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Full text of "Historical record of the Ninth, or the East Norfolk Regiment of Foot [microform] : containing an account of the formation of the regiment in 1685, and of its subsequent services to 1847"

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m^mm 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



aojias-auAjiMMS, 

HiiMAJEBw has been pleased to command that 
with a view of doing the fuUest justice to Regi- 
inent., as weU as to Individuab who have «£- 
tingUMhed themselves by their Braveiy in Action 
witft ^ Enemy, to Account of the Semoes of 
e^ Re^meat in the British Arihy shall be pub- 
li&ed under the superintendent and direction of 
the Adjufittl^General ; and that this Account shaU 
contain the foUowing jmrticulars, viz. :— 

-~ The FarM and Circumstances of the 
On^nd Formation of the Regiment; The Stations 
at which It has been from time to time employed ; 
l^Jatti^, Sieges, and othe^ )^lilitaiy Operations 
m i^h It has been engaged, particulariy specifyinir 
any Achievement it may have peribrmed. and the 

theSm ^^^^^" ^ "^^^ ^P*""^ ^^ 

— - The Names of the^ Officers a&d the number 
Of ^^on-Commissioned Officers and Privates Killed 
or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the Place 
and Date of the Action. ' ^ ^ ^ "^ '^^^^ 



IX. 



a 



■T^;,7,n-;n'T'' M"'-*..-. 



11 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



— The Names of those Officers who, in con- 
sideration of their Gallant Services and Meritorious 
Conduct in Engagements with the Enemy, have 
heen distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other 
Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour. 

The Names of all such Officers, Non-Com- 

missioned Officers, and Privates, as may have 
specially signalized themselves in Action. 

And, 

■ The Badges and Devices which the Regi- 
ment may have been permitted to bear, and the 
Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices, 
or any other Marks of Distinction, have been 
granted. 

By Command of the Right Honourable 
GENERAL LORD HILL, 

Comrnainding'i'nrChief. 



v.- 



John Macdonald, 
Ad^ant-Oeneral 



* *, 



♦ r»i 



•V -i' ,;;■,. .^V-'«'' 



/ 



PREFACE. 



The character and credit of the British Army must 
chiefly depend upon the zeal and ardour by which 
all who enter into its service are animated, and 
consequently it is of the highest importance that any 
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, 
by which alone great and gallant actions are achieved, 
should be adopted. 

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment 
of this desirable object than a full display of the 
noble deeds with which the Military History of our 
country abounds. To hold forth these bright 
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, 
and thus to incite him to emulate the meritorious 
conduct of those who have preceded him in their 
honourable career, are among the motives that have 
given rise to the present publication. 

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, 
announced in the " London Gazette," from whence 
they are transferred into the public prints : the 
achievements of our armies are thus made known at 
the time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute 

a2 



IV 



PREFACE. 



of praise and admiration to which they are entitled. 
On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of Parliament 
have been in the habit of conferring on the Com- 
manders, and the Officers and Troops acting under 
their orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks 
for their skill and bravery ; and these testimonials, 
confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's 
approbation, constitute the reward which the 
soldier most highly prizes. 

It has not, however, until late years, been the prac- 
tice (which appears to have long prevailed in some of 
the Continental armies) for British Regiments to keep 
regular records of their services and achievements. 
Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtain- 
ing, particularly from the old Regiments, an au- 
thentic account of their origin and subsequent services. 

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence 
of His Majesty having been pleased to command 
that every Regiment shall, in future, keep a full and 
ample record of its services at home and abroad. 

From the materials thus collected, the country 
will henceforth derive information as to the difficulties 
and privations which chequer the career of those who 
embrace the military profession. In Great Britain, 
where so large a number of persons are devoted to 
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, 
and commerce, and where these pursuits have, for so 



n 



PRBPAOB. ^ 

long a period, been undisturbed by the presence of 
war, which few other countries have escaped, com- 
paratively little is known of the vicissitudes of active 
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, 
even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in 
every part of the globe, with little or no interval of 
repose. 

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which 
the country derives from the industry and the enter- 
prise of the agriculturist and the trader, its happy 
inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect on 
the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,— on 
their sufferings, — and on the sacrifice of valuable 
life, by which so many national benefits are obtained 
and preserved. 

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, 
and endurance, have shone conspicuously under great 
and trying difficulties ; and their character has been 
established in Continental warfare by the irresistible 
spirit with which they have effected debarkations in 
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the 
gallantry and steadiness with which they have main- 
tained their advantages against superior numbers. 

In the official Reports made by the respective Com- 
manders, ample justice has generally been done tp 
the gallant exertions of the Corps employed ; but 
the details of their services and of acts of individual 



j - _T - .. )f, .fcj y 'yi.^>.' ^- ;. 



Tl 



PRIFAOB. 



bravery, can only be fully ^ven in the Annals of the 
various Regiments. 

These Records are now preparing for publication, 
under His Majesty's special authority, by Mr. 
Richard Gannon, Principal Cleric of the Adjutant 
General's Office ; and while the perusal of them can- 
not fail to be useful and interesting to military men 
of every rank, it is considered that they will also 
afford entertainment and information to the general 
reader, particularly lo those who may have served in 
the Army, or who have relatives in the Service. 

There exists in the breasts of most of those who 
have served, or are serving, in the Army, an Esprit 
de Corps — an attachment to everything belonging 
to their Regiment ; to such persons a narrative of 
the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove 
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of 
the great, the valiant, the loyal, have always been 
of paramount interest with a brave and civilized 
people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes 
who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood 
" firm as the rocks of their native shore ;" and when 
half the World has been arrayed against them, they 
have fought the battles of their Country with un- 
shaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of 
achievements in war,-^victories so complete and sur- 
prising, gained by our countrymen, our brothers. 



1^ %Mi^!^AniM^'»-,M4^^iid^^ 






'.ni^ii-w 'm,n-- iw »*•'. ■ ■ "-ii(« 



> I 



PRBFACI. 



vU 



our fellow-citizeni in arms, — a record which revivei 
tlie memory of .the bravei and brings their galhint 
deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to 
the public. 

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other 
distinguished Officers will be introduced in the 
Records of their respective Regiments, and the 
Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to 
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testify- 
ing the value and importance of its services, will be 
faithfully set forth. 

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record 
of each Regiment will be printed in a distinct num- 
ber, so that when the whole shall be completed, the 
Parts may be bound up in numerical succession. 




\ ( 






^ 



*: i 



INITIODUCTION 



TO 



THE INFANTRY. 



The natives of Britain have, at all peribds, been 
celebrated for innate courage and unshaken firmness, 
and the national superiority of the British troops 
over those of other countries 1ms been evinced in 
the midst of the most imminent perils. History con- 
tains so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, 
that no doubts can be raised upon the facts which 
are recorded. It must therefore be admitted, that 
the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is 
Intrepidity. This quality was evinced by the 
inhabitants of England when their country was 
invaded by Julius Gwsar with a Roman army, on 
which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into 
the sea to attack the Roman soldiers as they de- 
scended from their ships; and, although their dis- 
cipline and arms were inferior to those of their 
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing 
intimidated the flower of the Roman troops, in- 
cluding Caesar's favourite tenth legion. Their arms 
consisted of spears, short swords, and other weapons 
^f rud^ construction. They had chariots, to the 



/ 



X INTRODUCTION TO 

axles of which were fastened sharp pieces of iron 
resembling scythe-blades, and infantry in long 
chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and 
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit, 
or retreat, sprang into the chariot and drove off 
with the speed of cavalry. These inventions were, 
however, unavailing against Csesar's legions : in 
the course of time a military system, with dis- 
cipline and subordination, was introduced, and 
British courage, being thus regulated, was exerted 
to the greatest advantage ; a full development of 
the natitfial character followed, and it shone forth 
in all its native brilliancy. 

The mihtary force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted 
principally of infantry : Thanes, and other mep of 
property, however, tbught on horseback. The 
infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. 
The former carried large shields armed with spikes, 
long broad swords and spears ; and the latter 
were armed with swords or spears only. They had 
also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes 
and javelins. 

The feudal troops established by William the 
Conqueror consisted (as already stated in the Intro- 
duction to the Cavalry) almost entirely of horse; 
but when the warlike barons and knights, with their 
trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a pro- 
portion of men appeared on foot^ and, although 
these were of inferior degree, they proved stout- 
hearted Britons of. stanch fidelity. When stipen- 
diary troops were employed, infantry always con- 
stituted a considerable portion of the military ibrce ; 



THE INFANTRY. 



and this arme has 'ice acquired, in every quarter 
of the globe, a celebrity never exceeded by the 
armies of any nation at any period. 

The weapons carried by the ih&ntry, during the 
several reigns succeeding the Conquest, were bows 
and arrows, half-pikes, lances, halberds, various 
kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour 
was worn on the head and body, and in course of 
time the practice became general for military men 
to be so completely cased in steel, that it was 
almost impossible to slay them. 

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the 
destructive purposes of war, in the early part of the 
fourteenth century, produced a change in the arms 
and equipment of the infantry-soldier. Bows and 
arrows gave place to various kinds of fire-arms, but 
British archers continued formidable adversaries ; 
and owing to the inconvenient construction and 
imperfect bore of the fire-arms when first introduced, 
a body of men, weU trained in the use of the bow 
from their youth, was considered a valuable acqui- 
sition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth 
century. 

During a great part of the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth each company of infantry usually consisted of 
men armed five different ways; in every hundred 
men forty were " men-at-arms" and sixty ** shot ;** 
the " men-at-arms " were ten halberdiers, or battle- 
axe men, and thirty pikemen ; and the ** shot " were 
twenty archers, twenty musketeers, and twenty 
harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides his 
principal weapon, a sword and dagger. 




INTRODUCTION TO 



Companies of infantry variesd at thu period io 
numbers from 150 to 300 men ; each company had 
a colour or ensign, and the mode of formation re- 
commended by an English military writer (Sir John 
Smithe) in 1590 was : — the colour in the centre of 
the company guarded by the halberdiers ; the pike- 
men in equal proportions, on each flank of the 
halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of 
the pikes ; half the archers on each flank of the mus- 
keteers ; and the harquebusiers (whose arms were 
much lighter than the muskets then in use) in equal 
proportions on each flank of the company for skirmish- 
ing.* It was customary to unite a number of com- 
panies into one body, called a Regiment, which 
frequently amounted to three thousand men; but 
each company continued to carry a colour. Numer- 
ous improvements were eventually introduced va the 
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found 
impossible to make armour proof against the muskets 
then in use (which carried a very heavy ball) without 
its being too weighty for the soldier, armour was 
gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seven- 
teenth century : bows and arrows also fell into dis« 
use, and the infantry were reduced to two classes, 
viz.: musketeers, armed with matchlock muskets. 



* A company of 200 men would appewr thus : — 

1 

20 2020302(0302020 20 

|I*(4<>«b*>*M>Aioben.MuikeU.PIkA. Halbwdi. PikM. MotkeU. Ateharf. HarqaabuM. 

The musket carried a ball which weighed lAi of a pound ; and the 
harquebui a ball which weighed ^ of a pound. 



v\ 



THE INFANTRT. 



xm 



swords, and daggers ; and pikemen, armed witli pikes 
from fourteen to* eighteen feet long, and swords. 

In the early part of the seventeenth century 
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, reduced the 
strength of regiments to 1000 men ; he caused the 
gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in 
flasks, or in small wooden bandoliers, each contain- 
ing a charge, to be made up into cartridges, and 
carried in pouches ; and he formed each regiment 
into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division 
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of form- 
ing four regiments into a brigade; and the number 
of colours was afterwards reduced to three in each 
regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that 
his infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated 
Polish horsemen and Austrian cuirassiers; and his 
armies became the admiration of other nations. His 
mode of formation was copied by the English, 
French, and other European states; but so great 
was the prejudice in favour of ancient customs, that 
all his improvements were not adopted until near a 
century afterwards. 

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea- 
service, styled the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 
each company of 100 men usually consisted of 30 
pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with 
light firelocks. In this year the king added a com- 
pany of men armed with hand-grenades to each of 
the old British regiments, which was designated the 
*' grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived 
as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION TO 



similar to those at present in use were adopted about 
twenty years afterwards. 

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by 
order of King James II., to guard the artillery, and 
was designated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th Foot). 
This corps, and the companies of grenadiers^ did 
not carry pikes. 

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's 
regiment in the Second Foot Guards, and raised 
two Marine re^ments for sea-service. During the 
war in this reign, each company of infantry (ex 
isepting the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 
pikemen and 46 musketeers; the captains carried 
pikes ; lieutenants, partisans ; ensigns, half-pikes ; 
and Serjeants, halberds. After the peace in 1697 the 
Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again 
formed on the breaking out of the war in 1702.* 

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were 
laid aside, and every infantry soldier was armed 
with a musket, bayonet, and sword ; the grenadiers 
ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-gren- 
ades ; and the regiments were directed to lay aside 
their third colour : the corps of Royal Artillery was 
first added to the army in this reign. 

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion 
companies of infantry ceased to carry swords; 



*The 30th, Sist, and S2nd Regiments were formed as Marine 
corps in 1 702, and were employed as such daring the wars in the 
reign of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the 
Fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of 
Gibraltar, and in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were aftsr- 
wards employed at the siege of Barcelona in 1706. 



a. 



THE INFANTRY. 



«¥ 



during the reign of George II. light companies were 
added to infantry regiments ; and in 1764 a Board 
of General Officers recommended that the grenadiers 
should lay aside their swords, as that weapon had 
never been used during the seven years' war. Since 
that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been 
limited to the musket and bayonet. 

The arms and equipment of the British troops have 
seldom differed materially, since the Conquest, from 
those of other European states ; and in some respects 
the arming has, at certain periods, been allowed to 
be inferior to that of the nations with whom they 
have had to contend ; yet, under this disadvantage, 
the bravery and superiority of the British infantry 
have been evinced on very many and most trying 
occasions, and splendid victories have been gained 
over very superior numbers. 

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like 
champions who have dared to confront a host of 
foes, and have proved themselves valiant with any 
arms. At Cre^y^ King Edward III., at the head of 
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 
1346, Philip King of France, whose army is said to 
have amounted to 100,000 men ; here British valour 
encountered veterans of renown : — ^the King of Bo- 
hemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and 
nobles were slain, and the French army was routed 
and cut to pieces. Ten years afterwards, Edward 
Prince of Wales, who was designated the Black 
Prince, defeated, at FoicHerSt with 14,000 men, 
a French army of 60,000 horse, besides infan- 
try, and took John I., King of France, and his son 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION TO 



Philip* prisoners. On the 25tb of .October, 1415» 
King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 
rnen, although greatly exhausted by marches, pri- 
vations, and sickness, defeated, at Agincourt^ the 
Constable of France, at the head of the flower of 
the French nobility and an army said to amount to 
60,000 men, and gained a complete victory. 

During the seventy years' war between the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands and the Spanish mo- 
narchy, which commenced in 1578 and terminated 
in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the 
States - General were celebrated for their uncon- 
querable spirit and firmness;* and in the thirty 
years' war between the Protestant Princes and the 
Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the ser- 
vice of Sweden and other states were celebrated for 
deeds of heroism.t In the wars of Queen Anne, 
the fame of the British army under the great 
Marlborough was spread throughout the world ; 
and if we glance at the achievements performed 
within the memory of persons now living, there is 
abundant proof that the Britons of the present age 
are not inferior to their ancestors in the qualities 



* The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed 
in 1590, observes : — " I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation 
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the field, 
let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the Spanish 
infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe. For 
instances of valour displayed by the British Infisntry during the 
Seventy Year'i* War, see the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or 
Buffs. 

t Vide the Historical Rec^ of the First, or Royal Regiment of 
Foot. 



w 



THE INFANTHT. 



xvii 



which confltitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds 
of the brave men, ef whom there are many now 
surviving, who fought in Egypt in 1801, under the 
brave Abercromby, end compelled the French army, 
which had been vainly styled Invincible, to eva- 
cuate that country ; also the services of the gallant 
Troops during the arduous campaigns in the Penin- 
sula, under the immortal Wellington; and the 
determined stand made by the British Army at 
Waterloo, where Napoleon Bonaparte, who had 
long been the inveterate enemy of Great Britain, 
and had sought and planned her destruction by 
every means he could devise, was compelled to 
leave his vanquished legions to their fate, and to 
place himself at the disposal of the British Govern- 
ment. These achievements, with others of recent 
dates in the distant climes of India, prove that the 
same valour and constancy which glowed in the 
breasts of the heroes of Cre9y, Poictiers, Agincourt, 
Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the 
Britons of the nineteenth century. 

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust 
and muscular frame, — intrepidity which no danger 
can appal, — unconquerable spirit and resolution, — 
patience in fatigue and privation, and cheerful obe- 
dience to his superiors. These qualities, united with 
an excellent system of order and discipline to regu- 
late and give a skilful direction to the energies and 
adventurous spirit of the hero, and a wise selection 
of officers of superior talent to command, whose 
presence inspires confidence, — have been the leading 
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British 

IX. b 



liO 



XVlll 



INTRODUCTION TO 



t 



fi: 



arms.* The fame of the deeds of the past and 
present generations in the various battle-fields where 
the robust sons of Albion have fought and conquered, 
surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory ; 
these achievements will live in the page of history to 
the end of time. 

The records of the several regiments will be found 
to contain a detail of facts of an interesting character, 
connected with the hardships, sufferings, and gallant 
exploits of British soldiers in the various parts of the 
world where the calls of their Country and the com- 
mands of their Sovereign have required them to 
proceed in the execution of their duty, whether in 
active continental operations, or in maintaining colo- 
nial territories in distant and unfavourable climes. 



* "Under the bleMingof IMvine Proridence, Hit Mai)esty aaeribet the 
aooceues which have attended the exertions of his troope in Egypt to that 
determined bravery which is inherent in Britons ; bat His Mi^esty desires 
it may be most solemnly and fbrdbly impressed on the condderation of 
every part of the army, that it has been a strict observance of order, dis- 
cipline, and military system, which has given the ftill energy to the native 
valoar of the troops, and has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority 
of the nations} military dfaSMsler* in ritnations uncommonly arduous, and 
under drcnmilances of peculiar diAenlQr." — Cfeneral OrderB in 1801. 

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope (after- 
wards Lord Hopetonn), congratulating the army upon the snocessfol result 
of the Battle of Comnna, on the 16th of January, 1809, it is stated :— « On 
no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more 
maniftst At the termination of a severe and harasung march, rendered 
necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and which had 
materially impaired the effidenoy of the troops, many disadvantages were 
to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the 
troops dMrnaelves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever adVte- 
tages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is inherent in the 
British oflcers and soldie;rs a bravery that knows not how to yield,— that no 
circumstances can appal,— and that will ensure victory, when it is to be 
obtitined by the exertion of any human means." 



r- 



THE INFANTRY. 



xis 



The superiority of the British infantry has been 
pre-eminently set forth in the wars of six centuries, 
and admitted by the greatest commanders which 
Europe has produced. The formations and move- 
ments of this arme, as at present practised, while 
they are adapted to every species of warfare, and to 
all probable situations and circumstances of service, 
are calculated to show forth the brilliancy of military 
tactics calculated upon mathematical and scientific 
principles. Although the movements and evolutions 
have been copied from the continental armies, yet 
various improvements have from time to time been 
introduced, to insure that simplicity and celerity by 
which the superiority of the national military cha- 
racter is maintained. The rank and influjence which 
Great Britain has attained among the nations of the 
world, have in a great measure been purchased by 
the valour of the Army, and to persons who have the 
welfare of their country at hearty the records of the 
several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting. 



62 



immmmm-» 



II ■■ —— 1 ^ •'ij'-'lii ti- "-'*»T'>*'"''^— r ■ f .'T ,. » '. 



"n. 



TI 



'■— "'"^ 1 I 'M )* — ! 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK, 



REGIMENT OF FOOT, 



ootrtAimii* 



M ACGOUirr OF THE FORMillON OF THE BEGDIENT 

IN 1685, 

AND OF IIS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES 
TO 184T. 



OOMPILKD BT 



RICHARD CANNON, Esq. 

AMIITAliT-0SiaBlI.'8 OmCS, HOB8B QUABIM. 



ILUU8TRATKD WITH PLATES. 



LONDON : 
PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER, 

30 CHARING CROSS. 

H DCCC XLVin. 



/ 



LoNoow : rHiNTKD >( W. Clowik a Sun>, SrAMrORD STKEIIT) 
Fun Hi* MAisnir't Stationiibv Orricc, 



?! 



THE NINTH, 



<» 



THE EAST NORFOLK, REGIMENT OF FOOT, 

Bears oo its Regimental Colour 
THE FIGURE OF BRITANNIA, 

AND TM WOBDS 

" ROLEIA,"— " VIMIERA,"— '^ COBUNNA,"— " BUSACO,"— 

" SALAMANCA,"—" VITTORIA,"— " SAN 

SEBASTIAN/'—" NIVE,"— 

PENINSULA," 

IN COHHEMOBATION OF TT8 SEBTICES DUBIMO THE FEMXNBDLAB WAR 
ntOH 1808 TO 1814; 

ALSO THS WORDS 



"CABOOL, 1842,"— "MOODKEE,"— " FEROZESHAH,"— 
"SOBRAON," 

IN COHHEHORATION OF ITS SEBTICES IN THE EAST INDIES DDRINO 

THE WABS IN AFFOHAMISTAN AND IN THE PONJAUB 

FROM 1841 to 1846. 



■y 



CONTENTS. 



■<' 



YSAB 



1685 Formation of the Regiment. 

Rendezvous at Gloucester . 

Names of the Officers . 

Establishment of the Regiment 

1687 Encamped on Hounslow Heath 

1688 The Revolution . 

1689 Proceeded to Ireland 
— ^ Relief of Londonderry. 

1690 Battle of the Boyne 

1691 A£^r at Molhill . 

Surrender of Ballymore 

Assault and Capture of Athlone 

'— Battle of Aghrim. 

Surrender of Galway . . 

— — — — Limerick. 



— - Termination of the War in Ireland . 

1701 Embarked for Holland . 

1702 Siege of Eayserswerth . . 
Venloo, Ruremonde, Stevenswart, 

Liege 



1703 Proceeded to Maestricht . 

Siege and Capture of Huy and Limburg 

1704 Embarked from Holland 

— — Proceeded to Portugal . . . 
— — Defence of Castel de Vide . . 



and 



Paoii 

] 

2 
8 

4 
5 
6 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 



18 



14 



15 



XXVI 



OOMTBIITB. 



Ybab 

1705 Firooeeded to Spain 

•— — Siq;e and Oapture of Valencia de Alcantara 

- ■ Albuquerque . 
—— Siege of Badiyoz 

1706 Si^ and Capture of Alcantara . 
Ciudad Bodrigo 

1707 Siege of Villeca . . 
"—— Battle of Almanza . 

Marched to Alcira 

—' Proceeded to Tarragona 

1708 Returned to England . 

1709 Embarked for Ireland . 
1718 Embarked from Ireland for Minorca . 
1746 Embarked fiom Minorca for Gibraltar 
1749 Returned to Ireland .... 
1751 The Colours, Clothing, &e., r^^ulated by Royal 

Warrant of King George 11. 

1755 Returned from Ireland to England . 

1756 Proceeded to Scotland 

1758 Re-embarked for Ireland . . . 

1759 Returned to England 

1761 Embarked on an Expedition against Belle Isle 
— — Returned to England . . . . . 

1762 Embarked for the Havannah 

■ Si^ and Capture of Moro Fort 

1763 Proceeded to Florida 

1769 Returned to Ireland . . . . . 

1776 Embarked for Canada . - . . . 

1777 Engaged at Fort Ticonderago . 

■ ■ Skenesborough . , , 

' Castletown . . . 

' ' Fort Anne, Wood Creek . 

Surrendered Prisoners of War at Saratoga 

1781 Returned to England . . ... 



VMA* 

16 



17 

18 
20 
21 
22 



23 



24 



26 
26 

27 



28 

29 

32 
33 



'%. 



YlAB 

1788 

1784 
1186 
1788 
1793 
1794 



1796 
1796 
1798 
1799 



1800 

1802 
1808 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 



ooMmiTS. xxvii 

Pam 

DedlgiMiied ' Tarn Nihtb, ob Eaot Nobvolk,' 

Regiment 88 

Marahed to SooUaad ...... — 

Embarked for Ireland . . . — 

Embarked for the Weit Indie* . . . . »— 

Oaptureof Tobigo ....... 84 

Proceeded against Martiaic^ • • • — 

Capture of St. Lucia . '. . . . ° • 86 

■ — Guadaloupe ..... — 

Rebellion in Grenada supprewed .... 86 

Re-embarked for England ..*,.. 37 

Proceeded to Guernsey — 

Returned to England ...... — 

The figure of ' Britannia 'confirmed as the badge 

of the Regiment -— 

Formed into three Battalions .... 88 

Encamped on Barham Downs .... — 

First and Second Battalions embarked for Holland — 

Action at Bergen — 

— — — — Egmont op Zee 89 

Re-embarked for England 40 

Proceeded on an Expedition to Ferrol . . — 

Returned to Eugland 41 

The Second and Third Battalions diabanded . 

Embarked for Ireland ...... <^ — 

Second Battalion added 42 

First Battalion embarked for Service. . . — 

Returned to England . . . . . . 48 

Embarked for Ireland — 

Portugal 44 

Battle of Roleia 45 

Second Battalion embarked for Portugal . . 46 

Battle of Vimiera — 

First Battalion proceeded to Spain under Lieut.- 

General Sir John Moore .... 47 



J. 



• 



XXVUl 



CONTENTS. 



! i 



YtAB. PAa* 

1809 Battle of Corunna . . . 48 

First Battalion returned to England ... 50 

— — Second Battalion engaged in tlie passage of the 

Douro 51 

Embarked for Gibraltar <— 

1809 First Battalion embarked for Holland . . 52 
Returned to England .*...• — 

1810 Embarked for Portugal 63 

Battle of Busaco . . i . . . . — 

Stationed at Torres Yedras 55 

1811 Second B(Utalion emhax\L.ed from GihniLtax . 56 

Battle of Barrosa . . • . , . — 

Embarked for Tarifa 51 

— — Returned to Gibraltar ...... — 

First Battalion proceeded in pursuit of the 

French Army on its retreat from Santarem . 58 

Action at Sabugal — 

Battle of Fuentes D'Onor ..... — 

—— Second Baitalion embarked from Gibraltar to 

aid in defence of Tarragona .... 59 

. Proceeded to Minorca >— 

— — First Battalion returned to Gibraltar . . . -— 

1812 Si^^ and capture of CiudadRodrigo . . . — 

Siege and capture of Badajoz .... — 

Battle of Salamanca 61 

Advanced to Madrid 62 

Siege of Burgos — 

1813 Second Battalion embarked from Gibraltar for 

England . 63 

Battle of Vittoria 64 

Siege of San Sebastian ... . . 66 

Reduction of San Bartolomeo .... 

— — Storming and capture of San Sebastian . . 69 

Passage of the Bidassoa 70 

'I Attack of Croix de Bouquets .... — 



'■^.•a5*»i9^i«SR'j«H«"< 



CONTENTS. XXIX 

Yjab. Paw. 

1818 Passage of the Nivelle 71 

Battle of the Nive ...<.. 7S 

1814 Blockade of Bayonne 74 

— — • Abdication of Napoleon Buonaparte . . . 75 

Tennination of the War • — 

Embarked for Canada 76 

1815 Returned to England ...... 78 

-— Proceeded to Ghent — 

Marched to Paris — 

— — - Formed part of the Army of Occupation . . 79 

Second battalion disbanded . . . . . — 

1818 Embarked for Enghind 80 

1819 the West Indies . . . . — . 

1826 England . . . . . 82 

1828 -Ireland. . . 84 

1833 the Mauritius . . . . — 

1835 Bengal . . . . . 85 

1841 Proceeded to Affghanistan . . . , \ .» 

1842 Engaged at the Khyber Pass .... 87 

Actions in the Valley and Pass of Tezeen. . 94 

Proceeded to Cabool 98 

Assault and capture of Istalif . . . .99 

1845 Proceeded to Umballa ...... 101 

Formed part of the Army of the Sutlej . . 102 

— ^ Battle of Moodkee — 

Ferozeshah . , . . . . 105 

1846 Sobraon 108 

Marched to Lahore 109 

Proceeded to Calcutta m 

1847 Returned to England . . . . . . 112 

The Conclusion . . , , , . . 114 



^,v <"^>^v 



■-**',**WS^ 



XXX 



"' ii- 



CdNT^MTl 



1^ J 

.Si nil u 



hu/ 



'■"^.^r': 



SUCCESSION OP COLONELS. 

TIAB 

1685 Heniy Cornwall . . . . . 

1688 Oliver Nfchulas 

— — John Cunningham ..... 

1689 WiUiam Stewart ... . . 

1716 James Campbell 

1717 Hon. Charles, afterwards Lord, Cathcart . 

1718 James Otway 
172*5 Richard Kane 

1787 William Hargrove , . 

1789 George Beade 

1749 Sir Charles Armand Powlett, K.B. . 
1751 Hon. John, afterwards Earl, Wald^pruve . 
1755 Hon. Joseph Yorke, afterwards Lord Dover 
1 758 WiUiam Whitemore . 
1771 Edward Viscount Ligonier . 
1782 Thomas Lord Say and Sele . 

1788 Hon. Aiexaudftr Leslie 
1794 Albemarle Bertie . 

1804 Peter Hunter 

1805 Sir Robert Brownrigg, Bart., 6.C.B. 
1833 Sir John Cameron, K.C.B. 
1844 Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, K.C.B. . 
1848 Sir James Archibald Hope, K.C.B. 



PA«t 

115 

116 
117 

118 
119 
120 

121 



122 
123 

124 

125 

126 
127 
129 



vA 



MMriMMMritKUMJ^fiki 



■""rt,' m>w:''>!fm^m'!m)«vniiifJem'mvi^'i-~.'^-~ 



CONTENTS. 



xxxi 



APPENDIX. 

Memoir of Colonel Sir John Mc Caskill, K.C.B. . 181 

Lt.-Colonel A. Beresford Taylor, KH., C.B. 1 32 

List of the principal Battles, Sieges, and Actions 

during the Peninsular War, from 1808 to 1814. 133 



■ •'; 



$ 



PLATES. 

The Colours of the Regiment 
The Battle of Boleia . 
The Costume of the Regiment 



to/ace 

• >» 

• »» 



I 

46 

113 



Mi 



W WM»»i|» i 




iA 




•"'•^x^MMMiiwiaMiHtiAiwaia, 



n i m [ »«i 



w 





NINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



[To fart pay \. 



r\ 



\ 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK, 



REGIMNET OF FOOT. 



Four months had just elapsed, after the accession 1685 
of King James II., when the din of hostile preparation 
was suddenly heard in the land, and James Duke 
of Monmouth, natural son of King Charles II., ap- 
peared in arms in the west of England, and pro- 
claimed himself sovereign of these realms. Among the 
augmentations made to the army on this occasion a 
regiment of foot was raised in Gloucestershire, now The 
Ninth Regiment, of which Captain Henry Cornwall 
of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, was appointed 
Colonel, by commission dated the I9th* of June, 1685. 
The general rendezvous was at the city of Gloucester, 
and the regiment consisted of eleven companies of pike- 
men and musketeers, of three officers, three Serjeants, 
three corporals, two drummers, and one hundred private 
soldiers each, and the several companies were raised by 
the undermentioned gentlemen, who evinced their 
loyalty on that occasion by coming forward in support 



^< 



* Not 12th, as stated in the Annual Army List. 



