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QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 



f 



.<•*. -«».-^» 



THE 



QUADRUPEDS 



OP 



NORTH AMERICA. 



BY 



JOHN JAMES AUDUBON, F.R.S.,&c.&c. 



AND 



THE REV. JOHN BACTIMAN, DJ)., &c. &c. 



VOL. Ill 



NEW YORK: 
GEOROE R. LOCKWOOD, 

(I.ATE ROE I.OCKWOOD A SON,) 

812 HUOADWAY. 




* 



7/5 

V.3 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by 

V. G. AUDUBON, 

In ,l.e Clerk's Office of the District Coua of the Southern District of New-Tort 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Felis Unco, . 

Mophitig Mnorourn, . , 

Arctoinya Pruinosus, 

Seiurus CoUoji, 

PseudMtomn Douglnsii, 

Corviig RicImrdBonii, 

Arctotnyg Lewisii, . 

Lepus Badimani, . 

Spcrraopliiliifl Mexicanue^ , 

Pseudostoino Talpoidea, . 

OviboB Moschatua, . 

Lcpus Californioue^ 

Canis Familiaris (var. Bortalis)^ 

Spermophilus Lateralis, . 

Arvioola xanthognatha, . . 

Vulpes Fulvus, , , 

Seiurus Nigrescena, 

Cervua Leucurus, . , 

GeorycliHs Iludsoniue^ . 

Georyclms Ilelvohis, . , 

Gcoryclius Trimucronatua^ 

Vulpes Lagopua, . 

Luti-a Canadensis (var. Lataxina Mollis^ 

Aplodontia Leporins, 

Sponnophilus Mexicanua, 

Sorex Palustris, 

Eangifer Caribou, . 

Ursua Americanua (var. Cinnamomum), 

Capra Americana, . 

Arvioola Borcalis, . 

Dipodomys Phillipsii, 

Ursua Ferox, . 

Canis Familiaris (var. LagopuaX 

Lepua Texianua, 

Aj-ctorays Flaviventer, 

Arvicola Richardsoni', 

Arvioola Drummondii, 

Cervug Virginiamut 



. Jiiguar, .... 
. liorge-tailed Skunk, . 
. Hoary Marmot.— The Whittle 
. Collie's Squirrel, , , 
. Columbia Pouched-Rat, . 
. Columbian Black-tailed Deer, 
. Lewis's Marmot, . . 
. Backman's Hare, 
, Californian Marmot-Squirrel, 
. Mole-shaped Pouched-Rat, 
. Musk-Ox, . . , 

. Californian Hare, . , 
. Esquimaux Dag, 
. Sai/s Marmot- Squirrel, . 
, Yellow-cheeked Meadow-Mouse, 
American Black or Silver Fox 
Dusky Squirrel, 
Long-tailed Deer, , 
Hudson'.^ Bay Lemming, . 
Tawny Lemming, . , 
Back's Lemming, , 
Arctic Fox, 

Canada Otter, . . , 
Seicellel, .... 
Mexican Marmnt.Squirrel, 
American Marsh Shrew, . 
Caribou, or American Reindeer, 
Cinnamon Bear, 
Rocky Mountain Ooat, 
Northern Meadow-Mouse, , 
Pouched Jerboa Mouse, . 
Grizzly Bear, . 
Hare-Indian Dog, . 
Texan Hare, . 
Yellow-bellied Marmot, . 
Richardmn's Meadow-Mouse, 
DrummoniVs Meadow-Mouse, 
Common Deer 



Pift 
1 

11 
17 
91 

24 

27 

32 

86 

89 

43 

46 

63 

51 

62 

67 

78 

74 

77 

82 

85 

87 

90 

97 

99 

39 

108 

111 

126 

128 

.•34 

137 

14! 

163 

156 

160 

163 

166 

168 



^ 



17 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Echvora Marinn, , 
M'isto.ft Martea, 
Spermophiltig Mncroiinis, 
I'utonus Agili^ 
Ursus AniorieanuB, . , 
PBCuaoatoiiia ISurcalis, 
Pteroniys Sobrinus, 
Pteromys Alpinus, . 
Arvicoia Townseudii, 
Arvicois Nasuta, . 
Arviooia Orizivora, 
Soalops Townscndii, 
Doaypus Pcba, 
Sperraopliiliis Townsciid 
Arvicola Oregon!, . 
Arvicola Texihna, . 
Putoriiis Fugcua, . 
Sciurua Frinionti, . 
Bciurua Fuliginosua, 
Pieudostoma Floridana, 
Sorex Dekayi, 
Sorex Longiroatria, . 
Soalopa ArgentatuB, 
Vuli)es Utali, . 
Sciurua Alustelinjs, 
Sciurua Auduboni, . 
Sciurua Aberti, 
Sciurua Fossor, 
Spermophilua Ilarrisii, 
Arvicola Edax, 
Procyon Cancrivorua, 
Mephitis Zorilla, . 
Canis (lupus) Griseus, 
Arvicola Dekayi, , 
Arvicola Apella, . 
Arvicola Austerua, . 
Arvicola Cnlifornica, 
Arvicola Occidentalia, 
Arvicola (Ilcsperomys) 
Arvicola (Ilesjjeromys) 
Arvicola llubricatua, 
Pcrognathus Penicillatus, 
Pgeudostonia (Geoniya) 
Arvicola Montana, . 
Pecudostoma Custanops, 
Pgeudostoma (Geomys) Hiapidum, 
Paeudostoma Umbrinua, 
PaeudoBtoma (Geomya) Jlexicanua, 



Campestr 
Sonoriensia, 



Fulvua, 



. Sea Ollrr, , 

. Pine Miirtrn, . , 

. Large-laHed Sprrmophile, 

. Little Nimlile Weasel, 

. American Black Bear, . 

. Calling Rat, , , 

Serern-Iiivcr Flying. Squirrel, 
. Rocky Mountain Flying-Squirrel, 
. TotensentTa Arvicola, 
. Sharp-nosed Arvicola, 
. Rice Meadow-Mouse, , 
. Toirnsend's Shrew-Mole, . 
. Nine-Banded Armadillo, . 
. Ami ican Souslik, . , 
. Oregon Meadow-Mouse, , 
. Texan Meadow-Mouse, , 
. Tawny Weasel, . , 

. Fremont's Squirrel, . 
, Sooty Squirrel,, 
. Southern Pouched Rat, . 
, DcKay's Shrew, 

Long-nosed Shrew, , , 
, Sihtry Shrew-Mole, . 
Jackall Fox, , 

Weasel-like Squirrel, . 
Large Louisiuua Black Squirrel, 
Colonel Aberfs Squirrel, . 
California Grey Squirrel, . 
Harris's Marmot Squirrel, 
California Meadow Mouse, 
Crab-eating Jiaccoon, 
Californian Skunk, . 
American Grey Wolf, 
Glossy Arvicola, 
Woodhouse's Arvicola, 
Baird's Arvicola, 
Californian Arvicola, 
Western Ariicola, . 
New Jersey Field Mouse, . 
Sonora F'icld Mouse, . 
■Red-sided Meadow Mouse, . 
Tuft-tailed Pouched Rat, . 
Reddish Pouched Rat, 
Peale's Meadow-Mouse, 
Chestnut-cheeked Pouched Rat, 

Leadbeater's Sand Rat, 



. 170 
. M% 
, 181 
. 184 
. 187 
. 198 
. 20a 
. 906 
. 209 
. 211 
. 214 
. 217 
. 220 
. 226 
. 232 
. 230 
, 284 
, 287 
, 240 
242 
248 
249 
252 
2S5 
268 
260 
262 
204 

267 

270 

272 

276 

27 a 

287 

289 

2U1 

293 

294 

29S 

296 

297 

2U8 

300 

802 

804 

806 

807 

309 



TAilLE OF C0NTENT8. 



8or«x Koruteri, 

Sorcx Coojicri, . . , 

Horcx Fimbripes, , . . 

Sorex PerHonatua, . 

Oeorychus GrceiilanJiouB, 

DipoJouiys Ordii, . 

Arvicola (Ilcsporomys) Texaiiu, 

Scalops /Eneufl, 

Scftlops Latimanua^ . , 

Mus Le Contei, . . , 

Mu8 Micliiganensis, 

Perognathus (Crioetodipus) Parvus, 

Didelphig Breiicops, 

Didelpliis Califurnica, . 

Mus Corolinei sis, . 

Sorex Riolmrdaonii, 

Sorex Brevicaudns, 

Pscudostoma Bulbivorum, . 

Dipodomys Agilis, . 

Dipodomys Ileenr-anni, . 

PerognatbM Fasciatug, . 

Soiurus Clarkii, 

'iciurus Annalata«^ 



Fomter't Shrew Alouie, 
Cooper's Ulirew, 
Fringt-footed Shreui, . 



Oreenland Lemminr/, 
Ord'i Pouched Mouu, 



Black-clamed Shreui Molt, 
Texan Shrew Mole, . 
L« Content Mntitf, , 
Michigan Moute, 



Carolina Mou*e, 
Richardfon'i Shrev), 
Short-lailed Shrte, 



Otark't Squirrel, 
Lmoii* Squirrel, 



«l« 
III 

n* 

814 

na 

817 

81» 

891 

8M 

824 

820 

828 

88U 

881 

882 

884 

88S 

889 

889 

840 

841 

842 

848 



t 






QIADIUI'KDS OF NORTH AMKRICA. 



FKLIS ONCA.— LiN.v. 

■lAOtAll. 

PLATE CF.— Femalk. 

p. Supra fulva, 8ubtus albus ; corpore ocellia anmilaribufc nigris ornaio, 
In series .subparallelis per longitudinem dispositis ; ocellis, punctis uigris 
Hubcentralibus, iu signitis. 

CHARACTERS. 

Yellow, vrith a white belly ; body marked with open black circk-Hke Jiffurej, 
each containing one or more nearly central black dots ; these blark, ch'cle-likt 
markings disposed in nearly longitudinal parallel lines. 



SYNONYMES. 

Fklis Onca. Linn. Syst. Natur. vol. xii. p. 61 ; Gmel. vol. i. p. 77, pi. 4 (4 ed.). 
" " Schreber, Saugth. p. 388, pi. 6. 
" " Erxleben Syst. p. 513, pi. {). 

•' Zimm. Geogr. Gesch. ii. pp. 162, 268. 
" " Cuv. Ann. du Mus. xiv. p. 144. 4 T. lb. 

" Kegne Animale, vol. i. p. 260. OssementoFossilw, vol iv p 4n 
" " F. Cuv. Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. viii. p. 223. 
" Desm. in iNf. iv. Diet., vol. vi. p. 97, pi. 4. 
" " Mammal., pp. 219, 338. 

" Desmoulins, Diet. Class 3d, p. 498. 
" Temm. Monog., p. 136. 
Panthera. Sehreber, t, 99. 
Cauda Elonqata. Brown's Jamaiea. 
TiGEis Reoia. Briss. Regne Aniroale, p. £69, fi^- 7, 
VOL. III.— 1 



u 

<( 
u 
u 
u 



f 



2 JAGUAR. 

TLATLAriuni OcELOTL. TiORis Mexicana. Hernandez, Mex., p. 498, fig. a 

Jaouara. Marcgr. Brazil, p. 235, fig. c. 

Jaguar. Buff. Niit. Hist., torn. ix. p. 201. 

Yaoouarkte. D'Azara, vol. i. p. 114. 

Bkazilian Panther. Pennant's Synopsis, pp. 127, 176. 

" Tiger. Pennant's Quadrupeds, ji. 286. 
Onza Pintado. Lmikinis, in Bresil, Cuinang Macmiis. 
Felis Jaguar. Hamilton Smith. (Griffith's An. Kingdom, vol. v. 
" OsCA. Harlan, Fauna, p. 95. 



p. 164. 



DESCRIPTION. 

The Jaguar compares with the Afiiatic tiger in .size and in sh&pe; its 
legs, however, are shorter than those of the royal tiger, although its 
body is perhaps as heavy. 

Head, large ; jaws, capable of great expansion ; incisors, largo, and 
slightly curved inwards ; ears, rather small, rf^unded, clothed with I'.hort 
hairs on the inside. Body, rather inclining to be stout, and shorter and 
less elegant than the cougar : at the shoulders the Jaguar is not much 
more raised from the earth, but it stands higher from the ground near tlio 
rump. 

Feet, clothed with hair covering the retractile nails ; the pads of the 
feet, naked ; a few hairs between the toes ; tail, long, and generally half 
elevated when walking ; whiskers, few, strong, and bristly. 

Hair of two kinds ; the longest (which is only from four to live eighths 
of an Inch in length) is the coarser ; the shortest is a softer and finer fur, 
and is not very thickly distributed. 

COLOUR. 

Where the black markings do not prevail, the hairs are light greyish- 
brown at the roots and on the surface rich straw-yellow, deepest near the 
shoulders and back and paler on the sides and legs ; nose to near the eye 
nearly a uniform lightish-brown ; forehead spotted with black in some- 
what curved lines, the spots becoming larger towards the back of the 
head ; Avhiskers black at the roots, then white for two thirds of their 
length to the points ; lips and chin, white ; a black line on the sides of 
the mouth ; around the eve. whitish-yellow ; iris, light-yellow ; a black 
stripe between the ears on the back jiart of the head. There is no white 
patch behind the ear, as in the cougar and the wild c: !„ 

All the black spots on the body are composed of hairs which are black 
from their roots ; outer edge of the ear, black for half an inch in width ; 



rm 



JAGUAR. 3 

a row of black spots running along the back to and beyond the root of 
the tail for about a foot along its upper surface ; the sides of the body are 
marked with black rings of irregular and somewhat oval shapes, with 
yellow-brown centres having dots of pure black in them. These black 
rings are. on the edge of the back somewhat diamond shaped, with frcm 
one to three little black spots inside. Many of these circles or squares are 
wot perfect : some are formed by several dots r d curved black patches 
which turn inwards. 

On the shoulders and the outer surfaces of the .(>gs, these rings or 
squares are succeeded by black spots or patches ■ .soning in size as" they 
approach the claws. The hair on the under surface is dull-white from the 
roots, with large patches of black ; belly, inner sides o^ legs, a . throat, 
white, blotched or spotted with black. These patches are irregular in 
size, being from one eighth of an inch to two inches in extent. Tail, 
general colour spotted black on a yellow ground, like the outsides of iho 
legs. 

A living Jaguar from Mexico which we examined in its cage at 
Charleston, became very beautiful after shedding its hair in spring": the 
general colour of its body was bright-yellow, and the rings and spots were 
brilliant black. 

There was another living specimen in the same collection, from Brazil 
which resembled the one from Mexico in its general markings, but was 
lai-ger, more clumsy; and had shorter and thicker le-s. There were, how- 
ever, no characters by which the species could be separaiod. 



DIMENSIONS. 



From point of nose to root of ta 
Length of tail, - 
Height of ear, - 
Shoulder to end of claw, - 
Length of largest claw. 
Around the wrist, 

" chest, 

" head, 
Breadth between the eyes, - 



1, 



Feet. 


lucheia. 


4 


1 


2 


ICO 




2i 


2 






2 




74 


8 




1 


91 




3 



HABITd. 



ilike beautiful and ferocious, the Jaguar is of all American animals 
unquestionably the most to be dreaded, on account of its combined 



■* 



4 JAGUAR. 

strengtli, activity, ami couragp, wliioh not only give it a vast physical 
power over other wild creatures, but euable it frequently to destroy man. 
Compared with this formidable beast, the cougar need hardly be dreaded 
more than the wild cat ; and the grizzly bear, although often quite as ready 
to attack man, is inferior in swiftness and stealthy cunning. To the so much 
feared tiger of the l<]ast he is equal in fierceness ; and it is owing, perhaps, 
to his being nocturnal in his habits to a great extent, that he seldom issues 
from the deep swamps or the almost impenetrable thickets or jungles of 
thorny shrubs, vines, and tangled vegetation which compose the chaparals 
of Texas and Mexico, or the dense and untracked forests of Central and 
Southern America, ro attack man. From his haunts in such nearlv unap- 
proachable localities, the Jaguar roams forth towards the close of tiie day, 
and during the hours of darkness seizes on 'his prey. During the whole 
night he is abroad, but is most frccpiently met with in moonlight and fine 
nights, disliking dark and rainy weather, although at the promptings of 
hunger he will draw near the camp of the traveller, or seek the almost 
wild horses or cattle of tlte ranchero even during daylight, with the 
coolest audacity. 

The Jaguar has the cunning to resort to salt-licks, or the watering- 
places of the mustangs and other wild animah, where, concealing himself 
behind a bush, or mounting on to a low or sloping tree, he lies in wait 
until a favorable opportunity presents itself for springing on his prey. 
Like the cougar and the wild cat, he seeks for the peccary, the skunk, 
opossum, and the smaller rodentia ; but is fond of attacking the larger 
quadrupeds, giving the preference to mustangs or horses, mules, "or 
cattle. The colts and calves especially aflbrd him an easy prey, and 
form a most important item in the grand result of his predatory 
expeditions. 

Like the lion and tiger, he accomplishes by stealth or stratagem what 
could not be efl-ected by his swiftnes* of foot, and does not, like the 
untiring wolf, i)nrsue his prey with indomitable perseverance at top speed 
for hours together, although he will sneak after a man or any other prey 
Tor half a day at a time, or hang on the skirts of a party for a considerable 
period, watching for an opportunity of springing upon some person or 
animal in the train. 

Col. Hays and several other officers of the Rangers, at the time J. W. 
Audubon was at Sau Antonio de Bexar, in l«4r., informed him that the 
Jaguar was most frequently found about the watering-places of the mus- 
tangs, or wild horses, and deer. It has been seen to spring upon the 
former, and from time to time kills one ; but it is much more in the 
habit of attacking colts about six months old, which it masters with 



JAGUAR. 



St physical 
sstroy man. 
be dreaded 
te as ready 
he so much 
g, perhaps, 
dom isf)iie3 
jungles of 
! chaparals 
entral and 
larly unap- 
af tlie day, 

tlie whole 
it and fine 
iptings of 
the almost 

with the 

watering- 
ig himself 
3s in wait 

his prey, 
he skunk, 
the larger 
mules, or 
prey, and 
liredatory 

gem what 
, like the 
top speed 
ither prey 
isiderable 
person or 

me J. W. 

that the 

the mus- 

upon the 

•e in the 

ters with 



great ease. Col. Hays had killed four Jaguars during his stay in Texas 
These animals are known in that country by the Americans as the " Leopard,'' 
and by the Mexicans as the " Mexican tiger." When lying in wait at or 
neai- the watering-places of deer nr horses, this savage beast exhibits great 
patience and perseverance, remaining for hours crouched down, with head 
depressed, and still as death. But when some luckless animal approaches, 
its eyes seem to dilate, its hajr bristles up, its tail gently waved back 
wards and forwards, and all its powerful limbs appear to quiver with 
excitement. The unsuspecting creature draws near the dangerous spot ; 
suddenly, with a tremendous leap, the Jaguar pounces on him, and with 
the fury of an incarnate fiend fastens upon his neck with his terrible teeth, 
whilst his formidable claws are struck deep into his back and flanks. The 
Door victim writhes and plunges with fright and pain, and makes violent 
efforts to shake off the foe, but in a few moments is unable longer to 
struggle, and yields with a last despairing cry to his fate. The Jaguar 
begins to devour him while yet alive, and growls and roars over his prey 
until his hunger is appeased. When he has finished his meal, he sometimes 
covers the remains of the carcass with sticks, grass, weeds, or earth, if 
not disturbed, so as to conceal it from other predacious animals and vul- 
tures, until he is ready for another banqnet. The Jaguar often lies 
down to guard his prey, after devouring as much as he can. On one 
occasion a small party of Rangers came across one wiiile feeding upon a 
mustang. The animal was surrounded by eight or ten hungry wolves, 
which dared not interfere or approach too near " the presence." The 
Rangers gave chase to the Jaguar, on which the wolves set up a howl or 
cry like a pack of hounds, and joined in the hunt, which ended before they 
had gone many yards, the Jaguar being shot down as he ran, upon whicli 
the wolves went back to the carcass of the horse and finished him. 

The Jaguar has been known to follow a man for a long time. Colonel 
Hays, whilst alone on a scouting expedition, was followed by one of these 
animals for a considerable distance. The colonel, who was aware that his 
footsteps were scented by the animal, having observed him on liis trail 
a little in his rear, had proceeded a good way, and thought that the 
Jaguar had left, when, having entered a thicker part of the wood, he 
heard a stick crack, and being in an Indian country, "whirled round," 
expecting to face a Wakoe ; but instead of a red-skin' he saw the Jaguar, 
about haif-crouchod. looking " right in his eye," and gently waving his^ail.' 
The colonel, although he wished not to discharge his gun, being in the 
neighborhood of Indians who might hear the report, now thou^^ht it high 
time to shoot, so he fired, and killed him in his tracks. "The skin," n? 
he informed us, " was so beautiful, it was a pleasure to look at it." 



t 



6 



JAGUAR. 



Ihese skins are vory higl.ly prized by the Mexicans, and also bv tVe 
Rangers; they are used for holster coverings and as saddle cloths' and 
form a superb addition to the caparison of a Lautiful horse the most 
important animal to the occupants of the prairies of Texas, and upon 
which they always show to the best advantage. 

_ In a conversation with General Mor.sTOX at Washington citv he 
•nforn^ed us that he had found the Jaguar east of the San Jacinto Wver 
and abundantly on the head waters of some of the eastern tributaries of 
tiie Kio Grande, the Guadaloupe, <frc. 

These animals, said the geneml, are sometimes found associated to the 
nun,ber of two or more together, when they easily destroy horses and other 
large quadrupeds. On the head waters of the San Marco, one night the 
generals people were aroused by the snorting of their horses, bui on 
advancing into the space around could see nothing, owing to the great 
darkness The horses having become quiet, the men retted to camp 
and ay down to rest as usual, but in the morning one of the horses was 
found to have been killed and eaten up entirely, except the skeleton. The 
horses on this occasion were hobbled and picketed ; but the general thinks 
the Jaguar frequently catches and destroys wild ones, as well as cattle. 
The celebrated Bowie caught a splendid mustang horse, on the rump of 
which were two extensive scars made by the claws of a Jaguar or cougar 
• ^uch instances, indeed, are not very rare. 

Capt. J. P. McCowv, U. S. A., related the following anecdote to us — 
At a camp near the Rio Grande, one night, in the thick, low, level musnuit 
country, when on an expedition after Indians, the captain had killed a 
bee which was brought into camp from some distance. A fire was made 
part of the beef hanging on a tree near it. Tlie horses were picketed 
around the men outside forming a circular guard. After some hours of 
the night had passed, the captain was aroused by the soldier next him 
paying, Captain, may I shoot?" and raising himself on his arm, saw a 
Jaguar close to the fire, between him and the beef, and near it. with one 
fore-foot raised, as if disturbed ; it turned its head towards the captain as 
he ordered the soldier not to fire, lest he should hurt some one on the 
oilier side of the camp, and then, seeming to know it was discovered but 
without exhibiting any sign of fear, slowly, and with the stealthy, noiseles. 
pace and attitude of a common cat, sneaked off. 

The Jaguai-, in its South American range, was long since r.:,ticed for its 
feroci y by Humboldt and others. In some remarks on u. American 
animals of the genus felis, which we find in the Memoirs of the Wernerian 
Nat Hist. Society of Edinburgh, vol. iv., part 2, p. 470, it is stated that 
the Jaguar, like the royal tiger of Asia, does not fly from man when it ie 



\ also by ihe 
e cloths, and 
•so, the most 
IS, and upon 

ton city, lie 
acinto vivpr. 
ributaries of 

ciated to the 
5es and other 
le night, the 
rses, but on 
to the great 
led to camp 
' horses Avas 
leton. The 
neral thinks 
II as cattle, 
he rump of 
■ or cougar. 

»te to us : — 
vel musquit 
k1 killed a 

was made, 
'e picketed 
e hours of 
1" next him 
irni, saw a 
", with one 

captain as 
>ne on the 
•vered, but 
i, noiseless 

ced for its 
Aintrican 
fV'ernerian 
tated that 
wlien it ie 



JA(;UAK. . 

dared to close combat, when it is not alarmed by the great number of its 
assailants. The writer quotes an instance in which one of these animals 
had seized a horse belonging to a farm in the province of Cumana, and 
dragged it to a considerable distance. " The groans of the dying horse," 
says Humboldt, "awoke the slaves of the farm, who went out armed with 
lances and cutlasses. The animal continued on its prey, awaited their 
approach with firmness, and fell only after a long and obstinate resist- 
ance." In the same article, the writer states that the Jaguar leaps into 
the water to attack the Indians in their canoes on the Oronoko. This 
animal called the Yagouaret^ in Paraguay if we are not mistaken, the 
foregoing article goes on to say, is described by gentlemen who have 
hunted it in that country, as a very courageous and powerful animal, of 
great activity, and highly dangerous when at bay. He also says : " Both 
this species and the puma are rendered more formidable by the facility 
with which they can ascend trees. 

" A very beautiful Jaguar from Paraguay was some time ago carried 
alive to Liverpool. When the animal arrived, it was in full health, and 
though not fully grown was of a very formidable size and strength. The 
captain who brought it could venture to play with it, as it lay on one of 
the boats on deck, to which it was chained ; Imt it had been familiarized 
to him from the time it was the size of a small dog." 

In Griffith's Cuvier, vol. ii. p. 457, it is stated in a quotation from 
D'Azara, that the Jaguar is reported to " stand in the water out of the 
stream, and drop its saliva, which, floating on the surface, draws the fish 
after it within reach, when it seizes them with the paw, and throws them 
ashore for food." At the same page, it is said, " The Jaguar is hunted 
with a number of dogs, which, although they have no chance of destroying 
it themselves, drive the animal into a tree, provided it can find one a little 
inclining, or else into some hole. Ii. the first case the hunters kill it with 
fire-arms or lances ; and in the .^scond, some of the natives are occasionally 
found hardy enough to approach it with the left arm covered with a sheep- 
skin, and to spear it with the other— a temerity which is frequently 
followed with fatal consequences to the hunter." 

The Jaguars we examined in a menagerie at Charleston had periodical 
fits of bad temper : one of them severely bit his keeper, and was ready to 
give battle either to the Asiatic tiger or the lion, which were kept in 
8e]jarate cages. 

Wc add some extracts, with which we hope our readers will be 
interested : 

" In the province of Tucuman, the common mode of killing the Jaguar is 
(X) trace him to his lair by the wool left on the bushes, if he has c'arried 



* 



8 JAGUAR. 

off a sheep, or by means of a dog trained for the purpo!<e. On finding llie 
enemy, the gaiicho puts lilmself into a position for receiving him on the 
point of a bayonet or spear at tlie first s{)ring which lie makes, and thus 
waits until the dogs drive him out — an exploit which he performs with 
such coolness and dexterity that there is scarcely an instance of failure. 
In a recent instance related by our capitaz, the business was not so quickly 
completed. The animal lay stretched at full length on the ground, like a 
gorged cat. Instead of showing anger and attacking his enemies with 
fury, he was playful, and disposed rather to parley with the dogs with 
good humour than to take their attack in sober earnestness. He was now 
fired upon, and a ball lodged in his shoulders, on which he sprang so 
quickly on his watching assailant that he not only buried the bayonet in 
his body, but tumbled over the capitaz who held it, and they floundered on 
the ground together, the man being completely in his clutches. ' I 
thought,' said the Brave fellow, ' 1 was no longer a capitaz, while I held 
my arm up to protect my throat, which the animal seemed in the act of 
seizing ; but when 1 expected to feel his fangs in my flesh, the green fire 
of his eyes which blazed upon mo flashed out in a moment. He fell on me, 
and expired at the very instant 1 thought myself lost for ever.' " — Captain 
Andrews's Travels in South America, vol. i. p. 2111. 

"Two Indian children, a boy and girl eight or nine years of age, were 
sitting among the grass near the village of Atures, in the midst of a 
savannah. It was two in the afternoon when a Jaguar issued from the 
forest and approached the children, gambolling around them, sometimes 
concealing himself among the long gra,ss, and again springing forward, with 
his back curved and his head lowered, as is usual with our cats. The 
little boy was unaware of the danger in which he was placed, and became 
sensible of it only when the Jaguar struck him on the head with one; of his 
paws. The blows thus inflicted were at first slight, but gradually became 
ruder. The claws of the Jaguar wounded the child, and blood flowed 
with violence. The little girl then took up a branch of a tree, and struck 
the animal, which fled before her. The Indians, hearing the cries of the 
children, ran up and saw the Jaguar, which bounded off without showing 
any disposition to defend itself." — Humboldt's Travels and Reseaix/ies, Sfc, 
Edinburgh, 1H3:<, p. 245. 

Humboldt speculates on this cat-like treatment of the children, and we 
think it very likely tluit occasionally the Jaguar plays in a similar manner 
with its prey, although we have not witnessed it, nor heard of any 
authentic case of the kind. 

D'AzAUA says (vol. i. p. IIG) that the black Jaguar is so rare that in 
forty years only two had been killed on the head waters of the river 



JAGUAR. r, 

Parana. The man who killed one of tho.sc a.-;sured him that it did not 
differ from the Jaguar (Yagouari'te), except that it was black, marked with 
still blacker spots, like those of the common Jagua-. 

The Jaguar generally goes singly, but is sometime.s accompanied by his 
favourite female. The latter brings forth two young at a time, the hair 
of which is rougher and not so beautiful as in tlie adult. She guides them 
as soon as they are able to follow, and supplies and protects them, not 
hesitating to encounter any danger in their defence. 

The Jaguar, according to D'Azaua, can easily drag away a horse or an 
ox ; and should another be fastened or yoked to the one he kills, the pow- 
erful beast drags both off together, notwithstanding the resistance of the 
terrified living one. lie does not conceal the residue of liis prey after 
feeding : this nuiy be because of the abundance of animals in his vSouth 
American haunts. He hunts in the stealthy manner of a cat after a rat, 
and his leap upon his prey is a very sudden, quick spring : he does not 
move rapidly when retreating or running. It is said that if he finds a 
party of sleeping travellers at night, he advances into their midst, and first 
kills the dog, if there is one, next the negro, and then the Indian, only 
attacking the Spaniard after he has made this selection ; but generally he 
seizes the dog and the meat, even when the latter is broiling on the fire, 
without injuring the mer, unless he is attacked or is remarkably hungry, 
or unless he has been accustomed to eat human flesh, in which case he 
prefers it to every other kind. D'Azara says very coolly, " Since I have 
been here the Yagouarotus (Jaguars) have eaten six men, two of whom 
were seized by them whilst warming themselves by a fire." If a small 
party of men or a herd of animals pass within gunshot of a Jaguar, the 
beast attacks the last one of them with a loud roar. 

During the night, and especially in the lov.^ season, he frequently roars, 
uttering in a continued manner, pou, pou, pou. 

It is said that when the Spaniards settled the country from Montevideo 
to Santa-Fe de Vera Cruz, so many Jaguars were found that two thousand 
were killed annually, but their numbers have been greatly diminished 
(D'Azara, vol. i. p. 124). We have no positive information as to the 
present average annually killed, but presume it not to exceed one tenth 
the above number. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species is known to exist in Texas, and in a few localities is not 
very rare, although it is far from being abundant throughout the state. It 
is found on the head waters of the Rio Grande, and also on the Nueces. 
VOL. ID -2 



■* 



10 



JA(7UaR. 



Toward? tlic west and southwest it extends to the inouutainoufl country 
beyond El Paso. Haulax speaks of its bein-r ocrasionally soon east of 
tiio Mississippi. This we think somewhat doubtful. It inhabits Mexico 
and is frequently met with in almost every part of Central America. 
HuMBor.DT mentions having heard its constant nightly screams on the 
banks of the Oronoco. It is known to inhabit Paraguay and the Brazils, 
and may be regarded as the tiger of all the warmer parts of America, pro- 
ducing nearly as much terror in the minds of the feeble natives as does its 
congener, the royal tiger, in the East. It is not found 'n Oregon, and we 
have not met with any account of it as existing in California. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

BuFFON, in describing the habits of the Jaguar, appears to have received 
his accounts of the timidity of this species from those who referred to the 
Ocelot, which is generally admitted to be a timid animal. He erroneously 
supposed that when full grown it did not exceed the size of an ordinary 
dog, in which he egregiously underrated its dimensions. It is certainly a 
third heavier than the Cougar, and is not only a more powerful, but a far 
more ferocious animal. This species exhibits some varieties, one of which, 
the black Jaguar, is so peculiar that it has been conjectured that it might 
be entitled to a distinct specific name. The exceeding rarity, however, of 
the animal, and the variations to which nearly all the species of this o-cnus 
are subject, induce us to set it down as merely a variety. It must be 
observed that it is rare to find two specimens of uniform colour • indeed 
the markings on each side of the same animal are seldom alike. Buffon 
(vol. v. p. 19G, pi. 117-119) has given three figures of the Jaguar, the first 
and third of which we consider as the Ocelot, and the second as probably 
the Panther (F. Pardus) of the eastern continent. ITamiltox Smith in 
Griffith's Cuvieu (vol. ii. pp. 455, 45(3), has given us two figures of this 
species, differing considerably in colour and markings : the former is very 
characteristic. lie has named this spocios Fdis Jaguar, which is inadmis- 
sible. There is some resemblance in this spocios to the panther {F. Pardus), 
as also to the leopard (F. Leopardus) of Africa, but tiiey are now so well 
described as distinct species that it is scarcely necessary to point out the 
distinctive marks of each. Buffox's panth^re femellc, pi. 12, and Shaw's 
Gen. Zool., Part I., pi. 84, evidently are figures of our Jaguar. 



[)U3 country 
oon east of 
I)it3 Mexico 
d America, 
ims on the 
the Brazils, 
nierica, pro- 
i as does its 
jon, and we 



11 



MEPHITIS MACROTIRA— LiciiT. 

LAnoE-TAiLED Skunk. 

PLATE CI I.— Male. 

M. magnitudinc folis cati (domestica), fusco-niger, striis duaous albis 
dorsalibus, vitta alba frontuli, cauda capitc longiore. 



CHARACTERS. 



ve received 
!rred to the 
erroneously 
n ordinary 
certainly a 
il, but a far 
le of which, 
lat it might 
lowever, of 
i" this genus 
It must be 
ur ; indeed 
!. BUFFON 
ar, the first 
IS probably 
Smith, in 
ires of thia 
ner is very 
is inadinis- 
F. Pardiis), 
ow so well 
int out the 
ad Shaw's, 



Size of t/ie domestic cat) general colour, hrowntsh-black ; a white stripe 
each side of the hack, and on the forehead; tail longer than the head. 



on 



8YN0NYMES. 



Mephitis Macroura. Licht., Damtelluns neuer oder wenig bekannter RttUffthiera. 
Berlin, 1827-34, Tafei xlvi. ^ 

" Mbxicanus Grav. Loudon's Mag., p. 68L 18.37. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Body, as in other species of tliis genus, stout ; head, small ; nose short, 
rather acute, and naked ; ears short, rounded, clothed with short hair on 
both s^urfuces; eyes, small; claws, slender i-.d weak; soles of the feet 
naked. 

The body is covered with two kinds of hair ; the first long and glossv 
the fur underneath soft and woolly ; tail very long, rather bushy, covered 
with long hairs, and without any of the softer and shorter fur. 

COLOUR. 

There are slight variations in the markings of the specimens we 
examined in the museums of Berlin and London, and in those we possess. 
Ihis species appears, however, to be less eccentric in colour and markin-rg 
than the common skunk M. chinga. ° 

In the specimen from which our figure was made, there is a rather broad 

ongitud.nal white stripe running from the nose to near the back of the 

licad ; upper surface of neck and back, white, with a narrow black dorsal 

stripe beginning on the middle of the back and running down on the upper 

Bur.ace of the tail ; a spot of white under the shoulder, and another along 



Vm 



* 



1-2 



l,AR(.E.TAII.KI) SKUNK. 



the flanks: the hairs on the tail arc irrofrularly iiiixi'd with white ami 
black ; iindor surface hlack. 

Another skin from the same repion has a narrower stripe on the fore- 
head, the iivual wl'ite stripes from the back of the head nlonp the sidca 
nearly meeting again at tiie root of the tail, leaving the dorsal black patch 
very mnch l)roadcr than in the specimen just described, and of an oval 
shape ; the tail contains a greater number of black hairs, and towards the 
tip is altogether black ; sides, legs, and whole under surface, black. 

LiCHTEXSTEi.v's figure resembles this specimen in form and markinjra, 
with the exceptions that it represents scarcely any black patch on the back, 
and that it exhibits a longitudinal white stripe running from the shoulder 
to the hip. LicHTEXsTEiN has also described and figured the young of 
this species, which very closely resembles the adult. 



DrMENSIONS. 

Male.— Killed January -JS, I84t;. 

From point of nose to root of tail, 

Tail (vertebitp), 

" to erd of hair, 

Between ears, 

Girtii around the body, l)ehind fore-legs, 

belly, . - - . 
Height from sole of fore-foot to top of shoulders, 
Weight, 4ilb. — specimen fat. 



F'ept. 
1 
1 
1 



4 
1 
6 

i» 

Hi 



HABITS. 

In Texas, during the winter of 18-ir)-6, specimens of this skunk wei-e 
obtained by J. W. AuDunox ; the first he met with was seen on one of the 
high and dry prairies west of Houston, on the road to Lagrange ; this 
was, however, only a young one. It was easily caught, as these animals 
never attempt to escape by flight, depending on the fetid discharges which 
they, like the common skunk, eject, to disgust their assailant and cause 
him to leave them in safety. By throwing sticks and clods of dirt at this 
young one, he was induced to display his powers in this way, and teased 
until he had emptied the glandular sacs Avhich contain the detestable 
secretion. He was then com]>aratively disarmed, and by thrusting a 
forked stick over the back of his head, v/as pinned to the ground, then 
seized and thrust into a bag, the mouth of which being ti(!d up, he wcs 



I.ARr.K-TAlLED .' KUNK. 



n 



1 white ami 

on tlie fore- 
\ff the sidos 
liliU'k patcli 
of an oval 
towards tlio 
ack. 

1 niarkin?", 
)n tlic back, 
he shoulder 
le young of 



4 
1 

(i 

'2i 

9 

Hi 



skunk were 
i one of the 
range ; this 
3se animals 
irj^cs which 

and cause 
dirt at this 
and teased 

detestable 
hrusting a 
found, then 

up, he wcs 



< 




'ronsidered safely eaptiirod, and was slung to one of the jmck saddles cf the 
Hafrpitrf-mides. The fetor of this young skunk was not so horrid as that 
of tho common species {.Mcp/iitis r/iiii(rn). 

On arriving at the camping ground for the night, the party found that 
their prisoner had escaped by gnawing a liolc in tlie bag, being unobserved 
by any one. 

This species is described as very common in some parts of Texas, and 
its superb tail is now and then used liy the country folks by way of plume 
or feather in their hats. .1. W. AunuHON, in his Journal, remarks : "We 
were much amused at the disposition manifested by some of the privates In 
the corps of Rangers, to put on extra linery when opportunity oflered. At 
one time a jjarty returned from a chase after Indians wiiom they liad over- 
taken and routed. Several of tiieni lia<l wliole turkey-cocks' tails stuck on 
one side of their hats, and had long pendant trains of feathers hanging 
behind their l)acks, which tliey had taken from the 'braves' of the Wakoes. 
One young fellow, about eighteen years of age, had a sui)erb head-dress and 
suit to match, which he liad taken from an Indian, whom, to use his own 
expression, he had scared out of it ; he had, to complete the triumiihal 
decoration of his handsome person, painted his face all the colours of the 
rainbow, and looked iierce enough. In contrast with these freaks of some 
of the men, we noticed that their tried and chivalrous leaders, Hays, 
Walkeu, GiLLEsriE, and Chevalier, were always dressed in the plainest 
costume the 'regulations' permitted." 

The Large-Tailed Skunk feeds upon snakes, li/ards, insects, birds' eggs, 
and small animals ; and it is said that at the season when the pecan {('"r>ja 
olivaeformis) ripens, they eat those nuts, as well as acorns. This is 
strange, considering their carnivorous formation. They burrow in winter, 
and live in hollows and under roots. They produce five or six voung at a 
birth. 

We are indebted to Col. Geo, A. McCall, U.S.A., for the following 
interesting account of an adventure with one of these Skunks, which, 
besides being written in an entertaining and lively manner, sets forth in a 
strong light the dread the very idea of being defiled by these offensive 
brutes causes in evu-y one who has ever been in those parts of the country 
' 'y inhabit : — 
' In New Mexico, in September last, returning from Los Vegas to Santa 
A!d, I halted for tne night at Cottonwood creek. Here, I pitched my tent 
on tlie edge of a beautiful grove of the trees {Populus angulatus) whicli 
give name to the st'-aam. 

"Wishing to rei,.v -ny destination at an early hour on the morrow, I 
directed the men to i.e up before day, in order that they might feed t! ir 



1- 



14 



LAIIGE-TAII.KD SKUNK. 



horses, pet their bronkfant, ami be ready to tako tU- road as H)on as it 
was fairly <hiyiijrl,t. Aft(>r a rcCroHhiri).' ^leop, I awoke about an hour before 
day, and the faiiiiiiiir sound of my horne inuncliiutr his eorii by tiie side of 
my tout, where he was usually picketed, info/ Micd nie that my men were 
already astir. At tliis hour, the moon, almost at the full, waH low in the 
west, and flunjr its nidiow li-rht adown the mountain p.ru'o, in rays that 
wore nearly hori/Mital. And therefore, nv)t lindinjr it necessary to strike 
a liirht, I was on the point of risinjr, when 1 heard, as I thoujrlit, my 
servant openinp: the n.ess-bnsket, which stood near the foot of my bed. 
I spoke to li - ! • l)ut receivin<r no answer, I turned my eyes in thnt'dirw- 
tion, and discovered on the front wall of my tent a little shadow playinj,' 
fantastically over the canvas, upon which the moon's rays fell, after passing? 
over my head. With a liunter's eye, I at once recognized in this shadow 
the outline of the uplifted tail of a Mephitis Macrmira, vulgo Large-Tailed 
S.'cnn/i; whose body was concealed from my view behind the mcss-b.iskct. 
Into this, doubtless attracted by the scent of a cold boiled bacon-ham, he 
was evidently endeavouring to effect an entrance. 

" Being well acquainted with his habits and character, I knew I must 
manage to get rid of my visitor without seriously alarming or provoking 
him, or I should in all probability be the sufferer. I tiierefore thought I 
would at first, merely in a quiet way, signify my presence ; on discovering 
which, perhaps, he would tako the hint, and his departure at the same time. 
So, 'I coughed and cried hem!' but my irentlemn'i only raised his head 
above the top of the bas.ket for a moment, and then renewed his efforts to 
lift the lid. I now took up one of my boots that lay by my bed, and 
struck the heel smartly against the tent-pole. V "ain the intruder raised 
his head, and regarded ive for a moment ; after which he left the basket 
and passed round the foot of my bed, which, I should mention, was spread 
upon the ground. At first, I thought he had, indeed, taken the hint, and 
was about to slope off. But I had, in fact, only excited his curiosity ; and 
the next r on cnt, to my horror, I saw him turn up by the side of my bed, 
and come dancing along with a dainty, sidling motion, to examine into the 
cause of the noise. His broad white tail was elevated, and jauntily flirted 
from side to side as he approached, in fact, his approach was the sauciest 
and most provokiiigly deliberate thing conceivable. As every step 
brought him nearer to my face, the impulse I felt to bolt head-foremost 
through the opposite side of the tent, was almost irresistible : but I well 
knew that any sudden motion on my part, whilst in such close proximity 
to the rascal, would be very apt so to startle him as to bring upon me that 
which I was seeking to escape, and of whic)) I was, in truth, in mortal 
dread ; whilst, on the other hand, 1 was equally aware that my safety lay 



T-ARGR-TAILED SKUNK 



15 



as f^oon as it 
wn hour bcfort 
l)y tlic nido of 

my iiion wcvv 
an low in tlio 
, ill rnvH tlint 
f<iiry to strike 

thought, my 
t of my bed. 
in that dirty- 
adow playinjj^ 

after passing 
I this shadow 

Largo-Tailed 
' niess-lasket. 
jacon-liani, he 

knew I must 
or provoking 
are tiiought I 
1 discovering 
le same time, 
sed his head 
his eflbrts to 
my bed, and 
Iruder raised 
't tlie basket 
1, was spread 
the hint, and 
iriosity ; and 
e of my bed, 
nine into tlie 
untily flirted 
I tlic sauciest 
every step 
ead-forcmost 
i : but I we!! 
3e proximity 
ipon me that 
h, in mortal 
iiy safety lay 



in kopping perfectly still, for it was quite probable tliat tlie animal. aft.T 
having satisfied his curiosit}, would, if uninterrupted, quietly take hia 
departure. Tiie trial wa;^^ a severe one, for the next moment the upright 
white tail was passing within a foot of my very fare. I did not flinch, but 
kept my eye upon it, although the cold sweat broke out upon my forehead 
in great globules. At length the fellow finding nothing to alarm him, 
turned about and «ith a sidelong motion danced back again to the mess' 
basket. Finding now that he had no thought of taking himself away, I 
exclaimed internally, 'Mortal man cannot bear a rei)etition of what 1 have 
just experienced 1' and laid my hand upon my rifle, which stood at my head. 
I weighed tlie chances of killing the animal so instantly dead that no dis- 
charge of odour would take place ; but just at this moment he succeeded in 
raising the top of the basket and I heard his descent among the spoons. 
'Ila! ha! old fellow, I have you now!' I said to myself; and the next 
instant I was standing on the top of the mess-basket, whither I had got 
without tlie slightest noise, and where I now heard the rascal rnmniagh.g 
my things little suspecting that he was at the tim- a prisoner. I cirilcd 
my servant— a negro. George made liis appearance, and a.^ he opened the 
front of the tent paused in surprise at seeing me standing en dishabilh 
on the top of the mess-basket. ' George/ said I, in a quiet tone, ' buckle 
the straps of this basket.' George looked still more surprised on rcceivii,.' 
the order, but obeyed it in silence. I then stepped gently ofl', and sai.f 
'Take this basket very carefully, and wi-iiout shaking it, out yonder in 
front, and set it down easily.' George look-d still more bewildered • but 
accustomed to obey without question, did as he was directed. After iij 
had carried the basket off to a considerable distance, and placed it on the 
ground, he looked back at the door of the tent, where I still stood for 
further orders. 'Unbuckle the straps,' said I ; it was done. 'Raise' the 
top of the basket :' he did so ; while at the same time, elevating mv voice 

I continued, ' and let that d d Skunk oxit ." As the last words 'escaped 

from my lips the head and tail of the animal appeared in sight and 
George, giving vent to a scream of surprise and fear, broke away like a 
quarter-horse, and did not stop until he had put a good fifty yards between 
himself and the mess-basket. Meanwhile, the Skunk, with the same 
deliberation that had marked his previous course (and which, by the way 
IS a remarkable trait in the character of this animal\ descended tho side 
of the basket, and, with tail erect, danced off in a direction down the 
creek, and finally disappeared in the buehos. I then, havin- recovered 
trom a good fit of laughter, called to George, who rather reluctantly made 
his appearance before me. He was still a little out of breath, and with 
some agitation, thus delivered himself, ' Bless God, massa, if I had known 



■* 



(6 



LARGE-TAILED SKUNK. 



there was a Pkunk in tlio iiipss-baskot, I never would have touched it In 
this world /' ' 1 knew that well enouo-h, George, and that was the reason 
I did not tell you of it.' 

"It is only iiecessarj fi'> ther to 5?ay that the animal, having been neither 
alarmea nor provoked m any way, did not on this occasion emit the 
slij,^htest odour; nor was any trace loft in my tent or mess-basket, to 
remind me afterwards of the early morning visitor at my camp on Cotton- 
wood creek."— Philadelphia, June 24th, 1851. 

We have heard of bome cases in which this Skunk, having penetrated 
into the tents of both officers and men, on our southwestern frontier, has 
been less skilfully managed, and the conseijuences were so bad as to compel 
the abandonment of even the tents, although soused into creeks and 
scrubbed with hopes of destroying the '• hogo." 



•I 



GEOGRArillCAI. DrSTUlBUTION. 

This species exists on the western ranges of the mountains in Mexico. 
The specimen described by Liciitexstein was obtained by Mr. Deppe in 
the mountains to the northwest of the city of Mexico. The animal was 
seen by Col. G. A. McC.vr.L in New Mexico, between Los Vegas and ^antu 
Pe. The specimen figured by Joh.v W. Audi iion was obtained near San 
Antonio, and he describes it as common in the western parts of Texas. It 
is not found in Louisiana, nor near the sea-shore in Texas. It will, we 
think, be found to inhabit some portions of California, although we cannot 
state this with certainty. 






liENEllAL UEMAUKS. 

There are several species of this genus, which are found to vary so much 
in the distribution of their colours that many mere varieties were described 
as new species, without any other characters tluiii those presented by the 
number of stripes on the back, or the predominance either of black or 
white spots on the difl'erent portions of the body. Buffox described five 
species. Baron Cuvieij, in his " Osseniens Fossiles," took much pains in 
endeavoring to clear up the difliculties on the subject of these animals • 
yet, owing to his not possessing specimens, and his too great dependence 
on colour, he multiplied the number of some species which are now found 
to be mere varieties, and omitted others which are unquestionably true 
spco.ios. 



touched it in 
as the reason 



a; been neither 
sion emit the 
less-basket. to 
lip on Cotton- 

ng penetrated 
1 frontier, has 
J as to compel 
creeks and 



^ 



4 



m 



ns in Mexico. 


i 


Mr. Deppe in 


^^ 


e animal AvaH 


iras and Santa 


M 


ned near San 


■ 


of Texas. It 


B 


. It will, we 


fl 


igh we cannot 


9 



vary so much 
ere des^cribed 
rented by thw 
of black or 
lo^cribed five 
iiuch pains in 
lese animals • 
,t depeudenco 
re now found 
tionably true 



t 



««.^«». 




^1 



^i 



^ 



^ 



^. 



E/ 



^1 

\. 
•Nil 



^ 



1 v.- ■ ' 



^ 




* 



17 



ARCTOMYS PRUINOSUS.— Pennant. 

Hoary Marmot. — The Whistler. 
PLATE CIIL— Malkb. 

A. vellere cano longo, denso, maxime in thorace humorisque, in partibus 
posterioribus fulvo-flavescente, cauda comosa fusco nigriscente. 

CHARACTERS. 

Fur^ Umg, dense, and hoary, particularly on the chest and shoulders ; hinder 
parts dull yellowish-brovm ; tail bushy, blackish-brown. 

STNON rMES. 

HoARif Marmot. Pennant, Hist. Quadr., vol. ii. p. 130. 
■' " " Arctic Zool., vol. i. p. 112. 

Ground-Hog. Mackenzie's Voyage, p. 615. 
Whistler. Harmon's Journal, p. 427. 
Arctomys(?) Pruinosus. Rich, Zool. Jour., No. 12, p. 618. Mar. 1828, 

" " Rich, Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 150. 

Qui8Quis-Qui-Po. Cree Indians. 
Deh-ie. Cheppewyans. 

SouPFLKUR, or Mountain-Badoer. Fur-Traders. 
Arctomys Pruinosa. Harlan, Fauna, p. 169. 

" Calligata. Eschscholtz, Zoologischer Atlas, Berlin, 1829, pi. 6, part 
2, p. 1. 



DESCRIPTION. 

In form, this animal (which we examined whilst it was elive at the 
Zoological Gardens in London) bears a considerable resemblance to the 
European Marmot {Jlrctomys Marmota). It also resembles the Maryland 
Marmot {A. Monax). Being, at the time we saw it, excessively fat, the 
body, when it lay down, spread out or flattened like that of the badger ; 
it was so covered with dense and very long hair that it was difficult to 
recognize the true outline ; it subsequently shed its hair, and our figure 
was taken in its new and shorter pelage. The animal is rather longer 
than the Maryland Marmot ; head, of moderate size ; eyes, rather small 
but conspicuous ; ears, oval and covered with hair on both surfaces ; feet 
short, robust, and clothed with hair ; nails strong, slightly arched, free • 
VOL. in.— 8 ' ' 



■^ 



18 



HOARY MARMOT. 



tail, short, and thickly clothed M-ith long and coarse hair to the extremity 
The pelap;e is a soft and dense fur beneath, covered with longer and more 
rigid haira. 



COLOUR. 

Fur on the back, dark at base, the outer portion M-hito, with black points 
more or less extended ; on the rump it is dull-])rowii at the roots, with 
black and yellow towards the extremities. The general appearance of the 
animal, owing to the admixture of these dark-brown and white hairs, of 
which the white predominate, is hoary-brown. 

Upper Surface of nose, ears, back part of the head, feet, and nails, black ; 
a black band runs backwards from behind the ears for about an inch and a 
half, and then descends nearly vertically on the neck, where it vanishes ; 
sides of muzzle, and behind the nostrils above, as well as chin, pure white ; 
iheeks, grizzled with rust-colour and black ; moustaches, nearly all black, 
a few, light-brown. 

There are a few white hairs on the middle toes of the fore-feet ; tail 
black, varied with rusty-brown, and a few whitish hairs with black points ; 
whole under parts pale rust colour, with a slight mixture of black on the 
belly ; extremities of tiv ars slightly tipped with white ; upper incisors, 
yellow ; lower, nearly whii 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail, 

" of tail (vertebras), 

" " including hair, 

Point of nose to end of head, 

Ear, 

Palm and nail, 

Nail, 

Tarsus, 

Nail on hind foot, 



Foot. 
1 


Inrhei, 

7 


Lines. 




5 


6 




7 


9 




3 


4 
5i 




2 


9 
9 




3 


8 
8 



HABITS. 



This Marmot was described by Pennant, from a skin preserved in the 
Leverian Museum, which was for many years the only specimen in any 
known collection. It appears to have afterwards become a question 
whether there was such an animal, or whether it might not prove to be the 



HOARY MARMOT. 



19 



Maryland Marmot, tl.e original specimen, above mentioned, having been 
ost. Harlan says of it, " This specimen was supposed to have come from 
the northern parts of x\orth America." Godmax does not mention it 
Dr. RicHARDsox quotes Pennant's description, and states that he did not 
himself obtam a specimen ; but "if correct" in considering it as the same 
as the AVhistlcr of IIaumon, "we may soon hope to know more of it for 
the traders who annually cross the Rocky Mountains from Hudson's Bay 
to the Columbia and New Caledonia are well acquainted with it." Ho 
also mentions that one, (Harmon's Whistler, we presume) which was pro- 
cured for hun by a gentleman, was so much injured that he did not think 
it fat to be sent." The Doctor tLen gives the following account of it. and 
appears to have been quite correct in supposing it 'identical with the 
animal referred to by Harmon: "The Whistler inhabits the Rocky Moun- 
ains from latitude 45^ to 62°, and probably farther both ways : it is not 
found m the lower parts of the country. It burrows in sandy soil 
generally on the sides of grassy hills, and may be frequently seen cutting.' 
hay m the autumn, but whether for the purpose of laying it up for food, or 
merely for hnmg its burrows, I did not learn. While a party of them are 
thus occupied, they have a sentinel on the lookout upon an eminence, who 
gives the alarm on the approach of an enemy, by a shrill whistle, which 
may be heard at a great distance. The signal of alarm is repeated from 
one to another as far as their habitations extend. According to Mr 
IUrmon, they feed on roots and herbs, produce two young at a time, and 
sit upon their hind-feet when they give their young suck. They do' not 
come abroad in the winter." 

" The Indians take the Whistler in traps set at the mouths of their holes 
consider their flesh as delicious food, and, by sewing a number of their 
Pkius together, make good blankets." 

Our drawing of this Marmot was made from the specimen now in the 
museum of the Zoological Society of London, which is, we believe, the only 
one, even at this day, to be found in Europe, with the exception of a 
hunter s skin" (,. e., one without skull, teeth, or legs), whicli was pre- 
sented to the British Museum by Dr. Rrc„ARBsoN,;nd was rti.Ily 
the one he refers to in the extract we have given above from the 
Fauna Boreali Americana. The specimen in the Zoological Museum is 
well preserved, the animal, which was alive when presented to the Society 
by B. King Esq., having died in the Menagerie (Zoological Gardens) 
in Regent s Park. ' 

The living animal, when we observed it, seemed to be dull and sleepv 
felling' '''' '^''''"^ '''^'' ^'''' ""^ ''''^'' °" ''^'''^' '^ '''^^ ''^^^ 



It 



20 



HOARY MARMOT. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



The first specimen of this species was brought to England from Ha Json's 
Bay. The specimen we have figured was obtained ta Captain B>ck'8 
expedition. It inhabits the Bocky Mountains from 45° to 62", and will 
probably be found both to the north and south of these latitudes. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

It is somewhat remarkable that an animal so large as the Hoary 
Marmot — so widely diffused throughout the fur countries, where it is seen 
by traders and hunters — should be so little known to naturalists. When 
the living animal was brought to the Zoological Gardens it excited much 
interest, as the existence of the species had for many years been doubted. 

We spent an hour at the Museum of the Zoological Society in London 
with Dr. Richardson and Mr. Waterhouse, examining the specimen 
to which EscHSCHOLZ had given the name of A. Calligata ; and wo 
ananimously came to the conclusion that it was the A. Pruinosus. 



»1 



SCIURUS COLLIiEI.— Rich. 

Coi lie's Squirrel 

PLATE CIV.— Maleb. 

S. Supra e fresco-nigro flavoque varius subtus ex flavescente albidus; 
magnitudine S. migratorii. 

CHARACTERS. 

Size of Sciurus Migratorius ; upper parts mottled brovmish Hack and 
yellow ; under surface cream white. 

8YN0NYMES. 

SoiTOUB CoLLiiEi. Richardson, Append, to Beechey's Voyage. 

" " Bachman, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1838 (Monog. of Gonus Sciurus). 

DESCRIPTION. 

In size and form this species bears some resemblance to the migratory 
gray Squirrel of the middle or northern States ; the tail, however, in the 
only specimen which exists in any collection, appears much smaller and 
less distichous, and the animal, when other specimens are examined, may 
prove to be intermediate in size between the Carolina gray Squirrel and 
S. Migratorius. 

The fur is rather coarse, and the tail appears to be somewhat cylindrical ; 
ears, of moderate size, ovate, clothed with short hairs on both surfaces, but 
not tufted. 



•I 






COLOUR. 

Above, grizzled with black and dull-yellow ; sides of the muzzle, under 
parts of the body, and inner sides of limbs, dull-white ; tail, moderate, the 
hairs grayish-white, three times annulated with black. Hairs of the body, 
both above and beneath, grey at the roots, those on the back having 
'engthened black tips broadly annulated with dull-yellow. The hairs of 
the head resemble those of the back, except on the front, where they are 
annulated with dull-white ; top of the muzzle, brown ; cheeks, greyish • 



^ 



93 



COLLIE'S SQUIRREL 



insides of cars, yellowish, indistinctly freckled with brown ; outsidea 
grizzled with black and yellow on the forepart, i)Ut posteriorly covered 
with long whitiah hairs ; hairs on the feet, black at the roots, white at the 
tips, the feet and legs being dirty cream-colour, pencilled with dusky ; 
whiskers, long as the head, composed of bristly black hairs. The above 
description was taken by us from the specimen in the Zoological Society's 
Museum, London ; the skin was not in very good condition, and a portion 
of the tail was wanting. 



DIMENSIONS. 








Inohii. 


Linai. 


Length from nose to root of tail, 


• . - 10 


9 


" of tail to end of hair, • 


. 9 


6 


Height of ear posteriorly, - 




6 


Tarsus (including nail)» 


- • 2 


6 


Nose to ear, . . . . . 


• ■ 2 






HABITS. 

Our figures of this Squirrel were made from the specimen presented to 
the Zoological Society of London by Captain Bekchey ; the original from 
which the species was described and named by our friend Dr. Richardson. 

All the information we hav. a to the habits of this animal is contained 
in the above-mentioned append'x (p. 8) : " Mr. Collie observed this 
Squirrel, in considerable numbers, sporting on trees at San Bias in 
California (?), Avhore its vernacular name signifies ' Little Fox-Squirrel.' 
It feeds on fruits of various kinds. Although unwilling to incur the risk 
of adding to the number of synonymes with which the history of this large 
genus is already overburdened, I do not feel justified in referring it to any 
of the species admitted into recent systematic works ; and I have therefore 
described it as new, naming it in compliment to the able and indefatigable 
naturalist who procured the specimen." 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species was given by Richardson, as appears by the above quota- 
tion, as existing at San Bias, California ; this place, however, if we have 
not mistaken the locality, is in the district of Xaliseo in Mexico, and 
within the tropics ; it is doubtful, therefore, whether the species will be 
found to inhabit any portion of California. J. W. Audubon did not 
observe it in his travels through Upper California. 



COLLIE'S HQUIRREL. 



OKNEBAL REMARKS. 



23 



This species is very nearly allied to Sciurus Jiureogaster of F. Cuvier 
and It IS yet possible that it may prove a variety of that very variable 
species, in whu-h the under parts of the body are sometimes white, instead 
of the usual dee;, red colour. 

A specimeu of .. Jlureofraster in the Museum at Paris has the under 
pai-ts of the body w.it ., wi, n small ^ ^ohes of red. and with a few scattered 
red hairs here and 'h . .aingled vi ^ the white ones. 



m\ 



Tj 



*M 



PSEUDOSTOMA D O U G L ASIL— Rich. 

COLHMBIA POUCHKD-R 

PLATE CV.— Malbs. 

p. Supra fusca, latcribus subrufiH, ventre pedibusquc palliilioribus, cauda 
corporis dimidio longiore. 

CHARACTERS. 

Above, dusky hroum ; reddish an the sides ; paler beneath and on the feet ; 
tail exceeding half the length of the body. 

8YN0NYME. 

Gkomits Douolash. Richardson, Columbia Sand-Rat, Fauna Boreali Americana, 
p. JOO, pi. 18 B. 

DESCRIPTrON. 

Head, large and depressed ; cars, short, ovate, extending beyond the fur ; 
nose, blunt ; nostrils, small and round, seiiarated by a line in the septum ; 
they have a small naked margin. Mouth, of moderate size ; lips, and 
space between the nose and upper incisors, covered with short hair , 
incisors strong, and slightly recurved ; upper ones with a distinct furrow 
on the anterior surface, near their inner edge ; cheek pouches, large 
opening externally (like those of all the other species belonging to this 
genus), and lined on the inside with very sh rt hairs. 

The pouches extend from beneath the lower jaw along the neck 
to near the shoulders ; whiskers, ^hort ; body cylindrical, resembling 
that of the mole, and covered with short, dense, velvety fur ; the tail, 
which is round ajid tapering, although at first sig>'t appearing naked, is 
covered with hair throughout its whole length, but most densely near the 
root ; legs short, and moderately robust ; fore-toes short, the three middle 
ones united at their base by a skin, the outer one smaller and farther 
back ; thumb, very small and armed with a claw ; claws, sharp-pointed, 
compressed, and slightly curved ; palms naked, and on the posterior part 
filled by a large, rounded callosity. The palms in this species are much 
smaller than in P. Bursariiui ; the hind-feet are rather more slender than 



i'lKlr 



I Ol.n.MinA hUICIIKD-RXT 



25 



the foro-foot, an.l thoir clawH arc docido.lly .,„allor ; .olcs of hiiul-foet 
ontirelv naked, and without any conspicuouH tuS.ercles ; heel, naked and 
narrow : feet, and to08, thickly clothed with hair extending to the nails. 



COLOUR. 



Innsors, dull oranpo ; whiskern, nearly all white; upper surface of 
body, top of the head, an.l alon;r the nidcH .,f the po„nhc,, dasl:y-hrown 
Mden, re.ldi,sh-l.rown ; odge.s of ,,ouehes, dark-brown ; under .surface of' 
body, feet, and tail, pale buff; nails, yellowiah-white. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Lcngtii of head and bodv, • 

head, - - ^ . 

tail (vertebra;), - 
From point of nose to eye, 

auditory opLUiing, 
Between the eyen. ■ - . . 

From wrist joint to end of mid ■ claw, 





liirtifh 


i.iii> 




- ti 


C 




■ 1 


10 




■ 2 


10 

11 




• 1 


8 
7 




1 





HABITS, 



This species of Sand-Uat wa? first obtained by Mr. David Douglas 
noar (he mouth of the Columbia river, sincr^ which, specimen.^ have been 
sent to England by various collectors. According to Mr. Douglas the 
ammal. " wlien in the act of emptying, its pouches, sits on its hams like a 
Marmot or Squirrel, and squeezes its sacs against the breast with the chin 
and fore-paws." 

"These little Sand-Rats are numerous in the neighbourhood of Fort Van- 
couver, where they inhabit the declivities of low hills, and burrow in the 
sandy soil. They feed on acorns, nuts {Corylus rostrata), and grasses and 
commit great havoc in the potato-fields adjoining to the fort, not only by 
eatang the potatoes on the spot, but by carrying off large quantities of them 
in their poaches."— Fauna Boredi Americana, p. 201. 



geographical distribution. 
This species inhabit, the valleys to the west of the Rocky Mountaius. 
and seems to have been most frequently observed in about the latitude of 



i 



36 



COLUMBIA POUCHED- RAT 



as California to the south, and the Russian Possessions in the opposite 
direction. We have seen some mutilated specimens, which appeared to 
be of this species, obtained by a party in the western portion of New 
Mexico, but so dilapidated were they, that it was impossible to decide 
positively as to their identity, and they may have been skjns of another 
species, called by Dr. Richardsox Geomys Uiribrinus, which he was informed 
came from the southwestern part of Louisiana. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



VI if 



Mr. Douglas informed Dr. Richardson " that the outside of the pouches 
was cold to the touch, even when the animal was alive, and that on the 
inside they were lined with small, orbicular, indurated glands, more 
numerous near the opening into the moutli. When full, the pouches had 
an oblong form, and when empty they were corrugated or retracted to one 
third of their length." 

We presume this information is correct, although the mistake made by 
supposing the " inverted" pouches of some species of Pseudostoma, to be m 
their natural position (see the genus diplostoma of Raffinesque, adopted by 
Richardson), leads us to look with caulion on any accounts of the pouches 
of our Sand-Rats from this source. 



a? 



CERVUS RICHARDSONII._AuD. Axn Bach. 

Columbian Black-tailed Dker. 
PLATE C VI.— Males. 

^ C. Supra subrufu.s, infra albus, auriculis mediocribus, angustioribus quan, 
in C. macrot.do, corpore minore ngulis angustioribus et acutioribus quam 
in uto, macula albida in natibus nulla, cornibus teretibus bis bifurcatis 



CHARACTERS. 

£«r,v, moderate, narrmver than in C. Macrbtis ; size, kss than C. Macrotis • 
hoofs, narrower and sharper; no light patch on the huttochs ; colour, reddish, 
broum above, white beneath; horns, cylindrical, tvnce bifurcated. 

SYNoNYMES. 

Okrvus Macuotis. Rich (non Say) Black-tailed Deer, Fauna Boreali Americana, p 
254, pi. 20. ^ ^ 

California Deeii, of gold diggers. 



<Si 



DESCRIPTION. 

Male.-\n size this animal a little exceeds the Virginian Deer, but it is 
less than the Mule Deer (C. Macroti.) ; in form it is shorter and stouter 
than C. Vinrinianus. 

There is a tuft of long pendulous hairs hanging down from the umbilicus 
backward to between the thighs. The horns are nearly cylindrical and 
are twice forked; the first bifurcation being ten inches'from the base- 
about five to six inches longer to that fork than in C. Macrotis as 
described by Say. There is a knob, in the specimen from which 'we 
describe, on one horn, about four inches from the base ; the horn continues 
in a single branch for about ten inches, where it divides into two branches 
each of which has two points ; and the antlers may be said to bear some 
resemblance to those of the Red Doer of Europe, much greater than do 
those of the Virginian Deer or Elk. 

Ears, of moderate size ; head, proportionately a little shorter than the 
head of the Virginian Deer and nose less pointed ; hoofs, narrow .uid 









-^ 



28 



COLUMBrAN BI.ACK-TAirED DEKR. 



sharp, mid loiinfor and more pointed than those of the Mule Deer (C. 
Macrolis), wliieh are round and flattened. 

The lachrymal openings are large, and situated close beneath the eye ; 
tail, rather short, stouter and more liusliy than that of C. Macrotk. 

COLOUU. 

A brown mark originating between the nostrils is continued behind 
their naked margins, downwards, towards the lower jaw, uniting with a 
dark patch situated behind the chin ; chin and throat, white ; forehead, 
dark-brown ; neck, back, sides, and hips, brownish-gray ; hairs clothing 
those parts, brown from their roots to near their tips, whore they exhibit a 
• pale yellowish-brown ring surmounted by a black tip ; on the back part of 
the neck there is a dark line down the middle of the back, becoming lighter 
as it recedes from the nock. 

The chest is blackish-brown, running around the shoulder somewhat like 
the mark of a collar ; a dark lii t extends from under the chest to the 
centre of the belly ; the anterior of the belly is fawn-coloured, the 
posterior part white, as are likewise the insides of the thighs ; the tail, at 
its junction with the back, is dark brown, and this colour increases' in 
depth to the tip, which is black : the under side of the tail is clothed with 
long white hairs : the logs arc mixed yellowish-brown and black anteriorly 
and pale brownish-white posteriorly. 



Feel. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from tip of nose to brow (between the horns), 1 

■' to root of tall, - - - T) 

" of tail (vertebra"), 

" (to end of hair), 

Height at shoulder, o 

Width of horns between superior prongs, - - - 1 

" posterior pair of points, ■ 1 



Inchm 

4 

1> 

8 
3 



n A HITS. 

This beautiful Deer is found variously dispersed over the weetoni 
portions of the North American continent, wlioi'o it was first noticed by 
Lewis and Clakk, near the mouth of the Columbia River ; but not until 
the discovery of the golden treasu-es of California di<l it become generally 
known to white men. In tiuit country, along the liill sides and in thi- 



COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER. 09 

woody (Iclls arul "gulches," the hardy miners have killed hundreds nav 
thousands, of Black-tailed Deer; and it is from the accounts they hare 
Riven that it is now known to replace, near the great Sierra Nevada the 
common or Virginian Deer which is found cast of the Rocky Mountains • 
all the hunters who have visited California, and whom wo have seen toll 
us that every Deer thoy shot there was the Black-tailed species 

J. W. Audubon killed a good many of these Deer, and describes them 
as tender and of good flavour ; and during the time lus party encamped on 
he Tuolome River, and in the "dry diggings" near Stockton, when he 
kept two of his men busy shooting for the support of the others, they 
generally had one or two Deer brought into camp every day. The mode 
of hunting them was more similar to what is callo.! Deer-stalkin- in 
Scotland than to the methods used for killing Deer in the eastern par°t of 
he Union. Sometimes the hunters (who had no dogs) would start before 
day, and gaming the hills, anxiously search for fresh tracks in the muddy 
so. (for It was then the rainy season, and the ground everywhere wet and 
soft), and, having found a trail, cautiously follow; alwavs tryin- to keen 
the wind in such a direction as not to carry the sceiit to the animals. 
After discovering a fresh track, a search of a most tedious and toilsome 
nature awaited them, as the unsuspecting Deer might be very near, or miles 
off they knew not which; at every hill-top they approached, they were 
obliged to he down and crawl on the earth, pausing when the/ couM 
command the view to the bottom of the valley whi.-h lav beyond the one 
they had just quitted ; and after assuring themselves none were in sio-ht' 
carefully following the zigzag trail, proceed to the bottom. Again anot'lier 
summit has been almost reached; now the hunters hope for a shot- evo 
and ear are strained to the utmost, and they move slowlv forward • the 
ridge of the next hill breaks first upon their sight beyoni a wide valley 
llie slope nearest them is still hidden from their view. On one side the 
mountains rise in steeper and more irregular shapes ; pine-trees and oaks 
are thickly grown in the deepest and most grassy spot far below them 
1 he track trends that way, and silently they proceed, looking around at 
almos every step and yet uncertain where their game has wandered. 
Once the trail has been almost lost in the stony, broken ground they pass 
hut again they have it ; now they approach and search in differen't 
directions the most likely places to find the Deer, l,„t in vain ; at last thev 
gain the next summit : the object of their chase is at hand ; suduenlv they 
see him-a fine buck-he is yet on the declivity of the hill, and they 
cau lously observe his motions. Now they see some broken ground and 
rocky fragments scattering towards the left ; thoy redouble their caution • 
locks are ready cocked ; and, breathing rapidly, they gain the desired spot' 






III 



% 



30 



COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER. 



One instant— the deadly rifle has sent its leaden messenger and the buck 
lies struggling in his gore. 

Short work is made of the return to camp if no more Doer signs are 
about ; and a straight cut may bring the Imritcrs home in loss than an 
hour, even should thoy have been two or three in following their prize. 

Sometimes the Deer start up suddenly, quite near, and are shot down on 
the instant ; occasionally, after a long pursuit, the ci-ack of a rifle from an 
unknown hunter deprives the others of their chance ; and— must we admit 
iir— sometimes they miss ; and not unfrequently they see no game at all. 

Mr. J. G. Bell informed us that while he was digging gold in a seques' 
tered and wild canon, in company Avith a young man with whom he was 
associated in the business, they used to lie down to rest during the heat of 
the day, and occasionally ho shot a Black-tailed Door, which unsuspect- 
ingly came within shooting distance down the little brook that flowed in 
the bottom of the ravine. He also used to rise very early in the mornings 
occasionally, and seek for the animals in the manner of still-hunting, as 
practised in the United States. One morning he killed three in this 
manner, l)cfore his breakfast-time, and sold thoni, after reserving some 
of the best parts for himself and companion, for eighty dollars apiece! 
He frequently sold Deer subsequently, as well as hares and squirrels, 
birds, <fec., which he shot at difleront times, for enormous prices. Many 
of the miners, indeed, turned their attention to killing Deer, elk, bear, 
antelopes, geese, ducks, and all sorts of game and wild fowl, by which they 
realized considerable sums from selling them at San Francisco and other 
places. We have hoard of one person wlio, after a luckless search for 
gold, went to killing Deer and other game, and in the course of about 
eighteen months had made five thousand dollars by selling to the miners 
at tiie diggings. 

The gait of this species is not so graceful as that of the Virginian Deer , 
it bounds rather more like the roe1)uck of Europe than any other of our 
Deer except the Long-tailed Doer, and is reported to be very swift. The 
season of its brooding is earlier than that of tiie common Deer, and it no 
doubt brings forth the same number of young at a time. 




GEOGRAl'HKWL niSTUUiUTION. 

This beautiful Door was first met with l)y J. W. AuDDBON on the eastern 
spurs of the coast range of mountains after leaving Los Angeles and 
traversing a portion of the Tule valley in California. On entering the 
broad plain of the San Joaquin and liver of the lakes, few Black-tailed 
Deer were met with, and the elk and antelofie took their pliuu;. The 



COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER. 



.-•1 



party again found tho.n abundant when they reached the hill, near the 
Sierra Nevada, on their way towards the Chinese diggings, about righty 
miles southeast of Stockton. 

They may be said to inhabit most of the hilly and undulating lands of 
California, and as far as wo can judge probably extend on the western 
side of the grand ridge of the Rocky Mountains nearly to the Russian 
Possessions. 

We have not heard that they are met with east of the bases of that 
portion of the Cordilleras which lies in the parallel of San Francisco or 
north or south of that latitude, although they may exist in the valleys' of 
the Colorado of the west in a northeast direction from the mouth of that 
river, which have as yet not been much explored. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

According to our present information, there is only one specimen of 
this Deer in the collections of objects of natural history in Europe -md 
this is in the museum of the Zoological Society in London, where it was 
when we saw it, (erroneously) labelled C. Macrotis. 

At the Patent OfiBce in Washington city there is a skin of a Deer (one 
of the specimens brought from the northwest coast of America by the 
Exploring Expedition), which has been named by Mr. Peale C. Lewhii 

We have not positively ascertained whether it be distinct from our C 
Richardsmu, but presume it will prove to be well separated from it as well 
as from all our hitherto described Deer, and we shall endeavour to figure 
It, if a good species, and introduce it into our fauna under the name given 
it by Mr. Peale. 

We have detected an error in the description of the horns of C. Macroth 
(see vol. 11. p. 206), where a portion of the description of those of C. Ruii- 
ardsonii seems to have been introduced by mistoko. 



} 

! i 






1* 



22 






A.RCT()MYS l.EWISII.— AuD. ami iUcii. 

Lewis's Mahmot. 

PLATE C VII. —Males. 

A. Rufo-l'ulvus, jifdibus albo-virgatis, cauda apice albo ; magnitudinc- 
leiK)ris sylvatici, forma a uiouacis. 

CnAKACTEUS. 

Size of the grey rabbit ; gntvral shape of the head and body s-imilar to that 



of A. 
IV Ail I. 



monax; colour reddisfi-hrnvm ; fed barred loith white; end of tail 



DKSCUIPTION. 

Head, rather small ; bodj% round and full ; oars short, ovate, with 
eomowhat acute points, thickly clothed with sliort hairs on both sides : 
whiskers long, extending beyond the ears ; nose blunt, naked ; eyes, of 
moderate size ; teeth, rather smaller than those of the Maryland marmot ; 
feet, short ; nails, rather long and arched, the nail on the thumb beinjr 
large and nearly the m." of the others; tail short, round, not distichous, 
thickly clothed with hair to the end ; the hair is of two kinds — a short, 
dense fur beneath, with longer and rigid hairs interspersed. 



COLOUB. 

Nose, black ; incisors yellowish-white ; nails, black ; the whole upper 
surface and the ears, reddish-brown ; this colour is produced by the softer 
fur underneath being light yellowish-1 rown, and the longer hairs, at 
their extremities, blackish-brown. On the haunches the hairs are inter- 
spersed with black and yellowish-brown ; feet and belly, light salmon-red ; 
tail, from the root for half its length, reddish-brown, the other half to the 
dp soiled white ; above the nose, edges of ears, and along the cheeks, pale 
reddish-buff. 

There is a white band across the toes, and another irregular one behind 
them ; and an irregularly defined dark-brown line around the back of the 
head and lower part of the chin, marking the separation of the head from 
the throat and neck. 



IJ-VVISS AfAR.MOT. 



33 



DIMENSIONS. 



Prom nose to root of tail, 
Tail (vtM-tebi-ic), - 

" (to end of hair), - 

Point of noao to ear, • 

to eye, - 

Heel to middle claw, - 



1 



InohM 

4 
2 
8 
2 
1 
2i 



HABITS. 

Prom the for,,, of this animal we may readily l.c convinced that it nos 
Hesses the characteristics of the true Marmots. These animals are de titTe 
of cheok-pouches; they bu,-,w in the earth; live on grasses and grl 

but chng to the bark, and descend as soon as the danger is over As fa^ 
as we have been able to ascertain, all the spermophiles or burrowing 
Bqu.rrels arc greganous. and live in commnnitie/ usually „umZ„' 
veral hundreds, and often thousands. On the contrary, L Ma f 
a hough the young remain with the mother until autumn, L ton^l^te 

unable to offer anythi^n. il^^IrlTLt^ltTabTts:^^^^^ '''' ^' ^^ 

WEOGIUPHICAL DI8TKIBUTI0N 
GENERAL REMARKS. 

