses procured in the
country, and formed a troop of cavalry under the
command of Captain James Sutlie of the Ninth
regiment. The siege of the Moro fort, the key
position to the extensive works which covered the
town, was commenced, and the Ninth took part in this
service, in which the troops endured great hardship.
The soil was so thin that the soldiers carrying on the
approaches encountered much difficulty : this, with a
scarcity of water, and the labour of dragging the
artillery many miles over a rocky country, under a
burning sun, were happily overcome by the unanimity
which existed between the land and sea forces. Fifteen
hundred Spaniards passed the harbour in boats on the
22nd of July and attacked the British line, but were
repulsed; the light and grenadier companies of the
Ninth were engaged on this occasion. A detachment
of the regiment was engaged on the 30th of July, when
the Moro fort was captured by storm, and Lieutenant
Nugent distinguished himself. .;%tw*jww
A now series of batteries was constructed, which
opened so well-directed a fire on the 11th of August
that the Spanish guns were soon silenced, and the
governor capitulated. Thus this valuable settlement
RBOIMBNT OP FOOT.
came into the hands of the British. Beatson, the 1162
historian of the conjoint naval and military expeditions
of this war, states,—' This conquest was, without doubt,
' in itself, the most considerable, and in its consequences,
' the most decisive of any we had made since the be-
' ginning of the war ; and in no operation were the
' courage, steadiness, and perseverance of the British
' troops, and the conduct of their leaders, more con-
'spicuouB. It was a military achievement of the
' highest class.'
At the peace in 1763, Great Britain restored the 1163
Havannah to Spain, and received in exchange Florida^
in North America, and the Ninth were removed from
the Havannah to take possession of the territory thus
accepted in exchange.
In the pleasant and fertile country of Florida the 1*769
regiment was stationed six years, and in 1769 it was
removed to Ireland, where it arrived in the autumn.
Lieut.- General Whitemore died in the summer of 1771, ^'"^ *
'id the colonelcy was conferred on Colonel Edward
\.-"ount Ligonier, whose commission was dated the
8thof August, 1771.
\ The regiment was stationed in Ireland when the 1715
British colonies in North America broke their allegi-
ance and openly resisted the royal authority. During
the winter of 1775, Quebec yya» besieged by an American
army ; this fortress was gallantly defended by the troops
under Lieut.-General Guy Carleton; and in April,
1776, the Ninth foot, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 1116
John Hill, embarked from Ireland, and sailed for
Canada, with other forces under Major-General Bur-
goyne. The regiment arrived in the river St. Law-
rence in the beginning of June, and the Americans
having raised the siege of Quebec and retired towards
THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1176 Montreal, it sailed up the river and took part in the
operations by which the Americans were driven from
Canada. After the performance ot this service, it
went into cantonments for a short period among; the
Canadian peasantry, and it passed the winter on the
Isle of Jesus, at La Praire, St. Luce Recollect, and
11*77 In the following spring the Ninth were selected to
form part of the force under the orders of Lieut. -
General Burgoyno, for the purpose of forcing a passage
from Canada to Albany. Fifty men of the regiment
wore left in Canada for the defence of that province ; and
five hundred and fifty embarked, under Lieut. •Colonel
John Hill, on board the flotilla on Lake Champlaih.
After a pleasant voyage of several days, they landed
at Crown Poi'^t, where they halted a short period, and
were formed in brigade with the twenty-first and
forty-seventh regimentfl, under Brigadier -General
From Crown Point the troops moved forward to
invest the fort of Ticonderago, situate on the western
shore of Lake Champlain, a few miles from the narrow
inlet which unites Lakes George and Champlain. On
the 3rd of July the regiment was in position at Mount
Hope, where it was exposed to a cannonade from the
American batteries. As the British environed the
fort, the garrison evacuated it and made a precipitate
I This conquest achieved, the regiment repaired on
board the flotilla and pursued the Americans towards
Shemsborough. About three o'clock on the afternoon
of the 6th of July, the ships Royal George and Inflexible,
with the best sailing gun-boats, arrived within three
miles of the enemy's stockaded fort at Skenesborough,
RBomiNT or rooT.
vrhon the Ninth, twentieth, and twenty -first regiments 17*77
leapt on shore, and ascended the mountain with great
alacrity, to gain the rear of the fort and cut off the
enemy's retreat ; but as the soldiers were climbing the
hill, the Americans were alarmed, and, setting fire to
the fort and magazines, fled with such precipitation
that they escaped the British regiments : about thirty
men were intercepted and made prisoners. Another
body of the enemy was pursued towards Castletown,
and, being overtaken, a sharp fight occurred, in which
the Americans sustained a severe loss.
On the 7th of July, the Ninth were detached in
pursuit of a party of the enemy retreating by Wood
Creek, and marching along difficult roads, and pausing
rivulets, where the bridges had been broken, the regi-
ment took post near the enemy's station at Fort Anne.
At thif! place the regiment passed the night, and on
the 8th of July, it was attacked by very superior num-
bers of the enemy. The two other regiments of the
brigade were sent to its aid, and the twentieth were
ordered forward with two field pieces. 'A violent
' storm of raiii which lasted the whole of the day, pre-
' vented the troops irom getting to Fort Anne so soon
'as was intended; but the delay gave the Ninth
' regiment an opportunity of distinguishing itself, by
* standing and repulsiig an attack of six times Hs
' number. The enemy, finding the position not to x
' forced in front, endeavoured to turn it, and from the
' superiority of their numbers, that inconvenience was
' to be apprehended. Lieut.-Colonel Hill, f mnd it
' necessary to change his position in the height of action.
' So critical an order was executed by the regiment
' with the utmost steadiness and bravery. The enemy
' after an attack of three hours, were totally repulsed.
THE NINTH, OE EAST NORFOLK
mi ' and fled towards Fort Edward, setting fire to Fort
' Aune i but leaving a saw-mill and a block-house in
* good repair, which were afterwards possessed by the
* King's troopf The Ninth regiment acquired^
' during the expedition, about thirty prisoners, some
^ stores and baggage, and the colours of the Second
' Hampshire Regiment. Captain William Stone Mont-
Vgomery, an officer of great merit, was wounded early
' in the action, and was in the act of being dressed by
' the surgeon when the regiment changed ground ;
' being unable to help himself, he and the surgeon
* were taken prisoners.'*
The gallant conduct of the Ninth, on this occasion,
was commended in orders ; the repulsing of an enemy
six times as numerous as themselves, and capturing the
colours of one of the opposing regiments, were held up
to the admiration, and for the example, of the army.
Their loss was Lieutenant Kichard Westropp, one
Serjeant, and 1 1 rank and file killed ; Captain Mont-
gomery wounded and taken prisoner; Lieutenants
James Murray, Joseph Stevelly, Adjutant Isaac
Fielding, and 19 rank and file wounded.
In the skirmish on the 7th of July, Captain Francis
Samuel Stapleton, of the grenadier company, was
mortally wounded, and several private soldiers were
killed and wounded.
After this success, preparations were made for a
forward movement towards the Hudson's River ; but
this was a work which required time and labour : fallen
trees, stones, and other obstacles, having to be removed
from Wood Creek. The Americans retreated without
hazarding an engagement ; but the country to be passed
* Journal of Lieut.-General Burgoyne.
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
was covered with obstructions. Large forest trees 1*717
had been cut so as. to fall across the roads, and their
removal took up much ttjie ; creeks and marshes had
to be crossed ; forty new bridges had to be constructed,
others had to be repaired, and one made of log-work
crossed a morass two miles in extent. The soldiers,
emulous of enterprise, and in high spirits, overcame
these di£Sculties with cheerful alacrity, and on the 30th
of July, the army arrived at the banks of the Hudson's
river. Having taken post at Fort Edward, the troops
were obliged to halt; great difficulty was experienced
in bringing up provision, and the soldiers began to
experience many hardships, at the same time the
enemy's numbers were increasing, and the British
On the 13th and 14th of September, the army
crossed the Hudson's river, and encamped on the
heights and plains of Saratoga. On the 19th it advanced
towards the enemy's position on the island of StiU-
Water, some sharp fighting occurred, which lasted
until dark, when the Americans, who had evinced
firmness and intrepidity, retreated from the field. The
Ninth were in reserve on this occasion, and did not
sustain any loss.
The British lay on their arras all the night on the
field of battle ; and the Canadian Indians, who formed
part of the force, deserted in a body ai^u went back to
their own country. Although thus weakened, the
army continued to confront the enemy, who was
becoming more superior in numbers every day. In
vain the few British who had thus daringly pushed
forward into the heart of an hostile country, looked for
the expected co-operation of other armies ; environed
by crowds of opponents ; cut off from supplies of pro-
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
177*7 vision, their situation became perilous, and they were
placed on half allowance of food. A retreat was
become the only means of preservation, and this was
almost impracticable. Fifteen hundred men moved
against the enemy's posts on the left, to facilitate a retro-
grade movement, but they were forced to retreat with
loss, and the Americans carried the entrenchments oc-
cupied by the German troops which formed part of the
allied army. To avoid being surrounded, the army fell
back to Saratoga, and the Americans pressing forward,
nearly enveloped the British. A resolution to abandon
the artillery and endeavour by a night march to gain
Fort Edward, could not be carried into execution, the
Americans having gained possession of the roads.
Numerous skirmishes occurred in which the Ninth
took part, and they evinced firmness and intrepidity,
but the strength of the soldiers was diminished by
incessant toil and a scarcity of provision. The regi-
ment had Lieutenant James Wright and about 10 men
killed; Major Gordon Forbes, behaved with great
gallantry, and was twice wounded; Captain George
Swettenham and about 20 men were also wounded ;
and Captain J. Money was taken prisoner.
The climax of difficulty and danger had arrived ;
only three thousand five hundred men remained able
to bear arms ; they were nearly exhausted, their pro-
visions were expended, and they were environed by
sixteen thousand Americans. Under these dismal cir-
cumstances, the British concluded a convention with
the American General, ^ Gates) ; and laid down their
arms, on condition of being sent to England, and they
engaged not to serve again in North America during
the war. Lieut.-Colonel Hill of the Ninth, being
anxious to preserve the colours of the regiment, took
Iii«fl»i«i« S!»K*'« fl Mi>w 'i h».
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
them off the staves^ and concealed them in his baggage, 1717
which he was pey mitted to retain.
The American government violated the conditions 1778
of the convention, and detained the troops until 1781, HSl
when the Ninth proceeded to England, and Lieut.-
Colonel Hill producing the colours, presented them to
King George III., who rewarded his faithful services
with the appointment of aide-de-camp to His Majesty,
and the rank of colonel in the army.
On the death of Lieut. -General Earl Ligonier, 1782
King George III. appointed Colonel Thomas Lord
Say and Sele, from major in the first foot guards, to
the colonelcy of the Ninth, his commission bearing
date the 19th of June, 1782.
In August, of the same year, county titles were con-
ferred on the several regiments of foot, to facilitate the
procuring of recruits, and this corps was designated
the Ninth, or East Norfolk regiment of foot.
At the termination of the war, in 1783, the regi- 1183
ment was joined by a number of liberated prisoners of
war, and by recruits raised in Norfolk and Wales, and
its numbers being nearly complete, it marched, in 1784
1784, to Scotland, where it remained until the spring 1785
of 1785, when it embarked for Ireland.
The regiment was stationed nearly three years in 1786
Ireland, and, on the 15th of January, 1788, it em- 1787
barked at Cork for the West Indies ; on its arrival it 1788
was stationed at Brimstone-hill, in the island of St.
Soon after the arrival of the regiment in the West
Indies, Major-General Lord Say and Sele died, and
was succeeded, on the 4th of July, 1788, by Lieut.-
General the Honourable Alexander Leslie, from the
sixty- third regiment.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1793 While the Ninth were performing the duties re-
quired on the mountainous island of St. Christopher's,
the pernicious effects of the French Bevolution in-
volved Europe in war, and the mischievous doctrine
of equality spreading to the ^rench West India
islands, was followed by awful scncs of atrocity and
devastation, which occasioned ^ m j^rench planters to
solicit the protection of the British government. The
war commenced in 1793; and in the early part of
April, the grenadier and light companies of the regi-
ment, commanded by Brevet Major Alexander Baillie,
sailed from St. Christopher's to Barbadoes, where they
joined the expedition under Major- General Cuyler
against the French island of Tobago. On the 14th of
April, the troops landed in Great Courland Bay : they
halted on the beach until dark, when they advanced
against the fort, and climbing up the works with the
most heroic bravery, carried the place by storm be-
fore daylight on the following morning. The capture
of the fort decided the fate of the island, which was
delivered from the power of the republican government
of France. The Ninth had Lieutenant Henry Stop-
ford, one drummer, and three rank and file wounded.
It was declared in the public despatch of Major-
General Cuyler, — 'great praise is due to the officers
"■ and soldiers for their beha\ iour, and particularly to
'Major Baillie, &c.' After the capture of Tobago, the
two companies of the Ninth rejoined the regiment.
1794 Having been relieved from duty at St. Christopher's,
the Ninth, commanded by Lieut. -Colonel John Camp-
bell, proceeded to Barbadoes, where an armament was
assembled under General Sir Charles Grey, K.B.,
(afterwards Earl Grey) in January, 1794, and in the
beginning of February, the fleet sailed for Martinico.
RROIMENT OF FOOT.
The Ninth, with other troops under Major-General 1^94
Thomas Dundas/effectcd a landing at La Trinite, on
the 5th and 6th of February, and captured the post of
Mome Le Brun ; a body of troops advancing to attack
Trinite fort, the enemy evacuated it. This success was
followed by other advantages ; but during the night of
the 10th of February, a popular leader of the mulattoes
and blacks, named Bellegarde, attacked the British
troops at the post of Matilda, when a gallant charge
with bayonets, made by the grenadier company of the
Ninth, routed the enemy. Lieut.-Colonel Campbell,
of the Ninth, had advanced to Post au Pin, where he
was attacked by a numerous body of the enemy, and
while in the act of leading the grenadier company of
the fortieth regiment to the charge with bayonets, he
fell mortally wounded. " In him the service lost a
most excellent officer and a valuable man, justly re-
gretted both by the army and navy."*
Success attended the operations of the British troops,
and on the reduction of Fort Bourbon, in March, the
conquest of the valuable island of Martinico was com-
pleted ; and the conduct of the officers and soldiers
was commended in the London Gazette.
On the 30th of March, the Ninth embarked iu the
bay of Fort Royal and sailed on the following day for
St. Lucia, a French island, about twenty-seven miles
long and twelve broad, and the capture of this place
was completed in a few days without the loss of a man
A garrison having been placed in St. Lucia, the
Ninth returned to Martinico, from whence they sailed
with the expedition against Guadaloupe, another
valuable French ii land. A landing was made in
Gosier Bay, on the 11th of April, and the conquest of
* General Sir Charles Grey's despatch.
36 TUB NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1794 Guadaloupe was completed in ten days. General Sir
Charles Grey stated, in his public despatch, that he
" could not find words to convey an adequate idea, or
to express the high sense he entertained, of the extra-
ordinary merit evinced by the otTicers and soldiers in
this service." - - ?
Thfc Ninth were subsequently stationed on the
island of Grenada, where they did not long enjoy the
tranquillity which might have been anticipate'!, after
making so many conquests.
The loss of so many valuable colonial possessions
■ was not regarded with indifference by the republican
government of Fi'wce, and an armament was fitted
out for the recovery of the conquered islands.
On the death of Lio it.- General the Honourable
Alexander Leslie, the colonelcy of the regiment was
conferred on Major General Albemarle Bertie, from
the eighty-first foot, by commission dated the 31st of
n9r> Grenada, where the Ninth were stationed, was
chiefly inhabited by French colonists, and many of these
revolted against the British authority, and joined with
the Oaribs and slaves in an open rebellion, in 1795.
The Ninth, commanded by Captain John Sandieman,
were stationed on Richmond-hill, from whence detach-
ments were sent out, which had repeated actions with
the rebels, and the firmness of the regiment con-
tributed much to the preservation of the island. In
June, 1 795, the white French people submitted to the
British authority, and the insurrection was suppressed
soon afterwards. In this year the regiment was joined
by a number of volunteers from the sixth foot, which
corps returned to England.
The loss of the Ninth in officers and soldiers, from
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
the climate of the West Indies, v/aa very severe, and in 1*196
1796, many of the men fit for service volunteered to the
twenty-seventh regiment, and the remainder returned
to England, where they arrived in the autumn and were
stationed at Norwich, until joined by a number of 1197
recruits raised in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk.
In 1798 the regiment proceeded to Guernsey ; but it 1198
returned to England in the following year, and was
stationed in the Tower of London.
At this period the royal authority was given for the 1199
regiment to continue to bear the figure "Britannia"
as a regimental badge, which was conveyed to its
colonel, Lieut.-General Bertie, in a letter of which the
following is a copy. — ,5
' Sir, ' « Horse Guards, 30th July, 1799.
*I have received His Royal Highness the Com-
* mander-in-chiers directions to signify to you, that His
* Majesty has been pleased to confirm to the Ninth
' regiment of foot the distinction and privilege of bear-
' ing the figure " Britannia" as the badge of the regi-
'I have &c.
' H. Calvert,
. ' Adjutant GemraV
No documentary evidence has been discovered to
prove the date and circumstances under which the
badge of " Britannia" was first assumed by the
regiment. The authority, in the first instance, appears
to have been verbal, and the circumstances not to
have been recorded. Tradition associates this honour
with the services of the regin^ent in Spain, during the
war of the succession, and Her Majesty Queen Anne is
named as the sovereign who first granted to the regi-
ment the privilege of bearing this badge. The badge is
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1799 not, however, alluded to in the royal warrants of 1751
Three thousand men, of the Gloucester and other
militia corps in the vicinity of London, having volun-
teered to serve in the Ninth, the regiment was formed
into three battalions. Lieut.- General Bertie, as colonel
in-chief, commanded the first battalion ; Major-Oeneral
Robert Manners, from major in the third foot guards,
commanded the second battalion, as colonel com-
mandant ; and the command of the third was conferred
on Colonel Gerrit Fisher from lieut.-colonel of the first
battalion. The lieut.- colonels were Henry de Berniere,
Gideon Shairpe, John Sandieman, Robert Montgomery,
John Crewe, Richard Bingham ; six majors were also
appointed, and the total number of officers amounted
to one hundred and fifty. The three battalions were
encamped on Barham-downs, and their appearance
attracted general admiration.
Holland having become subject to France, and taken
the designation of the " Batavian Republic," an arma-
ment was fitted out to attempt to rescue the Dutch from
that bondage in which they had become involved, and
the first and second battalions of the Ninth embarked
on this service ; at the same time the third battalion
marched into barracks at Ashford.
The Ninth arrived in Holland in the early part of
September, and the British and Russian troops, em-
ployed on this enterprise under His Royal Highness
the Duke of York, advanced to attack the French and
Dutch forces, in position at Bergen, on the 19th of
September. The two battalions of the Ninth formed
part of the column under Lieut.-General Dc Hermann,
which commenced its attack at half past three in the
morning, carried Groet and Schorcl, and penetrated
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
into Bergen ; but the hasty valour of the RusBians 1199
occasioned them to'overlook the precautions which the
military art prescribes, and they were repulsed with
considerable loss. The Ninth, and one or two other
British regiments, rushed forward, and recaptured the
village under a heavy fire ; but the failure of the
Eussians had rendered further efforts ineffectual, and
the British were ordered to withdraw. When perform-
ing this retrograde movement, the first battalion of the
Ninth was attacked by very superior numbers, and
sustained serious loss ; the second battalion was also
The first battalion had Lieutenant Woodford and
Quarter Master HoUis killed ; Lieutenants Grant and
Rothwell wounded; Lieutenant Smith wounded and
taken prisoner ; ten seijeants, one drummer, and two
hundred and three rank and file killed, wounded, and
prisoners. The second battalion had Captain Balfour
one Serjeant, and sixteen rank and file killed ; Lieut-
Colonel Crewe, four Serjeants and forty-six rank and
file wounded; Ensign French wounded and taken
prisoner; Ensign Butters, one Serjeant, and ninety
seven rank and file missing. , •.•,
. Another attack was made on the enemy's positions
on the 2nd of October, when the Ninth formed part of
the column under Lieut.- General Sir James Pulteney,
which covered the left of the position to the Zuyder
Zee, and was destined to threaten the enemy's right and
to take advantage of any favourable opportunity that
should occur. Having assembled in front of Drixhoom,
the column menaced an attack on Oudt Carspel, and
held the enemy in check in that quarter, but it was not
seriously engaged. Egmont op Zee was captured, and
other advantages gained, on the 2nd and 6th of October.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1 799 These efforts not being seconded by the Dutch people,
this circumstance, with the difficulties encountered in
carrying on the operations, occasioned the British army
to be withdrawn from Holland.
After their arrival in England the first and second
battalions were stationed at Norwich, and Major
General Manners having been appointed to the
colonelcy of the '^irty-first foot, the commission of
Coloncl-Commandan^ of the second battalion of the
Ninth was conferred on Major-General the Honor-
able John Knox, from lieut.-coloncl of the thirty-
1800 The three battalions of the Ninth were assembled
at Norwich, and in the summer of 1800, they were
encamped on Bagshot-heath and formed in brigade
under Major-General Manners. In August they
marched to Southampton, and embarked with the
expedition under Lieut.-General Sir James Pultcney.