2 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 

1685 of the throne ; the royal warrants authorising these gen- 
tlemen to raise their several companies were dated the 
22nd of June : — Colonel Henry Cornwall, Sir John 
Morgan, Richard Kidley, Esq., John Powell, Esq., 
Thomas Coxe, Esq., John Boothe, Esq., Jeremiah 
Bubbs, Esq., Sir Francis Edwards, Thomas Williams, 
Esq., Daniel Wicherly, Esq., James Purcell, Esq. 

Before the regiment was complete and prepared to 
take the field, the rebel army was overthrown at Sedge- 
moor, and the Duke of Monmouth was captured and 
executed. 

The rebellion was thus suppressed ; but the King 
being a Roman Catholic, and having secret designs 
against the laws and established religion of the country, 
resolved to retain many of the newly raised corps in 
his service, and Colonel Cornwall was directed to reduce 
his regiment to ten companies of sixty men each, and 
assemble the whole at the city of Gloucester, from 
whence he marched to the vicinity of London, and 
towards the end of August the regiment was encamped 
on Hounslow-heath, where it was reviewed by the 
King, who expressed his approbation of its appearance, 
and thanked the officers and soldiers for the cheerful 
alacrity with which they had come forward in support 
of the crown at a period of danger. 

From Hounslow the regiment marched, in September, 
to the north of England, and it passed the winter at 
Berwick ; many of the officers quitted the service, and 
returned to their estates and farms in Gloucestershire, 
others were appointed, and the establishment was 
fixed, on the Ist of January, 1686, at the following 
numbers: — 




M v)Wi.Mi<y^ u-MbtiziM^in^ 



REOIMEXT OF FOOT. 



3 



Colonel Cornwall's Rboimemt. 



1 Colonel, as Colonel. . . . 
Liea^Colonel, as LietU- Colonel 
Major, as Major .... 

Chaplain 

Chirurgeon 4«.; 1 Mate 2s. 6d. 

Adjutant 

Quarter Master and Marshal . 



Total for Staff 



Thb Colonel's Compant. 



1 The Colonel, as Captain* 
1 Lieutenant 

1 Ensign 

2 Serjeants Is. &d each. . 

3 Corporals Is. each 

1 Drummer . . . • . 
50 Private Soldiers %d. each 



Total for one Company 
Nine Companies more at the same rate 



Pay per day. 


£. I. d. 


12 


7 


5 


6 8 


6 6 


4 


4 


2 5 2 


8 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 13 4 



1686 



2 15 4 



24 18 



Total per day 
Per Annum £10,922 12*. 6(/. 



29 18 6 



Returning to the south of England, the regiment 
pitched its tents in May, 16S6, on Hounslow-heath, 
where it had Captain Sir Thomas Haggerston's inde- 
pendent company of grenadiers attached to it. It was 
several times reviewed by the King, who used great 
diligence to bring his army into a state of discipline and 
efficiency, that it might be available to support him in 
his measures to establish papacy and arbitrary govern- 
ment. 

In June the regiment struck its tents and marched 
to Portsmouth, and it was stationed in that fortress 
until the summer of 1687, when it was again encamped 1687 
on Hounslow-heath, where a grenadier company was 
again attached to it. 

At this period the following officers were holding 
commissions in the regiment : — 

b2 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



Captains. 



Lieutenants. 



Ensigns. 



1687 Henry Cornwall (col). J. Cornwall (cap.-lt). Jonathan Driver. 



James Purcell (It. col). 
James Lacy (mtyor). 
Edward Cornwall. 
John Booth. 
Jeremiah Bubbs. 
Thomas Williams. 
Solomon Slater. 
Cyrvac Cornwall. 
Richard Lech. 
Henry VilHers, 



Herbert Herring, 
John Atkins. 
William Atkinson 
John Tranter. 
Edmund Barry. 
Alban Thomas. 
Richard Wingficld 
William Tatton. 
Rd. Fitz. Patrick, 
Thomas Love, sen 



Thomas Love, jun. 
William Burton, Chaplain. 
Charles Stone, Adjutant. 



Edward Cornwall. 
James Wynn. 
Charles Stone. 
Richard Etheridge. 
Thomas Neagle. 
Mortagh O'Brian. 
Harry Hastings. 
Greorge Ord. 
Thomas Waldron. 

I Grenadier Company. 

William Thomas, Chirurgeon. 
William Bissell, Quarter Master. 



At this camp the King again reviewed the regiment, 
and ordered the grenadier company to be permanently 
attached to it. On the 4th of August a route arrived 
for the march of the regiment to York, where it was 
stationed duiing the winter. 
1688 The proceedings of the King towards the establish- 
ment of papacy and absolute monarchy having alarmed 
the country, the Prince of Orange arrived on the 5th of 
November, with an armament, to aid the nobility and 
gentry in opposing the designs of the King. This 
regiment had, in the meantime, been withdrawn from 
the north, and Colonel Cornwall was, for some cause 
which has not been clearly ascertained, removed from 
the colonelcy, and succeeded by Oliver Nicholas, from 
the lieut-colonelcy of Prince George of Denmark's 
regiment, — a corps which was afterwards incorporated 
in the second foot guards. 

King James If.. 6nding his army would not fight ih 
the cause of papacy and absolute government, fled to 
France. The Prince of Orange, assuming the reins of 
government, ordered the regiment to march to Wor- 
cester; and Colonel Nicholas refusing to take the 



REOIMENT OF FOOT. 



prescribed oath, was replaced in the colonelcy by John* 1668 
Cunningham, from major in Major-General Werden's 
regiment of cuirassiers, which corps was disbanded in 
Ireland in 1690. 

The elevation of the Prince and Princess of Orange 1669 
to the throne produced tranquillity in England, but 
Ireland was convulsed by civil war ; the catholics being 
in arms in favour of King James, who arrived in Ire- 
land with a French force, and the protestauts espousing 
the interest of King William. The protestants in 
Londonderry were besieged by the forces of King James, 
and the Ninth and Seventeenth regiments of foot, 
commanded by Colonels Cunningham and Richards, 
embarked at Liverpool on the 3rd of April, 1689, and 
sailed for Londonderry, under convoy of the Swallow 
frigate ; they were driven by contrary winds to High- 
lake ; they again put to sea on the 10th of April, and, 
on the 15th, arrived in sight of the besieged fortress. 
Colonel Cunningham, having orders from King William 
to follow the directions of Colonel Lundy, the governor 
of Londonderry, immediately acquainted him with the 
arrival of the two regiments, and solicited orders. The 
governor directed him to leave the regiments on board 
and come, with several other officers, to the town, where 
a council of war was assembled : the governor, having 
secretly resolved to give up the town to King James, 
gave the council of war a false statement of its condition, 
represented that there was not provision for more than 
a week or ten days, and his assertions induced the 
council of war to decide that it would be imprudent to 
land the two regiments. The inhabitants were so en- 
raged at the conduct of their governor, that they deter- 

* Not Thomae, as stated in the Aanual Army List. 






s^ 



a£ 



■"■ ' ■ ! V ' l 



6 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1689 mined to depose him, and they sent an officer. Captain 
Cole, to offer the government to Colonel Cunningham 
of the Ninth, who answered, that, * being himself, 
' commanded by the King to obey the governor, he 

• could not receive any application from persons who 

* opposed that authority,' and the two regiments re- 
turned to England. The governor escaped from 
Londonderry in disguise, and the inhabitants made a 
most gallant defence, under the direction of the Rev. 
George Walker, and other persons of distinguished 
fortitude. King William was so displeased with 
Colonels Cunningham and Richards, for not having 
investigated the representations of the governor suffi- 
ciently, and for yielding so readily to his suggestions 
when there was reason to doubt his integrity, that Y'a 
Majesty deprived both these officers of their com- 
missions. Several historians have charged the two 
colonels, Cunningham and Richards, with cowardice, 
but there is no evidence to support such a charge. 

King Wiriam conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth 
on William Stewart, from Lieut. -colonel of the Six- 
teenth foot ; and towards the end of May the regiment 
embarked at Highlake, with the Second and Eleventh 
foot, under Major-general Kirke, to make a second at- 
tempt for the relief of Londonderry. Sailing from 
Highlake on the 3 1 st of M ay, the fleet experienced m uch 
severe weather, and did not arrive in the Lough until 
the 15th of June, when both banks of the river were 
found entrenched by the enemy, with batteries of twenty- 
four pounders at the narrowest part, which was not 
more than pistol-shot broad, and a boom of cables, 
chains, and timber was stretched across. Colonel Stew- 
art of the Ninth landed with six hundred men on the 
island of Inch, which communicated with the main land 



,\ ^ 



"":'T 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



by a ford. At this place the soldiers threw up en- i689 
trenchmentSj constructed redoubts, and, crossing to 
the main land, surprised some of the enemy's out-posts, 
and captured a great quantity of cattle : a detachment 
under Captain Echlin also established itself at the 
town of Rathmullen. The Duke of Berwick advanced 
against Stewart's men with twelve hundred Irish horse 
and dragoons, and attacked the post at Rathmullen on 
the iSth of July ; but he was repulsed by the soldiers 
of the Ninth, after two hours' fighting, and withdrew 
with the loss of several officers and two hundred 
troopers. The Ninth had Lieutenant Cunningham 
and five men killed. 

The island of Inch became a refuge for the pro- 
testauts of the surrounding districts, and so many of 
them arrived at the head-quarters of the regiment, 
that Colonel Stewart equipped a sufficient number to 
form fifteen companies of musketeers; five of these 
companies were attached to each of the three regiments 
in the expedition, viz.. Second, Ninth, and Eleventh 
foot. Communications were opened with the Innis- 
killing protestants, who were supplied with arms and 
ammunition; and Captain James Wynn, of the Ninth, 
was appointed colonel of a regiment of Inniskilling 
dragoons, afterwards the Fifth, or Royal Irish dra- 
goons : other officers of the regiment were also pro- 
moted in the Inniskilling forces. 

The provisions in Londonderry being exhausted, 
preparations were made to throw a relief into the 
town by water, and a detachment of musketeers of 
the Ninth, was put or board the vessels designed for 
this service. At six o'clock on the evening of the 28th 
of July, a favourable gale springing up, the Dartmouth 




mmn 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



! 



i 



1689 frigate, commanded by Captain Leake, moved up the 
river, and opened a heavy cannonade on the works 
occupied by the enemy. Under cover of this cannonade, 
the ship Mountjoy sailed up to the boom and Icoke it, 
but was, by a sudden rebound, forced aground. The 
enemy opened a heavy fire of all arms upon her, and 
were preparing boats to board her ; but she gave them 
a broadside, and, being loosened by the shock, sailed 
under a storm of cannon and musketry, from the banks 
of the river, up to the town, followed by the ship 
Phoenix. Londonderry was thus relieved ; and on the 
following morning the soldiers of the Ninth saw clouds 
of smoke rising in the air. which gave indication that 
King James's army was raising the siege in dismay, 
and laying the country waste. 

Soon after the raising of the siege of Londonderry, 
an English army arrived in the north of Ireland under 
Marshal Duke Schomberg: the Ninth remained a 
short time at Londonderry, and afterwards marched to 
Dundalk, where they joined the army on the 8th of 
September. Being encamped on low wet ground, the 
regiment lost many men from disease ; in the beginning 
of November it struck its tents and marched into 
quarters at Newry. 

1690 In January, 1690, a detachment of the regiment 
was engaged in an excursion into the cantonments of 
King James's forces, and captured much cattle ; and 
in February, another party of the Ninth was em- 
ployed in an enterprise to Dundalk, under Major< 
general Sir John Lanier. 

King William arrived in Ireland, in June, to 
command the army in person, and the regiment had 
the honour to serve under the eye of its sovereign at 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



9 



the battle of the Boyne, on the Ist of July, when it i(i9o 
forded the river, and took part in driving the army of 
King James from its position. 

From the Boyne the regiment advanced with the 
army to the vicinity of Dublin, and it afterwards 
marched towards Limerick, which fortress King Wil- 
liam had resolved to besiege. On the 10th of August 
the Ninth passed the river, and pitched their tents 
beyond the ford, where the Second and Eighteenth foot 
were also encamped. The regiment took its turn in 
the trenches during the siege, and it was one of the 
five regiments selected to support the storming party 
at the assault of the works on the 27th of August. 
The attack was gallantly made ; the soldiers evinced 
intrepidity and firmness under numerous disadvantages, 
but, after several hours' sharp fighting, the English 
were repulsed. The Ninth had Captains Lindon, 
Farlow, and Lieutenant Russell killed ; their Colonel, 
Brigadier-general Stewart, with Major Cornwall, Cap- 
tains Palfreey, Galbraith, Stewart, Casseen, Lieu- 
tenants Stewart, Cornwall, Carry, and Ensign Stewart 
wounded. The number of soldiers of the regiment 
killed and wounded has not been ascertained. 

The weather becoming severe, the King raised the 
siege and returned to England. The Ninth were 
selected to guard the battering train, which they 
escorted to CuUen, and from thence to Tipperary , and 
on the 7th of September they marched for the north 
of Ireland, where they passed the winter. 

In April, 1691, the regiment was stationed at 1691 
Belturbet, from whence fifty musketeers, accompanied 
by twenty dragoons, advanced on the Qth of April to 
scour the county of Leitvim. Arriving in the vicinity 
olMolhill, they discovered two troops of Irish dragoons, 



10 



THE NINTH, OR F.A8T NORFOLK 



1691 and a company of foot, guarding a large quantity of 
cattle at pasture. Undismayed by the superior numbers 
of their opponents, the soldiers of the Ninth advanced 
boldly to the attack, and, after firing a few shots, they 
slung their muskets acvoss their shoulders, and rushed, 
sword W hand, upon their opponents. A few moments 
decided the contest ; thirty of King James's men lay 
dead upon the spot; five were made prisoners, and the 
remainder escaped ; many of the Irish dragoons left 
their horses behind them, and when the soldiers of the 
Ninth returned to head-quarters, nearly every man 
was mounted. The records of this gallant action do 
not mention the loss of a single man of the regiment. 

The regiment left its quarters in May, and on the 
6th of June it joined the army under Lieut. -General 
De Ginkell, then on its march for Ballymore, where the 
Irish had a garrison, which refused to surrender. A 
breach having been made in the works, and a detach< 
ment of the Ninth and other corps embarked in boats 
to attack the place by storm, the garrison surrendered 
at discretion. 

From Ballymore the Ninth proceeded towards 
Athlone, and, on the 20th of June, they supported the 
storming party in the attack of the Westmeath side of 
the town, when the Irish were driven across the river, 
and that part of Athlone was occupied by the English. 
The regiment lost several men on this occasion, and 
its colonel, Brigadier- General Stewart, was wounded. 

One-half of the town having been captured, the 
siege was prosecuted with vigour, and a detachment 
of the regiment was employed in storming the other 
half of the town, which was captured in a very gallant 
manner on the 30th of June, the soldiers forcing the 
passage of the river, and overpowering all opposition. 



A 



IIEOIMENT OF FOOT. 



11 



• It irould be difficult,' states the Kev. John Graham, 1691 
in his History of Ireland, ' to find in history a parallel 

' to so brave an enterprise as the assauU ind capture of 
' Athlone, in which three thousand ni3n attacked a 
' fortified town across a rapid river, in the face cf a 

• numerous army, who by their entrenchments were 

• masters of all the fords.' The grenadier company of 
the Ninth formed part of the body of troops which 
first entered the river under Colonel Hamilton and 
the Prince of Hesse D'Armstadt, and highly dis- 
tinguished itself. According to Smollett — 'there 
' D<. ' er was a more desperate service ; nor was exploit 
' ever performed with more valour and intrepidity.' 

When General St. Ruth, who commanded the French 
and Irish forces, heard that Athlone was captured 
in so bold and hazardous a manner, he would scarcely 
believe the intelligence until he had ocular demonstra- 
tion of the truth ; he then retired to Ballinasloe, and 
afterwards to a position near Aghrim, where he was 
attacked on the 12th of July, «vhen the Ninth had 
another opportunity of distinguishing themselves. This 
regiment was one of the corps employed in forcing the 
passage of a large bog, and in driving the enemy from 
behind the edges of the enclosure beyond the morass, 
in which service the grenadiers again signalized them- 
selves; the musketeers also behaved gallantly, (,nd 
the charge of the pikemen completed the ov ''i.nrow 
of their opponents. The Freuch general, St. Buth, 
was killed ; his army routed and chased from the field 
with severe loss. 

The regiment had Major Cornwall, one ensign, ar a 
sixteen private soldiers killed; one captain, one en- 
sign, and forty- three soldiers wounded. 

Continuing its advance, the army appeared before 



12 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



*^^* Galway, and after the capture of some outworks, the 
garrison surrendered on the 21st of July. 

The French and Irish forces which escaped from 
Aghrim took refuge in the city of Limerick, where they 
resolved to make a desperate stand in the hope of re- 
ceiving succours from France, and the Ninth regiment 
of Foot was one of the corps which advanced against 
this fortress, to complete the deliverance of Ireland 
from the power of the enemy. On the 25th of August, 
the English army appeared before Limerick, and cap- 
tured Ireton's and Cromwell's forts. The Ninth were 
employed in the siege, and they continued to take part 
in the prosecution of this enterprise, until the sur- 
render of the fortress by the celebrated capitulation 
which extinguished the power of King James in 
Ireland. 

The authority of King William being firmly esta- 
blished in Ireland, the army was withdrawn ; it was, 
however, deemed necessary to leave a few corps in 
that country, besides the Inniskilling and London- 
derry forces, and the Ninth regiment of Foot was se- 
lected to remain in Ireland. 

1692 The regiment being appointed to remain in Ireland, 
was thus prevented sharing in the campaigns in the 

1697 Netherlands, which were terminated, in 1697, by the 
treaty of Ryswick : but, in the beginning of the 

1700 eighteenth century, when the ambitious Louis XIV., 
king of France, procured the accession of his grandson, 
Philip Duke of Anjou, to the throne of Spain, in viola- 
tion of existing treaties, and also seized the Spanish 
provinces in the Netherlands, thus uniting two potent 
monarchies, to the destruction of the balance of power 
in Europe, the Ninth Regiment of Foot was one of 
the first corps selected to proceed on foreign service. 



A 



HEaiMENT OF FOOT. 



13 



The change in tho dynasty of Spain affected the 1701 
interests of every state in Christendom ; the British 
government did not, however, declare war immediately ; 
but hostile measures having been adopted by tho 
house of Austria, King William III. sent, in the sum- 
mer of 1701, a body of troops to the continent to act 
as auxiliaries. To engage in this service, the Ninth 
embarked at Cork on the 15th of June, with eight 
other corps ; but when the fleet arrived off Portsmouth, 
orders were received for the regiment to land at that 
fortress. The Ninth were, however, not detained 
long in England, and on their arrival on the continent, 
they were placed in one of the frontier garrisons of 
Holland. 

In the spring of 1702, the British troops assembled 1702 
from their quarters and encamped at Rosendael, where 
they received information of the death of King William 
III., and of the accession of Queen Anne. They sub- 
sequently traversed the country to the Duchy of 
Cleves, and encamped at Cranenburg, to cover the 
siege of Kayserswerth on the lower Rhine. When the 
French army passed the forest of Cleves to cut off the 
communications with Holland, the British and Dutch 
fell back upon Nimeguen, near which fortress some 
sharp skirmishing occurred on the 11th of June, on 
which occasion the British soldiers behaved with great 
gallantry. 

Queen Anne declared war against France and Spain, 
anr^. sent additional troops to the Netherlands, where 
the Earl of Marlborough commanded the British, 
Dutch, and auxiliary forces, and the Ninth joined the 
camp |it Duckenburg on the 10th of July. The regi- 
ment took part in the movements by which the French 
forces were driven from the frontiers of Holland; it 



14 



THE NINTH, OR BAflT NORFOLK 



1702 also formed part of the covering army during the 
sieges of Venloo. Ruremonde, and Stevenswart. On the 
10th of October, the army advanced towards the city 
of Liege, which was delivered up. but the citadel held 
out, and the Ninth were engaged in the siege; their 
grenadier company highly distinguished itself at the 
capture of this fortress by storm on the 23rd of 
October. The chartreuse surrendered a few days 
afterwards, and this splendid campaign terminating 
with the reduction of Liege, the regiment marched 
back to Holland, where it passed the winter in garrison. 

1703 From its winter cantonments the regiment was 
withdrawn in the spring of 1703, and it was afterwards 
quartered in villages near the Maese. When M arshals 
Villeroy and Boufflers endeavoured to surprise the 
British in their quarters, the Ninth made a forced 
march to Maestricht ; they were subsequently formed 
in brigade with a battalion of foot guards, and the first, 
fifteenth, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth regiments, 
under Brigadier-General Withers. The army being 
assembled, advanced ; the French fled behind their 
fortified lines; the Duke of Marlborot'oh was 
prevented attacking the lines by the Dutch generals 
and field deputies^ and he besieged Huy, a fortress on 
the Maese above Liege, which he captured in ten 
days. Another proposal to attack the lines was re- 
jected by the Dutch, and Limhurg, a city pleasantly 
situated on an eminence near the banks of the Wesdet, 
was besieged and captured. 

After taking part in these conquests, by which 
Spanish Guelderland was delivered from the power of 
France, the Ninth were selected to accompany the 
Archduke Charles of Austria to Portugal, and to take 
part in the attempt to place him on the throne of 



// 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



15 



Spain. The rcjj;iincnt embarked from Flolland in 1703 
November, arrivod.at Spithoad about ChristmaR, and, 
after much delay from contrary winds, arrived at 
Lisbon in March, 1 704. 

Duke Schombcrg, who commanded Queen Anne's 1704 
forces in Portugal, was desirous of keeping the British 
together, but the king of Portugal was afraid to trust 
the defence of his frontier towns to his own inex- 
perienced troops, and the British were placed in 
garrison ; the Ninth were posted at CasteJ-de- Vide, a 
frontier town and castle in the Alemtejo, situate on a 
hill about nine miles from Portalegro. The dilatory 
conduct of the Portuguese retarded the preparations 
for taking the field, and Portugal was invaded by the 
French and Spaniards under the Duke of Berwick 
before the allies were prepared to commence operations. 
A numerous body of the enemy appeared before 
Castel-de-Vide ; the town was not strong; but the 
Portuguese, being encouraged by the bearing and 
assurance of the Ninth, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Thomas Hussey, refused to open the gates. The 
Marquis das Minas advanced to relieve the place with 
fifteen thousand men ; but his movements were not of 
a decisive character, and the French prosecuted the 
siege. The enemy's batteries having damaged the 
wall, the governor desired to surrender; the Ninth 
demanded permission to retire into the castle, and to 
defend it to the last extremity ; but the Duke of 
Berwick, knowing the resolute character of English 
soldiers, declared that, if they entered the castle, he 
would destroy the town, and the governor refused 
them permission. Lieut.-Colonel Hussey, being de- 
termined to do his duty, marched the Ninth up to the 
castle, and demanded admittance, but the governor 



16 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1704 persisted in his refusal, and ordered the gunpowder to 
be thrown into a well. Some altercation ensued ; the 
Portuguese opened the gates of the town to the 
besieging army, and the Ninth were thus treacherously 
delivered into the power of the enemy and made 
prisoners of war : two Portuguese battalions were also 
delivered up and made prisoners. The Duke of 
Berwick states, in his memoirs, that the English 
colonel swore and stormed furiously; and his grace 
admits, that he should have found much difficulty in 
reducing the place, had it been defended with reso- 
lution. 

1705 The regiment was not long in captivity before it 
was exchanged ; it received a body of recruits and new 
clothing from England, and when it took the field in 
the spring of 1705, its appearance and discipline were 
admired. The capture of Gibraltar had produced a 
favourable change in the affairs in the Peninsula, and 
the Ninth formed part of the army of twenty-four 
thousand men and fifty guns which invaded Spanish 
Estremadura; the English being commanded by the 
Earl of Galway. ^ » 

Having penetrated Spain, the regiment was em- 
ployed in the siege of Valencia de Alcantara, a small 
but strong town, which was captured by storm on the 
8th of May. The regiment afterwards took part in 
the siege of the town and castle of Albuquerque, which 
surrendered on the 22nd of May. After these con- 
quests, the weather becoming very hot, the regiment 
marched to Beja, a city of some antiquity, called by 
the Romans, Pax Julia, and delightfully situated on 
the side of a hill in the Alemtejo. At this city the 
regiment remained several weeks, and afterwards 
crossed the Guadiana river and took part in the siege 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



17 



of Badajoz, the capital of Spanish Estremadura, where 1705 
the Earl of Oalway'lost his right hand by a cannon 
ball. The army not being of sufficient numbers to 
invest the place^ the enemy relieved the garrison in the 
middle of October, and the siege was afterwards raised, 
and the Ninth were quartered on the frontiers of 
Portugal. 

Several incursions were made into the Spanish 1706 
territory, in February, 1706, and in March the army 
took the field. The Ninth were engaged in the siege 
of Alcantara, a town built on a rock near the bank of 
the Tagus in Spanish Estremadura, which surrendered 
in the middle of April. The regiment was next em- 
ployed in the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, and this cele- 
brated fortress was captured in May. 

At this period the brilliant success of the troops under 
the Earl of Peterborough in Catalonia and Valencia, 
with the raising of the siege of Barcelona, held out the 
prospect of Spain being speedily delivered from the 
power of King Philip. The army left Ciudad Kodrigo 
on the 3rd of June, and arriving at Madrid on tl 
27th, caused Archduke Charles to be proclaimed king 
of Spain with great solemnity. Thus the tide of success 
flowed rapidly onward ; but the King made unnecessary 
delays in his journey to the capital ; his friends were 
discouraged ; the partisans of King Philip took arms, 
and the Duke of Berwick was soon at the head of so 
numerous a body of troops, that the allies were forced 
to evacuate Madrid. The Ninth retired with the 
army to Chinchon in the province of Toledo, and 
afterwards fell back to the mountains of Valencia, where 
it passed the winter in quarters more than four hun- 
dred miles distant from those it occupied in the pre- 
ceding year. ^ 



18 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 






170*7 In the early part of Aprils 1707, the regiment was 
again in the field, and took part in driving back several 
of the enemy's detachments; it subsequently proceeded 
towards Villena, a considerable town, situated at the 
foot of a mountain in a beautiful, and rich plain on the 
borders of Valencia. As the army approached, the 
gates of the town were thrown open, but the citadel 
refused to submit, and the Ninth were employed in the 
siege of this strong post, in which service they had 
Lieutenant Robert Stewart, junior. Ensign Bussiere, 
and about twenty soldiers killed. 

The regiment was suddenly called from the siege of 
the castle of Villena, and after marching several hours 
along the rugged tracts of Murcia under a burning 
sun, the soldiers arrived in the presence of the army 
under the Duke of Berwick at Almanza about midday 
on the 25th of April. About three o'clock the battle 
commenced. The Ninth were formed in brigade with 
the eleventh, thirty-sixth, and Lord Mark Kerr's 
regiments, under Colonel Hill, and having Mino's 
Portuguese dragoons posted in the centre of the brigade. 
This brigade was stationed in the second line; but 
nine of the enemy's battalions having attacked Major- 
General Wade's brigade, consisting of the sixth, 
seventeenth, thirty-third, and Lord Montjoy's regi- 
ment, the Ninth moved forward to their support, and 
were sharply engaged. Seven French battalions 
attacked the five Eng;lish in front, and the two others 
advanced, one against each flank. The British were 
thus invested with a girdle of fire, and they fell back, 
fighting, to extricate themselves ; but superior numbers 
came upon them from all quarters; they were forced 
from their ground by the pressure of crowds of op- 
ponents, and their ranks were broken. Roughly and 



REOIMENT OF FOOT. 



19 



op- 
and 



sternly did the soldiers of the Ninth bear up against 1701 
the multitude, and struggle vehemently to liberate 
themselves; eight officers, and about a hundred men 
were killed; fifteen officers aiid nearly two hundred 
men were wounded, and, although Harvey's horse 
(now second dragoon guards) charged the flanking 
battalions with great gallantry, yet the flight of the 
Portugese squadrons had left the British and Dutch 
exposed to the weight and power of the enemy's superior 
numbers, and no hope of victory remained. The Earl 
of Galway effected his retreat with the dragoons. 
Several general officers collected the broken remains of 
the English infantry, which fought in the centre, into 
a body, and uniting them with some Dutch and 
Portuguese, formed a column of nearly four thousand 
men, whicj .treated two leagues, repulsing the 
pursuing < % from time to time. On arriving at the 
woody hills of Caudete, the men were so exhausted 
with fatigue that they were unable to proceed further: 
they passed the night in the wood without food, and on 
the following morning they were surrounded by the 
enemy. Being without ammunition, ignorant of the 
country, and having no prospect of obtaining food, they 
surrendered prisoners of war. 

Thus ended a battle in which the Ninth raiment 
of foot behaved with signal gallantry, but was nearly 
annihilated. According to the official returns, the 
regiment took four hundred and sixty-seven soldiers 
into action, and only about one hundred escaped being 
killed or made prisoners. Captains Campbell, Wallace, 
White, Philips, Gregory ; Lieutenants Wilcox, Robert 
Stewart, senior, and Ensign Casey were killed; 
Captains Dansey, William Stewart, Hill, Carleton; 
Lieutenants Hussey, Bell, Johnston. James Stew^rtf 

c 2 



20 



THE NINTHj OR EAST NORFOLK 



1707 Carr, Constable ; Ensigns Adams, Smith, James 
Str.wan, Montgomery, and Irwin, were wounded and 
ta^iea prisoners; Lieutenant Ash was also taken 
prisoner, but .var not wounded. The commanding 
officer of the re riirent, Lieut.-Colonel William Stewart, 
a ad three or u .' other officers and a few men, escaped 
fi'om the £eld of battle and proceeded to Alcira, a 
strong town on the river Xucar, where they joined the 
cavalry with which the Earl of Galway had made good 
liis retreat. 

The approach to Alcira being by almost inaccessible 
mountains, the Earl of Galway halted there a few days 
to reorganise the army. He afterwards retired from 
this place, leaving Lieut.-Colonel Stewart of the Ninth 
there with a few men. In May, Major- General Count 
Mahoni besieged Alcira with a body of French and 
Spanish troops, and Lieut.-Colonel Stewart having 
provision for only five or six days, was soon obliged to 
surrender. The conditions were, that the officers and 
soldiers should march out with the honors of war, and 
be conducted in safety to the allied army in Catalonia. 
The words ''by the shortest and most convenient route" 
were accidentally omitted, and the enemy caused the 
troops to march by long and circuitous routes among 
the mountains, until their strength was exhausted. 
Several men ' died of fatigue, and others joined the' 
miquelets, or guerilla bands, in the mountains. The 
march from Alcira to the allied army in Catalonia, 
might have been performed in a few days, but the 
garrison was detained nearly three months, and was 
much reduced in numbers. 

At length the Ninth arrived at Tarragona; many of 
the wounded men had recovered, and they joined the 
regiment at this place ; othera joined from prisoners of 






REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



21 



war, and, according to the official returns, in the 1707 
beginning of November, three hundred and eighty 
officers and soldiers were present at head quarters. 
Many men were, however, unfit for active service, and, 
during the winter, the regiment was ordered to transfer 
its service men to other corps and return to England to 
recruit. It arrived at Portsmouth in the summer of 
1708, and was stationed at Worcester and Hereford. 1708 

In February, 1709, the regiment marched to Man* 1709 
Chester and Stockport, from whence it proceeded to 
Chester, in June, and it embarked for Ireland soon 
afterwards. 

The Ninth were stationed in Ireland during the 1713 
remainder of the war of the Spanish succession, and at 
the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, their numbers were 
reduced to a p«ace establishment. 