.a laWlcd i„ ,„„ ™.e„„, of .Ue Zoological Socle.; No 46^°;"" " 






ill • I 






^ 



a4 



LEWIS'S MARSIOT. 




species of Harlan ia the following : Lewis and Clark (Expedition, vol. ii. 
p. 173) describe an animal from the flains of tlie Columbia under the name 
of burrowing squirrel. No specimen was brought. Harlan and Rafi- 
NESijUB in quick succession applied their several names to the species, the 
former styling it Arctomys brachyura and the latter Anisoiiyx brachyura. 
When the present specimen was received at the Museum, the name of 
A. brachyura was given to it, with a doubt. On turning to Lewis and 
Clark's descriptions, the only guides which any naturalists possess in 
reference to the species, we find that they refer to an animal whose whole 
contour resembles that of the squirrel, the thumbs being remarkably short 
and equipped with blunt nails, and the hair of the tail thickly inserted on 
the sides only, which gives it a flat appearance, whereas the animal of 
this article does not resemble a squirrel in its whole contour ; its thumta, 
instead of being remarkably short and equipped with blunt nails, have long 
nails nearly the length of those on the other toes, and the tail, instead of 
beine flat with the hairs inserted on the sides, is quite round. It differs 
also so widely in several other particulars that we deem it unnecessary to 
institute a more minute comparison. We have little doubt that Lewis and 
Clark, who, although not scientific naturalists, had a remarkably correct 
knowledge of animals, and described tliem with great accuracy, had, in 
their account of the burrowing squirrel, reference to some species of 
epermophile — probably SpermophUus Townsendii, described in this volume — 
which certainly answers the description referred to much nearer than the 
species of this article. 



I'll 



, vol. ii. 
le name 
i Ra Fi- 
nes, tlio 
ichyura. 
ame of 
VIS and 
5ses8 in 
e whole 
ly short 
rted on 
imal of 
thumta, 
ve long 
tead of 
t differs 
isary to 
VIS and 
correct 
had, iu 
cics of 
lume — 
lan tho 




■^ 



CI 

c 







%^ 



-J 



r^* 



1 



r. II or SIS. 



:i5 

LEPUS BACIIMANL— \ 

Bachman'b Hark. 

PLATE CVIII.— Males. 

L. Sapra fuscus, latcribuH cinereo fuscis, ventre albo rufo-tincto ; L, 
Bylvatico aliquantulo minor, auriculis capite paullo bngioribus. 

CHARACTERS. 

A little smaller than the gray rabbit; ears rather longer than the head; 
tarsi, short. Colour, brown above, gray-brown on the ^irfes, beUy white, tinged 
with rufous. 

SYNOXYMES. 

Lepus Bachmani. Waterhouse, Proceedings Zool. Soc. 1838, p. 103. 

" Bachman's Hare, Bach. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., toI. viii. 

part 1, p. 90. 
" " Waterhcuse, Nat. Hist. Mamin., vol. ii. p. 124. 



DESCRIPTION. 

This Hare boars a general resemblance to the gray rabbit (i. 
sylvaticus), but is considerably smaller : the fur is softer and the ears 
shorter than in that species. 

Upper incisors, much arched, and deeply grooved ; claws, slender and 
pointed— the claw of the longest too remarkably slender ; ears longer 
than the head, sparingly furnished -th hair quite fine arc^ closely 
adpressed externally ; tail, short ; feet, -. ..ckly clothed with hair .'overinff 
the nails. 



COLOUR. 

The fur on the back and side? is deep gray at the roots, annulated near 
the ends of the hairs with brownish-white, and black at the points. On the 
belly the hair is gray at the roots and white at the points, with a tinge of 
red ; chest and fore parts of the neck, gray-brown, each hair being dusky at 
the tip ; chin and throat, grayish-white ; the hairs on the head are brownish- 



-^ 



36 BACHMANS HARE. 

rufous ; on the flanks tliere is an indistinct pale longitudinal dash just 
above the haunches ; under surface of tail white, edged with brownish- 
black ; general colour of the tarsus above,, dull-rufous ; sides of tarsus, 
brown ; ears, on the fore part mottled with black and yellowish-white, on 
the hinder part greyish-white ; internally the ears are dull orange, with a 
white margin all around their openings ; their apical portion is obscurely 
margined with black. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of noso to root of tail, 

Tail (vertebrae), 

" to end of fur, .... 

Ear internally, 

From heel to point of longest nail, - 
Tip of nose to ear, .... 



Inchei. 

10 

1 

2 
3 
2 



Lines. 

9 
8 

8 



HABITS. 



^11 



^ The manners of this pretty Hare, as observed in Texas by J. W. Audubon, 
appear to assimilate to those of the common rabbit {Lepus sylvaticus), the 
animal seldom quitting a particular locality, and making its form in thick 
briar patches or tufts of rank grass, keeping near the edge? of the woody 
places, and being seen in the evenings, especially for a short time after 
sunset, when it can be easily shot. 

We have been favoured with the following particulars as to the habits 
of this Hare by our esteemed friend Captain J. P. McCown of the United 
States Artny : 

"This Hare is deficient in speed, and depends for its safety upon 
dodging among the thick and thorny chaparals or nopal clusters {cadi) 
which it inhabits, never venturing far from these coverts. 

" Large numbers 6an be seen early in the morning or late in the evening, 
playing in the small openings or on the edges of the chaparals, or nibbling 
the tender leaves of the nopal, which seems to be the common prickly pear 
of our country, only much larger from congeniality of climate." 

" The principal enemies of these Hares in Texas are the cat species, 
hawks, and snakes." 

During the war with Mexico, some of the soldiers of our army who were 
stationed on the Mexican frontier had now and then a sort of battue, to 
kill all the game they could in their immediate vicinity ; and by surround- 
ing a space of tolerably open ground, especially if well cover-^d with high 



BACHMAN'S HARE. 



37 



grass or weeds, and approaching gradually to the centre, numbers of these 
Hares were knocked down with clubs as they attempted to make their 
escape, as well as occasionally other animals whicli happened to be secreted 
within the circle. We were told that a raw Txcrman recruit, who had 
once or twice before been made the butt of his comrades, having joined 
only a few days, was invited to partake of the sport, and as the excitement 
became quite agreeable to him, was amongst the foremost ip knocking 
down the unfortunate Hares, as they dashed out or timidly squatted yet a 
moment, hoping not to be observed ; when suddenly one of his companions 
pointed out to him a skunk, which, notwithstanding the din and uproar on 
all sides, was very quietly awaiting the course of events. The unlucky 
recruit darted forward :-we need say nothing more, except that during the 
remainder of the war the skunk was, by that detachment, known only as 
the " Dutchman's rabbit." 

I'his Hare so much resembles the common rabbit, that it has been 
generally considered the same animal ; and this is not singular for the 
gray rabbit does not extend to those portions of our country in which 
Bachman's Hare is found, and few, save persons of some observation 
would perceive the differences between them, even if they had both species 
together so that they could compare them. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Lieut. Abert, of the United States Army, procured specimens of this 
Hare in the neighbourhood of Santa Fd, ^vmch were the first that were made 
known tc naturalists as existing east of California, as the animal was 
described from a specimen sent by Douglas from the western shores of 
America. It now appears that it occupies a great portion of Texas, New 
Mexico, and California, probably extending south through great pJrt of 
Mexico. Its northeastern limit may be about the head waters qf the Red 
river or the Arkansas. 

general remarks. 

From the small size of this Hare, it was at one time considered possible 
that it might prove to be only the young of some other species of Lepus, 
but its specific characters are now fully established, and it is, at present! 
known as more numerous in some localities than even the gray rabbit. 

This species was discovered among a collection of skins in the museum 
of the Zoological Society by Dr. Bacuman and Mr. Waterhouse, and the 
latter gentleman having desired the doctor to allow him to dc. iibe and 






^ 



38 



BACHMAN'S HARE. 




name it, called it L. Bachmani, in compliment to him. Our figures 
we. made from the specimen described by Mr. "Waterhouse, which 
is yet in the museum of the Zoological Society at London. We have 
obfained many skins since, from Texas and the southwestern portions of 
New Mexico. 



S'i 



igures 

which 

have 

118 of 



39 



SPERMOPHILUS MEXIC ANUS.-Licht. 

M«xioAN Marmot Squirrel (Spkrmophub), 

P L A T E C I X .-Ou) Malk, and YouHO. 

S. magmtudinesciuri Hudsonici, auriculis brevibus, cauda longa, corpora 
supra rufo-fulvo, maculis vol strigio albis, subtus albo flavescente 



CHARACTERS. 



/««!?'' °4^''rr' ^"^^^"'^"^ '• --' ^^ort; taU, Umg; My, above, reddish, 
tawny, vnth whtte spots or bars ; beneath, yelhwish^hite. 



I 



8YN0NYMES. 

Cm..s MKxioAsns. Licht Da.tC.ung neuer oder wenig bekannter Saugthiere, 
Berlin, 1827-1834. ^ ' 

SPERMOi-niLus SPIL080MA. Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1833, p. 40. 

DESCRIPTION. 

allTi; Ih7 '""T '" .*'*' ''"P"'"' ^P'^^^P'"'^ (^- t^cemlineatus), 
although the present species is the larger of the two ; ears, short and 

and nails, long ; tail, somewhat flat, distichous, and shorter than the body. 

COLOUR. 

JJpper surface, rufous-brown, spotted with yellowish-white, the spots 
bo dered posteriorly with black ; under parts, pale buff-white ; this coTou 
extends somewhat upwards on the sides of the animal ; feet, ^ale-yenow 
arsi, hairy beneath, the hairs extending forwards to th^ nak d flesVpadB 
at the base of the toes ; claws, dusky horn colour, with pale pointlthe 
fur at the i.ots (both on the upper and under parts of the'auima tgr^ 
The eye is bordered with whitish-yellow ; head and ears, rufou -browu * 
upper surface of tail, dark-brown, edged with a white fringe on t e dos •' 



i 



im ' 






40 



MEXICAN MARMOT SQUIRREL 



towards the extremities the hairs are yellow, but they have a broad black 
band in the middle of their length ; under surface of the tail of an almost 
uniform yellowish-hue, slightly inclining to rust colour. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Adult male. 



|i 



From point of nose to root of tail, ■ 

Tail (vertebras), 

" including hair, - - . • 
Nose to end of head. - - . . 

Length of ears, 

From elbow of fore-leg to end of longest nail, 
Tarsus (of hind leg), 



Incnes. 

10 
4 

2 

2 
1 



IJnea. 



4 
6 

9 



Iiirhrs. 


Line* 


5 


9 


2 


9 


- 3 


6 


- - 1 


3 


- 1 


o 

O 




2i 


- 


9i 


- 


2i 



Measurements of the specimen named S. Spilosoma by Mr. Bennett : 

Young. 

From point of nose to root of tail, - 

Tail (vertebra;), .... 

" including hair, ■ - . . 

Nose to ear, 

Tarsus and nails, .... 
Length of nail of middle toe, - 
" fore foot and nails. - 
" middle toe of fore foot to nail, 

HABITS. 

This Mexican Spermophile has all the activity and sprightliness of the 
squirrel family, and in its movements greatly reminds one of the little 
ground-squirrel {Tamias Lysteri) of the middle and northern States. It 
feeds standing on its hind feet and holding its food in the fore paws like a 
common squirrel, and is remarkable for the flexibility of its back and neck, 
which it twists sideways with a cunning expression of face while observing 
the looker on. When caught alive this pretty species makes a pet of no 
common attractions, having beautiful eyes and being very handsomely 
marked, while its disposition soon becomes aflfoctionate, and it retains ita 
gay and frolicsome habits. It will eat corn and various kinds of seeds, 
and is fond of bits of potatoe, apple, or any kind of fruit, as well as bread, 
pastry, cakes, &c. : grasses and clover it will also eat readily, and in fact 



MEXICAN MARMOT SQUIRREL ^, 

it takes any kind of vegetable food. Even in the hottest summer weather 
this animal is fond of making a nest of tow and bits of carpet, and will 
Bleep covered up by these warm materials as comfortably as if the tempe- 
rature w£s at freezing point outside instead of 85°. 

For some time we have had a fine living animal of this species in a oege 
and he has been a source of great amusement to the little folks, who are 
tond of feeding him and pleased to see his antics. When threatened he 
shows fight and approaches the bars of his cage gritting or chattering 
with his teeth like a little fury, and sometim ,s uttering a sharp squeak of 
defiance; but when offered any good thing o eat he at once resumes his 
usual playful manner, and will take it from the hand of any one In 
eating corn this little animal picks out the soft part and leaves the shell 
and more compact portion of the grain untouched. 

At times he will coil himself up, lying on one side, almost entirely 
concealed by the tow and shredded carpet ; if then disturbed, he looks up 
out of one eye without changing his position, and will sometimes almost 
bear to be poked with a stick before moving. Like the human race he 
occasionally shows symptoms of laziness or fatigue, by yawnin- and 
stretching. When first placed in his cage he manifested some desire to 
get out, and attempted to gnaw the wires : he would now and then turn 
himself upside down, and with his fore paws holding on to the wires above 
his head bite vigorously at the horizontal wires for half a minute at a time 
before changing this apparently uncomfortable position. This Spermophile 
is not in the habit of eating a very great deal at a time, but seems to prefer 
feeding at intervals, even when plenty of food lies within his reoch retiring 
to his snug nest and sleeping for a while after eating a sufficient' portion 
When thus sleeping we sometimes found him lying on his back, with his 
fore paws almost joined, held close by his nose, while his hind le-s were 
slightly turned to one side so as to give his body the appearalice of 
complete relaxation. 

These animals are said to be tolerably abundant in Mexico and Cali- 
fornia, but only in the wooded districts. We were informed that they 
could easily be procured near Vera Cruz, Tuspan. Tampico &c 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

LiCHTENSTEiN informs US that Mr. Deppe procured this animal in 1826 
m the neighbourhood of Toluca in Mexico, where it was called by the' 
inhabitants by the general term Urion, which was also applied to other 
burrowing animals. Captpin Beechy states that his specimen waa 
procured in California, and we are informed bv Captain J. P McCown 
vor,. ui.=^ 



H 



1 1.1' 
III 1 , 



^ 



42 



MEXICAN MARMOT SQUIRREL. 




that it exists along the Rio Grande and in other parts of Texas, where he 
has seen it as a pet in the Mexican ranches. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

In our first edition (folio plates), we gave figures of the young of this 
species as S. spilosoma of Bennett, but having since ascertained that hia 
specimen was only the young of S. Mexicanus, a species which had been 
previously published, wo have now set down S. spihsoma as a synonymo of 
the latter, and have placed the figures of both old and young on the same 
plate. 




43 



PSEUDOSTOMA T A LPOIDE S.-Rich. 

Mole-Shaped Pouched Rat. 
PLATE ex.— Males. 

poftlc^f "*^'°' anuria ratti, corpore nigro cinerescentc, capite pro 
portioue parvo, mento albo, macula alba ad m,lnn, ^.-i-u . . 

quadridigitatis. ^"'^°'' P^^'^"" Posticis 



CHARACTERS. 

8YN0NYMES. 

Cricetus (?) TALP0IDE8. Rich, Zool. Jour. No. 12. p. 6 nl 18 
? Geomys ? Talpoides. « F. B. A., p. 204 
OoTAw-cHEE-ooES-HEES. Crce Indians. ' 



DESCRIPTION. 

Body, shaped like that of the mole • hend rnfj,« i, 

•nd covered with short hdr, ; !^^ '^t^!' itX ' "'"''' '"""'° 

..pper o„e, ,h„. a„a .rai.U, and lar^LTli ' :tX ^e*? '^ 
groove close to their inner ediro • inwn,. ,• • V ^ ^'^^ *'"® 

e.yc. sn,„„ ; andi.„r, oponin,, BnfaU and,, ;;,'":, L^^t' "°1 ' 
visible beyond the fur. ^ margined , ears, scarcely 

The pouches have an opening on the sides of the mouth extemnli ^ 
are of moderate size ; extremities, very short • the fore LTf f ^' ' 
and the rudiment of a thnmh • +!>. -a ,( ' ^^^ '^^^ ^""i" t^es 

c.a., ...e flr.,t:;:; , ;t ; ;':;;:tt,,': ," "rr "'" "•» ""^^ 

sorter and placed far .aek.Id 1 1 1;:;; If ."rr 7 v' 
consists merely of a short claw «.„ r ', "°" " "'" fai'lher book, 

slightly curved! and pointed L; Ir " "" "'■'' '""'■ ™""'™-''. 
.on,e other speiies onhe Te^n 'I pt* ;T '"' ""'f 'T '""^ »' 
.-e TO fonr short .„„ alod'Xrp^ss^X: n.^! ^0^1: 



44 



MOI.E-SIIAPEU POUCHED RAT. 




those on tlio fore feet, and the rudiment of a fifth toe, so small that it can 
be detected only after a minute inspection ; tail, very slender, cylindrical, 
and rather short, covered with a smooth coat of short iiairs. 

The hair is nearly as fine as that of the common shrew mole, and in 
close and velvety. 

I 

COLOUR. 

Whiskers, black ; incisors, yellowish-white, approaching flesh colour ; 
chin and throat, white ; outer edges of the pouch, light gray ; tail, grayish- 
brown ; the body generally, grayish-black, with faint brownish tints in 
some lights. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, - - . . 

Tail to end of hair, 

From point of nose to eye, - - . . 
From point of nose to auditory opening, • 

Height of back, 

Length of lower incisors, - - . . 

" fur on the back, .... 

" middle f-^ claw, 
From heel to end oi middle hind claw, 



Inches. 


Li^ci 


7 


4 


2 


5 




9 


1 


8 


2 






5 




6 




4 




11 



HABITS. 

Very little is known of the habits of this peculiar sand-rat. The 
manners, however, of all the species of the genus Psexidostoma are probably 
very similar : they live principally under ground, and leave tlieir galleries, 
holes, or burrows, pretty much as we of the genus Homo quit our houses, 
for the purpose of procuring the necessaries of life, or for pleasure, 
although they do find a portion of their food while making the excavations 
M-hich serve them as places in which to shelter themselves and bring forth 
their young. They are generally nocturnal, and in the day time prefer 
coming abroad during cloudy weather. 

They never make their appearance, nor do they work in their galleries 
or burrows during the winter in our northern latitudes, unless it be far 
boneath the hard frozen ground, which would not permit them to make ' 
new roads. 

Richardson says that as soon as the snow disappears in the spring, and 
whilst the ground is_ as yet only partially thawed, little heaps of earth 
newly thrown up attest the activitv of this animal. 



MOLE-SHAPED POUCHED RAT. 



45 



The specimen from which our figures were made was presented to the 
Zoological Society by Mr. Leadbeateh, who obtained it from Hudson's 
Bay. It also served Dr. Richardson for his description : he was inclined 
to identify it with a small animal inhabiting the banks of the Saskatche- 
wan, which throws up little mounds in the form of mole hills, but generally 
rather larger ; he, however, could not procure any specimens. 

As an evidence that this animal never feeds upon worms, he mentions 
the fact that none exist in high northern latitudes. A gentleman who had 
for forty years superintended the cultivation of considerable pieces of 
ground on the banks of the Saskatchewan, informed him that during the 
whole of that period he never saw an earthworm turned up. All the 
species of Pseudostoma, as far as our knowledge goes, feed on bulbs, roots 
and grasses. ' ' ' 

The pouches serve as sacks, in which after filling them with food they 
carry it to their nests in their subterranean retreats, where they deposit 
considerable quantities, which evidently servo them as supplies throughoui 
the winter. 

We are under the impression that none of the species of this genua 
become perfectly dormant in winter, as we have observed in Georgia a 
few fresh hillocks thrown up by the Southern oouched-rat after each warm 
day in that season. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

As before stated, this species was obtained at Hudson's Bay, and is 
supposed by Richardson to exist on the Saskatchewan, thus giving it a 
considerable western rango, should there not indeed prove to be a diflFerent 
species, which is, however, rather orobable. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

Until very recently there has been much confusion among writers in 
regard to the organization of the family of pouched-rats, which appear to 
be exclusively confined to the American continent— some supposing that 
the natural position of the pouch was that of a sac hanging suspended ou 
each side of the throat, with the opening within the mouth. 

For the probable origin of this error we refer our readers to the first 
volume of this work, p. 338, where we gave some remarks on the Psetido- 
stoma bursarius, and this genus generally. 



46 



GENUS OVIBOS.— Blainvilii. 

DENTAL FORMULA. 

Incisive I ; Canine ^ ; Molar ^ = 32. 

Body, low and compact; legs, short and covered with smooth shorl 
hairs ; feet, hairy under the b»el ; forehead, broad and fiat ; no suborbital 
sinus ; muzzle, blunt and covered with hair ; horns, common to both sexes, 
m contact on the summit of the head, flat, broad, then tapering and bent 
down against the c'..eeks. with the points turned up ; ear., short, and placed 
tar back ; eyes, small ; tail, short. 

Hair, very abundant, long, and woolly ; size and form intermediate 
between the ox and the sheep; inhabits the northern or Arctic portions 
ot North America. 

The generic name is derived from two Latin words-<n,t,, sheep, and 
bos, ox. ' 

There is only one known existing species of this genus, although fossnl 
Bkulls have been found in Siberia, from which the name of Ovibos paUentis 
18 given in systematic European works. 



OVIBOS MOSCHATUS—Gmel. 

Mu8K-0x. 

PLATE CXI.— Males. 

O. Fuscescente-niger, cornibus basi approximatis planis^ latissimis, 
deorsum flcxis, ad malas appressis apice extrorsum sursumque recui-vis • 
mas magnitudine vaccag biennis. ' 



CHARACTERS. 



MuU male, size oj a smaU two year old cmv ; norns, united m the s^mmU 
oftlie head, flat, broad, bent down against the cheeks, with the points turned up. 
Colour, brownish-black. 



STNONYMES. 

Lk Bffii-F MrsQUE, M. Jeremie, Voyage au Nord, t. ill. p. 314 
" " Charlevoix, Nouv. France, torn. v. p. 194. 



IMUSK^X. 



Mu8K-0x. 



Tinge, Voynge, vol. ii. p. 260. 

.. i^,;'.^^";' "•"'*""''' I^ny. pp. 10, 25. 
ftllw, Voyaere, p. 2,32. 

Pennant, Quadr., vol. i. p. gj. 

a XT " , ■^'''''"'' ^''"''W. vol. i. p. 9. 
Uearnes Journey, p. 137. 

r ^y'" Jj"^^' ^">»«". P- 257, plate. 
B08 M08CHATU8. oZl^yT^''' ^^' '*^^' *°'*'' ^^'^ ("P^'^iraen in British Museum). 

" « SrSatinrF^''l7'r •;''"' ''"^"'^^' «"PP'~t, p. 180) 

« .. ,;.'-,''™'^'«"'^''"'« Journey, p. 068. ' 

iiiftiHrdson, Parrv's S ,i„i \' . 

Ovinos M0.SCHATU8. Richard on f;!, l"^"^""' A,)pendix, p. 331. 

M...-M00.00. (Ti«::t::i'z t;:::"'-^^^-' ^ ^'^■ 

Oo™r^^:i^r ''^°^^- ^''i'-^—^ Copper Indians. 

OviBOB M08OHATUH. Harlan, Fauna, p. 204 

Bos MoscHxxus-The MnsK-Ox. Godn^an, Nat. Hist vol. iii. p. 20. 



47 



DESCRIPTION. 

frontal .,i„„: „ .„„ h„rt;i'Tc '';::,:;''' ""'r'''' '° ''"« 

become round and tapcrinir, like thos« !f, """J^-'vox base, they 

ward, between .he eye afd he ear L ! n, r'TT ""' '""' '""" ''''""• 
turn upward, and outlard, (i „ ," ' ° '' ° "" °T "'° ''"' "■''°'-'= ""'^ 
angle of the eye, endin. with tolerlr *' '° " ''"'" '""=™ ""> 

their length are ronrf, ;iri„ M l'^"'' ''°""'- '^'" •">■■>' '»■■ half 

beyond Lh tl.e t:t r° Tat Xsv'rr.r---''-^' '°°^"'' 
bull. ^^''^^ S'^^sy- I'ke those of a common 

naked ; united at their base. ThcJeTnl I ' '■ '°°" """•^'"» 

whole of the „o,e, and the lip, Iv r d ^irT:""" "' " ""'^* • *» 
h no fl,rrow on the upper lip * " *"" <''"" »' tair, , there 

.here iTt::::^ :f wstrhtiirrr "'" .'°°^ ^-'^ "--^^ -^ 

the side, of the lower jaw * ° *° ""'«''" "^ 'he mouth and 

.a?:Lrcire^tk?:rrr:r-r "™ -- 

.be ,urroundi„g long hair, which Here or ^t waTe^^o!"?'" "?"=" 
r«™, a sort o. ru, back of .io ueok , l^, shon:^" ,£„";' 



48 



MUSK-OX. 



short hair unniixod with wool : hoofs, flat, small in proportion to the size 
of tlic animal, and re,-n>mblin<? tliof^c of the rcintloor Tbf ow flifl"prs from 
the bull in having nnialUM- horns (the Imsos of wliirh. iiifvcad of toufliing 
each other, are separated l>y a hairy space), and m the ii.iir on the throat 
and chest being shorter. Tlie female is considerably smaller than the 
male. 

COLOUR. 

The general colour of the hair of the body is brown ; on t!ie neck and 
between the shoulders it is of a grizzled hue, being dull light-brown, fading 
on the tips into brownish-white; on the centre of the bad: it presents a 
soiled whitish colour, forming a mark which is aptly termed by Cajitain 
Parhv the saddle. The liifw are dark-brown, and the side thighs, and 
Itelly, nearly black ; the short soft hairs on the nose and lips are whitisli, 
with a tinge of reddish-brown ; legs, brownish-white; tips of horns, and 
hoofs, black ; tail, dark brown. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from nose to root of tail, about 



Feet. 



Inches. 



HABITS. 

For our description and account of the habits of this very peculiar 
animal we'have resorted to other authors, never having ourselves had an 
op]iortunity of seeing it alive, and in fact knowing it only from the 
specimen in the British Museum, from which our figures were drawn, ai.d 
which is the only one hitherto sent to Europe, so difficult is it to p/ocure 
the animal and convey the skin, with the skull, leg bones, &c., in a 
tolerable state of preservation, from the barren lands of the northern 
portions of British America, whore it is found, and Avhcro an almost 
perpetual winter and consequent scarcity of food make it very difficult to 
prevent tlie Indians, or white hunters either, from eating (wo should say 
devouring) everything that can by any possibility serve to fill their empty 
stomachs — even skins, hoofs, and the most refuse parts of any animal they 
kill. 

To give a better idea of the effects of hunger on man, at times, in these 
wild and desert countries, we will relate a case that happened to Dr. 
RiCiiARDSON while upon an expedition. One of his mea, a half-breed and 
a bad. fellov/-, it was discovered, had killed a companion with whom he had 



MUSK-OX. 



49 



been sent upon a short journey in the woods for intelligence, and had eaten 
a considerable portion of his miserable victim. 

Dr. R1CHAKD8ON, watching this monster from hour to hour, perceived 
that he was evidentlv preparing and awaiting an opportunity to kill him, 
possibly dreading the pHnishincnt he deserved for his horrible crime, and 
perhaps thinking the doctor's body would supply him with food till he 
could reach the Bcttlemcnts and escape ;— anticipating his purpose, the 
doctor very propeily shot him. 

Sir John relates an instance in which all his efforts to obtain a skin 
of the black-tailed deer were baffled by the appetites of his hunters, who 
ate up one they killed, hide and all. Even on the fertile prairies of more 
southern portions of our continent, starvation sometimes stares the hunter 
in the face. At one time a lino specimen of the mule deer {Centm 
macrotls), shot for us on the prairies far up the Missouri river, wa^ eaten 
by our men, who concealed the fact of thoir Inving killed the animal untU 
some days afterwards. 

Sir Okoboe Simpson, of tlie Hudson's I3ay Fur Company, most kindly 
promised some years ago that he would if possible procure U3 a skin of the 
Musk-Ox, which he thought could be got within two years—taking one 
season to send the order for it to his men and another to get it and send 
the skin to England. We have not yet received this promised skin, and 
therefore feel sure that the hunters failed to obtain or to preserve one, for 
during the time that has elapsed we have received from the Hudson's Bav 
Company, through the kindness of Sir George, an Arctic fox, preserved 
in the flesh in rum, and a beautiful skin of the silver-gray fox, which wore 
written for by Sir George at our request in 1845, at the same tini,' that 
gentleman wrote for the skin of the Musk-Ox. We give an extract from 
Sir George's letter to us: "With reference to your application for skiua 
of the Musk-Ox, I forwarded instructioiis on the subject to a gentleman 
stationed at the Hudson's Bay Company's post of Churchill, on Hudson'^ 
Bay, but the distance and difficulties of communication are so great that 
he v.'ill not roccive my letter until vaxt summer; and he cannot possibly 
procure the specimens you require before next winter, nor cun these be 
received in England before the month of October, 1847, and it is doubtful 
that they will 1 received even then, as those animals are scarce, and so 
extremely timiu chat a year might be lost before obtaining one." 

Sir George Simpson was pleased to close this letter with a highly 
complimentary expression of the pleasure it would afford him to assist us 
in the completion of our work ; and among tne difficulties and worrying 
accompaniments of such a publication as ours, it has been an unmixed 
gratification to have with us the sympathies and assistance of gentlemen 
VOL. in. — 7 



t . 



.5(» 



MUSK-OX. 



like Sir Geoeok and many others, and of so powerful a corporation as 
the Hudson's Bay Fur Company. 

Dr. RicHAKDSoN in a note explains a mistake made by Pennant, who 
appears to have confounded the habitat of the Musk-Ox with that of the 
bison, and states that our animal is found on the lauds of the Cris or <7m- 
tinauic and Ansitiihoids, which are plains extending from the Red river of 
Lake Winnipeg to the Saskatchewan, on which tracts the buft'alo is 
frequently found, but not the Musk-Ox. 

The accounts of old writers, having reference to an animal found in 
New Mexico, which Pennant refers to the Musk-Ox, may be based upon 
the existence of the Eocky Mountain sheep in that country, which 
having been imperfectly described, has led some authors to think :he 
Musk-Ox was an inhabitant of so southern a locality. 

" Tlie country frequented by the Musk-Ox is mostly rocky, and destitute 
of wood except on the banks of the larger rivers, whicli are generally more 
or less thickly clothed with spruce trees. Their food is similar to that of 
the caribou — grass at one season and lichens at another ; and the contents 
of their paunch are eaten by the natives with the same relish that they 
devour the ^nerrooH of the reindeer. Tlie droppings of the Musk-Ox 
take the form of round pellets, differing from those of the caribou only in 
their greater size. 

" When this animal is fat, its flesh is well tasted, and resembles that of 
the caribou, but has a coarser grain. The flesh of the bulls is highly 
flavoured, and both bulls and cows, when lean, smell strongly of musk, 
their flesh at the same time being very dark and tough, and certainly far 
inferior to that of any other ruminating animal existing in North America. 

" The carcase of a Musk-Ox weighs, exclusive of the offal, about tlireo 
liundred weight, or nearly three times as much as a barren ground caribou, 
and twice as much as one of the woodland caribou. 

" Notwithstanding the shortness of the legs of the Musk-Ox, it runs fast, 
and climbs hills or rocks with great ease. One, pursued on the banks of 
the Coppermine, scaled a lofty sand cliff, having so great an acclivity that 
we were obliged to crawl on hands and knees to follow it. Its foot-marks 
are very similar to those of the caribou, but are rather longor and 
narrower. These oxen assemble in herds of from twenty to thirty, rut 
about the end of August and beginning of September, and bring forth one 
calf about the latter end of May or beginning of June. 

" IIeauxe, from the circumstances of few bulls being seen, supposed that 
they kill each other in their contests for tlie cows. If the hunters keep 
themselves concealed when they fire n])Oii a herd of Musk-Oxen, the i)oor 
animals mistake the noise for thunder, and, forming themselves into a 



"^1 



MUSK-OX. 



51 



group, crowd nearer and nearer together as their companions fall around 
them ; but should they discover their enemies by sight or by their sense of 
sinell winch is very acute, the whole herd seek for safety by instant flight, 
Ihe bulls, however, are very irascible, and particularly when wounded 
Tvill often attack the hunter and endanger his life, unless he possess both 
actmty and presence of mind. The E.quunaux. who are well accustomed 
to the pursuit of this animal, sometimes turn its irritable disposition to 
good account ; for an expert hunter having provoked a bull to attack him 
wheels round it more quickly than it can curn, and bv repeated stabs in 
the belly puts an end to its life. The wool of the Musk-Ox resembles that 
01 the bison, but is perhaps finer, and would no doubt be highly useful in 
the arts ,f ,t could be procured in sufficient quantity. "-Richardson. F. B. 
*^., p. 277. 

"ThoMusk-Oxen killed on MelviHe Island durin? Parry's visit were 
very fot, and tlieir flesh, especially the heart, although highly sceniod with 
musk, was considered very good food. When cut up it had all the appear- 
ance of beef for the market. Hearxe says that the flesh of the Musk-Ox 
does not at all resemble that of the bison, but is more like that of the 
moose, and the fat is of a clear white, tinged with light azure. The youn«- 
cows and calves furnish a very palatable beef, but that of the old bulls i". 
so intolerably musky as to be excessively disagreeable. "-Godmaw vol 
111. p. 35. ' ■ 

According to Parry, this animal weighs about seven hundred pounds. 
Ihe head and hide weigh about one hundred and thirty pounds "Tho 
horns are employed for various purposes by the Indians and Esquimaux 
especially for making cups and spoons. From the long hair growin- oa 
the neck and chest the Esquimaux make their musquito wigs, to defend 
their faces from those troublesome insects. Tho hide makes good soles for 
shoes and is much used for that purpose by the Indians." 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTPiBUTION. 

The Musk-Ox resorts to the barren lands of AmeHca lying to the north 
of the OOth parallel of north latitude. Hkahne mentions'that he once «aw 
the tracks of one in tho neighbourhood of Fort ChurJiill, lat. 59° • and in 
his first journey to the north he saw many in tho latitude of Olo At 
present, according to what is said, they do not reach the shores of Hudson's 
>ay ; farthm- to the westward fiiey are rarely seen in any number, lower 
t.iau lat. 0,". RicHAunsox spates that he had not heard of their beiu- 
Bcou on the banks of Mackaizie's river to the southward of Groat Bear 
lake. They ra:.ge over tl>. islands which lie to the north of the American 



^^1 



f 



M 



MIISK-OX. 






continent as far as Melville Island, in latitude 75°, 'uut they do not extend 
to Greenland, Lapland, or Spitzbergen. There is an extensive tract of 
barren country skirting the banks of the Mackenzie river, northwest of the 
Rocky Mountains, which also is inhabited by the Musk-Ox ; it is not 
known in New Caledonia, on the banks of the Columbia, nor in any 
portion of the Rocky Mountains ; nor does it cross over to the Asiatic 
shore : consequently it does not exist in any part of northern Asia or 
Siberia. 

Captain Fabry noticed its appearance on Melville Island in the mouth 
of May ; it must therefore be regarded as an animal the native home of 
which is within the Arctic Circle, the dwelling-place of the Esquimaux. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The Musk-Ox is remarkable amongst the animals of America, for never 
having had more than one specific appellation, whilst other species of much 
less interest-have been honoured with a long list of synonymes. Jeremie 
appears to have given the first notice of it : he brought some of the wool 
to France, and had stockings made of it which were said to have been 
more beautiful than silk. The English voyagers of an early period gave 
some information respecting it, but Pexnant has the merit of being the 
first who systematically arranged and described it, from the skin of a 
specimen sent to England by Hearne, the celebrated traveller. From its 
want of a naked muzzle and some other peculiarities, M. Blainville placed 
it in a genus intermediate (as its name denotes) between the sheep and 
the ox. 



53 



LEPUS CALIFORNICUS—Gray 

Califobnian Hare. 
PLATE CXII. 

.nuJT''T" ^-f'^'^^' fo™^ L. timide; supra flavescente-fuscus 
Bubtus albus, flavo valdetinctus. " 



CHARACTEKS. 

re^Zf '""'t""/ '"^ ^"^'' ''''''' ^'"^ ^'■'^^ '- '^ i'^k, light bron,nM. 
red on the neck ; lower parts deeply tinged vnth yellow. 

SYNONYMES. 
Lkpus Caufornicus. Gray, Mag. Nat. Hist ISTr vr,l ; 

«.«.„=.. G„,, Zoo,.,, „,.h. V„,.,, .,H. „. s.L;1,, m.„„., p. 3., 



DESCRIPTION. 



COLOUR. 

The back, from the shoulder to the insertion of th^ Ml io , , 

Suh^h ° °r^ T"" °' ""' ""' """■"-"-""wr,, lower surface 
yeilowish white i around the eye, pale buff; back of the neck m,vkh 
cmnamon colour ; leg, and feet, ciimamon. The outer surface of ,IT 
.s lougitudinally divided into two colour,, the aat or p:^, or haTf 

Ihe ear. the ha,r. be,„g annulated with black and pale yellow ; the poxterio 



i 



■^ 



54 



CALIFORNIAN HARE, 



portion dingy yellowish-white, growing lighter as it approaches the tip, 
until it blends with the black colour which terminates the upper half of tlie 
outside of the ear ; the interior edge of the ear is pale yellow, each hair 
slightly tipped with black ; one half of the inner surface of the ear is 
nearly naked, but covered with very delicate and short hairs, the other 
portion thinly clothed with hair gradually thickening towards the outer 
edge, where it is grizzly-brown ; edge of the ear for two thirds from the 
head, yellowish-white ; the remainder to the tip, soft velvety black. This 
black colour extends in a large patch on to the outer surface of the ear at 
the tip. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail, 

" eye to point of nose. 
Height of ear, posteriorly. 
Heel, to point of middle claw, - 
Tail, including hair, 



Inches. 


Line 


■ 22 




- 2 


1 


- 5 


10 


• 4 


8 


- 3 


3 



HABITS. 

The habits of all hares arc much the same ; and this family is a general 
favourite for the beauty, timid gentleness, and fleetness its various species 
exhibit, although some of them arc annoying to the gardener. In America, 
however, many species of Hare inhabit territories too far from cultivated 
fields or gardens for them to be able to nibble even at a cabbage plant. 

Many pleasant evening hours have we passed, walking through forest- 
• shaded roads in the last rays scattered here and there by the sinking 
sun, observing the playful "rabbits" leaping gracefully a few paces at a 
time, then stopping and looking about, ignorant of our proximity and 
unconscious of danger. But we are now to give the habits of the Cali- 
fornian Hare, for which take the following account of the animal as 
observed by J. W. Audubon : 

" The Californian Hare appears to possess just brains enough to make 
him the greatest coward of all the tribe I have seen, for, once startled he 
is quite as wild as a deer, and equally heedless as to the course he takes, 
80 that as he has not the keen sense of smell of the doer to warn him of 
danger in any direction, he sometimes makes a great fool of himself in his 
haste, and I have had these Hares run to within three feet of me, before I 
was seen, even where there was no cover but a sparse prairie grass." 
" It was after toiling night and day through the sands of the Colorado 



CALIFOENIAN HARE. 

desert, md resting afterwards iit Valleeito and San Felipe while n,„r.l,i„, 
a ong t e streams throngh the rieh fields „r Santa MaA tta U saw'! 
first Cal,forn,an Hare. I knew him at sight : he showed Lo »te.Ttf a^ 
he ran and looked almost blaek „n,engst the yellow broonjdte ^^ h^ 
d v,ded ,. ,n ,s swift eonrse. His legs seemed alwavs under his ody fo 
„„ek was the movement that I eould not see them extended, as in oter 

atd tl'n. ,r ""■ T", ' ""'■"'"»"i"^ -P™?)- 'ouch to the earth, 
and putt mg h,s enormously leng ears forward, and then baek on his neek 
and streteh,ng out his head, appeared to fiy over the undulating ridges of 
tl. pra,r,e as a swallow skims for inseets the surfaee of a s.uggt^rtr L 

Very few of these Hares were sppn v,v t w a 

*jjad travelled seme dis.a„e?f„:rerl.',:,r:r:i;:^^ 
had Wt the pla,„s of the San Joaquin for the mines that t ey beeame 
;; »r.,mon an.mal, and in faet often their sole reseuree forlhe S" 

.1.0. another afterward^ and ,vas::'::rireTL7cr:u;ed'^ 

oriitnt'Xtr:'^.^:^^^^^^^^^^ 

tw^ty^urth of September was still Jl:^:, vol' 7'" ""^^ °° *" 

^^Z:::z^i:::i^7 -!' -■'^ ^- -pi-^". »„ moun. 

season it was not sen bTi W Z '""""'"''• ''"""" "■« '»"' 

although it doubtlesrL's to' thLtrinTth '^ '"^ T ""' ^^°""*' 

Mr. P,ALE says, these Hares "win ''^ ™"'" "'""'"«"•■ 

...ake three short'a'nd one long leap nnTZIirr,"" "" ™'' ""^ 
setting hedges of thorny brush w H ' «"•. '"'''•■'"' «««* them by 

.et snare.,, s'o eons.rneted 7. ' rZ "'l'"'™'-' '" ''"* *^' 

use of springes , the noose is l!i r u! "" '""""'^- "'"'•""^ «!■« 
and neafly twisled with e'rl" "' " """""""' '■'«' "-P. '«^ *ong 



i 



56 



CAUFORNIAN HARE. 



Illl 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species was seen by J. W. Audubon during his journey from Texa" 
to California ; it was first met to the northward of the Colorado desert, 
and was quite abundant as the party approached the mining districts of 
California, where it was found as far north as the American fork ; it was 
met with in the southern parts of Oregon by the United States Exploring 
Expedition. We are not informed whether it exists to the eastward of the 
Nevada range of mountains. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

This Hare was first obtained by Mr. Douglas, and sent with other 
animals from California to England. It was described by Mr. Gray, and 
being, from its large size and rich colouring, one ol the most conspicuous 
among the North American Hares, we regret that that eminent naturalist 
should have also (by some mistake) given it the name of L. Benndtii, mid for 
ourselves we must plead guilty to having erroneously named it L. Richard- 
sonii. The identity of this beautiful animal has been also somewhat 
obscured by Mr. Peale, who confounded it with a species from the Cape 
of Good Hope, which bears the name of Longicavdatus, ah.l was described 
in LondoE. 






rexa3 

lesert, 
■ts of 
it was 
loring 
of the 



other 
f, and 
icuoim 
iralist 
lid for 
chard- 
ewhat 

Cape 
cribed 



w 



J 



1 



'_) 



x: 




\ 



\ 



^ 



V 



!' i| iii mMH (i mi.«uuu.t.)i i tmpw-iwAg F ifc 






\ 



\ 









V 



lltl 






mm. 




*% 



57 



CANIS FAMiLIARIS—LiNN. (Vah Boheaus—Desm.) 

Esquimaux Doo. 
PLATE C XII I.— Males. 

C. magnitiidine C. Terras Novae, capite parvo, auribus erectis, cauda 
^comosa, cruribus pedibusque robustioribus, colore cinereo, albo nigroque 
notato. 

CHARACTERS. 

Mout the size of the jyevfmndland dog; head, amatt ; ears, erect; taU, 
bushy ; kgs and feet, stout ; general colour gray, varied with white and dark 
markings. 

8TN0NYME8. 

Canis Familiaris, var. N. Borealis. Desm., Mamm., p. 194. 
Esquimaux Doo. Captain Lyons, Private Journal, pp. 244, 332. 

" Parry's Second Voyage, pp. 290, 358. 
Cams Familiaris, var. A. Borealis— Esquimaux Doo. F. B. A., p. 76. 

DESCRIPTION. 

He; rather small ; ears, short and pointed ; body, thick and well 
formed ; eye, of moderate size ; fett, clothed with thick short hair con- 
cealing the nails : tail, bushy, and longest at the end ; hair, long, with 
thick wool beneat 

COLOUR. 

Muzzle, black , inner portion of ears, blackish ; top of nose, forehead, a 

ace around he eyes, outer edges of ears, cheeks, brlly, and legs, whitish ; 

ciown of the head, and back, nearly black ; sides, thih y covered with long 

black, and some white, hairs ; underneath there is a shorter dense coat of 

yellowish-rray woolly h .ir which is partly visible throu^^h these long hairs. 

The tai like the back, is clothed with black and white hairs, th latter 

greatly prodominating, especially at the tip. 

VOL. in.— 8 



I 



S6 



ESQUIMAUX IXJG. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail, 
" " of tail (vcrtcbrip), - 

* " including hair, 

Height of car, inside, .... 

Width between the eyes, ... 
ears, . • . 



F«ei 


uichu 


4 


3 


' 


2 


. 


6 




8 




2i 




U 



HABITS. 

So much has been written about the admirable qualities of the dog, that 
it would be quite useless for us to enter upon the subject ; we shall also 
avoid the question of the origin of the various races, which in fact have 
bofn so intermixed tiiat it would no an almost Quixotic task to endeavour 
to trace the genealogy of even the "noblest" of them. Those, however, 
that have, like the Esquimaux Dog, for centuries retained their general 
characters, and have not been exposed to any chance of " amalgamation" 
with other races, exhibit habits as well as forms and colours sufficiently 
permanent to warrant the naturalist in describing them, and in many 
cases their history is exceedingly interesting. 

The Esquimaux Dogs are most useful animals to the savages of our 
Arctic regions, and when hitched to a sled many couples together, will 
travel with their master over the ice and snow at great speed for many 
miles without much fatigue, or draw heavy burthens to the huts of their 
owners. When on the coast of Labrador we had the following account of 
the mode in which these dogs subsist, from a man who had resided in that 
part of the world for upwards of ten years. During spring and sunnner 
ihoy ramble along the shores, where tlioy meet with abundance of dead 
lish, and in winter they eat the flesh of the seals which are killed and salted 
in the spring or late in the autumn when these animals return from the 
north. This man informed us also that when hard pushed he could relish 
the fare he thus provided for his Dogs just as much as they did themselves. 
We found several families inhabiting the coast of Labrador, all of whom 
depended entirely on their Dogs to convey them when visiting their neigh- 
bours, and some of whom had packs of at least forty of these animals. On 
some parts of the coast of Labrador the fish were so abundant during our 
visit that we could scoop them out of the edge of the water with a pocket- 
handkerchief : at such tiroes the Esquimaux Dogs catch them, wading in 
and snapping at them with considerable dexterity as ;he surf retires; 
whf^n caught they eat them at once while thej are still aljve. 



KSQurMAf'x ixm. 



m 



We were .nformcd that when thco Dog« arc on a journey, in winter 
Bliould they be overtaken »,y a Hcvere snow-storm, and thereby prevented 
from reneh.n^' a settlement within the calenlatod time, and if the provisions 
intended tor them in eonse.,nence give out, in their ravenous hun-^r thev 
devour the driver, an.l even prey upon one another. Such cases wer'e 
related to us, as well as others in whieh, hy severe whij.ping and loud 
cries the Dogs were forced into a pallop and kept on the full run until 
some house was reached and the 8lei;ri,.,l,ivcr saved. 

These animals are taught to go in harness from the time they are quito 
young pups, being placed in a team along with well (rained Dogs when 
only two or three months old, to gain experience and ., arn to obey their 
master who w.elds a whip of twenty or thirty feet length of lash, with a 
short, heavy handle. 

On a man approaching a house where they are kept, these Dogs sally 
forth w.th fierce barkings at the intruder, and it requires a bold heart to 
march up to them, as with their pointed ears and wiry hair they look like 
a pack wild wolves. Thoy are in Tact very .avage and ferocious at 
tunes, and require ihe strictest discipline to keep them in subjection 

Captain Lyon gives an interesting account of the Esquimaux Dog, ,,art 
of which we shall here lay before you: "A walrus is frequentlv drawn 
along by tl.ree or four of these Dogs, and seals are sometimes carried homo 
in the same manner, though I have in .omo instances seen a Do- brin- 
home the greater part of a seal in panniers placed across his back The 
latter mode of coiivoyance is often used in summer, and the Dogs also earrv 
skins or furniture overland to the sledges when their masters are going on 
any expedition. It might be supposed that in so cold a climate these 
animals had peculiar periods of gestation, like the wild creatures : but on 
the contrary, they bear young at every season of the year, the pups seldom 
exceeding five at a litter. Cold has very little effect on them • for 
although the dogs at tin. huts slept within the snow passages, mine at the 
ships had no shelter, but lay alongside, with the thermometer at 42° and 
44° (below zero!) and with as little concern as if the weather had been 
mild. I found by several experiments, that three of my do-s ...:ri draw 
mo on a sledge weighing 100 pounds at the rate of one mile in sir m>, ,,-, . 
and as a proof of the strength of a wellgrown Dog, my leader drew 196 
pounds singly, and to the same distance, in eight minutes. At another 
time, seven of my Dogs ran a mile in fou. minutes, drawing a heavy ^led-e 
full of men. Afterwards, in carrying stores to the Fury, one mile .^-(ant 
nme Dogs drew 1011 pounds in the space of nine minutes. My sK-!- wa«.' 
on runners neither sliod nor iced ; but had the ru.iners been iced, at least 
40 pounds might have been added for each Dog." 



i 



W 



i 



60 



Esquimaux dog. 



Captain Lyon had eleven of these Dogs, which he seys " were large and 
even majestic looking animals ; and an old one, of peculiar sagacity, was 
placed at their head by having a longer trace, so as to lead them through 
the safest and driest places." " The leader was instant in obeying the 
voice of the driver, who never beat, but repeatedly called to him by name. 
When the Dogs slackened their pace, the sight of a seal or a bird was 
Bufficient to put them instantly to their full speed ; and even though none 
of these might be seen on the ice, the cry of * a seal I'—' a bear !' — ' a 
bird I' &c., was enough to give play to the legs and voices of the whole 
pack. It was a beautiful sight to observe the two sledges racing at full 
speed to the same object, the Dogs and men in full cry, and the vehicles 
splashing through the holes of water with the velocity and spirit of rival 
stage-coaches. There is something of the spirit of professed whips in these 
wild races ; for the young men delight in passing each other's sledge, and 
jockeying the hinder one by crossing the path. In passing on different 
routes the right hand is yielded, and should an inexperienced driver 
endeavour to take the left, he would have some difficulty in persuading his 
team to do so. The only unpleasant circumstance attending those races 
is, that a poor dog is sometimes entangled and thrown down, when the 
sledge, with perhaps a heavy load, is unavoidably drawn over his 
body. 

" The driver sits on the fore part of the vehicle, from whence he jumps, 
when requisite, to pull it clear of any impediments which may lie in the 
way ; and he also guides it by pressing cither foot on the ice. The voice 
and long whip answer all the purposes of reins, and the Dogs can be made 
to turn a corner as dexterously as horses, though not in such an orderly 
manner, since they are constantly fighting ; and I do not recollect to have 
seen one receive a flogging without instantly wreaking his passion on the 
ears of his neighbours. The cries of the men are not more melodious than 
those of the animals ; and their wild looks and gestures, when animated, 
give them an appearance of devils driving wolves before them. Our Dogs 
had eaten nothing for forty-eight hours, and could not have gone over less 
than seventy miles of ground ; yet they returned to all appearance as fresh 
and active as when they first set out." 

These Dogs curl the tail over the hip in the manner of house dogs gene- 
rally. 

Our drawing was made from a fine living Dog in the Zoological Garden 
at London. Some have since been brought to New York alive by the ships 
fitted out and sent to the polar seas in search of the unfortunate Sir John 
Fbanklin and his party by Mr. Heney Grinnell, of that city. 



ESQUIMA X UOO 



61 



GEOGRAPniCAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This animal, as the name imports, is tlie constant wmpanion of the 
Esquimaux, but extends much beyond the range of that tribe of Indians, 
pince it is found not only at Labrador, but among various tribes of northern 
Indians, and was observed by travellers in tlic Arctic regions to the 
extreme north ; we are unacquainted with its western limits. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

We have been indi:ced, in our account of American animals, to give 
figures and descriptions of this peculiar variety of Dog, inasmuch as it 
appears to have been a permanent variety for ages, and is one of the most 
useful animals to the Indians residing in the polar regions. Whether it be 
an original native Dog, or derive its origin from the wolf, is a subject 
which we will not here discuss, farther than to state, in opposition to the 
views of Dr. Richardson, that our figures do not represent these animals 
as very closely allied to the wolf ; on the contrary, tlieir look of intelligence 
would indicate that they possess sagacity and aptitude for the service of 
man, equal at least to that of many favourite breeds of Dog. The fact 
also of their breeding at all seasons of the year, their manner of placing 
the tail in sport, and their general habits, give evidence of their being true 
DofTS and not wolves, the only difi'erence between them and some other 
varieties consisting in their having erect pointed eors, which are peculiar to 
the Dogs of savage nations, and not altogether absent in some of our 
common breeds, as we have witnessed in the shepherd's Dog of Europe 
and some cur 7>ogs in America erect ears of a similar character. 



_. 



^ 



62 



SPERM OPHILUS LATERALI S.— S a y. 

Say's Marmot-Squikbel, or Si'ermophile, 

PLATE CXIV. 

S magnitudino Sciui-i Hudsouici ; stria lateral! flavcsceutc alba nigro 
marqinata. 

CHARACTERS. 

Size oj Sciurus Hudsonicus ; a yeUowi^h-white stripe bordered with dark 
brownish-black on each flank, 

SYNONYMES, 

Small gray Squirrel. Lewis and Clark, vol. iii. )>. 35. 
Sciurus I.aiehalis. Say, Lonsj's Kxpeditioii, vol. ii. p. 40, 

" Harlan, Fauna Americana, p. 181. 

RocKV Mountain GRr/- ni. Scjuirrel. Goilman, Nat. Hist., vol. ii. p. 144. 
ARCTO.MVS {Si>er.\ioi'him ^) Lateralis, liicli., Zool. .lour., vol. ii., No. 12, p. 519. 
" " " Say's Marmot. Kith., F. 1$. A., p.' 1 74, pi. 13. 



DESCRIPTION. 

The body in form resomble\ the i^pK^rniophilcs, Avitli a slight approach to 
the TamijB ; head, rather large ; p>i'«4K'ad, convex ; nosse, obtuse and 
covered with short hairs, excei>t a iiHk^d r-\M<-o. around the nostrils ; inci- 
sors, flatten^ anteriorly ; mouth placed jjrctty far back ; whiskers, shorter 
than the head ; a few long black haii-s over the eye and jiosterior part of 
the cheeks ; eyes, rather large ; ears, oval and somewhat conspicuous, 
appearing like the ears of most aninmls of this genus, with the exception 
that they seem as if trimmed or cut siiort ; tlicy are thickly clothed on both 
surfaces with short hairs, and have a sirall doubling of the anterior nuirgia 
to form a helix, which where it approaclies the auditory canal is covered 
with longer hairs. 

Legs, shorter and stouter than those of the siiuirrel fomily ; feet, shaped 
like those of the Spermophili ; claws, stronger, straighter, a)id better 
adapted for digging than those of the TumieB ; the thumb tuberc;!.' .* lar 
back, and has a small obtuse nail ; soles (of hind feet), naked to thr h«el, 
as are also the palms (of fore feet) and the under suiface of the toes ; upper 



SA\ S MARMOT-KQUIRREL. 



63 



surface of the feet, covered wltli ahort hairs which scarcely reach to the 
claws; tail depressed, slightly distichous, nearly linear, very slightly 
broadest towards the tip ; there are no annulations in the hairs of the'' tail. 

COLOUR. 

Above, brownish-ash, intermixed with blackish, producing a hoary 
broAvnish-gray ; there is no vestige of a dorsal line. A yellowish-white 
stripe appears on the neck, and running backwards along the sides, termi- 
nates at the hip ; it is widest in the middle, being there three lines broad ; 
and in some specimens it is faintly seen along the sides of the neck, reach- 
ing the ear ; this white stripe is bounded above and below between the 
shoulder and the hip by a pretty broad border of brownish-black ; top of 
the head and neck, tipped with ferruginous ; the sides, all the ventral parts, 
inner surfaces of the legs, breast, and throat, yellowish-white, in parts 
tinged with brown. 

Cheeks, and sides of the neck, chesnut-brown ; ears, brown on their 
margin" paler near the base , a circle around the eye, upper lip, and chin, 
nearly white ; nails, black ; tail, black above, with an intermixture of 
brownish-white hairs, and bordered with white; the under surface is 
yellowish-brown, margined with black and brownish-white. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, • 

head, 

" tail (vertebras), - 

" " (including fur), - 

" middle fore claw, 

" palm and middle fore claw, 

" solo and middle claw (of hind-foot). 

Height of ear, 

Breadtl: of base of exte.'nal ear, - 

HABITS. 

This beautiful inhabitant of the wooded vaUoys of the Rocky Jfountams 
was nof seen by us on our journey up the Missouri river, although it is 
l)robably found within the district of country we traversed. We aro 
therefore unable to give any personal information in regard to its habits, 
and wo find but little in the works of others. 



nchc 


Lin* 


8 




2 


2 


2 


9 


3 


9 




U 




11 


1 


6 




4 




6 







64 



SAY'S MARMOT-SQUIRREL. 



Mr. Drummond obtained several specimens on the Rocky Mountains as 
far north as latitude 57'', and observed that it burrowed in the ground. 

Mr. Say did not give any account of its habits, and probably the 
specimen he described was brought into camp by the hunters attached to 
the expedition, without his ever having seen the animal alive. 

All the Spermophiles that we have seen are lively, brisk, and playful, 
resembling the common ground-squirrels {Tamias Lysteri) in their general 
habits. 

The Mexican women make pets of some of the species inhabiting that 
country, and they become very fond of their mistresses, running over their 
shoulders, and sometimes nestling in their bosoms, or the pockets of their 
gowns. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Drdmmond obtained several specimens on the Pocky Mountains, in 
latitude 57°. Lewis and Clark state that it is common to every part of 
that range where wood abounds. We have not been able to determine the 
limits of its southern migrations, and have no information as to its 
existence in California. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

This species was first observed by Lewis and Clark, but was named 
and described by Mr. Say, who placed it among the ground-squirrels. 
Dr. Richardson subsequently gave a very accurate description of it, and 
transferred it through Ardomys to the subgenus Spermophilus, although 
considering it intermediate between the nearly allied subgenera Spermo- 
phllus and Tamias, with respect to its claws and teeth. 

It is, however, in reality a Spermophilus and not a Tamias, as can easily 
be seen from the form of the body, the shortness of the legs, shape of the 
feet, and more especially its strong and nearly straight nails. On the 
other hand, the longitudinal lines ou the back, and the shape of the tail, 
indicate a slight approach to the Tamia. 

At the close of this article we embrace the opportunity of adding 
another species to this interesting genus, the habitat of which is, however 
we regret to say, so much involved in obscurity that we cannot with 
certainty, at present, add it to the list of our N -rih A ncrican mammalia. 

Shortly after the return of the United State^ Exploring Expedition 
under the command of Captain Wilkes, we happened to meet several v')f 
the naturalists who had been attached to the expedition. Some one — wo 
cannot now recollect the gentleman — presented us with (hi? specimen, 



SI'ERMOPHILUS PEAI-EI. 



65 



stating that he could not tell where it had been obtained ; the specimen 
has from that time remained in our collection without our having been 
able to gain any information in regard to Hs habitat, and without our 
learning that any other specimen has been procured, although we have 
anxiously sought to obtain fartlier intelligence on the subject. 

This family is represented in the old world by few and peculiarly 
marked species, to none of which can we refer our animal, whilst on the 
other hand it bears in form, size, and markings, a strong connection with 
the American spermophiles, and will, as we are inclined to think, yet bo 
found in some part of the western sea-coast regions of America. 

We introduce it under the following name and description : 



SPERMOPHILUS PE AL EI._yV ud. and Bach. 

S. TamiS Lysteri paullulum major ; striis albis quinquo, cum quatuor 
fuscis alternantibus. 

CHARACTERS. 

A size larger than Tamias Lysteri ; fve white and four brawn stripes. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Head, smaller and shorter, and ears considerably longer and less 
abruptly terminated than in Say's S. lateralis : it is a little smaller than 
that species ; legs more slender, and tail longer, broader, and more dis- 
tichous than in jS. lateralis ; whiskers, long, a few of them extending beyond 
ttie ears. 

On the fore feet there are four toes, witliout any vestjge of a thumb or 
nail ; the claws are short and small, and are covered with hair ; palms, 
naked ; there are five toes on each hind foot ; the hair on the body is short 
and smooth, but is a little longer and also coarser on the under surface. 



n 



COLOUB. 

A narrow white stripe rising on the back of the head runs along tho 
centre of tho l)ack (or dorsal line) to tlie root of the tail ; another white 
stripe on each side originates behind the ear and runs along the ujipor pai-t 
of the side, narrowing on the hips till it reaches the sides of the root of the 
tiiil ; a second white stripe on each side (lower than the last mentioned) 
VOL. III. — 




66 



SPERMOPIIII.US I'EALEl. 



runs from the shoulder to the hip, soinewliat blendod with a marked gray 
colonr beneath it, wliich joins the colour of the under surface ; between 
these white stripes are four much broader : the two nearest the central 
white dorsal line are speckled light grayish-yellow and brown between fho 
ears, gradually darkening into reddish on t) e centre of the back, and to 
brown near the tail ; the two outer brown stripes begin on the shoulder 
and run to the hips. 

Forehead, speckled gray with a slight tinge of rufous towards the nose ; 
ears, thinly clothed with hair of a light gray on the outer surface and dull 
white within ; from the lower white stripe on each side, a grayish space 
extends between the shoulder and ham ; under the belly, inner sides of 
legs, throat, and chin, white ; the luuns and shoulders arc gray outside. 

Whiskers, black ; teeth, orange ; nails, brown ; on the tail the hairs are 
yellowish-white from the roots, then black, then have a broader annulation 
of yellowish-white, then another of black, and are broadly tipped with 
white. 



DIMENSIONR. 

From point of nose to root of tail, - - - - GJ inches. 

Tail (vertebra)), 8i " 

" (to end of fur), 48 " 

Point of nose to ear, 1 i " 

Height of ear, I " 

Palm to end of middle nail, - - - - I " 

Tarsus to longest nail on hind foot, - • J| " 



07 



ARVICOLA XANTHOGNATHA.— Leach. 

Ykllow-cheeked Meadow-Mouse. 
PLATE OX v.— Adult and Young. 

A. Supra saturate fusca, subtus argenteo-cinereus, oculis circulo pallide 
luteo cinctis, genis flavis. 

CHARACTERS. 

Dark brown on the back ; under parts, silvery grey ; pale orange around tne 
eyes ; cheeks, yellow. 

SYVONYMES. 

Arvicola Xanthoghatfia. Leach, Zool. Miss., vol. i. p, GO, t. 26. 

" " Harlan, f.\.iuna, p. lao. 

" " Gfxliuan, Nat. ilist., vol. ii, p. 05. 

Campaonol aux joiTB FAuvEH. ] )esrn., Mainii)., p. 282. 
Arvicola Xantiiognathus. Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 122. 



DESCniPTION. 

Of the upper molars, the posterior one is the largest, and it has three 
grooves on its side ; the two anterior have two grooves each, making in 
all ten ridges in the upper molar teeth on each side ; of the lower molars, 
the anterior is the largest, and it has four grooves ; the other two have 
each two. 

Body, nearly cylindrical ; legs, short ; no'?e, obtuse ; the lip is on a line 
with the incisors ; cars, large, rounded, and hairy on both surfaces ; whis- 
kers, about the length of the head ; tail, shorter than the head, well covered 
with hairs lying smoothly and coming to a point at the extremity ; legs, 
rather stout, covered with short hair lying closely and smoothly ; fore feet 
with naked palms ; fore toes with a callosity protected by a very minute 
nail in place of a thumb ; the first a little shorter than the third, second 
largest, and fourth shortest. 

The toes are well covered with smooth hair above, and are naked below ; 
the hair of the wrist projects a little over the palms ; claws, small ; hind 
feet with five toes, of which the three middle ones are uo-u-ly equal in 



1 



y 



68 



VELI^OW-CIIEEKED MEAUOVV-MOUwSE. 



length ; the jmsterior part of the sole is covered with hair ; soles of hind 
feet, narrower and longer than the palms of the fore feet ; fur soft and 
fine- about four lines and a half long on the head, and nine on the posterior 
part of the back. 



COLOUR. 

The fur, from the roots to near the tips, is grayish-black ; on the head 
and back the tips are yellowish-brown or black, the black pointed hairs 
being the longest ; the colour resulting is a mixture of dark brown and 
black, without spots ; sides, paler than the back ; under parts, silvery 
bluish-gray. 

Anterior to the shoulder, dark gray ; there is a black ish-bvown stripe 
Oh the centre of the nose ; on each side of the nose a rotldish-brown patch 
which extends to the orbit ; around the eye, pale orange ; whiskers, black • 
tail, brownish-black above, whitish beneath ; feet, dark browa on the upi)er 
surface, whitish on the under. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail, - 

" of head, 

" of tail, 

Breadth of ear, 

Hind foot, from heel to point of claw of middle toe. 



Inchet. 

8 
1 
1 



Linei. 

10 
6 

7 
10 



HABITS. 

The descriptions of its habits given by the few writers who have 
referred with positive certainty to this species, are very meagre, but all the 
arvicola;, with slight variations, are similar in habit ; they live in low 
grounds, usually preferring meadows ; burrow in the banks of ponds and 
near water-courses, feed on grasses and seeds, have a considerable number 
of young at a birth, are somewhat nocturnal, and make galleries of various 
lengths, which enable them to traverse the neighbourhood of their nestling 
places and procure the roots of grasses and plants. 

This speoies, as is mentioned by Richardson and other obserrers, 
makes its long galleries under the mossy turf, on the dry banks of lakes 
and rivers, and also in the woods ; the specimens brought by us from 
Labrador were obtained from beneath large masses of moss growing on the 
rocks. 



YELmW-CIIKKKEI) MEADOW-MOUSE. 



69 



In some portions of the far north these hardy little animals are 
abundant : they were common in Labrador, and were easily captured by 
turning up some of tlic patches of moss, as just mentioned, when they were 
knocked over by the young men of our party. 

We are told that this species has seven young at a time. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The original specimen described by Leach, was obtained from Hudson's 
Bay : we procured several in Labrador. 

Although supposed, by some writers, to exist within the limits of the 
United States, we have never been aljle to refer any species of Arvicola 
that has been discovered in our States or territories to this particular 
animal. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

As before stated. Leach described this Arvicola, and he also gave a very 
poor figure of it ; Say supposed it to exist on the banks of the Ohio, but 
we think he had in view a different species ; Harlan appears not to have 
seen it, but gives the short description of Leach, stating, however, that it 
exists in Pennsylvania and Ohio, which we presume was owing to his 
having mistaken for it some variety of Wilson's meadow-mouse {^. Pcnn- 
sylvanica) ; Godman seems to have fallen into a similar mistake ; and the 
Arvicola xaiithognatha of Sabine is evidently the Ji. Pennsylvanica of Ord. 

Dr. DeKay says it is found in various parts of the State of New York, 
but we have not been able to procure it, although we have sought for it for 
years ; and moreover we feel obliged to state that the description (which 
is a very unsatisfactory one), and the figure given in the " Zoology of the 
State of New York," refer to quite a different animal, probably one among 
the many varieties of A. Pennsylvanica. 

Wo feel little hesitation in stating that this species dees not exist in any 
part of the United States, but is exclusively a northern animal. 




70 



VULPES FULV^ .- Desm. (V , An enta -Rich.) 

American Black or Silver Foa 
PLATE CXVT -Femalk. 
V. magnitudine V. fulvi, argen^eo nij, , cauda ad apicem alba. 

CUABACTERS. 

Size of the red fox (vulpes fulvus) ; body, silvery black; tip of the tall, 
white. 

SYNONYMES. 

Rknakd Noir ou Bahvniia. Sagard Theodat., Canada, p. 744. 

European Fox — var. A, black. Pennant, Arct. Zool., vol. i., p. 46. 

Renard Noir ou Aroente. Geoft'roy. Collect, du Museum. 

Grizzled Fox. Hutchins, MSS. 

Renakd Aroente. F. Cuvier, Mamm. Lith., 5 livr. 

Canis Arqentatus. Desm., Mamm., p. 203. 

" *' Sabine, Franklin's Journey, p. 057. 

" " Harlan, Fauna, p. 88. 

" " The Black or Silver Fox. Godman, Nat. Hist., i. 274, plate, 

" Fulvus, var. Argkntatus. Rich. Black or Silver Fox, F. B. A., p! 04. 
Black Fos. DeKay, Nat. Hist. New York, p. 45. 
Tbchkrnoburi. Russians. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Specimen from the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company. 

Body, clothed with two kinds of hair ; the longest, or outer hair, extenda 
in some parts two inches beyond the under or shorter fur, especially on the 
neck, beneaih the throat, behind the shoulders, along the flanks, and on the 
tail ; this hair is soft, glossy, and flner than even that of the pine marten. 

The under fur is unusually long and dense, measuring in some places two 
inches, and is exceedingly fine, feeling to the hand as soft as the finest sea 
island cotton ; this under fur surrounds the whole body even to the tail, 
on which it is a little coarser and has more the appearance of wool ,• it is 
shortest on the legs and forehead, and least dense on the belly ; tho'hairs 



AMERICAN BLACK Oil SILVER FOX. 



71 



composing this fur, wlicu viewed scpaa-ately, exhibit a ciimpud or wavy 
appearaiicp : on tho ears and nose scarcely any long hairs are to be seen, 
til par ing thickly clothed with fur. 

i !0 s< of the foot are v) tliickly clothed with woolly hair that no 
ciillous spots are visible. 



coLOun. 

The under fur is uniformly blackish-brown or chocolate ; tho long hairs 
are brown at their roots, tlicn silver gray, and are broadly tipped with 
black ; the hairs on the neck, and on a dorsal line extending to the root 
of the tail, are black, forming a broad black line at the neck, which 
nai rows towards the tail. 

Chin, tliroat, and whole under surface, brownish-black ; a tuft of white 
hairs on the neck near the chest ; another white tuft near the umbilicus ; 
upper parts glossy silvery black ; sides, sprinkled with many shining 
silvery white hairs, which produce a somewhat hoary appearance ; tail, 
brownish-black to near tho extremity, where it is broadly tipped with 
white. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Nose to root of tail, .... 

Length of tail, 

Height of ear, 

From nose to end of ear stretched back, 
" eyes, .... 



2 


iBOhM. 
6 


1 


7 




21 




8i 
8i 



HABITS. 

Our account of the habits of this beautiful Fox will be perhaps less 
interesting to many than our description of its skin ; for, as is well known, 
the Silver-gray Fox supplies one of the most valuable furs in the world! 
not only for the luxurious nobles of Russia and other parts of Europe, but 
for tho old-fasliioucd, never-go-ahead Chinese, and other Eastern nations. 

In tho richnesB and beauty of its splendid fur the Silver-gray Fox sur- 
passes the leaver or the sea-otter, and the skins are indeed so highly 
esteemed that the finest command extraordinary prices, and are always in 
demand. 

The Silver-gray Fox is by no means abundant, and p/esents considerable 
variations both in colour and size. Some skins are brilliant black (with 
the exception of the end of the tail, which is invariably white) ; other 




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AMERICAN BLACK OR SILVER FOX. 



specimens are bluish-gray, and many are tinged with a cinereous colour on 
the sides : it perhaps is most commonly obtained with parts of its fur 
hoary, the shiny black coat being thickly interspersed with white or 
silverybluc tipped hairs. 

According to Sir John Richardson, a greater number than four or five 
of those Foxes is seldom taken in a season at any one post in the fur 
countries, though the hunters no sooner find out the haunts of one than 
they use every art to catch it. From what he observed, Sir John does not 
think this Fox displays more cunning in avoiding a snare than the red one, 
but the rarity of the animal, and the eagerness of the hunters to take it, 
make them think it peculiarly shy. 

This animal appears tc be as scarce in northern Europe as in America ; 
but we do not mean by this to be understood as considering the European 
Black Fox identical with ours. 

The Black or Silver Fox is sometimes killed in Labrador, and on the 
Magdcleine Island?, and occasionally— very rarely— in the mountainous 
parts of Pennsylvania and the wilder portions of the northern counties of 
New York, whore, however, Pennant's marten is generally called tho 
" Black Fox," by the hunters and farmers. 

It gives us pleasure to render our thanks to the Hon. Hudson's Bay 
Company for a superb female Black or Silver-gray Fox which was procured 
for us, and sent to the Zoological Gardens in London alive, where J. W. 
Audubon was then making figures of some of the quadrupeds brought frou 
the Arctic regions of our continent for this work. Having drawn this 
beautiful animal, which was at the time generously tendered us, but 
thinking it should remain in the Zoological Gardens, as we have no such 
establishment in America, J. W, Audubon declined tlie gift in favor of the 
Zoological Society, in whose interesting collection Ave hope it still exists. 
When shall we have a Zoological Garden in the United States? 

This variety of the Pox does not difi"er in its propensities from the red 
Fox or the cross Fox, and its extraordinary cunning is ofteu equalled by 
the tricks of these sly fellows. 

The white tip at the end of the tail appears to be a characteristic of the 
Silver-gray Fox, and occurs in every specimen we have seen. 

It is stated in Mouton's New England Canaan (p. 79), that the skin of 
the Black Fox was considered by the Indians, natives of thiit part of tho 
.colonies, as equivalent to forty beaver skins; and when offered and 
accepted by their kings, it was looked upon as a sacred pledge of recon- 
ciliation. 

'i'he present species has been seen "mousing" in the meadows, near 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, as we were informed by the late William Oakes, 



AMERICAN BLACK OR SILVER FOX. 



73 



who also wrote to us that " the common and cross Foxes were abundant 
about the White Mountains, and that they were most easily shot whilst 
scenting and following game, when their whole attention appears to be 
concentrated on that one object." 

This Fox is occasionally seen in Nova Scotia, and a friend there informs 
us that some have been shot in his vicinity. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

As this variety of the Red Fox chiefly occurs in the colder regions of 
our continent, we cannot set it down as a regular inhabitant of even the 
southern parts of the State of New York, nor any part of Tennsylvania 
or New Jersey. 

The specimens which have been obtained in the two former States were 
killed at long intervals, and were, moreover, not of so fine a pelage or so 
beautiful a colour as those from more northern latitudes. 

The skins sold to the American Fur Company are from the head waters 
of the Mississippi river, and the territories northwest of the Missouri, and 
are considered equal to the best. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The production of peculiar and permanent varieties in species of animals 
in a wild or natural state, is a subject of remarkable interest, although it 
cannot be explained on any data with which we are at present acquainted. 

It is singular that in several species of red Foxes, widely removed from 
each other in their geographical ranges, the same peculiarities occur. The 
red Fox of Europe {Cants vidpes), a species differing from ours, produces no 
varieties in the southern and warmer parts of that continent, but is every- 
whore of the same reddish colour, yet in high northern latitudes, especially 
in mountainous regions, it exhibits not only the black, but the cross Fox 
varieties. 

In the western portions of our continent the large red Fox of Lewis and 
Clark, which we described from a hunter's skin in our first volume (p. 54), 
and to which we have elsewhere given the name of ViUpes Utah, rues 
into similar varieties. 



VOL. in. — 10 




J 



74 



SCIURUS xNIGRESCENS.— BfiwNETT. 

DuBKY Squirrel. 

PLATE C X V 1 1.— .Male. 

S. Subniger, corpore grisen sparsim vario, lateribus flavo-fuscescentibus. 
Cauda corpore multo loiigiore. 

CHARACTERS. 

Pri'vailing colour dusky, slightly grizzled op the body vnth gray ; fides, 
duiky yellow ; tail much longer than the body. 

SYNONYMES. 

Sciur.us N1GRESCEN8, Bennett, Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 

" Bachman, Monog. Genus Sciurus, read before the Zool. Soc, 

August 14, 1838. 

DESCRIPTION. 

In size this species is nearly equal to the cat-squirrel (Sciurus cinerevs) 
Head, rather small ; cars, of moderate size, nor tufted ; feet, robust ; tail, 
very long, and less distichous than in other scjuirrels, it presenting iu the 
stufled specimen a nearly cylindrical shape ; ears and feet, clothed with 
short hairs ; hairs of the body, short and close ; whiskers, about the length 
of the head. 

COLOUR. 

The prevailing colour on the back is grayish-black ; crown of the head, 
and legs, grayish ; sides of the neck, upper parts of the thighs, and rump, 
grizzled with pale yellow ; check, chin, throat, neck, breast, and whole of 
the under surface, including the inside of the legs, dingy gray ; fore parts, 
same colour as the back ; hairs of hinder parts of thighs, black ; hairs of 
the tail, black at the roots, then gray, then broadly banded with black, 
then broadly tipped with white ; feet, black. 

The hairs on the toes are grizzled with white points ; whiskers, black • 
hairs on tiic back, plumbeous— bhick from the roots for two thirds of I heir 
length, then gray, then black, aud at the tips whitish-gray ; there are 
numerous stromr black hairs interspersed over the body. 



DUSKY SQUFRREI. 



DIMENSIONS. 



rs 



Length from point of nose to root of tail,- 
of tail to end of hair, - 
of tarsus (claws included), - 

From tip of nose to car, - - . . 

Height of ear posteriorly, 

HABITS. 



Inches 

12 

15 
o 



T.ini'i. 

4 
4 

7} 

2 

8i 



.he existence in North America of an unusual number of species of 
squirrels has been made known to our subscribers in the course of thia 
publication. TiK.". are many closely allied, and many very beautiful 
species among them ; .li arc graceful and agile, and possess very similar 

The great number of ihese nut-eating animals in North America would 
be a proof (were any such wanting) that nature has been more bountiful to 
our country in distributing nut-bearing trees over the whole extent of our 
continent than to other parts of the globe, and this in connexion with the 
fact that so great a proportion of wood-land cannot be found in any other 
part of the world of similar extent, marks America as intended for' a verv 
dense population hereafter. In Europe ther. is only one well determined 
species of squirre known, at present at least, although at some remote 
period there may have been more. 

In regard to the peculiar habits of the Dusky Squirrel, we have nothing 
to say. It IS one of the species which, being shot or procured by collectors 
of objects of natural history, and sent to Europe, have there been described 
by naturalists who, havir.g the advantages of museums which contain speci- 
mens from every part of the globe, and the largest libraries in the world 
also to which they can refer, may sometimes discover new species with 
mueh less difficulty, but also less certainty, than the student of nature must 
encounter while seeking for knowledge in the woods 

But the naturalist who learns from books only, and describes from dried 
skins IS at best liable to mistakes. We have in fact always found that 
where young animals, or ar.idental varieties, have been described as new 

ITeL " '"' *'' ""^* °' ^*"'^ ^" *'^ """^^""^ - cabinet, not il 

OEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species, of which, so far as we know, only one specimen exists in 
any museum or collection, is stated to have been procured iu California. 