7 At this period the Spanish government had united
with France in hostility to Great Britain, and an attack
on the fortress of Ferrol, a sea port situated at the
influx of the river Javia into tho bay of Corunna was
contemplated. Arriving off the coast of Galicia, a
landing was effected on the 25th of ^kugust, the troops
advanced to the heights which overlook the town, and
some skirmishing occurred ; but, after viewing the
town and its defences, Sir James Pulteney resolved not
to lose time in attacking this place, and he re-embarked
the troops and proceeded to join General Sir Ralph
Abercromby, who commanded a British force in the
Mediterranean. Sir Ralph Abercromby appeared
before Cadiz ^ and summoned the governor to surrender ;
but a disease was ravaging the city at the time, and
tho fleet quitted the coast for fear of infection, and
RE01MBNT OF FOOT.
proceeded to Gibraltar. The army afterwards pro- 1800
ccodcd to Egypt ; ' but the Ninth, being composed
principally of volunteers from the militia, whose con-
ditions of enlistment limited their services to time and
place, they were not available for the expedition to
Egypt, and the regiment was ordered to Lisbon, where
it remained a short period, and subsequently returned
On its arrival in England, the regiment was ordered 1801
to Jerucy, where it was stationed until June, 1801,
when it embarked for Portsmouth. After landing, the
first battalion encamped on Fairleigh-hill near
Hastings ; the second proceeded to Silver-hill barracks,
land the third to Riding-street barracks, from whence
it removed to Shornecliffe. When the camp at Fair-
leigh was broken up, the first battalion proceeded to
BexhUl, and afterwards to Battle-barracks.
In the meantime the British arms had triumphed in 1802
Egypt, and in other parts of the globe, and these
successes were followed by a treaty of peace, which was
concluded in 1802. The termination of the war was
followed by a reduction in the army, and the third
battalion of the Ninth was disbanded. The limited
service men of that, and of the other two battalions,
were permitted to re-enlist for unlimited service, and
were incorporated in the first battalion. The second
battalion received the limited service men from the
first, and marched to Battle-barracks, where it was
disbanded in October.
In November of the same year the regiment em- 1803
barked at Chatham for Plymouth, where it was
stationed until September, 1803, when it proceeded to
Ireland, and after landing at Kinsalc, it was stationed
at Kilkenny until 1804, when it marched to Dublin.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1804 On the 15th of Juno 1804, Ooncral Bcrtio was
appointed to tho scvcnty-sovonth foot, and was sue*
ccedcd in tho colonelcy of tho Ninth by Lieut-
General Peter Hunter, from colonel-commandant in
the sixtieth regiment.
War with France had recommenced in 1803; and in
the autumn of 1804, the Ninth received orders for
the formation of a second battalion, when Major
Crauford, with staff-officers, and non-commissioned
ofHcers selected for that duty from the first battalion,
embarked for England, and establishing the head-
quarters at Sherbournc, in Dorsetshire, commenced
1805 In August, 1805, the first battalion left Dublin, and
joined the forces encamped on the Curragh of Kildare ;
in September, it received orders to march to Clonmel.
After tho decease of Lieut.-General Hunter, King
George III, conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth on
Major-General Robert Brownrigg, from colonel-com-
mandant in the sixtieth regiment, by commission dated
the 3rd of October, 1805.
At this period several nations had assembled their
armies to contend with the tyrannical government of
Napoleon Buonaparte, whom the French had dignified
with the title of Emperor, and the naval victory gained
on the 21st of October, by the British fleet under Vice-
Admiral Viscount Nelson, off Cape Trafalgar, appeared
to give presage of success to the allies. The first
battalion of the Ninth embarked at the Cove of Cork,
in three transports, and sailed on the 10th of November,
in the expectation of taking part in the war on the
continent; but two transports were driven by contrary
winds to the Downs, and the third, the Ariadne, having
the head quarters on board was wrecked on the coast
REOIMKNT OF FOOT.
of Franco, noar Calais, when tho staff officers, and two 1805
hundred and sixty-two soldiers, were made prisoners
of war. The other two transports sailed to Oennany :
but the decisive victory gained at Austerlitz, on tho
2n'! of December, by Napoleon, over the Austrians
and Russians, was followed by results which occasioned
the return of the British troops without being engaged
in any transaction of importance.
Tho Ninth arrived from Germany in the beginning 18O6
of 1806, and were quartered at Shorncliff, where
Lieut. -Colonel John Stewart joined and took the com*
mand. '■■' 'in ^^ ."' '■■ r /. a. '-'^^
In June, the second battalion, though still weak in
numbers, marched from Sherbourne to Tamworth,
where it was presented with colours by Major General
Brownrigg, the colonel of the regiment. In November
it proceeded to Burton-upon -Trent, and it had re-
cruiting parties in Norfolk and Lancashire.
The first battalion embarked at Dover, in December, 1801
and sailed for Ireland ; it landed at Cork in January,
1807, and proceeding to Fermoy, was there joined by
three hundred and fifty-nine volunteers from the North
Gloucester, Devon, Lancashire, and Berkshire militia
From Burton-upon -Trent, the second battalion was
removed in June, to Chelmsford, where it received
four hundred and seventy-four volunteers from the
Leicester, West Kent, Somerset, and East and West
Norfolk regiments of militia. In September, it pro-
ceeded to Shorncliff barracks, where Lieut.- Colonel
Cameron joined and assumed the command.
At this period the French Emperor was endeavouring 1 808
to reduce the Peninsula under his domination, a part
of the great political bcliemc of this successful general.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1808 whose design was rendered less difficult in consequence
of the imbecility of the King of Spain, Charles IV., and
the weakness of the kingdom he governed ; superstition
had repressed knowledge, contracted the public mind,
and produced such a relaxation of the energies of the
state, as seemed to invite the aggression of unprincipled
ambition, and to encourage the views of the usurper.
Napoleon founded his project in violence, and exe-
cuted it with fraud and cruelty : for six years the
Peninsula was devastated by war, and the blood of
many states was shed in the contest. The Ninth
were among the foremost of the British regiments called
into the battle-iield of Spanish and Portuguese inde-
pendence, and they reaped a harvest of fame ".hich
the soldiers viewed with peculiar satisfaction because
acquired in the repression of tyranny.
Having received a draft of a hundred men from the
second battalion, the first battalion embarked at Cork
on the 9th of June, 1808, under the command of Lieut.-
Colonel John Stewart, and sailing with the forces
designed for the aid of the Spaniards and Portuguese,
who were in arms against the power of France, it
arrived off the coast of Portugal in July, entered the
Mondego river, and landed in the beginning of August.
The Fifth, Ninth, and Thirty-eighth, were formed in
brigade under Major- General Rowland Hill.
Leaving the banks of the Mondego, the British
troops under Lieut.-Geueral Sir Arthur Wellesley,
advanced towards Lisbon ; and on the morning of the
17th of August, they issued from Obidos, ar '1 breaking
into three columns of battle, moved forward to attack
the French forces under General Laborde, in position
at Roleia. The Ninth, forming part of the centre
column, moved on the right of the main road, and
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
ascended, by narrow winding paths, the rocky heights 1808
on which the enemy was formed. As they approached
the opposing army, the skirmishers spread along the
front, and climbing the rugged rocks with vigorous
steps, levelled their muskets at their numerous anta-
gonists with certain aim ; the smoke, rising from the
side of the mountain, marking their progress, as step
by step they won their way towards the summit. The
Twenty-ninth rushed up a path which led directly to
the enemy, and were followed by the Ninth. The
two regiments ascended at so rapid a pace, that they
were soon in advance of every other corps. The
Twenty -ninth gained the summit; but were forced
back by superior numbers. They were joined by the
Ninth, and the two corps dashed impetuously up the
steep ascent, and soon gained firm footing on the high
ground. The French general made every possible
effort to destroy the two regiments before any other
corps could arrive to their aid, but they stood their
ground with sanguinary firmness, and fiercely repulsed
the repeated attacks of their numerous opponents. The
.''ifth regiment arrived to their aid ; the movements
of the other columns began to take effect ; the enemy
fell back, and soon a.^'^'^r four o'clock, the firing ceased:
the British remained masters of the field of battle with
three pieces of captured cannon.
Sir Arthur Wellesley stated in his public despatch :
* The passes were all difficult of access, and some of
* them were well defended by the enemy, particularly
' that which was attacked by the twenty-ninth and
' !S iNTH regiments. These regiments attacked with the
' greatest impetuosity, and reached the enemy before
' those whose attacks were to be made on their flanks.'
' For a considerable time the twenty-ninth and Ninth
' regiments alone were advanced to this point, with
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1808 ' Brigadier- General Fane's riflemen at a distance on
' the left, and they were afterwards supported by the
' fifth regiment, and by the light companies of Major-
' General Hill's brigade, and by the other troops
* ordered to ascend the mountains as they came up by
' degrees, x he enemy here made three most gallant
' attacks upon the twenty-ninth and Ninth regiments,
' supported as I have above stated, with a view to cover
' the retreat of his defeated army, in all of which, he
' was, however, repulsed.'
The gallant bearing of the Ninth on this occasion,
was afterwards rewarded with the honor of displaying
the word " Roleia" on their colours. Their loss was
Lieut.-C'olonel John Stewart and four men killed ;
Major George MoUe, Captain Samuel Sankey, Ensign
Samuel Nicholls and forty-nine rank and file wounded ;
twelve rank and file missing.
Following the retreating enemy, the army took up a
position at Vimiera on the 17th of August.
In the Tfieantime the second battalion had embarked
from Ramsgate on the 17th of July ; it landed on the
sandy beach called the bay of Maceira on the 19th of
August and joining the army, took post upon a rugged
and isolated height in front of the village of Vimiera.
It formed part of the brigade cor. mand ed by Brigadier-
General Anstruther, and the left of this brigade occu-
pied the church and church-yard. The first battalion
was posted on the mountain on the right of the village.
On the morning of the 21st of August the soldiers
were under arms before day-break ; at seven o'clock a
cloud of dust was observed beyond the nearest hills,
and soon afterwards the French army under Marshal
Junot was seen advancing to battle. The hill, on which
the second battalion was posted, was attacked by the
enemy, who was repulsed with severe loss. When the
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
French retired, the battalion moved forward in pursuit, 1&08
but it was ordered to halt, an^"*. to return to its original
position. The battalion had ib^-ee men killed ; Lieu-
tenant A. E. Taylor, one serjeant, and fourteen rank
and CAe wounded.
Sir Arthur Wellesley stated in his despatch, ' The
' valour and discipline of His Majesty's troops have been
' conspicuous on this occasion ;' and the royal authority
was afterwards given for the Ninth to bear the word
" Vimiera" on their colours, to commemorate their con-
duct at this battle.
The French General, Marshal Junot, being con-
vinced of the resolute and intrepid conduct of the troops
with which he had to contend, and of the steady and
determined policy of the British Government, agreed
to evacuate Fortugal, and the convention of Cintra
delivered the Portuguese from the power of their
oppressors. The first battalion of the Ninth com-
manded by Lieut.-Colonel John Cameron marched
into quarters at Quelus, near Lisbon ; the second, under
Major David Campbell, proceeded to Belem, and was
afterwards stationed in the castle : the French having
left the country, the British soldiers enjoyed a short
period of repose.
Portugal being free from the presence of hostile
troops, a British army was appointed to enter Spain
under Lieut.-General Sir John Moore, to co-operate
with the Spaniards in arms against the F'-r^nch, and the
first battalion of the Ninth, mustering six hundred
rank and file, under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, having
been selected for this enterprise, left Quelus on the 1 2th
of October, crossed the frontiers of Spain on the 11th
of November, and after a march of four hundred miles
arrived at Salamanca on the 14th of November.
THE NINTHj OR EAST NORFOLK
1808 At Salamanca an account was received of the over-
throw of the Spanish armies ; but the idea of a retreat
was repugnant to the daring spirit of Sir John Moore^
and he undertook the dangerous enterprise of attacking
the enemy's communications to relieve the Spaniards
from the pressure of Napoleon's superior numbers, by
drawing a portion of that force upon himself. The
Ninth left Salamanca in the early part of December,
and, after a long march exposed to snow-storms and
tempests, arrived in the vicinity of Sahagun, where
prer mirations were made for attacking the enemy ; but
nou ; arriving of the approach of Napoleon at the
h ad f f an overwhelming force, the object of the advance
WAS ac jmplished, and Sir John Moore hastened towards
the V . , lo embark.
1809 Having retreated to Lugo, in Galicia, the Ninth
were ordered, with the other regiments of their brigade,
to Vigo, to embark ; but after a march of two days
they were directed to return to Lugo, where they
arrived on the night of the 7th of January, 1809. At
this place Sir John Moore offered battle, and, trusting to
the valour of his: men, he expected to be able to inflict a
blow which would cripple the enemy, and enable the
British to continue their retreat and embark without
molestation ; but the French declined to attack on the
8th of January, and time being precious, the retreat was
resumed. The fatigue, privation, and exposure to frost
and snow, endured by the t: )ops, occasioned the loss
of many men. Ensign Davies, one serjeant :ind one
hundred and forty-eight rank and file, of the Ninth,
died on the road, or being obliged to halt from exhaus-
tion were made prisoners by the enemy.
On arriving at Corunna, the Ninth were stationed in
the town, and they were not engaged in the battle on
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
the 16th of January, when the British troops repulsed 1809
a superior enemy with astonishing firmness; but the
gallant Sir John Moork fell mortally wounded. Their
conduct during the whole course of this expedition
procured for them the honour of bearing the word
'* Corunna" on their colours.
Sir John Moore having expressed a wish to be in-
terred on the site of his victory and death, the melan-
choly duty of taking part in the obsequies of their late
commander, devolved on a party of the Ninth regi-
ment of foot. In life the soldiers had admired his noble
disposition, refined understanding, and lofty sentiments
of honour ; in him was seen an uncommon capacity,
sustained by virtue, governed by patriotism ; he pos-
sessed the confidence of his troops, and his memory was
engraven on their hearts. At midnight his remains
were removed to the citadel by the oflicers of his staff,
and the soldiers of the Ninth du§ his grave on the
rampart. Early on the following morning, as the can-
non of the enemy opened a heavy fire, his corpse was
folded in a military cloak and consigned to the earth.
The army embarked and left the coast ; and Marshal
Soult, with a noble generosity, subsequently erected a
monument to the memory of the British hero.
The following lines on the burial of Lieut.-General
SiE John Moore, hy the Rev. C. Wolfe, are here in-
troduced, as the Ninth regiment furnished the fatigue
party in the interment of their revered Commander : —
Not a drum was heard, — not a fiineral note, —
As his corse to the rampart we hurried ; ]
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot
O'er the grave where our hero we buried !
We buried him darkly at dead of night,
The sods with our bayonets turning ;
By the struggling moonbeam's misty light, •.
And the lantern dimly burning !
50 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1809 ^0 useless coffin enclosed his breast,
Nor in sheet, nor in shroud we wound him ;
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest,
With his martial cloak around him !
Few and short were the prayers we said,
And we spoke not a word of sorrow ;
But we stedfastly gazed on the face of the dead,
And we bitterly thought of the morrow I
We thought, as we hoUow'd his narrow bed,
And smooth'd down his lonely pillow,
That the foe and the stranger would tread o'er his head,
And we far away on the billow ! .
Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that's gone,
And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him ;
But little he'll reck, if they let him sleep on »
In the grave where a Briton has laid him I
But half of our heavy task was done,
When the clock struck the hour for retiring ;
And we heard the distant and random gun
That the foe was suddenly firing !
Slowly and sadly we laid him down,
' ' From the field of his fame, fresh and gory ; '
* We carved not a line ; we raised not a stone ; " .'
But we left him alone with his glory !
After taking part in covering the embarkation of
the army, the Ninth went on board the fleet on the
18th of January J they landed at Plymouth and Ports-
mouth in February, and marched from thence to Can-
terbury, where they were joined by two hundred and
thirty volunteers from the militia, and ninety-six
recruits from the second battalion.
With a generous zeal for the interest of mankind,
the British government resolved to continue to aid the
Spaniards, and it was considered necessary, for the
safety of the army, to possess some strong fort in that
country, as a place of arms. With this view negocia-
tions were entered into for the possession of Cadiz,
and, in the expectation that the wishes of the British
- II JiipiatM
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
government would be acceded to, troops were sent to 1809
take possession of that fortress. The second battalion
of the Ninth embarked for Cadiz in February, but,
on arriving at that port, so many frivolous objections
were made by the Supreme Junta, that the British
troops under Major-General Mackenzie returned to
Portugal in March, and the Ninth joined Brigadier-
General Cameron's brigade.
Fifty thousand French troops were hovering on
the frontiers of Portugal, and Lieut.-General Sir John
Cradock concentrated the British about two stages in
front of Lisbon, waiting for the enemy to develope his
plans ; Marshal Soult invaded the north of Portugal,
and captured Oporto, and after the arrival of reinforce-
ments, the British and Portuguese, under Sir Arthur
Wellesley, advanced to drive the enemy from the con-
quered territory. The second battalion of the Ninth
was engaged in this enterprise ; and it embarked with
other corps, in boats at Aveiro, with the view of turn-
ing the enemy's right by the lake of Ovar; the Portu-
guese fishermen comprehending the object, worked .
with such good will, that the flotilla arrived at the
town of Ovar in a few hours. The enemy's flanks
being turned, his divisions fell back upon Oporto, and
the Ninth took part in the passage of tljp Douro, on
the 12th of May, and in driving Marshal Soult from
Oporto : this was one of the most brilliant exploits
which had taken place for many years. The Ninth
also took part in the pursuit of the French, who de-
stroyed their artillery and baggage, and made a pre-
cipitate retreat through the mountains. On the 20th
of May, the Ninth returned from the pursuit, and
proceeded towards Lisbon ; they had been selected to
form part of the garrison of Gibraltar, and embarking
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1809fipom Lisbon, on the 18th of June, arrived at that
fortress on the 3rd of July.
The first battalion was sL.itioncd at Canterbury,
from whence it marched, on the 17th of July, to Rams-
gate, where it embarked with the expedition under
the Earl of Chatham, designed for an attack on Hol-
land, as a diversion in favour of the continental
armies in the field against Napoleon. The Ninth,
thirty-eighth, and forty-second, formed a brigade
under Major- General Montrcsor, and after menacing
the Flemish coast at several points, landed, in August,
on South Beveland, an island twenty-four miles long
and from five to eight broad, formed by the divided
branches of the river Scheldt. On this 'sland the
Ninth remained above three weeks; the object of the
expedition was defeated by procrastination, and in
September, the regiment returned to England, and
resumed its former quaiters at Canterbury, where it
lost many men by n disease contracted while employed
on this expedition.
1810 In Apri', 1810, the light company of the second
battalion was withdrawn from Gibraltar to take part
in the defence of Tarifa, a small town of Spain, in a
bay on the north side of the Straits of Gibraltar,
fortified with a wall and towers, and situate about
seventeen miles from Gibraltar. The light companies
of the Ninth, thirtieth, and forty-seventh, a batta-
lion company of the twenty- eighth, and a detachment
of artillery, sailed from Gibraltar to Algesiras, where
they landed on the 14th of April, and marched to
Tarifa; on the 2l8t, the French endeavoured to carry
the place by a coup de-main, but were repulsed, and
they retreat u on the same night with considerable
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
On the 22n(lof June, the second battalion embarked 1810
from Gibraltar on Board the Hydra, and sailed for
Malaga, under the command of Major- General Bowes ;
but, on reaching thi- * port, it was ordered to return to
Gibraltar immediately. After a quick passage, it ar-
rived at Gibralta r on the 2nd of July, and resumed its
post at that important fortress, where it wan joined by
the light company on the 24th of Septemb» '' the
After a short repose in quarters at Cantc
first battalion embarked to join the army ii, u^al
under Viscount Wellington ; it landed at l.isbon in
March, 1810, and occupied the barracks of Campo de
Rique until the end of June ; being the first corps of
the Walcheren expedition which had been subsequently
embarked again for service. From Lisbon the Ninth
advanced to Thomar, where they were stationed three
months. At this period a i unerous French army had
penetrated Portugal under Marshal Massena ; and the
Ninth, having been formed in brigade with the third
battalion of the first Royals, and second battalion of the
thirty- eighth, joined the army under Viscount Welling-
ton on the 20th of September, and were in position on
the rocks of Busaco, on the 27th of September, to stem
the torrent of invasion which threatened to overwhelm
Portugal. The French formed five columns of attack,
and throwing forward a host of skirmishers, ascended
the steep front of the Sierra de Busaco with the
gallantry of troops accustomed to victory At some
points they were speedily driven back, but at others
they gained a temporary advantage. The right of the
third division was forced back ; the eighth Portuguese
regiment was broken, and the hostile masses gained the
highest part of the position between the third and fifth
TEST TARGET (MT-3)
■U Uii 12.2
23 WEST MAIN STRUT
TH£ NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1810 divisions, when the leading battalions established them-
selves among the rocks, forming with their right 7esting
upon a precipice overhanging the reverse side of the
sierra. Major-General Leith perceiving the serious
impression made by the enemy, led the Boyals, Ninth,
and thirty-eighth to the attack, and keeping the Royals
in reserve, he directed the thirty-eighth to turn the
right of the French, and as the precipice prevented this.
