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Hiotographic 

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Jjrs" 



THE" 



CURIOSITIES OF INDUSTRY 



ANI> 



THE APPLIED SCIENCES. 




BY / 

y 



GEORGE :j>ODD, 

AoTHOB OF "Days at tbue Factoweh," <tc. 




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LONDON: 
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & CO., 2, FARRINGDON STREET. 



1862. 





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PREFACE. 



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A FKw words will explain the object of the present volume. 

It is not intended to treat systematically of the relations which are borne 
by Manufactm-ing Industry to Natural Productions, to Mechanical and 
Chemical Science, to the Fine Arts, to Commercial and International Tariffs, 
or to Social and Co-operative Arrangements. Nor is it intended to describe 
in technical form the processes and the localities of our great departments of 
manufacture. The author of this volume gave a popular view of those pro- 
cesses and localities, in a series of " Supplements " to the Penny Magazine, in 
the years 1841-2-3-4 ; the substance of which was afterwards embodied in 
six small volumes, under the title of British Manufactures. 

The title ' Curiosities of Industry' will pretty clearly explain itself. Many 
processes are curious without being novel ; many are both novel and ciuious ; 
laaoy reveal to us the store of strange and valuable things which science 
pr^iiints to those who know how to apply it in aid of industry ; many ai'ise 
out of the discovery of new materials ; and many more by new applications 
of old materials. Of all such ai'e these ' Curiosities ' composed. 

Each paper or essay being complete in itself, they may be arranged in any 
order at pleasure. In this volume they are placed in the order of publication. 

G. D. 



mmmmift 



^W 



CONTENTS. 



I. Glass and its MANcrAcroHE. 
II. Ikon and its MANtirAonm*. 

III. Wood and its Awmoatiokb. 

IV. OAtouiATiiro and Ksaiannujia Macrihik 
y. IKOIA Bdbbui and QoitA Peboba. 

VL iKDUanUAL APPUOATIONS of EutCIUOTTY. 

VII. Qoho: IN THE Mine, the Mutt, and the Workshop. 
VIII. Papeb: its Appuoationb and its Novbltum. 
IX. Pbintino : its Modkbk VAWEma. 
X. Cotton and FiiAX : a Cohtrabt. 
XL CoBN AND Bhbad : What thet Owe to Maohinebt. 
XII. A Ship, in the Ninbtbehth Centdby. 
' XIII. FiBE AND Light : Coi<tbivahc« fob thmb PBODoenoN. 
XIV. Wool and Silk, Pcit and Peathebs. 
XY. Th« Chbhistry of Mandfaotubbb. 
XVI. SnuM-PowER AXB Waxeb-Powhu 



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&OBIKEBT. 
PBODUCnON. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



i 



The lata Mr. Disraeli, in his celebrated ' Curiosities of Literature.' employed 
the temi "CuriosUua" to designate A Miscellany of Intebestino Facts. 
The ' Curiosities of Industry,' altliough discursive in its character, forms a 
Supplement to the CYCMPiBDLA, having regard to the more precise industrial 
information wliich has preceded it, whether in connection with Science, Art, 
Geographical Knowledge, or Social Economy. It treats of Industry,, imder 
its Novelties and Rarities ; its comparative Condition in all Counthies ; its 
Progress at Home, especially during the present emtunf ; its essential adaptation 
to Cheapness of Production ; and its extension under a systam of Universal 
Intercourse. In the realms of Science, of the Arts, of Natural History, 
of Manufactures, of Commerce, of Social Economy, there are abundant new 
and euriotu materials that may be presented both to the desultory reader and 
the diligent student, m a form at once inviting and instructive. The present 
time is more favourable to the formation of such a collection than any former 
period. The great Book of Nature and of Art has been fully opened to our 
view — and even " those who run may i-ead" its wondrous pages. 

The ' Curiosities of Industry,' although of general interest as a disdnct 
work, forms a Supplement to the • National CYCLOPiSDiA,' and to the 
• Cyclopedia op Industry of all Nations.' 



mr 



I 



i 



'^jawwliiiuiu ^^mtmrn^mmmmim 



CURIOSITIES OF INDUSTRY. 



GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 

That most beautii\il of all manufkotured subatancos, OUui, is well fitted to 
commence this Industrial series. In few branches of industiy have more re> 
maricable changes taken place during the present century ; in no other do we 
Bee exemplified more powerftilly how much the mischief predominates over J^o 
benefit, in govenimont interferences with manuftiotures ; in no other mav wo 
observe more distinctly how the manufacturers of one country derive advan- 
tage by studying the works produced m other countries. 

The " Ouriosities " of industrv -belong to all ages; but it is with especial 
reference to the lust fifty years tnat many of them will be here noticed. We 
wish to show, by a rapid glance over the intervening period, in what way 1851 
differs flpom 1801, in respect to any special department of industry. Have 
there been any new raw materials inb^duced ; and if so, has the addition 
been made by improved legislation or by the exercise of inventive talent ? 
Havs there been improvements in the general routine of manu&cture, either 
by the invention of new machines, or by the application of new manipulative 
processes? Have there been any new applications of the manufactured mate- 
rial to the every-day wants of society, either by rendering it cheap and 
abundant, or by employing it as (v substitute for some other material ? Hat 
the progress of improvement been less or more rapid in our own countiy than 
among our neighbours? Such are the questions which, if even confined to 
the past fifbr years of the present centuiy, will yield us an abundance of 
" Omiosiiies, without necessitating any systematio description of the pro- 
cesses of manufacture : for them we may refer to the Gycloptediaa to which 
the present work may be consideted as « Supplement. If any of these subjects 
receive Illustration, as doubtless ihey may, firom the Oreat Industrial Congress 
of 1861 — tf»at epoch in the world's history — we shall not fWl to avail ourselves 
of such valuable testimony; but the present papers have no especial relation to 
imy temporary collection of works of industry : they chiefly relate to the ad- 
vanc^menfas which have rendered such tm 'EshMtionpostms. 

Let us now review the industry of the Glass-worker, under the aspects 
noticed above. 

Raw Matebiaus — few recent Additions. 

It would be a yeiy fair assumption on the part of the reader, that as im- 
proveiinents have been made In so many departments of the glass-manu- 
facture, advices would to an equal extent bo made in the materials em- 
ployed, elth€ll* as to theif variety or their quality. But this has not been the 
case. The truth is, that the substances so employed are very few and simple, 

.B 9 



■ ■iPE!!«";SJW«W'r^»'™ 






4 0LA88 AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 

and do not admit of so many probable Hources of improvement as the moro 
numerous a»d complex nmteriids of many otlier branchen of manufacture^ 
Bilica. Hoda, potash, lime, oxide of lead-l»ero we have nearly Uio sum total of 
th« «lementj4 out of which Kbws is made. HotUe-glasH has more luno thai, 
anv other ulasH ; plivtn rIiws has moro silica ; flint-glass ha.s more oxide ot 
lead; and to these diffciences lu-e probably mainly owing die choractfinsti.! 
dualities of the seveml kinds of glass. I'he alumina, tlio manganese, the 
oxide of iron, and the other substances which are employed in very small 
ciuontity, are to remove colour, or to import colour, or to modify m some way 
liie (.ualities of the manufactured article ; but tlicy are not essenUal to lU 
prodtwtiou. There would certainly be seen some modihcation. some addition; 
fcut a collection of glass making ingredients at the present day presents a 
tolerably close resemblance to such iw would have been presented halfo-cen- 
tury ago. If we take, for instance. Mr. Ansley Pellatfs very mt^resUng group 
of Klass materials at the ExhibiUon. wo find the silex hi the fonns of washed 
and burnt sand, the alkali ui the fonn of carbonate of potash, and the oxides 
of lead and manganese; and three such series-silex, alkali, and oxides- 
would similarly have been seen in an earlier coUection. It is in Uie minor 
detaUs of each series Uiat improvements have been and aie now bemg sought. 
For instance. How can silex be obudned in great«st purity? is a quesUon 
important to the glass-maker. Sand is, next to flint. Uie most fiumhar form 
in which silex is presented to us. Band from Lynn, from St. Helens, ft:om 
Leighton Buzzard, and from many othpr places, is employed by glass- 
makers; Isle of Wight sand is almost pure silex; sand lately brought firom 
Wenhain Lake (the remarkable ice depot) has been fomid equally pure ; and 
sand from Australia has been shown to be so peculiarly well fitted for the pro- 
duction of the finest gUss, that it has been deemed commerciaUy advan- 
taceous to freight vesaeis with this substance alone. Hints and hard rocks, 
8i«)po8ed to be rich in sUiceous matter, have been tried m a gjround state ; 
but no form of silica has been found suitable except that which is m sandy 

'^ut'^even here we have a striking fact. An English vessel, free to carry any 
carao which presents itself, brings common sea-sond a distance of sixteen 
thousand miles from AustroUa to England, in order that the glass-maker may 
have a fitting siUceous material for his manuiacturo ; and wa may be qmte 
certain tiiat tiiis would not be done unless the manufacturers were wilhng to 
pay an adequate price for this humble import. i. i.^ • j 

The soda required in many manufacturing operations used to be obtamed 
chiefly from the ashes of burnt plants, such as kelp and barilUi; but when the 
Excise duty on common salt was removed in 1825. this abundant material 
became the som-ce whence soda is obtained for most practical pmroses m this 
country The glass-niakers have not failed to direct their attention to tins 
source: but potash is a more generally usefiil alkaU to them than soda; and 
the ashes of plants yield tiie alkali in a form ratiier more suitable Oian any 
other. 

Glass Duties— thbib Effects on Science and Abt. 
Legislation, bad or good, has not materially affected the supply of raw 

materiol to the glass maker. x • i. r *u^ ^a 

But when we extend our observation beyond the mere matenols of the mar 
nufactur«, and gltmce at tiie manufacture itself, we find that legislation baa 




rovemont an the moro 
ncho8 of manufaftiire. 
nearly the Hiiin total of 
< huH mora Uino thaii 
H» has uioro oxido of 
viiia the characteriHtic; 
ft, Uio inangaiie«e, thei 
m|tloyed in very Hmall 
to modify in Honie way 
re not eHsential to ita 
fication, some addition ; 
(resent day presents a 
n prt^Hented half-a-cen- 
I very interesting group 
in tile forms of washed 
potash, and the oxides 
t, alkali, and oxides — 
n. It is in the minor 
1 ai-e now being sought. 
; purity? is a question 
Jie most familiar form 
from 8t. Helen's, from 
is employed by glass- 
nd lately brought firom 
)und equsdly pure ; and 
y well fitted for the pro- 
id comroei-cially advan- 
Flints and liard locks, 
ried in a groimd state ; 
t that which is in sandy 

vessel, free to carry any 
id a distance of sixteen 
hat the glass-maker may 
; and we may be quite 
acturers were willing to 

ins used to be obtained 
id bariUa; but when the 
this abundant material 
practical purposes in this 
it Uieir attention to this 
to them than soda; and 
r more suitable than any 



JCE AND Aht. 

ected the supply of raw 

lere materials of the ma- 
find ih&t legislation has 



OIJISS ANn ITS MANOFACTTJBE. f 

been t<io bufty during Ujo last luilf-contuiy to be left unnoticed. Rarely has 
tliere been an example of fiscal legislation on which opinions have colucided 
so completely as in respect to the pernicious etfects of tlui glass duties ; and 
rai-ely have predictions concerning the aclvantages of a nifonu been more fully 
realized. Ihe able author of tlie Troatiso on tlie (Jlass Moimfacture in iMrd- 
iwr'$ Cyclopadia. writing just twtnity years ago, naid, " Whenever tliis nuiasuni 
(the removal of the glass duties) shall be accomplished, it con hardly fail U) 
induce such an extension of tlie manufacture us will prove generally bonetioiai 
to the community. The abolition of tliese duties wotild be accompanied by 
the still further advantage of removing all tliose vexatious regulations and re- 
strictions under which the maimfacture is now carried on, and which will 
cease, as a matter of course, when tlio article is no longer an object of revenue. 
It is princii)ally owing to these restrictions tliat ho nmch foreign glass i.s now 
brought into tliis country in tlio face of what may be considered an amply pro- 
tecting duty. Foreign manufacturers are allowed to moke any and every article 
out of that quality of glass which will most cheaply and advantageously an- 
swer the end ; while our own artists are forbidden to form certain objects, ex- 
cept with more costly materials, which pay the higher rat/>8 of duty. Nor is 
this restriction only commercially wroni:?, since it forms itter of just com- 
plaint on tlie part of chemists that tlusy ore luiable to procure utensils fitted 
for effecting many of the nicer operations connected with their science ; be- 
cause the due protection of the revenue is thought to require that such uten- 
sils shall be formed out of that quality of glass alone which, apart from all 
considerations of price, is otherwise, from its properties, really unfitted for the 
purpose. Belaxations are indeed sometimes made on this head in particiuor 
cases by the Commissioners of Excise ; but the trouble necessarily attending 
applications to a public board is greater than can be compensated by the tiifling 
money advantage that con result in each case to the manufacturer ; and the 
interests of science are, consequently, made to suffer." 

The peculiar mode in which this strangely short-sighted legislation worked 
out its pernicious results will be noticed presently ; but one of the most ob- 
vious of the results themselves was shovm in the Excise returns of dutv. 
While foreign countries were gradually improving tlieir manufacture, ours was 
stagnating; and the duty furnished a sensitive barometer t-o mark this differ- 
ence. The facta adduced by Mr. Porter (' Progress of the Nation") are really 
astonishing as illustrative of this point. In 1801, with a population of sixteen 
millions, the quantity of glass used (as shown by the Excise duty) was 325,689 
cwts.; and m 1888, with a population of twenty-five miUions, the quantity 
had onhr increased to 863,468 cwts. Between 1827 and 1845 the average 
price oi^the glass articles in most common use fell about 25 per cent; but no 
thanks to the Excise for this : it arose from economical and improved modes 
of working. Science, commerce, manufacturing art, domestic comfort, archi- 
tectural beauty — all were benefited by the happy revolution of the month of 
September, 1845, when the glass-makers' premises were reUeved from the 
burden of the Exciseman's visits. 

It would be hardly credible, were there not abundant evidence to testify it, 
how enormous was the mischief brought about by the late laws. The Report 
of the Oommiesioners of Excise Inquuy, in 1835, is full of instruction on this 
point; and we cannot do better than select a few items as illustrations. 

Mr. Dollond, the eminent optical instrument m^er, wrote a letter to the 
Commissioners, in which he stated that he had been long attempting, in con- 
junction with the leading glass manufacturers, to produce glass fitted for 



^^ 



Q GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTDBE. 

scientific purposes. With Messre. Chance, especially, he made experimente 
S"h ledTthe production of a superior kind of glass ; but af^e eleventh 
hour the Supervisor of Excise stepped in. and forbade aU further progress 
as the novS would interfere with the technical ascertainment of the amount 
of duty ta fa«t, it was a matter simply of thickn.ss^ for the optician required 
ck?s ttiicker Uikn the excise would permit. Mr. DoUond, then, with the aid 
STfrkid JtSd up a small fum««e, Vxpressly and solely with a v»ew^ rnake 
exi'erimente on a smaU scale; but this f ^l^^r J^^^^^^^ ^^ ?^^^^^^^^ 
from the Excise authorities. " I do not wish ' says Mr. foUond, <» escape 
from paying duties or any chai-ges ; aU I wish for is. to be avowed to rne^e 
my experiments free fn.m interference, or what are «*»«*, ^^^^J^^^^^i^/t; 
or systems laid down to prevent roguery. I'!/^-*^^ "^^^t^^^l^/, Zae 
glass as I require is made and sold at a considerable price; a*!f *fO«f X« 
tScopes which are at present so much talked of. are made with that glass. 
I a^Sng to buy it at almost any price; but. ««;* requires exti^me care 
ii Se manSfactm-e^t caanot always'be piocm-ed. It would, therefore, be a 
(Tivat advanta<»e if it could be manufactured at home. 

^ Mr.lZStikin. who was at that time the Secretmy to the Socie^ o.^. 
gave abmidant evidence tending to the same point. He dearly elucidated 
Ese three questions-why wHl not ordinary flintglass suffice for opticel 
pZos^? how could it be made fitted for that object? and why may it not 
Ko made fitted? In the first place, all flint.gla«s contams oxide of lead 
which, fr^ its great specific gravity, will not mix intimately and equally wifli . 
fte other ingred^ts ; and the result is, that the refraction of the t^ys o* hgh^ 
will be greater at one part of the mass than m another; «on8eq«/°fy'/"«!^ 
glass is\nsuitable for delicate optical pmposes. /^> .^^^^^V^nl^LS 
be ground to powder, and intimately mixed so as to brmg about homogene y 
hiluSut the m.ass, the distortion may be removed; and thw maybe still 
SI- caused by three or four grindings and meltings But (and here was 
Z blot which rfiowed the defects of the system) the Excise claimed a new 
duVon the glass et^ery Um. it was remeUed; and unless the maker were wilhng 
to Submit to this exaction, his improving process became n"U ^^ T"^*. Mr 
Aikin stated that the glass used for optical pturoses m Ffn^e .G*™^/' ^l 
Switzerland was better than that made in England, and could be sold at a 
cheaper price ; a state of things which he coulS only attribute tojlie Excise 
regulations. The duplication of the duty on the duplication of the melting 
hrbeen adverted to above; and the obstacles to e'Tf '°>«^t«l,'^««r.^rr« 
equaUy formidable. " Soon after my appointment as Secreteiy ^ tj« S^^^^ 
J Arts " savs Mr Aikm, " I built a small fm-nace capable of making, perhaps, 
1 o^'eiSIpo^dH? glass at a time, for the purpose of investigating ge 
action of some of the causes that affect the quality of optical glass^ On 
mSoning the cireumstance to the late Mr. CaiT, then solicitor to the Excise 
Tnd S whom I was personally acquainted, I received such an answer as 
determined me to give up my intention." _ 

This same diiJiculty of obtaining the pcrmiss on of the Excise to make 
any tort of experiments, lay at the root of multiplied evils ««d ineo^veniences 
Snected witfi the mam^acture. Glass-stalnet^ and l^^^^f . J'.^J ^^ 
known that the old glass— mdependent of its nch colours— was better fitted 
S^r^o W-« fof Z exerciL of this beautiful art ; they think Aat ^e old 
glass was harder and less fusible than the modem, and thus ^fter able to beai 
Repeated firings in the enamel-kihis ; but any attempt niade by ^em to cwnj 
out systematic experiments on the subject, with a view to determme the exact 



I 



mmtmmm 



, he made experiments 
iss ; but at the eleventh 
de all further progress, 
tainment of the amount 
or the optician required 
llond, then, with the aid 
ely with a view to make 
rated by a cold negative 
fr. Dollond, " to escape 
to be allowed to make 
jailed established rules, 
!e and Switzerland such 
3 price ; and those large 
re made with that glass, 
it requires extreme care 
It would, therefore, be a 

ry to the Society of Arts, 
He clearly elucidated 
glass suflSce for optical 
act? and why may it iwt 
contains oxide of lead, 
imately and equally with , 
iction of the rays of light 
ther; consequently, such 
, however, the glass may 
iring about homogeneity 
[ ; and this may be still 
igs. But (and here was 
he Excise claimed a new 
,8 the maker were willing 
ame null and void. Mr. 
in France, Germany, and 
, and could be sold at a 
y attribute to the Excise 
plifcUion of the melting 
perimental research were 
I Secretary to the Society 
pable of makhig, perhaps, 
pose of investigating the 
ity of optical glass. On 
en solicitor to the Excise, 
eived such an answer as 

1 of the Excise to make 
I evils and inconveniences 
and painters have long 
colours — was better fitted 
rt ; they think that the old 
id thus better able to beai- 
pt made by them to carry 
3W to determine the exact 



GLASS AKD ITS MANUFAOTURE. f 

cause of the difference, was frusti-ated by the Excise. Among the almost 
ludicrous results which followed from these obstructions, was the scientific 
reputation acquired by the humble Eloronce-oil flasks. It appears that, under 
the late laws, no gi-een glass bottles were allowed to be made under the size 
denominated ' six-ounce ;' it appears also that flint-glass, of which alone small 
bottles were permitted to be made, is, by virtue of the oxide of lead used as 
one ingredient, unfitted to resist some of the strong acids prepared by the 
chemists ; and the chemists were thence driven to the use of the flasks in 
which Florence oil is imported, the glass of such flasks containing no lead. 

Another aspect which the subject presented was this — that a manufacturer, 
even if he obtained pei-mission of the Excise to make experiments, could not 
do so without divulging the secret of any new invention he might have in his 
thoughts, were the invention patented or not. 

Mr. Apsley Ptllatt stated to the Commissioners that a very large lens could 
not be made at all in England, even of the same quality as smaller lenses ; for 
the Excise allowed melted glass to be laded out into cold moulds only; 
whereas a large mass, for a lens of considerable size, could not be properly 
cast unless the mould were heated. The same manufacturer gave a curious 
illustration of tlie effects of the law in respect to barometer and thermometer 
tubes, llie Excise required that tUl articles should be passed through the lear, 
or annealing oven ; but it was fovmd that the interior of these delicate tubes 
became smoked, and consequently unfitted for their purpose, by such an ordeal; 
and the EngUsh manufacturers had either to abandim the ipanufacture alto- 
gether, or to get the officers to connive at an arrangement whereby the duty 
might be paid without subjecting the tubes to the injurious process. There 
was alfo assigned a reason why— let the manufacturers and the glass-stainers 
be ever so skilful — they were not permitted to produce coloured glass so good 
as was obviously within the scope of theu- ability ; tiie red and amber tints 
require tliat the glass-pot should be opened frequently, that the mak^r may 
teat the progress ; but under the Excise regulations a glass-pot could be opened 
only at certain inten'als. 

Glass DnriEs — their Commercial Effects. 

The scientific and artistic results of Excise restriction ware, as above noticed, 
obsei-vablo chiefly in the quality of optical glass, and the quality and colour of 
stained glass. The commercial results were very varied, and some of them 
strange enough. The lear, or annealing oven, in which flintglass ia annealed 
after making, has a window, and a wire within the window, concerning which 
the Excise were veiy rigorous; for the duty was charged on the whole 
contents of the lear, wheUier injured or not. Mr. Pellatt told the Commis- 
sioners that on one occasion one of the Excise officers, in a frolic, " thi'ew a 
piece of glass at another, which broke the window of the leai\ The super- 
visor observing it a few minutes afterwards, and taking out part of the glass 
and pushing back the wire, pronounced the lear to be insecin-e, and reported 
accordingly. A prosecution was instituted. After incurring about £60 law 
expense, the crown solicitor dropped tlie case, finding that his own witnesses 
would afford him no chance of success. As the crOwn paid no costs, we had 
to defray the whole expense of tliat prosecution." 

The impossibiUty of collecting the flint-glass duty in a fair and equitable 
manner was made apparent in many ways. Mr. Powell, a Bristol manufac- 
turer, said to the Commissioners, " I do not see what legislative protection 



■l' 



-^ 



8 



OLASS AND ITS MANUFACTUBE. 



can be given to the flint-glass tiade, unless there were officers almost as thick 
as the tiles on houses ; for there ai-e thirty manufacturers in London at this 
moment, unknovm to the Government, employed in melting up what we call 
cuUet, or broken glass, such as the stems of gcblets, bottoms of tumblers, the 
thick parts of decanters, and so on ; they can be melted in a garret, and made 
up into saltcellars, cruets and castors, bird-boxes, smelling-bottles, and a 
variety of articles used by perfumers ; and it is done to a very large extent." 
Mr. Pellatt called these obscure makers Little Goes; and stated that the 
little goes had ruined the trade in the smaller articles of flint-glass, " by 
making an inferior article of what is termed cullet. I have seen saltcellars 
retailed at M. each, weighing half-a-pound each, which is the full amount of 
the duty." 

The battle between the Excise and the manufacturers was often a strange 
one. A drawback of 6». M. per square foot (afterwards lesserved to 3». 9d.) was 
allowed on plate-glass when exported ; and two manufacturers, taking ad- 
vantage of this, made piate-glass so thin that, when exported and allowed 
the drawback, they gained largely by it The Excise then made com- 
plicated laws — that 3ie duty should be by weight; that the drawback 
should be by the foot; that plate-glass should not be exported if less 
than one-eighth of an inch thick; and that (to prevent crown-glass from 
having the drawback privileges of plate-^ass) no crown-glass should be 
made thicker than one-ninth of an inch. Thus was the trade hampered for 
many years by laws rendered necessaiy (or alleged to be necessary) by the 
dishonesty of two persons : a pretty clear proof that the whole system rested 
on an imsound basis. Then again, in order that plate-glass might not interfere 
with the levying of the duty on flint-glass, it was enacted that no plate-glass 
should be made above a certain thickness ; this restriction prevented an 
eminent manufacturing firm from carrying out a contract for supplying a very 
lai'ge lens for one of the northern lighthouses. When the reader is told that 
one kind of glass paid a duty of 7». per cwt., while another pMd 98*., and that 
three other kinds occupied three intermediate stages, be will see how much 
inducement manufacturers had to substitute one kind for another, and how 
much technical struggling would arise between them and the executive. 

The year 1846, however, arrived, and with it the removed of the Excise duty 
on glass. Then, and then only, did the EngUsh manufacturer begin to feel 
himself a free agent, in a position to make experiments tending to the advance 
of his manufacture. There is thus a curious feature in respect to the half- 
centiu-y's progress ; more has been eifected in the last five years of the period 
than in the preceding forty-five years. It has shown itself in respect to plate- 
glass, to sheet-glass, to flint-glass, — indeed to nearly eveiy department of the art. 
Let us tidte OtiW's ' Cnrstal fountain,' for instance — a fountain that will presently 
be known to persons from almost every comer of the world aa a distinguished 
- ornament to the Palace of Lidustiy. This fountain is certainly one of the 
most ambitious specimens which the art has yet put forth ; and the result 
shows that the ambition has not " o'er-leap'd itself," for there are certainly 
few productions in the Exhibition more honourable to English art The 
glassy structure is S7 feet in height and weighs about four tons — nearly 
9000 lbs. There must of course be numerous pieces of metal used to sup- 
port the structure ; but these have been so skUfully overlaid with richly-cut 
glass, that they ai-e virtually hidden, and their opacity detracts little or noUiing 
from the brilliancy of the whole stnictiu-e. 

Plate-glass has fully kept pace with flint-glass in the march of improvement. 



L 



)fficer8 almost as thick 
rs in London at this 
siting up what we call 
toms of tumblers, the 
[ in a garret, and made 
melling-bottles, and a 
> a veiy large extent." 
,■ and stated that the 
jles of flint-glass, " by 
[ have seen saltcellars 
is the full amount of 

)rs was often a strange 
lessened to Us. 9d.) was 
lufacturcrs, taking ad- 
exported and allowed 
cise then made com- 
t; that the drawback 
t be exported if less 
vent crown-glass from 
srown-glass should be 
lie trade hampered for 
) be necessary) by the 
le whole system rested 
lass might not interfere 
ted that no plate-glass 
istriction prevented an 
ict for supplying a very 
the reader is told that 
)ther paid 98«., and that 
ae wiU see how much 
1 for another, and how 
nd the executive, 
aovid of the Excise duty 
lufiitcturer begin to feel 
tending to the advance 
in respect to the half- 
five years of the period 
tself in respect to plate- 
[7 department of the art. 
mtaiu that will presently 
tvorld as a distinguished 
is cei-tainly one of the 
b forth; and the result 
for there are certainly 
) to English art The 
bout four tons — nearly 
I of metal used to sup- 
overltud with richly-cut 
letracts little or uouiing 

march of improvement 



m 



If- 



OLASS AKD ITS HANUFACTDBIi:. Q 

Mr. Blake, manager of the Thames Plate-Glass Works, and Mr. Bessemer, 
have patented inventions for extensive improvements in the manufacture ; and 
improvements of a minor kind have been introduced by other inventors. The 
result may, to some extent, be seen at the Great Exhibition ; we there see 
plates of glass which have been so coloured as to imitate polished woods and 
marbles; we see in McLean's looking-glass the largest specimen of a bril- 
lisntly-fiwned glass ever executed in this country ; but the quiet and modest 
un&amed glass, at the west exti-emity of the nave, has the i-eputation of being 
the larjest and the finest known specimen of British plate-glass : it measures 
nearly 19 feet by 10. 

Revived Taste : Stained and Coloubed Glass. 

Among the agencies which have tended to the increased employment of 
glass in artistic works must undoubtedly be included the partial revival of 
mediaeval taste in ecclesiastical decorations. In the seventeenth century 
stained-glass windows in churches met with much fierce opposition ; while in 
the eighteenth they encountered neglect and indifference ; and as there was 
thus httle or no demand, the skill which could furnish a supply became nearly 
lost. Hence it has arisen that the artists in this department, at the present 
day, have had to study anew the principles and practice of their art. It has 
been remarked by competent critics, that, in the specimens which exemplify 
the progress of the artists, the defects as well as the beauties of the medieeval 
productions are attempted to be imitated, as if the revived art had not yet 
strength to walk alone. In the Great Exhibition, the quaint and stiff drawing 
of rnan^ of the figures in tlie stained-glass specimens is apparent enough ; 
yet it IS impossible not to obsene that great beauty of coloimng is dig-., 
played, and it is under this aspect alone that we allude to the subject here. 
In the Medieeval Court the stained glass has too littie Ught behind it to dis- 
play the colours well ; but in the gallery, on the northern side of the foreign 
nave, a particularly happy arrangement has been adopted for the varied ex- 
amples of stained-glass, British and foreign, whereby tiiie colours and general 
execution ai-e developed with surprising distinctness. The fine window, too, in 
the centre of the foreign nave, well exhibrts the skill in colouring and in the 
distribution of Ught end shade which its artist possesses. Any improvement 
in the colours of stained glass, whether in the recovery of the rich ruby tint 
of the middle ages, or by the invention of new combinations, would tell 
favourably on the glass manufacture in general ; for we have yet seen only a 
little, in this country, of the application of colom- to glass in miscellaneous 
manufactm-es. The practice of polychrome, or many-coloured decoration in 
buildings, is in its infancy among us ; and it is hardly possible yet to conjec- 
ture what new aspects of beauty may in future be developed. 

A question that suggests itself at the present time is — May not glass-staining 
be made available for a wider range of pictorial illustration than it has ordi- 
narily been applied to ? The ecclesiastical structures of the middle ages are 
those to which we are most indebted for specimens of this beautiful art ; and 
in such buildings sacred subjects are necessarily adopted. Our modem 
English glasB-stainers confine themselves, for the most part, either to sacred 
subjects, or to mere ornamental foliage, stars, arabesques, Ac. ; but the north- 
east gallery of the Great Exhibition shows us tliat our neighbours embrace a 
wider range. Look at MM. Marechal and Gugnon's ' St. Chai-les Borromeo 
giving the Saci-ament to the Victims of the Plague ;' and their ' Portrait of a 

B 8 






' ';) 



I 



10 



OLAflfl AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



Burgomaster;' at Geyling's 'Girl at a Window;' and at Bertm.9 'Dante 
w3ow; in the centfal ^ve-these ai^ of vari'Mi excellence ; but they show 
ZToZm beside sacred subjecU may Buitobly be chosen. Mr. Bailhes 
'Queen ETizabelh listening to ie reading of Shakspere.' ^^/'fgg^f ;« "^^^ 
ing out how exlmustless a store Shakspere hmiself would be to the amstio 
fflL-stainer. A monument to tlua delicate art. and a monument to the great 
SmmS might be formed by a scries of dmmatic f "-'^^^ ^;^« .?;S^; 
m need not go so far as to designate such supposed specimei i "vifa^ihed 
po^t^'- (in imitation of a modem Ge»-man definiUon of arclut«cture aa bemg 
?Se£ music ") ; but it may well deserve a thought, whether our glasa- 
stTercould not sirike out a uL path for themselves, mstead of iollowm^^ 
in the wake of mediaeval artists. What glorious subjects might tlie Great 
Exhibition itself suggest, to be depicted in a range of " storied-wmdows ! 
MfB^S^Hmit hL well shown that the » poeUy of science "is sometWng 
more than a mere name ; it can be felt as havmg a living warmth hi it Ana 
Tis iere likewise a poetiT of industry, which, if appreciated by one who is at 
the s^c time a glass-stelner, might prf4uce results ot smrpnsmg force and 

^Whether fiiture experimenters will verify the resiilte """'^^^ ^f^^^* f «J ' 
but M Bontemps, in a paper communicated to the British Association at the 
B^Jm^aghim meeiing in 1849. made known ««r ■ ""P'^'^T*' JiS';Li £ 
veiy closely the labSurs of the chiss-stainer. It is f n««^y f,"™'*'^^^;* 
diZrent metallic oxides impart liffercnt colours *« g^^ = J"*J.:, ^^j!!^;^ 
asks-How do qiumtity, and tims, and temperature, affect the result > May not 
^a^lyS^lfouJs bel^duced by one oxide, varied by these "ontmgencies ? 
He sLght industriously for true answers to these questions He states ti^at 
oil the colours of the spectrum maybe produced by oxide of ion that 
purple, brownish-red. yellow, and green may be produced by <>*"'« of"^*"" 
Sse • and that the oxides of gold, of silver, and of copper. severaUy pro- 
CmaS different colours in glass -the detei-mining causes being, the 
quantiTy^f oxide employed, the temperatu« attained. ^^.^^..^ZTtr^ 
3be process. Here we find sketehed in ouUine an unbounded field for fiiture 
S^eri^Tters ; and science will belie itself if it do not. by and by. enable our 
ZTSeTcWhether M. Bontemps' views be correct or not) to ejoal any- 
Ainff produced by tlie mediteval artists, so far as colour is concerned. 

tU above i-emarks concerning stained glass refer to ^'fFov^ments sought 
bv a revival of taste or fashion in that department, rather than to the effects of 
Seal changes. So far as the actual manufacture of the gUiss is concerned 
^ladvancfment lately made ha., not been considerable ; it is m the co^Wnation 
S cSouring materials with the glass that tlie talent of the glass-stainer finds 
most scope^or its exercise, l^ot a few of the recent miprovementa. or 
Stempts at improvement. «late to a combination of ,f """^J" «^« gj«^ 
employed. We allude not here to stahied glass. usuaUy so called ; but to 
Snment>, of a more special character. Take the question simply of eohur^ 
H^re we find that the Bohemians, however far they may be below our level 
S mal^actm^s. are able to impart to glass a richness of colour ^hich our 
' gL^-makera ha^e (until lately) endeavomed in vain to equal ; the ruby tmte 
SpeciallY are marked for their brilhancy. All colours m glass are produced 
Ke adnifxture of some or other of the mmierous metellic oxides; and 
Kugh it is \^ovm that oxide of gold is used by tlie Bohemians m the 
richer red tint« of the best specimens, yet for some reason or other (or mo e 
probably from a combination of reasons our manufacturers have rarely 



L 



OLASS AND ITS UANDFACTUBE. 



11 



i at Bertini'$ 'Dante 
illence ; but they show 
hosen. Mr. Baillie'a 
' is suggestive aa point- 
iidd be to the artistic 
nunument to the great 
scenes thus depicted, 
d specimei. j " vitrified 
f architecture as being 
;ht, whether our glass- 
s, instead of following 
jects might tlie Great 
)f " storied-windows ! " 
science" is something 
ng warmth In it. And 
iciated by one who is at 
of surprising force and 

■s remains to be seen; 
tish Association at the 
periments which touch 
[eneroUy admitted that 
lass; but M. Bontemps 
It the result ? May not 
ly these contingencies ? 
itions. He states that 
ly oxide of iron; that 
luced by oxide of man- 
»f copper, severally pro- 
ling causes being, the 
id, and tlie duration of 
>ounded field for fiiture 
t, by and by, enable our 
It or not) to eq'oal any- 
ir is concerned, 
to improvements sought 
ler than to the effects of 

the glass is concerned, 
; it is in tlie combination 
if the glass-stainer finds 
eoent improvements, or 
of colours in the glass 
sually so called; hut to 
uestion simply of colour. 

may be below our level 
less of colour which our 
to equal ; the ruby tmte 
•8 in glass are produced 
us metallic oxides; and 
y the Bohemians in the 
reason or other (or more 
anufactinrers have rarely 



quite equalled those tints. It is evident, however, to any one who has glanced 
over recent productions, that sedulous endeavours are now being made to do 
all that our neighbours are able to do. The ' ruby ' chandelier, and the 
' Alhambra ' chandelier, placed in the Great Exhibition, are steps in a style 
of art which may lead to results both briUiant and tasteful. 

The production of glass mosaics is a very remarkable appUeation of colourad 
glass to pictorial purposes. When Napoleon had possession of Itniy, he 
ordered a mosaic copy of Lionardo da Vinci's celebrated picture of the ' Last 
Supper' to be made, the same size as the original, viz. ^0 feet by 13. The 
artist was Giaoomo Baffaelh; and the men under his direction, eight or ten 
in number, were engaged at it for eight years ; this mosaic, which now belongs 
to the Emperor of Austria, cost £7500. The picture was, we believe, formed 
of cubes of coloured earths and stones ; and therefore, however clever and 
effective, it does not belong to our present sulyect. The glass mosaics in Ihe 
Great Exhibition, though few in number, are of distinguished merit, and ai-e 
comprised among the scanty contributions from the once mighty Eome. No 
nation among the ancients equalled the Italians of the last two or three cen- 
turies in the production of mosaic glava pictures ; for the ancient mosaics were 
for the most pai-t in some kind of stone, clay, or pottery-ware, whereas the 
finest modem specimens are glass copies from pMntings of the highest class. 

The production of glass mosaics requires unwearied patience, combined 
with much skill and taste. In the first place, the materials of glass are mixed 
with various colouring materials, ohiefiy metallic oxides, so as to foi-m opaqu6 
coloured enamels; these enamels are cast into slabs or flat cakes; and the 
slabs are cut into very small cubes or rectangular pieces. Not only is every 
colom* imitated, but every gradation of tint in each colour; insomuch that, at 
the great mosaic establishment at Bome, maintained by the papal govern- 
ment, they have no less than thirty thotuand different tints of coloured 
enamels, all classified and registered. With these Uttle coloured cubes a 
pictiM« is built up, copying some celebrated work of the Itahan or other 
masters. The pieces are inserted, one by one, in a bed of cement which dries 
to extreme hardness; each piece is ground at a kind of lathe to the exact 
shape required by the particular tint In each part of the picture ; and when 
the picture is completed by this extremely slow process, the surface is ground 
down and polished. It is quite impossible to describe the result thus pro- 
duced ; the reader can only appreciate it by looking at the actual specimens 
themselves. Let him examine the views of St Peter's, the Ooliseuni at 
Rome, the Boman Fonmi, the Temple of Peestum, the Harbour of Genoa, 
the Bay of Naples, the copy of Gneroino's • John the Baptist,' Ac, in the Italian 
compartment of the Great Exhibition (mostly table-slabs): he will there find 
that the minutest touches, the most delicate tints, are imitatod, and in somd 
instances with siuprising success. It must be remembered, too, that these 
colours are not mere surface tints, not merely ' skin-deep ;' they permeate the 
substance of the glass, each little fragment having the same tint all through 
its thickness. If it were possible to turn the whole series of pieces upfeide 
down, without disturbing their relative positions, a second pioture would be 
presented exactly like the original, only vnA a reversal of right and left. 

The ^' si^ecunens of glass mosaic described by Winckelmann and Count 
Caylus /■ 1 last century, seem to have been of a somewhat different kind, 
for they pr<;sented a complete picture on each surface. They consisted of 
coloured glass fibres fitted togetiier with the utmost exactness, and cemented 
by fusion into a solid mass. Of these two specimens, each of whicl> was 



VHH 
T 



••iMw«mpMHMiWia**>^ 



jg 0LAS8 AND ITS MANUFACTOnE. 

.b„„. an inch long b, . « "' - iltioHJ' r/ackf t'"L™» J"^ 
and distincUy. either the circ e «f *^« P"P*i,«; **'^^^^ about the same 

injuring Hie tints of any one fibre. 

Decorative and Silveiied Glass Work. 

To rel^. however, to decomtive gla.8 -ork^^i^^^'Jf^'^rMrt^^^^^^ 
to Sur own day. Two remarkable ""^fj^ jj^^^^^^J^^^^ome extent been 
few yea« ago founded on proce^e^^^^^ and CrystaUo 

pi-actised by the Bohemians. ^f«»« T. J^."" piags-makers excited surprise 
Engraving. About a century ^o, the J^^^^^^^^^SSS J^^^^ « coatiig of 
by producing bas-relief casts of busts and ^«J^;^clo^J^ ^^^.J^ ^f 

white flint^glass ; and it ^"^/^ «^"«^" f^ Ae des^^^^^ result, theVe 

one of the patents menUoned above. 1 o P/otwce uie u 

Slnded for incmstation must be made of ^T^thS^ wTdi IHs to h! in- 

make the two substances a^ere, «"t;? wS of fowing in air as in the 
blower draw, out the au: from V^^^J^^^^^^^!^, ^d to form one 
ordmary manufacture), thus causmg <l^«gl^« ^ 'CTcut and polished to 
continuous substance wi^ the cameo J^^^ ^J'^eimtiM. for the day 
any desired form, the effect produced « strAmg ^JJ^^^J^^ ^ ^le midrt 
caJieo or bust has the W«f««»%°^S^St arf Sc'rTSl^ a more ex- 

bj'^ir^'^i^o'pre^u"!^^ ^^- -' 

forma a glassy layer to enclose it. . CrustaUo Enmomuf, consists in 

The other noveltr mentioned above^ tnLli?s and expressing them m 
taking facsimiles o ^'^t^^^' ^les from i^^^^ «^ ^^e^ 

intasUo on hollow glass vessels. 1ms process is wun j hadces of reci- 

Sous copies ^f t^r«,tSwr" Th; S^f or'cif rsprinwSl 
ments. or «™suiK>n decanters or table gl^s. Ane ^^^ckdust, and 

over first with Tripoh poAvder, then with Jne d^ pi«* ^ 

then with coarse powder °f ^« «^« f ^^^^'^f ^'ater f r^Sich the sandy 
and at the same time exposed to %,^*»^ "^^^d in the iron mould in 
layere become sohdified mto a cast. This cast is piacea m ui 



> 



■ ^ t am ilimm MM\Hn^<^-n i 



m^f 



«•••"•'- 



.t-iva 



aiJVSS ANP ITS MANUFACTUHE. 



18 



exliibited, on a dark 
ck; the outlinea were 
he effect very striking, 
irent glass; the most 
traced more accurately 
)r the apparently scaly 
1 was about the same 
», and yellow colours, 
id volutes, beads, and 
ed a similar object was 
er fibres of glass, laid 
exposed to a heat just 
without disturbing or 



Work. 

ging more particularly 
ented by Mr. Pellatt a 
e to some extent been 
nutation and CryttaUo 
makers excited surprise 
jsed within a coating of 
at became the subject of 
iesired result, the figure 
lat will require a higher 
a which it is to be in- 
ish is found to possess 
material from a plaster 
iiaUy. A mass of trans- 
,en, and the clay cameo, 
is pressed or welded to 
being closed, the glass- 
jrcing in wr as in the 
Uapse, and to form one 
aa is cut and polishetL to 
d beautiful, for the clay 
ver, isolated in the midst 
incrusted in a more ex- 
similar hollow vessels, 
ssel, a small piece of semi- 
ie cameo in its place and 

!o Engiaviitg, consists in 
nd compressing them in 
iveniently adopted where 
such as badges of regi- 
! die or cast is spriiikled 
laster and brickdust, and 
it is placed under a press, 
iter, by which the sandy 
ftced in the iron mould in 



which the Klass vessel is to be made, and becomes an mtegral part of the 
vessel so pSduced; but by the application of a little watx^r the cast is sepa, 
3 ^dCves ar^ intaglio impression upon Uie glass ^ shaq) as the on^nal 
T The Zt or cake thus used, however, seldom suffices for a second im- 

^'Thrmention of the Bohemian glass manufacture brings U> mind a curious 
example of the mode in which commerce seeks out it« markets, and makes hght 
Srtlnce which often sepai^tes the producers from the consumers In the 
Great Exhibition is a glass case of a veiy instructive kmd, contammg speci- 
mens of S or n^-ly A the commodities brought to Livei-pool m U.e common 
r^e oflmle. Each specimen is labeUed with its commercial or local name 
uTenirname(if an?), the comitry whence i™P«'^'l- Sf/^^^ *^„f £ 
anolied and the quantity imported mto Liverpool in 1849. Among the 
fis'so depSued are B^oheu'iian glass beads, of all sizes and colom.;^nd 
the route bv which they reach their desUnation is cunous. Ihey fand then 
wrv7rom Bohemia noiiward to Hamburg, or southward to Trieste; they are 
rhTDpTatoneorbothof those ports to Liverpool ; they are shipped agam from 
LWeW t^ tiis . e. - .oast of Mrica, where they are baitered with the natives 

for ivorv calm oil, or other commodities. , , ,. ^ 

tS vSho a.; attracted by the brUliantly-coloured and diversely-oma- 
mented sp^dmens of glass which now appear in the London shops, may 
SMw Tat such^articles were a staple manufacture >« Jenice m die 
Sentt^d seventeenth centuries, and that much "^ f '^ ™?^«™Xt ting 
mprfi revival of a partially forgotten ai-t. Mr. Pellatt, in Ins interesting 
SioXes of Glass Making,' enmnerates the following among the tasteful 
A nrodSons of U^r Venetian's. The Ve,u>tian ball has an exterior of Uans- 
^ SS coburless glass, enclosmg glass of many different colours fused into 
Sne mass The VenetUin Jil^ree%hich consists of spir^y-twisted plain and 
oTour^d enilel glass, w^^uch used by tlie Veneti^s for ^e «t^--^-"- 
classes Boblets &c.; and when placed together side by side in alternaw 
fZ^ ifwa^ manufUm-ed into tezzas. vases, and oUier oi-namental articles^ 
ml^r^gZ consists of a great variety of ends ^^^S'SSloSnSs o 
sectionaUv at right angles with the filagree cane to form small lozenges or 
SEr^d tiele, when placed side by side, and massed together by tra,^ 
nZnt fflass have the appearance of an innumerable senes of flowers or 
KSs'lS ornamental v'a^es, &c Mosaic ,«a., was VroiuceAhy ^e^^ 
small canes of variously-coloured opaque or ^^''P^f * f ^^VLrS 
lengths ranced sectionaUy together in groups, so that the ends may lonn 
CToS Twhich are patterns of flowers or arabesques; Mid these, bemg cut 
ErtTsversely or Obliquely, form slabs of -/ -^--^J^f'such Lnd were 
TiesB the same pattern being met with at every cuttir.g. Ot sucU kina were 
Ttw^ sp"rmLs describe'd by Wmckelmann. Sr,^eU ^^^JJ^^^^"^, 
ftised lenaths of coloured glass roUed one into another, so as to unitate cm 
nSil or £ stones. vL di trim is fine lace-work, with intersectmg Imes 
of Thit^ enlel or transparent glass, forming a --p'^<>lJ^'^^^^f;/:,^^ 
sections- the centre of each has an air bubble of unilorra size. The I^ro»tea 
rmSirregularly-veined marble-Uke projecting dislocations, ^^t^i int^f'^"'"^ 
fZv^ It!s piiced by plunging Uie white-hot glass mto cold water, and 
then reheatbig md reblowing it; although it appears oovered with fractures 
S'r gC is perfectly sonorous. Mr. Pellatt says that tlie art of '"'^"^g ^^^ 
Si^s was knoSn and practised only by the Venetians, until revived by hun a 
few years ago at the Falcon Glass Works. 



L 



11 GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTUBH. 

The silvered glass produced by tho metiiod of Mr. Hole ThompsoQ is a 
product of singular beauty. Whether in the form of cups or goblets, of tazzaa 
or wine-coolers, of epergnes, ewers, condelabi-a, inkstands, salt or sugai'-boxes, 
of flat mirrors or of mirror globes, it exhibits a brilliancy of hue tliat can hardly 
fail to an*est attention. It is to the conibinutioii of colour witli nilicriity that 
we owe this result. Some months ago, Mr. Donaldson, in advocating tlie uho 
of this material for architectural decoration, especially in tlie adornment of 
shop-fronts, stated tliat the influence of the silver on the coloiu' gave rise to 
tints almost unknown before, and such oa no combination of the ordinary 
colouring ingredients could imitate. It may, in this resjiect, be compared to 
the Diorama, which differs from other pictui-es in being viewed by reflected 
and transmitted light conjointly ; the glas? presents the reflective power of tho 
silver with tlie transmissive or transparent piwer of the coloured medium. The 
most conspicuous products, perhaps, are the niirror globes, which present every 
variety of brilliant colour, and have a size from two inches to tliirty inches in 
diameter ; but, excellently as these illustrate Uie combination of effects just alluded 
to, they are not so delicately beautiful as articles of more diverse form, where 
endless nutincet are produced by tho different angles at which the hght is 
reflected to the eye. So much more brilliant is the argentine reflection tlian 
that j)roduced by the mercury-amalgam at tlie back of a looking-glass, tliat it 
is contemplated to employ this glass in many useM ways for optical and 
scientific instruments. 

Without going minutely into details, a few words will suffice to explain the 
relation which this new method bears to those oi-dinorily adopted. In pre- 
paring a looking-glass, a sheet of tinfoil is laid down smoothly on a flat tablo ; 
Uquid mercury is poured on it, the plate of glass is laid on tiie mercury, and 
heavy weights are Itud on the glass ; while the supei-fluous mercury is gra- 
dually expelled by the pressure, the remainder combines chemically with the 
tinfoil, and forms with it an amalgam which adheres pretty closely to the 
surface of the glass; when seen from the other side, this amalgam yields 
the brilliant white reflection familiar to us in looking-glasses. But, briUiant 
as is this reflection, it has often been thought that a yet more lustrous effect 
would be produced by the use of real silver; and a patent for this object 
was procured by Mr. Drayton, about eight years ago. According to this 
patent, the plate of glass is covered witli a solution, in which the chief in- 
gredient is nitrate of silver ; and when this solution has been left undisturbed 
for a certain time, metallic silver separates from it, and becomes precipitated 
on the glass ; the remaining solution is poured off, and the film is secured 
by a resinous varnish. In the later silvering process a somewhat similar 
nitrate solution is employed, but with a different precipitating agent. The re- 
markable feature, however, is, that the glass is made doubU, Mid the Uquid 
is poured into the cavity between the two surfaces, so that no protecting 
varnish is necessary ; and aa the twin thicknesses may be of different coloured 
glass, on extensive range of new effects becomes obtainable. 

The etching or engraving of glass presents another pleasing variety. By 
Mr. Kidd's recently-patented process, a species of embroidery of great beauty 
is produced. In this method, the devices or patterns are cut on the und»r 
surface of the glass, and the small facets are silvered ; the result is, that 
innumerable tiny mirrors throw up reflections in every direction. This is 
the case where colourless transparent glass is employed; but where multi- 
coloured glass is used, mtuiy novel combinations present themselves.. There 
may, for mstance, be a basis or primary layer of transpaient glass ; then 



"^^-i 




I. 



GLASS AND 1TB MANUFACTUBK. 



15 



. Hale Thompson is a 
lips or gobleU, of tazzas 
1(18, salt or auKai'-boxea, 
^ of hue tliat can hardly 
lour witli silicring Ihat 
1, in advocating tlie uho 
y in the adornment of 
the colour gave rise to 
tnatioQ of the ordinary 
esi^ect, bo compared to 
ng viewed by reflected 
> reflective power of the 
loloiired medium. The 
lea, which present every 
ches to thirty inches in 
ion of effects j ust alluded 
ore diverse fonn, where 

at which the light is 
'gentine reflection tlian 

a looking-gUiss, Uiat it 
I ways for optical and 

1 suffice to explain the 
arily adopted. In pre- 
uoothly on a flat tablo ; 
id on the mercury, and 
•fluous mercury is gra- 
les chemically with the 
18 pretty closely to the 
i, this amalgam yields 
-glasses. But, briUiant 
yret more lusti-ous effect 
I patent for this object 
yo. According to this 

in which the chief in- 
is been left undisturbed 
id becomes precipitated 
md the film is secured 
3S a somewhat similar 
litating agents The re- 
I double, and the liquid 

so that no protecting 
be of different coloured 
lable. 

pleasing variety. By 
•roidery of great beauty 
3 are cut on the tmder 
ed; the result is, that 
sry direction. This is 
lyed; but where multi- 
Bnt themselves.. There 
ransparent glass; then 



on opaque layer of while glass is poured upon this; and, lastly, a layer of 
mbv £ on the white; the united aiickness may be t^ion cut U, any depth 
S^wTth any device, and, whether .ilve..d or not, a "f ' f P^y/ ^ -- 
results Specimens of Kidd's embossed glass, as well as ot Uie silvered 
iXured S« «r« ^* ^« '"^'.^-^^'^ '" *^« ExhibiUon. and cerUmly form 
notable features among its novelties. . • ^ i , „ ^r..\^ 

Our American brethren seem to have been the first to mtooduce a mode 
of manufacturing glass by ytmmg, being one of the very few varieUcs m 
which homing is not req44d. A metal die and plunger are prepared. Ue 
former to give the exterim- pattern, and the latter the mterior pattern to the 
aSe 2ut to be made;\he ball of melted glass is dropped mto the che 
„r mould, and tlie plunger or matrix is brought down upon it by the 
ever handle of a simple kind of press, and the glass is thus mstanUy fomed 
nt^ the desired shape. The process is said to bo cheap and expeditious, 
but to require much skiU. If the quantity of glass be too large, {he ove i- 
plus gives considerable trouble; If too litUe, the artiolo is spoded : d U e 
die aSd phmgor be too hot, the glass will adhere to them ; it too cold, the 
smf^e of th! glass becomes cloudy and imperfect. It is by some such 
pmcess as thi8,^ut still more simple, that ghus droi>» for chandeliers are 
ordinarily formed. Lumps of glass, made expressly for this purpose are 
softened by heat, and shaped in twin bi-ass dies; but the mfenor kmds are 
mSoiVom thick tumbler bottoms, or waste glass. The arms of chandehers 
also, are pressed by twin dies, the upper die behig fixed to the plunger, and 
the under one to the bed of a lever press. • , j i,„„„*ifi.i 

A mode of decorating glass, which leads to many yaned and beautiful 
results, is that carried on by the patent of Messrs. Powell In manufactures 
of Uiis description, after the glass is made, and before it has cooled, a device 
in intaglio is impressed by a die, just as in making impressions m wax, and 
into thi cavities ^hus foimed melted glass of another colour « I«»f d; when 
cold, the surf-ace is properly ground and polished. It is difficult to "nagme 
the play of colours thus produced; for, besides the contrast between the two 
kinds of glass employed, there are aU the multiplied tints which result from 
prismatic reflection, according to the angle at which each small smrface 
presents itself to the eye. 

SCIKNTIFIC EeLATIONS OF GlASS-MaKINO. 

But we must now direct our attention to a few improvements more soUdly 
advantageous than those which owe then- atti-actions to colours, mosaics, 

silverinff, or embossing. , . v i 

Ever? day's experience tells us tJiat tliere is a pei-petual reaction between 
the different depai-tments of knowledge. Every science and art receives 
benefit for every benefit which it confers ; it " gains strength m giving. 
If science aids the glass-maker, so does the glasa-m^er lend his ^ to the 
students of science. A curious exemplification of this has appeared within 
the last few years, in connection wiUi the beautiful palm-house at Kew, 
chiefly through the instrumentAhty of Mr. Robert Hunt. To explam it. we 
must remind the reader that ordinary solar light consists of rays ot three 
colours, red, yellow, and blue ; and that of these three the red have ge most 
heating effect, the yellow the most light-giving effect, and the blue the 
strongest chemical effect. When combined in the ordmary raUo, the smis 
rays produce the regular or natural effects (whatever they may be) on vege- 



•sg* 



L 



16 



OtASS Ann ITS MANUFACTUBB. 



tation; but if artificial means be adopted to change this ratio, special effecU 
result. Mr. Hunt employed coloured glass to determine these effects ; for, in 
each itind, the glaHH u-aiisniita one portion of Uie solar raj's more abundanUy 
than the rest, and owns what is called its ' colour ' to this property. Under 
yrllow glass, he found Uiat, generally speaking, die gonuiimlioii of seeds is 
prevented; and that, even hi cases where it has commenced, tlie plant 
speedily dies. On the other hand, in a later stage of development, these rays 
seem to contribuUs to Uie vigorous growth of the plant. Under red Klass, if 
the seeds ai« well watched and watered, gonnination takes place; but the 
plant shows a sickly constitution, and the leaves are partially blanched. It is 
curious that, according to Mr. Hunt's observations, Uiose plants which naturally 
bend towards the white light of day, seem to shun red light by benduig away 
from it ; but that when they arrive at the flowering stage, the plants welcome 
the red rays more than the blue or yellow. Under blue glass, the gemimation 
of seeds and the growth of young plants are accelerated m a reinaikable 
manner ; but if this kind of stimidus be conUnued beprond a certam tune, 
the plant increases in bulk without a corresponding uici-eose in sUengUi. 
Mr Hunt, in others of his published works, has applied the term actimnn to 
the peculiar principle and effects of the blue rays ; and, m connection witli 
those views, he expresses an opmion that these experiments on Uie effe^Jt 
of coloured glass on plants, " seem to point to a very great pracUcul apph- 
ctttion, in enabling us in this chmate to meet Hie necessities of plants, natives 
of the tropical regions. We have evidence (at least so it appears to me) from 
these and other results, tliat tlie germination of seeds in spring, the flowenng 
of plants in summer, and Uie ripening of fruits m autumn, are dependent 
upon Uie variations in Uie amount of acUnism or chemical mfluence of 
light and of heat, at Uiose seasons, in Uie solar beam." These intfc.estmg 
fwits, it is true, belong to ttie optical and organic sciences raUier Uian 
to Uie glass manufacture ; but it is impossible not to see how mutually ben^ 
licial such discoveries must be to Uie two friendly powers -science and 
industrial art; and the new pahn-house at Kew affords at once a case in 
point When a UtUe manganese is present m glass, U conects Uie colouring 
action of the iron which usually exists in Uie sand; but Uie whitened glass 
thus produced is found to admit Uie heat of Uie solar rays to a greater degree 
Uian ordinary glass ; and Uie plants in a pahn-house or hothouse so glazed 
are found to suffer a scorching effect iiyurious to Uiem. Mr. Robert Hunt, 
appreciating both the good and the bad aspects of Uiis modification, has 
exercised his ingenuity iu retaining the former and dispersing Uie latt«r; 
he recommended Uie use of a litUe oxide of copper instead of oxide of 
manganese ; and Uie pahn-house at Kew, glajied wiUi glass so Unted, has been 
found to possess Uie advantages without Uie disadvantages ot what we maj 
term the manganese system. , . / 

The manufacture of glass suitable for optical purposes has been (as we 
have before noticed) unduly pi-essed down in England by Uie pernicious 
Excise laws, only recenUy removed; and we have to wait for future times to 
Bhow Uie fuU effect of Uie removal. The production of glass fitted for Uie 
constniction of lenses for large telescopes, is a work of such extreme dithculty, 
that those who excel in it become celebrated Uiroughout Euiope, and Uieir 
names find a place m the records of science. Thus Frauenhofer, of Mumch, has 
a world-wide fame (among men of science at least) for having, among other 
works, produced the object-lens for Uie great telescope at Dorpat. His 
Buccessor, Utzschneider, mauitains hia reputation for pi-oducmg optical glass 







ds ratio, special effects 
e thene enecta; for, in 
ravs more abundantly 
this property. Under 
unniimliuu of aeedn is 
onuneiiced, tlio plant 
evelopment, thene rayit 
t. IJnder r*d glasB, if 
i takes place; out the 
rtially blanched. It i» 
I plants which naturally 
light by bending away 
ge, the plants welcome 
I glass, the gemtiuation 
rated in a i-emarkuble 
«yond a certaui time, 

mci'ease m sti'engtli. 
d the term actiniam to 
nd, in connection witli 
mments on the effect 
•y great practical appli- 
sities of plants, natives 
it appears to me) from 
in spring, the flowering 
mtumn, are dependent 
chemical influence of 
n." These iutt.'esting 

sciences rather than 
see how mutually bene- 
f powers— science and 
\rM at once a case in 
t con-ects the colouring 
but the whitened glass 
■ays to a greater degree 
or hot-house so glazed 
3m. Mr. Robert Htmt, 
' this modification, has 

dispersing the latter; 
er instead of oxide of 
;las8 so tinted, has been 
ntages of what we xnay 

poses has been (as we 
land by tlie pernicious 
wait for future times to 
I of glass fitted for the 

such extreme difliculty, 
;hout Europe, and tlieir 
lenhofer, of Munich, has 
tor having, among other 
scope at Dorpat. His 

producing optical glass 



1 



OtASS AND nm HANUrAOTURE. 



17 



free from stria or streaks; Ouinand, FrauenhSfor's pupil, carrie<l a shore of 
the same reputation to Paris; tnd Bontemps, Guinand's successor, is at 
tlie present day taxing his skill to equal, if not to excel, his predecessors. 
Is it not lamentable tliat, until the year 1846, English gloss-makers wore 
almost wholly prevented ftx)m competing for these honourable distinctions? 
Until recently, the dioptric lenses for lighthouses, on tlie principles laid 
down by Fresnel and Brewster, hav« been chiefly manufactured on the 
Continent ; but our English makers are now endeavouring to enter into 
honourable competition with their neighbours. It is most encouraging to 
find tlio Astronomer Royal speaking as follows, at the recent meeting of the 
British Association at Ipswich : — " The removal of tlie vexatious fiscaJ inter- 
ferences with the manufacture of glass, and the enterprise with which Mr. 
Chance as manufacturer, and Mr. Simms and Mr. Boss as opticians, have 
taken up the construction of large object-glasses, promise to lead to the most 
gratifying result«i. Already Mr. Simms has partially tested object-glasses of 
13 inches' aperture; and one of 16 inches is waiting not for the flint, but 
for the crown lens. Mr. Ross, it is understood, has ground an object-glass of 
2 feet aperture, but it has not been tested. The facility of procuring large 
object-glasses will imdoubtedly lead to the extensive construction of graduated 
mstruments on a larger scale than before." 

The manufacture of glass tubes for a multitude of purposes is among the 
most notable results of the removal of the Excise duty. Such articles could 
scarcely have been made with any chance of remunerative profit under tlie 
harassing restrictions of the old laws ; but several patented processes are now 
at work, by which glass pipes arc made for the flow of water, corrosive acids, 
gas, Ac. In the Mineral Section of the Great Exhibition, at the extreme 
southern side of the British department, many specimens of this glass tubing 
may be seen. 

As there are many circumstances which show how the scientific principle of 
annealing or tempering improves the quality of manufactured articles in glass, 
so, conversely, does the manufacture afford striking exemplifications of this 
principle. If we were to speak of natural magic in glass making, we might 
perhaps select the Bologna phiah and the Rupert drop$ as exam^ilps of its exer- 
cise; for assuredly there are few thing;^ in this art so utterly perpi< ring to on 
observer. A Bologna phial is a phial of any convenient shape, which differs 
from an ordinary phial only in being much tliicker at the bottom than the 
sides, and in having been suddenly cooled in the open air instead of slowly 
cooled in an anneaUng oven. The result on its susceptibiUty to fracture is most 
extraordinary. It will bear a heavy blow or severe pressure from any blunt 
instnmient uninjured; but if any hard and angular substance— even so small 
as a grain of flint or sharp sand — be dropped mto it, the bottom of the phial 
will crack all round and drop off. A smdl fragment of diamond has even been 
seen to pass through the thick bottom with apparently as little resistance as if 
it dropped through a cobweb. Instances have been known in which one of 
these phials has been struck by a mallet with a force sufficient to drive a nail 
into most kinds of wood, without fracture ; while a two-grain fragment of flint, 
dropped gently into the phial, cracked and severed &e glass. The Bupert 
drops, or Prince Rupert's drops, are small solid pieces of green glass, which 
have been dropped while red-hot into cold water, and which take the form of 
rounded lumps elongated by a tail. The roimd part will bear a hard blow 
without fracture ; but if the smallest particle of tiie tml be broken off, tlie 
whold flies into innumerable fragments as fine as dust It has been even 



L 



18 



OIJkM AND ITS MANtlFACTURM. 



■hown tliat if thm r^xpflriinout bo performed whilo the rIw-i tlrop w m ft wino- 
botUe fllle«l wiUi water, by Ui.i aid of a !....« pair of nijip-oi, th« coii.miiwioi. hv 
the exnloaiou (fi>r M almo»t amount, to an exi.lotioii) in no violent as U> breivk 
the bottSs and scattar tha wnt-r in ftll dir«ctloni. All Qieiie itmnKe r««ulu are 
due to a petuliar ineq«wlity in Uu. condiUon of th«* glass. ariHiim Irom tho 
•udden cooling ; but it has not y.-t Urn clearly ascfrtain.d whereui th<j 
taeciuality consiatH. \t any rate, it in a phononionon eqnaUy Strang.* ana 

Were we to dwoll upon the many ciu-ions nlationa which g? • beam to 
wrientitlo principles. «llW ag a consenuonco of tliem, ' a^ wi u » ^waru« 
their development, it would take us far Wyon.l our limi • \\ ^ may nowever 
mention a circumstance very little known in common lif . tl>ni there are cer- 
liiin kinds of glass which may be diMolvtd in wui. r. All gla.« is. chemicaUy, 
a sdicate of som.^ alkaline or metallic oxid. ; aiv! • ording to the "»»>"«»' 
this oxide, so does the quality ;.f tl.« glass Uilk.. 1» potiish or ...da be the 
wibstanoe combined with Uio silicic acid or silica, without any third ingredient. 
a glam is produced which, Uiougli presenting Uie usual vitxeous asi«ct, is 
easily dissolved in water. It is cidlecl whtbU gUm, .md is employed a» a kmd 
of paint for paper, cloth, wood. Ac, to prevent or retard then- inflammation on 
Uie contact of an ignited body. 

.,,.., ... Nuw Applications OF Glass. 

In respect to the every-day wants of society, we find Uiat glass « /"^""jj^ 
working out the scheme which we noticed as marking the progress from 1801 
to 1851 The raw materials, it is tnio, have not been largely mcrcased in 
aumber or kind ; but commerce has given ns a few (such as Austrahan Hand), 
science a few (such as an exlonded knowledge of the metallic oxides), and legis- 
lation a few (such as cheapening tho alkalies). The manufax^tunng procesws 
have, from the reasons so many times alluded to, only of late shown any markwl 
improvement ; but these improvements lie in many difterent patlis, aU ot 
which are now being pursued simidtaneously. There are new but simple ap- 
paratus brought into ase; there are new combinations of the pnma^ mgre- 
dients ; there are new mixtures of metalhc oxides to impart colour ; there are 
hnwroved rules a.lopt«d concerning the temi.erature, the dumtion, and the 
mMiipukUv« details of each process; and there is a common-sense tendency 
to enipkw a few foreign workmen when (but only when) the English haiids are 
not skiUwl in any particular department. But it is in the applxcatxon^ glass 
to practieal purposes that we most clearly see the recent progre.^i. lher« i« 
borti an increased use v re *. has long been used, and a new use as a subsu- 
^ttte for other materials -..l- u*ag due to the increasec^ cheapness and ex- 
cellence of the glass rr "e . , » ^ i i 
The use of glass .- -1 and ofhur purposes has mdwnl extended 
with striking rapidity since the change in the Excise duties. I^t tis take the 
shop-bill of one among many London manufacturers of those articles, wad 
alance thi-oueh ita contents. First we find patent rough plate-glass, an eighUi 
of an inch thi.3k, obtainable in sheets up to a size of ten or twehre superficial 
feet, for conservatories and skylights, and saleable at threepence to tenpence 
nerfoot. Horticultural 8heet.gla.9s for conservatories is " made so as to ub- 
Viate the scorchmg effects of the sun's rays." Rough plate-glass, intended lor 
roofs and floors, is made fi-om a quaiter of an inch to an inch and a half in 
thiclmess • so strong are the thickest of these specimens, that they are walkort 



I 



OLASa AND ITS riANtllACTCBE. 



10 



) glan^ <lrop i** in A win«v 
>l><'rfi, tlie ctmi'Hwjioii l»y 
< BO viol«*nt M to bietiK 
lliese atrariKe reaulU nr« 
glosA, ariHiDK from the 
wwrtauK'd wherein thfl 
1011 I'qually hUiui^o and 

ta which g? • l»«»ni to 
I, or »! loi ii'i' > wanlH 
lits. Wj may iiowevfr 
Mf>, thfli there are cer- 
AU Kla.^.^ i«. chrraicttUy. 
oitliiiR to tho iiatiirn of 
If poUwh or iodtt be ttie 
out any third inj^redient. 
usual vitreouH osjtect, in 
i i» employed na ii kind 
rd their inflamraation on 



d tliat gla.<ia is gradimlly 
; the progresfi from 1801 
seen largely increased in 
rach as AuBtralian Hand), 
iioUUlic oxidos), and legis- 
i manufacturing proceasoH 
of late Bhown any marked 
ly ditVercoit patlis, all of 
e are new but simple ap- 
ons of the primary ingre- 
1 impiu-t colour ; there aro 
e, the duration, and tho 
i common-sense tendency 
len) the English hands are 
in the application of glass 
ecent progress. There is 
md a new use as a aubati- 
reasef* cheapness and ex- 

loses has indued extende<l 
I duties. I-«t us take tlie 
rers of those article^, and 
)ugh plftte-glass, an eightli 
■ ten or twelve superticial 
it threepence to tenpence 
» is " made so as to ob- 
jh plate-glass, intended for 
to on inch and n half in 
mens, that they are walked 



over by thmwanda of pedcslriana In tl»n busy atro«t8 of I^ondon, hi apoto 
where ligfit Jpi nM(uired to be thiH)wn into an underground cellar, (ilaas tilen 
ar« ma<U) oi rough plate from oue-oighlh to one-half un inch in thickneaa. and 
of Hh«ot-gl»as from nixtcen to Uiirfy two oun<!e« per aqvuuo foot ; and glaan 
*\nt»n, <»iillf.l with iioieii for fixing, lu-u niiuiu of iiuiilaf matBrials. tUass 
shelvea, with or without rained ••dgos, and from two t<> six Inchea in width, «n\ 
sold by the foot of length. For immediato horticultural or daily UR») we Hnd 
bee gloHJiM. propagating gloasea, cucumber glahsea, hyacinUi and llowc^r di8h«« 
ftn«l glaasoa, cnKUS glasses, wall-fniit gla8B»5s, fniit-prot«!ting glaaaea, paadi 
and grape glosses, fcm aliades, milk trays and pans, creampota. and numoroiw 
other articUs. 'i'luu there are niimberlesH us^liil implemouLs which >ftn witli 
ditticulty be brought under any common dosignulion, but which all tend to ex 
emplliy the increasing use ot Rlass ; perforateii «!'«« for ventilation, syringea 
for injections. chemisU' pill slabs, cornice polos, ])ipos for convoymg lupuda— 
am each of them types of large classes of articles now made of tins material. 
In it»spect to the ability of English workmen to oiiual tliose of foreign countrlea 
in the niechanical departmentit of tlie glass manufacture, Mr. Poxton adduced 
tin instructiv.i instance some time ago. In <mti of the many public explanar 
tions which he has given concening the Hxhibition and itn wonders, he dwelt 
(among other Uiingn) on the appn-ht-nded injury which foreign workmen might 
Inflict on those of this country. " He would state a tack within his own know 
ledge tYonchmen wore celebrated for omamentwl gloss. The eatablishment 
of Messrs. CJhance employed a number of I-'ronchmen lor a particular branch 
of the trade, the making of glass shados. By degrees tho English workmen 
in the establishment became as jiroticient in tho lut as Uie Fruuoh; and about 
a fortnight ago a trial of skill took place between them. The esfabhshment 
received order* for an enormous gloss shade. A Frenchman trie^l his skill, 
and failed; an Englishman, who, previous to the importation of the fVench, 
was unacquainted with the ai-t, tlien made an effort to acoompllih the xmk, 
and 8ucceedt;d at the first attempt." 

The Glass Work of the CnrsTAt Palace 

That the already renowned Crystal ralaco—that eighth wonder of the 
world, which could have contained six out of the seven old wondei-a under 
its roof— could not have been built half-a-doacn years ago, is a truism which 
we have before adverted to; and without dwelling more on ttiis point, it 
will alwB>'s r< main a matter of interest to note the arrangements by which the 
palace hm been built The manufacture by Messrs. Chance of the aores of 
gloss which the building contahis, was in itself an industrial feat worthy of 

Tho neighbourhood of Birmingham produced botli U\e h-on-work and the 
glass-work for Uie Exhibition buUding. Messrs. Chance's establishment is 
situated in a suburb caUed Hpon Lane, surrounded by the smoking chimneys 
of various factories. It is a vast place, covering on area about equal to that 
of the Crystal Palace itself, but, unlike it, scattered and disjointed, with no 
two buildings alike, and no symmetry of arrangement. Like many other 
of our manufacturing establishments, it has grown with the growth ot trade ; 
it has ext<jnded its Ithiits to embrace more and more buildings, as the exi- 
gencies of the maiiufacture required, and has not had timd to put on those 
outward adornments, or to adopt those symmetrioal arrangements, which a 
wholly modem building might present. This veiy circumstance, however, 



I 



w^ 



Jl 



20 



GLASS AND ITS MANTIFACTURE. 



Ml 



gives it a peculiar interest; for the bwlding embodies within itself an 
ep'tomp of the history of the manufacture— rapid growth, wide extension, 
intense activity, gradual adaptation ; these distmguish both the building and 
the manufacture. Messrs. Chance originally confined their attention to one 
or two kinds of glass, but they have now a thousand peraons employed m 
making crown, sheet, plate, shade, and coloured glass ; and during the pro- 
duction of the glass for the Crystal Palace, the number of operatives was far 
greater. How wonderful are the gliss shades deposited by this firm at the 
Exhibition, and how remarkable that these shades ai-e made by the same pro- 
cess as the glass for the building itself! It is now about twenty years since 
Messrs. Chance intioduced into this country the mode of making sheet-glass, 
adopteu before that time by the French and Belgians; and the manufacture 
has gradually become an important one. Anything more striking than the 
details of the manufacture can hardly be met with in the whole range of 
industry. The workman dips his iron t'.be into the semi-viscid glass, and 
taked up a quantity amounting to 12 or 14 lbs. ; he rolls the mass on a 
wooden block, till it assumes a cylindrical form ; he appUes his mouth to the 
other end of the tube, and blows until the mass assumes a hollow ovo'.d 
form; he whirls this round his head, or, rather, in a vertical circle 10 or 12 feet 
in diameter, and elongates the ovoid mto a cylinder with rounded ends; he 
re-heats the glass two or three times during these processes, to maintain the 
proper consistency, and at length the remo+e end of the hollow mass gives 
way, and we have before us a cylinder of glass, attached only at one end 
to the tube. In respect to the glass for the Ctystd Palace, the cylinders were 
made somewhat more than 4 feet in length. The cylinders ai-e dissevered 
from the tube, and are cut lengthwise with a diamond ; they are placed in a 
kiln, where the heat gradually opens the fissure, and there is finally presented 
a flat piece of glass, which can be cut to any smaller size. 

It is sufficiently notable that the glass for the Exhibition should be so 
produced ; but that the shadus which are deposited in one of the galleries 
should also have been produced by the same whirling process, almost passes 
belief. Under the immediate pressure of the immense demand, Messrs. 
Chance invited over a few skilled workmen from France and Belgium ; but 
the English hands — urged by this proximity to do then- best— have learned 
to equal their rivals ; and ttie shades here spoken of are of English workman- 
ship:— 72 inches by 13, 62 inches by 26, 88 inches by 18— such are the 
enormous dimensions of three of these shades. The exact form is given to 
the shade by pressing the blown cylinder gently into a mould of the required 
shape, while the glass is yet soft. Never, surely, is material more under the 
command of the workman, than glass imder that of the glass-blower. 

The account wldch Mr. Paxton has more than once given of the origin of 
his plan of the Giystal Palace may be here briefly adverted to, so far as it 
illustrates the availability of glass as a building material. In 1828, when his 
attention was first directed to this subject, the forcing-houses and hothouses 
at Ghatsworth were formed of coarse thick glass and heavy woodwork, which 
rendered the roofe dark and ^oomy. His first reform was to lighten tlie 
rafters and sash-bars by bevelling off their sidesi. A second improvement was 
that of cutting grooves for the reception of the glass, by which there is much 
less exposure (than by the old method) of the putiy to the destructive action 
of heat and moisture. The use of iron in various structures ha>ing by that 
time become very general, Mr. Paxton proc-eeded to inquire whether iron 
aashes and rafters would be available for glass sU-uctures; but th« result of his 



GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



21 



odies within itself an 
•owth, wide extension, 
both the building and 
their attention to one 
I peraons employed in 
; and during the pi-o- 
ir of operatives was far 
ted by this firm at tlie 
nade by the same pro- 
lout twenty years since 
of making sheet-glass, 
; and the manufEicture 
nore striking than the 
in the whole range of 

semi-viscid glass, and 
) rolls the mass on a 
[>hes his mouth to the 
isumes a hollow ovoid 
tical circle 10 or 13 feet 
yith rounded ends; he 
cesses, to maintain the 

the hollow mass gives 
Etched only at one end 
ace, the cylinders were 
yhnders are dissevered 

; they are placed in a 

ere is finally presented 

ze. 

diibition should be so 

in one of the galleries 

process, almost passes 
ense demand, Messrs. 
nee and Belgium; but 
leu' best — ^have learned 
« of English workman- 
B by 18 — such are the 

exact form is given to 
i mould of the required 
taterial more under the 
e glass-blower. 
3 given of the origin of 
dverted to, so far as it 
al. In 1828, when his 
[-houses and hothouses 
heavy woodwork, which 
irm was to listen tlie 
icond improvement was 
by which there is much 

> &e destructive action 
ructures haxing by that 

> inquire whether iron 
»s; but th« result of hia 



inquiries was unsatisfactory, for he found that such iron framings were more 
costly than wood, that the sashes were liable to become disjointed by expan- 
sion and contraction, that the glass would be fi«ctured by such disjointing, 
that the temperature of metal framings varies more than tliat of wood, and 
that the repairing of injmies would be less simple and expeditious. The com- 
bination of wooden rafters and frame-wuik with iron sash-bars was then tried, 
but the advantages did not equal the disadvantages ; and Mr. Paxton has since 
that period imiformly adhered to the employment of wood in immediate 
contact with glass. His next investigation led him to the " ridge and fiurow " 
system of glass-roofing. In most glass structures employed for horticultural 
purposes, the lean-to roof inclines downwards towards the south, in order to 
catch the heat of the sun ; but a consequence of this is (especially if lie sash- 
bars be thick and clumsy) that the east and west or morning and evening sim 
exerta very little power within the structure, while the midday heat is received 
in all its fierceness. To obviate this, Mr. Paxton contrived the ridge and 
furrow arrangement, at such angles as to increase the reception of morning 
and evening rays, and check somewhat the midday rays. He built a pine- 
hoise in 1833, and a greenhouse in 1834, on this principle; and in 1836 he 
constructed a curvilinear hothouse, 60 feet in lengtli by 26 in width, with an 
elliptical roof on tlie ridge and furrow principle, tJ^e sash-bars being of wood : 
this was, in fact, the first germ whence the indescribably beautiful transept 
arch at the Giystal Palace proceeded. When the great conservatory was com- 
menced at Ghatsworth in 1837, Mr. Paxton av&iled himself of the use of a 
machine for shaping and planing the sash-bai-s. He also availed himself of 
the sheeti-glass which Messrs. Chance had by tliat time brought into use ; and 
it was by his suggestions, and offers of purchase, that the firm redoubled their 
effoi-ts until sheet-glass fovu* feet in length could be made : this enabled Mr. 
Paxton to employ grooving instead of overlapping in glass roofs, a system to 
which the Ciystal Palace owes no small portion of its efficiency. The next 
step was to make the ridge and furrow rafters horizontal, instead of inclined, 
as they are in the Ghatsworth conservatory ; and three buildings were con- 
stmcted with roofs on this principle, viz. a conservatory in Darley Dale, an 
ornamental glass covering m a conservatory wall at Ghatsworth, and the new 
Victoria Begia house in the same princely domain. Tlie last of these three 
buildings was constructed in 1850; and it was while the subject was thus 
fuUy occupying his mind, that the happy idea of the glass palace occurred to 
Mr. Paxton, and enabled him and others to surmount obstacles which seemed 
likely to overwhelm all parties concerned. 

To describe this wonderful i"oof, these sixteen acres of glass, is barely 
necessary ; for the dfuly and weekly journals have made the subject familiar to 
almost every one. Yet we cannot rightly understand the relation which the 
glass manufacture bears to it without recapitulating a few details. 

First, then, we have in the roof a structure of such unusual lightness that 
the whole weighs but 3J lbs. per square foot, glass and wood included. This 
slightness of pressure on the girders and cdlumns beneath has been a point 
of considerable importance and value; for it enables the builders to rely 
securely on a degree of strength in those parts which would be quite incon- 
sistent with ihe pressure of an ordinary roof. In the remarkable " ridge and 
furrow " principle of this roof, the Paxton gutters, as they are called (we stay 
not to investigate the claims of other parties to the invention), are rasged 
parallel at distances of 8 feet apart ; and ihe ridges are midway between the 
gutters, both gutters and ridges running east and west The ridges are so 



BMMlMlijMM 






L 



OS 



GLASS AND ITS MAHOFAOTDBE. 



crooved as to receive the glass, and the furrows are hoUowed to furnwh chan- 
nels along which ram-wat«r can descend to Uie hoUow columns. Ihe sash- 
bars, which extend north and south, are 5i inches in length ; and it is at the 
Bides of these slender sash-bai-s that the grooves are made which mainly 
support the "crystal" roof. The glass panes extend north and south; but 
in Ae waggon vault of the transept, owing to the remarkable conbmaUon ot 
the ridgeand furrow system with the circular curve, the line of direcUcm is a 
curious Oiie ; the sash-bara are here set at an oblique angle, m " hei-rmg-bone 
fasliion, in order to assist ttie conduction of the water, and to prevent its 
lodging agamst the lower putty bed of each pane of glass over which it 
trickles. Each piece of glass measures 49 mches by 10 inches; and, as aU 
are exaoUy of the same size, any • misfitting' wai quite out of the question. 

The mode of glaaing these ahnost innumerable sashes was as foUows :--llie 
ffutters, tho ridges, and the principal rafters being fixed in their places, one ot 
Sie long or 49-inch edges of a sheet of glass was inseiled into the groove of 
the principal rafter; a sash-bar, measuring 1 mch by H, and double grooved 
was then put on to tho other long edge of the glass ; the sash-bar was next 
brought iovm and secured at the top to the ridge, and at the bottom to the 
edge of the gutter; the lower edge of the glass bemg bedded upon a layer ot 
putty three-quarters of an inch broad, a sUght blow to the lower end brought 
the upper edge of the glass home mto the groove m the ridge. The glass 
being then pressed do^vn, tho putty was made good n the grooves extoraally. 
In glazmg the wrtieal iiaihe$, which form in part the waUs of the building. 
Pieces of glass were employed about equal in dimension to those in the root ; 
5ie glass was slipped down between the saah-bars. Both in the roof and m 
the vertical sashes provision was made for mendmg or r^plaomg broken panes 
by causing one groove to be cut deeper than the other, so that the glass might 
be shpped m fiom one side, and puttied into its exact place. 

But the glazing of the vaulted transept was the masterpiece. Scarcely anythmg 
tlse m the buUding called for the exercise of more caution and mgenmty, on ac- 
count of Uie curvatures which the vault presents. In the lower pait of thecn-- 
cular arcs, where the direction of the ridges and furrows does not depart far from 
the porpendicvdar, ladders and temporary scaflbldings enabled the glaziers to 
piwceed with tlieir Icbours; but as they ascended, ordmary means became in- 
sufficient, and a very ingenious box or stage was constructed for their acoom- 
modation This box moved on wheels m Uie line of the gutters ; it was sus- 
pended fiom the lead flat which runs along the summit of the transept, and 
was lowered to any pait of the curve at which the glaners were at work, being 
brought sufficiently close to the curved ribs and gutters by ro^ and tackle 
The riazing of the flat roof of the nave was Uttle (if at all) lass difficult than that 
of the tmnsept. owing to the absence of any supporting terrace or passage on 
which the glaaers might stand. The ever-ingenious contractors devised a ma- 
chine («rf which seventy-four were constructed), each capable of accommodaUng 
two glaziers. The machine consisted of a frame of deal about eight feet square, 
with an opening in its centre sufficiently large to admit supphes of dass, sash-bars, 
putty, Ac , to be hoisted through it from Ae ground beneath ; Ae stage rested 
on four small wheels, which travelled on the Paxtm gutters (the width of tiie 
laaohme being made exactiy equal to the space from glitter to gutter); and the 
machine then spanned over one ridge and two slopmg sides, bemg a litUe 
hiKher then the ridge. The workmen were protected m bad weather (of which 
thev had a fuU wintry share) by a canvas awning. The men sat at one end of 
their stage, and pushed it along about a foot at a time as their hibours pro- 



ollowed to furnish chan* 
jw columns. The sash- 
length; and it is at the 
ire made which mtunly 
1 north and south; but 
narkable oombination of 
bhe line of direction is a 
mgle, in " hening-bone" 
ater, and to prevent its 

of glass over which it 
y 10 inches ; and, as all 
e out of the question, 
les was as follows : — The 
»d in their places, one of 
eiled into the groove of 

H, and double grooved, 
I ; the sash-bar was next 
md at the bottom to tlie 
5 bedded upon a layer of 
bo the lower end brought 
u the ridge. The glass 
a the grooves externally, 
he walls of the building, 
ion to those in the roof; 

Both in the roof and in 
r replacing broken panes, 
r, so that the glass might 
t place. 

rpieoe. Scarcely anything 
ition and ingenuity, on ac- 

the lower part of the cir- 
ra does not depart far from 
B enabled the glaziers to 
rdinaiy means became in- 
nstructed for their acoom- 
f the gutters ; it was sus- 
omit of the transept, and 
aziers were at work, being 
tters by ropes and tackle. 
i all) less difficult than that 
ting terrace or passage on 

contractors devised a ma- 
capable of accommodatiiig 
eal about eight feet square, 
supplies of glass, gash-bars, 
beneath ; the stage rested 
1 gutters (the width of the 

gutter to gutter); wad the 
oping sides, being a little 
d in bad weather (of which 
rhe men sat at one end of 
i time as their labours pro- 



GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



as 



[ 

I ceeded ; they inserted and puttied the pones of glass one by one, and thus 
travelled widi their machine from the transept towards tlie east or west end. 
So dexterous did the glaziers become in the use of these machines, that eighty 
of them put in upwards of 18,000 panes of glass, equal to more than 62,000 
square feet, in one week. The greatest quantity put hi by any one man in ono 
day was 108. For repairing tlio roof, a machine has been contrived, the wheels 
of which rest upon the ridges instead of upon the gutters. 

We feel strongly tempted to add to the above details a description of the 
very curious apparatus— first employed by Mr. Paxton, and then improved by 
Mr. Birch — for making and grooving tlie sash-bai-s ; but these relate to working 
in wood (on instructive subject in itself) rather than in gloss, and scaicely fall 
in with tlie object of the present paper. In respect to the humble material, 
ptUty, employed in tins unexampled specimen of glazing, its chief point of 
interest is the largeness of the quantity called for : it waj» consumed not simply 
by pounds or by hundredweights, but by tons. If some of this putty has proved 
treacherous, and has admitted a sprinkling of rain into the interior of the 
building, we may well excuse it, and wait patiently until the industrious 
glaziers have mmle all weatlier-proof. Let us put to ourselves this question, 
and think well before we answer it — If brick, stone, and mortal" had been the 
materials for the Exhibition building, instead of iron, glass, and putty, would 
the yeai' 1851 have witnessed the Great Exhibition at all? 

Many have been the doubts and queries respecting tlie thickness of the 
gloss employed in the Crystal Palace. At one of the meetings of the Society 
of Arts, questions were put to Mr. Fox on this subject, to which he replied 
nearly as follows : — He " Uiought the glass quite strong enough, or he would 
have made it stronger ; because he had to keep the gloss ui repair for twelve 
months. But tliere was one important point connected with ^ass which few 
considered when they put questions respecting it : they only asked what thick- 
ness it was. Now its thickness was very important, but the width was equally 
80. If they got a piece of glass of a certain thickness and width, and found 
that hailstones broke it, let them reduce tlie width, and they would &id uiat it 
would bear the fbroo of the hailstones. Now the pones used were 10 ounces 
to the foot, 49 inches long by 10 m width. Dming the last twelve yeai's they 
(Messrs. Fox and Henderson) hod used upwuxls of thirty acres of glass, spread 
all over the kingdom, a great deal of it being used at the royal dockyturds and 
at railway stations. It had almost all been I6-oimce glass, and some was as 
low 08 l3-ounce; and although it was spread over twelve years, they had had 
no difficulty witli it whatever. But if, instead of 10-inch width, they had 
made it 16, they would have had it broken in every hailstorm." This 
evidently goes to the root of the matter; tl.e thickness may be safely 
diminished in about the same ratio as the vridth ; and experience alone con 
show what is the requisite thickness for a given width. The contractors, from 
Uie terms of their ^reement, hod obundont reasons for wishing to make the 
gloss strong enough to resist hailstorms. 

The Crystal Palace system of glazing (if we may so designate it), in which 
the roof imd the skyhght are one, seems likely to meet with many valuoble 
developments. A former in the West of England hos recently roofed with 
gloss a bam more than 100 feet long by about 30 in width. The expense hos 
been far less than that of a slate roof, while the anticipated odvontages ore 
many, and have been thus commented on : — " The boms may be applied to 
drying com during a cotching horvest. The com con be placed in the bom 
immediotely upon being reaped, where it will have the benefit of the sun when 



i 



il<i»i|-MiiiS«irBii»r, i 



iJw .t-. 



M 



GLASS AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



it shines be protected from the showers, and also dried by artificial heat if 
renS'Mid Sen stacked in ricks under a covered stack yard^ Ih.s ^v.U 
Stkrild to be immediately plougl^d up and -o^l^^^^X^J- 
Le. which will prepare the land for another cereal crop the ^if^^y^n 
BA fhftt he (the fai-mer) anticipates three crops xn two years. It Uie iveatern 
^-Tis here coS and if the farmers anticipations are i-eally sound, he w.11 
SSha^r ca^ to bless tl»e Cystal Palace, and those who have been 
inatnimental in rendering the construction of it possible. , . • ■„ * , 

S?re conSnrof the^Hyde Park structure, many of tiiose which dlustmte 
ihfl il.S mSacture have already been adverted to ; and die mdustoous visitant 
S thaTrpTrSTcollection wiU have no difficulty in ca^lmg others to mmd^ 

S daS tTuseM purposes. ^France. Belgium. Germany, Austna^aU send 

mmrBmmM 

cLlSts-l^coTo,^, Tn form, in durability, - ^^-P"-"^, ^J^^ ^S' 
S to give honour where honour is due : it is not only the most just pohcy 
but in the end it will also be the most proiitable. 






ried by artificial heat if 
stack yard. This Avill 
i sowed with turnips or 
crop the following year ; 
i years." If the Weatern 
are really sound, he will 
i those who have been 
ble. 

of those which illustrate 
id the industrious visitant 
n calling others to mind, 
et with Messrs. Hartley's 
de of an inch and a half 
so large and thick as to 
filled witli molten glass ; 
exhibiting the glass in 
series for sheet glass, in 
a ruby cylinder of glass, 
and various applications 
many, Austria — all send 
ghly curious. A French 
id an imitation of flowers 
er materials would have 
idant specimens of fitting 
bstance. 

sturers have had no Excise 
1 impulse by tlie removal 
cmg course. France once 
ce and Belgium taught us 
)ur teachers. If, iii flint- 
seful forms and deUcacy of 
to bring the EngUsh work- 
hemia, or Italy, or France, 
nd with our glass-makers, 
•ity exists, and how it may 
id a foreign neighbour who 
heapness — let us not hesi- 
only the most just policy 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



If we glance at the aspects which tlie iron manufacture has presented between 
1801 and 1851 — ^tlie first half of an eventful century — we find that changes 
and advancements have been made in tlie processes and the application, rather 
than in the materials. In trutli it could hardly have been otherwise ; for iron, 
absolutely pure iron, is one of the small number of simple chemical substances, 
not compoiuuled of any other two. In the forms, however, which the metal 
assimies when manufactured, there are always small quantities of carbon and 
otlier substances combined witli it; and as these substances impart valuable 
qualities to the u'on, busy researches have been made to detennine the exact 
relation between the substances and the qualities. So far, tlien, materials 
have undergone modification ; but it remains true, as noticed above, that pro- 
cesses rather tlian materials maik the course of recent improvements. 

The glass manufactme, as was expl^ned in the former article, had an up- 
hill struggle against the legislature imtil within the last half dozen years ; and 
all attempts at improvement were nearly paralyzed untU that struggle reached a 
successful issue. This has not been the case in respect to iron. The legisla- 
tion concerning this impoitant metal has — happily for all parties — been small 
in amount. The miner may dig and the roaster may calcine, the smelter may 
reduce and the foimder may cast, the blacksniitli may forge and the whitesmith 
may file — without obstruction, or at any rate without the unwelcome visitation 
of the exciseman. The duties on tlie import of foreign uon or iron manufac- 
tures, or on the export of those of British produce, have not dining the present 
century been very heavy ; and altliough tlio spread of Ubei-al commercitd views 
has been felt in this as in other departments of industiy, yet it is not in such 
direction that we ai-e to seek for the main cause of the i-ecent great advance- 
ment in the manufacture now mider notice. 

It is not intended (as has been already annoimced) that this series of papers 
should contaui systematic descriptions of the manufacturing processes, or of 
the local centres, of industry ; for such details we refer to the two Cyclopsedias, 
and shall assume that the reader has a general every-day acquaintance with 
them. Almost every one, for instance, who is competent to imderstaud even 
a common newspaper, is aware that the south of Wales, the centre of England, 
and the south-centre (if we may so designate it) of Scotland, are the chief seats 
of the British iron manufacture. But when we go beyond these primary facts 
we find abundance of " Curiosities," both in the localization and the pi-ocesses 
of this all-irnportaQt branch of industry. 

Local Pecouabities. 

Stituige, indeed, are the changes which have occurred in the chief seats of 
this manufacture. Who, among the thousands who know Sussex as an agiicul- 
tural and pleasure-touiing county, have detected or could detect any indication 
that it was once an iron-making district? Yet such was once its chai-acter. 
The sand which Sussex presents m such laigo quantity contains a rich per- 

c 



iMimit^ 



mm 



A. 



3 inON AND ITS MASUFACTCnE. 

cenlaco of iron ; on.! this iron used fomorly to bo extmcto.l by «T)ioUing on 
Jhc spot If the reader should ask wheUicr tlic sand is less fcninignmus than 
fo™?Y or (if not) ^vhy Uie manufacture hn.s fallen off. tl,e ans^ver is a sin .le 
uSficant one' uiil the last centuiy all iron >vaH sn.elted m tins county 
' inSr^'vith charcoal, and this ch,ucoal w.w unifomily niade from the trees 
thi^hlrew n orneai-Uie iron district; but this practice has b'-^" "^fly «»■ 
neSdeTby the use of coal and coke. A timber t^iee. the growUi "f ^ ce^ntury, 
E be consumed in a few Aveeks or even days in smelting opemtions the 
SumpruT much more rapid than die growth ; and it tl^"!* l^«*Pf "^^^J^J 
?h«3^c of charcoal for tlio BmeWng of iron was one cluof cRiwe oi the 
S^rdeetoictionTour ancient woods Evelyn maao a kind of sorrowmg 
Stot^St Nat^. for having " thought tit to produce th.« wasting «re 
Ze XnSy in wood-lands th£i any oUier ground, and to emich ou 
forests to their own destruction;" and he utters a •' deep execmtion ot ir 
Ss and iron masters also." If he could have lived to see die day when 
Sut;x by iScomuTg t"o diinly supplied widt timber iVie . ^uld cease to be 
torSSted S^'uon mills aid iron masters," he might have softened is 
Sema Smoky and dirty as our iron distiicts may be, tney do not m die 
rSrTd^y involve Souttig down of trees for charcoal fuel ; and we are so 
faT better offTan Evelyn in his Sylvan days. Sussex has no coal and Ae 
tn rn^Xure left diVcounty when smelting widx coa^ or coke began to 
wne^ode smelting with charcoal. Sussex has uon without cool, DurhMn 
hTc^l (n^'y) wUhoutiron; and die iron-smelting «Pfra^'«"%^VtZ£ 
Si eZr cmmS—Tliis gives us a clue to die circumstances which detenmnc 

^iteSof°'i^Ve?tposited in die Great Exhibition iHnsUadng d. 
eeneml iron-making resources^ die United Kingdom, together w.di he sta. 
Sc^inftJmation concerning diem given in dio Official Illustmted Catalo^o 
teMl TZreut From dxenco we learn dmt tlie gro.s annual P^-oJje of ^ 
^w reaches die enormous quantity of two and a quwler nuUions of tons . o 
Sonoudi Wales yields liout 700.000. Scodand 000,000, Stalfordslur^^^^^^^^ 
ite neighbourhood 600,000. whUe die remauider is made up of small contaibu- 
tfons fSm S?us comties. It is not simply die possession o i^<^^^ovo 
Sch Kives us so gi-eat advantages in diis mighty departinent of >»dustiy 
but die coal is so abundant and in such near proximity to die uron, and die 
£ne^d SUtoS necessary to facilitate die smelting ai^ al^ bo .^fyj^ 
nlTed dmt nearly all die irm can be smelted in die disUict where it is luised, 
ffdiefxpi^e of bulky carnage is diereby notably l^^^^^tave^.Sf ,"^^" X 
Ti die coS districts should ever be exhausted, however, we have «till a supp^ 
in numeious counties belonging to odier geological fomations. J^e prod^ 
erf die British iron manufactme in 1760 was only 80,000 tons; m 1800 it had 
Tnc^ied tolsO^OO ; in 1835. 600.000. In 1826 ibe duties X\TlS^^ 
Son of forei,^ iim were eidier removed or rendered nommal ; die British 
iron w^ left to work ita own wav, according to it» own peouhar properties 
ScforS tr became freely obtamable for such pvu^oses a.s it is most 
fitted for Sid mder die influenci of diese unshackled movements the manufac- 
^Z^Z'Zn in die astonishing way noted abova In tb« fi%J^^™- 
to 1800 it increased sbc-fold ; in die fifty years subsequent to l^^J,**"^™ 
twelve-fold upon die quantity for diat year, or seventy-two fold "Ponjhe 
ouantHv for 1750 ! It is in trudi among the most astonishing instances of 
?ZsKro^e- -bich our countiy e&iibits. Taking die Mmild-d I-^ 
Works, at Oalder, as ji type of progress generally, we fand diat m 1805 forging 




Imctod 1>y Rmolting on 
s leas fi'misi"o"M tl^fi" 
tlie answer is a simple 
smelted in this country 
nly made from the trees 
ne has been nearly su- 
he growtli of a century, 
nclting operations ; the 
d it thus happened that 
one chief cause of Uio 
lo a kind of sorrowing 
in)duce tliis wasting ore 
nd, and to emich our 
deep execration of iron 
)d to see tlie day when 
ftiel, would cease to he 
[jjght have softened his 
r be, tiiey do not in the 
3oal fuel ; and we are so 
sex has no coal, and the 
coal or coke began to 
I without coal, Diu-ham 
perations are not located 
stances which determine 

:hibition, illustrating tlie 
1, together witlx tlie star 
ial Illustrated Catalogue, 
is annual produce of iron 
rter millions of tons ; of 
)0,000, Staffovdsliire and 
ide up of small contribu- 
ossesaion of the ii-on ore 
department of industiy ; 
mity to tjie kon, and tlic 
r ai-e also so amply sup- 
isU-ict whei-e it is raised. 
Lessened. If tlie iron ore 
er, we have still a supply 
>rmat»on8. The produce 

000 tons ; in 1800 it bad 
le duties upon the intro- 
red nominal ; the British 
own peouhar properties, 

1 purposes as it is most 
I movements the manufac- 
[n the fifty years previous 
luent to 1800 it increaped 
venty-two fold upon the 
i astonishuig instances of 
aknig the Monkland Iron 
I find tluvt in 1805 forging 



IBOM AKD ITS MANUrACTORE. g 

and rolling only were carried on by tlie aid of water power; that, in 1836, 
taking advantage of the excellent iron ore in the neighl)oiuhoo«l. smelting was 
commenced; and that in 1851 the works comprise nine blast furnaces, at 
which 00,000 tons of pig-u-on and 40,000 tons of maUeable iron are produced 
annually, employing 2500 miners and workmen, and nfionhng school accom- 
modation for 1400 children. The Dowlws Works at Meilhyi- Tydvil present 
still more stiiking proofs of recent advancement 

If we look at the distiibution of the mining and smolting operations, as 
given in the authoritAtive work above quoted, we find tlie following facts :— 
Tha,t portion of the South Wales district which has Merthyr 'rydvil as its 
mining metropolis has 13 principal iron works, with 70 furnaces; the Ponty- 
pool district lias 7 works, with 33 furnaces; the Tredegar district has 10 works, 
*"<»^^.'u™aces; the Neath district has 6 works, and 30 furnaces; the Pen- 
tyrch district 6 works, and 11 furnaces ; and the Rhnabon district 3 works, and 
5 furnaces. There ai-e a few smaller works not here included, and some of tho 
furnaces we out of blast ; but without going into particulars in tliese matters. 
It may suffice to state tliat in 1848 the number of iron furnaces in Great Britain 
was estiiaatcd as follows: 

England a86 

Wales 207 

Scotland 180 

023 
The English furnaces are smaller than those of Wales or Scotland, and do not 
>ield so much iron per week. 

From the specimens at tlie Exhibition we may see how numerous are the 
veins or beds of iron ore, how varied are their appearance, and what strange 
local names are given to tliein. We find the Sfwp vein, the black pirn, imd the 
Ihree-quarter hnlh; the hliick band, tlie spotted pin, and the little pin; the big blue, 
the htth b^, and the lumpy; the jenkin pirn and tlie penny pieces, tlie bluejlats 
and the Bristol diamonds, tlie dog tooth and the bacon fiitch, and numerous 
othOTS, the etymology of which it would be no ea.sy matter to determine. 
l!iach of the iron districts has some peculiarity or other, which gives it com- 
mercial importance. The Ystalyfera iron is associated with anthracite, which 
aflects the smelting process. The iron ore of the Pentyi-ch district is princi- 
pally hseraatite; but as Wales produces every kind of coal, from tlie bituminous 
to anthracite, it can readily smelt any kind of ore. Plentiful as the ore is in 
South Wales, the coal is still more abundant ; and that countrj' will probably 
long continue to be (what it has been for the last few years) the gi-oatest iron- 
mnnufaoturing district in the worid. In the North Wales district both Ibe 
iron and tlie coal seams are thin, but good. The Shropshire iron is good, but 
small m quantity. In Staffordshire, where coal was first used in the smelting 
of iron m 1019, the iron made is better in quality than tliat of Wales, and 
equal in quantity to the Scotch. North Staffordshire produces a much larger 
quantity of good iron ore than can be smelted ^vith the coal of the same dis- 
tnct, and considerable supplies are furnished to otlier districts. The Yorkshire 
iron, from Bowling and Low Moor, is especially celebrated for its toughness, 
rhe iron ores of the Lake district are very abundant, and the finest in the 
kingdom ; they are eagerly purchased by smelters elsewhere. Tlie Forest of 
Dean iron ore is especially fitted for the making of tin (or rather tinned iron) 
plates, and is sent into Wales in large quantities for this purpose. There is a 
small quantity of ore among the primitive rocks of Devon and Cornwall, better 

a 



I 



i 



A IIION AND ITS MANUFACTURfi. 

bestow something more than a mere passmg glance on them. 

Modern AoENi'8--rHE Hot Blast, the Steam Hammer, etc. 

Tt is mifortmiately by no means common for an inventor to li>^ Ui see his 
coJn^" rSb/his inventions and ^mself^ec^ted as ^- "--^or. 

"-i^^X^ rte^u^ ^Jot^o^a W:§£z 

IZfLiLVhichpKHluccd about 36,000 toM of pigiron «g»m.t 660,000 

Slr^ncv hasbeen more influential than any other m the matter. Mr. M^ J« 
agency Has Ofen moi ^ present in a remarkable hght 

ifTmest^S In 1831. when the hot blast was coming pretty extei^tve^y 
Tnto Tse £0 quantities wa-e iJ tons of coke, 8 tons of calcmed ore, and J ton 



.aiT'ii iviiiii'iiiiii ifiiiriiTfr-" 



MMMlBIWHtMlMriMiMIMMM 



lere are difficulties in 
' kind of iix>n «ro, liko 
iet most suited lor it 

ies of iron depend, not 
ut also on the ext«nial 
. writer in one of tl»e 
mself and otbera that 
Old London Bridge." 
1 down to make room 
lie piles were shod was 
itjon of the moist clay, 
uid a malleability which 
jr tons of it were bought 

xhibition, in connection 
r Vale district, beneatli 
atity. The Ebbw is a 
id Glamorgan counties ; 
in a large scale. The 
laracter of tlio counUy, 
s; and, being made to 
)rks beneatli, the shafts, 
lanying this, a model of 
irks. These two models, 
ron-ore deposited in the 
;tion to those who can 
n tliem. 

lm Hammek, etc. 

ventor to live to see his 
•eciated as Uie uiventor; 
In 1827, the year pi-e- 
tland had only eighteen 
pig-iron against 660,000 
een the progress in the 
30tland, ahnost inconceiv- 

market 240,000 tons of 
oust not be supposed to 
iie substitution of the hot 
>arly vmderatood that this 
the matter. Mr. Mushet 
nt in a remarkable light 

a century, consequent on 
Iduced are of the greater 
hment, and thereby afibrd 
}, just before the introduc- 
3sary for tlie production of 
of calcined ore, and J ton 
coming pretty extensively 
of calcined ore, and ^ ton 



mmmmmmm 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. ft 

of limestone : tlic air of the blast being heaUul U) a temperature of 400' or 
even 600" Fahr. In 1839, when tlie moUiod had become nioro fully esta- 
blished, and when tlie heat of blast was raised to the temperature of melting 
load, tlie quantities were if tons of coal, IJ tons of calcined ore, and i ton 
of limestone. It is thus seen how gieally tlie consumption of coal is les- 
sened by the use of Uie hot blast. What is the philosophy, the scientific 
rationale, of the hot blast, is still a subject of discussion and inquiry ; wo may 
give a homely illusti-ation bv supposing a common bellows to be supplied with 
hot air instead of cold, and Uie fire excited to a much higher degree of heat 
than if cold air hod been empk.yed; but if wo furtiier suppose Uiat the coal 
in the fire, and the coal which heated Uie air, ai-e together less in quantity 
than that wliich would produce Uie same eflect on Uie old meUiod of bellows- 
blowing, wo shall have an idea of Uie important (juestion which is engaging 
Uio attention of mauufacturei-s. o o o 

It would give an erroneous view of Uie subject, however, to attiibute to Uio 
hot blast the inti-odu. (i.,ii of vast extensions, wiUiout noticing oUier matters 

which facUitatcd those e.\ten8ion8 hi oUier ways. A few such must be hero 
noticed. 

It was towaids Uie close of the last centuiy Uiat Uio capital improvement 
was introduced of bringing malleable iron into Uie fomis of burs and rods 
by passing it between grooved rollers instead of simply hammeiing it on tho 
luiyil; but it is m Uie present century that the invention has worked out its 
sti-ikmg results. The inventor, however— like too many oUier inventoi-s— 
lacked a sufficient retmn for his mgenuity : he spent his fortune in tho enter- 
prise, and died poor. Mr. Cort inti-oduced and patented Uiis method in 
1784; and bis son petitioned Pariiament in 1812 to make some return for Uie 
vast national benefit which had by Uiat time accrued from Uie invention ; but 
it does not appear Uiat any fruits resulted from the application. 

AnoUier improvement— and one Uiat certainly must take rank among Uie 
Curiosities of Uie Iron Manufactm-c— was Uie inti-oduction of iron-shtting mills 
into tins counti-y. Until Uie mvention (just noticed) of roUers for making 
bai-s and rods, all bars above Uiree-quartei-s of an inch squaie were made by 
the tedious process of hammering at Uio anvil ; while sizes below Uiat hmit 
were produced by sUtting, which supei-seded a much less efficient process. 
Coleridge, in his ' Letters, Conversations, and Recollections,' gives the foUow- 
ing narrative:—" The most e-xti-aordmaiy and best attested mstance of enUiu- 
siasm existing in conjunction wiUi perseverance, is related of Uie founder of 
the Foley family. This man, who was a fiudler, living near Stourbridge, was 
often witness ol Uie immense labour and loss of time caused by dividmg the 
rods of iron necessary in Uie process of making nails. The discovery of Uie 
process caUed splitting, in works called splitting mills, was first made m 
Sweden ; and the consequences of this advance in art were most disastrous to 
Uie manufacturers of iron about Stourbridge. Foley, Uie fiddler, was shoitly 
missed from his accustomed round, and was not again seen for many years. 
He had mentally resolved to ascertaui by what means Uie process of splitting 
of bars of iron was accomplished ; and without communicating his mtention 
to a single human bemg, he proceeded to Hull, and Uience, wiUiout funds, 

J 1.^. ^, passage to Uie Swedish uon port. Arrived in Sweden, he begged 
and fiddled his way to Uie iron foundries, where, after a long time, he became 
a universal favomite wiUi Uie workmen ; and, fiom Uie apparent entire ab- 
sence of mtelhgence, or anyUiuig like ultmiate object, he was received into 
Uie works, to every port of which he had access. Ho took Uie advantage Uius 



t 



r 




I i 

* I 



Hi 



mow Am ITS manotacttbe. 

off^«d. «n.l having «tor«l hU m«n.oTy with «^-"f """ "" i^'jil^^.f r> 

r 'TaL l!^iU n,««lU to Mr. KniKht and .uiothor !>«-" "^.'^^"-^^^^^^^^^^^ 
hn«.l 'with whom ho was aHHOciatca. and by whoiu Uiv n.-i^enMirj '>""""'"" 
tl''or«?J tr; ^aohinory provided. When at h.gth -7^^^-^. ^ /- 
pared, it was louud U>at tiie niachnieiy would not act; at «» '"^^ ^* "'J y"; 
M«wor tho nolo .nd of its erection-it would not split the bar of iron. *o "y 
SildtJi n and it was concluded that nhaino and ""rtiflcation at h*- 
ftZTha^ driven him away for evor. Not so -. again, though "o^n^^^^^ ™°^ 
s3lv he found his way to the Swedish iiK)n works, where »'« ^"» ""'"J.'^f 
n?^S^ ov'ftdlv^id to mio more of tlieir fiddler, he was lodged m the spht- 
ZS itself Here wis the very end «.d aim of his life attemed bevond 
S^irhopc. ilo oxannncd^the works, and ve-T -n^-^^,^^^^^^^ 
cause of his failure. He now made drawmgs or rude fra^^. ""^ J^!;; 
abided an ample time to verify his observaUons und to impress "^'° ^'f^ 
^!tSyon\m nund. ho nfode his way to the P^''*-, ^tlTlnT.rrSrcff 
to En.'land. This time he was completely Huccessful. and » JjJ'^J'^"™ .*?. 
hisl^Senco enriched himself and greatly b«.cfited his «°';«^^^- Jj^ , 
(adds CJoleridgO " I hold to be tlia most extmordmaiy matanco of credible 

devotion in modem times." . , , ^ t ^^^^,. nf TJnamvth as 

It is no more Uian Just to name iho mighty stcam-hammei oJ^'^T^^ 
oneof STe m^s whereby the iron-manuf.uture has been lately advanced 
The iitiblTiXr with which this machine falls upon the gowmg masses 
if Trortakl fk,Ke furnaces greatly ex,,edites the process of m.u.ulacture 
OnTe ^ccaLion of the visit made to ^imingham by the Commissionen^^^^^^^^ 
Juries of the Great Exhibition, a steam-hammer, at Messrs. l-ox and Hender 
8o"s esUiEuu^t, was made to perform it, part among the wonders «l tho 
Iv ^u we may be pretty certain that tl.e contx«lling workman, the captain 
Jf'the haillmr^d n'ot Z to exhibit the -«t«™7 'l-'^rJ^^Shio 
of tliat uppai-atu*-tho delicate and genUe crackmg of a nut by a macnmo 
which could almost crush an elephant 

MODEHN EXPEIOMENTS, AND THEIR ReSI'I.TS. 

One of ttie noUble improvements introduced in recent years is a com^''"^ 
Uon of many Ms of irJn, to ensure the good qualities of each ; and aj^^^r 

orr«Sl it cives toughness and strength; while it antimony be added to tiie 
iZ ^i^e Sice. i*t unparts a st^ely'l.ardness ; so that quahties c«i ^ m- 
duced BuiUble to the different kmds of sei-vice which each part is to r^d^ 
- Sit is remarkable iliat these clianges ar« wiwght by ^^^^^^^^^ 
1 xmr cent or less of Uie additional metal. On the other hand, the auamon 
ifTor J per irt. of iion to brass has recently been found to produce a mo 
^aluab e SsSSto for bell-met>d. gun-metal, and «J«»>l"^»P°""i=;^^ 
Ruos, large screws, propeller vanes, mill brasses railway beann^, bd^s, and 
Ser Seles, oio now made of a metai ia which copper, zmc. tin, and iron 



1 



md on nil tho coml«in»r 
OH lu' li»«l ai)!)©*"-!!. no 
[uihI ho coinnnmioaliHl 
omon in tho n<fiKhhour- 
Jr! n.-ceH-iiirv' buJ!(li!i!J!« 
^h overylhing wrh pre- 
at ftll (jvente it di<l not 
the l«r of Iron. Foltiy 
ud mortiflcation ot Iuh 
though Romevrhiit more 
, where ho waa rccelvod 
was lixlpctl in the split- 
lig lift! attainod bevond 
iry soon diacovorod Uio 
ie tracings ; and havhi^,' 
o improHS them clearly 
and once more returned 
il, and by tho rfiSidts trf 
hiB cotintrymen. This" 
ary instance of credible 

hammer of Nnsmyth as 
s been lately advanced, 
ipon the gUjwinK masscH 
))roco88 of miuiufacture. 
the Commissioners and 
flessrs. Fox and Hender- 
nong the wonders of the 
fig workman, the captain 
" magiciuc mystiiriouHe " 
of a nut by a machine 



Resi'i.ts. 

eccnt years is a combinft- 
lies of each ; and anoUier 

It is supposed tliot the 
J delicate ornaments are 
ali^e arsenic. Manga- 

Calaraino (caibtmate of 
certain kinds it produces 
L into the iron of a wheel 
mtimony be added to tlie 
tliat qiialities can be in- 
1 eacli part is to render. 
;ht by so small a ratio as 
'other hand, the addition 
1 found to produce a most 
dmilar compounds; large 
ilway bearings, bells, and 
ippcr, sane, tin, and iron 



IKOM AND ITd MAMUKACTVUK. f 

idl tidcn part ; the pn>portionK ore varied according as toughness, hnrdnesH, 
.soiiomus power, or HUMCoptil)ility of receiving a polish, are ruipiircd ; hut tho 
conibiuwi choaitness and ellioiency of the new alloys am now becoming vei-y 
iippareiit. Thero are sevural IniHs In Uie E.xbibilion of tiiiu tone, nia«le of im 
imn-iUloyud metal, whiuli is only half tlie prico of bell -metal. Ilotumiiig to 
iron niaiiuluctuixtH, pro|>erly so called, it is fomid that Uussian HJKOt iron 
(ubundaiU spe<;imeus of which are to be seen in tlie Exhibition) is said to bo 
superior m qiudity to must pro<iuoed in England ; a pticuliar iibrous in>n in 
itxpiired; tmd thiti hbivus iptality is given to tho Uussian iron [an is suppowMi) 
by the prenenee of a liltlo plioH()honis and a littlu silica in the oiv, luid by the 
ucquisitiou of a littlu ciu-bon ti-oni tho wood-fuel used in smelting. Huch are 
tliu discuv'eries which cliemistry is gradually enabling us to niaki; : when wo 
know ttio causes uf iltiloronco, wu may perrJianou make tliuso ditferenoes dis- 
appeal' at pleasure. 

All the world knows tliat improvements in manufiictiu'e toad to eoonomiim 
material. What a capital result it will bo, if future e.xpcrimentH shoubl esta- 
blish tho soundness of a principle which was brought before tlio Hritish Asso- 
ciation in 1 »■')<>, coiuieuted witli iron furnaces I When iron is sinelteil in one 
of the huge blast funuices of Houth Wales, four tons weight of gaseous pro- 
ducts are sent utf into the air fur every ton of iron smelted ; and tliese gases 
ciuiy witli them lui inunonst; amount of heat Cannot they be roblied of 
some of this heat, and tlie heat be applied to useful puiposes? Hut'li is the 
({uestioM now at issue ; and Mr. Budd, of Uie Ystalyfera Iron Works, answers 
it in the aftimiativc. He does not allow tlio lieated gas«;s and smoke to escape 
inime<liately at tlie top of tlie fumaeo ; but ho imprisons them in a series of 
Hues, where tliey wa mode to heat the air for the hot blast, and to produce 
tlio st4!ani which is to impel tliis hot blast into the himace ; and when these 
services are rendered, he finally lilKtrates the partially cooleil gases. At Dun- 
dyvan Works, in Scotland, owing to the enormous quantity of gases which 
the Hootch coal gives otf, we are told that tlie waste heat from one furnace is 
actually sufUoient to heat the blast, and tu raise tho steam for throe. Mr. 
Bud<l even tliinka that tlie wanto heat of one Hcotoh furnace is sutfioient not 
only to heat and sujiply the bliust for that furnace, but to convert the pig-iron 
into biM'-iron in other furnaces ; and he seems to ontei-toin no doubt that the 
ingenuity of our northern nei^j^ibours will point oat the vray to reolir^ tlieso 
advantage. He states tiiat, even now, upwards of a ton of coals is saved in 
smelting a ton of iron at Dundyvan, by making the heat of the furnace do 
more work before being permitted to take its aerial Hight; but tliia is so enor- 
mous an amount, that it seems to i-equlre veritication. Mr. Budd may yet, 
however, live to see his prediction v( rified, that "i\imaoe heat will be let out, 
like mill-power, for bimiing bricks and other slmilai- purposes." 

In these days when tlic famed Koh-i^oor is undergoing oritioism alike iVom 
all quarters, iroitt the duke to the dustman, and when Spanish jewels and 
Russian jewels, Indian jewels atxl Tunisian jewels, are being giwed at by mil- 
lions of persons, it may bo interesting to bear in mind ^at the diamond ha.s 
on some oooasions been use<l to convert iron into steel. A somewhat stortluig 
and costly experiment this I One of the points of dilfefence between steel 
and bar-iron is, ftat the former oontains more carbon thMi the latter; and ta 
tho diamond odnsists of absolutely pure carbon (so fhr as experiments have 
hitlierti> determined) it has been thought worth while to try whether Iron can 
be imbuetl with tlie requisite dose of corlron from this soui-ce. In the infknt 
stage of th« first FrMioh revolution, when considerable activity was displayed 



||!rrfriri»w-i»:--"iaKs<^'3s?vr7 



Jtm 



I tUON A»m ITH MANITfAnrtrRK. 

nmong Uio Mciontlfic men of that oonntry. M. CU>n«t oommnniontflil to tJio 
National InHtitiiUi tlio roHuH of lui pxporiment hi» nuuU in thin ilircction ; iiml 
»horily afUirwanlH (Inyton Morvwau repeate<i tho cxpwimnnt. A wnall «liu- 
mond y/m waectad, and we(l«e«l with iron filingH into an iron muiblo of deli 
nit« weight, the ratio between tlic w«ight "f the dinniond and that of the iron 
ha-ing be<'n previoiwly d«tormine<l on; tho iron cnicibhi wan placed in ii 
Heeond cni<ihlo of HeH«iun earth; this into a third enicible of tlie Hanie Huh- 
Htance (with a layer of siliri'ouH sand between the two); and thi» into a highly 
heated furnace. After an hour'H heating, tlie diamond and the iron were 
found to have diHappearod, anil a globule of Hteel to have been formed from 
tJiem, the weight of which wanted only a few graiuH of that of tlie ingredient>t 
conjointly. Much controversy arose from tliis diamond oxperimcnt ; but Um 
costlinoBH of tlie precious gem deteri-ed all but two or thn^e persons from 
rep«mting it. Mr. Mu8h«it was one who tflok up the subject eagerly ; and he 
mentions tl>e names of ladies who, taking an interest in tlie issue of the expc 
riment, tmnsferred some diamonds from their jewel caskets to the enicible, or 
at least placed tiiem in his hands for this purpose. To imagine the Koh-i-noor 
transfonned into one component material for a knife, a saw, or a fde, might 
seem a very woeful imagining — a sort of descent from the sublime to tho 
ridiculous ; but it wouUl, in fact, elucidote in a signilioaiU way Uie diflorenco 
between cummercial value and chemical value. 

RKCEirr Applications of Iron in thb Abts. 

It is in the application of iron to new purposes, or in the extension of it« 
use in others, tliat the progress of the la.st half-century has been most 
marked, and presents the greater number of curious features. 

The Birmingham and Hardware departments of tlie Groat Exhibition arc 
truly remarkable manifestations of the extent to which tho manufacture ot 
iron and steel is now carried. There is a very world of grates and stoves, 
dazzlingly bright, displaying their painted china tablets, their ormolu decoror 
tions, their encaustic tiles, their foliage and flowers of burnished st^el, their 
Moresque and diapered patterns, their small busts and statuettes, and Uieir 
delicate white marble. There is tlie unrivalled cutlery of Sheffield, which 
some tovms in our own countnr, and some countries abroad, are attempting to 
imitate, but nowhere wiUi fiUl success; the knives, the razors, the scissors, 
the weapons, the tools, the needles, tlie saws, the files— these are the commo- 
dities which, not only in Messrs. Rodgers's Sheffield trophy in the English 
nave (with its half-grain of steel wrought into twelve pairs of scissors), but in 
the larger and more diversified Sheffield compartment, exemplify tho remark- 
able degree of skill now attained in this department of industry. But if 
Sheffield attracts us by the brilliancy and excellence of her steel goods, Bir- 
mingham teUs a still more extraordinary talc concerning the diversity which 
marks her manufactures in metal. Taking no account (because they do not 
belong to the subject of this paper) of the varied Birmingham i)ioducts in 
copper, zinc, brass, pewter, lead, tin, gold, silver, and other metals, how end- 
less are the forms into which Uie industry of that town has brought uron and 
Bteel! Bedsteads, chain-work, trays, fire fiumiture and stoves, safes, swords, 
fire-arms, saucepans, kettles, locks, keys, saddlers' ironmongery, needles, fish- 
books, pens, nails, screws— it is quite in vain to attempt anyUiiug like an enu- 
meration. One of the exhibitors has shown how effective is now the process 
of rolling iron intp v^ry thin leftv^s pr sheets ; he has produced a book, con- 



M«riMlkt 



MMMka 



•Jb 



; flommnniratfld to Uifl 
I in tliin direction ; luxl 
'riinont. A small diu- 
in iron cniriMo of «l«'ti 
lul an«l that of the iron 
iciblo wftM iilttPftd in ii 
icihln of thi) Hnme Hub- 
; and thiti into a hiKhly 
nd and tho iron wnni 
lavo V)een fonned from 
' that of Uie ingredi«»iit« 
id oxparimcnt; bnt tin) 
or thmo persons from 
ubjcc't ofiRorly ; and Im 
n Uj« iwHun of the ex|«'- 
wket* to thn crucible, or 
I imapftno the Koh-i-noor 
1, u Haw, or a fde, miRht 
om the Hnblimo to thct 
licant way the ditfurenco 



E Ahtb. 

in the cxtonHion of itH 
ontury htm been moHt 
uaUires. 

ho Great Exliibition are 
ich tlio manufacture of 
Id of grates and stoveu, 
Lb, their ormolu decoror 
if burnished steel, theu- 
and statiicttcH, and their 
tleiy of Sheffield, which 
ibi-oad, are attempting to 
tlie raz-ors, the sciBsotH, 
J — these are tho commo- 
[1 trophy in the English 
paijs of scissors), but in 
It, exemplify tho remark- 
nt of industry. But if 
of hor steel goods, Bir- 
Tiing the diversity which 
mt (because they do not 
Sirmingham i)roducts in 
i other metals, how end- 
im has brought iron and 
nd stoves, s^es, swords, 
mmongeiy, needles, fish- 
npt anytliiug like an enu- 
3ctive is now the process 
IS pi-oduced a book, con- 



iBON AWT) rra MANrrArirnr.. »f 

Hinting of forty-four leaves, or eighty-eight pftg»w, of shoot iron, measuring about 
live itichoH by Uiro«\ and so thin tliat the whole woiglis only two and a Imlf 
ounces. Home of these protluctioim belong especially to Binningham ; some 
find tlieir hoad quart^'ni rather at Wolvorhampton. VValsall, Dudley, or otliei's 
of the remarkable group of Uiwns lying north and west of the " toy shop of 
Europe." If wo sjieak of lock:i and keys and safes, a very world of coinpluta- 
tion lies before us. Though Hoiith Htaffordshire protiucos more locks, perhaps, 
tlian all the r««t of tlie kingdom together, it is impossible to forget the names 
of (Jhubb and Bnunali and Monlan. with their Kohinwr cagris, their iiiyiio- 
permutation keys, their unponotrable locks, and tlieir incombustiblu safes. 
Home of the lotiks and safes lue really curious specimens of careful workman- 
ship. There is the qtuulrnple Im-k, consisting of four distinct locks in one. 
all acted upon at the same time bv a single key wiUi four bits. Thero lu-e 
locks which show llm principle of all the " (letoctors" patented by Mr. (Jhubb 
during tlio last half-contury. Not tlie least interesting is a collection of lock- * 
makers' tools, and mmlels of tlie principal ap]>aratiis used by those artilicers. 
Nor is it right to forgot the challenge of tho United Stales' locksmitli, who 
offers us a store of gold if wo can open the casket which contains it. Nay — 
almost while the pnisciit page is being written — this samo loiiksmifh has 
stiu-tled his British compeers by picking a lock which they deemed notrto-be 
picked. It would, indeed, be one of the " Curiosities " of the Groat Exhibition, 
to lead to tlie development of a now |)ick-lock theory ! 