1 



fe r',. it- 

li 



ri 



76 



DUSKY SQUIRREL. 



We have not received any positive accounts of its occurrence there, bat 
have no doubt it will be found, and its habits, as well as localitv, deter- 
mined ere long. 




OENEBAL REMARKS. 

This Squirrel was described by Dr. Bachman from the original specimen 
in the museum of the Zoological Society of London, in his Monograph of 
the Genus Sciurus, published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 
and in the Magazine of Natural History, new series, 1839, p. 113 ; and our 
figure was drawn from the same skin by J. W. Addubon. 



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CERVUS LEUCURUS— Douglas 

LONQ-TAILBD DeEU. 

PLATE CXVIII.— Malk. 

C. Cervo Virginiano minor, capito atquo dorso fulvis nigro mistis, malls 
latcribusque dilutioribus, gastroio albo. 

CHARACTERS. 

SmaUer than the Virginian deer ; head and back, fawn-colour, mixed vrith 
black ; sides and cheeks, pater, v>hite beneath. 

BYNONYMES. 

Roebuck. Dobbs, Hudson's Bay, p. 41, Ann. 1744. 

Fallow, or Virginian Dekr. Cook's Third Voyage, vol. ii. p. 202, Ann. 1778. 

Long-tailed Jumping Deer. Umfreviile, Hudson's Bay, p. 190, Ann. 1790. 

Deer with Small IIorns and Long tail ( ?) Gass, Journal, p. 65, Ann. 1808. 

Long-tailed (?) Red Deer. Lewis and Clark, vol. ii. p. 41. 

Small Deer op the Pacific. Idem, vol. ii. p. 342. 

Jumping Deer. Hudson's Bay traders. 

Chevreuil. Canadian Voyagers. 

MowiTCii. Indians west of tlie Rocky Mountains. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Form, elegant ; lachryma' opening, apparently only a small fold in the 
skin close to the eye ; limbs, slender ; hoofs, small and pointed ; tail, long 
in proportion to the size of the animal. Fur, dense and long ; a pondulouf) 
tuft of hairs on the belly between the thighs ; the glandular opening on 
the outside of the hind leg, small and oval in shape, the revei-sed hairs 
around it diflfering very little in colour from the rest of the leg. Hair, 
coarser than in the Virginian deer, and hoofs more delicate in shape. 

COLOUB. 

Head and back, rufous, mixed with black ; sides and cheeks, paler ; ears, 
above, dusky brown, inside edges, white; there is a small black spot 
between the nostrils, and a white ring around the eyes. Chin and throat, 




78 



LONG-TAILED DFRR. 



fh r T '' ^"•'' '"•«^"'>h,vollow above, inclining, to r««ty red n..ar 
fron T; '"It T'," "^^'"^ ""•'^'•"'''^th and at the tip ; neck, l.rownish-yollow 
from the throat downwards : under Burfnco of the body, not so white a. in 
tne V irginmn deer. 



H 



DIMENSIONS. 

Tonng male in the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 

From point of nose to root of tan, . . . V 'T"* 
Length of head, - - . . 
End of nose to eye. 
Tail to end of hair, - 
Height of ear posteriorly, ■ 
Horns (two points about I of an inch 
moving the surrounding hair). 

Female presented by the Hudson's Bay Company to tho museum of the 
Zoological Society. 

F«et. 

- 6 



104 

U 
6 



long, invisible without 



Length from point of nose to root of tail, 



tnchvi 



of head, 

of tail (including fur), 



11 
1 



HA3IT8. 



In Its general appearance this Deer greatly resembles the European 
roebuck and seems to be forn..d for bounding along in the Jight and 
grace u manner of that animal. The species has been considered of 
doubtful authenticity, owing to the variou. lengths of tail exhibited by the 
common deer, many specr.^en8 of which we collected near the Rocky 
Mountains, not differing Irom C. Virginiunus in any other particular 
but with long tails, and for some time we did not feel inclined to give it a 
place in our work ; from which we have excluded a great many false 
SDecies, published by oti^ers from young animals or mere varieties and 
compared by us with specimens exhibirng all the markings and forms set 
down as characters by the authors alluded to. At one time we examined 
the tails of some r-ommon deer in Fulton market. New York, and found 
that the longest exceeded nineteen inches, while the average length does 
not go beyond nme,. The different form of the light, springy animal 
described by Mr. Douglaq will, however, at once separate it from C. Vir^ 
gtnianus on comparison. 
Sir John Richardson says: "This animal, from the general resem- 



LONG-TAIIJiD DEilR. 



79 



l.lance .t l.as .n .,.e, for.n, and haoits, to Ih. Cervus ca^reoU^ of Kuropo 
hu« obta.ncd U.0 name of ChevreuU from the French Ounadians, and of 
B.eb„ck from the .^...tti.h Highlanders omployod by the Htvison's B.v 
I'Ompany. These names occur in the works of several authors who have 
yitten on t .0 lur countries, a.d Umfukv.lle ^ivcs a brief, but. as far as 

fo^? T''' r"''*"" '^ ''" "^'^'^ ^P««'^^ '^«- "«t. «n the east 
do of the Rocky Mounta.ns, range farcher north than latitude 5^^^ nor is 

It found m that parallel to the eastward of the 105th degree of longitude " 

Mr Douglas sp.aks of it as "the most comraon deer of any in the 

d>svncts ad.o.n.ng the river Colunbia, more especially in the fertile 

pra.r,es of the Cowalidske and Multnomah rivers, within one hundro.1 

oT Ir I M " ? •"" '' '' "'" ^^^^'^'^"""^ -^ -^•^ »- ^'^ b! J 

on tno d chv. .es of the low hiils or dry undulating grounds. Its gait i 
t.o ambling steps and a bound exceeding double the dis^ • of the steps 
wh,ch mo e t does not depart from even when clos3,v .ursued. InZ 
lenS. . " --ect. wagging from .^de to slae. and iVom its unusu" 
length :s the most remarkable feature about the animal. The voice of the 
male calhng the female is like the sound produced by blowing in t,>e IZ 
of a gun or ,n a hollow cane. The voice of the female calling the young 
18 mc., m^, pronounced shortly. This is well imitated by the native tribe, 
with a s.em of Hcrackum lanatu^n, cut at a joint, leaving six inche o a 
tu : w.tn this aided by a head and horns of a full gr^wn buck, v Ich 
o hunter carnes with him as a decoy, and which he moves backwards 
and forwards among the long grass, alternately feigning the voice with the 
tube, the unsuspecting animal is attracted within a few yards in the hope 
of hnding Its partner, when :.stantly springing up, the hunter plants an 
arrow m his object. The flesh is excellent when in good order, and 
remarkably .ender and well flavoured." " They go in herds from November 
to April and May, when the female secretes herself to bring forth The 
young ..re spotted with white until the middle of the first winter', when 
they change to the same colour as the most aged " 

Lewis and Clabk considered it the same animal as the comraon deer, 
with the exception of the length of the tail. They found it inhabiting 
the Rocky Mountains, in the neighbourhood of the Chopunnish, and 
about .he Columoia, and down the river as low as where the tide-water 
commences." These travellers in another passage observe that " the com- 
mon Fallow Deer with long tails (our present species), though v.ry poo-- 
are bettor than the black-tailed fallow d..r of the coast, irom wiiich they 
difler materially." ^ 



80 



LONG-TAILED DEER, 




We did not see any Ueer of this species on our journey up the Missouri 
nor do we think it is to be found east of the Rocky Mountains. The 
Virginian deer, on the contrary, disappears to the north and west as 
Richardson says he 1ms not been able to discover the true Cervus Virm 
manus within the district to which the Fauna Boreali Americana refers. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

On the cast side of the Rocky Mountains this species does not rango 
beyond lat. o4°, nor to the eastward of lUo° longitude. Dougi.as states 
that it is the most common Deer of any in tlie districts adjoining the 
Columbia River, more especially in the fertile prairies of the Cowalidsko 
and Multnomah rivers within one hundred miles of the Pacific Ocean. It 
is also occasionally met with near the base of the Rocky Mountains on the 
same side of that chain. 



general remarks. 

We have after some hesitation admitted this species, and as much has 
been said (although but little learned) of the western Long-tailed Deer 
since the days of Lewis and Clark, it is desirable that the species should 
be carefully investigated. 

We overlooked the specimen of the Long-tailed i>eer in the Zoological 
Museum, from which the description of Richardson was taken, and for a 
long time we had no other knowledge of the species than the somewhat 
loose description of it by Douglas, who, although an enthusiastic collector 
of plants and something of a botanist, was possessed of a very imperfect 
knowledge of birds or quadrtipeds, and probably had never seen the Cervus 
Vtrginianus, our Virginian Deer. 

Wo have given what we consider an excellent figure by J. W. Audubon, 
from the original specimen, and there is now in uie Academy of Sciences 
ai Philadelphia a young male which was procured some years since by the 
late Mr. J. K. Totvnsend on the Columbia River. 



81 



GENUS GEORYCHUS— Ilhoeb. 

DSNTAL FORMULA. 

Incisive |; Canine —■ Molar |e1=16. 

This subgenus in its dental formula is sirrJIar to ^rvicok; oyes, very 
flmall ; ears rising slightly above the auditory opening ; thumb, conspicu- 
ous ; nails on the fore feet fitted for digging ; tail very short. 

Natives of cold climates, burrow in the earf feed on seeds, roots, and 
grasses. 

Ten species are admitted by naturalists, two of which are I Europe, four 
in Asia, and four in America. 

The generic name Georychug was given by Illigeb, from r^wfuyof, 
digging the earth. 



I. f 



GEORYCHUS HUDSONIUS.-F0R8TEH. 

Hudson's Bat Lemming. 

PLATE C X I X .— WiNTi-R AND Summer Pelaok. 

a. Auriculis nullis, maniculorum unguibus duob..- intermediis, maximis 
compressis, quasi duplicatis, per sulcum horizontalem divisis; colore in 
aestate rufo-fusco, in hyeme albo. 



i I !• 



* r; 



CHARACTERS. 



Earkss : the two middle claws of the fore feet unusuaUy large, covipressed, 
their blunt extremity being rendered dmbk by a deep transiwrse notch. Coh,r 
reddish-brown in sumnter, white in winter. ' 



STN0NTMB8. 

Mob Hudsonius. Forster, Phil. Trans., vol. Ixii. p. 870. 
" " Pallas, Glires, p. 208. 

" " Linn. Omel. 137. 

Hudson's Rat. Pennant, Quadrupeds, vol. ii. p. 20I. 

" Arctic Zoolofjy, vol. i. p. 182. 
HAiiE-TAir.ED Mouse. Uearne's Journey, p. 387. 
VOL. III. — 11 



I liiil 



)■ 



82 



liniKSOWS liAV LKM.MINC. 



Lkmmus IIurwoNiUH. Captain Sabine. Parry's Siipploinoiif, First Voyage, p. 18C. 

" " Mr. Sabine, Franklin's .lonrncy, p. (iOl. 

" " I'ii't. (Ic Sci. Niitnrcllcs, toni. viii. p. 50(5. 

" " Harlan, Fauna, p. .510. 

Akvicola IIi'DsoNiA. liiel), I'lirry's Second Voyngp, Append., p. ;U)8. 
AiivicoLA (GEdiivciris) IIudsonius — IIi dson's I'.av Lkmmino. Ujch., F.H. A. 132 

Species 107, liritish Mu.scuiu. 
Hudson's Bay Lkmminu. (Jodnian, Nat. Ili.st., vol. ii. p.l3. 



DESCniPTlON. 

Size of a mole; body, thick ami short; head, ^hort and ronndod ; iiosc, 
very obtu.^o ; cyo.^ small ; no cxloiior oars ; legs, short and stout ; tail so 
short as to be only slijihtly visible beyond the fur of the hips ; fur very 
fine ami lonjr ; feet, clothed with long hairs; four foes on the fore feet, 
with the rudiment of a (iunnb not armed with a nail ; the two middle toes 
are of equal length, and are each furnished with a dis])roportionalely largo 
claw, which is compressed, deep, very blunt at the extremity, and is there 
separated info two layers by a transver.-^e furrow ; the outer and inner 
foes have curve.! sharp-pointed claws; the upper layer is thinner, the 
lower one has a blunt rounded outline ; the latter has been described as an 
enlargement of the callosity which exists beneath the roofs of the clawB 
of the Lemmings and meadow-mice. The hind feet have iivo' toes armed 
with slender curved claws. 

In the females and young tho subjacent production of the claws is less 
conspicuous. 

COLODB. 

Winter specimen. 

Whiskers, black ; (he whole animal is white botii on the upper and 
under surface.^ with black hairs interspersed along tho line of the back 
and on the hips and sides, giving to those parts a grayish-brown tin<re • 
tail, white. ° ' 

Summer specimen. 

Dark brown and black on tho dorsal aspect; dark brown predominates 
on the crown of the head an.l dorsal line ; towards the sides tho colour is 
lighter ; on the under parts of cheeks, the chest, and about tho cars bri-ht 
nut colour prevails. The ventral a.spcct is grayish-white, more or fess 
tinged with rust colour ; the tail is brown in sunnner, and white in winter • 
although this spccips is distinctly white in winter, yet according to IIeaunb 
the white colour never becomes so pure as that of the ermine. 



Ill'DSONS BAY LEMMING. 



S3 



DIMENSIONS, 



LengtJi of Iioad and body, 
" lioad, - 



tail 



Inchei 

6 
1 



middle fore claw, 



LiiMa, 

4 
4 
6 
4ft 



HAHITa. 



Our only ac<innintanco ^vilh thin spocieH is tl.roufrl, tlio works of the old 

r: ?;"• "" !;:;"": '^^^^^^'' ^"'-•'-"••^' - '-i"^ ^-lod to n... with 

at La,ra.lor. 'J^.o f.r.t spoci.non wc saw ofit waH in the n,nseurn of the 
Royal Col ego 01 Surgeon, at Edinburgh. Our drawing was made fron. 
pocnnons ,n the BriHsh Museum. Dr. R.cn.uasoN did not meet wt 
th,s Lemnung ,n (he interior of America, and thinks it has hitherto been 
found only near the sea. 

"Its habits are still in.perfectly Known. In sumn.er, according to 
n KAUNK, .burrows under stones in dry ri.lges, and Captain SaIunb 
informs us that in winter it resides in a nest of moss on the surface of the 
ground, rarely going abroad. "-/'„««« Borea/i JImerirana, p. m 

"••^^>'N";.';tatcs that this little species is very inoflensive, and so easily 
ame,l that i( taken even when full grown it will in a day or two be per- 
fectly reconciled, very fond of l,eing handled, and will creep of its own 
accord into its master's neck or bosom. 



ft' J ' 



i I 'I 



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GEOGKAnilCAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species inhabits Labrador, Hudson's straits, and the coa.t from 
Chun, dl to the extremity of Melville peninsula, as well as the islands of 
the Polar seas visited by Captain 1'auuy. 



(ilCNEUAL REMARKS. 

This singular anin.al was originally described by Forster in the Philo- 
Hoplueal I ransactions. Pampas received a number of skins from Labrador 
one of winch he sent to Pkxnant, who described it in his History of the 
uadrupeds an.l also in his Arctic Zoology. It was observed bv both 
T ARHY and Fkankl.x, and was described by Richardson. A specimen 
was preserved in the Museum du Roi at Paris, and described in the Diet 
des sciences, and there is au excellent specimen in the British Museum 






Mi 




84 



GEORYCIIUS nELVOLUS.~R,cii. 

Tawnv Lrmmino. 

PLATK C XX. —Fid. 1. 

O. Pollico instrnctu., naso ,.b(„s„ all.ido, capito f„lvo „ipron„o vario 
corporc supra fulvo, inlVu pallidioro, n.a,ir„it,uli„c O. Norvc^ici. 

OUARACTKItH, 

Sizf of the Uplmul T^nmin^ ; „,,,,, ,,/„„y ,,„^ „^j,f ,.„/,,,^^.^,^^ . ,^^,^^^^ ^^^^^^ 
black ; My, midis/,-oran,rr nhnvc, paler hnwntk ; jWf, furnished with thumhl 



BYNONYMKH. 



Arvicola (Lkmmitr) IIki.voi.us. Itichards.,,,. ZooI. Jo„r., No 12 p -51'/ leog 
(Gkokvchub ?) Uklvou!«. Kidi. J.HUim l^.roali Ai.u>rla.m ' 



I, p. 128. 



DESCUrrTION. 

Body, stout; i.ead, oval ; uoso, short, l.Iunt, an<l nearly on a lino wiM, 

tl.o .nnsors ; oyos small : oars, broad and not lon,.-sl.<,;tor than (h. Cur 

and do 1,0, M-,th hair noar <ho odj^os ; tail, vory .short, clothod with .s.ilT 

ha.rs, wuch aro lon^ost n.-ar (he oxtronuty, and convorgo to a point; 

U.. of both oxtn.nut,os n.uch aiiko, ,roa.ly oon.prossod, and shar,! 

po.ntod ; (ho claws havo an oblong narrow i^roovo und..rn.>ath 

Tho (hun.b.. on tho Coro f\rt consist almost ontiroly of a thick flat 

..iuar.sh nail, roso.nblin, that of tho Norway Lonnnin,, and -have, 'as in' 

hat spoc.os, an obliquely truncato.l sunwnit; in tho Tawny Lonnning 

however, this sunnnit presents two obscure points. 

The fur on tho body is about nine lines long; that on tho noso and 
extremities, very short. 



COLOITU. 

Body, reddish-orange, interspersed on the back and sides w'th a number 
of ha.rs longer than tho fnr, which are tipped with black ; o . '.o upnor 
parts of tho hea.l, around tin, oyo.., an,l on tho nape of the neck, the b ack 



TAWNV l,H.\IMIN(;. 



sn 



hairs aro moro. nnn.orous, an.l tl.o coh.ur of IIioho parts \h n.inKHcMl black 
and oran^rc. Noh.s KrayiHl.-brown ; hI.Ioh of Ums ra(;«, ,,al(^ craiiKn ; mar- 
gins of tl.o uppor lip, white ; tail, colo.ur(!(] Iik« tiio \mly ; foot, browiiinh. 



DIMKNSlnNH. 



Length of lioad and body, 

tail, - 

ii.'ad, - 
Hind font, to end of claw, 
Pore feet and claws, • 



Inclid. 

4 



Liiiefc, 

(i 
7 
G 
8 
44 



IIAIIITH. 

Mr. DuuMMONi), who ol)taincd this animal, procnrcd no further infor- 
niation in n-ard to its habits than that it was found in Alpini* swamp. 
It bears a strong rcs.Mnbh.n,-,. to tl.o Norway Lemming, and wo may 
presume does n..t .lifl( r widely from that speeios in its habits, wi.ieh it is 
sai.l are mi^r.-atory to a surprising extent, and almut whic^h som(! curious 
stones are related that wo do not consider necessary to place in our work. 

This Lemmiiifr is one of those animals we have never s(!en except the 
HtulTed specimens. Our fiKure was diMwn in London by .). VV. Avuvuos 
from the ori>rinal skin procunid by Mr. i)itUMMONi). 

OKOnUAIMIIOAL DIKTIIIIUJTION. 

This animal was found in lat. r,0°, in mountainous yet moist places in 
the northwest. We have not heard of its existence in any other locality, 
but have no doul)t it has a pretty extensive northern range. 

;. i-iNKHAL RKMAltKS. 

The Lenmiings have been arranged by authors, Cuvikr, Tu.ioer, and 
others, under a distinit subgenus— OVonycZ/w.v. 

They are characterized chiefly by the'shortness of the ears and tail, and 
large strong claws, remarkably well fitted f<.r digging ; this subgenus, how- 
ever, so nearly ai)proach(!s the Jlrvicola: in some of its species that it is 
diflicult to decide in which genus they should really be placed. 



m 



86 



GEORYCIIUS TUiMUCUONArUS.-Kicii. 

Back'h Lkmmin(1. 

r I. A T K C X X .--Kif,H. 2 (111,1 3. 

G Aun..„lis vHI.-n. luvviorilMis, naso „l,t„so ,n>ro, ,,ah"iH lolnuladylis 
.n.Ku.l.us la.uT..latiH n.rvi.s „„g„o ,u,||ioari lin,uula(„, (,.ic.usj.i,lu(„, corpore 
Piil.ra sadirato nistaiieo, laU<ro forniginoo, subUi.s nwwo. 

CIIAUAt'TKUK. 
Ears, s<.>,r,r/,„t .horta- than tin- fur ; no., Hunt an,l M,rk ; fonr r/.ars on 
f/u-jorejcet oj a lanrvolafe Jhrw, and a smm,hat s,,na,r thumb vail vHh tinr, 
sv.« / pon^s at the end ; body, dark chc.s.rut aborr, nddisk-aran^e or ruU colour 
on the vj//('v iir/ii/ hr:>,t<.ith 



on the f.'ide.i, fp-ai/ beneath. 



8YN0NYMES. 



Auv„-o..A Tk.m, .Mu.NATrs. l^icl,, l'any\s S.vcn.l Vovniro. A,,,,.m„1., ,>. noo 
((.KUKVc.is) Tkimvchonatis. J{i.l,, Fauna' lioroali Anierioana ' 



m, p. 130. 



PEscnn'TioN. 



n s,zo a httlc n.fonor to <I.o Iludsons Bay Lnnn.in,., or nearly o,i„aI 
to (ho Norwoj^un. spocMos ; l.oa.l. flat an.l ..ovoro.l l.y n,..,i,>ratHy lon^^ ur • 
oar., shor.,.r tl.an tho fur, indin.d l.a.kwanls. and bat ,I.i„Iv olotl.ocl wi.h' 
l>a.r; oyos, .n.all. Upper lip, do.ply doff; „oso, obtuso," wid. a sn.all 
nakod but not po.nlod or prqjoctinfr lip ; vl,isl<,.rs, nunuM-ous ; insi.lo of (ho 
...outh, lunry, f h. l.air. arisi-.u: Iron, pruj.vtino- glaiuiular (bids ; upp.r in,-i. 
sors prosoutin,. a .■on.pi..uous but .hallow .roov. with an obliquHy 
notohod outtin. od,-. ; thoro aro throe nu.lar teeth on a .id.- in .>aeh jau 
I- ore leg., short ; leet, niodoratidy large, and turned outwar.ls like those of' 
a tnrns|)it. 

The tail projects a few lines beyond the fur, and is elothed M-ith stift' 
hairs eonverging to a point ; there a-e four toes on the fore fe.-t ar.ned 
w.tli moderate- sized strong nails curved downwards and inclinin-. out- 
wards ; they are of an oblong form, convex above, not eon, pressed ^xca- 
vated underneath more broadly than the nails of any of the other An.eri'ean 
l^onun.ngs and have sharp edges fitte.l for scraping away the earth; tho 
thumb IS almost entirely comuosed of a strong nail which has two slightly 



HACK'S I.KMMINC;. 



M7 



Cf.iivox HiirfncoH, u fliit oi.tlinr, .uid a tnii.caUMl oxtroinily from which throe 
Hinall points proj.-rt : ihv paiii.H aro narrow ; fho poH(rri(.r .xlrcmiticH are 
oon.si.lcralily lon-c,- than ti... fore Icks an.l foct, tho thi^Iis and le^H hcin^' 
tolcral.ly distinct from the hody ; the solo is narrow, ion^, and somowhat 
oblique, havinfr its inner od^e turned a litt'o f.)rward ; tlie toes are ionfrer, 
an<l Ihe claws as lonjr l,„tmoro nlender than those of tho fore feet, and they 
an; inucli compressed. 

In the Tawny Lemming tho cUiwh of liotii the fore and hind feet are 
compresHcd. 



i! 



COI-OtJK. 

Nose, deep bhick ; whisl<ers, l.lack at the roofs, l.rownish or white at 
the tips, some entirely white; incisors, yellowish ; liead, Lack of the neck 
and shoulders, mix.Ml re.ldish-frray, formed fron. the min>r|ing of yellowish' 
and l.rown and l.la<-k-lippc.I hairs ; hack, chesnat brown, with many of tho 
h)n- hairs (ippcd with l.lack; sides, reddish-oran-e ; belly, chin, aud 
throat, gray, intermixed with many orange-coloured hairs. 

Tho colouring of this animal very strongly resembles that of the Tawny 
Lemming, except that its uose is deep black, whilst that or/'an in the latter 
is ])ale. 

Tail, dark brown aljove, grayish-whito below ; feet, dark yellowish- 
brown above, whiter beneath. 



! 't' 



¥ i 

I r I i* 



:1 % 



DIMENSIONS. 

Male, killed at Fort Franklin. 

Length of head and body, - . . . 
tall, **•««« 

head, 

ears, 

whiskers, • . . . . 
fur on tho back, - - - . 
palm and claw of middle too, nearly 
claw of middle toe, 
solo and middle claw of hind foot, 
Female 41 inches long. 



(I 
u 
u 
<« 
l< 

M 
II 

II 



Innhek 

5 



1 
1 



LillFl 

6 
6 
4 
8 
9 
6 
2 
9 



iiAniTs. 



This Lemming was found in the spring season at Great Bear Lake, by 
Sir .Toim Fiunkmn, burrowing under the thi<-k mosses which cover a large 
portion of ;he ground in high northern latitudes. 



»L* 






)■ 



\i\m 



88 



BAr»--S LKMMING. 



As soon as the surface of the ground had ihuVed, tire little animal wag 
observed at work making his progress beneath, and actively engaged in 
hunting for food. J B b 

In the winter it travels under the snow in semi-cylindrical furrows 
very neatly cut to the depth of two inches and r half in the mossy turf;' 
these hollow ways intersect each other at various angles, but occasionally 
run to a considerable distance in a straight direction ; from their smooth- 
ness it was evident that th(>y were not merely worn by the feet, bat 
actually cut by the teeth ; their width is sufficient to allow the animal tc 
pass with facility. 

The food of this Lemming seems to consist entirely of vegetable matters • 
Jt inhabits woody spots. ' 

A female killed on Point Lake, June 26, 1821, contained six young, 
fully formed, but destitute of hair. 

(iKOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This animal was discovered by Captain Back on the borders of Point 
Lake, in latitude 05°, on Sir John Franklin's first expedition. Mr 
Edwards, the surgeon of the Fury, on Captain Parry's second expedition, 
brought a specimen from Igloolik, in latitude 69J° ; and specimens were 
obtained on Sir John Franklin's second expedition, on the shores of 
Great Bear Lake. 



general remarks. 

As we have been entirely unable to procure original information in 
regard to the habits of the two previously noticed and the present species 
of Lemming, we have largely quoted from the Fauna Boroali Americana 
Sir John Richardson's valuable work, from which also our descriptions 
of these curious animals are chiefly taken, although we have transposed the 
paragraphs in order to suit the 'general arrangement which we adopted for 
this work. 

No animals belonging to this genus were observed by us during our 
researches through the country bordering on the shores of the upper 
Missouri and Yellow Stone rivers in 1843, and the family is very probably 
restricted to the neighbourhood of the Arctic Circle. 



89 



VULPES LAGOPUS— Linn. 

Arctic Fox. 
PLATE CXXI . — Winter and Shmmer Pelaok. 

V". Auriculis rotundatis brevibngque, margine inflexa ; collari post 
genas ; colore in aestato fusco, in liyerae albo. 



CHARACTERS. 

Ears, rounded, short, and folded at the edge; cheeks with a ruff i colour, 
in summer brown, in winter white. 



t M 



8YN0NYME8. 

Pied Foxes. James's Voyage, Ann. 1633. 
Canib Lagopus. Linn., Syst., vol. i. p. 69. 

" " Forster, Philos. Trans., Ixii. p. 370. 

Afctio Fox. Pennant's Arctic Zoology, vol. i. p. 42. 

" " Hearne's Journey, p. 363. 
Omenland Dog. Pennant's Hist. Quadr., vol. i. p. 267 (?) a young individual. 
Cants Lagopus. Captain Sabine, Parry's First Voyage, Supplement, 187. 

" " Mr. Sabine, Franklin's Journal, p. 658. 

" " Richardson, Parry's Second Voyage, Appendix, p. 299. 

" " Harlan, Fauna Americana, p. 92. 

IsATis, or Arctic Fox. Godman's Nat. Hist., ol. i. p. 268. 
Canis (Vulpes) Lagopus— Arctic Fox. Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 88. 
Stone Fox. Auctorum. 

Terreeanee-auioo. Esquimaux of Melville Peninsula. 
Terienniak. Greenlanders. 

Wappeeskeeshew-makkeeshew. Cree Indiane 
Peszi. Russians. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Male in winter pelage. 

Head, not as much pointed as in other species of Fox; ears, rounded, and 
presenting somewhat the appearance of having been cropped ; hairs on the 
ears, shorter than on the neighbouring parts. 

The cheeks arc "ornamented by a projecting ruff which extends from 
behind the ears quite around the lower part of the face, to which it gives 
VOL. III.— 12 



"!■*«!- 1 



^J 




00 



AHCTIC FOX. 



a i.l.«asM,s.r .|,,K,,inniT; I,.jrs, ruthcr \ou^• ll.,„. ..(Imtvs iso, an.l n.nsrulur 
Jyc't, »nn;..l will, profty .troM^^ l.mjr, .■„„,i.n.s,s,.,l, „„.! ,|i..|.,|y nnh..! 
daws; Hol..,s of (ho IcH, covoro.i will, .I,..,... w.M.lly Imir ; lM„|y cvom. 
with two I. iuls „r hair, (hr lonv:or tiiinly ilisfriiuit,..! and li,,,., Ih, .L.tIoi 
a .VMuukuMv lino .haight w.u.l or ,1.m,so fur ; nn Iho tail an.l luwor ,,u.(. 

of Iho Wnly iho \outr I,,i,s aro similar I. ihu.o ,.n Iho ImuI^, an.l tho wool 

or lur like that ol' thu linest wool of llu- n.orino slurp. Tho tail is thi.k 

round, and linshy, and shorlor Ihan (hut of tho rod Fox. 
The sh,ml.lors and (hi.^.s aro prol.-olod l.y lon;,^ fur, b„t tho untorio, 

parts ol (ho l,.j,s aro .ovorod nilh short hair, tho hind logs huvin-- tht 

shoitost and smoothest cout. 



«OLOUU. 

In wir.tor ,-vory pari of this aninml is whKo, ,.xo..p( tho dp of th,. nos,. 
tho na.ls an.l oyos. Eyos, ha/lo ; lip of noso, Mark; nails, hrownish^ 
1 no hairs ol Iho animal aro all white from tho r..ols t.. tho lips. 

Wo have, howovor, soon .pooin.ons in whioh Iho oolour was not ,>uro 
wh.to, bnt ralhor a l.Inish or hrownish-my (int at Iho roots on the haok 
Hhonhlors and ontsi.lo of Iho Ihi^^hs, Imt pnrlionlarly on tho nook and tail. 
1 he proporfon of the fur so oolourod varios with tho season of the year a. 
well as with dilloront indivi.luals of tho sjurios. Son.olimos it is oonlinod 
♦o .1 snmll suaoo ,t D.r roots of Iho hair, whilst in othor oasos tho din.^ 
. eoJour .s so widely spread as to tarnish tho ouston.ary whiteness of the 
wliol(> skin. 

At almost nil times the short hair clothin.tr the posterior surfaoo and 
marg.n of the oars, is dark brownish-gray for half its lonj^th Iron, tho .'ools 
«o as to give a bluish or brownish tiiigo to view when the hairs are blown 
apart. 

Summer pciage. 

In the month of May, when tho snow booins to disappear, the Ion- white 
han-s and fur fall ofV, and are replaced by shorter hair, wl.i..h is n.ore or 
less oolourod. A speeimen killed at Yo.k faotory on Ifndson's Bay in 
Auirust, IS dosoribod by Mr. Sabink as follows : "The head and chin aro 
brown. hav,n,sr son.o line white hairs s,.altoro.l th,-oujrh the fur; the ears 
externally are oolou.-od like the head; within thev are white; a sin.ilar 
l.rown colour extends alon- tho back to the tail, and from tho back is con- 
tinued down the outside of all the legs ; (ho whole of the under parts, and 
the nisidos of the logs, are dingy white. The tail is brownish above 
becoming whiter at the end, and is entirely white boneath " 



ARf'rrr fox. 



ni 



niMKNSIONfl. 

S|i('c'inioii ohtiiiiind on tlio nortliciiHtorn portion of tho American conti 
noiit by dipliiiii I'kttkjiu', ami prcHontctl Ity him to tlu> uiuHoiim 
ol' the (Uiarlcslon (.'ollcj^'n. 

From point of misc to root of tail, 
licni^tli of (ail (vcit('lirii'), - . . . 
" (inrliiding fur), - 

Ik'ihI, 

From point of nose to oye, • • . . 
II('ii,'!it of fiir aiitiTiorly, - - . . 
From licf! to jioint of niiddid oliuv, 
LouKOHt nail on llin foro foot, 

" hind loot, - 
Avornpfo woijrht about cij-Iit poimds, varying, acoordinj? to Captoin 
Lyon, from nevcn to nino and a half poutida when in good caso. 



2 
1 


Inrhftii 

4 


1 


2 




6 
21 




2 

2i 




l.V 




to 



IIAIIITH, 

From onr dosrription of tho Arctic, Fox, it will have boon observed that 
this ainmal is well adai)t('(l to endure the severest cold. In winter its feet 
are thickly clothed with hair, even on the Holes, which its moveinonta on 
tho ice and snow do not wear away, as would bo tho case if it trod upon 
the naked earth. These softly and thickly hiiired solos servo tho doul)lo 
purpose of preserving its feet from th(; ed'ects of frost and enabling it 
to run briskly and without slipping over the smooth icv trm :.s it must 
traverse. 

The Arctic Fox is a singular animal, presenting rather tho appearance 
of a little stumpy, round-eared cur, than that of the sharp and cunning- 
looking Foxes of other sju'cies which are found in more temperate climes. 
Tho character (for all animals have a character) and habits of this species 
ai'c in accordance with its appearance ; it is comparatively unsuspicioua 
anil genMe, and is less snappish and spiteful, even when first captured, 
than any other Fox with which wo are acquainted. 

At times there is seen a variety of tiiis Fox, which has been called the 
Sootv Fox, but which is in all probability only tho young, or at any rate 
is not a i)ornninent variety, and which does not turn white in winter, 
alfliough the species generally becomes white at that season. It is said 
likewise that tlie v/hito Arctic Foxes do not all assume a brown tint in 
the summer. IIichaudso.v .says that only a majority of th.>se animals 



I I 



!1 
I 



f/2 



AHCTir FOX. 



acqmro the p^.ro wl.ito dn-.a oven fn winter : many have a little .lu^kinest 
on the n.,se, and others, pr„l.ably youn^ individuals, ren.ain more or low 
coloured on the l.ody all the year. On tl.e ofh..- hand, a pure white Arctic 
lox ,s ocraH.onally met with in the nmldle of summ.,, and forms the 
variety name.l Kahkortak by the Greenlanders. 

Mr. WH.LIAM Mohton, ship's stewanl of the Advance, one of Mr. IIenry 
Oa.NNELL'8 vessels sent in searrh of Sir John i .nkmn and his party 
although not a naturalist, has furnished us with some account of this 
Bpecies. He informs us that wl.ilst the vessels (the A.ivance and Kescue) 
were ,n the ice. the men caught a good many Arctic Fo.xes in traps n>ado 
of old en.pty barrels set with bait on the ice : they caught the same indi- 
viduals in the same trap several times, their hunger or their want of caution 
leading them aciu into the barrel wh.-n only a short lime relca.^ed from 
captivity. 

They were kept on board the vesseb for some days, and afterwards lot 
loose ; they did not always appear very anxious to make their escape from 
the ships, and those that had not been caught sometimes approached the 
vessels on the ice, where first one would appear, and after a while another 
showing that several were in the neighbourhood. They were ojcasionally 
observed on the rocks and snow on th.. land, but were not seen in packs 
like wolves ; they do not take to the water or attempt to swim. 

These Foxes when they see a man do not appear to be frightened : they 
run a little way, and then sit down on their haunches like a do.', and face 
the enemy before running oil entirely. They are said to be good eatino- 
the crews of the vessels having feasted on thom, and are fat all the winter' 
They were occasionally seen following the polar ber to feed on hia 
leavings, seals, flesh of any kind, or fish. 

Those they captured were easily tamed, seldom attempting to bite even 
when first caught, and by wrapping a cloth around f • liand some of tliem 
could be taken out of the barrel aiul held, not oflering more resistance 
than a snap at the cloth. 

Several beautiful skins of this animal were brought homo by Dr. E. K. 
Kani:, the accomplished surgeon of the expedition, and have since been' 
pv'=' "ted by hi!,', to the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. 

Captain Lyon, during two winters passed on Melville peninsula, studied 
with attention the manners of several of these animals. He says : " The 
Arctic Fox is an extremely cleanly animal, being very careful not to dirt 
those places in which he eats or sleeps. No unpleasant smell is to be per- ' 
ceived even in a n-.ale, which is a remarkable circumstance. To come 
ur.awares on one of these creatures is, in my opinion, impossible, for even 
vhen in an apparently sound sleep they open their eyes at th- slightesl 



ARCTIf FOX. 



93 



noiso which i» mado near tl.om, aItho..i.h thoy pay no atlontion to pouikIs 
wlicn at a .nliort distance. Thr jijonoral time of rest is <).irin.,r tho dayllKl't 
111 whieh thoy appear listloss and inactive ; hut the ni-ht no sooner nets in 
than all their faculties aro awakened ; they conin.epce their Kauihol.., and 
continue in uncea«injr an.l rapid motion until the mornin^r. While huntiuR 
for food, they aro mute, hut when i„ captivity or irritato.l, thev utter a 
short growl like that of a youns puppy. It is a Hinguiar fact, that their 
bark IS 80 undulated as to give an idea that tho animal h at a distance 
altiiough at the very moment ho licH at your feet. 

" Althouul, (he rage of a newl> caught Fox is quite ungovernable, yet it 
very rarely hapi)ened that on two hcinn put together they (luarrelled. A 
confinement of a few hours often suniced to ,p,iet these creatures ; and 
Bome instances occurro.i of their being perfectly tame, although timid,'frcm 
the first moment rf their captivity. On tho other hand, there were' some 
which, after months of .-oaxing, never became more tractable. These wo 
suppose were old ones. 

"Their first impulse on receiving food is to hide it as soon as possible, 
even though sulTcring from hunger and having no fellow-prisoners of whoso 
honesty they aro doubtful. In this case snow is of great assistance, as 
being easily piled over their stores, and then loicibly pressed down by the 
nose. I frequently observed my Dog-Fox, when no snow was attainable, 
g-ither his chain into his mouth, and in that manner carefully coil it so as 
to hide the meat. On moving away, satisfied with his operations, he of 
course had drawn it after him again, and sometimes with great patience 
repeated his labours five or six tiim-s, until in a passion he has been con- 
strained to eat his food without its having been rendered luscious by pre- 
vious concealment. Snow is the substitute for water to these creatures, 
and on a large lump being given to thorn they break it in pieces with their 
feet and roll on it with great delight. When the snow was slightly scat- 
tered on the decks, they did not lick it up as dogs are accustomed to do, 
but by repeatedly pressing with their nosr3 collected small lumps at its 
extiemity, and then drew it into tho mouth with the assistance of the 
tongue." 

In another passage, Captain Lyon, alluding to the above-meutioned 
Dog-Fox, says : "He was small and not perfectly white ; but his tameucss 
was so remarkable that I could not bear to kill him, but confined him on 
deck iu a small hutch, with a scope of chain. The little animal astonished 
us very iiuicii by his extraordinary sagacity, for during the fij'st day, finding 
l-.imsclf much tormented by being drawn out repeatedly by his chain, 
ho at length, wlicncver he retreated to his iiut, took this carefully up 
in his mouth, and drew it so comoleteU' after him that no one who 



94 



ARCTIC POX 



JtaX^,/"'^"^''' ^""^"^ '"^^"^'""^ ^« ''''^' ^^^^ of the end altached to the 

Richardson says that notwithstanding the degree of intelligence whid 
ha anecdotes ,.Iated by Captain Lvon show them to possess, they arc 
unnke the red Fox in being extremely unsuspicious; and instancof 
• elated of the.r standing by while the hunter is preparing the trap, and 
.•"nn.ng headlong into it f e moment he retires a few p^ces. cl .tain 
Lvox reeeu-ed fifteen fron. . single trap in four hours. The voice of the 
Arctic Fox ,s a kind of yelp, and when a man approaches their brecdino 
places they put then- heads out of their burrows and bark at him, allowing 
liim to come so near that they may easily be shot. 

They appear to have xl-e power of decoying other animals within their 
teach by imitating their voice.. "While tenting, we observed a Fox 
prowling on a hn side, and heard him for several hours afterwards iu 
aifferent places, imitating the cry of a brentgoose." They feed on e..>-s 
young birds blubber, and carrion of any kind ; but their principal td' 
seems to be lemmings of different species 

Richardson thinks the •' brown variety," as he calls it, the more common 
one in the neighbourhood of Behring's Straits. He states that they breed 
on the sea coast, and chiefly within the Arctic circle, forming burrows in 
eandy spots, not solitary like the red Fox, but in little villages, twenty or 
thirty burrows being constructed adjoining to each other. He saw on of 
these villages on Point Turnagain, in latitude 68*0. Towards the middle 
of winter, continues our author, they retire to the southward, evidentlv in 

TT 1 T' ?^'"^ "' "'"'^ "' ^''''^^' *^° *'^° ^«^«t' and going m'uch 

ai.hcr to the sou«iward in districts where the coast line is in the direction 

of their march. Captain Pahry relates that the Arctic Foxes, which were 

previously ramerous, began to retire from Melville peninsula in November. 

■ h hid 'fi 0":^" ''" ^■'""^''^- " '^^^^'^^••^■^ ^'- '^-^^-^ «f <1- continent 
■H Lititude 600, they are seen only in the winter, and then not in numbers • 

they are very scarce in latitude Olo, and at Carlron House, in latitude 53o' 

only two ..n-e seen in forty years. On the coast of Hudson's Eav, however' 

according to Hearxe, they arrive at Churchill, in latitude oUo/about 1 10 

middle o Oc obor, and afterwards receive reinforcements from he n , 

vard, until their numbers almost exceed credibility. Many are captured 

UK.e by the hunters, and the greater part of tL survi^^ c^ " 

Churc/iill river as soon as it is frozen over, and continue their journey alo '! 

the coast to Nelson and Severn rivers. In like manner the/exte d t ir 

niigrations along the whole Labrador coast to the gulf of St. iJr " 

Mo.t of those which travel lar to the southward are destroyed by rapaciou 

animals ; and the few which survive to the spring breed in their w ar 



ARCTIC FOX. 



95 



ors, ,n.toud of r.Un-nl.g to the nortl.. The colonies they found are 

Yo k 1 'tT '""' "" "' occasionally seen in the vicinity of 
York fa tory. Ihe.-e are from three to five young ones in a litter." 

The trap .n which the Arctic Fox is taken by the Esquimaux i. 
He mbed by authors as simple : it consists of a little hut built of sto;e 
with a square opening on the top, over which some blades of whalebone 
are extended near y across so n^ fn fnvn, o ., ""'"'-"one 

■iltl.nn^l. r ^ r . . ™ "^^ apparently secure footing 

though on y fastened at one end, so that when the animal conies on to 
hen to get the ba.t they bend downward and the Fox is precipitated into 
iK. hut below, wh.ch is deep enough to prevent his jumping out, the m 
especially beeause the whalebone immediately rises again to it posiTon 

sively. Other traps are arranged so that a flat stone falls on the Fox when 
ho W pulling at the bait disengages the trigger. These Foxes aTal o 
caugnt in traps made of ice (in which wolve'^are taken at time byt 
Esquimaux). These traps are thus described by Dr. Richaebson and r 
ortainly composed of the last material we, dwellers in more avoured 
lands, would think of for the purpose : "The Esquimaux woIf-trLTn de 
of strong s abs of ice, long and narrow, so that a Fox can w th'd ffi 

ne ,s taken. The door is a heavy portcullis of ice, sliding in two well- 
ecured grooves of the same substance, and is kept up by a linrwhic 
passing over the top of the trap, is carried through a hole at thekrth 
ex remity ; to the end of the line is fastened a sLll hoop f wh.^ ' 
and to t us any kind of flesh-bait is attached. From the slab whi t: ! 
nates the trap, a projection of ice or a peg of wood or bone points inwaids 

are bottom, and under this the hoop is slightly hooked ; the sli;.:to 
pull at the bait liberates it, the door falls in an instant, and the w^lf (o 
*ox) IS speared where ho lies." ^y<jn yur 

In speaking of the Soot, Fo., which is only a varietv of the present 
.pocies, Dr. RicirAunsox says : " On one occasion during "our late col til 
voyage round the northern extremity of America, after c'oking u sup J 
on a sandy uoach, we had retired to repose in the boats, anchJ^^ed neai tho 
shore, when two Sooty Foxes came to the spot where the fire had bee. 
made, and carrying oil' all the scraps of meat that were left there buH d 
them in the sand above high water mark. We observed that h '^ h d 

Ssfoff ' '" ' "^""'^ '^"^' ^"' '''' '''' ^^"-^ *^« '-8-t Pieces . 



* i 



-1*' ?'t 



9: 



arctk; fox 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

Arctic Foxes have been seen as far north on the American continent as 
niau has ever proceeded. They are numerous on the shores of Hudson's 
Bay, north of Churchill, and exist also in Bhering's straits ; towards the 
centre of the continent in latitude 65^, they are seen only in the winter, 
and then not in numbers. They are very scarce in latitude 61", and al 
Carlton houso in latitude 53°, only two were seen in forty vears. On the 
coast of Hucjson's Bay, however, according to Hearne, they arrive at 
Churchill, in latitude o!.°, about the middle of October, and afterwards 
receive reinforcements from the northward. On the eastern coast of 
America they are found at Labrador, where they have been seen occa- 
sionally in considerable numbers ; a few have been also observed in the 
northern parts of Newfoundland, about latitude 52°. 

On the eastern continent they arc found in Siberia, and in all the Arctic 

regions. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

We have had opportunities in the museums of London, Berlin, and more ' 
particularlj- at Dresden, of comparing specimens of this animal from both 
continents : we could not find the slightest difference, and have no hesitaUon 
iu pronouncing them one and the same species. 



9; 



LUTRA CANADENSIS—Sabine. Var. 
(Lataxina Mollis.— Gray.) 

Canada Otter. 

PLATE CXXIL— Malk. 

In our second volume (p. 12) we promised to give a figure of this variety 
of the Oaneda Otter, and in our remarks we noticed the publication 
of varieties of that animal as distinct species, by Gray, F. Cuvier and 
Watekhouse. ' 

Mr Gray, ve presume, thought that a larger and different species 
existed neo^ Hudson's Bay, and named his specimen Laiaxina MoUis, calling 
the animal the Great Northern Otter. 

The figure now before you was published, notwithstanding our doubts as 
to the specific differences Mr. Gray thinks are observable between the 
Otters of Hudson's Bay and those of Canada and the United States for 
the purpose of giving a correct drawing of the identical specimen named 
and described by that gentleman, in order that it might be seen that it is 
only a large variety of the common American Otter. 

Besides giving a figure of Mr. Gray's Otter, we have examined Otters 
from very distant localities, having compared some taken near Montreal 
with one .not on the Hackensack river. New Jersey, several killed in 
South Carolina, one trapped in Texas, and one from California, and we 
are of opinion that, although differing in size and colour, the Otters of all 
tliese different localities are the same species, viz. L. Canad^nm, the Canada 
Otter. 

Besides the variations observable in the colour of the Otter, the fur of 
the more northern species is finer than "any of the southern. 

As already stated (vol. ii. p. 11) we have not had an opportunity of 
comparing specimens from Brazil with ours, and the description given by 
Ray of Lutra BrazUknm is so vague and unsatisfactory that we cannot 
state with confidence that his animal is identical with the North American 
species. We strongly suspect, however, that it is, in which case Ray's 
name, L. BrazUiensis, should be substituted for L. Canadensis, to which we 
would add as synonymes Lataxina Mollis of GRAy, and another supposed 
species by tlic same author, Lutra Californica. 

We have nothing to add to the account of the habits of this animal given 
m our second volume (see p. 6). 
vni„ iiT,==^13 



.v.t 





98 



GENUS APLODONTIA—RioH. 

DENTAL FORMULA, 

Incisive ? ; Canine ?^ ; Molar t5 = 22. 

Incisors, very strong, flatly convex anteriorly, without grooves, narrower 
behind. Molars, simple, remarkably even on the crowns. The first in the 
upper jaw, small, cylindrical, and pointed, is placed within the anterior 
corner of the second one, and exists in the adult. The rest of the molars 
are perfectly simple in their structure, without roots, and have slightly 
concave crowns, which are merely bordered with enamel, without any 
transverse ridges or eminences. On the exterior side of the four posterior 
pairs of upper molars, and the inner side of all the lower ones, there is an 
acute vertical ridge extending the whole length of the tooth, formed by a 
sharp fold of enamel. When the molars are in situ, there is a wide semi- 
circular furrow between each pair of ridges, formed by the two adjoining 
teeth ; the side of each tooth opposite the ridge is convexly semicircular. 
The second grinder in the upper jaw, and the first in the lower one, are a 
little larger than the more posterior ones, and the former has a projection 
of enamel at its anterior corner, producing a second though smaller vertical 
ridge, within which the first small molar is situated leaning towards it. 
There is a slight furrow on the exterior sides of the lower molars, most 
conspicuous in the first one. 

Palate, narrow, bounded by perfectly parallel and straight rows of 
molars. 

^ Head, flat and broad ; nose, a little arched, thick, and obtuse. Lower 
jaw, thick and strong, with a large triangular process, concave behind, 
projecting at its posterior inferior angle further out than the zygomatic 
arch. The transverse diameter of the articulating surface of the condyle 
is greater than the longitudinal one. The jaw is altogether stronger than 
is usual in the Rodentia. 

Cheek-pouches, none; eyes, very small; ears, short and rounded, 
approaching in form to the human ear, and thickly clothed with fur like 
that of a muskrat, but not so long or fine. Limbs, robust, short ; feet, 
moderately long, with naked soles ; five toes on all the feet, rather' short 
but well separated ; the thumb of the fore feet is considerably shorter than 
the other toes ; claws, particularly the fore ones, very long, strong, much 
compressed, and but little curved. 



narrower 
irst in the 
J anterior 
he molars 
e slightly 
;hout any 
posterior 
liere is an 
med by a 
ide semi- 
adjoining 
icircular. 
)ne, are a 
trojection 
r vertical 
wards it. 
ars, most 

rows of 

Lower 
) behind, 
^gomatic 
I condyle 
ger than 

rounded, 
fur like 
rt ; feet, 
ler short 
■ter than 
ig, much 





K; 



^ 



'( 






M 



^1 



5 



1 


i 

WSMd 



m 






I 




THE SEWELLEI. 



99 



Tail, very short, concealed by the fur of the hips, mamma bix, the 
anterior pair situated between the fore legs. 

HaMts.-Fovm small societies, feeding on vegetable substances, and 
living in burrowfi.— Richardson. 

There is only one species belonging to this genus known at present. 

1 ho name aplodontia is derived from a^Xoo^, aploos, simple, and oSo^g, odaus 
a tooth. 



APLODONTIA LE PORINA.-Rich. 

The Sewellel. 

PLATE OXXIII.— Male, 

A Fusooscens, magnitudine Leporis Sylvatici, corporo brevi robusto. 
capite magno, cauda brevissima. ' 

CHARACTERS. 

1^'. IT ^"^ '"*''' ^^'^"' Sylvaticus). Body, short and thick ; head, 
large ; tail, very short. Colour, brownish. 

SYN0NYME8. 
SEWEtLEL. Lewis and Clark, vol. iii. p. 39. 
Ahctomvs Rufa. Harlan, Fauna, p. 308. 

" " ^"ffith. Cuv. Animal Kingdom, vol. V. p. 245, species 636 

^P^oncTU Lepokina. Kieh, Zool. Jour., No. 15, p. 335.'janu;rri829 

—Sewellel. Rich, Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 211 p] 
18 c, figs. 7-14, cranium, &c. 



DESCRIPTION". 

Body, short, thick, and heavy, nearly reaching the ground ; legs, short • 
had large; nose, thick and blunt, densely covered with ha^ to th 

erc'Lttheii:.^^" ^" ^^--^" '^ ' — ^— ^ ^ep- 

Mouth, rather small ; incisors, large and strong ; lips, thick, and clothed 
w h , g,d hairs ; a brush of white hair projects into the mo th from he 
upper ip near its un.on witii the lower one ; whiskers, strong, and lon^e 
Uian the head ; a ew stiff hairs over the eyes, on the cheeC, and on « 
outer sides of the fore-legs : the eye is very small ; the external ear ri 



KHI 



TiiK sk\vki,m:i. 




nitli.T fnr l.url<, „n<l is ^l,„ii „n,i muinlo.! 



tl 



If uiKiilt.iy opening', litis a small folii (,f tli 



il rises nitoiit I'liiir liiu's al 



lOVC 



inwards, to^roilicr with 
iiro also folds and 
on tlio oilier smli 
hill 



II iiai 



liiilerior pml of its I 



em 



row Ihiek margin, re|ireseiiliii^r a UAw. Tl 



iiK'iiees ill tlieciivilyof (heaiiricie; || 



•list! 
U'l'O 



ee Willi shorl and lim> I 



'" """ •■"inMi ami line liairs 

l-H II lillle longer; (ail, sl.orl, slender, ami 



H' tar is elollied 
irs, and on llie inner, wilii 



I'oiKTaled l»y (he jiair of ||i 



lU'Ols 



IIIU 

em 
I 



Willi short fur; feel, sliuped lik.< (hos,. ,.f || 
It'r surfaees of (|„. fore feel, naked • Il 



•vlindricnl, and almost 
'•'inii.; iejrs, eovered down to Hie wrists and 



ineiices at llie rools of (he (oes, dispose.l as in (I 



lu' iiiarinols ; palms and 
; fliere are Huo,. small callous 



H'ing common to Hie two miildle t 



K' miirmols, one of Hk 



oHuM* to .lie lillle 1 



"M's, one i»ro|ier to (he Ihird I 



ni 



oe. and Hie 



oe 



At Hie root of Hie (hum!) (hero is a larire 



o|)posi(e side of (he palm anoHu 



of sullieieid leiijjHi (o be used 



•>ro prominent canosity, and on (Im 
r one nearly (he same sizo ; the thu.iil 



ronmied nail ; elaws, larjre and 



in griii^ping, ami is (erminaled I 



» !S 

>v II sinoolh 



alx 



)ve. and n.nirly slrai^rht l.elow ; hind leel 
I'Vl. iiiid (heir elaws on.> half smaller, lalher 



very mueh compressed, sli-liHy arelied 



l"-fssed; soles, lon.uer (han (he palms, and nake.l (o H 



more slender tiiaii (he foio 
more arched, and less 



furnished wi(li i 



our callous emiiieiices si(ua(ed al (I 



two placed fardior Lack, all iiioro i 
of Hie spermophiles of America. 



10 heel ; Hit 
le ido(s of (he (oc 



com- 
y aro 
s, and 



■on.^picuoiis Ihaii llioso on ihe hind feet 



The 1 



lair is sofl. and somewlnit rosemlijos Ihe (inor fur of (I 



the under fur is .sof(, (oli'iiii>'« d 
loiijrer hairs are not snllicicnll 



oiiso, and abiuil half 



an 



hair on (ho feet oiil 



y numerous (o conceal Ihe under j 



10 muskratj 
inch l(Mig ; (ho 



y reaches lo H.o roots id' (he cl 



ur, 



Tl 



U) 



Hu 



speoimon of a yonn- S.>w,<ll,d brou-lit by DovuLxs and 



ws, which are naked. 



H.vuDsoN, in which (he denlilion was (h 



o.vamined by 



a new sc( of molar (ooHi, which Inul dcslroyed (I 



o same as in (ho aduK, exliibi(ed 



itanoo of tho old tooth, leaving nioroly a king 
behind in each socket, resemb'ing fangs. 



grealcr par( of Ihe sub- 



process before and another 



COLOUR. 

Incisors, yellow ; claws, horn colour ; general hue of the back, brownish 
the long scattered hairs being tipped with black ; bellv, grayish wiHi' 
many ol (he long hairs tippo.l with white ; „ose, nearly (ho colour of the 

throai '^' ' '" ''""" '^'"''''"'"•■' ^^'''' '' "" '^i'^t ^»" 1"»« white on the 

The hairs on the back, when blown aside, exhibit a grayish colour from 
the roots to (he tijis. which are brown. 



TIIK NKWKI.I.KI,, 



101 



IXMKNHfONH. 

TiOnj^th of head luid lioily, - 

fail, 

WriHt, joint to <mi(I ofiiiiildlo »;low, ■ 

Miiltllo rliiw, 

L(>-.i'tli of head, .... 



iMhai 


Ml. 


14 






6 


1 







6 


8 


4 



MAIIITH. 

liKwiH and , , .K, wlio diHcovorcd' tliiH spocioH diirin>? thoir joiirnoy 
arroHH tlu, llo.-ky Monntii... ■ <<, ll,« I'a,;ili„, ^jv,, uh tl.. followinK account 
of it : 

"S.«wo|loI is a name ^H-nn by (he nuliv..H to a huiiiII .min.al found in «hP 
tiinhcrcd country on thin coast. It iH n.orn ahund.mt in thn noiKhlmurhood 
ol the) Kmit falls and rnpids o-" tho (Jolurnhia than on thn coast. The 
niifivcs make ^mit ns.. of th,> nkins (,f .his animal in fomiin^r their robes 
which they dress with the fur on, an.) atfu. 1. th.-m lo^rHher with the sinews 
of thfl oik or deer. The skin when dr.- s.-d is r,„„, fourteen to eiKhteen 
inches ion^^ and from H(>ven to nine in width : the tail is always Hcparttted 
from the* skin by the natives when nuikin^ thoir robes." 

"This animal mounts a trc, and burrows in the ^'round, precisely like a 
H.|uirrel. The ears are short, thin, and p'.inle.l, and covnMl with a fine 
short; hair, of a uniform reddi.h-brown ; the iwttom or the base of the lonjr 
hairs, which excecMl the fur but little in ieuKth, as well as the fur itself, are 
ol a <lark cohmr next to the skin for two thirds of tho len^rth of this 
aniuuil ; the fur an.l hair ar<^ very line, short, thi(;kly set, and silky • the 
ends of tho fur and tip of tin, hair are of a re.ldish-brown, and chat colour 
predominates in tho usual app.-arance of the animal. Captain Lewi.s 
olb'red c..nsiderable rewards to the Fn.lians, but was never able to procure 
one ol those animals alive." 

Mr. DouoLAS Kave Dr. JtuniAiu.HON an Indian blanket or robe, formed 
l.y sewin- tho skins of the Howellel to^othor. This rol,e contained twenty 
sevM. skins, selected when the fur was in fine order. They are described 
by J)r. RiciiAiUKSON as all having the long hairs so numerous as to hide 
the wool or down at thi^ir roots, and their points have a very high lustre. 
Tho doctor appears to think there were skins of two species of Hewellel in* 
this robe. Wo did not hear of this animal ever being found to the east of 
the Rocky Mouutaius. Our figure was drawn from a fine specimen in 
ijondon. 

We arc inclined to think from the form of the Sewcllel that it is a ureat 



' ! n 



( a 



lO'J 



TIIK NKWKI.r.KI, 



digger ; u.f r,KW,s' n..Po„nt of its .M.n.nting a troo Hooms to »n to reouirc 
-mo .nod. ..ufon ; the Marylund n.un„o., ,o winch it .s Hc.n.wLu Z 
n ...nn „n.i .n .l.o shapo of its olawn. whon hard proved will n, 

':;;";"""■" '" "■"■'■ '"" •""•^•"^ "^^ ••"«' '"-^ '« very awkwam 1 
«on des-nul.; wo preHu,,,,. .1... HiM.l.ing proportion of tho H«woII,.l ran 
•ourcoly bo greater Ihun (Ix.se of the nmrinot " 

From the n«n.l.er of mamnu. oxhibite.i !.. .he female, wo eon,-i„de (ha. 

P-l-H- i.vo or Hix yoang at a time, and from tho nature of th a i 



GEOORAPIIICAL DIHTIiniUTION. 

ThiH Hingnlar «pecicH has beea observed on the western nlopoH of tho 
1 ocky Moun an... in the vallevs and plains of the Co|..,„bia, at Nis.,ua 
and at Paget h Houn.l, where it in said to bo a couuaon anin.a . It lu 1 lo 
been procured in California. 



OKNRRAr- UEMAIIKS. 

Tho history of this speeies, of whieh, however, littlo is known, is some- 
^ hat eur.ous. Lkw.s an.i ( Yahk appear to have be.-n the only indi vidualH 
W-. gave any not.ce of it until a very reVent period, when I)',:,.,as r^^ 
cured a spee.men, and UtCAunsoK gave a scien.i.ie aecount of the ani I 
The aecount Lkwks and C^auk gave dates back to 1804, an.l we have g v^a 
ho whole ot the.r article above; these travellers, however, brought, o 
-.mens. After the .jo..rnal of their adve..t,.ro,.s expedition was pu,' 
hslu.d, Rahnksquk ventured to give to the Sewellel the 'name of ZsW 
ifj/« Hablan named it ^..a.,,i?./«, and Gu.KK.ru intnuluced it 1 
the annnal k.ngdon. under the .ame name ; in 1820, R.ohahikson obt.-i ed 

hud a r.gh to bestow a specific name, K„„au.>sox rejected both the g,, 4 
an.l spec.hc nan.es of previous writers, established for it a new gent d 

fZ". 'o^yT " "" ''''-' '^' ^'''' '^ -'' ^-^^•^ !>-- in ' 
P}hteiiis 01 Aoology. 

There are two specimens of this animal in th. Patent Office at Wash- 
ington c.tv, wh.ch were procured by the Exploring Exoedition under 
connna..d of Captain Wi.kks. We were recently polL^ ^ , pe^^^ i^^ 
^ to take thorn out of tho glass case (in whichMy h^J^ .^1: 
pa.t remamed) to examine their f..r a:.d u.earu.e them. We will not Ike 



: I 
i i 



THR NKWHM.Et. 



10.) 



ire 
\v<\ 

fee. 
ml 
iiii 

lit 
il, 
in 



tho troul.Io to make any further romarkn on tl.iH Hul.joct, an wo havo in a 
noto at pnKo 21 1 of our Hocond volume nu-ntionod tho olmtructiouH thrown 
...our w,vy by tho din-ctorH of tho National luHtituto at WaHhin^^.n, tho 
ofBcorH ,M charKo of tho collection infor,nir.K uh that by hiKh authority the 
HiHscinions wore " tabooed." 



J f 






104 



PUTORIUS NIGRESCENS.-A11D. and Bach 

Mountain-Brook Mink. 

PLATE C XX IV.— Male. 

P. Saturate luscus, corpore minore quam iii P. Visone, pedibus minus 
profunde palmatis, auriculis amplioribus et longioribus, vellere molliore ct 
nitidlorc quam in isto, dentibus longioribus in maxilla infcriore quam in 
superiore. 

CHARACTERS. 

SmaUer than P. Vison ; teeth in the under jaw larger than the corresponding 
teeth in the upper jaw ; feet, less deeply palmated than in P. Vison ; ears, 
broader and longer ; fur, softer and more glossy. Colour, dark brownish-black. 



Mountain-Mink, of hunters. 



8YN0NYMB. 



DESCRIPTION. 



In form, in dentition, and in the shape of the feet, this species bears a 
strong resemblance to a stout weasel ; the head is broad and depressed, 
and shorter and more blunt than the head of Putorius Vison. 

Ears, large, oval, and slightly acute, covered on both surfaces with short 
fur ; legs, rather short and stout ; feet, small, and less webbed than in P. 
Vison. The callosities under the toes are more prominent than in that 
species, and the palms scarcely half as long. Whiskers, very numerous, 
springing from the sides of the face near the nose ; the body is covered 
with two kinds of hair, the under fur soft, and the long sparsely distributed 
hairs, coarse but smootli and glossy. 

The toes are covered with short hairs almost concealing the nails, and 
the hairs between the toes leave only the tubercles or callosities on the 
under side of them visible. 



COLOUR. 



Fur, blackish-brown from the roots to the tips; whiskers and ears, 
blackish-brown ; a patch on the chin, white ; under surface of body, a 



MOUNTALN-HIUJOK MINK. 



lor) 



shade lighter an i redder than on the back; tail, blackish-brown, except 
tx>wards the tip, where it is black. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, - 

tail (to end of hair), ■ 
" (vertebra), - 
" palms of fore feet, - 
From tarsus to end of nail on hind foot, 
Height of ear externally, - 



Inches. 

11 

1 

6 
1 
2 



LiUAk 



2 
2 
6 



For convenient comparison we add the measurements of three common 
minks (P. Vison) killed in Carolina. One was very old and his teeth were 
much worn ; the other two were about eight months. 



P. Vison, three specimens. 

Lengths of body and head, respectively, - 
tail, 

palms of fore feet, - 
tarsus to longest nail, • 



tnchos. Inchna. Innhes 



'I 



20 


17 


19 


8 


6 


7 


2 






8 







UABITS. 

We were familiar with the manners and ways of this smaller Mink in 
early life, and have frequently caught it in traj.s on the banks of a brook 
to which we l-esortod for the purpose of angling, and which in those davs 
actually abounded with trout, as woll as with suckers and percii On 
this sparkling stream, where we passed many an hour, the little black Mink 
was the only species we observed. AVe found a nest of the animal under 
tlio roots oi a large tree, where the young were brought forth, and we 
trequcntly noticed the old ones with lish in their mouths. 

This species swim and dive swiftly and with apparent ease, but we most 
generally saw them on the ground, hunting as they stole along the winding 
banks ot the stream, and following it high up into the hills towards irs 
very source. 

We remember seeing the young in the nest on two occasions ; in each 
case the nest (iontained four. 

In early spring we have traced this species of Mink into the meadows 
where it had been busily engaged in capturing the common meadow-mouse' 
[Jl. lennsylvatmal wliil^t the snow was yet on the ground. 
VOL. m. — 14 






106 



MOUNTAIN-BROOK MINK, 



Having one day detected one of these little Minks in an outhouse, closing 
the door immediately we captured it without its making any attempt either 
to get away or to defend itself. The frightened little marauder was pro- 
bably conscious that it was in a prison from which there was no possible 
chance of escape. 

The large species {P. Vison) appears to be more plentiful than the Moun- 
tam-brook Mink, and is found about mill-ponds and large rivers quite as 
Irequently as on the borders of small streams. 

The Mountain-brook Mink is quite as destructivo to young poultry and 
to all the tenants of the farm-yard, when it happens to approach the 
precincts in which they may be thought to be safely ranging, as the larger 
species, or even the weasel. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

We have observed this species in the mountains of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, as well as in the northern part of the State of New York in 
Vermont, and in Canada, but have not met with nor heard of it in Vir-rinJa 
or any ol the Southern States, and consequently are inclined to regard it 
as a northern species. 

It was not seen by us on the Missouri river, although it probably exists 
Bome distance to the west, in the latitude of the great lakes. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

In our article on the common Mink {Putorius Vison, vol. i. p. 252) wo 
referred to this smaller animal, but could not then find characters sufficient 
to separate the species. 

Since tliat time, however, we have had abundant opportunities of com- 
paring many specimens. AVe have seen some with tiieir teeth much worn 
and females wliieli from the appearance of the teats had evidently suckled 
thoir young. They were all of the size and colour of the specimen above 
described, and we can no longer doubt that the latter is a distinct species 
from P. Vison. 

The comparison in fact is not required to be made between these species 
but between the present species and P. lutreola of Europe. We enjoyed 
opportunities of comparing P. Vi^on (the common and well known Mink) 
with the latter species in the museums of Berlin, Dresden, and London • 
but we ha.l no opportunity of placing tliis little species by the side of Uio 
European. 

We are inclined to believe, howev.«r, that the distinctive mr^rks will be 



MOUNTAIN-BROOK MINK. 



197 



found m the small rounded feet and short tarsus of our present species in 
.ts longer and rather more pointed ears, its shorter head 'and longer lot r 
ncsors together with a more general resemblance to o;, common w ase 
{P. ermtnea) m summer pelage. 



i 1 



J 




A 



108 
SOREX PALUSTRIS.-R1CH. 

American Maush Miirkw. 

PLATE C X X V._Mai.e9. 

S. Mure musculo lon,i,nor, cauda corporis Icrc lon^ntudino, auriculis 
brevibus, p.los., volloro absconditis, dorso cancseoutc-nig;., vcut;o ciuei" " 

CHARACTERS, 

Rather larger than the house mouse ; tail, nearly as long as the body ; short 



I I 



SYNONYMES. 
SoREx PALUSTUI8. Rich., Zool. Jour., No. 12, April, 1828. 

" American Mabsii Shukw. F. B. A., p. 6. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Dental Fom«/a.— Incisive \ • Canine '^^ • lildar *^^ = 30. 
The two posterior lateral incisors arc smaller than the two anterior ones 
on the same s.de, and the latter are a little longer than the posterior lobes 
of the interniedmry incisors ; all the lateral incisors have sn.all lobes on 
heir inner sides. Muzzle, tolerably long, and pointed ; upper lip, bordered 
^Mth rigid hairs; t.ps ot posterior hairs reaching beyond the ears; the 
extremity of the muzzle, naked and bi-lobed ; eyes, sn.all but visible • ear 
short and concealed by the fur, its margins folded in ; a heart-shaped lobe 
covering the auditory opening, and a transverse fold above it. The upper 
margins of the cars are clothed with thick tufts of fur. Tail rounded and 
covered with hair, terminated by a small pencil of hair at the tip • 'feet 
clothed with rather short adpressed hairs, the hairs on the sides of the toes 
being arranged somewhat indistinctly in a parallel manner. The fur 
resembles that of the mole in softness, closeness, and lustre. 

COLOUR. 

The tips of the teeth have a shining chesnut-brown tint; the body 
black above, with a slight hoary appearance when tu.ned to the light 



IS 

on 



AMERICAN MARSH SIIREVV. 



109 



tho ventral aspect ash coloured ; at the roots the hair is bluish-gray • the 
ou side of the th.ghs and upper surface of the tail correspond in c lou 
wUh he back; under surface of tho tail, insides of thik and b ly. 
greyish-white; feet, paler than the back. ^' 



niMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail - 

" of tail, - . . . . ' , 

" of head, -....." 

from nose to eye, .... 

Height of oar, - . . . , 

Length of hind foot from heel to end of nails, 



iBchei. 

- 8 


Linn 
6 


- 2 


7 


- 1 


2 




7 




8 

o 



M 



HABITS. 

The habits of all Shrews (except those of the kind described by Shake- 

BPEAUK must necessarily bo little known. These animals are so minute" 

he seal of quadrupeds that they will always be overlooked, unless sought 

after with great zeal, and even then it is often difficult to meet with or 

procure them. It ma,, be said that it is only by chance that one is seen 

and taken now and then, even where they are known to exist. We have 

not seen more than five or six alive during several years, although dead 

ones have been found by us more frequently, and upon one occasion we 

found two that appeared to have recently died, lying close to each other. 

No wonder then, that they may escape the observation of the most perse- 

venngsudent of nature, as thoir instinctive caution would, by ca'^g 

them e.ther to fly to some little hole or tuft of grass, or to remain stilf 

when danger was near, render thoir discovery moi^ than doubtful • or if 

Z'o\ 7 l!V''''r '"■ ' "''"""*• ""'' *^'' '-^^ -^^'"1- circumsta;ce 
eonnected w,t . he family of Shrews is the fact that they can exist in 

extremely cold cl .mates, and move about in winter, when the snow covers 

the ground. In his article on .SWx palustris Dr. RrcunnsoN says it 

most probably lives in the summer on similar food with the Water Shrew 

but I am at a loss to imagine how it procures a subsistence during the six 

Tow J r '"; ;'" T'"' "" """^"" '' '"^''^'"^^ -« — d with 

1; \^TT ^ " "^ ^'^''' '^"^ ""^"^^ *«"« "« that it often 
laKes up its abode in l)eaver houses." 

We might easily make some probable speculations as to the manners and 
cus oms of the present species, but prefer not doing so farther than to say 
that It very likely feeds on seeds, insects, and on th. carcases of any small 







110 



AMERICAN MARSH SHREW. 




birds or other an.mals it finds dead in the fields, that in winter it has a 
store of provision laid by, only coming to the snow-covered surface on 
fane days for the purpose of getting a little fresh air, and that from the 
number of tracks sometimes seen at one place we consider it partly grega- 
rious in its habits. ^ ^ *= ^ 

Our drawing was made from a specimen in the British Museum at London. 

GEOGBAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The American Marsh Shrew, according to the writers who have seen it 
exists in the northern parts of our continent from Hudson's Bay to the 
Coppermine river. ' 



aENEBAL REMARKS. 

We are not aware that any author has referred to this animal, except 
Dr. Richardson; the specimen from which our drawing was made was 
the original one from which Dr. Richardson described, and we believe 
this species has never been hitherto figured. 



Ill 



<>H;NUS RANGIFER.-Hamiltok Smith. 

dental formula. 

Incisive I ; CaniT,^ 1=1 ; Molar ^f = 34. 

Iloras in both sexes, irregularly pahnatcd, bifurcated, and rather lon^ • 
canuie teeth in both soxcs ; muzzle, small. ^ ' 

Ta 3;ff r rV'T""^^ "''"' ^'" ^^"1""'"^ Reindeer, and the 

Intt t SlS^7r "^^^ '"' '^ ^■"•"^'^^' ^''^ «^'-'-^ «f t'- American 

a trjf he A c . r""' " :""*"' ''*'" ^^'"''«^'' ^-»d - different 

aitsof the Arcfc crcle on both continents form one species only then 
there IS but one species in the genus known at present ^' 

in Sic.""" "' ' """"'"'■ "' ""^" ^'^ ^"^'^ ^^^^ ^^-d -- Etampe. 

frI!!T'ut "T' ^""^^"' " "'* "^ ^"^^'^ ''^'^''»' ^>»^^ ^^^ been formed 
Ihela::: tS;:^ "'^ ^^---^ ^'- ^-- ^ ««^"^-' P-^^^^^ through 



RANGIFER CAUIBOU. 

Cahibou or American Reindeer. 
PLATE CXXVI.-Males. Fig. l.-Su.nmer Pelage.- Fig. 2.-Winter 

K. Magnitudine fere Elaphi Canadensis; in estate saturate fuscus in 
hyeme cinereus ; vitta alba supra ungulas. ' 



CHARACTERS. 

Marly the size of the JlueHcan Elk (Elaphus Canadensis) ; coW d.e, 
broum ^n summer, grayisk-ash in vnnter, a .kite fnn,e ab^e the hooj^ 

SYNONYMES. 
Oenub Cervus. Li!m., sectio Raiigiferini. 

Caribou, o„ Asne Salvage Saganl Thoodat Canada, p. 751, Ann. 103U. 
Lalloufan. t. Li>. 77, Ann. 17(>;(. 
•* Churlfvoix, Nouv. Frauw, toni. v. p. 100. 




I 3 

i ' ! 



112 



CAUIItoU OK ,\ IHHICAN KKINDKEH. 



Rkindkkk, (ir j;.MMiKi:ii, Dr.ijr,., Voy., vol. i. p. l>6. 

" l)t>l)l)s' Ilml.miirH Hav, |>|i. II), U2. 

rciiiiant's Arctic Zoolojjy, vi>l. i. p. 22. 

" Curtwriijlit'.- I.alniuior, pj). l)|, n?, 133, 

" Frimklin's First Voy.-iijc, |)p. '210, 246. 

Ckkvi'8 Tauandivs. Harlan, Fauna, p. 2;t'J. 

" (iodinaii, iNat. llist., vol. ii. p. 28;i. 

** — 1{kini>kkk or CAHiiior, IJidi., F. M. A. 1. •>;(« 

nAN.MFKu TAKANmH-l{KiN>.KKH. I K'Kuy, Nut. M ist. Stato .!f Now York „ I-'i 
Arri:iiK. C'rcf Indians. ' '" ' ' 

Kttiiin. (Iiippcwyan Indians. 

TooKToo. Ksipiiiiiaiix. 

Tt KTA. (ireenlamlers. 

Caiihk-iickif, or Cakiuou. Froncli Canadians. 



M 



DESCRIPTION. 

Yotinc, about Iwo yours luid a linlf old. 

l-niMTor and loss gincHul than tho comtaon Amoricnn doer; body stout 
an.! heavy ; nock, short ; hoofs, thin, nation,.], broad and sproa.i;n;r exca- 
valoii or oonoavo bonoath ; aocossory hoofs, larj^^o bnt, thin; I,>«s, stout.- 
no .ulandnlar op-Miin- nnd soarooly a porooptiblo inner tuft, on' tho hind' 
logs ; noso. somowiiat liko (hat of a oow, bnt fully covered with soft hair- 
0'- n.odorato Icnath : no board, l)ul on tho under side of tho no.-k a lino of 
hairs about four inches in longtii which lumo: down in a longitudinal diroc- 
<H.n. Kars. snmll, short, and ovnto, thickly ololhed with hair on both 
surlacos: horns, one foot thnv an.i a half inches in height, ..lender (one 
with two, and the other with on.., prong) ; prongs, about liv,. i„,.|K>s long. 

llair, soft and woolly inidernoath. the longer hairs like those of t^l.o 
antelope, crimped or waved, and about one to one and a half inches long. 

C()i.oi"{. 

At the roots the hairs are whitish, then become brownish-gray, and at 
the tips are light dun gray, whiter on the n(<ck than elsewhere" nose oar. 
outer surface of logs, and shoulder, brownish ; a slight shade of the same 
tint behind tho fore legs. 

lioofs. black : neck and throat, dull white ; a faint whitish patch on the 
sides of the siioulders ; forehead, brownish-white ; belly, white ; tail, white, 
Willi a slight shade of brown at the root and on the whole ujipor surface • 
outside of legs, brown ; a band of white around all the legs adjoining tho 
hoofs, and oxtemling to the small secondary hoofs ; horu.s, yellowish-biwn. 
woru whiter in ]dacei. 



rARIIJOU oil AMKRICAN RKINDKER 



11.1 



There h a small patch of brown,, faintly defined, around and behind the 
ears. 

J)os(;rii.tion of tlio horns of another Hpccimnn. 