Colonel Cameron formed the Ninth, under a violent
fire, and led them to Une charge. The distinguished
conduct of the regiment on this occasion, is described as
follows: — 'The thirty-eighth were therefore directed
' to form also and support, when Major-General Leith
* led the Ninth regiment to attack the enemy on the
' rocky ridge, which they did without firing a shot.
' That part which looks behind the sierra was inac-
' cessible, and afforded' the enemy the advantage of
' outflanking the Ninth on the left, as they advanced ;
' but the order, celerity, and coolness with which they
' attacked, panic-struck the enemy, who immediately
' gave way on being charged with the bayonet, and the
' whole were driven down the face of the sierra in con-
' fusion, and with immense loss, from the destructive
' firo which the Ninth regiment opened upon them as
' they fled with precipitation after the charge. The
' steadiness and accuracy with which the Ninth at-
' tended to the direction of the march, which, before
* they were engaged, was continually changing^ in order
' to form in the most advantageous manner for the
' attack of the enemy ; the quickness and precision with
' which they formed line under a heavy fire : their
' instantaneous and orderly charge, by which they drove
' the enemy, so much superior in numbers, from a
' formidable position ; and the promptitude with which
BSOIMENT OF FOOT.
' they obeyed Major-Oeneral Leith's order to cease 1810
* firing, was, altogether, conduct as distinguished as
' any regiment could have shown, and perhaps, not the
' less worthy of notice, that it is well known the enemy's
* attack was made by the flower ofRegnier's corps, who
' had volunteered their service, in which they were
' ultimately defeated. The Ninth regiment was com-
' manded by Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, who, notwith-
' standing his being extremely ill, exerted himself with
' the greatest gallantry in front, during the charge,
' when his horse was killed under him.'
The enemy was ultimately repulsed at all points, and
the allied artoiy stood triumphant on the field of battle.
The signal gallantry evinced by the Ninth on this
occasion was applauded in the field, their conduct has
been commended by historians, and rewarded with the
royal authority to bear the word " Busaco" on their
colours. They had five rank and file killed ; Lieu-
tenant George Lindsay lost an arm ; one serjeant and
seventeen rank and file were wounded.
Although repulsed in his attack on the position of
Busaco, the enemy tras enabled, by his superior
numbers, to turn this post by a flank movement, when
the allied army fell back to the lines of Torres Vedras,
where a resistance was opposed to the French Marshal
which he could not overcome. The Ninth were
stationed on the heights of Sobral ; in November, when
the enemy retreated to Santarem, the regiment took
post at Alcantara, and in December it went into quarters
at Torres Vedras, where it remained three months.
While Marshal Massena was before the linos of
Torres Vedras, Marshal Victor blockaded Cadiz, and
Marshal Soult led another army into Estremadura.
After the departure of Marshal Soult, the blockading
THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1811 force before Cadiz was not very numerous, and the
light and grenadier companies of the second battalion
of the Ninth, having been completed to eighty men
each, embarked from Gibraltar on the 20th of Feb-
ruary, 1811, to take part in an attack on the rearofthe
enemy's lines before Cadiz. They lauded at Tarifa,
and were there joined by the troops from Cadiz, under
Lieut.-General Graham. Seven thousand Spaniards
also arrived under General La Pena, and the whole
moving forward, the advance-guard stormed Com Viejas
on the 2nd of March ; the French were driven from
Vejer de la Frotera on the drd, and on the morning of
the 5th, after a night march of sixteen hours, the army
arrived at the heights of Barrom. The British con-
tinued their march to Bermeja, leaving the flank com-
panies of the Ninth and eighty-second, under Major
Brown, of the twenty-eighth, as a guard for the
baggage ; at the same time some injudicious movements
were made by the Spaniards. Marshal Victor, observing
the divided state of the allied forces, brought forward
his troops, and commencing the battle, cut off a Spanish
detachment, drove the rear-guard from the heights, and
captured three Spanish guns. The flank companies of
the Ninth and eighty-Eiecond, being unable to stem
the torrent of battle, retired into t" ip-'ii, where they
fought Rufiin's French brigade w: . great gallantry.
Meanwhile the main body of ^.he British had returned ;
a cannonade, a few volleys of musketry, and a charge
with the bayonet, broke onr body of the enemy. The
flank companies of the Nfmth and eighty-second, being
engaged with a French brigade, were overmatched in
numbers and nearly destroyed ; yet they maintained
the fight until a column under Brigadier- General Dilkes
arrived to their aid, when the whole ran up the height.
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
The French met them at the summit; a sanguinary 1811
fight ensued ; but'the British pressed forward with such
violence, that the French vrer^ driven from the hill with
the loss of many soldiers and three guns. The
Spaniards looked on, while the British fought this
terrible battle against superior numbers, and when the
victory was won, the English were too exhausted to
pursue. An eagle, six pieces of cannon, two general
officers, and many captured soldiers, were the trophies
of this victory.
Lieut.-General Graham stated in his public de-
spatch, ' No expressions of mine could do justice to the
' conduct of the troops throughout. Nothing less than
* the almost unparalleled exertions of every officer, —
' the invincible bravery of every soldier, — and the most
' determined devotion to the honor of His Majesty's
' arms in aU,— could have achieved this brilliant success
' against so formidable an enemy so posted.* The
flank companies of the Ninth had eight rank and
file killed; Captain Godwin, Lieutenants Taylor,
Robertson, and Seward, four scrjeants, two drummers,
and fifty rank and file wounded.
When the conflict had ceased, Lieut.-General Graham
remained on the field of battle; but the Spanish General
did not seize the favourable opportunity, which the
valour of the British troops had put into his hands, of
striking a severe blow at the remains of the French
army retreating in disorder. The inactivity of the
Spaniards continuing, the British proceeded to Cadiz,
where the flank companies of the Ninth embarked for
Tarifa, and, after a short stay at this port, rejoined the
second battalion at Gibraltar.
The first battalion was quartered at Torres Vcdras,
until the French army, under Marshal Massena, having
THE NIVTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1811 exhausted its resources, had become reduced in
numbers, and retreated towards Spain. The Ninth
left their quarters on the. 7th of March, and moving in
pursuit of the retreating enemy, took part in the opera-
tions by which the French were driven to the frontiers.
When, from a deficiency of supplies, the army was
obliged to halt a few days for the arrival of provisions,
the Ninth encamped at Venda du Vachie; they after-
wards resumed the pursuit, and on the 3rd of April
came up with a body of French at StUmgaly whom they
drove over the bridge at the point of the bayonet. The
enemy was driven from his positions on the Coa, forced
across the frontier into Spain, and Portugal, except the
fortress of Almeida, was freed from the presence of
French troops. Such were the results of this splendid
campaign, so honourable to British skill and valour.
After restoring that order and discipline which the
French troops had lost in their hasty retreat from
Portugal, Marshal Massena crossed the frontiers of
Spain in the beginning of May, and advanced to relieve
the blockade of AlmeidUi, The battle of Fwntei cT Onor
followed ; the Ninth took part in repulsing the enemy,
and had four men of the light company wounded. The
French army having been defeated in its attempt to
relieve Almeida, the garrison effected its escape.
The Ninth went into cantonments at Aldea del
Bispo ; in the middle of May they removed to Nava
d'Aver; the armies of Marshals Soult and Marmont
uniting in Spanish Estremadura, the regiment marched
to the Alemtejo, to cover that frontier, and was stationed
at Portalegre ; and when the French Commanders,
finding themselves unable to force the British position,
separated, it marched to Paio, where it was joined by
two hundred volunteers from the militia.
REOIHBKT OF FOOT.
Wbile the first battalion was at Nara d* Aver, 1811
Tarragona, a seaport in the north-east of Spain, built
upon rocks, near the mouth of the river Francoli, in
Catalonia, was besieged by a French army under
Marshal Suchet, and the second battalion of the Ninth
was withdrawn from Gibraltar on the I9th of June, to
aid, if practicable, in the defence of Tarragona. It
arrived off that fortress on the 26th of June ; but the
place was captured by storm two days afterwards. The
battalion subsequently sailed to the island of Minorca,
and anchored, on the 7th of July, in the harbour of Port
Mahon. On the 14th of July it sailed for Gibraltar,
and on the 26th resumed its former post in that fortress.
The light company of the second battalion was again 1812
employed at Tarifa, from the 1st of January to the
27th of April, 1812.
During the winter of 1811-12, the British com-
mander in Portugal undertook the siege of Civdad
Bodriffo; the first battalion of the Ninth advanced
from Paio, and arrived at Fuente Guinaldo on the
18th of January; Ciudad Rodrigo was captured by
storm on the 19th, and on the following day the regi-
ment marched into that fortress, and occupied the
barracks until thd end of February.
The next undertaking of the British troops was the
siege of Badajos. To engage in this enterprise, the
Ninth left Ciudad Rodrigo on the 1st of March,
crossed the Tagus near Villa Velha, and joined the
besieging army. On the night of the 6th of April, when
the storming parties prepared for the assault, the
Ninth were under arms, and advanced in the expecta-
tion of taking part in the attack ; but they were kept
in reserve on the spot where Lord Wellington was
making observations. At day-break on the following
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1812 morning, they were moved into the town, to repress
the violence of the soldiers who had captured the place
by storm, in which duty they were employed all the
day. Several men were wounded by straggling shots
from the fire which loose parties still kept up, and the
duty of restoring tranquillity, on this occasion, proved
one of the most arduous undertakings in which the regi-
ment was ever engaged.
This service performed, the regiment marched back
to Portugal, and took part in driving the French,
under Marshal Marmont, from the province of Beira.
Having chased the enemy across the frontiers, the army
went into quarters, and the Ninth were cantoned at
Momento de Beira, and Lamegoon the Douro.
After reposing a short period in quarters, the regi-
ment crossed the Agueda river, and advanced upon
Salamanca ; the French were driven from this city on
the 17th of June, but theyleft garrisons in the fortified
convents, which were besieged. The Ninth were in
position in the mountains of St. Christoval, when
Marshal Marmont advanced to relieve the forts ; and
when the French, unable to accomplish their object, fell
back behind the Douro, the regiment advanced to the
vicinity of Nava del Rey.
Reinforcements having joined the French army.
Marshal Marmont passed the Douro in the middle of
July, and commenced a series of manoeuvres. Lieut-
Colonel Cameron, having suffered from ill health, had
just left the regiment to return to England on sick
leave, but hearing the enemy s cannonade, on the 17th
of July, he rejoined the regiment, which took post
at Torrecilla de la Orden, to cover the retrc^ade move-
ment of two divisions and a brigade of cavalry in ad-
vance- The French pressed the corps in advance with
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
superior numbers, and the whole withdrew across the 1812
Ouarena river ; on passing the stream, the fifth division,
of which the Ninth formed part, was cannonaded by
forty guns : the soldiers stood their gpround until all
the troops had passed, and then retired across the plain
in view of both armies ; having by their steadiness
prevented the further advance of the enemy.
A series of retrograde movements brought the allied
army back to the vicinity of Salamanca ; and, on the
22nd of July, as the French were executing a difficult
and complicated manoeuvre, the English general ordered
his divisions forward and commenced the battle. As
the Ninth advanced to the attack, their progress was
obstructed by a village, which separated them from the
other two corps of their brigade (Royals and thirty-
eighth). Thus left to themselves, the Ninth sloped
arms and pressed forward without firing a shot ; they
were near Major-General Le Marchant*s brigade of
heavy cavalry when it executed its brilliant charge on
the French infantry, and Major-Oeneral Le Marchant
was killed in front of the regiment. Pressing rapidly for-
ward along with the dragoons, and sharing with them in
their successes against the French infantry, the Ninth
were at length a quarter of a mile in front ^f the other
regiments of their brigade, when one of Lcrt'l Welling-
ton's aides-de-camp rode up, and said, *' The Ninth
is the only regiment formed, advance." This was
instantly obeyed, but Lieut.-General Leith being
wounded, Lieut.-Colonel Greville, who was in the com-
mand of the brigade, ordered the Ninth to retire and join
the other two regiments of their brigade ; thus yielding
a post so strong that the sixth division lost many men in
ret&^dng it. A decisive victory was, however, gained j
and the regiment was afterwards rewarded with the
,-. tl<l**»*f »Afc*V*J.^|rf..^iflfc
r iflgT!rjjg:gac '!^t3tTr;;i]Tir \';wTr^3i^
THE NINTH, OR RAST NORrOI.K
1612 royal authority to bear the word " Salamanca" on its
colours, to commemorate its gallantry on this occasion.
Its loss was three rank and file killed; Lieutenant
Ackland, two Serjeants, and forty rank and file wounded.
The rc^ment moved forward in pursuit of the enemy
on the following day ; and after taking part in driving
the French from Valladolidj advanced to Madrid,
where it arrived on the 13th of August* and bivouacked
near the Retiro, which fortress was surrendered on the
following day. Four divisions and the cavalry after-
wards removed to the Escurial and St. Ildefonso, from
whence they again marched to Valladolid, and drove
the French from that city o second time.
From Valladolid the army followed the retreating
enemy up the valleys of the Pisuorga and Arlanzan
rivers to Burgos, and commenced the siege of the castle ;
the Ninth forming part of the force which took up a
position in front to cover the operation. Captain
Kenny and Lieutenant Dumarosque wore employed
as assistant engineers, and the former was killed and
the latter wounded.
A concentration of the enemy's numerous forces
rendering it necessary for the allied army to make a
retrc^rade movement, the siege of Burgos castle was
raised and the retreat commenced. To check the
pursuit of the enemy, the Marquis of Wellington halted,
on the 24th of October, behind tho Cari<m river. The
French attempted to force the position at Palencia,
also at the bridge of Muriel on tho Pisuorga, and other
places, and, on the 25th of October, the Ninth, not
mustering three hundred men, with scarcely an oflUcer
to a company, were ordered to take an active part in
defending the bridge of Muriel and tho fords. The
contest was so obstinate, that tho men were twice
BEOIMBNT or FOOT.
supplied with ammunition, and the. fire of musketry was 1812
incessant for a long time. The enemy succeeded at
Palencia, but were repulsed at Muriel, where the Ninth
lost, of their reduced numbers, one serJeant, and
sixteen rank and file killed; Lieutenants Ackland,
Taylor, Curzon, Ford, Ensign Ross Sewen, Surgeon
Buckley, four Serjeants and fifty rank and file wounded :
also one company, employed in defending a ford, under
Lieutenant Whitley, was surrounded by a large body
of French cavalry, and forced to surrender.
During the night the baggage was sent to the rear,
and before daylight the troops resumed their retreat,
which was continued to the banks of the Tormes at Sala-
manca, where the army made a short halt, end after-
wards fell back behind the Agueda. The Ninth
marched into quarters at several villages, near Lamego
on the Douro. Their conduct during the retreat, in
which much irregularity and insubordination were
manifested in many corps, was distinguished for order
and discipline ; they had only two absentees during
the march from Salamanca to the vicinity of Lamego,
and the regiment did not consider itself implicated in
the general censure published in orders.
In the spring of 1813, the second battalion sent ten 1813
Serjeants and four hundred rank and file from Gibraltar
to join the first battalion in Portugal. The remainder
of the battalioT; embarked for England, and, landing
at Portsmouth, marched to Canterbury, from whence it
afterwards sent a draft of six officers and one hundred
and forty -one soldiers to the first battalion; it also
furnished a hundred men for the third provisional
battalion then organizing at Chelmsford.
In May, 1813, the first battalion appeared in the
field in excellent condition, mustering upwards of nine
THB NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1813 hundred men, under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron. It
formed part of the force under Lieut.-Oeneral Sir
Thomas Graham, which traversed the mountainous
districts of Tras os Montes, and passed the River Esla
on the 31st of May; the enemy's lines of defence on
the Douro were turned, and a succession of retreats
brought the French army to Vittoria. Following the
retiring enemy, the Ninth traversed mountain regions,
passed rivers, and overcame numerous difficulties ; on
the 18th of June, they encountered a party of the
enemy near Osma, when the light company was en-
gaged in skirmishing, and it followed the retreating
enemy until evening. The regiment had two soldiers
killed, and eight wounded. On the following day the
fifth division moved several miles along the Orduna
road, and afterwards crossed a difficult country to
Vittorianna, where the Ninth halted on the 20th of
After pursuing the French legions from province to
province for near a month, the allied army made pre-
parations for the long-expected battle, and, on the
morning of the 2l8t of June, the Ninth, forming part
of the column under Lieut.-Oeneral Sir Thomas
Graham, advanced i^inst the right of the French
army in position at Vittoria. The second brigade of
the fifth division, commanded by Brigadier-General
Robinson, attacked the village of Gamara Major at a
running pace, and Major-Geueral Hay's brigade, of
which the Ninth formed part, moved forward in sup-
port. The French kept up a heavy fire of artillery
and musketry, but the British forced their way through
the village, crossed the bridge over the Zadorra river,
and captured a gun. A numerous body of the enemy,
however, retook the bridge and menaced the village.
RBOIMBNT or FOOT.
when the Royals, Ninth, and thirty-eighth, came 1813
down upon the dhemy with a routi^h shock, and the
bridge was again carried. This post was so com*
pletely commanded by the fire of the French be-
yond the river, that the British were forced to with-
draw. The village was, however, maintained; and
while the battle raged along the line, a hot fire of mus'
Icetry and artillery was kept up at the bridge of
Gamara Major. At length the enemy was routed at
all points; the Ninth crossed the bridge, and took
part in completing the final overthrow of the French
army, which fled in confusion with the loss of its artil-
lery and baggage.
The Ninth had Ensign Saunders and nine soldiers
killed, fifteen soldiers wounded; and the honour
of bearing the word ** Vittoria " on their colours was
afterwards conferred on them to commemorate their
gallantry on this occasion.
On the 22nd of June, the Ninth moved forward in
pursuit of the broken remains of the French army ; on
the 23rd they halted at Salvatierra, where they re-
mained two days, and they wore afterwards sent across
the country to endeavour to intercept a large body of
French troops under General Clausel, who had not
been present at the battle of Vittoria. The regiment
traversed the country to Penoserrada, descended from
the mountains into the plain of the Ebro, and ad-
vanced by La Guarda, upon Logrofio ; but by forced
marches the enemy escaped to France.
Having advanced to so great a distance from Portu-
gal, that country was no longer used by the British as a
place of arms, and the establishments there were broken
up. The Western Pyrenees, in conjunction with the
ocean, offered a new base of operations, and the capture
THE NINTH, QR EAST NORFOLK
1813 of San Sebastian, a place built on an isthmus, fonned
by the harbour en one side and the river Urumea on
the other, being of primary importance, the Ninth
traversed the country to that port to take part in the
The regiment arrived at St. Sebastian on the 6th of
July ; one of the first objects was the reduction of the
convent and redoubt of San Bartolomeo, which were
battered by the artillery, and so far damaged, that on
the 17th, the Ninth were under orders to take part in
storming these posts. The piquets of the fourth
Caqadores, and one hundred and fifty men of the
thirteenth Portuguese regiment, supported by three
companies of the Ninth, under Major Henry Crau-
; furd, with a reserve of three companies ot the Royals,
formed on the right to attack the redoubt ; two hun-
dred men of the fifth Caqadores, and two hundred of
the thirteenth Portuguese, supported by the Ninth,
under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, fonned on the left to
attack the convent. At ten o'clock in the forenoon,
< the troops rushed from behind the hill overlooking the
convent ; the Portuguese advanced so slowly that the
Ninth passed through them, and ran forward with that
fierce impetuosity for which the regiment was dis-
tinguished on former occasions. Colonel Cameron led
the grenadiers down the face of the hill, exposed to a
heavy cannonade from the horn work ; but he soon
. gained the cover of a wall about fifty yards from the
convent. His spirited advance, which threatened to
cut oflf the garrison from the suburb, with the fire of
the guns, occasioned the French to abandon the redoubt,
and the grenadiers of the Ninth, observing this,
jumped over the wall, and assaulted both the convent
■ aJid the houses of the suburb with the most heroic
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
gallantry. A fierce struggle took place in the suburb; 1813
Captain John Woodham of the Ninth fought his way
into the upper room of a house, and was there killed.
Lieutenant and Adjutant Thomhill, and several pri-
vate soldiers were also slain; in the meantime the
grenadiers of the Ninth carried the convent with such
rapidity, that the French had not time to explode some
small mines they had prepared, and they hastily joined
the troops in the suburb. There the fighting was
very obstinate, and the men of the Ninth were over-
matched in numbers ; but the other companies of the
regiment arriving, the French were driven out of the
suburb with severe loss.