But tliose details, which relate to clover mechanical working in producing 
the countless iinplenionts of iron at tlie present day, scarcely come within tlio 
scope of tliifl paper. It is tlie cnpninlity of being so applied, and tlic oxt^tnsion 
of that capability, that we wish htnts to draw attention to. 

Tho substitution of wrought ii-on for cast iron in bridges is one of the most 
notable changes introduced within the last few years. This change, though 
not originated, was gi'oatly mlvanced by tlio experiments relating to tho 
Britarmia Tubular Bridge. Those experiments showed that a H(piare fonn of 
tube is stronger thtm a circular or an elliptical form, conti-ary to what many 
persons would have supposed; and they also proved, tliat if the top weic 
con-ugated, or else formed of a number of minor tubes, tlio strength would h.i 
greatly increased. This discovery at once suggested u motlitied form of 
tubulm* girder adapted to shorter spans ; and we now find such girdtsr-bridgos 
being formed all over England. Mr. Eau-baim, tlie talented engineer, tf> 
whose experiments this advancement is mainly due, says in one of his 
scientific papers, — "The strengtli, ductility, and comparative lightness of the 
material are the important elements of these girdera; and their elasticity, 
retention of form, and other properties, render them infinitely more secure 
tlian those composed of cast iron, which, from tho brittle nature of tlic 
material, and imperfections in the castings, are liable to break without notice, 
and to which the wrought-iron girder is not subject. This is, however, pro- 
bably of less importance, as the wrought-iron girder will be found not only 
cheaper, but (when well constructed, and upon the right principle,) upwards 
of three times the strengtli of cast iron." I'he reader will easily recognise 
these wrou^t-iron bridges when they meet his view; they are composed 
chiefly of plates of iron rivetted to each other, and to thicker pieces of what 
(from their sh^e) are called T and L iron. 

Of the mighty structure just named, the Britannia Tubular Bridge over tho 
Menai Stinut, it presents itself fortli to the world as one of the grandest 
examples of the use of iron. Unlike tlio principle of Soutliwark Bridge, in 

3 



^ 



JL. 



40 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTOEK. 






which cast-iron arches press upon abutments— unlike Tetfords Menai Bnd^e, 
in which wrought-iron chains support tlie roadway by suspension-this 
tubular bridtre ^ formed ahnost entirely of riveted iron plates, strengthened 
St and L irons; it bears its own weight and the weight of the trams 
vliich pa«8 upon or through it, by tlie tmstwortliiness of its uon plates and 
riveto There it hangs, suspended in mid-au< at a height ot a hundred feet 
above the water, supported at certain points on lofty towers, but presenting an 
unsuDOorted length of nearly 600 feet from tower to tower, ai\d compmmg in 
SrKTnot Sich less th^an 1500 tons of iron! The plannmg and exeou- 
tion of Zh a work would appear te-riWy daring, we« we not ™«^« fe™J>^^ 
with the experiments and the processes of reasomng whereon the scheme relies. 
The labouTof Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson and Mr. Faurbairn seem veiy dry Mid 
uninteresting to non-professionai persons; the sto-ength ot materials, the 
SSilf i«ti, the toughness of tubes, the elasticity of plates, ihe adhosion 
S"riv° L--«U sound ver? mechanical and cmmon-place; yet it w to researches 
on these and kindred subjects that we owe, not perhaps the «mple con«9p- 
lion of the tubular bridge, but that tiusty rehanco which rendered its reahaa- 

^'Tron'Siotwa take rank among the novelUes to which this invaluable 
metal is now applied. Most readers have some amomit of acqoamtance with 
Se gld stSLres at Eddystone, Bell Rock, and Skei-ryvore ; and wiU 
raadifymidei-stand how valuable it would be if such work»--or wther works 
to ^Iswer the same object-^ould be carried to f ^«^««tined spot piec^me^ 
but nearly in a finished state, and reqmro only to be put tog^er. S«ch is 
one ofthe many favourable features of the modem iron hghthouses. We 
beSefe irwaTS^tl Brown, the engineer of the Brighton Chain Pier, who 
first made a formal proposition to this effect, in respect to a lighthouse on 
S^ WotfR^k near Laids End; but the fiwt actually made was for Jam^ca, 
in 1842; it consisted diiefly of thick castriron plat<« meted t«g«^«f> J^ few 
others have since been bkt; and there seems reason to J'e^'^Jt *^*^^« 
greTsuccess attending the use of wrought-iron sheete m the J|b^« ««d 
SWer bridges, wlU leal to the substitution of this matenal for cast-iron plates 
ffihSS The kon lighthouse made by Messrs. Fox and Henderson 
Sr X E^andia Company, ?n 1850. and which is 70 feet high, is ^clpaUy 
fomed of cast-iron places; but the UghthouSe made ^y Mes»J*- W^^ ^^^ 
the piesent year for the American Government, and hitondetl for Florida, 
consists chiefly of corrugated wrought-iron sheete. ^„*.,i»^ i,;-i, 

Not the lei^t curious among tHe iron novelties ''"ch out rttttiin|, hi^i- 
oressure ace has produced, are the inm htum for OallfomiA. Bnck and 
mortar are^too slow for tile gold^diggew. who canno* -spare time for such 
dSerTM building; they a^ off to tiie "diggings" bylmsof tiiousaftds, 
SSS Aeir dweutgs .^d warehouses to come to them «. oe»rfy re«dy- 
madrrpossiblo. Let us describe one of ttie many iron houses shipped at 
LhJnX)! for St. Fwncisco. It is 90 feel long, 10 wide, imd § W^ to the 
J^STf the a«.hed roof. It is divid^inl«mally into two ^^':r^^\^^, 
two doors and two windows; and tii^rO are v«itilatlng hol^w^til sWiM 
shutters. The walls and roof are of tiiin iwo plates, bolted to T fihaped ^r- 
pendiculars; Mid tiiere is provision for festenteg a wooden Imhig cm the 
interior. The doors are sheets of iron fixed in wrought.m)n Mmes; and tiie 
shutters to the windows are simUariy fi-amed. There is an iron stove In ea«h 
room, fitted both for wurnitti and for cooking. Now the ^e^t^tf ^^Jjy 
of such a house is. tiiat it may be Seftt out m pieces, and bolted togfetiier 



'elford's Meniu Bridge, 
by suspension — this 
m plates, strengthened 
3 weight of the trains 
of ite iron platas and 
Ight of a hundred feet 
mm, but pre«enting an 
vifsr, oixd comprising in 
le planning and exeou- 
I wo not madd famUiav 
jreon the scheme relies, 
aim seem very dry and 
ngth of materials, the 
of plates, the adhasion 
j; yet it is to researches 
laps the simple concep- 
ioh rendered its realim- 

I which this invaluable 
ut of aequaintance with 
I Skerry vore; and will 
work*— or rather works 
estined spot piece-meal, 
put together. Such is 
n iron lighthouses. We 
ighton Chain Pier, who 
pect to a Ughthottfi* on 
y made was for Jamaica, 
riveted togeUiWf. A few 
ison to believe that the 
aets in the tubular and 
.terial for cast-iron platm 
ers. Fox and Henderson 
) feet high, is principally 
e by MessM. Wriker iti 
id intendetl for Florida, 

rhlch our ratttioff, hl^- 
04lifomiA. Brick and 
10(1 eipare time for such 
8" b^ tens of thousMids, 
(liem B6 nearly wiady- 
' irwi houses shipped at 
wide, find % high to the 
JO two rooms, which have 
latlng holes with swivel 
, bolted to T shaped per- 
i wooden linlttg on the 
ght-iron frames; and the 
B is an iron stove in each 
r the greatest peculiarity 
ices, and bolted together 



IRON AKI> ITS MAKUFACTDRE. 

with great expedition. Such a one as is here described weigns about 2^ tons, 
and costs JEeo to £70; and three or four men can put it up and bring it into 
habitable order in as many days; for every piece is marked, every boltrholo 
made, and every bolt and nut provided. In a less ambitious fonn, outliouses, 
stables, piggeries, and sheds aie made in the same way. Warehouses of con- 
siderable dimensions are similarly manufactured. Perhaps one of the largest 
iron houses yet built was one which Messrs. BelUiouse, of the Eagle Foimdry 
at Manchester, sent to California a year or two ago. It was 27 feet high by M 
wide, two stories in height, and containing eight rooms. Pjsides the general 
structural arrangement, there was a wood lining for eveiy room, and a corru- 
gated galvanized iron covering for the exterior. The interior fittings wo.ro 
said to be equal to the avei-age of houses of the same size in Frngland, and yet 
to be so formed as to bo tmnsportable in pieces to tlieir destination. 

We must not foi^et that, if uon has become a substitiute for stone and 
brick in some particulars, it also presents a formidable rivalry in others to 
hemp. Chains for cables, and wires for ropes, are extending most widely in 
use; they render navigation, mming, and other important avocations, less 
dangerous and more eflTective than heretofore. 

One of the most notable advancements in tlie iron manufacture in recent 
years has been the introduction of galvanixed tinned iron for on almost in- 
numerable variety of pui-poses. This consista of iron plate coated with tin, 
not by the ordinary tin-plate process, but by galvanic deposition. It seiTes as 
a substitute for plain iron, for tin-plate, for zinc, and for lead, under certain 
special circumstances. It is stronger and more durable, for many purposes, 
than load or zinc; it is better than plain iron where rust is to bo avoided; it 
is superior to lead and zinc in warm climates, inasmuch as it does not expand 
and contiBct to so great a degree; and it is said that tlie New York Firo 
Insurance Offices will insure houses at a lower premium if covered with this 
material than wiUi any other. Withinside a house and without, in vessels 
and in utensils, in towns and in the countiy, in mMiufactures and in domestic 
economy, we now find this substance employed. Here wo meet witli gal- 
vanized tinned-iron corrugated plates for roofing, and for the sides and doors 
of " California houses ;" in another form there aie plain plates for the same 
purpose; roofs for sheds, roofe and sides for storehouses, and many similar 
purposes. The roof of the Merchants' Exchange at New York, and that of 
Ae new Cathedi«l at Antigna, have lately been formed of the sMne material, 
besides roofs of many buildings in this country. Then, besides tiie sheet 
form, there are roimd and square bars, hoop-iron, wire, tubes and pipes, nails, 
rivets, bolts, screws — all formed of iron thus protected by the galvano-tin 
process. There is this advantage also, which is unattainable by the ordinary 
tin-plate process, ^at avticles can be tinned after they are made hi the prc^r 
form of iron, provided tliey arc of small dimensions. We ought to have stated 
above, that the plates are really a combination of three metals; for in the first 
" " " . • . • . ... i^jjj ^ solution of 

rinc is obtained 
„ , dipping the sheets into molten *inc. TTie iouvie-boards, or rather louvre- 

Slates, which regulate tiie ventSlatiott of the Great Industrial building, are 
jrmed of the material now under notice. 
That many of our novelties and attractions in iron result ft*om improved 
and improving taste is now pretty evident. The schools of design have not 
been unfruitful in good results. It is generally admitted, by those who were 
in a position to form a judgment, that the French Exposition of 1844 exei^ 







MHM 



i 



m 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTtmE. 



cised a ixmerful influence on the iron-founders of this countiy. Wliatevcr 
may be STvalue, in a commercial point of view, of the protecUon which U^e 
French Government Uirows around home manufactures, the beauty ot the 
ornamental iron castings displayed at tliat Exposition was universally aclaiow- 
Sed Enchsh manufacturers felt that their position was rendered cntical , 
and%ince thSt time a marked hnprovement has been witnessed m one depart 
ment of manufacture which appeals m a peculiar way to Enghsh habite . we 
Xde to stoves, grates, iir^plilces. and fire furniture. It is unquesUonable 
SLgl^d h^^recently m^ade a gi^at advance in the ornamental detaJs ot 
Sese productions. The Coalbmok Dale Company's dome, or «"mmer-hous«; 
or whatever it may most fittingly be designated, m the nave of the Great 
Exhibition, is uerhaps the most remarkable specimen of casUng «onti-ibuted by 
^English fim. The dome itaelf. supported by six rustaclookmg columns 
from which oak branches and leaves spread out beneath ttie dome, exlubits a 
5 C^ oi skiU in casting, independent of such merit as it may possess 
as an fistic design. But we may here ask, as has been asked by o^«^. 
"why should this Sistmg be bronzedl" Many cmakers say tliat we are hvmg 
in S age of shams; it may be so; but at any rate it is wordi ^hde to 
avoid shams as far as we can. Papier mache w good, and iron is good ; but 
when the first puts on the semblance of sohdity which belongs to wood 
and the latter the tints which belong to bronze, there is a sort of trickery with 
which the mmd is not quite satisfied-an utt^nng of (not b^ com) but com 
which is needlessly ashamed to show its own honest face. Why is not a goo 
iron casting beautifiil in an unadorned, unbronzed state ? AusUia, Berlin, and 
France, have all sent us castings in which the u:on integrity of smface (sQ to 
speak) is fillly preserved. Our founders can now. if they give faur p ay to then 
oVm skiU. produce fine castings either of iron or of bronze; but they surely 
undervalue then- art when they give a bronze cosmetic to ti:ue uon. 

Iron Wobk of the CafSTAL Palace. 

The Cntital Palace does not come formally within Uie scope of this paper; 
yet it^ ^possible not to see how strikmgly tiiat structm-e »U«8ti«tes tiie 
Sid advancE m the use of iron. The Royal Commissioners m March, 1860. 
ZtedXgestions and plans for an Exhibition building from ^/.quarters ; 
^d^L foUowing month no fewer than 233 desigis ^-^^ ^"l* "J; ^^g^J" 
Ittid France. Belgium. Holbmd. Hanover, Prussia, HMnburgh, Switzerland, 
SerTcom^ted! But all wer« equally laid aside "Every possibte 
variety in style, iTdecoration, material in constiruction. and system m an-anae- 
S?were st^nuou.sly recommended by the authors of tie respective de- 
?^ZZ ^r«ltim'atimi sought for;^ and yet the Buildmg Com^jJ*^ 
"Sved at the unanunous conclusion that, able and admirable «« ma"y f 
these designs appeared to be. there was yet no single one so a«co"J««t w^« 
SrnecuUar ob& in view, either in the prmciple or detajl of ite arrange- 
mente!^ to wirrant us in recommending it for adoption." T^o of the most 
™^kable phms sent m were by M. Horeau, of V^, and Messrs. Tumm-. 
of Dublm.-both iUustrative m a marked degree of the proppsed use of iron. 
M nSeau's plan comprised one immense hall or shed. 2000 feet long by about 
floS,ynl several small detached buUdmgs. The mtenor was divided 
into five avenues by iron columns, which supported arclied ribs foi- th« i;oof 
The whole construction was to be free of stone and wood; the foundation of 
brick, the favade of metal and glass. Uie floor of asphalte. tlie roof chiefly of 





a countiy. Whatever 
) protection which the 
es, the beauty of the 
as universally acknow- 
was rendered critical ; 
itnessed in one depart- 
to EngUsh habits : we 
It is imquestionable 
B ornamental details of 
ime, or summer-house, 
the nave of the Great 
casting contributed by 
rustic-looking columns, 
th the dome, exliibits a 
lorit as it may possess 
been asked by others, 
i say tliat we are living 
1 it is wortli while to 
and iron is good ; but 
lich belongs to wood, 
I a sort of trickery with 
not base coin) but coin 
ce. Why is not a good 
s ? Austria, Berlin, and 
tegrity of smface (sq to 
ey give fair play to their 
t)ronze ; but they surely 
to true iron. 

ACE. 

the scope of this paper; 
structure illustrates the 
sioners, in March, 1860, 
ilding from all quarters ; 
gns were sent in. Eng- 
Hambui-gh, Switzerland, 
tside. "Eveiy possible 
I, and system in an-ange- 
rs of the respective de- 
lie Building Committee 
I admirable as many of 
le one so accordant with 
or detail of its arrange- 
ion." Two of the most 
ris, and Messrs. Turnei-, 
he proposed use of iron. 
1, 2000 feet long by about 
rhe Ulterior was divided 
irched ribs for the roof, 
wood ; the foundation of 
lalte, tlie roof chiefly of 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



13 



thick glass; and the whole was to be so formed of repetitions of similar 
Dflrts Uiat it could readily be increased or diminished in length. Messrs. 
CerTproposed building was about 2000 feet long by 400 wide ; the root in 
on^pa^ nsi^ about 120 feet above the floor; the interior t« be fonned into 
three avenues by pillars and semicirculai- ribs; the general construction ot 
the buUding to be chiefly in wrought-iron plates ; a large amount of glass to 
be introduced in the iron roof; and a glass dome to surmount tlie crossmg ot 

the nave and ti-ansept , ■, ^, t> -u- ^ n ^ 

Yet, as we have said, all the plans were rejected; and the Bmldmg Com- 
mittee concocted one of their own, derived from the hints suggested by tho 
others They endeavoured to combine the following qualities in their buud- 
ing— economy of construction; facihties for the reception, classification, and 
display of goods; facilities for the circulation of visitors; arrangement for 
crand points of view; centraUzation of supervision; and some stnkuig fea- 
ture to exemplity the present state of the science of construction in this 
country The sti-ucture was to be supported on iron columns, with a very 
light exterior, and an iron roof; and at Uie centre was to be a dome of sheet 
iron 200 feet in diameter. The Committee explained fiiUy the advantages 
which seemed to them to attach to such a builduig; but tiie public received 
the plan with very genei-al disfavour ; and it will ever remain a curious specu- 
lation what could or would have been done if Mr. PaxtonV happy idea had 

not suggested itself. . , ,, ti u ^v^ 

On ti^e occasion of the well-earned comphment paid to Mr. Fox by a pubhc 
dinner from his townsmen at Derby, he gave some exceedmgly stoking UIus- 
trations of the difficulties and daring of the project so successfuUy carried 
tiiroueh On June 22, 1850, Mr. Paxton communicated his remarkable 
plan to Mr Fox. On June 28, whUe tiie Royal Commissioners were m 
perplexity concemmg the numerous but unpromising bmldmg-plans which 
were before Uiem, Mr. Fox went to Birmingham, to put m hand tiie drawings 
and specifications upon which his tender would be based. On July 2 Mr. 
Cole (one of tiie Executive Committee) visited Bumingham, witii a view oi 
offering any suggestion which might smootii tiie patii for tins novel project; 
and ak)ut Uie^e time tiie addition of tiie transept (not mcluded m Mr. 
Paxton'B original plan) was suggested by Mr. Hendei-son, and approved by 
Mr Paxton. The arched form of tiie ti^sept roof was, we beheve, an after- 
fhoiiffht by Mr. Fox himself. Mr. Fox states tiiat just before his tender was 
sent in he " walked out one evening mto Portiand Place ; and tiiere setting 
off the 1850 feet upon tiie pavement, found it tiie same lengfli withm a lew 
yards: and tiien, consideruig tiiat tiie buildmg would be tiiree times tiie 
widtii of that fine 8ti«et, and tiie nave as high as tiie houses on eitiier side, 1 
had presented to my mind a pretty good idea of what we were about to under- 
take] and J confess tiiat I considered tiie difficulties to be smroounted m 
constructing tiiai, great palace were of no ordinaiy kind ; but feelmg confident 
tiiat witii great energy, good arrangements, and a hearty co-operation on ttie 
part of our extorsive and well-disciplined staff, it might be accomplished, and 
^upon it depended in all probability tiie success of tiie Exhibition we 
deterrained to undertake tiie responaibiUty ; and tiie opening on tiie Ist May 
has proved tiie correctoiess of our conclusions." The tender was sent in on 
tiie lOtii of July; tiie ai-ched roof of tiie tiransept, as an atlditional teature, 
was suggested to tiie Coramissionei-s on ti>.e 15tii; and tiie tender w^ ac- 
cepted on tiie 26tii, subject to tiie contincency of the Commissioners obtain- 
ing a royal charter. It affords a proof of tiie abidmg rehance which aU tiie 



I 



MM 



f 



14 IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 

parties felt in tho soundness of the gi*eat scheme, that not only did Messrs. 
Fox and Henderson undertake tho contract before the Commissioners were in 
a position to give legal cei-tainty to it, but they actually incurred liabilitieB to 
ttjo extent of 50,000?. under the same uncertainty; the tender- was accepted 
on July a8, but many months elapsed before the CommiHsioners obtained 
their charter, without which tlie contract was not a legally binding one. 

The tender having been accepted, the planning of all ttie minor details, and 
tho propuratiou of tho working diawuigs, became tlie next stage in the arduotis 
undertaking. " The drawings occupied me," says Mr. Fox, " about eight«en 
hours each day for seven weeks ; and aa they came ft-om my hand, Mr. 
Henderson immediately prepared the iron work and other materials required 
in tlie construction of the building." As the girders and trusses were made, 
they were subjected to a tost four times gi-eater than their sti'ength would over 
have to beai- in practice, so as to dissipate aU anxiety on this point. On the 
aeth of September tlie first iron column was fixed in its place. " From this 
lime," Mr. Fox adds, " I took the general management of the building under 
my charge, and spent all my time upon the works, feeling that, imlesa the 
same person who had made the drawings was also present to assign to each 
part, as it arrivcid upon the groimd, its proper position in the structure, it 
would be impossible to finish ttie building in time to ensure tlie opening on 
ihe Ist of May." The contractors speedily got tile operation into such Roo<l 
ti-ain, tliat they were able each day to fix as much iron work as would be 
required for the roofs of the Derby station, one of the largest railway stations 
in the kingdom. 

The iron-work of this building, this curiosity of Indwstiy and daring 
enterprise — this "huge mass of transparency," as it has been designated — 
may be briefly described in the following words. 

The building, as almost every one is now aware, i» about 1851 fedt long by 
408 wide. There is, besides tiiis, m additional projecting portion on tiic 
nortii side, 936 feet long by 48 wide. Very near the centre of the length, at 
a point determined by tii»^ presence of certain las^e trees, tiie bnilding is 
crossed by a vaulted ti-ansept, 408 feet long, 79 wide, m\A 108 high ; and other 
trees in various parts of the area have determined the formation of five open 
courts. The total area of the building is about six tittles that of St. Paul's 
Cathedral! 

It is a notable feature in the buUdinjg, that 24 feet is a nnit of horiaontal 
measurement tt:i\.iighout every pait. AU the various avenues which leaxl east 
and west through tlie structure aj-e 84, 48, or 78 feet in width ; the tran9q)t is 
T2 feet wide; the galleries ai?e 94 feet wide; tiie reflwshment courts «re 48 
feet wide ; the various " comts" which form such admirable exhibition Wioms, 
such as the Medisevd, the Carriage, tiie Sheffield, th6 Binnhtgham, flie 
Timlsian Courts, &c., are 48 feet wide; the extemal paartitionmg presents 
8-feet compartments ; the elegant iron railing which sunoimds the bnilding 
has its stimdards or posts 8 feet ojjart; the ridge-and-furrow roof hna tile ridges 
8 feet apart All ttiese numbers are either multiples or sub-multiples of 24 ; 
and it has been found that the calculations necessary in a^usting the materials 
have been greatiy feciUtated by this simplicity of ratio. This sjTnmetiy is ob- 
tjdned by placbig all the hollow iron columns which form the skeleton of the 
building at distances of 24 feet f^art, except in those places where the widei- 
avenues or com-ts require a space of 48 or 73 feet. For the most part, the 
building is seen to be divided into bays or compartments, exactiy 24 feet 
square. 



MMMk 




' .'iMft' <;»jfg*^iWi 



fit not only did Messrs. 

CommissionerB were in 
ly incurred liabilitieM to 
he tender was accepted 
jommiHsioners obtained 
;ally binding one. 
11 ^e minor detailo, and 
text stage in the ardnouH 
r. Fox, " about eighteen 
lie ft'om my hand, Mr. 
other materials require*! 
and trusses were made, 
heir strength would ever 
f on this point. On the 

its place. " From this 
it of the building under 

feeling that, unlesa the 
esent to assign to each 
ition in the etructure, it 

ensure tlie opening on 
peration into such gowl 
iron worii as would be 
9 largest railway Btatious 

of industry and daring 
k has been designated — 

about 1851 fecit long by 
rojtMiting portion on the 

centre of the length, at 
Ite trees, die bnilduJg is 
and 108 high; and other 
le formation of five open 
» thtiea that of St. Paul's 

et is a unit of horissontal 
avenu«i3 which lea«l east 
in width i the titm9€5>t is 
ifreshment courts «»« 48 
nimble exhibition itKrnis, 
1, ih^ Bii-mhigham, the 
iil partitioning presents 
1 surrounds the mtilding 
(urrow roof han the tidgcs 
« or sub-multiples of 24 ; 
in Jousting the materials 
0. This tymtaetiy is ob- 
; fortn the skeleton of the 
5 places whei-e the widei- 
For the most part, the 
ftrtments, exactly 24 feet 



*, 



IBON AND ITa MANUFAOTtJBE. 



15 



The lower coliunns Bi-o 10 feet high; the upper 17; and there are con- 
necting pieces, a feet high, fmm the lower to the higher ranges. These con- 
necting pieces furnish the means for fixing the upper columns to tlie lower, 
and also for fixing the gii-dors which stretch across from column to column. 
Home of the giirlers are cast hx>n, some wrought ; but all have the same 
pattern or design, which combines strength with lighmess. The girdei-s, nj 
their turn, support the gallerieH, which extend east imd west in four paraUel 
Uiies, and nortli and south in ten subsidiary or partial lines. The stones ot 
coliunns, one, two, or tliree in number, determine the height of the A-arious 
parte of the building. There is, for example, a strip Vi feet (3 bays) wide, on 
the southern side of the building, which is only one colunm m height ; tlien 
there is another strip, also of 72 feet, two cohimns in height ; then the mag- 
nificent central compartment, 120 feet (5 bays) wide, three columns in height; 
the two nortliem compartments of 73 feet each, similiu- to tlie southern, 
are one and two columns in height respecUvely. The extra building on the 
extreme norUi is riso one column m hei^t. These vanous heights, mclud- 
ing the connecting pieces, amount to about %i, 44, and 64 feet. 

The roof-(jirders lue of cast iron, except those which exceed 24 leet in 
lemith; each giixier weighs 18 owts., and has been tested to the extent of nme 
tout- much beyond what it wiU ever have to bear. They present ft light, 
open, treUis-like aspect, which adds much to the graceful elegance of the 
interior of the buUduig. Those roirf-girders, or trusses, which are 48 and li 
feet long, to span the wider avenues, are formed of wrought vton-, they con- 
sist of Son bars, rivebjd at intervals of eight feet to uprirfit standards ; some 
of the diagonals are of iron, to give the requisite strength ; while the otliere 
are of wood, to give uniformity of appeaiance. The girdei-s or trtisses oi li 
feet lencth have a camber or rise of about 10 inches in the centre, which 
impart-s^ditional strength. The 72 and 48 feet trtisses weigh respectively 
35 and 18 cwts. There are four of the long tnisses beneath Ae lead flats at 
the sides of the tmnsept, which, on account of the great weirfit to be borne, 
aro deeper and heavier tlian the rest; two of them weigh 120 cwts. and tJie 
others IttO cwts. each. AU these trtisses (t. e. girders above 24 feet in lengtli), 
about 370 in number, were buUt together on the ground ; the vanous bais 
bein.* joined together with red-hot rivets, of which 25,000 wen^ used. Ihc 
riwtTholes wei« made, some by boring and some by punchmg--e8pecially the 
latter; one of the powerful punching machines employed at the works was 
capable of punching three thousand holes in a day through thick iron plate 

The cdlumns— those llghteome vertical supports which assist m mmg Such 
a beautlftjl netrWoA perspective to the hiterior— ha^^) a tliree-fold office; they 
bear up the galleries, they bear up the loof, and thev form diannels for mn 
water They aio aU of the same diameter externally, but the thickness of met^ 
varies" aecoilng to the statength requited. The contour--fbur curvet sei«rated 
by f6ur flat surfaces—wa* suggested by Mr. Batt^, the architect, and has been 
univeisally admired. The two ends of each colimin have projectiohs called «h(5«, 
which affoni means for riveting the columti abi^e and Below. Jh^ ?J^^^f 
enonnous number of 3300 of tliese columns, varying fifom 17 to 18 feet m height. 
The comwctinq pieces and the base pieces, also of iron, afford the mewis for 
fixing the columns tirmiy in the desired positions. The eolmnns m the dif- 
ferent stories do not rest upon eacli other, end to end; Uiey are separated by 
a space of about 3 feet, which is occupied by a lioUovj connecting V\f^.f ''f^ 
iron The connecting piece has fianges and nvct-holes, which enable it to bo 
firmly fastened to the Column bencattl, the column above, and the girders at 



•1 



1 



16 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



the sides. No part of tlio structure required nioro careful workmanship than 
this, as strength, pei-pendicularity, and absence of leakage were necessary 
conditions. The base pieces he beneath the lowest range of columns. Each 
base piece consists 'of a vertical hollow shaft, a broad horizontal bed plate at 
the bottom, strengthening shouldei-s rising from the bod plate, and side sockets 
for joinmg to the horizontal water pipes. These base pieces, of which there 
are 1074, are bedded very firmly in the ground, as the whole weight of tlic 
building rests upon them. 

The gallery (firders are much more numerous than the roof girders before 
described; tliey are 2150 in number, and are of cast iron, all 24 feet in length 
by 3 feet in depth. They not only support the galleries, but stretch across the 
nanower avenues of the building, from column to column, where a bindin}? 
strength is required. They have projections at tiieir ends which fit into re- 
cesses in the connecting pieces, and by which they are secured. Every girder, 
before being used, was tested by a powerful hydraulic machine ; it was cal- 
culated that the greatest weight each gu-der woidd have to bear is 7^ tons; 
but every girder was tested to 15 tons, jmd it was found that 80 tons was 
insufficient to break one of them. 

The galleries, the tj-ansept, tlie staircases, the flooring, and the exterior, con- 
tain too little iron to call for notice in this place. There are some horizontal 
iron pipes, however, which play an important part in tlie builduag. The sixteen 
or eighteen acres of roofing present an enormous surface for rain-fall, and it is 
most essential that the water shotdd have easy chatmels along which to find its 
way. It first falls on the sloping glass, then along tlie Paxton gutters, u-en in 
a channel along the tops of the roof trusses, then down the hollo >v columns ; 
and when it reaches the base pieces at tlie foot of the colimins, other provision 
has to be made for it. Ii-on pipes, 6 inches in diameter, are fixed into the 
sockets of the base pieces, and extend in parallel lines east and west ; they 
discharge the water into large drains, which eventually convey it to the sewer. 
The whole weight of iron work in tlie building is said to be about 4000 tons. 
Two of the mightiest works of oui- ago present Sie following corapaiison : — 
Crystal Palace, 1851 feet long, 4,000 tons of iron work. 
Britannia Bridge, 1513 „ 10,000 
There are, perhaps, no two modem buildings in the country which present 
greater contrasts than tliese astonishmg stiiictures — the one to contain (at most) 
two railway trains at a time ; the other to contkiin millions' worth of Uie world's 
industry and tens of thousands of tlie world's people—the one destined, pro- 
bably, to endure for sages ; the other yet in doubt whether its life may not be a 
very bi^ef one — ^the one stiff and inelegant ; the other full of giticeful Unes, 
tints, and combinations — ^the one so costly as to impoverish its owners ; the 
other so happily circumstanced as to pay for itself in a short period of tliree or 
four months — ^the one occupying several yeai-s in construction ; the other not 
much more than as many montlis. They resemble each other, however, ir this 
(and the resemblance is a marked feature in our age), Uiat iron uistead of stone 
forms the main material, and that engineers instead of architects have con- 
ceived and worked out the plans. 

Foreign Iron, at the Great Exhibition. ^ 

' The production and application of iron in foreign States, whether illustrated 
or not at tlie Great Industiial Gathering of Nations, ai'e not less fuU of cmious 
and mstructive features than those of our own country. 



mtm 




roful workmanHhip than 
loakago were necessary 
iiige of columns. Each 
horizontal bed plate at 
(1 plate, and side sockeU 
e pieces, of which there 
the whole weight of tlie 

the roof girders before 
ron, all 24 feet in length 
!8, but stretch across the 
)lumn, where a binding 

ends which fit into ro- 
3 secured. Every girder, 
ilic machine ; it was cal- 
lave to bear is 7|^ tons; 
found tliat 80 tons wivs 

ig, and the exterior, con- 
ere are some horizontal 
le building. The sixteen 
nee for rain-fall, and it is 
is along which to find its 
3 Paxton gutters, U'-en in 
wn the hollo >v oolunins ; 
colimins, other provision 
leter, are fixed mto Uie 
ues east and west ; they 
Y convey it to the sewer, 
id to be about 4000 tons, 
lowing corapaiison : — 
I of iron work. 

e country which present 
le one to contain (at most) 
ions' worth of the world's 
—the one destined, pro- 
thor its life may not be a 
ler full of graceful luies, 
jovetish its owners ; the 
a short period of tlu-ee or 
tstruction ; the other not 
ch oilier, however, ir this 
that iron utstead of stone 
d of architects have oon- 



ntBITlON. 

States, whether illustrated 
re not less full of ciu-ious 

y- 



TBON AKt) ITS MANTTFACTOIIB. 



17 



It is pleft.sant to see how careful our foreign neighbours hnvo been to 
caiTy out, to the best of their means under the circiimstances, the behests 
of tSio Royal Commissioners concerning classification. Each coimtiy, witli 
n few exceptions, has collected specimens of its raw materials of manufacture ; 
and among such specimens iron and its ores do not fail to find a place. 
The United Stntes have many fine specimens of iron ore, especially from the 
busy Ohio district. There is also manufactured iron presented to our notice, 
in the forms of plate, sheet, bar, rod, wire, nails, &c. The gigantic empire of 
Riufia is peculiarly circumstanced in respect to these matters. It has been 
well observed that " the want of a great middle class, and of self-dependent 
(and therefore independent) working classes, causes the arts and manvrfactm-es 
to be dependent on imperial ukases and the encouragement and example of 
the government officers, or else upon the magnates, whose command of labour 
enables them to undertake new operations on a large scale." Hence we find 
that a large proportion of the specimens at the Great Exhibition have been 
sent from some of the imperial establishments ; others from the great princos 
of the empire. Prince Demidofl" has sent various specimens of iron hi the 
mw and tlie reduced stai«s ; the collection of iron plates, bolts, bars, rods, 
Ac, is by no means insignificant, considering the unfavourable circumstances 
attending tlie transhipment of heavy goods from an ice-bound cour uy. The 
ZoUverein — that mysteiious-looking woi-d, which pui!/les so many visitors, and 
which the Executive would do Well to elucidate by a subsidiary inscription — 
presents us witli a goodly collection of the iron and steel which Prussia, 
Saxony, and the other German States can produce. The Harz Mountains, 
many places in Rhenish Prussia, and many othei-s in various pai-ts of the 
ZoUverein or " Customs Union" territory of Germany, produce excellent iron, 
which is smelted and worked up at vaiious establishments ; while Solingen 
has acquired the name of the Sheffield of Germany. Wo find specimens of 
the ore and tlie metallic iron ; sheets, and other partially nianufactm-ed forms 
of iron ; neat and useful iron castings from the Harz estabhshments ; a most 
interesting series of specimens which show all the stt^es of progress from 
crude ore to highly-polished steel; a varied assemblago of cheap eveiy-day 
iron and steel tools and goods, such as screws, nails, tiles, saws, locks, keys, 
bolts, chains, axes, hatchets, skates, swords, rat-traps, hand-mills, and all Uio 
usual cuUeiy articles ; and the clean and wholesome enamelled iron ware, so 
valuable an adjunct in domestic cookeiy. 

But the Berlin cast-iron ornaments — did the art of working in this 
metal ever reach a higher pitch than in the delicate productions thus 
designated? It is scarcely credible that the exquisite bi-ooches, buckles, 
and other specunens, deposited in the northern half of the ZoUverein 
compartment, can be made of such a rough material ; yet such is the case. 
The delicate gold and sUver threads of the filagree works of the middle ages 
hardly excel them in minute beauty. Amt-r,", is not exceeded by any foreign 
country in the specimens of iron which she has contributed to the Great 
Exliibition. When we consider how many kingdoms and states are included 
under that almost misapplied word Austria, we need not wonder that some 
among them should yield fine iron ores and creditable iron manufactures ; 
but it could scarcely have been expected that such vmily of feeling would have 
been displayed as this miique Exhibition indicates. The iron ores of diflierent 
parts of the empire are not only of fine quality, but in great abundance ; and 
the art of smelting (aided by the plentiful supply of charcoal timber as fuel) is 
scarcely exceUed in any part of Em-ope. The specunens of iron plates, sheets, 



MIliMM 



iStHmttm 



L 



18 



IHOM A«U IW MANUKAC-njaHii 



bars, rodH, wiio, &c., are numerous and good. It w worth whde. toO;J« «>"% 
a little closely the fine castings from tlie Mettemich Ii-on Works, cue o tl o 
Lhomian esUblishn.onte ; Ae taU aerman stoves decorated ^"''•^ 'l"l f ''^ 
and weU-lormod stotucUos. the fuU-siied cast of the Crucrfixion, as weU as 
oUier «^angH of a varietl kind, exhibit a high degree of mont Ajuong Uio 
cutlery of Austria, we have an abundwice of scythes and «!««^f. «*/,^'« ' '^ 
is said no fewer than T,0<)O,(KK> ar« nianufacturod annually in AusUi* 1t<»|>«>. 
and exported thence to various parts of Uie world. ii^iiMii has not lailod 
to sh?w%y her contributions, that the iron of tho Liege d«trict m well 
smelted, and woU worked up into oounUess articles ol dady use and omainent. 
That the iron smelting ammgements of Fr<vm are not veiy extensive is not 
hor fault; nature has not gifted her so bountifully as many neighbouring 
countries with tho cmde ix^n; and the Great Exhibition clearly shows Oiat. 
in other metals, she excels her productions in h-on. In respect to .Spa««. it 
is vexinff to know that such fine iron as her mountains confaun m ot htAlo valuo 
to her, on occount of tho wretched state of the countiy ni respect to roads 
and canals, wliich renders it so difficult to transmit heavy pnuluoe from one 
part of tho country to anoUier; a few specimens of Bpan«h iron ore have 
been sent to the World's Fair; and those who know what a reputation 
Toledo swofd-blades onco had, can only regret that we have so few oppor- 
tunitios of judging the qualiUes of Spanish staeL 

There is one country, Smdm, from whonA it was ospeciaUy unportant that 
we should receive good specimens of iron and its ores; and it is gratitymg 
to know that such has been the case. These specimens are by for the most 
to bo priced among the few from that ooaatiy. Many users of t-nglish cutlery 
are not aware that tho host varietiea are made from Swedish iron, which— 
from some cause not yet weU underetood— produces bettor steel than any 
Eiifflish iion. Among the Swedish specimens are hicluded eTerythrag which 
can Illustrate tfie mining oJiaraeteiiBtics of Uia ore. such as bits of the 8u^ 
rounding rock, the rock intennixed with ore, tho several kinds ot ore, analyses 
of tho nwtallic contents of these several ores, &c. There are also plates^ tubes^ 
files and other ai-tioles manufectured in Sweden, showmg that, thou^ 
the lufttoml is of Uie host quality, the manufiicture is not of a very high 
order. 

CoMMi:;RciAL Valub of Ibon, m Ceotbai- EuaowB." 

The dainty little cast-iron ornaments of Berlin, alluded to above, are asso- 
ciated in a peculiai way with the all-unportant struggle between Napoleon and 
Prassia. There is something very touching in the narrative of tlie growth ot 
this branch of industry. So overwhelming was tho force which the ambitious 
comiueror was able to bring agwnst Prussia, that the services of all wore ener- 
getically called for against the common enemy ; the country needed the strong 
arms of her sons, and the silver and gold of those who had sUver and gold to 
give. The matrons and maidens of hi^ birth or good fortome sent their 
trmkets and jewels to the royal treasury to recmlt the exhausted exchequer ; 
and, in return for them, they received rings, crosses, and other (»mam«its in 
cast iron, which bore the inscription Ich gnfc GoW um Eiam, " I gave gidd for 
iron." These humble ornaments were at the tune very highly priaed from the 
cireumstances attenduig their acquisition ; and even at the present day ttie 
families of the original possessors value and preserve them as honounrtile 
reUos, as badges of a trao uobihty— Uie nobility of feeling. The Sudden 



|^MM~»' 



MH 



orth while, too, to study 
i-on Works, out) of tl»o 
lecorated with iloUcuto 

Cruoifixiou, as well ju* 
J of merit Among tlw 
and sickles, of whioh it 
lually in AusUi* IVoiMJr, 

UeUfiim haa not failotl 
i Liege district if* wtiU 
daily utie and ornament 
not very extensive i» not 

as many neiglibouriug 
iUon dearly shows that, 
In respect to iSpnin, it 
I contain is of little valuo 
itry in respect to road* 
heavy produce from one 
: Si>ani8h iron ore have 
jiow what a reputation 
; we have ao few opinw- 

efipecialiy unportant tliat 
)re8 ; and it is gratifying 
lens are by tar the most 

usera of En^ish cutlery 
\ Swedish iron, which— 
98 better steel than any 
icluded everything whioh 

such as bits of the su^ 
nral kinds of ore, amdyses 
ere are also plafces> tubes, 
, showuig that, though 
;« is not of a very high 



lAL EUBOWE.' 

luded to above, arc aaso- 
[le between Napoleon and 
larrative of the growth of 
force which the ambitiouK 
I services of all wore ener- 
eountry needed the strong 
'ho had silrer and gold to 
r good fortune sent their 
the exhausted exdiequer ; 
, and other omunents in 
n Ei»m, " I gave gold for 
ery highly priaed from tho 
<n at the present day the 
lerve them as honourablo 
of feeling. The sudden 



IBON AKt) IT» MASUTACTOBB. 



19 



eloTfttion of such ornaments into distinction gave a great impoUw to every- 
Uiing conncct^^d witii their niniiiifu<tur«. 'J'he caetingrt were not conhneil U> 
more triidtets. but conipiised busts, ba«-roliof«, mouuniontiil idubs. and oUutr 
works of ai-t Some pewons attribute the unequalled exeell.nre ot these 
eastings to the fine quality of the Silesian iron ; some t« tlio carefully mode 
mixture of sand and clay of which the moulds are formed ; noma to the Bkill 
(lisphyed in the casting process; but it is pobable that many causes contri- 
bute to the result „ r. , , ■ rj, e \t^ 
Dr. Friedenl>erg, in his German translation of Babbagos Eeonemy oj Ma- 
ehineruandManuf(tettire», gives some curious information coijcemmk;' the Ijmlm 
caatuigs. Such are the fineness and delicacy of the seimrato arabe(M,uea, 
rosettes, medaUions, Ac., of which the larger ornaments are composetl, Ui.it »t 
sometimes requires nearly 10,000 of them to make alb. weight Ihc gray 
iron from which they are made may be taken as Iwing worth alwut tu. p«>r 
cwt: and the following table, drawn up from Uie i.riof-list ot a Berlun manu- 
facturer a few years ago, will sh v to what an almost incredible height Un» 
value per cwt is increased :->- 



Artieks. 



Buckle;;, 8^ hiches long by 2^ broad . . . 
Neck-chams, 18 inches long by 1 broad, in 40 ^ 

pieces 5 

Bracelets, 7 inches long by a broad, in 7» 7 

pieces 3 

Diadems, 7^ inches high by 6^ broarl . . . 
Scvigne points, 2^ inches long by H ^^ToaA . 
Sevigno earrings, 3 inches long by | broad, 7 

in M pieces 3 

Shirt buttons •. . . . 



Number to 


Price, 


Pricts 


1 owt 


eMh. 


per cwt 




$. d. 


Jt 


9,640 


a ti 


3B0 


2,310 


6 


003 


2,090 7 

I)ftii's 


8 C 


880 






1,100 


1« 


907 


9,020 


4 ft 


2029 


10,460 
pairs 


6 3 


2713 






88,440 


8 


2948 



mm 



We here find that iron in the form of shirt buttons commanded a market at 
a price nearly 10,000 times as great as that which it sold for as gray iron ! And 
about tlie year 1820, when the fashion was at its height the value was still 
greater; for these m)n ornaments then sold for neariy their weight m gold. 
The great saleable value of these productions has led to a result similar to 
that which so many other branches of industiy exliibit : obscure manufacturers 
make moulds from the casts which otiiers had been at the expense of designing 
and modelling, and produce faiferior and cheap specimens from theee moulds. 
The real Beriin castmgs, worthy of the name (such, we may presume, as 
those which grace the Great Exhibition), must always command a high price, 
if sold at aU, from the extraordi»ary care required m their production. 

It would be instruetive, in an eoonomicid pomt of view, if the priefn of 
useful articles, as displayed at the Great Exhibition, coidd be compared at 
leisure. There are so many elements which combine to make up mercantile 
value, that it is difficult to estimate them singly ; but their resultant— their 
combined efiect— is shown in the price at which the dealer is willing to part 
with his merchandize. We may be well assured that it is worth while for a 
manufacturer in one country to be fully informed of these particulars in respect 



MM 



MMHMM 



•lWM,t*W»*i«WWW"*»"*»"" 



do 



IHON AND ITS UAMUFACTUBE. 



to foreign countries. If he can equal his neighbours, a close comparison and 
study will enable hun to determine how to do so ; if he can not equal tliom, a 
knowledge of the reasons will save him fi-ora much fruitless outlay. It is in 
this, as in so many other respects, that tlio Ureat Exhibition will render ser- 
vice. l*ml>fthly th») CoramissionerH exercihed a wise discretion in forbidding 
the price-ticketing of the exhibited specimens ; but we shall gradually lunpiiro 
information on diose points in other ways. If we take up, for example, tlio 
Official Priced Catalogue of the Haxon section, we find English sums of money 
quoted opposita tlie names of the chief articles displayed ; they are the prices, wo 
presume, at which tlie Saxon agents in this countiy would be empowered to sell 
such commodities. Here we find (confining ourselves to tlie unniediate subject of 
this jmper) tinned-iron saucepans and cooking vessels in considerable numbers ; 
there are Saxon vessels, Bavarian pots, coftee-pots, stew-pans, frying-pans, Ac. 
A hulf-litre cooking-pot is marked at J)Jd.; a Utre coffee-pot, 4jd.; a four-litre 
stew-pan, witli handle and lid, IfljU.; a frying-pan, 23d.; and so on. The 
vessels are tinned after the sheet-iron has been brought into shape ; and tlieir 
capacity is estimated by the litre, equal to about If puits English. Now here 
is a case for those conversant vriib. retail ironmongery. Are these articles well 
made, and ai-e they dearer or cheaper tlian similar articles in England ? Be 
the answer what it may, it is certain to render service in some way or other. 
Then we find iron spoons at 2d. per half-dozen. The clasp-knives sent from 
the same comitry are of the better and more ornamental kind ; tliey vary 
from Ua. to 12». each, according to the number of blades and the degree of 
finish ; but it would be more interesting to know how much the Saxon peasants 
give for their rough homely knives. 

The ZoUvereiu Catalogue presents, in like manner, the means for instituting 
comparisons between ourselves and the buHv states of Northern Germany. 
Among the entries are case-liardened iron rollers, at 20 dollars per centner ; 
cliisek as low as 15 groschen per dozen; files and rasps, 11; scissors, 16; 
butter-knives, 38; plane-irons, 27 groschen per dozen; up to much higher 
prices according to size and quality. We may here state that the Prussian 
dollar or thaler is worth about tlu-ee shillings English, that tliere ai-c twenty 
groschen in tlie dollar, and that tlie Prussian centner equals about 110 lbs. 
It is obvious tlittt a conipai-ison between the prices above named, and Uiose 
cliarged by our own manufacturei's, can be usefully made by those only who 
ore practically concerned in these matters. The delicate little Berlin castings, 
such as brooches, &c., are priced from a groschen to a dollar each ; but it 
would be vain to compare these with EngUsh prices imtil England produces 
something equal, which she assuredly never yet has done. 

From Uie lately published Official Austrian Catalogue of the Great Exhibi- 
tion, we gather some valuable uiformatiou concerning the iron jniniug of tliat 
extensive empire. There were produced in the year 184B, about 3,200,000 cwts. 
of pig-u'on, of which Biytia and Hungary contributed together about one-half; 
of oast-iron there was about 450,000 cwts., all from Bohemia, Moravia, and 
Silesia. It spears, therefore, that the kingdoms or provinces in which the iron 
is mined and smelted in greatest abimdance, are not those which take the lead 
in producing u-on castings. The pig-iron is smelted in about 260 furnaces, and 
melted for castings in about 60 cupola and reverberating fiimaces. From the 
pig-u-on, besides a portion converted into castings, about 300,000 cwts. of steel 
are made amiuolly. Both in malleable iron and cast iron, Austria exports 
more Uian she impoila, a sufficient proof that she is favourably circumstanced 
in respect to this really impoilont element of national weoltlt. The number 



L 



iWMMMililMII 



lAOM AND ITS MAMUFAfiTUHB. 



ftl 



A closo coinpariHon aiid 
I can not €'<|ual Uiom, a 
uitleHS outlay. It ia in 
libitiua will cender ser- 
iiacretion in forbidding 
shall )j;radually ac<iuiru 
ike up, for example, tlio 
EngliHh sums of money 
1 ; they are the prices, wo 
ild be empowered to sell 
tlio immediate subject of 
L cousidcrablu numbcrH ; 
iw-pans, frying-pans, &c. 
ae-iHit, ijd.; a fouT'litre 
S3d.; and bo on. The 
it into shape ; and tlieir 
atB English. Now here 
Are uieso articles well 
tides in England? Be 
e in some way or other. 
I clasp-knives sent from 
imentol kind ; tliey vary 
iudes and the degree of 
uuch tlie Saxon peasants 

the means for insdtuting 

of Northern Germany. 
t 20 dollars per centner ; 

rasps, 11 ; scissors, 16; 
en; up to much higher 

state that the Prussian 
b, that tliere ai-c twenty 
er equals about 110 lbs. 
above named, and tliose 
made by tliose only who 
iate little Berlin castings, 
to a dollar each; but it 

until England produces 
lone. 

j[ue of the Great Exhibi- 
5 the iron ininiug of that 
J48, about 3,a00,000 cwts. 
I together about one-half; 

Bohemia, Moravia, and 
"ovinces in which the iron 
(hose which take the lead 
a about 260 furnaces, and 
ing iiimaces. From the 
>ut 300,000 cwts. of steel 
ast iron, Austria exports 
favourably circumstanced 
ml weoltlt. The number 



of persons employed in tlio Austrian dominions in lft48, in rnishig iron ore, 
Hnielting, casting, forging, steel making, and manufacturing connuodities in 
iron and stoel, wiw about 15(),0(M»; and tlie value of tJio commwlities so 
produced was about 70,000,000 H<»rin8 (about iJ7,000,000). It may hero 
Imj stated, that tlie cwt. spoken of is the Austrian cmttmr, equal to about 
12;3 lbs. English. Tho following iluUils aie interesting, for thev relate to tlio 
productive industry of a country with which we have hitlierto been too little 
acquainted : — " Of tho different branches of this (the iron) department of 
manufacture, tlioso tliat are conducted on a largo scale seem to deserve most 
iittention; among tliese, tho first Uiat presenU itself to our notice is tlie 
manufacture of scythes, sickU^s, and chaff cuttoj-s. The pwxluce of I7» scytlie 
factories was 4,00(t.000 scythes, 1,000,000 sickle'i, and 90,000 chaff cutters, 
valued at 6,000,000 floiins; these articles, on account of tlieir excellent 
quality, liave found their way into all parts of tlie world. The manufacture 
of pans, boilei-8, and kettles, carried on in 50 establishinenta, turns out 
!i5,000 cwt. of articles, valued at 676,000 florins. The manufacture of wire 
is of greater importance, and is earned on at 100 factories, producing about 
80,000 cwt., value 1,864,000 florins. The manufacture of mils is also very 
extensively carried on, and amounts to 60,000 cwt., valued at 970,000 florins. 
The smaller workshops appropriated to other manuliictures in iron, produce 
files, knives, hatchets, shovels, swoixl blades, gun barrels, and various other 
aiticles, to the value of 4,800,000 florins ; they give employment to more 
than 60,000 persons (of whom about 15,000 are inastei-s), and support 160,000 
individuals, including the members of the families of tliose employed." 

It might at first seem strange that, while England can produce every kind 
of iron implements at extremely low prices, Austria should be able to export 
by millions the scytlies, and sickles, and reaping hooks needed by the farmer. 
But in this, as in many other cases, we must look at the quality of the ore 
met with, and the means for obtaining iron from the ore. Now, in Btyria 
(one of the component members of the Austrian Empire) tliere is a peculiar 
and veiT abundant kind of spathic iron ore, a semi-crystallme cai-bonate of 
the luetai ; and it is proved that the steel made from the iron of this ore 
is excellently suited for the kind of semces required in the cutleiy implements 
here named. 

Economical pEctJUAKiTiEa in Gebmajjy and America. 

The rise of the iron manufacture in Rhenish Prussia is becoming astDnish- 
higly rapid. Smelting and forging establishments on a very large scale are 
multiplying fast. Let us take Mr. Banfield's account of a visit which ho paid 
to tlie iron-works of Messrs. Haniel, at Oberhausen, a few years i^. Near 
the works are cottages which the fii-m had built for the workmen ; the build- 
ings ai-e well planned and constructed, and are made over to the workmen 
at prime cost, to be paid for by small deductions from their wages during 
a series of years ; this comprises the best elements of a Building Society, 
without its defects. In respect to the value of the land near the works, 
Mr. Banfield makes a striking remark : " It is, perhaps, not too much to say, 
that every fresh pair of rolls (rollers for makuig bar kon) erected at Ober- 
hausen, would add the value of a dollar an acre to every estate whose owner 
had sense enough to draw his profit from it."— {Industry of the Rhine.) Tho 
Oberhausen works stand on about as much giound as the Low Moor works, 
in Yorkshire. The cenU-al pai-t is occupied by the rollmg mill, round wliich 



i 



w:>rtr-tmmr 



L 



M 



IBOM A»y ITH MANUVAGTUHK. 



nowly fortv pu«l>ULng fumaccB are ranged, eftch witlj its luunniei- and pair 
of rollB. NiwuivUj H »U>aiu Iwimuer wiu inH\KUir<"«l in Uu^mo worltH ttlnumt, 
Ob WKJii OH iu Englftiiil. Wuikintfu of many difforeijt imtioiiH are rmployod. 
Uid ou Uii» point Mr. Bwifiwld iMukei* tbe loUowing observutionH ; — '• Wht-ii 
the driU <>« go<><l, Uttuu in soiuotituuB an iulvautage in tltiM: tor tlio Qatioual 
rivalry in awakuuod, tuid urgeu tho mtm to do their bcHt tor the Hako of 
tli« good uttujo of tjieir oouiiU-y as well aw of Uioir own. The high wage* 
puid U) puddlorH tuid rollers, antl Uio priwout neceuKity for employing t»trang€mi, 
owing to tlio uuddivnnuss of tlio dumand that grew out of tlie spreail of 
niUwoys, w a utrong inctjntive to U>o GcmiaiiH, who nmk« great oxertion« 
to *'«t tlioniselveii to the tank, and of course now huccimkI. The oidy 
Huporiority iu the atriuigo workmen lies in tlieir having sotm large worku 
in England or in Belgium, and knowing tbe methods used In tliom. But 
now tliat milU arc oreoting all over Gormany on quite as large a Kcale a» 
the lingUsh, there will be a nuhool to train them in at home. We could 
not help thinking, ou viewing tlie acene, tliat aomo a«lvantage might be 
derived ft-om that kmd of masonic hoBpitolity which prevailed ui the Middle 
Ag08, ami which tmcouruged men to visit other countries, with tlieir trade as 
a patjtiport and letter of credit, whicli ensured them a good reception wherever 
Uiey wont It Ik, perhaps, natuj-al that Ktrange workmen in Gennany shoidd 
be well received whore they appear a» toach«r« ; hut it is creditable to every 
counUy iu whicli hospitality ia dictated by good feeling." A singular fact 
met Mr. Bantield's view: a wate^miU was buUt, in the infancy of the works, 
to give motive power to the machinery, but it is now wholly employed in 
gr'mding com for Uie 1000 persons employed m tlie estabhHhment. The 
proprietoi-9 have built a refectory, where they sei-ve such of tlw workpeople 
OS ai-e willing to avail themselves of Uie accommodation with provisions, 
at a low price, on a system which keeps dear of the knavery of our truck- 
system. It is another goo«l f«ature at these works, that all the workp<!oplo 
deposit something weekly in a Bavmgs Bank, as a reserve for times of 
difficulty. 

As a contiast to the fine an-ongement of the establisliment just noticed, 
we may glance at Mr. Bonfield's description of a mining and smelting work 
nooi- Siegeu, managed on what we may call tlie peasant-proprietor system. 
The Eisenzeche Mine is situated in a valley; its atlit, which runs upon tlic 
vein, is about an EngUsh mile in length. There is no provision for horse- 
power, but a tram-road is used to run out tlie stuff. AJound the entrance 
heai>8 of cwre, of two tons each, he nicely piled, each with a wooden cross stuck 
in it, mai'ked witli some kind of miners' heraldry— «uch as a ship, a tree, 
or an initial, to indicate that it belongs to one particular shareholder in tlie 
mUie. The mine belongs altogether to small mmers, and is worked by 
themselves, under tlie direction of mining officers. From the piece-meal 
aiid primitive ioo^.e in which the operations are ooiiduoted, the profits of 
tlie miners amount to no more than very moderate wi^s. In a smelting 
work not far from the mine, there is a furnace m the middle of a large 
casting house, which affords shelter to tlie numerous smelters and their 
gossiping neighbours. As the result of a timid caution lest the mines should 
be too soon exhausted of their treasures, each smelt-work is limited to 
a certain number of days in each week; and each miner attends to smelt 
his own little store on the prescribed days. Notliing can he more oppdsed 
to tlie organiijed system of a modem establishment than the proceedings 
of these smelters — these children of antiquated usages. Each man has 



HHMMf 



llMMa 



L 



Ji itft hamnicr auil pair 
I in UicNu wurkit ulnioHt 
ut iiiUtoiiH are omploywl. 
; obM«rYaUoii8 ; — " When 
iu iliw: lor tlio oaUoDul 
nt bcHt tur the aako of 
own. Tho hiRh wftRcs 
' for employing HtranKoi-N, 
w out uf tlie Hpreatl of 
10 nmkH great, uxertionH 
w Bucoewl. Ti»e only 
iiiving soon liu^e workii 
mIh used in tlieni. But 
luita m liu^u a scale iw 
ill at homo. \V« could 
>uio ailrautAgo nii^^ht bo 
prevailed in Uie Middle 
tries, with tliuir trade oa 
mjod reception wherever 
niuu in Gennany ahoidd 
it is credjtttble to cvorj- 
jeliug." A singular fact 
ho infaaov of the works, 
now wholly employed in 
Lbe estabhshnient. Thu 
Buch of the workpeople 
lodatiou with provisionH, 
JO knavery of our truck- 
that all the >voriip<!oplo 
a reaorve for times of 

tablishment just noticed, 
wing and Bmclting work 
easant-proprietor system, 
dit, which runs upon tlie 
i no provision for horsc- 
r. Around the entrance 
vith a wooden oross stuck 
— euch as a ship, a tree, 
icular glioreholder in tiie 
iners, and is worked by 
1. From tho piece-meal 
conducted, the )>rofits of 
Le wages. In a smelting 
in the middle of a large 
rous smelters and their 
Lion lest the mines should 
smelt-work is limited to 
[» miner attends to smelt 
ng can be more opp6sed 
nt than the proceedings 
asages. Each man has 




IltOM AKO ITS UAKUFACTUIUt. 



88 



liis own small hhod ftdl of ore, aitd anotlior Hh«*d fidl of rhftrcoal ; and all 
llioHO litUo ♦wotionx are hud<lled i.T«gula»ly round iho fuinacn. Il»ir<! ho 
HiUi, uidetw fritzMU out by the cold uf winUn-, bniaking up iiis ore willi a 
iiiuimicr; bin lu'vcr failing pi|i<' (to li^'bt. wbif.b nticcsMitaUi* frequent trips 
U) tl»e funiaco i/iid gives an op|H>rtuuily U»r g«wMip) hangs tu his lips. W'bin 
hiH tuni oouiow, he wheels his ore to ujo iuniium mouth uudm the «U|»r- 
inUjndenoe of tiio llultnunai»ter, or furnace niaoter, and conti-ibutos his <^uoU 
of charcoal and broken ore to Iho fiery Iwap. Ho claiuu a {lortion 't tho 
omeited contonta of the fiuiiaco, and assisU in bringing it into Kaieablo 
form. "The peasant owners (of tlio land (u-ound Hii-gen) aie also share- 
holders in mines, and in Uio forests arour»d, which supply the charcoal 
consumed. 'J'hey manage to divide tlioir time ImjIwcou the mine, tho forest, 
Uie furnace, and their land, in such a mimner as to be unctsasiugly employed, 
and tliey calculate closely enough in isolated speculations; but tlio giiuid 
calculation of all, the bem'fit coui'en-ed by division of labour, is luiknown \o 
this couununity." One of the unfuvourablo consetpionces of tliis pat<!l»-work 
system is, that each small speculation bus its own shafts, atlits, galleries, Ac, 
willwut any relation to tliose of iU neighbours, so tliat nmch more diggiug, 
dragging, and lifting are bestowed, tliau tho extent of tho mineral veins 
renders uecessaiy. 

'I'herQ was a paper communicated to llie Franklin Journal a year or two ago 
which is worthy of notice as showing how apparently minute tu-o tlie circum- 
stances which detenu ine the power of one counti-y tt> equal or excel anotlier 
in exporting manufactured goods. The subject relates to iron ; luid tlie 
vniter, a Mr. H. i'aii-baim, lamenU the inability of tlie United HUUm to keep 
out English iron, notwitlwtanding tlie abundance of ii-on and coal iu tliat 
widc-Hpreading region. The pith of his argument is found in the fact, as 
stated by him, that tlie smelting works have been iiyudiciously built at a dis- 
tance from the great coal-dtiposits ; so that tlie coal, ch<'ap at tlio pit's mouth, 
becomes costly by the time it has reached Uie furnace moutli; wliile a "inanu- 
ttctiivtr of i-aihroad iron in Wales smelts his pig-iron fi-om the ore, puddles and 
re. ill. .s the iron Into bars, and mills the bars into railing iron— fvU witli tlie 
coils dug at tiie door of his establishment, witli tlie same ateum-engine 
diroughout all tho processes (perhaps?), by Uie same supervision, in a shorter 
space of time." The result was Uiat, in 1849, English railway iron undei-sold 
Pennsylvania iron in Pennsylvania itself. But Mr. Faiibaim Uiiidts that Uiis 
state of things must pass away, if large smelting works were established in 
the iron and coal district of Pottsville. " From hard siliceous iron oro only a 
tough, unmalleable, and cold short iron can be made ; and Uie richer hemaUto 
ores are i.ndisnensable for admixtm-e wiUi the siliceous ores of Pottsville or of 
Wales. But in Wales these hematite ores can only be obtained from Uie 
north of England, and their expense is so great, Uiat Uiis circunistwice now 
threatens Uie most serious consequences to Uio trade of Wales. A ton of 
hematite ore cannot be brought from Ulverstone to MerUiyr Twydwell (Tydyil) 
at a cost of less Uian 28«. per ton; luul yet so important is it to have hematite 
for admixture with Uie native ores, Uiat the character of Uie Welsh railway 
iron is rapidly degenerating in foreign markets, by reason of Uie impossibility 
of affording the importation of Uiesc ores at the prices for railroad which can 
only now be obtained, in consequence of Uie low prices established in the 
Clyde." Starting from these two data— that Uie Welsh iixm masters cannot 
pay for hematite if they sell at low prices, and that Uicir iron will lose its 
saleable qualities if it do not contain hematite, Mr. Fairbaira draws favour- 



M 



u 



IRON AND ITS MANUFACTURE. 



able auguries for his own countiy, in the circumstance that hematite is to be 
met with at no great distance from the coal and iron disfxict around Potte- 
ville; and tliat, if smelting works were established there, Pennsylvania might 
defy both Wales and Scotland. 

Whether the above train of reasoning be soimd or not, it is quite demon- 
strable that the proximity- of a coal-mine to a smelt-work is of great importr 
ance to the latter. Mr. Fau-baim weU illustrates this point, which forms part 
of the commercial philosophy of manufactures, in Uie foUowmg remarks:— 
" Only tlie finer branches of iron manufacture can exist in cities, or m locali- 
ties distant from the supplies of coal. In Liverpool there are large foundries, 
and a great steam-engine busmess is carried on ; but the heavier parts of the 
en-'ines are brought from places in the Midland Counties, and only the finer 
parts of the work are manufactured in Liverpool ; whilst m London, though 
myriads of people are employed in manufactures of which iron is the raw 
material, yet it [the employment] is in cutleiy, in fine castings, and the 
thousand divisions of business in which the raw material does not enter so 
largely into the manufactured articles as does the skill of the artisan, the pre- 
sence of the meiropoUtan mai-ket, the fashion, foreign demand, and mwiy 
other considerations which favom- manufacturei-s in cities and towns. But 
a bai- of railway iron was never made in Liverpool or in London, and none 
can be profitably made in Philadelphia, which is the Liverpool of the 
United States. Foundiies, cutleries, and other skiUed iron manufactures ot 
endless varieties, might be estabUshed with the greatest advantage m Phila- 
delphia; but tlie pig-iron, the bar-iron, railway bai-s, beams for steam-engines, 
and all other heavy and compaiatively cheap iron and iron manufactures, pnly 
can be furnished from the places where fuel is to be obUiined at the lowest 

Tlie few, brief, scattered notices of iron and the iron manufacture in foreign 
countries which have found a piece in tlie present sheet— trifling as they may 
be smgly— all tend to illustiate the value which we ought to place on a know- 
ledge of the proceedings of industrj' in other lands besides our own ; such 
knowledge may be made up of " cm-iosities," but it is not less knowledge oii 
tliat account. And if the Eoyal Commissionei-s should cany out the proposed 
plan of making a permanent" collection of specimens — tiny bits for the gieat 
assemblage— we may hope that uon, foreign as well as British, rough ore as 
well as polished bars, will not be forgotten. 



e that hematite is to be 
on distjict around Potts- 
ere, Pennsylvania might 

not, it is quite demon- 
vork is of great import- 
1 point, which forms part 
le following remarks: — 
ist in cities, or in locali- 
diere are large foundries, 
tlie heavier parts of tiie 
nties, and only the finer 
vhilst in London, though 
f which iron is the raw 

I fine castings, and the 
iterial does not enter so 

II of the artisan, the pre- 
3ign demand, and many 
I cities and towns. But 
or in London, and none 
IS the Liverpool of the 
led iron manufactures of 
eatest advantage in Phila- 
beams for steam-engines, 
d iron manufactures, pnly 
be obtained at the lowest 

on manufacture in foreign 
leet— tiifling as they may 
)ught to place on a know- 
1 besides our own ; such 
is not less knowledge on 
uld cany out the proposed 
IS — tiny bits for tiie gieat 
1 as British, rough ore as 



WOOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 



There is a battle going on among the materials of manufactures. From 
time to time tlie old familiar products of Nature's work have to contend 
against new aspirants for public favom-; and the new comer occasionally bears 
off the palm. Sometimes metal has to yield up one of its positions, which is 
taken possession of by wood ; and wood, on the other hand, has, in no smdl 
number of cases, been obliged to yield to metal. Then, again, although it is 
said there is " nothing like leather," yet the gutta-percha dealers confidently 
dispute tliis maxim ; and the workers in papier-mache no less resolutely enter 
the domain of the workers in wood. Staffordshu-e claims for its "Parian" 
clay statuettes a place by tlie side of those made in Paiian mai-ble ; and tlie 
cement artificei-s will not admit that marble and stone are more beautiful or 
more durable than the produce of their labours. 

But such is tlie right path towards excellence. These imweaiied .trials de- 
velope properties — often beautiful as useful — in natui-al substances, which 
would remain unknown if the old prescriptive notions were too closely ad- 
hered to. It is true that tlie new attempts occasionally fail, and tliat the un- 
successful experimenter is made to smart for the failure; it is tme also that 
offences against good taste sometimes mark the novelties, by a certain incon- 
gruity between the material employed and the pvupose of tlie article pro- 
duced ; but diese matters always adjust themselves after a tune— society prmies 
otf the redundancies, and avails itself of whatever amount of good may result 
from the seturch after what is new. 

Wood is among the natural products which have been singularly exposed to 
these mdustrial contests (if tliey may be so termed). As a material for build- 
ing, it supersedes all others in an early stage of society ; but it gives way to 
brick and stone as forests become cleared. As a fuel, it is every year yielding 
more and more to coal. As a material for engineering and large works of 
constmction, its use is now most sensibly lessened in favour of tha,t of iron. 
As a material for decomtive furniture, or for fine-art productions, it has to 
contend against the rivalry of papier-mache, of cement composition, of ja- 
panned iron, of sj mped leather, of carton pien-e, of guttarpercha. 

Yet wood is more abundantly used than at any former period, and for more 
diveree purposes. If any circumstance shakes its supremacy in one quaiter, 
it speedily finds room for exercise in anotlier. There is a natm-al and 
deeply-seated cause for this : if the worker m wood is disturbed in his voca- 
tions by competition from a worker in anotlier material, he has abundant 
reason for tiymg to strengthen his position in other directions; and his 
ingenuity, shaipened by self-interest, points out the way. 

Timber op all Nations: Great Exhibition. 

The first half of the present century has witnessed many of the revolutions 
noticed above. It has seen tlie substitution of other materials for wood in 
many manufactures ; but, on the other hand, it has been moi-ked by tlie appli- 



'■*■ 



L 



d 



WOOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 



nation to useful purposes, of kinds of wood before almost unknown ; and 
espedku^ Zt L7n characterised by a great extension due to the use of 

^'^SXf slyTSrSds concen.ing timber itself, before speaking of the 

" Trtip'iel^rhtSo..to work on ' Tm.mg.- gives a ve.7 minute 

d..Sption3 classification of the various kinds of wood used ni the Aats 

Ho fiiVt ?oSs out the well-kno^vn structural difference between e-vogemmi 

Ido^^is wWch leads to a separation of all kinds of trees mto two gieat 

^up "rflAe tn.e wood» («L they are sometimes termed) are -ogens ; 

ShS the endogens include the grasses, bamboos, palms, &e. In the coun- 

Ses .Jhe^ b^boos and palms s^ indigenous, the smaUer stems are u ed as 

; bes forle conveyance of water, and tlie larger pieces as JO>«t.^£. , J" ♦^^*' 

Tger kinds of palm, the fibi-es appear like f ««*%«;: ^^f^f^^^S^^n 

substance similar to cement or pith. The natives of the ^'^'"'^'^^^l^w 

ni/.k out the fibres from some of the palms, and use them aB naUs , m some 

siecimenrthev Li as hard as rosewood. Some of the smallest palms are 

rpTteTinrthrcount^ for walking^ticks, -^%«;« ^7- ^^ tS 

nnd Penanc canes. Of the foiur or five himdred varieties ot paim trees 

known^rixisronly a veiy small number are impoi-te<l into this comitry. 

S Um-wSdB sS^ im^^^^ are sparingly employed for cabinet and ma.-- 

nnetr^wOTk for bilUard Jues, for snutf boxes, &c. The tmst^d palm walking 

^SclT^AeTenSms or midribs of the leaves of the fate Palm; they 

are tli^d when green, and stretehed witli heavy weights unti they are tho- 

are '■y'/^^" ^''"^\^|'r,/„ „ fruit of many of this group of plant* is apph<jablc 

rt J f^the^r ;i?ch^ tS^^ or ««can«*, whose substance i. 

Sr nS ntll^2,'t^rtops of wdking sticks, and other -all^^ets ; ^e 

S With respect to the simple wants and pnmitiye arts of the people 
among wfLrthepahns and baiLboos grow, the uses of tliose Pl^n*^ are ei^ 
numerous- of the ooros nimfera, or cocoa-nut palm, for example, the fmit is 

ShTand ^t;Se inter^ovefwith the medW -?« or intermpted by 
£ f L Wi^ elastic and easily rent: such are --'XVood £: 

^.h \-c ■ but if tlie fibres ai-e more crossed and interlaced, liie wood Ik 
romes^'e;s'ttt,td ml rigid and tough : such are oak, b-^ J^^^^^ 
*P . nnd if the fibres be entangled to a still greater degree, they proauce uu 

t ;;X^ totgircro^^^^^^ --h - «H"' "?r nf HoUS 

mode of classification, tmced wiUi some minuteness by Mr. Holtzapttel, 






1 



L 



almost unknown ; and 
ision duo to the use of 

before speaking of llie 

g,' gives a very minute 
ft'ood used in the Ai-ts. 
nee between exogem and 
of trees into two gi-eat 
8 termed) are exogens ; 
palms, &c. In tlie coim- 
maller stems are usetl as 
ces as joists, Ac. In the 
or wires embedded in a 
■ the Isthmus of Darien 
them as nails ; in somo 
)f the smallest palms ar*; 
r the names of partridge 

varieties of palm trees 
)0i-t«d into this countiy. 
»yed for cabinet and mar- 
Ihe tmsi d palm walking 
i of the date palm ; they 
;ight8 until they are tho- 
up of plants is appliQablc 
a nut, whose substance is 

other smjill objects ; the 
V used in England for a 
lie shell, which is turned 
hell of which, being hard 
IS and pai-GSols, small toys, 
aitive arts of tlie people 
!S of tliose plants are vety 
, for example, tlie frait is 
;e, the leaves are used for 
Item yields wood fittetl for 
portions of the plant aio 

mder the more important 
itself. The fibres do nol 
ty and distance ; these two 
et>veen hard and soft wmds 
sewood, &c. ; and the latter 
lat which springs fi-oni the 
iidinal fibres be tolerably 
ar}' rays or interrupted by 
icli are laiiee-wood, hickoiy, 
d interlaced, the wood be- 
ai-e oak, beech, mahogany, 
sr degree, they produce the 
, ligiuim-vittE, &c. Another 
ness by Mr. Holtzapffel, is 



WOOD AND ITS APPTJCATtOWS. 



6 



that which is determined by the beauty of the surface presented by woods. 
The hiotit, occasioned by the junction of a branch with the stem ; the curls, 
produced by the confiised filling-in of the space between the forks or spring- 
ings of the bi-anches, as in the yew ; the flnarled appearance of the roots, 
formed at the points of junction of the rootlets or arms of tlie root witli the 
body of the root itself, as in walnut- wood ; the pollard growths of the oak and 
other trees, which owe tlie beauty of their grain to a crowding together of the 
little germs tliat produce the numerous slioote at the top ; the ripple-mark sur- 
iiice, occasioned by a serpentine form of the grain, as in satin-wood and syca- 
more ; the bird's-eye pattern, occasioned by a i)eculiar compression of the grain 
in isolated spots, as in some kinds of maple ; the -.ilrer-grain, which results 
from a marked distinctness in the medullary rays, as in the plane, sycamore, 
and beech — all give rise to variations in the appearance of tlie surface of wood, 
which are the mainspring of tlie beauty obsenablo in cabinet work. Anotlier 
and verj' obvious mode of classifying woods is in respect to tlieir colour. 

Mr. Holtzapffel gives a tabular view of all the kinds of wood commonly used 
in tliis countiy. The list includes nearly eighty species of trees, without 
naming the varieties of each species. He classifies them according to the 
sei-vices which tliey are calculated to render. One group includes huildiiu/ 
woods, subdivided into those fitted for ship-building, for bouse-carpentiy, 
and for hydraulic engineering ; anotlier group includes the woods most useful 
for machinery and mill-tcork, subdivided according as Uie wood is suitable for 
irame work, for rollei-s, for teeth of wheels, or for foundrj* patterns; a tliird 
group comprises the turnery woods, subdivided uito common soft woods, hai'd 
woods, and Tunbridge-wai'e woods ; a fourth group is made up of furniture 
woods, separated into common and best ; a fifdi group comprises omamentnl 
foreign woods ; a sixth group consists of r/yc-woods, arranged according to 
colour; while a miscellaneous group is foimed, subdivided according to the 
elasticity, the toughness, the even grain, or tlie durability of the wood. Of 
fourse many kinds of wood find a place in two or more of these groups ; but 
the table is valuable, inasmuch as it brings together before the eye the 
names of all tliose woods which resemble each other in some one manufac- 
turing quality. This tabb is followed by a Catalogue raisonnee of the woods, 
aiTanged in alphabetical order, in which the principal uses of eveiy kind is 
placed opposite to its name. 

But we have at the present time something better than a mere book to 
appeal to for instniction on these matters. The Great Exhibition, in tliis as 
in otlier points, is quite a storehouse of educational wealth; we cannot 
choose but learn, unless the ^^sit degenerate into a mere idle lounge. The 
numerous collections of specimens of wood, illustrating the capabilities of 
different counb-ies and disti-icts, are in a high degree interesting. They 
show some among tlie sinews of industry, the materials of a nation's wealth ; 
tliey point out whether Uie ship-builder or the house-builder, the coach- 
maker or the fiimiture-maker, the tasteful can-er or tlie patient inlayer, can 
best be supplied with the substance on which his skill and labour are to be 
bestowed ; and on tlie determination of tliis question depends much of the 
industrial organization of the district. That which a country can best produce 
is that which its inhabitants are most likely to bring profitably into use ; 
and timber trees are as subject to this law as any other natural product. 

Some of the collections alluded to above are confined to pai-ticulai* districts, 
each of which is illustrated by a pai-ticular collection; but othei-s relate 
rather to the varied products which become grouped together in our great 



I 



-nr 



T 



:«fPi 



1 



^ WOOD AKD ITS ATPUCATIONS. 

e^poria Of commerce. TakeJorexy^e.^e^^^^^^^^^ 

by the Dock Commissxoners jf ^ and of Lw«rpoo^ ^P^^ neaUyprepared 

of those two great towns; ^'""^ .^^rJ^xJ^iJi aJoxmt of which reaches 

specimens of the woods miported tJiere, the ^t^ ^^^."^J ^^^.^ j^,,„„t fifty 

xL4y 150.000 loads amiualiy; ^^''^i^Sed a^d described. Not 

specimens, similarly prepared, but ^"°J\fX^,t HanS^ of Hull. Here 

iL interesting are the ^P^^'-^f « ^e ^^ i7S" apSTcable to the wants of 

we find timber from every P*"* «f *« J«'^?; "TjE the tough, the soft. 

eveiy kind of worker m wood. Ihe h'^'^' *^«/^^Xd the wood for rough 

the Lotted. tl.e straiuhtgi^ned f .J^^^i^Xrhexe Ulustrated. AH 

senice, and tlie wood for tiisteful •i««<'™*t°^-*;\„^^^ (mcludinsj! 

our best known EngUsh timber trees; many ^^^^^^^^bu W^^^^ formed)! 

the Cuban sabim, of which the stau^ ^i^he ch ef Sids of dye-woods-an, 

of satinwood. of rosewood, of tubpwood tfie chiet ,g^^« « J comprises 

here presented to view ^^^J ^^f^J^.X^aped.^p^^^^^^^ and labked; 
neai-ly 200 specimens, aU of which are "^'^"y °""P ,,' -\„s g^ch one lettered 
they are even fashioned like quarto and octavo ^^^^ f^^^ collection is 
3 tlie name of tlie wood which conipo^es it^ Mr. S^^f^'^^^'^^.^ion ; it 
stiU lai-ger, and ai-ranged m ^ »«f^«^ ^^^^nly ale the names given, 
comprises no less than 700 ^P^cnnens and not only a^^^ ^J ^^^^ 

W and scientific, but «lso the imtwe counU-y the^wei^^^^ insU-uctive, 

the prmcipal uses or pecuhanties. lo render inem suu 
theyU aiUged geographically, ^^.^J^^^jJ^f^Sut a more immediately 
-fhe coUecUon sent by Mr. C^^^^f J^ ^^."^^ ^^ of English forest woods, 
valuable mterest. It consists ^^^^^y ^^^^^'S " v^sftor^ >vho have access only 
and fourteen of English orchaid ^^««^«: J^fde^ niach information 
to tlie smaUer catdogues of the Exhibition are a^^^^^ mugtiatod cat^ilogue. 
given by the ediibitoiN and piinted m the toge^^ o .^^ ^ 

hie uses to which each kmd of wood ^^J^^J^^^^^^'f — Ha^el, wc 

convenient form, in the last-mentioned <=^<J^S^^.^^; '"'0^4^ feels, pea sticks, 
ai-e told, is semceable for «™all tm-nejy, ^^,^8 ^^J'^^ket bats hat found- 
Ac; Elder, for shoemakers f gs. &c Wj, wi ^ ^^^^^^^ , ^^^^ 

ations, plait for ladies' bomiets, &c. , »y r,^' [^^^ Li^e, for pianoforU^ 
beam, for wheel.cogs,maUet8.skitties. and hard tmner^^^ f^^ ^^^^^ 

keys, musical i^^^^^'^t^U.^^^L Fh O^^d yZ the list of uses is. 
In respect to Ash. Beech. Birch, Em, Fir. ^»«' "JJ" f ^ valuable qualities 

as ma? be supposed, very ^f^^^^^^^^iti^^^.^Bpec^^^^^^ foreign haid 
possessed by those woods. Messrs. ^JT^^^^^^l""^ They are applicable to 
^oods are rendered intelhgible m a «f "[^^^"^^^r purposes, anf comprise 
cabinet^work. tmnerv. machinery, and numerous otha^pn^ • ^^^^^ ^j 

Box. B»-ilwood eL L \^*^^ contiibuted tiie 

many other valuable kmds. It is tins nnn uy wi inches in diameter, 

enonnous circulai- slab of Honduras mahogany seven^t ^^Xo^y extensive 
Messrs. Lawson's collection of the ''««j«/^^^~Xm ^^^^^^ and 

and valuable are the timber U-ees P««Xlo ^h^wSS^ engineers, and 
howgi-eat tiie semce rendered theieby1«shipwrig,^^^^ 

otiieis. Everything that can be done ^f^^JJ^^iJi'"'^^^ to ; not only 

may tell its o^ tale, seems to have been *^«"S^ of tlie specimens 

are^the botanical names and tiae <^o'ii™«" ,^"g^i"a^'^d size of tiie ti-cc 
given, but also tlie French and Geiinan ^"^"^ J-^^ief ^S may have dis- 
Sience the specimen wa« cut, «"*! »"y 1?^,^ ti e wo'd states, 

tinguished it, are noted; a... 1 order to show uie woou 



L 



itnictive specimens sent 
, as part of die imports 
y-tlu-ee neatly-prepared 
lount of which reaches 
)ol wc have al>out fifty 
d and described. Not 
[aiTisou of HuU. Here 
)pUcable to the wants of 
)le, the tough, the soft, 
ted, the wood for rough 
fe here illustrated. AH 
of mahogany (includinj^ 
on-building are formed), 
lands of dye-woods—arc 
I'he collection comprises 
I, polished, and labelled; 
imies, each one lettered 
r. Sanders's collection is 
y more information; it 
dy are the names given, 
veight per cubic foot, and 
■m still more insU-uctive, 

elf. ,. , 

[ but a more immediately 
i of English forest woods, 
tors who have access only 
ived of much information 

or illusti-atcd catalogue. 
e are tabulated in a very 
For example : — Hivzel, vo 
,s, cotton reels, pea sticlis, 
r cricket bats, hat found- 
butchei-s' skewers ; Hom- 
nei7 ; Lime, for pianoforte 
s, carving, and so forth. 
dYew, the list of uses is, 

of Uio valuable qualities 
wecimens of foreign haid 
ay. They are applicable to 
iier pm-poses, ancf compiise 
indalwood, Zebrawood, and 
n has been contributed the 
1 feet six inches in diameter, 
tlaud shows how extensive 
I- northern neighbours, anc 
Wrights, to engineers, atul 
lis collection a book which 
fully attended to ; not only 
h names of tlie specimens 
he age and size of the ti-oc 
lities which may have dis- 
lie wood in different states, 



WOOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 

two pieces of most of the specimens oi'e hinged togetlier, the one polished 
and the other unpolished. 

Some of our colonies have also striven to show tliat their store of forest 
wood is rich and ample, only wanting commercial energy to bring tliem 
largely into use. The "Canadian timber tiophy" — a rough gi-oup surrounded 
by brilliant neighbours — gives us not merely diiintily-cut pieces, but whole 
planks and logs of the timber grown in tliat countiy. It is here observable, 
tliat, altliough tliere ore many varieties of beautiful niaiking and tints, the 
woods are generally more applicable to builduig and engineermg tlian to 
ornamental purposes ; in respect to woods, as to the plmnuge of bu-ds and 
tlie colours of flowere, tlie sunny soutli produces more brilliimcy tlian the 
cold north. Africa illustrates tliis principle ; for among tlie articles sent 
from tlie Cape ■ of Good Hope is a case containing about forty specimens 
of African wood, which exhibit much more depth of colom- than tlie 
average of northern specimens. The British Guianian specimens lue full 
of interest, from the variety which they exhibit and the novelty which tliey 
comprise. The greater number of tliese woods ai'e almost entirely unknown 
in this country: the time may come, when our i ustly and atlonied furniture 
(for many of the specimens are furniture woods) will derive their material 
from this little explored colony. The names given to tlie woods show how 
little they have yet become fainiliaiised in England: — kakarUla, uamara, 
wallaba, camara, mtouri, yaniri, itikinhurahaUi, koqwrcttabaUi, tmeroneroo, 
warracoori — we shall have to leara to pronomice such names. Trinidad 
furnishes specimens of its lignum-vitte, ironwood, cedai-, and otlier trees ; 
and it is observable, tliat many trees come under illustration which yield 
well-known gums and juices — such as ynm-anivie, copaiba, and fustic. Our 
fai'-distant possessions in the East — such as India, Ceylon, Austiia, and New 
Zealand — have all transmitted specimens of tlieir forest and orchard woods. 
The Indian varieties came from vrnious pai'ts of the British territories ; from 
Ceylon we have " forty specimens of ornamental and house-building timber;" 
from Van Diemen's Land we find hlue-yum timber, fit for ship-building; 
stringy-bark, for house-building ; black wood, for cabinet work ; sassafras, for 
flooring, turning, and cai-ving; and so forth; while New Zealand has sent 
some of its woods half round tlie world to tlie World's Exhibition. There 
are many reasons why the woods of India should be interesting to the 
artificers of Uie mother countiy, on account of the varied qualities which 
they present. The many hundred specimens deposited in the Indian 
department, comprise of coui-se, among Uieir numbfjr, tlife teak wood, which 
has become so valuable in ship-building ; as well as ebony, cedar, tamai'ind, 
blackwood, wellkuan, little kuan, and almost entirely unknown woods. The 
labels give a gi'eat mass of information concerning the botanical and Indian 
names, tlie weight per cubic foot, the available qualities (whether " easy to 
work," " hai'd to work," &c.), and other particulai"s. 

Many foreign comitries, too, have enriched tlie assemblage with numeroas 
specimens of then* native gi-own woods. France, for example, has contri- 
buted about a himdred specimens from Algeria, of vaiious foi-ms and sizes, 
but mostly polished. Spain — little able as she is, in her present depressed 
commercial state, to take pai-t in tliese industiial displays — has fonvai-ded a 
valuable collection of woods from her impoilant colony of (]uba; tliey aie 
neatly prepared, and labelled witli the oi-dinai-y names, and were sent to Uiis 
country from the Botanical Garden at Madrid. Spain has also contiibuted 
a 13 specimens from the Philippine Islands, each specimen cut into a cube 





L 



g WOOD ASD ITS An^tTOATtOMS. 

legion. tVom Portugal there ib a jdl and^ ^^ "5^J^„«^^"lf MalrhauHer, 
The Austrian (iovemment has fonMudea, n om m. dibu , uk- npat 

piecfH about a fcmt in length. 

The Maladies of Timdeu, and tiu' Remedies. 

The present century has been .narked (a. i;;^ ^^1^,^ *f >{ S^'r'^ -i 
very ac ive inquiry into the nature of wood, the ''^^.'^''^'^f, "/ ;Jf „, ^f those 
IIZ, the dera^eTnentB to which the fibres ^/^^^J^k model's relo^^^^ 
derantrements on carpentry and ghip-building, and tne »es^ "'"^' , , . . j^. 

the^vll The Che Jst« ak tl.o V^^y^^'^^^ll'^^l^Zetl^^^^^ 

aid in the solution of various P^^^ems connectedj^^^^^ ^,^^^^ 

"Z^Z^S^^XJ^^^^tJS^^ distance between 

" iCreTive tenta::^ curious facts ascertained concerning the q^^alities .>f 

differed utds'TLber^s affected by Vo^^yf^XTue^it'Z^^^ 
cumstances. Woo<l taken iiom ne^ the heart of a trunk ^^J^^'^^^^^^^^^^t 
weaker tlian that from an intermediate f«^'«"'/l7,3^^ a tree grown 
are stronger than the parte near the junction of <J^«J~ is harder hSvier, 
In dry soil, otlier tilings being equal, produces timber J^^icl/s harden hca^, 
finer Vained, sU-onger. and of a deeper yellow ^fl^^*;. ♦1^*';;*^«^;^5 become of 
soil. Some woods lose but littie weight m ««» ™»"^ '/T ".^densaUon of 
gi-eater specific gravity than ^f ^••'' „^^ JSrHuT n mL c^" 

Eirriigt.vxn\3^rs^^^^^^ 

"ts r^ir^s:^:^^:^:^^ that i>-tigations h^e 
S^^-inroSrss 

brought into familiar imiguage. All trees ''^"^J",:;^™ ^^^^^ 

albumen, which contributes to die sustenance «f f « P^^" ' J^^^ ^hiTalbumen 

is feUed, and the trunk and branches converted mto timber, tins aiuum 



L. - 



iiritl»iililH<ti1il«i 



I 



led to us about Uiirty 
Uil wood found in that 
B group of specimens, 
snert, of Miulcrliiiuser, 
)lour, lemnrkably neat 
y well fitted for cheap 
•d a few rough-looking 
lftngua}»e. ProfeHsor 
;ing mode of exhibiting 
if wood ; his oollocticm 
so as to show the grain 
»en the leaves of which 
mens, so as to exhil)it 
;tlv, we may notice that, 
poduco froin tlu^ Uniteil 
mostly in quadnuigular 



Lemedies. 

ig that it should be) by 
iicture of its fibres and 
■ect, tlie effect of these 
best mode of removing 
sen asked to lend th'eir 
I these subjects ; the aid 
)er of those which show 
tuol assistance between 

nceming the qualities of 
moisture, and otlier cir- 
•unk or near the bark is 
i the parts near the root 
M-anches. A tree grown 
which is harder, heavier, 
than if grown in a damp 
ig ; some will become of 
lore by condensation of 
, in most cases the wood 
ig the diminution almost 

1 that hivestigations have 
les often furnished of this 

■ a pile-timber which had 
toft; it is honey-combed 
ntegratiou tliat it may be 
t be more or less familiar 
•I. the caiise of this decay 

■ scientific strictness and 
thin their poi-es a kind of 
plant ; but when tho tree 
ato timber, this albumen 




WOOD AMD ITB AVPLICATIONH. • 

becomes an evil instead of a good-a source of mischief which woiUd willingly 
'rScn^d with. When tlfo dbun.en is moist (which ^^^)^^^;^ 
timber is scuHoncl), it has a fndeucy to ent^r uiU) a sort o lenuent«ti on . 
d is Htttt«T. lamences, th., alb.nnen b.^cmes a favourite rchsh lor cerUiui 
ni mhnr.\X fmlhwith bore for then.selves invisible p.vssagcs Unough 
ewri.t^ attain U.e object of Uiar search ; Uicse passages admit au- am 
moist re vv^.ich so m-X upon the chemical constituent of tlie sap as to at old 
fk nd . f soil in which n inute panusitical plai>ts grow ; Uieso plants, sprouting 
out li;; r.k.s for themselves tlnough Uie wood, and m-- - J'^ "^ ^ - 
dnirol- .uul the holes by degrees become so largo as to lenlei aietimbu a 
2re sklton-a dry s,.ongo of IVagile fibres. This is, we behevo, tiie modem 
exnlanation of dry rot, or sometliing near it. , . , 

^^ZT^LeL ai.d timber dealers, timber sawyei-s and timber users nro 
not likely U, sit down quietly and let decay do its work «>"»«l««tecl 1 ley 
av not have known in past times all Uiat is now knovyn concommg tlio 
Se of c Cy, lut they had certain theories which led them to Uy expen- 
r« s Indefotiguble, indeed, have been Uie attempts to find out somo che- 
ical mo'.. of protecthig timber from niinous decay. As last as one motliod 
was tS ^.l bund to fail, anotlier .tart«d up, and to tins mitir.ng energy 
ve owe the ..-collent methods now in practice. It is na m so nnuiy otlicr 
n'tftiK^s) tin first half of tJ.e present century tiiat ho^ chielly borne witness to 
Ell but Uie lost century effected something in the niattc. I^- H^f- - 
commended sulphate of copper as a Ht*!ep-presenative lor wood. Di . 1' n d) ^o 
S tuXuh.hate of iroi which rendered good service in the wood ot some 
i'mber tnsesSn Jamaica. Colonel Congreyc. in 1784, l-P-f^^-^^;; ; 
tion of oil of tar as a coating for wood. Towaida the close oi the ctntuiy 
Hh Sa nuel Be itham patented a mode of extracting the air from tie pores of 
wood Ld forcing chmnical agenU, into the pores Uius vacated : this wa^ a 
genu fm which many subsequent metliods have been denved. but it faded ot 
SLtion mider the Inventors hands. Then came ^.-"J^^^^^f^^^^^^^^^ 
respecting the substance to be cmployed-coarse whole oil, oil ot J ^'f^ 
unslaked lime, pyroligneous acid, &c. Some bmied tlioir timber for a win o 
1 ot sai id- some put it m chambers fiUed wiUi heated air; sonie exposed it to 
"tout son,; cTatedtlie surface ^ indeed tho plans proposed durmg die eariy 
it of die present centmy were so numerous tl.at wo may consider tho 
present adopted methods to be improvement^ radier Uian "ov^l^^s 

How to get rid of tlie albumeu, or how to niodify it^tins is d/« " 1 > 
It cannot be driven out; and if dried, it lu.s a tendency again to absorb moistme 
Hei^e chemists have recommended, and practical men haN^ adopted, modes 
of renderiuKtiie albumen imobd,h, by combining it chemically witli some oUier 
llSice Cg nmle insoluble it defies moisture. Then arose tlieques lorj 
!^mat chemical agent shall be employed? Sir Humphiy Davy suggested 
coiTOsf^ sS nateTMr. Kyan ha., adopted this plan under some modification 
S SeUiell prefers Jreosoto oil; Mr. Payne employs s^phate ot "•"X'lhemkai 
while Sir W Uiom Burnett selects chloride of zmc. But supposuig the chemital 
Son belnmTtliere are yet other difficulties to surmount ; tjese solutions 
cMmot reach tie pores of tiie wood mitil tiie air ha.s;^been expelled, and for a 
Im ^t n ' tl , difficulty baffled the experimentei-s. Tho plan now adopted is 
iX ngS^^^ The timber is pW in a very strong cylmder, provided 
3i a Son air-pump and a pressure liquid-pmnp: tiie air is pumped out of 
tie pores, and the liquid solution (whatever it may be) is then pmnped in. 
The TidusUial Eihibition has its fuU share of specimens illusti-ativc of 



is 



rr^MillnMillf "iHim 



'"Ml 



d WOOD ASM ITS APPLICATIONS. 

these vahiablo and ingenious opemtionn. Sir William IJumctt, for instonce, 
exliibitH Hpeciiupns of " IJiimettizod and nn-BumcUiz<Ml timber," as ])roofs of 
the diflferent way in which damp affocts wood, according as it has or lias not 
been steeped in the chloride solntion. There are also pieces of canvas, cotton, 
woollen, and raw hides, tested to demonstrate the efficacy of the process. In 
order to complete the series, there are bottles containing the preservative liquid, 
and drawings of the machine employed to inject the liipiid into the pores of 
the wood. Mr. Hofhells system is illustrated in an analogous way. Ho ex- 
hibits specimens of wood saturated with oil of tar by a process which he de- 
signates "creosoting;" pieces of creosoted sleepers, which have been used for 
some years on railways without undergoing any decay ; pieces of wood in an 
unprepared state, showing the ravages of the Teredo iinraUs and other insects ; 
and other proofs of contrast between decay and soundness, tencUng to illus- 
trate the subject under consideration. In the Mecklonborg section of the 
Exhibition there is an interesting group of specimens put together in tlie form 
of a ship ; the pieces have been impregnated with pyroligneous acid, and the 
object is to show that inferior kinds of wood, if treated in this way, may 
render good service in ship-building. 

There is a slightly different philosophy involved in Messi-s. Davison and 
Symington's deskcatiwj process for timber. Here the pores of the wood are 
thoroughly dried by means of hot air, aided by a rapid cuirent. If a beam of 
timber were shut up in a vessel of stationary hot air, it would be baked ; if 
there were a little current, but not sufficient, the wood would be stewed; and 
this baking and stewing have accompanied many modes of di7ing timber 
by heated air. The new metliod obviates the evil, by caiTying off all the 
nioisture from the wood through the agency of a rapid current. Mr. Newton 
has sent t» the Exhibition specimens of wood which have been exposed to the 
desiccating process. Each specimen is inscribed with various particulars con- 
cerning its dimensions, the time during which it has been exposed to Uie 
desiccating process, &c. Even timber which is considered to be well seasoned 
by the ordinwy method loses ten per cent, of its weight on further desiccation, 
thus showing how much moisture has still been left in tlie wood. An im- 
portant consequence results from tliis more perfect diying ; the wood being 
rendered more homogeneous, vibrates more equally imder the influence ot 
sound, and forms more efficient sounding-boards for nnisical instruments. 
Mr Willis's great organ is made from wood thus seasoned. Another rmex- 
pected benefit is, that new beauties ai-e developed in the grain of die wood : 
many cheap kinds of wood being found to present a colour and surface more 
attractive than when imperfectly dried by the usual means. 

It was an extraordinary conception of a French physician, Dr. liouterie, to 
send these anti-d17-1-.it agents into the pores of Uie livuvf tree itself. He has a 
method of causing the tree to imbibe certain liquids in the same way as it 
would ordinaiy moisture. The liquid kills the tree, but the timber is rendere.l 
antiseptic. There is no knowmg yet how much this method may be capable 
of effecting; for the inventor claims the power of impaiting any colotir or any 
odaur he pleases to wood by analogous means. 

The carbonization of wood by high-pressure steam is one of the apparent 
paradoxes of recent times. How can steam— a moistening, wettuig vapour— 
unpart a scorched or carbonized quality to wood ? It seems controiy to all our 
nsuol experience. The tmtli is, that in our eveiy-day processes steam has a 
temperature very little, if anything, above that of boUing water (a U talir.); 
and at that temperature wood would be soaked but not scorched; whereas 



w . i^ irt " * * i »rtrfrW i i'Hlrt iiai** ffi fa* 



wool) AND ITrt APl'UC'ATIONH. 



•0 



linnictt, for iuHtHTice, 
(I tiinbor," us proofs of 
; as it hiiH or has not 
lieces of canvas, cotton, 
cy of the process, [n 
the preservative liquid, 
iqnid into the pores of 
nalogons way. Ho ex- 
i process wliich he dc- 
idi have been used for 
; pieces of wood in an 
vailn and other insects ; 
Iness, tending to iUns- 
Itiuborg section of t\w 
ut together in tlie form 
ohgneous acid, and tlio 
ated in this way, msiy 

1 Messrs. Davison an<l 
pores of Uie wood are 
cuiTent. If a beam of 

it would be baked; if 
I would bo stewed ; and 
lodes of di7inK timber 
by caiTying otf all the 
I cniTont. Mr. Newton 
ive been exposed to the 
various particulars con- 
is been exposed to tlio 
3red to be well seasoned 
t on further desiccation, 

in the wood. An im- 
liiying ; the wood being 
imder the influence of 
r nnisical instruments, 
isoned. Another unex- 

the grain of tlie wood : 
olour and auiface more 
Bans. 

y^sician, Dr. Bouterie, to 
ituf tree it.inlf. tie has a 
i in the same way as it 
it the timber is rendered 
method may be capable 
ai-ting any colour or any 

is one of the apparent 
ening, wetting vai>our — 
ieems contraiy to all our 
y processes steam has a 
iling water (212° Falir.) ; 

not scorched; whereas 



high-pi-esHuro steam is heat«'d to a far greater degree, and the damp (piahty 
(if it may be so tenned) is overpowered by the hot ijuulity. M. VioletU; com- 
umnicated a j.aper to the Academie dos Sciences, in IHIH, in which he pointed 
out the curious rtjsults of tliis highly-heated steam upon wood, and showed 
that these results enable us to prepare charcoal of any desired quality. If 
wood is exposed to tenq)ei'atureH varjing from 40()'' to 700° Fahr., it becomes 
charred, or converted into charcoal, vaiying from light brown to deep black ; 
lUid those ditterei.t qualities of chai-coal ai-o applicable to dilferent useful pur 
poses, in making gxmpovder and other substances. Now it is found tha'^^ 
steam-heating enables the charcoal burner to produce and maintain a iletinite 
temperature, antl thereby tx) manufacture a definite kind of charcoal at plea- 
sure. M. Violette raises the steam to the desired degree in a boiler, pusses it 
througli a tube to a cylinder containing i»iecc3 of wood, allows it to act by its 
heat on the wood, and to carry away the distilled products of the wood when 
it escapes from the cylinder. The -jharcoul becomes Uuis not merely browned 
or blacked to a pre-ananged degree, but it is rendered more like pure carbon 
by the abstraction of various volatile ingredients. There is something highly 
scientific in tliis conception. 

Besides tlio collections of woods noticed in former paragraphs, many speci- 
mens are to be found in the Exhibition illustrativo of some process or other 
to which the wood has been subjected. Mr. Stow, for example, has specimens 
of wood which have been stained witliout the aid of boat or moisture,— a process 
said t<i be applicable equally to plain and to carved wood. An exhibitor from 
Swansea shows us a piece of Welsh oak, prepared by a peculiar process as a 
substitute for fiuicy wood. Another group of specimens comprises cheap 
woods which have been stained with certain liquid solutions, and tlien var- 
nished • the exterior woodwork of tlie Ciyslal Palace has been thus treated, 
and illustrates the mode in which deal may be decked out more cheaply and 
expeditiously than by painting luid graining. The imitations of marble m 
wood and of cosUy woods in otliers of humbler kind, are numerous m the 
Exhibition, but too familial- to need notice, except that some of them display 

remarkable beauty. , . , . . r 

Wood like many otlier substances, is now brought within the scope ot 
pressing' power. The rolling mill, so extensively adopted for metals of almost 
every kind, is also applied to wood ; but not for the same purpose ; tor while 
metals are sought to be made thbutcr by the process, wood is made hard^'r. A 
patent was obtained a yeai- or two ago with this object in view, wood being 
much stronger when compressed or condensed by pressure. In one machine 
pieces of wood for makuig wedges are compressed so forcibly between two 
Ilies as to have a definite angle given to Uiem, and great hardness to Uie sub- 
stance of die wood ; in another machine small pieces of wood are compressed 
into tlie proper forms for railway pins luul ship's ti-eenails; in a third machine 
T)lanks »u-e pressed throughout their whole lengtli by passing between rollei-s 
Let it but once be detemiined that wood so treated becomes strengtliened, and 
we shall witness abundant variety in the application of the principle. 

Steam-Power Carpentry. 

As the present century has witnessed many additions to tlie number of 
woods applied to useful and ornamental pm-poses, and many excellent modes 
of preserving timber from decay, so has it been equally prolific in new modes 
of fashioning timber for practical uses. 

Do 



jttmmm*^ 



10 



WOOD AND ITS API'LIOATION*. 



Tho " top maw^or " at present is cei-tainly iho steam-onRUje, and snch soems 
likely to contiiiut' to be the cane. Yeiir nt'Un- yt'ar hUiiuu [lower brcoinun mon* 
and ni(»re cniplDyod in cutting bulky tiinbor into planks ainl sUvc^. It in «iiid 
Umt there jmo no fewer Uiun seventy steam aaw-inills in and near tlie mo- 
tropolis. These suporsodo to an unequal degree tJie labourH of hiuid sawycrn ; 
Uie latter ai-e groupotl in four classes — uud)er sawyers, imrd-wood «awy..rs, 
c<»oper«' sawyern, and ship sawyers; and the sUmni-engine is ai)i»lit!able to 
some of tliese kinds of labour nioro tlian fxi oUiers. The haixl-woml sawyer iian 
to exl libit much taet and skill, sinc.*^ tlie valuable furniture aiul cabinet woods 
t)ji which he is employtsd have to be economized as nuich as possible. Tho 
coopc rs' sawyers cut the staves for casks, a kind of work which is now somu- 
tirnes accoraplisliud by cask-making machmes. Tho ship sawyer cuts tho 
curiously twisted timbers for a ship, the cui-ved surfaces of which require 
nmch care on tho jiiut of tlie sawyer. Hut the conunon timber sawyer, who 
prei)ai'i'M the deals and other common woods for carpentry anil Himihu- pur- 
poses, is tlie (me whoso laboms are most likely to be superseded by «liuub 
agency; tlie work is coai-se, haixl, monotoiuMis, and reciuires very httlo 
tliouglit. 

From tlio earliest times of which wo know anytliing definite, tho sawing ot 
timber has been perioruied pretty much in tlie same way : th(^ paintings and 
bas-rehefs in Egypt tell us thus much. The top man and the pitman, tlie pit 
and tlie scaffold," are what they have been for centuries, with veiy little nioditi- 
cation. • Eveiy one must see that the labour at a saw-pit is of a very severe 
kind. In one of the remarkable papers published in tlie Morniiuf Chronicle, 
some montlis ago, on the Labourers of London, a sawyers estimate of bis 
daily physical exertion is given. In the fii-st plsuie, he says tliot his saw weighs 
from 60 to 70 lbs., that it is about 7 ft. in lengtli of blade, ond tJiiit he and 
his partner make about 10 strokes a muiuto ; this is o.i\ml to 70 I'eet ])(;r 
minute, or 4200 feet per hour, or 4^,000 feet in a day of 10 hours— in otlier 
words, two men lift 00 to 70 lbs. nearly B miles high in the course of a 
day's work. But tliis is only half the labour, perhaps less tlian half ; in the 
iij) stroke the men have only to lift the saw, but in the down stroke the teetli 
cat«h like so many ;diarp hooks in tlie tubstance of the wood, and te»u- it away 
by rnpin force. The sawyer was too unlearned to estimate the amount of this 
force, but he bad heanl " a scientitio man calculate and reckon " tliat it was 
eqnuX to lifting 80 lbs. If tliis be coiTect, it more than doubles tlie former 
figures, and presents a formidable appeiu-anee. Even supposing tlie «awyer 
and his scientific informant to have been not stiictly occm-ate, tJiei-e is 
abundant room for thinking Uiat the labour must be severe, and that it is u 
kind peculiiu-ly fitted to be brought within the scope of steam power. 

For a few years before and after the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, horse power was occasionally used to facilitate the labom- of sawing ; but 
it was about forty years ago that tlie firet steam sawmill wivs established near 
London. The horse-mills were abandoned, partly through the opposition of 
die sawyers, but more effectively through tlie system being nou-remunemting. 
The steam mills have proved to be efficient and advuntjigeous, and have been 
increasing in number yeoi- by year. In most st<mni saw-mills thei-e are tlire<! 
frames of about nine saws each : this may be taken as im average. Tho 
BUaight saws, which have a reciprotal or up and down motion, make 150 to 
IHO cuts in a minute ; while the circular saws, usually from 18 to 3ti inches in 
diameter, have a revolution of 1600 to aOOO times in a minute — a speed which 
enables them to cut through wood with groat ease and rapidity. The teeth 



1 



WOOD AND JTH APrUCATlONH. 



11 



np;u)e, and mich soemH 
II power liKuumus mt)ro 
I uiui Htavt'y*. It iri Huid 
t ill and iioiir tlte iiui- 
(ours "f hiiiid HawvfiM ; 
m, hard-wood wiwytrs, 
iti^inn iH at>|)licnblt5 to 
e haixl-wocxl KHwycr Iiim 
turti luul ciibinet woods 
inch fut jxmHiblo. Tho 
rk which is now wiik - 
Bhip Hiiwyor cuts tho 
faces of which require 
ion timber Hftwyer. who 
peiitry lUid Hitiiiliw pur- 

HUpurHcdcd by dinnli 
id requires very littlu 

■:^ definite, the aawinf^ of 
viiy : th(^ piiintinKs and 
uid the pit-man. tlie pit 
, with vci-y little niodifi- 
w-pit is of a very severe 

1 the Mnrniiiff Chnmicle, 
awyer'a estimate of bis 
jftya tliat bin saw weighs 

bliide, and Unit he ami 
is equal to 70 feet per 
y of lU hours — in otlior 
ligh in tlie course of a 
)8 less tlian half ; in tlio 
> down stroke tlie teotli 
B wood, and teiu' it away 
mate the amount of this 
and reckon " tlmt it was 
Ihan doubles the former 
;n supposing tlie «awyer 
ictly accurate, tliewi is 
3 severe, and that it in u 
)f steam power, 
ent of the present cen- 
e labom- of sawing : but 
lill was established near 
hrough tho opposition of 
being nouremuuei'ating. 
itjigoous, and have been 
saw-mills there ai-e tlire<; 
■n as an average. The 
wn motion, make 150 to 
' from 1» to 3t5 in<hes in 
I minute — a speed which 
iuid rapidity. The teetli 



are much fmor than in the saws use,lby pit-sawyers, mid ^;>^';f '^ «;, ^JX of 
l„.in« Hubi.!ct U. more reguUu' .uid precise u.aion, they ii.hhI n« be mmU, o 
sudih K Iv-wrought st^el as pit^saw'. and an. on that acco.mt .lieaper; and 
cut tS a given quai.lity of Umber, a ma.l.in... saw requir.^ shan.eumg le 
;;;.lutly tl'n a ..t-Haw'-tliree l'''-t->f .^av, nUige whij the ^ 
l-i« ov," tlie old kmnuif the .rurious calculatioiw conn, 'led with this hui.jtu. 
1;;.: ;;, 'tlli^^evo;.. ttth of an I8.inch c.iculai- saw. worWuig at average speed 
for ten hours a day. tmvels (»0(» inUes m that time. 

But .wurnaro the forms int.. which a -••'«'»;"''ll l^*'"^ "1'"^^'','* If *"',';' 
sawing lind.er. It is ui fact now entirely a machine process ui this . om Uy. 
Th. laU Sir M. 1. Bnmel-that exlraordh.ary man. whose mventive mmd i lo- 
i ,d Hud; .niiUul results m a prof. ssiomU career of ludl a -"tu^--- « 
parent of the saw-mill. He invented it about »''''^y,J;' '^, Z^' ; '"^^^^^^^^^ 
nvention. lu.d leiised Uie use of the patent t.. many ddle lei. i e^ ns^ J* 
was for timber-sawing oiUy ; but his ever-active mmd did i.ot iail t« sec i no 
IribS of he method to veneer-H. i«g. He "P^'^^VV^'" .t, 
, Icavour 'to surmount unexpected .litHculues which presented th« n^lve 1 e 
l^i I sunnount them, and veneer saws have ever sin.'e remaunMl nearly .« ho 
leli rr He. wiU. one or more parties, established a -"-r -wuig-niiU at 
Balt.i-sea: the mill is still at work, but has passed into othe h.uids. 

It iH^ally a beautiful example of mechanical action which is presented by 
this vnieer sawing So mierringW .""o U.e thui plates cut. let tho gram ot U.o 
wrJ'l^hanT;;; loft. stmigHt or^wist..d. U.at the use of veneers js be— g 
more aiid more extensive every year. Not merely mahogany and ro8owoi)a. 
Torrl^Zving-rooni funii^l butsatin-wood, Ainboym^^^^^^^ 

tulip-wood, ebony, Coi-omandel-wood. maple, cedar, ^^'''^''^'r^'^^^.' jf'"]^:''^'^^^^ 
^^ other loreiii woods, are simihu-ly cut. ^^^y- «'\"^" ^^'Itil"^^ 
ehii ash birch, walnut, sycamore, Ac, are wrought uito tlun hlms by sum ax 
„,L iX, ogH of wood, when about to midorgo the sawmg pi-ocess are 
Srrirought to a tolerably clean surface by the ad.^ or the plane, '"hI^« ^"''^ 
fimilvttttrd into a fmme. The veneer-cuttuig saws areot enoruKms si/e.somo 
oi™ Li mU ing to seventeen feet in diameter; they are circulai-, and i«<e bu It 
up of evx'ml pi' ces of steel, for it is found Uiat a single Pl^.^J>- f J,f^S 

tJ become .listorted by the heat generated ^»"'»« ^^T'^^^" ..J.^.'SlTiL niliw 
the saws is most extrm)i-dinaiT for its exivctness. Let us consider that as n any 
f^ fiZn verei^ ar^^^^ cut in an inch, and that any deviation Iro.n 

;Ji Em would render them ragged imd useless ; we can ^;- ^Xuy^ t^ie 
nicety of arrangement is reipired. The saws rotate with great ^^loc ty , U e 
oa moves on by automatic inachineiy to meet the saw-cuts ; the saw-dust ialls 
tS Krouml in line powder : and tlfe ai'oma from the wood (tor each kind ot 
woo^TCtL own pecldiai- aroma when heated by J-'^^^-^/^^'n' we arS 
the anaitment Thus is veneer-cutting now conducted; and when we aro 
Sid tiiart^rmachine can cut nearly twice as many veneers m an mch as he 
most skilful sawyer, we see ample reason for the change m Uie working 
■olinv of this taule The English usually adopt tlu, metho.l iu re described ; 
lut oXeConS^t a singufar mode is%ractised of -Uing y onunmn. 
v,.r.eer in a spiral fonn ; tlie English plan wastes a litUe more wood, but yields 
stnServeiSer th™ the foreign. There i a fihn of iyoi-y v;eneer m the 
SdStSes department of Z ExhibiUon. forty f-Uong by a foot m 
width • produced by cutting tlie tusk spmiUy or m snail-ldie lashion 
^Se most other Jteam-power operaUons. timbejvsawing "^""dei^™^^ 
than it was onco thought capable of efffcctmg. The elder Brunei thought he 



I 



^0mmmmm 



L 



w 



WOOD ANT> 1TB AFPt.KATIONH. 



i 



had wi-onght n Rrrmt work (nml it ir/n n fftmi work) when ho nhoweil how to 
■•w 11 hiiRo lop; into pliiiikH by Htcnin iiowor; Imt nioih-ni inv<>ntx»i>« iiio not 
■atiHlied with this; Uu-y wish to iniiko rnxiki'd Hiiw-onts iis well an Htmight, tor 
the production of HhipH* tin»h»>rH; und thfy hiivo ftttninnd thrir ohjott. About 
t.hr»H> yortr« ft}»o, tliere wuh k legn! cntit/^Ht botw«wn two invputorn, iu» EngUnh- 
man and an Arnorican, an to tlieir rcHpectivo ri^htH to new timber-Hawing 
mechaiiiHtn: into th« nieritu of tho hti^atod (pn'Htiou wo do not enter; hut it 
is interesMtiK to noto that l)oth inventors \m\ prixhiced machines for making 
either straight or crooked suw-cuts in timber. Mr. Cochran's machine (one of 
those here alhided u>) is a very compUcat«!d piece of apparatus ; the fixing of a 
log of timber, the slow moveinent of the log as the cutting proceeds, and the 
reciprocating movement of tho saws, are all effectively miuiaged. Hut when 
the log is to he cut in a tx)rtuous fomi, for ship-building and other pui-poses, 
there is provision for giving a rotatory or i)artially rotatory motion to tlie log; 
and, what is still more remarkable, the saw is made to shift or oscillate so as 
to cut successively in many ditferent <lirections : nay, there may even be two 
saws working at once, the one cutting straight and the otlier curvilmear. 
This machine has been worked at Woolwich Dockyard ; and we believe it is 
now luidergoing that ordeal of lengthened trial which must necessarily pre- 
cede any general adoption of such contrivances. It is said, tluit at the Earl 
of Rosse's fii-st soirSe, as President of tlie lloyal Society, a model of this 
timber-cutting machine was exhibited; and that the Prince Consort cut a 
miniature ship's tunbers with it to test its action : — a pleasant apprenticeship 
this, for one who was destined to be tlie founder of the greatest industrial 
jubilee the world has ever witnessed. 

Not only is the giant power of steam now applied to the fashioning of 
wood for the purjjoses of tlie cari)ent«r and the joiner, but there are establish- 
ments expressly appropriated to Uiis puqiose. These are much inoro 
modem than steam saw-mills, and contain machinery of a more complicated 
kind ; most of them, however, comprise machine-worked saws as well as 
planing and moulding machines. Until uhout twelve or fourteen years ago, 
the few planing machines in use were wrouj^'ht by hand, but the all-embi-acing 
steam engine is now applied with much better effect. The same movement 
sets to work the saws for cutting bomds to the proper widtli, adzes for 
bringing the board t« regidar tliickness, and planes for smoothing tho 
surface ; and it is said (and may readily be believed) that tlie boards so pre- 
pai-ed are flatter and smootlier than those planed by hand. In tlie moulding- 
miUa, as they are called, the operations are of greater nicety, for the wood has 
to be fashioned to those architectural forms which constitute mouldings, such 
as are used by carpenters, joiners, and others. The cutting tools are sniall 
pieces of steel, fashioned to tlie shape of the mouldhig, and fixed to a rapidly- 
revolving axis; the wood is brought to the action of these cutters, and a 
perfect shower of little fragments of wood is all that tells us what is going on, 
for the revolution is too rapid to allow the movement and action of the cutters 
to be traced. 

The gieat lesson-book in Hyde Park affords its teachings on this subject as 
on others. There are five different kinds of wood-working machines exhibited 
by Mr. Fumess. One is a morticing machine, intended to cut holes for the 
tenon-and-mortice mode of joining timbers. There is a second morticing 
machine, moved by the foot instead of by steam power, and fitted t» cut holes 
from an eightli of an inch to two inches in width. A tliird is a tenoning machine, 
for cutting those projections which constitute tenons ; each tenon is com^ 



L 



wAatawwaiiar ■— niMir 



Mjm ili H i rmi *wti^ f : 



WtM)l» ANO l» A»'rr,lCATIt)KH. 



l!l 



f»n hfl nhoweil how t»» 

t'ln invcntotH luo not 
HH well as HtriiiKht, lor 
(I Unir »jl)jott. About 
invontorH, iu» EngliMh- 
U) n«w timber-Hawing 

do not, enter; but it 
machines for niakini^ 

hiiin's niiu'bino (one of 
)aratnM; the fixing of ii 
ting prooeetls, luul tlie 

monftffed. But when 
ig and other l>ui-poHeH, 
tory motion to the log; 

Hliift or oscillate so as 
;here may even be two 

the other cm-viliiiear. 
I ; and we believe it is 

1 nuist necessarily prc- 
s said, tluit at the Earl 
ciety, a model of this 

Prince Consort cut a 
[)leivHant apprenticeship 
the greatest industrial 

il to the fashioning of 
but there are establish- 
hese are nnich more 
of a more complicated 
>rked saws as well as 

or fourteen years ago, 
I, but tlie all-embracuig 
The same movement 
iroper widtli, adzes for 
168 for smoothing tlio 
that tlie boards so pre- 
land. In the moulding- 
iiicety, for the wood has 
istitute mouldings, such 

cutting tools are small 
;, and fixed to a rapidly- 
of these cutters, Mid a 
Us us what is going on, 
ind action of the cutters 

hings on this subject as 
king machines exhibited 
ed to cut holes for the 
is a second morticing 
', and fitted to cut holes 
rd is a tenoning machine, 
is; each tenon is com^ 



I.U'tely shap.'d at one opemlion. A fourth is a iilnniwi machine, for givmg a 
ll.it and Mniooll. suiiace to planks .«• lu.y otii.r pie.'es of wood ; th- powers .. 
this machine are so easily adjustablo iw t.. be easily applied to tmd.ers ot all 
.lijnensions— from four to fifty IVu-t in Imgth, from eight to torty tiurhes m 
widUi. and from a quarter of an incai to thirty inches in thickness, A littli is 
AmnuUluui mii.lnne, to impart to wood the mrhitectural tonn ot nimildnigs. 
which are usually wrought by the (■ari)enter with the aid of hand-planes ; it 
may be applied to the making of sash-bars, or the cutting ot gnioves or the 
lorming of any hollows or protuberances which are to extend unitormlv ahmg 
the grain of the wood; and it is applicable eith.'r to hard or sott woods, with 
a sliglil udjustmeut. . ,, , t- 

Besides various English mmdiines of this kind, there is a l-ronch mac line, 
called the ' Menuiserio Mocaniipie,' or Mechanical Joiner, which both planes 
and fonns mouldings in woo<l, by plane-irons fixed to an axis which revolvoH 
a thousand times in a minute. 

WOOD-WOKK Of THE CuVSTAt. PAt^ACE. 

So intiniatAily did the achievement of Messrs. Fox and Henderson's va.st 
enterprise depend upon the employment of miu-hinocaiT.nitry, that we cannot 
select a bt^tter place tlian Uie present U) notice a few of the " Curiosities con- 
nected with the wood-work of the Crjstal Palace. In a struct.uro which con- 
tains 6()(»,00() cubic feet of wood, and in which the ground tloor and the 
galleries contain 1,000,000 square feet of Hooring boards, the execution ot 
the carpeiitiy must needs have b»)cn an inijwrtiuit matter. ■ , , 

The Hash-biUTJ of this notable structure nw. to be measured— not simply l»y 
dozens or scores of miles— but by hiuidreds ; for the total length is rather 
more Umn '400 miles! This may seem almost inconceivable at hi-st; but it 
we glance upwards when walking along the centi-.d nave, or view the tour 
facades in the exterior, wo shall begin to reali/,o the startling tact. Great 
indeed was the need, when these hundreds of miles ot wood-work were to be 
shaped in such a short space of time, Uiat the mighty aid of the steam-engine 
should be sought. Mr. Paxton on his part, and Messrs. Fox and Henderson 
(m Uieii-8, brought the resources of mechanism to bear on the subject ; and 
the sash-bar contrivances were not among the least curious ot the many 
Curiosities of Industry displayed in this memorable building. 

Each sash-biu- was originally a four-scpiare piece, measuring an inch by an 
inch and a half in width mid .lepth ; but, during its passage through the 
machine, all Uie four edges were bevelled otf, and giooses cut m two opposite 
sides A plank entered at one end of the machine : a number oi iinislied sii-sli- 
bars'came out at the other. In tlio first place, the plank encountero.l 
numerous cuttere, above and below, which made as many pairs ot grooves as 
there were bai-s to be produced from one plank ; while otlier cuttei-s inaile the 
angular incisions which were to constitute the bevelling. The plank ne.xt 
came in conhict with a set of paiallel circular saws, by which it was speedi y 
ripped up into separate bars. About three hundred planks were thus eut into 
silsh-bai-s by one machine in a day. The bars were then cut to lengths ot lorty- 
nine inches, and ti-ansmitted to Hyde Park, where other ingenious machines 
fitted them for the exact plac^es they were to occupy. Ihey were cut most 
accurately to a imifonn length ; a notcrh-piece was cut out near one end. to 
form a shoulder for resting against tlie gutter; the ends were bevelled oil to 
the required angle ; and nail-holes were drilled in the proper places lor lasten- 
ing Uie bars to the gutter and ridge. 



