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Descriptive Sketches of a Missionary Journey through 

Egypt, Palestine, India, Burmah, Malaysia, 

China, Japan, and the Sandwich 







Rev. a. B. SIMPSON 

ly/ri/ OVER TWO hundred illustrations 

NEW YORK S^/^f^ J 

692 Eighth Avknub 



Entered Recording to the act of Congress, in the yea. .893. by 


I „ the office of the Librarian of Congress, at WaBhingtoB. 





134 WKST 2&TH 8T., H"W TO»K 


Thk following pages contain the substance of a number 
of missionary letters, written from the East in the winter 
and summer of 1893, with careful revisions and considerable 

These letters were written in the course of a very rapid 
journey ; and, while they had the advantage of the freshness 
and inspiration suggested by the immediate presence ot the 
scenes and incidents described, yet they may bear the marks 
of haste, and they make no pretension whatever to literary 


Under ordinary circumstances, their publication in per- 
manent form would scarcely b"vo been justified ; but in this 
case, a large constituency oi .xrsonal friends was kind 
enough to insist upon the privilege of preserving, as a perma- 
nent memorial, those messages from abroad, which they were 
pleased to value at the time with an appreciation which we 
cannot help crediting to their personal affection for the 
writer, and their deep interest in the mission fields and work 
described in these letters, rather than to any pre-eminent 
value in the papers themselves. 

. , .^.*.MiwM*ii jfiJ liiUlmtillU'miW^ 

' f 


With a profound sense of this feeling on their part, the 
author and publishers have endeavored to set these sketches 
in as attractive a frame work as possible, and they sincerely- 
trust this volume will be accepted by thousands of hearts, as 
a loving memorial of the affectionate prayers that sustained 
the author in his long journey with an intense and delight- 
ful consciousness of a fellowship in Christ, stronger than 
the barriers of space and time ; and that it will be con- 
sidered a grateful acknowledgment of the loving co-operation 
which these dear friends are still giving to him in the great 
object of his life— to hasten the evangelization of the world 
and the preparation of our Lord's return. 

To promote this great end v as the object of his journey 
abroad and the purpose which inspired these pages If the 
reading of these sketches and the examination of the many 
beautiful pictures accompanying them shall inspire a deeper 
interest iu heathen lands in the hearts of even a few, and 
shall lead the people of God to a more intelligent, self-deny 
ing and heaven-baptized consecration to the one great desire 
of the Master's heart, and the special work for whose ac- 
complishment His coming waits— the world's immediate 
evangelization— we shall greatly rejoice, and feel that the 
labor bestowed on this modest message has not been in vain. 

Once, it is said, a desert wanderer found a crystal spring 
of surpassing freshness. The water was so pure that he felt 
unworthy to drink it himself, and, after barely satisfying his 
thirst, he filled a leathern bottle with the crystal liquid and 
bore it across the desert as an offering to his chief. 


fc, the 
Is, as 

I con- 


If the 
iT, and 
se ac- 
it the 
L vain, 
lie felt 
d and 

Days passed beneath the desert sun before he reached 
the palace, and when he brought in his offering and laid it at 
the feet of his master, it had become corrupted and putrid. 
But the king would not let his faithful subject oven imagine 
that the water was unfit for use. He tasted the water with 
expressions of gratitude and delight, and sent back the loyal 
heart filled with joy and gladness. 

After he had gone, the princes asked to taste the water, 
and expressed their intense disgust and surprise, that the 
king could even pretend to enjoy it. 

"Ah"! said the king, "it was not the water I tasted, 
but the loyal love that prompted the offering, and made it a 
most delightful draught, from the heart's crystal spring." 

So our offering, like all that man can do, is marked by a 
thousand imperfections ; but we believe our Master accepts 
the motive, and we trust that He will make this message a 
draught of blessing to His household. 

At His feet we dedicate it, and to His name be all the 
glory I 


Thb Winter Sea 
Days in England 
On The Continent 



On The Blue Mediterranean 


First Impressions of Egypt - ■ 


First Glimpses op Palestine 


Days in Palestine 

Under The Shadow of The Pyramids 


IsMAiUA to Bombay 

Our Work in Berar 



Berar to Nellore and Madras 


Madras to Bombay 


Bombay to Benares ... 


From The Himalayas to The Hooghly 














■ • 




Leaving India 



Calcutta to Bubmah 

• • 


Among The Malays 



First Impressions of Southern China 


Missionary Work in Southern China 


Shanghai and its Missionary Work 


On The Yangtse 


Down The Yangtse . 


To The Northern Capital 


Last Glimpses of China 


The Missionary Outlook in China 


First Glimpses of Japan - 


Across Japan by Rail - 


Last Days in Japan 


The Situation in Japan 


Home Coming 


The Missionary Outlook 
























Palms and Pyramids 

Port Said and the Northern End ok the Canai.. 

Ships ok the Desert. ... 

Jakka krom the Sea. 

Donkey and Veiled Lady. ... 

Calvahy. --.•-- 

Jerusalem and the Mount ok Olives. 

Bethany. -...-- 

Gethsemane. - . - - - 

Bethel. - - - - • 

The Nile and the Pyramids. 

The Sphnix. . . . . - 

Interior ok Moslem UNivERi^iTY ok Cairo. 

Victoria Street, Bombay. 

A Groups at Igatfuri. 




(A Kodak Photograph). 

- 45 

- 58 

.. 72 


- 78 



\* ^,~i ' i.^^^^r*m f 



I ^ 



The Girls' Orphanagk. 

The Christian Alliance Convention, Akola. 

A Roadside Scene. - - ^ ' 

r\. j!^, ^^ Kodak Photograph). 

Mr. Simpson and Coolie Cart. ^ - .' 

lYiK. vjx™ .:. ^^ Kodak Photogfraph). 

Bangalore. - - ■ " * 

On the Road to Mahabalashur. - 

VJJN 1 nn J>.w ^^ Yio&aii. Photograph). 

On the Road to the Ghauts. ^ . ' 

Kjss i.B.j^ >■ (A Kodak Photograph). 

The Gospel of Healing, in Marathi. - 

John iii: i6, in Marathi. 

In the Garden of the Taj^^^ ;,„,„,„;,, 

Side View op the Taj. ^^ ^-^^^ p,„,;^,p,, " 

The Taj, Agra. - - * * 

T?TioNT View op the Taj. ' ,.» * " 

TROWl Viivvy (A Kodak Photograph). 

Benares. - - - - 

Darjeeling. --"'*' 
Palms in Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. 

The Image of Gautama, Rangoon. 
ShwEE-da-gone Pagoda, Rangoon. 

Shwee-da-gone Pagoda. . - - • 

A Malay Coffee Plantation. 
The Traveller's Palm. . - - 

A Malay Village. . - - - 


! i 



The Girls' Orphanagk. 

The Christian Alliance Convention, Akola. 

A Roadside Scene. - " ^ . Ix 

ri. ivw^ .3 ^^ Kodak Photograph). 

Mr. Simpson and Coolie Cart. ^ - .' 

i»ijx.. wxi a (A Kodak Photograph). 

Bangalore. - - " ' * 

On the Road to Mahabalashur. - 

^^ (A Kodak Photograph). 

On the Road to the Ghauts. ^ . * ^ 

^^ * (A Kodak Photograph). 

The Gospel oe Healing, in Marathi. - 
John hi: i6, in Marathi. - - ' 

In the Garden of the Taj. - - 

J.IN ixi« v^ (A Kodak Photograph). 

^TDP View of the Taj. - " ^v ' 

OIDl!, V liiw wr J ^^ vioAt^V Photograph). 

The Taj, Agra. - - ' " 

I^RONT View op the Taj. - • 

r KU« ± V i» ^^ Kodak Photograph). 

Benares. - " " ' 

Darjeeling. - - " ' ' 

Palms in Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. 

The Image of Gautama, Rangoon. 

Shwke-da-gone Pagoda, Rangoon. 

Shwee-da-gone Pagoda. - - • 

A Malay Coffee Plantation. 

The Traveller's Palm. . - • 

A MalavVillage. 


A MAI.AY Family. - . • • 

Hong Kong. . - - - 

Thk Temple of Five Hundred Gods, Cantow. 
Chinese Lady Embroidering. - - 

^ Reproducedfrom a Chinese Painting. 

Chinese Priest and Temple. - - 

Reproduced from a Chinese Painting. 

Gate of Woosung Fort, Shanghai. 
Chinese Idols, Shanghai. - - 

Pagoda, Shanghai. . - - • 

A Group of Chinese Missionaries. 
Temple at Hankow. - - - • 

The "Little Orphan," Yangtse River. 

Ching Kiang. 

Reproduced from a Chinese Painting. 

Chinese Buffalo Carts. - - 

(^ « ir< nao u Reproduced from a Chinese Painting. 

The Temple of HEA^^N. - Sawing Lumber. - " . ., * 

V-tn« r.OD w. Reproduced from a Chinese Painting. 

A Chinese Family. - - ■ 

Interior of a Mandarin's Apartments. 
Chinese Punch and Judy. - - 

^" Reproduced from a Chinese painting. 

Japanese Travelling AT Night. - • 

J fYrft.« iw Reproduced from a Japanese Painting. 

Image of Kuradani, Kyoto. 

Temple of Three Thousand Gods, Tokio. • 














■- WMlWttJ-'W WI^ 


1 ii 



IT would not have seemed quite consistent if the "Servia" 
had started on time. So she sailed half an hour behind 
time, and our friends were critical enough to say it was 
because we were on board. 

For more than a month we had been getting ready to go 
away, and in order to gain a little on the already full 
schedule time, we had been obliged to work from sixteen to 
twenty hours a day. The last few nights we had scarcely 
dared to trust ourselves to a good sleep, and so it was a 
strange sensation to find ourselves oo the "Servia" with an 
hour, nay, a week, perhaps, of actual leisure. 

We cannot thank the Master enough for the delightful 
courtesies amid which we were permitted to begin our lonely 
journc> . The. farewell meetings in the Tabernacle were full 
of the Spirit of God and the simple, hedrt-felt kindness of 
His people. Thinking of twelve years ago, we felt like 
Jacob, when he said : "With my staff I passed over this 
Jordan ; and now I am become two bands." 

We were permitted to leave quietly, only about a dozen 


.- ' ^ f^/ asTgii/^if?*r*'tf^i«i_'-' ,". ■7'ii' '(■-^ r ."■ 

«-.»*,»',K^;W»^»-V<-' -r- 



friends breaking through our request and accoinpanyiug us 
to the ship. We felt the sharp strain of many thousand heart- 
strings, but a eweet sense of God's approval and the unity 
and sympathy of all our dear friends in the purpose of our 

We left New York amid bitter cold, and our ship cut her 
way all the way down the Bay through thick and heavy ice. 
But when we got out to sea, we found the waves still and 
calm, and a mighty Presence seemed walking on the waters. 
It is blessed to go forth encompassed by such a cloud of 

Before twenty-four hours had passed, however, we had 
a taste of the winter sea ; and our second night on board was 
so rough that the trunks went crashing in all directions in 
the tossing ship, and few slept much. It was the effect of 
an old storm that had passed ere we came to sea. For 
twenty-four hours the sea ran very high, and we all kept 
quiet. By the evening of the third day the waters calmed, 
and we were able to do some work again. 

On Wednesday we sailed into the Gulf Stream, and 
Thursday was almost like a summer day— the south wind 
laden with balm, and the sky clear and bright. 

Most of our passengers are English people. It is a good 
school for character study. How comfortable and self-com- 
placent some people are ! It was refreshing to see a middle- 
aged Englishman knock his head against the hanging frame 
full of wine glasses, and smash some of them, and then 
summon the steward, and ask, with immense dignity, how 




« this extraordinary thing could have happened.' We shoiUd 
have been covered with confiiwon and apologies, and ready 
to pay for the broken glasses ; but this comfortable gentle- 
man seemed to expect an apology from the steward, and 
even from the wine glasses for hitting his head, or being 
there at all. Well, there are people and people. How some 
people waste their time ! What would they not give at the 
end for a Uttle ? And yet they throw years away at the be- 

^'°The fai-ther we get from the hallowed influences of 
home, the more do we feel the need of Christian fellowship 
and prayer, and the more do we thank the blesse<l Comforter 
for the bonds of communion that cross all seas and conti- 
nents, and flash their messages of love and sympathy from 
land to land. The chronometer of our ship has gamed 
nearly four hours since we left New York, but the clock of 
the heart keeps time to a second from heart to heart all 
around the world. 

Yesterday was our Friday Meeting m .\ew York. But 
we needed no calendar to tell us when it was three o'clock 
on Friday afternoon. The very cloud of the Sanctuary 
gathered round us, and we were held for three blessed hours 
hi the innermost chamber, and at the very gate of heaven 
We could almost feel the breath of those holy prayers, and 
for hours afterwards the sweetness hngered like the twilight 
after sunset, or the fragrance of a spice-laden ship from 

some tropical isle. 

And so we are taking our dear readers with us as we go 

12 LARci h' orri.ooKS ox nrrssioyAKV i.ANPS. 

forth in their name and yis to look over a lost world, and 
seek to find some yet wiser way to win it for His crown. 

Perhaps they will forgive these simple, personal lines 
that have come to us as we have thought of those we love, 
and longed for their sympathy and prayei- : 


All around the world I journey, 

Over many a land ; 
Bearing forth the great comniisBlon, 

At the Lord's oominand. 
Many a danger lies around me, 

Many a dart is hurled, 
But I know His love will guard me 

All around the world. 

There are cables underlying 

Every ocean wide, 
Chords of lo*e and prayer are stronger 

Than the Atlantic's tide. 
There's a ladder up to heaven, 

Everywhere we roam ; 
And the gates of prayer can never 

Find us far from home. 

Hold me closely every moment 

In the arms of prayer ; 
Lfct me feel your fragrant oenserB 
' With me everywhere. 

Let rae know, as ever onward 

I am swiftly whirled, 
Hosts unseen are marching with me 

All around the world. 

Brothers, let us stretch our heartstrings 

Wide as human woe, 
All around this world of sorrow, 

Let our blessing go. 

I .1 


Over every land and nation 

Be HlH flag unfnrlod ; 
• Send the goHiM>l quickly, quickly, 
All around the -world. 

With early dawn on Sabbath morning, Jannary 21, we 
sighted Fastnet Lighthouse, Ireland'H first landmark. We 
had sailed along an invisible pathway across tlu» unmarked 
Bea and the unerriug compass had guided us within an mch 
of our aim. The navigator's faith had located that promon- 
tory there, and lo ! the vision of actxial sight found it real. 
So our faith in God should sail in trackless waters and find 
the soUd reality answer to our trust. 

We had scarcely come abreast of the shore line when 
the fog-whistle began to soimd, and we were enveloped in a 
cloud as sudden as it was dense. But it lifted as quickly as 
it came, and in a hour we were steaming up to Queenstown 
Harbor in a blaze of warmth and sunlight worthy of the na- 
tional character. It seemed as if old Ireland was smiling all 
over in token of the welcome she was giving to the pastor 
and associate of some of her children in America. 

A loveher day we had never seen. After the cold winter 
sea it was indeed most cheering, and our inmost spirit kept 
whispering all day, "Then they are glad because they be 
quiet, so He bringeth them to their desired haven. ' We 
just caught the " Etruria" in time to send our mails back to 
New York by her. Had we been an hour later our friends 
would have had to wait a week longer for their letters 

from us. , X ^ 

We waited at Queenstown only long enough to send 


I..iNUl:h- Of n.OOhS i>.\ J//XV/OA /A')- f.AMKS. 

urthore » '^-w i>usHengers, and wvon hundred mail bags from 
all wenteiu lands, including a great lot from China and 
Japan, and then we steamed away to LiveriK)ol. 

( )ur own guoenstown mail brought uh kind letters of 
welcome from England and Sweden, with enough invitations 
to kw'p u« from feeling lonesome in London. 

Midnight brought us to Holyhead. Long and late .ve 
lingere<l on deck watching the fascinating play oi the lights 
along the shoren of old England. The system is a i)erfect 
alphabet of naval signals. Some were red, some yellow, 
some white, most of them Hash lights, but with such differ- 
ent kinds of flashes ! Some would disappear altogether for a 
minute, then return ; others would wink three times in quick 
succession and then blaze away for two or three minutes ; 
and othei-8 hide their torches at regular intervals of ten sec- 
onds. We could see how a pilot could easily read the very 
names of every station along that bold and dangerous shore. 
Oh, that each of us might have a light so definite, so dis- 
tinct, so clear and intelligible, that both earth and heaven 
might read it every moment, and others sail by it on life's 
dangeroxis sea ! And happy might we be, if, like these lights 
on the coast of Wales, even our very moments of obscura- 
tion and trial might only give to our shining a more em- 
phatic and vivid glory and significance, so that our dark- 
ness and our light might 'ooti- dil'e glorify our Father in 
heaven, and bless and heir onv fv 5'>^v men. 

8 from 
la and 

tens of 

ate W6 
i lights 
1 differ- 
er for a 
n quick 
linutes ; 
ten sec- 
he very 
8 shore. 
, 80 dis- 
on life's 
36 lights 
lore em- 
ir dark- 
ather in 


MONDAY uioiuing, quite early, we wove sent ushoiv 
Liveri)ool, on the Cunard tender. We werr met 
the dock by our kind and attt'iitive English agentb 
and they showed us every courtesy, helped us through the 
custom house, sent off our telegra ns and letters, and saw us 
to the train for London. Mr. Mili^ gave us very interesting 
information about our, recent missi niary parties. He spok- 
especially of dear Clara Stromberg of the Congo party, and 
h(.w she had endeared herself to niMiy friends in Liverpool. 
Her face and voice were the last and brightest memor- 
ies of the large party that had saileci out of Liverpool last 
summer for the Congo. Dear Clara swept swiftly tluough 
her heavenly orbit, but it was a ver. bright one, and now 
she is shining and singing over yonder 

Liverpool was thick with fog as Q leenstown was bright 
with sunshine. We asked a young mai in the hotel if it was 
often thus. He said he had not seen the ^un for four months ; 
bat he added, with a cmel bit of selfish omfort, it was noth- 
ing to London. It was Dean Ramsay, e believe, who told 
of the Scotchman who, when asked by disgusted traveler 
"if it always rained thei-e," good naturedly answered: 
"Na, na ; it sometimes snaws." 



Well, rain or snow, beautiful England is beautiful all the 
same ! Here, in January, as we ride through the valleys and 
l)lains of Derbyshire, the fields are almost as green as sum- 
mer ; the farmers are plowing, the sheep and cattle are graz- 
ing in the pastures, the ground is covered with crows ; there 
is no frost nor snow, and even the hedges have just been 
pruned, and are waiting to send out their fiist buds and 
branches in a little while. 

What causes all this general f ruitfulness ? We are far 
north of the latitude of New York. It is the Gulf Stream 
from the tropics, that bears a perpetual tide of balm and 
blessing to these ocean isles. Oh, if our spiritual lives could 
only abide in the great Stream of Life and Love that comes 
flowing down from the Summer Land beyond the unseen 
sea, what a temperature we should enjoy, what fniitful lives 
we should have ! 

" There'd be no sorrow in our song, 
No -winter in our year." 

We reached London on exact time, and found friends 
waiting to welcome us. The home of dear Mr. and Mrs. 
Brodie is a home indeed, and has been the hospitable resting- 
place of all our outgoing missionarios. Words cannot express 
the obligations of the Alliance for the kindness of these dear 
friends, who combine the second and third epistles of John 
in very deed, and are the Gains and the Elect Lady of our 
precious work. We found that dear Peter Scott had left and 
passed us on the way, returning on the ' ' Germanic. " 

1 1 

'■'• ~-U~. 



1 all the 
leys and 
as sum- 
ire graz- 
3 ; there 
1st been 
uds and 

3 are far 
aim and 
,res could 
it comes 
B unseen 
tful lives 

i friends 
and Mrs. 
e resting- 
)t express 
hese dear 
s of John 
dy of our 
d left and 

We found our friends in Jjondon had arranged to make 
the most of om- time, and we are having a busy and blessed 

Monday night we had the pleasure of addressing a meet- 
ing at the Friends' Meeting House, and met some choice 

Tuesday found us in the City, busy enough, at our agents, 
our shipping office, and many other places. We were per- 
mitted an interview with the Honorable Secretary of the 
Church Missionary Society, and obtained some most valua'-;l'. 
information i-especting the Soudan, and especially the Niger 
and Binnue Rivers. We were able also to make satisfactory 
arrangements with Messrs. John Snow & Co., Ivy Lane, 
London, for a full supply of our Alliance books, tracts, and 
weekly papers to be kept in London. 

In the evening a very kind reception had been arranged 
for us through the courtesy of Miss Gurney and others. 
The meeting was held at the Hall, Adam Street, Strand, and 
was attended by many of the Christian workers of London, 
and those especially who had become interested in our work. 
It was a touching surprise and we trust a blessing to many. 
The Lord ""/vras present in great power, especially in the after 
meeting for prayer, which was one of the most blessed and 
solemn we have ever felt. The Lord permitted us to speak 
a little of the work, and more of Himself, and we were con- 
scious of a delightful sympathy and fellowship of heart. 
Among those present were Miss Gurney, Rev. Evan Hop- 
kins, Rev. F. B. Meyer, Rev. Mr. Mantel, Mr. and Mrs. 


'l-'^?^^*l^»£=!''^"«^ -ITB*'..-. 


Eeader Harris, Mrs. J. Hudson Taylor, Mr. and Mrs. Brodie, 
Prof. Bartlett, Miss Fannie Gregson, of Ceylon, and many 
others. Their loving sympathy was a breath of cheer on our 
long, lonely journey to the East. 

We have just heard from our Swedish party, and they 
will be here to-morrow, 7). T., on their way to Southampton 
and China. We had the pleasure to-day of calling at Fins- 
bury Square, where our India party of missionaries stayed, 
and we were rejoiced to hear the gracious words of the Super- 
intendent and others respecting the blessing tbey left behind 
them. They are now on their way to India, and the last 
section will arrive about February 1. 

Wednesday morning fomid ns at our business agents, 
our bankers and the Foreign Office, arranging for passports, 
vises, etc., in order to be able to go to Egypt and Palestine. 
In the afternoon we went to Bethshan, and met many 
dear old friends. We felt the cloud of blessing as we turned 
the corner, and we knew God was still there. Mrs. Baxter 
was there, and led the meeting. Mi-s. Boardman was also 
]»resentwith her quiet, triumphant spirit, after all the changes 
and trials of eight yeai-s. Mrs Brodie has also become a reg- 
ular worker at Bethshan, although this afternoon she was 
called out to attend a meeting of Jewesses in another room. 
Miss Murray is at present in Sweden, although she still re- 
tains her relation to the work. The Wednesday meeting is 
regulariy kept up at Bethshan HaU, and God still owns the 
work and testimony by His healing power. 

But the Bethshan Home has been changed, and is now 

■f 1.1 


re. Brodie, 
and many 
eer on our 

, and they 
g at Fins- 
ies stayed, 
the Super- 
eft behind 
id the last 

3SS agents, 
I Palestine, 
met many 
, we turned 
[rs. Baxter 
n was also 
the changes 
come a reg- 
3n she was 
•ther room. 
3he still re- 
meeting is 
U owns the 

and is now 



used not for gu^ :<ts who come to seek for healing, but as a 
Training Institute for Missionaries. The friends in charge 
felt that the various local homes indifferent parts of England 
were meeting the need which it has supplied, at least in some 
measure, and that more could be accomplished for God, for 


the present, at least, by using it to meet the increasing needs 
of the missionary training work. 

This work has grown steadily and substantially. Mr. 
and Mrs. Mueller, the former superintendents, have them- 
selves gone out to India as superintendents of the mission in 
Berar that has grown out of this Institute ; but a Christian 




worker, formerly in Ceylon, has taken their place, and, as- 
sisted by Mrs. Baxter and others, is carrying on a most excel- 
lent work, and has a school of about twenty-five students. 
We have one of them, Mr. Bannister, in our work in Akola, 
and he is doing good service. We met one or two others 
who may yet be used of God in the Alliance mission work. 

The Wednesday meeting at Bethshan was large and 
blessed, and many kind greetings cheered us on our way, and 
our important and most responsible journey was committed 
to God in solemn and believing prayer, for the wisdom and 
blessing we should so nmch require. 

Among the many kind friends who came a long distance 
to meet us were our dear old friends, the Rivoltas, formerly of 
Blackheath, and Rev. Mr. Gregson, formerly of India, and his 
daughter, dear Miss Fanny Gregson, of Ceylon, whose little 
journal of brave and independent mission work has been 
coming to us for a good while, with bright words of testimony 
and experience. We hope to meet her later in Ceylon. Mr. 
Gregson has some very strong convictions on the subject of 
Holy Ghost mission work, derived from his experience in 
India, and is one of the few men who fully realize that the 
evangelization of the world must pass out of the hands of 
man into the hands of thelivingGod if this generation iseven 
to hear the gospel. We are glad to learn that the Keswick 
and other great spiritual Conferences are becoming more m- 
tensely aggressive and missionary. 

One of our most valuable mornings was the one spent 
with good Hudson Taylor, who so courteously gave us that 

• » IJI« I LM I B I U«I I WI» l lll H i»"« l' '" l ''"' l liWTI 




, and, as- 
ost excel- 
in Akola, 
"^o others 
I work, 
large and 
way, and 
sdom. and 

g distance 
)rmerly of 
ia, and his 
hose httle 
has been 
rlon. Mr. 
subject of 
terience in 
,e that the 
s hands of 
ion is even 
e Keswick 
; more in- 
one spent 
ve us that 

precious thing whose value we ho fully appreciate — his time 
— without stint. We need not say how much we were helped 
and how fully this honored leader of the most successful mis- 
sionary work of our time was both able and willing to meet 
the many practical questions we are called to face, with his 
modest counsel and long experience. 

There is no country in the world where missionary work 
Jias to meet more difficulties and to be can'ied on with more 
humble, holy wisdom than China. The mistakes of one mis- 
i^ionary not only hurt his own work, but may cripple a hun- 
dred other missionaries by the reflex action. A riot incited 
in one city by the act of a missionary has been known to lead 
to the destruction of life and property hundreds of miles away. 
There are things which cannot be done in China that may be 
done anywhere else. We need to pray much for all the 
workers in that land that they may ever have the very miud 
of Christ. We have always had the hearty sympathy and 
co-operation of the authorities and missionaries of the China 
Inland Mission, and we were mvich cheered by Dr. and Mrs. 
Taylor's kindness. 

One of our chief objects in staying a few days in England 
was to meet the outgoing Swedish missionaries. Phis also 
we were permitted to do, much better than if we had gone to 
Sweden. We found, as we expected, that they had been in 
England for some time. Three of them came to London to 
meet us, and we went down to Southampton to meet the rest, 
and spent Thursday afternoon and evening with them. It 
was a meeting of great importance, enabling us to get per- 

i<B?*t*'fegt-.-i"»:-,^.'?r-i5?' ' 

i pUJ" 


sonally and quite well acquainted with each of the party, and 
judge, as we never could have done otherwise, of the wisest 
course to advise in connection with this important move- 

We have been very much touched to find the wider and 
deeper interest in our Alliance work which expresses itself 
from many quartere. We could spend a month very profita- 
bly in England, Scotland, and Ireland in meeting the calls 
that so kindly come. There is a blessed fellowship of prayer, 
love, and mutual help and service. We are sorry we cannot 
stay now, but will return, if the Lord will. 

We left London Friday afternoon, after a few busy, 
blessed days, by a limited express train, with a view, D.V., 
to catch the Mediterranean steamer at Brindisi. It was a real 
pain to pass dear friends who had written us from Geneva, 
Bale, and Rome, to tarry with them by the way. It was very 
hard to give up the proffered pleasure and blessing of meet- 
ing that great and good man of God, Stockmeyer, at Bale, 
but we could not do so without missing a week on the Medi- 
terranean, and having to leave out a few brief days, if the 
Lord will, at dear Jerusalem. 

Our last hours in London were by no means idle. Some 
gddd friends came in to meet us in English fashion at break- 
fast and morning prayers, .and a party of missionary candi- 
dates from Scotland were waiting later, whom we were glad 
to meet. Then an hour or two with our stenographer-a 
great lot of letters of importance •, an hour or two in the city 
with our agents and business correspondents, and we were 
ready to go to our special train. 

)..u„>mauuJiiJ^4i. | |i. Hn 1 1 . ■ 

irty, and 
he wisest 
it move- 

nder and 
3ses itself 
y profita- 
the calls 
5f prayer, 
ire cannot 

'ew busy, 
ew, D.F., 
was a real 
I Geneva, 
t was very 
; of meet- 
ir, at Bale, 
, the Medi- 
ays, if the 

lie. Some 
I at break- 
lary candi- 
were glad 
grapher — a 
in the city 
id we were 



We cannot sufficiently praise God for the wonderful help 
given us in our very short visit to London, in enabling us to 
meet every one of the engagements we had counted upon, and 
accomplishing so much that was upon our heart. Even at 
the last moment He graciously interposed to prevent our 
missing our train. We had got through all our work and 
left in good time, with twenty minutes to spare, at the Cannon 
Street Station; but, unfortunately, our kind agents, who had 
taken such constant trouble with us, and arranged everything 
so satisfactorily about our tickets and passages, had sent us 
to the wrong station, and we found, at twenty minutes to 
three, that we had yet to go all the way to Channg Cross, in 
the West End, more than two miles distant, or miss our train, 
and with it our steamer at Brindisi, and lose a whole week. 

Our kind friends who were with us thought it impossible, 
but we lifted our heart to God in a quiet prayer, and told our 
driver to rush to Charing Ci-oss, promising him an extra 
shilling if he got us there in time. We felt at rest, and knew 
that if we missed our train God would have something better. 
To make it more evident that God always loves to use the 
weak and foolish things of this world, our hoi-se was old and 
stiflf, and even the prospect of an extra shilling did not seem 
to put much new life into him. But God was equal to the emer- 
gency, and we got to Charing Cross with just three minutes 
to register our baggage for Italy, get our ticket stamped, 
hasten our things on board, say a hurried but loving good-bye 
to dear Mr. and Mrs. Brodie, and get off with an infinite sense 
of His quiet and loving care, while we learned with sorrow^ 


that a dear lady was left behind notwithstanding the impor- 
tunities an.l entreaties of her friend, who only got the answer : 
*' We are going all the way to Sidney, Australia, and we can- 
not stop for anyone." 

English officials in such an emergency are invaluable. 
There is a man with brass buttons for almost every conceiv- 
able thing you want, and a sixpence will accomplish wonders. 
Upon the whole, the railway service of England and Lon- 
don is most excellent and convenient. Constant express 
trains run on all the leading railways, and, if you know the 
city, you can go almost anywhere in a very short time. Om- 
nibuses go everywhere, and for a penny you can ride a long 
distance. There is no better way to enjoy the streets of Lon- 
don than from the top of an omnibus. But the hansom is a 
convenience and luxury too little known in America. For a 
shilling you can go anywhere within reasonable distance at 
a very quick pace, for they all drive fast, and their simple 
form enables them to thread streets and crowded passages 
where a carriage could not go. Then, you can find one al- 
most anywhere. We saw the number 15,000 on one, and 
there are more even than that number in London. For a few 
shUUngs one can accomplish more business a a day in London 
than you could do in New York in two. 

As if to enable us to see much in a little, we had the 
opportunity of seeing a real London fog the day we left. 
There was much of what we would call fog every day ; but 
when we asked our friend if that was a London fog, he 


D.I ) .V /A' ENGLAND. 


e impor- 
answer : 
I we can- 


and Lon- 
b express 
know the 
ne. Om- 
ie a long 
bs of Lon- 
nsom is a 
!a. For a 
istance at 
3ir simple 


nd one al- 

i one, and 

For a few 

in London 

<?e had the 
y we left. 
' day ; but 
)n fog, he 

But that morning, as we got down into tlie heart of the city, 
there was something we could feel as well as see. The air 
was literally thick, the smell of escaping coal gas was every- 
where, the lamps, gas jets, and electric lights were all lighted 
both inside and out ; and as we looked up into the sky, a 
strange yellow glare, like mud, seem to hang overhead, giving 
everything such a lurid look. " This is a London fog," said 
our friend ; "but we often have it much worse than this." 
Keally it was not a fog at all, we believe, for it was bright 
ar-d clear all around London ; but the smoke of the soft coal, 
and the dust of the streets, was held somehow in suspension 
by a peculiar condition of the atmosphere, and forced back 
into people's eyes and throats. 

Notwithstanding all this, we must say the climate of 
:Engic;nd, even in winter, is delightful. Even in southern France 
we passed through six inches of snow, and London was almost 
as warm as early spring all the time we were tiiere. It is a 
wonderful little isle, and has much good within its rock-bound 
.shores, although one feels the lack of that freedom and spring 
jou are conscious of in our American atmosphere. 

Most English audiences are a little heavier and less respon • 
isive than ours. And yet we must say we have rarely felt deeper, 
fuller tides of power and blessing than in the meetings we were 
j)ermitted to take part in Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday 
in London. At the last moment we had a very pleasant mis 
sionary surprise in being permitted to meet, just on the eve 
of their departure for the field, the two dear missionaries of the 
new Soudan mission, Mr. White and his asso.'-te, who, for 


two yeai-fl, have been trying to penetrate? the Soudan, and 
reach Lake Tchad, from Tripoli or Morocco, on thi^ coast, 
by the caravan route that passes through the desert to l^vKe 
Tchad and the Sokoto and Bornu country, They have now 
abandoned that el ort, and are on their way to the Niger, with 
a view to attempt to reach the Soudan by the very route 
that our dear young friends, Mr. Gowans, Mr. Robb, and 
others desire to attempt. We had a Uttle convereation witli 
them amid the hurry of departure, xnd they have promised 
to write us fully. They seem to be young Englishmen of the 
right sort of stuff for pioneers. They are attempting the 
most hazM-douB journey of modern missions. 

We had an hour's conversation with the Hon. Secretary 
of the Church Missionary Society on this very subject. After 
two years or more of the most indefatigable and wise effort, 
on the part of Mr. Wi'nv)t Brooke and several others, to es- 
tablish a base of operations at Lakoja, at the mouth of the 
Binnue, the result so far is that Mr. Brooke has sacrificed hi& 
life, his English associates have either died or returned ; and 
there is not a single white man at Lakoja, and but few at the 
mouth of the Niger or anywhere on it. They are reinforcing 
at present their Niger force, and a party of Englishmen is 
going out soon, but they do not advise, at present, any at- 
tempt to go further into the interior, nor have we been able, 
as yet, to advise our dear young brethren in America to as- 
cend the iJinnue at present, but rather to wait developments 
in connection with the movement already on foot there. 

We are the more confirmed in this view since meeting 


ian, and 
lo coast, 
to Tiiike 
ave now 
^er, with 
ry route 
M), and 
lion with 
en of the 
sting the 

t. After 
se effort, 
srs, to es- 
ith of the 
rificed his 
rned ; and 
:ew at the 
ishmen is 
t, any at- 
jeen able, 
rica to as- 
e meeting 




this party, who are on their way to this very spot, and from 
whom we liope to hear in tlie spring. We beUeve that if any 
persons can find such an enterprise practicable they can. 
They are men of true and bold faith, and havti already had a 
valuable experience with the people of North Africa, besides 
having the language. We shall be glad to follow on as God 
clearly otiens the way, but we do not feel that we are called 
upon to inaugurate what really must prove a great and haz- 
ardous enterprise of missionary exploration. But this move- 
ment on the part of these bold pioneers deserves our warmest 
sympathy, and we shall be glad to know, ere very long, that 
the way is open for our direct co-operation. 



OUR route lay from Loudon to Dover, and Dover to Calais. 
We found, for once, the English Channel as still as a mill- 
pond, and were able to walk the deck and watch for the 
headlights of France. The flash light at Calais is a maguift- 
cent revolving light, sending out great ribbons of electric 
brilliancy that seem as if they might reach a hundred miles. 
We found ourselves at Calais in something more nearly 
resembling an American Pullman train than anything we 
have yet seen abroad. It has a dining car and a sleeper, with 
very considerable comfort. The train ran through, with- 
out change, in forty-eight hours to Brindisi, and is a great 
convenience. »■ 

Twenty-four hours from London brought us to Modane, 
at the entrance to the Mont Cenis tunnel. It is now just 
twenty-three years since we crossed these Alps the first time, 
and stopped also at Modane, on oui way from Turin. But then 
it took us nearly an entire day. To-day we passed through 
the tunnel in twenty-five minutes and reached Turin within 
four hours. At that time we crossed the mountains by the 
little zizzag railway that ran over the tops of the passes. 
We could still see the old track and telegraph poles to-day, 
but we suppose it is never used except, perhaps, for mountain 


;o Calais. 
as a mill- 
h for the 
; electric 
ed miles, 
re nearly 
;hing we 
per, with 
h, with- 
is a great 

now just 
irst time, 
But then 
. through 
in within 
19 by the 
le passes. 
Bs to-day, 



views, which are veiy fine. The tunnel under Mont Cenis 
had just been completed that year, 1870, but was not opened ; 
but we saw the works on the French side, and were told how 
wonderfully the engineers of both countries had succeeded 


in excavating and tunneling up an incline from each side, so 
as to let the water run oflF, and yet meet in the centre in 
perfect line. The tunnel is a great success, and enables the 
express train to go through from Pa is to Turin in nineteen 
hours, and from London to Brindisi in forty-eight hours, 
thus bringing Bombay within seventeen days of London, 
instead of two months, as it used to be before the days of the 


Tunnel and the Suez Canal. The tunnel is nine miles long, 
and we passed through it without the slightest discomfort,— 
indeed, taking our lunch all the way through. 

We found snow all through France; and, indeed, it 


would seem to a passing traveler, to be a thousand miles 
north of England, so different was the climate. The favored 
British Isles lie in the warm current of the Gulf Stream, and 
have, indeed, an exceptionally mild climate. Snow con- 


RBWffifc'«W»^lW.r «t""- 




miles long, 
(comfort, — 

indeed, it 

usand miles 

The favored 

Stream, and 

Snow con- 

tinued until we reached Bologna. Indeed, this has been a 
bitterly cold winter in Europe, and there must be great 

At Ancona it began to grow spring-like, and after Fog- 
gia, for the last 120 miles, we were in the summer land of 

Southern Italy. The 
route lay along the 
shores of the Adri- 
atic, and its blue 
and placid waters 
were covered with 
white sails. We 
could count more 
than twenty at one 
time from our car 
window. The towns 
and villages are 
very old and pic- 
turesque. These 
plains and valleys 
have heard the 
march of eighty 
generations. The 
houses are mostly pure white, some being highly tinted, but 
all artistic. The Italian cannot make a cabin or railway 
station without putting beauty and dignity into the lines. 
Some towns, like Ostuni, for example, stand on the very 
summit of a bold and precipitous hill, and with their white 




towers and domes are very striking. The Italian people are 
always most interesting. Still the soldier is to be seen on guard 
at nearly every station, and the lazzaroni, with their countless 
devices for getting a few centesimi. The women do not seem so 
picturesque in their head-dresses as they used to be ; we sup- 
pose Italy is getting modernized, like every thing else. The 
shepherds were in the fields, all over Southern Italy, with 
their sheepskin coats and ancient cloaks, and their great 
flocks. We saw one little boy, of about ten, herding a flock 
of more than a hundred lambs, and we thought of something 
even the children can do for Christ. If they cannot work 
like older people, they can be a blessing to one another. 
The gardens, orchards, and vineyards were luxuriant. 
Thousands of acres were covered with olive trees, and their 
leaves were, of coui-se, green. There were orange trees and 
some fine groves at Brindisi, but they vre mostly found ia 
Sicily, a little further south. 


■ -*i^r 

1 people are 
eu on guard 
sir countless 
not seem so 
3e ; we sup- 
else. The 
Italy, with 
their great 
iing a flock 
I something 
annot work 
ae another, 
s, and their 
;e trees and 
tly found ia 


WE reached Brindisi in good time for our steamer, 
which had come round from London, by way of 
Gibraltar and Malta, and been over ten days on her 
route already. We had to wait for the late mail from Lon- 
don, and stayed up to get some important letters which we 
expected. We had dictated a very large mail to our stenog- 
rapher ia London, but, like most Enghshmen, we could not 
hurry him, so we had to come away without our letters, and 
have tb<jm sent on after us, for us to sign and dispatch on 
the way. 

That evening at Brindisi was worth remembering. It 
let us see a little both of Italian and English wickedness in a 
seaport town. Boys not ten years old were running about 
as agents for the most infamous places, and women and 
children, dancing on the streets to their rude music, by 
scores. Brindisi has a fine harbor and is the great rendezvous 
for several great lines of steamers to the East. The Austrian 
Lloyd's, of Trieste, have several lines to Alexandria, Con- 
stantinople, and other points, and the P. & 0. Company have 
two lines calling here. It is on the great high-road to the 
East, and, indeed, for ages it has been one of the landmarks 
of the Mediterranean. We are on historic ground, but we 




m. i 

would rather tread in one of Paul's footsteps than walk in 
triumph with all the Caesars. 

We walked the deck for hours, and saw the same stars 
we had watched for years go down over the distant West, 
where our heart was lingering in love and prayer. Again 
the Master walked upon the waters, and the blue Mediter- 
ranean was literally as still as glass. It was very interesting 
in the warm sunlight and crisp air of the next morning to 
see the coast of Italy disappear, and sail by Corfu and the 
Turkish Islands with their snow-crowned heights beyond, 
that seem over 0,000 feet high. We were on "the Great 
Sea " of ancient ages and Bible times ; but it is a little sea 
to-day beside the great Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. And 
yet it ha? been the Mediterranecfn, or middle sea, in the 
sense that it has been the centre of the world's history for 
more than three thousand years. 

Our crew is an interesting study. Most of them are 
Hindus from Bombay. So that we are already in the heart 
of Asia. They are as dark as negroes, but have Hindu 
features. But how they ever live in this northern climate 
with their scant cotton clothing we cannot comprehend. 
They are nearly all barefooted, and none of them have more 
than a thin cotton blouse and linen pants. And yet last 
night these barefooted fellows ran up and down the gang- 
plank carrying the mail bags up for more than two hours, 
chattering and screaming like monkeys, playing all kinds of 
tricks on each other, racing down after each o her like chil- 
dren let loose, and keeping warm by good nature and fun. 



ban walk in 

same stars 
stant West, 
yer. Again 
lue Mediter- 
r interesting 

morning to 
rfu and the 
;ht8 beyond, 

"the Great 
is a httle sea 
ceans. And 

sea, in the 
i history for 

)f them are 
in the heart 
have Hindu 
[lern climate 
a have more 
aid yet last 
n the gang- 
a two hours, 
J all kinds of 
ler like chil- 
ire and fun. 












Here they are to-day, by the dozen, walking about the deck 
barefooted and half naked, and we are glad to have our fur 
overcoat buttoned up to the chin in the sharp wind of the 
sea. Well, surely there is everything in getting used to 

But our cabin passengers are a greater study. Some of 
them are business men going to India ; and a number are en 
route to Syd- -. „ - ney and Mel- 

good many 
going out to 
or seek their 
East; two are, 
see merchants 
and quite a 
East. Two of 
copal clergy- 
number are 



are young men 
fill t;itTiation8 
fortunes in the 
probably, Par- 
from Bombay 
number are 
going to the 
these are E pis- 
men, and a 
young lady liqhthouse, mediterranean sea. 

On Sabbath evening we had service on board, and we 
were so glad, after seeing so much ungodliness on shipboard, 
to have an opportunity to worship God. The service was led 
by one of the Episcopal missionaries. He was evidently a 
graduate of the University, and we doubt not an earnest 
young minister of a little more than the average type, with a 
strong ecclesiastical tint. "W e enjoyed the hymns and pray- 
ers very heartily, but when it came to the sermon we had a 
very nice Httle essay on " What is the failure of life ? " with 



not even tlie formality of a text, and then a little of the 
gospel, in its weakest form, followed by the following ^i-ac- 
tical applications which we give almost verbatim : "Are we 
then to give up the pleasm-es of hfe as Christians ? Why 
should we ? Are we not commanded to rejoice ? It was Mr. 
Spui-geon that said he could smoke a cigar to the glory of 
God. And why cannot we play cricket, lawn tennis, etc., 
and enjoy the pleasures of life to the glory of God ? " 

We looked around with interest to see the faces of the 
listeneiT,, and some of them were lighted up with radiant ap- 
proval. Well, there are worse things than luwn tennis and 
cricket, but the idea of sending out missionaries to preach 
and practice such things was sad enough. One would think 
that if a person wishes to live that kind of a life, the right 
thing would be to stay at home and enjoy life like the world. 
But can we wonder if the type of missionary life abroad is 
no higher than the Christian life at home ? A pleasure-lov- 
ing church will develop a self-indulgent ministry, and the 
foreign fruit- will be like the parent tree. We have not come 
abroad to criticise the workers in the field. We are much 
more grieved with the spirit of the church at home. But we 
may have to see and state facts as we tind them, and shall do 
so kindly and fairly. 

At late supper we saw some of the fruit of the sermon 
we had been hearing. One of the young ladies was helping 
herself to wine, in the midst of a little party that were evi- 
dently disposed to have the rejoicing type of Christianity 
that had been recommended, and she remarked amid a gen- 



,tle of the 
wing ^rac- 
: " AiH we 
m ? Why 
It was Mr. 
le glory of 
ennis, etc., 

aces of the 
radiant ap- 
tennis and 
!s to preach 
rould think 
e, the right 
) the world, 
e abroad is 
ry, and the 
v^e not come 
''e are much 
le. But we 
and shall do 

the sermon 
was helping 
at were evi- 
amid a gen- 



eral laugh: "This is not the way the China Inland would 
think about it I"' Well, we hope that the China Inland 
missionaries are not ashamed of the reproach, and we are 
sure ours are not. 

But we are glad to find that we have a real party of China 
Inland missionaries on board, and dear, good girls they are. 
There are eight of them, all ladies, on their way to their dis- 
tant field, and we are quite at home with them already. They 
are just like some of our own girls, and are glad to meet us, 
as they know a good deal of our work. They are watching 
for opportunities of service on board, and are wise and earnest 
soul winners. We had the pleasure of spending an hour, the 
last day we were on board, in a bless'ed little Bible-reading 
with them in the saloon from 11 to 12, and the Master came 
near to all our hearts and cheered us on our way. We formed 
many common ties, and trust they, as well as we, received a 
blessing. On the evening of our arrival at Port Said, they 
gave a little account of their work in a public meeting on 
board, and nmch good was done in a quiet way. 

We have been reading the story of Paul's voyage to Rome 
over this winter sea. We are crossing his very pathway, but 
how different to-day ! And yet that lone man, with neither 
Society, steamboat nor modern civilization behind him, ac- 
complished more in a life-time for the evangelization of the 
world than any whole generation since. The conditions of 
human life are different to-day, and God would have us adapt 
oui-selves to them in sending his Gospel to the world. Oh, 
that we might ever catch His thought and meet His expecta- 
tion for our generation ! 

iit iw t iir' 'AilK 




The second night we sailed past the Grecian Isles in 
glorious moonlight, and the following day we were nearly all 
day long within two or three miles of the coast of Crete. 
Candia is its modern name, but to us it has a sweetci nterest 
as the parish of Titus, the friend of St. Paul, and one of the 
early scenes of Apostolic Christianity. Its long western 
shore is bold and barren looking, and but few human beings 
seem to live on this rock-bound coast ; but, we doubt not, be- 
hind these naked hills is many a sweet valley, and many a 
throbbing human heart. The Cretianb did not have a very 
high reputation when Paul wrote his letter to Titus, and they 
have not improved it in modern times. But it is one of the 
places we have claimed for Him who made all these scenes 
for Himself, and shall yet cover them with his grace and 


The blue Mediterranean is, indeed, as blue as it can be 
painted or described. We have been wondering what could 
possibly give these watei-s their exquisite hue. But we have 
found the cause : it is as simple as it is beautiful, and it is 
full of instruction. It all comes from the clear blue sky 
above. It is just the reflection of the heavens above from the 
calm bosom of the sea below ; and as these skies are clearer 
and bluer than in our murky West, so these waters, likewise, 
give back the glory they receive. 

Surely, we need not interpret the figure. Would we have 
in our lives the heavenly glory we must also receive it from 
above. Our holiness is just the reflection of His Face. The 
Mediterranean is nearer the central zone and under the more 



ian Isles in 
re nearly all 
at of Crete. 
}tei interest 
one of the 
ng western 
man beings 
mbt not, be- 
and many a 
have a very 
lis, and they 
I one of the 
these scenes 
8 grace and 

18 it can be 
what could 
Jut we have 
ul, and it is 
ar blue sky 
ove from the 
J are clearer 
3rs, likewise, 

ould we have 
eive it from 
i Face. The 
ier the more 


direct reflection of the 8un and sky, and so it receives the 
light of a brighter sky. And so the nearer we come to the 
very centre of His Presence, the more richly will we give 
back the glory of His life and light 

May God keep us "beholding, as in a glass, the gloiy of 
the Lord, to be changed into the same image from glory to 
glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord 



THERE are moments which we never forget. Such a 
moment was that in which we caught the first glance 
of the lighthouse at the mouth of the Nile. It seemecl 
to bridge over forty centuries, and to bring us into touch 
with the days of Abraham, Joseph, and the exodus of ancient 
Israel. Right over yonder we could almost see the young 
slave lad going down to the house of Potiphar, the little baby 
floating among the reeds of the Nile, and the holy Babe and 
mother passing down from Bethlehem to Egypt, very much 
as we have seen the peasants to-day, traveling along on their 
little donkeys or on the backs of their camels. There are 
things that speak to the heart beyond the power of words. 
There are realizations of things that no amount of reading can 
ever give, and these two short days in Egypt have photo- 
graphed upon our hoart and soul the strange life of this 
unchangeable East, as first impressions are indelibly photo- 
graphed, and as no words of ours, we fear, can reproduce 
them to others. 

The first Ught was Damietta, and, about two hours later, 
the flash light of Port Said burst upon us, and an hour or 
two afterward, we steamed in between the great bi'eastworks 
that run two miles out into the Mediterranean, and were 


3t. Such a 
I first glance 
I. It seemed 

into touch 
IS of ancient 
» the young 
le little baby 
ly Babe and 
, very much 
ong on their 

There are 
3r of words, 
reading can 
have photo- 
life of this 
sUbly photo- 
1 reproduce 

hours later, 

an hour or 


a, and were 



anchored in the midst of a dozen other great ocean steam- 
ships, in the mouth of the Suez Canal. 

It is about a quarter of a century since this stupendous 
triumph of modern engineering skill was opened, and it has 
revolutionized the trade of the East. It cost about one hun- 
dred million dollars, but is worth it. It has brought India 
within little more than a fortnight of England, and the vol- 
ume of trade that has already poured through may be esti- 
mated by millions. The man, to whom more than any other 
its success was due, was M. De Lesseps, of France, who, to- 
day, stands before a Paris ti'ibunal with a sullied reputation, 
and charged, along with others, with the grossest dishonesties 
in connection with the Panama Canal enterprise. 

He was backed in his enterprise chiefly by English gold, 
and the British government has made this, in part at least, 
the occasion for the military occupation of Egypt, as a guar- 
antee for the payment of the interest on the enormous 
national debt which has been increased by this and other 
great public works. In fact, Egypt is almost in the position 
of a British colony. This was made very plain the other day, 
when the young and headstrong Khedive got angry with his 
cabinet, and dismissed them summarily, without consulting 
the English minister. He was requested by the British 
government to reinstate them again in twenty-four hours, and a 
contingent of British troops, within a few hours, had landed 
at Suez to follow up the demand, if necessary, by prompt 
action. The only concession made to him was to allow him 
to appoint a new premier, but all the other members of the 


an steani- 

md it has 
b one hun- 
ght India 
d the vol- 
ly be esti- 
any other 
!, who, to- 

jlish gold, 
b at least, 

15 a guar- 
and other 
8 position 
other day, 
y with his 

16 British 
Durs, and a 
lad landed 
)y prompt 
allow him 
ers of the 


Egyptian government, we believe, wei-e replaced. In fact, 
most of the chief officers of the Egyptian army are English, 
and England intends to hold the country with a strong hand. 
The little breeze has already blown past, and the tone 
of public opinion seems to be with England. The only 
Egyptians we have talked with have condemned the Khedive 
as a foolish and hot-headed young fellow, who needed the 
sharp lesson he received. 

We found on reaching Port 8aid, that we should have to 
wait two days for our steamer to Jaffa, and so we resolved 
to take a quick trip up the canal to Ismalia and Cairo, leave 
our heavy baggage there and return in time for the Saturday 
steamer. This has given us an opportunity to see a little of 
Egypt in passing, and on our return we shall have a few days 
more to wait, in which we shall hope to see much more of 
this wonderful old land. Wonderful, indeed, it is, a world 
as different from ours, as if it were another planet ! 

Here we are steaming slowly up the canal, while the 
half -naked children are running along the bank keeping up 
with the steamer, caUing out for "backshish," and picking 
up. with eager delight, the oranges and pennies the people 
throw to them on the sand-banks. The blessed children are 
the same everywhere, — simple, happy, and beautiful ! The 
faces of these little bronze Egyptian boys and girls are most 
interesting, and some of them quite handsome, especially the 
boys. They have learned the art of smihng to perfection. 
When they want to sell you something, or get some "back- 
shish" from you, they will look in your face as if you were the 



dearest friend they had on earth. Sometimes you will stop 
and look hard at a turbaned fellow who is smiling as if he 
had known you for years, and you will stare at him and 
wonder where you have met him before ; but, as you fail to 
respond with something more substan*' xl, he will pass on, 

with a look of disappoint- 
ment, and tiy his fasci- 
nating manners on some 
one else. 

Yesterday at Ismalia, 
in the west quarter, wo 
saw a butcher standi' j 
beside a sheep he haa 
just dressed and hungup 
in the shambles, and it 
was a perfect study to 
see his face, as he stood 
rubbing it down and pat- 
ting it all over, and with 
eyes lifted up to heaven, 
was calling out "Allah, 
Allah," and telling the 
crowd what wonderful meat it was. He seemed quite 
overcome with his emotions, and we could hardly tell 
whether he was smiling or weeping, so deeply moved 
was he about the quality of that sheep. His fine acting 
was not thrown away, for the old women were gathering 
round, and, as we left, he was beginning, with much con- 




1 will stop 
ig as if he 
it him and 
you fail to 
ill pass on, 
p- his fasci- 
;rs on some 

at Ismalia, 
juarter, wq 
ir standi! 
Bp he hiia 
nd hung up 
bles, and it 
:t study to 
as he stood 
fu and pat- 
r, and with 
to heaven, 
ut "Allah, 
telling the 
imed quite 
hardly tell 
)iy moved 
fine acting 
much con- 




descension, to cut off little pieces, and let them have some of 
that celestial mutton at exorbitant prices. 

Here is a caravan of a dozen camels, with half a dozen 
families, the women on the backs of the camels, the men 
walking in stately fashion beside, and the children trotting 
along behind. There, on our left, is a company of Arabs 
and camels, starting out from Kantarah along the road that 
leads to Syria. Here again are flocks of millions of birds, 
flamingoes, ducks, geese, literally covering the water. Here 
are stately palms as high as our forest trees ; and, on every 
side, are great iieaps of desert sand, and away to the right 
and left the great billowy desert, as far as the eye can reach. 
We never saw such a color in the clouds. It seemed a sort 
of reflection from the desert sand. And the sunset over 
these western sand plains has a iniddy glow and a lingering 
glory we have not seen before 

It took our steamer nearly twelve hours to steam slowly 
up from Port Said to Ismalia. There we disembariced in a 
steam launch, and the ''Masiiilia" sailed on to India and 
Australia, while the dear missionaries stood waving their 
handkerchiefs from the deck in loving farewell, imtil we 
should meot again, if the Lord will, in China. 

We had a few hours at Ismalia before the train left for 
Cairo, and we took a long walk through the town. The long 
avenues of acacias were very solemn and beautiful. The 
house of M. de Lesseps was here, and the headquarters of 
the canal works. But the Arab quarter was the most inter 
eating. The kind and obliging dragoman of Messre. Cook & 



Son took US through the narrow streets and bazaars, and we 
got a good view of genuine Arab life which we shall not for- 

There are three or four thousand Arabs in this quarter of 
the town, and among them were almost all other nationali- 
ties, and, on very familiar terms, numerous families of goats, 
donkeys, dogs and camels. These people live just as they 
did in the days of Abraham. One gets a very vivid realiza- 
tion of Patriarchal life by looking at them. Here are the 
earthen pitcher, and water pots ; here are the people with 
their beds of mats spread on the sidewalk, and sleeping all 
night on the pavement, and in the morning taking up their 
bed and going their way. Here are a. hun<?red things that 
make the Bible real. But there is not much of Christ. One 
or two natives that we have met are interested in these 
things. The Custom House officer received us veiy cor- 
dially, and told us he belonged to the American Mission, 

Here, at Port Said, Mr. Locke has a good Mission work 
among the sailors, and at Cairo the American Presbyterians 
have a most excellent Mission, both of which we expect, D. 
v., to see before we leave. The majority of the people are 
Mohammedans. They are the most self-satisfied ^ unimpress- 
ible people in the world. 

We passed, in our hurried journey to Cairo, the battle- 
field of Tel-el Kebir, where the British troops, under General 
Woolsey, decided the fate of Egypt, a few years ago. The 
next station to this is very interesting as being the site which 
the latest explorers have identified as Ancient Pithom, one 

aars, and we 
jhall not for- 

lis quarter of 
er nationali- 
lies of goats, 
just as they 
'^ivid realiza- 
lere are the 
people with 

sleeping all 
ing up their 

things that 
Christ. One 
ted in these 
IS veiy cor- 
dission work 
^e expect, D. 
le people are 
I J unimpress- 

3, the battle- 
ader General 
•s ago. The 
le site which 
Pithom, one 



of the great treasure cities the Israelites built for old 
Eameses. This is the veritable land of Goshen, and while 
the desert lies now close up to it on one side, yet, on the 
other, the fields seem as fertile as ever in leeks and garlic 
and all sorts of vegetable^. The land is rich and green. 
Even in winter the peach trees are in blossom, and the 
oranges are hanging from the trees, and they are deliciously 
sweet, and can be bought, even from the exorbitant fruit 
boys, for a cent apiece. The palms are magnificent, and the 
dates are sold at the car windows in great quantities, and are 
larger and finer than we get at home. 

But from all these things • the Master turns our hearts 
with a certain impatience to the things that are so much 
more to His heart. The great world rushes to see these 
things, and yet what does it care for Him ? There is no per- 
son more thoroughly selfish than the modern traveller. 
Cook's agent here was teUing us to-night of a party he took 
lately to Palestine, and they all began complaining about 
the inferior accommodations they were crowded into, until 
he, himself, although not a believer in Christianity, b3gan to 
preach to them and say to them, " Here you are all going to 
the Holy Land, and professing to be drawn there by the love 
of the Saviour, who lived and died there, and yet the poor 
Mohammedan will put up with privations of every kind for 
months, on his wearj- pilgrimages to the shrine of his 
prophet, and even a heathen wiU bear anything to honor his 
god, while you Christians are all angry, becauso, for a few 
hours, you have an inferior room on account of an unusual 



We should not want to be found long in the company of 
the sight-seeing crowd. God is pressing on our heart the 
need of this lost world, and we take a few brief days, as we 
hurry past these interesting scenes, to learn a little from 
their actual contact to enable us to make His word and His 
work more real to others. 


But God is not much interested in Luxor, Karnak, 
Memnon, Thebes, or even Pithom He is not living in the 
past, but in the future. The one event for which His heart 
is waiting and longing is the coming of His Son, and the 
redemption of the world for which He died. I^et us go forth 
with Him in deeper earnestness, prayer and effort to claim 



company of 

nr heart the 

days, as we 

little from 

)rd and His 

or, Karnak, 
living in the 
ch His heart 
Jon, and the 
t us go forth 
ort to claim 


it. The most disheartening thing ahout these people is their 
utter content with their false religions. Our guide at 
Ismalia yesterday, as he smoked his chebook, and leisurely 
drew the tobacco fumes through the long tube, and the ves- 
sel of water that cooled and moistened it, looked the picture 
of self-complacency. He told us he was a Mohammedan, 
and that Mohammedans did not drink or lie, or do anything 
gross or wrong. He, himself, had already been fasting for a 
month in the great Rammadan, or three months' fast, and he 
thought they were as perfect as people could be. Such 
people ai-e sealed against the truth. Only the omnipotence 
of God can reach them. But, one by one, He is drawing a 
few, and we hope to have some fruit, even from the land 
of Noph. 




IT would seem aH if God had not intended Palestine to be a 
commercial country, for it possesses no harbor on its 

It is often impossible for ships to land passengers at 
Jaffa at all, and within the last few weeks it has happened 
more than once that the steamer has had to sail past this 
port with all the passengers to Beirut, and then send down 
by the next steamer, and then find they could not land after 
all, and they had to take them back to Port Said. The only 
approach to a harbor is a ledge of rocks lying about a quar- 
ter of a mile from shore, parallel with the coast. On this 
the surf beats wildly, but inside there is comparatively calm 
water for small boats. But the entrance to this haven is 
narrow, and only a lifeboat can make it, and then only with 
a moderate sea running. When the waves are very high, no 
boat can cross this bar. Only a month ago a boat was 
swamped in trying to come in, and thirty passengers per- 
ished. We saw the remains of the wrecked Russian steamer 
to-day, from which our friends Messrs. Stacey and Sanford 
so narrowly escaped a year ago. It was lying on the rocks 
near the shore, still beating to pieces in the surf. 

Therefore as we drew near Jaffa, qu Sabbath morning, 




stine to be a 
arbor on its 

issengei-s at 
as happened 
lil past this 
1 send down 
3t land after 
1. The only 
bout a quar- 
jt. On this 
atively calm 
lis haven is 
m only with 
ery high, no 
a boat was 
sengers per- 
3ian steamer 
ind Sanford 
m the rocks 

bh morning, 




February 5th, after a somewhat unpleasant night, we cam© 
early on deck to see how things looked. Tt was just six 
o'clock, and tlio sun was that moment rising out of the hills 
of Judea, behind the rocky heights and bold, striking houses 
of Joppa. The flouds were glorious, the background grand, 
and the foreground superb. Tt was, indeed, the "city set on 
a hill which cannot be hid," a worthy gateway to a great and 
glorious land. 

But the sea in front was rolling heavily, and the surf 
was dashing high agunst the reef of rocks. Wo had just 
anchored about two uules out. We could see boats moving 
about inside tlie breakeis, but they did not seem willing to 
venture out. At last, after about an hour, they began to 
appear around tl("« point, tossing like waifs upon tho,billows. 
But they manfully breasted the waves, and soon a dozen of 
them were alongside our ship, and a hundred turbaned Arabs 
contending for our baggage. We put ourselves under the 
care of Messrs. Cook & Son, and their sturdy boatmen soon 
had us all on board, and we rowed away to the shore. 

By the blessing of the dear Lord we reached land in 
safety. Some of our party were a little frightened, and 
one corpulent American expressed himself more than satis- 
fied with traveling, and said he was going straight to New 
York as soon as he could get away from this sort of thing. 

It was very interesting to see how skillfully the boatmen 
watched the great waves, and rowed up and down their sides 
80 as to escape their heaviest swell. The boatswain stood 
behind and gave orders. When he saw a great billow in 



t, we camo 
UH just nix 
of the hilU 
king houses 
)Uiul givand, 
'city Bet oil 
a groat and 

nd the surf 
Vo had just 
)ats moving 
1 willing to 
;y hegau to 
the, billows, 
1 a dozen of 
)aned Arabs 
9 under the 
)atmen SQon 

hed land in 
[itened, and 
than satis- 
jbt to New 
rt of thing, 
ihe boatmen 
n their sides 
swain stood 
at billow in 



front, he would hold up his rowers until it nuuted down, and 
wlien lie saw one coming up behind, he would shout out 
"ruach ! rnach!" which we cuppose means, and they 
would fly like the wind. 

One could scarcely imagine what a necessuty and import- 
ant institution the Tourist office is, abroad, 'it u more than 
worth all it costs, in the saving which it swui*;;' !;■> the trav- 
i/io ^ of infinite inconvenience and trouble. We heard to-day 
of an ridependent Englishman, who declared he could *laud 
^'t Jopj A for a franc, and refused all Cooks' services. The re- 
H'llt W'-vd, that before he got his baggage through the CiPioms 
*.ad at his hotel, he declared it had cost him several pounds. 
They, certainly, are very kind and obliging, and although 
we have only used their tickets for landing and short jour- 
neys, aside from our main route, they could not have been 
more courteous and attentive if we had given them thousands 
of dollars. 

Well, after we once got ashore, we were repaid for all 
our trouble. Our first act was to get alone in our room, and 
on our knees thank God for His great goodness, and then 
■claim this glorious land for Christ. Then, after breakfast, it 
was a perfect luxury to sit down in the garden, back of the 
hotel, and take in the whole situation. 

Here, in midwinter, we were sitting in air as balmy as 
May, with flowers of every tint blooming all about us, acres 
of orange groves heavy with their Langing ripe fruit just 
over the walls, birds singing in the branches, and a strange 
ineffable sense of sweetness and sacredness all around ; and 




over all else, the delightful consciousness that this was the 
laud where He lived and died, and to which He so soon was 

coming back again. 
It was like a delight- 
ful dream. 

The morning ser- 
vice in the English 
Church called us 
from these thoughts 
to worship God, for 
the first time, in Pal- 
estine, and it was a 
great privilege to be 
able to do so even in 
this special form of 

In the afternoon,, 
we took a walk ta 
call on a friend in. 
the Enghsh Hospital, 
and met a number of 
delightful Christian 
ladies there, and had 
an opportunity to see 
this well-managed 
Institution where 
quite a number of Syrian and Arab patients were becom- 
ing acquainted with the humane side of Christianity, and 
opening their hearts to Christ. 



lis was the 
o soon was 
(ack again. 
:e a delight- 

oming ser- 
ihe English 
called us 
se thoughts 
ip God, for 
;ime, in Pal- 
id it was a 
vilege to be 
so even in 
;ial form of 

a walk to 
a friend in 
ish Hospital, 
a number of 
il Christian 
ere, and had 
tunity to see 
on where 
svere becom- 
stianity, and 




One of the workers told us that there was a real move- 
ment among the Mohammedans of Syria and Palestine 
toward Christianity, but few of these had the courage to 
come out boldly, as the persecutions were very bitter, some 
being liable to ass-ssination by their friends, others to be 
drafted into the army and thus got out of the way. She 
said they were, however, laying a train of powder under the 
enemies' walls, and, some day, the great explosion was 
coming to this r stem, and then their work would tell. 

We found, in talking with the intelligent dragomans and 
others, that there is a universal dislike to the Turkish govern- 
ment, which is the one obstruction to the progress of this 
glorious land. The Turk simply holds it to extort money 
from the people. The taxation is so heavy that it hardly 
pays to attempt any industry. An English lady lately offered 
$180,000 to bring pure water from Hebron to Jerusalem, but 
the Turk only tried to get her money, and she was wise 
enough to refuse it unless she was permitted to construct the 
works, and this was refused. Jerusalem and Palestine are 
trodden down of the Gentiles, but the iron heel is lifting, and 
the day of deliverance is surely nigh. 

We next went, of course, to see the house of Simon, the 
Tanner, and climbed up to the roof where Peter saw the 
vision from heaven and got his Jewish prejudices broadened. 
The building i^, probably, no older than the time of the 
Crusaders ; but the site is most likely the same as Peter's real 
home. We found it a good place, at least, to look up to the 
si; heavens whence God gave him the first commission of 




the gospel for the Gentiles, and on this, our first Sabbath in 
the Holy Land, ask for a renewal of our commission to give 
the gospel to the Gentile world. 

Walking through the thronging streets, even on this holy 
day, we could not help seeing the strangest scenes. The 
bazaars were crowded with every sort of ware. The market- 
place was a living swarm of Arabs, Turks, Syrians, men, 
women, children, fowls, eggs, vegetables, fruits, and every 
sort of ware and vender. 

As we turned to go down to Simon's house, a long 
funeral procession was just coming out of the Greek Church. 
It was most striking. A young man of wealth and influence 
had just died. The young men of the town were carrying 
the bier on their hands, high up above their heads, and chant- 
ing a plaintive cadence, about his goodness and his loss. The 
women were robed in pure white and were following close 
behind, screaming in a wild, piercing way, that almost 
sounded like acting. We were told by our attendant that 
they were not hired mourners, but his sisters and friends. 
As we came back, half an hour later, they were gathered 
around the grave in the cemetery, still making the same 
strange cries intermingled with the dirges of the men. We 
waited awhile, and the sad, wild notes still went on. We 
felt sad for the hopeless sorrow of the world. We asked 
our guide, who was a Greek Christian, if there was any hope 
in it, and he said, "No," — it was all sorrow and gloom. He 
said, in Syria, they often kept up the mourning until some 
of the relatives died of grief within a few days after. 



Sabbath in 
lion to give 

on this holy 
3enes. The 
?he market- 
rians, men, 
, and every 

jse, a long 
3ek Church, 
ad influence 
»re carrying 
\, and chant- 
is loss. The 
owing close 
hat almost 
Bndant that 
ind friends, 
re gathered 
g the same 
} men. We 
at on. We 
We asked 
as any hope 
gloom. He 
until some 



As we turned homeward from this scene, we overtook a 
Moslem marriage procession. A little girl was walking in 
front carrying a long wax candle, to be presented by tbe 
bride to the bridegroom. A lot of women in white, heavily 
veiled, were walking behind, chanting, or rather screaming, 
some bridal song. But the notes and tones were just the 
same as the ciies we had heard at the funeral procession- 
shrill, feminine shrieks, in a high key, and we could only 
hope that this was not a specimen of the tones in which the 
hride was to address her husband for their future life. Here 
our attendant told us that the marriage ceremony would be 
performed that night by tbe Sheik, and this taper would be 
kept burning all ni>i-ht while the wedded pair would sleep all 
the first night with s -(;rd and a copy of the Koran between 
them, separating them first unto Allah, before they should 
he united to each other. 

What absurd scenes meet one at every turn ! Here is an 
Arab whose horse is running away. The Arab is sitting on 
liis back, without bridle or rein, pulling fiercely at the horse's 
mane and trying to stop him, while he is calling out pite- 
•ously, oce, oce, oce which means v/hoa ! whoa ! whoa ! and 
calling on everybody to stop the animal. But the hoise 
keeps on, leaping past the numerous Arabs that try to head 
him off, until he and his rider are lost in the distance in a 
cloud of dust. The Arab seemed determined not to lose his 
horse even if he lost his life. 

Here is a little boy driving a donkey along the road. He 
is a very small boy and a very obstinate and shrewd donkey. 



The boy is crying bitterly because the donkey won't go, but 
will insist on stopping at the nice bits of grass that grow by 
the hedge and having a leisurely breakfast. The boy is, evi- 
dently, afraid of the donkey, and the donkey, evidently, 
knows it. Every few minutes the boy, in a whimpering tone, 
goes up pretty near the donkey, tells him to go on, pre- 
tends to strike him, but keeps far enough off just to graze 
his tough back. And the donkey in the most amusing 
fashion just turns his hind legs in a threatening manner, 
which seems to say more loudly than words, " Now, you just 
look out ! " The animal does not mean to hurt him, for they 
are harmless little creatures not much bigger than sheep, but 
only to scare him, and this he has already done most thor- 
oughly. At last, the boy does the most sensible thing in his 
power, he appeals to a big Arab, who takes the club out of 
tho boy's hands, gives the donkey such a thrashing as he will 
not soon forget, and sends him on his way a more penitent 
and willing donkey than would have been possible any other 

Well, there is one thing we can all do when our enemies 
are too strong for us. If we have not courage to face them 
ourselves, we can call on One that is stronger than we or 
they. The devil is not afraid of us, but he is of Him. 

We have met some very excellent Christian people. 
Just before leading Port Said we called on the excellent mis- 
sionary of the Sailor's Rest, Mr. Locke, a former Salvation 
Army worker of Toronto: He is carrying on a work of 
faith, for the sailors of all nations, who crowd that port. 


I't go, but 
it grow by 
boy is, evi- 
3ring tone, 
o on, pre- 
t to graze 
t amusing 
g manner, 
ir, you just 
n, for they 
sheep, but 
most thor- 
ling in his 
lub out of 
J as he will 
•e penitent 
any other 

ir enemies 
face them 
lan we or 

m people, 
lellent mis- 
• Salvation 
a work of 
it port. 


We met at the same place a brave pioneer missionary, 
who IS laboring upon Karak Moab. This is, perhaps, the 
ancient Ku-, mentioned so often in Isaiah. He is far beyond 
the hmits yet reached by other missions in Palestine, and is 
now on his way to a very bold, exploring journey, in com- 
pany with a friend, to cut his way through the heart of 
Arabia, from the Persian Gulf, and see if he can open a line 
for missionary work into that yet unoccupied land. We 
ha/e just met at Jaffa the Missionary Secretary of the Y M 
C. A. or England, who has been planting branches of the Y 
M. C A. at Gibraltar, Malta, Cairo, and other eastern points 
and has formed a fine branch in Jerusalem. 

So God is girdling the- earth with points of light, and 
preparing to gather His people out of all nations and kindred 
and peoples and tongues for His coming. 



THEY have not been many — only seven — but they have 
been memorable. We came from Egypt to Canaan, 
only a week ago, and now we go forth from Jerusa- 
lem, as the Lord may enable us, to the uttermost parts of 
the earth. This is surely the divine order ; may it be in the 
fullness of the divine blessing ! 

It never occurred to us, until we reached Jerusalem that 
we were beginnmg our visit to the heathen world at Jerusa- 
lem, exactly according to the apostolic plan. We are very 
glad it has been so arranged, in the wise and precious provi- 
dence of God, for it has enabled us to looh at the field, we 
believe, from the Master's standpoint, and from the true cen- 
tre of all Chrislian work. 

We left Jaffa for Jerusalem on Monday, Feb. 6th, by the 
new railway. It seemed almost a desecration to hear the 
locomotive whistle among the sacred hills of Judah, but 
after one has travelled ten hours by carriage or horseback 
over a modern Palestine road, be will vote for the railway 
every time he has an opportunity. We are very glad to 
know that two more are under way, farther north, connect- 
ing Haiffa, Beyrut, Noblous, Damascus, and the Persian 

Gulf, and we pray that they may be hastened 

60 • 




they have 
5 Canaan, 
n Jenisa- 
; parts of 
be in the 

ilem that 
it Jerusa- 
s are very 
)U8 provi- 
field, we 
true cen- 

th, by the 
hear the 
idah, but 
e railway 
Y glad to 
, connect- 

The new road to JeruHaleni leads across the famous and 
fertil(3 ])]ain of Sharon, where we gathered a few of the 
beautiful scarlet flowers, of the anemone family, that were 
out in carpets of bloom, and which some have called "the 
Rose pf Sharon, " 



. 1 left we could see Bethhoron, where Joshua fought his 
great battle, and Gibeon and Ajalon, and wh. he commanled 
the sun and moon to stand still and prolong tht day, until his 
victory should be made complete. 

Th'^ ^ '"v.'^ows a natural wady or stream in the moun- 
tains, and really has no serious engineering difticultios to 
t;ontend with. It climbs the moimtains by an easy grade, 
twenty-seven hundred feet, to the level of Jerusalem. The 
valley through which it runs is a fine sample of thousands of 
others in this wondrous land, and the moment we saw it 
we understood the secret of ancient Israel's prosperity and 
teeming population. 

These hills have all, at oih' time, been terraced fr< ii val- 
ley to bi>nimit in narrow ledges, built up like steps of stairs, 
eacii little terrace supported by : wall of stone and covered 
above with earth, and then planted with vines, fig >, and olives 
In ancient times it must have been a 'beautiful sif'ht tt 
these lo , and winding valleys, away up to the 
clouds, and covere<i with their thick, rich terrac< gre^a 

an J. bloom. 

The effect of the hills was, )f course, to multiply the c. 
tent ar size of the land many times over, and reallv give the 
counti^ an area and extent greatly xceeding its appai< nt 
size A Scotchman once said to a bo. sting Englishman that 
if the hills of Scotl nd were all flattened out it vould make 
two England?. The same is really t "ue of Palestine. Many 
of the terrrr^es are in ruins, much ' the soil has washed 
.aw ', anf^ few of the vines, t gs and olives arw to be seen ; 



fought his 
r, until his 

;he moun- 

icUltit38 to 

asy j-^rade, 
lem. The 
rmsands of 
we saw it 
perity and 

fr( ii val- 
1 of stairs, 
id covered 
and ohves. 

j;ht t( <\ 

up to the 

aly the c. 
ily give the 
s apparn r 
hman that 
ould make 
ne. Many 
as washed 
be seen ; 


but one can see from the niins what the past must have lx)en. 
There is much desolation in this Innd ; tliousands of hills 


and valleys, once green ai). itful, are but heaps of stones ; 

>ut there is not as much desolation as we expected. Again 

an< again have we seen beautiful plains, like Sharon, fer- 



tile as a garden, lovely vineyards and olivj-vanla, like thewe 
of Ranialeh, Breroth and Hebrf)n, where \y>v acres, and al- 
most miles, there was nothing but luxuriant trees and plants, 
and the amplest evidence that, with proper industry i»nd 
cultivatinii, and the blessing of God, the laud could soon be 
restored to its former prosperity. 

Most of the numerous (Colonies planted in Palestine by 
Kothschild, Hirsch and others, have been completely success- 
ful. Many of them have to-day the most flourishing vineyards, 
oliveyards, orchards and industries of v; lious kinds, and are 
fully paying all expenses and a good more. The oranges 
of Jaffa, the grapes of Hebron, and the tigs and olives of the 
whole land aie ecjual, if not superior, to any in the world. 

The rains are truly returning to the country. The very 
best authorities, pt rsons that have lived here for more than a 
quarter oL a century, have assured us that the climate is, in- 
deed, hanging, doubtless fronv the direct blessing of heaven, 
and partly irom the natural effect of increasing cultivation. 
The greatest hindrance is the wretched government. It does 
all it can to keep back western progress and improvement, 
and to hold the people down by the yoke of taxation and 
every kind of selfish, depressing [wlicy, Th effect of this is 
to discourage a people naturally indolent, apathetic and in- 
different. A more industrious, intelligent and aggressive 
people vsrould soon make Palestine a land of prosperity. One 
need only look at the roads where travelling is dangerous from 
the heaps of stones that, 1 tally, lie piled on every path, 
when a very trifling amount of labor would clear the tracks 


, like these 
•leH, and al- 
and plants, 
idustry ;iiid 
lild Hoon bo 

*ale8tiiio by 
ely success - 
^ vineyards, 
ids, and are 
The oranges 
lives of the 
e world. 
. The very 
more than a 
imate i&, in- 
j of heaven, 

snt. It doe» 
axation and 
ft of this is 
letic and in- 
l aggressive 
jerity. One 
gerous from 

every path, 
r the trackii 

/'./)-.v /A' r.u./:sTf\/:. 


and make splendid macadami/cd roads, for the foundations 
are ius solid m rocks, ever since the days of the Honuins who 
built them. 

Many of tlie helds are just as bad, literally [Kicked witli 
rocks, and yet a lazy Moslem will go in with liis crooked 
stick tbat ho calls a plough, and scratch up the soil a little, 
and throw in some grain among the rocks, and let it come up 
and grow the best it can, and he calls this farming ; while a 
little farther on, a thrifty (J reek oi- foreigner lias gathered out 
the rocks, built a nice fence with them along the side of the 
field, and has a beautiful and bountiful harvest. 

But we have reached the suburbs of Jerusalem. On our 
left is the German colony, which has been growing \i\) for 
fifteen years, and now looks like a prosperous city by itself, 
with its new well-built stone houses and good streets. A few 
scattered houses stand in other directions, and in the distance 
a straggling point or two of mosque and minaret tell us that 
over the edge of yonder hill lies— Jerusalem. 

Wo step from the car. Our dear friends. Miss Robertson 
and Miss Dunn, are waiting to welcome us; and, indeed, it 
feels like home. Of course, we walk to their home. This 
first vision of Jerusalem must not be shut out by carriage 
windows. And so, giving our baggage to an Arab, and send- 
ing our dear sisters on by the short road home, we accept the 
kind invitation of a good missionary brother to walk with us 
aroun I the wall, homeward, and get, at least, a partial view 
of the City of Ages. 

Ah ! there it is at last. We have reached the brow of the 
hill, and, lo ! it lies at our feet. 




That is the valley of the Gihon, running into the valley 
of Hinnoni, just below us. Right across it is the height of 
Zion and the tower of David. Farther away, on the other 
side of the City, the great valley of Jehoshaphat runs down 
to meet Hinnom, and about where they meet is Aceldama ; 


and then it sweeps on, away down to the Dead Sea and the 
valley of the Jordan, whose great, black, rocky walls rise 
yonder at the end of Jehoshaphat's Vale, apparently only two 
or three miles away. Across the valley of the Jehoshaphat 
is another mountain with a tall tower on its summit; that is 

..,,ii HjF;jp:i 


the valley 
le height of 

1 the other 
runs down 
Aceldama ; 

ea and the 
walls rise 
rly only two 
nit; that is 



— Olivet. Farther to the right is the Mount of Offence, and 
away to the left are the white houses of crowded Jerusalem. 
We walk through the Jaffa Gate and the Street of David, 
and through a lot of dark, overarched lanes thronged with 
Arabs and their children, and their sheep, and their dogs, and 


their wares, past great ecclesiastical buildings and streets, 
and sc-enes that call up a thousand associations, out the 
Damascus Gate on the north, and on through the new city 
that has grown up outside its northern walls, untir We reach 
an iron gate and a pleasant house front. We cross the thres« 

f !s;J>^ iVAj I- # SijsE 



hold, and we are at home in Jerusalem, in the house of our 
dear Martha p id Mary, only both are Marys ; and the Lord 
is also there. 

They were days like a dream, — busy, bhssed, sacred, 
useful we trust — God-touched we know, and impossible to 
describe or reproduce to our readers we fear, but never- to be- 
forgotten days in dear Jei'usalem. 

The least part of the interest and blessing of those days 
was the opportunity of seeing the city and the land. And 
yet this was a great pleasure and opportunity, even in the 
limited time we had, and we were enabled to see much, and 
understand and realize what years of study, at a distance, 
could never have made so real. Of course, the time at our 
disposal would not pemiit our going to Northern Palestine, 
and so we confined ourselves to a few of the chief scenes of 
interest within twenty miles of Jerusalem. 

Jerusalem must ever be the centre of interest for every 
Christian traveler in Palestine. There are many things there 
which chiefly interest the antiquarian and archaeologist. 
For us, there were three or four spots which overshadowed 
all else. We cared little for the Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, for we were quite sure it was not the scene of our Sa- 
viour's death and resurrection, and all its clouds of incense, 
priestly mummeries, and splendid decorations only wearied 
and disgusted us. We took no interest in the mosaics and 
carvings and splendid stained glass windows of the Mosque 
of Omar, and only wanted to see the place where Abraham 
offered his sacrifice, and David and Solomon reared the Tem- 


w mma& 



ouse of our 
ul the Lord 

sed, sacred, 
iipossible to 
never- to be- 

l those days 
land. And 
even \i\ the 
( much, and 
a distance, 
time at our 
n Palestine, 
ef scenes of 

3t for every 
things there 
Holy Sepul- 
3 of our Sa- 
j of incense, 
nly wearied 
mosaics and 
the Mosque 
sre Abraham 
•ed the Tern- 


through which most probably He passed that Wednesday 
night as He went out to Bethany, and delivered His predic- 
tions respecting His second coming. John xiv ; xv ; xvi. 

We were interested, of course, in visiting the tower of 
David and the place of his tomb on Mount Zion, and seeing 


in one of the deep excavations some remains, probably, of 
the very masonry erected by the Jebusites, from whom Joab 
captured the stronghold, three thousand years ago. Many a 
Greek and Latin and Armenian structure we saw commem- 
orating some supposed scene of sacred history, the Via Dolo- 

■flwufrar^Mi »imA% ■ ^mtMK\ m ii 

■ ,1 „».''l« * # " >i 


His predic- 
:v ; xvi. 
le tower of 
and seeing 

)robably, «>f 
whom Joab 
o. Many a 
V commeni- 
e Via Dolo- 



rosa, the Judgment Hall, the Pool of Bethesda ; all these 
were interesting in their way. 

But there were three places that were all-absitrbing. 
The first was "the place called Calvary." At a glance it 
was evident that it could not have been the spot where 
Greeks, Latins and Armenians have contended for centuries 
for preeminence, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, for that 
is far inside the walls of Jerusalem, and must ever have been 
so. But outside the Damascus Gate, or rather St. Stephen's 

"There is a green hill far away, 
Beside a city wall," 

and even a glance impi-esses one almost instinctively that 
this must have been the place. It is the -very shape «»f a 
skull, as Golgotha was. And right beside it is a garden, and 
under its brow an unfinished tomb, where only one seems 
ever to have lain, and where can be dimly traced a sign of 
tht .ross ; and here the enlightened scholarship of the last 
few yeaxj has almost unanimcrisly located the scene where 
J'3sn.^ died and rose again. 

It iT no-v\ a Moslem burial place, covered with tombs. 
There is one great rock in it, all torn to pieces, as if by a vio- 
lent earthquake. There are no offensive Greek and Latin 
churches and superstitious rites, but all is simple, natural, 
plain, and indeed bare, and almost desolate-looking, as be- 
fits the true significance of His cross. We lingered awhile, 
looked into the locked tomb, where, perhaps, John had once 
gazed, gathered some hyssop from the wall, and ]»assed on. 



Our heart was not as deeply touched as it was later. He 
was not there. Every instinct pressed us forward to a more 

sacred si)ot. 

A little walk took us to the Kedron and the gardens that 
cover quite a considerahle area around tlie place where He 
must have crossed. The Latins have enclosed one of these 

spaces and called it 
Gethseniane, and all 
around these walls 
have set up their 
graven images and 
painted representa- 
tions of the various 
scenes. They have 
also a chapel of the 
Virgin,and her tomb. 
There are many olive 
trees, and one that 
is at least one thou- 
sand years old. We 
got a few leaves 
from it through the kindness of the monk in charge. We 
could but wish that some of the more quiet i)laces around 
were the trut places. The English Christians are fond of 
going a little farther out to an unmarked garden and praying 
there in remembrance of His night of agony. 

But our hearts were not able to rest even here. On- 
ward with our guide, a Christian gentleman and a mission- 



later. He 
to a more 

rdens that 
where He 
le of these 
[i called it 
ne, and all 
hese walls 
up their 
nages and 
,he various 
Ihey have 
ipel of the 
i her tomh. 
many olive 
I one that 
i one thou- 
s old. We 
iw leaves 
large. We 
ices around 
ire fond of 
,nd praying 

here. On- 
a mission- 




aiy, residing in Jerusalem, we passed near where He had 
passed, up the side of nin t, which we found much n arer 
thau we ha'.l supposed, not hal > mile awa} Half way up 
the mountain we got a grand vew of Jerusalem, wlr '> is 
the best point of view by tar. Absalom's tomb Rtan<i . in 
the forej^round in the valle) with i few old ob c irees, and 
across tlie valley of on the walls of Moriah and 
the Mosque of Omar, where the Temple stood. Ba< k ot this 
lies the great city with its many ^ uildings, almost eveiy one 
visible having some strange story. 

But this was little to us. We > I sed on untii w<- 

reached the summit of the Mount, o. i climbed the hij^ 
tower, from which we could see the whole land and the d* 
valley of the Jordan, and the Dead ^-a .a the west. Prom 
the Greek Church near by a distinguished funeral procession 
was passing. We paused a little and still pressed on,~on to 
Bethany, which lay round the mountain on the north side 
and beyond a second little hill-top. It was to this our heart 
was pressing forward— the Mount of Ascension. Yes, this 
was the cUmax of all our journey, and all His, too. " He 
led them out as far as to Bethany, and He lifted up His hands 
and blessed them. And it came to pass, while He blessed 
them, He was parted from them, and carried up into 

There on the rocky hillside we sat down, with the little 
town at our feet, and the higher mountain top above us, just 
hiding the great city from view, and a deep divine, imspeak- 
able sweetness fell upon cfur spirit. We were so glad there 


re He had 
iich I arer 
alf way up 
a, whi li is 

» fltan«l- ill 

irees, an<l 

VIoriah and 

a( k of this 

, ev» sv one 

»n until w<' 

\ the hig' 

id the de< 

est. From 


on, —on to 

north side 

8 our heart 

Yes, this 

too. " He 

) His hands 

He hlessed 

d up into 

h the little 

3ve us, just 

e, ujispeak- 

glad there 

J). I ) .s /.v P.U./:STl.\E. 


•was no clnircli to mark the spot. We were ho ^lad the great 
city was shut off from view. We w«re so glad the noisy 
Arabs, with their cries of "backshish," came not there. We 
were i^lad that (iod had k«»pt tliis holy place from the 


swinging censers, and noisy chants, and tumultuous proces- 
sions, that have desecrated almost every sacred spot in Jeru- 
8al< 111. There was no one near us but the Christian friend 
\,y our side, and the Presence that brought back all the Past, 
and filled the mountain-side with living forms again. 

We gave up our whole heart to the luxury of that mo- 


r..iRG/:R ocTf.ooKS ox Affssfox.iRY i.Ayns. 

iiieut. Wo know He had niet iH. Wo realized iu the depths 
(.f our being that He wiis our Living, Everlasting and Pres- 
ont Lord. We felt He had gathered us into the Company of 
the Ascension ones, and with us a great and glorious com- 
l)any of many dear ones away across two seas, whom He 
made so real, in that moment, to oiu- att'oction ; and together 
He took us into the Heavoidy Places, and the Ascension 
Life, and we knew that we should he gathoied on that sacred 
spot once more, ere long, when He shall comr again, "and 
His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives." 

It was one of those moments that setMu to focus a life- 
time and all we have ever known and felt and hoped into 
one instant of intense and divine realization. Hours after- 
ward, the deep, sweet thrill lingered above every thought or 
sensation, and it lingers still, and forever will linger— a 
mountain-top of memory, hope and love. 

Sweet OHvet, sweet Bethany, 

My heart shall oft remember thee ; 
Where Jesus left for heaven alwve, 

With hands outspread in parting love, 
And whnre some glorious d'<y He'll come 

To bring His scitt'-red children home. 
Sweet Olivet, sweet Wethany, 

Sweet Lord, I will remember Thee. 

We made a pleasant missionary call at Bethany on alone 
and faithful worker, and found that there was a good deal 
of interest among the Moslems of the place in her work. 
This dear sister, Miss Crawford, of England, has built a 
house here, and is living at her own expense, and workirig 
among the people with a good deal of encouvagemi .it. 



the (lopths 
and Pres- 
ompany of 
riouH com- 
whoiii Ho 
id togother 
that sacred 
f;ain, '*and 
3CU8 a life- 
hoped into 
[ours after- 
thought or 
11 linger — a 

ny on a lone 
a good deal 
I her work, 
has built a 
md working 







// 'AS' 






IB Kb 




1.4 IIIIII.6 









WEBSTER, t4.Y. M580 

(716) 872-4503 














Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 








Another English lady, Miss Atley, has also a mission 
home and work on the sunmiit of Ohvet. Our limited time 
did not permit us to meet her, hut we had very delightful 
fellowship with her excellent father, who usually resides and 
lahors with her, hut whom we met at Jaffa, where he is at 
present supplying a post of service temporarily. 

The walk home took us along the Jericho road, and the 
veiy route, no doubt, that Jesus traversed when He came 
down from Bethpage and Bethany, on the little colt, and 
met the multitude, and afterwards entered Jerusalem in the 
triumphal procession. There is a point where the road 
makes an abrupt turn around the mountain, and the city 
comes fully into view. It was here that Jesus wept over 
Jerusalem, and predicted its speedy and utter overthrow. 

Luke xix : 41-4-i. . 

We reached our home about two o'clock, having lived 
vears in one brief, eventful morning. The afternoon was 
'spent in visiting many objects of deep interest i«i the city, 
and the evening found a dehghtful company of Christian 
workers and missionaries gathered together at the home ox 
our dear hostesses to welcome us, and some message 
from the Master, whose presence seemed so near. 

Blessed "City of our God, and mountain of His hoh- 
ness Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is 
Mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the City of the Great 
King Walk about Zion, and go round about her ; tell the 
towers thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her 
palax^s ; that ye may tell it to the generation following. 


a mission 
imited time 
y delightful 
■ resides and 
fieve he is at 

sad, and the 
3n He came 
tie colt, and 
saleni in the 
re the road 
md the city 
IS wept over 
• overthrow. 

having lived 
'ternoon was 
t in the city, 
of Christian 
i the home of 
ome message 

1 of His holi- 
rhole earth, is 
' of the Great 
i her ; tell the 
, consider her 
ion following. 



Hh will be our Guide 

For this is our God foiever and ever 
even unto death." 

Nay rru)r.. : •• For they that trust in the Loi-d shall he as 
Mount Zion, which cannot he removed, hut ahideth forever." 
'•As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the J.ord 
is round about His people from henceforth, even forever." 
Psa. xlviii : 1, 2, 12 U; cxxv : 1, 2. 

One very pleasant day of our short stay in Jerusalem 
was spent in a horseback journey to the North. Rising be- 
fore daylight, a party of four started as soon as we could get 
off, along the road that leads up the hill of Scopus, and out 
towards Nablous, Tiberias and Damascus. 

The first point of special interest was the old town of 
Anathoth. It had for us an intense interest as the home of 
Jeremiah, and the scene of that beautiful incident, Jer. 
xxxii: 8 .. where the prophet, in Jerusalem's darkest days, 
when the Chaldeans occupied the land and the city was 
about to fall, was commanded to take a bold, and apparently 
unreasonable step of faith, by investing his money, perhaps 
all that he had, in a field in Anathoth, as a guarantee that 
the land was coming back again to the people of God. Often 
has the old story taught us the secret of faith, and the ne- 
cessity of stepping out in advance of all seemings, and tnist- 
ing God in the dark. 

It was very interesting to stand for a little on the echo- 
ing hill-side tHat looks down upon the deep valley of the 
Dead Sea and the Jordan, and hear across twenty-six cen- 
turies the echo (for that is what the word Anathoth means) 


of the same old faith, which has ever heeu the watchword of 
God's host ; and, we tnist, we were enabled to echo back 
again the words, "I will trust." 

Returning to the main road, we passed on by Mob, 

tj\ >x<JU,^Ca#^' 


I Sam. xxi, xxii ; Gibeah of Saul and Micmash, I Sam. xiii. 
xiv . Ramah, the home and burial place of Samuel, and many 
other places teeming with sacred associations. This was the 
highway of the Assyrian and Chaldean armies, when they 
marched against Jerusalem; Isaiah has given a most vivul 


vatchvvord of 
to echo ba(.k 

on by Nob, 

sh, I Sam. xiii. 
nuel, and many 
This was the 
lies, when they 
n a most vivid 



picture of this whole region, in his dramatic panorama of tho 
Assyrian March, Isaiah x : 2S-n2 : "He is come to Aiuth, 
he is passed to Migron ; at Micmash he hath laid up his car- 
riages ; they are gone over the passage ; they have taken up 
their lodging at Geba ; Kamah is afraid ; Gibeah of Saul is 
fled. Lift up the voice, daughter of Gallim ; cause it to bo 
heard with Laish, poor Anathoth. , . . As yet he shall 
remain at Nob that day : he shall shake his hand against the 
mount of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem." 

And so, in succession, the eye of the seer beholds the con- 
queror's approach, amid scenes of terror, through the villages 
that mark this road. Our objective point, however, was 
Bethel, the place of Abraham's altar and Jacob's Ladder, and 
the symbol of Jehovah's Covenant with His people in all tho 
generations. Often liad we sung and prayed — 

*'0 God of Bethel, by whose hand 

Thy people still are fed, 
Who through this weary pilgrimage 

Hast all oi:r fatheis led, 
Our vows, our prayers, we now present, 

Before Thy throue of grace ; 
God of our fathers, be the God 

Of their succeeding race. 

"Through each perplexing path of life 

Our wandering footsteps guide ; 
Give us each day our daily bread 

And raiment tit provide ; 
O spread Thy covering wings around, 

Till all our wand<r rings cease. 
And at our Father's loved abode 

Our souls arrive in i)eace. " 




The i)i'omiso that lias bet'u sustaining us all through this 
journey was the gracious word spoken to Jacob at Bethel : 
"Behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all i)laces 
whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land ; 
for I will not leave thee until I have done all that I have 
8i)oken to thee of. " It was very blessed to receive it afresh 
at Bethel, perha])s on the very sjiot where Jacob's eyes beheld 
the Mystic Ladder, and found the house of God and the Gate 
of Heaven. Hosea says, "He found Him at Bethel, and 
there He spoke with us." And so again He spake with us, 
aud we i-ealized that 

" Thore's a ladder up to heaven 
Everywhere we roam, 
And the gates of prayer can never 
Find us far from home." 

The modern village of Bethel is of considerable size, and 
its olive and fig orchards are very flourishing. A little way 
off are the ruins of the ancient site, and there wo encamped 
and took oxxv lunch. Back of the ruin is a lofty hill, where it 
is said Abraham looked out over the land, when God said, 
"Lift up now thine eyes, northward, and southward, and 
eastward, and westward ; for all the land which thou seest, 
to thee will I give it, and to thy seed forever." "Arise, walk 
through the land in the length of it and in t^ie breadth of it ; 
for I will give it unto thee." 

From this point it would not be hard for Lot to see the 
beautiful valley of the Jordan, But Abraham saw farther, 
and got much more, including even all that Lot so selfishly 


1) through this 
ob at Bethel : 
3 in all i)lace8 
into this land ; 
1 tliat I have 
3eivo it afresh 
b's eyes beheld 
1 and the Gate 
t Bethel, and 
ipake with us, 

rahle size, and 
A little way 
I we encamped 
f hill, where it 
hen God said, 
3uthward, and 
ich thou seest, 
''Arise, walk 
breadth of it ; 

Lot to see the 
n saw farther, 
ot 80 selfishly 






chose. ( )ttcn had wo taken Abraham's look of faitli, hut, to- 
day, wo asko.1 tho Lord to let us boo a good deal farther even 
than this fair vision. 

In later centuries Bethel hecamo tho seat of Jeroboam's 
calf-worship, and one of tho towns of Israel's Kingd.miof the 
Ten Tribes. It nuist have been tho southern boundary. 

Our dear sisters in Jerusalem have taken it as tho name 
of their Home, and wo trust that the Jerusalem Betiiel may, 
indeed, ever bo "tho House of (lod and the very Oate of 


We noticed, as wo have often read, that the terraced hiUs 
at Bethel seemed just like great steps of stairs loading up to 
heaven, and we can easily imagine how the last sight Jacob's 
eyes beheld, as he fell asleep, should suggest tho beautiful 
vision of his dream, a great, white stairway leading up to tho 

We passed a large cave at Bethel, where it would seem 
tho most natural thing for him to sleep that lonely night, and 
wo brought away some memorial vines from its walls. 

The road back led through the Christian village of Ra- 
maleh, where there is scarcely a Moslem family. We found 
a most prosperous little town, and all around, the rocky hill- 
sides were in the very highest state of cultivation, with splen- 
did vineyards and comfortable homes, showing what Pales- 
tine could become with proper culture and people. We had 
the great pleasure of meeting with the American missionaries 
there, the Leightons, of the Friends' Mission. We spent half 
an hour very pleasantly with them, and saw their little 


til, l)Ut,, to- 

ither evfii 

tlotiiof the 

tho name 
t^tlicl iiuiy, 
My Gate of 

srraced hills 
Ltling up to 
igl it Jacob's 
le beautiful 
igup to the 

kvould seem 
y night, and 
lage of Ra- 

We found 
i rocky hill- 
, with splen- 
what Pak's- 
e. We had 
''e spent half 

their little 

JJ.l iS J A' rALiisriNE, 



school of about thirty bright children, whom we had the priv- 
ih'ge of addressing. It gave us quite a home feeling to see 
one of our little hymns, "Himself," translated into Arabic, 



and we promised to send them the nmsic for it. We found 
them on intimate terms with our dear workers ; and, indeed, 
we were pleased and surprised to find the very friendly rela- 
tions existing among all the missionaries. 