The companies of the Ninth, at the right attack,
also behaved with great gallantry ; though they were
retarded by a ravine, a thick hedge, the slowness of the
Portuguese, and a heavy fire^ yet they entered the
abandoned redoubt with little loss ; but their ardour
led them forward beyond the prescribed limits, which
occasioned a serious loss.
The regiment had upwards of seventy officers and
soldiers killed and wounded on this occasion : among
the slain were Captain Woodham and Adjutant
Thomhill : among the wounded were Lieut.-Colonel
John Cameron, Captains Hector Cameron, Isaac
Jervoise, and Lieutenant Richard Buse.
The capture of the convent facilitated the progress
of the siege, and on the 24th of July the breaches were
deemed practicable, when the third battalion of the
Royals was directed to storm the great breach, the
thirty-eighth the lesser breach, and the Ninth, under
Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, supported the Royals. A
detachment, selected from the light companies of the
three regiments, was placed under the command of
THK NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1813 Lieut. Colin Campbell of the Ninth, and posted in
the centre of the Royals, for the purpose of sweeping
the high curtain after the breach should be won. At
daybreak on the morning of the 25th of July the troops
advanced to the attack with signal intrepidity; the
cannon of the fortress played upon them in front ; the
ground was difficult to pass; and the volleys of
musketry were incessant ; at the same time showera
of hand-grenades, shells, and large stones were poured
down upon them ; yet the attack was made with valour ;
but the defences round the breach had not been
destroyed, and success was found to be impracticable.
Lieut.-Colonel Cameron and Lieutenant Campbell dis-.
tinguished themselves on this occasion. Several men
of the regiment were killed, and others wounded;
Lieutenant Campbell was also wounded. Lieutenant
Robertson, acting engineer, was killed a few days
Marshal Soult, having reorganized the French army,
advanced to drive the British from the Pyrenees, and
during the contest in the mountains, the siege was
turned into a blockade; but when the French had
been repulsed and driven back with severe loss, the
siege was resumed.
. At three o'clock on the morning of the 27th of August
a hundred soldiers of the Ninth, commanded by
Captain Hector Cameron, Lieutenant John Chadwick,
and Ensign Robert Brooke, sailed from Passages in
boats to attack the island of Santa Clara, in the bay of,
San Sebastian. As the boats approached the shore,
a heavy fire was opened upon them ; Lieutenant
Chadwick and ten rank and file were killed, also
eighteen seamen killed and wounded. A landing was,
however, effected, the island captured, and the French
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
gu. i3on made prisoners. The conduct of Captain 1813
Cameron was commended in the despatches of Field
Marshal the Marquis of Wellington.
On the morning of the 27th of August the French
made a sally against the new batteries on the isthmus,
but Lieut.-Colonel Cameron of the Ninth met them
on the edge of the trenches with the bayonet, and they
St. Sebastian was i^ain attacked by storm on the
31st of August: Brigadier-General Robinson's bri-
gade was appointed to the assault, and Major-General
Hay's was placed in reserve; but the difficulties to
be overcome were so formidable, and the resistance of
the enemy so determined, that the reserve brigade was
pushed on by degrees, until the left wing of the Ninth
only remained in the trenches. For five hours the
conflict raged at the breaches, when an explosion de
stroyed the enemy's traverses, and the torrent of battle
rolling into the town with irresistible fury, the place
was speedily captured. The garrison retired into
the castle, where they held out eight days, and then
The Ninth lost at the storming of St. Sebastian, on
the 31st of August, Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Henry Crau-
furd. Lieutenants Erskine Fraser, Edward B. Lewen,
Robert Morant, five Serjeants, and forty-two rank
and file killed; Lieutenant-Colonel Cameron, Cap-
tains Thomas Ferrars, John Shelton ; Lieutenants R
Dale, William Mc Adam, John Ogle, two Serjeants, two,
drummers, and ninety-eight rank and file wounded,
many of whom died of their wounds; six rank and file
The word "St. Sebastian," inscribed on the colours
THB NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1813 of the Ninth, oommemorates the gallantry of the regi-
ment at this siege.
After the capture of St.. Sebastian, the regiment
marched towards the confines of Spain, and took post
in the left wing of the allied army. At the -paaaage
of the Bidassoa, on the 7th of October, the Ninth
regiment was one of the corps which removed, during
the preceding night, from the camp in the mountains,
and took post behind a large river embankment oppo-
site the village of Andaya. At daylight in the morning,
the regiment emerged from its concealment, forded the
river at low water, and gained the opposite bank before
the French, who were surprised by the suddenness of
the movement, fired a gun. From Andaya the regi-
ment advanced, under a heavy fire of musketry and
artillery, towards the strong height- called Croix de
Souquets, which was the key of the French position, and
towards which guns and troops were hastening from
every side. As the regiment approached the height,
it moved quickly through a line of German skirmishers,
and the soldiers, being stimulated to deeds of heroism
by the gallantry of their commanding officer. Colonel
John Cameron, rushed vehemently up the height,
when the French infantry fled to a second ridge, where
they could only be approached on a narrow front.
Undaunted by difficulty. Colonel Cameron formed the
regiment into one column, and advanced against this
new position, which being semicircular, with the ex-
tremities curving inwards, the enemy was enabled to
pour a concentrated fire upon the Ninth as they moved
steadily forward to the attack; but the ardour of
the regiment could not be quenched by formidable
opposition. Accustomed to victory and panting for
REGIMENT OF FOOt.
glory, the soldiers of the Nimh moved steadily forward ^^13
until they arrivfed within a dozen yards of their
antagonists, when they raised a loud and confident
shout, and rushed with bayonets on the opposing foe
The enemy instantly gave way and fled, and the ridges
of the Croix des Bouquets were won as far as the royal
road. Success also attended the operations of the other
. portions of the allied army, and the French were driven
from their formidable works. The conduct of the
Ninth elicited the commendations of the general
ofiicers who Witnessed their intrepid bearing, and the
regiment was thanked in the field by the Marquis of
Wellington, who made known its behaviour in his
despatch. Its loss was eight rank and file killed;
Captain Isaac Jervoise, Lieutenants Richard Dale,
Thomas Sheppard^ William Mc Adam, George Stirling,
Colin Campbell, Peter Le Mesurier, Robert Brooks,
Ensig IS J. Nash, Edward Kenny, two Serjeants and
sixty-two rank and file wounded.
After the passage of the Bidassoa, the division to
which the Ninth belonged, encamped on the heights
facing Urogne and the camp of the Sans Culottes.
On the 10th of November ninety thousad combatants
advanced to battle, to drive the French from their
position on the Nivelle ; when the Ninth formed part
of the force under Lieut.-General Sir John Hope em-
ployed in holding the enemy's right in check, while the
other parts of the French line were forced by the troops
appointed to that service. Early in the morning, the
camp of the Sans Culottes was captured by the fifth
division, and the Ninth regiment advanced to the
inundation covering the heights of Bordegain and
Ciboure. On the following day the division arrived at
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1813 St. Jean de Luz; and the army being soon afterwards
established in cantonments, the Ninth were quartered
During the night preceding the battle of the Nive
on the 9th of December, the Ninth were put in motion
along the great road from St. Jean de Luz to Bayonne ;
they took part in driving back the French posts in
this direction, and arrived in front of the enemy's
entrenched camp soon after mid-day. At night the
regiment returned to its post in front of Bidart, having
had one Serjeant and one private soldier killed; twenty,
rank and file wounded : Brevet Lieut.-Colonel William
Gomm, major of the Ninth, and assistant quarter-
master general, was also wounded.
On the following day the French army advanced to
attack the allies. Two French divisions drove the
Portuguese from Anglet, and afterwards assailed the
height at Barrouilhet. Major-General Robinson's
brigade supported the Portuguese, and the Ninth,
with the other regiments of their brigade, were in
reserve. The French skirmishers extended along the
valley in front of Biaritz, and a powerful effort was
made by the great road, and against the ridge of
Barrouilhet, near the major's house, where some severe
fighting took place. At length the Nin th were brought
into action, and they defended some open ground behind
a coppice-wood possessed by the French, whose skir-
mishers often issued in masses from among the trees
to assail the regiment, but were always driven back.
After much severe fighting had taken place. Colonel
Cameron ascertained that a French regiment, favoured
by the hedges and coppice-wood, had passed in small
parties to the rear of the Ninth, where it was forming
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
line. Colonel Cameron ordered fifty men to keep up igj3
the skirmishing fire, and then faced the regiment about,
and moved against this new enemy. A heavy fire of
musketry was opened by the French r^ment, but
when the soldiers of the Ninth attempted to close upon
their antagonists with the bayonet, the French fled in
dismay. The Ninth took one hundred and sixty pri-
soners ; many of the enemy were driven upon the second
line and forced to surrender, and a few escaped.
After this exploit, the regiment resumed its post,
and the French were repulsed at all points. The
Ninth had Lieutenant P. L. Le Mesurier, Ensign
George Bolton, and ten rank and file killed ; Captain
Benjamin Sibom, Lieutenants Edward Watkins,— —
Dallas, Robert Brookes, one sergeant, and sixty-four
rank and file wounded.
On the morning of the 1 1th of November, there
was a thick fog, and the Marquis of Wellington, bein^
desirous of ascertaining what the French were doing,
directed the Ninth to open a skirmish towards Pucho,
about ten o'clock, and if the French augmented their
force, to engage freely and preserve a confident front.
Colonel Cameron brought the regiment into action, and
as the fight was becoming warm, Colonel Delancey, a
staff officer, directed it to enter the village. The fog
clearing up. Marshal Soult, who had above twenty
thousand men at that point, observing the regiment
unsupported, ordered a numerous body of troops
against it. The Ninth were attacked so suddenly,
and by such overpowering numbers, that they were in
danger of being annihilated, but Sir John Hope brought
some Portuguese troops hastily forward, and enabled the
regiment to effect its retreat. About two o'clock the
French made a tbrmidable attack on the British posi-
THI NINTB, OR BAIT NORFOLK
1813 tion ; the Ninth were again sharply engaged, and the
enemy was repnlsed with loss.
The loss of the regiment on the 1 1th of December,
was fourteen men killed: Ensigns David Holmes,
Robert Story, three sergeants, and seventy-two rank
and file wounded; two Serjeants, ten rank and file
The distinguished intrepidity and firmness of the
regiment, in the actions of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of
December, were afterwards rewarded with the royal
authority to bear the word " Nivs " on its colours.
After the repulse of the enemy, the Ninth occupied
quarters in Guiterea and Bidart, where they were
stationed during the remainder of the year.
On the 25th of De^^ember, the establishment of the
second battalion, stationed at Canterbury, was reduced-
from eight hundred and eight, to six hundred rank and
1814 In the beginning of 1814, the second battalion re-
ceived one hundred and fifty volunteers from the militia,
and it soon afterwards sent a detachment to join the
first battalion in the south of France.
From Guiterea and Bidart, the first battalion was
removed, on the 4th of February, to Gerret's-house, on
the left bank of the Nive, and on the 8th it proceeded
to Arcangoes : it crossed the Nive on the 21st by the
bridge of boats, and occupied Villa Franca ; but re-
turned to Arcangoes in the beginning of March.
On the 24th of March, the Ninth advanced to the
vicinity ofBayonne, and occupied Anglet, for the pur-
pose of taking part in the blockade of that fortress, in
which service it was employed until the middle of April,
when the war terminated, and Napoleon Buona-
parte was removed from the throne of France. The
RSOIMBNT 07 FOOT.
French commandant at Bayonne did not believe the 1814
newB of the abdication of Buonaparte to be true, and
on the morning of the 14th of April, a sortie was made
firom the French camp in front of the citadel, and the
blockading troops were attacked with great fury. The
enemy gained some advantage; but reinforcements
were quickly brought up, the lost ground recovered,
and the French driven back with great slaughter. This
was an useless waste of life, as the treaty of Paris was
ratified on the 11th of April, — Buonaparte renouncing
all sovereignty over France and Italy, and stipulating
that the island of Elba should be his domain and resi*
dence during life. At the sortie from Bayonne, the
Ninth were attadced, but maintained their ground :
two rank and file were killed, and eight wounded.
' At the termination of the war. Great Britain stood
the most triumphant nation in the world, and the
soldieis of the Ninth had the satisfaction of having
fought and conquered in the cause of justice, and for
the permanent peace of Europe.
The word "Pbninsula" was afterwards added to
the inscriptions on their colours, to commemorate their
achievements during the contest ; and their command-
ing ofl5.cer. Colonel John Cameron, who had so often
led them to victory, was rewarded with a cross and
three clasps fur the battles of Vimiera, Corunna,
Busacoj Salamanca, Vittoria, assault and capture of
St. Sebastian, and the actions at the passage of the
Few days elapsed after the termination of the war
in Europe, before the veterans of the Ninth were
ordered to hold themselves in readiness to proceed to
North America, where hostilities had commenced
between Great Britain and the United States.
THB NINTH, OR lAlT KORFOLK
18] 4 From Bayonne, the regiment mRrohed to Bordeaux,
where it arrived on the 32nd of May, and encamped
•even miles below the town, until the 3rd of June, when
it embarked in traniporti, but was removed on the
following day to the York and Vengeur. seventy-four
gun ships, in which it sailed for Canada. Arriving in
the river St. Lawrence, the regiment was removed on
board of transports, in which it proceeded to Quebec,
from whence it continued its course up the river, and
on the 22nd of August arrived at Montreal.
After halting a week at Montreal, the Ninth marched
up the country into cantonments on the left of the St.
Lawrence, below Prescot, where they were stationed
when the unsuccessftil attack was made on the Ame-
ricans near Plattsburg.
In October the Ninth proceeded to Kingston. In
the meantime many men had Joined the second battalion
at Canterbury, from prisoners of war and from sick
absent, and two strong detachments arrived in America
to join the first battalion.
1815 On the 20th of February, 1815, the second battalion
marched from Canterbury to Chatham ; in the summer
it was removed to Sheemess, and it was afterwards
encamped in the Isle of Sheppy.
Meanwhile peace had beyn concluded between Great
Britain and the United States : and Napoleon Buona-
parte had quitted the Isle of Elba, returned io France,
and reascended the throne of that kingdom. These
events occasioned the regiment to be ordered to return
to Europe, where all the nations were arming to dis-
possess Buonaparte of the throne of France.
Although the Ninth had no opportunity of
signalizing themselves in action, during their stay in
Canada, yet they displayed the valuable qualities of
RBOIMRNT OF FOOT.
firm diicipline, and un«haken fidelity to their Sovereign,
country, and colours.. In some corps desertion prevailed
to a considerable extent, and tempting rewards awaited
such soldiers as should reach the territory of the United
States, which could be accomplished with little risk ;
but, notwithstanding all the temptations and facilities
for desertion, not one soldier of the Ninth forsook his
colours, an honourable boast, which only two corps, the
Ninth and eighty-eighth, could make. Lieut-General
Sir George Murray, governor and commander of the
forces in Upper Canada, was so much pleased with the
conduct of the regiment, that, after the review previous
to its leaving Kingston, he addressed it as follows. ' I
' have detained the Ninth regiment on the field, a
' little after the other troops, that I might have an
' opportunity of thanking the officers and soldiers for
' their good conduct since they have been in this pro-
' vince. Sir Frederick Robinson, who had before an
' opportunity of witnessing the gallantry of the regi-
' ment when opposed to the enemy, and having been in
' a situation to bear testimony to its exemplary conduct
' in quarters, has made to me the most favourable
' report of the regiment. You have not been, I am
' sorry to say, without bad examples inyourneighbour-
' hood, and I regret it the more, because they have
' taken place in regiments, which have, prior to that,
borne high characters. It has given me very great
' pleasure, that the Ninth regiment has borne itself
' entirely free from any stain, such as that to which I
' allude ; that the men have shown they are justly
' impressed with the sacredness of the obligation which
' binds them to the service of their King, and that they
' have a due regard to their own characters, and the
' unsullied reputation of the regiment.
TUB NINTH, OR EAST NORVOLK
161 S < The praise for such conduct is equally due to all
' the individuals composing the corps ; to the absent
' Colonel Cameron, whose seal and ability in the service
' have been long conspicuous ; to the commanding
'officer, and the other officers of the first battalion now
' present ; to that usefiil and respectable body of men,
' the non-commissioned officers ; and to the private
' soldiers themselves, whose good conduct is the best
' and most honourable return that the officers can re-
' ceive, for the pains they have bestowed upon the dis-
' cipline of the corps. I have only now to take my
' leave of you, with my best wishes for your honor
' and success, wherever you may go, and to assure you
' that, in whatever part of the world it may be my lot
' to serve, it will, at all times, be a matter of satisfac-
' tion to me, if I should find myself in company with
' the Ninth regiment.'
In the beginning of June, the regiment embarked in
boats, and sailed down the river St. Lawrence to
Quebec, where it was removed on board of transports,
and on the 2nd of August it arrived at Spithead.
The destiny of France, had, in the meantime, been
decided on the field of Waterloo, and Louis XVIII
had been restored to the throne ; the Ninth were,
however, immediately ordered to join the British army
in France, and a detachment of one hundred and fifty
rank and file joined from the second battalion then en-
camped in the hundred-acres, near Mile Town, in the
isle of Sheppy.
On the 17th of August, the first battalion arrived at
Ostend, from whence it prc>ceeded ^ i boal;^ to Ghent,
and afterwards marched to Paris, where it arrived on
the 5th of September, and encamped near St. Denis.
It was formed in brigade with the fifty-seventh, eighty-
RIOIMBMT OP FOOT.
ilrat, and ninetieth regiments, under Mftjor-Oeneral Sir ^^^^
The Ninth having been selected to form part of the
Army of Occupation in France, were formed, in
Norember, in brigade with the fifth and twenty*first
regiments, under Major-Oeneral Sir Thomas Brisbane,
and quartered at Boulogne. In December they were
removed to Compiegne.
A reduction taking place in the strength of the
army, the second battalion was disbanded at Chatham
on the 24th of December.
From Compiegne the Ninth marched, in January, ^^^^
1816, to the vicinity of Valenciennes, and were quar-
tered at St. Amand. In August they were encamped
at the village of Aire, subsequently on the glacis of
Valenciennes, and on the 22nd of October, they were
reviewed with the British, Danish, and Saxon forces,
on the plain of St. Denain. After the review, the
regiment returned to St. Amand.
In the spring of 1817, the establishment was reduced
from a thousand to eight hundred rank and file.
The strength of the British contingent of the Army
of Occupation being reduced, the fifth, Nin th, and a
battalion of the Bifle Brigade, were formed in brigade
under Major-General Sir John Lambert.
Leaving St. Amand in April, the regiment marched
into village cantonments near Cambray; in July it
encamped on the glacis of Cambray;* in September
it was removed to the glacis of Valenciennes, and on
the 6th of that month it was reviewed with the British
army, by the King of Prussia. The Ninth were also
* While the regiment was at Cambray, Major Ferrari was killed by a
fall £n»m the rampart into the ditch.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1817 among the troops reviewed, near Bouchain, by His
Royal Highness the Duke of Kent ; and they passed
the winter in village quarters near Cambray.
1818 The regiment left its village cantonments in the
beginning of June, 1818, and pitched its tents on the
glacis of Cambray, from whence it was removed, in
October, to the camp at Noylle sur Selle, preparatory
- to the general review of the Army of Occupation, by
the Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, Prince of
Orange, and Grand Dukes Constantine and Michael,
which took place on the 23rd of October.
After this review, the Army, of Occupation withdrew
from France. The Ninth marched to Calais, where
they embarked for England, and landing at Dover and
Ramsgate, marched from thence to Winchester, where
they received orders to hold themselves in readiness to
embark for the West Indies. At the same time the
establishment was reduced to thirty-nine officers,
thirty-five Serjeants, thirty corporals, twenty two drum-
mers, and six hundred and twenty private soldiers.
1819 The regiment left Winchester on the 30th of January,
1819, embarked at Gosport on the 3rd of February,
and arrived at Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, on the 3rd of
April. On the 7th it landed, and was inspected by
Lieut.-General Lord Combermere; after the inspec-
tion the head-quarters and five companies, commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, sailed to the island of St.
Vincent; three companies, under Brevet Lieut.-
Colonel Peebles, to Dominica; and two companies,
under Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Lambert, to St Lucia.
On the 8th of July, the regiment was inspected by
Major-General Robinson ; on the 14th, Captain Siborn
died, being the first officer lost by the regiment in the
REOTMBNT OF FOOT.
The Ninth were stationed at St. Vincent^ Dominica^ 1820
and St. Lucia, until February, 1821, when a general 1821
change of quarters taking place in the Windward and
Leeward islands, they were removed to Grenada and
Trinidad, and in April two companies were detached
Colonel Cameron having been promoted to the rank
of Major-General, was succeeded in the Lieut.-Colonelcy
by Colonel Nathaniel Blackwell, who arrived at
Grenada towards the end of 1821.
In this year the establishment was reduced from ten
to eight companies.
Thirty-two recruits arrived from England in March, 1822
1822 ; they were attacked by the yellow fever before
they quitted the transport, and Major Loftus and
twenty-six recruits died in a few days.