H 



I i 



• 



L 



14 



WOOD AND ITS APrUCATIONa. 



The various angles at which the component pieces of wood-work in tlie roof 
meet each other required the gi-eatest nicety of adjustment ; and we accord- 
ingly find tliat— Avliether we look at the sash-bars, tlie ridges, or tlie glitters— 
there were many curious contrivances adopted. The ridges stretch m long 
mibrokcn lines froju east to west, and are obviously much less m quantity 
than the sash-bars ; they extend, in fact, about sixteen miles. But liiey are 
much thicker and stronger than the bars. They wore formed out oi pieces ot 
timber three inches square, which were passed tlirough an ingenious machmo 
capable of cutting grooves for tlie reception of the upper end of the respective 
panes of glass ; and the top of tlie piece of wood was, by the same machine, 
moulded into an ornamental foi-m. 

But the " Paxton gutters" required more machme-work for tlieir consti-uc- 
tion than even tlie sash-bars or the ridges. These gutters extend east and 
west, midway between tlie lidges ; tliey seive to support the lower cud of tlie 
sash-bars ar ^ of the panes of glass, and at the same time to aflord clear 
channels for rain-water on the exterior of the buildmg, and for condensed 
moisture on the interior. The shape thus required to be given to them is ii 
very singular one ; and nothing less than the exercise of great mgenuity could 
have enabled the contractoi-s to produce twenty miles of such gutters as last 
as they wore wanted. Each of these gutters has a hollow trough on the to]) 
for rain-water, a small channel or groove on each side for condensed moisture, 
and bevelled ledges at the top to serve as resting-places for the glass; all ^ese 
nicely-adjusted hoUowmgs and bevellings were effected by machinerj-; rjid tlic 
gutter had also to possess the requisite quahties, as a rafter, to span the aiitice ot 
twenty-four feet from one roof-girder to anoUier. The mechanism for produc- 
ing these results was varied and powerful. In the first place the baulks of timber, 
roughly sawed by the usual process, were planed on all their fom- surfaces by 
Mr. Fumess's Planing Machine (lately noticed) at the < ihelsea Saw Mills. 
Each timber was then passed to the gutter-cutting machme, the ma-b'nrry of 
which was very curious. A number of cutters, variously shaped, were placed 
one behind another ; and as the timber was urged on towards them, it was 
subjected to the action of eacii one in succession ; one cutter made a firat in- 
cision for tlie rain trough, another deepened and curved it, others made the 
bevelled top edges, and others the lateral condensed-water channels ; so that 
bv the time the timber had passed through the machine it assumed the forni 
of a Paxton gutter. (This term is a familiar one, and we use it ; though it is 
not the best that might be chosen.) The machine continued its work until it 
had produced a length of gutter which would extend pretty nearly from the 
Crystal Palace to Windsor Castle. . 

The transvei-se gutters form another part of the roof timbers ; but, as then- 
construction mvolved only common cari)encry operations, we need not stop to 

describe them. ..u x % j 

Mr. Paxton stated to the Society of Arts, in a paper read before that body, 
that he had tried many methods in order to determine the most smtable ^oors 
for the pathways of horticultural structures. He found stone, close boarding, 
and other methods, objectionable, and ultimately determined m favour of open 
boarding, with spaces between the boards tlirough which dust may disappear. 
The flooring boards of the Hyde Park structure are one mch and a half thick, 
laid half-an-inoh apart, upon joists nine inches and a half by seven mches, 
which rest upon lai-ge timbers or sleepen? thirteen by three and a quarter 
inches, at intervals of eight feet apart, the half-inch apertures between the 
boards afford an escape for the dust from five or six million pairs ot feet. 




I 



WOOD AND ITS Ari'LICATlGNS. 



15 



r wood- work in the roof 
tment ; and we aceord- 
idgcs, or tlie gutters — 
ridges stretcli in long 
much less in quantity 
1 miles. But Uiey am 
formed out of pieces of 
I an ingenious machine 
!r end of the respective 
hy the same machine, 

3rk for their constiiic- 
;utters extend east and 
•t the lower end of tlio 
le time to afford clear 
ng, and for condensed 
) "be given to thcni is a 
f great ingenuity could 
of such gutters as fast 
illow trough on the top 
for condensed moisture, 

I for the glass; all these 
by machinery; ?.nd tlao 

fter, to span the space of 
mechanism for produc- 
ace the baulks of timber, 

II their four surfaces by 
he Chelsea Saw Mills, 
chine, the ma'-b^rory of 
isly shaped, were placed 
n towards them, it was 
! cutter made a first ia- 
ved it, others made the 
water channels ; so that 
ine it a.s8umed the form 

we use it ; though it is 
itinued its work until it 
pretty nearly from the 

f timbers ; but, as their 
ns, we need not stop to 

■ read before that body, 
I the most suitable floors 
id atone, close boarding, 
•mined in favour of open 
ich dust may disappear, 
ne inch and a half thick, 
a half by seven uoiches, 
by tliree and a quarter 
apertures between the 
six million piurs of feet. 



The "Great dust question" he treated as follows :—" Before sweeping tho 
floors of the great buildmg, tlie whole will be sprinkled with water Irom 
a moveable hand enguie, which will bo immediately foUowed by a sweeping 
machine, consisting of many brooms fixed to m apparatus on light wheels, 
and drawn by u shaft. Through the interstices left between the boards tho 
dust passes."" The reader will perhaps remember diat the designer has since 
jocosely thanked tlie lady visitors on tho "live-shilling days "for havmg swept 
his floor so clean witli tlieir tiuiling dresses. „ .i 

The bewildering acreage of flooring requh-ed niachme-aid as well as tho 
sashes and the girders. A veiy ingenious adzing and planing machine was 
employed. It planes one side, while at the same time it adzes or removes 
iiTegularities from the other side. To effect Uiis. die plank is ina,de to move 
slowly over a table ; and while so moving, two adze-cutters work upon tho 
upper surface, and three i)lAne-irons upon tlie lower ; and to complete the 
automatic action of tlie machine, two circular saws rip the plank to the exact 
width required, before it leaves the table. The flooring of the galleries is 
much more nicely constructed thtm that of the ground story, suice it is neces- 
sary to prevent dust from falling between the boards upon the costly treasures 
beneatli. To ensm-e this, no^ Only are the boards fitted close together, but 
both edges of each board are „ oovod, and u-on tongues or plates are inserted 
in the gi-ooves. . , . n 

Even the handrailing for the gaUeries called for tlie exercise of a veiy inge- 
iiioua machine, which was worked within the buildhig itself. This railmg is 
made of mahogany, and is of cylindi-ical ibi-m. The mahogany was brought 
to the building in broad thick slaba or planks ; it was fii-st cut inta quadran- 
gular lengUis by circular saws, and tlie saws next gave an octagonal form by 
bo.."l off tlie four comers. Each piece, twenty-four feet long, was then 
passed tiirough a hoUow cylinder, near tlie entrance of which were four cuttei-s 
rf^'-i'-Ti '/ with great rapidity ; and tlie maliogany was by these cutters brouglit 
to a cyh'idrical shape and a very smooth surface. „, , ^ , 

The beautiful transept-arch has very little iron in it. Wood tonns nearly 
Oie vhole material of tlie opaque skeleton of this noble work. The main 
support is afforded by sixteen semicircular timber ribs, placed twenty-tour teet 
apart and having a span of no less than seventy-two feet. Between every two 
adjacent ribs are minor ribs of timber, eight feet apart, not intended to render 
iiny considerable support to the structure, but to give holding-ground txi the 
lidges, the Paxton gutters, and the sash-bai-s. The making of these wide- 
stretflhing timber ribs involved nothing more than mere cai-penter s work : it 
was in tlie general conception, and in tlie raismg of them t« their places, that 
the inventive talent of the constructors was displayed. If we were to take a 
section of one of the ribs, wo should find that it consists of six pieces of wood 
and two of iron, presenting an area of eighteen inches by eight. Ihe minor 
ribs for the ridges and furrows are also formed of several pieces each, bent 
round to the curve and bolted together ; but much less ponderous than the 
main ribs. The hoisting of tJiese ribs was one of the most difficult tasks 
among the many which the contractors had to meet. They were made, or 
built togetlior, on tlie ground, and hod ia be raised t» a height exceedmg a 
hundred ftst. As the span is very great in proportion to the thickness, two 
ribs were fastened together at Uieir proper distance apart to stitien or 
strengthen them ; and the mass of framing which had thus to be lifted mea- 
sures seventy-two feet in one direction, sixteen in another, and thirty-six high. 
Each rib was i-aised exactly in the centre of the transept, and then moved on 



T" 




10 



\V001> AND ITS APrLlCATlONS. 



rollers northward or southward fo its destined place — the centi-al rib being 
the last one raised. It was the labour of one hour to raise the first rib ; and 
this hour (on the 4th of December) was one of great anxiety and interest to 
commissioners, designer, contractoi-s, foremen, and workmen ; for the enter- 
prise was one of equal novelty and daring. The success was complete ; and 
the 12th of the month witnessed the raising of the lost rib. 

Wood in its Every-Day ApPLiCATioNs. 

In die first paper of this series, a little was said concerning the excellent 
effect produced on tlie glass manufacture by the removal of tlie Excise duty. 
A less, but still important improvement will result from tiie recent change in 
the timber duties. If Canada asks to be sheltered under the wing of the 
mother coimtry, by favoritism in respect to these duties, it is for tlie states- 
man to decide on an answer to this demand ; the worker in wood ignores the 
claim, and will have nought to say to it. He wants tlie wood of Bntam, ot 
the Baltic, of British America, and of other comitiries ; he is willing to pay 
tlie proper commercial price for tiiem, and will then apply each kind to the 
purpose for which it seems best suited. Nothing less than freedom of this 
kind will fully determine the relative qualities of wood. 

Ship-building seems likely to be influenced by this sort of freedom m the 
selection of timber. Not only are Indian teak and African ironwood now 
attractmg attention, but an interesting volume has lately been published, 
pointing out the advantages attending the use of mahogany in sliip-bmldmg. 
Even the repeal of tlie Navigation Laws may tend in the same direction ; ior 
cm- shipowners, imder the mfluentie of foreign rivahy, will eagerly avail them- 
selves of any researches into tiie qualities of timber, calculated to render 
thek vessels stronger or cheaper. In tiie constmction of viaducts for rail- 
ways, timber has rendered most valuable service ; but as a material for paving 
in streets, it has been " tried and found wanting." 

In our private dwellings, and in household furniture, novelties have been 
mtroduced m respect both to the material and the processes. The variety oi 
woods employed for our tables and chairs, our sideboards and pianos, is 
greater tiian it was twenty or thirty yeai-s ago. Especially is tiiis obsei-vable 
in respect to fancy woods, veneered on othere of less value. The cai-penter is 
still die artificer who fasliions die rough woodwork for a house, and the coai-se 
ai-ticles of fm-niture : the cabinet maker (the " tischler " of die Germans and 
the " ebenist " of the French) is still the fabricator of die more cosdy articles 
of fm-niture : but bodi are now aided by machinei-y where handwork used to 
snlfice. The baulks of timber ai-e ripped into planks by steam-saws for tiie 
one, and die logs of mahogany and rosewood are cut into veneei-s by st«ani- 
saws for the odier. Sooner or later diis system will assuredly spread. Mr. 
Cubitt's fine establishment at Pimlico illustrates die mode in which the fac- 
tory system is becoming applicable to building operations. It is, in fact, a 
house-factory, on a grand scale. There ai-e joiners, cai-pentei-s, . bricklayers, 
masons, painters, plasterers, smidis, engineers, moulders, brickmakers, sculp- 
toi-s, architectural draughtsmen— all are employed by the establishment, 
manufacturing houses by wholesale. Confining our attention to the subject 
of diis paper, we may mention, tiiat in accordance with the vast scale on 
Avhich operations ai-e conducted by this fimi— whole streets of doors, ot 
sashes, &c., are made consecutively, said laid aside in the diying rooms till 
wanted. Eveiy kind of work at which steam-machinery can usefully be em- 



■ittiMMiii^*HMM«diidi: 



wiMii^wimiMii i*9r^ -"-'%'^^ 



WOOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 



17 



—the centfal rib being 
raise the first rib ; and 
Einxiety and interest to 
orkmen ; for the enter- 
less was complete ; and 
t rib. 

[ONS. 

)nceming the excellent 
aval of tlie Excise duty. 
)m the recent change in 
under the wing of the 
ies, it is for the states- 
lev in wood ignores the 
the wood of Britain, of 
8 ; he is willing to pay 
I apply each kind to the 
Bss than freedom of this 
1. 

sort of freedom in the 
I African ironwood now 

lately been published, 
hogany in ship-building. 

the same direction ; ior 
, will eagerly avail them- 
er, calcSat€d to render 
ion of viaducts for rail- 
; as a material for pavuig 

u-e, novelties have been 
rocesses. The variety of 
leboards and pianos, is 
cially is this obsei-vable 
value. The cai-penter is 
r a house, and the coarae 
sr " of the Germans and 
f the more costly articles 
vhere handwork used to 
iks by steam-saws for the 
at into veueei-s by steani- 
.1 assuredly spread. Mr. 

mode in which tlie fac- 
lerations. It is, in fact, a 
, cai-pentei-s, . bricklayers, 
Iders, brickmakers, sculp- 
l by the establishment, 

attention to the subject 
! with the vast scale on 
lole streets of doors, of 
in the diying rooms till 
linery can usefully be em- 



ployed, is wi-ought by tliat means ; the timbei-s are sawed, the boards are 
planed, the sashes are gi-ooved, the mouldings are shaped — all by steam 
power. 

The Great Exhibition has given us much valuable information concerning 
the employment of wood hi furniture in foreign countries. Some of the 
woods are Very different from those employed in England ; some are wrought 
in a more heavy and massive stjle than would be admired here ; while others 
are lightsome to a degree which we are not accustomed to. It may with 
safety be asserted, Uiat only a relatively small number of English persons 
were prepai-ed te expect from Vienna such furniture as the firm of Carl Leistr 
ler has contributed to our Exliibition. Austria — partly from her insufficiency 
of sea coast and of commercial harbom-s, and partly from political causes — 
has but a small amount of tmding intercourse with tiiis countiy ; and it is the 
select few only, of our countiymen, who have visited tlie Viennese at their 
own homes. The suite of rooms has therefore come upon us as a surprise ; 
and it is certainly one worthy of study. The dming-room, with its dining-table 
for forty pei-sons, its sideboard, its set of chairs, and its inlaid flooring ; the 
library, with its two magnificent bookcases, its table, chairs, and inlaid floor- 
ing ; the drawing-room, with its loo-tables and work-tables, its comer and side 
tables, its revolving pictiu-e stand, its c1mii"s, and its inlaid flooring ; the bed- 
room, with its sumptuous but heavy bedstead, its chairs, stools, " prie-Dieii," 
s.,ra, tables, Italian cupboards, and inlaid flooring ; the ante-roam, with its oval 
table, loo-table, &c. — ^all sei-ve to illusti-ate tlie beauty of the wood employed, 
the excellence of the workmanship, and the difference between EngUsh and 
Austrian furniture in general arrangement The parquetiy flooring is a hard 
and polished substitutt; iv.r the carpets of English houses. This kind of ma- 
nufactm-e, we are tcld, "has lately increased in an extraordinary degree. 
Vienna, Piague, Budweis, Plass, Dobrzisch, and also Demies in Hungary, 
supply works of this kind in large quantities, and of increasing perfection." 
The floorings are sold complete, or in squares of considerable dimensions. 
The catalogue-prices represent them at 50 to 160 floruis per 100 square feet 
[lOd. to 2s. 9(/. per square foot). 

While looking at these highly-finished specimens of Vienna workmanship, 
it is interesting to see what the Official Austrian Catalogue says of tlie cabinet 
making of that country. "Architectural caipentiy [this designation has 
rather more meaning in it than ovn* term cabinet-work] is carried on in the 
towns on a vei-y considerable scale. Aitliough several lai-ge establishments of 
tliis kind exist in the more populous paits of the empire, tlieir productions 
are not calculated to meet more than the local demand for them. Within 
these very few yeai's, a factory I is been established at Vienna, to produce 
dooi-s, lintels, and window fi-ames, &c., both by machuiery and by himd ; and 
being in connection with a factojy of iidaid floorings and a fumiture ware- 
house, fonns a poilion of the splendid establishment of Messrs. Carl Leistler 
and Son, which for taste and workmanship stands without a rival." 

Of Uie white wood carved fumiture of Switzerland ; of the Jersey sideboard, 
with its bold carvings of King John and his barons ; of the Kenilworth buffet, 
with its elaborate Shaksperean scenes ; of the exquisitely can'ed cabinets^d 
tables from Florence ; of the cabinet and inlaid fimiiture from various foreign 
countries ; — we have no space here to treat. There are other matters which 
rather claim attention m this place. 

A word or two respecting Turning. This art, like most other mechanical 
occupations, becomes divided imd subdivided as tlie wants of society incresise, 




WOOD AND 1T» APPLICATIONS. 

and the prii.ciplo of the division of employments becomes recognised^ Tims 
the rjenLl turner produces the pilars. P0«t9, legs, knobs, and otlierart^^^^^ 
rcnnired by cabinet-makers and upholsterers; the hardwoo,! punier oxci uses 

w KSi he manufactured tile small turned centres or -res ot tass^ s -] 
similar articles ; the bobbin turner produces the millions ot snial bobbms ai 1 
reds on which yams and threads are sold ; the phtmher's toner is a worker u 
hard woods he employs beech, elm, ash, box. and other »iard woocl^^^i 
Sng suckers and buckets for pmnps, lead-dressers, '""l^f «f • ;« ^^^^t^ 
number of implements used in vai-ious mechanical Uiules ; Ao bnishimTAti 
mS the soft-wood broom he«ls, brush handles, &c There aie other 
minor divisions, employed upon special branches of wood-working. 

Here, as elsewhere, the stiam^ehgine is gradually puttmg m ^t^ claim to be . 
come a xmiversal artiticer, a substitute for bone and muscle. The piece ol 
wo^d whSi is being turned must have a rotatoiy motion given to it, and this is 
relT^hich«tea,n.poweri8mostfittedtofi^^^ Under all ordinary cucum- 
SLces u7e tiuner maintains the requisite rotation by pressing his loot on a 
ctr or tldle: this is the unskilled labom-, the mei-e exorcise of muscda 
^rce which comes legitimately within the range ot steam-power, lo guide 
rUiSlfisavery^differeniaffair; here - ^ Tt" «J'«' " ^^lle Snt 
and something approaching to taste, are needed. Yet «^X .mL^the ma 
of steam claims entiy; steam-power, as we have said, v^hoUy turned &e ma 
hoaany hand-railing which nms round the galleries of the CrysUU 1 aisce , 
aSReS^-e indications that, wherever large quantities of one pattern ue 
Xuir^d the same most pliant but most irresistible power will become n.ore 
and more an adjunct to tlie labom^s of the turner. 

Turning has its "curiosities" like every otlicr ti-ade. It is said that the 
comZ^ minted sham bamboo bed-room chairs aro tmned very largely m 
SnShamshire. This is by no means a mamifacturing county ; Mid it may 
Sern^odd diat such a branch of industiy should be so located: but when wo 
find thithose chairs ai^ made chiefly of beech and |l^at Buckmghamshi e s 
somewhat famous a. a beecivgrowing county a little ^'g^* »« « JJJJ^" ' ^^t 
mav help us to solve the puzzle. Anotlier of tlie curiosities of this tiarte is 
worth nothig In turning large articles, the foot of the turner ha.s not powe 
Tuffioient to keep the lathe in motion ; he employs a "wheel-turner to do tins 
?o7him ; and it is found that blM men ai-e prefeiTed for f "« -^vice to oUie^s, 
as the concentration of tlieir attention to one object enables t kui 1x) turn toe 
Xel with more regularity than those who. having the pnvdege of sight, aio 
ftnt to use that privilege in gAzing about them. „ , . , i 

^TheZcess Sf tmiiing involves a number of " prettinesses' which render 
it raKa favourite among amateur workmen. Lords and right honourables, 
cler™ i^d students, are ranked among those who have p ayed at work m 
SSon; and the late Mr. Holt^aptfeVs elaborately-mustrated i^at^ 
was written quite as much for amateurs as ^^ shop-workmen Na^it appea^ 
that regal dignity itself has found enjoyment, m front of «^« 1^*^«- ^^ " ! 
XVI we believe, played at locksmiUiery rather than turning ; but one of our 
own monarchs seems to have been learned in wheels and treadles, chucks and 
Se"s Mr. Heniy Mayhew states that an old working turner, gossipmg 
ovS he reminiscences of' his tmde, said, " I have given gent emen lessons m 



turning. 



Many gentlemen, and some peers, ai-e very good ivory turners. 



ilililiriiiliiillinTlHilriiri 



<ilj»iiiillili lii'iiMwi 



■ -■ ■i l K *^.r 



mes recognised. Thus, 
mobs, and other articles 
rdmuid turner exercises 
vine boxes, skittle balls, 

hard woods ; tlie tasnel 
imo, alder, and chestnut, 

or cores of tassels and 
18 of small bobbins luul 
-ra timier is a worker in 
I other hiu'd woods, in 
I, mallets, wedges, an<l a 
riwles; the brush turner 

&c. There aie other 
food-working. 
iitting in its claim to be- 

muscle. The piece of 
ion given to it, and this is 
nder all ordinary cucum- 

pressing his foot on a 
ere exercise of muscular 
steam-power. To guide 
rate eye, ft delicate touch, 
;et even here the genius 
d, wholly turned the ma- 
i of tlie CrysUd Palace; 
tttities of one pattern uo 

power will become n.ore 

ade. It is said that the 
iro tm-ned very laigely in 
uring county ; and it may 
so located ; but when wo 
that Buckinghamshire is 
light is thrown m, which 
iriosities of this trafle is 
the turner has not iwwer 
"wheel-turner" to do this 
I for tliis service to otliers, 
enables tin in to turn tlie 
the privilege of sight, we 

irettinesses" which render 
ds and right honourables, 
10 have played at work in 
)orately-illustrated treatise 
workmen. Nay, it appeois 
'ont of the lathe. Louis 
1 turning ; but one of our 
3 and treadles, chucks and 
(vorking turner, gossiping 
;iven gentlemen lessons hi 
ery good ivory turners. 1 



WOOD AND ITS APPLIOATIONS. 



19 



gave lessons to a gentleman who had the lathe and all the turning tools and 
apparatus tliat old George III. used to work with. It cost f^CX) at a sale. 1 
liave seen some of the old King's turning, and it was very fair. WiUi industry 
he might have made 40s. or 50«. a week as a hanl-wood and ivory turner. 
—There is something especially rich in this last-named estimate ot kingly 

Among miscellaneous manufaotures in wood which receive illustration at 
the World's Exhibition, is that of cedar pemnh. It is placed before us in an 
inti^lli^ible form by the specimens and apparatus deposited by Mr. Morroii. 
Here wo find, first, the black-lead or plumbago, in the forms in which it is 
brought from Cumberland, or Goi-many, or other places ; and we see the same 
substance when cut into thin plates. Cedar-wocxl. from North Amenca is 
sho^^'n in various stages, as a veneer, and as bottoms and tops for pencils. We 
see the machine for cutting tlie groove in one-half of the pencil, and the halt 
so grooved ; the slab of blacklead inserted in the groove, and the raachmo lor 
l)ringing it to a smooth even surface ; the tops of the pencils separately, and 
the tops when glued to the bottoms ; the machine which rounds the fom--8ided 
pencil into a cylindrical form, and pencils in various stages of this roundmg 
process ; the tool which finishes the end, and pencils in ditlerent stages of 
finishing; the machine for stamping Uio maker's name on pencils, and Oie 
finished pencils so stamped. 

The Toy and Lucifer Thade of GEnMANv. 

The importance which trifles assume when they become grouped in mil- 
lions, is i-ecognised not only by a well-known Scotch proverb, but by the ever)'- 
day experience of each of us. Liici/er-matches are as good exemplifacations oi 
it as anytliing we might hit upon. What can be more humble than this tiny 
bit of wood? And yet when we ai-e told that one single saw-mill m London 
cuts up 400 large timber trees annually into splints for matxihes, we find tliat 
the lucifer mounts to a position of gi-eat coininercuvl importance. Many 
forms of machme are used in this process ; bu'- all of them comprise, as pai-t 
of their mechanism, a system of knives or cutting edges, placed as far apart as 
the thickness of each splint. In one of these machines, the wood is first cut 
into quadrangular blocks, which are act«d upon by a long range ot sha^ 
narallcl knives ; and tliese knives work with such rapidity, that 30,000 splmts 
can be cut in a minute! These splints are sold to the match makers, not 
simply by bundles, but by hoqsluiad,^. An accoimt ha.s been recorded ot a con- 
simiment from a London saw-miU to a Bristol match maker, ot tliu-ty hogs- 
heads, each containing five hundred bundles, each bundle containmg seventy- 
two boxes, and each box fifty splints. Let the reader calculate tiio nnmencal 
amount cf this curiosity of match-making. .„ , .. c 

The Great Exhibition has not failed to supply us with cunous illustrations ot 
the wood-match trade of Gemmny. In the ZoUverein section we find Peter 
Harass's matches ajid boxes for matches. The cheapest unadorned match- 
boxes are sold as low as sixteen eilbergroschen per 1000,— rather less than U. 
per 100 ' From this minimum they ascend to five or six th&lers per thousand, 
accordinc^ to the degree of decoi-ation. Raw matches, two m-Uos m length, 4m- 
tipped with composition, are five thalers per 1,000,000 , . i-out 1400 for one 
fiwthing This exemplifies what the Thmingian distinct ot Saxony can jjro- 
ducG in the match department. Wilhelm Meyer, of Mecklenber,,, exhibits 
bundles of matches mado by a machine, which enables him to leshion JOO 



^mmmutk 




■ I 'BMif iif ti i . vr'-""-^'- -■'"""■■ '^■'■■^""■■■^-^ 



90 



WOOD AND ITS APPMCATI0N8. 



well-made nmtches by a single movement of tlie hand, and 1,000,000 m four 
hours. He seems to have a method of preparing wood to a semi-charcoal 
state, if we may so express it ; for among his specimens are several pieces of 
roanted wood, s'ix or eight inches in length, uitended for (luick ignition m fur- 
naces ; he has also " smokeless wood," for cigar-hghts, about six mches m 

la tiie Austrian department we find Fiirth's cmious collection of Congi-eve 
or lucifer matches, made at Shuttenhofen hi Bohemia; Uiese quite eclipse our 
English productions m variety and ingenuity. They are cylindrical, vertical, 
oblong, hexagonal ; some open like a pocket-book, some like a telescope, sonu; 
like a cigar-case, some like a snutf-box ; in some, a mouse is crouchmg over 
a recess containmg the maU-hes ; while in otliers, Geneml Tom Thumb's head 
is moveable, and reveals the matches beneath. But M. Furth does not con- 
fine his attention to the plain wooden eveiy-day lucifers : his curious assem- 
blage comprises other light-giving trifles. There are cigar rm-zunder, or cigar- 
hghts, paper pipe lights, wood splints, boxes of amadou, or Gennan tmder, 
wax-taper matches, friction shavings, and round thin splints without tlie tips 
of chemical composition. The prices of these articles aj-e wortli noticing : 
they are almost fabulous. The cheapest boxes, conUiining eighty lucilers each, 
are Uiree ki'eutzere (about one penny) per dozen ; and even " ladies' lucifer 
matches " ai-e obtainable at seven kreutzers per dozen boxes. A case contain- 
ing fifty boxes for 100 each (without tlie lucifers) is ten kreutzei-s, tliree boxes 
for less tlion a farthing, and the case given in addition. The " round thai 
wood for lucifer matches" is catalogued at prices which seem to out-cheapen 
all other cheapnesses : we might suspect tyiiographical eiTor, were tliere-not 
different entries to balance each other. Bittner, a lucifer maker at Neudoi-f, 
in Bohemia, has match splints at ^ kreutzer per bundle of 1000, or 2-250 
for one farthmg. But Furth goes beyond this ; he has bmidles of 26,000 lor 
five kreutzers, which is equivalent to 3850 for a fartliing ! 

Besides Fiirth's and Bittner 's collections, there are othei-s from other parts 
of the Austrian dominions : from Pollak and Preschel of Vienna, from Hofi"- 
mann of Wisogzan in BoLoinia, and from De Majo of Triesch in Moravia,— all 
of which illustrate the marvellous price at which these tiny igniters can be 
sold. De Majo even goes beyond (or rather below) Furth in cheapness ; for 
he sells " a case of fifty boxes, each containmg 100 lucifere," for tlmteen 
kreutzers, about fourpence English ! , i • 

The same circumstance which enables tlie Germans to produce cheap luci- 
fers, is also mstrumental towards the production of the carvings and the 
chUdren's toys, which are brought in such immense numbers from tlie hiUy 
regions of North Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The forests supply 
abundance of timber at very low cost ; and the peasant mountaini^ei-s, simple 
and frugal, employ their leisure hom-s, and the time of tlieir children, in 
fabricating these articles. Dealers are sure to be found, who will drive a trade 
in these trifles in some countiy or other. Toys occupy a fittmg place 
among the collections sent to the Great Exhibition. The assortment displayed 
by Miiller of Oberieutensdorf in Bohemia, is among tiie specimens which 
illusti^te tho cheapness of such productions in that country. Some of these 
toys are made of metal, "i- have metal in tlieir composition; but for the most 
pMt they are of cai-ved v,i^o4, packed in chip boxes. Among these, some ai-e 
catalogued as low as si;, i ieutzers (twopence) per dozen boxes ; nay, there ai-e 
even entries at twenty .iiie ki-eutzei-s per (jrots, equivalent to about fourteen 
boxes of toys for op.: ^enny ! From this mmimum, almost inconceivably low 






-«a,.«Mnl»IH«»>1»l'«illl«illillllirdllW 



WOOD AND ITS APPLICATIONS. 



SI 



1, and 1,000,000 in four 
wood to a senii-charcoftl 
ens are several pieces of 
or (juick ignition in fiu- 
its, about six inches in 

1 collection of Congi'eve 
, ; tliese quite eclipse our 

are cylindrical, vertical, 
ne like a telescope, sonic 
mouse is crouching over 
leral Tom Thumb's head 
; M. Fiirth does not con- 
fers : his curious asseni- 

cigarren-ziinder, or cigar- 
idou, or Gennan tinder, 
1 splints without the tips 
cles ai'e wortli noticing : 
ning eighty lucifei-s each, 
and even " ladies' lucifer 
I boxes. A case contain- 
:en kreutxers, tliree boxes 
ition. The " round tliin 
hich seem to ont-cheapen 
lical eiTor, were tliere-not 
lucifer maker at Neudorf, 

bundle of 1000, or 2'250 
has bundles of 25,000 for 
ing! 

B othei-s from other parts 
tiel of Vienna, from Hoff- 
f Triesch in Moravia, — all 
these tiny igniters can be 
I Fiirth in cheapness ; for 
00 lucifei-s," for tliirteen 

J18 to produce cheap luci- 
of the carvings and tlie 
a numbers from the hilly 
nd. The forests supply 
saut mountaineere, simple 
ime of tlieir children, in 
md, who will drive a trade 
^•s occupy a fitting place 
The assortment displayed 
)ng the specimens which 
coimtiy. Some of these 
position ; but for the most 
Among these, some are 
izen boxes ; nay, there ai-e 
[uivalent to about fourteen 
1, almost inconceivably low 



ilirntilHHiiilMttf-IOT 



as it is, there is a regidai- gradation upwards to eighty -four florins per 
dozen, or 1 3.1. Sil. per box. 

The 'Art-Union Journal' a few yeai-s ago gave some curious mformation 
concerning the better kind of caned Gennan toys : " The best Gennan toys 
come from tlie town of Sonneberg, on tJio soutli-eastem frontier of tlie forest of 
Thuringia. It has a population of 4tJ00 inhabitants, of which tlie greater 
pai-t are employed in tlie trade. The principal toy merchants, numbering 
about tliirty, provide themselves witli goods from many hundred different 
makers of common articles, resident in Uie town and its vicinity ; these again 
are funiLshed by tlie neighbouring villagers with tho requisite raw inat«rials 
in wood, such as musical boxes, &c., which are fitted up and pauited by the 
makera ui tlie town. Every year about 25,000 cwts. of these goods are ex- 
ported to almost eveiy part of the worid ; but the manufacturers are restricted 
to the use of wood or paste, or these two materials combined. The fac- 
t*iry from which the best toys are derived, is that of Adolph Fleischniann, 
who employs none but first-rate workmen ; and it is astonishing to notice the 
many atlmirable productions tliese mieducated artists bring out ; models and 
groupuigs of figm-es tliat would cast no discredit on the atelier of a Baily or a 
WcstiTiincott 

Children's wooden toys have tlieir political eccmomy as well as more im- 
posuig matters. If the peasants of the Black Forest end of Numberg can 
make boxes of " Noali's arks," .valry soldiei-s, fann-yai-ds, sheep-folds, skit- 
tles, tea-sets, and so forth, cheaper than even tlie cheap produce of the toy- 
makers of London, the former will tend to diive the latter out of Uie mai-ket 
—so says political economy, and so say the practical toy-dealers. The result 
is, that the London wood-cutters work up tlieu- wood uito otlier forms ; they 
make rocking-horses, kites, drums and tambourines, swings, velocipedes, half- 
penny caits and halfpenny money-boxes, penny mousetraps and penny 
puppet-shows, dolls' houses and dolls' bellows, and knick-knacks, large and 
small, which it would be no easy matter to enumerate. It seems that the 
English toy-makers produce the best dissected puzzles, and the best large toys 
of the rocking-hoi-se genus ; tlie French take the lead in mechanical or clock- 
work toys ; tlie Swiss command the market for white-wood cottages and 
models; while tlie Germans beat all others in well-carved toys, and in the 
cheap boxes of toys just alluded to. If it were needed to view the politico- 
economical aspect of wooden toys any further, we might say tliat tlie London 
Gazette and the Stock Exchange price-list are as sensitive baiometei-s to Uio 
toy-dealers as to greater men ; for if tlie head of a family finds his worldly 
affiiirs not so bright as usual, Dick must go without his new cart or kite, and 
Polly must wait awhile for hor doll's bedstead. 

Wood as a Fine-Arx Material. 

The car\'mg8 just noticed point to a distinct aspect which working in wood 
presents. It is a material whereon taste and art may find exercise. 

The service which box-wood renders to wood engravers is due to its hard- 
ness, smoothness, and homogeneity of substance. The book-pictiu-es, or pic- 
tm-e books of the Chinese ai-e cut in pear-tree wood ; and it is probable tliat 
this and other woods were used by the early Em-opean engravers ; but box- 
wood is almost imiversally employed at present for this pmiiose. The surface 
is brought to a beautiful degree of regulaiity and smoothness ; and a very 
ingenious mode is adopted of screwmg two or more blocks togctlier edge to 



93 



WOOD AND 1T8 APPLICATTORS. 



edge, to make onpi block of larpe size. It ia certiiinly a signal jn-oof of the skill 
witli which tluH joining is ofloclod, tliat the hugo cnU in the ' llliistrated Lon- 
don News,' some of which nieaHure 42 inches by M, are printed from bbjcks 
built up pieco-nieal with smaller pieces. 

Snorchinif, Hud pnnmrn, have botli been employed to bring the surftice 
of wood to a pictorial condition. Tlie learned name of Xiilopyrof/raphy 
(" hotrwootl-drawing") has been recently applied to what, in humbler pbmse, 
is called poker-paintinfj. When a hot iron is applied to tlie surface of wood, 
it chai-s or scorches the wood wherever it toiiches ; and if the operator 
possesses artistic taste, he can so manage these charred lines as to give 
them a pictorial arrangement. There are some sjtecimens of this kind in 
the Great Exhibition, which display suri)riBing skill ; especially where the 
surface is chaiTed all over, and tlien serdped to produce the picture, as in 
mezzotint; copies from Landseer's pictures, and other subjects, have been 
thus produced with much boldness of effect. The production of designs 
by pressure depends upon a singulai- circumstance; if wood be pressed by 
suitable instruments, it does not recover its original evenness of surface until 
it has been steeped in water. The artist produces a sort of design on 
wood, by strong pressine in particular parts ; he planes down the protuberant 
portions, and then f oaks the whole in water ; this brings up the pressed, or 
hardened lines, which therealler stand up as a sort of bas-relief. It is impos- 
sible, however, to produce such effectual results by this as by the charring 
process. 

But it is in cai-ving, properly so called, that wood is chiefly employed as a 
Fine-Art niaterial. 

In minute caning, Greece, Spain, India, and Switzerland, all put forth 
remarkable specimens in our Exhibition, besides those from the better known 
European countries. The small carvings from Greece are in a yellowish 
wood somewhat resembling box, and all relate to sacred subjects ; the details 
are virrought witli great delicacy and minuteness- -so much so indeed, that in 
some of the bas-reUefs there are nearly twenty h«ads witliin the space of a 
square inch. In Spain the can-ings of a minuta kind are chiefly in ivoiy. 
Th(! Indian specimens comprise, besides tliose in ivorj', others in sandal-wood, 
a deep-tinted wood which shows off tlie minute details of ornamentation to 
great advantage. The Italian n cimens of cai-ving are chiefly in connection 
witli the exquisite Florentine cabinets and tables, before mentioned. As for 
the cai-ved cherry-stone, with its • St. George and the Dragon,' and its twenty- 
five Lilliputian heads, we may pass it over as a toy. The Swiss specimens 
are in a light and soft kind of wood, and the designs are of a light and cheer- 
ful chaiwter; flowei-s, foliage, village occupation, herd-keeping, chamois hunt- 
ing, are among tlie subjects depicted by tlio Swiss caners. It has been said, 
that " a Swiss peasant takes to cai-vuig wood as naturally us ducklings to tlie 
pond." In tlie long winter evenings, in the long summer days, the earvuigs 
are in progress, either when no other work can be carried on, or when the 
caiTcr is simply tending his herd on the mountain sides. Walking staffs, 
pipes, drinking vessels, forks nnd spoons, " merry Swiss boys," undaunted 
William Tells — ^nothing comes amiss to these Swiss cai-vers, who contrive to 
throw a force and expression into all they produce. 

How wondeiful are the Bavarian can-ings from Siegen and Oberammergau ! 
Kilian's model (for such it is) of Lionardo da Vinci's ' Last Supper ' is a truly 
remarkable production ; for it n a carrying out of the great painter's concep- 
tion from the region of pMntmg to that of sculpture. The model ia about 



.i^'.-Jrt.'.U— ■■■;^. ^.Utiili 



AHi«MMNiMMMIwM«Ma 



«iii>miM i ii«i i 



WOOD AHD rra appt.icattons. 



as 



mffn&l proof of tlio fikill 
II thu ' IlliiHtmted lion- 
wu printed from blocks 

to bring the surface 
line of XHlopi/rof/raphij 
lut, in hnmbler i)hms(\ 
to tlie surface of wood, 
i; and if the operator 
mrred lines as to [five, 
uimens of this kind in 
; especially where the 
iuce the picture, as ia 
er subjects, have been 

production of designs 
if wood be pressed l)y 
enness of surface until 
es a sort of design on 
s down the protuberant 
ings up the pressed, or 
bas-relief. It is impos- 
this as by the charring 

is chiefly employed as a 

fitzerland, all put forth 
( from the better known 
ece are in a yellowish 
ed subjects ; the details 
nuch so indeed, that in 
s witliin tlie space of a 
nd are chiefly in ivoiy. 
', others in sandal-wood, 
ils of ornamentation to 
,re chiefly in connection 
fore mentioned. As for 
)ragon,' and its twenty- 
The Swiss specimens 
ire of a light and cheer- 
-keeping, chamois hunt- 
vers. It has been said, 
rally hh duckhngs to tlie 
imicr days, the carvuigs 
carried on, or when the 
I sides. Walking staffs, 
Swiss boys," undaunted 
carv'ers, who contrive to 

jen and Oberammergau ! 
' Last Supper ' is a truly 
le great painter's concep- 
3. The model is about 



fifteen inches long, six wide, and five high ; and all the figures are given in 
full, or " in IIk! round, " with great cxprossion and di'licacy. When m'. fin<l 
that, f-von in such a cheap district as the hilly country of Biegen, the artist 
prices this caning at two hundred thalei-s, we may roiwlily believe that the 
workmanship must be very eliilM)rate. 'I'he domestic scenes reprosonUul in 
the carvings of Krbel. from the same district, are equally beautiful ; lliey ru- 
voal incidents of Baviu-ian peasant life, and show at the same time how excel- 
lently linden or lime-tree wood is adapted for cai-ving. 

Among the visitors to the Great Exhibition many have doubtless seen the 
curious caiTed ivoiy balls deposited in the ('hinese section. These balls (or 
others of a similar kind) have l)een a source of wondennent ever si-'-e they 
were first brought to Europe. How could or did the little bolls get within the 
outer one? It seems to surpass the prestidigitation even of Robert Houdin 
himself. We find, in the first place, a most delicately caned and perforatcMl 
ball, say four or five inches in diameter ; within this is another ball, concen- 
tric with it, but perfectly detached from it, luid caned with a wholly different 
design ; within this is a third, similarly concentric and detached, and having 
a particular pattern of its own ; witliin this is a fourtli, of which a similar 
chai-acter may bo given ; luid so on, to Uic extent of two or three more gnula- 
tions. It seems to be generally admitted that the whole are ciu-ved froni one 
globuliu- piece of ivoiy ; and the question arises, by what means can the inner 
caning and tire inner severances (so to speak) be effected ? All kinds of theo- 
ries have been started in ex]>lanation of the method ; biit the most genenilly 
received seems to be, that tlio workman must employ hent tools, which, after 
tlie face of Uio ball has been cut to a certain depth in cei-tain poi-ts, work la- 
tomlly. There are some plain specimens m tlio Exhibition, turned or caned 
in box-wood by Mr. Mitford, which seem to show that the principle of tlio 
metliod has been mastered in England. 

An attempt is being now made (and certainly not before it is needed) to im- 
prove Uie artistic qualities of the carved figme-heads for ships. Many of 
those now executed are ridiculously poor in conception. Viewed in a right 
spirit, the figure-head is a symbol of the ship's qualities, or at least might so 
be made. As tlie binding of a book might include in its colour and decora- 
tion some emblems or symbols of the subject to which the book relates, so 
might a ship receive a name more significant than those stupid and unmean- 
ing designations often adopted, and the figure-head might be made to carry 
out the same idea of significancy. But even if the present style of figure- 
heads were continued, surely a little higher tone of art might be infused into 
them ; tlie foremost portion of so noble a sti-ucture as a ship, the part which 
jjoldly fronts the broad ocean and its waves, is worthy of the display of talent 
and even genius. There is a figure-head in the Exhibition, much supc lor to 
the ordinary specimens. 

Caning seems to be a favourite kind of art-workmanship among self-taught 
persons. A stoiy is told of a toll-jratc keeper, who, sittuig by the fire in 
his toll-house on a winter's night, with his knob-stick in his hand and his dog 
by his side, sought to beguile the time by a trial at amateur cai-ving. He be- 
gan cutting away at the knobbed end of his cudgel ; gxadually he picked out 
the fonn of the dog's head ; then, looking closer, the ears, eyes, muzzle, ruid 
grisly coat, he caught the expression ; and again and again took up the work, 
and cut and caned and scrajjed and touched, until it seemed almost as if the 
very stick-head might of itself play watch-dog at the gate. The new-caught 
art was never again laid aside, but the turnpike was ; for tlie man became 



kifcttea'.jai^: 



M WOOD AND n-S AFPUCAnO^I*. 

keeper of u iiiuiieutn, whei-u maiiy productiong of his own chisel were ad 
niitted. 

Mtiiiy circumstances — a revive<l taHtc for inoditevol decomtums among the 
ntuUur — have led to a graut advoncumont in E'< Vmh carving within Uih liwt 
*'< .V years. Hince U»e time of GrinUng (Jibboiis, the names of cm-vers have 
seldom fomid u plaice in records of fiiie-art ucliitiveinents ; but sucli is not 
now the case. The name of Uogors attiu^lied to a B]>ecimen of carving is a 
Hoi-t of gutu'onteo of excellence ; and there are many otlicr names rising into 
note. The royiil cradle, made of box-wood, is one among many fine speci- 
nieus by the artist just named, displayed in Uio IndustiitU E.xhibition ; and 
tho names of Pt^r'v, Austin, Batsford, itc. lue associated wiUi a<hnirable spe- 
cimen a aie oa.AH. department of lut. '1 he doml pheiwimts, by Waller, show 
Low astonishingly such a material ois wood, in the hands of a man of talent 
and tjistc, may be made to imitate pluniHj4< The vwious models of build- 
ings in wood, cork, and piUi, tlumgh displaying much uigenuity and patience, 
aie too simply mechanical to be treated as cmvings. in Uie sense in which tlie 
word is here used. 

Machinery is now applied to caning, as to most other meclianical pmcesses. 
The steam-engine does ahviost eveiything but thini, and if it shoidd one day 
be employed to worit a cidculating nuK-hine — if tlio geniu of Watt should 
combine witli tliat of Babbogo to work a table of logaritlnns by a taw puffs of 
steam and a few movements of a piston (more mdikely things have happeneil 
within llie last few years), we might tlien almost designate tlio steam-engine a 
thinking nuicliine. It is a Inunbler operation, however, which we have now 
under notice — tliat of applying tho regulai', precise, uniform action of hteam- 
power to assist tlie caner in effecting those pa'its of his work which require 
most cutting and least t^iste. The p'n.iuted process due lo Mr. Jordan, now 
extensively at work in producing canings, of which a considerable quantity in 
t)ne pattern is required, resembles the sawing and planing machines in tins — 
tliat the tools are fixed, while die wood is fed or conducted up to it. A pattern 
of the work to be eaived is first modelled by tlie artist, and after wai'ds copied 
hy tlie uiiu'hine m wood witli perfect accuracy, and in such a mtuiner tliat two 
or three copies ai"e made simultaneously ; die calling thus prepared by tlie 
machine is then sent back to tlie ai'tist, who intioduces by hand the finishing 
touches. The caiving machine tlius does not exactly superaede th, Uistefid 
caner ; it is liis labourer, employed to effect tlie rough cutting, which calls for 
more hand-work tlian head-work. There is something like a legitimate union 
of powers at work upon the new Parliament House, where Jordan's maclune 
produces ciu-vings too extensive for Bogers's fingers, and Rogers's hand and 
eye and muid produce results too tasteful for Jordan's machine. 

In the Hyde Paik collection we have proofs, furnished by the beautiful 
specimen," exhibited by Mr. Faulding, tliat fret-work and otlier ornamental 
designs can be cut by machine-saws with great nicety and precision. 

Sketchy and slight as the descriptions given in Uiis sheet have been, tin 
rnay yet sene to show how gi-eat is now tlie activity displayed in all the op< 
rations connected witli working in wood, notwithstanding the rivalry presented 
by new claimants to public favour. 



■ irWmiii ninli 



}wn clustil were ad 

icorutionH amontj; the 
'\ iug within thu loHt 
U11C8 of ciuTcrs havo 
ttu; hut Huch is not 
men of carving in a 
^r muu«!S rising iiilu 
i>ij}{ many fine Hpeci- 
■iiU Exhihitiou ; and 
witli tulmirahle Hpe- 
uitH, \>y Waller, show 
s of a man of tAlent 
UH modulH uf huild- 
jenuity luid patience, 
le aeuse iu wliich the 

neclianical procesaes. 
if it should one day 
iihi of Wutf Hhould 
iins i)y a fe>% puffs of 
lungs have happened 
te till* steam-engine a 
, which we have now 
briu activ>n of steam- 
8 work which require 
I lo Mr. Jordan, now 
isidorahle quantity hi 
ig machines in diih — 
d up to it. ApattoiH 
md afterwards copieii 
;h a mtumer tliat two 
hiiH prepared by tlif 
by hand the finishing 
uperaede thv tasteful 
itting, which calls for 
ke a legitimate union 
ere Jordan's maclnne 
1 Rogers s hand and 
ichine. 

hed by the beautiful 
nd otlier ornamental 
ad precision. 

sheet have been, tht 
laved in all the op» 
I tlie rivalry presented 



ir»rP«iilrWl^- 



CALCULATING AND REGISTERING MACHINES. 



We are about to give a popular view of a range of machines, tho object 
of which is to perform some kind of calculating, enumerating, or regis- 
tering operations : something which imitates the thinker ratlier than the 
labourer, or at least ossistH tho former ratlu^r tlian the latter. In the (ireat 
Exhibition there is not a section of tho building but yields illustration, more 
or loss direct, of such mechanism. 

Among tho "Curiosities" which it is the object of this paper to notice, 
some sort of classification will be desirable. Those contrivances which may 
with any correctness be called cnUnUatimj or arithiimtieal macliines will be first 
passed hi review ; while those possessing merely a power of reffiitry w ill come 
later under notice. 

Calcclation : MENTAr, Errors and Mechanical Remedies. 

There are circumstances of a very peculiar kind often obs«'r^'able in long 
and uitrioate processes of calculation. Men whose minds are strongly bent on 
tliis kind of labour, and who ai'e profoundly sk'dled in it, do yet commit mis- 
takes of a most vexing character, often seriously compromising other opera- 
tions on which they ore engaged. The mind wearies, tlie attention becomes 
distracted, the eyes become dim, and the thinker, in spite of himself, ceiuses to 
think and act Avith tho same precision aa before. Hence arises the query — 
can wheels and axles, which never tiro, be made to think for tlieir master ? If 
tliey can tliuik at all, or ratlier if tlioy can imitate the results of human 
tliought, they can do tliis as freshly after twelve or twenty liours as at tlie 
beginning; not having the ficklt less of volition, their blundci-s, if any tliere 
be, can be calculated and adjusted. It is not surprising, tliinefore, tliat tlie 
,i])plication of mechanism to processes of calculation should from time to time 
have eu Imaged attention. 

It muy be interesting to note a few examplts of the mental and typographical 
difficultie> felt in insuring accuracy in such matters — tlie typographical diffi- 
culties beuig, of course, such as occur in printing the calculated results, and 
not necessarily involved in tlie calculating processes themselves. It was tlie 
necessity of accuracy in scientific tables, and tlie difiit ulty of obtaining (bat 
accuracy, that led to tlie conctption of Mr. Babbagf 's celebrated calculating 
machine. Those who know even a little of science are aware tliat tabulated 
numbers enter largely into tlie working materials of such studies ; but it is in 
astronomy and navigation that tliis chiefiy appeaiH 

Dr. I:ai'di!er gave some curious information concerning such tables, in a 
paper \. blished in the Edinburnh Heviev in 1834. The use of a Numerical 
Table is i save practical men the trouble of making computations for them- 
selves, by iiaving such computations made once for all, and printing them for 
the use of liiose who may be ( iicemed in such matters. The "Ready 
Reckoner" <rf a thrifty housewife ia often a tabulation of results which she 






I 



|{ OAiCULATINO AND nKOISTElUNO HACIIINE8. 

could not calculate if she would; but tho " Interest Tablo" of a banker gives 
re8iiltH which he would not wiUinKly ho h'ft to nilculiito, tliougli ho hiw tht; 
skill to ilo so. These two (luulilios undeilio all niunericiil tuhles : such talilfs 
oilhor ertV'ci what we cunnot, or tliey Have time in that which we t-iui etliHt. 
Thta-o ;u-o Multiplicathn 'rabies, Square and Cube V»uyr TftbloH, Squani and 
Vitbe lioot Tables, Tablea of still higher fumn ami Kooto, and others rt;hitinK 
to common arithmetic. In IVussia there is a printed Multiplication Table as 
fur us 100(1 times 1000. Then tliere are tlio various Trigonometrical Tables, 
Buch as tl»e TabUw of Simx, C'o-sitm, TutiijcnlH, Siriintx, An-n, Amjles. Another 
class (consists of Tables of Lu<janlhmi, applied to nundjers of vaiious kinds. 
Then tliero are tl»e various Tables reipiireil by surveyors, architecta, engineer*, 
builders, carpenters, gangers, tuid otliers, in tlie course of their duties. A 
more special class is tliat which comprises Tables i>f InU-rest, DikuuhI, 
Excluimjea, AnauituB, Life AHSuranco. But it is in connection with Astroiwmy 
and Navigatit)n that Tables are most urgently requii-ed; and they are here so 
numerous tliat wo cannot even give their names. 

Now it is in preparing and pcifocting such tables thai mechanism is believetl 
to bo available. Iron is made to think, and U) record its thoughts. Under 
ordiiuuy circumstances both tlie thinker and the recorder commit blunders 
which tho most sedulous care fails to ri>move. A remarkable proof of 
tliis was given in tlie jjreparation of Mr. IJabbage's Table of Logarithms by 
tho usual raethwl. After compuUtiou, Mr. Babbage's table was compared 
witli those of Callet and Vega, and errors corrected ; it was compared again 
witli tho tables of Collet, Vega, and Hutton, and further corrections mmle ; 
the revised sheets were again compared witli Vega, Collet, and Briggs; they 
were tlien stereotyped, and the proofs compiu-ed with the tables of Vega and 
Gardner, and by two computers with that of Taylor. And yet, even after all 
this, a few errors wero detected in tlie stereotype plates themselves. Some- 
times two or more of the printer's types fall out of their places, and he re- 
adjtists theni as he thinks tlioy were before ; but if he blunders, it may require 
a shaq) and practised eye to detect the misplacement. No books contain so 
many errata as numerical tables ; and it sometimes happens that the erratum 
itself contains an error. The oddest example of this kind of cross-purposes 
occurred some years ago in tlie Nautical Almanac, whore it was necessary 
to give an erratum of the erratum of the errata of a particulai* Table of 
Logarithms. 

One mode of lessening the liability to these errors is to treat the computers 
themselves somewhat in the light of component parts of one great machine. 
Perhaps the most remarkable instawio of this kind — this treatment of a man 
as a edculating implement — was furnished by tlie system on which the gi'eat 
French Tables were prepared. About the year 1792 the French government 
planned a series of the most extensive mathematical tables ever known ; they 
were chiefly logarithmic and trigonometrical tables, and were intended to 
assist in the preparation of the decimal system of weights and measures, 
which has since been introduced in that countiy. The distinguished savant, 
Prony, was intrusted with this great work ; and he directly saw, that even 
with the aid of three or four able mathematicians, the whole of his Ufe would 
not suffice for tlie completion of the tables. While pondering on this matter, 
he chanced to light upon a copy of Smith's Wealth of Natiom, and to open it 
at the part where the author gives his well-known illustration of the advan- 
tages resulting from division of labour. The principle advanced by Adam 
Smith is, that if a nmnber of men divide ascertain amount ©f work among 



[E8. 

lo " of a banker givcrt 
l^ though hu haH tliu 
III tiililcs : Huch tublt'H 
, which wo full littect. 
■r Tahli'S, Squani axul 
t», and nUioni relutui^ 
riiUipUcution TiibU) us 
•if^oiioiiu'lricul TublcH, 
(((■*, Amihu. AiioUki' 
bors of vaiioiw kimlH. 
, arohitecta, onKineitrii, 
le of tlieir duties. A 
of Intcrent, Discount, 
sction witli A8tix>tM)iny 
; aiid iJhcy are here so 

mechanism is believiul 

it« thoiightH. Under 

rder ct)nimit blunders 

remarkable proof of 

ible of lioguritluiis by 

s table WU8 compared 

t was compared aguin 

her corrections math' ; 

diet, and Brings ; they 

he tables of Vega and 

And yet, even after all 

;s theniHelves. Honie- 

leir places, and he re- 

lundors, it may require 

No bookH contain so 

p[)en8 that the erratum 

kind of cross-purposes 

iore it was necessary 

a particulai* Table of 

t to treat the computers 
of one great machine, 
his treatment of a man 
em on which the great 
(he French goYemment 
ftbles ever known ; they 
and were intended to 
weights and measures, 
e distinguished savant, 
iirectly saw, that even 
whole of his life would 
ndering on this matter. 
Nations, and to open it 
ustration of the advan- 
ple advanced by Adam 
Amount ©f work among 




flALm.ATTKO AWn IlRniSTKniNO MACIUNKI. 



8 



them, in such n way that each shnll lake that which host suits his skill and 
strength, the work will be better and more (piickly done than if ull tiike alike, 
equal shares and equal kinds. The factory sysfem de()enils esKcntially on 
thin pnnciplu ; an<l Prony saw that it would also be advantageous to his 
purpose. He detenniJicd to have a sect of nu'ntiil factor)-, in which Rome 
should think more than work, and others work more than think; by which 
means he was able to avail himself of u rougher, hmnbler, cheaper cla.ss of 
assistants than would otherwise be possible. 

The plan was thus carried out. Three degrees of mathematical talent were 
deti'iinined — one possessed only by analysts of the highest order, a second 
possessed by uvenigo mathematiciuns, and a third wiiich involved nothing 
more than the commonest ndes of arithmetic. The thrive classes may be 
said to have l.-orne some su<'h relation to (>aih other as architects, master 
buildei-s, and workmen. The first class was represented by live or six 
persons, who entered into a prolound uivestigation of vaiious mathematical 
doctrines and processes, to select tliose which were most readily adapt<'d U> 
simple numerical calcidation by many individuals engaged at the same time. 
The s«'cond class comprised seven or eight mathematicians, who took the 
instructions given by the gi-eat analysts, and brought them into such a form 
as to be intelligible to, and within the practical scope of, iJie tliird. The 
third class, comjjnsing what wo have likened to a calculating machine, con- 
sisted of about a hundred persons; nine-tenths of them knew nothing of 
arithmetic beyond addition and subtmction ; they received certain veiy simple 
rules from the set-ond class (the reasons for which they were incompetent to 
understand), and, guided by these ndes, they computed the whole of tlie 
tables by simple addition and subli-action. Adam Hmith's theory was here 
well home out ; for not only did these humble computers relieve the skilful 
mathematicians from a wearisome labour, but it was found tliat they wevo 
usually more coirect, on account of the uniformity of tlio work intrusted to 
tliein. A similar thing was observed in connection with the great Ordnance 
Suivey of Ireland, where numbers of Irish boys were met \viUi, able and gla«l 
to make the simple detailed computation.y at a hal/imnii/ a trianffle, morw 
unifonnly coirect tlian if computed by higher .skilled and higher paid mathe 
maticians. 

Kut it is only in the application of mechanism, of manufacturing industiy, 
to the furtherance of aritlnnetical calculation, that tliose matters come pro|)erly 
under notice here. To such applications, therefore, we procied. 

Such mechanical aid as is here alluded to, has been more or less appuctl ui 
many countries at ditFerent times. The Almaai of the ancients was a frame, 
across which a few wires were stretched, and on these wires were stnmg beadi 
of different colours ; each bead represented a numeral, ami the rank or order 
of the beads represented tlie rank or order of tlie digits. The original ubacua 
is attribut'id to I^thagoras, but it is considered tJiut this may have been 
nothing more than what is now called a Mitlliplicntion Table. The abacus of 
beads and wires, just described, was used by tlie Greeks ; the Romans adopted 
a form in which pins were used for heads and gi'ooves for wires. The abacus 
used by tlie Chinese, and called Schwan-pan, consists of seveiid brass wires 
extending from tlie ttip to the bottom of a frame, and divided in the middle 
by a cross-piece from side to side ; the beads are so strung on the wires, tliat 
each wire has two beads in the 'upper part and five in the lower; and all the 
beads have different values assigned to them according to their positions. 

E a 




4 CALCULATING AND REGISTERING MACHINES. 

A more efficient mode of facilitating tlio multiplication and division of laige 
numbers, by mechanical means, was invented two ctinturies and a half ago by 
Napier of Merchiston, the inventor of logarithmic arithmetic ; ho called tlie 
art Rhahdology, and the mstmment came to bo called Napier s Bows. These 
bones or rods consist of five oblong pieces of wood or any other convenient 
material, divided each into nine litUe squares ; each squai-e is resolved mto 
two triangles by diagonals ; and the numbers of the multipUcation table are 
written in these squares in such a manner, that Uie ' units' figure is found m 
Uie right hand ti-iangle, and the ' tens' figure in the left hand triangle of the 
same square. It would be difficult, without diagrams, to explain the mode ot 
effecting multiplication by these pieces ; but the pieces ai-e ranged side by 
side, in an order determined by the figures of the multipUcand and the 
multiplier, and tlie answer is found at the intersection of a vertical with a 
horizontal line — ^m a mode similar to that in which most tables are consulted. 
Analogous m principle to Napier's bones or rods are tlie vai-ious kinds ot 
Sliding Rule, so familiar to engineers and workmen. Whether it be tlie 
common Carpenter's sUde-rule, Bevan's Engineer's nile, Henderson's double 
slide-rule, the Excise-officer's mle, the Grazier's rule, or any of those for per- 
foi-mhig moi\! abstruse calculations, the principle of action is nearly tlie same 

that of placing two or more rows of numbers side by side, and finding the 

required result at certain junctions of graduated lines. 

But these are rather ai-ithmetical imtmments tlian machines; they ai-e an 
extension of arithmetical tables ; t'nd though it has been said by one who ably 
advocates tlie mcreased use of the sUdhig rule, that " for a few shilUngs most 
persons might put into their pockets some hundred tunes as much power of 
calculation as they have in their heads," yet tliese insL'uments are not of a 
kind to call for further notice here. The apparatus invented by Pascal, how- 
ever, was really a calculating machine, and was perhaps the first of its kind. 
This distinguished man was, in eai-ly life, an assistant to his father in an 
official situation m Normandy : the duties of the office involved much 
numerical calculation ; and young Pascal conceived the idea of shortening the 
labour by means of a machine. It consisted of a series of wheels, canying 
cylmdiical barrels, on which were engraved the ten numerals from to 9. 
One wheel was for ' units,' one for ' tens,' and so on ; each wheel was so con- 
nected with the one to the left of it, that when the former passed from 9 to 0, 
the latter was necessarily advanced one figure, or made to rotate one tenth ot 
a complete circle— thus was tlie familiar process of ' carrymg' effected. Mul- 
tiphcation was wrought by a series of additions, and ("vision by a series of 
subtractions, and the wheels were turned by hand to ring them into the 
proper relative positions. It is exactly two centuries a^o that this machine 
was constructed; it was distinguished neither for correctness enough, nor 
quickness enough, to bring it into permanent use; but it contained the gemi 
which has chai-acterised all later machines of the same class. Pascal himself 
simply spoke of his mvention in the following way: — "The arithmetical 
machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought tlian those which 
the lower animals produce ; but it does nothing which can clauu for it the 
animal power of volition." Leibnitz, Grillet, Sk Samuel Moieland, and other 
ingenious men, mvented various calculatmg machines during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centmies ; but all these projects have fallen into obUvion. 



... I i-|r,a'liPl 



■™*» 



iES. 

. and division of lai'ge 
•ies and a half ago by 
inetic; he called the 
apier's Bones. These 
any other convenient 
uare is resolved into 
iltipUcation table are 
its' figure is found in 
t hand triangle of tlie 
) explain the mode of 
8 ai-e ranged side by 
nultipUcand and the 
.1 of a vertical witli a 
t tables are consulted. 

tlie vai'ious kinds of 

Whether it be the 

;, Hendei'son's double 

r any of those for per- 

on is nearly tlie same 

side, and finding die 

nachbies; they ai-e an 
1 said by one who ably 
jr a few' shillings most 
les as much power of 
truments are not of a 
rented by Pascal, how- 
I the first of its kind, 
it to his father in an 
office involved much 
idea of shortening the 
les of wheels, carrying 
lumei-ali:, from to 0. 
Bu;h wheel was so con- 
ler passed from 9 to 0, 
! to rotate one tenth of 
rrying' effected. Mul- 
'■ vision by a series of 
ring them into the 
a^i> that this machine 
rrectness enough, nor 
t it contained the germ 
! class. Pascal himself 
y: — "The arithmetical 
ought than those which 
h can clauu for it the 
el Moreland, and other 
during tlie seventeentli 
alien into obUvion. 



CALCnLATlNO AND REGISTERINO MACHINES. 6 

Babbage'h Calculating Machine. 

Of all machines invented for these purposes, none have approached Mr 
Babbages— in tlie admirable talent exhibited, in the cost incurred, in the 
amount of correspondence to which it has given rise, in the time bestowed 
upon its production, m the mental anxiety which it has caused to its inventor 
ana m the strange ending of its career. 

It was in April, 1823, that official notice was first taken of this marvellous 
invention, by an application from the Treasuiy to the Royal Society, for the 
opinion of that learned body on a plan proposed by Mr. Babbage, " for 
applying machinery to the pmposes of calculating and printing mathematical 
tables. 13ut the matter was known to scientific persons at im earlier date. 
Sir Humphrey Davy, the President of the Society, had been familiar with 
Mr. Bahbages labours; and Mr. Babbage wrote a letter in July, 1S22, which 
was addressed formally to Sir Humphrey, but was intended virtually as a means 
of making the invention pubhc. He said, "the intolerable labour and 
tatiguing monotony of a continued repetition of similar arithmetical cal- 
culations, first excited Uie desu-e, and afterwards suggested the idea, of a 
machine, which, by the aid of gi-avity or any other movmg power, should 
become a substitute for one of tlie lowest operations of human inteUect " 
It may seem strange to many pei-sons so to designate arithmetical processes ; 
but such they really become to men of lofty analytical genius; for, as was 
before observed, it is found that a mere computer, a man or boy who only 
knows the first four rules of ai-ithmetic, can compute arithmetical tables more 
quickly and more accurately than an accomphshed mathematician— so much 
does it assume the character of mechanical routine work, when the exact 
mode of proceeding is once laid down. Mr. Babbage seems to have con- 
ti-ived, even before that time, many diffijrent machines for performing different 
mathenaatical operations ; they were mostly plans drawn on paper, but one or 
two had advanced to a working condition. 

So early, mdeed, as June 1823, Mr. Babbage had read a paper before tlie 
Astronomical Society, in which he alluded to the fact that mmiy of the 
members were acquainted with liis views on this subject, and then announced 
that his labours had attained a favom-able result. He mentions certain tables 
of numbers, and adds—" These, as well as any others which the enpine is 
competent to foi-m, are produced almost as rapidly as an assistant can write 
tliem down. The machu^e by which these calculations are effected 'is 
extremely simple in Us kind, consisting of a smaU number of different parts 
frequently repeated. Li the prosecution of this plan, I have contrived 
methods by which tji)e shall be set up by the machine in tlie order deter- 
mined by the calculation ; and the arrangements are of such a nature that, if 
executed, there shall not exist tlie possibility of enor in any printed copy 
of tables computed by tliis machuie." This is a high character for an 
inventor to give to his own machine, but there is eveiy reason to think that 
It mvolves no exaggeration. In December of tlie same yeai-, Mr. Babbage 
communicated a second paper to the same learned body, in which he stated 
that he had not made any notable progress in his machine, but that he had 
tested its powers in a singular way. Ho fomid tliat, in considering the 
arrangements of its paiis, a different mode of adjusting them would produce 
tables of a new species, altogetlier different fi-om any witli which he was 
acquainted— in otlier words, the machine could work a problem which 



I 



I 



■I 



T 



i limi ii i i iM i if I II I l iii i n i MiMi iii i ii i iii»MwiMlgWliMli»t»( 



-J 



,.'»" 



« 



OALCDLATING AND REaiSTERINO MACHINES. 



J-i 

"t; 
■I'l' 

i ; 



mathematicians could not; he investigated the matter, and, mstigated ov 
guided by the machine, succeeded in getting over a difficulty Avhich had 
perplexed him many years before, in tlie solution of a problem connected with 
tlie game of chess. The machine became a tutor to the machinist. 

When Mr. (afterwards Sir T. C.) Colebrooke presented the Society's gold 
medal to Mr. Babbage, in 18^4, he compared the purport of the machine with 
other mechanical contrivances. " In other cases, mechanical devices have 
substituted machines for simpler tools or for bodily labours. The artist 
has been furnished with command of power beyond human strength, joined 
with precision surpassing any ordinary attainment of dexterity. He is enabled 
to perfonn singly tlie work of a multitude, with the accuracy of a select few, 
by mechanism, which takes the place of manual labour, or assists its eff'oits. 
But the invention to which I am adverting comes in place of mental exertion : 
it substitutes mechanical perfonnance for an intellectual process ; and that 
nerfoi-mance is effected witli celerity and exactness imattainable in ordinary 
methods, even by incessant practice and vmdiverted attention. The invention 
is in scope, as in execution, imlike anytliing before accomplished to assist 
operose computations. Mr. Babbage's mvention puts an engine in the place 
of the computer; the question is set to the instmment, or the instniment 
is set to the question; and, by simply giving it motion, the solution is 
^vrought and a string ui answers is exhibited. Nor is this all; for the 
machine may be rendered capable of recording its answer, and even multi- 
plying copies of it." , • v i 

But to return to the record of official proceedings, without which the 
histmy of this remarkable invention would be unintelUgiblc. The letter 
addressed to Sir H\imphrey Davy having been printed, and a copy sent to 
the Treasiu-y, it led to the application by the Government to the Royal 
Society for that learned body's opinion. Men of unquestioned scientific 
attainments formed themselves into a Committee for investigating the subject. 
The names of Davy, Hei-schel, Young, Wollaston, Bond, Kater, Brande, Baily, 
Combe, Brunei, Colby, and Davies Gilbert, formed tliis memorable and un- 
equalled Committee ; which, thus cor :5tituted, after examining the whole subject, 
reported, " That it appears to this Conmiittee tliat Mr. Babbage has displayed 
great talent and ingenuity in the consti-uction of his machine for computation, 
which tlie Committee thmk folly adequate to the attainment of die object 
proposed by die inventor, and that they consider Mr. Babbage as highly 
desen'ing of pubUc encouragement in the prosecution of his arduous under- 
taking." Mr. Babbage's reason for applying to the Government was, that the 
full accomplishment of his plans would entail gi-eater expense than his own 
private resources would bear ; and that, as he had no pui-pose of emohiment in 
view, he appUed for national assistance in completing a national benefit. It is 
said that Dr. Young differed from the rest of the Committee ; he thought the 
invention unquestionably a meritorious one, but he " conceived that it would 
be far more useful t(> invest the probable cost of constructing such a calcu- 
lating machine as was proposed, in the funds, and apply the dividend to 
paying calculators." However, tlie Report of the Committee being favourable, 
the Treasury agreed to take up the subject. 

ITnfortimately, tbere seems from the first to have been a want of precision 
in the mode of conducting the an-angements between the Government and 
the inventor. In the new palace of the parliament, no one seems to know 
who has control over the expenditure ; and in the fai- more wonderful calcu- 
lating machine there was a somewhat analogous train of misatisfactory 



lES. 

r, and, instigated oi' 
difficulty which liad 
oblem connected with 
I machinist, 
ed the Society's gold 
i of the machine with 
chanical devices have 
labours. The artist 
iman strength, joined 
terity. He is enabled 
uracy of a select ft;w, 
, or assists its eftbits. 
ce of mental exertion : 
lal inocess, ; and that 
ittainable in ordinary 
ilion. The invention 
cconiplishcd to assist 
ti engine in the place 
nt, or the instniment 
)tion, the solution is 
I" is this all; for the 
iwer, and even multi- 

3, without which the 
ilhgiblc. The letter 
J, and a copy sent to 
rnment to the Royal 
nquestioned scientific 
^estigating the subject. 
, Kater, Brande, Baily, 
s memorable and un- 
ning the whole subject, 
Babbage has displayed 
chine for computation, 
linment of the object 
r. Babbage as highly 
of his arduoiis mider- 
remment was, that the 
expense than his own 
iT^ose of emohunent in 
national benefit. It is 
littee; lie thought the 
oneeived that it would 
tructing such a calcu- 
apply the dividend to 
littee being favourable, 

m a want of precision 
1 the Government and 
o one seems to know 
moi'e wonderful calcu- 
rain of unsatisfactoiy 



CALCULATING AND REGISTEBISO MACHINES. 7 

results. Mr. Babbage 's fu-st direct negociation witli tho Govei-nment was 
verbal instead of wi-itten, whence ai-ose misconception of tlie meaning of 
either party. A few months after the Report of the Committee, the Treasury 
I' directed the issue of £1500 to Mr. Babbage. to enable him to bring hia 
invention to perfection, in the manner recommended " by the Royal Society ; 
but as tho recommendation did not lay down any plan, terms, or conditions, 
the mventor was left to fomi plans of his own. The machine which hail 
before existed was nothing more than a model ; but the calculatuig machine, 
to be regarded as public property, was commenced by Mr. Babbage hi 1823, 
and its construction continued steadily for hm yeare. Drawings of tlie 
most elaborate and delicate kind were made, and skilful machinists were 
cinployed to C!)nstract the wheels and other mechanism from these drawings. 
Not only had the best skill to be employed, but workmen had to be educated 
specially for the work, and entuely new tools had to be invented, so ex- 
tiaordinary was the nicet requu-ed in every part of the apparatus. Money 
was advanced from time to time by the Govenmient, and paid for materials 
and labom', under the audit of tlu-ee distinguished engineei-s — Messra. Brunei, 
Donkin, and Field. Mr. Babbage himself received ho remuneration for tlio 
mental labour and tlie time bestowed by him on his gi-eat work ; all went 
to tliose who were assisting him. 

Yeara rolled on, and money was advanced from time to time by the Treasury, 
but the machine was not yet completed ; and the House of Commons, tlie keeper 
of tlie public purse, began to exhibit a little restiveness. The Govemment 
wished to know how matters were proceeding ; and, in December, 1828, a 
second Treasmy letter to the Royal Society was written, begging tlie Comicil 
" to institute such inquiries as would enable them to report upon the state to 
which the machine had arrived ; and also whether tlie progress made in its 
construction confirmed tliem in the opinion which tliey had formerly ex- 
pressed, that it would ultimately prove adequate to the important object which 
it was intended tf) attain. " Up to tliat time 4*6000 had been expended on tlie 
machine ; but neither tin; inventor nor any one else was able to state how 
much more would be required. A second Committee was appointed by the 
Royal Society, in which were tlie distinguished names of Herschel, Roget, 
Sabine, Gilbert, Baily, Bi-miel, Kater, Donkm, Penn, Rennie, Barton, and 
Warburton. The substance of the Report agi-eed to by the CJomraittee was, 
" that the progress made in the machuie was as gi-eat as could be expected, 
considering the numerous difficulties to be overcome ; " and that the Commit- 
tee " bad no hesitation in giving it as their opinion, that the engme was likely 
to fulfil the expectations entei-tained of it by its hiventor." The Comicil of 
the Society adopted the Report ; the Govemment accepted tlie opinion given ; 
and more money was advanced. 

The Treasury grants, however, became few and far between ; and in May, 
1839, it became necessaiy to look clearly at tlie financial ditliculty; A sum of 
£7000 had by that time been spent on the machine, of which the Treasury 
had provided only £3000, the rest having been borne by the inventor ; and it 
was found that at least £4000 more would be required. An application was 
made to the Duke of Wellington, then in office, and £3000 was advanced 
from the Treasmy. Anotlier sum of £«00 was afterwards advanced. In De- 
cember, 1830. the Govemment made a third application to tlie Royal Society, 
which led to the appointment of a thu-d Committee, required to report 
•' Whether tlie work is proceeding in a satisfactory mmuier, and without unne- 
cessary expense, and what further sum may probably be necessary for coiu- 



'■1 



W 



8 



CALCULATING AND BEGISTEIIINQ MACHINES. 



pleting it." The language used by the Committee, after a minute investiga- 
tion, was nearly an echo of tlie former reports — admiration of the plans, 
satisfaction with the progress made, sanction of the financial payments, re- 
liance on the ultimate completion and success — these were Uie burden of the 
Report ; they recommended that a building should be constructed for the ma- 
chine near Mr. Babbage's residence ; they stated, on tlie authority of Mr. 
Brunei, that a sum from iBOOO to £12000 would be required to build the 
structure and to finish the machine ; and they proposed that £-2000 to £2500 
should be appropriated annually. The Govenunent, as before, received fa- 
vom-ftbly the Report of the Royal Society ; a building was constructed to con- 
tain the maclnne and the working drawings, and operations recommenced 
in 1831. 

Calamity, however, was at hand. Wlien about £17,000 had been expended, 
difficulties arose with the machinist who had constructed all tlie apparatus. 
He made claims, which were resisted ; and, as no compromise could be arrived 
at, he withdrew all his skilled workmen — and, what was worse, he removed all 
the valuable tools which had been employed m tlie work. Mr. Weld, who de- 
tails these proceedings at some length in hin History of the Boyal Society, says, 
tliat this removal the machinist " had a right to do ; startling as it may appear 
to the unprofessional reader, it is nevertheless the fact, that engineers and me- 
chanics possess the right of property to all tools that they have constmcted, 
although the coat of constmction has been defrayed by tlieir employers." 
This was the finishing blow: the works were suspended. 

About this time Mr. Babbage Avas developing the conception of a still more 
complete machine than that which had caused him so much anxious labour : 
one tliat would work mathematical problems of a far higher order. His for- 
mer one he called a Difference Enijine; tlie new one, if tJae conception should 
ever be realised, he proposed to call an Analytical Engine. He considered 
that, even if he could obtain his tools and his workmen, it were wortli con- 
sideration whether to finish the old machine or to begin a better. He applied 
to the Government on the subject in 1834 and 1835, but nothing was 
done ; he also made his views kiiown to some eminent Italiaji philosophei-s. 
Nine years passed over, from 1833 to 1842 ; the ins and the outs, in politics, 
changed places more than once ; but no more Treasury grants were made, 
nor definite aiTangements arrived at. In 1842 Sir Robert Peel expressed a 
disinclination to spend more public money on the machine, but he offered to 
waive, on the part of the Govemnient, all right of property in it, if it could 
be completed by private enterprise. Mr. Babbage wished tlie drawings end 
the machine to bo still considered as pubV property, and he declined to take 
them to himself. 

Heie is, virtually, the close of the history of this wonderful machine ; for 
nothing, we believe, has since been done to foi-warl it In 1843, on applica- 
tion from the tmstees, tlie Government placed the machine smd drawings in 
the Museum of King's College. The machine is capable of doing a small 
portion of the work for which it was planned, and this witli absolute preci- 
sion ; but the mechanism for its higher powers, and for piinting its results, 
have not yet been constructed. In respect to the second, or Analytical Engine, 
it exists only on paper ; yet this paper extends to one hundred large drawings, 
and four or five hundred large sheets of plans and details — showing tlie vast- 
ness of the enterprise. The extraordinary part of the matter is, that even 
new tools and new modes of working in metal have to be devised. " A long 
series of experiments," says Mr. Weld, " have been made upon the art of 



K8. 

ir a minute investiga- 
iration of the plans, 
lanciul payments, ve- 
re tlie burden of the 
Qstructed for the ma- 
Lhe authority of Mr. 
equired to build the 
that i;2000 to JB25()0 
before, received fa- 
ts constructed to con- 
•ations recommenced 

I had been expended, 
ed all the apparatus, 
imise could be arrived 
ivorse, he removed all 
Mr. Weld, who de- 
le Royal Society, says, 
ling as it may appear 
lat engineers and me- 
ey have constnicted, 
by tlieir employers." 

eption of a still more 
nuch anxious labour : 
igher order. His for- 
tbe conception should 
gine. He considered 
n, it were wortli con- 
a better. He applied 
15, but nothing was 
; Italian philosophei-s. 
d the outs, in politics, 
iry grants were made, 
)ert Peel expressed a 
line, but he offered to 
)erty in it, if it could 
ed the drawings and 
id he declined to take 

nderful machine ; for 
In 1843, on applica- 
:ihine and drawings in 
ible of doing a small 
witli absolute preci- 
r piinting lis results, 
, or Analytical Engine, 
indred lai'ge drawings. 
Is — showing tlie vast- 
3 matter is, that even 
be devised. " A long 
lade upon tlie art of 



-iim/6i^BBBj^^ 



CALCULATING AND HE01STERIN0 MACHINES. 



9 



shaping metals ; and the tools to be employed for that purpose have been dis- 
cussed, and many drawings of tliem prepared. The great object of these 
inquiries and experiments is, on the one hand, by simplifying the construc- 
tion as much as possible, and, on the other, by contriving new and cheaper 
meaus of execution, ultimately to redwe the expense within those hraits 
which a private individual may command." 

We have gone connectedly but rajjidly tliro'.igh the thirty yeare' history of 
this invention — certainly not thirty years of peace to the distinguished in- 
ventor ; but we have said nothing of its mechanisn , nd modo of action. This 
is, in tmth, no easy matter. To explain the principle on which the machuie is 
based would require mathematical details lying beyond the scope of the pre- 
sent article. It may be stated, however, Uiat the differences between numbers 
in a Table are the elements out of which Mr. Babbage constructs tlie Table 
itself; and on this accoimt he calls his apparatus a BiffereiKe Engine. I'or in- 
stance, in a Table of square numbers, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, aO, &c., tlie difference 
between the first and second is 3, between the second and third, 6 ; and so we 
get a series 3, 5, 7, 9, 1 1, &c. Again, this series of first differences, if viewed 
in a similiu- manner, presents us witli another and remarkable series, 2, 2, 2, 2, 
Sic. It is found that almost all numerical tables, when thus analysed into 
successive orders of ditl'erences, end at last in a very simple series, consti- 
tuting the materials — the atomic elements, so to speak — which, by addition, 
will produce all the numbera required in the table. The process of addition 
lies at the root of the whole method. 

Now the question, how to accomplish this by mechanism, was that which 
Mr. Babbage set himself to solve. The first term of the table, and tlie fii-st 
term of each order of differences, being given, the whole table can be con- 
sti-ucted from those elements ; and dials were made to indicate these numbers. 
There are rows of dials to represent the successive orders of differences, and 
rows to represent tlie succesbive digits in a number ; and, by an extraordinary 
assemblage of mechanism, the wheels to which tliese dials are attached act 
upon each other in an order detci-mined by the original adjustment — by the 
tune to which this mental organ is set. Each dial has on its edges the set of 
digits from to 9. There are axes on which Uie dials revolve ; teeth to the 
wheels behind the dials ; bolts which act on or uito these teeth : wedges to 
withdraw the bolts ; and shoulders which regulate the action of the bolts on 
the teeth- wheels — <ill this determines the process of addition. Then there 
are ratchet-wheels behind the dials ; claws which catch in tlie teeth of these 
ratchets ; hooks which fasten or unfasten the claws ; spiral springs which draw 
back tlie claws when unfastened ; triggers which set tlie hooks in action ; 
thumbs or studs which govern the triggera ; and fingers on the revolving axes 
which move tlie claws — all to manage Uie proc?is of carnjiny, well known to 
every schoolboy in his addition sums. In the tliird jdace, there are rollers 
resting oetween curved surfaces ; cones resting on conical apertures ; and 
other pieces of mec'- irism — for verifying or ensuring accuracy in the results, 
ijastly, there are siia,.. ^^ieces on the axes of some of the wheels ; levera to be 
acted upon by these pieces to ten different heights, according to the numerals ; 
N ;"3 at the other ends of tlie levers; ten punches in each sector, having 
the inised chai-acter of the ten numerals ; a bent lever which acts upon a par- 
■:' liar punch in a particular position of the sector; a copper plate on which 
liie punch may make an indented ir-ipression ; levers for moving the plate 
while anotlier punch is coming into action — these are for printing the results ; 

E 3 



^""X. 



timmtmnt mrn may 





10 



CALCULATING AND KEOIBTEBINO MACIIINEH. 



or, rather, for producing stamped copper plates, which may either be printed 
from or may act as moulds from which stereotype casts can be taken. 

Although Dr. Lardner has much skill in describing mechanism, it occupied 
twentv-five pages in the Edinbun/h Revieiv for him to describe the action ol the 
calcukting machine; and there were some features which he gave u|. 
altogether as hopeless, without a mass of diagi-ams which nobody would 
look at but practical men. Some of the apparatus and modes of action 
are indeed extoordiniu-y— none more so tlian tliat for ensuring accuracy 
in the calculated results. If the machine does its work a littk in error, 
it is rubbed into good conduct by tlie friction of adjacent mechanism, on the 
pruxciple of sympathy which makes pendulums vibrate alike, or men m a m"b 
huzza alike ; but if the machine begins to do its work venj wrongly, the wheels 
become locked, and refuse to rotate. They will progress nghtly, or not at all : 
they repudiate a slovenly course. This is perhaps approa«hing as near tlie 
region of volition as steel and brass ctm accomplish. 

It was not that all these wonders were produced by ilie actual machine, 
or rather model, constructed by Mr. 13abbage : but that tlieir possibility and 
mechaniciU as well as tlieoretical correctness were proved by tiie Uiousand 
square feet of drawings prepaied by him. , ,^. ^ ir • a 

The above details relate, as we have mentioned, to the Difference hngim. A 
few words must be added concerning tlie younger sister of tliat contrivance. 
The Ancdyticcd Engine seems to embrace withm its exti-aordmaiy powers, com- 
plicated arithmetical operations of an almost unbounded character ; and it 
appears to be the opmion of the inventor, that thi.s engine could not only 
perform operations beyond the scope of tlie Difference Engine, but could pei-- 
foi-m more quickly that which the latter is capable of effecting. An ec- 
couiit of the new conception was published in the BMiollisqm UniveraeUc, m 
184!i ; and was tlience translated (by Lady Lovelace, as stated by Mr. Wakl) 
for Taylor's Scientijic Metnoirs. 

For sLxteen or eighteen years the Analytical Engine has lived upon paper, 
and in the fertile brain of its inventor ; but as it has not yet assumed tlio 
mechanical form, any further notice of it Ues beyond tlie scope of this aiticle. 
If it ever see the light of day (which every lover of science imd mechanical 
skiU would ardently wish), Mr. Babbage must next add an iron labourer to tlic 
iron thinker, by setting a steara-engme to work the handle ; we could then 
manufacture aiithmetical tables like yaids of cotton. 

Eecent Akithmetical Machines. 

Any comment on the circumstances which have for so lengthened a period 
rendered tlie above extraordinaiy inventions ban-en of results, besides bemg 
painfrl and unsatisfactoiy, would he beyond tlie scope of the present paper. 
We tlierefore propose U) take a glance at recent and humbler performances m 
ihe same line of mechanical art. • i • * 

That arithmetical machines of any kuid have as yet come extensively mto 
use is more than can be safely affirmed. Thit is no reason, however, for a 
suspension of ingenuity on the subject. The , agulaiity and precision o 
modem mechanism ai-e quaUUes singularly analogous to those which calculated 
tables and quantities ought to present ; and practical men feel that this analogy 
wUl vet produce its good fruit. Ingenious machinists ai-e gropuig dieir way 
in seai-ch of these favouiable results ; and it wUl be haid if some among 
them do not hit upon liie right path. 



l. 



ly either be printed 
an be taken, 
chaiiisni, it occupied 
ribe tlie action of the 
which he guve ui» 
vliich nobody would 
nd niodea of action 
)r ensuring accuracy 
orlc a little in error, 
, mechanism, on the 
ike, or men in a mob 
/ wrongly, the wheela 
rightly, or not at all : 
Loaahuig as near tlie 

tlio actual machine, 

tlieir possibility and 

ved by the Uiousand 

Difference Eiiffiiie. A 
r of tliat contrivance. 
)rdinaiy powers, corn- 
ed character; and it 
igine could not only 
Engine, but could pei-- 
of effecting. An »c- 
iotheque Univeraelle, hi 
1 stated by Mr. Wald) 

has lived upon paper, 
not yet assumed Uie 
) scope of this aiticle. 
ience and mechanical 
m iron labourer to the 
andle ; we could then 



> lengthened a period 
results, besides being 
of tlie present paper, 
mbler performances m 

come extensively into 
reason, however, for a 
uity and precision of 
those which calculated 
n feel that this analogy 
are groping dieir way 
hard if some among 



CAIXJULATING AND KEOISTEEING MACHINES. ft 

Among the English and foreign inventors who have applied their inge- 
nuity in this channel, may be named M. Colmar, a Director of the Sun Fire 
(Office at Paris, who has invented a calculating machine which he calls the 
Arithmometre. It has been invented more tlian thirty yeai-s, but there ap- 
peal' to have been many improvements recently intioduced in it. The 
claims put forth for tlie machine are tlicse : — tliat provided a person knows the 
numerals, and follows the printed instructions, he can work sums in ad- 
dition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root, without having 
learned tliose rules ; or tliat, if he knows tliem, he may work more quickly 
and more correctly with tlian without the apparatus. The machine is 
contained in an oblong Iwx, from fourt.een to twenty-two inches long, accord- 
ing to tlie extent of its powers. There are as many slides, each working in a 
groove, as tiiere are places of figures ; and each groove is numbered witli ten 
tigm-es, from to 9. There are as many round holes, in a brass plate, as 
thej-e are possible places of figm-es in die result to be produced ; and be- 
neath each hole may appear any one of the ten numerals. The machine 
is adjusted to any particular problem, or the " sum is set," by moving 
some among tlio many slides ; to determine which of tlie shdes, and how far 
along tlie groove each shall be moved, depends on the terms of the question ; 
these slides work upon certain wheels and levers undenieatli, which cause 
tlie proper figui-es to make their appearance at tlie row of holes ui the brass 
plate. 

There is anotlier French machine, by M. Maurel, differing in tlie working 
details, but founded on the same principle of gi-aduated sliding bai-s or 
rods. 

Baranowski's Ready Beckoner, lately invented in America, is a much more 
simple machine dian those for arithmetical processes generally. It is intended 
for questions in which sums of money are concerned ; such as days' wages at 
so much per day, prices at so much per lb., or interest at so much per cent. 
Let us describe a wages machine. We see an upright box, with a handle at 
the bottom, rows of figures up the front, and a number of small slide.-s moved 
by studs. Near the top, concealed within the box, is a paper on which rates 
of wages are printed, from l«. to 42«. per week ; there is a small opening in 
front of tliis paper, and by turning the handle any requii-ed rate of wages be- 
tween those limi(« is brought to the opening. Suppose it be 24s. per week ; 
then " ^48." appears at the opening, and the machine is in a condition to show 
the amount of wages earned in any fractional number of days and hours, at 
that rate. Let it be four days, five hours ; we draw aside a little slide "t " four 
days," and another at "five houi-s;" these reveal openings, at which appear 
printed figm-es representing the sums of money to which tlie earnings amoimt. 
If the time were fom- days, five horns, and thi-ee quaiters, tliree slides would 
have to be moved, three sums woidd appear, and these diree would have to be 
added. Whether time be saved by tliis mechanism is a question for each com- 
puter to decide tor himself. Another appUcation of the machine is for calcu- 
lating goods tolls at so much per ton ; the rate per ton appears at the top, while 
the tons, cwts. and lbs. appear at the sides, 'Hid ti>t^ residt is arrived at on the 
same principle as in the wt^es machine. It is obvious that the principle, if 
useful at all, is capable of wide application. 

When we hear and read of Polish Jews, wh ore apt to think i-ather of shrewd 
barterers than of ingenious machinists ; yet one of the articles deposited in 
the Eussian department at the Great Exhibition by a Jew of Waisaw, named 
Staffel, is a highly ingenious mechanioal contrivance. It is a machine for 



i 



n 



CALCULATING AW) HEGI8TERINO MACHINES. 



working sums in arithmetic, and is said to perform addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, and division, with great quickness and mierring coirectness ; 
it goes even further tlian this, for it can calculate powers, roots, and fractions. 
Extemully the niivchine is small and rather plain, but its internal construction 
must necessaiily be complex. It is an oblong brass box, about four ijiches high. 
On the upi)er face are the words " adilitio," " subtractio," " multiplicatio," 
" divisio," riingcd in ii semi-circle ; and to whichever of these an index is 
turned by a smiiU handle, the machmc is tlien in a state to perform that 
piuticuliu- rule or operation. We see seven small holes, witli moveable plates 
beneath them, nuirked by numerals ; seven similai- holes in the peripheries of 
seven little vertical wheels ; and tliirteen number-holes, if we may so designate 
them, in another piece of appaiatus. Each set of seven holes has a traversing 
movement, but the longer series is immoveable. The principle of the opera- 
tion is somewhat as follows :— tlie two smaller frames are adjusted to tlie con- 
ditions of tlie question, so as to represent two sums to be added or two to 
be nmlti[)lied, &c., and tlien, on turning a handle, the answer appears at the 
thirteen holes of tlie otlier frame. Every one of the twenty-seven holes has 
ten nmnei-als (0 to 9) belonging to it, and any one of these ten may appear 
at tlie opening, accorduig to tlie adjustment for the solution of each question. 
The machine can multiply seven figures by seven figures (or millions by 
millions), and can display analogous powers in the other arithmetical pro- 
cesses. 

There is one little feature in tlie machine just described which seems to 
approach neaier to tlie volition or judgment of an intelhgent being tlian even 
the calculating itself. The machine corrects certain errors into which the 
computer might himself inadvertently fall. For instance, if the machine is 
set to subtract a larger number from a smaller, or to divide a number by ano- 
tlier lai'ger than itself, tlie machine cannot and will not do it : it rings a bell, 
and then stops work. The mechanism by which this singulai- result is 
brought about is small but intiicate; it shows, however, how many mental 
processes may, to a cei-tain extent, be imitated by wheels and levers. 

Dr. Rotli's Atdomatvn Calculator, introduced about ten years ago, has tlie same 
kind of assemblage of slides, studs, wheels, &c., as chai-acterise most of these 
contiivances. In one of its forms it simply registers the number of strokes or 
rotations m a machine, but in its more complete shape it solves questions in 
addition, multipUcation, &c. Analogous in character, too, tliough differing in 
details, is tlie Calculating Machine introduced to the notice of the British 
Association, in 1849, by M. Slovinski, a Pole; it can perform multipUcation 
sums up to millions multiphed by millions. 

NdMBERINO AND REGISTERING MACHINES. 

The reader can hardly fail to perceive that there is a general family likeness 
among these vai'ious aiithmetical and calculating machines, however they may 
differ in details. Instead of furtlier amplification on this point, therefore, we 
will talk awhile of another class of ingenious contiivances, wherein a principle 
of registry is involved. By this principle a piece of appai-atus not only per- 
forms its destined work, but preserves a record of tlie quantity of work done : 
it is an accountant as well as a workman. 

One of the French machines at the Great Exhibition is called the Timbre 
Additioneur. It is intended for stamping, and numbeiing and registering the 
articles stamped. Different stamps or dies may be used in the same machine, 



iddition, Kubtraction, 
uierring coirectneHS ; 
, roots, and fractions, 
internal construction 
jout four inches liigh. 
tio," " multiplicatio," 
)f these an index is 
tate to perform that 
witli moveable plates 
in the peripheries of 
we may so designate 
loles has a traversing 
rinciple of the opera- 
! adjusted to tlie con- 
I be added or two to 
iswer appears at the 
enty-seven holes has 
hese ten may appear 
ion of each question, 
[ures (or millions by 
iier arithmetical pro- 

ribed which seems to 
gent being tlian even 
rrors into which the 
ee, if the machine is 
ide a number by ano- 
de it : it lings a boll, 
lis singulai' result is 
ir, how many mental 
and levers. 

ears ago, has the sarae 
cterise most of these 
number of strokes or 
it solves questions in 
o, tliough differing in 
notice of the British 
erform multiplication 



PES. 

eneral family likeness 
es, however they may 
is point, therefore, we 
s, whei'ein a principle 
paiatus not only per- 
mntity of work done : 

is called the Timbre 
ig and registering the 
in the same machine, 



OALCtJLATINO AND BEOrSTEHINO MACIITNES. 



13 



and exchanged at pleasure. It is intended for n>imbering and stamping such 
documents as bills, letters, share certificates, &c., and is designed for the use 
of bankers, railway companies, the Stamp and Post Othces, and such like 
establishments. The machine, in its ordinary fonn, presents a flat table or 
stand, with a vertical box at the back of it. Within this box are wheels acting 
one on another, and at the top are dials to indicate how many times the wheels 
have revolved. A lever projects from the front of the machine, to which is 
attached tlie die or stamp. A small inking t»vble is provided ; and tlie lever 
has a range of movement given to it, which enables the die to be brought do\vn 
first on the ink and then on tlie paper to be stamped. As many times as Uiis 
movement occui-s, so miuiy are the revolutions or movements made by the 
wheel-work; and the hidex hands show this result on the dial faces. The 
machine seems to be capable of counting in manjr different ways, when llie 
stamping part of the apjiaratus is removed and a tew adjustments are made ; 
it may count the passengers thiough a turnstile, or the revolutions of a coach 
wheel, or the length of yam spun by a machine, or tliat of cloth woven by a 
loom, or the revolutions of a fly-wheel or of a water-wheel. 

Many a curious knot of persons, who have assembled round the Paging 
Machine at the Exhibition, have tliere had an opportunity of witjiessing an 
analogous prmciple at work. There is a handle or lever, an inking apparatus, 
and a train of wheels with raised numbers on their edges. When the lever is 
pressed down, one of the numbers comes in contact with the ink, and then 
with the paper"; and on raising the lever-handle the number-wheels are moved 
round a small space, so as to present a new number for the next mking and 
printmg process. The vai'iations of this exceedingly pretty operation ai-e 
numerous. 

M. Baranowski's ticket-printing, numbering, and registering machine, is a 
contrivance displaying considerable ingenuity — much more so than his Ready 
Reckoner. A number of blank cai-ds are placed in the upper part of the 
machine ; a handle is turned, and forthwith the cards make their appeai-ance, 
one by one, at the bottom of the machine — printed from an adopted form, 
numbered firom 1 to 2000 or more, consecutively, and leaving a registry as they 
quit the machine. This, it is said by the inventor, can be done at the rate of 
6000 per hour. The printing may be in one or two colours, and may be 
cpiickly adjusted to any desu-ed form. All this is eflfected by a machine com- 
prised within tlie limits of twelve mches long, nine wide, and eight high. The 
mechanism displays much cleverness. The tj-pes are aiTanged on the cir- 
cumference of small wheels, placed vertically ; and on pressing down the frame 
which contains the wheels, by a sort of piston or plug, the types come in con- 
tact with paper or pasteboard placed beneath; but before doing so, the 
movement causes a tiny inking ^"^Uer to work quickly over the face of the 
types, and thus enable them to prmt their impress in black iuk. If this 
wei-e all, every ticket would be printed exactly alike ; but by means of cogs 
and notches, and ratchets, the type-wheels make part of a revolution after 
each impression, so as to present a new figure for the next movement. If the 
tickets are printed in two coloui-s, tliere must be two inking rollers, one for 
each. So much nicety is there in the mechanism, that each machine, small as 
it is, costs about a hundred guineas. 

Another apparatus of somewhat analogous character, is Edmondson's Rail- 
way Ticket Machine, extensively used by railway companies. It consists of a 
series of -.vheels, together with a stamping and cutting instniment. The 
pasteboard material is introduced ; it is cut, printed, numbered, dated, regis- 



"¥ 



L 



14 



cALcvLAnaa and keuihikbino hachimh. 



i 



t«rf!d, piuiked, imd soitoti, with siirprining quu-kncss and accuracy — indeed it 
mmt bo accurate ; for Huch a iiiachin.' could not act at uli unless it« varums 
nuiVGments succeeded eiM-.h other in profxr order. 

The Kiune gPutnU principle lieti at uu- loot of many iiiHtruuientH patented 
or inti-odiiced witliin tlie liist few ynurs Thus, Mr. Lewtliwaite's jnsichine, 
invented in 1847, and intended for numbering railway or pawnbrokers' tickets, 
or paging hooks, or for priiitiaig any consecutive series of numbers, 1ms its 
type-wheels and driving-wheels, it^j levers and studs, and other complex me- 
chanism ; hut tliere is still tlie movement of a wheel one-teiiih of a i-evolutiuii 
after each pressure, and other wheels which revolve each i ivtcnth as fast as 
its neighbour. 

A wider oxtansion is given to tlie use of such machines when tliey are 
individually simpler in action : tliat is, they are applicable to a greater number 
of purposes. 8up})ose, lor instance, it be merely U) record the number of times 
that a certain operation is couductd, without any printing or KUnii)ing pro- 
cess, we ha^o at once an instance in a contri\ance for which Mr. Whittin 
obtained a puteul a year or two ago. It comprises toothed-wheeln 
ratchets and ratchet-wheels, a dial plate, and index hands, and it is ui- 
tended to he applied to tlic ti-aj>-door of a ship's coal- weighing machine, 
to register the number of times tJiat tlie door of tlie shoot has been opened 
for the discharge of cioai.s. Supposing the appai-atus to he effective, a slight 
modification would enable it to register the filling of measures of grain, or 
the number of times that a porter or canier has ci-osscd a plank with 
goods. 

It may veiy safely he df>ubted whether anything so delicate as galvtmic ap-. 
paratus would beur tlie loiigh usage of on'inibuses and cabs; otlierwise the 
tlu ry of Mr. Pownall's " Patent Register " may be sound enough. Tlie oh- 
ject of tlie apparatus is to place a check upon iVmey- takers in public vehicles, 
or at the entrance of tlieati-es, briil„'es, piers, and pubhc gardens. As ap- 
plied to lui omnibus, a tsmall galvanic battery and a regLstering apparatus are 
placed under the lloor of the carriage ; every time a person treads upon the 
step, a galvanic circuit is established \\itli the battery ; and, by a train of wheel- 
work, an index wheel is maile to revolve to die extent of one tooth or 
notch. By tliis means, as many notches are traversed as there have been 
persons enter the omnibus ; or rather, as the exit as well as tlie entrance of a 
passenger marks one notch, the actual number is doubled. There is a num- 
bering dial, on which an uidex hand shows the result. Whether a pair of 
omnibus servants could " drive a coach and six " through such a contrivance, 
we would not venture to predict. 

Mr. Walker's Operameter, invented several years ago, was intended by him 
to measure oj- register the amount of work pertbiined by certain machuies in 
the woollen monufactm-e. The apparatus had a shaft which could be con- 
nected with tlio gig-mill, tha sheaiing machine, or otlier machuies employed 
in that department of industry ; tliis shaft necessarily rotated as fast as the 
machine to which it was applied ; and the shaft gave motion to a ti-ain of wheel- 
work, witli a dial face and mdex hands to denote tlie number of revolutions 
made in a given time. The index hand thus became a measure and recorder 
of tlie amount of work done. 

To register tlie height of the tide at tidal harbours is also among tlie 
valuable services which self-acting tell-tale machines oi-e fitted to render. 
Let us take the Sunderland Tide Gauge as an example. Here there is a 
vertical tube into which the water rises to a height depending on the 



L 



■MM 



i:h. 

accuracy — indeed it 
ill iiiili)8M ita variouH 

nHtruu)ent«i patented 
jwtliwaitHs inaeiiinfi, 
{mwnbrokers' tjckets«, 
of iiuinbcrs, lius Uh 
<l otlior complex me- 
tenth of a i-evoliitioti 
I (>iM;-tc-ntli 08 fa^t as 

lines when tliey ai'o 
I to a greater number 
[ tlio numlier of timoH 
in(^ or hUiiiping pro- 
r which Mr. VVhiHin 
•iseH t(M>tlic(l-whe«;l^ 
Minds , and it i» in- 
al-weigljing machine, 
loot Ims been opened 
be efiective, a slight 
tieasurea of gmiii, or 
foHsed a plaidc witli 

licate as galvanic ap-. 

cabs ; otlierwiae tlie 
d enough. Tlie ob- 
rs in public vehicles, 
io gardens. Ah ap- 
stering apparatus are 
son treads upon the 
1, by a train of wheel- 
ont of one tooth or 
as there have b«en 
as tlie enti-ance of a 
d. There is a num- 

Wbethcr a pair of 
ti such a Goutrivance, 

ras intended by him 
certain mochuies in 
nrhich could be con- 
' macliiues employed 
tated as fast as the 
)n to a train of wheel- 
unber of revolutions 
neasure and recorder 

is also among tlie 
I'e fitted to render, 
le. Here there is a 
\. depending on the 



(UtCUf.ATlNO AMD REOISIKHINO MACHINES, 



15 



luiif^t of the ti(l<(. On a.; wmiiMfe of this cohiiun of water is a light fli, t, 
which ris(!s and sinks with it; a copper wire from the float rises upward to a 
Uiiin of wheels luul rolUfs, which rotate in one or otluir direction, according 
us the float rises i.r sinks. l-Vora one iiller to another i)asseB a web of wire 
"auge, on whi'h iwe printed in largo charmiterH the various depths from high to 
low wattr; and two fixod pi>intei-» or hands also show the number of feet 
imd half-feet of depth of watci. at any hour of the tide, on tlio bar at the 
entranct! of Sunderland Harbour. There are tlius rendered visible, to tlioso 
moat neu.lv conct'ino*!, aii'l at idl hourn, die height of the tid<! and the depth 
of wattn- oil the bar. But this instrument leaves no peniumeut record behind ; 
it iiJii-ates but does not regisl. There aio otJier tidal-gauges, however, which 
render this I'm tJier s<i\ic(!. The construction of such instiuments is some- 
what as follows: — We will imagine then are tlio tube, tlie rising luid falling 
column of water in the tube, and tlie float on the sm-fat^e (if tiie waUu- ; 
we must also suppose tJK'ro is a cylinder, having regulai- motion'' given to it 
by clock-work, tuid having its siurfoce covered w mIi paper rulod in a particular 
fashion. There is a wue extending IVoni the lloat to a rack which holds 
a pencil; and tliis pencil jjiesses against tlie paper. Now the resu't of this 
arrangement is, tliat tlie pencil marks a line round the cylinder .is tlie latter 
revoht-s, and (Uonij tl;e cylinder ns die tide rises or falls ; so tliat the exact 
height at every and any period of time is permanently registered. 

The registeruig meteorological and philoso))bical luitrunients have now 
become a veiy numerous and vaiied class. They put in a pennanent form 
tlio record of tlio information which tliey convoy. Heat, nioi uire, baro- 
metrical pressure, min, wind — all now register tlie timeh and (piantities of 
their occunence. Let us illustrate this by one example Mr. David Napier 
patented an ingenious barometer hi 1H48, mteiided ■ mark the variation 
of atmospheric pressure tliroughout an entire [leriod twenty-four lioui-s. 
Connected with the baiometer tube is a vertical spindh', lich cairies a curd 
having on its smface a number of radial lines and coi, 'Uti-ic circles; the 
radial lines represent fractions of inchcLi, and tlie concentix; circles represent 
portions of time. Above tlio caid is a lever carryuig a vortical pricker, which 
is mado to rise and fall nt cei-tain regular hitervals of time, and to travel 
from the inner concentric circle to tlie outer one once hi twenty-fom- hours. 
On tlio vertical spmdle, and uiulemeath tlie card, is fastened a grooved 
wheel, round which is passed a cord ; a counterbalance weight is attached to 
one end of tlie cord, while the other end is made fast to a float resting upon 
a column of liiercmy in a tube. The card has a fixed pouit representing 
29-5 inches, which, at commencement, is placed undemeatli tlie pricker. 
As tJie column of mercmy rises or falls hy thfi vtuying pressure of the 
aUiiosphere, tlie printed card will ti-avel to tlie left or the right accordingly ; 
and I lie variation of height will be indicated by the distance of tlie punctured 
luies from the staiting point, on either side. 

Kegistry of TiMi:, Space, and Speed. 

Many curious varieties, hi the machmes which register or tell tlieir own 
tale, are presented by those whose duties are related more or less to tiitu, 
space, and speed. In one case it is tjie speed of a pedesUian, in another tliat 
of a can-iage, in a third that of a locomotive ; a fourtli attends rathei to 
the total distance travelled, than to the mte of progress ; while another kmd 
registera the tune which has elapsed between two events, without attending 



li OALOrtATINO AND nRniRTRRINn KAOIUKlii 

MMr to Hpacp or to Rp«'e(l. A fow ♦ixiiniplps, tukcn at raiKloni, will illiis- 
trate An sort of nmchinoH hero ki^pt in vu<w. 

'rmvc'Ik'i-M lUf! IVorn time to tiiiio iviniiidfil in the iiHual RourcpM of iiiConn- 
atiou of tho inoritH .i.i.i iihoh of " I'liyiuiH PfMlonic-tcr, for thf wiiist<-oat 
|w*tiket." Ft i» II Hiimll l)iit ingmiiouH liiHtAnce mpiiMiiring and r(!giHt«Mnng 
TuachitU'. al)oiit tho Hizo aiul shapo of a wat<!li. The aittion is very peculiar. 
Every <nu) knows that each Htop of a jiedoHtrian, or of a horso jogging at 
rt(gnlar Npeed, is accotniianied by a Hudden jerk, or ninking; and it is Jho 
Herios of these jerks whieii tlio machine regisUfrs. There is a small lever, 
with a pivot at one end ami a weight at tho other; this is ho nearly balanced, 
that tlie slightest movement canses it to sink, an<l tlie sti'ps of the' pedestrian 
tluis keep tho lever in regidar and Ht^»a<ly oscillation, 'i'here is a small 
asMentblage of wheels, pinions, and dials, by which tho nimiber of oscillations 
is registered; and tliis ntmiber multiplied by the length of pace, or st«p, 
gives the total distance walked over in a given time. By a little ingenious 
a<ljiiHtment, the instniment is rendered applicable t.) (carriage travelling. 

The somewhat too learned names of mitimetrtti chronomHer, and veto- 
crntimeter, are given by Mr. Whishaw to an a[)paratus recently invented by 
him. Tho velocity with which a railway train is moving is the element to 
be deteraiined by this machine. There is a dial-face connected with a clock, 
and a ring snrrounding tho dial ; tills ring is gi-aduated to quarters of a mile 
if for use in England, or to some aliquot part of u kilometre if for use in 
Fi-ance. The ztM-o mark on the ring ia broiight opposite to the index-hand 
on tlie dial, at the commencement of tlie period during which tho velocity is 
to be detennined, which should be when tho train is opposite one of the. 
mile-posts ; then, on arrival at tlic next post (on English railways these posts 
aro a quarter of a mile aptut), the index hand and the zero point will bo 
found to have separated, and the amount of tliia sepoi-ation furnishes tlie 
means of determining tho velocity of the train. 

Belonging to tlie same family of machines, though prcxluced in a different 
countiy, is M. Redier's horographe. Wheilier this apparatus has been brought 
into pnvctical use on tlie Fi-ench railways, we do not know, but the inventor 
seems to have aimed at a veiy complete range of registry movements. The 
object is, to trace the progress of a railway train throughout its whole coui-se. 
There is one machine which tests the speed of tlie locomotive. Let tlie 
engineer determine the speed, the number of miles or kilometres per hour, at 
which the locomotive is intended to travel ; he puts a stud into one of eleven 
holes, which are marked from twenty to two hundred and forty turns of the 
driving wheel per minute, and he thus notifies one of eleven dirt'erent rates of 
speed. K tlie required speed is kept up, an index hand maintains a vertical 
position ; if the speed is too gi-eat, the index turns to the right ; if too slow, 
a reverse movement takes place. There is anotlier apparatus which prints on 
a sheet of paper tlie exact time of anival at each station. France has also 
produced an ingenious machine, by a different inventor, we believe, which is 
busily employed while the train is in motion. A sheet of paper is placed 
in an oblong box ; and on this paper is indicated once a minute, and also at 
the completion of each kilometre, the speed and the distance travelled ; it 
also shows the time of an-ival, and tlie duration of stoppage at each station. 

In one sense almanac clocks may be included among registering machines. 
By these we mean those complicated watches, clocks, and chronometers which 
indicate so many astronomical phenomena. For many centuries, and in many 
countries, these specimens of ingenuity have been produced. They are 



t random, will illuH- 

] BourceM of iTiform- 
r, for thf^ wiiiHtcoat 
ling niid rttgiHUtring 
tion is very i)«culiar. 
a honi€i jof^ging at 
iking; una it in tho 
3re in a Minnll Iomt, 

i HO IHHUly bllllHU'lMJ, 

'|)M of the podestmn 
'i'here in a Hinall 
iniber of osciUatioiiH 
th of paoo, or step, 
5y a little ingenious 
luge travelling. 
ronomt'ttr, and veto- 
•ecently invented by 
g is the element to 
inected with n clock, 
I) quarters of a mile 
nnietre if for uso in 
e to the index-hand 
which the velocity ia 
opposite one of the. 
railways these poHts 
i zero point will be 
ration liiniishes tlie 

jduced in a different 
us has heen brought 
)w, but tlie inventor 
y movements. The 
)ut its whole course, 
comotive. Let tlie 
ometres per hour, at 
id into one of eleven 
id forty turns of the 
ven different rates of 
maintains a vertical 
B right ; if too slow, 
atus which prints on 
n. France has also 
we believe, which is 
t of paper is placed 
minute, and also at 
istance travelled; it 
ge at each station, 
egistering machines, 
chronometers which 
iituries, and in many 
educed. They are 





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CALCULATING AND REGISTERING MACHINES. 



17 



mostly, however, little more tlian toys, for the slightest derangement (and 
derangement is very likely to occm* among such small and intricate mecha- 
nism) will affect all the phenomena at once ; and eclipses will fail to appear 
(as eclipses are wont to fail in cloudy weather) at the proper time. It is 
mipossible to walk through our Great Exhibition without meeting with 
numerous spechnens of tins class — chiefly in the French clock department. 
One of the prettiest examples is a chronometer about three inches in diameter, 
the face of which contains dials enough to indicate twelve different phe- 
nomena respecting seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, sun-rise, moon's 
age, moon's phases, &c. 

The Liverpool Albion announced a few montlis ago, that Dr. Henderson 
of Uiat town had been engaged, since 1844, in producing a clu-onometer 
which would excel cverytliing of tlie kind ever made. If tlie announce- 
ment be one half true the instrument will be indeed a marvel, and society 
will be eager to welcome it when finished. According to this account, the 
clock will show the minutes and hours of the day; the sun's place in tlie 
ecUptic ; the day of the month peipetually, and take leap-year into account ; 
the moons age, place, and phases; tlie apparent diurnal revolution of the 
moon ; tlie ebb and flow of the sea at any port in the world ; tlie golden 
number, epact, sohu- cycle, Eoman indiction, Simday letter, and Julian 
period ; tlie mean time of the rising and setting of the sun on evei-y day 
of the year, with its terms, and fixed and moveable feasts. The day of 
the week will also be indicated, and the year will be registered for 10,000 
yeai-8 past or to come. The quickest moving wheel will revolve in one 
minute, tlie slowest in 10,000 yeai-s. Furthermore we are told that tliere 
ai'e 170 wheels and pinions, and that the machine will go 100 yeai-s without 
winding up. 

Mr. Carey's measui-ing machine is one among numerous examples of this 
kind. It is mtended to record the number of revolutions made by llie wlieel of 
a carriage. The appai-atus is very small, and is buckled by sti-aps to one of 
the spokes of the wheel neai* the nave ; it of course follows the cuned course 
of the part of tlie wheel to which it is attached ; and once in each revolution 
it causes a wheel to be advanced one tooth ; so that the number of teeth ad- 
vanced determines the number of revolutions made by the wheel. It was a 
contrivance sometliing like this in principle, though differing in details, which 
James Watt devised for registering the number of strokes, of a steam-engine. 

The turnstiles at the Ciystal Palace, at tlie ends of toll-paying bridges, 
and at Uie enti-ances of many pubhc buildings and exliibitione, are excellent 
examiiles of registering appai-atus. The older method of testing the honesty 
of money-takei-s was by issuing tickets or checks, the return of which would 
show how much money had been received ; this plan is stiU adopted at the 
theati-es ; it requires two sen-ants instead of one, and is not proof against 
collusion. Now, in the mechanical turnstile, the instrument presenes a 
record of the number of times it has turned on its axis ; and the money-taker 
must be prepai-ed to account for a sum of money coiTesponding to the 
number. Some of the precautions protect tha money-taker against the public, 
while some protect the proprietora against the money-taker. In the first 
place, there is a vertical framing, capable of rotating on a vertical axis ; it can 
only rotate in one direction, and only one person can pass it at a time. The 
framing or turnstile cannot rotate at all until tlie money-taker presses his foot 
on a lever ; and directly the i)assage is made, tlie lever is allowed f^ain to 
drop, and tlie turnstile is locked. This movement causes a movement in a 



I 




J 8 C'ALCCLATINO AND BEOISTEWNG MACHINES. 

tooUicd wheel to aii extent of one tooUi; and, as this registeiing apptu^tus is 
beyond the reach of tlie money-taker, he has notlung less to dolhan to 
account for money to the extent of the number of wheel-teeth which have 

^^heTeU-tnl^^ class of machines aie more or less complete, according as they 
renister the infoi-mation tliey give. An alamm is a tell-tale, so far as the emis- 
sion of sound is concerned ; but tiie sound goes off m empty air, and leaves no 
record behmd. Where a night guard, policeman, or watehman is requu-ed to 
show tliat he has been vigilant in his rounds or watchmgs, he must leave a 
record of his presence at a particuliu- spot at particular mt«rvals. A veiy 
mgenious mode of effecting this is by M. Ai-eias Fendule Indicateur, or Tell- 
tale Clock. It is used by the night pohce on many of the Irench radwajs, 
and in many public estabUshments where vigilant guard is required, l^et us 
suppose that a guard or policeman, be his duties what tliey may, is required to 
show that he was at a particular spot every quarter of an hour during his 
nicht patrol; a sort of table-clock is placed at that spot, and at mtervav.s ot a 
quarter of an hour he presses his linger on a button or stud which is the 
only part of tlie appai-atus at his command. Beyond this, he knows or does 
noUiingin the matter; but when the clock-case is opened next day by a 
superintendent, a circular graduated card is found to be pierced with as maiiy 
small holes as the guaid had made pressures on the stud; and the card also 
shows the exact hour and minute when each hole was pierced. Ihe me- 
chanism is vei-y simple; the circular card or paper is made to rotate by con- 
nection with the hcur-wheel of the clock, and the button or stud acts upon a 
shai-p needle which pierces the card. If the card is not pierced opposite a 
particular quarter of an horn-, tlie conclusion is drawn tliat the guard has 

failed in vigilance. , . , . , .i. v. 

Of the teU-tale varieties of apparatus, as used in thu coimtiy, they may be 
ceneraUy chai-acterised as particuhir apphcations of clock-work, lake, lor 
instance, Messrs. Smiths Detector Clocks, one of which has been placed in the 
Great Exhibition. This apparatus has been used lor some yeai-s m ^oldbath 
Fields Prison, to register tlie punctuality (or othenvise) of the night-wateh- 
man The registering appai-atus consists of a revolving cu-culai- fmne, htted 
with' springs and pins ; the watchman is required, at certain mtarvals ot time, 
to touch a little piece of mechanism which preser\^es o record of his presence. 
The principle is obviously neaily analogous to that noticed above. 

Registey-Balances : Gold-aveighino Machines. 

3 There are some kinds of balances which show much elegance of action, 
inasmuch an they not only determine the weight of commodities, but either 
preserve a record of that weight, or separate into different parcels those which 
differ ever so mmutely in weight. The common weighing machmes, whether 
having a dial-face and mdex-hand or not, do not register permanently the 
result obtained; as the indications are destroyed dkecUy tlie weighed com- 
modities are removed. There ai-e contiivances, however, m which, either by 
a ti-ain of wheel-work, or by a pencil passing over paper, the appai-atus pre- 
serves its own record. . , 
- But tlielexquisitely dehcate goU-weighing machines are those which are 
more pardcularly intended to bo brought under notice here. One such is 
Mr Kershaw's Micrometer Sovereign Balance; it was registered about the year 
1848 when the Bank regulations respecting 'light gold' attracted so much 



L 



s. 

steiing apparatus is 
leas to do tlian to 
el-teeth which have 

te, according as they 
!, so far as the emis- 
)ty air, and leaves no 
Imion is requii-ed to 
igs, he must leave a 
r intervals. A veiy 
s Indicateur, or Tell- 
he French mlways, 
is required. Let us 
sy may, is required to 
an horn- diuing his 
Bud at intervals of a 
• stud, which is the 
13, he knows or does 
ened next day by a 
)ierced witli as many 
i ; and the caid also 
I pierced. The me- 
ide to rotate by con- 
t or stud acts upon a 
ot pierced opposite a 
tliat the guard has 

country, they may be 
»ck-work. Take, for 
18 been placed in the 
nae yeai's in Coldbath 
i) of the nightrwaUih- 
cii'culai' fi-ame, fitted 
Am intervals of time, 
3cord of his presence, 
ed above. 

CHINES. 

h elegance of action, 
nmodities, but either 
It parcels those which 
ng machines, whether 
ster permanently the 
Hy tlie weighed com- 
ir, in which, either by 
er, the apparatus pre- 

are those which are 
3 here. One such is 
stered about the year 
Id' attracted so much 



I 



,mmmimtmnvmmmt9mmm-mmifm:-f!t&imm ' 



CALCULATING AND REOISTEMNO MACHINES. 



1« 



attention. This ingenious little machine consists chiefly of a beam or steel- 
yard placed horizontally, imd supported on a knife-edged fulcrum near its 
centre. Near one end of the beam a few threads of a screw are cut, upon 
which a micrometer wheel turns freely. The rim of this wheel is divided into 
degrees, which mark half-grains in weight. The coin to be weighed is placed 
rpon the other end of the beam, and if it be of correct weight, an index bal- 
conies exactly opposite the zero or point of the micrometer; but if tlie 
weight be deficient, the micrometer wheel is tiuned round (by which the 
leverage power of the beam is slightly modified) until equilibrium is obtained ; 
the degree at which the index-bar now pomts, uidicates how many half-grains 
the sovereign is deficient in weight. The machine is not intended to deter- 
mine the weight of a sovereign, but the deficiency of weight in a light sove- 
reign. By a little adjustment it is made appUcable to half-sovereigns. 

Baron Seguicr's Gold-weighing Machine, a specunen of which has been 
placed in the Exhibition, and which is priced by the makers at 40U0 francs 
(ei60), is a somewhat complicated piece of apparatus. It presents to view a 
sort of vertical wheel, witli a hopper or receptacle to feed the wheel witli coins ; 
tliere ftre two channels from the bottom of the wheel, along which the corns 
proceed to certain levers and balances. The action of the machine is some- 
what as follows : — The coins are put into the hopper, and a range of pins on 
the edge of the revolving jwheel causes the coins to sepaiate into single file, 
and to descend one by one to a stage below. If the coin be of current weight 
(which must be determined for each covmtry, and the machine arranged 
accordingly), there is nothing to prevent it from sliding down an mclmed 
trough into a pai-ticular box or receptacle. But if the weight be eitlier over or 
imder the proper limit, the coin is ingeniously dri'- r aside, to the right or tlio 
left, according m the weight is too great or t. . small. This is cleverly 
managed: the coin falls upon a balanced beam, which remains horizontal if the 
weight be conect ; but if the beam be thrown out of balance by a light or a 
heavy coin, one of two little studs is raised, which guides it into its proper 
receptacle. Thus Uie coins become separated into three groups merely by 
turning a handle. x n ^ 

The Indian coin machine, designed by Captain J. T. Smitli for the Cal- 
cutta govei-nment, is larger than that of Seguier, and is intended for weigh- 
ing rupees. There are ten levere, with a small cylinder suspended from the 
short end of each : these cylindei-s dip into distilled water. Ten coins are 
placed in scales at the long ends of tlie levei-s, one to each lever ; and accord- 
ing as each coin is heavy or light, so will it raise the cylinder at the other end 
of the lever, more or less out of the water. If we suppose that tlie coins are 
80 badly made as to exhibit ten different degrees of error, whetlier in excess 
or deficiency, and if the machine be constructed with minute accuracy, then 
the ten little cylmders would be raised to ten different heights out of tlie 
water, and ten gi-oups of coins would be established. Unless the workman- 
ship be very delicate, tliis method i inst be of doubtful correctness. 

Mr. Cotton's machine seems, by general consent, to be deemed the most 
delicate ever yet constructed for weighing gold coin. Its precision is, mdeed, 
most exquisite. If ever a " well-balanced judgment" could be an attiibute of 
steel and brass, we have it here : a child can turn the handle, but the mpchme 
judges for itself. 