The two main antiors arc furnislwd .vjth irroRular and sharp points, and 
Ihoir (extremity in pcintod ; somo of those points arc from six to eight inches 
lonK, but most of them are ,,„ite short ; width between the horns on the 
skull, eif^i.t nu-hes ; width of horns at the root, two inches and three 
<|"'«'t(Ms ; depth, one inch and three quarters ; length of main horn 
loliowinp the curve, three f(>et ; there is a palmate,! brow antler with four 
points, on one side, ineliniuR downwards and inwards ; on the opposite 
horn there are two points, but the antler is not palmatcd ; immediately 
above the brow antlers there is a branch or prong on each horn about 
fourteen inches in length, terminating in three points ; thes" prongs incline 
forward and inward. About half the length of the horn from the skull 
there is another prong on each about two inches long ; beyond these prongs 
each horn continues about the same thickness, spreading outwards slightly 
to within a f.nv inrhes of its extremity, where one diverges into five points 
and the other into six. The horns arc but slightly channelled ; they arc 
dark yellow. Between the tips, where they approac^h each other, the horns 
are two f,>ot apart, and at thcnr greatest width two feet eight inches. 
The female Caribou has horns as well as the male, but thoy are smaller. 



DIMENSrONR. 

Young— about two and a half years old. 

Length from nose to root of tail, 
■ " of tail (vertel)r{c), - - . . 
, " (including hair), • 

Height of shoulder, 

Width between the eyes, - - . . 

From point of nose to lower canthus of eye, 

" " to ear, - - . . 

Height of ear posteriorly. - - . . 



Fmt. 


InchiK 


6 






4 




6« 


8 


6 




51 




9 


1 


2 




5 



HABITS. 

The Caribou, or American Reindeer, is one of the most importani 
animals oJ the northern parts of America, and is almost as graceful in form 
as the elk {Elaphus Canadensis), to which it is nearly equal in size • but it 
has never, we believe, been domesticated or trained to draw sledLres in fhn 

Vol,. 111. li) 



it! 



Hi 



CAKIIKjd OR A.MKUICAN KKINDKICR. 



li 



^"poc. 8 t mt „ i,„s l.,vn by ,„„.(, authors ...„,.. hmI i.!..,,.!...! will. it. 

W .U .opa.-a„nK .I- Canl.ou fo..,.., i,. >,, , „.., s, ,„,,,,,,„ 

^.uopo, .0 an. i.Hi,„.,i ,o ,l.i„k ,lu.t ,1.. IJ.in ,,,.,,, ,„,„ , .' , 

r lo „.«, IK. ,1... K„,.op„a„ s,H...i..,d.nninlo.l i„ „,at paH of An,....,-. 1 

. OHN K,n..uu>so. says the Uoi,..,.... o,- (..,,„.,.. ., Nor,.. An.,.!.:: Z 

""'rr ';■"'"•"" '•''•^'""'''"""- ■■" "1-1-,..,... an.I .nan.,..,. .0 ,1... 

'"'";""' ^ •"*"'• "'"^ <'-3- >-o always 1 „ ..o„.i,,,,,„, „ ,,. ^,.„ ^..,„ i 

Hpocos, wMhout the fa.-t having over been eon.pleteiy es,..biished."-/' Z 
Jiona/t Jlmrncana, p. L','J8. 

The frreater si.e nn.l woi^rl.t of tl.e Caribou foan.l i„ Canada scorn to 
ave surpnse.1 Sir John, b„, while be says i„ a n<„e (p. ,m that 'Mr 
KN-uv, when l,e n.entioas (^u-ibo« that weigh four hundred p.'.unds. nu.st 
ha c so„.o other speeies of Deer ih view," he has not ,ione n>o e tiuu.noiu 
out two var.e,ies of Kei„deer beside the one he consi.lered identi 

^:":; wHh'"^ :"• ;"•■*'• r^''''-' ""•• *« -'">- «^ ">- ^^^^ 

can ;.e v^.th eerta.nly re.er the Caribou, our present anin.al. 1- ,ho 

Jauna Loreah Anu-rK-ana (p. 241) oue of these varieties-C. f.ran.us, r„r. 

,t. r ? /^"'•'^"•^'^"""•' t^">-il^""-i^ ^aid to be so small that the bueks 

b ^^h fron. n.nety to one hundred and thirty pounds, e.xelusive of ,he 

^„ ' ^'7f "! '^"■•"'"' (^'^^^"•' !>• ^'-'^O-i^ n.ueh h.ruer than the 

Barren-ground Caribou, lu.s smaller horns, and even when in good co 
<l'<">n IS vastly inferior as an article of foo.l." 

Loaving these suppa^ed varieties where we found ,hen,-in doubt-wo 
W.I proeeed with an aeeount of the habits of the Caribou detlil to 
by Air. Jonx Martyn, Jr., of Quebee • 

.t >s nK.tl^ found ,„ the swan.ps, wherever these are well supplied with 
n.oss.ovn-ed dead trees and bush.s ; the n.oss the anin.als prei is 
and blaek spee.es, and forn.s their ehief subsistence dur ng the wi t e^ 
months ; but towards spring these anin.als ren.ov. to the sid; of ,1 V , 
or mounta.ns and even ascend to their sun.nits occasionallv, fee.lin- 
he new y swo len buds of dillVrent shrubs. Like the n,oose ,1c r th ^h 
their antics about this period, and renew then. i,. the sun.n.er n.onths 

The ( ar,bou ,s lamous for its swiff.ess, a..,l has various gaits, walki... 
trott.ng or gallop.ng alike gracefully and rapidly. Ev n.any people th ^ 
an,n,als are .n fact thought to be n.uch ileeter anin.al. Iban the Jose td 
they are said to take most extraordinary leaps. 



rARinoiI oil AMKRICAN RKINnKKR, 



115 



When p.irsuod fl.o Caribou imn.o.liatoly „,„koH for a flwnmp and follows 
tho niaiyin, h.kinjr at (inu-s fo tl.c w„t<>r and a^ain footing it ovor tl... firn, 
Kroiin.l, a„.I son.olinM.s tnrnin^r (..wards tl„. nearest mountain crosseH it to 
n.M.tlH.r HH.rass. If l.ani presse,! -.y (h. 1,„„,,,., (,,|,„ „ow and fl.en follow 
up the ehaso for fonr or liv,. days) (l.e anin.al ase,.n.ls to tl.c loftiest peaks 
oi tl.e mountains for frreatrr security, and the pursuit beeon.es very 
lut.urumfr n,„l uncertain. Upon (...(> occasion two men followed Hoveral 
CanI)ou for a whole week, when, <.onipletely tired out they ^ravc no the 
chase, which was then continued by two (.(her hunters wiio at' last succeeded 
in killin- a coupl(> of the animals at lonjr nhot. Sometimes, however, fresh 
tracks uro found and the Cuiilmu is surprised whilst lying down or 
browsinnr, nnd shot on the spot. Whe.i the snow is not deep and the laken 
are covered with ice only, the animal if closely pushed makes for one of 
tluMu and runs over the ice so fast that it is unable to stop if struck with 
ahirm at any object presentiufr itself in front, and it then suddenly s.,uat,s 
down on its haunches and slides aloajr i„ that ludicrous position until, the 
impetus b(Mn.r exlnuisted, it rises ajrain and nmkes ofl" in some other direction. 
When the Caril)ou takes to the; ice the hunters always pive up the chase. * 
Sometimes when the mouth and throat of a fresh killed lleindeer are 
examined they are found to bo filled with a blacki.sh looking mucus, resem- 
bling thin n.ud. but which appears to l)e only a r^rtion of the partially 
decomposed black mosses upon which it fed, pronably forced into the 
throat and mouth of the animal in its dying agonies. 

We w(>re informed that two wood-chopi)crs, whilst felling trees at a 
distance from any settlement, saw a Caribou fawn approaching them which 
was so gentle that it allowed them to catch it, and one of the men took it 
up in his arms ; but suddenly the dam also made her appearance, and the 
men dropping the young one made after her in hopes of killing her with 
their ,.xes. This object was of course soon abandoned, as a few bounds 
took the animal out of sight, and to their mortification thcv found that the 
fawn had escaped also during their short absence, and although thcv made 
diligent search for it, could not again be seen. At times, even the full 
grown Caribou appears to take but little heed of man.— A person descend- 
ing a steep woody hill on a road towards a lake, saw several of them, 
which only turned aside far enough to let him pass, after which thev came 
back to the road and proceeded at a slow pace up the hill. At another 
place a lad driving a cart was surprised to see five of these animals come 
into the road just before him, making a great noise through the woods. 
AS soon as they got into the road they walked along quite leisurely, ai.d 
on his cracking l.-is whip only trotted a few naces and then resumed their 




waiKing. 



I 



Ilfl 



CARinoir OR AMERICAN RKINDKKR. 



.m 



When ovortakon by ,i.,«H in chaso, tho ('„ril.on stnnd ut Imv r.uI show 
fight, and when tlum l.rouKht to a H.a.ul will „<,t ,,.,;>. ,„ud. aftcntiou to tl.« 
hunter, ho that ho can approach and shoot them with ease 

Durinu: our .'xpcdilions in I.abrador wo saw many trails of Itcindcer 
through the d.-cp a.ul .s.ilV moss; tl.cy are al.out as hroad as a ..owpu.l. 
and many tunes the fatiKues of a long .lays hunt over the sterile wilds of' 
that country wcro lightened by following in these tracks or paths, iustead 
of walking on the yielding moss. 

Wo did not see any of these anhnals ourselves, hut bought one from 
the Jndmns and enjoyed it very nuuh, as we had had no fresh meat for 
nearly three n.onths, except fl«hy ducks, a low curlews, and some willow- 
grouse. 

We wore informed that t;he Caribou are sometin.es abundant on tho 
.sland ol Newfoundland, to vhich they cross on the i,-e from the n.ainlan.l 
and as the hshermen and French trappers at St. George's JJav told us' 
.o«,etnnes the herds stay so late in tho spring that by the occasicmal ea..y 
breaking up of tho ice, they are prevented from leaving the island. 

Ihe horns of the Caribou run into various shapes, an.l are more or les8 
pa mated. The female of this species has also horns, which are not dropped 
until near the month of May. No two individuals of this species have the 
horns alike, nor do tho horns of any grow into the same number of prong, 
or resemble those of the last season. Notwithstanding this endless variety' 
there ,s always a specific clmracter in the horns of tliis species (as well a.' 
HI all our other deer), which will enable the close observer at once to 
recognise them. 

" In the month of July," says Dr. Richardson, " the Caribou sheds its 
winter covering, and acquires a short, smooth coat of hair, of a colour 
composed of clove brown, mingled with deep reddish and yellowish-brown^ 
the under surface of the neck, tho belly, and the inner sides of the extremi- 
.es, remaining white in all seasons. The hair at first is fine and flexible 
but as It lengthens it increases gradually in diameter at its roots, becoming 
at the same time white, soft, compiossible, and brittle, like the hair of the 
moose deer. In the course of the winter tho thickness of the hairs at their 
roots becomes so great that they are exceedingly close, and no longer lie 
down smoothly, but stand erect, and they are then so soft and tender below 
that the flexible coloured points are easily rubbed ofl", and the fur appears * 
white, especially on the flanks. This occurs in a smaller degree on the 
back ; and on the under parts, the hair, although it acquires length, remains 
more flexible and slender at its roots, and is consequently not so subject to 
break. Towards the spring, when the Deer are tormented by the larva) of 
the gad-fly making their way through the skin, they rub themselves again'^r 



CAltlltOU OR AMKRICAN RKINDKKR. 



II 



Ktoncs nnd rocks until all tho colourod top- f Mu, hair arc worn off, and 
(heir fur appears t(i b<' c-fiiH;- of a HO-' \^ ■•'our." 

" The flos..n..,s« of fhc lu.ir of tlio ( am- . ,o lijrhtno.H of itfl Hkin 

who.. prop..rl.v .ln>ss.Ml, .•.•...Im- it ?;.o ; u.^. -,p. .riato nrticio for winter 
clotl.i..jr in Ih,. l.iol, latit.,,l..s. Tl..« sV ,..' .!.« yonnj. iVor mal •> (],« hoA 
dresses, and tl.oy nliould ho killod for that purpose in tho ...on .■ ofin^Mi^t 
or Sopt.>n.l.or, as after tho latter date tho hair I.e. .Hi.es too lonjraut' iM.ulo. 
The prime parts of ei-ht or ten Deei-.-kins ...ake a eo.nploto suit of 
ciothiuf,' for a giowii poi-.son, which is so i..ipervi„„M to the eold that, with 
tho addition of a blanket of tho same ...ateriul, any one m clothed muy 
bivouack on the snow with safety, and oven with 'comfort, In the moJt 
i.iteiirto eold of an Arctic wi. iter's nifrlit." 

The same author ^ives the folh.win- habits of the variety he called 
" Arctica :" "The 15arrci.-jn.„u.,(l Cai^ihou, which resort to the coast of the 
Arctic sea in summer, reti.e in winter to the woods Ivi.ijr between tho 
sixty-third and the sixty-sixth decrree of latitude, where' they feed on the 
usnva, alirtorice, and other lichens, which han- from the trees, and on ti.o 
Ion- fi;rass of the swamps. About the end of April, when the pailial 
melting of the snow has softened the cetrarm, cor. cu!a^!a>^ on-i cevomyas, 
which clothe the barren grounds like a carpet, tlfey make short excursions 
from the woods, but return to them when tho weather is frosty. In M ,y 
the females proceed towards the sea-coast, and towa.-ds the e'nd ofJun'e 
the males are in full march in the same direction. At tliat period lie 
power of the. sun has dried up the lichens on the barren grounds, and the 
Caribou frequent the moist pastures which cover the bottoms of the narrow 
valleys on the coasts and islands of the Arctic sea, wlere they graze on 
the sprouting caricos and on i!.:o withered grass or hav of the preeedino- 
year, which is at that period still standing, and retaining part of its sap" 
Their spring journey is performed partly on the snow, and partly after tho 
snow has disappeared, on the ice covering the rivers and lakes which 
have .11 general a northerly 'Erection. 8oon after their arrival on tho 
coast tlK) females drop their -ng ; they conimeiico t'. ,r return to the 
south in September, and reach ...e vicinity of the woo.'- towards the end 
of October, where they are joined by the males. This journey takes p.aco 
alter the snow has fallen, and they scrape it away with their feet to procure 
the lichens, which are then tender and pulpy, being preserved moist and 
unfrozen by the heat still remaining in the earth. Except in the ruttin-r 
season, the bulk of the males and females live separately : the former 
retire deeper into the woods in winter, whilst herds of the pregnant does 
stay on the skirts of the barren grounds, and proceed to the coast very 
early m spring. Captain Paukv saw Deer on Melville peninsula as late 




n 




te' 







118 



CARIBOU OR AMERICAN REINDEER. 



! ! 



US the 23d of .soi,te>ul,er, and the females, with their fawi.n, made their f.r.l 
appearance on the 22d of April. The n.ales in general do not go .0 
north as the females. On the eoast of Hud.son's Bay the liarron-ground 
Canbou nngrate farther south than those on the Coppermine or Mackenzie 
in CIS , but none of them go to the southward of Churchill " 

The Caribou becomes very fat at times, and is then an excellent article 
ot food. As some particulars connected with its edible qualities are rather 
singular, we subjoin them from the same author: "When in condition 
there is a layer of fat deposited on the back and rump of the males to the 
deptii of two or three inches or more, immediately under the skin, which is 
ormed depouUle by the Canadian voyagers, and as an article of Indian 
trade. It is often of more value than all the remainder of the carcass. The 
depomlle is thickest at the commencement of the rutting season • it then 
becomes of a red colour, and acquires a high flavour, and soon afterwards 
d^appears. The females at that period are lean, but in the course of Ihe 
winter they acquire a small d^pouilli, which is exhausted soon after they 
drop their young. The flesh of the Caribou is very tender, and its flavour 
when in season is, in my opinion, superior to that of the finest Eno-li.h 
venison but when the animal is lean it is very insipid, the difference bdng 
greater between well fed and lean Caribou than any one can conceive who 
has not had an opportunity of judging. The lean meat fills the stomach 
but never satishes the appetite, and scarcely serves to recruit the stren<.th 
w en exhausted by labour." " The Chepewyans, the Copper Indians, the 
I)og-R.bs and Hare Indians of Great Bear Lake, would be totallv unable 
to inhal>.t their barren lands were it not for the immense herds of this 
I)«er tnat exist there. Of the Caribou horns they form their fish-spears 
and hooks ; and previous to the introduction of European iron, iee-chisels 
and various other utensils were likewise made of them." "The hunter 
breaks the leg-bones of a recently slaughtered Deer, and while the marrow 
IS stilj warm devours it with much relish. The kidnevs and part of the 
lutest.ncs, particularly the thin folds of the third stomach or manvplie< 
are likewise occasionally eaten when raw, and the summits of the antlers' 
as long as they are soft, are also delicacies in a raw state. The colon or 
large gut is inverted, so as to preserve its fatty appendages, and is, when 
ether roasted or boiled, one of tlie richest and most savourv morsels the 
country airords, either to the native or white resident. Tlie;emainder of 
the intestines after being cleaned, are hung in the smoke for a few days 
and then broiled. The stomach and its contents, torn.ed bv the Esquimaux 
ncrrooks, and by the Greenlanders nerroknk or n.rriookak, are also eaten 
and ^ would appear that the lichens and other vegetable matters on which 
the Caribou feeds are more easily digested by the human stomach wheu 



CARIBOU OR AMERICAN REINDEER. ,^f^ 

they have been mixed with the salivary and gastric juices of a r«nunatin« 

.mxtme after has nndergone a degree of fermentation, or lain to season 
as they term it, for a few days. The blood, if mixed in proper propor-' 

.on w.th a strong decoction of fat meat, forms, after some ni ety'^he 
cooking^ a nch soup, which is very palatable and highly nutritious but 
very difficult of digestion. When all the soft parts of the an ."' al 
consumed the bones are pounded small, and a large quantity of Z w 
extracted from them by boiling. This is used in making the better kL 
of the mixture of dried meat and fat, which is named /.««.! 
also preserved by the young men and females for anointing the hair an 

V leThalf 1 T '" ';T ^""'°"^- '''' ^«"^- roasted,'vhen fre h o 
hen half dried, is a delicious morsel. When it is necessary to preserve 
he Caribou meat for use at a future period, it is cut into thrslfcesTiu 
dried over the smoke of a slow fire, and then pounded betwixt two to" 
Ihis pounded meat is very dry and husky if eaten alone, but when ^ 
quantity of the back-fat or depouile of the Deer is added to it is on o be 
greatest treats that can be oflered to a resident in the fur countriW 

The Caribou travel in herds, varying in number from eight or ton to 
two or three hundred, and their daily excursions are generalb-^towards tie 
quarter from whence the wind blows. The Indians kill them with 
bow and arrow or gun, take them in snares, or spear them in cro^^in, 
rivers or lakes. The Esquimaux also take them in traps ingei ou2 
formed of ice or snow. Of all the Deer of North America they a e t l.e 
nios easy of approach, and are slaughtered in the greatest nunLrs A 

'w weS: ' 1 '' ''" ""^"'"^^^ '^'''^y *^" - *h- """^-1 i" 

alone " " ""'"^ '"" ''''' "' '^"^' ''' '^' '^^' '' ^^eir tongues 

(^aptain Lvox's private journal contains some accounts of this species- 
Ihe Reindeer visits the polar regions at the latter end of Mav or the 
early part of June, and remains until late in September. On hi f 
arrival ho is tluu and his flesh is tasteless, but the short summer is suffioie 
to fatten him to two or three inches on the naunches. When feedin."n 
the level ground, an Esquimaux makes no attempt to approach him but 

■ould a few rocks be near, the wary hunter feels secure of his pre" 
I oluud one of these he cautiously creeps, and having laid himse f Z' 
close, with his bow and arrow before him, imitates the bellow of tl D er 
when calling to each other. Sometimes, for n-m-e complete deception he 

...> or wears his Deer-skin coat and hood so drawn Lr his h ad as t 
-cml in a great measure, the unsuspecting animals he is enticin. 
Ihough the bellow proves a considerable attraction, yet if a man ha. "at* 



I 



A 



120 



CARIBOU OR AMERICAN REINDEER. 



patience he may do without it, and may bo equally certain that his prey 
will ultimately come to examine him, the reindeer being an inquisitive 
animal, and at the same time 80 silly tiiat if he sees any suspicious object 
which is not actually chasing him, he will gradually and after many caper 
ings, and forming repeated circles, approach nearer and nearer to it. The 
Esquimaux rarely shoot until the creature is within twelve paces, and 1 
have frequently boon told of their being killed at a much shorter distance. 
It is to be observed that the hunters never appear openly, but employ 
stratagem for their purpose ; .thus, by patience and ingenuity, rendering 
their rudely formed bows and still worse arrows, as eflective as the rifles 
of Europeans. When two men hunt in company they sometimes purposely 
show themselves to the Deer, and when his attention' is fully engaged, walk 
slowly away from him, one before the other. The Deer follows, and when 
the hunters arrive near a stone, the foremost drops behind it and prepares 
his bow, while his companion continues walking steadily forward. This 
latter the Deer still follows unsuspectingly, and thus passes near the con- 
cealed man, who takes a deliberate aim and kills the animal. When the 
Deer asseml)le in herds there are particular passes which they invariably 
take, and on being driven to them are killed with arrows by the men, while 
the women m^Ui shouts drive them to the water. Here they swim with 
the ease and activity of water-dogs ; the people in kayaks chasing and 
easily spearing them ; the carcases float, and the hunter then presses for- 
ward and kills as many as he finds in his track. No springes or traps are 
used in the capture of these animals, as is practised to the southward, in 
consequence of the total absence of standing Mood." 

As presenting a striking illustration of the degree of cold prevailing in 
the Arctic regions, we may here mention that Dr. Richahdson describes a 
trap constructed by the Esquimaux to the southward of Chesterfield inlet, 
l)uilt of " compact snow." " The sides of the trap are Imilt of slabs of that 
substance, cut as if for a snow house ; an inclined plane of snow leads to 
the entrance of the pit, which is about five feet deep, and of suflicient 
dimensions to contain two or three large Deer. The pit is covered with a 
large thin slnl) of snow, which the animal is enticed to tread upon by a 
quantity of the lichiMis on which it feeds being placed conspicuously on an 
eminence beyond the opening. 1'lie exterior of the traj) is banked up with 
snow so as to resemble a natural hillock, and care is taken to render it so 
steep on all sides but one, tliat the Deer must pass over the mouth of the 
trap before it can reach the biiit. The slab is sufficiently strong to bear 
the weight of a Deer until it has passed its middle, when it revolves on two 
short axles of wood, precipitates the Deer into the trap, and returns to 'Ma 
place again in consequence of the lower end Ijeing heavier than the other. 



CARIBOU OR AMERICAN REINDEER. j^ 

Throughout the whole line of eoast frequented by the Esquimaux it i. 
customary to s.e long lines of stones seTon end or of tuZZlT 
^ntervals of about twenty yards, for the purpose of lead Ig t e'cal^o'u t 
stat,ons where they can be more easily approached. The nativesfind b! 
experience that the animals in feeding imperceptibly take the 1 ne of dLc 
t,on of the objects a.us placed before them, and the hunter can appro! a 
herd tha he sees from a distance, by gradually erawling from stone to 

T2::ur7::\ ^^^^^^ -yof thelimals toLg 

oward h,m. The whole of the barren grounds are intersected by Caribou 
paths, he sheep-tracks, which are of service to travellers at^me^ „ 
leading them to convenient crossing places of lakes or rivers." • 

. The followmg account of a method of "impounding" Deer, resorted to 
by the Chopewyan Indians, is from Hearne • 

"When the Indians design to impound Deer, they look out for one of 

the paths „. wh.h a number of them have trod, and which is ob rved t 

be tm frequen ed by them. When these paths cross a lake, a wid rTver 

or a barren plam^they are found to be much the best for the purposl Ind 

f the path run through a cluster of woods, capable of affordfng It^ials 

stationV P^""''.'?^^^ --^^-^'^ to the commodious'roT h 
^ tuat,on. The pound is built by making a strong fence with brushy trees 
without observing any degree of regularity, and the work is conWd To 
any extent, according to the pleasure of the builders. I hav se n Ln^^ 
ha were not less than a mile round, and am informed that there a"e 
other« s 111 more extensive. The door or entrance of the pound s Zl 
larger than a common gate, and the inside is so crowded witt n 
counte.hedges as very much to resemble a niaze. in le^ pt^^^ Xc 

ey sot a snare, made with thongs of parchment Deer-LL well wtted 
together, which are amazingly strono- One enH nf ih. 
.ade fast .„ a growing po,^ Lt ift o„e of alilt ^ Il'lT''^ 
noar the place where .ho snare is set, a loose pole is sAs itTJ , 
rtich is a,wa,s of ™„h si.e and length thrtlr* ' ^ Tf^ 
ofore ,. gets entangled among the other woods, which are all uft 
standing, except what is found necessary for making he fcce 1 1 ic 
The poand betng thus prepared, . row of small br'ash-wood 1 ttkl fri 

:o:tr„:rd:io::\:"„pi:ir-itr- - r- "'^^^ 

VOL. in, — 10 - ' ■" 










CARJIIOU OR AMKRICAN REINDEKR. 




not IcsH than two or throe miles, while the Dccr'a path is exactly along tlie 
middle, between the two rows of brushwood. Indians eniplovod on this 
r>crv.ce always pitch their tents on or near to an eminence that aflords a 
con.nmudin.r prospect of the path leading to the pound, and when they see 
any Deer going that way, men, women, and children walk along the'liike 
or river side under cover of the woods, till they get behin.I them, then step 
forth to open view, and proceed towards the pound in lorin of a crescent. 
Tiie poor timorous Deer, finding themselves pursued, and at the same time 
taking the two rows of brushy ].„les to be two ranks of people stationed, to 
prevent their passing on either side, run straight forward in the path till 
they get into the pound. The Indians then close in, and block up the 
entrance with some brushy trees that have been cut down and lie at hand 
for that purpose. The Deer being thus enclosed, the women find children 
walk round the pound to prevent them from jumping ovw or breaking 
through the fence, while the men arc employed spearing such as are 
entangled in the snares, and shooting with bows and arrows those which 
remain loose in the pound. This method of hunting, if it deserve the 
name, is sometimes so successful that many families subsist by it without 
having occasion to move their tents above once or twice during the course 
of a whole winter ; and when the spring advances, both the Doer and the 
Indians draw out to the eastward on the ground which is entirely barren, 
or at least which is called so in tiiese parts, as it neither produces trees nor 
shrubs of any kind, so that moss and some little grass is all the herbage 
which is to be found on it." 

With the following extract from the Fauna Boreali Americana, our 
readers may perhaps be amused: "The Dog-rib Indians have a mode of 
killing these animals, which, though simple, is very successful. It was 
thus described by Mr. Wentzkl, who resided long amongst that people : 
The hunters go in pairs, the foremost man carrying in one hand the horns 
and part of the skin of the head of a Deer, and in the other a small bundle 
of twigs, against which he, from time to time, rubs the liorns, imitating the 
gestures peculiar to the aninuil. His comrade follows, treading exactly in 
his footsteps, and holding the guns of both in a horizontal position, so that 
the muzzles project under the arms of him who carries the lu^ad. IJoth 
hunters have a iillet of white skin round their foreheads, and the foremost 
has a strip of the same around his wrists. They approach the herd by 
degrees, raising their legs very slowly but setting them down somewhat 
suddenly after the manner of a Deer, and always taking care to lift their 
right or left feet simultaneously. If any of the herd leave off fooiling to 
gaze upon this extraordinary phenomenon it instantly stops, and the head 
begins to play its part by licking its shoulders and performing other 



CARIBOU OR amj:rican reindeer. ,.,.j 

nocessary movemcntB. In this way the hunters attain the very centre of 
ho herd without exciting suspicion, and have leisure to single out the 
fattest, rhe h.ndmost man then pushes forward his comrade's gun the 
head ,H dropt, and they both fire nearly at the same instant. The beer 
scamper ofl, the hunters trot after them ; in a short time the poor animals 
halt to ascertain the cause of their terror, their foes stop at the same 
moment, and having loaded as they ran, greet the gazers with a second 
fatal discharge. Ihe consternation of the Deer increases; they run to 
and fro ,n the utmost confusion, and sometimes a great part of the herd is 
destroyed within the space of a few hundred yards." 

We do not exactly comprehend how the acute sense of smell peculiar to 
the Reindeer should be useless in such cases, and should think the Deer 
could only be approached by keeping to the leeward of them, and that it 
would be a very difficult matter, even with the ingenious disguise adopted 
by the Dog-llibs," to get into the centre of a herd and leisurely sin-^le 
out the fattest. " 

Dr. RicuAUDsoN considers the variety he calls the woodland Caribou 
as much larger than the other, and says it has smaller horns, and is even 
when in good condition vastly inferior as an article of food. " The proper 
country of this Deer." he continues, " is a stripe of low primitive rocks, 
well clothed with wood, about one hundred miles wide, and extending at 
the distance of eighty or a hundred miles from the shores of Hudson's Bav 
from Athapescow Lake to Lake Superior. Contrary to the practice of the' 
barren-ground Caribou, the woodland variety travels to the southward in 
the spring. They cross the Nelson and Severn rivers in immense herds in 
the month of May, pass the summer on the low marshy shores of James' 
Bay and return to the northward, and at the same time retire more inland 
HI the month of September." 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTIOxV. 

This species exists in Xowfoundlund and Labrador, extends westward 
across the American continent, and is mentioned both by Pennant and 
LANGsnoHFF as inhabiting the Fox or Aleutian Islands. 

It is not found so far to the southward on the Pacific as on the Atlantic 
coast, and is not found on the Rocky Mountains, within the limits of the 
United States. According to Pennant tiiere arc no Roindoer on the 
islands that he between Asia and America. It is somewhat difficult to 
assign Innits to the range of the Caribou : it is found, however, in some 
one or other of its supposed varieties, in every ,.art of Arctic America, 
including the region from Hudson's Ray to far within the Arctic circle 






ii 



134 



CARIBOU OR AMERICAN REINDKPJR. 



GENERAL REMAKKS. 

The American Caribou or Reindeer has by most authors been, regarded 

a, d the Asiatic polar regions. The arguments in favour of this suppo- 
sition are very plausible, and the varieties which the species exhibits in 

an almost infinite diversity of lorm, that they differ not only in different 
speciniens, but that the horns on each side of the head of the same anima 
oft n differ from each other, afford still stronger grounds for the supposi- 
tion : notwithstanding all this, supposing that they are only varieties they 
have become such permanently in our continent, and require separate 
descriptions, and as they must be known by particular names we have 
supposed wo might venture on designating the American Reindeer as a 
distinct species, admitting at the same time that the subject requires closer 
comparisons than we have been able to institute, and further investigation. 
We believe that several naturalists have bestowed new names on the 
American animal, but we are not aware that any one has described it or 
pointed out those peculiarities which would separate the species. Amon^r 
the rest, we were informed that our esteemed friend Professor Agassiz had 
designated it as Tarandus furcifer, and believing that he had described it 
we adopted his name on our plate ; subsequently, however, we were 
informed that he had merely proposed for it the name of Cervus hastatus. 
He did not, however, describe it, and as the common name under which it 
has been known for ages past in America will be most easily understood 
and can by no possibility lead to any misapprehension as regards the' 
species, wo have named it Rangifer Caribou, and respectfully request our 
subscribers to alter the name on the plate accordingly. 



J-/) 



URSUS AMERICANUS—Pallas. 
(Var. Cinnamomum.— Aud. and Bach.) 

CiNNAMO.V BeAH. 

P L A T E C X X V 1 1 .— Male and Fkmai* 

U. Magnitudine fomaqne U. Ainericani ; supra saturate cinnamoineus, 
naso et pilis ungues vestlciitibus flavis. 

CHARACTERS. 

Form and size of the common American hhck hear, of wu'ch it is a perma- 
nent variety. Colour, above dark cijinaTnm broum ; nose and a fringe of hairs 
covering the claws, yellow. 



BYNONYME. 



Cinnamon Bear of the fur traders. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Form and size of the American Black Bear {Ursus Jim^ricanu^). Hair, 
softer and more dense than that of the Black Bear, and under fur finer and 
longer. 

COLOUB, 

Nose, ochreous yellow ; there is an angular yellow spot above each eye ; 
margins of ears, and a narrow band of hairs around all the feet, concealing 
the claws, ochreous yellow ; there is a line of brownish-yellow from the 
shoulder down and along the froi)t leg ; sides and hips, dark yellow ; a 
line around the cheeks from the ear downwards, and a spot and streak 
between the ears, a little darker yellow ; other parts of the body, cinnamon 
brown. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of nose to root of tail, • 

Height at shoulder, - 

Length of tail, ••••>... 



att. 


bohN 


6 


8 


8 


1 




1ft 




A 



126 



CINNAMoiN BEAR. 



^i^::z.^:'^::::^:zT'^-'''''---^^^--^- 



HABITS. 

nouo have considered these Bea,.*i„s as\e „„,' ." ^ ZZ^^Z 

"r,r :-:■ i?;*i,r i™- '-■ -^ ^ ^■■'- ,x.: 

Boa., .as ai.-a, .:., ',"1^ v^ r-i-eT;: :re,r .''Lf "" 

andH *''r™' f"""" '"""'"*'■' k""-" to tn,,,pe,, a„d fu,- uade,-. 
and ,1. sk,„ ,s mueh ,„ore valuable than that of the Black Bear wL i 
seen in Ho warehouse of Messrs P CBmT„,„ t„ ,^ ? ^V« hare 

p .uanent variety and having longer and finer hair tha t.e o „ L." 

^^^::t;^i::jz:''~^^ " ^^ cousidered".!:: 



CINNAMON Uh'All 



127 



appioach the Kocky Mouutaiu chain, and it i. apparent ',• quite a northern 

Of the habits of this variety we have no aceounts, but we may suppose 
hat they do not diifcr in any ensential particulars from those of the Black 
near, which wo shall shortly describe. 

Our iigurcs were made from living specimens in the gardens of the 
Zoo io.„.a Society of London, whicl, manifoste.l all the restlessness usually 
exlnbitcd by this genus when in a state of captivity. 

We are inclined to consider Sir John Ric.iardson's "Barren-ground 
Bear a variety of the common black Boar,-perhaps our present animal • 
bu no having seen any specimen of his Ursus .Qrdos ? Jlmerkanus, we do 
not feel jnsfhed in expressing n.orc than an opinion on this subject, which 
mdeed is founded on the description of the colour of the Barren-ground 
Bear^as given by Richardson himself (see Fauna Borcali Americana, pp. 

OEOORAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Sparingly found in the fur countries west and north of the Missouri 
' xtending to the barren grounds of the northwest. 



:»i 



jsgmmmia 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

We have given a figure of this permanent variety of Bear, not because 
ue felt disposed o elevate ,t into a species, but because it is a variety so 
frequently found in the collections of skins made by our fur companies 
and winch is so often noticed by travellers in the northwest, that error 
nnght be made by future naturalists were we to omit mentioning it and 
placing 1 where it should be. Whilst we are not disposed to ffgure an 
occasiona variety in any species, and have throughout our work r.-thor 
declined doing this, yet we conceive that figures of the permanent varie- 
t.o» may be useful to future observers in order to awaken inquiry and 
onabh3 them to decide whether they are true species or mere'varfett:. 
Wc have done this in the ease of some species of squirrel, the otter, and 
the woives, as well as this variety of Bear. The yellow Bear of Carolina 
no doubt belongs to this variety, and probably the brown Barren-ground 
Bear of Richardson may be referred to the same bpecies. as all Bears 
yarj very greatly in size. 








\- ! 




ll'8 



OENUS CAPKA.-LiifN. 

DKNTAI. FoiMI'l.*. 

Incmve \ ; Canim „-_," : Molar „^" = 32. 

Horns common to both soxc, or rarely wanting in the female • in 
don.c.st.cated races occasionally a..ent in ..oth:'thoy ar dire;t d 
upwards and curved b.-.ckward.s, and are more or 1 J angular No 
"."z.e no lachrymal sinus, nor ungu.nal pores; eyes, light eol'oured 
pui. eU>ngatc ; tail short, «at, and naked at base'; thro'at, bided ' 

. "™:z; ::::-r^ -^ ---- — ^ - or 

There are six well deternuned speeies-one inhaoiting the Alps one in 
Abyssnua and Upp.r E.ypt, one in the Caucasian n.ou^^tains on i^the 

^onrr ■ ^"^ ^" "^ "'-•-' - -- - - «-^ M0-- 

The generic name Capra is derived from the Latin capra, a goat. 



CAPRA AMERICANA-Blainvi.le. 

KocKv Mountain Goat. 
PLATE CXX VIII. -Male and Fema,.k. 
C. Magnitudine ovem arietem ada>quans, corpore robusto, cornibus 
parvus acutis lente recurvis, pilis albis, cornibus ungulisque uigris. 

CHARACTERS. 

,Ii^n "^'^'fr!^ y ' /-- »/ ^ody, robust ; horns, snudl and pointed 
thghtly curved backwards. Colour of hair, totaUy whUe. 

BTNONYMES, 

Ov„ Mo»„„,. 0«,, J.„r. AcJ. N. M. PM., vol. i., p^t J'^"' "l^^- ,,„ 




^ 



m 







\\ 



V 



\^^ 



\ 



v 






\\ 



I i 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT. 



129 



Manama Serioea. Raffinesque Smaltz, Am. Monthly Mag. 1817, p. 44. 
Rocky Mountain Sheep. Jameson, Wernerian Trans., vol. iii. p. 806. 
Capea Montana. Harlan, Fauna Americana, p. 253. 
" " Godraan, l-tat. Hist., vol. ii. p. 326. 

Antelope Lanigera. Smith, Linnaean Trans., vol. xiii. p. 38, t. 4. 
Capba Americana. Rich., F. B. A., p. 268, plate 22. 



Ann. 1821. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Form of the body and neck, robust, like that of the common Goat ; nose, 
nearly straight ; ears, pointed, lined with long hair ; the horns incline 
slightly backwards, tapering gradually and not suddenly, uncinated like 
those of the chamois, transversely wrinkled with slight rings for nearly 
half their length from the base, and sharp pointed ; towards the tip they 
are smoth and polished. Tail shpf t, and though clothed with long hair, 
almost concealed by the hairs which cover the rump ; legs, thick and short ; 
secondary hoofs, flat, grooved on the soles, and resembling those of the 
common Goat. 

The coat is composed of two kinds of hair, the outer and longer 
considerably straighter than the wool of the sheep, but softer than that of the 
common Goat ; this long hair is abundant on the shoulders, back, neck, 
and thighs ; on the chin there is a thick tuft forming a beard like that of 
the latter animal ; under the long hairs of the body there is a close coat 
of fine white silky wool, quite equal to that of the Cashmere Goat in 
fineness. 

COLOUR. 

Horns, and hoofs, black ; the whole body, white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 

tail, • 

head, - 
" horns, - 
Diameter of horns at base, 



Fmt. lachM. 

3 4 

1 

11 

6 

1 



HABITS. 

Standing " at gaze," ou a table-rock projecting high above the valley 
beyond, and with a lofty ridge of stony and precipitous mountains in the 
background, we have placed one of our ligures of the Rocky Mountain 
VOL. III. — 17 







130 



ROCKV MOUNTAIN UOAT. 



Goat ; and lying down, a little removed from the edge of the cliff, we 
have represented another. 

In the vast ranges of wild and desolate heights, alternating with deep 
valleys and tremendous gorges, well named the Rocky mountains, over 
and through which the adventurous trapper makes his way in pursuit of 
the rich fur of the beaver or the hide of the bison, there are scenes which 
the soul must be dull indeed not to admire. In these majestic solitudes 
all is on a scale to awaken the subliniest emotions and fill the heart with 
a consciousness of the infinite Being " whose temple is all space, whoso 
altar earth, sea, skies." 

Nothing indeed can compare with the sensations induced by a view from 
gome lofty peak of these great mountains, for there the imagination may 
wander unfettered, may go back without a check through ages of time to 
the period when an Almighty power upheaved the gigantic masses which 
lie on all sides far beneath and around the beholder, and find no spot ui)0u 
which to arrest the eye as a place where once dwelt man ! No — we only 
know the Indian as a wanderer, and we cannot say here stood the strong 
fortress, the busy city, or even the humble cot. Nature has here been undis- 
turbed and unsubdued, and our eyes may wander all over the scene to the 
most distant faint blue line on the horizon which encircles us, and forget 
alike the noisy clamour of toiling cities and the sweet and smiling quiex 
of the well cultivated fields, Avhere man has made a " home" and dwelleth 
in peace. But in these regions we may find the savage grizzly bear, the 
huge bison, the elegant and fleet antelope, the large-horned sheep of the 
mountains, and the agile fearless climber of the steeps — the Rocky Moun- 
tain Goat. 

This snow-white and beautiful animal appears to have been first 
described, from skins shown to Lewis and Clauk, as " the Sheep," in their 
general description of the beasts, birds, and plants found by the party in 
tlicir expedition. They say, "The Sheep is found in many places, but 
mostly in the timbered parts of the Rocky Mountains. They live in 
greater numbers on the cliain of mountains forming the commencement of 
the woody country on the coast, and passing the Columbia between the 
falls and the rapids. We have only seen the skins of these animals, which 
the natives dress with the wool, and the blankets which they manufacture 
from the wool. The animal from tliis evidence appears to be of the size 
of our common sheep, of a white colour. The wool is fine on many parts 
of tlie body, but in length not c<iual to that of our domestic sheep. On 
the back, and particularly on the top of the head^ this is intermixed with a 
considerable portion of long straight hairs. From the Indian account 
these animals have erect pointed horns." 



( 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT. 



131 



Ihe Rocky Mountain Goat wanders over the most precipitous rocks 
and springs with great activity from crag to crag, feeding on the plants' 
grasses, and mosses of the mountain sides, and seWom or never descends 
to the uxuriant valleys, as the Big-IIorn does. This Goat indeed resembles 
the wild Goat of Europe, or the chamois, in its habits, and is very difficult 
to procure. Now and then the hunter may observe one browsing on the 
extreme verge of some perpendicular rock almost directly above him far 
beyond gun-shot, and entirely out of harm's way. At another time, Jfter 
lat.guing and hazardous efforts, the hungry marksman may reach a spot 
from whence his rifle will send a ball into the unsuspecting Goat; then 
slowly he rises from his hands and knees, on which he has been creeping 
and the muzzle of his heavy gun is " rested " on a loose stone, behind which 
he has kept his movements from being observed, and now he pulls the fatal 
trigger with deadly aim. The loud sharp crack of the rifle has hardly 
rung back in his ear from the surrounding cliffs when he sees the Goat in 
Its expiring struggles reach the verge of the dizzy height : a moment of 
suspense and it rolls over, and swiftly falls, striking perchance here and 
there a projecting point, and with the clatter of thousands of small stones 
set in motion by its rapid passage down the steep slopes which incline 
outward near the base of the cliff, disa4)pears, enveloped in a cloud of 
dust,in the deep ravine beneath ; where a day's journey would hardly brin<r 
an active man to it, for far around must he go to accomplish a safe descent" 
and toilsome and dangerous must be his progress up the gorge within 
whose dark recesses his game is likely to become the food of the ever 
prowling wolf or the solitary raven. Indeed cases have been mentioned 
to us >u which these Goats, when shot, fell on to a jutting ledge, and there 
lay l.fty or a hundred feet below the hunter, in full view, but inaccessible 
Irom any point whatever. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, as portions of the mountains are not 
so precipitous, the Rocky Mountain Goat is shot and procured tolerably 
easily. It ,s said, by some of the Indian tribes, who make various articles 
of clothing out of its skin, and use its soft woolly hair for their rude 
labrics. 

According to Sir John Richardson, this animal has been known to the 
members of the Northwest and Hudson „ Bay Companies from the first esta^ 
blishment of tlioir trading posts on the banks of the Columbia River and in 
New Caledonia, and they have sent several specimens to Europe. The wool 
being examined by a competent judge, under the instructions of the Wer- 
nerian Society of Edinburgh, was reported to be of great fineness and fully 
an inch and a half long. "It is unlike the fleece of the common sheep, 
which contains a variety of diflerent kinds of wool suitable to ihn (nb-icn. 






!32 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT. 



tion of articles very dissimilar in their nature, and requires much care to 
distribute them in their proper order. The fleece under consideration is 
wholly fane. That on the fore part of the skin has all the apparent quali- 
ties of wool. On the back part it very much resembles cotton. The 
whole fleece is much mixed with hairs, and on those parts where the hairs 
are long and pendant, there is almost no wool." 

" Mr. Drummond saw no Goats on the eastern declivity of the mountains 
near the sources of the Elk river, where the sheep are numerous, but he 
learned from the Indians that they frequent the steepest precipices, and 
are much more difiicult to procure than the sheep. Their manners are 
said to greatly resemble those of the domestic Goat. The oxact limits of 
the range of this animal have not been ascertained, but it probably extends 
from the fortieth to the sixty-fourth or sixty-fifth degree of latitude. It is 
common on the elevated part of the Rocky Mountain range that gives 
origin to four great tributaries to as many difi-erent seas, viz. the Macken- 
zie, the Columbia, the Nelson, and the Missouri rivers."— F. B. A., p. 2G9 
The flesh of this species is hard and dry, and is not so much relished Is 
that of the Big-Horn, the Elk, &c., by the hunters or travellers who have 
journeyed towards the Pacific across the wild ranges of mountains 
inhabited by these animals. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The Rocky Mountain Goat inhabits the most elevated portions of the 
mountains from which it derives its name, where it dwells between the 
fortieth and sixtieth or sixty-fourth degree of north latitude. It is also 
found on the head waters of the Mackenzie, Columbia, and Missouri rivers. 
Mr. Mackenzie informs us that the country near the sources of the Muddy 
river (Maria's river of Lewis and Clark), Saskatchewan, and Athabasca, 
IS inhabited by these animals, but they are said to be scarcer on the eastern 
slopes of the Rocky Mountains than on the western. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

It is believed by some naturalists that Fathers Piccolo and De S4Lva- 
TiERRA discovered this animal on the higher mountains of California 
Vancouver brought home a mutilated skin which he obtained on the 
northwest coast of America. Lewis and Clark (as we have already men- 
tioned) obtained skins in 1804. 

In 1816 M. De Blainville published the first scientific account of it 
Mr. Ord in 1817 described one of the skins brought home by Lewis and 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT. 



133 



Clark, and Major Charles Hamilton Smith described a spec-nen in 
1821, in the Linna?an Transactions for that year. 

The resemblance of the animal to some of the antelopes, the chamois, the 
Goat, and the sheep, caused It to be placed by those authors under several 
genera. De Blainville first made it an antelope, then named it Ruin- 
capra-a. subgenus of antelope to which the chamois belongs. Ord 
arranged it in the genus Ovis. Smith called it ^ntilope lanigera. 
Besides these, Raffinesque named it Mazajna sericea. Dr. Harlan and 
Richardson were each correct, as we think, in placing it in the genus 
Capra (Goat). As in the Goat, the facial line in this species is nearly 
straight, while in the sheep and antelopes it is more or less arched. The 
sheep and the antelope are beardless, and the Goat is characterized by its 
beard, a conspicuous ornament in the present animal, which is moreover, 
in tlie form of its nose, the strength and proportion of the limbs, and the 
peculiarities of the hoofs, allied closer to the Goats than to any other 
neighbouring genus. 



134 



ARVI(M)LA IU)U KAMS.— Ri ,i. 

NoHTIIIlHN MkM)(I\V MoISK. 

1'1'ATK ('\ MX. M.uK ,,,„| K,,mai.i,;h. 

A. im.uiit' |M>lli.'ari roluislo pr.Tdidis, iiiiri.Milis vdlcrn abscond it is, camln 
nii.itis r,-n< loii.iritudiiio, v(>lln<> ionfiissiina moUi, d.T.so caHluiuH) iiifrro 
niixlo, voiido caim. 

nTAiiArTKiia. 

7y/»/Hi/) „ai/, sfroufr; carx, nmcmlal in t/,r fur ; (ail, about as Ion ^r as (he 
head : fur, vay lonfr and Jinr ; on thv hack, snut colour mixed with black ; 
on the Mly, prat^. 

BYNONYMES. 

M.u'SK No. 15. Korstor. Pliilos. Trims., vol. Ixii. p. ;180. 

Ahvicoia liouKAiiH. h'i.'Ii,, Zool. .lour.. No. I'Z, April. 18'J8, p. r,l1. 

NoiniiKHN Mkauow-Mouhk. \<\ U. A., p. \'2l. 
AuviNNAK. Dojr-Kil) Indiana. 



PKSCHII'TIOX. 



This spocios is a liKlo lo.^s (lian Wilson's Moaii.nv-Afouso (.7. Pcnns,/lra- 
nica). H lias tlio forni and diMililion of lli,> oil,,.,- spo.'irs of Arvicoia<. 
Head, radior larsro ; lorda'ad, convox : no.^o, sl.orl, and a liltlo pointed; 
rv.'s. snnill: oars, low, nnmdod, and coiuvalod l.y tlu< surroundini,' fur ;' 
limbs, rathor robnst, .dotl.od witii short hairs. lai.xod on Iho (o.-s and l.in.l 
imrts ,>r tho foiv f.vt with h^n-.-r hairs. Hind toos, .non> shMwltM-, and 
Foamdy lon-or tlian llu« loiv onos : fo.r rlaws. snnill, nnu!. (>on.pivss.«.l. 
luvl.o.l, and arnto, with a narrow olliplinil oxcavalion nndt-rncafh : tho 
hair,^ of tho loos roaoh to tho points of tho naiN, bnt oovor thoni rathor 
Fporinirly ; tho olaws of tho hind foot rosoniblo thoso of the foro fo.'t. bnt, 
nro not so stron.ir ; llu> tiuinib of tho foro foot consists of a s-nall sipiarish 
nail sli-htly oonvox on both sidos. and having an oblnso point projootinLr 
from tho middle of its oxtromity ; tho tail is ronnd, woll olothod with short 
PtitV hairs rnnninjr to a point, which do not permit the scales to bo visible. 
There are considerable variations in the lenirth of the tail, it being in ouo 
Bpecinien a third longer than in others. The lur ou tho body is "long in 
proportion to the size of tlie animal. 



NORTIII'JkN MKADOW-AIOUSl-: 



135 



fOI.OlJR. 

Frairo,. tlH, npp..,- parts l.Iac.ki.h-,..ay from t,h. rootH to U.o tipn. «o,no 

'""■'' """"■ ."'•' """ *'" "'" """"•• l""'. -i - the chin 1. ,1 
.. .- . l..a -,..,. a.., ,,,.., ,.ai..s a.. .UurUn- tl.a,. o,. the buc ...' i, 

2.-;U.oveanU,n.,i.U...an,;,.ai..^ 



DIMKNHIONH. 

l-'OiiKth of head aii,i body, - 

- tail, - - . . . 
hOAli], 

IT«M"Klif. of (-ar, ..... 
Hrcadtii of car, ■ - . . * 
Lonjril, of f<„,, (•,.,,(, to c„tl of niiddio claw 
Jlitid fcot, iiicliidiiig hcoi and daw, - 
Fur on the bacit, 

IIAniTS. 



InctioN. 

4 
1 
1 



6 

8 
4 
3 
44 

7i 
10 



MaicH mat iIh i a hits arc vorv « iiilin.. <„ <i r ^ 

^^^^^^^^^ iv.cola, (at p. 18 oi tl.o present volume), to whiol. wc refer our 

Tl.. northern ArvicoIu> do not appear to bocon.e dormant from the effect 
ow i, ; r'lf '"' "•"^' ^-*- -inter di, galleries under the 1;, 

« ' / < "^ "''" •'""''■'^^ *° ''^''^' f"'- «'<^'>^. grasses or roc2 

suited to he r wants Wo 1h.,.<. , * • i ■ ^'<i«ht>s, or roots 

lK.dies of scverni n "^''^'•"^"'^J *'y an examination of tho 

iMMiKs 01 several, more sou Iiern species of ArrinnLn , .... 

1 1.. ,-,,Sll, „( ,|„. f„, „„ „,„ ,,„„,, „,. j,,„ »> 

.m n>d,) ,» »,„cw|,„t rcma,kablo for ,„ .,„a|l .„ aaiLl. °' 

GE0(3BA1'HICAF. DISTRIBUTION. 

vicbitv of1"T '"'f " """""^ '^^ ^^^'^^ ^^-^ J-ke, living in tho 
v^cuutv of Jln.coia .ant,,o^natha. Wo have not been able to ascertaiu the 



].')(> 



NOIITIIKKN MKAIMAV-MOIJ.SI-; 



('x)(>ii(. of ffs niii^r,, (owiinls tlio houIIi or wo.st. Wo tli.l iKtt tliscovtM- (his 
MciidowMdiisi" or lionr (tC it on our <'x|MMlilion to (lit^ Vciiow Hiono and 
llppor Missouri rivcrw, nor Iuih it boon loiuid, no fur an wo know, any whom 
•wont of tlio llocky MonntainH. 



.! l:i i ! 



OKNKUAl, UKMAUKH. 

"Tho I'onn of (lio tluinib-niiii ullics lliis animal vory cIoHoly to tlm 
Norway Irniniiiiu-, and lo oiu« or (wo Hpocics of American Icmmin^r, Init its 
cImws arc .snuillcr and more comitn-sscd, and a|.|iiircntiy not ho well nilcu 
laliMl Cor srriipinir <'nr(li as (he broader daws of tin; lommings."— /''«»«« 
Jioini/i .IniirioiiKi, p. \'27. 

Tims Car we a^rn-.- with Dr. Riciiakpson ; lio, howovor, thinks that this 
spci-ifs may be considered an inlermedin(e link betw<'en (he lemming's and 
(lie Meadow -Mice, and may widiout imjtropriely bo ranked either as a trun 
Aleadow-Monse or as a lemmini;. 

AC(er a careful examinadon of (he orij!;imU specimens, sonio years n^O; 
we set i( down as a (rue .Irvicnln. possessinjj; nioro of tho charactoristicH of 
that gtMius (han of (he j^cuus (uviychus. 



I t 



i;;7 



OKNIJH DII'ODOMYH.— Obat. 

DKNIAI, FOIlMi;i,A. 

Inciifivi! I ; Canijie ^ ; Molar J^ = 20. 

Tho inciHorB aro of modomto loiiKth, rutlior w(!uk, narrow, comprcHHod 
"ri.l curved ii.wanls. I., |,1,„ upper jaw tJ.(, firHt throo rnolarH aro lar^oHt,' 
<!"• I.MMlh a liKl., Hinall.-r ; i.. (In- Iow.t jaw tho molars aro aliko. TliJ 
riioiars liavt! roiiiidcd outliiiji; cd^'OH. 

NoHo and hoad, of mudcmU) hI/.o ; HacH or jwucIioh ojH'ninf? on tho chcckH 
Lack of tho month ; foro foot, rather short, furniHhod with four tooH and the 
nidiuKM.t of a tlinml,, (^.vc-rc.l l.y a blunt nail ; hind logH very lon^r, tormi- 
nalcMl by f„ur tocH on (-a.-h foot; toes, oaoh with a .liHtinct mctatarnuH ; 
tail, vory lon^ ; mammxe, four— two abdon.inal and two pectoral. 

liabitH, HCini-nocturnal ; food, Hcodn, rootH, and graHHcsH. 

Tl.oro is only ono spocioH boloufrinK to this gcuiuH known. 'J'ho generic 
name is derived from durovg, dipous, two footed, and y-vg, mus, a mouse. 



DIPODOMYS PIIILLIPPSII._Gray. 

PouoiiKD Jerboa Mousk. 

PLATE CX XX. —Malm. 

P. Magnitudino propo Tamia) I.yfltcri et formfi DiiK)dum ; caudS 
oorporo ot capito conjunctnm multo longioro ; sacculis buccalibus extcrniH 
apcrtis ; colore, supra fulvo, infra albo. 

CHAUACTEKS. 

jyearly the size of tlie common ground squirrel (Tamias Lystori) ; shaped 
hke the jerboas; taU, much hnger tfiun the body; cheek pouches, crpening 
extvnudly ; colour, light brown above, white beneath. 



8YN0NYKE. 



DiPODOMVH rniLLn-pflii. Gray, Ann. and Mug. Nat. Hist, vol 
VOL. iir. — is 



vii. p. 621. 1840. 






•>, '?-, 



138 



I'OUCIlEl) JKIUIOA MOUSE. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Body, ratlicr stout ; hcail, of moderate size ; nose, modrrate, althoiiifli 
the skull cxliiljitH tlio proboscis (Ntcudcd live or six liiu he md tiie 
insertion of tlie incisors. 

The whiskers (which proceed from tlie nose iinniedintely nliove <he upjHr 
edge of the orifices of the poucln "i are nuiiicnius, ri^id, and ion!, r tiuin 
the head ; ears, of nioderati! size, ovalf, and very tiiinly clothed v iih shoit 
hairs ; the feet arc tliickly clothed with sin I hairs to the nail.-, whicli an; 
free; .short hairs also jirevai! ou ihe sole- iuul between the toes; for" feet, 
rather stout, but short : they have each lour toes and the rudiment of a 
thunili, the latter covered by a conspicuous nail ; nails, short, slender, :nid 
curved ; second toe from tiie timmb longest, first and third iicarly "f coMii! 
length, and I'uurth shortest. 

ilind legs, very long ; the hind feft have each four toes, the two ndddio 
ones nearly of equal length, the lirsi i little shorter, and the fourth, placed 
behind like a thumb, much the -hortest ; na '-, nearly straight, sharp 
pointed, and grnoved ou the under surfa. > tail, lather stout— in the dried 
ppccimcn it is round at base and much compressed, showing th ita 
greatest diann tor is veincal ; it is thickly clothed with short hairs for two 
thirds of its ext nt, when the hair^ -nidually increase in length till they 
ai){)roach the extremity, at which they arc so long as to present the 
appearance of a tuft-liki> bi iish. The fur is very soft ami silky, like that 
of the flying-squirrel ; the hairs of the tail ar(- coarser. There are two 
abdominal and two pectoral nmmmaj. 

In the upp-r jaw the incisor.- ,ire raiher small and weak ; all the molars 
have simple crowns, which are more el vatcd on tii ■ interior tli:ni on the 
exterior edges ; the anterior molar is nearly round, and almost of the sanio 
size as the two next molars, which are somewhat oval and are placed w h 
their longest di. meter transversely to the jaw; the fourth molar is i • 
smallest and is nearly round. 

In the lower jaw the thiic anterior molars are nearly of equal size, and 
are almost alike in shape; the fourth corresponding with the last molar 
on the upper jaw ; there is a liti depression in the centre of the crowns 
of the molars, and a slight ridge around 1' outer edges. 



COLOUR. 



Head, ears, back, and a stripe on th- thigh from the root of the tail, 
light brown, the hairs on the back being plumbeous at the roots, then 
yellow .slightly tipped with black, ^\■hiskcrs, black, with a few white 



h 



u.. 



PoucHKr) jKunoA mouse. 



139 



bmtly ha.rH u.tor.por.cd ; uppor and lower surfaces of tail, an,i a lino on 
ho .mder sHlc ol the .,vm., dark l.rown ; sides, and tip of the tail, white ; 
checks, wh.to; there i. a white ...ipe on the hips; the le,- and nnder 
Hurlaeo arc wluto, as also a stripe fron. the shoulder to the car. ThiH 
wh.te . our likowi.so extends hi-^h up on the flanks, where it gradually 
mingles with the brown of the back ; nails, brownish. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Male.— .lociinen in the British Museum. 

Length of head and body, - . . . 

tail, 

" hind feet, 

Female.-Procured by J. W. Audubon in California. 

Tnchqa. 



Inch e I. 

6 
6 
1 



Point of nose to root of tail. 
Tail, including hair, - 
Tarsus to end of longest nail, 
Ear, inside, from auditory opening, 
Longest hair of whiskers, - 

HABITS. 



4 
7 

1 



Lima 

6 
6 



Llnnt 

6 



6 

7 
4 



Ihe prctly colours and the liveliness of this little kangaroo-like animal, 
together with its fine eyes and its simplicity in venturing near man, of 
whom It does not seem afraid, -..ould no doubt n,ake it a favourite pet in 
connnoment. It is able to exist in very arid and aln.ost barren situations, 
where there is scarcely a blade of anything green except the gigantic and 
fantastic cacti that grow in .o,. -a and various other parts of Western 
Mex.co and California. As Joiix W. Audubon and his partv travelled 
lu-ough these countries the Dipodomys PhUllppdi was sometimes almost 
trample on by the mule., and was so tame ihat they could have caught 
the am- by the hand without difliculty. 

Thi.^ spo.ies hop al^out, kangaroo fashion, and jump pretty far at a leap. 
When the men encamped towards evening, they sometimes came smellin- 
and moving about the legs of the mules, as if old friends. One was 
observed bv J. W. AuDUBON just before sunset ; its beautiful large eyes 
Bceaud as if they n.ight be dimmed by i\ bright rays which fell upon 
them as it emerged from a hole under a large boulder, but it frisked gaily 
Jibou t. and several times approachec^ him so nearly, as he sat on a stone, 
timt he could have seized it with his hands without any trouble, and without 
'■^mglrom Lis hard seat. 



m 






110 



POlIcnED JERBOA MOUSR. 



After a wliilo, as tho party had to take up the line of inarch aj.'ain, lie 
with some difficulty frightened it. when with a bound or two it reached its 
hole and disapj.eared underneath tho larg( ^tcn^. but almost iniincdiatoly 
came out again ; and so groat was its cunc.-u iUH as the party left tho 
spot it aecmcd half inclined to follow then- 

These animals appear to prefer tho 8idc-< ..i-Ht^ny ills which afford thorn 
secure places to hide in, and they can ei ily r v«>y their food in thoir 
cheek-pouches to their nests. 

The young when half grown exhibit the markings of the adults to a 
great extent. This species is crepuscular if not nocturnal, and was gene- 
rally seen towards dusk, and occasionally in such barren deserts that it 
was difficult to imagine what it could get to feed on. A dead one was 
picked up one day while the party wore traversing a portion of tho great 
Colorado desert, where notliing could grow but clumps of cacti of different 
species, and not a drop of water could be found. Tho only living 
creatures appeared to be lizards of several kinds, and one or two snakes": 
the party felt surprised as they toiled on over tho sun-baked clay, and still 
harder gravel, to find the little animal in such a locality. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Dr. J. L. Le Conte found this species on the river Gila, and farther 
south, where he procured several specimens. 

J. W. Audubon saw the Dipodomys Phillippsii in crossing the Cordil- 
leras, in Sonora on the Gila, in the Tulare valley, and in various other 
parts of California. Its southern limits are undetermined, but it seems 
not to exist north of Ca'ifornia. 



general remarks. 

Mr. Gray described this species, in the Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, vol. vii. p. 521 ; he considered it the American representative of 
the African Jerboas, although, as he remarks, it differs from them in being 
provided with cheek pouches opening externally. 

Our drawing was made from a beautiful specimen in the British Museum, 
which was the first one brought under the notice of naturalists, and the 
original of Mr. Gray's description of this singular animal ; it was pro- 
cured near Real del Monte, in Mexico. 



I 



141 



URSUS FEROX—Lkwis and Clark, 

Oiti/ZLY ]!ear. 

PLATE CXXXI.— Malkb. 

M. Magnitudino U. Ainorioanutn longe Huperans, plantis ct, unguibuH 
longionbus, auricnlis brcvioribus quani in isto ; pilis saturate fuscii?. i>pice 



griseis. 



CHARACTEHS. 



Larger than the .flmerkan Black Bear; safes of/vet, and daws, lonprr and 
cars shorter than in the Black Bear. Cobur of the hair, dark hroum, with 
paler tips. 



8YN0NYMES. 

GnizzLB Beau. Umfreville, Iliulson's ]?.iy, p. 108. Ann. 1790. 

GuisLv Bbar. Mackenzie's Voyage, p. 100. Ann. 1^01. 

White, or Bkown-orev Bear. Gass' Journal of Lewis "and Clark's Expedition, pp. 

45, 110, 340. Ann. 1808. 
Grizzly, Brown, White, and Va.ueqaied Beak-Uusis Fkuox. Lewis and Ci.ark 
Expedition, vol. i. pp. 284, 293, 343, 375 ; vol. iii. pp. 25, 208. Ann 1814 ' 
Ursus Ferox. Do Witt Clinton, Trans, riiilos. and Lit. Society New York, vol i 

p. 50. Ann. 1815. 
Grizzly Bear. Warden's United State.s, vol. i. p. i()7. Ann. 1810. 
GuEY Bear. Harmon's Journal, p. 417. Ann. 1820. 
Ursus CiNEREus. DesHi. Manim. No. 253. Ann. 1820. 
" IIoRRiuiLis. Ord, Gutl.-rie's Geography, vol. ii. p. 299. 

^"y- Long's Exjjedition, vol. ii. p. 244, note 34. \nn 18"" 
" Candescens. Hamilto-i Smith, G.iflith An. Kingdom, vol. ii. p -90 • 7o'i v 
No. 320. Ann. 1820. ' " * 

" CiNEREus. Harlan, Fauna, p. 48. 
Grizzly Bear. Godrnan's Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 131. 
Ursus Ferox. Rich., Fauna Boreal! Americana, p. 24. plate 1 



T»ESCRn'TION. 

The Grizzly Bear in form resembles the Norwegian v, -iety of Ursui 
Arcto,, the Brown Bear of Europe ; the facial line is reci-liu.ar or sli-htly 
arched ; head, short and round ; nose, bare ; ears, rather small, and more 







IV2 



tiRIZZLV REAR. 



hairy IliaTi IIiohp of the BInck I?oar ; legs, stout ; l.ody, large, but less fat 
and li(>avy in i)r()ii()rtion, Uiau that of the Black Boar. 

Tail, short; ])aws and nails, very long, tlio Iatl(>r oxtcnding from three 
to five inches li(>yond the liair on the toes ; they are conipreiised and 
channelled. Hair, long and abundant, particularly about the head and 
neck, the longest hairs being in sunnner about tiiree inches, and in av inter 
five or six inciies long. The jaws are stron,--, and the teeth very large. 

The fore feet somewhat resend)]e tiie human hand, and are soft to the 
touch ; thej have larger claws than the hind feet. The animal treads on 
the whole palm and entire heel. 



COLOUU. 

The Cirizzly Bear varies greatly in colour, so much* so, indeed, that it is 
dinicult to find two specimens alike: liie young are in general blacker 
than llie old ones. The hair however is commonly dark brown at the roota 
and for about three fourths of its lengtii, tiien gradually fades into reddish- 
brown, and is broadly tipped with white intermixed with irregular patches 
of black or dull-browi;, tluis presenting a luiary or griz/ly appearance on 
the surface, from which the vulgar specitle name is derived. 

A specimen jirocured by us presents tlu! following colouring : Nose, to 
near the eyes, light brown ; legs, forehead, and ears, black. An irregularly 
mixed dark grayish-brown prevails on the body, excejit on the neck, shoul- 
ders, upiier jmrtion of fore-legs, and sides adjoining the shoulders, which 
parts are barred or marked with light yellowish-gray, and the hairs in 
places tipped with yellowish or dingy white. Iris, dark brown. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Male, killed by J. J, Audubon and pai-ty on the Missouri river, in 
1843 — not full grown. 

From point of nose to root of tail, 

Tail (vertebra'), 

" (including hair), 

From point of nose to ear, - - . . 

Width of ear, 

Length of eye, ...... 

Height at shoulder, 

" rump, 

Length of palm of fore foot, 

Breadth of do., 



Feet. 


llirlioB 


6 







8 




4 


1 


4 




3J 




1 


3 


6 


4 


7 




8 




6 



GllIZZLV BEAR. 

Length of sole of hind foot, - - . . 
iiraiuhh of do., - . . . 
Girth around the body, Ijohind the shoulders 
Width botwecn the cars on the skull, - 

HABITS. 



143 



Fut. 



InchBiu 

5i 

1 

7J 



We have passed many hours of exoite.nent, and some perchance of 
•langor, in the wilder portions of our countrv • nnrl nf , !'«' <^'»ance, of 

nrUn.,t„w.. , ' """" 3 > and at tifflcs inemorv rccaK 

ad entures we can now hardly atten.pt to <le.scrihe ; nor can we eve'r Jni 
eel the enthusiasm such scones produced in us. Our readers n tt 

1 "cxpect(cl face-to-iace mc,.t.njr with the savaj^e Grizzly Bear- tin l„.n. 

s .a,,y monsler disputing possession of the wilderness 4i Jal « 

and threatening immediate attack ! ^ 

Whilst in a neighbourhood where the Grizzly Bear may possibly bo 

idd.. ^o..ited nerves will cause the heart's'pulsationsy ^.S. ^ 

.ut a sta led ground-s-iuirrel run past; the sharp dick of the lock is 

.card, and the r.fle hastily thrown to the shoulder, before a second of timo 

has assured the hunter of the trilling cause of his emotion. ' 

s foitunatey pot very abuiMlant to the eastward of the Rocky Mouu- 
tains, and the chance of encountering him does not often occur. We w 
onb^aiewof t esetbrmidable beasts during our expedition up the m.Z 
jnei^aml in the country over which we hunted during ou^ last Journey 

TlK Indians, as is well known, consider the slaughter of a Grizzly Bear 
a cat second only to scalping an enemy, ami necklaces made of the cLws of 
this beast are worn as trophies by even the bravest among them. 

On he 2.'d of August, mn, we killed one of these Sears and as our 

H>urnals are before us, and thinking it may be of interest, we wi , o ra 

tlic account ol the day's proceedings, although part of it h s no el e ion 

with our pr^ent subject We were descending the Upper MissouW h!^ 

Ih weather being hue we left our eamp of the previous night earlv 

but had inade only about Iwdve miles when the wind arose and prevented 

zr:n:rT' ^-^ "^^*'^"^ '■''' ^"^^ --^ - theref.,;:^ 

mci a h gh bank amongst a number of fallen trees and some drifted 
.."ber. All hands went in search of elks. Mr. Cituikuthov kil d » 
doer, and w,t the help of Mr. ..u.u.s brought the meat to the boa W 
saw no lung during a long walk we took, but hearing three or fo 'r Jn 
shots which we thought were tired by some of our pLty. we has Id t 






144 



GRIZZLY BEAR. 



the direction from wlicnco the reports came, running and hallooing, but 
could iind no one. "We then made the best of our way Iiuck to the boat 
and dciipatchod three men, wiio discovered that the firing had been oi an 
elk, which was however not obtained. Mr. Bell killed a female elk and 
brought a portion of its flesh to the boat. After resting ourselves a while 
and eating dinner, ^fr. CuLBEnxsoN, Squires, and ourselves walked to the 
banks of the Little ilissouri, distant about one mile, where we saw a 
bull'ido bull drinking at the edge of a sand-bar. We shot him, and fording 
the stream, which was quite shallow, took away the 'nerf;' the animal 
was (juite dead. We saw many ducks in this river. In the course of the 
afternoon we started in our boat, and rowed about half a mile below the 
Little Missouri. Mr. Culhedtson and ourselves walked to the body of 
the bull again and knocked o!l" his horns, after which Mr. Culbertson 
endeavoured to penetrate a large thicket in hopes of starting a Grizzly 
Bear, but found it so entangled with liriars and vines that he was obliged 
to desist, ami returned very soon. Mr. Harris, who had gone in the same 
direction and for the same purpose, did not return with him. As we were 
ai)proachiiig the boat we met :^^r. Sprague, who informed us that he 
thought he liad seen a Grizzly Bear walking along the upper bank of the 
river, and we went towards the spot as fast as possible. ]\Ieantimo 
the Bear had gone down to the water, and was clumsily and slowly 
pi'oceeding <* its way. It was only a few paces from and below us, and 
was seen by (mr whole party at the same instant. We all fired, and the 
animal drojiped dead without even the })owcr of uttering a groan. Mr. 
Cllukktson jiut a riHe ball through its neck, Bei.l placed two large balls 
in its side, and our bufl'let entered its belly. After shooting the Bear we 
proceeded to a village o^ -prairie dogs' {Spirmophilus Ludoviciamts), and 
set trajjs in lio]»es of cat/^iinir *onie of them. We were inclined to think 
thoy had all left, but Mr. Bell seeing two, shot them. There were thou- 
sands of their burrows in sight. Our ' patroon,' assisted by one of the 
men, skinned the Bear, which weighed, as wo thought, about four hundred 
pounds. It appeared to be between four and five years old, and was a 
male. Its lard was rendered, and filled sundry bottles with 'real Bear's 
grease,' whilst we had the skin preserved by our accomplishcti f,axi(i<'riiiist, 
Mr. Hell." 

TJie ibllowing afternoon, as we werf de.^-f'nding the i*treani, we saw 
another Grizzly Bear, somewhat smaller than the one mcnlioni'd above. 
It was Hwimniing towaids the carcase of a dead buffalo lodge*! tu the 
prongs of a "sawyer" or "snag," but on seeing us if raiwd on H« teinwl 
foci until quite erect, uttered a loud grunt or snort, > t»[v ;i i«.ap ii»m 
t!ie water, gaiia'd the ujipcr bank of tiie ii\er, and Ui-appeart-d in on 






GRIZZLY BEAR. 



145 



instant amid the tangled briars and bushes thereabouts. Many solves of 
diflerent colours-black, white, red, or brindle-werc also intent on going 
to the buftalo to gorge themselves on the carrion, but took fright at our 
approach and we saw them sneaking away with their tails pretty close to 
their hind-legs. 

The Gmzly Bear generally inhabits the swampy, well covered portions 
of the districts where it is found, keeping a good deal among the trees and 
bushes, and in these retreats it has its " beds" or lairs. Some of these wo 
passed by, and our sensations were the reverse of pleasant whilst in such 
hick, tangled, and dangerous neighbourhoods ; the Bear in his concealment 
having decidedly the advantage in case one should come upon him una- 
wares. Ihese animals ramble abroad both by day and night. In many 
places we found their great trucks along the banks of the rivers where 
thoy had been prowling in search of food. There are seasons durin-r tiie 
latter part of summer, when the wild fruits that are eagerly sought "after 
by tlie Bears are very abundant. These beasts then feed upon them, tear- 
ing down the branches as far as they can reach whilst standin- in an 
upright posture. Thoy in this manner get at wild plums, service berries 
buffalo berries, and the seeds of a species of conius or dog-wood which 
grows in tlie alluvial bottoms of the northwest. The Grizzly Bear is also 
111 the habit of scratching the gravelly earth on the sides of hills where the 
vegetable called " ponuue blanche" is known to grow, but the favourito 
lood of these animals is the more savoury flesh of such oeasts as are less 
powerful, fleet, or cunning tha. themselves. They Lave been known to 
seize a wounded bufl\,lo, kill it, and partially bury it in the earth for futujo 
use, alter having gorged themselves on the best parts of its flesh and lapped 
np the warm blood. 

We have heard many adventures related, which occurred to hunters 

either when surprised by these Bears, or when approaching them with 

the intention of shooting them. A few of these accounts, which we believe 

are true, we will introduce : During a voyage (on board one of the 

steamers belonging to the American Fur Companv) up the Missouri river 

a large she-Bear with two young was observed from the deck, and several 

gentlemen proposed to go ashore, kill the dam, and secure her cubs. A 

small boat wi.s lowered for their accommodation, and with guns and 

ammunition they pushed off to the bank and landed in the mud The old 

Bear had observed them and removed her position to some distance, where 

she stood near the bank, which was ther« several feet above the bed of the 

river. One of the hunters having nearod the animal, fired at her, inflictin-. 

a severe wound. Enrage.l with paiu the Boar rushed with open jaws 

towards the sportsmeu at a rapid rate, and with looks that assured them she 

vol.. Ill— iy 



I 



. i J;^i.^iiiiik 



l^iSU^J- 



m 



146 



GRIZZLY BEAK. 



i I 



was in a desperate fury. There was hut a moment's time ; the party, too 
much frightened to stand the charge, " ingloriously turned and fled," with- 
out even pulling another trigger, and darting to the margin of the river 
jumped into tlie stream, losing their guns, and floundering and bobbing 
under, while their hats floated away with the nmtldy current. After swim- 
ming a while they were picked up by the steamer, as terrified as if the 
Bear was even then among them, though the animal on seeing them all 
afloat had made ofl', followed by her young. 

The following was related to us by one of the " ':'nga,!ics" at Fort Union 
A fellow having killed an Indian woman, was forced to run away, and 
fearing he would be captured, sta,rted so suddenly that he took neither gun 
nor other weapon with him ; he made his way to the Crow Indians, some 
three hundred miles up the Yellow Stone river, where he arrived in a 
miserable plight, having sulTercd from hunger and exposure. He escaped 
the men who were iirst sent after him, by keeping in ravines and hiding 
closely ; but others were despatched, who finally caught him. lie said that 
one day he saw a dead bulTalo lying near the river bank, and going towards 
it to get some of the meat, to his utter astonishment and horror a young 
Grizzly Bear which was feeding on the carcass, raised up from behind it 
and so suddenly attacked him that l:is face and hands Avere lacerated by 
its Claws before he had time to think of defending himself. Not daunted, 
however, he gave the cub a tremendous jerk, which threw it down, and 
took to his heels, leaving the young savage in possession of the ])rize. 

The audacity of these Bears in approaching the neighbourhood of Fort 
Union at times was remarkable. Vhe waiter, " .Jean Battiste," who had 
been in the employ of the coini)any for upwards of twenty years, told us 
that while one day picking peas in the garden, as he advanced towai'ds the 
end of one of the rows, he saw a large Grizzly Bear gathering that excel- 
lent vegetable also. At this unexpected and startling discovery, ho 
dropped his bucket, peas and all, and fled at his fastest pace to the Fort. 
Immediately the hunters turned out on their best horses, and by riding in a 
circle, formed a line which enabled them to approach the Bear on all sides. 
They found the animal greedily feasting on the peas, and shot him without 
his api)arcntly caring for their approach. We need hardly say the bucket 
was empty. 

In Gouman's Natural History there nr-? several anecdotes connected with 
the Grizzly Bear. The first is as '.ulle-'.r^ ; A Mr. John Dougheryy, a 
very experienced and respectable huntci lielonging to Major Loxc's expe- 
dition, relates that once, while huiilinu' with another person on one ol' the 
upper tributaries of the Missouri, he heard the rejiorl of his iduipanion's 
rifle, and when he looked roiiml, bcliclil him at a siioit distance endca- 



(JRIZZLY BEAR. 



u: 



vounng to escape from one of these beasts, wliicl. lie had wounded as it wis 
coin.ns towards him. Dougherty, forgetful of every thin- but the prefer 
vation of his friend, hastened to call off the attention of the Bear and 
arrived in rifle-shot distance just in tin.e to eifcct his generous purpose 
He discharged his ball at the animal, and was obliged in his turn to fly • 
his friend, relieved from immediate danger, prepared for another attack 
by charging his rifle, with which he again wounded the Bear, and saved 
Mr. Dougherty from peril. Neither received any injury from this 
encounter, in which the Bear was at length killed. 

On another occasion, sev(,"ral hunters were chased by a Grizzly Bear 
which rapidly gained upon them. A boy of the party, who could not run' 
so fast as his companions, perceiving the Bear very near him, fell with his 
face towards the ground. The animal reared up on his hind feet, stood for 
a moment, and then bounded over him, impatient to catch the more distant 
fugitives. 