For several years the regiment was stationed at 1823
Grenada, Trinidad, and Tobago^ the only changes
being a slight variation in the number of companies
at each island, made from time to time as the circum-
stances of the service required. In 1825 the head- 1825
quarters were removed from Grenada to Trinidad : in
the same year two companies were added to the esta-
blishment, and Colonel Campbell was appointed to the
Lieut.-Colonelcy. The regiment was divided into
six service and four depot companies ; a few officers and
soldiers were withdrawn from the West Indies, and the
depdt companies were established at Albany barracks.
Isle of Wight.
Orders arriving for the return of the regiment to 1826
England, the following general order was issued, dated
Barbadoes, 24th November, 1826 : —
'The Waterloo transport being about to sail for
' Trinidad, where, after disembarking that part of the
THE NINTH, OK EAST NORFOLK
1826 'eighty-sixth regiment now on board, she is destined
* to receive the head-quarters and a portion of the
'Ninth regiment, and convey them to England;
' Lieut.- General Sir Henry Warde avails himself of
'this opportunity, to express to Major Taylor, com-
'manding, the very high sense he entertains of the
* general good conduct and discipline, maintained by
'that corps, during the long period he has had the
' honour and pleasure of having it under his command,
* and his best thanks are therefore due to the whole of
' the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men, and
'particularly to Major Taylor, for the very zealous
' and praiseworthy manner in which he has conducted
' the command, since he has been placed at the head
' of the regiment.'
In December, the companies at Grenada, and also
those at Tobago, embarked for England, and, in the
182'7 beginning of February, 1827, the last company arrived
at Pl3rmouth. During the eight years the Ninth
were stationed in the West Indies, eight officers and
two hundred and seventy-one soldiers died of disease.
Soon after its arrival in England, the regiment re-
ceived new arms ; and Major Taylor succeeded Colonel
Campbell in the lieut.-colonelcy. During the summer
four hundred recruits were trained and returned fit
for duty, under the zealous and unremitting superin-
tendence of Adjutant Brownrigg, and in June, when
Major-General Sir John Cameron inspected the regi-
ment, he eis:pressed the great pleasure he should have
in reporting the very gratifying results of the exertions
of the officers, in the high condition into which the
corps had been so speedily brought, after its return
from the West Indies.
A new pair of colours, bearing the honorary inscrip-
REOIMSm' OF FOOT.
tions acquired by the regiment during the war of 1327
Spanish and Portuguese independence^ having been
prepared by General Sir Robert Brownrigg, they were
presented, on the 25th of September, by Lady Came-
ron, consort of Major-General Sir John Cameron, who
had so often led the Ninth to battle and to victory.
This very interesting ceremony was performed in the
Grand Square, at Devonport, the whole garrison taking
part in the spectacle.
On the regiment quitting this station, the following
garrison orders were issued^ dated 4th October, 1827 : —
'The first division of the Ninth regiment will em-
'bark from the dock-yard on Saturday morning at
* seven o'clock, and the baggage at four o'clock p.m. on
'Friday. The remaining companies will be concen-
' trated in the citadel.
' This regiment is naturally endeared to Major-
' General Sir John Cameron, by long and intimate as-
' sociation ; expressions of marked approval, which the
' appearance, interior system, and conduct of the corps,
* undeniably claim from the General Commanding, arc,
* therefore, particularly in accordance with his private
' The Major-General has watched with lively interest ^
* the unremitting exertions of Lieut.^Colonel Taylor,
' and the officers under him, to form the numerous re-
'cruits, and improve the battalion, and warmly con-
'gratulates the lieut.-colonel on the proof of success
' exhibited by the steadiness and correct movement of
' the men, at the inspection on the Ist instant.
' The Major-General takes leave of the Ninth regi-
*men with sensible regret; his best wishes will ever
' attend the officers, non-commissioned officers, and
* private soldiers.' -<! « i > v .
THE NINTH, OB EAST NORFOLK
1827 After landing at Liverpool, the regiment marched
to Manchester, Stockport, and Oldham, and its condi-
tion was commended at the autumnal inspection, by
1828 In the summer of 1828, the regiment was removed
to Bolton and Blackburn ; in October it embarked at
Liverpool for Ireland, and after landing at Belfast,
occupied the barracks at that place, vrith two com-
panies detached to Downpatrick and Carrickfergus.
1829 At these quarters the Ninth remained during the
year 1829, and the spring of 1830, during which time
its condition was commended at three inspections by
Major-General Thornton, who passed very high enco-
1830 oiiums on its appearance and efficiency. In June, 1830,
the regiment marched to Newry, Armagh, and Cavan,
and was employed in preserving the public peace, on
several occasions when riots had been apprehended.
In September, the regiment proceeded to Dublin,
and was stationed in Richmond barracks.
1831 From Dublin, the regiment marched in May, 1831,
to Limerick; in October the head quarters were
removed to Oalway ; but they returned to Limerick in
1832 In January, 1S32, the regiment proceeded to Fer-
moy, from whence it was removed in March to Cork,
where it was stationed eight months.
At Cork, the Ninth were divided into six service
and four depdt companies. The depdt companies pro-
ceeded to Fermoy ; and the service companies embarked
on the 24th of November, on board the Jupiter for the
1833 Sailing from Plymouth in January, 1833, the service
companies arrived in April, at the island of Mauritius,
so called by the Dutch in 1598, in honour of Maurice
RBOiMBNT OF FOOT.
Prince of Ofange, but the French designated it the Isle 1833
of France. Atthbieland, which has been celebrated for
a fine climate and excellent air, the Ninth remained
for two years and five months.
On the death of General Sir Robert Brownrigg,
Bart.. G.C.B. in May, 1833, King WilUam IV. con-
ferred the colonelcy on Major-General Sir John Cam-
eron, K.C.B. an officer who had served at the head of
the regiment in many desperate engagements.
In April the service companies left Mah^bourg, and 1834
Returned to Port Louis, where they were stationed until
September, 1835, when they embarked for Bengal, i835
and arrived at Calcutta in November following.
The depdt companies were removed from Ireland in
February to Chatham, and were embarked for India in
June; they arrived at Calcutta in October.
After doing duty at Fort William for two months,
the regiment proceeded to Chinsurah, where it arrived
in January, 1836. 1836
The Ninth were stationed at Chinsurah until De- 1839
cember, 1838, when they were removed to Hazaree- 1838
baugh, where they remained during the year 1839. i83g
In January, 1840, they marched to \gra, and from 1840
thence to Meerut in October following.
On the 1st December, 1841, the regiment proceeded 1841
from Meerut en route to Ferozepore, for the purpose
of being employed on active service beyond the Indus.
Before proceeding with the details of this campaign,
it is necessary that a survey should be taken of the
state of affairs in Affghanistan, in order to form a
correct estimate of the nature of the service on which
the regiment was to be employed.
Shah Shoojah, who was reinstated by the British in
1839 on the throne of Cabool, continued Unpopular
THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1841 Mrith his subjecto. The insurrections fomented by the
Affghan chiefs, during the years 1840 and 1841, against
bis autibority, rendered the presence of a British force
necessary in order to secure his sovereignty. This
state of things obuld not be of long continuance, and a
crisis soon arrived. The Affghan chiefs, and their
wild adherents, surrounded the city of Cabool, in
November, 1841 ; this was followed by the treacherous
murder of the English envoys and other officers; and
although the Anglo-Indian troops maintained their
position against overpowering numbers of insurgents
for Bourse weeks, yet a failure of provisions, in a country
removed by distance from the possibility of succour,
rendered it necessary to retire, in reliance on the faith
of a convention, towards Jellalabad. The faithless
enemy, stained by the foul crime of assassination, broke
the truce, and on the British quitting Cabool in
January, 1842, they were treacherously attacked by
the A%hans, who, taking advantage of the fastnesses
of the country, and the severity of the climate, mas-
sacred, or took prisoners, the greater part of the army.
The Government resolved to inflict retribution for
such treacherotis proceedings, and an army was accord-
ingly assembled under Major- General Pollock, for the
purpose of relieving the troops under Colonel Sir
Robert Sale, who had gallantly defended Jellalabad,
against the Affghans, and rtoisted all the efforts of
Akbar Khan, notwithstanding that the wretched mud
walls and fortifications thrown up by the garrison, were
frequently destroyed by the earthquakes which ocqurred.
Her Majesty's Ninth regiment of foot formed part of
the force selected for this service, and proceeded on the
4th January, 1842, from Ferosepore in progress to
^ Affghanistan, and in April arrived in the vicinity of
RBOIMKNT OF FOQT.
the Khyber pacNi, which the enemy had for some days i842
occupied in great numbers, and had fortified the
mouth of the pass with a strong breast-work of stones
and bushes. Precipitous and rocky hills, on the right
and left, presented great natural obstacles to the
ascent of troops, and it was an undertaking of no ordi-
nary difficulty to gain the summit of those heights,
defended, as they were, by a numerous body of the
enemy ; the columns destined to accomplish this most
important object, moved off simultaneously with the
main column intended to assault the entrance, but
were compelled to make a considerable detour to the
right and left, to enable them to commence the ascent.
The right column, consisting of four companies of Her
Majesty's Ninth regiment of foot, and the same
number of companies of the twenty-sixth and sixty-
fourth native infantry, was under the command of
laeut.'Colonel Taylor, of Her Majesty's Ninth regi-
ment, and Major Anderson of the sixty-fourth native
infantry. The left column, consisting of four com-
panies of the Ninth foot, a similar number of companies
of the twenty-sixth and sixty-fourth native infantry,
together with four hundred jezaildbees, commanded
by I^ieut.^Colonel Mosely and Major Huish, commenced
the ascent, led by Captain Ferris, of the regiment of
The following extract from Major-Qeneral Pollock's
despatch, givep a graphic account of the operations : —
' Both columns, after considerable opposition, which
' they overcame in a most gallant style, succeeded in
' routing the enemy, and gaining possession of the
' crest of the hills on either side. While the flanking
' columns were in prepress on the heights, I ordered
' Captain Alexander, in command of the artillery, to
THE NINTHi OH BAST NORFOLK
place the guns in position, and to throw shrapneU
aniong^ the enemy when opportunity offered, which
assisted much in their discomfiture. As Lieut.'
Colonel Taylor, from the opposition he had met with,
and the extremely difficult nature of the gpround, was
some time in reaching the summit of the hill on the
right, I detached a party (consisting of the grenadiers
of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, and six companies of the
fifty-third native infantry), under the command of
Brigadier Wild, to assault it in front ; it was, however,
so extremely steep near the top, that, notwithstanding
the undaunted gallantry of the officers and men, they
were unable to gain a footing on the summit, and, I
regret to say, the enemy were enabled .to throw
stones, with fatal effect, upon some of the leading
grenadiers of the Ninth foot. Finding the heights in
our possession, I now advanced the main column to
the mouth of the Pass, and commenced destroying
the barrier, which the enemy had evacuated on per-
ceiving their position was turned ; a portion of the
right and left columns being left to keep the heights
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Moseley, and
Major Anderson respectively. Major Huish and
Lieut.-Colonel Taylor continued their advance to
crown the hills in front, and on each side, which were
covered with the enemy, who appeared determined to
contest every inch of ground ; but nothing could resist
the gallantry of our troops, who carried everything
• Fi^om Major-General McCaskill (Lieut.-Colonel
of the Ninth foot), commanding the infantry division,
who was on this occasion commanding the rear-guard,
I have received every assistance; as likewise from
Brigadier Wild: — to Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, my
HeOlliBNT OF FOOT.
' warmegt acknowledgmeiits are due for tht jririt, jg42
* coolness, and judgment with which he discharged the
' duties entrusted to him.'
The columns under the command of Lieut.- Colonel
Taylor ** for the capture of the heightier on the right
entrance to the Khyber Pass, were formed at day-
break on the 5th April, 1842, in three divisions of four
companies each, protected on the right flank by a
squadron of Her Majesty's third light dragoons, under
Lieutenant Unett, and in this order, with skirmishers
and supports in front, advanced, driving a considerable
body of the enemy up the hills, which were scaled and
crowned in spite of a determined opposition. This
effected, the troops moved to their left to clear the
redoubts commanding the entrance to the Pass, which
were abandoned on the approach of the British, the
enemy suffering severely in their retreat. Lieut.-Col-
onel Taylor finally succeeded in clearing off the enemy
from their positions on the right of the road to Ali
Musjid, although an obstinate resistance was offered on
several points, especially over the bridge, where the
enemy had concentrated in force. Having been rein-
forced by a detachment of the thirty-third native
infantry. Captain Lushington, of the Ninth r^ment
of foot, proceeded with it, and the light company of
the Ninth foot, to the right, to take the enemy's posi-
tion in reverse, whilst Lieut.- Colonel Taylor attacked
in front. This had the desired effect of forcing their
* Lieut.-CoIonel Taylor's right advanced column consisted of tv/o
companies of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, four companies of the
twenty-sixth native infantry ; Major Anderson's rear right flank
column, one and a half company of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, four
and a half companies of the sixty-fourlh native infantry, and one
hundred jezailchees (Mackeson's).
THE NINTH, OR KAIT NORFOLK
1842 immediate retreat, and clearing the bridg'*. No
further opposition wai offered by the enemy, who
retreated on Ali Musjid ; while Lieut. Colonel Taylor
pushed on, and occupied the tower and hill to the left,
within about a mile of that place.*
The regiment sustained the loss of Lieutenant James
SlatoT Gumming, a very promising officer, who was
killed on the heights above the Pass, while in command
of No. 6 company, and Captain Ogle was wounded.
The complete success of the attacks made by the
force in advance, rendered unnecessary any active
operations on the part of the division under Major-
General Mc Caskill, and the troops under H^s com-
mand bivouacked at a spot about two miles vithin the
Pass, without any molestation iVom the enemy.
The loss sustained by the Ninth regiment of
foot on the dth April, 1842, in forcing the Khyber
Pass, consisted of one colour«serJcant and six pri-
vates killed ; and one drummer and thirty'One privates
The regiment arrived at Jellalabud on the 16th
April, 1842, and remained there until the 20th August
following, when it proceeded m route to Cabool,
arriving at Oundamuck on the morning of the 23rd of
that month. Here information was received that the
enemy under the Chiefs Hadji Ali, and Kliyroollah
Khan, occupied the village and fort of Mammoo Khail,
situate about two miles from Oundamuck, and it
was determined upon attacking them the following
Accordingly, on the 24th August, at 4 o'clock am..
* Lieut.-Colonol Taylor's despstoh.
t Miyor-Generel Pollock's despatch.
RBOIMKMT OF FOOT.
the troops advanced. On clearing the broken ground 1842
in front, the infantry were divided into two columns,
with a wing of Her Mi^esty's Ninth foot at the head
of each. The enemy retired on the approach of the
Anglo-Indian troops, who entered the village, the
fields in front of which were purposely flooded to
prevent their advance. Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, with
some comjpanies of the Ninth foot and the twenty-
sixth native infantry, occupied part of the heights in
front of the village of Kooclec Khail, but as a position
there was deemed unadvisable, Major General Mc
Caskill received orders to retire on Mammoo Khail,
about two miles dbtant. It was considered of im-
portance to hold Mammoo Khail, which was the
enemy's position, and the whole camp was brought
there. Major Davis, of Her Majesty's Ninth foot,
being selected to command the party ordered for its
protection, a duty of considerable importance, as it was
by no means improbable that the enemy would take
advantage of the advance to attack the camp.
Major-Qeneral Mc Caskill, in his despatch to Cap'
tain Ponsonby (Assistant Adjutant General), states
' Camp, Mammoo Khail,
' Sir, Auffust 25, 1842.
'I beg to detail to you, for the information of
' Major-General Pollock, C.B. the operations of the
' right column in the affair of yesterday, after it had
' become separated from that of the left, on the com-
' plete success of the combined attack on the enemy's
' position in advance of Mammoo Khail.
' You are aware that this force consisted of four
' companies of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, and six of
' the twenty-sixth regiment of native infantry, under
' the immediate command of Lieut.-Colonel Taylor,
THK NINTH, OR KAST NORFOLK
1842 « K.H. of the formor corps. The enemy had fled
' before our troops, and abandoned the village o*
* Kooclee Khail, but reinforced strongly by the fngi-
' tives driven back by Brigadier Tulloch's column, he
' assumed a menacing attitude, and occupied in force
' a range of heights and detached summits in the
' Soofaid Koh. The most salient of these was a spur
' of the mountain within long musket-range of the
' buildings of Kooclee Khail. From this, and from
' other eminences of the most precipitous character,
* the Ooloose were dislodged with the utmost spirit
' and gallantry, by the details under Lieut.-Colonel
' Taylor, aided, in the most effective manner, by a
' party of Captain Broadfoot's corps of sappers and
* miners. The enemy were reinforced from time to
' time, and made many bold attacks, and kept up a
< sharp fire of jezails from the loftiest peaks of the
* mountain, but our troops, though so much pressed
' as to be compelled to recede from gpround which they
' had gained in one direction, maintained an advanced
' position among the hills, until withdrawn by order of
' Major-General Pollock, first into the plateau in firont
' of the village of Kooclee Khail, which they burnt
' down, and then back upon the present site of encamp-
' ment. In retiring over the plain between the two
' principal villages, the movement was covered by a
* squadron of the fifth, and another of the tenth light
' cavalry, but the attempts of the Ooloose to annoy,
' were timid and feeble in the extreme, and our troops
' did not sustain a single casualty from their effects.
* Lieut.-Colonel Taylor speaks in high terms of the
* support which he received from Major Huish,
' commanding the twenty-sixth regiment of native
* infantry, who was wounded, and afterwards from
' Captain Handscomb, of the same corps, and from
RBOIMBMT OP FOOT.
Captain Ogle, commanding Her Majesty's Nimth 1842
foot ; and I beg to be permitted to bear my testi-
mony to the merits of the Lieut.-Colonel's own
exertions on this occasion, as well as to express my
sense of the gallantry of all the troops engaged, and
to acknowledge the able assistance which I received
from Captain Havelock, Her Majesty's thirteenth
light infantry (Deputy Assistant Adjutant General),
Lieutenant Mayno, of the thirty-seventh regiment
of native infantry (Officiating Deputy Assistant
Quartermaster-General), and Lieutenant Bethune,
Her Majesty's Ninth foot, (my Aide-de-camp). The
intrepidity also with which Captain Broadfoot's
sappers and miners aided in the attack on one of
the advanced heights, deserves my marked com-
' I have &c.,
' Mqjor-Oeneral, Commanding Infantry Dimion.'
Captain G. Broadfoot of the Sappers and Miners,
who commanded the right column, received directions
to take a party of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, the
Sappers being worn out, except about six men, and
attack the hills ; the first and second heights were
carried at the point of the bayonet, and flanking parties
having turned the shoulders of the high range, the
assailants were advancing when the main force arrived,
and further progress was stayed.
The loss of the Ninth foot was limited to two pri-
vates killed; one oflScer (Captain R. S. Edmonds)
severely wounded ; and one colour-seijeant and seven
privates wounded ; also three rank and file killed at
Mammoo Khail when the regiment was employed in
destroying the forts and villages.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1842 The Ninth foot remained at Mammoo Khail until
the 30th August, when it returned to Gundamuck,
and on the 8th September was engaged against the
troops of Mahomed Khan and the Ghilzie chie& at
the pass of JugduUttck, who were completely defeated.
The regiment in this action had one serjeant and two
privates killed ; and one seijeant and sixteen privates
wounded. On the 9th September the troops advanced
to Kutta Sung without experiencing opposition.
On the I2th September the regiment was again en-
gaged with the enemy in the Tezeen valley, and on the
day following had the honor of sharing in the victory
obtained at the Tezem Pass and Huft Kotul, over
Mahomed Akbar Khan at the head of sixteen thou-
sand men, a considerable portion being cavalry.
Major-General Pollock, after reporting the arrival
of the troops at Tezeen, on the 11th September, where
he was joined by Major-General McCaskill, with the
second division, thus proceeds : —
' On the 12th I halted in consequence of the cattle
' of the second division having suffered from the effects
' of fatigue, caused by their forced march : this halt
' the enemy imagined to be the result of hesitation, and
' in the afternoon, attacked the piquets on the left
' flank, and became so daring, that I considered it
' necessary to send Lieut .-Colonel Taylor,* with 250
* The following letter from Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, upon whom
the command of the Ninth foot devolved, on Colonel Mc Caskiirs
appointment to the command of a division of the army, deUdls the
operations alluded to by Major-General Pollock : —
' Camp, Khoord Cabool,
Sib, September 13, 1842.
* I have to report, for the information of Major-General
* Pollock, C.B., commanding the troops in Affghanistan, that
' agreeably to his orders, I proceeded, at half-past five o'clock yes-
' terday evening, with 2S0 men of Her Majesty's Ninth, to the sup-
' port of the guards in charge of the public cattle feeding on the ie' ;
RBOIMBNT OF FOOT.