We got home about dark, enjoying a very fine view of 
the city from the hill Scopus, just north of Jerusalem, and 
noticing the rapid and remarkable growth of the city in this, 
direction, where a new city has grown up outside the walls 
in the past five or six years. This is supposed by many to be 
the very district described by Jeremiah in his wonderful pre- 
diction of the future growth of Jerusalem, Ch. xxxi : aS-40 : 
"Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that the city shall be 
built to the Lord from the tower of Hananeel unto the gate 
of the corner, and the measuring line shall yet go forth over 
against it upon the hill Gareb, and shall compass to Goath. 
And the whole valley of the dead bodies (and this very valley- 
is full of ancient tombs), and of the ashes, and all the fields 
unto the brook of Kedron, unto the corner of the horse gate 
toward the east, shall be holy unto the Lord ; it shall not be 
plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever." 

This is the part of Jerusalem where nearly all the Protes-^ 
tant mission work is located, and where our little mission is, 
and already it has been made " holy unto the Lord," and is. 
rapidly filling up with houses and people. Let us take hold 
with our dear ones for a glorious blessing ! 

Already in a quiet, humble, but very clear, wise and 
marked way the blessing has begun. Our dear friends have 
been led by the Master in much prudence and faith, and tlie 


it. We found 
•s ; and, indeed, 
■y friendly rela- 

?ry fine view of 
Jerusalem, and 
the city in this, 
utside the walls- 
d by many to be 
3 wonderful pre- 
h. xxxi : ;iS-40 : 
the city shall be 
1 unto the gate 
Bt go forth over 
upass to Goath. 
I this very valley 
nd all the fields 
f the horse gate 
; it shall not be- 

ly all the Protes- 

little mission is, 

le Lord," and ia 

liCt us take hold 

clear, wise and 
ear friends have 
id faith, and th« 



Lord has already given them a very blessed place in the con- 
fidences of the other workers, and in the beginning of Jeni- 
salem's restoration. 

The Christian work in this city must be very quiet or the 
jealousy of the Turkish authorities will be excited, and some 
times the work suppressed. It is not best even that rte 
should say too much about it i)ublicly, or attract undue atten- 
tion to it from its enemies. But we can speak most hopefully 
and thankfully. We have no doubt that the Lord has led 
our sisters to come here, and has guide ■" them every step of 
their way. We have not felt at lil)erty iiitherto to encourage 
any considerable number of new workers to come to this land, 
in view of the limited oj)portunities and population of the 
land. But we are satisfied that there is room for a few more 
laborers, even at this time ; but they should bo of the highest 
kind, and ^.now the Lord so well that they will be saved 
from rashness and serious mistakes. 

We believe the work in Jerusalem might l)e greatly 
strengthened by the addition of a man able to conduct public 
religious services, and gather around this little nucleus the 
spiritual elements that are wanting, and gradually establish 
a strong centre on simple, Scriptural and Pentecostal lines. 

Never before have we been so much impressed with the 
place of Jerusalem in the plan of the world's evangelization 
This was the Master's command, and it is still in force. We 
believe that this means not only the people, but the place, 
and we are somewhat strongly impressed, thai from this 
centre the Lord wants very powerful spiritual impulses and 




influences to go forth, in this last great missionary movement, 
for the evangehzation of the world. None t)f us may quite 
understand all He means by it, but we are impressed that 
there should be a strong centre there, and that the Master's 
heart is still looking out upon the whole world from Jeru- 
salem as a centre more than we, perhaps, have dreamed. 

"When the Most High divided to the nations their in- 
heritance, He set the bounds of the people according to the 
number of the children of Israel." Deut. xxxii : 8. And 
still He is working according to that rule. Men may pcorn 
the Jew, but he is the key to the problem of history. 

As we spent our first night in Jerusalem, we were glad 
that God had permitted us to begin our missionary journey 
and visit our first missionaries at Jerusalem. And we could 
not but feel that this little beginning was yet to be felt in all 
lands. We were glad to receive from our dear Lord this pre- 
cious promise for workers in Jerusalem: "There shall be 
an handful of corn in the earth on the top of the mountains ; 
the fruit thereof .sliall shake like Lebanon : and they of the 
city shall flourish like the grass of the earth." Psa. Ixxxii : 

We were agreeably surprised to find a little company of 
Christian workers and missionaries waiting for us at Bethel 
Home, oiu- missionary home, on Tuesday evening, and as we 
talked of our work, and all that was upon the Master's heart 
for Jerusalem, Jesus Himself drew near, and we were all re- 
freshed and comforted. There were Presbyterians, and Epis- 
copalians; and almost all the missions were represented. 





5 may quite 
•ressed that 
he Master's 
from Jeru- 
IIS their in- 
ding to the 
ii : 8. And 
I may gcorn 

e were glad 
ary journey 
lid we could 
>e felt in all 
ord this pre- 
;re shall be 
mountains ; 
tliey of the 
Psa. Ixxxii : 

company of 
IS at Bethel 
;, and as we 
ister's heart 
were all re- 
is, and Epis- 

On the following evening we were invited to meet the 
workers in another Home, and here we had the i)leasure of 
meeting with a still larger company, including several of the 
ministers and missionaries of the Church Missionary Society, 
the oldest society and the largest in Jerusalem ; also some 
from the Moravian and London Jews' Society. The spirit of 
loving, humble and most brotherly unity was most cheering, 
and we were so glad that our dear workers had come into 
this pleasant atmosphere so soon. In many hearts there was 
a real longing for deeper spiritual life, and the baptism of the 
Holy Spirit. Of course there Avas not quite the freedom that 
we so happily enjoy wheie all restrictions are removed ; but 
theie was much more than we expected, and we believe God 
is preparing a little company in Jerusalem, in many of the 
missions, through wliom He can accomplish much for the 

The two leading societies are the Church Missionary So- 
ciety and the London Society for the Jews. The former has 
seven central stations and forty outstations in Palestine, and 
the latter is also doing an extensive work. The Moravians 
have also a special Mission to the Lepers, and a Home for 
them. We had a special commission given us for this class, 
and we have met many of them on the road to Olivet, and 
endeavored to fulfill our truct to the best of our ability. We 
foimd many of them professional beggars, and not the most 
honest people in the world. But their cries were distressing 
and their need great. They are still outcasts — without the 
city gates. But the government has provided a Home for 


a -u : 


all who will go, and the Moravians have anotlier, and there 
is no need that any of them should be in utter distress. 

The cry for "backshish" is one of the nuisances of this 
land, and the mendicants are often unworthy. One old ras- 
cal met us in rags at the Jaffa gate with outstretched hands, 


and our guide told us that he owned one of the finest estates 
in the country, 

"We spent one pleasant day visiting the country south of 
Jerusalem. Abraham removed from Bethel to Hebron im- 
mediately after his separation from Lot ; and so we also' 
passed on the following day from Bethel to Hebron. Theie 


31', and thei'e 
ances of this 
One old ras- 
tched hands, 

finest estates 

itry south of 
1 Hebron ini- 
1 so we also 
bron. There 

D.ns I.X r.lf.ESTINE. 


is a fine carriage road, and the distance from Jerusalem is 
eighteen miles. It is a ride of about five hours each way. 
The road leads near to Bethlehem, and passes directly 
through the valley of Eschol It was there that the spies 
found the enormous grapes which two men had to i;arry on a 
pole. The valley is still highly cultivated and filled with 
vineyards, and the grapes are said to be as fine as ever. 

Hebron is a 
fine city of 
sand inhabi- 
tants . It 
seems to be 
most prosper- 
ous. We saw 
them making 
the famous 
skin bottles 
out of goat 
skins, which 
are tan ned 

and sewed together so that they look exactly like a stuifed 
goat. We looked into one of the Moslem schools, and saw the 
dominie sitting in the corner cross-legged, on a plank, which 
one of our party called the school Board, and a dozen little 
Arabs around him repeating and reading, from a tin slate, 
passages of the Koran. We tried to buy one of the slatep» 
but they said it was a sin, as the Koran was written on it. 




However, money always prevails with an Arab, and a six- 
pence secured an old cne, which we have for our missionary 


museum. The Pool of David was there, and the tomb of 
Abraham and Sarah, in Machpelah's cave. The plain of 
Mamre is there, and an oak, at least one thousand years old, 

, and a six- 

.he tomb of 
le plain of 
i years old, 

/?./)'.v /x r.u.f:si/\j-:. 


no doubt just like the one where Abraham sat with the angels 
and the Lord. The hills are there tliat Caleb won for his in- 
heritance from the Anakim. 

We found two dear missionaries there who are working 


in sympathy with the Alliance, and are members of the 
"Bible Correspondence School," in New York. They are 
Mr. and Mrs. Murray, worthy Scotch people, and are doing 
an excellent work, and have much access to the Mos- 
lems, often being permitted to sit for hours in the vine- 
yards and read to them the Word of God. We also had the 



great privilege of assisting in the opening of a new Mildmay 
Mission and Hospital at Hebron under the cliarge of Mrs. 
Bowie of England and other workers ; and it was very sweet 
to sit th(!r(> with a little company of about a dozen, and read 
the old story of Caleb and Hebron, and claim a great blessing 
upon the work. 

There seems to be a l)etter opening in Hebron at this time 
than in any i)art of Palestine. One reason is, jnerhaps, that 
the Greeks and Latins have never got into the place, and the 
Christians are not (mis) represented by them as they are in 
so many other ])laces. 

On our way home we stopped at Bethlehem, looked at the 
Shepherd's Plains, the well of David, and the little limestone 
cave in the Church of the Nativity, Avhich is probably the 
birthplace of the Lord of glory. At least it spoke to our 
heart, in the Sj .rit, as Calvary and Bethany had done, and 
we are glad it was the last holy place we should have time to 
see in Palestine, for it left, as our last thought— that which 
Avas our Christmas message, and has become more and more 
the sweet watchword of our simple life—" as a httle child." 

How much there is in this wondrous land that speaks of 
the Master and the Bible ! The little sparrows are still here, 
of which He taught. The birds of the air are here that one 
can still see devouring the seed as it falls by the wayside. 
The flowers are everywhere, and they grow without care 
where nothing else will live. The children are still sitting in 
the market place ; and how one little fellow on Olivet did re- 
mind us of the Master's words, "We have piped unto you, 



ew Mildmay 
irge of Mrs. 
s very sweet 
^n, and read 
reat blessing 

1 at this time 

erhaps, that 

aco, and the 

they are in 

•oked at the 
lie limestone 
probably the 
poke to our 
id done, and 
have time to 
—that which 
re and more 
ittle child." 
at speaks of 
re still here, 
lere that one 
the wayside, 
vithou't care 
till sitting in 
•livet did re- 
d unto you, 

/>.ns y.v /'.//. /•;.s/7.\7-; 


and y<' have not danced ; wo have mom-ncd unto you, and ye 
have not lamented." The little Arab wanted backshish very 
ba<lly. He began by asking it directly, and my friend, who 

■>^2v ^tWl 'am\ If 



could speak Arabic, tried to reason him out of it as a bad 
thing for good boys. He became very good all at once and 
followed us half an hour without opening his mouth. But, 


96 L.lh'(./:h' OITLOOKS OX M/SS/OX.lh'V J..IXDS. 

as lio Hiiw this did not bring any backshish, h«! began to " pipe " 
to us. Ho went througli the gi-eatt'st lot of tricks and antics, 
laughing, dancing, and telling us how ho loved us. This was 
all unavailing. And then he b(>gan to mourn to us ; ho 
showed us hifi ragged clothes, ho wailed most piteously, h(^ 
entreated, implored, until at last, after ho had walked half 
round 01iv(>t, wo relented, and we gave him a little coin, not 
mu<di, but enough to send him liom(> happy, and, as our 
friend said— spoiled. 

Hero are men plowing in the field, contrary t(^ the 
Mosaic law, with a donkey and a heifer. And they all liold 
the little crooked stick of a plow with one lutiid, and the 
oxgoad with the other. It is just as Ho said, " He that put- 
teth his lidiid to the plow and looketh l)ack is not tit for 
the kingdom of God." There is only one hand at it, and it 
must uever lot go or the woi-k is ruined. 

Here are the two women grinding at the mill, for the big . 
millstones are too heavy for one. One pushes the crank halt 
round, and then the other pushes it the rest of the circle. 
Here are the sandals, the waterskins, the little gate, called 
Needle's Eye, and a thousand things that bring one into the 
very atmosphere and native element of the Bible, and make 
one feel what a marvelous teacher Jesus was, to fit His para- 
bles and discourses so wondrously into the conuuon life of 
the people, and make them alive with the images which ex- 
pressed their daily life and experience. 

What is the actual condition of Jerusalem and Palestine, 
and the so-called Jewish movement ? There is no doubt 


nto "pipo" 

1 and iiutics, 
s. This was 
to us ; lio 
)itoously, lie 
walked lialf 
;le coin, not 
and, as our 

•ary to the 
hoy all hold 
id, and tlm 
lo that put- 
} not lit for 
at it, and it 

I, for the big . 
B crank hak" 
f the circle, 
gate, called 
)ne into the 
}, and make 
fit His para- 
niion life of 
)S which ex- 

id Palestine, 
is no doubt 

/>.i }s /.v /'. //./;.s//,\7f. 


that there is a inovetnent, a forward movement, and a re- 
markable one. Uf coui'se, compared with other counti'ies, 
ralestin(! is yet, in many respects, a disappointment and a 
desolation. The land and ev«'n the roads are still cov«'red with 
barren rocks and desolati; ruins. But, compa'-^d with itself 
a quaiter of a century ago, or even fifteen years ago it is 
making extraordinary progress. 

Tliere is now a railway running from Jerusalem to Jaffa, 
and three more are under way in Northern Palestine. Jerusa- 
lem is a city of nearly 70,000 people, and Nablous,— ancient 
Shechem~-100,oOO, and both growing rapidly. Jaffa, Haiffa, 
Nazareth, Hebron, Beyrut, Damascus, are all prosperous. 
Inside of five years, the great mail route from P:ngland to In- 
dia will most probably pass through Northern Palestine, and 
will save over seven days on the time now occupied by the 
Sue/ Canal. We were not able to visit Galilee, but were told 
by gentlemen just from there that it is in every way far in ad- 
vance of Southern Palestine, and most of the soil good and 
productive. The Jewish colonies have been most successful, 
and the foreign capital and enterprise that have been invest- 
ed in the country have paid well, where wisely directed. 

What about the Jewish movement ? Undoubtedly it is 
making all the progress it can. There are 40,00o Jews, at 
least, in Jerusalem, several thousand in Tiberias, and a good 
m ny in the colonies and at other points. There would have 
been far more if they had been allowed. Just after the 
Russian persecution they began to arrive in whole shiploads. 
The Turks and others at Jerusalem became alarmed and sent 



a |»elinon to the SuUan, ami tho whole movoment was 
i^wpped, ami no rnoi'e Jews jxTmif ted to land. Thin, |)oilia|»s, 
wfitf p/' 'deal ill, as such rniml"* '-^ would have hroiight 
plagiu' jiiid starvation if they had <'«>iitiniu'd. But they aro 
still coiniiig in, more '|ui(>tly. 

Tho Sultan has hitely passed a tirniiui forhidding Jinvs to 
huy any nuuv propei-ty in Palestine. Hut this cannot last. 
There was nuich destitution among the Jews in Jerusalem a 
year ago, and tliere still is among some of the ])oorer classes ; 
hut many of them are engaged in industry and trades, and 
whole streets are occupied with their shops. There is also 
a v(>ry large fund contrihuted hy Jews in all j)arts of the 
woi'ld for tlieir jmor hrethren in Palestine. 

What are \\w ])i'ospects of Christian work among them ? 
Much of the Christian work in Palestine is among the Mos- 
lems and Greeks, and the prospects among the former are 
more hopeful than in any other land. But there is also much 
good work among the Jews, and some result. 

We talked with a very earnest yoimg Hebrew at one of 
the meetings, who was just about ready to confess Christ, 
and seemed most sincere and intelligent. One of the mis- 
sionaries speaks of a movement even among the Rabbis. At 
least the door is open to give them the message, and this is 
our business,— the rest is the Lord's. 

L pon the whole, wo are much more favorably impressed 
with Palestine, with the spirit of the workers, and with the 
prospects of Christian work there than we expected to *>'. 
We looked for greater desolation than we found, and \vt. 


lovement was 

This, |)»>rhMi>s, 

havt' hrouKht 

But tlioy are 

iddiug Jews to 
s cannot last, 
n JcriiHalcMn a 
)()orer classes ; 
1(1 trades, and 
There is also 
1 parts of the 

among them ? 
long the Mos- 
he former are 
e is also much 

rew at one of 
onfess Christ, 
e of the mis- 
e Rabbis. At 
;e, and this is 

ibly impressed 

and with the 

icpected to bo. 

bund, 'tnd we 

n.ns fx r.iLiiSr/XE. 


found much greater signs of life and progress than we ex- 

Let us pray mightily for tlH> breaking of the Turkish 
yoke, the influx of a new population, and the i)reparati(.u of 
the way for the return of the best classes of the Jewish i)eo- 
ple, the true "Kings of the p:ast." 

And, above all, let us plead for *' the Spirit of grace and 


supplication to be poured out upon the house of David and 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem," and a bap' ism of heavenly 
power in the Holy Ghost on all who labor for the Jews. 

When we were at Hebron they showed us the Pool of 
David, and remarked that it was full this year, and there 
would be a good and piosperous year, for the rains had been 
abundant, and the crops would be good. The Pool of David 
Avus the criterion of the rainfall and prosperity of the 

.1 1 ■■ . in T-'t - 


There is another pool,— the hlessed Holy Ghost, 0, 
when that is full in every heart, and every mission field, the 
harvest of the world will be all right. That is the need of 
Jerusalem, of Palestine, of the heathen world, of the 
churches and land at home. For this, let us cry "until the 
Spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wildernesa 
be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a 
forest." Isaiah xxxii : 1"). 


Awake, awake ; O Zion, 

Arise, Jerusalem ; 
Shake olT thy chains and sackcloth. 

Put on thy diadem. 
Thy night is almost over, 

Thy dawning draweth near, 
Thy day of Promise basteth,— 

Thy King will soon appear. 

Long hath thy midnight lasted, 

Hard hath thy bondage been ; 
Cruel the shame and anguish 

Thy weeping eyes have seen ; 
But lift thine eyes, O Israel, 

Forget thy Wailing Place ; 
Once more thy King is coming 

In glory and in grace. 

Thy sons are crowding to thee, 

Thy wastes are tilled once more, 
Thy latter rains returning. 

As in the days of yore ; 
Thy vineyards and thy olives 

Once more the mountains crown. 
And 'neath their vine and flg-tree 

Once more thy sons sit down. 

'}' LANDS. 

/KDS /.V I'AI.rSTlXE. 


Holy Ghost. 0, 
mission field, the 
at is the need of 
I world, of the 
us cry "until the 
id the wilderness 
je counted for a 




Once more the grapes of Eschol 

In Hebron's vale are seen ; 
Onoe more the plain of Sharon 

Ih clothed in ricliest fjreen ; 
The orange groves of Jaffa 

Hang rich with harvests rare, 
And hill and valley blossom 

With flowers sweet and fair. 

Thy streets and walls are spreading 

With many a structure fair ; 
Thy thoroughfares are crowded 

With tranic t'verywhiM-e ; 
Thy limits stretching northward 

Fulfill the sacred sign, 
And soon thy walls will cover 

The Prophet's measuring line. 

And many a town and hamlet 

Is growing o'er the land, 
The harbinger of progress. 

And brighter days at hand. 
And many a little circle 

Of Israels sons has come, 
And In thine ancient valleys 

11 as found a prosperous home. 

And now the engine's whistle 

Is heard on Sharon's plain, 
And Judah's mountains echo 

The rushing railway train. 
Yes, and o'er Syrian railways. 

They tell us soon will ixmr 
The trade of western nations 

To India's distant shore. 

The messengers of Jestis 

Are gathering at thy gates, 

And many a faithful watchman 
In Zlon works and waits ; 




Once more from Zion's threshold 

The stream begins to How, 
Whose deeper floods of blessing 

To all the lands shall go. 

From many a crue' nation 

Thy suffering children flee, 
Not knowing God is planniug 

To drive them home to thee. 
Thy strange, pathetic story, 

Men cannot understand ;— 
A land - without a people,— 

A race— without a land. 

But Israel shall be gathered. 

From every race and clime, 
On Zion's holy mountain 

In God's apiKjinted time. 
But first, the chosen "remnant" 

Their Saviour mutt receive. 
The "firrit fruits" of the nation 

The gospel must believe. 

And then, from Gentile nations 

The Lord mutt bring His own. 
And "unto ever creature 

The witness be made known. 
Then, He hath surely promised. 

The glorious end shall come ; 
The King shall come to Zlon 

An I Israel gather home. 

We hail that glorious morning ; 

All things in « arth and sky, 
And even in scatter* d Israel 

Proclaim its advent nigh. 
Awake, awake ; O Zion, 

Thy day begins to dawn ! 
Lord, haste its glad appearing,-- 

Help us to speed it on. 



ALTOGETHER we have spent a week in Egypt, and al- 
jr\^ thongh yet it has been mucli broken, it has been 
enough to give a very vivid, and perhaps fairly correct, 
impression of tliis oldest country of the world. Three days 
have been spent in Cairo—which is not only the centre and 
capital of Elgypt, but, in a sense, a miniature of the world, 
for almost all nations and religions are represented in its curi- 
ous and motley crowds. Our business at this time is not 
sight-seeing, but the higher business of the Master. We ha\ e 
had time, incidentally, to read many pages from that mar- 
vellous book of time and history, which so strangely empha- 
sizes and confirms in every line the grander Book of Ood, 

Cairo, even as a modern city, isi ntensely interesting. It 
is the second city in the Turkish Empire, and the largest in 
Africa. It has a population of nearly 400,000, of whom L'O,- 
000 are Europeans, and the rest are Egyptians, Abyssinians, 
Arabs, Turks, Syrians, and re])resentatives of almost every 
country in Western Asia and Northern Africa. The streets 
around the new hotels and the ICsebekeyah Gardens are quite 
modern and very handsome. Three or four of the hotels are 
very fine, large and fashionable; and, at this season, are over- 
crowded with English and American travellers. 

The most interesting portion of Cairo is the older city, 
which dates back to the time of the Calii)hs and Saracens. 



Its streets are very iian-ow, crociked, and crowdcMl with 
l){vzaars of every kind, where every ten feet an Arah, or Turk, 
or some other curious-lookin^i? man is sitting cross-legged at a 

little hole in the 
wall, like a little 
prairie dog at his 
den. and surround- 
ed hy his special 
wares. Most of them 
hav(> factory and 
warehoiise all in one 
small space. In Cai- 
ro each trade has a 
separated )azaar, and 
so you will find the 
shoemakers and 
slipper vendoi's on 
one alley making 
and selling theii' 
wares at the same 
time. A little farth- 
er on is the hrass 
hazaar, and there 
you can find the 
workers in hrass, 
making and chasing with their fine tools their vases, coffee pots, 
candlesticks, urns, and all sorts of hrass goods. The goldsmiths 
have a (luarter, the rug and carpet dealers, the silk emhroid- 



•owdod Avitli 
ral), or Turk, 
is-l«^ggo(l at a 
liolc in the 
like a little 

(log at his 
lul siui'ound- 

his special 
Most of them 
factory and 
space. InCai- 
1 trade has a 
tehazaai', and 
I will find the 
iiakers and 
• vendors on 
dley making 
selling their 

at the same 
A little farth- 

is the hrass 
1-, and there 
3an find the 
srs in brass, 
es, coffee pots, 
'he goldsmiths 
silk einbi-oid- 



erers, the dealers iu prints, etc., and one's eyes are dazzled 
and bewildered by the most glaring colors, and his ears al- 
most deafened by the jargon of many tongnes and ci-ies of 
eager vendors and bargain makers. If you want to pnichase 


anything you may always count on a reduction of from 50 to 
<i() per cent., and althougli the Arab will stoutly assure you 
that he has only one price, yet the sight of the money, and 
your back as you turn to go away and really mean it, always 
brings him to terms, and he consents to let >jou have it for 


that low price, anrl then you may l)e |»r('tty suit", in most 
cases, that he has the hest of the har^ain. 

The view of Cairo from the citadel i« surpassingly beauti- 
ful. The elevatiou is quite high and commands a wide and 
striking panorama. All around you is historic ground. The 
balcony on which you are standing is i)art of the most beau- 
tiful moscpie in Cairo, perhaps in the world, the Mosque of 
Mohammed Ali, whose graceful minarets and magnificent 
dome are but indexes of the exquisite interior, surpassing, we 
think, except only in its windows, the interior of the Moscpie 
of Omar at Jerusalem. 

At our feet Cairo lies spread, a brilliant panorama of 
houses, streets, minarets and domes. More than three hun- 
dred mosipies are in the picture, a forest of graceful spires 
and minarets, imequalled for striking beauty of design by 
anything in the world. At night the tops of many of these 
minarets are lighted all round the narrow windows which sur- 
mount their graceful summits, and they look like lamps 
suspended from the skies. To the left, lies old Cairo. Away 
in the distance the Nile runs, like a silver thread, as the 
western boundary of the modern city. Across the Nile 
rise the massive Pyramids, about five miles distant. Fring- 
ing lines of acacias and palms stretch giacefully along 
the river, and fields clothed in living green spi'ead away off to 
the right — down to the luxuriant Delta,---vvhile beyond the 
Pyramids to the west, the sandhills and plains of the desert 
stretch out till they meet the distant horizon.. 

Looking up the Nile to the left you see the outlines 
of other pyramids, sharply cut against the sky — about ten or 

lie, in most 

it<;ly beauti- 
a wide and 
•ouiul. Thn 
} most beau- 
Mosque of 
[•passing, we 
the Mos(iue 

•anorama of 
three hun- 
iceful spires 
>f design by 
any of these 
s which sur- 
like lamps 
airo. Away 
read, as the 
ss the Nile 
ant. Fring- 
jfully along 
away off to 
beyond the 
f the desert 

the outlines 
about ten or 

uxi)/:r rm: snAimw of thi: rvRAMins. 


twelve miles away. Tliis is Sakkara, the site of ancient 
Memphis, once tlie capital of lower Egypt, and the seat of 
the Pharaohs, where still arc to be seen many wonderful 
monum<'nts and tombs. 

You are looking on tlie relics of fifty centuries. The 
well beside you is called the well of Joseph ; the pyramids 


before you were there when Abraham entered the land. 
The little island of Roda, yonder beside old Cairo, is said to 
be the place where Moses was found, but this is more than 
doubtful. But yonder ruins at Memphis doubtless mark the 
site of the splendid court where he might have reigned ; and 
had he not refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daugh- 



LARCER orr/.OOh'S ox MISS/O.WIRY L.ixns. 

tor, his muniniy W(»ul(l probably to-day lie foiin«l in tbo 
royal company that stand hi a row in the famous nuiscuni 
yonder that wo visited to-day. WoU, Moses had a grander 
tomb on Nt'bo's lu'ight, and he stands to-day in tlio glory 
Avliirli shone out for a jnonient on the Transfiguration night, 
Avitii a body wliich pool' old Rameses would give all Egy])t to 
jtosaess and beside wliich all the obsolete grandeur of Mem- 
l)his, Thebes, Zoan, Luxor and Karnak are poor and con- 
temptible indeed. 

Of course we went to the Pyramids. It is a delightful 
drive of about two hours, over a splendid road built by old 
Ismail Pasha, the Khedive Avho gave Egypt nearly all her 
Avondorfnl imi)i()vements ; and, in oi-der to do it, loaded her 
with the enoi-mons debt that has brought in the English 
army of occu])ation, to guarantee the interest to the English 
capitalists who hold the bonds. This has reduced Egypt to 
the condition, i)ractically, of a British jirovince. It is said, 
the old Khedive, after visiting Paris, resolved to make his fair 
capital a second Paris ; and so he went on cutting boulevards, 
laying out gardens, planting avenues, building ])alaces, and 
rearing mosques, until he had realized his fond ambition, and, 
at the same time, reduced his country to udnkrupt(-y, as the 
price of his beautiful dream. 

The road to tht^ Pyramids is lined with fine acacia trees, 
and thronged with long lines of loaded camels, donkeys, and 
women coming into market. The camels carry more than 
half a ton on their immense backs ; the donkey, about one- 
sixth of the size, has nearly half as big a load. After seeing 


11(1 in tho 
s iimscum 
a grander 
11)0 glory 
tion night, 
11 Egy])t to 
V of Mem- 
r and con- 
del iglitfnl 
•uilt by old 
rly all her 
loaded lu'r 
lie English 
;he English 
fl Egypt to 
It is said, 
ake his fair 
alaces, and 
lition, and, 
toy, as the 

nacia trees, 
nkeys, and. 
more than 
about one- 
fter seeing 

r'NDF.K Till': siiAPow or i iii: rvkWMins. 


the donkeyy of Palestine and Egypt, we shall never again joke 
nor Hiiflfer others to joke about the noble ass. 

Our horse in Palestine stumbled and fell on us ; but our 
donkey in Egyi)t carried us about Avilh luxurious ease, and 
all the arts of horsemanship wen; (juitf* unncc<'ssary. You 
have only to sit in the c(Mnfoitable saddle, and let him trot 
or c£inter along as he jileases, while your donkey boy runs 
behind, goading and guiding liim whither he will. He always 
manages to go right, and gets through i)laces no other creat- 
ure ever could. He can go on stony jjaths or mountain 
passes, or crowded thoroughfares, or narrow passages, with 
perfect coolness and safety ; and stands with a patience, 
which many a Christian might well imitate, hardships and 
cruelties which have often made us feel ashamed of the 
master and jiroud of the soulless hrute. They beat him, 
sometimes they half starve him, tliey load him down till his 
knees fairly tremble, and he just goes on his way fulfilling 
his useful course with a i)atience worthy of a higher nature. 
Some one in Palestine asked an Arab how long a donkey 
would live. "If you feed him," replied the Arab, " he will 
live forever." One would think so, when you see how long 
they live with their present treatment. No Moslem nor 
Arab ever feels insulted when you call him an ass. You can 
hardly pay him a higher compliment. 

But there is another burden bearer in the train. It is the 
Egyptian woman. Everywhere you can see her with her big 
basket .or earthen pitcher on her head, walking erect as a 
statue, and carrying it without a quiver, and without even 




touching it with one of licr lingi'is. Wo saw ji woman yes- 
tenhiy trying to take up a hurdi-n wliich sho could not Hft to 
licr licad, but liad to get a nuui to lielpher to load it up ; hut, 
when onc(> she got it on the littlo cushion upon thu crown of 
her head, she started olT as ciisily as if sht> liad only an ostrich 
feather there. 

Most of their faces are coveied, except Ine eyes and 
brow, and a great many wear a hideous brass ornament be- 
tween their eyes, that gives them an outlandish exjjression. 
The one thing lacking in all these scenes is the face and pres- 
ence of a true woman. One sees the dear children every- 
Avhere, in all their simplicity, fi-eedom and real beauty, but 
we look and long in vain for the women we ai'c accustomed 
to see in our Christian civilization. Woman is left out of 
oriental society, and life is withered and blighted by the un- 
natural omission. The higher classes are shut away in idle, 
luxurious isolation ; the lower are almost beasts of burvlen for 
their lords and mastei-s. The softening, refining, elevating 
influence of woman's society is wholly lost. 

Some of the missionaries told us what a surprise it was 
when they invited Moslem gentlemen in to spend a social 
evening, to find they could sit and talk on social terms with 
women. It was to them a new, and, we are glad to believe, 
to many a delightful world, and gave them an attractive view 
of the sweet, human side of Christianity. Little does w^oman 
know what she owes to Christianity, and little does man 
realize how much w^oman's elevation has Senefited him, and 
lifted up his life and happiness. 


woman yes- 
Id not lift to 
:1 it np ; but, 
[>e crown of 
ly an ostrich 

lie (ivcs and 
rnamcnt bo- 

,ce and pios- 
dron every- 
boauty, but 

left out of 
1 by the un- 
vvay in idle, 
f buivlen for 
g, elevating 

pi'ise it was 
■nd a social 
terms with 
to believe, 
ractive view 
:loes woman 
) does man 
}d him, and 








Immmn ijiMHi i » i n-. ' aii» i i w 










rxn/:K rm: sii.inow of the rvK.iMnis. 


Olio boautinil picture we must give. It was on that Hame 
road to the I 'y nvinids Among many others, wo met a woman 
carrying a great load upon lier liead. But in her arms nho 
also lu'Id a babe ; and we noticed that she liad hotli her arms 
about lier child, and trusted the burden to her skill and 
strength, but held \wv ])recious child in a mother's loving 
arms. It was the mother heart triumphing over even the 
thought of her material interest. It reminded us of Him 
who carries the government upon His shoulders, but He holds 
His children in His arms ! 

But we have got to the Pyramids. Yes, there they are ! 

"These mighty Pyramids of Htone, 

That wedgelike ch'ave the deMert aire, 
When nearer seen and better known 
Are hut gigantic steps of stairs. " 

But what enormous stairs they are ! Four hundred and 
seventy feet high, and twice ns> wide at the base. And the 
steps are great stone Ijlocks, about a yard high, so that you 
have to be pulled up by thi'ee stout Arabs, and coming down, 
held by a long turban tied around your waist to keep you 
from falling down headforemost. 

We n'jed not stay to give their history. They are great 
tombs built by one of the oldest of the Egyptian kings — 
Cheops — before the time of Abraham. The interior consists 
of a long passage downward, for a while at an angle of forty- 
five degrees, and then upward, followed by a level passage, 
ending at last in a lai-ge gallery, called the King's Chamber, 
under which is a smaller one called the Queen's Chamber. 


Here were found the sarcophagi and mummies. Tlie passages 
are ventilated by air shafts from above. 0, what a waste of 
toil and treasure for a transient tomb ! 

In keeping with this was the skill and expense bestowed 
upon the embalming of the dead. The Egyptians built the 
houses of the living of perishable brick, and the houses of tlie 
dead of enduring granite. Was it the fear of death that 
made them struggle so hard to resist its ravages ? Was it 
the idea of immortality that made them long to keep the 
very dust from perishing ? Or was it their strange idea that 
while the body lasted, the spirit continued to exist in Para- 
dise ; but if the earthly frame should vanish, the spirit-life 
would forever fade away ? Poor things ! how vain their tre- 
mendous fight with death ! How ghastly and ineffectual the 
triumphs of all their splendid mortuary architecture ! How 
easily faith leaps at a bound from yonder open grave at Jeru- 
salem into the glorious reality which all these mummies, 
tombs an 1 pyramids only shadowed faintly and afar off ! 
Oh, how we thank Him who "has abolished death and 
brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel." 

Many of our readers know that a very elaborate effort 
has been made by such writers as Piazzi Smith, Dr. Seiss, 
and others, to prove that the internal passages and chambers 
of the great Pyramid are prophetic of the future ages. They 
have found in the scales of measurement, and the relative di- 
mensions of the passages, and many other most interesting 
particulars, a sort of diagram of the course of time up to the 
Lord's return; also they believe that the "pillar on the 



. Tlie passages 
^'hat a waste of 

pense bestowed 
ptiaiis built tbe 
he houses of tlie 
• of death that 
vages ? Was it 
)ng to keep the 
trange idea that 
> exist in Para- 
1, the spirit-Ufe 
.V vaiu their tre- 
1 ineffectual the 
litecture ! How 
sn grave at Jeru- 
hese mummies, 
Y and afar off ! 
shed death and 
1 the Gospel." 
elaborate eifort 
mith, Dr. Seiss, 
BS and chambers 
;ure ages. They 
i the relative di- 
most interesting 
f time up to the 
"pillai* on the 


border of Egypt," mentioned by Isaiah, is nothing nlse than 
this old Pyramid of Ghizeh. 

The argument is certainly very plausible, and the coinci- 
dences strange; but to many it is probably somewhat strained, 
and, at best, a system of very extraordinary correspondences. 
Happily, we have "a more sure word of i)rophecy "' than old 
Pharaoh's necropolis. 

The Arabs, donkeys and camels were almost as interest- 
ing to us as the Pyramids. They (the Arabs) had a great 
fight for half a piastre, which one had failed properly to share 
with the others. There were screams and blows, and, for a 
while, nearly all the crowd took a hand in it, but nobody was, 
hurt. The coin in question is only about three cents. 

The Sphinx is wonderful. It stands ({uite near the great 
Pyramid. The actual view of that face of stone is very 
touching. The expression of calm repose and gentleness 
is not imaginary. It seems Hke old Father Time, looking 
down on one hundred and fifty generations of his children, 
and smiling at 

"Their clalmH of long descent" 

What children we all are under the shadow of that face 
of nearly five thousand years ago ! But even thou, ancient 
Sphinx, art but a shadow of the "Rock of Ages,'— that 
Blessed One who is "the same yesterday, and to-day, and for- 
ever,' with whom " a thousand years are as one day, and 
one day as a thousand years," and whose heart has been 
"our dwelHng-place in all generations." 

The most wonderful Museum in the world now stands 



midway between the Pyramids and Cairo. It is the famous 
Museum of Egyptian antiquities, establislied through the 
labors and researches of Mariette, Brugsch Bey, and other 
Egyptologists, and contains nearly all the best results of the 
explorations and discoveries of the past few years. It was 
formerly at Bulak, but has now been removed to the old 
pabce of the Khedive. The building is most magnificent, 
and the gardens luxuriant beyond description. 

One gets some idea, from looking at this palace and 
grounds, of the selfish indulgence of oriental despots. 
Grottoes, fountains, walks, bridges, hanging gardens, sum- 
mer houses, trees, shrubs, flowers of every kind, make it like 
a dream of beauty. The very walks, for miles, are mosaics of 
inlaid stones, and the garden walls are built of stucco and 
coral, with niches in the masonry for the trees and flowers, 
and all so wound together as to look like natural rocks and 
pine -covered terraces of tropical luxuriance. And all this 
was supplied by the toil and suffering of a whole nation for 
the indulgence of one selfish man, and, perhaps, three or four 
hundred poor women, whom he held in luxurious slavery in 
this and half a dozen other similar palaces. What a farce the 
government of this world is, and how we long for the true 
King ! 

The interior of the palace is still more splendidly deco- 
rated. But it is now put to a better use, as the repository of 
the treasures of Egypt's tombs. The only defect about it is 
the lack of proper i)rovision in case of fire. A single hour 
might destroy, by sudden conflagration, treasures which could 
not be bought for hundreds of millions. 




is the famous 
[ through the 
5ey, and other 
results of the 
years. It was 
red to the old 
i magnificent, 

is palace and 
mtal despots, 
[gardens, sum- 
3, make it like 
are mosaics of 
of stucco and 
9 and flowers, 
iral locks and 
And all this 
lole nation for 
3, three or four 
ous slavery in 
hat a farce the 
y for the true 

Dlendidly deco- 
le repository of 
ect about it is 
A single hour 
es which could 

We were informed that no less than one million dollars 
we^e offered hy some parties in the United States for the 
privilege of exhibiting the mummy of old Rameses in the 
United States for a short time. Of course, it was refused ; 
and many millions could not buy it. We were surprised at 

the great number of 
monuments that are 
preserved from the 
fourth and fifth dynas - 
ties, — long before the 
time of Abraham. 
The amount of costly 
and t xquisite jewelry 
found on the mum 
mies, and preserved in 
tbe Museum, shows 
how advanced the fine 
arts were in the ear- 
liest periods. 

Of course, the great 

object of our interest, 

and the centre of at 

traction to all the 

visitors, wa^ the great 

Central Chamber 

where the royal mummies are on exhibition. There the 

centre of interest was the great Rameses II., the oppressor 

of the Israelites, and his face and head were even more ex- 

RAM eses II. 



pressive of character and forco than even the excellent 
photograph that most of us have seen. There was ^his 
father Scti, and most of his successors for a long time, with 
the strange exception of his son and successor, Meneptah, the 
Pharaoh of the Exodus. Where is his body ? Why do we 
not have his mummy ? Will it yet be found, or is it in the 
bottom of the Red Sea 'i Strange, the i-evenges of history and 
Providence ! 

We should think that every Jew would like to go and 
look at that hdlpless face. The man that cast little Mosea 
into the Nile, and ground the lives of three millions of people 
to the dust, is not terrible now. The humblest Hebrew caa 
look in his face and laugh him to scorn. So will all our terri- 
ble foes be some day. Only wait ! 

The story of the finding of these mummies was very won- 
derful, and was surely one of those providences which are so 
strangely making the ages meet in the last age of time, and 
causiuj^ the recoi'ds of nature to confirm God's Holy Word in 
the face of man's proud infidelity. It was this : 

Up at ancient Thebes, which was the faA-^orite capital of 
old Rameses, they had his tomb and the tombs of many of 
the preceding and succeeding kings, and there was no doubt 
of the identification ; but they could not find the sarcophagus 
or the mummy. All the tombs, indeed, were empty. They 
searched in vain, and it seemed as if the mystery woidd never 
be unsealed. But, one day, it was found that an Arab was 
selling some costly relics that evidently belonged to these 
tombs. Mr. Mariette, one of the leading Egyptologists, 


le excellent 
cro was his 


g timo, with 
eneptah, the 
Why do we 
is it in the 
f history and 

:e to go and 
I little Mose& 
)ns of people 
Hebrew can. 
all our terri- 

asvery wou- 
which are bo 
3f time, and 
[oly Word in 

te capital of 
1 of many of 
'as no doubt 
iipty. They 
would never 
an Arab was 
ged to these 



learned of it, and found him out. A large sum was demanded 
for the secret— $2,500— and it was instantly granted ; and, 
indeed, was but a fraction of the real value— millions would 
"be given to-day. And the secret was divulged. A secret 
passage was found, which this man had accidentally discov- 
ered, leading down to a large subterranean <;hamber, very 
plain and simple, to which, in a time of threatened war and 
danger, the care-taker of the tombs had removed all the royal 
munmiies for safety. And there, in that lone gallery, Ram- 
eses and his family of kings were found lying in silence and 
obscurity, waiting God's hour for them to come forth and 
attest the truth of His ancient story. 

No wonder that the great Brugsch Bey, when he stood 
in that royal chamber of the silent dead, raised his hands and 
said, "Have I lived to see this day if " 

The interest and profit of our visit to this Museum, even 
for one brief afternoon, was greatly increased by the presence 
of a friend who resides in Cairo, one of the American mis- 
sionaries, who had given much intelligent study and consid- 
erable research to this most interesting field. 

One of our most interesting and memorable visits was to 
the great Mohammedan University of Cairo, the famous 
Mosque of El Azhar. It is the largest university in the world, 
and the principal Mohammedan school. 

Of course, we had to get a permit, and <;p enter the sacred 
enclosure with sandaled feet. They used to require the Chris- 
tians to put off thoir shoes, but now, by a sort of whitewash- 
ing process, they put on a ])air of holy sandals over your shoes 
— foi- the consideration of a few piastres. 


We have seldom been more touched than by the scene in 
this old Mosque. In a vast enclosure, filled with pillars and 
corridors, were scores of groups like the classes of a great 
Sunday School, all sitting crosslegged on the door, each group 
gathered round a teacher, who was sitting' among them and 
teaching them with all his might something from the Koran. 
They are said to teach everything here ; not only Moslemism 
and the Koran, but also other branches. 

What touched us was the intense earnestness of both 
teachers and students. The adults v/ere all men, and they 
seemed to be men of one idea. Many of the teachers wore 
the green turban, showing that they had been to Mecca and 
had accomplished the Pilgrimage so sacred to Moslems. 
There are said to be 10,000 to 12,o00 students in attendance 
always at this school, almost all preparing for missionary 
work throughout the world. We saw no such number as 
this, but there were a good many hundred. We saw enough, 
however, to let us realize the intense earnestness and power 
of this system based on one book, and interweaving that book 
with all their higher and lower education, and making it the 
chief text book in all their schools. If Christianity had 
treated the Bible as Mohammedanism the Koran, it would 
long ago have become the religion of the world. 

There is one thing of which we need have no doubt— and 
that is, the intense and entire satisfaction and enthusiasm 
with which Moslems regard their rehgion, and the contempt 
with which they regard all others. They look upon Christi- 
anity as a religion from which tliey have taken all that is 


the scene in 

I pillars and 
s of a great 
[•, each group 
ig them and 
[1 the Koran. 
r Moslemism 

ness of both 
en, and they 
eachers wore 
o Mecca and 
to Moslems. 

II attendance 
r missionary 
h number as 
saw enough, 
;s and power 
ing that book 
uaking it the 
istianity had 
ran, it would 

o doubt — and 
i enthusiasm 
the contempt 
upon Christi- 
an all that la 



worth keeping, and have addea the lugher lovelation of Mo- 
liammed. Tliey have heen through Christianity and got be- 
yond it. 'J'liey accept Abraham, Moses, Christ, hut Moham- 
med is beyond them all, the last and greatest of thi^ ])r()phet8. 
Our dragoman said to us yesterday, in the Moscpie of Mo- 
hanuued Mi, "They teach us in the miiversity that (iod is 
one, only one. He has no Father, no Mother, no Son." And 
lie looked as if he had a self-evident truth. 

They regard all Christians as believing that Mary is the 
Mother of God, and they hate it. Nothing has so hindered 
Christianity in the world and in the East as the absurd cari- 
catures of the Roman and Greek Churches. 

During our visit to Cairo the Roman Carnival was ob- 
served. The whole day was given n\) to processions and pan- 
tomimes, just like the Mardi (Iras of New Orleans. The 
Avhole thing was a lmrles(iue and a farce. But everybody 
went out to see it, and the day was a public holiday. It was 
considered by the Moslems as the beginning of the Oiristian 
season of fasting and i.rayer, and the missionaries were con- 
gratulated all round on the Christian feast, and wishes ex- 
tended to them for a year of blessing. What but the power 
of God, and a real and living Christianity, can ever meet and 
counteract this awful caricature ! 

Unfortunately too many of our English and American 
Christians leave an influence but little better. But few of 
them ever find out the missions or the missionaries, and 
their influence among the natives reminds one of the prayer 
of the little Sunday Schoolgirl in Brooklyn, one night, just as 



I ,'I 

,ion of Mo- 
uld v^oi be- 
lut Moham- 
et ])r()pyiet9. 
(jiu" of Mo- 
:luii (iod is 
Son." Aud 

Vlary is the 
so hindered 
ibsurd cari- 

val was ob- 
)ns and pan- 
leans. The 
t everybody 
lay. It was 
le Christian 
(s were con- 
1 wishes ex- 
t the power 
er meet and 

d American 
But few of 
ouaries, and 
F the prayer 
light, just as 

they were preparing to go to the coimtry for tlie summer 
vacation. Slie knelt down at her little cot-side, and was 
lieard to say, "Dood-bye, l)()d, wc's goin' to the country." 

But there is a most excellent missionary work being done 
in Kgypt. 

The pleasantest incident of our visit to Cairo was our 
visit to the American Mission coimected with the United 
Presbyterian Church of this country. We were most cour- 
teously received, and foimd tlu; Mission in a most flourishing 
condition. There are now stations in all the f^gyptian prov- 
inces, and a large and growing work is going forward. 
There are over :?()(» pupils in the .school in Cairo, and nearly 
4.(MK» communicants in all Egypt. There are a few Moham- 
medan converts, but the work is chit^fly among the Copts, the 
old National Christian Chuich of Egypt, but one that has 
more degent>rated than perhajjs any of the oriental churches. 
AVe hear, however, of important changes that are taking 
place, and some look forward toward reform. 

We cannot too highly express our api)reciation of the 
kindness received from some of the members of the Mission- 
ary Home in Cairo, and oiu* gratitude to God for the work 
that has been acconii)lished. 

But little work is done by any other Society. The Churcli 
Missionary Society of England lias a few laborers. And yet, 
after all, the Egyptian nation with its millions of Moslems 
has been but lightly touched, and we need to pray much for 

How wonderfully God has fulfilled prophecy in this old 





laud 1 It is, indeed, " the basest of kingdoms," and the pres- 
ence of English soldiers evcuywhero makes one feel how 
truly God has remembertid His ancient word r(>apecting it, 
and held it in a place; of subjection and humiliation. 

But there is hope for Egypt yet, in the same prophetic 
Word. The plan of the ages has linked Egyi)t with Israel 
in the promises of the Millennial Age. Lord, hasten that 
longed-for day 1 


nd tho pres- 

10 feci how 

specting it, 


o prophetic 

with IsriK'l 

lastc'ii that 



AVPiRY slow and tcnHous railway lido of soveii hours, 
which, according to tho schedulo time, should only 
havo hoeu three hours and a half, took us from Cairo 
to Ismailia ahout one o'clock in the morning, and at five -we 
were awakened hastily to meet our steamer for India. Our 
Aral) attendant had promised exuberantly, tlu; night before, 
to awake us an hour before the time for starting, but when 
the morning came, he forgot to call us until tho tender was 
about ready to start ; and we got a gooil illustration of the 
necessity of being " always ready " for the Master's call. 

Wo were glad we had everything packed tht^ previous 
night and had not nuich di-essing to do. "VVo found tho 
"Oceana" a very fine boat, (pn'tc equal to car best Atlantic 
steamers. Down the R< ' a slm has made faster time than 
the "Servia" did, attaining about 375 miles a day. 

We have a most deiigiitful party of passengers, including 
quite a number of ministers and missiouari(?s going to the 
East. Every mv uing at ten thej'o is a daily prayer-meeting, 
which is a time uf refreshing, and there is less drinking than 
we have yet seen on any steamship. 

The second class saloon accommodation is sub'^<;uitially 




as good as the first class on the Atlantic steamers. Tliis is 
not true, however, of niany of the steamers. 

We are sorry, in one sense, that we have to leave her at 
Aden and take a smaller steamer for Bombay, as the 

"Oceana" goes on 
direct to Culombo 
and Australia. But 
we shall keep a few 
of our passengers, 
who are going also 
to India, and, we 
doubt not, our dear 
and mindful JMaster 
has prepared even 
better things for us 
there. His good- 
ness to us in this 
whole voyage is be- 
yond the power of 
words to express. 
We have been con- 
scious every mo- 
ment of a cloud of 
ceaseless prayer en- 
compassing us, and His Presence has been real, restful 
and comforting as never before. Truly He has tra\elled 
with us all the way, and we love to commend Him to 
lonely hearts. Like a little child we go on, not knowing 





mei's. Tliis is 

;o leave her at 
nibay, as the 
?ana" goes on 
t to Colombo 
\.ustralia. But 
iiall keep a few 
Lir passengei's, 
are going also 
iidia, and, we 
t not, our dear 
nindful ]\Iaster 
prepared even 
■r things for us 
;. His good- 
to us in this 
e voyage is be- 
[ the power of 
Is to express, 
have been con- 
is every mo- 
t of a cloud of 
iless prayer en- 
n real, restful 
s has tra\elled 
imend Him to 
, not knowing 

much before, and we find all the way prepared, and are ever 
conscious of His interposing and protecting love. 

On our journey in Palestine from Jerusalem to Bethel our 
horse gave a sudden spring, and the next moment he was 
down on his side, falling on our right leg. It seemed inevit- 
able that we must be injured. But we rose and walked along 
awhile to get our joints adjusted, and looked up to Him with 
thanks and trust, aud found, that beyond a little sprain in 
one hand, a scratch on the other arm, and a little bruising of 
the muscles of the leg, we were not injured at all, and even 
the little touch of pain He quite took away — in a little while. 
Our friend urged us to exchange horses and let him take ours ; 
but we felt it would really be distrust, and would look like 
depending on the other horse rather than upon God, and so 
we simply watched our pony more carefully, and kept look- 
ing to the Lord^ and got through the day delightfully. 

The next day, as we were driving to Hebron, our Arab 
driver got very cold, and jumped from the seat, and ran be- 
hind the carriage awhile to get warm. The carriage blinds 
were down, and we did not see him or know exactly what he 
was doing, when, suddenly, we heard a cry, and found the 
wheel had gone over a steep embankment ; the carriage was 
just holding by the axle, which was fiat on the ground. We 
leaped out and thanked the Lord for keeping us from going 
over. Then we helped the poor fellow, who was white with 
fear, to draw the carriage back on the road by turning the 
team across the road, and pulling hard ; and we went on 
trusting and watching. We do not mean at all to encourage 





carelessness. We endeavor to be wise and watchful, but all 
our watching cannot anticipate the ten thousand perils that 
are ever around us, and it is so blessed to know and con- 
stantly find that He is, indeed, our Keeper, and v-hal He 
never slumbers nor sleeps. 

We find the sun in this Eastern world has a strange and 
dangerous power. Even when the air is so chilly that you 
have to keep on a heavy overcoat, you must not let the direct 
rays of the sun strike your head, or you are conscious of a 
very curious sensation, and would soon become ill. We are 
fitted out with pith hats, and learn to use white umbi^llas 
The promise has a very real meaning: "The Ijord if thj 
Keeper ; the Lord is thy shade on thy right hand ; the sun 
shall not smite thee by day. " The Arabs all cover their heads, 
both from the cold and heat. Their turbans consist of a 
very long piece of muslin folded over and over again, and, 
although they look so hot, they really shield the head from the 
sun, and keep it in a wholesome perspiration. In the cold- 
est weather the Arab's feet and legs are usually quite bare ; 
but, if he can get his head muffled up, he feels quite com- 

How the customs of the country constantly speak to us 
about the Bible ! For example, riding the other day through 
the crowded streets of Cairo, with our donkey boy running 
behind us, we did not need to think about our road, so long 
as he was silent, but just went on without anxiety ; but 
when we heard his voice we knew there was something to be 
done — either a turn or a halt. How it recalled the words : 


atchful, but all 
land perils that 
know and con- 
', and v,hal He 

s a strange and 
chilly that you 
ot let the direct 
i conscious of a 
ne ill. We are 
hite umbi'^llas 
he liord if th^ 
hand ; the sun 
ver their heads, 
QS consist of a 
ver again, and, 
e head from the 
1. In the cold- 
ally quite hare ; 
3els quite com- 

bly speak to us 
er day through 
By boy running 
r road, so long 
b anxiety ; but 
omething to be 
lied the words : 



"Thou shalt hear a voice behind thee, saying, This is the 
way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand and to the 
left." It is only when we have to turn, that we may need to 
hear the voice. God is not always speaking to us, but we 
may be sure we shall hear it when we come to the crisis 


hours of life, and need to turn round or take any serious new 
step. When we have His silence and peace, let us go on 
with simple trust and confidence. Then we noticed that the 
voice was always b^hind us. And so God leads us and speaks 
to us out of the quiet moments of recollection, when we take 
time to hear His gentle voice. 


The skies and sunsets of this land are wonderful. The 
after glow that follows sunset is beautiful and glorious 
After the sun goes down over the desert, full-orbed and almost 
crimson-hued, you can see the stars in the zenith in a few 
seconds. Last night we saw the first star less than three 
minutes after sunset. And then begins, on the horizon, the 
most beautiful series of metamorphoses. First, there ia 
usually a moderate glow in the East, reaching up, perhaps, 
twenty degrees from the horizon, and rather deeply tinted 
in amber and gold. But this soon fades, and in the west, 
right over the place where the sun went down, there hangs a 
halo of many-tinted glory for some time, changing its varied 
and blended hues, from pink to crimson, lilac and gold, and 
at times making you really feel that you are gazing at some 
superb illumination. 

The other night in Cairo, more than an hour after sun- 
set, when it was perfectly dark, and all the stars were out ia 
every part of the sky but this, the fiery cloud hung for a 
long time, and we felt, for a time, that there must be a 
great fire in the city. But it gradually faded away, and we 
knew that it was just "the after-glow." Last night, over 
the shores of the Red Sea and the mountains of Abyssinia, it 
lingered until, at least, three hours after sunset, making one 
think of the glory that followed the setting of the Sun of 
Righteousness, and the light that is shining still over the 
place where He died and rose again, and ascended to shine in 
other skies, until He shall return some brighter morning, and 
we shall see in yonder East the Aurora of the Eternal Dawn. 

clerful. The 
id glorious 
d and almost 
ith in a few 
than three 
horizon, the 
:st, there is 
up, perhaps, 
leeply tinted 
in the west, 
here hangs a 
ng its varied 
nd gold, and 
zing at some 

ir after sun- 
j were out ia 
I hung for a 
•e must be a 
way, and we 
t night, over 
Abyssinia, it 
making one 
f the Sun of 
itill over the 
3d to shine in 
morning, and 
ternal Dawn. 



But we have a gladder, grander pleasure even than this. 
We have just been permitted to see the beginning of the skies 
of the southern hemisphere, and the beautiful Southern 
Cross, which is to the sailor of the southern seas very nuich 


what the Pole Star is to the navigator of the north— the Pole 
star of his sky. 

To us it was the much more beautiful and significant 
symbol of our blessed Redeemer. All nature was made for 
Him and speaks for Him, and, surely, the four crimson stars 
which form this celestial cross may be permitted to bear wit- 




iiess to Him Avliom His own disciples have so little made 
known to these southern lands. 

As we, on the Red Sea, watched its appearence for the 
first time, we had no interpreter but the voice in our own 
heart. The hour was late, the passengers were asleep, and 
we seemed to feel that we had God all to ourselves on this 
side of the world at least, for, on the other, our blessed Friday 
meeting was at that very hour going on, and about reaching 
its close. Up to this time we had been too far north to see 
this constellation. But now we felt we must be near the 
])lace of its appearing, and so we sat upon the deck, in the 
balmy air that floated over from the Arabian plains, and 
Avatched the south-eastern sky, as star after star that we had 
never seen before slowly rose from the sea, floated over a low 
curve, and sank again into the sea a little farther west. We 
need not tell our readers that the stars on the southern hori- 
zon describe a very short course till they disappear. 

At last a cluster appeared, of about a dozen, out of which 
gradually we were able to frame a cross, by picking out the 
brightest and not seeing the others. For a while this seemed 
to us to be the famous constellation. But it appeared too 
large, the stars were too mixed and there were too many 
stars around it that did not form the cross, to satisfy us, and 
we waited on until it had begun to fade away to the west. 

Then there came another c(jiistellation, composed mostly 
of great patches of nebute brighter than the milky way, and 
looking like a great procession of lamps before some royal 
pageant. And then there began to rise from the sea three 


SO little made 

arence for the 
ce in our own 
3re asleep, and 
rselves on this 
blessed Friday 
ibout reaching 
ir north to see 
st be near the 
18 deck, in the 
ian plains, and 
:ar that we had 
ated over a low 
;her west. We 
) southern hori- 

m, out of which 
picking out the 
nile this seemed 
it appeared too 
were too many 
) satisfy us, and 
^ to the west, 
omposed mostly 
milky way, and 
Eore some royal 
n the sea three 




stars of ruby tint, that formed the head of a cross, much 
smaller than the first we had seen, and, as it rose and rose, 
the fourth star at length came up below, and lo ! the cross 
was complete ! 

There could bo no doubt about this ; it was the tnie 
Cross— the other but a counterfeit, that had gone before. It 
had far fewer stars in it. Indeed, all but these four were 
smaller stars ; these were of the first magnitude. The figure 
was almost perfect. The right hand horizontal bar was a 
little higher and shorter than the left, but, with this excep- 
tion, it was a real cross ; and, as it rose higher and higher, it 
stood out with bold outline and brilliant glory against the 

It was but a fancy, a correspondence, but it spoke to us 
of much. The first cross lepresented the false religions that 
nave gone before and perplexed and deceived mankind. The 
nebulae that preceded the true Cross were fine illustrations 
of the light of proi)hecy and promise that ushered in the 
great redemption. And the ruby stars (as the astronomers 
tell us they appear in the telescope) that formed that simple 
cross proclaimed the precious blood by which we have been 
redeemed, and the plan of salvation through the sacrifice of 
Jesus, that bears its own evidence and vindication to all who 
are willing to look at it fairly. 

One thing more we noticed. When it first arose, the 
cross was slanting, as if ready to fall ; but, as it moved on, it 
grew erect and passed out of view with its glorious head lifted 
up to heaven, telling surely of the glorious gospel which be- 



gan ill weakness, but is marching on to its full meridian 
glory, when " the head that once was crowned with thorns" 
shall wear the glory of all lands and ages. 

And yet once more. Looking a second time at this cluster 
of stars, wcuioticed that by putting together the smaller stars, 
they formed a second cross that seemed to lie back of the 
other, and in a horizontal position. How it spoke to us of 
the cross Avhich Christ has laid down at our feet for us to 
take up and carry ! He had His cross, we have ours, too ; 
and the very badge of discipleship is to be willing to carry it 
gladly for His dear love. 

And so we turned away from the glorious sky, willing to 
be numbered among the star-gazers, too, if through these 
jewelled windows we may but see a little more of the beauty 
of our wondrous King, in His crimson Cross and His coming 


It was two o'clock. A blessed company were just retir- 
ing from their hallowed meeting in the Tabernacle, at C P. 
M. ; their day was ending, -and ours ? And we lay down and 
slept for six blessed hours within the arms of His love, and 
prayers of His people, and the very curtains of His holy hab- 
itation. And when the morning dawned our vision of the 
night before had become a little song, which we give to our 
readers on another page. 

We have some comic things, too, and the Lord lets 
us have an innocent laugh, many a time. While we were 
lying at anchor for half-an-hour in Suez to receive the mails- 
and some other things, a lot of Arabs came on board with "' 


ull meridian 
with thorns" 

it this cluster 
inialler stars, 
hack of the 
oke to us of 
.^et for us to 
ve ours, too ; 
iig to carry it 

ky, willing to 
hrough these 
of the l)eauty 
(I His crmiing 

■re just retir- 
•nacle, at C P. 
lay down and 
His love, and 
His holy hah- 
vision of tlie 
e give to our 

[;he Lord lets 
^hile we were 
;eive the maili* 
on hoard with 

JSA/.I//./.1 JO nOMJl.lY. 


their various wares. Among them was a conjuror, who 
seemed to he in the special employment of the devil. Ho had 
a little rahbit, some tin cups, eggs, etc., and at once seated 
himself on the deck in the centre cf a group of passengers 
near us, and began his tricks. He proceeded to bleat for 


a time like a goat, and then uttering a sort of invocation 
to the devil, " Come on, debble, come on, debble," and then 
his arch-master having come to his aid, he began to do the 
most extraordinary things. The people laughed and won- 
dered, and, as long as their money continued to flow, he went 
on. We stayed long enough to see that he was in the devil's 



/..■ia'(7/:a' o/t/.ooa's ox A/issfox.iA'V f.ixns. 

business, and then we tui lu'd awjiy as iar as we could, but 
could n()tosca[)o noticing the sequel. 

Suddenly the ship began to move, and the Arab started 
to get off, but he was too late. His dhow or hoat was off a 
buiidred yards, and all the tenders had move<l away; then a 
most amusing and i)aintul scene began. The sweat rolled 
down his face, he cried and lamented, run to the stern, 
screamed to the dhow to come on and keep up, rushed franti- 
cally aiound the deck, tried to get i\m big ship to stop, but 
the captain did not even see him. Alas, the '• debble " could 
not do nmch for him now ! His mastei' seemed all at once to 
have failed him. We could not help thinking of the magi- 
cians of Egypt and the narrow limits of their power. Fort- 
unately for him, the ship had to turn round after a little in 
the roadstead, and during this time, only a minute or two, 
his boat came up, he seized a rope and swung himself over 
the side of the great ship, the boat caught him below as he 
swung in mid air, and he dropped on board, panting and 
sweating, while a great cheer went up from his friends, and 
he seemed hardly to know whether he was dead or alive. 
He, certainly, was the most frightened creature we ever saw, 
and we could not help thinking of the difference between the 
two Masters. 

We have been passing through the lands of the Hegira and 
the Exodus of Israel. Somewhere on the Une of this canal is 
the spot where Moses stretched his rod across the deep, arid 
Pharaoh's hosts were buried in the Red Sea. Somewhere on 
these shores the Pillar of Jehovah's Presence lighted up the 


ve could, but 

Arab started 

out was off a 

iway; then a 

sweat rolled 

the stern, 
ushed franti- 
) to stop, but 
ebblo" could 
all at once to 
of the niagi- 
povver. Fort- 
'ter a little in 
inute or two, 
himself over 

1 below as he 
panting and 

3 friends, and 
lead or alive, 
we ever saw, 
9 between the 

he Hegira and 
f this canal is 
the deep, aiid on 
lighted up the 



darkness of the night, as this sunset glow now shines along 
the West. Soniewliere over yonder ar«! Marah and F.lini, 
Rephidini and Sinai. Perhaps no one yet knows. Unigsdi 
Bey suys, the site of the crossing is away down at Kantara on 
the other side of Isniailia. Hut this can hardly 1m?. It is too 
far from Goshen and Kameses, which have been identified 
near Tel-el-Kebir. The old tradition says -Sue/. Hut this 
seems too far on this side of Kameses. A good many have 
located it at Slialouf, a few miles abovc^ Suez, and they believe 
that the Red Sea then reached nnich larther north, and took 
in the present Bitter Lakes and Lake Timsah on which Is- 
mailia stands. This is, perhaps, most probable. 

We saw, a short distance to the East, the probable site of 
EUm, still known as the Wells of Moses, where we could see 
the palms growing around a few houses on the oasis. Away 
beyond stretch the desert sands where they wandered, and in 
the distance, rise the peaks of Horeb and Sinai. Many a 
weary journey has been made to trace their footsteps. We 
have little interest in the mere processes of anticpiarian re- 
search; we are content to accept the b' A, results, and get as 
quickly as possible to the practical lessons of their history. 
For us they trod these wastes and lived and died, and failed 
to enter in, that we might escape their failures and inherit 
their promises. " Let us, therefore, fear lest, a promise being 
left us of entering into His rest, any of us should seem to 
come short of it." 

The Red Sea looks like a narrow strip on . -ur maps, and 
one would almost expect to see from shoi-e to shore. But 

•, < 



wlien yoi! got upon it you tiiid a great sea moiv than a thou- 
sand miles long, and over two luindn'd bioad, down which 
it takes a swift steamer between three and four days to sail. 
Its waters have been like a summer pool. In the wak(> of 
oui- ship, flash the i)hosphorescent creatures that might be 
called t he glowworms of t]\o deep. An army of scores of im- 
mense sluu ks swam past us to-day. The Southern terminus 
is the strait of Bab-el- Mandeb, and the town of Aden, a Brit- 
ish possession, commands the entrance to the canal, and is an 
Arab town of less than •?(»,()<)(» peopl(>. Across rises the high 
coast of the Somali Country, where a few brave Swedish mis- 
sionaries ar(^ laboring. 

Arabia is yet an unevangelizedland, only one or two work 
lug chiefly in British territory. Some efforts are about to be 
made to enter it. In His Name we will claim it for Christ iu 
His own mighty way. How little is all that we can do against 
this great host ! But He is All-sufficient, and, in tliose days, 
as wo realize moi-e than ever the immensity and difficulty of 
the field, wo are falling back on Him, and giving ourselves 
more than ever to prayer, not only for a blessing on our own 
work, but, infinitely beyond it all, for His own infinite, direct 
and almighty working. 

A foolish dance is going on upon deck this evening, and, 
driven from our usual walk, we have just spent a very pleas- 
ant hour with the chief cook on the lower deck, and he has 
told us the story of his wonderful conversion, six years ago, 
on this ship, through one of the China Inland Missionaries. 
He is one of the stalwart sort of Christians, and stands alone 

than a thou- 
lowii which 

(lays to Hail. 

the wake of 
at might be 
scoroH of irn- 
Mii terminus 
\.{Vm, a Brit- 
al, and is an 
isos tlu) high 
>W(>(lish iriis- 

3r two v\'i )i'k 
3 about to be 
for Christ in 
n do against 
1 those days, 
difficulty of 
ng ourselves 
; on our own 
itinite, direct 

vening, and, 
a very pleas- 
and he has 
X years ago, 
stands alone 



on this ship against all the mixtures and compromises that 
so dishonor Dirist, and confound Christianit} with more 
worldliness. It i.s refreshing to find once in a while such hid- 
den ones in all sorts of unexpected (piarters. 

But wo have just passed the lights of Perimand the Strait 
of Bah-el Mundob, and must get ready to tranship for Uom- 


The approach to Aden is wild and grand. It stands 
upon a rocky peninsula, whose jagged cliffs must lise at 
least 2,000 feet above the sea. It is situated about eighty 
miles east of the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeh, and commands the 
entrance of the Red Sea. It is an English colony, strongly 
fortified, and of immense strategic importance, giving Eng- 
land the command of this mighty gateway to the East. The 
town lies back from the harbor a few miles, and has a popu- 
lation of about L'(t,000. 



; <j- 5*w-.**^^^ 

'•k.^-^ %iif\ 

ii -iv'-to^-: 



We find some interesting traces of the ancient greatness 
of this old Arabian town. It is mentioned, in Ezekiel xxvii : 
23, as one of the cities with which Tyre carried on an impor- 
tant commercial traffic. Tradition places the home of the 
Queen of Sheba at Saba, just north of it. In the time of Cou- 
stantine it was an important church centre. In the middle 
ages it was a great city , and a prize for contending armies. 
It has been held successively by the Turks, Arabs, Portu- 
guese, French and English. It is now a part of the Bombay 
Presidency, and one of the most important military posts of 
the British empire, and known as "the Gibraltar of the 


There are a few missionaries from England laboring 
here, the only workers that have yet been really planted in 
Arabia. So far they are chiefly employed within the British 
territory, but it is, at least, an important starting point, and 
we join hands Avith them in faith and prayer, -^nd put the 
sole of our foot down on Arabia and claim it also for Him, in 
His own great and mighty way, even in the face of appar- 
ently insuperable difficulties. 

Arabia is the land of Ishmael and Hagar, of Moses and 
the Law, of the wanderings of Israel, and the sojourn of Ehjah 
and Paul. These people are the seed of Abraham, and, at 
least, the cousins of Israel ; and they, too, have an inherit- 
ance of promise. They are a most attractive people, simple, 
affectionate, intelligent and capable. Our heart bleeds to see 
them under the blight of Mohammedanism. 

A great work has begun for them m connection with the 




Qcient greatness 
1 Ezekiel xxvii : 
ed on an impor- 
he home of the 
the time of Cou- 
In the middle 
tending armies. 
, Arabs, Portu- 
t of the Bombay 
nihtary posts of 
jribraltar of the 

ngland laboring 
:-eally planted in 
ithin the British 
rting point, and 
rer, '^nd put the 
also for Him, in 
le face of appar- 

ar, of Moses and 
sojourn of Elijah 
Lbrahani, and, at 
have an inherit- 
e people, simple, 
eart bleeds to see 

mecfcion with the 



American Mission in Syria, in the publication of the Bible 
and other books in their beautiful language ; and the Bible 
Societies are distributing these leaves of the Tree of Life 
among them with a fair measure of success. Work has to 
be cai-ried on among them with great wisdom. Anywhere, 
under the Turkish government, any very public agitation is 
sure to lead to the suppression of the work. The work car- 
ried on by the North African Mission, from Damascus among 
the Bedouins east of the Jordan, has been stopped, and Mr. 
Van Tassel has returned home. The best work we can do 
for Arabia is to pray that God Himself will somehow send 
the pioneers whom He alone can prepare to go foi th with the 
Gospel to its neglected millions, if it be nothing more than to 
proclaim the witness before the coming of the Lord. 

But we got a glimpse of another race during the four or 
five hours we stayed in Aden,— the African tribes on the op- 
posite shore. We had no sooner anchored than our ship was 
surrounded with scores of Somali lads, entirely nude, except 
a towel around their loins. Tliey floated around like sea-fowl, 
climbed on deck, and tried in various ways to get "back- 
shish" or sell tl^iir wares. They were as black and shining 
as polished ebony, with curly African hair. Their figures were 
finely developed, and they were really handsome, and veiy 
smart and intelligent. They were perfectly at home in the 
water. Many of them had their own canoes, just big enough 
for one, and hewn out of a log The sea washed in, but they 
sat in the bottom paddling, and just bailed it out with their 
hands. You could not drown them. They were more than 




half the time in the water, swimming abcut like fishes — able 
to stand erect in the sea, and laugh and talk, and dart about 
among the tug-boats and steamers without the slightest fear 
of being run over. Their greatest delight was to have a pas- 
senger throw them a ])onny or sixpence. They would leap 
from their boats and catch it long before it got to the bottom, 
and invariably bring it up in their mouths. Poor little fel- 
lows, what beautiful Christians they would make ! 

At length we are loaded with mails and freight for Bom- 
bay, the signal gun is fired and we are off. As we clear the 
harbor, we look south, and the "Oceana," the ship we have 
just left, is leaving for Colombo and Sydney, on her long 
voyage of four weeks more These great Australian ships 
only make three trips a year. Compared with one of these 
great voyages, an Atlantic trij) is like crossing a ferry. 

The sail over the Arabian Sea from Aden to Bombay was 
very delightful. The sea was as calm as glass, wuth the ex- 
ception of the last few hours, and pleasant breezes kept the 
air delightfully cool. On the glassy waters floated myriads 
of beautiful sea anemones, a sort of jelly fish spreading out 
just like a great flower, with petals of lilac and heart of crim- 
son and purple. Flying fish would often dart across the 
waves, flutter a minute or so in the air, flying, i)erhaps, a 
Imudred feet, and then drop into the water. At a distance 
they looked like little birds, but close at hand they were seen 
to be little fish about a foot long, with wings just like a black 

This sea is not always so gentle. In the monsoon season, 
from June to September, it is, perhaps, the roughest sailing 



fishes — able 
d dart about 
lightest fear 
) have a pas- 
T would leap 
• the bottom, 
;)or little fel- 

jht for Bom- 
we clear the 
ship we have 
on her long 
;ralian ships 
one of these 

Bombay was 
Avith the ex- 
izes kept the 
ited myriads 
preading out 
eart of crim- 
t across the 
?, perhaps, a 
\i a distance 
ey were seen 
> like a black 

isoon season, 
^hest sailing 



in the world, and the sailors and officers told us how in the 
last monsoon, the chief officer of the " Assam," one of the 
two steamers that sail between Aden and Bombay, was swept 
off the deck by a great wave, and never seen again. This, 
however, is the calm season and is unusually calm. 

All our stewards are Hindus, and the Post Office clerks 
also. Most of them speak English perfectly, and, but for 
their brown faces, you would take theni for Enghshmen. 
The crew are all Hindus, and it is a sight not to be forgotten 
to witness one of their meals. Last night we watched them 
at supper. A great tin pan of rice, about a yard in diameter, 
and holding at least five gallons of boiled rice, was brought 
by one of them to the forecastle deck, and then nine or ten of 
them squatted round it, k:;ving first all carefully washed their 


Then they began to squeeze the rice to make it s-^ft and 
sticky, any or all of them sticking in their hands at \, •.. re, 
until they had worked it up to the proper consistency. Then 
a little basin or pot was brought, containing some curry 
sauce, and this was poured over the rice, and again their 
hands were plunged in and the rice and curry mixed up until 
it had become properly colored and flavored. The process of 
eating then began, and each one, with his hands, plunged 
into the great dish until the dish was empty. Then he would 
look round at some other httle company, and, if there was 
another dish not yet finished, he might join that party. They 
were all squatted around these dishes, and looked not unlike 
a little pen of animals getting their rations in a trough. But 
they are gentle, inoffensive, quiet people, good servants, and 


T- ', :<'^;'^i^^^^^^^^^^mifm^^fmmmmm^mm^^$^^mmt^M4-^& s- 


like simple, happy children. They are rather timid, and 
bear in thoir faces and manners the marks of a subject race. 
We reached Bombay about ten o'clock on Saturday even- 
ing, February 25. The harbor is large and fine, and is guarded 
by bold, high shores. We had just got our baggage on the 
steam launch of the P. cSc O. Company, and were arranging 
to go to a hotel, when our good brother Fuller arrived, with 
a cordial welcome, and took us to a delightful Christian 
household, where we remained during our stay in Bombay, 
and met some lovely Christian friends. We remained in 
Bombay until Tuesday morning, and then left by train to 
visit our dear missionaries in Berar. We shall speak of them 
and our missionary work later. 

Our first act on stepping upon the shores of India was to 
get alone on the landing, and, while our friends were having 
our baggage attended to and securing a carriage, we just 
looked up into the skies and heavens, beyond the glorious 
stars, and claimed this place, on which the sole of our feet at 
length rested, for Christ and His gospel. 

And we believe that He gave us more than our eyes shall 
<^ver see at this time, for the evangelization of this wondrous 
land and mighty people,— the most open and interesting mis- 
sion field in the world, and the great inheritance and trust, 
not only of the British nation, but also of all the English- 
speaking people of the world. 

One of our first impressions of India was the noises of the 
night. The air was literally wild with the cries of innumer- 
able birds, especially crows, which were flying about all the 
night, lighting upon our window sills and impudently put- 

ther timid, and 
■ a subject race. 

I Saturday even- 

e, aud m guarded 

baggage on the 

were arranging 

er arrived, with 
;htful Christian 
5tay in Bombay, 
Ve remained in 
left by train to 

II speak of them 

of India was to 
ds were having 
rriage, we just 
ud the glorious 
le of our feet at 

II our eyes shall 
this wondrous 
nteresting mis- 
mce and trust, 
.11 the Enghsh- 

he noises of the 
3s of innumer- 
; about all the 
apudently put- 


ISM A 1 1. 1 A TO nOMBAY. 


ting their noses and their noises into everything. As the 
Hindu does not believe in killing anything lest he might haply 
kill his grandfather in some new form of transmigration, it is 
the paradise of birds, beasts and insects. 

Our next decided impression was made by the American 


mosquito who was here in force. Fortunately, if they do 
not kill him they fence him off, and so we got under our bar 
as speedily as possible, and stayed there till daylight cleared the 
air. Everybody in India keeps doors and windows open, and 
the word draught is unknown in this land. We found the 
nights cool and pleasant, and the days hot, but not nearly so 
hot as we expected at this season. 





Perhaps our next impression was the dress or rather un- 
dress of the people. The men und women of the lower cla^-ses 
dress ahout alike. The limhs are scarcely covered, one gar- 
ment being fastened around the loins, and anothrr usually- 
over the shoulders. 'J'he turban is always to bo seen on th- 

elaborate. The 

men, and is very 
women gracefully 
a corner of the loose 
the shoulders. These 
carry i tig great l)ur- 
their heads. i t 
almost to tears to 
among rough meii 
borers on the public- 
the mortar for the 
carriers. As we saw 
bodies trembling 
hods and babkets of 
we asked what wa- 
aud they told us : "In 
cents a day — in the 
And for this these 
day in the hot sun, 


throw over the head 
robe, that falls ovei- 
won)eu can be seen 
dens constantly on 
touched our heart 
see them engaged 
as the lowest la- 
buildiugs, carrying 
masons like on r hod 
their frail, half- dad 
under these gieat 
brick and mortar, 
ges they received, 
Bombay about eight 
country much less." 
women toiled all 
and went home to 

feed themselves and their children on a little lice and 
curry, and often this was a luxury they could not afford. 
We thanked God for what the Gospel had done for our 
Christian womea, and we longed that our redeemed sisters 
might be awakened to do more for the toiling and de- 


)r rather un- 
lower cla; >-(?s 
red, one g \r- 
>thf !• usufi'iy 

seen on th • 
rate. Th.> 
)ver the head 
lat fills ov.?i- 
L can be seen 
Dnstanily on 
i our heart 
urn engaged 
i lowest la- 
gs, cariying 
.like our hod 
ail, hah-; lad 
these gieat 
ind mortar, 
ey received, 
y ahout eight 
,^ much less." 
toiled all 
mt home to 
le rice and 

not afford, 
lone for our 
emed sisters 
ing and de- 









ISM. 1 1 I.I.I TO iio.un.iv. 


graded wonu'ii of India. Many of tlu'se toiling woni»ni woif 
young girls of liftwn to twenty, and many of th.-m nioth.-is 
with children. Think of then), girls and mothers of America ! 

The first sunrise we saw in India was upon (Jod's h(dy 
day. We found many friends waiting to welcome us to the 
vineyard, and we were only too glad to respond. We liad the 
privilege of preaching throe times on that day : at 11 A. M., 
and and 8 P. M. The first two services were in the Ameri- 
can Methodist Episcopal Churcli, where we found a large and 
earnest English congregation, consisting largely of Europeans 
in India, and English-speaking natives. The later services 
were held at the Sailor's Rest, where we found a nice com- 
pany of Scotch and Enghsh sailors, and we heheve that sev- 
eral precious souls were saved. 

The Superintendent of the Mission is our dear hrothei-, 
Mr. Madden, lately of New York, who, with his dear wife 
used often to attend our Tabernacle services in >'ew York, 
and called upon us there less than three years ago, to consult 
about entering upon foreign n)issionary work. We were 
glad to hear from many quarters that this work is most suc- 
cessful, and he is very highly esteemed among our Christian 
workers here, and beloved by the sailors. The Pastor of the 
M. E. Church, where we also preached, is a successful Amer- 
ican Pastor who has recently come to India from a western 
city, so that we feel a good deal at home in such congenial 
surroundings. The spirit of many of the workers was most 
earnest, simple, catholic and aggressive. This is one of the 
self-supporting churches founded by Bishop Taylor many 




years ago, and is, indeed, n mcmument to Iub zeal and wis- 
dom. It is a blessod cHUtie ol ii 'ly Christinn life and wurk. 
On Tlonday mui viwMr v, - It -d tlie pleuHuro of breakfasting 
witli M •. Dyer, jti iprietor of the BomUwj (fuanlinn, and 
meeting other diar friends there. He has been most kind to all 
our outgoing missionaries, and has usually given them a pub- 

1 ic wel- 


at his 
did not 
f o r g e t 
t o call 
at the 
f rit nd 
now in 

I^Iiss Helen Richardson, rind had the pleasure ol sc^eing two 
of her assistants and some of her work. One of them is 
Miss Carter, of Brooklyn. Miss Eid . rdson is laboring for the 
unfortunate girls of ludia, especi .11^ those who have been m- 
veigled into sin after coming from other lands, by bad men. Her 
work is a much-needcr. vne, and we :n-e sure h.r return wiU 
be the occasion for renewing it with fresh courage and power. 


•» zeal and wis- 
I life and work, 
of breakfasting 
(fuanlian, and 
most kind to all 
en them a pub- 
1 ic wel- 
c o m e 
a t his 



3 ot seeing two 
One of them is 
? laboring for the 
tio have been in- 
by bad men. Her 
3 her return will 
irageand power. 

In the evening we were invited to take part in the first 
public meeting of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
in Bombay, and it was a good and spirited meeting, and the 
work is beginning with a lot of live and loving women be- 
hind it. 

Most of 
Monday was 
spent, very 
busily, in 
Bombay, vis 
iting business 
offices. lo< ik- 
ing for our 
mail, finding 
about sa. ing 
«)f steamers, 
aul seeing a 
httle of this 
great an 
city a nd. 
We ^ 'iall not 

at this time, a, aii to describe it further than to say that 
Bombiiv is the commercial metropoHs of India, and the 
setond city in the British Empire. It is worthy of its high 
position, at least so far as appearance is concerned. It re- 
min<U one of what ancient Epn sus must have been. ae 
magnificent capital of the Orieni it is, indeed, a superb 





and 8i)lendi(l city with a iioimlation ftf wavXy a million, and a 
luxuriance of architeituie and vegetation worthy of the 
glorious East. A short visit to the magnificent market gave 
one an idea, that nothing ^'Ise could, of the wealth of natural 
resources which surrouml^ it. All the fruits of the northern 
zones were there, and nuiltitudes of varieties of tiopical 
flowers, plants, fruits, and vegetables which we cannot even 
take time to name. 

India is, iideed, a great and wondrous world. And her 
two hundred and eighty million souls are our great inheri- 
tance, and sacred trust. God is laying her intensely on our 
hearts, and we roll the burden on thousands of other hearts 
to whom God is waiting to give the greatest privilege and 
honor of the Ages, viz. , the -riving to her yet neglected mil- 
lions of the glorious invitation, perhaps for the last time, to 
the Marriage of the I.amb. 


Stars of the Southern heaveUB, 

I greet you in His name, 
Who hung your torches yonder 

And lit your glowing flame. 

Oft in the northern midnight 

I've seen Orion shine, 
The brightest constellation 

Of yonder arch divine. 

The silvery light of Slrius, 

The wond'rous Pleiades, 
The never-changing Pole star,— 

Oft have I gazed on these ; 



iiillion, at\(\ a 
>rthy of the 
imuket gave 
th of natural 
the northern 
8 of tropical 
cannot even 

Id. And her 
great inheri- 
snsely on our 
other hearts 
privilege and 
leglected niil- 
[3 last time, to 

iSMAiLiA TO r.o.\rnAy. 

But I have Iuok«<I to Mt<e thee, 
Pair Hoiithern (V«)hs, arlne ; 

Th« niystlo Hijfn of Jemis 
Engraven on the iikiea. 

Sliine on, thou wond'rou'i Hifjnal, 
Bright lianip from ht'avtMi above, 

Tell out o'pr «'arth and oncan 
The niymcry of HIh love. 

O'er Australaalan iMlands, 
Ami Afrln'H buininff saiiilM, 

O'er India's teeniinf^ nilllioiiH, 
And all the Christlesta landn ; — 

Tell how the Lord of Heaven 

Gave up His Son to die, 
Till men Hhall cat(di the nieaninf; 

Of Ciirist and 0*1 vary. 

The Church liaH lon>f nejflected 
'J'o make the uiehHa^e known ; 

But God haw huiij? thy Signal, 
To tlaHk It from the Throne. 

They say its stars are tinted 
Like Oalvary'H criuiHou hue ; 

The very heavens confesH Him 
Who died for me and you. 

The Southern Cross is hang^in^ 

Low in the Eastern sky ; 
I almost long to grasp it 

And lift it up on high. 

But there's a cross, () Master, 
That e'en our Imnds can bear, — 

We can lift up Thy gosiiel 
And tell it everywhere. 





Yon glorious constellation 

Ts slowly travelling on, 
And lo ! erect it standeth, 

Long ere the night is gone. 

Yes, and the Cross of Jesus 

Is rising evermore ; 
And soon its light and glory 

Will shine from shore to shore. 

Amid yon starry cluster 

Two Crosses I can see : 
One is the Cross of Jesus, 

And one— is left for me. 

One stands erect to Heaven ; 

'Tis His, who suffered there, 
And one is prostrate lying 

For us to take and bear. 

I lift Thy Cross, O Jesus, 

O'er every heath* n land ; 
And mine I take and carry 

At Thy divine command. 



■ *^ 

WE spent a delightful week with our missionaries 
in Berar, and had a season of much mutual 

The Province of Berar lies directly north of the Nizam's 
Dominions and the large District of Hyderabad. It begins 
about three hundred miles east of Bombay and extends about 
one hundred and seventy miles from east to west and one 
hundred and fifty from north to south. It contains a popu- 
lation of nearly three millions of people. 

It lies in a vast plain, and is bounded on the north by a 
long range of hills called the Sappuro Hills. It is one of the 
richest agricultural districts of India, and is especially noted 
as a cotton producing district. There are large cotton mar- 
kets all along the railway, and many cotton gins and presses 
with some cotton factories. During the American war a 
great impetus was given to this trade. The soil and climate 
seem especially adapted to it. 

It has very dense population, averaging in some districts 
two hundred and fifty to the square mile. Its principal cities 

are Amraoti, Akola, Ellichpur, and Bassim, but there are a 





great many towns of from five to ten thousand inhabitants, 
aiTd, at least, four thousand smaller towns and villages. 

It is not a district much visited by strangers and travel- 
lers, for it has no romantic scenery nor striking histoiic asso- 
ciations. And it has been strangely neglected y\ the occupa- 
tion of India by missionaries. For fifteen or t.venty years a 
few pioneers have been i)reparing the way : Mr. Ward at 
Ellichi)ur ; Miss Sisson, Miss Drake and Miss Wlieeler at 
Bassim ; and later, under her new name, Mrs. Moore with her 
good husband, Brother Moore, and our own dear Mr. and 
Mrs. Fuller at Ellichpm-, Akote and Akola. Much faithful 
work Avas done, much suft'ering endured, and nauch prayer 
stored up in heaven by these lone laborers, and at last the 
harvest has begun to appear. 

A few years ago Miss Bates and Miss Dawlly, from our 
own work, joined them at Akola, and, about the same time, 
Mr. Eogers from America began to found the Industrial 
School for the training of native boys in mechanical and 
skilled work. Miss Ca&e and Miss Walker followed about a 
year and a half ago. Gradually these links drew the older 
workers into closer contact with the Alliance, and the result 
was the consunmia^ion of a union which has led to the send- 
ing out of the four parties that have so rapidly followed each 
other during the ])ast six months, making an aggregate of 
forty-thr6e Alliance missioiiaries now on the field. 

To visit these beloved workers was one of the chief ob- 
jects of our journey to India. As soon, therefoi-e, as we could 
get off from Bombay, we were on our way to Berar, by the 


\ and travel- 
tiistoiic asso- 
I the occupa- 
enty years a 
Ii-. Ward at 
Wheeler at 
ore with her 
ear Mr. and 
^ucli faithful 
iiuch ])rayer 
[ at last the 

ily, from our 
i same time, 
le Industrial 
c'hanical and 
wed about a 
ew the older 
id the result 
to the send- 
oUowed each 
aggregate of 

;he chief ob- 
;, as we could 
Berar, by the 



great railway which leads through the Central Provinces from 
Bombay to Calcutta. We met the first section of our mis- 
sionary party at the mountain village of Igatpuri, sometime 
before we got to Berar. Here, at the summit of the western 
Ghauts— the literal "Gates" to the great central plain of 



India, —we found eight of our dear friends very pleasantly set- 
tled, and faithfully studying the hnguage ard getting ready 
for work. 

We need not say it was a joyful meeting, and we found 
them all exceedingly well and happy, and looking better than 



,i?i. :n^ 


ever. They had aheady made very fair progress with the 
language, and were carrying on a Uttle woi'k in the native 
village close by. One had given hei- first little message to the 
natives in Marathi the previous Sabbath, and they were all 
much encouraged. 

There are many Europeans and English-speaking natives 
at Igatpuri, which is a great railway centre, and we had the 
great pleasure of preaching in the evening to an excellent 
congregation in the Methodist Chapel, and pressing upon them 
the claims the heathen have upon the native Chiistians of 
India, When we got home we were glad to find a line young 
fellow who had been at the service, and was under deep con- 
viction of sin and wished to talk with us. He was a native 
and an employe of the railway. We had a blessed season of 
prayei', and thanked God for fruit from our first missionary 
meeting in India. He went away professing to give himself 
fully to the Lord, and promising to attend the meetings at the 
Mission Home. 

Igatpuri is only a temporary residence for our workers 
while studying. It is already occupied by other missionaries, 
but was an excellent place to receive, and, for a time, settle 
part of our large company, till they could be permanently lo- 
cated ; and it is a cool and delightful summer home, quite 
high, and, except in the rainy season, more pleasant than 
Berar. In the monsoons, ho\ ever, from June to September, 
the rainfall on all the mountains is enormous, reaching some- 
times several hundred inches in a single season. 

Taking both househo! '- along with us, to attend a Con- 


58 with the 

the native 

jsage to the 

ley were all 

:ing natives 
we had the 
,n excellent 
; upon them 
hiistians of 

tine young 
1" deep con- 
as a native 
i season of 

ive himself 
tings at the 

lur workers 
time, settle 
lanentiy lo- 
liome, quite 
;asant than 
Aing some- 
end a Con- 

's -Kfi 



A "Kndak" photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 



OUR WORK i.\\nr:R.iR. 


vention of all our workers, which had heen called for Thurs- 
day and Friday, March 2 and :;, we found most of the others 
there n our arrival the next afternoon, and we liad a very 
joyful welcome, and felt very much as if we had got home 
again to the old Tahernacle meetings. 

We had feared that the large parties of new mission- 
aries, who had come out in succession since last September, 
would greatly strain the accommodations our friends were 
able to count upon, and we hastened our journey in order to 
assist in getting our friends settled. But we found to our 
surprise that everything was already arranged in the most 
quiet and satisfactory manner, and every one was happy and 
contented. The Lord has very wonderfully aided our dear 
friends in this whole matter, and given His own wisdom and 
grace to the Snperintendent and all the missionaries in a very 
special manner, so that we found them not only thankful for 
all the people that had come, but glad to welcome still more, 
as soon as the way was clear to send them. 

We were met it the Akola depot by all the missionaries 
and most of the boys x t ' .le Mission. We found the approach 
to the city very imposing, the Enj, .ish quarters being hand- 
somely laid out with broad avenues and lines of handsome 
shade trees. It is a city of about tweuty-fr-'e thousand in- 
habitants, and consists of two tow„js, one European and the 
other native. It ic the capit-d of one o "' the five districts of 
Berar, and the residence of a number of English offit^ials. 
There is an English church aiad chaplaincy, and there are a 
number of handsome bungalows on the main avenue, where 



156 LARGER orr/.ooKs ox i\r/ss/oxARy lands. 


they live. The Mission bungalow is in the English quarter, 
and is a substantial building with a fine approach. 

There is also on the ground another excellent house, 



sh quarter, 
ent house, 







IIR Mt^KK IX lll.RAK. 


whit;h Miss I tuvs 11 .'rected fur thtMnpluinage work m (here. 
The two togethtM ;iccommodate about seventeen persons. 
ThiMi there are the girls' and the boys' Home on the same 
site, w'h<ro thtie an boitt fourteen girls and seventeen boys. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fuller live just at the edge of the native 
town, in a neat, simple bungalow, about half .1 mile from the 
mission promises. The Lord has been K»aciou 'v providing 
till., vahiuble property during the waiting y " '^^^ '"om- 

mencement of this great work, and we m ilow up 

with a faith and com-age worthy of what 1 'iie. 

Wo found Tuostof the party quite well s. Fuller had 

just a few weeks previously risen from h»>r i, and another 
nttle missionary had joined the family circle. It was, indeed, 
wonderful 1 ^ Ood had carried her through the double strain, 
and we nev her so bright, victorious and happy. It is 

enough to say Uiat Brother Fuller was '^as aforetime ■,"' and 
so we expect ever to find him till the Master comes. Two of 
the dear ones were unwell, but improving. 

On the following morning we gathered together at eight 
o'clock for the first Convention of the Christian Alliance in 
India. It was a season forever to be remembered by us all. 
As some of us looked back ten years in America to the begin- 
ning of the work there, and others to the lonely days of wait- 
ing in India, and saw this company of more than fifty work- 
ers gathered, in one spirit, in this field, there were feelings 
too deep and full for utterance. There were a few others 
present with us, besides our own missionaries, but all were of 
one heart to win Berar for Jesus. 

Our Bethshan friends from London have taken the city 
of EUichpur for a centre, and several of them were present. 

158 LARGER orrrooRs ox nr/ssroxARV /..txns. 

Mr. Moore, from Hassim, rpprosenting an independent work 
(•(•nnected with Dr. Cullis, was present with Pliihp, hisevau- 
gehst. The P'ree Metliodists luive also a mission at Yeotmal, 
in the south-west of the province, and their two missionaries 
were present. There is only one other mission in the prov- 
ince, and that is the Scotch Mission at Amraoti, hut they 
have no European missionaries there, and were not rt^pre- 
sented in the conference. We might truly say that all the 
foreign Avorkers in Berar were represented. Our dear sister, 
Miss Hattie Bruce, from the American Marathi Mission, was 
also present. 

It was a season of great spiritual blessing. It is enough 
to say that the mornings were spent in the study of the 
Scriptures and i)rayer, the afternoons in looking at the work 
and the field, and hearing reports from the workers, and the 
evenings in services of a moie general character, fitted to in- 
terest tlu' natives, many of whom attended. 

All the missionaries were heard from, and all had grown 
very much since we last saw them. The one sentence, "I 
am so glad I am in India, and I have not had a.i unhappy or 
lonely day since I lauded," came to be expected as the intro- 
duction to almost every testimony. Of course, very much in 
the way of work or results could not be expected in the short 
time they had been here, but it was wonderful how much 
they had accomplished. All had learned something of the 
language. Almost all had been at work, selling books in the 
bazaars, singing Marathi hymns, which most of them had 
already learned, and speaking in broken sentences or reading 

RM.. &m 


eiulcnt work 

lip, *iis ovan- 

at Yeotmal, 


in the [)rov- 

)ti, but they 

e not repre- 

that all the 

f dear sister, 

Mission, was 

It is enough 
tudy of the 
at the work 
ers, and the 
, fitted toin- 

11 had grown 
entence, "I 

unhappy or 
IS the intro- 
ery much in 

in the short 
1 how much 
thing of the 
books in the 
)f them liad 
)8 or reading 

i g;?g!tS»" ' %isi fi! ^<.fifj!^? ^ 








■50 "^ HMl 

Bi 12.2 





11.25 11.4 11.6 





WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 










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Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de k.iicroreproductions historiques 
















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simple texts in the language. Some of them had most inter- 
esting reports to make of how God used their hroken efforts, 
and how some precious souls had already been won. Of 
course these results have to be proved, but one could not fail 
to see how mightily God had indeed, already been working 
and using the weak and foolish things to confound the wise 
and mighty. There are several remarkable testimonies of 
God's healing, especially among the native children, some of 
them very clear and striking. 

One of the greatest privileges we had was the opportu- 
nity of speaking to the educated natives. We received a very 
courteous invitation from a number of influential Hindus, in- 
cluding lawyers, physicians and public officials, all able to 
underst.*. ' English, requesting us to lecture to them in the 
Public Library. This we gladly consented to do on Saturday 
evening, March 4th. There was a violent storm at the time, 
which prevented some from coming, but the hall was full, 
and after we had answered a few questions about education 
in America, ar he Ik^uor traffic, on both of which we 
had to speak with oii me, we frankly talked to these gentle- 
men about Jesus. We took as our theme the cry of the 
Greeks : " Sir, we would see Jesus," and we endeavored, in 
the power of the Spirit, to tell these men of a crucified and a 
living Christ. As we looked into those noble faces, our heart 
was filled with love, and "we were willing to impart to them 
not only the gospel of Christ, but our own souls also." We 
believe many were touched and blessed, and one of the lead- 
ing gentlemen afterward sought a personal interview with 

I ': 


There are great difficulties in the way of these men ; but 
God is working on their hearts, and when they break down, 
there will be a great break. We can now understand how 
Mr. Pentecost and Mr. Varley have been able to preach to 
large audiences of them for weeks in Poona, Madras and 
other places. We could wish for no higher joy, for a time at 
least, than to be able to spend six months among them tell- 
ing them of the hving Christ. The lives of our missionaries 
among them during the past ten years, here in Akola, have 
made a profound impression upon them, and, at the close of 
our address the other night, the Chairman let out the secret 
by saying that a religion which could produce such lives 
could not be a had religion. 

On Sabbath afternoon we saw the great weekly bazaar 
in the public market. There must have been, at least, ten 
thousand people present from all the country round, selhng 
their various wares, in all the costumes you could miagine. 
This is the time our missionaries got out to work among 
them. It was an interesting sight to see Brother Fuller, 
Brother Phihps and a lot of our missionaries, standing in the 
centre of a great crowd, and preaching to them in Marathi 
with an animation not usual in English, and, as one and 
another would reply from the crowd, the missionary would 
turn the tables on the questioner until he was glad to retire. 
The faces of the people showed deep interest, and the audi- 
ence lasted as long as the speaker had strength to speak. 
Betwoen the addresses the stirring Marathi hymns would be 
sung to their beautiful melodies, and the people seemed 
always glad to hear them. 


ese men ; but 
y break down, 
derstand how- 
to preach to 
Madras and 
, for a time at 
ig them tell- 
1 Akola, have 
t the close of 
ut the secret 
ce such lives 

i^eekly bazaar 
, at least, ten 
:ounfl, selling 
•uld imagine, 
work among 
other Fuller, 
anding in the 
n in Marathi 
, as one and 
ionary would 
lad to retire, 
and the audi- 
th to speak, 
ins would be 
(ople seemed 

A "Kodak " photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 



This delightful Convention closed with a conununion ser- 
vice on Sabbath afternoon, and an anointing service on Sab- 
bath night, in which the spirit of the old Tabernacle meetings 
seemed to fall upon all ; and at length we parted in the very 
fullness, joy and victory in the Holy Ghost. We need not 
add that the children were as happy as any other members of 
the party, and little Georgie Fuller is one of the best gospel 
singers and preachers in Marathi that go to the bazaars. 