Air. Dougherty, the hunter before mentioned, relates the following 
instance of the great muscular strength of the Grizzly Bear : Havin^ 
killed a bison, and left the carcass for tlio purpose of procuring assistance 
to skin and cut it up, he was very much surprised on his return to find 
that it had been dragged oft' whole, to a considerable distance by a Grizzly 
J]car, and was then placed in a i)it which the animal had dug witli his 
claws for its reception. 

The following is taken from Sir John Richardsox's Fauna Boreali 
Americana : " A party of voyagers, who had been employed all day in 
tracking a canoe up the Saskatchewan, had seated thcmselvJs in the briuht 
light by a fire, and were busy in preparing their supper, when a large 
(irizzly Bear sprung over their canoe, that was placed behind them, and 
seizing one of the party by the shoulder, carried him off. The rest fled in 
terror, with the exception of a Metis, named Bourapo, who, grasping his 
gun, followed the Bear as it was retreating leisurely with its prey.° He 
called to his unfortunate comrade that he was afraid of hitting him if he 
fired at the Bear, but the latter entreated him to fire immediately, without 
hesitation, as the Bear was squeezing him to death On this he took a 
deliberate aim and discharged the contents of his piece into the body of the 
Bear, which instantly dropped its prey to pursue Bourapo. He escaped 
with dilficulty, and the Bear ultimately retired to a tliicket, where it was 
supposed to have died ; but the curiosity of the party not being a match for 
their fears, the fact of its decease was not ascertained. The man who was 
rescued had his arm fractured, and was otluirwise severely bitren by the 
Bear, but finally recovered. I have seen Bourapo, and can add that the 



Il« 



fJRIZZI.Y BKAR, 



!l 



account whicli lio gives is fully credited by the traders resident in that part 
of the country, who arc best qnalified to judj,^c of its truth from the know- 
ledge of the parties. I hnve been told fliat there is ii inan now living in 
the neighbourhood of Ethuonton-house who was attacked by a Crizzly 
Bear, which sprang out of a thicket, and with one stroke of its j.aw com 
pleteiy scalped him, laying bare the skull and bringing the skin of the 
forehead down over the eyes. Assistance coming up, the Ucar made oft 
without doing him further injury, but the scalp not being re])laee(l, the poor 
man has lost his sight, although he thinks that his eyes are uninjured." 

Mr. DuuMMOND, in his excursions over the Rocky Mountains, had 
frequent opportunities of observing the manners of the Grizzly Hear, and 
it often happened that in turning the i)oint of a rock or sharp angie'of a 
valley, he came suddenly upon one or more of them. On kucIi occasions 
they reared on their hind legs and made a loml noise like a person l)reath- 
ing quick, but mucli harsher. He kept his ground witiiout attempting to 
molest them, and tliey, on their part, after attentively regarding hinribr 
some time, generally wheeled round and galloped otV, though, IVom their 
disposition, there is little doubt but ho would luivc been torn in pieces had 
ho lost his presence of mind and attem})ted vo lly. When he discovered 
them from a distance, he generally frightened them away by beating on a 
large tin box, in which he carried his specimens of plants. He never saw 
more than four together, and two of these he supposes to have been cubs ; 
he more often met then, singly or in pairs, lie was only once attacked! 
and then by a female, for the purpose of allowing her cubs time to escape. 
His gun on this occasion missed lire, but he kept her at bay with the stock 
of it, until some gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, with whom ho 
was travelling at the time, came up and drove her oil'. In h-. latter end 
of Juno, 1826, he observed a male caressing a female, and mxmi afterwards 
they both came towards him, but whether accidentally, or tV.r li.c purposo 
of attacking him, he was uncertain. He ascended a tree, juid as the female 
drew near, lired at and mortally wounded her. She uttered a few loud 
screams, which threw the male into a furious rage, and he reared up 
against the trunk of the tree in which Mr. Duummond was seated, but 
never attempted to ascend it. The female, in the meantinu', retired' to a 
ehort distance, l{\y down, and as the nuile was proceeding to join her, Mr. 
Duummond shot him also. 

The young Grizzly Bears and gravid females hibernate, but the older 
males often come abroad in the winter in quest of food. Mackenzie 
mentions the den or winter retreat of a Grizzly Bear, which was ten feet 
vide, live feet high, and six feet long. 



GRF/ZI.Y riKAR. 



n<) 



ThiH Hpocios varioa vory innrh i.i colour ; wo l.avo skins in our possosHiou 
colloctcd 01. tiic Upper Missouri, Honio of wliich arc ncarlv wliifc-, whilst 
othors are as nearly of a n.fouH tint. The one (hat was'kiUed by our 
party (of whieh we have also the skin) was a dark l.rown one. 

The following is fro.n notes of J. W. Aui.ui.ox, n.a.le in California in 
184!) and liSaU : " Ilifrh np on ihe waters of th(! San Joa-piin, in California 
many of these aninuils have Ikhmi killed by the miners now overnn.nin- all 
the country west of the Sierra Nevada. (Jreatly as the Grizzly Hear is 
dreaded, it is hunted with all the more enthusiasm bv these fearless pio- 
neers in the romantic hills, vall(>ys, and wild mountains of the hmd of jrold 
as Its flesh is hi^rl,ly ,,,i,ed by men who have been liviiu^ for m(>nths on 
Bait pork or dry and tasteless deer-meat. I have seen two dollars a ponnd 
].anl for the leaf-fat around the kidneys. If (hen. is tinu>, and the animal 
IS not in a starving eon.lition, the Grizzly JJear alwavs runs at the si-ht 
oi man; but sh.mld the hunter come too sud.lenlv on him, the li<-rce bc^ast 
always commences the engaf.emeiit.-And the lirst shot of the hunter is a 
matter of much importance, as, if unsuccessful, his next move must be to 
l..ok for a sapling to climb for safety. It is rare to find a man who wo.ild 
vill.ngly come into innM-diato contact with one of these powerful and 
vindictive brutes. Some were killed near ' (Jreen Sprinirs/ on tl.e Stanis- 
laus, ,u the winter of lM4l)-50, that were ....arly eight hundred pounds 
weight. I saw many cubs at San Francisco, Sacramento city, and Stock- 
ton, and even those not larger than an ordinary sized dog, showed (.vid..nee 
ol their luture (ierceness, as it required great patience (o r.M.der them 
gentle enough to bo hamlled with impunity as pets. Jn camping at ni-.l.t 
my friend Roukut Layton, and I too, often thought what sort of defence wo 
n.uld make should an old fellow come smelling roiin.l <.ur solitary tent for 
supper ; but as ' Old Riley,' our paek-mule, was alwavs tied near, we used 
to ,,uiet ours,.lves witii the idea that while J{iley was snortintc and kh-kin- 
Ave nugit place a couple of well aimed i.alls from our old friend Miss 
Jotsey (as the boys had christened my large gun), so that our revolvers 
(nr,Ts dragoon pistols, would give us the victory ; but reallv a startlimr 
<'IUTt would be produced l,y the snout of a Grizzly IJear beini d'rust into 
yonr tent, and your awaking at the noise of the snilf he might take to 
induce his apietitc. 

" I was anxious to purchase a few of the beautiful skins of this specie^ 
Init those who had killed 'an oh^ Grizzly,' said thev would take his .sk--n 
komc. It makes a first rate bed under the thin and worn blanket of the 
digger. 

" The diiTorcnt colours of the pelage of this animal, but for the uniformity 
of Its extraordinary claws, would puzzle any one not acquainted with it^s ■ 



l."*0 



GRIZZLY BEAR. 



form, for it varies from jet black in the young of the first and second 
winter to the hoary gray of age, or of summer." 

In Townsexd's " Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Jlountains tc 
the Columbia River, &c." (Philadelphia, 183!l), we lind two adventures 
with the Grizzly Bear. The first is as follows : The party were on Black 
Foot river, a small stagnant stream Avhich runs in a northwesterly direction 
down a valley covered with quagmires tiirough which they had great ditli- 
culty in making their way. " As we approached our encampment, near a 
small grove of willows on the margin of the river, a tremendous Grizzly 
Bear rushed out upon us. Our horses ran wildly in every direction, 
Bnorting with terror, and Ijecame nearly unmanageable. Several balls 
were instantly fired into him, but they only seemed to increase his fury. 
After spending a moment in rending each wound (their invariable prac- 
tice), he selected the person who happened to be nearest, and darted after 
him, but before he proceeded far he was sure to be stopped again by a ball 
from another quarter. In this way he was driven about amongst us for 
perhaps fifteen minutes, at times so near some of the horses that he received 
several severe kicks from them. One of the pack-horses was fastened upon 
by the brute, and in the terrified animal's eflbrts to escape the dreaded 
gripe, the pack and saddle were broken to pieces and disengaged. One of 
our mules also lent him a kick in the head, while pursuing it up an adjacent 
hill, which sent him rolling to the bottom. Here he was finally brought 
to a stand. The poor animal was so completely surrounded by enemies 
that he became bewildered. He raised himself upon his hind feet, standing 
almost erect, his mouth partly open, and from his protruding tongue the 
blood fell fast in drops. "While in this position he received about six more 
balls, each of which made him reel. At last, as in complete desperation, 
he dashed into the water, and swam several yards with astonishing strength 
and agility, the guns cracking at him constantly. But he wa.s not to 
j)rocecd far. Just tlien, Riciiaudson, who hud been absent, rode up, and 
fixing his deadly aim upon him, fired a ball into the back of his head, 
which killed him instantly. The strength of four men was required to 
drag the ferocious brute from the water, and upon examining his body ho 
was found completely riddled ; there did not appear to be four inches of 
his shaggy person, from the hips upward, that had not received a ball. 
There must have been at least thirty shots made at him, and probably few 
missed him, yet such was his tenacity of life that I have no doubt he wouk 
have succeeded in crossing the river, but for the last shot in the brain. 
lie would probably weigh, at the least, six hundred pounds, and was about 
the iieight of an ordinary steer. The spread of the foot, latei-ally, was ten 
inches, and the claws measured seven inclies in length. This animal was 



GRIZZr.V BEAR. 



1;")! 



rcnmrkably loan ; when in good condition he would doubtless much exceed 
ni weight the Cf<tiniato I have given." 

At p. 08, TowNSExu .says: "In the afternoon one of our men had a 
somewhat perilous adventure with a Grizzly JJear. He saw the anin.al 
erouehing his huge frame in some willows which skirted the river and 
approaching him on horseback to within twenty yards, fired upon'him. 
1 ho Dear was only slightly wounded by the ..hot, and with a fierce growl 
of angry malignity, rushed from his cover, and gave chase. The horse 
happened to be a slow one, and for the distance of half a mile the race wa- 
lun-d contested, the Bear frequently approaching so near the terrific.! 
animal as to .snap at his heels, whilstHio equally terrified rider, who Ind 
o..t his hat at the start, u..ed whip ami spur with the most frantic dili.ronce 
rcpicntly looking behind, from an influence which he could not resist at' 
MS niuged and determined foe, and shrieking in an agony of fear, 'shoot 
um shoot him!' The man, who was one of the greenhorns, happened to 
be about a mile behind the main body, either from the indolence of his 
horse or his own carelessness ; but as he approached the party in his 
desperate flight, and his lugubrious cries reached the ears of the mc , in 
front, about a dozen of them rode to his assistance, and soon succeedcl in 
diverting the attention of his pertinacious foe. After he had received the 
contents of all the guns, he fell, and was soon desoatched. The man n ,e 
H. among his fellows, pale and haggard from ov;3rwrought fcclin..s and 
was probably effectually cured of a propensity for meddling with Gri/v.lv 



GEOGKAPniCAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The Grizzly Bear has been found as far north as about latitude Gl^ It 
IS an inhabitant of the western and northwestern portions of North 
America IS most ft-equently met with in hilly and woody districts, and 
cast of he Rocky Mountain.s) along the edges of the Upper Missouri and 
Upper Mississippi rivers, and their tributaries. On the west coast it is 
l'H..Hl rather numerously in California, generally keeping amoag the oaks 
and pme., on the acorns and cones of which it feeds with avidity. 

Ihe Grizzly Bear does not appear to have been seen in eastern Texas 
or the southern parts of New Mexico, and as far as we have heard has not 
been discovered in Lower California. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



To Lewis and Ci.auk we are indebted for the first authentic account ol 
tlH d.flerence between this species and the Black Bear of America, 



, ; 41 

I I 1. 



Ilfii 



ir>2 



GRIZZI.Y BEAR 




although the (irizzl} oar was mentioned a long time previously by La 
IIoNTAN and oti 

De Witt Cli , a i discourse 1 lore ihf \cw York Literary and 
Philosophical So( ty, was the next naturalist who clearly showed that 
tins animal was Si cificully distinct fiuui ci' '^r th'' r or the common 

Bear. 

Lewis anu Ci vkk's name, Grizzly, tran. , ^ed into Fcrox, has been 
generally adopted by naturalists to dc.«ignatc this upccies, and we have 
admitted it in our nomenclature this work. We believe that the name 
pro[)osed for it l)y OuD (/ rms h ribilis), and which SAy adopted, must, if 
Ave adhere to the rules by which naturalists should be guided in such 
matters, ultimately take the precedence. 

The dilVerence between the Grizzly Boar and the Black may bo easily 
detected. The soles of the foot of the former are longer, and the heel 
broader ; the claws arc very long, whilst in tl ^lack Bear ihey are quite 
sliort. The tail of the Grizzly Bear is shorter than that of the Black, and 
its body is larger, less clumsy and unwieldy, and its head flatter thaa the 
head of the latter. 

The Grizzly Bear makes enormous long tracks, and differs widely from 
the Black Bear in its habits, being very ferocious, and fearlessly attacking 
man. 

We think the average size and weight of this animal are much under- 
rated. We have no hesitation in stating that the largest specimens would 
weigh considerably over one thousand pounds. We have seen a skin of 
the common Black Bear, shot in the State of New York, the original 
owner of which was said to have weighed twelve hundred and odd pounds 
when killed 



153 



oANIS FAMILIARIS._LiNN. (Var. Laoopus.) 

Hare-Indian Doo. 

PLATE CXXXIL-Male. 

C Magnitudine inter lupum et vulpom fulvum intermedium, auriculis 
erectis, cauda coraosa, colore cincreo, albo uigroquo notato. 



^!^1 



CHARACTFRS. 

Intermediate in size between the wolf and red fox ; ears, erect ; taU, bushy : 
colour, gray, varied with winte and dark mavkings. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The Hare-Indian Dog resembles the wolf rather more than the fox Ita 
head ,s small, muzzle slender, ears ereet, eyes somewhat oblique,* lega 
Blender, feet broad and hairy, and its tail bushy and generally eurled over 
IS h.p. Ihc body ,s covered with long hair, particularly about tho 
shoulders At the roots of the hair, both on the body and tail, there is a 
thick wool. On the posterior parts of the cheeks the hair is long and 
directed backwards, giving the animal the appearance of having a ruff 
around the neck. b » ^ uu 



COLOUB. 

Face, muzzle, belly, and legs, cream white ; a white central line passes 
over the crown of the head to the occiput ; the anterior surface of the ear 
IS white, the posterior yellowish-gray or fawn colour; tip of nose eve- 
lashes roof of mouth, and part of the gums, black ; there is a dark patch 
over the eye, and large patches of dark blackish-gray or lead colour, on the 
body mixed with fawn colour and white, not definite in form, but running 
into each other. The tail is white beneath, and is tipped with white 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, about ■ 
.Height at shoulder, about - 
Length of tail, - - . . 
VOL. 111.-^20 



Feet. 

3 
1 
1 



Inches^ 

2 
8 



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(716) 872-4503 





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154 



IIARE-INDJAN DOG. 



HABITS. 

This animal is more domestic than many of the wolf-like Dogs of the 
plains, and seems to have been entirely subjugated by the Indians north of 
the great lakes, who use it in hunting, but not as a beast for burthen or 
draught. 

Sir John Richardson says (F. B. A., p. 79) : " The Hare-Indian Dog is 
very playful, has an aifnctionate disposition, and is soon gained by kind- 
ness. It is not, however, very docile, and dislikcL confinement of every 
kind. It is very fond of being caressed, rubs its back against the hand 
like a cat, and soon makes an acquaintance with a stranger. Like a wild 
animal it is very mindful of an injury, nor does it, like a spaniel, crouch 
under the lash ; but if it is conscious of having deserved punishment, it 
will hover round the tent of its master the whole day, without coming 
within his reach, even if ho calls it. Its howl, when hurt or afraid, is that 
of the wolf; but when it sees any unusual object it makes a singular 
attempt at barking, commencing by a kind of growl, which is not, however, 
unpleasant, and ending in a prolonged howl. Its voice is very much like 
that of the prairie wolf. 

"The larger Dogs which we bad for draught at Fort Franklin, and 
which were of 'the mongrel breed in common use at the fur posts, used to 
pursue the Hare-Indian Dogs for the purpose of devouring them ; but the 
latter far ou^btripped them in speed, and easily made their escape. A 
young puppy, which I purchased from the Hare Indians, became greatly 
attached to me, and when about seven months old ran on the snow by the 
side of my sledge for nine hundred miles, without suffering Irom fatigue. 
During this march it frequently of its own accord carried a small twig or 
one of my mittens for a mile or two ; but although very gentle in its man- 
ners it showed little aptitude in learning any of the arts which the New- 
foundland Dogs so speedily acquire, of fetching and carrying when ordered. 
This Dog was killed and eaten by an Indian, on the Saskatchewan, who 
pretended that he mistook it for a fox." 

The most extraordinai'y circumstance in this relation is the great endur- 
ance of the puppy, which certainly deserves special notice. Even the 
oldest and strongest Dogs are generally incapable of so long a journey 
as nine hundred miles (with probably but little food), without sufTering 
from fatigue. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

It is stated by Sir John Richardson that this species exists only among 



HARE-INDIAN DOG. 



155 



the different tribes of Indians that frequent the borders of Great Bear 
lake and the Mackenzie river. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

From the size of this animal it might be supposed by those who are 
desirous of tracing all the Dogs to some neighbouring wolf, hyena, jackal, 
or fox, that it had its origin either from the prairie wolf or the red fox, or 
a mixture of both. 

The fact, however, that these wolves and foxes never associate with 
each other in the same vicinity, and never have produced an intermediate 
variety, or, that we are aware of, have ever produced a hybrid in their 
wild state, and more especially the fact that the prairie wolf, as stated by 
Richardson, does not exist within hundreds of miles of the region where 
this Dog is bred, must lead us to look to some other source for its origin. 

Its habits, the manner in which it carries its tail, its colour, and its bark, 
all differ widely from those of the prairie wolf. 

We have never had an opportunity of seeing this animal and examining 
it, except in the stuffed specimen from which our drewing was made ; we 
are therefore indebted to Sir John Richardson for all the information we 
possess in regard to its habits, and have in this article given the results of 
his investigations mostly in his own language. 





• 156 



LEPUS TEXIANUS.—AuD. and Bach. 

Texan Hare — Vulgo Jackass Rabbit. 

PLATE CXXXIII.— Male. 

L. Magnitudine, L, Californiciim excedens, auriculis masimis, capite 
tertia parte longioribus, linea fusca supra in collo, striS nigrd a natibua 
usque ad Cauda? apiccm producta, corpore supra luteo nigroque vario, 
Bubter, collo rufo gula atque ventre albis. 



CHARACTERS. 

Larger than the CaMfomian Hare ; ears, very large — more than me third 
longer than the head ; a dark broivn stripe on the top of the neck, and a black 
stnpe from the rump, extending to the root of the tail and along its upper 
surface to the tip. Upper surface of body, mottled deep buff and black, throat 
and belly white, under side of neck dull rufous. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Crown of the head, depressed or flattened, forming an obtuse angle with 
the forehead and nose ; ears, of immense size, being larger than in any 
other species of Hare known to us. Body, full, and rather stout ; fore- 
legs, of moderate length and size ; thighs, stout and large ; tarsus, of 
moderate length ; nails, strong, deeply channelled beneath. 

COLOUH. 

Hairs on the upper surface of body, white from the roots for two thirds 
of their length, then brown, then dull buff, and tipped very narrowly with 
black. On the belly, throat, and insides of legs, the hairs are white from 
the roots to the tips. 

One of our specimens has a black patch on the inner surface of the ear 
near its base ; another has a brown patch in that place ; anterior margin 
of the ears, buff ; posterior portion of the ear for an inch and a half from 
the tip, whitish ; a narrow line of dark brown runs from between the cara 
for an inch ah)ng the back of the neck ; the anterior outer half of the eai-, 
and the posterior inner half of the ear, are clothed with a mixture of parti- 




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TEXAN HARE. 



15? 



coloured gray aud yellowish hairs ; the posterior outside half of the ear ia 
white, with the exception of the extreme point, which in one of our speci- 
mens has a slight margin of brown at the tip of the ear, while another 
Bpecimcn is more deeply tinged with brown tor three fourths of its length. 

Around the eye there is o. light ycUowish-gray ring ; under surface of 
i>eok, rufous, faintly spotted or marked with brown ; tail, black above, the 
Bame colour continuing on the rump and dorsal line in a stripe for about 
four inches from the root of the tail ; eyes, orange hazel ; nails, brown. 
The line of white on the belly and flanks is irregular in shape where it 
joins the dark colours of the upper surface, and in this respect differs from 
Lepus callotis, in which species the white extends higher up the sides and 
is continued in a tolerably straight line nearly to the tail. 

"Whiskers, white, a few of them black at the roots. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Prom point of nose to root of tail, ■ 
" " to ear. 

Ear, externally, ... 

Width of ear, - - - - 

Length of tarsus, - 

tail (including fur), 
longest whisker, ■ 



Feet. 
1 



<( 
It 



Inches. 

9 
4 
6 
3 
5 
4 
8 



Linn. 



1 

5 



HABITS. 

This Hare received from" the Texans, and from our troops in the Mexican 
war, the name of Jackass rabbit, in common with Lepus callotis, the Black- 
tailed Hare described in our second volume, p. 95. It is the largest of 
three nearly allied species of Hare which inhabit respectively New Mexico, 
Texas, Mexico, and California, viz. the present species, the Black-tailed, 
and the Californian Hare. It is quite as swift of foot as either of the 
others, and its habits resemble those of the Black-tailed Hare in almost 
every particular. The young have generally a white spot on the middle 
of the top of the head, and are remarkable for the rigidity of the fringe of 
hairs which margins the ears. The feet of this species do not exhibit the 
red and dense fur which prevails on the feet of the Black-tailed Hare (and 
from which it has sometimes been called the Red-footed Hare). 

The Mexicans are very fond of the flesh of this animal, and as it is widely 
distributed, a great many arc shot and snared by them. It is very good 
eating, and formed an important item in the provisions of John W. Aiimi- 







158 



TEXAN MARE. 



bon's party whilst passing through Mexico, thoy at times killing so many 
that the men became tired of them. 

Fabulous stories similar to those related of many other aniinnls of which 
little was formerly known, have been told us of this Hare, which has beoii 
described as enormously largo, and was many years ago mentioned to lis 
as equal in size to a fox. Of course wc weic somewhat disappointed when 
we procured specimens, although it is a line large species. 

Among other old stories about the animals of Texas and Mexico, we 
have a rather curious one in CLAVicHEno's -aotes or attempted elucidation 
of Hernandez, which wri give as translated by Capt. J. P. McCown from 
the Spanish. The Ocotochtli, according to Dr. Hernandez, is a species of 
wild-cat. He says that " when it has killed any game it climbs a tree and 
utters a howl of invitation to other animals that come and eat and die, as 
the flesh was poisoned by its bite, when he descends and makes his meal 
from the store that his trick has put at his disposal." 



OEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This Hare appears to inhabit the southern parts of New Mexico, the 
western parts of Texas, and the elevated lands westward of the t'arras 
calientes (low lands of the coast) of Mexico, and is found within a few 
miles of San Petruchio, forty miles from the coast : so J. W. Audubon 
was informed by some Rangers who accompanied a party sent from San 
Antonio in 1845, who having the use of " Col. Harney's" greyhounds, had 
many a chase, but never caught one I How near it approaches the sea 
coast we could not learn. It was not observed west of Ures in Sonora 
by J. W. Audubon, and seems to be replaced by the Californiau Hare 
on the Pacific coast. 

Its southern limit is unknown to us, but it probably extends some 
distance beyond the city of Mexico. 

general remarks. 

Since publishing our article on Lepus Townsendii we have received some 
accounts of the habits of a Hare which we presume may prove to be that 
animal ; they are singular, and may interest our readers. Captain Thomas 
G. Rhett, of the United States army, who was stationed at Fort Laramie 
for more than two years, observed the Hares of that neighbourhood to 
make burrows in the ground like rabbits. They ran into these holes when 
alarmed, and when chased by his greyhounds generilly escaped by diving 
into them. The captain frequently saw them sitting at the mouths of their 



TEXAN HARE 



159 



liolea like pruiric dogfl, and shot thoni. Several that he thus killed had 
only their heads exposed outside of their burrow. 

These holes or l.urrcws are dug in a slanting direction, and not strai^rht 
up and down like the badger holes. The females bring forth their young 
in them, and their habits must assimilate to those of the European rabbit 
The captain states that they turn white in winter, but as he made no notes 
and brought no specimens, we cannot Avith certainty decide that they were 
the animal we named L. Tomisendii. Should they prove to be the same 
however, the name will have to be changed to L. campestris, a Hare of thJ 
plains which we had previously described, but subsequently thou-ht was 
not that species, as it became white in winter, which we were "told L. 
Towmendii did not. Sec our first volume, p. 30. 



1(50 



ARC T O M Y S F L A VIVE N T E R .— U a c ii 

Yellow-dkllied Mahmot. 

PLATE CXXXIV.— Malk. 

A. Supra (luvido-all)O iiijrroi]uo griseiis, capitiH vcrtico nigro, subtuH 
saturate fluvus, nasi extrcuiitatj labiis, incutoquc alblH, pcdibus ruHcescoutc 
flavis, caudu sulinigra. 



CIIARACTEnS. 



Upper parts, frrizzkd yvllowish-white and black; crown of the fu\i'l, Jiujly 
black ; under parts, deep yellow ; point of nose, lips, and chin, white ; feet, 
brownish-yellow y tail, blackish-brown. 



8Y1.0NYMES. 



Akctomys Flaviventku. IJiiolim.'in, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. I'liila., Oct(>ber 5, 1841. 
" " Caial. Zool. Soe. 1839, Specimen No. 459, liaciimau's MSS 



DESCUIPTION. 

In form this animal rcsomblcs the figures and des'n'iptions of what was 
formerly coisidorcd the Canada Marmot {Jlrctoinys einpetra), whicii lias 
since been as-certaincd to be tlie young of the Maryhmd Marmot {Jl. ntonax). 

Head, rather small ; ears, sniall and narrow ; nailn, sshort ; tail, rounded, 
and rather long ; the whole animal is thickly clothed with fur, somewhat 
softer than that of the Maryland Marmot. 

The ui)per incisors have several indistinct longitudinal grooves. 

COLOUR. 

Fur on the back, grayish-black at base ; on each hair a considerable 
space is occupied by dirty yellowish-white, which is gradually shaded 
towards the tips through brown into black, but the tips are yellowish- 
white. 

Hairs on the under surface, grayish-black at base ; hairs of the feet, 
chiefly black at base ; cheeks, grizzled with white and dark brown, tho 
latter colour prevailing ; a rusty brown patch on the throat borders the 



\KIJ.()VV-IlKL.MEr> .MARMOT. j^j 

whito Imir. on the chin ; wlnHkcrn, moHtly l.lack ; palniH, entirely naked 
throt.jrl. their whole extent. There is an in.li.stinct yellow elonKatod Bpot 
bohmd the nodC, and also one behind or above the oyo. 



DIMENSIONS. 

From point of noHo to root of tail, 
Tail, to end of fur, - 
Lecl, to point of nail, 
Hcij^ht of ear posteriorly, " 
Fioui point of nose to oar, 



InchM 

- 16 


Linu 


- 6 


10 


• 2 


«4 


. fl 


G* 



HABITS. 

The spoeimen from whieh o, • deseri, : ' in of thi.s Marmot was drawn up, 
was found by us among the ..kins sent to England by Dhummond and 
Douglas, procured by those gentlemen in our northwestern territories 
and p aced .n the museum of the Zoological SeMety of London. Since wo 
tlescnhed it, the skin lias been started and set up. 

Ncvt a line was written in regard to its habits or the place where it was 
k.lled ; Its form and claws, however, indicate that like the o'.ier species of 
Mannot found ,n America, it is a burrowing aaimal, and feeds on seeds 
roots, and grasses. We may also presume it has four or five youn^^ at a' 
birth. •' n "" " 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

As just Stated, the exact locality in which this animal was captured has 
not been given, but judging from the route travelled over by Douglas wo 
presume ,t was obtained in the mountainous districts that extend north 
and south between Western Texas and California, where it probably 
exists, but il seen has been supposed by the hunters and miners to be the 
common Marmot or woodchuck of the Atlantic States (^. mona<r), 

general remarks. 

This species differs from the young of .irctomys manax, by some 
naturalists named ^. empetra, as we ascertained by comparin.. it with 
several specimens of that so-called species, in the museum of the 
Zoological Society, its feet being yellow instead of black, as in those 
specimens, and the belly yellow, not deep rusty red. Besides, the hairs 




ilJ 



162 



YELIX)W.nKI,MKD AlAHMOT. 



on tlio back iiro yollowish-whito and black, in place of rus+y brown, black 
and wliito. 

Tlio head is nanowor, the tors pniallcr, and the claws only half as lonf?, 
as in the above sjM'einiona. The «>ars are also coi 'iderajly smaller, 
uurrowor and more ovate than tlie carH of ^i. moiuix, wliich are round. 



Il 



163 



ARVICOLA RICHARDSONII.-AUD. and Bach 

u Richakdson's Mkadow-Mousb. 
PLATE CXXXV. Fio. 1. 

A. fnsnia iiipro tinctus, subtus cincrcua, cjBrnloscc-ntc-canus, auriculis 
mcdiocribus vcllcre fcrc conditia, cauda capite paullulum longiore. 

CIIAKACTEUS. 

Dull brown mixed unth black, under parts bluish-gray ; ears, of moderate 
size, nearly hidden by the fur; tail, a littk longer than Vie head. 

SYNONYME. 
Arvicola Riparipb? Ord. Bank Mkadow-Moi-sb. Richardson, F. B. A., p. 120. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Head, rather larjrc ; incisors, Ifirfrc, much exposed, and projecting beyond 
the nose— upper, flattened anteriorly, marked with scarcely perceptible 
perpendicular grooves, and with a somewhat irregular and rather oblique 
cutting edge— lower, twice as long as the upper, and narrower, slightly 
curved, and rounded anteriorly ; nose, thick and obtuse ; whiskers, few 
and rather short ; eyes, rather small ; ears, ovate, rounded at the tip, not 
easily distinguishable until the surrounding fur is blown or moved aside. 

iJody, more slc-vder behind than at the shoulders, the hind-legs .lot being 
so far apart as the fore-legs ; tail, rather short, tapering, and thinly covered 
with short hairs ; fore-legs, short ; feet, rather small, with four slender, 
well separated toes, and the rudiment of a thumb, which is armed with a 
minute nail ; claws, small, compressed, and pointed ; the third toe nearly 
ccpials the middle one, which is the longest. 

The hair of the toes jirojects over the claws but does not conceal them ; 
the toes of the hind-feet are longer than those of the fore-feet, and their 
claws are somewhat longer ; the inner one is tlie shortest, the second longer 
than the third, and the third longer than the fourth ; the first and fifth are 
considerably shorter Mian the others, and are placed farther back. 
The fur on the back is about eight lines long, but not so soft and fine aa 



I 



H 



164 



RICHARDSON'S MEADOW-MOUSE. 



in some other animals cf the genus ; it is nearly as long on the crown and 
checks, but is shorter and thinner on the chest and belly. 



COI.OUB. 

Incisors, yellow ; claws, white ; whiskers, black ; the whole dorsal 
aspect, including the shoulders and outsides of the thighs, is dull or dusky 
brown, proceeding from an intimate mixture of yellowish-brown and black, 
which colours are confined to the tips of the hairs and are so mingled aa 
to produce a nearly uniform shade of colour without lustre. 

From the roots to near the tips, the fur has a uniform shining blackish- 
gray colour ; on the ventral aspect (lower parts) it is bluish-gray ; the 
margin of the upper lip, the chin, and the feet, are dull white ; tail, dark 
brown above, lighter beneath, the two colours meeting by an even line. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 
tail, - 



7 inches. 
2 " 



HABITS. 



Dbummond, who procured this Meadow-Mouse, states that its habits are 
analogous to those of the common water-rat of Europe {Jlrvicola amphibius), 
with which it may be easily confounded, although the shortness of its tail 
may serve as a mark by which to distinguish it. 

It frequents moist meadows amongst the Rocky Mountains, and swims 
and dives well, taking to the water at once when i»urf^ued. All Meadow- 
Mice indeed are capital swimmers. We some time since amused ourselves 
watching one that had fallen into a circular cistern partly built up with 
Btone and partly excavated out of the solid rock by blasting, and which was 
plastered with cement on the inside to make it water-tight. This cistern had 
about four feet of water in it. On one side there was a projecting rounded 
knob of stone some five or six inches long and about two wide, which slanted 
out of the water so that the upper edge of it was dry. Upon this little 
resting-j)lace there was a large Jlrvicola Pcnnsylvanica (Wilson's Meadow- 
Mon^o) seated very quietly, having probably tumbled in the preceding 
night. WJien avc approached the edge and looked down into the clear 
element we at first did not observe the Rat, but as soon as We espied him 
he saw us, inmiediately dived, and swam around underneath the surface 
(juite rapidly ; he soon arose, however, and regained his position on the 



RICHARDSON'S MEADOW-MOUSE. 



Kj; 



ledge, and we determined to save him from what had been liis impending 
fate— drowning or starving, or both. We procured a plank, and gently 
lowering one end of it towards the ledge, thought he would take advantage 
of the inclined plane thus aflbrdcd him, to come out ; but in our awkward- 
ness we suffered the plank to slip, and at the plash in the water the little 
fellow dived and swam around several times before he again returned to 
his resting i)lace, where we now had the end of the board fixed, so that he 
could get upon it. As soon as he was on it, we began to raise the plank, 
but when we had him about three feet above the surface he dashed off into 
the water, making as pretty a dive as need be. He always looked quite 
dry, and not a hair of his coat was soiled or turned during these frequent 
immersions, and it was quite interesting to see the inquisitive looks he cijst 
towards us, turning his head and appearing to have strong doubts whether 
we meant to help, or to make an end of him. We put down the plank 
again, and after two attempts, in both of which his timidity induced him 
to jump off it when he was nearly at the edge of the cistern, he at 
last reached the top, and in a moment disappeared amid the weeds and 
grasses around. 



|i'' 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The only information we possess of the habitat of this animal is from 
DuuMMQNi), who states that he captured it near the foot of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

This species possesses longer and stronger incisors than any other 
American Rat of this genus ; its mouth presenting in fact a miniature 
resemblance to that of the musk-rat. 

Although the Arvkola xanthognutha is a larger animal than the present, 
yet its incisors are not more than half as long as in this species. 

We have named this Arvicola in honour of Sir John Richardson, who 
in describing it (Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 120), applied to it, with a 
doubt, the name oi Arvkola riparius, Ord, from which it differs so much as 
to render a comparison here unnecessary. 




1G6 



ARVICOI A DliUMMONDII.— AuD. and Bach 

Drummond's Mkadow-Mouse. 

PLATE CXXXV. Figure with Shcrt Tail. — Summer pelage. 

A. Coipore supra fusco, infra fusco-cincreo, ad latcra rufo tincto, 
robustioro ct paulo majore quam in A. Pennsylvanicii ; auriculis vcllere 
fere occultis ; cauda brevi, capitis diniidium subequante. 



CHAEACTEKS. 

Body, above, dark brown; beneath, dull brownish-gray tinged with red. 
Stouter and rather larger than Wilson's Meadow-Movse (A. Pennsylvauica) ; 
ears, scarcely visible beyond the fur j tail, short, about half the length of the 
head. 

SYNONYMES. 

Arvicola Novedoracensis — SuARP-NosED Meadow-Mouse. Rich., F. B. A., p. 120. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Body, thick ; head, of moderate size, tapering from the ears to the nose ; 
nose, slender and more acute than in many other Arvicola, projecting a 
little beyond the incisors, which are rather large. 

Ears, rounded, scarcely visible beyond the fur ; tail, covered with short 
hairs, scarcely concealing the scales, converging to a point at the tip ; legs, 
very short ; ft , rather small ; claws, weak and compressed ; a very minute 
nail occupies the place of the thumb ; the fur is a little coarser than that 
of JI. Pennsylvanica. 

The whiskers, which arc not numerous, reach the cheeks. 



COLOUR. 

Hair on ihe back, and upper part of the head, grayish-black from the 
roots to near the tips, which are rcddisli-ltrown terminated with black ; 
the resulting colour is an intimate mixture of brown and black, appearing 
in some lights dark reddish-brown, in others yellowish-brown mixed with 
blackish ; around the eyes, yellowish-red ; there is a lightish space behind 
the ears and along the sides ; under surface, yellowish-gray, mingling on 



DRUMMONDVS MEADOW-MOUSE. 



167 



the sides with the eolour of the back ; upper surface of the tail, dark 
brown ; under side, grayish-white ; feet, dark gray, tinged with rufous. 



DIMENSIONS. 






Length of head and body, - 

head, ...... 

" tail, 


Inchdii. 

• - 4 
• 1 
- 1 


Linei! 

8 

4 



HABITS. 

bv Mr r;!"'" ^'"" "^""^ '"' ^''""^ "^^ ^^'^^ •« «"° ^f '^ose obtained 
of the Zoological Society at London, as well as many others to which we 
have already referred in our work. It was examined and describid by s" 
John Richaudson, who mistook the animal for a supposed species found 

the name of Lemmus noveboracensis, and which we refer to ^. Pennsylvanica, 
with which we have compared the description 

Drummond in regard to the habits of the present animal merely states 
that they are similar to those of ^rvicola xanthognatha. 

geographical distribution. 
Valleys of the Rocky Mountains. 



' I. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

As above mentioned, Sir John Richardson described this animaJ 
quoting from Desmabest (Mamm., p. 286), Rappinesque's description of 
the so-called Z,emm«* noveboracen^, which appears to apply to one of the 
varieties of Wilson's Meadow-Mouse {^rvicola Pcnnsylvanka), of which we 
possess specimens. /. .re 

From an examination of many species, we have arrived at the conclusion 
that no ArvicoUe found on the Rocky Mountains are identical with any in 
the Atlantic States, and on a comparison of Richardson's species with 
those referred to by Rappinesque, we determined without much hesitation 
that the present is a new species under an old name, and we have conse- 
quently attached to it the nam^ .fits discoverer-DBUMMOND 

By some oversight this speo.cs ,.as not named on our plate as distinct 
rom A. Richardsmtt, but is easily distinguished by its short tail-the two 
being on the same engraving. 




168 



CERVUS VIRGINIANUS.— Pennant. 



I 



Common American Deer. 

PLATE CXXXVI.— Male and Female. 

(Fawn.) PLATE LXXXI .—Winter Pelage. 

In our article on the Virginian Deer (vol. ii. p. 220), wc gave descrip- 
tions of the characters and habits of this species ; we now present figures 
of the adult male and female. 

We have not much information to add to that already given : it may be 
of interest, however, to notice the annual changes which take place in the 
growth of the liorns, from adolescence to maturity, and the decline which 
is the result of age. 

At Hyde Park, on the estate of J. R. Stuyvesant, Esq., Dutchess 
county. New York, seven or eight Deer were kept for many years, and 
several raised annually. We had the opi)t)rtunity at the hospitable 
mansion of Mr. Stuyvesant, of examining a series of horns, all taken 
from the same buck as they were annually shed, from the first spikes to 
the antlers that crowned his head when killed ; nnd we now give a short 
memorandum showing the progress of their growth from year to year. In 
1842, when this buck was one year old, his liorns (spikes) had each one 
rudimentary prong — one about five eighths of an inch long, the other 
scarcely visible ; in 1843 they had two prongs four to six inches long ; in 
1844, three prongs, and brow antlers, longest prong eight inches ; in 1845, 
a little larger in diameter, brow antlers longer and curved ; 184G, rather 
less throughout in size ; 1847, the two last prongs quite shortened. These 
kst were somewhat broken by an accident, but evidently show that the 
animal had lost some degree of vigour. Age when killed, six years. 

It should be observed that this animal was restricted to a park and was 
partially domesticated, being occasionally fed a little in the winter season ; 
and being thus deprived of the wider range of the forest, the horns may 
not have exhibited all the peculiarities of the wild unrestrained buck. 

We think liowever that the above will give a tolerably correct idea of 
the operations of nature in the annual production and conformation of the 
horns. They become longer and more branched for several years, until 
the animal has arrived at maturity, when either from age or disease they 
begin to decline. 

In connection with this subject it may not be uninteresting to notice the 



COMMON AMERICAN DEER, 



169 



effect of castration on the horns of the buck. Wlien this operation has 
been performed during the season when the horns are fully grown, it is 
said they are not dropped, but continue on the head for many years ; when 
the operation has been performed after they are dropped, there is no 
subsequent growth of horns, and the head appears ever afterwards like 
that of a doe. 

We had an opportunity at the Blue Sulphur Springs in Virginia, of 
examining two tame bucks which had been castrated during the time 
that their horns were in velvet. Their horns continued to grow for 
several years ; the antlers were of enormous length, and very irregularly 
branched, but the velvet was still retained on them ; they presented a soft 
spongy appearance, and from slight scratches or injuries were continu- 
ally bleeding ; the neck had ceased to swell periodically as in the perfect 
bucks, they had become very large, seemed to be quite fat, and when first 
seen at a distance we supposed them to be elks. 



il 



( 11 




VOL. III.— 5fli 



170 



GENUS ENHYDRA— FiKMiNO. 



DENTAL FORMULA. 

Incisive ? ; Canine \'A ; Molar ?=? = 38. 

4 ' 5—5 ' 3—3 

Head, small and globular ; ears, nhort and conical, placed far back io 
the head. 

Body, very long, covered witli a dense glossy fur; tail, less than one 
fourth the length of the body, rather stout, depressed, covered with strong 
hairs on the sides. 

Hind-feet, webbed. 

LicuTENSTEiN says this genus has hind-feet like those of the common 
seals, cars resembling those of the seals of the genus Otaria, and a tail 
similar to that of the common Otter. 

He places the Sea Otter (correctly, as wo think) between the Otter and 
the seals that possess ears (Otaria). 

MamniiB, two — ventral. 

There is only one species in the genus. 

Habit, living principally at sea an " in bays and estuaries. 

The gemric name is derived from svu(5pog, enudros, aquatic ; G-r. £v, en, in, 
and 'J<5''j^, huddr, water. 



ENHYDRA M ARIN A.— Erxleben. 

Sea Otter. 
PLATE OXXXVIL— Malk. 

E. perelongata, cauda depressa, corporis partem quartam aequante, 
pedibus posticis curtis, istis Phocarum similibus, colore castaneo vel nigro, 
vcUcre moUissimo ; Lutra Canadensis duplo major. 



CHARACTERS. 

Body, very much elongated ; tail, depressed, and one fourth the length of 
the body; hind-feet, short, and resembling those of the seal; colour, c/icsnut 
broivn or blade ; twice tlie size of the common Otter ; fur, exceedingly fine. 



SEA OTTER. 



8YN0NYMES. 



171 



MusTEtA LuTRis. Linn. 

Ska Hkaver. Krasdieninikoff, Hist. Kumsk. (Grieve's Trans.), p. i31. Ann. 1764 

Mi-STKi.A LuTius. .- hrc'li.r, Saligetliierc, p. 405, fig. t. 128. 

Lutra Mauina. ?>xlcl)t'n, Syst. Ann. 1777. 

" " Stell.T, Nov. Com. Petrop., vol. ii. p. 207, t. 16. 

Sea Otter. Cook'.s Third Voyago, vol. ii. p. 205. Ann. 1784. 

" " Pennant's Arctic Zoology, vol. i. p. 88. Ann. 1784. 
Lutra SiELLKta. Lesson, Manual, pp. 150, 423. 
Sea Otter. Mcare.s, Voyage, pp. 241, 260. Ann. 1790. 

" " Menzies, Pliilos, Trans., p. 385. Ann. 1700. 
Enhtdra Marina. Fleming, Phil. Zool., vol. ii. p. 187. Ann. 1822. ■ 
Enydris Stelleri. Fischer, Synopsis, p. 228. 
Lutra Marina. Harlan, Fauna, p. 72. 
The Sea Otter. Godman's Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 228. 
Enydris Marina. Licht.. Darstellung netier oder wenig bekanntor SaUgethiere, 

Berlin, 1827-1834. Tafel xlix. 
Lutra (Eniiydra) Marina. Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 59. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Head, small in proportion to the size of the body ; oars, short, conical, 
and covered with hair ; eyes, rather large ; lips, thick ; mouth, wide, and 
furnished with strong and rather large teeth ; fore-feet, webbed nearly to 
the nails, and much like those of the common Otter, five claws on each. 
Hind-legs and thighs, short, and better adapted for swimming than in other 
mammalia except the seals ; hind-feet, flat and webbed, the toes being con- 
nected by a strong granulated membrane, with a skin skirting tlie outward 
toe ; all the webs of the feet are thickly clothed with glossy hairs about a 
line in length. 

One of the specimens referred to by ^Ir. Menzies (the account of which 
is published in the Philosophical Transactions) measured eight inches 
across the hind-foot ; the tongue was four inches long and rounded at the 
end, with a slight fissure, giving the tip a bifid appearance. 

The tail is short, broad, depressed, and pointed at the end ; the hair 
both on the body and tail is of two kinds— the longer hairs are silky, 
glossy, and not very numerous, the fur or shorter hair exceedingly soft and 
fine. 

COLOUR. 

Tlie checks generally present a cast of grayish or silvery colour, which 
extends along the sides and under the throat ; there is a lightish circle 



illt^ 



172 



SEA OTTER. 



around the eye ; top of the head, dark brown ; the remainder of tlio body 
(above and beneath) is deep glossy brownish-black. 

There is a considerable variety of shades in different specimens, some 
being much lighter tiian others. The longer hairs intermixed with the fur 
are in the best skins bluck and shining. In some individuals the fur about 
the ears, nose, and eyes is either brown or light coloured ; the young are 
Bometimos very light in colour, with white about the nose, eyes, and forehead. 

The fur of the young is not equal in fineness to that of the adult. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Adult. 





FMt. 


iBohoii. 


Length from point of nose to root of tail, - 


- 4 


2 


of tail, 


• 1 




Young, about two years old. 


Fnt. 


Inchoi 


Length from end of nose to root of tail, 


■ 8 




" of tail, 




74 


Width of head between the ears, - 




4 


Height of ear, 




« 


From elbow of fore-leg to end of nail,- 




4i 


Length of hind-foot from heel to end of nail, 




64 


" fore toe, 




i 


" inner hind-toe, .... 




1 


" outer hind-toe, 




8 


Circumference of the head, behind the ears. 




104 


" of body around the breast, - 


- 1 


6 


« " " loins, - 


- 1 


10 



HABIXS. 

Next to the seals the Sea Otter may be ranked as an inhabitant of the 
great deep : it is at home in the salt waves of the ocean, frequently goes 
some distance from the " dull tame shore," and is sometimes hunted in sail- 
boats by the men who live by catching it, even out of sight of land. 

But although capable of living almost at sea, this animal chiefly resorts 
to bays, the neighbourhood of islands near the coast, and tide-water rivers, 
where it can not only find plenty of food, but shelter or conceal itself aa 
occasion requires. 

It is a timid and shy creature, much disconcerted at the approach of 
danger, and when shot at, if missed, rarely allows the gunner a second 
chance to kill it. 



SKA O'lTKR. 



173 



Hunting tlio Pea Otter wns formorly a favourito pursuit with the few 
Bailors or stray AmcricauH tiiat lived on the shores of the Bay of San 
Pranciseo, but the more attractive search for gold drew them off to tho 
mines when Sutter's mill-race had revealed tho glittering riches inter^ 
mixed with its black sands. One of the sliallops formerly used for catching 
the Sea Otter was observed by J. W. Auoukon at Stockton, and is thus 
described by him : The boat was about twenty-eight feet long and eight 
feet broad, clinker built, and sharp at both ends like a whale-boat, which 
she may in fact have originally been, rigged with two lug sails, and looked 
like a fast craft. Whilst examining her the captain and owner came up 
to enquire whether he did not want to send some freight to Hawkins' Bar, 
but on finding that was not the object of his scrutiny, gave him the follow- 
ing account of the manner of hunting the Otter. 

The boat was manned with four or live hands and a gunner, and sailed 
about all the bays, and to the islands even thirty or forty miles from the 
coast, and sometimes north or south three or four hundred miles in (piest 
of these animals. On seeing an Otter the boat was steered quietly for it, 
sail being taken in to lessen her speed so as to approach gently and 
without alarming the game. When within short gun-shot, the marksman 
fires, tlie men spring to the oars, and tho poor Otter is harpooned 
before it sinks by the bowsman. Occasionally the animals are sailed 
up to while they are basking on the banks, and tlioy are sometimes 
caught in seines. The man wiio gave this information stated that he had 
known five Otters to be shot and captured in a day, and he had obtained 
forty dollars apiece for their skins. At the time J. W. Avulbon was iu 
California he was asked a hundred dollars for a Sea Otter skin, which 
high price he attributed to the gold discoveries. 

Only one of these Otters was seen by J. W. Audubon whilst in Califor- 
r.ia : it was in the San Joaquin river, where the bulrushes grew thickly on 
the banks all about. The party were almost startled at the sudden 
appearance of one, which climbed on to a drift log about a hundred yards 
above then.. Three rifle balls were sent in an instant towards the unsus- 
pecting creature, one of which striking near it, the aliiriik'd animal slided 
into the water and sunk without leaving, so far as they could sec, a single 
ripple. It remained below tho surliice for about a minute, and on cominn- 
up raised its head high above the water, and having seen nolhing t<^ ■■■ ■.■liten 
it, as they judged, began fishing. Its dives were imjuIo so gc ]'. 

was evidently as much at its ease in the water as a Grebe, and it i. ■ -'y 
remained under the surface as long at least as the great northern diver or 
loon. They watched its movements some time, but could not see that it 
took a fish, althougl it dived eight or ten times. On firing another shot, 



i !" 



171 



HKA o'|"('i;r. 



i I 



the Otter ftpponred iruirh frijjiitonod (possibly having been touched) and 
Bwininiin^r liipidly, witliout divin^^, to tlie oppoHitc Hhoro, disappfarcd in tho 
riisln'H, and tlii'v did not see it ajrain. 

In tho acconnts of this species jriven by various autliors we find lilllr 
respecting' its lialiits, and it is much to \>v. rc^nettcd timt ho ixMuarkablc 
an animal shouhl bo yet without o ruii " biograpliy." 

Sir JouN UicHAUDSoN, who jfives an excellent description of its fur from 
one wlio was eujra^n'd in tiie trade, says, " It seems to liave more tlie nmn- 
iicrs of a seal tiian of the land Otter. It freipients rociis washed by tho 
8ea, nntl brings forth on land, but resides mostly in the water, uud is occa- 
sionally seen very remote from tho shore." 

(JoDMAN states that "its food is various, but principally cuttle-fish, 
lobsters, and other llsh. The Sea Otter, like most other aninmis which 
are plentifully sujiplied with food, is entirely harndess and inoiVensivo in 
its manners, and nn.i;ht bo charged with stupidity, according to a common 
mode of judging animals, as it neither otVers to defend itself nor to injure 
those who attack it. Ibit as it runs very swiftly and swims with e(iual 
celerity it frequently escapes, and ai'tcr having gone some distance turns 
back to look at its pursuers. In doing this it holds a fore-paw over its 
eyes, much in the manner we sco done by persons who in a strong sur.shino 
are desirous to observe a distant object accurately. It has been inferred 
that the sight of this animal i im[)erfcct ; its sense of smelling, however, 
is said to be very acute." 

The latter part of the above paragraph at least, may be taken as a small 
specimen of the faljulous tales believed in olden times about animals of 
which little thut was true had been learned. 

Dr. GoDMAN relates farther that the iVmale Sea Otter brings forth on 
land after a jiregnancy of eight or nine months, and but one at a birth, and 
states that the extreme tenderness and attachment she disjdays for her 
young arc much ceklirated. According to his account the (icsh is eaten 
by the hunters, but while it is represented by some as being tender, juicy, 
and flavoured like young lamb, by others it is declared to be hard insipid, 
and tough as leather. We advise such of our readers as may wish to 
decide which of these statements is correct, and who may be sn fuitunatc 
as to pos.-ess the means and leisure, to go to California and taste the 
animal — provided they can catch or kill one. 

Wc will conclude our very meagre account of the habits of the Sea OUcr 
by quoting the following most sensible remarks from Sir John Richaud.'.ov, 
given in a no:-.' 1. '..c Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 00 : "Not having Icen 
on the coa?'- a? < <; <^ ! riea Otter is pi'oduced, 1 can add nothing to its 
history from lay own observation, and I have preferred taking the descrip 



,U^ 



HJJA orrKR, 



175 



i.un .,f the n.r fron, on. who was enKa^^o.i in the trade, to cxtructinK a 
miontil.e acconnt of the ttni.nul from Hptomatic work», which arc in the 
haiiiiH of every uuturallat." 



omr.nwmcAh dihtuibution, 

Tho Hoa Otter inhabitn the wator.s which boun.l the northorn parts of 
America and Ania, and Hcparatc those continents from eacl, other, viz. tho 
North Pacific Ocean and the vuvious seas and bays whicii exist off either 
•shore Cnm, Kamtschatka to the Yellow Hea on the Asiatic «ide, and from 
Allaska to California on the American. 



OENKUAL REMAUKS. 

Although this animal has been known and hunted for more than a 
century, ami inimme-ablc skins of it have been carried to China (where 
they lor.nerly brought a very high price), as well as to some part, of 
Europe, yet no good specimens, anc' but few perfect skulls of it, exist in 
any museum or private collection. The difference between the dentition 
ot the young and the adult, being in consequence unknown, has misled 
many naturalists, and caused difficulties in the formation of the genus 

LiNN.iouH, strangely enough, placed it among the martens (Mustela) • 
LuxLFHEV,in the genus Intra; P,.em.xo established for it a i.ew genus 
[hnAydra) ■ lisc.iEii in his synopsis endeavoured to l)ring this to the Greek 
{hnydrts), which was also pplied to it by Lichtenstein. 

Tho best generic descriptions of the Sea Otter that we have seen are 
those of tho last named author, who has given two plates representing tho 
Pku I and the teeth ; t' 'atter however were deficient in number, owing 
to the fact of his specimen being a young animal with its dentition incom- 
plete. In tho Philosophical Transactions (171)6, No. 17) we have a 
description of the anatomy of this animal by Everaud Home and Archi- 
BALD Mknzies, which giv(>s a tolerable idea of its structure 

There are only two authors, so far as we are aware, who hare given 
ro lable accounts of the habits of the Sea Otter-SiELLER and Cook. The 
information published by the former is contained in Nov. Com. Acad 
1 ctropoht., ^o\. ii. p. 267, ann. 1751 ; the latter gives an account of the 
animal in his Third Voyage, vol. ii. p, 295. 



I^f*'^ 



176 



MUSTELA MARTES.— Linn.— Gmel. 

Pine Mautkn. 

PLATE CXXXVIII .—Male and Female. Winter Pelage. 

M. Magnitudinc Putorio visone major, flavida, hie illic nigrescens, capite 
pallidiore, gulix flavesceute, cauda longa, floccosa, acuta. 



CHAEACTERS. 

Larger than the mink ; general colour, yellowish, blended vntn olackish in 
parts ; head, lighter ; throat, yellow. Tail, long, bushy, and pointed. 

SYNONYMEB. 

Genus Mustkla. Linn. 

Sub-genus Mvstela. Cuvier. 

MusTELA Marteb. Linn. Gniel., vol. i. p. 95. 

Pine Marten. Pennant's Arctic Zoology, vol. i. p. 77. 

McsTELA Maries. Sabine, Franklin's Journey, p. 651. 

" " Harlan, Fauna, p. 67. 

«♦ « Godman, Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 200. 

" ZiBELLiNA (?). Godman, Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 208. 

" Majites. Rich., F. B. A., p. 51, summer specimen. 

«« HuRo. F. Cuv. 

«♦ Marteb — American Sable. DeKay, Nat. Hist. State of Now York, part i. 

p. 32, pi. 19, fig. 2, skull. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Head, long and pointed ; ears, broad and obtusely pointed ; legs, rather 
long and tolerably stout ; eyes, small and black ; tail, bushy and cylindri- 
cal ; toes, with long, slender, and compressed nails, nearly concealed by 
the hair. Hair, of two kinds — the outer long and rigid, the inner soft and 
somewhat woolly. 

COLOUR. 

This species varies a good deal in colour, so that it is difficult to find 
two s[)ecimens exactly alike ; the under fur, however, does not difi'er as 



1 H 








1 
1 


i 



•■" 






I 



i !■; 





\ 



ffF 






!M 



'^i 



n 

d 
t 
■V 
fi 
t 

tl 
a 

t: 
f? 

p 

tl 

b 



PINE MARTEN. 



177 



much in tint in different specimens as it does in fineness. Some indivi- 
duals, particularly those captured iu low latitudes, have much coarser fur 
than those from high northern regions or mountainous districts. The hair, 
which is about an inch and a quarter long, is of a pale dull grayish-brown 
from the roots outwards, dull yellowish-brown near the points, and is 
tipped with dark brown or black. 

There is sometimes a considerable lustre in the fur of the Pine Marten ; 
the hair on the tail is longer, coarser, and darker than that on the body, 
&n<X the coat is darkest in winter ; the yellowish-white markings on the 
throat vary in different individuals. 

In the beginning of summer the dark-tipped hairs drop out, and the 
general colour of the fur is a pale orange brown, with little lustre ; the 
tips of the ears, at all times lighter than the rest of the fur, become very 
pale in summer. The feet are generally darker coloured than the hair of 
the body. The tip of the nose is flesh coloured ; eyes, black ; nails, light 
brown. 



Foot. 
1 



DIMENSIONS. 

A winterkilled specimen, exceedingly poor. 

From point of nose to root of tail, 
Length of tail (vertebrae), - . - - 
" " (to end of hair), - 
" fore-leg to end of longest nail, - 
" hind-foot from heel to end of claws, 
" ear on the outer surface, 
We have measured larger specimens, 20, 21, and 22 inches from point 
of nose to root of tail. 



Inches. 

6 
7 
10 
5* 
8 
1* 



HABITS. 

Let us take a share of the cunning and sneaking character of the fox, as 
much of the wide-awake and cautious habits of the weasel, a similar pro- 
portion of the voracity (and a little of the fetid odour) of the mink, and 
add thereto some of the climbing propensities of the raccoon, and we have 
a tolerable idea of the attributes of the little prowler of which we have 
just given the description and dimensions. The Pine Marten, as may bo 
inferred from this compound, is shy, cruel, cunning, and active, and par- 
takes of the habits of the predacious animals above mentioned, with the 
exception that it is not known to approach the residences of man like tlie 
fox, weasel, or mink, but rather keeps in dense woods where it can prey 



I 



178 



PINK MAR'I'KN. 



liinis, tlicir t'fi'fis nnd yoiiiiu:, si|iiirrfls, (lie white Inolcd ami otlicr 
rats, A'C, (oucdior willi beetles and other iiiseets, hirvai 



tl|IOII 



iiuce, shrews, wood 



! i 



oi' diiVereiit species, tiiiids. IVo^'s. ii/ards, water reptiles, uiid lisli. Jt. is also 
an eater of some kinds ol' lierries and nnl (as wo are infornied), nnd is said 
to bo I'oiid of honey like tlie bear. 

It has been siip])osed tliat. the name Tine Marten was niven to tiiisl 
animal beeans(> it inhahils the ]nw forests of the northern parts of thin 
continent, and shows a preference for those trees, in the lofty tops of which 
it fre(iuontly resides. The Pine Marten, however, is often called tlm 
American Sable or the Sable, and in fact is more pMierally known to the 
country people of our nortiiern States, an<l also to tin; furriers, by tlm 
latter name than by any other. 

Spriu'litiy and aj>ile in its movenuMits, the Pine ^Marten commonly pro- 
cures abundaneo. of food. It is i)rolillc, brinuinji' forth from six to eiiiht 
younii: at a tinn-, so that notwilhstandinir the value of its fur and the con- 
se(iuent jMirsnit of it durinj;' the ])roper season, it is still by no means a 
scarce animal. We have had several specimens sent to us Ity friends 
residing in the State of New York and in the wilder portions of our 
Canada frontier, which were procured among the woody hills of thoso 
districts. 

.\ecording to Dr. DkKay (New York Fauna, p. ■)'.">), tliis s|)ecies is so 
active as to destroy great (piantities of sipiirreis, the' red s(piirrel {Sriunis 
lliitlsoiiiiis) only escaping by its sapi'rior agility. Dr. (1oi>ma\ emarks 
that the " I'ine Marten fre(iuently has its den in th(> hollows of trees, but 
vorv commonly takes possession of the nest t)f some imlustrious stpiirrel, 
which it enlarges to suit its own convenience, after putting tlie builder to 

death." 

Sir John HiriiAiiHsoK says that "particular races of Martens, distin- 
guished by the lineness and dark colour of their fur, appear to inhabit 
certain rocky districts." "A partridge's head, with the feathers, is the 
best bait for the log traps in wliich this animal is taken. It does not reject 
carrion, and often destroys the ]\oards of meat and lish laid up liy the 
natives, when they have accidentally left a crevice by whicii it can enter. 
The .Marten, when its retreat is cut otV, shows its teeth, sets up 'its hair, 
a. dies its back, and makes a liissing noise like a cat. It will seize a dog 
by the nose and bite so hard, that unless the latter is accustomed to tho 
combat, it sulVers the little animal to escape." 

The huliaus sometimes cat the Pine .Marten, but its flesh is rank and 
coarse. We have seen this species in eonlinement, when it ai)peared 
tolerably gentle, and had lost much of its snappish character. 

The Pine Marteu burrows in the ground at times, and the female brings 



PINK MARTKN. 



17f* 



fordi licr younjr in a falloii hollow lo^', a liolo midor rnckn, or in a l.iirrow, 
^'oncrally in April or ISIiiy. These iuiiniuls nre eiiielly cnuKht. with (lead- 
fiillH hailed with nieiit, of nny kind, birds, nihl)ils, squirrels. Ac, itiid 
ir<Mierally a hunter liiis n.iiny tnips set. envh of whieh he visits as often 
lis once or twice a wec-k. The Martens are sometimes devoured l,y 
iar^or animals after they have l^'en eauf-l.t. They arc only trapp...! in 
the autumn aud winter. 

The fur of this species has lieen considered valualde, and when In fashion 
tlie skins were worth ^ood prices. It is oflen palmed olf on purchasers as 
fur of a inor(> costly kind, and for this puriioso is dyed any desired colour. 



i m 



oko(;iiai>iuc;ai. DisTuiiiti'nov. 

This si)ecies iidiahits the wooded .listricts of the nortliern parts of 
America, from the Atlantic to the I'acilic in ^reat numl.ers, an<l Hichakd- 
'<«)N remarks that it is ])articularly abundant wlu^n; the trees have; been 
killed l)y lire but are still standin-r. Hioahmo ol)served that it is very rare 
in the district lyin,<r north of Chnrchill river, and east of (Jreat Slave lake. 
Pknnant states that on the Asiatic, side of JJehrin^r's straits, twenty-livo 
dej.Te(>s()f lon-itude in lucadth are ecpially urdrofpiented by the Marten, 
and foi' tlie same reason— tln^ alisene(? of trees. 

TIm^ limit of its northern rauMc in America is, like that of the woods, 

"' ' "'f' "^f' dofrree of latitude. It is found in the hilly and woo<lfd 

parts of th(! northern Atlantii; States. Wc have seen 8i)ecimens ■obtained 
from near Albany ami from the Catskill Mountains, and it is also found in 
the northern parts of IVnnsylvania. Its southern limit is about lat. 40°. 

Wc have souj-ht for it in vain on the mountains of Virfriniii, where not- 
withslandin.ir, we think a strafr«lcr will occasionally make its appearance. 
Oil the eastern continent it inhabits all the north of Europe and Asia. 



GENERAL REMAnKS. 

Some Amoriean naturalists have expressed frroat doubts whether our 
American Marten is iilentical with that of the north of Europe, and have 
supposed that it mi.L^ht be desitrnated under a separate speeili(^ name. We 
have not had an opportunity of comparin<r specimens from the two conti- 
nents with each other, as W(; could find no museinn in which specimens 
from l)oth continents were contained. W(! Iiave, liowever, examined and 
taken descriptions of tiiem sei)ai'ately, and have been abh; to detect so 
little diil'erence that we cannot roj^ard them even as varieties. 

It has been frequently asserted by himlers, that the true Sable exists 



'mm 



180 



PINE MARTEN. 



in America ; thus far, liowever, no specimen of that animal has been 
identified as cominjr from tliis country. Those that were shown to U6 
under the name of Sables by furriers, wc ascertained to be fine skins of a 
very dark colour of our common Pino Marten. 



181 



SPERMOPFH .US M AC RO U R U S.— Bennett. 

Lahok-tailed SpeRMOI'IIILE. 

PLATE CXX XIX. —Male. 

S. Magnitudino Sciurum cinereum adequans, vellere crassiusculo, in 
dorso lateribusque cincreo nigroquo varlo, cauda corporis longitud'ine 
niediocritcr comosa. 

CHARACTERS. 

A'lze of the cat-squirrel (Sciurus cinereus) ; fur, rather coarse ; body, mot- 
tled with black, and ashy white, forming irregular interrupted narrow transverse 
bars on the back and sides j taU, as long as the body, and moderately bushy. 



SYNONYMES. 

Spermopuilus Macrourus. Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1833, p. 41. 

LoNo-TAiLKD Marmot. Zool. Soc. Catalogue, No. 456. 

SciuKus LuPTUs. Named in the Museum of tlie Jardin des Plantes, but not described. 



DESCRIPTION. 

This animal is shaped very much like a squirrel, altliough the ears are 
farther back in the head and the body is stouter than in that genus. 
Head, of moderate size, round, and elongated ; nose, somewhat pointed ; 
ears, large, broad, and ovate towards the points ; feet, stout ; nails, lougi 
sharp, and considerably arched ; tail, rounded, possessing none of the 
distichoud arrangement of the tails of squirrels ; tarsi, naked beneatli ; 
fur, moderately long, and rather coarse and harsh to the touch. 



COLOUR. 

Hairs of the back, blackish-gray at the base, annulated with white, or 
brownish-wliite, towards the tips, which are black ; crown of the head, 
pure black ; muzzle, rufous brown above, whitisli on the sides ; a narrow 
whitish space around .ho eyes; on the lower part of the checks and on 
the throat the hairs are brownish-white ; cheeks, grizzled black and white ; 
ears internally covered with short hairs and partly coloured on the inner 





I 




— ■' M<a$!V 



182 



l^RGK-TAILED SPERMOPIIH.E. 



Burface with dusky and soiled yellow ; on the outside they are blackish- 
brown, becominjr palor and grizzled towards the nmrfriiis ; feet, -whitisli, 
finely freckled with dusky niarkinjrs, their general line pale ; tail, mode- 
rately Inishy and s\ili-ilei(ressed ; the hairs are long, varying from one and 
three quarters to two inches in length ; they are of a brownish-whil colour 
and arc annulatcd liy three broad black rings, the annulations nearest the 
apex of each hair eonsideral)ly broader than the otht i . Upper and lower 
incisors, pale yellow ; whiskers, black ; claws, brown. 

In the specimen hero described the whole crown of the head is black 
but wo arc informed by our friend Watekhouse that an impcifcct skin of 
a second specimen which exists in the museum of the Zoological Society of 
Loudon has the crown of the head gray. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length from point of rose to root of tail, 
" of tail (verteln-*), 
" " (including hair), 

" from nose to ear, 

Ilcight of ear, 

Heel to end of claws, . - . - 
Length of nail of middle hind-toe,- 
" fore-foot and nails, 
" nail of middle toe of fore-foot, 



Foot. 
1 


Inrhos. 

1 


Lines 




7 


9 




10 






2 


5 
G 




2 


6 
4i 




1 


(5 
4) 



HABITS. 

Spermophilus Macrmtrus is an active and sprightly fellow, readily 
ascending trees on occasion, and feeding on nuts as avcU as seeds, roots, 
and grasses. 

This species is in some districts rather numerous, and when in the rainy 
season some of the low grounds are submerged, takes to the. trees, and 
sometimes curious fights occur between it and the wood-peckers. Five or 
six of the latter will on observing the Sperinophile, unite against him, and 
cutting about in the air, peek at him as they dart swiftly around the perse- 
cuted animal, which is lucky if a hollow into which he can retreat be near, 
and frequently indeed the wood-peckers' holes arc entered by him, but the 
angry and noisy birds still keep up their cries and fly with fury at the 
hole, and although they can no longer peck the animal they keep him in 
a state of siege for a considerable time. 

The origin of this animosity may be the fact of the Sperm iphilo (as well 



LARGE-'l'AILKl) HPKRMOPIIir.E. 



183 



a« ...any l<>„,ls of ,.,„irrolH) nomotimos turning out tho wood-pockcrB from 
tho.r n..H s, an ,n„.,y wl.ich unites ti.om ngainst the wrong-doer. By what 
process the l>.r.is are influenced to attack when tho anin.al is not in thil 
nosts, nor even on a tree upon which they hnve bnilt (or dug, we should 
Boy , we know not, but that tho birdn con.jnehend ihat union i. strength is 
q.nto ovKlent, and tho S,,ern,n,,hile knows it too, for he always instantly 
tr.es o escape and conceal hin.sdf as soon as tho vociferous cries of tho 

fll^o'"? *'-^;\-'-v- Im.. uro heard, and before its neighbours calle.l 
thereby to tho fight can reach tho spot. 

vZl!!Z "T-'T" '"'''''^r''''^'^^^ 1.0W nmny young this Spcrmophile 
o. In ; ' ',"■ 'r "'"^' ""•"" '""^' '"'^ '''-"""''^ '-•^''- it i« ««^'« 

row n ' "'; ;" '"■""" "'"■" "'^ ''"'' ^''•"^^' '" -''•^•'' I'''^^^^ it bur. 

rows or runs into holes in the rocks. 

From our present information we ar. inclined to think that this species 
.. soinetinies ,n company with S. Dou^la^ii in California, or at least inhabits 
luc same dutncts. 



OEOGRAPIIICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This Spermophi.e exists in some portions of that part of Mexico which 
were traversed by J. W. Audubon on his way towards California and 
18 also found in the last named State. ' 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

.ni!!"? ^r''';-""'^"'"* ''''"'^'•^^ SpermopMIus Douglasii, but is a larger 
Tn. heel IS hairy beneath, but the remaining part of the under surface of 
Hot IS naked whilst in S,er.aopMus Dcn^glasii tho whole foot is covered 
With hau- beneath, up to the fleshy parts at the base of tl e toes 



' '<"'l fa l 



184 



P U T O III U S A CI 1. 1 S .—A u D. and Bach. 

Little Nimdlk Weasel. 
r L A T h C X L.— Male iiiul Female. Winiku Pklaoe. 

P. Magriitudino intcrmcdius P. pusilliim inter otP. funcuin ; ciiudil loii>i;a, 
auriculis [iroiiiimili.s, tCHtiitc supra dilute I'uricus, suhtus uibus, liycmo corpore 
toto caudaiiuc uivcirf, cauda apice nigro. 



CHAUAOTEIUJ. 

Intermediate in .nze between P. pusillus and P. fur^cuH ; tail, lonfr ; ears, 
prominent. Colour, in summer, liirht brown above, wliitc beneath ; in winter, 
body and tail, pure white, except the tip of the latter, which is broadly tipped 
with black. 

DESCRIPTION. 

This hitherto undcscribed species is light, slender, and graceful, wit'- 
well proportioned limbs, giving evidence of activity and sprightliness ; it 
may be termed a miniature of the ennino ; it stands jjroportionately higher 
on its legs, and although the smaller animal of the two, has the most pro- 
minent ears ; the hair is softer and shorter, both in summer and winter, 
than in either the ermine or Brown Weasel {P.fuscus) ; whiskers, numerous 
but rather short. Head, moderate ; sku'l, broad ; nose, short and rather 
pointed ; feet, small ; nails, partially concealed by the hair on the foct ; 
tail, long, covered with fur to within one and three quarters of an inch of 
the end, where it terminates in long straight smooth hairs. 



COLOUB. 

In summer : Head, ears, neck, outer surface of thighs, all the upper por- 
tions of the back, and the tail on both surfaces to near the tip, light brown, 
which is the colour of the hair from the roots to the tips ; end of the tail, 
black; chin, throat, chest, belly, and inner side of thighs, white; tho 
brown colour extends for down on the sides and flanks, leaving a rather 
narrow stripe of wliite beneatli, which is l)roadest n the neck ; the lino 
of demarcation between the upper and under coh \rs on the sides is dis" 



IJTTLR NIMDLK VVlfiASEL 



185 



tmctly but Homcwlmt irroKularly drawn. All the feet arc brown ; whiskers 
and iiailH, dark brown ; teeth, white. 

In winter : Pure white on the wlioio body, and for about three inches on 
the tail ; tip of the tail, black for an inch and three quarters ; tip of nos^ 
flesh colour ; whiskers, mostly white, a few black. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Point of nose to root of tail, - 
Length of tail (vortobraj), 

" (to end of hair), 
Point of nose to car, 
Heifjht of ear externally. 



InshM 

84 
84 
41 
U 
i 



HABITS. 



Wo preserved a specimen of this little animal during several months in 

tlic winter, forty years ago, in the northern part of New York • it had 

been captured in a box t ap, which was set near its hole in a pine forest, 

whither wo had tracked it on the snow, believing from its small foot-printa 

that It was some unknown species of Rodentia. What was our surprise 

when on the following morning w- discovered the eves of this little 

marauder prying through the crevices of the trap. Supposing it to be a 

young ermine we preserved it through the winter, under the impression 

that It would hocome tame, and increasing in size, attain its full growth 

by the following spring ; we were, however, disappointed in our expecta- 

t.ous ; It continued wild and cross, always printing on our gloves the form 

of tlie cutting edges of its teeth whenever we placed our hand within the 

box. I concealed itself in its nest, in a dark corner of the cage, during 

the whol.. lay, and at night was constantly rattling and gnawing at the 

wires in the endeavour to effect its escape. We fed it on small birds 

which It carried to its dark retreat and devoured greedily. 

Having placed a common Weasel, twice the size of our animal, in the 
cage with ,t, the ermine immediately attacked our little fellow, which 
ensconced itself in a .orner at the back of the cage, where with open mouth 
and angry eyes utering a hissing spitting or sputtering noise, he drew 
back Ins lips and showed his sharp teeth in defiance of his opponent. 

lo relieve him from a troublesome companion we removed the ermine 

lowards spring we placed a Norway rat in his cage in order to tesi his 

courage. The rat and the Weasel retreated to opposite corners and eyed 

each other during the whole day ; on the following morning we found the 

vol., jrr — 24 



hi 

t . 



186 



LITTLE NIMBLE WEASEL. 



rat had been killed , but the Weasel was so much wounded that he died 

before evening. 

We have no other information in regard to the habits of this Weasel. 
Its burrow, the entrance to which was very small, and vithout any hillock 
of earth at its borders, was situated in a high ridge of pine land. 

We have no doubt that, like the ermine, in prowling about it finds its 
way into the retreats of the meadow-mouse, the little chipping squirrel, 
and other small annuals, for although the rat above mentioned was too 
formidable an opponent, we are confident it could easily have mastered 
the little Tamias Lysteri. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

We have only observed this Weasel in the northern part of the State of 
New York, but the specimens from which we drew our figures were 
procured by Mr. J. G. Bell in Rockland county in that State. 



187 



URSUS AMERICANUS— Pai,la8. 

American Black Bear. 

PLATE CXLT .—Male and Female. 

U. Naso fere in cadem linea cum fronte, convexiore quam in U. feroce ; 
plantis palmisque brevissimis, colore nigro vel fuscescente-nigro, lateribus 
rostri fulvis. 

CHARACTERS. 

JYose, nearly in a line with the forehead, mwe arched than in Ursus ferox ; 
palms and soles of the feet, very short ; colour, black, or brownish-black ; there 
is a yellowish patch on each side of the nose. 



SYNONYMES. 

Black Bear. Pennant, Arctic Zoology, p. 57, and Introduction, p. 120. 

" " Pennant's History of Quadrupeds, vol. ii. p. 11. 

" " Warden's United States, vol. i- p. 195. 

Ursus Americanus. Palhis, Spicil. ZooL, vol. xiv. pp. 6-24. 

" " Harlan, Fauna, p. 51. 

" " Godman's Natural History, vol. i. p. 194. 

" " Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 14. 

" « DeKay, Nat. Hist. State of New York, p. 24, pi, 6, fig. 1. 



il ! 

I, ! 



DESCRIPTION. 

The Black Bear is commonly smaller than the Grizzly Bear. Body and 
legs, thick and clumsy in appearance ; head, short, and broad where it 
joins the neck ; nose, slightly arched, and somewhat pointed ; eyes, small, 
and close to each other ; ears, high, oval, and rounded at the tips ; palms 
and soles of the feet, short when compared with those of the Grizzly Bear ; 
the hairs of the feet project slightly beyond the claws ; tail, very short ; 
claws, short, blunt, and somewhat incurved ; fur, long, straight, shining, 
and rather soft. 



COLOUR. 



Checks, yellow, which colour extends from the tip of the nose on both 
sides of the mouth to near tlie eye ; in some individuals there is a small 






188 



AMERICAN BLACK BEAR. 



spot of the same tint in front of the eye, and in others a white line com 
mencing on the nose reaches to oacli side of the angle of the mouth ; in a 
few specimens tliis white line continues over the check to a large wliite 
Bpacc mixed witli a slight fawn colour, covering the whole of the throat, 
whence a narrow lino of the fawn colour descends upon the breast. The 
hairs on the whole body are in most specimens glossy black ; in some 
we examined they were brown, while a few of the skins we have seen Avere 
light brown or dingy yellow. From this last mentioned variety doubtless 
originated tlie names Cinnamon Bear, Yellow Bear of Carolina, &c. The 
outer edges of the ears are brownish-black ; eyes and nails, black. 

DIMENSIONS. 

A vcvy large specimen. 

Feet. Jnrhii. 

From nose to root of tail, Q 5 

Height to top of shoulder, 3 j 

A larger Bear than the above may sometim.es be captured, but the 
general size is considerably less. 



I 1 



HAniTS. 