' men of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, to drive them ^^42
' back ; some sharp fighting took place, and the enemy
' was driven up the neighbouring hills, from the crests
' of which they kept up a heavy fire. Lieut.-Colonel
' Taylor, however, with a small party, crept up one
* end of the hill, unperceived by the enemy, who were
' hotly engaged in their front, and lay concealed until
* joined by a few more of his men, when, rushing up
of the camp in the Tezeen valley, which were much pressed by the
enemy. On clearing the left piquet, I was joined by Major Huish
with a small party of the twenty-sixth native infantry. I threw
forward a strong body of skirmishers, who qmckly drove back
those of the enemy on the plain, pursuing them to a range of low
hills, where they made a stand till dislodged by our advance : fur-
ther on, I found the enemy, in force, from five to six hundred, had
taken post along the crest and on the top of a range of steep hills
running near a mile from the northward into the Tezeen valley ;
those towards the north were assailed by Captain Lushington, of
Her Miyesty's Ninth foot, with the left support and skirmishers,
whilst I directed the attack against their front and left flank, which
being turned, I ascended the heights between two ridges, which
concealed my approach till close to the summit, and within twenty
yards of their main body, consisting of more than three hundred
men. Collecting thirty to forty men, with Lieutenants Elm-
hirst, Lister, and Vigors, I ordered bayonets to be fixed, and the
enemy to be charged, which was done with such resolution and
efiect, that the whole mass, taken by surprise, was pushed headlong
down the hilb, nor did they rally till out of musket shot. Their
loss must have been veiy severe, as I observed numbers lagging
behind to carry off their killed and wounded. As it was getting
dark, I deemed it imprudent to pursue the enemy further, ordered
the halt to be sounded, and, after remaining in possession of their
position for half an hour, retired without molestation. It afRmls me
great gratification to bear testimony to the spirit and gallantry
displayed by officers and men on this occasion, especially Major
Huish, of the twenty-sixth re^mcnt native infantry. Captain Lush-
ington, and those concerned in the charge on the enemy.
* I beg to transmit a return of the killed and wounded.
* I have, &c.
' Captain Ponsonby, ' A. B. Tatu>b,
Aasiatant Adjutant-General.* ' Lieut.-Colonel Ninth Foot.'
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1842 ' on the flank of the astounded Affghans, he inflicted
a severe lesson, pouring in a destructive fire upon
them, as they fled down the hill. A chieftain was
found among the slain, who, it is supposed, was the
brother of Khodabux Khan. The enemy remained
inoffensive on our left flank, in consequence of this
very well-planned and gallant affair of Lieut.-Colonel
Taylor's, and withdrew to the right, where they com-
menced a furious attack upon a piquet, consisting of
eighty men of the sixtieth regiment of native infantry,
commanded by Lieutenant Montgomery, who sus-
tained the assault with great resolution, until rein-
forcements reached him, when the enemy were beaten
off. In this attack the piquet had four killed ; Lieu-
tenant Montgomery and seventeen men were wounded.
The enemy came so close, that frequent recourse was
had to the bayonet. Their attempts on the piquets
continued through the night, but were invariably
' The valley of Tezeen, where we were encamped,
is completely encircled by lofty hills, and, on the
morning of the 13th September, it was perceived
that the Affghans had occupied in great force every
height not already crowned by our troops : I com-
menced my march towards the mouth of the Tezeen
Pass, where I left two guns, two squadrons of Her
Majesty*s third light dragoons, a party of the first
light cavalry, and third irregular cavalry.
' The Pass of Tezeen affords great advantages to an
enemy occupying the heights, and on the present
occasion, Mahomed Akbar neglected nothing to
render its natural difficulties as formidable as numbers
could make it. Our troops mounted the heights, and
the Affghans, contrary to their general custom.
RBOIUBNT OF FOOT.
'advanced to meet them, and a desperate struggle 1842
' ensued : indeed,* their defence was so obstinate, that
' the British bayonet, in many instances, alone
* decided the contest. The light company of Her
* Majesty's Ninth foot, led by Captain Lushington,
* who, I regret to say, was wounded in the head,
' ascending the hills on the left of the Pass under a
* heavy cross fire, charged and overthrew their oppo-
* nents, leaving several horses and their riders, sup'
' posed to be chiefe, d*?ad on the hill ; the slaughter
* was considerable, and the fight continued during the
' greater part of the day, the enemy appearing resolved
' that we should not ascend the Huft Kotul : one
' spirit seemed to pervade all, and a determination to
' conquer overcame the obstinate resistance of the
' enemy, who were at length forced from their numerous
' and strong positions, and our troops mounted the
' Huft Kotul, giving three cheers when they reached
' the summit.'
In the operations among the lower hills to the head
of the Huft Kotul, on the right flank of the advanced
guard of the army. Captain Borton, at the head of a
party of the Ninth foot, made a gallant charge upon
a strongly posted part of the enemy, and drove them
away ; the foe showed a great deal of boldness, however,
and made repeated attempts to recover his ground,
taking advantage of the necessarily slow advance of
the supporting parties, from the steep and difficult
nature of the hills.*
The Ninth foot, in the actions in the Tezem valley and
on the Huji Kotul, on the I2th and 13th September,
1842, had two Serjeants, one drummer, and eight rank
Major Skinner's (Slst Kcgt.) Report.
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1842 and file killed : one officer (Captain Lushington),
severely wounded ; and one serjeant, and twenty-five
rank and file wounded.
Major*General Pollock acknowledged the assistance
he received from Major- General McCaskill, who com-
manded the main column, and from Lieut.-Colonel
Taylor, commanding the Ninth foot.
Major-General McCaskill reported the valuable
services he received from his aide-de-camp. Lieu-
tenant Bethune, of the Ninth foot, in the affair at
the Huft Kotul.
In these actions the enemy suffered severely, having
several hundred killed, besides losing their gunS and
The enemy being completely dispersed, the army
pursued the march, and encamped at Khoord Cabool,
without encountering further opposition. The regi-
ment arrived at Cabool on the 15th September, and
encamped on the race-course. On the following
morning the British colours were hoisted in the Bala
Hissar, on the spot most conspicuous from the city ; the
band of the Ninth foot playing the National Anthem,
* God save the Queen,* and a royal salute being fired
from the guns of the horse artillery, the whole of the
troops present giving three cheers. The colours were
left in the Bala Hissar to be hoisted daily as long as
the troops should continue there, Lieut.-Colonel Taylor
being ordered to remain in charge of the infantry,
until relieved by a native regiment from the force
under Major-General Nott.
One of the gratifying results of these victories was
the release of several ladies, and of certain officers who
had been detained in captivity by the Affghans, from
the commencement of the outbreak towards the end of
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
the year 1841. The Ninth foot had not, however, com- 1842
pleted its mission, for the enemy having collected in
the vicinity of Charekar, Major- General McCaskill was
directed to proceed with a force to disperse them, and
on the 26th of September the regiment marched to
Kohistan. Two days afterwards the troops pitched
their tents within four miles of Istdlif. This town,
consisting of masses of houses and forts, is built on the
slope of a mountain, in the rear of which arc yet
loftier eminences shutting into a defile which leads to
Toorkistan, and in no way can this place of abode of
fifteen thousand people be approached but by sur-
mounting ranges of hills separated by deep ravines, or
traversing, by narrow roads, its gardens, vineyards,
and orchards, fenced in with strong walls ; the whole
of them, with the mountain side and tops of the houses,
were occupied by Jezailchies, and the strongest proof
is afforded that the enemy, after this disposition, con-
sidered the place unassailable, by their having retained
within the town the wives and children, not only of
the inhabitants, but of thousands of refugees from
On the morning of the 29th September, 1842, soon
after daylight, the troops proceeded to the assault of
Istalif, and after traversing the plain in perfect order,
passed nearly fi'om the left to the right of the enemy's
position; the attacks of the Jezailchies from the
gardens, who were numerous and most audacious,
were repressed by the light troops and guns ; and on the
column arriving in front of the village of Ismillah, a
coml'ned attack was made on this point, Brigadier
Tulloch's brigade assailing its left, and Brigadier
Major-General McCaskill's despatch.
TUK MNTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1842 Stacy the right. Her Majesty's Ninth foot, vying in
steady courage with the twenty-sixth native infantry
and the sappers under Captain Broadfoot, rushed upon
the gardens, which were filled with bold and skilful
marksmen, and their rapid aud unhesitating advance
in a short time left the enemy but one resource, that
of flight. Shortly after this assault, the three light
companies of Her Majesty's forty first, the forty -second
and forty-third native infantry, covering their own
columuj got into action, and, on their side, stormed
the village and vineyard with distinguished gallantry,
and the combination being persevered in, the enclosures,
forts, heights, suburbs, and town were successively
captured, the enemy being driven from them and
pursued with a rapidity that left no time to rally ; a
singular spectacle then presented itself, in the escape
up the mountain-side of the women and children from
the place, to which no interception was offered. As
parties of Affghans still occupied some lofty heights,
the mountain- train ascended them by a dizzy pathway,
and by its effective fire dispersed the fugitives.
In the capture of Istalif, deemed impregnable by
the Affghans, property of every description, much
of it plundered from the British in 1841, fell into the
possession of the Anglo-Indian force ; two guns, brass
field-pieces, were also taken, and one of them was
seized with such promptitude, that its captor. Lieu-
tenant Elmhirst, of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, turned
its fire upon the fugitives with some effect. The loss
of the assailants was not great, the advance of ofiicers
and men being too rapid and decisive to allow the
sharp fire of the enemy telling much upon them,
particularly as the Affghans, deceived by the direction
of the leconnaisance made by Major-General McCaskill
REGIMENT OP FOOT.
on the 28tli, had expected the attack on their left, 1342
where they had* consequently posted their guns and
the ^lite of their force. J
Brigadier TuUoch reported in ve)ry strong terms to
Major- General McCaskill the good conduct on the
above occasion, of his Brigade-Major, Captain Smith,
of the Ninth foot.
The NrNTH regiment had but one rank and file
killed^ and one officer (Lieutenant Lister), one scrjeant,
and thirteen rank and file wounded.
In testimony of the services of the Ninth foot
during the campaign in Affghanistan, Her Majesty
was graciously pleased to authorise the regiment to
bear the word "Cabool 1842" on its colci^rs and
r ^ pointments.
The regiment returned to Cabool on the 7th October,
and arrived on t'.e 18th December, 1842, at Feroze-
The regiment marched from Ferozepore on the 14th 1843
January, 1843, en route to Mobarickpore, at which place
it arrived on the 31st January, and was encamped there
until the 12th April following, when it proceeded to
The Ninth regiment marched from Subathoo to 1844
Kussowlie on the 8th March, 1844, where it continued
until November, 1845, when it proceeded to Umballa,
arriving at that station on the 28th of the same month.
The amicable relations, which had for some years 1845
been maintained with the government of the Punjaub,
were at this juncture disturbed; the Sikh army,
which had been formed by Runjeet Singh, and
trained by French and Italian refugees in his service
according to European tactics, had, since the decease
of that politic ruler in 1839, become the dominant
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1845 power, and finally coerced, or induced the Lahore
authorities to commence hostilities. Accordingly the
Sikh army, having crossed the Sutlej on the 11th
December, 1845,mvested Ferozepore on one side, and
took up an entrenched position at the village of Feroze-
shah, situate about ten miles in advance of Ferozeporo,
and nearly the same distance from Moodkee, — the enemy
placing in this camp one hundred and eight pieces of
cannon with a force exceeding fifty thousand men.
So unexpected and unprovoked an aggression, in a
time of profound peace, rendered a series of difficult
combinations for the protection of the frontier in-
dispensable ; and accordingly the Ninth foot, and other
regiments, were hastily assembled under the personal
command of the Commander-in-Chief in India, General
Sir Hngh Gough, in order to repel the Sikh invasion.
The caemy remained inactive in the vicinity of Fero-
zepore for some days, contenting themselves with
stopping the diks, and plundering the country, until
the 17th December, when they marched to intercept
the approach of the Army of the Sutlej, which was
advancing to the relief of Ferozepore from Umballa.
On the 11th December, the Ninth Regiment left
Umballa, and after a harassing march of one hundred
and fifty miles, along roads of heavy sand, arrived at
Moodkee on the afternoon of the 18th, having endured
every kind of privation, the incessant labour required
of the troops leaving them scarcely an hour's uninter-
rupted repose before they were called upon for renewed
exertions. About three o'clock p. m. the army, suffer-
ing severely from the want of water, and in a state of
great exhaustion, received intelligence of the advance
of the Sikhs on Moodkee, and the troops had scarcely
time to get under arms, and to move to their positions^
RBOIMBNT OF FOOT.
before the information was confirmed. The horse ar- 16I5
tillery and cavalry were immediately pushed forward^
the infantry and field batteries moving in support.
Two miles were scare ;.y passed, when the enemy, con-
sisting of about tweniy thousand infantry, and an equal
number of cavalry, with forty guns, were discovered
in position, which they had either just taken up, or
were advancing in order of battle. The country at
this spot is a dead flat, dotted with sandy hillocks, and
covered at short intervals with a low thick jungle,
which formed an excellent screen for the infantry and
guns of the enemy, from which they opened a severe
cannonade upon the advancing troops, which was vi-
gorously replied to by the horse artillery under Briga-
dier Brooke. After the manoeuvres of the cavalry on
the left and right flanks of the Sikhs, the infantry
commenced their participation in the fight, and ad-
vancing under Major-Generals Sir Henry G. W. Smith,
Gilbert, and Sir John McCaskill (of the Ninth),
attacked in echellon of lines the enemy's infantry, the
wood and approaching darkness of night rendering
them almost invisible. The great superiority of num-
bers of the enemy necessarily caused their extended
line to outflank the British, but the mo^ ments of the
cavalry counteracted this advantage. Desperate was
the opposition of the enemy, but the roll of fire from
the infantry soon convinced the fiikh army of the
inutility of resistance ; their > \ole force was driven
from position to position with great slaughter, at times
rallying, but the use of that never-failing weapon, the
bayonet, terminated in their defeat ; night only saved
them from further disaster, this st/>at conflict being
maintained for an hour and a half of dim starlight,
objects however rendered more obscure from the clouds
__.. L- ^ ■'!»■
TIIi: NINTH. OR KANT NORFOLK
1845 of dust which arow from the landy plain. Night alone
prevented the pursuit of the foe ; the force bivouacked
on liio field for some hours ; and returned to their
encampment, when it was ascertained that they had
no enemy before them.
In this manner was t chievod the first of a series of
victories over the Sikh troops ; troops that had fought
with the British army only throe years previously, in
the advance on Cabool in 1842, and had been repeat-
edly thanked in general orders for their services,
sustaining as they did, at the forcing of the Khyber
Pass, a loss equal to that of the Anglo-Indian force ;"*
it appears therefore but reasonable to infer, that much
of the skill evinced by the enemy in the disposition
and arrangement of their army may bo in some degree
attributed to the experience they gained by their co-
operation in the Aifghan campaign ; proving themselves
unquestionably at Moodkee, and in the succeeding
conflicts, one of the best-disciplined and most powerful
* In a notification fron the Governor-General, in Council, dated
from Benares on the X9th April, 1842, the following passage
" The Governor-General doemi it to be due to the troops of the
" Maha Rajah Shere Singh, to eipresi his entire satisfaction with
" their conduct, as reported to him, and to inform the army, that the
*' loss sustained by the Silchsin the assault of the Khyber Pass, which
<* was forced by them, is understood to have been equal to thatsus-
*< tained by the troops of Her Majesty and of the Government of
And in a further notification, dated fh>m Simla on the 30th Sep-
tember 1842, the Silihs are referred to in the following terms : —
" The Governor-General has derived much satisfaction from the
<* report made by M^jor-General Pollock, of the admirable conduct
« of the troops of his Highness the Maha R^jah Shere Singh, acting
'* in co-operation with the British Army.
" The Governor-General mjuices in this now proof of the cord'al
•' and good understanding which prevails between the British Gu-
" vemment and that of Lahore,"
REGIMENT OP FOOT.
antagonists the British had ever encountered in 1845
The Ninth Foot sustained the loss of its Lieu-
tenant-Colonel, Major-General Sir John McCaskill,
K.C.B. and K H., an officer to whom his country was
indebted for long and valued servicOj who received a
ball through his chest, on the advance of his division,
(Third Infantry) and immediately expired.* The other
casualties were two rank and file killed, one officer
(Ensign Hanham), two Serjeants, and forty-seven rank
and file wounded.
On the 19th December, the army was concentrated
at Moodhee, no further operations taking place until
the 21st, when it moved by its left on Ferozepore ; and
having on the march been reinforced by Major-General
Sir John Littler's division of five thousand men from
Ferozepore, General Sir Hugh Gough formed his
forces in order of battle. It was then resolved to
attack the enemy's entrenched camp at Ferozeshah,
where they were posted in great force, and had a most
formidable artillery ; their camp was a parallelogram,
about a mile in length, and half that distance in breadth,
the shorter sides looking towards the Sutlej and M ood-
kee, and the longer towards Ferozepore and the open
country. The plains, as at Moodkee, were covered
with low jhow jungle, which added to the difficulty of
the advance, which was made in four divisions; the
left wing under the direction of the Governor-General
(Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hardinge), who had
volunteered his services as second in command. One
hundred guns of the enemy, nearly one-half of battering
* See memoir of Colonel Sir John McCaskill in Appendix,
THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK
1845 calibre, opened a heavy cannonade, which waa checked,
but not silenced, by the far less numerous artillery of
the assailants. In spite of this storm of shot and shell,
the infantry gallantly advanced, and boldly carried
these formidable entrenchments, throwing themselves
upon the guns, and wresting them from the enemy.
These exertions, however, only partially gained the
batteries, and the soldiery had to face so dense a fire
from the Sikhs from behind their guns, that the most
heroic efforts could only carry a portion of the entrench-
ment. Night now came on, and the conflict was every-
where raging; but darkness did not bring a total
cessation of hostilities, for about the middle of the
night the Sikhs brought one of their heavy guns to bear
upon that part of the field gained, and on which the
troops had bivouacked. The gun was soon captured
by the eightieth regiment; but the enemy, whenever
moonlight revealed the position, still continued to
harass the troops by the fire of their artillery. The
long night at last wore away, and with daylight of the
22nd December, came retribution. The infantry
formed into line, supported on both flanks by horse
artillery, whilst a fire was opened from the centre,
aided by a flight of rockets. Here a masked battery
played with great effect, dismounting the pieces and
blowing up the tumbrils of the British, but at this
juncture Sir Henry Hardinge placed himself at the head
of the left wing, the right being led by Sir Hugh Gough.
Unchecked by the opposing fire, the line advanced,
and drove the foe rapidly out of the village of Fcroze-
shah, and the encampment ; then changing front to the
lefl;, continued to sweep the camp, bearing down all
opposition. Eventually the Sikhs were dislodged
from their whole position. The line now halted, and
RBOIMBNT OF FOOT.
the two brave Icadora redo along its front, amid the 1845
cheering of the soldien and the waving of the captured
standard! of the Khalsa army.
The British, masters of the entire field, now assumed
a position on the ground they had so nobly won ; but
their labours were not ended, for in less than two hours
Sirdar TeJ Singh brought up from the vicinity of Fe-
rozepore fresh battalions, and a largo field of artillery,
supported by thirty thousand Ghorepurras, previously
encamped near the river. Driving in the cavalry
parties, he made strenuous efforts to regain the posi-
tion at Ferozeshah ; this attempt was defeated ; but
the Sirdar renewed the contest with fresh troops, and
a large artillery, commencing the attack by a combin>
ation against the left flank ; and after being frustrated
in this attempt, essayed such a demonstration againit
the captured village, as compelled the British to change
the whole front to the right. Meanwhile an incessant
fire was maintained by the enemy without being
answered by a single shot, the artillery ammunition
being completely expended in these protracted encoun-
ters. The almost exhausted cavalry were now directed
to threaten both flanks at once, the infantry preparing
to advance in support ; this soon caused the discomfited
Sikhs to discontinue firing, and to abandon the field,
precipitately retreating towards the Sutlcj. Carnage
the most awful, reigned in the camp, where large stores
of grain, and the materiel of war were abandoned by
It is not astonishing that the casualties in the Ninth
and other corps were considerable. Within thirty
hours an entrenched camp had been stormed, a general
action fought, and two considerable conflicts sustained
with the enemy. Thus in less than four days, sixty
THE NINTH OR EAST NORFOLK
1845 thousand Sikh soldiers, supported by upwards of one
hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, were dislodged from
their position, and received a just retribution for
their treacherous proceedings, without provocation or
declaration of hostilities.
. , .. .liieutenant-Colonel Taylor, Captain Dunne, and
Captain Field, of the Ninth Regiment, were among
the slain ; and one serjeant and sixty-six rank and file
were killed. Captain Borton, Lieutenants Taylor,
Vigors, Sievwright, Cassidy, and Ensign Forster were
wounded, togethefr with Captain Havelock, who was
attached to the Cavalry division as Deputy Assistant
Quarter-Master- General. Five Serjeants, one drum-
mer, and one hundred and ninety-one rank and file
were also wounded. Assistant Surgeon R. B. Gahan,
who was attached to the 31st Regiment, was wounded
at Moodkee, and died on the 29th of December.
Majors Davis and Barnwell were promoted to the
vacancies caused by the decease of Lieutenant- Colonels
McCaskill and Taylor,* and Captains Douglas and
Smith succeeded to the majorities.