Queen Anne died in 1714, and King George I. 1714 
ascended the throne. In the following year the active 17 15 
exertions of the partisans of the Pretender created gre^t 
political excitement, and, for some cause which has ncc 
been explained by historians. General William Stewart 
was removed from the colonelcy of the regiment. He 
was succeeded by Lieut. -Colonel James Campbell, from 
the Royal North British dragoons, by commission dated 
the 27th of July, 1715. 

Colonel Campbell commanded the regiment eighteen 1717 
months, and in February, 1717, he was removed to the 
Scots Greys, at the head of which corps he had distin- 
guished himself in the Netherlands ; and King George -. 
I. conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth on Lieut.- 
Coloncl the Honorable Charles Cathcart, from the ' 
Scots Greys. ..,;... . 

After commanding the regiment twelve months. 1718 
Colonel Cathcart retired, and the colonelcy was con- 



22 



THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1718 ferred on Lieut.-Colonel James Otway, a very meri- 
torious officer, from Pitt's horse, now * ^ond dragoon 
guards, by commission dated the 7th r anuary, 1718. 
In the summer of this year the regib'.ent embarked 
from Ireland to relieve the Seventh Royal Fusiliers at 
Minorca, the second of the Balearic islands, situate in 
the Mediterranean, near the coast of Spain, which was 
captured by Major-General Stanhope in 1708, and 
ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht. 
1725 On the 23rd of December, 1725, Colonel James 
Otway died; and was succeeded by Brigadier-General 
Richard Kane, who commanded a regiment of foot 
in the reign of Queen Anne, which was disbanded at 
the ptace of Utrecht. 
1737 Brigadier-General Kane commanded the Ninth 
eleven years, and died on the 9th of February, 1737, 
when King George II. conferred the colonelcy on Briga- 
dier-General William Hargrave, from the thirty-first 
foot. This officer was appointed, in 1 739, to the seventh 
royal fusiliers, and was succeeded by Brigadier-General 
George Reade from the twenty-ninth regiment. 
1739 During the war which commenced at this period, 
1739, and was terminated by the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in 1748, the Ninth did not take the field; 
1746 but in 1746, the twenty-ninth and forty-sixth regi- 
ments having been removed from Gibraltar to North 
America, the Ninth were withdrawn from Minorca, 
and proceeded to Gibraltar, where they were stationed 
during the remainder of the war; and in 1749 they 
returned to Ireland. ^^ 

1749 Lieut.- General Reade was appointed colonel of the 
ninth dragoons, on the 1st of November, 1749, and 
Mp was succeeded by Brigadier-General Sir Charles 
Armand Powlet from lieut.- colonel of the tenth marines. 



REOnUBNT OF FOOT. 33 

Sir Charles A. Powlet was appointed to the thirteenth nsi 
dragoons in January, 1751, when King George II. 
conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, on Colonel 
the Honorable John Waldegrave, from major in the 
third foot-guards. 

In the royal warrant regulating the standards, 
colours, and clothing of the army, dated 1st July, 1751, 
the facing of the Ninth Foot is directed to be oi yellow. 
The King's, or first, colour, to be the great Union ; the 
second, or regimental colour, to be of yellow silk with 
the union in the upper canton ; in the centre of each 

F 

colour lY in gold characters, within a wreath of roses 

and thistles on the same stalk. 

At this period the costume of the regiment was 
cockedhatsbound with white lace; scarlet coats with 
yellow lappels and cuffs, and ornamented with white 
lace having a scarlet worm down the centre ; white 
cravats; scarlet waistcoats and breeches, and white 
gaiters. 

On the 22nd of January, 1755, Colonel the Honor- 1755 
able John Waldegrave was removed to the eighth dra- 
goons ; and two months afterwards, the command of the 
Ninth foot was conferred on Colonel the Honorable 
Sir Joseph Yorke, one of the King's aides-de-camp. 

The regiment left Ireland in the same year, and, 
hostilities having commenced in America between 
Great Britain and France, the establishment was 
augmented. v,. n 

In 1756 the regiment proceeded to Scotland, where 1756 
it was stationed during the following year, and in 1758* J LI 
it returned to Ireland. . :(.v.i., ; • 

Major-General Sir Joseph Yorke was appointed to the 
eighth dragoons, in October, 1758, and was succeeded 



mtmtm 



24 



THE NINTH^ OR EAST NORFOLK 



by Major-Gencral William Whitemore, from the fifty- 
third foot. 

1759 I'he Ninth returned to England in 1759, and in 

1760 i7go they were encamped at Chatham under Majorr 
General Kerr. 

1761 Leaving Chatham, the regiment proceeded to 
Portsmouth, where it embarked in March, 1761, with 
the expedition, under Major-General Studholme 
Hodgson, against Belle Isle, a French island off the 
coast of Brittany, noted for its extensive pilchard fishery. 
The Ninth embarked, eight hundred rank and file, 
under Lieut.-Colonel Rowland Phillips. The expedi- 
tion arrived off the island on the 7th of April, and 
found it about nine miles long from two to four broad, 
surrounded by steep rocks forming a natural fortifica- 
tion, and defended by numerous works at every point 
where a landing was deemed practicable. On the 8th 
of April the troops proceeded towards the shore in 
boats ; the Ninth leapt on the beach in the face of the 
enemy's entrenchments, and rushed up the steep 
acclivity to storm the works, but were unable to gain 
the summit without ladders. Very gallant efforts were, 
however, made ; Major Lewis Thomas of the regiment 
was wounded and taken prisoner ; two Serjeants and 
nine rank and file were killed ; Lieutenants Samuel 
Surnam, William Ryder, one Serjeant and forty rank 
and file, having ascended higher than the other men, 
were intercepted by the French and made prisoners. 
Being unable to overcome the difficulties, the troops 

^ returned to their boats and proceeded back to their 

;: several ships. - v ..v,?, ^^^^ 

On the 25th of April another attempt was made to 

effect a landing, while the enemy's attention was 

diverted by two feint attacks. Brigadier- General 



\i 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



25 



to 
as 
-al 



Lair.jert landed with a few grenadiers near Lochmaria, 1761 
and climbing a rock of so difficult ascent that the 
enemy was less attentive to that part of the coast, he 
gained the summit without opposition. The enemy 
detached three hundred men against the grenadiers, 
who took post behind a wall and defended themselves 
until other troops climbed the rocks to their aid, when 
the enemy was driven back with the loss of three pieces 
of artillery. Having thus made good their landing, 
the British dragged their cannon up the rocks, and 
carried the lines which covered the town of Palais by 
assault. The siege of the citadel was commenced; 
the governor, the Chevalier St. Croix, made a vigorous 
defence, but he was forced to surrender in June, and the 
reduction of the island was thus effected with the loss 
of about eighteen hundred men killed and wounded. 

Success attending the British arms in variour parts 1762 
of the world, the court of Paris induced Spain to 
engage in hostilities with Great Britain. While ne- 
gociations were pending, an armament was prepared 
for an immediate attack on the Spanish possessions in 
South America, in the event of hostilities taking place, 
and the valuable settlement of the Havannah, in the 
island of Cuba, being looked upon as the key to the 
Spanish colonies in the West Indies, was selected to 
be the object of the first attack. The Ninth having 
been joined by a fine body of recruits, mustered a 
thousand officers and soldiers, and they were selected 
to proceed on this enterprise with the troops under 
General the Earl of Albemarle. They sailed from 
Spithead on the 5th of March, 1762; the fleet was 
separated by a storm, but was reunited at Barbadoes, 
and war having been declared against Spain, the troops 
proceeded upon the projected enterprise. Sailing 



y# 



1762 



.:r?iv 



26 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 

along the intricate and dangerous passage called the 
Straits of Bahama, the troops arrived within six 
leagues of the Havannah on the 6th of June; a 
landing was effected on the following day, and, on the 
9th of June, they took up a position between Coximar 
and Moro. The Ninth, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 
Rowland Phillips, mustered nine hundred and seventy- 
seven men, and were formed in brigade with the 
twenty-seventh, twenty-eighth, and forty-eighth re- 
giments, under Brigadier-General Walsh. One hun- 
dred men were mounted on horses procured in the 
country, and formed a troop of cavalry under the 
command of Captain James Sutlie of the Ninth 
regiment. The siege of the Moro fort, the key 
position to the extensive works which covered the 
town, was commenced, and the Ninth took part in this 
service, in which the troops endured great hardship. 
The soil was so thin that the soldiers carrying on the 
approaches encountered much difficulty : this, with a 
scarcity of water, and the labour of dragging the 
artillery many miles over a rocky country, under a 
burning sun, were happily overcome by the unanimity 
which existed between the land and sea forces. Fifteen 
hundred Spaniards passed the harbour in boats on the 
22nd of July and attacked the British line, but were 
repulsed; the light and grenadier companies of the 
Ninth were engaged on this occasion. A detachment 
of the regiment was engaged on the 30th of July, when 
the Moro fort was captured by storm, and Lieutenant 
Nugent distinguished himself. .;%tw*jww 

A now series of batteries was constructed, which 
opened so well-directed a fire on the 11th of August 
that the Spanish guns were soon silenced, and the 
governor capitulated. Thus this valuable settlement 



RBOIMBNT OP FOOT. 



27 



came into the hands of the British. Beatson, the 1162 
historian of the conjoint naval and military expeditions 
of this war, states,—' This conquest was, without doubt, 
' in itself, the most considerable, and in its consequences, 
' the most decisive of any we had made since the be- 
' ginning of the war ; and in no operation were the 
' courage, steadiness, and perseverance of the British 
' troops, and the conduct of their leaders, more con- 
'spicuouB. It was a military achievement of the 
' highest class.' 

At the peace in 1763, Great Britain restored the 1163 
Havannah to Spain, and received in exchange Florida^ 
in North America, and the Ninth were removed from 
the Havannah to take possession of the territory thus 
accepted in exchange. 

In the pleasant and fertile country of Florida the 1*769 
regiment was stationed six years, and in 1769 it was 
removed to Ireland, where it arrived in the autumn. 
Lieut.- General Whitemore died in the summer of 1771, ^'"^ * 
'id the colonelcy was conferred on Colonel Edward 
\.-"ount Ligonier, whose commission was dated the 
8thof August, 1771. 

\ The regiment was stationed in Ireland when the 1715 
British colonies in North America broke their allegi- 
ance and openly resisted the royal authority. During 
the winter of 1775, Quebec yya» besieged by an American 
army ; this fortress was gallantly defended by the troops 
under Lieut.-General Guy Carleton; and in April, 
1776, the Ninth foot, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel 1116 
John Hill, embarked from Ireland, and sailed for 
Canada, with other forces under Major-General Bur- 
goyne. The regiment arrived in the river St. Law- 
rence in the beginning of June, and the Americans 
having raised the siege of Quebec and retired towards 



28 



THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1176 Montreal, it sailed up the river and took part in the 
operations by which the Americans were driven from 
Canada. After the performance ot this service, it 
went into cantonments for a short period among; the 
Canadian peasantry, and it passed the winter on the 
Isle of Jesus, at La Praire, St. Luce Recollect, and 
St. Genevieve. 

11*77 In the following spring the Ninth were selected to 
form part of the force under the orders of Lieut. - 
General Burgoyno, for the purpose of forcing a passage 
from Canada to Albany. Fifty men of the regiment 
wore left in Canada for the defence of that province ; and 
five hundred and fifty embarked, under Lieut. •Colonel 
John Hill, on board the flotilla on Lake Champlaih. 
After a pleasant voyage of several days, they landed 
at Crown Poi'^t, where they halted a short period, and 
were formed in brigade with the twenty-first and 
forty-seventh regimentfl, under Brigadier -General 
" Powell. 

From Crown Point the troops moved forward to 
invest the fort of Ticonderago, situate on the western 
shore of Lake Champlain, a few miles from the narrow 
inlet which unites Lakes George and Champlain. On 
the 3rd of July the regiment was in position at Mount 
Hope, where it was exposed to a cannonade from the 
American batteries. As the British environed the 
fort, the garrison evacuated it and made a precipitate 
retreat. 

I This conquest achieved, the regiment repaired on 

board the flotilla and pursued the Americans towards 
Shemsborough. About three o'clock on the afternoon 
of the 6th of July, the ships Royal George and Inflexible, 
with the best sailing gun-boats, arrived within three 
miles of the enemy's stockaded fort at Skenesborough, 






RBomiNT or rooT. 



29 



vrhon the Ninth, twentieth, and twenty -first regiments 17*77 
leapt on shore, and ascended the mountain with great 
alacrity, to gain the rear of the fort and cut off the 
enemy's retreat ; but as the soldiers were climbing the 
hill, the Americans were alarmed, and, setting fire to 
the fort and magazines, fled with such precipitation 
that they escaped the British regiments : about thirty 
men were intercepted and made prisoners. Another 
body of the enemy was pursued towards Castletown, 
and, being overtaken, a sharp fight occurred, in which 
the Americans sustained a severe loss. 

On the 7th of July, the Ninth were detached in 
pursuit of a party of the enemy retreating by Wood 
Creek, and marching along difficult roads, and pausing 
rivulets, where the bridges had been broken, the regi- 
ment took post near the enemy's station at Fort Anne. 
At thif! place the regiment passed the night, and on 
the 8th of July, it was attacked by very superior num- 
bers of the enemy. The two other regiments of the 
brigade were sent to its aid, and the twentieth were 
ordered forward with two field pieces. 'A violent 
' storm of raiii which lasted the whole of the day, pre- 
' vented the troops irom getting to Fort Anne so soon 
'as was intended; but the delay gave the Ninth 
' regiment an opportunity of distinguishing itself, by 
* standing and repulsiig an attack of six times Hs 
' number. The enemy, finding the position not to x 
' forced in front, endeavoured to turn it, and from the 
' superiority of their numbers, that inconvenience was 
' to be apprehended. Lieut.-Colonel Hill, f mnd it 
' necessary to change his position in the height of action. 
' So critical an order was executed by the regiment 
' with the utmost steadiness and bravery. The enemy 
' after an attack of three hours, were totally repulsed. 



■li^toim 



30 



THE NINTH, OE EAST NORFOLK 



mi ' and fled towards Fort Edward, setting fire to Fort 
' Aune i but leaving a saw-mill and a block-house in 

* good repair, which were afterwards possessed by the 

* King's troopf The Ninth regiment acquired^ 
' during the expedition, about thirty prisoners, some 
^ stores and baggage, and the colours of the Second 
' Hampshire Regiment. Captain William Stone Mont- 
Vgomery, an officer of great merit, was wounded early 
' in the action, and was in the act of being dressed by 
' the surgeon when the regiment changed ground ; 
' being unable to help himself, he and the surgeon 

* were taken prisoners.'* 

The gallant conduct of the Ninth, on this occasion, 
was commended in orders ; the repulsing of an enemy 
six times as numerous as themselves, and capturing the 
colours of one of the opposing regiments, were held up 
to the admiration, and for the example, of the army. 
Their loss was Lieutenant Kichard Westropp, one 
Serjeant, and 1 1 rank and file killed ; Captain Mont- 
gomery wounded and taken prisoner; Lieutenants 
James Murray, Joseph Stevelly, Adjutant Isaac 
Fielding, and 19 rank and file wounded. 

In the skirmish on the 7th of July, Captain Francis 
Samuel Stapleton, of the grenadier company, was 
mortally wounded, and several private soldiers were 
killed and wounded. 

After this success, preparations were made for a 
forward movement towards the Hudson's River ; but 
this was a work which required time and labour : fallen 
trees, stones, and other obstacles, having to be removed 
from Wood Creek. The Americans retreated without 
hazarding an engagement ; but the country to be passed 



* Journal of Lieut.-General Burgoyne. 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



31 



was covered with obstructions. Large forest trees 1*717 
had been cut so as. to fall across the roads, and their 
removal took up much ttjie ; creeks and marshes had 
to be crossed ; forty new bridges had to be constructed, 
others had to be repaired, and one made of log-work 
crossed a morass two miles in extent. The soldiers, 
emulous of enterprise, and in high spirits, overcame 
these di£Sculties with cheerful alacrity, and on the 30th 
of July, the army arrived at the banks of the Hudson's 
river. Having taken post at Fort Edward, the troops 
were obliged to halt; great difficulty was experienced 
in bringing up provision, and the soldiers began to 
experience many hardships, at the same time the 
enemy's numbers were increasing, and the British 
diminishing. 

On the 13th and 14th of September, the army 
crossed the Hudson's river, and encamped on the 
heights and plains of Saratoga. On the 19th it advanced 
towards the enemy's position on the island of StiU- 
Water, some sharp fighting occurred, which lasted 
until dark, when the Americans, who had evinced 
firmness and intrepidity, retreated from the field. The 
Ninth were in reserve on this occasion, and did not 
sustain any loss. 

The British lay on their arras all the night on the 
field of battle ; and the Canadian Indians, who formed 
part of the force, deserted in a body ai^u went back to 
their own country. Although thus weakened, the 
army continued to confront the enemy, who was 
becoming more superior in numbers every day. In 
vain the few British who had thus daringly pushed 
forward into the heart of an hostile country, looked for 
the expected co-operation of other armies ; environed 
by crowds of opponents ; cut off from supplies of pro- 



32 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 






N 



177*7 vision, their situation became perilous, and they were 
placed on half allowance of food. A retreat was 
become the only means of preservation, and this was 
almost impracticable. Fifteen hundred men moved 
against the enemy's posts on the left, to facilitate a retro- 
grade movement, but they were forced to retreat with 
loss, and the Americans carried the entrenchments oc- 
cupied by the German troops which formed part of the 
allied army. To avoid being surrounded, the army fell 
back to Saratoga, and the Americans pressing forward, 
nearly enveloped the British. A resolution to abandon 
the artillery and endeavour by a night march to gain 
Fort Edward, could not be carried into execution, the 
Americans having gained possession of the roads. 
Numerous skirmishes occurred in which the Ninth 
took part, and they evinced firmness and intrepidity, 
but the strength of the soldiers was diminished by 
incessant toil and a scarcity of provision. The regi- 
ment had Lieutenant James Wright and about 10 men 
killed; Major Gordon Forbes, behaved with great 
gallantry, and was twice wounded; Captain George 
Swettenham and about 20 men were also wounded ; 
and Captain J. Money was taken prisoner. 

The climax of difficulty and danger had arrived ; 
only three thousand five hundred men remained able 
to bear arms ; they were nearly exhausted, their pro- 
visions were expended, and they were environed by 
sixteen thousand Americans. Under these dismal cir- 
cumstances, the British concluded a convention with 
the American General, ^ Gates) ; and laid down their 
arms, on condition of being sent to England, and they 
engaged not to serve again in North America during 
the war. Lieut.-Colonel Hill of the Ninth, being 
anxious to preserve the colours of the regiment, took 



«... 



Iii«fl»i«i« S!»K*'« fl Mi>w 'i h». 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



33 



Id; 
lie 



them off the staves^ and concealed them in his baggage, 1717 
which he was pey mitted to retain. 

The American government violated the conditions 1778 
of the convention, and detained the troops until 1781, HSl 
when the Ninth proceeded to England, and Lieut.- 
Colonel Hill producing the colours, presented them to 
King George III., who rewarded his faithful services 
with the appointment of aide-de-camp to His Majesty, 
and the rank of colonel in the army. 

On the death of Lieut. -General Earl Ligonier, 1782 
King George III. appointed Colonel Thomas Lord 
Say and Sele, from major in the first foot guards, to 
the colonelcy of the Ninth, his commission bearing 
date the 19th of June, 1782. 

In August, of the same year, county titles were con- 
ferred on the several regiments of foot, to facilitate the 
procuring of recruits, and this corps was designated 
the Ninth, or East Norfolk regiment of foot. 

At the termination of the war, in 1783, the regi- 1183 
ment was joined by a number of liberated prisoners of 
war, and by recruits raised in Norfolk and Wales, and 
its numbers being nearly complete, it marched, in 1784 
1784, to Scotland, where it remained until the spring 1785 
of 1785, when it embarked for Ireland. 

The regiment was stationed nearly three years in 1786 
Ireland, and, on the 15th of January, 1788, it em- 1787 
barked at Cork for the West Indies ; on its arrival it 1788 
was stationed at Brimstone-hill, in the island of St. 
Christopher's. 

Soon after the arrival of the regiment in the West 
Indies, Major-General Lord Say and Sele died, and 
was succeeded, on the 4th of July, 1788, by Lieut.- 
General the Honourable Alexander Leslie, from the 
sixty- third regiment. 



34 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1793 While the Ninth were performing the duties re- 
quired on the mountainous island of St. Christopher's, 
the pernicious effects of the French Bevolution in- 
volved Europe in war, and the mischievous doctrine 
of equality spreading to the ^rench West India 
islands, was followed by awful scncs of atrocity and 
devastation, which occasioned ^ m j^rench planters to 
solicit the protection of the British government. The 
war commenced in 1793; and in the early part of 
April, the grenadier and light companies of the regi- 
ment, commanded by Brevet Major Alexander Baillie, 
sailed from St. Christopher's to Barbadoes, where they 
joined the expedition under Major- General Cuyler 
against the French island of Tobago. On the 14th of 
April, the troops landed in Great Courland Bay : they 
halted on the beach until dark, when they advanced 
against the fort, and climbing up the works with the 
most heroic bravery, carried the place by storm be- 
fore daylight on the following morning. The capture 
of the fort decided the fate of the island, which was 
delivered from the power of the republican government 
of France. The Ninth had Lieutenant Henry Stop- 
ford, one drummer, and three rank and file wounded. 
It was declared in the public despatch of Major- 
General Cuyler, — 'great praise is due to the officers 
"■ and soldiers for their beha\ iour, and particularly to 
'Major Baillie, &c.' After the capture of Tobago, the 
two companies of the Ninth rejoined the regiment. 

1794 Having been relieved from duty at St. Christopher's, 
the Ninth, commanded by Lieut. -Colonel John Camp- 
bell, proceeded to Barbadoes, where an armament was 
assembled under General Sir Charles Grey, K.B., 
(afterwards Earl Grey) in January, 1794, and in the 
beginning of February, the fleet sailed for Martinico. 



-f 



s, 

(p- 

ras 

the 

\co. 






RROIMENT OF FOOT. 



35 



The Ninth, with other troops under Major-General 1^94 
Thomas Dundas/effectcd a landing at La Trinite, on 
the 5th and 6th of February, and captured the post of 
Mome Le Brun ; a body of troops advancing to attack 
Trinite fort, the enemy evacuated it. This success was 
followed by other advantages ; but during the night of 
the 10th of February, a popular leader of the mulattoes 
and blacks, named Bellegarde, attacked the British 
troops at the post of Matilda, when a gallant charge 
with bayonets, made by the grenadier company of the 
Ninth, routed the enemy. Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, 
of the Ninth, had advanced to Post au Pin, where he 
was attacked by a numerous body of the enemy, and 
while in the act of leading the grenadier company of 
the fortieth regiment to the charge with bayonets, he 
fell mortally wounded. " In him the service lost a 
most excellent officer and a valuable man, justly re- 
gretted both by the army and navy."* 

Success attended the operations of the British troops, 
and on the reduction of Fort Bourbon, in March, the 
conquest of the valuable island of Martinico was com- 
pleted ; and the conduct of the officers and soldiers 
was commended in the London Gazette. 

On the 30th of March, the Ninth embarked iu the 
bay of Fort Royal and sailed on the following day for 
St. Lucia, a French island, about twenty-seven miles 
long and twelve broad, and the capture of this place 
was completed in a few days without the loss of a man 

A garrison having been placed in St. Lucia, the 
Ninth returned to Martinico, from whence they sailed 
with the expedition against Guadaloupe, another 
valuable French ii land. A landing was made in 
Gosier Bay, on the 11th of April, and the conquest of 

* General Sir Charles Grey's despatch. 

d2 



36 TUB NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 

1794 Guadaloupe was completed in ten days. General Sir 
Charles Grey stated, in his public despatch, that he 
" could not find words to convey an adequate idea, or 
to express the high sense he entertained, of the extra- 
ordinary merit evinced by the otTicers and soldiers in 
this service." - - ? 

Thfc Ninth were subsequently stationed on the 
island of Grenada, where they did not long enjoy the 
tranquillity which might have been anticipate'!, after 
making so many conquests. 

The loss of so many valuable colonial possessions 
■ was not regarded with indifference by the republican 
government of Fi'wce, and an armament was fitted 
out for the recovery of the conquered islands. 

On the death of Lio it.- General the Honourable 
Alexander Leslie, the colonelcy of the regiment was 
conferred on Major General Albemarle Bertie, from 
the eighty-first foot, by commission dated the 31st of 
December, 1704. 
n9r> Grenada, where the Ninth were stationed, was 
chiefly inhabited by French colonists, and many of these 
revolted against the British authority, and joined with 
the Oaribs and slaves in an open rebellion, in 1795. 
The Ninth, commanded by Captain John Sandieman, 
were stationed on Richmond-hill, from whence detach- 
ments were sent out, which had repeated actions with 
the rebels, and the firmness of the regiment con- 
tributed much to the preservation of the island. In 
June, 1 795, the white French people submitted to the 
British authority, and the insurrection was suppressed 
soon afterwards. In this year the regiment was joined 
by a number of volunteers from the sixth foot, which 
corps returned to England. 

The loss of the Ninth in officers and soldiers, from 






REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



37 



the climate of the West Indies, v/aa very severe, and in 1*196 
1796, many of the men fit for service volunteered to the 
twenty-seventh regiment, and the remainder returned 
to England, where they arrived in the autumn and were 
stationed at Norwich, until joined by a number of 1197 
recruits raised in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. 

In 1798 the regiment proceeded to Guernsey ; but it 1198 
returned to England in the following year, and was 
stationed in the Tower of London. 

At this period the royal authority was given for the 1199 
regiment to continue to bear the figure "Britannia" 
as a regimental badge, which was conveyed to its 
colonel, Lieut.-General Bertie, in a letter of which the 
following is a copy. — ,5 

' Sir, ' « Horse Guards, 30th July, 1799. 

*I have received His Royal Highness the Com- 

* mander-in-chiers directions to signify to you, that His 

* Majesty has been pleased to confirm to the Ninth 
' regiment of foot the distinction and privilege of bear- 
' ing the figure " Britannia" as the badge of the regi- 
' ment. 

'I have &c. 

' H. Calvert, 

. ' Adjutant GemraV 

No documentary evidence has been discovered to 
prove the date and circumstances under which the 
badge of " Britannia" was first assumed by the 
regiment. The authority, in the first instance, appears 
to have been verbal, and the circumstances not to 
have been recorded. Tradition associates this honour 
with the services of the regin^ent in Spain, during the 
war of the succession, and Her Majesty Queen Anne is 
named as the sovereign who first granted to the regi- 
ment the privilege of bearing this badge. The badge is 



38 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1799 not, however, alluded to in the royal warrants of 1751 
and 1768. 

Three thousand men, of the Gloucester and other 
militia corps in the vicinity of London, having volun- 
teered to serve in the Ninth, the regiment was formed 
into three battalions. Lieut.- General Bertie, as colonel 
in-chief, commanded the first battalion ; Major-Oeneral 
Robert Manners, from major in the third foot guards, 
commanded the second battalion, as colonel com- 
mandant ; and the command of the third was conferred 
on Colonel Gerrit Fisher from lieut.-colonel of the first 
battalion. The lieut.- colonels were Henry de Berniere, 
Gideon Shairpe, John Sandieman, Robert Montgomery, 
John Crewe, Richard Bingham ; six majors were also 
appointed, and the total number of officers amounted 
to one hundred and fifty. The three battalions were 
encamped on Barham-downs, and their appearance 
attracted general admiration. 

Holland having become subject to France, and taken 
the designation of the " Batavian Republic," an arma- 
ment was fitted out to attempt to rescue the Dutch from 
that bondage in which they had become involved, and 
the first and second battalions of the Ninth embarked 
on this service ; at the same time the third battalion 
marched into barracks at Ashford. 

The Ninth arrived in Holland in the early part of 
September, and the British and Russian troops, em- 
ployed on this enterprise under His Royal Highness 
the Duke of York, advanced to attack the French and 
Dutch forces, in position at Bergen, on the 19th of 
September. The two battalions of the Ninth formed 
part of the column under Lieut.-General Dc Hermann, 
which commenced its attack at half past three in the 
morning, carried Groet and Schorcl, and penetrated 



;r 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



39 



into Bergen ; but the hasty valour of the RusBians 1199 
occasioned them to'overlook the precautions which the 
military art prescribes, and they were repulsed with 
considerable loss. The Ninth, and one or two other 
British regiments, rushed forward, and recaptured the 
village under a heavy fire ; but the failure of the 
Eussians had rendered further efforts ineffectual, and 
the British were ordered to withdraw. When perform- 
ing this retrograde movement, the first battalion of the 
Ninth was attacked by very superior numbers, and 
sustained serious loss ; the second battalion was also 
sharply engaged. 

The first battalion had Lieutenant Woodford and 
Quarter Master HoUis killed ; Lieutenants Grant and 
Rothwell wounded; Lieutenant Smith wounded and 
taken prisoner ; ten seijeants, one drummer, and two 
hundred and three rank and file killed, wounded, and 
prisoners. The second battalion had Captain Balfour 
one Serjeant, and sixteen rank and file killed ; Lieut- 
Colonel Crewe, four Serjeants and forty-six rank and 
file wounded; Ensign French wounded and taken 
prisoner; Ensign Butters, one Serjeant, and ninety 
seven rank and file missing. , •.•, 

. Another attack was made on the enemy's positions 
on the 2nd of October, when the Ninth formed part of 
the column under Lieut.- General Sir James Pulteney, 
which covered the left of the position to the Zuyder 
Zee, and was destined to threaten the enemy's right and 
to take advantage of any favourable opportunity that 
should occur. Having assembled in front of Drixhoom, 
the column menaced an attack on Oudt Carspel, and 
held the enemy in check in that quarter, but it was not 
seriously engaged. Egmont op Zee was captured, and 
other advantages gained, on the 2nd and 6th of October. 



40 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1 799 These efforts not being seconded by the Dutch people, 
this circumstance, with the difficulties encountered in 
carrying on the operations, occasioned the British army 
to be withdrawn from Holland. 

After their arrival in England the first and second 
battalions were stationed at Norwich, and Major 
General Manners having been appointed to the 
colonelcy of the '^irty-first foot, the commission of 
Coloncl-Commandan^ of the second battalion of the 
Ninth was conferred on Major-General the Honor- 
able John Knox, from lieut.-coloncl of the thirty- 
sixth foot. 

1800 The three battalions of the Ninth were assembled 
at Norwich, and in the summer of 1800, they were 
encamped on Bagshot-heath and formed in brigade 
under Major-General Manners. In August they 
marched to Southampton, and embarked with the 
expedition under Lieut.-General Sir James Pultcney. 

7 At this period the Spanish government had united 
with France in hostility to Great Britain, and an attack 
on the fortress of Ferrol, a sea port situated at the 
influx of the river Javia into tho bay of Corunna was 
contemplated. Arriving off the coast of Galicia, a 
landing was effected on the 25th of ^kugust, the troops 
advanced to the heights which overlook the town, and 
some skirmishing occurred ; but, after viewing the 
town and its defences, Sir James Pulteney resolved not 
to lose time in attacking this place, and he re-embarked 
the troops and proceeded to join General Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, who commanded a British force in the 
Mediterranean. Sir Ralph Abercromby appeared 
before Cadiz ^ and summoned the governor to surrender ; 
but a disease was ravaging the city at the time, and 
tho fleet quitted the coast for fear of infection, and 






J 



\A 



RE01MBNT OF FOOT. 