In the transactions between the Bank of England and tlie public, the 
weighing of gold coin has been a most anxious and tedious process. As be- 
tween the Bank and Uie Mint, tlie labour is not so minute ; for 200 sove- 



'**,■ 



I 



L 



{W 



CALCULATING AND HEOISTERINO MACHINES. 



w 



reims being first accurately weighed, all the rest are weighed in groups of 
200 The Mmt officers are aUowed a deviation of twelve grains in about 
fifty sovereigns ; but they generally work to within half of this amount ot 
error; and if the groups of sovereigns are correct widun the prescribed 
limits no closer wuiglung is adopted. In the transactions between the Bank 
and tlie public, however, matters must be treated in more detail. It is no 
satisfaction to Smith to know tliat, if his sovereign is light, Brown has a cor- 
rect one and Jones a heavy one, so that therefore the Bank is just m the 
aggregate; each one demands that hU sovereign should be of proper weight, 
iflnce arises an important part of the daily routLne at the Bank. Mr. Cotton 
was led to the conception of his beautiful machine by observing the injustice 
which the Bank sometimes unconsciously inflicted on its customers, bove- 
reigns which were issued from one counter at the Bank aa being ot lull 
weight, were refused at anotlier counter as being light. The scales may not 
have been equahy dehcate, or tlie liabUity to eiTor on the pait of the weighers 
(the "personal equation," as astronomers would term it) may not have been 
exactly equal. An expert weigher could weigh about 700 sovereigns in an 
hour by tlie old balance ; but tLe agitation of the air by the sudden opening 
of a door, the breathing of persons near the apparatus, tlie fatigued state ot 
the hand and eye of the weigher— aU led to minute eiTors. 

Mr Cotton having determined on tlie plan of a machine which should be 
quicker, easier, and more exact tlian the ordinaiy gold balance, procured tlie 
services of Mr. Napier to put his views into a practical form ; and the result is 
entu-ely satisfactory. The machme is a pretty, delicate, hght aflau:— much 
more so than those hithei-to noticed. There is, in the fii-st place, a small 
vertical tube, in which a pile of twenty or thirty sovereigns is placed, m single 
column. The lowermost sovereign rests upon a moveable plate ; when a 
handle is turned by the attendant, the plate moves sideways, and the sove- 
reign is brought upon an exquisitely sensitive balance ; if the weight ly cor- 
rect, a htUe lever, arm, or pusher, gives the edge of the sovereign a smai-t 
impulse, and drives it off into a box ; but if the weight be deficient e^n m 
the most minute degree, another pusher attacks the sovereign on a difterent 
side and drives it into another box. As the handle is continued m motion, 
two or three sovereigns may be m different stages of the weighing process at 
one time. Those who have seen this machine at work at the Great JiiXhibi- 
tion may well marvel at the deUcacy witli which tlie movements of the sove- 
reign are controlled. . ., 

As the Bank of England does not take cognizance of gold coins which aie 
too heavy (perhaps the Mint authorities do not give them occasion tor so 
doing), this machine merely separates sovereigns into two groups, the fuU and 
the Ught; and it does not indicate by how much the light sovereign is defa- 
cient. It is tlierefore only by actual trial that the deUcacy of the machine has 
been tested; if a difference of even a hundredth of a grain existed between 
two sovereigns, it is said that this machine would detect it. On a rough 
average, 30,000 sovereigns pass over the Bank counter every day ; each ma- 
chine can weigh 10,000 sovereigns in six hours ; and there are six machines ; 
so that the Bank can weigh aU its issues of gold by tiiese means, and have 
reserve power to spare. One of the machines is adjusted for half-sovereigns. 
Between 1844 and 1848 there were forty-eight million gold corns weighed by 
these machines at the Bank; and the bankers and private persons place un- 
doiibting reliance on the correctiiess of the process. Each machme reqmres 
an hour's cleaning once a week; the machmes cost about £300 each, and are 



,:jmiwti"!)Tniiwwin»-!iii^ 



L 



lES. 

veighed in groups of 
velve grains in about 
ilf of this amount of 
vitliin the prescribed 
ns between ihe Bank 
nore detail. It is no 
ight, Brown has a cor- 
3 Bank is just in tlie 
I be of proper weight, 
he Bank. Mr. Cotton 
observing the injustice 
its customers. Sove- 
Bank as being of full 
The scales may not 
le pai-t of the weighers 
it) may not have been 
700 sovereigns in an 
by the sudden opening 
s, tlie fatigued state of 
ors. 

hine which should be 
. balance, procured the 
fonn ; and the result is 
Ette, light affair — much 
le fii-st place, a small 
giw is placed, m single 
oveable plate; when a 
sideways, and the sove- 
I ; if the weight is cor- 
the sovereign a sraai-t 
it be deficient even in 
sovereign on a different 
is continued in motion, 
tie weighing process at 
k at the Great Exhibi- 
movements of the sove- 

of gold coins which are 
3 them occasion for so 
two groups, the/«M and 
e light sovereign is defi- 
eacy of the machine has 

grain existed between 
detect it. On a rough 
iter every day ; each ma- 
there are six machines ; 

Uiese means, and have 
isted for half-sovereigns. 
1 gold coins weighed by 
rivate persons place un- 
Each machine requires 
,bout £900 each, and ore 



CALCULAtlNO AND REOISTEHINO MACHINES. 8t 

said to be peculiarly free from liability to disarrangement. Besides satisfying 
the Bank, the bankers, and the public, tliese machines save £1000 a yeai' to 
the Bank in weighers' wages. 

Ml8CELL.\NE0tT8 CONTRIVANCES FOB KeOISTERINO. 

There are many other little registering contrivances on which we would 
gladly say a few words ; and as it is difficult to class them in any pai-ticular 
way, we will make use of the ever-convenient designation " Miscellaneous." 

How to register votes at a division is a problem tliat has not much trou- 
bled our House of Commons ; but tlie National Assembly of France has 
deemed it expedient to introduce a Voting Machine for tliis pui-pose. This 
machine seems to answer two ends — it prevents tampering wilJi the ballots or 
voting plates, and it enables Uie numbei-s on either side to be added up with 
great ease. In the House of Commons the " ayes" have it, or the " noes," 
according to circumstances ; but in France the system o^ the ballot is adopted 
— the relative advantages of the two methods we need not touch upon. The 
National Assembly has recently voted 30,000 francs for tlie apparatus of tlie 
voting, or rather vote-registering machine now imder notice. The whole 
operation is exceedingly cmious, and worth detailing. 

In tlie first place, at the commencement of each sitting, or when tlie mem- 
bei-s enter the chamber, each member has given to him a small box, contaui- 
ing ten ballots or voting plates. Theso ballots are oblong slips of thin steel, 
about two inches long, and pierced witli a hole in the centre ; five aie white 
steel for the " pour " or " aye " vote, and five are blue steel for the " conU-e " 
or " no " vote. Each ballot is inscribed with the name of tlie member, and 
also with a number attached to that member's name in the register of the 
Assembly. Each ballot has also certain notches on the edge, but the blue 
ballots ai-e differently notched from the white. The membere have tlius 
materials for five votes during the same evening, and for choosing their side 
in each vote. 

Next we have to look at the Voting Urn or Machine. This is a kind of up- 
right box, held by a handle like that of a pewter measure ; it is made of wood, 
and is about three inches square by a foot in height. The right-hand half 
is painted blue, the left>hand white. At the top are two funnels or mouths, 
opening into tlie interior, pamted white and blue respectively, and marked 
with P and C for pour and contre. Each funnel is gi-ooved in pattern with tlie 
ballot-notches, so that a blue ballot can only descend tlie blue funnel, and a 
white ballot the other. In the interior, below each funnel, is a vertical stem 
or staff, on which the ballots become threaded, one on anotlier, as they fall 
into die m-n: tlie stem being of similar shape to tlie oblong hole in each 
ballot. 

Now for the process of collecting the votes. The National Assembly is 
divided into twelve sections ; and there are twelve voting mus, each marked 
with ilie number of a section. When a debate is concluded, and Uie votes aie 
to be taken, the twelve urns are taken by an equal nmnber of persons, who go 
round to the members where tliey are seated. Each member selects a blue or 
a white ballot from his box, as he pleases, and drops it into the proper funnel 
of the urn ; he cannot put in two if he would, nor could he, either inadver- 
tently or by design, introduce a ballot into the wrong compaitment. The 
urns ai'e taken to the president, and placed all in a row on a table. 
By a little adjustment each mn or box is hfted off", and displays die ballots 



T 



^- 



L 



ft 



OAI.Cm.ATINO AND RKSISTBRTNO MAcmiNRS. 



threaded on the two upright stems; and by a cunous contrivance the same 
movement lock$ tJie baUots on the Htem. By the Hide of each 8tem la a 
graduated scale, which enables the Bcrutineers to tell in an instant '^"^ many 
baUots there are in each pUe. When the numbers are declared, t^ie locked 
piles of ballots are taken to anotlier room, where tliey are unlocked, and tlio 
vote of every individual member registered in a book The ballots arc Uum 
distributed (as a compositor wotdd distribute his type), and each members 
set is laid apart by itself for use on another evening. All thi« ''f''* «""|f ; 
what intricate and tedious; but the Assembly seems to be satished witli the 
contrivance, as being an advance on the fonuer system. 

The distrilmtion of tyjm has just been alluded to; and we may here remark, 
that Tvpe Composing Machines can, in a certain sense, be considered registering 
machines, for they leave a record of the woric done in the rows of arranged 
type In M. Sorensen's remarkable Danish invention for the same purpose 
there is a nearer approach to what we may designate mechanical thought; 
since the tyT.es, after being used, distribute themselves on merely turning a 
handle; and not only so, but place themselves in the proper position m .the 
composing machine. The consideration of tliis matter, however, lies some- 
what beyond our present pm-pose. , • a w ^^A 
Those curious specimens of mechanical ingenuity, lochs, were bnefly alluded 
to in a former paper, as illustrative of the spread of tlic iron manufacture; 
and we might shnilarly learn a lesson from tliem in relation to our present 
subiect. Many of the best locks are registers: they are recorders or tell-tales 
of any attempts ma.le to pick them, whether successful or unsuccessful. 
There is, in such cases, some small piece of mechanism or other which be- 
comes displaced whenever the lock is tampered with ; only it^ own key can 
open it, Mid when other keys or other implements are used they produce 
some damage or displacement which remains as a record ot the tact inere 
is something, too, in the permutation locks, which imparts to them a little ot 
the character of calculating machines— not sufficiently so, however, to need 
any furtlier notice here. We may well understand how the famous locksmiths 
of the day would regard the successful picking of their mtncate ocks. Iho 
American artizan who has given so bold a challenge, and undertaken so bold 
a ta.sk on this point, has many anxious and critical eyes upori him. 

Electro- telegraphy involves much of the registry principle. Ihis may be 
illustrated by an example. By Mr. BakewelFs ingenious contxivances any 
person's handwriting can be exactly copied, at any distance, tivrough the 
Eiel^m of the tele^phic wires. At one end of the line is the transmitting 
apparatus, and at the other the recipient apparatus includes a sheet ot papei 
which has a dark tint imparted to it by a senes of closely-ruled l^e^. The 
words of the message are written at the one station, and at tiie other station 
tJie same words ar^reproduced, at the rate of 500 letters per mmute, on the 

sheet of dark paper, in a pale tint. , , , v ♦^lo u. \r««r 

The American BM telegraph, used at some of the large hotels m New 
York and other United States cities, and in the magnificent Attantic steamers 
of CoUins's Hne, is a registering apparatus, in so far as ^records the nanie ot 
the bell which was last rung. It has no connection with electncal arrwige. 
ments. There is an upright case or box, two or three feet square, through the 
top of which descend bell wires from all the rooms placed m connection with 
the apparatus. Withm tlie case is a bell, the hammer of which js moved by 
pulling any of tlie wires; but this is not all; for at the mstant the bell is 
Lick, a small white semicircidar plate in the front of the machme is turned 



L 



K8. 

ontrivftnce the same 
B of each Htetn is a 
in instant how many 
declared, tlie locke<l 
ire unlocked, and the 
The ballots ai-o tlicn 
and each member's 
All tliis reads some- 
he satisfied wiUi the 

we may here remark, 
considered registering 
the rows of arranged 
for the same purpose 
mechanical thought; 
on merely turning a 
roper position in |the 
, however, lies some- 

», were briefly alluded 
he iron manufactine ; 
dation to our present 

recorders or tell-tales 
iisful or imsuccessfiil. 
ni or other which be- 
only its own key can 
■e used, they produce 
rd of the fact. There 
•ts to them a little of 

so, however, to need 
the famous locksmiths 

intricate locks. The 
id undertaken so bold 

upon him. 

nciple. TTiia may be 
ious contrivances, amy 
distance, through the 
ine is the transmitting 
dudes a sheet of paper 
isely-ruled lines. The 
tnd at the other station 
ters per minute, on the 

3 large hotels in New 
icent Atlantic steamers 

it records the name of 
,vith electrical arrange- 
feet square, througli tiie 
iced in connection with 
of which is moved by 
the instant the bell is 

the machine is turned 



CAlCtJLATTNO AND nr.OISTBBlNO MACIItMES. M 

half round, and reveals tlie number of the room whence the bell was nmg, or 
the message to be delivered. There aie eighty or a hundred of tlieso plates, 
and may be any number more or less ; each has either a number or u word or 
two written so as to be concealed and revealed by it alternately ; the numbers 
are those of tlie rooms, while the wonls are such a« " Wait(!r," " Boots," " Hot 
Water," and otliers indicating the daily wants of hotel and cabin visitors. One 
bell serves for all ; and when this bell is heai-d, one of the httle plates will be 
foimd to be moved so as to reveal the message. There is int<>mal mechanism 
to connect each wire with its appropriate number plate, and also with the bell. 
A small handle at the bottom of the case re-adjusts all the plates. It is ob- 
vious that, by numbering and inscribing the plates accordingly, such a bell 
apparatus might be adapted' to mcrcimtilo and warehousing establishments. 

There is something ingenious in tlie mode which Mr. Blaycock, of Carlisle, 
has recently proposed for regulating the supply of gas to lamps, according to 
the lengtli of night at ditt'erent periods of the year. The «i)panitus is intended 
for use witli illuminatod clock dials. On the longest day, a gas-valve is so 
adjusted as to sujtply gas for a very short night — the shortest in the year ; 
every succeeding night the supply becomes increa.sed in quantity to aboi?t the 
extent that tlie night lengthens, until, at midwinter, the supply is most (con- 
siderable. The instrument then requires re-adjustmont, which enables it 
gradually to shorten its supply of gas during half a year, until the minimum 
is again reach, l. The light p.ita itsdf out at sim-rise, or some desired perioii 
near it, by the exhaustion of its supply of gfw ; and the quantity of tliis supply 
is determined by the extent to which the gas-cock is opened, tliis extent being 
itself governed by the works of the clock. 

It would take us beyond the scope of the present subject to dilate upon the 
contrivances for teaching the blind to read, cipher, Ac. ; but there has been 
sent to the Great Exhibition a raac^hine by M. Foucault, himself a blind man, 
which has a peculiar registering power and is exceedingly ingenious. A blind 
man is enabled to write his thoughts by this contrivance, even though he may 
nevor have learned to form a letter : heimnt^ instead of writes. This machine 
exhibits thirty or forty vertical brass rods, ranged in two rows. At the top of 
each rod is engraved, in bold relief, a letter of the alphabet, or a grammatical 
stop or sign ; and at the bottom is a corresponding letter, stop, or sign, formed 
of ordinary type. A piece of blackened paper, with white paper beneath it, is 
placed underneath the rods, and on the pres.sure of any rod a black type- 
printed mark appears on the white paper. But to make tlie ari-angement 
available for successive lines of writing, contrivances of a most uigenious 
character are introduced. Although we have spoken of the rods as being 
vertical, the lower ends converge so tliat all the types moke their impression 
at one point ; and if tlie paper were not moveable, the impressions would be 
superimposed on that point ; but the paper has a slow lateral movement for 
successive lettei-s and words in one hue, and a vertical movement for succes- 
sive lines in tlie page. Suppose the poor blind student wish to write or im- 
print the word " France," he presses with his fingers on tlie six con-esponding 
rods, which bring the six typos m proper order on Uie paper ; they fill converge 
to tlie same point, but as tlie paper has a gentle side movement after each 
contact, tlie blackened type impressions assume the proper order for fonning 
the word. 

One of tlie oddest calculating or registering machmes (if we may so desig- 
nate it) is, perhaps, Mr. Clark's Eureka, which was the subject of much news- 
paper gossip half a dozen years ago. It multiplied Latin words into hex- 



li 



I ti*'nnfm 



L 



m OALCOIJITINO AHD BEaiSTEBlNO MACIUNES. 

ameters. instead of ningle numerals into larger quantities. Mr Cloik'H 
Z^Sne so far as it could produce hexameters at all, produced them a^l 
Ster one uuifo^ type. Each of his hues consisted of six words, one to each 
foS hi each IhTe the first word was an adjective of three syllables, Uie second 
a noun of tirsyllables. the fonillx a verb of three syUables, and so on^ 
AuTe sL words agreed in gender. nun.ber, person, and case, so t^ to 
fom collectively a sentence; a^d all the lines were analogous m structure 
It^ems so far as the construcUon of Uie machine has been described, as if 
Jtese words wer^ treated as so many dice or dominoes, or rather as so many 
tickets hfa Totteiy. Put in. we will say. h.df a do«>n adjecUves ot suruhu- 
cramma cal fonnrhalf a dozen nouns, half a dozen verbs, and so forth ; then 
t^TZ hanS or rattle the box, or go through the necessary hocus-pocus ; 
Sv draw ont an adjective, then a substantive, tiien one of each of the oU er 
four kinr. • words; and these six, placed in line in certain order, would 
fo^ a correct hexameter. We do not present this as the actual process, but 
m^ely Ta means of showing how. by permutations among a dehmte number 
S word7 many times that number of hexameter hues mav b^ produced The 
common S of pennutation shows us that, even with only six words ol each 
S neadv two hundred changes may he produced witiiout depaiting from 
thAexametir form; and if the numbers are greater, the changes maybe 
madeirosf inexhaustible. It is in tliis sense that the machine may be said 
rmaiit^le verses in any desired quantity. Mr. Clark descnbmg his ma^ 
chine^n the pages of the Athe^^um, said that it is "neither more nor^^^ss 

than a nractical illusti^tion of tiie law of evolution • ine macnme 

iZtahis Mtei? rrhabeticol arrangement; out of Uiese. through tiie me- 
Zm of numbed re^ndered tangible'by being expressed by indentinres on 
Si work Uie iiistirument selects such as are requisite to form tiie verse 
Tonceiv J; 't^ compon^it. of words united to form hexameters bemg alone 
prevfouSy calculated, tiie harmonious combination of which will be found to 
be practically interminable." 

The metal-working processes, by which all tiie machines noticed in this 
Bheetha^e been produced, do not need special description. The fashioning of 
wheels ph^ons. levers, and otiier delicate bits of mechanism, comes withm 
Sie o?diS^ Uours of tiie machinist and tiie clock-maker. It is to tiie 
mpnSl Sr exhibited m tiie mventions. and to tiie imitation of mental power 
Zpkye^dT tiie action of tiie machines tiiemselves. tiiat tiie reader's attention 
is hero dh-ected 



1 



S8. 

ntities. Mr. Clai-k's 
, produced them all 
ix words, one to oach 
wyllables, tlie second 
ylliiblos, and so on. 

and casp, so as to 
idogoiw iu structure, 
been described, as if 
ir rather as so many 

adjectives of similar 
IS, and so forth ; then 
icessary hocus-pocus ; 
e of each of the other 

certain order, would 
,e actual process, but 
Hig a definite number 
ay b6 produced. The 
nly six words of each 
thout depai-ting from 

the changes may be 

machine may be said 
ik, describing his ma- 
leither more nor less 

The machine 

lese, through the me- 
sed by indentures on 
lite to form the verse 
ixameters being alone 
vhich will be found to 



ichines noticed in this 
on. The fashioning of 
uhanism, comes within 
i-maker. It is to the 
itation of mental power 
it tlie reader's attention 



INDIA RUBBER AND GUTTA PERCHA. 



We are about to bespeak the reader's attention to 'two very remarkable sub- 
stances, which have ^vrought no inconsiderable revolution in industrial 
arrangements witliin the last few years. They are brethren in origin, and 
brethren in many of their (jualitics ; yet they differ stifticiently to leave an 
indepcn \ent ! mgo of action for each. Chemists tell us tliat the constituents 
arc almost, identical, comprising about seven-eighths carbon to one-eighth 
hydrogen ; but that gutta percha contains also a little oxygen, which seems to 
be wanting in India rubber. Both are elastic, both are tough ; but if we say 
that india rubber is more elastic than tough, and gutta perclia morn tough 
tlian elastic, we shall probably place tliem on their proper relative footing. 



INDIA RUBBER. 

It is curious to observe tlie incongruity often existing between a substance 
or an agent and tlie name by which it is known. This name was, in many 
cases, given to it when its properties were but little developed, and becomes 
ill-fitted as a designation at a later period of its history. " Electricity," for 
example, is a word nearly equivalent to " amber-science," and was given to Uie 
wonderful agent to which it relates because the electric properties of amber 
happened to be those which first drew attention : if philosophers had now to 
re-designate the science, they would certainly dethrone amber from its high 
position. Taking a humbler example, we may deem the name of " India 
nibber " to be fairly open to the same scrutiny ; this substance was first 
known to us as a rubber for obliterating pencil marks, and it was brought to 
Europe from those parts of South America, the natives of which were (and 
often still are) vaguely called Indian. If a name were at the present day 
given to the substance, which should chai-acterise its more important qualities, 
it would not be "nibber," either Indian or otlierwise, but something expres- 
sive of elasticity. What may be the meaning of the native name, caoutchouc, 
we do not know ; but as, by taking a little liberty with the vowels, this may 
be made a " word of two syllables," it has an advantage over the longer and 
more clumsy designation " India rubber," which, in such a business-like age 
as the present, might be woitli attending to. 



The India-Rubber Thee and its Sap. 

The extensive use of india rubber is entirely of modem growth ; dating 
back about a quarter of a century. But the substance itself has been long 



1 



mmmmmmim 



Q INDIA RUnDER AND OUTTA PKnCHA. 

known, ruid tmiployo.! in Hniull .luuntitus in nu.nt Enropoaij countries. In 
5 rrc pS it in unliko itn youn«c...n.panion gulu porc-l.a winch ha. no y| 

h" n it^ tonth year. One pmi.«''^y '"' '1'"^"'^ '''^'' '"">t ''";.'"^ ''^"^ ' iomdu, 
pmai,UoXH\nbHta.ico: .uu\ .md. oi" thoHo KUcco«Kivoly..h»cover«.l proportios 
m- h...... n.mh, the bmiin of a n.nv class of .uanufactunng openitions. 

In a wu.k hy Toiqucclan.a. a Spaiunh wiiUM-. who descni^ed dio huhuiis ot 
Sou i An 1.-J aWul » cu.»tury J>U u half ago. wo w« UJd tiM thero was a 
rr;u\^ia"h th? IndianH mwJ H»^ahnM, md which yi,4d.J a Rumniy h.p.xl 
Sd h ingh oBtin.ation hy Uien.. " To ohtm.. it." ho Hays •' U.oy ^^;'""J ^ ' 
Ze wiUi an axe or a cutlaHH ; and from these woundH U.e li.iuor dropH. 1 lu> 
jTt'vo collet it in round vosselH of different Hi.os. calkd n» tho.r la,.gnage, 
S/i, but by u« culaha»lu^». to th«-« Uioy aUow it to ^ttk, m rowid ball-, 
Hio L u,OHt couvoaient for the ^uivoHe. U> which they a.c -I-" *« 2^' ^s 
Uicu. When quite «et, they boil theui m water, m which «Uto die gmn is 
cZd Ji' hlxi the natives appear to have beeu m nowise piulicular us to 
the ui of collecting; Uieii' naked bodies formed a convemeut core o 
mould m. which to collSct the maU>ri.d ; for Uiey nmoaied themselves with ho 
Za a,?a removed the incmnUtion when diy. The naUves. we uro uifon c 
bv t irw,it«r,mftdebrea8t-ulatesof thick l«yo» of Uie gum; tliey exUacUid 
Z i which ;** much m.ea in medicine; they made ela«Uc balls winch were 
used iT. cStain g*me«: and their practical jokers or meriy amkew* slxod 
"henseUer with pieces of the gum. the elantlcity of winch gave nse to 
ludicrous contort, ms and bomidings. The Hpaniardn «peeddy leam«l to 
oJii^SaL Uie waterproofing <iuaUties of tliis Hingulai' subsUmce. by applymg 

'' 1 1^^ ;!;"tLifwtk of M. Torquedama. or by some other description 
>vritten about the same time. Uiat iudia rubber fi'^^V'f^^?,^""^*;^'" ^;^2^- 
The true nature of the substance and the tree which yields it wa«. lu>wevei, 
first ascertained by tlie French Academiciaa« who visited South America m 
ms S was described to the A.^ademy by Condaniiae m U.e toUowing ye«. 
Emopeans liad long before been struck witli tlie odd appeai-ance of U e Ian- 
tZ^Zles. birds^aud other forms into which the gum ha,l been fashioned 
by the ooUectors ; but they wer« now able to know somethmg concenung the 
uL whence it Exudes, ind the manner erf obtaining it. Besides the J«e 
caoutchouc tree, there are many others which yield a gum nearly "!««*»«»; 
S india rubber ; among Uiese a«3 the Murapha elmttm, the hmis md^a, the 
Artocarpus iiUeqrifolia, and the Urceola eimHca. , ,. e ^ 

^ ThTmethod of obtaining india rubber for the onlmary ptrposes of com- 
merce does not differ much from that dewribed by the old Spanish wnter. 
The subLice as it comes to us is mosUy dark in colour, but this hue ans^ 
from the mode in which it is prepared for market ; lor the juice itself is m Iky 
in Consistence, and nearly white in colour. The trees are u^^^Uj P»«™«^ ^ 
the rainy season, at which time the juice is most abundant li the juwe be 
recei^Jdin botttes. and be well corked immediately, it may be preserved m a 
Siuid or^mi-Uquid state for a considerable time ; but the ""^t've^ bave no 
object in so doing. They go to Uie forest early m the mornmg. tap fe trunk 
wSh a small pickaxe, and fix a cup of soft day beneath tlie wound ; m the 
cveni^gTbout a quarter of a pint of the mUky juice is found in the cup 
S^s the true or American ilidia rubber; the Asiatic species will yield fitty 
to sixty pounds per tree in one season, but this is of mfenor quality. Ihc 
£i^ when Ls collected by the natives, is spread in a thin layer on clay 
ibrns, Soned m any way that the rude taste of the eollectore dictate. ; this 



.1 



ff 






INDIA ACSBCIt AND OOTTA PIKCHA. 



opoMi conntrieR. In 
111, which hiw not yot 
)!• hiw \n'*>u t(ii\nil t<) 
(UHCovereil i)ri)i»trtioH 
^ operatioiiH. 
•ributi ilio liiirnum of 
x>lil, that tht)i«( wfts II 
Ided n gummy liiidid 
ly^, " Uioy wound thi! 
le Uquor drop. Thu 
d, in their lanKuajJse, 
4jltU) in round btiUit, 
ley we about to ajiply 
jich Btttle the guin in 
•wise piu'ticular ok to 
a oonvcuieut core or 
d themuelves with tlio 
lives, we ai-e informed 

gum ; tliey extracttid 
astic balls which were 

merry andrewu hliod 
■ which gave rise to 
,H speedily learned to 
lubsUmco, hy applying 

some other description 
uue known iu Europe, 
yielda it was, liowevor, 
idd BoutU America in 
s in Uie following year, 
appeai'auce of tlie lan- 
in had been fasliioned 
aething concerning th4 
it. B«aide8 the true 
\ gum nearly identical 
t'rt, the Ficus indka, the 

inary ptu'pows of com- 
he old Spanish writer, 
ur, but this hue arises 
the juice itself is milky 

are uaually pierced in 
daut. If the juice be 
may be preserved in ft 
,t the natives have no 
morning, tap the trunk 
ath the wound ; in the 

is found in the cup. 
c species will yield fifty 
t inferior quality. The 
in a thin layer on clay 
coUectore dictates ; this 



layor U dried by tho hoat of a smoky fir« ; another lay«r ii applied ; anothflr 
drying foli<iwH — and ho on, until ti 'outing of conHidtTiible tliicknesi!! is ob- 
tain«(l. 'I'liis coating may b« punctured or stamped, or piwtsrd with any de- 
vice, at pleasure: and tbiiM are Moniriinum prodnce<l birds tho getnis or speciei 
of which it would batflo the skill of an Audubon or n Wilson to det4;rminoi 
When ail in diy, the lilay iiiOuM iil' eore is rlUnht^d to fingliients, tho ft-ag- 
montfl removed, and the India nibber shell liberated. Ho smoky is tho Hre at 
wliich th« juice i^ <lried, that a Iwdtle-form jiiece of India nibber may be cha- 
racterised as an altpmation of layei-s of gum and soot. 

Numerous arti the purjmseH to which this singular subHtance is apjilied in 
th»i countries of its proiluctlon. The Indians fashion it into nulely-shaped 
boots, for the rainy sea.soii. The inhnbitants of t^uiUi apply it as a coating to 
doth, to make rainproof ttirpanlins or coverings. It is formed lnf.o flambeaux, 
which yield a beautiful light, aciionnianied, however, by an odour which is n(jt 
usually g»ivt«)ful to Euroiiean nostrilH : it is said that a flambeau, two feet long 
by an inch and a half in diameter, will bum twelve houi-s. 

But It Is in Kuropo that the ipialities of india rubber have chiefly become 
ascertained. It is^ now reoognisetl as tho most pliable and elastic of known 
substances ; while It is so tenacious that it cannot be broken without consi- 
derable force. All that was then required was, to find out some solvent which 
would bring it to tlie liquid fonn, ho as to enable it to be applied as a varnish, 
a cement, or a prot(!Ctive coating ; this our chemists liave succeeded in doing, 
and the residt Is a very '^ido extension to Uie useful applications of tlie gum. 



India Rdbeeb PnocESsEs: EiAsricrrY. 

The India nibber, or caoutchouc, now imported to the enormous extent of 
BIX or seven himdrud thousand pounds annually, reivohes this country in masses 
of varied shaj)*, but mostiy of a dark colour. In it« im[>orted state it is used 
for very few pui-poses ; considerable modifications being necessary for its adap- 
tation to practical sennce. It requires to be tnuisfonnetl into cakes, or 
sheets, or tissues, or tube*, or solutions, preparatory to its ultimate \ise ; and 
this transfonnation requires operations of a somewhat peculiar kind, owing to 
th« nacflssity of randering tho whole mass homogeneous in substance. 

The bottles, and masses, and fitigraenta, as imported, have much inequality 
in texture, and are, moreover, contaminated with much dirt and refuse. To 
separate these the india rubber is first cut into \ ery small fragments, and then 
steeped in warm water, by which ttie dirt is procii)itated. The fmgments ai-e 
dried, and are then thrown into a kind of kneading machine, where innnense 
pressure is employed to bring them to one homogeneous mass. There is in 
this kneading process evidence afforded of a very remarkable differonce be- 
tween gutta percha and india rubber ; the former (as will be explained in a 
later jmge) requires to be heated to a soft state before being placed in the 
kneadmg mill ; but the india rubber, tliough put in cold, becomes so hot by 
the agitation that it could not be safely touched by the hand ; it is necessary 
to supply the machine with cold water, which is made newly to boil by the 
Ctdoric driven out of the elastic mass. So thoroughly is the mass pressed, 
rolled, pricked, cut, and kneaded, by tlie severe turmod which it undergoes, 
that all dirt, air, water, and steam are expelled, and it presents tlie appearance 
of a dark-coloured, Uniform, smooth mass. It is put into cast-Iron moulds of 
great strengUi, and brought, by hydraulic or screw pressuro, to the form 

F 3 



■•|i>r»Tir*»iiirifiifli 



■HMII 



MWWM 



_L 



4 IKDIA KUBBER AND GUTTA PEBCHA. 

of blocks, slabs, or cylmdei-s, accordiug to tho purpose to which it is to be 

"^'Set blocks, or other masses, occupy the transition «?*g« ^f^jv^«° *f^ 
preparatoiT and tlie finishing processes ; tlie mdia rubber '^ J^^^^^^^'^l^ 
Ssable state, but not mto useful fonn. It is as a .heet and as a thread that t c 
nrnteiM meets its most extensive apphcation ; and both of ihem ai-e made by 
cutdig from tlie blocks and slabs. A block is cut into sheeU by an mgemous 
machi^ie, m which c shai-p ki^ife-edge has a rapid yibratoiy motion ma 
horizontal plane, so adjusted as to cut a tliin film from a block of india 
Sbei supplied te it by a steady a.otion. The knife requires to be kept coo 
by a flow of water, or it would adhere to the india mbber. In Uiis way tiin 
sheets may be cut, or thicker sheets from which stationers india iiibber may 
be obtuTJd, or sheets of any Uiickness. gi-eat or smaU, accordmg to tho pm- 

^""TheTplmtion of the material into shreds or nan-ow strips is a very 
pretty operation, exhibitmg much nicety of manipuktion. A continuous strii. 
nay be cut from a bottle or any other ciu-ved mass of Uie '"^la rubber Tho 
bottom of the bottle is cutoff, and is pressed into a round and tolerably fla 
fonn The cake tlirs fashioned is fixed to the end of a horizontal shaft, or 
latiie-axis, and is made to revolve wiUi great rapidity; and while so rotatmg 
a cJci knife, rotating at a high speed, cuts through tlie substance, and 
^vLces steadU; towai-df tlie cenu-e of the disc ; thereby «fP'^™tmg the disc 
Tv cake mto one contmuous spu-al Hiread. This thi-ead can be ea^^l^ dmm^^^«"^ 
sti-aightly, and can even be separated into iwo or more finer tlireads by dm^ng 
it tlirough a hole where one or more sharp-cuttmg edges encounter it. It a 
bottle or any other hoUow piece of india nibber can be drawn over a cyhndei 
of uiiiform diameter, it may be cut into a continuous thread by a modification 
of the same machine ; the cylinder being made to revolve, a -steel cutter i. 
placed a«ainst it, and as the cyhndcr has a slow longitudmal motion given to it, 
CSm is cut ;pirally from 'end to end-just on tl.e same principle as a wor 
orXad is cut on a bit of iron by the screw-cuttmg machine. Machines ot 
this kind were mvented in France more than twenty yeare ago; but the 
machines used in our own countiy are of English mvention and of later 

"^'tf we glance among the stores of the india-rubber manufacturers and 
retailers at tlie pi^sent day, we find that bmids and cords, webs and J^Mids 
form no mconsiderable portion of the wai-es exposed for sale. These, in 
most ca^es. require tliat the india rubber should be fii-st made into blocks or 
cri nex cut into sheets, and then sepai-ated mto threads or cords or narrow 
stiHps Supposmg these preliminaiy cuttings to be effected, the making of 
bvafds and w^ebs if exceedingly curious, for it mvolves a combination of he 
hulia rubber with other mate'rik. Let us briefly tmce the p™es In die 
first place the narrow cords are sti-etched by a kind of wheel, and kept ex-^ 
tended till nearly deprived of their elasticity, and til they fonn a thread of 
the desired Uuc4ess. The thread is then put into aj>m«f»i^-«^«cfttn«, which is 
acomphcated and veiy ingenious apparatus, vsliereby a «|}f ''♦l^f « «f ^^,'^""^^^ 
silk flax or worsted, is wound round the mdia-i-ubber thread. In such a 
machine several tlireads are twisted round each oth^-, from toee to nearly 
Ey in number; each tln-ead has its own bobbin, and aU tlie bobbms revolve 
round a common centi-e, givmg out their threads in the Proportions and order 
required. The visitors to the Great Exhibition have had opportunities ol 
seemg some such machine at work. Generally speakmg, the braidmg-machine 



P 



1 



MtMWM 



mmmm^ 



se to which it is to be 

tion stage between tlie 

ibbev is brought into ii 

and as a thread that the 

ith of these ai-e made by 

sheets by an ingenious 
i vibratoiy motion in a 

iVom a block of india 
i requires to be kept cool 
libber. In tliis way tliin 
ionera' india iiibber may 
dl, according to the pur- 

naiTow strips is a very 

tion. A continuous strip 

[■ tlie india rubber. The 

round and tolerably flat 

1 of a horizontal shaft, or 
; and while so rotating, 

ough the substance, and 
areby sepamting the disc 
id can be eswiily drawn out 
3 finer tln-eads," by th-awing 
edges encounter it. If a 
be drawn over a cylinder 
i tliread by a modification 
revolve, a «teel cutter is 
tudmal motion given to it, 
same principle as a worm 
g machine. Machines of 
'enty yeare ago ; but tlie 
h uivention and of later 

ubber manufacturers and 
d cords, webs and bands, 
osed for sale. These, in 
3 fii-st made into blocks or 
threads or cords or naiTOW 
le effected, the making of 
ves a combination of »Iie 
uce the processes. In Uie 
nd of wheel, and kept ex- 
till tliey fonu a thread of 
i braiding-machine, which is 
jby a sheathing of cotton, 
ubber tliread. In such a 
ther, from tluee to nearly 
and all tlie bobbins revolve 
I the proportions and order 
liave had opportunities of 
Jiing, the braidmg-machine 



INDIA BUBBEIl AND OUTTA PERCIIA. 9 

is employed in making stay-laces, bmid, upholsterers' cord, &c. ; but it is also 
applicable in making Sie numerous elastic cords and webs which owe their 
elasticity to india mbber. When an envelope of cotton, silk, Hox, or woixtcd 
has been given to tlie tliread of india rubber by tlie braiding-machine, the 
threads ai-e laid as warp in a loom, and woven into the n^quired kind of wc'b, 
whatever it may be. Then comes a curious development of tlio pi-opcrtios of 
the material ; in tlie prelmiinaiy stretching, tlie india mbber was niatle some- 
what stiff and unyielding; but by now exposing it to the action of a hot 
smoothing-iron upon a table, the elasticity is restored, tlie riband or web con- 
tracts hi length, and the sheatliing or envelope corrugates or wruikles up on 
tlie surface. The web thus produced is very soft and elastic. Tho waii) 
threads may be alternated witli othere of non-elastic character ; an<l tlie weft- 
tln-eads may be either elastic or non-elastic, so that any desired degree of elas- 
ticity may be obtained. 

Wliy a jpiece of india rubber, when it has been somewhat modified by heat 
and chemical action, should be deemed culeanized, it is for the uiventor to say. 
Vulcan may have been the god of fire, and may have "forg'd tlie tlnmderbolLs 
of Jove ;" but he must have done sometliing much more important than dress 
up a bit of india rubber to deserve his mytliological fame. However, let us 
take Uie name simply as tho expression of a fact, that fire or heat has been 
brought to bear upon Uiis substtmce as a means of affecting its qualities 
The method was invented by Mr. Hancock seven or eight yeai-s ago. and it 
has been the means of giving a wide extension to Uie use of india rabber. 

This vulcanized india rubber is in fact a compound of sulphur witli tho 
vegetable gum. When a sheet of india mbber is immei-sed in liquid sulphur, 
a marked change takes place in its qualities ; the sulphur acts upon tlie gum 
and combines with it ; and indeed the two may dmost be said to form a new 
substance. The methods by which the combination is brought about are 
varied, but the effect is in all cases very remai'kable. The sti-ength of the 
india inibber is increased to an extraordinaiy degree. The elasticity is ren- 
dered more permanent, analogous in some respects to that of gutta perclirt. 
The now substance will absorb essential oils without mjury, whereas such oils 
would dissolve india rabber. It retains its properties at a temperature so low 
that india mbber would be too much hardened for use ; and at a temperature 
so high that india mbber would be desti-oyed. Later expeiimentere have 
found that antimony, and many otlier substimces, may similarly be combined 
with india mbber ; and it is reasonable to expect that many useful novelties 
are in store for us in this " vulcanized " direction. 

One very remarkable manifestation of the elastic properties of this sub- 
stance is to be met with in Mr. Shaw's novel india-rubber air-gun. This gmi 
requires no gmipowder whatever, and is so far a veiy economical production ; 
but its wonders do not cease here ; for it has no au'-pump, no reservoir, no 
valves. We might marvel how it would be possible to discharge a missile by 
such means, wei-o it not that the inventor shows the mode in which he brings 
india rubber to his aid. The air which expels tlie ball is, it seems, powerfully 
compressed at the moment of discharge by a piston acting within a cylinder, 
and moved with great force and rapidity by the sudden conU-action of a spiing. 
This spring is composed of a number of vidcanized india-mbber rings, and 
is capable of being distended or sti-etched by hand in a convenient way. 
The ball is propelled with a force equal to that exerted in an ordinaiy air-gun ; 
and with much facility and precision. It certainly seems strange tliat such 
an ingtrmuent should possess sufficient projectile power to flatten a bullet 



1 



•e^ 



e nroiA atJBBEa akb octta pebohh. 

pi-opelled from it; but Mr. Shaw has displayed at the Great Exhibition 
bullets so flattened, as companions to the gun itselt annlications 

Tt i« not easv to say whether the most numerous and important appncauons 
of th 8 rinS substance depend on it. use in the fox-ni o thread or that 
of a UouXhJtL ; each \vL its advantiiges. which keep it distinct from the 
Im- When once it was discovered that india rubber maybe di«soWed m 
net^ieum in naphtha, or in oil of turpentine, it was speedily seen that a new 
a exi;^ spher. of utility was ^yen to it. /-^nuffic'^t'wT JS 
from this ; that'^any fragments or odds and ends wdl suffice ^^^^^ l^^g^ 
and well-orepared pieces. The coarsest pieces as imported, the waste nom 
ZlTneaE operations, and the parings and cuttings from other manufnj- 
turin"?perlions, are placed in a close iron vessel, to which the I'q^'d ««lyent 
is Sed A brisk agitation is kept up, and tiie heat, thereby generated m the 
cla^S cum warms the liquid and increases its solvent power, until at lengtii 
ie whole ofT? gum is dissolved. This operation is conducted on a some- 
whaHxtensive scaS^; for tiie iron vessel is large enough to contem more than 
half a ton of India n^bber, which requires three days of constant agitation for 
comple^ solution. The liquid thuVproduced has a consistency which fits it 
to be usid as a varnish, or IL a waterproofing medium, or as a cement, or for 
many oSer pui-poses ;hich the sagLity and Self-interest of manufacturers 
hfive enabled them to discover. 

^ ' India Rtjbbeb Processes: WATERPEOOFraG. 

Besides the cutting up of solid india rubber into the varied forms of shoes 
andot^rS^Scles; Lides the spinning, and braiding, and weaving Area^ 
Z tiiese substances into coids and elastic webs; there ''^ T^^^^^aZ^Z 
consumption of tiiis material in imparting waterproof and airproof qualities, 
to woven fabrics, which would otherwise be wantmg in such ^rtues 

The world-renowned "Macintosh" capes and cloaks, and ottier ram 
resSc R^miVnts, do mdeed deserve most if not all the encomiums passed 
^f?hem It £ true timt they check tlie exit of perspiration, and have one 
Tt^ other inconveniences, but they are .b.'^-e companions neverti^de^ 
Mr. BaiUie Fraser, in the nai-mtive of his rapid and «o««ewhat perilous wmter 
ioumev from Constantinople to Persia, a few years ago, sa^ •— ""' °f 
iuTftira alone would have made a i>ocr defence against ram or fiUlmg snow, I 
had p^ovTS myself with a good Macintosh india rubber cloak, wh^^^^ 
nnw aid worthy service." Many a traveUer has been able to make a smulai 
Sold^eL mether t^e plain cotton ; Macintosh" garments are 
Sued to be superseded by the "Siphonia," or otiier. novelties of later 
intox)duction, tiie wearers must determine. „,«♦,«»! 

The manufactiu^ of the Macintosh clotii is a smgular one. The mater ai 
is merely two layers of cotton cemented witii liquid mdia ™bber; bui^e 
LXn is so weU effected, that the three become to all intenta ?nd P«i^««f 
S The stout and well-woven cotton cloth is coi ed «P«« * ^^^^'jf ,^^i 
like the yam beam of a loom; and from tiiis ^\^«/t™J*J,^Xer " ste^te 
State and a nearly horizontal position. A layer of liquid or ratiier pasta-niie 
sSuti^ is ap^e^d with a spaSila, to a cunsidemble tWckness^and the c^otii 
is drawn under a knife edge, which scrapes the solution and dittuses it 
eqX^ver evJry part of the%lotii, which maybe ^^^^^ ^^J^JJ^ y^^S 
T\e cloth U then extended out on a horiiwntal framework to dry ; and when 



It 



-^ 



I 



le Great Exhibition 

iportant applications 
m of thread, or that 
) it distinct from the 
may be dissolved in 
^dily seen that a new 
ler advantage springs 
ifice as well aa large 
rted, the waste from 
Vom other manufoc- 
ich the liquid solvent 
•eby generated in the 
ower, until at length 
onducted on a some- 
to contain more than 
lonstant agitation for 
isistency which fits it 
r as ft cement, or for 
est of manufacturers 



FING. 

varied forms of shoes 
and weaving threads 
is now an enormous 
and ail-proof qualities 
luch virtues, 
aks, and oilier rain- 
he encomiums passed 
nration, and have one 
ipanions nevertheless, 
lewhat perilous winter 
ago, says : — " But as 
rain or felling snow, I 
rubber cloak, which 
ible to make a similar 
intoah" gannents are 
llier novelties of later 

ar one. The material 
mdia rubber; but the 
II intents and purposes 
ipon a hoi*izontal beam, 
retched out in a tight 
lid or rather paste-like 
jickness, and the cloth 
)lution and difiijse.'J it 
rty or forty yards long, 
vork to dry ; and when 



IKPU BUBBER AND OUTTA PERCHA. 7 

dried, a second coating is applied m e similar way; and a tlmd and fourth may 
bo similarly applied if necessaiy. Two pieces, thus coated, ai'e next placed 
face to face, with great care, to prevent creasing or distortion; and, being 
passed between two smooth wooden rollers, tliey aio so thoroughly pressed as 
to be made to unite dumbly and permanently. Cloth, thus cemented and 
doubled and dried, may be cut and made into garments which will bear 
many a rough trial and many a deluging before rain or water can penetrate. 

India i-ubber occupies a very notable position m connection witli ihe 
numerous "life-preserving" projects. Its power of resisting the action of 
water lies at the root of this application: we have garments, and floats, 
and buoys, and boats, presented to our notice in great numbers. One 
inventor has claimed public attention to a safety-boat, fonned of a kind of 
canvas bag satmated with liquid india rubber. Another has displayed his 
ingenuity in a boat, of which the trame-work is cork, and tlie covering india- 
rubber canvas. A boat was constructed in France, a few yeais ago, m which 
niiuiy curious arrangements were involved ; it was formed of skeleton frame- 
work, capable of being hinged or unliinged at pleasm'e, and over each frame 
a covering of saturated canvas was spread. "As an example of strength, 
hghtness, and portability," we ai-e told, " a large boat in this form was ti-ied 
m France, in 1841. It was more than a himdi-ed feet long; and although 
fonned with canvas sides, it was loaded with nearly one hundred tons ot 
wood and wuie, which it safely conveyed from Auxerre to Paiis, down a 
shallow and much interrupted sti-eam. It was then taken to pieces in three or 
four minutes, and all the materials packed in two caits, which took it to 
Auxerre for anotlier cargo." 

'■ The buoys and gannents of india nibber are, perhaps, still more varied 
than the safety-boats. Whether the "safety-hat" still siu-vives to render 
service to those who may be lucky enough to be covered with it, we do not 
know ; but according to the theory of its inventor it was intended to act as 
follows: — the hat and its lining were both to be rendered impervious to 
water by a solution of india i-ubber ; and air being blown in between the two, 
it was considered that such a hat, if allowed to swim on the water, would 
bear the weight of a man clinging to it. In a " life-cloak," or " Ufe-cape," 
introduced by Messrs. Macintosh, the cape is made of a double thickness of 
india-rubber cloth, with a provision for forcing air into the interatice between 
the layers, and Urns rendering it buoyant. Among other novelties, " yachting 
jackets" ai-e displayed, which, while they present the requisite external 
neatness of appeaiunce for amateur seamen, are yet said to possess l)uoyaiicy 
enough to float the wearer — a property due, no doubt, to a little application 
of the magic india rubber. Nay, ladies' "paletots" are exhibited with tlio 
some ascribed qualities. Beds, mattrasses, hammocks, pillows — all made 
of india-rubber cloth — ^have been proposed and introduced as hfe-buoys ; and 
belts said gloves may be added to the list 

But it is striking to observe how little these matters are attended to in 
practice. Our inventors patent, our exhibitors display, and our joumaUsts 
describe, numberless ingenious contrivances having the life-buoyant or rather 
body-buoyant property in view; but how few persons adopt them ! Sea-going 
people can swim as little now as they could half a century ago (and this 
little is much less than landsmen usually suppose) ; but yet we very seldom 
hear of life being saved by tlie hats, capes, cloaks, belts, mattrasses, &c., 
which the india-rubber inventors have provided — ^not because the india 



5 






I 



■ mm" 



8 



INDIA RUBBER AND OUTTA PKHCHA. 



nibber fails in its duty, but because foresight is seldom showi by those for 
whom the inventions were intended. , -, ^ t i 

It was a happy thought of the benevolent physician who first suggested 
Uic .mtevhed. Dr. Ai-nott ha., brought foi-ward many useful mventions ap- 
plicable for the most part towards the preservation of health, or the alleviation 
of sutferint?; he patents none, but leaves society to reap whatever advantages 
may accrue therefrom ; and he has had twenty years of that pleasure whici 
results from doing good for the sake of the good done. Dr. Amott has 
pubhshed an interesting account how, about twenty years ago, he was led to 
the invention of the hydrostatic or water-bed for invalids. A lady, severely 
prostiated by iUness, and bed-ridden for a long period, suffered much trom 
the pressure even of the softest bed that could be supplied to her— a pressure 
which can be appreciatad only by tliose who are helplessly confined to one 
position in bed. " Under these circumstances," says the ingenious physician, 
" the idea of the hydrostatic bed occun-ed to me. Even the pressm-e ol an 
air pillow had killed her flesh, and it was evident that persons in such a 
condition could not be saved, unless they could be supported without sensible 
inequality of pressure. I then reflected, that the support of water to a 
floating body is so uniformly diffused, that eveiy thousandth of an mch of 
tlie inferior surface, has, as it were, its own separate hqmd pillar, and no 
one part bears the load of its neighbour; that a person restuig m a bath is 
nearly thus supported; that this patient might be laid upon the surface ot a 
bath, over which a large sheet of the watei-proof india-mbber cloth had been 
previously thrown, she being rendered sufiiciently buoyant by a soft mattrass 
placed beneatli her; thus would she repose on the face of the water, hke a 
swan on its plumage, witliout sensible pressure anywhere, ana almost as it 
the weight of her body were annihilated." A bed was made on Hie pnnciple 
suggested; ih. invalid gained instant relief, and ultimately recovered; and 
" Amotfs hydrostatic bed" became known in hospitals and in the chambers 

fif tVlf* RICK 

It is not our province to dwell farther on this matter here ; it only 
concerns our present subject so fai- as it illustrates one among the many 
uses of India rubber; but it is valuable, as showing what good may be 
chawn out of almost any agency, when the heart as weU as tlie hea4 is 
engaged upon it. , — - 

India Rubber at the Great Exhibition. 

' The Great Industrial Exhibition has sho%vn, as it ought to have done, how 
varied are now the applications of tliis material. We have tiiere seen, in_Mr. 
Hodges' contributions, a peculiar appUcation of mdia mbber to FOjectales 
and a somewhat similai- apphcation to mechanical purchase or tackle, ihis 
tackle, highly elastic from the nature of the substance employed, is substi- 
tuted for, or used hi combination with, the rigid kind ordinarily employed; 
and it is so applied, that one man may bring an extiaordinaiy amount ot 
power to bear on the body to be hfted or moved ; there is a kmd of accumu- 
lation of power gomg on in the process, and hence tlie apparatus has 
receded frSm its Lentor the name of tlie cumukitor Anotlier exhibitor has 
contributed india-rubber saddles and collars; a Uiird, an india-rubber water- 
proof umbreUa tent; a fourth has a goodly collection of webs, braces, garters, 



i 



MfiMHIHMM*'-- 



8ho\vn by those for 

who first suggested 
iseful inventions ap- 
,1th, or the alleviation 
whatever advantages 
' that pleasure whicli 
ne. Ur. Amott has 
rs ago, he was led to 
Is. A lady, severely 

suffered much from 
E5d to her — a pressure 
essly confined to one 
) ingenious physician, 
n the pressm'e of an 
at persons in such a 
orted without sensible 
ipport of water to a 
sandth of an inch of 

liquid pillar, and no 
1 resting in a bath is 
upon the suiface of a 
libber cloth had been 
rant by a soft mattrass 
se of the water, like a 
lere, and almost as if 
made on the principle 
nately recovered; and 
1 and in the chambers 

matter here; it only 
one among the many 
y what good may be 
i well as tlie head is 



mox. 

ight to have done, how 
have tliere seen, in Mr. 
I mbber to projectiles, 
[•chase or tackle. This 
!e employed, is substi- 
1 ordinarily employed; 
itraordinary amount of 
re is a kind of acciunu- 
ice tlie apparatus has 
Another exhibitor has 
. an india-rubber water- 
af webs, braces, gai-ters, 



ttli 



INDIA nrnBEn and outta percha. 9 

\vristlots, glove-tops, braided webs, bead-threading, and such like small wares. 
Mr. Matliews offers for our inspection an india-nibber portable boat, useful 
for lake fishing and duck shooting ; and a portable bath of similar material. 
Ihit Ills most sirgtilar contribution is a waterproof cloiik-boat, " which, when 
inflated, rendcra it capable of being used as a boat, and enables travellers to 
cross rivers or streams where no other means ai'e at hand :" the wearer talces 
off his cloak, draws out a tiny pair of bellows from a pocket in it, fills a vacant 
space within the double cloth with air, floats the cloak on the water, takes his 
seat in the centre, and forthwith paddles along with a small pair of paddles 
taken fi-om another pocket — a veiy multiim in parvo, if it will do all that tlie 
inventor ascribes to it. Messrs. Bimn and Lockington, who are importers of 
this material, have very appropriately afforded the means of "comparing 
different specimens of this produce ; they show us both the Brazilian and tho 
Asiatic vai-ieties, classified according to tJieir value and application ; and they 
also exhibit samples illustrative of the various stages of the manufactured 
articles. Mr. Hancock has furnished the means of comparing the plain 
india rubber with tlie " vidcani^zed " material, on which his ingenuity has been 
engaged. 

But it is the fimi of IMessrs. Macintosh by whom this hi anch of industiy 
has been most fully illustrated. Here we find, in the first place, specimens 
of india mbber in the imported state, exhibiting various degi-ees of quality. 
Next we find it in the partially manufactm-ed state, in many stages of pro- 
gi'ess, and in botli the "vulcanized"' and the non-^'ulcanized condition. 
Thirdly, we have a group illustrative of the water-resisting quality of the 
material : such as inflated boats, life-belts, cushions, pillows, beds, sponging 
baths, sheets for covering waggons and ricks, watei-proof garments, sporting 
and travelling appendages of various kinds, water and airproof fabrics, invalid 
or Amott beds, and many other articles of analogous character. Next we find 
illustrations of the elastic qualities of tho material, in such articles as the 
various elastic webs and woven fabrics for di-ess and for furniture, springs for 
doors, bands and bandages, buffer and beaiing-springs for can-iages, tires for 
noiseless wheels, sewer and sink valves, torsion spring-roller blinds, washera 
for flange and socket joints, &c. Another group comprises such articles as 
require both the impermeable and the elivstic qualities of tlie material ; among 
these aie decanter and bottle stoppei*s, boots and shoes, surgical and veteri- 
nary implements, chemical appai-atus, calico-printing apparatus, and ship- 
sheets for occasional use at sea. Added to all the above are otlier manu- 
factured articles of most miscellaneous character: including sockets and 
pistons and packing for machineiy, elastic maps, prints, and embossings, 
printed webbing, thread for ladies, ornamental work, and numerous others. 

Nor have our continental and transatlantic friends failed to do tlieir best 
in illustration of this department of industiy. From Guiana, one of tlie 
homes of the indiorrubber ti-ee, we have specimens of tlie raw material. From 
France we have india-nibber braces and twists, stockings and knee-caps, belts, 
tissues, bandages, and sm-gical apparatus. Holland bids us admire her vul- 
canized india-rubber boots imd shoes. From Eussia we have india-rubber 
clogs. Switzerland has sent knit stockings for invalids. The States of the 
Zollverein have their india-mbber braces for our notice. But it is from across 
the broad Atlantic that the largest and most interesting collection in tliis 
branch of industry has been sent ; it is indeed so mai'ked as to fonn a conspi- 
cuous portion of the somewhat thiti'y-spread consignment from the United 
States to the Great Exhibition. Ovt'^. would tliink that Brother Jonathan 

F fJ 



JO INDIA BUBBEB AND OUTIA PEBOHA. 

must be ill constant peril of diowning. from the multiplicity of floating life 
nr^ervers hercouS-ibu^^ Every quality which iudU.mbber caxi l^^Hess 
S IT'o have been brought into requj^iUon: i"Wmeabihty elj.^^^ 
«««« smoothness— all are made to bear a part. We have the l^ftpv"!" 
Rubbro™y,-' and Uie " Goodyear Rubber Company." both contnbutu>g 
S'Lts'lWloes. cloaks and caieB, hats and -F- If f ^ J-^ f/^J!; 
belts and gloves, and otlier water-resisting gaiwent^. Ibe P»f "«tjon ot vciy 
Si^b^eet« of mdiari-ubber, and the piinting of some kind of device on one 
Sace^o aiTied on wiUi much effect. Thei^ are for instance md a- 
Ser' floorcloths of considerable ske; and india-i-ubber prmts and J.s 
Siich receive a printed impression with a delicacy ^^^^^'i^ ^-.^^hi 
ier Sere is an indi^ribber globe, made of tissue so tlmi Uiat it can bo 
Suiv inflJfid by the breath through a smaU stop-cock. There are also 
n&i£ venSrs tliin and flexibH ready to be applied to^y suiUble 
«,irface In the vulcanized form, the American specimens embmse a range 
wlS%iU not yield in variety to that of the moUier comitry ; for besides such 
Seles a^ bahi. whips, mafl-bags. aiming apparatus, cushions, saddles, 
b^s, g^^bags, &c., we have no less a cmiosity than a "vulcanized nidia- 

'""S-v^'luJband.T has recently availed itself of the services.of india rubber, 
in a Sewhat n^ulai- way. m the milking of cows. The toat. of ti»« J^^ >;;« 
e^h covered wiUi a case or sheath of india-rubber, havmg a smaU tube aiid 
ston-crkaTthe bottom. It would appear that some kind of pressure is ex- 
eKy theXath ; for the milk is said to flow without Jie usual action of 
Sb hi The saving of tune is the object apparently held m new m this 
odd contrivance ; for a saving there is asserted to be. aualiUes 

One of the charactoristics of om: age is a yeammg ^ »m?tat« the qi^itiea 
of a substance by some substance of cheaper pnce. India ™bbei has not 
escaned this mode of attack. Certam experunenters tell us, that "^ ^eU- 
preXed boilS Ihiseed oU be applied, by means of a brush, to any smooth 
SaTe ami dried in the sun or smoke, and the process repeated untfl some 
SSsrbeSnS, it wiU afford a substance of considerable fineness sem^ 
r,n.n«nn.rant wonderfuUv elastic, and resembhng mdia rubber in most ot it^ 
SbrqiSs" Hence is produced artifi!ial caoui.hou.;\>ui the lonni- 
dable period of six months is said to be necessary for the production. 



GUTTA PEBCHA. 

Another remai-kable vegetable product, another elasUc gum, now awtuts our 
notice. 

GuTTA PeKCHA in THE FoEEST. 

Tt was in the veai" 184JJ— not yet ten years ago— that Dr. Montgomerie, an 
AsssCt.SuSeo?toZReside,LyatsLgapore,accidenta^^^ "pon a 

^lowSe Wrs remarkable gum^. He was one day ^^^<^^''^S ^ P^ra^'9,ov 
S wfodcutter, at his labo,^ ; and was struck - ^.f Se'LtmeK bo 
ance of the hatchet or chopper employed by him. 1 he bardie seemed to do 
formed of some material veiy different from tlipse usually ^^V^oyed^ \V^^ 
Zmd the workman," says Dr. Montgomerie, " in whose possession I saw it, and 



- i irr art i i i f -' — "i ii l iln 'Ir'Tt ' ■ 'f " ' '"'^" "*'<"'"•*•'■" 



MMaWWHM 



1 1 * 1 iim WM i U MMIiWMMWtiMtoTl 



"mutm 



plicity of floating life 
in-ubbcr can possess 
ility, elasticity, tough- 
have tlie " Hay ward 
ly," both coiiUibutmg 
leggingH and gaitera, 
'he production of very 
kind of device on ono 
3, for iuBtonce, uidia- 
bev prints and raapa 
eai-ly equal to that of 
80 thhi tliat it can bo 
cock. There are also 
pplied to any suiUible 
liens embrace a range 
mtry ; for besides such 
us, cushions, saddles, 
1 a " vulcanized uidia- 

rvices of India rubber, 
.'he teata of tlie cow are 
ing a small tube and 
kind of pressure is ex- 
ut the usual action of 
Uy held in view in thia 

to imitate the qualities 
India mbber has not 
1 tell us, that " if well- 
i brush, to any smooth 
iss repeated imtil some 
siderable fineness, semi- 
I rubber in most of its 
>utchoM; but the formi- 
the production. 



ic gum, now awaits our 



JT. 

lat Dr. Montgomerie, on 
identally lighted upon a 
ly watching a parang, or 
h the remarkable appear- 
L'he handle seemed to be 
laUy employed. "Iques- 
ge possession I saw it, and 



ml I iiiiiiiwiiiwwi 



^ 



INDIA nUBBBB AND GOTTA PEBCHA. 



11 



heard that the material of which it was made could be moulded into any ibiiu 
by dipping it into boiling water till it waa heated tlnough, when it became 
plastic as clay, regaining when cold its original hardness and rigidity. " An 
intelligent physician was not likely to lose sight of such a remarkable sub- 
stance ; the seed wa.s pretty sure to take i-oot in the mind of ono convei-sant 
with the materials of manufacture employed in Europe, and witli the advan- 
tages which would accrue from any increase in the number of such materials. 
Ho speedily a.scertained that gutta percha, like caoutchouc, exudes fi-om be- 
tween the bark and the wood of certain forest-trees. He procured specimenB 
in various stages of preparation, and sent them to tlie Society of Art* hi 
London. Seldom has the Society's gold medal been more fittingly awm-ded, 
than for the valuable knowledge thus commmiioated to the manulUcturers of 
our country. 

It is observable, however, that this substance may be said to have had Iwo 
European discoverers, mdependent of each otlier ; for tlie tree, and tlio gum 
which exudes from it, were discovered or obsei-ved by Mr. Thomas Lobb. 
This gentleman visited the islands of tlie Indian seas in 1842-3 on a botanical 
mission, as agent to Messra. Veitch, Uie scientific and energetic florists of 
Exeter; and it was during his i-ambles tliat he became ac(iuainted with tlie 
gutta-percha tree. It is not, however, veiy remarkable that such a substance 
should have two independent discoverers — the histories of tlie planet Nep- 
tune, of photography, and of elecUography, have taught us striking lessons 
on this point. 

The small sample of specimens which Dr. Montgomerie sent to England 
has a kind of historical uiterest attached to it, in being the humble beginning 
whence an important branch of industry has arisen. Several ingenious per- 
sons applied practical tests to the newly-imported substance ; and among tlieni 
Mr. Whishaw and Mr. Hancock speedily showed how easily gutta percha 
might be fashioned into useful foiins. Mr. Whishaw made a piece of pipe 
and a lathe band, which he exhibited before the Society of Arts ; ho also pro- 
duced improssiontfrom medals ; but the most striking testimony to the singu- 
lar properties of this substance was afforded in the following way : he softened 
a lump of gutta percha by hot water, pressed it out to a thin sheet, covered a 
soda-water bottle with it, hardened the surface by dipping m cold water, 
softened and removed the coating, and rolled up the gum again into a forni 
similar to that which it first presented. The piece of pipe and the lathe-bimd 
displayed by Mr. Whishaw at the Great Exhibition are, we believe, the same 
which were produced on the occasion above alluded to, and are perhaps Uie 
first letters of tliis indusU-ial alphabet In the meantime Mr. Hancock, study- 
ing closely the properties of the material, contrived those methods and se- 
cm-ed those patents which have been the basis of much of the subsequent 
operations. 

In proportion as the value of this substance has become known, so has a 
desire extended to ascertain the range of its growth in tlie East. '* "■ 



It is now 



known that the gutta-percha ti«e abounds in that extreme south-eastern pohit 
of Asia which obtains the name of the Malay Peninsula ; in the neighbouring 
island of Singapore ; in the important Bomean island which Rj\jah Brooke has 
been the means of making so familiarly known to us ; and ui vaiious islands 
which constitute tlie Eastern Archipelago. There seems very little cause to 
apprehend any failure in quantity ; for even if the present supply from tlie 
neighbourhood of Singapore should be exliausted, the capabihties of more 
distant islands arc quite beyond present calculation. 



^ 



1 



]2 INDIA IIUBBEB AND OUTTA rERCHA. 

An interesting sketch was given in the Daily Nms, a few months ago, of the 
Bpiead of the gutta-percha trade, when once it became known tliat a market 
hal sprung up for that material. Tlie jungles of Uie J ohoro Archipelago 
some Hisunce from Singapore, were the scene of tl.e earhes «'^th;;;P^gJ.;^^^;l 
tlicv were soon ransacke-l in every direction by parties ot Malays and l^hineso 
while the indigenous population also gave themselves up to the search witl 
zel^ and avidity. The Tammigong. or chief, declared the precious gum to bo 
a go^mment'monopoly-a st'rokS of policy at which we -^fj^^^^^^l 
greatly ; he appropriated the greater part of the prohts and still lett Uio 
S'llij^'enougli'to Stimulate the'm to purstie the quest; and these M^^ieT 
their tui-n, obtained an enonnous profit from die laboui-s of the A.bon|jino3^ 
In short, he gutta-percha fever in tlie east paralleled tlie railway fever m tlie 
west bui camf a little after it in point .>f time. 13es des al he other sources 
of profit, the Tamungong employed whole tribes ot heredifciry seifs ui the 
seaJch for giitta percha. "^ The gum hunters went from isUmd to island in 
que' t of the precious commodity ; but here they met with new dmrnants; ti)e 
petty sultans each imitated tlie tammigong, and declared gutta P^^^f "^/f J'^ ^ 
regd monopoly. The commercial value of Uie gum being <i'^^«""'"«i.^L ^' 
be^t of all tests at Singapore, the desire to gather it spread I'^e wMfi^e. 
northward to Pinang, southward to Java and Sumatra, eastward to Bomeo— 
ZsZfever marched. The gutta-percha ti-ee was found m many parte of 
Borneo : such as at Prune, Sarawak, and Pontianak on the west coast an at 
Keli and Passir on tlie east coast. At the present time there s very httle 
doubt that the forests of tiie Indian Ai-chipelago ai^ bemg P«°f ;.^J«'i J» ^^^^J. 
direction, in seai-ch of these valuable trees: it will be one of the means ot 
clearing the land for future dwellei-s in those regions. x ^„ ^„ 

It appears that p^rha (of which tlie pronunciation is pertsha, not pe,ka oi 
persjJ s Uie Malayan name for tlie tree which produces the gum ; ^vhlle //««« 
i a general name for any gum which exudes from a tree. The ti-ee belongs, 
of course, to tlie group in which botanists place sapoUweous or gum-exudmg 
genera The wood ot" the tree, being soft and spongy, is not applied to many 
EuTpurposes. The fruit yields a thick oil. which is used by tiie natives 
with their food ; and either from this or from some other pai-ts of the tree an 
Lent spirit is capable of being distilled. But it is Uie sap which forn^ the 
most valuable product of the ti^e. It circulates m sniaU vessels which mi 
up between the bark and the wood. . 

Thrifty methods are teachable to rude islanders as to moi-e civdised men, 
when the advantages have been once made apparent. The natives around 
Singapore, whenlhey first found a mai-ket for the solidmed gum, proceeded 
ruthlessly to work ; they killed the bird which laid the golden eggs by cu tmg 
down the trees in order to obtain the gum. But they have ""^been taught 
better ; it is shown to them how, by tapping or cuttmg notches m Uie bi-anches 
at cerUin intervals of time, the sap may be made to A^^, witiiout endan^ 
eering die life of tlie tree. Experiments are now bemg made to determme 
whetlier the gutta-percha tree can be planted so as to maintain a continuous 
and inexhaustible 'store of gum or sap: should tiiese attempts succeed *h« 
supply would equal any imagmable demand ; and the application of this sin- 
gular substance might acquire a ronge of which we little dream at present^ 

If we foUow the histoiy of the gum to the point where commerce takes it 
up we are made painfuUy conscious that rascality finds a hold as in too many 
oJher directions. Chicory-coifee and sloe-tea, cabbage-tobacco and sa^^sy • 
have tiieir parallels in many of the lumps ot gvjtta perclia brought to the dealera 



INDU RimBER AND GUTTA TKHCHA. 



18 



■ months ago, of tlio 
iiown tliut a market 
[ohoro Arcliipolago, 
est gatherings ; and 
Inlays und Chinese ; 
to the search witli 
procions gum to be 
e need not marvel 
I, and still loft tlie 
d these Malays, ui 
8 of the Aborigines, 
railway fever in tlie 
ill the otlior sources 
oditiiry serfs in the 
islimd to island in 
new chviniante ; tbe 
gutta perchtt to be a 
g detenniucd bv the 
pread like wildfire: 
istward to Borneo — 
tid in many parts of 
le west coast, and at 
e tlioro is vei-y httle 
; penetrated in eveiy 
le of the means of 

pertaka, not perka or 
he gum ; while tftUta 
The tree belongs, 
ous or gum-exuding 
not applied to many 
used by tlie natives 
pai-ts of the tree an 
sap which forms the 
11 vessels which i-mi 

more civilised men, 
The natives around 
ified gum, proceeded 
Iden eggs, by cutting 
ave now been taught 
iches in the bi-anches 
flow, without endan- 
f made to detei-mine 
aintain a continuous 
ttempts succeed, the 
pplication of this sin- 
dream at present. 
:re commerce takes it 
; hold as in too many 
jacco and sand-sugar, 
brought to the dealers 



at Singapore. Supposing the tree to be tapped instead of felled, the sap flows 
out gently into any vessels which the natives may choose to employ for this 
pur|)ose. Before tlie sap has quite consolidated, it is laieaded into lumps by 
the hand or by a piece of wood, and these lumps may bo of any size or shape 
that suit tlie fancy of tlio forest-artist. If zoologically inclined, ho selects tlio 
form of a bird or a qumlruped, or he may even patroni/o tho " humiui face 
divine ; " if music chiu-ms him, he imitates the forms of such instruments as 
may be familiar to him ; but, generally speaking, the gutta percha presents 
the form of roimdish lumps, eight or twelve or sixteen inches over. This is 
lUl very well, so far as shape is concerned. But what if tlie sample be not as 
it seem ; what if it be fan- without and false within? Alas ! Uie purse of the 
buyer, and tho edges of his cutting instruments, have often a soiry tale to tell. 
The gutta percha is sold at Singapore by weight, according to the apparent 
(luality of eueh lump ; but, when the consigimient reaches England, it is not 
unfrequently found that a large stone or a piece of heavy wood is imbedded m 
the heart of it, to increase the weight. It would entail a serious loss of Ume 
to cut open each lump at tlie time of purchase ; so that at present Oriental 
honesty is ratlier an important element in the commercial value of this oiticle. 
There is, too, a great amount of difference in die qmmtity of baik, leaves, and 
dirt, which become accidenUdly mixed up with the gum. 

The crude gum is imported to the extent of about two millions of pounds 
annually, in the vai-iously-shaped pieces above spoken of; and we may next 
see what modem uigenuity has effected in devising modes of rendenng Uiese 
I)ieces eitlier useful or ornamental, or both. 

Gutta Percha in the Factory. 

The extensive and higUy-interesthig establishment of the Gutta-Porcha 
Company, situated near the City Road Basin of tlie Regents Canal, is worthy 
of attention even beyond the general average of such centres of mdustiy, tor 
tlie peculiai- chai-acter of the substance operated upon necessitates tlie employ- 
ment of new processes, new machines, and new tools. An incessant course of 
invention has mai-ked tlie manufacturuig history of this material during tlie 
brief period of its existence. If Uie gutta-percha is to be applied to some new 
useful purpose, tools and processes of novel character have to be employed ; 
if an ornamental application is detemiined on, methods ai-e adopted for de- 
veloping any natural beauty which the gi-ain of the substance may present ; 
if an attempt be made to supei-sede leatlier, or wood, or papier mache, or metal, 
by diis singular gum, great pams are bestowed on a study of the special 
qualities to be imitated, and the process of imitation often requires operations 
and tools ditferuig considerably from those before employed. 

A pervading odour is sensible throughout the buildings in which the gutta 
percha is stored and manufj\ctured. K it were necessary to chai-acterise tins 
odour, we might, perhaps, liken it to a hybrid between tan-bai-k and old cheese 
—an odour to which one is not, at first, easUy reconciled. But this becomes 
dissipated after a time. 

When we du-ect our attention from scent to sight, and look around the 
establishment, we see the very histoiy of the manufacture pictured m tlie 
buildings themselves. Every separate block of builduig speakij of a particulai- 
application of tlie gutta-percha, or some particular mode of prepaiing it for use. 
If -we see a building somewhat more fresh and modem than its neighbom-s, 



IKMliB 



wafttwWiMiWKw&iftiBaBaiBi^^ 



StfsfSb^ts^iSsies^ 



mmmmmmmmim 



•mmtm 



mmm 



14 



INDIA BUBBEH AND OUTTA rBBOHA. 



WO may infer tliat some new or oomparativoly new procesj is thore carried on ; 
and tlu) are* is thim bocominK dottad iibout with workshops and wareroomH, 
which will not much longer yield each other sutticient oUm)w spiico. It is 
only whiin we beiir in njuul Uie very ntcont uitroduclion of tliin r«!iniukiibli> 
Bubstance. that the extent to which the manufacturing arrangenionta have 
grown can be duly ajipreciated. ISU)re-rooms for tljo nowlv-impoited gum; 
sU-am-enginoM luid boilijra for Huppiying tho agency wherelty the manufacturing 
processes lu-o conducted ; lai-ge buildings Hiled with the nmchinos and tools 
for working ; woiitshops m which the finishing (irooesses are (ioniluctod ; a 
oanal quay for unshippuig the raw material, and shinping the linishetl goods ; 

iill Hpeak of a busy series of operations. It is tJso proper to remoi-k, that 

another extensive establishment of a similar character is caiTied on at West 
Ham, and tliat minor monntactories are now scattered over London and other 
towns.' 

The Great Exhibition has in thii, m in other matters, conveyed to mUlions 
of persons a kind and degree of infonuation which would not otherwise be 
forthcoming. We have tliere hiul an opportunity of seeing gutta-percha, not 
merely in Wa elegant finished forms, but in all the successive stages of its 
manufacture. We have seen tlie rough block or mass, the chips into wliich 
tliirt is cut, the shreds into which the chips are torn, tlie homogeneous moss 
into which the shrods are kneaded, the sheets into which the maw* is n)ll«d, 
and the finished articles Into which the sheets are fashioned ; tmd thu« the 
industrial history of an important substance is spread out intelligibly be- 
fore us. 1 1 • 1 
The Oriental knavery which leads to tlie mixing of stones and wood witli 
the masses of gutta-percha we lately adverted to ; and a gliuice at the works of 
the Company shows us tho result. In the store-room the blocks and lumps, 
of slightly-varymg coloiu' and texture, generally present a fair outside, and it is 
not till the first process has been gone through tlmt the fmud can be detected. 
This process consists in cutting the block into slices. There is a vertical 
wheel, on tlie face of which ai-e fixed three knives or blades ; and while this 
wheel is rotating with a speed of two hundred turns a mmute, a block of 
gutta-percha is supplied to it, and speedily cut into thin slices — much on the 
same principle as a turnip-cutter performs its work. Woe to tlie steel edges 
if a stone be imbedded in the block ! all alike, the soft and the hard, ore cut 
through, but not with impimity. 

These slices show that the gutta-percha is by no means uniform in different 
parts, either in colour or texture. To bring about a miiformity is tlie object 
of the shredding or tearing process. The slices aie thrown into a tank of 
water, which is heated by steam to such a temperature as to soften the mass ; 
the dirt and heavy impurities fall to the bottom, leavmg a pasty mass of gum ; 
and the mass being thrown into another rotating machine, is there so torn 
and rent and dragged asunder by jagged teeth as to be reduced to fragments. 
The fragments fall mto water, upon the surface of which (owing to the small 
specific gravity of the material) tliey float, while any remaining dirt or impurity 
falls to the bottom. Those fragments are next converted into a dough-like 
substance by another softening witli hot water, and the dough undergoes a 
thorough kneading ; it is placed in heated iron cylinders, in which revolving 
drums so completely turn and squeeze and niLx it that all pai^s become alike, 
and every particle presents a family hkeness to its neighbour. 

The kneaded state may be considered the dividing lino between the pre- 
paratory processes and those which relate to the fashioning of the material. 



INDIA ROnnEB AND OOTTA PEBCHA. 



15 



I u tliore carried on ; 
lODH Hiul wareroomH, 

elbow mmco. It in 
\ of Uiis rcinorkabli^ 

arratiKeniontH have 
owiv-impoited |<um ; 
iiy tha mtinut'octurini^ 

tniichiiioH liiul tuolK 
ea art) coiuluctcd ; a 

the tuuHhe<l soodH ; 
oper to remark, tJiat 
1 carried on at Wost 
er London and other 

conveyed to millions 
lid not otherwise be 
ing gutta-percha, not 
cceHsive Btages of its 
tlie chipH into wliich 
H homogeneous mass 
h the inuBfl in roUnd, 
ioned ; tmd thus tho 

I out intelligibly be- 

tonos and wood witli 
jliuicc at the works of 
16 blocks and lumps, 
fair outside, and it is 
itiud can be detected. 
There is a vertical 
lades ; and while this 
et minute, a block of 
slices — much on the 
oe to the steel edges 
and the hard, are cut 

8 uniform in different 
ifoitnity is tlie object 
hrowu into a tank of 
8 to soften the moss ; 
a pasty mass of gum ; 
hino, is there so torn 
educed to fragments. 
h. (owing to the small 
ining dirt or impiuity 
ted into a dough-like 
e dough undergoes a 
m, in which revolving 

II poits become alike, 
hour. 

line between the pre- 
>mng of the material. 



Tho soft ductile moss mav be formed either into shoeta or tubes. In fonning 
sheetM the nia«» in paisetl between steel niUors, ])laond at a dintance apart cor- 
responduig with tho thicknoHS of tlie sheet to bo miule — whether for tho h«»«lH 
of a rough-booted pedesuion, or for the delicato " gutUi-perchn tissuo," now 
BO much employed by surgeons. By tlie time tliat tlio substance has passed 
through the rollers it has cooled stiifaciently to assume a solid firm consistency. 
By the adjuHtment of a few knife edges tho sheet may be cut into bands, or 
strips of any width, before leaving the machine. In making tubes and pipes 
tlie soft mass of knoailod guttorpercha is passod through hoatiid iron cylinders, 
where a singulur niodihcation of the wire-drawing process reduces u to the 
desired form and dunensions. 

From the sheets and tubes thus made, numberless articles are produced 
by cutting and pressing. Machines, somewhat like those uHe<l in cutting 
paper, are employed to cut tho gutta porcha into pieces. If for shoe-soles, a 
cutting press produces a dozen or so at one movement ; if for string, or 
thread, nanow parallel stiips are cut, 'vhich are then rounded or finished 
by hand ; if for producing stamped decorative articles, the sheets are cut into 
pieces, and eaoh piece is waraied and softened to enable it to take thQ 
hnpress of a mould, or die. But the mode of casing copper wire for electro- 
telegraphic puriioscs is, perhaps, one of the most singular opplications of tho 
mateiial in the form of sheet. Several wires are laid parallel, a strip of 
gutta percha is placed beneath them, another strip is placed above them, 
and tlie whole uro passed between two polished grooved rollers ; tlie pressure 
binds tho gutta percha finnly to the wires, while the edges between tho 
grooves indent tlie gutta percha so deeply, that it may easily bo separated 
hito wires, each one containing its own core of copper. 

Gutta Peboha: its Uses fob Pipes and Tubes. 

The applications of gutta percha in the form of pipe, or tube, are becommg 
most numerous and varied, and some of them highly interesting. Let us 
toko a hasty glance at tho list. 

Water-pipet have hod a few vicissitudes in their history. Those who 
remember the arrangements for the water-supply of London, in past days, 
will have been familiar vrith the woo ien pipes, formed of bored ! ninks of 
trees, which were wont to be laid down beneatli the paving of the su ets. 
These gave way to iron. Tho smaller pipes have chiefly been made of leuil ; 
but zinc in one quarter, brown ware in another, glass in another, have invaded 
the domain of lead. A new competitor now enters the field. Gutta percha 
claims to be not merely an eiBcient material for water pipes, but to possess 
certain sanitaiy quaUties very important in this sanitary age of om-s. It is 
veiy strong and tough (say the patentees); it possesses much durability 
imdergromid; it stoutly resists frost; and it leaves the water as pm-e as it 
finds it. Hence it is applied to pump barrels, to ships' pumps, to locomotive 
feed-pipes, to syphons and mine-pipes, and to fire-engine pipes. But if the 
testimony of medical men is to be deemed autlioritative, the substitution 
of guttft percha for lead as a material for water pipes is a matter of yet higher 
import. Dr. Thomas Smith, of Cheltenhom, states that " Many serious and 
alarming disorders, such as mania, epilepsy, sudden death, nervous affection, 
pai-alysis, consumption, hydrocephalus, heart disease, &c., owe their origin 
in some instances, their mtractable character in others, to the gradual and 



•yg0mimmtmmmmmmmimm 



waauaoaiffi^fai^^^^^ 



^•■a 



mtm 



mmmmm 






16 



JMDU RimBER AMD OUTTA rEQCIU. 



continuouB infinitosiiual doaefl of lead, copper, Ac, introducod into tho 
HyMUmi Uinxigh tho clioiinul of our daily drink." It uppi-ai-H tliat thn curlMiMii! 
acid contttinod in waU'r Iikh a tendency in conihini) with thn UmmI of tlio 
pipe which contains it, and to Keiicmto a coiujmjuiuI posm-Hsin^ jioisouoiis 
quaUtinH. Tiiat uutta pcrcha resiwln such action, all aiithoriticH ati;rco ; and 
ulUiough at firBt tlie giuu imparts a slight Uwtfl to tl»e water, thin pilBct Bcenis 
Hpoedily to disappear. 

'I'horo are many oUier circiuuHtancos which render tnhcm of this material 
very advantagoouH for tlin convoyancc of \vat»>r. It hears an amoinit of 
friction and liard usago which is froqnontly Hnrprisinp;. At New York there 
is a giitta percha pipo a thotisand feet in length, which conveys the water 
of tJi' groat Croton Aqueduct to BlackwcU'H Island; the pipe lies along th(i 
botl . ■ tli<! intenening river, and is kept down hy upwards of a luindro<l 
small anchors, and yot it r«'.4stH both tho friction of tho bed luid the weigiit 
of tho luichors. VVitli an immense prnssuro of water, gutta-percha pi|)e8 
have boon found to remain mdiarniod, where leather hose would lie disnipted. 
It resists the action of inarino insects, which would soon make ravages on 
Htout timber. If water be contained in a ^itta-percha pipe, it romaiiif 
li(piid at a temperature which wouhl produce ico in almost any other ptr < 
For watering gaidens and roails, for sprinkling malt in a kiln, for applying 
water from a lire-engiue, those pipes appear to be singularly well tittod, sinco 
to a groat power of resisting pressure, they mav be bent, or twisted, or 
lengtlienod, or sliortened, in any required degree. Nor is this material, prr ar, 
Uie only ellicient pait of such pipes ; for a gutta-percha pipe may be timdy 
uniUnl to a metal pijie in five minutes, widi no otlier cement than wann water ; 
the end of the pipe being softened in wann water, and drawn over tlie end of 
tho metal, the gum contracts on cooling so us to grasp the metal tightly, and 
thus foim an impenetrable joint. 

But if water be conveyed thus effectively through ttibos of gutta percha, 
tlio qualities of tlie matt^rial are still more remarkably displayed in the 
conveyimce of chemical liquid*. Few persons are so ignorant of chemistry 
as not to bo aware tliat the stronger acids and alkalies play sad havoc with 
the vessels and tubes which conbiin them. On the other hand, there is an 
obstinacy of constitution abotit this singtdar substance which enables it to 
baffle a whole liost of formidable opponents. It does yield, certaiidy, to con- 
centrated sulphuric and nitric acids ; but if those acids in a weaker state bo 
the liquids in question, or if muriatic, acetic, or hydrofluoric! acids, or chlorine 
(all of which have a very destructive action), then tlie gutta percha stoutly 
resists tliem, and i-enders good service. Carboys, pipes, dye-vats, flasks, fun- 
nels, bowls, ladles, syphons, troughs, measures, buckets — all are now made of 
this material, for use in chemical works, print works, dye and bleach works, 
and other establishments where strong chemical liquids are employed. 

To go from the region of waters to the re^on of air^^, we find that gutta 
percha pipes are coming into use for the conveyance f sti -et gas. Consider- 
ing that this material is soon softened by heat, and ui.i ;' .o eiid of every gas 
pipe is in near proximity to i.-at, it is probable thr«< -n ^ ha will be ">»?? 
available for this purpose than for the conveyan ads. Bui vor 

any temporary gas lighting, notliing can well be more convenient. Let a festi- 
val, an honoi-ary dit t v, a " gi*and demonstmtion," be given in a large building 
not usually lighted to any very biilliant extent ; gutta percha gas-pipes can be 
aiTanged with great rapidity, owing U) the case with which they may be bent 
in any direction, and fastened to any other material. A veiy pretty applica- 



nimti i lTMit i<i' ii i* i i«l iirii.Viii .i >i - 



ntrodiu'iHl into Uio 
lis tlmt t\w <'arl)onii» 
ith thti Iciiil iif till) 

•HHCMMin^ poiKOIlDII.S 

,li()rili«»hi ivgrco ; iirid 
er, thiH olTi'ct Hrcnn 

1)68 of thin iiiatorial 
mm nil iiniomit. of 
At, N«!w York tlicrc 
\ convi jH l\u' wiitur 
jiipo lii'H nt()ii(:» thn 
Vftrds of 11 hundnMl 
h*<(l luid tliH w(3ight 
f<uttii-p<M"clm pifirs 
would 1)0 disniptod. 
m iimke riiviiges on 
a pipe, it roniMUH 
oHt any other pir ■ . 
II kiln, for applying 
irly well tittod, sinco 
jont, or twJMtod, or 
this inatoriiil, per se, 
pipe may bo tinnly 
Tit than warm water ; 
rawn over the end of 
le iiiotal tightly, and 

)0s of gutta percha, 
y displayed in tho 
norant of chemistir 
play sad havoc with 
er hantl, there is an 
which enahlefl it to 
Id, cei-taiiily, to con- 
in a weaker state ho 
ii(! acids, or chlorina 
jfutta percha stoutly 
iiye-vat«, flasks, fun- 
all are now made of 
I imd bleach works, 
re employed. 
', we find that gutta 
ti.-et gas. Cousidcr- 
)iie fill of every gas 
■1 "I'' ^ft ■ivill be \»?< 
>!d i aids. Bui lor 
vcinient. Let a festi- 
n in a large building 
•cha gas-jdpes can be 
ch tliey may be bent 
L very pretty applica- 



ixniA nt'BDEn ahd outt.v pkhciu. 



IT 



tion in «oniotiino« noen in workshop-^, whore a guH-light can be oanied by hand 
to any part of a room. Onoendof a iTutlu p^nhu tube is fasti'iied to a gux 
pipe, an<l the rest of the lube is wuiiiid round a siiiall block ot wiK)d like a 
tAiKt-uteasuro ; this block has a handle to hold by, and a Muall metal jet for 
igniting the gas. This shiguhu* candlef.tlck (or s-nther g.-wntick) may thi^n be 
canii'd about tha r in, uncoiling or coiling tliu tubu as dintancc may rcqiiiru, 
witlioiit uit<>mipting the flow uf gas thmugh it. 



GiiTTA Puuciu: IT8 Acoustic Skuvk es. 

Tho convtiyanco of lomid is, however, tho most extraordinary service which 
^itta-percha tubes have yet rendered. If theio bo (and perhaps there may bo) 
any divt rsity of opinion in respect to water, clu'ini<!al, or gas convciyaiuw, 
ihfcie \i and can bo none re.sjiecting somul. No other suIjhUuico has yet 
equtUled gutta percha for acoustic puqioses. Let ua picture to ourselves an 
aged person, whoso sense of hearing has become so fai* decayed tliat he is 
rendered unable to take part in the usual Sunday seni<es in church or chapel, 
from inability to hoar the voice of his minister ; let us imagine (if it can bo 
imagined by any except those who sutt'er) tho desolation and isolation of such 
a position ; lunl let us next suppose that tho glad tidings wcro communicated 
to him, that by a modem contrivance he will be enabled (unless his degree of 
deafness be wholly beyond human aid) to hear the reading and tho preaching 
in whatever part of tlie building he may be — would ho not at fii-st bo utterly 
incredulous, and would ncjt his heart leap for joy when he founu it to bo a 
sober undoubted fact? J lo might know iiothuig of Dr. Montgomorio, or of 
tlie Malays, or of Singapore, or of the Society of Xtis, or of tlio inventors, or 
of tlio manufacturers ; but Ijo would bless thorn all if ho fornd tliey could 
render him this service. 

We will examine the simpler forms of gutta-percha acoustic appai'ntus, 
before describing tlie recent remiukable ai)plication in churches. 

There ai'e two qualities required in a speaking tube ; first, tliat it shall con- 
centrate a large amount of sound into a small space ; *nd second, that it 
should not stifle the acoustic vibrations witliin the tube itself. Any material 
will answer equally well, so far as tlie lirst-namod quality is concerned, lor it 
requires simply a tiuiupet-shaped mouth at ono end, and a veiy small orifice 
at the other ; but gutta-percha possesses rare qualities in respect to tlie second 
kind of sei-vice. Wlicther it is tlie smootlmess of tho texture, or the peculiar 
kind and degree of elasticity, or the relation of tlio substiuice to heat 
or electricity — whatever may be the cause, a tube of guttu percha pro- 
sei-ves sonorous vibmtions with a suiiirisuig degree of clearness and equability ; 
and the modes in which this quality are brought into useful requisition aro 
already very numerous. 

There is, for example, the loiiff mrtnimpet, with a wide oiifice at, one end 
and a small one at tJie otlier ; and there is the portable ear-trumpet, differing 
from the former only in bringing tlie speaker and tlie hearer closer together, 
by a " French-horn " system of twisting in tlie tube. There is the ear-curnet, 
so small an<l neat Uiat < me may be almost invisibly attached to or near each 
eiu'. There is the paraboloid trumpet, in which the somid is echoed from a 
large concave receiver before it enters the tube. There is tlie trumpet witli a 
long flexible tube, oi witli several tubes, so that several persons round a table 
can communicate in tui-n witli the user. In short tliere have been almost as 



T 



Biii e M B 



LUlM>M I Bl l Wlt.!ifW,*tWI»g8 



19 INDIA RUBBEH AND GUTTA PKBCHA. 

many useful voiiations Of tlie pvinciple as there are vtuiationB in the social 
'^rStT^lp'^Zgl^^^^^^^^ contrivai^ces .hich a..o in- 

tetfdStSA^otVtillly deaf pe..onB-but those -^^ "-- -^tH^': 
would otherwise disenable from convei-smg togetlier. TrU^e the ca^e o a 
Toramon London omnibus, with its Pittle and i-umble, and l^««g "^^^ .^«"J"^ 
sion it is a hard matter to caiTy on a conversation m such a vehicle yet a 
small length of tube, with a slight expansion at each end, would enable two 
ZsonsS converse n a tone inaudible to their neighbours^ In a railway ca- 
SSie ndse is genei-ally stiU greater, and the service rendered more marked 
SrSo? omnibuses now sometimes communicate ^"th the conductors and 
captains of steiunboata with the engine-men, bv gutta-percha tubes. But Uieso 
aiSirsSes compared withsuch as tSie tubes render at g^ef jr djs- 
tonces The Domestic Telegraph, as it has been called, is simply a gutta-percha 
• S conducted from one aWtment to another: it V^iTt^ Ce whoTo 
of transmitting messages, and savt' many a weary footstep ^o a^ose who are 
i Sckan^ caU of^thers. The Medical Mans Midn.jhtFnend a acta- 
daisical sort of title) is a gutta-percha tube ^^^ondrng from the doctors 
stree^door to the doctor's bed, by which a message can bo J'^^™ f ^ <^ J^^^ 
awakened practitioner instead of merely the sound ol his bell. In factories 
and laTge establishntents such speaking tubes are ^vancing extensively m 
frvcvr forthe communication between distant buildings is most complete. 
In printing-offices, spinning and weaving mills, in union poor-houses m 
hospiSS infin^aries, ahd m various other estoblishments of magnitude 
the advantages axe so self-evident ttmt the use is becommg ^«jy g~- ^^^^' 
+he Gutta Percha Tompany s works a fitting locality for such a trusty mes- 
inger) a tube stretches acJoss a wide open area which separates two clust^i^ 
;f Sdrngs ; to an eye below it looks merely hke a thick wire, suspended in 
miS U^ it is in ^effect a path-way for soimd, a s^vlft «»««««S'fln7to 
confidai^t, an economizer of time, an insurer of accui-acy, a merciful friend to 
mS kgs and muscles. In a country town m Kent a shopkeeper has two 
houses o^n JJposite sides of a street f ho has had a gutta-percha tube laid 
do^ beneath the n)adway, and the two halves o'C his estabhshment can chat 
witli each other as though they occupied one room. .^snects 

But to return to the church-acoustic apparatus which is m "aany^fpecte 
the most interesting and remarkable of these highly curious apphcations 
Let ^conceive, for clearness of illustration, that in a remote pew of a church 
^ a person who tliough not deaf, yet fails in ability to hear what is said m 
Sie pulpit or reading-desk. A gutta-percha tube Is laid down eitlxer on or 
benS the floor from the pulpit to the pew-the mateiial bends so easily 
thTt fmay be cS^ied in any ?or^-and a small ivoiy or hard wood ear-piece 
s attacheZto one end, while the other end expands m trumpet-fonn Now 
the remai'kable circumstance is, that Uie required effect is l;™"g^t about 
without necessitating the approach of the speaker's mouth to ^^ ^ube Jiis 
head may be two or three feet above, or below, or behind, or at the sid« « 
?he tnimpetmouth ; and yet the sound wUl reach the remote end of tiic tube 
n audible qu^tity. Th/ truth is, that it the t«t>e receives a »^uty^^ 
sound (which it c4 in any direction round and near tlie «P«f ^'')' *»* .^ J^: 
tity i« BO economised, and so faithfully conveyed to the ot^Jf^, f ^-JJ^'^^J 
becomes condensed to an audible pitch; If the trumpet-mouth be large, and 
See^ piece very small, we may liken the action to the condensation ot many 
S^ee?sTsoS into one; and the ear of the auditor becomes sensible to 



• i 



■ ■•^■^^:..^^^t^.-^>^..^'.-.C. . 



tuiations in the social 

rivaiices wliich ai'c in- 
hom noise or distance 
Take the case of a 
, and bang and confu- 
L such a vehicle ; yet a 
jnd, would enable two 
3U1S. In a railway car- 
rendered more marked, 
th tlie conductors, and 
3rcha tubes. But, tliesc 

render at greater dis- 
is simply a gutta-percha 
employed as a medium 
>otstep to tbose who are 
[idnijjht Friend (a lack-a- 
)g from the " doctor's " 
n be ti'ansmitted to the 
I' his bell. In factories 
dvancing extensively in 
lings is most complete. 

union poor-houses, in 
ishmenta of magnitude, 
oming very general. At 
r for such a trusty mes- 
li separates two clusters 
hick wire, suspended in 
iwift messenger, a secret 
■acy, a mercSul friend to 
It a shopkeeper has two 
\ gutta-percha tube laid 

establishment can chat 

lich is in many respects 
tily curious applications. 
I remote pew of a church 
to hear what is said in 

laid dovra eitlier on or 
( material bends so easily 
y or hard wood ear-piece 
1 in trumpet-form. Now 

effect is brought about 
mouth to the tube; his 
)ehind, or at the side of 
e remote end of the tube 
J receives a mmtth-fiUl of 
• tlie speaker), that quan- 
X) the oUier end, that it 
apet-mouth be large, and 
(he condensation of many 
iitor becomes sensible to 



r«r* 



INDU nUBBEB AND OCTTA PERCIIA. 19 

tliis condensed power. In practice, the trumpet-moutli is usually fixed to tlie 
front of the pulpit, moutli uppermost, and is stamped or moulded in an orna- 
mental foiin consistent witli the decorations of tlie pulpit. Beyond all tliis 
the sound may be laid on, like gas, to any pew or any quarter of the chm'ch ; for 
there may be a tube (which we will call the main-pipe) laid idong the centi-e 
aisle, and latei-al tubes may spring fi-om this to any required spot. Some 
clergymen have what tliey call a deaf pew ; tliat is, a pew in which those ai'e 
congregated who may be collectively benefited by this admu-able nppai-atus. 
This contrivance has been used at some of the great meetings (four thousand 
strong) at Exeter Hall, by those to Avhom the speeches would othenviae have 
been little else than dumb show. 

It does, indeed, seem as if one chai-acteristic of our age were the annihila- 
tion of space and time. Wo may breakfast in London and dine in Plymoutli. 
We make our gas at one spot, and hght it many miles off. W'e tmii a handle 
in London, and forthwitli a signal is felt or seen at Edinburgh. We whisper 
in a tube in one building, and the whisper becomes audible in another scores 
of yards off. No matter what the agent be — steam, light, electricity, soimd — 
we contrive so to bend it to om' sei-vice as to enable us to run a match against 
time and space. 

GuTTA Pekcha: its Telegraphic SEimcEs. 

This mention of electricity reminds us that one of the most novel, striking, 
and valuable f4)phcations of gutta percha is that in which it forms an envelope 
for an electro-galvanic wu-e. W<? may regard such an apparatus either as a 
wire coated with gutta percha, or as a gutta percha tube with a wire running 
through it : tlie principle is the same under either aspect The inipervious- 
ness of this material to water is the property which underlies this mode of ap- 
plication. In order that an electric cun-ent should pass along a copper wire, 
it is essential Unit the wire should be insulated, or surrounded by a medium 
wliich will not attract the current from its direct course. Gutta percha is 
eminently such a medium ; and hence the wu"e, when so coated, is in the 
best possible condition for conveying the current. The submarine telegraphs 
owe Uieir efficiency to this principle : the copper wire being completely enve- 
loped in a casing of gutta percha. 

It can hardly be necessary to give here any detailed accoimt of the remark- 
able " submarine " enterprise of la.st year, or of the pl<ms for the future ; for 
they belong only incidentally to tlie subject of this paper. It will be remem- 
bered, however, tliat after much negotiation witli tiie French authorities, an 
English Company actually laid down u telegraphic wire in the sea from Dover to 
a point near Calais. On August 28, 1850, a communication was made be- 
tween England and France in this way, and one or two messages transmitted. 
The Avire, which was twenty-one miles in length, had a thickness of about 
one-tenth of an inch, and was enclosed in a solid cylinder of gutta percha half 
an inch in diiuneter. The weight of the wire was about twenty-two cwts., and 
that of the gutta percha with which it was coated eighty-seven cwts. It was 
at that time hoped tliat telegraphic communication, by this means, would be 
permanently established between the two countries by the date of the opening 
of the Great Industrial Exhibition. Various circumstances have tended to 
retaid tlie realisation of this hope ; but we may reasonably look forward to it 
ere long. Nay, we may even see Uie day when a flash of lightning will cross 
the Atlantic, dotted in a tube of gutta psrcha. 



,,r.":'"„"J r!'.'" '*^'* *'^**^i*"*^ 



■ ^%"_4_l.l!.„lll..J.W 



»A^ -^- 



90 



INniA Rl-BBER AND QIITTA PEBCHA. 



A highly curious experiment has been recenUy made at tlie Gutta 1 ercha 
CompMiv's Works, which seems to Phow that blaMhuj will receive the same 
kind of aid from this material as electro-telegi-aphiug. A bai-ge w^ moored m 
tlie Regents Canal, alongside tlie quay of the works; and around the edges 
of this dipping int.. the water, were coils of wire to the extent of seventy 
miles The wire was of copper, coated with gutta percha ; it was about the 
thickness of an ordinary bkck-lead pencil, and was of the ^^me kind as ti^iat 
destined to be used for the submarine telegraph across the British Channel. 
A cartridge was adjusted to the wire at one spot, and the two ends of tlie wire 
^ere connected with the poles of a galvanic battery. The inst^t the contact 
was made an explosion took pla«c, tlie current havmg passed tlirou.i^h the 
seventy miles of wire in on inappreciably small space of time, it it can 
travel seventy miles, t can Ixavel much more; if it/?».«^P^^*^7Sn,f'"„ 
tridge, it coiUd explcie a large body of powder; and it is as yet difficult to 
guess the number and variety of valuable pmposes to which the meUiod may 
be found available. Submarine blasting by electricity has been before 
efifected, but not tlirough such an immense lengtli of wire as this. 

Gotta Pebcha: Divebstfiedv Application, in Sheets and Masse.s. 

It is obsei-vable in many departments of manufacture Uiat tlie material 
operated upon is brought to Uie foi-m of sheets, before bemg fashioned for per- 
manent use. This has especiaUy been the case since roUing miUs have come 
into general use. Many advantages result from such an airangement ; tor the 
equabiUty of thickness in the sheet enables the operator to adapt it to almost 
countless forms and purposes. Gutta percha is one among the hst of such 
substances ; and as we have already glanced at Uie cimous and diversihed 
application of this material in the form of tubes, so may we next bestow a 
little attention on its uses when fashioned into sheets. ' , . , , 

The sheets, as was before noticed, may liave any desired thickness, from 
that of paper to an inch or more, and are procurable m considerable lengtlis 
and widths. But, in truth, the extraordinary faciUty with which this sub- 
stance may be jomed— edge to edge or surface to surface— renders attainable 
almost any size or form of product. , v. n 

If a gutta-percha pipe be fitted for the conveyance of water, why shmikl 
not gutta-percha sheet form an advantageous hning for cisterns? The 
quesUonhas been asked, and the answer is now bemg given by the extensive 
use of such a Umng. The simpUcity of the '^ppUcation is quite remaikable. 
If we suppose a wooden cistern tlius to be treated, five pieces of sheet gum 
are cut to the sizes for the bottom and sides ; these being held temporarily m 
their places, bands or strips of gutta percha are softened in hot water and laid 
along the ioints, to which they are firmly united by the appUcation of a hot 
iron The principle, mdeed, is that by which the plumber solders two sheets 
of lead together; but the process is altogether much more facile and expe- 
ditious For ordinary cisterns, the thickness somewhat exceeds an eighlii ot 
an incli, and such a sheet weighs &ix to eight pounds per square yard. Thsre is 
thus a cistern withm a cistern, for the gutta percha does not adhere to the wood ; 
the wood, in fact, acts sunply as a case or envelope, to keep the real cistern m 
shapeabie and efficient order. 

Anotlier form into which gutta percha sheetmg is wrought, on account ol 
its admirable quaUties when in contact v/ith cold liquids, is that of pump 



iinn»'ii>iiii*Tii'irrjiWBi*iiirif 



B at the Gutta Percha 
will receive the same 
. bai'go was moored in 
lid ai-ound tlie edges 
the extent of seventy 
cha : it was about tlie 
he same kind as tliat 
* the British C'hannel. 
B two ends of the wire 
lae instant the contact 
g passed tlirough the 
B of time. If it can 
m explode a small car- 
t is as yet difficult to 
vhich the metliod may 
icity has been before 
rire as this. 



tEETS AND Masses. 

iture that the material 
bemg fashioned for per- 
rolling mills have come 
m aiTangement ; for tiie 
or to adapt it to almost 
mong the list of such 
curious and diversitied 
may we next bestow a 

desired thickness, from 
in considerable lengths 
y with which this sub- 
'ace — ^renders attainable 

e of water, why should 
ag for cisterns? The 
5 given by the extensive 
on is quite remai-kable. 
ve pieces of sheet gum 
eing held temporarily in 
led in hot water and laid 
the application of a hot 
miber solders two sheets 
5h more facile and expe- 
hat exceeds an eighth of 
)er square yard. Thsre is 
8 not adhere to the wood ; 
keep the real cistern ui 

3 wrought, on account of 
liquids, is that of pump 






INDIA KUBBEB AND GUCTA PERCHA. 



ai 



buckets and valves. The gutta percha advocates give leatlier buckets and valves 
a bjul character ; Uiey say tliat such articles cannot be made witliout a seam or 
raised joint, that water often softens the stitching of the seams, that die leather 
IS aflected by acids and alkalies, and that tlie articles require frequent repair- 
whereas tliese same buckets and valves, if made of the formidable modern 
rival to leatlier, have no seams or raised jomts, ai-o never softened by cold 
water, are (for the most part) not affected by acids and alkalies, aie veiy durable 
and are easily and cheaply repaired. As counsel on Uio other side ai-e not 
present, we must not venture on a verdict ; but it may perhaps safely be 
stated that gutta percha has realised ahnost aU that has been anticipated for 
It so lai- as coucenis its services when in contact witli cold water or other 
liquids. 

But Uie leaUier interest is attacked in its stronghold when gutta percha 
claims a place in our boots and shoes ; tlie batUe here becomes an important 
one, and must be fought fairly and honestly. As to the claims put forth, no 
one lias a right to pass judgment on them except after a long and steady trial • 
whether gutta percha soles are cheaper, more dumble, and more easily repaired 
tlian Uiose of leather, and wheUier they keep the feet dry in wet weather and 
wai-m m co d ^yeather— must be decided by each wearer for himself. If aU 
this be really the case, nothing can prevent the extended use of such substi- 
tutes for leaaier. The oddity of tlie matter is. tliat " every man his own cob- 
bler may be wloptod as a ma.xim in tlie case ; for the fixing of gutta-percha 
^^ : ^ «5^eveiythmg else made of this remarkable substance, is readily 
etiected. The sous of Crispin may, however, stiU comfort tliemselves with 
the fact that " upper leathers " reraara pretty much within their own domam • 
although even here mdia rubber and gutta percha are beginnhig to invade it 

y^'^^\^■ * P^**. ^^ '^ ^^"^ "^'^ ^*^ P«'^<'*»*- ^^y not a quadniped als6? 
Wdl tins material suffice for -horse-shoes ? Perhaps not, considering tlie 
severe usage to which such shoes are exposed. But there has lately been 
devised a cmious and very usefiil apphcation of gutta percha to the hoi-se's 
foot. AVhen a road is newly coat«d with broken flints, Uie fi-agments have a 
tendency to cut and injure the foot of this trusty animal in the sunken por- 
tion within tlie iron shoe. A sole of leather is sometimes appUed as a pro- 
tection ; but gutta percha, from its plastic character when warmed, is capable 
ot bemg pressed into the commissm-es and cleft of the " frog " of the foot, so 
as to adhere closely to all the exposed portion of the foot. And yet, at night- 
time, or whenever deemed desirable, this shield may easily be removed and 
adjusted again by shght wanning. 

There is a peculiai- application of gutta percha which, though well under- 
stood in manufacturing towns, is not very familiar to general readei-s We 
allude to wheel bands for machineiy. When a shaft or wheel is rotating 
another shaft or wheel at a considerable distance may be made also to rotate' 
by cajiyuig an endless band from one to the other, and making it coil tightly 
round both; tlie first wheel causes the band to rotate, and this in its turn 
communicates simUai- motion to the second wheel. Now these bands, until 
with:n the last few yeai-s, have generally been made of leather ; but gutta 
percha is found to possess many quaUties avaUable for Uiis purpose. A strip 
of tlie requued width is cut from the sheet, and the two ends of tliis stiip are 
joined, so as to fonn an endless band. The qualities which seem to adapt 
tins material for sudi purposes are the durability and strengtli, tlie pemianeut 
contractibihty, tlie uniformity of substance, the power of resisting water, 
acids, alkalies, oil, and grease, and the facility of making joints. The bands 



ri 



<)0 IKOU RUBBER AM) OOTTA PEHOHA. 

are now used to a congid arable extent In breweries, bleach .«"/ J'^-^'^lJ^' 
Ttton and ^ooUen-faetoriea, i~«-w°'k9, paper-nnll«, cor^^nmB b^ 
and oUier large efltablishmentu where much wheel work Is employed. 

Itlms a ve,7 rea^nonable conjecture, that the pecuhar P^P«jJ« ^«/ g«/^. 
percha would render it a valuable material for boat^-not P^Aftps the mnj 
5av boaU for commercial and nauticU purposes, but those intended for some 
Sr^er^'ce WhVn Lady Franklin fitted out an exnedition m seai^h of 
TrlilirrusbL, ayear'or two ago, CapUun Forsy& Jhe ««™"-^^^^^^ 
the Tssel, took out with him a gutta-percha boat, presented *«' f^^^P^^^ 
by Messrs. Searle. His account of the behaviour of this boat, ""der the 
rouKh usage to which it was subjected in tlie icc-bound regions of the nortn 
L most kudSoTy He states that, "whilst tlie other boats constructed of 
worsuffe^ much by the cutting of the young ice, the gutta-percha boat was 
Ttt^e Tist dama/ed, and retted to England >« f^ w^ ^ J«^;;"'^^^^^^ 
as when she left, although she underwent all the rough work of the voyage. 
Mr Snow who had especial charge of tho gutta.pe,«ha boat belonging ^^o 
» Prince Albert," has detailed in a clear manner the/emar'mble way m whi^^^ 
this material resists the rude butfetings of those regions. It mxiM be remem 
bered that the boat had a skeleton of wood and a covenng « "jf J^?^*^^^^ 
Mr 8now «av8 " The severest trial it endured, and endured successfully, was 
fnbJTmy^^its to Whaler Point, Port Leopold To ^o^ej^^f JJjJ ^ 
ihP nature of such ice as was there met with, it will be impossible fuly to 
SLefv^^e^^tira boat was placed in. T]»e J'^'^^t™"-* ISlhlre 
among loose masses of ice.-'with the sea m a state of quiescence, would have 
bTe^Liteenough to have proved or not the value of gutta-percha boats ; but 
X^^lnlT^r^ent c J, those masses were all in ^^'^'^ :^^'!^J^'^ 
rs^iouiig in upon an opposing current, it might have been ''fj e''«"8«^- 
LTwSif deteriorating SrnitSe P^vi^usly attest^ goodness ctfth^^ article 
—if it liad not been able to have resisted the severe shocks it received. ..... 

iwing tfSough^ ^er the ice ; sometimes Ufted completely out of the water 
bvZ^sSen contact of a restless uje; and at othei-s thrown sideways upon 
S XSSg ci^^iece ; 1 think it would have been ne.t to »mP<2»We for 
Sy oSTkind rf bJkt to have been otherwise than crushed or ^^J^,^<^^1 
Snt " It was in aright spirit that the explorers gave the name of Ontta. 
PeSlnle5'T£» %S whSe the boat had rendered them such miportant 

^n*fl»e BlentiM sprinkling of salt water to which a hard seafaring man is 
exjose^ i?^ems nS^reLnable that gutta pe«ha wouW be fomid ser- 
S*le in a great variety of ways on board ships. Accordmgly. we find that a 
Sil^fitSi^^and a saiSrs "lit" may now comprise » f:;;;"^^^ *;« jl^^^^ 
des^ made in this material. Mo«t of them ^'^J^^^'^^^^tl'^'^Yi^^ml 
greater or lesser thickness, but some are '^''^^ "^ ^%Z?^f . .^-^e 
of such wurnoses gutta pereha is valuable because it is wat#rpn)ot , for some, 
t^m^ KTaffVcted by salt water ; lor others, because it ^J<J}'<^^ 
KS when thrown dov4 oi- when dashed agamst rocks ; and for oft^ 
Km^«a it is rfudUv moulded into anv form by the application of heat. Mere 
S?t;ritUa^S^-we7ter,"or asapilot'shal; «« « «f« »>uoy ; as a linmg fo^ 
««t!r tilnks a* a Vug or a basm for holding water ; as a pump hose or a pump- 
SLttTi a SitSSgV ships ; as a speLmg tn«n^ = - ^ TJZ^l^l 
nete; m a waterproof covering; as an airtight ^fe-boat cell as a ^ ^^ 
line- as a Uning for boxes and tranks; as a flask or a bottle ; or as a chart 
SS The stnJge diversity of these iw« i» »affie»entty «pp«ent. M a sailor 



"ill r'^" -■--*■— -'"•-.■■^i^ 



imilr'Hii iilnitiiiiiiii 



sach and dye-works, 
m-millB, brick-yarda, 
employed. 

r propertieB of guttn 
b perhaps the every- 
ge intended for some 
)edition in search of 
ti, the commander of 
ited for that purpose 
this boat, under the 
regions of the north, 
boats constructed of 
^tta-percha boat was 
08t fis good condition 
work of the voyage." 
boat belonging to the 
arltable way in which 
It must be remem- 
ring of india nibber. 
ired successfully, was 
[iose unaccustomed to 
>« impossible fully to 
re trtmsit to and fro, 
uiescence, would have 
ittft-percha boats ; but 
restless agitation, with 
) been well excused — 
oodness of the article 

cks it received 

lately out of the waterr 
thrown sideways upon 
next to impossible for 
ished or stored on the 
9 the name of " Outta- 
l them such important 

haitl seafaring man is 
, would be found ser- 
)rdingly, we find that a 
diversified list of arti- 
factured from sheets of 
ther forms. For some 
waterproof; -for some, 
lose it is not liable to 
rocks ; and for others, 
lication of heat. Here 
fe buoy ; as a lining for 
ft pump hose or a pump- 
et; as a float for fishing 
at cell ; as a cowl or a 
a bottle ; or as a chart 
y (^oreut. If a sailoir 



INDIA RrSBER AND OtJTTA PEHOHA. 



3S 



had been told, some years ago, that a time would arrive when he might have 
liiH hat, his wiish-lmnd bowl, his tiller-rope, his speaking-trumpet, his life-buoy, 
and the sheathmg of his ship, all made of the same material, he would have 
cleemcxi it a landman's joke, fitted only for " the marines." 

Medical piactitionois ar« daily finding that gutia pereha is applicable to a 
number of purposes incident to their professional duties. A thin sheet or 
lining of this matenal is employed as a wrapping in rheumatism and gout. 
A thicker sheet forms excellent splints or supports for fractured bones, or 
limbs under surgical treatment As a stothescope or chest^explorer, a gutta- 
percha tube is said to be veiy effective; for though a capital conductor of 
sound. It conducts heat very slowly. 

A i-are catalogue we should present, if all the useful applications of gutta 
l.ercha were duly set forth. We should -have to speak of breast-coating for 
water-wheels, of galvanic batteries, of shuttle-beds for looms, of packing for 
steam-engines and pumps, of cricket and bouncmg balls, of felt.edging f.,r 
paper making of curtain rings whose merit is nouelemie^, of window-blind 
cord and sash Imes, of clothes' lines (recommended to the laundress as 
delVing aU attacks of weather), of bosses for flax-spinning frames, of whips 
and sticks, of policemen s an i "special constables " stives, of ftax-holdera Ibr 
heckhng machmes, of skates, of fencing sticks, of washers for the axles of 
wheels, of plugs or solid ma-sses used in buildings, of buffers for railway 
carnages, of gunpowder oanistors (which "keep the powder dry"), of sheet- 
covering for damp walls of lining.^ for ladies' bonnets, of jar covers, of sponge 
bags, of foot batlis, of funnels, of goldsmiths' bowls, of bobbins for spinning 
machines, of covers for rollers, of book covers, of moulds for electrotypes, of 
coffin linings, of sounding boards, of portmanteaus, of beds for paper-cutting 
machmes, of fine and coarse thread, of envelope boxes, of powder flasks, of 
portfolios, of a stopping for hoUow teeth— a tolerable list, this, which shows 
inTOilabi^ ^^ applications for which this singular vegetable product 

GuTTA PEilClTA AS A DeCORATTPE AND FhIK-ArT MATEBUt. 

Widely apart from the various applications of gutta percha described in the 
preceding paragraphs, are Uiose in which ornament rather than utility is the 
mam purport in view. To dissmer ornament from utility is neither needed 
nor to be wished; the two ought to be linked hand ia hand ; but Ae difference 
ol chai^ter here mtended to be implied will be easily apparent. 

Admirably does this substance show itself to be adapted to such purposes. 
When softened by heat, it will take ih^ impress of a mould or stamp with 
Uelicat« precision ; and in the course of a few minutes it reassumes its tough 
state, retaining permanently tlie pattern giv^n to it The power of applica- 
ll^Vi! u '™'*!^'*«<'' or limited only by the inclination of the purchaser, 
vvnether the mould be of copper or of brase, of peiu'-tree or of box, an im- 
press can equaUy weU be obtained from it. In practice, aU these four mate- 
rials are employed, and sometimes others. The mould being carved and in a 
state of readiness the piece of gutta percha (always, or neaily always, in die 
lorm of sheet) is laid upon a marble slab, which ,^s heated by steam from be- 
"f^' " • f"™ '^'"^ ***"^ brou^t into a pliant and yielding state, it is 
placed tm or m the mould, a cotmtei-mo<nld is laid upon it, and the acUon of 
a ppMs forces the mateiial into the minutest parte of the device. If tlie pat. 
tern be deep and the relief bold, a hydraulic pressm-e of a hundred or a ha» 



34 



INDIA EUBBEB AND OOTTA PEROUA. 



I 



i 



dred and fifty tons is brought to bear upon it ; but if of lighter and simpler 
character a hand-press is brought into requisition. . j j 

TuTs' way.^dld by minor manipulation, are produced Uie vaiied and ever- 
inm'Sg spe'-imens of ornamental gutta-percha work Trays ore produced 
SevTr^^^LSLinable (oral least eveiy-lsabl^^ and pattern: bread toiys. 

b!scS;Ts cotton ^r work-table h^ys. counter or card-Ujble tmys pen trays^ 
pin trays, card trays, soap trays, shavmg trays, &c^ Ihen t,heie are worK 
Lkets^.iid hand baskets, flower yases aiid bouquet holders, plates and p..t- 
te^ decanter stands and watch stands, bas-reliefs and altorehefs. Ihe desk 
fiSiKS St of much beauty in tliis material: inkstands are produced m 
mo7di^^"e forms; while pen trays, paper weights, wafer ^boxes, envelope 
boxes, &c., are begiAnuig to establish a formidable rivalry U> the similar arti- 
cles made in papier mache. . .. 

Be^Sy. paLm, graining, clouding, or whatever we niay choose t., tenn it 
is produced in a veiy remarkable way on the surface of gutta percha. borne 
o7tihe Sy-mouldJd articles just described display on their surface a diver- 
:Uy of brSn tmts somewhat Inalogous to the diversity of green tmts m U, 
now-celebi-ated though lately almo8t■unkno^vn malachite. Ihese brown tints 
me ant to be attributed to a painting of the surface, artificially produced ; but 
U is L to Uie natural coloL of the substance Some specimens of gu ta 
nerchrare daiker than others, and all have a tendency to darken by age; and 
Se wXrdexterously avails himself of these varying tmts to P«>ducej 
n^tem S softens two or more pieces, of different Unts, passes them be- 
twSwo roUe^ to thoroughly um^te and amalgamate them, and then presses 
Sem iX Se mould ; leaving it to the freaks of chance to bnng out ttie wavy 
£r™ the Srthe treaks, the knots, which the mtermbcture of tmts pro- 
C; Thi^d versity is not very apparent at first ; but it beconies developed 
;Sthe substance is polished, ind considerably enhances the beauty of the 

'Ito'v^T^pptation of gutta percha to Uie purposes of printing has recenUy 
been made, on the stereotype principle ; and the neatness displayed by some 
of the woSi-cut engi-avings produced on this method, as shown in the Indus- 
trid E^^tion, Is not a Uttle remaikable. A page of mingled type ai^d wood- 
cute wfwm suppose, is prepared in the ordinary way; then a 8tereotyi)« 
mould fr^m this is obtaiJied'^in gutta percha by pressure; a cast from Jis 
mou d inbtained on a cylinder of gutta percha by the aid of * cylmder- 
Sess and the printmg is effected from the gutta-percha cyhnder The gutta- 
S;Ste this represents the plaster-mould of ordinaiy stereotyping, while 
Sie ff^tVpercha cyhnder repres^ts the metal stereotype plate It « said 
That ^^cHe printed from these gutta-percha cylinders >-^thout thejnis- 
toma?? p^cess of wetUng ; and it is also stated that an hour suffices to make 

SKmould and tlie cylinder- 1^ ^^ "^^ '' '^^'^t «"*** ?T^*- TI fr, 
vet destined to see many important extensions. We have proof fiimished, in 
Jhe int^esting AuTti-i^ department, how deUcately impressions may be 
taken in iis material fi:om wood-cuts, to fonn moulds whence electrotype 
casts can be obtjuned. 



From the outlme here given, it will be seen that, while mdiambber anxJ gutte 
percha hkve many features in common, they so far differ as to give nse to 
whoUy distinct b4iches of manufacture and to very diverse practical apph- 
cations. 



iOlKMJMWitl U i l-MHr ilii limi II HI I |M«1 II I i l l l — imil***!* 



: lighter and simpler 

[1 the vaiied and ever- 
Trays are produced 
pattern : bread trays. 
Uible ti-ays, pen trays, 
L'hen there are work 
lers, plates and plat- 
iltoreliefs. The desk 
Olds are produced in 
iirafer , boxes, envelope 
Iry to the similar ai-ti- 

aay choose to terra it, 
gutta percha. Some 
their surface a diver- 
of green tints in the 
!. These brown tints 
ificially produced ; but 
ne specimens of gutta 
to darken by age ; and 
ag tints to produce a 
ints, passes them be- 
thera, and then presses 
3 to bring out the wavy 
ermixture of tints pro- 
it it becomes developed 
aces the beauty of the 

af printing has recently 
less displayed by some 
as shown in the Indus- 
mingled type and wood- 
ray ; then a stereotype 
ssure ; a cast from this 
f the aid of a cylinder- 
la cylinder. The gutta- 
naiy stereotyping, while 
lotype plate. It is said 
.iuders without the cus- 
m hour suffices to make 
it, gutta percha may be 
aave proof furnished, in 
y impressions may be 
olds whence electrotype 



ile india nibber and gutta 
differ as to give rise to 
diverse practical appli- 



INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICITY. 



If any matter-of-fact man should ask (as matter-of-fact men do sometimes 
ask) what is the use of science ? — ^we might point, among other things, to the 
wonderful history of electricity during the last quarter of a century. We 
might bid him seek for an answer in the telegraphs which now waft intel- 
ligence from one end of Europe to another; in the clocks which now go 
without springs or weights ; in tiie rich metal gilding which dispenses with 
the unhealthy fumes of mercury ; in the fine-art productions now copied with 
such marvellous quickness, neatness, and cheapness ; in the engineexing 
operations whereby electi-icity blasts acres of rock at once ; in the curative 
influence of this agent on tiie animal system. All these, and very many 
others, are testimonies of the good which science has rendered to num. For 
it must be remembered that the principles of science require a long elaboi-a- 
tion and process of development, before practical applications can be looked 
for ; and these elaborations and developments depend on students who work 
silently in tiieir laboratories and closets, too ofti.^n uncared for and unrewarded 
by the world. It is the same everywhere and at all times. The man of 
science is laying tlie gi'oundwork for the artizan, though the latter is not 
always aware how largo is the senice thus rendered. The reciprocal aids ren- 
dered between Science and Industry ought never to be lost sight of, any more 
than those between Fine Art and Industry ; all tlu-ee work hand in hand, each 
one gaining strength in return for the strength which it imparts to the 
others. • 

Let us glance at a few of the " Curiosities" presented by the modern ap- 
plications of electric power to useful and ornamental purposes. 

The Electbio Telegbaph and its Mabvels. 

Who was the happy suggestor of the electric telegraph ? To this day it is 
a disputed point ; and it is likely to remain so : for modest hints as to tiie 
power of communicating signals by this agency may have been thrown out 
before any formal proposals for that purpose were made public. Many slight 
suggestions, experiments, and contrivances, having some such object as 
this in view, were made m times long gone by ; but it was about fourteen 
years ago that its piticticability as a system was made apparent. 

To the little Blackwall Railway is due tiie honour of being the scene of 
this manifestation, so fai* as England is concerned. At the time that Messrs. 
Wheatstone and Cooke patented their electric telegraph, in 1837, this railway 
was being constructed ; and the peculiar system of rope-traction, adopted for 
the accommodation of intermediate stations, rendered some efficient tele- 
graphic system necessary. The new agent, electro-telegraphy, was employed ; 
and most admirably did it do its work. It kept up a communication between 

o 



'^P^""" 



simijiwwifffiia^^ 



■ 



Q ISDl'STniAl. APPIJCATIOSS OP EI.F.CTHICITY. 

tJie two tomiini and Inilf a dozen intorincdinto stiilions, mul proyidid for tliu 
transmission of si-^iuls from every station to every otlier, at intervals of a 
(inarter of an honr tin-ouMliout the day. Tho rojie has died a imlinal death, 
and },'ivon way to loeoniotivos ; but the telegraph has gono on increasing in 
importance yer.v by year. 