The Sikhs, after these discomfitures, retired in great
confusion across the ferries and fords of the Sutlej ; but
subsequently took up a position on the right bank of
the river, occupying also the formidable tSte-de-pont and
entrenchments on the left bank, in front of the main
body of the Anglo-Indian army. On the 10th Janu-
1846 ary, 1846, the Ninth Foot marched from Arufkee,
on the Sutlej, under tha command of Lieutenant-
Colonel Davis, to watch the enemy's position at
Sohraon, and on the 1st February, the regiment was
ordered to the outpost of Rhodawalla. Preparations
* See memoir of Lieutenant -Colonel Taylor, in Appendix,
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
were now made for attacking the enemy's entrenched i846
camp at Sobraon,' and on the morning of the 10th
February^ after a conflict of flvc hours' duration, the
Sikhs were driven into the river with immense loss;
all that the foe held of British territory, comprised in
the ground occupied by one of his camps, was stormed,
and his audacity again signally punished ; his triple
line of breastworks, flanked by formidable redoubts,
bristling with artillery, and manned by thirty-two
regular regiments of infantry, were assaulted, and
carried by the British forces, and sixty-seven guns
were captured by the victors. The brigade of which
Her Majesty's Ninth Foot formed a part, was placed
in support of the attacking division, and by its firm
and judicious advance, contributed to the success of the
assault. The regiment had five rank and file killed,
and Lieutenant Robert Daunt, three Serjeants, one
drummer, and twenty-four rank and file wounded,
seven of whom died of their wounds. The casualties
of the enemy were between eight and ten thousand
men killed and wounded in action . nd drowned in the
passage of the Sutlej, which a sudden rise of seven
inches had rendered hardly fordable, and thus pre-
sented an additional obstacle to the retreat of the
So complete was the discomfiture of the Sikhs at
Sobraon, that no further opposition was experienced ;
and, on the 13th February, the regiment marched from
Rliodawalla towards Lahore^ where it arrived on the
20th, and pitched its tents on the plain of Myan Meer,
under the walls of the Sikh capital. Two days after-
wards a brigade of troops took formal possession of
the Badshahee Musjed and Huzzooree Bagh, forming
part of the palace and citadel of Lahore, the occupation
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
1846 being announced by the Right Honorable the Governor
General of India in the following expressive terms : —
' I considered the occupation of Lahore, and the
' close of active operations in the fields a proper oppor-
' tunity for marking, by substantial reward, the grati-
' tude of the British government to its faithful and
' brave army, which had fought so gloriously, and so
' successfully ; and I was glad at being able thus to
' bring into prominent contrast, the just reward of
' discipline and obedience, with the certain penalty of
' insubordination and violence, as exemplified in the
* fate of the two armies, which had been so long the
' objects of mutual observation ; the one, victorious in
* the field, and honoured and bountifully rewarded by
* its Government ; the other^ in spite of its exceeding
' numbers an^ advantageous positions, vanquished in
< every battle, abandoned by a government it had
' coerced, and with its shattered remains, left, but for
' the intercession of its conquerors, to disperse with no
' provision of any kind, and to seek a precarious sub-
' sistence by rapine and crime.*
• The Army of the Sutlej has now brought its opera-
' tions in the field to a close, by the dispersion of the
' Sikh army, and the military occupation of Lahore,
' preceded by a series of the most triumphant successes
' ever recorded in the military history of India.
' The British government, trusting to the faith of
' treaties, and to the long subsisting friendship between
' the two states, had limited military preparations to
' the defence of its own frontier. Compelled suddenly
' to assume the offensive, by the unprovoked invasion
' of its territories, the British Army, under the com-
' mand of its distinguished leader, has, in sixty days,
' defeated the Sikh forces in four general actions ; has
KEOIMENT OF FOOT.
' captured two hundred and ttventy pieces of (ie\dBxti]XeTji 1846
'and is now at the Capital dictating to the Lahore
' Durbar the terms of a treaty, the conditions of which
' will tend to secure the British Provinces from the
' repetition of a similar outrage.'
The Ninth Foot remained at Lahore until the
23rd March, when the army was broken up, and the
regiment received a route for Meerut, at which station
it arrived on the 15th April, and continued there until
the 23rd October, when it commenced its march for
Dinapore, one hundred and seventy-five men having
previously volunteered to different regiments in India.
On its arrival at Allahabad, a second volunteering was
directed, the regiment being unt^ar orders to embark
for England, when a further number of one hundred
and fifty-four men transferred their services to other
corps. The Ninth relieved the thirty-ninth regiment
at Dinapore on the 30th December, when it received
a route to march to Calcutta on being replaced by
the ninety-eighth regiment.
On the 9th of February, 1847, the Commandcr-in- 184'7
Chief in India issued a General Order, from which the
following are extracts : —
' The Right Honourable the Commander-in-Chief in
* India avails himself of the opportunity, which the
' approaching departure from India of those distin-
' guished regiments the Ninth, thirty-ninth, and sixty-
' second foot affords, of recording the high sense he
' entertains of their respective merits, and the admira-
' tion with which he has witnessed their uniform good
' conduct in quarters, and their gallantry in the field.'
< Each Regiment bears on its colours the names of
* many hard-fought battles in the Peninsula, and each
c regiment will carry home the record of victories achieved
- ii ii<iii I
THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK
in the wars of this country, nobly gained by their
indomitable bravery under His Lordship's immediate
*■ The Ninth Regiment has completed a service
abroad of upwards of fourteen years. In 1842 it
formed a part of the force under Major-General Sir
Gecrge Pollock in the second campaign of Affghanis-
tan, and subsequently had the good fortune to par-
take in the memorable battles of the Svtl^. The
despatches of the former period have testified its gal-
lantry, its noble bearing and high spirit under extreme
sickness and privation; and upon the latter Lord
Gough has recently, in orders and by his despatches,
expressed his sense of its valuable services.'
' Lord Gough feels happy in having it in his power
' to state, that the conduct of these regiments, through-
< out their Indian service, has always been such as to
* merit his warmest commendation. He feels a pride
' in recording all that he has said in praise of those
* gaUant corjM, and, in parting with them, begs to
* assure them, that he will always feel a lively interest
* in their welfare.'
1847 After a service of twelve years in India, during
which the Ninth has greatly increased its military
fame, it embarked at Calcutta for England on 13th
The regiment arrived at Chatham on the 10th July,
1847, from whence it was removed to Winchester in
the month of July, where it continued at the end of
the year 1847, to which period this Record has been
[Drairn by J. M. Jcplhig.
KINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT
RBOIMBNT OF FOOT.
In commemoratioii of the gallant services of the 184T
Ninth Regimefat with the Army of the Sutle;, Her
Majesty has been graciously pleased to authorise the
Regiment to hear on its colours and appointments, in
addition to other marks of distinction, which have
been previously granted/ the words Moodkee, Feroze-
SHAH, andSoBRAON. .. ^
The following regiments of the Queen's regular
army formed part of the forces which w<>re engaged
in the several actions of the campaign on the banks
of the Sutlej in 1845 and 1846, and have received
honorary distinctions for those battles : —
Aotionsftt which eMh Regiment wu engaged.
81«t and 22nd
3rd Light Dragoon
9th Laneen .
0th Foot . .
. • •
THK NINTH REOIMBNT OF FOOT.
1841 In the services of regpiments, circumstances have fre-
quently occurred which have put the qualities of the
officers and soldiers to the severest test, and on occasions
of this character, the intrepidity, firmness, and endur-
ance of the Ninth regiment of foot, have been con*
spicuous. On the heights near Roleia the heroic
ardour and prowess of the Ninth were invincible; on
the rugged rocks of Busaco, their steady valour was
sternly proved, and was triumphant over superior
numbers; at the siege and capture of St. Sebastian
their gallantry was manifest ; on the heights of Croix
des Bouquets their sparkling bayonets were victorious
under numerous disadvantages; and in the actions
which succeeded the passage of the* JVire, the regiment
evinced those qualities which have proved to the world,
that English soldiers are not easily defeated. Their
heroic qualities have been further evinced during their
arduous services in India, particularly in the campaigns
oi Affghanistan, and subsequently on the banks of the
Sutlej, at the battles of Moodhee, Ferozeshah, and
Sobraon, as recorded in the preceding pages.
On colonial and home service the conduct of the
regiment has been highly meritorious: upwards of
one hundred and sixty years of faithful service have
established its reputation ; and the testimony of the
general officers under whose command it has been
placed, from time to time, has procured for this corps
the approbation of the Crown, the confidence of the
Government, and the esteem of the Nation.
SUCCESSION OF COLONELS
THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK
REGIMENT OF FOOT.
Appointed \9th Jutu, 1685.
Hknbt Cornwall was many years an officer in the royal
regiment of horse guards, in which corps he rose to the rank
of captain in the reign of King Charles II., and he was so
conspicuous for loyalty and attention to his regimental duties,
that, on the breaking out of the rebellion of James Duke of
Monmouth, King James II. commissioned him to superintend
the raising, forming, and disciplining of a regiment of foot,
now the Ninth, or the East Norfolk regiment, of which he
was appointed colonel by commission dated the 19th of
June, 1685. When the prevalence of Popish councils in the
cabinet appeared to menace the kingdom with papacy and
absolute monarchy, and William Prince of Orange arrived at
the head of a Dutch armament to oppose the King, Colonel
Cornwall withdrew from the service ; but he appears to have
preserved his loyalty to King James so iar, that he did not
engage in the service of King William III.
Appointed 20tk November, 1688.
This officer served in the Netherlands and Germany with the
British troops in the pay of Louis XIV., and King Charles II.
SUOOBSBION OV OOLOMVLt.
afterwards promoted him to th« lieut-oolonelcy of Prince
George of Denmarlc'a regiment, a oorpi wliioh was incorpo-
rated in tiie second foot guiirdi in 1680. Lieut.-Colnnel
Nicliolas was a Arm supporter of tlie court of King James II.,
whicli occasioned him to be placed at the head of the Ninth
foot in November, 1688 1 but he was removed by the Prince
of Orange, in December, for reibsing to talce the prescribed
oath to His Highness. He was not afterwards employed in
Appointed 81«l D«eemb«r, 1688.
John Conninoham served in the Soots' Brigade in the pay of
Holland, afterwards the ninety-fourth regiment, and King
Jamea II. appointed him lieut.-oolonel in Werden's cuiras-
siers, a corps which was disbanded In 160O. Lieut.-Colonel
Cunningham had served under the Prince of Orange in the
Dutch war with France in the time of King Charles II. and
was an advocate for the Revolution of 1688. The Prince
promoted him to the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, and sent
him, in 1689, with Ids regiment, to the relief of Londonderry,
then besieged by the forces of King James, and gave him
orders to obey the governor, Colonel Lundy. The governor,
having resolved to surrender the place to King James, gave
Colonel Cunningham false statements respecting the means of
defence, and induced a council of war to resolve that the
troops sent to the relief of Londonderry should not be landed.
The inhabitants revolted against the authority of the governor,
and offered the command of the fortress to Colonel Cunning-
ham, who refused tu acquiesce, and returned with his regi-
ment to England. King William was so displeased with the
conduct of Colonels Cunningham, and Richards, of the llth
foot, in not investigating the statements made by the governor
more closely, and not taking upon themselves the responsi-
bility of defending the town when the governor wished to
surrender it, that he deprived them of their commissions.
SUCCESfllON OF COLONELS.
Appointed Itt May^ 1689.
William Stewart, descended from the noble families of
the Earls of Galloway and Caithness in Scotland, which have
long been extinct. He was remarlcable for a tall graceful
person, and a good understanding improved by education ; he
was valiant in the field, — a zealous and able officer,— and
punctual in the observance of Christian duties. He served
some time in the royal regiment of foot, and the Prince of
Orange promoted him to the lieut.-colonelcy of the sixteenth
foot, and aflerwards gave him the colonelcy of the Ninth
regiment. He served under Mtyor-General Kirke in the
expedition for the relief of Londonderry, and evinced great
activity, bravery, and ability, on that occasion. He acquired
the reputation of an excellent officer, while serving at the
head of a brigade during the campaigns of 1689, 1690, and
1691, iu Ireland. He was wounded at the attack of
Limerick in 1690, and was second in command at the assault
of Athlone on the 20th of June, 1691, when he was again
wounded. King William III. promoted him to the rank of
major-general, in 1693, and in 1703 Queen Anne advanced
him to the rank of lieut.-general. He was aflerwards ap-
pointed commander-in-chief in Ireland, and a member of the
privy council in that country; and in 1711 he was promoted
to the rank of general. Soon after the accession of King
George I., General Stewart was suspected of entertaining
sentiments favourable to the interests of the Pretender, and he
was removed from his regiment. Qe died on the 4th of June
Appointed 2*1 th July^ 1715.
James Campbell served in the army in the reign of King
William III., and in February, 1702, he vi^as appointed
captain in the Scots Greys. He accompanied his regiment
to Holland, in 1702, and served under the celebrated John,
Duke of Marlborough; the Greys were engaged at the
battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim in 1704 ; at the forcing
SUOOB88ION OP 0OLOMBL8.
of the French lines in 1705 ; and highly distinguished them-
selves at Bamilies in 1706 : they also served at the battle of
Oudenarde in 1708, and at Malplaquet in 1709. The conduct
of James Campbell on these, and other occasions, procured
him the favour of the Duke of Marlborough and the appro-
bation of his sovereign, who promoted him to the lieut.-
colonelcy of his regiment, and gave him the rank of colonel
in the army in 1711. King George I. conferred the colo-
nelcy of the Ninth foot on Colonel Campbell, in 1715, and
gave him the command of the Scots Greys in 17 17. He was
promoted to the rank of major-general in 1739, and to that of
lieut.-general in 1742. He was placed on the staff of the
army which proceeded to Flanders in 1742; in 1743 he
served in Germany, and highly distinguished himself at the
head of the British cavalry at the battle of Dettingen ; he
was rewarded with the dignity of a Knight of the Bath. He
continuied to serve on the continent, and was killed at the
battle of Fontenoy in 1745.
Thk Honobable Charles Cathoart.
Appointed 15th February, 1717.
The Honorable Charles Cathcart, son of Alan, seventh
Lord Cathcart, entered the army in the eighteenth year of
his age, and in 1704 he commanded a company in Colonel
Macartney's regiment (since disbanded), serving on the fron-
tiers of Holland. In 1706 he commanded a troop in the
Scots Greys, which corps distinguished itself at the battle of
Ramilies in the same year ; in 1707 he was brigade major to
the Earl of Stair. Continuing in active service with the
army under the Duk? of Marlborough, he acquired the re-
putation of a brave and zealous officer. In 1 709 he was ap.
pointed major of the Scots Greys, and was soon afterwards
promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. On the
accession of King George I., he was appointed one of the
grooms of His Majesty's bedchamber. In the autumn of
1715 he joined the forces under the Duke of Argyle at Stir-
ling, and served against the rebels under the Earl of Mar.
On the 23rd of October he was detached against a hijndred
SV0CB8BIOM OF COLOWBLS.
rebel hone and two hundred foot, whom he attacked with his
dragoona, killed many, and took seventeen prisoners. At the
battle of Sheriff-muir on the 13th of November, in the same
year, he charged the insurgents at the head of the Scots
Greys, and contributed materially to the overthrow of the
left wing of the rebel army. His Miyesty rewarded him
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, in 1717 ; but he only
retained this appointment eleven months. In 1728 he ob-
tained the command of the thirty-first regiment, and was re-
moved, in 1731, to the eighth dragoons. In 1732 he suc-
ceeded to the title of Lobd Catbcart ; he was apptlnted
lord of the bedchamber to King Georrre II. in the folloxving
year, and was promoted to the coloneluy of the seventh horse,
now sixth dragoon guards. In 1739 he was advanced to the
rank of nuyor-general. His Lordship vm» chosen one of the
representatives of the Scottish peerage in bcveral purliamen' > ;
and was governor of Duncannon fort, and of LondonHnir y.
An attack on the Spanish possessions in America having been
resolved upon, in the year 1739, Lord Cathcart ...f. selected
to command the expedition; at the same timi he was ap-
pointed commander-in-chief m America ; but he died on his
passage in December, 1740, and was buried on the beach of
Prince Rupert's bay, Dominica, where a monument was
erected to his memory.
Appointed 7 th January, 1718.
James Otw ay obtained a commiss*. : in the third horse, now
second dragoon guards, with which c\vrps he served in Por-
tugal and Spain during the war of the Spanish succession, and
hia excellent conduct on various occasions was rewarded with
the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. The third horse sig-
nalized themselves at th<; battles of Almanza in 1707; at
Almanara and Saragossa in 1710, but were made priuoners at
Brihuega in the mountains of Castile ; Lieut.-Colonel Otway's
name occurs in the list of officers made prisoners on that oc-
casion. He commanded the third horse in the attack on the
SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.
rebels at Preston, in November, 1715 ; and in 1718 he was
rewarded with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He Hed <n
Appmnled 25th December t 1725.
BiCHABD Kane was many years an officer in the eighteenth,
the royal Irish r^ment of foot, with which corps he served
at numerous battles and sieges, and obtained a reputation for
talent and bravery. While serving under the great Duke of
Marlborough, he signalized himself on several occasions and
was promoted to the lisat .-colonelcy of the eighteenth foot.
In 1710 he obtained the rank of colonel in the army, and
succeeded Lieut.-General Macartney in the command of a
regiment of foot, which was disbanded at the peace of Utrecht.
When the bland of Minorca was ceded to Great Britain,
Colonel Kane was appointed lieut.-governor and commander-
in-chief at that station. The regulations he issued there, were
of a judicious and liberal character ; and when the Roman
Catholic clergy usurped powers which it was inconsistent for
them to possess uuder a Protestant government, he restrained
them with a firm hand. Having prevented them putting
persons to death on account of religious sentiments, the clergy
sent petitions to the British government, in which they repre-
sented his conduct as tyrannical and injurious to the island,
but he justified his proceedings in a satisfactory explanation.
In 1725 he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the Ninth
foot. He was an able tactician, and wrote a history of the
campaigns of King William and Queen Anne, also a work on
military discipline. He di&d on the 9th of January, 1737.
Appointed 2'Jth January, 1737.
William Harorave was appointed ensign in a regi-
ment of foot in 1694, and he served in the wars of Queen
Anne. He proved a good and useful officer, but was not
conspicuous for any quality calculated to attract attention.
Afler serving twenty years, he was appointed major of tb^
.8VCCESSI0IC OF C0L0NBL8.
thirty-sixth foot, and subsequently lieu t. -colonel of the same
corps. In 1730. he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
thirty-first foot, and was appointed to the Ninth in 1737.
He was removed to the seventh royal fusiliers, and promoted
to the rank of major-general in 1739, and was advanced to
the rank of lieut.-general in 1743. He died in 1751.
Appointed 2Sth August^ 1739.
This officer entered the army in 1703, and served several
campaigns in the wars of Queen Anne. King George II.
promoted him to the commission of major in the first foot
guards, with the rank of colonel in the army in 1729, and in
1733 appointed him to the colonelcy of the twnnty-ninth foot.
In 1739 he was removed to the Ninth foot ; in 1743 he was
promoted to the rank of major-general, and to that of lieut.-
general in 1147. lu 1749 he was removed to the ninth dra-
goons ; — he died in 1756.
Sir Charles Aruand Powlett, K.B^
Appointed 1st November ^ 1749.
Charles Abmand Powlett entered the army as comet of
horse in 1710 ; he served many years in the household cavalry,
and was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the first troop of
horse grenadier guards by King George II., v^ho afterwards
rewarded him with the colonelcy of the ninth regiment of
marines, by commission dated the 27th of December, 1740.
At the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle his regiment was disbanded,
and in November, 1749, he obtained the colonelcy of the
Ninth foot. He was afterwards promoted to the rank of
major-general, and advanced to the dignity of Knight of the
Bath. In January, 1751, he was removed to the thirteenth
dragoons. He was several years a member of parliament.
His decease occurred in November, 1751.
The Honorable John Waldegrave.
Appointed 26th January ^ 1751.
The Honorable John Waldegrave, choosing the profes-
sion of arms, obtained a commission in the first foot guards,
SUCCBSSIOir OF 00IJ0NBL8.
in 1737, and rose, in a few years, to the appointment of
major in the third foot guards, with the rank of colonel in
the army. In 1751 he was appointed colonel of the Ninth
foot, and was removed to the eighth dragoons in 1755. He
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1757, and in
1758 he commanded a brigade of infantry in the expedition
to St. Maloes. In the same year he accompanied the army
to Germany, and was, at the same time, removed to the
second Irish horse, now fifth dragoon guards. In 1759 he
commanded a brigade of infantry at the battle of Minden,
where his extraordinary presence of mind, at a critical moment,
contributed materially to the gaining of the victory. In
September, 1759, he was appointed colonel of the second
dragoon guards. He served in Germany during the remainder
of the seven years' war, distinguished himself on numerous
occasions, and was conspicuous for personal bravery, zeal, and
ability, as a general of divbion ; humane efforts to alleviate
the sufferings of the peasantry whose country was the seat of
war ; and a constant care for the necessities of the soldiers
under his orders. The rank of lieut.-general was conferred
upon this excellent officer in 1760: in 1763 he succeeded to
the dignity of Eabl WAiiDEOBAVE ; in x772 he was pro-
moted to the rank of general, and was rewarded, in 1773,
with the colonelcy of the second foot guards. He died in
The Honorable Joseph Yorke.