41 






proceeded to Gibraltar. The army afterwards pro- 1800 
ccodcd to Egypt ; ' but the Ninth, being composed 
principally of volunteers from the militia, whose con- 
ditions of enlistment limited their services to time and 
place, they were not available for the expedition to 
Egypt, and the regiment was ordered to Lisbon, where 
it remained a short period, and subsequently returned 
to England. 

On its arrival in England, the regiment was ordered 1801 
to Jerucy, where it was stationed until June, 1801, 
when it embarked for Portsmouth. After landing, the 
first battalion encamped on Fairleigh-hill near 
Hastings ; the second proceeded to Silver-hill barracks, 
land the third to Riding-street barracks, from whence 
it removed to Shornecliffe. When the camp at Fair- 
leigh was broken up, the first battalion proceeded to 
BexhUl, and afterwards to Battle-barracks. 

In the meantime the British arms had triumphed in 1802 
Egypt, and in other parts of the globe, and these 
successes were followed by a treaty of peace, which was 
concluded in 1802. The termination of the war was 
followed by a reduction in the army, and the third 
battalion of the Ninth was disbanded. The limited 
service men of that, and of the other two battalions, 
were permitted to re-enlist for unlimited service, and 
were incorporated in the first battalion. The second 
battalion received the limited service men from the 
first, and marched to Battle-barracks, where it was 
disbanded in October. 

In November of the same year the regiment em- 1803 
barked at Chatham for Plymouth, where it was 
stationed until September, 1803, when it proceeded to 
Ireland, and after landing at Kinsalc, it was stationed 
at Kilkenny until 1804, when it marched to Dublin. 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1804 On the 15th of Juno 1804, Ooncral Bcrtio was 
appointed to tho scvcnty-sovonth foot, and was sue* 
ccedcd in tho colonelcy of tho Ninth by Lieut- 
General Peter Hunter, from colonel-commandant in 
the sixtieth regiment. 

War with France had recommenced in 1803; and in 
the autumn of 1804, the Ninth received orders for 
the formation of a second battalion, when Major 
Crauford, with staff-officers, and non-commissioned 
ofHcers selected for that duty from the first battalion, 
embarked for England, and establishing the head- 
quarters at Sherbournc, in Dorsetshire, commenced 
raising men. 

1805 In August, 1805, the first battalion left Dublin, and 
joined the forces encamped on the Curragh of Kildare ; 
in September, it received orders to march to Clonmel. 

After tho decease of Lieut.-General Hunter, King 
George III, conferred the colonelcy of the Ninth on 
Major-General Robert Brownrigg, from colonel-com- 
mandant in the sixtieth regiment, by commission dated 
the 3rd of October, 1805. 

At this period several nations had assembled their 
armies to contend with the tyrannical government of 
Napoleon Buonaparte, whom the French had dignified 
with the title of Emperor, and the naval victory gained 
on the 21st of October, by the British fleet under Vice- 
Admiral Viscount Nelson, off Cape Trafalgar, appeared 
to give presage of success to the allies. The first 
battalion of the Ninth embarked at the Cove of Cork, 
in three transports, and sailed on the 10th of November, 
in the expectation of taking part in the war on the 
continent; but two transports were driven by contrary 
winds to the Downs, and the third, the Ariadne, having 
the head quarters on board was wrecked on the coast 



REOIMKNT OF FOOT. 



48 



of Franco, noar Calais, when tho staff officers, and two 1805 
hundred and sixty-two soldiers, were made prisoners 
of war. The other two transports sailed to Oennany : 
but the decisive victory gained at Austerlitz, on tho 
2n'! of December, by Napoleon, over the Austrians 
and Russians, was followed by results which occasioned 
the return of the British troops without being engaged 
in any transaction of importance. 

Tho Ninth arrived from Germany in the beginning 18O6 
of 1806, and were quartered at Shorncliff, where 
Lieut. -Colonel John Stewart joined and took the com* 
mand. '■■' 'in ^^ ."' '■■ r /. a. '-'^^ 

In June, the second battalion, though still weak in 
numbers, marched from Sherbourne to Tamworth, 
where it was presented with colours by Major General 
Brownrigg, the colonel of the regiment. In November 
it proceeded to Burton-upon -Trent, and it had re- 
cruiting parties in Norfolk and Lancashire. 

The first battalion embarked at Dover, in December, 1801 
and sailed for Ireland ; it landed at Cork in January, 
1807, and proceeding to Fermoy, was there joined by 
three hundred and fifty-nine volunteers from the North 
Gloucester, Devon, Lancashire, and Berkshire militia 
regiments. 

From Burton-upon -Trent, the second battalion was 
removed in June, to Chelmsford, where it received 
four hundred and seventy-four volunteers from the 
Leicester, West Kent, Somerset, and East and West 
Norfolk regiments of militia. In September, it pro- 
ceeded to Shorncliff barracks, where Lieut.- Colonel 
Cameron joined and assumed the command. 

At this period the French Emperor was endeavouring 1 808 
to reduce the Peninsula under his domination, a part 
of the great political bcliemc of this successful general. 



44 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1808 whose design was rendered less difficult in consequence 
of the imbecility of the King of Spain, Charles IV., and 
the weakness of the kingdom he governed ; superstition 
had repressed knowledge, contracted the public mind, 
and produced such a relaxation of the energies of the 
state, as seemed to invite the aggression of unprincipled 
ambition, and to encourage the views of the usurper. 
Napoleon founded his project in violence, and exe- 
cuted it with fraud and cruelty : for six years the 
Peninsula was devastated by war, and the blood of 
many states was shed in the contest. The Ninth 
were among the foremost of the British regiments called 
into the battle-iield of Spanish and Portuguese inde- 
pendence, and they reaped a harvest of fame ".hich 
the soldiers viewed with peculiar satisfaction because 
acquired in the repression of tyranny. 

Having received a draft of a hundred men from the 
second battalion, the first battalion embarked at Cork 
on the 9th of June, 1808, under the command of Lieut.- 
Colonel John Stewart, and sailing with the forces 
designed for the aid of the Spaniards and Portuguese, 
who were in arms against the power of France, it 
arrived off the coast of Portugal in July, entered the 
Mondego river, and landed in the beginning of August. 
The Fifth, Ninth, and Thirty-eighth, were formed in 
brigade under Major- General Rowland Hill. 

Leaving the banks of the Mondego, the British 
troops under Lieut.-Geueral Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
advanced towards Lisbon ; and on the morning of the 
17th of August, they issued from Obidos, ar '1 breaking 
into three columns of battle, moved forward to attack 
the French forces under General Laborde, in position 
at Roleia. The Ninth, forming part of the centre 
column, moved on the right of the main road, and 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



45 



ascended, by narrow winding paths, the rocky heights 1808 
on which the enemy was formed. As they approached 
the opposing army, the skirmishers spread along the 
front, and climbing the rugged rocks with vigorous 
steps, levelled their muskets at their numerous anta- 
gonists with certain aim ; the smoke, rising from the 
side of the mountain, marking their progress, as step 
by step they won their way towards the summit. The 
Twenty-ninth rushed up a path which led directly to 
the enemy, and were followed by the Ninth. The 
two regiments ascended at so rapid a pace, that they 
were soon in advance of every other corps. The 
Twenty -ninth gained the summit; but were forced 
back by superior numbers. They were joined by the 
Ninth, and the two corps dashed impetuously up the 
steep ascent, and soon gained firm footing on the high 
ground. The French general made every possible 
effort to destroy the two regiments before any other 
corps could arrive to their aid, but they stood their 
ground with sanguinary firmness, and fiercely repulsed 
the repeated attacks of their numerous opponents. The 
.''ifth regiment arrived to their aid ; the movements 
of the other columns began to take effect ; the enemy 
fell back, and soon a.^'^'^r four o'clock, the firing ceased: 
the British remained masters of the field of battle with 
three pieces of captured cannon. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley stated in his public despatch : 

* The passes were all difficult of access, and some of 

* them were well defended by the enemy, particularly 
' that which was attacked by the twenty-ninth and 
' !S iNTH regiments. These regiments attacked with the 
' greatest impetuosity, and reached the enemy before 
' those whose attacks were to be made on their flanks.' 
' For a considerable time the twenty-ninth and Ninth 
' regiments alone were advanced to this point, with 



46 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1808 ' Brigadier- General Fane's riflemen at a distance on 
' the left, and they were afterwards supported by the 
' fifth regiment, and by the light companies of Major- 
' General Hill's brigade, and by the other troops 
* ordered to ascend the mountains as they came up by 
' degrees, x he enemy here made three most gallant 
' attacks upon the twenty-ninth and Ninth regiments, 
' supported as I have above stated, with a view to cover 
' the retreat of his defeated army, in all of which, he 
' was, however, repulsed.' 

The gallant bearing of the Ninth on this occasion, 
was afterwards rewarded with the honor of displaying 
the word " Roleia" on their colours. Their loss was 
Lieut.-C'olonel John Stewart and four men killed ; 
Major George MoUe, Captain Samuel Sankey, Ensign 
Samuel Nicholls and forty-nine rank and file wounded ; 
twelve rank and file missing. 

Following the retreating enemy, the army took up a 
position at Vimiera on the 17th of August. 

In the Tfieantime the second battalion had embarked 
from Ramsgate on the 17th of July ; it landed on the 
sandy beach called the bay of Maceira on the 19th of 
August and joining the army, took post upon a rugged 
and isolated height in front of the village of Vimiera. 
It formed part of the brigade cor. mand ed by Brigadier- 
General Anstruther, and the left of this brigade occu- 
pied the church and church-yard. The first battalion 
was posted on the mountain on the right of the village. 
On the morning of the 21st of August the soldiers 
were under arms before day-break ; at seven o'clock a 
cloud of dust was observed beyond the nearest hills, 
and soon afterwards the French army under Marshal 
Junot was seen advancing to battle. The hill, on which 
the second battalion was posted, was attacked by the 
enemy, who was repulsed with severe loss. When the 



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REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



47 



French retired, the battalion moved forward in pursuit, 1&08 
but it was ordered to halt, an^"*. to return to its original 
position. The battalion had ib^-ee men killed ; Lieu- 
tenant A. E. Taylor, one serjeant, and fourteen rank 
and CAe wounded. 

Sir Arthur Wellesley stated in his despatch, ' The 
' valour and discipline of His Majesty's troops have been 
' conspicuous on this occasion ;' and the royal authority 
was afterwards given for the Ninth to bear the word 
" Vimiera" on their colours, to commemorate their con- 
duct at this battle. 

The French General, Marshal Junot, being con- 
vinced of the resolute and intrepid conduct of the troops 
with which he had to contend, and of the steady and 
determined policy of the British Government, agreed 
to evacuate Fortugal, and the convention of Cintra 
delivered the Portuguese from the power of their 
oppressors. The first battalion of the Ninth com- 
manded by Lieut.-Colonel John Cameron marched 
into quarters at Quelus, near Lisbon ; the second, under 
Major David Campbell, proceeded to Belem, and was 
afterwards stationed in the castle : the French having 
left the country, the British soldiers enjoyed a short 
period of repose. 

Portugal being free from the presence of hostile 
troops, a British army was appointed to enter Spain 
under Lieut.-General Sir John Moore, to co-operate 
with the Spaniards in arms against the F'-r^nch, and the 
first battalion of the Ninth, mustering six hundred 
rank and file, under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, having 
been selected for this enterprise, left Quelus on the 1 2th 
of October, crossed the frontiers of Spain on the 11th 
of November, and after a march of four hundred miles 
arrived at Salamanca on the 14th of November. 



I 



i 



48 



THE NINTHj OR EAST NORFOLK 



1808 At Salamanca an account was received of the over- 
throw of the Spanish armies ; but the idea of a retreat 
was repugnant to the daring spirit of Sir John Moore^ 
and he undertook the dangerous enterprise of attacking 
the enemy's communications to relieve the Spaniards 
from the pressure of Napoleon's superior numbers, by 
drawing a portion of that force upon himself. The 
Ninth left Salamanca in the early part of December, 
and, after a long march exposed to snow-storms and 
tempests, arrived in the vicinity of Sahagun, where 
prer mirations were made for attacking the enemy ; but 
nou ; arriving of the approach of Napoleon at the 
h ad f f an overwhelming force, the object of the advance 
WAS ac jmplished, and Sir John Moore hastened towards 
the V . , lo embark. 

1809 Having retreated to Lugo, in Galicia, the Ninth 
were ordered, with the other regiments of their brigade, 
to Vigo, to embark ; but after a march of two days 
they were directed to return to Lugo, where they 
arrived on the night of the 7th of January, 1809. At 
this place Sir John Moore offered battle, and, trusting to 
the valour of his: men, he expected to be able to inflict a 
blow which would cripple the enemy, and enable the 
British to continue their retreat and embark without 
molestation ; but the French declined to attack on the 
8th of January, and time being precious, the retreat was 
resumed. The fatigue, privation, and exposure to frost 
and snow, endured by the t: )ops, occasioned the loss 
of many men. Ensign Davies, one serjeant :ind one 
hundred and forty-eight rank and file, of the Ninth, 
died on the road, or being obliged to halt from exhaus- 
tion were made prisoners by the enemy. 

On arriving at Corunna, the Ninth were stationed in 
the town, and they were not engaged in the battle on 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



49 



the 16th of January, when the British troops repulsed 1809 
a superior enemy with astonishing firmness; but the 
gallant Sir John Moork fell mortally wounded. Their 
conduct during the whole course of this expedition 
procured for them the honour of bearing the word 
'* Corunna" on their colours. 

Sir John Moore having expressed a wish to be in- 
terred on the site of his victory and death, the melan- 
choly duty of taking part in the obsequies of their late 
commander, devolved on a party of the Ninth regi- 
ment of foot. In life the soldiers had admired his noble 
disposition, refined understanding, and lofty sentiments 
of honour ; in him was seen an uncommon capacity, 
sustained by virtue, governed by patriotism ; he pos- 
sessed the confidence of his troops, and his memory was 
engraven on their hearts. At midnight his remains 
were removed to the citadel by the oflicers of his staff, 
and the soldiers of the Ninth du§ his grave on the 
rampart. Early on the following morning, as the can- 
non of the enemy opened a heavy fire, his corpse was 
folded in a military cloak and consigned to the earth. 
The army embarked and left the coast ; and Marshal 
Soult, with a noble generosity, subsequently erected a 
monument to the memory of the British hero. 

The following lines on the burial of Lieut.-General 
SiE John Moore, hy the Rev. C. Wolfe, are here in- 
troduced, as the Ninth regiment furnished the fatigue 
party in the interment of their revered Commander : — 

Not a drum was heard, — not a fiineral note, — 

As his corse to the rampart we hurried ; ] 

Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where our hero we buried ! 

We buried him darkly at dead of night, 

The sods with our bayonets turning ; 
By the struggling moonbeam's misty light, •. 

And the lantern dimly burning ! 

m 



:'s,'.>' 



50 THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 

1809 ^0 useless coffin enclosed his breast, 

Nor in sheet, nor in shroud we wound him ; 
But he lay like a warrior taking his rest, 
With his martial cloak around him ! 

Few and short were the prayers we said, 

And we spoke not a word of sorrow ; 
But we stedfastly gazed on the face of the dead, 

And we bitterly thought of the morrow I 

We thought, as we hoUow'd his narrow bed, 

And smooth'd down his lonely pillow, 
That the foe and the stranger would tread o'er his head, 

And we far away on the billow ! . 

Lightly they'll talk of the spirit that's gone, 

And o'er his cold ashes upbraid him ; 
But little he'll reck, if they let him sleep on » 

In the grave where a Briton has laid him I 

But half of our heavy task was done, 

When the clock struck the hour for retiring ; 

And we heard the distant and random gun 
That the foe was suddenly firing ! 

Slowly and sadly we laid him down, 
' ' From the field of his fame, fresh and gory ; ' 

* We carved not a line ; we raised not a stone ; " .' 

But we left him alone with his glory ! 

After taking part in covering the embarkation of 
the army, the Ninth went on board the fleet on the 
18th of January J they landed at Plymouth and Ports- 
mouth in February, and marched from thence to Can- 
terbury, where they were joined by two hundred and 
thirty volunteers from the militia, and ninety-six 
recruits from the second battalion. 

With a generous zeal for the interest of mankind, 
the British government resolved to continue to aid the 
Spaniards, and it was considered necessary, for the 
safety of the army, to possess some strong fort in that 
country, as a place of arms. With this view negocia- 
tions were entered into for the possession of Cadiz, 
and, in the expectation that the wishes of the British 



- II JiipiatM 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



51 



of 
the 
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in- 
nd 
six 

nd, 
the 
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government would be acceded to, troops were sent to 1809 
take possession of that fortress. The second battalion 
of the Ninth embarked for Cadiz in February, but, 
on arriving at that port, so many frivolous objections 
were made by the Supreme Junta, that the British 
troops under Major-General Mackenzie returned to 
Portugal in March, and the Ninth joined Brigadier- 
General Cameron's brigade. 

Fifty thousand French troops were hovering on 
the frontiers of Portugal, and Lieut.-General Sir John 
Cradock concentrated the British about two stages in 
front of Lisbon, waiting for the enemy to develope his 
plans ; Marshal Soult invaded the north of Portugal, 
and captured Oporto, and after the arrival of reinforce- 
ments, the British and Portuguese, under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, advanced to drive the enemy from the con- 
quered territory. The second battalion of the Ninth 
was engaged in this enterprise ; and it embarked with 
other corps, in boats at Aveiro, with the view of turn- 
ing the enemy's right by the lake of Ovar; the Portu- 
guese fishermen comprehending the object, worked . 
with such good will, that the flotilla arrived at the 
town of Ovar in a few hours. The enemy's flanks 
being turned, his divisions fell back upon Oporto, and 
the Ninth took part in the passage of tljp Douro, on 
the 12th of May, and in driving Marshal Soult from 
Oporto : this was one of the most brilliant exploits 
which had taken place for many years. The Ninth 
also took part in the pursuit of the French, who de- 
stroyed their artillery and baggage, and made a pre- 
cipitate retreat through the mountains. On the 20th 
of May, the Ninth returned from the pursuit, and 
proceeded towards Lisbon ; they had been selected to 
form part of the garrison of Gibraltar, and embarking 

F. 2 



52 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1809fipom Lisbon, on the 18th of June, arrived at that 
fortress on the 3rd of July. 

The first battalion was sL.itioncd at Canterbury, 
from whence it marched, on the 17th of July, to Rams- 
gate, where it embarked with the expedition under 
the Earl of Chatham, designed for an attack on Hol- 
land, as a diversion in favour of the continental 
armies in the field against Napoleon. The Ninth, 
thirty-eighth, and forty-second, formed a brigade 
under Major- General Montrcsor, and after menacing 
the Flemish coast at several points, landed, in August, 
on South Beveland, an island twenty-four miles long 
and from five to eight broad, formed by the divided 
branches of the river Scheldt. On this 'sland the 
Ninth remained above three weeks; the object of the 
expedition was defeated by procrastination, and in 
September, the regiment returned to England, and 
resumed its former quaiters at Canterbury, where it 
lost many men by n disease contracted while employed 
on this expedition. 

1810 In Apri', 1810, the light company of the second 
battalion was withdrawn from Gibraltar to take part 
in the defence of Tarifa, a small town of Spain, in a 
bay on the north side of the Straits of Gibraltar, 
fortified with a wall and towers, and situate about 
seventeen miles from Gibraltar. The light companies 
of the Ninth, thirtieth, and forty-seventh, a batta- 
lion company of the twenty- eighth, and a detachment 
of artillery, sailed from Gibraltar to Algesiras, where 
they landed on the 14th of April, and marched to 
Tarifa; on the 2l8t, the French endeavoured to carry 
the place by a coup de-main, but were repulsed, and 
they retreat u on the same night with considerable 
loss. 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



58 



On the 22n(lof June, the second battalion embarked 1810 
from Gibraltar on Board the Hydra, and sailed for 
Malaga, under the command of Major- General Bowes ; 
but, on reaching thi- * port, it was ordered to return to 
Gibraltar immediately. After a quick passage, it ar- 
rived at Gibralta r on the 2nd of July, and resumed its 
post at that important fortress, where it wan joined by 
the light company on the 24th of Septemb» '' the 
same year. 

After a short repose in quarters at Cantc 
first battalion embarked to join the army ii, u^al 

under Viscount Wellington ; it landed at l.isbon in 
March, 1810, and occupied the barracks of Campo de 
Rique until the end of June ; being the first corps of 
the Walcheren expedition which had been subsequently 
embarked again for service. From Lisbon the Ninth 
advanced to Thomar, where they were stationed three 
months. At this period a i unerous French army had 
penetrated Portugal under Marshal Massena ; and the 
Ninth, having been formed in brigade with the third 
battalion of the first Royals, and second battalion of the 
thirty- eighth, joined the army under Viscount Welling- 
ton on the 20th of September, and were in position on 
the rocks of Busaco, on the 27th of September, to stem 
the torrent of invasion which threatened to overwhelm 
Portugal. The French formed five columns of attack, 
and throwing forward a host of skirmishers, ascended 
the steep front of the Sierra de Busaco with the 
gallantry of troops accustomed to victory At some 
points they were speedily driven back, but at others 
they gained a temporary advantage. The right of the 
third division was forced back ; the eighth Portuguese 
regiment was broken, and the hostile masses gained the 
highest part of the position between the third and fifth 







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TH£ NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1810 divisions, when the leading battalions established them- 
selves among the rocks, forming with their right 7esting 
upon a precipice overhanging the reverse side of the 
sierra. Major-General Leith perceiving the serious 
impression made by the enemy, led the Boyals, Ninth, 
and thirty-eighth to the attack, and keeping the Royals 
in reserve, he directed the thirty-eighth to turn the 
right of the French, and as the precipice prevented this. 
Colonel Cameron formed the Ninth, under a violent 
fire, and led them to Une charge. The distinguished 
conduct of the regiment on this occasion, is described as 
follows: — 'The thirty-eighth were therefore directed 
' to form also and support, when Major-General Leith 

* led the Ninth regiment to attack the enemy on the 
' rocky ridge, which they did without firing a shot. 
' That part which looks behind the sierra was inac- 
' cessible, and afforded' the enemy the advantage of 
' outflanking the Ninth on the left, as they advanced ; 
' but the order, celerity, and coolness with which they 
' attacked, panic-struck the enemy, who immediately 
' gave way on being charged with the bayonet, and the 
' whole were driven down the face of the sierra in con- 
' fusion, and with immense loss, from the destructive 
' firo which the Ninth regiment opened upon them as 
' they fled with precipitation after the charge. The 
' steadiness and accuracy with which the Ninth at- 
' tended to the direction of the march, which, before 

* they were engaged, was continually changing^ in order 
' to form in the most advantageous manner for the 
' attack of the enemy ; the quickness and precision with 
' which they formed line under a heavy fire : their 
' instantaneous and orderly charge, by which they drove 
' the enemy, so much superior in numbers, from a 
' formidable position ; and the promptitude with which 



Ithe 

lith 

lieir 

)ve 

a 

lich 



BSOIMENT OF FOOT. 



55 



' they obeyed Major-Oeneral Leith's order to cease 1810 

* firing, was, altogether, conduct as distinguished as 
' any regiment could have shown, and perhaps, not the 
' less worthy of notice, that it is well known the enemy's 

* attack was made by the flower ofRegnier's corps, who 
' had volunteered their service, in which they were 
' ultimately defeated. The Ninth regiment was com- 
' manded by Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, who, notwith- 
' standing his being extremely ill, exerted himself with 
' the greatest gallantry in front, during the charge, 
' when his horse was killed under him.' 

The enemy was ultimately repulsed at all points, and 
the allied artoiy stood triumphant on the field of battle. 

The signal gallantry evinced by the Ninth on this 
occasion was applauded in the field, their conduct has 
been commended by historians, and rewarded with the 
royal authority to bear the word " Busaco" on their 
colours. They had five rank and file killed ; Lieu- 
tenant George Lindsay lost an arm ; one serjeant and 
seventeen rank and file were wounded. 

Although repulsed in his attack on the position of 
Busaco, the enemy tras enabled, by his superior 
numbers, to turn this post by a flank movement, when 
the allied army fell back to the lines of Torres Vedras, 
where a resistance was opposed to the French Marshal 
which he could not overcome. The Ninth were 
stationed on the heights of Sobral ; in November, when 
the enemy retreated to Santarem, the regiment took 
post at Alcantara, and in December it went into quarters 
at Torres Vedras, where it remained three months. 

While Marshal Massena was before the linos of 
Torres Vedras, Marshal Victor blockaded Cadiz, and 
Marshal Soult led another army into Estremadura. 
After the departure of Marshal Soult, the blockading 



56 



THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 






1811 force before Cadiz was not very numerous, and the 
light and grenadier companies of the second battalion 
of the Ninth, having been completed to eighty men 
each, embarked from Gibraltar on the 20th of Feb- 
ruary, 1811, to take part in an attack on the rearofthe 
enemy's lines before Cadiz. They lauded at Tarifa, 
and were there joined by the troops from Cadiz, under 
Lieut.-General Graham. Seven thousand Spaniards 
also arrived under General La Pena, and the whole 
moving forward, the advance-guard stormed Com Viejas 
on the 2nd of March ; the French were driven from 
Vejer de la Frotera on the drd, and on the morning of 
the 5th, after a night march of sixteen hours, the army 
arrived at the heights of Barrom. The British con- 
tinued their march to Bermeja, leaving the flank com- 
panies of the Ninth and eighty-second, under Major 
Brown, of the twenty-eighth, as a guard for the 
baggage ; at the same time some injudicious movements 
were made by the Spaniards. Marshal Victor, observing 
the divided state of the allied forces, brought forward 
his troops, and commencing the battle, cut off a Spanish 
detachment, drove the rear-guard from the heights, and 
captured three Spanish guns. The flank companies of 
the Ninth and eighty-Eiecond, being unable to stem 
the torrent of battle, retired into t" ip-'ii, where they 
fought Rufiin's French brigade w: . great gallantry. 
Meanwhile the main body of ^.he British had returned ; 
a cannonade, a few volleys of musketry, and a charge 
with the bayonet, broke onr body of the enemy. The 
flank companies of the Nfmth and eighty-second, being 
engaged with a French brigade, were overmatched in 
numbers and nearly destroyed ; yet they maintained 
the fight until a column under Brigadier- General Dilkes 
arrived to their aid, when the whole ran up the height. 






■^vo;:;-,. 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



67 



. 



The French met them at the summit; a sanguinary 1811 
fight ensued ; but'the British pressed forward with such 
violence, that the French vrer^ driven from the hill with 
the loss of many soldiers and three guns. The 
Spaniards looked on, while the British fought this 
terrible battle against superior numbers, and when the 
victory was won, the English were too exhausted to 
pursue. An eagle, six pieces of cannon, two general 
officers, and many captured soldiers, were the trophies 
of this victory. 

Lieut.-General Graham stated in his public de- 
spatch, ' No expressions of mine could do justice to the 
' conduct of the troops throughout. Nothing less than 
* the almost unparalleled exertions of every officer, — 
' the invincible bravery of every soldier, — and the most 
' determined devotion to the honor of His Majesty's 
' arms in aU,— could have achieved this brilliant success 
' against so formidable an enemy so posted.* The 
flank companies of the Ninth had eight rank and 
file killed; Captain Godwin, Lieutenants Taylor, 
Robertson, and Seward, four scrjeants, two drummers, 
and fifty rank and file wounded. 

When the conflict had ceased, Lieut.-General Graham 
remained on the field of battle; but the Spanish General 
did not seize the favourable opportunity, which the 
valour of the British troops had put into his hands, of 
striking a severe blow at the remains of the French 
army retreating in disorder. The inactivity of the 
Spaniards continuing, the British proceeded to Cadiz, 
where the flank companies of the Ninth embarked for 
Tarifa, and, after a short stay at this port, rejoined the 
second battalion at Gibraltar. 

The first battalion was quartered at Torres Vcdras, 
until the French army, under Marshal Massena, having 



58 



THE NIVTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1811 exhausted its resources, had become reduced in 
numbers, and retreated towards Spain. The Ninth 
left their quarters on the. 7th of March, and moving in 
pursuit of the retreating enemy, took part in the opera- 
tions by which the French were driven to the frontiers. 
When, from a deficiency of supplies, the army was 
obliged to halt a few days for the arrival of provisions, 
the Ninth encamped at Venda du Vachie; they after- 
wards resumed the pursuit, and on the 3rd of April 
came up with a body of French at StUmgaly whom they 
drove over the bridge at the point of the bayonet. The 
enemy was driven from his positions on the Coa, forced 
across the frontier into Spain, and Portugal, except the 
fortress of Almeida, was freed from the presence of 
French troops. Such were the results of this splendid 
campaign, so honourable to British skill and valour. 

After restoring that order and discipline which the 
French troops had lost in their hasty retreat from 
Portugal, Marshal Massena crossed the frontiers of 
Spain in the beginning of May, and advanced to relieve 
the blockade of AlmeidUi, The battle of Fwntei cT Onor 
followed ; the Ninth took part in repulsing the enemy, 
and had four men of the light company wounded. The 
French army having been defeated in its attempt to 
relieve Almeida, the garrison effected its escape. 

The Ninth went into cantonments at Aldea del 
Bispo ; in the middle of May they removed to Nava 
d'Aver; the armies of Marshals Soult and Marmont 
uniting in Spanish Estremadura, the regiment marched 
to the Alemtejo, to cover that frontier, and was stationed 
at Portalegre ; and when the French Commanders, 
finding themselves unable to force the British position, 
separated, it marched to Paio, where it was joined by 
two hundred volunteers from the militia. 



I 



w 



REOIHBKT OF FOOT. 



59 



Wbile the first battalion was at Nara d* Aver, 1811 
Tarragona, a seaport in the north-east of Spain, built 
upon rocks, near the mouth of the river Francoli, in 
Catalonia, was besieged by a French army under 
Marshal Suchet, and the second battalion of the Ninth 
was withdrawn from Gibraltar on the I9th of June, to 
aid, if practicable, in the defence of Tarragona. It 
arrived off that fortress on the 26th of June ; but the 
place was captured by storm two days afterwards. The 
battalion subsequently sailed to the island of Minorca, 
and anchored, on the 7th of July, in the harbour of Port 
Mahon. On the 14th of July it sailed for Gibraltar, 
and on the 26th resumed its former post in that fortress. 

The light company of the second battalion was again 1812 
employed at Tarifa, from the 1st of January to the 
27th of April, 1812. 

During the winter of 1811-12, the British com- 
mander in Portugal undertook the siege of Civdad 
Bodriffo; the first battalion of the Ninth advanced 
from Paio, and arrived at Fuente Guinaldo on the 
18th of January; Ciudad Rodrigo was captured by 
storm on the 19th, and on the following day the regi- 
ment marched into that fortress, and occupied the 
barracks until thd end of February. 

The next undertaking of the British troops was the 
siege of Badajos. To engage in this enterprise, the 
Ninth left Ciudad Rodrigo on the 1st of March, 
crossed the Tagus near Villa Velha, and joined the 
besieging army. On the night of the 6th of April, when 
the storming parties prepared for the assault, the 
Ninth were under arms, and advanced in the expecta- 
tion of taking part in the attack ; but they were kept 
in reserve on the spot where Lord Wellington was 
making observations. At day-break on the following 



60 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



P ' 



n 



1812 morning, they were moved into the town, to repress 
the violence of the soldiers who had captured the place 
by storm, in which duty they were employed all the 
day. Several men were wounded by straggling shots 
from the fire which loose parties still kept up, and the 
duty of restoring tranquillity, on this occasion, proved 
one of the most arduous undertakings in which the regi- 
ment was ever engaged. 