The Black Bear, however clumsy in appearance, is active, vigilant, and 
persevering, possesses great strength, courage, and address, and undergoes 
with little injury the greatest fatigues and hardships in avoiding the pursuit 
of the hunter. Like the deer it changes its haunts with the seasons, and 
for the same reason, viz. the desire of obtaining suitable food, or of retiring 
to the more inaccessible parts, where it can pass the time in security, unob- 
served by man, the most dangerous of its enemies. 

During the spring months it searches for food in the low rich alluvial 
lands that border the rivers, or by the margins of such inland lakes as, on 
account of tlicir small size, are called by us ponds. There it procures 
abundance of succulent roots and tender juicy plants, upon which it chiefly 
feeds at that season. During the summer heat, it enters the gloomy 
swamps, passes much of its time in wallowing in the mud like a hog, and 
contents itself with crayfish, roots, and nettles, now and then seizing on a 
pig, or perhaps a sow, a calf, or even a full-grown cow. As soon as the 
different kinds of berries which grow on the mountains begin to ripen, 
the Bears betake themselves to the high grounds, followed by their cubs. 

In retired parts of the country, where the plantations arc large and the 
population sparse, it pays visits to the corn-lields, which it ravages for a 
while. After this, the various species of nuts, acorns, grapes, and other 



AMKRICAN BLACK BEAR. 



189 



forest fruits, that form what in the western States is called mast, attract 
its attention. The Bear is tlien seen rambling singly through the woods 
to gather this harvest, not forgetting, meanwhile, to rob every bee-tree it 
meets with. Bears being expert at this operation. 

The Black Bear is a capital climber, and now and then houses itself in 
the hollow trunk of some large tree for weeks together during the winter, 
when it is said to live by sucking its paws. 

At one season, the Bear may be seen examining the lower part of the 
trunk of a tree for several minutes with much attention, at the same time 
looking around, and snuffing the air. It then rises on its hind-legs, 
approaches the trunk, embraces it with the fore-legs, and scratches the 
bark with its teeth and claws for several minutes in continuance. Its 
jaws clash against each other until a mass of foam runs down on botli 
sides of the moulh. After this it continues its rambles. 

■The female Black Bear generally brings forth two cubs at a time, 
although, as we have heard, the number is sometimes three or four. The 
period of gestation is stated to be from six to seven weeks, but is mentioned 
as one hundred days by some authors. When born the young are exceed- 
ingly small, and if we may credit the accounts of hunters with wliom we 
have conversed on the subject, are not larger than kittens. They are 
almost invariably brought forth in some well concealed den, or groat 
hollow tree, and so cautious is the dam in selecting her place of accoueh- 
ment, that it is extremely difficult to discover it, and consequently very 
rarely that either the female or her cubs are seen until the latter have 
obtained a much larger size than when born, arc able to follow their dam, 
and can climb trees with facility. 

Most writers on the habits of this animal have stated that the Black 
Bear docs not eat animal food from choice, and never unless pressed by 
liungcr. This we consider a great mistake, for in our experience we have 
found the reverse to be the case, and it is well known to our frontier 
farmers that this animal is a great destroyer of pigs, hogs, calves, and 
sheep, for the sake of which w,e have even known it to desert the pecan 
groves in Texas. At the same time, as will have been seen by our previous 
remarks, its principal food generally consists of i.erries, roots, and other 
vegetable substances. It is very fond also of fish, and during one of our 
expeditions to Maine and New Brunswick, we found the inhabitants 
residing near the coast unwilling to eat the flesh of tlie animal on account 
of its fishy taste. In our western forests, however, the Bear feeds on so 
many nuts and well tasted roots and berries, that its meat is considered a 
great delicacy, and in the city of New York we have generally found its 
market price three or four times ir.ore than the best beef per pound. The 




190 



AMERICAN BLACK BEAR, 



forc-paw of the Bear when cooked presents a striking resemblance to the 
hand of a cliild or young person, and we have known some individuals to 
be hoaxed by its being represented as such. 

Perhaps the most acrid vegetable eaten by the Bear is the Indian turnip 
{Jlrum triphyllum), which is so pungent that we have seen people almost 
distracted by it, when they had inadvertently put a piece in their 
mouth. 

The Black Bear is a remarkably swift runner when first alarmed, 
although it is generally " treed," that is, forced to ascend a tree, when 
pursued by dogs and hunters on horseback. We were, not very long since, 
when on an expedition in the mountains of Virginia, leisurely making our 
way along a road through the forest after a long hunt for deer and turkeys, 
with our gun thrown behind our shoulders and our arms resting on each 
end of it, when, although we had been assured there were no Bears in that 
neighbourhood, we suddenly perceived one above us on a little acclivity at 
one side of the road, where it was feeding, and nearly concealed by the 
bushes. The bank was only about fifteen feet high, and the Bear not more 
than twenty paces from us, so we instantly disengaged our gun, and cocking 
both barrels, expected to " fill our bag" at one shot, but at the instant and 
before we could fire, the Bear, with a celerity that astonished us, disap- 
peared. We rushed up the bank and found the land on the top nearly 
level for a long distance before us, and neither very thickly wooded nor 
very bushy ; but no Bear was to be seen, although our eye could penetrate 
the woods for at least two hundred yards. After the first disappointing 
glance around, we tiiought Bruin might have mounted a tree, but such was 
not the case, as on looking everywhere nothing could be seen of his black 
body, and we were obliged to conclude that he had run out of sight in the 
brief space of time we occupied in ascending tho little bank. 

As we were once standing at the foot of a large sycamore tree on the 
borders of a long and deep pond, on the edge of which, in our rear, there 
was a thick and extensive " cane-brake," we heard a rushing roaring noise, 
as if some heavy animal was bearing down and passing rapidly through 
the canes, directly towards us. We Avore not kept long in suspense, for in 
an instant or two, a large Bear dashed out of the douse cane, and plunging 
into the i)ond without having even seen us, made off with considerable 
speed through the water towards the other shore. Having only bird-shot 
in our gun we did not think it worth while to call his attention to us by 
firing at him, but turned to the cane-brake, expecting to hear either dogs 
or men approaching shortly. No further noise could be heard, however, 
and the surrounding woods were as still as before this adventure. We 
supposed the Bear had been started at some distance, and that his pursuers 



AMERICAN BLACK BEAR. 



191 



not beiii!^ able to follow him through the almost impenetrable caiies, had 
given up the hunt. 

Being one niglit sleeping in the house of a friend who was a Planter in 
the State of Louisiana, we were awakened by a servant bearing a light, 
who gave us a note, which he said his master had just received. We found 
it to be a communication from a neighbour, requesting our host and 
ourself to join him as soon as possible, and assist in killing some Bears at 
that moment engaged in destroying Ids corn. We were not long in dress- 
ing, and on entering the parlour, found our friend equipped. The over- 
seer's horn was heard calling up the negroes. Some were already saddling 
our horses, whilst others were gathering all the cur-dogs of the plantation. 
All was bustle. Before half an hour had elapsed, four stout negro men, 
armed with axes and knives, and mounted on strong nags, were following 
us at a round gallop through the woods, as we made directly for the neigh- 
bour's plantation. 

The night was none of the most favourable, a drizzling rain rendering 
the atmosphere thick and rather sultry ; but as we were well acquainted 
with the course, we soon reached the house, where the owner was waiting 
our arrival. There were now three of us armed with guns, half a dozen 
servants, and a good pack of dogs of all kinds. We jogged on towards 
the detached field in which the Bears were at work. The owner told us 
that for some days several of these animals had visited his corn, and that a 
negro who was sent every afternoon to see at what part of the enclosure 
they entered, had assured him there were at least five in the field that 
night. A plan of attack was formed : the bars at the usual entrance of 
the field were to be put down without noise ; the men and dogs were to 
divide, and afterwards proceed so as to surround the Bears, when, at the 
sounding of our horns, every one was to charge towards the centre of the 
field, and shout as loudly as possible, which it was judged would so intimi- 
date the animals as to induce them to seek refuge upon the dead trees with 
which the field was still partially covered. 

The plan succeeded : the horns sounded, the horses galloped forward, 
the men shouted, the dogs barked and howled. The shrieks of the negroes 
were enough to frighten a legion of bears, and by the time we reached tlie 
middle of the field we found that several had mounted the trees, and having 
lighted fires, we now saw them crouched at the junction of the larger 
branches with the trunks. Two were immediately shot down. They were 
cubs of no groat size, and being already half dead, were quickly dispatched 
by the dogs. 

We were anxious to piociiro as much sport as possible, and having 
observed one of the Bears, whicJi from its size we conjectured to be the 




192 



AMERICAN BLACK BEAU. 



mother of tlio two cubs just killed, we ordered the negroes to cut down the 
tree on which it was perched, when it was intended the dogs should have 
a tug -(fitli it, while we should support them, and assist in preventing the 
Bear from escaping, by wounding it in one of the hind-legs. The sur- 
rounding woods now echoed to the blows of the axemen. The tree was 
large and tough, having been girded more than two years, and the opera- 
tion of felling it seemed extremely tedious. However, at length it began 
CO vibrate at each stroke ; a few inches alone ■„' •• uprortou it, and in a 
short time it came crashing to the ground. 

The dogs rushed to the charge, and harassc • e Bear on all sides, 
whilst we surrounded the poor animal. As its life depended upon its 
courage and strength, it exercised both in the most energetic manner. 
Now and then it seized a dog and killed him by a single stroke. At 
another time, a well administered blow of one of its fore legs sent an 
assailant off, yelping so pitcously that he might be looked upon as hors du 
combat. A cur had daringly ventured to seize the Bear by the snout, and 
was seen hanging to it, covered with blood, whilst several others scrambled 
over its back. Now and then the infuriated animal was seen to cast a 
revengeful glance at some of the party, and we had already determined to 
dit^iiatch it, when, to our astonishment, it suddenly shook off all the dogs, 
and before we could lire, charged upon one of the negroes, who was 
mounted on a p? horse. The Bear seized the steed with teeth and 
claws, and clung to its breast. The terrified horse snorted and iilunged. 
The rider, an athletic young man and a capital horseman, kept his scat, 
although only saddled on a sheep-skin tightly girthed, and requested his 
master not to fire at the Bear. Notwithstanding his coolness and courage, 
our anxiety for his safety was raised to the highest pitch, especially when 
ill a moment we saw rider and horse come to the ground together ; but wo 
were instantly relieved on witnessing the masterly manner iuAvhich Scino 
dispatched his adversary, by laying open his skull with a single well 
directed blow of his axe, when a deep growl announced the death of tho 
Bear. 

In our country no animal, perhaps, has been more freciuently the themo 
of adventure or anecdote than the Bear, and in some of our southwestern 
States it is not uncommon to while away the winter evenings with Bear 
stories that are not only interesting on account of the traits of the habits 
of the animal with which they are interspersed, but from the insiglit they 
afford the listener into the characteristics of the bold and hardy huntsmen 
of those parts. 

In the State of Maine the lumbermen (wood-cutters) and the farmers set 
guns to kill this animal, which are arranged in this way : A funnel-shaped 



AMKKICAN BLACK BEAR. 



193 



space about five feet long is formed by driving strong sticks into the 
ground in two converging lines, leaving .both the ends open, the narrow 
end being wide e.iougli to admit the muzzle of an old musket, and the 
other extremity so broad as to allow the head and shoulders of the Bear 
to enter. The gun is then loaded and fastened securely so as to deliver 
Its charge facing the wide end of the enclosure. A round and smooth 
Btick is now placed behind the stock of the gun, and a cord leading from 
the trigger passed around it, the other end of which, with a piece of meat 
or a bird tied to it (an owl is a favourite bait), is stretched in front of the 
gun, so far that the Bear can reach the bait with his paw. Upon his 
pulling the meat towards him, the string draws the trigger and the animal 
is instantly killed. 

On the coast of Labrador we observed the Black Bear catching fish ^vith 
great dexterity, and the food of these animals in that region consisted 
altogether of the fishes they seized in the edge of the water inside the surf. 
Like the Polar Bear, the present species swims with ease and rapidity, and 
It IS a difficult matter to catch a full grown Bear with a skiff, and a dan- 
gerous adventure to attempt its capture in a canoe, which it could easily 
upset. "^ 

We were once enjoying a fine autumnal afternoon on the shores of the 
beautiful Ohio, with two acquaintances who had accompanied us in quest 
of some swallows that had built in a high sandy bank, when we observed 
three hunters about the middle of the river in a skifl-, vigorously rowing 
the steersman paddling too, with all his strength, in pursuit of a Bear 
which, about one hundred and fifty yards ahead of them, was cleaving the 
water and leaving a widening wake behind him on its nnrippled surface as 
he made for the shore, directly opposite to us. We all rushed down to the 
water at this sight, and launching a skiff we then kept for fishing, hastily 
put off to intercept the animal, which we hoped to assist in capturing. 
n3oth boats were soon nearing the Bear, and we, standing in the bow of 
our skiff, commenced the attack by discharging a pistol at his head. At 
this he raised one paw, brushed it across his forehead, and then seemed to 
redouble his eflbrts. Repeated shots from both boats were no^r fired at 
him, and we ran alongside, thinking to haul his carcase triumphantly od 
board ; but suddenly, to our dismay, he laid both paws on the gunwale of 
the skiff, and his great weight brought the side for an instant under water, 
80 that we expected the boat would fill and sink. There was no time to 
be lost : wo all throw our weight on to the other side, to counterpoise that ' 
of the animal, and commenced a pell-mell battery on him with the oars and 
a boat-hook ; the men in the other boat also attacked him, and driving the 
bow of their skiff close to his head, one of them laid his skull open with 

VOL. lil. — 2J 




104 



AMKRICAN HLACK BEAR. 



an axe, which kille.l hit.v instanter. Wc jointly hurraed, and ty.ng a ropo 
round liis nock, towed him ashore behind our boats*. 

The r>hick Bear is very tenacious of life, and like its relative, the 
CJriz.ly Bear, is danj^^erous when irritated ..r wounded. It makes large 
1.0.1s of leaves ar.d weeds or grasses, in the fissures of reeks, or sleeps in 
hollow logs, when no convenient den can be found in its ne.g.iuourhood ; 
it also makes lairs in the thick eane-brakes and deep swamps, and eovera 
itself with a heap of leaves and twigs, like ". wild sow when about to litter. 

The skin of the Black Bear is an excellent material lor sleigh-robcs, 
hammer-cloths, caps, &c., and makes a comfortable bed for the backwc.ods- 
man or Indian ; and the grease procured from this species is invaluable to 
tlio hair-drcsscr, being equal if not superior to 

"Thine incompnnvl)lo oil Macassar 1" 

Which we (albeit unacquainted with the mode of preparing it) presume to 
be a compound much less expensive to the manufacturer than would be the 
"crenuine real l?ear's grease"-not of the shops, but of the prairies and 

western woods. 

The Black Bear is rather docile when in confinement, and a pet Bear 
is occasionally seen in various parts of the country, in our large c.lies 
lunvever, where civilization (?) is thought to have made the greatest 
■ulvance« this animal is used to amuse the gentlemen ot the iancy, l.y 
mittin- its stren-th and "pluck" to the test, in combat with bull-dogs or 
n-astili^ When the Bear has not been so closely imprisoned as to partially 
de^h-ov his activitv, these encounters generally end with the killing of ono 
or more dogs; but occasionally the dogs overpower him, and he is rescued 
for the time by his friends, to "light (again) some other day." 

We arc happy to say, however, that Bear-baiting and bull-baitmg have 
not been as yet fully naturalized amongst us, and are only popular wit. 
tho<e who, perhaps, in addition to the natural desire for excitement, liavo 
the hope and intention of winning money, to draw them to such cruel and 

useless exhibitions. 

Among the many Bear stories that have been published in the newspa. 
ncrs and which, wliether true or invented, arc generally interesting, tliO 
following is one of the latest, the substance of which wc will give, as nearly 

as we can recollect it : , . n ■,^ 

A youno- man in the State of Maine, whilst at work m a field, accompa- 
nied only'' bv a small boy, was attacked by a Bear which suddenly 
approached iVom the edge of the forest, and quite unexpectedly fell upon 
him with great fury. Almost at the first onset the brute overthrew the 
voun.^ tarmer. who fell to the ground on his back, with the Bear clutching 



AMERICAN ULACk. HEAR. 



195 



him, and biting his arm severely. Notliiiig but the utmost presence of 
mind could have saved the young man, as he was unarmed with the excep- 
tion of a knife, which he could not get out of his pocket owing tO the 
position in wliich he had fallen. Perceiving that his cliance of esca[)e waa 
desperate, he rammed his hand and arm so far dowi* the tliroat of the Bear 
as to produce the elVcct of partial strangulation, and whilst the beast 
became faint from conse(iuent loss of l)reath, called to the hoy to come and 
hand him the knife. The latter bravely came to tin; rescue, got the knife, 
opened it, and gave it to him, when he succeeded in cutting the Bear's 
throat, and with the exception of a few severe bites, and some lacerations 
from the claws of the animal, was not veiy much injured. The Bear waa 
carried next day in triumph to a neighbouring village, and weighed over 
four hundred pounds. 

Such assaults are, however, exceedingly rare, and it is seldom that even 
a wounded Bear attacks man. 

Captain J. P. McCown has furnished us with the following remarks : 
" In the mountains of Tennessee the Bear lives principally upon mast and 
fruits. It is also fond of a bee-tree, and is often found seeking even a 
wasp's or yellow-jacket's nest. In the autumn the Bear is hunted when 
'lopping' for chesnuts. Lopping consists in brr ing off the branches by 
the Bear to procure the mast before it falls. When pursued by the . ogs 
the Bear sometimes i)acks up against a tree, when it exhibits decided skill 
as a boxer, all the time looking exceedingly good-natured ; but woo to the 
poor dog that ventures within its reach ! 

" The dogs generally employed for pursuing the Bear are curs and fice, 
as dogs of courage are usually killed or badly injured, while the cur will 
attack the Bear behind, and run when ho turns upon him. No number of 
dogs can kill a Boar unless assisted by man. 

" In 1841, the soldiers of my regiment had a pet he-Bear (castrated) that 
was exceedingly gentle and i)layful with the men. It becoming necessary 
to sell or kill it, one of the soldiers led it down the streets of Buffalo and 
exposed it for sale. Of course it attracted a large crowd, and was bid for 
on all sides on account of its gentleness. But unfortunately Bruin was 
carried near a hogshead of sugar, and not disposed to lose so tempting a 
repast, quietly upset it, knocking out the head, and commenced helping 
himself in spite of the soldier's efforts to prevent the depredation. The 
owner of the sugar rushed out and kicked the Bear, which, not liking such 
treatment, gave in return for the assault made upon him, a blow that sent 
his assailant far into the street, to the terror of the crowd, which scattered, 
leaving him to satisfy his appetite for sugar unmolested." 
The number of Black Bears is gradually decreasing in the more settled 



!!%| 



If 



196 



AMK-mCAN ni,A(K UKAR. 



parta of the "hack wooda," hut in sonm portions of Caroliiia nnd Ooorpia, 
where tiio vast Hwumps provcnt any uttonipt to wettlo or cultivate tiie iaiitl, 
thoy have within a few yearH heen on the inereaso, and have licconic 
destroyers of the young Htoek of the I'ianter (wliieh f^cnerally range through 
the woo(I-i) to a considerable extent. 

Sir John Uiciiauoson says liuit when resident in llio fur countries tiiis 
Bear ahnost invariably liiberiuites, and that about one tiiousand skins aro 
annually procured by the Hudson's Bay Company from those tliat aro 
destroyed in their winter retreats. " It generally selects a spot for its den 
under u fallen tree, and having scratched away a portion of tiie soil, retires 
to it at the cominenceinent of a snow-storm, when the snow soon furnislies 
it with a close, warm covering. Its breath makes a small opening in the 
den, and the quantity of hoar-frost which occasionally gathers round tho 
aperture serves to betray its retreat to the hunter." 

The Black Bear is sonu'what migratory, and in hard winters is found to 
move southwardly in considerable numbers, although not in companv. 
They couple in Septendier or October, after which the females retire to 
their dens before tho setting in of very cold weather. 

It is said that the males do not so soon resc t to winter quarters aa tho 
females, and recjuire some time after tho love season to recover their lost 
fat. The females bring forth about the beginning of January. 

The Indian tribes have many superstitions concerning the Bear, and it 
is with some of them necessary to go through divers ceremonies before 
proceeding to hunt the aninuil. 



GKOGRAPHICAL OISTRIBUTION. 



The Black Bear has been found throughout North America in every 
wooded district from the north through all tho States to Mexico, but has 
not hitherto been discovered in California, where it appears to be replaced 
by tho Grizzly Bear {Urstisferox). 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

This species was in the early stages of natural history regarded as 
identical with the Black Bear of Europe. Pallas iirst de?> ribed it aa a 
distinct animal, since which its specific name has remained undisturbed ; 
its varieties have however produced much speculation, and it has frequently 
been supposed, and not without soaie reason, that the Brown Bear of our 
western country was a species differing from the Black Bear. 

In order to arrive at a correct conclusion on this subject we must be 



amkrf(;an black rrar. 



1»7 



frni.icd loHH ))y colour than by the form and structure of the animal and its 
longtli of hool and (dawn ; it is evident (hat (he size can afford us no clue 
wlierohy to desiKuate the Hinvien, inaHuiuch as some indivLluals may l.o 
found that aro nearly double the dimonHionw of othorii. 



,1 



.iff: 
ill. 



T 



I 



Hi! 
HI 



198 



P S H IJ DOS T () M A IH) U i: A L 1 S .—II i c; ii . M S S. 

Tub Camah IUt. 

r L A T K C X !. 11. Mai.r, Kkmai.k, nnd Yoi'Nd. 

P. Ex cinoroo fulvuH, caiida long.i pilosa ; 1'. hurHiiiio minor, ot ^^racilior, 
doutilmK uiigiiilius(|uo niiiiorihuH. 

CIlAnACTKIW. 

Smallir and of more iMirate form than I'soudostonia biirHariiis, ami tvvlh 
and claws much smnlltr. Tail, lonf^, and dut/ud with hair. Colour, pule 
yeUon*is/i-gray. 

8VN0NYMES. 

Gromys KoiiKAi.iB. Hioh,, MSS. 

Pbkuuostoma HoKKAi.iH. Itmli., Jour. Ai';»(l. Nat. Scioiioos I'liilitdeljiliiii, vol. viii. 

part 1, p. 101). 
Oeomvs Townhendii. Uioli., MSS. 

DESCUIl'TION. 

IToad, of niodoratc size ; cars, consisting of a small round opening mar- 
gined by an devatod ridgo, the liigliost portion of which is the posterior 
part, and is about one lino in height. The ears not hidden by the fur, 
but distinctly visible. Hody, moderately thick ; daws of the for . 2t, 
Blender and rather long ; incisors, rather long (but not largo for tho 
genus) ; tho upper ones have each a slight longitudinal groove situated 
close to the inner nuirgin. Tip of nose, nuked ; feet, bare beneath ; inner 
toe of fore-feet, ratlier short, outer next in length, middle longest, and tho 
toes on either side of the central one about equal ; tliero is a long brush 
of -tiff white hairs on tho inner side of the inner toe. Ou the hind-feet tho 
central toe is longest, outer toes equal and short. Tail, hairy. 

COLOUR. 



General colour, pale gray, the upper parts more or less washed with 
yellow ; inside of pouches, under surface of body, feet, and tail, white. 



ItfO 



TIIK (JAMAS RAT. 

n.iiM of (I,., |,o,|y, .lark „I,vtn oolour at tho rootH. Thn-o in u .lunky npot 
»":"'"l I '" <'.UH ; i„«is„r„, ycll„w ; da vh, whito ; tail. al..,vo,KrayiHh. tifgoU 
With yellow. n ^ , e^ u 



niMENHIONH. 



■ 7 
2 
1 



LllHW. 






Protn iiOHO to root of tail, - . . . 
Tail, 

'I'ar.siiH and (ilawH, 

(!(!iitral (^law of foi-o-foot, - . . . 

Noun to car, < 

Tlu. al.ov.. ,|ns,Ti,.tion wns uuuh' fro,,, (hn-o »po,.,i,nnnH of tl.iH pouched 
^:u.. l-rat, ol.tam.Ml by (,!,„ I.Un Mr. Townhkn,,, on tin, (;o|„,„l,i„ riv-.r two 
of wind, appoanul to bo in Huuunor polag,,, a.ul tho third in it.s aut.nnnal 

COttt* 

Pcscription of another spoebnon 8o„t by Mr. Townhen,,, marked in 
IllcnAiiDHONVt MSS. aH Gvomys Townsvadii : 
Porn, and hI/.o of tlu- anin.ul, nearly tho name as in tho HpocimonH iu8t 
.h'H.-r,bed. with the oxeeption of tho tail, wind. Ih eo„,Hi.lerably lonir,., 
Uono.-al colonr, ve.-y pale ^ray above, with a finnt yellowish wash • end 
of noHO, dusky g,ay ; under parts, jrmyish-.vhite ; ehin, ,m..m, white'; tail 
and foct, white, tho former ^niyish above. nai.s ..f the bark, v.-i-ypale 
jrray at the roots, pale ydlow near the tips, the extreme points einereouB 
Teeth, yellowish-white; upper indsoi-s, with a faint gioovc near the 
internal n.ai-gin. CIuwh and fore-foot, moderate white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Fi-om nose to tail. 

Tail, - - . . 

Tarsus, 

Cciitial elaw of fore-foot. 

Nose to car, 



liirhnt. 


L:n«s 


7 


6 


2 


9 


1 


U 




6 


1 


5 



HABITS. 



The Camas Rat derives its na.ne, according to Richardson, from its 
lo.idncss for the bulbous, root of the quamash or camas plant iScm 
tscuhnta). 

Like all the pouched Rats of America, it feeds upon nuts, roots, seeds, 



Ml! 



200 



THK CAMAS RAT 



and grasses, and makes burrows, extending long distances, but not very far 
beneath the surface of the ground, throwing up mole-hills in places as il 
comes to the surface. These animals arc generally found to be in a certain 
degree gregarious, or at least a good many of them inhabiting the same 
locality, and more or less associated together ; and are said to be very 
common on the plains of the Multnomah river. 

Mr. Douglas informed Sir John Richardson that they may be easily 
snared in the summer. 

We believe that some of the Indians of those parts of Oregon in which 
this burrowing Rat exists eat them, but have no information concerning tiio 
peculiarities they exhibit, tlie number of young they produce at a time, or 
the depredations they commit on the fields and gardens of the settlers. 

In the Fauna Boreali Americana (p. 20()), this pouched Rat (if we are 
not mistaken), is given as Diplostoma bulbivormn — Canuis Rat — and under 
the impression that that name applies to our present animal, we have 
made the above remarks in relation to it. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Specimens were obtained both by Douglas and Drummond, about the 
same period of time, in the vicinity of the Columbia river in Oregon. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

On a visit to Europe we carried witli us three specimens of pouched 
Band-Rats, whicli we regarded as belonging to the same species, but being 
male, female, and young. Oir object was to compare them with specimenH 
taken from this country at the north and west by Richardson, DouglaS, 
Drummond, and other naturalists. Richardson kindly showed us a< 
fipcfimen brought from the Columbia river by Douglas, which, as we 
thought, appeared to be of the same species as our own. As he was then 
prcjiaring a monograph of this perplexing genus, we reciuested him to 
describe the species, and add it to liis monograph ; he consequently gave 
it the above name, lie however called another specimen which we had 
carried witli us, Gcomys Townsendii. We think his monograph was never 
published. 

We have united what he considered two species — Gcomys Borcalis and 
G. Townsendii— into one, having added the latter as a synonyme ; and wo 
have rejected Diplostoma as a genus, not only because wo conceive the 
characters on which it is founded to be the result of an unnatural disposi- 
tion of the pouches in the dried skins, but for the reason mentioned above 



THE CAMAS RAT. 



201 



viz., that we consider the so-called Diplostoma bulbivorum to be identical 
with the animal we have just described as Pseudostoma borealis, although the 
description given by Richardson has apparently no reference to the latter, 
but on the contrary describes his Diplostoma as having the true mouth 
vertical {!). He says : " The lips, which in fact are right and left, and not 
upper and under," &c. Besides, in the beginning of his article he mentions 
that the skull is wanting. We think we may therefore reasonably pre- 
sume, that although the skin had been so twisted and disfigured by putting 
it into an unnatural form that the appellation which Mr. Douglas gave it, 
as " the animal known on the banks of the Columbia by the name of the 
Camas Rat," did not seem to apply to it, we shall be right in rejecting both 
the generic and specific names given by our friend Sir John Richaedson 
to so very imperfect a specimen, and in believing that the skin was in 
reality (although much injured and distorted) nothing but the Camas Rat, 
as Douglas called it. 



VOL. ui.— 26 



202 



< Vi 



PTEROMYS SABRINUS.— Penisam'. 

SkVBRN RiVKU Fl-YINO-SlJUIRIlKL. 

PLATE CXLIIL— Fig. 1. 

P. Magnitudine P. voluccllum tertia parte cxcedcns ; cauda corpore 
curtiorc, patagio luiubaii pone carpuin iu lobum rotundatuiu excurrento, 
colore Uavcsccnte-cano obscuriore inumbrato. 

CHARACTERS. 

One third larger than P. volucclla ; tail, shorter than the body ; fiymg 
membrane having a small rounded projection behind the wrist. Colour, dull 
yeUmo gray, irregularly marked with darker. 

SYN0NYME3. 

Greater Flying-Squirrkl. Forster, Philos. Trans., vol. Ixii. p. 379. 
Severn River Flying-Squirrel, reniiant, Hist. Quad., vol. ii. p. 103. 

" " " Arctic Zoology, vol. i. p. 122. 

SciURUS HuDBONius. Gmcl., Syst., vol. i. p. 1 53. 

" Sadrinus. Sbaw, Zool., vol. ii., part 1, p. J 57. 
Pteromvs Sabrinus. Rich., Zool. Jour., No. 12, p. 519. 
" " " F. 13. A., p. 193. 

DE8CRIPTI0K. 

Head, short and somewhat rounded ; nose, short and obtuse ; eyes, 
large ; flying membrane, extending from the wrist to the middle of the 
hind-log, nearly straight, having only a slight rounded projection close to 
the wrist ; tail, depressed, slightly convex on its upper surface, but quite 
Hat, or even somewhat concave, \)encath ; it is broadest about an inch from 
the body, and then tapers gradually but very slightly towards the extre- 
mity, which i? rounded ; the flattened form of the tail, and its distichous 
arraniioinont, is given to it iu consequence of the fur on its sides being 
much longer than that on its upper surface ; the extremities are small ; the 
lore-legs connected with the flying membrane down to the wrist; the feet 
are hairy both above and below. There arc four short toes on the fore- 
lect, and the claws are small, compressed, curved, and sharp pointed; 



I I I 



i 

i 




\ 




1 

^ ^ 


1 



N'Vli 



I' ■ ( Xl.l 



//,// 




/■>,/ :' 



:■ • ! 1 





i; .'f 



i:t' 



''</ / ■ '< / I /f^ . ■'/,!,' . ''//,','//, 



■/ ■ •/,// 



If. ;i. 



/W .' ■'<V'.-/.y . ^f, ,y,w /,,■,, . '//, 



'/■'^yy . ^/Ci'/zv' 



: , i 




SEVERN RIVER FLYING-SQUIRREL. 



203 



under their roots there is a compressed callous space, projecting from the 
end of each toe, and there is a callosity in place of a thumb, armed with a 
very minute nail. 

There are five hind toes ; the claws resemble those of the fore feet, and 
are almost concealed by the hair of the toes ; the soles are covered with a 
dense brush, like the feet of a rabbit or hare. The fur is soft, long, and 
silky on all parts. 

COLOUR. 

Incisors, deep orange ; whiskers, black"; a dark gray marking around 
the eye. The hairs on the upper surface of the head and body are of a 
deep blackish-gray colour from the roots to near the tips, which are pale 
reddish-brown, but distinctly presented only when the fur lies smoothly ; 
on the flying membrane the colour is a shade darker in consequence of the 
under colour not being concealed by the lighter colour of the tips ; the 
outer surfaces of the feet arc pale bluish-gray ; the margins of the mouth, 
Bides of the nose, cheeks, and whole ventral aspect of the body, white, with 
a tingo of buff under the belly, and particularly under the flying membrane. 
Tail, nearly the colour of the back, with an intermixture however of black 
hairs ; beneath, it is buff ; hair on the solos, yellowish-white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 
Tail, including fur, 
Height of ear, 
Heel to end of claw, - 
Longest hind-toe and nail, 
Fore-toe and nail, 



InshM. 

8 


Line*. 


5 


9 




5i 


1 


5i 




42 




5 



HABITS. 

We found this interesting Flying-Squirrel in abundance at Qu'^bec, and 
many of them were offered for sale in the markets of that city during our 
sojourn there. It appears indeed to take the place of the common small 
Flying-Squirrel of the United States {P. voluceUa) in Lower Canada, where 
wo did not observe the latter east of Montreal. 

We heard that one of these pretty animals was caught alive by a soldier 
wlio saw it on the plains of Abraham, and ran it down. 

A brood of young of this species, along with the mother was kept in 



■1 






204 



SEVERN RIVER FLYING-SQUIRRRL. 



confinement by an acquaintance of ours, for about four months, and the 
little ones, five in number, were suckled in the following manner : the 
younglings stood on the ground floor of the cage, whilst the mother hung 
her body downwards, and secured herself from falling by clinging to the 
perch immediately above her head by her fore-feet. This was observed 
every day, and some days as frequently as eight or ten times. 

This brood was procured as follows : a piece of partially cleared wood 
having been set on fire, the labourers saw the Flying-Squirrel start from a 
hollow stump with a young one in her mouth, and watched the place where 
ehc deposited it, in another stump at a little distance. The mother returned 
to her nest, and took away another and another in succession, until all 
were removed, when the wood-cutters went to the abode now occupied by 
the affectionate animal, and caught her already singed by the fire, and her 
five young unscathed. 

After some time a pair of the young were given away to a friend. The 
three remaining ones, as well as the mother, were killed in the following 
manner : 

The cage containing them was hung near the window, and one night 
during the darkness, a rat, or rats (jnus dccumanus), caught hold of the 
three young through the bars, and ate off all their flesh, leaving the skins 
almost entire, and the heads remaining inside the bars. '1 he mother had 
had her thigh broken and her flesh eaten from the bone, and yet this good 
parent was so affectionately attached to her brood that when she waa 
found in this pitiable condition in the morning, she was clinging to her 
oflTspring, and trying to nurse them as if they had still been alive. 

This species is said to bear a considerable resemblance to the European 
Flying-Squirrel. It was first described by Forster, who not having dis- 
tinguislicd it from the European animal. Pennant stands as its discoverer. 

"We did not observe any of these Flying-Squirrels on the borders of the 
Yellow Stone or Upper Missouri, and have no further information as to 
their habits. 

In our first volume (pp. 134, 135), we mentioned that Sir John Rich- 
ardson speaks of a Flying-Squirrol which he considered a variety of P. 
sabrinus, and called var. B. alpinus. We then remarked that m'C hoped tc 
be able to identify that variety when presenting an account of the habits 
of P. sabrinus, and in our next article shall have the pleasure of doing so, 
having named it P. alpinus. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The northern range of this species is about latitude f}2° ; it has been 



SEVERN RIVER FLVING-SQUIRREL. 20i; 

, captured on the shores of Lake Huron, and at the bottom of James Ray, 
at MooHO Factory. We obtained specimens in the neighbourhood of 
Quebec, where in the autuiim they were exceedingly abundant. 

We have not a doubt it i.s found in the United States soutli of the river 
St. Lawrence, but at present have no evidence to that effect. It does not 
appear to exist on eitlier slope of the Rocky Mountains, nor have we in 
fact been able to find any of our smaller Rodcntia of the Atlantic States 
in those regions. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

As long as only two species of Flying-Squirrel were known in North 
America— the present species (P. sahrinus) and the little P. volucella—thcrG 
was no difficulty iri deciding on the species, but since others have been 
discovered in the far west, the task of separating and defining them 
has become very perplexing. We will however endeavour, in our next 
article, in which we shall describe P. alpinus, to point out those chnractere 
which may enable naturalists to distinguish the closely allied species. 



206 



PT E R O M Y S A L P IN U S.— A u d. and B a c h. 

BocEY Mountain FLviMa-SQUiRiiiiu 

PLATE CXLTII.— Fia. 2. 

P. Magnitiulino P. salirino major, caudfi planfi, latd, corpore longiore 
patagio lumbar! angusto, marginc recta. 

CHARACTERS. 

Larger than Pteromys sabrin'is ; tail, fat and broad, longer than the body • 
fiying membrane, short and with a straight border. 

SYNONYME. 
Ptkromts Sabrimus (Var. Alpinus). Rich., F. B. A., p. 10r», pi. 18. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Head longer and body stouter than in P. sabrinxis ; the tail is also 
longer, much broader, more densely clothed with hair, and has a flatter 
anil more elliptical form ; the flying membrane is much smaller than in P. 
sabrinus, and the border is straight ; the ears arc thin and membranous, 
have a little fur at the base on the upper surface, and are thinly covered 
on both sides with short adpressed hairs ; their form is semi-oval with 
rounded tips ; the tail is flat, oblong, and oval in form ; the crtremitiea 
are rather stout, more especially the hind-feet ; the Foles, palnii., una under 
surfaces of the toes are well covered with fur, except a small callous emi- 
nence at the end of each toe. There are five eminences on the palm, of 
\yhich tlie two posterior ones ai c the largest ; and four on the soles, situated 
at the root of the toes. There is a brusli of soft fur near the outer edges 
of the soles ; tlie fur is dense, very long, and has a woolly appearance ; the 
longest hair on the back is fully an inch in length. 



COLOUR. 



Feod, nose, and cheeks, light grayish, with a slight wash of yellow ; 
surface of the fur on the back, yellowish-brown, without any tendency to 
the more rod hue of the back in P. sahrinus. 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN FLYING-SQIJIRRFJ. ^01 

The fur of tl.o throat and belly is a grayish-white, without any tin^e of 
bufl colour ; tail, blackiah-brow^ above, a little paler beneath. 



^ 


jj 




i 



DIMENSIONS. 

Froi point of noso to r»iot of tail, - 
Tail (vi^rtebrnc), .... 
" Hncludi'itr fur), - . . . 
Heel to longest middle too, 
Height of car posteriorly, 
Breadth between the outer edges of the flying membrane, 



huhn 

8i 

6 

6» 

U 
I 

4i 



Richardson stares that there is a specimen in the Hudson's Bay 
Museum, which measures nine inches from the point of the nose to the 
root of the tail. 

HABITS. 

We have learned little of the habits of this animal. Drummond, who 
obtained it on the Rocky Mountains, states that it lives in pine forests, 
seldom venturing from its retreats except during the night. 

From its heavy structure, and the shortness of the bony process that 
supports the flying membrane, we are led to infer that it is less capable of 
Bupporting itself in sailing from one tree to another, than the other species 
of this genus. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Both the specimens of Drummond and Townsend were obtained in 
crossing the Rocky Mountains on the usual route to the Columbia river. 
We have no doubt this species will be found on the western side of the 
Rocky Mountains, from the Russian settlements through Oregon to 
California. 




GENERAL REMARKS. 

Richardson regarded this species as a variety of Pteromys sabrinus (see 
our first volume, p. 134), and adopted for it the name alpinus, not to desig- 
nate a species but a variety. We, on the oUicr hand, consider it a true 
species, and have applied to it the name of P. alpinus, quoting Richari> 
son's rnr. alpinus as a synonyme. 

On comparing the specimen from which our drawing was made, with P. 



^r^\ 




206 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN FLYING-SQUIRREL 



tabrinus from Quebec, tlio following appeared to bo the points of differouce •. 
dpinus ia considerably the larger animal, and although the legs appear 
somewhat shorter, Ihcy arc stouter ; the fur is nior(! dense and longer 
having quite ii woolly uppoiirance ; the ears are shorter than in P. sahrinvs, 
and arc broader and more rounded. They nuiy also be distinguished by 
the colour of their fur from each other, that of alpiiius on the under surface 
being pure white from the roots, while the fur of P. sabrinus is tinged with 
yellowish. The most striking difl'erence, however, is the extreme shortness 
of the bony process which supports the Hying membrane c.i the fore-leg. 



309 



ARVICOLA TOWNSENDII.— Bach 

Townsknd's AnvicoLA. 

PLATE CXLTV. Fia. 1.— Mali. 

A. Mure dccumaiio duplo minor, auiiculis erectis, v-illere prominnlls. 
colore, in dorso plumbeo ad rufum vergonte in cajnto coUoque. 

CHABACTiJRS. 

Half the, size of the JVorway rut ; cars, upright, ard vutiblc biymd the fur ; 
Ptum'oious on the back, inclining to rufous on the hcatl and neck. 

SYNONYM^l. 
AnvicoLA TowNSBNDii. Buchmnn, Jour. A jad. Nat. Sciences, vol. viii, part 1, p. 60. 

DESCRirnON. 

Body, cylindrical ; head, rather small ; whiskers, loug, reaching beycni 
the ears ; eyes, small ; teeth, large ; ears, large, troad, erect, extending 
considerably above the fur ; feet, of moderate size ; toes, like the rest of 
this genus ; thumb, protected by a rather short acute nail ; tail, scaly, 
sparingly covered with soft huir, a few hairs at its extremity ; feet, clothed 
to the nails with short brown adpressed hairs; fur, on the ba«k, about 
three lines long, much shorter beneath. 



I 



'.'»! 

A 



t m 



M< 't 



.|:| 



COLOUR. 

Whiskers, white and black ; teeth, yellow ; fur on the upper part of the 
body, lead colour from the roots to near the tips, which present a mixture 
of wliite and black points, from which results a general plumbeous colour ; 
under surface, grayisii-ash ; nock, sides of face, nose, and an obscure lino 
above the eye, ashy-brown ; tail, orownish, with a few white hairs at the 
tip ; feet, yeJlowish-brown ; claws, brovn. 



■ «i; 



UIMENRIONS. 



Lenj,'th of head and body, - 
Tail, 

TOL. III.— 27 



Inohsi Linei 

• 6 

• 2 6 




210 



TOWNSENDS ARVICOLA. 




Inches. 



Fore-feet to point of nails, - 
Heel to point of nail, - 
Breadth of ear, - • - 



Linin, 

9 



HABITS. 

The late Mr. Townsend, who captured this animal under an old log on 
the banks of the Columbia river, gave us no account of its habits. We 
should judge from its form, its conspicuous ears, and its general resem- 
blance to the cotton rat of Carolina {Sigmodon Mspidum), that it possesses 
many of its characteristics. It was found in tlie woods, but we imagine 
that it exists on the edges of the open country skirting the forests, feeding 
on roots, grasses, and seeds, nestling under logs and brushwood, and 
having, like the rest of the genus, four or five young at a birth. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



The specimen here described was obtained on the 21st of July, 1835, by 
Mr. Townsend, on the shores of the Columbia river. It no doubt is 
widely distributed on the western side of the Rocky Mountains, and 
replaces the Wilson's Meadow-Mouse of our northern Atlantic States. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

We find it exceedingly difficult to ascertain characters to designate the 
various species of Arvicolse in our country ; they resemble each other in 
many particulars, and especially in colour. We can however find no 
description which answers to this species in Richardson or any other 
author. 



211 



ARVICOLA NASUTA—AuD. and Bach. 

Sharp-nosed Arvicola. 

PLATE CXLIV. Fig. 2.— Male. 

A A. Pennsylvanica longior, caudd, capite, breviore ; pedibus, tenuibus ; 
calce brevissima ; corpore supra, ferrugineo-fusco ; subtus ex cinereo et 
flavo varicgato. 



CHARACTEBS. 

Larger than Arvicola Penusylvauica ; taU sho.ter than the head; kgt 
smaU and slender; /leel very short; body above, dark rusty brown, soiled 
yellomsh-gray beneath. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The head of this species is rather longer and the nose sharper than in 
the Arvicolae in general; the lower incisors are long and very much 
curved ; the body is less cylindrical than that of Wilson's Meadow-Mouse ; 
ears, circular, sparingly hairy within, and well covered with fur exte- 
riorly ; whiskers, shorter than the head ; tail, thinly covered with hair. 

The legs are rather slender, and are covered with short hairs ; the fore- 
feet have naked palms ; claws, small ; tarsus, more than one third shorter 
than that of the much smaller Arvicola Pennsylvanica; the fur on the back 
is also shorter. 




COLOUR. 

Incisors, yellowish-white ; fur on the back, trom the roots to near the 
tips, grayish-black ; the tips are yellowish-brown and black, giving it a 
rusty brown appearance ; the legs and tail are light brown ; the chin, 
soiled white ; tlio fur on the under su:fac,3 of the body is dark cinereous 
from the roots to near the tips, Avhcre it is light coloured. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body 
Head,- - - . 



loohei. Lines. 

- 6 9 

• 1 10 





i 






212 



SHARP-NOSED ARVICOLA. 



Tail, ■ 

Heel to point of nail, 



Inchea LinM 

1 6 

6 



For the sake of convenient comparison we give the dimensions of the 
largest of six specimens of Arvicola Pcnnsylvanica : 

Inahai. Linei. 

4 2 



Length of heart and body, - 
Head,- - - 

Tail, 

Heel to point of longest nail, 



1 
1 



4 

6 

11 



HABIT3. 



"We have found this species breeding in the vicinity of Wilson's Meadow- 
Mouse, although never nearer than a few hundred yards from the latteV; 
and we have sometimes observed their nests in summer on large hillocks 
of sedge-grass {carex) growing in marshy localities, and surrounded by 
water ; they do not occupy these exposed situations, however, in winter, 
but are found on more elevated knolls, under the roots of old trees or 
shrubs. They produce four or fivo young at a birth, and certainly breed 
twice, if not often er, during the season. 



! I 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

T'-e speciiii^in which we have described was obtained by Dr. Brewer, 
near i3oston. Wo received another from J. W. Audubon, wlio procured 
it at the falls of Niagara ; we have also frequently found it in the northern 
parts of New York, where the Arvicola Pennsylvanica likewise exists ; and 
we recently observed specimens near Detroit in Michigan. It appears, 
however, not to be found as far to the south as Wilson's Meadow-Mouse, 
as we have not succeeded in tracing it to the southern counties of Penn- 
Bylvania, where we have sought to obtain it. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

We are not certain that this species may not have been indicated, 
although not accurately, by Raffinesque in the Ainorican Monthly Maga* 
zinc, under the name of Lemmus noveboracensis. His descriptions, how- 
ever, in every department of natural history, are so short, vague, and 
imperfect, that it is impossible to identify his species with any degree of 
certainty ; they have created such confusion in the nomenclature that 



SHARP-NOSED ARVICOLA. 



2i:i 



nearly all European and American naturalists have ceased to quote him 
as authority. 

Sir John Richardson has described an Arvicola from the Rocky Moun- 
tains, which he refers to the above species {Ji. naveboracensis) of Rafpi- 
NESQUE, but which differs widelv from the species here described. 





214 



ARVICOLA ORYZIVORA.— Bach. 

Rice Meadow-Mouse. I 

PLATE CXLIV. FiQ. 3 

A. Pennsylvanicam cquaiis, capito longo, rostro acuto, corporc gracili, 
auriculis proniiiiulia, cauda lougitudino truuci ; supra ferrugiuea rufus, 
subtus subalbida. 

CHARACTERS. 

Size of Arvicola Pcnnsylvanica ; head, long ; nose, sharp ; body, slender ; 
ears, prominent ; tail, the length of the body, without including the head ; 
colour, TXJLsty brown above, beneath whitish. 

DESCRIPTION. 

In form this species bears a distant resemblance to the cotton rat {Sifr- 
modon hispidum) ; it is, however, a n\ucli smaller species. The cars, which 
are half the length of the head, are rounded, and arc thickly clothed with 
hair on both surfaces ; the feet are rather small ; there is a short blunt 
nail in place of a thumb ; under surface of palms, and tarsus, naked ; toes 
on the hind-feet, long, the three middle ones of neai;ly an equal length ; 
tail, rather long, thickly clothed on both surfaces with short hairs ; whis- 
kers, short, scarcely reaching the ears. 

COLOUR. 

The fur on the upper surface is slate colour, tipped with light brown 
and black, giving it on the dorsal aspect a dark grayish-brown tint, fading 
into lighter on the sides, and into whitish-gray on the belly and under 
Burlace ; the ears are of the colour of the sides ; feet, whitish ; tail, brown 
on the upper surface, lighter beneath ; whiskers, black and white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



locliei. 



Length of head and body, 
" of tail, - 



6 

4 



Linei. 



RICE MEADOW-MOUSE. 



215 



From end of hcol to point of longest nail, 

*' point of nose to ear, - 
Heiglit of oar, 

HABITS. 



Inchei. 
1 
1 



Line*. 

2 



5i 



riic Rico Mcadow-Mouso, as its namo implies, is found in particular 
localities in the banks of the rico-riclds of Carolina and Goor-na It 
burrows in the dykes or dams a few inches above the line of the usTual rise 
of the water. Its burrow is seldom much beyond a foot in depth. It has 
a con.pact nest at the extremity, where it produces its young in April 
Ilicy are usually four or five. In spring this Mouse -is in the habit of 
sitting on the dams near the water, and is so immoveable, and so much 
resembles the colour of the surrounding earth, that it is seldom noticed 
u..t.l ,t moves off to its retreat in the banks. We have observed it scratch- 
ing up the nee when newly planted and before it had been overflowed by 
the water. _ When the rico is in its milky state this animal connnenccs 
.ceding on It, and continues during the autumn and winter, gleaning the 
fields of the scattered grains. We have also seen its burrows in old banks 
on deserted rice-fields, and observed that it had been feeding on the lur.^o 
seeds of the Gama grass {Trips-icum dachjloides), and on those of the wild 
rye {E/ymns Vir^nicus). A singular part of the history of the Rico Mouse 
IS the fiict that m the extensive salt-marshes along the borders of Ashley 
and Cooper rivers, this species is frequently found a quarter of a n.iie 
from tiie dry ground. Its nest is suspended on a bunch of interlaced 
marsa grass. In this situation we obscrve.l one with five youn^ At 
certain seasons this little animal feeds on the seeds of tlie marsh^grass 
iSparnna glabra). When these fail it sometimes retires to the shore ''or 
food but has no disrelish to (he small Crustacea and mollusks that remain 
on tlie mud at the subsiding of the tide. 

This species swims rapidly, and dives in the manner of the European 
water-rat {^rvicola amphibia), or of our ^rvicola Pennsylvanica. In an 
attempt at capturing some alive, they swam so actively, and dived so far 
Irom us, that the majority escaped. Those we kept in captivity pro- 
duced young in May and September ; they were fed on grains of various 
kinds, but always gave the preference to small pieces of meat 






OEOOKAl'HICAI. DISTRIBUTION. 

We obtained several specimens of this Mouse through the aid of our 
friend Dr. Alexander Moultrie, who assisted us in capturing them on hi. 



216 



RICE MEADOW-MOUSL 



rice plantation in St. John's parish, South Carolina. Wu procured a 
considerable number on the salt marshes near Charleston, saw several on 
the eastern banks oi" the Savannah river, and near Savannah ; and the lato 
Dr. Leitner brought us a specimen obtained in the Everglades of Florida. 
This Arvicola is said to exist as far to the north as New Jersey. 



GENEKAr. REMAEKS. 

We obtained specimens of Arvicola Oryzivora in the winter of 1816, but 
did not describe it until May 183(i, when wo designated it by the above 
name. Having occasion to send descriptions of several, tlien undescribed, 
species to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, we sent a 
specimen of this animal to Dr. Pickerino, requesting him and Dr. Harlan 
to compare it with the Arvicola riparia of Ord, a species which wo had 
not seen, stating our reasons why we regarded it as distinct. In searching 
in the Academy, a si)eci!nen of this species was found, and Dr. Harlan, 
in opposition to the view-; of Pickering, felt himself authorized to publish 
it in Silliman's American Journal (vol. xxxi.), bestowing on it the name 
of Mus palustris, making use of the head of our specimen for an examina- 
tion of the teeth. 

The teeth and general appearance of this species, the form of its body, 
and especially its ears and tail being thickly clothed with hair, render it 
apparent that it does not belong to the genus Mus, but is more nearly. allied 
to Arvicola. As the name "Arvicola palustris" is pro-occupied (Harlan's 
Fauna, p. 18(5), we are favoured with an opportunity of extricating it from 
the confusion of synonymes in Avhich it would otherwise be involved, and 
of restoring it to its true genus under the name given by its legitimatn 
dc^cribcr. 






2J7 



SCALOPS TOWNSENDII.— Bach. 

Townsend'h Shuew-Molk. 
PLATE GXLV.— Males. 

t^. Magnitudinc S. aquatico duplo major, supra rufo-fuscus. Dentibus 
AJLJ V. 

r-HAnACTERS. 

Da,Mf the size of the con,.mm ShrewMok, vnth eight rnare teeth than thai 
specus ; dark liver colour. 

SYN0NYME8. 

Common Mole. Mackenzie's Voyage to tl>o l-.,cific, Ac, p. 314. 

Mole. Lewm and Clark. Journey, vol. iii. p. 42. 

SoALOPS Canadensis. Hich, Fauna Bnreali Americana, p 9 

" TowNSENDii. Bacli., Jour. ad. Nat. Sci., vol. viii., part 1, p. 68. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Dental Fom«/a.— Incisive ? ; Canine l~; Molar g = 44. 

In tlie upper jaw the incisors are large, and a 'third higher than the 
canine teeth usually termed false molars, which immediately follow them • 
those are succeeded by three small teeth of a nearly conical shape, increas' 
ing in length from the first to the third ; the fourth false molar on each 
side IS the smallest ; the fifth is a little larger in size, and slightly com- 
pressed ; the sixth still larger, and has a considerable posterior projection • 
the four posterior cheek teeth, or true molars, are much larger and higher 
than the anterior ones ; the first of these (which we have called a canine 
tooth) IS rather small, and bilobed, with a small internal tubercle ■ ibe 
second and third are the largest and nearly resemble each other, exhibiting 
three distinct points, two external and posterior, and one anterior, the 
external ones being the longest, and the last molar being the smallest, and 
of a triangular form ; in the lower jaw there are two very small incisors 
in front ; next to these are two of a considerablv larger size, which 
although we have called them incisors, are nearly of the same shape and 
appearance as those which succeed them. 
VOL. iii.__28 




1«WfP 



218 



TOWNSKNJVS HUREVV-MOLl::. 



The canine or false molars, six on each side, are nearly flic same size, 
and incline forwards; the three true molars, which succeed, arc large, 
nearly uniform in size, and corrcsimnd with those in the upper jaw, 
although they are smaller. 

IJody, thick and cylindrical, shaped like the Shrew-Molc {ScaJops aquati- 
cua) ; the limbs are short, being concealed by the skin of the body nearly 
down to the wrist and anklc-joijits. 

Palms, naked, very bioad, furnished with modcrat(>ly long nails which 
are channelled beneath ; tail, rather thick, taiiering from the root to the 
tip, and nearly naked, being very sparingly elotiied with short hairs ; the 
vertebruB arc equally four sided ; lingers, very short, united to the roots of 
the nails; nails, slightly curved; hind-feet, more slender than the fore- 
feet, an.l distinctly webbed to the nails ; the feet arc thinly clothed above, 
with short hair>. The whole of the body, both upper and lower surface, 
presents a velvety ai)pearaucc. 



I I 



i 



COLOUR. 

The body is dark liver brown colour above, changing with the light in 
which it is viewed to silvery or black shades ; the hair when blown asixlo 
exhibits a grayish-black colour to near the tips, which in some of the points 
are white, others brown black, producing the changeable colours above 
described. One of the specimens which we have seen— the one figured in 
our jilate— has a whitish-yellow stripe about two lines wide, running in a 
somewhat irregular line along the under surface of the body to within an 
inch and a half of the insertion of the tail ; there is also a white streak 
commencing on the forehead, spreading over the snout and around tlie 
edges of Ihe mouth and lower jaws. The teeth are white ; feet, point of 
nose, and tail, flesh colour ; nails, light brown. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 

" tail, - 
Breadth of palm, 



inches. 



8 
1 



Liitoi. 



6 
6 
7 



HABITS. 

We were informed by Nuhall and Townsend, who mistook this species 
for our common Shrew-Mole {Scahps aqualicus), that they dug and formed 
galleries, and threw up little mounds of arth precisely in the manner of 



TOWNSKND'M SIIREW-MOLE. 



!I9 



that animal. They are well known to the farniors and settlers in the 
valleys of Oregon, as they traverse their licids and gardens, cutting up the 
ground in some places to an injurious extent. 

OEOr.nAPIHCAL DiaTllintlTION. 

This species is found in considerable abundance near the banks of the 
Columbia and other rivers in Oregon, wiiere our specimens were obtained. 
We arc unable to say what is the northern limit of this animal It has 
not yet been found on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, and we 
have not been able to determine positively that it exists in California ; 
but we have little doubt that it is the most common Shrew-Mole on the 
Pacific si.le of the North American continent, where our common species 
{Scaloj)s aijua(icus) does not ai)pear to have Ijcen discovered. 

OENEUAL UEMAUKS, 

Sir John RrciiAUDSON, who first described this animal from a specimen 
preserved in the museum of the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company, obtained by 
Mr. David Douolab, does not seem to have made a comparison between 
this Mole and our common Atlantic species. IIaiu.ak had described the 
skull of the species which we have since described and figured as Scalops 
Brewerii, having forty-four teeth, and another which had thirty-six. Rich. 
ARDsoN was thus induced to suppose that authors had varied in their 
descriptions of the Scalops from their having mentioned edentate spaces 
between the incisors and grinders, and had consequently described the 
young in tliose specimens which had only thirty-six teeth. The young, 
however, of our common aquaticus (or as Cuvieh has called it, Scatoll 
Canadensis) has only thirty teeth, the adult thirty-six, whilst the present 
species has forty-four. 

On our pointing out to Sir John Richardson these particulars, he 
expressed himself gratified to have an opportunity of correcting the error' 
into which he had inadvertently fallen. 



i ill 




I ■ 



220 



GENTTS DA8YPUS.— LiN». 

DENTAL FORMULA. 

Incisive 5 <"" 4 j Canine j^rj ; Molars varying in the several species from 28 
to G8 ; t/iese tvith cylindrical, separate, and without enamel on the inner side. 

Head, long ; mouth, small ; tongue, parti;',Hy cxtunsilde. Body, altoge- 
ther covered with a shell, or plate armour. Four or five toes to the fore- 
feet, five toes to the hind-feet. Toes, armed with long nails for digging ; 
mammaj, two or four. Tail, ratlior Ion;, round. 

Stomaeh, simple ; intestines, witliout ca'ca. 

Habit, living in woods, on ants, roots, and putrid animals ; rolling them- 
selves up for protection ; conliued to the warmer parts of America. 

Nine species belonging to this genus liavo been dcscribetl by authors. 

The genus requires a revision, and the species will no doubt, from the 
rage which exists at present for malcing new genera, be greatly subdivided. 

The generic appellation is derived from oatfu? , dasus, rough, and irouf, pous, 
a foot. 



DASYPUS PEBA.— Desm. 

Nine-banded Armadillo. 
PLATE OXLVL— Male. 

D. Dentibus primoribus laniariisque nullis, molaribus ^= 32, cauda 
lercti, cingulis circumdata, ad apieem solum nuda, testa zonis mobilibus, 
aui-iculis longissimis. 



CHARACTERS. 



JVb incisive or canine teeth; Molars ?-^=32. 

Tail, round, with rings nearly its whole length. Body, with mobile bands , 
ears, very long. 



SYNONYMES. 



Dasypus Peba. Desm., Mammftl., p. 308. 

" Skptkm C1NCTU8, D. OcTo OiNCTLs, and D. Novem Cinotus. Linn. 



I 

I 



MNE-BANDED ARMADILLO. 



Armadillo Bka/.ilianuh. Briss., Regno Animal 40. 



221 



ti 

It 



4L 

42. 



Mexioanus. 

" GuVANKNPIfl. 

Oachicamb. Hiitlon, Hist. Nat., x. p. 250. 

Tatou ^foIu. D'AzHHi, ]• riigimy, vol. ii. p. i 75. 

Tatu Pkpa. Miir'., IJrazil, 231. 

Nine, Eight, .. Skve.v landed Akmadillo. len.anfs Q.inarupe.ls, Synopsis, pp 

Pio-iiKADED Ahmadillo. Orew, M118, p. 10, t. i. 

Six-DANDij. .\aMAOiLLO. -iiaw'H (Joncnil Zoology, y.!. i., 1, 1 p 180 

GiJUTELTiii,,. MIT AcMizEHN (JiJRTRLN. Sclireb., pp. 227, 22 1 



l{ hu 



r)ES(Mtii"noN. 

_ ThiH ainjr..lnr production of nature, it might ■ said, r. ,.cmb]e.s a small 
p.p saddled will, the sholl of a turtle ; it is about the .si.e of . lariro opos- 
Bum; the he..d is small, and gmitly elongated, and the mri<ran bo 
retracted so {'iir as to entirely withdraw the head under the shell Muzzle 
narrow and point, i ; mou , large ; tongue, aculeateu, and can be drawn' 
out thrr inches beyond (he nose. 

'Hie head and nose are covered with , or small plates irrocru- 
larly shaped, most of them hexagonal. There are on the back i.h.e 
transverse bands in the specimen from which wo describe, althou-h the 
number of bands is occasionally only seven or dght. The slioulder« 
hams, and rump are protected by two plates, covered with lar-e scales 
regularly arranged in distinct rows following the direction of the movable 
transverse band and descending lower to«-ards the ground than the 
bands, forming a s'-rt of flap over the shoulders and over the hips like the 
skirt of n saddle. Thus the c vexing of the head may be compared to a 
helmet, and that of tho shoulders and on tla- hin pnrts to breast-plates 
and thigh-pieces, the whole forming an almost imp, ctral ]o eoat-of-mail. 

The tail is protected by numerous rings, fun., ,.-d \uth scales of the 
Barac substance, shape, and hardness, u- those on other parts of the upper 
surface of the body. The texture of tins shell-like coverin- of th.- Ama- 
dillo api)ea. to be something between turtl. shell or horn, and very hard 
sole-leather. The eyr^s are small, and placed far back in the head, on a 
line with the corner of the mouth. 

Legs, short and stout; nails, strong, sharp ery slightly hooked, an. 
not channelled beneath ; (here are four toes on each fore-foot, the middle 
ones being much the longest, and the outer, shorter, and situated far 
behind ; there are li.e toes on the hind-feet, the central being loi.gest, the 
first and fifth shortest, and the two others nearly of an equal lengtlu Ears, 
long, narrow, and pointeu. destitute of li ir,and the skin on Thei; upper 



222 



NINK-BANDED ARMADILLO. 



surface slightly graiuilatod, but not protected by scales. The under aurfacc 
of the body is only covered by a soft leathery skin, ns also the legs ; tho 
front of each foot i.s protected by scales for about two inches above the 
toes. 

A few scattered hairs can be observed on tho under surface of the body, 
and here and there a single hair along the edges of tho plates above ; tho 
animal may nevertheless bo described as hairless. Mannniu, four. 

» (tLOUR. 

Entire surface of body, ochreous brownish-yellow ; browner along tlie 
Bides of tho head and beneath the cars ; feet and nails, yellowish-brown. 



DIMENSIONS. 

From point of nose to root of tail, • 

Tail, - • 

Height of ear, 

Point of nose to eye, 

Nose to ear, 

Longest nail on fore-foot, - - - 
" " on hind foot, 



Fout. 
1 



Inrh«i. 

c 

8 
2 
2i 
4« 
1 
i 



HABITS. 

The Armadillo is not "a fighting diaracter," but on the contrary is 
more peaceable than even the opossum, wliicli will at times bite in a 
sly and treacherous manner, quite severely. Indeed nature, whilst giving 
to the Armadillo a covering of hovn-plates or scales, which serve to 
protect it from nany of its foes, has not supplied it, as she has other non- 
combating anir.i lis— the porcupine for instance — with sharp-pointed (piills 
or spines, and i.s only means of agirrcssion are its claws, which although 
large are better adapted for digging than aught else. The animal, how- 
ever, sometimes has been known when caught by the tail, to kick rather 
hard with both fore and hind-legs, so that its captor was glad to let go, for 
it possesses great strength in the limbs. A friend of ours who lormerly 
resided in South America had a pot Armadillo in his bed-chamber, where 
it generally remained quiet during the day, but in the dark hours was active 
and playful. One night after he had gone to bed, the Armadillo began 
dragging about tho chairs and some boxes that wore i)lace(l around the 
room, and continued so busily engaged at this occupation that our friend 



-*v. II 



NINE-BANDED ARAlALMLLO. 






could not Hiccp. no at length arose and struck a light, when to his aurj.rine 
ho found boxes ho had Bv^posed greatly too heavy for ^uch an aninml to 
stir, had been moved acf' pla, ,m^. together so os to form a sort of den or 
luding-].hice in a corner, i-ito •„ :. h the animal retreated with great appa- 
rent satisfaction, and fr 



W! 



It could only be drawn out after a hard 
struggle, and the receipt of r „^ severe strokes from its claws. But in 
general the Armadillo doc- ., evince any disposition to resent an attack 
and in fact one of thoni m a teased by a pet parrot, struck out with its 
claws only till pressed by the bird, when it drew in its head and feet and 
secure in its tough shell, yielded without seeming to care much about it, 
to Its noisy and mischievous tormentor, until the pa.-rot left it to seek 
some less apathetic and more vulneral)lc object to worry. 

But whea the Armadillo has a chance 'of escape by digging into the 
ground, it is no sluggard in its movements, and progresses towards the 
depths of the soil with surprising rapidity. This animal however on bein- 
much alarmed rolls itself up, and does not attempt to fly, and it is chiefly 
when it has been digging, and is at or near the mouth of a hole, that ii 
tries to escape , preferring generally, to be kicked, tumbled about with a 
stick, or be bitten at by a dog, to making an effort to run. 

We have heard it asserted that when it has the advantage of bein.r on a 
hill or elevated spot, the Armadillo upon the approach of danger, forms a 
ball-shaped mass of its body, with the tail doubled under the belly, starts 
down the hill and rolls to the bottom. 

The principal food of this genus consists of ants of various specie*^ which 
are so abundant in some portions of Central and South America as to bo 
great pests to the inhabitants of those jKlrts of the world. A large species 
of this family, however {Dasj/pus gigantcus), is described by D'AzvRi ns 
feeding on the carcases of dead animals ; and it appears that in neighbour- 
hoods where that Armadillo is found, the graves of the dead a.c protected 
by strong .l.,uble boards, to prevent the animal from penetrating, and 
devouring the bodies. Armadillos are said to eat young birds, eggs 
snakes, li.ards, &c. It should perhaps here be remarked that the largo 
Armadillo just mentioned, although covered with plate-; or scales like our 
present species (D. peba), and similar in form, is very different in its organ- 
ization, and has indeed l)cen characterized by F. Cuviek under the new 
genus Priodoniis. 

To return to our present species. The Nine-banded Armadillo is as we 

/ere informed by Captain Charles H. Baldwin, kept in Nicaragua, not 

only by the people of the ranchos, but by the inhabitants of some of the 

httlc towns, to free their houses from ants, which, as is said, it can follow 

by the smell. When searching lor ants about a house, the animal puts out 






I 1 



224 



NINE-BANDED ARMADILIjO. 



the tongue and scrapes the ants into the mouth from around the posts on 
whicli the houses arc raised a little above the ground, and has been known 
to dig down under the floors, •^"' ' "oinain absent for three or four weeks at 
a time. 

When burrowing this spec .s a slight squeak, quite faint however. 

They are said to dig down ■:. . straight direction when they discover a 
subterranean colony of ants, without beginning at the mouth or entrance 
to tlic ant-hole. There are two favourite species of ant with the Arma- 
dillo in Nicaragua, one of which makes nests in the forks of trees in the 
forests. The tree ants are white, the others small and black. The Arma- 
dillos keep about the roots of the trees in order to feed upon the former, 
and as we have already said, dig for the latter. They also root up the 
ground with their pig-like snout, and do some damage to gardens. They 
are very persevering when in pursuit of ants, and whilst they turn up the 
light soil with the snout, keep the tongue busy taking in the insects. 

It has been assured us that when a line of ants (which may sometimes 
extend some distance in the woods) are busily engaged in carrying provision 
to the general storehonso, they scatter in every direction at the instant the 
Armadillo begins to dig down towards their stronghold, evidently having 
some communication from head-quarters equivalent to " sauve qui pent." 

The gait of these animals when not alarmed is like that of a tortoise, 
and about as fast. They have nails p'Mvcrl'ully oiganized for digging, 
Avhilst their legs are only long enough to riiise the body from the ground. 
The holes the Armadillo excavates in the earth for its own purposes, are 
generally dug at an ..ngle of forty-five degrees, are winding, and from six 
to eight feet long. 

The Armadillo is generally much darker in colour than the specimen wo 
figured, Avhich having been a pet, was washed and clean when we drew it. 
When in the woods these animals partake n:oro or less of the colour of the 
soil in wliich tiiey find llieir fond, as some of tlio dirt sticks to their shell. 
Those that have been domci-ticated prefer sleeping above ground, but this 
animal when wild lives in burrows, holes in the roots of trees, or under 
rocks. 

From our esteemed friend Capt. J. P. McCown, U. S. A., we have the 
following: "The Armadillo is to be found in the chaparals on the Uic 
Grande. I have seen their shells or coat-of mail on the prairies ; whethci 
carried there by larger animals, or birds, or whether they inhal)it the 
prairies, I cannot sf.y. . I have seen many that were kept as pets and 
appeared (piite tame. 1 am inclined to the oi)inion that there are two 
i^inicifs — the larger living on tiie low and wet lands and in the canebrakea, 
the smaller occupying the rocky hills and clills." 



NINE-BANDED ARMADILLO. 



225 



This animal is said to produce three or four young at a time. Its flesh 
is eaten by the Spaniards and natives. It has been described to iis hj 
Americans who ate of it during the Mexican war, to be about equal to the 
meat of the opossum; wc have heard, however, from South Americans, 
that it is considered quite a delicacy, being white, juicy, and tender ; it 
is cooked by roasting it in the shell. 

The South American negroes catch the Armadillo at night. When they 
are in the woods their dogs scent the animal and run it to its hole (if it bo 
near enough to its retreat to reach it). It is then dug out by the blacks, 
although sometimes known to excavate its burrow to a considerable depth 
below its w ml place of rest, whilst the diggers are at work after it. Two 
or three of these animals generally keep togotlior, or near each other, and 
the negroes always expect to kill more, when they have captured ' one. 
They are said to run pretty fast when trying to reach their holes, but the 
manner of their gait at such times is not known to us. Their holes are 
often dug in the sides of steep banks or hills, and in thick and dense parts 
of the woods. 

We have heard that in some parts of Nicaragua the Armadillos are so 
common that they can be purchased for a medio— six and a quarter cent 
piece. 

OEOORAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This animal is described as existing in Brazil in South America ; it ia 
found in Guiana and Central America, is common in Mexico, and is found 
in the southern portions of Texas. It is not very uncommon near the 
lower shores of the Rio Grande. 




GENERAL REMARKS. 

It is stated that another rpecies of Armadillo inhabits the northern 
part of Mexico and penetrates also into Texas. Thus far, however, we 
have been unable to detect any other species than the present as having 
been seen within the geographical limits to which this work has been 
restricted. 

It is now ascertained that the number of bands on the Armadi.Io forms 
no safe guide in designating the species, inasmuch as the bands vary in 
different individuals of the same species, and D'Azara, moreover, haa 
shown that there are individuals of different npecies which have the same 
number of bsinds. 



VOL. III. — 29 



MnAll 




226 



S P E R M O P II I M S T () W N S i: \ D 1 1 .— B a c h. 

American Soi'suk. 

PLATE CXLVII, Fio. 1.— Malk. 

S. Magnitndino Sciuri Iludsonii, capitc parvo, corporc f^raci'.ior, aurilnie 
caudaque brevihus, colore sajjia lul'o-l'usco grisco t<parsiiii vario, infra palli- 
diore. 

CHARACTERS. 

Size of Sciurua II udsoniiia {red squirrel) ; ,tead, small ; body, rather slender ; 
ears and tail, short ; colour, upper surface speckled with white and brawn ; 
beneath, yellowish- gray. 

SYNONYUKS. 

Arotomts (Si'EUMoi'HiLus) GuTiAirs i — Amkuk »* .SoiTSi.TK. Rich., F. B. A. p. 1C2 
SrEiiMoi'uiLis TowNSKNDii — TowN8ENu'a Mahmoi'. Aud.aial l>iicli.,.Jiiiir. Avad. Nat. 

Sci. I'liil., vol. viii., part 1, p. 61. 

DESCRIPTION. 

This animal has a convex and obtuse nose, with the frontal bone 
depressed ; t ic body is rather long and slender ; head, short ; cars, slightly 
visible above the fur ; cheek pouches, small ; nails, slender, compressed, 
and slightly arched ; the .humb protected by an acute* and prominent 
nail; the seccnd toe of the fore-foot, as in all the sj)ecics of the genus, 
is longest, and not the third, as in the scpiirrels. The first toe is a little 
shorter than the second, and the third intermediate in length between 
the first and second. The tail appears (in the dried specimen) much flat- 
tened ; it is clothed with hairs which are longest on tlie sides. 

The fur is throughout remarkably soft, smooth, and lustrous. 



COLOUR. 

There is a line of white around the eye. The fur on the whole uftper 
surface is, for one fourth of its length from the roots, dark bluish, or nearly 
black, then (a broad lino of) silver gray, *'ien (a narrow line of) dark 
brown edged with yellowish-white, giving it a brownish-gray ap[)earanco, 
speckled with white all over the back ; these spots are longest near the 



AJIERICAN SOUSLIK, 



227 



dorsal Imo, becoming smaller half way down the sides. An indistinct lino 
of separation between the colours of the upper and under surfaces appears 
high up along the hips and sides; on the under surface, the hairs are 
nearly black at the roots, and arc cinereous at the tips ; on the forehead 
nose, and sides of the neck, there is a slight tinge of light yellowish-brown.' 
Tail, on the upper surface, light yellowish-brown edged with whitish • 
beneath, whitish, with a slight tinge of brown ; teeth, white ; nails, black' 



DIMENSIONS. 

From point of nose to root of inil, 
Head,- - - . . .' . 
Tail (vertebrae), - - 

" (to end of fur), .... 
Length of heel to end of middle claw, 



8 
1 
1 
1 
1 



10 

6 
4 



HABITS. 

In a letter, addressed to us by the late Mr. Townsend he states that 
lus handsome Spermophile, in summer inhabits the prairies near the 
AVallawalla, where it is rather comnmn ; it becomes excessively fat and ia 
eaten by the Indians. It disappears in August and re-appears early in 
spring ,n a very emaciated state. We have heard from other sources that 
It hves ,n Hmall families, like the Spermoj-hiles, generally burrowing in 
hol^^s. and that it is seen either sitting on the side of them or with the 
M ,>artu,IIy protruded, but disa,,pears in its underground retreat, on 
the a>>>>rf>^'h of man or any other animal. 

(Jioo(juapiiu;al nisTiunuTio.v. 

Thi.s species exists on the western sides of the Rockv Mountains In 
Oregon, where the few specimens we have seen have been obtained. 



fiENKHAI, IIEMARKS. 

RiCHAUDSoN described this species .Huler tlic name of ./I. <ruttafn, an 
annual describe.] by Pam.as ((;iir. tab. 6 B) listing on the WoL^a in 
Russia: but UiTFON mentions of that Hpocio!*. thM tt..- „„n... of Souslik is 

.ntouded to express the great avi.Hij that animi has for salt, w h 

induces It to go on board vessels la.i-r, with that com.noditv, when it is 
olteu taken. We should judge that its Amer«;*u relative has less oppor- 




) 


i 



228 



AMERICAN SOUSLIK. 



tunity of indulging in such a propensity. Wo carried a specimen with 
U8 to Europe, and had an opportunity at the Berlin Museum of comparing 
it with specimens from Siberia ; there is a general resemblance between 
the animals of the two countries, but they are scarcely more alike thar 
the red squirrel of Europe {Sciurus vulgaris) and the red squirrel of 
America {Sciurus Hudsonius). They may be distinguished from each other 
at a glance by the largo rounded spots on the back of the Russian animal, 
compared with the white and irregular specks in the American species. 

As the name guttatus was pre-occupied, we have named this animal 
anew, and in doing so, called it after the gentleman who furnished us the 
spec! nen. 



i I 



I 



229 



ARVICOLA TEXIANA.— AuD. and Bach 

Texan Meadow-Mouse. 
PLATE CXLVII. Fig. 2,— Malb. 

A. Sigmodon liispldum miaore, supra rufo-fuscus nigro sparsira notato 
Btriis nigris lateralis, lateribus fuscus, infra albido. 



CHARACTERS, 

SmaUer than the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidum) ; hack, brownish-yellow, 
spotted with irregular small blotches of black, a faint obscure stripe of black m 
each side. Sides, reddish-brown ; beUy, whitish-gray. 

DESCRIPTION. 

This new species bears a general resemblance to the cotton rat of South 
Carolina and Georgia. Head, of moderate size ; body, rather slender 
and th.n in the flanks ; hair, soft ; under fur, uooily ; cars, large, ovate in 
shape, extending beyond the fur, and nearly aaked behind, with o, the 
margins, a few scattered hairs. Whiskers, numerous, and about as Ion- 
as the head ; four toes on the fore-feet, with a small and almost impercep- 
tible nail in place of a thumb. Five toes on the hind-feet, the outer and 
inner of nearly equal length, the other three longer, and each of about the 
Bame length ; legs, slender ; f-ct, covered by short hairs, and with a few 
hairs between the toes, not however concealing the nails , heel, narrow, 
and naked, as is also the under surface of the fore-feet. 

Tail, rather long and slender, tapering to the point, and thinlv covered 
With hairs. 

COLOUR. 

Fur, dark elate colour on the back at the roo^ with roddish-yellow tips. 
The longer hairs, ^^^..h are fine and soft, are irregularly marked with dark 
and yellowish-whuo c r. Uio base, and tipped with dark brown to where they 
mingle with the under fur. When the hair is laid smooth there is an 
obscure black stripe on the sides of the back, runniufr from behind the 
shoulders towards the rump and converging across the buttocks to a point 




230 



TEXAN MEADOW-MOUSE. 



at the insertion of the tail ; the remainder of the back between these 
stripes is somewhat irregularly, and very slightly, waved or barred as it 
were, with dark brown spots on a yellowish ground ; head, yellowish- 
brown ; sides of the neck, and along the Hanks to the hip, brownish-yellow. 
A narrow line of yellowish-white extends under the chin and on the belly ; 
tail, brown above, grayish-white beneath ; ears, brownish yellow ; whiskers, 
white, with a few brown hairs niierspcrsed. 



DIMENSIONS. 