On Monday we started with Mr. Fuller to visit the vari- 
ous towns of Berar, partly to see our missionaries in theix* 
homes, and partly to look over new fields, with a view to the 
placing of other missionaries. In most of these towns we 
have found a number of people who can speak English, and 
have had several pleasant and profitable services in English. 
Among others, we visited the capital of the province, Am- 
raoti, a fine city of thirty thousand inhabitants, and found it 
without a single English missionary. It is a very interesting 
place. There are many English officials at the camp, about 
two miles outside the town, and an English chaplaincy with 
a native pastor of a little branch of the Free Church of Scot- 
land ; but in the heathen city of Amraoti itself there is no 
English or American missionary. 

We got a tonga and irse to drive around the city, and 
we had a most interesting t me. It would have been a fine 
subiect for a sketch to see us two missionaries on that cart, 
trying t(» go forward and see the town, and in front of us 
the native driver, and a wicked little horse that would only 
go in one direction, and that was backward. Sometimes the 



driver would beat him, but it only mad«! him go a little faster 
the wrong way. Sometimes he would pet and pat him on 
the back, l)ut it only made him stop and refuse to go at all. 
Sometimes Mr. Fuller would assist by poking him vigorously 
with his umbrella, but it made no impression— except on the 
umbrella. Sometimes the driver would get in front and pull 
liim along by main strength, and sometimes he would get 
behind and push the cart and horse forward in spite of his 
resistance, until we were reminded of the man that ciarried 
his horse to town. 

Sometimes the pony would vary the performance by 
kicking backward with all his might, but fortunately the 
bottom of the cait was iron. Occasionally he would take a 
notion and go a little way, but he always stopped when he 
came t<» a temple, and insisted on going exactly contrary to 
the way the driver wanted him. The street boys laughed at 
us, and we laughed at oui-selves until we were tired. Finally, 
when he had backed us arouna for about two hours, we 
liappily came upon another driver, and gave ours up amid 
the i)rotestations of the driver that he would be all right 
now, and took the other. As we drove out to the camp with 
the second pony, which was an excellent one, our former 
driver followed us and passed us at a springing i)ace, to let 
us see that his horse was all right. And so indeed he was. 
It must have been his dislike for missionaries, or perhaps the 
low price at which his master was carrying ns. Two can 
ride nearly a whole day for two rupees or about sixty cents. 
We got more than the worth of our money in a real honest 


go a little faster 
md pat him on 
use to go at all. 
him vigorously 
— except on the 
1 front and pull 
s ho would get 
d in spite of his 
an that carried 

)erformance hy 
fortunately the 
e would take a 
opped when he 
ctly contrary to 
)oyp laughed at 
tired. Finally, 
two hours, we 
) ours up amid 
lid he all right 
) the camp with 
me, our former 
ing jjace, to let 
indeed he was. 
, or perhaps the 
I \i8. Two can 
ut sixty cents. 
a a real honest 



laugh, and would have given a good deal for a photograph 

of the scene. 

Wo witnf'sned in one of the great temples of Amraoti no 

A "Kodak '• photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 

less than four child marriages. In one of these the bride 
was about eight and the groom twelve. Both were very 
handsome. The pecuUarity of the ceremony was the tymg 

mn^ ' im n mmvmmmK^mmam^mmmmm mm- ' Ami^m-iw mi^^ 


ot their robt's toKetlior in a knot, and then the Hinearin^ of 
a yellow and crimson powder over both of tlienj. Tlic rest 
of the ceremony was inside the sacred portion of the temple, 
which we wero not permitted to ' ter. Poor, little, pretty 
thing ! if she sbonld become a w idow how sad her fate 
wonld be, and there are millions of such widows in India. 

We trust ere long this fine old city will be the scene of a 
gladder sjjectacle, and that many a littl« one shall be wedded, 
within its walls, to that husband who will never cause her 
heart a sorrow. We trust that it will be opened as a mission 
station of the Alliance before the close of the year. 

We found some Christian people here. The presence of 
English-speaking people and C hristian natives in so many of 
the cities of India is a wonderful preparation for the Gospel, 
giving a nucleus for the work in each place, and not unlike 
the little companies of Jews the apostles found wherever 
they went. Then there are excellent roads, and, in most 
cases, fair houses can be obtained. Besides, there is a 
strong English government, affording the best protection to 
life and property. In most towns there is a public inn at the 
depot, maintained by the government, where the traveller 
can get comfortable shelter. 

The roads are superb, and the best of public conveyances 
can almost always be obtained, and a little money will go a 
great way. Railway travelling is very cheap. Money is 
worth more than twice as much as in America. A coin, the 
sixth part of a cent, will buy a good deal. And a rupee, 
thirty cents, is pmctically woith nearly a dollar. Roast beef 


iteififtnr •f-t^lWInfiili 

^ liiii^giSliiii^ 

le 8mearing of 
lem. The rest 
of tho toiuple, 
r, littlo, pretty 

sad luM- fate 
WH ill India, 
the scene of a 
lall be wedded, 
3ver cause lier 
id as a mission 

lie presence of 
in so many of 
'or the Gospel, 
nd not imlike 
>und wherever 

and, in most 
;s, there is a 
fc protection to 
iblic inn at the 
3 the traveller 

ic conveyances 
oney will go a 
ip. Money is 
. A coin, the 
And a rupee, 
r. Roast beef 

Oth' IIOA'A' /X /.'AV./A'. 


costs three cents a pound, and oranges much superior to ours 
half a cent apiece. 

The land is most wondrously prepared for the gospel. It 
is lying at our feet, for us to go in and occupy it, and it will 
be an everlasting shame if all its villages and hamlets are 

V^^ WTfi 


not taken possession (»f foi- Christ by the end of the nine- 
teenth century. 

And yet what have we done ? Let this one province of 
Berar speak for others. Until six months ago, out of twelve 
great counties in the district which we have taken as our field, 
containing a population of about two million v^^pl©* ^J^^ ^^ 


least twenty-five thousand villages, only one city had been 
permanently occupied by any English missionary. For 
nearly two hundred miles you pass along the great railway 
line between Bombay and Calcutta, from Bhusawal almost to 
Nagpur, through scores of cities which are great cotton 
marts ; cities that are in the centre of dense populations ; 
cities that iiave English officials and residents, and every ac- 
companiment of modern civilization, and yet in all this great 
stretch of country, until six months ago, there was but one 
city, Akola, which had a single voice to tell of Jesus. 

God has laid this great land, out for us, and crossed and 
recrossed it with a thousand open ways. We have scarcely 
begun to occupy it yet. Our present force will be distributed 
along one hundred miles of this railway line by the end of 
I his year ; but it will still take thousands to occupy the rest 
of India even as )nuch as this, with a station every ^wenfcy- 
five or fifty miles. 

We do thank God for the glorious beginning we have 
seen. In eveiy way it far exceeds our expectations. But, 
in eveiy way, the need that still remains as far exceeds our 
highest conception hitherto. Let us send a thousand mis- 
sionaries to India in the next five years. 



city had been 
issionary. For 
e gieat railway 
sawal almost to 
e great cotton 
ie populations ; 
i, and every ac- 
in all this great 
■re was but one 
I Jesus. 

ind crossed and 
) have scarcely 
1 be distributed 
e by the end of 
)ccupy the rest 

every ^wenty- 

inning we have 

ctations. But, 

'ar exceeds our 

thousand mis- 



TWO more days were spent in visiting our stations west 
of Akola. Wednesday we went to Khamgaon, a 
beautiful town of about ir>,0(M) inhabitants, lying a 
few miles south of the main i-ailway line, and reached by a 
little branch line. 

We have seen few mission fields in India as accessible by 
railway as the Berar country. It is easily reached from Bom- 
bay by missionaries on their arrival, and almost all our prin- 
cipal stations are on the great trunk line of railway which 
runs from Bombay to Calcutta, and has several trains daily. 
And even towns like Amraoti and Khamgaon that lie off the 
main line are reached by branches. After one has travelled 
over land in a cart fifty or a hundred miles, as many of our 
missionaries have to, to reach their field, they fully appreciate 
this advantage. 

Khamgaon is among the prettiest of the Berar towns. Its 
people are of the better class, its streets are cl«^au, its stores and 
bazaars have quite a city look, and everybody seems to have 
a certain amount cf leisme, and to be in easy circum- 





We drove about the town in the afternoon in the bullock 
cart, and visited the Public School and High School, and had 
a very interesting talk with the principal and several of the 
teachers, one of whom is the pundit or teacher of some of 
oui missionaries in the study of the language. We found 
thoni very friendly, and willing to talk freely. They are 
Brahmins, representing the highest caste. But they did not 
hesitate to say to us : " The caste superstition is dying out," 
and when we called their attention to the remark, they did 
not try to explain it aAvay, but repeated the same remark a 
little later. 

In the evening we had a meeting in the Educational 
Hall, attended by a considerable number of the educated 
natives. There were over sixty present, with a few Euro- 
peans. \>'e spoke, with great freedom, of the power of the 
gospel, and pressed it home upon their consciences and hearts 
in the consciousness of the Holy Spirit's power and working. 
We saw much of the same feeling here that we have already 
refened to at Akola, a very frank and open spirit and a dis- 
position to listen to the gospel with interest and fairness. 
Many of them seem to be under deep conviction, but none 
have as yet broken through in full decision for God. It will 
cost them nuich to do this, for behind them lies not only the 
awful bond of caste and the certainty of being henceforth out- 
casts from all they love, but also a network of sin and wrong 
which it would w^reck every earthly prospect to confess, and 
take all they possess to rectify. 



in the bullock 
;hool, and had 
several of the 
er of some of 
B. We found 
ly. They are 
t they did not 
is dying out," 
lark, they did 
ime remark a 

e Educational 
the educated 
a few Euro- 
power of the 
ces and hearts 
and working. 
e have already 
lit and a dis- 
and fairness, 
ion, but none 
• God. It will 
5 not only the 
enceforth out- 
sin and wrong 
J confess, and 



The nucleus of tlie future chui-ch at Khamgaon, at pres- 
ent, consists of two native Christians, — Lakshan and Sarah — 
a husband and wife, the family servants of the Missionary 
Home. It was very interesting to sit down at night and hear 
from them the story of their conversion, and commend them, 
and all that shall yet be gathered with them, to the blessing of 

A ' ' Kodak ' ' photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 

the great Shepherd, who already knows them all by name 

before they are born. 

» The next morning we left early, in Miss Bates' bullock 




cart, for Shegaon, eleven miles distant. On our way we 
passed the grave of Mr. Scott, a faithful missionary, who 
came out in connection with the work of Dr. Cullis, and laid 
down his life for Jesus here, eight years ago. We love to 
recognize the worth of those who have gone before, and to 
believe that much of the blessing, that is now coming upon 
this fair city, is in answer to the dying prayers of this servant 
of God and othei*s who have labored here before. 

We have a beautiful missionary home circle at Kham- 
gaon, and could oiu- friends at home look for a few moments 
at the sweet picture that met our eye in the bungalow, with 
dear Carrie Bates in the midst of the little household, they 
would not think it such a melancholy thing to be a. mission- 

They all accompanied us to Shegaon, and theirs were 
among the last faces we saw as we left Berar. God bless the 
little flock at Khamgaon ! 

We found the friends at Shegaon waiting to receive us. 
We all had breakfast together and found the little bungaloAV 
fairly comfortable, but not quite so suitable as some of the 
others. It was the very best that could be obtained under 
the circumstances, and Mr. Fuller was only too glad to get it 
in the pressure of the large arrival of missionaries. But the 
house is too far from the native village, and not suitable for 
the permanent Missionary Home. It will be difficult to ob- 
tain a good house here, and if oui work is to be continued in 
this important centre we shall have to build them a little 
Home. After breakfast we went out and saw the town and 


■ yj t J ■ 'j W W WB M l W g J 


our way we 



lUis, and laid 
We love to 
)efoie, and to 
coming upon 
•f this servant 

:\e at Khara- 
few moments 
ngalow, with 
usehold, they 
be a missiou- 

1 theii's were 
God bless the 

to receive us. 
ttle bungalow 
1 some of the 
)tained under 
glad to get it 
•ies. But the 
t suitable for 
ifflcult to »jb- 
} continued in 
them a little 
;he town and 





the site that had been suggested for a Home, and by faith we 
took possession of it. 

Shegaon is an important city on the G. I. P. Railway, the 
principal railway in India. It is about forty miles west of 
Akola, and an important cotton market. We visited an im- 
mense cotton press here that gives employment to a large 
number of people. It is a County Seat, and is the centre of 
about one hundred and fifty thousand people, who must re- 
ceive the gospel from this centre. 

Our friends will see that we have already our mission- 
aries stationed at four important centres in Berar, viz., Akola 
in the centre, Badnera in the east, and Khamgaon and She- 
gaon in the west. Besides these there are seveial other im- 
portant County Seats where we hope to have stations planted 
before the close of the year, and Mr. Fuller is already arrang- 
ing for buildings. 

If these points can be occupied during the present year, 
the province of Berar will be as fully occupied by missionary 
centres as any district of India, and the gospel may be 
preached to all its people before the end of the century. 
But, after this is done, there is still a long chain of cities on 
the same railway for one hundred miles west of Berar, unoccu- 
pied. These are all Marathi people, speaking the same lan- 
guage as the people of Berar. The total Marathi population 
of India is not less than 15,000,000, and it is doubtful if one- 
half of them are yet within reach of the gospel. 

There is a great Marathi population in Khandesh and the 
western part of the Nizam's Dominions, which can be easily 




reached from our present centres in Berar, and there is an 
equally large population in the northern and north-eastern 
]»art of this Dominion, where there are yet no missionaries, 
speaking partly Marathi and partly Telugu, and these can be 
reached from our eastern Berar stations, so that we have yet 
room in connection with the Berar Mission to send out at 
least one hundred more missionaries before this field can be 
even fairly occupied in its great centre of population. With 
this force we can reach about eight millions of people who 
are still without the gospel. 

We finally left our friends in Berar on Thursday, March 
9th, just twelve days after landing in India. It was a little 
like leaving home as we looked into their dear faces once 
more, and thought of the years till we should meet again. 
We were so glad they were all photographed on our heart 
and His. We almost envied our brother Fuller — with that 
blessed company. Accompanied by Mr. Fuller, who has 
kindly given us his precious time for a fortnight, to look over 
the larger field in the interests of our common work, we 
started again on our journey. 

Indian railways are not like American. There are no 
sleeping cars, and a continuous journey of two or three 
weeks is not a perfect luxuiy. You take your travelling rug 
and pillow with you and just lie down at night on your seat, 
if there is room, and the car is not too crowded. Every two 
or three days you can stop over somewhere long enough to 
get a good bath, and you feel that whatever water is in other 
countries it is a necessity of life in India. 





1 there is an 
these can be 
we have yet 
send out at 
I field can be 
ition. Witli 
people who 

•sday, March 
t was a little 
ir faces once 
meet again, 
)n our heart 
r — with that 
jr, who has 
, to look over 
)n work, we 

rhere are no 
wo or three 
ravelling rug 
)n your seat. 
Every two 
g enough to 
er is in other 



The first i)oint we desired to reach was Nellore, the head- 
quarters of the Telugu mission of the American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union. This is the wonderful work whi.h (Jod has 
so greatly honored in the past ten years by the ingathering 
of tens of thousands of souls from among the heathen. 

Our journey took us through Ahmednagar, the seat of 


the American Marathi Mission, and a portion of the Nizam's 
Dominions. As we approached the east coast we found quite 
a different climate and country. While Berar was almost in 
midsummer and all the fields were withered and the crops 
harvested, the country near Madras was yet in much of the 
freshness of spring — the jewaree and rice were wiving in the 
rich, green fields, and the country was in many places very 




lovely. The eastern rains come later than the western, and 
the vegetation is two months later. 

Nellore, the seat of the Telugu jnission, is a district 
ahout as large as Berar, lying north of Madras, on the coast. 
The Telugu people are a Dravidian race numbering about as 
many as the Marathi—1 0,000,000 people. 

The student of Indian missions should understand the 
languages of India or he will never be able to iniderstand its 
mission work. In the north and west of India there are 
seven great Aryan languages ; viz., the Hindi spoken by one 
hundred million, the Bengali by about eighteen millions, the 
Punjaubi by twelve millions, the Marathi by fifteen millions, 
the Sindi by about three millions, the Oria by five millions, 
and the Gujerati by about six millions of people. 

In Southern India there are four principal languages be- 
longing to the Dravidian people, an inferior race, who were 
pushed south by their Aryan conquerors. These are : the 
Telugu, spoken by sixteen millions in eastern India, near 
Madras ; the Tamil, spoken by twelve millions, on the south- 
east coast, below Madras ; the Cannerese, spoken by seven 
millions, in Mysore chiefly ; and the Malayallin, spoken by 
about three millions of the people of south-western India. 

Our work is among the Marathi people, and the Baptist 
work among the Telugus. The mission was planted in 
Nellore, about fifty years ago, by Drs. Jewett, Day and other 
pioneers. But for a long while it seemed so fruitless that 
the Board was again and again on the eve of abandoning it, 
and many a prayer went up to the Throne, and many a tender 

western, and 

is a district 
on the coast, 
•ing about as 

iderstand the 
nderstand its 
dia there are 
poken by one 
I millions, the 
teen millions, 
five millions, 

languages he- 
.ce, who were 
hese are : the 
a India, near 
on the south- 
icen by seven 
n, spoken by 
tern India, 
d the Baptist 
s planted in 
Day and other 
fruitless that 
bandoning it, 
nany a tender 

A "Kodak " photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 





appeal for tlie "Lone Star Mission," as it was called. At 
length the showers of blessing began to fall, and in the last 
twenty y«'ars more than thirty thonsand have been baptized 
and gathered into the various churches in and around Nell- 
ore, Ongole, etc. We need not say that it has been a great 
joy and blessing to us to visit this blessed work, even for a 
single Sabbath. 

We reached Xellore at noon on Saturday, March 1 I , and, 
after a kind welcome from the dear missionaries there, and 
a visit to the various homes and schools, we determined to 
go out, if possible, to Ongole for the Sabbath ; and if not, at 
least to Rampatam the seat of their Theological Seminary. 

Our journey was quite a romantic one, and a very labo- 
rious one. Ongole was seventy-three miles distant, and 
there was no railway or even mail-coach. Horses could not 
be obtained anywhere, and bullocks would take days for the 
journey. So we accepted the advice of the missionaries, and 
took not a mail coach, but literally a mule coach ; that is to 
say, we engaged a dozen Hindus, called Coolies, aiid two ox- 
carts, and our Coolie boys just harnessed themselves to the 
carts and started off at a springing pace. After running ten 
miles they would stop on the road and shout awhile at a 
country village until a dozen new Coolies gathered, and these 
were engaged as. a fresh team for the next stage, and the 
others walked back. We gave each of them about a cent a 
mile, and they considered it good pay. The carts were 
pretty rough, and had no springs nor seats ; we just lay 
down on the bottom on the straw covered with a mat and a 
rug, and were pretty well shaken up by morning. 

1 I 

BPi^ l Myj.r''Wipi|R44J:-#}:v;J:-%|l#li^^ 



And so we started off, Mi- Fuller ui one cart and we in 
the other, and our ("ot)lit' bos: inad<! the air rinj? with their 
noisy cries as they dashed away. We started at 4 P.M., and 
♦ill sunset the road led through a lovely country, green with 
rice fields, and lined with noble pahns and banyarjs. The 
sun went down, and still we rattle<l on, hour aftei" hour, un- 
til at 4 A.M., after twelve hours' riding, we cmiH to a 

We could not get fresh Coolies for sou.e hmirs, and so, 
finding that we could not reach < )ngo)«' until too late for the 
Sabbath morning service, and that vve, would nearly lose our 
day, we felt the Lord would have us stay at Rainpatani, 
where wo then were. So we turned our Coolies up the lane 
that led to the Mission, and were soon inside the beautiful 
Mission Compound, and welcomed by Di-. Bog^s and his kind 
wife, at that early morning hour, as if we lad been old 

We had a most delightful day, and learn erl almost as 
much of the Telugu work as if we had got to Ongole. 

We attended the native service in tlv morning, and heard 
them sing their weird Telugu hymns. At the close of the 
morning service Dr. Boggs announced that we would preach 
in the evening through an interpreter, and he said a few 
kind words about our work and our dependence upon the 
Holy Ghost, and begged them to come prepared to receive a 
great blessing. 

This seemed to +ouch a deep spring in their hearts, for just 
after service one oi Tin r. rive Christians, one of their most 



cart niul wo in 
rinjjC with theii' 
at 4 P.M., and 
try, greon witli 
banyans. Tlic 
aftoi- lu)ur, iin- 
we camH to a 

> hmtrs, and bo, 
;oo late for tlie 
nearly lose our 
at Ram pa tarn, 
ies up the lane 
e the beautiful 
;gs and his kind 
e »ad been old 

vn&\ almost as 

■uing, and lieurd 
he close of the 
e would preach 
he said a few 
[lence upon the 
•ed to receive a 

'hearts, for just 
e of their most 



JiiWM*- i^M i ta t maMi 111 * 11 I B ji ,j l u iii 

A " Kodak " photograph taken >y Mr. Simpson. 

earnest teachers and also physician nd one of their leading 
men, came over to the bungalow, and, with a face streaming 
with tears, and a look we shall neve forget, asked us all to 
pray for him that he might receive i e baptism of the Holy- 
Ghost. Never shall we forget that fa e and the cry that fol- 




lowed, as, with liis face on the floor, he begged God to give 
liim His greatest gift. We spoke a few words and pointed 
him to the precious promises in the beginning of Isaiah xliv., 
and he went away comforted. '"* 

We found that a most remarkable movement had just 
broken out in this Mission, from which greater results are 
lioped than even the revival of the past ten years. It seems 
that the more earnest missionaries have been feeling very anx- 
ious for some time lest the work among great masses of their 
people should prove shallow and wholesale. There has been 
much j:>rayer for a deeper Christian life among the people, 
and especially the preachers. God has begun to answer the 
prayer in a very strange way. A few months ago one of their 
most prominent native preachers,— indeed, the man most 
honored and trusted for piety and abiUty,— publicly confessed 
to many things in liis life since becoming a Christian, that 
deeply touched the whole Mission, and then with deep humil- 
ity he asked God's mercy, and gave himself n.p for a deeper 
consecration, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Since then 
he has been used of God to lead many of their people into a 
similar experience, and the mission is going through a blessed 
breaking uj) that would alarm many if they did not under- 
stand God's way of convincing His own people of sin that He 
may wholly sanctify them. 

For ourselves we cannot but regard this as a most hope- 
ful divine movement, intended to teach both missionaries and 
people the absolute need of a deeper work of grace, if the 
converts are to retain even their first blessing. The coming 


"^y LANDS. 

;ged God to give 
/ords and jwinted 
igof Isaiaii xliv,, 

vement had just 
eater results are 
years. It seems 
feeling very anx- 
it masses of their 
There has been 
long the people, 
m to answer the 
s ago one of their 
[, the man most 
)ublicly confessed 
a Christian, that 
with deep humil- 
iip for a deeper 
pirit. Since then 
eir people into a 
;hrough a blessed 
y did not under- 
)le of sin that He 

i as a most hope- 
missionaries and 
: of grace, if the 
ig. The coming 

<M»BiaW H I .IWLk ! lJ* S> ' l ! gl f5a LJi gM 



of this dear physician to us was just in this line. In the 
evening service we tried to speak to these dear people through 
the voice of Dr. Boggs. and although we felt the awkward- 
ness of not being able to touch them directly in their own 
tongue, yet we believe there was much blessing, and at the 
close every hand was raised to ask and receive this blessing, 
and Di-. Boggs announced a continuance of the services on 
Monday evening. We left them claiming a gi-eat outpouring 
of the Holy Ghost upon these people. 

We had a blessed English sei-vice afterwards with the 
missionaries, and all our hearts together received a great 
uplift. Many precious hours were spent during tb;* «iay in 
blessed converse with these dear servants of Christ, whose 
spirit was more tender, humble and full of holy unction than 
we have often met, and we learned much respecting the work 
of God among the Telugus, and the yet unoccupied regions 
where they are scattered. 

We left at 10 P. M. for the return journey, and reached 
Nellore in twelve hours, and found our dear missionary 
friends waiting breakfast for us. After breakfast, most of 
the members of the Nellore Church were gathered in the 
church to hold a service for us here. We both spoke to these 
dear people through an interpreter, and then theii- native 
pastor asked them if they had any message to send back to 
America. Never shall we forget the dignity and the tender- 
ness with which Julia, one of the oldest converts of the mis- 
sion, arose and said : 

"I want to thank the dear friends that have spoken to 




US to-day, and to ask them to thank the dear friends in Amer- 
ica that have sent us the gospel which has saved us from oin* 
heathen idolatry, and brought us cleansing through the pre- 
cious blood of Jesus, of which we have heard to-day. I was 
one of the first converts of the Mission and know of the 
labors of Mi\ Jewett, Mr. Day and others, who stood firmly 


by us and urged the Board to stand by us in the discouraging^ 
days when they were tempted sorely to give it up. Remem- 
ber us to all the friends in America, and ask them to do all in 
their power to send the gospel to our perishing people." 

This is a little of what Julia said, and said in as good 
grammar as we have used and almost in these very words. 
But no words could express the fervor and earnestness with. 




ids in Amer- 
us from our 
jgh the pre- 
■day. I was 
enow of the 
stood firmly 

■ i«0 

ip, Eemem- 
m to do all in 
id in as good 
3 very words. 
lestness with 




which she stood there and spoke for the 30,000 Telugus that 
have given their hearts to Christ in the past twenty years. 
We can give our readers no better idea of it than by reminding 
them of one of good Mrs. Bruce's testimonies in the Taber- 
nacle at some of the Friday meetings. She was followed by 
he»- husband, also an old convert of the Mission, and his re- 
marks were most dignified, sensible and earnest. Could our 
friends in Am- 
erica have seen 
these dear peo- 
ple, they would 
have felt re- 
paid for even 
years of wait- 
ing and work- 
ing for mis- 

The native 
pastor also 

spoke very well and told us that he was now entirely sus- 
tained by his own church. His native membership exceeds 
seven hundred. One can scarcely realize the joy with which 
we grasped the hands of these dark-skinned Telugus, and 
saw in them the types of the precious ones we yet expect to 
greet from our own work in Berar and elsewhere, "if we 
faint not." 

Among our pleasant surprises at Nellore was our meet- 
ing with Seetama, a dear Hindu woman whom we had met 




in New York in the Tabernacle a few months ago, and who, 
while studying in America, had often come to our church. 
It seemed like home to see the "Alliance" on her table, 
and we were delighted to learn that she is the wife of Veras- 
wamy, the native preacher whom God is using so graciously 
in deepening the spiritual life of the Telugus. 

We left Nellore in the afternoon and reached Madras 
early the next morning. We found ourselves in a grand 
Oriental City, nine miles long, and containing a popxilation 
nearly as great as Bombay. It has a much more Oriental 
look than Bombay. It is widely spread out over a vast 

We had occasion to make some purchases and went to 
two or three of the largest stores. As we drove in at the 
splendid gateway we found ourselves in a magnificent com- 
pound like the grounds of a villa ; and back from the streets, 
like an elegant mansion, stood the store, a vast establishment 
like Arnold's or Macy's inside, but outside just hke some 
aristocratic residence and grounds. The Elphinstone Hotel, 
where we stayed, was like an old paliace with an appearance 
of faded grandeur. The residences of the wealthy Europeans 
are usually very pretty bungalows, with large verandahs 
surrounded by rich and luxuriant grounds full of magnificent 
tropical trees and plants. The colors of the houses are gen- 
erally quite rich— pink, blue and white, with much decora- 
tion. The Hindu quarters have all the squalor of other India 
cities. The streets are picturesque with all colors of dress 
and all kinds of people. 



igo, and who, 
) our church, 
on her table, 
wife of Veras- 
8o graciously 

ached Madras 
js in a grand 
a population 
more Oriental 
t over a vast 

s and went to 
ove in at the 
;nificent coni- 
m the streets, 
ust like some 
nstone Hotel, 
m appearance 
thy Europeans 
'ge verandahs 
)f magnificent 
3uses are gen- 
much decora- 
of other India 
olors of dress 



The women of eastern India are much less dressed than 
in the west ; but they make up for it by brilliant colors, 
usually wearing a bright red scarf, loosely thrown over one 
shoulder and gathered closely round the loins and reaching 
to the knees. The women of the western and central provinces 
carry their robe over the entire body and throw it, also, very 


gracefully over the head. The eastern people are nuich 
darker than the western, but they have the same European 
features, and the children are all beautiful. 

Here in Madras we saw, for the first time, the Coolies 
drawing the ox-carts in the streets, and acting instead of 
oxen or draught horset; in canying most of the freight and 
merchandise through the city. It seems so strange to see 



men, barefooted and almost naked, drawing a great cart filled 
with bales of goods, perhaps a ton in weight, along the 

Prices are extremely low. For a few shillings we got a 
carriage for a whole day and 8a^■■ a great deal of the city. 
There are fine gardens and an excellent museum, containing 
specimens of the animal and vegetable life of the whole coun- 
try, and especially of Southern India, and also many inter- 
esting works of art from the ancient temples. There was a 
tremendous tiger, and one could well believe that the strong- 
est lion is a plaything before his superior strength. These 
lordly and dangerous brutes are still sometimes met with, 
even by our missionaries, in the hills, and we have heard 
already some personal testimonies from missionaries here, of 
their providential escapes. There were endless varieties of 
monkeys and other animals, and plants and trees in great 

One of the most touching sights of the day was a drive 
to the place of burning, where the Hindus cremate the bod- 
ies of their dead. It is a great cemetery, where we saw pile 
after pile on which the mounds of earth and ashes of calcined 
bones were still smoking. As we came out we met a funeral 
procession just entering. The father was carrying his dead 
baby in his arms. A lad was going before, whistling through 
a shell the most weird and mournful dirge. There was a 
little company of boys and men following behind. There 
were no women. They were at home. 

That father would lay that little body on one of these 



reat cart filled 
ht, along the 

ings we got a 
1 of the city, 
m, containing 
9 whole coun- 
) many inter- 
There was a 
at the strong- 
jngth. These 
les met with, 
e have heard 
laries here, of 
is varieties of 
trees in great 

f was a drive 
nate the bod- 
3 we saw pile 
les of calcined 
met a funeral 
■yiug his dead 
tling through 
There was a 
jhind. There 

one of these 




mounds, on a pile of wood, then they would heap up over the 
body a pile of sticks and dried manure (their fuel here), and 
then they would set it on fire and sit and watch till a loud re- 
port proclaimed that the skull )iud burst and the work of dis- 
solution was begun. Then they would go home to their 


cheerless hut without a ray of our glorious hope. We turned 
away so sad and yet so glad ; so sad for them, so glad for 
Jesus and our hope in Him. 

The Parsees have a yet sadder funeral rite. At Bombay 
they take you to their "Towers of Silence," where they ex- 

lJillJ)liaUUI ' 4.W.!»i l '--'MfatWJlj^JHt.« '< 

— ail 



pose the bodies of their dead to be by the vultures 
and other birds of prey. They worshi]) the elements — air and 
fire - and they believe that the decomposing bodies of the dead 
defile them. And so they carry them to a lone tower, where 
the priests receive them and carry them aloft while the friends 
return to their homes. Tlie vultures are always waiting; to 
do their dreadful work. Think of these sad sights, beloved 
Christians of America, and while you thank God for the light 
and love that Christianity has gathered around the toml) — 
pray— 'pray — pray for poor India, 

We saw a few of the missionaries and learned something 
of the Christian work of the city. We dined at the American 
Baptist Mission, meeting three of their dear workers who are 
engaged respectively in the English, Telugu and Tamil work 
in Madras. We took afternoon tea with the good missionary 
of the Methodist Church and his good wife. We found them 
in the midst of a precious revival. We were glad to learn 
that our dear brother, Kev. Henry Varley, of England, had 
just closed his special services in the Tent formerly used by 
Dr. Pentecost, amid great blessing, the audiences having in- 
creased up to the end. 

We found, as we expected, two das^ os of missionaries 
and two kinds of work. The one is spiritual and evangelistic 
and the other educational, secular, conservative, and not un- 
like the worldly element in the church at home. We have 
been glad to find much more of the former cla!;s than we ex- 
pected, and to find it most catholic, humble, earnest, hungry 
for a deeper spiritual life ; and aggressive and evangelistic in 
its work. We have come less in contact, as might be ex- 




" the vultures 
ents — air iin«l 
esof the(l«'H(l 
tower, where 
lie the friends 
5^8 waiting to 
ghts, beloved 
for the light 
1 the toml) — 

ed something 
:he American 
kers who are 
I Tamil work 
•d missionary 
^ found them 
glad to learn 
^^ngland, had 
iierly used by 
es having in- 

1 evangelistic 
, and not un- 
e. We have 
I than "we ex- 
•nest, hungry 
vangelistic in 
might be ex- 

BEPAK TO XF.I.r.OR/-: .l.\'/> M.WRAS. 


pected, with tlw other element, but have heard mueb alxnit 
it and its injurious influences upon the missionary work «>f 


It is represented in Madras by the ( 'hristiau College. This 
is a splendid Univei-sity, presided over by a minister and f(»r- 
mer missionary of the Seotch Presbyterian Church. It has 
nineteen hundred students, not only from European families 
but the leading Hindu families. It easily leads all the educa- 
tional institutions of the East in its high literal y standing. It 
is tlu^ development of the educational work which the Scottish 
church has always made so prominent, and in which such 
gi-eat and good men as Drs. Duff and Wilson labored so suc- 

But what is it doing for Missions ? It is purely secular, 
teaching the liible. it is true, but only as a literary work, and 
carefully guarding against anything that could give offense to 
its Hindu c;onstituency. It has even been said that the con- 
version and i)ublit; confession of one of the students would be 
regardi'd as an embarrassr .ent, ^<\. might break up the con- 
stituency that supports it. Its aim seems to be to bring the 
Hindus into European culture, and then hope that by a sec- 
ond stage— .sometime later— they may come into Christianity. 
One of the missionaries characterized it as ''non-sectarian 
and non-relujiovs:' This is not a high compliment for a 
Christian College. 

Thank God, this is not the work for which Christ has 
sent our missionaries to India. And thank Him still more 
that this is not the purpose and work of very many of ihe 
best missionaries of India, 





THE Hist iinpulso that comes to you when you look at a 
hoautiful or interesting object is to shaio your pleas- 
ure with some one else. How often have we wished, 
since we have been in India, t^iat we could take all our friends 
along with us I 

A thoroughly satisfactoi-j visit to India and its mission- 
aries would require at least a year. A rapid journey of five 
weeks through a country as large as the United States^ east 
of the Mississippi River, can only include its larger cent'-es, 
and enable oven the most attentive observer to form first im- 
pressions. But, I'ke true instincts, these have a certain value 
that later study and observation will only confirm, especially 
if we have learned to look at things in some measure with 
the Lord's eyes and with reference to His work and His 

Leaving Madras at sunset we awoke next morning in the 
beautiful cantonment of Bangalore. 

This is considered tlie most beautiful city of Southern 
India. It has many English residences, and is full of handsome 
bungalows occupied by wealthy army officers and other for- 
eigners. These bungalows are built in thoroughly Hindu style, 



you look at a 
le your pleas- 
ve we wished, 
all our friends 

d its inission- 
^urney of five 
id States, east 
irger cent"es, 
form first im- 
i certain value 
rin, especially 
measure with 
vork and His 

lorning in the 

'■ of Southern 
I of handsome 
nd other for- 
r Hindu style, 












with low, tiled roofs, wide verandahH, colossal ])illais, rich 
colors on walls and roofs, ii.ngnillccnt a|){)roaclu'S through 
Bplendid {^rounds lillod with palms, hanyans, mango troos and 
all tho affluence of trojjical flowers and i)lants. The po[)ula- 
tion of the city is nearly 200,000, hut it covers n great space. 
The streets are wide and tho private grounds around tho va- 
rious hungalows are spacious. The Government offices and 
the Rajah's Palace are very handsome huildings. 

Bangalore is tho chief city of Mysore, a large independ- 
ent state of India. There are several of these great native 
states. Their rulers were loyal to the English during times 
of trouhle in tho past, and they have been allowed to retain 
the sovereignity of their states under the oversight of an 
English resident, who exercises somewhat tlie same relation 
to the native Government that the British Resident does to 
the Egyptian Khedive. 

Among the largest of these native Principalities are 
Hyderabad, the Nizam's Dominions, Mysore, Baroda, Guzerat 
and Rajpootana. Mysore is a very fine country. Its popu- 
lation cannot be less than eight or ten millions. Its chmato 
is very fine. It is never very hot xt Bangalore, and, of 
course, it is never very cold. We had very fine raspbomes 
for breakfast at the Baptist Mission at Bangalore, and we be 
lieve they have them all the year round. The altitude is very 
high, the whole plain being several thousand feet above the 

"We got into touch with the Christian work of the city. 
We visited the Methodist and Baptist Mission and saw the 






Baldwin Boys' School which had over one hundred hoys in 
attendance ; also the Girls' Home, presided over by Mrs. 
Baker. We met several missionaries at the American Bap- 
tist Mission, including Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong, of Maul- 
main, whom we had met on the way. Dr. McLaurin has 
charge of the Baptist work, and especially of the Literary and 
Publishing Department. We need not say that we met the 
same large-hearted Christian hospitality here which we had 
already experienced at Nellore and Rampatam. 

At the home of the English Baptist missionary we had 
the pleasure of meeting again our dear brother. Rev. Henry 
Varley, of England, who had just closed his special services 
in Madras, and was beginning similar meetings in Bangalore. 
He had been much encouraged with the results of the Mad- 
ras work. The tent formerly used by Dr. Pentecost had been 
crowded every night, and much deep and spiritual interest 
had been manifested. Many of the students had come to 
talk with him, and some of the wealthy Hindus had contrib- 
uted toward the expenses of the meetings in such a way as 
to show their deep interest. He hopes to return next year 
and continue his work. His meetings are attended by many 
Europeans and Eurasians, and also by many Hindus. 

There is among the educated natives a very great willing- 
ness to attend Enghsh meetings, and it would not be difficult 
at any time in many of the larger cities to get several hun- 
dred of them to come together for many nights, to listen to 
an interesting speaker on the truths of Christianity. Nor 
can there be any doubt that they are often much moved, and 
many of them very seriously considering the claims of Christ 


' MJliji i u^i-iia-aJMii. 



adred boys in 
over by Mrs. 
Lmerican Bap- 
ong, of Maul- 
McLaurin has 
e Literary and 
t we met the 
which we had 

onary we had 
r, Rev. Henry 
pecial services 
in Bangalore. 
5 of the Mad- 
jcost had been 
'itual interest 

had come to 
3 had contrib- 
;uch a way as 
u'n next year 
aded by many 

great willing- 
lot be difficult 

several hun- 
s, to listen to 
jtianity. Nor 
;h moved, and 
lims of Christ 

vm&imiis:S !m<i? 9S^!!S >& 



upon their own hearts. In a few cases they have yielded to 
the strong considerations which God has been pressing upon 
them, and come out unreservedly on the side of Christ, bear- 
ing to the end the heavy cross which it involves for them. 


But, notwithstanding all this, the fact remains, as an old 
missionary said to us this week : " The solid wall of Hindu- 
ism has not yet been even shaken." 

Most of the converts have been from the outcast races, 
the Pariahs of India. The great castes have not been broken 



through, or to any great extent brought under the influence 
of tho Gospel. But Mr. Varley's meetings have reached 
many of these people with a kind of truth they have not very 
often heard. 

They are quite familiar with Christianity as a religious 
system, and have heard much of its principles and philoso- 
phy. But we are glad to say that Mr. Varley is meeting 
them in quite a different fashion from the average lecturer 
and literary writer. With the boldness of a true minister of 
Jesus Christ, he is telling these proud men to their faces of 
the supreme claims of the Son of God, and ridicuHng the 
idea of, for a moment, comparing them with the unholy 
pretensions of their so-called Incarnations of the Deity. He 
is bearing down upon their conscience with the great ques- 
tions of sin and accountability, and presenting the living 
truths and facts of evangelical Christianity in the power of 
the Spirit, and many of them are, no doubt, deeply im- 

We believe God will send many more sach messengers to 
the people of this land, and that there will yet be a breaking 
down of great numbers which will fill the hearts of God's pray- 
ing and believing children with great joy. What the people 
of India need most is spiritual power. There has been much 
intellectual work, and they can match our culture with cul- 
ture, too. But they cannot resist the power of conscience 
and the Holy Ghost, the living facts of a holy life, and a tes- 
timony which carries with it the conviction of divine reality 
and power. 

From Bangalore we passed through the Mysore country 




the influence 
have reached 
have not very 

as a rehgioua 
and philoso- 
ey is meeting 
;rage lecturer 
le minister of 
their faces of 
ridiculing the 
1 the unholy 
le Deity. He 
le great ques- 
ig the living 
the power of 
t, deeply im- 

nessengers to 
be a breaking 
Df God's pray- 
at the people 
as been much 
ure with cul- 
of conscience 
fe, and a tes- 
divine reality 

'^sore country 

l ll i lK W WiiiiWiBgaWliillia i MMI^^ 





A " Kodak " photograph takeu by Mr. Simpson. 





and then up through the South Marathi country to Watiar, 
a station in the Krishna Valley, ahout one hundred miles 
south of Poona. Here we left the train and took a pony 
tonga for forty miles up into the Western Ghauts, tor the 
purpose of visiting some dear friends at the lovely mountain 
retreat at Mahabelashur, which the American ^')ard has 
selected as a summer home for all their missionaries during 
the hot season. This delightful spot is situated at the sum- 
mit of the Western Ghauts, about 5,U00 feet above the sea. 
In the hot season of India, which lasts three months— from 
the middle of March to the middle of June, — it is a very de- 
lightful residence, the temperature seldom rising above SO 
degrees, and the air being most bracing and invigorating. 

We cannot agree, for our work at least, with the policy 
of planning for a regular suspension of w^ork every hot sea- 
son, and surrendering to the heat on merely natural princi- 
ples. We believe the power and life of Christ can carry our 
dear workers, who trust Him, through hot weather as well 
as other trying circumstances, and we feel, while not criticis- 
ing the action of other missionaries or societies, that, for our 
workers, feeling and believing as they do, it would be losing a 
great blessing to make up their minds to the necessity of a 
vacation every hot season. At the same time we should have 
some cool and quiet place where, in special cases, those who 
really need it and are not able to i*ise above the pressure, can 
go for a short time. 

We' found the drive to Mahabelashur very delightful. 
We started at 4 A. M. from the railway station, and, as the 



suu rose, we crossed the beautiful river Krishna, and looked 
down a long line of temple spires lining its banks, and telling 
of the idolatry of heathenism. We found, on calling at the 
home of the missionary who occupies this field, that it was, 
indeed, the very stronghold of Brahmanism ; but the light of 
the Gospel is beginning to penetrate some of the homes. As 
we ascended the Ghauts, the vegetation grew more and more 
luxuriant. Tlie wild ioses grew in great festoons along the 
roadside and climbed up over the trees, hanging in clusters 
of a dozen together like great bouquets of pink and crimson. 
The highest point is quite thickly wooded with very beauti- 
ful trees, and the views are superb. 

Our friends took us out to Sidney Point, and we found 
ourselves on a narrow promontory of naked rock running out 
like a sharp tongue several hundred feet, and not more than 
tv/elve wide at the point. On each side was a deep gorge at 
least 2,000 feet deep, and on one side it was a perpendicular 
cliff; on the other it was almost perpendicular. It made one's 
head dizzy to look down those almost fathomless gorges. 
We could easily understand how the story might be true that 
a young and foolhardy Englishman once presumed to drive his 
dog cart out on that narrow ridge one day, and the horse, be- 
coming nervous, dashed over the precipice with his reckless 
driver into the abyss below. On a clear day you can see the 
Indian Ocean across the plain which is about fifty miles wide. 
We found our dear friends, the Bruces, in a very pleas- 
ant home, and spent some very delightful hours with them. 
Mr. Bruce, besides having charge of the great district of Sat- 


A')- LANDS. 

fishna, and looked 
banks, and telling 
on calling at the 
1 field, that it was, 
I ; but the light of 
>f the homes. As 
iw more and more 
estoons along the 
-nging in clusters 
pink and crimson, 
with very beauti- 

nt, and we found 
rock running out 
id not more than 
LS a deep gorge at 
5 a perpendicular 
ir. It made one's 
ithomless gorges, 
light be true that 
3umed to drive his 
ind the horse, be- 
with his reckless 
T you can see the 
t fifty miles wide. 
, in a very pleas- 
liours with them, 
it district of Sat- 

A " Kodak " photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 

'- fBKES^fflC i^SKf^: - 



tara, with a million souls in it, has also a special work of pub- 
lication on hand. He has issued many excellent tracts and 
books, and has been especially happy in his series of Gospel 
leaflets in Marathi. We hope to give our friends, later, a sam- 
ple of one of these. It is the verse John iii : 16, in Marathi, 
and our missionaries are indebted to him for many thousands 
of these, which they distribute freely, as well as many other 
tracts and illustrated leaflets which he gratuitously distrib- 

Miss Bruce is assisting her father in this and other liter- 
ary work, and is now about to undertake a fiu-ther task in 
connection with a monthly Sunday School paper in Marathi, 
connected with the work in India. We were delighted to 
find her hands and heart so full of bright and blessed work 
for God. In addition to her ordinary work, she has just com- 
pleted, with the assistance of a friend, a translation of the 
"Gospel of Healing " into Marathi. 

We found a number of other missionaries also at this 
place of rest, and in the evening we had a i^leasant and profit- 
able missionary meeting. There were ten members of the 
Presbyterian Marathi Mission from the Kolapur field, includ- 
ing some old friends. Miss Jefferson, late of the City Mission 
at home, and Mr. W^ilder, who is so well known in America 
among the Student Volunteers. He has been working among 
the students of India and is now in infirm health and resting 
at Mahabelashur. We had a blessed meeting and many re- 
ceived new inspiration for life and work. 

There was much conference respecting the needs of the 


t »at»CV.'ylTS-^'OJ»Cl.-;Uifc:£lta..^i^«--^ 


?if?? 'f^ ^5^"^/ ^irt"? %HT} ^Jirflif 3Jr4l ^I'nfti w^ ^tRJifru: 
s^iRT ^i4»WM 3rnn^ jijw ^ »Tw'?if vjfri^n''^ <r»rr- 







Bi j 8J.j„la^Ai4J.k»;.!.qtt.s 



field, especially the Marathi country, and we found that there 
were yet many great districts even in the south and west, 
scores of towns and hundreds and even thousands of villages 
tiuit have never yet been visited hy a missionary. Even where 
old missions have heen planted for thirty or forty years in 
some central city, yet many villages and districts at a dis- 
tance from this centre have never been visited. We believe, 
after careful inquiry, that of the 15,()()(),()()(> of Marathi people 
in Western India, at least one- half are yet beyond the reach 
of any means of hearing the Gospel, and we fear this is true 
of almost all other parts of India. 

We left this lovely mountain top on Saturday morning 
at daylight, and after a tonga ride of seven houis and a rail- 
way journey of seven more, we reached the beautiful city of 
Poona on Saturday evening. We were met at the depot by 
Mr. Robinson of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, and Mrs. 
Fuller who had come on from Akola for one more season of 
fellowship and conference before we left South India. 

Mr. Robinson welcomed us most kindly, and we had the 
pleasure of addressing his English congregation morning and 
evening, and the Native Church in the afternoon through an 
interpreter. The Native Church is under the charge of Mr. 
Fox, a veteran missionary, and the Boys' School under the 
charge of Rev. Mr. Brewer. Mr. Robinson has also charge of 
the Wm. Taylor School for the education of English children, 
and is, besides, Presiding Elder of the District. He has a fine 
English congregation, and the Native Church is very inter- 
esting. It was a gi-eat joy to preach the Gospel to these 
Hindus and to see some souls decide for Christ. 




There are two or three other missiotiH in Poona, th«f Eng- 
lish Church, the Free Church, and the EtitahUshed Church of 
(Scotland ; hut the great heatlien city w still but lightly 
touched. It is a city of 12<>,0()<' people, and has many EnghMli 
residents, besides many natives who understand Englisii. 
Both Mr. Pentecost and Mr. Varley held meetings here for 
Bome time which were well attended and nmch interest 
shown. Our time did not permit us to meet the native jhjo- 
ple, but we were assured that it would not be difticidt at any 
time to obtain a good audience, willing to listen to an earnest 
address on the Gosi)el. 

Poona was the home of one of our former missionaries. 
Miss Helen Dawlfy. Many of our friends will remember that 
Miss DawUy came out to India in connection with the 
Alliance about five years ago, and carried on for some time 
an Orphanage in Akola. She was a woman of very strong 
and simple faith. When she left Buffalo for India, she bad 
only enough money to take her to Liverpool, but she had her 
trunk labelled " Bombay," and before she left New York no 
less than two people were competing for the privilege of sus- 
taining her in India. 

About t wo years ago she removed her home to Poona 
and resolved to carry on her work indei)endently of the 
AiJJANX'E as a work of faith. She did this in the kindest 
spirit, and wa.s always on the most friendly terms with our 
missionaries. But she felt the Lord was leading her to tru'^l 
Him directly for her means of support in the work. During 
her residence in Poona she endeared herself to very many, 

8l4iujU»M|iua,ltS;< l iBiWfei-»g -^''^^HI 



)onsi, tho Eng- 
hotl Church of 
II but lightly 
many Eiighvsh 
>tan<l English, 
tings here for 
much interest 
lie native peo- 
lifticult at any 
1 to an earnest 

' missionaries, 
emember that 
ion with the 
for some time 
3f very strong 
India, she had 
ut she had her 
New York no 
•ivilege of sus- 

ome to Poona 
idently of the 
in the kindest 
erms witli our 
ig her to tni^i 
vork. D^ ring 
to very many, 



and exercised a most blessed Clifistian influence. Hut alK)ut 
ten days before we reached India th«? Mast(?r called her to 
Himself. Her last illness was very painful ; but, from the 
first, she seems to have rxpected to go home, and so ex- 
pressed herself to all about her. Hhe passed away in faith 
and victory. 


Thi lady, whom she sent for to England to assist her in 
the work, arrived just three days after her death, and so in 
God's wise Providence the work was able to go on. 

Poona is one of the favorite residences of India. It is on 
a high altitude and is never very hot. And during the rainy 
season, it is far ■ iumgh from the mountains to escape a heavy 

jiniik i i,ij,ii i iii i u i ,uaar»'^'»« p 



rainfall, so that it has an exceptionally fine dimate, and, like 
Bangalore, it is the chosen residence of many foreigners. 

The Enghsh (juarter is handsomely built, with wide 
streets and spacious grounds, and all the characteristic fea- 
tures of an English Canto-inient. 

We could not help saying to these de^r English-speaking 
people that it was a very awful ]-esponsibility to know the 
Gospel and the Saviour, alnd be so near to these multitudes 
who know him not. It was our prayer, as we spoke to these 
hundreds of young ]>eople, that a score of missionaries might 
come out of that company, and that all the rest might live 
such lives that from them would " sound out " the Gospel 
to all the heathen multitudes of Poona. 

We left Poona by daylight Monday morning, and by 
eleven o'clock found ourselves once more in Bombay. The 
day was spent very busily in getting through a two weeks' 
mail, and preparing for another journey that night to North 
India. After the days' work was over, and we had taken 
Mrs. Fuller to the train for Akola, and once more said 
" Good-bye " to our Berar work through her, we had an hour 
to spare before sunset, and so we drove along the shore to the 
famous Malabar Hill where the wealthy Bombay merchants 

This is the most magnificent drive in the world. For two 
or three miles it skirts the Indian Ocean, and then follows the 
crest of the hill which is a high peninsula between two arms 
of the sea, so that it is constantly exposed to the breeze and 
never can be hot. The view from the hill, out upon the sea, 



late, and, like 
It, with wide 
act eristic fea- 

' to know the 
>se multitudes 
spoke to these 
onaries might 
st might live 
" the Gospel 

ling, and by 
ombay. The 
a two weeks' 
ight to North 
i^e had taken 
36 more said 
? had an hour 
e shore to the 
ay merchants 

rid. For two 
3n follows the 
en two arms 
e breeze and 
upon the sea, 





>!Hi«M«ll| l lllM! 

>l<>i»WWWWB!BljHpw ;j]t,,,.^... -.-..4-^1 




across the harbor to the Colabba, and theli across tlie plain 
over the great city with its superb buildings and its forests 
of acacias, palms, banyans, i)lantains, and a wealth of lux- 
uriant vegetation, crowded with picturesque houses and 
teeming with moving human beings of almost every nation, 
and dressed in almost every hue cannot be surpassed by 
anything which we have ever seen or expect to see. 

As we drove dow n the hill on oiu* way back to the city, 
we passed the " Towers of Silence,*" where the rich Parsees 
expose their dead, and as we remembered liow much of the 
wealth of Bombay is in their hands, and then realized their 
end, and saw the very vultures sitting on the trees around 
ready for their prey, we felt how little all the pomp and 
grandeur of the world was worth without God, and the pre- 
cious hopes of the gracious Gospel. 

We found the missionary circles in Bombay deeply 
stirred with a great controversy. 

In P*^ > . 'ler last the Decennial Missionary Conference of 
India was ..leld in Bombay, and attended by several hundred 
missionaries from various parts of India. 

At that Conference much disappointment was felt because 
the leaders of the meeting managed to prevent the Confer- 
ence from passing any bold or positive resolutions protesting 
against the three most crying evils of the land, viz., the 
Liquor Traffic, the Opium Traffic, and the Licensing of Social 


Meetings were held of an informal character to show 
the facts respecting these glaiing evils, but the Convention 

■P " ! 



was not allowed to record any definite protest under the pre- 
text that these subjects were not included in the programme 
laid out at the beginning, and, also, because it was under- 
stood that no subject should bo presented about which there 
was not perfect unanimity of opinion. By some skillful par- 
liamentary management the Conference was led to decline, 


by a vote of 105 to 102, to pass any resolutions or express any 
opinion upon these questions. 

Their action has awakened a storm of criticism all over 
the Christian world, and the missionaries of India are feeling 
themselves betrayed into a false position, and a great deal of 
strong feeling is being expressed on every side. 



der the pre- 
program me 
was under- 
which there 
skillful par- 
te decline, 

express any 

3ni all over 
I are feeling 
reat deal of 

A "Kodak" photofrraph taken by >lr. Simpson. 

.yfAPR.lS TO liOMliAY. 


Mr. Dyer, the editor and proprietor of the Bombay (fuar- 
dian, was one of the advocates of a bold and uncompromising 
stand at the Conference. 

Wo beUeve the storm will clear the air, and compel all 
true men to speak out on these and all such questions with a 
voice which will be felt at the very throne of India and Enj;- 
land, and in the heart )f every missionary that is afraid of 
offending man more than God, if there l)e such in India, 
which may God forbid ! 

But if there is any difference of opinion among the mis- 
sionaries of India on either of these three great questions— 
the Liquor Traffic, the Opium Traffic, or the Licensing of 
Social Impurity in India, the sooner it is known by the 
churches at home the better. 

We need not say there is no doubt about tiie attitude of 
our dear missionaries on these (piostions, or of any other mis- 
sionaries we have met in India. 



"^"^ jTK were able to spend the last two weeks of our brief 
W visit to India in the Northwest and Northern Prov- 
inces. One object was to see a fesv of the ancient 
and characteristic cities, such as Delhi, Agra, I^ucknow, 
Cawnpore and Benares, and another was to see something of 
the mission work in which God has been so marvelously 
pouring out His Spirit in these northern fields. 

We selected the western route through the independent 
states of Baroda, Guzerat and Kajpootana, passing through 
the famous cities of Ahmedabad, Baroda, Ajmeer and Jey- 
pore. As we got farther north we found the season much 
later than in Central and Southern India. The fields were 
green with waving harvests of wheat, and other grains, and 
the reapers had only begun, in a few instances, to cut down 
the grain. The air became cooler and the nights, indeed, 
cold, so that the heaviest covering was needed. Tlie fall of 
snow in the northern mountains has been unusually heavy, 
and in the whole of India the hot season is a month later than 
usual, so that we have almost entirely escaped the oppressive 

weather we expected. We cannot sufficiently thank God for 


of our brief 
•thern Prov- 
the ancient 
, Lucknow, 
amething of 

ing through 
er and Jey- 
\'ison much 

fields were 
grains, and 
o cut down 
lits, indeed, 

The fall of 
ally heavy, 
h later than 
9 oppressive 
ink God for 

w ;''.P''-^^^ 



A " Kodak photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 


His extraordinary goodness 
in thus answering prayer, 

and enabling us to accomplish so much work without hind- 

^»' ;^,, 

MM(SiJ'.''!j«B'a'B''*' "'^' ' '*»*! 


Tho Native Princen of India are very st lict in their laws 
for the protection of animals, in some cases jirohihiting the 
shooting of game and oven the slaughtering of animals for 
food, and so, throughout the great State of Iiiij[)ootana, ani- 
mal life was very abundant and interesting. Scores of mon- 
keys weie hanging from the trees or gamboling over the 
ground. Many beautiful birds were constantly appearing, 


■ >ii^.. 


wild peacocks with magnificent tails, great cranes and adju- 
tant birds as tall as a man, green parrots, pelicans, jiigeons, 
beefsteak birds, immense buzzards, and many pretty little 
birds of bright plumage. We saw many herds of deer, and, 
occasionally, a wolf or a fox, on the great plains. 

Our first considerable stop was at the old city of Agra. 



in their laws 
roliihiting tlio 
•f Jiiiinials for 
jpootana, ani- 
cori'8 of nion- 
ling over the 
ly ni)pearing, 

les and adju- 

ans, pigeons, 

pretty little 

of deer, and, 

city of Agra. 

jioArniY TO lu-y.tK'Ks. 


ThiH wuH one ..f the <apitalH of tlm great Mogul rulers of In- 
dia, and is tiie seat of some of their granch-st mo.mniental 
huihliugs. The thre.* most famous are the 1<' .:'t, the Palar.- 
and the Ta j Mahal. The Fort is an immet. se enclosure of red 


sandstone of the most beautiful and massive proportions. 
The Palace of the Emperor, Shah Jehan, is within the Fort 
and contains the apartments of his harem, and also the Moti 
Musjud or White Mos<iue, of pure white marble. It would 



be idle to attempt to give an)- descrijjtion of these immense 
collections of stately columns, arches and carvings. 

The gem of Agra and India, however, is the Taj Mahal, 
which stands on the Jumna, about a mile above Agra, and 
was built by Shah Jehan, as a monument and tomb for his 
favorite wife. It is of pure white marble elegantly propor- 
tioned and exquisitely carved. It stands in the midst of a 
magnificent garden filled with luxuriant trees and flowers, 
and adorned with artificial tanks and ponds filled with water. 
It has been called a " Dream in Marble, "and its exquisite and 
dazzhng beauty has not been overstated. It took seventeen 
years to build it, and it cost §0,000,000. All it contains is 
two beautiful marble toml)s, those of Shah Jehan and his fa- 
vorite wife, Arimand Banu, for whom it was reared. There 
is a touch of romance about it that lights up a little the 
cruelty and selfishness of this Mogul tyrant. He must have 
had some kind of a heart to devote so many years of his life 
and such millions of treasure to one he loved. And yet, it 
was a sensual and selfish love, for you can see the gorgeous 
palace he also built for his Hindu wives, and the gorgeous 
apartments in another part of the Fort for his Mohammedan 
queens, with all their separate establishments and mosques 
for worship. 

The blot on all this grandeur is the fact that scarcely any 
of this costly work was ever paid for, the poor natives never 
having received more than a mere pittance of their promised 
wages. It was surely a just retribution for this proud and 
splendid despot, that he spent the last seven years of his life 




Bse immense 

3 Taj Mahal, 
e Agra, and 
tomb for his 
ntly propor- 
le midst of a 
and flowers, 
with water, 
xquisito and 
k seventeen 
. contains is 
1 and his fa- 
ired. There 
a little the 
3 must have 
rs of his life 
And yet, it 
le gorgeous 
he gorgeous 
id mosques 

icarcely any 
itives never 
sir promised 
1 proud and 
'8 of his life 







iiwwiwwwi iftiMii i itwiftWMijytw^ '• 

n t gg0^ l^ mi t^ ^^fM ll i t ^'s ,t t/f ,,l.. 









as a prisoner in his own palace,nnder th(3 cruel orders of liis son . 
They showed us the marble cage where he used to sit looking 
out over the valley at the beautiful Taj, where the only thing, 
which, perhaps, he had ever loved, lay buried, and where he 
himself ere long lay down by her side. 


More magnificent, however, even than Agra, are the 
ruins and monuments of Delhi, which we were permitted to 
visit two days later. Delhi was the real capital of the great 
Mogul Empire, and when the Reformation was beginning to 
dawn in Europe, the great Mohammedan conquerors of India 


were building- up an empire here as splendid as Babylon ever 

The fort and palace of Delhi are similar to those of Agra, 
but much more magnificent. The Pearl Mosque, the Hall of 
Audience in the Emperor's Palace, and the great drawing- 


room in the Queen's apartments contain a wealth of marble, 
gold and precious stones perfe Jy bewildering. The decora- 
tions are gorgeous beyond description, but the design is so 
simple and beautiful that nothing seems overdone. The ceil- 
ings are finished in marble and gold, the pillars are each one 
piece of marble, as smooth as alabaster, and carved in the 


IS Babylon ever 

those of Agra, 
jue, the Hall of 
great drawing- 

alth of marble, 
;, The decora- 
be design is so 
lone. The ceil- 
rs are each one 
. carved in the 



finest designs The marble is inlaid with rare precious stones 
representing scroi:3, flowers, birds, animals and Arabic verses 
from the Koran. Between the apartments are screens repre- 
senting the finest lace, all cut in marble, each stitch of the 
lace work costing one doUar to carve. It was of this exqui- 


site chamber that the Persian poem was composed, the refrain 

in English being : 

"And oh, ir mere db au jai^siu^* ^a v^.».., 
It is this, It is this." 

And yet as we turned away, and thought of the wretched 
builder now, and all the deceived companions of his luxurious 
pleasures, we could honestly say that we have seen some 
Hindu huts of clay which we would not exchange-with 

.«^8!SW*»»W '" 


their humble, happy ( Jhristiau liearts- for all his splendor, 
even for a hundred Ijfetivaes, 

But the most in ferttvlinp part of Delhi is its ancient 
ruins. South of. the irsodern city tiu tlu^ ruins of no less than 

se-ven ancient cities, 

extending twelve 
miles south along the 
Jumna, and covering 
an area of nearly fifty 
square miles. We 
drove out eleven miles 
to the famous Kutub 
Minar, and all along 
the way there was 
nothing to be seen but 
the ruins of temples, 
tombs, and ancient 
fortifications ; some 
of them — for example, 
Asoka's column and 
the famous Wrought 
Iron Pillar — g o i n g 
back to a period even before the time of Christ. Delhi has 
been well called the Rome of Asia, and it also reminded us, 
not a little, of ancient Memphis with its tombs and monu- 
ments of ancient kings and departed grandeur. 

The most remarkable of all these ancient monuments is 
the famous Kutub Minar, or Tower of Victoiy. It stands 


'^^'^'^'i M^.MaifeakHafiBMBa^Jaa s B^^ 


his splendor, 

3 its ancient 
' no U'ss than 
iciont cities, 

i n g twelve 
ith along the 
md covering 
f nearly fifty 

miles. We 

eleven miles 

mens Kutub 

id all along 

there was 
be seen but 

of temples, 
nd ancient 
ons ; 8 o m e 
for example, 
column and 
us Wrought 
lar — g o i n g 
. Delhi has 
eminded us, 

and monu- 

lonuments is 
f. It stands 

A " Kodak" photograph taken by Mr. Simpson. 


i i iiiniiJiuiii. i i' i »i*Mi'iULMaiun i 



elm-pii milos Houth of inodcru Delhi, at the southoni end of 

this great plain of ruins. It was the first great niouunieut 

built by the Mogul con(iuerors of India, and goes back to the 

sixteenth century. It is in almost perfect preservation. It is 

an inunense tower of several stories, 47 feet in diameter at 

the base, and rising 24(> feet high. To our eye it is more im- 

l)ressive than the Pyramids, and very beautiful in its design 

and execution. 

There is a stair- _ > - -- 

way leading to 

the top and the 

view is very 


In the even- 
ing we drove 
ve r all the 
scenes of the 
Indian Mu- 
tiny. Wo stood 
on tlie famous 
ridge where 

the British siege lines were posted. We entered the Cashmere 
Gate, where the storming party of English soldiers broke 
through the walls and planted the flag of victory, where 
fifty out of every seventy-five fell bleeding and dying under 
the murderous fire of the foe, and the noble leader, Gen. 
Nicholson, was carried back to die just as he had won the 
costly victory which saved India. We gazed on the splendid 





monument coinmemomting these lieroic achievements, and 
tolling how nion th.m :],0o(> brave men fell m this desperate 
struggle. And we thought how much it Juid (;o9t England 
to gain India, and how greatly the obligation wart enhanced 

to make the mont 
of this great trust 
for God. 

In the same circle 
of ( ities we also in- 
( 1 u d e d Cawnpore 
and Lucknow. Both 
the^ cities have a 
pathetic interest in 
connection with the 
Mutiny. Cawnpore 
was the scene of 
the most awful 
tr.igedy of modern 
war. viz., " " las- 
sacre of th< I'liish 
garri ' by the in 
earn ohend Nann 


had surreudereU « 
hi.' issuranr of protection. After he had mi dered all the 
men, he took the women and chil en capti i' f ' ir a fate more 
cruel than death, and when he found that tli' city was about 
to Ic recaptured, he murdered them also, and cast the bodies 


vements, aud 
this desperate 
(^ost England 
^•art enhanced 
ike the mont 
8 great trust 

le same circle 
38 we also in- 
e d Cawnpore 
icknow. Both 
cities have a 
jic interest in 
ition with the 
y. Oawnpore 
the scene of 
most awful 
[y of modern 
n-i.., ''^" las- 
>f tht i'iiish 
by the in 
e hend Nana 
afl 'i8y 


dered all the 
>r a fate more 
ity was aboiit 
ast the bodies 

liOMIiAY TO lit: S ARKS. 


of the dead and the living together into a great well, where 
a Memorial now stands with this inscription : "Sacred to 
the perpetual niemory of a great conjpany of Christian peo- 
pie, chiefly women 
and children, who 
near this spot were 
cruelly massacred 
by the followers of 
the rebel, Nana Sa- 
hib, and cast, the 
dying with the 
dead, into the well 
below, July 15, 

Lucknow stands 
about seventy miles 
north of Cawnpore. 
It is the largest city 
of Northern India, 
except Calcutta, and 
well called —"Beau- 
tiful Lucknow." It 
is, indeed, a most 
charming city. The 
English section, 

known as the "Residency Hill," is very handsome, and even 
the native city is pretty and picturesque. Seen from the old 
Residency Tower, it is a great sea of green trees and fields set 


2i6 i.ARai.R orri.oois ox ynssioxARv lands. 

with white «lome8, roofs, and iiiinaiots, fur miltvs and niiloB. 
U is full of niosqiu.'H and tempi. h. But -aftor its MisHionH— 
its most interesting s,ene8 are those connected with the Mu- 

( )ur kiii.l friends took us over all th. ground, so familiar 
to us in our boyhood, thirty six years aj^o, when these events 


were thrilling our hearts, where Lawrence, Havelock and Sir 
Colin Cam pl)ell so nobly fought for the "K.<lief of Lucknow," 
where the brave defenders-a few hundivd m.n-so grandly 
held their ground against an aimy of tens of thousands of 
Sepoys with batteries of artillery, whom they themselves had 
drilled and taught. 


ile« and miloB. 
ita Mi.sHions — . 
with tho Mu- 

id, HO familiar 
n these events 

^elock and Sir 
3f Luck now," 
II— so grandly 
thousands of 
leniselves had 

.nayfe^ji ' . 

/t0.t//l.n- TO HEN.IRF.S. 


The old Hi'sideney, which wuh their fortific.t'i; n and de- 
fence, 18 now a Park, and the old ImildingH stand an they 
■were, at the dose of the Mutiny, a mass of battered ruins. 
It was simply awful co look at those great towers and walls, 
literally torn to pieces hy shot and shell, and realize that two 
or three regiments of soldiers, with a lot of women and chil- 


dren, had lived behind those walls for months during the fiery 
heat of an India Sumrnei-, and under a ceaseless rain of fire 
from hundreds of guns. 

We saw the cellar where General Lawrence was mor- 
tally wounded by a shell. We saw the other cellar where all 
the children and women huddled together foi- months. They 
nhowed us the hole by which their meals were handed down, 




and another hole a foot in diameter where a cannon ball had 
entered even that cellar and sunk itself in a brick pillar out 
of sight, and a poor woman sitting near had died of fright. 
The tower above was literally perforated with balls. 

Most touching of all were the figures telling how out of 
:^,000 men that begun that awful summer only 830 survived 
when the victory was won. These, indeed, were heroes. 
Why may not the missionary, annals have greater heroes ? If 
brave men suffered so to win India for England, let us not be 
afraid to suffer in order to win India for Christ. 

Well, we are glad to say that Lucknow has something 
better than the old Residency and the memorials of 1857. It 
has a glorious missionary work, and is the headquarters of 
that Mission of our own laud on which God has so won- 
drously be on pouring out His Spirit during the past four 

We were very cordially received by Rev. Dr. Parker and 
the members of the Mission, and afforded every opportunity 
to see the work and learn the methods which God has so 
richly blessed among them, during recent years. We have 
not yet found a more thoroughly organized missionary sys- 
tem, or one more vigorously and efficiently worked. The sys- 
tem is true to the genius of Methodism, and yet it has a cer- 
tain apostolic simplicity and catholicity of spirit which may 
well commend it to the study of every missionary who is in- 
telligently seeking for the best methods, and willing to learn 
from every wise and true pattern. 

At the head of the whole work is the Bishop, or general 


I ball had 
sillar out 
3f fright. 

>w out of 
e heroes, 
eroes ? If 
us not be 

1857. It 
larters of 
; so won- 
past four 

,rker and 
)d has so 
We have 
nary sys- 
The sys- 
as a cer- 
lich may 
'ho is in- 
to learn 

r general 





overseer of the whole field. Then over each District is a Pre- 
siding Elder, who exercises a more special superintendence 
over all the workers in that field. Under him, the various 
American or English workers have their respective depart- 
ments. Some are Pastors of the P^nglish Church in the Dis- 


trict. Some are Superintendents or Professors in the Train- 
ing College or Seminar3^ Some are teachers in the High 
School for boys or girls. Some have charge of an Orphanage 
or a Home. And some are evangelists, at large, to preach 
the gos])el in ^'arious places. But each has a special depart- 
ment. And .vhen they are scattered about in various cen- 
tres, one of them is usually local Superintendent of all the 
work in that city and section. 

Then come the native workers. And this is the right 
arm of the Methodist Mission. There are, comparatively, 
few American workers even in the great Provinces of Oude 
and Rohilcund and amongst a church of more than fifty 
thousand native Christians. Most of the work is done by 
hundreds of native brethren, and the American worker is 
chiefly a superintendent. There are several classes of these 
native workers. One or two have been found worthy to be 
made Presiding Elders. Many of them are Native Pastors, 
having charge, in almost all cases, of the native churches. 
Some of them are Evangelists, preaching the gospel in the 
villages. The Native Pastors receive a moderate salary of 
about |r)0 to ^75 per year 

But there is another class of native workers which more 
than any other seems to us to be a recovered link in the great 
chain of personal work, and this is the agency to which more 
than any other, it seems to us, that, under God, the extra- 
ordinary success of this Mission is due. They are what they 
call " Pastor teachers," a sort of intei'mediate link between 
the Native Pastor and the heathen people. They are hum- 



I the Train- 
n the High 
!, to preach 
cial depart- 
.^arious cen- 
t of all the 

s the right 
es of Oude 

than fifty 
is done by 

worker is 
es of these 
jrthy to be 
i^e Pastoi's, 
! churches, 
spel in the 
e salary of 

i^hich more 
n the great 
v'hich more 
the extra- 
vvhat they 
k between 
T are hum- 



ble men, of limited abiUty and experience, but sincere Chris- 
tians full of zeal and new-born love. And they are set to 
work in hundreds of places, with a very small allowance of 
115 to -«^20 a year, as teachers in hundreds of little country 

The place they 
hold their school in 
is a little hut (and 
we saw some of 
them), that can be 
rented for a mere 
trifle. It has, per- 
haps, no windows 
and only a clay 
floor and mud walls. 
But in this place the 
teacher opens a lit- 
tle school for the 
boys and girls, and 
begins to teach 
them all he knows 
He is not very 

far on, but he is a good way beyond them. And his 
principal class is the Bible, and the Gospels. And so he 
teaches, and when he can get some of the parents to come 
in, he preaches to them, and his simple kindness wins the 
confidence of old and young, and before long there are in- 
quirers, and conversions, and baptisms. 




This simple network of schools and native evangelists 
has gradually spread over all the Northwest Provinc! o^ 

the LTof :f "' 'l"" """ """^ •"*" ^^^»- «Pi-"«aliCo 
«.e part of the workers, and a very real outpouring of the 

Holy Ghost on many hearts. The result is that during the 

pas two or three years there has been a great ingatheringo 

uls and more than fifty thousand have been added to the 

church by baptism. The additions have not been so sudden 

Zlu\ ""t ™"«" '^^•'^' ""' t"" -™^- ha" 

fs like^t!'™ '" " T ^""'' '™ *" '"'^''^^"-^ -- that it 
s hkely prove, not a special and sporadic movement, but 

IZ : r'^f"""""""'^'' "'^'^ ™^ agencies 'th^ 
are hkely to contnme bnnging forth sue,, fruit without in- 
rrupfon. We were glad to find that similar revivals IZ 
still gomg on m many of the churches 

Another interesting feature of this Mission is the impor. 
t^t,on of the Camp Meeting into the heathen field. ZZ 
.t was here before, but they have consecrated it to a higte 
and hoher use. The heathen a.. ve,y fond of holding whl 
they cab Malas or rehgious festivals, and gathering iL.'a 
crowds ma g™ve to celebrate the p^ses of some god The 
m,ss>ona„.s have be.n holding their ^a^o., too, and as many 
as two thousand people have sometimes attended them t 
cudmg many heathen, and there have been great numC 
of conve:.,o„s, just as in our meetings ft home Wl 
were very much pleased to find these simple, troe and agJL methods in this good work, and we ax^e sure thaTfTb 
work must be blessed and can only pray that God m2y ^^ 
tiply it more and more. ^ 




^Q evangelists 
Provinces of 
spirituality on 
During of the 
it during the 
igathering of 
added to the 
3n so sudden 
imbers have 
8 are that it 
)vement, but 
tgencies that 
'> without in- 
evivals were 

s the impor- 
Id. Indeed, 
i to a higher 
olding w^hat 
ing in great 
e god. The 
nd as many 
'd them, in- 
at numbers 
lome. We 
ind aggres- 
3 that such 
1 may mul- 



Of course, these friends have the advantage, that we do 
not yet possess, of a strong force of native converts to draw 
their workers from. This is the result of an experience of 
more than forty years. Until we can raise up this force from 
among our own converts, we must depend chiefly upon our 
American missionaries as pioneers ; but, as their work is 
blessed, we are sure that they will not be ashamed to copy 
the example of our friends in their grand use of every kind 
A native material, even the very humblest. While we hope 
to see the churches of America still pour thousands of vi'orkers 
into this land, yet the real work of v^inning and holding 
India for Jesus must ultimately be done by the people of 
India themselves. 

We spent a deligatful day with Dr. Parker and the mis- 
sionaries at Lucknow. We learned much of the history and 
geography of the field, and the methods of the work. We 
saw most of the leading workers at Lucknow, and more de- 
voted and large-hearted men and women we do not know. 
We visited the excellent High School and College. We had 
the pleasure of addressing the English Church in their com- 
modious building, and meeting Rev. Mr. Osborne, who was 
holding revival services there. Mr. Osborne is a native of 
India and a man of much spiritual power. 

On the following Saturday and Sabbath at Bareilly, we 
saw still more of the work. At the hospitable home of Dr. 
Scott, we learned much from his experience as an old pioneer 
on the frontiers of the field. We met the students of the 
Theological Seminary of vrhich he has charge, and were de- 


lighted with these sixty-five native young men who reminded 
us so much of our own work at home. We visitt-i tlie girls' 
Ori)hanage and Schools, and hrighter, sweeter faces we never 
saw than these two Imndred dear Rohilcund girls. 

We had the joy of preaching the gospel through an in- 

A ' ' Kodak " photogrraph taken by Mr. Simpson. 

terpreter, and of seeing two souls come out and receive bap- 
tism. And on Sabbath evening, our last Sabbath in India, 
we spoke once more for the Master to the English congrega- 
tion in Bareilly, and although the company was not a great 
one, the Lord was present, and souls were, we beUeve, blessed 
and brought very near to Him. It was a blessed day, indeed 



lo I'eininded 
f '1 the girls' 
es we never 

ceive bap- 
i in India, 
ot a great 
re, blessed 
ly, indeed 



a blessed series of days— our visit to the M. E. Mission of 
Lucknow and Bareilly. 

Nor must we forget Delhi, or the dear missionary that 
came to see us and spent an hour wuth us before wo left, and 
told us with mutual joy of the five hundred souls that he had 
been permitted to gather from among the heathen during the 

past year. 

We were so glad to leave our India work and our brother, 
Mr. Fuller, in touch with this blessed Mission, and we were 
also much gratified to be able to gain much valuable informa- 
tion respecting openings on the frontier of Nepaul and Thibet 
—one of the chief objects for which we had come to North 
India. But we shall speak more fully of this again. 

It was a disappointment not to meet our dear friend and 
former guest, Miss Anna Buddin, but her field is so remote, on 
the frontier of Nepaul and Thibet and six days' journey from 
Bareilly. that there was not time for her to get down ; but 
we heatd many cheering things of her brave and blessed work, 
and had a very kind telegram from her. We were glad to be 
assured that should we be led to send our workers to these 
frontier fields, the old standard bearers at <^he front woukl be 
gli>,a Ic greet them and cheer them on their way. 

There are other excellent Missions in Northern India. 
Tht Presoyi;iiiians are in the Punjaub and Rajpootana. But 
i; -u as impossible for us, in the short time at our disposal, to 

go there also. 

We left Bareilly for Benares early Monday morning, and 
spent most of the day in the old capital of Hinduism. Be- 



I, ' 


■ 4 

Ir- -- -- 








nares is the ancient home of the founder of Buddhism, and 
the Sacred City of the Hindus. We had read niuch of the 
Gauges and its temples, and we expected nmch that would, at 
least, interest us. But never did we meet with a more heart- 
sickening disa])pointment. Some one has said tlie place to 
read "The Light of Asia" is Benares. We should think it is. 

If any one 
v/ishes to see the 
hoUowness, fool- 
ishness and filthi 
ness of Hinduism 
and heathenism, 
let him look 
through the Ben- 
ares temples on 
the Ganges. 
There are hun- 
dreds of them, 
and we saw the 
most of them and 
the hest of them 
but they were all 
disgusting. The 
first was their 
famous " Golden 
Temple," but it 
was full of filthy mosque of aurunqzub, benares. 

328 LAfiGiiR orn.ooKs o,y uissioiv.i/^y lands. 

cows, and naked prio^ts, and obscene images and foi ! Brnell*?, 
and the wtr.Hjts arouj I i( were crowded with bazaars BolUnJ 
thousands of objects of re ious worship, that n< lecent man 
or woman could touch or 1< )k at. 

The next was th. famous ^^ ikey Temple, ai 1 it was 

Httle bntter. The 
god and i^fviipss at 
the ontrui. ; are 
obj(cifc, of terror, 
and the monkeys 
that (tirouged it 
and fed on the 
weetmeats ( iTered 
the worslsippers 
were by far 
best looking 
best dressed people 

The next was 
the Nepaulese Tem- 
ple, the gift of a 
Prince of Nepaul, 
and the carvings 
were too vile and 
obscene to look at, 
far less describe. 
The cattle were al- 
lowed to frequent 



<1 foil fimells, 
azaars selling 
o decent man 

0, ail it was 
better. The 
id gf) ""'less at 
ntran* (3 are 
> of torror, 
le monkeys 
thronged it 
ed »n the 
leats oifered 
:)y far 
essed people 

3 next was 

)aule8e Tem- 

gift of a 

of Nepaul, 
le carvings 
oo vile and 

to look at, 
3 describe, 
le were al- 
io frequent 

noMn.iY TO iU':N.iA'f-:s. 


the temples a i objects of worship, and even the manure 

that pollutrd 1 1 -loor was treasured as a satred thing. The 
l^eople were bathing in the Ganges, but, side by side, others 
were wasliing their dirty clothes in the same stream they 
worshipped. The river front did not even have the merit of 
architectural beauty. It is an old tnmble-down atlnir. with 
a f'"^' striking old towers and spires. 

i t this - 

was vi- 

this VI. vvor- 
ing down. 
Pilgrims are 
tinually t o 
nable shrines, 
men, women 
are worship- 


a tyi)eof Hin- 
g 1 a d the 
is breaking 
alas ! there 
deuce that 
ship is break - 
Thousands of 
coming con- 
these abomi- 
Millions o f 
and children 
ping as divine 
cent and ob- 

scen(> things. The very instincts uf nature seem to have been 
perverted and destroyed, and they take pleasure in things 
that seem to us to have no interest or charm, but are utterly 
depressing, revolting and hideous. This is the saddest thiu^ 
about heathenism. It is so lost that it does not even know 
how lost it is. Well, we are glad we saw Benares and Bareilly. 
One is the heaven side of India, the other the side that takes 
hold on hell. God help us speedily to lift this sunken laud 
from liell to heaven 1 



LKAVINO Bonares at sunset, a n,l„ „f WKhteen hours 
took „„ „„w„ the valley of the (iangex to Sahehgange 

fl„„f ?' " ™''^ *""""''"' "*■• ""'' '«• «» through th„ 
finest cou„t,.y «■„ have yet see,, i„ l,„„a. The whole fandl 
irr.^te,l, and it looks like a tropical gai-den. 

The fields a,e cut up into little sections about flftv feet 
square ,epa,-ated by a little ridge of sand to hold th, wate^ 

btr^il'TV''™^' '■''''"• ''*™'"*'"''-«-'^"'- 
gold Some of the harvests were while and wavinst like 
great baune,,ot gold. Many were green and of ever; sha 
Th,ckly dotted .n every di,-ection, and often clustered in pi 
u,esque groups, we.« myriads of ,„ango fee.,, their foliage 
so nch and dense that no sunbea,n can .strike through, i^! 
ests of the hnest palms waved on every side 

U. H*^"*r '"' ™"" "^ * -nagniflcent banyan .spreading wide 

ft^t ,« • " ""T'^ ""■"'«'>' "P '"'» "•« "«» Bky with 

Its tuft of wav,ug b,anches gathered at the ton. It is 1 

St th '! °' "' '"'°^™- '" «"- "o""- with the ^nt 
nght^u, the boson, of its vast t,.nnk, the banyan liteLly 



igliteen hours 
) Haht'hgange. 
H through th.- 
whole land is 

)out fifty feet 
d t ho waters ; 
;reat chocker- 
>f greon and 
waving Hke 
every shade, 
tered in pic- 
their fohage 
"ough. For- 

reading wide 
nk a stately 
lue sky with 
op. It is a 
th the pahn 
'an literally 

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WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 













Collection de 


Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 



throwing its arris around it and embracing it in its bosom— 
a sublime tigure of loveliness in the arms of strength, or gen- 
tleness combined witli power. 

The shade trees of India are made for the climate. Then- 
foliage is impenetrable by the fiery sun, and every field has 
its natural protection from the deadly stroke of that heat 
which no one can understand who has not felt it. The ban- 
yan is one of the finest, and often sends down its branches 
to form dozens of new trunks and take fresh root in the soil. 

mango is 
not only 

a tree of 

sur p a s s- 

ing beau 

t y and 

g r a c e , 


much like 

our rock 


maple, but much finer ; it also bears a splendid fruit— 
the typical fruit of India, and one unsurpassed by any in 
the world, combining, perhaps, the best qualities of the 
psi^ch and the pear, but much richer than either. The fig 
tree grows everywhere, especially on the hills, and the fruit 
is now in its perfection. One variety of it is " The People 
Tree," which is worshipped everywhere. Then there are 
plantains, guavas and scores besides, bearing excellent fruit. 


j.ARaF.n orri.ook's ox j\/rsswxAF?y lands. 

The bananas of India are much superior to ours. The small 
ones have a i)fculiar flavor as if tliey had been cooked and 
sweetened, and liave none of tlie dryness and harshness of 
the American fruit. 

But the queen of 
India's trees is the 
palm, Tln-ee varieties 
grow heie. The date 
palm is quite common. 
The cocoanut palm is 
seen in considerable 
quantities in Bombay, 
Madras and elsewhere. 
The most common is 
the Palmyra palm, 
which the natives tap 
to make an intoxicat- 
ing drink called 
toddy. You can see 
an earthen pot hang- 
ing from the to]) of 
most of tliem, and a 
native climbs the tree 
night and morning to 
gather and replace the pots. The tree is always beautiful 
and makes almost any scene a picture of grace and loveliness. 
At Sahebgange we left our train and sailed up the 
Ganges for an hour or more, to connect with the train run- 





The small 
cooked and 
larshness of 

queen of 
?es is the 
ee varieties 
The date 
te commcn. 
lut palm is 
in Bombay, 
I elsewhere, 
common is 
yia palm, 
natives tap 
1 intoxicat- 
\k called 
)u can see 

pot hang- 
the top of 
lem, and a 
lbs the tree 
morning to 
>^s beautiful 
1 loveliness, 
led up the 

train run- 


iiing northward to our destination in the Himalaya :iTo'tn- 


It was an interesting sail on the ancient river, with its 
sandy shores audits broad expanse, diversified here and there 
by the strangest looking old ships we ever saw, drawn by 
Cooli(>s on the banks by means of a long rope from the mast- 
head. At length Ave disembai'ked and took the train north- 
ward to Siliguri at the base of the Himalaya Mountains. 

Then began an eight hours" journey which we shall ever 
remember with intense vis^idness and !)leasure. It was the 
ascent of tlie Himalayas by rail. It was not a long ride, 
only fifty miles, but it took us all day to go these fifty miles, 
and, at no time, could the engine exceed seven miles an hour. 
In these fifty miles we ascended nearly S,(»00 feet, or more 
than a mile and a half, and the grade, at some points, was 
as steep as one foot in twenty. We have had a good many 
mountain climbs and mountain \iews, the Alps, the Kes- 
wick liills, Ben Lomond and the Scottish Mountains, the 
Whi+e Mountains, the peaks and passes of the Itockies, the 
'■■ .rras, and the beautiful Coast Range, and yet more lately 
the terrific gorges of the Ghauts at Mahabelashur and Sidney 
Point,— and we have often accepted the old refrain as indis- 

imtable : 

" Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains ; 
They crowned him long ago 
On a throne of rock 'noath a dome of cloud, 
With a diadem of snow." 

But Mont Blanc must yield the diadem to Kinchin junga, 

and the old Himalayas claim the unapproachable i)re-emi- 



nence. Never before have we been quite satisfied with a 
mountain view. It has always been to us a httle less than 
our ideal. We have always been looking for something that 
was really above the clouds. 

But as we stood the following morning, nearly 8,000 feet 


above the sea, at Ghoom, and looked down into the abyss a 
mile and a half below us, and then up to the snow-crowned 
peaks that towered /our w?7e.s' aftore even the heights where 
we were standing, we were satisfied ; imagination and mem- 
ory had fovmd a resting place at last for the vision of earthly 
majesty. Some day we hope to gaze upon the Hills of God 
and the Throne above the clouds, but earth can have few 


led with a 
5 h'ss than 
Jthing that 

' 8,000 feet 

le abyss a 
;hts where 
and meni- 
of earthly 
:ills of God 
have few 

FROM Till: IllMAL. I )'- /> TO Till. IIOQi.lll Y. 


suLlimer visionH than these majestic depths of mist, and 
domes of eternal snow. Kinchin junga and Everest, the two 
highest peaks visible from Darjeeling, are about 'J!>,()0() feet 
high, or more than two miles liigherthan Mont Blanc, or the 
peaks of the Rocky Mountains— or even the Sierras. 

The most remarkable featuie of these vast mountains is 
the abrui)tness of their rise. You are approaching the; Rocky 
Mountains for miles, and when their peaks come into view 
you are already 5,000 feet above the sea, and they are only 
about 10,000 above you. But the Himalayas rise like a great 
perpendicular wall directly from their base. You travel 
along a level plain right up them, and their great, huge 
shoulders begin to emerge from the horizon before you have 
reached an elevation of 50O feet. Ghoom itself, which is 
nearly S,000 feet high, is not twenty-five miles in a straight 
line from the plain, although it takes fifty miles of winding 
through the valleys to reach it. 

The objective point of our journey was Darjeeling, a hill 
station, and the terminus of the Darjeeling and Himalayan 
Railway. It was built as a military station and summer 
health resort, and is removed far above the heat of the India 
sum' 'r. The railroad has been open for ten years and it is 
a marv. 1 of engineering skill. It is interesting to watch its 
windings around the hills and its zig-zags up the mountain 
sides. Sometimes it runs round the same hill in a spiral, as- 
cending course several times ; sometimes it reverses and 
switches back and then forward several times in a zig-zag 
course up the hill-side. Talk of the famous " Horseshoe 


/../A'o7;a' 0/ 7 /.(>() a:s ox m/ss/ox.ia')' r.A.vns. 

Ciirvt)" of i\w Allf'ghcnies. why, this little track somotimes 
runs round a i)orf»'(;t circle of loss than a hundred feet, and 
(losses itself, until the front and rear cars form a semicircle. 
The ganj;(! is only two feet wide and twists about like an 
elastic little sei-jjent. 

Of course, the views as you ascend are vtny fine. Often 
you look down a pei'ijendicnlar cliflf into a gorge one thou- 
sand feet dee]). N'alley after valley si)reads out before you as 

you a s- 
cend, and 
the d i 8- plain 
and the 
rive r 
w i n d 
thro ugh 
it until all 
are lost in 
the dim 
distance ; while above you new heights tower up, and each 
elevation is only a foot-hill for some grander peak. 

Tlie vegetation is very fine. After we had got uj) a few 
hundred f(>et we got into the first forests we had seen in India. 
The thing most noticeably absent in this land is forest tree^'. 
There are plenty of small trees, but the great giants of the 
forest— trees from sixty to one hundred and fifty feet high— 
we have nowhere seen, except in the Himalayas. But here 
they are in all their glory, vying with the hills for immensity,— 




: Koniotimos 

(1 foot, a!ul 


imfc like an 

ine. Often 
s one thon- 
ifoie you as 
y o 11 as- 
cend, and 
<li(; d i 8- 
tant plain 
and t li e 
rive r 
w i n d 
it luitilall 
are lost in 
the d i ni 
p, and each 

)t uj) a few 
ion in India, 
'crest treef*. 
ants of the 
feet high— 
. But here 
iimensity, — 

great t o a k 
trees with 
leaves a foot 
in diameter, 
tr(!es, the sil- 
ver ilex, the 
hanyan and 
others we did 
not know. 
Then the 
vinos and 
creepers were 
still fi n o r. 
parasites like 
grape vines 
ran up the 
trunks of the 
trees for one 
hundred feet, 

and then 

threw down a 

whole n e t- 

w o r k o f 

streamers and vines, and covered the forest with a wealth of 

foliage and bloom. Sometimes they would be interlaced 

around the tree in a thousand cross lines until it looked like 




a web of white lace acrosp a clotli of ^rccn. Sometimes one 
groat vine, with ir inoiiBe pahii like leaveH, would wiiul itself 
aiound a tje«' in regulai- spiral ciiive all the way up. until it 
litoked like some great pillar deeurate<l with a wreath oC palm. 
Sometitnes the creeper would throw a great string of im- 
mense white blossoms and fasten it to some more distant tree, 
until it hung like a great festoon of flowers, as if for some 
high festival. 

Many of the trees were in bloom. There is one very 
beautiful tree in the India foi'c^sts, that has no leaves but is 
c()V(;red coin|)letely ovei' with immense scarlet flowers, and it 
looks just like a blaze of flame. There are many of these in 
the Himalayan valleys and they light up the landscape with 
great pictures(pienoss. There are many fine ferns all along 
the road, and after we reached the 4,oo() feet line we found a 
great many innnense tree ferns of exceeding grace and beauty, 
some of them twenty to thirty feet high. 

But the prettiest things were the tea plantations. There 
were a few at the base, but as we reached an elevation of 
4,0()(» to 5,000 feet they covered all the hillsides with their 
beautiful rows of brilliant green. The plant has a hard and 
brilliant leaf of dark green with a very close compact habit 
of growth, and looks very much like the boxwood w^hich we 
use for garden borders. It grows as a compact little bush, 
about two feet high. They are planted in rows about two 
feet apart, and a dozen plantations spread over several miles 
of hills and valleys. With the long rows stretching up the 
mountains, winding like emerald rings around the hilltops, 




ornotimes one 
lid wind itsolf 
ly lip, until it 
icath ol' palm, 
string of im- 
e distant tree, 
18 if for some 

e is one very 
leaves but is 
luvvyrs, and it 
ly of those in 
indscape with 
iins all along 
le we found a 
:!e and beauty, 

itions. There 
1 elevation of 
les with their 
as a hard and 
ompact habit 
ood which we 
ct little bush, 
V8 about two 
several miles 
ching up the 
i the hilltops, 

iRo.y I III: HIM. II.. n . is /< > i iii: inn x.iii. y. 


and tlu' wliite zig/Jig i)aths cut ihiough tlwui up and down 
llu' mouiitaiiiK, whilf hove and tli<Mc, at the prettiest points, 
llu' white, artistic tea houses ar«* dotted through the picture, 
]ik(* white pearls in an emerald setting— the effect is very 

There are 110 less than 400 tea plantations in the Darjeel- 


ing valley and vicinity, most of them owned and carried on 
by ICnglishmen. The business is aVery profital)le one. The 
tea is the finest in the world, -ind he that has once tasted the 
genuine " Pekoe Dust " ir. spoiled for any other that we have 
yet seen or tasted. It is ■ ; illy one of God's boons to the peo- 
ple of India. 





At every railway station restaurant, and they are very 
numerous and very well managed, you can get your " Cha,"' 
and it is always good, and always cheap, and is really a sub- 
stitute with very many for the alcoholic stimulants used so 
nmch in England and America. It is most harmless and 
wholesome, and, like the curry, seems especially suited for the 
climate of India. We drank it in the morning, and could 
work on it ; we drank it at midnight, and could sleep on it just 
as comfortably. 

But much more interesting to us than either the moun- 
tains or their luxuriant vegetation were the people we met. 
We had come to the Himalayas not to look at the snowy 
heights or the green valleys, but because we had felt, for a 
long time, that this was, perhaps, for us the Gateway into 
that mysterious and long-closed land — the last citadel of 
heathenism — Thibet. 

To reach this land our Missionary Alliance was really 
organized six years ago. It has been the object of ceaseless 
prayer with many that God would open its doors to the Gos- 
pel. A brave party of pioneers left us, a year ago, to attempt 
to enter it from Cliina, and, with the Chinese language 
already acquired, they are now waiting our arrival at Wuhu, 
to go forward, as the Lord may open the way to the borders 
of the Mountain Land". Since they left for China the Lord 
has laid it much on our heart that there must also be a mis- 
sionary gateway to Thibet from India, and one of the objects 
of our journey was to see if it could be found. With this in 
view we had made much careful inquiry at Bareilly, and 


. they are very- 
it your " Cha," 
is really a sub- 
lulants used so 
t harmless and 
ly suited for the 
ling, and could 
i sleep on it just 

;her the moun- 
people we met. 
at the snowy 
had felt, for a 
3 Gateway into 
last citadel of 

nee was really 
ect of ceaseless 
3ors to the Gos 
ago, to attempt 
iuese language 
•rival at Wuhu, 
'■ to the borders 
China the Lord 
it also be a mis- 
e of the objects 
. With this in 
t Bareilly, and 



found tliat their was a good deal of iiitercouiso witli Thibet- 
ans, by way of Pittlioragurh (Miss Buddiii's Mission) and the 
country just west of Ne])aul. But that field is well occujiied 
by the Methodist Mission, and they are ready to enter the 


first opening. They have also half a dozen stations along the 
southern border of Nepaul, ready to enter that country, which 
is also unoccupied, at the earliest opening. 

As we have prayed about it, the Lord has laid it upon our 



I I 

n ^ 



lieart that for lis the nearest and most availahle gateway was 
through tlie country just east of Nepaul and west of Bhotan, 
hoth of wliich are still uuevangehzed, and so would he also 
within reach of such a station. But, more important than 
this, the point we have; indicated is the nearest point on Eng- 
lish territory to Thihet, and on the direct roads to its chief 
mountain pass, and only four day's journey, or less than one 
hundred miles from the fiontier, and it was natural to sup- 
pose that a good many Thihetans would he found in the val- 
leys outside the horders. 

We have not heen disappointed in our hopes. Not only 
did we find Darjeeling nearer the horders of Thihet than any 
other accessible point on English territory, but we also found 
that Thibet had begun to come to Darjeeling. From the 
moment we began to ascend the mountains we found our- 
selves among an entirely new race. Their faces were utterly 
different from the Hindus. They were short and thickset, 
with high cheek-hones and fat faces, and a good deal like the 
Chinese, but much brighter and better-looking. All the way 
lip we met them on the road, many of them carrying great 
bundles, and whole families of them in the villages sitting 
together with their wives and children. The children looked 
so cunning with their round, flat faces and little almond 
eyes. They all speak Thibetan. We fell in love with them 
right away. They seem en to be our own people. The Lord 
laid them strangely on our hearts, and we felt it would be a 
joy to live among them and love them into Christianity. 

We believe God is yet going to let us have a great and 

'-.- ' ■i w w. wWPj^B.ana Miwg 


)le gateway was 
west of Bhotan, 
,0 would be also 
important than 
it point on En^- 
oads to its chief 
or less than one 
; natural to sup- 
ound in the val- 

lopes. Not only- 
Thibet than any 
it we also found 
ling. From the 
IS we found our- 
ices were utterly 
rt and thickset, 
:ood deal like the 
ig. All the way 
m carrying great 
e villages sitting 
B children looked 
nd little almond 
a love with them 
Bople. The Lord 
felt it would be a 
have a great and 


blessed work among these i)eoi)le. As we came to meet some 
of them we found them a bright and happy pe()i)le. The mis- 
sionaries at Darjeeling say they are " the joiliest" people they 
ever met. Most of them live eight to twelve thousand feet 
above the sea, and tlie bracing air makes them bright and 
energetic. They seem to be nnich more lively than the 
Chinese, although, of course, the latter race possesses (luali- 

ties of strength and 
to all other nations. 
a^ least, one thous- 
ing in the Darjeel- 
reach of missiona- 
there, and, we be- 
them that we may 
and receive Christ, 
their people as her- 
One native is worth 
an evangelist to a 
we can do nothing 
of Thibetan work- 
open, we shall not 


endurance superior 
There are now, 
and Thibetans liv- 
ing valley, within 
ries who might labor 
lieve, God has sent 
lead them to know 
and then go back to 
aids of the Gospel, 
four foreigners, as 
new people, and if 
else but train a band 
ers until Thibet is 
spend the time in 
But we believe we 

vain, even if we have to wait for years 

shall not have to wait, but God will open the doors of Thibet 

the moment we are ready to enter. 

The country is closed at present to foreigners. It is said 
to be fifty years since a European visited Lhassa, the capital. 
There is special jealousy, at present, of English influence. 
There are good reasons for it. The Thibetans think England 



has a political object in send- 
ing these missionaries. Their 
idea is — the missionary first, 
and then the soldier. England, they say, has conquered 
India and annexed Burmah, their two southern neighbors, 
and will be sure to annex them if they let her in. 