This service performed, the regiment marched back 
to Portugal, and took part in driving the French, 
under Marshal Marmont, from the province of Beira. 
Having chased the enemy across the frontiers, the army 
went into quarters, and the Ninth were cantoned at 
Momento de Beira, and Lamegoon the Douro. 

After reposing a short period in quarters, the regi- 
ment crossed the Agueda river, and advanced upon 
Salamanca ; the French were driven from this city on 
the 17th of June, but theyleft garrisons in the fortified 
convents, which were besieged. The Ninth were in 
position in the mountains of St. Christoval, when 
Marshal Marmont advanced to relieve the forts ; and 
when the French, unable to accomplish their object, fell 
back behind the Douro, the regiment advanced to the 
vicinity of Nava del Rey. 

Reinforcements having joined the French army. 
Marshal Marmont passed the Douro in the middle of 
July, and commenced a series of manoeuvres. Lieut- 
Colonel Cameron, having suffered from ill health, had 
just left the regiment to return to England on sick 
leave, but hearing the enemy s cannonade, on the 17th 
of July, he rejoined the regiment, which took post 
at Torrecilla de la Orden, to cover the retrc^ade move- 
ment of two divisions and a brigade of cavalry in ad- 
vance- The French pressed the corps in advance with 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



61 



superior numbers, and the whole withdrew across the 1812 
Ouarena river ; on passing the stream, the fifth division, 
of which the Ninth formed part, was cannonaded by 
forty guns : the soldiers stood their gpround until all 
the troops had passed, and then retired across the plain 
in view of both armies ; having by their steadiness 
prevented the further advance of the enemy. 

A series of retrograde movements brought the allied 
army back to the vicinity of Salamanca ; and, on the 
22nd of July, as the French were executing a difficult 
and complicated manoeuvre, the English general ordered 
his divisions forward and commenced the battle. As 
the Ninth advanced to the attack, their progress was 
obstructed by a village, which separated them from the 
other two corps of their brigade (Royals and thirty- 
eighth). Thus left to themselves, the Ninth sloped 
arms and pressed forward without firing a shot ; they 
were near Major-General Le Marchant*s brigade of 
heavy cavalry when it executed its brilliant charge on 
the French infantry, and Major-Oeneral Le Marchant 
was killed in front of the regiment. Pressing rapidly for- 
ward along with the dragoons, and sharing with them in 
their successes against the French infantry, the Ninth 
were at length a quarter of a mile in front ^f the other 
regiments of their brigade, when one of Lcrt'l Welling- 
ton's aides-de-camp rode up, and said, *' The Ninth 
is the only regiment formed, advance." This was 
instantly obeyed, but Lieut.-General Leith being 
wounded, Lieut.-Colonel Greville, who was in the com- 
mand of the brigade, ordered the Ninth to retire and join 
the other two regiments of their brigade ; thus yielding 
a post so strong that the sixth division lost many men in 
ret&^dng it. A decisive victory was, however, gained j 
and the regiment was afterwards rewarded with the 



,-. tl<l**»*f »Afc*V*J.^|rf..^iflfc 



r iflgT!rjjg:gac '!^t3tTr;;i]Tir \';wTr^3i^ 



62 



THE NINTH, OR RAST NORrOI.K 



1612 royal authority to bear the word " Salamanca" on its 
colours, to commemorate its gallantry on this occasion. 
Its loss was three rank and file killed; Lieutenant 
Ackland, two Serjeants, and forty rank and file wounded. 

The rc^ment moved forward in pursuit of the enemy 
on the following day ; and after taking part in driving 
the French from Valladolidj advanced to Madrid, 
where it arrived on the 13th of August* and bivouacked 
near the Retiro, which fortress was surrendered on the 
following day. Four divisions and the cavalry after- 
wards removed to the Escurial and St. Ildefonso, from 
whence they again marched to Valladolid, and drove 
the French from that city o second time. 

From Valladolid the army followed the retreating 
enemy up the valleys of the Pisuorga and Arlanzan 
rivers to Burgos, and commenced the siege of the castle ; 
the Ninth forming part of the force which took up a 
position in front to cover the operation. Captain 
Kenny and Lieutenant Dumarosque wore employed 
as assistant engineers, and the former was killed and 
the latter wounded. 

A concentration of the enemy's numerous forces 
rendering it necessary for the allied army to make a 
retrc^rade movement, the siege of Burgos castle was 
raised and the retreat commenced. To check the 
pursuit of the enemy, the Marquis of Wellington halted, 
on the 24th of October, behind tho Cari<m river. The 
French attempted to force the position at Palencia, 
also at the bridge of Muriel on tho Pisuorga, and other 
places, and, on the 25th of October, the Ninth, not 
mustering three hundred men, with scarcely an oflUcer 
to a company, were ordered to take an active part in 
defending the bridge of Muriel and tho fords. The 
contest was so obstinate, that tho men were twice 



v 



BEOIMBNT or FOOT. 



68 



supplied with ammunition, and the. fire of musketry was 1812 
incessant for a long time. The enemy succeeded at 
Palencia, but were repulsed at Muriel, where the Ninth 
lost, of their reduced numbers, one serJeant, and 
sixteen rank and file killed; Lieutenants Ackland, 
Taylor, Curzon, Ford, Ensign Ross Sewen, Surgeon 
Buckley, four Serjeants and fifty rank and file wounded : 
also one company, employed in defending a ford, under 
Lieutenant Whitley, was surrounded by a large body 
of French cavalry, and forced to surrender. 

During the night the baggage was sent to the rear, 
and before daylight the troops resumed their retreat, 
which was continued to the banks of the Tormes at Sala- 
manca, where the army made a short halt, end after- 
wards fell back behind the Agueda. The Ninth 
marched into quarters at several villages, near Lamego 
on the Douro. Their conduct during the retreat, in 
which much irregularity and insubordination were 
manifested in many corps, was distinguished for order 
and discipline ; they had only two absentees during 
the march from Salamanca to the vicinity of Lamego, 
and the regiment did not consider itself implicated in 
the general censure published in orders. 

In the spring of 1813, the second battalion sent ten 1813 
Serjeants and four hundred rank and file from Gibraltar 
to join the first battalion in Portugal. The remainder 
of the battalioT; embarked for England, and, landing 
at Portsmouth, marched to Canterbury, from whence it 
afterwards sent a draft of six officers and one hundred 
and forty -one soldiers to the first battalion; it also 
furnished a hundred men for the third provisional 
battalion then organizing at Chelmsford. 

In May, 1813, the first battalion appeared in the 
field in excellent condition, mustering upwards of nine 



^^^M 



64 



THB NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1813 hundred men, under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron. It 
formed part of the force under Lieut.-Oeneral Sir 
Thomas Graham, which traversed the mountainous 
districts of Tras os Montes, and passed the River Esla 
on the 31st of May; the enemy's lines of defence on 
the Douro were turned, and a succession of retreats 
brought the French army to Vittoria. Following the 
retiring enemy, the Ninth traversed mountain regions, 
passed rivers, and overcame numerous difficulties ; on 
the 18th of June, they encountered a party of the 
enemy near Osma, when the light company was en- 
gaged in skirmishing, and it followed the retreating 
enemy until evening. The regiment had two soldiers 
killed, and eight wounded. On the following day the 
fifth division moved several miles along the Orduna 
road, and afterwards crossed a difficult country to 
Vittorianna, where the Ninth halted on the 20th of 
June. 

After pursuing the French legions from province to 
province for near a month, the allied army made pre- 
parations for the long-expected battle, and, on the 
morning of the 2l8t of June, the Ninth, forming part 
of the column under Lieut.-Oeneral Sir Thomas 
Graham, advanced i^inst the right of the French 
army in position at Vittoria. The second brigade of 
the fifth division, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Robinson, attacked the village of Gamara Major at a 
running pace, and Major-Geueral Hay's brigade, of 
which the Ninth formed part, moved forward in sup- 
port. The French kept up a heavy fire of artillery 
and musketry, but the British forced their way through 
the village, crossed the bridge over the Zadorra river, 
and captured a gun. A numerous body of the enemy, 
however, retook the bridge and menaced the village. 



RBOIMBNT or FOOT. 



6ft 



. 



when the Royals, Ninth, and thirty-eighth, came 1813 
down upon the dhemy with a routi^h shock, and the 
bridge was again carried. This post was so com* 
pletely commanded by the fire of the French be- 
yond the river, that the British were forced to with- 
draw. The village was, however, maintained; and 
while the battle raged along the line, a hot fire of mus' 
Icetry and artillery was kept up at the bridge of 
Gamara Major. At length the enemy was routed at 
all points; the Ninth crossed the bridge, and took 
part in completing the final overthrow of the French 
army, which fled in confusion with the loss of its artil- 
lery and baggage. 

The Ninth had Ensign Saunders and nine soldiers 
killed, fifteen soldiers wounded; and the honour 
of bearing the word ** Vittoria " on their colours was 
afterwards conferred on them to commemorate their 
gallantry on this occasion. 

On the 22nd of June, the Ninth moved forward in 
pursuit of the broken remains of the French army ; on 
the 23rd they halted at Salvatierra, where they re- 
mained two days, and they wore afterwards sent across 
the country to endeavour to intercept a large body of 
French troops under General Clausel, who had not 
been present at the battle of Vittoria. The regiment 
traversed the country to Penoserrada, descended from 
the mountains into the plain of the Ebro, and ad- 
vanced by La Guarda, upon Logrofio ; but by forced 
marches the enemy escaped to France. 

Having advanced to so great a distance from Portu- 
gal, that country was no longer used by the British as a 
place of arms, and the establishments there were broken 
up. The Western Pyrenees, in conjunction with the 
ocean, offered a new base of operations, and the capture 

F 



66 



THE NINTH, QR EAST NORFOLK 



1813 of San Sebastian, a place built on an isthmus, fonned 
by the harbour en one side and the river Urumea on 
the other, being of primary importance, the Ninth 
traversed the country to that port to take part in the 
siege. 

The regiment arrived at St. Sebastian on the 6th of 
July ; one of the first objects was the reduction of the 
convent and redoubt of San Bartolomeo, which were 
battered by the artillery, and so far damaged, that on 
the 17th, the Ninth were under orders to take part in 
storming these posts. The piquets of the fourth 
Caqadores, and one hundred and fifty men of the 
thirteenth Portuguese regiment, supported by three 
companies of the Ninth, under Major Henry Crau- 

; furd, with a reserve of three companies ot the Royals, 
formed on the right to attack the redoubt ; two hun- 
dred men of the fifth Caqadores, and two hundred of 
the thirteenth Portuguese, supported by the Ninth, 
under Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, fonned on the left to 
attack the convent. At ten o'clock in the forenoon, 
< the troops rushed from behind the hill overlooking the 
convent ; the Portuguese advanced so slowly that the 
Ninth passed through them, and ran forward with that 
fierce impetuosity for which the regiment was dis- 
tinguished on former occasions. Colonel Cameron led 
the grenadiers down the face of the hill, exposed to a 
heavy cannonade from the horn work ; but he soon 
. gained the cover of a wall about fifty yards from the 
convent. His spirited advance, which threatened to 
cut oflf the garrison from the suburb, with the fire of 
the guns, occasioned the French to abandon the redoubt, 
and the grenadiers of the Ninth, observing this, 
jumped over the wall, and assaulted both the convent 

■ aJid the houses of the suburb with the most heroic 



(/ 



U 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



67 



to 

of 

ibt, 

Ihis, 

rent 

poic 



gallantry. A fierce struggle took place in the suburb; 1813 
Captain John Woodham of the Ninth fought his way 
into the upper room of a house, and was there killed. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Thomhill, and several pri- 
vate soldiers were also slain; in the meantime the 
grenadiers of the Ninth carried the convent with such 
rapidity, that the French had not time to explode some 
small mines they had prepared, and they hastily joined 
the troops in the suburb. There the fighting was 
very obstinate, and the men of the Ninth were over- 
matched in numbers ; but the other companies of the 
regiment arriving, the French were driven out of the 
suburb with severe loss. 

The companies of the Ninth, at the right attack, 
also behaved with great gallantry ; though they were 
retarded by a ravine, a thick hedge, the slowness of the 
Portuguese, and a heavy fire^ yet they entered the 
abandoned redoubt with little loss ; but their ardour 
led them forward beyond the prescribed limits, which 
occasioned a serious loss. 

The regiment had upwards of seventy officers and 
soldiers killed and wounded on this occasion : among 
the slain were Captain Woodham and Adjutant 
Thomhill : among the wounded were Lieut.-Colonel 
John Cameron, Captains Hector Cameron, Isaac 
Jervoise, and Lieutenant Richard Buse. 

The capture of the convent facilitated the progress 
of the siege, and on the 24th of July the breaches were 
deemed practicable, when the third battalion of the 
Royals was directed to storm the great breach, the 
thirty-eighth the lesser breach, and the Ninth, under 
Lieut.-Colonel Cameron, supported the Royals. A 
detachment, selected from the light companies of the 
three regiments, was placed under the command of 

f2 



68 



THK NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1813 Lieut. Colin Campbell of the Ninth, and posted in 
the centre of the Royals, for the purpose of sweeping 
the high curtain after the breach should be won. At 
daybreak on the morning of the 25th of July the troops 
advanced to the attack with signal intrepidity; the 
cannon of the fortress played upon them in front ; the 
ground was difficult to pass; and the volleys of 
musketry were incessant ; at the same time showera 
of hand-grenades, shells, and large stones were poured 
down upon them ; yet the attack was made with valour ; 
but the defences round the breach had not been 
destroyed, and success was found to be impracticable. 
Lieut.-Colonel Cameron and Lieutenant Campbell dis-. 
tinguished themselves on this occasion. Several men 
of the regiment were killed, and others wounded; 
Lieutenant Campbell was also wounded. Lieutenant 
Robertson, acting engineer, was killed a few days 
previously. 

Marshal Soult, having reorganized the French army, 
advanced to drive the British from the Pyrenees, and 
during the contest in the mountains, the siege was 
turned into a blockade; but when the French had 
been repulsed and driven back with severe loss, the 
siege was resumed. 

. At three o'clock on the morning of the 27th of August 
a hundred soldiers of the Ninth, commanded by 
Captain Hector Cameron, Lieutenant John Chadwick, 
and Ensign Robert Brooke, sailed from Passages in 
boats to attack the island of Santa Clara, in the bay of, 
San Sebastian. As the boats approached the shore, 
a heavy fire was opened upon them ; Lieutenant 
Chadwick and ten rank and file were killed, also 
eighteen seamen killed and wounded. A landing was, 
however, effected, the island captured, and the French 



// 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



69 



f 



t 



gu. i3on made prisoners. The conduct of Captain 1813 
Cameron was commended in the despatches of Field 
Marshal the Marquis of Wellington. 

On the morning of the 27th of August the French 
made a sally against the new batteries on the isthmus, 
but Lieut.-Colonel Cameron of the Ninth met them 
on the edge of the trenches with the bayonet, and they 
were repulsed. 

St. Sebastian was i^ain attacked by storm on the 
31st of August: Brigadier-General Robinson's bri- 
gade was appointed to the assault, and Major-General 
Hay's was placed in reserve; but the difficulties to 
be overcome were so formidable, and the resistance of 
the enemy so determined, that the reserve brigade was 
pushed on by degrees, until the left wing of the Ninth 
only remained in the trenches. For five hours the 
conflict raged at the breaches, when an explosion de 
stroyed the enemy's traverses, and the torrent of battle 
rolling into the town with irresistible fury, the place 
was speedily captured. The garrison retired into 
the castle, where they held out eight days, and then 
surrendered. 

The Ninth lost at the storming of St. Sebastian, on 
the 31st of August, Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Henry Crau- 
furd. Lieutenants Erskine Fraser, Edward B. Lewen, 
Robert Morant, five Serjeants, and forty-two rank 
and file killed; Lieutenant-Colonel Cameron, Cap- 
tains Thomas Ferrars, John Shelton ; Lieutenants R 
Dale, William Mc Adam, John Ogle, two Serjeants, two, 
drummers, and ninety-eight rank and file wounded, 
many of whom died of their wounds; six rank and file 
missing. 

The word "St. Sebastian," inscribed on the colours 



70 



THB NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1813 of the Ninth, oommemorates the gallantry of the regi- 
ment at this siege. 

After the capture of St.. Sebastian, the regiment 
marched towards the confines of Spain, and took post 
in the left wing of the allied army. At the -paaaage 
of the Bidassoa, on the 7th of October, the Ninth 
regiment was one of the corps which removed, during 
the preceding night, from the camp in the mountains, 
and took post behind a large river embankment oppo- 
site the village of Andaya. At daylight in the morning, 
the regiment emerged from its concealment, forded the 
river at low water, and gained the opposite bank before 
the French, who were surprised by the suddenness of 
the movement, fired a gun. From Andaya the regi- 
ment advanced, under a heavy fire of musketry and 
artillery, towards the strong height- called Croix de 
Souquets, which was the key of the French position, and 
towards which guns and troops were hastening from 
every side. As the regiment approached the height, 
it moved quickly through a line of German skirmishers, 
and the soldiers, being stimulated to deeds of heroism 
by the gallantry of their commanding officer. Colonel 
John Cameron, rushed vehemently up the height, 
when the French infantry fled to a second ridge, where 
they could only be approached on a narrow front. 
Undaunted by difficulty. Colonel Cameron formed the 
regiment into one column, and advanced against this 
new position, which being semicircular, with the ex- 
tremities curving inwards, the enemy was enabled to 
pour a concentrated fire upon the Ninth as they moved 
steadily forward to the attack; but the ardour of 
the regiment could not be quenched by formidable 
opposition. Accustomed to victory and panting for 



it' 



REGIMENT OF FOOt. 



71 



f 



glory, the soldiers of the Nimh moved steadily forward ^^13 
until they arrivfed within a dozen yards of their 
antagonists, when they raised a loud and confident 
shout, and rushed with bayonets on the opposing foe 
The enemy instantly gave way and fled, and the ridges 
of the Croix des Bouquets were won as far as the royal 
road. Success also attended the operations of the other 
. portions of the allied army, and the French were driven 
from their formidable works. The conduct of the 
Ninth elicited the commendations of the general 
ofiicers who Witnessed their intrepid bearing, and the 
regiment was thanked in the field by the Marquis of 
Wellington, who made known its behaviour in his 
despatch. Its loss was eight rank and file killed; 
Captain Isaac Jervoise, Lieutenants Richard Dale, 
Thomas Sheppard^ William Mc Adam, George Stirling, 
Colin Campbell, Peter Le Mesurier, Robert Brooks, 
Ensig IS J. Nash, Edward Kenny, two Serjeants and 
sixty-two rank and file wounded. 

After the passage of the Bidassoa, the division to 
which the Ninth belonged, encamped on the heights 
facing Urogne and the camp of the Sans Culottes. 

On the 10th of November ninety thousad combatants 
advanced to battle, to drive the French from their 
position on the Nivelle ; when the Ninth formed part 
of the force under Lieut.-General Sir John Hope em- 
ployed in holding the enemy's right in check, while the 
other parts of the French line were forced by the troops 
appointed to that service. Early in the morning, the 
camp of the Sans Culottes was captured by the fifth 
division, and the Ninth regiment advanced to the 
inundation covering the heights of Bordegain and 
Ciboure. On the following day the division arrived at 



73 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1813 St. Jean de Luz; and the army being soon afterwards 
established in cantonments, the Ninth were quartered 
at Guiterea. 

During the night preceding the battle of the Nive 
on the 9th of December, the Ninth were put in motion 
along the great road from St. Jean de Luz to Bayonne ; 
they took part in driving back the French posts in 
this direction, and arrived in front of the enemy's 
entrenched camp soon after mid-day. At night the 
regiment returned to its post in front of Bidart, having 
had one Serjeant and one private soldier killed; twenty, 
rank and file wounded : Brevet Lieut.-Colonel William 
Gomm, major of the Ninth, and assistant quarter- 
master general, was also wounded. 

On the following day the French army advanced to 
attack the allies. Two French divisions drove the 
Portuguese from Anglet, and afterwards assailed the 
height at Barrouilhet. Major-General Robinson's 
brigade supported the Portuguese, and the Ninth, 
with the other regiments of their brigade, were in 
reserve. The French skirmishers extended along the 
valley in front of Biaritz, and a powerful effort was 
made by the great road, and against the ridge of 
Barrouilhet, near the major's house, where some severe 
fighting took place. At length the Nin th were brought 
into action, and they defended some open ground behind 
a coppice-wood possessed by the French, whose skir- 
mishers often issued in masses from among the trees 
to assail the regiment, but were always driven back. 
After much severe fighting had taken place. Colonel 
Cameron ascertained that a French regiment, favoured 
by the hedges and coppice-wood, had passed in small 
parties to the rear of the Ninth, where it was forming 



^1^ 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



73 



line. Colonel Cameron ordered fifty men to keep up igj3 
the skirmishing fire, and then faced the regiment about, 
and moved against this new enemy. A heavy fire of 
musketry was opened by the French r^ment, but 
when the soldiers of the Ninth attempted to close upon 
their antagonists with the bayonet, the French fled in 
dismay. The Ninth took one hundred and sixty pri- 
soners ; many of the enemy were driven upon the second 
line and forced to surrender, and a few escaped. 

After this exploit, the regiment resumed its post, 
and the French were repulsed at all points. The 
Ninth had Lieutenant P. L. Le Mesurier, Ensign 
George Bolton, and ten rank and file killed ; Captain 
Benjamin Sibom, Lieutenants Edward Watkins,— — 
Dallas, Robert Brookes, one sergeant, and sixty-four 
rank and file wounded. 

On the morning of the 1 1th of November, there 
was a thick fog, and the Marquis of Wellington, bein^ 
desirous of ascertaining what the French were doing, 
directed the Ninth to open a skirmish towards Pucho, 
about ten o'clock, and if the French augmented their 
force, to engage freely and preserve a confident front. 
Colonel Cameron brought the regiment into action, and 
as the fight was becoming warm, Colonel Delancey, a 
staff officer, directed it to enter the village. The fog 
clearing up. Marshal Soult, who had above twenty 
thousand men at that point, observing the regiment 
unsupported, ordered a numerous body of troops 
against it. The Ninth were attacked so suddenly, 
and by such overpowering numbers, that they were in 
danger of being annihilated, but Sir John Hope brought 
some Portuguese troops hastily forward, and enabled the 
regiment to effect its retreat. About two o'clock the 
French made a tbrmidable attack on the British posi- 



74 



THI NINTB, OR BAIT NORFOLK 



1813 tion ; the Ninth were again sharply engaged, and the 
enemy was repnlsed with loss. 

The loss of the regiment on the 1 1th of December, 
was fourteen men killed: Ensigns David Holmes, 
Robert Story, three sergeants, and seventy-two rank 
and file wounded; two Serjeants, ten rank and file 
missing. 

The distinguished intrepidity and firmness of the 
regiment, in the actions of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of 
December, were afterwards rewarded with the royal 
authority to bear the word " Nivs " on its colours. 

After the repulse of the enemy, the Ninth occupied 
quarters in Guiterea and Bidart, where they were 
stationed during the remainder of the year. 

On the 25th of De^^ember, the establishment of the 
second battalion, stationed at Canterbury, was reduced- 
from eight hundred and eight, to six hundred rank and 
file. 

1814 In the beginning of 1814, the second battalion re- 
ceived one hundred and fifty volunteers from the militia, 
and it soon afterwards sent a detachment to join the 
first battalion in the south of France. 

From Guiterea and Bidart, the first battalion was 
removed, on the 4th of February, to Gerret's-house, on 
the left bank of the Nive, and on the 8th it proceeded 
to Arcangoes : it crossed the Nive on the 21st by the 
bridge of boats, and occupied Villa Franca ; but re- 
turned to Arcangoes in the beginning of March. 

On the 24th of March, the Ninth advanced to the 
vicinity ofBayonne, and occupied Anglet, for the pur- 
pose of taking part in the blockade of that fortress, in 
which service it was employed until the middle of April, 
when the war terminated, and Napoleon Buona- 
parte was removed from the throne of France. The 



RSOIMBNT 07 FOOT. 



75 



French commandant at Bayonne did not believe the 1814 
newB of the abdication of Buonaparte to be true, and 
on the morning of the 14th of April, a sortie was made 
firom the French camp in front of the citadel, and the 
blockading troops were attacked with great fury. The 
enemy gained some advantage; but reinforcements 
were quickly brought up, the lost ground recovered, 
and the French driven back with great slaughter. This 
was an useless waste of life, as the treaty of Paris was 
ratified on the 11th of April, — Buonaparte renouncing 
all sovereignty over France and Italy, and stipulating 
that the island of Elba should be his domain and resi* 
dence during life. At the sortie from Bayonne, the 
Ninth were attadced, but maintained their ground : 
two rank and file were killed, and eight wounded. 
' At the termination of the war. Great Britain stood 
the most triumphant nation in the world, and the 
soldieis of the Ninth had the satisfaction of having 
fought and conquered in the cause of justice, and for 
the permanent peace of Europe. 

The word "Pbninsula" was afterwards added to 
the inscriptions on their colours, to commemorate their 
achievements during the contest ; and their command- 
ing ofl5.cer. Colonel John Cameron, who had so often 
led them to victory, was rewarded with a cross and 
three clasps fur the battles of Vimiera, Corunna, 
Busacoj Salamanca, Vittoria, assault and capture of 
St. Sebastian, and the actions at the passage of the 
Nive. 

Few days elapsed after the termination of the war 
in Europe, before the veterans of the Ninth were 
ordered to hold themselves in readiness to proceed to 
North America, where hostilities had commenced 
between Great Britain and the United States. 



re 



THB NINTH, OR lAlT KORFOLK 



18] 4 From Bayonne, the regiment mRrohed to Bordeaux, 
where it arrived on the 32nd of May, and encamped 
•even miles below the town, until the 3rd of June, when 
it embarked in traniporti, but was removed on the 
following day to the York and Vengeur. seventy-four 
gun ships, in which it sailed for Canada. Arriving in 
the river St. Lawrence, the regiment was removed on 
board of transports, in which it proceeded to Quebec, 
from whence it continued its course up the river, and 
on the 22nd of August arrived at Montreal. 

After halting a week at Montreal, the Ninth marched 
up the country into cantonments on the left of the St. 
Lawrence, below Prescot, where they were stationed 
when the unsuccessftil attack was made on the Ame- 
ricans near Plattsburg. 

In October the Ninth proceeded to Kingston. In 
the meantime many men had Joined the second battalion 
at Canterbury, from prisoners of war and from sick 
absent, and two strong detachments arrived in America 
to join the first battalion. 
1815 On the 20th of February, 1815, the second battalion 
marched from Canterbury to Chatham ; in the summer 
it was removed to Sheemess, and it was afterwards 
encamped in the Isle of Sheppy. 

Meanwhile peace had beyn concluded between Great 
Britain and the United States : and Napoleon Buona- 
parte had quitted the Isle of Elba, returned io France, 
and reascended the throne of that kingdom. These 
events occasioned the regiment to be ordered to return 
to Europe, where all the nations were arming to dis- 
possess Buonaparte of the throne of France. 

Although the Ninth had no opportunity of 
signalizing themselves in action, during their stay in 
Canada, yet they displayed the valuable qualities of 



u 



RBOIMRNT OF FOOT. 



n 



firm diicipline, and un«haken fidelity to their Sovereign, 
country, and colours.. In some corps desertion prevailed 
to a considerable extent, and tempting rewards awaited 
such soldiers as should reach the territory of the United 
States, which could be accomplished with little risk ; 
but, notwithstanding all the temptations and facilities 
for desertion, not one soldier of the Ninth forsook his 
colours, an honourable boast, which only two corps, the 
Ninth and eighty-eighth, could make. Lieut-General 
Sir George Murray, governor and commander of the 
forces in Upper Canada, was so much pleased with the 
conduct of the regiment, that, after the review previous 
to its leaving Kingston, he addressed it as follows. ' I 
' have detained the Ninth regiment on the field, a 
' little after the other troops, that I might have an 
' opportunity of thanking the officers and soldiers for 
' their good conduct since they have been in this pro- 
' vince. Sir Frederick Robinson, who had before an 
' opportunity of witnessing the gallantry of the regi- 
' ment when opposed to the enemy, and having been in 
' a situation to bear testimony to its exemplary conduct 
' in quarters, has made to me the most favourable 
' report of the regiment. You have not been, I am 
' sorry to say, without bad examples inyourneighbour- 
' hood, and I regret it the more, because they have 
' taken place in regiments, which have, prior to that, 
borne high characters. It has given me very great 
' pleasure, that the Ninth regiment has borne itself 
' entirely free from any stain, such as that to which I 
' allude ; that the men have shown they are justly 
' impressed with the sacredness of the obligation which 
' binds them to the service of their King, and that they 
' have a due regard to their own characters, and the 
' unsullied reputation of the regiment. 



181ft 



im 



78 



TUB NINTH, OR EAST NORVOLK 



161 S < The praise for such conduct is equally due to all 
' the individuals composing the corps ; to the absent 
' Colonel Cameron, whose seal and ability in the service 
' have been long conspicuous ; to the commanding 
'officer, and the other officers of the first battalion now 
' present ; to that usefiil and respectable body of men, 
' the non-commissioned officers ; and to the private 
' soldiers themselves, whose good conduct is the best 
' and most honourable return that the officers can re- 
' ceive, for the pains they have bestowed upon the dis- 
' cipline of the corps. I have only now to take my 
' leave of you, with my best wishes for your honor 
' and success, wherever you may go, and to assure you 
' that, in whatever part of the world it may be my lot 
' to serve, it will, at all times, be a matter of satisfac- 
' tion to me, if I should find myself in company with 
' the Ninth regiment.' 

In the beginning of June, the regiment embarked in 
boats, and sailed down the river St. Lawrence to 
Quebec, where it was removed on board of transports, 
and on the 2nd of August it arrived at Spithead. 

The destiny of France, had, in the meantime, been 
decided on the field of Waterloo, and Louis XVIII 
had been restored to the throne ; the Ninth were, 
however, immediately ordered to join the British army 
in France, and a detachment of one hundred and fifty 
rank and file joined from the second battalion then en- 
camped in the hundred-acres, near Mile Town, in the 
isle of Sheppy. 

On the 17th of August, the first battalion arrived at 
Ostend, from whence it prc>ceeded ^ i boal;^ to Ghent, 
and afterwards marched to Paris, where it arrived on 
the 5th of September, and encamped near St. Denis. 
It was formed in brigade with the fifty-seventh, eighty- 



RIOIMBMT OP FOOT. 



79 



the 

at 
nt, 

on 
nis. 
ity- 



ilrat, and ninetieth regiments, under Mftjor-Oeneral Sir ^^^^ 
Thomas Bradford. 

The Ninth having been selected to form part of the 
Army of Occupation in France, were formed, in 
Norember, in brigade with the fifth and twenty*first 
regiments, under Major-Oeneral Sir Thomas Brisbane, 
and quartered at Boulogne. In December they were 
removed to Compiegne. 

A reduction taking place in the strength of the 
army, the second battalion was disbanded at Chatham 
on the 24th of December. 

From Compiegne the Ninth marched, in January, ^^^^ 
1816, to the vicinity of Valenciennes, and were quar- 
tered at St. Amand. In August they were encamped 
at the village of Aire, subsequently on the glacis of 
Valenciennes, and on the 22nd of October, they were 
reviewed with the British, Danish, and Saxon forces, 
on the plain of St. Denain. After the review, the 
regiment returned to St. Amand. 

In the spring of 1817, the establishment was reduced 
from a thousand to eight hundred rank and file. 

The strength of the British contingent of the Army 
of Occupation being reduced, the fifth, Nin th, and a 
battalion of the Bifle Brigade, were formed in brigade 
under Major-General Sir John Lambert. 