From point of nose to root of <;iil, 

to ear, - 

to eye, - 

liCngth of tail, 

From heel to point of longest claw, - 



u 



tnchet 

• 4 
■ 1 

. 4 
- 1 



Lines. 

7 
8 
6 



HABITS. 

This is an active and rather pugnacious little rat. It is sometimes to 
be seen near the edges of the chaparals, in which it makes its nest. It 
mostly feeds on seeds of wild grains and grasses, although it has recently 
shown a disposition to frequent the farm-yards of our enterprising Texan 
settlers. Like the Arvicolic generally, this animal is a good swimmer, and 
takes the water when the rains flood the flat plains, which it has pleased 
the Texans to denominate "hog-wallow prairies." In the spring season 
this rat devours a good many eggs of such small birds as make their nests 
on the ground or in the rank grass and weeds, nv.d it does not hesitate to 
eat any dead bird or small animal it may find. 

Not being very numerous, it is difficult to procure it, and as setting traps 
for small animals, baited with meat, in the chaparal.has been found almost 
useless owing to larger quadrupeds than those intended to be caught seizing 
the flesh, and breaking the trap to pieces, or (as is often the case) devouring 
the small ones that may have been already entrapped, there is no proba- 
bility that this or other small species which inhabit Texas and the neigh- 
bouring countries will become familiar objects in our collections of mam- 
malia for some time to come. We have therefore placed our specimens of 
thi" rat in the museum of the Charleston College at Charleston, South 
Carolina, where may also be foTind the skins of some other animals first 
described in our work, and of which specimens, so far as we have heard, 
have not been procured by others. 



TEXAN MRADOW-MOUSE. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBCTION. 



231 



This Hpecies was first discovered on the river Brasos, and afterwards 
«een ,n the country along the Nueces and Rio Grande, where chanparal 
thicitets afford it shelter 



I 



GENERAL REMARKS, 

Although this Meadow-Mouse approaches nearer to our cotton rat than 
any other Arv.cola with which we are acquainted, it presents very strikin. 
differences; ,ts form is lighter and n,ore slender, its heel narrower, tail 
proport.onal.ly longer, and fur much softer. The cotton rat is of a uniform 
colour on the back, except the ends of the long hairs being tipped with 
>vh.te, but the Texan species presents a somewhat indistinct a'Ja ce ' 
specks or spots of blackish on a yellow ground. 








232 

• 

ARVICOLA OREGONI.— BACH. 

Obeoon Mkadow-Mousb. 

PLATE CXLVII. Fio. 3.— Malb. 

A. M. musoulus magnitudinc, gracilior, auribus brcvibus vellere abacon- 
ditis ; colore supra cincreo fusco, subtus ciiierco. 

CHARACTERS. 

aStzc of the house mouse ; slender form ; ears, short, nearly naked, and con- 
cealed by the fur ; colour, ashy broum on the back, cinereous beneath. 

SYNONYME. 

Arvicola Orkooni — Oregon Meadow-Mouse. Bachmnn, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

vol. viii., part i., p. 60. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Head, of moderate size ; body, slender, eyes, small ; ears, concealed by 
the fur and nearly naked, being clothed with but a few short and scattered 
hairs ; feet, small ; whiskers, as long as the head ; a very minute blunt 
nail on the fore-foot ; tail, and feet, clothed with short hairs. 

COLOUR. 

The fur, on the upper surface, is bluish from the roots to near the tips, 
where most of the points of the hairs are black, a shade of brownish 
appearing beneath ; under surface, ashy white ; above the eye, and imme- 
diately in front of the shoulders there is a line of light brown ; whiskers, 
white and black, the latter predominating ; feet, flesh coloured ; incisors, 
yellow ; tail, dark brown above, yellowish-white beneath, with tlie extreme 
end black. In Townsend's Notes it is stated that the specimen we have 
described above, was an old male, captured on the 2d of November, 1836. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, - 
" of tail. - 



Inchat. 


LiBM 


3 





1 


2 



OREGON MEADOVV-MOUSE. 



233 



HABITS. 

Wo are unacquainted with the habits of this species, but should judge 
from its form resembling that of Le Conte's pine mouse {A. pinetorum) 
that instead of having galleries on the surface of the earth, as is the general 
habit of the Meadow-Mice, this species lives principally under ground, and 
only comes to the surface at night, to seek its food ; it evidently feeds more 
on roots than on seeds. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This Arvicola was captured in Oregon, near the Columbia river. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Although its head is rather smaller in proportion than that of Lb 
Conte's pine mouse {Arvicola pinetorum), and its body differing from that 
animal in colour, this species is nevertheless very similar to it in form, 
more especially in the almost naked lobe of the ear ; and seems to be the 
repiesentative of that Atlantic species in Oregon. 



■ i 



VOL. III.— 80 



234 



PUTORIUS FUSCUS.— AiTD. iind Bacm. 

Tawny Wkaskl. 
I'L AT K ex I,V I II. Male. 

P. Corpoio inter imtoriiiH cnninius ct 1'. vulgaris intcrmcdio ; caudii 
illius brcvioro, sod Imjiis loiigioro ; apicc iiigro ; vcllcre sintra fusco ; 
Bubtus alho. 

CHABACTEnS. 

Intermediate in size helireen the ermine and the common weasel of Europe ; 
tail, shorter than in the former, hut longer than in the latter, with the extremity 
black ; body, brown above, white beneath. 

SYNONYMES. 

Mu.sTELA FuscA. Ann. iind liacli., .Iciir. Ai'ad. Nat, Soi. riiil., October 6, 1841, p. 04. 
" " DeKiiy, Nat. Hist. State of New York, p. 3i. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Body and neck, rather short in proportion to others of this genus, and 
far more robust tliau the common European Weasel. The iWl especially 
appear a third larger, and are more thickly clot lied with fur, which covers 
the palms and toes, and conceals the nails completely ; ears, a little longer 
and more pointed than those of either the ermine or common Weasel. 

In writing this description we have several specimens of the European 
common Weasel (P. vulgaris) before us, and the ends of the tails in that 
species arc uniforndy brown, with here and there a black hair interspersed. 
Although the hair of the present species is black at the extremity of the 
tail, like that of the Ci'minc, yet these hairs are short and soft, and morq 
like long fur, and do not present the long and coarse appearance of thoso 
of the latter species, but lie closer along the vertebrae, and form a sharp 
point at the extremity. 

Claws, short and stout ; incisors equally large with those of the ermine, 
but shorter ; ears, largo, olitusoly pointed at tip, and thinly clothed with 
short adpressed hairs ; tail, cylindrical, and narrowed down to a point of 
fine hairs, the tip somewhat resembling a large water-colour pencil or brush. 
Whiskers, as long as the head, and rather numerous. The hairs on tho 



'aud3 
usco ; 



rope ; 
xiidty 



, p. 04. 



IP, and 
icially 
covers 
longer 
I. 

•opean 
11 that 
)ersed. 
of tho 
. morq 
" tlioso 
, sharp 



;nimie, 
[1 with 
)int of 
brush, 
on tho 





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TAWNY WEASEL. 



235 



body are of two kinds : the longer liairs arc a little more rigid, and far 
more numerous, than on the ermine, and the under fur is a little longer, 
coarser, and less woolly than the fur of the latter animal. 



L 



COLOUR. 

The whole upper surface, sides, outside of legs, feet, ears, and tail to 
within an inch of the extremity, uniform tawny brown, except on the centre 
of the back and top of the tail, where the colouring darkens. Thus the body 
of the animal is a shade darker than the summer colour of the ermine, 
while the colour of the tail is, for about an inch, nearly as black as in tliat 
species. The white on the lower surface is not mixed witii brown hairs aa 
in Putorius vulgaris, and not only occupies a broader space on the belly, 
but extends along the inner surface of the thighs as low as the tarsus, 
whilst in P. vulgaris the white scarcely reaches the thighs. The whole of 
the under surface is pure white ; this colour does not commence on the 
upper lip, as is c^ncrally the case in the ern.'.i , but on the chin, extending 
around the edges of the moutli, and by a well defined line along the neck, 
inner parts of tlie fore-legs, and inner parts of the thighs, tapering off to a 
point nearly opposite tlic heel on the hind-legs. 

Whiskers, dark-brown, Tith a few white ones interspersed. The speci- 
men from wliicli our figure was drawn, was captured on Long Island in 
May 1834, and is therefore in summer pelage. 



DIMENSIOXS. 

For the sake of convenient comparison we will also here give the dimen- 
sions of the two species of Weasel to which our animal is most nearly 
allied, taken from specimens now before us. 

P. fuscus. 

Inches. Lines. 

Length of head and body, - 9 

" tail (vertebra}), - 2 9 

" " (including fur), 3 2 

Height of car posteriorly, - 3 



P, crminea. 


P, Via 


Igarii 


Inches. 

11 


Linea. 

7 


Inches. 

7 


Linea 




4 


6 


1 


9 


6 


2 


2 


1 




2* 




2 



HABITS. 



We find from our notes, that in the State of New York in the winter of 
1808, we kept a Weasel, which we suppose may liavc lieen tliis .species, in 
confinement, together with several yoimg ermines. The latter all became 



236 



TAWNY WEASEL 



white in winter, hut the former underwent no change in colour, remaining 
brown. On another occasion a specimen of a brown Weasel was brouglit 
to us in the month of December. At that season the ermines are invariably 
white. Wo cannot after the lapse of so many years say with certainty 
whether these specimens of Weasels that were brown in winter were thoso 
of the smaller, Putorius pusilliis, or the present species ; although we believe 
from our recollection of the size they were the latter. We therefore feel 
almost warranted in saying that this species does not change colour in 
winter. 

We were in the habit of substituting our American Weasels for the 
European ferrets, in driving out the gray rabbit {Lepus sylvaticus) from the 
holes to which that species usually resorts in the northern States, when 
pursued by dogs (see vol. i. p. 59). Whilst the ermines seemed to relish 
this amusement vastly, the brown Weasel refused to enter the holes, and 
we concluded that the latter was the least courageous animal. 

On one occasion we saw six or seven young Weasels dug out by dogg 
from under the roots of a tree in a swamp, which we believe to have becu 
of this soecies. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The specimens which we have seen of this animal all came from different 
parts of the State of New York. We have however heard of the existence 
of a Weasel which is brown in winter in the States of Ohio and Michigan, 
which we have reason to believe is the present species. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Our early writers on natural history were under the impression that we 
had but one, or at farthest two species of Weasel in our country. 

GoDMAN supposed that there was but one Weasel in North America, and 
that it was tl e common Weasel in sununer, but was the ermine in summer 
pelage, turning white in winter. Harlan gave Desmarest's description 
of the European Mustela vulgaris, supposing that animal to exist in our 
country. 

Richardson gave two species as belonging to North America, one of 
which he supposed to be identical with the common Weasel of Europe. It 
is now ascertained that we have at least five species in the United States, 
four of which arc found in the State of New York. 



i*ljtoi. 



2H7 



SCIUI^US FREMONTI.-TowNSEND. 

Fremont's Sqdtrrkl. 

PLATE CXLIX.— Fio. 1. 

Magniturline Sciuri H.ulsonii ; caucU corporc brcviorc ; auribns cris- 
tatis ; colore supra albido, infra cincreo. 



CIIAR.VCTEnS. 

Size 0/ Sciurus Iluasonius ; taif, shorter than the body, ea,s, tutted. 
Colour, tight gray above, ashy white beneath. . 

DESCRIPTION. 

Upper incisors, larger tb.an those of S. Riehardsonii or S. lanuginosus ; 
lower incisors, longer and more curved than those of S. Hudsoniu.. The 
nrst or deciduous tooth wanting. 

Body, short and stout, presenting less appearance of lightness an.l a-rility 
than that of the Hudson's Bay Squirrel ; head, short and broad ; forehead 
birt_ slightly arched ; ears, rather short, broad, rounded, and much tufted • 
whiskers long, reaching to the shoulders ; legs, short and stout ; the third 
toe on the fore-foot, slightly the longest ; nails, compressed, and shorter 
blunter, and less hooked than those of S. Hudsonius. Tail, a little shorter' 
than the body, of tolerable breadth, and capable of a distichous arran-e- 
ment. ° 

The whole body is clothed with a dense coat of rather long and soft fur. 



COLOUR. 

Fur on the back, dark plumbeous from the roots ; on the sides, tipped 
with light gray. There is a narrow dark reddish line along the centre of 
the back, caused by the hairs on the dorsal line being tipped with reddish- 
brown and black. On the under surface the fur is plumbeous at the roots 
and tipped with ashy white. The tufts on the ears are black ; whiskers 
black ; a line of dark brown runs from the end of the nose, blendino- .ra-' 
dually with the lighter tint of the forehead ; there is a light circle a;ound 
the eye ; sides of the nose, and lips, yellowish-white ; upper surface effect, 
gray. ^^ ^ 




238 



FRRMONTS SQUIRREI* 



There is a slight and almost imporcpptiblo lihick stripe about a lino wide 
and three inches long, separating the colour of the sides from the aohy 
white tint of the under surface. The annulations in the hairs of the tail 
are somewhat indistinct : from the roots for nearly half their length tlicy 
are grayish-white, are then black, and arc broadly tipped with white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 
" tail (vertebras), 
" '• (including fur), - 

Height of ear posteriorly, 
" " (including tufts), 

Palm and middle fore-claw, 

Sole and middle hind-claw. 



Inchnn 

7 

41 

Gi 

i 

I 

2 



HABITS. 

We possess no information in regard to this animal farther than that it 
was obtained on the Rocky Mountains. 

It no doubt, like all the other small species of Squirrels which are closely 
allied with it {Richardsonii, Iludsoniiu , lanuginosus, &c.), feeds on the seeds 
of pines, and other conifcraj. 

All these squirrels inhabit elevated regions of country, and in addition 
to their habit of climbing, have burrows in the ground, wherein they make 
their dormitories, and dwell in winter ; whilst in summer they select the 
hollow of a tree, in which they construct their nests. 

Their note is peculiar, like chickaree chickaree repeated in quick succes- 
sion, and differing from the qua qua quah note of the larger squirrels. 

By their habit of burrowing or living in holes in the ground, these small 
squirrels make an approach to the genus Tamius, or ground squirrels. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



The only specimen we have seen was obtained by Colonel Fremont ; it 
was procured on the Kocky Mountains, on his route by the south pass to 
California. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



The tufts on the ears of this species are considerably larger thaii in any 
other known species of squirrel in our country, except Sciurus dorsalis, a 



FREMONTS SQUIRRKI. 



239 



bcaut.ful new squirrel diHcovercd in California by Mr. Wooohouse and 
recontiy described by that ^auUleinan, and in this respect bear a resem- 
blance to thoHc on the ears of the common Squirrel of Europe {Sciurus 
^n,lgar,^ ; the tufts, however, of the latter are twice the length of those of 
&. Fremond, being an inch long, whilst in the latter they are half an inch 
in length. 

These tufts, in the specimen, originate on the outer surface of the ear 
near the base and the edges of the ear arc only covered with short hairs' 
whilst in the European species not only the posterior portions, but also the 
upper edges, or rims of the ear, are thickly haired, producing so large and 
tluck a tuft that the animal at first sight appears to have an ear moie than 
an inch long. 




340 



SCIURUS I ULIGINOSUS.— Bach. 

Sooty Suuiurkl. 

PLATE CXLIX. Fig. 2. 

Sciuro ITiidsonio pauUo major ; cauda nonnihil plana, ct corpore multo 
breviore ; colore pleruniquo supra nigro, subfusco-Jlavo varicjjato ; infra 
Bubfusco. 

CHARACTERS. 

A little larger than the Hudsm's Bay Squirrel (S. Hudsonius) ; tail, flattish^ 
and much shorter than the body ; general colour, black above, grizzled with 
brownish-yellow ; beneath, brownish. 

STNONYME. 

SciuKus FuLioiNOsus. Bacli., Monograph of tlie genus Sciurus, Trans. Zool. Soc, 
London, August, 1838. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Head, short, and broad ; nose, very obtuse ; ears, short, and rounded, 
Blightly clothed with hair ; feet and claws, rather short and strong ; tai' 
short, and ilattened, but not broad, resembling that of Sciurus Hudsonius J 
the form of the body is like that of the Carolina gray Squirrel. 



COLOUB. 

The limbs externally, and feet, are black, obscurely grizzled with brown- 
ish-yellow ; on the under parts, with the exception of the chin and throat, 
wliich are grayish, the hairs are annulated with brownish-orange and black ; 
at the roots, they are grayish-white ; the prevailing colour of the tail ia 
black above, the hairs being brown at the base, some of them obscurely 
annulated with brown, and at the apex pale brown ; on the under side of 
the tail, the hairs exhibit pale yellowish-brown aunulations. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, 
" tail (vertebra;). 



Linra 



tnchei. 

10 
6 9 



SOOTY SQUIRREL. 

Length of tail (including fur), - 

palm to point of middle fore-claw, 
heel, to point of longest nail, - 

Height of car posteriorly, - . . . 

Length of fur on the back, 



:mi 



Inchfti 


Liu 


8 


6 


1 


8 


2 ■ 


1 




4 




7 



HABITS. 

This dusky looking species is found in low swampy situations, and is 
said to be very abundant in favourable localities. 

Durin-r high freshets, when the swamps are overflowed to the height of 
several feet, they are very active among the trees, leaping from branch to 
oranch, indifferent about the waters beneath. They feed chiefly on pecan 
nuts, and are deemed by the French inhabitants of Louisiana to be the 
most savoury of all the Squirrels. 



i 



f-oc, 



GEOOB.' 'CAL DISTRIBUTION. 

We have heard of thi. species as existing only in Louisiana and Misaia- 
sippi, and as being chiefly confined to the swampo. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

We are under the impression that this Squirrel is subject to considerable 
variations in colour. We obtained, through the kindness of Col Wadb 
Hampton, a number of specimens of the different Squirrels existing along 
the shores of the Mississippi, and among them we found several examples 
of this species. Some of them were of much lighter colours than the one 
which we described. In Louisiana, they are often so dark in colour, as to 
be called by the French inhabitants le petit noir. 

The specimen from which our original description was made, was pro- 
cured near New Orleans, on the 24th of March, 1837. It agrees in many 
particulars with a skin deposited in the late museum of Mr. Peale at 
Philadelphia, which, with other specimens in that collection, is now proba- 
bly lost for ever. Dr. Harlan referred to it as S. rufiventer, but it did not 
agree with Desmarest's description of that species, as we ascertained by 
comparing it. On examining the description Dr. Harlan gave of the 
specimen to which he referred, we ascertained that instead of describing it 
himself, he had, with slight variations, translated D^^smabest's description 



VOL. riT. — 31 




24U 




' ' 



PSEUDOSTOMA I LORT D AN A.— Aud iind lUcii. 

SoUTMKKN roi'C'HKD IUt. 

PLATE CL. Fio. 1.— Oin Mai-e. 

Unica per loiiijitudinoni etria in dcntlbusqui secant mi,)erioiil)nH ; corporn 
P. bui-pnrio pauUo oxijjuinro et minus ndmr 'inMlciilc ; Hiici'ulis ^a'nnruui 
minorilius ; paliiiis niuUo anuustiorilius ; cauiia loiigiorc ; pilis crai<r<ioril)UH. 
Colore. Hupra subiutb rusco, infra oinereo. 

CHARACTERS. 

A single longitudinal groove in the upper incisors ; body, rather smaller cwd 
Uss stout in form titan V. bursarius ; c/teek-poiie/ies, smaller ; palirui, much 
narroxi'er ; tail, longer ; hair, coarser. Colvur, above, broir7nsh-i/eUow, beneath, 

DESCRrPTION. 

The body of this speeies is a little smaller and more slender and elon- 
gated than that of /'. bursarius : head, small ; nose, long, and not so blunt 
as in that animal. The fore-foot (or hand) has tiie palm narrow, a,id Icsa 
tuberculated beneath than in P. bursarius ; nails, narrower, a little longer, 
and much less arched than in that species; ant! the cheek-pouches arc 
smaller. Tail, long (double the length of tail of l\ bursarius), and has a 
little tuft of hair around the base ; the rest of it, however, is naked. ¥w.t, 
naked, instead of clothed with hair as in that animal. 

In the upper jaw the incisors arc of moderate size, narrow, with a single 
groove in the centre, and no groove on the inner edges, as in /'. bursarius. 

Septum, naked, with the nostrils entering in at the sides, immediately at 
the roots of the incisors ; whisLcrs, rising from the sides of the nose, short, 
thin, and sparse ; eyes, small, placed neur each other in the head ; the ears 
exhibit a slight margin around the auditors opening ; they are placed far 
back, and not distant from cacN other ; toes, live on each foot ; on the 
forc-fcet the middle toe with the nail is much the longest ; the inner poste- 
rior toe is the smallest ; there are a few short rigid hairs on the inner 
edge of the palm, but the foot may be described as naked ; on the hind- 
foot, the claws, which are a little longer than those of P. bursarius, are 
hooked, and channelled beneath ; the hind-feet, to above the tarsus, are 
naked. 

The hairs on the body are short, the coat not being half the length of 



SOUTHERN POUCHED RAT. 



213 



fhn ha.rfl of P. hursarius, and feoliiiu much coarser and more rigid' tlmn in 
that spocic,, ospocinlly on tho under surface; tho check-pouches are some 
what diflorontly situa'.Ml fn.m thono of P. huKoariu, : whilst in the latter 
Bpencs the upiH'r.djrc is more than half an inch l.clow the l.asc of tho 
superior incisors, the check-pou(hes in the present species open immediately 
into the mouth, tho upper edjrc reaching them, so that while in P. bursariu, 
the food has to he taken from tho pouches and conveyed round to tho 
mouth, the present species is able, by the peculiar form and situation of tho 
opening of its pouch, to shove tho food from the pouch immediately i^^, 
the mouth. Tho pouches arc, internally, sparsely covered with 'short 
hairs. 



cc ! oun. 

Hair on the back, plumbeous from the roots for three fourths of its 
length, then yellowish, tipped with black ; on the belly, the hairs are cine- 
reous at base, and dirty yellow at the tips ; under the throat, they are of a 
uniform ashy white. Whiskers, white, with a few (shorter ones) dark 
brown ; teeth, pale orange ; claws, light yellow, those on the hind-feet 
dark brown at the points ; feet and tail, flo«h colour. The result of the 
colouring of the hairs just mentioned is-back, brown:,.h-yellow ; nose and 
forehead, brown ; nnder surface from the chest to the thighs, bluish-gray • 
throat, ashy white. ' ' 



DIMENSIONS, 

From point of no.se to root of tail, ■ 

Tail, - 

Longest middle claw, ... 
Palm, incliKling daw, 
Breadth of head between the eyes, - 
" between ears, 



Tiichei. 

M 
4 

i 
U 

i 
1* 



HABITS. 

The Southern Pouched Rat is very similar to the Canada Pouched Rat 
in its habits and manner of living, the chief differences in these respects 
between the former and the Pseudostoma bursana being the natural result 
of different climate and situation. 

This species is very remarkable for the apparently definite line of coun- 
try it occupies, for, as far as we have been able to ascertain, although 



244 



SOUTHERN POUCHED RAT. 



found in many places up to the southwestern bank of the Savannah river 
in Georgia, not one has ever been seen in South Carolina, or east of that 
river. This is the more singular as the wide range of the other species of 
this genus would lead us to suppose it not at all lik. y to be restricted by 
any fresh-water river, and indeed we can conceive no reason why it should 
not reach even lo North Carolina and portions of Virginia, where sandy 
soils and dry pine lands similar to those it most frequents in Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi, are widely extended. 

Strangely enough, the common name applied to this animal where it is 
found is " Salamander." 

The Southern Pouched Rat does not, like the Pseudostoma bursariut, 
remain under ground during the winter months, in a most probably dor- 
mant state, but continues its diggings throughout the year, and devours 
quantities of roots and grasses. It has hitherto been more frequently 
found living in tae woods than near cultivated fields and plantations, but 
as the country becomes more settled will doubtless prove as great a pest 
in the gardens as its more northern relative, for an account of which see 
our first volume, pp. 832-339. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species is found in the high pine barren regions, from the middle 
of Georgia and Alabama to the southern point of Florida, as far as the 
elevated portions of that State extend south. 

We received two specimens from Major Logan in Dallas county, Ala- 
bama, several from Ebenezer, about twenty-five miles above Savannah in 
Georgia, and a number from the vicinity of Saint Augustine in East 
Florida. 

Wo have not been able satisfactorily to ascertain its western range. 
We believe, however, it is not found west of the Mississippi. It is some- 
what s-Tigular that this species is found on the \ory banks of the Savannah 
river, on the western aide, and that notwithstanding, no traces of it have 
ever been seen east of that river, nor indeed in any portion of South Caro- 
lina, although there are extensive regions of high pine lands in that State 
which appear to be well suited to its habits. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



It is highly probable that this is the species referred to by Raffinesqcb 
and ot'iers as the Georgia Hamster ; inasmuch, however, as it was proba- 
bly never seen by Rafpinesqub, and he most likely formed his new genus 



SOUTHERN POUCHED RAT. 



245 



Geomys from figures representing the cheek-pouches as rising within tho 
mouth, and hanging like sacs under the throat, we have thought it as well 
to decline adopting his genus thus founded in error, and to omit quoting 
him in any part of our work as an authority. 



I .■ i\ 



246 



IJ! 



SOREX DEKAYI.— Bach. 

DkKay's SiiitEW. 

PLATE CL. Fio. '.'.— Youno Male. 

Maguitudiuo Arvicola) Pcnnsylvanicas ; colore supra ferrugineo, ex 
cinereo ct flavo variegate, infra cincrco ; caiida brevi atque cylindracea. 



CHAUACTfcRS. 



Size of Jlrvicola Pennsylvanica ; rusty yellow gray colour above, cinereous 
beneath ; tail, short and cylindrical. 



SYNONYMES. 



SoREX DkKavi. Baelinian, Joiir. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. vii., part 2, ).. 377, pi. 23, fig. 4. 
" " DeKay, Nat. Hist, of New York, p. 17, pi. 5, tig. 2. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Dental Formula. — Incisive ^ ; Canine ^^ ; Molar ^^ ~ 32. 

The two upper incisors are much curved, and pointed at tips ; the lateral 
incisors are each crowned with two tubercles except the lifth, which is 
smooth ; each grinder, on the ujjper surface, is furnished with four sharp 
points ; in the lower jaw the incisors are also much curved ; the first 
canine tooth is smaller than the second, and the molars are similar to those 
of the upper jaw. The body bears a resemblance to that of the shrew mole 
in shajjc. Head, rather short ; nose, distinctly bilobate ; nostrils, on the 
sides ; the eye is a mere speck ; there are no external ears ; wluskors, the 
length of the head ; the feet are more robust than those of any American 
Shrew we have examined, and arc haired on the soles ; feet, clothed with 
short fine hairs ; the tail in the dry specimen is square, examined in the 
flesh is roundei, slightly dilated in the middle, and covered with short 
hair ; hind-foot, three middle nails nearly equal, outer toe a little longer 
than the inner, which latter is the shortest. 



COLOUB. 



Nose, feet, and nails, reddish-brown ; upper surface of body, rusty yellow 
gray ; a shade lighter on the under surface ; whiskers, for half the leugtk 
from their roots cinereous, whitish at the tips ; incisors, black. 



DEKAY'S SHREW. 



247 



DIMENSIONS. 

Female, captured in the garden at Minniesland near Now York. 



From point of nose to roof of tail, - 

Tai! (vcrtebr.T), --.... 

" (to end of hair), 

From heel to point of longest nail, - 
Breadth of fore-foot, - - . . . 
Male, one eighth of an inch longer than the female. 



Iiifhen. 

44 
1 



HABITS. 

to the hab ts of the smaller quadrupeds, from the fact that many of our 
farn,ors and their n.on are unacquainted with the generic and e e f sp c , 
names, and consequently often n.istake the habits of some genu o sped 
for those of a very distinct one. The various species bdon-nnl to X 
genera AWo,, Condylura, an.l Sorc.^ are in most cases calle ( ,d eon ^ 
cored to be ground n,oles." and thus are represented as all p ses' L 

descnbed, sa d hey were ground moles. On showing hin, that thoy were 
aller, and had very di.erent feet from those of any^^ninuU beiongin Mo 
« gonus Wo;., he said " they were only young ones, that the r fe 

After a cavcfnl exan.ination, however, we ascertained that DeKav's 
hhrew burrows deeper in the O'lrtl. t),-,.. v. / .• ,.,, ^^^ ^ 

nC<n.kr ■ / ' '"'7^''''" thanicaV aywav'/ciw. The galleries 

of S. DcKay^ run along at the depth of about a foot from the surface and 
ave apertures leading up to the open air at short distances fr m ea h 
other, by winch the anin.als have ingress or egress. Ground moles eek 
worms and u.sects in the earth, whereas the Shrews come abroad on e 

:;: :rd :"" :"•■ "^ ""■^""' ^* -'^^^^ ^^ ^-^^^ «^ ^-^- ^ habit i?wh 

tuo mole does not appear to indulge. 



OEOORAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

W. received specimens of tl.is small animal from Mr. CooPEU who 
...a„.od U,„m „. New Jor»oy ; also one fro,„ All,a„y, We werr;,'.:!:; 




248 



DEKAYS SHREW. 



when two were captured near New York, and have neard of its existence 
in New England, Maryland, and Virginia. 



H 



GENERAL, KEMAEKS. 

Wo have gccn ppccinions of DeKay's Shrew which exhibited a dark slaty 
gray aijpcarancc on the back and sides, and difl'cred materially in colour 
from those from which we described. 

This we attributed to Ihc dark gray ones having been killed in the 
autun\n or towards the approach of winter. Dr. DeKay seems to have 
described a specimen with this slaty coloured fur ; he gives its colour aa 
" dark bluish throughout." 



249 



SOREX LONGIROSTilIS.-B4CH 

LONO-NOSED SHRKW. 

PLATE OL. F.a.3.-MALK. 
occulth'"'*^"'"'' '°'*'° ^''"^''' '"'"'^^ '""^^^' ^""'""' ^'"I'"'^' ^•'"^^ 



e non 



CUABACTER8. 

JVb.c, long; ears, large, and prominent; taU, Img ; general colour, 



cliesnut 



8YN0NYME3. 

SOHEX L0N0IU08TK18-L0N«-N08EU SuKKW. JJach., Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. v.^ 
f^ T, P'"""'' 2, p. 370. Anno 1837. 

OnsouEx PtATVKHiNUB. DeKay, Nat. Hist. State of New York, p. 22, pi. 5, fig. 1. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Dental Formula.-Ir,cmvo I; Canine ?=|; Mokr ^-=1 = 32. 

J^MllVr '■ "':''' "'P'' ''^ ""''''''' ''''''' ^^'"^^<^-' <^-tending to 
hr h f l! f '" ' ''''' •^'"' ^P*^''^"^^^ ^^^'^'•^'^ ^•t'^ the same kind of 

bUobod ; the eyes are distinctly visible, and larjrer than in most species of 

tl!T^ \!^''^''^\'-'^- considerably beyond the fur, is complratively 

arg and tn.ckly clothed within and without, with short soft hairs ; tho 

kUd a few stiff Ion,, ha.rs ; tail, nearly round, but in the dried snecimeu 

econung square ; it is clothed with short hair above and beneath as al 
the feet and palms to the extremities of the nails ; toes, five ; the who e 

a:fgLs; ' '"' ^'"^" "' ""'• ^'' ''' '' '''''' -^^ ^-' 

COLOUB. 

dafJZ' ""'^°'"1 'I'''""* ' ^'"'"*^' " ^'^^^^ ^■^'^ter ; points of the teeth, 
dark brown ; nails, horn colour, tipped with black. 
VOL. III.— 32 



il 



250 



LON(i-NOSliJ) SIIRKVV. 



DIMIONSIONH. 

liOii^'lli IVoiii (lie iio.sc (.0 tlic orijriii of I In- tiiil, 

or tail, 

" oriH-iid, 

Uoiglit ol'i'iir, 

Loiigth ol" hind-foot from lieol to end of nails, - 



Incti'xi. 
li 
1 
I 

i 

i 



Wo have since measured a specimen procured atTuIuIa falls in (Jcorgiii, 
tho dimensions of which were as follows : 

iicngth from noso to origin of tail. - - - 2 2 



of tail, 



'6 



1 M 



HA BITS. 

Wo jmssess very little knowledge in regard to the habits of this little 
Siirew. The first si)eeinien we saw was obtained in the swamps that 
border the Santec llivcr, by Dr. Alkxandku IlrMi;; his labourers found 
it whilst digging a ditch through grounds nearly overllowed with water. 
Anolher was obtained in a singular manner. Wliilst we were at (he house 
of Major IjKE in Colleton district, his huntsman brought in some wild 
ducks, and among the rest a hooded merganser {Mcrirus cuvullatus). 'I'here 
was a protuberance on tho throat of (his bird, ajipearing as if it had not 
fully swallowed some article of food at the lime it was shot. On opening 
the throat, it was found to contain this little !<hrew, which was fresh, and 
not in the least mudlated. 

We saw (wo or three Shrews in tho same vicinity which wo think were 
of this species, coming out of a bank on the edge of a rice field and swim- 
ming in (he canal at (he dusk of the evening. From the above circum- 
stances we are induced to think that (his (juadrnped prefers low swampy 
situations, and is to a certain extent acpiatic in its habits. We more 
recently obtained a specimen from Col. W. 10. IIaskkli., of St. raul's 
parish, South Carolina, which was a shade lighter, and a little larger, than 
others in our possession, but presented no specific difl'ercnces. 



GEOGUAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The Long-nosed Shrew (allhough ajjjmrently very sparingly) is found in 
South Carolina. We saw a specimen in the jiossessioii of the keeper of 
the public hnnso at the Tulula falls in the mountains of Georgia. It evi- 
dently extends throughout tho middle States, and has been taken in New 
Y(>rk and New Emrland. 



IX)NG-NOSKD SHREW, 



OENKHAL REMARKS. 



251 



Tho Amoncan Shrows may bo oanily arranged into thrco natural Rroups • 
first, those with short oar.s and tail, of which Sor.x DrKayiy^oM forn. tho 
typo ; second, those with large pahns, l.roa.lly fringed, such as KjlMj.s ; 
and th.rd, those wth long ears and tail, of which tho present specie 
would bo the typo. ' 

Wo perceive that Dr. DkKay has formed the present speoies into a new 
gomi, Ohsorcx ; but as tho European naturalists had previously proposed 
a number of genera, one of which would include the present species, wo 
prefer for the present leaving our An,erican Shrews in the genus .%rcx. 
Wc have no hcs.tafon in saying that Dr. DeKay's species pfafyrhinus, on 
wh,ch h.8 genus was fouaded, is identical with S. Im^ro^tris, the subject 
of our present article. -* 






I I 



S C A L O P S A R G i: N T A T II S.— A v n. and li a c ii. 

Sii.vKuv SmiKW-Moi.K. 

PLATE OL. I'll). 1.- Kkmai.h:. 

S, I'ilis lota loiij^'itiiilino nllto, pliiiiiboquo iiiunilatiH ; froiito, inoiitiqiic 
ftlliido flavoscoutc. 

niAUAflTKltH. 

Hairs, from the roots rcf^krly aiinu/ntal vnlh white ami plmnheous ; fore 
head ami ehin, yellowish-white. ( 'oloiir of the Iwdy, shinin^r silver frray. 

8YN0NYMK. 
SCALOI'S AlKiKNTATUB— S1I.VKKY SlIUKW-Moi.K. Alui, Allil Hiich., .lour. Aciid. Nllt. 

Sci.. October C, 1841. 

PEscuirrioN. 

In tonii tin's species is cylindrical, like (lie coninion SIirew-Molo {S.aqua- 
tieiis), to wliidi it bears a sl:-on,ir reseniblanec. iMu/.zle, naked ; and the 
nostrils inserted, not on the sides, as is (he ease in .SV(//o/>,v Jireweri, bnt in 
the npper snriace, near (he point of the nos(>, as in S. aqmitieus. Kycs, not 
visible, and Mppear covered by an in(ei,nnnent ; the lips are Iriiif^'cd with 
rather coarse hairs ; thii; species is pcndactylous, with naked palms and 
tail ; the teeth aro larger, shorter, and broad(>r than those of flic common 
Shrew-Mole; the far is long and lustrons on the back, bnt much shorter 
and more compact on the under surlace. 



coLoun. 

Teeth, and nails, white ; palms, hind-feet, and tail, fle.sh coloured ; nose, 
forehead, lips, and chin, yellowish-white ; (he fur on the back is from the 
roo(s nmrked with alternate narrow bars of dark blue and white to near 
the extremities, where it is broadly barred with ashy white, and so slightly 
tipped with brown that the lighter colour beneath is still visible on tlio 
surface, giving it a beautiful silvery ajipearance, vhich presents a variety 
of changes, on being exposed to different rays of light. On the lower 



SM.VKnv SIII{|;VV-M()I,K. 



i>:>;{ 



mrfaoo fho l,„i,. iH ,,I„M,1...„„. n-oni (he h.oIm |„ noar llu, tipn, wlioro i( m 
ImrmI will, wluti.h; it in li,,p,.,l will, li.l.l, |„.,nv„. Tl..,- i. a spr.l, „f 
white .... tl.. ,:..nln, of (In, nl..l,>,M,.n, wl.i.^l, is n|,,„.,n.„lly un-i.|,.„(.i UH 
wo hav., occasKMuilly „l,s..rv..,i il, in olhor .si.ocioH of this KcnuH, aH wll a« 
in tho true inulo (7'«//w) of Knropc.. 



DIMKNHIONH, 



LcriK'tli of lioad and body, • 
" tiiil, . . . 
Ihciidlli ol'piiliii, 
From tarsurt to point ofi()nf,'('Ht nuil, 



InrhfiH, I^jiif 

7 1 

I 

10 
7 



HAIIITH. 



Dr. (Jko. (!. Lkui, who diHrovomj this aniniiil in iho, prairioH of Midu- 
f-'iui, K'avo UH no account of its hal.ils, which wo pr,;.suino arc, .similar to 
tlioHO of tho comniou Hliniw-Moh*. 



oko(;uai'iii(:a(, DisriiiiiirrioN. 

Wo have not hoard of this l.oiMitilully furred Molo in any other locality 
than that whore onr Hpocinion waH procured, which i.s tho only ono wo havo 
ev..r Hoon, and tho ono fron. whirh r.ur li;,n.ro a.i.l description havo I.eon 
niado. 



fJUNKUAh ItKMAItKH. 

Of tho several spocion of Shrow-Molo that inhal.it North An.oriea this 

m po.nt of colour is tho most hr u,t that ImH yet been hrou-rht to tho 

""•■■••i, ol naturalists. Althou.irl. it b..,rH a jreneral n.s..,nl,lan<.; to tho eo.n- 
men Shrew-Mole, yet tho characters it presents have induce.l us after «omo 
hos.tafon and do.il.t, to desi.nat., it as a now sp..cies. It is neai^ly doul.lo 
the si/.e of the comn.on Shrow-M..Io ; the fur is much lonjror and softer and 
d.irerH strikingly i„ colour an.l lustre. Our sp..cimen was evidently a 

>■'"'"" '^ nil, althoMfrh tho dontitiou was similar to that of ,SV anualicus 

Komo of the small thread-like tooth that are pla....| l.ciun.l tho in.-isors in 
tho nppcr jaw were wanting on one side, and were ot.ly barely visible on 
the other. Th(> young of Saifops aqualkus havo but thirty teeth until they 
arc more than a year old ; when they have arrived at their full vi.rour 
they are furnished permanently with thirty-six. The skulls of Srllm, 
Townsendu and S. Brcwcrii each contain forty-four toeth. 




ni 



254 



ail.VKRY HMHKAV-MOLE. 



IJcforfi wc tako loavo of tlic ShrowMoloH of our coiiiitry wo linvo to add 
that RiciiAUDHON (F. M. A. p. 12), in iiolicin<c tli(> as.soitioti of lUnTnAM, 
that a truo niolo, Tafpa, existed in AnuM-ieti (in wliicii lio was supposed l»y 
later writers to bo niislakcn), asserts that tliero are several true inoics i.i 
tlie museum of tlic Zoolo^rical Soci(>)y f fiondon, wliieh were liromrht IVom 
America, and wliicli ditVcr IVoim llie ordinary European species (VV/Z/xj 
Etiropca), in bein<^ of a snuiller si/o and liavinjr a shorter and thicker snout, 
their fur beinj,' brownish-black. Dk.Kay, in (he Natural History of N(>w 
York (p. ICi), refers to the al)ove statement. We however oxannned these 
specimens in the ZooIoj,neal Museum, and found they consisted of only two 
epccios — our connnon Sm/ops aquaticiis, wiiicli Uiciiaudhon strangely mis- 
took for another species, and iScnlops lirtwcri, to which ho particularly 
referred. Thus far therefore no truo sj)ccimen of the genus Ta/pa has been 
discovered in America, and wo have no doubt that the species referred to 
by Bautuam as the black mole was Bkkweu's Shrew-Mole, which in certain 
lights appears quite black. 



i i 



VUM'KS irrAll._Ai;„.an,l IJ.ch. 

Jack A 1.1. Fox. 

I'LATK OLf, 

V. corporr >,ra,ufio,r, pili. vdloris InnK'iorihus n«c non graciliorilnis 
quam ... V. lulvo, i-.imUi unv^im ryli.,.lnu:,.a. 

CIIAUACTKIIS 



RYNONYME.S. 



Vu 



VuLPKH Macro 



..PKs TTtaii.-A.i.I. nn.l Ha.!,., I'roc. A.-n.I. 

mslinry's Kc|)()rt. 



I'Hi'M, Haird, Si 



Nat. Sci., I'liil., 1852, ,,, 114, 



KKHCHII'TION, 



Clav/H Hli^rhtly arcl.od, cornprosHcd, clianncllo.! 



licnoalli 



coI( 



1 • ,. 1 . , ' ' " """' "i:n>;<ii.ii, horn 

La.ro two k.n.ls, lir.sl. a coarso and long hair covering the Jur beneath it • 
ond, a dense and very soft line fnr, composed of hairs that are .strai^h V 
b..t .-runped and wavy, as i„ the .silver grey fox. Far plund.eons at t J 
-00 , gradna ly l.econ.ing dark l.rown towards the tips in those parts of 
ho ho y wh.eh are dark colored on the sarA^ce ; in thL parts wiich :1 
^^Iute the far ,s white (ro.n the roots, and on no part of the animal does it 
present any aiinulations. ''' 

The long hairs are dark-brown from the roots, yeilowish-whitc near the 
■""'"lie of their length, and arc tipped with black 

On tlu, ni.Ier surface the hairs are principally white their whole extent 
^^. I. a few black ones intermixed ; the fur on the tail is rather less He 
and more woolly than on the body 

tbc hau IS rather coarse and short, with fine fur beneath. 

COLOUR. 

Oreyish-white on the head, dark brown on the neck, grev. own on 

»'o -io-al line and on the sides; the throat, under surfae^ of the bodf 
iiiM.ics oi legs, and feet black. ^' 

wJi' 'V'V' ';'";'-"''^'"'>- ^'"'''^'J '''^'^ J-'-k brown and dull white, the tit- 
white for about three inches. ^ 



;;»i> 



JACKAI.I. K(>\ 



^'Inothir .S/»(( I'moi. N<>-ii<, liotli Hiiiruccs ol'llio Iou'm, ami luliiinl tlio ciiirt, 
<liiil\, I'l'ililisli lniivvii ; wliislvi'i's liliick ; iindi'i' .'^idc of iirck, mid a line on 
llio lii'llv, liver iirowii. Fur mi lln' lnnk very titii*, iitid lurk iisliy Kruy 
iVoiii llii> riiolM : llii< Ioniser Imirs o i <lii< Imck i>ri> liliick ut llic niotH, ami 
are lu'iiiiiiiy ti|i|«'d willi white ' riirun tlio sides, fiiicreiMi^ iit. Hut niiils, iiiid 
yi'llowisli wiiilo tioiii lliiMice lo llic end. 

There is ii reddish linu:e oii ||ii« iieek, eNlendiii^ In Ihe shoulders ; sideH 
ol' Ihe I'liee ^riv./iv lirown ; the hiiir on the tiiil is irrei;;ulail_v eloiideil with 
brown and dull while, imd is li;^r|ile-i|, on Ihu uiuier Hiirracc. 



l)|,.tK,NSI()NH. 



From point of nose |-.» root of tail. 
Tail, (verleltra',) .... 

" (to (Mill tit" hair.) 
('ireuinl'erenre of tail, (Inuadesl part,) 
From shoulder In fore fe-l, 
l'"ri>m ruui]> to liindl'eel, 
lleiulit of ears, (posteriorly,) - 
Ki'(.iii point of nose to eye, 
JiOngest hairs on ihe iuiish, - 



Fptl. 



liH'liiir, 



a* 



on the lioilv, 



II A HIT? 



This animal was lirst nolieiMJ, iiy Lmvis and ("i.vitK, as the lar;j;(! lied 
Fox of the plains, (vid. J, p. l(iS.) am! was refericd to liy us in the lirs( 
xohinie of the Qundiupi'ds of Noilh .\niei-ica, |». .")!, where we deseriliiHl il 
from a linnler's skin. 

Ilaviuii- olilained a Ixviuliful speeinwu from Cnptain Wiiktt, of *ho 
rniled Stales Army, we iiave il liie name ol' \'i(/j)<\'i /'/(///, as il is, so far as 
our information extends, eiii(>ll\ found in Ihe Utah tcrritorv ■ llh"Ugl» it 
prolialily raiijres eonsiileraldy north of the (Jreaf Salt liuke. 

The haliils of this beautiful Fox are similar to tho.se of tlr 'Jed Fux, aud 



It runs in 



lo nuinv varieties of eidor. 



t'aptaiu UnKTi" informed us thai lie killed llio specimen, kindly presented 
to us Ity him, near Fort I-aramie. 

Several spoeinious of i'u/ius I tn/i have been received at the Sinitlisoniau 
lustitntiof!. li i; 't will probably soon be well known. 



CKOtMl.vrilH'Al, DISTIUItlTlON'. 



This Foa, as we have asccrtuiuod since writing the above, is procured 



MrKAI.I, KO\ 



m 



»" lu n n ,1. HH Ihn ,,,,. i.rH of tl.o IW compuninn i^UHl. tl.,Mr outpoHtn. It f« 
Jouud uImo ill OioKoii. ' 

Thfl ..x,,l„rinK o.x|,o.liti..i, Hent by tl.o l7nit.Ml HtatoH, (IHIW to 1842) .lid 
"o. pn..„n, ,u.y H,..n„H,„„ „r thin Fox, althouKh wo ll„,l Uy Mr. .'ba,,„'h 
(>u loKuo, they oUainod tho VuI,oh VirKiniaaun. i.. both Oregou Z 



II 




. *' ^* I 



vor,. T!!.— 83 




268 



SOIURUS MUSTELINUS.— AuD. and Bach. 

Weasel-likk Squirrel. 

PLATE CLl I.-Male. Fig. 1 . 

S. Cervice loiijiissinia ; camhi corporc longiore ; pilis curtis, rigidis, 
couipressis, teretibi;s ; omui corporis parte iiiyerriina. 

CHARACTERS. 

JVeck, very long ; tail, longer than the body ; hair, short, rigid, adpreised, 
and glossy ; the whole body, jet black. 

SYNONYME. 

yciiiuus MusTELiNus — Wkabkl Squirrel. Aud. and B;uli., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phil., Oot. 6, 1841, p. 32. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The unusually long neck of this species, together with its long slondez- 
l>ody, and smooth lustrous hair, give it somewhat tlie appearance of a 
weasel, and suggested to us the specific name. 

Ears, of moderate size, aud nearly naked, there being only a few hairs 
on the borders ; feet, covered with very short hairs, which only reach to 
the roots of the nails ; tail, long, not bushy, moderately distichous. 

COLOUR. 

The hairs, in every part of the body, are deep black from the roots to 
the tips, and the surface is glossy. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body - 

tail, - - - - 
From shoulder to point of uoso, 

Tarsus, 

Height of oar posteriorly, 



Inch*!. 

10 
13 

3 
2 



Linn, 



10 
6 
6 



WEASEI.LIKE SQUIRREL 



259 



HABITS. 

The Weascl-likc Squirrel feeds in the woody portions of California on 
acorns, the seeds of the pines and other trees, and n.akes its nes th 
oaks or nut-bearing pines of that country, which, fron> (heir broad se" 
mg branches and dense leafy boughs, aflbrd it security against the ^ 2r 
as wuh equal cunning and agility it hides itself, when alarn d L a ^o' 
evergreen foliage, and except when surprised on the ground o'rn"^. tt 
earth, and shot instantly, can seldom be killed. Ther! is no n re nta 
-ng game, ,n fact, and as the branches interlock at a moderate elev^tba 
from the ground, the animal easily goes from one .-ee to anothc^ Inl so 
s.:ftly that U . not often to be traced in its course of flight a^ t^ 

We are unacquainted with the time of this .nimaFs breeding, but pre- 
n>e ,t brings forth about four or five young at a birth. The yo" ng ' J 

^vi hout s.g t from four to s.x weeks. This is an admirable provision of 
natur for then- safety, as were they able to use their eyes at an earlier 
ponod, they would doubtless be tempted to quit the security of tlie 
and venture on_ to the branches, before they had gained strength cnou" 
to^preserve then- footing, and would thus probably fall to the earth and bo 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTUIRUTION. 

The specimen from which our figure and description were made was 
procured m California. We have no authority for stating its northern or 
southern range, but consider it a western species-by which we moan that 
It IS not found east of the Rocky Mountain Jiain. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

From its thin covering of hair, being nearly destitute of the soft fur 
usually clothing the squirrels, this species may be considered as belouo-in- 
to a moderate or warm climate. It diflers widely from all the oUier 
spoc.os of inack Squirrel (as well as all black varieties of Squirrel) in our 
country. It has shorter and coarser hair tiian S. cajnstratus, and is desti- 
tute of the white nose and cars of that species, with none of the white 
luit. invariably found i„ S. r.igcr ; and has a smaller body, altliou-h a 
m ich io.iucr tail tlian S. Jiuduboni, without the white, yellow, and brown 
annulations in the hair which characterize that species. 



2GU 



SCIURUS AUDUBONl.— Ba^ii. 

Large Louisiana Black Squirrel. 

PLATE CLII. Fia. 2.— Male. 

Paulo miner quam Sciurus Niger ; aures breviores ; denies qui cibura 
secant latiores ; cauda longitudiuo corpori par ; capilli valde crassi, tac- 
tuque asperi, sed niliilorainus nitidi. Color, supra nigcr ; infra subfuscus. 

CHARACTERS. 

A little less than Sciurus nigcr ; ears, shorter ; indsors, broader ; tail, as 
long as the body ; fur, very coarse and harsh to the touch, but glossy ; colour, 
above, black, beneath, brownish. 

SYNONyMB. 

Large Louisiana Black Squirrel — Sciurus Auduboni. Bacli., Monog. of the 

Genus Sciurus, p. 33. 1839. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Dental Forimda. — Incisive * ; Canine l^; Molar |^ = 20. 

Our specimen has the above number of teeth. If the small anterior 
molar in the upper jaw exists in the young, whicli we suspect to be the 
case in all American species, it is deciduous ; and we are warranted in 
arranging this species among those which have permanently but twenty 
teeth. In the upper jaw the anterior molar is triangular in shape, and 
crowned with three blunt tubercles ; the other molars are quadrangular, 
with concave crowns. 

Head, narrower, and body, thinner than in S. niger ; ears, short and 
conical, covered on botli surftices with short adpressed hairs, presenting no 
tufts ; whiskers, longer than the head, extending to the shoulders. Fur 
on the back, very coarse. 



COLOUR. 



Incisors, deep orange ; whiskers, black ; back, upper parts, outsidcs of 
limbs, and feet, black, with a faint tinge of brown. Many of the hairs are 



LARGE I/JUISIANA BLACK SQUIRREL. 26 J 

.-.ovvevcr obscurely annulate.1 with yellowish-white. The whole under 
.mn,co, and the inner .ides of the logs, are brownish. Most of the hairs 

w tl n I rr "" ^'•••'^^"■^''■-''''-' -t *h« ^-e. some are annulated 
with black and yellow, and others arc brown. 

Chin, black, with the extreme tip whitish ; end of nose, brownish • tail 
most ot the hairs are brownish towards the tip. 



ilt'il 



DIMEXSIONS. 

Length of head and body, 

tail (vertebra), 
" (to end of hair), - 

palm to end of middle fore-claw. 
Heel to point of longest nail, - 
Height of car posteriorly, 
Length of fur on the back. 



Inches. 
11 


Lines 

6 


8 


9 


11 


6 


1 


G 


2 


6 




8 



It 
I? 



IIAUITS. 

This southern Black Squirrel was first described by Dr. Bachman, from 
a specimen obtained by J. W. Aum:«o.v in I.ouisiana, and was named by 
urn after its discoverer. It frequents higli grounds, and has all the active. 
icstless, and playful habits of the genus. 

GEOGRAPniCAL DISTRIBUTION. 

The Louisiana Black Squirrel has been seen west of the Mississippi and 
as we think is occasionally found in Texas. It is sometimes offorod for 
sale in the iNcw Orleans markets, being shot in the neighbourhood of that 
city. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

We have been informed by some olTicors of the United States army that 
a Squirrel similar to the present species is found in Texas and in parts of 
New Mexico, but from there being no specimens we could not positive.^ 
Identify the Black Squirrels these gentlemen had observed with S. Jiudu- 
bom. 





262 



SCIURUS AHKirrr.— WooniiousR. 

Col. Aiium's Sijuikrki.. 

PLATK ULII l.—Fw. 1. 

S. Auribiis mafynis latisquc, criHtatia loiif^i.s subiiij^ris ciiicreisquc crini- 
bus ; rubra in dorso striga. 

CHAUAOTERS. 

Ears larprc and broad, tufted with long bhchish grey hairs; a reddish 
stripe on the back. 

SYNONYMKS. 

ScitTiuia noiwAMa.— Woodliousc, Vroc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Pliil., .funo, 1852, ]>. 110. 
SciUKUS AuKun.— Woodhouso, IVoc. Acad. Nat. Sci. I'liii., Doc, 185'J, p. 'J20. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Ears largo and broad, with very loiig tufts ; tail very largo ; fur long, 
compact, and soft ; claws long, very strong, and much curved ; whiskers 
very long. 

COLOUR. 

General colour above dark grey, with the exception of the dorsal lino 
and a band extending along tlie external base or iiind part of the ear, 
wliich is of a rich ferruginous brown colour; beneath, wiiito, with tho 
exception of the perineum, which is grey ; clieeks greyisli wiiite ; tail 
grey above with a broad white margin, and while beneiUh ; claws of a 
bhick colour witii the exception of tlieir points, which are light and 
almost transparent ; whiskers black ; iris dark brown. 



1)1mi:nsion.s. 

Drioil Skin. 

Lengtii from nose to root of tail, about. 
From heel to point of longest nail, - 
Height of ears, externally, 

" to end of tufts. 
Breadth " .^ 

From ear to point of nose, about 
Tail (vertebra^), about 

" to end of fur, - - . 



Inches. 

13 

2,". 



2rV 



(It 

i 

re 
1 

H 
11 



; I I 



— - " ■' '■ ijl 



reddish 




I i; 



X 



v. 



D-, 





Vi 

■Si 

8 



^' 



\ 



ill! 

\; 

A' 



\, 



V, 



^^ 



COL. AUKRT'N SQUIKRKL 



268 



HABITS. 

Dr. WoouHousK, r .„ ^vi.o.sc (.oscriptioii we have cytracted ubovc 
makes the following remarks: "Tl,.. beautiful squirrel 1 procured wl.ilj 
attached to the expedition under command of Capt. L. SiTOREAVEa 
'lopographical Engineer U. S. Army, exploring the Zuni and the great 
and little Colorado rivers of the west, in the month of October, 1851, la 
the San Francisco Mountain, New Mexico, where I found it quite 
abundant, after leaving which, I did not see it again," 

OEOOBAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

So far as shown by the foregoing account, and according to our know- 
ledge, this squirrel has not been seen except in the San Francisco Moun- 
tain, New Mexico. It is, however, most likely that it inhabits a con- 
siderable district of elevated and wooded country in that part of our 
Continent, and may hereafter bo found in California or even Oregon. 



GENERAL REMARK8. 

We have not bee* able to procure any further information regarding 
this species, which was first named Sciurus dorsalis by its discoverer, bul 
a subsequent examination having satisfied him that this name had '" al- 
ready been applied by J. E. Gray, to one of the same genus," he proposed 
" to call it Sciurus Aberti, after Col. J. J. Abert, chief of the corps of 
Topographical Engineers, U. S. Army, to whose exertions science is much 
indebted."— (Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., Dec. 1852, p. 220. 

It gives us great pleasure to welcome this beautiful new animal under 
the name of Col. Abert's Squirrel. 



2U4 



ili 



SCIURUS FOSSOR.— Pkale. 

California Guev Squirrel. 

r L A T E L 1 1 1 .— Fio. 2. 

S. Supra e iiij^ro alboquc iiitei'iiiixtis griscus, subtus albiis, aun'V48 
ni!igiii8, brevitcr pilo.sis, uaso nigro, cauJa disticlia, albo-margiuata, corporo 
.ongiorc. 

CHARACTERS. 
Above, grey ; beneath, white ; ears not tufttdjtut clothed within andvnthout 
with short hairs ; nose black; tail distichoi/n,t'j>peilwith white; body loHfj> 
and rat/ier slender. 

8YN0NYMES. 
SciCKUS FossoK.— reale, Mam., &e., of the U. S. Kxp. Expcd., 1 83R-t'2. Phila. 1 848. 
ScicRUS Heeumanni. — Dr. Lc Conte, Troceed. Ai-ad. Nat. Sci., Phil., SHpt., 1 852, p. 149. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Wliiskors shorter than the head ; ears large, subtriangular, rounded at 
the tip, and covered both within and without with sliort hair, which doea 
not in any way form a fringe at tiio margin ; tail long and dletichoua, 
with long hairs which are grey at the roots, black aljove and tipped with 
white ; body long and rather slender ; iiair on the body long and not line. 

COLOUR. 

Body above light grey, i)roduced by an intermixture oi black and 
wliite points ; the hairs are grey at base, then black, and have a pure 
white annulation about the middle ; intermixed with them are a few 
longer pure black hairs. A small spot towards the tip of the nose, and 
an indistinct line above the eyes are black ; whiskers black. Beneath, 
the body is pure white, except the perineum, which is grey ; tail grey, 
blackish towards the edges, and broadly margined with white ; rather 
lighter in colour beneath. 

l»IMEN8I0NS. 

From tip of nose to root of tail, 

Head, 

Length of ear, 

Bread til of ear, .... 
Fore foot to end of longest claw, 
Hind foot to end of longest claw, - 

Tail, to end of vertebra?. 

hair. 



InclicB, 


LiKCl 


12 


5 


3 


2 




9 




7 


2 


1 


3 


2 


9 


8 


13 





CALIFORNIA OREY HQUIRREI. 



266 



HABITS. 

This beautiful squirrel has beon often killed by Mr. J. K. Ci,rment9, 
in the pine woods of California, near Murphy's "diirgings." It is 
excocdinsly swift on the ground, and will not rcadilj take to a tree or 
If It docs, ascends only a few feet, and then junii>inR down to the ground 
runs off with its tail held up but curved downwards towards the tip like 
that of a fox when in flight. 

By the aid of a ftist cur dog, it may, however, be put up a tree. In this 
case It hides if a hole oflers in which to conceal itself; and unlike some 
others of Its genus, seldom leaps from one tree to another over the hi.rher 
boughs in tiie endeavour to make its escape. " 

It appears to make its nest generally in the decayed part of an oak 
tree, and in the desire to reach its secure retreat, is doubtless led to 
attempt to run to this tree on the ground, rather than by ascending the 
nearest trunk and jumping from branch to branch. 

A large part of its food consists of nuts, which are stuck in hollows or 
holes bored in the pine trees by a species of woodpecker called by the 
Cahfornians " Sapsuckcrs." These nuts are placed in holes in the bark 
wh-ch are only so deep as to admit the nuts (which are placed small end 
foremost in them), leaving tlie large end visible and about flush with 
the bark— they thus present the appearance of pins or pegs of wood stuck 
into the trees, and are very curious objects to the eye of the stranger. 

The California grey squirrel is a roving animal. One may sometimes 
see rrom one to a dozen in a morning's hunt in the pines, and again not 
meet any. They very seldom leave the pines, but arc occasionally seen 
in the dry season following the beds of the then almost empty water 
courses, which afl"ord them, in common with other animals and birds, water 
and such roots and grasses as they cannot fnid on the uplands at that 
period of the year. 

They bark somewhat in tlic same tones as the grey squirrel of the 
Atlantic States, but immediately cease when tiiey perceive they are 
observed by man. Sometimes they seem to be excited to the utterance of 
their cries by the whistling of the California partridges, which, near the 
hills, approach the edges of the pine woods. 

Most of those shot by Mr. Clements were killed when running on the 
ground. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This species is found in California in the wooded districts on the sides 
of tiic hills, and extends to Oregon, as, in Mr. Peales work, we havo 
accounts of its having been observed ihpvp, 

VOL. III. — 34. 



26H 



CAI-H'OKNIA (illKY StilHUUKI. 



It is also ulinoMt ii siiro (M)iioIiisi(>u lliiil il is roiiiid oi llio riil^t's of llm 
uioiiiiluiiiM, us I'lii' soullt us lliu iiut-liuui'ing Iroos iiivilu it, uiul il inuy lliu.s 
reucli quilu u luw luliludu. 



riRNKUAL KKMAUKH. 



' t 



The pino mils roforrod to in tiio account of tlio luihits of tliis s(]iiirrol, ntl 
a luvumito uiticlo of food Tor it, nve plucod on tlio couch of tlio Siifrar IHne, 
{Pintm Lambntii, I)ou;rliiH), so railed from tlio guiu which cxudoa from it, 
whoro the liurk hus been wounded, becomes hard and white, and is ijuito 
Bwcot to the tasle. 

Tho nuts are formed on the eonos, sometimes twenty or thirty on one 
cone. The Indians pound and crack them. They arc very good eating, 
and taste not unlikt? a iiickory nut. 'I'iie i<hull is thin, but hard, the nut 
covered with a skin like tiie peach kernel, tfec. 

We liesi.tated somewhat as to adopting tho name {Scinrus Fossor) givoa 
to this species by Mr. Titian R. I'iui.k, as his volume on tho " Mammalia 
and Ornithology " of tho United States IOxi)loring KxptMlition, &v„, hu« 
been suppressed ; but as aliout one hundred copitfs, it appi'ars, were circu- 
lated, we think it is only justice to Mr. 1'kai ,K to »pioie his work, which, 
na it was printed in 1848, gives his name tho priority over Sciurus ,ietr- 
tnaiini, under which this siiceies was described by our friend Dr. Lk 
CoNTE, Septend)er, 18r)2. 

Its flesh is good eating, and it is sufliciently al>undant in some parts of 
California to make it worth tho hunting for market. 



207 



Sl'l.;KM„,.,ln.„s I.A HU I S1,._A„„. „„,„,,„ 

Mauuih'h MpKitMonin...;, „r Mai<m.,t Syu 
I'I'ATK Cl-I V.-Fi(,. 1. 
S. AI.,nifu,lin,. T,nnia' Lj;s,rn ; .in.in ,Iu„1.uh aihin .lorsalil,,., . 
dorHo fulvo-cMiorc, ; ,nu„la diHtiolm. ' 



i. M 



JIHHKI,. 



ah 
I bin, 



CHAUACTKU8. 

Size of Tn,nu^ LysUri ; a narrou, v^lnt,- stri,,c on rack sidr of thr hark 
from the.shoul,l,.r t. U. thinks; f.r.kra.l r,Mi.k.,r.y ; nJayZ^ 



I 



DEHCUII'TION. 

Head Hm«Il and ,loli..ato; ,.cck, ratnor 1.,,.. ; l.ody sinndor ; Io^b rather 

OK. tlu, chock pouch,, appear ralhcr H.nall i„ the dried speci.ncn • car! 
t y .■I..,hc, on ..oth surfaooH with .short adprcsHod hair« „hort. 'sol 
^^l.at tr.a„,..iar, and rather acute at the tip.s ; tail of moderate on.th 
opreascd at base, with the hairs growin, fro.n the side. ,ivinr t ^ 
<l<-.dc, ly d.sfchouH appearance; the teeth rcscnlde those of T. Cteri 
an' rathc.r sn.all, and the lower incisor, are sli-rhtiy curved. 

NN h.skers not nun.erous, rcuchinj. the ear ; hairs on the back very short 

ornewhat coar.e but lyin, very sn.oothiy, giving the anin.al a ,1 •' 

appearance ; on the under surface they are coarse and rigid. The.t a o 

with r. 1 " r '^^^ ' "" ''^ '""^^^^ ^ ""■'^" ^"'«-'-'« •" I''- «f a ti ir 

>v.th a blunt na.l; second nail from the thumb longest, as in the rest of 

each 8,de be .g of nearly e.jual length, the outer considerably shorter and 

.n„er shortest; elaws slightly compressed, and a little curved •' ft 

c othed w.th short hairs, ,>ut which do not conceal the nails ; the eyes are 

t:t::'^r "" '■■: ^'"^' '"'^-^^ '^'^^^^ ^"^ ^^-'-^ °^ ^"« -« -" 




268 



HARRIS'S SPKRA!()PniLE OR MARMOT SQUIRREL 



i : !i 



COLOUR. 

Incisors dingy yellow ; whiskers and nails black ; back and sides 
minutely speckled Avith white, on a yellowish-brown ground ; the haira 
are dark-brown at the roots, then white, tlien black, and the tips brownisli- 
white, with a tinge of yellow ; on tfie noso and forehead, the speckled 
appearance of the back is superseded by a rufous tint ; between the ears, 
on the neck, and a little downwards, towards the legs, greyish-white is tho 
prevailing color ; a narrow white stripe, rising from behind the shoulder, 
and running along the side of the back to the middle of the hips, there 
loses itself in the general colour of the body ; around the eye, throat, chin, 
inner surface of legs, and whole under surface of body, whitish, with a few 
black hairs interspersed ; a tinge of brownish-red on the outer surface of 
the fore legs is more strongly red on the thighs ; feet and outer surface of 
legs yellowish wliite. 

The hairs of the tail are whitish at the roots, twice annulated with 
black, and tipped with white. 

There is a line of whitish yellow on the flanks, separating the colour of 
the back and sides from the under surface distinctly, and extending along 
beneath the reddish brown tint on the thighs, where it becomes a deeper 
yellow. 



! ! 
; i 



niMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body - - • • 
" tail (vertebra)) - - - - 
" " to end of hair • 

From tarsus to end of longest claw - 

Length of fore leg from the shoulder 
" hind leg from the thighs • 

Breadth of tail, when distichously arranged 

Height of ear (posteriorly) 

Longest claw on the fore foot - 



luohat 

6i 

3i 

4i 

li 

2 

2i 

i 



HABITS. 



Thee is nothing to be said by us about the habits of this species, as it 
has not been observed, so far as we know, since our specimen was pro- 
cured, and we have not even a knowledge of the precise locality in wliich 
it was obtained by Mr. J Iv. Townsend, who ga.ve the specimen to our es- 
teemed friend, Edwaku Harris, Esq., from whom we received it some time 
Biuce, and with whoso name we have honoured tliis pretty little animal. 



209 



HARRIS'S SPERJKJPHILE OR MARMOT SQUIRREL. 
(IKOGBAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Probably west of the Rocky Mountains, on the route followed by Messrs 
NuxTALL and Tow.SKNi), in their journey to Oregon overland 



GENEKAL REMARKS. 

of'^slv 7f !f '^"'^ "^ .77 f ='^^ resemblance to Spennop.rlus lateralis 
of Say, but differs so widely from it that it is unnecessary to institute a 
close comparison. It is a smaller animal, the head and ears being diminu- 
tive compared with the latter ; it has a single stripe of white on the sides 
of the back, whilst m Lateralis a broad white stripe is margined ou each 
side by a stripe of black, giving it the appearance of having four black 
8 -ipes on the back, while S. Harrisii has no black about the back or sides 
at all. 



270 



A R VI COL A ED AX. —Li: Conte. 

Caufounia Mkadow Mouse. 
PLATE CLIV.— Fio. 2. 

A. IJrcvia ct robnstus, pupra spadicco ct nigro jK'rniixtus. Aurilm? 
extra pilos extaiitibus. Cauda lucdiocri, supra nigra, subtus cincrca. 

CHARACTERS. 

Body short and thick ; above, brovm mixed with black ; ears not concealed 
by the hair ; tail moderate length, black above, beneath grey. 

SYNONYME. 
Akvicola kdax. — Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., Oct. Ib53, p. 405, 



DESCRIPTION. 



Head pliort and blunt ; oars round, not entirely concealed under the 
fur, hairy within and without, antitragus largo and semicircular ; feet 
covered with short, shining grey hair ; tlunnb tubercle, with a short, very 
bluut nail ; tail of moderate length, hairy above. 



COLOUR. 



Hair plumbeous black above and on the sides, tipped with shininj;^ 
brown mixed with black ; beneath tipped with grey ; feet grey ; tail 
dusky above, grey beneath, with a slight brownish tiugc. 





DIMENSIONS. 


Inchen 


Length (including the 


tail) .... 


• - 5.5 


" of head 





1.4 


" " ears 





.5 


" " fore leg - 





1.3 


" " hind leg - 





1.5 


" tail - 


... 


1.5 



I I 



AHVICOLA EDAX. 



271 



HABITS. 

TTZ i, ","■'■■ "'■ ''■"""' ""•'"' "" f"'"" •><"» ■«". I'ow. 

n or t,,o«x„.o„cccvo,.of .l,o amn.al i, d„nvo„ f,„a, U.r^ a, 

CONI. f„,. l|,„ ,„a„ or .,,„ ,ii„ ,.,„„, „,,,.„„ „„,. ^^^ "J"' 



GEOGIUPUICAL DISTRIllUTION. 

Calilbnna is „a„,ed as tl.c habitat of this Meadow Mouse • but wo aro 
;- -onuoa whethe. it is wide,, disused ti.o.e, o. is couhr^lt^^r 



GENERAL UEMAUKS. 



The dcHcriptioii and di 



".no.i.ioMs of the California Meadow Mmise abovn 
given are quoted vvitii slight alterations frc 
cited above. 



from Major Le Conte's paper 




272 



i t: 



PRO C YON CANCRIVORUS.— Cuv. 

Crad-Eatino Raccoon. 
I'LATE OLV. 

V. Supra cancscens pins minus in uijxruui versrcns, subtus flavo-albcnto. 
pcdibus ruscesccutibus, facie albida, fascia ocuhi.u ciiTunicin-cutc et cum 
oppositii counucntc uigra ; cauda rufcsccutc, annulis iiigris. 

ClIAUACTKUS. 

Body, above greijim. more or less shaded ivith black ; beneath, HrM yellow; 
feet brownish ydlo^u . face whitish ; a Mark band surrounding the eye uniting 
with the opposite one ; tail readish, annuhited with black. 

SYNONYMES. 

Uksus CANcnivonus.— Cuv. I'lOgiio An., i., p. 138. 
Raton Cuahiku.— Hiitf. His. Nat., Suppl. vi., p. 2.^0, t. 3'2. 
AtuAKA-i'oi'K.— D'Aziiia, Kssai i., p. 327. 

I'uocvoN Canouivoki s.— Dl'siu. in N<mv. Diet, xxxix., p. 93. 2. 
II »' Uriggins, ]'ann:;uay, p. 213. 

" Piiiico Max. ^Vit■<l, Hcitragc ii., i>. 301. 

«» GriHitli An. Kiiigd., Synopsis, Species ;32r), p. lit. 

•' Weigniann, Aroli. iii., p. 371. 

" Rengg'T, raraguay, p. 113. 



! i 



DESCRirTION. 

l?odv longer and more slender than that of the common Raccoon (/', 
lotor). legs longer, ears shorter, less rounded, and more pointed, and tail 
thinner than in the latter species. The tail diminishes towards the end. 
Hairs coarse ; nails i.roniineut ; feet closely haired ; under-fur short and 
sparse. 

('oi.ori!. 

Point of nose black ; whiskeis white and black, a blackish band around 
the eyes, extending nearly to the ears ; sides of the face, and al)ovc the 
eyes, and a spot on the forehead, whitish ; extremities of ears yeUowisb 
white their bases dark brown ; nails black : tail barred with black and 
white ; clieeks, jaws, under-i)art of the neck, breast, and belly, white, with 
a tin"'e of vellowish brown. Upper surface of body ash-brown. 



I i| 



CliAH-EATlXG ItA(;CO0N. 



273 



OIMENsrONS. 

From point of nose to root of tail, - 

Tail (vertebra:!), 

Point of nose to car, - 

Fore leg to point of lonfrcst nail, - 

Tliijrh to point of longest nail, - 

Breadth of skull, - . ' . 

HAHITS, 



InchuiL 

22 

9 

44 

8 

8 

34 



This Raccoon, an observed (in California) by Mr. J. E. Ci.emexth .ene- 

cavty sufilciently largo to hide in is found. ThtL i a Ti g i: 1^ 
us conn.v,on, which is that n.ost part of the rotted holes opla Z 

hese Cahforn.a oaks are found in the branches, not in the trunk We 
ar informed that n.any trees cut down for the purpose of .ak ng fenTe 

ails, .fee., are qu.te sound in the main stem, but the reverse in the 
a dlir;;' * occasionally a large lateral branch will brelk down 
and fal to the ground-perchance startling the hunter who may be listen' 
ing m hopes of hearing the sound of an approaching animal. 

Ihe food o this species consists of acorns, grapes, berries, eggs, birds 
A-c and of late ,t has been known to attack chickens on the farms of th' 
3.^olated settlors, son.etin.es endeavouring to take them off the tr 
ad.ioining the hou.-es. ^^^ 

The llosh of these aninntls, when boiled first, and afterwards roasted i. 
very pala able, and not nu.ch unlike fresh pork. They are, howev'er 

sZ ' ' '' '" '""" " ''' '' ^"^ ^^^--" ' f «- Atlanl: 

This species has been see,, by Mr. Clements on .nore tl.an one occasion 
apparently keep.ng co.npany with the black-tailed deer (C. Richa^l' 
be.ng on the mountains, following the san.e route, a,no..g several of thet 

Two of those killed by Mr. Clementb had been put up a tree by a dog 
dur,ng the n^ht, and were discovered by the barking of the latter in tht 
.no.-n.ng. They were only about half a mile from the house, and when 
approached, d.d not offer to come down, or otherwise attempt to escape 

eroLd ""' ''"'"'^''^ *''" '''' '""'' "''" '"'"' ^''''''^ ^''"^ ^'^'^ ^^' 

During the night these Raccoons appear to wander a),out, in quest of 
VOL. 111.— 33 ^ "^ 



274 



I'liAU-KATIXG RACCOON. 



food, perhaps, to aii extent that is almost 8.iri)risi»j,', so that lUeir tracks 
can be seeu in great numbers in various places, as, even in the dry season, 
tl,e peculiar tenacity of the soil retains Uic i.ni.ression made by their leet, 
almost as if it were the moulding-sand of tlic founder. 

They arc, however, very often observed near tlic water-courses, are fond 
of fro-s, fisii, Ac, and their tracks arc i- ^' 'Iv to bo seen in ihe neigh- 
bourhood of streams, even when they au • ■ "y dried up, and present 
only a water-hole here and tiierc. 

We have no further knowledge of the habit? of this species than the 
information given in the works of BuFKOX, SciioMBrnc, D'Azara, llnNO- 
GEB Wagner, and the Prince of Neuwied. In Guiana it is found on the 
8ca-coast ; in Brazil and Paraguay, in the busiics and forests, near the 
rivers and lakes. Besides crabs, it oats birds, eggs, fruits, and is espe- 
cially fond of sugar-cane. In two individuals that had been tamed," 
Rknoger did net observe the peculiarity that they dii)pcd their food in 
the water. Schomburg (Ann. x\at. Hist., iv. 434), however, mentions 
this habit of others which he saw. 

In giving this account of the Crab-Eating Baccoon, wo are not entirely 
without some doubts as to wliether the animal found in Brazil and other 
parts of Ho..-:- America, may not be dilTerent from the one in Mexico, 
Texas, and California. We have, however, inclined to the conclusion tluit 
they are the same species, and this the more readily, as the Commou 
Raccoon {P. lotor) has a range from Texas to (luite a high uortheru 
latitude. 

geographical niSTlUHlJTION. 

From South America, beyond the tropic, to tlio sliorcs of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and on the west as far as Califoniia, tills species is distributed, 
init is probiiblv most abundant within the tropics. Wagner states that 
it is found from the Caribbean Sea to the 'ilith parallel of south latitude ; 
BUFION and Sphomburg inform us it exists in (Julana, and we learn from 
J'rince Neuwied that it inhabits Brazil ; while Reng-.er and D'Azara 
mention its occurrence in Paraguay. 



general remarks. 

The figure of the Crab-Eating Raccoon, given in our plate, was mado 
bv J. W. Aum'RON in the P.ritish Museum, from a specimen procureil in 
Mexico or California. 

Our description was taken from another siiecimen in the Charlestor; 



CKAB-EAl.f •., KACCOON. 



275 



Oollogc Museum. Tl.is may account for any slight differonce3 between 
the liguro and description. 

Wo have not possessed opportunities of instituting a careful compari- 
Bon between this animal and Procyon Lolor ; they appear, however, to be 
spccincally distinct. ' 



sf 



•J 70 



[Tlnw fur wo liiivo cndciivoiircd (r ih'Mcrilwi the (onus iind f,'ivi< the lml)ilH (if th(> (|iimlriippdn 
floured in our work , we will now iippciid hoiiiu dcscriptioim, ami u lint of tlioso Hpccitm wo 
Imvo not luMMi ablo to portniy, hiit wliicli dcscrvt- to Im iiotii'od, iw Moiifjiiif,' to tlio "Ciiiiulrii- 
IH'ds of North Amorioii," mid iiooiwsury to rompli'to tlio list.J 



MEPIiniS ZOUILL A— GiwEL. 



CAUFOrtNiAN Skunk. 



(Not fV""'*'"') 

M. Frontc macula ovali alba iiisifiiiita ; inaciili\ albi\ ad tcmptis utnim- 
que, strigis quatuor silbls, iutcrniplis in dorso ot latoribus, caiidao apice 
albo. 

CHAUACTKUH. 

Jin oval xpot of white on the forehead, and a large spot on eaeh temple ; four 
interrupted white stripes on the sides and bade ; tail broadly tipped with 
white. 

SYNONYMES. 