This jealous feeling has been very much increased by 
some recent occurrences. There is a little state just north of 
DarjeeUng called Sikkim. It lies on the southern border of 
Thibet. Owing to some political troubles with its Eajah, 
England has recently annexed this State, and put the Eajah 
in prison. It happens that his wife is a Thibetan, and many 
of his people also. Of course, the sympathy of the Thibetans 


FROM '/'///■: HI MAI.. lY.lS TO I III'. HOOCIII. Y. 



bject in send- 
naries. Their 
ssionary first, 
has conquered 
ern neighbors^ 


1 increased by 
e just north of 
hern border of 
ith its Eajah, 

put the Rajah 
tan, and many 

the Thibetans 

is with him, and there is much feeling against England. A 
few years ago the Indian govcrnnK^nt tried to send a dejjuta- 
tion to Thibet to o]ien connneroial relations between the two 
countries, but the Thibetans refused them entrance, and they 
had to turn back fi-om the border. 

A Conference is being held at this very time at Kenc^hin- 
jung, a place inside the Thibetan border, between the English 
conmiissioners and the Thibetan government, and it is hoped 
the i-esult will be the opening of trade relations between 
Thibet and India. If this is done, the missionary will follow 
in due time. 

We found more woik at I )arjeeling than we expected. 
The Scotch Established Church has a mission and is building 
a new church. They have a good many native workers and 
several hundred mmnbtn-s in Sikkim, the annexed district, 
but they an; working chieHy among the Nepaulese and peo- 
l)lo of Bhotan, who live on British territory. There is really 
no mission yet directly in either Nepaul or Bhotan, but a 
good many of the i)eople of both these countries ai-e being 
reached on theii- holders. 

We ai-e also glad to find a little party of Swedish mis- 
sionaries at Darjeeling. Al)Out a year ago, through the in- 
strumentality of Mr. Franson, a good many missionaries 
were sent out by the Swedish churches of America. Nine of 
these came to Darjeeling with a view to reaching Thibet. 
They had but little pi-eparation for their work and were utter 
strangers to the field and the people. But God has guarded 
theni very graciously and led them through many dangers. 



/../A'c/r/v' orr/.ooKs ox Mrzsiox.iA'v /..ixns. 

1 ■ 

We were most providentially led to them and received nmch 
kindness from them, and, wo trust, were made a blessing to 

We found three young gentlemen living at Darjeeling, 
and four of the young ladies at Ghoom, a laige village about 
four miles away. Both towns are full of Thibetans. Wo 
found them studying the language bravely, and some of them 
able to talk considerable Thibetan. They were a little dis- 
couraged at the obstacles that had been thrown in their way 
by the refusal of the British Government to let them enter 
Sikkim. But we encouraged them to persevere and promised 
them that, as soon as we could, W(^ should send out some 
workers to this field to help them. Tliey assured us of a most 
hearty welcome, and full co-operation. Indeed, they met us 
very much as did our missionaries, and we believe received a 
new inspiration for their work fi'om the Lord. 

But we believe God will soon give this land to His Church, 
and Thibet seems many thousand miles nearer us since we 
have looked over upon its mountain heights, and gazed upon 
the faces of its dear peo])le. 

We met with some very interesting people in the home 
of our dear Swedish friends. One of them was a learned Ben- 
gali Pundit, who had lived many years in Thibet, and has 
written much about it. He is the owner of the house in 
which our friends live, and has called the house Lhassa. after 
the capital of Thibet. He will prove a useful friend to the 
work. We shall be glad to publish some of his interesting 
papers on this strange land. 


I received much 
,de a blessing to 

j; at Darjeeling, 
^0 village! about 
Thibetans. Wo 
d some of them 
ere a little dis- 
vn in their way 
I let them enter 
•0 and promised 
send out some 
ed us of a most 
sd, they met us 
lieve received a 

L to His Church, 
rer us siuce we 
and gazed upon 

pie in the home 
i a learned Ben- 
Thibet, and has 
if the house in 
30 Lhassa, after 
ul friend to the 
his interesting 

F/^oM THE Himalayas to thf. ikhhuii. y. 


Another whoni we met was the teacher of our friends. 
He is a bright, young Thibetan scholar, and wrote his name 
in Thibetan in our journal, and promised to write and let us 
know when lie became a Christian, that we might send him 
a Bible. Another was their servant, a handsome and bright 
Thibetan lad. One of the most interesting of all was an old 
Lama, aged seventy-four. We found him busy at his 
prayers about six o'clock in the morning, and he received 
us very kindly, but kept praying away while we talked. He 
sang his prayers aloud, and between the notes every few sec- 
ondj; he would ring a bell sharply to call the attention of the 
gods, ih) said he first worshipped the Buddhist Trinity, and 
the.i, after he got their permission, he made his offerings to 
the earth gods. His offerings were rice and water, which he 
kept placing, with a spoon, in a sacred vessel, singing and 
ringing away as he poured it in. He expressed a great desire 
to have an American inkstand, and we gave him the only ink 
bottle we had, a rather nice one, done up in a leather case, for 
travelling. He expressed himself as nmch pleased, and gave 
us, in return, some incense papers for our Museum. We ex- 
pect to find our ink bottle again, "after many days," in some 
Thibetan valley, and to learn that it has borne more fruit 
than if it had been used to write missionary letters. 

The most interesting sight of all was a score of Thibetan 
children whom we met at the Ladies' Home at Ghoom. They 
formed the classes in their Sunday School. We had a photo- 
graph taken of them, and we claimed them as the first fruits 
of Thibet. 



We had the jilcjisiui' <if iiicctiii}; ^li'. Tunibull, Supeiiii- 
t('ii(l(>ut of the Scotch Mission, and his excellent wife, and 
also Mr. and Mrs. lirown, in charge of the Union English 
Church. We liad a good view of the beautiful town of Dar- 
jeeling, and next morning went over to Ghoom to see tho 

A " Kodak" photograph takeu by Mr. Siiupsou, 

ladies of the Mission. The gentlemen accompanied us, and 
we spent two blessed hours at the feet of Jesus, putting 
down the soles of our feet vei-y firmly upon Thibet, and feel- 
ing very sure that God has given it to us. 

As we came down from the mountain we felt that our 


iihiill, Suporiu- 
Uciit wife, and 
Union J'^iiglisli 
il town of Dar- 
)om to st'c the 

panied us, and 
Jesus, putting 
ibet, and feel- 
felt that our 

Fh'^)^r I III'. iiiM.u f y. is to riir. iioociii. v. 


A-isit to India was about linished. In a most veniaikable 
mannei- God liad led us to the places that had been laid on 
our hearts, and made them mean much more to us than wo 
had over hopcul. The seeing of the country itself has had 
little interest to usapai't from its connection with the Master's 
work and kingdom. 


Twenty-four hours brought lis to Calcutta, and although 
we had a little while to spare in that stately capital of the 
great Indian Empire, and felt impressed with its superb mag- 
nificence as we drove through the spacious streets and al- 
most boundless parks and gardens, yet we felt that we were 
not needed here, and were glad that we wei-e to pass on so 




I H 

250 /.AHaiiiA' oi'TLoohs o.Y A//ss/o.\\iA'} /..i.vns. 


soon to other lands, where God is bidding us lift up our eyes 
on the liarvests that are white also. 

We called at the beautiful Methodist Parsonag*^ and heard 
of the good work of our brethreii in the oity ; also of the 
Woman's Union work, and several English and S(X)tch Soeie- 

1 -.~:F^^^^S!'~-iiJf^:iV>tl 






b up our eyes 

ig(>uM(l lieard 

; also of tlio 

Scotch Socie- 

FROM riiE HIM. If. I » /> /<> i">' Hoo<;in. v. 25 1 

Wo went to tilt' Itoyal Hotiiiiicnl (^aniens, four iiiilrs 
below the <-ity ..11 the other side of the Hooglily, Juul saw the 
wondeiful Hanyan Tree of which every school hoy has read, 
which cov«'rs with its hram^hes a space of L'C.o fe«!t in diam- 
eter, or ino.e than a whole city block. We walked down th.» 
double avenue of palms which stand twenty feet a]. art, a 
double line of glorious lullars along an avenue r.uO feet long. 
It was the grandest piece of architiM'tnre we ever saw. 


Straight as an arrow, unifoim in size and height, these glo- 
rious white columns rose for fifty feet, and then all, at pre- 
cisely the same height, terminated in a crown such as no 
architect could carve. This garden, a mile long, contains, per- 
haps, the finest collection of tropical vegetation in the worM. 
On our way home we took a boat and had a genuine sad 
on the Hooghly. It would have made our readers laugh till 
they cried if they could have seen us. The boat was big 
enough to hold fifty nuui, but it was the smallest we saw on 
the river. They are all great, monstrous, outlandish lookmg 


252 J..-iR(;rR or-r/.noA-s ox .vrssrox.wy a^ixdm: 

tliiiip;.s. It has a givat h'n^ cabin covrivd with a pjeco of 
Lamhoo inattiiiK, as a roof, ami, of coin-se, m-raiigcd for ('vory 
ono to Hit croKHlcggcd on the floor, thn only way a Hindu 
knows how to sit. Well, wo got in tho old rickoty thing and 
Kit down, and then two half-naked Coolies la^gan to propel 
it, whilo one stt'cn'd. But tho i»ro|HHing apparatus ! Well, 
it consisted of two long haniboo poles, about thirty feet long, 
which they stuck down inlo iln bottom (.f th(> river, one on 
each Hide, and pushed the boat with, and when they had pushed 
tho boat's l(>ngth they would race forward, stick the judo down, 

and give another long push, and so back ward and forward these 
two half-naked Coolies trotted, pushing us along tho shallow 
edge of tlu* liver until tho sun went down over Calcutta, and 
the lanij/s flashed out along its avenues and streets. Our last 
view of India life Avas siu-ely an original one. But every 
day and hour brings otTt 'some new side of their siniple and 
primitive life. Poor tinngs ! Without Christ their life is 
very bmall, and we were wondering, to-day, whether they or 
tlie birds that flutter about them have most to live for. 

•^ iiil 


»'ith a piece of 
iiiK<'<l for every 
• way a Hindu 
■k(!ty tiling and 
('K^'i to propel 
iritUH ! Well, 
lirty feet long. 

liver, one on 
bey had pushed 
the polo down, 

1 forward these 
ng i\m shallow 
" Calcutta, and 
Bets. Our last 
e. But every 
eir simple and 
ist their life is 
hether they or 

live for. 



EXACTLY Ave weeks ago to-day we landed in Bombay, 
and now we are leaving India. A few hours ago 
we waved the last farewell signal to dear Brother 
Fuller on the Mackinnon Ghat, C.Vcutta ; and now we are 
passing out into the Bay of Bosrtu, and the low, marshy 
shores of Sagar Island, with their tiger-haunted jungles, are 
disappearing from view. 

It is a good time to pause and take one more look at this 
great land, and gather up some of the lessons and impressions 
which even this short visit has brought us. 

First, we want to thank God for His wonderful goodness 
in all our journeyings. Unavoidably compelled to come to 
India in the month which is usually regarded as the beginning 
of the hot season, many of our friends thought that we were 
running considerable risk in attempting much travelling in 
March. But God has very graciously, and, in a most unusual 
measure, moderated the weather, and given us His strength, 
so that we have not lost an hour on acc^ount of the weather, 
or been compelled to suffer in any extreme way. 


Ij ill 




We, especially, wish to thank God for the amount of 
work we have heen enahled to accomplish. In thirty-five 
days we have travelled r),2(;!> miles by rail, and more than 300 
by carriage or cart. We have spent twenty-one nights on 
railway trains and only fourteen nights in a bed. And the 
railways of India have no Pullman sleepers, but you just lie 
down on the seat in your clothes and cover yourself with 
your rugs and go to sleep. But we are as fresh and well as 
when we began our journey, and the Lord has kept us from 
exhaustion and harm. 

We have, also, l)e«m permitted to see a good deal of the 
country. We have i; a veiled through a considerable portion 
of each of tiie three Presidencies : Madras, Bombay and 
Bengal, and also the Northwest Provinces, and even touched 
the Punjaub We have passed through the native states of 
Hyderabad, Mysore, Baroda, Guzerat, Rajpootana, and the 
borders of Nepaul and Bhotan. We have had the privilege 
of seeing something of the greatest cities of India, — Bombay, 
Calcutta, Madras, Bangalore, Poona, Baroda, Delhi, Agra, 
Cawnpore, Lucknow, Bareilly, Patna. We have seen some 
of India's rivers— the Ganges, the Nerbuddah, and the 
Hooghly. And we have crossed or climbed some of its 
famous mountains — the Ghauts, the Vindhyas and the Him- 

We have been able to visit a few of the Missions, and 
have had the jirivilege of meeting personally about one huu- 
dred and fifty of he missionaries. Especially do we thank 
God that He has permitted us to caiTy out most of His plans 



the amount of 
In thirty-five 
(1 more than 300 
yr-one nights on 
bed. And the 
)ut you just He 
'r yourself with 
esh and well as 
s kept us from 

ood deal of the 
iderable portion 
,s, Bombay and 
id even touched 
native states of 
ootana, and the 
ad the privilege 
ndia, — Bombay, 
a, Delhi, Agra, 
have seen some 
iddah, and the 
led some of its 
as and the Him- 

e Missions, and 
about one huu- 
Uy do we thank 
lost of His plans 

j./:.irixi; /.\7>/.i. 


ig, and has not 

which were laid u[K)n our heait before coniii 
disai)p()inted us in any way, or permitted us to miss a single rail- 
way connection, or fail to reach a single appointment. We 
liave had the joy of visiting those Missions, especially where 
God has so wonderfully poured out His Holy Spirit and we 


have been enabled to see some of the best results of modern 
missionary work, as well as some of the most destitute and 
neglected heathen fields. 

We have had much to thank God for in the companion- 
ship of our dear brother, Mr. Fuller, in these rapid journey- 
ings. His knowledge of two languages of India, the Marathi 






and Hiiidustaiii, lias carried us almost cvcrywliere, and hi* 
experience of the country has greatly facilitated all our plans ; 
while, on the other hand, he has gained a knowledge of the 
country, and an extended acquaintance among the Missions, 
wliich will he of the greatest value t<> liim in directing our 
work in India. 

Wevvisli, also, to thank our missionary friends in the 
various Missions for their hospitality and kindness every- 
where. We have found it very difficult to get to a hotel any- 
where, and the simple hospitality of Christian homes in India 
cannot well he exaggerated. Besides, one can see and under- 
stand the country so much hetter under the guidance of those 
who live in it. 

Our object in coming to India was threefold, viz.: first, 
to see our own missionaries, cheer and counsel them in their 
work, and find out new openings for the further extension 
of the work in other parts of India ; secondly, to visit other 
missions, especially those that have had the marked seal and 
blessing of God upon them ; and thirdly, so far as time and 
opportunity allowed, subordinately to these first two objects, 
to see and learn as much as possible about India and its 
people. < 

Reversing the order of these points, we will now endeavor 
to STimmarize the results of what we have learned. 

First, as to India and its people. Cut out of the United 
States the country east of the Missouri River, and multiply its 
population of about 40,000,000 by 7 and you will have the size 
and population of India. These people all live in cities, towns 


vhevo, and his- 
'dull our plans ; 
owledj^e of tlie 
g tho Missions, 
1 directing our 

friends in the 
dndness over)'- 
; to a hotel any- 
honies in India 

see and under- 
idance of those 

Fold, viz.: first, 
:\ them in their 
"ther extension 
, to visit other 
larked seal and 
XV as time and 
•st two objects, 
t India and its 

1 now endeavor 

of the United 
md multiply its 
ill have the size 
in cities, towns- 

/./r.//7.\v,' rxnr.i. 


and villages. Tliere are no farm houses in India. There are, 
at least, a score of great cities with over 1()(\0(hi inhabitants. 
There are twice as many between 5<),00(> and loO,000, and 
there are, probably, a quarter of a million smaller towns and 
villages scattered all over the land. In many cases the popu- 


latlou is as high as three hundred to the square mile. Of 
India's 283,000,000, at least 50,000,000 are Mohammedans, 
and most of the balance are Hindus. 

The Hindus are of various castes. The Brahmins are the 
Mghest, and they are very proud and exclusive. There are, 




nominally, four {;i'eat castes, but leally they are much more 
numerous. The lowest caste, is, perhaps, the sweepers — 
really the scavengers of the cities and houses, and how low 
this work is only one can understand who has lived in India, 
But the lower one's caste is, the more rigid is he in sticking 
to it; and making the most of his little hit of self-import- 

Politically, India is divided into a few great sections for 
the purpose of government. The most populous is the Ben- 
gal Presidency ; next, the Madras Presidency ; then, the Bom- 
hay Presidency. Besides the three Presidencies there are 
several other sections not included in them, viz., the Central 
Provinces, the Northwest Provinces and Oude, the Punjaub, 
Sinde, and Assam. Over each of these there is a Lieutenant 
Governor, and suj^reme over all — a Viceroy or Governor 
General. Besides, there are a number of independent native 
states under British protection, such as Hyderabad, Mysore, 
etc., aggregating about 60,000,000 of people. In each of these 
there is a British President, an officer representiiftg the Eng- 
lish government, who holds a sort of supervision over the 
affairs of tlie state in conjunction with the Rajah or native 

The government of India is probably the most perfect in 
the world. It is an absolute monarchy, but it moves like a 
great machine, and even the natives acknowledge its infinite 
superiority to anything they ever knew. One is overwhelmed 
at the thoroughness of this enormous piece of machinery. In 
every District is a little army of officials representing every de- 


are much more 
;he sweepers — 
3, and how low 
lived in India, 
he in sticking 
of self-import- 
eat sections for 
lous is the Ben- 
then, the Bom- 
ncies there are 
iz., the Central 
e, the Punjaub, 
is a Lieutenant 
y or Governor 
ipendent native 
;rabad, Mysore, 
w each of these 
intijftg the Eng- 
vision over the 
Rajah or native 

most perfect in 
I it moves like a 
edge its infinite 
is overwhelmed 
machinery. In 
anting every de- 



partment of administration, the government providing every- 
thing to the people— judiciary, water sui)ply, irrigation, 
telegraphs, roads, medical attendance, police — everything. 


Every fruit tree is numbered and registered, so that if a man 
should cut a branch off one, it would be reported in the sta- 
tion that a branch had been cut from tree No. — , and the 




11 if 



LAPcr.R outlooks: ox missionary 1.1 xns. 

oflfcnder would he traced to the remotest corner of India. 
Every palm tree is taxed by number, every man, woman and 
child is known and registered, and every government official 
is listed in a published volume, and all the steps of his record 
in the public service are printed in the public register. 
So exact and inflexible is this system of absolute oversight, 
that Dr. Norman McLeod said, when he saw an official cutting 
a number in the bark of a tree : "o India, the very hairs 
of thy head are all nimibered ! " 

There are splendid government roads in all directions, 
and at most towns public houses of entertainment provided 
by the government. And yet this immense system of admin- 
istration is carried on at one twenty-fourth what it costs per 
head to govern France, one-twelfth that of England, and one- 
sixth that of Russia. It is difficult for corruption to get in, 
for every part is so arranged as to be a check on every other 
part, and nothing can escape detection. The public officers 
are paid large salaries, and are expected to be men of the 
highest capacity, and after twenty-five years' service are pen- 
sioned on an ample allowance. We have seen or heard of 
nothing that compares with the thoroug^ness of the admin- 
istration of this great Empire of more people than Cyrus or 
Cajsar ever ruled. God Himself has arranged it as a frame- 
work and preparation for the preaching of the Gospel in every 
part of this land. 

The people of India speak about fourteen regular lan- 
guages in the various districts, and about half as many ab- 
original dialects. The regular languages are Urdu or Hin- 

i j i - uiiMJwiiwmijsiiBiaMwiBm i H 



/ r.u/xc fxnrA. 


1*116 !• of India. 
11, woman and 
•nmont official 
s of his record 
il)li{; register, 
lute oversight, 
official cutting 
the very hail's 

all directions, 
nient provided 
teni of admin- 
lat it costs per 
;land, and one- 
)tion to get in, 
311 every other 
public officers 
be men of the 
tirvice are pen- 
en or heard of 
of the admin- 
than Cyrus or 
[ it as a frame- 
rospel in every 

n regular lan- 
f as many ab- 
Urdu or Hin- 

i ^it^^i^iiii^ijmt'miamKmiA^.iih-n 

dustani, Hintli, Bengali. Nciiaiili, I rya, Maratlii, 'I'diigu, 
Guzerati, Punjaubi, Sindi, 'raniil. Malayalliii, ('anarese and 

About one-fourth of the pcopU' are farmers. Many more 
are simply laborers, and a good many have various trades 
It is interesting to see them in the bazaars working at their 
trades— in brass, blather, weaving, etc. 

The chief product of India is cotton. Tben <H)mes opium, 
we are sorry to say, and then various grains. It is a great 
wheat and rice country, but the other grains are far more 
numerous than in our Western land. Among tbe most com- 
mon grains are doll and jewaree which form much of the food 
of the people. 

The most touching thing that we have seen in India is 
the ])()verty of the people. The average income of every per- 
son in England "is over -*l'0() a year; in America over -^lOo ; 
in India $10. Millions of the people never get mo e than one 
meal a day. Ten cents a day ic ;^ood wages for a man, and 
five cents for a woman. You can see thousaiu. f women 
carrying brick and mortar for the builders, or breaking stones 
on the streets or roads for five cents a day, all the year round. 
Their lowest stamped coin is the sixth part of a cent, but in 
the bazaars they use shells to represent a still lower coin, 
ecjual to less than the fiftieth part of a ctMit. 

There are some clauses for their jjoverty, which might be 
prevented. They waste a great deal in their idolatrous festi- 
vals, and they sink a great deal in jewels and gold. There is 
aio gold coin in India, for all the gold is immediately turned 



into jewels. There are more goldsmiths than blacksmiths in 
India, and nearly all the wealth of the p(>oplo is carried ou 
their persons in precious gems. Perhaps the chief cause of 
their poverty is their ignorance of skilled labor. The best 
carpenters in the country are Chinese, they g(!t four or five 
times the wages of a Hindu Coolie. One of the best things 

our Missions can t(>ach 
their converts is skill 
in industrial work. 

The seasons in In- 
dia are three. There 
is, first, the cool sea- 
son, lasting from Nov- 
ember to March, when 
the climate is very 
pleasant, at times 
cold, and the cold, es- 
pecially at night, is 
more penetrating than 
in America. We have 
actually suffered in 
Egypt and India, from 
piercing cold, when 
we had to have an um- 
brella over us to pro- 
tect our head from the 
fiery sun, and yet our 
A HINDU RELIGIOUS BEGOAR. ^ody aud fect wero 



blacksmiths in 
is carried on 
chief cause of 
jor. The best 
j(>t four or five 
he best things 
sions can teach 
)nvert8 is skill 
strial work. 
i seasons in In- 
three. There 
, the cool sea- 
ting from Nov- 
o March, when 
iniate is very 
t, at times 
id the cold, es- 
' at niglit, is 
nietrating than 
irica. We have 
f suffered in 
md India, from 
; cold, when 
to have an um- 
WGV us to pro- 
• head from the 
m, and yet our 
nd feet were 

/./■:. n'/\(: /a/'/./. 


Jiching with cold, even un<U'r tho weight of a fnr ovtucoat. 
We have often lain down at night in ii train to sleep, perspir- 
ing with heat, and awakened at three o'clock so cold that all 
the mg8 wo could put over us would not keep us warm. 

The next is the hot season. It lasts through part of 
March and all Ai)ril and May, and sometimes till the middle 
of June ; and tlien it is hot sometimes l-'5 in the shade, hot 
both day and night, so hot that even the breeze i3 lik(! a 
breath of fire. 

Then comes the wet season. 1 1 lasts from the middle of 
Juno until September. It is lalled the time of the Monsoons. 
And then it does rain. On the mountains the lainfall often 
reached four hundred inches, jui average of three or four 
inches a day. < hi the plains it is about thirty to forty inches. 
This is not an uni)leasant season, although it is somewhat 
feverish. Then the land grows rich and luxuriant. After the 
rains, the cool season (-omes again for, at least, six months. 
Upon the whole, India is not an unhealthy climate or a 
very trying one. The hot season is very hard to endure, but 
it is not very long, and there are mountain stations near al- 
most all parts of India, where its severity can be broken for 
a time. There is no extreme heat ui.on the hills of India. 
Such places as Darjeeling, Ooteeannmd, Mahabelasbur and 
Simla are a paradise all summer, and are «.nly trying in the 
rainy season. 

The life of the Europeans in India is adapted to the cli- 
mate. They wear light Hannel or linen clothing, and have 
houses especially constructed for the country. Theii' meals 





ar« adjiistiHl so jiH t(» k«'i>]) them indoors in I lie lioat of tho 
diiy. Thti niorninj^ begins about <• o* clock with a single cup 
of tea and a slice of toast, which they call *' Chota hazry " or 
•' little breakfast. ' Then they work till breakfast time. This 
is the best |)ait of the day. 

Tile Publico S(!hools begin at <i o'clock and close at noon. 
In I'oona w«! prc'ached to tluf Sabbath morning congi(>gation 
at 7.;'t» A. M. Then comes breakfast, usually about 10 to 1 1 
o'clock, compelling people to stop and rest. After breakfast 
the time is spent indoors for several hoius. The midday sun 
is very hot and dangerous. Dinner usually closes the time 
of rest, at, i)erhaps, 4 o'clock, and then the cool evening is 
free. With others there is a Titlin or lunch at 2, and then 
after an hour's an evening of work till 7.150, when dinner 
closes the day. 

The natives take their principal meal «•( I night. Many of 
them work all day on an empty stomach, chewing the betel 
leaf, or a little pai-ched grain, and coming home at night to 
])repare a little curry and rice, or, if too poor for ritie, some 
cheai)er grain, and then go on with nothing else till tho next 

Their homes are very poor. We were in a good many 
of them. They are built of clay or mats. There is one room 
- soriieiimes an extra one for cooking. There are often no 
windows. The fire is kindled of dried manure in a little open 
space in the corner, and the smoke disappears somewhere as 
best it can. They all lie on the floor. Their beds are carried 
with them. They are mats and cheap rugs. They all lie 
down togetner on the floor, wrapjied up in their luigs. 

JjJ.flM,i!IBUII, ' JlllUW>J)l^, i!R-W 

' . f \'A<?. 

I i.avim: i\n/.i. 


le heat of tho 

1 a 8ingl(! cup 
lotJi hiiziy " or 
'uat timo. This 

closo at noon. 
J congicgatiou 
ivbout 10 to 11 
.ftor breakfast 
ho midday sun 
loses the time 
ool evening is 
at '2, and then 
), when dinner 

gilt. Many of 
wing the betel 
le at night to 
for ri<!e, some 
ie till the next 

a good many 
(re is one room 
3 are often no 
in a little open 
somewhere as 
eds are carried 
They all lie 
ir i-ugs. 

Tlieir dress is very simple. The lab(»ring men have sim- 
l)ly a pretty full doth wrapped several times around tlu^ loins. 
Tlie poor women and girls wear little more. In Central and 
.Northern India they have a i)iece of bright clolh about si.v 
yards long, and they wind it several times gracefully around 
the body and carry it ov«;r 
one side of ihe head, but in 
Madras the ])easant women 
have nothing over their 

Tiie children are almost 
always beautiful ; but after 
twenty-five years of ago they 
look worn. Early marriage 
lias been a physical and social 
curse to India. We noticed 
the ditTerence among the na- 
tive Christians at Lucknow. 
The girls kept their beauty, 
and brighter faces you could 
not see than the young ladi(^s 
of eighteen to twenty-four in 
the girls' school. 

But the girls of heathen India ai'O almost all wives at 
twelve years of age. A young lady you never see. Even the 
little girls you meet on the street are nearly all married to 
somebody, and 20,ooo,0(io of them are child widows— t)ie 
saddest lot in the world. 


(,r — 

'H i, 



All that India needs to lift her dear ])eople out of their 
depression and degradation is Christianity. 

The heathenism and idolatry of India is most depress- 
ing. It has nothing attrac- 
tive about it. The temples 
have some architectual gran • 
deur, but, inside, everything 
is repulsive?. The gods are all 
objects of fear rather than 
love. The object of worship 
is to keep them from doing 
the people liarm. Tliink of 
a smallpox god, and a cholera 
god, that have to be propiti- 
ated and appeased. The idea 
of divine love is unknown. 

We saw a good many 
temple worshippers, but they 
all depressed and oppressed us 
with the foolishness, and emp- 
tiness of the performance. 
The worshipper would go in 
and ring a bell to wake up the 
god, and then walk seven 
times around the hideous image and pass on. The priests 
are a revolting looking lot of rascals, more intent on getting 
money than anything else. Some of the exercises are very 
filthy. At one of the great feasts they sprinkle manuro 


9 Mii>4 ' ,, 


lie out of their 

most depress- 
othing attrac- 

The temples 
litectual gran- 
ie, everything 
'he gods are all 
• rather than 
ect of worship 
111 fi'om doing 
•m. Think of 

I, and a cholera 
! to b«^ jjropiti- 
sed. The idea 
8 unknown. 

a good many 
ipers, but they 
id oppressed us 
uiess, andenip- 
r would go in 
to wake up the 
I walk seven 

II. Tilt? priests 
ent ou getting 
rcises are very 
rinkle manure 

I.E. wise ixniA. 


over the crowd, and every one is eager to get under the filthy 
shower. At Benares we saw cows living in the temples and 
turning the house of the gods into a beastly and filthy stable. 
On the Ganges many corpses were lying with theii- feet 
in the sacred river, and priests were vaking the half-burned 
bodies of the dead into the sacred stream where others were 
bathing in holy ecstasy. There is a filthy god to whom mothers 
often devote their baby girls, in return for some great favor, 
and the service of this god is a life of promiscuous shame 
for this poor child, in which even she has no right of choice, 
but is the common property of the abominable temple and 
all its worshi])pers. 

Little children are brought up from their infancy in hor- 
rible familiarity with all kinds of evil. There is no privacy in 
the home and no reserve in the talk of the family. The little 
ears and eyes are i)olluted before they know the difference 
between right and wrong. Unnatural crimes and vices are 
not uncommon, and men are often lower than the beasts. 

And yet, upon the whole, the Hindus are a far more 
promising race than we expected to find It is a wonder that 
heathenism has not left a deeper blight. Even the present 
generation is a thousand times worth saving. They are a 
civilized people. They are an affectionate people. They are 
a bright, intelligent people. They are our own race and have 
our own features and hearts. They make beautiful Chris- 
tians. They are Christ's peoplt? for whom He died. 0, let us 
go to save them ! 

But we must pass from the country to its Missions. 


What has been done to evangelize India? In ITOO, mission- 
ary work was begun in the Madras Presidency by Schwartz 
and others, and in isiio, Carey went to Serampoor, near Cal- 
cutta. The evangelization of Western India b(^gan in LSI;?. 
To day there are nearly one hundred missionary societies 
laboring in India with seven hundred male missionaries and 
over twelve hundred foreigJi laborers altogether, counting 
botli men and women. The Bible is circulated in all the lan- 
guages of India, and the missionaries have ])enetrated every 
province except Nepaul and Bhotan in the extreme north. 
In nearly all th(! leading cities missionaries aie ])laced, and 
there arc, ])rol)ably, half a million communicants in the vari- 
ous Missions, and, perhaps, two million native adherents al- 

It would have been a great pleasure to visit all these Mis- 
sions, but it would have taken a year to do so. As it was, we 
visited a few of those that God has most signally blessed in 
recent years. We saw a good deal of the Methodist and Bap- 
tist work, and something of the American Board and Pres- 
byterian Missions. We met, ])ersonally, more than one hun- 
dred of the missionaries of other societies than our own, and 
we made very careful incjuiry respecting many that we could 
not visit, and we are glad to say that we have a very high 
opinion of the missionaries and the mission work of India, 
upon the whole. When we think how very little has been 
done by the churches at home, we can only wonder that God 
lias made so very nmch out of it already for India. 

There are two sides to the missionary enterprise. One is 


ItOO, rnission- 
y by Schwartz 
poor, near Cal- 
l)('gan in 1S1,'5. 
)nary societios 
ssionarios and 
thcM', counting 

in all the lan- 
netrated every 
xtrenie north, 
ire ])laced, and 
its in the varf- 
I adherents al- 

it all these Mis- 

As it was, we 

ally blessed in 

lodist and Bap- 

)ard and Pres- 

than one hun- 

our own, and 

■ that wo could 

^^e a very high 

k'ork of India, 

ittle has been 

>nder that God 


ri)rise. One is 

/./-:. 1 17\(' /.\7)/.i. 


the home side and the other is the foi-eign ; and we must say 
--as representing the fonner,--that it is very far Ixihind the 
other. We have not sent our missionaries to India to teach 
the other workers, far less to criticize them, but to help them, 
to supplement them, and to vie with them in holy service. 
It is true there are two classes among the missionaries of 
India, as there are tvt-o kinds of Christians at home, and the 
proceedings of the late Conference have given much cause for 
regret that there was not a bolder and more evangelical tes- 
timony. But we are glad that we have met the other typo of 
men and women, and there are enough of them to bring a 
great blessing to India, and to encourage the church at home 
to uphold their hands and reinforce their numbers as never 


But after all that has been done in and for India, the fact 
remains that there is still only one foreign laborer, including 
both men and women, to 300,000 people ; and while the great 
cities are, in a measure, occupied, yet there are immense 
spaces between them, extending sometimes to even hundreds 
of miles, where there are no laborers. We can count thou- 
sands of towns and tens of thousands of villages where the 
Gospel has never been preached. 

Besides, very much of the work of the other Societies in 
India is either educational or the raising up and training of 
native evangelists. Most of the American missionaries in 
nearly all of the fields we visited are simply superintendents 
of work. They expect the natives to do the evangelistic work 
and to go out as pioneers and jn-eachers. This is, no doubt, 


!, H 



an excellent plan— if only we had native preachers enough. 
But there are no more to be had, and unless we send out 
men and women from America to do this work of evangeliz- 
ing, it will not be done. 

In this respect our missionaries are undertaking 0. work 
that is but little done by foreigners in India, and a work in 
which there is room for thousands more, the work of preach- 
ing the Gospel to the present generation before it shall have 
passed away. 

We have taken pains to collect exact information respect- 
ing the unoccupied fields of India, and we believe that wc 
shall find that more than half the population of the land is 
yet beyond the reach of the Gospel. 

But much of our interest in India must, of course, be in 
our own missionary work. W ha, e already spoken very fully 
of it, and it is only necessary for us to sum up a few general 

1, God has given us, in India, the most open field in the 
world. It is a civilized country under an excellent govern- 
ment, with railroads and highway leading in every direction, 
perfect security for life and property, and enough English- 
speaking people to open our way to every place in the land. 

2. It is the most economical field in the world. The pur- 
chasing power of money is three or four times as great as in 
most other countries, and our missionaries can be sustained 
on less than one half what it must cost in Japan, South 
America and other fields, and, we believe, much less than even 
in China and Africa. 





icheis enough. 
IS we send out 
c of evangeliz- 

taking work 
and a work in 
'^ork of preach- 
3 it shall have 

nation respect- 
elieve that wc 
of the land is 

)f course, be in 

>ken very fully 

a few general 

ten field in the 
lellent govern- 
jvery direction, 
ough English- 
) in the land. 
3rld. The pur- 

as great as in 
n be sustained 

Japan, South 
\ less than even 

3. Its languages have been thoroughly acquired, and an 
amj)lo Christian literature can be obtained and distributed in 
all of them, at a low price. 

4. God lias given us an adroirable field for our work. 
The great province of Berar lies all along one of the leading 
railways of India, is easily rearbod from Bombay, has but one 
language, and is left for us, unoccupied by other Societies — a 
precious inheritance of faith and service. 

5. The field has been long prepared. For twenty years 
faithful pioneers have been going over it preaching, praying 
and preparing for the harvest, and winning for oin* workei-s 
in the leading towns a kindly welcome and an open door. 

6. God has given us an invaluable Superintendent, a man 
of God, who thoroughly understands the field and has 
labored in it for ten years, who is in perfect sympathy with 
aU the principles of our work, who stands in the kindest 
relationship with other Societies and missionaries, who has 
the confidence and love of our missionaries, and who has, 
also, an intelligent and large-hearted view of the whole 
neighboring field, and is able to give a most necessary and 
valuable ojiprsight of all our work in India. 

v. And God has given us as the nucleus of our future 
vfork a most blessed band of missionaries, men and women 
of entire consecration, zeal, faith and power in the Holy 
Ghost, and whose spirit of unity and devotion must exercise 
a great and permanent influence on all others who may 
join them, and upon all other missionaries who come in con- 
tact with them. 

i--^s^-L ' "*£ ^^^~K.e^iJi.^'^%1■;:;i(i,,^i^^^|^^:^^ 


(';•,! M 



What are some of the results that we trust havf5 hoeii 
gained for our work hy these five weeks in India ? 

1. We liave gained a conception and realization of the 
field, the woik and its needs, which nothing else (;ould give, 
and we trust to be able to reproduce it upon the minds and 
hearts of our ])eople at home. 

2. We have found room to place in India as many more 
missionaries as we can wish to send for the next two or 
three years, at least. 

3. We have been able to settle nmtually and in perfect 
harmony the methods and principles of the work with re- 
.-pect to all the unsettled points, relating to the distribution 
of the workers, the erecting of new buildings, and the re- 
ception and training of the missionaries in the field. 

4. Our missionaries on the field have received a mighty 
inspiration for their work, in the blessed Convention we have 
been able to hold together. 

5. We have learned very much of the best methods and 
results of mission work by our visits to the other Missions. 

G. Our work has been brought into very blessed relation 
and the most affectionate fellowship with all the ^ ighboring 
Missions and with some of the best Missions in other parts of 


Y. Through Mr. Fuller's visits along with us, he and our 
missionaries in India have come into touch with several other 
Missions among the most advanced and successful in India, 
and the relationship thus formed will be of the greatest value 
to our work in India, and, we trust, not without correspond- 
ing blessing to these Societies and workers. 



rust liave Iw'eii 
(lia ? 

ilizution of tlie 
E?lso could give, 
the minds and 

as many more 
le next two or 

' and in perfect 
work with ra- 
the distribution, 
gs, and the re- 
i field. 

■civcd a mighty 
rention wo have- 

(st methods and 
;her Missions, 
blessed relation 
the m ighboring 
n other parts of 

us, he and our 
ith several other 
:essful in India, 
e greatest value 
out correspond- 



8. We trust that our simple messages to the native Chris- 
tians, the heathen, the various theological si uools addressed, 
and the companies of missionaries we have met, have not 
been without fruit, and we have nuicli cause to believe tiiat 
many have been stimulated to holier, stronger service for 
Christ and India. 

9. Besides our work in Berar, God has shown us, we be- 
lieve, some new fields for the extension of our work in Cen- 
tral and Western India, where hundreds of laboiers, starting 
from our common centre, can occupy new and unoccupied 
ground in two new languages for Christ. 

10. And more precious, perliaps, than any other purpose 
that He has been pleased to lay upoii our heart. Ho has, we 
believe, shown us a door to Thibet, for the evangelization of 
which our Alliance was originally formed. So that if we 
had seen nothing else come out of our long journey, we have 
been amply repaid for the 17,000 miles of travel we have 
already had over land and sea, by the blessed results which 
we trust are to come for dear India. 

And now, India, dear old India, for the present — fare 
well. Thou art ever lying a living picture, with thy hun- 
dreds of thousands of Christless villages, upon our heart. 
God engrave thee upon the heart of His dear people, and some 
day lot us see thee covered with the light and glory of the 
Gospel, and crowned with the harvests, whose early seeds we 
have humbly helped to sow ! 



IT WOULD not have been for our highest good if we had 
been permitted to leave India, after five weeks of unin- 
terrupted blessing, without some trial of our faith and 
patience. And so, when we reached Calcutta, and prepared 
to embark for Burmah, we found that our trunk, and also a 
valuable parcel, which we had left to be shipped at Bombay 
so as to meet us in Calcutta, were not to be found. On mak- 
ing inquiry we found that they had been shipped from Bom- 
bay by a freight train and might not arrive for a week or two. 
This was somewhat serious, as we were now on our way, 
"by rapid stages, by a number of different steamship lines, and 
it would be hard for our baggage to overtake us. But we felt 
that it was, doubtless, one of our Father's ways of proving 
His all-sufficient grace to us, and giving us some new testi- 
mony for Him. And so we drove to the freight office and 
asked the company to telegraph for it, and have it sent on by 
a passenger train if it could be found, and forwarded after us 
by the next steamer to Rangoon in the hope that it would 
overtake us during the four days we were to wait there. 
And so we went to the bazaars and got a few necessary arti- 
cles of apparel, and went on, minus our baggage. 





st good if we hact 
re weeks of iinin- 

of our faith aud 
itta, and prepared 
trunk, and also a 
lipped at Bombay 

found. On mak- 
lipped from Bom- 
for a week or two. 
} now on our way, 
oamship lines, and 
:e us. But we felt 
3 ways of proving 
18 some new testi- 
freight office and 

have it sent on by 
forwarded after us 
ope that it would 
Bre to wait there, 
few necessary arti- 

The next steamer came in while we were waiting at Ran- 
goon, but our things wore not on board, but a dispatch came 
instead, telling us that they would be on the next boat, nearly 
a week later, and would be sent on to Singapore. It seems 
l)robable that we shall have to leave Singai)ore before that 
steamer can arrive, and so the ])rosent prospects are that we 
may not receive our trunk before we reach Hong Kong or 
Shanghai, nearly a month hence. 

But, with perhaps a little lonely feeling, we just trusted 
our Father again with it all, and felt that He would take care 
of it. And as we told the little story of our trial and our 
Master's grace for it, wo found that it did the missionaries 
more good than anything else we said ; for it is in just these 
little things that our faith and love and joy break down. 
And we are glad to be permitted to triumph even in this. It 
may seem a small thing at home to lose a trunk, but 15,000 
miles away it is like the loss of a companion ; and, besides, it 
is not always easy, in these circumstances, to get the things 
you need in native bazaars. But the dear Lord has arranged 
everything, and in due time we shall, doubtless, meet our old 
companion, and, no doubt, get many blessings out of it all. 

Our reason for taking the route from Calcutta to Singa- 
pore was that we might have the opportunity of visiting Bur- 
mah, and seeing a little of the wonderful work which God 
has wrought among the people of that land through the 
American Baptist Mission. 

We took passage on the "Pentakota," of the British 
India Steamship line. We had a nice and a good captain, 

376 LAPcnn outlooks o.v MfssroN a /.n- /..txns. 

but some very frivolous passengers on board, like too many 
of tbo English and Americans that wo meet abroad. Tho 
only themes of conversation were races, dances, dresses, and 
lotteries ; and we felt more truly alone than among the 
heathen. Our Sabbath was si>ent lying at anchor at the 
mouth of the Hooghly Kiver, waiting for the tide to take us 
over the dangerous sands, but there was no reUgious service 
or recognition of God, and we found our way to the "little 
sanctuary" which He has promised to be to us in far-off 
lands, and there we met with Him and the divir ones at 
home, and had .. peaceful and blessed day. 

The navigation of this river is very dangerous. There 
is an immense amount of sand carried down the stream, and 
bars and quicksands are always forming, so that pilots have 
to be most careful in entering and leaving tho port of Cal- 
cutta There is one point where vessels have been known to 
strike the bar, and then be swept over by the strong current, 
and Pink in the quicksands, disappearing utterly m a few 

minutes. , . ., au 

We got safely out to sea, and after two days sail on the 
Ba> of Bengal, which was smooth and pleasant, ^^e cast 
anchor iu the mouth of the Irrawaddy, and again waited for 
the tide to take us up to Rangoon. This was also providen- 
tially arranged, and on AVednesday morning, a little after sun- 
rise, we sailed up to the landing jetty of the capital of Bur- 

The view of Rangoon from the river is very attractive. A 
good deal of luxuriant foliage and many fine buildings line 

)■ L.'ixns. 



il, liko too many 
ut't ahrojul. The 
ices, dresses, and 

than among the 
at anchor at the 
le tide to take us 
► religious service 
way to the "Uttlo 
J to us in far-off 

the dear ones at 

hvngerous. There 
n the stream, and 
a that pilots have 
; the port of Cal- 
Lve been known to 
;he strong current, 
; utterly in a few 

o days' sail on the 
pleasant, "vv^e cast 
d again waited for 
was also providen- 
g, a little after sun- 
:he capital of Bur- 
very attractive, A 
r fine buildings line 

the river for two or three miles, and, in the backgiound, 
immbers uf Burmese pagodas, with that jjeculiar and striking 
form that you see nowhere else, giv»; the whole scene a most 
])i(;tures(iuu appearance. Kangoon is a largt^ commercial city 
of over It »i»,()00 inhabitants, and is full of Fnglish merchants 
and stores, and has a more English appearance than any 


other city we have seen in the East. The streets are very 
wide, the buildings large and far apart, and there is an ai)i)ear- 
iince of great spaciousness and considerable style. 

Burmah is now a province of the Indian Empire-, and has 
a population of about eight millions, including I' pper Bur- 
mah and the other dependencies. Our readers will i-emem- 
ber that a few years ago the ruler of Upper Burm.ih, old 



Thebau, hccatim ho outrageous that England sent an army, 
captun'tl Mandalay, hist cai»ital, and annexed liis territory. 
He is now a royal prisoner in Katnagary, a British tort south 
of Bombay. Ho was a modern Herod, and when he came to 
the throne he killed all his relatives. They tell strange stories 
of his brutality. His wife, however, seems to have been the 
nding spirit, and the Jezebel and instigator of his crimes. 
They tell a grim story of her : that while she was confined 
—a state i)risoner in Madras, a nunvber of people wont to 
see her, as a public curiosity. Among them were some ladies 
who laughed very heartily at some things she said and did. 
This so annoyed her Majesty that she siunmoned the oflicer 
of the prison, and said very excitedly to him : "Take those 
women out and cut their heads ott'." This was, evidently, 
her old way of settling annoying people, and she could not 
see why the English authorities should object to it. 

Burmah is a rich countiy, and is (piite distinct frotn India 
in many of its features. It is, largely, a rice producing 
country. They call the raw grain " paddy," and tb.wi hie 
delta of the Irrawaddy is one immense "paddy iicld." In 
the wet season the whoU- land is flooded, and the people 
travel about on elevated roads, which are built about four 
feet above the ground. As soon as the ground is wet enough, 
they turn in with their buff aloes and rude plows, and work up 
the mud. about three feet deei), and ihey then j)lant the rice 
in these mud fields, and the water remains till it ripens, and 
then dries up and allows them 'o harvest it. Wo went out 
into the country and saw these paddy fields. It was the dry 

y f.ANDS. 

soiit Jill army, 
d bin U'lritory. 
ritisli fort Houtli 
i^lu'U ho camo to 
II strange stories 

havo been the 
r of his crimes, 
le was conflned 

people went to 
kvere some ladies 
le said and did. 
oned the officer 
: "Take those 

1 was, evidently, 
d she could not 
t to it. 

itinct from India 
rico producing 
" and th(- whole 
»addy ueld." In 
and the people 
built about four 
id is wet enough, 
iws, and work up 
lMi plant the rico 
ill it ripens, and 
■,. W«? went out 
It was the dry 

cAi.crrrA rn m rmaii. 


Btmson and the rico had all been harvested, and the land was 
one plain of cracked and dusty clay. The houses are all 
built on posts about foui- feet above the ground, so as to 
escape the inundation. 

Burmah is, nlso, a groat timber country, and the teak 
tree grows here in its perfection. It is a most valuable and 


beautiful wood, hard and enduring as oak, and coloring fine- 
ly to the tint of black walnut. We have never seen prettier 
wood carvings than the natural teak wood after it has sea- 
soned They do not even oil it, but it grows nearly as black 
as ebony and it lasts for centuries. The inside woodwork of 
their houses is very pretty in simple teak wood. The trees 



Ji ''i^ 



of Burmah are much larger than in India, and the vegetation 
looks more luxuriant. The rai)is come a month earlier, and 
the liot season is sliorter and more moderate. 

As we sailed up the river, the native boats were very- 
pretty. They have a very picturesque shape, with a high, 
])ointed prow, like the point of a Turkish slipper, and the 
stern is round 
and nicely 
carved. T li e 
hoats are about 
the shape of a 
mason's trow- 
el, with the 
point raised 
very high. 
The boatman 
stands and 
rows hy push- 
ing his oars 
and propelling 
the boat in 
front of him. 

We found ourselves at once among a new race. These 
were not Hindu faces. They are much I'ounder and flatter, 
and have a distinct Mongolian touch. Many of them are 
quito •^ood-looking. They are much better dressed than the 
HinduSo The men and women dress very much alike. There 
is a very bright and pi-etty skirt, usually of brilliant checked 





the vegetation 
til earlier, and 

its were very 
, with a high, 
pper, and the 

r race. These 
ler and flatter, 
f of them are 
essed than the 
1 alike. There 
■illiant checked 

or tartan cloth or silk, tied around tlu^ waist and reaching to 
the feet, and, over this, a jacket, usually white ; the head 
dress is a pretty hand of pink or scarlet tied around the brow 
and hanging loosely behind. Their dress is quite picturesque, 
and at least decent, winch 

people have a Hh^B^^HI^I W^^^^\ inde- 
pendent and ^^H|P^|3|^|^B ^^^P^^'^^^^' ^^'^^' 
There none ^^^^pi^^B^HH| <>f the appear- 

pov- HHB^^^^^^l ^^'^^' ^^"^^ 
caste here, and |^^i^^fl^^B| "" lower o r- 

more' money HH^^H^^H ^^^^'^' "'^'^^^^ ^^'^ 

or three other H^B^^BI^^^H ^^^^'^ "^ ^^^^' 
m a h — t h e Hf^^^^^^^^^H ^^^'^"^' ^ ^^ ^ 

eral others, H^^PJH^M^^B who are abo- 
riginal people, * ^"■'""^^ '^°^- somewhat like 
our Indians, and like the hill tribes of India, and on these the 
Burmans look down, and formerly i)ersecuted them. The 
Karens number over half a million, and the other tribes about 
half as many. It is among these aboriginal tribes, as we 


— ^■1 



shall immediately see, that the Gospel has achieved its grand- 
est triumphs. 

'rhe Burmese are Buddhists. At once one is impressed 
with the entirely different character of their religious woi- 
ship and buildings. Here you see none of the hideous and 
found in 
temple, but 
there is but 
peated in ten 
forms and 
marble, a la- 
brass and 
ways the 
tured, rather 
little like a 
who is won- 
er she is a girl 
It is old Gua 
Burman Bud- 
has no other 

tion ho certainly is decent and harmless, a great improve- 
ment on the l)estial and devilish forms of the Hindu temples. 
Everywhere he is enshrined in fine pagodas, and both he 
and the pagodas worshipped devoutly. These pagodas are 
not temples, but monuments and shrines to Guatama. An 
image of him is at the base of each pagoda ; indeed, usually a 


idols to be 
every Hindu 
every where 
one face re 
place s -i n 
baster, wood, 
gold, but al- 
same quiet, 
g o o d - n a- 
insipid face, a 
dreamy girl 
or a woman, 
tarn a, the 
dim, and if he 



id its grand- 

s impressed 
'ligious wor- 
hideous and 
lols to be 
vevy Hindu 
very where 
ne face re 
h o u 8 a 11 d 
lace s— in 
aster, wood, 
old, but al- 
amo quiet, 
; o o d - n a- 
asipid face, a 
reamy g i i' 1 
r a woman, 
a ma, the 
[ha, and if he 
;at impx'ove- 
ndu temples, 
and both he 
pagodas am 
latama. An 
)ed, usually a 







great number of images. Some of them are of immense size 
and finely carved. The pagodas are often very fine. The 
great one near Rangoon known as Shwee-da-gone, is over 
three hundred ^'eet high, and jnore than one hundred feet in 
diameter at the base. Tlie sbape would be very hard to 

"''''wwi!^ aSjM!teHMt^"'^*^^ '^y^^sa^8^^'SBg^^ss^at^fa;<ja-g^^ 


describe. It must be seen. It is a good deal like a bell with 
the handle running up to a fine ornamental point. The top 
is an umbrella of fine gold, and often set with the most 
])rei;ious stones. This inunense pagoda stands on a high hill 
approached by splendid stei)s and colonnades, and containing 
an immense enclosure, at least one thousand feet square. In 
the centre stands the Great Pagoda, and, in the S])ace, innu- 
merable other artistic figures, columns, pagodas, idol houses 
with ])icturesque roofs and turrets, and the finest carving m 
wood, brass, stone and stucco work. 

The place was thronged with priests with their shaved 
heads and rather handsome flowing robes of jmre yellow. 
Each priest was followed hy a crowd of boys carrying his 
offerings and parcels. This is regarded by the boys as a 
meritorious work and will bnng them a great reward in the 
future life. Everything in the Buddhist system is merit. 
Whatever good thing we do goes to the account of merit, and 
will count so much in our favor in the next stage of our ex- 

And what is this next stage ? It is transmigration. It 
is to be born in the form of some beast or bird, through age 
after age, until at least we come to the Buddhist's heaven — 
Nirvana, which just seems to mean— annihilation. So that 
the brightest hope of the future, and the best thing our works 
of merit can bring us, is to come back next time in some 
higher animal form, some more fortunate crow, or snake, or 
beetle, or, perhaps, some sacred brute, like a monkey, or a 
cow. Well, God have mercy on their poor, blind hearts ! Is 
it not heart-breaking ? 

?*'»•» . JOj^ ^^X- 1 <~ -i^BWJigK?* 


a, boll with 
;. The top 
the most 
a high hill 
(juare. In 
I)aco, innu- 
dol houses 
carving m 

leir shaved 
ire yellow, 
irrying his 

boys as a 
'ard in the 
1 is merit. 

merit, and 
of our ex- 

;ration. It 
1 rough age 
's heaven — 
1. So that 
; our works 
10 in some 
)r snake, or 
)nkey, or a 
hearts ! Is 

SgpS^^pHS^p- JP 

CALCrTTA TO inh'.^f.ur. 

28 T 

Theso pagcclas are being ronstantly (lecoratiHl uiul v- 
gilck.l by nu'U Nvbo gladly give tbeir gol.l and tbeir tnue to 
tbis work, in tbo liopo of laying up a littlo stock of merit. 
Truly the god of tbin world is leading men captive at bia will, 
and making fools of tbose who wen^ created in tbe image of 
God Tbe disbonestyof the whole system is glaring. On 
account of their idea that every animal is just tbe incarna- 
tion of some man that once lived, they do not believe in kiU- 
in«' animals. And yet they get round it very comfortably. 
They let some one else kill it, and they buy it and eat it. 
Or they say they simply took the fish out of tbe water and 
it died -they did not kill it ; but they do not hesitate to eat it. 
The idea lying back of Buddhism is self-denial; but, practi- 
cally their priests are said to be notoriously immoral, and 
they have some specious way of excusing everything by some 

evasion or subtility. 

There is another race in Burmah, whom we expect soon 
to meet in their own land, but already they have made them- 
selves felt in Burmah. They are the Chinese. Next to the 
English they are the most wealthy and prosperous people m 
Rangoon. Some of them are quite rich. Wherever he goes 
in Southeastern Asia the Chinaman leads the native. He has 
elements of character-mechanical skill, business enterprise, 
persistence, thriftiness and endurance, which make him easily 
master in the race with the Malay, the Burman and the 
Hindu They are the greatest of the Asiatic races. God 
help us to give them the Gospel ! We were glad to hear of 
several Chinese Christians even in Burmah. 



But wo liavo said enough about the land and the people. 
C)ur Kpocial object was to see the work of God amongst them. 

Jt is just eighty years since Adoniram Judson entered 
Rangoon as the fust missionary of the American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union, Six years later, the first Burmese convert 
was baptf.^ed. Twenty years later the Scriptures were trans- 
lated into Burmese by Mr. Judson, and, a few years later, the 
Karen Bible was also finished. To-day the Baptist Missions 
contain a native community of over seventy thousand, and 
more than : hirty thousand actual communicants. There are 
no less than five hundred Karen churches. Many, indeed 
most of these, are already self-supporting ; and, besides sus- 
taining their own pastors, these churches have formed a 
Home Missionary Society, and are sustaining Missions and 
evangelists among the destitute villages of their own people. 
They have always been more ready than the Burmese to re- 
ceive the Gospel, and, in some respects, have made greater 
progress in Christianity than any other people among whom 
the Gospel has been preached in modern times. 

These Karens are, apparently, an exotic race. They 
speak an entirely different language from the Burmese, and 
are a distinct people. They live in their own villages and 
often move in whole villages, especially when pressed or per- 
secuted by their Burmese neighbors. In some respects they 
are like our American Indians, and in many, like the hill 
tribes of India. They have some strange traditions, among 
others an account of the Creation, and the temptation of our 
first parents, almost identical with the Bible narrative. They 




the people, 
ongst them. 
Ison entered 
Baptist Mis- 
loso convert 
I were ti-ans- 
irs later, the 
ist Missions 
ousand, and 
There are 
any, indeed 
besides sus- 
e formed a 
fissions and 
own people, 
•mese to re- 
lade greater 
Tiong whom 

race. They 
urmese, and 
villages and 
jssed or per- 
Jspects they 
ike the hill 
ions, among 
ation of our 
tive. They 










have, evidently, touched tlu* Jewish people at some point in 
their history. They liad, also, a tradition that some day- 
teachers were !<' come to them from the West, and so, when 
the missionaries canu) to them from Western lands, many ac- 
cepted the Gospel, and whole villages, in many instances, 
embraced Christianity. 

It was a great pleasun^ to be permitted to visit this inter- 
esting Mission. More tlsa;. one Imndred American Mission- 
aries, including ladies, mc i.itoring in Burmah, and over two 
hundred native preachers. We si)ent nearly five days among 
them, and had the privilege of meeting no less than thirty- 
seven of the American Baptist missionaries, besides a number 
of workers in other Societies, and a few of the native preach- 
ers. We were invited to address a number of meetings 
among the missionaries, and found a deep spiritual hunger 
and an earnest longing for more of that blessing which God 
is pouring out upon the Telugu Mission through the Holy 


We could not have been more cordially received by our 
own workers than we were by these dear friends. Several of 
them we had known in America, and there were not a few 
whom God has been calling for a good while very near to 
Himself, and fitting by a special anointing for great useful- 
ness. We were the guest of Prof. Gilmore, son of a very 
dear friend in the ministry in the United States ; and he and 
bis beloved wife and baby made our stay a real taste of home. 
A number of the workers came in from Maulmain, Bassein 
and other points. The season was a little unfavorable, being 




ags'- ' fej^^jfe'^-j^!^'-''''''** ' '''* 


the vacation time in all the schools ; but we saw most of tho 
teachers and school premises, and got a very good conception 
of this part of the work. 

Our most interesting experience, and one which our 
friends planned for us with special thoughtf ulness, was a visit 

to a Karen village in the 
country. Riding out by train 
to the station of Mhawbee, 
v.'e were met by the Karens 
with their carts, and driven 
across the paddy fields to 
their villages in the jungle, 
where we spent a day and a 
night, and saw them in all the 
simplicity of their native 

The good pastor gave up 
his house to us, and wo just 
took possession, bringing our 
own provisions and cook, and 
making ourselves at home. 
Every missionary in India, 
who travels in the jungle and 
goes out itinerating, has a serv^ant who is accustomed to this 
sort of cooking. And you would have been surprised at the 
nice dinner and breakfast our "boy" gave us. G e one of 
these natives a little rice, a chicken and a few spl^e/.,..a,nd it 
is amazing how many dishes he will \ o you. 






w most of the 
3od conceptioa 

lie which our 
ess, was a visit 
k^illage ill the 
3g out by train 

of Mhawbee, 
by the Karens 
;s, and driven 
,ddy fields to 
in the jungle, 
nt a day and a 
them in all the 

their native 

lastor gave up 
s, and wo just 
1, bringing our 
, and cook, and 
Ives at home, 
lary in India, 
the jungle and 
istomed to this 
urprised at the 
s. G e one of 
^ splv.e:f.,..a,ndit 

After breakfast we were met in the chapel where the 
people had assembled to greet us. There was a congregation 
of over seventy, notwithstanding the short notice. We, of 
course, were invited to preach to them, and we did, the best 
we could, through a native interpreter. We have found that 
the only way to reach these people is to give them simple 
illustrations. They hstened .ery attentively, and when we 
. ,ot through, they came up, one by one, and began to respond. 
One after another they would squat down, Indian fashion, in 
front of us, and looking up into our face like very children 
would talk out all that was in their heart. 

Oue of their preachers made quite a speech, asking us to 
thank the American Christians for sending them the Gospel, 
and saying how poor and weak they yet were as Christians, 
and not able to understand all the deep things of God. This 
was one of his simple illustrations : "One hen," he said, 
"can cover ten chickens with her wings, but ten chickens 
cannot cover as much as one hen. We are the ten chickens,, 
the American Church is the hen." Several of them brought 
us money, but, of com .% we handed it over, with a little 
added to it, as a contribution towards the new chapel they 
are about to erect. 

After the meeting wo had some hours of leisure, and 
walked through their jungle and a neighboring village. 

The men and women all smoke, and we got some of the 
girls to f sent us two or three of their cigars as specimens. 
They ^.i made of corn husks, very thick and large, and 
many of them a fo-'HUong. What would you think of your 


young lady friend taking from her mouth something like a 
small stick of timber, and then deliberately sending in your 
face an immense cloud of tobacco smoke ? Well, at least they 
are consistent in letting the women smoke, for if it is good 
for the one sex it is surely as good for the other. They only 
laughed merrily when some of us attempted to raise the ques- 
tion of the right and wrong of smoking. They had not got 
this far yet. 

Later, we visited the neighboring Burman village. It 
was a long, winding "^treet, with houses on both sides, and 
about three dogs to a house ; and as we passed along, these 
wolfish-looking dogs watched their chance, on each side, to 
dash at us with a yell and a snap, and only the vigorous use 
of some stout bamboo rods kept us from their teet^. In pro- 
portion to the density of its heathenism, we found, is the 
number, the meanness and the manginess of tb« dogs a 
Burman village possesses. 

The native pastor of the Karen village went with us 
around the country villages. We found him a very remark- 
able man. He is the pastor of a church of three hundred 
members in this and several other Karen villages in the vicin- 
ity. During the past year he has baptized one hui ired and 
twenty persons, and is to baptize thirty more next Sabbath 
evening. The American missionary who superintends the 
Karen work in the Rangoon District was along with us, but 
he has one hundred churches and six thousand members to 
oversee, and he can only give a general supervision, and has 
to trust all the details to these men. Such native pastors are 


totnething like a 
sending in your 
/"ell, at least they 
for if it is good 
ther. They only 
to raise the ques- 
hey had not got 

man village. It 
both sides, and 
ssed along, these 
on each side, to 
the vigorous use 
r teef^. In pro- 
ive found, is the 
s of tb" dogs a 

e went with us 
J a very I'eniark- 
»f three hundred 
iges in the vicin- 
me hui ired and 
re next Sabbath 
mperintends the 
mg with us, but 
md members to 
jrvision, and has 
ative pastors are 



of great value, and they have been the chief instruments in 
the, great work which God has done among the Karens. 

We slept that night in the jungle, and heard the "tok- 
ter" calling near our bed through the night, with his loud 
call, " tok-ter." He is a great lizard, morq than a foot long, 
with a voice louder than that of a frog. But we let him call, 
for they told us he kept away the snakes, and there are some 
of them in Burmah's jungles. But we slept in peace, and 
awoke in safety, to find men and women, indiscriminately, 
walking in and out of our room in perfect innocence of the 
fact that we had to make our toilet. We looked out on the 
village street, and the men and women, indiscriminately, 
were taking their morning bath. They did it in the most in- 
genious way. A woman would take a pail of water from the 
well, and with her thin fold of cotton around her, would pom* 
i^ ovp>^ her head, again and again, and then she would dex- 
tvii. \j slip a dry robe over her head, and let the old wet 
one drop off, under the other, and she was dressed for the 
day— no need of towels or looking-glass. And another would 
come along and take n similar douche, and the dirty water 
would iust soak down and back into the well again, and the 
dear pe. pie would draw it up in buckets and drink it ; as in- 
nocent, as a babe just born, of all our modern notions about 
sewers and filters and civilized sensitiveness. 

The good native pastor could not understand < n<' use of 
the filter we brought with us. He thought it was it of 
drinking cup. We found one very pure and rein -,hing 
drinking cup about which we need have no qualms. It was 


the great bunch of cocoanuts the good people brough'j us, 
just ready to pour out their crystal draught of aci^-ulous 
water. Upon the whole we greatly enjoyed our Karen visit, 
and felt we had a glimpse of primitive life that few visitors 
to Burmah or India ever get. Above all, we saw, with all its 
simplicity and crudeness, what God is able to do for heathen 
souls, and in it we beheld the promise of the harvest which 
is surely coming to our own field. Judson labored six years 
in Burmah before he saw the first convert, and, to-day, there 
are tens of thousands. Praise the Lord for what we yet hope 

to see ! 

On our return to Rangoon, we had the pleasure of meet- 
ing, at lunch, the president of the Karen Theological Semi- 
nary, and also his excellent and accomphshed wife. He told 
us that ho had one hundred students in training for the min- 
istry, and a graduating class of nearly twenty. This is the 
best hope of the Karen churches. 

We also visited the yet unfinished Memorial Hall, which 
the Karens are erecting at their own expense, as a monument 
of God's goodness to their people. It is one story high, as 
yet, and covers a large area, and when completed will be one 
of the most striking missionary buildings in the world. 
Their means are hmited, but their hearts are large, and, we 
trust, they mry soon be able to complete this most interest- 
ing memorial. 

Many American friends will be glad to know that God is 
greatly blessing and using our dear sisters. Miss Ranney and 
Miss Phinney, whom many of our people will remember 





I brought us. 
of aciaulous 
r Karon visit, 
it few visitors 
w, with all its 
lo for heathen 
liar vest which 
ored six years 
, to-day, there 
it we yet hope 

asure of meet- 
lological Semi- 
.vife. He told 
g for the min- 
yT. This is the 

al Hall, which 
s a monument 
story high, as 
ted will be one 
in the world, 
large, and, we 
most interest- 

meeting at Round Lake and the New York ' Tabernacle, 
besides many others whom we should be glad to name if it 
were proper. 

But we must leave Rangoon and Burmah. God bless 
this land and this .vork ! Here, too, wo have placed " the 
sole of our foot," and c'iaimed it for Christ and His coming. 

Our Baptist friends have nobly pieempted it and very 
fairiy occupied it. At least, we believe that ere long they 
will occupy the entire field, and it would seem to be a pity to 
divide the thougJit of these simple people, who know nothing 
of sectarianism, by sending any rival churcli there. But 
there is need, even iu Burmah, for one hundred more mis- 
sionaries. May God r.;)eedily send them from the Baptist 
churches of America to ihe unoccupied villages of Burmah ! 

It was very hot in Burmah -a real taste of tropical sum- 
mer. And it was a relief to stand onco more on tlie cool deck 
of the "Pentakota" r.nd cai! down the coast of Arracan in 
tlie face of the old Southern Cross, and toward the shores of 
Sumatra and Singapore. 

3W that God is 
ss Ranney and 
vill remember 

■iKm9m!(^ifitji^^yn^!SmimuiKid Km 




r. YC THING could have been more delightful, so far as 
'^ physicTil conditions are concerned, than the sail down 
th .' Bay of Bengal, from Rangoon to Singapore. It 
occupied seven days, and followed the coast of Burmah, 
Tanasserim and the Peninsula of Malacca. The weather 
was extremely pleasant, with a hot sun, but a delightful 
breeze night and day. We had few passengers and plenty 
of v om, and lived on deck both night and day, only going 
down to the cabin long enough to take our meals. At night 
the steward made our beds on deck and we slept in the cool 
breezes until he brought us our " chotahazry," or cup of tea, 
at G A. M., and awoke us for our salu water bath and simple 


We were able to do unbounded literary work through 
the long hours of the breezy day, and to conic somewhat near 
overtaking an enormous mass of accumulated correspond- 
ence and other writing. It certainly was not a pleasure sail, 
although a very pleasant one, and, like all our other days 
abroad, we asked the Lord to let these days, which He made 
so calm and still, count the very utmost for His work and 




tful, so far as 
t the sail down 
Singapore. It 
t of Burmah, 

The weather 
t a delightful 
5rs and plenty 
ly, only going 
als. At night 
ipt in the cool 

or cup of tea, 
ith and simple 

work through 
omewhat near 
3d correspond- 
a pleasure sail, 
ur other days 
hich He made 
His work and 

As we got farther south, and nearer the equator, the 
Pole Star sank lower and lower, until at last, a good while 
before we got to Singapore, it disappeared altogether, and, at 
the other side of the heavens, the Southern Cross rose higher 
and higher toward the zenith with a great train of glorious 
new constellations behind it, making the midnight sky a 

galaxy of glory. t ^ 1 

The climate underwent the most marked change. Instead 
of the long dry season of India, we soon sailed into the zone 
of showers. Every night the horizon would be illuminated 
by brilliant lightnings, and nearly every day there would be 
rain, frequent and heavy, although short showers, much like 
our American summer thunder storms. Along the equator it 
rains all the year round, and the hottest day is almost sure 
to be cooled by a few hours of moisture. In consequence of 
this the vegetation is most luxuriant, and every island and 
shore was wooded to the water's edge and rich with glorious 

forests and flowers. 

Animal life, too, began to grow exuberant. Our cabins 
swarmed with red ants, and they walked over us at all hours 
of the day and night without asking leave before they 
lunched off us. Their bite is not as bad as that of the mosquito, 
but it is not a tropical luxury. One morning we found a colony 
of them in one of our pockets whei-e something edible had 
attracted them. Occasionally, one would hear a female 
scream, and the disturbing cause would usually prove to be 
a great, and, perhaps, hitherto unknown species of cock- 
roach or beetle. Our good-natured Scotch cp.ptain told us 

B HiaMuawt'-t 

■■ ■ ' ims^ s ^sm^ii^isiiXiui^mimiiiiii^ 


that his cockroaches swarmed Sundays and Wednesdays, 
and then came out of the recesses of the sliip to exhibit. We 
are afraid, however, that ours did not always keep regular 



1 Wednesdays, 
o exhibit. We 
rs keep regular 



Oil our way down tlir l».iy w«' jtassed far to the west the 
Andaman Ishiuds, which form the Penal Colony of India, 
and where the worse criminals are transported for life. The 
natives of these islands are said to he the most degraded type 
of human beings on the face of the globe, and nnich lower 
i'veii than the aborigines of Australia. We stopped a day 
at the Island of Penang, which is an English Colony and 
part of the Straits Settlements. We had time to land at the 
pretty city of Georgetown and send off about fifty letters 
by the India and English mail, just leaving. Then, in the 
afterno^n, we took a jinriksha and rode out several mil(^8 
through avenues and forests of palms to the B(jtanical (lar- 
dens and the waterfall which comes down from a mountain 
about 2,500 feet high. We found ourselves not only in a 
new- British Colony, but surrounded by new- laces. The Chi- 
nese were everywhere and the Malays now began to appear. 

We will not stop to speak of the beauty of the ride or the 
Gardens, (>xcept to observe that it was a scene, all the way, 
of tropical luxuriance. The grass grows here as, of course, 
it cannot in India, especially in the dry season ; and the 
ground was one rich carpet of verdure covered with a luxuri- 
ance of palms, banyans, plantains, and many etpially beauti- 
ful trees covered with orchids and other parasites in profu- 
sion, and, often, richest bloom. The Gardens, with the orchida 
and fern houses, must be seen to be realized. Many beautiful 
islands surround Penang, and the city is most picturesque as 
seen on entering and leaving. 

We reached Singapore two days later, and here found 


f iimsmmfsmMmm . 

T} u.$ S B),^mM*m!»jm--mfAh'^,-^» ,K- 

KviKmrn- -' ' •-."fi'r 




ourselves in tli metropolis of English Malaysia, and all that 
we could say u. other poi its can be still more truly said of 




lia, and all i at 
re truly s;i of 

Jtm "^ 

.iMox(.- ri:i: .u.i/.ns. 


this. The appronch through the "NewHarhor" is exceed- 
ingly pretty. The straitH are (piite naiiow, and many beauti- 
ful and tliickly wooded islands dot the lovely harbor, while 
ships of all nati .us, . iid war vessels hearing many different 
'flags, lie at anchor in tlu quiet waters. 

We were met at the wharf by our dear hrother, Mr. Lela- 
cheur, and were glad to find him looking exceedingly well 
after a year of heavy pressure both in toil antl suffering. Most 
of our readers know that, accompanied hy M ' . Anderson, he 
came out to Hong Kong and Singapore f(« th. nurpose of 
finding an ni)i)r()ach to one of the group of islands in the 
South Seas, vvheri! God seemed to be leading us to attempt to 
plant a Mission, tiie island of Yai», th«^ most western of the 
Caroline Islands. 

After reaching Singapore it was found (hat Mr. Ander- 
son had left New York, without the knowledge of the Board, 
in a somewhat advanced stag*? of consiunption. In this 
damp climate it developed very rapidly, and Mr. Lelacheur 
found himself under the necessity of devoting nnich of his 
time to the care of his suffering hrothei-, and deferring his 
journey to the Islands until this great responsibility should, 
in some way, be relieved. Meanwhile, however, ho gave as 
much time as possible to the study of the Malay language, 
and with so much success, that, already, even at his age, our 
brother can speak it fairly, and has already given some 
,1 J. :-es to the natives. 

. few weeks ago Mr. Anderson's illness terminated 
in hh> u.;ath, and Mr. Lelacheur had the satisfaction of know- 



ing— a satisfaction in which wo all deeply shar*' -that noth- 
ing was n('jj;lerte(l that fis necessary t<» the comfort of our 
dear young hrother. During our stay in Snigapore, we 
visited Richaid Anderson's grave in the English cemetery, 
and took a few leaves from thohorder of ])retty flowers grow- 
ing around it ; and we gave orders for the erection of a sim- 
ple stone to mark the sacred spot where another precious life 
is laid on tlie great altar of Moriah, as the phulge of another 
land for God, through our dear Alliance. Many such graves 
are already on the Congo, and many in the dark Soudan. 
Surely there niust be a mighty harvest from such a costly 
sowing. Two moic are on the Yang-tse River ; one lies in 
loneliness at Kobe, in Jajjan ; one sleeps in btnvutiful Poona ; 
one, beneath the ])alms of Singapore, claims the Malay 
Peninsula for Jesus. 

Dear young Richard Anderson was worthy to be a mis- 
sionary martyr. He was a bright and earnest young Scotch- 
Irish lad, whose call we remember v/ell. He had begun to 
succeed la his httle business in New York, when the Lord 
came to him and asked for all his heart, and then called him 
to be a missionary. A few of us knew how much he sacri- 
ficed to be able to affoi i to attend the College ; and when it 
was found out that he was living in a cold and cheerless 
room, and doing without the necessaries of life that he might 
gain his object, it was no longer allowed, but measures 
were taken for his assistance. He gave a very bright, and, 
indeed, brilliant address at the College Commencement in 
May, just a year ago, and was selected by the unanimous 




r i.ANns. 

are— that noth- 
comfoit of our 
Sinj^apore, we 
iiglisli cometory, 
ty flovvtu-a grow- 
roction of a sirn- 
her precious life 
Itulgo of another 
any such graves 
10 (lark Soudan, 
ni such a costly 
vor ; (juo lies in 
eautiful Poena ; 
inis the Malay 

•thy to ho a rais- 
3t young Scotch- 
[e had hegun to 
, wheii the Lord 

then called him 
' much he sacri- 
ge ; and when it 
id and cheerless 
fe that he might 
d, but measures 
'^ery bright, and, 
mmencement in 

the unanimous 

vote of his fellow students for this honor. A good deal was 
expected from his bright, young mind, his heroic and en- 
thusiastic spirit, his deep piety and (Consecration, and his 
stirring faith in Ood. But (Jod calls some to the plow and 
some to the altar. The motto of the Knglish Baptist Mis- 
sionary Society is an ox standing between an altar and a 
plow, with the words inscribed on a scroll, "Ready for 

either or both." 

Before he passed away, Richard Anderson said to his 
brother and companion that ho believ(ed that (Jod had re- 
ceived from his life all the service for which He had called 
him ; and, although he could not understand all His deahngs 
with him, he could fully trust. 

The only mistake he made, it seems to us all, was in not 
frankly telling us his actual condition of health before he al- 
lowed us to send him away to such a cUmate. Had we known 
it we should not have sent him. Another case came before 
us at the same time that he was appointed,— a lady who de- 
sired to go to India but was physically unfit to go. She 
desired, however, to trust the Lord for her healing, and she 
was accepted on condition that she should be actually healed, 
and be really in a condition to go before the time came. She 
was in a far worse condition than our broOier, but she took 
the Lord for it, and months before she needed to snil she was 
thoroughly healed, and is now one of our healthiest, happiest, 
and most promising missionaries in India. We trust that our 
candidates will always be perfectly frank with us, and enable 
us to counsel and help them, and avoid all needless risks. 

g'7-ji i^»'p^-i»*^ --*■., 5 «.-^4?rtl 

M ^ .i j' j ar . ' !.' gr*! ?r:Pivy yyw' f y i.k ■ ■ ' jj-u^« t i'(M-"jg<]^ ' i^*J4 '* y.*»H' !i g. ' ^- ' y^ ' 

i ii!i 



We know that Mr. Anderson was perfectly sincere and can 
did in his purpose. He really meant that, trustinj^ God for 
his healing, he should not recognize the disease or symptoms. 
It is true that we should steadily believe above our symptoms, 
but it is also true that these symptoms should be actually re- 
moved before we go to the field, and will be if we steadfastly 
trust God. Faith in God is not only a " make believe," but 
it also brings direct and definite results, and if God wants us 
for a field He will surely give us the strength to go in such a 
sense and measure as t(» satisfy every reasonable inquirer. 

We spent three very pleasant days in Singapore, and saw 
a good deal of the city, the people, the Christian and mission- 
ary work of the country and, above all, the needs of the field 
and the work to which the Lord is calhng us theie. 

The first day was a Sabbath, and we were permitted to 
preach in the Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal Chapels, 
and on Monday evening again in the latter place. The M. E. 
Church of America has a Mission here, chiefly educational 
and English, but with a work among the Chinese, and a Pub- 
lishing and Printing Department, which has a Malay Branch. 
We had the pleasure of meeting good Bishop Thoburn here, 
whom we had missed in Calcutta. We saw a good der.l of him, 
and thanked God for the wise, humble and thoroughly earn- 
est, practical and capable man whom they have in charge of 
their great work in India. It is a shame if such a church, 
with such a work and such a leader, does not back himself in 
a manner compared with which all they are doing now is but 
as child's play. 


lincere and cau 
rusting God for 
iseor symptoms. 
3 om* symptoms, 
d be actually re- 
if we steadfastly 
ke believe," but 
if God wants us 
1 to go in such a 
ible inquirer, 
gapore, and saw 
ian and mission- 
leeds of the field 


ere permitted to 
•iscopal Chapels, 
ace. The M. E. 
efly educational 
aese, and a Pub- 
a Malay Branch, 
p Thoburn here, 
;ood der.l of him, 
horoughly earn- 
ave in charge of 
I such a church, 

back himself in 
ioing now is but 











HJUIJ.U ' l ' ilU.I'H ' V"g" 



We also met about a dozen of the missionaries ^f the 
Methodist Episcopal Mission, and found them all busy for 
Christ. They have several fine schools, a good English con- 
gregation, and an excellent work among the Chinese. The 
brother in charge of this, Dr. Luring, has given much assist- 
ance to our missionaries, and is a man of rare gifts and char- 
acter. He is a fine scholar, knowing Sanscrit, Malay, and 
Chinese, besides other languages, and has the greatest sim- 
plicity and singleness of heart. He has already translated 
some of our Alliance tracts into Malay, and thus enabled Mr. 
Lelacheur ^o preach to the Malays with our literature. Be- 
sides the Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal work, there 
are no other missionaries here except our own. 

On the following days we saw something of the city and 
country. Singapore is a large and flourishing commercial 
city, with a population of over 100,000, and an immense ship- 
ping trade with all the world. It is just half way round the 
world from New York, the difference in time being twelve 
hours and ten minutes. It stretches out its arms in one 
direction to xndia, Burmah, England and Europe-in another 
to Australia and the islands, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Celebes, 
New Guinea, the Phihppines, and the thousands more which 
cover the Archipelago, with their immense trade in all tropi- 
cal productions ; and, in yet another direction, the trade 
reaches away to Hong Kong, Saigon, Bankok, Shanghai, the 
whole China Coast and Japan. 

No city in the world has such a central location as Sing- 
apore between East and West, as a sort of rendezvous for the 




ships of all nations. It is full of English and Scotch people, 
and they are merchant princes, and live in great luxury. It 
is full of Chinese, and their houses and stores crowd hun- 
dreds of streets. And it is surrounded by Malays, the real 
natives, of whom we shall speak shortly. There are great 
numbers of Hindu Coolies from Madras and Bengal. There 
are Dyaks from Borneo and from Celebes, and people from 
all the Islands. And there are a good many Germans and 
Dutch, who are the lords of Sumatra, Java, Celebes, and 
Borneo, and have much trade passing through Singapore. 

The climate is peculiar. Lying on or very near the 
equator, it has, of course, the direct rays of the sun, and a» 
you hold up your umbrella at noon, the shadow falls directly 
at your feet and covers your whole person. We did not dare 
to look up to see that fiery sun, which no European eye can 
defy with impunity. But it is not nearly so hot as Northern 
India, thirty degrees farther north, is in the hot season. It 
is seldom one hundred degrees— indeed, rarely above ninety- 
five in the shade. But it is always warm. There is no win- 
ter, autumn or spring, but one everlasting monotony of heat, 
just like our July weather continued forever. And then it is 
moist heat— we would call it sweltering weather. The air is 
saturated with vapor. It rains almost every day, and you 
are in a steam bath all the time. We do not remember an 
hour in Singapore when we were not in a profuse perspi- 
ration. The rainfall is between sixty and seventy inches a 
year, and in Berar, only between thi-ty and forty, notwith- 
standing the heavy Monsoon rains in the lattei place. Such. 


id Scotch people, 
;reat luxury. It 
)res crowd hun- 
Malays, the real 
There are great 
Bengal. There 
md people from 
ly Germans and 
a, Celebes, and 
;h Singapore, 
very near the 
the sun, and as 
ow tails directly 
We did not dare 
iropean eye can. 
hot as Northern 
hot season. It. 
y above ninety- 
riiere i» no win- 
>notony of heat, 
And then it is 
her. The air is 

Y day, and you 
3t remember an 

profuse perspi- 
eventy inches a 
forty, notwith- 
Bi place. Such 


; . imauw wwwgg ^Tgi.iiaf.'v a 










a climate produces glorious vegetation, but involves a heavy 
strain upon human life. 

Cholera and small- pox are frequent visitors, and the 
former v^as very bad at the time of our visit, and we had to 
take the Lord to guard us from its breath. It had just car- 
ried off the leading judge of the island, and we saw two 
graves in the English cemetery where a husband and wife 
had lain down within a few days of each other. Dear Brother 
Lelacheui had a fierce attack of it while worn with waiting 
on Mr. Anderson, and only the power of God carried him 
through the great struggle. And yet Singapore is not an ex- 
ceptionally unhealthy place, and, as compared with any 
oriental city we have seen, it has some peculiar attractions. 

The drive to the Botanical Gardens was very pleasant! 
Perhaps nowhere in the world is there to be found such a col- 
lection of tropical vegetation in its own native soil. Here 
they are all classified and named and can be studied at leis- 
ure. For example, in one section there is a group of all the 
varieties of palms. Our readers w ould scarcely realize that 
of these alone there were more than a scoix* wholly distinct. 
We had alreaiy become familiar with the date palm, the 
cocoanut palm, and the Palmyra palm ; but here were many 
new ones. For example, we saw, for the first time, the 
*' Travellers Palm," the most beautiful object ni a tropical 
garden. It is just an immense fan, the handle growing up 
about twenty or thirty feet, and then the branches spreading 
out flat, like a great fan, often twenty feet in diameter, and 
beautifiil beyond description. The leaves form a lot of little 




cups, and are always found full of water, so that ^''e tired 
and thirsty iwlgrini always rejoices when lie hees a 'i .reveller's 


Then the Sago Palm is not only most beautiful but in- 
valuable. They cut it down and split it open, and make out 
of the pith and fibre a nourishing and delicious article of food. 
A single tree will produce sago enough to feed a man a year. 
There is another palm whose stems are of the most brilliant 
crimson, with leaves of green, and it is a most picturesque 


Many of the trees are covered with orchids. They climb 
and creep over the tree in every direction, and hang with the 
most lovely blossoms. A visit to the orchid house in the Gar- 
dens revealed hundreds of varieties. They have a strange 
peculiarity in Singapore. All the orchids of a certain variety 
bloom on the same day. The day of our arrival we saw great 
quantities of a beautiful white blossom shaped just like a 
white dove. Our friend told us it was the " Pigeon Orchid," 
and every one of them on Singapore Island was blooming to- 
day, and to-morrow there would not be one to be seen, — 
until, perhaps, two months later, when the next blooming day 
would come, and so on all the year around. Then, he said, 
in Java all the orchids of a certain kind would have their day 
of bloom, and so, all over the Archipelago, on every island, 
they had different days to bloom, and then the forests would 
be hanging with their bright streamers and festoons. 

There was no end to the niaf2;nificent ferns, the leaves of 
some of them being nearly two yards long. Indeed, days 




SO that *'ie tired 
e sees a '1/'- seller's 

, beautiful but in- 
en, and make out 
ous article of food. 
Peed a man a year, 
the most brilliant 
, most picturesque 

;hids. They cUmb 
and hang with the 
I house in the Gar- 
ey have a strange 
3f a certain variety 
rrival we saw great 
shaped just like a 
i "Pigeon Orchid," 
i was blooming to- 
one to be seen, — 
next blooming day 
id. Then, he said, 
)uld have their day 
JO, on every island, 
1 the forests would 
d festoons, 
ferns, the leaves of 
ong. Indeed, days 

A.VO.\'(; Tin: MALAYS. 


might have been spent in studying the curious and beautiful 
works of God in this rich clime. In one corner of the Gar- 
dens we found 
a collection of 
English roses, 
c a V n a t ions, 
])inks and ver- 
benas ; but 
they looked 
lonely a n d 
miserable, and 
seemed like 
exotics and 
exiles far 
from home, 
and wo were 
sorry to see 
such a carica- 
ture of our 
humble and 
welcome vis- 
itors placed in 
such humili- 
ating contrast 
with their 
Southern sis- 


30S LAKcr.R ocTr.ooKS OX Mfssrox.iK r..4.\'h 

Bu • want to speak of tho Mulu> ^ i)l»'. Wo had 
visited tli. liom* of a new rac" Wo need not toll our readers 
that the Malay po -plo form the fifth of tFi races >f mankind, 
and aro essentialiy different from tao Mongolian, the Cauca- 
sian, the :..'; .. id the Tndian. 

Thin vi\v\', with its various fan\ii)i'S, numhers, we beliove, 
about til irty inillionn, and ofcnpioa the Peninsula of Malacca, 
and the • In- mLs lying south and east. They are usually su))- 
posed to include th( Papuans or people of New Guinea and 
the Australian Islands. They ai-e nearly all Mohammedans, 
although 801. of them are of a niud*n-at.^ type. They speak 
a good raanv difporent iguages ; thi; Sumatrans, the Javan- 
ese, the Dyaks of Bo.ueo, the people o^ Celebes, the inhab- 
itants of the Phihi)i ■ nes, Timor and N(- inea, each having 
their distinct d riled. The Malay language proi)er is spoken 
on the Malay Peniu ula, and the small islands lying contigu- 
ous, and by many Malay villages that have been planted 
along the shores of many of the larger islands. 

Wo drove out into the country a few miles to see a genu- 
ine Malay village. We had often heard of these people, and 
of the strange way they built their houses over the water, 
but we had always supposed a Malay village meant a filthy, 
swampy settlement, where no one else could live in the damp, 
unhealthy atmosphere. It was a genuine surprise to find that 
a Malay village is constructed on the most perfect sanitary 
principles, and may be the healthiest place in the world. 
They select the side of a stream washed by the tide, and thev 
build their houses on posts, about four feet above the ground. 


(pU». W(> had 

tell our readers 

ceH of I mankind, 

Ian, the Cauca- 

ers, we beliove, 
lula of Malacca, 
ire usually suj)- 
Few Guinea and 
)e. They speak 
rans, the Javan- 
ebes, the inhab- 
lea, each having 
.roper is spoken 
s lying contigu- 
.^e been planted 


Bs to see a genu- 
hese people, and 
over the water, 
meant a filthy, 
ive in the damp, 
prise to find that 
perfect sanitary 
;e in the world, 
iie tide, and they 
bove the ground. 


•^'. " a- ,i -. , JW ii. 





1^ !■■ mil 2 2 

^ U£ 12.0 








WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 






Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 



enough to be al)Ove 

floor is soniewliat 
sweepings and 

© r j n s t 
high tide. The 
open, and all the 
drainage just fall ^|p^^^H^^H ii^^<^> the water be- 
low. And then ^B^^SflH|^^| tAvice a day, wheir 
the tide rises, Old ^^,- \^^^^^K Neptune comes, 
witliout the sliglit- ^^Hlpi^'^^^^H est ex]>ense to the 
family. and washes ^^^' '^^^^^^ all the filth and re- 
fuse away and ^^B ^^jK^^^^R leaves the neigh- 
borhood as sweet ^^I^^^^^^^H ^^^^ clean r... the 
strand. ^^K^^^l^l^l ^^^^' walked a- 

I'ound a lot of these ^^^^^^^HIH houses at low tide 
and found the ^^|^^^^^^^H ground clean and 
dry, and covered ^^^^^|^^^^| 

All the ^^^^^^^^BIh houses of the 
]age are connected H^^^H||H^| ^.V P^^uk walks or 
X)osts as high as the a Sumatra woman. houses, so that you 

can walk from house to house even at full tide. In short, it is a 
sort of Venice in miniature. Our local friends told us that it was 
decidedly the best way to build a house in a Malay town, and 
that they would recommend our missionaries always to live 
in just such houses. A very fine Malay house of this kind, 
of native materials, and with I'oom for three or foui' persons, 
can bo built for less than S'200 in gold, which is certainly very 
cheap, much cheaper than anything we can build in India, 
even with its low ])rices. 

We were informed by Dr. lairing, who has given much 
study to the people who speak the Malay language propor, 




there fa at present no missionary work whatever unto a 
ftXlnt sUty. The Methodist work in Sn.gapore .s not 



^'hatever under a 
L Singapore is not 

./j/OAv/ '/■///■; 


among thoni, but is confintMl to Englisli and Chinese. The 
(German and Dutch societies are laboring on Sumatra, Java, 
and Celebes, but these people do not speak Malay, but a local 
dialect. And so this great people and tongue are wholly 
r.eglected at the present time, and calling to ns to send them 
the Gospel. It is true that Malacca has been a Mission centre. 
It was here that all the Chinese societies began. But it has 
always been a centre for points beyond itself. It was the 
base of operations where the missionaries learn(>d the Cliinese 
language, and then, on the opening of the Chinese ports, 
poured their workers into China, and left the Malays; still 


This really does seem to be an open and a needy field. 
Our dev. biotlier, Mr. Lelacheur, has learned this language 
and has this people nuuh upon his heart. He and Dr. Lur- 
ing told us of many points that could at once bo occupied at 
very moderate expense. There are three Malay villages 
a few miles from the city of Singapore. There is a cluster of 
Malay villages • ut fourteen miles down the Straits. Then 
there is th(^ lar^. - '■ v,^ state and city of Jahoreo occupying, 
perhaps, two hnndred miles along the gulf, and whose Sultan 
is a graduate of a Missimi school, and friendly to 
This whole state- which is under British protection, and the 
chief ofUcerof which is himself a Christian, is without a mis- 
sionary. These are but some of the Malay openings in the 
immediate vicinity of Singapore, while on Sumatra and the 
other islands, there iire many Malay-speaking villages that 
have no voice to tell them of Jesus. 




This does seem to us, after prayerful consiaeration, to be 
(.ne of the fields to which we should send u few Avorkers very 


Tlien, from Singapore, it is but a short distance, with 
direct comuuxnicatiou by steamer, to the great Kingdom of 
Anam with its twenty millions of people without a single 
nussionarv. Singapore is the natural centre for this, also, at 
l)i'csent at least. We weiv repaid for our whole journey by 
learning, we think without doubt, that Anam is really open 
for our missionaries. A young Spanish colporter has recently 
sold Bibles along the whole coast, and has stated that he has 
the fullest liberty to labor within the whole kingdom. V7e 
trust that as little time as j.ossible will be lost in getting 
even a small beginning in Saigon, the capital of Anam. 

But what about the Islands of the Sea, and especially the 
Caroline Islands, which were the direct goal for which we 
went to Singapore ? Well, this has not been lost sight of, 
and. we l)elieve, will also be reached from Singapore. 

Our brethren Avere hindered by Mr. Anderson's illness 
from attempting the long voyage necessary to reach these 
Islands: but, meanwhile, careful investigations have been 
going on. and it is believed that a direct line of monthly 
steamers has been found from Siugapti-e to the Sulu Islands, 
from the Sulus to Mandinao. and from Mandinao to Yap, 
which is the island we have aimed to reach. But in reaching 
it, we niay also be able to reach two other groups near to it, 
and that are as destitute and uuevangelized as Yap is. 

Mr. Lelacheur has had an excellent local work in Singa- 

ration, to be 
vorkers very- 
stance, with 

Kingdom of 
out a single 
tliis, also, at 
e journey by 
s really open 

has recently 
[1 that he has 
ngdom. We 
st in getting 

especially the 
foi- which we 
lost sight of, 

arson's illness 
o reach these 
IS have been 
e of monthly 

Sulu Islands, 
iinao to Yap, 
ut in reaching 
ups near to it, 
Yap is. 
vork in Singa- 





port' among the En^lisli-speaking people. His life and testi- 
mony among tlie English Christians and missionaries have 
heen true, manly, and most hlessed. He has won for himself 
and (jur work the respec;t and conftdenee of all the other 
workers. Amid trying circumstances he has stood consist- 
ently and bravely, and (rod has given us in him a leader of 
tried faith, deep convictions, practical wisdom and experi- 
ence, and fearless courage, such as we cannot always find, 
and greatly n(>ed in such new fields. 

He has had a most excellent work among a luimher of 
young men and women, who meet with liim in evangehstic 
street meetings, and are doing glorious work for God. 

The need of English work is very great in Singapore. 
Our friends took us one night down Malay Street, and we 
would not dare to describe too vividly the scenes we saw, 
and yet it is good for us to know something of this world's 
dark side. Every house in the long street, on both sides, was 
crowded in the open fronts with abandoned women of every 
nation under heaven, and they not only stood and sat on the 
open verandas, but swarmed in the middle of the street, 
taking hold of every i)asser-by, and, literally, almost drag- 
ging them to their der They were in all the costumes of 
all the races, and they »!. oated and shrieked, in nearly all the 
languages under heaven, their calls to the passer-by And up 
and down, and in and out, were passing hundreds of Euro- 
pean men— sailors and soldiers, officers, low and even high, 
without shame or eifort at concealment. 

On this street our brother holds a Gospel meeting every 


week u.ul with his voice of thun.l.r he pvoclai.ns the Wor.l 
of God to these wicked men, and points his finder at thcnv m 
the Bight of all the people, as the men that are nuikin^ th. 
name of Christianity to he .Icspised among the heathen. He 
tedls lis that the street is usually .leared within a few nun- 
utes after he hegins, an,l these scou.ulrels are glad to get 
away from the sound of his voi.-e. G..dhlesshim n. lushravu 
and dithcult work, and let not a morhid sensitiveness make 
us afraid to see and meet these awful needs. 

But we saw a sadder sight in 8ingapon> than evn 
Malay Street. Our good nussiouary friends t..ok us to see 

the Chinese opium dens. En- 
tering an onhnary slio^) door, 

we were ushered into a room, 

ahout thirty feet long and 

tifteen feet wide, with a long 

tahle on each side running 

the whole length of the room, 

and a iJassage hetvveen, ahout 

a yard wide. Th«>s(> long ta- 

hles were covered with cheap 

mats, and <.n these the China- 
men win'e lying- snmking or 

sleeping. Our friend could 
talk to them in Chinese and 

we got a very good idt>a of 
the way these poor fellows 
felt ahout it. They were (piite 






s the Word 
■at thorn in 
iiiiikiiit; the 
athcn. Ho 
ji few iniii- 
^l:i(l tit gft 
in hiH bravo 
eness luako 

B than even 
V us to see 


willing to talk, and received us kindly, and i>tfercd ns 
tea. They seemed to re-spect him very nmeh, and let him 
talk freely to them. W(* asked them many (|ueHtinns through 
him, and they were jierfectly frank and opt'ii in their an- 

Here are some cjuestions and answers: 

" How nuichdoyou siM-nd on opium ;" •" Ahout seventy 
cents a day." " How much do you earn C "\ sj.-nd all [ 
earn ! " Another said he earned thirty cents a day. and spent 
forty on opium. Another, who spent all his income on it, 
said he did not save anything for food. We asked him if he 
was married. He said he had a wife and fanuly Ikmv. He 
did not make any provision for them. 

Wt> asked another if it mado him luqtpy. He laughed 
bitterly and said -''No," he could not afford to huy enough 
to make him happy. He was just able to drown a littl<; of his 
misery. He asked them how long they stayed in tli.'se 
places. They said, "All night."' They just smoked till they 
fell asleep and then lay there till morning, often they 
awoke in the night, and had to get more, so they had to stay 
there whei-e they could get it. We asked them if they would 
like to give it up, and they all said " Yes,' if God would give 
them the power to do it, l)ut they did not have the courage. 

Our friend jireached the Gospel to them, and they listened 
with earnest, kind faces, that made our very hearts bleed, 
and when we got through they just went on smoking again, 
and seemed to sink back into di'spair. We asked him how 
many of the Chinese of Singapore indulge in this habit, and 



lu. Hiiid at least oighty out of I'vevy huiuliod. We were 
iippnlUHl. And w«» fi'lt that tlu' do- ^ was an awful master, 
and tho power of Omnipotence alone could break this chain. 
Many of the men hlamed our governnjent for providing 
opium, and their feeble voices were but echoes of God's 
tn'm.'ndous judgment, when some day the ([Uestion shall be 
asked, " Who sU'W tliese souls t" 

\V(> looked at their emaciated bodies andgaimt faces, and 
thought of hou- it would all end. and we asked them how it 
was going to end. And they said they believed they would 
go to heaven, for fhvii ahraijs imid for the opium then used! 
Poor, lost, human souls ! Oh, let us pray for the heathen. 
How we wislu'd we could speak to tliein ! How we longed to 
take them in our arms, and make them feel the love and 
].ower of the One that alone can save the slave of opium and 
the captive of Satan. 

And this is only the beginning of China. Away beyond 
these stretch the mighty plains, where four hundred millions 
of these bright, strong, capable minds and hearts are bound 
in yet stronger chains of darkness and despair. 

Lord, hel)) the heathen ! Lord, haste Thy coming ! 


Wo were 
fill master, 

tliiH cluiin. 
• pioviding 
?8 of God's 
ion shall bo 



it faces, awd 
lu'iu how it 
thoy would 
I thci/ used ! 
he heathen, 
ve longed to 
he love and 
oi)iuni and 

way beyond 
Ired niillions 
;8 are bound 

ning ! 

WK HAVE just spent about ten days in Southern 
Cliina, chiotly in llong Kong, Canton and vicinity, 
and have met many of the missionaries and a 
number of other persons interested in and a((|iiainted with 
this field. Wo have given mu' li careful study to this vast 
region, with its distinct dialect, its numerous great cities and 
its three provinces, containing a population of over ;}i»,O0U,- 
U()0, and we are beginning to have some adequate conception 
of its needs as a mission field, and its claims upon the church 
of Christ. 