Appointed 18/A March, 1755.
The Honorable Joseph Yorke, third son of Philip, first Earl
of Hardwicke, was appointed ensign in the second foot guards
in 1741, lieutenant in the first foot guards in 1743, and
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the second guards in 1745.
He was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumberland at the
battle of ^ontenoy ; and in 1749 he was appointed aide-de-
camp to King George II. with the rank of colonel. In 1755
His Majesty gave him the colonelcy of the Ninth foot ;
promoted him to the rank of msjor-general and appointed him
to the colonelcy of the eight dragoons in 1758 ; advanced
him to the rank of lieut.-general and gave him the command
SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.
of the fifth dragoons in 1760; conferred upon him the rank
of general in 1*717 ; removed him to the eleventh dragoons in
1787, and in 1788 elevated him to the peerage by the title of
Lord Dover, Baron of Dover-court in the county of Kent.
In 1789 his lordship was appointed colonel of the first regi-
ment of life guards, which gave him the privilege of taking
the court duty of gold stick. He died in 1792.
Appointed 23rd October, 1758.
William Whitemore was many years an officer in the foot
guards; in 1752 he was appointed major in the third foot
guards, with the rank of colonel, and in 1755 King George
II. gave him the colonelcy of the fifty>third foot, then first
raised. In 1758 he was promoted to the rank of major-
general, and removed to the Ninth foot, and in 1760 he
obkvined the rank of lieut. -general. He was member of
Parliament for Portsmouth. His decease occurred in 1771.
Edward Viscount Ligonier.
Appointed 8th Augtist, 1^*11.
Edward Ligonier, son of Colonel Francis Ligonier who
died from the exertions he made at the battle of Falkirk when
suffering from indisposition, rose to the rank of captain and
lieut. -colonel in tbo first foot guards, in 1759 ; in 1763 he
was appointed aide-de-camp to the King, with the rank of
colonel, and on the death of his uncle, the veteran Field
Marshal Earl Ligonier, in 1770, he succeeded to the Irish
title of Viscount Ligonier of Clonmel ; the English title
of his uncle becoming extinct. In 1771 he was appointed
colonel of the Ninth foot, and he was afterwards advanced
to the dignity of Earl Ligonier. He was promoted to the
rank of major-general in 1775, and to that of lieut.-general
iu 1777. He died in 1782, when his titles became extinct.
SUCCESSION OF COLOMBL8.
Thomas Lobd Sat and Sble.
Appointed 19th June^ 1782.
Thomas Twisleton was appointed ensign in the third
foot guards, in 1754, and rose to the rank of Captain and
lieut.-colonel in 1767. He was promoted to the rank of
colonel in 1777 and to that of major-general in 1780. He
claimed, by pf^^^ tic to His Majesty, the dormant barony of
Lord Say A^.^ Sele, which was confirmed to him in 1781.
In 1782, he was promoted from major in the third foot
guards, to colonel of the Ninth foot. He died in 1788.
The Honoubable Alexander Leslie.
Appointed 4th Jtdi/, 1 788.
The Honobable Alexandeb Leslie, son of the Earl of
Leven and Melville, was appointed ensign in the third foot
guards in 1753, captain in the 64th regiment in 1756, and
n>ajor in the same corps in 1759. He served with the sixty-
fourth in America, and was promoted to the lieutenant-colo-
nelcy in 1766 ; in 1775 he was appointed aide-de-camp to the
King, with the rank of colonel in the army. When the
American war commenced, Colonel the Honorable Alex-
ander Leslie was actively employed, and evinced ability and
valour on numerous occasions. In 17*79, he was promoted to
the rank of major-general. In October, 1780, he sailed from
New York, with three thousand men, for the Chesapeak ; —
landed at Virginia, and destroyed stores belonging to the
rebels at several places. In November, he re-embarked and
sailed to Charlestown, where he found orders to join Earl
Cornwallis on the frontiers of North Carolina. He marched
from Charlestown, with fifteen hundred men, on the 19th of
December, and joined Earl Cornwallis on the ISth of Jan-
uary 1781. He was second in command at the battle of
Guildford, and his conduct was commended in the public
despatch of Earl Cornwallis. He afterwards commanded a
body of troops in South Carolina ; and on the 2nd of Jan-
uary, 1782, he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the sixty-
third regiment ; in 1787) he was promoted to the rank of lieutj^
SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.
general, and was appointed colonel of the Ninth foot in the
following year. He was second in command in North Bri-
tain several years. In the winter of 1794, he was employed
in suppressing riots at Glasgow, where he caught a severe
illness, of which he died at his seat of Beechwood, near Edin-
burgh, on the 27th of December. He has been commended
for an amiable disposition, in which benevolence, valour, and
modesty were happily blended.
AppoitUed 3l8t December, 1794.
This officer served upwards of thirty years in the first regi-
ment of foot guards, commencing as ensign on the 1st of
March, 1762, and attaining to the commission of second major
on the 8th of August, 1792. On the 12th of October, 1793,
he was promoted to the rank of major-general ; in 1794, he
was appointed colonel of the Ninth foot; in 1798, he was
promoted to the rank of lieut. -general, and in 1803 to that of
general ; in 1804, he was removed to the seventy-seventh regi-
ment. He died in 1808.
Appointed Ibth June, 1804.
Peter Hunter obtained n commission of ensign in the first,
the royal regiment of foo^ in 1767; he was promoted lieu-
tenant in 1768, and had the command of a company in 1776.
He served with the royals in Great Britain, and at the island
of Minorca, and in 1779, he was appointed major in the nine-
ty-second regiment, afterwards disbanded. In 1781, he was
removed to the sixtieth regiment, in which corps he was ap-
pointed lieut.-colonel in 1787, and in 1792, he was promoted
to the rank of colonel in the army ; in 1793, he was appointed
colonel-commandant in the sixtieth regiment. When the
war of the French revolution broke out, in 1793, he was em-
ployed on the continent, where he had the local rank of
brigadier-general in 1794 ; in the following year he was
SI/0CB88ION OF OOLCmBLS.
promoted to the rouk of uuyor-general, and in 1802 to that of
lieut-generol ; and in 1804 King Qeorge III. rewarded him
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He was lieut.-govemor
of Upper Canada, and commander-in-chief in both the Canadac,
and died at Quebec in 1805.
SiK. RoBEHT Bbownbioo, Bart., G.C.B.
App')inted Srd October^ 1805.
BoBERT Bbownbioo, son of Sir Heury Brownrigg of
Rockingham, was appointed ensign in the fourteenth foot in
1775, and joined the regiment in North America in 1776, b it
returned to England soon aflerwardu. In 1778 I10 was pro-
moted to a lieutenancy, and was appointed adjutant of i'C
fourteenth foot in the same year. In 1780, he embarked on
board the Ohannel-fleet where his regiment was appointed to
ser '0 as ma'-lnes ; in i 782, he proceeded with the fourteenth
to Jamiiiea,, where he remained until the beginning of 1784,
when he relumed to England. In Mareh, of that year, he
w?is appointed captain in the 100th foot, from which he ex-
changed to the thirty-fifth, and afterwards to the fifty-second.
He was promoted to the rank of major in 1790, and appointed
deputy quarter-master general to an expedition fitting out
against the Spaniards in South America, but which did not
p!-oceed to its destination. Towards the end of 1790, he was
appointed commandant and paymaster to a number of detach-
ments, of regiments on foreign service, at Chatham barracks,
which he held until 1793, when he was appointed deputy
quarter-master general to the army, serving in Flanders. In
the same year he was appointed lieut.-colonel of the 88th
regiment. He served at all the actions in which the British
army under his Royal Highness the Duke of York took part
in 1794, and also in the retreat through Holland to Germany.
When tlie Duke of York was appointed to the duties of com-
mander-in-chief, Lieutenant-Colonel Brownrigg was nomina-
ted to the appointment of military secretary to His Royal
Highness, and on the 21st of June, 1795, he exchanged to
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the second foot guards. In
1796 he was promoted to the rank of colonel ; in 1799, he
accompanied tlie Duke of York in the expedition to Holland,
SVOOESSION OF COLOMBLS.
and continued aa secretary to His Royal Highness until 1803,
when he was appointed quarter-master general to the forces.
In 1799, he was appointed colonel commandant of the sixth
battalion of the sixtieth regiment ; in 1802, he was promoted
to the rank of major-general, and in 1805, he was rewarded
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He was promoted to
the rank of lieut.-general in 1808; he accompanied the ex-
pedition to Holland in 1809 ; was at the siege of Flushing,
and in the subsequent operations, and wrote a journal of the
proceedings of the army which was laid before parliament.
In 1813 Lieut-Genciul Brownrigg was appointed governor
and commander-in-chief in the island of Ceylon, and was after-
wards honored with the dignity of knight grand cross of the
order of the Bath. In 1815 he invaded the state of Kandy,
situate in the interior of Ceylon, which was conquered and
annexed to the British crown ; and in 1816 he was rewarded
with the dignity of Baronet. In 1819 he was promoted to
the rank of general. An honorable augmentation was made
to his arms, in 1822, consisting of the crown, sceptre, and
banner of Kandy, on an embattled chief; and for a crest, a
demi-Kandian holding a sword and the crown. He remained
governor of Ceylon until 1820, when he returned to England.
He died in 1833.
Sib John Camebon, K.C.B.
Appointed 31«< ilfay, 1833.
John Camebon was second son of Culchenna, and nephew
of Cameron of Caltort, Inverness-shire, whose ancestor was a
younger son of Lochiel, chief of the clan. He was born in
1773, and married in 1803, Miss Brock, eldest daughter of
Mr. Henry Brock, of Belmont, Guernsey, and niece of the
first Lord de Saumarez. Sir John entered the army in Septem-
ber, 1787, as ensign in the 43rd regiment, in which regiment
he attained the rank of major in October, 1800. In 1794, he
served under Sir Charles Grey in the West Indies, and was
present at the reduction of Martinique (including the siege of
Fort Bourbou and other minor engagements) at St. Lucia,
and Guadaloupe, and particularly displayed his gallantry at
the defence of the latter in the ?ame year, and at the sortie
SVCOBSfllOK OF OOLONSLS.
ftonif and at the assault made by the enemy on the fortresff
of Fleur d'Epee. He was at the action of the 30th of Sep-
tember at Berville camp, under Brigadier-General Graham ;
and in the action of the 7th October he was severely wounded,
and was taken by the enemy. He remained a prisoner of war
during a period of two years, and then came to England, but
his military duties at home were of short duration, for in
six months he was again ordered with his regiment to the
West Indies, where he was on for ign service for nearly four
years. He was promoted to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th West
India regiment on the 28th May, 1807, and was removed to
the Ninth foot on the 5th of September of that year. On his
return to his native country, he was ordered with his regiment,
the Ninth foot, to the seat of war in Portugal, Sir John at
that time holding the rank of Lieut.-ColoneI in that gallant
corps. His services in the Peninsula were acknowledged by
several honorary distinctions. At the battle of Vimiera he
commanded the second battalion of the Ninth foot. He
was at the battle of Corunna under Lieut.- General Sir John
Moore, and by the intrepid bravery he displayed at that san-
guinary conflict, the deceased gained the approbation of his
superior in command. In July, 1809, he embarked on the
expedition to the Scheldt, in the command of the first battalion
of the Ninth regiment, and returned in September follow-
ing to England. In March, 1810, he proceeded with the
Ninth regiment to increase the force of the army in Portugal,
then commanded by Viscount Wellington, and he con-
tinued in active service under that great commander until
the termination of the war in 1814. He particul;>rly dis-
tinguished himself at Busaco, where he luul a horse shot
imder him ; also at Salamanca and Vittoria. In July,
1813, previous to the assault and capture of San Sebastian,
he carried, with the Ninth foot, the fortified convent of San
Bartholomew, in front of San Sebastian, thus gaining a posi-
tion which contributed greatly to the advantage of the allied
army. He subsequently took an active share in the battles
of the Nive of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of December, and in
those encounters he had another horse shot. During those
services he was twice wounded, and twice severely contused.
In acknowledgment for his eminent services in the Peninsula,
SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.
he received the decoration of a cross and three clasps. Sir
Jolin Cameron embarked for Canada in June, 1814, from
Pouillac in France, in command uf the Ninth regiment,
which was recalled from North America in the following
year, in consequence of the warlike aspect Europe had assumed,
and of the return of Napoleon to France. The regiment
reached Ostend in August, 1815, and immediately proceeded
to join the allied army which then occupied Paris. On the
4th June, 1814. he was promoted to the rank of colonel in
the army, and to that of major-general on the 19th July, 1821 ,
when he relinquished the command of the Ninth regiment.
On the 25th September, 1823, he was appointed to the com-
mand of the western district, and to be lieutenant-governor of
Plymouth, which appointments he held until the 30th Sep-
tember, 1834. In consideration of his eminent services. Sir
John Cameron was created a knight commander of the
military order of the Bath on the 2nd January, 1815. The
Portuguese government conferred on him the order of the
Tower and Sword, for the able services he rendered to that
nation in the course of the French war in that country. Sir
John Cameron was appointed to the colonelcy of the 93rd
regiment on the 23rd July, 1832 ; and on the 31st May, 1833,
he was removed to the Ninth foot, which regiment he had
commanded as lieutenant-colonel upwards of thirteen years :
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general on the 10th
of January, 1837. His decease took place at Guernsey on the
23rd November, 1844, after a period of service of nearly sixty
SiK Thomas Akbuthnot, K.C.B.
Appointed 1th December, 1 844 ; removed to the list Highland
Light Infantry Regiment on the \%th February, 1848.
Sm James AncuiBAiiU Hope, K.C.B.
Appointed 18/A February, 1848.
NINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT
Memoir op Colonel Sir John McCaskill, K.C.B.
Colonel Sib John McCaskill entered the array in March,
1797« as an ensign in the 53rd regiment, and was present at
the lauding at Porto Rico, and siege of St. Juan, in May,
1797. He was on passage to India when the fleet under
convoy of Sir T. Trowbridge was attacked by the French
Admiral Linois, in the Marengo, a heavy frigate, and another
ship, in August, 1805. During his service in India, he was
present at the sieges and captures of Forts Sattarah, Singhur,
Woossotah, and several others. He was also present at the
reduction of the strong fortress of Sholapore, and the attack
and dispersion of five thousand of the Feshwa's choicest troops,
strongly posted >vith their guns, fifteen of which were cap-
tured under the walls of the fort, on the 11th May, 1818.
He rose to the rank of major in the 53rd regiment, in March,
1824; he was promoted, by purchase, to be lieutenant-colonel
unattached, in February, 1825, and subsequently served in the
86th, 89th, and 98th regiments : he exchanged from the 98th to
the 9th foot on the 19th June, 1835. He was promoted to the
rank of colonel on the 28th June, 1838 ; and on the 14th March,
1842, to the local rank of major-general. On the 27th December
1842, he was nominated a knight commander of the order of
the Bath. He was killed at the battle of Moodkee on the 18th
MiMuiR or LiBUT.-CuLONEL A. BiRKsroRD Taylor,
K.H. AND C.B.
LiEUT.-CoLONEL A. Bbresvord Taylor, K.H., C.B.,
entered the army on the 14th of February, 1811,; lie served
in the American war at the battles of Ghrystler's Farm, and
Niagara, where he was severely wounded ; at the siege of Fort
Erie, September, 1814 ; he was present at the capture of Forts
Loghur, Koarree, and Ryghur, in the East Indies, in 1818;
also at the assault and capture of Roree in 1819 ; he served
the campaigns in Ava, including the action at Dalla (where he
was again severely wounded) ; and was at the attacic on Fan-
lang, Yangavehong, and Donebew. Lieut.-Golonel Taylor
has been frequently mentioned with distinction in the de*
spatches of the general officers under whom he served ;
especially for the storming of the Khyber Pass under Sir
George Polloclc, in the Cabool war of 1842, and for which
he was created a Companion of the order of the Bath. Lieut.-
Colonel Taylor was appointed to act as brigadier on the 18th of
December, 1845, after the action of Moodlcee, in which he
commanded the Ninth regiment, and on the 22nd of the
same month, he fell, covered with wounds, whilst leading his
brigade to the storming of the enemy's guns at Ferozeshah.
Lieut.-Colonel Taylor was the second son of Mr. James
Taylor, of Cranbrooke, County of Fermanagh, Ireland ; he
married the daughter of Lieut.Colonel Lister, H.E.I.C.S.,
and was killed in the 53rd year of his age, esteemed and
beloved in his private capacity, and well known in his pro-
fession as an accomplished and gallant soldier.
The following list of the principal Battles, Sieges, and Actions,
which toolc place in the Peninsular War from 1808 to 1814,
was prepared by the special command of His late Miyesty
King William the Fourth :—
[N.B. Hoaortrjr dliUnettant war* graalad for lli« uImImd mIUjm marktd ihw *.]
A4/utaia-ClM«raf» Office, Uoru Ouanh, 7th Nov^ 1835.
Lourinha «......,.. 15th Augiut.
* Roleia 17th ditto.
* Vimiera Slit ditto.
* Sahagun, Benevente, &c. (Cavalry actions) . aoth and a9th December
* Comnna I6th January.
Passage of the Vonga 10th May.
Grijon, Heights of 11th ditto.
Passage of the Doorol
and > lath ditto.
Capture of Oporto '
Salamonde .... ..... 16th ditto.
* Talavera 37th and 28th July.
Barba del Pnerco 19th March.
Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered to Marshal Ney 10th July.
Almeida surrendered 24th ditto.
Affair on the Coa 24th ditto.
Taking up the Lines at Busaco '. . . . 25th and 26th Sept.
* Busaco 27th ditto.
Coimbra, Capture of .8th October.
* Barrosa 5th March.
Pombal, Redinha, Casal Nova, and Fos) 11th, lath, 14th, and
d'Arrouce ) 15th ditto.
Campo Mayor 25th ditto.
Guanda 29th ditto.
Sabugal 3rd April.
Olivenfa 15th ditto.
Fuentes d'Onor 3rd and 5th May.
Badajoz, Siege of (raised ISth May). . . 8th to 15th ditto.
Barbb del Puerco 11th ditto.
* Albuhera I6th ditto.
Usagre (Cavalry Action) 25th ditto.
Badi^o*' Second Siege (raised 11th June) . 30th May to llth Jane.
Affiur near Campo Mayor 22nd June.
ElBodon 25th September.
Aldea de Ponte 27th ditto.
Arroyo dos Molinos 28th October.
Tariih 3lBt December.
CiadadRodrigo, Siege of (taken l9thJanaary) 8th to 19th January
Badiyoz, Third Siege of (taken 6th April) . 1 7th March to 6thApril .
Almaraz 19th May.
Llerena llth Jane.
Yinares, Heights of • 22nd ditto.
Forts of Salamanca (taken 27th June) . . 18th to 27th ditto
Castrejon . I8th July.
Salamanca 22n iitto.
La Sema 23rd ditto.
Bibera 24th ditto.
Majalahonda (Cavalry Action) ■> . . , llth August.
Occupation of Madrid 12th ditto. ~-
Fort Retiro, Madrid, capitulated . . . 14th ditto.
Seville, Capture of . . .... 27th ditto.
Burgos, Fort St. Michael, near . ... 19th September.
Siege of (raised 20th October) . . 20th Sept. to 20th Oct.
Actions on the Eetreat from Burgos . . . jogth and* 29th J^**
Paente larga, on the Xarama .... 30th October.
Alba de Tonnes 10th and llth Nov.
Castalla 13th April.
Salamanca 26th May.
Morales (Cavalry Action) 2nd June.
Tarragona, Siege raised by Sir John Murray 13th ditto.
^ . / Honuaza 12th ditto.
""/"^jOsma 18th ditto.
•^""iBayas 19th ditto.
Vittoria 21st ditto.
Villa Franca and Tolosa 24th and 25th ditto.
Bastan, Valley of 4th, 5th, and 7th July.
St. Bartholomew, near St. Sebastia^i . . 17th ditto.
Pass of Maya 25th ditto.
Boncevalles 25th ditto.
St. Sebastian, Assault of (failed). . . . 25th July.
Attack on General Picton's Division . . 27th ditto.
* St. Sebastian, Assault and Captnre .
Sti Marcial, Heights of . . . .
Ordal, Pass of
Bidassoa, Passage of . . . • •
fordng Enemy's Lines • .
Garris, near St. Palus, Heights of .
Arrivarette ditto . .
Passageof the Adonr • . . . .
VioBigorre . . . .
St Gandens ....
Cavalry Afifoir near Toulonse . .
Sortie fh)m Bayonne
28th July to and Aug.
12th and 13th Sept
9th to IStii December.
23rd and 24di 'itto.
I^ndou: Printed by W. Ci.owxs aud Sons, Stamford Street,
For Her Majesty'i Slaiionery Office.