The tiumu inventors who iiitroduoid the first telegraph liavc imnroved it hy 
gubBeciuent patents, mid htlvo (aiiion>? otlier things) devised a mode by which 
it may i)rint its own indications, in the mean lime foreign nations were not 
blind to the wondei-s thus gradually developed; Professor Moi-sc in America, 
and Dr. Sleinhcil and olliers in (lerminiy, devised fonnsof electric ti'legraphs 
in which much novelty and in;((iiuity were disjilnyed. 

The lirst experimeiitei-s employed a return wire to complete the galvanic 
circuit; but it has since been found that this may be dispensed with. In IHi-J, 
Mr. IJain conducted an esperiment at tlie Sei-pontine, in whicli Ik; niwlo the 
water itself perform tlic part of tlie return wire. I'roi'essor Wln.-atstone, about 
the same time, laid down a telegraphic wiro from Kings (JoUege to the shot 
tower nearly oppositfl, and comi)leted the circuit by the water of tin; 'I'hanies. 

liong before tlie Electric Telegraph Conqtany was established, public atten- 
tion had been attracted to the marvels attained in quick connnunicution of in- 
telligence. The (Queen's speech was printed at Southaini)ton within two 
hoiu's afU'r its deliver}' in Jjomhm ; tlie substatice of it having been trans- 
mitted letter by letter. A murderer, whose crime had been committed at Halt 
Hill, was captured in a railway carnage at Paddington, the news of his crime 
having tnivelled quicker than even railway travelling could cairy him ; the 
drewl messenger, witli lightning speed, passed silently through tlie wire sus- 
pended near him, and overtook him in his attempted escai)e from justice. 
Games of chess were played by persons a hundred miles apart : eiuli move 
being signalled by the telegraph. A deserter from the United Stat<s army, 
who had doublwf his offence by robbeiy, was captured in a similiu- way on Uie 
Washington and Baltimore Jlailway. A i)liysician at Lookport corres))onded 
by similar agency with a patient at liufralo, many mibis distant; tlie one 
transmitting an account of his symptoms, the other lorwui-ding his advice and 
prescription. But the oddest of jUI was ti marriage ceremony, pertorme<l be- 
tween a bridegi'oom at New York and a bride at Boston ; the questions and an- 
swers and declarations and pledges being tiansmitted per telegi-aph : the 
match being a stolen one, however, the vididity of the ceremony was afterwards 
disputed in a court of law. 

Dr. Steinhcil, Professor Morse, and IVtr. Da^ , all contrived electric tele- 
giaphs which would write or print their own inuications, and this even very 
early in tlie history of tlie art. But from various pmetical dilhculties, the 
tegistering apparatus has not been sti much employed as was at fi ret antici- 
pated. Professor Morse made his instnunent write witJi a pencil, in arbitrary 
characters foimed of lines and angles ; but in a later moditication, the charac- 
ters were made by indentations on the paper with a blunt instrument. Mr. 
Davy contrived to pnxiuce a series of blue lines on white iiapdt, as a set of 
symbols. 

It would be no easy matter to trace the rapid succession of improvements 
and novelties in tliis wonderful apparatus. The wits of men were sharpened 
bdth by the beaaty and the vahie of this new intennedium of thought; 
and we find a continued stream of inventions, some {jatcnted and some not. 
Mr. Wheatstone patented a third modification ui 1840, supplemental to those 
of imi and 18!J«. Ill 1H41 Mr. Bain brought forward his electric telegraph, 



MiMaiiaitiiiiMtttrf ^ 



i-lrt' IttiiiMriirtMi ■litfi i7 tiiijifc 



mm 



TV. 



Jul provided for tlio 
licr, at intci-Mils of ii 
(lied a imtiniil dcntb, 



1 liavr iiiii>i()ved it I'V 
cd ft inodo by whicli 
L'ign niitidns werii not 
r Moi-se in Ainorira, 
of t'lci'tric ti'lcgniplis 

ompleto tho gftlvanic 
Hinst'd with. In iHi-J, 
in wliich he ntiido tlio 
3(»r Wlieatatone, iii)out 
{'s CoUo|?o to tlie shot 
vator of tlie Tliauu'M. 
iblished, public atten- 
connnmiicution of in- 
lliampton within two 
it havint^ Ix^en tnms- 
xn coniniittod at Halt 
le news i>f his crime 
could cai-ry iiini ; the 
Juongh tlie wire sus- 

escupe from juatico. 
ilus apart : eatli move 

United Ktatts army, 
u a similar way on tho 
lOckport corres}»oniled 
lilos distant; the one 
rmdinj? his advice antl 
ciiiony, pc'i'fonneil be- 
the {|uestion8 and an- 
J per tclegittph : the 
I'cuiony was afterwards 

ontrivcd electric tcle- 
8, and thia even very 
ictical dhficulties, tJie 
I aa waa at iiret aiitici- 
1 a pencil, in arbitraiy 
edification, tlie charao- 
unt instrument. Mr. 
ite Tpnipdt, as a set of 

4sion of improvements 
' men were sharpened 
■medium of thought ; 
itcnted ai»d some not. 
supplemental to tlioae 
. his electric telegraph, 



IXU18TBUI, APl'MOATlONS Of KKKtlUlCriV. 



a 



with a printing apiJUi-aliis for recording llio rcsiiUa by ordiimrj- inko<l 
typos; and in lHi;i ho applied various modifications to the sy.stein. lii ]»l'.\ 
Mr. I'ooke introduced tho iiunlo of suspending the wires) on posts, which 
has suKo been .so gunerully adopted on English railways. A year or two 
utter this, JMr. Jiuin ilevised a new fonn of registering or writing telegraph, 
in which tli<j written copy produced at one ind of the wire is an exact 
countorpait or facsimile of that trunsniitud from the other. Then came 
various iiuiirovements by MessiH. IJrett and I.illle, in almost eviry part of 
tho appaiotus; by Messrs. iknley and Forster, in the details of tlu; magnetic 
ntachine; by Mr. llicardo (Chairman of tho Klectric Telegraph Company), 
111 the mode of msnlating and suspending the wires; by Mr. Swan, in the 
n'-id lupiid employed in the batteries; by Dr. IJuchothier, chietly in the 
indications by means of a dial; by Mr. Jiakewell, hi his very ingenious 
Lransmittmg apparatus; by Mr. Uoe, in (he mode of using metallic types; 
by Mr. Ham. again (who, in is ly, attained the means of i»rinting one thousand 
letters por minute by his electric telegraph); by M. Dujardin, in the chemical 
printing arrangements; by M. rulveneachcr, in various parts of tho appa- 
ratus; by Mr. liighton, who sketched a multiplicity of minor changes; by 
JMessM. Urown and Williams, in the adjustment of the electro-magnetic 
machine; by Mv. Hiemens, in the mechanic ,il iletails of the magnets and 
till! printing types— indeed, considering tho expense of a patent, it is lus- 
fonishing what a number have been taken out on this subject ; for most of 
the above lists are patentetl, and only a few out of the number are likely to 
bring golden results to the patentties. 

The Electric Telegraph Company, mentioned in tho preceding iiaragraph, 
was formed m IH-IO. It has purchased most of the patents of Messrs. 
Wheats tone and Cooke, and of Mr. Bain; and is up to the present time the 
only body by whom electric telegraphy luis been carried on to any great 
extent in this country. The central otlice is in LoUibiny, liom which pohit 
■wncs extend to the various metropoliUn railway termini, and from those ter- 
mini the wires rainily to almost ever\ jmrt of England luid Scotland wherever 
a railway c.\ists, always excepting tho mighty " broad gauge," which tieems to 
Jiave a will and a way of it^ own in everything, and to distrust imitation of its 
narrow gauge neighbom-s. The broad gauge is, however, at length yielding 
to tho electric pressure from without; for ordei-s have lately been issued for 
laying down tlie telegraph on tliat important system of raihvavs. As for 
the. moJm oju'iandi at the various telegraph offices, most persons 'have seen, 
or heard, or read soinethhig concerning it. A person take.^ a written message 
to the office; it is dissected uiUi letters, and transmitted piecemeal; it is 
received at the other end of tlie wire, and is built up again into the form 
of a message; and this message is conveyed to tlie required quai'ter. 
Generally speaking, the messages relate to matters oi' business, making 
eiuimries, tiansmitting news, &c.; but they may obviously relate to other 
niattei-s. A few weeks ago, a military officer ha<l to attend a njyal banquet 
m I.ondon; he came from the north, per railway, but found that he had 
left his regimentals behind him; he was for hastening back at express speed 
to fetch the indispensable symbols of his rank, but was told that an electric, 
message would save him all the labour, half the time, and nearly all the 
expense; and tlie glittering attire was sent up to bun by the next Uai'n. 

The Telegraph Company, after an existence of fourteen yeius, has recently 
applied for on extension of the monopoly rights, on tlie ground of the large 
Bums paid in pui-chftse of patents. But this application has beep refused, and 

Q 3 



' 



4 INDUBTBIAL APrMCATTONS OF ELECTRlCITt. 

a new company eHtablished by Act of Parliament. Hostilities have not yet 
Jctu'Jly cZncnco.l betwoon the rival nowers. but it is pretty nurc to nr.He 
ere lonir 'I'bo directors sUitc Uuit sutlicient capiUil bus been i)roM.ic. l.> 
sbarebolilei-H to construct a thousand miles of telegmpb <.n die n.'sv syslon. 
Si H.iid by its advocates (,« advocates always say) U, bo mn.h superun 
tLthe old. Negr,tiations are on foot with U.e various nulway c.mpanies 
each tcLgraph company seeking to outbi.l the other in offers n.ade for the 
uTe of thfriilway lines • U.e profiti* to bo derived from ctt.ng out be use o 
Z telegmpb for commercial purposes. If this competition do -jO ;-«;;-" J^^ 
into recklessness, there may be enough financial success for both, and the 
public m^ be well sei-ved! but the dithculty consists in mamtammg the 
distinction between wholesome imd unwholesome competition. 

But Uie sid»narinc t^degraph is that which now most rivets public attention 
it is so manellous, and will be of such hicalculable udv,mtage d ^^^^^^ 
Where and when the subject was first broached we do not know, but m 1H41 
Twy ewspap. r tlirew out a suggestion that a -»>"''"-"-/l;'«'.f »\ ""«'f 
nossiblv be laid down from that island io Southampton. In IHir, lui A iie- 
rican newspaper— the countiy for tlaring " go-ahead journals— gave a stung 
of ScSin to show tliat an ocean udegmph from Eng ami to America was 
m^icable. This was a matter in which the Admiralty felt on interest; and 
mrtly for their immediate uses, partly to test the larger project, they caused a 
iubilrbie tcdegraph to be laid down from Gosport to Portsmouth, across 
PorUmouth Harbour. The perfect success of tliis project made a great im- 
Sion on the pubUc mind; and hence projectors became abundant^Dover 
ESais. Holyhead to Dublin. Max-seiUes .o Algeria England t<> An;e";'J- 
noS^ing ^aane amiss to Uiese oceanic telegraphei-s. In ^e begnming of 849 
the Electric Telegraph Company laid down wires from their office at Hull to 
Se new rlilwry Son. a.ul passed it at a depth of twenty feet beneaUi the 
^ater Uirougb one of tlie docks; this wixs a submarine (or at l^f f. «f ^,1»«°"« 
ZZ^h on a small scale, and succeeded perfectly well. A "Dubhn and 
HoWhml Submarine Electric Telegmpb Company" ^^''^^P^^'^^i;""- 
vertised in the same year- but shai-ebolders do not appear to have been forth- 
comhig In the sanie year, also, tlic French Govermnent gmnted a pnvdege 
to Mr Jacob Brett to lay down a submarine telegraph from I' .-once to Eng- 
Snd the Government to derive certain advantages from it, and the contractor 
to have the commercial monopoly of tlie system for ten years. One of tlio 
conditions of tlie contract is said to have been, that by tlie aid of a single wne 
S^d of an obsen-er on each shore, the apparatus should be capable of prmt.ng 
^1 papen in clear Roman type, 100 messages of 15 words eax-h, m 100 con- 

'' iTwL'fdaylo be remembered, when this thread of thongbt (if it may so be 
tennedTwas Lt sU-etohed across Uie Channel from England t^ Fnmce. On 
SraS August, 1850. this was actually effected; and although circxun- 
stoces have retarded the completion of the system, Uie soundness of the 
Sciple was aLidanUy tested.^ The wire employed was of copr^er encased 
in guU percha; about thirty mUes of such wire was coiled i-onnd a large 
cylinder in the steamer Ooliath. One end of tlie wire being secured on shore a 
Dover!the steamer slowly voyaged a<:ross Uie Cbaimel to Capo Grisnez. a pmnt 
onTe French coast midway between Calais and Boulogne ; the wre mxcoded 
as the vessel proceeded, and sank to the bottom of the sea. where it was kept 
L«i by leaden weighte placed at intervals. Onward the steamer proceeded 
Se those on board kept up a fire of telegmphic questions and answers with 



: 



--■""^--^i"-irfTr-"' — 



- - i 'm^^m»imm»mmkmilii»*MiuMMm mimimmmkd 



■«M 



MM 



mmm 



rv. 

tilities have not yet 
protly Hurc to Hriso 
w helm \)Vo\\dod by 
on ihe new Hystein, 
Lo bo inuc.b Huperior 

milway coinpanieH ; 

offeii* umtle for f.ho 
ottiiig out the use of 
on do not degenerate 
SH for botb, and the 

in maintaining the 
tition. 

,ets public attention : 
viuitage if succossful. 
lot know, but in 1H44 
rine teb-graph might 
I. In IHIT) an Amc- 
imals — gave a string 
1,'land to America wan 

felt an interest; and 
project, they caused a 
) Portsmouth, across 
ject made a great im- 
ime abundant — Dover 
England to America — 
he beginning of 1849 
their office at Hull to 
enty feet benealli the 
)r at least subaqueous) 
fell. A "Dubhn and 
van projected and ad- 
ear to have been fortli- 
jnt granted a privilege 

from Fiimce to Eng- 
1 it, and the contractor 
en years. One of the 
he aid of a single wire, 
be capable of printing 
ords each, in 100 con- 

liought (if it may so be 

iigland to Fi-ance. On 

and although circimi- 

tlie soimdness of tlie 

was of copper, encased 

J coiled roimd a large 

iing secured on shore at 

3 Capo Grisnez, a point 

gne ; the wire uncoiled 

sea, where it was kept 

he steamer proceeded, 

itions and answers with 



I 



T" 



1 



INDt'HTBIAL APPLICATIONS OF RrjlCTRICI-n'. B 

the friends left behind at Dover; n strange defiance of distance and of waves ! 
At lengUi th<! vessel reached the French coast, and the line was rairie.l ui) a 
clitt, where it was placed in connection with a battery. (.'onn.lim.MiaiT mes- 
sages were then transmitted between England and Fnuuu! ; and thus was 
achieved one .,» the greatest triumphs of science in iU applications to Uie 
want« of Hociety. It ,s true that the wire was broken by an accident within a 
week afterwards; it is true that a whole year h.vs not sufficed to re-establish 
the system on an en< uring basis ; and it is also true that the arrauKcment 
now in progress involves voiy fonnidablo augmentations to the w..ight mid 
costlmess of tlie apparatus ..mployed ; but it cannot be doubted Umt the great 
difliculty has been surmounted: the principle and the leading practical details 
are sound ; aii.l engineers are not the men to be beaten by such difficulties as 
ttiose which yet remain. A cgmj-any of capitalists has. we believe, been 
fonned lor carrymg out the project, and the wires have recently been 
completed I hey consist of copper wires, each imbedded in gutta nercha, 
aiul tlie whole tlien melo.sed in an iron wire cable. The whole apparatus is 
of imiuenso weight, and is (at the time this sheet is being printed) about 
being Uikon out to sea. To lay U.is ponderous mass down from shore Ui 
shore will be an operation likely to tax all the skill of the engineers. 

In the beginning of 1851 a paragraph appeared in Oalh,un,i, which seems 
to show tliat Mr. Bams system is working more energetically in that country 
Uiaii our English syst..in. The French Government, preparatoiy to purchasing 
Mr. BaiuH righ s so far as regards that countiy, caused a trial to be made on 
the I oris and lours Ihulway. "A signal was made fit.m the ministry to 
1 oui;s, desinng that a despatch might be Ibrwimled to Paris. This commu- 
nication, and the a«swer from Tours, a distance of about 180 English miles 
announcing Uiat a desj.ateh would be sent immediately, took one minute and 
a quarter A long despatch, containing 460 words, e.jual to about fifty linos 
in t^ie ordmaiy prmt of a newspaper, was then received. The time occupied 
in the transmission of this long despatch was only two minutes and a quarter. 
it was read off by one of the assistants, and written down by another at his 
dicuitiou in thirteen minutes. The signs were read with the same facility 
aiid rapidity as imoUier person would read tJie ordinary print of a book " 
Unless some en-or has crept in here, such a performance is most marvellous. 

Great as may be deemed the length of electric telegraph in England (for it 
IS adopted on most of the narrow-gauge railways), it is wholly thrown into the 
shade by that of the United States, where it is measured by thousands of miles • 
some on Morse s system, some on that of Bam. Even Mexico, poor shattered 
Me.xico, has spirit enough to have lately commenced a line of telegraph from 
Uie Capital to Vera Ci-uz on die one side, and to Acapulco on Uie other; 
Uiereby stretching a wire across the countiy from ocean to ocean. British 
America too, 13 rapidly ruunmg a line from MonUeal to Halifax. On the 
continent of Europe, Siemens and Halske's system is adopted in Uie gi-eater 
pait of Germany ; it combines a writing and printing power with Uiat of 
^^rSf^'^jT^' ^f \^'*'"A gieat ingenuity. In Austria, wluie the railways are 
creeping towards Uie Adriatic m one direcUon. and towards eastern Europe in 
^]Tl^l ^'^ctnc telegraph appeai-s as Uieir companion; luid so it is in 
such oUier parts of Europe as have begun to adopt Uie railway system; nay 
more, telegn^jhs ai-e, in some conUnental coimtries, laid down beneaUi the 
common roads without waiting for railways. Thus it proceeds, step by step, 
across Europe. Lord Palmerston made a pleasant prediction, or a joke which 
may turn out to bo a prediction, at a public dinner at SouUiampton, where he 



■r 



I 



INDL'tTBUt. AI'PLICA'riUN* Of GMiCTttltfltY, 

Biiitl that the clav iimy como when, if tlio miiiUttjr wcio OMked in tlio IIouho «)1' 
Cimmutust wlualur Wiir hml Itrolien out in huliii, \w uii^'ht Wistwor, " W'»it u 
niinulu; I will Ickgniph lliu govcmor-gonciul, mul iwcurtaiii. " 

ELECTBia Dui.MJ AND El.BCTUlC ClOI M. 

A Hwti'r invHutiou to Uio F-ltu-tilc; Ti'loKmitli now nroMontrf itself to our notifC, 
hi the very ntinurkahlii i:lo(k.s wliitii lUrivo tluir i-liiuiM^turistic fiuturia from 
thin wondiiit'iil Imt iuvir^ihlc iigcut. Clocks and lulls have bct'n subsidiary 
ttiyuiK^ts to many tdeotro-t^U'grapirm eontiivancos. IttUs w(!ii! intioducwl sonic 
ytiui-s ago, in certain imhlic tstablishnifnts, connoctt'd with tho a|ti)aialus on 
I'lofosHor \Vhoatstont!'s i)iinci|)b'. A singlo sinuU batU'iy, or small magmtii! 
ammnouiont, is sullicinit to nug all the bells of a large estidilishment, by con- 
ducting u small wile fioni the nuudiine to the hell. A lunch instead of u pull 
Huflices to ruig a boll so aniuiged. 

Tho electric clock is nt>t, as some Hujipose, a clock in which elottricil^' 
repliwes wlieuhvork and penduhnns : it is not so entirely magical. What it 
will really effect is this — if one clock l)e going correctly, an^' number of other 
clocks niay be made to borrow their indications from it, with very little other 
mechanism thtui hands an<l a dial. It is not so much a pnnlnclioii, as a linit>i- 
Jeremc of time-measuring indications. In Mr. Wheatstone's fn-st electric 
clock, for instance, shown in mition to tlie Uoyal Society in 1M4(), there was 
a lainiaiy clock witli a few extia adjustments, a galvanic hatU^ry, a skel(U)n 
clock without any mechanism for the maintaining or regulating power, ami 
conducting wires to conneia tlie whole tx)gether. Tlie piimary clock gavo 
correct lime, and uigenions contrivances enabled these indications to be 
imitated on the skeleton clock, througli the medium of galvanic agency con- 
ducted along tho wire. The principle was made very ai»parent, that a .singh; 
clock may he made to indicate the time in as many different places, disUint 
from each other, as may be ixMpiired. In an astronomical ohservaloiy, for 
instance, every room may bo fuinished witli un instrument which will copy 
exactly tho indications of tlio primai-y aslionoiiiical clock set up for tho use of 
the estiddishment. 

A vei-y striking illustration of th(! use of this manellous agency in connec- 
tion with clocks was given in tlie United States in 1847. It was not an 
electric clock, hut a pecidiar (uuploynient of two clocks and an elocti-ic tele- 
graph. Two astronomical clocks, at New York and Washington, were ac- 
curately adjusted to .solar time at those two stations, and an electro-telegraphic 
wire extended iiom tho clock room at om; station to the clock room at the 
oUior — a distance of '2^5 miles. At a given moment, say pn^cisely at noon, 
a signal was sent from New York to Washington, stjiting the exact time ; this 
signal was received instantaneously, or at least after an intei'Vid too short to he 
appreciated, and immediately compared with the indications of the Washington 
clock. The two clocks were thus compared at a given instant, although so 
far asimder ; and tho difference of the indications nieasui*ed the difference of 
longitmte between the stations: this difference was found to agree almost 
exactly with tliat detennined by astionomical and ti-igoiiometrical operations. 
Depending on the same principle, though modified by different circunistanccs, 
is the pai-adoxical i-ecei[)t of a message earliei- tlian it has been delivered — 
one of tlic most cmious among the " curiosities " of electi-icity. On tlie 
morning of New Year's Day, 1816, a second or two after an accurate clock 
iiad sU-uck twelve, a message was sent by the electi'ic telegraph from Pad- 



nkiHl in tlio IIouHO of 
K'lit lUiHWor, " Wait u 
iiiii. ' 

u. 

U itself to our notice, 
:«ii»iti(' fciitmv!* from 
mv<( Ijii'ii Hiibsiiliiiiy 
vmii iutrotliiciid mmw 
th tlio aiiumulus on 
•y, or siuiill inii^iictic 
(iUililiHlmu'iit, by con- 
iich iiwtciul of u piUl 

in wliich ulcrtriclt^' 
\y niugii'ul. Whut it 
any nunilior of other 

witli voiy littlu other 
pfiiduction as ft traiin- 
atoui'.H Ih-st oltictric 
y in 1H4(), tluro was 
ic hatti-ry, a skoirlon 
ogulatiiig power, and 
! primary clock gavo 
le iniUcations to bo 

galvanic ugt^ncy con- 
i|iarc'nt, that a Kiiiglt! 
flcsrejit places, distant 
ji(;al obscrvatoiy, for 
unit which will copy 

kiot np for the uso of 

u» agency in connec- 
147. It was not an 

ami an eldctiuc tolo- 
Vashington, wore ac- 
an cleetro-telegraijhie 
;ie clock room at the 
iiy pwcisc'ly at noon, 

tlu! exact time ; this 
itciTal too short to be 
ns of the Washington 
I instant, although so 
inx'd the ditferonce of 
uud to agree almost 
lometiicrtl o[)erations. 
H'ercnt circumstances, 
lias been delivered — 

electi-icity. On the 
Ler an accurate clock 

telegrai)h from Patl- 



INl>?f»TniAT, AI>ri.trATIONN Of l;l.KrTRIClTY. f 

diiigton to f^louRh: thin ntMMago wan rocelved in iHtl by tln> obspiTcrs at 
Slough ! 'I'll.' Jrufh in, that as Slongh i-^ westwrtnl of l»a<fdington. its clocki) 
Mvi ItiU^v or slowrr in tin- samo d.j,n('<<; no that tho Sloiigli clocks had not 
yrl Mtmck twHvc, and tho year Mil had not y»'t cxpind Of course, in 
thii^ instance, tho docki in(licat»'d local time, and not railway or (Jrcenwich 
time. 

For Hotnn reason or otlwr, or prrlmpi for a combination of reft«(ons, tho 
electric chaik has not born niailo so practically availablo as thu flccfric 
telegmpb. Many years pn^scd over without miich advatK-tt on Trofcssor 
VVhcatsloiif'H arnmg<'mcnt. A certain inconstancy and varied intensity in 
the electric power by which the peudidmu is kept in oscillaticm is one nmln 
dithcnlty in the way. Two or thiee years ago Mr. Appold sought to remove 
this evil through tho aid of a «elf-ad,)usting apparatus comiected with the 
ponduhnu, which should allow the cimvnt to flow only when re(piired, and 
the.) f)idy in such quantify as becomes necessarj- to restore the pendidimi to 
its mean rate of ribration. ^lr. Ibiin, also, who has pcrhajH been the most 
indefatigalilf! of all inventors in the application of electricity to telegmphs and 
clocks, has sfenilily followed out ])lajH for removing one by one the difft. 
culties which presf^nt themselves. Few eontrlvances can be nmn- reniarkablo 
than Mr. Ihiin's electHe clock. It has no weight, no spring, no escnpeiiient, 
no wiiiding-up a]i))arafus nor necessity for being woiukI up, no agency within 
itself for putting or keepijig the hamls in motion, 'i'he invisible power which 
actuates it is outside the clock — outside the house, even, in which the clock is 
contained. In a garden or other piece of ground is dug a hole four or five 
feet deep : info this hole is thrown a layer of coke, then a layer of earth, and 
then a few zinc plates. A feeble but constant galvanic cuirent is generated 
by the (ionfact of the earth with tho coke below it and the zinc above It, 
without the aid of any other battery ; and this cuiTcnt is conveyed iu-doors by 
copper wires. The wires form n coil round a magnet; and tho electro- 
magnet thus formed is made to constitute the boh of tho pendulum of tlio 
clock. ])elicate and beautiful mechanism enables tho electric apparatus to 
give ft vibratoiy motion to the pendulum, and the pendulum in its turn to 
give motion to the two hands of a clock. The only " winding-up " re((uired 
by this e.xtraoi-dinaiy clock is a feed of zinc to tho earth-batteiy when it .shall 
have become o.xidized by long use* ; but ono of the clocks has been already 
known to go three or four years without any such chemical winding-up. Tlii's 
is not " perpetual motion," certainly, but it is a most instructive uppro.xima- 
tlon towards it. 

Jt was in 1849 that Mr. Shoplierd, the chronometer maker, obtained a 
patent for that fonn of electric clock which has since become familiar to so 
many thousands of visitors at the Ciystnl Palace. In tho first placo there are 
eight electro-magnets lo give moving-power to tho clock. Each magnet con- 
sists of a bar of iron with about three thousand feet of wire coiled round it ; 
flc there aw! nearly five miles of wire in all. 'J'hc mode in which the electric, 
current is l)roU{,'ht into operative connection with tho works of tlie clock is 
novel, but too intricate tf) be made intelligible without diagrams ; we there- 
fore go to the outside of the south transept. Hero we find a clock-face of 
singular character : instead of being a circle it is a semicircle, and eiu-h hand 
extends across the diameter histead of merely the semi-diaineter. This 
novelty seems to have been chiefly due to the architectural an-angement of 
that part of the building. The minute hand is si.xteen feet long, imd the 
hoilr hand twelve ; the former revolves once in two hom-s, and the latter once 



WJ 1^1 iM»ilifcjtoUia»Mftgt 



\ 



8 INDUSTBIAIi APPLICATIONS OF EI^CTRICITY. 

in tv/enty-four. Six o clock, instead of being mai-ked at the bottom of the 
face, is at the right and left, or east and west ; and the observer is at first a 
little puzzled to learn the indications; but they soon render themselves 
familiar. There ai-e no heavy weights in tlie clock, aid the space which it 
occupies IS vciy small, although it is said to equal that of St. Paul's in power. 

A smaller ciock, in front of the south transept gallery, within the building, 
is worked by the same battery as the larger one; and — still more fitted to 
UlustTate the way in which electric agency defies distance — there is a tliird 
clock in the western gallery, eleven or twelve hundred feet distant from the 
first. All three work togethsr, giving like indications, and Unked by this 
mysterious sympathy. 

Of tlie kindly relations which exist, and must ever exist, between science 
and its applications, we have already spoken ; and instances illustrative of 
tliese relations are daily nmltiplying oi-ound us. For instance, at the recent 
Ipswich meeting of the British Association, evidence was atforded of two 
pleasant and important facts — tliat electricity is likely to be a most important 
aid in astronomical observations ; and that America is busily and successfully 
prosecuting astronomical studies, in spite of Califomian gold and other 
sources of excitement. Professor Bond contributed a paper on the applica- 
tion of electro-mechanism to astronomical obsei-vations, as practised at Hai-vaid 
Observatoiy. Supposing the observer wishes to note tlie exact instant when a 
star passes the meridian ; he has an accurate clock near him, and an electi-o- 
magnetic machine in connection v/ith the clock ; he has also a piece of paper 
wrapped round a slowly revolving cylinder. He touches a key at the instant 
of the transit ; this connects the machine, the clock, and tlie paper together ; 
and a mark is made on tlie paper in such a way as to indicate the exact 
instant of the ti-ansit. A pennanent record is tlius obtained, which can be 
presened by reniovmg the paper from the cylinder. The great authority of 
tlie Astronomer Royal tells us that " the principle of the method is entirely 
the discovery of the Americans, and that Professor Bond has tlie merit of 
originating what he (the Astronomer Royal) had no doubt would prove of the 
utmost importance in the practice of astronomy." 



Electric Rivalbt to the Steam-Enoine. 

An opponent has sprang up to the system which we owe to the genius of 
James Watt. Electricity has given a formal challenge to steam, and engages 
to try strength against it in the mill, in the ship, and in the railway. The 
challenge is a bold one, and must be fairly met. 

It is now about eighteen years since the idea cf working machinery by 
electric power was first practically tested. There may, it is true, have been 
some earlier attempts ; but the late Mr. Sturgeon, at any rate, exhibited a 
small galvanic apparatus in 1833, which was capable of pumping water, saw- 
ing wood, and performing other mechanical operations. Although a mere toy 
as to size and power, it clearly illustrated the principle under notice, and was 
so far important. Three or four years after this Dr. M'Connel), of Pennsyl- 
vania, made a small electro-magnetic machine which gave motion to a fly- 
wheel . although the machine weighed but seventeen pounds, the wheel carried 
a load of forty pounds through a space of 300 feet per minute, and was made 
to rotate seventy times in that space of time. 

Other inventors in other quarters were not slow to follow the path thus laid 
open. One of tliem was Mr. Clarke, of Leicester, who constructed an electro- 



mlm 



CITY, 

i at the bottom of the 
) obsei-ver is at first n 
ion render themselves 
,r.d tlie space which it 
of St. Paul's in power. 
•y, within the building, 
ud — still more fitted to 
ance — tliere is a tliird 
[ feet distant from the 
ns, and linked by this 

■ exist, between science 
nstances illustrative of 
instance, at the recent 
ze was atforded of two 
to be a most important 

busily and successfully 
»mian gold and other 
i paper on the applica- 

as practised at Hanard 
he exact instant when a 
ir him, and an electi'o- 
is also a piece of paper 
les a key at the instant 
uid tlie paper together ; 
as to indicate the exact 
obtained, which can be 

The great authority of 
' the metliod is entirely 
Bond has tlie merit of 
)ubt would prove of the 



NfllNE. 

e owe to the genius of 
! to steam, and engages 
i in the railway. The 

' working machinery by 
y, it is true, have been 
at any rate, exhibited a 

of pumping water, saw- 
3. Althougli a mere toy 
le under notice, and was 

M'Connel), of Pennsyl- 
L gave motion to a fly- 
ounds, the wheel carried 
sr minute, and was made 

follow the path thus laid 
constructed an electro- 



INDUSrUIAL Ai'I'LICA'nONS OF KI.ECTKltlTV. 



9 



locomotive which ran on a circular railway, and drew from sixty to one hun- 
dred pounds weight; instead of a " feed of com," or a " chai-ge of colie, " its 
stamina was kept up by three pints of acid liquor in the galvanic apparatus, 
for two hom-s' work. Another ingenious experimenter was Professor Jacobi, 
of St. Petei'sburg. In a paper read at the Glasgow Meeting of die British 
Association in 18 iO, he detailed the particulars of a very novel voyage which 
he had made on tlie river Neva in the preceding year. He constmcted in 1838 
a tiny steam-boat, or rather magneto-boat, about thirty feet in lengtli, seven or 
eight in diameter, drawing three feet of water, and capable of holding fom'- 
tecn persons ; it had a galvanic batteiy instead of a steam-engine ; and this 
battery was made to act on paddle-wheels, by which the boat was propelled. 
He obtained a speed of a mile and a half an hour, on the first ti'ial ; but, by 
various changes, in tlie next following yeai* he raised the speed to three miles 
an hour — humble, perhaps, but not contemptible as a beginning. " We have 
gone thus on the Neva," the Pi-ofessor wrote, " more than once, and during 
the whole day, partly with and partly against tlie stream, with apai-ty of twelve 
or fourteen persons, and with a velocity not much less than that of tlie first- 
invented steam-boat." It was, in truth, a veiy creditable beginning. 

Shortly after this, another ingenious explorer in the same field appeared in 
Scotland. Mr. Davidson, of Aberdeen, constructed a small galvanic machine 
whereby a common tuming-latlie could be driven ; and the velocity obtained 
was sufficient for tlie turning of small articles. In another form of appai-atus, 
the same inventor managed, with only two electro-magnets and one squai-e foot 
of zinc surface, to generate power sufficient for drawing a small carriage widi 
two persons over a rough floor. There was so fai- a fair trial given to die pro- 
ject, even in 1842, as to place a locomotive on die Edinbm-gh and Glasgow 
Kailway at the service of the inventor, who propelled it at the rate of four 
miles an hour, solely by electro-magnetic agency. 

So busy has been the search after this remarkable agency, that not a year 
has passed since the date of Mr. Davidson's experiments without producuig 
something or other bearing on the subject. In one instance we have an in- 
ventor who is so sanguine that all is as he would wish it to be, that he pre- 
dicts die speedy downfall of st£ani-power, never again to rise, before die 
younger giant — electricity. In another, we find an ingenious an-angement of 
mechanism described, but with more modest anticipadons on the part of the 
inventor. In odiers, again, the plans exist only on paper, imd have never yet 
been tiied in the cnicible of experiment. 

In the year 1849 these project? began to assume a somewhat more definite 
form than diey had liitherto presented. M. Hjdilh, a Dane resident m Eng- 
land, obtained a patent for an applicadon of electro-magnedc power to the 
puiposes of engmes, machines, ships, and railways. There were batteries to 
generate the power, magnets to be influenced by the power dius generated, and 
mechanism to apply the power to the rotadon of a fly-wheel, which became in 
its turn the source of modoii to other macliinery. He planned an engine, in- 
tended to be of ten-horse power : one of his elecd-o-magnets was of enormous 
power; and bright andcipadons were indulged in concerning the results. The 
visitors to the Ciystal Palace have had an opportunity of seeing M. Hjorth's 
machine, or at least a model of it ; but we are not aware that anything has yet 
occurred in realizadon of the inventor's enthusiastic hopes. 

The same yeai- witnessed the mtroduction of M. Pulvermacher's electro- 
magnetic contrivances. This gendeman is an Austrian, but he obtained an 
English patent, in which a veiy wide xtmge of ingenious inventions are de- 

o 3 



. -xaMMiM 



ttmmHttumn XlllMllilli «"ii 



\- 



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10 



INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OP ELECTKll'lTY. 



I 



scribed There are new materials for the cells of the galvanic battery ; new 
onancements for conveying away the acid fumes generated dunng the galvanic 
action ; new modes of rendering the current uniform in strength ; new conihl- 
nations of fluids in the battery; an amvngement of apparatus for producmg 
mechanical power ; an eiectro-magnetic locomotii-e ; and a new form ot elecUic 
telegraph— the whole comprising many ingenious novelties. 

Anotlier aspii-ant to public favour in the same field is Trofeasor Page, ot 
America In a series of lectures which he dehvered before the Smithsonian 
Institution in IBftO, ho described certain anangements of electro-motive appa- 
ratus which he had adopted. The American journals frequently indulge tu 
such a tone of bombast and exaggeration when describing any really ingenious 
inventions by our transatlantic brethren, that they must often bo read with a 
certain discount, a drawback allowance for sui-plns enthusiasm. In the ac- 
couuis of Professor Pages experiments, it is stated that a bar of iron, one 
hundred and sixty pounds weight, was made to spring np by magnetic action, 
and to move ropiilly up and down, " dancing like a feather in the air, widiout 
any visible support." The distance tints moved, it is true, was only ten inches; 
but it was concluded, by a somewhat sweeping logic, that a himdi-ed teet could 
be as readily gained as ten inches, and d ton raised as well a.s any smaller 
weight, by hicreasing the power. The mighty steam hainmer, it was conjec- 
tured would have to yield to this more powerful rival. Professor Page also 
exhiliited an electro-magnetic engine of five-horae power, set in action by a 
calvanic battery occupying about three square feet ; it was a reciprocating 
engine of two-feet stroke, and weighed (with the batteiy) about a ton. It was 
capable of working a circular saw ten inches in diameter, which cut up boards 
into laths, and which revolved eighty times in a minute while so doing llie 
inventor candidly avowed that, tliough the expense was less than that of steam 
in most engines, it was rather greater than in engines of cheap construction ; 
but the newspaper commentators would not submit to any limitations to then- 
bright predictions , for we ai-e told tliat "we can now look forward wth cei- 
tainty to tlie time when coal wUl be put to bettor uses tlian to bmn, scald, and 

"^Bu7although there is a tinge of extravagance in the publislied accounts of 
inventions and novelties, there is an energy across the Atlantic which is pretty 
sure to lead to something valuable. In the case now before us, the Congress 
appropriated 20,000 dollare to assist Professor Page in carnring on his expen- 
ments Those experiments wore made at Washington ; and tlie object m view 
was to determine the availability of electric power as a substitute for steani 
powe^-not simply under a scientific aspect, but in the ordinarj- commercial 
arrangements of every-day life. The Professor has during the present year 
(Io61j exhibited an electro-magnetic en^ne which works a cylinder printing- 
press He has also made an electi'o-hammer. Hie head or mass of which 
wei-'hs about fifty pounds, and which he causes to rise and fall with great 
rapi'dity and force. His next achievement was the constniction of an electro- 
locomotive, with live-feet driving wheels and two-feet stroke, and a weight ol 
more than ten tons ; it was tried on the Baltimore Railway, and attained a 
speed of ten miles on hour on a level. In a letter to the Scienh/ic American 
ioumal, the experimenter, in answer to certain objectors, drew attention to 
the memorable tria. of locomotives on the Liveriiool and Manchester Railway 
in 188U, and asserts that, even in its present state, he would venture to place 
his electro-locomotive as a competitor in a contest with such a steam-locomo- 
tive as the " Rocket" nm twenty-two years ago. He moreover expresses ft con- 



lAiMMilMNMiiHMiiMkl 



rv. 

ilvanic bntteiy ; new 
d during the galvftnic 
trength ; new eoinbi- 
iratus for producing 
I new form of electiic 

is Professor Page, of 
fore the Smlthsonifin 
electro-motive appa- 
frequently indulge in 
» any really ingenious 
often be read with a 
husiasm. In the ac- 
it a bar of iron, one 
p by magnetic action, 
!r in the air, widiont 
, was only ten inches ; 
; a hundred feet could 
IS well as any smaller 
ainmcr, it was conjee- 
Professor Page also 
^r, set in action by a 
t was a reciprocating 
about a ton. It was 
•, which cut up boards 
while so doing. The 
»ss tlian that of steam 
f cheap construction ; 
my limitations to tlieir 
look forward with cer- 
lan to bum, gcald, and 



INDI'STUIAI. Al'l'LICATIONB OF ELECTllICITY. 



II 



published accounts of 
Ltlantic which i? pretty 
lefore us, the Congress 
carrying on his experi- 
and tlie object in view 
a substitute for steam 
! ordinary' commercial 
iring the present year 
ks a cylinder printing- 
ead or mass of which 
3e and fall with great 
jtraction of an electro- 
b-oke, and a weight of 
ailway, and attained a 
the Scienti/ic American 
tors, drew attention to 
id Manchester Railway 
would venture to place 
li such a steam-locomo- 
>reover expresses 6, eon- 



fldenco tliat his new contrivance " is capable of carrying two loaded passenger 
cai"s to lialtimore at the rate of twenty milos im hour, as soon as some of the 
vei-y gi'cat and obvious defects ai'o remedied." 

Ono of the most recent projects in this curious department of mechanical 
enquiry, is Mr. Sliepai'd's (or rather M. NoUet's, it having been puteuted 
for him in England) " Electro-magnetic heat, light, and motive-power pro^ 
ducing machine." A long name tliis, and lui imposing claim of power. The 
apparatus is veiy complex, and exhibits abundant uigei.mity; it is formed 
on the theoiy of decomposing water by electric agency, and then developing 
light, nn<l boat, and motive force, as consequences of tlio decomposition, 
The merits of this hew machine are now being put to the test in Belgium. 

After all, the question of electTO-mechanism seems likely to resolve itself 
into one of pounds, shillings, and pence. Will it pay? — is the query, here 
as elsewhere. Machinists tell us that they can move fly-wheelg and drive 
locomotives by electricity; but machinists, with their account books before 
them, count tip tlie cost, and look grave thereat. For every unit of power 
obtained, coal must be consumed in a steam-engine, and zinc in a batterj- ; 
and the ratio between die production and the consumption mtist be deter- 
mined in each case. Now the results of observation ajul calculation on this 
point have something veiy curious about them. Mr. Robert Hmit, in a paper 
read before the Society of Arts, in 1850, presented them in tlie following 
form: — He stated, that one grain of coal, consumed In tlie furnace of a 
Comish mining steam-engine, generates power sufficient to lift one bundled 
and forty-tln-ee poimds one foot liigh; whereas, one gram of zinc .lonauraed 
in a galvimic battery, produces power adequate only to eighty pounds. Again, 
one cwt. of zinc costs twenty or tliirty times as umch as an equal weight of 
coal. Taking tliose and other facts into consideration, Mr. Hunt gave it as 
his opinion, that galvaiiic power is fifty times as costly, as steam power. If 
this be conect, or if it approximate even remotely to correctness, it places the 
new rival to steam power in a very humble position; and it wiU have to 
submit with as good a gmce as may be to a defeat. 

El.EC:TniC RlVALKY TO GAS-LlGnXING, 

There is anotlier battle which electricity has called out for itself, and on 
which it has not been less sanguine of victor)' — tliat of producujg a light so 
brilliant and so steady, so cheap and so efficient, as to suporeede gas. 

It was in 1846 that (be world was first stai-tied with tliis novelty — Uie 
electric hght. True it is, that scientific men had long been familiar witli 
the intensity of Uie ligJ- 1 caus(^d by elt;ctric action, but it was Messrs. Gi-eenor 
and Htaite, we believe, who iirst devised a form of uppamtus for public 
lighting by such agency. Tlieir patent of the year above named described 
an an-angement whereby small lumps of pure caibon, enclosed in air-tight 
vessels, wero susceptible of being rendered luminous by cuirents of galvanic 
electricity. Little was done, in tlio fi st yeai, beyond the promulgation of tho 
niethoti; but in 1847 the evening gazei-s in London were ostcaiished by the 
occasional flashes of intense light thrown out upon them from elevated 
spots; and one of the inventora estimated tlio merits of tlie system so 
highly, as to state the comparative cost of lighting to be in tlie ratio of 
one to six, or eight, as comparotl witli gas. At one time it was the National 
Gallery, at another the noiHi tower of Ilungerford Bridge, at another the 
Duke of York's Column, at auoUiQr Uio Polyteclinic lusUtuUou, whicb v/m 



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Ijl INDtTSTBIAL APPtrCATIONS OF ELECTKICITY. 

thus made the theatre lor the exhibition of these results ; and, for a time, the 
" talk of the town" was tins electric light and its raar\els. 

So far as it can be described in a few words, the following will convey an 
idea of the mode of producing the light. In the fii;8t place there were two 
small cylinders or bits of pure carbon, with their pomts placed some small 
fraction of an inch apart. As Uiey were subjected to a slow combustion, the 
points of these cylinders receded furUier and further apart; but this reces- 
sion was corrected by a train of wheel-work which advanced them m an equa 
degree in the opposite direction, so that the carbon points were maintamed 
eqilidistant. A galv.mic battery was provided, and the two carbon cylinders 
lay in the direction of the circuit tlirough the wires so that the galvanic 
circuit could not be completed unless the fluid could traverse the small 
distance from one piece of carbon to the other. It is one among Uie many 
properties of electricity, that when the subtle agent has tJius to leap over the 
totirval, as it were, from one point to anotlier, it generates aii "»»«"«« J^f 
at that point; and the points being, in Uie api)ai-atu8 m question, forniedo 
a slowly combustible body, like carbon, the heat generates, or is at least 
accompLiied by, an intense light. The task which most called ford JJie 
ingenuity of the inventors, was to keep the carbon pomts at such a distance 
as to render the light continuous instead of intermittmg; for an int«rmittmg 
or flickering light would he nearly valueless in ordinary cases. 

Numerous practical difficulties presented themselves m this novel experi- 
ment, and Mr. Staite obtained another patent in 1848, for tiieu: prospective 
removal He devised a new form of galvanic batteiy, and new applications 
of exciting fluid to be used in it; he introduced a galvanometer to measure 
the intensity of the current produced; he substituted tlie metal mdium for 
carbon at the points; he improved the means of maintainmg a constant 
distance between tiie points; and he showed how so to arrange tiie apparatus, 
that the lif?ht may be made either continuous for ordmaiy pui-poses, or 
intermittent for lighthouses. The electric light was ^ain exhibited in many 
public places; and in the same year another mode of producing the desired 
result was brought fonvard by MM. Achereau and Fom-cault, at I ans. 

In the following year, 1849, there was no lack of busy discussions m 
connection with this subject, or of suggestions for improved methods. M 
Le Molt patented many modifications, esi>ecially m tiie form and Jurangement 
of the charcoal points. Mr. Gillespie, in like manner, du-ected liis attention 
to this very delicate part of the arrangement, on which so much depends, and 
suggested a new mode of maintaining tiie constant distance. Mr. learce was 
anotiier of tiie inventors who took tiie carbon points into conside^ration, witti a 
view to improve tiieir mode of action. In the same year Mr. htaite, m con- 
iunction witii Mr. King, obtained another j)atent for a most extensive series ol 
improvements, modifications, adaptations, extensions, or whatever Uiey may 
best be termed, embracing almost every part of the subject, and showing 
simificantiy tiiat ttie former metiiod. however ingenious, must have been tull 
of imperfections of one kind or otiier. Professor Grove, in a lecture at tfie 
Royal Institiition, stated that he had illuminated tiie tii«itre of the London 
Institution by an electric Ught, five or six years previously; and he tiiought 
tiiat much hope and promise were in store for us, m respect to a bnUiant and 
economical principle of lighting. On tiie other hand, Mr. Rutter, who about 
tiiat time wi-ote a ti-eatise on gas lighting, gave tne new-conier. tiie electinc 
Ught a few gentle rubs ; and asked how it happened, if the light were so veiy 
efficient and economical, that it had not by tiiat time come mto use. indeed, 



ii miiiiri i iiiin i n i 'I'm 

r 



[CITY. 

ts ; and, for a time, the 
bIs. 

bllowing will convey an 
8t place tlievc were two 
nts placed some »iuall 
a slow combustion, tho 
r apart; but this reces- 
anced them in an equal 
points were maintauied 
le two carbon cylinders 
IS, so that the galvanic 
uld traverse the small 
1 one among Uie many 
as tlius to leap over the 
aerates an intense heat 

in question, formed of 
enerates, or is at least 

most called forth the 
lints at such a distance 
ug; for an intermitting 
y cases. 

38 in this novel experi- 
,B, for Uieir prospective 
y, and new applications 
dvanometer, to measure 
i tlie metal jjidium for 
naintaining a constant 
o an-ange the apparatus, 
r ordinary purposes, or 
^ain exhibited in many 
if producing the desired 
u-cault, at Paris, 
of busy discussions in 
improved methods. M. 
e form and arrangement 
r, directed his attention 
h so much depends, and 
stimce. Mr. Pearce was 
nto consideration, with a 

year Mr. Staite, in con- 
. most extensive series of 
1, or whatever they may 
le subject, Mid showing 
[)us, must have been full 
rove, in a lecture at the 
} theatre of the London 
/iously; and he thought 
respect to a brilliant and 
i, Mr. Rutter, who about 

new-comer, the electric 
if the hght were so very 
come into use. ixideed, 



INDl'STRIAL Al'l'LIt'ATIONS OF KLECTniCITY. 



18 



there were many misgivings among scientific men as to tJio fitness of the 
electric agency for tho object in view. Dr. Faraday, in a discussion on thi.s 
question at the Birmingham Meeting of the Britisli Association, commented 
oil the irrcgulai- character of the electric light, and its inapplicability for pur- 
I)0SC3 of general illumination : all objects appearing dark when tlie eye was 
embarrasse<l by the uitensity of this extraordinary light. 

A new claimant to public attention, Mr. Allnian, brought out a new form of 
electric light in 1B50, directed, as the greater number of the inventions have 
been, to the maintenance of proper distance between the points. He devised 
a very ingenious self-adjusting or regulating plan, whereby the distance should 
not always be the same, but shoidd vary as the intensity of the cun-ent. 
\Vlien Uie flow is too energetic, and would consequently produce too bright a 
light, the points recede a little ; whereas they approach more closely when 
tlie power becomes weak. The principle here involved is highly scientific, 
somethuig like Watt's steam-enguie governor; but it would require exact 
workmanship and careful handling to make it practically available. 

The grand project, however, of 1850, so lai- as relates to tins subject, was 
Uie American light, produced from water at no expense at all ! It was 
announced that Mr. Paine, of Worcester, U.S., had discovered a mode of 
obtaining a brilliant light by the action of electricity on water, at a cost merely 
nominal. At first the worid disbelieved it; but by duit of repeated assertions 
and assurances, the worid (that is, tlie American worid) began to tliink there 
must be someUiiug in the matter. The Boston newspapei-s took up Uie sub- 
ject; and one of them stated in due lorm, that the inventor or discoverer has 
not only " extorted from nature the secret of the artificial production of light 
at a nominal cost, but that he lias got hold of the key which unlocks and 
enables him to command a new force of nature, which is soon to supersede 
most of the forces now employed— something which is destined to work a 
revolution both in science and tu-t." Brave words these : but electricity has 
had to hear and to bear much of this magnUoquence. According to the de- 
scription given in the Boston journals, there seem to have been a glass jar 
contaming spirits of turpentine, another glass jai- containmg water, two flat 
strips of copper, a small tube which temmated m a jet or burner, and an 
electro-galvanic machine. When the machine was worked, water was decom- 
posed ; bubbles of gas escaped from the jar, and passed through the spirits of 
turpentine ; and being then ignited, these bubbles yielded a brilliant light. 

Such was Uie declaration, and on this declaiation " issue was jomed by 
those who were not disposed to admit the philosophy of tlie explanation. Mr. 
Paine is said to have devised a ibmi of galvanic, or rather electro-magnetic 
machme, which, with the aid of two slips of copper, decomposes water, and 
liberates hydrogen ; it is next said, that this hydrogen, by passing tlirough 
spirits of turpentine, catches up in its transit :. dose of carbon, or at least a 
new property which enables it to become a brilliant hghtrgivmg agent ; and 
laotly it is affirmed, that this is done without any consumption of tJie turpen- 
tme Many of the journalists proceeded at once to annihUate, the customary 
theories of chemical action : they adduced Mr. Paines experiments as proof 
that oxygen and hvdrogen are not sunple substances, that water contains no 
oxvgen, and that hydrogen imbibes qualities from spirits of turpentine witliout 
occasioning any waste in it; and to add to Uie testimony, a Mr. Mathiot de- 
scribed at some length a mode which he adopted of passing hydrogen through 
turpentine to increase Uie briUiancy of the hght produced from it, without 
occasioning any consumption or dimmution of the turpentine so used. 



iMMr* 



rjiiiruMtniiiliftlli r illliiin>-| 



14 



INDUSTRtAl, APPttC'ATIONS OP ELEOTllIOTTY. 



A patent was taken mit in London for tliis milgiciil light ; nml tho con- 
troversy concerning it was maintained on both sides of the Atlantic*. Mr. 
Tftine insisted that the nsnal theoiy concerning oxygen, hydrogen, and water 
is all wrong; that there is a particular gas which Jias not yet been isolated, 
and for which we have not yet a name ; tluit tliis gas plus poaitive electricity 
constitutes oxygen ; tliat tho same gas plus neifntim electricity constitutes 
hydrogen ; and that these two modifications of the same gas form water. Dr. 
Foster, of Evtmsville Medical College, in Indiana, coiu'eived himself justified 
in saying that hydrogen is a mettd in the state of vapoiu", jtjst as steam is 
water in a state of vapour ; atul he formed a tlieory of the electric light on tliis 
basis. Another contro.'ersialist suggested that Mr. I'aine should examine tlie 
components left in tho batteiy after using, to see whether the existing atoms 
of oxyffen (which ho asserts ne\'er make their appearance at all) were to bo 
i'ound tnero. An English chemist of eminence repeated the e.vperiment, and 
foiuul that tho tui-pentine doen uridergti consumption during the passage of the 
hydrogen through it ; and that most of tlio inferences dmwn from the pro- 
ceeding are eiToneous. 

While this qiiestion wos still mider discussion, the engineering world was 
attracted by a patent obtained by IMr. Shepard, in which water is to be used 
as a store-house for powers quite marvellous. Water ia to be decomfwsed by 
galvanism ; the hydrogen is to take up a dose of carbon from another agent ; 
the carburetted hydrogen tluis produced is to yield a brilliant light; and it is 
to produce, in the act of burning, such an amount of caloric as to ctmstitute 
an economic substitute for coal in furnaces of steam boilers, &c. Such are 
the merits which the patent claims for the new method ; and henceforwani, 
tlic Shepai"d proiect shared with tho I'aine project the attention of tiiose 
interested in such matters. Let the theoiies be what they may, the electro- 
magnetic apparatus of Mr. Paine, as described and diagrammetl in tVie journals 
devoted to such subjects, is a fact, and a veiy complex fact, involving much 
delicate mechanism. Mr. Bhepai-d's .ipparattis, too (or rather the apparatus of 
M. Nollct, patented for him by Mr. Shepai-d in England), was al>otit the same 
time publicly described ; but this relates to power-developing rather than to 
light-giving. 

There certainly appears to bo ground for tliinking, that, whatever may be 
the success attamed in future times, electro-mechanism and electro-lighting 
have not yet reached that position which is, to the busy world at large, tlie 
test of excellence — commercial advantageousness. 

Elkctro-Bl.vstino. 

Tho next industrial aspect under which electricity presents itself, is one 
concerning which tliere can be no doubt. Submarine blasting, and blasting 
at a distance from the operators, aic certainly not the- least curious among the 
industrial applications of electrical powera. 

Colonel (now Major-General) Pasley was one of the first to employ this 
mighty agent in such a way. After the Roynl George, whose fate at Spit- 
head is so generally known, hod been submerged for sixty yeare, Uiis offtcer 
proposed a means of securing more of her stores than had yet been raised, 
and of removing tlie whole wreck piecemeal by blasting. Until tliat time 
only small articles had been recovered by divers, who descended in a diving 
bell. This plan was submitted to tlie Admiralty in 1889, and by them 
accepted. 






IT. 

Hpht; mid the con- 
if thr Atlfuitic. Mr. 
hydroRtm, and wnter 
ot yet been iKolftt<'d, 
us iMsitire electricity 
iloctricity constituteH 
gas form water. Dr. 
ved Idnisolf justified 
m\\ juat fts steam is 

electric light on this 
i should examine the 
;v the existing atoms 
;o at all) were to bo 

the experiment, and 
ng the passage of the 
drawn from the pro- 

igineering world was 
1 water is to be used 
to be decom|>osed 1>y 
I from another agent ; 
Uiont light ; and it is 
iloric as to ctmstitute 
loilers, &e. Such are 
I ; and hencoforwan^. 
e attention of those 
hey may, the electm- 
mmed in the journals 
fact, involving much 
ither the apparatus of 
), was al>out the same 
lopuig rather than to 

lat, whatever may bo 
1 and electro-lighting 
ly world at large, tlio 



•resents itself, is one 
blasting, and blasting 
1st curious among the 

first to employ tliis 
, whose fate at Spit- 
ixty yeare, this officer 
had yet been raised, 
ng. Until tliat time 
iescended in a diving 

1839, and by them 



INDl'STRIAT. Ari'MCATlONS OF KLF.f'TntCtTT. 



15 



I 



Gnttft percha wa-i not then known, and Colonel Pasley was put to his wit's 
end to dfivlse modes of pnitectlng his wire and apparatus frum the water. 
His wit, however, was ecpial to the tivsk imposed upim it, for he fully snc- 
coeded. He had canisters constructed of a peculiar fomi, capable of contain- 
ing 2000 lbs. to flOOO lbs. of "lU'.powdor each. These he lowered from a boat, 
and fastened to the side of tJie wrecked vessel. He connected the canisters, 
liy a sheathed copper wire, with a galvanic battei-y placed in a vessel at some 
distance ; and after many abortive trials he ftiUy attained the object in view. 
The galvanic current was conveyed along tluj wires to the canisters, where an 
explosion took place, and portions cf the hull of the ill-fated ship were shat- 
tered at each explosion ; light fragments and stores floated to the surface} ; 
while henvier articles wei-e fished up with tackle managcsd by men who 
descended in di^nng dresses. Many explosions were made, and much of tlie 
sunken vessel was shattered an,i recovered ; curiosity hunters were stored 
with fragments as i-elics of the Itoi/al Geonje ; and the 'government recovered 
brass guns of sufficiei\t value to pay for all Colonel Pasley's operations. Thus 
did a perfectly novel tmdertaking fully answer its intended puri)03e, both me- 
chanically and financially. ' 

Colonel Pasley having thus paved the way, other engineers were not slow 
to avail themselves of his experience in such matters. Captain Paris, an 
engineer at Boston, in the United States, adopted tliis method of electro- 
blasting, in 1 S to, to loosen lavg(3 masses of rock. Excavations were made in 
a bed of rock, for the construction of qrays and docks ; and instead of using 
l)icks and similar tools, he employed gunpowder. The powder was used in 
variotis quantities, ft-om four to sixteen ounces, enclosed in air-tight tin 
canisters. 'J'he copper wires ft-om the battery were inserted in the canisters ; 
and the wires and powder were well protected IVom the water by a tliick com- 
position. A hole was drilled in the rock for the reception of each canister, by 
a workman who descended in a di\ing bell ; and when the canister was 
secured in Uie hole, and the requisite arrangements completed, an electric 
cnn-ent exploded the gunpowder and blasted the rook. The engineer gave a 
highly eulogistic charocU^r to the new process, which he considers excels the 
old in presenting greater security from danger, gi-eater certainty of action, 
greater e.xpedition, greater explosive force witli a given amount of powder, and 
lesfi expense. 

The mighty explosion near Shakspcre's Cliff, at Dover, in IRIH, will not bo 
soon forgotten by those who were present on the occasion. The giant force 
of electricity, and tlie sagacious forethought of Mr. Cubitt, were both most 
fully illustrated on that occasion. During the progress of the bold sea-works 
for the Routh-Eastem Railway, between Dowr and Folkestone, it was found 
that a jutting promontoiy, called Round Down Clitf, stood provokingly in the 
way of the line of rails ; and the engineer proceeded to drive a timnel through 
it. The soil proved treacherous, however, and the engineer thereupon resolved 
to sweep away the obsti-uction altogether. Tt must have required an un- 
bounded faith in tlie efficacy of electro-blasting, for JVIr. Cubitt to proceed as 
he did. He cut a horizontal galleiy for a hundred yards through the cliff, 
from oast to west; he made cross galleries from north to soutV- ; ho sank 
deep shafts at the extremities of these cross galleries ; he excavated chamhers 
or small rooms at the bottoms of tlie shafts; and he deposited in these 
chambers the gunpowder which was to effect the explosion. The quantity of 
powder thus used was largo almost beyond belief; iu the three chamberfi 
there was no less tlian 18,000 lbs. packed in bftgs enclosed hi boxes. The 



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INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OK ELECTRICITY. 



chambers were fifty or sixty feet inland from the face of the cliflf. Behind the 
chfF, on the grass above, gahanic batteries were placed in a tcn>porai7 btiild- 
ing, and wires extended thence over the edge of tlie cliff to the cliambers. 
It was an eventful hour when tliia grand disruption took place. At two o'clock, 
on t)ie '^lUh of .lanuary, three engineers worked tliree batteries at the same 
instant, tlu-co ciurents travei'sed three wires to tlie three chambers, and three 
explosions occurred at once. Never before was such a mass of solid rock 
removed by one engineering operation ; a huge slice (so to speak) of the cliff 
was cut oft' in an instant, almost exactly ui the direction which the engineer 
lad wished ; there was little noise, little smoke, few scattered fragments, 
but tlio whole mass descended to the sea witli much less commotion than had 
been expected. Sir John Herschel was one of tlie spectators of this grand 
sight ; and ui a communication which he sent to tlie Athenmnm, he spoke as 
follows : — " Of tlie noise accompanying the immediate explosion I can only 
describe it as a low murmur, lasting haixlly more than half a second, and so 
fault, that had a companion at my elbow been speaking in an ordinary tone of 
voice, 1 doubt not it would have passed unheeded. Mor was tlie fall of the 
cliff (nearly 400 feet ui height, and of which no less tlian 400,000 cubic yards 
were, williin an intei-val of time hardly exceeding ten seconds, disti-ibutcd 
over the beach on an area of eighteen acres, covered to an average deptli of 
fourteen feet, and m many parts from tliirty to fifty) accompanied witli any 
considerable noise ; certainly with none tliat attracted my own attention, or 
that of several others similarly stationed, with whom I aftenvai-ds compai-od 
notes." 

All were satisfied, and rightly so, with this gi-eat experiment. The philo- 
sopher was satisfied to see electi-icity thus brought into useful operation ; the 
engineer was satisfied, as it saved him six months' labour m cliff cutting ; 
and tlie Company were satisfied, as it saved them 70001. Three similai* ex- 
plosions were made dm'ing the same yeai", with smaller quantities of powder, 
to complete tlie cliff works near the same rugged spot. Bailway ti-avellers to 
and from Dover may easily catch a glimpse of the tolerably level chalk plat- 
form which has been formed with tlie debris of the disnipted Eouud Down 
CUtf, 

Electro-blasting tlien became a recognised feature in engineering works. 
The rock of a quarry near Glasgow was successfiilly blasted by such means. 
A submarine rock in the Nortli Esk was similarly blasted. Excavations were 
in like manner made in the harbour of Dunbar. Mr. Branel employed the 
same agency in the chff works of tlie South Devon Railway. The Wrekin, in 
Shropshire, has been electro-blasted for road mat< rial. The quarrying of rock 
near Queensferry in Scotland has been similai effected. One of the most 
recent examples was the cliff-blasting at Seaford, effected in 1850, in connec- 
tion witli tlie new hai-bour works. In shoii, electricity has become one of the 
workhig instruments of the engineer : an instrument of mighty power, but 
requiring nice conduct for its guidance. 



Eleothio Difficulties : Ljohtnino Conductors. 

One of the relations in which electrical science stands to man is a peculiai' 
one. It is not so much an example of " Industrial Applications of Electricity," 
as a mode of preventing electricity from destroying the works of human labour. 
Man here fights a battle against this redoubtable agent, rather than employs 
him as an assistant. We allude to the subject of lightning rods. 



nv. 

the cliff. Behind tho 
in a temporal^ huild- 
diff to the chanibora. 
j)lace. At two o'clock, 
jattericH at tlie same 
3 chanibera, and three 
a mass ut' solid rock 
I to Hpeok) of the cliff 
n which tlie engineer 

scattered fragments, 
I commotion than hod 
ictators of this grand 
'hcnauiii, he spoke as 
explosion I can only 
lialf a second, and so 
in an ordinary tone of 
r was tlie fall of tlie 
a 400,000 cubic yards 

seconds, distribuUvd 
an average deptli of 
ccompanied witli any 
my own attention, or 

al'terwards compared 

periment. The philo- 
useful operation; tlio 
bour m cliff cutting; 
I. Three similar ex- 
quantities of powder, 
Railway ti-avellers to 
•ably level chalk plat- 
isnipted Bound Down 

in engineering works, 
asted by such means, 
ed. Excavations were 
. Branel employed the 
Iway. The Wrekin, in 
The quarrying of rock 
ted. One of the most 
J in 1850, in connec- 
das become one of the 
of mighty power, but 



DUCTORS. 

s to man is a peculiar 
cations of Electricity," 
orks of human labour. 
;, rather than employs 
inff rods. 



INDUSTRIAJ. APPLICATIONS OK KLEtTniClTy. 



\7 



Terrib'e is the form in which olcctricitv hero presents itself. As devel()i)ed 
in a gul mic battery-, it can bo adapted to our wants in a tliousand ways ; 
as developed in tlio clouds, it narks a path for itself with resistless power. 
\Vlien electric equilibrium is disturbed in the atmosphere, the surcharged 
quantity seeks a vent, mid will tako the shortest path or tlie best conductor 
which presents itself. If ii, meets with a metallic rod or wire, which is con- 
nected with the eartli, it will travel quietly along tliat metal, and diffuse itself 
without injui-y ; but if no such conductor presents itself, the resdt is startling. 
The electricity, the visual effects of which we designate Uijhtninfi, seeks a ])ath- 
way by which to descend to cartli from its cloud dwelling; a "rod of n.etal i.s 
the best railway for such a passenger; and ti-ees, houses, and ships are rent 
asmuler in the search for such a channel of conveyance. 

Now it is the supplying of such an iron pathway which constitutes the 
philosophy of lightning conductoi-s or Uiunder rods. Of the amomit of de- 
stniction produced by lightning few pereons have an adequate idea. Fuller 
gave a list of thirteen abbeys and monasteries which had been destroyed liy 
lightning down to his time, about two centuries ago; and churclies luul houses 
are similariy destroyed or greatly injured every yeai-. A calculation has been 
made (tliough we know not on what data) tliat buildings are thus destroyed 
in E»\gland to tlie value of £50,000 annually. But it on the broad ocean 
that this giant destroyer most shows its power. The ds that have fallen 
a sacrifice arc numei-ous almost beyond belief. In tli. iritisli navy alone 
there are official records of more than two hundred and fifty ships of war 
which have been stnick and injured by lightning since the year 179«, while 
merchantmen have been destroyed to an extent of which no exact estimate 
can be foi-raed. 

Pity, indeed, it seems, that tliero should be any laxity in the precautions 
taken to ward off this dreadful calamity. But such a laxity tliere has certainly 
been. It has required the incessant appeals and remonstitmces of scientific 
men to obtain due attention to this subject. The first Ughtning rod is said 
to have been attached to a buUding by Dr. Watson, about nmety years ago. 
The practice spread into many counti-ies, but very slowly. It is said, that when 
Guy ton de Morveau put one up at Dijon, in 177C, he was violently attacked 
for his presumption by a superstitious mob ; but that he appeased them by 
statmg that Uie gilt pomt of the rod was sent by his holiness the Pope. 
It has gradually become estabhshed, that for any building to have a good 
lightnmg conductor, it is necessaiy Uiat the metallic rod (copper is the best, 
but iron will suffice) should reach from the highest point of the building down 
in one unbroken line to the soil beneath : few buildings so provided have ever 
been mjured by lightning; but if there is any want of continuity in the metal, 
the protection becomes doubtful and precarious. 

Li respect to ships, Dr. Watson, after a trial at his own house, recommended 
to the government that a copper chain should be furnished to every ship, to be 
suspended from the mast head, and to hang over the side of the ship into the 
sea. The plan was adopted, but after a strange fashion ; the cham was made, 
and a box provided to keep it in, from whence it was to be removed for use 
" as occasion requires." But lightning flashes are wont to do their own work 
at Uieir own time, without giving formal notice to the captains of the royal 
ships ; and it often happened that an imfortunate vessel received a shattering 
stroke before the protector could be removed from its box. It was found, too, 
that the chain form is not efficient for conduction, and that not only one, but all 
the masts ought to be protected. Thuty years ago Mr. Snow Hai-ris (who has 



.^*' 



■WW 



Ifl 



mmrsTin.M, APn.irATToss ok F.r.ErTRtcmr. 



I 
I 

I 




rtincn been knighted for lii« tervices on this important stihioct) hronght bofoic 
the Adniimlty ii phiti for iniprovcid lightnint,' oondiirto.^ for tho llojal Niivy; 
he fought tiin l)altlo pcrsovevinglv, v«-iir after year, ngainst one ii.hninistmUon 
after anotli.r, until at length convietion was forced upon official minds, which 
receive conviction rather slowlv, nnd his method is coming everj- year more 
and more into use. Tt is simply 'is follows :— Each mast is made hi effect a 
lichtning conductor, by two hands of "opper inscrte.! in its sni-iuce, and ex- 
tending from top to bottom; tho bands nrc strong enough and elastic enouuh 
to accommodnto themselves to the stniins to which the most is exposed. 1 he 
copper bands extend under the deck beams to the side of the vessel, and trom 
the mast \o the large metal bolts of the keel and keelson ; so that tins nuital 
of tho voss<'l itself is made tf. fonn part of tho geneml^system of conduction. 
So fur as recorded evidence extends, the national saving effected through tlic 
protective use.i of these condtjctors miist have been Immense. 

ElECTIIICITY in TUE WOBKBIIOI'. 

Knt we may leave these terrible examples of electric power, and of tho 
means adopted to ward them off. and resume our glance at those more pcaco- 
fhl operations in which this wonderful agent is employed ns a handmaid to the 

arts of civilizfttion. , -^ • 

" Eleciti-icitv in the workshop" mnv sound a strange phrase ; but it is a cor- 
rect and fitting one. Electricity does appear in tho workshop, and is there 
employed as an actual worker; and, moreover, it perf<inns manuftwniinng 
operations which would baffle the skill of the most talented lu^izans. I^nklin 
gained cejebrity for having gently drawn down lightning from above by tho 
string of a kite ; but it was left for later times to tamo this rough agent (or at 
least its congener, dcetricity) and make it a metal-worker in Bimimgham fac- 

In this, as in other departments of electro-chemical action, it is difficult to 
sav to whom the honour is due of the first practical application; it can only bo 
settled approximately. Professor Jacobi of St. Petei-sburgh, Mr. Spenc<;r ot 
Liverpool, and Mr. Jordan of London, appear to have claims to shai-e tho ho- 
nour among them. But this is a nice point, on which we will not venture to 
dwell Suffice it to say that, about twelve or fourteen years ago, metal was 
rendered obUiinable from tho liquid in a galvanic batterj', by peculiar arrange- 
ments Let those who have lieen familiar with the admimblo Typographical 
Section, in the AusU-ian department of the Great Exhibition, consider tihat 
the largo and beautiftd sheet of copper there displayed, more than thirty feet 
in length, was produced from a cold salt liquid : tliey will thus gain a little in- 
sight into the marvels of this process. Stripped as much as possible of scien- 
tific difficulties, and presented in its simplest form, tliis transfoi-mation may bo 
thus elucidated. Diluted sulphuric acid is poured into a porous vessel ; tins 
is placed in a larger vessel containing a solution of sulphate of copper ; a piece 
of Tine is placed in tlie former, and a piece of silver or of copper in tlic latter, 
and both pieces arc connected by " wire. Then does the wondrous agent, 
electricitv, begin its work; a cuirent sets in from the zinc to the acid, thence 
through tlie porous vessel to the sulphate, thence to the silver or copper, and 
thence to the conducting wire back again to the zinc ; and so on in an endle^ss 
circuit. But electricity never makes such a circuit without disturbing the 
chemical relations of the bodies through which it passes : the zinc, the silver 
or copper, the sulphuric acid, the oxygen, and the hydrogen— aU are so far 






tMM 






rrv. 

iibjpoO bronf;ht bpfi)io 
« for the Hojal Navy : 
list ono (ulnntiiHtration 
II official iiiimlH, wliich 
ming pvon- y''sr inon< 
list is mailc in effort ii 
in its sintiiw, luul ox- 
igli and elastic enouuU 
rnftst is exposed. Tlie 
nf the vessel, and from 
son ; HO that the nietjil 
system of eonductioti. 
ig effected through the 
nense. 



trio power, nnd of the 
'o at those more peace- 
d us a handmaid to the 

phi-ase ; hut it is a cor- 
ivorkshop, and is there 
erfonns mannfactnring 
nted artizans. Fwnklin 
iii^' from above by the 
this i-ongh agent (or at 
ker in Bimnngham fac- 

action, it is difficult to 
>lieation ; it can only bo 
?bin'gh, Mr, Speneer of 
claims to sbai-e the ho- 

we will not venture to 
1 years ago, metal was 
rj', by peculiar arrongc- 
Imirablo Typographical 
xhibition, consider that 
, more than thirty feet 
will thus gain a little in- 
uch as possible of scicn- 
=1 transfoi-mation may he 
I to a porous vessel ; tliis 
phatn of copper ; a piece 
[• of copper in the latter, 
es tlie wondrous agent, 

zinc to the acid, thence 
le silver or copper, and 
and so on in an endless 
without distiu-bing the 
ses : the zinc, the silver 
ydrogen — -all are so far 



INDUSTRUI. Al'I'MCATIOSS 01' I.I.F.rintCIT\'. 



10 



afh'cted that the zinc becomes uuten away, while a beautiful defiosit of metallic 
.•<)!)l)er, derived from tlie ducomp«:-iiUoii of tlie Muli)hulo, aj.i.eurs ou the surface 
»)t Uie silver or ci.i)pcr. Thin bit of i)lulosophy must siUlict) for our piosent 
purpose. * 

Now tlie Binnhigliam iimuufacturei-a, ever alive (as manufacturerti rn-o wont 
tA» be) to luiy improvementd which mav uilviuico their Uude, saw Uiut tlieie was 
a principle of great commereiul value hero developed. Copper is not tlie oiilv 
nieUil wlueh call be thus prccipiUited ; gold, silver, platinum, and other metals 
may bo similuily U-eatcd ; and it was conceived tliat a Uiin layer of gold or 
silver might be applied to Uie surface of cheaper nu'tuls by this proc.^ss, iu- 
Ht.-ad of by Uie older process of "plating.' Let Uio brilliant display of 
Alessi-s. Klkmgton, at the Crystal ralacc, tell how great has been Uie suJcess 
Httained m this mw ait. Let ua compare Uie real plate with Uie electroplate, 
and Uien ap[)reciate Uio striking peculiarities of a pmcess which enables so 
beautiful a silverj- surface, so close an imiution of solid silver, to be produced 
Irom Uie lupiid soluUon in a gidvanic battery. 

I low is an electro-silver vase, or candelabrum, or t^iblo oniainent, or liono- 
nuytronhy produced? 'J'he wiswcr is full of interest. There is fii-st Uio 
tutist, Uie tjisteful designer, employed ; ho exercises all Uic talent which he 
may have accpiired by nature and education, to produce a desigu which shall 
combine fitness of adajiUiUon wiUi grace of torm and decoration. Ne.\i conies 
Uie modeller : he places before him Uie design which has been laid down on 
I)aper, luid proceeds to build up a realizaUon of Uiat design : he works upon a 
mass of smooUi wa.K. which, by the aid of variously-shaped tools hi wood and 
bone, he fashions into an exact representation of Uie lU'ticlo to be produced, 
lo the modeller succeeds Uie moulder, who makes a mould in lead or some 
other fusible metal ; Uiis would, of course, present a reverse to the model — 
hollows instead of i»rojections, and projecUoiis insteml of hollows. Next tt) 
Uie modeller comes Uie patten i-nmker, who, by a similar jirocess of casting, 
makes a cast in biuss from Uie lead mould ; Uiis brass pattern is carefiillv touched 
up and finished, and constitutes a more perfected ediUon of Uie wax model • 
and It senes lus Uie type, as it were, of all Uic articles to be produced. Again 
«uid again does Uae casUng proceed ; for as there was a lead mould made from 
the wax model, so is Uiere now a sand mould made from Uie bmss iiatteru • 
and as Uns brass paUenr was obtained from Uie lead mould, so, lasUy, is Uiere 
a ^yllIto iiietal cast made from the sand mould. The white metal cast is Uie 
wticlc to be nroduced and sold, Uiougli it has not yet received its silveiy gai-- 
inent. Ihe luxmiunt ormmient which wo lue hero supposing to be mider for- 
mation, may require other preparat«iy processes ; it may have decoraUvo de- 
tJiilsj in Unn metal, which requux; stamping ; it may need Uie addiUon of Uiiu 
pieces made from sheets by bi-azing or hammering ; or it may render neces- 
sary Uie soldenug of inany pieces togeUier. But we wiU leap over Uiese inter- 
methate processes, and suppose the article to bo completely formed, in a white 
metal, composed of zinc, coiiper, and nickel. It is dipped uito a tank contain- 
ing a chemical soluUon of silver, in which also a lew sheets of pure sUver are 
immersed. Then comes Uio mysterious agency of clectio-chemisfay. The 
vase or oUier article being i)laced m coimecUon wiUi Uie wires of a batteiT 
a cm-rent is generated, tlie solution is decomposed, Uio atoms of silver 
leave it and clmg to the vase, other atoms of silver leave the plates to re-invi- 
gomt« Uie solution, and so the chaui of operations proceeds, uuUl Uie vase is 
coated wiUi pure silver, atom by atom. These atoms cling togeUier ; and ac- 



■I I 



Hb 



INDC8TBIAL ArPUrxTIOMS OF ELRCTniCITt. 




cmlinR to the intensity of tho cnrrent. the strength of Uie sohition, and tho 
time of iminor«ion. iloc^s Uio dopoHiu^l coat bcc-otno tluckor. 

It is Uu,H that the Hilvery coat of electro-plate .s produced : the subse^ 
qucnt burnisliing rti.d finishing wo need not dwell on here. And ^"'^ " W^* 
i thin coating oFgold. .)r copper, or iron, or zinc, or platuuun, be ap .lad U> 
any "her nwU\, & changing U.e nature of tho chcnucal .olut.o.. ni t .e t.u»k. 
And Unm also might the delicate coating bo applied to a non-metalhc body 
beneath, by an intl^nening preparation of black lead or ot r»'»«lf »™« ^nd 
UiUH, again, might fmil« anJflow.-rs, stems .uid leaves, wings and f^-'^^T/n v 
coated wiUi metiil with tlxo sanio ease as any manufactured articles. Not only 
nu Hublnces of almost eveiy kind be Uiuh coated but the enure thickness 
of ill article in metal may be thus ma^le by electnvdeposit : all that ,s requ. ed 
is. that provision should be made to ensure tho non-adhesion of the deposited 

metal on tho framework or mould. , . . • i c i „...«,,„.. 

When we see large sheets of copper produced in this wonderful manner, 
wo have proof Uiat the metal, precipitated atom by atom froni the sohition. 
unites into its proper metallic homogeneous state ; and this has given a 
range of applicability of the meUio<l to useful and ornamental pmposes, 
quite beyon(f present calculation. Sometimes we meet witli articles of table- 
plate so produced ; sometimes buttons, pens, trinkets, or cheap jewellery; some- 
times it presents itself as a coating for chronometer spnngs and for magnetic 
needles; sometimes as a mode of preserving medallions by a minute layer of 
copper; sometimes as a mode of permanently retaining the fonns of vegetable 
objects, by encasing tliem in gold, silver, or copper envelopes; or even as a 
priservaUve for insects, for details so minute as Uioso of a butterfly s wings 
mav be preserved by the electro deposit, sometimes as a covering for basket- 
work or for lace. The suggestions for new modes of useful applications are 
not less numerous than tlie applications Uiemselves. One proposal is for a 
mode of taking unpressions in copper from ornamental bi-asses by electio 
deposit. Another is for making stamps and dies by electro deposit on 
embossed surfaces. Another is for obtaining copies of gi-aduated instm- 
ments from a carefuUy prepared standard. Anothor is for makmg tools 
for grinding specula aJid lenses, by depositing tlie thin him on he curved 
surface of Uie very article to be pohshed; nay. more, tlie specula themselves 
have in some cases been made by electro deposit. A proposal of much 
creator magnitude, in respect to its uifluenco on manufactures, is that ot 
smelting by electricity; this is not so much an example of electro deposit 
as of electro septiration; its theoretical soundness is imdispuf^d. and small 
portions of ore have actually been smelted by this agency; but up to the 
present time the system has not yet entered the domain of pracUcai 

" EbcUinction is now at Uie threshold of many manufacturing processes, 
besides tlmt of smelting, just alluded to. It is waiting for admission, and 
well be admitted step by step. Copper tubes and pipes have been made 
by electro deposit; and we may yet see the day when they will Uius be 
i^ode wiUi commercial advantage. Calico-pnnting has been effected also by 
this a'^encv, in a cmious mamier. Two rollers ai-e prepared, one of plain 
iro- md one on which a pattern has been formed by pieces of various 
kinds of metal inserted in the surface. The calico dips into a liqmd 
having peculiar chemical relations to the various metals; and vvhile it passes 
between the rollers, a galvanic cuiTont is allowed to form a circmt through 






L 



-«4. 



-:A*aSiii » i > i lWMiiiwi i M ii i i i»ia ii ■ 1 1 » > > i n nwim ii iM iiii 



MtMMif-'^ 



lITt. 

tho Kolutioii, aiul tlifl 
kor. 

l)riHluced : thi> svibse- 
oic. Ami tlms might 
utinunt, l)o ainilit'd to 
III solution in tfm tiuik. 
to u non-niiitiillic JHxly 
r of phoKphoruH. And 
wings iin<l fcullun-H, bo 
rod articles. Not only 
It tlio entire thicknoHs 
iHit : all that is required 
lieHion of the deposited 

this woncU^rful manner, 
itoiu from the sohilitiii, 

and tliis has given a 

ornamental purposes, 
It witli ai-ticles of table- 
• cheap jewellery ; somo- 
)rings and for magnetic 
;is by a minute layer of 
i{ the fomis of vegetable 
nvelopes; or even as a 
e of a butterfly's wings 
IS a covering for basket- 
t useful applications ore 
One proposal is for a 
sntal brasses by electro 

by electro deposit on 
es of gi-aduated instm- 
ler is for making tools 
thin film on the curved 

tlie specula tliemselves 

A proposal of much 

nanufactures, is that of 

ample of electro deposit 

1 imdisputed, and small 

agency; but up to the 
he domain of practiciJ 

manufacturing processes, 
iting for admission, and 
pipes have been made 
when they will thus be 
las been etfected also by 
B prepared, one of plain 
>d by pieces of various 
alico dips into a liquid 
stals ; and while it passes 
o form a cu-cuit through 




ISDtrsTHlAI, APPT.ICATION8 Of FLlCTRICtTY. 



»l 



i 



the apparatus. The singidar result is, that diffeitnit colours are produced 
on (he calico b^' tlic dirtiience in tiie action between the various metals 
and tlio liquid witli which it is satinvted. 

A glance will nresently be Uiken at tlio e iriosities which electricity present* 
when connected with fine-art printing: but it may here be sUited, that 
ordinajy letter-press printing is begiiming to receive aid from tho same 
wonderful agent. A metho»l Irns bt-en devised for covering tho siuface of 
ordinary type with a film of copper, by electio-deposit: copper is known 
to 1)0 ten or twelve times as tenacious as leail; but as it is ditlicult to melt, 
and is nuuh more costly, cop|ier types oie almost miknown; and, Uierefore, 
iu» attempt is now being made to combine tlie tenacity of the one with 
the cheapness and fusibility of tho other, by facing ordinary type with copper. 
Dr. Newton, in a paper recently read before the Knuiklin Institute at I'hila- 
delphia, htates that, in a wi(lely-sprca<l religious publication at New York, 
ordiniuy types aie nearly worn out by 17(t,(H)(» impressions, while the galvanized 
type is little injured by six times this number; that the new tyjies require 
less ink, and waste less than ordinary type ; tliat tho copper fixce can be read 
better by the compositor than tlie leaden face; that tlie two nieUils can 
cosily be separated for renielting, tho one melting at 500' and tlie other 
at 1800° FnJirenheit; imd that the increased expense is not more than 
30 per cent. Whetlier English printers will confinu this favourable American 
verdict, time must show. 

A very pretty specimen of electro-metallurgy is presented in Mr. James's 
elaborate mmlel of the Britannia Bridge, which has had some million pairs of 
eyes upon it at the Industrial Exhibition. The two groat tubes of this 
tubular bridge are of course the most notable parts of the stnicture ; and 
Mr. James has made his mimic tubes in the model entirely by tho electro 
process. 

ELECTRicmf IN Relation to the Fine Arts. 

But if electro-chemical action tlius lends a kimlly hand to tlie manufoc- 
turuig <u-ts, not less ma-ked lue its services to tho fine arts, or those where 
beauty ard grace prevail over mere material use. 

The copying of an exquisite line engraving, from a copper or steel plate to 
an electro-copper deposit, although now become a very famiUar pnjcess, is 
really a wonderful one ; for let the lines of the engraving be as fine and 
miriute as tliey may, the deposited atoms of copper miu-k tliem all distinctly — 
so infinitely small is each atom or particle compoi-ed with any magnitude 
which human hands can produce. Like many other wondert'ul and beautiful 
processes, tliis is a very simple one. Let us suppose that a loi-ge steel or 
copper engraving is to be so copied. The plate is immei-sed ui a chemical 
solution of copper, and a thick film is precipitated on it by electro deposit. 
This film may be easily loosened from the plate, and its smfoce then presents 
a reverse to the plate, protuberances instead of engraved lines, and cavities 
instead of plain or raised portions. The film is employed as a sort of mould ; 
for it is, in its turn, immei-sed in the solution, and made tho basis for a 
second deposition. This second deposition is allowed to continue until a 
plate as tliick as the original is produced ; and this plate, when separated from 
its parent film, is seen to be an exact counterpart of the engi-avcd plate first 
operated upon. So perfect is the resemblance, tliat, if Uie electro-plate be 
made with care, an inked impression printed from it can be detected from 



I 



gjj INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OK F.LECTHIOITV. 

one printed from the original l.late only by an esi.erience.1 jmlge : to orilumo- 
eves llioY tuo eciual in all respects. , , . 

%,e Ssuvttelnpts at c-loct^ognvphy (an this art is «o»»^^""^« ^^SC ^^^^^ 
producing InipreHhions from coin«. medals, die«, seals cameos, »"ta«»««' f ' 
Silike smJl articles in las-relief; and these have always been »-eg'"Jf ^ ^^ 
a^ong tl.e neatest and prettiest manifestations ot this cnnou« a,^ I'fJ 
is becoming Nvider and wider in its application. Isot only doe. ^V^^dnce^ 
copies from engi'aved plates, but oven the platos Uiemselves 1 ' « r Smce 
mLle by elecU-o-coppermg. for the engraver t« work upon. i» ^n .m^^^^^ 
treatise on i-7.c/.o-M.(«««7W he gives Uiree engravings «f .^^J^ ^/"^^^^XS-o 
kind, to show how a methotl of stereotypmg might bo practised by elec lo 
deposit. They were produced ui three ditferent ways, i",*;!*'^ l^'^W^^^'f'^, 
va e^^graved^on a wood block; a cupper revei^e from this >vas taken by 
electro deposit- a cast was taken from this in soft or litsible metal , and im- 
pres Ls were printed from tliis oast. In the second, the device was engraved 
Tvrd; a rov'erse was taken from the wood in fusible -^f^^S^/^ 
was deposited on the metal by the electro process; and tho pimtmg was 
X-fficmi tlie copper. In the third, the device was engraved on m>od ; a 
■no;d1 from this w!is taken in plaster; an f-^- .^.-^.^ ^^^^^ .^^ ^ 
plaater, and the impressions were "^^luned fix)m Uns coppei deposi^^^ l^e 
impressions vary somewhat hi fineness ; but all suthce to show tliat Uie 
f.lp<.t Ti Di-nposs mav tittiiif'lv form one part ot the genes. 
' '^U a^e now'to be Veen, in finiart exhibitions and clH-here copper 
bu8t« which illustrate the electrotype art in a very remaiKable way. Ihe 
r oat Sibitlou has displayed to us a few of colossal dunensions, bes des 
ni™? tS speciiileii These consist f-"y ^^ -Igted Lm a 
sheet! and the whole of the metnl has been reduced or pieupiUteU noni a 
licmul sohUim. We believe that the first example of this striking production 
Is a bus of the late Dr. Dalton, made by Mr. Cheverton about ten years ago 
^^'ii^t^i-^ability being Urns demonstrated the ^^ UKiy^o^-^"^ 
to anv extent The processes arc curious. The bust is in^t "'O^'^"^" " 
iomTkiiu ot clay, which may afterwards easily be broken away l>',^f,emeal 
a^d on this a thick copper film is deposited by the elf ^ro process ihe c ay 
core or model being broken away, Uie copper remauis as a 1'""^'^ she , t l 
n ide of wh ch has'taken the exiict impress (though reversed. « t^- "»^^ 
o the bust This copper shell, .m being properly prepared on the nmei 
8 irte is Lie t^ie groundwork on which a second deposition takes place ;t 
is us^d n fS asa mould, from which one or more busts may be procured 
We mtht S Siagine a Aest of busts, one wiUiin anoUier, ea^h senmg as . 
mould f'ov l^^S one within it; aiid thus we might fonn a goodly family oi 
Saholeons or Bv"^T or HcoUs, graduating from tlie colossal to the petite 
atS'r of tiie series dcpendi^ig.on the thickness of [ - -^^l^,? '^J^^^^^^^^^ 
tn frirri. paoh of theiii. Buch a series woukl certainly be a cuiiosity oi 
decSJ^pl^r. but it would require some mechanical t«ct to eftect tire libera- 
tion of each bust from its enveloping mould. 

. Arehitect« and sculptors are gradually avaUmg themseives ^^ ^f J^""]/" J^j;^ 
fi^rdiemnoe of their professional labour. The late Bavarian sculptor, Stiglmayer, 
u-ho wrremplo e<l by King Ludwig on so many important works at Mmuch, 

evirfa 3e ot- ing colos.sal plaster statues with copper, by tho electi 
nroceTs ii^ a remai-kably expeditious way. But one of the most imiwrtan 
I ,Son\ of Te art is flit which is exhibited in the new and splendid 
ffiiS Vum.> at St. Pete«,b«rgh. on which tlie Emperor ha3 expended 



L 



INDUSTHIAI, APPTJ0ATION9 OP ELECTRlOITr. 



SI 



i judge : to oriVmaiy 

imes cttlletl) weio in 
,nieos, intaglioa, and 
,ye been regaided as 
curious ui'l. liut it 
inly doe^ it pvoduce 
ves hiive been thus 
on. In :Mr. Smces 
:)f a very instmctivo 

practised by electro 
[n tlje tirbt, a device 

this was taken by 
ible nietul; and ini- 
! device was engraved 
letal ; a coi)l)er plate 
id tho printing was 
lugraved on wood ; a 
wan taken from the 
opper deposit. The 
s to show tliat the 

aH elsewhere, copper 
niarl<&ble way. 'i'he 
L dimensions, besides 
of co])per, in a tliin 
r precipitated from a 
is striking production 
1 about ten years ago ; 
may 1)0 now followed 
t i:! lirst modelled in 
(kon away piecemeal ; 
ro process. The clay 
as a hollow shell, the 
ivei-sed) of tho outside 
repared on tho umer 
losition takes place ; it 
jsts may be procured, 
tlier, each serving as a 
m a goodly family oi' 
3olos3ul to tho petite; 
if the metal deposited 
y be a "curiosity" of 
!ct to effect tJie libera- 

elves of this art in the 
:iii sculptor, Stiglmayer, 
rtant works at Mmuch, 
copper, by tho electro 
of tli»^ most important 
the new and splendid 
Emperor haa expended 



I 



large suras. Certain pai-ts have been ornamented hi a remarkable way. Tlie 
catlioihm lias se\on very large doors, or rather door-ways, tlireo of which are 
Ibrty-four feel wide by tliu-ty high ; they are fonned of bronw, but all the 
adornments are produced by the electio process. These atlorinuonts are of a 
most elabomtc nature ; they comprise no less tlian fifty-one bas-reliefs, sixty- 
three statues, and eighty-four alU.-ieUevo busts. It is not simply an a matter 
of economy that the cjectio process has been adopted; for the Czar is not a 
man to entertain scruples ou such a point ; but there are cerUiu advantages 
of an oi-tistic character. By tho electro process the sculptor is sure to have 
his model faithfully copied; and f - lightness of tho material enables him to 
impart bolder relief to his designs than if they were cast iii bronze ; while 
this lightness of weight also justities him in suspending pendants or bosses 
irom vaulting, of a Im-ger size tlian would bo safe if made in any other way. 
Among our own Enghsh productions, Messrs. Elkington have produced an 
electro statue of the IJuke of Gloucester, for the new House of Lords. The 
same successful firm produced, by tlie electro process, the gold and silver 
decorations of Her Majesty's jewel casket, which has adorned the mam avenue 
of the Crystal Palace. 

It has been sometimes apprehended tliat the startling discoveries of tlie last 
few yeai-3 will tend to lower tlie tone of ai-t m its purer acceptation ; tlmt if 
Light becomes an artist, by producing photographic pictures, and Electricity 
an artist, by producing electrographs, the man of genius may bo superseded 
altogether. But tliis is a mistake, ai-ising from too humble lui estimate of art. 
A photograph is a coji,/, and nothing but a coiiv ; so is an electTOgra[)h ; neither 
can originate, or combme, or niodily, or idealize. If a faiUiful copy of fomis 
or colours be required, one or other of tliese arts can present it ; but if some- 
thing more tlian a mere copy be wiuited, the mind of the artist is as necessary 
now as before these arts were known i and such it will continue to be. Pho- 
tography and electrography will expedite and assist the lower depai-tments of 
ail, but they will never supei-sede tho higher. 

These remaiks are suggested by the truly interesting ettihings recently pro- 
duced by electricity. Some persons have hastily assumed that the etchers 
" occupation "s gon'»" as soon as the chemists laboratory becomes tlie artist's 
studio. But, by looking a little farther into tlie matter, it will be seen tliat the 
mind of an artist is as much required in producing tho design on a plate in 
Uic one process as in tlie oUier: it is not science as opposed to ai-t, but eleo- 
tiicity as opjwsed to aquafortis, Let us illnstrnte thh. In etching, a plate is 
coated wiUi a peculiar composition ; and the etcher, with shai-p uistiunK^nts, 
scmpes away the composition in all the parts which are to fonn the design ; 
the copper in tliese exposed lines and spots is then eaten away by the cor- 
roding action of aquafortis on tho old process ; while on die new it is removed 
by tlie action of the galvanic battery. The batteiy is eo adjusted that Uie 
cop^ier, instead of being deposited on the plate from anotlicr body, loaves tlie 
plate and deposits itself on that body. 

But tlie metliod of elecirotiiU is more curious, inasmuch as there is no 
etching at all. A plato of white metal, presenting a dull white surface, is pre- 
pared; and on this tlie artist paints his design in full, giving eveiy touch 
which IS required in his picture ; he uses a pigment raixeil expressly for this 
purpose, without regard to colour; and he applies it witli bi-ushes, pencils, 
and small pomted pieces of wood or boue. He proceeds on the same prui- 
ciple as the copper-plate engraver and the etcher in this rc^spect— that all the 
pai'ts which are to be white in the impression arc left mitouched by tlie paint. 



If 



iMMIIIIMillMI 



^ 



nsm 



tmf 



f 



g4 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIOKS OP ELECTRICITY. 

Different depths Of light .and shaaeare^^.^^^^^^ 

the paint laid on- and ? ^requires mu 1^^^^^ « Lposed to the electro 

picture being thus fax hnished »"•*. J^"!^ J^J ^ in which tlie sUght alt^ma- 

proceas; ^ <il"^ «^«\^^\°^ ^^^l^iS coSd b an'd the plate 

tions of vidges and hollows ai-e fa^thfuly copiea, om re .^ ^^^ 

Ls formel is capable of ^fJ^^Z^^f^^'^^^^TrnZll^^^^ 
ordinary way. ^y "lod^^ng the detads th^^^^^^^^ ^ ^^, p^.^, 

engi-aving rather than etehing. In » ^^^^^fT^'^' ^^ or left prominent; 
which are to be bUwk are eft "'it^^^'^^^'^^Jy *J^Se t^ Se Vines which are 
and, in like manner, the ^^^f "^g^XZ^^^^^^ His 

to give a black impression, by ^'^^^f '"^ ^^'t^JXi^g ^ith paint those lines 
penciUing must be peculiar, or 5« fj^^^'^'^n S^l painting is finished, an 
^hich axe really to constitute his ^^^^^- .J^^SJ^%^^i,nAt the common 
electi-otype plat« from it wdl be ^'"f ^"F ^^^ed by Mr. Palmer eight or 
press. 'These ---kable ^roc^^^^^ Exhibition we 

ten yeai-s ago; and in the ^^"^ "Xction which, if not identical, is cer- 
have had an opportmnty of «««"^g ^ P^f j^'X^^ice m question, a white 
tainly of analogous character. .Ibere is, m "^«^^ ^^^ j pigment; by tlie 
metal plate, on which a picture is P^^^f "^^ Ijefomer by electro deposit ; 
Bide of this is a copper plat«, P'^.^^^'^^^J^J'^presSr^ the engraving so 
and by the side of this •^"^Ji ^^/J^fLTSmduced, without i^y pi-cess 

^nS^nto-S^^^-^^^^^^^^^ 

^?i;ftS::^Sr9ocess.a.^^omm^ 

bv Mr. Smee, hi a recent edition of Ins J^^J'^f ^''^^e /LtrS Lo^^on 
title-page of Punch, and tlie vignette at the ^P ot me i millions 

tJL both printed from copper ^l^^eScoWts tlfdSToriguially 
of impressions have been obtamed from ditfemit coders, a^^^ ^^^^8^^^ ^^ 

from tiie same woodcut. In such cases a ^^^f^.l^JTsfon is printed from tlie 
electrotype is produced from the '^^^^^^^.^ZTNeX ^o^^^^ stated 
electrotype- I",*^ recent number of ti^^^^^^ ^.^PJ^ f,.,„ ^^od- 

that they have long been of "f "'*'", *X fo? See printing ; that they are 
block engravings will by-and-by be available ^^ ^^'JJ^^ ^lis direction ; 
watching with anxious '^^\f.^f^^^^^^^\Sae'S in adopting the 

but that they have not, up o ^e F^^^^^^^' ^^^ ^^^je. GlypUffrapH or 
meUiod extensively untd fuithei ^P^^y^^T"" n gtj^a for maps; thei-e is a 
the electi-o-et^hmg of plates, J.^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^f ^^^^^^ excellent speci- 

gazetteer now in coui-se oi publication, <^«,f/P^.„7, ";" ^e that tiio Ordnance 
Lns of Glyphography. It '^"^'^ ^.^^^''^l^^STT^^e^^^ some of the 
maps are printed f^^om ^^^^^^'^^t^^^PSaved T^^^^ Great Exhibition. But 
plaL in juxtaposition, ^ave bee« ^jsP^^^^^^ I ^^ ^nion of photography 
perhaps the most cunous of ad <^t'«^^""°^" uVeffects produced in the fii-st 
with dectrography. Most readers »^o^ "'^^ f °^ SXprepared and very 
of these arts is due to the action "^/f j\f " ^. Jf^d Snsit es of light pro- 
sensitive surface. Now it has been found tb^*^^^^^^^ employed, and 



'^"Hiiaiaii 



ent thicknesses of 
effect this. The 
>sed to tlie electro 
Uie sUght altei-na- 
3ed ; and the plate 
jlate press in the 
ide to imitate wood 
B etching, tlae paiis 
or left prominent; 
the lines which ave 
ire described. His 
paint those lines 
ting is finished, an 
ng at the common 
Vlr. Palmer eight or 
h-eat Exhibition we 
not identical, is cer- 
ui question, a white 
ed pigment ; by tlio 
• by electro deposit ; 
,f the engi-aving so 
without any process 
method may become 

umcrous. It is said 
Metallurgy, tliat the 
e lUmtrated London 
that sevei-al millions 
all derived originally 
from tlie woodcut, an 
1 is piinted from tlie 
the proprietors stated 
different from wood- 
rinting ; that they are 
iphy in tliis direction : 
ified in adopting the 
de. Olyphography, or 
for maps ; thei-e is a 
li form excellent speci- 
ice, that Uio Orcbiance 
lem, Avith some of the 
reat Exhibition. But 
union of photography 
1 produced in the first 
illy-prepared and very 
ntensities of light pro- 
d plate employed, and 
to varied depths ; thus 
jd for pi-inting. Light 
, of a picture. 



GOLD : IN THE MINE, THE MINT, AND THE 

WORKSHOP. 




In September, 1847, one Captain Suter or Sutter was a bold, prosperous, 
enterprismg, intelligent settler in Upper Califomia. He was a Swiss by birth ; 
he had served Charles X. as one of tlie Swiss Guard at 'lie Tuileries ; he 
emigi-ated to Missouri after the Bourbon revolution of 1880; he removed 
thence to the Oregon territory in 1836 ; he made a farther advance m 1839 to 
Califomia, where he built a fort named New Helvetia on the river Sacra- 
mento; he gradually accumulated around him 4000 oxen, 1500 horses and 
mules, 2000 sheep, a vast acreage of land under gi-ain crops, and two ti-ading 
vessels in the river ; he had his fort supplied with twelve pieces of artilleiy, 
and defended by a garrison of seventy men ; and he was thus, in all proba- 
bility, tlie wealthiest and most influential man beyond the Rocky Mountains. 
The niontli above named was an important one to tliis bold captain, and to 
the world at large. He contracted witli a Mr. Marshall to construct a saw- 
mill near a pine foi-est. The supply of water to this mill was so situated as 
to wash down much mud and gravel from Uie higher course of the stream ; 
and Mr. Marshall, watchuig tlie progi-ess of his works one day, saw some 
glittering pai-ticles in this mud. He formed his own conclusions of the natm-e 
of these shining morsels ; and having shown some of them to tlic Captain, it 
was agreed to keep the matter a secret for a time. Such secrets, however, do 
not keep ; they wUl not keep : it was soon noised abroad that gold had been 
discovered at the American Fork of the Sacramento, and a gold fever there- 
upon sprang up. A few labourers collected some of the gold-dust, and took it 
for sale to San Francisco, at which town the Ss -ramento enters the Pacific ; 
hundreds flocked up the river; Indians were hired, soldiers and sailors 
deserted, shopkeepers closed then- shops, and San Francisco became ahnost 
abandoned. Two men, employing a hundred Indians, got 17,000 dollars' 
worth of gold in a short time; another party, 12,000; and anotlier, 16,000. 
In two or three months, one store-keeper at Suter's Fort sold goods for 36,000 
doUai-s' woi-th of gold-dust. 

Such was tlie opening scene of the Califomian drama, which has since set 
the whole world in commotion. It is to this gold, and to gold generally — its 
obtainment and its application, its uses and its " cuiiositiea "— that the present 
sheet will be devoted. , ., 

The Gold Mines or Past Ages. 

The world has never known a period (within historic limits, at least) when 
gold was not cherished and valued highly. Whether it is because this beau- 
tiful metal presenU a brilUant colour and lustre, or because it is little affected 

II 



MMWHi 




% OOU) : IN THE MINE, THE MINT, AND THE WOIIKSHOP. 

bv external acents, or because it is easily ^vrought into useful and ornamental 
f/rTsX evidence is cleai- enough that g U lijxs liad a -idely-spread and a 
long-continued reign. We ai-e told of on age of iron, and an age of bronze 
a3ofZgolden ages, i>ar e^ccellence; and tliese metaphors are founded on 
Srtain clL^acteristifs of certain periods in ^^^^^.^^ :l>utvm one sens , the 
golden age never dies, if we judge from the estnnatiou m ^;l»<^ll *f f one 
metal is held. Wliether a cotmtry possesmng non ™'f « . "f "^.^J'^^X 
one which boasts of its gold, is quite anotlier question, wluch must b« dis 
cussed on a much wider basis. ,., .. j ,i;ffnr«nppa in the 

As different centuries in pa.st history h-^ve exhib.^^d differences m Ue 
suwnlv of cold, so does Uie geographical distribution differ greatly. All Uic 
rqVart.'i. of Uie world (Iha't S> designate Austmha is now a pu.j^^^ 
"fifth quarter •■ not being quite orthodox) contain gold .'"f ^«' ^«Xo\^^^^^^^^ 
unequ^ degree. For a considerable number of yeai^ I'efore Oie dlHCo^ ep of 
the mines o*f California, tlie world was chiefly supplied with gold frojn » bena 
Sd the Indian islands in Asia, from Hmigary and Transylvania in Europe 
from a few scattered places in Africa, from Brazil in South Amcnca, and from 
Carolina in North America. Taking the average of many years betore 1847, 
S aLnuS producewas supposed to be about 80.000 fbs.. having a money 
value of somewhat less than £5,000,000. , 

Many have been tlic eager hopes and anticipations that om- own little 
island may be a golden land" It is eertiun that the Irish of early times had 
aWancI of gold ornaments, the material for which seems to have been 
dSed from their own •• green isle." But there is now veiy little reason o 
Spit that thrage of goll will supersede the age of hon, so far as regards 
thfrnineral wealA of the British Isles. There are traces of gold m Ireland 
n wXs at Leadliills. at Glen Turret, at Cumberhead near Lanaj-k. and in 
other pl£^es; sometimes they occur in quartz vems, sometimes hi alluvial 

*^Th?most notable attempt yet made in this '^f •"'^"^^^f .^^^"^dTe"x^ 
us has been in Wicklow. On the boundary line between Wicklow and Wex 
forJToSs is a mountain caUed Crogh^i Kinshela: many streams descend 
from this mountain, and in the muddy bed of these streams gold was dis- 
cTred about hJa centuiy ago. It was not merely fragmentary morsels 
whTch thSs presented themselveT, but the eye of .th« gold-seeker wa^^^^^^ 
bv nieces or lumps up to twenty-t>vo ounces weight. The gold was aceom 
pLkd by otibrmetals. and was generally found several ^^et below the 
Ee This' discovery made, we maybe sure.no little stu' at the time. 
One of the stories connected with the subject teUs 1^«- '^l^^it^^j^^P^^J^^t^ 
about the year 1770, was wont to talk about the riches of the district , how li^ 
wandeied Li at night, until his neighbours tl.ought he -aj a li^^^^^^^ m 
his intellect; how he married a young wife, and '^^^^^f''^''^'^'^;^^^^^ 
her; how she gossiped about it to her neighbours; and how tfie good news 
theiWnon spread. But the matter was not senously taken up till l^HO, ■when 
Tman whUe cVossing a valley-brook, picked up a glittermg frag«>;nt which 
proved tTbeneLly h^ an ounce of gold, at least as pure as that of standard 
E The newTJot wind ; voung and old, male and female, hale imd infirm 
-alibied to the valleys, an/ groped about for the ^ee^^f ^^^JJ^,-;* ^ 
not a hoax nor a day dream, for the peasants gathered sev^jial thousaml 
DoLds'w^rthiL two months. It was at once Uiought that a bright day had 
Snforpot'dlreland; that she had the f^.-}]t(C""^SG^^- 
within herself; but alas, tlie hopes were " too bright to last. The t^ovem 



I, \tm\l\tA"- ■—•■I-*"- *""- 



)HK8H0P. 

seful and ornamental 
, widely-spread and a 
id an age of bronze, 
hors are founded on 
it, in one sense, tlie 
u in which this one 
es is not richer than 
, which must b« dis- 

id differences in tlie 
iffer greatly. All tlic 
a is now a puzzle : a 
nines, though in vei-y 
tefore the discoveiy of 
nth gold from Siberia 
insylvania in Europe, 
ith America, and from 
ny years before 1847, 
I lbs., havuig a money 

18 that om' own little 
ish of early times had 
I seems to have been 
,v vei-y little reason to 
iron, so far as regards 
ces of gold in Ireland, 
d near Lanark, and in 
sometimes m alluvial 

ncnt of minmg among 
3en Wicklow and Wex- 
many streams descend 

streams gold was dis- 
y fragmentary morsels 
)ld-seeker was tempted 

The gold was accom- 
seveial feet below the 
little stir at the time. 
w an old schoolmaster, 
of Uie district ; how he 
i was a little touched in 
municated the secret to 
md how tlie good news 
akenup till 1796, when 
ittering fragment which 
)ure as that of standard 
female, hale and infirm 
•ecious treasure ; it was 
lered several thousand 
It that a bright day had 
of (golden) regeneration 
to last." The Govem- 



oold: in the mine, the mint, and the workshop. 8 

ment took the subject in hand, and appointed a Mr. Weaver to superintend 
tlie onerations. He instituted a search into the various modes in whic^h tlie 
gold had deposited itself, with a view to establish a systematic mode of ex- 
ti-action ; he engaged diggers and collectors and labourers ; and ho esta- 
blished the necessaiy commercial machineiy for carrying on operations. It 
was calculated tliat the country people had collected A' 10,000 worth of gold 
before tlie (iovemrnent had taken possession of the works ; and tlie Govern- 
ment collected 945 ounces, valued at j£8H75 ; but when the accounts came to 
be balanced, it was found that the expenses had exceeded the receipts. The 
bright vision was dissipated, the scheme was abandoned, and the Government 
has never since taken i)art in the matter. The Wicklow gold mines have still 
an interest to the minds of some, but the golden particles arc too " few and liir 
between " to render the collection a very profitable employment. 

t^uitting our own islands, and directing a glance to the continent of Europe, 
we find that Hungary and Transylvania are among the chief gold countries ; 
the precious metal being found in tlie sands of some of the rivers. There arc 
also two or three Bohemian rivers which yield a small supply. In one part 
of Uie valley of tlie Ithine, between Mannheim and Basle, gold is found in n 
sand-bank in the river, but not in sufficient quantity for working. There are 
many parts of Europe whence gold was once obtainable in profitable quantity, 
but where the search is now abandoned : such are the banks of the Ebro, the 
llhone, and tlie Diuiube. Africa is said to yield about 6000 lbs. weight of 
gold annually — from the district between Abyssinia and Darfur; from the 
region soutli of the Great Sahai*a ; from the Mozambique coast ; from the sands 
of tlie Gambia, tlie Senegal, and the Niger ; and from that portion of the 
Atlantic sea-board which obtains the name of Gold Coast. Asia contributes 
small supplies from some of the rivers in Asia Minor, from die Indian islands, 
jmd from certain parts of India, China, Cochin-China, and Sumatra. 

But of all the contributions which the Old World produces, in this depart- 
ment of mineral wealth, none equal those of the vast Russian Empire. The 
quantity has been rapidly increasing within the last few years. In 1849 the 
quantity was about 33,000 lbs., and tliis has since risen to 50,000, 60,000, 
and oven 80,000 lbs. There are two groups of Russian gold deposits, near 
the Ural and the Altai Mountains respectively. The eastern gi-oup, near the 
Altai, is said to comprise a district as large as France, over the whole area of 
which " not only are considerable quantities of gold found mingled with sand 
and gi-avel on the surface, but even the rocks themselves, when pounded up, 
sue found to afford a percentage of that valuable metal." 

It is curious to observe how vained are tlie aspects in which the gold 
presents itself. In the Ural district, for instance, it occurs in minute frag- 
menta imbedded in coarse gravel, somewhat like that at Woolwich ; it also 
occurs disseminated in veins of quartz in hard rocks, which are worked by 
regular subterranean mining operations ; and it occurs associated with pla- 
tinum, and one or two other rare metals, in detached fragments of rock. The 
processes adopted by the gold collectors vaiy according to these varied modes 
of deposit. If the sand of any river contains a few grains of gold to five 
pounds weight of sand, it will pay for the expense of gold-washing. In the 
Altai distiict the gold appears disseminated in a quartz sand, not merely in 
river vnl'nys, but sometimes even to the stimmit of a moimtain. There has 
been one mass obtained, weighing no less than 78 lbs., and valued at JE3000. 

Crossing the Atlantic, we find tliat Brazil, until the recent discovories in 
Cahforoia, has been the richest of American gold countries. There is a chain 

H 3 



"^ 



: ■WilUlMllillllWllfcHlWIM 



MitHM 



RMMK 




4 gold: in the mine, the mint, and the workshop. 

of mountains manning parallel with the coast, some distance inland ; and in 
the rivers which flow from tliese momitains, gold is found in considerable 
quantity. There is much hard rock in the river valleys : in this rock is a 
stratum of gravel and rounded pebbles, and in tliis stratum the gold is met 
with. In the province of Minas Geraes, gold occm-s also in veins in tlie hai-d 
rock, and mining operations have recently commenced there. The Brazilian 
produce gi-adually rose in annual amount till 1753 ; it mahitained a veiy high 
position till 1763, but since Uiat time it has been declining. This decline is 
attributable to the exhaustion of the auriferous sands ; the gold veins in hard 
rock have only recently begun to be mined, owing to tlie want of capital. 

Other districts of America yield small portions of the precious metal. In 
Mexico the silver (which forms the chief wealtli of the country) frequently con- 
tains gold, but not often in sufficient quantity to pay for the separation ; there 
are also a few veins in the rocks. In Peru and in New Granada tliere are 
gold veins and washings in small quantity. In Central America tliere are 
washings which have become nearly exhausted. The Appalachian chain in 
North Ameri.ca gives rise to many rivers which flow into Uie Atlantic ; and in 
the sands of a few of these rivers (chiefly in Virginia, Coi-olina, and Georgia) 
gold occurs in sufficient quantity to pay for working ; tlie whole are said to 
yield about 3000 lbs. of gold annually, and there has been known to occur a 
mass weighing 28 lbs. 

But the north of the American continent is " looking up,' as gold specu- 
lators would say. Not only has California (of which more presently) suddenly 
acquired a golden reputation, but Canada, our own British Canada, has made 
a humble start in tlie same line of wealth. Within tlie last year or two, gold 
has been found in that colony ; and no sooner was this discoveiy announced, 
than adventurers were found to flock thither, as they probably would to Spitz- 
bergen, or even to the North Pole, if tliey were told Uiat gold existed there. 
The latest accounts from Canada state that five hundred Americans have, 
during tlie summer of 1851, been roaming on tlie banks of a river in Lower 
Canada, .vhere a little gold had been before found ; and that others from New 
Brunswick were also in the same field of entei-prise. Their success, however, 
has not been veiy encouraging. Still, as it is known that indications of gold 
have appeared over three thousand square miles of country in Lower Canada, 
tliere is quite sufficient to whet tlie appetite of gold-seekers. The gold is 
found in the beds of the streams, and in small pieces with quartz attached ; but 
no auriferous vein of quartz has been yet found. 

California and its Teeascees. 

The wonders of California are, however, those which most press for notice ; 
excepting, perhaps, the still more recent outbui-st in Australia. 

If we look at a modern map of California, such as that which accompanies 
Mr. Biyant's NaiTative, we see a very tempting yellow patch lietween tlie 
Rocky Mountains and tlie Pacific. If tliat patch is not real gold, it is at least 
intended to symbolise gold ; for it marks tlie limits within which gold has 
been obtained. Between the Rocky Mountains and the ocean there is 
aiiotlier mountain ridge, parallel with tlie coast ; there is thus fomied an oblong 
basin or valley between the two i-onges, nearly north and south ; and for a 
distance of nearly 600 miles (35° to 43° N. lat.), the rivers of this valley have no 
outlet whatever except at San Francisco, where a gap occurs in the coast ridge. 
It is thus that natiure has made San Francisco m important place, independent 



nm>MmmMM.i^i>i mmM 



RKSHOP. 

Mice inland ; and in 
and in considerable 
s : in this rock is a 
,um the gold is met 
in veins in tlie hai-d 
ere. The Brazilian 
iutained a veiy high 
iig. This decline is 
le gold veins in hard 
want of capital, 
precious metal. In 
intry) frequently con- 
he separation ; there 
f Granada tliere are 
1 America tliere are 
^ppalai'hian chain in 
Uie Atlantic ; and m 
rolina, and Georgia) 
le whole ai-e said to 
jn known to occur a 

g up," as gold specu- 
e presently) suddenly 
ih Canada, has made 
ast year or two, gold 
discoveiy announced, 
bably would to Spitz- 
it gold existed there, 
[red Americans have, 
s of a river in Lower 
that others from New 
leir success, however, 
It indications of gold 
try in Lower Canada, 
leekcrs. The gold is 
I quartz attached ; but 



most press for notice ; 
itraUa. 

lat which accompanies 
w patch between tlie 
real gold, it is at least 
itliin which gold has 
I the ocean there is 
Qius foniied an oblong 
uid south ; and for a 
3 of this valley have no 
curs in the coast ridge, 
ant place, independent 



oold: in tue mine, the mint, and the workshop. 5 

of the gold question. This harbour (one of the finest in the world) is about 
in latitude 38° ; the Sacramento flows southward along the basin or valley to 
this point ; while the San Joaquir^ flows northward to the same meeting place 

the two rivers having numerous tributaries which drain the Rocky Mountain 

The Son Joaquim and its feeders have been found to yield gold, to 



region. 



but the Sacramento and 
region proper. Hero we 



a point about one degree south of San Frtncisco ; 

its tributm-ies, north of the harbour, form the gold „ . . 

find the American River, Bear River, Yubah River, FeaUier River, Butte 

River, Antelope Creek, Mill Creek, Deer Creek, Chico Creek— all flowing into 

the Sacramento, and all yielding precious returns to the gold-seekers. 

Such is tlie region whither emigrants have for four years been wandering. 
It is remarkable that the political relations between the United States and 
Mexico had shortly before given Upper California to the former nation; and 
that otlier negotiations witli England hod given to Uie latter a more resUicted 
possession of territory on the Pacific coast tlian had before been claimed ; so 
that the United States, by these two political causes, and by the Califomian 
discoveries, became suddenly possessed of gold mines, which she is earnestly 
endeavouring to bring under the operation of a system. 

Would we know how El Dorado presents itself to tlie view of an overland 
ti-aveller to California, we may take Mr. Kelly's recent ' Excursion to Cali- 
fornia,' as an informant. This gold-seeker left Livei-pool per steamer, landed 
at New York, travelled by rail to Albany on the Hudson, thence by rail to 
Buffalo on Lake Erie, crossed Upf .^i Canada by coach to Deti-oit, thence by 
rail and by waggon to the southern paint of Lake Michigan, then on by steam 
conveyance tlirough a canal to the lUiiK is and Mississippi Rivers. Arrived at 
St. Louis, the " Queen of the West, " he steamed fom- hundred miles up the 
Missouri to Independence ; and then, with a large pai-ty, made a waggon 
journey of two thousand miles to tlie gold region— over wide prairies, rapid 
rivers, nigged crags, snowy peaks, through the Mormon settlement at the 
Great Salt Lake, and tlirough perils enough to wear tlie heart out of any but a 
determined man. After tliese two thousand miles of waggon travelling, which 
occupied a hundred and two days, the weary adventurers suddenly " encomi- 
tered some Chilians on tlie banks of a little stream, all but dried up, looking 
for what we came thousands of miles in quest of. It is scarcely necessary to 
state that we halted to noon (the " noon " is tlie mid-day rest in Uiose regions) 
in their neighbomhood, to have our long day-dream interpreted, and see with 
mortal eyes the process of picking and washmg gold from the common clay. 
The operations just there happened to be on a Umited scale ; nevertheless, 
little as it was, it appeai-ed marvellous to us to see pailsful of mud and 
dirt gathered, and, after a very short and simple species of washing, to find in 
the bottom of the basuis a deposit of tlie veritable stuff itself; after which the 
doubts and fears, which, like the misty vapoure of a summer's morning, 
hovei-ed and floated over our brilliant expectations, rolled away and vanished 
as the golden sun became revealed. It was now no longer an exaggerated 
fiction about tlie U-eosures of California." A few miles onward they came to 
some " dry diggings," where miners dig m the diy soil, picking out particles 
of gold from amongst the clay without tlie agency of water. " Of course it 
must be plentiful, and in good sized grams, when the eye can detect them 
mixed wiUi tlie red clay ; and much that is in mere dust must necessarily 
escape in the first instance ; but in the wet season many of them (the diggers) 
wash the heaps over that they had diy-picked before, and with very great 
I sat for half an hour by the side of a digger, watching how he 



success. 



I 



mmm 



mm 



HMMd 




II I L JIM 



oolb: vk th« mwe, thh mtht, ahd thb woiiKSHor. 

worked, during which he frG(iuently pointed out particles in the oartli heforo 
he picked thoni out tliiit would certainly escope an unpractised eye. He ml- 
mitted he averaged one and a half ounce per day, working only abont hix 
hours. " This si)ot was aboiit forty miles from Hacramento city, and nearly 
two hmidred from San Francisco. 

The account which Colonel Mason, an officer dispatched hy the United 
States government to report on tJie capabilities of Califomia, gives of a scene 
which met his view, will fittingly illustrate the earlier opemtions of gold find- 
ing in tliat land of promise :— " The day wa.s intensely hot ; yet about two 
hundred men were at work in the full glare of tlie sun — some with tin pans, 
some with close-woven Indian buckets, but the greater part had a rude nia- 
chino known as tlie craJU. This is on rockers, six or eight feet long, open at 
tlie foot, and at its head has a coarse grate or sieve ; the bottom is rounded 
with small elects nailed across. Four men are required to work this machine : 
one digs the ground in the bank close by the stream ; imother carries it to the 
oi-adle and empties it oti tlie grate ; a third gives a violent rocking motion to the 
machine ; whilst a fouilli dashes on water from tlie stream itself. The sieve 
keei)s the coarse stones from entering the cradle ; the current of wat*r washes 
off the eaithy matter ; and the gravel is gi-adually carried out at the foot of 
the machine, leaving the gold, mixed with a heavy fine black sand, above the 
first elects. The sand and gold mixed togetlier arc tlien drawn off through 
auger holes into a pan below, are dried in the sun, and afterwards separated 
by blowing off tlio sand. A party of four men tlius employed at the lower mines 
averaged a hundred dollars a day. The Indians, and those who have nothing 
but pans or willow baskets, giadually wash out the earth and se[)arate the 
gravel by hand, leaving notliing but tlie gold mixed with sand, which is sepa- 
rated in tlie manner before described.' 

Another scene well illustrates tlie mode in which a solitary unassisted 
adventurer — witliout companions, servants, machines, or capital — often acts. 
A person without a machine, after digging off one or two feet of the upper 
ground near tlie water (in some cases tliey take tlie top eai-th), tlirows into a 
tin pan or wooden Ik)w1 a shovelful of loose dirt and stones ; then, placing the 
basin an inch or two under water, continues to stir up the dirt with his hand 
in such a manner that the running water will carry off the light earth, occa- 
sionally with his hand throwing out the stones ; after an operation of this 
kind for twenty or thirty minutes, a spoonful of small black sand remauis ; 
this is placed in a handkerchief or cloth and dried in the sun, and, the loose 
sand being blown off, the pure gold remains. By such rough processes has 
much of the golden wealth been procured. In some cases a gulley or gutter, 
a hundred yards long by four feet wide, has yielded a thousand ounces of pure 
gold, disseminated in fine grains among the sand and mud. 

But the Anglo-Saxon race was not likely to leave matters in such a primi- 
tive state as Oalifoniia presented in the first paroxysm of tlie gold fever. 
Various machines have been from time to time introduced, calculated to 
expedite proceedings and to economise labour. Various machines for this 
purpose have been recently introduced. Prince Demidoff sent one for 
deposit at tlie Great Exhibition. A Califomian gold-winnowing machine, 
of a neat and ingenious kind, was invented in France about a year ago, for 
tlie use of such of our Gallic neighbours as wish to try their fortune in the 
" diggings." In any such machine, to be effective, there must be a mode of sup- 
plying water to the auriferous mud, and a means^of agitating the mixture thus 
produced. Now the French machine effects theso^two purposes by one move- 



lilli m ili niwi i l ftH tff*^.-^«>i" '■ I .ri-r.,-i.r..nf..ii. 