We had a slow and somewhat tedious voyage of nearly a 
week from Singapore on one of the oldest ships of the P. & 
0. line. They only run their best ships, as a rule, to Bombay 
and Colombo, and transfer their passengers for China to in- 
ferior boats. We had n good many passengers, including 
some very pleasant Chiistian friends, among others Kev. Dr. 
Ridgeway, President of the Methodist Episcopal Theological 
Seminary, Evanston, and his wife, Col. and Mrs. Waller, of 
India, and Rev. Dr. West and family, of Singapore Metho- 
dist Episcopal Mission. 

We had a daily Bible reading in the ct*bin and Sabbath 



services. On Sabbath e%-ening we had the opportunity of 
^])eakir,g a few words for Christ, and at the close of the ser- 
vice we got a good introduction to a class of men wliom we 
had met a good many times already in the East, raid who 
form a verv distinct and influential class in the seaport towns 
of China and Japan. They are the English abroad, and, we 
are sorry to say, that many of them are the worst people m 
the East, and the worst enemies of Christianity and Chris- 
tian Missions. 

We had spoken <iuite plainly in our address on Sabbath 
evening, and as we left tlie saloon we were a.;<-osted by a 
crowd of men, all first-class passengers and supposed to be 
gentlemen, with a lot of insulting (juestions about Christians 
and missionaries. Some of them were young men on tlien- 
way to business and official appointments in China ; others 
were older men in business in the East. One of them was a 
man between fifty and sixty years of age, the father of two 
very nice looking voung ladies, who were travelhng as i)as- 
sengers on the steamer. He was the rudest and loudest of 

all the crowd. 

They began by denouncing missionaries as the worst 
men in China, charging them with the basest crimes, as well 
as selfish luxury and all sorts of things, and they said that 
they were universally hated by the Chinese and the English, 
and other foreigners wherever they lived. We ventured to 
suggest, amid the loud words of the crowd, that, perhaps, 
the reason the missionaries were hated so much by the for- 
eigners and English, was because they told them some plain 


iportunity of 
e of the sei'- 
en whom we 
ast, and who 
seaport towns 
foad, and, we 
rst people in 
ty and Chris- 
es on Sabbath 
acf.'osted by a 
ipposed to be 
)ut Christians 
men on their 
China ; others 
f them was a 
father of two 
eUing as i)as- 
md loudest of 

as the worst 
L'riraes, as well 
:hey said that 
d the English, 
re ventured to 
that, perhaps, 
ich by the for- 
em some plain 


Ffh-ST /M/'A'F.SSIO.\S OF SOI TlfFA'X (7//.V.1. 


,i.^ o Minmnti.lilii 

Veifrt o/(, Gobi 

2i aA '^•''^!:^ — ilTS.Canton y'^yi--- -':.■■' 

/*^-: ■ -■ ■ . ■ . ;, •■ 

truths about the shaniefid way they lived among the heathen, 
and we told them that we had seen a good many Englishmen 
(in Malay Street, Singapore, in very bad comi)any. 

Tlien th. y 
laughed in 
nur face, and 
told us that 
they them 
selves were 
there, and 
( t-ybody 
went, and it 
Avasall right 
to go, and 
the old man, 
partic u 1 a r 
ly. boasted 
that he had 
a perfect 
right to go ; 
lie was made 
with these 
appe t i t e s, 
and it was 

intended :hat he should indulge them. We asked him what* 
he would tViink of his daughters doing so, and suggested that 
if it was all right for a man it was just as right for his wife 

S ^ i 



and his child. He said of course it was, and his daughters 
had the right to do the same if they wanted to. We were so 
disgusted that, after trying in vain to say some earnest 
words to this crowd of first-class ruffians, who literally gloried 
in their shame, we turned away with a few words of solenm 
warning, and got alone undei- the stars of heaven to talk 
to God ahout something worse than even heathenism in 
China. This is the element amid which, with, of course, 
some heautiful exceptions, many of our missionaries have to 
commend Christ and Christianity to the people of China 
with these object lessons before their eyes. 

On Monday morning we found ourselves in the harbor of 
Hong Kong. This island, with the beautiful city of Victoria, ' 
forms one of the most striking harbor views in the world, and 
as you go ashore and visit the various points of the island 
your first impressions are confirmed in every way. 

The heat is moderate, never approaching tlie summer 
temperature of India, and seldom exceeding ninety degrees 
in the hottest weather, or going below forty-five degrees in 
the cold season. The vegetation is very rich, and, while not 
nearly so tropical as Singapore, yet it is quite luxuriant, and 
the hills and valleys are a mass of Uving green. The streets 
and roads that wind about the hills are beautifully shaded 
with avenues of fine trees, and the ferns literally swarm on 
every hillside. There are over one hundred varieties of ferns 
indigenous tc the island, and the moisture of the climate 
keeps them ever fresh and beautiful. 

Immediately back of the landing wharf and the city, the 

» t u rn 


lis (laughters 
We were so 
lonie earnest 
orally gloried 
■ds of solemn 
aven to talk 
iathenism in 
h, of course, 
laries liave to 
pie of China 

the liarhorof 
y of Victoria, ' 
,he world, and 
of the island 

the summer 
linety degrees 
ve degrees in 
md, while not 
iixuriant, and 
. The streets 
tifuUy shaded 
illy swarm on 
ieties of ferns 
if the climate 

d the city, the 


/■VA'sv i.vrRESsrojWs of southf.rx i inx. i. ^21 

Peak I'ises to a lieijjjht of 2,000 feet, and It'sscr lulls surrouiiil 
it on every side, but the nearness and boldness of these hills 
give them a greater apparent heij:,ht, and they staiul like 
gigantic shoulders in tlu; backgroinid. At their base and np 
their sides many handsome buildings rise in teri'aces of 








H- i 




streets, presenting a line appearance. The architecture is 
well adapted to the climate and scenery. Government House 
is half way up the hill, and the Botanical Gardens, with some 
fine trees and plants, a little higher up. There is a tramway 
leading almost to the summit, and the view from the Peak 
over the harbor and islands is superb. The view from below, 



322 J.Ah'CI-.l'! OfTl.OOKS OX .irfSSfOWl RV r.AXDS. 

at night, Avheii tiers upon tiers of light encircle the gigantic 
hill almost to its sunnnit, is extremely grand. 

The population is about i;40,000, of whom H,5(Kiare Euro- 
])eans and Amei-icans, and ll(),f)Of» Chinese, and the rest of 
them Asiatics. The trade is enormous, exceeding ^-JoOjOOO,- 
000. The ])oimlation has increased one-third in the last ten 
years, and the business of the place is evidently extremely 
prosperous. Its shipping and telegraphic conmiunications 
touch almost every part of the world, and, like Singapore, it 
is a sort of rendezvous for the commerce, l)oth of the eastern 
and western nations. It is the eastern boundary of Great 
Britain's wonderful Empire, and one of her most beautiful 
and prosperous colonies. She has held the island since 1841, 
and it is the base of hei- military and naval movements in 
the East, and the point from which she is able to enforce 
upon the haughty Ch.inese the observance of their treaties, 
and the rights of British and other foreign citizens abroad. 

Hong Kong, while not directly a missionary field, at least 
in the same sense as Canton, is a missionary centre, and the 
headquarters of many of the missionary societies for South- 
ern China, especially the Church Missionary Society, the 
Basil Missionary Society, and the London Missionary Society, 
some of which we had the privilege of visiting. 

But our objective point was not Hong Kong, but In- 
terior China. And so, the day following our arrival at Hong 
Kong found us on board the fine steamer, " Hankow," sail- 
ing through a multitude of beautiful islands at the mouth of 
the Pearl River, and then up that fair river to Canton. The 


! .- ^i^MHWnti-anjii) 

■ L.tXDS. 

I 8,5(H)aroEuro- 
and the rest of 
edinj? ,^-J<)(»,000,- 
1 in the last ten 
ently extremely 
ike Singapore, it 
,h of the eastern 
mdary of Great 
r most beautiful 
sland since 1S41, 
il movements in 

able to enforce 
)i their treaties, 
itizeiis abroad, 
ary field, at least 
y centre, and the 
lieties for South- 
ary Society, the 
issionary Society, 

ig Kong, but In- 
r arrival at Hong 
"Hankow," sail- 
; at the mouth of 

to Canton. The 



picture was a pretty one. The islands and shores were 
clothed with ridiest green — the finest shades we have seen 
in the East. The entrance is through the Tiger Pass, be- 
tween two promontories which the Chinese have crowned 
with tw(j i)ag()das to keep tlie strong current of the river 
from carrying the good luck it bears from the interior out 
to the sea, and so losing thes(! jjrecious influences to the 
country. Undulating plains and distant hills, with many 
intersecting canals and streams, and waving fields of young 
rice of the most brilliant green, spread out on either shore. 
Here and there a handsome pagoda rises, some as high as 
nine stories ; and, occasionally, a sfpiare tower is seen, de- 
signed to bring good luck and success to the literary candi- 
dates from this village or neighborhood. Myriads of graves 
cover many of the hillsides, every one being located on wliat 
the Chinese oracles had pronounced a " lucky " spot ; for to 
be buried in "a lucky grave,'' and to be worshi])])ed by his 
children and posterity, is one of the highest ambitions of a 
Chinaman. The scenery of the Pearl River from Hong Kong 
to Canton is not unlike the Hudson, and in some respects is 
quite as pretty. 

A sail of eighty miles brings us to Canton. An immense 
forest of masts ; miles of small boats of every size and 
shape, roofed over with matting and filled with families of 
women and children, who live in them all their lives ; a great 
expanse of low-roofed houses stretching along the river front 
and reaching back to the hills beyond ; one or two English - 
looking church spires ; a lofty native pagoda in the distance ; 




a few nine-story, sciuare buiMings, ovoi-topping the rest, anrl 
standing out all over tin; city like the new Chicago castles in the 
air ; and there, at the landing, a great swarm of Chinesci men, 
women and children, and one familiar face, waiting on the 
jetty to w(>lcome us -this was our first view of Canton, the 
capital of (^uan-tnng Province, the metropolis of Southern 
China, and almost the largest <ity in the Chinese Empire. 
What its population actually is no one can .accurately tell. 
Those who have the best right to know estimate it at between 
one and two millions at least. 

Perhaps one-fourth of the popidation live always on the 
water. Their houses are little boats, roofed with matting, 
and arranged with a simi>le kitchen in the rear, a little cabin 
in the front, where the family live and die, eat and deep, and 
find both their residence and means of livelihood. The front 
cabin is a sleeping place at night, and during the day a place 
for passengers to sit while they are ferried l)y the Chinese 
family, for a few cents, across or up and down the river or 


These boats all have a i)lace to moor at night, and this is 
theirs by right, and the only local habitation they ever know. 
They may go ashore to labor, and the father often does dur- 
ing the day, but they nuist live on the water. The little girl 
that is born on the water must die on it. She dare not marry 
a shoreman, or ever leave this class of river people. She may, 
and indeed does, many some Chinaman, but it must be a 
river man, who will take her to live on some other little boat. 

The female members of the family do most of the row- 

the rest, antl 
Chinosii men, 
Liiting on the 
I Canton, the 

of Southern 
ncse Empire, 
curutc'ly tell. 
3 it at between 

iilways on the 
with matting, 
, a little cabin 
and Bleep, and 
h1. Tlie front 
lie day a place 
- the Chinese 
n tho river or 

,lit, and this is 
ley ever know, 
ften does dur- 
The little girl 
laie not marry 
pie. She may, 
t it must be a 
ther little boat. 
5t of the row- 

FfRST lArPRKSSfOXS OF So/ ■/•///: A'X I7//X.I. 



."." . 


,;-'^- 1 



ing AN'e had to cross on these boats inany times whihMii 

Canton, hut it was seldom that we could j;<'t a man ; usually 

an old woman stood in the stern and worked the scull oars, 

and two or three young girls in front pulled tho other oars, 

■while two or three of 

us sAt in the cabin, 

and watched tlu>ir 

pleasant faces and 

firm muscles as they 

jmlled the oars with 

the strc^ngth of men. 

Thousands— yes, tens 

of t h o u s a n d s — of 

these boats line the 

shores of the river 

and its numerous 

canals, and a high 

official told us that 

perhaps one-fourth 

of the peoi)le liv(>d in 


It was a great 
pleasure once more 
to meet our dear nus- 

sionaries, Mr. and ]Mis. Keeves, and their native assistant, 
Fung W5n, and to find them well and happy in their new 
field. We spcnit nearly a week in their hosjiitable little 
home, and had manv hallowed sea.sons of conference and 


326 LARcr.R orr LOOKS ox AffssroxARV i.Axns. 

prayer respecting thi' great Wi.rk for which th.'y luul come, 
and also many opportunities of nu'.'ting the other mission- 
aries in Canton, and of seeing the city an.l surroumUng 


We sluill tirst give a few sketches of th(! country and 
people, and then refer to the missionary work. • 

Our first visit was to the foreign quarter. This is a 


pretty little island called " Shameen," which is detached from 
the native city and assigned io the English, French, Ameri- 
cans and other foreigners for their residence. It was fitted 
up hy the Chinese Imperial authorities at a cost of nearly a 
quarter of a million dollars. It is very neat and pretty, and 
free from the odors- and other disagreeahle things that infest 
all Chinese citi(>s. Here are the foreign consulates and th.^ 
homes of most of the Missions, including our own. We had the 

u'y hiul come, 
)th<'i- niission- 
l smroundiiif; 

9 country and 

er. This is a 

mletachcd from 
French, Anieri- 
■. It was fitted 
;ost of nearly a 
and i)rotty, and 
ings that infest 
isulates and tht^ 
wii. We had the 

/■//,".s •/■ /.i//7.7;.W(^\.s- <>/■' .sof ////■AX < /// \ . '. 327 

pleasure of meeting tlio American Consul here, a gentleman 
who haH Hpent tt-n years in Canton in olVuial service, and 
whoso removal at this tini.' wnnld 1... deeply rcKiott.'d l.v .dl 
th«i missionari(>s. 

It is a most critical time in China. The reckless course 
of the American Congress in their Anti-Chinese legislation 
is at length heginning to react in China, and only a few days 
ago, here in Canton, a native pai)er holdly advocated tli.' 
policy of retaliation, and proposed that if America expelle.i 
the Chinese, China should undouhtedly expid every American 
from her shores. At such a time it is easy for a popular dis- 
turhance to arise at any moment ; and, therefore, the pres- 
ence in China of an American representative of Mr. Sey- 
mour's experience and high standing with the Chinese 
officials, is of much more value and importance than any 
question of political expedienc-y incident to a change of par- 
ties at the White House. 

Our next visit was to the native city. The first impres- 
sion a stranger has of the streets of Canton is the thronging 
crowd. What myriads of human heings, i)ushing, jostling, 
shouting, tramping on-on-<.n, with their curious, various 
loads and costumes and faces, through those narrow, c-rowdi'd 
passages evermore. Go where you will, it is ever the same 
dense, teeming crowd. You can gather a moh of thousands 
in any part of Canton inside of three minutes. You have 
but to stand on the street, and they are around you so thick 
that you can scarcely move. You have hut to enter a store, 
and you have a score to witness youi' bargain and in^p(>ct 

/..if?f;/-A' orn.ooks ov .VAsvArv.//.-)' /..;.v/'.9. 

your punlmsc. V<mi have hiii {n look ai'ouiid. aiul voic*!^ are 
iiMuir, " rikslia." "cliair," "Coolie," which nicaurt. "Do you 
want fi jiiuiksha, or a Sedan ehair, or a Coolie i" 

And what strange niixtnres are in that crowd! Here 
i-onie three hearers carrying a Sedan chair, with a lady in- 
Hide, carefnlly curtained fioin view. Ih-re conici a water 
carrier, with his two great vessels of wal'M- l>nlan<evl on Ji 
hanihoo ])ole over liis shoulders. Here is another man. with 
two haskots similarly halanced, containing a nice fat dog in 
one and several cats in the other ; ol ••ourse. they aie for the 
cat and dog market, which we will soon reach. Hero are 
two Chinamen carrying an enormous pig in a hasket, hung 
from a long hamhoo pole. And as they all go dashing on, 
they are shouting and screaming to clear the way, and eveiy 
l-edestrian is expected to make Avay. The first time we went 
through the streets, we, too. had a chair, and our ruiuiers 
screamed as loudly as the others, and the ix.'ople tuined aside 
and made room, and then stood a moment, and said, one to 
the other, "Foreign devils!" At othjr times we walked 
more leisurely, and let the strange scenes slowly fix tlunn 
shelves on our imagination. 

Then one is struck with the narrow streets. We liave 
seen narrow streets in Jerusalem and Cairo, hut never such 
.streets as these. Why, some places they are not more than 
four feet wide, and we need not say that no wlu'eled vehidis 
not even the nan.w jinriksha, ever ])assed through these 


Then the s.'m.Js. Tiu-y are ot all sorts. There are re- 


iuid v<)ic«w aie 
■aurt. "Do you 

riowd 1 ]U'Vii 
ith a liuly iii- 
Diiio* a watiT 
Kilaiic**! (»n a 
lor man. with 
ico fat (loK ill 
ley are for the 
ih. Hore are 
I haskot, hung 
;o (lashing on, 
'ay, and t-vcry 
thjic Nvt^ wont 
1 our runners 
le tuined asido 
lid said, one to 
OH wo walked 
wly fix tlieni- 

ets. Wo have 
lut novor suoh 
not inoro tlian 
hoolod vehicle, 
through these 

Tlicro are re- 




liginus smells, from inct'iise tapers and burning papers, and 
there are the most vicious odors conceivable from foul ac- 
cumulations and fetid markets, and decaying fish and veget- 
ables, and crowded shops and tenements. And yet the worst 
8t]'eet in Canton is a i)aradise to one of the temples of 


Of course we went to the " Temi)le of the Five Hundred 
Gods," and saw the coarse and jovial-looking deities in brass ; 
images which looked much more nKw a crowd of jolly Dutch- 
men in a lagor beer saloon than anything divine or even 
Chinese. Two of the five hundred wore near the entrance, 
and they had their arms full of babies, and they seemed to 

I ill 



be the favorites, for their shrines were full of burning in- 
cense, pl.'uxMl there by their worshippers. 

At the "Temple of Longevity" there were several huge 
deities in brass, who nuist have lived a long time to grow so 
big, but they all had the same jovial look of coarse animal 
enjoyment, showing the Chinaman's liighest ideal of a supe- 
rior being in a very humbling light. At this temple the crowd 
was very rough, and two of us received slight blows from 
some young rascal in tho mob, but no serious injury. We 
had a lady with us, and she was the occasion of most of the 
excitement and curiosity. For a lady to appear publicly on 
the streets of C'l.ina is very unusual, and the fi-eedom of 
Europeans always attract;: much attention. 

The "Temple of Horrors" is also one of the sights of 
Canton. It contains a number of representations t)f future 
punishment, that are vivid enough to make even a Chinaman 
sober. Each little chapel contains certain representations of 
the torments of the dannied. In one they are being boiled 
in oil, in another encased in a hollow tree and sawn asunder 
down the whole length of the timber, and so on through a 
dozen different progressions of every conceivable torture. In 
each scene the god of the lower world is represented in some 
horrible form, and the poor culprits who are waiting for 
their turn are standing in the background with nuich con- 
cern and terror depicted on their faces. This temple is 
farmed out every year to a speculator who pays a large rent 
for it, and receives all the offerings of the worshippers m re- 
turn, and, it is said, always makes a fortune out of it. The 


. LV/)S. 

' burning in- 

sov(3ial huge 
le to grow so 
oarse animal 
;al of a supe- 
ple the crowd 
t blows from 
. injury. We 
f most of tlie 
ir publicly on 
le freedom of 

the sights of 
ons of future 
n a (Hiinaman 
esentations of 
> being boiled 
sawn asunder 

vn through a 
le torture, lu 
iented in some 
e waiting for 
th nuich cou- 
'his temple is 
ys a large rent 
■shippers in re- 
.utof it. The 

F//^sT i.vrR/:ssio\s ( >/■• sorrHr.h'X c his A. 33 1 

practical Chinaman is not unwilling tonmke money even out 
of a subject so horrible. The place was full of nmney 
cha.^'ers'and various professions and offices, and seemed a 
strange mixture of sordid avarice an ^ ghastly superstition. 

The public execution grounds were not much less revolt- 
ing Here is an open triangular piec ; of vacant ground, with 
a number of large crosses leaning against the wall, where not 
less than three hundred persons every week, on an average, 
are publicly executed. 
One of the execution- 
ers, a brutal-looking 
creature, wanted to 
show us the swords 
they use, but we c(Hild 
not stand this. Here, 
men and women are 
tortured to death at 
the rate of ir),<'(>o a 
year, in the name of 
justice. They are 

sometimes fastened to thes(^ crosses and hacked to pieces as 
they hang there ; sometimes sliced into a dozen pieces and 
slowly tortured to death, and sometimes more mercifully 
beheaded or strangled at once. 

In China anv man may be arrested on suspicion and 
lodged in jail, and when hi. trial comes off there is no lawyer 
to defend him ; lawyers are unknown in China ; but he must 
plead his own cause before a magistrate, who is always open 



T^T,! i.ARcr.R (wn Diik's OX .u/ssrox.iRY L.ixns. 

to luibeiy, and from wlioso docisioii Ihoic is no appeal. 
Every accused i)Oison is l>(>uiid to prove his innocence, and, 
milike English law, is assujninl to he jiuilty, unless he can do 
so. Unless an accused ])erson has money he rarely escapes 
(ondenniatiou. Tliousands of innocent i)ersons languish in 
])riso;i without a hearing, or die on the execution grounds as 
hrutes, and there is none to help or i)ity. and the great crowd 
rushes on and misses them not. If Solomon had seen Canton 
lie could not liave given a h(>tter account of it than his sad 
refiaiu over human wrongs : '"So 1 leturned, and considered 
all the oppi-essions that are done under the sun : and behold 
the teai'S of such as Avei-e op])ressed and th(^y had no com- 
forter ; and on the side of tlieir oppressors there was power, 
])ut they liad no comforter. Wherefore, I praised the dead 
whicli ai-e already dead, more tliau the living which are yet 

Our circuit led us out througli tlie city gate to a lofty 
lull on which stands tlie Five Story Pagoda, and from the top 
of this we got a good view of the great city below us, Avith 
its almost countless houses, apparently built in one solid, with just a nai-row path between them. These high 
buildings, that I'ise here and there to eight or nine stoi'ies, are 
the pawn shops, and in their ui)per stories are the accumu- 
lated pledges of years, on which money has been loaned at 
exorbitant interest, and, in almost every case, they become 
at last the property of the money lender. These men are the 
millionaires of China, and in these odd tower-like places are 
treasiu'es of great value. 

I a!JWIUllli,l.>(llWIULJt.JJW.i » • 


/■VA'SV /.U/'A'/.SS/O.VS (>/' SiU-f/f/.hW < /f/\.i. 

1 '^ -^ 

no appeal, 
ocence, and, 
!ss ho can do 
ri'ly escapes 

laiif^uish in 
a j^rounds as 
great crowd 
seen Canton 
;han Lis sad 
d considered 
: and behold 
had no com- 
) was power, 
ed the dead 
liich are yet 

te to a lofty 
from the top 
low us, with 
in one solid 
These high 
16 stories, are 
the accuniu- 
jen loaned at 
they become 
! men are the 
ke places are 

Yonder, in the distance, is the Roman CathuUc church, 
with two great spires ch^aving tlic sky. wliich have been a 
constant offence to the C'liinese, vvlio hate any sharp point in 
the air, because, they say. it obstructs the Dragon as he flies, 
and makes him angry. Tliey would have torn down the old 
Cathedral long ago had it not been for foreign i)rotection. 

Here, just under us, are far-extended hillsides covered 
with the graves of many generations. On several of them 
we can see the fires burning where incense has just been 
offered, and ])aper money burned, that it may go to tliem in 
smoke and become^ currency for them in the other world. On 
others there are great offerings of rice, or sometimes a fowl 
or a piece of meat, whicli the poor Chinaman really needs for 
himself, but offers instead to his deceased father, and expects 
the spirits to carry it off that night, and give it to him. It 
usually does disappear before morning, but it is into the 
mouth of some hungry Chinaman or wandering Pariah dog. 
They also burn over the graves suits of ])aper clothes for 
their departed friends to wear. You can buy these suits in 
the stores, but you nuist not be surprised if the trousers have 
only one leg and the tunic one side. As it is only a spiritual 
transaction, the Chinaman believes that half a coat will rep- 
resent a suit as well as a whole one, and there is no harm in 
saving even that nuich tissue paper. Indeed, they have an 
idea that they can cheat the gods ; and so we heard, the other 
day, of a little girl that had a boy's name, and the mother 
said in explanation, "You know the gods don't like little 
girls, and so we want tliein to think this is a little boy, and 



they won't know the difference." Poor, groping heathenism, 
—strange they will not consider ! 

As we afterwards passed more leisurely through the nar- 
row streets, we had a hetter chance to see the shops and 

stores. Some 
of them are 
rather fine, 
with a good 
deal of costly 
carving and 
gilding. They 
are all on the 
same pattern 
witli a counter 
on one side and 
a set of nicely- 
carved seats or 
benches on the 
other side for 
the customers 
to sit down ; 
for bargaining 
is a leisurely 
business in 
China, and the 
merchant wall 
take any a- 
mount of trou- 


KHJl-'.'i.-J-'i'fflfJH ' J ' 'J' ' Ml 

■««!eu"«'!JLiij!i». m- 1-"' 

) 1 ?^, i » l- JjL- - j.^;b J- " :^. 'i! ,-.,■ J l}.i ^ 


f lieatheuism, 

•ough the nar- 
lio shops and 
itores. Some 
)f them are 
rather fine, 
tvith a good 
Seal of costly- 
carving and 
gilding. They 
are all on the 
same pattern 
with a counter 
on one side and 
a set of nicely- 
carved seats or 
benches on the 
other side for 
the customei-s 
to sit down ; 
for bargaining 
is a leisurely 
business in 
China, and the 
merchant will 
take any a- 
mount of trou- 


Kipiociiiclioii Inini m Chinese I'aiiUitijj. 




. i nn I mmmmm 

j'lh'ST fMPh'/<ss/o.\s oi' SOI 7/ //■:/.■ \ C/I/X.t. 


1,1«' for you, and kUkIIv show you all \w has, whctlu'r you pur 
.haso auythiMK <»i' "«)t. Th(> class of goods to he soon is very 
ordinaiy and exceedingly monotonous. There is little of the 
ex(iuisite fancy work and infinite variety of novel, ingenious 
and attractive things to ho seen in a Japanese store. One 
can walk the streets for hours, in Canton, without s<>eing 
anything that he c-ares to huy, even as a novelty. The Chinese 
mind is intensely practical and rather common place. Their 
finest work is emhroidery and silk weaving. 

We went through one of i\w silk factories. We saw the 
whole i)roit'ss, from the spinning of the silk thread to the 
completion of the weh. Every part of it was hy liund, and 
our surprise was to see the heautiful and perfect work that 
came out of such crude machinery. The hand looms are 
very simple, hut the work was perfect, and the long pieces 
of pure white silk shone with almost metallic splendor. We 
asked the j.rice, and found it was sold wholesale at thirty 
cents a Chinese foot, which would he less than fifty cents a 
yard in English measure and money. The silkworms are 
produced in great quantities in the silk country, which is only 
a few miles southwest of Canton, and is the wealthiest and 
most anti-foreign district of the Province. 

The fan palm country is adjoining, and myriads of fans 
are also to he seen in the stores of the dealers ; for everyhody 
here deals in specialities, and you have to go to one store to 
get your paper, another to get your ink and pens, and a third 
to get your books. The writing is all done with a camel's 
hair brush, on rice paper and with India ink, made in long 




In I. 

i il 

Sticks like scaling wax. There is also much lacquer work to 
be seen, and a great deal of jade-stone jewelry, which is the 
national ornament and very costly, singl.^ sets selling for 
hundreds of dollars, hut showing little artistic beauty Tlu; 
comnsh.ns are very numerous, and men who can altord it 
payimm. use sums for aconiuof certain kiudsof wcod which 
are especially "lucky." 

But the restaurants and butcher shops are the most 
characteristic. Here we find all numner of creatures, dead 
and alive. Here are fish ana creeping things for sale, junks 
of pork and other kinds of meat, live rats hanging by the tail, 
and here are the cats and dogs we met on our j(jurney,- all 
ready for lunch. The black cat is a special luxuiy. And 
there is one restaurant where they keep nothing else, and 
where you can see on the signboard this tempting bill of 
fare: ''Nice, pure, black cat always ready inside." The 
signs are great,' long boards, hanging down perpendicularly 
from the second story in front of the stores, with great red 
characters running down in columns, proclaiming the adver- 
tisement of the goods inside. These hang so thick along the 
narrow street that you can scarcely see anything else as you 

pass along. 

We spent a day in a country village up the river, and saw 
something of the raral or village life of the people. A small 
party of us got a boat, and up the interminable creeks and 
^•^nals they rowed us until we were quite out into the coun- 
tiy. Southern China is the city of Venice multiplied by one 
hundred. It is a collection of tens of thousands of cities 



[•qiior work to 
, whicli is the 
t^H selling for 
beauty- Tho 
can altoi'd it 
lit wcod which 

are tho most 
features, dead 
'or sale, junks 
in^ by the tail, 
• journey,- all 
luxury. And 
hing else, and 
nipting bill of 
inside." The 
with great red 
ling the adver- 
hick along the 
ng else as you 

) river, and saw 
ople. A small 
ible creeks and 
into tho coun- 
ultiplied by one 
.sands of cities 

/••/A'.s /• /.I// 'A7;.s.s7( >\s ( >/■ .sv >/ ■/■///■• A'A' < /f/\. I. 337 

towns and villages, all built on tlie water. Creeks and cnnals 
run everywhere. Kven as you sail up and down the great 
river, you can see boat-sails all over the country, windingabout 
among tho network of wateiy j)a.ssages that go in all direc- 
tions. Vou can reacli almost any place by water. We found 



the country almost wholly covered with young rice, growin 
in the water, and looking wondi-ously beautiful with its tints 
of light, brilliant green. Every few hundred yards we came 
upon another village. Th(;se villages have from five hundred 
to five thousand people in them, and tliey form an almost 
continuous city over the whole land. There are no isolated 

■" 52t=3!^ ^i?KE^-"« 



}.AKc:r.R orri.ooKS ON .vrssfox.iRV i..i\J)S, 

houses in China ; all tlio people live in villagos, and g" to the 
tields to work l.y day, retiu-ninK to the adjoinit.K village at 


As we lauded at one of these villages, ahoiit six miles 
from Canton, wv. weiv astonished to find that wo were as 
strange to these people as if we had eoujo from another 
world. The children ran screaming into the houses, and tho 
jnothers were afraid to let ur. look inside lest we should 
" frighten the children " It war; evident that some of them, 
at least, had never seen a foreigner before. Soon, however, 
they began to crowd around us, and erelong we were march- 
ing through the town with more than five bundled men, 
women and boys i.i our train. Aft<'r we bad scattered a few 
bits of sugar-cane in the crowd, which is their favorite sweet, 
they considered us (juitesafe, and perhaps even popular, and 
they showed us around. 

Tho great sight of this village was the duck house. Here 
the ducks are incubated by artificial heat, and we saw great 
•trays and boxes full of thousands of duck eggs in all stages 
of hatching. When tho ducks are old enough, they are taken 
out to feed in great flocks. A duck boat is quite large and 
will hold numy thousands of them. They simply sail up a 
little creek, and lay a plank to the shore, and the ducks just 
march out at call, and scatter in little companies over tho nee 
fields, and spend the day in feeding on all the bugs, worms 
and insects to be found. They are very welcome visitors, for 
they destroy the pests that injure the crops, and the farmers 
and ducks are great friends. When evening comes, the duck 



y /..t.\7>s. 

m, aw\ go to the 
oinitig villayt' at 

about nix miles 
liiit wo wcro as 
10 from another 
J houses, and the 

lest we should 
\t some of them, 
Soon, however, 
; wo were march- 
e hundred men, 
d sfuttercd a few 
if favorite sweet, 
(ven popular, and 

lick house. Here 
lud we saw great 
;ggs in all stages 
gh, they are taken 
i quite large and 
r simply sail up a 
nd the ducks just 
anies over the rice 
the bugs, worms 
Icome visitors, for 
s, and the farmers 
ig comes, the duck 



shepheid calls in his flock, and they come <piacking along as 
sensibly as well-trained slioep, and walk across the gang- 
j»lank to the ship, and each Hock knows and goes to its own 
cabin or sleeping place, without tlie slight<'.st trouble. Tlic 
driver has a ]ongwhii>, and they say tluu'e is great excitement 
when the ducks come to end)ark, for they know that the 
tardy ones and the last one will get a thrashing, and so they 
.scramble and scream to got in first. 

The first tiling we saw at every village landing was the 
ancestral tenijile, or hall, where worshij) is ivgidarly j)aid to 
the i)arents of the '.arious hf>us(>holds. Indeed, we found 
that usually each village belonged to a single; family, all being 
rt latcil to one another and bcariu!"; the same name for count- 
less generations. The village we landed at was La, and all 
were the children of La and successive Las, and so all assem- 
bled at the same shrine and burned their tajiers to the same 
ancestors. We went into the temple and saluted the score 
or two of head men and others that were there, and as we 
looked at the countless tablets with the names of all their 
fathers, we began to feel something o.^ the age and conserva- 
tism of China. 

In one of the villages opposite Canton we went into a 
number of Chinese flower gardens, and laughed again and 
again at the odd sliapes into which they had dwarfed and 
twisted every sort of plant and tree. Some were like drag- 
ons, others like men, women and gods. Some were comic, 
others religious ; others, again, beautiful imitations of moun- 
tains, valleys and landscapes, with grottos, jiagodas and 



houses here and there on the mountain side. But all were in 
miniature. Here were orange trees with fruit and flowers, 
and the trees were less than a foot high ; forest trees, many 
years old, as big as rose bushes ; boxwood plants cut to look 
like a great fat Buddha, or brother Jonathan, tall and lank, 


with an umbrella in his hand and his hat on one side of his 

head. c w f 

In another village was a gieat Buddhist temple full of 

lazy priests and sacred pigs and hens. Here is a regular pig- 
pen with gigantic swine, so fat that they can scarcely move, 
which some one has rescued from the butcher's hands and 
dedicated to the gods, and here they are fed by all the 



But all were in 
lit and flowers, 
[•est trees, many- 
ants cut to look 
I, tall and lank, 

Q one side of his 

ist temple full of 
•e is a regular pig- 
an scarcely move, 
tcher's hands and 
re fed by all the 


KipiiuliictiDii Iniiii :i Cliim.-se I'aiuUnj; 


FIRST /MI'h-l-:SS/OXS ( '/■• SOI T/lEh'X CJ/IN. I. 34 1 

pious worshipptns who come, until their troughs are run- 
ning over with rice and onions, and tliey are ready to die 
of corpulence. Here they live in peace till they die of old 
age— worthy types of the bestial degradation of blind and 
Christless heathenism, or Matthew Arnold's "Light of Asia."' 
But the saddest sight we saw that day, and tlie one that 
will live longest in our memory as a sort of Monograph of 
heathenism in its cruel horrors, was a httle dead baby girl, 
floating with downward face on the water of the canal. All 
around were hundreds of boats, little family boats, full of 
men and women and children rowing and paddling about in 
the canal, but no one seemed to notice or care for her. Not 
a yard away was the boat from which, perhaps, she had fal- 
len, but her little heli)less hands had been stretched out to 
them in vain, and her little cries had been stilled by the 
waters of death ere they resi»onded. She V((,s onli/ a girl! 
It was ''her fate'' to fall over, and why should they inter- 
fere ? So our friends told us the Chinese really believed and 
acted. They assured us that if we were to fall into that 
canal, probably not a single hand would be moved to save us. 
It was our business, and why should they interfere ? If we 
chose to drown, they were not going to hinder lis ; and if we 
chose to swim, why— all right. 

Indeed, the captain of our river steamer told us that 
only a few nights ago he heard a splashing in the water near 
his ship as she lay at the wharf. There were mt>n around, 
but nobody moved, and he could not possibly have got near 
without going ashore, and taking ten minutes to get round 




the pier to the spot. Next morning he asked one of the 
men, who had been standing by, and he said it was, a China- 
man who had fallen in, and they let him die. It was his 
business,— why should they interfere? And there, sure 
enough, when the tide went down, lay his dead body in the 
low water, and the people came down all day to wash their 

— !fHE 


isked one of the 
1 it was, a Chimv- 
die. It was his 
^nd there, sure 
dead body in the 
lay to wash their 

hiNST iMrRFSSioxs OF sorTH/:/^.\ < II IS A. 343 

rice and fill their water vessels-right beside him and no 
one noticed or seemed to care for that pooi', lif(>lessforni that 
died because there was none to help. 

And so our little baby girl lay fioathig in the river, and 
no one lifted her out or s<.ught for her a binial robe <>.• 
* ' lucky grave. ' * There she would lie till she lloated out with 
the tide to the dt^ep sea, or the river shore, to b .evoured by 
the fishes or the dogs. If she had been a little boy, perhaps 
more would have been done for her, for we noticed that all 
the little boys on the river-boats had life preservers, ma<le of 
gourds, tied on their backs, but they never tie them on little 
girls and so she had to die because she was only a little gul, 
and 'to lie, unburied, unpitied and unremembered, because 
she had the sad lot to be born with the face and form ot a 
little daughter of Eve in cruel, heathen China. 

Poor, little, dead, Chinese baby girl, speak-speak to the 
women and girls of Christian lands, as thou hast spoken to 
our heart, until there shall be enough of pity, love and 
power to reach and save the other poor, sad '.vomen and girls 
of China, whose sorrows we never see ! 


Onlya little baby girl 
Deail by the riverside. 
Only a little Chinese chiUl 
Drowned in the lloating tif^e. 
Over the boat too fur she leaned 
Watching the dancing wave,— 
Over the brink she fell and sank, 
But there was none to save. 

344 i-.-iR(;/:/^' t^'v/.ooAs o.v Ar/ss/()x.iA'}' r.iXDs. 

If she had only been a bo}', 
Tliey would have heard her cry ; 

But she wiV8 juxt a b»by girl, 
And she was left to die. 

It was her fate, i)erliai)H they said, 
Why should they interfere ? 

Had she not always been a curse ? 
Why should they keep her here ? 

So they have left her little form, 
Floating upon the wave ; 

Hhe was too young to have a sonl, 
Why should she have a grave ? 

Yes, and there's many another lamb. 

Perishing every day. 
Thrown by the road or the riverside, 

Flung to the beasts of prey. 

K' ■' 

Is there a mother's heart to night. 
Clasping her darling child. 

Willing to leave these helpless lamV)s, 
Out on the desert wild ? 

la there a little Christian girl, 
Happy in love and home, 

Living in selfish ease, while they 
Out on the mountains roam ? 

Think as you lie on your little cot, 
Smoothed by a mother's hand, 

Think of the little baby girls 
Over in China's land. 

. V'l iimwMOTii 


j-rr.'ST /.yrK/:ssfo\s of soctn/:rx cii/yA. 

Ask if there 1b not Hom«»thin>< more, 

Even a child (lan do ; 
An<! if perhaps In China's laud 

JetUB has need of yoii. 

Only a little baby girl, 
Dead by the riverside. 

( )nly a little Chinese child 
Drowned in the lloating tide. 

Hut it has brouglit a vision vast, 
Dark as a nation's woe ; 

O.i ! has it left some willing heart, 
Answering "I will go." 





IT IS a fact not generally known that Southern China is 
a distinct and once isolated section of that grivit Middle 

Kingdom, and has only hren incorporated in it since the 
Second f'enturv, while the northern i)()rtion of the Empire 
lo,.k', ba.-,k ages heyond this period. It is divided l.y a range 
,^f mountains from the great provinces of Kweichow and 
Hunan, It has a distinct river system, wateiing the South- 
ern Provinces and emptying into the sea hy the many mouths 
of the Pearl River. And the language is (piite distinct, a Can- 
tonese heing as unahle to understand a Mandarin-speaking 
resident on the Yaugtse, as his dialect would l.c- miintelligible 
to the northern Chinaman. 

Southern China properly includes the provinces of C^uan- 

timg, (^uangsi and Yunnan. 

Quantung has a population <.f about 22,000,0.»), Quangsi 
of S OOO.OOO, and Yunnan of about 3,0O(),00n. The latter 
province, although in the latitude of Southern China, belongs 
by altitude, properly, to the north . It is separated by a lof ly 
range of hills from Quangsi. and sj.eaks the diaUict of the 
north-the Mandarin and is being reached by missionaries 
from the Yangtse rather than the Pearl River, and may yet 



u^rn CJIiina is 
j^iciit Middle 
ill it since the 
if th(* Empire 
led by a range 
[weichovv and 
iig the South- 
many mouths 
listinct, a Can- 
i luiintelUgible 

inces of (.^uan- 

K),Ouo, Quangsi 
)0. The latter 

China, helongs 
rated hy a lof ly 

dialect of the 
by missionaries 
!!•, and may yet 

MfSSfO\.\/y'y U'Ok'K /V SO/ ///I hX C/l/WA. 


be also reached from Anam and Toncpiin hy the new highway 
of commerce which French enterprise is opening up through 
the Red Kiver of Toiuiuin. 

It is, at ])resent, an almost whoHy-nnoccni.ird Mission 
field, and may well claim our most earnest tlu.nglit an.l 
prayer. Our chief in<|uiries, at present, however, have liad 
to do with the two provinces of (,)nantnng and (,)uangsi, which 
speak the same language and really constitute <.ne geograph 
ical section and one Mission field. 

These two provinces togethcihavc a jiopulation nearly as 
large as Great Britain, and more llian half as large as th.' 
United States. It is very dense, in some i-lm^es exceeding: 
TOO to the scpiare mile. All the people live in towns and vil- 
lages, and they lie so close together as almost to form one 
continuous city, for many miles. In tlie silk <-ountry, soutli 
of Canton, from one single cluster of towns and cities, cover- 
ing a few miles, and all connected, no less than ;5()(),()0n 
fighting men could he furnished for military duty. The 
entire population must have nund)ered over a milli. .n. From 
one low hilltop in the Delta 3r.o villages (;an he counted, aver- 
aging at least 2,(>oo persons. 

Canton, itself, has anywhere between one and two mil- 
lion people ; and, only fifteen miles farther up the river, the 
city of Fat-Shan has 5n(i,(iti(» people, and between the tw.. 
cities there are many villagers. We went ui) among these 
villages five or six miles, in boats, and they seemed endless. 
It is°probable that within a limit less than the distance from 
New York to Yonkers, there is a i)opulation in and around 


Canton nearly as j^ivat as tlif city of London, whih^ in many 
otlicr parts of tlio i)iovinc«* you still find tlu* sanm teeming 
crowds around other centres. 

The accessihility of this vast population is one of the 
peculiar H'atures of this i)art of the country. The whole 
coiuitry is one inteiininahle network of rivers and canals, 
and nearly every place of inipoi'tance in these two pi-ovinces 
is citiier on a river or else within a few hours of it. 

These rivers ai'e traversed hy hoats of every description. 
There ar<> a few steam launches ^'oin^' regulaily to several 
points in tlu- interior, and a still larger numher of native 
" l)assag(^ boat?," going almost everywhere and carrying great 
lunnhers of passengers, but these are so uncomfort J)le for 
Europeans that few missionaries use them if they can go 
anv other way. The most comfortable way is to take your 
own boat. If you are in a great hurry you can take a "Slip- 
per boat," the "Chinese express," a boat that looks just like 
a slipper, and is propelled by four strong rowers, and can 
make, under ])ressure, from seven to ten miles an hour, it is 
said. If you wish to go more slowly and cheaply, the ordi- 
nary "sampan" can be had, with crew, for about a dollar a 


The most comfortable boats are the House boats, with 
acconmiodatiou for several people, where a missionary party 
or family could live for months if necessary, and preach from 
l)lace to place along the numerous streams. The boatman 
can be got for about twenty-five cents a day, and the river is 
a much safer i)lace in the event of a mob than the land. In- 



lilo ill many 
nie toeming 

(tne of the 

Tho wliole 

and canals, 

\ro provinces 


y to several 
er of native 
Trying great 
iforl .ble for 
they can go 
to take ycur 
akea "SHp- 
loks just like 
LM's, and can 
xn hour, it is 
[)ly, the ordi- 
)ut a dollar a 

i boats, with 
nonary party 
])reach from 
T\w boatman 
id the river is 
he land. In- 

,1//.V.S7().\. //>'»■ //"A'A- /\-.SV'/ //// AV\ <7//.V./. 


deed the great n.aj..rity ..f those thirty millions of p.-ople 
,ould be evangelized, at least, so far as the rapi.l pubhcati.m 
of the (Jospeliscomvn.e.!. by passing up and down these 
stnan.s, and spending a few days at ,-..h point, and then 
passin- ..n. Of «ourse. this is not all that needs to be done, 
but tlds would be s..mething; it would b.- nmch, and the 
planting, of eours.-, would ne,..l t.. hr afterward caretuUy 
watered and husbanded. 

Let us look for a 
moment at the river 

system of these prov- 
inces. First, we have 

th(> Delta of tho Pearl 

Kiver. This begins 

about one hundred 

miles from its mouth, 

a little above Canton, 

and spreads o u t 

toward the sea like a 


great fan about fifty miles wide at the wide or c - .a end. 

This section is cut up by many rivers and canals, and is 
a re-ion of great wealth, and containing, literally, scor.'s of 
grea't cities and many millions of prosperous and enterpnsmg 
people This is the region of the silkworm a.ul the fan palm ; 
and the anti-foreign feeling is so strong, that in many of the 
towns missionaries cannot yet enter. But the most avadable 
centres have been already occupied by the Presbyterians and 


Next is tlu' liver HyHtem of tlu* interior. Some distance 
above Canton, tho P.-ail Ilivri' begins to spivad ont into its 
numorous fet^bTS or brandies. Tb(^ piiiieipal of tliese are 
tbo East Kiv(M-, ilio Nortb Kiver and tbe West River. 

'Pbe P'lst Kiverwateis (be country nortli-east of Canton, 
and its valleys are tbiekly populated and oecupied by some 
of tbe most sucn-essful mission stations in tbe whole prov- 
ince. Tbe Nortb River runs down from tbe mountains tbat 
border Hunan and Kweicbow, and it fornis a waterway for 
tbe whole northern section of tbe i)rovince. The country at 
its beudwattsrs is said to be most beautiful ; and tb(> mountain 
scenery of IJencbow, a t;ity near its headwaters, is said by 
those who have travelled much to be unequalled by any iu 

the world. 

The West River is the longest of the three, and drains 
tbe most extensive country. As we ascend it, we find it 
branching out into three great lines, and sjnvading over the 
whole of West(;ru Quantung, and most of Quangsi. One 
branch nms up north to Kweic;bow, the capital of Quangsi. 
Another stretches away many hundreds of miles through 
Central Quang'-i till it reaches the mountains of Yunnan. 

And another sweeps down to tbe south of that province and 

Jlows on a fine, navigable stream, with cities and towns all 

along its shores— to the western border. 

Such, then, is the i)bysical frame of this great field. 

Along these water lines God has distributed tbe people and 

taught them to use them as the avenues of connnunication. 

And along them the Gospel must be carried to their teeming 



Somi^ distance 
11(1 out into its 
1 of thew! are 

ast of Canton, 
iipicd by some 
le whole prov- 
jountains that 
I waterway for 
rho country at 
\ the mountain 
ters, is said by 
\\V'(\ by any iu 

•ee, and drains 
it, we find it 
ading over the 
(^uangsi. One 
bal of Quangsi. 
miles through 
ns of Yunnan, 
it province and 
's and towns all 

his great field, 
the people and 
;o their teeming 

MISSIONARY U JA'A' fJV SOL'rm:A\V (///.VA. 351 

To a ci'itaiii extent this has been doiir for eighty-six 


Eighty six years ago, a solitary missionary sailed in an 
Anujrican sliip from New York to tho port of Macao, for tho 
j.urpose of preaching tho Gospel to the Chinese. As ho 
started on his new and apparently hopeless mission, a scepti 


cal \raerican said to him : "So you expect to convert the 
Chinese, do you ? " " No," he answered. " I expect God to 
do that." That man was Robert Morrison. He waited 
seven years before he saw the first Chinese convert baptized, 
and twenty-seven more before he saw China opened to allow 
tho preaching uf the Gospel in Canton and other ports ; but 
could he look down from heaven to-day he would see over 


G,0()(i (converted Clvineso in the province at whose gates ho 
spent liis hfe, apparently in vain, and nearly 4(t,000 more 
scattered all ovei- China. 

His work was foundation work, and every other mis- 
sionary has reaped the fruit. He translated the Scriptures 
into Chinese, and prepared a dictionary of the Chinese lan- 
guage, hotli of which great works were the hasis of all the 
literary work that has since improvtMl upon his ditHcult but 
valuable b-:-ginning. 

In 1S41, the treaty ports of China were thrown open to 
foreigners and missionaries, and inmiediately a number of 
the leading missionary societies began operations in Canton. 
Gradually, during the past forty years, these operations have 
been extended over the province, until now there is a force 
of nearly 100 European and American laborers, nearly 200 
native laborers, and over 7,000 native Christians in the prov- 
ince of Quantung. 

In the extreme northern corner of the i>rovince, the city 
of Swatow is the centre of the work of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, where Dr. Ashmore, Miss Fielde, and 
many others have been laboring successfully for many 
years. Miss Fielde's work for women, through native Bible 
women, has had phenomenal success, and, although she her- 
self has returned to America, her work is still going on suc- 

Here, also, the English Presbyterians have a good work, 
founded originally by that apostolic man and missionary, 
William Burns, of Scotland, and still bearing tlie seal which 



I lose gates ho 
r 4(»,000 more 

■ry (^th(;i' rnis- 
tlu; Scriptures 
3 Chinese lan- 
isis of all the 
■s ditUcult hut 

brown open to 
a numher of 
3ns in Canton, 
perations have 
:here is a force 
?rs, nearly 200 
ns in the prov- 

ivince, the city 
lerican Baptist 
ss Fielde, and 
illy for many 
y\\ native Bihle 
liovigh she her- 
going on suc- 

e a good work, 

nd missionary, 

tlie seal which 

Mrss/ox.ih'v iioA'A' /.v so r 77/ /■: A' y dffx.i. 


his devout and lofty spirit left upon it. We had the pleas- 
ure of meeting, in Shanghai, dear Mr. McKenzie, one of their 
oldest missionaries, and a sweeter, humhler and more Christ 
hke spirit we have rarely met ; and some of tlie incidents he 
mentioned of the working of the Holy Spirit among the 
native people reminded one of the df^ys of the founding of 


In Canton and vicinity the strongest force of workers is 
connected with the Presbyterian Mission, whi( ;. is well-organ- 
ized and manned, so far, at least, as the forces at its com- 
mand will allow. The venerable Dr. Happer is now in Amer- 
ica, but he has succeeded in obtaining a large endowment for 
the Chinese Christian College which is in contemplation for 
the higher education of Christian boys. Dr. Henry is the 
best known of the workers in the field, and his two remark- 
able books, "The Cross and the Dragon," and "Lingnau" 
(among the very best of the many volumes we have read in 
China), not only give a most clear and vivid view of Southern 
China and its Mission work, but also afford a striking glimpse 
of the aggressive spirit and missionary labors of the man. 
His work is entirely evangelistic and ini&oionary, and i:i the 
course of his intensely active life he has penetrated almost 
all portions of the province, and explored and opened to the 
world the interesting island of Hainan, which is now tha 
scene of one of their most successful Missions. 

Mr. Fulton is also engaged chiefly in itinerant, evangel- 
istic work in his missionary boat. He spends weeks along 
the rivers of the interior, and has had the honor, we believe> 




of being driven out of the West River country, wliich we 
have ah-eady refarred to as the field our workers hope to oc- 
cupy. In this department of missionary work there are 
several chapels in Canton, and elsewhere, where daily evan- 
gelistic services are held, and the floating crowd ever surg- 
ing by, drop in, one by one, 
to hear the Gospel. 

No man ever had a more 
honored and successful min- 
istry in this connection than 
Mr. Preston, of Canton, who 
for more thai, a quarter of a 
century preached from day 
to day, in this great city, and 
was permitted to sow seeds in 
tens of thousands of hearts as 
they passed by from all parts 
of the country, many of 
whom have since, from time 
to time, come out into full 
confession, and told how they 
received their first impres- 
sions through his words. He is now in a better world, 
but we had the pleasure of meeting his daughter, who is the 
wife of a missionary in Canton, and is still carrying on his 
good work. Her husband, Mr. Wiesner, is in charge of the 
Boys' School, which we visited, and which is the nucleus of 
the Chinese Christian College about to be established or i-e- 

Reproduced frota a Chiuese Painting. 

ii :!(Hil 


ntiy, wliich we 
;ers hope to oc- 
work there are 
here daily evan- 
rowd ever surg- 



)ta a Chinese Painting. 

L a better world, 
ighter, who is the 
ill carrying ou his 
8 in charge of the 
1 is the nucleus of 
3 established or i-e- 



modelled. Rev. Dr. Noyes is the Superintendent of the The- 
ological Seminary where a number of Chinese are preparing 
for the ministry. 

There is a very well organized hospital and medical work 
in connection Avith this Mission, under the charge of Dr. 
Kerr (now in America), Dr. Swan and Dr. Niles. Through 
the extreme kindness and hospitality of Dr. Swan and the 
other workers, we saw much of the work, and have reason to 
believe that great numbers of the natives are reached and in^ 
terested in the Gospel while coming in touch with the hos- 

Tens of thousands of persons visit the hospital every 
year, and while waiting for treatment as out-patients, or re- 
maining under treatment in it, they always hear the Gospel, 
and more or less impression is made upon them. As they 
return to their homes they have a grateful and friendly feel- 
ing toward the missionaries, and are used by God to open 
doors in th. c -,. lor. The Presbyterians have a strong medi- 
cal work, wuich, we believe, they are honestly using as a 
handmaid and auxihary to direct missionary work, and we 
have not met a more true or earnest missionary spirit than 
Dr. Swan, the gifted head, at present, of the Canton Hospital ; 
but we are sure that he and others feel that the greatest need 
to-day is more time and men to do the direct missionary and 
evangelizing work for which the other is merely preparatory, 
and without which it would only be simply a waste of time 
and a perversion of money, which is given not for scientific or 
humane, but directly missionary purposes. We believe that 



there is opportunity in Southern China for some medical mis- 
sionary work, but we are sure that even the medical mission- 
aries recognize the necessity for direct evangeUzation as par- 

Among the many whom it was a great joy to meet, and 
whom wo cannot stop to name, was Dr. Ceattie, of Toronto, 
and his dear wife, who were about to open a new station in 
the western part of the province, south of Canton, and who 
are well known to many of our dear students and friends 
from Toronto, and are in full sympathy with our work. 

We had the opportunity of visiting the Girls' School, un- 
der Miss Cutler and Miss Lewis, and seeing some of the little 
Chinese women of the future. Over a hundred bright girls 
are here preparing to be native Bible women, wives of native 
preachers, and the wives and mothers of the native Christians 
in their various callings. 

A certain amount of educational work seems to be neces- 
sary, as the native schools compel their i)upils to learn and 
practice heathenism, but the aim of the missionary church 
will have to be, as soon as possible, to lay this upon the 
native Christians themselves, and not require the home church 
to maintain in China an expensive and gratuitous system of 
secular schools. This the Karens have already done in Bur- 
mah, and this the Southern Baptists have, in a measure, done 
in Canton, where they have a boys' school for the higher 
education of native Christians, initiated and carried on by the 
native Christians themselves, aided by the missionaries, and 
working successfully. 


lie modical niis- 
ncdical niission- 
elization as par- 

oy to meet, and 
;tio, of Toronto, 
a new station in 
Canton, and who 
ents and friends 
1 our work. 
Hrls' School, un- 
lonie of the little 
idrcd bright girls. 
, wives of native 
native Christians 

aenis to be neces- 
jpils to learn and 
lissionary church 
ay this upon the 
) the home church 
tuitous system of 
jady done in Bur- 
a a measure, done 
lol for the higher 
carried on by the 
missionaries, and 

jV/ss/ox.ia')' iroA'A' /.y sorri/Ek'S c//fx.i. 


Time and space will Jiot allow us to follow our Presby- 
terian brethren through their interesting work down the 
Delta and uj) the North Kiver to Lienchow. We met several 
of their native pastors, and attended one of their native ser- 
vices, on Sabbath morning, conducted by a brother, who 
came to Canton from among the Chinese in California. The 
men sat on one side and the women on the other, with a high 
board i)artition between, which Chinese etiquette requires. 
Had not this wall been there the same rigid eticpiette would 
have prevented the men or women being allowed even to 
look across at eacli other. This is one of tlie things that our 
young missionaries are slow to realize, and sometimes try to 
ignore and disregard ; but the free intercourse of the sexes, 
as it would be innocently regarded with us, is impossible 
here not only among the natives, hut also the nxissionaries. 
The time will doubtless come, when the native Christian 
-community will be strong enough to establish more simple 
and natural habits and customs ; but, at present, it would be 
an unwise struggle with long-established customs, and would 
turn the thoughts of the people to a mere side issue, and 
awaken prejudices and suspicions which we may easily avoid 
by a little prudence and self-denial. 

We saw in the Canton Hospital a specimen of foot-bind- 
ing. The patient had come for treatment, and was sulTering 
from her feet. She was very unwilling to let us see them, 
but Dr. Niles kindly insisted, and unbound tlie poor crippled 
lumps of twisted bones and muscles, and wf? saw the cruel 
mutilation which every Chinese woman who expects to be 


/,./av;/;a' ory/.ooAS ox .i//.v.s7rJ.v./A'>- /../.v/^.v. 

fashionable must endure. There is nothing' more sad than to 
see the poor laboring women who have submitted to this 
cruel custom, in their <hildhood, in the hope, no doubt, of 
h.'inK ladies, hut who have now to toil for a living and drag 
themselves about on these stumps of mutilated feet. We 
were glad to see that many of the humble and laboring classes 
do not require their children to undergo this outrage, but 
they are able to run about on sound limbs and enjoy their life 

in freedom. 

We also had the privile}?e of meeting the principal work- 
ers of the Southern Baptist Mission. Dr. Graves, the vener- 
able father of the Mission, who has grown gray in its ser- 
vice, was most kind and courteous, and with characteristic 
Southern politeness offered us all the assistance in his power, 
an offer which we value very highly as we expect to labor m 
the field where they alone have obtained a footing. We also 
met Mr. McCloy, who had just returned from the West River 
and the borders of Quangsi, and brought a good deal of en- 
couragement ; and ha<l nmch pleasant Christian fellowship 
with other members of this thoroughly efficient Mission, 
which has a high record in Southern China. 

The American Board, the English Wesleyans, the Lon- 
don Missionary Society and the American Swedes are also 
laboring in Canton and vicinity, and we had the privilege of 
meeting their workers and knowing something of their work. 
The Church Missionary Society has a few laborers in Quan- 
tung. They have two missionaries at Pakoi, an open Cus- 
tom's Port in the southern cormn- of the province, and have 


' /..Ly/)s. 

lore sad thun to 
ibinitted to this 
le, no doubt, of 
living and drag 
lated feet. We 
. laboring classes 
[lis outrage, but 
d enjoy their life 

; principal work- 
■aves, the vener- 
gray in its ser- 
th characteristic 
ace in his power, 
xpect to labor in 
aoting. We also 
i\ the West Kiver 
good deal of en- 
•istian fellowship 
efticient Mission, 

sleyans, the Lon- 
Swodes are also 
d the privilege of 
ing of their work, 
laborers in Quan- 
koi, an open Cus- 
rovince, and have 

teen trying from tins point to enter Quangsi for many years. 
We met good Bishop Burdon, of Hong Kong, and were much 
touched by the heartiness of the good bishop and his desire to 
encourage any movement to reach that province on which 
his heart has long been set. He told us that he himself had 
taken the tour which onr missionary is about to take up tlie 
West Kiver through t^iangsi overland to the coast, and 
found it open. It is beautiful how we find that on the great 
field our small denominational differences melt away, and all 
hearts are one in the desire to meet the awful need of a lost 


The Continential Societies are also laboring in Quantung. 
The Rhenish, the Berlin and the Basel Mission are all repre- 
sented The latter has a long chain of stations up the East 
River, and is said to have an ideal Mission work. Tliey have 
avoided the great cities and have planted their stations m the 
villages, and have a compact and well organized work cover- 
ing a large chain of villages in Northern Quantung. Our 
time would not allow us to go up to see them, but we heard 
on every side of the wisdom and efficiency of then- work. We 
found the same reports of their great work in Southern 
India These Continental people have a patience, a thought- 
fullness and practical wisdom, as well as faith, which we 
may well study and enudate. 

We had some service in Canton. On tl;e uight of our 
arrival we found a most intererting body of young men as- 
sembled in Mr. Reeves' parlors, gathered from tlie Custom 
House workers in the city, and we spoke to them in the vlas- 


i.ARcr.R oi-n.ooKs ox mssrox.iA'r /..ixns. 

t('i"s nariKN and believe tliere was blessing. On Sabbatb wo 
had two services. In the (evening one was in the I'resbyterian 
Compound, and tlu' missionaries of all denominations Avere 
pi-esent. and God was pleased to bless the service to many 
hearts in a deeper baptism of the Holy Ghost. Even mission- 
aries need to be (piickened and consecrated, and we have never 
met hungri(>r hearts, <>i- mon; open doors, than among the 
missionaries abroad. We had the i)rivilege of meeting about 
forty of the workers in Canton, and deem it a great i)iivilege 
to know these dcnir standard-bearers and be counted as fel- 
low workers with them. 

Our own work, we need hardly say, had only begun, but 
already, through the modest worth and wisdom of our dear 
workers, it had become established in the atf ection and con- 
fidence of other nnssionaries. We believe the time has come 
when we may send ai)artyof workers to reinforce our friends 
in Southern China. Tbey went to this part of the Empire 
chiefly to see what openings there were still unoccupied in 
this oldest of the China Mission fields. But they found such 
destitution and need that we could easily employ hundreds 

(jf laborers. 

After nmch careful and prayerful inquiry, we believe the 
Master would have our AlHance endeavoi' to occupy the neg- 
lected i)rovince of (^uangsi. It lies just west of Quantung. 
It has a population of eight millions of people, and, with th«^ 
exception of one or two little stations, recently planted by 
the Southern Baptists on the West River, is entirely unoccu- 
pied. The Presbyterians attempted to occupy it a few years 



)n Saljbiitli wo 


iiinutions were 

rvice to many 

Even niission- 

vve have never 

lan among the 

meeting ahont 

great ]>rivilege 

counted as fel- 

)uly begun, but 
3m of our dear 
ction and con- 
! time lias come 
orce our friends 
of the Empire 
unoccupied in 
hey found sncli 
iploy hundreds 

, we beheve (lie 
3ccui)y the neg- 
t of Quantung. 
e, and, with tlie 
iitly ])lanted by 
entirely unoccu- 
ly it a few years 

M/ss/ox.iAT ;/'(M'A'/.v .s< >/•/■///; A'.v <7//Av;. 361 

ag(.. l)ut were driv(>n out; but tli.> Baptists persevered, and 
have a small but solid footing, and rei)()rt that the pe(»ple 
have beanne more friendly ; and now the Presbyterian 
brethren, we believe, regret that they hav(^ not the force to 
occupy it at ])resent. 

This is siu'ely the "regions bt^yond " of Southern China. 
With (me exception— Hunan— it is the most unoccupied and 
destitute field in the Empir(>. T.. reach it is an .uubition 
worthy of the bravest heart. To claim its eight millions for 
Christ w^ould be to our hearts an inspiriug hope if we were 
ourselves free to go. Most of its people live along the shores 
of the great river that flows past Canton, and its various 
tributaries and headwaters. Every pai-t of it can be easily 
approached from Canton by boat. 

A party, if need be, could live in a boat for months and 
evangelize along the river shore. We wish there was a score 
of siuai (lospid boats along the rivers of guangsi, and we be- 
lieve there will be, ere long— at least, we hojie there will be- 
at least half a score of i)ioiieers ready to go before the close 
of the year and take this region for Christ. 

But let no one think that this is a work that can be done 
by inexperienced enthusiasm. No held so much iuhkIs the 
best men as this. A false step in China may easily pi'ove 
fatal to all the work. China is not India, a land all open to 
the (lospel, and a people who meekly give place to the Eng- 
lishman. In China you are the inferior, and you enter and 
stay only on sufferance. Undoubtedly, the secret purpose of 
the Chinese nation is, as soon as they can afford it, and can 
manage it, to get rid of the foreigner. 



You cannot ko where you like or .lo as you pleaso l>.«rr. 
You ran do nothinj,' without their goo.l will aiul confidence. 
Every sl.'p you take you will I.e watched hy a suspicious 
crowd. They cannot holieve that you have conu^ then^ with- 
out some selfish and mt r.^enary motive. If you go otT alone, 
it is ivported that yov. have gone o(T to find some fal.l.'d 
golden pig that is concealed in a cave in the valley, and that 
you are carrying <.«' the good fortune of the place with you. 
If you put up a Chapel, you are sure to get some corner of 
it wrong, so that it hinders the progress of the dragon as he 
flies through the air. In Swatow the missionaries had to 
give up the property they had secured, hecause it was found, 
on consulting their oracles, that the land was located right 
ou the dragon's tail. Only a few weeks ago, tlu^ Baptist 
Chapel, in this very i)rovince of Quangsi, was ahout to be 
torn down because they said it was keeping back the rain ; 
and if the Christians had not prayed, and the Lord sent the 
rain within four days, the Mission would, undoubtedly, have 

bee; I expelled. 

If you are going to Quangsi you must go expecting, per- 
haps, to be stoned and driven out after you have spent 
months in establishing your work. What are you going to 
do about it \ Why, as a good missionary said m Southern 
China lately : " Just go back again and if they drive you out 
a second time go back once more, and they will respect you 
for it." And when they see that you have decided to stay 
they will let you alone, as they have done already more than 
once in the case of noble, indefatigable men, who counted 
not thci' lives dear unto themselves. 

il! )U|t 


il conlidtnice. 

a suspicious 
\i\ tluM-o with- 
i go off aU)ii<', 

some fabh'd 
.h?y, and that 
ace with you. 
)m(' corner of 

dragon as he 
naries had to 

it was found, 

located right 
3, the Baptist 
,s about to be 
l)ack the rain ; 

Lord sent the 
oubtedly, have 

?xpe(tting, per- 
iu have spent 
3 you going to 
id in Southern 
yr drive you out 
ill respect you 
lecided to stay 
iady more than 
1, who counted 

If then> are such m.'u in Auierica waiting for a call, 
Quangsi is tlu- place for them, espe.-iuily if they will take the 
Lord to give them His wisdom, courage an<l all suftLiency. 

\ny degree of talent, capacity and holy energy will find 
ample scope in this great arena. Why, these nussion tields 
aro imperial realms, and the men and women that are now 
taking them for God will be the prim-es and the crowned 
ones of the Coming Kingd..m. May Go,l .>pen the eyes of 
Home of His loved ones who are wasting their lives at home, 
<„■ oidy getting Go.Vs Better instead of God's liest for the 
solenm, precious life that each of us can only live but once ! 




WK saik'd Iroiu Hong Kdu- to Shangliai on "Tho 
Km press of India," of th(^ Canada racific Itailway 
Company. She is on«^ of throo great "Empress" 
steanisiiips, which are, dou\)tless, the finest in Eastern 
Avaters, and only surpassed, perhaps, by the new Cunard 
liners, recently placed on the Atlantic. The others are " The 
Empress of CHiina" and "The Empress of Japan." They 
are painted pure white, and in contrast with the black hulls 
of most ocean steamships, present a most queenly appear 
ance on the water. The young Canadian colony has good 
reason to be proud of her vessels. We had expected to con- 
tinue our journey on them all the way, at a later date, to 
Vancouver, but found afterwards that it would be necessary 
to part witli our tickets and leturu from Japan, via San 
Fiancisco, in order to be home in time for the Old Orchard 
Convention, of whose earlier date we bavc^ just heard. 

We cannot speak too highly of the comfort of the-e 
great steamships, and the courtesy of their ofiicers, as well 
as the exceptionally high class of passengers who usually 
l)at)onize them. They make the voyage from Japan to 
America in twelve days, and reduce it, almost, to an Atlantic 




ini on 

v\i\c Kiiilway 
in Eastern 
now Ciinard 
icrsave "The 
I pan." They 
10 black hulls 
xMily appear 
my lias good 
)ected to con- 
lator date, to 
be necessary 
pan, via San 
> Old Orchard 
J hoard. 
I fort of theie 
fticers, as well 
5 Avho usually 
oni Ja]ian to 
to an Atlantic 

s/rA.\(;ir.ii axp its missions RV n'ORK. 


On the way we had the privilege of meeting the vener- 
able Bishop Burden, of Hong Kong, and learning mn.h 
from him about Quang-si. We also met sonae other faithful 
missionaries and esteemed acquaintances. 

On the third morning we entered the vast mouth of the 
Yan--tse River, and were soon anchored at Woosung, and a 
little^ater, steaming up the river in the launch to Shanghai, 

fourteen raile^^ further up. 

We were not prepared for our first view of Shanghai. 
We expected a foreign settlement-a number of^ streets, 
banks and English stores,-but this splendid and imposing 
foreign ci.y, stretching for miles along the river with is 
parks, gardens, splendid warehouses, offices and hotels quite 
took us by surprise, and made us wonder if we were not in 
Calcutta, Rangoon or Bombay. Shanghai is, indeed worthy 
of comparison with any of the great foreign capitals of the 
East ; and we found afterwards, as we often traversed its 
fine Uvements, and passed up and down its magmficent 
streets, that our impressions were not disappointed 

There are three distinct quarters, all succeeding each 
other, on the river front, viz., the American, British and 
French, but the British is the most substantial and imposing^ 
In these Concessions most of the foreigners live, and most of 
the missionary and business houses are erected. Back of 
this lies the native city, which has a population of about 
125 000, densely crowded into its close and narrow streets, 
very much like any other Chinese city. The foreign popula- 
tion of the European Concession in Shanghai is between 


4,000 and 5,000, and the native population about 200,000 in 
the foreign city, and 125,- xtO in the native— or a total of 
829,000 altogether. The trade of Shanghai exceeds $1,600,000 
annually, and the actual value of property in the foreign 
city is $70,000,000. 

We were kindly welcomed and most hospitably enter- 
tained by our dear brother, Mr. Stevenson, at the China 
Inland Mission Home, Woosung Road. Here we met a num- 
ber of the missionaries of this model society, and realized 
much of the spirit of their work. We felt very much at 
home among these dear young hearts who reminded us of our 
own young people in America at the College Home. The 
Shanghai Home is a beautiful and commodious building, ac- 
commodating, we should think, nearly one hundred persons, 
and is, we believe, the gift of one of their own workers. 

The spirit of the Home is most hallowed. Every meal is 
closed with prayer, and every day has its special fields for 
prayer and intercession. The Missionary Man is part of the 
decoration of the wall, and as the places are called out for 
special prayer, the long pointer moves along the map and all 
eyes and hearts meet over the place where some lone heart 
is standing as a witness for Christ. The work of the China 
Inland Mission covers the whole Empire, and it is most in- 
spiring to realize the grasp of China which God has given this 
great missionary movement, after the toils and trials of thirty 
years, comprehending so many of the strategic points of this 
mightiest Empire on the globe. 

At the missionary prayer meeting it is usual to read ex- 



mt 200,000 in 
or a total of 
eds $1,600,000 
n the foreign 

spitably enter- 
at the China 
ve met a num- 
, and reahzed 
very much at 
nded us of oxu* 
3 Home. I'he 
18 building, ac- 
ndred persons, 
Every meal is 
ecial fields for 
is part of the 
called out for 
he map and all 
>me lone heart 
: of the China 
it is most in- 
d has given this 
I trials of thirty 
c points of this 

3ual to read ex- 









tracts from the letters that are ever coming from the field, 
and telling of the triumphs as well as the trials of the work. 
We are so glad to say that the former were far in the ascen- 
dent at all the meetings that we attended, and that many of 
the incidents that were given from Yunnan and Kwcichow, 
from Kiangsi and Szchuen of the things that had been hap- 
pening the previous week, were thrilling and truly apostolic. 
God is working to-day, especially in North China, in the 
hearts of the Chinese, and especially through many of the 
native preachers, in a way that fills our hearts with hope 

and joy. 

We had the opportunity of witnessing for Christ on 
Sabbath morning and evening to large English audiences 
containing many missionaries, and we were the recipients of 
many personal kindnesses and courtesies. Among these were 
not a few old workers and missionaries. It was a great pleas- 
ure to meet dear Anna More in her Presbyterian Home, and 
to find a little More added to her life and happiness, as well 
as home circle. Her husband. Rev. Mr. Silsby, has an excel- 
lent work at South Gate, Shanghai. Mr. and Mrs. Evans are 
doing a good and useful work in their Missionary Home and 
Agency. Mr. and Mrs. Fitch are connected with the Presby- 
terian Publishing House. Dr. Farnham is in Mission work in 
Shanghai. Miss Fannie Smith has become Mrs. Dr. Woods, 
and is up on the Grand Canal in her husband's field. Mr. 
Ferguson, of Nanking, who was the host and friend of some 
of our early missionaries, was in Shanghai. We also met Dr. 
Corbett, of the Presbyterian Mission in Chefoo, which God 

■ UW' 


368 L.ih'cF.R or'Ji.oohs ox i\f/ss/ox.ih'y /..i.\/)S. 

has so richly blessi;'i, dear Mr. McK<)izie, of Swatow, with 
whom we had hallo ved foUowsliip, ami a good many whom 
we had previously ksiovii or wnh wltoin we had some special 

Ou Tuesday afternoon a large gathering, including most 
of the missionaries in Shanghai, and a number who happened 
to be in the city at the lime, assenibled in the chapel of the 
China Ir lind Mis.' ion to extend to ris a welcome in behalf of 
our missionary 'Aork. This v/as an unexpected kindness, 
and it was most courteccsly and heartily given. It was in 
response to an invitation from our host and friend, Mr. Stev- 
enson, whose kindness wo canno"^ too gratefully acknowl- 

After the usual English cup of tea and sandwiches, we 
were glad to hav* the opportunity of explaining the object 
and plan of our work, and laying it upon the hearts of th'^se 
dear workers for China. There had been some misunder- 
standings, especially in connection with the sending out of so 
great a number of Swedes at one time. It was feared by 
many that so largo a number could not well be received and 
properly located at one time, and that any mistake in this 
direction might unfavorably affect missionary work in other 
parts cf China. As our readers kuow, we had already antici- 
pated those dangers before leaving England, and since our 
arrival in China had been very busy arranging the details 
of this great undertaking, and we were able to assure om* 
missionary friends that every precaution had been taken, 
and still would be, to guard against anything that could 


Swatow, with 
I many whom 
,(1 some special 

ncluding most 
who liappenocl 
3 chapel of tho 
ne in behalf of 
3ted kindness, 
en. It was in 
end, Mr. Stev- 
ully acknowl- 

andwiches, we 
ling the object 
hearts of th'^se 
)nie misunder- 
iding out of so 
was feared by 
)e received and 
nistake in this 
- work in other 
already antici- 
and since our 
ing the details 
) to assure our 
id been taken, 
ling that could 

ip ■, ; ' 

&e AXf> its .v/ss/ox.ia'v uork. 


inimTil this work or i.tejuako the work of utlu-rs. We 
were also glad to tell our f-iends of the profound nussionary 
movement which God was stirring up in the hearts of so 
many at home, and the enlarged hopes lie was givn>g us of 
the evangelization of China and the world in this g.nerat.<,n 
At the close of the message W(> receivinl a very kn.d wel- 
come in the name of the missionaries present, from the ven- 
eral.le Dr. Muirhead, of the London Missionary Society, the 
senior missionary in Shanghai, and the companion and suc- 
cessor of Dr. Medhurst, and the early founders of nnss.onary 
work in China. We were deeply touched as this dear old 
man recalled his early experience, and reminded a later gen- 
eration of the changes which he had seen in China, and then 
welcomed us to a share in its mission work and told us hat 
it was the great mission field of the world, and one which 
would repay, in ahundant measure, all the efforts expended 

""^'"it^was a great privilege to meet this great hody of men 
and women who had been standing face to face with the 
needs of China, some of them for more than forty years ; and 
we were encouraged in the name of the Christians of Anwica 
to take a new hold with them for the evangelization of China, 
in the remaining years of this century. There was an attend- 
ance of more than one hundred and fifty, of whom the large 
proportion were missionaries. We have been impressed with 
the earnestness of the missionaries in Shanghai, and their 
catholic and united spirit. 

We had the pleasure of meeting at this gathering, Epis- 





copal (li.ujnitaijos, ni<l Imniblo lay missi< uuies sido by Hide, 
Nt.rthcMii and Southciii I'losbytorians, Mitbodista and Bap- 
tists, and men of <»ther natncs, all imited in love for Christ 
and China. We saw much in the ai)irit of the niiHsionaries 
we met in Shanghai to fill us with Btiong hope for the pro- 
gross of Christianity in China in the next seven years. There 
ha» becai mu<'h prayer for the outpouring of the Holy (ihost, 
and most of the missionaries wo have met in Cliina are look- 
ing, we believe, in the right direction for the blessing which 
China needs to-day. 

Many of the great societies are strongly represented in 
Shanghai. Here the China Inland Mission have their receiv- 
ing home and their Central Offices and stores for the enor- 
mous business connected with the directing and supi.iying a 
force of over five hundrtul missionari's in all parts of China. 
Here, also, those great pioneer and auxiliary missionary 
agencies, the British aa i American Biblo Societies, have their 
headipxarters for China, and n stafif of strong ; nd levoted 
v-.rkers. Here tlio old Loi 1 Missionary Si.< i(>ty has a 
j^ood local work, and a nun'ber of laborei The Northern 
Presbyteriu, '^'hurch ha- a number of lab-ters in hanghai, 
and a large printing and publishing depart men. Mi .no 
luudred employes, under the superintendence ot our be- 
u)ved br<ther. Rev. Geo. F. Fitch. The Sort hern Methodists 
have a very strong work and . ine edm itional establishment, 
under the care of Dr. Young Allen, now at home. The 
Church Missionaiy Society 's represented !)y Venerable Arch- 
deacon Moule; and the Prott tant Episc pal Church of Amer- 

)• LANDS. 

ics side by side, 
lodists and Bap- 
1 lovo for Christ 
tho missionaries 
u>pe for tho pro- 
ven years. There 
the Holy Ghost, 
I diina aro look- 
\i blessing which 

r represented in 
avu t lieir receiv- 
es for the enor- 
and supplying a 
. parts of China, 
iary missionary 
neties, have their 
mg iud vlevoted 
•y So< jfity has a 
The Mt)rthem 
ei-s in 'Shanghai, 
Irnen, *h aie 
lemo of <i 'le- 
•hern Methodists 
lal estal>Ushment, 
at home. The 
Venerable Arch- 
Church of Amer- 


ica l.y Vonerahle Archdeacon Thompson. Tho Southern 
Baptists, the American Church of tl. IMsciplos and the 
Seventh 1 )ay Baptists have each several laborers in Shanghai. 
The Woman's Union Missionary S- doty of New York, found- 
ed by Mrs. Dorenms, has an excellent h.' pital and Bov.>ral 
missionaries. There is a Chinese Tract Society, a Seaman 8 
Mission, a Mission for the ^ 

Japanese, a V/oman's ' ^^^ ' 

Christian Temperance Un- 
ion, and a Christian Vernac- 
ular Society. There are 
two Union Churches, with 
services in English, one 
meeting in Masonic Hall 
and the other in the Union 
Church edifice. " The 
Chinese Recorder " is pub- 
lished monthly by the Pres- 
byterian Tress, and the 
"Chinese Messenger" by- 
Rev. Timothy Richards. 

The first two parties of 
our Swedish Missionaiies 
had already arrived, and 
through the wonderful 
goodness of God, bad been 
provided for and coudu t* d 
safely on their way, wiih- 





out any w-rious luisadveutuiv. P.iit l.a<l a largor muuber 
come at i-ivHcnt, «.f Iwul there bt'cu u pi -siKJct of srveral ad- 
(litional parties c-oiuing thin r,.>as<)n. it wcmM Iimvo Ix^eii 
attemkd with nericus (lithculty and inconveuience, and 
would have been theocasiou of miieh concern on the i>art 
of other missionaries. 

We cannot thank Go<l enough, both f..r wliat has and 
what has not been done. As it is, a body of forty-live new 
missionaries, making, >vith their superintendents, over fifty, 
have gone to Northern Shansi, and are preparing for nnssion- 
ary labors in Northern China, under the most hopeful aus- 
spices. Tins alone is a very lar-o body of missionaries, as 
large, perhaps, as the nuniber of any other society in China, 
except the China Inland Mission. Their training will engage 
the utmost -are and capacity of their overseers, and their 
nund)er will be sufficient to occupy very fairly the large and 
populous district assigned to them. As soon as they shall 
have been properly introduced to their work and assigned to 
their stations, and their uccess shall have shown the entire 
practicability of the arrangements here, another party can 
follow them with the opening of next season,— a larger party 
if the circumstances justify it ; and fVo work can be indefi- 
nitely multiplied, if the Lord shall continue to provide the 
means, agencies and openings. 

It is simply a debt of justice and an obligation of the 
barest courtesy to say that we owe very much, indeed, of the 
facility with which the transit and location of our Swedish 
friends has been effected, to the kindness and wise coopera- 
tion of Rev. W. I. Stevenson and the China Inland Mission. 


larger luunber 
of several ad- 
ild havo l)(!eii 
ivt'uien<-<>, and 
)ru on tho part 

• wliat has and 
forty-tivo now 
ents, over fifty, 
iiig f(ir mission- 
st hopeful aus- 
niissiouaries, as 
ociety in China, 
ling will engage 
■seers, and their 
y tho largo and 
)n as they shall 
and assigned to 
iiown tho entire 
other party can 
,— a larger party 
k can be indefi- 
3 to provide the 

obligation of the 
3h, indeed, of the 
of our Swedish 
,nd wise coopera- 
% Inland Mission. 

.^aiiiiiftywM - 


Tli<" Suporintendent of tho Mission is Mr. l-lniaruiel Ols- 
sen. Mr. Ulssen is tho son of a proniin-'nt Swedish gentlo- 
nian, and has gladly devoted himself to a self denying mis- 
sionary life for his Master's sake. He has bee.i in China bo- 
t\v(H>n two and three years, and has ac(iuired the language 
and become a((|uaint(«d with th(> peoi>le. He is very nnuh 
encouraged in his work, and already the Lord has put His 
seal upon it in Northern China. 

The field they havu taken is Northern Shansi. It lies 
outside tho great wall, and is occupied by a vast population 
of simple, agricultural i.eople, who are very kindly disposed 
toward them, and a good many already are in(iuiring into 

the Gos])el. 

The field reaches tho borders of M(mgolia, and sonie of 
them, no doubt, will be led of the Lord to that great people, 
among whom, there is, asy^t, no single voice to tell of Jesus 

and salvation. 

We thank God for the hopeful connnencemont of the 
Alliance Mission North Shansi- -and commend it to God 
and tho prayers of His i)eople. 

This movement, if wisely directed, will become a great 
blessing to China and prove tho beginning of a wide-spread 
system^of evangelization on simple and deeply spiritual linos. 

These dear people have a simplicity of faith and capacity 
for self.lenia], hardship and endurance which are much 
needed in China, and will prove a most helpful inspiration 
foall the other workers. There is no sort of doubt about 
their being able to live and do good work in Northern China 




for the modest sum which they themselves have proposed. 
We feel sure that both they and their leaders are men and 
women of deep piety, and filled with the Holy Ghost, and 
that they will have the direction and blessing of God and the 
constant prayers of all our people, and that ere long the first 
stage of their work will be so fully established that the way 
will be open for sending them larger reinforcements. 


-TS-^-i— ? , 

T'" ".ISfi ' 


ave proposed, 
are men and 

)ly Ghost, and 

•f God and the 
long the first 
that the way 



FIVE great rivers compete for the queenship of the 
waters,— the Nile, the Mississippi, the La Plata, the 
Amazon and the Yangtse. Two of these we have not 
seen, hut certainly none of the others pour such a volume of 
water to the sea as the noble Yangtse. ^Xq have spent three 
weeks upon its hosom, passing up and down, and it grows 
upon us day by day in its immensity and impoi Wnce. More 
like an inland sea than a river, in many places, so broad is its 
tide that our ship rolled and pitched in its current like a vessel 
in the ocean, as far as three hundred miles f re m the sea ; and 
even at Hankow and Wuchang, six hundred miles from its 
mouth, so rough were its waves the day we left Hankow that 
it was deemed scarcely safe, one part of the day, for the large 
ferry boats to cross, and they told us that they were often 
upset in the heavy sea and swift current. There, even, it is p 
mile wide, and the great tea-ships, drawing nearly thirty feet 
of water, were lying at anchor in its waters ready to start to 
London direct with their first fresh cargoes. Up and down 
its teeming waters pass thousands of Chinese boats, ]>lying 
their busy trade, and the ships of all nations can be recog- 
nized at the vario" is ports. 



Several lines of fine passenger steamers run from Shang- 
hai to Hankow, and there are sometimes two or three daily. 
They look just like our American river boats, and while 
owned by Chinese companies, are run by European officers. 
Above Hankow there is r(>gular steam navigation several 
times a Aveek, nearly four hundred miles farther to the city 
of Icliang ; and above Ichang, the river is navigable for 
steamboats for six hundred miles farther, all the way up to 
Chung King, the metropoHs of Sz-chuen ; but the Chinese 
authorities, with their usual conservatism, have, as yet, re- 
fused to allow the foreigner to run liis engines up these sacred 
channels. As a sample of their ridiculous policy of obstruc- 
tion, it is seriously reported that when the question of allow- 
ing steamers on the upper Yangtse was referred, some time 
ago, to the Mandarins, they reported gravely that it would 
not be well to attempt it as the monkeys in the gorges of the 
Upper Yangtse were exceedingly fierce, and would throw 
stones down upon the ships and injure them. 

This part of the river is now ascended by cargo boats, 
which are pulled up the strong current by trackers, who walk 
along the bank. At this season, when the current is strong 
and the river high, it takes our missionaries a month lo go 
from Ichang to Chung King, a distance which can be accom- 
l^lished down the river in two days, so swift is the descending 
tide. No wonder they hope and pray for the day when the 
fear of these dreadful monkeys will be overcome, and the 
whistle of the engine will be heard in the Yangtse gorges. 
Dur time woidd only allow us to go as far as Hankow. 



11 from Sliang- 
or three daily. 
its, and while 
opean officers, 
gatioii several 
ler to the city 
]iaviji;able for 
the way up to 
ut the Chinese 
ivc, as yet, re- 
Li]) these sacred 
icy of ohstruc- 
jstion of allow- 
red, some time 
{ that it would 
le gorges of the 
1 would throw 

hy cargo boats, 
;kers, who walk 
rrent is strong 
a month lo go 
1 can be accom- 
; the descending 
e day when the 
rcome, and the 
Ligtse gorges. 
Far as Hankow. 

OX 77 n- VAXGTSn. 


It would have required a month or two longer to penetrate 
the heart of Sz-chuen, and so we could only look upward 
from the mouth of the Han, and borrow the eyes of others 
whom we met, who had traversed these upper streams and 
explored the vast interior of China. 


Although this river ])asses through the most densely- 
populated section of China, yet there is little sign ui.on its 
shores of the teeming myriads that cover all these regions as 
thickly of ien as seven hundred to the square mile. In Amer- 
ica such a river would be lined with bright and busy towns. 
But here all is loneliness. A few cities appeal- upon the 


banks ; with some striking landmarks, such as Wuhu, Ku- 
kiang and Hankow, with their foreign houses standing out in 
bold relief ; but most of the native towns are so low and flat, 
or surrounded with dead vvjills that are scarcely noticeable. 
And so we passed such world- renowned places as Nanking, 
without anything unusual to attract our attention, and Wuhu 
was really the first point of striking interest, at which we 
touched and tarried. 

The approach to Wuhu is quite picturesque. A good 
many hills overlook the town, and a number of foreign build- 
ings stand out in bold relief. The most imposing of these is 
the Methodist Episcopal Mission, on a high promontory over- 
looking the river, and about a mile above the town. The 
British Consulate, the Commissioner of Customs and the 
Eoman Catholic Mission occupy prominent and elevated situ- 
ations. Wuhu is a Treaty Port, and a place of considerable 
commercial importance. It is said to have the largest export, 
trade in rice in the Empire. The population is about 100,000, 
and it is altogether a place of much more importance than 
we supposed, ra^^king with any of the river cities, except 
Shanghai or Hankow. It is the chief city in the Province of 
Ghanwhei, and its river system connects it with most of the 
inland towns very easily and directly. The province had, be- 
fore the rebellion, a population of about thirty millions, equal 
to one-half the United States, but it is now much reduced. It 
lies north and south of the Yangise River, in a very central 
position, and is very thicky settled. Almost all the land is 
capable of cultivation and is fully occupied. 


IS Wuhu, Ku- 
tanding out in 
) low and flat, 
ely noticeable. 
s as Nanking, 
ion, and Wuhu 
I, at which we 

;que. A good 
foreign build- 
Qg of these is 
montory over- 
le town. The 
;toms and the 
I elevated situ- 
if considerable 
largest export 
about 100,000, 
iportance than 
cities, except 
he Province of 
;h most of the 
ovince had, be- 
millions, equal 
ich reduced. It 
a very central 
all the land is 

m-r~rr-"W*j ' ; 










We found our dear missionaries at Wuhu waiting for us 
on the hulk where the steamers land, and we had a joyful 
meeting They were all there except Miss Murray, who is 
temporarily at Nanking, and Mr. and Mrs. Johnston, who 
are at Tatung, about fifty miles further up the river. They 
were all well, and we spent two or three days with them m 
much conference and prayer respecting the work. The party 
at Wuhu consists, at present, of four ladies and ten brethren. 
They are hving in three houses ; the ladies in one, and the 
gentlemen in the other two, in a sort of Bachelor's Home 

style. , , 1 • 1 

While at Wuhu we were the recipient ot much kmdness 
from Dr. and Mrs. Stuart of the M. E. Mission. We also had 
the pleasure of meeting Mr. and Mrs. Longden, of the same 
Mission. Mr. Drysdale, of the China Inland Mission, proved 
a valuable friend in some important business transactions, in 
which his Chinese experience was very generously placed at 

our service. 

We had several public services, which were attended by a 
good many of the foreign residents, and we believe o«<^ or 
two r-ecious souls were led to fully decide for Christ. 

We found our young men carrying on a good work 
an ong the English and American oflkials of the Customs 
.P ^Ice After a few days' stay, we hastened on up the river, 
intending to complete our visit here on our return. Half a 
dav's sail brought us to the pretty town of Tatung, on the 
same side of the river. Here Mr. Johnston was waiting to 
welcome us, and an hour's sail from the landing, in a sampan. 


brought us to his house. Here we met liis wife and two 
childreu, and another missionary laboring with him at pres- 
ent, and we tarried two days looking over the field with him, 
and endeavoring to plan for the best interests of the work. 

Mr. Johnston left the Tabernacle in New York ten years 
ago, to prepare for missionary work, and about six years ago 
came to Cliina, in connection with the C. I. M. Three years 
ago he left their service, and, one year later, he joined our 
Mission. Tatung seems to be a very promising field. Oppo- 
site Tatung is an island, containing a large city of nearly 'JO,- 
OOO peoide, and Tatung, itself, has nearly as many people. 
They are very friendly, and almost all seemed to know Mr. 
Johnston, and to look upon him quite kindly. It was the 
only place in China where even the dogs did not once bark at 
us. And this is a very fair sign of the friendly disposition of 
their masters, and their familiarity with foreigners. 

Mr. Johnston has an excellent native worker, and carries 
on a constant chapel service every day and evening, and has 
some hopeful inquirers. 

There seems to be a fine opportunity for work here. 
Back of the town is a hill commanding one of the finest 
views in China, which would make a beautiful site for Mis- 
sion premises, and all around is a large, unoccupied country, 
accessible by the innumerable waterways of Central China. 
Mr. Johr ston has a fine command of the Chinese language, 
and gets on well with the people. 

He wears the Chinese costume, and we havo no doubt 
■that this is, by far, the best way for interior work. In the 



.- liffliiro'iBjfCTffl — 


^vife and two 
1 him at pros- 
icld with him, 
)f tlio work, 
fork ten years 
t six years ago 
Three years 
, he joined our 
y field. Oppo- 
r of nearly 20,- 
\ many people. 
1 to know Mr. 
y. It was the 
:)t once hark at 
\f disposition of 

ier, and carries 
'^ening, and has 

'or work here, 
e of the finest 
All site for Mis- 
cupied country. 
Central China, 
inese language, 

havo no doubt 
r work. In the 

ox rnr. vAXcrrsr.. 


treaty ports it does not make much ditference, and we have, 
as yet, no rigid rule on the subject. But, in the interior, it 
is, no doubt, much preferable in every way. If there was 
no other reason, the difference that it maker, in the ex- 
pense of travelling on the river steamers woubl bc> sufficient 
to decide the question. 
By wearing this dress 
one can travel in Chinese 
style, which is not at all 
uncomfortable, as we 
can testify from a little 
experience. You can got 
a cabin on the upper deck 
by a little management, 
and a seat at the private 
table of the compador or 
Chinese steward, and 
thus have a fair measure 
of privacy. And the dif- 
ference in price is simply 
out of all proportion to 
the difference in comfort. 
A regular English passenger will pay about $30 f^'om Shang- 
hai to Hankow, and the fare in Chinese cabin, is less than %,3. 
As to the comfort and convenience of the costume, there 
is great disparity of opinion. Our unbiased ju^S-ent is that 
most of those not wearing this costume dislike it And the 
great majority of those who wear it, prefer it for all purposes. 


, Jl,J-,;,i,,i_4y^i-ja>i!Jy-nB»»ili!"«!«-.-" 

! jajlW!.;J.;m:'v-:.;jarfkt«!.^,*w'A^ 


It has some disaava.itagc for la<lies. It has nc provision for 
a covering for the head, so needed in this climate, and the 
umbrella is scarcely >mrient. lUit many now n-ear liats 
with it. The shoes are also rather uncomfortable, and the 
shaving of tbe head is an av kward necessity for ni-ii. But, 
upon the whole, it is -asx , cemtortable, very gra^ etui and 
liandsome, cool in sum <'r. i id in winter .susceptible of any 
amount of padding and \. armtli. 

We would not advise any lady to go to China for interior 
work who is not prep. 1 red < wear this costume without ob- 
jection or prejudice, and those who ' » not wear 1: should, 
as a rule, stay in the older cent res \ work on the more 
conservative hues of the older Mi sions. It is not, ' 'uy 
means, contined to the China Inland Mission, but is ^' '^y 
many of the Presbyterian,*, , and other missionaries 
in their interior work. 

From Tatung we went on up the river to Gangking, the 
capital of the province of Ghanwhei. This is the seat of the 
China Inland Receiving Home, where the gentlemen who 
come out as missionaries remain for six months studying the 
language, and getting their first introduction to Chinese life. 
This home is under the care of Mr. Bailer and wife, and it 
was a great privilege to meet these choice spirits, and td 
spend a day with them and nearly twenty of their students. 
It is needless to say that they are pecuharly adapted to their 
work. Mrs. Bailer is a born mother, and no young man 
there is allowed to feel that he is far from home, and she is 
just as able, with her tender, spiritual wisdom, to minister to 
their souls as to look after their darning and their dining. 




provision for 
irnate, ;ui<i the 
ovv ""ear liuts 
rtabio, and the 
for ni'm. But, 
y gra( etui and 
,ceptil)le of any 

lina for interior 
me '^'ithoul ob- 
wear 1 should, 
'k oil the more 
is not, ' 'uy 
but is ^' y 

ler missionaries 

» Gangking, the 
s the seat of the 
gentlemen who 
ths studying the 

1 to Chinese life, 
and wife, and it 
) spirits, and tO 
f their students, 
adapted to their 

no young man 
home, and she is 
m, to minister to 
[ their dining. 

Mr. Bailor la a tine Chinese scholar and an experienced 
missionary, possessing that peculiar combination of (lualities 
which iitH one to shape the lives and characters of others 
without seeming to control them. It is the hand of iron and 
the touch nf velvet. Such helpers are a great boon to a home, 
and N ahoui them a hr.meisof doubtful value. But under 
such liapnv !' OS it is a great hcli) to a young missionary, 

on i,i fi in a strange laud, to have the privilege of 

learniir nguage and preparing for his future work in 

such a . . a and helpful atmosphere. The first half year 

of a m, nary's life, and sometimes the first week, decides 
his future missionary career, and gives a life-long impulse or 
check to all his life work. The most serious mistake any 
work can make, is to send single missionaries abroad before 
the work is piepared, or the superintendence provi.led, with- 
out which much of their nn vk and even tb. ir most ddigent 
study is apt to be ill-directed, and perhaps wasted. 

We had much delightful fellowship and profitable con- 
ference with the friends at Gangking. In the afternoon we 
walked around the city, just outside the walls, and saw it on 
every side. Nothing so touched our heart as the great field 
of human graves that stretched away for miles all along the 
north side. It was, indeed, the City of the Dead. It seemod 
as if millions must be sleeping there, and they all looked a. if 
they were reproaching us because we had let them die in 
C uristless darkness. It was the only part of China that we 
had seen without living people. Many of these had been 
slain during the Taiping Rebellion. At that awful time, of 

w mt*«'iji*«Hrj«s ' ; * : ^ if ' f^f%^-P:^^l^ix^^^^^ ?^) 



which wt> shall speak again, tho Taii)iiigs hud captured tho 
city, and iimi(lered all who would not accept their rule and 
creed. And afterwards, when tho IniiJerialists reoccupitMl it. 
they beheaded all who had been rebels, so that between tho 
two lir(-s the poor Chinaman had a hard chance for his life. 

We left Gangking at sunset, and our friends escorted us 
outside tho city walls, and then returned, as the gates had to 
be shut at night. In a little native inn, on tho river bank, Ave 
waited for our steamer till three o'clock in the morning- 
alone. It was a little taste of life in tho interior. It would 
have been nothing if we had known the language. But we 
could not speak a word of Chinese, and they could not speak 
a word of English. 

But wo got on very well and did not feel a touch of lone- 
liness or fear. We had a single native Christian with us and 
he kindly helped us to i^nbark, although he knew not a word 
of English. But his face shone with holy intelligence. At 
length the steamer came along and stopped out in the river, 
till our native boat took us out, and they tumbled us and our 
baggage on board and we steamed away to Hankow. Our 
old native Christian parted with us with much afl\'ction. 

A party of seventeen soldiers also came on board with a 
poor prisoner in charge, whom wo went down, with the cap- 
tain, the next day to see. He was a pitiful sight. His hands 
and feet were chained, and around his neck was a great ox- 
chain fastened to a straight bamboo pole at his neck. The 
heavy chain crushed his neck. His posture was most pain- 
ful, and his face was white with fear, as these seventeen sol- 


"mj' i'lipi 


captured tho 
tlicir rule :uul 
i rcoccupieil it, 
t between tlio 
a for liislife. 
ids escorted us 
10 gates liad to 
river bank, we 
tbe morning — 
rior. It would 
[uaj^e. But we 
ould not speak 

I toucli of lone- 
iau with us and 
new not a word 
itelligence. At 
it in the river, 
bled us and our 
Hankow. Our 
h afV<'ction. 
»n board with a 
n, with the cap- 
ght. His hands 
»vas a great ox- 
his neck. The 
was most pain- 
\e seventeen sol- 












U 11.6 

















WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

/716) 872-4S03 






Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions / Institut canadien de microreproductions historiques 




diers stood around him with spears poiuted and carbines 
loaded. He was charged with being a member of the pohti- 
cal society known as the ^^ Ko-loa-ivhei,^'' which is said to 
have incited the riots of two years ago. They are taking 
him up to Wuchang before the Viceroy, for trial and execu- 
tion, but we could not help asking God somehow to spare the 
poor fellow's life, and we trust in eternity to find that it was 
not in vain 

All along this rivei-, at that time, from Ichang to Nan- 
king, it was a time of terror and danger. Wuhu was the 
chief centre of violence, and there the Roman Catholic build- 
ings were destroyed and all the missionaries compelled to 
flee. At the peaceful little town of Wusui, near Hankow, an 
English missionary, Mr. Argent, was murdered, and a Cus- 
tom's officer cut to pieces. At Wuchang a rising was ex- 
pected, and the foreign gunboats were ready at a signal to 
shell the town if it was attempted, and a place upon the 
walls preconcerted where the missionaries should meet incase 
of danger. Very few people now believe that there was any 
political society back of these riots, or anything worse than 
the crookedness and meanness of ihe Mandarins themselves, 
who are said to hate the foreigners, and, while professing 
friendship, are really the secret inciters of many a disturb- 
ance and the greatest obstacle in tho way of sending the Gos- 
pel to the interior towns. 