Leaving St. Amand in April, the regiment marched 
into village cantonments near Cambray; in July it 
encamped on the glacis of Cambray;* in September 
it was removed to the glacis of Valenciennes, and on 
the 6th of that month it was reviewed with the British 
army, by the King of Prussia. The Ninth were also 



* While the regiment was at Cambray, Major Ferrari was killed by a 
fall £n»m the rampart into the ditch. 



80 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1817 among the troops reviewed, near Bouchain, by His 
Royal Highness the Duke of Kent ; and they passed 
the winter in village quarters near Cambray. 

1818 The regiment left its village cantonments in the 
beginning of June, 1818, and pitched its tents on the 
glacis of Cambray, from whence it was removed, in 
October, to the camp at Noylle sur Selle, preparatory 

- to the general review of the Army of Occupation, by 
the Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, Prince of 
Orange, and Grand Dukes Constantine and Michael, 
which took place on the 23rd of October. 

After this review, the Army, of Occupation withdrew 
from France. The Ninth marched to Calais, where 
they embarked for England, and landing at Dover and 
Ramsgate, marched from thence to Winchester, where 
they received orders to hold themselves in readiness to 
embark for the West Indies. At the same time the 
establishment was reduced to thirty-nine officers, 
thirty-five Serjeants, thirty corporals, twenty two drum- 
mers, and six hundred and twenty private soldiers. 

1819 The regiment left Winchester on the 30th of January, 
1819, embarked at Gosport on the 3rd of February, 
and arrived at Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, on the 3rd of 
April. On the 7th it landed, and was inspected by 
Lieut.-General Lord Combermere; after the inspec- 
tion the head-quarters and five companies, commanded 
by Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, sailed to the island of St. 
Vincent; three companies, under Brevet Lieut.- 
Colonel Peebles, to Dominica; and two companies, 
under Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Lambert, to St Lucia. 

On the 8th of July, the regiment was inspected by 
Major-General Robinson ; on the 14th, Captain Siborn 
died, being the first officer lost by the regiment in the 
West Indies. 



REOTMBNT OF FOOT. 



8t 



3C- ? 

St. '' 

lit.- 
jes, 

I* V 
by 
km 
Ihe 



The Ninth were stationed at St. Vincent^ Dominica^ 1820 
and St. Lucia, until February, 1821, when a general 1821 
change of quarters taking place in the Windward and 
Leeward islands, they were removed to Grenada and 
Trinidad, and in April two companies were detached 
to Tobago. 

Colonel Cameron having been promoted to the rank 
of Major-General, was succeeded in the Lieut.-Colonelcy 
by Colonel Nathaniel Blackwell, who arrived at 
Grenada towards the end of 1821. 

In this year the establishment was reduced from ten 
to eight companies. 

Thirty-two recruits arrived from England in March, 1822 
1822 ; they were attacked by the yellow fever before 
they quitted the transport, and Major Loftus and 
twenty-six recruits died in a few days. 

For several years the regiment was stationed at 1823 
Grenada, Trinidad, and Tobago^ the only changes 
being a slight variation in the number of companies 
at each island, made from time to time as the circum- 
stances of the service required. In 1825 the head- 1825 
quarters were removed from Grenada to Trinidad : in 
the same year two companies were added to the esta- 
blishment, and Colonel Campbell was appointed to the 
Lieut.-Colonelcy. The regiment was divided into 
six service and four depot companies ; a few officers and 
soldiers were withdrawn from the West Indies, and the 
depdt companies were established at Albany barracks. 
Isle of Wight. 

Orders arriving for the return of the regiment to 1826 
England, the following general order was issued, dated 
Barbadoes, 24th November, 1826 : — 

'The Waterloo transport being about to sail for 
' Trinidad, where, after disembarking that part of the 



o 



82 



THE NINTH, OK EAST NORFOLK 



1826 'eighty-sixth regiment now on board, she is destined 

* to receive the head-quarters and a portion of the 
'Ninth regiment, and convey them to England; 
' Lieut.- General Sir Henry Warde avails himself of 
'this opportunity, to express to Major Taylor, com- 
'manding, the very high sense he entertains of the 

* general good conduct and discipline, maintained by 
'that corps, during the long period he has had the 
' honour and pleasure of having it under his command, 

* and his best thanks are therefore due to the whole of 
' the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men, and 
'particularly to Major Taylor, for the very zealous 
' and praiseworthy manner in which he has conducted 
' the command, since he has been placed at the head 
' of the regiment.' 

In December, the companies at Grenada, and also 
those at Tobago, embarked for England, and, in the 
182'7 beginning of February, 1827, the last company arrived 
at Pl3rmouth. During the eight years the Ninth 
were stationed in the West Indies, eight officers and 
two hundred and seventy-one soldiers died of disease. 

Soon after its arrival in England, the regiment re- 
ceived new arms ; and Major Taylor succeeded Colonel 
Campbell in the lieut.-colonelcy. During the summer 
four hundred recruits were trained and returned fit 
for duty, under the zealous and unremitting superin- 
tendence of Adjutant Brownrigg, and in June, when 
Major-General Sir John Cameron inspected the regi- 
ment, he eis:pressed the great pleasure he should have 
in reporting the very gratifying results of the exertions 
of the officers, in the high condition into which the 
corps had been so speedily brought, after its return 
from the West Indies. 

A new pair of colours, bearing the honorary inscrip- 



REOIMSm' OF FOOT. 



83 



tions acquired by the regiment during the war of 1327 
Spanish and Portuguese independence^ having been 
prepared by General Sir Robert Brownrigg, they were 
presented, on the 25th of September, by Lady Came- 
ron, consort of Major-General Sir John Cameron, who 
had so often led the Ninth to battle and to victory. 
This very interesting ceremony was performed in the 
Grand Square, at Devonport, the whole garrison taking 
part in the spectacle. 

On the regiment quitting this station, the following 
garrison orders were issued^ dated 4th October, 1827 : — 

'The first division of the Ninth regiment will em- 
'bark from the dock-yard on Saturday morning at 

* seven o'clock, and the baggage at four o'clock p.m. on 
'Friday. The remaining companies will be concen- 
' trated in the citadel. 

' This regiment is naturally endeared to Major- 
' General Sir John Cameron, by long and intimate as- 
' sociation ; expressions of marked approval, which the 
' appearance, interior system, and conduct of the corps, 

* undeniably claim from the General Commanding, arc, 

* therefore, particularly in accordance with his private 
'feelings. 

' The Major-General has watched with lively interest ^ 

* the unremitting exertions of Lieut.^Colonel Taylor, 
' and the officers under him, to form the numerous re- 
'cruits, and improve the battalion, and warmly con- 
'gratulates the lieut.-colonel on the proof of success 
' exhibited by the steadiness and correct movement of 
' the men, at the inspection on the Ist instant. 

' The Major-General takes leave of the Ninth regi- 
*men with sensible regret; his best wishes will ever 
' attend the officers, non-commissioned officers, and 

* private soldiers.' -<! « i > v . 

g2 



84 



THE NINTH, OB EAST NORFOLK 



1827 After landing at Liverpool, the regiment marched 
to Manchester, Stockport, and Oldham, and its condi- 
tion was commended at the autumnal inspection, by 
Major-Oeneral Harris. 

1828 In the summer of 1828, the regiment was removed 
to Bolton and Blackburn ; in October it embarked at 
Liverpool for Ireland, and after landing at Belfast, 
occupied the barracks at that place, vrith two com- 
panies detached to Downpatrick and Carrickfergus. 

1829 At these quarters the Ninth remained during the 
year 1829, and the spring of 1830, during which time 
its condition was commended at three inspections by 
Major-General Thornton, who passed very high enco- 

1830 oiiums on its appearance and efficiency. In June, 1830, 
the regiment marched to Newry, Armagh, and Cavan, 
and was employed in preserving the public peace, on 
several occasions when riots had been apprehended. 

In September, the regiment proceeded to Dublin, 
and was stationed in Richmond barracks. 

1831 From Dublin, the regiment marched in May, 1831, 
to Limerick; in October the head quarters were 
removed to Oalway ; but they returned to Limerick in 
December. 

1832 In January, 1S32, the regiment proceeded to Fer- 
moy, from whence it was removed in March to Cork, 
where it was stationed eight months. 

At Cork, the Ninth were divided into six service 
and four depdt companies. The depdt companies pro- 
ceeded to Fermoy ; and the service companies embarked 
on the 24th of November, on board the Jupiter for the 
Mauritius. 

1833 Sailing from Plymouth in January, 1833, the service 
companies arrived in April, at the island of Mauritius, 
so called by the Dutch in 1598, in honour of Maurice 



RBOiMBNT OF FOOT. 



Hi 



Prince of Ofange, but the French designated it the Isle 1833 
of France. Atthbieland, which has been celebrated for 
a fine climate and excellent air, the Ninth remained 
for two years and five months. 

On the death of General Sir Robert Brownrigg, 
Bart.. G.C.B. in May, 1833, King WilUam IV. con- 
ferred the colonelcy on Major-General Sir John Cam- 
eron, K.C.B. an officer who had served at the head of 
the regiment in many desperate engagements. 

In April the service companies left Mah^bourg, and 1834 
Returned to Port Louis, where they were stationed until 
September, 1835, when they embarked for Bengal, i835 
and arrived at Calcutta in November following. 

The depdt companies were removed from Ireland in 
February to Chatham, and were embarked for India in 
June; they arrived at Calcutta in October. 

After doing duty at Fort William for two months, 
the regiment proceeded to Chinsurah, where it arrived 
in January, 1836. 1836 

The Ninth were stationed at Chinsurah until De- 1839 
cember, 1838, when they were removed to Hazaree- 1838 
baugh, where they remained during the year 1839. i83g 

In January, 1840, they marched to \gra, and from 1840 
thence to Meerut in October following. 

On the 1st December, 1841, the regiment proceeded 1841 
from Meerut en route to Ferozepore, for the purpose 
of being employed on active service beyond the Indus. 
Before proceeding with the details of this campaign, 
it is necessary that a survey should be taken of the 
state of affairs in Affghanistan, in order to form a 
correct estimate of the nature of the service on which 
the regiment was to be employed. 

Shah Shoojah, who was reinstated by the British in 
1839 on the throne of Cabool, continued Unpopular 



86 



THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



tl 



1841 Mrith his subjecto. The insurrections fomented by the 
Affghan chiefs, during the years 1840 and 1841, against 
bis autibority, rendered the presence of a British force 
necessary in order to secure his sovereignty. This 
state of things obuld not be of long continuance, and a 
crisis soon arrived. The Affghan chiefs, and their 
wild adherents, surrounded the city of Cabool, in 
November, 1841 ; this was followed by the treacherous 
murder of the English envoys and other officers; and 
although the Anglo-Indian troops maintained their 
position against overpowering numbers of insurgents 
for Bourse weeks, yet a failure of provisions, in a country 
removed by distance from the possibility of succour, 
rendered it necessary to retire, in reliance on the faith 
of a convention, towards Jellalabad. The faithless 
enemy, stained by the foul crime of assassination, broke 
the truce, and on the British quitting Cabool in 
January, 1842, they were treacherously attacked by 
the A%hans, who, taking advantage of the fastnesses 
of the country, and the severity of the climate, mas- 
sacred, or took prisoners, the greater part of the army. 

The Government resolved to inflict retribution for 
such treacherotis proceedings, and an army was accord- 
ingly assembled under Major- General Pollock, for the 
purpose of relieving the troops under Colonel Sir 
Robert Sale, who had gallantly defended Jellalabad, 
against the Affghans, and rtoisted all the efforts of 
Akbar Khan, notwithstanding that the wretched mud 
walls and fortifications thrown up by the garrison, were 
frequently destroyed by the earthquakes which ocqurred. 

Her Majesty's Ninth regiment of foot formed part of 

the force selected for this service, and proceeded on the 

4th January, 1842, from Ferosepore in progress to 

^ Affghanistan, and in April arrived in the vicinity of 



RBOIMKNT OF FOQT. 



87 



the Khyber pacNi, which the enemy had for some days i842 
occupied in great numbers, and had fortified the 
mouth of the pass with a strong breast-work of stones 
and bushes. Precipitous and rocky hills, on the right 
and left, presented great natural obstacles to the 
ascent of troops, and it was an undertaking of no ordi- 
nary difficulty to gain the summit of those heights, 
defended, as they were, by a numerous body of the 
enemy ; the columns destined to accomplish this most 
important object, moved off simultaneously with the 
main column intended to assault the entrance, but 
were compelled to make a considerable detour to the 
right and left, to enable them to commence the ascent. 
The right column, consisting of four companies of Her 
Majesty's Ninth regiment of foot, and the same 
number of companies of the twenty-sixth and sixty- 
fourth native infantry, was under the command of 
laeut.'Colonel Taylor, of Her Majesty's Ninth regi- 
ment, and Major Anderson of the sixty-fourth native 
infantry. The left column, consisting of four com- 
panies of the Ninth foot, a similar number of companies 
of the twenty-sixth and sixty-fourth native infantry, 
together with four hundred jezaildbees, commanded 
by I^ieut.^Colonel Mosely and Major Huish, commenced 
the ascent, led by Captain Ferris, of the regiment of 



The following extract from Major-Qeneral Pollock's 
despatch, givep a graphic account of the operations : — 

' Both columns, after considerable opposition, which 
' they overcame in a most gallant style, succeeded in 
' routing the enemy, and gaining possession of the 
' crest of the hills on either side. While the flanking 
' columns were in prepress on the heights, I ordered 
' Captain Alexander, in command of the artillery, to 



St) 



THE NINTHi OH BAST NORFOLK 



1842' 



place the guns in position, and to throw shrapneU 
aniong^ the enemy when opportunity offered, which 
assisted much in their discomfiture. As Lieut.' 
Colonel Taylor, from the opposition he had met with, 
and the extremely difficult nature of the gpround, was 
some time in reaching the summit of the hill on the 
right, I detached a party (consisting of the grenadiers 
of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, and six companies of the 
fifty-third native infantry), under the command of 
Brigadier Wild, to assault it in front ; it was, however, 
so extremely steep near the top, that, notwithstanding 
the undaunted gallantry of the officers and men, they 
were unable to gain a footing on the summit, and, I 
regret to say, the enemy were enabled .to throw 
stones, with fatal effect, upon some of the leading 
grenadiers of the Ninth foot. Finding the heights in 
our possession, I now advanced the main column to 
the mouth of the Pass, and commenced destroying 
the barrier, which the enemy had evacuated on per- 
ceiving their position was turned ; a portion of the 
right and left columns being left to keep the heights 
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Moseley, and 
Major Anderson respectively. Major Huish and 
Lieut.-Colonel Taylor continued their advance to 
crown the hills in front, and on each side, which were 
covered with the enemy, who appeared determined to 
contest every inch of ground ; but nothing could resist 
the gallantry of our troops, who carried everything 
before them.' 
• Fi^om Major-General McCaskill (Lieut.-Colonel 
of the Ninth foot), commanding the infantry division, 
who was on this occasion commanding the rear-guard, 
I have received every assistance; as likewise from 
Brigadier Wild: — to Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, my 



HeOlliBNT OF FOOT. 



89 






' warmegt acknowledgmeiits are due for tht jririt, jg42 
* coolness, and judgment with which he discharged the 
' duties entrusted to him.' 

The columns under the command of Lieut.- Colonel 
Taylor ** for the capture of the heightier on the right 
entrance to the Khyber Pass, were formed at day- 
break on the 5th April, 1842, in three divisions of four 
companies each, protected on the right flank by a 
squadron of Her Majesty's third light dragoons, under 
Lieutenant Unett, and in this order, with skirmishers 
and supports in front, advanced, driving a considerable 
body of the enemy up the hills, which were scaled and 
crowned in spite of a determined opposition. This 
effected, the troops moved to their left to clear the 
redoubts commanding the entrance to the Pass, which 
were abandoned on the approach of the British, the 
enemy suffering severely in their retreat. Lieut.-Col- 
onel Taylor finally succeeded in clearing off the enemy 
from their positions on the right of the road to Ali 
Musjid, although an obstinate resistance was offered on 
several points, especially over the bridge, where the 
enemy had concentrated in force. Having been rein- 
forced by a detachment of the thirty-third native 
infantry. Captain Lushington, of the Ninth r^ment 
of foot, proceeded with it, and the light company of 
the Ninth foot, to the right, to take the enemy's posi- 
tion in reverse, whilst Lieut.- Colonel Taylor attacked 
in front. This had the desired effect of forcing their 



* Lieut.-CoIonel Taylor's right advanced column consisted of tv/o 
companies of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, four companies of the 
twenty-sixth native infantry ; Major Anderson's rear right flank 
column, one and a half company of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, four 
and a half companies of the sixty-fourlh native infantry, and one 
hundred jezailchees (Mackeson's). 






90 



THE NINTH, OR KAIT NORFOLK 



1842 immediate retreat, and clearing the bridg'*. No 
further opposition wai offered by the enemy, who 
retreated on Ali Musjid ; while Lieut. Colonel Taylor 
pushed on, and occupied the tower and hill to the left, 
within about a mile of that place.* 

The regiment sustained the loss of Lieutenant James 
SlatoT Gumming, a very promising officer, who was 
killed on the heights above the Pass, while in command 
of No. 6 company, and Captain Ogle was wounded. 

The complete success of the attacks made by the 
force in advance, rendered unnecessary any active 
operations on the part of the division under Major- 
General Mc Caskill, and the troops under H^s com- 
mand bivouacked at a spot about two miles vithin the 
Pass, without any molestation iVom the enemy. 

The loss sustained by the Ninth regiment of 
foot on the dth April, 1842, in forcing the Khyber 
Pass, consisted of one colour«serJcant and six pri- 
vates killed ; and one drummer and thirty'One privates 
wounded. 

The regiment arrived at Jellalabud on the 16th 
April, 1842, and remained there until the 20th August 
following, when it proceeded m route to Cabool, 
arriving at Oundamuck on the morning of the 23rd of 
that month. Here information was received that the 
enemy under the Chiefs Hadji Ali, and Kliyroollah 
Khan, occupied the village and fort of Mammoo Khail, 
situate about two miles from Oundamuck, and it 
was determined upon attacking them the following 
moming.f 

Accordingly, on the 24th August, at 4 o'clock am.. 



* Lieut.-Colonol Taylor's despstoh. 
t Miyor-Generel Pollock's despatch. 



RBOIMKMT OF FOOT. 



the troops advanced. On clearing the broken ground 1842 
in front, the infantry were divided into two columns, 
with a wing of Her Mi^esty's Ninth foot at the head 
of each. The enemy retired on the approach of the 
Anglo-Indian troops, who entered the village, the 
fields in front of which were purposely flooded to 
prevent their advance. Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, with 
some comjpanies of the Ninth foot and the twenty- 
sixth native infantry, occupied part of the heights in 
front of the village of Kooclec Khail, but as a position 
there was deemed unadvisable, Major General Mc 
Caskill received orders to retire on Mammoo Khail, 
about two miles dbtant. It was considered of im- 
portance to hold Mammoo Khail, which was the 
enemy's position, and the whole camp was brought 
there. Major Davis, of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, 
being selected to command the party ordered for its 
protection, a duty of considerable importance, as it was 
by no means improbable that the enemy would take 
advantage of the advance to attack the camp. 

Major-Qeneral Mc Caskill, in his despatch to Cap' 
tain Ponsonby (Assistant Adjutant General), states 
as follows, 

' Camp, Mammoo Khail, 
' Sir, Auffust 25, 1842. 

'I beg to detail to you, for the information of 
' Major-General Pollock, C.B. the operations of the 
' right column in the affair of yesterday, after it had 
' become separated from that of the left, on the com- 
' plete success of the combined attack on the enemy's 
' position in advance of Mammoo Khail. 

' You are aware that this force consisted of four 
' companies of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, and six of 
' the twenty-sixth regiment of native infantry, under 
' the immediate command of Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, 



:* 



r 



92 



THK NINTH, OR KAST NORFOLK 



1842 « K.H. of the formor corps. The enemy had fled 
' before our troops, and abandoned the village o* 

* Kooclee Khail, but reinforced strongly by the fngi- 
' tives driven back by Brigadier Tulloch's column, he 
' assumed a menacing attitude, and occupied in force 
' a range of heights and detached summits in the 
' Soofaid Koh. The most salient of these was a spur 
' of the mountain within long musket-range of the 
' buildings of Kooclee Khail. From this, and from 
' other eminences of the most precipitous character, 

* the Ooloose were dislodged with the utmost spirit 
' and gallantry, by the details under Lieut.-Colonel 
' Taylor, aided, in the most effective manner, by a 
' party of Captain Broadfoot's corps of sappers and 

* miners. The enemy were reinforced from time to 
' time, and made many bold attacks, and kept up a 
< sharp fire of jezails from the loftiest peaks of the 

* mountain, but our troops, though so much pressed 
' as to be compelled to recede from gpround which they 
' had gained in one direction, maintained an advanced 
' position among the hills, until withdrawn by order of 
' Major-General Pollock, first into the plateau in firont 
' of the village of Kooclee Khail, which they burnt 
' down, and then back upon the present site of encamp- 
' ment. In retiring over the plain between the two 
' principal villages, the movement was covered by a 

* squadron of the fifth, and another of the tenth light 
' cavalry, but the attempts of the Ooloose to annoy, 
' were timid and feeble in the extreme, and our troops 
' did not sustain a single casualty from their effects. 

* Lieut.-Colonel Taylor speaks in high terms of the 

* support which he received from Major Huish, 
' commanding the twenty-sixth regiment of native 

* infantry, who was wounded, and afterwards from 
' Captain Handscomb, of the same corps, and from 



) 



'^^ 



;-f^^ 



RBOIMBMT OP FOOT. 



INI 



4^' 



Captain Ogle, commanding Her Majesty's Nimth 1842 
foot ; and I beg to be permitted to bear my testi- 
mony to the merits of the Lieut.-Colonel's own 
exertions on this occasion, as well as to express my 
sense of the gallantry of all the troops engaged, and 
to acknowledge the able assistance which I received 
from Captain Havelock, Her Majesty's thirteenth 
light infantry (Deputy Assistant Adjutant General), 
Lieutenant Mayno, of the thirty-seventh regiment 
of native infantry (Officiating Deputy Assistant 
Quartermaster-General), and Lieutenant Bethune, 
Her Majesty's Ninth foot, (my Aide-de-camp). The 
intrepidity also with which Captain Broadfoot's 
sappers and miners aided in the attack on one of 
the advanced heights, deserves my marked com- 
mendation. 

' I have &c., 

'John McGaskill, 
' Mqjor-Oeneral, Commanding Infantry Dimion.' 



-f. 



>W,K' 



'-4i 



Captain G. Broadfoot of the Sappers and Miners, 
who commanded the right column, received directions 
to take a party of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, the 
Sappers being worn out, except about six men, and 
attack the hills ; the first and second heights were 
carried at the point of the bayonet, and flanking parties 
having turned the shoulders of the high range, the 
assailants were advancing when the main force arrived, 
and further progress was stayed. 

The loss of the Ninth foot was limited to two pri- 
vates killed; one oflScer (Captain R. S. Edmonds) 
severely wounded ; and one colour-seijeant and seven 
privates wounded ; also three rank and file killed at 
Mammoo Khail when the regiment was employed in 
destroying the forts and villages. 



94 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1842 The Ninth foot remained at Mammoo Khail until 
the 30th August, when it returned to Gundamuck, 
and on the 8th September was engaged against the 
troops of Mahomed Khan and the Ghilzie chie& at 
the pass of JugduUttck, who were completely defeated. 
The regiment in this action had one serjeant and two 
privates killed ; and one seijeant and sixteen privates 
wounded. On the 9th September the troops advanced 
to Kutta Sung without experiencing opposition. 

On the I2th September the regiment was again en- 
gaged with the enemy in the Tezeen valley, and on the 
day following had the honor of sharing in the victory 
obtained at the Tezem Pass and Huft Kotul, over 
Mahomed Akbar Khan at the head of sixteen thou- 
sand men, a considerable portion being cavalry. 

Major-General Pollock, after reporting the arrival 
of the troops at Tezeen, on the 11th September, where 
he was joined by Major-General McCaskill, with the 
second division, thus proceeds : — 

' On the 12th I halted in consequence of the cattle 
' of the second division having suffered from the effects 
' of fatigue, caused by their forced march : this halt 
' the enemy imagined to be the result of hesitation, and 
' in the afternoon, attacked the piquets on the left 
' flank, and became so daring, that I considered it 
' necessary to send Lieut .-Colonel Taylor,* with 250 



* The following letter from Lieut.-Colonel Taylor, upon whom 
the command of the Ninth foot devolved, on Colonel Mc Caskiirs 
appointment to the command of a division of the army, deUdls the 
operations alluded to by Major-General Pollock : — 

' Camp, Khoord Cabool, 
Sib, September 13, 1842. 

* I have to report, for the information of Major-General 
* Pollock, C.B., commanding the troops in Affghanistan, that 
' agreeably to his orders, I proceeded, at half-past five o'clock yes- 
' terday evening, with 2S0 men of Her Majesty's Ninth, to the sup- 
' port of the guards in charge of the public cattle feeding on the ie' ; 



RBOIMBNT OF FOOT. 



95 



' men of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, to drive them ^^42 
' back ; some sharp fighting took place, and the enemy 
' was driven up the neighbouring hills, from the crests 
' of which they kept up a heavy fire. Lieut.-Colonel 
' Taylor, however, with a small party, crept up one 

* end of the hill, unperceived by the enemy, who were 
' hotly engaged in their front, and lay concealed until 

* joined by a few more of his men, when, rushing up 



lat 
P- 



of the camp in the Tezeen valley, which were much pressed by the 
enemy. On clearing the left piquet, I was joined by Major Huish 
with a small party of the twenty-sixth native infantry. I threw 
forward a strong body of skirmishers, who qmckly drove back 
those of the enemy on the plain, pursuing them to a range of low 
hills, where they made a stand till dislodged by our advance : fur- 
ther on, I found the enemy, in force, from five to six hundred, had 
taken post along the crest and on the top of a range of steep hills 
running near a mile from the northward into the Tezeen valley ; 
those towards the north were assailed by Captain Lushington, of 
Her Miyesty's Ninth foot, with the left support and skirmishers, 
whilst I directed the attack against their front and left flank, which 
being turned, I ascended the heights between two ridges, which 
concealed my approach till close to the summit, and within twenty 
yards of their main body, consisting of more than three hundred 
men. Collecting thirty to forty men, with Lieutenants Elm- 
hirst, Lister, and Vigors, I ordered bayonets to be fixed, and the 
enemy to be charged, which was done with such resolution and 
efiect, that the whole mass, taken by surprise, was pushed headlong 
down the hilb, nor did they rally till out of musket shot. Their 
loss must have been veiy severe, as I observed numbers lagging 
behind to carry off their killed and wounded. As it was getting 
dark, I deemed it imprudent to pursue the enemy further, ordered 
the halt to be sounded, and, after remaining in possession of their 
position for half an hour, retired without molestation. It afRmls me 
great gratification to bear testimony to the spirit and gallantry 
displayed by officers and men on this occasion, especially Major 
Huish, of the twenty-sixth re^mcnt native infantry. Captain Lush- 
ington, and those concerned in the charge on the enemy. 
* I beg to transmit a return of the killed and wounded. 

* I have, &c. 
' Captain Ponsonby, ' A. B. Tatu>b, 

Aasiatant Adjutant-General.* ' Lieut.-Colonel Ninth Foot.' 



96 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1842 ' on the flank of the astounded Affghans, he inflicted 
a severe lesson, pouring in a destructive fire upon 
them, as they fled down the hill. A chieftain was 
found among the slain, who, it is supposed, was the 
brother of Khodabux Khan. The enemy remained 
inoffensive on our left flank, in consequence of this 
very well-planned and gallant affair of Lieut.-Colonel 
Taylor's, and withdrew to the right, where they com- 
menced a furious attack upon a piquet, consisting of 
eighty men of the sixtieth regiment of native infantry, 
commanded by Lieutenant Montgomery, who sus- 
tained the assault with great resolution, until rein- 
forcements reached him, when the enemy were beaten 
off. In this attack the piquet had four killed ; Lieu- 
tenant Montgomery and seventeen men were wounded. 
The enemy came so close, that frequent recourse was 
had to the bayonet. Their attempts on the piquets 
continued through the night, but were invariably 
unsuccessful. 

' The valley of Tezeen, where we were encamped, 
is completely encircled by lofty hills, and, on the 
morning of the 13th September, it was perceived 
that the Affghans had occupied in great force every 
height not already crowned by our troops : I com- 
menced my march towards the mouth of the Tezeen 
Pass, where I left two guns, two squadrons of Her 
Majesty*s third light dragoons, a party of the first 
light cavalry, and third irregular cavalry. 

' The Pass of Tezeen affords great advantages to an 
enemy occupying the heights, and on the present 
occasion, Mahomed Akbar neglected nothing to 
render its natural difficulties as formidable as numbers 
could make it. Our troops mounted the heights, and 
the Affghans, contrary to their general custom. 



a 
a 
a 

ti 
t] 
n 

01 

li 



RBOIUBNT OF FOOT. 



97 






y 



in 

Bt 



Itn 
It 
to 
rs 
id 



'advanced to meet them, and a desperate struggle 1842 
' ensued : indeed,* their defence was so obstinate, that 
' the British bayonet, in many instances, alone 

* decided the contest. The light company of Her 

* Majesty's Ninth foot, led by Captain Lushington, 

* who, I regret to say, was wounded in the head, 
' ascending the hills on the left of the Pass under a 

* heavy cross fire, charged and overthrew their oppo- 

* nents, leaving several horses and their riders, sup' 
' posed to be chiefe, d*?ad on the hill ; the slaughter 

* was considerable, and the fight continued during the 
' greater part of the day, the enemy appearing resolved 
' that we should not ascend the Huft Kotul : one 
' spirit seemed to pervade all, and a determination to 
' conquer overcame the obstinate resistance of the 
' enemy, who were at length forced from their numerous 
' and strong positions, and our troops mounted the 
' Huft Kotul, giving three cheers when they reached 
' the summit.' 

In the operations among the lower hills to the head 
of the Huft Kotul, on the right flank of the advanced 
guard of the army. Captain Borton, at the head of a 
party of the Ninth foot, made a gallant charge upon 
a strongly posted part of the enemy, and drove them 
away ; the foe showed a great deal of boldness, however, 
and made repeated attempts to recover his ground, 
taking advantage of the necessarily slow advance of 
the supporting parties, from the steep and difficult 
nature of the hills.* 

The Ninth foot, in the actions in the Tezem valley and 
on the Huji Kotul, on the I2th and 13th September, 
1842, had two Serjeants, one drummer, and eight rank 



Major Skinner's (Slst Kcgt.) Report. 

H 



98 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1842 and file killed : one officer (Captain Lushington), 
severely wounded ; and one serjeant, and twenty-five 
rank and file wounded. 

Major*General Pollock acknowledged the assistance 
he received from Major- General McCaskill, who com- 
manded the main column, and from Lieut.-Colonel 
Taylor, commanding the Ninth foot. 

Major-General McCaskill reported the valuable 
services he received from his aide-de-camp. Lieu- 
tenant Bethune, of the Ninth foot, in the affair at 
the Huft Kotul. 

In these actions the enemy suffered severely, having 
several hundred killed, besides losing their gunS and 
three standards. 