•■ 



RKBHOP. 

in the oartli b<^fore 
ctiHed eyoi. He lul- 
king only (ibotjt mx 
ito city, ttiid nearly 

■hed l>y th« United 
lia, gives of n scene 
mticjns of goW flnd- 
hot; yet about two 
mmts with tin pans, 
»art had a rude nui- 
ht feet long, open at 
bottom iH rounded 
I work this machine : 
ithor carries it to the 
■ocking njotion to the 
m iteelf. The sieve 
rent of water washes 
d out at the foot of 
lack sand, above the 
1 drawn off through 
afterwards separated 
Bd at the lower mines 
se who have notliing 
th and ^ej)arate the 
sand, which is scpa- 

i solitary imassistcd 
■ capital — often acts. 

feet of tlie upper 
earth), tlirows into a 
3s ; then, placing the 
e dirt with his hand 
he light eoi'th, occa- 
nn operation of this 
black sand remains; 

1 sun, and, the loose 
rough processes has 
es a gulley or gutter, 
iisand ounces of pure 
id. 

era in such a primi- 
1 of ihe gold fever, 
duced, calculated to 
lis machines for tliis 
lidoff sent one for 
winnowing machine, 
ibout a year ago, for 
' their fortune in the 
mst be a mode of sup- 
ting the mixture thus 
irposeg by one move- 



oold: in thb minb, thb mint, and the woBKsiior. 7 

ment: there is a kind of hopper or rcc-ptmlo inl« w^.ich U.e sand is shovelled, 
Za from which it descends into a cylinder or bama ; tins cyluuUn- ,« made to 
.•olate by a winch handle, which h.u.dlo also works a pump lor laismg water 
into the cylin.ler. The nmd and sand aro wuhIumI out by tho conUuuul agita. 
tion of Uio cvliiuler. and Uie golden paiticlos are iott belund. 

Califoniia has Uught m a few strange thmgH. and none "^^'f '^ '" "'J 
effect of the gold discoveries on price.. Tho relative value which gold bears 
to oUier comuuMlities depends on the same law ot supply and demand as cm- 
mercial value genei-ally. This was never better shown than in Uie <'xtr«vrtgaiit 
aui, ities of gold-dust (or its equivalent in silver dollars, paid in ( alitor ma 
! eveJy'lay commodities and services. Mr. Kelly in one o Ins rambles 
thi-ough the golden luud, came to a spot where many . iggei-s had ^■""K'««"!';;^; 
and where a Sw stores were opened for Uie r accommodation. ^ '« «f^^ ' "^ f^>« 
roads and rivers rendered it improbable Uiat new supplies could be '.'b<^| «^ 
for mafty days; and the storekeepers Uieretbrc combined to raise their puces 
to a most extravagant pit^h. "Flour jumped up from 50 cen s. per Uk U. 

dolla!- 50 cents. ; pork! from 40 cenU. to I dollar «5 cents. ; beans, cot!ee, 
sugoi-, mackai-el, and all otlier hidispensable necessaiies, m *»« «;^n^'« W^^ 

tion: together widi boots, which were in ««-«*t/'^"'"«\'"^^f^^,te,^ Z 
charged two ounces for the commonest pegged maimtacture. Ihese two 
ounces" refer to gold, so that common shoes were hve or six gumeas pc 
pa", while Hour was six shillings per pound. There was a violent conmio ion 
^nong e diggei^s ; but. as Uiey could not help Uiemse ves, excepc by ac ual 
nSv they not only acquiesced in these prices, but wiUiessed anotJier rise 
ot lol/per cliit. a few days afterwards. A single ad.litional boat-load ol pro- 
visions drove down prices nearly to tJieir origmol level. 

On another occasion Mr. KeUy had a cunous ^^^^rahon of the value of 

domestic service. He came to a setdement formed by a Mr. « d«peth^ whe^e 

a vounff Enulish girl was engagt^d an housekeeper ; she had lett the Mormon 

^e Zfent a't the^reat Salt^ake, and joined im emigrant party to <Jal.forma^ 

She was, as oiu- informant describes, "an admirable <^'>«>l'' »"' J "'^'^f J^ 

nicest butter 1 ever used, for which services she was requited by the libeial 

salary of 1000 dollai-s per year, and tho right to dispose of. aj» her proper Ijer- 

quisites, aU tlie milk, butter, cheese, and eggs Uiat remamed alter supply g 

3ie wants of tho household. Those, she admitted to me, accoi-ding to the 

amount tliey Uieu realized weekly, would increase her year y >Vf "'^**«'^^"l:?:' 

KT™ is on explanation, did not suri^rise me, as she obtained twenty-hve cental 

aTi;ce for egpfwhich sometimes got so high as fifty : one dollar per quart 

?or mTlk ; foiK^Uars for butter ; aiid I forget how much for cheese : tiien the 

overplus of each must have been immense, from tiie legions of hens about 

the premises and the incredible number of calves I saw m the corral ; whUe 

the constantly passing waggons, pack companies, and -ha e-b^^. neve J^- 

fenjd a stock to accumiUato or spod m her hands. J>" ^ *'»J' JT- 

Mr Kellv " of £600 a yeai-. ve cooks and dairy-maids of Old J^ng and . 

It woudd 4.7 us out of our path to dilate fmither on the relaUve value 
between gold Jid other commodities in California; but we may st*t^ that 
M Kdly saw.l San Francisco, a fine mei-chant vessel, of a thousand tons 
bunCfitJeTup as stores, warehouses, and couiiting-houses ; the owner had 
found U utterly impossible to procure a crew to navigate, the vessel, a^l t^^ 
seamen having scaTnpered off to the diggings ; and to Prevent Uie vessel ftom 
uselessly rotting, he let it out, m the way above noticed at rents so high as to 
far overbdimce auy profit derivable from ordmwry freight. 



iij()iiiiiiiiiiiiitiiWiiriimiiffii 



A.-jMnaWiMiititiiii' 




■w 



i 



8 hold: in the mink, the mint, and the wokkhhop. 

Will California yield gold for ever ? If not, will it. for ageH to como, present 
a profitablo field for gold-Heekers ? Homo of the writers on California indulge 
in the inoHt extravagantly glowing jtictures on thiH subject. But let us hear 
what a desi-rvuidly great authority says. Sir lloderick rnipry Murehison has 
examined with great attention tlie gold depositn of Russia, and all the cir- 
ciunstanccs connecttul with their geological position ; antl he hiw also studied 
all the accounts which have been given of similar deposits in other countries. 
In 1M49 he gave an outline of his researches to the British Association, 
at Bimiingham ; he told that learned body all abovt the Ural Mountains, and 
tlio gold llierein contained ; be compared the llussiau with tlie Califomian 
regions ; and he expressed the following conclusion ; — A periodic discovery, 
like that in California, may, in tlio hands of adventm-ers and imbridled specu- 
lators, force a considerable quantity of surface gold so suddenly upon the 
market, that a momcntai-y apprehension of a great change in its relative 
value may be entertained ; but, looking to Uio mineralogical and geological 
structure of America, and seeing how larg(^ a portion of that continent is 
made ivp of rocks precisely similar to those which have aftbrded the gold 
shingle and sand of the Sacramento; and, knowing that all the otlier far-famed 
gold disti-icts of the New Worid ha\ o had assignable limits in tlieir productive 
capacities, and that many of their sources have disappeared or become value- 
less, he believes that the time will como when the rich soil of the valleys of 
California, like the banks of the Rhine, the Guadalquiver, and the rivers of 
Bohemia, will be turned up by tlie plough alone, or seiTC as pasture land, to 
the entire abandonment of gold hunting. 

The Recent Australian DiscovEniES. 

If this sheet had been writUiii a few weeks ago, the name of Australia would, 
perhaps, not have been mentioned in it. But a new gold-fever has sprung u]>. 
Wliile Englantl has been glorying in her Great Exhibition, Australia has run 
mad after tlie diggings which nature has vouchsafed to her. 

It was in September, 1B51, that the news reached England of gold having 
been found in Australia — that is, gold in large quantities: a golden region. 
Early in May the announcement was made at Sydney, by letters from BatJiurst, 
and the effect was quite electric. A raining mania seized every one. On the 
Monday morning after tlie Sydney papers announced tlie discovery, " groups 
of people were to be seen," we are told, "at eveiy comer of the streets, assem- 
bled in solemn conclave, debating both possibilities and impossibilities, and 
eager to pounce upon any human being who was likely to give any information 
about the diggings. People of all trades, callings, and pursuits, were quickly 
transformed into miners ; and many a hand which had been trained to kid 
gloves, or accustomed to wield nothing heavier tlian the gray goosequill, be- 
came nervous to clutch the pick and crow-bar, or ' rock the cradle ' at our 
infant mines. The blacksmiths of the town could not turn off the picks fast 
enough, and the manufacture of cradles was tlie second briskest business in 
the place. A few left on Monday equipped for the diggings ; but on Tuesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday, the roads to Summer Hill Creek became literally 
alive with new-made miner? from every quarter; some armed with picks, 
others shouldering crowbars or shovels, and not a few strung round with 
washliand basins, tin pots, and colanders: garden and agi-icultural imple- 
ments, of eveiy variety, either^hung from the saddle bow or dangled about the 
persons of the pilgrims to Ophir. Now and then a respectable tradesman, 




.^mim 



fitiMmm 



IMiM»'iriiit[iTlliiV It It I'i'iiiW 



UKHHOr. 

^pH to come, prenent 
n (Jalifonua iiululgo 
t. Hilt lot HH hear 
ipoy Murohisoii has 
Hia, and all tho cir- 
ho huH alHO studied 
1 in other countries. 
British Association, 
Jral Mountains, and 
with tlie (lalifomiau 
I periodic discovery, 
ind imbridled specu- 
suddeidy upon the 
an(,'o in its relative 
igicttl and geological 
of that continent ia 
e afforded the gold 
1 tlie otlier fai'-fanied 
4i in tlieir productive 
L'd or become vnlue- 
loil of the valleys of 
r, and the rivers of 
! as pasture laud, to 



le of Australia would, 
■fever has sprung up. 
>n, Australia has ruu 
iv. 

?land of gold having 
ss: a golden region. 
Btters from Bathurst, 
I every one. On tho 
e discovery, "groups 
of the streets, assem- 
1 impossibilities, and 
give any information 
ursuits, were quickly 

been trained to kid 
1 gray goosequill, be- 
k the cradle ' at our 
irn off the picks fast 

briskest business in 
igs ; but on Tuesday, 
reek became literally 
e armed with picks, 
f strung round with 
d agricultural imple- 
or dangled about the 
spectable tradesman, 



GOLD : W THE MINK, THK MnJT, AND THK WOBKHIIOI'. » 

who had just left his bench or counter, would heave in sight, with a huge 
romething in front of his ho.-so, which ho called a cradle, aiul with wh cl. ho 
Z abouf f. rock hin.self inU> fortune. Scores have n.she.l Irom l.e.r ho nes 
p„)vi.led with a blanket, a ' damper.' an<l a pick or gmbbn.g bo.x. full .. ho « 
that a day or two's labour would till their pockets w.tli the precious metal 
Zl we have heard of a great number who have started without any provision 
but a l)lanket, and some nulo implements t^) dig with. 

The land of expectati.m, to which these gold-thirsty adventure.-s were 
wending, is situateJ neariy duo west of Sydney, separated from the sea roas 
by the ridge of the Blue Mountiuns. over which all settlers must pass to reach 
the vast sheep plains ai-ound Bathurst. Mr. Stutchbury. a geoL.g.s employed 
by Uio Gov..rnment. an.l Mr. Hargraves. were the hrst to make Uie golden 
announcement. Mr. Hargraves " w.vshed several baskets of e^rth. and mo- 
cured irold therefrom." A young man picked up a lump ot pure gold, woigli- 
7ll£en ouncL; an old'man%atheledlu„ips which aUoget^her weighed 
ne^arly three pounds; and tho Manager of Uie BaUiun^t Branch K«nk. who 
went U. see with his own eyes what the futh actually was, brought way 
several small pieces of gold with him. It was tho announcement of these 
facts that drove the Sydney people almost out of their wits. 

That gold exists in Australia had been long surmised by Count Stnlecki. 
one of tlie best writers on tliat immense region. Sir R. I. Murchison. too, whose 
authority on these points we have iust adverted to, had expressed a sim Ibt 
opinion.* Many months ago an olcl shepherd, who visited Sydney from to 
Bathurst district occasionally, seemed to possess more money than was e.u|ily 
accounted for by those who knew him; and it is now believed that he had 
picked up bits ol^he gold treasure, but had kept his own secret. Mr. Hargraves, 
who ha.1 long been fLuiar 'Aitli the geology of the Blue Mountains and who 
has since spent a year and a half in Califomia, was so stnick with the andogv 
between the two districts, tliat on his return to Australia he resolved to search 
for himself. He set out in January last from Sydney tmvelled Uiree hundred 
miles on horseback, and found a little gold on tlie very first day of his digging 
Ho selected a particulariy favourable spot, which he called by the onentid 
hope-exciting name of Ophir, and organised a body oi nine persons, by whoso 
aid ho procured the specimens of gold which he sent to Sydney. 

All Uiese golden pictiu-es speedily dazzled the eyes of the Sydney folks. 
Sonants left their situations, and thus wages rose ; while the price of flour 
and otiier provisions also rose; and thus Uio Sydney tradesmen and families 
have been suddenly placed in a somewhat pei-plexmg position Ihat only a 
small percentage of those who have set off to Uie diggings will become suc- 
cessful gold-finders, is admitted by all; yet the mere c'rc"mstance of such a 
sudden departure of numbers from Sydney is enough to disturb the o dmajy 
i-un of txaiie. The next newspaper account from Bathm^st stated that one 
litUe man, "a shrimp of a fellow," with a forked stick and an old frjing-pan 
i-aked up five pounds' worth of gold in half a day; and it also gave the m- 
formation that bacon would fetch 3j. and flour 1.. per lb. at the diggmgs. 
It also recorded the golden result of a matrimonial quan-el ; for a man, ^v^ath- 
ful against his better half, walked off to the diggings for iJie pumose of annoying 
herffrom which diggings he speedily returned with gold to 1..e value of £170 
The later accounts received in England from Sydney state tliat, by the 
end of May. there were not less than two thousand persons at tlie Ophir 
diggings (Ophir is 35 miles north-west of Batliurst, which is iteelf 113 miles 
west of Sydney); but no estimate could be formed of those who were going 




Irt 



ooijj: in tub minh, thii uiwt, and th» workshop. 



or Rbftut i/n ^o. No «oo(l RiieHU, ••ither, (loul.l ho iniulo of the quftntliy of 
KoM obtttiiiotl. Ibi- tli« BUCi'OHsl'iil tlinKf'* showotl a (liHpoHititni to coiuu'itl Uio 
amoiuil of thuir Kttius. t'iv*) UHtlmrnt inogintmUJH foniuHl a pHity {Un- K>>1<1' 
diK^illK liHM iiltivu'tiimH lor piofoHHiuniUs iw well us (or liiinil)lfr folks), whoso 
lubouiH utuoiig till! ti<M (lust aru sM to Imvo iietlml inany UioiimiuuI jioimdH. 
Tlinwi or four Sytiu«y dealers piuolinHtid Ai»00 woilli itt (^i.hir, from a fuw 
digncri. Till! liirg<5st pioco (piiro, viiK'iu i^old) tnuidiaitU'd to Sydney up to 
thut tiino wtiKlifd »bi)Ut forty-Hix ouiu-eK. Tlucts upprouliiios. who run awuy 
fi-oui iJiitiuu'Ht, rotuniod in a. few duyw with gold which they Hold for i;5l. 

lint as "uU thut KlitUus in not gold," ho itt no glittering gold prootnod 
witliout Honio lumvy druwhuckM. The disuovery iit Ophir wiu* unnouneod onu 
nionlli too Hoon for huHhundry pro«noct»t; th« iigricultural lubourers lun awuy 
to tiie diggings, and loft the corn to Uko cure of itself, or rullier left tho 
ploughing ftJid sowing hulf dtxio (Auatndiun winter oirenrs conteniponini!ouwly 
with our kunnner). Tho Hhepherds. too, took luuvo of their Hocks with very 
little (:»n-emony. One Butliurnt fanner waid, " We mo in the greatest excilxjmeut 
here ; some fn)ni jov, Honio from desjiuir, anticiputing I'aniine, diwaso, confusion. 
and death: 1 uin glad to hem- tlmt tiio military luo coming up." Uno stock- 
holder, possessing thirty tliouHund sheep, loHt all his HhepherdH at one start, 
and knew not how to protect his flock from tlic native dog«. Another iJatliurst 
udiubitaut wr*>t<i, " tho people aro all mwl ;' and Mr. Hurgraves wi»U;, " even 
Oulifoniia did not equal the excitement and confusion which at this present 
moment sinround me." One of the ]3athur«t journals, tho Empire, speakti 
Qf iU compositors and itH printei-s' devils aa " having, just now, their brains 
•tuck full of lumps of gold," U) tho great derangement of tho i)rinting-otiico 
and ita labours. Aiiother liathurst wiiter said, " Trade is quite at a stand-still, 
except witli tlio storokeepei-s and publioajjs, and every consumable article is 
enormously dear." Some of tho diggore returned fix)m the mines, " with a 
little bit of gold, and a bellyful of hanl work and starvation ; " an.l said, that 
none but those who could bear severe labour, exposing, and scanty allownnco, 
ould do well at the tliggings in winter. Women had stiirted off fi-oni HaUiui-st 
to Ophir on a laundiy speculation, which was expected to pay well. One dark 
and dismal featm-e is, that Uiero is scarcely a tree or a blade of grass witliiu 
twenty miles of Ophir: it is little else tlian a perfect desert, in all except 
gold and excitement. . . 

llcally scientific men are among the best prophets of all ages ; for, amving 
at general pnnciples by a careful comparison of the past and present, tlicy are 
often able to predict future phenomena or anticipate futiu* discoveries, with 
a conectness quite inconceivable to tlie non-initiated. Murcluscm, without 
ever having been in AusU-alia, predicted tliat gold would be Ibund there ; 
he drew inferences from the geological character of various regions, founded 
on the analogy of similar regions elsewhere. In the paper read io the 
British Association, in 1H49, referred to in anothr;r page, ho said : " In con- 
sidering tlie composition of the chief or eastern ridge of Australia, and its 
direction from nortli to soutli, he had foreU)ld (as well as Oolonel Hel- 
mei-sen, of the llussian Imperial Miues,) tliat gold would be fomid in it; 
and he stated, that in the lost year one gentleman, resident in Sydney, 
who had read what he had written and spoken ou this point, hail sent him 
specimens of gold ore found in the Blue Mountains: whilst i'rom another 
source he had learned, tliat ihe parallel noith and south in the Adelaide 
region, which had vielded so much copper, had also given undoubted signs of 
gold ore. The op«c«ticm of the EngUah laws, by which noble metals kpse 



IK8H0P. 

of tho qtiftiUlfy of 

itioll to COIKU'til llio 

il II |inity (for nolil- 
iiiililiT folks), whosn 
ly thoilMilllil lloilUilrl. 
, (Jifliit, from a fuw 
•d to Hyiliiiiy up W 
tious, who run awuy 
i<y itold for i;51. 
3riiiK gold proourad 
wiiM iiiiiiuunctitl ono 
I Ittboiuern i»n awuf 
f, or riitlH'r left tho 
i conteinpomiioouwly 
lit'ir flocks with very 
gniaUist excilomeut 
le, (URflaHe, confusion, 
im up. " Uno stuck- 
tphenU at ono start, 
«. Another llatliurst 
rgraveH wi"ote, " tiven 
khich ftt iliis present 
, tlio Empire, (ipeiikH 
iwt now, their bmius 
uf tho print.int!;-otiico 
quite ut a stand-still, 
jonsuinable article is 
tho mines, "with a 
tion ;" and said, that 
ind HCMity allowance, 
•tod oif fi-om UallnirHt 
) pay well. One dark 
blade of grass witliiu 
desert, iu all except 

ill ages ; for, arriving 
and present, tliey are 
tare discoveries, with 

Murchison, without 
mid be found there ; 
ions regions, founded 
c pajxr read to the 
a, lie said : " In con- 

of AuHtraliiv and its 
kvell as Oolonel Hel- 
ould be found in it; 

resident in Sydney, 
! point, hatl sent him 

whilst from another 
outh in the Adelaide 
en imdoubted signs of 
'h noble metala lapa« 






aoi.n: in the mwk. tub M.«r. and tub vrouKsMor. U 

to U.e crown, l.a.1 induced »•'"•<;*- "t'liMlZ:;"- ^ g'^ niEj'i 
HecraUry <.f HUil« Umt no colonmU. wouhi ^^^^^^J e'» , ,",^ „ « „»,«„rcs o« 
Home clear .leclaration on U.o ••"'•>•';=, ,,*V'" ."^tsUml the (iovmunont n.uy be 
this hea-l seen. t.. bo m cont«mp ation. he ' '''^^ ^tv of uoUl might .Icr.u.ge 
of opinion, that tho dis.<.vorv o a..y '^^ '' ' S?^ whirovenLall^ nmnt 
the stability and regular uijlush^ o a «"* ; ''^;^^\,„, j,„ .luggibnes. 
depend upon it., agricultural I'>^»1";;^- 'J. '' "i^^,; a\at d.c Colonlil Office 
of'all our colonial arr.u.gemout. '"\»"" '^,,'',^2 . " N,.w that the .li«covcr>- i» 
thought nothing and .hd nothn.g "] j» "^^^^^^^^^^ ^ZZn exm-tly what are 
actually .nmle. lu.wever, .t l>elu,ve. U e '^jl'^^^f^..'^^.^ f, ,um,^ Uws' 
a,.i,. rolailoMs to the n.otJ.er 7' f ^ ' '\;i ,!, ek.nalion, insued by Governor 
'l-his ^^^1^^^.^,^^^^^^%^ gol.1 niines u. U.e Ur t.sU 
F trroy on May -U. I no aocumt in. huw^n, n romoved from 

flon.inlns belong, by law to the ^'■^^^y,.;;^^;, ^^ ^ 1 go S is U, be ciUiar 
U.0 leHse<l lands without ^^>^"'™''*-''\Vr Sw.l L"« wTUiout similar por- 
„,Mnovod or explored for in Uie unallotted ^'"^ ' 'J'7;J^^^^^^ „.v,„.t, boUi 

That Auslr,aia has a bright f"^'''« "'"JJ^*;*^ " Z^ oxpJcled. U,ero wUl jet 

juTcimlB .umiagement. wiU yield abmidm.ce lor all. • 

How THB GoLD-Dtrn and Oiiis *»« ™eat«i>. 

r.e or six miUious of in.uisitiv3 hmmu. Jj^iSS^iff "^'-p' 
seeing virgu. ^^^^^'^^'^^'^'^^'^Z^'^^^^^^ treasures before, 

uot oue-tliousandl^i part of ,^''« ''"V'^' ';'^\X^^ whose J.omids weight 

Those ^vho missed U.e ponderous ^^^J'^JX ' i'T. X «^^ *"'*^ ^''^ '^ "*" 
..re in hundreds, .uul -l-^ XX^^^fi:,*^, 5 e Csian treasures; whilo 
portunity of seemg Oioso «.»'f '£*^'?^..*^'^ ^.^al collections, may have seen 

^Su1"i.o^'rs-t hasten on our «old- io^ey. T^^K'ulS^rS 

i^iif ortirsSawrr:^^^^^ rr... a. goid«nith- 

the finder from the user. .„ -ft...^,,, or when iho. sands or other ollu- 

Whenn ix)ck is supposed to be *"»f« «"f'.^ lid the adventure^- is advised 
vial matter of a district are to ^f ."^"""^".^ J^'\ «^^itt course The comical 
by r«>fe»sor Anstad to pi^ceed m a f/;^" "J^gf m^^; ,vriUen l.y Uiat 
i/ given i» the small hut '"^^estuig ' Oo d-b.cktrs Ma^^iu^ J 

BkilM gooloaist^ .The ^J-"'-^/,^^^^^^^^ 

pound it. a*»d sifl It ; the ^ust Urns oUtoincu s i ^^ 

^, If any gold is P^f^^^.^"* Uv^'^i? te VX^^""^'^1 ^ ^^ '^^P'^^ 
waslied oror tlie edge of the pan " Jf « '^^'f^'^ ^^^^j.^a wiUi quicksilver, and 
and weighed, it is treated by tlie *'"^^f ^^ f \"" "^ i,y the ratio between 
finaUy isolated The adventurer can ^^^». J^ '^^i'^ Z:^^ ,,Uat uercentage 
the weight of the gold 'f^^'^'^^'r^^^^J^^, Qf course aA tins caa- 
of gold ©xista, aad whether i"- wmI P^y ^^^ exu"**^** 



|ii I ii»miiiiiiMii»TniiNititt -■^-'-^'-'*"*^ 



jmajKitiDi i i 



^J 



H 



gold: in the mine, the mint, and the W0BK8H0P. 



not be done by a solitary rambler to the " diggings," who has got all his 
worldly wealth on his back ; the breaking and pounding and washhig may be 
80 conducted; but the amalgam process requires other resources. In propor- 
tion as the rock or the sand is rich, so will washing suffice for the extraction 
of a profitable quantity of gold. 

In the gold districts of Himgary, the sand is placed upon an inclined table, 
the sm-face of which is grooved with transverse channels. Water is thrown 
on the sand in the uppennost groove ; and after a time the golden paiticles 
find their way (by their superior weight) down tlie table to the lowest channel, 
where they collect with some of the sand, from which they are afterwards 
easily separated. 

In Brazil, where gold-working has been more steadiljr and extensively pur- 
sued in modem times than in any other countiy, the mming operations have 
gone through three epochs or periods. The first was before the year 1724. 
The common method of proceeding, as described by Professor Ansted, was to 
dig a square hole in the soil, imtil tiie miners came to the auriferous gravel. 
The gravel was broken up with pickaxes, and shovelled into wooden vessels. 
These vessels were exposed to the action of running water, and were shaken 
from side to side imtil the earthy particles were washed away, and the gold 
subsided. These workings were either in the beds of rivers, or in the alluvial 
banks over which rivers had in former times flowed. 

But in 1724 a new method was introduced, which economised labour. In- 
stead of opening the ground, and carrying the amiferous gravel to a rmming 
stream, a sti'eam was conveyed to the gravel ; water was conducted to the mining 
ground, and made to wash away the mould which covered the gravel ; after 
which it washed the gravel itself away from the golden particles. 
. The comparative exhaustion of the sands led to the adoption of a third 
mode of mining in the Minas Geraes district. It was known that the motm- 
tains neai- the rivers contained veins rich in gold ; but the means for working 
have been and still ai-e very rude. The working is by open cutting, laying the 
vein bare by clearing away the surface. Unless there is water to aid in this 
operation the labour becomes immense. 

In one district of Brazil the gold is collected in a smgular way. Canoes 
are provided, each cut out of a solid tree. The gold-washers dredge up sand 
from the river bed into the canoe, by means of a windlass and an iron scoop ; 
and into the sand thus collected they direct a stream of water through bamboo 
shoots. The sand and mud become gradually washed away, and the golden 
particles are found in the bottom of the canoe. It seems, however, that the 
produce thus obtained is only just sufficient to pay for the expense of ob- 
taining it. 

In some districts, where the river banks are not private property, negro 
gold-seekers work on their own account in the following way. They are 
dressed in a leathern jacket, and sling before them a leathern bag and a round 
bowl. They select locaUties where the river is not rapid, or where it has 
bends or deep holes. They first reuiove the large stones and upper layers of 
sand with their feet; and then take up a bowlful of the deeper and older 
gravel. They wash and shake the contents of the bowl until all the gold 
sinks to the bottom ; and when it is separated as far as possible from sand, it 
is taken out of the bowl by hand, and put into the leather bag. 

It must not be supposed that gold presents itself to the eyes of the eager 
adventurer in its pure metallic form ; it is almost always deteriorated, either 
with earthy matters or with some of the cheaper metals ; and this deteriora- 



\ 






<M.i|M«i 



..ilj.j**'.*^*^ "^* ' ** *^^ 



sBSSESucaaa 



ORKSHOP. 

' who has got all his 
5 and washing may be 
esonrces. In propor- 
ice for the extraction 

pon an inclined table, 
els. Water is thrown 
! the golden pailicles 
to the lowest channel, 
I they are afterwards 

y and extensively pur- 
ining operations have 
before the year 1724. 
Dfessor Ansted, was to 
the auriferous gravel, 
into wooden vessels, 
ter, and were shaken 
id away, and the gold 
vers, or in the alluvial 

nomised labour. In- 
i gravel to a running 
aducted to the mining 
ered the gravel ; after 
) articles. 

e adoption of a third 
nown that the moun- 
le means for working 
len cutting, laying the 
water to aid in this 

ingular way. Canoes 
jhers dredge up sand 
is and an iron scoop ; 
irater through bamboo 
away, and the golden 
IS, however, that the 
>r the expense of ob- 

rivate property, negro 
ing way. They are 
lem bag and a roimd 
apid, or where it has 
s and upper layers of 
he deeper and older 
vl until all the gold 
possible from sand, it 
IT bag. 

the eyes of the eager 
8 deteriorated, either 
: and this deteiiora- 



GOLD : IN THK MINE, THE MrUT, AND THE WOKKSHOP. 



19 



tion may arise either simply from mechanical mixture or from chemical com- 
bination Hence many dilferent processes have U> be adopted, to bang the 
gold to absolute purity. The •' diggei-s" and adventurers ca,^ ^f/?"^'^ 
little about these processes ; they know that they can sell their gold dust md 
gold ores, whether the ratio of pure metal be large or smaU : receivmg a price 
which (ostensibly at least) depends upon this ratio. ^ . ^ .• •„ 

One of the simplest modes adopted in Brazil for effecting the separation is 
thus managed -.-The river sand and mud are well washed, untd the gold ap- 
peal's as Jvy fine grains. The gold is put into a crucible, sublimate oiiner- 
luxy is added to it, and it is melted ; the time requirea m melting depends on 
the kind of metals with which the gold is alloyed; but when the meltmg is 
completed, the precious Uquid is poured into iron moulds, or. ratlier, the 
chStper and lighter metals Sre poured off. by which they ai-e sepai-ated from 

^^sSirsepittion of gold from a rocky ore is a more difficult nja^er and 
requires appliances which a Californian digger is veiy httie likely to have at 
hand The oi-e is pounded and ground to a fine powder ; it is washed, to expel 
Slight eai-thy matter; the residue is dried, and s mixed with a cerUmi 
quantUy of quicksilver; by a genUe heat the mixture is graduaUy n^elted^d 
m amalgam formed. Then comes a very curious process : the anialgam la 
jessed in a leather or skin bag; the quicksilver mosUy passes ttu-ough the 
?ores bit the gold remains behind ; and, by further processes, the whole of 
Se mercuiy is recovered from the leather, and the whole of the gold is sepa- 
rated from impurities and alloys. r-..**,.^!! ;« nnrirnKsU- 
The eold-mining system of Kussia, as descnbed by ..,r. Cottrell, is cunously 
managed. Eveiy freeman in Russia, except a Government mp%«, is allowed 
STeS for goS, which is usually found m the sands on ihe banks of nvei^ 
Srexplore? finds that his seai-ch has been successful(in any district not 
befOTe similarly appropriated), he aimounces tSae fact to the Government, and 
appUes for peiinission to avail himself of the discovery. A mmmg officer is 
5 to examine the spot, and to mark out a district of about two Lnghsh 
square miles, of which tlie explorer is put mto possession, so far as legards 
Sd getting. The speculator (for it can only be a moneyed man who entei^ 
on such a project) builds huts for workmen, fixes machines and offices and 
Z!Z large stores of provisions ; for the location i. often many miles d ist^t 
Sm Ly town. The labourers ai-e mostly persons exiled from R^^^^a to Si- 
berTar^d they receive good but not extravagant wages from the speculators 
Thi ;ands are^oUected and washed, and the gold is brought to a^.clean a 
.tate as possible. At the fall of the year, when the mcreasmg ^o^ bnngs tiie 
operations to a close, the gold is carried to a government establishment, ma 
JSXiLx; it is' weigLd,:registered, melted, mo^^^^^ 
and accurately valued ; the ingots are transmitted to &f.. Petersbiu-gb, ana 
^Ldi^S money, wh ch is paid to the speculator, mmus acertam percentage 
rernedZ the Government. It appears that the Government, bemg desirous 
t^lcouSe^ese 0^^^^^ does not press very hardly on the speculators 
ThTSture, however, is a precarious one; for sometmies tlie returns do 
not p^Ae expenses, while at other times a capitaUst is rumed before the 
SMpe^T^y qvLtity. An instance is narrated of one speculator, who 
fpentTi^five thousand out of forty thousand roubles of borrowed money 
before any fruits resulted ; but luck then showered upon hun so abundantly 
that, in a few years, he became a milhonaire. 



"V 



1 



u 



0OID! IK THE MINE, THE MnOT, AND THE WORKSHOP. 



Gold Coinage, and rre CrmosmES. 

Distant as the Califomian diggings are from New York and from london, 
the diggers find abundant customers for theii- gold-dust. Silver dollars are 
sent out to San Francisco, in exchange for the dust and the ore ; and tho mag- 
nificent steamers of the Atlantic route bring us as nmch of this gold aa the 
course of exchange between tlie countries requu'es. 

Among the many modes of practically applying gold, money is not the least 
curious and interesting. The substances of which money is composed are 
more numerous than many persons imagine. When society rises above tlie 
level of mere bartering transactions, any substance which is equally valued by 
buyer and seller may become money ; and there then arises simply a question 
of degree, as to the fitness of one or another material. One of the earliest 
kinds of money was cattle, an article being valued at so many oxen ; but Uiis 
is obviously a coin that is inapplicable to small purchasers, for it would puade ^ 
the seller to give change out of an ox. Shelh Kre used to a great extent as 
money, in India, the Indian islands, and Africa ; the cowiy shells of India 
have a value of about thirty-two to an English farthing. Cocoa-nuts, almonds, 
and maiz€ have all had to do duty as money, m certain times and oouutries. 
In hunting coimtries, skim are a very common kind of coin ; and sfcunped 
pieces of Uathir are said to have been used in England in the time of Edgar, 
In Bome regions salt is used as money, cut into convenient brick-shaped 
pieces. In counUies where rents and wages are estimated in given quMifities 
of com, com may be said to be money, Dried fish is often the money of 
Iceland and Newfoundland ; sugar ha| at times been a WesMndia money ; 
and Adam Smitli tells us of a Scotch village m which nails were a current 
coin at the ale-house and the baker'a. But metals supersede ^l Uie above 
heterogeneous Ust, m a more advanced state of society. Brass money was 
made in Ireland during the time of the Tudors ; and at the same period Uad 
was used for small coins in England. Charles the Second hwi fai'things of 
tin; and his successor had small coins of pewUr and of f/un-iiutal. Iron was 
used by some of the early nations; and flatiimm is used at the present day in 
Russia. 

It appears, therefore, that, besides silver and copper, gold has many rivals 
as materials for coins. All yield precedence to it, however ; for no other metal 
possesses at once so many qualities fitted for this purpose. It is very solid 
and dense ; it is divisible or separable in an extraordinary degree ; it is very 
little affected by air or moisture, or ordinary usage ; its supply is (relatively) 
veiy limited ; and its value presents a remarkable approach to uniformity, in 
different coimtries and different times. 

Our modem potentates, m England at least, have no trouble to obtain gcW 
for coining ; buUion dealers, in the ordinary course of theu- trade, voluntarily 
bring gold to the Mint to be corned. But such was not aiways tiie case, in 
earlier times, nor is it now always the case, in other countries ; for the rulera 
thought it incumbent on them to place some check up<m the locomoUve pro- 
pensities of g«dd. Sometimes gold was not allowed io be smi oat of th« 
country ; sometimes a bonus was offered to the lioldera of gold, to permit it 
to be coined ; and sometimes an interdict was put against the uue of gold for 
trinkets and omamente. 

Perhaps the most intense gold-fever the worid has known^-not »o wid«ij 
spread, perhaps, but more deep than that of Califomia— was alchemy. When 



I.- 



SBKSHOP. 



OOU) ; IN THB MINE, THll MIST, AND THE W011IC8H0P. 



IS 



•k and from london, 
t. Silver dollars are 
he ore ; and the mag- 
L of this gold as thu 

money is not the least 
[\ey is composed are 
ociety rises above the 
X is equally valued by 
sea simply a question 
One of the earliest 
many oxen ; but tjiis 
rs, for it would puzzle 
id to a great extent as 
cowiy shells of India 
C'ocoa-mUs, almond», 
1 times and oouutries. 
•f coin ; and stfunped 
in the time of Edgar, 
uveuient brick-shaped 
ed in given quuitities 
i often the money of 
a West-India money ; 
naiU wero a current 
upersede all Uie above 
ty. BroM money was 
, the same period Imd 
;ond hui farthings of 
f guH-metai. Iron was 
I at the present day in 

gold has many rivals 
er ; for no other metal 
>ose. It is very solid 
lary degree ; it is very 
;s supply is (relatively) 
ooch to uniformity, in 

trouble to obtain g<M 
their trade, voluntarily 
LOt always tlie case, in 
untries ; for the rulera 
on the locomotive pro- 
t>} be Beat oat of th« 

of gold, to permit it 
ist the uite of gold for 

knowu' — ^not bo widely 
—was alchemy. When 



men thought that common cheap metftls might be transmuted mto gold no 
wonder ufat tliey racked their brains to discover the chemictd means ot effect- 
TngT. transmutation. The world possessed many Oldbucks and ma^y 
Dousterswivels, Uie deceived and tlie deceivers, among the alcheniic«l cralt 
li How Uie ardent students of this mystery earned on their researches, sober 
^ history or pleasant romance have made familiar to n.ost readers ; but it is not, 
nerhans so aenerally known, that among our English monarchs, Edwaid 111., 
ffenS^IV.! HenTvL, EdwU IV., anS Henry YIII all showed a tendency 
to believe in the tomsmuting power of alchemy ; and they looked witli a long- 
ing eye to the possible enrichment of their exchequer by these means Ed- 
ward HI. encoUged tlie alchemy of Raymond Lully until hopes were dashed 
by failure. He^ iV. seems ratl.er to have feared the art Umn to have relied 
on it S a state engine. Henry VI. " patted on the back " certain alchemists, 
who pTomLd him^ a golden return ; but on their f.ulure he appointed a com- 
mission of inquiry, as strangely constituted as any known '« """^ ^^""S ' f^ 
it consisted of two friars, the Queens physician, a schoolmaster, ^u 'ddonnan 
of London, a fishmonger, t^^'o gi-ocers. and two mercers. Mr. R"dm&:^2 
notices this commission in his ' Annals of die Coinage was "«» able to dis- 
cover any record of tiie results of the enquiry. That Uus goodly cluster of 
Heniys Ld Edwards failed to make gold by the transmuting process was 
perhaps, after all, more a subject of regret than of surprise to l^'^'" ' J?T ^^^ 
no ea.sy matter to detect the cheaters from the cheats among the ^o'^hiPPf* 
of the " philosophers stone," and these monarchs (or at least f ««>e «f «^^"^) 
may possibly have belonged quite as much to the lonner as to the latter ck^s 
liiuion, irlinff, «l«,uiW,-all are terms employed m connection wiUi gdd 
as a coined met^ or as a metal about to be coined ; and they let us mto some 
Turious Lts concerning «old coinage When a buUion deder or ^ account- 
ant speaks oi standard gold, or a jer^NeUe- praises his goods as being made of 
ri;,* gold, what is meant by these terms? And what is »f '"^^^^J."^! 
"st^darf." and "fine." and "sterling." three names for the ^Tf J^f f^J 
Perhaps these questions have not been put exacu^ in this form, but tbe sun- 
ject of them must have occmi^d to many per^ns The word '^^l^ngh^ now 
very Utdo other meanmg than as a name for English cornet! money so that 
a wound sterhng means an English pound com ; but origmaUy it had a htUe 
SmeSg.^ A pound in money was, Mr. Ruding tells us. in early times 
TSnghZ, ^uivalLt to a pound of silver, that is. lb. ^ver) and £ were 
equivalent; but when this equality was. from various «^"ses, disturbed, Jie 
word Bterttfuf was used to designate the coined silver money, ^hf.^f^ of pure 
silver or not; and the same name became afterwards applied to gold. 
fZdZ egresses the degree of fineress in gold. For coimng purpo^s. 
gSd U almost invariftl)ly alloyed wiUi a little silver and copper, which render 
& flexible and more durable. A carat in gold assaying, is ^n imagn^J 
weight or rather ratio; anv piece of gold is supposed to weigh twenty-four 
Ss, and the fineness is exp,«8sed by the number of °*f ^ « /"T^ /^^^^ 
it is in faot only a pecuUar mode of expressmg the pun / of a gold ftU^y- At 
different times the sta^uiard of English gold coins has varied g«^y ' b«t &; «» 
long period back it has uniformly been " twenty-two carats fine •- J^** 's^out of 
everv twentv.four parts by weight twenty-two are hne or pure gold, the remam- 
ing7w7Sg cipher and silver The ^n. gold of the jeweller is as neary 
pure as can conveniently be^vreught into durable forms ; but ordinary jewdUr, 

^!ithough gold^coin, for this country, is made only at the Mhit. yet Sir. 



I 






\ 



16 



gold: in the mine, the jhst, and the workshop. 



niingham is in some respects the head-quarters of the coining art in modem 
times, chiefly through tlie famous establislunent of Boulton and Watt, at 
Soho. BiiTningham produces an immense quantity of stamped work in 
brass and other metals ; and the die-makera, who make the stamps for this 
process, ai-e merely a humbler grade of tliose who make the dies for coins. 
The dies are cut in hard steel by hand, a laborious and tedious operation. 
In the last century, tlie famous 8oho establishment not only coined copper 
money for the EngUsh government, but money of various kinds for foreign 
governments. The dies were produced by men very eminent in that line ; 
men who, indeed, have rightly obtained a niche among artistic worthies. The 
great establishment, which had suftered much decline, as one after another 
wealthy partner retired from it, was finally broken up by an auction sale in 
April, 1850 ; and on that occasion the lots exemplified the foraier extent of 
the coining arrangements. There were some of the most celebrated medals 
which had appeared in various European countries during the reign of George 
III. ; the dies by which these medals had been stamped ; British copper coins, 
and tlie dies for them ; many varieties of French copper coins, witli the dies ; 
and a great variety of other coins, medals, and tokens. Birmingham still 
makes copper coins, by the ton weight at a time, for various countries. "When 
Boulton and Watt commenced coining in 1787, they had eight cutting-out 
presses and eight coining processes. On one occasion the firm coined many 
tons of five-shilling pieces for the British govomment, of tlie silver obtained 
by the capture of a Spanish galleon ; a troop of soldiers guarded the premises 
while tlie coining was in operation. 

But it is only of gold — the shining tempter, gold — that we have here to 
spoak. The actual processes of coining are too minute and technical to be 
described here : they fittuigly find a place ui cycloptedias, where the alloying, 
the inciting, the casting, the rolling, the cuttmg, tlie stamping, the milling, 
the assaying, the weighing — all come under notice in their proper order. 
But there is one curious matter relating to the career of gold coins after they 
come into the hands of the public, which is worth a little attention. 

The wearing away of gold coin, by the constant friction to which it is 
exposed, is a curious matter both mechanically and financially. No one can 
say whither the worn particles go : tlie pocket, the purse, the skhi of the 
hand, the wooden till, the metal cash box — all must rob the golden sovereigns 
of somethhig of their weight ; but we cannot see the process of diminution, 
nor catch the truant particles as they fly. Then, when gone, somebody must 
bear the loss ; and who shall this be ? A baker who takes a sovereign one 
day, and pays it away to his miller the next, does not pay the veritable 
Bovereii;(n itself; it is a little lighter than when he received it; and, although 
even Mr. Cotton's exquisitely delicate apparatus might not be able to detect the 
amount of deficiency, yet deficiency there is, and several repetitions of it 
amount to an appreciable quantity. 

From very careful investigations made by the ofl&cers of the Mint towards 
the close of the last century, it was found that 7S^^„ silver shillings, taken 
as a fair average from all those then in cu-culation, were required to make 1 lb. 
troy ; whereas 63 is the number when new. Eleven years afterwards another 
fair average was taken, and another examination made, when it was found that 
B^-^if shillings were required to moke a pound. But this diminution of weight 
is excessive, and is not likely to be exhibited by the less-v/om and more fre- 
quently-renewed silver coinage of the present day. Still it is unquestionable, 
that tiie gold and silver coins are exposed to daily wear and diminution. The 



. . .Xi« 



JBKSHOP. 

lining art in modem 
Joulton and Watt, at 
if stamped work in 
B the stamps for this 
ie the dies for coins, 
id tedious operation. 
)t only coined copper 
Mis kinds for foreign 
minent in that hne; 
rtistic worthies. The 

as one after another 
by an auction sale in 

tfie foi-mer extent of 
>st celebrated medals 
g the reign of George 

British copper coins, 
• coins, witli the dies ; 
.8. Birmingham still 
3us counti-ies. When 
had eight cutting-out 
the firm coined many 
of the silver obtained 

guarded the premises 

that we have here to 
J and technical to be 
IS, where tlie alloying, 
itamping, the milling, 
a their proper order. 

gold coins after they 
le attention, 
riction to which it is 
mcially. No one can 
urse, the skin of the 

the golden sovereigns 
)roce8s of diminution, 

gone, somebody must 
akes a sovereign one 
not pay the veritable 
Lved it ; and, although 
lot be able to detect the 
veral repetitions of it 

I of the Mint towards 
silver shiUings, taken 
required to make 1 lb. 
sars i\fterwanls another 
ivhen it was found that 
s diminution of weight 
3ss-vrom and more fre- 
il it is xmquesUonable, 
and diminution. The 




gold: in the mine, the mint, and the workshop. 



17 



Government r(>quested Mr. Cavendish and Mr. Hatchett, two distinginshed 
fellows of the iloyal Society, to make an extensive investigation respecting the 
power of metals to resist friction ; and their results are highly curious. I hey 
made various alloys of silver, copper, platina, iron, tin, lead, bismuth, manga- 
nese, nickel, cobalt, zinc, antimony, and arsenic, witli gold; they nibbed 
plates of different kiuds of metal over each other half a million times, to de- 
termine which resist friction best ; and they rotated similar pieces among 
each other in a barrel. The effects were such as to reflect no little credit on 
those whoever they were, who established the standard of English gold coin ; 
for the English standard (2a gold to 2 alloy), and the quality of Uio alloy 
(silver and copper combined), were found about tlie best of all the combina- 
tions subjected to experiment. 

In 1B07 the Mint officers, wishing to ascertain how much the cun-ent com 
had actually lost by wear, selected at random one tiiousand good guineas from 
a banker, and found tliat they had lost on an average 19s. per cent, in value. 
A hundred guineas from a shopkeeper's till had lost 22«. per cent. Iwo 
hundred half-guineas exhibited a loss of 42s. per cent— tlie smaller coins 
being subjected to more severe wear than the larger. Mr. Jacob, a gi-eat 
authority on the subject of tlie precious metals, has stated it as his opinion 
that, taking tlie average of all tlie gold coins in this countiy, and an average ot 
all tlie hard usage to which the coins are exposed, each one beai-s an annual 
loss of about ^I^Tj by friction, which is a little more than a fartliing in the pound. 
In silver coins the loss is supposed to be five or six times greater, owing to 
the more unceasing circulation of silver than gold, and to the less fitness ot 
the metal to bear friction. The matter may be stated thus : put 900 new 
sovereigns and 900 new shillings into average ordinaiy circulation ; in twelve 
months' time the former will be worth about 899, and the latter about 894. 

The extraordinai-y delicacy of tlie machine invented by Mr. Cotton lor 
weighmg gold coins, the motives which led to its adoption, and the mode ot 
its operation, are briefly noticed in the paper on Calculating Machines. 

The Art of the Goldsmith. 

How bravely soever our Hunts and Roskells and Garrards may coinpcto 
with them, it is not probable that Ave shall ever equal the golden glitter of the 
east and the south. We do not cai-e for it. What a daily journalist said ot 
the Turkey and Eg3'pt compartment of the Great Exliibition, may be said ot 
oriental countries in general. " Gold, in every shape and form, here glares 
upon the eye,— we have it spun into thread, arranged in embroidery, lavishly 
scattered over eveiy species of fabric to which gold can be appUed— jackets all, 
stiff with the gUttering metal— saddles like burnished thrones— housmgs tor 
camels and trappings for horses gorgeous as tlie state tabard for heralds- 
caftans, tm-bans, bemouses, nusniuchs— all bespangled with the veritable orna- 
ment You see gold gleaming from the long rifled baiTcl and the superbly 
carved stock— gold ' dunming the sheen ' of the Damascus blade and tlie Mal- 
tese poignard— gold adorning the pipe-stem and the walking-staff-— gold upon 
the harness of the ' ship of the desert —gold upon tlie accoutrements ot Ins 
rider, from the aigreth of his turban to tlie pointed weapon of his unwieldy 
stirrups— gold encrusting the lady's slipper— gold gleaming from the tiny 
coffee cup, and decorating the ample vase— gold worked into the hangings ot 
the divan— gold fringes, gold tassels— gold plated, wrought, inlaid, enabroidered 
—gold in every possible combination of ornament and device. This taste lor 



I i i iii i ilMfii i iT--"'r'^-*'"^ •'" i™-"'H i "'f iriirWrv 



iMMiMHedWtMM 



u<>WWUMi )i i iii»i' W 



^ 



't 



? 



18 



oold: in the mink, the mint, and the workshop. 



lavish gold embroideiy wid omamontd is characteriHtic of all tlie EasUsni 

peci»le." , ■ ,. A \ 

But though wG do not possess (because we do not attach importance to) 
such ir (liscriniinaU) applications of gold, we have golden realizations of artistio 
design such as tlie Hast possesses not. The art of the goldsmith, Ironi tho 
time of Benvenuto CoUini, has been ever wedded more or less to tliat of the 
sculptor; and Uie g»;eat industrial display of 1851 has shown what fine results 
England, France, Germany, aiid other countries, are able to present in this 
department of ait-manufacture. , 

Tbe munificent offer of Uie Goldsmiths' Company, ui connection with tlie 
Great Exhibition, ought to have been imitated by some of the otlier wealthy 
city guilds, the revenues of which are but too slenderly iq)pUed to the fostering 
of the " arts and mysteries " whose name tliey beoi-. The Goldsmitlis' Company 
offered prizes, to tlie amount of one thousand pounds, for the best specimens 
of workmanship in certain specitied kinds of gold jind silver work. These 
were to be candelabra, with gi'oups of figm-es or animals, not less than 600 
ounces in weight ; other candelabra of smaller weight ; shielda, salvers, side- 
boards, or dishes, of 'Ja inches or more in lengtli ; dessert sei-vices ; sideboard 
ewers ; ornamental cups ; enU-ee dishes ; candlesticks and branches ; tea and 
coffee services ; communion plate ; table candlesticks ; salts, clai-et jugs, 
brea('-b*«ket8, teakettles and stands, ink-stands, spoons and forks — each kind 
having its own defined prize, and sometimes tlireo gradations of prizes. All 
were to be modelled and made by British artists, but it was left to the com- 
petitors to adopt gold or silver, or silver-gilt, as the material. Those who 
were familusr vith the gorgeous display in the south-west galleiy of the Exhi- 
bition (a display which has been roughly valued at upwaids of a million 
sterUng) will remember to have seen bits of orange-coloure<l ribbon attached 
to some of the articles of plate ; these marked tlie specimens which are to 
compete for the Goldsmitlis' Company's pmes. And sumptuous, indeed, are 
many of Uiem. How many claret jugs and cups, t«a services and coffee 
services, salvei's and dishes, candelabra and gi-oups, there are— we cannot ven- 
ture to say ; nor ought any but a deeply-versed connoisseur to pass judgment 
on their relative merits. The subjects depicted on some of the gold^ and 
silver plate were as varied in character as they were beautiful in effect. There 
was a Bacchanal group for a claret jug ; there was the never-dying Sir Roger 
4e Coverley, and the equestrian virgin Queen Elizabct ' ; fables from iEsop in 
ftlto-rehevo ; Mr. Cotterell's design of tlie labours of jtiercules, executed in 
Silver by Messrs. GaiTard ; a scene from Scott's ' Talisman ;' Britannia and her 
sister goddesses ; the Anglo-Saxons battling against the Normans— all wei-o 
among the tales told or the personages set forUi in gold or silver. 

Ono circumstance which contributed to render the display of precious 
metals peculiarly rich in the British department, was the permission given to 
the chief goldsmiths to exhibit the honorary or prize trophies on which so 
much artistic labour is always bestowed. We allude, of course, to the racing 
cups, and to the presentation plate given to mdividuals for pubUc services ren- 
dered. It was thus that the Exhibition became graced with the magnificent 
silver trophy presented to Sir Moses Montefiore— designed by Sir George 
Hayter, modelled by Mr. Baily tlie sculptor, and made by Messrs. Hunt and 
Roskell : a rare combination of talent It was thus, also, that we had an op- 
portunity of seeing tlie plate present®! to Lord EUenborough by the East 
India Company ; the graceful sih'er column presented to Mr. Lumley by tliG 
performers at tlie Opera House ; the salver presented to Mr. Brassey by those 



1 



*i»« 






tm»/vm--' 



1 



rrw 



.1-- 



OOtO: IN THE MINE, THE MINT, AND THE WOnKSIIOP. 



ig 



)BK8H0P. 

of all tlie Eastern 

itUch importuuce to) 
roaUzfttions of artistio 
goldsiiiith, from tho 
or le88 to ilmt of tlio 
own what tine results 
lo to present in this 

1 connection ■with tha 
of tlie otlier wealthy 
pplied to the fostermg 
jloldsmitlis' Company 
)r the best specimens 
. silver work. These 
als, not less than 600 

shields, salvers, side- 
rt sei-vices ; sideboard 
(id branches ; tea and 
s ; salts, claret jugs, 
md forks — each kind 
lations of prizes. All 
was left to the corn- 
material. Those who 
it galleiy of tha Exhi* 
ipwards of a million 
aured ribbon atta«hed 
ecimens which are to 
umptuous, indeed; are 
a services and coffee 
e are — ^we cannot ven- 
leur to pass judgment 
ome of the gold and 
atiful in effect. There 
never-dying Sir Bc^r 
; fables from ^sop in 
rlercules, executed in 
ui ;' Britannia and her 
lie Normans — all wei-o 
or silver. 

9 display of precious 
e permission given to 
trophies on which so 
if course, to the racing 
for public services ren- 
[ wlUi the magnificent 
signed by Sir George 
by Messrs. Hunt and 
so, that we had an op- 
aborough by the East 
to Mr. Lumley by tlie 
!> Mr. 5ra«*By by ^os^ 



employed nnder him as a railway contractoj^— a salver which has a peciihar 
interest attaclied to it, in respect to twelve enamelled portraits of the loading 
engineers of tlie day ; and one or two others of similar kind. The Emperor 
of llnssia's Ascot priae for 1847 was one of Uie most conspicuous and beauti- 
ful of tlie race-cup species. 

In what way tliese brilliant and splendid productions are wrought, we do 
not propose to trace very minutely here. Suffice it to say, that the articles 
are cither cast in molten metal, or are haiiunered and stamped from sheets, 
and are afterwania brought to a highly-finished state bv chasing, engraving, 
and burnishing. Such is the case when a vase, or salver, or ornament, is 
jnade of solid gold, and such is it likewise when made of silver and coated 
afterwards with gohl ; but silver plating involves other processes of a smgular 
character. An ingot of white metal is made : on its surface is laid a plate of 
silver about one-fortieth part as tliick as tlie white metal ; tho two aie soldered 
together by heat ; the compound ingot is brought to any required thinness by 
rolling: and the silvered sheet so produced is stamped, punched, hammered, 
engraved, and burnished into tlie required foi-m and appeaiance. The white 
metal forms the foundation, the silver fonns the glittering surface, and this 
silver could itself be coated witli gold by what is called the water-gilding pro- 
cess, in which aquafortis and mercury are employed to aid the adhesion ol tlie 
gold to the metal beneath. w r u 

The repmisse work of French silversmiths, which is equivalent to Enghsh 
chasing, is a veiy remarkable mode of decorating gold and silver plate. It is 
effected entirely by the hammer. The workman has a plain flat sheet of 
silver to work upon, and before him is a carefully executed wax model of the 
article to be produced ; the silver plate rests upon a soft bed of pitch or other 
composition, and with a small hammer the workman produces indentations 
over the surface corresponding with the device to be produced. A small steel 
punch is employed occasionally ; and if any of the indentations are carried too 
far, the plate is reversed, and a little counter-hammering applied. Many of 
the shields, salvers, dishes, and other articles in the Great Exhibition, dis- 
played fine examples of this kind of work ; and there was an equestrian statue 
of Queen Elizabetli produced almost entirely by this remarkable process. 

A remarkable department of the goldsmith's art has recently come much 
into fashion, viz., the manufacture of ecclesiastical plate and ornaments. As 
we have now church needlework and church brass-work, so have we church- 
work in the precious metals, such as was little patronized twelve or fifteen 
years ago. The causes which have led to tliis novelty, or rather revival, 
it is no part of the present sheet to discuss ; we view the fact simply in 
connection with a particular department of industiy. The communion 
plate of English churches— tlie chalice, the paten or salver, and the 
flagon— had degenerated to veiy untasteful productions, luitil withm Uie 
last few years. There was often abundance of real silver m them, but 
this silver had not been artistically wrought. It has been remarked, in con- 
nection with this subject, that raedioeval goldsmiths regai-ded the metal as 
one which is to be hammered into form, while the modems have largely 
practised the art of casting : and that, although the last-named process admits 
of the development of many new and beautiful effects, yet, being easier, it can 
be accomplished by persons of less taste. In other words, an artizan can pro- 
duce a piece of plate at the present day, whereas an artist was required for its 
production two or three centuries back ; and this difference has told on tiie 
relative infusion of mind in the two kinds of productions. Tho chui-ch gold- 



^UmisssagiSBiip^ 



'^mm 



Sj-ffir *^' '"" ''■""•^' ''■'*' 



g-igia«\" g i ;gr ii'?f '''^^i^s*^^^ 



maMtli 



"»*<A**^" 



ao 



gold: in the mine, the mint, and the workhhop. 




:i' 



i! 



Bmiths are now labouring to revive such of the eoi-licr forms and earlier pro- 
cesses OS may be (loomed by them superior to those adopted of late years. 
Of com-8c it must remain a matter of individual opinion, whether medifpval 
taste was better or worse than that of tlio present centiuy ; but the bestowal 
of tJiought and study on the ecclesiastical plate of past ages cannot ^'e oUier- 
wise tlian beneficial to the laboma of those who are now workmg in gold and 
silver, unless it lead uimply and solely to a mere unitation, which shows 

poverty of thought. , . , . . . , <• .v. i 

The beautiful art of the electro-plater, by which the magic aid of the gal- 
vanic batteiy is invoked by Uie skilful worker in metal, is briefly noticed m 
Uie paper on Industrial Applicatiotu of Electricity. 

Gold, in its Minote Scbdivibions. 

Full of interest in an artistic sense aa are the productions of tJio goldsmiUi, 
the tliousand and one applications of tJie precious metal to minor purposes 
are more rich in curiosities, more productive of results which the world in 
general could not have conceived, and can hardly believe even on assurance of 
their tnith. A few illustintions of these facts call for notice here. 

Of all the substances on which man exercises his manufacturing ingenuity, 
gold is i)erhaps that which admits of lieing brought to the most extraordinary 
degree of fineness. Many of Uie productions in this department of industi-y 
arc really " curiosities." Is not a soUd, unbroken, vmiform sheet of gold, less 
than one five hundredtli part the thickness of a sheet of ordinary printing 
paper, a curiosity ; is it not a cm-iosily to know that one ounce of gold may be 
made to cover the floor of on ordinaiy sitting-room ; that one grain of gold 
will gild thirty coat buttons ; and that tlie covering of gold upon gold lace is 
very far thinner tlian even leaf gold? Let us glance a little at these remai-k- 
able productions. 

And first for gold-leaf and the gold-beating processes whereby it is pro- 
duced. Gold-leaf, in strictness, it certainly is not: for it is found that a 
minute percentage of silver and of copper is necessary to give the gold a 
proper malleable quality — a percentiige of periiaps one in seventy or eighty. 
The refiner manages this alloy, and brings the costly product to a certain 
stage of completion; he melts the gold and the cheaper alloys in a black-! lad 
cmcible ; he pours the molten metal into an ingot mould, six or eight inches 
long ; he removes the solidified and cooled ingot from its moidd, and passes 
it repeatedly between two steel rollers until it assumes the thickness of a. 
ribbon ; and Uiis ribbon, about one eight-hundredth of an inch in thickness, 
and presenting a surface of about five hmidred square inches to an ounce, 
passes next mto the hands of the gold-beater. 

The working tools, the processes, and the products of a gold-beater, are all 
remarkable. That puzzling material, " gold-beaters' skin," is an indispensable 
aid to him : it is a membrane of extreme thmness and delicacy, but yet tough 
and strong, procured from the intestines of ilie ox ; eight hundred pieces of 
this skin, four inches square, constitute a packet with which the gold-beater 
labours ; and thus he proceeds : — A hundred and fifty bits of ribbon-gold, an 
inch square, arc interleaved with as many vellum leaves four inches square ; 
they are beaten for a long time witli a ponderous hammer on a smooth marble 
slab, until the gold has thinned and expanded to the size of the vellum. How 
the workman manages so as to beat all the pieces equally, and yet beat none 
into holes, he alone can answer : it is one of the mysteries of hla craft. The 



m. 



[B ' JW 



kmmI^*''*** * 



JRKBHOP. 

orms and earlier pro- 
idopted of late years. 
11, whether mediseval 
iry ; but the bestowal 
iges cannot be otlier- 
working in gold and 
litation, which shows 

magic aid of the gal- 
, is briefly noticed in 



ions of Uic goldsmitli, 
al to minor purposes 
9 which the world in 
3 even on assurance of 
tioe here. 

nufacturing ingenuity, 
she most extraordinary 
epartment of industiy 
um sheet of gold, less 
t of ordinary printing 
I ounce of gold may be 
tliat one grain of gold 
gold upon gold lace is 
little at tliese remai'k- 

sos whereby it is pro- 
for it is found that a 
iry to give the gold a 
J in seventy or eighty. 
f product to a certain 
r alloys in a black-! ^ad 
aid, six or eight inches 
its mould, and passes 
aes the thickness of a 
■ an inch in thickness, 
•e inches to an ounce, 

of a gold-beater, are all 
in," is an indispensable 
delicacy, but yet tough 
ight htmdred pieces of 
which tlie gold-beater 
bits of ribbon-gold, an 
es four inches square ; 
ner on a smooth marble 
ize of tlie vellum. How 
illy, and yet beat none 
eriea of hla craft. The 



oold: in the mine, the mint, and the woukbuop. 



21 



gold is lib((rated from its vellum prison, and each piece cut into four; the 
hiuidred and lil'ty havo tlnis become six hundred, and these are interleaved 
with six hunilrod pieces of gold-beaUirs" wkiu, which are then packed mto a 
compact mass. Anotlier beating tlien takes place — more careful, more deli- 
cate, more precise than the fonner— until the gold, ex])anded like the silk- 
worm, as far as its envelope will admit, requires to be again released. Ihe 
leaves ai-e agaui divided into four, by which the six hundred become twenty- 
four hmidred ; these are divided into three parcels of eight hundred each, and 
each parcel is subjected to a third beating. Heavy as the hammere are, there 
are yet degrees of heaviness : first, a sixteen-pounder gives its weighty tlmmps, 
theix a twelvepomider, and in tliis last operation a hammer of ton pounds is 
employed. 

Now if we exercise a little arithmetic, wo shall find that tlie tlim ribbon ot 
gold has become tliinner in an extraordinai-y degree ; in fact it is reduced to 
about T|t,)th part of its tliickness. /i sheet of paper is equal in thickness to 
HOD gold- ribbons, but one gold-ribbon is equal to IHO gold-leaves; thus the 
little uigot of two ounces becomes spreatl out to a very largo area. An apart- 
ment twelve feet square might be carj)eted witli gold for six or eight guineas : 
a tliin caipet, it is U'ue, but cue of sound honest gold, purer tliim even 
standai'd gold. 

The Great Exhibition has not failed to furnish illustrations of this re- 
markable product, and of tlie simple contrivances whereby it is produced. 
M. IJottier, from France, and Mcssi-s. Vino and Ashmead, from the United 
States, exliibited machines intended to aid in the operations of the gold-beater; 
but in England tliese operations ai-e wholly manipulative. Then the delicate 
membrane, the " gold-beaters' skin," was shown in specimens, not only from 
our own great metropolis, but from Hie far distant colony of Van Hiemen's 
Land. In Mr. Marshall's collection, placed among Uie "precious metals" of 
tlie Ci-ystal Palace, tliore was the packet of eight hmidred films of gold-beaters' 
skin, just in the form in which the hammer is brought to bear upon it ; and 
neai- this were specimens of all tlie various kinds of leaf-gold used in manufac- 
tm-ing operations, from the silveiy white to tlie coppery red. These variations 
of tint are produced by vaiying the quantity of silver and of copper mixed with 
tlie gold; and tliere were also different thicknesses of leaf, api>licable Ui diHerent 
pur[)ose3. There was gold leaf from tliree English fimis, from France, froiii 
the United States, from Turkey, and from Van Dienien's Land— tlie Old World 
and tjie New both displayed their knowledge of tliis art. 

The applications of this exquisitely fine substance are numerous and vaiied. 
In the edges of books, in picture-frames and looking-glasses, in the gorgeous 
decorations of the House of Lords and other sumptuous apartments, in gdt 
leatlier — we see some among the many appUcations of leaf-gold. In all these 
cases the gold is applied and seemed by tlie aid of a particular kind of cement 
or gold size ; and this cement dilTers in character, according as the gold is oi- 
ls not to be burnished with a smooth piece of agate or flint. The whole of 
tlie accompanying processes are full of ingenious " Curiosities," both in tlie 
effects produced and in tlie modes of producing them ; but we must hasten to 
glance at one of tlie otlier forms of extremely delicate attenuation of gold. 

Gold-lace is not gold lace. It does not desene this title, for the gold is 
applied as a smliice to silver. It is not even silver-lace, for the silver is ap- 
plied to a foundation of silk. Therefore, when we are admiring tlie glittering 
splendom- of gold-lace, we should, if " honour be given where honom- is due, 
remember that it is silk-lace, wiUi a silver-gilt coating. The silken threads for 



i ii ii tia iii ** i *ii>i'i >i < I iii ii rVM • t 



J 



1 



M 



oold: n» the Mint, the Miir mto tki wonraHOP. 



makintf Uiii matoriiU (iro wound round wiUi gold wire, no tliickly as t/) conceal 
the Bilk ; and Uie nrnking of Uiis gold wire ii* one of the most HUigiilnr me- 
chunical operation*) inrnKinable. hi the first f.lncc, the refuior prepnro*! a solid 
rod of Hilvor, about an inch in UiickneHS ; he heats this rod. a|.plie» up n the 
surface a coating of gold-leaf, burnishes this down, >pph.'s anot}i.'r coating, 
buniihhos tliis down, and so on. until the gc.ld is about one-hundredth part 
the Uuckness of tb'- -'v-. Then the rod is subjected to a tram of processeH, 
which bringi « ■li^ii I ; '"> stoto of a fine wire; it is passed Uiroiigh holes 
in a steel nl:,i ■ losi; r,' a- step by step in diam<ter. The gold never d. rts 
the silver, t)ut adiif.cd losely to it, and shares all itx mutations: it wn- one 
hundredUi poi-t the thickness of Uie silver at the beginning, and it maintains 
tlic saiiii: ratio to Uie end. 

As to the thinness to which Uie gold-coated rod ol Rilver can W brou^nt, 
the limit depends on tlie delicacy of human skill; but the most wondn.iis 
example ever known was brought forward by Uie late Dr. Wulliiston, .i man 
of extraordinary tact in minut- . ,. -: - ts. Thin is an example of a Hohd 
gold wire, without any silver. He procuved a sii' 11 rod of silv.n- bored a Siole 
Uirough it from end to end, tuid inserted in Uiis hole Uie smallost gold wire 
he could procure ; he subjected Uie silver to Uie usual wiro-diawmt,' proce-ss, 
nnUl he had brought it to the finest attainable state ; it was, m fact, a silver 
wire as fine as a hair, wiUi a gold wire in its centre. How to isolate Uiis gold 
wire was Uie next point: he subjected it to warm nitrous ii<;i.i, by which the 
silver was dissolved, leaving a gold wire one Uiirty-thousandUi of an inch i.i 
thickness— perhaps Uie thinnest round wire that Uie hand of man has yet pm- 
duced. But this wire, Uiough beyond all comparison finer than any employed 
in manufactures, does not approach in UiinneKS the film of gold on the sur- 
face of Uie silver in gold-lace. It has been calculated Umt Uie gold on ttie 
very finest sUver mvo for gold-lace is not more Uian ow-lhird of one-milionth 
of an inch in thickness ; Uiat is, not abovo one-tenUi the Uiickness of ordinary 
leaf-gold ! The mind gets not a litUe bewildered by these fractions : but we 
shall appreciate Uie matter in the following way:— Let us imagine Uiat a 
Bove-eign could be vHed or l)eaten into Uie iV)rm of a r.^-on, one inch m 
widUi, and as Uiin as Uiis film ; Uien Uiis ribbon might form a girdle com- 
pletely round Uie Crjstal Palace, wiUi perhaps " a little to spare." 

The delicate wires of gold, or of silver, or of silver coated wiUi gold, are 
applied to numerous ornamental purposes, of which abundant illustrations 
have been displayed at Uie "World's Fair." There was gold-laee, in a fonn 
fit to be applied to embroidery and oUier purposes, from a London hnn, tiom 
our neighbourt. across Uie channel, from Belgium, from Uie ZoUvemn States, 
and from Russia. The woven productions, embroidered wiUi gold-lace, were 
richly iUustiated by Uie archiepiscopal vestments contributed by Belgium. 
The employment of gold-laco, when woven with oUier materials, was shown 
(amoni; )ther examples) in the sumptuous Russian gold brocade, valued at 
about four guineas a yard. The exquisite fdarfree-xtork, from Genoa, hpain. 
and oUier countries, showed how delicately gold wire can be twisted and 
wrought into elegiait foi-ms; and the well-filled and well-arranged lunis Court 
demonstrated how widely Uie use of gold Uiread and gold wu-e has extended 
among the wealthier denizens of noilliera xXiiica. 



ll 



M 



^^■^f. ^ A.^.^....^.t.,m 






\ tliiokly OS to conceal 
le moHt BiiiK«Irtr me 
ifuitT piwpnron n xoliil 
rod, applioH iiji >n the 
)lii'8 anotlitr coating, 
t ()ne-huii(lre«ltli part 

a train of processes, 
passed Uirongh hohm 
h« gold never d< rts 
»ut4itions : it wft- ono 
ling, and it maintains 

ilver cftn bo brou^'lit. 
t the most wondrous 
Dr. Wolliiston, u man 
an example of a solid 
of silver, bored a hole 
he sniaib'st gold wire 
wiro-drawin'.; process, 

1 wa3, in fact, a silver 
ow to isolate tliis gold 
i>is acid, by wliich the 
isandtli of an inch in 
id of man hasyetpr»>- 
ler than any employed 
m of gold on the sur- 

that tlio gold on the 
If -third of ime-miUionth 
) thickness of ordinary 
lese fractions : but we 
si us imagine Uiat a 
a rli^uon, one inch in 
;lit form a girdle com- 
to spare." 

coated with gold, are 
abundimt illustrations 
as gold-lace, in a form 
11 a L<mdon finn, from 
1 the ZoUverein States, 
ed wiUi gold-lace, were 
iitributed by Belgimn. 
• materials, was shown 
;old brocade, valued at 
7c from Genoa, Hpain, 
■e can be twisted and 
l-arranged Tunis Court 
gold wire has extended 



1 



OOLD: IK THB MINB, TM MINT, AKB THK WOUKWIOP. 



B8 



Oo>rj)KK TniMKET8 Axu Small Waheh. 

ThMfl delirat^lyminutfl applicaii ms of gold are but a few among many. 
If we look at that doli.ut* b.it iMMioct film of gold which covers buttons and 
rhean iowollci-v, wo shall tind that it is not less curious tlian thost,- examples 
iu8t triauui. Hen) the gold is neither a sheet nor a wire; it is a w<uk or 
linui.l. The buttons, wh«. completely forme.l (by processes wh.di need not 
be hero described), are cleansed witli an acid liquor; then bunnshed. t« leve 
all irregularities ; tl.en shaken in a vessel wiUi a mixture of quicksdver aiid 
nitric acid : and afterwards drained fnm. all Uie mercury oxcei)t a Uiin hlni 
which adheres to ea< h button. Next comes the gilding process; gold and 
mercury are melted t..gether in an iron ladb-. au.l Uie mixture .s pourod into 
cold water; it forms a pasto-like substance, which is s<pioe/.od m a IcaUier bag 
until tiearlv all the epiicksilver is expelled, loavhig only a little combined wiUi 
the gold, ''i'his amalgam of gold and mcrcurj' is mixed with niUio wu and 
the buttons immersed in it; a careful application of heat dnvcs oft all Oie 
mercury from iho buttons, leaving a delicate but uniform nlm of gold on tl^o 
buttons. There are other modes of gilding buttons, but we need not stop to 
notice them here. Now this golden gannent which gives to a button a bn - 
liancv nearly if tiot quit*, equal to tliut which a button of so id gold would 
exhibit, is so extremely thin that ten pennyworths of gold would gid a hvm- 
dred roat buttons of ordinary size ; and in some of the cheaper kinds of work 
the film in less than ono two-hundred-UiousamlUi of an mch in tliickness. 

A» It ii in buttons, so it is in cheap jewellery: tlie thickness of the gold is 
small almost beyond belief Finger-rings, ear-rings, chains, clasps brooches. 
Jweezers bucklis, pencil-ca.oH, pen-holdei-s, bodkins, thimbles toothpicks, 
bmcelets stu.l -all such articles may be of real solid gold and sometimes 
are: but' tJie i.nninghiun trade mostly presents tliem simply with a golden 
surface upon commoner metals ; and tliere seems hardly any proctica^ limit to 
the thinness of tl- gold so applied. In proportion as the age «» ^1;«^P"««« 
advances, so do Uie manufacturers of that extraordmaiy town show how large 
a surface tliev can cover with a given weight of gold. , , , . „ ^ , .,, 
Down to about the time of Charles II. liinningham hod chiefly to do with 
iron and Uic coai-ser metals; but she now began to tuni attention to more 
showy productions. WiUiam Hutton, in his quamt • Hisl..iy ot Birmingham. 
SurVoUces the change which ensued :-" Thoug^i we have •'tt^nued her 
through so immense a space, we have only seen her m mfancy ; compara- 
tivels smaU in her ^ /.e, homely in per.Hon, and coarse m her dress; her 
ornaments wholly of uon, from her own forge. But now her growth will bo 
™Tng her expiuision rapid, ,)erhaps not to be i.aralleled m history. We 
TaU see her rise in all Uie beauty of' youth, of g.uce of elegance, and attract 
he notice of tlic commercial world. She will also add to her >roji -•naments 
the lustre of every metal that the whole earth can produce with all their 
Uustrious race of compounds, heightened by fancy and gamishe.l with jewels 
She will draw fVom the fossil and vegetable kingdoms ; press the ocean for 
shell, skin, and ui'al. She wiU lUso tax Uie animal lor l^o™..^«"'|?"^'^^";«^ j 
.md rfie w 11 d. .rate the whole witli the touches of her pencil Hutton ^^^ 
perfectly rigl , Birmingham ha, done aU tliis. Her beautiful steel toys and 
LamentI; u-r fine productions in stamped brass; her bronze and brass 
lamp fumitme , licr painted and pdished japan and papier-macbe goodh ; her 



T 




i MitB » iW.i i « i* » iii riiri' iii i' II I' 



fU 00I<D: in TMB mike, tub KIKT, and tub WOnKSHOP. 

nritnnniii motal and wliito meUl UbI.. furnituro-.ill Hpeak well for tlie induHlry 
mHl™rher urti/.a.,H. But an our nubjcct hore in Hunply yoUl, we must 
not wandf-r to other departinonUi of lUraungham industry. i.,„„m« 

The «old-trinket tnule of BinnhiKhani ih carrio.l on raUier by humble 
JloHmen-" g«m.t maHten. "-than by lar^c inanufactu. .rH Mai.y a wok- 
B^rX has saved five or tt-n pounJH, have. Im master, buys a httle gold 
Sa oU>cr rtal. aiul employn hin wifo and children an his aids m producmg 
S ver Sblc '• Ummmageur- goods, wh.ch have Bomowhat damaged tlio repu- 
Stion of the to^^'n-in tho rjm of thoHO. at least, who are not tamihar with 
S^S really fine pmductions pit forth by tho hotter •im.s. Lot not purchasers 
cmnXn if tho gold-clad trinket lo8«s its external attractions rather too soon 
S inghi u hko London, can produce good golds.n Uierv if properly paid 
for t One small garret master makes buckles, anotiier brooches, another 
clLns ar .oon. Buttons, it is curious to observe, are differently treated ; 
£r «» Hon of Uio largest establishments in Birmingham n gilt toys. 
Se^tTsK" e now beaS Birmingham. paiUy on account of tl.o mipenor 
S^te Zwn and partly owing to the lowness of wages. Glass, pobblo and 
^r!feo omlente for llirmingham cheap jeweUery are mostly imported from 

^' Thr^"ardisnlay in Hyde Turk, of which we have lately seen the close 
^as a cycloLdi of inf..mmtion on the subject of gold, as on almost all 
Tther SeJte We have had opportunities of mentioning Una m many 
Z^^onX^^. «^<l ^« ^ill "»^' ^^ ^'« reader-if he happens to possess 
Sie ^Alphabetical and ClussiHed Index to U.e Otficial Cata bguo ' -to glmice 
at the urious aspects which gold there presents to his view. He will find 
tld Id goUl ore from no less than eight different counUnes ; gold leaf, and 
Sir'tiStachines. and gold-beuters' skin, irom ^ngl-a -a I^rarjce.^ a^^^ 
Turkey, and the United States, and Austnilia; a series of specimens to illus- 
tnue the processes of tho gold-manufacture; gold pens Irom halt a dozen 
makeiL Lgmved gold plates from Switzerland; specimens of gold-plating 
from FnuS gold lace L\ gold brocades, not only from g"g^'«^^"l'«' ^ 
from foreigners who rejoice in the names of SUrchikoff '1 loeltsch. and 
iToK 3 goldsmiths- work from about sixty English finiis. and from 
alS e^r^ other country in the world; ai.d if we change from the word 
yold to the word giU, we have stiU other items to add to the hst. 

The "curiosities" of gold in respect to the currency question may be veri- 
table curiosities indeed ; but as they laimch the curiosityhunter upon Uie 
S^J^y sea ofpoht^cs. wC gladly avail om-selves of a good excuse for keeping 
clear of them. 



"^S 



maam 



Hi 



mnKBHOP. 

ik well fi>r Uie induHtry 
8imply (fold, wo must 
:ry. 

on mtlior by humblo 
tunTH. Moiiy a work- 
uiter, buys a liltlo gold 
hU aids in producuig 
tiat damaged the repu- 
are not familiar with 
I. Let not purchasers 
ctionH ratlier too soon ; 
itlieiT if properly paid 
her broochcH, another 
are differently treated ; 
iiinghani. In gilt toys, 
,ccomit of tlio 8\ipenor 
BS. GlaBH, pebble, and 
3 mostly impoi-ted from 

3 lately seen the close, 
gold, 08 on ahnoHt all 
ritioning tliia in many 
he happens to possess 

Catalogue" — to glance 
his view. He will find 
ountries ; gold leaf, and 
I gland, and France, and 
a of specimens to illus- 
)en8 from half a dozen 
Bcimens of gold-plating 
from English firms, but 
rchikoff, Troeltsch, and 
nglish firms, and from 

change from tlio word 
o the list. 

ey question may be veri- 
iriosity-hunter upon the 
rood excuse for keeping 



TAPER: ITS APPLICATIONS AND ITS NOVELTIES. 



Tkk " Fourth Estate " has ])apfr for its donuiin, its scene of government' 
its iield of action, 'i'he wonderful uewsjuiper i>reMS, though more dependent 
on improvements in printing than in paper -making, is yet so largely indebt*'<l 
to the latter, that it becomes a problem whether the ' Times' ronld have risen 
to itti present wonderful circulation without tlx^ invention of niacliine-nuulo 
paper. And that which is applicable to newspiipers is, in an analogous way, 
ii|iplicttble to books tuid pamphlets of all kinds. The renowtu'd " Hbilling 
Catalogue" of the Great Exhibition, containing as it does something like 
tluee quarters of a pound of material, would probably not have been attempleil 
in the days of hand-made paper. Not that tlie hand method is abandoned : 
far from it; but the nuiss of i)rinting-paper, tlie 'broad sheet' which finds iln 
way into eveiy corner of the kingdom, and mon; or less into almost every 
comitry in tbe world, is for the most part tlie jiroduct of that beautiful 
machine which the talent of Fourdrinier ami Dickinson has brought to such 
perfection. Besides the lowering of price and the expediting of tiio manu- 
facture, the paper-machine has wrought lui astonishing revolution by showing 
how to produce paper of any length. It matters not — a mile or a yard ; the 
lUttchuio will make a sheet of paper such tbat, when coiled up, it may bo as 
thick as a man's body. This inunense mcreose of si/o may be productive of 
results yet un tlio ugh t of. 

pAt'EU AND ITS PRODUCTS AT lllE GkEAT ExHIUmON. 

Never before was seen such a display of fancy paper goods as tlic recent 
Exhibition contained. Omitting mention of the plain printing and writing 
papers, the paper hangings, and the pai)ier mache, there was an assemblage 
of piipetei-ie (juite dazzling. Who does not recollect the compartment over 
which ' PAPER ' was inscribed ? The envelope-cases, the writing books, the 
blotting books, the tinted papei-s t>f evei-y hue which the colour-maker could 
commiuid, the scented and the enamelled papers, the opalescent and the gilt 
papers, the embossed and the embroidered papei-s, the spangled and the 
starred papers, the roll of paper a mile or two in length, Uie sheet of brown 
])aper eight feet wide by more than four hundred in length, tlie sheet of 
pottery paper two miles and a half long, the fine tough paper made of old 
rope, the thin tissue paper so strong as to bear a heavy weight suspended 
from it, the delicately painted and coloin-printed papers — all were there, 
decked out in most tempting array ; and our foreign neighbours were not 
slow to contribute specimens of tlieir skill in analogous departments of 
industiy. Some of the specimens of bank-note paper exhibited were so 
astonishingly tough,' that a sheet weighing only half an ounce bore a strain 
of 280 lbs. It was interesting, too, to see the fragment of rope which had 
been fished up fmm the poor ' Royal George,' and by tlie side of it a sheet of 
coarse paper made from some of its hempen fibres. But it was yet more 
instructive to study tlie series illustrative of the paper-manufacture, from the 
dirty unbleached mgs to the delicately white sheet of paper. 

I 



<li «fci l t iiii ifil iii» » i M i «i i lnyMri i i rr i ir i t i 



2 



paper: its applications and its novelties. 



Manv visitors were, however, disappointed that there was no paper-makmg 
machin'e to be seen in action. When the eager eyes looked round at tlie 
miKhty ' Ilhisti-ated News' machine, at the various printing-presses, at 
the hosiery frames, ^t the carding and spinning and weaving machipes, 
at the envelope muehines-when t?.esc were ^een actually prodnmng die ar i- 
cles for which they were intended, a wish did certainly often arise that the really 
beautif.d operation of paper-making could be seen in process^ It is true "mt a 
paper-machine of great magnitude was exhibited m the I rench department and 
that a model of beautiful constniction was contributed by Messrs. Donkin; 
but tlie former did not and the latter could not work at paper-making and the 
spectators were left to wonder ho.v so many cylindei-s and troughs a^A P^d ««;; 
aprons can be brought to hear ppon this branch of industry Jt is possible 
Sat the manufacture is beset'with difficvilties of too formidable a ctiarac^er 
to have' been surmounted in such a place ; and it is at any rate certain that 
much delicacy 6f adjustment ani of ' temperature and of moisture has to bo 

''^Although there was no aqtual paper-machine at work, we M nevertheless 
many itei^is pf information rendered by parts of machines. There were, tor 
instance, Messrs. Brewer's rollers and moulds for pwer-makmg; there was 
Brewer's collection of endless brass-wire cloth, wire-rollers, &c., lor the sanie 
maqufactnre'; there was Messrs. Cowan's " patent paper-pulp metar; there 
were Sullivan's rollei-s for producing the water-mark In mfichine-laid paper; 
there was Watson's paper-piilp strainen and there werp Makins various com- 
ponent parts of a paper-makilig machine, exhibited as specimens of mamifac- 
tin^es ill metal. And though we are not at this moment speaking ot the 
ai>plimtwnoi paper, it mi^y le well to bear in mind how vaned were tihe lUu^ 
trations of all such applications at tlie Exhibition. The paper-folding 
machines, the paper-cutting machines, the paper-nihng machine, the very 
curious paper-shade-mi^king machine— all were wortliy ot attention, and some 
of them more than they received. j- 1 „^f 

But, besides the English contributions, our continepUd neigUl»Pure did pot 
neglect tlie opportunity of putting forth their best skill on tbe qccd^iop. TJie 
trj^q \>m, civcnlars. c^ds. lists, catalogues. &c. {^ copiplete polleption ot 
which mnU foon QPe of the most interesting reQor^^ of t^e Gyeai t-xh - 
bit on), set foi-tti the merits pf the French paper as jeU as of pt^er depart- 
ments of mannfftctuve. We find, fpr instance, in M. M. Odents napkeen- 
coloured bill, an annquncement of "Animal paper, mcpmbustible, and my 
strpng, for the prepar^iou of cartridges fpr the marine ; " parchment y^pjv, 
morocco'd for bopk covers and binding ; " " Pankeen paper, yeiy comWwble, 
for die manufacture of cigarettes ;" aod "^vhite puppr. sized find un§ized, tor 
prmting, engraving, an<l cppper plate." Tbese i^impnncements li^e wwy 
others in tlie Exhibition, were printed in three languages; and t^e clnef 
partner neglected not the opportunity to st^te that he hi^d been " invested witli 
the Order of the Legion pf Honour," in 1832. Another hrm, MM. Obey 
and Bernard, with " twq silver medals," in 1844-9, announce, snndarly m 
three languages. " violetpaper, a Fresenative from rust, for needle papers and 
envelopes; " "coloured and tinted papers, for drnwing^, pampWet, covera, and 
bookbinding pui-pose? ; " "■ black papers, fpr packing cambrics, Imens, ^cc. ; 
"white writing and printing papei-s;" "endless webs, thoroughly sized, for 
drawings and plans ; " and "endless webs for paper hangings. Tlien came 
the firm of Bequin, whose "carton" or pasteboiu-d manufacture is advertised 
and described. But the most remai-kable of these French paper advertise- 



?EW1K9. 

re was no paper-making 
8s looked round at tlie 
lus printing-presses, at 
i\u\ weaving machipes, 
ually producnig the arti- 
often arise that tlie really 
)rocess. It is true that a 

French department, and 
ited by Messrs. Donkin ; 
It paper-making, and the 
I and troughs and pndless 
industrj'. It IS 'possible 
10 formidable a character 

at any rate certain, that 
1 of moisture has to bo 

ork, we ha4 nevertheless 
ichineg. There were, for 
paper-making; there was 
rollers, l-c, for the saine 
paper-pulp meter;" there 
c m mfichipe-laid paper ; 
'erp Makin's various com- 
13 specimens of manufac- 
moraent speaking of the 
jow varied were the illui^- 
tiovi . The paper-foldin g 
■uling niachitie, the very 
ly of attention, and some 

ient«4 neighl^Qurs did not 
iiil on the qccjisjop. TJie 
H copiplete poUeptipi:) of 
cords of the Gyeftt Exhi- 
>yeU £^s of other dppart- 
M. M. Qdeqt's nanke^n- 
, incombustible, a»)d yeyy 
ine ; " " parchment papar, 
I paper, yeiy combuptible, 
)pr, sized and vmsizecj, ibr 
mQuncements, lijie \amy 
i£l4)guage«; and the chief 
i h(*d been " invested with 
Another lirm, MM. Obey 
I, aauounce, similarly in 
ust. for needle papers ^d 
ngs, pampiiiet covers, and 
ig cq,mbrics, linens, &c. ; " 
ebs, Uioroughly sized, for 
I- hangings." Then cajpe 
aiauufactuve is advertised 
} French paper adveiiise- 



papeb: ;t8 xprwcATjoss and iis kovei-ties. 8 

mpnts >vas that put fortli by the fapev Making Cpmpany of Essqr^ie, in the 
depai-tH^ent of ^eine-et-Oisp. The sh^et containing tho annoitncement qf 
this (ivifl has seven large well-executed wood-cuts, illustrative of the succesj&ivt} 
processes pf paper-making. There is livst'a geperal view pf tlie factpry, with 
a canal, t|-aniways, and a multitude of buil(;liu!?s ; then cpme^ fbe sorting pf 
the rags, hy women rangecl in a V'>w at tables, and having tlie handkerchief 
head-dresse? which l-'Vench wpv^womep nipstly weai" at their labour ; next is 
represented the rc^' in which \iw rags are being chopped UP i^t" pulp ; 
then thp bleaching process; next thp actual rpanufacturp by two cpmplete 
machines ; then a press-room for finishing the paper ; and two othep yiews of 
subsidiary character. It might be worth while lor our British manufacturers 
to ccmsider whether this is not a somewl^at attractive mode of advertising. 

This factoiy, we may here remark, appears to be on a veiy extensive scale. 
It was at llssonne that Louis Eobert, a working paper-maker, invented the 
first paper-machine in 1790 ; but, although the English brought the invention 
to a practical ii^sue in 1809, tlie French had no paper-machine at work till 
1816 ; tliey had fouv in 1BS7, twelve in 1834, and now have upwards; of two 
liundred. 'J'hesp two hundred machines work up daily about aOO,OQt» 
kilograinmes (430,000 lbs.) of rags into paper, which, if fonned into an endless 
strip five feet wide, would extend 2000 kilometres (1 250 miles). It was in 
1840 that a Oompaay (called in Fraiice a Societe Anonijme) was forined for 
establishing a paper factoiy on the spot which had witnessed the birth of the 
paper-macliinp. The factory stands close to the Corbeil Jlailway, about an 
hour's lain from Paris. It has tlu-ee cpuiplete machines for making 
paper, and twenty-six triturating machines for making tlie pulp. The 
rag warehouse is §ai4 to contam a stpi'e of 400,000 kilogrammes (870,000 lbs.) 
of rags ; and cpntigupu? to this i$ a large building in which women spreatl 
out anil sort the r-agg. In anpther buil4ing the rags are beaten to expel 
mechanicdl jrnpuritips and dust, washed to get ri<i of diii and grease, teazed 
01 torn into §breds, and bleacjied. The washing is effected in monster 
coppers, which hol4 thrpe or fpur thousand pomids of rags'. The various 
niftchmes ax% set in piption by an abimdancp of motive fprcp, supplied by six 
watev-wheels, a turbine, an4 a steani-enginp. Thp works occupy an area of 
nearly fifty acres; but this includes accommoclatipn for the work-peojile. The 
mofip in which these work-people are treated deseryes attention. They are 
about thr«e hundred in number, of whom two hundved take up thejr aboda 
within the establishment, ai^d have a gai'den at their disposal. The remaining 
hundrecl, who live out of die establishment, havp a couifoitabl^ refectory or 
eatipg-rppm ; thpi'e ai-p vim^ baths for thp gratuitous use of the operatives ; a 
medical niaji fiaUs pverj' day and gives advice and medicine to any who need 
his aid ; whilp a nurfjery a?»d a primaiy school are established, with fires, tables, 
bopfeg, niaps, ic, for the young children of parents engaged m tlie factn^y. 
Ti}§Fe is mwh thoughtful kindness in all tllis. 

But this establishment at Essonne has taken us away frqra the Great Exhi- 
bition. We nped npt, hpwever, stop to dilate on tlie various productions con- 
trihutPd ^y other cpuntrjeg. Switzerland sent her nm^ic paper, plate paper; 
and wrapping paper of excellent quality ; togetlier with writing and tissue 
papers ftf vai-ipus khids. |lome, tlie land for artists, showed what good draw 
ing paper she can produce. France is said to prpdupe better thUi than tliick 
writing peper ; England better thick than tliin ; and it is not unwortliy of 
consideration whetlier the French postal system may not have some infiuence 
pn th^ thinness pf Uie paper made for letter-writing. Belgium, liussia, ar 4 

I 3 



mm 




■w'wwimi" 



4 paper: its applications and its novelties. 

Holland, all showed their present degree of skill in the art, but evidenUy 
occupying a lower position than France. The Zollverein collection was very 
numerous ; and one group was especially interesting, inasmuch as it displayed 
in juxtaposition specimens of the papers produced at one mill in Prussia 
tlirough Uie long period of ninety years— thereby affording materials for 
tracing a progressive rise in excellence. There was a series of calico-pnnt 
patterns, in the English department, which gave the same kind of mstructive 
testimony to tlie chronological progress of that art. 

Of the paper hangings and the stationery and the papier mache at the 
Exhibition, we shall speak further on. 

The Materials fok Papeh. 

Many have been the attempts to employ other materials for paper than 
tliose customarily used in this countiy. Rags would seem to be cheap 
enough ; but Uiere may be times, and places, and circumstances, m which rags 
would be eitlier unattainable or too costly. All these attempts, however, have 
met with singularly little success— so fai-, at least, as our own coimtiy is con- 
cerned. Yet it may be useful to glance at a few of the substitutes which have 

been proposed. , 

The paper of the ancients, as most readers are awoi-e, was not properly 
paper at all; tliat is, it was not a prepared pulp cast into the form of sheets 
and dried. Papyrus is the botanical name of a certain species of plant ; 
papynis is the name given to the paper made from Uie soft cellular flower- 
stem of this plant; and papyrus is also the name generally given to 
tlie ancient -wntUm scrolls made of this niuUirial— just as we give the 
name of tea to a plant, to the dried leaf of the plant, to the infusion of 
the dried leaf, and to the meal at which tliis infusion is drunk. The 
papjTUs is a very common nlant in Egypt, Syria, and Abyssinia ; the stem 
's from tlivee to six feet high ; and it was from the tliin concentric coats 
or paUicles which sun-ound this stem that tlie ancient Egyptians made then- 
papyri or wiitmg-papei-s. The mode of building up a long strip of writing- 
paper from such elementary materials seems to us, in our day, wofully clumsy^ 
The naiTOW slips of fibre, six or eight inches long, were laid side by side fuid 
another layer pasted over them crosswise, so as to form a coherent double 
sheet. This sheet was pressed, dried in tlie sun, and polished witn some hard 
smooth substance. Several others were pasted to it end to end, until a roll 
twenty or thirty feet long was formed, with only a few inches of width ; and it 
is on such rolls or scrolls that many extremely valuable Egyptian end Greek 
manuscripts, still extant, are written. It is curious to trace how our words 
paper and Bible have been derived from this plant-stalk ; from the I^atin name, 
papyrm, has sprang the modem words papier and paper; while from the name 
for the same plant given by Herodotus, byblos, is supposed to have sprung 
hiblion, Bible, and other words and names relating to books. 

The Chhiese — that most extraordinaiy 'self-contained' nation — make a 
filamentous kind of paper much superior to ancient papyrus ; it obtains in 
England the name of rice-paper; but sufficient is now known of it to show 
that this is by no means a correct designation. Dr. Livingstone introduced 
Chinese rice-paper in England about half a century ago ; it had immense 
favour as a material for artificial flowers, and gossips say that Princess Chai- 
lotte paid seventy guineas for a bouquet made of this material. It was many 
years afterwai-ds that infonaatior was obtained concerning Hie mode adopted 



SLTIES. 

the nrt, but evidently 
3in collection was very 
msmuch as it displayed 
,t one mill in Prussia 
affording materials for 
a series of calico-print 
ame kind of insti-uctive 

B papier mache at the 



aterials for paper than 
old seem to be cheap 
mstances, in which rags 
attempts, however, have 
our own coimtiy is con- 
3 substitutes which have 

wai-e, was not properly 
into the form of sheets 
jrtain species of plant; 
the soft cellular flower- 
me generally given to 
1— just as we give the 
lant, to the infusion of 
id'ufiion is drunk. The 
aid Abyssinia ; the stem 
e tliin concentric coats 
at Egyptians made their 
a long strip of writing- 
our day, wofully clumsy. 
3re laid side by side and 
fonn a coherent double 
polished with some hard 
t end to end, until a roll 
f inches of width ; and it 
ible Egyptian and Greek 
3 to trace how oiu- words 
k ; from the Iiatin name, 
ler; while from the name 
iUf)posed to have sprung 
books. 

tained ' nation — make a 
it papynis ; it obtains in 
ow Imown of it to show 
r. Livingstone introduced 
y ago ; it had immense 
)s say that Princess Chai- 
s material. It was many 
emingUxe mode adopted 



paper: its applications and its novelties. o 

by the Chinese in making tliese small but veiy expensive sheets of paper. 
There is a leguminous plant growing in China and India, the stem of which 
is cut into pieces eight or ten inches in length ; and these ai-e cut by the 
Chinese mto one continuous spiral film, on the same principle as tlie modem 
mode of veneer cutting, but by the dexterous use of hand-tools. These la 
minse, being spread out and pressed flat, form thin sheets, which, after being 
dyed and otherwise prepared, constitute the rice-paper of tlie Chinese. 

The same ingenious people make paper of bamboo. The bamboo stems, 
when about three or four inches thick, are cut into pieces four or five inches 
long. These, when softened ui water, are washed, cut into filaments, dried 
and bleached in the sun, boiled, beaten to a pulp, and made into thin sheets 
of paper. This is ti-uly paper, which the former examples ai-e not ; and the 
art must have made a notable advance before such a metiiod could have sug- 
gested itself. 

Most nations in tlie early ages, and rude nations in the present, have looked 
rather to vegetable than to any other substances as the materials for paper. 
Palm-leaves, tlie inner bark of the elm, the maple, the beech, the plane, and 
the linden tree, leaves of various plants — all have been employed. But the 
animal kingdom has not been neglected by experimental paper-makers. We 
have heard of skins, and silk, and leather, and wax( . tablets ; while every one 
knows that vellwii and parchment, essentially animal substances, still play a 
very important part as substitutes for paper. Nor have mineral substances 
failed to be appealed to. There is a very puzzling substance, called asbestos, 
which has extraordinary power in resisting the action of fire, and the source 
of which was for many yeai-s imknown in tliis country. Both cloth and paper 
have been made from 'it. The original material is a greenish-gray fibrous 
stone, found in great abundance in Corsica ; and by processes of pounding 
and sifting, moistening and mixing, it is capable of being wrought into 
sheets of a kind of paper. Professor Bruckmann of Bmnswick, some years 
ago, bethought him that it would be a good way to exhibit asbestos paper by 
making it up into a book ; he tlierefore wrote a treatise on asbestos and its 
qualities; and printed a few copies on asbestos-paper — rough, coarse, but 
said to be incombustible. 

Bright hopes were entertained some years ago that good paper might be 
made from straw. One of the principal tanneries in Bermondsey, called 
Neckinger Mills, was originally a straw-paper manufactoiy. It appears that 
the straw was cut up into pieccD two or three inches in length, steeped 
in cold lime-water, and cut up into infinitesimal fragments in a paper-mill; 
the pulp thus produced was made into paper by the usual Uain of pro- 
cesses. But the enteiprise failed in Bermondsey, and a second time failed 
at Thames Btmk ; the paper produced was harsh and ill-coloured. A further 
attempt was made to brave the difficulties ; additional processes were adopted 
to free the straw from knots, to extract the colouring matter, to dispose it 
to become fibrous, to free it from mucilage and from siUceous pa.rticles, 
and also from tlie odom- of many of tlie chemicals employed in the 
foi-mer processes — all means were adopted, in short, to coax it to become 
a good paper-making m>it«rial ; but these numerous processes became at 
length veiy costly, and the straw-paper was neither fine enough nor strong 
enough to command an adequate price. So it died a commercial deatli. 

There is in the British Musemn a remarkable book, treating of the manu- 
factm-e of paper from various kinds of bark, leaves, and fibres, and printed 
on leaves of paper made from tlie various substances described. It is a 



l! 



\ 



f^M 



Mfliii i thMiiifiMiMii i fcii 




■■ ^jy r' 



iii|i I I minifiH w 



Q PAPJiB: ITS ^PPUCATTOSSf AND ITS NOVELTIES. 

curiosity, ancj a useful one, in so far as it hem t«stin^ony to \he capabilities 
of spniy materials; but \i must hoi^e.tly be coiifessed tbat Uie ^pwns 
would not pass master ye^y satisfactorily if U-»ed by tjie ordmary testa i^i 
respect to fineppsii, pplour, apd smoothness. 

Rags, howavev— tlie fragments of wpm-out linen and cotton g^-ment§— 
arc the great store bouse of material for paper-p^vHiRg- There are abundai^t 
reasons % flunking that tjje Ch|ne^e, vi]}o were i^e first to make paper h-om 
pulp of auv kind, were also the first who cpnvevteil ql4 ^arp^ents ^ptq pew 
sheets of paper. T|ie art traveUed somehow from Chma to Samarc^iid, 
whence the Saracpps transferred it to Spain; and from Spam it spread 
tln-oughqut Europe. One Tate is said to have been the first to practise tlie 
art and mystery 5" papPF-Waking in Englai^a. at a mill which h*^ '''^^'' w 
in HertfprMire in tlie early part of tue sixteenth c-^ntuiy. The next we boai 
of wasa German, who stationed himself at Dartford in 1588. and who was 
knighted by Queen Elizabetli. In tbe tipie of Fuller the manulactoe had 
made but little progress in this pouptiy, tlie chief supply being obtained Irom 
abroad. Jle qmuxtly tpUs us that " Paper participates m some sort ot the 
charapterofthe country which makes it; tlie Venetian beipg neat, subtle, and 
court-llke; t|ie French light, slight, and slender; and the Dutch Uiick, coiim- 
lent, and gi-Q3S, sucking ^p the u^k with the spongmess tbereot. 
^weyplfem W^d PannX two Gennans who settled at Borne soon after 
aie invention of pointing, and who >vere the fii-st to introduce the t^rt in that 
city, printed m'<«iy works, but did not find an adequate sale for ibem ; and in 
a petition which they presented to the Pflpe, they drew his IJolmesss atten- 
tion to tlxe diffipulty of obtaming rags ; they si^i4 " H you pemse Uie catalogue 
of thp works pinnted by us, you will admire how and w^ere we could procure 
ft suftiaient quantity of paper, or eyenrags, for such a nnp:iber ot yqlpmes. 

Many ajeatler mp-y have mai-velled, as thesp old pripters U^ought the Pope 
might marvel, whence or how tlje supply of rags for paper-mak/Pg ^^. f 
kept up. If any one cquntrj' were depended qp, the supply wqpld certaiply 
fail; but by appealing to the rag-bag of ^venj country, a contmppus store is 
maintained. The Hungi^rian shepherd's frock or tunic-shirt, the blue shirt of 
a weatiier-beaten sailor hi the Mediterranean,— all such garments, as well qs 
those of finpr texture, ai-e welcome. The matevial for a sheet^of pappr may, as 
has been Remarked, " have constituted Ihf coj^rse covering of tbe fipck beet ot 
tlie farmer pf Saxony ; or once looked bright in the dami^sk t^b}e-clotb of the 
burgher of tfamburgh; or may have bpen swept, npw apd unworn, out ot the 
vast coUection'of the shrpds and patc^jps, the tiistian and buckram, ot a iion- 
dpn tailor ; or may have accomppiied every revolution of a tashiqnahlp coat m 
the shape of lining-having U-f^yellecl from St. James's to fet. Giles s horn 
Bond Street tp ^on^nputh SU'ept, frpm Bag Fair to the Publm Liberty-tiU 
man diso\yned the vesture, and tlie kennel-sweeper claimed its miserajile re- 
niain^." These " kennel-steppers " pick up a considerable quaiiti^y ot tmen 
and qptton fragments-pot so mpcli, probably, now as pi pjist ftu es, on ac- 
count of the more frequent qnd complete sweeping oi the street^i. In 1 aris 
tlie bone-grnbbers or chiffot^iers form quite a fratemity, who hftye not lai'ed to 
play thejr part i;t the nmperons mcutes which have disturljC^ lljat excitatie 






WMW.n 



r^^ 



I'liMrffta^i 



ai?iiii»aii» 



1 



JLTIKS. 

qony to the capabilities 
sed that the specimens 
I t};e ordinary tests ip 

md cotton giu-ment^— : 
;. Thera ave abundai^j; 
•St to make paper from 
)14 gax-pients iptQ i>ew 

Chiiia to S(»roarcJ^ld, 

from Spain it spread 
he f^rst to practise tjie 
ill which hf^ established 
uiy. The next \ye hear 
. in 1588, and who was 
r the manufacture had 
ply beuig obtained from 
«s in some sort of the 
. being neat, subtle, and 
the l)utct^ tliick, co^-pu- 
is thereof." 

led at iiome soon after 
troduce the ^rt in tlmt 
;e sale for them ; and in 
•ew his JJoliijcss's atten- 
rou peruse tl^e catalogue 
wf^ere we could procure 
number of vqlutnes.' 
ijiters thought the Pope 
»r paper-majiipg can be 

supply wo|ald certain^ 
rj', a continiipus store is 
ic-shu-t, the jqlue shirt of 
ich garments, as well ^s 
a sheet of pappr may, as 
s^ing of t]^e IJQpk be4 of 
lami^sk t^bje-cloth of the 
I B^a unworn, out of tl>e 
opd buckraro, of ^ Lon- 
1 of a fashiqnablp coat in 
es's to St. Giles's, from 
the Dubliti Liberty — till 
■laimed its niiserable re- 
derat^le quan'i*v of ^inen 
as in ptist xtvi es, on ac- 
of the streets. In Paris 
y, who have pot faUed to 

disturljccl t^at expitaUe 



I*»PER: its Al'PLlCATlONS AND ITS NOViaTIES. 7 

The Manufactubino Pbocessks. 

Tb dptttll fonnally tho various operations in the manufactiire of paper is no 
jiart of the present object ; but a glance may be taken sufficient to show the 
relations between the several stages of i)rocess. 

Tho paper-mills a:e mostly in pretty valleys ^here abundance oi clean water 
can be obtained— iVater to turn the macliiticry, afld water to make the pulji. 
Maily a paper-mill can be seen by railway ttavellers as they whu-1 along— hi 
Hertfordshu'e, "xi Kent, in Somersetshire, and elsewhere. Fbr the most part 
iTond water-power is the desideratum ; but in some cases a null is estabhslied 
near the spot Where a particular kind of prtper is much demilnded: Messrs. 
Fourdrifaier, for instancj?, have a mill in Staffordshire, where they make the 
thin but tough paper so largely used in printing blue and white earthenware. 

Whereier it may be, neat or distant from London (there is no paper-mill »- 
Lond'in), the first care of the manufacturer is his rags. From Trierte, Iron. 
Leghorn, from Hamburgh, from Rostock, and from other porta, the rags ctf 
vanous countries arc brought to England ; and the capabilities of eaCh havfa 
(o be detettnihed. English housewives have the reputation of being vtety 
cleanly ; those of Italy are far otherwise ; and the linen and cotton rags affotd 
striking pt'Odf of this difference. Many continental countries positively ptb- 
hibit tlie exportation of rags at all, and we have theroforfe to be content with 
such as are accessible. The rags are packed in bags of three or loul- himdred- 
weightS each ; and these, whfen opened at tlie mill, aie placed ui.oer the cal'o 
of woinen, whose duty it is to sort them, to shake out the loose dust, to ctit 
them ihU) moderately small pieces, and to separate the seams and heths 
from the other pieces. A keen eye and a dexterous hatid toe reqhired iH 
this prblimihary operation. , . , „ v. i- . ^■fu^ 

Then comes the truly chenlifctll process by which the dmgjs dirty, aiSbo- 
lotired ra^s are brought as purely white as -a delicate sheet of paper, boitle 
of the English rags are so clean that they require no bleaching ; Mt tlie 
Whitey-brown, or worse than whitey-brown, rags of otlier counti-ies hftve t« 
j)ass through an ordeal in which chlorine exhibits Us wonders, ihey ai-e 
plpced in a close chfest, chlorine is admitted to them through a pipe, and 
in a few hours eveiy vestige of colour is removed a strong clllorme odour 
is imparted, it is triie, but a good washing removes thi^. 

The boilmg and the v-'-i""". and tlie bleaching diffef in degi'ce accordWg 
10 the state of the rags ; but tlie comminutittil, the dissection, the seterailcfe 
into itifinitesiniftl fragments, is required alike for all. In otie machine the 
ra<'s are di-awii between shari) knives on a Mler and sharp knives on a plane, 
an°d are unmistakably briiised by tlie transit ; while in another niac'iuie, which 
works more rapidly, and has its knife-edges more closely together, they dre so 
thoroughly tossed about and cut til), as to fortli, with the ^Vatef in which thty 
are imhierSed, a smooth crfefim-llke pulp. Blotthuj papfef derives its f feculiar 
property from having no size in it; printitlg and writhig paper are ftlwa^S 
sized ; and some kinds receive thfeir quota of sire when m the state of pulp. I 

Ifrohi tliis pulp, kept agitated in a vessel, sheets of paper arc madp. llio 
dexterous manipulations of paper-makers Oil the hand method are very te- 
markabte. The pulp is transfferred to a steam-hedted vat, wherb it is 
kept wai-m and weU agitdted. The work'- - has two «tm<W«, cbnslsting df 
slight wooden frames covered with t^lre-gauze, -ud haVmg moveable dfcMs or 
ledsres The length ard width of the decktd det«rmitie thb Size df the shfcet to 
be made. The vatuma ui^^i a mottld into the pulp, takes tip as much as his 



I 



m^mmmmmmmmmmmm'- 



8 



pai'Eb: its applications and its novelties. 



I 



experience tells him will make one sheet, places it on one side in the hands of 
another workman called the coucher, takes off' tlie deckel, places this deckel on 
another moijld, and makes anotlier dip into the vat. The coucher neatly 
turns over the mould, and empties the thin layer of pulp upon a piece of 
flannel or felt, through which tlie moisture may filter or drain. Thus the two 
men proceed — the vat-man supplying new sheets as fast as the coucher can 
build up a pile of felts to receive them ; and the coucher liberating tlie moulds 
as quickly as tlie vat-man requires tliem. When one or two hundred sheets, 
with felts intei-posed, are thus accumulated into a pile, the pile is heavily 
pressed ; this gives the film of pulp sufficient coherence to maintain its fomi 
unsupported ; the felts are removed, the sheets ai-e placed one on another, and 
a second pressure flattens them, and to some extent smooths tliem. They are 
now essentially sheets of paper ; and these sheets, after drying, sizing, drj'ing 
again, pressing, examining, and otlier processes, are finally made up into quires. 
But how shall we describe the paper machine ? It is one of the most com- 
plete of modern inventions — so many processes does the machine successively 
perform in a short space of time. The parts of the machine appear very 
numerous to a spectator, and the machine itself oue of great lengtli ; but 
when we consider what it has to do, we cease to man-el at all tliis. A creamy 
pulp flows into a machine at one end ; the same pulp comes out m the form 
of made and dried paper at the otlier, in the course of two mmutes ! 

How the pulp changes its form and state is wonderful to look at. It flows 
from a huge vessel or chest into a vat ; it flows from the vat upon a naiTow wire 
frame called a siftor ; it flows tlirough this sifter upon a flat surface, and then 
falls over a lodge in a quiet stream equal in width to the paper about being 
made. It falls upon a flat surface of wire-gauze, where it is shaken from side to 
side, drained of much of its moisture, and converted mto something like a 
very wet sheet of spongy paper. This sheet is pressed by a Avire cylinder 
and by a felted roller ; it passes on an endle.=5S cloth, and becomes further 
drained ; it is seized between roUei-s and squeezed ; it is further drained and 
further squeezed by other cloths and oilier rollers ; it passes over a heated 
cylinder, tlien over another still more heated, and then over a third heated 
to a yet higher temperature ; it is pressed, too, between whiles ; and it reaches 
the remote end of the machine in tlie state of dry and smooth paper. Arid 
this is not simply a quadrangular sheet, having a definite number of inches in 
length— it is an endless web. While one portion of the pulp is a creamy liquid, 
another near it is a thin wet layer, another a wet but coherent film, another a 
pai-tially dried film, and so on ; all the portions alike reach the last cylinder, and 
all are alike perfect paper when they reach it. The paper is wound on a reel 
as fast as it is made ; and there may be thus foi-med a roll miles in length. 
In the earlier machines tlie roll of paper was removed, and cut into sheets by 
a separate machine ; but modem ingenuity has shown how to make the paper- 
machine cut the paper itself. Some of the modem machines, too, have an ai- 
rangement by which an air-pump sucks away tlie moisture from the pulp, and 
Converts it into a coherent film with extraordinaiy quickness. 

Every year brings out its. patents for new improvements in papsr-making. 
Sometimes they relate to niixmg the pulp ; sometimes to regulating its flow ; 
sometimes to the formation of ' water marks ' by wire cylinders ; while die 
drying, or the polishing, or the cutting are tlie subjects of otliers. 

The master-difficulties were surmounted many yeai-s ago, when Fourdi.iier 
showed how to produce a long roll of well-made paper ; all the subsequent 
improvements have related to minor pointc. 



■■■ ' ^l '(i ii r i fwi iii 'n[f\ iii i i ir i irn i t M i r 



tt»Sm 



LTIES. 

ne side in the hands of 
1, places this deckel on 
The coucher neatly 
■ pulp upon a piece of 
r drain. Thus the two 
St as tlie coucher can 
V liberating the moulds 
)r two hundred sheets, 
ile, the i>ile is heavily 
ce to maintain its foim 
ed one on another, and 
looths tliem. They are 
ir drying, sizing, diying 
Jly made up into quires. 
is one of the most com- 
le machine successively 
le machine appear very 
3 of great length ; but 
il at all tins. A creamy 
) comes out in the form 
two minutes ! 
ful to look at. It flows 
) vat upon a naiTow wire 

a flat surface, and then 
) the paper about being 
t is shaken from side to 
d into something like a 
ssed by ft wire cylinder 
;h, and becomes further 
t is fmlher drained and 

it passes over a heated 
hen over a third heated 
1 whiles ; and it reaches 
,nd smooth paper. And 
lite number of inches in 
! pulp is ft creamy liquid, 
coherent film, another a 
ach the last cylinder, and 
paper is wound on a reel 
d a roll miles in length. 
\, and cut into sheets by 
I how to make the paper- 
lachines, too, have an ar- 
sture from the pulp, and 
ickness. 

ements in paper-making, 
es to regulating its flow ; 
ire cylinders; while the 
ts of otliers. 

rs ago, when Fourdi. lier 
per; all the subsequent 



paper: its APPUOAT10N8 AND ITS K0VBLTTE8. V 

As to the paper itself, its varieties are too well known to need much descrip- 
tion The ' Bath,' the ' post," the ' laid,' the ' foolscap,' the ' yoUow wove,' 
the ' blue wove,' tlie ' satin,' the ' cream,' the ' ivoiy '—all these designations 
of writing paper, though partly unmeaning, and partly exaggerated, relate 
either to the existence or non-existence of lines in the paper (prodiiced by wire- 
web clotli), or to some particular modes of finishing. Then printing papers 
differ in tlieir thickness, their fineness of surface, and their size. The brown, 
whitey-brown, and wrapping papers of all kinds form anoUier large class, in 
which coarse and strong fibres take the place of white and delicate. Next 
come the varied group of coloured papers, some of which receive their colour 
in the pulp, while others arc painted with or steeped in colour aftemaa-ds. 
Another largo supply is taken off by paper-stainers, whose wall- decorations 
require paper in large surfaces but of inferior quality. 

But we shall be better able to understand the ever-vaned forms in which 
paper is presented to our notice, if we glance at some of the numerous sub- 
sidiary manufactures which depend upon its use as a material. And first let us 
see what a celebrated London firm has to show us. 

De la Rue's Manufactures. 

Of all our manufacturing establishments, that of Messrs. Do la Bue is, per- 
liaps the one wherein paper is made to undergo the gi-eatest variety of artistic 
triuisfomations. Paper-stainers in one direction, and printei-s in anotlier, 
doubtless cover a larger surface of paper with the results of their handiwork ; 
but where paper, to the extent of tens of thousands of reams annually, is con- 
verted by four or five hundred workpeople into dainty envelopes, note-paper, 
cards, coloured papers, and other tasteful productions, the diversities exhibited 
must be very notable. . 

In few, if any, departments of industry has tlie union of machinery md fine 
art been more observable than in the branches of the paper trade now under 
notice A shilling packet of envelopes, or a half-crown's worth of papetene, or 
tlie coloured labels and wrappere for piece goods in tlie manufacturing dis- 
tricts, are dependent botli on tlic one and the odier. Even the artistic fea- 
tm-es themselves are largely indebted to machineiy for Uieir development. 
The artist and the mechanic aie pulling at different strings ; but the strings 
meet at one pomt, and work conjointly towards one object. , • ^ 

Witliout any formal description of the factory or its manufactures, let us jot 
down a few of tlie notable " curiosities " in the application of paper at 

Dg ISi Rii6's. 

And first, let us summon a pack of cards before us. Never, perhaps, did 
fashion cling to absurdities more oddly than in respect to tliese instruments 
of play. The fine staring figures which appeal- on the wrappers of the several 
packs are pretty nearly the same ' Moguk.' and ' Hariys,' and 'High 
landers,' that they used to be, and still give names to different quahties ol cards. 
This may be forgiven; but the outrageous 'court cards' are surpassing 
strange Messrs. De la Rue have more tlian once attempted to beat into the 
heads of card-players the simple trath, that kings and queens and knayes 
may be tlie same efficient "trumps" .^ before, and yet have somedimg like 
artistic gi-ace about tliem. But no ; the old whist-players will not veforni, and 
humbler players cannot take Uie lead ; so we have Uie coim cards dressed 
nearly as of yore. The queeny are still wrapped up in a costume which 
equally defies the feminine and the "bloomer" systems; the kuig of spades 



fci, ' 



mmms^mm 



mmm 



ifiiiaifiiiiinii 



timxmm 



io 



PAPEIi: ITS APPMCATIONB AND 1TB NOVKLtlK«. 



Still thl-usls out his leg in a way most iudoppiulcnt of all iiiintoiiiy ; rind tho 
knaves, in thoir blue and yellow liair, tlu-ir tiiiclt l<ne('s and Hniall unlile*; 
theit coats of riiany colo\n-H, and tluir indcscrlbahlG Hat hats, still coiitiniic to 
tbtm tho niost extraordinary knavish part^ ever known. And, as tro livo in an 
age of alleged ntilitarianisni, we have nUt srnil>led to doiihle the heads of 
t&se court persoiiagns in order to view them either end uppemiost ; earh otie 
lias a head where his feet should he ; eitch is his own antipodes ; each U a 
Siamese couple, joined in a most original niatiher. 

But if card-players have refused to listen to reforms iti this iriatter, thfey 
have been more pliant Ih respt^ct to other improvements ; tliey have consented 
to ' coloured backs,' and to oil-printed faces. SoHie card-makers still etnploy 
the old method of water-colours ; but the modem system, introduced by 
Messrs. De la Hue, produces a coloured impression much more lasting. Ho 
' self-boritaliied' is this establishment, that the stamps and plates for printing 
cards, the dies for embossing fttncy stationery, and nioulds and devicfes bf 
every description, are made and engraved on the premises ; nay, even the variotts 
machines, of which wo shall presently have to speak, itre sirtdlarly managed. 

The colouring of paper is no trilling matter in an establishment such as 
tlie one now under notice. There is a colour-grinding mill ; there is a labora- 
tory ot chemicals ; and there is a whole anuy of bottles and bo.xos and drawers 
filled with drugs and colom-s and oils. These colotirs, when mixed to a 
Jiroper consistency, are applied to Ittrge sheets of paper ; for the reader must 
know tlint tlie colour is not applied to the cards tliemsclves. A sheet of paper, 
large eiibugh (say) for forty ciirds, is printed at a press, with ink or print of 
one coloiir, frbrn an engraved plate of copper or brass. One plate is for 
gpades, another for hearts, and so on. Some packs, for players of weak sight, 
have fdUr different colours for the four siiits ; but the old system of two black 
suits and two red is mostly acted on. In respect to the cdtii-t cards, ihcf re- 
quire ds many different ehgrdved pldtes, arid as many successive processes of 
printing, as there are coloUrs. The coloured backs, too, arc printed in ft Simi- 
lar way ; for these arc hot inerl'ly cdloured, but printed also. Sheets of ^6^^i- 
are coloured (by a process which we may find an opportunity td notitb prfe- 
sently) of alnidst every imaginable tint ; and oUe of these being selected, it is 
printed with any device and in anj- colotir which may be choseil. 

Meanwhile otlier hands have been labouring to fitshion tho materliil from 
which the cards are to be made. A cai:d is built ilp of numerous layer§ of 
paper ; and tlie paste-brush is an important agent iii making it, Shfeets and 
quires tuid )-eams of paper are selected, of such (piality as may irieet tHe 
object in view ; and a workman — witlr tliese sheets on one side of him, dhd 
an dbtihdant supply of paste on another— proceeds to paste these sheets two 
iuid two together. The pasters do nothing else ; and the paste-rtlftkers hfivc 
td provide hundreds of gallons weekly. The pasted cotiples are piled in heaps, 
the heaps ai-e placed in hydraulic presses, and a good siiuee^e efffectnrtllt 
unites each pair. Wlieii this pasthig has been cai-ricd on till the cttrdboftrd is 
thick eiiough, the priiited face is pa..ted on, and also the coloured back 

(if any). ^ 

The finishing processes td which the cards are subjected ai-e more nttnierbtls 
tlian would genertdty bo stiplwsed. The bodi-ds, each the size of forty cdrds, 
are dried in steari-heated vaults : " then equalized in surface by a kind of revolv- 
ing scratching brush ; then passed between rollers, of which one is niade In a 
reiiiai-kable way by discs^ of paper placed face td face ; then rolled agaift : 
and then stibjected td fefaormoUs pressurf* td fldtteh them. All this time 



%iiaBiii»iMm*ii«H>«i 



iii w . -wi ii T i» rw* i * ii » 



iiii^iiaiiili'innwii 



■ ^wi'mwaywMlM'JMilii 



LTIKH. 

ftll luiiitoiuy ; rinrt tho 

5es ftiirt small iiiiklos, 

Imts, still coiitiniio to 

Ami, M «(! \m- in un 

(lonhlo th(> headrt of 

i uppcmiost ; ftivh otio 

I antipodes ; oaCh W a 

n3 itl tliifi irintter, tiiby 
; they have croiisentod 
rd-nmkers still employ 
system, introduce*! by 
ich more lasting. So 
md plates for printing 
iiioulds and devictes bf 
i ; nay, even thie variotts 
•e similarly managed, 
estublishnient sucli as 
mill ; there is a labora- 
aud boxes and drawers 
lirs, when mixed to a 
■r ; for the reader must 
Ives. A sheet of paper, 
s, -with ink or print of 
ass. One plate is for 
r players of Aveak sight. 
Id system of two black 
he cdtlt-t cards, they re- 
suftcessive processes of 
3, are printed in & sithl- 
also. Sheets of ^Si)^i- 
portunity td notitb prfe- 
fise being selected, It Is 
)e clioseri. 

[lion the material from 
) of numerous layer§ of 
making it, Shfects and 
ality as may nie(?t the 
n one side bf him, ahd 
paste these sheets two 
[ thfc paste-itiakers hiivo 
iples are piled in heaps, 
ood s(iueezo efffecttiitlly 
on till the ctttdboftrd is 
also the cbloilred back 

cted lii'e iiiorc uUnietblis 
the size of forty cftrds, 
face by a kind of revblv- 
which one is made in a 
cce ; then rolled agaill : 
1 them. All this time 



PAPfeh: ITS Ai>ri,rcATloNs ANn i/r NovEtttEs. 