No one who has not lived in China can understand this 
official crookedness. The Chinese Mandarin is said to be a 
man with a mask. In the same city will be often seen a 


public proclamation against foreigners anonymously circu- 
lated by the runners of the Official, and, at the same time, 
another proclamation signed by the Official condemning all 
these anonymous proclamations, and declaring that they are 
circulated by bad and unworthy people. The former is to 
promote anti-foreign feeling, the latter to keep up an appear- 
ance of uprightness and good behavior. 

At the same time we feel it due to say that while this was 
the general opinion among the missionaries of the older soci. 
eties in Central China, we have heard some very different 
statements from the most experienced workers of the China 
Inland Mission in the interior. Indeed, they have assured us, 
and shown us letters to prove that often the Mandarins are 
their best friends, and honestly endeavor to protect them, and 
do the very best thing they can for them in the face of the 
strong anti-foreign prejudices of the scholars and gentry. 
Upon the whole, we have concluded that the shield has two 
sides, and both statements are true, under varying circum- 

We reached Hankow on Saturday morning, and spent 
"three days in this great metropolis of interior China. It is a 
very fine city indeed. Its foreign Bund or settlement is only 
less imposing than Shanghai. The native city is three times 
as large, and much finer in every way, while two other great 
cities— Hanyang and Wuchang— lie right across the Han 
and Yangtse rivers, whose waters here meet. The three 
cities together have over a million inhabitants. 

Wuchang is the capital of the two Provinces of Hupeh 


onymously circu- 
t the same time, 
il condemning all 
ing that they are 
The former is to 
eep up an appear- 

hat while this was 
of the older soci. 
me very different 
•kers of the China 
ly have assured us, 
ihe Mandarins are 
protect them, and 
n the face of the 
olars and gentry, 
he shield has two 
r varying circura- 

orning, and spent 
ior China. It is a 
settlement is only 
city is three times 
ile two other great 
; across the Han 
meet. The three 
rovinces of Hupeh 









and Hunan, and a fine city of more than a quarter of a million 
people. Its houses are of a better class that any city we have 
seen in China. It is largely inhabited by official people. 
Hanyang is the smallest of the three, and lies between the two , 
on the promontory formed by the meeting of the Han and the 
Yangtse. Hankow is the commercial capital, and has many 
fine streets and stores,— that is, for China. It is the Empo- 
rium of the trade of nine great provinces, containing among 
them two hundred millions of people. It is, in a word, the 
Chicago of China, while Shanghai is the New York of the 

There are several strong Missions here ; the oldest and 
strongest is the London Society. Rev. Griffith John is its 
oldest and best-known representative. We had met him in 
America, and were sorry to find that he was absent in the 
country on a tour, but we received the greatest kindness 
from his family, and from all the other members of the Mis- 
sion. We had a good opportunity of seeing their work, and 
a good and substantial work it is. Its methods are conserv- 
ative and careful, but its results are solid, if somewhat slow. 
We saw two of their native congregations on the Sabbath, 
and it was very inspiring to see that body of two or three 
hundred native Christians, mostly men, and to remember 
that they had been gathered, one by one, from heathenism. 

They have three chapels in Hankow, where daily services 
are held, and a few stations in the country, in the vicinity. 
They have about a dozen English and as many native mis- 
sionaries. This is the result of thirty years of hard and 


j.APnnm orri.ooKS on missionary lands. 

faithful work. When we asked one of their workers about 
the prospect of multiplying their workers, this was his 
answer: "If our Board wei-e to send us seven or eight 
more missionaries, we should welcome them ; if they were 
to send us twenty, we should not know what to do with 
them." This well represents the conservative method of 
Missions in its best and most successful form. No wonder 
we asked, " When are you going to reach all the millions of 
China at this rate?" And no wonder missionaries, who see 
no larger possibility for China, are led to believe in a 'larger 
hope," and some second chance for these lost millions in a 
future world. Thank God there is a better way. Notwith- 
standing the wise and honest convictions of such honored 
workers, we believe there is room in China for not only 
twenty more, but for men enough to occupy all her centres 
of population before the close of the present centuiy. And 
we believe that, by the gra^^e of God, it shall be done. 

We spent some pleasant hours with Mr. and Mrs. Arnold 
Foster, of the London Mission, in whose home Miss Stowell, 
of Boston, once associated with our Alliance, spent two years. 
We had one very interesting hour in the Hankow Hospital 
with Dr. Gillison, witnessing his treatment of thirty or forty 
outdoor patients, and seeing some samples of Chinese dis- 
eases, and the nature and value of Medical Missions. We 
had the privilege of teaching a Chinese Bible class through 
an interpreter, and seeing their bright, responsive minds. We 
were permitted to preach to the English congregation on Sab- 
bath evening, and trust the Lord was pleased to bless Hi» 




ir workers about 
rs, this was his 
19 seven or eight 
sm ; if they were 
what to do with 
ative method of 
)rni. No wonder 
ill the millions of 
iionaries, who see 
lievein a ** larger 
lost millions in a 
r way. Notwith- 
of such honoi-ed 
ina for not only 
py all her centres^ 
nt century. And 
ill be done. 
.'. and Mrs. Arnold 
ome Miss Stowell, 
;, spent two years. 
Hankow Hospital 
j of thirty or forty 
>8 of Chinese dis- 
cal Missions. We 
Jible class through 
onsive minds. We 
Qgregation on Sab- 
leased to bless Hi» 

We visited the two Swedish Missions, respectively in Han- 
kow and Wuchang, and also met the workers of the China 
Inland Mission, who have a business station here for the sup- 
ply of all their interior stations, and are now erecting now 
premises for stores and offices. We crossed the rough river 
to Wuchang, and visited several of the Missions there, and 
looked at some premises with a view to opening a station here 
for our own future work. This is, necessarily, the point of 
transition for all interior stations, and, if we are going to go 
farther West, it will be necessary for us to have a branch of 
our work here. It is, especially, tl>.e starting point for 
Hunan, the great unoccupied province of Central China, and 
sustaining the same relation to it as Qnangsi to the South, 
and Thibet to the West. 

So far the Hunanese have suifered no foreigner to settle 
in their province. Many have visited it, but only to be 
treated harshly and driven out. But God is working for 
Huuan, and it is soon to be opened to the Gospel ; if not by 
foreigners, at least by natives. 

Of late there have been many remarkable tokens of a 
rising of the native Christians to evangelize their own land. 
While we were calling at the Londor ^.'ssion in Hankow, we 
were delighted to meet two natives who were just returning 
from a missionary tour through that province. We had 
their story translated to us, and it was thrilling in its simple, 
apostolic interest. 

One of them is an old man, a voluntary evangelist, who 
receives no salary and is under no Society, but simply a mem- 

390 LARGER orrr.ooKs ox mtssioxary r..txns. 

ber of tlie Wualeyaii Mission. The other is a coolie, who was 
called by the Spirit to accompany the other and carry his 
books and baggage, and who went without pay. Each re- 
ceived liis call apart from the other. Both had l)een praying 
for Hunan, in their homes—about nine miles apart. After 
praying awhile, the Spirit said to them, " What is the use of 
your i)raying unless you do something yourself to answer 
your prayer ? Why don't you go to Hunan ? " They thought 
of their weakness, and the difficulty and danger of the field, 
but God told them that He woidd be their Strength and Pro- 
tector ; and so they told the Wesleyan missionary, Mr. 
Warren, of their plan, and he and his people approved it, and 
had a meeting to send them forth, and gave them a collection 
of $8.00; and, with this as their capital and outfit, they 
started on foot for the capital of Himan, and when we saw 
them they were just returning from their first missionary 
journey. It was not unlike Paul's, in some ways. They had 
many perils and persecutions, but God had graciously de- 
livered them and used them, and they were now going home, 
with glad and grateful hearts, to tell the story of His good- 
ness, and go forth again with more books and ti-acts for a 
more extensive tour. 

The older man was a fine sample of a native worker, full 
of deep, solid earnestness and holy simplicity, and the rough, 
uncultured country coolie v.-as just as interesting, his face 
fairly shining as he told how he had been taken to the 
"Yamen," before the magistrate, and forbidden to sell any- 
more of these books or preach the Gospel, and how, when be 



coolio, who was 
• and carry his 
l>iiy. Each re- 
1(1 been praying 
!s apart. After 
iiat is the use of 
iself to answer 
They thought 
ger of the field, 
length and Pro- 
nissionary, Mr. 
approved it, and 
liem a collection 
Lud' outfit, they 
d when we saw 
first missionary 
i^ays. They had 
I graciously de- 
ow going home, 
ry of His good- 
uid tracts for a 

tive worker, full 
, and the rough, 
(resting, his face 
n taken to the 
Iden to sell any 
id how, when he 

ox Tin-: YANGTSE, 


got hack to his friend, they went on as before, and the Lonl 
had preserved them, and the very men who had opposed and 
cursed them became their friends and b :>ught their books. 

This is but a typo of the great movement which C'hina 
needs for its full evangelization, and which God is already 
preparing. Let us pray, let us work, let us believe, and wo 
shall see the glory of God. It seemed like a voice from 
heaven to us to meet this incident at the very moment of our 
arrival in Central China, and we conunend our two dear 
brethren, Chang-I-Tzu and Li-Quang-Ti, or, as we might ab- 
breviate it, Chang and Li, to the pi-ayers of all who love to 
remember China. 

We would have been glad to go up to Ichang, the head of 
steam navigation on the Yangtse, but it would have taken a 
week longer and our time was already overrun. So we con- 
tented ourselves with a good talk with our friends who had 
been there, and especially Mr. Broomhall, who had just re- 
turned from Ichang ; and then, amid the kind leave-takings 
of many dear friends who " accompanied us unto the ship," 
we started down the great river for Wuhn, Nanking and 


Just before we sail let us take one ])arting glance up 
these two mighty rivers to the vast fields that lie beyond. 

Soufl of us lies the Province of Hunan, with a pop- 
ulation gieater than all the Atlantic States combined, 
without a single missionary ; and north, lies Honan, as large 
and nearly as needy. Up the Yangtse we might travel thiity 
days and reach Chung King, the commercial capital of Sz- 



<lm«'ti, a provinco as populous as tlu' wholo of Franco, and just 
iK'^Munin^Mo l)(.M'vanj;i'li/»Ml witliin tlu; i>ast few years. A 
month still lartlu'rupthosanic river, lies Chontau, tho provinc- 
ial capital of Sz-chuen, where our old friend, Mr. Hart, and a 
lunnhcr of other missionaries have recently oi)enod stations. 
It takes these dear workers two mouths from Shanghai to 


reach their fields, and three months to get their letters from 


Still farther from Chung King to the southwest, is the 
beautiful and mountainous province of Kwoi-chau, v^here the 
China Inland Mission have i)lanted a few pioneer stations. 
Up the Han to the northeast lie Shensi and Kansuh, with 

/. ;.v/>.s. 

ox Till-: YANGTSE. 


'i-anco, and just 
few years. A 
uu, lIjo provinc- 
[r. Halt, and u 
ijH'iK'd stations. 
m Shangliui to 

leir letters from 

iuthwest, is the 
chau, v'here the 
)ionoer stations, 
i Kansuh, with. 

tea millions of people most friendly and open, and with lum- 
drcds of cities that are not yet entered, and where living is 
fio clieap that one smiles when they hear the fiKures at which 
houses can he rented and |)rovisions hought. 

And in these vast jyrovinces, as yet only a little handful 
cf jtionee'-s have placed the 
soles oi' their feet. There are 
empires of glorious ()i)poi- 
tunity waiting for Faith and 
Courage to contiuer. Were 
we youngcn- and freer, how 
our heart would spring to 
claim them 1 Comi)ared with 
them, how trifling the great- 
est Held at home ! Ai'd we 
wonder that even the niis- 
eionary ahroad can he wil- 
ling to settle down on some 
comfortahle preserve, pre- 
pared hy the toil and suffer- 
ings of another, content tc 
"build upon another man's 
foundation." and not reach out to these " regions beyond " 
where Cod is waiti)ig to give him a kingdom of sovds that 
shall he forever, through the grace of Jesus, all his own. 

Let us go forth, beloved, and claim our kingdom while 
we may. The possibilities of Mission work in interior China 
are immense, imperial. Millennial, and glorious indeed. 




il • 

THE journey down the great river is much more rapid 
than the ascent. The swift current adds, at least, five 
or six miles an hour to the tune the steamers make 
going down. And so we reached Wuhu, from Hankow, in 

about thirty hours. 

We were in Hankow in the height of the tea season. It 
is the great mart for China tea, and so the river was full of 
tea ships, loading and leaving for London. These are splen- 
did steamers, great ocean racers which compete for the quick- 
est passrvge and the earliest cargoes of fresh tea for the Lon- 
don market. One was just leaving with eleven million 
pounds on board, -a cargo worth several million dollars. 

The tea from all the surrounding country comes mto 
Hankow, and here it is assorted, packed and shipped. The 
tea business employs many hands, and a specific profession, 
known as ' ' tea-tasting, " has grown up, which affords a lucra- 
tive business to many foreigners. The " tea-taster " usually 
receives a very large salary for his services during the tea 
season, of about two months, and is a gentleman of leisure 
for the rest of the year, residing at Shanghai or London or 
wherever he pleases. His business is to test the teas that are 


;h more rapid 
s, at least, five 
iteaniers make 
11 Hankow, ia 

tea season. It 
'er was full of 
lese are splen- 
> for the quick- 
afor the Lon- 
eleveii milium 
on dollars. 
:ry comes into 
shipped. The 
ific profession, 
affords a lucra- 
;aster" usually 
during the tea 
iman of leisure 
i or London or 
he teas that arc 

DOWN rm: yangtse. 


offered, and they are assorted and hranded according to his 
inspection. The tea production of China is quite different 
from that of India Here it is all raised on small farms, by 
the natives, and brought to market in small iiuantities by 
innumerable sellers ; whereas, in India, it comes in large 
quantities from great estates, which are all carried (m by 

English planters. 

The Hankow teas are usually black, and are of a superior 
quality, although we are disposed to think that they are in- 
ferior to the best India teas. 

The tea u aiy drunk in China by the natives is green 
tea. Tea-drinking is universal. The tea houses are every- 
where, and, for less than a cent, you can always get a cup of 
tea, in Chinese fashion. They put a few grains of tea in the 
bottom of your cup, and pour boiling water over them and 
then cover the cup and let it infuse. After two or throe min- 
utes it is fit to drink. To put cream or sugar in it would 
seem as strange to a Chinaman as it would to a Scotchman to 
put sugar in his oatmeal porridge. They drink this univer- 
sally, and think it very delicious and wholesome. 

A Chinaman never drinks cold water, and thinks it 
strange and dangerous for Europeans to do so. It is a great 
mercy that this is so, for the habits of the people are so filthy 
that were they to drink the raw water of their ponds and 
rivers, the whole population would certainly be swept away 
by cholera and other epidemics. The boiling of the water, in 
the form of tea, is certainly a wise and providential arrange- 
ment. As to the deliciousness of the tea, our experience was 




too brief to reach a favorable conclusion. Our friends told us 
we should soon come to prefer it to all other, but for the pres- 
ent, at least, we have about the same opinion of it as we 
should have of the Scotchman's porridge without the sugar. 
We were not surprised to learn that the China tea trade 
is suffering frt)m the competition from India. But it is still 
an immense business, and has made Hankow a great city, 
its trade last year, through the foreign customs, reaching 
nearly $50, 000, 000. 

We passed through some very beautiful scenery below 
Hankow. The hills of Wusui are quite pretty, and the "Lit- 
tle Orphan" is a picturesque island standing alone in the 
river in romantic loneliness. The hills at Kui-Kiang, over- 
hanging the Poyang Lake, and rising four or five thousand 
feet high, are rather fine, and afford a superb location for a 
summer hill station. The heat in July and August is said to 
be very great, and some of the workers occasionally need a 
change. Most of the missionaries find their best vacation in 
their country touring. A trip in a house-boat among the 
country villages, would be our favorite summer vacation. So 
far as heat is concerned, we have, so far, found none in 
China, and have suffered more from the cold than the heat 
up to this date, the beginning of June. But the sun is very 
strong, we believe, in the later summer, although 
sort of comparison with India. 

We reached Wuhu on Wednesday morning, and spent 
three days with our brethren of the Alliance Mission in very 
important sessions for conference and prayer, and when we 



f friends told us 
)ut for the pres- 
iou of it as we 
lout the sugar, 
^hina tea trade 
But it is still 
w a great city, 
tonis, reaching 

[ scenery below 
r, and the "Lit- 
[ig alone in the 
Lui-Kiang, over- 
)r five thousand 
rb location for a 
lUgust is said to 
asionally need a 
best vacation in 
oat among the 
ler vacation. So 
found none in 
id than the heat 
b the sun is very 

ning, and spent 

Mission in very 

jr, and when we 




closed the conferences at the Table of our Lord on Friday 
night, and finally parted at the steamer hulk, on Saturday 
morning, we all felt that much had been accomplished, and 
that our Mission work in China was about to enter on the 
second chapter of its history, with nuich hopefulness and 


Our Mission in China has passed through peculiar trials, 
commencing with the death of Mr. Cassidy on his way to the 
field as its first pioneer and leader, and continuing from year 
to year, through some difficulties, chief of which has been 
the want of an experienced leader and a permanent organiza- 
tion. But we believe that God has carried our beloved friends 
safely through the early trials inseparable from every new 
work and that the Mission will now go forward, under well- 
matured plans and experienced leadership to sohd work and 

steady growth. 

We have now a party of sixteen American missicuanes 
in Central China, all of whom have more or less fully acquired 
the language and are ready to begin work. We have been 
able to arrange for their organization and distribution m such 
a manner as not only to provide for their highest usefulness, 
but also for the opening of the way for others who may fol- 
low them to the field in the immediate future. 

One of the very first necessities of the work is the ap- 
pointment of a capable and experienced Superintendent, not 
only for this field, but for all our work in China, and this has 
now been arranged to the satisfaction of all concerned ; and we 
rejoice tohope that henceforth our work in China will be, under 



God, under the direction of a wise and strong hand, able to give 
to it the care it requires and desires. Such leaders God has 
given us in all our other fields, and without the most compe- 
tent oversight on the field, our work in China cannot be 
carried on successfully. The success of the China Inland 
Mission is largely due, under God, to the wisdom, faith, and 
personal administration of men like Mr. Taylor, Mr. Steven- 
son, Mr. Bailer, and others whom God has specially fitted for 
these great trusts. 

The way is also opening for the distribution of our work- 
ers in a number of new stations. Two of our brethren are 
preparing to open a station south of Wuhu, and four of them 
have two new fields in view on the north side of Wuhu, in 
San-Ho, a city in the vicinity of Luchau-fu, on the Chow 
Lake, and Han-San-Hsien, a city farther east in the province. 
All these points have been visited by them and work begun, 
and they are most important centres of vast and yet unoc- 
cupied regions with millions of people. 

It would be premature to say that certain cities will be 
occupied ; for the opening of a new city in China is a very 
different matter from what it is in India. In the latter coun- 
try you can locate where you please, under British protection, 
and all you have to do is to go and rent or build a house. But 
in China it is a very different matter. You cannot go where 
you please. You cannot go anywhere without the good will 
of the people and the consent of the officials. You can visit 
a town and be well received, but when you come to rent a 
house, your difficulties begin. Many of the people might be 



hand, able to give 
I leaders God has 
the most compe- 
China cannot be 
he China Inland 
isdom, faith, and 
lylor, Mr. Steven- 
ipecially fitted for 

ition of our work- 
: our brethren are 
, and four of them 

side of Wuhu, in 
-fu, on the Chow 
5t in the province. 

and work begun, 
ast and yet unoc- 

ftain cities will be 
in China is a very 
In the latter coun- 
British protection, 
build a house. But 
u cannot go where 
hout the good will 
lis. You can visit 
ffou come to rent a 
le people might be 



willing to rent to you, but they are afraid. You might be 
turned out and the house destroyed by a mob. In some cases 
a man has been severely beaten by the Mandarin for renting 
a house to a foreigner. The present attitude of the Chinese 
officials is to allow as few stations to be occupied by foreign- 
ers as possible. Much tact, wisdom, and patience are neces- 
sary in opening new stations. 

The Canadian Presbyterians have been five years in get- 
ting two small stations opened in Honan, and in that time 
they have had several disturbances. The Swedes, near Han- 
kow, were escorted out of a city they had rented a house in, 
the other day. The Norwegians, on the Han River, had just 
been ordered to stop the erection of their new Mission house 
the week before we were in Hankow. The building of a 
foreign house in a new station is simply out of the question. 
It will be a great thing to get a native house leased, and we 
must not, therefore, be discouraged if our dear friends are 
a little while in getting settled in San-Ho, Luchau-fu and 
Han-San, and if they get marched out again more than once 
after they do get in. 

But they are going to put the sole o': their foot down on 
new ground, and we shall back them up oy our earnest pray- 
ers. The province of Ghanwhei, where they are settled, is 
a large and populous one. It is the least occupied by mis- 
sionaries of any of the Central Provinces of China. It had 
34,000,000 people before the rebeUion, and may now have 
20,000,000. It has five great Fu cities, of which only one, 
we believe, is occupied by missionaries. The Fu city is the 



capital of a great provincial district. Next come the 
H'schien cities, like our country towns. Tliere are more 
than fifty of these in Ghanwhei, and not over half a dozen 
of them have missionaries. Besides, there are innumerable 
market towns of from ten to twenty thousand people, usu- 
ally the best places for a missionary centre. 

The field in Ghanwhei is about six times as great as the 
whole ])rovince of Berar, in India, and it will bo seen that 
there is ample room for many scores of laborers within it. 
The people are fairly friendly, and the means of communica- 
tion are very easy,— creeks and canals running past nearly 
all the towns, and enal)ling the missionary to reach the field 
and almost all his stations by boat. In this province we be- 
lieve God would have us concentrate for the present nmch of 
our China work, and aim, as in Berar, to occupy it fully, and 
provide for the speedy evangelization o'f all its towns and 

Wuhu is its principal commercial city — its best centre of 
operations. Here we shall have our headquarters, and from 
hence distribute our workers over the province. 

Here we propose to build a Receiving Home for new 
missionaries, where they may come immediately on their 
arrival, and spend six months in the study of the language 
and preparation for their future work. We were fortunate 
in being able, we believe, to secure a site for such a Home, 
and we trust, ere long, to have a plain and suitable building. 

Besides our work in this Province of Ghanwhei, the 
Lord has shown us that we must also prepare, on a moder- 

^ i.A^ins. 

nou'.y THE vAscrsn. 


'^ext comn the 
riiere are more 
er half a dozen 
ire innumerable 
ind people, usu- 

s as great as the 
nil 1)0 seen that 
borers within it. 
3 of communica- 
ling past nearly 
reach the field 
province we be- 
present much of 
npy it fully, and 
11 its towns and 

its best centre of 
arters, and from 

; Home for new 
idiately on their 
of the language 
e were fortunate 
r such a Home, 
luitable building. 
' Ghanwhei, the 
)are, on a moder- 

ate scale, for future expansion to the interior and the farther 
West. God is very plainly loading some of our missionaries 
to the great closed field of Thibet, and Ho expects us iu faith 
and hope to begin to prepare a highway to that land, and all 
along that way to have a local work for China. Tlie way to 
Thibet, we believe, is two-fold : first, by way of Northern 
India, as we pointed out in our letter from Darjeeling ; and, 
secondly, through China, as recent events, which we shall 
immediately refer to, have perhaps shown. 

With a view to the opening up of work iu tlu^ West and 
the Northwest, and also of preparing a Une of communica- 
tion to the Western frontier, we have arranged for a station 
in Wuchang where the opportunity of securing a Home waa 
offered. Two of our brethren v/ill immediately occupy this 
great centre, and hold it for future developments. It is the 
natural centre of Interior China, and a grand strategic point, 
either for a movement westward along the Yangtse, toward. 
Shansi, Ichang or Sz-chuen ; or northwestward up the Han, 
toward Shensi and Kansuh, the great unoccupied provinces 
of the Northwest, and the hne of approach to Thibet ; or to 
the great province of Hunan in the South— the Gibraltar of 
China, and the one province in which no foreigner has yet 
been permitted to reside 

Our sisters in China will remain at Wuhu for the pres- 
ent, and engage in work for women. As soon as a country 
station shall have been opened, two of the young ladies have 
bravely decided to remove to it, and begin real evangelistic 
work. It is a little premature for many single ladies to go to 
China, until the way is somewhat prepared by men. 



At the nsk of seeming uncomplimentary, wo nniHt say- 
that we question whether many of our Atnerican young 
ladies are as well fitted for real pioneer work in new fields as 
their Enghsh sisters of the China Inland Mission, It involves 
very great privation and requires espc cial courage and train- 
ing to engage in tliis work, and the average Americriu 
woman is not equal to it, and will shrink from it when 8h(> 

gets to China. 

There are two kinds of work for lady missionaries in 
China,— one, in the treaty ports, where they can wear the 
European costume and live in European houses or good native 
ones, and have most of the comforts of life that they have 
heen accustomed to at home,— the other, in the interior, 
where they will he expected to wear the native dress, to 
travel native style, to sometimes eat native food, to face 
curious, impertinent and often rude crowds of men and boyc, 
and to live in houses where many of the odors are disagree- 
able, and such a thing as a fire in your room is unknown and 


We must say, from real investigation, that many of the 
ladies of the China Inland Mission do all these things, and 
undergo all these privations without complaint, and are con- 
sidered by those most f amiUar with the work of that Society, 
to be often the most successful and efficient pioneers in even 
the newest and hardest fields. 

All honor to these brave, self-denying women. We know 
they have been criticised, we know the wisdom of their 
course has been questioned by many, we know the com- 

wa ^ ifefe-. ' ■' 


ary, we must Bay 
American young 
rk in now fielda as 
ission. It involves 
courage and train- 
average Americnu 
from it when 8h<' 

dy missionaries in 
they can wear the 
ouses or good native 
hfe that they havo 
jr, in the interior, 
he native dress, to 
ative food, to face 
Is of men and boyc, 
odors are disagree- 
)m is unknown and 

I, that many of the 
ill these things, and 
plaint, and are con- 
ork of that Society, 
nt pioneers in even 

women. We know 
e wisdom of their 
kve know the com- 



plaints of a few are often unjustly charged upon the many, 
hut after all we have heard and seen, we are satisfied that 
many of them are doing this sort of work and doing it well. 
But, at the same time, wo believe that no woman should at- 
temi)t it without fully understanding it, accepting all its con- 
ditions, and being specially j)repared for it and called to it. 

And we are bound to say that comparatively few of our 
American girls will be found equal to it, and none without a 
very real struggle and a very direct sense of the Master's call. 
The single item of winter fires will bring a test at the be- 
ginning. Many American girls are accustomed to a warm 
room heated to 00 or 70 degrees. The English girl is used to 
a cold room, and simply pads her Chinese dress a little thick- 
er and never minds. Then she is inured to long walks of 
miles, and can stand any amount of physical hardship to 
which her western sister has nevor been trained. 

These are, simply, facts that we have to look at either 
after we go to the field or before. At present our work in 
China is pioneer work. We are not far enough in to have 
many places prepared, so that our ladies can follow up the 
work of men. Our workers must go, like the men of 
Ephraim, into the thick wood and cut down for themselves. 
And, therefore, until we have opened up a number of new- 
stations and cleared the way for easier work by women for 
women, the great need of our work in China is men,— young 
men, unmarried men— men that love bold, aggressive 
work— men that expect to remain single, at least until 
they have cut their way through the earlier difficulties 


404 LAh'(.''f,* nf'TLOOK'S OX MfSSIOX.tny I.AXPS. 

f their field, and after, i)eihaiw, a fiw years' campaign 
have won their Jerichos and Hchrous, and Bucceeded in 
opening; u s. Uion on virgin soil ; not by "IniildinK on an- 
other man's fonndation," hut hy reaching out into "the 
regions heyond " and conijuering a kingdom all their own. 
These are the men wo want in China to-day. May God give 
us a hand of them ! 

And if there are any women, who, counting the cost, will 
dare to compete with them, and claim the honors ;uid prizes 
of such ])ioneer work, wo will not dare to forbid nor discour- 
age them. But we will frankly say that mdess they are pre- 
pared gladly and without (piestion to adopt the native dress, 
to forego many things that they have considered almost ne- 
cessities, and to press out into i)ioneor work as soon as they 
have acquired the language, they had better wait, or ask the 
Lord to lead them to India or some other field where the dif- 
ficulties in a woman's way are less formidable. 

There is another course, viz., to go out under one of the 
other Societies that are working in China, in older cities and 
centres, and have openings for woman's work, free from the 
disabilities and disagreeabilities which we have described. 
This is one of the temptations that will meet our girls on 
arriving in China. They will find many lady missionaries 
working for the heathen amid circumstances of comfort and 
social refinement, and they will wonder why they should be 
expected to fare differently. 

They may forget that there places of servif nxQ in old 
Missions that have been long opened bj the self-sacrifice and 


• I./IXPS. 

years' campaign 
!i(l fiucceedod in 
building on an- 
; out into "the 
I uU tlu'ir own. 
May God give 

ing tho cost, will 
onoi-s and prizes 
[bid nor discour- 
es9 they are pre- 
the native dress, 
dered almost ne- 
as soon as they 
wait, or ask the 
d where the dif- 

mder one of the 
I older ciuies and 
rk, free from the 
have described, 
noet our girls on 
lady missionaries 
s of comfort and 
y they should be 

lervii-o nre in old 
self-sacrifice and 



toil of oth 'S, Our work is not to go in and it up the fruit of 
their toil in the easy i)lacos. Our calling, as a S(»ciety, is to 
go to "the ri'gioi s beyond," "wIum' Christ bus m»t been 
named." And, unless we are prepared to face the risks of 
tbis kind of work, we are not W(»rthy of our trust. There- 
fore, we ai«4 calling for brave men who are willing to give 
themselves to this sort of work ; and, therefore, wo feel we 
should not impose it ui)<)n our sisterw, save in those excep- 
tional cases where a Deborah nrises to i^ut a Barak to shaine, 
and show that the weakness of (iod and of woman is stnug- 

«r than men. 

Sucha voman has just passed through China, and also 
America, on lier way to England. \^ o were two or three 
days behind her, and failed to meet h'>r personally, but we 
have heard her story from others who 1 ave had long inter- 
views with her. We had heard of her i lonths ago, at Dar- 
jeeling, and her friends then were expe( ting her to appear 
on the frontier of Thibet at the time w. were there. We 
refer to Miss Taylor, who has just emerged from Thibet aft.'r 
spending ten months in that long closed land. For many 
years this brave little Englishwoman has lad Thibet upon 
lier heart, as a great burden of faith and prayer, and she has 
felt that it never would be occui)ied until su-ae one had faith 
enough to " put the soles of their feet " upoi it and actually 
claim it in the name of Jesus. This she sas successfully 

done. , ni • 

Nearly a year ago. Miss Taylor passed th )Ugh Chma to 


the Western border of Kansuh, one of the Northwestern prov- 
inces, and took her station on the border to watch her chance 
to get over into Thibet. Two or three times she was baffled 
by the vigilance of the authorities, but, hke a woman, she 
stuck to her purpose, aad, at last, one day, when the guards 
were sleeping, she slipped in. She was accon^panied by a 
Thibetan and a Chinese servant. She travels with these men 
as a female merchant, wearing the Thibetan costume. She 
found no difficulty from the Thibetans, whom she describes 
as very friendly, especially to the Enghsh. The only enemies 
she had to fear were the jealous Chinese officials, and, to a 
certain extent, the lamas or priests. Her purpose was to 
reach Lhassa, the capital, and pass through it into India at 
Darjeeling. This she thinks she might have done if she had 
not been betrayed by her Chinese servant, who, perhaps from 
fear of punishment in case she was detected, gave notice to 
the authorities of her character and plans, and a company of 
soldiers was sent to escort her back to China. But she had 
already succeeded in spending nearly a year in the country, 
and preaching the Gospel in many of its towns and villages. 
She believes that Thibet is open, and has just returned to 
England to raise a company of volunteer missionaries to go 
at once to Darjeeling, and prepare to enter from the side of 
India, which she agrees, with our formerly expressed opmion, 
in regarding it as the most hopeful side We trust our Thib- 
etan volunteers in America are getting ready, and that God 
will «oon give us also-as well as this brave woman-the de- 
sire of our heart. 



)rth western prov- 
,vatch her chance 
s she was baffled 
ke a woman, she 
when the guards 
ccon^panied by a 
Is with these men 
m costume. She 
tiom she describes 
The only enemies 
officials, and, to a 
r purpose was to 
;h it into India at 
VQ done if she had 
vho, perhaps from 
:ed, gave notice to 
and a company of 
ina. But she had 
ar in the country, 
owns and villages. 
s just returned to 
missionaries to go 
er from the side of 
expressed opinion, 
Nq trust our Thib- 
tady, and that God 
TQ woman — the de- 



Our two dear brothers, Messrs. Christie and Simpson, 
who came to China to prepare for entering Thibet, went down 
to Shanghai, and had a long interview with Miss Taylor. She 
encouraged them in their purpose to persevere in seeking to 
enter from China, while others, at the same time, are enter- 
ing from India. She strongly advised them to go to Peking 
and study Thibetan there, where numbers of Thibetans reside. 
We have encouraged them in this plan, and they will imme- 
diately remove to the capital, and with their fine knowledge 
of Chinese, will be able to do much good work, and, we trust, 
estabhsh a permanent station while spen(Mng the necessary 
time-about a year-in acquiring the Thibetan language. 
And so God has, in a most gracious and providential man- 
ner, fitted this also into our journey, and enabled us, in His 
light, to see light more and more clearly respecting His will 
for this great, closed land of Thibet, whose opening gates 
touch so clearly the portals of His coming. Praise the Lord ! 
Wo trust to find, when we reach home, that God has 
been speaking to some other brave and believing men about 
entering Thibet, both from the India and China side. We 
would be glad to have a score of the right kind of mission- 
aries, some for the India and some for the China baud. 

We have dwelt thus Trlly upon the plans and arrange- 
ments of our missionary work in China, that our dear people, 
who are our partners in all this work, may understand the 
situation fully, and be able to co-operate with intelhgence 
and profound interest, 

God is giving as five fields in this great land, viz. : first, 


the great unoccupied province of Quangsi in the south; 
second, the large province of Ghanwhei, in the centre ; third, 
Wuchang as the point oi approach for tho west and the north- 
west ; fourth, Peking in the northeast, where oar sisters are 
laborii g ; and fifth, Shansi in the extreme north, where the 
Swedes are settling. And now, in connection with oui- Thib- 
etan work, we hope that the friends from and the 
friends from Shansi will yet meet, by converging li cs, away 
in distant Kansuh, and open two great highways, both from 
tlie west and the north, to the borders of Thibet ; liighwaya 
which w^e trust will yet be lined with Mission stations for the 
great cities of interior China all along the way. This is the 
vision. May the Lord Himself fulfill it, and hasten it in His 

time ! 

We took some walks into the coimtry around Wuhu. 
One of the first was to the little cemetery where William 
Knapp and Susie Beals lie sleeping, as pledges of China to 
Christ. It is a neat little enclosure, and we ordered two mod- 
est stones to be reared for those honored and loved ones. 

The whole country is one immense rice field. It is.extra- 
ordinary how much these Chinese get out of thtir land. They 
raise three crops a year off all their fields, and keep the soil 
literally saturated with manure. The cultivation of rice is 
very interesting. First, they flood the land, and while it is a 
great morass of mud and mire, they turn in their buffaloes 
and plows and harrows, and just mix it up into a perfect 
quagmire. Then the women wade in and plant the rice 
stalks, about six inches long, which had previously been 

'^ w i ijiJM! 


)' LANDS. 

i in the south ; 
ho centre ; third, 
>st and the north- 
e oar sisters are 
north, where the 
m with our Thib- 
i^'uchcng and the 
•ging h' GS, away 
ways, both from 
hibct ; highways 
n stations for the 
/^ay. This is the 
I hasten it in His 

Y around Wuhu. 
J where William 
dges of China to 
ordered two mod- 
d loved ones, 
fteld. It is.extra- 
thtir land. They 
md keep the soil 
ivation of rice is 
, and while it is a 
in their buffaloes 
up into a perfect 
lid plant the rice 
I previously been 




raised in a little nursery, and set them in rows in the mud, 
about six inches ai)art ; and so it grows until it ripens as the 
water gradually dn^s. A growing rice field has the most ex- 
quisite light green tint imaginable, and when the country is 
covered with these fields it is very pretty. As soon as the 
rice is harvested, they plant some other grain. Most of the 
rice fields we saw 
had been planted 
just after the har- 
vesting of their 
wheat and l)arley. 

We saw one 
very novel sight. 
It was a battle with 
an army of locusts. 
These pests are very 
numerous, and were 
as yet only half 
grown. As we 
walked through the 
fields we trod upon 
billions of them, as 

they literally strewed the ground and hopped about in clouds. 
They were about the size of small grasshoppers. The 
people were getting alarmed about them, and, one day, we 
saw a little army of men and boys stretched out in a long 
row, just like a regiment, and with long switches beating the 
ground before them, and moving forward in a solid line and 


5 si 



driving the locusts in myriads in front of them. A httle 
distance in front they had dug a trench, and lighted a fire 
at the bottom of it, and into this trench the locusts were 
being driven where they would, of course, be burned to death. 
But it would take a great many trenches and great many- 
Chinamen to exterminate all the locusts we saw that day. 
Poor people, we pray God they may be saved from a locust 
famine this summer. 

We took a Chinese passage from Wuhu to Nanking, and 
some of our dear missionaries accompanied us. The accom- 
modation for Chinese passengers is very good and the fares 

We spent two very pleasant days in Nanking. It is the 
old Imperial Capital, and is great, even in its ruins. Its im- 
mense walls enclose a space more than thirty miles around, 
and two-thirds of this vast space is occupied by market gar- 
dens and graves. The present native city is not one-fourth 
its former size, although it is still a city of three hundred 
thousand inhabitants. Just beyond the city are the Tombs 
of the old Ming Dynasty, approached by an avenue of colos- 
sal elephants, carved out of single blocks of stone. Outside 
the gates also stood the beautiful porcelain pagodas, which 
were the wonder of Chinese architecture, but of which there 
remains scarcely a crumbling fragment. 

The city was, for thirteen years, the capital of the Tai- 
ping Ilebellion, and at the fall of that great movement, as well 
as at its inception, the destruction of human life was enor- 

'•niii)»!ifc*;<i. ' 


them. A little 
ad lighted a fire 
,he locnsta were 
burned to death, 
and great many 
e saw that day. 
ed from a locust 

to Nanking, and 
us. The accom- 
)d and the fares 

oking. It is the 
s ruins. Its im- 
I'ty miles around, 
I by market gar- 
s not one-fourth 
)f three hundred 
y are the Tombs 
avenue of colos- 

I stone. Outside 

II pagodas, which 
it of which there 

ipital of the Tai- 
iiovement, as well 
lan life was enor- 



One of the most extraordinary movements of human 
history, that strange episode of Chinese history, over and 
over again, comes back to one in China witli profound inter- 
est and wonder. 

It was almost contemporaneous with our own American 


rebelUon. It originated with a Christian inquirer in Southern 
China. This man was well known to the early missionaries, 
and at one time asked baptism at their hands. This was de- 
ferred, as it was Mt that he needed instruction. He had a 
fau- knowledge of Christianity, and incorporated its leading 



doctrine as the basis of liis system, although ho doubtless 
included, along with mu/h crude Christian truth, a great 
mass of fanatical notions :.nd i)orsonal revelations. Feeling 
the injustice of the op)08ition an<"' persecution offered to 
Christianity, and also to himself, h(> resorted to force in 
self-defence, and gradually gathering around him a band of 
enthusiasts like himself, ho boldly took up arms in defence 
of his claims, i^s his cause increased in strength, his fanati- 
cal claims grew more and more exalted, until, at length, he 
proclaimed himself the "Son of Heaven," and demanded im- 
plicit subjection to his authority as the official representative 
of God.' All who did not accept him and the new faith were 
put to the sword. Like a second Mohammed, he swept over 
Southern and Central China, and left behind him, everywhere, 
a track of blood and a holocaust of graves. He had a sort of 
Christian creed, and his armies marched to battle singing the 
Christian Doxology. His alternative was the Creed or the 
Sword. All who did not accent the Trmity, the Saviour and 
the Son of Heavon wore put to death. It was the strangest 
caricature of tho Glospel jh;Vu iV^e world ever saw. 

Ho alwayc professed ic be the frien<'' of the missionaries, 
and, again and again, beggod them to join him. One of thorn 
told us that when his army was encamped outside of Shang- 
liai, and his soldiers surrounded the mission property, and 
had free access to their deserted premises for weeks, not a 
thing was injured ; and on their return, after his troops re- 
tired, not even the smallest thing was missing. This extra- 
ordinary movement swept over all Southern and Central 

he doubtless 
truth, a great 
ions. Feeling 
'on offered to 
ed to force in 
liim a band of 
'nis in defence 
;th, his fanati- 
I, at length, he 
demanded ini- 
lew faith were 
he swept over 
n, everywhere, 
[e had a sort of 
X\e singing the 
le Creed or the 
he Saviour and 
s the strangest 

e missionaries, 
>. One of them 
tside of Shang- 

property, and 
r weeks, not a 
r his troops re- 
g. This extra- 
a and Central 



China, carrying everything before it, and at length estab- 
lishiKl itself at Nanking, the old capital of a former dynasty. 
The imperial power was helpless before it, and to-day China 
would have been under its rule and have become a sort of 
mongrel Christian emi)ire, hud it not been for the great pow- 
ers of Europe which combined to suppress it, and especially 
for Chinese Gordon, who at last was the instrument by whom 
its power was broken and its capital was taken. Nanking 
bears the most tragic marks of the awful drama. It seems 
very strange, after thirty years, that half an empire should so 
quickly have recovered the doctrines of a Christianity which 
to-day it so detests. No doubt much of its success was duo 
to force. But that strange spectacle of the native accepting 
Christianity at the bidding of fanaticism is, at least, a figure 
and a foreglimpse of the day when China shall accept the 
Gospel at tnc invitation of the Meek and Ijowly One, the true 
Son of Heaven, whose only weapon is the Bible, and whose 
sole compulsion is the sweet constraint of love. 

Some have almost wished that the powers of Europe had 
not interfered, and that the Taipings had been allowed ta 

No, — God is wiser than men. A counterfeit Christianity 
would be worse than a blind and cruel Paganism. Christ can 
never accept a homage won by blood and tears, or a triumph 
gained by any other power than His own grace and love. 
The curse of Mohammedanism to-day is that it has incorpor- 
ated enough Christianity with its abominable fanaticism, ta 
seal the hearts of its votaries effectually against the Gospel. 





Thank God, China has escaped the curse of a second Islam, 
and is still open to a pure Christianity. 

There is very much interesting and attractive Christian 
work in Nanking. It was opened many years ago by one of 
tho old veterans of the China Inland Mission, Mr. Duncan, 
who long lived and l:i')ored at tho most famous of its gates, 
tho Drum Towor. But this Mission has moved onto less- 
occupied fields, and the mission work of Nanking is all of a 
somewhat conservative type. We do not mean by this that 
it is not earnest, aggressive and thoroughly alive, for we have 
not met more congenial spirits and rr.oro earnest workers 
anywhere, but that it is of that type usually found in fields 
that have for some time been occupied, and where the work 
is carried on chiefly by the older societies and methods. 

Wo met with all the missionaries, visited several of their 
schools, hospitals and homes, and saw some of the native 
congregations. We listened vith delight to a rousing Chinese 
sermon by our dear brother, Mi. Ferguson, and felt it, if we 
did not understand it, and we could not fail to see the re- 
sponse on the faces of his hearers. We had the pleasure of 
preaching a little to them through ai\ interpreter, and we 
were permitted to address the missionaries on Sabbath even- 
ing, and to feel the deep response of their earnest hearts to 
our simple message about the supreme need we had of God 
Himself in all our life and work for Him. 

The Northern Presbyterians have an excellent work here, 
with a fine chapel and native congregation and several out 
stations. The Northern Methodists have also a beautiful 



a second Islam, 

•active Christian 
.rs ago by one of 
on, Mr. Duncan, 
lous of its gates, 
lovod on to less- 
nking is all of a 
lean by this that 
live, for we have 
earnest workers 
[y found in fields 

where the work 
d methods. 
\ several of their 
ne of the native 

rousing Chinese 
and felt it, if we 
ail to see the re- 
d the pleasure of 
erpreter, and we 
)n Sabbath even- 
sarnest hearts to 
d we had of God 

ellent work here, 
and several out 
also a beautiful 

nOirJV 77/A" VAXGTSE. 


work, and our kind host and friend, Mr. FtTguson, showed 
us through their handsome now buildings, one of them the 
noble gift of our dear friend, Mr. Blackstone, and told us 
how his splendid school of more than sixty bright boys had 
all grown up in four short years. This Mission was once 
under the superintendence of Mr. Hart, at one time a si^cre- 
tary of our Alliance Mission. His pla(;e is now filled by 
Rev. Mr. Stevens, who has only been two or three years in 
China, and his success shows how a consecrated and judi- 
cious man, with a j)ractical training and experience at home, 
may be transplanted to the foreign field at once, and be 
greatly used of God in the administration of the work there, 
even in the absence of a long experience in the field. More 
and more we have learned, as wo have looked out upon the 
mission work of many fields, that a good superintendent i^ 
worth a score of workers, and is indispensable in any aggres- 
sive work. The Methodists have also a fine hospital under 
the care of Dr. Beebe and others. 

The Disciples have also a good work in Nanking, and 
our dear sister, Ella Saw, formerly Ella Funk, who has joined 
them, was there with her good husband to welcome us, and 
we found she made a very good little Disciple. She was 
happy in her home and her work, and had the same bright 
girl-face as of yore. God bless her, and make her a blessing 
to these dear brethren and to China I 

The Friends of America have also a Mission in Nanking 
under the care of Miss Butler — now in America. We felt at 
home as we saw the familiar face of our beloved brother. 


P^BBBS'w«"t«»*''"=' • 


Asahol Hussey on tlio aviiU, and wore delighti'd to llnd that 
the beautiful building was bis noblo gift to the Mission. Our 
dear Bister, Miss Murray, was visiting ibis bomo at the tinio 
of our corning to Nanking, and bdping, temporarily, to till 
tbo place of Miss Butler. Wo visited ber large class of native 
women, and beard tbem repeat, witb astonisbing readiness, 
most of tbo fourteentb cbapter of Jobn in Cbinese. Tbeso 
Chinese bave astonisbing memories. Tbeir Bcbolara know- 
most of tbeir classical books by beart, and are astonisbed 
wben tbo missionaries cannot repeat tbo wbole Bible without 

the book. 

Altogether we bad a very pleasant visit at old Nanking, 
and were well repaid for our tramp of four or five mile» 
through the mud the next morning to reach our steamer for 
• Shanghai. The chief fault of Nanking is that it takes so long 
to get to it from the steamboat landing, and at this season, 
especially, there is almost constant slush and rain. 

On our way down we stopped at Chin-Kiang, the most 
beautiful city on all the river. Our stay was long enough to 
call on a dozen of the China Inland Missionaries at their 
Bweet Christian Home under the oversight of Dr. Cox, and 
also to meet some dear Southern Presbyterian brethren on 
their way to the interior. We could not help taking a long- 
ing look up the Grand Canal toward the distant home of our 
dear former student, Fannie Smith, now Mrs. Dr. Woods, 
but our time would not allow the long journey that it would 
take to reach her. But we were comforted at hearing from 
many old friends of her bright and blessed life in China, the 

/ txns. 

ted to find that 
lO Mission. Our 
imo at tho time 
iiporarily, to ftU 
50 class of native 
shing readiness, 
Chinese. Those 
V (scholars know 
are astonished 
lie Bihlo without 

at old Nanking, 
ur or five miles 
, our steamer for 
it it takes so long 
I at this season, 
1 rain. 

Kiang, the most 
3 long enough to 
ionaries at their 
of Dr. Cox, and 
rian brethren on 
lip taking a long- 
tant home of our 
kirs. Dr. Woods, 
ley that it would 
. at hearing from 
[ife in China, the 




land, indeed, of her birth. Neither could ve tarry to visit 
the Ladies' Home of the C. I. M.. at Vangchow, as wo had 
hoped, but we received a kind letter, on our way down, from 
the lady in charge, and met at Chin-Kiang some of the dear 
girls with whom we had crossed the Mediterranean, five 
months ago. We have heard nuxrh of this hallowed place, 
and believe that to its influence is largely due, imder God, 
the wonderful vv ork which the ladies of this Mission are able 
to accomplish in the difficult fields of the interior. 

We took on board at Chin-Kiang some dear Norwegian 
brethren who came on with us to Shanghai, and with whorii 
we had Christian fellowship in the things of Christ and His 
work. Mr. Stevens, of Nanking, was also on board, and we 
had a short and pleasant sail under the care of the most ac- 
complished and agreeable Christian captain that we have 
met for many a day. And so, once more, we reached 
Shanghai, and were soon in the hands of hosts of friends and 
settled again in our little chamber in the blessed Home at 
Woosung Road, hurrying through our letters for the nett 
mail, and preparing for our next journey to the far North. 
We had been just three weeks up and down the Yangtse, 
and had got, at least, a glimpse of the great heai-t of China. 



OUK northern journey was delayed and almost pre- 
vented by an nnexpected detention in Shanghai 
through tlie serious illness and derangement of one 
of our Swedish brethren. We were glad to be there at this 
critical time, and that the responsibility was not left to fall 
wholly upon others, who had, perhaps, no right, save that of 
common discipleship and humanity, to bear it. 

The climate of Northern China is exceedingly trying to 
persons subject to nervous and brain diseases, and much care 
should be exercised in the selection of missionaries for this 

' At length, after a delay of four days, we wore again at 
Be». in one of the many steamships that run between Shang- 
hai and Tientsin. We were on the Yellow Sea ; and, for at 
least a certain part of its course, it was worthy of its name. 
The outpouring of the Yangtse and the Yellow rivers have 
given its waters the tint of yellow mud, at least near the 
estuaries of these streams. It was moderately favorable 
weather, although bitter cold. We had some very congenial 
Scotch friends on board, missionaries of the China Inland 
Mission on their way to Chefoo, with their little children. 

One of the brethren was going to take charge of the excel- 






md almost pre- 
)n in Shanghai 
mgement of one 
) be there at this 
IS not left to fall 
ight, save that of 

jdingly trying to 
s, and much care 
isionaries for this 

Bve wore again at 
\ between Shang- 
Sea ; and, for at 
'thy of its name, 
illow rivers have 
at least near the 
erately favorable 
ne very congenial 
;he China Inland 
ir little children, 
irge of the excel- 

lent Boys' School at Chefoo, and the other, with his family, 
to take a season of rest at the China Inland Mission Sani- 
tarium there. We had a quiet Sabbath service together, and 
nmch i)recious Christian fellowship. 

Two days' sail brought us to the bold promontory of 
Shantung, and on Monday morning early we anchored in 
the harbor of Chefoo, and saw the pretty hills rising on every 
side of the lovely harbor, with many foreign buildings and 
missionary compounds and premises crowning their slopes. 
Away to the right we could see Temple Hill, the headquar- 
ters of the American Presbyterian Mission of North China, 
where Dr. and Mrs. Nevins has just invited us to visit them 
and their work, and whence Dr. Corbett had just returned 
to America to tell of the great blessing which God had been 
pouring out upon that most successful and substantial work. 
To the left was the hospital of the China Inland Mission, 
under the care of Dr. Eandall, formerly so well known to our 
people in New York. Just behind the bold hill, on the shore, 
were the Schools and Sanitoi-ium of the China Inland Mission. 
Their school boat, manned by a band of noble-looking boys 
from the school, was already coming oui to meet us, and soon 
our feet had touched the beautiful sandy beach and entered 

their hospitable doors. 

We had only time, while our steamer tarried, to sit down 
with a blessed company of missionaries to breakfast, and then 
to spend all the time we could with our two precious AlUance 
lambs,-Mabel and Bertha Cassidy, who are here at school. 
It was a mutual joy to meet them, and to find them happy, 






contented and making excellent progress in their studies^ 
while their record for good conduct was simply perfect. 
Mabel was as wise as a little mother, and Bertha was so like 
her own mother as to make the resemblance in her sweet 
little face almost anmsiug. Their dear mother is to spend 
her vacation with them here, and it will be a well-earned joy 
to all of them. This admirable school is a great privilege 
and advantage, not only to the families of the China Inland 
Mission, but to the children of all the missionaries in China. 
There are two distinct sections for girls and boys, and both 
are admirably conducted and highly appreciated by the whole 
missionaiy comnmnity. 

Chefoo is, probably, the healthiest place in China. It is 
a great summer resort for all the Europeans in the country. 
It is situated on a bold promontory, and open to the breezes 
of the ocean. It stands on a considerable elevation, and has 
pretty scenery and a beautiful sandy beach, reminding one 
of our of^ean resorts at home. Its native name is Yent-ai, 
and by this it is known on most of the maps. It is a treaty 
port, and famous as the place where one of our most import- 
tant treaties with China was signed. Its population is not 
large, perhaps 40, 000, and its foreign trade about $12,000,000 

We were obliged to defer our visit to the Presbyterian 
and other Missions at Chefoo until our return trip from the 
North, and hurry again on board our steamer for Tientsin. 

Another day along the pretty shore of Shantung brought 
US to the mouth of the Peiho River. Getting happily over 




I their studies^ 
simply perfect, 
tha was so like 
le in her sweet 
her is to spend 
well-earned joy 

great privilege 
le China Inland 
laries in China. 

hoys, and both 
;ed by the whole 

the bar without delay, we had a seven hours' sail up the 
marrow and crooked river to the great Northern Port of 
Tientsin. There is a railway, the first in China, running be- 
tween Taku, at the mouth of the river, and Tientsin. But the 
■oc(!rn steamers go up to the city, about sixty miles distant. 
The water is shallow, the channel is narrow, and the difficul- 
ties of navigation are very considerable. On our way down 
we ran ashore, and had to wait nearly half a day for the tide 

in China. It is 
in the country, 
to the breezes 
jvation, and has 
, reminding one 
lame is Yent-ai, 
It is a treaty 
ur most import- 
opulation is not 
bout 11 2,000, 000 

he Presbyterian 
rn trip from the 
r for Tientsin, 
lantung brought 
ng happily over 


to rise and hft us off. Sometimes the ships have to wait 
much longer. But the Chinese will do little to remedy these 
«vils. It was a great thing for them to suffer this much of a 
railway to be built at all, but very much of the trade still 
comes by the old and crooked river, and the difficulties in 
getting from the train to the steamer at Taku are so great 
that most of the passenger traffic comes through direct by 
steamer. Chinese railways are yet in a very immature in- 



fancy. There is one other being constructed on the Yangtsd 
by the Viceroy of Wuchang, to carry iron from a great 
mine, for the purpose of constructing railway ties ; and some 
day it is expected that a line will connect Peking with Han- 




Notwitlistamling the many things that strike a foreigner 
as very far behind our Western Civilization, yet it must be 
recognized that this part of China has made gigantic- progress 
in a single generation. There is ahnost a daily line of ocean 
steamships between Shanghai and Tientsin, and many of 
them are owned by native Chinese merchants. There is one 
man in China who has given a greater impulse to Chinese 
progress than all others. That man is Li-Hung-Chang, the 
Vicei-oy of the Province of Chih-li, and the most inHuential 
statesman and business man in China. He is a very rich man, 
and owns large interests in all the ships and trading (!om- 
panies on the coast. He is the conti.lential adviser of the 
Emperor, and intimate with all the leading foreigners ia 


Li-Huug-Chang seems to be an enigma, like everythmg 
Chinese, and we have heard very opposite opinions about 
him and his attitude toward foreigners and Christianity ; but 
from all we have heard, we have no doubt that lie is an as- 
tute and most gifted Chinaman, who fully appreciates the 
value of foreign ideas and improvements, and desires to make 
all out of the foreigner he can for himself and his country, 
and at the same time give him as little power as he can help. 
By some who know him personally and intimately, we have 
been assured that he is not specially unfriendly to Chris- 
tianity, as he has been represented to be, and that Lady Li, so 
intimately Unked with the life and work of Dr. Mackenzie 
and Dr. Howard, in Tientsin, was undoubtedly at heart a sin- 
cere inquirer, and, it is believed by tlose who know her best, 
a disciple of Jesus Christ. 

■ 31 

i s 


r.ARCF.R nr'Tf.ook's ox .v/.ssmx.tR}' /..ixp.'j. 

1 1 

P.ut wliile we liave been digressing and discnssing, we 
have got almost I'p the Peiho, to our destination. Yonder 
are the high, smoking (chimneys of Tientsin. Before we get 
there, let lis look about us, a moment, at the country through 
which we are passing. We are ascending a narrow serjten- 
tine stream, not more tliaii one or two hiuidred yards wide, 
and continually doubling on itself. Now it is north, now 
east, now south, and again due west, in its sinuous course. 
The country through which we are ])assing, is wholly differ- 
ent from anything we have yet seen. It is a purely farming 
district, strongly resembling a western prairie, when all the 
crops are gre?n. Oi-eans of verdure swee]) away to the hori- 
zon, millions of acres of wheat, barley, millet, Indian corn, 
beans, sweet potatoes, interspersed with peach trees in great 
profusion, and other foliage. It is really a pretty sight, and 
makes one think of home. The climate is very similar to 
that of one of our northern states, only a little hotter in sum- 
mer, aiad a little colder in winter. 

There aie thousands of villages all along the river bank, 
all neatly built of mud or brick, and usually roofed with tile. 
The people literally swarm, and they all have a fairly com- 
fortable look. The country peojjle of Shantung and Cbih-li, 
are usually a thrifty, industrious class of farmers, not un- 
Avortbv of comparison Avith the peasanty of many European 

But here we are at Tienisiu, and again we recognize the 
foreign Bund, with the handsome European buildings, and 
its long front of business offices and warehouses. Probably 

/..I. YDS. 

(liscnissing, we 
ition. Yonder 

Before we get 
)untry through 
narrow Herjien- 
red yards wide, 

is north, now 
f<inuou8 course. 
3 wholly differ- 
purely farming 
i, when all the 
.^ay to the hori- 
>t, Indian corn, 
h trees in great 
•etty sight, and 
very similar to 

hotter in sum- 

the river hank, 
oofed with tile. 
re a fairly com- 
ng and Chih-li, 
irmers, not un- 
iiany European 

e recognize the 

buildings, and 

ises. Piobably 



Reproduction from b Chiiiest I'iiiiiliiiK 


TO nil: .Si>Niiii:K.\ i .irrr.u.. 


it ranks tliitd aftHi- Haiikou and Hhangliai as a Treaty Port 
and (toinnu'rcial contn!. . Its fonMgn trade, as estimated by 
tlie Customs' returns, amounts to ^:17,(>oo,0(K), and tlie vast 
native (ntv lias a population of 5oo,(mmi. It is the homo of 
Li-Hung-Chang, and wo passed his palace, which is simply 


a large collection of low, plain-looking buildings, enclosed 
behind a high wall. He is said to live in great simplicity, 
and requires his sons to do the same, while he has several 
luxurious apartments furnished in foreign style for his nu- 
merous visitors. 


We wore met by Mr. Clark, of the China Inland MiHHion, 
and very hospitably entertained. Wo shall lf>ng retain the 
roost delightful reiiollectiona of TientHin and its blessed mis- 
sionaries. We had a two-fold opixtrtunity of meeting them, 
both on our way to and from Peking. 

Ou these occasions we had two delightful publitt meet- 
ings with them, and several opportunities of seeing them 
I)er8onally, and we found much reason to tliank God for their 
spirit and their work. This is the business centre (»f the 
China Inland Mission for Northern China, and will have to 
be ours also if we are to carry on much work in the Northern 
Provinces. Tientsin in the North, and Wuchang or Han- 
kow in the West, are the natural headquarters and jjoints of 
departure for the great northwest, the most unoccupie<l sec- 
tion of China, and our ])rospective mission fields. 

For the present, \mtil we can send a proper business 
agent, Mr. A. J. Bostwick, of the American Board, is kindly 
representing our work, and acting as a channel of cotnmuni- 
cation with our Swedish friends in Shansi, forwaiding mails 
and money, and puichasing and foi-warding supplies. He 
has been very kind and helpful, and his valuable busin«!S8 
experience and counsel are fully appreciated. 

Mr. Clark is an all-round man of atfairs, who has been 
over much of China, and is the able business manager of 
tbo China Inland Mission in Tientsin. He has a big heart, 
and ready hand, and has been of invaluable service to our 
Swedish friends on their journey north. 

Among the Missionary Societies represented in Tientsin, 

■--mmmmir -, »!iiBBi!i" 

y /..1.VDS. 

1 Inland MiHwon, 

long rotitin the 

\ its blessed inis- 

f nu'eting them, 

,ful public; nieet- 
(»f seeing them 
ink God for their 
SH centre of the 
and will have to 
c in the Northern 
'uchang oi- Han- 
ters ard jtoints of 
i unoicnj)ied sec- 

L proper business 
I Board, is kindly 
mel of tunimuni- 
forwarding mails 
ing sui)plies. He 
valuable business 

irs, who has been 
liness manager of 
e has a big lieart, 
t)le service to our 

ented in Tientsin, 

r<y rill-: son rniKX capita i.. 


the work of the Lond«»n So<-iety holds \\ prominent place. It 
18, perluum, l)est knowji to the Christian world through the 
life and labors of Di'. Matken/if, whose biography has been 
go ably written by Mr. Brys(»n of this place, and whose re- 
markable and intimate <H)nnection with the Vio«'roy, Li- 
Hung-Chang, and Lady Li. formed so important an entering 
wedge in the eaily days of Medical Missions in China. It 
will be remembered by our readers that in gratitude t.)r tho 
healing of his wife, Li-Hung-t hang founded a hospital in 
Tientsin, and gave it up to the exclusive charge of Di'. Mac- 
kenzie. Indeed, it was always regarded as given to the Mis- 
sion. But, on the death of Dr. Mackenzie, a few years ago, 
the Viceroy claimed the property, and the Mission had to 
give it back, with all the furniture, and a large amount of 
money, which Dr. Mackenzie had ace lunulated from the hos- 
pital funds for the i>uri)ose of hosi)ital improvement . 

It was found that Dr. Mackenzie had never secured 
proper papers conveyin- the i)roperty. and the Viceroy sue- 
ceeded in oatablishin^ his claim to it, although it was re- 
gariied as an act of great injustice and seltishness by many. 
It is still carried on as a Chinese Hospital under native phy- 
sicians employed In- the Viceroy. The London Society has 
built a new hospital, and we were glad to learn that a nmcli 
larger number of patients come to it than go to the native 
hospital across the street. 

Dr. Mfickenzie was a most remarkable man in every way, 
and the sweet savor of his life lingers in Tientsin on every 
side. He was an extraordinary physician, but a more extra- 




ordinary missionary. His medical work was distinc-tly sub- 
ordinate to tlie great work which insi)ired his heart, — the 
evangehzation of China. We are glad to say that God has 
raised up a successor worthy of him. Dr. Koberts, of the 
London Mission of Tientsin, and the associate and successor 
of Dr. Mackenzie, is one of the most remarkable men we 
have met abroad. Surely he had found his predecessor's 
mantle, and he has filled his place, even in the estimation of 
those who most admired Dr. Mackenzie. Without dispara- 
ging any of the many devoted medical missionaries we have 
met in China, nor the higher value of the Lord's own heahng, 
we cannot help saying that the practical value of such a mis- 
sionary is beyond computation. His .gentle, humble spirit, 
his fervid piety and unction, his love of souls, his magnetic 
enthusiasm for the glorious work of missions, are far more 
noticeable than his distinguished ability as a physician, and 
he values his profession as an agency for interestin;; the 
Chinamen in Christ and the (xospel. 

He has a valuable associate in Mrs. King, of the same 
Mission, formerly so well known as Dr. Howard, of the M. 
E. Mission of America. It was she who attended Lady Li, iu 
lier illness, and she was as signally used in that remarkable 
providential opening, i>erhaps, as even Dr. Mackenzie. We 
were glad to have the opportunity of meeting this dear 
worker and spending a little time at her home. She is 
now the wife of one of the most prominent missionaries of 
the London Society. Mr. King, of Tientsin. We are so glad 
that her humble, self-denying piety and devotion are more 


)' /..l.\7KS: 

,s distinctly sub- 
l his lieart,— the 
lay that God has 
Roberts, of the 
ite and successor 
larkable men we 
liis predecessor's 
he estimation of 
Without dispara- 
iiouaries we have 
rd's own healing, 
ue of such a mis- 
e, humble spirit, 
uls, his magnetic 
ons, are far jnore 
) a physician, and 
r intorostin;;^ the 

Cing, of the same 
oward, of the M. 
ended Lady Li, in 
1 that remarkable 
Mackenzie. We 
leeting this dear 
er home. She is 
lit missionaries of 
We are so glad 
ievotiou are more 



conspicuous than even her professional success. She has en- 
tire charge of what is knowji as Lady Li's Hospital for 
Women, and this, we are glad to say, is still the hospital of 
the Mission, having been erected happily on Mission ground. 
We were glad to be able to ask her many things about the' 
distinguished family she had such opportunities of knowing, 
and it was a great gratification to hear her say that while 
Lady Li had not formally professed Christianity before she 
died, yet she expected some day to meet her in heaven. 

We had the opportunity of attending a Sabbath morning 
service in the London Mission, and saw one of the brightest 
and most interesting native congregations we have yet wit- 
nessed. We are afraid we looked more at the costumes of 
the ladies than we recommend our people to do at home, but 
the headdresses of the women were so different from any we 
had seen, that we must ho)je to be, at least, leniently judged. 
The girls, of course, as elsewhere, all have a braided cue 
hanging behind. But the married women have their hair 
tied in a knot behind, and then an extraordinary curved fig- 
ure, like a great sweeping plume, or more like the tail of a 
pheasant, sweeping behind and giving their heads the av>pef tr- 
ance of a splendid bird in flight. Brilliant rosettes or flowers, 
and a great profusion of jewelry, finished the picture, and 
made these women a sight sufficient to turn the head of an 
American daughter of fashion. We are afraid the daughters 
of Tientsin are not yet up to the apostolic standard on the dress 
question, but they say that a Chinese woman would feel as 
much disgraced if she went without her jewelry, as she would 
without her clothes. 




We had the pleasure of speaking a Uttle to this audience, 
through an excellent interpreter, and with a good interpreter 
we found that, by using a simple line of thought, and some 
striking incident or illustration, we could always be fairly 
understood, and meet bright, responsive faces and hearts. 

Among the other missionary societies represented in 
Tientsin are the American Board, the M. E. Church of 
America, and the New Connexion Methodist Church of Eng- 
land. We visited them all and were received with the great- 
est courtesy, and learned of nmch encouraging work in their 
midst. Indeed, the work in North China is in a more hope- 
ful condition than in any other section. Our space will not 
permit us to speak particularly of all. We were invited to 
meet with the missionaries of the various societies, and ex- 
plain the principles and methods of our work. There has 
been naturally much misunderstanding about our Alliance, 
and especially in connection with the large parties of Swedes 
that have recently passed through Tientsin on their way 
northward. W^e were glad to have the opportunity of ex- 
])Ounding our principles and methods, and receiving the cor- 
dial assurance of their sympathy and co-operation. Rarely 
have we felt more unity of spirit or received greater kindness. 
When they found that we were to leave the following 
day for Peking, and had not yet secured a Chinese interpreter 
for the long overland journey which would be so difficult for 
one who could not speak a word of Chinese, two of the mis- 
sionaries at once offered to leave their work and come with 
us, and our business man offered to send his office boy. We 


i to this audience, 
a good interpreter 
bought, and some 
always be fairly 
:es and hearts. 
es represented in 
M. E. Church of 
st Church of Eng- 
ed with the great- 
ging w^ork in their 
is in a more hope- 
Our space will not 
rVe were invited to 
} societies, and ex- 
work. There has 
ibout our Alliance, 
3 parties of Swedes 
tsin on their way 
opportunity of ex- 
i receiving the cor- 
operation. Rarely 
(d greater kindness, 
eave the following 
Chinese interpreter 
d be so difficult for 
3e, two of the rais- 
)rk and come with 
his office boy. We 



accepted the otter of one of these dear brethren, Rev. Dr. 
Bryson, of the London Mission, and we soon found what a 
*' friend in need, and a friend indeed," he was, and how well- 
nigh impossible it would have been for us to get on without 


Wednesday morning, at daybreak, found us on our way 
to Peking. Our outfit consisted of two Chinamen, four 


mules, two carts without seats or springs, a roll of bedding, 
and a basket of provisions for a two days' journey. That 
ride ! WeU, we will not be able to describe it. We had rid- 
den forty-five miles at a stretch, and as much back again the 
next night, in a Coolie cart in India. But that was on a road 
as smooth as a floor. But this Peking road was unlike any 
road we have ever known or seen described, or imagined. It 
led sometimes through great pools of water, up to the hubs, 



and again over stone roads broken up into gieat lioles two 
feet deep, through which our cart tluimped and bumped like 
blows from a maul ; and yet again more f recpiently it was 
cut into deep ruts down literally to the hubs. It seemed as 
if all the generations of China had gone before us in these 
ruts. And with a strange fascination the driver would insist 
on always keeping the wheels right in the bottom of the rut. 
Often there was a smoother i)lace beside it, but -oh ! no, it 
would never do for a Chinaman to get out of the rut his pre- 
decessor had gone in before. We came soon to look on our 
mule driver and our journey as typical of the Chinese nation 
and Chinese history-C/i/na in a rut ! That is just what has 
been going on for four thousand years. China is doing what 
it always has done. The same sort of carts, with the same 
sort of mules, and the same sort of Chinamen, have been go- 
ing in the same sort of roads in the same sort of way since 
before the time of Abraham. The Chinaman never wants to 
change anything. If a bar is at the mouth of a river it must 
stay there ; if a house is abandoned it must be left to faU 
down at its pleasure ; if a man falls into the river he must 
not be disturbed or interfered with ; if a road was good 
enough for your father it is good enough for you ! 

Well, we started. There was nothing for it but to prop 
yourself up as well as possible with pillows in the bottom 
of the cart and try to find a Roft spot somewhere. And so it 
began to bump and thump, from side to side, until first our 
back seemed on the point of dislocation, and then our insides 
to be shaken like buttermilk in a churn, and then our head 



great lioles two 
and bumped like 
f reciuently it was 
bs. It ^5eemed as 
efore us in these 
river would insist 
)ottoni of the rut. 
t, but— oh ! no, it 
[)i the rut his pre- 
)n to look on our 
he Chinese nation 
it is just what has 
lina is doing what 
rts, with the same 
len, have been go- 
sort of way since 
lan never wants to 
1 of a river it must 
ust be left to fall 
the river he must 
a road was good 
for you ! 

; for it but to prop 
)ws in the bottom 
jwhere. And so it 
nde, until first our 
nd then our insides 
and then our head 



KcprocUiclion IVom a CliilH'--t I'liinliiig 



■Jll Tin: .VOKTZ/KK-V CA/'ITAI.. 


that L c„v,l,l not think ,:lea,-ly. m„l th. .uu«- os "« " ' "^^ "^ 
of ,„„■ neck a,hea a» if th.y luul been V-^^'^^, '"^ 
ana, inde«,l, our whole sy.ten> felt exactly hke a .a n st 
feel after he had been shaken by a temer. lalk ot sea^^uk 
;;:;! It is abed ,.f down to a Peking .cul and as„ell of .a.t 

"*"weU, we had twenty miles of it befo.e-' tiffin," and a 
.e,.ysmaUan.ountof cooking sumeed to -t.sfy onv ..^W 
ItoL-hs and then we had twenty .niles n.ore after t.Biu 
: tU w .'eached the Chinese inn about dark, .here wo were 
to dine and rest for the night. It w.« a very fa.v .nn much 
letter than we expected, an,l we got out our baske and 
infused our tea and cooked our eggs and nee, and ti.cdto 
el : r "ten ;orized dinner, and then lay down on our 
Te Iding on the Chinese benches they call beds. But oh -. the 

::r„;:fingbraiu.andthe,,.— ^^^^ 


rfon T lite And at length we fell .«leep praismg pmymg, 

gfonsuch journeys for twelve and twenty days at a fme 
into the vast interior. 

We were awakened, after four hom-s of sleep, at two 
o'clock in the morning, to begin another day of sundar travel^ 
"inf We got off a good while Wore dayhght, and about 
fou; o'Ick we were cheered by a glorious sunnse. All day 






\\ %.>\^ 


fi! if 

long we rattled on, btopi)ing only for lunch, until about sun- 
set we saw before us the gigantic walls of Peking, and knew 
that our long journey of eighty miles and thirty hours of 
cart traveUing was almost ended. The second day wo were 
not nearly so tired. Our system seemed to have got used to 
it, and we felt that after a few days, with a good deal of 
grace and patience, one could get inured even to a Chinese 

But as we looked at that splendid Capital, we felt that it 
AVfxs an (Hitrage that the metropolis of tlie greatest Empire 
on earth should liave such an approach to it. 

The country through wliich we had passed was most 
interesting. It was puiely a farming district. But such 
farming ! We wish some of the fossil farmers of the west, 
who have worn out their land by ignorance and stupidity, 
could only come and see one of these so-called barbarians till 
the soil. Every scpiare inch of ground for miles, and hundreds 
of miles, is covered with the most beautiful and luxuriant veg- 
etation. Every sort of grain and vegetable is raised in the 
greatest profusion and perfection. Not a weed is to be seen 
nor an inch of waste or neglected ground. Between the 
rows of wheat and corn something else is planted,— melons, 
pumpkins, beans, sweet potatoes, or some other vegetable to 
come on when the other is cut down. Three splendid crops 
a year are raised even in this far northern climate — the lati- 
tude of our northern States -and yet the land is not exhaust- 
ed. It is all most carefully fertilized, and every crumb of 
manure is gathered and put back into the soil. The culture 


\T f.ixns. 

li, until about sun- 
Poking, and knew 
lul tliirty liours of 
cond day we were 
,0 have got used to 
ith a good deal of 
even to a Chinese 

ital, we felt that it 
e greatest Empire 

passed was most 
listrict. But such 
■mers of the west, 
mce and stupidity, 
ailed barbarians till 
niles, and hundreds 
and luxuriant veg- 
ible is raised in the 
weed is to be seen 
und. Between the 
s planted, — melons, 
} other vegetable to 
liree splendid crops 
•n climate — the lati- 
land is not exhaust- 
rid every crumb of 
e soil. The culture 




is mostly by hand, and the whole land looks like a luxuriant 
garden We saw no trees except orchards till we reached 
the neighborhood of Peking, and then we began to find some 
groves of forest trees. There were a good many wild flowers 
along the wayside, especially daisies of many colors, a few 
prinxroses and a great many varieties of the dwarf convolvu- 


LAKCER Of^Tr.OOk'S O.V .1f/SS/0\'.fUV rANPS. 

Tho poasantry seeme<l to be a quiet, industriouB atid in- 
offennivc people. Wo listened to many c-onversatious that 
were tranHlate.1 to us, and we consider the Chinese an 
bright and intelligent as nuiny of our own worknig people, 
and a good deal more so than the laboring classes m many 
distric^ts of Englan.l and Germany We beg to assure our 
readers that these pi'uple are wortL saving, and that it will 
need a very sensible, shrewd, and wide-awake man or woman 
to win their respect and c;onfldence. 

The walls . -f Peking are magnifies nt. They are, at least, 
forty feet high and forty feet wide at the top. We went up, 
and walked on them partly round the city, and found the top 
of the walls was a finely paved way, on which you could go 
round the whole city. The angles of the walls at c.-rtain 
points are crowned by lofty superstructures, like massive 
towers, carried up, perhaps, fifty or sixty feet above 
the walls, and -iving an appearance of great magnificence 
from a distance. Peking, at least in its frame and general 
plan, is worthy of its imperial importance, and has about it 
a certain air of majesty. And even when you get inside and 
fairiy examine it, you feel it is unique among all other cities, 
and certainly greatly superior to any other place m China. 

It is usually divided into three cities, viz.: the Chinese, 
the Tartar, and the Imperial. The latter, however, is hardly 
a city, but rather a Palace Enclosure, detached from the 
Tartar city. The Chinese city is on the south side, enclosed 
by separate walls, covering a space of, perhaps, five by three 
miles, and a population of between a quarter and half a 

ustrious and in- 
iversjitions that 
lilies*' farin«r as 
working ix'ople, 
classes in many 
>g to assure our 
and that it -will 
( man or woman 

hey are, at least, 
). We went up, 
nd found the top 
ich you could go 

walls at ceitain 
•es, like massive 
xty feet above 
eat magnificence 
ranie and general 

and has about it 
'^ou get inside and 
ig all other cities, 
place in China, 
viz. : the Chinese, 
lowever, is hardly 
(Hached from the 
)uth side, enclosed 
tiaps, five by three 
uarter and half a 



million. The Tartar <ity is on the north side, and is much 
larger than theCiiineso. with a population of nearly a million. 
The streets an* wide and the buildings nnuh suin'rior i<i Cen- 
tral and Southern Chinese cities. They are nearly all of 

— »-».»■"■'. 


brick and roofed with tiles. The roofs have a pretty, concave 
form, and the eaves and cornices are often ornamented and 
highly colored in imitation of green, red and many colored 
tiles. There are a good many temples, and some of them are 



somewhat handsoni.- Kv.-rywhoro theio ato ovidcncoH of 
thoir boli.'f iiitlH. (>m<a<y of tlu-ir supoistition^. Wo pasHod 
ai iinnu'nse shiino coveml with native inscriptioiiH, tclHngof 
prayei-H that had been answered thoiv. On a great tal)let was 
insrrihed tlio sentence: "If y(ni ask you shall surely re- 
ceive "' Tlie day of our arrival it was annou need that the 
Emperor had that morning visite.l the Tempi.- of Heaven 
and juayed for fair weather. 

Our visit was short, hut busy and deeply interesting. 
Only two nights could we venture to stay without risking 
our return to Shanghai in time to catch our steamer for 
Japan. But we were able to accomplish nmch of what was 
on our heart. We had come this journey of a fortnight not 
to see a Chinese capital, but to visit our dear missionaries, 
and come into touch with the other dear workers in the same 
vineyard. Very little time did we spend in sight seeing. We 
took our walk on the walls in com[.any with a missionary 
friend, and we were able to look southward over the vast 
Chinese city, away to the Temple of Heaven on the extreme 
Bouthern Ixnder. and to learn that there was but one Mis- 
sionary Chai.fcl for all this vast populati.-n. We were able to 
look northward over the Tartar city, th.' wall on which we 
stood intersecting the two cities, and see its vast extent. At 
our feet were pointed out the various foreign Legations, and 
we look right down on the handsome compounds of the 
Methodist Episcopal Society at our feet, and farthei- in the 
distance, located the Presbyterian, London and A. B. 0. F. M. 

)• I ,wns. 

If ovi<lencoH of 
ions. W«) passed 
iptions, tolling of 
^ti'iit tablet was 
Bhall Burely re- 
iioiiiued tliat tho 
nipU' of lloavt'U 

't'ply intereatiiiK- 
without riskiiiK 
oiii' Hteamer for 
mil of what wan 
[ a fortnight not 
ear n)i8sionaiieH, 
irk(Ms in the sarno 
sight seeing. We 
ith a missionary 
ird over the vast 
n on the extreme 
was but one Mis- 
W»' were able to 
wall on whicli we 
3 vast extent. At 
gn Legations, and 
ompounds of the 
lid farther in the 
and A. B. 0. V. M. 

" h 

jLMin— nrnrrmi 




We walked about a mile along the wall until we came 
right over the Imperial city, and could see the Palace build- 
ings within the enclosure. Here the Emperor lives in soli- 
tary grandeur. He is young and feeble- looking, judging by 
his photograph. He seldom goes o\it of these <iuarters ex- 

' 1 


• >\i's.-^'V^,'^'^*ft'nvr-^ 


! 1^ 

440 /-'A'6Y:A' m'Tf.oohs OX MfSsroxAh'v f.A.wns. 

cept to prayer \n the temples, and then all the cross streets 
opening into the line of his niarcli are boarded up that no 
eye^ may he permitted to desecrate his sacredness hy an un- 
hUlowed gaze. He has a lake and a steam yacht and a little 
railway to a.uuse himself with, and a great household who 
minister to his pleasure. They say he does not love his Em- 
press, and, perhaps, there are no sorer hearts in Chma than 
those that ache behin.i those Imperial walls. A veil of deep, 
impenetrable mystery surrounds him. Few foreigners now 
ever enter this Imperial City, and so we saw as much of it as 
most people ever will. We were glad we could look down 
lip ai it from above. We felt that day that we were a great 
way above that poor little sickly king and all his silly, sacred 


We found our dear missionaries waiting to welcome us. 
l^Iiss Duow had recently purchased the premises which she 
had been renting for some time. It certainly was a wise 
purchase. Think of getting an enclosure in the heart of 
Peking, containing nearly an acre of ground, and covered 
with many courts, buildings and chambers, with, at least, 
ov.>r twentv different apartments, for the sura of !i^l,400, land 
and all. We should have thought it ridiculously cheap at 
'$U,00«>, and in New York it would easily bring $1+0,000. 
They had fixed it up neatly and simply, and altogether it 
was as comfortable and suitable a Mission Home as we had 
seen in China. It was, formerly, the residence of the Epis- 
copal Bishop. 

Miss Funk had recently returned to America, but Miss 


')■ f.A.\'DS. 

the cross streets 
aded up that no 
edness hy an un- 
yacht and a little 
it household who 
not love his Eni- 
■ts in China than 
\. A veil of deep, 
w foreigners now 
V as much of it as 
could look down 
■j we were a great 
all his silly, sacred 

ig to welcome us. 
remises which she 
tainly was a wise 
B in the heart of 
ound, and covered 
)ers, with, at least, 
sum of ^1,400, land 
iiculously cheap at 
ily bring $1+0,000. 
^, and altogether it 
)n Home as we had 
idence t)f the F.pis- 

. America, hut Miss 

TO Till-: .\ORTlir.KS lA/'/ 


Duow, Miss Gowans and Miss Myers wciv well and happy. 
They I'lad all grown ptMce|)til)ly, and Miss Duow ai)peai-ed to 
great advantage with her former experience, her knowledge 
of the language and people, and the excellent business quali- 
ties which her responsible situation had required her to de- 


velop. Tlie younger ladies had fairly acquired the language, 
and Miss Gowans was teaching an interesting class of girls, 
and having a meeting of women, both of which were hope- 
ful, while Miss Myers was taking charge of the Home, and 
doing what work she could in her leisure hours. Miss Duow 






has an excellent meeting of CJliinese v/onien, and we were re- 
joiced to hear that a lady-the wife of an official, and her 
daughter -had lately been baptized, and that another old lady 
desired baptism and she believed was truly converted. Even 
such fruits as these, in so short a time, mean a great deal in 
China. There is room for two or three more ladies in this 
work, and Miss Duow is an anging for their coming. 

Our dear friends are nmch respected and beloved by the 
other missionaries, and on the second evening of our visit we 
had the pleasm-e of meeting nearly all the missionaries of 
Peking in their home, and, after some pleasant social fellow- 
ship, of explaining to them our work and aims. This was 
especially necessary in Peking, as there had been a good deal 
of concern respecting the Swedish missionaries and nmch 
misunderstanding. We cannot thank God enough for per- 
mitting us to visit China at this very time, and enabling us 
to remove the most serious misapprehensions from the minds 
of the best of men, and bring our woi-k and workers into a 
place of the most blessed confidence and sympathy on the 
l»art of so many whose fellowship is so invaluable. 

Tlie Spirit of God was present in our meeting, ar.d all our 
hearts were touched and drawn together in Him, and we felt 
that God had given lis precious and lasting friends in that 
great Imperial capital. But, better far, we felt that together 
we were able to look out on all that vast Empire with one 
faith and one heart, and put down the soles of our feet upon 
it and claim it all for Christ, and that its evangelization 
should soiuehow be prepared before the generation should 
have passed away. 

• /..I. VPS. 

ind we were re- 
aflficial, and lier 
another old lady 
inverted. Even 

a great deal in 
•e ladies in this 

1 beloved by the 
^ of our visit we 

niissionarieg of 
mt social fellow- 
aims. This was 
been a good deal 
aries and much 
enough for per- 
and enabling us 
3 from the minds 
I workers into a 
iynipathy on the 

eting. and all our 
Him, and we felt 
r friends in that 
felt that together 
Empire with one 

of our feet upon 
ts evangelization 
;eneration shoidd 

TO HIE \oN ini:KS CAPirAi.. 


In this little company were our dear brethren of the 
American Presbyterian Missica ; the Methodist Mission repre- 
sented by Dr. Lowrie, Superintendent; the American Board, 
represented by the venerable Dr. Blodgett ; and the London 
Mission- all the Societies laboi-ing in Peking. 

We had greatly desired to meet good Dr. Blodgett, the 
oldest missionary in this part of China, and were rejoiced ti> 
find him waiting for us on our arrival at Miss Duow's, and 
also to have the pleasure of spending some time at his own 
hospitable home the following day, and learning much that 
we could not otherwise have learned of Peking and Northern 

i^ IT inn 

We were able to mak.? arrangements for tlie coming to 
Peking of our Thibetan missionaries for the study of that 
language, and we found that there was a Thibetan temple at 
the North Gate, with a number of Lamas, among whom it 
would not be difficult to obtain a teacher. 

We had as much conference with our own beloved work- 
ers as the time would allow, and left much encouraged about 
their future work. It was but a brief day, but. like the 
Transfiguration hour, its light will linger all the days of toil 
and time, and when time and Peking, too, shall have passed 

away. , , , i 

The following morning found us up at three o clock, and 
after a loving leave-taking, on our way on two superb don- 
keys to the City gates. AVe found them open with the day- 
light, and we hastened on with our donkeys fourteen miles 
to Tung-chow. We had resolved to change our route return- 

444 I.ARCKR OCTf.OOk'S OX /l//SS/OX.'1 AT L.hV/)S. 


ing,and take a boat at Tung-chow down the river to Tientsin, 
believing that with the downw-^ard current and the wind in 
our favor, we could make better time, and by travelhng day 
and night, reach Tientsin in time to catch the next morning's 
.steamer for Shanghai. 

Four hours brought us to Tuiig-choAV. As we passed out 

a>L >x 

river to Tientsin, 
; and the wind in 
l)y travelling day 
le next morning's 

As we passed out 



of the Peking g-.tes we nu>t Imndreds of men hurrying in 
with their inuuense loads of vegetahles on their l)ac-ks, .larried 
in two great l)askt>ts halanet-d on a hamhoo pole. They were 
trotting along under their inuuense loads, and the sweat pour- 
ing down their faces. We felt they vvere, indeed, the sons of 
Adam and the children of toil. Little wonder that from such 
toil even " John Chinaman " sometimes shrinks, and that Pek- 


ing is a city of beggars. We saw a bridal procession on the 
streets of Peking, in which three hundred beggars, dressed in 
gaudy robes of blue and crimson, over filthy garments and 
unwashed persons, were carrying magnificent presents, be- 
hind a band of music, to the home of a fashionable bride. 
They got a few cash for the occasion, and found it easier than 

honest work. 

A friend in Peking told us that a situation was obtained 




for one some time ago, and he went to work for a few day 
at good wages, but soon after he was found back at his old 
station on the "Beggars' Bridge." When asked if he had 
lost his job, he said " No." He had given it iip ; and when 
l)ressed for the reason, he replied: -'I can stand cold and 
heat, I can bear luniger and rain, but there is one thing I can- 
not Jndure,and thatis-to be tired." It is said that 17,000 of 
them died of cold and starvation last winter in Peking, but 
so vast was the mnnber that they were not even missed. 

We reached Tung-chow at eight o'clock, and had the jdeas- 
ure of breakfasting with our friend, Dr. Sheffield, and meet- 
ing Miss Andrews, sister of one of our dear Alliance workers 
in Cleveland, Ohio-beside others. We received a very cor- 
dial note of welcome from Dr. Goodrich, another honored 
laborer of the A. B. C. F. M. here, who was absent at the 
hills We could not tarry to visit the college and other build- 
ings here, but were glad to hear of their great prosperity. 
We had to hurry on the way. And so, good Dr. Sheffield 
took us down to the river, where we found our baggage wait- 
ing US-sent on the previous day from Peking by cart, and 
a boat already secured. Making a bargain in Chinese style, 
and agreeing wi1;h our boatman to give him so much more if 
he got us in ahead of time, and requiring him to take on four 
extra rowers, we got into our little cabin, and clearing the 
shore, and saying "Good-bye," we were soon off on the 

Peiho River. 

Our boat was a small affair with a roof of mat tmg about 
six feet wide and twelve long, and just high enough to stand 


■ - v»»«V?S*TiX*iM*'»'. ■^ 

oik for a few day 
lul back at his old 
X asked if he had 
1 it ui> ; and when 
m stand cold and 
is one thing I can- 
said that 17,000 of 
ter in Peking, but 
, even missed. 
, and had the jdeas- 
leffield, and rueet- 
r AlHance workers 
::eived a very cor- 
i, another honored 
was absent at the 
;ge and other build- 
great prosperity, 
good Dr. Sheffield 
I our baggage wait- 
iking by cart, and 
in in Chinese style, 
m so much more if 
him to take on four 
, and cleai'ing the 
re soon off on the 

)of of matting about 
gh enough to stand 

7< > Tin: M >h' rHEKX < . / /'/ /• / /. . 


lip in But it was a good dt'al easier than oui I'ekijig cart. 
The current and thf wind were both in our favor. And ho, 
with our sail up we dashed on, sometimes at the rate of 
weven or eight miles an houi'. Hut the river was very crooked, 
so that a distance of sixty-five miles, in an air line, took us 
over one Inmdred and thirty miles by the river's tortuous 
course. ('onse(iuently. we often found ourselves running 
against the wind, and obliged to take down (»ur sail and get 
our men at the oars. Hut we really got on very well, and ac- 
corapli.shed a voyage, which usually takes two or three days, 
in twenty-tw«) hours, and we both felt that it was "the good 
hand of our God upon us.'" 

Chinese boats are always interesting. In Central China, 
especially those that come from Ningpo, they usually have 
two great eyes at the head of the bt»at, which is shaped like 
the head of a fish or dragon. The Chinaman's explanation 
in pigeon English is, " If he no have eyes, he no can see, he 
no can walk." Our boat had no eyes, but its captain and 
crew kept their eyes open and rowed and sailed night and 
day. A few extra cash will make a great dill'eience in the 
amount of work a Chinaman can do. 

It was very interesting to sit on the little deck that night, 
as the stars came out and the little boat swept down that lit- 
tle winding stream in Northern China, and listen to our 
friend as he talked to these simple-hearted men about the 
Lord. When the wind was favorable, and they did not have 
to row, they would sit, Chinese fashion, and listen with open 
mouths and eyes and ears, and expressions of w onder and de- 

^^siyiff^ssET^—^-'^'- ' 



hARci'.R ofrr.ooh's ox .u/ss/ox.ia'v /..i.vds. 

Ijf'' « tc.ia them of th. Loi'l Tesus walking on the sea 

.^M HtmirK the tonipeHl . When th.' win.l wont .h.wn it was 
aiuuHing to h..ivi- thnn wlnstHng to it, Uke an Kngh^h tar, 
and trying to make it come, and when he explain., lo them 
that the wind rould not hear them, th.y listened and won- 
dered, hvit 8till kept whistling all the same. As we looked 
into their giv lact., ». r wished we could speak Chinese, and 
we asked that somehow they might he enahled to understand 

the (Jospel of Christ. 

But their minds are very dense ; the power of old super- 
stition is very strong, and it has to he "line upon line and 
precept upon precept. ' ' 

Sometimes these hoat journeys are very dangevou . < >nly 
this week a lady missionary told us how she and a friend hul 
lately been attacked by river pirates at night, and while a 
sword was hehl to .nich of their throats, their persons and 
trunks had been rifled and robbed .f all their valuabli ., and 
their lives had only l>een saved by complete and instant sub- 
mission. Most of the interior rivi'i s are infes* ' with pin. os. 
They seldom at ack a boat with foreigners in ii, as they fe 
foreign fire-arms ; but it usual for missionaries to an 
at nig!.t beside one of the nativ^. gunboats that, w are . ''1. 
are to be foun- all along the river shores. 

\ad ye« aese nicive gunboals are rather laughaM". 
They havJ only one gun, and it is a fixtui in the si m, so 
f^,r^ it has to be sighted by turning the boat round toward 
the object to bo aimed at, and holding it steadily by of 
the oars. Indeed, they say they seldom sh .t anythm^ more 

r /..IXVS. 

IkiuK on t>i<' sea 
»nt down it v« aH 
an Kngli^h tar, 
I)laim'' i(»theni 
skned and won- 
As we looked 
?ak ChinjiHe, and 
?d to \it\«l«'r8t;ind 

ver of old Hnper- 
10 upon line and 

dangor<ni- < >nly 
and a friend h.ul 
ght, and while a 
t,heir persons and 
Bir valnabii ;, and 
and instant sub 
with piruies. 
in u, as they f ea • 
ionaries to an .^ 
that, w<' are uoJd, 

rather langhahle. 
1 in the si m, so 
lOut round toward 
mdily by mestiis of 
)t any thin tr more 



m f 

11 ^i 


■ ■;Si^\«G9i£*e««!»-TiT™'«'^ 

TO TIN. XORTnihW (.triTAL. 

teriihlo than a l.i^^ liiv .ru.tker. 'I'lwy aiv. l.ow..vei-, very iiu 
inercniH, himI sullicimit to givu fair piutwtion to life and 


'I'iifouKli tlie protection of a Stroiigor Arm. we safoly 
rea(lu'<l our ileHtination so early that our Tientsin friendH 
could scarcely believe that we had been to Peking an<l baric 
in four days, and had spent two nights and a day there. 

We thoroughly enjoyed the society of our dear brother, 
who is a devoted Christian, as well as a distuiguisbed minis- 
ter and missionary of many y.-ars' experience, and whoso ex- 
treme kindness in leaving his work and taking that ti7ing 
journey for the accommodation of a stranger, we could not 
too highly appreciate and can only ask the Master to reward. 
The steamer for Shanghai had left two hours before our 
arrival, but this only gave occasion for another example of 
God's care and the kindness of Christian friends. 

A Christian gentleman in Tientsin, interested in the 
steamship lines, hearing of our desire to get off to Shang- 
hai, at once arranged to have one .)f his steamers leave early 
on Monday morning, and, although she was a freight boat, 
and had no regular accommodations for passengers, yet they 
kindly airanged a "shakedown" for us in the cabin used 
by the officers as a saloon and dining room, and wo got on 
delightfully, and were able to have a Sabbath of rest in 
Tientsin, and to get off early on Monday morwing and reach 
Shanghai, with a day to spare for matters of great import- 
ance there. 

Our only regret was that our steamer did not stop at Che- 
f oo on her way downward and our expected visit to Dr. Nevins 

jr*\ ■jW'lilNl ' 


1 li 

I ! 


and the Presbyterian Mission there had to be abandoned. 
We had met Dr. C^orbett, of this Mission, in Shanghai, and 
heard with much joy of the great blessing that God has been 
pouring out in the past year on all the work in Shantung. 
This is the district where so much famine relief was distrib- 
uted during the past few years, and the effect of it has been 
to open the hearts of the people and awaken their confidence 
in the missionaries, and they are earnestly sowing the seed 
in the deeply-plowed soil, and reaping quick and glorious 


By far the most encouraging results of mission work in 
China, duiing the past year, have been in this province of 
Shantung, and some of the best of them have been in the 
Presbyterian Mission. We have received the admirable re- 
port of the Mission, and shall be glad to i)ublish some ex- 
tracts from it soon. Dr. Corbett has just gone to America, 
and we hope our people may be able to hear him tell of the 
glorious work in North China. 

We were deeply grieved, while at Tientsin, to hear from 
many private letters the harrowing details of the famine 
which is now ravaging Shansi, the field of our Swedish mis- 
sionaries. Missionaries there write of destruction so ten-ible 
that men v/ere working a whole day for a single cash, the 
tenth part of a cent, and selling their wives and children as 
slaves, for a few do . ars. Young girls were being sold for three 
dollars each, and sent southward, in carts, by the score. In one 
village sixty-three girls had passed through that week from the 
famine district. We need not say that these giris were 
bought for the most infamous purpose, and taken from their 




to be abandoned, 
a, in Shanghai, and 
•• that God ha8 been 
work in Shantung. 
} rehef was distrib- 
iftect of it has been 
:en their confidence 
tly sowing the seed 
quick and glorious 

of mission work in 
in this province of 
n have been in the 
d the admirable re- 
;o publish some ex- 
ist gone to America, 
lear him tell of the 

entsin, to hear from 
etails of the famine 
of our Swedish mis- 
estruction so terrible 
)r a single cash, the 
ives and children as 
*e being sold for three 
I, by the score. In one 
^h that week from the 
lat these girls were 
and taken from their 



homes for enforced lives of shame, on the proceeds of which 
multitudes of Chinese people live and grow rich Indeed 
we saw in the tea houses of Shanghai scores of girls who 
wore the absolute property of men and women who lived 
upon their earnings, and these children knew no better than 
to be the victims and the tools of their avarice. 

Out of these famine horrors, and the blessed mfluences 
that come from their relief, God prepares thesoil of Northern 
China for the seed of the Gospel. We are so sorry that be- 
fore our people at home will have time to reach these suffer- 
ers, the horrors of the present crisis will be over-and the 
new crops will have ripened. Our dear missionaries write us 
that God has sent abundant rains, and by these our new mis- 
sionaries have been commended to the confidence of the peo- 
ple, and the temptation to blame them for the drought has 
thus been prevented. 

But we must hasten on our jouvney. Three days of 
pleasant saihng brought us to the end of our twelfth^a 
voyage since leaving home, and our sixty-fifth oay on ship- 
board We reached Shanghai, with a little over a day to 
spare before our steamer left for Japan. Our letters just 
brougnt us the particulars of the burning of our Mission and 
publishing rooms in New York, and the wonderful and gra- 
cious way in which the loss of the publishing company has 
been met, and once more - we thanked God and took cour- 
age" as we felt how His mighty and faithful hands were 
guiding and upholding us and our dear ones on the other 
side of the world. Blessed be His Holy Name for ever and 
evermore *. 




NEARLY two days, after our return from the north, 
were all that were left us to take leave of Shanghai 
and China. A lot of business matters, an enormous 
mail, several calls and callers, two public services and sev- 
eral quieter ones left little unoccupied leisure. At length we 
found ourselves, on Saturday, the 17th of June, on the steam 
launch for Woosung, where the "Empress of China "was 
waiting, fourteen miles down the river, to bear us to Japan. 
A kind party of missionaries and friends accompanied us 
unto the ship, and after a brief leave-taking, we were on our 
way to another missionary land. 

As we look back once more at these receding shores, let 
us gather up some of the results of these eight weeks of 
Chinese travel and observation. 

These sixty days in China have been full of labor and 
thought, and our head is literally aching with the strain of 
an almost unconscious effort, day and night, to grasp the 
tremendous Chinese situation. 

We have seen something of this immense land, perhaps 
as much as if a visitor to America should spend a few days^ 
at New Orleans, St. Louis, Washington, New York, Buffalo,. 