The enemy being completely dispersed, the army 
pursued the march, and encamped at Khoord Cabool, 
without encountering further opposition. The regi- 
ment arrived at Cabool on the 15th September, and 
encamped on the race-course. On the following 
morning the British colours were hoisted in the Bala 
Hissar, on the spot most conspicuous from the city ; the 
band of the Ninth foot playing the National Anthem, 
* God save the Queen,* and a royal salute being fired 
from the guns of the horse artillery, the whole of the 
troops present giving three cheers. The colours were 
left in the Bala Hissar to be hoisted daily as long as 
the troops should continue there, Lieut.-Colonel Taylor 
being ordered to remain in charge of the infantry, 
until relieved by a native regiment from the force 
under Major-General Nott. 

One of the gratifying results of these victories was 
the release of several ladies, and of certain officers who 
had been detained in captivity by the Affghans, from 
the commencement of the outbreak towards the end of 



■"> 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



99 



1 
f 



the year 1841. The Ninth foot had not, however, com- 1842 
pleted its mission, for the enemy having collected in 
the vicinity of Charekar, Major- General McCaskill was 
directed to proceed with a force to disperse them, and 
on the 26th of September the regiment marched to 
Kohistan. Two days afterwards the troops pitched 
their tents within four miles of Istdlif. This town, 
consisting of masses of houses and forts, is built on the 
slope of a mountain, in the rear of which arc yet 
loftier eminences shutting into a defile which leads to 
Toorkistan, and in no way can this place of abode of 
fifteen thousand people be approached but by sur- 
mounting ranges of hills separated by deep ravines, or 
traversing, by narrow roads, its gardens, vineyards, 
and orchards, fenced in with strong walls ; the whole 
of them, with the mountain side and tops of the houses, 
were occupied by Jezailchies, and the strongest proof 
is afforded that the enemy, after this disposition, con- 
sidered the place unassailable, by their having retained 
within the town the wives and children, not only of 
the inhabitants, but of thousands of refugees from 
Cabool.* 

On the morning of the 29th September, 1842, soon 
after daylight, the troops proceeded to the assault of 
Istalif, and after traversing the plain in perfect order, 
passed nearly fi'om the left to the right of the enemy's 
position; the attacks of the Jezailchies from the 
gardens, who were numerous and most audacious, 
were repressed by the light troops and guns ; and on the 
column arriving in front of the village of Ismillah, a 
coml'ned attack was made on this point, Brigadier 
Tulloch's brigade assailing its left, and Brigadier 



Major-General McCaskill's despatch. 



" 



■ 



u2 



100 



TUK MNTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1842 Stacy the right. Her Majesty's Ninth foot, vying in 
steady courage with the twenty-sixth native infantry 
and the sappers under Captain Broadfoot, rushed upon 
the gardens, which were filled with bold and skilful 
marksmen, and their rapid aud unhesitating advance 
in a short time left the enemy but one resource, that 
of flight. Shortly after this assault, the three light 
companies of Her Majesty's forty first, the forty -second 
and forty-third native infantry, covering their own 
columuj got into action, and, on their side, stormed 
the village and vineyard with distinguished gallantry, 
and the combination being persevered in, the enclosures, 
forts, heights, suburbs, and town were successively 
captured, the enemy being driven from them and 
pursued with a rapidity that left no time to rally ; a 
singular spectacle then presented itself, in the escape 
up the mountain-side of the women and children from 
the place, to which no interception was offered. As 
parties of Affghans still occupied some lofty heights, 
the mountain- train ascended them by a dizzy pathway, 
and by its effective fire dispersed the fugitives. 

In the capture of Istalif, deemed impregnable by 
the Affghans, property of every description, much 
of it plundered from the British in 1841, fell into the 
possession of the Anglo-Indian force ; two guns, brass 
field-pieces, were also taken, and one of them was 
seized with such promptitude, that its captor. Lieu- 
tenant Elmhirst, of Her Majesty's Ninth foot, turned 
its fire upon the fugitives with some effect. The loss 
of the assailants was not great, the advance of ofiicers 
and men being too rapid and decisive to allow the 
sharp fire of the enemy telling much upon them, 
particularly as the Affghans, deceived by the direction 
of the leconnaisance made by Major-General McCaskill 






/ 



REGIMENT OP FOOT. 



101 



on the 28tli, had expected the attack on their left, 1342 
where they had* consequently posted their guns and 
the ^lite of their force. J 

Brigadier TuUoch reported in ve)ry strong terms to 
Major- General McCaskill the good conduct on the 
above occasion, of his Brigade-Major, Captain Smith, 
of the Ninth foot. 

The NrNTH regiment had but one rank and file 
killed^ and one officer (Lieutenant Lister), one scrjeant, 
and thirteen rank and file wounded. 

In testimony of the services of the Ninth foot 
during the campaign in Affghanistan, Her Majesty 
was graciously pleased to authorise the regiment to 
bear the word "Cabool 1842" on its colci^rs and 
r ^ pointments. 

The regiment returned to Cabool on the 7th October, 
and arrived on t'.e 18th December, 1842, at Feroze- 
pore. 

The regiment marched from Ferozepore on the 14th 1843 
January, 1843, en route to Mobarickpore, at which place 
it arrived on the 31st January, and was encamped there 
until the 12th April following, when it proceeded to 
Subathoo. 

The Ninth regiment marched from Subathoo to 1844 
Kussowlie on the 8th March, 1844, where it continued 
until November, 1845, when it proceeded to Umballa, 
arriving at that station on the 28th of the same month. 

The amicable relations, which had for some years 1845 
been maintained with the government of the Punjaub, 
were at this juncture disturbed; the Sikh army, 
which had been formed by Runjeet Singh, and 
trained by French and Italian refugees in his service 
according to European tactics, had, since the decease 
of that politic ruler in 1839, become the dominant 



»l 



^1 



> 

I 

j I 
< I 



102 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1845 power, and finally coerced, or induced the Lahore 
authorities to commence hostilities. Accordingly the 
Sikh army, having crossed the Sutlej on the 11th 
December, 1845,mvested Ferozepore on one side, and 
took up an entrenched position at the village of Feroze- 
shah, situate about ten miles in advance of Ferozeporo, 
and nearly the same distance from Moodkee, — the enemy 
placing in this camp one hundred and eight pieces of 
cannon with a force exceeding fifty thousand men. 

So unexpected and unprovoked an aggression, in a 
time of profound peace, rendered a series of difficult 
combinations for the protection of the frontier in- 
dispensable ; and accordingly the Ninth foot, and other 
regiments, were hastily assembled under the personal 
command of the Commander-in-Chief in India, General 
Sir Hngh Gough, in order to repel the Sikh invasion. 
The caemy remained inactive in the vicinity of Fero- 
zepore for some days, contenting themselves with 
stopping the diks, and plundering the country, until 
the 17th December, when they marched to intercept 
the approach of the Army of the Sutlej, which was 
advancing to the relief of Ferozepore from Umballa. 

On the 11th December, the Ninth Regiment left 
Umballa, and after a harassing march of one hundred 
and fifty miles, along roads of heavy sand, arrived at 
Moodkee on the afternoon of the 18th, having endured 
every kind of privation, the incessant labour required 
of the troops leaving them scarcely an hour's uninter- 
rupted repose before they were called upon for renewed 
exertions. About three o'clock p. m. the army, suffer- 
ing severely from the want of water, and in a state of 
great exhaustion, received intelligence of the advance 
of the Sikhs on Moodkee, and the troops had scarcely 
time to get under arms, and to move to their positions^ 



RBOIMBNT OF FOOT. 



103 



? 



before the information was confirmed. The horse ar- 16I5 
tillery and cavalry were immediately pushed forward^ 
the infantry and field batteries moving in support. 
Two miles were scare ;.y passed, when the enemy, con- 
sisting of about tweniy thousand infantry, and an equal 
number of cavalry, with forty guns, were discovered 
in position, which they had either just taken up, or 
were advancing in order of battle. The country at 
this spot is a dead flat, dotted with sandy hillocks, and 
covered at short intervals with a low thick jungle, 
which formed an excellent screen for the infantry and 
guns of the enemy, from which they opened a severe 
cannonade upon the advancing troops, which was vi- 
gorously replied to by the horse artillery under Briga- 
dier Brooke. After the manoeuvres of the cavalry on 
the left and right flanks of the Sikhs, the infantry 
commenced their participation in the fight, and ad- 
vancing under Major-Generals Sir Henry G. W. Smith, 

Gilbert, and Sir John McCaskill (of the Ninth), 

attacked in echellon of lines the enemy's infantry, the 
wood and approaching darkness of night rendering 
them almost invisible. The great superiority of num- 
bers of the enemy necessarily caused their extended 
line to outflank the British, but the mo^ ments of the 
cavalry counteracted this advantage. Desperate was 
the opposition of the enemy, but the roll of fire from 
the infantry soon convinced the fiikh army of the 
inutility of resistance ; their > \ole force was driven 
from position to position with great slaughter, at times 
rallying, but the use of that never-failing weapon, the 
bayonet, terminated in their defeat ; night only saved 
them from further disaster, this st/>at conflict being 
maintained for an hour and a half of dim starlight, 
objects however rendered more obscure from the clouds 



__.. L- ^ ■'!»■ 



104 



TIIi: NINTH. OR KANT NORFOLK 



1845 of dust which arow from the landy plain. Night alone 
prevented the pursuit of the foe ; the force bivouacked 
on liio field for some hours ; and returned to their 
encampment, when it was ascertained that they had 
no enemy before them. 

In this manner was t chievod the first of a series of 
victories over the Sikh troops ; troops that had fought 
with the British army only throe years previously, in 
the advance on Cabool in 1842, and had been repeat- 
edly thanked in general orders for their services, 
sustaining as they did, at the forcing of the Khyber 
Pass, a loss equal to that of the Anglo-Indian force ;"* 
it appears therefore but reasonable to infer, that much 
of the skill evinced by the enemy in the disposition 
and arrangement of their army may bo in some degree 
attributed to the experience they gained by their co- 
operation in the Aifghan campaign ; proving themselves 
unquestionably at Moodkee, and in the succeeding 
conflicts, one of the best-disciplined and most powerful 



% 



* In a notification fron the Governor-General, in Council, dated 
from Benares on the X9th April, 1842, the following passage 
occurs: — 

" The Governor-General doemi it to be due to the troops of the 
" Maha Rajah Shere Singh, to eipresi his entire satisfaction with 
" their conduct, as reported to him, and to inform the army, that the 
*' loss sustained by the Silchsin the assault of the Khyber Pass, which 
<* was forced by them, is understood to have been equal to thatsus- 
*< tained by the troops of Her Majesty and of the Government of 
••India." 

And in a further notification, dated fh>m Simla on the 30th Sep- 
tember 1842, the Silihs are referred to in the following terms : — 

" The Governor-General has derived much satisfaction from the 
<* report made by M^jor-General Pollock, of the admirable conduct 
« of the troops of his Highness the Maha R^jah Shere Singh, acting 
'* in co-operation with the British Army. 

" The Governor-General mjuices in this now proof of the cord'al 
•' and good understanding which prevails between the British Gu- 
" vemment and that of Lahore," 






■ 



^: 



REGIMENT OP FOOT. 



105 



antagonists the British had ever encountered in 1845 
India. * 

The Ninth Foot sustained the loss of its Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, Major-General Sir John McCaskill, 
K.C.B. and K H., an officer to whom his country was 
indebted for long and valued servicOj who received a 
ball through his chest, on the advance of his division, 
(Third Infantry) and immediately expired.* The other 
casualties were two rank and file killed, one officer 
(Ensign Hanham), two Serjeants, and forty-seven rank 
and file wounded. 

On the 19th December, the army was concentrated 
at Moodhee, no further operations taking place until 
the 21st, when it moved by its left on Ferozepore ; and 
having on the march been reinforced by Major-General 
Sir John Littler's division of five thousand men from 
Ferozepore, General Sir Hugh Gough formed his 
forces in order of battle. It was then resolved to 
attack the enemy's entrenched camp at Ferozeshah, 
where they were posted in great force, and had a most 
formidable artillery ; their camp was a parallelogram, 
about a mile in length, and half that distance in breadth, 
the shorter sides looking towards the Sutlej and M ood- 
kee, and the longer towards Ferozepore and the open 
country. The plains, as at Moodkee, were covered 
with low jhow jungle, which added to the difficulty of 
the advance, which was made in four divisions; the 
left wing under the direction of the Governor-General 
(Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Hardinge), who had 
volunteered his services as second in command. One 
hundred guns of the enemy, nearly one-half of battering 

* See memoir of Colonel Sir John McCaskill in Appendix, 
page 131. 



) 



106 



THE NINTH, OR BAST NORFOLK 



1845 calibre, opened a heavy cannonade, which waa checked, 
but not silenced, by the far less numerous artillery of 
the assailants. In spite of this storm of shot and shell, 
the infantry gallantly advanced, and boldly carried 
these formidable entrenchments, throwing themselves 
upon the guns, and wresting them from the enemy. 
These exertions, however, only partially gained the 
batteries, and the soldiery had to face so dense a fire 
from the Sikhs from behind their guns, that the most 
heroic efforts could only carry a portion of the entrench- 
ment. Night now came on, and the conflict was every- 
where raging; but darkness did not bring a total 
cessation of hostilities, for about the middle of the 
night the Sikhs brought one of their heavy guns to bear 
upon that part of the field gained, and on which the 
troops had bivouacked. The gun was soon captured 
by the eightieth regiment; but the enemy, whenever 
moonlight revealed the position, still continued to 
harass the troops by the fire of their artillery. The 
long night at last wore away, and with daylight of the 
22nd December, came retribution. The infantry 
formed into line, supported on both flanks by horse 
artillery, whilst a fire was opened from the centre, 
aided by a flight of rockets. Here a masked battery 
played with great effect, dismounting the pieces and 
blowing up the tumbrils of the British, but at this 
juncture Sir Henry Hardinge placed himself at the head 
of the left wing, the right being led by Sir Hugh Gough. 
Unchecked by the opposing fire, the line advanced, 
and drove the foe rapidly out of the village of Fcroze- 
shah, and the encampment ; then changing front to the 
lefl;, continued to sweep the camp, bearing down all 
opposition. Eventually the Sikhs were dislodged 
from their whole position. The line now halted, and 



i 
i 
I 

I 
t 

c 

t 



a 
h 
ai 
w 



RBOIMBNT OF FOOT. 



107 



the two brave Icadora redo along its front, amid the 1845 
cheering of the soldien and the waving of the captured 
standard! of the Khalsa army. 

The British, masters of the entire field, now assumed 
a position on the ground they had so nobly won ; but 
their labours were not ended, for in less than two hours 
Sirdar TeJ Singh brought up from the vicinity of Fe- 
rozepore fresh battalions, and a largo field of artillery, 
supported by thirty thousand Ghorepurras, previously 
encamped near the river. Driving in the cavalry 
parties, he made strenuous efforts to regain the posi- 
tion at Ferozeshah ; this attempt was defeated ; but 
the Sirdar renewed the contest with fresh troops, and 
a large artillery, commencing the attack by a combin> 
ation against the left flank ; and after being frustrated 
in this attempt, essayed such a demonstration againit 
the captured village, as compelled the British to change 
the whole front to the right. Meanwhile an incessant 
fire was maintained by the enemy without being 
answered by a single shot, the artillery ammunition 
being completely expended in these protracted encoun- 
ters. The almost exhausted cavalry were now directed 
to threaten both flanks at once, the infantry preparing 
to advance in support ; this soon caused the discomfited 
Sikhs to discontinue firing, and to abandon the field, 
precipitately retreating towards the Sutlcj. Carnage 
the most awful, reigned in the camp, where large stores 
of grain, and the materiel of war were abandoned by 
the enemy. 

It is not astonishing that the casualties in the Ninth 
and other corps were considerable. Within thirty 
hours an entrenched camp had been stormed, a general 
action fought, and two considerable conflicts sustained 
with the enemy. Thus in less than four days, sixty 



) 



108 



THE NINTH OR EAST NORFOLK 



1845 thousand Sikh soldiers, supported by upwards of one 
hundred and fifty pieces of cannon, were dislodged from 
their position, and received a just retribution for 
their treacherous proceedings, without provocation or 
declaration of hostilities. 

. , .. .liieutenant-Colonel Taylor, Captain Dunne, and 
Captain Field, of the Ninth Regiment, were among 
the slain ; and one serjeant and sixty-six rank and file 
were killed. Captain Borton, Lieutenants Taylor, 
Vigors, Sievwright, Cassidy, and Ensign Forster were 
wounded, togethefr with Captain Havelock, who was 
attached to the Cavalry division as Deputy Assistant 
Quarter-Master- General. Five Serjeants, one drum- 
mer, and one hundred and ninety-one rank and file 
were also wounded. Assistant Surgeon R. B. Gahan, 
who was attached to the 31st Regiment, was wounded 
at Moodkee, and died on the 29th of December. 

Majors Davis and Barnwell were promoted to the 
vacancies caused by the decease of Lieutenant- Colonels 
McCaskill and Taylor,* and Captains Douglas and 
Smith succeeded to the majorities. 

The Sikhs, after these discomfitures, retired in great 
confusion across the ferries and fords of the Sutlej ; but 
subsequently took up a position on the right bank of 
the river, occupying also the formidable tSte-de-pont and 
entrenchments on the left bank, in front of the main 
body of the Anglo-Indian army. On the 10th Janu- 

1846 ary, 1846, the Ninth Foot marched from Arufkee, 
on the Sutlej, under tha command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Davis, to watch the enemy's position at 
Sohraon, and on the 1st February, the regiment was 
ordered to the outpost of Rhodawalla. Preparations 

* See memoir of Lieutenant -Colonel Taylor, in Appendix, 
page 132. 



■ / 



REGIMENT OF FOOT. 



109 



i 



at 
as 
ns 

ix. 



were now made for attacking the enemy's entrenched i846 
camp at Sobraon,' and on the morning of the 10th 
February^ after a conflict of flvc hours' duration, the 
Sikhs were driven into the river with immense loss; 
all that the foe held of British territory, comprised in 
the ground occupied by one of his camps, was stormed, 
and his audacity again signally punished ; his triple 
line of breastworks, flanked by formidable redoubts, 
bristling with artillery, and manned by thirty-two 
regular regiments of infantry, were assaulted, and 
carried by the British forces, and sixty-seven guns 
were captured by the victors. The brigade of which 
Her Majesty's Ninth Foot formed a part, was placed 
in support of the attacking division, and by its firm 
and judicious advance, contributed to the success of the 
assault. The regiment had five rank and file killed, 
and Lieutenant Robert Daunt, three Serjeants, one 
drummer, and twenty-four rank and file wounded, 
seven of whom died of their wounds. The casualties 
of the enemy were between eight and ten thousand 
men killed and wounded in action . nd drowned in the 
passage of the Sutlej, which a sudden rise of seven 
inches had rendered hardly fordable, and thus pre- 
sented an additional obstacle to the retreat of the 
Ehalsa troops. 

So complete was the discomfiture of the Sikhs at 
Sobraon, that no further opposition was experienced ; 
and, on the 13th February, the regiment marched from 
Rliodawalla towards Lahore^ where it arrived on the 
20th, and pitched its tents on the plain of Myan Meer, 
under the walls of the Sikh capital. Two days after- 
wards a brigade of troops took formal possession of 
the Badshahee Musjed and Huzzooree Bagh, forming 
part of the palace and citadel of Lahore, the occupation 



I 



h\ 



i' 



i\ 



110 



' 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 



1846 being announced by the Right Honorable the Governor 
General of India in the following expressive terms : — 
' I considered the occupation of Lahore, and the 
' close of active operations in the fields a proper oppor- 
' tunity for marking, by substantial reward, the grati- 
' tude of the British government to its faithful and 
' brave army, which had fought so gloriously, and so 
' successfully ; and I was glad at being able thus to 
' bring into prominent contrast, the just reward of 
' discipline and obedience, with the certain penalty of 
' insubordination and violence, as exemplified in the 

* fate of the two armies, which had been so long the 
' objects of mutual observation ; the one, victorious in 

* the field, and honoured and bountifully rewarded by 

* its Government ; the other^ in spite of its exceeding 
' numbers an^ advantageous positions, vanquished in 
< every battle, abandoned by a government it had 
' coerced, and with its shattered remains, left, but for 
' the intercession of its conquerors, to disperse with no 
' provision of any kind, and to seek a precarious sub- 
' sistence by rapine and crime.* 

• The Army of the Sutlej has now brought its opera- 
' tions in the field to a close, by the dispersion of the 
' Sikh army, and the military occupation of Lahore, 
' preceded by a series of the most triumphant successes 
' ever recorded in the military history of India. 

' The British government, trusting to the faith of 
' treaties, and to the long subsisting friendship between 
' the two states, had limited military preparations to 
' the defence of its own frontier. Compelled suddenly 
' to assume the offensive, by the unprovoked invasion 
' of its territories, the British Army, under the com- 
' mand of its distinguished leader, has, in sixty days, 
' defeated the Sikh forces in four general actions ; has 



i 



? ; 



KEOIMENT OF FOOT. 



Ill 



va 



IS 



' captured two hundred and ttventy pieces of (ie\dBxti]XeTji 1846 
'and is now at the Capital dictating to the Lahore 
' Durbar the terms of a treaty, the conditions of which 
' will tend to secure the British Provinces from the 
' repetition of a similar outrage.' 

The Ninth Foot remained at Lahore until the 
23rd March, when the army was broken up, and the 
regiment received a route for Meerut, at which station 
it arrived on the 15th April, and continued there until 
the 23rd October, when it commenced its march for 
Dinapore, one hundred and seventy-five men having 
previously volunteered to different regiments in India. 
On its arrival at Allahabad, a second volunteering was 
directed, the regiment being unt^ar orders to embark 
for England, when a further number of one hundred 
and fifty-four men transferred their services to other 
corps. The Ninth relieved the thirty-ninth regiment 
at Dinapore on the 30th December, when it received 
a route to march to Calcutta on being replaced by 
the ninety-eighth regiment. 

On the 9th of February, 1847, the Commandcr-in- 184'7 
Chief in India issued a General Order, from which the 
following are extracts : — 

' The Right Honourable the Commander-in-Chief in 

* India avails himself of the opportunity, which the 
' approaching departure from India of those distin- 
' guished regiments the Ninth, thirty-ninth, and sixty- 
' second foot affords, of recording the high sense he 
' entertains of their respective merits, and the admira- 
' tion with which he has witnessed their uniform good 
' conduct in quarters, and their gallantry in the field.' 

< Each Regiment bears on its colours the names of 

* many hard-fought battles in the Peninsula, and each 
c regiment will carry home the record of victories achieved 



- ii ii<iii I 






112 



THE NINTH, OR EAST NORFOLK 




i 
I 



1847 ' 



in the wars of this country, nobly gained by their 
indomitable bravery under His Lordship's immediate 
command.' 

*■ The Ninth Regiment has completed a service 
abroad of upwards of fourteen years. In 1842 it 
formed a part of the force under Major-General Sir 
Gecrge Pollock in the second campaign of Affghanis- 
tan, and subsequently had the good fortune to par- 
take in the memorable battles of the Svtl^. The 
despatches of the former period have testified its gal- 
lantry, its noble bearing and high spirit under extreme 
sickness and privation; and upon the latter Lord 
Gough has recently, in orders and by his despatches, 
expressed his sense of its valuable services.' 



' Lord Gough feels happy in having it in his power 
' to state, that the conduct of these regiments, through- 
< out their Indian service, has always been such as to 

* merit his warmest commendation. He feels a pride 
' in recording all that he has said in praise of those 

* gaUant corjM, and, in parting with them, begs to 

* assure them, that he will always feel a lively interest 

* in their welfare.' 

1847 After a service of twelve years in India, during 
which the Ninth has greatly increased its military 
fame, it embarked at Calcutta for England on 13th 
March, 1847. 

The regiment arrived at Chatham on the 10th July, 
1847, from whence it was removed to Winchester in 
the month of July, where it continued at the end of 
the year 1847, to which period this Record has been 
brought. 



s^t 



to 
le 
se 
to 

ist 



th 



in 

of 

len 







[Drairn by J. M. Jcplhig. 



KINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT 



RBOIMBNT OF FOOT. 



113 



In commemoratioii of the gallant services of the 184T 
Ninth Regimefat with the Army of the Sutle;, Her 
Majesty has been graciously pleased to authorise the 
Regiment to hear on its colours and appointments, in 
addition to other marks of distinction, which have 
been previously granted/ the words Moodkee, Feroze- 
SHAH, andSoBRAON. .. ^ 



l/>/i»y. 



The following regiments of the Queen's regular 
army formed part of the forces which w<>re engaged 
in the several actions of the campaign on the banks 
of the Sutlej in 1845 and 1846, and have received 
honorary distinctions for those battles : — 









Aotionsftt which eMh Regiment wu engaged. 


Total. 


Regimenti. 


Moodkee, 


Feiozeshah, 


Aliwal, 


Sobiaon, 




isth Deo., 


81«t and 22nd 


28th Jan.,- 


lOthTeb., 






1845. 


Dee., 1845. 


18M. 


1848. 




3rd Light Dragoon 


8 1 




• • 




3 


9th Laneen . 




• • 


• • 




1 


16th Laneen 






• • 






2 


0th Foot . . 








. , 




3 


10th,, 








• • 


• ■ 




1 


29th,, 










, , 




2 


31it,, 














4 


50th,, 














4 


53td,, 








. , 






2 


62nd,, 










• • 




2 


80th,, 










. • • 




M 



Til 



114 



THK NINTH REOIMBNT OF FOOT. 



1841 In the services of regpiments, circumstances have fre- 
quently occurred which have put the qualities of the 
officers and soldiers to the severest test, and on occasions 
of this character, the intrepidity, firmness, and endur- 
ance of the Ninth regiment of foot, have been con* 
spicuous. On the heights near Roleia the heroic 
ardour and prowess of the Ninth were invincible; on 
the rugged rocks of Busaco, their steady valour was 
sternly proved, and was triumphant over superior 
numbers; at the siege and capture of St. Sebastian 
their gallantry was manifest ; on the heights of Croix 
des Bouquets their sparkling bayonets were victorious 
under numerous disadvantages; and in the actions 
which succeeded the passage of the* JVire, the regiment 
evinced those qualities which have proved to the world, 
that English soldiers are not easily defeated. Their 
heroic qualities have been further evinced during their 
arduous services in India, particularly in the campaigns 
oi Affghanistan, and subsequently on the banks of the 
Sutlej, at the battles of Moodhee, Ferozeshah, and 
Sobraon, as recorded in the preceding pages. 



On colonial and home service the conduct of the 
regiment has been highly meritorious: upwards of 
one hundred and sixty years of faithful service have 
established its reputation ; and the testimony of the 
general officers under whose command it has been 
placed, from time to time, has procured for this corps 
the approbation of the Crown, the confidence of the 
Government, and the esteem of the Nation. 



115 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS 

or 

THE NINTH, OR THE EAST NORFOLK 

REGIMENT OF FOOT. 






Hbnhy Cornwall. 

Appointed \9th Jutu, 1685. 

Hknbt Cornwall was many years an officer in the royal 
regiment of horse guards, in which corps he rose to the rank 
of captain in the reign of King Charles II., and he was so 
conspicuous for loyalty and attention to his regimental duties, 
that, on the breaking out of the rebellion of James Duke of 
Monmouth, King James II. commissioned him to superintend 
the raising, forming, and disciplining of a regiment of foot, 
now the Ninth, or the East Norfolk regiment, of which he 
was appointed colonel by commission dated the 19th of 
June, 1685. When the prevalence of Popish councils in the 
cabinet appeared to menace the kingdom with papacy and 
absolute monarchy, and William Prince of Orange arrived at 
the head of a Dutch armament to oppose the King, Colonel 
Cornwall withdrew from the service ; but he appears to have 
preserved his loyalty to King James so iar, that he did not 
engage in the service of King William III. 



Oliver Nicholas. 

Appointed 20tk November, 1688. 

This officer served in the Netherlands and Germany with the 
British troops in the pay of Louis XIV., and King Charles II. 

i2 



116 



SUOOBSBION OV OOLOMVLt. 



afterwards promoted him to th« lieut-oolonelcy of Prince 
George of Denmarlc'a regiment, a oorpi wliioh was incorpo- 
rated in tiie second foot guiirdi in 1680. Lieut.-Colnnel 
Nicliolas was a Arm supporter of tlie court of King James II., 
whicli occasioned him to be placed at the head of the Ninth 
foot in November, 1688 1 but he was removed by the Prince 
of Orange, in December, for reibsing to talce the prescribed 
oath to His Highness. He was not afterwards employed in 
the service. 



JOBN CUMMINOBAM. 

Appointed 81«l D«eemb«r, 1688. 

John Conninoham served in the Soots' Brigade in the pay of 
Holland, afterwards the ninety-fourth regiment, and King 
Jamea II. appointed him lieut.-oolonel in Werden's cuiras- 
siers, a corps which was disbanded In 160O. Lieut.-Colonel 
Cunningham had served under the Prince of Orange in the 
Dutch war with France in the time of King Charles II. and 
was an advocate for the Revolution of 1688. The Prince 
promoted him to the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, and sent 
him, in 1689, with Ids regiment, to the relief of Londonderry, 
then besieged by the forces of King James, and gave him 
orders to obey the governor, Colonel Lundy. The governor, 
having resolved to surrender the place to King James, gave 
Colonel Cunningham false statements respecting the means of 
defence, and induced a council of war to resolve that the 
troops sent to the relief of Londonderry should not be landed. 
The inhabitants revolted against the authority of the governor, 
and offered the command of the fortress to Colonel Cunning- 
ham, who refused tu acquiesce, and returned with his regi- 
ment to England. King William was so displeased with the 
conduct of Colonels Cunningham, and Richards, of the llth 
foot, in not investigating the statements made by the governor 
more closely, and not taking upon themselves the responsi- 
bility of defending the town when the governor wished to 
surrender it, that he deprived them of their commissions. 



\ 



SUCCESfllON OF COLONELS. 



117 



•William Stewart. 

Appointed Itt May^ 1689. 

William Stewart, descended from the noble families of 
the Earls of Galloway and Caithness in Scotland, which have 
long been extinct. He was remarlcable for a tall graceful 
person, and a good understanding improved by education ; he 
was valiant in the field, — a zealous and able officer,— and 
punctual in the observance of Christian duties. He served 
some time in the royal regiment of foot, and the Prince of 
Orange promoted him to the lieut.-colonelcy of the sixteenth 
foot, and aflerwards gave him the colonelcy of the Ninth 
regiment. He served under Mtyor-General Kirke in the 
expedition for the relief of Londonderry, and evinced great 
activity, bravery, and ability, on that occasion. He acquired 
the reputation of an excellent officer, while serving at the 
head of a brigade during the campaigns of 1689, 1690, and 
1691, iu Ireland. He was wounded at the attack of 
Limerick in 1690, and was second in command at the assault 
of Athlone on the 20th of June, 1691, when he was again 
wounded. King William III. promoted him to the rank of 
major-general, in 1693, and in 1703 Queen Anne advanced 
him to the rank of lieut.-general. He was aflerwards ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief in Ireland, and a member of the 
privy council in that country; and in 1711 he was promoted 
to the rank of general. Soon after the accession of King 
George I., General Stewart was suspected of entertaining 
sentiments favourable to the interests of the Pretender, and he 
was removed from his regiment. Qe died on the 4th of June 
1726. 



James Camfbell. 

Appointed 2*1 th July^ 1715. 