11 



the forty cards form onn pier(! of cardbbhrd, but now tho process of separa- 

ion Sues: a cutting machine, of sln.ple but effective action, cuts Uio boards 

IM !X strips .md then intb cards :«n.l thus some forty thousand a day can 

l.n fiHhionec bv one man. The sorters then examine every card snigly ; aiid 

c nt; as i7l,as o,ib or othbr of three (tegi-ees of faultiness (-^revh|.ps wo 
should my fatdtlessl.ess, so admirably are they now made) each caid takes 
nude as a ' Mogul.' a ' HariT,' or a ' Highlander.' , „. ,• »•.„«„ 

Tlie pai.er roller jv.st mentioned is one of the singular modem applications 
of this material, Ten or twelve thousand circular pieces ot paper have a hole 
formed in the centre, through which a spindle nins, and thev are pressjHl to- 
!:;.2r with sdch enormous force that, when turned in a fathe, they forni a 
cylindrical roller of singvilar density,. evenness, and smoothness. A peculiar 
degree of slippeiiness-very impoi-taiit for the ' shulttmg Pf.««f «-;« S'J^" *^ 
one surface hf each card by the pressure ot this paper cylinder; foi it is a 
curiou" fivct that in order to make cards shuffle an.l deal well, it is lound neces- 
sary to give the faces a slightly difterent kind and degree ot smoothness Irom 

^'"And" now, laying aside the thousands of packs of cards thus made at 
this establishment? we may talk awhile of the coloured papen made for so many 
fanciful Durnoses In the show-room dtevoted to such matters, theie is a 
Sng S'of a hundred a.id thirty-two radii, formed of strips of paper no 
two of whi(;h present the same colour- this represents the chrotlatic powei a 
the comttlatui of the mamifacturers ; whether we take Newton s «p„\f'.° 
Sc<Tn tolom^, or Brewster's of three, here we have them all. Mid all the 
StSis pr^^hiced by vai^dhg combinations of them: the bending, the 
fiai-nibriy; tL cmititist, the complement ot co ours, are ^d\ sho^^". Ah 
such panels are coloured on one surface only. The pigment is mixed to the 
desire 1 tltlt £tnd consistency; tod a colodr machine ot veiy peculiar con- 
sSic Ion applies ail feven lajer ovor the suiface, feeding itself with paper and 
^Uh paiiit ii it works. The long sh-ip-sbui^ hundreds of yards hi length-- 
rraXonwards Over the tnatform, stibntits itself pat^iently to the paint-brush, 
then Lasts over heated ^lateS; and leaves the machine coloured and drud. 
I iShf tho^i^ operaiiohs in which ilotliirig less th.m a veiy large de. 
nandcouldwarmntdieuseofamaclnne; but m winch, the demand be ng 
" ;ied, machincy at once finds itself at home. The ^J'- Vhlf XS 
papers, too. receive their acrluirements m a similar way. The ^'t^'^^^JJ 
laJds arfe examples of those productions in which a wash is so apphed to caul 
S pat)er as neaily to equal real eftamcl in Smoothness, whiteness, and delicacy 

''^Tl'rKrshioned mnrhlcd ^«;>cr, still extensively used by bookbindets is 
made In a remarkable way. A viscid kind of paint-hquid is prepared, on the 
Sace of which different colours are incei-mingled; and tli« ^^eet o pa^er is 
dexterously laid oh this surface, from which it draws up a dm of *e inter- 
mingled coloui-s. Now Messrs. De la Rue have recently applied a totally dif- 
fe "nt colouring theoiy to the production of papers smgdlar in their novelty 
,« d beahtT The specimens at the Orekt Exhibition Were pkced ih a 3ome- 
wliat darkimer, ahd were hot so well known as the ever-popdlar • Enve ope 
Macliine.' These papers are indescenl, or opahscmt, or nac»w.«— that Is they 
fxli b Uhe ever-varyiig bites of mother-o'-pearl or of opal. |f ^^'^b^t thenyi-om 
one point, they display all the tints of the minbow ; change the point of view, aftd 

one pumu, uKTj ^i J i:i!P„..„„i .;„* f.,„rt, tiiot, which before distinguished 

lie fundamental tint of tlie 



"if 

I 



one poiiii,, uicj uiopi»T "" u.v. w....- — ".••-• ., . 

eveiy little spot dis{ilavs a different tint from Uiat 
it, IVtost delicate m^ gtticeful is the i-esuU. Ih 



■» 



-II' 



IS 



PAPRR: iTB APPLICAT10K8 AND ITfl N0VFXTIK8. 



paper may be white, or bhi<;k, or any otlier at clujice ; mul yet those pearly hnos 
hhiill present thciiKielvfM. A iM'iuUiful principhi in optics is here brought into 
l»lay ; m colon- in cmiil<ni,d to prodiu-e the oixilesccnce ! The Hoapbnbblo ex- 
hibits it^ b< luififul hui's, ulUioiiglJ the water is nearly colourless; and so like- 
wise it is in tlio present cose. When a film of any trunsparent substance is 
HO tliin OS a twenty-tliousandtli or a fifty-thouHiuultli part of one inch, there 
occui-s what i)hilosoi>her.s call an 'interference of light' at the two surfaces, 
which i)ro<luces colour; anil Uiis colour depends upon the tliickness of tlie 
film and the angle at which it is \iewed. This law governs the production of 
colour in some of the most l»eautiful of naKnal objei rs; and Messrs. De la 
Ene have skilfully broui^ht it to bear upon paper. Each sheet of paper is 
covered, bv a coitIuI jjrocss of dipi)ing, with an exceedhigly tliin film of a pecu- 
liar varnish ; the i)rocess and the varnish behig so cho.sen as to produce opal- 
escence or iridescence. It would be difficult to predict all the u.ses to which so 
d6licately-a(f/)med r material might be applied ; for bo(ik covers, for wall deco- 
rations, for paper ornaments — indeed, for almost all the puq)oses to which 
painted, strtuied, niarbUid, stamped, or embossed paper is atlapted, this new 
material may be fitting. Already have tlie inventors begun to produce many 
curious ornamental article.s by its means. 

The embossed paper, and the better kind of colour-printed paper, call for an 
astonishing amoun;, .)f ailistic skill at such an establishment as Messrs. De la 
Hue's. Designei-s are always at work on new patterns ; sometimes following, 
but more frequently leading th.- taste of the public. Bo it a fanciful wrapper 
for a piece of linen or of nuisiivi, or a bouquet-lx-lder, or a cover for a pa,per box, 
or a papeterie-caae, or a wedding-card, or a mourning envelope, Uiere is a pei-- 
petual infusion of novelty in design or colour, or both. The embossing ot 
paper, or the production of cameo and intaglio effects, is one of the greatest 
sources of beauty. If a portion of the cm-face is to be so embossed, a die is 
engraved, and a powerful press employed •. but if «he whole surface is to have 
!i design, tlio paper is passed between copper roller^, one of which is engraved. 
Thus are produced the endless variety of embossed or ' lace,' or ' morocco,* 
or otlier papers having a raised device. Some of Uie works producd by 
Messrs. Dobbs and by Messrs. Do la Hue in this department of manufacture 
are really works of art. 

Nor are painting and colour less sedulously attended to. De la Rue's books 
of patterns, in which the designs are ananged and tabulated, form quite a rich 
assemblage of artistic taste, and illustrate tlie gradual means by which grace 
and beauty are becoming familiarised to all; for it is to the cheap as well as 
the costly articles that these designs are applied. The delicate- tuited note- 
paper, now so much used by ladies, was among tlie introductions of this 
firm ; but, on the other hand, the cheap and neat envelope-boxes, and paper- 
cases, and writing-cases, owe no little to the ingenuity of the same inventors. 

" Five quires for a shilling," is a labelling that now meets the eye in every 
town. Thanks to the firm who fii-st adopted this mode of breaking down a 
ream of paper into convenient pai-cels, and tying up tliese parcels into nicely- 
wrappered shillings-worths. The paper may be letter-paper or note-paper ; 
the quires may be three or four or five in number ; tlie price may be greater 
or smaller according to quality ; but the principle was, to establish something 
between the quire and the ream, and to throw into this something a little 
modicum of ' fine art.' Paper itself is not made by the fii-m now under 
notice; but paper is made /or them, accordhig to patterns designed by them- 
selves; and tlius we have 'Queen's,' 'Albert,' 'Alhambra,' 'Damask,' ' Elizar 





I,TTK8. 

I jet those ppftrly hues 
cs is \u'W brotif^ht into 
'I'lie .soap-bubblo ex- 
oluurlcas ; and so like- 
.nspiiroTit Hubstance is 
art of one inch, there 
t' at the two HurfacoH, 
\ the thickiHWH of Uio 
ems the production of 
:»; and Messrs. De la 
Inch sheet of paper is 
igly tliin tihu of a pecu- 
en as to produce opai- 
Ul tlie UHOS to which ho 
i coveitt, for wall deco- 
he purjOTses to which 

• is adapted, this new 
?gun to produce many 

inted paper, call for an 
ment as Messrs. De la 
; sometimes following, 
5o it a fanciful wrapper 
(I cover for a paper box, 
nvelopo, Uiere is a per- 
h. The embossing ot 
is one of the greatest 
B 80 embossed, a die is 
'hole surface is to have 
e of which is engraved. 

• ' lace,' or ' morocco,' 
le works produc'd by 
rtment of manutacture 

to. De la Rue's books 
lated, form quite a rich 
means by which grace 
to the cheap as well as 
he delicate-tinted note- 
3 introductions of this 
elope-boxes, and paper- 
ii the same inventors, 
meets the eye in every 
de of breaking dowTi a 
lese parcels into nicely- 
r-paper or note-paper; 
xe price may be greater 
to establish something 
this something a little 
f the firm now under 
sms designed by them- 
bra,' ' Damask,' ' Elisat- 



papeb; m appucations and its novf.i.tirb. 



18 



bethan,' 'Wave,' "Watered," ami other note-paper, according to the water- 
mark which is introduced into it, or other clmiiicUni ii's imparted to it. Thus, 
too, in note-paper iuMtulod for biidal or for moumuig occasions, the pajjcr 
itself is procured elscwli. r«, but tlie symbols, iin' the > -i«ing, and the stamp- 
ing oi-e the handiwork of this or some similar fin Notlung can exceed the 
delicacy of home of the.«e fancy articles. The bndal oard-i, and note-paper, 
mid envelopes, are rich in livmeneal symbols, n..t merely embossed by a press, 
but in some cases picked oiit in silver; and the sombre enrichnx'nts of motim- 
ing stationeiy are n.jt loss redolent of the cypress, tlio willow, ., d analogous 
emblems, liouqtirt Jioldsrs, too, have often gold or silver taking- jtart m the 
embossed design. In such cases a pattern is printed Aith gold size instead 
of colour, gold leaf is aiiplied, which adheres only to die printed pait; and 
the embossing is effected aftcrwar' . In commoner work the gold is a "de- 
lusion and a snare;" it in a powder cf oxidized brass, sprinkled over the moist 
gold-size. 

The French gi o the name ai jmpeterie to stationery m general, and papeltere 
to a case containing sUtionery ; and tliese papeiieres, ranging in price from one 
shilling to two guineas, and mostly made of paper and card, are among the 
most curious examples of Messrs. De la Rue's i' xluctions, so infinitely varied 
is the taste which they display. 

The little l»its of card which lue used in millions as ' railway tickets — those 
passports for the national highways, are mostly prepared up to a certaui stage 
by Messrs. De la Rue. The cardboard is made, coloured in one or two Unts, 
printed in black or in colour with certain devices, imd cut up into separate 
cards; tliese cards are transmitted to the respective companies, in whoso 
offices they are further printed and registered by the machines noticed m an 
earlier number of this series. These small coarse cards are among the 
humbler examples of their class ; but visitimf cards oie a production on which 
great tiuste and delicacy are now bestowed. In addition to the 'At Home 
cards, and others of a similar character, embossed by stamping, the lustrous 
enamelled caixi is a notable modem mvention. 

Penky-Pobt SlA-nONEKT. 

Rowland Hill's Penny- Post system has done more to advance the manufac- 
ture of stationery tlian any other single cause whatever. The letter-paper, the 
note-paper, the envelopes, the postage-labels, all bear witness to this tact. Ihe 
department of Messrs. De la Rue's establishment appropriated to envelope- 
making is quite astounding for its magnitude; and tliis may be a convenient 
place to throw together a few notices botli of the envelope and tlie postage- 
stamp systems. 

How many envelopes the worid produces, how nwiy London produces, an- 
nually, we know not ; but Messrs. De la Rue tum out about a hundred mil- 
lions in a year. If we go into some of the rooms, we see fifty or sixty women 
and giris folding and gumming envelopes wiUi a celerity which tlie eye can 
scai-cely follow ; go mto anoth<r, and we have before us a dozen machines doing 
Uie same work still more expeditiously. Surely tlie worid has become a worid 
of letter-writers, else whither can tlie envelopes go ? Here, as in other matters, 
excellence and cheapness advance togetlier, when the demand mcreases. 
There are London shops at which envelopes, made "*" really serviceable paper, 
and having gummed and embossed tips, can be purchased at sixpence per 
hundred, sorted into four sizes, and bound with fanciful gilt and coloured 



I. 



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wiwiim iiii.«iiiwin ni-rii(iri|i .«PMWMWk*> 



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vkvM: Itn APvLioATloSi A^D 1TB NovRt.nrs. 




biUidflffflfi. With nnvcloiie« iit sixpoiicr a Jiiiii<lr.'.l, mul stffl \m\H at Hixpftiro 
jirr RTosn, the ' cotnpli'te Ifltter-wrlter ' hos in.lt cd iimny temptations held otit 

to lllni. , i, 1 It 1 

'I'ho (JovrrtltiiMit ptivMoiif <* rtiR ttlrtfir wllli ii llirfiid or two ttltltim!? tJironcli 
them; thcsi' IhmMls him i..iib.l(iRf(l into tlii> pulp dnilng l!n! tiiiikinj,' of th<^ 
pnher; hut ^>nlinrtry onvH.ipc. liiivc no mich lulditioim. 'rii." lHr<,'c sluets of 
pnpor pt-os-(P(l rttlll rblU-d to give llu'tti sntoothnesH, iin<l niickt'd into 1uhi1>x, nrd 
oukotinnl Into (rt.l(tng HtnH: iihd those stripn, (.iled in hups of four of Hvn 
hnndrhd ort'-h, lite rut ioto dlfiinohd-shitphd plfcc*— or, for luoro mficifill 
shiipfH, thny sltv cut at onro by a ctlned (!utt^n^'-stnnlp. If we tallow thesfi 
pipcfrt into thfi «'nvol(>pe-ro(»tli, fto thmi wee (i Htiikinf,' »'.\ainple of thn atct 
which constant ottiploymcnt at one occtipritlon «ivcs. 'I'ho more con\mon en- 
velopes itro made hv mnchine, but tho h^ss-used sizeH nrc Htitl mnde by Imnd : 
find HO fast do the fItiKers of tliMe HKnd-workers move, that each woman or 
t/irl can make two or three thous.uid in a <lay ! N(j description ciui tell Mdb- 
nilately how this Is doile. In the lit-Kt two folds several iiftl)era are dohe at 
once, With nothing but (lie ev(. to guide tho hand; in the last two fol.ls each 
paper is tl^dted separately. And then the application of the gimi, witli tho 
fixing down of three out of the four lappets, is a perfect nuuvei of qtiick- 

Ihit the n\achlftc-made envelopes arc thosh which htiv^ rttire efifefettiftlly 
bronght down the price and brought up the (\\ml\t\ ; every entfclope is, to it 
Hair's bn'ildth, the Hitmo size ns its fellow, and like it in every particular. 
HAltHng and clattering arid liumtlling away, there are in the envelope-room 
thirteen of those machinbs, ohe of which was seen by so matiy million eyfei^ 
Itt the western nave of the (lieat Exhibition. This machine, itivetlted cOh- 
jolhtly by Mr. Kdwin Hill and Mr. Witrren iJe la Hue, is an exceedingly beail- 
tlfiil contrivance. Jt peifortns niany siiccesHive operations with utieiTlng ac- 
curacy. A b0y places a diamond-Hhaped l)iecc of paper on a little plattorrii ; 
a sort of plunger descends, an.l foi-ces tlie cetitral part of the paper into ttil 
oblong quadrangnlivr cavity ; the four comers stand erett, and tliese are suc- 
cessively liattened by four levers, fingers, or thumbs (whichever we may term 
them), whereby the envelope fonn is given. And when all is done, two India- 
rubber fingers lightly touch the envelope, and delicately draw it aside, to make 
ready M rtftotlier. These fingers are cpiite a refinement of ingenuity ; they 
arfe small itietallic cylinders, wllh bits of tndirt-rubbor at the lower ends ; th-Mb 
finger-titis have just etiotigh of tlie glutliious or sticky quality to adhere 
slightly to the paper tin Which thfey aie pressfed, and to draw it awtty »«'n i" 
place in tlie machine. But while these jirocesses have been going on. thtro 
IS toother series illso in operatioh, to eflect tlie gumming or fasten iig. Ihore 
is a supply of gum, which spreads itself over an endless apron or blankfit; atid 
rtli artificial arm takes a supply bf gum from tliis blanket, to apply it to tlio 
envelope All these nlovenients are ^o nicely adjusted, that the guni is ap- 
r)lied in its proper placb just before the flap of the envelope is folded down. 
As fast as the envelopes are mdde, they rahge thetnsolves on an inclined plane 
with the precision of well-drillfd soldiel^, and slide up into a box prepared 
fol- their rfcCeption. Thus does each machine make its sixty envelopes in a 

The very felegtint enveWpe-machino irivcfated by M. Hfemond, rtnd exhibited 
by Messrs. Watferlow at tlio Great Exhibition, in addition to much novelty ih 
the folding arid giimming apparatus, has a singular contrivance for feeding 
itself with paper. The diamond-shaped pieces are placed m a heap by the 



T- 







-^^^ 



MIKrt. 

' tcfiipttttiotis hoM otit 
!• two ftttiiHtiq tliioilKll 

Ig l!lC t!l!!!.!!lf,' of th" 

I'lii' liirj?'' wlifntfl <*f 
imcki'd into Jioapf^. an< 
lu.li'-) (tf I'diir or fivo 
-or, tor iiiorp fiuiclflll 
). If we follow the<*fl 
* j'Mimplfi of tlin iitct 
I'liti iiioio coniiiion en- 
re Htill um\o. liy htind ; 
, tlint ciicli WDiniin or 
Hcription can toll JUlC- 
iil jtftpprM nvc (lohe at 
\w liiHt two folds each 
(if the Rnni, witJi tlio 
;rfect niflrvel of qiiick- 

lltivfl ittrtt-e eHbt'taally 
"vrry cnTfclopc is, to it 

it in every particular. 

in tlic ctivt'lopp-rooni 
■ so nmtiy million eyfesi 
nachino, itivetlted cbh- 
is an excccilingly beaii- 
tlons with lUiPrritig tie- 
er oil a littlo platforni ; 
t of the paper hitd ttn 
rect, and tlieso are suc- 
vliicliever we may term 
I all is done, two India- 
y draw it aside, to niako 
lent of ingenuity ; they 
It the lower ends ; th'^Mb 
;icky (lUollty to adhere 
draw it awiiy from its 
D hccn goitlg on, thtro 
ing or fastening. There 
IS apron or blaidiet ; atid 
iket, to apply it to tlie 
sd, that the giihi is ap- 
ivelope is folded down. 
es m an inclined plane, 
up into a box prepared 
its sixty etivelopes in a 

Itfemond, rind exhibited 
tion to much novelty ih 
r coiitrivance for feeding 
laced in a heap by the 






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23 WEST MAIN STREET 

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(716) 872-4503 



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pApfen: ITS APPLICATIONS A:f»ri its novelties. W 

side of the machine, a hollow tithe thrust-^ itself fomard and reste upon ihe 
topmost paper, the air is drawn from the tlibe by a tmy air-pmnt>, and he 
topmost paper clihgs by atmospheric prfessiire to twd tinnute holes on the 
lolver surface of the tube; the tube withdraws itself, drops the naper exactly 
in the spot wliere the foldlhg and gumming mechanism is placed, awl travels 
forth in search of lihoUier. The machine reqUii-fes tub aid of an attendant to 
remove and press Uie biivfelope; while Do la lltie's re(itnres S.m. ar aid to 
place the paper; nevertheless, the tube of the one mabhine, and tiie elastic 
linsers of the other, are among thte jirettiest novelties of this ittechrttiical age. 
Generally speaking, each of De la Bite's machines chn make about as many 
envelopes as nine expett women, or aboitt twenty-five thousand pei- day. And 
vet morewottten and girls ai-e employed in making envelopes than at any 
former period ; sb true is it that machinery frequently mcreases the held toi 
hand-labour, by creating hew branches of inahufacturb. ■, u * 

As learned hamos are now given to various other products, so ^Ve rtrty here 
notice a recent irivefition by a London mamifiicturer. which ri^joices in thb 
name of the Pobjchrid EHveloyO. It is a sheet of note-paper and an envelope 
contained in one-ctit, in fact, out of a larger sheet, irt such tt way tMt the 
sheet forms its owH eiivelope. The idea is not Withdnt its meiit; ior the 
legal identification of a letter may often be facilitated by hdvmg the post-mafk 
on the letter itself, instead of on a separate envelope. 

The envelopes sold bv drdinary shopkeepers now fahoutntliriber those Which 
have the oval bovemment niedallion upbnthettl ; but stiU these latter are pro- 
duced in millions annually, and the preparation of them coiistitutfes a singhlar 
branch of Somerset House respohsibihty. Ur. Edwui Hill is at the hedd of 
that (lepai-tment of the Stalnp Oifice which has control over posta|e-statops ; 
and he has under his management qtiitfe a liit-g^ ihainifactunng estabhshmettt. 
Ho does iJot make the envelopes themselves, nOr the penny ahd twopenny 
postdgfe-stdmns, but he staiilps those fehtelopes ^hidi "''s ^^^^^^^y */>;''™ 
mentrilnd niakes the tenpetihy and shilling postage-stiinltJs iised for foreign 
letters In a certain apartment at Sothei-set Hblise there ftre machines dd ^ 
tnitiloved in stamping envelopes. The o^ill iiledalHbri stdtnn is carcMly 
en|S on a hai/steel die ; and the lilachities are ^kilMly adjusted so te to 
itlf their own dies with pink coWiir, and bring tile dies down upoii the pSpbr. 
The papers are sent to Somerset House, dut to the proper size ahd Shalife ioi 
envelopes ; a boy takes a handfhl of these, spreads them out, and feeds them 
into Ihe machine at the t-at-3 of sixty ih a minUte ; the machine inks Jts own 
die at this ratfe of speed fohce in a second), and stamps aftfer edch inking. 
How wonderful must be the prfecisioh to effect k\\ this ! Four things have to 
be done witliih a second : & boy places a piece of paper, the colour-rollere irtk 
the die, tile die presses oh the paper, and another boy removes tllfc pttpei. 
The tNvo boys are virtually I^arts Of the niachine Itself. , , „ , 

We have said tliat the hlghet-priced postage strirhps are made at Sonierset 
House; but the system Is fnore stflkin^ly ilhistrtlted by the penny and two- 
penny Stamps. There is h house in Flfeet Street, ver^ unprfetendtng exter- 
nally: Adhere postage-stahil»s ai-e made annually to the value of someaiing hkfe 
a mUlioh sterling-Uidt is, post-office value, not intrinsic value. Mfessts. 
Bacon dnd Petch have ri contract for producing the penhy and twopenny 
postage-stamps. The contract (lately renewed) was made m 1843 and shows 
ho* large a rtiattet- a penny stamp becomes when it is n™ltiphed b^ inilhons. 
The contractors provide stfeel plates, each large fenditgh for '^40 'Q"eefts 
heads- ' they engrave the plateS with thfe well-kno^ device (the head bemg a 



n 



i 



(■ 






^ 



L 



16 



paper: its applications ano its novelties. 



reduced copy from Wyon's 'City Medal'); they renew the plates as fast as 
they become wom out ; they provide aU ilie dies, presses, and machmes neces- 
sary ; they make the blue and red inks, and the adhesive composition, according 
to recipes approved by Government; Uiey receive paper from the Govern- 
ment, print sheets of stamps on this paper, and gum tlie backs ot the sheets 
so printed : and they do all this in buildings or rooms approved by the btamp 
Ofhce, and to which the Govemment officers have at all times free access. 
For these services, tlie contractors agi-eed to receive 6|(Z., 6\d., or M. per 
1000 stamps, accordmg as tlie number in any one quai-ter of a year amoiints 
to less than thirty millions, from Uiirty to thirty-two milhons, or more than 
thirty-two millions. Great as tliese numbers appear, they have gradually come 
to be far exceeded, for they ai-e now something like sixty millions quarterly. 

But the largeness of this (apparently) small subject is perhaps still better 
illustrated by a project to facilitate the tearing or cutting of postage stomps. 
Conceive an inventor and tlie Govemment quaiTelling whetlier 600« or 
something much larger should be given for such a conti-ivance ! The whole 
matter, as given in a recent parliamentarj- paper, is curious, and teaches us how 
formal and wearisome Govemment offices are in their official correspondence. 
In 1847 Mr. Archer proposed to the Postmaster-General the use ot a 
machine which would make a number of litUe perforations round the bordei- 
of each stamp in a sheet, to facilitate their separation without the use ot 
scissors. He adduced many advantages which the public and the postmastei-s 
would derive from it. The Postmaster-General sent tlie matter to the Stamp 
Office for consideration, with a commendatory notice from some of tlie officials. 
Then Mr Archer made an offer to the Stamp Office, in respect to it ; and then 
the Stamt) Office refeired it to the Treasury. The year 1847 was now at nn 
end, and "1848 commenced another series of tripartite official con-espondence. 
The Treasury assented to p trial ; and the Stamp Office caused the machine 
to be worked by their label-stamp contractors. The U-ials were earned on ; 
the perforations were made by rollers— then by a fly-press--9iid then by a 
third method, to get over minor difficulties; and the years 1848 and 184tf 
were brought to an end before the machine was finally rendered effective. 
Then came the question of remuneration — managed Uius. Mr. Archer 
applied CO the Treasury; the Treasury applied to the Stan^ ^^^t^'^l 
Stamp Office made a sufjgestion, and referred it to the Post Ofhce ; the Post 
Office sUghtly modified tlie suggestion, and returned it to the btamp tJthce. 
Mr. Archer apphed to the Post Office for better terms, but the Post Oihce 
referred him to the Treasiuy. Mr. Archer then applied to the Trea^iy, and 
the Treasury referred him to the Stamp Office and to Uie Post Office ; the 
two Boards conferred; and the Post Office recommended the Stamp Office to 
raise the temis a little: the Stamp Office agreed, and wote to the Treasury 
thereupon; the Treasury told the Post Office that tenns rather more hberal 
would be justifiable : the Post Office agreed, and wrote to Mr. Archer. Mr. 
Archer finally rejected the offer, after a battledore-and-shuttlecock game which 
had lasted twenty months in respect to remuneration, and fifty months m 
respect to the invention itself. Mr. Archer then made a tender for the whole 
manufacture of postage-stamps, including engraving, prmtmg, and gUmmmg 
as well as perforating ; but the fonner contractors obtained a new contract, at 
the reduced terms of M. per thousand; and Uie perforating machines are still 
the unused property of the inventor. When the Govei-nment do become 
shopkeepera or manufacturers, they ore remarkably 'slow'— whether we use 
this word in its old-fashioned or its new-fashioned meaning. 



L 



i;ltie8. 

IV tho plates as fast as 
;s, and machines neces- 

composition, according 
apcr from tlie Govern- 
Llie backs of the sheeto 
approved by the Stamp 
. all times free access. 
3 6|(/., 6\d., or M. per 
u-ter of a year amoimts 

millions, or more than 
ey have gradually come 
ty millions quarterly ! 

is perhaps still better 
ing of postage stamps, 
lling whether OOOi. or 
inti-ivance ! The whole 
ious, and teaches us how 
official con-espondence. 
-General the use of a 
ations round the border 
ion without the use of 
jUc and the postmasters 
the matter to the Stamp 
om some of the officials, 
a respect to it ; and then 
sar 1847 was now at an 

official con'espondence. 
[ice caused the machine 
ti-ials were carried on; 
By-press — -and then by a 
3 years 1848 and 1849 
nally rendered effective. 
;ed tlius. Mr. Archer 

the Stamp Office; the 
iie Post Office ; the Post 

it to the Stamp Office. 
rms, but the Post Office 
ied to the Treasuiy, and 

to tlie Post Office ; the 
ided the Stamp Office to 
i wTote to the Treasury 
rms rather more hberal 
»te to Mr. Archer. Mr. 
1-shuttlecock game which 
on, and fifty months m 
le a tender for the whole 

printing, and gtimming 
tained a new contract, at 
orating machines are still 
Government do become 
'slow' — ^whether we use 
waning. 



paper: its appucations and its novelties. 



17 



Taking our leave now of the dainty devices which adorn the lady's escri- 
toire, and the wonderfully frhcap but good stationery which the Penny Post 
has done so much to ren<ler familiar to us, ve may turn our attention to an- 
other interesting application of paper. 

Papiek Machk and Cabton Pierre. 

The verj' pretty and useful material which bears the name of Papier Machi 
does not always desene that name. The brilliant display which Messrs, 
Jennens and Bettiidge, and other manufacturers, made at the Great Exhibition 
ought to have been designated by some more significant and con-ect name ; it 
is pasted paper and moulded paper, but not mashed or jmlp paper, as the French 
name mache indicates. There are two distinct branches of industiy here in- 
volved, which we must separate in order to speak of the notabilities of each. 

And first for the real, the trae papier mache, that which was introduced 
about twenty-five years ago, and from which Mr. Bielefeld produces such a 
wondrous variety of decorative ornaments. This is almost entirely paper ; 
there may be a small percentage of oUier material to impai-t certain minor 
qualities, but it is essentially paper. And if we enquire what kind of paper is 
thus used, we find that it is any and every kind. All is " fish that comes to 
this net." Nothing is refused, nothing laid aside, whether linen or cotton or 
hemp be the fibre from which tlie paper was originally made : all is available, 
whether it be black or white, bleached or unbleached, plain or figured ; whether 
it be fine as ' exU-a satin wove,' or coarse as tough wrapping paper ; whether in 
large sheets or small fragments ; whether new and unused, or old and worn ; — 
all will be welcome to the mache vat. Of course, in a practical point of view, 
where all kinds are : ."ul, the manufacturers look about them for cheap mis- 
cellaneous lots, instf aa of appealing to the bran new stock of a wholesale sta- 
tioner. Bankers have sometimes tons' weight of old account books by tliein, 
which have ceased to be of use, but which tliey are unwilling to place m the 
hands of tlie trunk-maker or the butterman, on account of the private ti-ans- 
p-tions to which the writing on the pages of such books relate ; and as it is a 
task of no litde difficulty and danger to burn these books, the btmkere are 
glad to find a receptacle for them in the vat of the papier-mache manufacturer, 
under a pledge that they shall really and promptly be so used, without expo- 
sure to public gaze. Thus the banker may perchance see the relievo decora- 
tions of his own drawing-room made from his own old account books ; a ledger 
may find a new h. me as part of a cornice, or a cash-book as a frame for a look- 
ing-glass, or a day-book as a ceiling ornament. Nay, these transformations 
may extend wider; for in yeai-s gone by, the banker's old shirt may have been 
transferred to Uie rag-bag, and thence to the paper-mill, and thence to the 
account-book maker, and thence to the bank, and thence to the paprer-mache 
factory, and thence to the drawing-room of the banker's residence— where his 
admiring gaze may rest upon a graceful ornament, some fibres of which once 
clothed his own back. . 

The cuttings of paper, produced by the principal apphcations ot that ma- 
terial, form a very large portion of tlie supply whence papier mache is made. 
Bookbinders, pasteboard-makei-s, envelope-makers, accountrbook and pocket- 
book-makers, prmtsellers, paper-hangers, all accumulate heaps of shreds and 
cuttings; and tlie papier-mache vat may receive them all, unless better prices 
can be obtained elsewhere. Wliatever may be tlie source whence the supply 
is obtained, it is certam that paper has now reached Oiat commercial pomt 



sr 



1 



J8 rAPEB: ITS AITLiCATlOSS MD ITS KOVELTIF.S. 

>vhid, gold ,m,l Silver „:»l.ea Imlg ago-llmt Is, n«n» need bo wasted, to- ™ 

Tnd here we come to the artistic rtepfrtment of such a "^^^«f;\«^"r^ JJf ^^s^ 
To command altytlnng Uke a leading position in/"- f 'i^.K of 
an untiring f -^^^^ ^^S^-'^^^^l^e'^S ^f S Julment'She o.e 

graver o^r sinlcer "f -^l^^'Sk"^^^^^ e^o/malcing 

i„Sr use, s„ch »s ecUing ««"«""■'• .Tr.kdTn iSir wiiin t' ° 

the back which economizes ^^^^f^ jfj^^'^l^,^^^^^^ 

which die paper or papier presents '^"Vnfrtiffled to receive aiiy decora- 



:ltie8, 

neefl be wasted, for a 

h is a paste-like mass 
;sifpd form. Mr. Riele- 
j esliililishiiuiut in tlie 
hero machines, moved 
.'ho paper, he it of what 
lolstelied, and cliopped, 
c.th homogeneous pasty 

of dough or of pUlty. 
aid, introduced, but not 

as a paper substance, 
is too thicli to be poiired 
letal; it i^ pressed into 
cha. A piec(3 1*? cut off, 
well into the mould, a 
wbi-ful press is brought 
>' minute crevice of the 

li a nmtitifaclure as this, 
rative art, tlicre must be 
IS, now conihinalions of 
•stablishment as this one 
ilaster mddelsj m-e con- 
late not merely by lutti- 
f wood mpiilds, the en^ 
e store. It Uiav be thdt 
ixpense even ol making 
er ^*bich has a long run, 
jle to strike a billance, to 
le fetilms to be expected 
ts, where mechatiical skill 
tlie tnost continuous nin 
uppermost placd ; and it 
mes a matter hot merely 

hitectural ornftthetrts for 
I so fot-th ; but they are 
I their application. The 
lache oi-naments ; because 
d so light that it requifes 
)niposition ornameiits of 
mainent a hoUowness at 
he weight. The surface 
)t colour, arising from the 
id to receive any decora- 
js, an ornate frarne for a 
th A degree of perfection 
io capable of assuming a 
bibitloh, as many of our 
Ingelo, a copy of the noble 
some celebi-ated man, all 



PAFEIl: ITS APPLICATIONS AKD ITS NOVELTIES. 



19 



formed of papier niac}i6, and deriving tlierefrora a toughness >vhich defies 
idnipst any power of breakage. The Corinthian capital in this material, set 
up op a pillar in the western rave, was wi example of the more ordinary ap- 
plication for ornamental purposes. 

There is another modern decorative material, still more recent than papier 
macho , hut like it honoured with a French name : we mean carton jnerre, which 
may he interpreted 4^ne canlhoanl or jiastelpard. This more nei^fly resembles 
plaster tlitm papier nificho ; it has a little paper in it, a great tjeal more plaster, 
and one or two otlier substances ; the mixture thus produced is fashioned iu 
moulds, and is applied to various oi-namental pip-poses, but it is ifluch heavier 
than papjor mache. The beautiful internal decorations at the Lyceuiu Theatre 
arc, we believe, made of cftrton pieire. Carton pierre is manufactured in 
England chiefly by Messrs. Jackson, but it appears to have been a French in- 
vention, and to be made in France and Germany more largely than in Eng- 
huid. Tlie atrtmi pierre of the ope country, and tlie stein pnppe of tl^e other, 
seem to be [iietty nearly the same material : viz., a kind of liquid i)laster com- 
bined with other materials, poured instead of presml into moulds, and backed 
with a stratum of paper t<i give strength. Some of our French neighbours 
displave<l beautiful specimens of fi'iezes, vases, pilasters, and bas-rclievos, in 
carton pien-e, at the Grpat Exhibition; while the Prussian exl]ibitf)r, Oropius, 
displayed some (iozeps of neat little statuetfes in the same material. The 
noble chandelier for s^ixty lights, exhibited by aiessrs. Jackson, was perhaps 
the best specimen of carton-pierre work. 

But; to return to papier macho. That the pulpy or macho paper is sus^cep^ 
tible of being made iutq beautifully even flat surfaces, is exemplified in tlie 
thick millboard used by bookbinders. Time was when ajl such piillboard was 
essentially p^steboai'd, produced by pasting together a large number of sheets 
af pappr to tlie required thickness ; but now the pulp is used. In the first 
place there is a flat table or slab, with a raised edge all round to form a sort of 
shallow mould. Into this mould the pulp is laded, to a depth depending on 
the thickness of the millboard to be made, and this pulp, by diying between 
felted clotl^s, by dfying in the open air, by gentle pressure in a press, and then 
by powerful pressure between rollers, assumes at length that hard, tough, strong, 
sinopth, unifonn consistency whic]! distinguishes millboard, and which makes 
th^t material so invalui^ble to the bookbinder. Mr. IJielefeld is about to in- 
troduce an important modification of this procpss in tl>e production of pap^U 
fof artists, lie has produced paiiels eight feet by six, mi^do entirely of papier 
mache half a^ inch thick, mounted on a skeleton wood support or frame ; and 
Uie surfi^ce of tliese panels appears as if it would be ndmiri^bly fitted for 
paintUigg, more durable than canvas, and less likely tp split than wood panel ; 
indeed, gplittpg is out of the question hi respect- to suph a material. Th^ 
bulkbf!ads ajid tl^e cabin parfitlpps of some of tlie fine steamers of our day 
l]avebeen made pf tliis material ; it is tough aqd strong, and admits of any 
degree of omamentation. The material is said to be a bad conductor both of 
soi^d and of heat, and has thus a twofold recommendation for room parti- 
tions. |t seems to have been some such material as this which Mr. Haddan 
coutributeii to the Grpat Exhibition, in the fonn of panels for railway car- 
riagps, or rather fpr the whole brpadside. It is alleged that such papels do 
npt shrink, and dp not' require grooves for fixipg ; wheUier tliey will bear being 
' i-un uito ' better than otlier rfidvfay panels, has probably not yet been 
tested. 

Jjow we may turn our glance to that which, though riot really papier 



.2,) PAPER : ITS APPMCATI0N8 ANP ITS NOVELTIES. 

Settle s.eSrofjr;s;;3^^»-^^^^^^ 

^"ifwTnld mve a better idea of the manufacture (although somewhat lower- 

i„ 'j^K'/tf p^^-x=;is' m««f 2f. 

they certainly are, as the reader will presently see. "^^ guoersp'^^d by 
work producmg ««^P;^^"^,^^7 ImTdel of tJe^tovy is prepared, giving 

ua^ Id then clothed with three more layers ^^-^^^i^J^p „Th1r 
as before. Again is the stove-room employed, agam the paatei-s piy weir 



paper: its APPL1CATI0K8 AND ITS N0VEI/nE8. 



«t 



LTIES. 

ime tlmn tho materinl 
Hytle Park collection 
aper, even with Uie ad- 
ling, and gilding, and 
might well excite the 
3W. It was no small 
, the pearl inlaid piano- 
l by Bell, the sculptor, 
lurs ; the pearl-and-gold 
ell ; the pearl-inlaid and 
Bellini's vase; and Bell's 
ing of the chairs, tables, 
is, blotting-folios, work- 
axes, flower-stands, tea- 
l netting-caaes, and the 
•endered familiar to us. 
{littered with these pro- 

Lhough somewhat lower- 
asteboard, for pasteboard 
[twos towards tho close 
litated or supersp''-^d by 
ung up an important de- 
hich it is pretty generally 
er plivoes. 

of paper indisciiminately, 

we may so term it) is not 

to work upon, and tliese 

them for their destined 

r-mache tea-ii-ay. In the 
yish colour, and looks like 
lat a mould or form is 
iesigners are constantly at 
apposing that a tolerably 
e tray is prepared, giving 
lould is cast in iron, brass, 
of course, with the interior 
ited at tables, cut up the 
nd these pieces are handed 
y of remark that this very 
id in many of its branches 
itiful supply of paste, made 

The mould is greased to 
;t is pasted on both sides, 
lOuld, pressing and rubbing 

Another and another are 
(Id garment, is put into a 
t is brought to a dried state. 

a tolerable smoothness of 
f paper, in the same mode 
ogjun the pastei-s ply their 



labour ; a thii'd time tlie stove-room, again the pasters ; and so on, until tliirty 
or forty thicknesses of paper have been applied, more or less, of course, ac 
cording to ,the substance intended to be produced. For some purposes as 
many as a luuidred and twenty thicknesses are pasted together, involving forty 
stove diyings, and of course carrying the operations over a considerable num- 
ber of days. A mass of pasteboard, six inches in thickness, which is occa- 
sionally produced for certain purposes, is perhaps one of tlie toughest and 
strongest materials we can imagine. If a cannon-ball, njade of such paste- 
board, were fired against a ship, would not the ball itself escape fracture ? 

The mould being covered with a sufficient layer, a knife is employed to 
dexterously loosen the paper at the edges ; tlie greased state of the mould 
allows the paper to be removed from it. Then are all imperfections removed ; 
the plane, tlie file, and the knife are applied to bring all ' ship-shape ' and 
proper. 

Next come the adornments. The pasteboard itself is not beautitul, so 
beauty is sought in other ways. Shell-lac varnish of very fine quality, coloured 
according to circumstances, is applied coat after coat, until a thickness is ob- 
tained sufficient for the puq-ose. The black polished surface of ordinaiy 
papier-mache trays is produced by black japan varnish, applied by women with 
a brush. But whether the varnish be black or coloured, it usually imdergoes 
a rubbing and polishing to such a degree txs to equal in brilliancy anything 
produced in the arts. It is said that the finest polishing instrument used to 
give the last finishing touch after all the ' rotten-stones ' and ' emeries ' have 
done their best, is the soft palm of a woman's hand; and that those females 
employed in tliis art, who are gifted by nature with tlie much-coveted charm 
of a soft and delicate hand, find it commercially advantageous to preserve this 
softness and delicacy by a degree of gloved carefulness not usual in their rank 
in life. What will the poets say, when woman's hand is thus spoken of? 

Then ensue tlie painting and the gilding, the bedizenment with gaudy show, 
or the adornment with graceful device, according as the goods are low or high 
priced, or the manufacturer a man of taste or no taste. A kind of stencilling 
is employed in cheap work, but in better specimens the real ai-tist's pencil is 
brought into requisition- 

The uilaid-work exhibited in die higher class of papier-mache goods is 
very curious. A sort of imitative tortoiseshell is thus produced. A thin 
transparent varnish is laid on the prepared tray, leaf silver is laid on Uie 
varnish, the two are dried, aid varnish is laid thickly over the silver, and 
pumice-stone is skilfully applied to grmd away so much of the varnish at parti- 
cular spots as will give to the whole the mottled appearance of tortoiseshell. 
Every day's experience tells us that imitations themselves are imitated. Not 
only is varnished silver made to imitate tortoiseshell, but varnished vermilion 
is made to imitate varnished -silver. A method of decorating papier mache 
with imitative gems has been recently introduced, in which some kind of 
foil or vamish is applied to the back of g;lass, and the glass employed as 
an inlaying. But perhaps the most striking ornamentation of this kind is 
pearl-inlaying, of which Messrs. Jennens and Bettridge's pianoforte was such 
a brilliant specimen. Here real mother-of-pearl is employed. A desigii is 
painted on the thin pieces of pearl with shellac vamish, a strong acid is apphed, 
all the shell is eaten away except tliose parts protected by the vamish, and 
thus the peai-1 is brought into an omamental fomi. The peail is placed 
upon the wet japan of the papier mache, to which it adheres; and it is 
then coated with such a tliick layer of vamish as to equal the tliicknesa 



1 .! 
It I- 



mtmrmmimmrm' 



«3 ji^ypp: vJB AprLicATioNS and its novewibs. 

of die, film of mothi^r-of peuil. Jt ii vwusUea. aiieil and rul.bo.l widi 

h« J^i vpnu I- Hwu tt tliickupHH of m>\H'A vuniibh dumblo. I ho !»"» ut^l^ 

K'Ae Quo,, of Hpai„. a.ptea '» J'^Xr' ,t >ouS tu^d pnavl ^viU 

Tint it in doubtiul whetljer uiih excmisive gi'iM^r oi iiunsii wiu i 
lmv« V P 'mm S v5^ Somctbing more nobar mil probubly hvu 

(lusigua, ftiin V Pt moier-niacbu cimtvibnt ous to Uus tireat Exhibition 

LriXirTWiW^^^^^ remavkable. inasmuch an llio two or 

£o SefbpSi ens contained vi(=w« ..f aboPt a hundred and htty pubho 
L riinrand in tm sting places in and near that city, "hero is m many o 
!:bs^ SciTcniamediial taste iu on,.ment titted to the mediaeval «tat« oi 
f(i^!ling in Oxford. 

rAl'En-llANalNOS. 

Mnnv fti-a Uie curious application^} of p»pei- not yet touched >ipon : but. as 
uSl^^^am to 'i^^^^^^ ennmaritiop of Uiem all. we vv.ll be comeii 
i»ti! a litUe ndlU of a pappr prodnpt familiav tP the A.uu,m of mp4 1.ngh.U 

^^^it;ip:S^^Sp.^hang.v^ ave not vei, hg, in^e tjnn^*^ - 
nlov ■ for the pt^per i»> not stipned, neither is it hung. ^"^ cr t tismjvoiu . 

SssbnnSr^xriri:s;^^=:;:^^ 

'lCCmw2tt^d&BP4 w^lwerB ^e p.int.d by the st,ncil method^r 
atStS used 80 to be \>e(or^ W^e rec«flt tP-*^'»\»'l.^^"<^^'"«^,*-;/\\!^' ^f 
SVe^tencilling is pimply this ;-a patt^n^ is cnt out. in a sheet of paper, ot 
I ?fh!r nf t£ of conii or of spme p^her uonvepient substance ; a vessel of 
lea^hey, qt tin, ot popper °'^,^* R*:*^. ^^ ., -^^ ^^^^ qb a bench, the stenpil 

pi«tw. uuH "4P f H '"^ . " 'y. thprfi hp three or move colours?, tlierp must oe 
SrrnS'&at.'^S J'i?:S«fo^Sn.i., .0 *e aeviee f„,- ,» P»r. 

•"^'S Srplttem i, navef ycr, el,B«.t. n.,er v«T .ic* ««M by tbU 
™Jfhn,i . nntl it has been to a gi-eat ei^tent ^uppraeded by the Mock metnoa, 



'.l.TlIi8. 

ied, ancl rulibed with 
luoduuiul. It may Wo 
4v tjf *]>itUeiiti.)u inuHt 
tlblo. TUu iinu Utel^ 
\\i'. ilmwiiiK-vuoiu t'unu- 
.blawfty. 

f poliyb lUiu pf'H" will 
olier will proltubly live 
HMpplyiug Albaiubmic 
i, w« Kn«l tt utiirtjr aj)- 
() tlu) (ireat Exhibition 
iiisnmch aa the two or 
lumhoa and titty public 
. There is in iiiauy ot 
a tht! inediiBval »Utfi of 



touched "PO" ; ^"t^- *•■* 

idl, we will bo content 

leui^pnti of mpst English 

y m the tomi9 they env 
ig. But criticism would 
I we will tiievefore tako 
I of papev as a substitiite 
f haiiyinn*, as applied to 
about two centuries ago 

• may be said concei-nhig 
ibifi invention in respect 
the houses inhabited by 
ous Excise duty pressed 
) now that tlie produce is 

by the stpncil method ; or 
ftdvancements in the wt. 
t, in a sheet of paper, of 
rit swhetance ; a vessel of 
d on j^ bench, the stenc-il 
ijpur \» worked over the 
in all thoBP pai'ts where tt 
fp colours, tl^erp must be 
. the device fQV qnp par- 

nicely delhiented by this 
led by t^fi '''<'<'* method, 
d. A block is carved in 
he devipe for one colour, 

• a third, and so op — the 
^■s, and all very carefully 
jattem. The artiatic part 
Is :— a long strip ef paper 



V\yV-n: ITS AfrUCAIluXB and |T8 HOVKI.TIKB. 



w 



i« laid down ; a groi^nd qf ' distt^Uiper ' or size-colour is applied with a brush, 
ttud dripd ; colours arp prppaiod. us niany as there i^ro hlwH» i »m ukIo'"' w 
(Uinbcd over u soft Itatbcr cushion ; a blocjt is inyertflil Q»» i^ «W »»we to 
take up a biyer ; this layer is applied to the i)uper ; and other nnprpsfiioim are 
printed side by side until thp whplp length of papov is (inmhed. Uieii 
luiotbor block luul another colour are used ; then tt tbnd; and so on; and tlje 
Hkill of the wovkmeu is shuwu by Vfuiloring ^Jmsi^l sevi'ral jiHictions ijs little 
viyiblu iih posijiblo. i • i 

Tlip modem method qf cylindof printing is, howevpr, the gvpat step in ail- 
vanpo. '\"ho making of continuous strips of paper, instead of having to pas^tp 
sheets togotlier, was one notable nid to tlio ptvpoi-sMiiMP»: ; the removal ol the 
Excise duty lias \\pm a second ; while the use of tlie cyUpdor nmcbiue has 
capped those improvements. a»d rendeved it possible to niako wull-papeis 
at a fi^rlhiiig per vai'd. When we consider that papev-hiHigmgs use»l to 
i.av— besides the duty per lb. on all paper— no less than 1 Jii. per yard ni their 
capacity as wi^jlpaper, wo may cease to wonder at the loweri^tg ol price which 
recent times have witness' d. And it is not ditlicuU, too, to see »»^w the 
cylinder n^ethod should bring njtout a lower ri^e of charge thaii Uie block 
methpd. Calico printing, wo know, has home wiUiess to an analogousj J^ct ; 
the cvlinder machine has given Uvsteful print dyesses to the Wives and daugh- 
ters of men who could not have borne the price of such production* ui past, 
t,imes. The analog)' is vevy close througiiout. Jn the oiie case cottpn, and 
in tlic other paper, is made in o^io coiithnious length; in both cases thi^ 
lengMi is wowd vpund a beam or roller ; in both cases tlipye iM'e epgravptj 
cylinders, as many as tlierp are to be colours, and e^h baving a device of lU* 
o-.vn ; in both cases there are as many troughs of colpur as there are cyhnders ; 
in bo^h cases tlie cylinders feed themselves with colom-, but in such a way as 
to take up the colopr on tlie rniHed parts in tlie one case, but on th" *««*; paits 
in rtie other ; in both cases the endless web is drawn in between rallei-s. ihk| 
niade to p^ss over all tlie colonr-wettpd cylinders in ^uppession ; 'm hot}* cat^es 
the complete pattern is <jeen to be printed by Uip time tlie niaterjftl leaves Uiq 
machine ; and in betli cases thp printed strip undergoes a ;np>d di7»P8 
process. The Great Exliibition, ^n>M»g its numerpp!? specunens illustrative of 
naper-hangings, contained some which showed iu a m^rke4 vyay the lacility 
now attained by the cylinder metliod. Auiopg ft|essrs. Hnyw(iod's contribu- 
tions were wall-paper in fourteen colours. "^ produped at once by lonrteen 
cylinc|ers in one machine ! 

Many are tlie means adopted to giya a decorative character to paper-liang- 
ings, besides tlie mere use of colours. Some spepimpns have a glfissy gioiind, 
to whiph tlie att^i^ctive naifte of mtin i? applied ; tl^is effpct is prodncp*! by 
^|ie pa<^fnl applipa^ion of polishing powder to (s snrface panted Uie prpper 
tint. Some have jtn appearipce imitative of figured or watered silk, prqdMcert 
by passing the paper between sliglitly-heftted rollers, whicli have Uie requisite 
design engrav(;d upon them. Some have a cloth-like appem-ance, produced in 
a singular way: the device i'^ priiued on tlie paper with gold sfize, and over tins 
is sprinkled coloured >t^, whid^ pon^ists of woollen clotli cut or gi^upd tft 
a ppwder. Some of the striped papei-s are produced in a ye^y remarkable way : 
the paper travels over a revolving cyhnder, and in its passage ^uche^ i>gaaus| 
tlie open bottom of ^ trough, whence a continuous sU-eara o\ liqpid colonr 
falls upon it ; blende^ or nhcided patterns i^re prodnced by a nioflif|cat.ion of this 
process; bronzed, qilt, or silvered papei-s are produced by printing a device wiUi 
gold size, and applying tiie metalhc adornment ui the state either ot powder 



I t 



"! 



4 i 



! ,t 



• V 



84 



PAI'KU: ITM AI'I'I.ICATIONB AND ITM NOVELTIEB. 



or «.f leaf. Hoii.t) paperH, to which Uio cntici.ig ( esiKnatlon of ' ^f »'^^/« " 
Jven. are printiHl wid. Uie colotin. prepared in oil or varrnsh. which will bear 
a water-washiii« pnicesH with impunity. » . i . .„ •„, ♦!.*> 

In tliese davH. when artistic doHign occnpien an uppennoMt p'uce mtlu. 
thoiiuhts of thoHo who would advance our manufactures. paper-hangmKs have 
no" escaped scrutiny. No definite principle of cnmmentat.on has yet been 
introduced in this art. Hoaietinies we see cottages bmlt one over uuo .r 
fmm tl.0 floor to the ceiling, all exactly alike, and each enclosed m a border. 
Sometimes animals, sometimes trees or flowers, are repeated m a «"";l^ jay ; 
and the result is. that whatever may be the merit ol any one compartmen . oi 
however gay the general eff-ect proJuced. there is nothing sensible or artis c 
Tn the whole vertical surface 'viewed at a glance. On the other hand, any 
auempt at perspectm views is vitiated by this ob ection-that all I>erspec ve 
supposes a poiit of sight to be chosen, at a mrticular distance Irom the p.c- 
? ireTat any other disLce distortion instoa<\ of symmet.7 »« i^'f'''±^ ^* 
one ime there was u fiushion to give a sculpturesque tone to P-^P^'-h^" W- ^J^ 
representing statues and bassi-relievi on neutral ground ; a another ti me co- 
S from historical pictures had a reign of favour; while the arfA./«Nm/ 
Srinciprpredominatod at another, by the representation of Grecian temples, 
(iothic chapels, Italian palaces. Chinese pagt)(las. ond such like. 

The lato Mr. Loudon! who was as untiring in his writings concern m^ house 

decoration as on gaidcning matters, threw out a suggestion for n new kind of 

prerhrgLg for^chool-rooms and nurseries. " foi-med by printing hgures o 

alTthe commoner and more important animals and phrnts. with tlie scent, c 

id poplr name beneath U.em ; each plant or animal being «"":''""/ f J^^ 

lines! so as to appear eitlier in fmmes or as if painted on the ends of atones 

ol^bricks ThJidvantage of the framed lines would be to give unity to tl e 

Tape t' a whole, and also to admit of repairs by taking out axiy smgle 

Lme or stone, and replacing it by anotlier." 'l'^'^^ ^ ""/"j^'of^^^^^ 

" but the expense, why a geographical paper should not befonned or one 

exhibiting all the principal rivera. mountains, or cities m the world, or the 

pS^S of eminent men. with their names ; or perpetual almaji^s ; or 

lists of weights and measures; or chronological "^ •iriUimetical tables .or^ 

inXrt anv useful and instructive subject, which it would be beneficial to 

the cottier 'to have frequently before his eyes." 

SomXng like tliis has been suggested, adapted to a higher order ot 
artistic work. It is tliis-to have a pattern printed on wall-paper, with a 
deUcatel^d graceful style of ornamentation; either trellis-v^ork. or tendrils 
Splits or S^besque patterns, but leavin. spaces, or oval «; «rcular me- 
dallions in which subjects could be afterwards painted by hand. The lady- 
Srof a mansion m^ight thus display her industry and ta.ste on the papered 
walls instead of on the crochet curtains or the rug-work ottomans; and she 
iSt thus recall the feudal days when high-bom dames wrought the tapestry 
or wall-hancincs for their own boudoirs. . , , ., „ 

"Sess p^ap'r ceases to be a material for -'^Idecomtion (and there seem 
no reason why it should so cease), the time has come for a little more 
^st^meSg in tlie designs-something like an approax^h to a prmapU 
Td orati^e^atterns. The^eople, the paper users, will welcome a new m- 
Lion of mind in this art ; for many of tlie " curiosities of .mdustiy, in the 
shape of paper-hangings, are felt to be very absurd curiosities mdeed. 



awii-iairgi;^i 



fowwiWWiWi'iiffi.fKfcrtw 






KLTIES. 

tmtlon of ' wiutlmble ' in 
■ttmish, which will bear 

upliennuMt |»'ai;e in the 
(M, pa|)«r-hftngiuKH have 
ipiitation hiiH yot been 
built one ovur miuthtr 
h enclosed in a border, 
peated in a similai' way ; 
iiy one compartment, or 
hing HensibU) or artistic 
On the other hand, any 
.on — that all persnective 
ir distance from the pic- 
imetry is prodiicad. At 
ifi to paper-hangings, by 
id; at another time co- 
; while the architectural 
tion of Grecian temples, 

Hiich like. 

ritings concern in^r house 
estion for u new kind of 
od by printing figures of 
Uuits, with tlie scientific 
lal being suiTounded by 
ed on the ends of stonea 
, be to give unity to tlie 
y taking out any single 
re is no reason," he adds, 
I not be fonned ; or one 
ies in the world ; or the 
perpetual almanacs ; or 

arithmetical tables; or, 
it wovUd be beneficial to 

i to a higher order of 
ed on wall-paper, with a 
sr trellis-work, or tendrils 
!8, or oval or circular me- 
lted by hand. The lady- 
and ta.ste on the papered 
-work ottomans ; and she 
imes wrought the tapestry 

icoration (and there seems 
come for a little more 
m approach to a principle 
8, will welcome a new in- 
osities of .industiy," in tlie 
curiosities indeed. 



PRINTING : ITS MODERN VARIETIES. 



Thk curiosities of Printing are becoming so numerous, that they present 
themselves to our notice in all that pertains to tlie art, wiit'llicr jirimary or 
collateral. In the types themselves, in tlie mode of prtxluciiig tluui;, in tlie 
mode of arranging tliem for printing, in the printing operations, in the ink- 
ing contrivances, in Uie jjresses and machines, in the application of colour by 
printing, in the stcrtsotyping anangements, in the links which conn<!ct the 
typographer witli the lithographer, and the engraver with the galvanist — in all 
tiiese niattei-H, tl»e curious and valuable novelties of recent years are veiy 
abundant. 

In tliis, as in otl>er sheets of tlio series, we describe the old and fannliar 
processes only so fai- as will render the novelties more intelligible. 

Types and Type-founding : Old and New. 

The founding or casting of that all-important little implement, a printing 
type, is one of the prettiest in the whole range of tlie typographic art— so 
nnich does it depend upon a nice discrimination in hand and eye of tlie 

workman, and on so miniature a scale is the apparatus. 

i3ut before describing modern types and type-making, it may be well to re- 
mind tlie reader that the first or original printers did not employ such types: 
they an-ived at this stage of completeness by degrees. Very early in Uie fif- 
t«onth centuiy, a meUiod was practised of cutting lines t>i rc/iV/ on blocks oi' 
wood, and printing from tliose lines when inked ; this was the foremnner of 
the wood-myraoing of modem days. There is uidistinct evidence of such an 
art being practised eai'lier ; but it is, at all events, known that small cheap 
pictures, produced in tins way, were sold in Germany and Italy at tlie period 
named above. Strangely enough, relitjiom hooka and playiiicf cards were the 
first works which received tliis kind of printing ; but other works speedily fol- 
lowed. The same block of wood which contained a picture came, by degrees, 
to have words and sentences also cut on the surface ; and these were prirted at 
the same time as the picture. The next step was, to cut up tlie text portion 
into separate letters, so tliat tliey might be recombined for any other work ; 
this was the great invention in printing, and the one U) which the rival claims 
of Gutenberg, Faust, Coster, and Schoeffer relate. A further stage was, tliat of 
(iugraving a model of each letter, striking a mould from the model, and casting 
separate letters from the mould ; tliis, which is essentially the principle of 
modem times, seems to have been first adopted about 1450. These matters 
being premised, we may now glance at the types and the type-makei-s. 

Types for prmting are usually about an inch long, with a letter in relievo at 
one end, and a nick or notch near the other. They are cast m a mould, and 
are formed of lead to which about twenty per cent, of antimony has been 
added. But before this casting takes place, a very important afifair has to be 
attended to : a mould has to be made ; and to make tliis mould & punch or die 
is requisite. This punch is tlio production on which the type-founder most 



(i 






\ \ 



L 



I 



2 



TRINTIN'O: ITS MODEItN VAUlETfKS. 



pride, himself; since the beauty of the ^ype f l-nds so m«^^^^^^^^ 

They m-e compai-ed one with another, by prmlBrB m i^feience J« *»« numuei 
nf lines of each which fill a column of twelve mches, if packed closely side t)y 

have ' medifeval ■ tastes (to employ a much-used phrase), a wish to lovive wm 

nf these successive movements occupy collectively only an nghth partjja 
fn^touches brin<» tlie types to the state required by the printer Boys break 

?hey became all exactly equal in length, and e'^^""ni"g «.ff ^ ;!"* '^J" J^^,t , 
to s^ee that every single tyi'.e is fitted for its purpose-aU Ill-formed types bemg 

''^T^^^'^SSJS^^ 'af £ otat Exhibition, specimens of the 
types nrndlby £e old fim of Coslon, through so long a period as a hundred 



MtiiMiin'iiBMU'nt-.- 



L. 



so much on the excel- 
if steel, on one end of 
m of puncViing and en- 
ocesses, and is hardened 
r which the typefounder 
.ac\i fount or size of tj'pe, 
for Uie large and for the 
there musr be commas, 
tttl as well as significant ; 
; there muFt be diherent 
3 foreign alphabets, such 
I amount to a very large 
for Bach. The sizes ot 
ames which are a perfect 
B Bizea ai-e called douhla 
n{f primer, bomyeois, Itre- 
o'ukl be no easy matter, 
reference to the number 
if packed closely side by 
42 such lines, whereas a 
ent sheet is printed with 
respect to the punches, 
, in the French types, and 
ndency to finer thin lines 
ilso see among those who 
,86), a wish to revive what 

npression from it Is made 
hemafWar. This matrix, 
hin a small but curiously- 
There is a furnace con- 
oid in his left hand and a 

molten mass a ladle-full, 
ti upward jerk to force the 
3 two parts by mean;: of a 
til a hook, and closes the 
wler is told tlmt the whole 

only an eighth part of a 
ype-casting as one of the 
Jerivsd from long practice, 
tn each matrix ; and when 

the mould. A few finish- 

the printer. Boys break 
tlie types ; this they do at 
Other boys rub the sides of 
and tliis they do nearly as 
ypes, by planing them till 
ling each with a magnifier, 
— aU ill-formed types being 

xhibition, specimens of the 
long a period as a hundred 



PRINTINO'. ITS MODERN VAHrETTES. 



B 



and thirty years; they showed how fashion has varied between 1720 and 
J 8.51 ; but in regard to actual excellence, some of the old type would bear safe 
comparison with our modem productiong, though not when taken collectively 
A proof was given of the extreme accuracy in the form of modem type, by a 
mass of two hundred thousand very small types, suspended in the air witli no 
other securitv than the lateral pressure of screws in the chase or frame ; the 
type was of the kind called 'pearl,' and the whole mass, thus supported onh/ 
at the sides, weighed a hundred and forty pounds. A new type has been 
cast by Messrs. Miller and Richard, called > brilliant,' said to be tlie smallest 
ever produced, being smaller than the ' diamond ' type used for the notes of the 
smallest bibles. Gray's Elegy was displayed at the Exhibition, printed with this 
type within a space of four inches by three, the whole thirty-two verses of four 
lines each ; tliis was perhaps the closest specimen of printing ever yet seen. 
Another curiosity consisted of the types invented for the phonotypic and 
phonographic systems, at present struggluig to maintain a recognised existence 
in society. A singular plan for printing in types from two colours (whether 
or not'yet acted on we do not know) was exhibited, in which the letter-types 
are of imequal height, so that Uie inking roUer, in applying one of Uie two 
colours, shall touch only the projecting types. Books and newspapers have 
often lines printed eitlier horizontally or vertically, to separate columns or to 
tabulate numbers ; tliere are also numerous small ornamented types used m 
various parts of some books ; tmd one of tlie type-founding establishments hit 
upon tlie expedient of combining some twelve or diirteen thousand of these 
decorative and lino types, to fonn a picture of the front of the Free Chiu-cii 
College at Edinburgh: it was a toy certainly, but it was intended to exhibit 
the powers of the establishment in this depai-tment of type-founding. 

There are many peculiarities in Uie types used for printing music. The 
ordinary music pages, in the extrav^antly-charged sheets of the music- 
publishers, are engraved on zinc-plates, and it is therefore easy to combine nil 
the requisite characters and symbols ; but the arrangement of separate metal 
tjnies for this purpose requu-es the exercise of much ingenuity : for not only 
must tlie proper musical symbols be given, but the five lines of the staff or 
stave must be preserved ; and the type-founder has to calculate how many 
combinations of form in tlie types will meet all tlie requirements of modem 
music. In the Exhibition there was one collection of music-type whi.ih com- 
prised 315 separate types— 315 separate letters (so to speak) in die musical 
alphabet. Let the reader examine closely any page of type-printed music : he 
will find that each musical line is built up with numerouB f5ra^ientary pie.ces. 
These pieces ai-e separate types. Sometimes a type consists ot an eighth of an 
inch of staff, with a crochet or a quaver attached ; sometimes it is a mimm rest, 
with two bits of staff above and below it ; sometimes it is the thick double line 
for a semiquaver, rer/.y to be fitt -l on to any note either above or below it ; 
sometimes two notes, with an mtei-val of a musical third between them, are 
formed on the same type, widi fragments of horizontal Imes either through 
them or between them, so as to adapt them to take a position either on the lines 
or on the spaces of the staff. It is an evidence of the skill with which this 
kind of printing is now done, that this piece-meal formation of a music page 
can only be seen by tolerably close inspection. Nothing but experience can 
decide a.s to die best fomis and combinations to gi\e t« the .types. In practice 
there are two different plans acted on— the complete note being cast m one 
piece, and the note being in five pieces, for the five lines of tlie statf. Both 
plans oi-e adopted as may be most convenient ; but music-type founders arc 

K /» 



11 



! 



ir 



L 






4 prmting: its modebn vabieties. 

ewleavouring to deviM some medium sj^lem whleh .hall combine U.e ci- 

"£f JJd ™« have been 4e attempt, of tyP-'o-^- " JSo'T 

used teminal syllables, such as ton, meat, t7isr. &c. I", *f ^f™.„ "^^^ t^p^ 
were some Ame'rican types cast on f « P7^£j,":;^,f ^^ T™-^" ^Y^^^^^^ 

oractice • the former has to bear the expense of making "^w puncnes 
Ses" fS the compound types ; while ^- -n.pos;tor ha^^^^^^^^ l^Ue ce^ 
for the extra types, and to lay his fingers upon tliem ^^ leamiy as ui 

Si^s';?iS'srei;-iT;^c^r.^Sp.sreS"5;i 

""iJ'ZSi-t M:C"devi.ed an lnge„io„ mod. of -ting m»y 
,JL af once by Lgmg Oie matrioe. side by side in a mould winch w.ll con- 
t(i>o« at onic. OJ '""JU'B , .„^ ^ u,, Jt o„ce, and claim, to have the 
tarn them all. He ^J"""" '"„7 '\„^ ,„ a,', aid of t»vo men only. 

rendering £m dmable. is a ^Lei-n project noticed in a former number ol 
tills series. 



i 



iHnWOl^t 



Wtltlkmf»% 



!8. 

1 shall combine tlio ex- 
bunders to devise some 
ins of saving time. In 
ill and much-used words 
», of, &c. ; fts likewise tlie 
OK, re, &c. ; and the most 
In the Exhibition tliere 
, that of having one type 
t up with as many types 
hand, and the compositor 
ovations on the ordinary 
laking new punches and 
itor has to find little cells 
m as readily as upon the 
I exhibitor, Mr. Tobit, to 
s method, by forming the 
le tj-pes tliemselves, with- 

fiys in the Exhibition was 
o represent Chinese cha- 

manufactured by Beyer- 
iety. The Chinese voca 
hich are not built up from 

have a good deal of the 
e words or characters by 
natter. M. Beyerhaus has 
, so as to make 4200 letters 
npositor in lieu of letters. 
)wu ; and by vaiious com- 
haracters can be imitated ; 
le and tlie New Testament 

T industry of our German 
'with m the Saxon section. 
It, printed in neaily thirty 
haracters. These required 
stings, to produce the type 

ous mode of casting many 
in a mould which will con- 
:e, and claims to have the 
the aid of two men only, 
advertisement has appeared 
to be established for working 
laid wire, cut and stamped 
(in the bright language of 
te of a hundred in a minute. 
)type process, as a means of 
iced in a former number of 



PRINTINO: ITS MODERN VARIETIES. 



The Compositor and his Apparatus. 



It is scarcely necessary to inform an intelligent reader in the present day, 
tliat a compositor is one who puts the types together, for printing. 

The labours of the compositor certainly require as much exercise of mind, eye, 
and fingej-s, as any of the ordinary handicraft employments. He is expected 
to decipher tlie writing, good or bad, of the author whose manuscript he is 
putting into type. He has to manage tlie punctuation, which autlioi-s too 
generally care very little about ; and ho often rectifies an occasional en-or arising 
from haste in writing or from transcription. His eye guides his fingei-s (or his 
fingers almost guide tliemselves) to the cells where the proper letter-types are to 
be found ; and the formation of letters into words, words into lines, lines into 
columns, columns into pages, and pages into forms or sheet-surfaces, taxes all 
his powers — mental, visual, and digital. He has to "mind his p's and 5s," 
not only m the literal sense of that plirase, as the p appears on the type like a 
q to the unpractised eye, but in many a figurative sense also. 

The compositor has his types placed in small cells, which are combined into 
a case, and two pairs of cases occupy a frame. He has one pair of cases for 
llonian, another for Italic, or a smaller type for notes. The upper case of 
each pair contains large and small capitals, numerals, accented vowels, 
and a few other types; the lower case contains the small letteis and the 
space-types. Some of the cells are larger than others, to contain the letters 
most in use. In the Enghsh language the letter e occurs more frequently 
than any other ; then t ; then a ; then i, n, 0, and s; z is the least in use, 
there being sixty times as many e's as z's. In a 'fount,' or complete set 
of types, consisting of 106,000, there are 12,000 e's, rather more tlian one- 
nintli of tlie whole. The letters are not arranged alphabetically in the case, 
but tliose which are most in use are placed neai-est to the hand of the com- 
positor : a conventional aiTangement, wholly dependent on practical utility. 
So well does the compositor know this aiTangement, that his fingers dip 
almost intuitively into the proper cell for any required type ; no labelling or 
inscribing being at all necessary. 

Step by step does the compositor build up his letters into words, and his 
woi-ds into sentences. Let his first word be " Industry :" he takes an I from 
the upper case, or case of capitals, and then his fmgers dip successively into 
the cells of the lower case which contain n, d, u, s, &c. Each type, as he 
picks it up, he places against a ledge in a little implement called the composing- 
stick. When he has arranged side by side the eight types for the word 
" Industry," he takes a ' space' out of another cell, and uses it as a boundaiy 
between this and the next word —the ' space ' beuig a blank type, too shallow to 
come under Uie action of the inkmg apparatus. Then he proceeds to the 
second word, and so on till he has words enough to fill one line of a page or 
colimin. He then begins a new line, and by the time he has thus collected 
about a dozen hnes, his composing-stick is full; the contents are carefully 
lifted out in a mass, and placed in what is called a ffalley. He then gets an- 
otlier stick full, and transfers it in a similar- way, until at length the galley 
becomes full. Thus he proceeds ; at the rate of about fifteen thousand letters 
in a good day's work. 

The precautions which the compositor has to take are many and varied. 
After having mastered the difficulties of tlie manuscript (which he reads two 



— -—It!: 



.—^-^ 




A PHINTIWO: ITS MODERN VARtETIIS. 

r .♦ „ ^im^ and which he places in a convenient spot before him), 
or three hnea at a time, 'i'^<^7*"^" " ^ij^'^j^^ .„ i. jg fooud tliat raUicr over 
he selects the proper lyvf *^""^' » Cush vvords but, as a line must not 

'^1 '-^Te ^midr:raC4t. ISKlf nTess^ in ^«cin,. the words 
end m the middle oi a Byimuic, airam, he mast 

so that none may appear too «J«^^« J; Xelp ide down a littlk nick or 
n^'^^^h^irorJach't^^ry FaSS ^he eye" and finger in avoid- 
notch m the shaft of ^^^^^^^^^^^^ his stick is filled, in hftmg the 

before the printing, are numerous Z^ ;» Tsometimes a whole sheet-full 

xnai^o coalesce w^tiiout^s^^^^^^ ,^ ^^^„ ,, ,he 

^ay be tjan po^ed a ^^wLg linersentetces may be in different par^ 
beginning of the next '""""^""f. ""; ' ., „ _._^„ Daraeraph, or vice vend; a 
graphs which o"g*^^^J«™ n^illo^ oXstoTe1ene;allymavbeeither 
commamaybegi^steadof^a^^^^ 

rfro? he ^veie" ; wo^^^^^^^ capital instead of small type, or the 

Italic 01- f « ^7^^^; * i^J to a wi-ong foui^t or size may have become mixed 
reverse ; « ^''"^^ Jf ""^^^^^ cell ; a space may protrude so much as tx, be 

up with the propel gpe^ti ui ^ f ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ i^^^i 

^t^rnTiautsiirtakl may occur:and'do occur. S^ne of theerrors 
take'-a. l-g^-^^rr'dUa^ntn f^^^^^^ oom.fproof. 



I 



tifliiilitiiiiitiii 



niiliM»iri'iiri'mii»nni 



miont spot before him), 
fooml that ratlicr over 
but, as a hne must not 
y in spacing the -wonls, 
Then, again, he mast 
down ; a little nick or 
!yo and linger In avoid- 
is filled, in lifting the 

lo ! down go the tj-pes, 
)rm what printers, witli 
en falls to tlie share of 
J "pie " has to luste its 
Bfore he can re-compose 
ler. 

[ter the composing but 
types is bound tightly, 
itimes a whole sheet lull 
idley is this proof sheet, 
takes ore very numerous 

A wrong letter appears 
ivord or a whole sentence 
two words may have been 
srsed ; two or more words 
> line may be seen at the 
lay bo in different pamr 
■agraph, or vice versa; a 
)6 generally may be either 
nan which ought to be in 
jad of small type, or the 
may have become mixed 
rotrude so much as to be 
n below the genei-al level 
Bur. Some of the errors, 
iply ludicrous. An intel- 
■eads the -proof attentively, 
lid marks with a pen the 
k to the compositor, who 
8 — at least so it appears U> 
!t so much patient labour 
reus, their reparation may 
tie wages of a compositor 
duction of a coirert, proof, 
ig; consequently the cor- 
(d to himself, in the proof, 
jxtra pay ; and he has thus 
i good, clean, perfect proof 
r which th« compositor is 
lined by tlie reader, to see 
i then gent to the author, 
ry ; and tlie composit-jr is 
I this revision. According 



PMNTIKO: tT8 MODEBN VAUIETXE8. " 

the extent of the corrections, and the number of times they are matle, these 
revisions have to be repeated. . , 

The conected pages are grouped in their proper order, so as *« P"°* »«^^^* 
of quarto, octavo, duodecimo, or any other size. The order ni which they are 
arranged depends on the number of foldings which the sheet is to undergo 
;" the present sheet, for instance, the reader will find tliat although tiie e are 
twelve pages on each side, these twelve follow each other m (apparently) very 
Ugulir Srder. when the sheet is open; yet all find tlieir Pr<>Per pla^" y'li^ » 
folded. In arranging tlie pages for the press, they are placed at proper 
distimces and are separated by pieces of wood called fumUure, wide enough 
to fom thrmargins ^to the several leaves; and the whole are then wedged 
inU) an iron frame called a chase. Each side of the sheet must have an airange- 
nient of tliis kind; so that there are ultimately prepared two Jorms, as they 
are called, each properly fitted for printing one side ot a sheet. ^ 

When the printing is finished, or tlie 8t*>reotype cast (as the c^e may bo), Ui^ 
compositor hL to undo his work. The type having been cleaned fr»>» t^^^^^^^ 
tlie Zm is pulled to pieces, the/Mmi<i(r* is removed, and the types ai-e separated 
"ZSi^l retuniJi to its proper cell. This is a preUy -•^^^^^^^i^^l-?" 
cess. He takes a quantity-perhaps a dozen Imes-in his left hand takes up 
one or two words from this quantity between the fingers and thumb ol his rigl 
hand, and drops them into the cells with almost inconceivable <l»»'^n«^«; ^ 
experienced compositor wiU thus distribute Ji/UJ thousand types m a daj. m- 

""a smaU mSha^i!^ir^|mict to the labours of the compositor 1»^« l>««» i"^"^"" 
duced in Belgium. Instead of tying round a page ot type witli «timg. to 
nable him to lift it in one masM, there is here Hubstitute<l .«f. "-f ^J^T^j;; 
light strong, and easily adjusted to its place. So tightly, mdeed, does the 
Sne holKhe type, that iJi cases of emergency printed impressions are said 
to be obtainable from the type in this stat*. without any other J"«t«n>"^^^^^^ 

Another trifle-the value of which must be determined by tiie comp««^«r 
and by him alone— is Mr. Gallard's portable composing-fmme, which was 
shown^at the Exhibition. It is intended to provide temporaiTj™^;^^^'^^ 
for cases at the imposing-stone during correction of proofs - ^^fZlZ wo k 
cases near the compositor's frame, at times when he is engaged upon woik 
which has a mixture of Italic or other tyyie with the ordinai-y tyP«- , 

Can the aid of machinery be brought into reqmsition m r'^V^l'^;^^^-^ 
This question has been many times a.sked ; and many mgenious persons have 
eivom-ed to give an affirmative answer tojt. About ten years^o the 
attention of the printing fraternity was much attrac,^ rZ£ Rosenberg 
machines, one by Messrs. Young and Delcambre, and one by Capto^^^iRo««»^^^^^^^^ 
Both machines could compose type by automatic agency, a"'! l'"*?^, ™ Sere 
ingenious ; or, more correctly, both substituted mechanism for human fingers 
in certain parts of tlie apparatus. , • v, ,x.„ „„„.^<,Wr.r nUvs • 

In theee^^two machines there is a key-board on ^'V^V^^ J^T^g^'^f P^^^^ 
he ha« not to deal ynihflai, and sharps and vamcO*, but ^^^« i^^^^^J. ^ 
the words transmitted to him by the author To use ^^^.^^T^f >^^"^^^^^ 
(the woid ' Industi-y'). the compositor, instead of dipping his fingers mto ei^it 
llll^Us. presseslis fingers o'n eight different key, of ^^^ "^°f P^^^^^"^^ 
What. then, is the result? In Young and SfJ«*™b'V.l«J^p?;De3 slide 
moves a lever ; the lever pushes a type out of a >*^7f «P^1«^. f^^ > P^hSe 
down an inclined plane into a funnel or spout, and Aence mto a bo?, where 
tl4e .^vmpositor takes them up and arranges them m his composmg-stiok. ia 



mtm a ii II to i l jiiti i iiii '' W' i ua l»w 






I 



g PRINTISO; ITS MODERN VAB1ETIE8. 

Kosenbcrg's nmchinc, the key detaches a type from a vortical rack; tho tppcs 
when det^hea, range tlieniselves on an .ndless belt; they leave tlie belt and 
range close t«gether"m a receiver; and v.hen one line-full ^s thu« lon-J-jJ ^l.e 
machine rings a bell, and tlie compositor takes away Uic me of type, ad le4>es 
Zm for another. In tlie one, the types require to be distributed in tiie sa.ne 
pic^-mLrway as in ordinai-y composing; while llosenbergV. inachme jvus 
Accompanied by anotlier for etlecting the disti-ibution also, .l^o^^nberg s n a- 
chinesxvere therefore more complete than tl^-^t which was nivened shortly 
before them; and veiy high anticipations were formed of Uieii v^lue liut 
these anticipations have not been realisod. Men are st.ll required to a ted 
on the machine, and to do pai-t of the work; it is found that the machmo 
cannot think sufficiently, and that notlimg is saved by the time all Uie con-ec- 
tions and adjustments ai'e made. , 

M. Soreusen's very remarkable type-machine had not we believe been 
known in this country untU the recent Exhibition. The singular bird-cage-looking 
apparatus, which fonned one of Uie smaU number of conU-ibutions from Denmark, 
has the merit-be tliis little or much-n^f being in many points quite unlike a^iy 
tliat preceded it. It is no easy matter to describe tins machine. Ihe readei 
may picture to himself two circulai- cages, one placed over anotlier, and t c 
upper one capable of revolving on its axis independent of the lower, ilie 
upper cage is for distrikitiag type ; the lower for composing. Suppose a sheet 
to be printed off, and the compositor required to disUibute the *>?« '. ^^^ tef e^ 
them up a few at a time and places Uiem between Uie bra^s bars of the uppei 
caffo, where they slide down to a plate which sepai-at^s the two cages, uns 
plat* has perforations, each one so formed as to admit ^'^^ /'«^, «f type-lettei 
only and as every type-letter has side notches ditienng from those ot eveiy 
other letter, each type can only pass through one particular perforation ; and 
it is by slowly revolving Uie upper cage that tlie types one by one hnd the 
proper perforations through which tliey may creep, lie lower cage has a^ 
many vertical brass bars as there ai-e letters of type ; and by degrees tlie space 
between any two bars becomes filled wiUi type all of one letter- this consti- 
tutes the dLtribiUion. Then for the composing. Tho compositor plays upon 
a set of keys ; these keys act upon strings ; the strings act upon springs ; Uic 
springs push out or let out the requisite types from between the bars of the cage ; 
the tjTcs descend to a sloping plate, then through a spiral tube, and then into 
a receiver, where they range themselves in soldierly order side by side, it the 
compositor has played the keys rightly, ttie order of arrangement m the types 
is also right. A foot-pedal moves Uie receiver along gently, ready to accept 
the types as they drop successively int« it; and when a hne is formed, it is 
removed, and the receiver adjusted for another. 

Now for the alleged advantages and disadvantages of tins remarkable machine. 
Is it not a ti'oublesome affair to place all tlie types between the bars ot the 
distributing machine? M. Sorensen asserts that it occupies only one-tenth 
the time of ordinmy distributing. Does not the machine require most deli- 
cate workmanship, that aU the rods, incisions, types, notches, and projections, 
may fit weU into each odier ? M. Sorensen admits that diis is asuwqm 7ion ; 
but considers that this ought not to be an objection in an age ot high meclia- 
nical ability. Will not the types be dearer to cast, and weaker under tbe 
press, tlian ordinary type without these peculiar notches ? M. Sorensen thinks 
that the slight increase in expense will in part be counterbalanced by less 
veight of metal ; and that tlie {types, though yielding to yo ence, would bear 
fau- pressure. Would not the expense of such a machine (lOOf.) neutralise its 



i 



mm 



i 



rniNTiNo: its modern varieties. 







srtical rack ; the tj-pcs, 
they leave tlie belt and 
'uU is thus tbnnod the 
Une of type, and lerives 
iistributed in tlie same 
senberg's machine was 
also. Kosenberg's ma- 
1 was invented shortly 
id of Uieir value. But 
still required to attend 
)und that the machine 
the time all tlie con-ec- 

not, we believe, been 
iigular bird-cage-looking 
■ibutions from Denmark, 
|r points quite unhke any 
} machine. The reader 
over anotlier, and the 
ent of the lower. The 
>sing. Suppose a sheet 
bute the type ; ho takes 
brass bars of the upi)er 
)s the two cages. This 
; one kind of type-letter 
ing from those of every 
ticular perforation ; and 
les one by one find tlie 
The lower cage has as 
Hid by degrees tlie space 
f one letter — this consti- 
3 compositor plays ujton 
js act upon springs ; Uic 
veen the bars of the cage ; 
spiral tube, and then into 
rder side by side. If the 
ii-rangement in the types 
I gently, ready to accept 
a a line is formed, it is 

this remai'kable machine, 
between the bars of the 
, occupies only one-tenth 
ichine require most deli- 
notches, and projections, 
iiat tliis is a sine qua ""'^ •' 
in an age of high mecha- 
1, and weaker under the 
les ? M. Sorensen thinks 
counterbalanced by less 
g to violence, would bear 
jhine (lOOi.) neutraUse its 



advantages'' No, says M. Sorensen; divide the expense over a long period, 
mid you will have a good margin left. Is not tho method difficult to loam ? 
M Sorensen states that any.pei-son could learn to use this machme moie 
nuickly than the ordinaiy composing system, and that a compositor could 
master it in a few davs. Will not the saving of time be neutralised by the ne- 
cessity for hand labour in dividing, spachig, adjusting, itahc-ismg, and so forth .^ 
Lessened, says M. Sorensen, but not neutralised. Would not the compositors 
oppose it? If they did, says M. Sorensen, the opposition would yield alter a 
time, as in all similar cases.— These are the statements for and against ; and it 
amy be hoped that so ingenious a machine may have an ample testmg, which it 
docs not seem yet to have had ; indeed wo are not awaro that M. Siirenscn has 
ever yet actually set tho machine to work in a printing-office ; and all more 
model experiments will fail to place the inquiiy on a proper commercial 
basis. 

SxEREOTYriNG : ITS PuRPOr.T XST) ITS VARIETIES. 

That cheap literature owes much to stereotyping, is beyond question ; as 
the process is one of those which economise the outlay in printing. I" or 
works of small circulation it is useless, or worse than useless ; but when there 
is a very large demand for a book, or the demand spreads over a considerable 
sr)ace of time, then does stereotyping lessen the expenses of the publisher. 
It does so for tlie following reasons. If the publisher over-estimates the de- 
mand for a new book, he prints too many copies, some of which remain a 
dead loss to him on his shelves ; if he under-estimates tlie demand he prints 
too few, and has all the expense of composing Uie type to mem- over again. 
But if he bestows the time and labour of making stereotype casts from his type, 
he can then print from theso plates just as many copies as are wanted, and 
do this from time to time during an indefinite period. He need not keep the 
type standing ; he can distribute and use the type for other works, knowing 
that he has a source of power in his stereotype plates. And, moreover, he 
can make two or a dozen or any number of stereotype casts from each page ; so 
that he could print two, or a dozen, or any number of copies at once, with the 
requisite press or machine aiTiuigements, and all with one original ' setting 
up,' or composing. There is this consideration, too ; tliat a woodcut becomes 
somewhat worn when a large number of impressions have been taken from it ; 
but by a series of stereotype casts from it, the power of printing from it be- 
comes practicaUy illimitable. The reader will then bear in mmd that, so far as 
any one copy is concerned, stereotype-printing is not better than type-printing ; 
on the contrary, the highest'class of work is generally type-printed; but when 
a large quantity of one kind is required, tlie advajitages of Uie stereotype 
method, both in time and money, are quite inesistible. 

It is certainly exti-aordinary tliat, after two castings, a stereotype plate, even 
from a woodcut, should be fine and shai-p enough for printing ; it shows how 
great is the skill now attained in the art. That there are ttvo castings, many 
readers are apt at times to foi-get; but a moments consideration will show 
tliat such must necessarily be the case ; for tlie fii-st cast will give hollows in- 
stead of protuberances, and vice versa ; and hence another is required to restore 
the original aspect of the sm-face— just as in all other processes of casting, 
founding, or moulding ; where a model is employed to yield a mould, and the 
mould is employed to yield casts. In stereotyping, tlie page of tj-pe, or mingled 
type and woodcuts, is the model; a plaster impression from tins is the inovM; 

K 8 



^&MiH|h^ 



10 



PniNTINO: ITS MODKBN VABIBTIUB. 

Tht( method was firet practised at Edin- 



and the Btereotvpo plata is tlio Crtst. _ . 

bu « a centu.5^ and a quarter a^o ; but it wan not brought much mU> mim- 
8U ion until towards Uie close of tlie last century ; and did not become a really 
tmporZt comnierci.d element in printing mitil IHjJ'^ when tho vast Bale of 
the IVnuy Magazine produced a revoluUon in cheap literature. 

Stereotype .u^stin^ is managed simply as foUows. Tho page of typo, as clean 
and norfeot as possible, is we.lged up closely in a mouldiug-trame ; the surhvc^ 
TZiwe is slightly oiled ; liquid plaster is iK,ured upon it until the mou d- 
LLue is filled; Uio solidihed nioul.l is removed when cold; aiid ..tter 
uJiur Uimmed, it is phtced in an oven to bake or dry. Tlien begins the me- 
S casting. The metal is melted in a cauldron; the pU^ter-mould is 
Zea hi a pecuUar casting-box; and, by a veiy nice adjustment, Uie mould 
uid the box Le both immersed m the molten metal, m such a way tis to allow 
:, layer of meUd t.> form on the surface. When removed from ho cauldron, 
and taken from the ciujtingbox, and tJie plaster mould broken Irom it (lor a 
mould is destroyed for each cast ma.le). the nlate is carefully examined : the 
Zl is rendere/peiiectly level by being turnecf n a latlie ; and the face ,s freed 
lom any slight defecU which may disfigure it. There is thus produced a 
stereotype plat« capable of bearmg the action of the pnntmg press or 

""Thb\ the ordinary stereotype process, but many recent novelties have 
been mtro<luced in aid of it. The ai-plication of gutta percha t.. printing was 
noticed in a former number of this series; but we may here describe one oi 
two of those applications more fully. Mr. Muir, ot Glasgow, has mvenU^d a 
mode of stereotypuig, managed m the followmg way. A page of common 
JJpe is first set up, and well ftxed ; a wann cake of gutta percha is applied to 
it screwed down tightly, and allowed so to remain a quarter of an hour, 
when this gutta percL fnould is removed, it is brushed over wit^i fme black- 
lead and Ml electro-copper cast taken from it; the prmtmg is then effected 
from this cast. It is fomid uiat gutta percha constitutes a veiy convenient 
and efficient substance for the mould, owing to the readiness with which it can 
be softened, and its toughness when cold; while Uie electro-copper cast is 
said to bear the action of the printing press tliroughout a much greator 
number of copies than an ordinary stereotype plate. 

The same inventor also practises a plan in which the gutta percha performs 
not ordy its own work but that of the electro-copper also. A mould is taken 
from an engraved wood-block, in gutta-percha; and this mould, whenbrusheil 
over with blacklead, is made to yield a cast also m gutta percha, in an exactly 
similar way ; and from this cast the impressions are printed. It seems difhcult 
to conceive Uiat. aft«r this double process, aU the delicate lines of a wood- 
engraving should be preserved on tho siu^ace of such a material as gutta 
percha; and yet, without this preservation, the method would be pracUcally 

" sttS^en is another substance which is competmg with gutta percha for an 
honourable place among stereotyping materials. Messrs. Manchin and Morel 
have inUodSced a methml which, though not yet much adopted m this 
countey. is said to have found considerable favour m France. The cast, either 
from a woodcut or from type, Uirough tlie intermedium of a inould, is formed 
of a bituminous substance, which is harder than type metal, and gives the 
markings witli great clearness. It is said l« be jiomewhat more expensive 
tlian common stereotype ; we learn, however, that it is now being tested, and 
if found practicaUy advautageous. will b© brought at once mto use. 



IMM 




I'RINTINO: ITS MODl'.RN VA1UKTIK8. 



u 



firet practised at Edin- 
Might much into requi- 
lid not bt'coiuo a really 
, when tho vast «alo of 
[jrature. 

page of typo, as clean 
liug-tranie ; the siufaco 
pon it until tlie mouKl- 

whun cold ; aiid lU'tor 

Then begiim tho uie- 

; the pliusttir-iuould is 

adjustment, tho mould 

1 Huch a way aa to ulhjw 
ived from tho cauldron, 
d broken Iroin it (for a 
iarefuUy examiuod ; tho 
10 ; and the face is freed 
ere is tbua produced n 

tho printing preaa or 

y recent novelties have 
, porcha tt> printing w»» 
lay here describe one or 
(jilasgow, has inventt^d a 
ly. A parto of conunon 
utta percha is applied to 
a quarter of au hour ; 
lied over with lino black- 
printing is then otfected 
titutes a veiy convenient 
adinesH witli which it can 
le eleoti"o-oopi)er cast is 
lughout a much greater 

ae gutta percha performs 
also. A mould is taken 
tiia mould, when brushed 
utta pOTcha, in an exactly 
printed. It seems difficult 
delicate lines of a wood- 
5uch a material as gutta 
thod would be practically 

with gutta percha for an 
tssrs. Manchin and Movel 
t much adopted in this 
France. The cast, either 
urn of a mould, is formed 
,ype metal, and gives the 
omewhat more expensive 
; is now being tested, and 
once into use. 



It ig reallv almost difficult to follow the novelties in this department of tho 
nrintinu art There is a method of makiuf,' stereotypes Irom paper, or rather 
Cermaeho. From tlie doscription given in another part ot Uns senes it 
Hi easily be understood .hat tlio pulpy nature of papier-mache would enable 
it to be used UH a stereotyping material; but this api-hcation seems to bo 
abandoned for others, especially that of stereotyping by electn)-depositiou. 

S far as «eientihc comploUmess goes, no oU.er «t< reotypu.g can boar com- 
parison with the beautiful process last named: it is a very tnumph ol H.aenco 
mldiod U> the arts; and a« we ffiid U.at our arUstic m.mul.icturHi-s and fancy 

• ntors are ov.u-y day availing tliemsolvos mor.) and more ol tht^ ^oecn^i, wo 

ay sSely concLdo that it superadds practical usetulness to scientific pre- 



cision. 



The Phintino Phfss: Four Centuhtes' PRoaRF.ss. 



We havo not vet touched upon printing itself, the actual process to which 

"\tahm.t; mw Sd of pressure is sufficient to transfer an hiked impression 
to paper pSng i.ross L.,lu be one of the simplest of all contriviuices ; and 
IhiS noVio. is because modem society requires Uie prmting to be elTected 

^"tV^nt:i!n«t'trace the steps of progress, from tlie inido press «f eaijy 

times down to the mighty Time.' printuig machme of Uie present day. ihe 

St empToved was noUiing more than a simple screw-press, like a cheese or 

mkrS ess Tho form of type bemg inked, was placed with a sheet ot paper 

beSi the press, and the screw worked to give sufficient pressure. But tins 

m« a sadly Unger ng process, since there must be as many screw.ngs and nn- 

ciewm89 as 5S are^copies to be printed. The first improvement was made 

rSew, a Dutchman, who gave^^an elasticity to Honie pai-ts of tho press 

which shaniened the impression and lessened tlie wear of Uie tn^e. htdl the 

rc^ewpSr remained, and was adoptad evei^where until the commence- 

"Tt\f n^Jt^CtitSlemaii is chiefly distinguished foi- his mechanical 
invonttoSs Imt the late Eail Stanhope wiU be known ior his printing 

U» Stonliope press is cemiiily . taoutilul f "^''"f,^ )\^ '"C™ C 
o( lypM Uid upon a WveUing c«n«ge. which, ^ler the W«» j""' »«™ 

nf fvnn. both moved under the vlatUn or heavy plate oi Uie press, a 
hanr^keJ to gTv7m^on to Uieicrew ; and all these movements revei-sed 
to liberate Uie printed sheet from its pnson. ^ . ,, q, , . „^„ _,«„. t,. 
Numerous have been the minor improvements in Uxe ^*^^^P^^^l'^^.JZ 
some patented presses Uie form of types remama stauonary, while Uie flatten xs 



mJmmmtm"-^ - 



18 



PBINTtNO: ITS MODERN VAIIIKTIES. 



remove'i to permit tho types to bo inkod. In othem the presmire ih piwjncfld 
entirely by lovers, without any aid from screws, but let tho press bo what it 
miuht, its velocit,/ of working was confined within a linnt which no mgonuity 
couhl sumass. "ite hourly power of printing was reckoned by hiuidreds, not 
thousands of sheets. And when wo come to watch tlio process of mkmg the 
tvpos we see how this must necessarily be Uie case. Tho old prmti^rs used 
inking cushions or bnlh, fonned of sheepskui stuffed widi wool ; pnnling mk 
is an oily viscid liquid; tho balls, after being dipped hito or upon the mk, 
wcro worked two together in order to equalise tho ink ; and the types were 
daubed over by tho two balls. A most clumsy method this now appears to 
us • yet it was doubtless deemed a capital expedient by the mvontor, whoever 
ho 'may have been. It is still adopted by some printers ; but it is slow, and 
wastes nnich ink. The method now more fre<iuently employed is to have a 
roller made of an elastic composition (glue and treacle), which translors tho mU 
to the type more expeditiously and more cleanly than the balls. 

The Puintino Machine, and its Wonders. 

But tho great, Uie crowning effort to advance printing has been by tho 
application of tlie mighty power of steam. . 

Sixty years have now elapsed tiince the first attempt to produce a printing 
mochmo which should economise hand labour. Mr. Nicholson took out a 
patent in 1790, for a machine which— in theoiy, if not in ettect— bore a strong 
resemblance to the lust refinement in printing apparatus ; for he proposed not 
only to distribute and apply Uie ink by cyUnders, and to place the paper on a 
cylinder, but also to arrange the type on a cylinder, as in tlie most recent ot 
Applegatli's machines. Whedier tliis machine ever went beyond the patent, 
whether it was ever in actual work, we do not know ; but it may be concluded 
that practical difficulties interfered witli tlie general introduction of the ma- 
chine. More than twenty yeai-s afterwards the composition inking-roUers were 
brought hito use ; and a plan was suggested by Messrs. Doiikin and Bacon for 
arranging the types on oblong prisms. In 1814 the first notable advance was 
made, by tlio introduction of Konig's machine into the Times printing ofhce ; 
on the 28th of November in that year the readera of this celebrated journal 
were informed that the prinUng of that day's broad sheet had been effected 
by a steam-worked machine ; and the (then) astonishing speed of eighteen 
hundred copies per hour was stated to be within the capabilities of the ma- 
chine. It was quite right that the proprietors should speak in a gratified tone 
of their achievement ; for it was one which greatly increased the power of tlie 
daily journals, and which laid the foundation for subsequent advancements. 

More than thirty years ago Mr. Cowper, who has been one of the most 
imtiring investigators in tliis department of mechanical art, invented im- 
provements which, though not exactly printing machines, were component 
parts of the machine method. He made a machine for piinting from cui-ved 
stereotype plates ; he made a machme fitted for printing books from ordinary 
types ; and be introduced tlie system of inking now in general use. But it 
■was in 1827 that Mr. Cowper, in conjunction with Mr. Applegath, made the 
signal improvement which enabled tlie Times' proprietors to print five thou- 
sand copies per hour with one machine. This is the printing machine, im- 
proved in minor details by various inventors, which now constitutes the most 
powerful working agent m our prmcipal printing offices ; it sets four paper- 
cyUnders and four inking-roUers to work at once, instead of one of each, ^d 
thus quadruples, or pearly quadruples, the productive power, 



W M e Aa i few *«ff»*rti 



.A 



proHSure is prodnccd 
ut the press be what it 
t which no ingenuity 
ned by hiuidreda, not 
) proctiSH of inking thn 
rho old print«!rB used 
Ui wool ; printing ink 

nito or upon the ink, 
ik ; and the types were 
d this now appears to 

the inventor, whoever 
I ; but it is hIow, and 
employed is to have a 
, which transt'era the ink 
he balls. 

INDEUS. 

titing has been by the 

, to produce a printing 
Nicholson took out a 
in effect — bore a strong 
lis ; for he proposed not 
to place the paper on a 

1 in tlie most recent of 
ent beyond the patent, 
)ut it may be concluded 
inti'oduction of the nia- 
ition inking-roUers were 
}. Donkin and Bacon for 
irst notable advance was 
le Times printing office ; 

this celebrated journal 
iheet had been effected 
ihing speed of eighteen 
I capabilities of the ma- 
speak in a gratified tone 
ireased the power of tlie 
squent advancements. 
i been one of the most 
nical art, invented im- 
hines, were component 
or piinting from cm-ved 
ng books from ordinary 
in general use. But it 
Hr. Applegatb, made the 
etors to print five thou- 
3 printing machine, im- 
tow constitutos the most 
iices ; it sets four paper- 
tead of one of each, and 
power, 



PRINTINO : ITS MODERN VARIETIES. 



18 






The printing machines now employed at most of the largo est^dishmf n « 
i„ his Jmn.try exhibit a harmony of movo.nent n.ost str.kmg. St.=am gives 

oS n'r hVwhole ; but how n.yn.rous are the cncurrent movemen s mt. 
w iTt is nu,tion is broken up ! There are sl>afts and " W"-; . ''"r^ ;;;';] 
Ti ndles wheels and axles, cogs and pinions, ratchets and levers cyluule s and 
ie^-all the paraphernalia of tl>e machinists labours; but jt '^ not um.l 
w« wo the numerous delicate and precise movements which tliose bring 
Lut Uiafwe rappre iaU, the control which the mast.i-power- steam 
i:!:" ks on the whofe' asseiublage. Heveind thiiigH ai-e being done atone... 
While one form of types is being inked, another .h impressing a sheet ot 
Ipr; while one sheet is being thus impressed, another is tr^eUing along to 
Sue for a similar process; while one set of inkmg rollers is doing its 
^^^rk another is supplying itself with a coating of the unctuous '••'im'O'"'. 

Let us see whether a few words may suth.ie to convey a gcnend idea of the 
.u,tk n of sfcir' rJiachino. First for tL inking. The thick ink is placec in a 
H s ervoir in contiict with which roUtes a roller called (we know not why) the 
rrrby whi<'hthisd.>ctor becomes thoroughly coated with the back o.y 

. mpounfl. Another roller, having a F«»/''^r,.^'bf "^g ^;"^y";^*\' f ;^^^^^ 
rinctor at intervals of a few seconds, and robs him of a little ot his ink, wm ,n 
fttiSsfer toa flat iron table; other rollers spread the ink evenly over the 

^bir Ind Another sot again feed their ^f-^-l^^-lX:^';::fc:Z^ 
the ink over the fonn of types, by rolling along it. All this is vciy curious , 
fo,^Sink becomes diffusecl in a remarkably even manner by these numerous 
tmnsfers from surfa.^e to surface. Meanwhile the paper has not been die. 
Hoy P« r«d Tp on high, places a sheet of paper on an endless web or 
tvon- the sheet s caught in between a cylinder and a row of tapes, and 
Ls nalses on from one cylinder to another until it leaves the machine, 
iut in its progiSs it is exposed t« two printing processes. When one 
furface hd^owKds, it is pressed or ma^lo to roll upon one of the two 
omJs of inked ype, by which the sheet is printed on one side; and then 
Z two or Siree se;pentine twistings-over one cylinder and ""der anothe 
-the other side of the sheet is brought downwards, and is made to roll 
^^^theoSer inked form of types. How to adjust the cylmdei-s arid the tapes, 
so Vat t^e sheet shall not be crookedly printed ; how to an-ange ^e' doctor 
^d the other rollers so as to apply, just enough mk and no more how 
to make the tvpe-form go and fetch its own mk, and ri nm to the exact 
po"S the eSt time ;\ow to make the sheet of paper, m '^; travels ove 
Mid under about half a dozen cylinders, present each surface exactly at the 
™ inCt"o the proper inked form-how to rea Use aU these concep- 
KoT hLsCen a tax to^the inventive powers of our Applegaths and Cowpe,-s ; 
but the result shows how triumphantly they have been realised. 

Great as tliese achievements un<iuestionably ai-e. ^ "^^^^'f' ^J'^^/ Jf; 
nrintine macliine of 1848, and the Illustrated News' machine of a later date 
Lo st"u ^aS marvels in the art. To what pitch the speed of pnntmg 
wm vdLEy aiTive, it would be vain even to guess ; but these t-e^Wcylm- 
S mSes seem t^ have a power cf expansion (so to speak) which will lead. 
steD^rrp tTfurther increase of efficiency. As it was the Tmes which m- 
IcylEnig's machine in 1814 ; as it was on the Ti.u,s that Cowper jmd 
ApoKatht improved machine fii-st exhibited its powers m 1827 ; so was t 
SSejoumS that enabled Mr. Applegath to display the wonders of h^^^ 
new conception in 1848, by printing eight or nme thousand copies of that 
newspaper in an hour. 



H 



VHlN'riNO: ITH MOURRN YABlBTtM. 



If we wore about to attempt a mtnuUt dedciiulion of thin now mnehine, wo 
should ttl one*! iwk th«i ifmlcr to hu|)|ioh»! the larKo cylindei-s of wi ordinary 
urintiiiK miuluno to bo luniod up on tbyir tind*, tuid Ui bti rt'volviiiK ou 
vortit!ttl iustcad of horizontal axon ; luid furtiior to wuppowi tlmt tho lypoH iin» 
urrauKfld round n rylinder. iuMtoHd of being piu'ked loK.ali«r on a Hat nurfmn 

fur UioHo iiro th« two pervatlinn principlos of Uio now umehino. And though 

wo cannot go into lochnical deUiiln, a n-cognition of these two principle* will 
(l(j uuidi to render tlio action of tlio machine intaUigible. Tho tnouHtcr 
uiachino at the Tuiuii ortico, thon (for it is thiH of whicii wo aro wpcaking), hiw 
the type ranged wund tho nurfin'o of a cylinder more than live fott in diamoUir ; or, 
uioro corhiotly, the surface is a polygon, uach nido of the polygon being ccjual to 
tho widtli of a column. ThiH type cylindor roUtcM. and prnHontH iU mivenil |H)ly. 
gon facets to tho hheotH of papier. Tho inking rolleiu aro vortical, and tlioy feed 
thcmHolvea from a rosorvoir, which is also vortical. Tluro aro oi;:lit cyhnders, 
about a foot in diameter, round oach of which a sheet oi paper coil, iUdf ; eight 
U)ys plaoo the sheets upon stands or platforms, and the ighi. ahe^i ua; drawn 
down and ina<h! U) wrap round tho eight cylinders. The iuklii^ rollers receive 
Ihoir dose of ink ; they touch the types as the type cyU-..Ier r ates ; the paper 
cylinders press the paper against the hiked lye a; tlic pnuUng is oHoctod 
before the spectator can well toll what has I. . /. of each sheet; and tho 
eight printed sheets fall from tlio eight cylindors, and are received by eight 
boys who aro seated at the lower part of tlio appai-atus. 

In this most beautiful machine, Mr. Api)legaai undertook t.> provide a power 
luleipiate to print H()(Jt) copies per hour ; but he conceived it probable that, by 
a low slight improvements, such a ni(U!hino might attain a speed of 10,000 or 
11,000; and Homo such increase has been obtiuiied. 

It was a pity that a larger amount of ' standing i-ooiii ' had not boon afforded 
around the Ilhtntrntiid New» pruitiiig machine at tho Great Exhibition : many 
an eager oyt) wished U) tmco tho iiiovomeuts of tlie mysterious cylindors, but 
wanted facilities. Yet was it such an ojjportuiiity as was never before afforded ; 
and Uioso who dul watch tlio macihine attentively know more, than any written 
dcMcriptiou can tell tliem. When tho increasing circulation of the 'lme» 
rendered it necessary to expedite tho process of printing ; when tho proprie- 
tors requested Mr. Applegath to tax his skill in produouig a machine which 
would print eight or ten thousand copies in an hour ; when Mr. Applegath 
surmounted all the dilhculties ; and when the means of accomplishing this 
typogiuphicid feat was rendered apparent ;—tli(;n did the proprietoi-s ot that 
paper commission Mr. Applegath Ui make for thom tlie machine which 
was fitted np in the 'machinery in motion' department of the Exhibition. 
I'his machine is smaller than that of the TitMi ; it has four cylinders hiz'^wX 
of eight ; and these four cylinders have a united surface exactly wjual to tJiat 
of the type cyhnder. How the paper takes its exti-aordinary tour among tlio 
cylinders; how Uie 'laying-on boy' places the sheet upon a httlo platform, and a 
spindle urges it from tlie platform towards vertical tapes, and the vertical tiipes 
transfer it to Uie care of > »i«bt bars of wood, and the boi-s of wood traiister it 
to small pulleys, and U.. m i U T^Uleya resign it to marginal tapes whUe tho 
sheet is being pressed » . ' lype, and Jie aorguial tapes dismiss it to 
tiie care of otlier litt , ... .d Uie ' takmg-off boy ' finally receives it 

from tiiese pulleys— how all this is effected is, perhaps, not " more easily con- 
ceived tlian described, " but it is certainly beyond tlie descriptive scope ot the 

present work. ■ n i 

So valuable is every minute m printing a daily newspaper— especiaUy sucu 



thin n«*w nmchiiie, wn 
Imileiii of ttii itnlinnry 
III Ui he lv\o\\u\^^ on 
|).m<) tliat tlitt lypoH iir«! 
[t'!\iwv on li Hut Hui't'iiro 
iiinchino. Ami UiuukIi 
lese two piiticiples will 
i^ible. The numHtcr 
I wu lii'u N|iuukitig), hiiM 
livi' t't't't in tliaiinjtiir ; or, 
jiolyKon btshiK »(juiil to 
iibuoutH its* Htiveml |Ktly- 
e vorticul. luid Uiuy fot-'J 
lero are e»!.'ht I'.ylinderM, 
|>a)mrcoil itat'if; tjtght 
' i>{lit, ahe»"ii Hvodmwn 
I..; ink'tiM rollui" iMceivo 
mUu' r fttos ; tlie paper 
tlio |)nntin« is crt'cctiid 
of each nhuct; aiid the 
J are i-ecwivod by oiglil 

rtook to protide n power 
ivod it probable tliiit, by 
lin a Bpoed of ID.ODO or 

I ' had not boon afTonled 
Ireut E.xhil)ilion ; many 
iiyitlorioHs cylinders, but 
iS never before otfoi-ded ; 
V more than any written 
irculation of the Tinua 
Ling ; when the proprie- 
uuui(;( a machine which 
ir ; when Mr. Applegatli 
s of acconipliHhing thiM 
the jiroprietore of that 
nil Uio niftclune which 
uent of the Exlnhition. 
w four cylinderg hi-Uiad 
4C0 exactly ocjual to Uiat 
)rdinttry tour among tlie 
lou a little platform, and a 
OH, and the vertical tJipeH 
I bare of wood transfer it 
nar^tnal tapes while Uiu 
giual tapes dismitiH it to 
boy ' finally receives it 
«, not '* more easily con- 
descriptive scope of the 






I'JllNTINO: IT» Monr.UN VAIUl'.TIKS. 



ta 



VS' 



paper— especially such 



^ Uie Tiwu'., which nownelU Koraelhing like forty thoumind copUw^^'' •\"'"-:. 
Lt UieTunountof power reMtiired i. .i-iU. ,.xtnu.r.hnary. lles.dc. two o 
S.guU."^rlt\.iKht.oyli.ulo; vertical nuuhine,. there are three C|l Uje o d.-. 
Scvlinder lio.i/HHtal n.achii.OH in ti.e 'iV»^«' olUce 'Ih.-r,. ,ire nearly a 
, drer..'^^ ttndpre«H,nen employed in the evenu.K and 

Jht Tl , tvpeJ in coL.anr use w.-i.h ,>o Ichh than hcvcu Ions, f.'« '"; 
f'l...i,nr.'-mneH about four or live tons of paper, presenting a pun ed 
2ilZ7L^^. much exeeedin^^ th. urea ..f the ^'7«»^V" '".'nar v'a 
c V of tl.e -ku*, inchuliuK a fuur-paKe nnpp emenl contunm nea ly 
Sontvias There have hln moit ihim fifty thoumuid copies prinU-du. 
;;;;)d;;Tu period of great political (and consequenUy news-re^hng) excite- 

""whether printing will ever be done by the furlong ..r Uie mile is a <iueHti«n 
aesli ml (1 n lb y to receive an answei- ere lonK. When paper was rendered 
JZofproEion in endlon. length, it -^^f^'^^^^^^i:^:::^ 
whether printing could not be condncU«l Iwfore instead of '?"' ' ^^ ",^"^"",^^, 
is a. . into sheetH. Home sU«ht approaches to tin. "'^^^-d have been 
Lul; and patentees are looking out slmiply m the »7« /'«''' '^' -^ J ^1 
l£i,H4i of (ilasuow for example, patented such a machine in IHIO In his ma 
h^e a ei. rr;; h:ri.ont.ll cyiindei. with the type ^^^^^f^^^ 
. ic for each side of a newspaper .* sheet; there are uik-supi) yuig. »»k-a stu- 
timr am mrting rollers nuiged around e.vch of these cylinders ; lUi .'.idl. as 
w S S,»l i-1--" Uirough both machine., printed on butl. ^^J^^ 
•ultiiiL' an uaratus Hevers it into sheets after it leaves the machine •. U.ere aie tkiw 
CiU ed r S > K-o" ' I'oys or ' takhu^-otT ' boys. Huch at least is the spe. ,tv 
Snof^e pai3nt; ami; whether diis particular machine has been lou ml 
a ilk oV Xtn-e can be little dount Uiat something of analogous chanter 
vill astonish the world before h.ng. Mr. Bodmor {'^^'^.^i ''{l^^^^* ^^^^t 
time, a patent for an invention almost identical in "Ul" 't ^'th ^l^^^r^'l^^'iS 
;....., .l.ul ti. mint two webs of paper at once instead of one. Again, m laao, 
t^ genuity "1 M " De Witte* w'as shown in a patented machine tor pnntmg 
idlesS webs of paper from cylinders having «''''*=«(yi^?*lj"';^;;««. respect to 
IJut there is someUiing more Uum mere """Ppl'e^ P"^ *«• "T^P Jf,.„ 
these vortical-cvUnder endless-printing schemes. Mr. Hoo, an American 

itorpat^nS^ 
,uid about the same time the Tbn,:^ gave the ^o"»?^"»g, /""f ^r^PV •".^.J^.i 
Mori on ail American printer, died lately in Pans. He has l.e-iueathod 
10 (uS to be K^Jen as a premium t.. anybody who shall sncceed m constructing 
rSi^e caS of striking off 10,000 copies of a ""^^spaper wit^mi an 
ho? 'rho ri»«>» machine does not, we boliove, actually excee<l «00 oi 
Z)" at ita reai^ar working speed, although it is .aid in current anguage to 
e^c 1 fo.OOoTS XMor^toi'; prize has probably not yet bee„ elj^^ed^ c^ 
it Heems that Mr. Hoea invention is makihg rapid pi-ogress. lowords me 
lrofl!S9tJ^French newspaper U^Pf- 'f mT Ct mSes'V't^ 
mintinff of that iournal ; it was stated tliat one of Mr. lloe s macnmes, wiin 
CTe?tical cym^^^^^^ w^ then producing l!)a copies o La ra^<> P«r ?">"««. 
or Xut 8000 per hour; tlmt four montlis' use had well saUshed the 
JLpSrs o?Vr jom^ai; mid that a -^^1-^- n.^hme of ^^^^^^^ 
Hiriiciion had been ordered, witli a prmtuig power of la.OOO C0F«8 P< 7'""T; 
DmTe Paris press claims to have outdone both Mr. Hoe arid Mr^Appegaih 
more i^cenUv In the spring of 1850 a new prinUng niachme was set up m 
Te office of L« Prme, iSvented by M. Worms, a printer of Pans. It con- 



i 



Hi 



rRINTINO: ITS MODERN VARIETIES. 



sists f»f cylindei"s covered with papier-macho stereotypes, from which the 
printing is ett'ectcci on endless webs oi" paper. It was asserted at tlie time that 
a speed of 1.5,000 copies per horn- was attained— bnt this is almost "too good 
news to be true." Indeed, it nmst be owned, that many such statements in 
the French newspapers require to be received witli caution. 

PniNTiNo Establishments, in Modern Days. 

Few compai-isons would present more curious results than that between a 
printing office in past days and one in 1851. Everytliiug was done by hand, 
and on the domestic-manufacture system ; much is now done by steam, and all 
on the factory system. Our Clowes, Hansards, and Spottiswoode's, at the 
present time exhibit the factoiy system in its best aspects ; tliat is, combination 
in some dcrartments, subdivision in oUiers. The well-known rapidity witli 
which Parliamentary Papers are got up and printed has been often noticed ; 
and the r'>cent printing of the Officit.1 Catalogue of the Great Exhibition 
was a notable instance of such expedition. We quote a few words from tlio 
Companion to the Brithh Almanac, (ov 185^, in illustration of tliis matter :— 
" The Shilling Catalogue was classified, numbered, made up, and 10,000 copies 
printed and stitched in covers— in four days. The first complete copy was not 
produced till 10 o'clock at night on April aOdi, and yet 10,000 were at the 
Crystal Palace before the an-ival of Her Majesty on the eventful 1st ot May. 
Two splendid copies, presented to Her Majesty and the Royal Consort, were 
bound and gilt in a sumptuous style in six hours." 

The French, and foreign counti-ies generally, are more accustomed than 
the English to form large establishments, wherein tlie printmg as well as the 
publishing of books is carried on. Perhaps the remarkable freedom of indi- 
vidual efforts in England may tend to explain tliis difference. The establish- 
ment of Alfred Maine and Co., in Tours, is one of tliose in which printing, 
binding, and publishing are all combined, and where they have been so com- 
bined for nearly half a centmy past. All the works relate to religious and 
moral subjects, and undergo a sort of general editorial supeiTision : such as 
educational books, sanctioned by the Roman Catliolic Church ; missals and 
other books of piety ; and educational books for primaiy schools. The ware- 
rooms of tlie establishment ai-e said to contain a miUion and a half of small 
books, pamphlets, and tracts; besides anoUier store in unfolded sheets. 
There are about twenty machines, worked by steam-power, to caiTy on such 
of the printmg and binding operations as can be brought within the scope ot 
this power; and these machines are adequate to the production of fifteen 
thousand volimies per day, each containing ten duodecimo sheets. The sewing, 
boardmg, and binding of the books, occupy many more hands than tlie print- 
ing, being less within Uie scope of steam-power. It is said that there are no 
less than one tliousand persons of botli sexes and vai-ious ages employed in 
this ' bindei-y ' (the innovating but convenient name that om- friends across tlie 
Atlantic give to a bookbmduig establishment), by whom books are bound in 
styles varying from tlie most sumptuous magnificence down to the most econo- 
mical plainness. All the copper and steel-plate engi-avings introduced into 
the illustrated works, are also printed in tlie establishment. It does not 
appear that type-founding is carried on, and in this respect the Tours esta- 
blishment must yield precedence to a few great printing firms m England ; 
but the combination of printing, binding, and pubUshing, on so large a scale, 
is ceiiainly ucte-worthy. 



i 



from which the 
d at tlie time that 
ilmost "too good 
iich statements in 



:s. 

an that between a 
[•((s done by hand, 
) by steam, and all 
tiswoode's, at the 
lat is, combination 
own rapidity witli 
een often noticed ; 
Great Exhibition 
w words from tlio 
of tliis matter : — 
and 10,000 copies 
plete copy was not 
10,000 were at the 
eutful Ist of May. 
)yal Consort, were 

accustomed tlxan 
ting as well as the 
e freedom of indi- 
e. The establijih- 
in which printing, 
have been so com- 
te to religious and 
peiTision : such as 
urch; missals and 
shools. The wai-e- 
md a half of small 
I unfolded sheets. 
, to caiTy on such 
vithin the scope of 
jductiou of fifteen 
iieets. The sewing, 
nds than tlie print- 
1 that tliere are no 

ages employed in 
r ft'ionds across the 
ooks are bound in 

to the most econo- 
gs introduced into 
lent. It does not 
ict the Tours esta- 
firms in England; 
on so large a scale. 



PRINTINO: ITS MODF.nN VAniETIES. 



17 



Passing to another countiy, we find the Imperial Printmg Office at Vienna, 
certainly one of the most gigantic manufacturing establishments m the world. 
The Vienna establishment comprises within its range of operations an 
astonishing variety, both ailistic and manufacturing; and the bmldmgs ai-e 
necessarily of great magnitude. There are said to be five large niasses ot 
buildings, the floors connected by iron and st^)nc staircases, and Oie bmldmgs 
connected by galleries. There are steam-engines, nearly fifty printing- 
machines, more than this number of printing-presses, half as many copper- 
plate presses, forty lithographic presses, several glazing cyhnders, pumps lor 
cold water, boilers for hot water, flues for hot air, eight type-foundmg ma- 
chines, ten furnaces for melting type and stereotype metal, gas m all the 
buildings, speaking tubes from one building to another— all the appur- 
tenances, in short, of avast printing establishment. And so closely is the pro- 
gress of science watched, that when a new discovery is made, advantage is 
immediately taken of any practical availability which may attach to it in 
respect to the typographical art ; thus photography and electrotype are brought 
into requisition; and any new qualities discovered in guttapercha or other 
substances are similarly watched with an attentive eye. 

Fine ait, too, as well as science, is sedulously cultivated at this remarkable 
establishment.' A school for wood-engravers has been established, whence 
productions of great beauty issue. Colour-prmtmg, among other branches, is 
conducted witli consummate skill. 

Nothing could better illustrate the extent and nature of the labouis at tins 
establishment, than the admirable display of them at the Great Exlnbition. 
The terminations graphy and Ujpy never surely had such numerous applica. 
tions before: typography, xylography, chemitypy, stm-eotypy, eUctrotypy, typo- 
metni, lithography, galvanography, photography, aU were presented to our 
notice. There were steel punches for type-letters, comprising tiie cliaractere 
for more than a hundred foreign languages, besides medieval characters, and 
letters for blind persons. There were matrices of Chmese, Japanese and 
other peculiar types. There were printed specimens m the principal lan- 
guages of the whole worid. There was the Lords Prayer, printed wiUi 
Roman tvve in 608 languages and dialects, and also m the characters of 206 
different nations. There vvas a copy of Gutenberg's Bible and specimens of 
the type used for it. There were copies of books recent y printed in the 
establishment, for various persons, requiring rare or peculiar type Ihere 
were lar^e engraved woodcuts, with moulds from them taken m gutta percha, 
and electro-copper casts from the moulds. There were pictures, cjwmtypedov 
etched on zinc by a chemical process, and capable of being printed at the 
common press. There were stereotype plates of aU the «lpl^«bete m ti^ 
worid, with moulds or matrices in gutta percha and in p aster, and electxo- 
copper casts from the moulds. There were numerous electix)-copper casts 
from tvpes, woodcuts, petrifactions, has and alto-reliefs, &c ; besides admir- 
able plates suitable for'engravei-s,and the realy wonderful «heet of copper 
thirty feet long-wonderful when we bear in mind that it was produced from 
a cold liquid solution of copper by galvanic agency. There were numerous 
chromo-lithogi^phic prmts, hing by' the side of the original c«l««^«d;f.;",7^^g^J 
to which they made a singularly near approach m richness and softness of 
colourin-r. There were engraved steel and copper plates, and impressions 
taken from tliem. There were electrotint plates, in which the subject is pro- 
duced by painting and galvanizing, without either etching or cngi-aving. 
There were designs for ornaments connected with books and bookbindmg, 



i 



rHiSTwa: its mvv.ws variktieb. 



Awl lastly, there were a dozen or 



and ornamental tools for bookbinder 

more of photographs. . , - •„♦«,„„♦ ..nnnpcted widi on establishment 

SuRh are some of the pornt* of interest 'f^^**''Xch possesses a hun- 

tlXkh thrlo htmdred thousand «»\««^,«VSTxffion by Sree societies 
The typographical ^onttibutions to Ae Oreat L^^^^^^^^ in-espective of 

in London were interestmg in an in«l"«t»«f Ssocietu have printed the 
other considerations ?he^7*"/' «!!fv,urSt iS^^^^ l^^ai-e 

whole or portions of tlie Bible m 1 <0 ^^^^'f^^^^'^S'^f^ ^11 of these were 
from tnuislations never before prmtedbpecmensotnearo^ 

exhibited, end a most «""«"« .^"^^f^M^fyi.'^X^ same Society 

man casual visitors to the txhibit.on could g^^e tbem. x 
illustrated aie progress of the jmntog art, by Pacing s^de b^^^^^^ 
printed in 1810 and others r»«'t«d m 1 85 1 to aUow " ^^^^'ij^^^^ggened 
Lndbmding had all i™FOved. while ^eexpen^ ^^ ^^^^ 

62 per cent. The Relujiou, Iract '*'«^'f^^ ^^ ^^ '^f Xch were exhibitetl 
religious boo!.s *" /^•^^^"^Tthe'^Srenow^eTp^ Bunyan's 

?^PiU^rS-' -5^^^^^ tatX^'sSrhav^ pri^^ted and pubUshed 
this work in no fewer thaii as different languages ^^ 

The third Society alluded ^o a^o;^- ^h^ /^^^^^^^ object to 

Bead, occni^ ^«»?^»^lf ^TifeTontriCTs'co^^^^^^ 

which attanuon is directed. ^ifff^X embossed writing copies, music, 

cyphering books, maps, geometrical bo'^ J^^"^^ X have to bear the 

aiS chefs ^-l^;,-f,"^^^f JiVchi^^ type 

dread calamity of blindness. Ihe ra>8f"J^"~ , • f the systems of 

fihortrhand while m tne uiaegow ^* J nrrulnced bv stampuig on paper 

are employed. All such «™bo«sed^^^"^C^ ^^' 

with bold but un-inked met^ ^yj'^^'T?,^^^ something s^ly beautiful in this 
the words as it passes over them. ^ lILi jr The cvT^ring-boardB arc 

mode of blindly feelir^ ^V^nuSe^oref ?nt;> wWch Cs eLy fit. and 
perforated all o^'er with small square holes, into wnicu j^ j ^^^ 

Lse types represent tiie ^n nume^^ In the maps^^^^^, ^^^^ 

above tlie water, and great distmctness Jf £*^^ ?" . uAy„daries. The chess- 
represent cities. nio«mt«ias. nvers, and geogmph^^^^ ^^^^ 

boai-ds have tlie black squares ^^J^^^^^^^J^'i^faU the pieces have pegs 
pieces are distinguished by a P^J««V,"K P?"^' y„re^^^ by which 

Uich fit faito holes in the board ^Ih^'^ a^o a Wet^m ^ ^ ^^^^ 

the bhnd can print their own thought^, or wnte ^« P^J^ ^y tlie aid of 
are stamps or punches for t»»\^*"«"'\;'«^Se^ i« of P«P«' '^ 

printing ; for the pages were from 1««^^» P^;J'^ .^"^Sm • it comprised about 
^"^''f^Mv o I'f ;TjrnS'^^^^^^ andUianlan. 