■11 from the north ^ 
i leave of Shanghai 
itters, an enormous 
ic services and sev- 
5ure. At length we 
June, on the steam 
)ress of China " was 
o bear us to Japan, 
inds accompaniea us 
ing, we were on our 

receding shores, let 
lese eight weeks of 

een full of labor and 
g with the strain of 
night, to grasp the 

mense land, perhaps 

lid spend a few days- 

New York, Buffalo, 

Cleveland, Chicago, St. Paul, Toronto, Montreal and Bos on 
We have visited the seven most important of the eighteen 
provinces, and the fourteen most important of the fourteen 
hundred walled cities of China. Such ceiitres as Canton, 
Hong Kong, Shanghai, Nanking, Hankow, Wuchang, (xank- 
ng Chin-kiang. Hu-kiang, Tientsin, Chefoo, Peknig, and 
Tmig-chow give one a fair conception of the south, he 
.entre and the north of China, and yet beyond these he the 
immense western provinces of Bz-chuen, Yunnan, Kwei-chau, 
Kansuh, and Shensi, just as Texas, Colorado, Dakota, Nevada 
.md Arizona lie beyond, what we used to ^all, the Great West, 
in America, and what now is scarcely the centre. 

One can form some conception of the immensity and in- 
accessibiUty of interior China, when we say that beyond he 
most western point we reached, a point corresponding to the 
situation of Chicago in the United States, there a- mission 
stations to which it takes nearly three months or their mail 
to come, even from Hankow. This is not merely on accoum 
.f distance, which is not so great as our West, but partly the 
difficulty of communication. ,, , , 

We have tried to look at China with our Master s eyes, 
and while we know these are only first impressions, yet we 
are glad to reproduce the imperfect vision, for all ^t^^ worthy 
for the benefit of those who may only be able to see it through 

our eyes. . , 

China proper consists of eighteen provinces, each aver- 
aging a population about as gre^t as New York, Pennsylvania 
and all of New England. These provinces have each a sort 




of local government, under a Viceroy, who resides at the 
Provincial Capital. All these eighteen provinces, of course, 
form one great Empire, under the absolute rule of the em- 
peror at Peking. There is an Imperial system of Customs, 
in v^'hich the government is greatly assisted by foreign ofii- 
cialB. The whole system is under the direction of Sir Robert 
Hart, who has, probably, more influence over the emperor 
and his poUcy than any other foreigner in China, and who 
has raised the Customs' revenue five-fold in twenty-five years. 
There is also a large standing army and a fine navy. China 
has a fleet of some of the best gunboats in the world, and as 
we paesed down the river we saw five of them lying at 
anchor, as handsome and as powerful as any in the British 
or German navy. 

Each of the great provinces is divided into larger and 
smaller districts. The larger include the less. Each of the 
larger districts is governed from a " Fu " city, and the smaller 
are like ou'- counties, and the county-seat is called a 
"H'sein" (sheyn) city. These "Fu" and "H'sein" cities 
are all walled, and they number nearly fifteen hundred in the 
whole Empire. There are, besides these, thousands and hun- 
dreds of thousands of unwalled towns and villages. The 
i^eople all live in villages or towns, and go to the fields to do 
their farm work, returning to their village home at night. 
Isolated country houses are unknown in China. 

What is the population of China ? It is very difficult to 
j-nswer this (luestion, but w.e believe it has been overesti- 
mated. We have always accepted the estimate of 400,000,- 

.iA')' LANDS. 

Nho resides at the 
rovinces, of course, 
ute rule of the em- 
system of Customs, 
5ted by foreign offi- 
iction of Sir Robert 
over the emperor 
in China, and who 
a twenty-five years. 
I fine navy. China 
n the world, and as 
! of theiu lying at 
^ any in the British 

ded into larger and 
e less. Each of the 
;ity, and the smaller 
y-seat is called a 
ind " H'sein" cities 
teen hundred in the 
thousands and hun- 
and villages. The 
yo to the fields to do 
lage home at night. 

It is very difficult to 
, has been overesti- 
estimate of 400,000,- 

LAST (:/A.uPSf:s or cin.x. i. 


wan-ant so large a figure. Ih.s, « i.«w . ^^^ 

nearly twenty-five million for each of tl.e r.ovmc,.-. 
Zw that many of them have "<>' "-'y ~^j;«t' 
ana the ve., largest „. '^em^- ... ov„^^^^^^^ 

while Yunnan, ^i^'"^;^^"':^Z^,. .„,,0«.V.e0 a 
millions each. Upon the xMioit., wc 

very full estin.ate, and shall not u. future P-^f * f ^^^ 
ChL is, probably, Just about as populous as Ind.a, and not 

nf it Her progress in a single generation has been vei) 

and the \ angise. j- ^^ ^^^^^ j.^. 

"- T' 'c:" r.,r.:.;»";.i..".«- 

from the mme to the m ei, ^^ Peking. The 

^isfor a yet longer "'« ^^ "^^ ..^ I !.hv,«ly 
railway that now runs from iaRu 



f.jh'ar.h' ofrr/.ooA's ox Ar/ssmx.iA'V /..ixns 


being extended further north, apd will ultimately connect 
with the Russian lines, which are fast being completed to the 

Pacitic coast. 

Should this all come about, the entering wedge will have 
gone too far to recall, and it will not he long till it will open 
up the great western pi-ovinces, and give us direct railway 
communication from China to Loudon in twelve days. 

And yet it must not be supposed that any of these indi- 
cations of Chinese progress He very near the surface. It 
seems, indeed, to a general observer the slowest country in 
the woi-ld. It is dreadfully conservative. A map of China, 
prepai-ed and published by the Chinese, is the funniest sight 
imaginable. The Celestial Country occupies about two feet 
square. Then along the edges are little strips about an inch 
long and a quarter of an inch wide, representing the other 
countries that lie somewhere beyond "the Great Desert," or 
"the Great Sea." 

We tried to persuade a native a* Tatung that we had 
been traveUing east for five months, and after going on in 
the same direction about two months longer we should reach 
the point from which w^e started, and we explained it by the 
statement that the world was round. He looked at us with 
an amused expression and then turned away, as nmch as to 
say . " Well— you don't expect me to beheve that, do you ? " 

To one who is looking for the picturesque and beautiful 
it is very disappointing. There are places to be found ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, and even grand. But most of China is 
commonplace and monotonous. Even the pagodas and pretty 

)■ /..ixns 

iiniately connect 
completed to the 

; wedge will have 
g till it will open 
IS direct railway 
;^elve days, 
luy of those iiidi- 
the sui'face. It 
owest country in 
A map of China, 
he funniest sight 
s about two feet 
ps about an inch 
senting the other 
Great Desert," or 

;ung that we had 
after going on in 
r we should reach 
splained it by the 
looked at us with 
ly, as much as to 
; that, do you ? " 
que aud beautiful 
5 to be found ex- 
most of China is 
jagodas and pretty 



' I I 

'■ -alL'^L. 

L.isrcL/.urs/:s of c///.v.i. 


tea-houses you see in your picture books are few and far be- 
twe*; a China. Most of the teiuph^sare very ordhiary look- 
ing. And most of the cities are just great masses of low, 
•common looking buildings, so (;losely crowded together that a 
bird's eye view from a tower or a hill presents nothing but 
a mass of roofs. 

The chief interest of China is in its immensity, its an- 
tiquity, its vast natural resources, and its strange, unchang- 
ing, and strongly-marked people. 

For the people of China are, doubtless, the leading race of 
Asia. Wherever they meet the other Asiatic races on mid- 
dle ground they always come out in the ascendant. In India 
the Chinaman earns twenty-five cents a day, and the Hindu 
eight or ten. In Singapore and Penang he rides in his car- 
riage in the Gai'dens, and is the money-lender, the merchant 
and the millionaire, and the Malay fades befoi-e him. And in 
China he has stood for four thousand years like a colossal 
and immovable buttress against all the billows of Time and 
Change, surviving amid destructive conditions and influences 
which, surely, no other race could stand. The Hindu has 
<^ver been a conquered race ; the Malay and the Polynesian is 
a fading race. The Chinese, notwitlistanding poverty, over- 
crowding, poisoned water, filthy smells, unhealthy houses, 
extremes of heat and cold, and the competition for existence 
of as many, sometimes, as seven hundred to the square mile, 
and, above all other curses, the awful curse of opium, is tho 
most populous and vigorous race on earth to-day. 

If there ever was an illustration of the principle called 



■I ! 


i.AKt:iiH iirruwKs on Mi^sionmk^ i.jnds. 

" the suvvival of the tittesl, ' pert-.,.. y «re. The »t™K- 
de tor existem-e U so sharp that only th- «tro„Ke»t can sur 

Vive, and «> we see a nafon to-day "-^.f "-"Vlt t 
oxen, that can run with a "rik l.a h..„«., that > a 
Zr „p under suifenn^ a.ul pain Hke .to, ., and yet do all 
these things on a diet of ri,c and a (e^^ sr-vos. 

The women are as hanly as the ., 'i Mr. W alker gives 
it as his opinion that the rea»<,n the , ..«ans are dyj 
out is because the mother, have to work so hanl, and then 
offspring is stnnted and injur,.!. But the women of Oh ma 
..o,k much harder in the fields and thebur. -n bearm, ot the 
roads. And even during n.atern.ty, it is .he.dtul 1 ■> they 
are neglectcl and expec.ed to keep up the,, ' J ""« ^ 
keep step with others in the dread march ot hi. o 1^ And 
yelthev stand it, and their children stand ■' a.d the race 
lives and grows, and l«,ks down with a hoary and .m- 
^vearied age on the younger generations ot time. They a,e 
the most remarkable race on earth, phys.cally. We have 
o£ten looked at the " riksha" men of Hong K,,ng and Shang- 
tai their limbs like great trees or immense pdlars of stone, 
a'd they will run inthe hot sun for hours until U makes one 

weary to see them. mu^,r 

But these people are more than splend.d brutes. They 
are men of keen intellect and shrewd common sense. Ot^n 
have we listen«l to the talk of the common PeoL te ™ the 
boats, in the country, n> the inquiry meetmg, and had then 
..ords interp>*d to us, and we hav,. been •'^''^h^l witMh^r 
keenness of observation, their discernment of character, 

' UI. 


re. The strug- 

Mi^est <;an sur 
carry loads like 
lors^es, that an 
'i«l yet do all 

. alkei' gi' 
sianH are "lying 
hanl. and their 
vonit'u of China 
11 bearing of the 
■ea/lful 1 '^ they 
gir 1 -, and to 
htt toil. And 
7+ and the race 
hoary and un- 
time. They are 
cally. We have 
Konj.; and Shang- 
; pillars of stone, 
intil it makes one 

ilid brutes. They 
non sense. Often 
ion people on the 
ing, and had their 
lelightetl with their 
jnt of character, 

LA SI c.i 



then 8ly humor, their ton ,-ss for talking, theirgoo<limturo, 
and tiieir ability to reason .'vtui on dc-p religious and philo- 
Rophical questions. 

Their power of memory is prodigious. Their scholars 
know almost all their classical books by heait, and these 


books contain many large volumes. Their officials are all 
men of education. Tn China, all political positions are won 
by study, and while their method of education does not de- 
velop the y ghest intellectual (juaHties. yet it is said that the 
State pn rs of their public men are often mai-ked by great 
ability, and their leading statesmen are men of rare insight, 
tact and capacity. 

j!ni )i |i w ; w « 

S^^^g^'f^v;^ ^. 


460 i-.'^P^r.R orTLOoK-s ox Mrssms-.tRY r.^.vns. 

W« have xxu'i a few officials, and more graceful a.ul dig 
nifled we have never ...>. Even the l-^^t Coohe. 
before he drinks hiB tea or eats his n.e. will offer ,t to you, 
and we have often felt our Anplo-Saxon hluntness put to 
.hame hy the manners of these heathen. ,,..,,„„ 

Their poverty has often been referred to, hut beais no 
cnnparison to the poverty of the Hindu. True, .n fanune 
aisticts and seasons, they are often reduced to ahjeet des^^ 
tution, hut ordinarily you see no sueh want m Cluna a w^^ 
saw all .>ver India. Most China.nen can earn ten to t^«»ty- 
five cents a day. and buy all the rice he wants. Mdhc^s o^ 
Hindus never eat rice, and their average niconie ib ten dollars 

\' Chinese native house is, as a rule, far superior to a 
Hindu home, and we have seen many that are greatly supe- 
rior to the usual dwellings of the laboring classes m Europe 

What is the attitude of these people toward foreigners 
There is no doubt that it is most unfriendly. The lowest 
Chinaman is taught by every instinct and tradition that he is 
immeasurably superior to the highest foreigner. He looks 
down upon him as an inferior and an intruder, and it is 
counted a great thing by our missionaries, in the niteriois 
.hen the people l,egin to condescend to notice them upon the 
street, bid them good morning or consent to rent them a 

They don't want the foreigner, and would be glad to get 
rid of him if they could. This is especially true of the higher 
classes and the officials. Step by step the foreign i«i«aonary 


-»#»'„' SH*^ , 

•aceful and dig 
e lowest Coolui, 
offer it, to you, 
untn«'SH put to 

;o, l)ut iK'iirs no 
Tiut', iu famine 
i to abject desti- 
; in China as we 
n ten to twenty- 
nts. Millions of 
nie ia ten doUai-s 

ar superior to a 
are greatly supe- 
!las8(!8 in Europe, 
ward foreigners 1 
cUy. Tlie lowest 
•adition that he is 
signer. He looks 
itruder, and it is 
}, iu the interior, 
ice them upon the 
it to rent them a 

)uld be glad to get 
true of the higher 
toreigu miflfliouary 












l^|28 |2.5 

^ m 

^ 1^ 12-0 



L25 11.4 IIIIII.6 





WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) ?72-4503 











Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductlons / Institut Canadian de microreproductions historiques 




and trader han ^ot into city after city, and the treaties have 
established his right to stay, bnt there is, no douht, a fixed 
determination to Uniit this as much as possible, and to pre- 
vent it going any further. It is exceedingly difficult to get a 
house to rent in a new town, and to build a foreign house m 
the interior would be impossible until the people had become 
famiUar with the new comers by a few years' residence. It 
has been tried several times, but the building has been always 
pulled down and the owners turned out. 

The riots which break out from time to time are the best 
evidence of this feeUng. It is difficult to say whether the 
officials OB the common people are most to blame for this an- 
tagonism. The two provinces of Quangsi and Hunan are the 
most unfriendly, and in the latter no Protestant missionary 
has yet been allowed to .ettle. One reason for this is the fact 
that the Hunanese compose a large part of the Chinese army, 
and they had a very active part in putting down the Taipmg 
Rebellic u, which was nominally a Christian movement. Con- 
sequently the very name of Christian is especially odious to 
them But in all the provinc . i« exceedingly difficult to 
open a new station, and even since we have been m China 
there have been several outbreaks, and the work of the mis- 
sionaries has been stopped in several places. The church 
cannot too fully realize that China is the most difficult mis- 
sion field in the world, and only the very wisdom, patience, 
faith, and providence of God can open it fuUy to the Gospel. 
What are the chief obstacles to mission work m China ? 
Well, the first is the difficulty of getting settled at all in the 




Then conies the prejudice and opposition of the people to 
the doctrine. The Chinaman is naturally opposed to any 
change. But to change from heathenism to Christianity is 
peculiarly unnatural. His old religion is bound up with all 
that is dearest to him. The strongest thing in Chinese idol- 
atry is ancestral worship. And this takes hold of everything 
that is strong and sacred in the human heart. To abandon 
this is an outrage upon every human feeUng. 

Then the Christian conception of God is hard for a China- 
man to grasp. To him either nature is God, and he cannot 
distinguish between heaven and its Creator, or there are 
many gods, in the form of deified men ; and he has no diffi- 
culty in accepting the deity of Christ, but how He can be the 
Supreme and only God, is all new and foreign. Besides, the 
whole structure of the Christian Scriptures is new and strange 
and unintelligible to hirn. Much has to be explained before 
he can even grasp the fundamental idea of the Gospel, and 
the missionary has to become a patient teacher, and "line 
upon line, precept upon precept, here a little and there a lit- 
tle," prepare the very elements of thought and gently lead 
him to grasp the primary truths of the Bible. 

For this reason, the Scottish Bible Society has recently 
issued, after much discussion, an annotated Bible for the 
Chineae, explaining such terms as God, the Sabbath, and 
many allusions and references which are absolutely unintel- 
ligible to the Chinese mind. 

What has been accomplished already in China ? Chinese 
missions are only two generations old, and yet much has 






R(l)ri«Uu-tion from a Chinese I':iinliiiK- 



been done. Looking at it, nuniorically, it seems very Btnall 
to talk of 40,uu.! converts out of three hundred nnUion8,-one 
in 7 500 Still smaller do."S it look when you go into a vast 
city'like Canton, l>eking or Hankow and see the swarmnig 
millions on the Sabbath day, pouring out through the busy 
streets in pursuit of gain, and in ignorance of God, and then 
find your way to a little chapel or two, where a handful ot 
saved men and women are worshipping the true God amid 
this great mass of ungodliness. 

But there are other standpoints from which it appears 

anything but small. 

It is no small thing that, in all the great cities of China, 
notwithstanding the bitter antagonism of the nation, strong 
mission centres have been planted, and native congregations 
have been gathered, which stand continually before the 
eyes of the natives as demonstrations of the fact of a living 
Christianity and samples of its blessed character, influences 
and power, as well as distributing centres from which the 
truth is going out, not only from the Uving voice, but also 
from the printed page, to thousands. 

It is no small fact that, by dint of faith, patience and holy 
tact more thanone hundred great strategic points in the in- 
terior have been secured and opened in missionary centres, 
from which every province but one can be re. ; ed, and in 
fact at least evangelized. These are trains alonf, which the 
heavenly dynamite is boing scattered, but the laying of a 
train is often half the battle, and God may, in a single hour, 
flaah all along these lines the fire of His heavenly power, and 



encircle tlic cnipin; with His glory. The uiowt difficult tiling 
for a general is to get a good position, and in China it is a 
great thing to get any ])osition at all. But as we look over 
the map of China, we shall find that tlie hest centres in most 
of the provinces have heen given to the army of ('hrist dur- 
ing th(5 past (juarter of a century. 

It is hut a few years since more than half the provinces 
of China were wholly unoccupied. Within a little more than 
a decade the immense province of Szchuen, witli nearly thirty 
millions of people, has heeii occupied, in some of its i)rincipal 
centres, by half a dozen societies. The two provinces of 
Yunnan and Kvvei-chow, in the Southwest, have been occupied 
in a number of places l)y that brave pioneer Society which 
has done more than all others to open interior China, —the 
China Inland Mission. The same Society has pushed its sta- 
tions into Shensi and Kansuh, which constitute the North- 
western frontier of China, and now another society has joined 
them in Shensi. Within the same time Honan and Shansi, 
in the North, have been ])lanted, with several stations, and 
already we may say that that missionary army has been able 
to place its outposts on the salient points of all the Western 
provinces but Hunan. This is, indeed, a great deal, and only 
one who has been in China and seen the difficulties of getting 
a single outpost can fully understand it. 

Then it is no small matter that a native church has been 
gathered in many various centres, and has given to the world 
a loving demonstration of what the Gospel can <1() for Chi- 
nese men and women. The first Chinese convert that, after 



LAST (./J.vpsj-s or r ft ISA. 


cult thirty 
lina it ik a 
look over 
es irj most 
'hrist dur- 

more than 
Lilly thirty 
■4 principal 
Dvinces of 
n occupied 
ety which 
tiina, -the 
led its sta- 
he North- 
has joined 
lid Shansi, 
itions, and 
t l>een ahle 
e Western 
I, and only 
of getting 

1 has heen 

the world 

for Chi- 

that, after 

seven years of waiting, n^warded the faith of Rohert Morri- 
son, was the pledge of all the rest. Tiie first forty thousand 
converts that, after two generations, have rewarded the faith 
of the church, ar«i the patterns and the pledges of the millions 
that God can as easily gather from the land of Sinini. 

When a man wants to manufacture a valuahlti machine, 
he first makes a mod(>l, and he takes a good while to i»erfect 
it. Years often are spent in tests and improvements, until 
at last his model is ready and his patent is issued. Then it is 
easy to multiply it hy millions. 

During these years God has been preparing His patterns 
in China. He has been waiting, piahaps, for a higher type 
of native Christians. And when He gets them He can easily 
multiply them by millions. In the churches at home we 
have often quantity enough ; what we want is (juality, — a 
higher, nobler, diviner type. 

Thank God, some of these have be«ni rising up in China. 
We have met some noble specimens of native Christians. 

There is an old man in one of the cities on the Yangtse, 
whose elder brother threatened to bury him alive if he did not 
conform to the native custom and have his mother buried 
with idolatrous rites. He stood firm, and told his family that 
it was a rare privilege to be permitted to suffer persecution 
for Jesus' sake. He would have stood unto death, had not 
God delivered \\h by laying His hand on that wicked brother 
and taking him us of the world. 

There are two men in China, who, a few months ago, 
when Mr. and Mrs. Turner were to be beaten in Western Sz- 




chuen. t.> api>eaHe the l.«ople, offered to take the punishment 
theiuHelves, an<l now, instead of wanti..^ syn.pathy, they are 
said to be the happi<!Ht men in China. 

Tlieie is an old native pastor in Shansi, whose 8i...ple 
faith in God has brought help and healing to th<.usands and 
who teaches his people to trust God Just as Pastor Blumhardt 
i„ Germany, Dr. in I.ondon. Dr. Culhs n. Boston 
and others. There are thousands of native Christians m 
Shantung, who, according to the testimony of Dr. ^evln8 
believe in the unchanged power of the Son of God to cast out 
devils, and who, in thousands of cases, have claimed ttie de- 
liverance of Satan's captives, and seen the power of God, as 

in the days of old. 

And s.) God has been preparing the forces and posting 
them at the great strategic points, not so much with refer- 
ence to the mere preliminary results which we have yet seen, 
but preparatory to the great advance which He is abou to 
make, we earnestly believe, with a view to the evangehzatioa 
of the whole of this mighty Empire. 


Hi punishment 
athy, they are 

whose Hii.iple 
housands, and 
tor Bhimhardt 
lUis in Boston, 
3 Christians in 
of Dr. Kevins, 
Ood to cast out 
ilainied the de- 
Avor of God, as 

i;ea and posting 
uch with refer- 
B liave yet seen, 
He is about to 



THE London Missionary Society is one of the oldest— in- 
deed, thi! oldest society in Cliina. Under its auspices, 
Morrison, Mcnlhurst and Marshman came as the first 
l)ionoers to the closed gates of Canton. It is still one of the 
strongest and most successful agencies in the empire. We 
had the plea.^ure of meeting its missionaries at their central 
stations in Canton, Shanghai, Hankow, Tientsin and Peking, 
•and seeing nmch of its substantial work. It is one of the 
most conservative societies in China, and believtis in doing 
good and solid work, and taking time to do it well. Its mis- 
sionaries are well paid and, as a rule, well qualifte<l and some- 
what highly educated. Its work in Hankow is, perhaps, the 
best type of its methods and success. Rev. Griffith John, 
the head of that Mission, is a man of great strength of per- 
sonal character, and his influence :s strongly felt throughout 
.the whole Mission, and, indeed, the whole of China. The 
special feature of the Mission is the concentration of the 
forces at the centre and the building up of a strong work 
there, without attempting too wide a (drcle. The London 
Society has done grand service in all its great centres, but 
only aims directly to occupy a limited field, and it represents 



the idea of concentration rather than wide-spread distrihu- 


At the other extreme stands the China Inland Mission,, 
representing the idea of a universal and ever-aggressive evan- 
gelism for the whole of China. Its history is an inspiring 
and instnu^tive lesson. It hegan with the personal work of 
its founder, Mr. Hudson Taylor, nearly thirty years ago, and 
has grown up in a generation to be the largest missionary 
agency in China and in the world. 

Its great distinctive purpose has ever been to send the- 
Gospel to the unoccupied portions, and, especially, the in- 
terior of China. It has so far succeeded in this glorious ob- 
ject that its stations are now planted in all but four of the- 
provinces of China, and its evangeUsts have preached in all,, 
we believe. It is the only society laboring in a number of 
the interior provinces, viz., Yunnan, Kwei-chow andKansuh, 
and it was the first to enter Sz-chuen, Shensi, Shansi and 
Honan, where others have since followed, and are building 
on the foundations laid by these brave pioneers. It has also 
many stations in the provinces of Che-Kiang, Kiang-su, 
Kiangsi, Ghanwhei, Shantung, Chih-li and Hupeh, where the 
older societies are chiefly grouped. Altogether it has more 
than five hundred missionaries, and occupies over one hun- 
dred stations in the best strategic points throughout the em- 

Its government is Episcopal, the whole work being under 
a director, and each point of the field governed by a superin- 
tendent. Its missionaries are characterized by much sim- 


)iea(l distribU' 

nland Mission,, 
s an inspiring 
reonal work of 
years ago, and 
est missionary 

in to send the 
icially, the in- 
lis gloi'ious ob- 
ut four of the- 
reached in all, 
1 a number of 
w andKansuh, 
Lsi, Shansi and 
d are building 
s. It has also 
ang, Kiang-su, 
ipeh, where the 
er it has more 
over one hun- 
ighout the em- 

)rk being under 

i by a superin- 

by much sim- 

r///r MISSION Ak'V outlook in china. 


plicity, self-denial and consecrated zeal. Its methods are ag- 
gressive and economical. Its history is a record of faith, 
providence and the power of the H »ly Ghost. Its unwritten 
record, every week, is full of incidents, revealing the spirit 
of true sacrifice and heroism and the mighty working of God 
in many parts of China. Doubtless, it has the imperfec- 
tions of all human things, but in its chief aims, as an aggres- 
sive, economical and far-reaching effort to evangelize China 
by humble, consecrated and Scriptural agencies, it has so far 
been successful in an extraordinary degree, and it is as yet 
only at the threshold of holy career. 

Between these two societies, a great number of others 
may be ranked as they partake more of the peculiar charac- 
teristics of either. 

The Presbyterian Missions are located in most of the 
great centres. The Northern Presbyterians are .strongly es- 
tablished in Canton, Shangliai, Nanking, Chefoo and Peking. 
Their most suc-cessful Mission is in Chefoo, and is represented 
by such names as Drs. Nevius and Corbett. 

The Southern Presbyterians are working along tiie Grand 
Canal in the province of Kiang-su. The Canadian Presby- 
terians, after a brave fight, have won a good position in Ho- 
nan. The English Presbyterians have a noble work in Amoy 
and Swatow, founded by Wm. Burns. The Irish and United 
Presbyterians have a fine work in Neuchang and Manchuria, 
ii northern province, just outside of China proper. 

The Baptists have a most successful Mission in Swatow, 
and have recently entered the great province of Sz-chuen. 



I i 


The Southern Baptists have a good work in Canton and 
vicinity, and also in Shanghai. The Enghsh Baptists are 
in Shantung, the Canadian Baptists in Shensi, and the 
Seventh Day Baptists in Shanghai. 

The Methodists have a strong work in China. The Eng- 
lish Methodists are very strong in Canton, Hankow, and 
vicinity, and Tientsin. The Canadian Methodists have found- 
ed a strong Mission in Sz-chuen, under Mr. Hart, formerly 
of our Board. The Southern Methodists have a good work 
in Shanghai and vicinity, and the Northern Methodists have 
strong Missions in Foochow, Nanking, Ku-Kiang, Wuhu, 
Chin-Kiang, Tientsin and Peking. As in India, their meth- 
ods are well planned and strongly carried out, and while a 
good deal of their work is educational, yet it is pervaded by 
a most earnest and aggressive spirit, and baptized with the 

Holy Ghost. 

The American Board has a good work m Canton, m 

Shantung, in Peking, and in Shansi. 

The American Episcopalians are posted along the Yang- 
tse at Shanghai, Wuchang, and other points. The English 
Episcopalians are at Peking, Suchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, 
Hong Kong, and several other points. The Disciples are 
working in Central China at Nanking and Wuhu. The Quak- 
ers are at Nanking. Several Swedish and Norwegian Socie- 
ties are working at Wuchang and Hankow. Several German 
Societies are very strongly estaWished in Quantung and Hong 
Kong. The Woman's Union Missionary Society have an ex- 
cellent school and hospital in Shanghai. And the great Bible 



Cauton and 
[Baptists are 
isi, and the 

I. The Eng- 
[ankow, and 

have found- 
irt, formerly 
a good work 
hodists have 
ang, Wuhu, 
, their meth- 

aud while a 
\ pervaded by 
ized with the 

n Canton, in 

mg the Yang- 
The Enghsh 
50, Shanghai, 
Disciples are 
lu. TheQuak- 
fwegian Socie- 
jveral German 
ung and Hong 
ty have an ex- 
bhe great Bible 

■/■///: jf/ss/(hVAA'yor77.ooA-/xc//L\'.-i. 471 

Societies of England, Scotlan.l, an.l America are working in 

all parts of the empire. 

This is but a general a.ul imperfect view of the distribu- 
tion of the chief batallions of the missionary army < )ur 
own youthful and humble work, as we have already sliown. 
is establishing itself in five different centres : Quangsi in be 
south, Ghanwhei in the centre, Wuchang in the west, 1 e- 
king in the northeast, and Shansi in the far -rtb and aims 
to pursue lines and methods similar to those of the China 

Inland Mission. . 

We have seen many methoas of missionary work m 
China. There is much e-lucational work, and it has a certam 
value, especially where it is utilized to prepare workers for 
the evangelistic field, but we Mieve the convct.on is gen- 
eral that the greatest need of China is evangelism rather than 
education. There is also nmch n.edical mission work, an, 
we have examined it with great interest and seen a good deal 
ot the hospital and dispensary system in Canto.,, Nanking, 
Shanghai Wuhu. Hankow and Tientsin, and we have a high 
!pp:^r ion of its value under proper conditions. There can 
Tno doubt of its utility in attracting the atten ion and 
toterest of the natives and opening their minds to listen to 
he Gospel. In the various mission hospitals of China, more 
hanhdf a million ,.eople ai-e annually brought into direct 
ZLt with Christianity and Christian teachers, who wou^d 
stably be cached in no other way. They come t,^th^ 
hospitals and dispensaries for treatment, and all of hem 
stay long enough to hear th,. Gospel once, and some of them 







stay for weeks mikI are taught as regularly as they are pre- 
scribed foi'. Their successful ti'citnieiit inspii-es them with 
giatitude. and a measure of confidence in the missionary, and 
they are, at least, more ready to hear his message. Only- 
one who knows something of the intense indifference and 
contem])t which the ordinary Chinaman feels for Christian- 
ity and the foreigner can appreciate even this advantage. 
Now. if this could he thoroughly followed up in every case, 
and wholly turned to missionary account, it would be of 
mucli greater value. Often, we feai-, through the over- 
pressure of the medical staff, the service rendered is chiefly a 
luofi'ssional one. and there is not time or workers sufficient 
to follow every case to his or her house, and make these im- 
l)ortant beginnings links in a thorough system of evangehsm ; 
and so much is lost. The staff ought to be strong enough to 
enable every medical missionary to give, at least, half his 
time to evangelistic work. Where he is simply a successful 
surgeon, and his record shows how many difficult operations 
lie has performed in the year, and Ikhv much suffering and 
mortality he has prevented, he had better remain at home 
and practice his profession under more favorable circum- 
stances than he can find in China. Medical missions have no 
value save as an entering wedge for the Gospel, and as such 
they have still, if properly directed and guarded, a real 
utility in China, especially in the opening of new fields where 
the prejudice against Christianity and foreigners is so great 
that the ordinary missionary would not be permitted to enter 
or reside. 


hey are pre- 
? them with 
siouary, and 
sage. Only 
Terence and 
)r Christian- 
L every case, 
vould be of 
li the over- 
i is chiefly a 
irs sufficient 
ke these ini- 
evangelisni ; 
g enough to 
ast, half his 
a successful 
t operations 
iffering and 
lin at home 
ible circum- 
ions liave no 
and as such 
•ded, a real 
fields where 
5 is so great 
tted to enter 

7///; .1//.V.SA).V./A")- OI'TI.OOK IS' CHfSA. 


We have no sympathy with the objection which is some- 
times nia<h^ by the friends of Divine healing, and which has 
been sent to us by tlie last mail from Australia in a folio of 
many j.ages, viz., that such missions are contrary to the 
Scriptures and the principles of Divine healing. We do not see 
this. Divine lu-aling is f..r God's c-hildren who know how to 
trust Him. But medical missions are for poor heathen who 
4o not know anything of the T.ord. an<l who must first be 
brought to listen to the truth and learn t<. trust the Saviour 
for themselves. 

So far as method is concerned, we umst frankly say that 
we have seen much good under all methods, and while, doubt- 
less, all things being equal, the best results will be obtamed 
under th,> best modes of working, yet much more depends 
upon the spirit of the worker, an.l a man full of the Holy 
Ghost and the hn-e of souls will be blessed with fruit under 

any St'riptural system. 

Undoubti^dly, the most valuable agency in China is the 
native woikers themselves. They can reacli their country- 
men as the foreigner never can. Especially in the strongly 
anti-foreign provinces like Hunan and (^langsi we must rely 
chietly upon them to introduce the Gospel. The great diffi- 
culty "is to procure them. God is slowly raising up a small 
army of native preac-bers who are of inestimable value. 
Money cannot obtain them-indeed. it often spoils them. God 
only can i)roduce an.l prepare them. Let us pray the Lord of 
the harvest to send forth many of these laborers mto His 



! :i 


Through all these various agencies, now having;;, perhaps, 
1,500 foreign missionaries and twice as many natives, there 
are in the whole of China several hundred centres of Gospel 
influence and j (reaching, and about 4<»,000 members gathered 
into the various native churches. 

When we consider all the difficulties of the situation, this 
18, as we have said, iimch, — very much. The points that have 
been occupied represent great centres of work, and great pos- 
sibilities of future expansion and great victories over almost 
insuperable difficulties. 

But when we compare even this with the yet iinoccupied 
field, we shrink appalled from the spectacle of China's desti- 

If we take even the provinces that are most fully occu- 
pied, the yet neglected wastes are simply immense. Qnan- 
tang is the oldest missionary field in China, and is ordinarily 
regarded as a fairly evangelized province. And yet, within 
five miles of Canton, we visited villages where a foreigner 
was an absolute novelty, and Dr. Henry tells us in his volume 
that if he had them he could place more than one hundred 
missionaries along the lines that have been opened up by the 
Presbyterians alone in that single province. 

The province of Kiang-su. in Central China, is one of the 
best occupied in the empire. It is the province in which the 
great centres of Shanghai, Nanking, Su-chow, Hang-chow, 
Yang-chow and Chin-Kiang are situated with their strong 
missions. It is also one of the coast provinces, and not in 
the interior at all. The groat Yangtse River runs through 


tig, perhaps, 
itives, there 
!S of Gospel 
^rs gathered 

tuation, this 
its that have 
id great pos- 
over almost 

lina's desti- 

fuUy occii- 
ose. Quan- 
s ordinarily 

yet, within 
a foreigner 

I his volume 
ne hundred 
d up hy the 

8 one of the 

II which the 
their strong 

and not in 
>ns throngrh 

■n//-: .v/ss/OA-.i^'y ofr/.ooA- ix cnrsA. 


it in one direction and the Grand Canal ,n anothe. And yet 
n^issionaries who have been through the ^^^^^^^ 
ince during the past year, told us o vdlage afte -Hag. and 
citv after city, and cities great and populous, too, that ha.l 
: fd ne/e'r have had a single voice to teU the.. ..Jesu. 
The great province of Ghanwhei is m the h(^art of China. 
The great highway of national travel runs through its midst 
T^:^ of acceL, lying on hoth sides .. the Yaiigts. and 
not more than four hundred miles from the coast. It had a 
population before the rebellion as large as France. It ha 
!ow nerhaps twenty millions. In it there are several great 
Tu^' dZ 'which'are capitals of districts, and there are 
nearly sixty walled county towns or ''H'sien^' eities. as they 
a e cllled, besides hundreds of great market towns and hcni- 
sands -yes, tens of thousands- .>f populous villages and yet, 
ut :; an this population and out of all tl-e ^^^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
to-day less than ten separate points occupied in all tins prov 
nee and if our Alliance missionaries are counted out, there 
T'aW a dozen foreign missionaries, all told, among all 

the^p tens of millions. . 

And what shall we s..y of the „-eat interior pvovmce. 
Hunan, with perhaps fifteen millions of inhabitants, has not 
Tsing.; missionary. Kwei-ehow ami ^nnnan - the «.u h 
west have just a few pioneer stations of *« Chma In 
Cd Mission The same is true of Kansuh and Shensnn the 
"est. And Quangsi, in the south, is yet v.rgnr so,l In 
:S^hTna there 1 about ,,..>0 of these •■H's.en c,t,es o. 
f unty towns, and each of then, represents a population o£ 


■ iiiHv iiMittteaif>a-« I - 



nearly a (luaitor of a inilliou souls. It is not too much to 
say that proljably l,40(» of them are yet without a niissiou- 
aiy. The <lestitution is, indeed. apj)aUing. 

And the ditficulties are very great. Each new city that 
is occupied re]»resent8 months and sometimes years of patient 
tact, beUeving prayer and heroic hai'dship. As an angler 
would catch a fish, so nnist the missionary catch, "with 
guile," this unfiiendly race. First, the town must be visited, 
perhaps again and again, by the evangelist, as he pioneers 
and feels his way. Then a native worker nmst go for a time 
and slowly win his way into the confidence of some of the 
])eople. Then a house must, if possible, be rented, and often 
this is imjwssible. The pm-chasing of land or building of a 
house is out of the question for at least five or ten years. It 
is a great thing if you can get a lease of a native house. And 
when you do, you must not alter it so as to attract any atten- 
tion, or you will cross some of their superstitious prejudices. 
After you have moved in and settled down, it is quite possi- 
ble you may be diiven out by an anti -foreign mob before a 
month, and the man that rented you the house beaten by the 
authorities for letting you in. Or, if they let you stay, it is 
simply on sufferance. E^ ery dog on the street growls at you 
as an offense. Every buffalo on the road snuffs at you as an 
intruder. Every small boy is apt to call you a "foreign 
devil." And you may feel highly complimented if, after two 
years, the neighbors deign to nod to you on the street or bid 
you good morning. 

That is about the story of the opening of an ordinary 


much to 
I rnission- 

T city that 
of patient 
an angler 
;h, ''with 
be visited, 
3 pioneers 
for a time 
me of the 
and often 
Iding of a 
years. It 
)use. And 
any atten- 
uite possi- 
b before a 
ten by the 
stay, it is 
kvls at you 
you as an 
' ' foreign 
after two 
reet or bid 

I ordinarv 

THF. M/SSIO\.lKy OUTLOOK' /.V ClirNA. 477 

Chinese town. And when you think of the fourteen hun- 
dred municipal cities that are yet to be entered, and the more 
than a million villages ytto be evangelized, it will be inam- 
fest, we think, how real a task lies before the Church of Go<l 
and how stirring the challenge that is summoning our faith 
and courage to prove our God to the uttermost these last 
years of the Century and the Dispensation. 

What can be done to meet this need more effectually ? 
1 Make the most of the existing centres and hues of 
operation. They have cost much. Utilize them to the ut- 
most Support every existing mission in China with all the 
backing it can receive. If we could persuade a thousand mis- 
sionaries to go to China, and a thousand people to support 
them in connection with all the existing boards and agencies, 
we would just as gladly do so as through our own. Only as 
many missionaries can be used in China as there are open^ 
ings for, and when these openings have been already prepared 
at great strategic points, man them, and man them to the 
uttermost. The force at all the existing stations in China 
might probably be doubled, and every station could, without 
the least difficulty, take care of the duplicates and find su- 
perb openings for them as soon as they are ready. Indeed 
at one of the great mission centres in China, some of the old 
missionaries of the other boards offered to take a number of 
our young men and women and keep them for three years, 
teaching them the methods of mission work and receiving 
their help in many ways in which even a junior missionary 
could assist. We wish we could reach the ear of the churches 



„, .,„„... ..a „.,..a wuh t.-e,„ to se„a « w„„u. ..^ at 

„„«, t,.™ the lorn. "^ P-^-' ,^ -;„, „„„ „„„ared 

^„ wish. ->»-^ •_, ;^ J:„ „t,Uo,«whKhth« China 
ment<.»ui.|.lom...itth.M,.u,lm « ^^ 

''""f 4l"r a, ne.- agencies a,v concerned, and onr own 

2. So «•" "' "*^'' /^ ^„„,e conditions peculiar to 

r' ':hrsrc!w.;a itthoiLihiiityoenn-itiplyingthe 

China, <"- «""^^ ^^„^.,. ,„„„tries. Wecannot send men 
forces as rap.dly >« ' "' „„^ ^ ,«„„ o£ money 

at will to any part of t hm. . " „„,t be 

-"'"rf::":: d try :r::":,«t fro™ Uesai. 

^'T nel A net min without the language cannot 
ready opened. A .c« ^..^^ j,^^ ,^„. 

"'^""'':/n::\::cri o, lanewandanti-foreigncity. 

,,ist or an "P"---— --::::;. ^^^ iX and 
prejudice, preach the (.ospu ^_^^ ^^_^^^ 

^,«, a while secure premises. " '*«;j ^,„.^,^ ^3 

J. * Ua firt^t, centres and its expen^""^" 
time to get its fitst centr ^ .^..^ion must neces- 

::^7h:r::htgri:i.*x\he muUucationo.»pia.t 


e hundred 
1 the Chma 
(ry |)art of 
reinforce - 
ini\y rnain- 
,he work of 
at it is not 
or HiB dear 

lid our own 
I peculiar to 
Itiplying the 
tot send men 
on of money 
,vay must be 
111 centres al- 
;uage cixnnot 
A-ith the lan- 
.-foreign city. 
I native evau- 
j way, disarm 
>ll books, and 
mission some 
I workers and 
1 nmst neces- 
tion of a plant 

'/•///; ;J//.s.s/(^V./A')- OUTLOOK IN CHINA. 479 

from a single root. The more centres it can have the better, 
if they are sufficiently eonnected to secnr. united woi-kmg 
and mutual support. Therefore, we hav. planted already m 
China a of central stations in different sections, and 
in each of these we have begun to scatter the workers ^^^ 
parties ..f two, to their mM>arate stations just as fast as they 
lave the language and can obtain oiKunngs. In this ^v^ we 
are preparing posts for new recruits, and after a while we 
ZIZ. a doL>n <.r a score of centi.s, to each of which a 
ittle band of reinforcements can go, and from which hey. 
in their turn, can start new centres which shall, in their turn, 
nudtiply yet more widely until all the field is covered. 

In the province of Ghanwhei already there is room for 
at least, a hundred such centres, and each of these should 
have f om two to five missionaries. Wuchang, our latest 
centre looks out to the south, the west and the north on 
n ot than half a dozen great provinces, each of which needs 
at least, one hundred centres, and three hundred men as fas 
as the openings can be found and the men placed. Oui 
Swedish friends in Northern Shansi hope to «i;;-d -e long 
through Shansi and Kansuh, but the forty who have just 
gone ai. as many as can be profitably located now, and as 
?hey become established they will move forwai^ and prepare 
the way for others. In Quangsi, in the south, a party o 
half a dozen can be immediately utihzed, and as they plant 
the soles of their feet upon the land, P-^^aps a dozen^^^^^^^^^ 
can join them, and they, in turn, can double until this 
Tglited field shall be planted with a hundred points of 



light It is thu« that the w„rk nuist «o on i.. ( lii.u., by a 
wise' proK., .>Bion, accrf.vating .s it «>•.,«», untU, ,„ a ej 
year, then, n,,-! be - a^ly any to t ... nu.nber of 
.Kencie, that may b,. .i, «rihute,I a..,l .•"M*)y«l- 

Of course, the ai,n of all ..ur foreign aKenaen .« to ra.»e 
• „,, an arn,y of native worke,. an.l train th,.,n to ,lo th.K work 
themnelve,. Bnt this ,,roce,s is -"■"•'«''»' ;'''"' •;"',' V™ 
present generation of China is to be evangeh/..Hl ,t ,n«st 1« 
Ey I'y foreign agency. Foreign . vangelism .« n.ore sue. 
ceLl in China than in n.ost other fields. In In.ha very 
Zy of the missionaries are chietly superintendents anU 
train the natives to do n.ost of the ,„oneer work. Bntm 
China the most successfnl „,ission,mes are »'-"-" 
persistent evangelists. Men like Dr. Henry, of Cant«D 
O if^th ..ohn, of Hankow, Dr. Corbett, of Si,antung, and 
many mo., sioh well-known ,.a,.u.s, with all the.r g,eat ex- 
Itive and litera.y ability, delight to go o„t a..,ong the ,«». 
pie on long and perilous evangelistic tours and ,,r^»h the 
Cl in their language fron. village to village a,„. house to 
houL And we are glad to be able to say that he C toese 
language is not nearly such a Je.icho as .t seemed. Ihl.gen 

toe Ilmost any diligent and faithful student can do much 
useful work within a year, and can do ,n s.x 
Znths. It is not half so difRolt as Japanese a.,d we judge 
TrTt much harder than the languages of Ind,a ,n Burmah. 
F.^egn children pick it ..p more quicklv than Enghsh. Ite 
;Lb »re as simple a..d monc«yllab.c. ■, ■ .■'. charaae,« 


la KlJfSSfflS^ 

„j,„e5«t-S.»i'^S=«-**'^^'~"-"-' ^ 

( hiiiji, by a 

il, in a ft'vv 

number of 

iH Ik to raise 
lo thiH work 
, and if the 
, it mxiBt ho 
is nu»ro suc- 
i India very 
eudents, and 
ork. But in 
ccessful and 

of Canton, 
lantung, and 
leir {^reat ex- 
iiong the peo- 
d preach the 
1 and house to 
t the Chinese 
led. Diligent 
vsonably short 
b can do much 
lething in six 
, and we judge 
ia or Burmah. 
1 Enghsh. lis 

jf'i characteiB 

■nn: .^nssrox.ARy ocn.ooh' r.\' riirs'.i. 481 

pictorial, giving a vivid and ocular image of the thing .h'tin.d 
Of course, it tak.^ . ^xny years fo acpiire perfect :hien. y ami 
accurate co.unnuul of the langu.g.. But no one need de- 
spair of oven this within a re,.Ho,uihle time, and -. kn.Avev.n 
young missionaries like Mr. Johnston an.l Mr. Stanley Smith, 
who siieak it with won.lerful froed..rn and ix)WPr. 

For our own work in e'hina, the innnediate if>eds that 
have been pressing upon our heart and mind during these 

busy months have been : " 

1 A thorough organization and .ompetent superintend- 
ence of the whole field an<l work. This, we are glad to say, 
has been granted us in the good providence of God, and as 
we leave the Eastern Hemisphere our good brother, Mr. Lela- 
chenr, has already reached his post at Wuhu, ar-d, in eonfer- 
ence ^ith our brethren there, is getting ready lor the great 


2 A judicious and comprehensive plan, provi- mg tor the 
needs of our work for the next few years, and adapted to 
reach the most needed of the neglected fields, and a-comphsh 
the utmost possible for the evangelization of China durmg 
the present generation, at least through the mean^ and re- 
sources at our command. This, we trust, GckI has .lao been 
directing us to do, and our forces are already being di tnbuted 
along a number of concerted lines of operation, an<i accoTd- 
ing to a prayerful and intelligent plan. 

Z The distribution of our workers in as many iistmct 
fiekte as can be judiciously opened. And this also ha. V.egun 
aud within a month, even since we left China, .we ha e had 



the most encouraging .epovt. of o,«ning. that have been 
foil ana are being occnpied in new and most important sta- 

"""4 A n.issionary home where our new missionaries can at 
once be received and cared for while they are Btudymg the 
:„guage during the first six or twelve months nn , defim 
openings can he found for them in special fields This, also is 
in p"«ess. And we trust, before the close of the yearsuch a 
hoL .ill be ready on the Yangtse at Wuhu, to be fohowed, 
perhaps, by others, if need be, in other parts of the field. 
'^ 6 i number of bauds of consecrated men ard women 
but es,«cially men, to prepare for work in the mtenor of 
Ch „a We do rrot feel, at present, that the time has come 
to- much woman's work in connection with our work m 
China except a small number of married women to go 
tte,r husbands, and a few such unmarried women as are 
X and thoroughly fitted, and intelligent w.nmg for the 
hardships and privations of pioneer work m the mtenor. % e 
d* ant any woman to go to China mrless she knows 
■ust what this means and chooses it uncompromismgly and 
unreservedly by the Lord's own leadmg. 

But we do want several companies of young men, men 
of the highest calibre, men of gi-eat intelligence, much prac- 
ticll w^om, fair education, deep piety, strong courage, real 
eW dluM and such spiritual resources that they are not go- 
:' to gSlonesle and unhappy when cut off h-om human 
coCntship andsympathy. Moreover, they should bemon 
^Ivtely caSed to the work, and so utterly given up to.t. 


lat have been 
important sta- 

ionaries can at 
5 studying the 
i, until definite 
s. This, also, is 
the year such a 
to be followed, 
)f the field, 
en ard women, 
the interior of 
time has come 
h our work in 
men to go with 
women as are 
willing for the 
ihe interior. We 
iiless she knows 
promisingly and 

y^oung men, men 
mce, much prac- 
)ng courage, real 
they are not go- 
off from human 
ley should be men 
ly given up to it. 



that they are wilhng to abandon all thought of marriage, and 
go out to a real pioneer soldier life for at loast four or five 
years, until they have cut their way through all their early 
difficulties and won a permanent station and home where, if 
the Lord leads them, they may then begin to think of a more 
settled home-life and work. We want half a dozen such 
men for Quangsi, in the south ; a dozen, at least, for Central 
China ; and half a dozen for Wuchang and Western China 
besides others for Thibet and Northern China. Only God 
can give these workers. Let us pray the Lord of the Harvest 

to send them. ,,. t. , 1 

6 We need a few reinforcements for Miss Duow s work 
in Peking, but these are already arranged for, we believe. 

7 We hope to be able to send more Swedish missionaries 
as soon as the present large party in Shansi shall have become 
properly disposed of, and estabhshed in their work, so that 
others can take their places or join them in their work. 

8 And wfc need a few married couples, at certain points, 
to form the heads of homes, and take charge of necessary 
executive departments of the work. 

9 We greatly need native helpers. These are difficult 
to obtain, and have usually to be raised up out of our own 
work God has given us a few. Let us ask Him for many 
more and for the wisdom needed to provide for the traimng 
of this most essential class of helpers. We shall soon need, 
doubtless, a training school for native evangelists. 

10 Above all, we need the working of His mighty Prov- 
idence* and the power of Hi. Holy Spirit. Nothing can be 

aw ^wiu-M Mig WB*' — " 



! ' I 


done in China without On,!. The work is transcendently 
difficult and n,ust he all Divine. For this reason we ha™ 
mXr class of missionaries in China such as we have found, 
Tot: Lme degree, in no other «eld ; n,en and --n^d-^ y 
conscious, as a ml.., of their utter ^^^^^'^^l' T^f^^^l 
us pray for them, let us pray for our own breth.en uncea. 
Lly that they may be strong in the Ix>rd and the power " 
Z might, for they wrestle not against flesh and blood but 
Slinst principalities and powers, against the rulers of the 
rrls'of this world ; against spiritual wicke.lness m hjgl 
nlaces " Put on, therefore, the whole armor of God that 
ylTay be able to withstand in the evil day and havmg 
LTall to stand. . . . Praying always wth all praye 
^d supplication in the spirit, and with a" pe.-ver»c» fo. 
Ssainte" . . that all utterance may be given them to 
^reir mouths boldly for the Gospel for which they are 
ambassadors in bonds. 



son we have 
5 have found, 
romen deeply 
on God. Let 
;hren unceas- 
the power of 
nd blood, but 
rulers of the 
idness in high 
of God, that 
, and having 
ith all prayer 
rseverance for 
given them to 
k^hich they are 



WE had scarcely got out of the Yau^•tse when we no- 
ticed the extraordinary speed at which the steamer 
was going. Every fibre fairly quivered with tl^e 
strain of her tremendous engines. All that day and the next 
s c flirly Hew over the sea of Japan, until the spray dashed 
^hc tairiy n^ slackened her pace 

in fine ram over our taceb, ana sne ue 

until at svu.set. the next night, we saw before us the high 
rocks that guard the entrance to the ^^-'•^^«^-^^^^;2^^;^ 

We soon learned the cause. We were flyn.g fro m a t) - 
phoon,one of those tremendous cyclones that strike the east- 
er "L in summer like a lightning breath, and m an mstant 
Lto nbbons the stoutest sail, and strong enough to enable 
he vessel to sail and steer by the bare mast, when even tha 
not torn away by the terrihc gale. Even the strongest 
lamship has all she can do even to hold her course m the 
te^h of the tvphoon. A friend of ours was caught m one 
1 summer, h! one of the great ships of the French Mail Lme 
rurfmest/perhap., in the East. For three days he says 
they were all locked down stairs, while the great slnp was 
hterally lifted up and dashed down again -f^g^';- ^.^^^ f 
plavthing in the grasp of a giant, untd it would seem as if it 




must be pounded to pieces, and at the eud of the storm they 
found that they had hardly moved a mile on their course 

And so it was a little exciting to know that a telegram 
had come to Shanghai that a typhoon had just left the for- 
mer port that day, travelling northward, and that we might 
get out of its course by swiftly speeding across the line of its 
march before it reached us. We saw no sign of its commg 
but we knew that these visitors come without notice, and 
that the sky, this moment bright and clear, might the very 
next be dark with the dreadful hurricane. 

But we quietly trusted and prayed, and the next night 
as we entered the harbor of Nagasaki, we knew that through 
God's goodness we had escaped it. The third day, as we sailed 
out of that harbor and rounded the coast to enter the Inland 
Sea, we were caught in its tail, and the slight shaking we got 
gave us a very faint idea of what its clutches would have 

^''' These tremendous storms usually start at the Philippine 
Islands, and travelling in a narrow course with a revolving 
spiral motion, sweep on to Hong Kong and then up the Chi- 
nese coast, usually passing out to sea a little distance above 
Shanghai Thev mow a swath of desolation on land and sea, 
and many of th; hapless wrecks they leave are never known. 
The harbor of Nagasaki is said to be the prettiest m the 
Fast We do not consider it as fine as Hong Kong, which 
still remains, in our judgment, unapproached if not unap. 
proachable for picturesque grandeur. ,u,,„„h 

But the picture is exceedingly fine. You enter through 

FIRST c;Lnrps/:s oi-japax. 



a storm they 
ir course. 
it a telegram 
left the for- 
lat we might 
Lhe line of its 
if its coming, 
t notice, and 
light the very 

te next night, 
' that through 
y, as we sailed 
ter the Inland 
baking we got 
}s would have 

the Phihppine 
th a revolving 
len up the Chi- 
distance above 
n land and sea, 
3 never known, 
prettiest in the 
ig Kong, which 
id if not unap- 

u enter through 

ure, hke a Scotch Uke ^ ^^ ^,, „„,,,,„„d. 

The 1" effeiive angles, by some pvetty Ughthou^e or hand- 


1 of +Ho ViPfld of the little harbor, 
the native uty, w J ^ handsome bungalows, and 

green look like carvmgs and chasmgs on tne 
frame of the mirror that flashes below. 

ji^^i,w-"''i)riii ' n' wr^ 



\mong these hillB are the rocks where, more than two 
hundred years ago, the Martyr Christians of Japan wei-e 

liurled to death. , 

In these waters, too, was found that wonderful copy of 

the Bible, a quarter of a century ago, that led a whole vdlage 

to Christ, and formed one of the beautiful providential Imk. 

in the oi.ening of niodern missions in Japan 

Monday morning we began coaling, and we had a good 
opportunity to study native character. The ^V^^- ^^^^ 
up alongside, and a great crowd of boys and gn-^s unloaded 
these into the steamer. It was a curious sight to see those 
long chains of mere girls, as they seemed, standing one above 
another up the ladders on the sides of the ship a..d dow to 
the holds of the coal barges, passing m and out the full and 
eniptv baskets, with songs and shouts of merriment. \\ hat 
a little people, and what a joyous and cheerful people they 

""'^ A "riksha" ride through Nagasaki showed us the great 
Buddhist temple with its silly priests and performances, and 
V.retty stores and streets, so clean and so different from the 
nithy scenes we had just left in China. 

In the Afternoon we sailed out again, and after a little 
tumbling in the open sea, we entered, at length, the beauti- 
ful "Inland Sea," through which the rest of our voyage t« 

Kobe passed. 

The "Inland Sea" is the jewel of Japan. It has been 
compared to English, Swiss and Scottish lakes, and our own 
-Thousand Isles" of the St. Lawrence, or Lake George and 



3 than two 
fai)au were 

•ful copy of 
hole village 
lential links 

had a good 
liaiges came 
rls unloaded 
to see those 
ig one above 
and down to 
, the full and 
iient. What 
1 people they 

I us the great 
rniances, and 
lent from the 

a after a little 
,h, the heauti- 
our voyage to 

It has been 
, and our own 
ke Geox-ge and 


its isle-adovned bosoni. It is a sea of islands much larger 
than any of these expaiisos, and combining many elements 
of interest thev lack. It is about three hundred miles long, 
and varies in width from five to fifty miles. 

A sheet of light green water, at least three hundred 
miles long inside the ocean breakwaters, its surface as 
rmt>th as glass, save when its fair face dimples at the touch 

490 i.^/^^^^ orTLOOA-s ox .//.vv/oav/a'>- l.lxds. 

t Hu Umoni dotted with innuiner- 

able .sluiuls ">" S- y',;^ '^ ' ,„„, „„„„, »„„„ a tVw n,iU« 
and low, corneal a»^ '» ; ^ «,,^ „„ ,,,a,„t „„,, Vautiful •. 
and son.o '^ ^'^'^ /''',,'''„.,„, „£ Ught grey simd to ligl.t 

uptheu daik ^ue ^^^^ ^^^^^.^ ^^^^^ ^^,^^^ j^^^ 

into a ^^-";^-^^/"^;!°Jj,i^ islandB 

jewels cut by gigantic hands in many . .,,„^^,^.,gp,i ^itli 

iove^a with patches 0.. la... r«^ 

menaced '>-"^^;'^ jtjet^^ village nestling hy the 
green and »'";;;;, ,ig^,„„„,, with its snow white 
«ea ; here and the.. ^ P ^"^ ^ ^ ,,„„« ,„,Uy islet ; here 

tower and sta... """"""^ .„„^ a heautiful 

and thereaflshin. ^"^'^ZZ^Z:^^^"^'^ -Hh 
r^'^TiXlf e::r .' l-Tlnd „ers„eetive new a,.d 
tays »'\'" ^';. n,',' hU a ga.,len-everyMcagen» 
strangely heant.tul ■^■"^'y „ ,„,^^,„, s,a.- 


and la,.ds elevated into ™>»"ta...s -.n la^ .at ^ . 

Lawrence widened into a ^^^^^ ^ a .ine-clad sho-es 

banks of the H-'-" -;;';';; '^X^.™'-'^ »'"^ -- 

of the Rhine c, ^M-' ;,:^^ ' ,l„uf as Wi,.der„.ere or 

s:::::— "^tLtsU^co...^^^^ 



I innuiner- 
iliuulrt high 
I few iniU'tf 

beautiful *, 
iinl to hght 
tht'ir fronts 
ey look like 
118 -, islands 
persed with 
i „f lij^hter 
tling by tlio 

snow white 
T islet ; here 
, a beau tif til 
ulfutt'd with 
ve nev^ and 
ry isle a gem 
er and set in 
li their shores 
m-s of the St. 
It is the high 
le-dad shores 
anels and cir- 
rindermere or 

or Maggion;. 
ery charm as 
\ hold them all 

FIRST aLi.-irrslis of jAr.w. 


nut together, with the Tlu.usand Isles and Lake George 
tlvtn n We sailed through it for thirty hours, and our 
on yU was that nua-h of its lovehness -- l-t -^^e 
veil of mist and clouds that rested upon M. But it was 
;:etty enough to enable us to veali.e what .t nmst ho unde. 
a brilliant sun, and a clear, transparent sky. 



Tuesauy night toma "» ''""»« '"'" t**" '''"■''"'' "' '^°'*' 
a„.., „e.xt moving, our good fnend Mr. GuUok ou 
board early and took us ashore to breakfast at Mrs. BalUid , 
peasant missionary hon.e, just outside the town, under tho 

'"■^lotlsilhandson.o ci.y of ....>,"00 inhahitants, and 



492 /-tAv-v-A' orn.oo^-s ox >v/ .fOX-U-y i.axos. 
the Becona ..poH in Japan, .on.pHin. -ry Jauly^tl. 
Yokohan^afo.. the luvg. shippm, trade o ^^-^ '^^ J ^^ 
• 1 ia Tt is tiuelv Bituate.1 in an niegular frame ot lufca 
iBlauds It I. f "•^ y '^ ; ^,, ,,.,i, ,,„„„itH with terraced 

whi.h:u-.. |n'.-»l..-.' "? J='2'- " lil. a pointed rnlar. But 


' . 1 

•^ t. 



tbe pine t,ve ..£ Japan, eithe,- bom natural habit or fiomlong 
tr^in ng, i» a spveadins ti«, giving low, and dwarf shaped, 
often nt ove' twenty feet high, and oxtendn,g U. w,de 
trchos out ou evevy side with thick and •"— "'- ^ 
often more than fifty or even a hundred feet. I'"''"!' "»;« 
i, one groat pine in Japan nearly twee as bmad a. he 
;:l Banyan at Calcutta, whose wide extended branches 

■ "^^s^»^m!^?SSS3h 

iron Avith 

of higli 


ilinr trees 

and per 

lar. But 

FIRST <;/./.yrs/:s o/' j.iP.-ty- 


r from long 
arf shaped, 
ig its wide 
iant foliage, 
ideed, there 
•oad as the 
led branches of hu„,.ml« of f.^t i" ,lm„>..t...-, an,l ar. .«,- 
oorted by scores of artirtnul ]»oHts. 

•"' TL'efTect of the.e lot.,., fe^ U y-y «-• -^^ . 

green tints of tho hill™!-" ..■.• ".".■- vano,! th.u. - 

noticed anywhere else. . nuj^a and 

Mr,. Ballanl wa» fon,«,ly a n,isK,ona.T n> Ch na, and 

has -v most intulligunt and .'amest missionary «1> mt. H" 

horn; i-teat convenience to travelling misaionane,, ami a 

real centre of Christian hfe and love. 

We went to the cemetery dxuing the day, and found the 

wewennut f^Hu. Kiflt Or WihiamOvHHidy, 

CTaveofourfirstmi8SionaiTtotheh..i8t,iM ;,.„< five 

^^Ilaid down his hfe at Kobe, on his way to Chuuv, just five 

t'Got nf died of --".-.'•—::;:: 'xCas 

,o„me, across t- -i- -,c e — J^ ^^^ ,^ 

'-°«.'-"e:r:nX:*.^b;r:ni™wn nana, l».l 
bloommg «'« ■*;/'"'^;'''"^ vvrehope some of onr friends 
rrn^rnr.r-nlJotKer .nely ... o. 

^';r.:t'":.n>.o«se near .y ^ purcW a «^ 


vlantH, una hu.l the.n plant.-l over hi« lu-ad foet. They 
;,re pretty evergreens, and they will continue to speak of 
the love that is keeping his memory green by following up 
Lis laborn for the worLVs evangelization. Couhl he see he 
.ighty misHionaries to China and J apan that have followed m 
his train, he would n..t think that his life had been wasted or 

his death in vain. 

It was very ri<li(^ulous to notice the way the Japanese 
gardener acted. We had often hea.d that the Japanese pec. 
pie were in the habit of laughing at funerals, but tins fellow 
ust laughed and laughed until it was simply absurd and em- 
Wassing. He laughed when we asked him the pnce of the 
flowers, and he laughed when he planted them and he 
laughed when we paid hhn ; and, indeed, he laughed so much 
that we could hardly get him to do anything else but laugh 
We suppose he was trying to make us feel cheerful and tha 
he was simply expressing his idea of sympathy -^ comfo 
in affliction He was evidently a tramed laugher, but he 
"uif^verdid his business this time, and his conduct seemed 

"^"'^Ourtrst missionary meeting in Japan was with our 
Swedish friends, who can.e out to Japan about two years 
ago from the Scandinavian churches of America, through 

the efforts of Mr. Franson. 

There were eighteen of them assembled at Kobe, holding 
a conference about their work in Japan, and they received 
us very affectionately in their little upper room, and told us 
the story of their work since coming to Japan, while we, m 

8 with our 
b two years 
ica, through 

obe, holding 
ley received 
, and told us 
while we, in 

ot. They 
speak of 
lowing lip 
le Boe tho 
olio wed in 
. wasted or 

I Japanese 
anese peo- 
thiH fellow 
id and em- 
)rice of the 
m, and he 
ed so much 
hut laugh, 
il, and that 
nd comfort 
her, but he 
uct seemed 







riRsr (.rjMPSics or j a pas'. 


turn, gave them some words of encouragement, andtold them 
of their brethren whom we liad met along the way as told tis 
at home. 

Their leader, Mr. Seaholm, had succeeded Dr. Ludlow in 
the Seaman's Mission at Kobe, for a while, and at the time 
applied to us to be received as a missionary of the Alliance, 
but we hesitated to receive him simply because we doubted 
the expediency of continuing that work under the Alliance. 
These Scandinavians are good and true men and women, and 
are fairly started in a good work in Japan. They have had 
some heavy trials. Their allowance for support and work is 
not sufficient, and they are re Uy crami)ed for means. Japan 
is a very different country from China, and v/hile two hun- 
dred dollars in gold is ample for the support of a Scandinavian 
missionary in Northern China, it is not more than half enough 
in any part of Japan and will not go half as far. 

They have also had some severe sickness, and one of 
their ladies died of smallpox in Tokio, under distressing cir- 
cumstances, having nobly offered to nurse another mission- 
ary who had the disease, and paying her own life as the 
costly sacrifice. 

We wish their Scandinavian friends would do a little 
more for these brave and worthy laborers. We believe, as 
our readers know, in economical missions, but we do not 
mean by this a scale of support which will involve hardship, 
privation and inabiUty to secure proper buildings, chapels, 
etc. In countries like India and China, the rates which we 
have found sufficient for plain and comfortable living are 

•» i!J4|!w;»'W!t«» W|IMaM^l l U I |M,>tlU . -: 




equivalent to more than twice as much in Japan. We are 
sure that there is much room, even in Japan, for an example 
of missionary economy and simplicity of living, but it must 
not he pushed to an extreme which will cramp and cripple 
the woi-kers and drive them into secular teaching in order to 

eke out a living. 

We met our Scandinavian fiiends again at Kyoto and 
Tokio, and were glad to learn that already their work had 
begun to bear fruit. They are distributed in about ten cen- 
tres, and, during the past year, they have had over twenty 
conversions in their various stations. 

It is not necessary in Japan to wait until one has ac- 
quired the language before beginning work, but through a 
good interpreter a missionary may do much useful work 
from the very beginning. During our short visit to Japan 
we addressed more than a dozen native audiences, and, al- 
though it was, of course, far less satisfactory than the direct 
contact of the vernacular, yet it became much more «asf 
and effective than we had found it in India or China. There 
are some missionaries that have never acquired the language, 
but prefer to use an interpreter ; but this is much less com- 
mon than we had heard, and we are prepared to deny the 
statement which we have read in a high authority recentty 
published on Japan misMons, to the effect that there are ojdf 
about a dozen missicmaries in the countiy that speak Japan- 
ese feiently, and use it ordinarily in their work. Und<ml»»- 
edly it i» tiie most difficult of the oriental languages to »c- 
(jerire perfectly, and there are con*paratifvely few who ea& 

Ff/fST (./.IMPSKS OF JAP.I.y. 



u. "We are 

an example 

but it must 

and <;iipple 

in order to 

1 Kyoto and 
ir work had 
out ten cen- 
over twefity 

one has ac- 
it through a 
useful work 
sit to Japan 
nces, and, al- 
an the direct 
h more easf 
hina. There 
;he language, 
ich less eom- 
t to deny the 
[)rity recentty 
;here are onJy 
speak Japftn- 
k. UndooM- 
guages to ac- 
few who 

speak it like an educated native. But the great nuijority of 
the missionaries learn it and use it effectively, and no one 
who expects to do permanent work sliould think of settling 
down to the roundabout and indirect conununication to whitb 
one is limited through an interpreter, or "interrui)toi." as 
Joseph Cook so happily called him. 

In the afternoon we addressed a meeting of the mission- 
aries in the Southern Methodist chapel, and afterwards had 
some interesting and valuable conversation with several of 
them, and learned nmch of the present condition of mission 
work in this section of Japan. The American Board and the 
Southern Methodists have the principal work in Kobe. The 
native churches in this section of Japan, especially in connec- 
tion with the American Board, have become quite strong and 
independent, and are beginning to detach themselves from 
the leading strings of the mother church and prepare to stand 
alone. Indeed, they have given some very broad hints al- 
ready that they think the time has come when the Ameri- 
can churches sliould give them the money and let them do 
and direct the work . To a great extent this has already been 
done, and more than one American missionary told us that 
he was really preparing for the not far-distant time when 
they would all be expected to take their leave and resign the 
work to the native churches exclusively. 

We visited the large educational work of the American 
Board, and found that many of theii- workers in Japan were 
engaged in this class of work. Their schools in Kobe are 
wholly for giris and seem to be very efficient and well sus- 


498 T.ANcr.K orri.ooKs ox MfssrosAh') lands. 

taiurd. TIh'v told us tliat the Japanese national schools only 
gave girls a ])i-imaiy education, and that higher female edu- 
cation had to he sui>i)lied hy foreign niissior. schools. They 
said the giils, were very hright. and really had to he held hack 
from study. In comiection M'ith this school a handsome and 
elahorate science hall was going up. which was to be fur- 
nished with superior laboratories and museum. All this was 
very lovely, and the missionaries who kindly showed us 
through the buildings were most gifted and sincere Christian 
workers, and enthusiastic in their work ; but we could not 
help feeling that the connection with the evangehzation of 
the world, and with C'hrist':^ last conmiission, was somewhat 
indirect and remote, and that it did not very materially differ 
from high school work at home. We, at least, should not 
feel at lilierty to invest missionary funds in such beautiful 
mstitutions as this, while the great masses and most of the 
lower classes of Japanese are yet unsaved. 

We have too much love for even the most indirect effort 
to evangelize the world, and too tender a regard for the be- 
loved missionaries we met abroad to be critical or severe, but 
we were pained to see so very nmch educational w ork in 
Japan engrossing the strength and time of foreigners whom 
the Loid could so well employ in direct missionary work. 

We heard of our dear friends. Dr. and Mrs. Ludlow, who 
had spent two or three years in Kobe, in connection with the 
Alliance, and, of course, we found that they had left a deep 
imi)ression by their Christian character and life on the com- 
munity. But we found no permanent lesults from their for- 


schools only 
female edu- 
lools. They 
be hold back 
mdsonie and 
IS to be fur- 
All this was 
' showed us 
jre Christian 
;e could not 
gelization of 
IS somewhat 
ierially differ 
;, should not 
ch beautiful 
most of the 

idirect effort 
■d for the be- 
r severe, but 
nal AN ork in 
^neis whom 
try work. 
Ludlow, who 
tion with the 
id left a deep 
> on the com- 
oni their for- 

j-VA'ST ^/./.^//'^/•'.v <v'y. //'./A'. 


eigu missionary work. Their time had been wholly given to 
work among foreign sailers, in which they were nuich 
blessed, but they bad not even learned the .Japanese language 
<.r established any permanent work among th«- natives. And 
even the s.«anum's work which ihey carried on so rarnestly 
has now passed into the bands of the American Episcopalians, 
liibappily nuuh of our work in Japan has been allowed to 
inn in channels aside from direct evangelism, and we are 
only now getting down to our proper work for the preaching 
of the Gospel to the heathen in the intericjr. W(; trust our 
l)eople will never again let anything divert them from this 
great trust. All else must be transitory and unsatisfactory. 
This only is our calling and mission as an Alliance, and in 
this only can we have Gcxl's full and pei-fect blessing. Dr. 
Eudlow worked hard and faithfully in bis special line, and 
sufl'ered very seriously in bis health through the elTects of 
the climate and his arduous labois, and we are glad to learn, 
since his r«'tnrn to America, is steadily recovering. 

On the following day we had the peculiai- pleasure of 
visiting an interior town and seeing a type of Japanese work 
which filled us with peculiar encouragement. It was a visit 
to the Orphanage of Mr. Ishii at Okyama. This city is situ- 
ated on the Inland Sea, about two hundred miles west of 
Kobe, and is the centre, also, of an excellent and successful 
mission of the American Board, under the charge of Rev. Mr. 
Pettee, a warm friend of Mr. Ishii, and the author of a brief 
biography of him. Mr. Isbii is a very remarkable man, and 
the type of a new class (.f workers whom we trust God is 


about t(, raise up in this extraordinary land, as a spiritual 
balance wheel, amid the extreme intellectual a.-tivity ot tlm 

new age. , . . ^i 

He is still a youuK man, only about thirty, but has the 
quiet gravity and poise of a nuich .>lder man. He has learned 
to wait on the Lord, and suffer in silence, and he knows the 
great secret of listening to His voice and trusting His word. 
He has been called the (4eorge MuUer of Japan, and his work 
has beer inspired to a great degree by the example and testi- 
mony of that venerable patriarch of faith. A few years ago 
Mr MuUer visited Japan, and the story of his work had a 
powerful influence in the heart of Mr. Ishii, who, at the time, 
was about to study medicine and become a physician. He 
was led to adopt a helpless child, and so to begin his great 
life-work. He has no less than two hundred and seventy five 
children under his care, fifty of whom are at another town - 
Nagoya- and so far they all have been cared for by the Lord 
without any direct human dependence. 

He has various industrial departments in connection with 
the school, and is multiplying them as fast as the means will 
allow He has a barber shop run by the l>oys, which makes 
a little money daily for the Orphanage. He has a printing 
establishment which turns out good work, of which we have 
some specimens. He has others learning to gin and spm and 
weave cotton, and if he had a few hundred dollars more he 
could purcbase a lot of spinning wheels and put a number 
more to work profitably. Everything is most simple and eco- 
nomical, and all the affairs of the Orphanage are open as the 

,V-).V.VAvVtfi^l|l>S-^W^fe*ta iJl 

a spiritual 
ivity of tlic 

but has tlu^ 
has learned 
i knows the 
g His word. 
11(1 his work 
le and testi- 
w years ag( > 
work had a 
at the time, 
^sician. He 
;in his great 
seventy five 
»ther town — 
by the Lord 

nection with 
e means will 
k\'hich makes 
IS a printing 
liich we have 
and spin and 
liars more he 
ut a number 
n])le and eco- 
e open as the 



day. With great simplicity lit^ told the little ones, the day 
we were there, that they had begun the day with two yen, 
and the expenses had been nineteen yen, and just eighteen 
yen had come in, so they had just one yen to begin another 
day, and so they all were taught to look to the Lord together 
for their daily bread. Ho came over to see us the following 
week at Nagoya, and we had a long interview and became 
very deeply attached to the simple-hearted child-like man of 
God. He accM.pted most fully all the truths of the Fourfold 
Gospel, and told us that we should some day hear more fully 
from him, if God sj>ared us both, when he should have tried 
and proved more fully these precious truths. He told us, 
with great simplicity, that he had been hindered for a day in 
coming to visit us at Nagoya, by the want of means, but the 
next day a man called and brought him eight yen, saying 
that he waked in the night dreaming that Mr. Ishii needed 
eight yen and was in distress, and in the morning he obtained 
exactly this sum and brought it to him, and it proved to be 
the very sum he needed. This good man took a great hold 
of our heart, and we believe God is going to use him more 
than any other agency in Japan to teach His people true piety, 
and to begin through the Spirit of the Lord, and through the 
native people themselves, a spiritual and missionary move- 
ment which will reach all Japan with the true Gospel in its 
simple apostolic power. His young wife is in full sympathy 
with him, and his helpers, numbering twenty, aie all volun- 
teers, giving their time without compensation and in simple 
dependence upon God for all their needs. They all seem to 





be men and women of like mind with himself. Mr. Ishii has 
received into his branch Orphanage at Nagoya the little 
orphans wliom Miss Kinney had gathered as the nu(;leus of 
an Orphanage work in connection with the Alliance, and 
we had the pleasure of visiting them a few days later at the 
Home. Miss Howard very wisely handed them over to Mr. 
Ishii, as our Alliance is not called to this kind of work directly, 
and Mr. Ishii is much hotter able to care for it. 

We believe that many of our people will be led to take a 
personal interest in the work of this beloved brother, and to 
cheer him in his work of faith and labor of love, which is an 
object lesson for Japan of much more value than even its 
direct benefit to the many he'.|>ers or plans under his care. 

Our journey to Okyania, as also, later, to other pomts, 
was rendered very pleasant, and saved us from nnich incon- 
venience by the kindness of our good friends, Dr. and Mrs. 
Gulick, of Kyoto, who met us at Kobe and made most of 
the arrangements for our rapid visit to Japan. 

These dear friends have since undertaken the oversight 
of our missionary work in Japan, and we trust, in coming 
days, will become much better known to all our readers and 
friends. Dr. Gulick belongs to an honored missionary family, 
which has still several members in the mission field. Much 
of his life was spent in the Sandwich Islands. For many 
years he has resided in Japan, and has been chiefly engage.l 
as a professor in the government schools. He has just re- 
signed his position in the principal government college at 
Kyoto, and will now give his life exclusively to missionary 

[•. Ishii has 
, tho littlo 
nucleus of 
iau(e, and 
later at the 
Dver to Mr. 
rk directly, 

'd to take a 
her, and to 
which is an 
an oven its 
his care, 
ther points, 
nuch incon- 
»r. and Mrs. 
ide most of 

F/J^sr cLr.\fi's/:s 


work. He is widely known in Japan, and is univ«.isally re- 
spected and heloved as a humhle and devot.Ml Christian 
worker, and a leader in every earnest spiritual nu.venient. 
We trust his experience and high Christian (jualities will 
make him a groat blessing to the work, and that his dear 
wife may 1)0 richly hlessed and strengthene.l f<.r her fellow- 
ship of service. 

le oversight 
i, in coming 
readers and 
nary family, 
field. Much 
For many 
efly engaged 
has jubt re- 
lit college at 
1 missionary 



TIIKRK ate already several thousuud iniU-H of railway in 
Japan, opening tip almost every part of the country 
by oasy conununication. The longest and most un^ 
portant of these lines runs from Kobe to Yokohama and 
Tokio. a distance of three hundn-d and sixty miles. 

First, we had to secu.e passports at the consul s office, 
l^nnitting us to travel in the interior beyond the Treaty 
ports -for scientific <.bservation or the beneht of our 
health •• We did not have to answer any questions on these 
1 or we might have been embarrassed. Our passports 
had verv kindly been secured for us, and we accepted them 
without denmr. We suppose, had we been aj-^^-^^' T 
rid have said, with Miss Kinney, that it was for the ben ftt 
f ,.ur health to obey the Lord and go -^-e ^e s..t u. 
The truth is, as we learned from the authonties the leal 
!^i and interest of these passports is to prevent foreignex. 
' oing into the interior to trade, and so long as tins is honest- 
iv avoided, the spirit of the Treaty is not infnnged 
' We w^re sm^ised to find how much easier it is than we 
had supposed, to obtain passports, not only to visit but also 
Tveside in the interior, and that by a little tact every por- 


: railway in 
;he country 
lid moat ini- 
[ohama and 

nsul'H office, 
1 the Treaty 
letit of our 
ions on these 
iir passports 
cepted them 
lestioned, we 
or the benefit 
; He sent us. 
ties, the real 
ent foreignei-8 
this is honest- 

L- it is than we 

visit but also 

act every por- 

I EillK! 

i If 


■•jsi&ia"^r.i.v ity hwii. 


tion of tho interior nmy be viHited and .'vaiiKclizod ; h.kI, in- 
dml, there in Hcarcely a i)roviii(e whrie niiHsioiiaries are not 
now to he fnnnd, and whrre flourishing^ Htations are not 

growing np. 

0»ir Hrst stop was at Osaka, the second city in Japan ni 
population, and the fhst in real wealth and commercial im- 
portance. It has a population of half a million, and it hears 
every indication of wealth and influence. We tried to count 
its lofty smoke sta<;ks as we entered, hut tlu-y numhered hun- 
dreds. Its hridges are said to exceed l,4.M», and they are very 
substantial and pretty, leading across the various branches 
of the rivers that intersect the town, almost hke anotluT 
Venice. The manufactures of Osaka are very extensive, and, 
its trade draws constant visit.n-s from every section of the 
empire. Its commercial nniseum is a vast and imposmg 
structure, containing samples of its various wares, and not 
unworthy of Glasgow or Liverpool. 

We were kindly entertained by the Kev. Mr. Gulick, of 
the American Board, and found a n)eeting arranged for us in 
the largest nativ- . unrh, Rev. T.^a Gowa, past.)r, Avhere we 
were expect. o preach to a native audience with the pastor 
asinterpivter. Thisgentlemanisoneof theleading ministers 
of the native chuich of Japan, and a very goo.l sample of an 
educated Christian native. He has a strong physique for a 
Japanese, and an expression of rugged force and strong exec- 
utive ability. His head is round and massive ; his beard 
thick and strong ; his shoulders broad and powerful ; his eye 
keen and his manner crisp and full of decision and energy. 

^.SP' J'T^'^T'^'^rt 

5o6 l.ARCr.R OUTLOOKS ox .V/SS/ON.-iRV LANnS. 

He impressed us as a man more keenly intellectual than 
deeply spiritual. He is said to be the best interpreter in 
Japan. When Joseph Cook was here he translated his 
lectures for him, and Avas able to reproduce whole para- 
graphs, five or ten minutes long, without omitting -n- muti- 
lating a shade of thought. 

He is the leading spirit of the Kumai churches which 
have grown u]» out of the missionary work of the American 
Board, and are pressing so strongly for an independent native 
church. The first part of the meeting was devotional, and 
he led it by the aid of a little hell, keeping time as sharply 
as Mr. Moody would have done. 

We spoke for about half an hour, and he interpreted for 
us with great facility. We notiiXHl that nobody in the audi- . 
ence looked at us, but all gazed on the flo<n' or in the empty 
space, and we would have thought that they were utterly 
uninterested in what we said had we not been told that it is 
not etiquette in Japan to look at a speaker, or show the 
slightest emotion or interest, but good form recpiin^s one to , 
keep a blank face devoid of all feeling. We felt like explod- 
ing all their good form and getting them either t(j laugh or 
cry, or say, "Hallelujah," or something, and we succeeded 
once or twice, before we left Japan, in seeing some imjiression 
made on these set, studied faces of stone. 

Mr. Mya Gowa told us that there were fifteen native con- 
gregations in Osaka, and that his own church was entirely 
self-supporting, paying him his salaiy, and, indeed, carrying 
on some missionary work besides. 


ctvial than 
erpreter in 
islnted his 
Iiolo para- 
g '»!• muti- 

?\\es which 
3 Aint^rican 
[lent native 
•tional, and 
as sharply 

'vpreted for 
li the audi- . 
the empty 
^ere utterly 
i that it is 
ir show the 
lires one to, 
like explod- 
t<j laugh or 

> succeeded 

> impression 

native con- 
ras entii'ely 
?d, carrying 



We also had the privilege ot meeting a numher of the 
EugUsh and American missionarifs at Osaka and speaking a 
few spiritual words about the Holy Ghost, tlie one theme on 
which we have almost always spoken abroad. There is a 
very pleasant Foreign Quarter in Osaka, wliere the mission- 
aries reside, and several of the great societies are well repre 
sented, especially in the American Board, the Northern and 
Cumberland Presbyterians and the Baptists, and the English 
Church Missionary Society. We were especially delighted to 
meet some of the workers of this latter society who were con- 
nected with Mr. Buxton's work, and to receive a very cordial 
letter of welcome from Mr. Buxton himself. This dear 
brother has lately come to Japan as the representative of a 
missionary spirit which will meet, we know, with a very 
cordial response in all our people's hearts. He is a descend- 
ant of an old and honored English family, Sir Thomas Fowell 
Buxton ; is possessed of ample means to sustain the Mission 
he represents, and yet is working loyally under the noblest 
of English societies, the Church Missionary Society. He is 
a thoroughly consecrated Christian, believing with all his 
heart in the Lord as a Healer and Sanctifier, and standing out 
in unoompromising separation from all the inconsistencies 
and follies of the religious world. So true is his testimony 
that even missionaries sometimes think him and his party of 
workers extreme. They have no time for receptions, picnics, 
Shakespearean readings and idle sight-seeing, and no heart for 
aught save the one thing the L(n-d has sent them to do. 
Their lives are simple, econonncal and elevated. They have 

! J 


gone straight to the unoccupied fields of the interior, and al- 
ready God has begun to greatly bless their work. Our f nends 
will be glad to know that it is among these good missionaries, 
and on the borders of the great unoccupied field they have 
entered, that we have decided to organize onr missionary 
work in the interior of Japan. 

Here we again received the same assurances which we 
had already heard at Kobe, of the strong independent move- 
ment 0,1 the part of the native churches, and their desire to 
throw off the foreign control and take the entire direcion of 
all the missionary work in Japan. We found nmch less of 
this in some of the other societies, and we believe it has been, 
for various causes, most decided in the churches of the Amer- 

ican Board. ,, . 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church has an exceUent 
work in Osaka, and we had some V-cious fellowship its 
good nussionaries,remindingusof the olddaysatlortWorth^ 

One of their lady evangehsts, now in America has been 
greatly blessed iu establishing a large circle of stations and 
thurcL in the vicinity of Osaka ; and, we believ-e, she was 
able to .10 all this excellent and substantial work through an 
interpreter and without speaking a word of Japanese 

From Osaka we next went to Kyoto, the ancient capital 
of Japan. It is not as large as Osaka, numbering about a 
quarter of a million inhabitants. But it is a most beaiitiful 
city full of quaint old temples, and surrounded with a frame 
of picturesque hills on every side. This was for centuries the 
spiritual capital, where the Mikado resided in sacred isola- 





ior, and al- 
;3ur friends 
[ they have 

!S which we 
ident move- 
dr desire to 
direction of 
luch less of 
it has been, 
)f the Amer- 

au excellent 
ship with its 
Fort Worth, 
-a, has been 
stations and 
ieve, she was 
c through an 

icient capital 
ning about a 
lost beautiful 
with a frame 
• centuries the 
I sacred isola- 














tion as tlie religious head of tJie nation, while, the Daimios or 
nobles ruled at Tokioand swayed the tenii)oral power hy mili- 
tary force. 

Forty years ago all this was changed, and Japan emerged 
out of Feudalism aud Superstition to become, in a single gen- 
eration, the 
most progres- 
sive of Asiatic 
and, almost, 
of modern na- 
tions. Since 
then the cap- 
ital has been 
transferred to 
Tokio, and 
Kyoto is but a 
monument of 
Old Japan. 
But for one 
who has time 
to study it, it 
is an interest- 
ing relic. We 
had neither 
heart nor leis- 
ure to spend 
more than a 
few hours in the bell tower, kyoto 


looking .t tl,e must int«.«tin« , I' its anoieut te,n,.l.« and 
\22 S„n,.. „£ tl,e,» are ver, .ostly. tl.e.r altavs and 
brines iH-ing cove^d with gold and precions »tones and 
h " Uns nni„no and wholly Japanese. The s.tes of most 
then, a,.e s„„e,„. and tl.oi,- grounds spacons and finely 
nlauted as all gionnds are in Japan. The great Bdl o 
Ittm^le is 'one of the largest in the world and Us 

tone is singu- 
larly SWtM't 
and far reach- 
ing, sounding 
over the hill» 
for many 
miles. Kyoto 
is a city of 
distances, and 
the suburhs 
that reach on t 
on every side, 
along the 

slopes of the 

exquisite hills 

to a distance 

of many miles 

a r e covered 

with striking 





uipleB and 
altars and 
tones, and 
tes of most 
and finely 
^at Bell of 
Id and its 

ACROSS J. IP. I. y /.)' /,•///,. 



^^_£. - :^S£^ 

Tlitj (Tovciiuiiciit Cullej;(', wlicir oiii' host lias Ih'cii teach- 
ing, is a fine huilding with several hnndted students. To 
Americans the most interesting institution in Kyoto is the 
Doshisha nr Christian College, founded by Dr. Neeissima, 
who was, perhaps, tlie most gifted and distinguished native 
Christian that has arisen from the .Japanese church. The 
halo that his life has left beliind it, even y(^t in Tapan, gives 
evidence of the power of this gcjod man's life. He was a 
man of singleness of imrpose, nmch faith and a great force 
of character. His great life-work was to found the Doshisha, 
and leave it as a heritage to his beloved Japan. It is a strong 
and well-enuipi)ed colleg(N embracing a theological school, 
and designed to give a higher education under Christian in- 
fluence to the youth of Japan, and especially to train those of 
them for the Christian ministry who are willing to d(!Vote 
thetr lives to that high calling. Tliere are several hundred 
students in attendance, and we had the privilege of being 
asked to address them twice. We found them veiy bright 
and responsive, and took the opportunity to ))ress home upon 
their hearts the need of spiritual rather than ])urely intellec- 
tual culture as the true secret of power and the great need of 
Japan. Everywhere we go in this land we feel it inoro and 
more — the smartness of the people is their bane ; and their 
great need — the only thing that will stead)' them fully and 
give them jM'rmanence is spiritual depth and power. We tried, 
as best we could, through an interpreter, to impress upon 
them Paul's great argument, in I. Cor. ii., for the spiritual 
rather than the psycliical element in heavenly wisdom, illu- 
mination and power. And wliile to many it was no doubt 

r..,m;r^ ofTLOOJ^s ox M/ss/ox.iuy 



L.p..h.™iW.., yet we ecu,,, see an,, ... that . , .""«=r may see hi.n .luring the suniiue.. He is .. 
lVa::™rla;;i..eaU.-M.>.t .„ t,™ta„ evHn.e,„.a,. 

— t;r:::^e.o„«,e^«,at.^.--K>™w 

•... „ll (1,P forei.'ii missionaries-about a h<ore, ami 
^onewithal the oe„,^ ,„,,,, .leligMf,.: 

the otluTS with nativi., amUeiiu s. ,.„,eiv«l with 

fenowship with the ""— rr.^; „ ^t the need of 
cordial kind„.«, ana .„u. « '°"« ";7;",^,„„^ ..^^^ev than s„ 
theSu^rnatuvai ^-;;; ,^';« 1 _ i«eived with a 
much of our own cullu.^ am ^^^^, 

heartiness that greatly *««f " .. ^^^^neni or missionary 
Ho«rapher of ^>— ^''j';' ^ ^l J, ,he Hoiy Ghost 

uablo insight into the condition of I 1'"*™; \,„ 

,.„„. his pi.cious «--j'j-7 " tow'l tdependence 
have met, he also sees the stionfc ^^^^ ^_^_j^_. 

iuthe native Church, -''j ■^''; ':'^,., ^„.„™,„, intel- 

.tands the ''-f ^^I'tf "^^^^.e have already referred 

r'"tr :: irrtu If hope for «« future, and 
to; but he is a ^^.^^^ ^^^.^^g^ 

yet been scarcely touched in this country. 


^,>o(\ tuany 

it America, 
;v. He is a 
t vangelit-al, 

nt at Kyoto 
\ score, and 
}i (loliglitfii 
i^eived with 
the need of 
,her tlian ho 
eived with a 
le friend and 
.!■ missionary 
> Holy Ghost 
IS much val- 
ork in Japan 
the others we 
ixn, he under- 
darism, intel- 
i-eady referred 
future, and 
true foreign 
r, and in hum- 
native Church, 
;, who have as- 


ACROSS J. I P.I r<! ji y rail. 


We luul tlu' plt'uisuio ttf forming the aniuainlanco of 
anol lun- luitivo puHtor, Urv. Mi. Knwa, ami of preaching to his 
lH'0|)h'. He belongs to the same body as Mr. Mya Oovva of 
Osaka, and has a laige and interesting congregation. We 
cannot stop to speak of all tht> itleasant and profitable ac- 
(luaintances or asso( iations of these three days in old Kyoto. 
We jvere sorry to learn afterwards that we had ])assed by the 
very room in the hospital in which our bel(>v<'d fellow tiav- 
eller, Kev. Dr. Kidg* vay, of rhi<;ago, was lying dangerously 
ill with tyi)hoid fever, and we knew not until we were one 
hundred miles from Kyoto that he was even there. We 
were glad, however, ere we left Japan, to receive a letter from 
his wife stating that he was much better, and we could not 
thank our own dear Father enough for the faithfulness and 
lovc! that had not permitted us to lose a single hour with 
sickness or pain during all the long months of our dangerous 
journey. Blessed be His dear and gracious name ! 

From Kyoto wo went on alone to Nagoya, about one hun- 
dred and tw(»nty miles farther east on the I'okaido or great 
road to Tokio. Nagoya is the fourth city in the empire, next 
in population to Kyoto, and a commercial centre of great im- 
portance. It is the great Buddhist metropolis, and their hos- 
tility to Christianity is very determined. Tt is also the cen- 
tre of the Earthquake District, and they tell very thrilling 
stories of the scenes of three years ago, when this whole sec- 
tion was devastated and many lives wei-e lost. The great 
rents in the ground are still to be seen in the country round 
Nagoya, where the earth was cleft asunder. It was just a 




J iKG/h' oiTf.oohs o.\' Ar/ss/i>\.iA'y / ixns. 

litth- after', pU- l.a.l nut y.t left tl.eir homes 

wlH.ii in a mcnont. lu-ar.! a slrauK'', cmshinK souml, 
and tlH> kind H.'(M.u'(l KiasiK-tl as in a ^'iaiit hand Jind as a 
wildb.'ast ^vould shako its i.rcy, till -tho houHes were Inulcd 
fiom thHr 1 oindations, tho tih-s came turnhhiiK fvom the 


roofs, and the i)eople lied from thcii- doors to he crushed by 
the faUing tiles and timber. 

The little children, now in Mr. Ishii's Orphanage, atN^go- 
ya, were mostly refugees, left homeless by that catastrophe. 
For nearl V a month afterwards there were constant shocks, bUt 


Llu'ir honu's, 
hiuK Hoinul, 
d and as a 
were liuilcd 
g ftom tho 

e crusliod by 

age, at Nago- 


it shocks, hut 

U/^OSSJ.I/>,IX /.')• A'./// 


after the fiiNt they were coniixifativfly h.iniih'ss. Kuith- 
qiiakos are V ry common in Japan, an<l tlic people slt'cp with 
thcii- doDiH so ( oiivcniciitly fastoiicd that lln\ could open 
them and fly out at a njoment's alarm. 

Nagoya in also a miswionaiy centie. Here we found the 
8()uth( in T'reshyterians, and weie UKtsI liospitahly enter 
taiiiod hy our good brother, Mr. Cummings, one of their mem- 
hers; also hy tin* Methodist Protestants, one of whoso hright 
and gifted missionaries, Miss Do For«;st, is canying on a 
hrave, aggressive \v'o>kin the Japanese theaties in tlie face of 
a strong Buddhis: op{)o' }*-um. The Northern Methodists liave 
an excellent wo; k, uid u had the piivile^e of pn-aching in 
their large chap 1 i > u s ry good congregation of natives. 
There is also an ex. ■ Uoai young mission here from Wyckliffe 
College, Canada, carried on by a consecrated band of Cana- 
dian p]piscopalians, and having nmch of the best spirit of the 
Church Missionary Society peojde we have met abroad. 

Here, also, some of our own missionaries have settled for 
the present, and we sjjent two days in frecpient fellowship 
with our dear sisters. Miss Baines and Miss Howard, at their 
pleasant Japanese cottage in Nagoya. Miss Barnes is in good 
health and has made fair jjrogress with the language. She 
will remain in Nagoya for the sununer, and in the autunui 
will join Dr. and Mrs. Gulick in the interior. Miss Howard 
lias devoted herself chiefly to the orphans who were, for a 
time, under her special care, after the return of Miss Kinney, 
hut have been transferred to Mr. Ishii's native Orphanage. 
She feels led to return to America, and we have encouraged 


\wi; in view of all the present circumstances, to do so. Two 
very bright young Japanese ladies were also living and work- 
ing with them, Knoyesan and Shigimat/u, and a little 
Eurasian girl, named Mar- 
ion, whom Miss Howard 
has adopted. 

We had nmch earnest 
confereiice, - and learned 
from them the story of 
their trials and victories, 
and endeavored to counsel 
and help them all we could. 
We felt that Kagoya 
was too much occupied by 
other workers to need us, 
and our workers were only 
too glad to have the pros- 
pect of getting out and 
into the regions beyond. 

A good deal of the 
work at ^^agoya is educa- 
tional. There are two la- 
dies' schools, one under the 
Methodist and the other the 

Presbyterian Mission. The girls, as usual, looked verjr 
sweet and bright. It was Commencement Day in one of the 
P-hools, and we ]^eard their exercises and were struck with 
the grace and modesty of the graduates. We were asked to 



lo SO. Two 
g and work- 
md a little 

■»* ' %K 


looked very- 

in one of the 

e struck with 

were asked tiO 

ACh' iiv rail. 


address thcni. and we saw some tears in tlieif eyes as we 
talked of Jesus and His love. 

We had a pleasant visit at Nagoya, and received nuich 
kindness from all the other missionaiies as well as our own 
workers. But Dr. and Mrs. GuUck came on for us after the 


second day, and taking leave of our own and several 
•<ither missionaries at the station, we hastened on to I'okio. 

It was a long ride of fourteen hours, hut much of it lay 
through a beautiful country. About foiu" o'clock we passed 
the base of the famous Fujiyama, Japan's beautiful moun- 


tain M fivst it seenie.l as if we should not see it. for the sky 
wo.'thick with mist. But (lod was mindful of even this ht- 
tie wish and prayer, and before the sun went down, tlie 
tul parted, Ll the mists which had obscured tu> beauti- 
ful mountain, became a crown of glory upon its lot ty brow, 
teachiuK us that the things that often seem to hmder us, 
shall if we but trust and wait, not only be cleared from our 
pathway, but will leave a gUn-y and blessing which we could 
never have known if they had not come. 

Fujiyama is the pride of Japan. It is, indeed, a beau i- 
ful mountain, nearly 13,ooo feet liigh, about as high as the 
Rockies and ML Blanc ; and, standing in lonely isolation, with 
its perfec-t cone, is the chief glory of the Sunrise Kingdom, 
ard the beautiful cloud-capped signal, seen first upon her 
shores, as the voyager looks out from the long waste of 
waters for the first sight of land. 

Later we passed through the lovely Hakone country, with 
its soft green hills and its lake away up on the mountain 
side all reminding one bo much of the scenery of England, 
which Japan, indeed, so much resembles 

We reached Tokio at ten o'clock that night, and had a 
warm welcome from our host and hostess, Mr. and Mrs. 
Brand of the American Baptist Mission, two brave, true- 
hearted missionaries, full of faith and the Holy Ghost aiul 
standing for Christian whole-heartedness, Scriptural methods 
and aggressive missionary work in the midst of the many 
mingled currents of the religious life and work of Japan. 

The following week we returned a second time to their 

1 1 

for tho sky 
ven this 1 it- 
down, the 
tho beauti- 
lofty brow, 
hinder us, 
ed from oui" 
ch we could 

ed, a beauti- 
high as the 
olation, with 
se Kingdom, 
st upon her 
ng waste of 

country, with 
,he mountain 
f of P^.ngland, 

;ht, and had a 
Mr. and Mrs. 
) brave, true- 
tly Ghost, and 
tural methods 
) of the many 
of Japan. 
1 time to their 




520 j.ARf'i'K orri.ooKs ox flrrssroxARV /..tyos. 

liospitable liome, to meet tlie missionaries of Tokio in their 
<;hapel, and dnring onr brief visit to Tokio we were much 
rheered by their fellowship and kindness. They belong to a 
class of missionaries which we rejoice to find increasing in 
the foreign field, and through whose closer fellowship and 


united testimony a deeper spiritual life and a stronger type 
of faith and holy character are yet to come to the workers 
abroad. We rejoice to believe that the movement ^ill be in- 
aiigurated to bring about an annual conference of those of 
like mind in some central place in Japan for mutual encour- 


io in their 
v^ere much 
aelong to a 
creasing in 
wship and 

Tonger type 
tlie workers 
it iJ^ill he in- 
> of tliose of 
tnal encour- 

ACROSS J. If. IX /{)' A\l/f.. 


agemeiit and th.t; promotion of faith, hohnessand true spiiitual 
])Ower on the ))art of both native anu foreign Chi-istian work- 

During tJie two or three days spent in Tokio, we had the 
opportunity of seeing a httle of the great city and renewing 
many pleasant old ac(piaiutances as well as of forming some 
new ones. 