James Campbell served in the army in the reign of King 
William III., and in February, 1702, he vi^as appointed 
captain in the Scots Greys. He accompanied his regiment 
to Holland, in 1702, and served under the celebrated John, 
Duke of Marlborough; the Greys were engaged at the 
battles of Schellenberg and Blenheim in 1704 ; at the forcing 



118 



SUOOB88ION OP 0OLOMBL8. 



of the French lines in 1705 ; and highly distinguished them- 
selves at Bamilies in 1706 : they also served at the battle of 
Oudenarde in 1708, and at Malplaquet in 1709. The conduct 
of James Campbell on these, and other occasions, procured 
him the favour of the Duke of Marlborough and the appro- 
bation of his sovereign, who promoted him to the lieut.- 
colonelcy of his regiment, and gave him the rank of colonel 
in the army in 1711. King George I. conferred the colo- 
nelcy of the Ninth foot on Colonel Campbell, in 1715, and 
gave him the command of the Scots Greys in 17 17. He was 
promoted to the rank of major-general in 1739, and to that of 
lieut.-general in 1742. He was placed on the staff of the 
army which proceeded to Flanders in 1742; in 1743 he 
served in Germany, and highly distinguished himself at the 
head of the British cavalry at the battle of Dettingen ; he 
was rewarded with the dignity of a Knight of the Bath. He 
continuied to serve on the continent, and was killed at the 
battle of Fontenoy in 1745. 



Thk Honobable Charles Cathoart. 
Appointed 15th February, 1717. 

The Honorable Charles Cathcart, son of Alan, seventh 
Lord Cathcart, entered the army in the eighteenth year of 
his age, and in 1704 he commanded a company in Colonel 
Macartney's regiment (since disbanded), serving on the fron- 
tiers of Holland. In 1706 he commanded a troop in the 
Scots Greys, which corps distinguished itself at the battle of 
Ramilies in the same year ; in 1707 he was brigade major to 
the Earl of Stair. Continuing in active service with the 
army under the Duk? of Marlborough, he acquired the re- 
putation of a brave and zealous officer. In 1 709 he was ap. 
pointed major of the Scots Greys, and was soon afterwards 
promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. On the 
accession of King George I., he was appointed one of the 
grooms of His Majesty's bedchamber. In the autumn of 
1715 he joined the forces under the Duke of Argyle at Stir- 
ling, and served against the rebels under the Earl of Mar. 
On the 23rd of October he was detached against a hijndred 



SV0CB8BIOM OF COLOWBLS. 



119 






rebel hone and two hundred foot, whom he attacked with his 
dragoona, killed many, and took seventeen prisoners. At the 
battle of Sheriff-muir on the 13th of November, in the same 
year, he charged the insurgents at the head of the Scots 
Greys, and contributed materially to the overthrow of the 
left wing of the rebel army. His Miyesty rewarded him 
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot, in 1717 ; but he only 
retained this appointment eleven months. In 1728 he ob- 
tained the command of the thirty-first regiment, and was re- 
moved, in 1731, to the eighth dragoons. In 1732 he suc- 
ceeded to the title of Lobd Catbcart ; he was apptlnted 
lord of the bedchamber to King Georrre II. in the folloxving 
year, and was promoted to the coloneluy of the seventh horse, 
now sixth dragoon guards. In 1739 he was advanced to the 
rank of nuyor-general. His Lordship vm» chosen one of the 
representatives of the Scottish peerage in bcveral purliamen' > ; 
and was governor of Duncannon fort, and of LondonHnir y. 
An attack on the Spanish possessions in America having been 
resolved upon, in the year 1739, Lord Cathcart ...f. selected 
to command the expedition; at the same timi he was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief m America ; but he died on his 
passage in December, 1740, and was buried on the beach of 
Prince Rupert's bay, Dominica, where a monument was 
erected to his memory. 



James Otway. 
Appointed 7 th January, 1718. 

James Otw ay obtained a commiss*. : in the third horse, now 
second dragoon guards, with which c\vrps he served in Por- 
tugal and Spain during the war of the Spanish succession, and 
hia excellent conduct on various occasions was rewarded with 
the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment. The third horse sig- 
nalized themselves at th<; battles of Almanza in 1707; at 
Almanara and Saragossa in 1710, but were made priuoners at 
Brihuega in the mountains of Castile ; Lieut.-Colonel Otway's 
name occurs in the list of officers made prisoners on that oc- 
casion. He commanded the third horse in the attack on the 



120 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



rebels at Preston, in November, 1715 ; and in 1718 he was 
rewarded with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He Hed <n 
1725. 

Richard Kane. 
Appmnled 25th December t 1725. 

BiCHABD Kane was many years an officer in the eighteenth, 
the royal Irish r^ment of foot, with which corps he served 
at numerous battles and sieges, and obtained a reputation for 
talent and bravery. While serving under the great Duke of 
Marlborough, he signalized himself on several occasions and 
was promoted to the lisat .-colonelcy of the eighteenth foot. 
In 1710 he obtained the rank of colonel in the army, and 
succeeded Lieut.-General Macartney in the command of a 
regiment of foot, which was disbanded at the peace of Utrecht. 
When the bland of Minorca was ceded to Great Britain, 
Colonel Kane was appointed lieut.-governor and commander- 
in-chief at that station. The regulations he issued there, were 
of a judicious and liberal character ; and when the Roman 
Catholic clergy usurped powers which it was inconsistent for 
them to possess uuder a Protestant government, he restrained 
them with a firm hand. Having prevented them putting 
persons to death on account of religious sentiments, the clergy 
sent petitions to the British government, in which they repre- 
sented his conduct as tyrannical and injurious to the island, 
but he justified his proceedings in a satisfactory explanation. 
In 1725 he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the Ninth 
foot. He was an able tactician, and wrote a history of the 
campaigns of King William and Queen Anne, also a work on 
military discipline. He di&d on the 9th of January, 1737. 



William Haborave. 

Appointed 2'Jth January, 1737. 

William Harorave was appointed ensign in a regi- 
ment of foot in 1694, and he served in the wars of Queen 
Anne. He proved a good and useful officer, but was not 
conspicuous for any quality calculated to attract attention. 
Afler serving twenty years, he was appointed major of tb^ 



Jl- 



1 



.8VCCESSI0IC OF C0L0NBL8. 



121 



thirty-sixth foot, and subsequently lieu t. -colonel of the same 
corps. In 1730. he was promoted to the colonelcy of the 
thirty-first foot, and was appointed to the Ninth in 1737. 
He was removed to the seventh royal fusiliers, and promoted 
to the rank of major-general in 1739, and was advanced to 
the rank of lieut.-general in 1743. He died in 1751. 



George Reade. 

Appointed 2Sth August^ 1739. 

This officer entered the army in 1703, and served several 
campaigns in the wars of Queen Anne. King George II. 
promoted him to the commission of major in the first foot 
guards, with the rank of colonel in the army in 1729, and in 
1733 appointed him to the colonelcy of the twnnty-ninth foot. 
In 1739 he was removed to the Ninth foot ; in 1743 he was 
promoted to the rank of major-general, and to that of lieut.- 
general in 1147. lu 1749 he was removed to the ninth dra- 
goons ; — he died in 1756. 

Sir Charles Aruand Powlett, K.B^ 
Appointed 1st November ^ 1749. 

Charles Abmand Powlett entered the army as comet of 
horse in 1710 ; he served many years in the household cavalry, 
and was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the first troop of 
horse grenadier guards by King George II., v^ho afterwards 
rewarded him with the colonelcy of the ninth regiment of 
marines, by commission dated the 27th of December, 1740. 
At the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle his regiment was disbanded, 
and in November, 1749, he obtained the colonelcy of the 
Ninth foot. He was afterwards promoted to the rank of 
major-general, and advanced to the dignity of Knight of the 
Bath. In January, 1751, he was removed to the thirteenth 
dragoons. He was several years a member of parliament. 
His decease occurred in November, 1751. 

The Honorable John Waldegrave. 
Appointed 26th January ^ 1751. 

The Honorable John Waldegrave, choosing the profes- 
sion of arms, obtained a commission in the first foot guards, 



122 



SUCCBSSIOir OF 00IJ0NBL8. 



in 1737, and rose, in a few years, to the appointment of 
major in the third foot guards, with the rank of colonel in 
the army. In 1751 he was appointed colonel of the Ninth 
foot, and was removed to the eighth dragoons in 1755. He 
was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1757, and in 
1758 he commanded a brigade of infantry in the expedition 
to St. Maloes. In the same year he accompanied the army 
to Germany, and was, at the same time, removed to the 
second Irish horse, now fifth dragoon guards. In 1759 he 
commanded a brigade of infantry at the battle of Minden, 
where his extraordinary presence of mind, at a critical moment, 
contributed materially to the gaining of the victory. In 
September, 1759, he was appointed colonel of the second 
dragoon guards. He served in Germany during the remainder 
of the seven years' war, distinguished himself on numerous 
occasions, and was conspicuous for personal bravery, zeal, and 
ability, as a general of divbion ; humane efforts to alleviate 
the sufferings of the peasantry whose country was the seat of 
war ; and a constant care for the necessities of the soldiers 
under his orders. The rank of lieut.-general was conferred 
upon this excellent officer in 1760: in 1763 he succeeded to 
the dignity of Eabl WAiiDEOBAVE ; in x772 he was pro- 
moted to the rank of general, and was rewarded, in 1773, 
with the colonelcy of the second foot guards. He died in 
1784. 






The Honorable Joseph Yorke. 
Appointed 18/A March, 1755. 

The Honorable Joseph Yorke, third son of Philip, first Earl 
of Hardwicke, was appointed ensign in the second foot guards 
in 1741, lieutenant in the first foot guards in 1743, and 
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the second guards in 1745. 
He was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumberland at the 
battle of ^ontenoy ; and in 1749 he was appointed aide-de- 
camp to King George II. with the rank of colonel. In 1755 
His Majesty gave him the colonelcy of the Ninth foot ; 
promoted him to the rank of msjor-general and appointed him 
to the colonelcy of the eight dragoons in 1758 ; advanced 
him to the rank of lieut.-general and gave him the command 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



123 



of the fifth dragoons in 1760; conferred upon him the rank 
of general in 1*717 ; removed him to the eleventh dragoons in 
1787, and in 1788 elevated him to the peerage by the title of 
Lord Dover, Baron of Dover-court in the county of Kent. 
In 1789 his lordship was appointed colonel of the first regi- 
ment of life guards, which gave him the privilege of taking 
the court duty of gold stick. He died in 1792. 

WiLUAM WhITEMORE. 

Appointed 23rd October, 1758. 

William Whitemore was many years an officer in the foot 
guards; in 1752 he was appointed major in the third foot 
guards, with the rank of colonel, and in 1755 King George 
II. gave him the colonelcy of the fifty>third foot, then first 
raised. In 1758 he was promoted to the rank of major- 
general, and removed to the Ninth foot, and in 1760 he 
obkvined the rank of lieut. -general. He was member of 
Parliament for Portsmouth. His decease occurred in 1771. 



Edward Viscount Ligonier. 

Appointed 8th Augtist, 1^*11. 

Edward Ligonier, son of Colonel Francis Ligonier who 
died from the exertions he made at the battle of Falkirk when 
suffering from indisposition, rose to the rank of captain and 
lieut. -colonel in tbo first foot guards, in 1759 ; in 1763 he 
was appointed aide-de-camp to the King, with the rank of 
colonel, and on the death of his uncle, the veteran Field 
Marshal Earl Ligonier, in 1770, he succeeded to the Irish 
title of Viscount Ligonier of Clonmel ; the English title 
of his uncle becoming extinct. In 1771 he was appointed 
colonel of the Ninth foot, and he was afterwards advanced 
to the dignity of Earl Ligonier. He was promoted to the 
rank of major-general in 1775, and to that of lieut.-general 
iu 1777. He died in 1782, when his titles became extinct. 



124 



SUCCESSION OF COLOMBL8. 



Thomas Lobd Sat and Sble. 

Appointed 19th June^ 1782. 

Thomas Twisleton was appointed ensign in the third 
foot guards, in 1754, and rose to the rank of Captain and 
lieut.-colonel in 1767. He was promoted to the rank of 
colonel in 1777 and to that of major-general in 1780. He 
claimed, by pf^^^ tic to His Majesty, the dormant barony of 
Lord Say A^.^ Sele, which was confirmed to him in 1781. 
In 1782, he was promoted from major in the third foot 
guards, to colonel of the Ninth foot. He died in 1788. 



The Honoubable Alexander Leslie. 
Appointed 4th Jtdi/, 1 788. 
The Honobable Alexandeb Leslie, son of the Earl of 
Leven and Melville, was appointed ensign in the third foot 
guards in 1753, captain in the 64th regiment in 1756, and 
n>ajor in the same corps in 1759. He served with the sixty- 
fourth in America, and was promoted to the lieutenant-colo- 
nelcy in 1766 ; in 1775 he was appointed aide-de-camp to the 
King, with the rank of colonel in the army. When the 
American war commenced, Colonel the Honorable Alex- 
ander Leslie was actively employed, and evinced ability and 
valour on numerous occasions. In 17*79, he was promoted to 
the rank of major-general. In October, 1780, he sailed from 
New York, with three thousand men, for the Chesapeak ; — 
landed at Virginia, and destroyed stores belonging to the 
rebels at several places. In November, he re-embarked and 
sailed to Charlestown, where he found orders to join Earl 
Cornwallis on the frontiers of North Carolina. He marched 
from Charlestown, with fifteen hundred men, on the 19th of 
December, and joined Earl Cornwallis on the ISth of Jan- 
uary 1781. He was second in command at the battle of 
Guildford, and his conduct was commended in the public 
despatch of Earl Cornwallis. He afterwards commanded a 
body of troops in South Carolina ; and on the 2nd of Jan- 
uary, 1782, he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the sixty- 
third regiment ; in 1787) he was promoted to the rank of lieutj^ 



ii 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



125 



general, and was appointed colonel of the Ninth foot in the 
following year. He was second in command in North Bri- 
tain several years. In the winter of 1794, he was employed 
in suppressing riots at Glasgow, where he caught a severe 
illness, of which he died at his seat of Beechwood, near Edin- 
burgh, on the 27th of December. He has been commended 
for an amiable disposition, in which benevolence, valour, and 
modesty were happily blended. 



Albemarle Bertie. 
AppoitUed 3l8t December, 1794. 

This officer served upwards of thirty years in the first regi- 
ment of foot guards, commencing as ensign on the 1st of 
March, 1762, and attaining to the commission of second major 
on the 8th of August, 1792. On the 12th of October, 1793, 
he was promoted to the rank of major-general ; in 1794, he 
was appointed colonel of the Ninth foot; in 1798, he was 
promoted to the rank of lieut. -general, and in 1803 to that of 
general ; in 1804, he was removed to the seventy-seventh regi- 
ment. He died in 1808. 



Peter Hunter. 
Appointed Ibth June, 1804. 

Peter Hunter obtained n commission of ensign in the first, 
the royal regiment of foo^ in 1767; he was promoted lieu- 
tenant in 1768, and had the command of a company in 1776. 
He served with the royals in Great Britain, and at the island 
of Minorca, and in 1779, he was appointed major in the nine- 
ty-second regiment, afterwards disbanded. In 1781, he was 
removed to the sixtieth regiment, in which corps he was ap- 
pointed lieut.-colonel in 1787, and in 1792, he was promoted 
to the rank of colonel in the army ; in 1793, he was appointed 
colonel-commandant in the sixtieth regiment. When the 
war of the French revolution broke out, in 1793, he was em- 
ployed on the continent, where he had the local rank of 
brigadier-general in 1794 ; in the following year he was 



126 



SI/0CB88ION OF OOLCmBLS. 



promoted to the rouk of uuyor-general, and in 1802 to that of 
lieut-generol ; and in 1804 King Qeorge III. rewarded him 
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He was lieut.-govemor 
of Upper Canada, and commander-in-chief in both the Canadac, 
and died at Quebec in 1805. 



SiK. RoBEHT Bbownbioo, Bart., G.C.B. 
App')inted Srd October^ 1805. 

BoBERT Bbownbioo, son of Sir Heury Brownrigg of 
Rockingham, was appointed ensign in the fourteenth foot in 
1775, and joined the regiment in North America in 1776, b it 
returned to England soon aflerwardu. In 1778 I10 was pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy, and was appointed adjutant of i'C 
fourteenth foot in the same year. In 1780, he embarked on 
board the Ohannel-fleet where his regiment was appointed to 
ser '0 as ma'-lnes ; in i 782, he proceeded with the fourteenth 
to Jamiiiea,, where he remained until the beginning of 1784, 
when he relumed to England. In Mareh, of that year, he 
w?is appointed captain in the 100th foot, from which he ex- 
changed to the thirty-fifth, and afterwards to the fifty-second. 
He was promoted to the rank of major in 1790, and appointed 
deputy quarter-master general to an expedition fitting out 
against the Spaniards in South America, but which did not 
p!-oceed to its destination. Towards the end of 1790, he was 
appointed commandant and paymaster to a number of detach- 
ments, of regiments on foreign service, at Chatham barracks, 
which he held until 1793, when he was appointed deputy 
quarter-master general to the army, serving in Flanders. In 
the same year he was appointed lieut.-colonel of the 88th 
regiment. He served at all the actions in which the British 
army under his Royal Highness the Duke of York took part 
in 1794, and also in the retreat through Holland to Germany. 
When tlie Duke of York was appointed to the duties of com- 
mander-in-chief, Lieutenant-Colonel Brownrigg was nomina- 
ted to the appointment of military secretary to His Royal 
Highness, and on the 21st of June, 1795, he exchanged to 
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the second foot guards. In 
1796 he was promoted to the rank of colonel ; in 1799, he 
accompanied tlie Duke of York in the expedition to Holland, 



\ 



SVOOESSION OF COLOMBLS. 



127 



and continued aa secretary to His Royal Highness until 1803, 
when he was appointed quarter-master general to the forces. 
In 1799, he was appointed colonel commandant of the sixth 
battalion of the sixtieth regiment ; in 1802, he was promoted 
to the rank of major-general, and in 1805, he was rewarded 
with the colonelcy of the Ninth foot. He was promoted to 
the rank of lieut.-general in 1808; he accompanied the ex- 
pedition to Holland in 1809 ; was at the siege of Flushing, 
and in the subsequent operations, and wrote a journal of the 
proceedings of the army which was laid before parliament. 

In 1813 Lieut-Genciul Brownrigg was appointed governor 
and commander-in-chief in the island of Ceylon, and was after- 
wards honored with the dignity of knight grand cross of the 
order of the Bath. In 1815 he invaded the state of Kandy, 
situate in the interior of Ceylon, which was conquered and 
annexed to the British crown ; and in 1816 he was rewarded 
with the dignity of Baronet. In 1819 he was promoted to 
the rank of general. An honorable augmentation was made 
to his arms, in 1822, consisting of the crown, sceptre, and 
banner of Kandy, on an embattled chief; and for a crest, a 
demi-Kandian holding a sword and the crown. He remained 
governor of Ceylon until 1820, when he returned to England. 
He died in 1833. 



Sib John Camebon, K.C.B. 
Appointed 31«< ilfay, 1833. 

John Camebon was second son of Culchenna, and nephew 
of Cameron of Caltort, Inverness-shire, whose ancestor was a 
younger son of Lochiel, chief of the clan. He was born in 
1773, and married in 1803, Miss Brock, eldest daughter of 
Mr. Henry Brock, of Belmont, Guernsey, and niece of the 
first Lord de Saumarez. Sir John entered the army in Septem- 
ber, 1787, as ensign in the 43rd regiment, in which regiment 
he attained the rank of major in October, 1800. In 1794, he 
served under Sir Charles Grey in the West Indies, and was 
present at the reduction of Martinique (including the siege of 
Fort Bourbou and other minor engagements) at St. Lucia, 
and Guadaloupe, and particularly displayed his gallantry at 
the defence of the latter in the ?ame year, and at the sortie 



128 



SVCOBSfllOK OF OOLONSLS. 



ftonif and at the assault made by the enemy on the fortresff 
of Fleur d'Epee. He was at the action of the 30th of Sep- 
tember at Berville camp, under Brigadier-General Graham ; 
and in the action of the 7th October he was severely wounded, 
and was taken by the enemy. He remained a prisoner of war 
during a period of two years, and then came to England, but 
his military duties at home were of short duration, for in 
six months he was again ordered with his regiment to the 
West Indies, where he was on for ign service for nearly four 
years. He was promoted to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th West 
India regiment on the 28th May, 1807, and was removed to 
the Ninth foot on the 5th of September of that year. On his 
return to his native country, he was ordered with his regiment, 
the Ninth foot, to the seat of war in Portugal, Sir John at 
that time holding the rank of Lieut.-ColoneI in that gallant 
corps. His services in the Peninsula were acknowledged by 
several honorary distinctions. At the battle of Vimiera he 
commanded the second battalion of the Ninth foot. He 
was at the battle of Corunna under Lieut.- General Sir John 
Moore, and by the intrepid bravery he displayed at that san- 
guinary conflict, the deceased gained the approbation of his 
superior in command. In July, 1809, he embarked on the 
expedition to the Scheldt, in the command of the first battalion 
of the Ninth regiment, and returned in September follow- 
ing to England. In March, 1810, he proceeded with the 
Ninth regiment to increase the force of the army in Portugal, 
then commanded by Viscount Wellington, and he con- 
tinued in active service under that great commander until 
the termination of the war in 1814. He particul;>rly dis- 
tinguished himself at Busaco, where he luul a horse shot 
imder him ; also at Salamanca and Vittoria. In July, 
1813, previous to the assault and capture of San Sebastian, 
he carried, with the Ninth foot, the fortified convent of San 
Bartholomew, in front of San Sebastian, thus gaining a posi- 
tion which contributed greatly to the advantage of the allied 
army. He subsequently took an active share in the battles 
of the Nive of the 9th, 10th, and 11th of December, and in 
those encounters he had another horse shot. During those 
services he was twice wounded, and twice severely contused. 
In acknowledgment for his eminent services in the Peninsula, 



W 



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS. 



129 



\\ 



he received the decoration of a cross and three clasps. Sir 
Jolin Cameron embarked for Canada in June, 1814, from 
Pouillac in France, in command uf the Ninth regiment, 
which was recalled from North America in the following 
year, in consequence of the warlike aspect Europe had assumed, 
and of the return of Napoleon to France. The regiment 
reached Ostend in August, 1815, and immediately proceeded 
to join the allied army which then occupied Paris. On the 
4th June, 1814. he was promoted to the rank of colonel in 
the army, and to that of major-general on the 19th July, 1821 , 
when he relinquished the command of the Ninth regiment. 
On the 25th September, 1823, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the western district, and to be lieutenant-governor of 
Plymouth, which appointments he held until the 30th Sep- 
tember, 1834. In consideration of his eminent services. Sir 
John Cameron was created a knight commander of the 
military order of the Bath on the 2nd January, 1815. The 
Portuguese government conferred on him the order of the 
Tower and Sword, for the able services he rendered to that 
nation in the course of the French war in that country. Sir 
John Cameron was appointed to the colonelcy of the 93rd 
regiment on the 23rd July, 1832 ; and on the 31st May, 1833, 
he was removed to the Ninth foot, which regiment he had 
commanded as lieutenant-colonel upwards of thirteen years : 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general on the 10th 
of January, 1837. His decease took place at Guernsey on the 
23rd November, 1844, after a period of service of nearly sixty 
years. 



SiK Thomas Akbuthnot, K.C.B. 

Appointed 1th December, 1 844 ; removed to the list Highland 

Light Infantry Regiment on the \%th February, 1848. 



Sm James AncuiBAiiU Hope, K.C.B. 
Appointed 18/A February, 1848. 



APPENDIX 



TO TIIK 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



OP THR 



NINTH REGIMENT OF FOOT 



Memoir op Colonel Sir John McCaskill, K.C.B. 

Colonel Sib John McCaskill entered the array in March, 
1797« as an ensign in the 53rd regiment, and was present at 
the lauding at Porto Rico, and siege of St. Juan, in May, 
1797. He was on passage to India when the fleet under 
convoy of Sir T. Trowbridge was attacked by the French 
Admiral Linois, in the Marengo, a heavy frigate, and another 
ship, in August, 1805. During his service in India, he was 
present at the sieges and captures of Forts Sattarah, Singhur, 
Woossotah, and several others. He was also present at the 
reduction of the strong fortress of Sholapore, and the attack 
and dispersion of five thousand of the Feshwa's choicest troops, 
strongly posted >vith their guns, fifteen of which were cap- 
tured under the walls of the fort, on the 11th May, 1818. 
He rose to the rank of major in the 53rd regiment, in March, 
1824; he was promoted, by purchase, to be lieutenant-colonel 
unattached, in February, 1825, and subsequently served in the 
86th, 89th, and 98th regiments : he exchanged from the 98th to 
the 9th foot on the 19th June, 1835. He was promoted to the 
rank of colonel on the 28th June, 1838 ; and on the 14th March, 
1842, to the local rank of major-general. On the 27th December 
1842, he was nominated a knight commander of the order of 
the Bath. He was killed at the battle of Moodkee on the 18th 
December, 1845. 



132 



APPENDIX. 



MiMuiR or LiBUT.-CuLONEL A. BiRKsroRD Taylor, 

K.H. AND C.B. 

LiEUT.-CoLONEL A. Bbresvord Taylor, K.H., C.B., 
entered the army on the 14th of February, 1811,; lie served 
in the American war at the battles of Ghrystler's Farm, and 
Niagara, where he was severely wounded ; at the siege of Fort 
Erie, September, 1814 ; he was present at the capture of Forts 
Loghur, Koarree, and Ryghur, in the East Indies, in 1818; 
also at the assault and capture of Roree in 1819 ; he served 
the campaigns in Ava, including the action at Dalla (where he 
was again severely wounded) ; and was at the attacic on Fan- 
lang, Yangavehong, and Donebew. Lieut.-Golonel Taylor 
has been frequently mentioned with distinction in the de* 
spatches of the general officers under whom he served ; 
especially for the storming of the Khyber Pass under Sir 
George Polloclc, in the Cabool war of 1842, and for which 
he was created a Companion of the order of the Bath. Lieut.- 
Colonel Taylor was appointed to act as brigadier on the 18th of 
December, 1845, after the action of Moodlcee, in which he 
commanded the Ninth regiment, and on the 22nd of the 
same month, he fell, covered with wounds, whilst leading his 
brigade to the storming of the enemy's guns at Ferozeshah. 
Lieut.-Colonel Taylor was the second son of Mr. James 
Taylor, of Cranbrooke, County of Fermanagh, Ireland ; he 
married the daughter of Lieut.Colonel Lister, H.E.I.C.S., 
and was killed in the 53rd year of his age, esteemed and 
beloved in his private capacity, and well known in his pro- 
fession as an accomplished and gallant soldier. 



Vino 



APPRNDIX. 



133 



The following list of the principal Battles, Sieges, and Actions, 
which toolc place in the Peninsular War from 1808 to 1814, 
was prepared by the special command of His late Miyesty 
King William the Fourth :— 

[N.B. Hoaortrjr dliUnettant war* graalad for lli« uImImd mIUjm marktd ihw *.] 

A4/utaia-ClM«raf» Office, Uoru Ouanh, 7th Nov^ 1835. 
' 1808. 

Lourinha «......,.. 15th Augiut. 

* Roleia 17th ditto. 

* Vimiera Slit ditto. 

* Sahagun, Benevente, &c. (Cavalry actions) . aoth and a9th December 

•1809. 

* Comnna I6th January. 

Passage of the Vonga 10th May. 

Grijon, Heights of 11th ditto. 

Passage of the Doorol 

and > lath ditto. 

Capture of Oporto ' 

Salamonde .... ..... 16th ditto. 

* Talavera 37th and 28th July. 

1810. 

Barba del Pnerco 19th March. 

Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered to Marshal Ney 10th July. 

Almeida surrendered 24th ditto. 

Affair on the Coa 24th ditto. 

Taking up the Lines at Busaco '. . . . 25th and 26th Sept. 

* Busaco 27th ditto. 

Coimbra, Capture of .8th October. 

1811. 

* Barrosa 5th March. 

Pombal, Redinha, Casal Nova, and Fos) 11th, lath, 14th, and 

d'Arrouce ) 15th ditto. 

Campo Mayor 25th ditto. 

Guanda 29th ditto. 

Sabugal 3rd April. 

Olivenfa 15th ditto. 

Fuentes d'Onor 3rd and 5th May. 

Badajoz, Siege of (raised ISth May). . . 8th to 15th ditto. 

Barbb del Puerco 11th ditto. 

* Albuhera I6th ditto. 

Usagre (Cavalry Action) 25th ditto. 



134 



APPENDIX. 



1811. 

Badi^o*' Second Siege (raised 11th June) . 30th May to llth Jane. 

Affiur near Campo Mayor 22nd June. 

ElBodon 25th September. 

Aldea de Ponte 27th ditto. 

Arroyo dos Molinos 28th October. 

Tariih 3lBt December. 



1812. 

CiadadRodrigo, Siege of (taken l9thJanaary) 8th to 19th January 

Badiyoz, Third Siege of (taken 6th April) . 1 7th March to 6thApril . 

Almaraz 19th May. 

Llerena llth Jane. 

Yinares, Heights of • 22nd ditto. 

Forts of Salamanca (taken 27th June) . . 18th to 27th ditto 

Castrejon . I8th July. 

Salamanca 22n iitto. 

La Sema 23rd ditto. 

Bibera 24th ditto. 

Majalahonda (Cavalry Action) ■> . . , llth August. 

Occupation of Madrid 12th ditto. ~- 

Fort Retiro, Madrid, capitulated . . . 14th ditto. 

Seville, Capture of . . .... 27th ditto. 

Burgos, Fort St. Michael, near . ... 19th September. 

Siege of (raised 20th October) . . 20th Sept. to 20th Oct. 

Actions on the Eetreat from Burgos . . . jogth and* 29th J^** 

Paente larga, on the Xarama .... 30th October. 

Alba de Tonnes 10th and llth Nov. 

-,y-. 1813. 

Castalla 13th April. 

Salamanca 26th May. 

Morales (Cavalry Action) 2nd June. 

Tarragona, Siege raised by Sir John Murray 13th ditto. 

^ . / Honuaza 12th ditto. 

""/"^jOsma 18th ditto. 

•^""iBayas 19th ditto. 

Vittoria 21st ditto. 

Villa Franca and Tolosa 24th and 25th ditto. 

Bastan, Valley of 4th, 5th, and 7th July. 

St. Bartholomew, near St. Sebastia^i . . 17th ditto. 

Pass of Maya 25th ditto. 

Boncevalles 25th ditto. 

St. Sebastian, Assault of (failed). . . . 25th July. 

Attack on General Picton's Division . . 27th ditto. 



I?-. 



APPENDIX. 
1813. 



" Pyrenees 

* St. Sebastian, Assault and Captnre . 

Sti Marcial, Heights of . . . . 

Ordal, Pass of 

Bidassoa, Passage of . . . • • 
fordng Enemy's Lines • . 



♦ Nivelle 

* Nive 



1814. 

Hellette 

Garris, near St. Palus, Heights of . 

Arrivarette ditto . . 

Passageof the Adonr • . . . . 

"■ Orthes 

VioBigorre . . . . 

Tarbes 

St Gandens .... 
Cavalry Afifoir near Toulonse . . 

* Toulouse 

Sortie fh)m Bayonne 



Affiursat 



135 



28th July to and Aug. 

31st August 

Slst ditto. 

12th and 13th Sept 

7th October. 

9tii ditto. 

loth November. 

9th to IStii December. 



14th February. 

15th ditto. 

17th ditto. 

23rd and 24di 'itto. 

27th ditto. 

2nd March. 

18th ditto. 

20Ui ditto. 

22nd ditto. 

8th April. 

10th ditto. 

14tii ditto. 



n 





I^ndou: Printed by W. Ci.owxs aud Sons, Stamford Street, 
For Her Majesty'i Slaiionery Office. 



!. ; 



'•i