<i hundred f "^ ,«?{ J^/^^V^JT^^iterv science, medical science, poetry, and 
aTsu^^^S paptTthf S was manufactuiec^ and ^ the print- 



I 



sre were ft dozen ov 

itli an establishment 
lich possesses a hiui- 
i and fifty tons ; and 
iited daily, 
ion by three societies 
view, irrespective of 
tiety have printed the 
5es, of which 118 aie 
3arly all of these were 
worthy of more study 
;. The same Society 
f side by side Bibles 
It tlie paper, printing, 
eduction had lessened 
?hcd tracts and other 
which were exhibite<l. 
ition which Bunyans 
)rinted and pubhshed 

Teaching th« Blind to 
the peculiar object to 
3d of embossed books, 
writing copies, music, 
who have to bear the 
•e in an arbitrary type, 
lome of the systems of 
ordinary Roman letters 
by stamping on paper 
the blind student reads 
; sadly beautiful in this 
3 cyphering-boarda arc 
ih types easily fit, and 
ips, me land is raised 
5 lines and spots which 
«undaries. The chess- 
of the white ; the black 
II the pieces have pegs 
itty apparatus by which 
I print at once. There 
se stamps, by the aid of 
res9 a sheet of paper in 
itributed in like manner 
lent. 

which, judging from cir- 
e-printing than to type- 
had b«en printed by the 
ting ; it comprised about 
Ai*abic, and Persian Ian- 
lical science, poetry, and 
oiured, and all the print- 



pRnrmio: rra modebs vARiETiEa. 



10 



ing processes conducted, in Egypt; ju.d the display ^jr^^lyj""^^^^^^^ ^, 
marked progiess which Uiat country has made under the unscrupiUoua but 
sagacious Mehemet Ali. 

CmioMAXic oB Colour Pbintino. 

Bv Utae and litUe the art of printing in colours has aijived at great pei-fec- 

tion One ^le colour, if well printed! was accounted a feat m bygone tm,es 

ov the diveS^ V of colour is almost unlimited. The colour may be mixed 

S oU inSof with water; and the style of the engi^avmg may be ahi^ost 

any one of tliose adopted for ordinary purposes. „..rih.it/, ;i tn anv 

As to the origin of this kind of printing, it is difticiil to attribute t^ t« any 
one inventor- for the simple use of red hdi instead ot black would m eflect. 
rcolou'^riiting There^are found to be initial letters, n some o ^e^ery 
earnest printed books, in two colours; Uiese must have been printed at two 
oSionr^^th ink oi two colours. At vai-ious times during the lastt^iree 
Sries modes ,^re adopted of producing engraved pictures, not exa^t^y m 
CO Z but in liKht-and-shade, as U" copied from drawmgs in India^mk or in 
sepa Mr Savages Treatise on Decomtive Printing, pubhslied ratlier more 
Sn Mirtv vears ago, was one of the first works which gave an impetus to this 
iZ^MirThefmc^^y-^orned lottery-ticket^ (of which the present 
Snerat"on know htUe, except by tradition) wei-e. under the mventive talent of 
Mr mufng made another of the means for introducing colour-pnntmg ; not 
SoriS bu typographical. It is not a Uttle remarkab e tiiat j,/aym</ card, 
ffch wer^ anSng Z means of inti^ducing woodcut prmUng lo^ contuse 
Uo^ L'avo also an impetus to the art now under notice, in a lormer 
number of t^'s series le have described the mode of making these cards 
SJr have stated that, by Messrs. De La Hue. tiie cai-ds aie prmtef J 
Scofouis. Now it was 'only after numerous ti-ials a;.d much expen^itme 
that Mr De La Rue. about twenty years ago, devised a mode ot mmng ana 
Ippllg o^ cobur which would beV tiie polishing processes necessary to the 
SiSnlof playing-cards. This card-colour pi-intmg has been the basis of 

'''ZotlZSl:':^:^Z^^^^^^'^o our notice, ^bowing that humblj 
productions illustiate a principle as efficienUy as those of greater dign ty oi 
S Let us select tiie kbel of a blackinij-bottle as an example of a notable ad- 
'^ce i coZ7riiting. We must, of coui.e, begin by duly -J^n-lea -^^^^^^ 
unrivalled merits of " Day and Martin's incomparable jet ; no mattei wheU er 
DaTf deJoi Mai-tin Lad. or botli; no matter whether Day and Martin 
hJeU merely a hypothetical existence, like Bozs "Airs. Harris -it is 
sXiS to know that tills "inestimable composition." has a large sale; 
Sd we are fuSr justified in believing it possible that rogmsh ^ers 
S there may be rogues n: blacking as well as rogues m gram) might imitate 
the label T a me^ of ah-u-ing hi tlie profits of tins " real japan. Now 
f such weJ^ tire case, tire man^acturers would have a strong inducement to 
Lnlov Tlabel which would be very difficult to imitate ; and thrs, wf believe. 
TttUe h^^toTy of tJe c^^^ label fomrd on tire botties sold by tire 

firm ufTuestion It must have been indeed an achievement when that pro- 
d^tio^ Srirought to hght in tire mfancy of colom-printing How to pro- 
duce the iL wo"k groundVtter-n in red ink ; and the wavrng lines m red and 
bS ink rSrd tire white aSd black axrd red letters of varied sizes and shapes ; 
and the woScut of tire ambitious lomccolurnned factory m Holbom; and 



■* M fci B: > W fa «rti« ii 'M > ' i I 



I 



so 



printing: its modern varieties. 



i' 



! i 



the copied aitogi-aph of the veritable Day and Martin— how to effect all this 
called for much patienre, skill, and expenditure of capital ; and a department 
of tlie establishment has been expressly set apart for this pm-pose A cylmde 
machine, on Mr. Cowper's principle, is employed, with two cyhnders, one fm 
red ink, and one for black-each cylinder being large enough to print eight 
labels at once. For each label two stereotype plates are prepared, by a com- 
bined process of casting, stamping, and modelling; they are so accm-ately ad- 
iusted that every raised spot in one plate corresponds witli a sunken spot m 
"the other. One plate contains, in relief, tlie whole of the letters and device 
which ai-e to be printed in black ; while tlie other contains tliose for red ; and 
both plates are bent to the exact curvature of the two cylinders Eigl.t plates 
are adjusted to each cylinder, witli great accuracy; and tlie mkmg rollei-s aie 
so placed that the inking of the black plates is completed just as the paper is 
brought neai-; while the red plate is similarly brought in readiness to seize 
and impress Uie paper directly it is libei-ated from its neighbour. The more 
completely the black and red portions are seen to keep clear of each other m 
the label the more accurate must have been tlie adjustment of the plates on 
the cylinders.— Thus tlie " pursuit of knowledge " may lead us even to Uie^study 

of a blacking-bottle. ^ ,, i j? • *•„„ 

About Uie year 1836 Mr. Baxter procured a patent for a method of P"n™g 
in oU-colours, from wood-blocks and steel-plates conjointly ; and this method has 
recently been carried to a degree of considerable excellence and beauty, borne 
specimens of oU-colour printing are from wood-blocks only; while others ai-e 
worked by the woodcut method, from mezzotinted metal plates, of which as, 
many are used as there are tints in the picture. 

It is scai-cely possible to conceive a higher degree of beauty than now dis- 
tinguishes some of tliese colour-printed productions. The names of Baxter, 
HuUmandel, Hanhart, and many others, among the patentees and printers, 
and tliose of some of our best artists among the dmughtsmen, ai-e becoming every 
day better known to the purchasers of cheap but good artistic productions : 
whUe eve kind of pictorial subject, and almost every style of engraving, are 
being brought withm tlie range of colour-printing. We have copies from the 
old masters, and copies from the Stanfields and Creswicks of our own day; 
we have graceful story-book illustrations by Absolon and others, and sump- 
tuous decorative ornament by Owen Jones ; we have fruit and flower pieces m 
imitation of Nature's work, and buildings and otlier productions of mans m- 
dustry. All these are depicted or designed on engraved steel, on mezzotinted 
goiter metal, on stone, on wood, or on stereotype plates; and all aie alike 
brought within the powers of the colour-printing press Nor do these produc- 
tions belong exclusively to the domam of fine art; the colour-proited paper 
covers for cheap books, with their glazed surfaces, are not only pleasing to 
the eye, but are more durable than the paper garments of tlie books published 
" in boards " m the olden time ; while they are cheaper than cloth binding. 

It was one of the most instructive characteristics of the Great JiiXtiibition 
that, whenever opportunity offered, the successive stages of any particular 
process were represented m their proper order Such was the case among 
other mstances, in respect to colour-printing In the Saxon section, this art 
was illustrated by a series of sheets, each exhibiting one stage in the chromo- 
printing process, showing how many tunes Uie print itself had to pass through 
Sie prels before its final completion. And tlius likewise were the productions 
and processes of Mr, Baxter illusti-ated. 



— «8a 



t 



PRINTINO: ITS MODERN VAniETlES. 



21 



how to effect all this 
il ; and a department 
pui-pose. A cylinder 
wo cylinders, one for 
nough to print eight 
I prepared, by a com- 
' are so accurately ad- 
witli a sunken spot in 
16 letters and devices 
ns tliose for red ; and 
inders. Eight plates 
the inking roUei-s are 
id just as the paper is 
I in readiness to seize 
eighbour. The more 
clear of each otlier in 
ment of the plates on 
ad us even to tlie study 

r a method of printing 
1 ; and this method has 
nee and beauty. Some 
mly ; while others ai'e 
tal plates, of which as 

f beauty than now dis- 
The names of Baxter, 
>atentees and printers, 
len, ai-e becoming every 
)d artistic productions ; 
style of engraving, are 
3 have copies from Uie 
wicks of our own day ; 
and others, and sump- 
nit and flower pieces in 
roductions of man's iii- 
!d steel, on mezzotinted 
tes; and all ai-e alike 
Nor do these produc- 
le colour-prlntfid paper 
re not only pleasing to 

of tlie books published 
p thai) cloth binding, 
if the Great Exhibition 
ages of any particular 
!h was the case, among 

Saxon section, this art 
ne stage in the chromo- 
self had to pass through 
86 were tlie productions 



The application of colour to litliographs is among tlie beautiful novelties 
of recent times. It can scarcely be necessary here to describe a lithograph, 
or to state that it is printed from stone ; but a few words will sufhce to 
show tlie relation between a uoodcut, an ewjravhm, and a lithograph. A wood- 
cut is printed from rmsed lines; an engiaving is printed from sunl^n lines; 
11 lithograph is printed from chetiJcally-prepared lines. A wood-block is cut till 
lioue of the surface is left except Uie lines which are to be mked and pruited ; 
whereas an engraved copper or steel plate is so cut or engraved tliat the parts 
left shall be un-inked in printing. A lithograph diflers considerably Irom 
both. A stone of a very peculiar quality, brought chiefly from the Daiiubian 
provinces, is carefully prepared on the upper surface. A design is skctclioil 
on the stone, either witli lithographic chalk or lithographic ink— both ot 
which ai-e nearly alike in composition, but one is used dry and the other wet. 
A solution is poured over the stone to fix this device; and when about to be 
printed, the stone is sponged with water, which is received by the stone but 
repelled bv the chalk or ink. The printing ink, applied by a rollei% is re- 
pelled by tlie damp stone, but received by the device, and a press suffices to 
etfect the tininsfer. . 

Such, then, is ordmary UUiogi-aphy. The lithotint and the stump drawmfj on 
stone are two methods of colour-printing practised by Messrs. Hullmandel, 
and of which some beautiful specimens were displayed at the Great E.xhibi- 
tion. Many of the specimens in the first of tliese two styles were drawn on 
the stone by Cattermole, Harding, Haghe, and Nash. They are executed by 
making drawings on the stone witli a liquid ink applied by a brush ; tlie quar 
lity of the ink being such as to resist the action of tlie chemical agent after- 
wai-ds applied to tlie stone. The residt produced has much of the beautiful 
effect presented by an original drawing m sepia colour. It is a style consi- 
dered to be well adapted for engravings relating to engineering, architecture, 
and natui-al history, The other of these two methods, the stump drawing, is 
effected by applying the stump to designs which have been produced partly 
by chalk and partly by ink. The method of lavis aquarelle, or wat«r-colour 
wash, employed by some of the French litliogi-aphers, seems to bear some 
resemblance to tlie English lithotint. 

Mixed Phocesses, in Modern Printing. 

It is a matter ^'uU of instmction, in respect to the probable future of this 
valuable art, to watch the vai-ious combmations which ai-e now going on, 
in respect to prmciples, materials, and processes. Engraving, lithography, 
.xylography, stereotypmg, black printing and colour printing, casting and 
pressing, electrograph and photogi-aph, metal and stone, wood arid paper, 
gutU percha and bitumen— all ore being brought to afford mutual aid, each to 
each. The lines of demai-cation are beuig broken down ; and we are, every 
month or two, called upon to attend to some new and ingenious process, 
which, if called by a correct descriptive name, would indeed require a com- 
plex assemblage of Greek syllables. . . 

Some of the recently-introduced modes of engraving or preparing designs 
of any kind for the press are reaUy remaikable. One example, shown in the 
French dopai-tment of the Great Exhibition, is an expeditious mode of en- 
graving maps. It is always desimble to have some distinctive mode ot 
cngi-avmg an uncolom-ed map, so Uiat tlie eye shall catch readily the bounda- 
ries between land and water. In tlie example in question, a veiy delicate 



I 



0)1 printing: its modkrn VAmKnr.s. 

machine makes Un<^9 of dots over tlie whole of the Inud portion of the map ; 
the dott« are very faint, and veiy close togetlier. so a.s to form a sort of tinted 
L'lonnd • the machine is said to make two Uiousand dots in a minute ; and, by 
a heaiu'iful contrivance, it reverses its action whenever it encounters the 
deeper lines which mark a boundary between land and sea. 

Another novel kind of printing is a combination of typography and litho- 
graphy Part of a page is set up with ordinaiy moveable types ; an impression 
from them is transferred to a lithographic stone ; the remainder of the desigii 
or page is tilled in by drawhig on the stone with the usual material ; and 
the stone is then prepared for prinUng in the usual lithographic method. 
This double system is intendid (or application in bordered, tabular, or or- 
namental printing; and it seems to be capable of useful extension— since 
the precision of type-printing may be combined with the artistic giace ol 
lithography. Another kind of litho-typogi-aphy, of French invention, is a pe- 
culiar mode of etching upon stone, so as to leave a printing surface raised 
considerably above the general level of the stone. 

There were specimens exhibited of a new art, to which tlie embarrassingly- 
leamed name of liauiiiconographic printing was applied. It seems to be an 
attempt to combine the excellencies of all kinds of engraving, by prodiu- 
ing plates in which the design, though always raised or m relievo, has some- 
times the characteristics of one style, sometimes of another. Ihe French 
exhibitor of the specimens, in his catalogue-description, sa^s that this panei- 
conographic art; has the power of "reproducing on eveiy kind of mebil 
(whether engmved or in relief) any lithographic, autographic, or typographic 
print, any drawing in pencil or in stump, any engraving on wood, steel, or 
copper, whether produced by aquafortis or by tlie graver, in such manner as t(j 
be able to print these reproductions by means of the typographic press. Ihe 
tj'pographical or common printing-press is so much more exjieditious in its 
operations than the copper-plate or the lithogmphic press, that it would be a 
viiluable improvement if all the vai-ious kinds of engraving really could lie 
reproduced by such means— whether or not we give a hard Greek name to tnt 
process which ensures this result. . 

The Denmark section, which was not very large or important, contaimil, 
nevertheless, a specimen of a new art, which the exhibitor, M. Scholer, calls 
styhxiraphy. It is said to be a meUiod whereby a copper-plate can bo engraved 
without the aid eitlier of the giaver or tlie etching-acid ; and M. Scholer exhi- 
bited an engraving in all the various stages of progress. In the first place 
a smoodi metallic surface is prepared; on this surface an even layer ot 
black composition is cast ; on this composition a thin coat of silver is ap- 
plied • on this silver tlie artist sketches his design with a shan)-pouitod in- 
strument, cutting deep enough to expose the black composition beneath ; 
from this black and white picture (for such it certainly is, the black lines oi 
the design being visible through a silvery groimd) a copper ca-st is taken by 
the electrotype process ; and from this cast a second cast is produced by the 
same process, which becomes of course a copy of the silvered composition 
model From the copper cast last produced impressions may be taken by the 
ordinary copper-plate press. This is one of many modes of applying electro- 
deposition to the production of engraved plates ; but it must require veiy 
careful manipulation to produce by these means a plate fiat and perfect 
enough to meet the exigencies of a press. 

Bank-note i-equirements, os is well known, have led to many curious ami valu- 
able inventions, in respect both to paper and printing. There is Messrs. Perkins 






iiid M i a»» » wift»j.' > ^i , - ^ ww*;»:a-r . w . <n .i M 



rnrNTisn : its MonEns VAmETiF.s. 



'>8 



I portion of the map ; 

form a sort of tinted 
i in a minute ; and, by 
'er it encounters tlio 
<ea. 

typography and litlio- 
j types ; an impression 
Mnainder of tlio desi|^» 
e usual material ; and 

lithographic method, 
irdered, tabiilar, or or- 
seful extension— since 

the artistic grace oi' 
nch invention, is a po- 
printing surface raised 

ich the embarrassingly- 
1. It seems to be an 
engraving, by prodnc 
r in relievo, has some- 
mother. The French 
tn, sa)ti that this panci- 
1 eveiy kind of metal 
i^aphic, or typographic 
ving on wood, steel, or 
r, in such manner as to 
ypographic press." The 
nore exi)pditious in its 
)rcss, that it would be a 
graving really could be 
liard Greek name to the 

r important, contained, 
ibitor, M. Scholer, calls 
)r-plate can be engraved 
; and M. Scholer exlii- 
ess. In the first place 
face an even layer of 
lin coat of silver is ap- 
(vith a sharp-pointod in- 
: composition beneath ; 
dy is, the black lines of 
copper cast is taken by 
cast is produced by the 
le silvered composition 
)ns may be taken by the 
tdes of applying electro- 
it it must require veiy 
■I plate flat and perfect 

many curious and valu- 
There is Messrs. Perkins 



iind Heath's method, by which one proccHs of engraving suffices for an unli- 
mited uimdior of inipressiouH, by a transfer of tlie device from liard to Hott 
steel. There are Mr. Oldham's nund)ering machines, as used at the Bank of 
I'ingland, whendiy bank-notes may be numbered ccmsecutively with unerring 
accuracy and groat facility. 'I'here is a method, paUaited a few yeais ago, but 
not (so far as we are aware) yet acted on, for a very peculiar mode of pruning 
i)aiik-notes ; a groundwork of geometrical figures is printed with an ink ot a 
certJiin chemical charoc-.ter; another design, different from the former, is 
printed with a different colour, and the note is then printed with the usual 
erUries — thus [jreseuting many chemical obstacles to imitation or tiansfer. 
riiere is the United States' patent for bank-note ])ai)er, in which the number 
of threads introduced hito each piece; of paper is made in some way to indi- 
cate the nundier of dollars for which the note is current. There was Mr. 
Kisher's bank-note pai)or, shown at the Great Exhibition, prepared for re- 
ceiving black hitters on a neutral-tinted oniamental background, from which a 
signature in common ink could not be erased without changing the colour of 
tlio ground. There was Mr. Saunders's 'white and coloured safety paper' for 
hank notes, bankers' cheques, letters of credit, &c., capable of detecting the 
removal of writing by any chemical agent. 

It is in relation to cheinistiy, or chemical affinity and repulsion, that we ought 
\jn regard tlie Aiuutath printing which made such a commotion a few years ago. 
In 1841 the world was startled with this new art — tliis handbook of forgery or 
of stealing, as some would fain have deemed it ; in 1H.5 1 we hear little of it. It 
is certainly a remarkable process, depending mainly on the antagonism of oil 
and water. A prinU'd sheet of paper is moistened with dilute phosphoric acid, 
and is pressed on a clean surface of zinc ; and by this contact the acid of the 
imprinted part vtclm die zinc beneath, while tlie printed part sets of on the zinc. 
There is thus produced a reverse copy of the printing on the zinc. The plate 
is washed with on acid solution of gum, and is then inked: the affinities in 
Home instances, and the repulsions in others, cause tlio hues of the device 
(whatever it may bo) to take the ink, but the other parts of Uie plate to remain 
clean ; and the printing then follows. This Anastatic meUiod of printing has 
-(me a little, and only a little, beyond tlie limits of a manipiUative curiosity. 
Mr. Cowell, of Ipswich, has published a ' Descriptive Account ' of the process, 
with illusti-ative specimens and practical instructions. The claims put forUi 
for the method are somewhat comprehensive ; for it is averred that " designs 
produced either by the ordinary process of jirinting from types, copper or steel 
plates, wood, stone, &c., or by the manual operations of writing or drawing in 
4)repared ink or chalk, may be readily ti-ansfen-ed to the metiil plate, and an 
indefinite number of copies produced, at a i-eally trifling cost." The time has 
not arrived for determining the real commercial and artistic value of the art ; 
yet a marked and distuict value it assuredly will have, for it is one of the most 
l)eculiar modes of coptjUKj ever devised. 

Photoijrnphy or Da/f\wrreotype seems to belong so much more nearly to I me 
Art than to tlie printing ai-t, that its claim to a place in tlie present sheet is 
not quite indisputable; still, as we wish to show Uie bearings which the 
numerous family of ' graphs ' and ' types ' have one towai'ds anotlier, a few 
words relating to this curious art may be desirable. 

To paint a picture by a sunbeam is certainly a beautiful ait ; but to give 
pennauency to tlie picture has required all the resom-ces of modern chcmistiy. 
l.ikc eveiy other ai't, tlie progress of impiovemcni lias been gimlual, from small 
beginnings to splendid results. The old alchemists knew that certain chemical 



llnril imirfri'TliTr 



1 






g^ MIINTING : 1T8 MODKIIN VAIIIETIES. 

""' X^C^t,.^ma™tl tJRvy li^^ .^ • i"" ■' ™ 

went fiu-thei , and vveugwou ui^^elf and then n conjunction with M. 

M. Niepce. a Frenchnmn-fust »y ""'.^^'^^^ ,,^ fi^^t offect«d. In lb;)9 
Da«uenc-by whom the fixing of «/"";I^'"^f^";t' -Se of silver is on exqui- 
DagueiTe puhUcly announced his ^^"^^''^rXuhe vaoour of mercury t«nds to 
sitely sensitive material to act ^ J- "T ^^^^^^^ ^;S Most cuXusly. onr 
develop and fix t^VrTox SboK f trkin^ on Ihe same kind of experi- 
oxvn countryman, Mr. ^'^''.^i^l^^' ^''^^edge of the Frenchman's labours, 
ments at the same time, ^3*°"^^,?^"yX^^7^,a Leverrier, so in tliis case- 
As in the great P^S't^g^^tSw're^^^^^^^^ - ^he same 
an Englishman and a *r«"«^^^^^ ^^hers labours; and in each ca.se the 

^^¥i:St twelve years h.e ^^te^a ^^^ST^^^^S^^^ 

t.0, have been waijting "^f ^^ -^"J^ J ""Jentoi.. su'ch as Daou^rrotype, 
signations drawn from the J^ames oi u^ .gmphs' and 'types' 

ZlZ'^^X'^'Zt' ^trol^rs' f t of^Uiefe designations 

5eX- *^^-^ •^•^ ^^rr' ^^rveTbtrrn'o an accessory to the 

We photographic V^^^'V^^^^^l^fy g^ i^tZy become so e?e long; 

printhig ait. There ,s ll'^^l^TmrnZm^^^ In electrotype cast has 

^LSs r Jh 'S^;i:::t^^'^ b. for Oie .ulcU mode 

in which the sketches are produced by f ^^^Sn ^ • j^cult • but their rationale 
The processes of photogi^phy are varied and oftendifficuU . buttle. ^^^^ 
is simply as follows ^-A.PfPared surface «f '«^^' PJ^J «JJ^^ -^ ^ .^^era 
of preparation being varied accordmg to ^^^^"f^^'^l^T^^ the camera; 
obscum; the object to be copied is .1^ „„^£'' ^3 sK ; the strong 
an image of tiie object becomes focalised on Je l^^cX ™a^ed sm^ace^ 
lights^dtiae faint hght. ^ct <ii toj^^^^^^^ dSen% affected become 
5l5edtr:^ JrS rotife??ro?eS renders pi;.^ent inste^ of 
evanescent. 

dusti7 is developing around us on aU sides. 



■Mto 



ii i li n i fllrlmn i itrr r i 



the Bun ; but they did 
the eighteentli century 
other stage ; hut it wan 
n conjunction with M. 
first effected. In IBIUI 
! of silver is an exqui- 
ur of mercury tends to 
e. Most curiously, our 
e same kind of experi- 
B Frenchman "s labours, 
errier, so in tliis case— 
Itaneously, in the same 
; and in each case the 
off the lion's share of 

hain of improvement in 
3ini9t8, artists— all have 
d tlie distinctive names, 
iriety. Besides tlie de- 
i, such as Dofjuerrotype, 
;r ' graphs ' and ' types ' 
amphitypc, chromatype, 
t of Uiese designations 

ed. 

me an accessoiy to the 
ay become so ere long ; 
an electrotype cast has 
impression printed from 
ent engraves it. Proofs 
handmaid to Uie printing 
ed m vai-ious illustrated 
e but for the quick mode 

ficult; but their rationale 
paper, or glass (the mode 
ial), is placed in a camera 
I opening ua the camera ; 
)ared surface ; the strong 
mically-prepared surface i 
[erently affected become 
lers permanent mstead of 

linked to Fine Art on the 
e association such as In- 



COTTON AND FLAX: A CONTRAST. 



A COMMERCIAL rivalry has commenced ; cotton and flax being the competitoi-s. 
Flax took the lead in the spinning and weaving districts of England until the 
days of Hargreaves and Arkwright, when machmery gave an advantage to 
cotton manufactures which eighty years have not sufficed to distmb. Flax is 
now advancing agam, and its uses are extending ; it is well, therefore, to know 
what ai-e the claims, tlie merits, the relative strengths, of the two rivals. 

The contrasts between cotton and flax are veiy marked, and meet us m 
every aspect. Cotton is taken from the seed-pod of a plant; flax is tlie fibrous 
envelope of a stalk. Cotton is nearly all gi'own by slave-labour; flax by free 
labour. Cotton is giuv,n more extensively in warm climates than mcold; 
flax more in cold than m warm. Cotton sends nothing to market but the 
downy fibres ; flax sends its whole bulk to the rippling, breaking, and scutch- 
ing machines. Cotton is gathered m small tufts from the standing plant; flax 
is pulled up, stalk and all. Cotton is prepared for the manufacturer almost 
wholly by dry processes ; flax requires steepmg and wetting in manv ways and 
at many times. The bulk of om- cotton comes to us across the Atiantic ; the 
bulk of our flax crosses the Gemian Ocean. Our colonies would send us, of 
tlie two, more cotton than flax ; om- home counties supply some flax, but no 
cotton. The cotton fibre, microscopically viewed, is a flat ribbon ; the flax 
fibre is a lioUow tube. Cotton is rarely manufactured in the distiricts where it 
is grown (except by the primitive hand-method of India); flax is manufactured 
in all the flax-growing countries. Cotton takes rich uyes and colours ; flax 
receives them less kindly. Cotton is suitable for soft and warm woven goods ; 
flax fabrics are harder, colder, and stronger. Cotton adapts itself to ma- 
chinery in every part of the manufacturing processes ; flax is much more diffi- 
cult to manage by automatic agency, though our manufacturers are gi-adually 
brmging it to obedience. Cotton affords no room for home-labom- in the ear- 
lier operations; flax might employ scores of thousands in Britain, before the 
fibre itself reaches the flax mill. 

We might carry on this Ust of contrasts to a greater lengUi ; but enough 
has been said to characterise the antagonism. There is now, however, an 
antagonism of anotiier kind, arismg not so much from the qualities of the two 
plants, per se, as from the relation in which English manufacturers find them- 
selves placed to the growers of these plants. The cotton worid is a little un- 
easy as to the future supply of raw material ; the flax worid offers to do what 
cotton cannot, and is even bold enough to challenge cotton for tiie leadmg 
position. In oi*der to jot down a few of the "curiosities" presented by tins 
large and impoi-tant subject, we will first take a general glance at tiie cotton 

manufacture, and then at that of flax, without attempting any mmute detail of 

operations. 



MH 






F i 



'! 



COTTON AND IXAX : A fONTnAST. 



Cotton: Whence we Obtain it, and How. 

FA-cry one now knows tliat cotton is a soft, white, woolly, fibrous substiincc, 
which is brouglit to Kiigliuul in p'Oshoh ; ixnd that the fibres iire (liHontanKleil, 
Htrni},'ht«!i«!(l, and made to join smoothly und lexularly into a yiuni or Uireud ; 
which thread is then woven into one or other of many ditiorent kinds ot 
cotton clotli. Every one knows, too, that tha operations on these (lehcate 
downy fibres constitute one of tlic largest depiulnientfl of British industrj^ ; 
but Uiere are few readci-s who know how large. 

Most marvellous, indeed, is the magnitude of these operations. The (luan- 
tities and weights which denote tlie present state of our cotton manufactures 
ore 80 startling, that nothing but a concun-onco of evidence from all quarters 
could render Uiem credible. That wo work up into yam nearly two uulhon 
pounds of cotton every day ; that we have twenty million spindles, whirling their 
rapid course in spinning tliis cotton into yarn ; that a (iuartx;rof a million power- 
looms, besides hand-looms, are employed in weaving so much of this yaiii as 
is not exported before weaving ; tliat wo have two tliousand factories ni wlucli 
this mass of cotton is spun and woven ; U)at between tliree and four hundred 
thousand persons ore daily employed within the walls of these mills, besides 
those elsewhere employed ui various departments of tlie manufacture ; tJiat (lie 
machmeiy of these mills requires eighty thousand horse-power of steam and 
hydraulic agency ; that, after supplying the home demand in 1W6(), we exported 
woven cotton goods to such an extent as would give an average of nearly four 
million yards (far beyond two tliousaud miles) every day; that, besides this, 
and besides cotton lace and hosiery, we exported nearly half a million pounds 
of imwoven cotton yam per day ;— that all Uiis is true, we have evidence of 
various kinds, but especially an elaborate Report prepared for tlie House of 
Commons a few montiis back. 

The numbers and quantities in respect to tlie flax manufacture are much 
more humble. The flax mills in the United Kingdom number about four 
hundred, wiUiin which seventy Uiousand operatives are engaged ; and U) work 
the machinery of these mills about fourteen tliousand horse-power agency of 
steam and water is requked. After supplying our own wonts in 1850, vye 
were able to spare to foreign coimtries three or four million yards of linen (in 
the year); besides linen lace, thread, and yam, to the value of about a million 
and a quarter sterling. It is singular, tliat, while so many contrasts are pre- 
sented by our manufactures in cotton and flax, there is so close on analogy in 
respect to the perionml of the factories. The average number of operatives in 
all our cotton factories is almost exactly equal to the average in all our flax 
factories ; tliis number is about 170. In tlie supply of moving power and of 
spindles to factories, tlie ratio is higher for cotton than for flax ; while the 
weujht of material worked up by each operative is gieater for flax than for 
cotton, owing to tlie relative stoutness and solidity of linen goods. Of cotton- 
mill operatives, Lancashire has twice as many as all tlie rest of tlie United 
Kmgdom taken togetlier; of flax-mill operatives, Ireland cliums more tlian 
England, and Scotland more than Ireland— the ratios being neoily as 19, Sil, 
and 28. .... 

Such, then, being the enomious scale of om- operations in connection witli 
the cotton manufacture, many important questions stait up ; and these ques- 
tions now stand fortli so broadly, that they mitst receive answera, let the re- 
spondents bo who they may. Is the growth of cotton sufficient for our wants? 



Hn» i "" '~ 



COTTON AND FUIX : A CONTRACT. 



H 



Htiw. 

Ily, fibrousi substance, 
)i('s lire disentangled, 
ito II yiuni or tlireud ; 
ly dillVrent kind« of 
3n« on these delicate 
of British industrj' ; 

jemtions. The riuan- 
r cotton manufactures 
enco from all quarters 
,m nearly two million 
piudles, whirling their 
•tcrof a milliou power- 
nmuh of this yam us 
and factories in which 
iree and four hundred 
(f these mills, besides 
manufacture ; Uiat Uic 
se-power of steam and 
d in 1H60, we exported 
average of nearly four 
ay; that, besides this, 
half a million pounds 
, we have evidence of 
ai'cd for Uie House of 

manufactuie nvo much 
tm number about four 
engaged ; and U) work 
horse-power agency of 
vn wants in 1H50, wo 
lion yards of linen (in 
alue of about a million 
nany contrasts are pre- 
Bo close an analogy in 
umber of operatives in 
avemge in all our flax 
moving power and of 
lan for flax ; while the 
ater for flax than for 
non goods. Of cotton- 
Uie rest of tlie United 
and claims more Uian 
)eiug neoj'ly as 19, ai, 

ins in connection with 
rt up ; and these quea- 
ve answera, let the re- 
ufficient for om- wants? 



Is it likely so to continue? Is our supply at tlie mercy not only of climate 
anil weatlier, but of politics and trude-UriiTS ? Are any of our colonies witliin 
the cotton-growing latitudes ; and do they grow i-otton ; or can tliey grow it ; 
and if not, why not? 

These questions, and others of similar ^enor, have betn agitating tho manu- 
facturing world pretty extensively witliin the lost two or tluoo ycai-s. It is 
scarcely a figure of speeoh to say tliat the prosperity of Manchester and the 
whole of the Lancoshiro district liangs upon a cotton fibre. (Cotton has made 
Manchester, and made Liver|)ool. Cotton has brought up, if not given birth 
to, Ashton and Stockport, Bury and Burnley, Blackburn and Oldham, and 
the whole range of cotton towns. Cotton mode the Bridgn water Canal ; and 
then it made the flrst great passenger railway. Cotton created tlio threat engi- 
neering machinists of Lancashire, who learned their ti-ade by makmg looms 
and s|)inning machines, and then steam-engines to drive those machines. 
Cotton Umght us the complete theoiy of thf fuctoi-y system — a good or an 
injury according to the mode in which it is conducted. Cotton has given us 
some of our greatest capitalists and a few of our gi-oatest statesmen. Cotton 
has raised our foreign commerce to a gigantic height. Cotton enabled us to 
dare a Napoleonic war in past days, and is helping us to pay tlie never-ending 
e.vpenses accioiing therefrom. Ever)'thing that aff'ects cotton affects Latica- 
shire. We may almost assert that eveiy wind that blows upon, or rain 
that saturates, a cotton field in America, is felt in Tiancoshire. There is u 
sensitive barometer always at work ; its degrees jue marked by eightlis of 
a pemjy ; and tlio price of a pound of cotton is raised or lowered one or 
more of these degrees by causes seemingly most remote. How many mil- 
lion bales will America produce in the next crop ? — is a question which finds 
entrance into all the commercial arrangements of Lancashire ; for the pro- 
tits of manufacture will depend upon tlie extent of sale, and the extent of 
sale will depend upon price, and price will depend upon the price of cotton, 
and the price of cotton will depend upon the abundance or deficiency of 
the American crop — all tliis is, of coui'se, not strictly the case ; but it will 
serxQ to indicate the nature of the connection between the cotton fields of 
one country and the cotton mills of another. 

The above picture could not be faitliful mdess America were beyond all 
question tlie ffreat source of our cotton supply. This she undoubtedly is ; 
and hence we are virtually dependent on tliat country in respect to this 
important material of manufacture. For tlie last two or three years we 
have imported upwards of seven hundred million pounds of cotton per annum, 
of which no less than four-fifths are derived from the United States ; India, 
Brazil, and Egypt supply nearly all the remainder. The average price of 
all the cotton imported was about Gd. per lb. in 1849, and nearly BJ. in 1860 
— a most momentous increase this, considering the quantity of material to 
which it applies. The bags, or bales, which bring over die cotton contain on 
an average about 400 lbs. each; about eleven-twelfths of the whole quantity 
lu-e worked up and spun in this coiuitry, while one-twelftli is re-expoited for 
mftnufaoturo in otlier countries. Hometimea a greater weight of cotton is 
worked up in one year than in others, from causes irrespective of tlie actual 
briskness of trade ; there is at times a demand for heavy goods ratlier tlian 
light, or there is a state of the mtuket in which the former pay better tlioii Uie 
latter. Ic some woven cottons tlie material is woilh twice as much as the 
labour; while at the opposite extreme there are flue and delicate goods in 
which the labour ia worth twelve or fifteen times as much oo the material ; 

I, 3 



I » iii B i -n>rr ii i iii rf'"-^" — ^ , .-p..-.»ai*i-ft-., .■.-.•■ w-vi,>^ 



I 



mm 




4 rOTTOK AND PLAX: A COMTRABT. 

S°o I'd l.en» it i. found that »hcn the Amorican «'-»P '•»"'* "'If ^ 
pS ""loquently mi.«d, our heavy cotton good, can »,U, diBiculty hnd 

'"Thl' JmSau croi. may bo ,oiJ" «u avomgc, but it cmnot bo f»o.wn>, 

ZX S «' .uS S'/isC t„.„c„, a conuu.rci.1 Un.i. .» the „ua„t,., 
'Ttthi^hettteu yea,,, the United SUto. c,.p, h.v. varied ftom. ,0 W«.i 

it=;f;:rry^r.,.«o:.hi;ea,^^^^^^^^ 

tho advivnce of price "«* «f ""-yf ^ ^^^ ^^ j,,i,, ^ ^^je of escaping from this 

Lancashire is put to '^f 7-;."\Vtete9 What other counUies contribute 

perilous depcndev^ce m. J'^^^Umt^d States^^Wha^ ^^^^^ extensively'^ India 

to our «"W^y ■ ^^^^^^iS but the cotton is neiUier so long in Uie staple 
grows CO ton ^^"^X^^^'^Vf^^^^ .^^ i^ hence not so much coveted by our 

pereons doubt "bolbB ™ Zds u. a Uttlo citton. but that litUe does not 

J s rrinLd'SnTo'-iiuer^^,. j^i-^^^^^^^ 
«%'H'M^«^5^.SoX^"^ 



tfiitirrn 



limtiam 



I 



ly bo pfrcatpr iit onu 
>y-valufl of th« Rtxxls 
to iinwov»ui yam : ia 
Uy aiiumiit ti) throo- 
ho cxfUiiHiU! prodiiclH 
ly bo only ono-tweu- 
xmr thttii ueiijht fiitt-r 
I IbH. of cotton coulil 
unio tiniu tliat woulil 
10. 

rice of cotton greatly 
1 more sensibly than 
rop is Hniall, and the 
with difficulty find a 

cannot be far over an 
> Hlaves can i)ick ; and 
ites, there is (virtually, 
d limit to the quantity 

) varied from 1,000,000 
■oni !i,200,000. About 
ngland, tlie remainder 
uul woven in America, 
■eater in tlic aggregate 
ng and weaving power 
ned fact that the con- 
le productive, but has 
atively small ; and this 
ictually paid 7,000,000/. 
aid have been paid had 

) of cscaphig from this 
ler countiies contribute 
ore extensively ? India 
ler 80 long in Uie staple 
3 much coveted by our 
ich India cotton obtains 
vation and for freight to 
; of the cotton, the India 
Hindoos require a large 
lings considered, many 
jased supply Irom our 
but tliat little does not 
,• and otlier districts in 
tton crop ; but Colonial- 
<y bright gleam on tliosc 
ess the soil, the climate, 
I the futm-e must tell its 
according to Dr. Lang, 
isly be gi'own ; but there 
paced, jogtrot industry, 



COTTON ANIl FI.AX 1 A CONTIIAST. 6 

while the copper of nurru-Uurru and tlio gold of Opliir are glittering in tlio 
eyes of the cojonistH. Unnil sends in about |(Mi,(»(Mt ImJcM of cotton in a 
year; but as any great incrt'iiHC! must come from the interior, and as roiuls 
and steam iiuvigalion are sadly ni'gie<;ted in that vast country, many years 
nnist elapse before any notable advance can be maile. The Wist Inilie.i 
comprise islands and districts which are hotter lilted for cotton than for sugar 
cidture ; and now that the urtilicial prop to the sugar trade* has been nituoved, 
many persons think that a clicering prospect may be atl'ordcd by cotton. 
The great doubt is, whether //w negroes will cimsciit to svork so hciutily as 
to enable our West India planters to compote with the «/<irt!-negro labour of 
the United States. 

Ot;a Cotton >[ills, and Tiiiiiii Ciiakactehistics. 

In whatever country cotton is grown, the mode of culture is nearly alike. 
The cotton tree is a herbaceous plant, usually from four to si.\ feet in heiglit, 
varying according to circumstances of soil and climate. Very little attention 
is paid to any part but the seed-vessel, which is a cajisule containing three, 
four, or five lobes ; in these lobes are nuuiy seeds enveloped in cotton fibres. 
When tlie so-called " Ethio[)ian " songstifrs tell us of their heroes and 
henuncs " pickhi' cotton in tlio fiel'," they are thus far right; the cotton i* 
picked in the fielil, and thi* tre(> left standibg ; the tufts of cotton are taken 
from tlie capsules, thrown into baskets, and conveyed within doors, to be 
somewhat cleansed from impurities before being shipped to the manufacturei's. 
There are usually two crops in a year, one eight months and one twelve 
months after the time of sowini;; the two gatherings from each i)lant yield 
about a pound of cotton fibre on an avemge ; and an acre of plants about 
^70 lbs. 

One of the few machines employed upon cotton before tlio actual manu- 
facture is the (fin — an apparatus never seen in action in tliis country, because 
we do not receive the cotton in a state which requires its services. When the' 
cotton has been collected from the field, it is found to be mixed up with seeds, 
the removal of which is essential to the subsequent operations. The earlier 
machines were vei-y inetlieiont to this end ; but the patent gins now employed 
do their work well and rapidly. So numerous, bulky, and weighty aie tlio 
seeds gathered with the fibres from tlie pod, that they form three-fourths of the 
entire weight — tlie weight, as imported into England, being only a quarter of 
the gi'oss weight. The gins \ aiy considerably in the mode of action ; but all 
contain teeth, spikes, combs, or saw-edges, affixed to a rotating cylinder, and 
mode to shake, and open, and tear the little knobs of cotton so thoroughly as 
to cause the seeds to separate and fall out. 

The laden ships cross the Atlantic, and Livtupool becomes the recipient of 
these myriads of cotton tufts. If a pliuit yields I lb. of impure fibre per year, 
and if 4 lbs. of this became lib. after being " ginned," and if England's 
appetite for this commodity extends to 700,000,000 lbs. of ginned cotton in a 
year — tliis looks veiy much as if 2,800,000,000 cotton pods have to be picked 
by negro fingora (or other fingers) for our annual supply. Although London 
and Glasgow, and a few other ports, receive portions of these immense 
cargoes, Liverpool receives the ovei-whelming majority ; and from tliat busy 
emporium the bales of cotton are transmitted to the great manufacturing 
towns of Lancashire and the neighbouring counties — Manchester being the 
monarch over all the rest. 



MfcimWwii-i** r ii »> i*i •'jMwart.' ■ 



■AiNMtttiWMi 



i 



a COTTON ASP FLAX : A CONTRAST. 

The cotton factorieB of the North may he grouped in t^« ^f . ^j^^J^^^ 
Srsllieywt SsSSW^i" -SSin,''TeS *e huge! 

" MeS"!;;'" tor«-e the country mill.. Tl» Ml. *■* ..pamtc 
the other is the workmen's village, the church and the cl^apek, the scMO 




wo great divisions as 
iier are in the midst 
dense population of 
, Preston, Oldham, 
ms. Here the huge, 
to our view on everj- 
«ctural adornments; 
leir lower rooms ai-e 
I their chimneys are 
e declared again and 
noke, and that fuel is 
icturers — shrewd men 
ery little to carry this 
1 either in the experi- 
ious therefrom. But 
Qoke. And if we take 
t presents itself 1 As 
of these busy towns 
factory gateway troop 
the most of the Tiour 
e to walk far to tlieir 
g, grouping, gossiping 
tidy; some slatternly. 
I hearth and a cheerful 
>robably as slovenly as 
is, that the operatives 
upwards of a tliousand 
thousand; and when 
ling like a hundred in 
lunce of the by-streets 

e hills which separate 
which flow across the 
ower, with river banks 
a have been gradually 
3ut far away from busy 
ipeople ; and they tbus 
ig themselves, or a sort 
(lething of the character 
town mills, where the 

or how his operatives 
considerable extent is 

the smoke nuisance is 
r in a pretty valley ; on 
le mill-owner ; while on 
he chapels, the school- 
the wants of the ' mill- 
It near each other, the 

1 larger body by and by 

ustry on the outside, we 
scene in which intensity 



COTTON AND FliAX : A CONTRAST. " 

marks evervthing. Every minute of time, every yard of space, every practised 
eve every \lextcrovis finger, every inventive mind— all arc at high-pressure 
service There are (in the best modem mills) no lumber attics or lumber 
cellars • everything is cut out for its work and the work for it. Ascend to the 
upper range 'or floor, and what do we see? Probably we are m a room of 
immense len'^Qi, lighted by dozens of windows, and into which bales ol cotton 
are being hauled by°steam power from below. Machines of lai-gc size and herco 
action are waiting to receive this cotton, and tear it, turn it, shake it, comb it, 
and i-out it about until it becomes ranged in cleanly mid orderly lorm ; while 
operatives of both sexes and various ages an tending these machines and 
supplying tJieir insatiable appetite for cotton. Lower and lower if wo de- 
scend into the building, we find the cotton advancing in its stages towards 
completion, and more and more hands employed compoved with tlie weight 
of cotton operated upon. On a level vnlh the floor (if it be both a spinning 
and a weaving mill, which many are) we find the weaving-shed, with its ranks 
of noisy power-looms, and its Amazon army of women and girls attending them. 
Exterior to this, probably, ai-e the boilers and engines which supply moUve 
power to the whole ; and beneath are the warming and ventilating arrange- 
ments which give the mill-owner a command over the temperatme of his 
establishment. 

CorroN-MiLi- Opebations. ' 

Any one would think, from the wonders achieved by Arkwright and his imme- 
diate successors, that cotton-spinning and weaving must have long ago reached 
their summit of excellence. Yet so far is this from bemg the case, that every 
month produces newly-pat«nted machines for one or other of the various 
processes. The truth is, that although the primaiy operations are now con- 
ducted on a pretty uniform plan, tlie minor details are subject to constant 
change and improvement; any increase of fineness In the yarn produced, or 
of quantity spun in a given time, or of strength m the tabric woven, or of 
durability in the machine, or of ease La management— any such wiU waiTant 
the patenting of a new machine. Men do not now search for a new prumpU 
in cotton machinery ; their improvements are in degree rather than m kind. 

A period of about a hundred and ten yeai-s has now elapsed since ma- 
chinei-Y (in the modem acceptation of that term) was applied to cotton-spinning. 
Lewis Paul made a carding machine about 1740, for carding or combing cotton 
more expeditiously than it can be carded by hand. Hai^eaves, at a later 
date, made another and better machine. Paul, too, mvented a spmmng-firame 
to act by rollers; and here again Hargreavea improved upon laul, by in- 
venting the spinning-jemiy. It was about the begmnrng of tlie reign of 
George III that Hargreaves introduced his inventions ; he had a desperate 
battle to fight against prejudices and intrigues of all kinds, and was made 
poor (or kept poor) by that winch was desfmed to make others rich. Taking 
the yVar 1760 as representing what we may call the era of Hargreaves, a 
rapid succession of novelties appeared. There w^ Lee's ingenious feedmg- 
apron for the carding-maohine ; there was the ' doffing apparatus U> remove 
the cotton fh)m the caids or combs; there was Arkwright s spinning-frame, 
bvwhinh stronger yam was producible than by any earlier machme ; there 
was Cmmpton's beautiful mule-jenny, a sort of compound of Hargreaves spm- 
ning-iennv with Arkwright's spinning-frame ; there was Kelly s application ot 
water power to work the mule-jenny ; there was the self-acting mule, mtroduoad 



itaiiiMUMWi ■ 



1 




a 



COTTON AND FIAX : A CONTIIAST. 



I 



t! 



by Stmlt. improved by many oUiers. aiul brought to a h.gh degieo of excel- 
knee by Roberts ; there was the ' throstle ' improved by Dan ortJi and othei-s ; 
there were the machines for dressing the yam before weaving by Radchffe 
and others ; there were the beautiful card-makhig machmos by Dyer and hi. 
successovs ; there were the steam-power looms, introduced by Dr. Cartwright, 
and S-adually improved by oUiers-all these may be taken as types of classes 
of iinprovements cax^h class conUining almost numberless mieties How 
many of these inventors were buffeted about and reduced to poverty, and 
how few became enriched by Uieir ingenuity, tlic history of the cotton manu- 

^""lunlho midst of the din and excitement of the ' machinery in motion- 
department, a visitor at the Great Exhibition could have steadily oUowcd the 
travels of a bide of cotton, he would have succeeded m tracing tlic action ot 
some of the best modern machinery. Let us conjure up the scene agam 
before us. and set the imagination to work. ^ ^ .v 

First! t:hen, here are the bales of cotton, brought from various parts of the 
ti-opical world, and weighing 300 to 400 lbs. per bale. The women and girls 
teke out this cotton by handfuls, and feed with it the insatiable oi,.»uni^ 
fnachine The cotton, laid upon an endless apron, is caught between tlie teeth 
of revolving rollei-s, which effectually tear and separate the locks asunder; 
tiie cotton is opened into a light and flocculent mass, and the few remammg 
seeds and Uie dirt are expelled. Then the scutching mavhnie comes mto requi- 
sition • a.rain is Uie cotton placed upon an endless apron, and again exposed 
to tlie'acSon of revolvmg rollers ; the impurities are yet further separated, and 
Ibo beautiful downy cotton becomes lapped in a continuous sheet upon a 
blinder. These sheets of do^^'n-these softest of all soft llFrs-^!|^«/,^« 
admiration of thousands who for the first time saw them m 1«^1. How do 
we now conveit them into delicate yam? These broad s^oft sheete go to 
the cardino machine, where a number of wire combs, or rather we bmshes 
comb the cotton out into straight fibres; and thesa.fibres are dexterously 
whipped of!' by a ' doffing ' ^ipparatus, to assume the form of delicate nan-ow 
ribbons or «?<rL. Nextte s'ee aU these slivers joined by another machine 
so as to form a continuous U,p; and this lap is agam carded «^A doffed, by 
which the substance becomes equalized as much as possible. The cotton is 
hus agin brought te the state of a ribbon or sliver; and then arebrou^t 
into use the machines which conveit this ribbon mto a yarn or tb ead Ihe 
draxcim, the alnhbing, and the roving machines all have relation to this con- 
vert we see numerous pairs of rollers, between wbich Hie cotton is drawn ; 
the diwing rounds it, equalizes it, and gives it a slight twist; untd at length 
we see the delicate yam-fine, perchance, as a spider's web-elaborated from 

the thick but soft ropes of cotton. •, i. u „ 

More coiTectly. however, we should say that the cotton does not become 
yam till after the spinning. Nothmg excites more astornshment in cotton 
factories than the selfactinq mule. The complex carnage, twenty or thirty feet 
K S S army of spiAdles (sometimes as many as 800 m number) travels 
SyTand fro. Ld draws out the delicate threads to a state of stiU greater 
deSy and tenuity; the drawing-out Uiins the cotton, fj« ^J^^^^^ 
twists it; and tlius by drawing and spinning do the Hodldsworths and the 
B^i o?the nineteenth century produce cotton yam whose fi"f ««« ^J^J 
exceeds belief. And while the mide macldne is thus making fine yam for 
weft threads, the throsth machine, by a different mode of acUon, produces the 
sl^ongei yS for warp-threads. Then, again, if it be sewing cotton or hosieiy 




HH 



corroN AND flax: a contrast. 







high degree of excel- 
Danfortli and others ; 
iveaving, by Radclitfo 
linos by Dyer and his 
8d by Dr. Cartwright, 
en OS types of classes 
rless vaiieties. How 
luced to poverty, and 
f of the cotton nianu- 

uachinery in motion ' 

3 steadily followed the 

tracing tlic action of 

6 up the scene again 

n various parts of the 
The women and gurls 
the insatiable opening 
ight between the teeth 
;e the locks asimder; 
md the few remaining 
■hiiie comes into rcqui- 
■on, and again exposed 
.further separated, and 
tinuous sheet upon a 

soft layers — were the 
sm in 1851. How do 
oad soft sheets go to 
)r rather wre bnishes, 
fibres are dexterously 
)rm of deUcate nan-ow 
d by another machine, 
carded and doffed, by 
issible. The cotton is 

and then are brought 
I yam or thread. The 
le relation to this con- 
;h tlie cotton is drawn ; 
t twist; until at length 
i web—elaborated from 

otton does not become 

istonishmcnt in cotton 

ge, twenty or thirty feet 

800 in number) travels 

a state of still greater 
m, tlie rapid revolution 
Hotildswoi-ths and the 

1 whose fineness almost 
i making fine yam for 

of action, produces the 
lowing cotton or hosiery 



cotton that is required, wo trace the yam to the douhlinfi machim, where two yarns 
or more are twisted one lu-ound another, whereby a much denser threarl is 
produced. The amount of machineiy in the spinaing-rooms of some of our 
;?reat mills is something quite astounding ; at Messi-s. Bazley's, near Bolton 
(which became a subject of newspaper talk, on account of a visit from Prince 
Albert in 1851), there are no fewer than V0,000 spindles whirling away at 
once in one room, each one requiring the co-operation of a number of other 
delicate little pieces of mechanism. 

Another aitizan now claims our notice — tlie weaver; and another group of 
machmes subsidiaiy to his labours. There is the winding machine, by which 
tlie yam is wound on large bobbins. There is the beaming machine, by whicli 
the yam is transfen-ed to largo beams or rollers. There is the dressing ma- 
chine, by which the yam is drawn out into parallel lines of warp threads, and 
stiffened with an application of flour-paste. And lastly, there are the looms — 
hand-looms for the humble weavers in the liancashire villages ; power-looms 
for the great factories ; jacquard-looms for a small number of figin-ed goods in 
cotton. He who has once been in a room containing a thousand power-looms 
all working togetiier (and there are many such rooms m our northern counties) 
will not soon forget it ; the dmm of his ear is dmmmed upon most unmu- 
sically ; he caimot hear himself speak ; he can scarcely see or even think ; and 
he must learn to accommodate himself to the clatter around him before ho 
can appreciate the wonders of the power-loom of our day. Steam unwinds 
the warp from the beam ; steam raises the altemate threads to fomi the 'shed ' 
or opening for the shuttle ; steam drives the shuttle from side to side ; steam 
drives up or consolidates each thread of weft as it is thrown ; steam winds the 
calico or clotli on a large roller ; and steam rings a bell to tell the attendant 
how the loom is getting on with its work. The attendant really does none of 
the weaving ; she (for it is mostly a female) watches a couple of looms alter- 
nately, to see that the beam has enough waip and the shuttle enough weft, to 
mend any tlu-eads which accidentally break, and to make a number of little 
minor adjustments ; but tlie giant power of steam — that power which will 
forge an anchor or make the eye of a needle — moves everytliing, does every- 
thing. In short, so far as regai'ds the bulk of cotton goods produced in Eng- 
land at the present day, steam power is the opener, the scutcher, the carder, 
the lapper, the drawer, the rover, the spinner, the doubler, the winder, the 
warper, the dresser, the v.'eaver — ^he is the master-Avorkman, and the machines 
are his fingers. The Hindoo can live on something like a penny a day, and 
has cotton gi'owing close at hand ; yet the steam-engine enables us so to 
underwork in price, and overwork in power, even the patient Hindoo, that 
we actually exported five million yards of cotton shirting to Calcutta itself, 
in 1850. 

The subdivision of manufactures in Manchester is carried on to an extent 
which ordinary readers would scarcely suppose. Not only do some establish- 
ments confine theu* operations wholly to spinning, without touching upon 
those of weaving ; but the dne yam and the coarse yam lead to another sepa- 
ration. How to produce most quickly and cheaply the heavy yams for coarse 
cotton goods is a veiy different problem from that of producing most delicately 
and perfectly the light yam for fine goods ; and those manufacturers who 
excel in the one do not generally excel in the other. The leviatlmn establish- 
ment of Messrs. Birley, for instiuice, is a coarse-spinning mill ; Messrs. Houlds- 
worth's is ajine-spinning mill. In the fine mills the material employed is better, 

L 3 



mtmrn 



rtniWfllliliiinwrifliMril 



wmm 



■wiifwuiMrmiwwiin 



MMMMMMi^-" 






10 



COTTON AND FLAX: A CONTRAST. 



! I 



137 
234 



the machinery is worked more 8lo^vly and carefully, and the operatives are 

'''^^':::^Zl'^^ Tt XSSro?«ome of the foregoing d. 
f.ll Lw mucW our imported cotton is woven for homo use, and how much 
ftxp^mUot M^^srs. £u Fay, the eminent cotton ^^o^.er.oi^^l'^e^:^ 
w« afforded the means of answering this question. A portion, as ^*e nave 
S of t^emw cotL imported, is agL exported in the f ™« «,7 = ^^^ J^^^^ 
dming 1848. 49, and 50, amounted in round ""'^bei^. ^o ab«"t 600 million 
pounds anmially on an average. It was disposed of as follows .- 

Waste, durmg the manufacture . . • 66 mdlion pounds. , 

Home consumption, thread and woven goods lOJ 

Exported yam and thread . . .• • 

Exported woven goods .... 

600 million pounds. 

The same authorities estimate that, on an average of tiie same tliree years 
the seUinTvalue of the cotton manufactures of the United Kingdom amoimted 
S aSlitoOO.OOO ; out of which the raw cotton cost £14,000,000_leavmg 
1'31 000 000 to be distributed in our own country for wages, &c. 

lie number of Manchester houses engaged in manufactures qu»t« su^. 
«di^ 3 subordinate to the cotton manufacture is really remarkable. 
ri^^Tot dovm some of tliese, without much attempt at system, as 
*ev irinXhaScal 0^^^^ iA the 'Directory' of that cotton-spinning 
InS^ XJe 7e bobbin and skewer turners, calendered and makers-up, 
S mim chLin ^d hame (loom) makers, cotton-waste dealers embossers 
card makers, cuum "" v ^^ patchwork dealei-s. finishers, fustian 

:Srfliaf ^frS?'^W« r^ake^B, heald knitters, u-on-liqiior manu- 
ttuS jirarnachine makers, logwood grinders loom and waipmg- 

mrufaSet atoveldrded to. suffer from anything and eveiythmg which 
affect the supply and price of cotton. 

Cotton Novelties, and Cotton Utiuties, at the Great Exhibition. 
Wo have ab«ady supposed the reader to have learned a maiiufactuitog 

there, for those to study who were not too much dazzled by the gold and the 
ifiwfll* the oolishod steel and the lustrous mirrors. 

^ One monTthe many conti-asts which the Exhibition wm so weU fitted to 
iU^StlTwi thaJof theioo,« of our own day with those of times long gone 



■m 






id the operatives are 

) of the foregoing de- 
le use, and how much 
rokers of Manchester, 
A portion, as we have 
) same state ; the rest, 
i to about 600 million 
follows ; — 
66 million pounds. 
163 

234 

600 million pounds. 

I the same three years, 
ted Kingdom amounted 
t £14,000,000— leaving 

ages, &c. 

anufactures quite sub- 
is really remarkable, 
attempt at system, as 
of that cotton-spinning 
derers and makers-up, 
Ewte dealers, embossers, 
alers, finishers, fustian 
tters, h-on-llquor manu- 
re, loom and wminng- 
d book makers, pattern 
lers, reelfirs and makers 
tUe mftker8^ size makers, 
, as well as the larger 
g Bttd everything which 



! Great Exhibition. 

>amed a manufacturing 
Great Exhibition. But 
ned there; many cotton 
« was raw cotton from 
jt, Guiana, India, Malta, 
Spain, Trinidad, Turkey, 
a pretty cotton-trees firom 
from them. There were 
cotton fabrics — all were 
ded by the gold and the 

ition was so well fitted to 
those of times long gone 




roTTON AND FtAX: A CONTRAST. 



11 



by. Mr. Harrison of Blackburn sent a power-loom of 1850, and another of 
]'7m. The latter, how rude and clnmsy — how slow and inexact! And yet it 
was a wonder in its dny. It was one of the very eariiest power-looms ; it 
made sixty picks or movements of the shuttle in a minute. Although our 
looms now make upwai-ds of two hundred picks in a minute ; although they 
work better and cleaner; although they do not wear out ho rapidly; although 
one attendant can take charge of two or even three looms—yet is it quite right 
to regard the rough old loom as a veiy important memento : a record of the 
Htatc of things half a century ago, and a standard whence to measure our 
subsequent progress. As to the power-loom of modem times, it is never the 
same two years in succession. Little improvements are patented and intro- 
duced in rapid succession, so appai-ently insignificant as wholly to escape 
the glance of an observer, yet producing great results when 8ystematica,lly 
worked. It may be tlie 'weft protector,' or the 'temple,' or the 'positive 
taking-up motion,' or the ' fast reed and break,' or the ' loose reed and break, 
or any other equally unmtelligible name ; but whatever it be called, every such 
invention comprises some small piece of apparatus as an appendage to the 
power-loom, to increase its efficiency. There has recently been a very smaU 
and simple improvement in the power-loom, which has realized £20,000 to the 
inventor for licences to use tlie patent. 

It is really impossible to appreciate rightly the exquisite fineness of our 
machine-spun cotton yam at the present day, without some familiar and homely 
mode of comparison. No. 600, or No. 800, appeals to the spinner's ovra mmd 
as a beautifully fine yam ; but to eyery-day folks these designations are mean- 
ingless. Let us elucidate tiiem a little. 

To produce a finer yam than has before been produced is one ambition ot 
tlie cotton spinner. Certain degrees of thickness, called Nos. 20, 30, 40, &c., 
were the products of the'spinning machine in use before the time of Crompton ; 
but when the mule-jenny of tliat inventive man came successfully into use, 
the Lancashire spinners were astonished by the production of No. 80— a 
degree of fineness which had before been deemed almost fabulous, bo 
highly was this yam estimated, that Crompton obtained two guiMos per lb. 
for it. Yet this No. 80 is absolutely a coarse cord compared with the pro- 
duction of the Houldsworths and the Bazleys of 1851. The No denotes the 
hanks required to make up o poimd, the hank being a conventional designation 
for 840 yards ; therefore if we multiply 840 by the No. of the yam, we get Uie 
length in yards to which one pound of the yam would extend. One pound of 
Crompton's wondei-ful vam measured 67,200 yards, or about 40 miles, len 
or twelve years ago, the powers of Uie spinning machines had been so per- 
fected, that yai-n No. 850 was produced at one of the Manchester mills-— not 
perhaps for use, but as a curiosity; this wa-, less than one-fourth tiie bulli of 
Crompton's vam— a pound weight would extend 167 miles. A dozen years 
have thrown 'even this product far Into the shade. Those who remember the 
arrangement of the cotton yams In the Great Exhibition will call to mmd the 
specimens of Nos. 200, 300, &c., with specimens also of the laces and the 
muslins which had been produced from these exquisitely-fine yams. 

But our spinners are determined to show that they can shoot ahead of the 
weavers altogether ; that is, that they can produce yam which no weaver or 
weaving-machine could work up into a web. This is not a mere braggart 
display ; .it is a goal towards which the weaver is hivited to du-ect his attention 
When the yam becomes exquisitely fine, it will not bear the mechanical 
action of a loom; it would break too readily to go through the necessary 



.1 mam 111 urnti 1 1 nuttillffln'tfifl^ 



(ttiiJimiMiimfcf- 



—.^.^HHUKte^ 



18 



COTTON AND FLX: A CONTRAST. 



Ml 



processes. No sooner did the weaver succeed in employing Houldsworth s No. 
350, than he and others strove to get again in advance of the weavers ; anr 
ngaui the weavers struggled in the race. Such has been Uio result, that at 
the Great Exhibition we had sewing thread made from Bazleys yam iNo. 
fiOO, muslin and net from Houldsworth's No. 000, and French mushn from 
MM. Vautroycn and Mallefs No. COO. Huch muslins as these tlie world 
never, perhaps, saw before. We hear of the delicate spinning of the patient 
Ilmdoo ; we read of the muslb like " woven wind," in which Aurungzebe s 
daughter was robed; but the sensitive human fingers have been excelled by 
the iron fingers of tlie mule machine. To stop at No. 000, however, is what 
our spinners will by no means consent to do ; Uiey have drawn the weavers 
after them so fai-; but the yam has now reached Uie region of tliousands 
instead of hundreds. Two specimens were deposited in the Crystal 1 alace, 
one No. 2070, and one No. 2150; botli so fine, that the downy filaments 
on the surface could be detected only by the microscope ; botli so minute, 
that widiout dark paper being placed behind them, they would be invisible ; 
both so fragile tliat tliey would break before they could be wound on 
bobbins. One pound of yam No. 700 is said to be worth no less than 
28? —so great is the labour bestowed upon it ; we have tlius so humble a 
material as cotton raised to a value seven or eight times that of pure silver; 
as to No. 2150, it must very far exceed in value its weight in gold. In respect 
to lemjth, one pound of this finest yam would extend more tliim a thousaiid 
miles"; tluee pounds would stretch from Liverpool to New York— a fauy cable 
connecting the new world with the old— a kmd by which Tuck might 

, " put a girdle round about the eai'th 

In forty minutes." 
Altliough it is admitted tliat, from some cause or other, the cotton manu- 
facture was not sufficiently illustrated by specimens at the Great E;;uibition, 
vet there was enough to show how ample is now the variety of such products. 
The admission of new names into the list is one of the oddities oi the trade. 
What these names mean, it would, perhaps, not be very easy to say; some- 
times they indicate a degree of fineness in the goods; sometimes the mode ol 
weaving; sometimes a colour, a pattern, a garaient for which they are suitable, 
or a distinguished pei-son^e who first wore Uiem ; sometimes a foreign pro- 
duct which they imitate; sometimes a country for whose market they are 
intended, or a town which is the chief seat of their manufacture, or a hrm 
which takes a lead in their production— it mattei-s little what Uie meaning 
may be; a new name has a commercial value; and the Shaksperean dictum 
concerning " a rose by any other name," &c., is not always assented to in 
shop-keeping philosophy. Let us nm hastily over a bundle of these names. 
We liave dress ginghams and fancy ginghams, and umbrella ginghanis, 
checked and striped ginghams, and ginghams known by the high-sounding 
names of Camperdowns, Coromandels, matallas, vicanas, and bnolas. VVe 
have book muslins, jaconot musUns, bishop lawn mushns, sachanlla muslms, 
tai-latan musUns, Scotch lawn muslins, Victoria muslins, India and Swiss muU 
muslins, leno muslins, sU-iped muslins, lappet muslins, spot muslins swg 
muslins, and a number of other members of the muslin ffunily. We nave 
table-cloths, diapers, huckabacks, jean stripes, clan tartans, galas, Hiinganans, 
and Den-ies— all made of cotton. There are surongs, crossovers, selampores, 
Granvilles, denims, panes da costar-all, we believe, of the cotton shawl 
family. There ai'c counterpanes, quiltings, vestings, dimities, swansdowns, 




ng Houlilsworth's No. 

of the weavers ; and 
een Uie result, that at 
m Bazley's yam No. 

French musUn from 
s 09 these the world 
inning of the patient 
1 which Aurungzebe's 
have been excelled by 
000, however, is what 
we drawn the weavers 
I region of tliousands 
in the Crystal Palace, 

the downy lilanients 
ope; botli so minute, 
By would be invisible ; 

could be wound on 
B worth no less than 
ive tlius so luunble a 
les that of pure silver ; 
ht in gold. In respect 

more thim a thousand 
ew York — a fairy cable 
h Tuck might 

le earth 



»ther, the cotton roMiu- 

the Great Exhibition, 

riety of such products. 

oddities of the ti-ado. 

sometimes the mode of 
fihich they are suitable, 
metimes a foreign pro- 
khose market tliey are 
manufacture, or a firm 
ittle what tlie meaning 
he Shaksperean dictum 

always assented to in 
undle of these names, 
d umbrella ginghams, 
. by the high-sounding 
mas, and briolas. We 
in,s, sacharilla muslins, 
i, India and Swiss mull 
as, spot muslins, snrig 
islin ftunily. We have 
tans, galas, Hungarians, 

crossovers, selampores, 
I, of the cotton shawl 

dimities, swansdowns. 



COTTON AND KLAX : A CONTllAST. 



Id 



moleskins, doeskins, lambskins, velveteens, bcaverteens, fustians, long-cloUis, 
shirtings, calicoes, everlastings, nankeens, coutils, and other cotton goods, the 
enumeration of which would be almost weansome. A low groupmgs ^vlll 
show tlie relations between these goods. For instance, the ijin(fkam tanuly 
consists of stout cotton, in which threads of two or more colours arc woven 
together into stripes, &c. ; ftiMiam, heavertecm, velveteens, moleskins, md several 
others, are woven on tlie same principle as velvet, with a nap or pile, which is 
cither cut or left uncut; damasks, huckabacks, diapers, ticks, and cambrics, are 
cotton imitations of Uie similarly-named llaxen goods ; quilts and eounterpmus 
have downy tufts to increase the thickness and softness; shirtiruj calicos, 
sheetiwi calicos, printimj calicos, lonn-clolh and dmk, are varieties ot plain 
pci-viceable cotton goods, varying in stoutness ; chintz is a stout calico, after- 
wards printed in several colours ; corduroys, jmm, quillings, and many other 
varieties, are very strong cotton goods, mostly twilled. As for muslins, their 

variety is almost interminable. 

It was a pretty operation to see, at the Groat Exhibition, the making ot 
bobbins for cotton spinners ; and one which shows how enormous must bo 
the consumption of such articles, to pay for die constructing of machines lor 
producing tlieni. The ' reels ' on which sewing cotton is Irequently sold, 
may now be made by such a machine as that which occupied a place in tlie 
•machineiy in motion' department. Little cylinders of wood are roughly 
shaped hi another machine; Uiey are dropped into a hopper or funnel; they 
are seized one by one, and held in a sort of lathe ; they are quickly shaped 
while so held ; and tliey avo liberated when complete. All this is done with 
no other labour on the part of the attendant than feeding the hopper with 
little blocks of wood. 

Of all the machines subsidiai7 to the cotton manufacture none is more 
beautiful than Uie card-makin<j machine, an example of which attracted so much 
attention at the Exliibition. A card, in the language of a cotton factory, is a 
kind of wire brush, with tlie wires all bent in a determinate direction ; they 
are fixed into a back or handle of leather ; and the card thus made is attached 
to the rotatmg cylinders of tlie carding machine which combs or straightens 
the cotton fibres. This wonderful little cai-d-nmking machine punctures Uie 
holes in the leather, unwinds the wire from a coil, cuts off about an inch ot 
wire, makes two bends in Uie wire at right angles to each oUier, drives the 
wire into the leaUier, and clinches it when so driven. The variety ot move- 
ments necessary to Uie performance of so many operations is almost mcon- 
ceivable, and tends to place Uiis machine among Uie very highest class ot 
mechanical conUivances. i . • j. 

We stated a few pages back, Uiat very few attempts are now made to intro- 
duce a new principU in cotton manufactm-es, the course of improvement being 
chiefly directed to matters of detail. There is, however, a veiy smguUu- 
novelty of recent introducUon. by Mr. Mercer of Accvington, which seems 
desei-vin'' of note. Mr. Mercer's curious process was described beiore Uie 
British Association at Ipswich, m 1851. A solution of cold but causUc soda 
has been found by him to act in a remarkable manner on cotton fibres, causmg 
them to contract; and he has also found Uiat, alUiough the soda may be 
washed out. Uie effect upon the cotton ren.ains permanent— even to an mcrease 
of one-Uiird or one-fourUi in the weight of Uie cotton. The compacting or 
condensing nature of Uiis effect may be important in nianufactiu-es, lor a 
coarse calico or muslin becomes finer hi appeai-ance when Uius affected, llie 
colours of dyed cotton are also influenced ; for Uie condensation of texture is 



"r 



muHjI^ff^SKKi 



iifeiini-lwm'.fWXiiifiiiwitiM 



i;itfriiTii««infwnmnii>'rHffi'ill I'll "■ "'im&to . 



I 



u 



COTTON AND FI-AX I A COHTBABT. 



i (i 



accompanied by a deepening and brightening of tints. A third imprnvemont 
is «aid to be, that a cotton yam or a cotton cloth is stronger after having oecn 
subjected to the soda process than before. If all these claims to excellen^^e are 
tru^if the cotton goods arc mode Jiner, brighter, and stronger, by the soda 
process— then, indeed, will this discovery prove to be ah important one. Dr. 
Lyon riavfair, in his ' Exhibition Lecture ' before the Society of Arts, pre- 
sented some specimens of cotton goods which had undergone this singular 

'^^ The" imparting of colmir to cotton goods, either by printing or dyeing, is 
such a large and important subject, and ono so chemical in its nature, that wo 
cannot discuss it in the present sheet, devoted as it is to a comparison between 
flax and cotton. The Exhibition, in tliis as in other matters, was a great 
school of instruction. There were the serial specimens exhibited by Messrs. 
Black of Glasgow, in which small pieces of cotton were displayed in every 
stage of the bleaching, dyeing and pruiting processes ; and written descriptions, 
placed beneath the specimens, explained the modes in which the several pro- 
cesses had been conducted, and the chemical substances which had been em- 
ployed. Little does the lady-wearer of a printed muslin dress imagine how 
numerous these processes are, and how chemical science has been ransacked to 
aid the processes. Then, again, there was the • calico-printing trophy, really an 
extraordinary assemblage. It is said that Mr. McCallum, one of the masters ot 
U'le Manchester School of Design, had almost endless trouble in collecting the 
specimens; and this may well be believed, considering that old specimens arc 
in all probability few and far between. It was a panorama, illustrative of the 
progress of this beautiful art. It ranged over no less a period than elghty_six 
years, comprising specimens of calico-printing from 1765 to 1851. Ihe 
specimens were fastened end to end into a huge strip, which was then coiled 
on a cylinder ; and a handle transfencd this strip from one cylinder to another, 
by gradually unwinding ; exhibiting eat h specimen at a square opening m 
front of the apparatus. It was in troth a uioviny panorama, analogous to 
those in our pubhc exhibitions. 

Flax : Problem of its Home Production. 

L«t us now leave the cotton region, and devote the rest of this paper to a 
glance at the flax culture, the manufacture of woven goods from flax, and the 
various schemes now afloat for extending this deparment of industry. _ ; 

Five sheaves of flax straw were contributed to the Great Lxhibition by 
Mr McEwan of Islay— a humble contribution, certainly; but important in 
respect to the raoti ,. which led to it. Shortly afterwards Mr. McEwan, who 
is a landowner in islay, pubhshed a letter to Lord John Russell, askmg for 
Kovemment aid towards the encouragement of the flax culture, m Islay and 
other highland districts. He stated tliat, being convinced of the fitness ot 
the climate for this culture, in the Western Islands, he had proposed to two ot 
his tenants to make an experiment; he ofi^ered to erect a steeping and scutch- 
ing mill, to find a market for any flax which his tenants might grow. About 
120 acres of flax are growing on his estate in the island, and he states the 
.quaUty to be of the finest. He asks the Government to assist in employing 
the destitute Highlanders to grow flax, instead of aiding them to emigrate. 
His political arguments we touch not upon; but he asserts that there are 
thousands upon thousands of acres in ScoUand, now valueless, which would 
grow flax of the finest kind ; that the climate of the Highlands, from its 



i i nu iii ill l lil il lW W l 



I 



COTTON AND Fi:*\X : A C0NTBA8T. 



15 



A third imptwemcnt 
iger after having oecn 
lainis to pxcelleni.e are 

stron/ier, by the soda 
1 important one. Dr. 

Society of Arts, pm- 
(lergono this singular 

printing or dyeing, is 
1 in its nature, that wo 
( a compariHon between 
r matters, was a great 
s exhibited by Messrs. 
3re displayed in every 
id written descriptions, 

which the several pro- 
BS which had been em- 
lin dress imagine how 
> has been ransacked to 
inting trophy,' really an 
n, one of the masters of 
rouble in collecting the 
that old specimens are 
•ama, illustrative of the 
I period than eighty-six 

1765 to 1851. The 

which was then coiled 
one cylinder to another, 
it ft square opening in 
anorama, analogous to 



UCTION. 

1 rest of this paper to fl 
foods from flax, and the 
nt of industry, 
e Great Exhibition by 
linly; but important in 
U'ds Mr. McEwan, who 
ohn Russell, asking for 
ftx culture, in Islay and 
'inced of the fitness of 
9 had proposed to two of 
!t a steeping and scutch- 
nts might grow. About 
island, and he states the 
t to assist in employing 
ding them to emigi^ate. 
} asserts that there are 
r valueless, which would 
he Highlands, from its 



humidity, will yield better flax than that of England ; tliat tlio ngncuUnral 
money value of an acre of woll-cultivuted fla.\ is e(iual to that of wheat, but 
that its commercial or manufacturing value is greatly larger ; that the llax- 
culture is. peculiarly suited to tlie present sUte of the Highland nopulation, 
as it would absorb the unemployed labour both of adults and childrcsn ; and 
that the rapid streams of the Highlands would furnish water power lor flax 
Itvctories. He asks the Government to aid the landed proprietors ni mtro- 
ducing flax-cultivution as a part of the rotation of crops ; U) establish a pauper 
fla.\-farm in every parish ; to establish flax-steeping and scutching nulls ; and 
to erect quays in convenient spots for shipping the produce. 

Here, then, we ai-e introduced at once into the flax world ; we are told ot 
flax in Scotland, and of flax in England ; and certain economical arguments 
ftie used in favour of flax-culture generally. Eveiy-day-folks know very little 
of this culture in our own country : it may be well, therefore to say something 

on this matter. 

Flax-cultivation is no new idea in England. In old times it was moie 
thought of than at present^until the' recent agitation of the subject. Ho 
long ago as 1«77, one Andrew Yan-anton published a pamphlet under the 
foUowing magniloquent title—" England's Improvement by Sea and Land ; to 
out-do the Dutch without Fighting ; to pay Debts without Moneys ; and to 
set at Work all tlie Poor of gland with tlie Growth of our own Lands. 
The burden of this national tii ph was— the extended and unproved culta- 
vation of flax. During the eigh ^nth century there was a gi-eater average of 
flax-culture in England than tliere has been in the nineteenth. The plain 
truth seems to be. that the great profits from com husbandly during the war 
rendered that a more attractive crop than flax ; flax was abandoned, not be- 
cause it yielded no profit, but because com yielded more. Now that the artificial 
stimulus to com-oulture is withdmwn, flax may perhaps have fair play. 

Another reason why flax-cultvu-e was nearly abandoned in England and the 
Scottish liowlands, after having been carried on to some considerable extent, was, 
that the seed was never saved. Growers are now being told, from all ipiarters, 
that they must preserve the seed, which would make a diff'erence of some Oi. or 
7^. per acre. The value of oil-cake (cmshed flax seed from which linseed od has 
been pressed) as food for cattle is better appreciated tlian at any former 
period ; it is known that the animals fatten well on it, and that the manure 
produced by the use of this food is very rich for com crops. The lowland 
farmers are now closely calculating this matter— without reference so much 
to the fibre as to the seed ; but if the fibre and seed both find a market, the 
spinner, and the ^iculturist may, perchance, both be served by the same crop. 
Sir Robert Kane, too, tells the farmers that the water in which flax has been 
steeped constitutes a useful liquid manure. 

It certainly is a movement of no slight importance to determine whether we 
can grow our own flax. The flax, flax seed and oil-cake which we import annually 
frwn foreign countries, amount to a value of something like nine millions 
sterling ; and, if the visions of the flax-cotton advocates should be even par- 
tially realised, the use of flax must greatly increase. That we should en- 
deavour to grow the flax at home is an advice supported on such grounds as 
these : that we have large ti-acts of land well adapted for tlie culture ; that its 
cultivation and preparation would afford employment to a large number of 
persons now unemployed ; and that the culture would render us less depend- 
ent on the exigencies of foreign supply. On the other hand, it is generally 
(though not, universally) admitted, that flax is an exhausting crop fof the sod ; 



,itmi»iMMmhimimn~onttM 



n'ii.i.iinitifl" ''•""" —■--"■•■"'•«'--■ ' 



10 



COTTON AND FLAX : A COHTRAST. 



!l 



and that the whole of tho opemtions. froir. first to last, would require moro 
skilled Ifthour tlmn is usually lound in purely agricuUural districts. Ihe 
balance between Uiose two opponinK account*) must detemiinc whoaier wo can 
compete with the Hax-growcra of bt-lgium aiul Russia. Mr. Warnos, a tlax- 
m-ower of Norfolk, Ih enUmsiastie in the matter ; he says that if one acre out 
of everv hundie«l cultivated acres in England were devoted to flax, we could 
eniplov'more than all our redundant and poor population— so numerous are 
tlie deniands for labour after tlie flax has bi-en i)ulled. , . , . 

It is ill tliis light that the Irish Flax Society ought to be estimated. A 
little moro Uiim ten years ago tiie Flax Society at lielfast commenced Us ope- 
rations ; and, whatever may be tho future results, tlie Society unqucstionablv 
desei-ves thanks for having kept public attention directed towards this branch 
of culture. One mode mlopted was, to send agents— missionaries of indu8try~- 
omonc tho Irish Maimers, to give tlieni oNcry information concerning the 
method of flax-cultnre adopted in Flanders. Intelligent persons were also 
sent from Ireland to Fliuiders at Uio Society's expense, to witness the whole 
i-onge of operations ; tmd the Societ/ also published small tracts or papers, 
in which plain instmctions were given in a plain manner. 

From tlio figures presented by the Society, it appears that flax-culture in 
Ireland rose in annual amount from 1841 to 1H44, feU from thence to lb4H, 
and rose from this latter date to tho present time. In 1841, when the Societys 
operations commenced, there were ii50,0()0 spindles in Ireland engjiged m 
flax-spinning, working up about 16,000 tons of flax annually. In 1851 there 
were about 500.000 spindles, using 33.000 lens. The number ot flax miUs 
m Ireland is now about ninety. Besides Uio encouragement afl^prded by the 
Belfast Society, which hmits its operations chieay to Uie Ulster counties, much 
activity has recently been displayed in the south of Ireland, where the cidti- 
vation of flax is extending, under the auspices of some ot the landed pro- 
prietors. A year or so back, when the flax-steeping projects were under dis- 
cussion, an off'or was made to purchase 1000 tons of Irish flax straw, at 4.1. 
per ton, to be steeped on tlie Claussen method; the growers being Urns os- 
sm-ed of a market, to a certain extentr— this b»-ing one of Uie gi-eat dithculties 
to which flax-growers without capital ai-e exposed. ,„,, , ,i . 

At the aimual meeting of the Royal Irish Flax Society in 1851, held at 
Belfast, striking proofs were adduced of tlie rapid advance of this culture in 
Ireland, within the last two or tliree years. There ai-e now twenty-two counties 
in connection with the Society. There were about 64.000 acres under flax- 
culture in 1848, 00,000 in 1849, 91,000 in 1850, and 139,000 m 1851; this 
last quantity is estimated to be adequate to the producUon ot more tban a 
fourth of the whole flax consumption of the counUy. But tliere is this draw- 
back—scutching mills ai-e scarce in Ireland; Uie poor fanners cannot erect 
them : and unless capitalists do, the culture wiU be greaUy checked. Oi the 
four provinces of Ireland, Ulster is that which most promotes this culture; 
in 1851, 1 acre in 44, throughout Ulster, was under flax crop. The average 
Yield of flax fibre in Ireland, for Uie last three years, is estimated at about 
6 cwt. per statute acre ; this, for 1861, and at iU. per ton, wcuid give the im- 
portant sum of a million and a half sterling. 

It seems strange that the Flax Society have to mourn over the obstinacy 

of the Iiish famiere, in respect to the waste of the seed. They mU not save 

- the seed; they insist upon doing as their forefatliers have done--rettmg the 

stems with tiie seeds attached, instead of rippUng off the seeds before llie 

rettmg In every other country Uie seed is saved, eiUier for sowing or lor 







rorro.N and fi.ax: a roNTHAW. 



17 



it, would require mom 
uitural districlH. Th(! 
iniiiuo whothor wo ciui 
i. Mr. Wumert, t\ tlax- 
lya that if oiio aero otit 
voted to Hox, we could 
lion — MO luuncrous aio 

it to bo estimated. A 
[wt commencod itH opo- 
Society unqucstionablv 
»d towards tliin brancli 
isionaries of industry — 
rviation conceniing the 
;ent persons were also 
le, to witness the wholn 

small tracts or papers, 
ler. 

iars that Hax-culture in 
ill from thence to 1848, 
[841, when the Society's 
in Ireland engaged in 
mually. In 1851 there 
e number of flax mills 
gement atfprded by the 
Ulster counties, much 
relaiid, where the culti- 
)nie of the landed pro- 
rojects were under dis- 

Irish flax straw, at 4/. 

growers being thus ns- 

of Uie gi'eat difficulties 

society in 1851, held at 
vance of this culture hi 
now twenty-two counties 
54,000 acres under flax- 

139,000 in 1851; this 
)duction of more than a 

But there is this draw- 
»or fanners cannot erect 
[reatly checked. Of tlio 
promotes tliis culture; 
flax crop. The average 
8, is estimated at about 
1- ton, wcai4 give the im- 

oum over the obstinacy 
eed. They will not save 
have done — retting the 
off the seeds before the 
either for sowing or for 



making linseed oil; and tlie estimati'd value of tlie uatted seed, in. Ireland, 
for 1M51, is aoo.OOiJ/. "The Society's instructore, " we are told, " hnvo con- 
stAntly endeavoured to inculcate the importance of this economy; but so 
(Irt'ply rooted is the prfjudice against saving the seed, that as yet it is only to 
a limited e.vtent tliat farmers have attended fo this advice. " llow provoking 
is ail this — how utterly unoonnuercial and unthrifty. 

The avurage not profit of Uaxculturc in Ireland is estimated at about 10/. 
jwracre; and as 500,000 acres are required to produce all the flax spun in 
the United Kingdom, the home-growth of the whole quantity would yield a 
profit of five millions sterling, supposing (which is, however, a bold 8U[ipositioii) 
otlior things to bo all favourable. It nmst bo undci-stood, however, that tliis 
1(1/. per acre nlers to the flax after it has been steeped, turned, lifted, and 
scutched ; the profit from the actual growth seems to be about til. per acre. 

This question concerning price is evidcaitly one which requires a voiy 
searching investigation. The farmers are looking .at for cash-accounts, poimds 
and shillings' estimates, of the resulLs of flax-growing, that they may form a 
judgment for themselves ; and such accounts are occasionally published. 

Messrs. Marshall — perhaps the greatest flax-consumers in the world — are 
doing their part toward the encouragement of flax-ciUture in England. Ono 
of the partners has erected extensive works near Patrington in Yorkshire, for 
retting and scutching flax ; and is offering every inducement to the neighbour- 
ing fai-mers to enter upon this culture. The works ai-e a<lequ)4te to a crop from 
.jOO acres. The fiurmers, however, enter upon the ' new-fang.ed ' system rather 
slowly ; and Mr. Marshall has therefore atlopted a plan of hiring tho land at 
so much on acre, providing the seed, weeding and pulling tlio crop — in fact 
he becomes a flax-fanner himself, and tlien rets and scutches his o\vn crop. 
Tho yield of dressed flax is said to be 5 cwt. per acre, worth 70«. per cwt., and 
2 qrs. of seed, worth 50*. per (ir. 

It appeal's, from such accounts as have yet been made public, that profits 
from flax-culture vaiy considerably, and tliat we have yet to leani by futur*; 
experiment what will be the average proceeds. Sir James Gi-aham has recently 
advocated vei-y energeticaUy the establishment of the flax-culturo in Curaberlana. 

Flax: from the Field to the Loom. 

NoUiing has been yet said explanatoiy of tlie mode of culture : a few words 
nmst suffice on this point. 

The common mode of conducting this culture may be understood from a 
very brief description. The seed is sown broadcast, in the ratio of about 
170 lbs. to an acre ; it is then shghtly covered with eartli, and tlie earth trodden 
or ro'led down upon the seed. The flax soon appears above the ground ; and 
women and children are then employed in freeing it from tlie weeds which 
spring up with it. When the plants have attained a height of twenty or 
twenty-four inches, and are beginning to present a yellow tinge at the bottom 
of the stem, they are ready for pluckmg ; they we pulled carefuUy in small 
handfulls ; they are piled in loose heaps in order to become partially dried ; 
imd they are then stored in stacks till further operations are required. 

The subsequent pi-ocesses, too, however much care they may require in 
practice, are very simple, so far as description is Cv>ncemed. Firet, the seeds 
have to be removed ; the plants are drawn tlirough a kind of open comb, 
which strips off the seed as they pass ; or a kind of bat or small flail is em- 
ployed to beat off the seed; and the seeds, thus separated by 'ripplmg,' are 



i n r'-'-^-T'— i i n i «ra»-«nrii i rft r ■ '•"•- "■'■""-'^■" iirini Irflill 



iBa 



m^ 



laiffrru 



..Itaiiiiiii 



It 



corroM AND ri^x: a contbabt. 



,„lvc lh« «lut<„. llml .1.0 fib,™ !■;•);, "'XS-*" ■£ 2," ulric, 

or floors, one above another, as is usuaUy the ^ase, tt^e whole is nere 

This monster room is ne«^ly ^^ „„,, ,, 



COTTON AM) KIJIX : A t'OKTIUW. 



19 



iMfld oil, olloftlcfi, imkI 
kta tho gliitDn from iho 
ho Imuii ; he has ti» (Hh- 
IH (UsHolving in t'tt'nctfMl 

'Httxcotton' tiieomiH 
Mxch II iiipitl pftce iw 

wnlifr rrttinij find (/cir 

n water for a wock or n 
ghiten aixl looseiiH the 

y ut the right time, tho 
(tUmis are exposed for 
ruin, and wind on a 
,1 than hy tho water or 
tern 18 acted on ; watcr- 
>e more weeks. "When 
id snitched; that is, tho 
[I arc then ho beaten an 
ly tlie stalks are cmshed 
ipon tlu-m, and &<v then 

1 have been invented for 
y fragments are beaten 

i>im prodtices finer flax 
sing large quantities of 
ped In RnsHia ; hence it 
X plant may yield a more 
weight ; and it is found 
rniines tho great bulk of 
sidered on an average of 
iy centre, and two-tenths 
about half its weight of 
gether ; so that the flax 
X stem. Now any mode 
be of more importance 
the finer goods; but the 
there are two directions 
lis art. 
g career, before noticing 

; regards the monotonous, 
tages ; but there is one 
dity of design. This is 
iving several stories, tiers, 
the whole is here thrown 
on, facility of access, uni- 
f machine arrangements. 
f by more than two hun- 
ster Hall; and, until the 
;d the largest (or nearly so) 
I of about seventy domes, 
being supported by iron 
rve also as water-pipes, to 



.;onvey tlm dniiuttgo from U»e roof. The roof, proseuang an area of utaily 
two acres, wa»( a few yeai« ago cover.tl witli mcjuld luiil grass ; so that one 
could literally take a walk in a gr'ion field on tlio riM)f of a factory ; wiielhor 
lliis airangonicnt m still niaiiituinotl, we are not awaio. Tho iuti'rior ot tho, 
room is filled \siUi boauliful iiiacliim'ry, i\v piuforining all the various oporur 
lions on flax ; and beneatli ai-o vaulted posHttgef* which conUiiii all the arrange-^ 
menu for supidyiug »t«aiu power, warmth, and ventilation, to tho hive of 
buny operativ.'s working ab<»vo. It i» certainly a triumph of engineering and 
mechanical skUl, when such a building is filled with the finoiit machines which 
iiiodoni ingenuity can produce. How niu<!h mind, how ^nuch capital, how 
much labour, must have been thrown into such an a««emblage ! How do w^ 
here trace tlm accumulation of many years' experience — the bringing to boai 
upon one object of ho many distinct agencies and sources of power, montju 
and material, social and commercial i 

One of tho earliest machine operations is Uiat of s.jporatihg the seed from 
the stem ; jUunotduiif machines have been invented, which separate tlie seeds 
by tho careful action\)f rollers. Then come tlio jla.c breaking machines ; tliose 
have fluted or grooved rollers, between which tlie ilax stem is made to pass, 
so that the woody portion becomes thoroughly broken witiiout cutting 
the fibre. Next come into operation the jiojt-tcutchiiuj machines, in which 
revolving arms or blades visit tlio flax with such vigorous bluws Uiat the 
woody fragment* are nearly licatcn out. and the fibres to a certain degn<o 
Hcparttted. After this Ww jUuv-heckluuj macliines give the flax a thorough comb- 
ing. by means of long rows of teeth or spikes ; the fibres are combed out 
straight and tolerably clean ; and the low or short fibres are. removed, to be 
used for otlier puq)08es. The heckled flax is then in a sUito to be acted on by 
the various machines which brhig it into the state of yain for weaving ; these 
machines are of three kinds, according as tow, long flax, or cut flax is to be 
acted upon. The low-carding and tlio tow-roving machines serve for the first 
kind ; \htijlax-sj)reading, Jlax-carding, and /lax-roving machines for tlie second ; 
and tha fl<ix-cuuing machine, followed by those for carding and roving, for the 
third. The spiniimg machine follows all these ; and it differs from cottou- 
spinning machines chiefly in having a provision for wetting tho flax, either 
with oold or hot water ; there is still a little gum or mucilage among the 
fibres, ,md tliis becoines more manageable in Uio machine when moistened. 
Al' the machines here named are Uie modern or factory means of operations ; 
in old times all was done on the hand method, and Uie niachiiK>8 have been 
veiy gradually introduced; tlie old-fashioned scutching and heckling and 
carding and spinning implements are still to be met with in remote country 
districts. 

Mr. Plummer, tlie machinist, of Newcostle-upon-Tvno, has patented and 
brought into use a largo number of flax machines. There is a ' llax-breaking 
machine;' tlioro is a 'double-cylinder twilling machine;' there is a 'double- 
cylinder heckling machine,' suitable for heckling short flax; tliere is an 
' improved heckling machine,' adapted for long flax ; there is a ' rotary disc 
scutching mill ;' and there are ' improved holdei-s for scutching and heckling.' 
All these machines have relation to the earlier stages in the flax manufacture, 
and not to those of spinning ; but the various processes in tho manufacture 
of flax, aa in tliat of cotton, ai-e constantly receiving aid from the mechanical 
skill of the engine makers. 

It may not, perhaps, be supei-fluous to remai-k, tliat a Jlajo mili does not 
weave flax into linen or other finished goods ; it merely brings the flax into 






iiMMiiWMaiaMii 



'iti i iiftrWr- --••'••■"' ■'■■-'■^^"■''■"''*'"'''"''''^''' '' '*' ' '''"*'"*'**" 



iM'Wi;iWiWiMn»M<ffffn II ' ■Vir- 



jf 



I 



20 



COTTON AND FLAX: A CONTBAST. 



the state of yam, to be woven in other establishments. Even tlie giant flax 
miU at Leeds is not a weaving niiU. At that establishment under ordinarj- 
chcumstances of ti-ade, no less than thirty tons (nearly 70.000 lbs.), ot flax 
are said to be worked up weekly mto yam ; and it is estimated Uiat, to mam- 
tain such a supply weekly throughout the yeai'. would require six thousaiid 
acres of flax land to be kept m cultivation. This kmd of Ulustration serves 
to give an idea of tlie magnitude of the operations, irrespective of that whicli 
is aff-orded by the number of hands employed. The weavmg of the spun flax 
into various kinds of cloUi gives employment to Uiousands, who work tor the 
Greater pait in theh- own humble homes and by the aid of simple hand-looms ; 
but Uiere are also weaving mills, the number of which is gindually mcreasmg. 
and in which power-looms ore employed ; here the general featm-es of Oie 

'^'itTsT gSat^^thhig for Ireland tliat she has a reputation for linens and 
damasks; it draws the attention of merchants and dealers to%yai-ds her and 
accustoms tiie people to those large and comprehensive operations which the 
factoiT system is sure to introduce. As early as the beginmng of tiie last 
century, tlio manufacture of linen damasks was introduced mto Ireland from 
Germany ; and there still exist specimens woven in Ireland a hundred tmd thirty 
years ago. The manufacture has gone on increasing m excellence ; and it is 
now considered that the high-class Irish damasks equal any from miy other 
comitry. Almost all are used in our own countiy, and Uie better kinds are so 
costly that none but the wealthy can pm-chase them. Hand-loom weaving is 
invariably adopted for the best damasks ; but the power-loom is now beginning 
to be employed for the cheaper damasks and diapers ; and it is hoped Uiat this 
wiU create a foreign market for them. The Jacquai-d-loom is extensively used 
for the richer damasks, for which its wonderfid action especially adapts it. 
Wliat a Jacquai-d-loom is, a long and wearisome description would scarcely 
make intelligible ; what it appears like, the thousands who watched the workmg 
of die several Jacquai-d-looms at the Great Exhibition may perhaps remember ; 
Avhat it does, is exemplified by specimens of pattem, or damask, or hgure 
weavmg, for which it is specially adapted. In designing table-cloths, tabie- 
napkml, and d'oyleys, for royal personages, city companies, club houses, aiid 
regimental messes, the damask manufacturers of Ireland sometimes display 
considerable taste; and tliis taste afterwards reflects some of its light upon 
the cheaper and ordmary commercial products. We believe it is yet a dis- 
puted point among persons artisticaUy inclined, what kind of ornamentation is 
best fitted for colourless damasks; human forms and featuies are seldom 
damasked satisfactorily, and buildmgs ai-e veiy tame afl'aii-s when so depicted; 
at present, heraldic emblems seem to take tlie lead. . , .„ ,. f 

There is another notable fact worthy of being borne in mmd, lUustrntive ol 
the excellence of Irish manufactm-es in flax. It is understood that Irish 
cambrics are sent to France in an unbleached state, by tons at a time, to be 
tliei-e bleached and sold as French cambrics. This indicates either that the 
Irish cambric is better than the French, or (more probably) that for a given 

quality it is cheaper. . , ., ,. , <.,oki 

There was no want of flax specimens in om- great industrial display of 1851. 
All countries showed us what they could yield, and in what state they bring 
the yield to mai-ket. Messrs. Lawson exliibited to us specimens of flax, gi-own 
in England from British, Dutch, and Riga seed. The foreignei-s showed us 
their flaxen fibre as grown in Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, 1 landers, 
Holland, Friesland, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Russia, Prussia, 



I 



). Even the giant flax 
ihment, under ordinarj- 
dy 70,000 lbs.), of flax 
estimated Uiat, to main- 
d require six thousand 
ad of illustratiou serves 
respective of that which 
yreaving of the spun flax 
sands, who work for the 
i of simple hand-looms ; 
L is gradually increasing, 
general features of the 

putation for linens and 
lealers towai-ds her, and 
ive operations which the 
le beginning of the last 
(duced into Ireland ft^m 
and a hundred imd thirty 
in excellence ; and it is 
qual any from any other 
d tlie better kinds are so 
Hand-loom weaving is 
er-loom is now beginning 
and it is hoped tliat this 
-loom is extensively used 
tion especially adapts it. 
3scription would scarcely 
who watched the working 
may perhaps remember ; 
m, or damask, or figure 
ignuig table-cloths, tabic- 
ipanies, club houses, and 
L-eland sometimes display 
,8 some of its light upon 
'^e believe it is yet a dis- 
kind of ornamentation is 
and features are seldom 
a^airs when so depicted ; 

ue in mind, illusti-ative of 
is understood that Irish 
3, by tons at a time, to be 
indicates either that the 
probably) that for a given 

industrial display of 1 861. 
L in what state they bring 
s specimens of flax, grown 
riie foreigners showed us 
jrtugal, France, Flanders, 
Norway, Eussia, Prussia, 



COTTON AND FtAX : A CONTEAST. 



21 



America, Australia, Egypt, Canada, China, New Zealand, and India; and 
many of the kinds in vai-ious stage .^ of prepoi-ation. Mr. Donlan afforded the 
means of comparing flax seed in the natural state with flax seed which has 
undergone a cei"tain chemical process, said to quicken and improve its growing 
powers. The Chevalier Claussen displayed, in all the stages from stalk to 
cloth, tlie flax to which his remarkable processes are applied, and from which 
he hopes to be able to produce such valuable materials for textile fabrics. 
Nor did Mr. Schenck fail to supply us with illusti-ations of the effect of his 
hotwater process, as applied to the steeping or retting of flax. The Belfast 
Max Society showed how vaiied is the valr.e of flax, according to the care 
with which it is prepared for mai-ket : Monaghan flax as low as 38/. per ton, 
Antrim flax as high as 1001. per ton. And our English coimties, too, placed 
before us specimens of their handiwork, produced under very diverse circum- 
stances : flax and flax seed from Yorkshire ; steeped and scutched flax from 
Hampshire and from Surrey ; flax grown and scutched at Famborough work- 
house ; flax scutched by tlie prisoners in Winchester Gaol — all were there. 

Nor were the woven flax goods less varied or interesting. There were linen 
goods from almost eveiy country in Europe ; there were damasks and diapers, 
sheetings and shirtings, and all tlie well-kno^vn fabrics in which flax is tlie 
chief or the only material ; there were mixed fabrics in which flax was com- 
bined with cotton, silk, or wool ; there were threads, and yams, and twists ; 
there were tlie coai-se canvas and sail-cloth, and the fine cambric and lawn ; 
tliere were the plain goods from the common loom, and the highly-omato 
damasks from the Jacquard. There were specimens of flax canvas exhibited 
whose sti-ength was indicated by the fact that it had been tested to 490 lbs. 
in the dii-ection oi the warp, and to 560 lbs. in tlie direction of the weft. 

In respect to the kinds of goods known by the above names, and other kinds 
also made of flax, tho differences ai-ise from various causes, somewhat analo- 
gous to tliose in cotton goods, but not so great in number or variety. Linen is 
the best kind of quite plain flax fabric ; damask has a pattern produced by a 
particular arrangement of the loom ; diaper and dornock are two twilled or 
tweeled products, having a sort of pattern less intricate than that of damask ; 
sheeting, towelling, sailrcloth, canvas, and many otlier kinds, are coarser and 
stronger than linen, but, like it, divested of any pattern ; htickaback, used for 
towels, is something like diaper, but finer. In all these cases, colour has 
nothing to do with the production of different qualities ; the fineness of tlie 
yam, tihe closeness of the woven texture, and tlie manner of weaving, being 
the sources of the vaiious diff'erences which present themselves. Flaxen 
goods are less subjected to the dyeing and prmting processes than those of 
cotton, silk, or wool. 

That flax occupies a lowly position relatively to cotton, is admitted ; yet, 
when we think that 120 milUon yards of linen and 18 million pounds of linen 
yam were expoit^d in 1851, besides other goods, and after supplyuig Jie 
home demand, we cannot but regard it as an important manufacture. Indeed, 
taking the weight of flax and cotton which we use annually at a thousimd 
million pounds, and tlie flax ratio to be one-fourth of this, flax may assuredly 
' look up ' hi the commercial sense. 

The Flax-Cotton Projects. 

Let us now direct a little of our attention to Uie flax-cotton movement, as it 
has been called. Mr. Porter, a gi-eat authority in tlie philosophy of trade 



m mm 



I 



22 



COTTON AND FLAX". A CONTBAflT. 




and manufactures, is among those who deem tins movement tm important 
one. At the Edinburgh meeting of the British AssociaUon, m 1850. he said, 
" The uneasiness vhich it is natural to feel under the circumstances here 
described [the deficiency of cotton crops] has led to the ddigent and careful 
innuii-y whether some substitute or auxUiary may not be called into action 
which HhaU meet the evil tliat threatens us ; and this, it is suggested, may be 
found in a kindred branch of manufacture— Uiat oi flaw. A very few yeai-s 
ago. when first anxiety began to arise concerning Uie progi-ess of our cotujn 
manufacture, the resource which has just been named did not present itsell. 
At tiiat time our Imen manufacture had not made ttie progress by which it is 
at present marked— a progress proportionally equal to any that has been made 

at any time in the cotton manufacture An additional mduce- 

ment to tlie growth of flax, beyond that offered by other articles, may be found 
in the fact, that to bring it to the some condition an that in which it is usujU y 
imported from foreign countines calls for the employment ot a considerable 
amount of human labour. There is no part of the United Kmgdom m which 
the flax-plant cannot be successfully cultivated; and Hiere is hardly any 
country whence it might not be brought to supply our deficiencies, should 

such arise." , , . • i 

One great difficulty which besets this subject is. Uiat the machineiyemployed 
for spinning cotton 'is not weU adapted for spinning flax; the fonner is spun 
drv, the latter Is spun wet; and flax is less manageable generally, less yielding 
to mechanical agency, tlmn cotton. It is said that die processes of preparing 
and spinning cotton, of average quality, involve an outlay of about M. per 
pound ; while the average expenses of the flax processes, on yam of similar 
quality, and by the ordinai7 flax machines, reach as high as lOd. li this be 
80, it becomes indeed important to see wheUier flax may be so ' cottonized 
as to be susceptible of preparation and spinning by the cotton machinerj'. 

One among the many directions in which improvement has been sought is 
in tlie treatment of the flax seed itaelf. The * pickling' or chemical treatinent 
of seeds is not a new idea; many oxperimentei-s have thought, that as the 
chemical constituents of the soil mainly determine the rapidity or slowness in 
the gi-owth of plants, so might a little chemical aid to the seed iteelf be con- 
ducive to a favourable result. Mr. Donlan has proposed such a mode ot 
ti-eating flax seed. The particular recipe has not. w. believe, been made 
public i nor does it appear Uiat experiments on a sufficiently extensive scale 
have yet been maile. It would seem as if an enten)n8mg capitahst nught 
render benefit, first to himself and then to the community, by preparmg a 
piece of land, laying it out in patches or sections, steepmg or picklmg H|« seed 
in as many different way.s as ihere are patches, sowing e«ch section with one 
particulai- kmd. treating them all alike during growtii. and compaiing the 
results when pulled and retted. This would place the vaiious chemical 
systems in fair* competition. Anotiier piece of land might, ''t jhe same tune^ 
be laid out in sections, aU differently manured, and sown wiUi ordmai>j flax 
Beed. to detemiine how to produce a good crop wiUi the cheapest manui-e^ 
This experimental mode of inquiiy would certainly yield valuable results, if a 
man of capital led the way. „ . i „ 

But it is in rrep<n-in^/ Aax, after gi-owing, that the purport of recent schemes 
has been chiefly exhibited. The Chevalier Claussen has ceiWy displayed 
much energv in bringing his invention into public notice. He has sent h s 
apparatus to Lancashire! to Ireland, and to other distncts, that it might be 
worked in existing miUs, and tliereby tested. One cxperunent was made at 



mm. 



iillii iiiiiH-M iiiriii 



I 




jovement an important 
iation, in 1850, he said, 
the circumstances here 
he diligent and careful 
it be called into action 
it is suggested, may be 
fiaa. A very few yeai-s 
I progress of our cotton 
I did not present itself. 

progress by which it is 
any that has been made 

. An additional induce- 
er articles, may be found 
lat in which it is usually 
ynient of a considerable 
nitcd Kingdom in which 
id tlaere is hardly any 
our deficiencies, should 

the mochinei-yemployed 
flax ; the former is spun 
e generally, less yielding 
e processes of preparing 
outlay of about 3d. per 
jsses, on yarn of similar 
high as lOd. If this be 
: may be so 'cottonized' 
le cotton machinerj'. 
ment has been sought is 
g' or chemical treatment 
ive thought, that as the 
e rapidity or slowness in 
o the seed itself be con- 
•oposed such a mode of 
wo believe, been made 
ufl&ciently extensive scale 
ri)ri8ing capitalist might 
nmnnity, by preparing a 
ping or pickling flax seed 
ng each section with one 
wth, and compoiing the 
;e the various chemical 
might, at the same time, 
. sown with ordinaiy flax 
th the cheapest manui*- 
ield valuable results, if a 

urport of recent schemes 
n has certainly displayed 
notice. He has sent his 
listricts, that it might be 
expermient was made at 



COTTON AND FT.AX : A CONTRAST. 



23 



Messrs. Qullzow's mill at Bnwlford ; and, from the ample accounts given in 
the public journals, we can glean suflicient to present the following sketch. 

The first attempt was to prepure long flax fibre for tlie ordinary linen manu- 
facture. Four hmidred weight of flux in the straw was boiled in a stone vat, in 
water contai\ung caustic alkali ; the boiling lasted four hour«, which was said to 
rd or seporat-a Uie fibres as effectually as tm ordinary steeping of weeks' duration. 
It iw asserted, also, tlmt the fibre is developed in uniform strengtli ; that it is 
less discoloured than by the old process ; and that much more of the glutinous 
or gummy matter is removed. The flax was removed from Uie alkaline liquid, 
and steeped for two hours in water slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid ; 
this effected the cleansing of the flax, and at the same time rendered tlio straw 
a more valuable manure tlian it would oUiei-wise be. The flax was tlien in a 
fit state to be scutched and prepared by the ordinary flax apparatus. 

The iiext experiment was in cottonwinfj flax ; that is, giving to flax some of 
die qualities of cotton. The mode of doing this was very remarkable. The 
separate fibres were cut mto short pieces, -steeped in a solution of bicaj-bonate 
of soda, and then ftteeped in slightly-acidulated water ; the pores became filled 
with these two liquids; a chemical action ensued between tlie acid and the 
alkali, coibonic acid gas was fomied witliin tlie little tubes, and tlie tubes were 
bunt by this gas. This split fibre has many of tlie qualities of cotton fibre, 
and may be dyed and spun nearly like cotton. Chevalier Olaussen gives the 
niime of British Cotton to tliis split flax : it is bleached by chemical agency, in tlic 
same rapid manner as cotton is now bleached in tlie gi-eat Lancashire works. 
The bleached flax is then spun into yam, either by itself or mixed in various 
proportions witli cotton. 

British cotton being the foundation, we have Jliuc cotton, flax tcool, and ,^0.1* 
sUk — a coniplete nomenclature, depending on tlie mixture of cotton, wool, or 
silk witlx the preptu-ed flax fibre. The great point aimed at is, that these 
mixed materials may be carded and spun in the existing machines, without 
necessitating any revolution in the factory aiTangements of tlie Noilh ; and it 
is also hoped by the inventor, tliat tlie woven goods produced from diese mixed 
materials will combine the merits of both components — the warmth of wool, 
tlie softness of cotton, tlie glossiness of silk, the strength of flax. The flax 
seems, in some vaiieties of the proccRs, to acquire a sort of felting property, 
analogous to tliat of w .,ol. There wore, in the Great Exhibition, broad cloths, 
blankfcta, and other felted goods, fonned of a mixture of wool and flax ; but in 
tliese instances the felting was probably chiefly confined to the wool fibres. 
Chevalier Claussen states, in further illustration of the efl"ects of his chemical 
processes, tliat if woven flaxen goods be treated somewhat in tlie same way, 
ihey become thickened and receive a richer dye than before. There seems to 
be much analogj- between tliis and Mr. Mercer's ti-eatment of cotton, noticed 
in a fonner page. 

There is something exceedingly beautiful about this Claussen process, 
irrespective of its claims to commercial attention. Microscopic obseners, 
as we have already stated, have long known that there is a notable 
(liflference between flax fibre and cotton fibre; tlie former is a kind of 
cylindrical tube, while tlie latter more resembles a flat ribbon; and tlie 
tube seems to be much more rigid and less pliant than the ribbon. But 
by bursting ojpen the tube tlirough chemical agency, and thus laying out 
the fibre in ribbon fashion, the inside as well as the outside of tlie tube 
is exposed, and new properties seem to be developed. At one of the 
meetings of the Royal Agricultural Society some flax was 'cottonised' in 



u 



COTTON AND FtAX : A CONTRAST. 




presence of the members: it was steeped in tlie aktdme liquor selected by 
Ckusscn, and in that state appeared like a damp ngid "^a«« : b*^* «f, ««°7 '^ 
Uwa^ exposed to the acid, by ^vhich carbonic gas was generated and *e fibi^3 
burst the whole of the flai spread out mto an exptmsive mass of cottony 
Se-Uke leavening dough or expandmg sponge. The restdt « descnbed 
S having been vciy sUiking; for the spectators saw both the beginning and 
Se end Sf tlie process during an ordinal^ sitting. It has been asserted Uiat 
Te pou^d of o^inary flax, spun to a certain degree of fineness, wdl produce 
Si 000 wds of yam; while one pound of split or ' cottomzed 'flax will yield 
as'.OOO yids If this be true, it is indeed a commercial U-uth of no httle 

^ChSer Claussen states that he was led by an accident, m the first 
instoicp iLids his theoiy of cottmising flax. Walking one day on the banks 
of TMrriver. on his own estate, he saw a white downy substance 
^herfnTto ^nie of *tlie trees. He found, on investigation that a heap of flax 
Sw which he had placed neai- the river h-ViZ-m^'^^^flt^^^^^ 
venerated, that these gases had greaUy modified tlie flax fibre, that the tibre 
haS become soft and do^vny, and that some of it had been washed mto Uie 
rWer STaught by overhan^ng branches. An induction from these facts led 
the observer t» his thebry of splittmg the fibres. 

Another recent scheme is that of Mr. Schenck. of NeAV York. In 1848 he 
broughTbe ore le notice of the Irish Flax Society his plan for «- «*f eping 
It consisted mainly in maintaining the steep-water at a constanUy high 
temnTmture by^hich he considered that he could ret or steep flax as 
Stud y^ sktY hom-s as in two or tlu-ee weeks on the old method. 1 he 
Society after much investigation, recommended the new system-not to tlie 
flaxSSwers'but to pei-sons of capital, who might purchase the flax straw ivom 
fho fSTers ret and scutch it with the improved apparatus and processes and 
2u STS fibrrto the spinners. A few • retteries ' (as these new estabhsh- 
l&'al^conv^niently cXd) are in oP-Uou; and the Ulste^^ 
have now a choice between two plans— either to sell the flax stxaw to tJie 
Si-8 or to ret the flax themselves by the old feethod, have it scutched at a 

""TCili?e'p?oSsses were patented in 1851 by Mr. Bower, of tjeds 
wWch seem to aim at a medium between tlie Claussen «y«t««\^^,f the old 
rvstem of flax prepai-ation. The chemistry of his plans seems to be intell- 
ibfe: but it. Lnmercial advantages as a system ^"I'l f ?^/« ^J°°8 a^^J 
Leful test. It has been brought under the notice of the Belfast Flax 

Society. 



aline liquor selected by 
id mass ; but as soon as 
generated and the fibres 
)an8ive mass of cottony 
The result is described 
botli tlie beginning and 
;t has been asserted Qiat 
of fineness, will produce 
3ottonized' flax will yield 
aercial truth of no little 

m accident, in the first 
ing one day on tlie banks 
white downy substance 
jation, that a heap of flax 
ited, that gases had been 
flax fibre, that the fibre 
lad been washed into the 
ction from these facts led 

' New York. In 1848 he 
his plan for flax steeping. 
er at a constantly high 
dd ret or steep flax as 
n the old method. The 
new system — ^not to tlie 
irchase tlie flax straw from 
aratus and processes, and 
3 ' (as these new establish- 
id the Ulster flax-gi-owers 
sell the flax straw to tlie 
hod, have it scutched at a 

by Mr. Bower, of Leeds, 
ussen system and the old 
plans seems to be intelli- 
would require a long and 
otice of the Belfast Flax 



CORN AND BREAD: WHAT THEY OWE TO 

MACHINERY. 



A QUAnTERN loaf is certainly not among those which we are in the habit of 
designating machine-made products. We are wont to separate agriculture from 
manufactures ; to consider the former conservative and the latter progressive ; 
to i-ank the former among the taiTy-at-home, and the latter among the go-aliead 
systems ; to tliiiik that in the former nature does more than num, but that in 
the latter man does more than nature ; to associate gi-een fields with the one, 
and smoky factories with the other. All tliis may, relatively speaking, be true ; 
but it is not tiiie if presented in too marked and decided a *bnii. The records 
of tlie Eoyal Agi-icultural Society, and equally those of the Great Exliibition, 
have taught us that mechanical as well as chemical principles are making 
notable advancements into the domain of agriculture. It may not be tliat 
1853 can "make two eai-s of com gi-ow where only one grew" in 1840; but 
an amount of progress wellworthy of attention has been made in economizing 
(and therefore improving) all the processes of husbandry, and tlie subsequent 
processes whereby com is converted into bread. 

The summing-up of the Agiicultural Jury of tlie Great Exhibition is really 
an important one. It is only about twelve years ago that tlie Agricultural 
Society commenced the annual show of (and prizes for) implements. And 
what has been the result? " Seeuig that the owner of a stock-fann is enabled, 
in the preparation of his land, by using lighter ploughs, to cast off" one horse 
in three, and, by adopting other simple means, to dispense altogether witli a 
great part of his ploughing — that, in the culture of crops by the various drills, 
lioi-se-labour can be partly reduced, the seed otherwise wanted partly saved, or 
the use of manures greatly economized ; while the horse-hoe replaces the hand- 
hoe, at one-half the expense — that, at harvest, the American reaping machines 
can effect thirty men's work ; while the Scotch cart replaces the old English 
waggon with exactly half the number of horses — that, in preparing com for 
man's food, the steam threshing-machine saves two-thhds of om* former expense ; 
and in preparing food for stock, the turnip cutter, at an outlay of one shilling, 
adds eight shillings a head, in one winter, to the value of sheep — lastly, that 
in the indispensable but costly operation of draining, the materials have been 
reduced from 80«. to 15s. per acre, to one-fifth, namely, of their former cost — it 
seems to be proved that Uie effbits of agricultui-al machinists have been so far 
successful as, in all these main branches of farming labour, taken together, to effect a 
saving in outgoings of little less than one-half" The italics are Mr. Pusey's ; and 
well do the words desen'e to be made conspicuous. 

Let us examine some of the " Curiosities " presented by com husbandly, 
the conversion of the com into flom-, and Uie convei-sion of the flour into 
bread and biscuits, so fai- as they illustrate the great mechanical progress of 
tlie last few years. And we may begin with a few general remarks on certain 
aspects which the subject presents m relation to the Great Exhibition and to 
other industrial arrangements. 



M 



mtm 



ue\\-tai\iM*ttm' 



mmHmit 



II CORN AND DREAD : WHAT TIIEY OWE TO MACHINERY. 

General Aspecx of Corn Husbandry in 1851. 
Fine indeed was the ugiicuUuval display at our recent congi-ess in Hyde 
PaS It seems to be generally admitted that no department ot mduf y va 
n oit effi ientW iire^ented. Ao variety was such as to surprise Kf'ef y » - ' 
X> have not knowri how extensively mechanical aid is now applied to agn- 
Tultoe Fo p epa ng the ground, L sowing the seed, for tending the youjig 
nlZs while growing, ^.r gathering the crop, lor prei.anng it lor market-foi 
ftesfopeS^ of L most ingenious kind have been invei e.l 

WV S barley avelers. carts and waggons, chaff ^""eii',. culUv^U^r . d^iU 
m-ubbers drill ploughs, drill sowing machines, lannmg mills, gorse-cutti ig 
S .?phini ^asH cutting machines, grubbers, han-ows, ploughs, hay-makmg 
Zh ne • hTLTSw-cutting machines, liquid-manure machines mowmg 
Sid reaping machines, oil-eake mills, ploughs, scaiihers. seed-dibb mg 
machineTagricuUural steam-engines, subsoil pulverizers, ti"-e«l;!"S ^."^ "»^ ; 
Srnh>cu ling machines, winnowing machineH-all were at the Crystal Palace 
A^dUieewf re irrespective of tlie simpler tools for hand-husbaiidry, sucl as 
f^yiierchrff-knives. hay-knives, gi-ass-hooks, reaping-hooks. bUl-hooks. sickles, 
Rttftdes shovels, hoes, rakes, flails, and the like. . . 

^Nor did ore gn countries neglect to show us to what extent «'niJai- aid 
available among themselves ; difficult as it must have been o send many 
Jhe e pondroi^^ machhies across tlie wide ocean Austria, lor mBUnce. se t 
us seed htuTows. carrot drillei-s. seed coverers. seed looseners, weed desti-oyers, 
subtoTl pSs and harrows. Belgium exhibited her seed bags, cast-uon 
mllers seed n ills, ploughs, harrows, winnowing mtvchines. weeding machines, 
BUaw-ch^^^^^^^^ grasUlearmg machines. Canada contributed gram 

Sefmarpronged hay-forks, and ploughs. Efeypt showed us her some- 
w£ mce SLoks. sickles, hoes, ploughs, and the Norez machine for sowmg 
reed From France wa had ploughs. haiTows. winnowing machines clo^el- 
Seshing machines, corn-cleansing' machines. &c. Holland contributed seeJ 
Se Uquid-manure machines, swing ploughs, tunup-cutters and a ve^ 
curious iiistrument called tlie dynanwsUUer, to measme the sU-ength of tho action 
"pbughs Switzerland iUusLted her hand-husbandiy by such ^m^-^P^- 
ments L pitchforks, rakes. scyUies. prunmg knives, and so forth. Pr^^s*^ "^^ 
Z vaffous German states sent us chaff-cutters, sowmg machines dn Is, 
S?oshTng machines. Flemish ploughs, subsoil ploughs wat^x-furrow ploughs, 
S Sto mUls. The United States-busy in aU the fields of mdustiy- 
Shib'rd to 's some of her Virginia gram-reapers ^niut machines ho,., 
rakes hay-forks, scythes, nloughs, cultivators, ''mlroad hoi-se-power seed- 
utoterPgiain drills, and-lasl though not least-the now lamous reaping 
maobinea by Hussey of Baltimore and M'Corraick of Chicago. 

AnS we take, among tlie English agricultm-al specimens, any one class of 
inmkmentstwhat a scene of activity did it not display ! Let it be ploughs, fo 
instance There were nearly fifty exhibitors of ploughs, some of whom se 
"S varieties. Here we iay lairly expect Uiat all which the farmer coul 
do down to the middle of the nmeteenth centuiy. was put fordi in the be^t 
mMiner There were common ploughs, without any distmctiye name ; Uiere 
weTiuinhig ploughs, "criterion prize ploughs." iron wheel ploughs, wood 
Twing pSxl bro^l-shai-e ploughs, double ploughs witii wi-ought-iron beam, 
" nateut N G H ploughs." gold-hanger ploughs, one-way-turnover ploughs, 
tw%oileulsvvhig ploughs, skim'ploughs, welded-joint ploughs, ploughs 



\CHINEnY. 



IN 1861. 

cent eongi-es9 in Hyde 
irtiuent of industi-y was 
to smin-ise greatly thoso 
is now applied to ugri- 
d, for tending the young 
iring it for market — for 
ind have been invented, 
juttera, cultivators, drill 
ling mills, gorse-cutting 
8, ploughs, hay-making 
nure machincH, mowing 
scarifiers, seed-dibbling 
;ers, tlu-eshing machines, 
ire at the Crystal Palace, 
hand-husbandry, such as 
Liooks, bill-hooks, sickles, 

?hut extent similar aid is 
e been to send many of 
Vustria, for instance, sent 
oseuers, Aveed destJ-oyers, 
her seed bags, caat-irou 
hines, weeding machines, 
mada contributed grain 
pt showed us her some- 
Sorez machine for sowing 
nowing machines, clover- 
Holland contributed seed 
lu-nip-cutters, and a veiy 
i tlie su-ength of tho action 
idry by such simple imple- 
ind so forth. Prussia and 

sowmg machines, di'ill^, 
»hs, water-furrow ploughs, 
1 the fields of industry- 
's, smut machines, horee- 
ulroad horse-p