Miss Finch had spent several months in Tokio, and had 
already made excellent progress in the language, and enjoyed 
some opportunities of missionary service through an inter- 
l)reter. Vv e saw nuich of her both here and afterwards in 
Yokoliama, and were able to arrange with her the plan of her 
future work. She has had some severe trials, but the way 
is now clear and plain, and We are sure her work will be 
blessed, and Japan prove to her the field of the Master's 

We called on our old friend, Mr. John Ballagh, of the 
Meiji Gaukin, or Presbyterian Collage, and we found that 
the term had just closed and the students scattered to their 
home.s. lie is ba])py in bis work, and surrounded by a new 
and bright family circle in his lovely home. He received us 
with nmch kindness, and came down afterwaids twice to Yo- 
kohama to show his brotherly interest in us, and at last to 
see us off. His old American friends Avill be glad to see him 
back in the United States next year. The college at Tokio is 
very nuich like the Doshisha at Kyoto— an educational estab- 
lishment for the higher training of the Christian yimng men 
of Japan, and especially for the theological training of candi- 
dates for the ministry. 

m m Mm 


LARGER orri.ooKS OX M/ss/ox.i/^') / 

There arc not Meaily so many studeuts as at Kyoto- 
about two Imndied m all, we believe, and a l.tir i ropox'tii.n 
of these are theological students.- Tlie colletAL' buildings are 
very handsome and the site is superl). 

We found the same tendenry in Tokio that m- have al- 
ready referred to, looking towards (lieindepeudent c of the na- 
tive churches ; and it setriis prokibic that the foreigti workers 
in the college may be reduced. Indeed, som- of them have 
already gone t. America and may not return to .TiipuM. 

W.- had {.vieat pleasure in meetinj.^ Miss Anaa Perry, 
forme' v r-.r X.'vv York, and hearing some of the facts re- 
spectJnj.>; h>i j-tost ijitoresting and successful work. She has 
opened hi' own home for her meetings, and she told us how 
eagerly the peop\<? of all classes thronged the i-ailors, and 
hciw numyof them were truly led toC'hrlH!. -She has now 
nearly a <lozen different centres of work, led l.y various bands 
of native workers, and over six hundred children attend- 
ing her schools. There have been some beautiful in- 
stances of the grace and power of God. She told us how a 
policeman lately met a noted criminal in the rooms, and as 
they recognized each other, the former remarked to the 
other: "This is the right place for you to be." Not long 
ago, a fisherman came in to some ot the meetings, and hear- 
ing the secret of trusting God, he began to pray foi- his busi- 
ness, and th(^ Lord answered his prayers in such an extraor- 
dinary manner, by tilling his net with fishes, that he actually 
left his boat and work and came into Tokio t<. rendej' thanks 
to God for His goodness. 

.IC/fO.SS /.ir.l.V /;)■ RAIL. 


As if to (louhlf tilt' iih'iisnic of our visit, w«> U'urned by 
tlie mail timt icaduMl Tokio wliilc we were tlii'ir. that ht r 
dear sister, Miss Faiiiiy IN'ii y. ol' New York, so loii^ aftlictcd 
witli the most distressing of all diseases, had Ixrome jH-rfectly 

We had several very cordial iiivitations to visit tln' Metho- 
dist Conference in Tokio. which was just assend)ling as we 
left Japan, hut our time would not permit more than a brief 
dro|» in for an hour to hear Bishop Foster give a lectnre on 
astronomy at the opening u-ception. We did not (juite 
see the connection of the subject with the occassioii, 
although the lecture was a good one, and wehad no doubt 
the Conference would jirove a time of blessing. There 
are about twenty missionaries and as many native 
preachers in the Methodist Episcopal Mission in Japan. It is 
not on<' of the largest missions, but it is a good one. Wo 
met a nund)er of the missionaries and presiding elders, and 
found them good men and tiue, with hearts reaching out for 
deeper spiritual things. Dr. Daniells, whom we had known 
in America, had been spending a year in Tokio. and by his 
earnest preaching in the jiovver of the Holy Ghost, had been 
a means of inspiration and <piickening to the members of the 
Mission. He kindly called upon us and speiit an evening 
with us, and we found his heart full of the spirit of the 

We were invited to address the missionaiies, and a num- 
ber of them came to our meeting on Tuesday evening, and 
we spoke to them the old simjde message of God and His all- 
sufficiency and power. Our heart's cry all thi'ough these 



524 l.Ah'<:i'R OUTLOOKS ox ynSSTOSANY i.Axns. 

niisHioiLiry IuihIh has overl.cou that hoth we and othors may 
know Him lu c.Mitiii^l ^ ith all ou- woaknoss, uii.I ovn- aKainst 
all our ii;iHciil«i" . Wstaclos and nisuiH-rahle taHks. 

One of the moHt interesting men we met in Tokio, and 
one of the wisest friends of Christian Missions in Japan, is 
T)i. \V).itnev, of the Ameriean Legation. Tokio. He is in 
deep Rynipathy with all tbnf iu ^ >st in mission and Christian 
work, and throngh Ins connection with the consnlar office 
has rendered invaluahle service to all nnssionaries. He has 
fcndered nnu-h help to the Swedish missionaries, and is m 
deep sympathy with their hnmhl.', self-denying spirit and 
work. We leceived some useful snggestions (nmi him, and 
before we saile.l were glad to have a message from him com- 
mending to <.ur missionary consideration a great unoccupied 
field of, Iving off the east coast of Japan. 

There are a great many missionaries in Tokio, almost one 
hundred, and almost all . arieties of methods are represented. 
The American Episcopal Church is at present .ei>iesented by 
liev. Mr. i'age. one of the sweetest spirits we hav met 
abroad The American V .tists have a strong work a ^ev- 
eral foreign lal.orers. Mr. and Mrs. lirand's work, especially, 
U much bl.'ssed, jind constantly re, civ ing accessions. The 
Canadian Methodists, un.ler Mr. Eby, have a great popular 
1 ibernarVs and are tryii • to draw the i>eople by the methods 
usual in American ci as-popular lectures and illustrated 
Gospel addresses. We have already referred to the men- 
can Fresh Mevians ami Methodists. Our Swedish friends m 
Tokio are biUTowing awav .h.wn among the lowest masses,, 


I otluTH may 
[ ov»>r against 

n Tokio, and 
in Japan, is 
io. Ho is in 
md (UniHtian 
L)nsular office 
I'it^s. Ho has 
ics, and is in 
n^ spirit and 
loin him, and 
orn him com- 
it luioccupied 

io, ahiiost one 

e represented. 

e[)resented by 

■vve hav' met 

work . ^ev- 

)rk, esp«*cially, 

cessions. The 

great popular 

)y the methods 

and illustrated 

to the nieri- 

;lisli friends in 

I owes* masses, 

j4C/fOs /.l/'.rV l!Y KAIL. 


and their labor is not in vain. We went to visit one of their 
chapels, and they showed us the narrow streets smd lanes all 
around, where dozens of families Imddled together fis cloH<>ly 
as in the dives of New Yoik. 

An effort was made last winter by Mrs. Morris, of liil, 


<! 'iia, to reach the high class ladies, and some of them at- 
t( nd« 1 her Bible readings and showed some interest. It is 
doubted by the best and most experienced missionaries 
whether anyt' ng can be gained by i di»-e<,t appeal to the 
high class feeling in Japan. What the uatio? \ost needs is 

526 I.AK-aiK Ol'TLOOKH OX nisyiosMtv i.Anms. 
M.„„-.,u,h bun,bUn« „l tl,.. f,.,.totJ™u,,unahone„tolTort 
;,,......, .,1, ,!.»»... ana .,,«iany th., low,.,- -^l--'. » 

,.,„nm,>n l..v,.l „t lo»t and «nf,.l l,„...amty ,m«tmto at tl.,. 
;::;::ri>,v M...,,-, »„,. accptm, ^^^ 0„m,nn„Salvat,on 

AVithout rosp^'ct ..f l»'lSOnS. f ,...nrlnVK iu 

Tokio i» an unniense city, w o spt m i •' 


a,.ivi„« about it i„ -Jinrik.has,- and itUterally t-''-^-" 
to ,ret anywhere. It seemed as lai-ge as l.ond.«. It .s ^a.d 
t, b 7ght mile, e«:h way, o,- about sixty on,- mae, 
lal, We thought Nanking an immense e,K-losu,-e ; but 
Toir is twiee as la,-ge. It has a population of more '^"l^; 
:-monanaac„arter. There are many -^^^^^^^^ 
ings. The National University, tl,e Eoyal Pala^, the 




jonest ofTort 
18808, on the 
itrato at the 
on Salvation 

I two days in 

y took us hours 
i(>ii. It is said 
cty-four miles 
enclosure ; but 
of more than a 
gniftcent build - 
Palace, the for- 

I i 

.iCA'OSsy.iRix nv rail. 


eign hotel, the Sliiba Templt-s, and the great Moat around 
the t'ortner citadel, are striking erections. The prettiest 
thing about it is the natural situation. It is really a collec- 
tion of villages, the one running into the other with a rustic 
freedom nowhere else to he found. You ride along for a 
while dcwn a great business street, with American horse cars 
running down the middle of it. and, by-and-by, you branch 

off into a nar- 
r o w street 
w h i c h soon 
becomes a 
winding lane 
lined with the 
lovehest ever- 
green hedges, 
neatly cut like 
a living wall, 
and hiding be- 
hind them a 
pretty villa, or 
little cottage. You pass along through a perfect network of 
these pretty lanes, until you i-each a hilltop, where you get a 
view of another hill beyond you covered with similar streets 
and houses and hedges. And so you pass on from village to 
village, over undulating hills, through pretty valleys aud 
ravines, and occasionally through a business street, until you 
wonder if it will ever end ; and, at length, after you have 
been run for several hours through all these interminable 




roads, you reach your destination, and begin to wonder when 

you will ever get back. 

We know no place just like it, so metropolitan, yet so 
rural ; so romantic yet so substantial and great. It is as unique 
as Peking-^ the worthy capital of the most curious, mixed- 
up and clever littlepeople on the faceof the globe,-thepeople 

of New Japan. 

. ■f^j y^ki: ■ ■ I ' .^^Wl ' --■,-•■> '" *». — 

onder whftu 

itan, yet so 
is as unique 
oug, mixed- 
— the people 


i^ i . 





WE spent our last week in Yokohama. It was a 
strange luxury to look on our old wayworn bags 
and bundles, and try to realize that we had only 
to pack and unjjack them once more before we should be 
homeward bound. But much yet remained to be done ere 
we could bid the great Orient good-bye, and we needed to 
make the most of every moment that yet remained. 

Services had been arranged for Sabbath and Monday 
evenings in connection with the Union Church. Dr. Meacham 
is the earnest pastor of this church, whose membership con- 
sists largely of missionaries. Such honored names as Hep- 
burn, Loomis, Ballagh, Booth, and many more as widely 
'known, make up the constituency of this influential parish. 
We had the piivilege of meeting most of the missionaries in 
Yokohama, not only at the services on Sabbath and Monda}- 
evenings, but also personally. 

Good Mrs. Pierson, the senior missionary of the Woman's 

Union Missionary Society, and for many years the warm 

friend of all our missionaries, and herself a member of our 

Alliance, received us most kindly and invited us to address 

her eighty Bible women the last night we were in Japan. 

, 1 



530 i^;.<T«'«A'r/.00A-5 0A'..//«/avw^r/...A™. 

Mi,8 Crosby her associate fvom the beginning in the work, 

■mi one of the best informed men «i Japan on a 

t 1 with the r»li.-ioua life of the nation, called and 
Z^M ns tl e ,ate An> papers, and gave us nrr.h va - 
'Ile'infornuvtion abont Christian -vU in t e e„P^e^ ^ 
Ja,nes Ballagh, of ^^^^^^^ t Misln- 
"■" r"* -" S—t, "okohama, kindly attended to our 
busmessforus,a„d.sthe^^^ any forwarding busi- 

other nnssionaiy 01 t'^\""' „y (,ie„d of many 

ness in Yokohan.a. M,ss f;";";™'^^,^ her seventieth 
year, ago, was here, t«o, »* -«j;*J,^" ^^ has a large 
birthday, but was lo*mgf-''y»^ ^,, 

missionary home and «<>«"'"' ^ir-^ionary under 

Goodell, who lately came f"'" Tex^ f ! '^^^ ^j^^ '^er for 

,be An-c-vas^-ifr^^^^^^^^^^ Miance mis- 

""ires tas in YotoLma, and had .,een for about a year 
s,onanes was m ^ ^^^^_^^ ,_^^ ^^^,^ ^,„a. 

''"s'^d *: le*; — ^ to her. Miss Pratt has made e. 
nossandisdi^piy .^ ^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^,^^3 

cellent pvogi-ess ■" *« "'"^ « ^u, g^^day school of 

«"'• r 'I^M-i- Mashing village, down by the 
over fifty children ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^.^^^^ „£ 

':l*ir WH, *ewas\eaching the youngand unkempt 




ill the work, 
^eminai-y, the 
rkers, showed 
Bible Society, 
n all matters 
)n, called and 
i us much val- 

empire. Mr. 
s devout spirit 
f the Mission- 
ittended to our 

same for any 
i-wavding busi- 
riend of many 
[ her seventieth 
She has a large 
,f guests. Mr. 
tif^ionary under 
ae with her for 
ur Alliance niis- 
f or about a year 
her much kind- 
itt has made ex- 
light and gifted 
Sunday school of 
re, down by the 
ower stratum of 
Ling and unkempt 

little crowd in front, the rest of the family were drinking 
their tea, cooking and eating their rice, and winding and un- 
winding their nets in the back of the room. But the little 
faces were earnest and bright, and certainly kept much better 
order than the usual crowd of American street boys would 


have done at home. It v.. probably the only httle ray of 
heavenly light that ever .".ils on those dark and neglected 

httle lives. . 

We saw all we cared to of Yokohama. Jt is the chief 
port of Japan. It has a population of about 120,000, and a 

532 lahcer ovti-ooks on m.'^sfox.iny lands. 

large foreign trade. Uh foreign Bun.l is large and well built 
and compL favorably with other Oriental c.t,e^ although 
it is interior to Shanghai, Calcutta and Bon>bay. Most of the 
fomgners reside on the Bln«, which in a bold and handson.e 
elevation, running out between the harbor of VoVohama and 
the larger Bay of Tokio. It affords a magnificent s,te fo 
private houses, i,eing cool and retired, and good 
views of the harbor and bay. Here the vdlas are most 
luxurious, and the grounds spacious and eleg.ant. Like the 
lotus-eaters of old, the missionary who stays too long he,c 
may find his strength paralysed and bis spun enervated f o. 
the sacrifices and hardships of the interior. ^ o do not say 
hat there are not trne, loyal and self-denymg nnss.onanes 
Iven in these luxurious surroundings, bnt they need to 
"watch and pray, lest they enter into temptation 

Among the foreign residents here we we>-e glad to meet 
our old friend, Mrs. Jennie Bramhall, formerly of B™*ly», 
Td sister of Mrs. Frances Barrett, of the Gospel Tabernacle 
New York. We visited her in her elegant home, and found 
heTtiying to bring up her httle family in the fear of God^ 
Her hnsblnd represents a wealthy Now York sdk house, and 
S business gives employment to n>any tens ot thousands of 
Japanese. She has been very kind t» some of our mrssion- 
aries, and her house has been for them a welcome home. 

One of the missionaries took us out one evenmg late fo. 
a night view of this heathen city. We had seen Shanghai 
and Singapore by gashght, but Yokohama far exceeds them 
all in shameless sin. 


d well built, 

es, althouglt 
Most of thi' 
d handsonio 
Vohama and 
cent site for 
landing good 
as are most 
it. Like the 
00 long here 
■nervated for 
e do not say 
hey need to 

glad to meet 
of Brooklyn, 
i\ Tabernacle, 
lie, and found 
i fear of God. 
ilk house, and 
[ thousands of 
f our mission- 
ime home, 
^rening late for 
seen Shanghai 
exceeds them 









. ,,. ^p|pM| l pup^^yJ^ pj^ 

/..isr D.ns r\ J 


' ilooded, so brastly, 

,i> (iveiy true humau 

ide sutticient to freeze 

most degraded Imiuan 

T^iere in no indelicacy in descrihii it, for it is open to 
fver> ye, an<l almost every foreigner drives through this 
street, liut it is an awful sight to see those foui- thousand 
puulic li« utiiitea of vice and criine, dressed in their gorgeous 
robes, and sitting there, in view of luindreds, behind the 
open rasenients. through blofk after block of great buildings 
111 that public tboi'oughfart , lookii - like irattie in th(> stall, 
♦lecked for the shanddes. It \va- ^ 
so coarse, so ghastly, so utterly 
frelinp;, that one would think th 
the very pulses of vice in all 1 

No wonder that Yokohama bears the name of being, so 
' at least, as its foreign i)o|)ulation is coMccrned, the wick- 
city even in wicked Japan. 

Some of the streets were full of tht atres, open to the 
public gaze, wiiere the dreary, monotonous sliow got s on for 
hour after hour before the ])atient sjjectators. Others were 
crowded with archeries and various shows, and all were full 
of people, surging past in countless throngs, till far into the 
night, all apparently happy, careless, gay, and free from 
(>very thought of the morrow. It was a good picture of one 
phase of the nation- jolly, laughing, boyish, young Japan. 

Sometimes the ludicrous comes up in bright Japan. 
They are not a people to be laughed at, but they do some 
laughable things. Here is an advertisement on the front of 
an artist's store : " Want <'d -An Order. Your Picture — wiU 
he made cheap on seiv^ iiis photograph." 


L.lh'Cr.h' OUTLOOKS ON MfSS/O.y .1 h'V LANDS 

The 8hop8 are full of toys of every kind— flying fish, 
birds that inflate and float in the air, boxps of miniature ani- 
mals, gods, cities, and every conceivable thing. The children 
are everywhere, and the streets are full of tlieir jollity, fun 
and happy freedom. 

The native stores are much cheaper than the foreign. 

There are many of the 
latter, where costly 
curios are sold to ex- 
travagant travellers at 
great prices. The 
same things can us- 
ually be bought in the 
Japanese stores for 
half the price or less. 
The principal art- 
icles that foreigner.-; 
generally indulge in 
are bronzes, silks, em- 
broideries, lacquer 
work, tortoise shell, 
photographs, and thi^ 
very pretty engraved 
pictures on their rice 
paper, which they 
hang on screens and 
banners with such 

A JAPANESE PEDDUER. l^^^^V effeCt. But WO 


N -^J 

._, i,^4 


flying fish, 
liaturo aiii- 
Iie children 
jollity, fun 

ho foreign, 
nany of the 
ere costly 
sold to ex- 
.ravellers at 
ces. The 
'^H can us- 
ught in the 
stores for 
ice or less, 
•incipal art- 
indulge in 
s, silks, eni- 
toiae shell, 
lis, and the 
:y engraved 
n their rice 
'hich they 
screens and 
with Bucli 
ct. But we 

m dm^&^mmjm-m ^- ■ 










_jQ BW (fflaESE 

1^ 12.2 


— 6" 







%'^> ^> 







WEBSTER, N.Y. 14S80 

(716) 872-4503 
















Collection de 

Canadian Institute for Hbtorical Microreproductions / Institut Canadian de nricroreproductions historiques 



Krproduction froin a Japanese Painting. 



'"""^"^ ' '""""""''^'"'"'nffii -w 


have learned too well the value of money for higher purposes 
to be strongly tempted even by these extraordinary bargains. 

We had much earnest work to ilnish in Yokohama. 
Scores of letters had accumulated, and many matters affect- 
ing our missionaries in India, Malaysia and China, as well as 
Japan, had to bo settled by correspondence before we left the 
great Eastern Hemisphere. 

We had been waiting nearly a week for our good brother, 
Mr. Lelacheur, to come from Singapoio to consult with us 
about our whole work in China and the Straits Settlements 
and Islands. So important had this seemed, that we liad even 
felt justified in calling him from his important work in Sing- 
apore, and a proposed journey to the Caroline Islands, for the 
purp ' of conferring with him about the larger superintend- 
ence of the whole work in China, including also t!ie Malaysian 
coast and islands. For this i)Uipose he had arranged to come 
to Yokohama to meet us before we should sail, that we might 
together go over all the plans of the work, and then separate 
to our resp /e fields, he to Shanghai and we to the west- 
ern world, to i;l> our people to sustain him and his felloM-- 
workers by our prayers, counsels and contributions. 

For days we had no word from him, and it seemed as if 
he might not be able to make the necessary connection. But 
at length he arrived, just one day before we were to sail, and 
those last hours, incluchng most of the night, were spent in 
earnest, prayerful conference and arrangements. Our beloved 
brother had come without a moment's delay, and with all his 
heart met our suggestions and requisitions. How we thanked 



God for liis spirit and for his valuable experience and train- 
ing ! He was just the man our work needed at this critical 
stage in these immense fields. And we were able to commit 
to him all that God had been laying on our heart in those 
vast oi^'iiings, and all that He had been permitting us in 
some lnunble measure to begin during these past days — with 
the confidence that it would be faithfully, loyally, and cour- 
ageously carried out, in so far as the will of God should per- 
mit and the power of God should enable. 

We thanked God for the rest with which we were able 
to hand over all this great trust, which had been absoi-bing 
us night and day. After all these long months of perplexity 
and toil, we felt we could turn our faces homeward, with the 
delightful consciousness that the threads were all knitted to- 
gether, and ih«> moorings all made fast in the hands of God, 
and the humble, faithful stewardship, which is a pait of His 

Then, too, we had much earnest thought and responsi- 
bility for the work in Japan. 

We had come to these beautiful islands, after the heavy 
strain of two hai'd months in China, with something like a 
sense of repose. We had felt somehow that we had got 
through our birdest tasks on the mission field, and that we 
should have three weeks of comparative ease in looking over 
■ this smaller field, and arranging the simpler and easier ques- 
tions of our mission in Japan. 

But never were we more mistaken. Never had we been 
called to meet, in so short a time, so many trying, perplexing 

I and tiaiu- 
this critical 
to commit 
irt in those 
ttiiig us in 
ilays — with 
, and cour- 
should per- 

e were able 
d, with the 
knitted to- 
ds of God, 
part of His 

d responsi- 

the heavy 
hing Hke a 
e had got 
nd that we 
oking over 
asier ques- 

id we b«en 



matters, whicii weighed down our spirit night and day, and 
held us every moment in conscious dependence on that very 
Mind of Christ for the wisdom, without which we would be 
so sure to err. 

They were questions of which we cannot speak in the 
public ear ; but He who knows all hearts knows well how 
hard, how delicate, how important, how varied, how perplex- 
ing they were, and how they arose in new forms from day to 
day, and how gentle and gracious and wonderful the way in 
which He guided, overruled and worked for us and for His 
work, and out of much that seemed confusing at length 
brought, we lielieve, His own wise and simple plan and 
order, through which, although it may be small as a germ of 
mustard seed, and humble as the company of fishermen- 
apostles, we believe He is yet to bring great and lasting 
blessing for Japan. 

When, at last, we got through the tangled mazes, and 
had nothing left but to mail our bundle of letters, roll up our 
rugs, and send our baggage on board the ' ' Oceanic, " w^e had 
but one regret left, and that was that we had not some of 
our Tabernacle friends at hand to shout with us, " Blessed be 
the name of the Lord ! " 

On Friday morning, July Tth, accompanied by half a 
dozen true friends, we stepped on board the steam launch at 
Yokohama, and in half an hour were in our cabin on the 
"Oceanic," commending our beloved fellow -workers, in a 
parting prayer, to the care of Him whose Presence covers 
land and sea. and knows no dividing space or time. 


In a few minutes we were mutually waving our affec- 
tionate adieue as they .ailed back in the stean. launcl. arul 
then we were cIT. Th. fluttering signals, the ruo s of Yoko^ 
hama, the shores of Japan receded from view, and our great 
Bhip was sweeping homeward. 

Six months of intensely busy travel were abotit to end, 
and we began to xealize how nmch cause we had for gratitude 
and praise to Him who had s.> graciously gmded and so w.m^ 
drously guarded us through all these changn.g scenes, and 
^rfkindly kept the great trusts that we had Je t at .me 
Just before we sailed, our cup was made f ulle, by letters 
from India and China, telling of good news fron. all om- 
work God had already opened one new station in Cential 
China and given us a house at Han San H'sien. And from 
Shanghai came the tidings of the great impi-ovement, am it 
was hoped recovery, of the dear Swedish missionary we had 
^ft in uch distress there. From India came the tidings of 
two other open fields of service, and God's help U. our dear 
n^issionaries through all the terrible ^^^^^^^ f ""^^"^'^^^^ 
son Along with this came the message from deai Mi s. Fuller 
hat her dfrling babe had been taken out of this furnace of 
summer heat to the home where the sun shall not light on 
them nor any heat ; but with it came a letter so brave, . • 
trrhearted, sounselflsh, so full of thought for others that 
we could only thank God, with humbled heart, for her heroic 
spirit, and the victory that faith can bring. 

From across the great seas came also the message that 
our own dear mother had just gone to join our revered and 

[)uv affec- 
Linch, and 
1 of Yoko- 
onr great 

it to end, 
• gratitude 
id so won- 
cenes, and 
t at home. 
■ by letters 
.tu all our 
ill Central 
And from 
lent, and it 
iry we had 
! tidings of 
;o our dear 
he hot sea- 
Mra. Fuller, 
? furnace of 
i(»t light on 
so brave, i' ) 
others, that 
)r her heroic 

Message that 
revered and 



honored fatber in the home above. We thanked our Fatber 
for her fourscore years, and the sweet memory of her life 
and love, and for that dear and v«Mierable father, wlio, at 
eighty-four, had just a little while ago passed on before, and 
we felt that they bud not gone very far away. How nnuii 
of this rich bh^sing that has crowded onr life is due to their 
faithful prayers ! Tliank God for their precious lives and 
everlasting memorial. 

And from our home in New York there were so many 
cheering messages of synipatliy and remembrance and prayer, 
and the record of the generous kindness that had met the loss 
of our publishing bouse through the recent fire, that our cup 
was filed to overflowing, and we were made to feel utterly 
unv/orthy of all this goodness, and utterly unable adequately 
to express our grateful praise. 

How faithful G(.d has been to all our dear flock and our 
dear work at home ! 

We have had nothing but notes of praise from the work 
in the TaOernacle, Berachah Home, the College, Hebron, the 
Orphanage, the publishing work, the Door of Hope, and 
the Missionary Board. The presence of the Holy Ghost has 
been constantly "ith our beloved people. The spirit of unity 
and love has pre . c led. The means for our great niissionaiy 
work have continually been supplied by onr Father's bounty 
and His people's faithfulness. How can we sufficiently bless 
Hib gracious Name and thank His beloved people ! May His 
richer grace enable us to be worthier of all His love. 



BKF< )RE wo get beyond the shore-line of Jiiimn, let us 
try to gather up the mingled iini)ression3 that have 
he«Mv growing into something like a ])icture of this 
interesting people, as we have passed through their midst 

these twenty days. 

If anything that we may write should go hack to Japan, 
as doubtless it will, we tiust that the picture will be recog- 
nized as the sketch of a friend. We cannot, even to avoid 
criticism and i.ain, be false to our convictions ; and yet we 
tmst that we niay not exaggerate an eccentricity or a fault, 
or fail to give full credit to every real merit. 

Of course, like the sketches of our little kodak, these are 
all flash picture's, taken at sight, and not pretending to be 
elaborate' and studied drawings ; we simply give them for 
what they may he worth. 

The people are always the first thing y*)U see. 

How shall we describe a Japanese? A little, dark, 

thick-set man, always reminding you of a boy, with round 

head, flat features, and an immense growth of thick, black 

hair.'that usually is cut short and stands on ends like a 


I»uii, let us 

that liave 

re of this 

hoir midst 

t to Japan, 

be recog- 

'11 to avoid 

ind yet we 

or a fault, 

t, these are 
iding to bo 
e them for 

ittle, dark, 
with round 
thick, black 
ouds like a 

THi'. siTr.\rio\ I\' I IPAS. 


young forest of underbrush. This was our hrst iiripression 
of a Jap. If ho is a coolie, ho weais a blous*; ovtT his back, 
a cloth around his loins, and a pair <»f straw sandals on 
his feet. If he is a "riksha" man, he mayhaveona sijit of 
navy blue, consisting of a loose blouse coat, skiiitiglit, blue 

drawers, straw sandals, 
and a white hat. like 
an inverted wash basin, 
« on his head. If he is 
a gentleinati, lie liiis a 
loose robe, like a ilress- 
inggown. called a " ki- 
mono," gathered about 
his i»(»ison, reaching t<» 
his feet, and fastened 
with a sash, and on bis 
feet a pair of wooden 
sandals, raised about 
three inches from the 
ground by w o o d e n 
cleats oi- props, to keej) 
him above the mud, 
and perhaps add to his 
height and supi»lement 
the defect of nature in completing his stature. If he is a 
little more Americanized than his fellows, he is dressed in 
a foreign suit, usually with short sack coat, punts, shoes and 
hat, and looks a little strange and out of place in his foreign 




t4» LAKc.F.R orri.ook's OS mss/os/ipy lands. 
dre8B,-0on.ething lik. a K,>m<.»uuan ,.r u IN.le, but nmch 

darker fiiul Hhortt'r. 

Tho labor. ,., a.,d enpecially ...o " riksha" men, are very 
nmssive in their build, and tb<.ir lind.s are bko groat pdlar.. 
my run bko horacH. and go all over the land on tremendous 

'""Many of the educated nu-n have very bright, intelligent 
^ faces, and a manly b(>arnig ; 

and while few Japanese men 
aie fine-looking, their extra- 
ordinary politeness, and their 
easy and charming manners, 
make them always attractive 
and interesting. 

A Japanese woman is a 
pretty study. She is almost 
always small. Indeed, they 
all seemed to us like girls of 
thirteen or fourteen. Their 
dress is very like that of tne 
men,— a loose robe, with im- 
A JAPANESE QiRL. monso slceves that hang down 

like wings. This robe is folded around her person, left quite 
too oTen at the bosom, and fastened around the wjth a 
sash which terminates over her loins in a g-at square bow, 
X a cushion, and n.aking one feel tempted to thn.k that she 
arries it to sit down upon when tired. Her face .s round 
and fuU, always pretty, and all faces very much ahke. One 


but much 

n, are very 
'OJit pillivra. 

, iutelligeut 
ly bearing ; 
puiiese men 
tb(Mr oxtra- 
5S, and their 
ig manners, 
/» attractive 

woman in a 
,l\o is ahnost 
Indeed, they 

like girls of 
rteen. Their 
e that t)f tne 
^be, with im- 
at hang down 
son, left quite 
i waist with a 
t square bow, 
think that she 

face is round 
;h alike. One 

'/•///■: s/Tf : I /vox i\ japan. 


would think it must be very dithcult t»» pick out one's friundt) 
in Japan, the faces seem all so uniform. Her complexion is 
generally rosy, her eyes small andalnuMul-Hhaped, but brij^ht 

iind playful, 
her expr<>«sion 
kin<l, frank 
and refined. 
Her hair is 
black as a coal, 
and usually 
combed up in 
front in a sort 
of Pompadour 
fashion, and 
tied behind in 
a glossy roll, 
orna m e n t e d 
with flowers, 
ribbons and 
combs, vari- 
ously shaped 
accordingly as 
she is married 
or single, of 
high or low 

station. Her figure is usually plump and graceful, and she 
is mounted on a high pair of stilts oi sandals, raising her 
about three o^' four inches above the ■ ound, on which she 




L^iRci^N orri.ooKS on Mfssmx.iA-y 


544 . J 1 

hobbles about with studied shuffle, which i« conside^d K«od 

.Japanese how i..thi„g neve, to he|o,.^u.^«.;^^^^^ 

ladies approach each 
other in a room, and 
l„>w low, till their 
foreheads touch the 
ground, and repeat the 

ceremony two or three 
times until you won- 
der if they are ever go- 
ing to speak. Much 
of it, of course, is 
mere form, and back 
of it may lie a heart 
full of hppocrisy and 
hate. 'But it is often 
very pretty, although 
a good deal overdone. 
Their mental 
characteristics are 
Frenchy. They re- 
. ..PANEse MAN. mind you irresistibly 

of the poUshed race ^^^^^Z^^^ 
They are very bright, .mck^.n^ell^-^^^^^^^ 

of change, superficial,lackmg m teeung 

THE srif A-rrox ixjirAX. 


loi-ed good 

1(1 studied. 
It is quite 
to see two 
•oiich eacli 
room, and 

till their 
touch the 
d repeat the 
wo or three 
1 you won- 
are ever go- 
eak. Much 
' course, is 
n. and hack 

lie a heart 
ppocrisy and 
it it is often 
ty, although 
eal overdone, 
ir mental 
•istics are 
They re- 
al irresistibly 
of the world, 
lious, intense, 
isive, hut fond 
iriDg strength. 


They have far outstripped the Chinaman at the start, but ' 
perhaps the Chinaman will win the race. , , , 

Yet their mental faculties are not to be undervalued. 
Everything must he judged by facts and fruits and the 
progress of Japan in a generation is phenomenal and un- 


Te. yea,. n.o we thou«.,t - ];-; ^^t:!*" 
had to begin our studies ane\N 

"°11nTl:1lt:Lpi.. ,yin« .out,, o, Corea and s an ^.^^^ ^ terntory of 

about Ave •"'""^; ;;„„„«„„ „„ U„ge a, Germany. 
J (50,000 square nnleb, ana a y \ 

"T— "ofrera. U,«e islands and a great many 
It cons,st8 ot ^ _^^^j^j^ government : one 

BmaU o,>es ^™ »ff ' j„ ^^, the sup.^rae head, dweU- 

«pmtua., "V!''\tta a^Kyotorand;t worshipped ; the 
i„g in sacred isolat.",! at Kjot ^ ^^^^^ 

othertemporal «,.d -- to 'eu ^^ ^„^ j^^p„^, 

■J^L^rS:"--- a, it wasca„ed,_andits 

n^eX'aXoe -^:- -jrrBar::; 

-''-^'Ttl'f^lttte farr-chants. etc. 
or gentry, and then ,nm , ^^. ^^^^ ^^„ 

^'*tr ^'Ay o — nt, patriotic and determined 
''' Itol c^ghtened oligarchy, havi.>g carefully studied 
men, a soit ot enug".. modern civihzation, 

■ »* ''^^'^r "m^roTlTtir country steadUy for 
have pressed th«' ''"'P« j^j ,e™lution so complete that 
wardint«apol.t,caland ^a ^^_^ ^j_^^^ „^ i^ 

the customs and t'''^'*'™^;' ^ ^^.^ ^ united monarchy, 
a single generatoon ^-^^^^^^eM English I^rda and 


;h of this land 
ouud that we 
n, has revolu- 

of Corea and 

a territory of 

B as Germany, 

a great many 
'^ernment : one 
ne head, dwell- 
■orshipped ; the 
lilitary system, 
>f the temporal 
called,— and its 

castes of India, 
ne the Samurai 

merchants, etc. 
ings have been 

and determined 
carefully studied 
dern civilization, 
atry steadily for- 
30 complete that 
en thrown off in 
imited monarchy, 
nglish Lords and 
presentatives, and 

RcproducUon from a Japanese Painting. 


I vi 





a franchise much more wisely regulated than our universal 
suffrage in America ; and along with the new political con- 
stitution has come a national system of Customs. Post,- 
offices, railways, telegraphs, telephones, police, and com- 
mon school and higher education almost as complete as in 
the western countries. 

A weekly Sahbath has been appointed, and is kept as a 





?he Na«,.,K,. M,nt at ^ TTJ^ .^. «u„boats, 
and camum, ami V e ,v .th . K.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^^^^ 









ished, and 
r. Native 
sof Krupp 
ins to-day, 




,t. The great 

students, and 

g up to it, and 

buted through 

hiurch nfiedstc* 


seud medical missionaries to Japan or even to teach them 
liigher education. They are imitating every western in- 
vention, and even the modern bicycle is manufactured m 
Japan, and sold at one-half the price it costs in America. 

Thei. Ship..., t,.aa» i« K;"--,t:-^„^':for: ^d 

i8 worthy of all praise. country. The first 

wo have »Vok''" « " i tCty.' » U a very 
thing 'hat 'mp-^se^ t « «^^ ^^ ^ ^^^.^„„^ ■ 

oflreon, its dwarf pines .t, nee « f/""! ,,a Inland 

Sea,itBHakoneI^lceanaN.kkoMo ^__^ 

of comparison wth any other la"". J 4 ^^^ 

rrrs:::iitr:rnrst:;^^^^^^^^^^ an „h,et oe 

Ch "r— inter^t. Its str^t. as a ruie, are Oean. 

ana its houses attractive and pleasant, 

A Japanese house is a perfect .deal of ta te 
For a summer residence •' -""V?^ ha. no pa^al ^_^_^^ 

Jor winter use it must he often « J^d. " comfortable 
modification before a f''™«";^ ";.,■: f^euine^ 
home. But in sunnner .t .s » P " ^^ » j^j^^, «, ad- 

S^hrror::;; ::;r :h:^" ^"--e -— '' 

hey run 
rea, and 
hey are 
e do not 

rhe first 
is a very 
jeeling in 
tains and 
ty. It is 
;t3 shades 
:e mosaic 
nd Inland 
re worthy 
laint and 
e it t^ the 
object of 
are clean, 

nd beaaty. 
I, although 
leeds much 
!8S, with its 
ons, its ad- 



itH pivtty paper windows. an<l its stiitVcd niiittinK Hdois, soft 
a» I'UsliioiiH, oil which tlu'y Hit without <hairs, and no one 
ever ti-eads except with unshod feet. You always leave 
your shoes outside a Japanese house, and the floors are 
always clean. We noticed that even in the farm cottan.'S 
the r()(jnis were neat and tidy, and the hoiu«' \\W of tlif p»'o- 
ple seemed somewhat refined and comfortable. 

Coming out of China to Japan seemed likt^ coming out 
of a cellar into a garden of suushine. And to (-hange the 
ttgure, China seemed like a great Colossus, always looking 
backward ; Japan, like a bright steed, looking ever forward 
and leaping out into the future in the face of the sunrise. 

And yet China has taken hold of our heart, and we be- 
lieve of the hearts of most Christian workers, as Jajjan never 
can, and ins{)ir«'8 a confidence and expectation for the -e- 
moter future which we beheve will be realized when Jai)iu 
shall have swept through all the stages of her more ephemeral 
and precocious growth, and have begun to show the reaction 
of premature age. 

There is one subject of which we nuist speak plainly 
before we refer to the religious situation. We mean the 
morals of Japan. We fear they are a frightfully irnrnor:.! 
people. The dress of their women is very inimoilest ; and of 
their men, often outrageous. 

Their habits and customs in public baths are said to be 
grossly improper, and their laws and ideas in regard to the 
regulation of vice woi-se than even in India. The dress of 
the people is not intended to be immodest. The worst thing 

o,-rr.ooK's ox ia/.vs/oa./a')- /../.\7;5. 

.,„,. .... ...« ,».t of a -;>«"• •^- " ve\v..n.utt,.,-.y »h,K.U«l 

.,„., una »l...ul,l in .11 .-.v.!.";' ». ;'^,„.,i„„« ,.,.nted « 

,. . ,;f,. t„ „.,,..v.. h..r e t"^^ „ t and 

morals. tvinoug til'' i>'»"^* ' 

ana vice. awaifea aiul defective 

We Lave been t<M ha tl. ^^ _^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

^^y^^'^^-'''X:\Z^Zn.^. the nation has pasHed. 
,,^..Hof nnnm.aht> ^^'""^ ^^ j, A.noHtevery Japanese 
We are strongly ten^.ted to ^^^^- ,^, j, ,Uape, 

and hears the niatws 

ancestoi-s. i,.riuential native Christians 

We rejoice to k.u.w ^"•"*7"7*: "; .^ ,,,„,^i ,etorm as 
.irintr in hr nn Jihout sucn a 

are bravely working ^^»;'»'"^ the Mikado to the meanest 
^iU sweep all the way down ^-'^ ^«J^ ^.^ ^^^^ ,,ierated 
-He, and will a^oU^h l^ X.-.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^_ ,,^, ,. .^ 
immorality m e • - >;rn . ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^, ^„„^,,,. 
permanently gv . - ^^ ^^^^^^^.^^ ^^,,,. i,,„,,s. 

hood, punfy '^^'^ .i.annu.,u. 



Tin: sin .1 Tfox /\ / mix. 


it, and 
it. Tn- 
nil lift'. 
^nu«^ it 

years to 
i-es3, and 
poet and 
irt f«'asta 
B live in 
3 tone of 
to laxity 

lue to the 
IS passed. 
r Japanese 
r in shape, 
tiou ill his 

[ reform as 
ihe meanest 
u\ tolerated 

hope to he 
her woman- 


^^oinK on to 

irts .f the 

Tl'.opulilKuUitua-ion in .l««i, us it uffe<tH foreiKiiers, 
is brietly this: Tlnougli the la..t tr«.atics with foreign natioiis, 
certain cities in the "mpire are <.|H,n for foreiKH trade, uiid in 
all other placew foreign' is «'an only reside luuUi sptuiial pass- 
ports. These passports ar»' of two kinds; vi/., travelling 
l)assports, wl»ith have to l^e renewed every few nmnthH, and 
ivsich'nce passports, which are only givn t« foreijcnnrs who 
^o to tea<h in the interior in Japanese schools. 

These restrictions have greatly hainpt 
work in the interior, and an agitation ha. he. 
Hecure treaty revision and free access i. al 


On the other hand, the Japanes*^ are much .1 satisfied 
with some clauses in 1 .e treaty, notably one rehi to cus- 

toms, giving a decuh I advantage to foreignei mother 
allowing all foreigners i i Japan to live under i\v , .sdiction 
of their respective consu s, and to he tried in all juti '^ial pro- 
cesses before consular i mrts instead of native t .inals. 
This, the Japanese feel, !• Us their own people to gn disad- 
vantage in all issues with foreigners. And there hoen 
growing up. for some tim -, considerable political ai. anti- 
foreign feeling, until, two ears jig... it reached the i mt of 
real irritation, which oc. asionally broke out in act of 


There has been, doubtl. s, in the past two years, a strong 
and favorable reaction, and a real friendliness between the 
government of Japan and t e western nations, which is ut- 
terly different from the nati. nal sentiment in China. 

■ , 1 1,^ been copying wholesale the best ideas 

J-l-";"*''on^ ltd flly acknowledges hev obliga- 

of the western nations a^.d y ^^^^^.^^ ^^,„,a to 

tions to them bhe sent a y ^^^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

study the institutions o£ '^e We* » the laws and jurjs. 
— "rCeT — : a:T' .^,.^^- 


Ta^:: t;:^- aid .aUe it tho..ugh,y national and a 
sort of paragon and pattern to the worM. ^^ 

^at;r ;= --* r." -- »- 

world in the New D-P--^^^ ,,^ ^^ ,„, ^^ dependent 
^a so she ao<. — hjo^;;^^ ,,;„„ „„» everything 
on foreigners, bhe is giau »- 
„„st be subservient to *« Japanese^ ^.^_^^^.^_^ 

r ^'VrtTerT irthXry o, the opening ot 
We need "» ^ere re ^^ ^.^^^^ __^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^„„ 

foreign missions in Japan, .missionaries and 

ation,the«. are to-day ^fT^^^X i^-^»^--^- Ahont one- 
forty thousand native "^•^f ^"J '" ' ^^^^ Presbyterian 

quarter of these Chri^*-; tlel— Board, and the 
churches, about one-quaitf. to the A ^^^ 

rest are divided among a ««- «-«™ organized native 
thousand Christians, however, -P-Bont au g ^^^ ^ 

force ,u.te out o' P-VK.*on * a„^*-f^,^^.^ . ^ ^^^^^ 
India ov China. Many ot them a. , k 


(pening of 
n a gener- 
laries and 
^bout one- 
id, and the 
'hese fotty 
lized native 
we find in 
in native 



churches, which are entirely self-supporting, and are min- 
istered to by their native pastors, and the fcneign mission- 
aries aie simply overseers of the work or teachers in the 
schools. Indeed, very many ot the foreigners are not even 
recognized as overseers ; for the native churclies have as- 
sumed the diiection of the entire work, and tht^ foreigners 
aresimply advisory committees and friends, and the native 
church takes the direction of the evangelistic and missionary 
operations, as well as the pastoral work of the settled 


The United Presbyterian Church has adopted an entirely 
new creed as the basis of its imion, founded si i b-tantially on 
the Apostles' Creed. It does not even recogni.-e the Western 
Confession of Faith, but is bound together by a declaration 
as simple and catholic as the constitution of our own Gospel 
Tabernacle. In its Presbyteries, which control the entire 
work of the church, the native pastoi-s and elders have seats, 
and the foreign missionary has not even a vote unless he is 
either a pastor or an elder, and very few of them are native 
pastors, so that it can be easily seen an independent native 
church has been growing up which is very rapidly getting out 
of the hands of the Foreign Missionary Board. 

In the American Board churches, which rank next in 
number and influence to the United Presbyterian Churches, 
there is even a stronger movement toward independence, and 
the American missionaries are more and more feeling it, and 
preparing for the hour when their presence will be no longer 
needed. Indeed, very strong expressions of this kind have 


live and the con,pav.t.vely - -H «P™^» ° ,„„ .„ ,a, while 
A teeiP'"*^'""'':''^''** ;r ™ two hundred yen- 

. native V^^ -^^^ ^^Z^ f^<^^^ '^ ."-f 
whichiaonlyabout*> ji^,„,t to see how the 

„„daly at '""*'•'■ ""llonKuig fov independence, desiring to 
growing native church. '»■«:"*: ', ^„ ^^ke the most 

Leioparea, ^'^^X^^^^^^'"' ^"■"^"™^ 
„t all the money. »* ^ ^^i;,,, „„,i,,,e to fully understand 
,„.an that ■^-;S:;:t;.cun,stances in which the for- 
:tT::UWrsh:u,d he temped to .ay. ■^«ive us your 

--•-"::;r:— -e'»pro,.a.^ 

In view ot all these ^^^^^ g^^.^. 

,.^.t time ^ -^ -tr— Jl foreign element hy 

»«-^°*'7:;, ^trff'a gradual transfer of the work to 
degrees and 1-P;« f^^^^ ,,, g„i„g home and some may 
native hand. A good y^_^ ^^.^„„,„,mw „y these sue- 
not return. But even i j : jjfy their with- 
,«rf„l missions is not yet '*"!^^^; ^ J, ,, /et only 20,000 
drawal. Together these t«o ""^'"''l^^^J^'ovk has but 
converts out of forty million peo,^. and ^h«r ^^ _^^^ 

begun. 0«1 must ha.. -- ^^^;X hear from some of 
ing this difficulty. ^;'\;; ;:; J„„,ries the assurance that 

the oldest -<•--;;'*„ he done by foreigners in Japan, 
there was tuucU woik yet 

e-iSTSST s-''' t"-«$rf-i-r' 


it times 
-n some 
id, while 
,d yen- 
how the 
'Siring to 
the most 
I the for- 
. us yom- 

bly at the 
older soci- 
iiement by 
»e work to 
soine may 
these suc- 
their with- 
only 20,000 
,rk has but 
ay of meet- 
om some of 
turance that 
rs in Japan, 

THE sni-.rj/ox ixj.iPAX. 557 

and undiminished need for their presence, counsel and in- 

The other missions and churches do not seem to have 
felt so strongly or at all seriously tliis ultra independent 
spirit. Perhaps there are reasons in their own methods of 
work which will account for this. As we have looked at the 
whole situation in Japan, we have had the following consider- 
ations deeply impressed upon us as they affect the present 
needs of the work in this land. 

1. There is need for a deep si.iritual movement. Much 
of the progress of Japan has been educational and intellectual. 
Much of the work, even of the missionaries themselves, has 
been to develop a young giant of philosophical culture and 
theological smartness, who is in danger of growing too strong 
for them. We could not help feeling almost everywhere m 
Japan this sense of intellectuahsm and the cry our heart 
was for the deeper, humbler, diviner strength c . ae spiritual 
life, which crucifies the strong-headed will, v .ich lays ec- 
clesiastical ambition in the dust, which baptizes with tender- 
ness and love, and which brings the power, not of strong and 
self-sufficient men, but of the Spirit of the living God. We 
are sure that this and this alone will save the churches of 
Japan from a great crisis, and that it must come upon the 
missionaries as much as upon the native churches. 

All over China we found the cry for this blessing on the 
part of the missionaries. We have met a good many in 
Japan of the same spirit, but not nearly to the same extent 
as in China. Our heart's cry for this land is a deep spint- 




,^1 movement, a aeepening of spiritual life, a separation 
ual ^««^^"^^ l^. f„, ,,onal holiness and near- 

frnm the worul, <i beeK-iiig ■< i i „4. ;+ 

.1 Ld as well as power and success. Lord, grant it 
ZlTJ.^^rZ and'the Christians oi Japan. We are 
s:mehol in,pressed that the,* has hecn --l-a.^'^ 

'"''Ch:v:X'^d'at home that the only t™e source of 

Ifulmistions is a spiritual movement in the church A 

:;S^r hrrZrch wm p«>duce ItseU ab«>ad. And a 




nd near- 
grant it 

We are 
rely little 
I. There 
ies whose 
eiy clear, 
id united 
c opinion 
help and 

the mis- 

9tudy, but 

and such a 
■sin South- 
^ the older 
8 Mr. Ishii, 
lers we met 
any other 
scatter the 

le source of 
e church. A 
)ad. And a 

worldly church will have like cliildivii in heathen lands. It 
is not very strange that when many of the Japanese students 
came to America, and found at Harvard and Yale a cold and 
indifferent type of Christian life, and a very broad and 
liberal theology, they went back to Japan to tell their people 
that they had been practicing too rigid a religion, and that 
the high-toned Christianity of America's best circles was a 
very much freer and easier style of thing. Is it any wonder 
that the Japanese mind became saturated with such ideas, 
and a fruitful soil was prepared for the rationalism, the 
Unitarianism, the higher criticism and the indifferentism 
and worldliness that h ave- alas !- made much headway 
already in this bright new land. How were these children 
to know the difference ? 

The remedy for all this is going to be found in the Holy 
Ghost. We rejoice to believe that a strong, united and un- 
compromising party of men and women is being gathered 
by the Holy Ghost from all the missionaries in Japan. This 
is the spirit of Mr. Buxton and his workers in the north- 
west, and his brave, true testimony has been made a great 
bles^ng already to the missionaries ad well as to the natives. 
This, we trust, will ever be the spirit of our missionaries 
in Japan'. And this has been the testimony of many others 
whom, perhaps, it would be invidious to name, but whom, 
we believe, God would unite heart to heart and hand in 
hand to seek for Japan her greatest blessing— the enduement 
of power from on high. 

2. Along with this, the next greatest need of Japan is a 

. • +Vi« fioKDel to the \uaoc- 
bold aggressive n>ovo,nent to the Go«,.eI 
o„piedfleld» and the neglected cUsBe. ^^^ ^ ^^ 

Ve.y much has '--' .*™ J\!, had sup,K,»ed. We 
evangelism in ^='^7 ' ^^ to«ns and villages in all 
we,, delighted to "-J™^°a the Ueaty ports, had 
parts ol the empire, a d ai bey ^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ 

been occupied successfully. Thue ^^^^ ;„ 

world nearly so ->' -^t f^ thout nJonaries, and 
Japan. ''^^--J^"';: Tlhvvest coast, that we hope 
it is to some ot these, on tn^ 

immediately ';«-':t::,::tt\t:^^^^ been cached at 
But there is one eiemoi anomaly 

aU, and that is "« ^iX a ^afnot been given to 
amo»«— to hfientT-the samurai class-and the 
the. poor, but to t^e gent ^ „„evangeh.ed. There are 
common people are yet manuy ^^ ^^^^ 

W- ».«.-o» yi»'.™« ';^-; :„^Cdo„r to the betU,r 
have been reached «°f *"* Xly entered it. But He .s 
classes, .f *«*:;* trllsionary movement which 
calUng to-day, «e believe, tor a Japanese 

wm go wider and 'o--.-™ ^ teaching them to go 
themselves an unspeakable "'*»«»« Christianity and 

to their humbler brethren in the spirit 
lead them by thousands to Jesu^ ^^^ty i, japan (or 

3. We believe there is a special opp ,^_^^ ^^ 

'"^ "'^^''%'e' ::::: "rirstVe number is Umil.^ 





i vmoc- 

d. We 
es in all 
•rts, had 
in the 
even in 
ries, and 
we hope 

Bached at 

I given to 
-and the 
There are 
V of these 
the better 
But He is 
lent which 
r Japanese 
them to go 
,tianity and 

II Japan for 
r is limited, 
ssionaries in. 

India or China would shout for joy if they could conunand 
them. We believe God is going to raise up and ])repare a 
great many more, and send them out by hundreds and thou- 
sands as the future evangelists of Japan. We trust our own 
work in Japan may be able very largely to utilize and em- 
ploy these laborers. And it is our prayer that the work of 
Mr. Ishii may become largely a missionary work, and may 
train and send forth large numbers, not only of his own boys, 
but of others, baptized with his own spirit, to preach the 
Gospel in the power of the Holy Ghost in all the unoccupied 
regions of Japan. 

4. And wo believe that God is calling His people in Japan 
to simpler methods cvn.d lives of humbler, holier separation 
from the world. Our herrts are too full of love to our dear 
brethren r.broad, and wc> b: ve too deep an appreciation of 
their trials, iiardship,:; r.nd unsellish purposes, to criticize 
their methocis of li\ ing. Bui, we boliove tlmt the fact that 
there have been inch criticisms, hof-h from the natives and 
from other novices, -ho Jd mc.kc> uo all wilhng to learn any 
lessons God has for ns, and to set such an example of sim- 
plicity, economy and separation irom the world as will make 
the line of demarcation abroad as sharp as it ought to be at 
home between the humble follow :r of Jesus and the fashion- 
able friend of the world. 

We have already said that the t;ost of living in Japan is 
much higher than in most other mission fields, and we are 
wiUing to concede all that is reasonable and necessary for 
comfortable and healthful homes, foreign food, winter fires 




. . „llin.. Eveiv true mtasionaiy should to kept 
and extra traveUing. ''^^'', ,, . „„ K„t eleaant man- 
f ran. all need or c:are about these ""»«; J"' '^^ ^„,,,, 

lonj! summer vacations, ana boi,. 

unnecessary. j^^^g „( mission- 

We have no doubt ^at 'here a. j,, temptations 

aries he.., a. elsewhere and p«^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ 

a„a the freer social We o£tta-^^^^^ ^^„,^„,,i„„ 

^„,e farther across ">«,a„ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ .„ 

^''""r'ratror Xrinate'cHticisms, but in the 
sweeping chaiges or m ^^^. • ^ example of the niea 

„^est. consisi^nt -^™— Hrfntatlnd to live a 

,„d women whorn God h-.™. brethren and before the 
true missionary Me ''f'°'" '".,,,„ j,i,,„ to prove to the 

heathen. We '*'-'» "'^V^f "^V^^t and, at the same 

.orld that ^«*;"t:,r^^ar"'ia Jalpan asweUas 
ttae. econom^a^woiU «>.n^ca ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ 

i„ India or China^ A ^_ ^^^^ ^.^^^ „^t,,. 

Boards said to us, only a ^^^ ^^^^^ 

preachers could be sustained fo the amou^ ^.^^ 

Uives asasalary,and th t^ --;^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
lUm whether he ought not oie^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^_^^ ,„^.. 

could not be done by the^gh^ ^_^^ ^^^^^ ^_^^ 

eigner. ^«f;,-"^X "^Wch botU classes can be em- 
method should <« ^ "'""^^ *" ^thout the sacrifice of 
ployed, and yet the ut-^ — ^^^ .^ u,,ble is 




1 be kept 
int man- 
is courts, 
urely are 

: inission- 
1 have led 
e found in 
)ut in the 
of the men 
d to live a 
before the 
»rove to the 
; the Bame 
a as well as 
one of the 
sight native 
lich he alone 
lestion with 
: more good 
the one for- 
ut that some 
8 can be em- 
le sacrifice of 
practicable is 
Let us pray 

that their experiment maybe so successful that the result 
will be full of encouragement for the future work of foreign 

laborers in Japan. 

What is the prospect of the evangehzation of Japan? It 
seems brighter than that of any other foreign country. With 
tact and wisdom almost every part of the interior can now 
be reached. The truths of Chiistianity are fairly understood 
by the reading portion of the nation. The sentiment of the 
people is not so anti-Christian as it is anti-foreign. A native 
Christianity is fairly popular. Buddhism, Shintooism and 
the ancient faiths have lost much of thoir power. There is 
none of the Caste difficulty we meet in India. There is none 
of the desperate antagonism we find in China. There is a 
fair disposition to listen to the truth almost everywhere. 
Converts are much more quickly won than in all the other 
fields Much can be done through an interpreter while the 
language is being acquired ; and yet we would advise all 
missionaries to learn it and use it as soon as possible. Na- 
tive workers can be obtained more easily than in any other 
field At present our advice would be to send comparatively 
few new foreigners, and only those of the very highest class, 
and ever to utilize native workers as much as possible, and 
by judicious oversight scatter them widely through the yet 
unoccupied districts of the land. 

We believe Japan will be evangeUzed before the end of 
the century, and that a blessed missionary movement ^ill go 
forth from its people, which God will use to reach the mil- 
lions of Corea, and the vaster myriads even of interior China 
with the light of the Gospel. 




All her 1.1.-. ar« »J^^^!°^m t,„ chlKlron ..n ».-. 

■^Blie «o»ia r«ln °"*"'''f *,Ve,briBl>»«t«"l'»" 

. „„.v vhat a charm there linger* 
Land of wondrous ^;*"^y;;;;*Jower and tro. ! 

Over every landscain-, ^^^'^ ^ ^^on thte 
But . brlsbt^r «^-y - t^xnt^Jn, o^thy Inlan.l Sea. 

Tl. ^n thy cloud-capped moun ^^^ 

•Tis ine Father's «^^Z^Xleemine Love ; 

,TiB the blessej^^to;y^«4«^^^^^^^^^ wfavenly Bunri- ; 
^£etCn ^e%r;ehfnioK fro. ahove. 

At the gates of Asia, ^^-ZVl^7J^oZ^^-'^ 

God has Beth^X tS and Corea's mUlions 
China's teeming «^y' ff^;^ ^o the Bon of Man. 

Wait for her to 1««^*{ *f J^J^ ^^ claim thy calling, 
Rise to meet t^^ '"'«tn;Sing on the van ; 

,Mid Mlllenn al "^^^^ Jthe^Coming Kingdom, 
First to -"^t^h the Bunrise o^ ^^^^ , 

Islands of the Morning, oe" 



THE voyage across i\w Pacific lasted nineteen days, and 
was broken almost niidw..y by a short' stay at Hono- 
Inlu, in the Sandwich Islands. Oni- stoainship was the 
"Oceanic" of the Oriental and Occidental Line, San Francisco. 
She is fairly comfortable, but by no means a quick boat, and 
our greatest speed only slightly exceeded three hundred miles 
ji day. She was the first of the o(u^an racers of the White Star 
Line, but her engines have been greatly reduced in power 
And she is now chiefly a cargo boat. 

The ships of this line are net coini)arable with the splen- 
<lid ocean queens of the Empress Line, and we should cer- 
tainly advise all our fiiends bound for th«^ Orient to take the 
Canadian Line, if possible. They make the trip in about a 
week less than the San Francisco boats, and all the arrange- 
ments are in » measurably supiirior. We had about fifty pas- 
sengers on bouid, including seven or eight Japanese gentle- 
men. The weather was only moderate, and the Pacific 
Ocean did not maintain its reputation for pacific qualities, 
l)ut tossed and squalled a little worse than we have usually 
.seen in the Atlantic, especially in summer, but we had almost 

sot used to the sea, in a journey, nearly half of which was 


5**** 1 tVi.. leisure f()r oiir 

highest. Throe Sabbath, ^"^'^^fj^.^^.^o.. «<rvteo until 
tife m.t, no effort wa, "!«'« "^ ^^ ,;, J, to permit u« to 
the evening, wl>en we ^'J'L, hu* "o more than two 
gather a little company m the saloo , ^^ ^^^ ^^„^„^ 

"or three ot the t»-"«"" * nW ot ^^ J'>P»-" "" '""'• 
and the audience oons.rted ma.nly ,.--i^-ft. 



8pon«e to our earneet apl«". ' , ^^ g„t m used, 

I the Sunday cricket «'''"J;'>";Xbbath in this way, that 
J San Francisco, t» speudmg the ^ ^^ ^^^_^ _^^^^^^^^^ 

h« did not see any harm u.^^^^^ ^^^ ^,,^ ^„^„,, ,„d th. 
in the long story oi vii« » 


for «mr 

[w very 
and oil 
[;o until 
it UH to 
tian two 
n board. 

lin, purser 
mg cricket 
\xe evening 

, and in re- 
ted to give 
got BO vised, 
is way, that 
ther chapter 
liah and thft 



Americans abroad, and as we looked ut that little <N„npan>r 
of Japanese devoutly worshipping God in the midst of 
American ungodliness, we thought the day might indeed 
come wheu we should see companies of Japanese and Chinese 
missionaries coming to America to preach the Gospel to the 
heathen of this land. 

Our stay at Honolulu was very pleasant. The day w is 
charming, and the climate of the islands is, indeed, superb 
It IS, probably, the finest in the world. The thermometer 
ranges from seventy to eighty most of the year. It is never 
cold and it is never disagreeably warm. The trade winds 
continually blow across the islands, and maintain a perpetual 
breeze which is most refreshing. The vegetation is tropical 
and luxuriant, very much likt. Hong Kong, and almost as 
rich as Singapore. 

We took a drive to the mountain behind the town, and 
looked over the brilliant panorama of valley, hill and shoiv 
The picture was a very prett> one. At our feet the city lay 
embowered in palm groves ; and, just beyond, the water was 
gently breaking over the coral reef which surrounds the 
island, and which looked like a beautiful necklace of dia- 
monds, while the lagoon between the reef and the shore was 
the richest green ; and, beyond, the waters of the grtjat 
Pacific sparkled in the glorious sunshine in every tint, from 
the deepest blue to purple and crimson, at the far-off horizon 
Une where the ocean met the sky, and the exquisite bhie of 
the glowing firmament was fretted and chased with many- 
colored clouds. 

:;68 i..4KaKK o,:Ti.onh-s o,v MissroN.iK-yrAKDS 

Two imndi-ed miles »outh of Honoluh., on »"»«'« *^- 
,a„d, is the g.anae,t volcano in the ««*V — J ^^ 
,«,.ty stopped off to visit it. .ml we heavd »»>« "-' ^™ 
descriptions of its majesty and gx^ndem- I* ^. "^; 
lake of «.e, and its h.rid light illummates the n.ght with tei 

""" We found the islands agitated alK>ut the question of an_ 
nexation to the United States. We had the opportunity of 
sp^ng with some of the leading >.sidents on the govern- 
mS side, and we have also met a nmnher of members o^ 
he opposition party. We believe the £o.^.gn .-esidents are 
rgl in favor of annexation, but there is a considerable 
plrty even of these, who are opposed to it, and neariy aUthe 
C' planters rega.-d it as likely to p.-ove fatal to the bus.^ 
,et! of the islands, as it will exclude the Japanese a^d 
" htoese laborer on whom they enth-ely depend for the cult.- 
ta^ of the plantations. We hav. no doubt that annexa- 
Z under the Geary law. which ^^'^^-^^^^^'^ l^^^. 
tion would he fatal to the prosperity of the islands ; but .£ 
that' outrageous act we,-e abolished, and the restncfon upon 
t e in«,mh,g of the Japanese and Chinese removed we be- 
: would be to the interest of the islands to ,o.n he 
rmerican republic, and we ar. sure it would g,ve t^ the 
t "ited States an influence in the East wh.cb would be of 
immense advantage. j + „„ 

It is impossible for oxxe who has not gone abroad to ap- 
preciate the value to Great Britain of her colonial posses- 
n A chain of miUtary stations hterally girdles the 


►ther is- 
l of our 
erally, a 
mth ter- 

>n of an- 
bunity of 
3 govem- 
mbers of 
ients are 
rly all the 

the busi- 
mese and 

the culti- 
t annexa- 

ds ; but if 
3tiou upon 
ed, we be- 
o join the 
ive to the 
ould be of 

•oad to ap- 
lial posses- 
girdles the 

world, and gives to Great Britain a connnanding influence 
among the Oriental nations which can scarcely be exagger- 
ated, and which to a great extent constitutes the glory of the 
British Empire. The American abroad is constantly made 
conscious of the absence of all these on the part of his own 
country, and the opportunity afforded in the Sandwich Isl- 
ands, at present, for the United States to hold the key to the 
Pacific Ocean is one that ought not lightly to be thrown away. 
We found the desire for annexation on the part of the Amer- 
ican people very intense, and the feeling of disappointment 
at the coolness with which the proposal was received at 
home is very strong and painful. 

We believe the American government is giavely weigh- 
ing the whole situation, and we have reason to hope that 
they will act with fairness and wisdom. No words can too 
strongly express the outrageous excesses of the late dynasty, 
and the thoroughly corrupt queen who was dei)osed last 
January through the storm aroused by her own despotic and 
reckless course. 

All the islands put together, however, do not amount to 
very much, numerically at least. The whole population does 
not reach to 100,000, and as one looks over the Blue Book 
there seem to be almost as many officials as there are citizens. 
The resources of the islands are, however, considerable. 
Sugar is the principal product, and \^Y^\or to the recent tariff 
system, immense fortunes were made by the planters. 

The principal value of this little country is its strategic 
position as the key to the great Pacific Ocean, and the island 




«o,M To Great Britain it woulA be a point of vast import^ 

::. and i, She «et. the "P.— ^: ^X^ tZ\^ 
will not be slow to improve it To th« '••'^«"; ^^^^^ 

paradise, and if ^"'> ^:;^];^Z^,^Z^^^ -^ 
Mmy air and gaze on glorious veg j j 

tain a ve.7 pleasant existence on «-« "J^";^, ^^ 

even Honolulu soon grew tiresome to ^^'^^^J^l^ l^, 

when the hour came to take o„r ^ave ^^^^^^^^s 

The most ,,leasant nrcdent ot «";^?' ^7 „ b„^m 

hospitality of the hind "—»-"- irhJTand took us 
who received us most c.n-d,ally *-^h«u home 

"T ""^^S:irJ^— .:. Thereis'als„ag«,d 
work among the Chinese oi n ^^ ^^^^ 

-^ among tHe f ;-^^^^^^^^^^ 

'Ifnrit::'^^^^^^^^^^ -more thriUing story oC 

extmct. Iherc is ^^^ evangehzatiou 

modern missions than the account 

of the Sandwich Islands and the laboi. of th. 
can missionaries. ^nlendid mce, and tlie 

These islande,. ~f ::^'„ ^j':; physical' develop- 
"^i:""Jn a,: tT^antic Itm^. and the women 
r: Of g1: si.. It is said that the e..,y .«.ns met by 

'•'^ t:rrarH::^'::i:":rmad: .. st.. 

^r.A thnir morals are simply mdebcnbaoie. j 

^;::u,"pe.>pK and when the time came for onr 

em, she 
an ideal 
t main- 
33. But 
ere glad 

in Board 
I took us 
so a good 
} are fast 
•obably bo 

story of 
st Ameri- 

e, and the 
i\ develtip- 
le women, 
ms met by 
;ht, and we 
, the state- 
ler a coarse 
They are a 
me for oiir 












steamer to leave, the send-ott" was characteristic. The 
wharf was crowded with hundreds of ]»eople, and everything 
had a gala appearance. 

A band of music was playing the liveliest airs, and 
every one who came on board was garlanded with the most 
gorgeous wreaths of flowers, and amid music and brightness 
we were sped on our journey by these genial and hospitable 
people. It seemed as if their heart was turning homeward, 
and they were caUing to their mother-land to receive them 
and recognize them as her children. Swarms of naked boys 
followed in the wake of our ship as we left the harbor, diving 
for pennies like the little African urchins that we had seen 
at Aden. At length we were off again, and before sunset 
the bold heights of Diamond Head had disappeared beyond 
the horizon, and the blue waters of the Pactific Ocean were 
again surrounding us on every side. 

Eight days more brought us to the Golden Gate, and our 
hearts were strangely moved as we gazed on the Seal Rocks 
at the entrance of the harbor, and at length rounded the pro- 
montory and saw just before us, lying in a beautiful basin, 
the teriaced streets of San Francisco. 

We had just an hour to catch the eastern-bound train, 
but again the kind Providence of God assisted us, and as the 
sun went down we found ourselves sweeping homeward 
through the Sacramento Valley, while that beautiful Ameri- 
can sunset seemed like a smile of welcome. And as we rode 
for six days aero? ■! the mighty continent we wondered how 
the world had done so long without America. 


■ w« brok. o,u- journey tor an hour or two, in Chicago to 
T 1 UM,- Moody and other friends to arrange fo. the 
meet with Mi . Moooy Ji t A„„„flt inth We spent 

e„n,ing International Convenfon o£ ^^^^'^^ J, „„ 
the Sabbath in Canada, m our od "^■"'''f "!>",„ ,,^„d, 
.he following Monday we ':-^:^^^^^Z. them 


'"'' UZtr::^':^ ... that we haveheen just two 

— "-n nf\S'r: rro-Th^dr- 

,„.e„ thousand nnle. of winch mo ^^ ^^.^ 

l«.n on seas and ^'"''''"'•''^^'J^^,^ ,,tffe„„t vessels ■, have 
boani, and a ,»»senger .m t^o"*^ ^^ „,; j^ ^Hh 

passed through fourteen great "''*'°"; J" 'J^^^j fifteen 

seas and oceans ; have crossea n ,v , ^„ 

three hundred and «=;'>• <';/;:::;;™ u^^o the North 
through almost eve,-,- .hmate, '™' "^ j^ ,„i,3i„„. 

Temperate zone and ''•^ '""^jf^^f^L representing a 
,,es and P--~f^j;t :,::aand flfty'milUons, or 
population o£ moie tj-"" *■' ^ ^^ i„ „u these changing 
one-half the populafon of '^ fob- J^ ^ „,. 

scenes and circumstances, '■"'""; ""^^^.^ „, even to 
permitted us to 'o-. ->;;-*::l"w:Lnot thank 
miss a single -— ,^^^- ™^ ^l, ,„,, not only over 
rb::tfrt:!"ends and precious interests that 
were left in His hands in tho homeland. 



go, to 
)r the 
md on 
I them 
e than 

st two 
is have 
i ; have 
}d with 
I fifteen 
ude and 
ve been 
le North 
enting a 
Uions, or 
ed us or 
• even to 
lot thank 
only over 
i-ests that 

OIj, may Hn lit'li» us both toguthor to )>r«'ss on to Ktill 
greater things for this lost world, wliich He h;is porinitted 
US to see only that we nught make these needs nu»re real to 
the hearts of His people at home, and help them mo o faith- 
fully to fulfill their sacred trust for its evangelization and for 
the hasting of that glorious hour when this wonderful and 
beautiful world shall be redeemed from the curse that rests 
upon it, and realize the glorious i)urpose for which it was 
created and redeemed ! 

One of the strangest incidents of our journey is the gain 
oi a day in the circuit of the world. In our (")ri«nital diary 
we reached home on Tuesday, but by the Western Calendar 
it was only Monday. Somewhere out on the Pacific Ocean 
we had to drop a day. Wo had overtaken the sun and 
gained a day, and so wo had two Thursdays in one week. It 
is quite an unusual thing for us, in our busy life, to have a 
day to spare, but we trust we shall henceforth be found not 
behind time, but at least a day in advance. It won't hurt 
our self-importance as Americans to remember that our 
friends in China and Japan, that we think so slow, are 
nearly a day ahead of us in the march of Time, and while it 
ib night here it is morning there. 

We wish the Christians of America o<juld realize how 
very small a portion of the world lies within the circumfer- 
ence of their little circle. 

Beloved, let us enlarge oui- vision ; let us see this great 
world as God sees it ; and in the arms of our intelligent faith 
and His infinite love, let us claim it all for Him. 



Brothers, let ub ntretoh our lieart-etrJngH. 

Wide as human woe ; 
All around thli world of sorrow 

liOt our blessing go. 
Dver every land and nation 

B* His flag unfurled ; 
Send the (Joepel quickly, widely, 

All around the world. 

._,j.m.LUi ' i" 



HOW does the world appear to one who has endeavored 
to look at it with the Master's eyes, and in the larg- 
est vision of faith and hope ? 
Well, it certainly looks very dark, and if we were work- 
ing for its salvation under the existing agencies, we should 
say, very hopeless. 

There is no part of it which looks more hopeless than 
what we call Christian lands. After centuries of pi-eaching 
and teaching, America and England are farther from a 
spiritual millennium than they have been for a century. 


Doubtless very much. In one hundred years it has been 
estimated that perhaps as many as ten millions of souls in 
heathen lands have come under the influence of the gospel, 
and nearly half that number have perhaps been saved. 

The most important centres in India, China, Japan, 
Burmah, Siam and Polynesia have been occupied, and many 
of the most difficult and remote regions of Central Africa 
have become missionary centres. 



An arn.v of seven thoum.nrt foroiK.. intaio.mri.^ prfl" 
the «*r, "na ton, tho„»a„a native a,..U„t« a„. wo*,n. 

""Vh™iu.a,o» of Cluist give annually *>.. ;-""- 'W» 

work :,:.! nearly two hundn„l »o..,ietie, a.e w,.Un„ to evan- 

""" Thtir:!.<i, if we ,.„,e,„l.e,- the ,on,.ition of 

tHi„r«:tone huna,.. --X:":.':--" «' ^^ 
«„t n>i«sionarie., «">"' ""'^^ ;„ beneficence. 

■ aeln which have marked the progress of the century, the 
hS^rP evidential and Pentecostal story of Mada^scar, 
Tahiti Fil the New Hebrides, and the Islands ; o 
M^aU Uvingston, McKay and McCanU the story of the 
Zlt^. trmger the Con«o, and the African Lake m.s. 
t^s of the Telegus, the Tamils, and Northern „d.a ; of 
Zmah and Siam;ot Morrison, Medhurst, and the Chma 
M™d Mission ; and last of all, the marvelous transformation 
^lanan in a single generation ; truly it may be weU 6a,d 
IX'e hav: be'en no fa.ts since apostolic times so stert- 

ter of the nineteenth centuiy. 


And yet, when we look at the other side of the picture, 
tv,«rfi is nothing on earth 80 dark. , . « 

* MohammeLnism has increased more than tl.nty md- 

s girdleff 

It for this 
; to evan- 

ulition of 
ne of the 
on of $60 
I incidentfl 
Qiury, the 
slands ; of 
»ry of the 
Lake mis- 
i India ; of 
the China 
well said 
es so start- 
)nary cliap- 

tht picture, 
thirty mU- 



lions in one hundred years, wl.ile it i. doubtful if C 
has won one thouHand souls from itn ranks in all tins period. 
Heathenism has gained two hundred n.ilHons m the cen- 
tury while Christianity has won ten millions from its ranks 
Christian lands have grown in wealth and power, hut 
have made ecpial progress in wickedness and worWliness ; so 
that to-day the most fearful examples of immorality and 
vice in heathen lands, and the most powerful obstacles to the 
progress of missions are to be found in the lives and influ- 
ence of our own people in these countries. 

Notwithstanding the progress of modern missions to 
day, the destitution of the best evangelized foreign lands is 
appalling Even India has hundreds of thousand, of villages 
that have never heard the gospel. The interior provinces of 
China are only yet manned by little bands of half a dozei. 

lone workers. . . 

Two vast provinces in China hav- no missionaries what- 

^""^^hil "t, Anam, Nepaul, Bhotan, the PhiUppine Islands, 
most ', Borneo and New r: linea are in utter darkness. 

The vast Soudan, with its 90,000,00.) of people, is only 
fringed with less than a score of missionaries, and thousands 
of tribes throughout Central Africa have never seen the face 
of a white man, or heard of Christ. 

We have just passed through lands which contain a 
population of '750,0(K),000 of heathen souls, and no language 
can describe the immensity of the destitution and the con- 




f +hP utter vvreck of this falleu world which 
sciousness of the utiei xmc^-"^ 

everywhere oppresses one. 

A hundr'^d thousand souls a day 
Are passing, one by one, away 

la Christless guilt and gloom ; 
Without one ray of hope or light, 
In darkness deep as endless njght, 

They're pabslng to their doom. 

We should certainly count upon centuries if we were 
.oinrfoxt-ith the hope of bringing all men to recede the 
fo'Tjesus as their Saviour and King, and we should be very 
strongly tempted to begin with the rising generation, and 
through the cLdren prepare for influencmg future genera- 

"^ ::redtational missions as the natural audlo^- 

.. nf a belief in the final conversion o£ aU the 

"^' rth-^l! the chn,.h and the establishment o£ a 

■ B"* "«/" "!* andit we are to do effective work, we 
rl^lXd— and work in harmony with the plan 

of our great Leader. 


human race under the f^^^ J ^y ^he tribes of 


irld which 



if we were 
( receive the 
ould be very 
3ration, and 
bure genera- 

ral and logi- 
a of all the 
hment of a 

ptural stand- 
ve work, we 
vith the plan 


of the whole 
ut rather the 
1 the tribes of 
he nations, of 

the company of Christ's elect so speedily that the Lord's 
coming may be immediately hastened, and the promised 
kingdom brought in which will accomplish for the world 
in a single generation more than all our work could do in a 
hundred centuries. 

If this be the true standpoint of missions, we are not 
called to build up great educational institutions, and aim 
slowly to spread in the minds of heath n peoples the princi- 
ples of Christianity, and lead them gradually up to the Gos- 
pel. But our business is to strike once for the present gener- 
ation of men and women in whom God's Holy Spirit has al- 
ready been preparing by His secret touch for the reception of 

the Gospel. 

Thoughtful missionaries tell us that there are such people 

to be found among all heathen nations ; men and women like 
Cornelius, who are "devoutly seeking God and feeling after 
Him, if haply they might find Him," and when the Gospel 
comes they recognize it as the voice of the unknown God 
whom they ignorantly worshipped. 

We know not the number that shall compose "the full- 
ness of the Gentiles," but we know God has a people among 
all nations, and that He is gathering out the first fruits in 
this dispensation : and when the Master comes the full har- 
vest will be gathered in, and the great Feast of Tabernacles 
will celebrate the glorious end through the happy millennial 


That this is the true Scriptural conception of missions, 


,80 ...-- ovr,.oo.s OS- M,ss,on.<.v .as.. 

'" *:r:f t" « v« the ae,.ne. .. U.e out ot 

them a peovlo to «*- "^™';; ., j„, ^^e .pedal purpose ot 
This is just a Ms>t, am j^ ^ temporary 

taking out o£ «'-' ^tu « "ea -"* the Apostle Paul 
aispensation. It - '"^J^in Komans, chapters ix to 

expresses '" J-^-t^l^eL in part has happene.! unto 
ri, where he says ^^ ^^^^ ,„ 

Israel unt.1 the tUuess of ^ ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^ ..Jerusalem 

And so the Loid Je.u. ^^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^.__^^ , „^ 

shall be trodden down of the Wen 

Gentiles be tuWlW-' ^^.^^^^^ .^pWly for- 

Hence «e find the »="5 ^ ^ ..^ the regions be- 

ward in a P^^' ^f^^^ Z^Tli,^ a rapidity that has 

-f;si:ercf>r.^'-— -'^^ 
"1;;: h::itinct,y tou .. . «» Bivme 

plan in the next chapter. ^^^ tabernacle 

1 bI^:- --- -^^^^^^^^ 

nt: is the ,— ion of ^^;-^^^--z:st^ 

rr^ato^r.— ;::fr..HLse,f. 





out of 

i-pose of 
tie Paul 
ers ix to 
led unto 




pidly for- 
sgions be- 
that has 
;s of their 

the Divine 

\e breaches 

lit people — 
i, and to be 

So the Apostle Paul has also said : "And so all Israel 
shall be saved ; for it is written, I will send unto Zion a De- 
liverer, and He shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob." 

But there is still another stage of development in this 

great plan. 

James has also sketched it with a bold, clear hand, where 
he adds "that the residue of men might seek after the Lord, 
ijud all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called, saith the 
Lord, who doeth all these things. Known unto God are all 
His works from the beginning of the world." (Acts xv, 

verses U to 1>.) 

This last section unfolds ihe great hope of the world and 
its universal salvation. It tells us of the time when the resi- 
due of men and all the Gentiles shall come to the Lord. That 
is not to be until the tabernacle of David is rebuilt and the 
Lord Himself has come. 

Tf therefore, we would hasten the universal salvation of 
on. d*.., and the restitution of our globe to its long-lost 
peace and righteousness, there is but one way to do it,— to 
call out of the Gentiles, as quickly as possible, the people 
for whom Christ is waiting, and so hasten His return, and 
with it the blessings which His advent will bring, and which 
we never can anticipate without His iiersonal presence. 


Now this plan is practicablc\ and inmiediately bo. 
The conversion of the world is beyond our power, but 
the evangelization of the world, so as to bring the Gospel 

in oar grasp. Anrt whUe .n «»'"'' ^^ „, ^ movement 

been waiting. , -limine at the less ; 

^awhile we can.^0 ^"^^ „„,i,,a attack upon a sin- 
line successfully, we may, "J 

gle strategic point, carry the -hole nv^ ^^^^ „, 

The veal strategic po.nt « tt-'^"' „f the Bride 

«.e Lord, and the gathering ou^o-U lands^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

„£ Jesus, the flndmg out "^^^^^Iv ot His chosen ones 
to caU, the completmg o *h;nun^b;j His own return, 
among the nations, »<>*";" .J.t „„ that distinct and 
AU this throws a ^°^^'°^ '« j Himself mad- 
unmistakable promise wh;^ Jta L" ^^ the Kingdom must 
t!he:^arr:uthe"orld,ar a witness among anna. 

tions, and then shall the end "me^ ^^^ j,^,^ 

Under this banner, and »». ™' " . „^, „hich repre- 
0.ostisto.daym^<.ringthem^s.nar^^^^^^^ ^, ^^_^ 

^„t the blessed hope "* '"l^Xe in a wise, concerted and 
cherish this hope umte » **-» >"^^ ■;^ hope to see the 

.holly consecrated moven^^^^^^^^^^ l^ ^^^ ^^^^^, 

consummation o£ the gianaehi 

hope of all the ages. 

is with- 
Beem a 
I larger 
B of the 
las long 

the less ; 
on a sin- 

oming of 
,he Bride 
3 waiting 
)sen ones, 
itinct and 
self made 
dom must 
ng all na- 

the Holy 
hich repre- 
Bt all who 
Lcerted and 
; to see the 
B sublimest 




To accompUsh this will involve tremendous efforts, even 
in a single generation, but we believe it is not impracticab e. 

India, for examples which represents one-th.rd of the 
unevangelized people of the globe, could easily be evangelized 

in ten years. 

Within two years, our own humble work will have 
planted missionary stations, we believe, in every centre of 
the province of Berar, so that there will be a missionary for 
every one hundred thousand people, or a missionary party 
for every county in that province, and every human being 
can be made fairly acjuainted with the Gospel withm a 

decade or less. , ^ ^, 

Now if this can be done in Berai, with fifty mission- 
aries, what could be done in India with five thousand mis- 
sionaries ? And these five thousand missionaries could more 
easily be sent by all the churches of Amenca than the fifty 
that we have sent by the little company of Christians who 
are standing back of them. . , ^ • 

There are over twenty powerful Societies laboring m 
India If each of these would send two hundred and fifty 
missionaries into the field within the next five years-that is, 
fifty a year-India would have a force of five thousand move 
missionaries at the end of five years ; and wisely distributed 
in the unoccupied fields, these would be sufficient to plant 
the standard of the cross in every strategic point ot that vast 

^""^This is not impracticable, or even difficult, with a church 
half in earnest. 



""■"Lt us pray that the Holy Ghost will open the eyes and 
, ^? uiiis of His people to an enten-nse commen- 
'■ r^ h h! vl ess of the opportanity and the hope. 

"1 a more difficult field, and we need to go mo^ 

laige du jiefflected centres. 

-''iwjrnr :Lt;sru a„d its — -«ua 

Atiica 1 ^^ before His 

ra^'^dmsp^id^^ h- oi«-d the way in advance 
f T ! l!h !nd we ave sure that it a great concerted 


«esteT;":ie. if Uod. people would honestly face rt 
and rise to its grandeur. 


The greatest lack in the missionary -^ov«"^«" ^'ifthe 

. fit foreign but the home end of the work. If the 

"'' " t Swe have witnessed abroad among the mis- 

same spnit which ^« *^^ ^^^^.^ ^^,,,,^ i,, the churches 


vor to 
do the 

res and 
;o more 
fields in 
lialf as 

is still a 
'ore His 
•r Africa, 


have sug 
ly face it 

to-day is 
k. If the 
g the mis- 
e churches 
•y speedily 

T ///-: MISSION A RV Of TI. OOk\ 


It seems a great deal to say that the churches of America 
gave five million dollars last year for foreign missions. But 
how much did they keep \ The hest autliorities tell us that 
the actual increase in the wealth of American Christians is 
five hundred million dollars every year. What are five 
million dollars <,ut of five hundred millions \ Our people 
could give two Hundred times as nmch as they are giving, 
and yet not draw a single dollar upon their principal. 
Instead of seven thousand missionaries, we should then have 

a million and a lialf . 

This would give one missionary to every seven hundred 
of the heathen world ; and this would he just the proportion 
in which this land is supphed with ministers. 

Our Christian churclies have one Protestant minister to 
every six or seven hundred of our people. We send one mis- 
sionary to every five hundred thousand heathen. That is to 
say we do nearly seven hundred times as much for the 
evangelization of America as we do for the evangelisation 

of the heathen world. 

We laugh at the egotism of China, when it makes its 
map of the world with China in the centre, and other nations 
lying in httle strips along the edge. But in the sight of 
heaven, our map is more grotesque, for the needs of America 
occupy nearly all the centre, and the fringes are given to the 
myriads of unevangehzed lands, which represent twenty 
times the population of our own country. 


How is this state cf things to be remedied > 

, t+inir the tnie missionary 

,..t of an. .. ;;^>j- '^.r ""nt: ,: a„a th. Chris- 
idea into the hearts of the L, mi 

""S:'a.y. By getting CU*.»t™e,.. an ... eva„ge«.- 

tion upon the hearts of Hispeope^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ p^^_ 

The intelligent, understanding ot „,i^„„ary 

posewillhe of immense value m dnect u ^^^^_,^ 

work of all the churches =u<l so met ^^^^_^^^ ^^ ^^_^ 

rerror^ras^rt— - — - 

•"^TWrdly we nray lay the responsihiUty of thiswor.upon 

todividuals. -*";^^;';X*::Uas said, "Go ye in.. aU 
It is to each of us that i^ creature.' 

the world, and preach ^^^ ^^^^^^rld some one in our 
Wo can go )ust as really ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^,^^^^,,,, 

place, we behove *at the"J ^„„^ ., „„„„ t, an un- 
„eu and women m th>s and ^^„^,,, ,„,, ,( our 

speakable blessing to «-f "",""; their work as to give to 
Missionary Societies could so ad3U.t^t_^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ „j 

our people this opportunity, a ^_^.,^,^ ^,,,„^ 

the Support of the "-'--;'', *:tians of this land who 
there would be thousa^sot^^^^^^^^^^ 

would gladly accept this iesp< 


ir than 


ight of 


ad pur- 

of the 

ition as 

;)rk upon 

into all 

ne inoiu' 
DC an un- 
and if our 
to give to 
al cost of 
sible sum, 
land who 

7 ///; M/ss/o\.iA' y or'T/.oor. 


In our own work we have found this to he a great inspira- 
tion, and wo believe the two hundicd already employed can 
be increaaed indefinitely as the work grows. 

Fourth. We must cease to be surprised at the large 
gifts which the rich are bestowing, and we nuist expect that 
they shall do nmch more. 

We must not be surprised when men give millions, in- 
stead of thousands, but the standard of our expectation must 
be so raised that men's conception of duty will be enhanced to 
something like the Master's ideal of His people and His work. 
If David, at a single offering, gave nearly one-hundred mil- 
lion dollars for the erection of the temple, because he loved 
the Lord and His house ; how much more becoming that we, 
with far greater wealth and vaster opportunities, should give 
as grandly for the erection of the more enduring temple of the 
coming Kingdom. 

There are individuals who, out of their own means, 
could evangelize whole nations, so far as the cost is con- 
cerned ; and we ought to claim for these last days of the 
Christian dispensation a consecration as magnificent as the 
opportunities which God has given to us. 

Fifth. We must expect a higher class of missionaries. 
The day is past for supposing that anybody will make a mis- 
sionary, and we must keep our best talent at home. 

God wants the strongest men for the foreign field. 
There are no such opportunities for glorious service to be 
found at home. We want to expect large numbers of our 
most gifted and conseciated men and women to choose these 




^ (• f.iith and love, to claim 

L„„.e ,1,.. WO.W .^ living ■■-■'''• ;f^.^,MUe,s of ChriBt 

„t home to xacriftce a. much a» tte m ^^^^^^^ 

We wan, the day to '<>'"<'.;'';"' J ,„„k „t » i„ the 

.„d .na„,ge„ce ««. ^'^^^^l^^ ,.„. the Hood of 

'•^" 1 'r:::;r Xm :!.:«■ -eve,- sought to »ave. 

— ir ;-e -' ^ r ' ihra:"!.. do fo. 

„. he. and gve^te. H.«. » -^Ltio... . the min- 
telli«e,>t faith and divine de«.re j„,. j„^ ^„„. 

T„is,i. the *'«7 •,:';;';;; ,j,„a I will give thee 

t'h:X,f fo'th;rin.,e,.ita„ce. and the uttermost ,.a* of 

''- ';?•* ::",rtii:x:::he i... ,. «», ^.t «« 

.end forth lal,o.ers into His havv^t- ^^^^^ ^^ _^^^^^^^ 

The,-e is nothing "'•« »^;':,f ,^^tn in the opening of 
missions than answeml,>.a>e. ■^^ „. ,„ea„s and 

hearts of the heathen. 




I liiim 

J who 

id set 
il, and 


t in the 
)lood of 

n do for 
he min- 
itof ia- 

Ji accom- 
rive thee 
b i)arts of 

, i,l\at He 

,f modern 
opening of 
neans and 
t upon the 

May wo 1k' penniltod to mention a fow. in order tc .11- 
courage and inspire our friends to larger outlooks at tJio 


Some years ago, a few women met in a New England 
city to pray that Clod would send large gifts of means. In 
that town there lived a very wealthy man who was not partic- 
ularly friendly to foreign missions. A few months later he 
died, leaving one of the largest hequests to one of our nus- 
sionary Boards which had ever been made by a single indi- 
vidual. It was afterwards found that he had made his will 
just at the very time when these sisters were i>raying in that 
town. He never knew whence came the touch that mov«.'d 
his heart to give that numificent bequest for the worlds 
evangelization. But in the day when all things shall be 
revealed, those simple women shall be credited as much as 
he, with that enormous gift. 

A few months ago, the writer was speaking ,.1 a West- 
ern meeting on missions, and telling how much seven mil- 
lion dollars would do U>v the immediate evangelization of the 
world. He noticed a very remarkable face in his audience. 
It was a dear sister in a Quaker bonnet. 

She grasped him warmly by the hand at the close, and 
quietly said : " I think Vvc got it." '' Got what ? " he said. 
"Oh, that seven miUion dollars" "Oh," h< tsked, "you 
mean by faith?" "Yes," she said, "what better way is 
there to get it ? But I will write you when 1 am sure." 

A few weeks later he received a letter from her, written 
with as much importance as if she had sent him a check 


for th« seven million dollars, and she Huitl : " Now I am 
sure, and you may ivly upon the Lord to w.t.d yo.i that 
inoney for the evangelization of tho world." 

Wo are not ashamed to Hay that wo felt quite as much 
encouraged as though we had receivtnl a large chock from a 


In the Btory of Finney's lif( there are very many extra- 
ordinary examples of the power of believing prayer. His 
greatest helper was an old saint who had been miraculously 
baptized of tho Holy Ghost, and who, when he prayed, be- 
lieved. In his i;ist days he kept a diary of his prayers, and 
a re<;ord of tin {.laces f'n- which he had prayed, and after his 
death his diary was published, and compared with tho 
records of the religious press, and it was found that special 
times of blessing had followed the very order of his prayers, 
and the Holy Ghost had been poured out in an extraordinary 
manner in the places for which he had prayed. That man, 
from his little closet, had been able to sweep the world with 
the power of God's almighty hand. 

While in India, tho wi iter met a very beautiful girl, the 
wife of a native preacher, and learned that she was one of a 
class of five who many years before were heathen girls filled 
with all the degradation and misery of a heathen training. 

So discouraged had their teacher become that she was 
almost on the point of abandoning her work. She wrote to 
a Christian friend in Ohio and asked him to pray for them. 

One Saturday night, he came home from his work and 
went into his closet and spent the evening in prayer for those 




THE A//SS/(^X. Iff y OCTLOOK. 


Now I am 
I you that 

ito fus much 
uH;k from a 

laiiy oxtra- 
rayer. His 
prayed, be- 
)rayei-s, and 
,n(l after his 
I with the 
that Bpecial 
his i)rayer8, 
That man, 
) world with 

iful girl, the 
was one of a 
an girls filled 
a training, 
hat she was 
She wrote to 
T for them, 
his work and 
lyer for those 

girls. At the doHo he felt that lie had Injen answered, and 
ho rose frr)m his knees and wrAte to his friend that God 
would save those girls. 

That Saturday inKht was Hubbath morning in India, and 
at the very hour when he was piaying for them, those girls 
we«) gathering with their teacher in the class. She was sur- 
l)rised that their whole manner was changed, and at the close 
of the class they came to her :ind asked her to forgive them, 
and prorjiised to live a Christuj' life. They kept their word, 
and all of them have become Ci- i^itian women. 

Could we have seen what heaven witnessed that day, we 
would have beheld a flash pass upward from that little closet 
until it reached the heart of Christ ; and then, after linger- 
ing a moment, borne onward by the Hi ly Ghost, continue its 
circuit until it fell, with the morning sunlight, in the centre 
of India, where it breathed the living love and peace of 
heaven uj)on those heathen souls. Oh, beloved, thus may 
we all be missionaries. 

Not less mighty is the jwwer of prayer to remove diffi- 
culties. 8om(> iime ago, in Qnangsi, the Southern Baptists 
had established their first station in that difficult province. 
After awhile, the drought began to disturb the minds of the 
people, and their priests told them it was because the dragon 
was offended on account of the foreigners, and they must 
drive them out. 

They gave them four days to leave, and told them that if 
within that time the rain did not come, they would have to go. 

They gathered together for prayer, and waited unceas- 

j A!-**-"" 




ingly upon the Lord. Before the end of the stipulated time, 
the clouds gathered, the rains fell, the mission was saved, 
and the heathen were compelled to acknowledge the hand of 

the living God. 

These are some of the things that prayer can accom- 

Prayer can send laborers into the harvest, and the right 
kind of laborers. There is nothing more important or diffi- 
cult than the securing of the right kind of missionaries. 
Many of the most promising candidates are liable to fail 
when they reach the field. The Holy Spirit alone can select 
the workers who can endure the pressures of climate and 
circumstances, and who possess the qualities of mind, body 
and heart which will perfectly fit them for this difficult 
work. One heaven-sent missionary is worth a dozen of 
mere human selection. 

God can take men from every class of society in answer 
to prayer. A few years ago, in a most wonderful manner, 
while friends in London were praying for God to raise up 
missionaries from among the educated young m-n of Eng- 
land, a spontaneous movement at that very time sprang up 
among the Cambridge students, and while the Board meet- 
ing in London was praying, a telegram came to one of the 
secretaries, asking the committee to meet and pray for young 
men who were waiting upon the Lord about their call to the 

foreign field. 

Prayer can raise up workers from among the natives 
who will become like Sheshadri in India, Neeissima in Japan, 

}' LANDS. 

stipulated time, 
;sion was saved, 
3dge the hand of 

ayei' can accom- 

5t, and the right 
iportant or diffi- 
of missionaries, 
ire hable to fail 
; alone can select 
s of climate and 
es of mind, body 
for this difficult 
orth a dozen of 

society in answer 
»nderful manner, 
God to raise up 
mg m'-n of Eng- 
f time sprang up 
the Board meet- 
me to one of tlie 
id pray for young 
t their call to the 

Bong the native* 
seissima in Japan^ 



and Rabinowitch in Russia, instruments in the hand of God 
to call their own people unto Christ. Oh, may the Holy 
Ghost call some of us as definitely to this ministry as He 
has called others to the field ! 

This is a special priesthood to which God will ordain 
willing and consecrated hearts who stand continually in the 
holy F- 'ce, and hold the incense in believing prayer. 

Of such men He says : " I have chosen you and ordained 
you that you should go and bring forth much fruit, and that 
your fruit should remain, and that whatsoever ye shall ask 
the Father in My Name, He may give it you." 

The ordination is unto prayer as nmch as for fruit-bear- 
ing. Oh, for men who have been set apart for the special 
purpose of getting answers to their prayers ! 

We read in the Book of Revelation that when the in- 
cense of prayer had been presented before the throne by the 
ministering angel, " there was silence in heaven by the space 
of half an hour." Everything above was hushed, that the 
whisper of prayer might be heard. Then we read, "the 
censer was filled with coals of fire that were poured out upon 
the earth, and there were voices and thunderings, and a 
great earthquake." 

And so, when we are true to this mighty priesthood, and 
send up through the ministering hands of our ascended 
Lord, our believing intercession, the waiting heavens will 
listen, the mighty forces of Providence will begin to move, 
and the trembling earth will reverberate with the echoes of 
His mighty working and the tread of myriad feet, as the 



procession of the advent heralds moves forward to meet the 
Master's coming. 

Above all other blessings, prayer \v'ill uphold the lone 
workers on the field, and give us a hallowed partnership in 
their toils, trials and recompenses. 

They have gone there to represent us, as well as Him. 
Let us not for a moment rail to uphold them, and to be the 
channels of life and blessing to their hearts as they go down 
amid the awful depths of heathen darkness. 


Down amid the depths cf heathen darkness 

There are heroes true and brave, 
Shrinking not from pain, and toil and danger, 

They liave gone to help and save. 
But we hear them calling, ' ' Do not leave us 

Mid these dreadful depths to drown ; 
Let us ever feel your arms beneath us, 

Hold the ropes, as we go down." 

So beneath the billows of the ocean 

Divers plunga for treasures rare, 
But through hands that hold tLe ropes above them 

Still they breathe the upper all 
Seeking precious pearls of richer value. 

Braver hearts have dared to go ; 
But our faithful hands must every moment 

Hold the ropes that reach below. 

Who can understand the awful darkness 

Of these realms of Sin and Death ? 
Even the very air is scorched and poisoned 

With the Dragon's fetid breath. 
But across the widest ocean billows 

Love can reach to heathen lands, 
And beneath the deepest, darkest surges 

Prayer can hold a brother's hands. 


Di'ward to meet the 

11 uphold the lone 
i^ed partnership in 

IS, as well as Him. 
hem, and to be the 
ts as they go down 


id danger, 
eave us 


Think yon was it only for our brotlier 

JeHUS epaite His last conimands ? 
Is tliere nothing left for you to suffer 

In these dark and heatlien lands ? 
If you cannot go yourself to gave them, 

There are those that you can send. 
And with loving arms strtrtched out to help them 

Hold the roiJes, as they descend. 

Let us hold the ropes with hands more loyal, 

Let us pray with ftith more strong ; 
I^et the love that never fails nor fa'ters 

Faint not, though the strife be long. 
Let us lay our treasures on the altar. 

Let us give our children too ; 
There's a part for ea''.h io this great l>attle. 

And the Lord has need of you. 


es above them 






;i ' 






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