MEriiiTis ZouiLLA. — Liclit; Darstcllunp; iicuc, odor wcnig bekanntor saOgetliiere, 

18:^7-1834. Horlin, tafol xlviii., fig. 2. 
Lk Zouti.i.e. — Iluffon, Hist. Nat., t. xiii., p. 302, tablo 41. 
Mki'HITIS m-coi.OR. — Gray, Loudon's Mag., vol. i., p. 581. 
" ZoiULLA. — Illiger. 



m; 



DESCUIPTION. 

In form, this species may bo said to bo a small imago of the Common 
Skunk {M. Chinga). 

Head, short in proportion ; cars broad, rounded, clothed with hair on 
botli surfaces ; palms naked ; nails short, grooved beneath, and slightly 
hooked ; whiskers short and scattering ; fur soft, like that of the domestic 



CALiroRNlAN SKUNK. 



277 



cat and compoHod ..f two kinds of hair, Iho undn- hair.s l.H,,. noft and 
wo.„„, the otlK... long.., i.ao..,spo..Hod un.on, th.n. (>.. tin, ,uil t ' 

•H vory coarH.,, and, (oward ll„) extremity, rijrid. 

cor.onit. 
There in a wliito patch on tho Ibrohead, and also between the ovo aru^ 
oar, exten.linK^ Loneath the oar to the n.iddle of the bo iT L 1 r 

-•ipo Wses behind the ear, and run. parallel .^^:t:T^ 
"•npes are not ,nite unilorn. on eaeh side; the body i.^ spo^ ted w t. 
w.to. fornun, three nearly nnilWrn. bars across the ba<.k Th r 1" 1 
w ,0 HpotH near tho insertion of tho tail, on tho sides and ran, T ^ 
vl..(o .nark.n,s are set of]- by the eolour of the ren.ainin. portion of t 

S/::^h:ti"'^"^ ^ 

Tail brownish blaek, tip (for about three inehes) white. 



Innbet. 

G 
10 



4 
T5 



DIMENSIONS. 

From point of nose to root of tail, 

Tail (ver/,ebra3), •■■..., 

" (to c.id of hair), - ' 

Shoulder to point of longest nail of fore-foot, - 
iloight of ear (posteriorly), . . . '. 

HAIIITS. 

The habits of the present animal are only partially known ; it is said to 

f It . T/r" T "'"'• " '''' ""^'^"- ™^^" '' ^^-^' •» ^'- -vices 
of locks Ac. It feeds upon insects, birds, and the smaller quadrupeds. 

Ih.H hkunk,as we are moreover informed, is able to make itself so 
olTens.ve that few perso.us are disposed to approach or capture it, rather 
keeping aloof as from the Common Skunk of our Atlantic state., so well 
known for its " perfume." 

OEOaRAPHICAL DISTIIIBUTION. 

This species was found to be rather abundant, by J. W. Audubon and 
J. tx. 1 KM. ,n California ; it was also found in Texas by the former 
Weppe had discovered it previously in California, in 1820, or thereabouts' 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The Zorilla was described 



by BupFON (Hist. Nat., torn. 



xiii., p. 302) aa 



278 



CAI.irnKNIAN -IKUNK. 



u Bpceios cxislin^!; in Sniilli AnuMii'ii ; liiw n^riin', liDwovcr, lioio (MmsiiliT' 
ixlilc n'soinlilinii'o Id iiii Ariiciiii HpiM'ic^ (I'lvrrm S/riuta of SlIAw). SiiIihiv 
quoiiMy Huron ('iivlKU lioHtowcil ^jjimmiI. iilltMition n\\ lliin jroiniM, iiml ('iiiiic 
<o llio I'onclnsion llnilr sill IIki AiinMiciin SkimkH woim^ int'io vmielicM of 
oi\t'li oilier. 

A» fur lis lilt' (mkIIohs vnricliPH of onr Allmilic Spcoics (.1/. C/iin^ni) an' 
ooncciiu'd, ho wtiH corrorl, ; liut lio was fi;n'iil,ly in crior in rtyiinliii^ (lin 
Sonlli AiiKMit'iin. Mexican, ami ('alifoniiiiii Sknnl<n as Immii^i; all of oiio 
Himci(>s, for lliov dilVor greatly, not. only in Hi/.c, form, ami iniornal oifran- 
izalion, luil. also in colour. 

i?csi(loH, many ppocics of Afrp/iifin incscnl Hcarcoly any variations in 
colour. 'I'lio AU'i>/iili.\' C/iiiifra socms to bo like Lrjius cal/ini.., Ilui Mcxiciin 
liarc, ami Lj/ii.r Uiif'tis, Uic bay lynx, a species that may bo rcj^aribMl as an 
fxcoplion rather than a type of the characteristic of the species. 

CiiviKU oamo to tho conclusion, whilst, pursuing? hiH InvosliKalionH, that 
lllii'KON, ill his Zorilla, had tlescribot' tho abovo nainotl African HpocicH ; 
but it now appears that Hui'Kon was orrcct, that his speciim'n came from 
America, ami that the species is foiimi within our limits, on tho western 
coast : therofuro wo rosloro Iuh spucilio luiuio of Zurillu (Lo Zorillo) uu a 
Hyuoujuio. 



27U 



CAMS (ijinis) (;i{isi.:i]s.-it,c„. 

Amkkuian (Jkkv Woi.i.. 



(.Not llniirml.) 



liiliH, (•..lonM-inriTo iiiKn.(|iH! noliito. 



<'|iaiia<;ti;uh. 



.^M'..< If. si.. ,,■ ,;„. ,,M ,nr! ,r,u,r ,rof.,rs ; .,,,,,,1 ,,rond ; n.lc and taU 
covnrU r,ntk ln,sl,y l„nrs ; JM l,road ; colour dark Inindk ^ny. 

HYNONVMKH, 

n„„T W..i,r.-(1„.,k'« Tl.inI V..y„^,., v..|. ii., ,, u,,;,. 

''•■win anil Clark.', vol. i., |,,,. 20(1, 'JH.-J. 
<'oMM..N (J,.,cv \V.„,K.--H,.|M,.,l,Tari'HTrav..|H, ,,. 285. 
(Unih (l.i.irH) .n<iH|..in. - Sul.iiK., I'Va.iklin's V.,y., ,,. (ir,4. 
Ijii'.ih.. -Parry, V\xA, S.to.hI, au.l Tliinl Voyaww 

" " II I I' . . J r^ • 

Marian, I'aiina Aiiii'ncMria, |.. HI. 

'''"'"'•''"' '^""•'i'fii' Nat. Hist., vol. i., |,. 2.0.'-,, (ifr I 
('■-'-") ...■.n.KN. AM„._(Var. n.) I.,,., h (Julsk-s, 'jti.i. . Fa„na lior.^.lin 

Aiiii'ricana, p. (i(). 
•-.•...KNTAMH, C.m.m.,,, Ain.riran \V.-lf.--|.. Kny, .V„t. Flist. of ,V. V., „. 

•••'■', I'lat.: 27, % 2, 
(.ANiH M-MiH.-hnory, MasM. l!,.,,ort, JH.'tH, ,,. -c ; ihk., ,,. 28. 

I-i'iTH (ii.iAH.— Towimcii.l, I'ro.;. Acad. Nal. ,S.;r., I'liila ' 

<i.ANr Wo,,K.-C.,|. (J. A. M..(:,tll,IJ.S.A. (l.lLr to'liov. ./oiw. I'.a.l.,,., 

hifrii). 
Loiio or Lovo.— MuxicmiH and Texaris. 



[iari. .400 



r)K.s(;mrnoN. 



The An.mra.. (Irry Wolf l,..t,.H a very Htrikin;. msoml.lanco to the 
Kuropoun Wolf. Tl,.,-. nr., how.nor, s,.,ne .lidbron.o.H whi.l. at.noar to 



<«' por.naucnt, and wl„..i. ...rur in all tl.o varioticH of Amorioan WoIvh • 
tl'o l>o.ly ,s K-cncraliy n.on. ,ol,u,.t, the Icg.s Hhorter, and the mu/.zit thicker 
and more ol)tu.*'j in the latter. 



Ili'p 



280 



AMEIllCAN <;UKV \V« >LF. 



Wo have examined a iiuinbcr of Kiiroiicuu Wolvea (sco vol. ii., p. 102, 
Wliito Amcrioau Wolf), and alllKMigh there wore groat dilTcroncos 
lietweeii various specinieiirt, wt; were not able to satisfy oursolvoy that 
the Anierieau Wolf is tiio hugt'-^t, as is 9ui»posed by UiciuiiDsoN. Wc 
regard them as generally about tiio same size, and as exliibiting only varie- 
liis, not specilic diQ'eronces. Tlic body of tho American (Jrey Wolf is long, 
and ratiier gaunt ; muzzle elongated, and somewiiat tiiieker than that of 
the I'yreneau Wolf; head tldeic ; nose long; ears erect and conical; 
eyes obliijuo— as is the case in all tho true woIvjs— puiiil of tho eye circu- 
lar ; tail straight, and bushy. The animal docs not curl it over tho back, 
like a dog. 

Jk'iiind the cheek there is a l)unch of hairs, which h»ok like a collar. 
The hairs are of two kinds, the longer coarse and ratiier rigid, the under 
fur soft and woolly ; whiskers very few, and coarse and rigid ; nails long, 
slightly arched, and, in the specimen from which wo describe, considerably 
worn, as are also the teeth. 

COLOUR. 

The long hairs, from their roots, for one third of their length, arc yel- 
lowish white, then a broad bund of dark brown follows, succeeded by yd- 
lowisid brown, and the ti|.s are Idack. Tho under fur is ashy brown. On 
the under surface the long hairs are white nearly to the roots. 

The general apiicarancc of tho upper surface is dark lirindlcd grey, with 
an indistinct dorsal line a little darker than the colour of the sides. 

Tlie under parts arc dull white. 

Nostrils black ; from the nose towards the eyes, reddish yelSw. The 
outer surface of the ears, and outsidcs of hind legs, from the x. ^> to the 
knee joint, are also reddish yellow. The whiskers are black. 



ilil 



UIMK.VSIONS. 

Length from }>oint of noise to root of tail, 

" of tail (vertel)rie), - - - ■ 

" '' to end of hair, 

ITeight of car, .... 

Breadth " 

From point of nose to end of skull, - 

" eye to point of nose, 

" shoulder to longest nail, 
Longest upper canine tooth, 
Length of the hair on the l)ack, 3 to 4 inches. 



Keet. 

4 
1 
1 



InclicK. 



4 
8 

114 
5 
4 
It 



AMKUfCAN c;rkv WoLF. 



li, arc 


y.'i- 


led hy 


ycl- 


own. 


\)u 


g»'«y. 


Willi 


ies. 




^OW. 


Till! 


1. ,/ to 


thu 



• ^» . 2gi 

in^tl" 'Ktisirof"":;.' Zrr'rT "'•"■" '"^^ f™- a-i-i-n 

full wmtc- polagc ^"''"' '" *"•"""'■ """ ™. of course, ia 

HA HITS. 

(^c^'l^;" «^ ^"^ -'- 'n 0. second vo.^e 

'•^tter fro.„ Coi. Gk!; a! Tc ^7:'" I'"'" '^'^^^ ^'^'^ *''« ^o'lowin, 

i»t«'-CBt>n.. Jt will be perceived that H.t'r i "."^ "^'" '^' ^"""^ ^^'^^ 

or Lol.o, a distinct npec e« Vo ''""'^■' ''"^ ^''^"^ ^^^«"-. 

'•'r. Tow.vs..v„'H nalno / 67 ' """'' ^''"""''* '* ^^'^^ ^^ give 

appended '« onMi.t of »;„.. Tt :?e;::;T L"' "^ '''"' ^'^^ 
or Z.>.o, used by the Maxicans and Texal alU Tl'"'" ""' "^ ^"^"• 
oy some naturalists that the rT •' '^^'' '* ''"' ^««" t'"^'>^'l't 

woir, and by the Me i an Rant troTut t't T'" ^^^'" ^""^ «^''- 
I'oad like that of a lion. "'"''''^'"'^ '* '^ descnbod as tawny, and with a 

"The Kev. John Bachman, I). D. : 

l"0"Sl.. .oge.l,er-you ril 1 ° " ?' "'"'" '■°"'- ""™l had 
of anecdotes, illustrativo „f the ell ."^ '^ '''"«"'''^" » """'1)' 
families of „u,. Fa™ • and r„, ^ ""'^ ="""" "' '1!''™! 

"Lcthcr I „ad n,et. in',"; '^ r-" »' -v-ation, y„„ i.„„i,ed 

rationed s„„,e incident;,;: t^;:' t,;' ^:'^--=- ' "- 
ago, exemplifyin<r the trroiiov fin . * ^'^"'" ^^^^^eral years 

"f this sp'ecies, tv,, e^A „ " r'.;r°"' «"''™'™. ""-i parage 
pleased ,„ pronounce J \ol I^'IZ'"'''' "■'"'■ ^' ^°" ""'o 
agreeably to your ■■eouosl ,rive v„ >e-spnming, I, herewith, 

" The pesiiL 0?! G 'bso "" """'"'"''"■='' "' "■» facts, 
junction of the Neosho wW, h IT '"" °'° ""'"'"^ ■"""■"■ "^"^ *•> 
fonned, is a prairie of sle e«e,t. tlT "T ' '""'■ '" "" "»«'« «'"' 
-out of those' who were Z d of he! ' "'1, '° '"''°""' '"' "■•" ■"™«- 
a *r< of a prairie wolf L , , "' """' e™>-l>ound,, at any time, 

The las. was easily eeo,", "ed et ' ° ,*""' "'°"' """^'f l^' »>«)• 
ncetness ; and, a, ife ..as^ era "v «?„ Tl'T' "' "'' *^"=^' -" -"i^ 

- - or three >^o...L::::'j;:t:T::i:::rV'z:^t 



iii 



r'.-* 



ir^ 



i If 



282 AMERICAN GREY WOLF. 

within half :t iiiilo of him before he showed a straight tail ; and then hi. 
great speed always enabled him to reach cover before the dogs, notwith- 
standing that two or three of them were of high blood and great fleetness. 
could overcome the gap which, at the start, separated them from the 
chase ; and thus the sportsmen, after several killing rides, had a ways 
found themselves foiled by the watchfulness and the superior speed and 

bottom of this wolf. 

"After a hard and unsuccessful race of this kind, several officers were one 
day returning home, when in passing the farm of a Cherokee Indian, they 
were told by him that a wolf of this description was in the habit ot tre- 
quenting the grounds about his house, almost niglitly ; that he had com- 
mitted numerous depredations, but that such was his cunning that he had 
eluded all efforts to kill or capture him. Being assured that a fresh trail 
„n.^ht be struck at this point, any morning at daylight, the officers deter- 
mined to try the fellow's bottom with the fox-hounds. Accordingly, a few 
ui<rhts afterwards-the moon having risen about one o'clock-a party was 
in°the saddle, as soon as they could see upon the prairie, and on their way 
to the Cherokee's house, which was about seven miles from the Fort. 
They proceeded leisurely, and reached their destination about three 
o'clock, purposing to let their horses and dogs rest until daylight, before 
entering on the chase : the pack, I should mention, consisting of half a 
dozen fox-hounds, and two or three half-curs, the latter being fleeter and 
more courageous than tl.o former. It so happened, however, that the 
do-s not being coupled, struck the trail close to the house, just as they 
arrived ; and away fn.y went with a cry, and at a pace which showed 
that the giant was right before them. For some time the wolf kept 
within the^larro.7 strip of covert which borders the Bayou Menard, and 
thus the horsemen were enabled, by a good moonlight, to keep parallel 
with him on the open plain. But the wolf finding at length that the cover 
afforded him no security from his pursuers, and trusting to the lightness 
of his heels, dashed boldly into the prairie, and made a straight course for 
the hills on the opposite side, at the distance of about three miles. Here 
he a<rain took cover ; but he was not allowed much time for repose, as the 
dogs" were soon upon him, and the covert which here bordered the Neosho, 
bcin<r like that of the Bayou, narrow, he was soon forced to leave it and 
the hills, and again take to the plain. In this way the wolf made several 
bold dashes, running from one cover to another in a straight course of 
from on< to three miles over the plain ; and it was not until half past 
eight o'clock, A.M., that he was brought to bay. The denouement was 
brought about in this way : the wolf was at last drav • ■ t near to cover 
after'one of the open dashes 1 have meutioned-his speed, to be sure, much 



AMERICAN GREY WOLF. 283 

abated, and tl.e hounds and horsemen within sight, behind him-when 

gain. Ihe held he soon crossed ; and a good eover, ^yith runnin. water 
was .. u, few yards of him. He knew the grounds well ; but°h d 
not ealcula e aceurutely the amount of strength necessary to clear the 
ence, wh.ch here was much higher than on the side where had 
entered. ^V Uhont pause, therefore, he boldly dashed at the obstacle wl h 
now alone separated him from all he stood so much in need of; but ale 
mde the leap his head struck the topmost rail, and he rolled Lkwa 
heavily upon the ground. Here a shout of triumph frou. the hunterlwho 
were w.thm view and had witnessed his fall, broke upon his ear ; n^'now 
be aroused all hjs remaining energies for one prodigious effort t eflcct h^ 
-cape ; nature, however, was too nearly exhausted to meet the call and 
he feu prostrate upon the ground. Horses and hounds were th ne"t 

~- :::::;r "^ ""-' '- -^-^ '- '-- — - -^ ^^^- -: 

"A desperate fight ensued-one or two large and powerful half-hound 
half-cur dogs, ,n quick succession, rolled away before him, as he d^ "d 
against then, w.th his heavy chest and shoulders. Time Ifter t n iv 
returned to the charge, for the dogs had their mettle we lo^^^^^^^^ 
were confident of victory, althougi. each moment seemed to dimin 1 t e 
chances ,n their favour. With each successive round, doo- 2r Z 
recoiled more or less injured by a quick and violent snap of tl.g a ? 
jaws-here on the right, sat a poor, inoffensive looking hound, H 
excitement had led him into the depth of a contest for .^ich natui. Id 
never intended him, now writhing in agony, and howling most ou 
hi. long wasted ears drooping lower than ever, while he cast a t^vj 
g ance a his iacoratcd back and shoulders, just released from the ja vs f 
the g,ant wolf-t ore, on the loft, lay sprawling, another, whose case 
seemed even more hopeless than the first. 

" During the n.l^e several pistols had bee,, drawn, to despatch the wolf 
and save the dogs ; but such was the intricacy of the affair, such the in 'es- 
.ant change o position of the combatants, constantlv interlocked ht^ 
chances of k.lhng the dogs by a shot wore gr..ter\han of savi n^t em 

nd this continued until dogs and wolf, both, were exhausted, .d,e o 

latter was knocked on the head with a heavy club. And thus fell Z 

g.ant wolf, after a run of five hours and a half ^' 

''In this description I have gone much into detail ; but mv only desire 

va to Illustrate what I fully believe to be the fact. viz. that "the s reng h 

CO Z'::'r ^"; r' " ^' '''' '"''' -"' '"-^••^ ^-^^-^ ^''- ^'-- «"' 

common wolt. which wn« nov«r knntin ;» <i i * 

- "''^^' Kno,\n, m that country, to make anything 



ttil 

ml 



m 




m 



284 



AMERICAN GREY WOLF. 



I :! 



' ! ■! 

■ I 'I 

I .1 

I 't'. 



like such a run as did this fellow. Indeed, it is only necessary to !' ^k at 
the large leg bone, the strong back, the deep shoulder, and broad chest of 
this wolf, to be satisfied of his superiority to the other, in the qualities I 
have enumerated. I am also inclined to think that he is more resolute, 
and not so easily cowed as the other species ; and in support of this opi- 
nion, I proceed to the adventure that occurred to Lieut. Hoskins, with one 
of this species. 

" A few weeks after tliis, Lieutenant Chas. Hoskins, of the Ith Regt. 
of Infantry, who, being a bold rider and an ardent hunter, was one of the 
diief actors in the scene I have just described, had a severe encounter 
with a giant wolf, which I will endeavour to relate as he described it to 
me_. 

" He had mounted his horse just before sunset, one day in June, to 
breathe for an hour, the fresher air of the prairie, and had ridden at a 
leisurely pace about three quarters of a mile from the fort — his dogs, four 
or five greyhounds, were following listlessly at his heels, dreaming as little 
as himself of seeing a wolf — when on a sudden, from a small clump of shu- 
mach bushes, immediately at his side, there sprang an enormous giant 
wolf. By one of those instinctive impulses which it is difficult to describe, 
horse and dogs were launched upon him before ah eye could twinkle!. 
The wolf had but a few yards tlie start ; and under such circumstances, 
although the fleetest of his congeners, he stood no chance of escaping from 
his still fleeter enemies ; in fact, before he had run fifty yards he was 
caught by the flanks and stopped. Here a most furious fight connnenced : 
it is a well known fact that the greyhound is sometimes a severe fighter, 
owing to his great activity and his quick, slashing snap, and Hoskins's dogs 
were, in addition, in the habit of coursing tlie prairie-wolf during tlie fall 
and winter months, on which occasions the afl'air was very generally, after 
a short chase, terminated in about one minute, by tiie victim having his 
throat and bowels torn into ribands. This, however, was a diflerent 
aflair ; they had encountered an ugly customer, and the battle was long 
and of varied aspect. Sometimes the wolf would break entirely clear from 
the dogs, leaving several of them floored ; again, however, within a few 
yards he would be checked, and the battle be resumed ; so that during a 
long struggle there was little change of ground. 

" The light was continued in this way, the prospect of victory or of 
defeat frequently changing, until both parties were quite exhausted. 

" And now, here lay tlie wolf in the centre, witli his ti>ngue hanging 
from his jawy ; and at the distance of a few feet, the dogs around him, 
bleeding and panting for breath. At tliis juncture, Hoskins. who had not 
even a penknife in iiis pocket, was unable to terniinate the afl'iir ; lie sat 



AMERICAN GREY WOLF. 



285 



upon h.9 horse, a silent and admiring spectator of the strange scene. At 

Illod o r /'"^^'* '" ''"' '''' ^^"^"''^^ ^'^^---'i their breath, he 

called on them to return to the charge. Old Clean, a black dog of great 

trength and courage, was the only one who obeyed the summons-h 

h,s feet by a we 1 timed snap, seized Cleon by the neck and hind head 
and retaining his hold, was grinding away on the poor fellow's skull with 
his immense jaws. This was too much for any hunter to witness-a 
favourite dog held helpless, in a grip that threatened very speedily 
to end his days. Hoskins was an experienced hunter, and a very cool 
and determined man-poor fcllow, he afterwards fell, fightin^. most ^al- 
antly at the battle of Monterey, Mexico : on this ^cc^sio; liT: ;a:l 
from his horse and seized the wolf by the hind leg, and by a violent jerk 
caused him to release the dog, but only to find, in less than an instant the 
jaws of the monster clamped upon his own leg. He told me, the follow- 
ing day, that he plainly felt the jar as the wolfs large canine teeth clashed 
against each other in the calf of his leg, so powerful was the snap of his 
jaws. ^ 

"The wolf, however, made no effort to shake or lacerate the wound • 
at the same time it occurred to the hunter that this would be the only 
effect of any exertion on his own part to extricate his limb ; and there- 
fore with the wolfs hind leg in his right hand, and his left leg in the 
wolfs jaws, he stood perfectly quiet, while poor Cleon, whose head wa. 
covered with blood, lay before him, apparently more dead than alive 

In a moment, however, Cleon recovered and raised his head : and then 
his master spoke to him again. Promptly the old fellow obeyed the call 
and this time he made good his hold upon the wolf's throat ; whereupon 
our hunter s leg was at once released. The other dogs now, having pretty 
wel recovered their breath, also re-attacked the wolf: and this rornid so 
disabled him that the affair might be considered as decided. The do<r. 
however had all been severely handled, and were again so complet;]'; 
blown that they were unable to make an end of the combat by killi,,:. 
him outright. At this juncture a Cherokee boy, who was on his wa^ 
across the plain, came up ; but neither had he a knife nor any oUier 
weapon _ Hoskins then, as his only resource, unbuckled the reins of his 
bridle his horse, well used to such scenes, was quietly feeding, close by) 
and making of these a slip-noose, he, with the assistance of the boy .ot 
this over the wolfs head, when pulling on the opposite ends, they sue- 
ceeded in strangling the already exhausted animal. After resting with 
h.s dogs a little while, Hoskins was enabled to mount his horse and 
return home, with all of them except poor Cleon. who wa« «n nnwh 



!''#«Tii 



286 



AMERICAN GREY WOLF. 



.1 

! 1 



l\ 



exhausttd as to bo unable to keep his legs. A light wagon was immo 
diatcly sent out for him, and the old dog was received at the fort in 
triumpli, together with the body of his vanquislied adversary. He was, 
nevertheless, laid up in hospital for several days, as was his master, whose 
leg became inflamed, and prevented his mounting his horse again for a 
fortnight. 

" The next morning I saw the wolf hanging by the heels, at the front of 
the piazza of Hoskins's quarters ; and he was, beyond all comparison, the 
largest wolf that 1 ever laid eyes upon. Ilis dimensions were taken at 
the time ; but I have no memoranda, and I will uot venture to speak from 
memory. 

" The colour and general appearance, however, of these two specimens 
(the skins of which were preserved) were, I very well recollect, alike ; 
viz. a mixture of rusty black and grey about the head, back, and flanks, 
interspersed with a yellowish rusty brown. But the striking marks of 
distinction wore the large size and the breadtli of tiie head, and the small- 
ness of the tail, when compared with other species ; the tail was decidedly 
short and scant of hair : the head was very remarkable — I speak of it as I 
saw it in the flesh — the front view, taking in what would be included 
within a line, drawn between the ears, and two oHiers from those to the 
point of the nose, presented very nearly an ecjuilateral triangle ; the head 
of the common wolf being much more ovate. Had the skull been stripped 
of its integuments, I doubt not it would liave shown, to a certain degree, 
a corresponding enlargement in the occipital region. 

" I feel no hesitation in asserting that these wolves were of the species 
recently described by Mr. Townsend as L. Gigas ; for I did not at the 
time, nor have I at any time since, entertained in my own mind a doubt 
of this wolf being a distinct species. 

" Without instituting any s.trict inquiry, from personal examination, as 
to species or varieties, I have scon a good deal of the wolves of the west 
during some years past, and from a ditl'erence I have observed in the man- 
ners or character of those I have met with in the field, I incline to the 
belief that an additional species, between L. Occidentals and L. Latrans, 
will yet be satisfactorily established. 

" G. A. M." 

I'hiladeu'Hia, Ju/y, 1851. 



287 



ARVICOLA DEKAY I._Aud. and Bacii. 

Glossy Arvicola. 
(Not figured.) 

A. Corpore longo ac tenui : naso acuto ; auriculis et pedibus longis ; 
vellcre tercti ac nitente ; supra fusca, subtus cano-fusco. 

CHARACTERS. 

Body long and slender ; nose sharp ; ears and legs long; fur smooth and 
lustrous; dark brown above, hoary brown beneath. 



ill 

'ill fr 



SYNONYMKS. 

Akvicola kulva, Glossy Arvicola.-Aud. and Bach., Jour. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 

Oct. 5, 184 1. 
AaviootA Onkiua, Oneida Meadow Mouse.-De Kay, Nat. Hist. State of Now 

York, 1842, pt. i. p. 88, plate 

a „ ^^' ^S- ^^ 

Lo Coiite, Troc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Phil., Oct. 26, 1853 

p. 406. ' 

DESCRIPTION. 

This species presents more distinctive markings than any other of the 
American Arvicolae ; its body is less cylindrical, and its nose less obtuse 
than any of our other species ; its ears are prominent, rising two lines 
above Its smooth, compact fur ; its lower incisors are very long, and much 
exposed, considerably curved ; tail longer than tlie head, thinly covered 
with short hairs ; legs long and slender, giving the animal that appearance 
of lightness and agility observable in the mouse. 



li 






COLOUR. 

Incisors yellowish white ; the hairs, which are very short, like those on 
the pine mouse of Le Conte, are at the roots, on the upper surface, plum- 
beous, broadly tipped with brown, giving it a bright chestnut colour • the 
•mirs on the legs and toes are a little lighter, on the under surface the 
colour is cinereous. 



288 



GLOSSY ARVICOLA. 




DIMENSIONS. 



Length of head and body, • 

tail, - 
Height of ear (posteriorly), 
Length of tarsus. 



HABITS. 



Inches 


Lines. 


3 


9 


I 


4 




2J 




7 



We have obtained no information in regard to the habits of this species. 
De Kay, who obtained a specimen in the neighbourhood of Oneida Lake, 
in the state of New York, says that it prefers moist places. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

This Arvicola, according to De Kay, exists in the western part of the 
state of New York. Our specimen was received from Mr. Fotheegill, 
who procured most of his specimens, wo believe, from St. Lawrence county, 
New York. 

We, however, understood that this individual came from Illinois. 



il ii 



general remarks. 

It will be perceived, from the dates of our several publications, that we 
described this species a year previous to De Kay ; the name we gave it, 
however {Jlrvicola fulva), is pre-occupied by Lemmus fulvus, Geofif, which 
IS an arvicola found in Franco. 

As De Kay described the same animal, without a knowledge of our pre- 
vious publication of it, we have named it after that naturalist, and have 
given his name {Ji. Oneida) as a synonyme. 



289 



ARVICOLA APELLA.-Le Con 

Woodhouse's Abvicola. 



TE, 



(Not figured.) 



1 



'^in 



CHARACTERS. 
Ears very ^short, conceaM beneath the fur, clothed unth hair on hoth sur- 



faces ; feet slender and short ; tail short, brawn above, 



greyish beneath. 



SYNONYMB. 
Ahvxco.. APK....-LO Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil. Oct. 25. 1853. p. 405. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Head short and blunt; ears rounded, very short, slightly hairy both 

en, circular Legs very short ; feet covered with short, shining hairs 
thumb tubercle furnished with a short, blunt nail ; tail very short ' 

COLOUR. 

Hair dark Icad-colour, above tipped with brown, redder on the sides • 

ocneath grey, inclining to brownish on the chin and throaMe n. ' 

rownish ; tail brown above, greyish beneath. ' ^""' ^'^^ 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length (including the tail), 
of head. 
" " ears, 

" fore leg, 
" '• hind " - 
" " tail, 
VOL. ni.— 37 



Inchei. 

4 
1 



UOM. 

r 

2 
6 
1 



200 



WOOUllOUSK'S AllVICOLA. 



IIAIIITK. 

Tliid animivl was procuriMl in I'(MiiiHylvaiiiiv by Dr. WoooHotiHW, in tlio 
cuilivntotl portioiiH of thai, stalo, and piolialdy has tlio naino propoiiHitioH 
and infjtincls aw (lie ollior Arvicola) nf Nmlli America. 

.\s Mi\,itir Lm i!uNTK ansii il no ooniiuon nanio, wo havo liilicn iho. 
liberty ol' calling it WttoDUOu.sn'n Arvicola, after tlio gentlonnm who 
procured it. 



il! 



h 



201 



AKVICOLA AIJS'IKRU8.-r.„ C«.tb. 

Uaihii'h Ahvk'oi.a. 
(Not ll(^iir«(l.) 

exit?!!'""' ^TV "'*""" '•"""'""• "'"""■^ ''•'"'^'"'^^ -''»^'-"- Auribu. 
cxt.a p.luH oxtu.U,buH, „xtus piloHiH. Cauda graoili, dons« pilona. 

OIIAIUCTKKH. 

HVNONYMK. 
Auv,ao.. x.HT„HUH._U Co„t«. 1 W. A.,«d. Nat. Hoi., I'hila. Oct. 25, 1853, p. 405. 

KKHOKII'TIO.V. 

Ho«<l largo and blunt ; earn n,undod. Ion,.,,- than tho fur, outwardly 
I.U O. .nwanlly only ho on tl.o u,,,,or nuu-Kin ; antitn.,.UH largo hou . r 
cular; w.,Hk.rH nhortor than tho hoad ; f.-t covorod with hI, •;:.•. 
thumb tuborcic with a oon-prcHHcd, nharp, hookod nail. 

'lull slondor, covered with nhort hairn. 



m 






COLOUR. 

IWr, al,„vc ,l„rk |.l,„„l,c.„„, ,i|,,,cd will, brown and black, beneath 
■ k *,„.„,„»,.„ .nixcU with brown, „a,lic„la,.|y on ,h„ b ca,,t I 
"!.■«.■ a...l under ™rraees of the bodj bein,. nearly alike ; whinker, bla k 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length, 



II 
u 
u 

U tl 



u 



of head, - 
" ears, - 
" fore leg, 

hind " 
" tail, . 



iiclies. 


Uiwi 


6 


6 


1 


3 




8 


1 


1 


1 


5 




292 



lUIRD'S ARVICOLA. 



HABITS. 



Of the habits and manners of this speciea wo have no account. 
Like tlie foregoing, it haa had no common name bcntowcd on it by 
Major Le Conte. Wc therefore have called it Baiud's Arvicola, as 
it was found or obtained by Prof. Baird. It inhabits Wisconsin. 



! .1 



298 



ill 



ARVICOLA CALIFORNICA—Peale. 

Californian Arvioola. 

A. Subvariegatus rufcsccnti-fusco et nigro. Corporo brevi et robusto 
p.hs Bpcciem hirsutici habentibus revera tamon nioliibus ot Icvibus Auri! 
bus sub-magnis, pene sub pills occultis. Cauda supra fusca, subtus fusco- 
cineroa. 

CHABACTEK8. 
Body short and thick ; hair Img and shining, at the roots plumbeous black, 
above and on the sides tipped with reddish brown and black ; ears rather large 
nearly concealed by the fur ; taU brown above, brownish grey beneath 



m 



SYNONYMES. 
Arvioola CALiFORNiCA.-Peale, Zool. Explo. Exped., Mammalia, 46. 

" CAUF0RNicu8.-Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, PLila., Oct., 1 853 

p. 408. ' 



DESCRIPTION. 

Body short and thick ; hair rather long, and shining : head blunt • ears 
large but almost concealed in the fur, hairy on both surfaces ; feet clothed 
with short, glossy hair ; tubercle of the thumb furnished with a com- 
pressed, blunt nail. Tail round ; whiskers numerous, but slender 



COLOUR. 

Hair of the body plumbeous black at the roots, above and on the sides 
tipp«d with reddish brown and black, in such a manner as to give it a hir- 
sute appearance ; feet greyish brown ; whiskers black and white. 





DIMENSIONS. 






Length, - 




Inchu. 

5 


Lines 

7 


of head, - 
" fore leg, 




- ■ 1 

2 


1 

8 


" " hind " 




1 


6 


" " tail, - 




• • 2 







294 




i i 



ARVICOLA OCCIDENTALIS.— Pealb. 

Western Arvicola. 

A. Pilis mollissimis ct tcnuissirais, cxtrcmitatibus superioribus rufia 
Bine ulla nigri admistionc, auribus stib-pilia occultia. Oauda, &ab-com- 
pressa, supra ct subtus con^ ''^re riifa. 

CHARACTERS. 

Hair very soft and fine • ears concciu'dd under the fur, hairy only on the out- 
tide. Tail slightly compressed, reddish coloured above and beneath, 

SYNONYMES. 

Arvicola ocoidentaus — Peale, Zool. Expl. Exped., i. c. 46. 

« « Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Oct. 25, 1853, 

p, 408. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Ears round, entirely concealed under the fur, hairy only on the outside, 
antitragus rather short ; head blunt ; feet covered with short, lustrous 
hair ; thumb tubercle with a compressed, sharp nail. Tail slightly com- 
pressed. 



COLOUR. 



Hair dark plunibfOUH, above tipped with bright rufous without any 
admixture of black : beneath grey, hair on the feet rufous. Tail rufous, 
both above and below. Incisors pale yellow. 



DIMENSIONS. 







Inohn 


ngt 


li of head and body, - - 


• 4,V 




tail, 


• 2^ 




hair beyond tail vertebrp 


A 




hind foot. 


t'j 




fore " (from wrist to end of toes), 


r'n 




head, 


• l,-o 



Obtained at Puget'a Sound, Oregon, by the United States Exploring 
Expedition. 



21)5 



i**^,. 



ARVICOLA (HESPEROMYS) CAMPESTRIS.-Le Contk. 



New Jerset Field Mc 



JH*. 



A Supra fu«cus, «ubtu8 ciueroo-fuscus. Capito magno, auribus magnis 

CHARACTERS. 



SrNONYME. 

flKBPEROMrn CAMPE8TRi8.-Le Co„te, Proc. Acad. Nat 8ci, Phila., Oct 1 

p. 413. ' 



853. 



i ;:; 

'■ H, 



DESCRIPTION. 

Hair plumbeous black, above tipped with brown, beneath with cinereous 
brown, darker about the .nouth. Head large; ears large, oval blunt 
th mly covered, both within and without, with very short, closely aVessed 
hair. Leg. and feet brown. Tail well clothed with to erablybng "2 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length, 



of head, 
tail, 



Inch«i. 

3 
1 
2 



Linei 



4 
2 

7 



HABITS. 



This species was found in the collection of the Academy of Natural 
bcencs, Philadelphia, and labelled Mus Campestris, from New Jersey 
The specimens were preserved in alcohol, and therefore scarcely fit to be 
described ; there was, however, enough to show that they were different 
trom any hitherto described animal." (Lb Conte.) 



296 



ARVICOLA (HESPEROMYS) SONORIENSIS.— Le Conte. 

SoNonA Field Mousk. 

A. Supra saturate cinereus fuscescente-cano leviter intermixtus, subtus 
albescens. Capita elongate, auribus niagiiis. Cauda modica. 



'' 



CHARACTERS. 



Above, dark grey slightly mixed with brownish ; breast whitish. Head long 
and pointed ; legs large ; tail moderate. 



SYNONYME. 



Hebperomys Sonobiknsis. — Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Oct.. 1853, 

p. 413. 






DESCRTPTION. 

Hair above dark cinereous or slate-colour, slightly mixed with brownish 
grey, more thickly on the head, nose, and behind the ears, and with grey 
on the sides ; beneath whitish, except on the throat, which is mixed slate- 
colour and whitish. Head elongated, pointed ; ears large, oval, hairy 
both within and without, and with a distinct, narrow grey margin. Feet 
covered with short, whitish brown hair. Tail moderate, above dark brown, 
beneath paler. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length, 



(I 
i< 

«i 
(I 



of head, 
ears, 
fore leg, 
hind " 
tail. 



lachcH. 


Linek 


3 


3 


1 


2 




4 


1 




1 


8 


1 


9 



" Resembles in some degree the //. Leucopus. Collected by the Bound- 
ary Commission, under Major Graham." (Le Conte.) 



297 



ARVICOLA RUBRICATUS-RxcH. 

Red-Sidkd Meadow Mouse. 



A. Supra obscure plumbeus ; subtus pallide 
Cauda breviuscula, pollice minimo. 



cinereus, lateribas miniatis, 



CHABACTEBS. 

TkuZllf'teTf' 1'' :'■"''""'• "*' "^'''•'^ *^«^^'' '«^ rather .Hort, 
Ihumb of fore foot rudimertary. Size a lUtk greater than that of th, 
mm domestic mouse. ^ ^ ^^ '^"^ 



SYNONYME. 
Arvicola RUBRicATU8,_Rich. Zool, Becchey's Voy., 



Mammalia, p. 7. 



The above are the characters of a meadow mouse, which burrows iu the 
turfy son on the shores of Behring's Straits, drawn up from Mr. Co UE a 
notes. In the colours of its fur, and dimensions, it most resembles the 
^nncola .coru^mus Pall. glir. „. 125., pi. 14, A.), and appears to be qdte 
distinctfrom any American meadow mouse hitherto descdbed. There! 
no specimen in the collection. (RrrHABD«ON.) 



: 



VOL. Ill,— 38 




2!»8 



P E R () G N A T 11 U S PENICILLATUS .— Woodiiousk, 

TUFT-TAILKI) I'OKIIED UaT. 



CIIAHACTKUS. 



Move yelhwish brown, beneath white ; tail lonfrer than the head and body, 
penicillate, with bright brown hair- 



SYNONYMIC. 

rKUOnNATiius I'KNic'iLLATiis.— VVoodliouso, I'roc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Thil., Doc, 

186'2, p. '200. 



i|! 



DKSCTIIPTION. 

Head of modorato size, not easily distingniHiicd from the nock ; incisors 
small and partially exposed, upper ones sulcatc in the middle. Nose 
email and r.ithev pointed, extending son\e distance beyond the incisors ; 
whiskers light brown, irregularly mixed with black ; eyes dark brown, 
and iA' moderate size ; cars nearly round and moderate, almost naked aute- 
-iorly, and covered posteriorly with line brown fur ; the tragus and anti- 
tragus are quite prominent. The external meatus is protected by a tuft 
of short, black bristles extending across the ear. Tail about one inch 
and a tpmrter longer than the head and body, round, gradually tapering, 
and covered with hair ; on the superior and middle portion commences a 
row of long, silky hairs, which gradually increase in width until they form 
a tuft at the end. Foro legs short, feet small, with lour well developed 
toes and a short tiiumb, wliich is urmed willi a nail ; italins naked. Mind 
legs and feet long, having live toes, terminated l»y nails. Feet and Iocs 
covered with lino short fur ; soles naked. The fur longer on the back 
than on the belly ; it is thick, soft, and silky. 

("oi.ori!. 

Incisors yellow, top of head and back dark yellowish brown, lighter on 
the sides ; fur at base light ash colour. Throat, belly, vont, foro legs, and 
inner portions of thighs white. The white coumiences at the nostrils, and 
forms a v.cU marked line to the thighs, and extcnJiug down to the hcek 



TUFT-TAILED I'OUCHKD RAT. 299 

leaving tho front of thi.rl. white, tho romainder and outer portion lid.t 
yellow, brown; feot white. Under portion of tail white above S 
brown ; the long hair of the tail is a rich brown 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length from tip of nose to root of tail. 
" of tail (vertebra)), 



" ear anterior, - 
" wliinkers. 



« II 



OS calcis, middle toe nail, 
Distance from anterior angle of orbit to tip of noso, 



lashai. 

8-5 
8"7 

•3 
1-7 
1- 

•6i 



OEOGRAPinCAL DISTBIBUTION. 

Now Mexico, wcat of llio Grande. 

GENEBAL REMAHKS. 

Of the habits of this animal I know but little. The specimen in mv 
possess.on ,s a male, and was procured in tho Sau Francisco Mountain 
Now Mexico. (WoouuousE.) ' 



i 

f il 



11 f 



# 

.!': 



'f 




800 



PSI<:UDOSTOMA ((iEOMYS) I'ULVUS— Wooi)iiou«k. 

llrcnniBir PomtKn Uat. 

cnAiucTRns. 

Liijht reddish brown abovr, bateath w/iilish. Ears small, lound, and awrrtd 
with thick, s/iort, blade far. Tail long in proportion when rompaml vnth 
others of thus genus. 

SYNONYMK. 
Okomys kulvi's.— Wooilhoiiso, I'loo. Aciid. Nut. Sci., Pliilft^ 1852, p. 201. 



IlKSrilUPTtON. 

Frciiil larRO, iioao broad, covered witli nliort, Miic.k fur, with ilio o\cop- 
tioii of a Hiiiall space at tip and the iiuugiiiH of the nostrils, which aro 
nako<l. The hO!«o cx((>ndH a short distance hoyond the phmo of the inci- 
sors. Tiio incisors are exserted, with throe convex smootii sid(!S, the exte- 
rior broadest, and of a yellowisii colonr ; their cutting? ed^res aro even. 
Tlie upper incisors extend downwards and inwards ; the under ones aro 
one-third lonf;;er than tiie u|)per, and slijrhtly narrower. Ears small and 
round, covered with short, tliick, black fur externally. Eyes larj^er than 
is common in this genus. Tail round, thick at base, and gradually taper- 
ing. The foro claws aro long, compressed, slightly curved, and pointed. 
The claw on the middle toe is the longest, the fifth is the shortest, and that 
of the thumb resembles much the claw of the fourth toe of the hind foot, 
both as regards size and shape. The toes on the hind feet are a little 
longer and more slender than those of the fore feet ; the nails short, some- 
what conical and excavated underneath. 



COLOITR. 

Head, cheeks, back, and sides bright reddish brown, being darker on 
the top of the head and back. The breast, vent, feet, inner portion of 
legs and thighs white, slightly inclining to ash ; abdomen very liglit red- 
dish brown ; fur at base dark ash colour above, beneath light ash. Edges 
of cheek pouches encircled with rufous ; the long hair of the back extends 
about one-third the length of the tail. The tail is covered with short, 



IIKDDINIJ I'OUciiKI) HAT. 



«xt.nf,. ih„ „th,., „ , . "'"" '^'■" •''"^•'""' ^'''^" '■'"• '"^"- their 

WhiHkerH Hilvory wl.ito. ' '"^"■^'"'K ^'O '"outli. 



DIMKNHIONH. 

Wtl, from tip of noHOlo root of tail, . 
of tail (vertcltriu), - . ' . 
'' from untorior a-.glo of oyo to tip of noso, -" 

tip <•( n.).s(! to auditory opcin^r, . 
^^ of OH calciH, mchidiup; n,id,lIo too an.l oluw - 
„ "•<"» oll'ow to ond of iniddio hind claw - 
of iMKldlo fore rlaw, - . . .' 
" Iiind claw, 

" Air oil back, - . . . _ 
wluHkoi-H, about 



« 
« 



r.ioo(;itAi'iircAL DrHTJirnuTioN. 
Now Mexico, west of Itio (iraado. 



Inchai, 

5- 
1-3 
•7 

11 

1-8 
•4 
•2J 
•2J 

1- 



;i 



:< ■M 



OENEBAL BEMAIIKS. 







302 




ARVICOLA MONTANA.— Peale. 

Peale's Meadow Mouse. 

A. Forma rotundata ; capite magno ; auribus raediocribus et TcUere poene 
vestitis ; dentibu's flavis ; oculis parvis, nigris ; pilis subtilibus sericisque, 
in dorso brunueis nigrisque intermixtis ; infrii plumbeis. Cauda pedibusque 
brevi niteuic pilo indutis. Mystacibus albis nigrisque : mammis octo, qua- 
tuor in abdomine, in pectore totidem. 



il 



CHABACTERS. 

Form rounded ; the head large, ears moderate and nearly covered with fur ; 
teeth yellow ; eyes small, black ; hair fine and silky ; that of the back brown 
and black, intermixed ; beneath lead-coloured ; tail and feet covered with short, 
glossy hairs ; whiskers white and black ; teats eight in number, four pectoral, 
and four abdominal. 

synonymb: 

Aevicola Montana.— Peale, Mammalia and Ornithology United States Exploring 

Expedition, vol, viii., p. 44. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Total length 6i inches, including the tail, which is 11 inches long. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

Our specimen was obtained on the 4th of October, near the head waters 
of the Sacramento River, in California. (Peale.) 

In relation to Arvicola Riparia of Obd, we have concluded that it is 
identically the same as A. Pennsylvanica of that naturalist. We have 
given an account of this animal at p. 341, Vol. I. Wo merely mention 
that it is so much better known as A. Pennsylvanica than as Riparia, that 
we would, setting aside the dates of description by Mr, Ord, prefer to let 
the name of Pennsylvanica remain, and for the future consider riparius aa 
a synonyme only. 

We may further remark, that had we had an opportunity of examining 



308 



a specimea of the so called ^^Jlrvicola ;parius," from the locality in which 
Mr Obd procured hia original, before our article on ^. Pennsj^lvanica was 
published, we should have given eithor the one or the other name as a 
Bynonyme. We have lately had a fine specimen of this Arvicola from the 
locality from whence Mr. Obd obtained his original specimen 



m 



304 



P S E U D O S T O M A C A S T A N P S .— B a i ii d 

Chestnut-ouek.ked PoL'OHEi) Rat. 
(In Stansbubi'b llepoit of the Expedition to the Great Salt Lake, p. 818.) 

DESCRIPTION. 

General colour pale yellowish brown. Tliere is an ample patch of light 
chestnut on the side of the head and face, deepest above. The dorsal line 
is not darker than the rest of the fur. Size intermediate between P. borea- 
lis and P. bursarius. 

QOLOUB. 

The colour of the fur above is slightly grizzled, and much lighter than 
in P. bursarius ; beneath paler ; throat, space between the fore legs and 
arms pale rusty. The chestnut marking on the side of the head is very 
strongly defined, occupying on each side a nearly circular space of about 
one and three quarter inches in diameter, with the ear as the centre. 
Tliese chestnut spaces do not quite meet on the crown and occiput, iHit 
leave a rectilinear interval, coloured like the rest of the back, of about one- 
eighth of an inch in width. On the muzzle, however, from abor . .lie eyes 
tlie colour of the opposite sides is confluent. The hind feet and toes are 
thinly covered with whitish hairs, which on the fore feet appear more fer- 
ruginous. 

The claws are white, but sufficiently transparent to allow the coagu- 
lated blood to show through them. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length to base of tail (approximate), 

of tail, 

" " hand (along the palm), 

" " middle anterior claw, 

" « hind feet (along sole) from heel. 



luohei 

8 
21 
1* 
i 
II 



CIIESTNUT-CIIEEKED POUCHED RAT 



305 



HABITS. 



This beautiful species was collected by Lieutenant Abert, on the prairie 
road 10 Bent's fork. 

The above description and remark we have taken from Prof. Baibd. 
with scarcely any alteration. 

Wc have added an English name tc the animal. 



VOL. . ri. — 39 



!'';il 




Aoa 



PSEUDOSTUMA (GEOMYS) I11SI»1I)UM.-Le Conte. 

P. Pilis concoloribus rufo-fusi'is minus subtilibus tectus, cauda Urevi- 
nuda, auribus obsolotis. 

8YN0NYMB. 

Gkomys Uispidum.— Dr. Lo Conto, I'loc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Pliila., 1852, p. 168. 



DESCRIPTION. 

One specimen, Mexico, Mr. Pease's collection. This species differs 
from all the others in having the fur very coarse and harsh, and entirely 
of a reddish brown colour. Beneath it is slightly greyish, but the differ- 
ence in colour is by no means obviou-j. The ears are not at all prominent, 
being merely openings in the skin. The whiskers are as long as the head. 
The upper incisors are broken off, but enough remains to show that they 
were deeply grooved near the middle of the anterior surface ; it is impos- 
sible to determine if there is a second subiiiarginal groove. The tail is 
completely naked except at the root. The feet arc precisely as in the 
other species of this division of the genus. (Dr. Le Cojjte.) 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length from nuse to root of tail. 

Tail, 

Anterior foot to end of claw of third toc.- 
Postcrior foot to end of claw of third toe. 



Inoliet. 

11-5 
3 

1-7 
1-9 



307 



. 



PSEUDOSTOMA UMP RINUS.-R i c,i 

Lkadbfvter'p sanh "'at. 



ffrisca 



CHARACT '!S. 



Umier brown an the dorsal aspect, grey belou,, ^oith .hUefi 
» a a:rev Aairu tniJ «<> /. ^i , , J^ 



and a ^rrey hairy tail as bnfr as the head 



eet and throat, 



SYNONV'ES. 
Gbomvs UMBBiNn8.-Rich, Fauna Boreal. Americana, p. 202. 

Dr. Lo Coute, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, Phila., 1352, p. 102. 

DESCRIPTION. 

trif CO. 'Xrf""' '?' "'''''' ""' "'^'^ *''« «-«P«- «f the no. 
of he hen t T'; ' "' "''" ^"' '^"^''*^ *« ^"^^ «» *''« -own 

out ..o„.«„„u.e, .,,„;:,;- ;,;;—\«^^ 

a deep yellow colour. The lip., „„„„ Uehmd ,bo upper L« - „ t to 
for. naked urro>, leading towa,-,|. the mouth, which i, r^njced , „" 
co".|.,e.c .y ^e stiffnc. of the hai,. on each aide of it. T „ ^ 
pouches are o, a soiled buff colour, and ,rc clothed throu.-l,out , re™ 
nor surface with v.,.=hort, soft, whi, , hairs, which do°ti Z, 

the ear an I , s anten„, margm extend., forwards to between the eye and 

the angle ol J,e mouth ; its tip i„ ,„u„,le,|. ' "" 

The body, in shape, reseaiUes ihat of a mole. Ft is ,.,vercd with a 

mooth coat of fur, of the length ,„„1 ,„ali.y of that of a n^adlw l!. 

but possessru, more nearly .he la.. .„a appearance of the fur ol^ 7Z^ 



lift 
'dkl 



I'i'H) 



i 



808 



LEADBEATER'S SAND-RAT. 



rat. For tho groator part of its length from the roots upwards, it has a 
blackish grev colour. On the upper and lateral parts of tho head, and 
over the whole of the back, tiio tips of tho fur arc of a nearly pure umber- 
brown color, deepest on the head, and slightly intermixed with chestnut 
browa on the Hanks. Tlio belly, and fore and hind legs, arc pale grey, 
with, in some parts, a tinge of brown. 

Tho sides of the mouth are dark-brown, with a few white hairs inter- 
mixed. Tho chin, throat, feet, and claws, are white. The tail is round 
and tapering, and is well covered with short greyish white hairs ; the 
hairs on the sides of the fore-feet are rather stifiF, and curve a little over 
the naked palms ; those on tho hind-feet are shorter ; the posterior extremi- 
ties are situated lar forward. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, 

" of head, 

" " tail, 

Distance from the end of the nose to the anterior 
angle of the orbit, 



Inchoa. 

7 
1 
1 



Unei. 



8 
9 

9 



HABITS. 



" Although this animal is not an inhabitant of the fur countrfes, the 
above description has been inserted with the view of rendering the 
account of the genus more complete." (Richardson.) 

Richardson received no information respecting its manners or food. 
The specimen came from the south-western part of Louisiana. 



;«*#. ,|«-;tf 



809 



PSEUDOS T0.\' (GEOMYS) MEXICANUS.-Le Contk. 

P. Mexicanus, mollipilosus, saturate cinorcus, m.pra nitjro-tinctus naso 
brunnco. cauda rncdiocri, pilosa. ver.sus apiccm subiuda, auribus b wZ 
primonbus suporioribus medio profuudo sulcatis. ' 



SYNONTMEa. 

AscoMvs MEXiCANDs—Lichtcnstein, Abl.andl. Deri. Akad. 1827, 113. 
lirantz, Miiiz. 27. 

Wagner, ScLreb. Saiigth. Siippl. 3, 384. 
Schinz, Syn. Mam. 2, 133. 
Saocophorus MExicANU8.-Fi.scher, Richardson, Uep. Brit. Ass. 6, 166. 

Syn. Mam. 305. 
Kydoux, Voy. Favorite, 23, tab. 8. 



(1 



DESCRIPTION. 

One specimen Mexico, Mr. J. Speaku.n. Fur very Hue, shining, very 
dark cinereous, above tipped with black, beneath entirely eineroous • nose 
and wuskers brownish ; breast and fore-legs slightly tinted with browT 
*-ars short. Upper incisors with a very deep groove on the middle of the 
anterior sur ace Feet thinly clothed with brownish hair. Tail covo,!^d 
with hair, which is very dense and long at the base, gradually bcco 1-^ 
Bhorter and more scanty, leaving the tip almost naked. (Dr. Le Co" e ' 



niMENSIONS. 



Length from nose to root of tail. 

" tail, .... 
Fore-foot to end of middle claw, 
Hind-foot to end of middle claw, 



Inchei. 
11 

5 

1-7 

1-7 



ili 









§ 




310 



SOREX -iSTERI.— Richardson. 

Forsteh's Shrew Mouse. 
(Not figured.) 

S. Cauda tetragona longitudiue corporis, auriculis brevibus vestitis, dorso 
xcrampeliuo, ventre murine. 

CHARACTERS. 

Tail as long as the body and square ; ears short and furry ; back brmoTt, 
belly pale yellowish brown, 

SYNONYMES. 

Shrew, No. 20.— Forster, Phil. Trans., vol. Ixii., p. 381. 
SoREX FoRSTERi. — Rlcliardsoii, Zool. Jour., No. 12, April, 1828. 
" " Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat Sci., Philadelphia, vol. vii., part ii., 

p. 386. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Nose, long, somewhat divided at the tip ; ears, hairy, not much shorter 
tlian the fur, but still concealed ; body slender ; feet small ; tail long, 
four-sided ; hair short, fine, and smooth. 

COLOUR. 

Tl.>e fur is for two thirds of its length dark cinereous above, tipped with 
brown ; beneath it is cinereous. 
Feet flesh coloui-ed ; nails white. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length of hp?d and body, 

" of head. 
Height of ear, • 
Length of tail, - 
From point of nose to eye, 



tachai. 

21 
9 
i 



ail 



SOREX COOPERI.— 



C 



ACH. 



Coopkr's Shkew, 
(Not figured.) 



CHARACTERS. 

Body very small; tme long; no external 
lohur, dark brown. 



ears ; taU as long a. the body ; 



SYNONTME. 

SOK.X CooPKax-Bachman. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 
1837, p. 3S8. 



vol. 



vii.. part ii., 



DESCRIPTION. 

ad„ro.,od hairs to tL o.U c,„i.ie „V h o „a ' 7JT "!,'" "" 

above clothcJ with ll„c hair a„d tipped with a pencil of I r7' tZ 
;-™.,, hat .w»ih,e through the far. a.d apprreaU,!!':: J';! 

Tlie point of the nose is sli<«-htlv divi.lo,! . fi,„„.. • 
t^e traa^erse auditor, opeaial J^^ti, trj^TT ^^ "°^ 

COLOUR. 

na.r cinereous for two thirds of its length above, and tipped with shin 
ing ehestnut brown ; beneath tipped with a:h eolor ; feet g^ tai Lt: 
above, silver grey beneath. ^ ' " ^^^^'^ 



DIMENSIONS. 



From point of nose to tail. 

Length of tail, - 

From eye to point of noso, 

Length of liead, 

From heel to middle elaw, 



laohei. 
li 

u 



J, 




31: 



SORliX FIMBRIPES.— Bach 



Fbinok-footed Shrkw. 



CHARACTERS, 

JV '« external ears ; tail a little shorter tfuin the body j J'eet broad, fringed 
at the edges ; body dark brown. 

SrWONYME. 

SouKX FiMBBiFEs. — Biicli, Joiir. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Pliiladelphia, vol. vii., part ii., 

p. 391. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Nose long and movable, with the tip sliglitly lobcd ; head large and 
flat. The '!yo is a mere .«pock, covered by the common integument, and is 
found with groat difficulty. Whiskers, long, extending considcrabiy 
beyond the head ; lo external ears, and the transverse auditory opening 
very small ; foro-feei broad, and clothed with short fine hairs extending 
to the extremities of the nails, the edges on the lower surface consider- 
ably fringed beneath the palms with long brownish iiairs. Tail of mode- 
rate size, square, and gradually tapering to the point. 

Tiie fur is considerably longer than in any other of our species of shrew 
of the same size. 



COLOUR. 

Teeth yellowisii ; wliiskers white ; there is a lightish edge around the 
upper lip ; feet dingy yellow. 

The fur on the upper surface is for two thirds of its length, bluish ash, 
and is tipped with brown, which gives it a changeable brown appearance. 
Throat and beneath ihirk fawn colour. Under side of tail buff ; point of 
tail nearly black. 



FRINGE-FOOTED SHREW. 

DIMENSIONS. 



818 



Prompointof nose to root of tail - 
Length of tail, . . . . ' 

From oriace of ear to point of nose, 
eye to point of nose, 

heel to end of middle claw - 
Breadth of fore-feet, - . . ' . 
Length of whiskers, ■ . . [ 



louw* 

II 
I 
I 
i 

1 



1!B 



11 



r 4 



▼OL. iii.<-i40 





314 



SOREX PERSON ATUS. — St. Hillaire. 



SYNONYMES. 



SoBBX Pbb80natu8. — St. IlillrtiK', Gucriii's Mag. de Zoologio pour 1833, pi. 14. 
« « Bachmaii, Moiiogr. N. American species of Sorex, Jour 

Acad. Nat. Sci., Pliihv., vol. vii., part ii., p. 398. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Hair reddish brown above, light asli coloured beneath, end ot the nose 
blackish brown above, ears small and concealed in the lur ; tail rather 
square, one third of the total length of the animal. 



DIMENSIONS. 



Length to root of tail, 
" of tail, - 



Ii.rhes 

2 
1 



HABITS. 



We have never seen this shrew. The specimen from which the descrip- 
tion was taken by Si. IIillaibe (translated above) was sent from America 
by MiLBEBX (1827). 



! I 



815 



GEORYCHUS GR(E N L A N DIC US.-Rich. 

Greenland Lemming. 

A. Exauriculatus, rostro acuto, palmis tetradactylis hirsutis ; un^uibus 
apice cylindrlco producto, linea dorsali nigrA. ""oUiBus 



CHARACTERS, 
Earkss ; mth a sharp nose ; forefeet hairy heneath, mthfour toes, armed 
7 the bad ' ''""''"'^ '"'"'' ' " " ^'^'"^ "^""^ '^ -^^^ 

SYNONYMES. 

Arvicola (Gkorvchus) Grcenlandicus, Greenland Lemraing.-Rich, Fauna Bo- 

^, reali Americana, p. 134. 

Mouse, Sp. 15.— Foster, Phila. Trans. Ixii., p. 379? 

HArfETAiLED Uat ?— Pennant, Arct. Zool., vol. i., p. 132 ? 

Mus GR(ENLANDicu8.-Richard8on, Parry's Second Voy., App. p. 304 

OwiNVAK— Esquimaux. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Size-rather less than a rat : head rounded, narrower than the body 
tapering slightly from the auditory opening to the eyes ; nose acute. There 
are no external ears, but the site of the auditory opening is denoted by 
an obscure transverse brownish streak in the fur. The eyes are near each 
other and small. The fur on the cheeks is a liule puffed up. The upper 
l.p IS deeply divided ; lower incisors twice the length of the upper one^ • 
whiskers l.n^r : body thickly covered with long and soft fur. Tail very 
short ; tne ,.y , extremities project very little beyond the fur ; the palms 
mcline 8l,g.uly inwards, are small, and the toes very short ; both are 
covered thickly above and below, with strong hairs curving downwards 
and extending beyond the claws. The only naked parts on the foot are i 
mmnte, flat unarmed callus, iu place of a thumb, and a rounded smooth 
callus at the extremity of each toe. Tliese callosities do not project for- 



m 

1i 



i 

m 



816 



GREENLAND LEMMING. 



ward under the claws, and have no resemblance to the large, compressed 
horny, under portions of the claws of the Iludson'j Bay Lemming. 

The claws aro long, ntrong, curved moderately downwards, and inclining 
inwards. Soles of the hind-feet hairy, and the hairs project beyond the 
ckws. The hind-feet have live toes, of which the three middle ones are 
nearly of a length. The hind-claws are slightly arched, narrow, but not 
sharp at the points ; tloy are thin, hollowed out underneath, and calcu- 
lated to throw back the earth which has been loosened by the foro-claws 



COLOUB. 

The general colour of the upper parts of the body and of the head is 
dark g,reyish brown, arising from an intimate mixture of hairs tipped with 
yellowish-grey and black ; the black tips are the longest, and, predomi- 
nating down the centre of the back, produce a distinct stripe. The ven- 
tral aspect of the throat, neck, and body, exclusive of some rusty mark- 
ings before the shouidurs, is of an unmixed yellowish-grey colour, which 
unites with the darker colour of the back by an even line running on a 
level with the tail and inferior part of the check. The fur both on tho 
back and underneath presents, when blown aside, a deep blackish-grey 
colour from the tips to the roots. The tail is of the same colour as tho 
body at the root, but the part which projects beyond the fur of the rump 
is only a pencil of stiff white hairs. 

The above is copied, with some alterations, from Richardson's descrip- 
tion, which was drawn up from a male, killed August 22, in Repulse bay. 



DIMENSIONS. 








Inches. 


Lin 


Length of head and body. 


G 


3 


" tail, 




9 


" " fore-leg from palm to the axilla, ■ 


1 


1 


" " longest fore-claw, - 




4 


" " palm of middle-claw. 




6 


" " whiskers, - - - 


- 1 


4 



HABITS. 



We refer our readers to the Fauna Boreali Americana for some inter 
esting general remarks on the Lemmings, comparing those of the Ameri- 
can continent with European species. We know nothing of the habita 
of this one. 



817 



DIPODOMYS ORDII.-WooDHoi; 

Okd's Pouched Mousk. 



SE . , 



CHARACTERS. 



end. 



Light reddish brown alcove, beneath white; taU short, and 



pcnicillate at the 



SYNONYME. 
DxPoooMvs OK.„.-Woodhouse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1853, p. 235. 

DESCRIPTION. 

A little amuller than D. Pmipsii, Gray; head and tail rtorter „„,» 
stl Zt^ "'"'" "°'"™ """°^' ""^"'' '-'--'^ ~™.d with 

COLOUR. 

Dark reddish brown above ,; «ides light reddish brown ; fur ash colour 
at base ; side of the nose, iuvlf of the cheek, spot behind the ear, baud 
across he th.gh and beneatl, pure white ; a black spot at the base ;f the 
ong whiskers ; a superciliary ridge of white on either side ; the penlcil- 
ated portion of the tail is formed of long white hairs, with bright brown 



DIM'ENSIONS. 

Total length from tip of nose to root of tail, - 

" of vertebra3 of tail, .... 
of tail, including hair at tip, 
of OS calcis, including middle toe and nail 
" " of ear, ' 



Inchec. 

6 

r. s 

•45 



\4 



I.* 



aEOGRArUICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



Western Texas. 



m 



318 



ORD'S POUCHED MOUSE. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



This animal I procured at El Paso on the Rio Grando, on my way to 
Santa ¥6, whilst attached to the party under the command of Captain L. 
SiTC.REAVES. United States Array. I have named it in honour of Mr, Ord, 
President of this Society. (Woodhoube.j 



31U 



ARVICOLA (HESPliUOMYS) TEXANA.-Woodu, 



OUSE. 



CHARACTERS. 

r™nd, Jro», ,J„„, „„,, ^j,,,, ;„^,,.,„.„^ ,^ ^^^^^^ ^__^^^ 

8YN0NYME. 
DESCRIPTION. 

furnished with a loriLr hl„„f ., /""-J^' ^'^"'"^ of fore-feet a tubercle, 

COLOUR. 

the two c„l„„,., tliat i r . ', . '""'° '""'""'"S '" J""""!* i 

.e,.«.atcd f„,„ „;:'::;;: i: ;;= ,r tr:.r'r ^ "t""-"^ 

white ; nose mixed brown ..A ? '*'^^ ^^°^«' 'beneath 

«ro.Me,„,,,:rtr:::tf::rc:r„;r:*.n^^^^^^^^ 

ing over the nails. ^' ^'^' *'''' ^^'^« project- 



DIMENSIONS. 

Total length from tip of nose to root of 
" " of tail, 
of head. 
Height of ear, - 
Breadth of ear. 
Fore-legs, 
Hind-legs, 



tail, 



Inohai, 

2rV 
ItV 



A 



T»d 



1 



fm 



320 



ARViCOLA TEXANA 



Western Texas. 



GEOGRAPmCAL DISTRIBUTION'. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



I procured this little animal on the Rio Grande near El Paso, whilst 
attached to the party under the command of Captain L. Sitoreavbs, U. 
S. Topographical Engineers, on our way to explore the Zuni iuid Colorado 
rivers. Of its habits I know nothing. My attention was called to thia 
animal by Major Lb Conte, who has been for some time engaged in the 
study of the mice of our country. (Wooduousb.) 






821 



StALOPS ^NEUS—Cassin. 

« 
BtACK-CLAWED Khrkw MoLK. 

8YN0NYME. 

ScALo... j;N«C8.-Ca88iD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Thila., 1853, p. i 



p. 209. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Upper jaw after the two incisor Imviug on each side seven false molar, 
which are pom ed and nearly equ.., except the last, which is double the 
ze of either of the others, and has a small exterior basal lobe. Mol ! 
three ; he hrst with four external lobes, the anterior being very small tie 
second large and pointed, the third short, blunt, and deeply e.narginae 
he fourth lobe also blunt and short ; besides these the fi Jllar has one 
n enor and one posterior lobe, second molar with three short ext rnal 
lobes he intermediate one emarginate ; also two interior larg and 
pointed, and one posterior similar to the interior lobe ; third molar with 
two short external lobes, the posterior one emarginat; and two ilr r 
lobes and one posterior lobe. ">^ luieuor 

Lower jaw with two incisors on each side, the anterior of which is the 
.horor; these arc followed by six false molars, which are poi ed and 
nearly equal in si.e, except the last, which is much larger and burnished 
with a nnnnte posterior lobe at the base. Molars three each dee ; u, 
a e on the externa surface and composed of two large external loies and 
three smaller and shorter internal lobes. 

of ^i^ '",'/'";' *""! "' !"''"*'' cqual.'second shorter, first and fifth toes 
ot the hind-feet equal, other three nearly so. 

COLOUR, 

Entirely Shining, brassy brown, very glossy, and in some lights appear- 
ing to be almost metallic ; darker on the top of the head, and lighter and 
more obscure on t^ie chin and throat ; nose dusky ; feet brownish : nails 
and first jo.uto the toes black ; palms dusky ; soles of the hind-feet dark 
brown ; tail light browu, thinly furnished with scattering bristles 

VOL. III. — il • ° 



ii 



;!!!JI 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-3) 




// 





7/ /, ^ <^^^ 




1.0 If 



I.I 



11.25 



im 






25 
12.0 



IIIM 

i^ IIIIII.6 




^^V'^ 







Photographic 

Sciences 

Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 








i/jL 








lis 



322 



BLACK-CLAWED SHREW MOLE. 



DIUENSIONS. 

Total length (of specimen in spirits), about 
" " of head, - - - ■ 
" " of fore-feet, - 
«« " of hind-feet, - 
" " of tail, ... - 



5 

2 

M6 

1-40 

1-25 



GFNEBAL REMARKS. 

This is the most beautiful species of mole yet discovered in America, 
and exhibits almost tlie brilliancy of colour which distinguishes the 
remarkable South African animals which form the genus Chrysochloria, 

of this family. 

A single specimen, apparently fully adult, is in the collection of the 
Exploring Expedition, labelled as having been obtained in Oregon. In 
its dentition and otherwise it is a strict congener of Scalops ToMtisendli, 
but is much smaller and of a different color. Its black claws are espe- 
cially remarkable, and distinguish it from all other species of the genus. 

(Cassin.) 



SCALOPS LATIMANUS.-Bach. 

Texan Shrbw Mole. 

STNONTME. 
ScALOPS LATiMANHs—Bach, Boston Jour. Nat. History, vol. i., p. 41. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Larger than the common shrcw-moIe, intermediate in size between S 
Townsendtmd S. Breweri. Hair longer and thinner than in either of the 
other species, and slightly curled. Palms larger than in any other known 
species. Tail naked. 



COLOUB. 



11 



Colour nearly black. 



DIMENSIONS. 



1 sngth to root of the tail, ■ 

" of the tail. 
Breadth of the palm, - 

" of the tarsus, - 



Inebas 

7 



Unei, 

7 
10 
10 

T 



GEOGRAPHICAL DI3TRIB0TI0M. 



Mexico and Texas. 



mmmm 



324 



MUS LE CONTII. — Bach. 

Lb Contk's Mot..u. 
M. Sapra rufo-faacus, subtus albo-flavua ; Cauda corpore breviore. 

CHARACTERS. 

Tail shorter than the body, reddish brown above, light fawn beneath. 



8YN0NYME3. 

Mu8 Lb Contei.— Aud. and Bach, Jour. Acad. Net Sci., Phila., vol. viii., ^t. ii., 

p. 306. 
Reithrodoii Lb Contei.— Le Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila, Oct 1853, 

p. 413. 



i i: 



DESCRIPTION. 

About half the size of a full grown mouse. Its body is covered by 
a very thick coat of soft fur and coarser hairs intermixed. The upper 
fore-teeth are deeply grooved. The head is of a moderate size ; the fore- 
head so much arched as to present nearly a semicircle. Nose rather sharp, 
with a caruncle beneath each nostril pointing downwards. Whiskers 
shorter than the head. Ears round, moderate it size, and slightly pro- 
truding beyond the long fur, nearly naked ; a few hairs are sprinkled 
along the inner margins. The legs are short and rather stout; feet 
covered with short adpressed hairs ; nails long and but slightly hooked ; 
adapted to digging. The rudimentary thumb is armed with a blunt nail. 
The tail, which is round, is sparsely clothed with hair. 



COLOUR. 

Teeth yellow ; eyes black ; nails light brown ; whiskers white and 
black. The fur on the back and cheat is plumbeous at base, tipped with a 
mixture of reddish brown, and dusky, giving it a dark reddish-brown 
appearance. The lips, chin, and feet are a soiled white. On the throat, 
belly, and under surface of the tail, the fur is cinereous ; at the roots tipped 
with fawn colour. Uppoi- surface of tail brown. 



LE CONTE-a MOUSE. 






DIMENSIONS. 






Length of head and body 

" of tail, ...._■■ 
Height of ear, ...._"' 
Length ol tarsus, -..._" 


(nchei. 

2 
2 

• 
• 


Lines. 

6 

U 
5 



325 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



The 



■•« ^eZXl^^:: ^^"™ ^--•''«°" ™ ""^en "- P-red 



; 'rr'^WII'IflF 




MUS MICHIGANENSIS. 

Michigan Mouse. 
M. Buccis flavis, corpore supra fusco-canescente, subtus albido. 

CHARACTERS. 

Cheeks yeUow, body light greyish-brown above, whitish beneath. 



iiii 



SYNONYME. 

Mu8 M1CHIGANKN8I8.— Aud. and Bach, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. viii., 

pt. ii., p. 304. 



m 

M Ml 



DESCRIPTION. 

The head is of moderate size at base, gradually tapering to a sharp- 
pointed nose. The eyes, which appear to be rather smaller than those of 
the white-footed mouse, are placed farther forward. Whiskers the length 
of the head. The ears on both surfaces are so sparingly clothed with short 
hairs as, without close examination, to appear naked. Legs short and 
slender, cove I with hair to the extremities of the toes. Soles naked. 
On each fore-ioot there are four toes, with a rudimeutal thun)b, protected 
by short but rather sharp nails. The hind-feet are pendactylous. The 
tail, which is round, is clothed with rather short hairs. Mammae, six pec- 
toral and four abdominal. The fur on the whole body is ^ery short and 
Bmooth. 



COLOUR. 

The incisors, which are small, are yellow. The whiskers are nearly all 
white ; a few immediately below and above the eyes being black. On the 
cheeks there is a line of yellowish fawn colour running along the sides to 
the neck. The feet, nails, ears, and tail are light brown. The hairs on 
the upper surface are light plumbeous at the roots, and tipped with light 
brown and black. On the throat, inner surface of the thighs, and on the 



MICHIGAN MOUSE. 

827 



Length of head and body, 
" of tail, - 
of tarsus, 
Height of ear, - 



DIMENSIOVS. 



Inch(c 

4 
2 



UOM. 

6 
6 
4 



GENERAL nEMARKS. 

''■I.e colour „„ .,, LkT" S ; ,1'"' "'""'•'^?°'°'' '"»"»= (•«'• ''«»^»). 

«"<i "...eh s„.„er than ro^^Tr''''"""'"'""''i^--»l« naked 
feet .„ cl,„c,„riBtic of thatTpoeiof '"• """"" '"^ " "■" "'"^ 



'''-•rwwummm 



328 




PEROGNATIIUS (CRlCETODlPUS) 1»AIIVUS.~Peali:. 

r. Capito ovato : rostro clongato, acuininato, piloso, exceptia naribua 
parvid coiivolutisqiic ; labiis iiuiKiiiH, tiiinidis, ct pilis brcvibua coiiHitis : 
iiiystucibiis pliuiiiiis, albin : flocci) alboniin piloniin hcu sctaniiu in inoiilo : 
gciiaruin vciitriculis aiuplis, disiuptis extriiiscc^ ori, ex suproiiio labio aii 
guttur usque protcntis ; cavitato retrorsuiu ad auroa portiiigouto pilosA : 
oeulis modiocribus : auribus parvls, rotundis, piloso iimbriatis : anteriori- 
bu8 cruribus parvis : pcdc mcdiocri, setosis niargiuato pilis : unguiljus 
brevibus, unciiiis, cxccpto polliculari iu orboni tigurato vol ad instar 
liumaiii : posticis cruribus iougis ; pedibus niagnis validisque, digitis 
quinquc iustructis, medio cajtciis aliquantulo lougiore ; iiitiuio digito 
brcvissimo, attingeute tautum uictatarsa ciBterorum ossa : unguibus oniui- 
bus brevibus, acuiuiuatis, niodicti iucurvis : caudii louga, atteuuatii, pilis 
brevibus aerieis coopei-ta; colore supra aepiaco-bruuneo, infra albo ; 
obscurii liuea transcurreuto gcuas sub oculis. 

SYNONYMES. 

CmcKToDirus Paiivus.— Peiile, Mamin. of U. S. Exploring Expedition, p. 63. 
FKiiogNATiius Parvus. — Dr. Lo Cont«, Pruo. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. 



DESCRIPTION. 

Head ovate ; the snout elongate, pointed, and covered with hair, except- 
ing the nostrils, which are small and convolute ; lips large, tumid, and 
covered with short hairs ; whiskers numerous, white ; a tuft of white 
hairs or bristles on the chin ; cheek -pouches spacious, opening outside of 
the mouth, and reaching from the upper li]) to the throat ; the cavity 
extending backwards to the ears, and lined with hair ; eyes medium size ; 
ears small, round, and fringe.l with hairs ; fore-legs small, the feet mode- 
rate, margined with bristly hairs ; the nails short, curved, excepting that 
of the thumb, which is orbicular, or resembling the human thumb nail ; 
hind-legs long; the fort largo and strong, iive-toed ; the middle one 
slightly longer thar. tl:e rest ; inner ton shortest, reaching only to tb.o end 
of the metatarsal bones of the others ; all the uails short, pointed, and 






I'EllOGNATHUS PARVUS. 339 

sliglUly curvoJ ; tail long, tapering, and clothed with silky hairs Toln 
above «ep.a-.rown ; beneath white ; a dark line cro .es'lh^e ^. ^ 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length of the head and body, - 

of head, from the nose to the occiput, 

of card, - - . . 
" of tail, - . . . 

of fore-log from the elbow, 

of fore-foot, - - 
-* of tibia,- . 
" of hind-foot, ■ 
of metatarsus, 



laahn. 

A 

a 






GENERAL REMARKS. 

A Single specimen of this singular animal was obtained in Oregon but 
no notes were furnished by the person who obtained it. The form^tLn 
ot us lund-legs leaves but little room to doubt that its habit are sTmla^ 
o th ju,np.ng mice. Meriones Labradonus imcu.nuso.), whchLeTn J 
b.tantsof he same region. Its singularly large head, thich eq II t 
body m bulk, Its ample cheek-pouches, long hind-legs, ^nd lol ta" 1 n 
sent a general form which is peculiar and altogether very re°ma i'ab L 
On dissection, the stomach was found to contain a pulpy ma ter wH L 
appeared to bo the remains of a bulbous root ; the liver 1 ve"y L'ie and 
consi^of five foliaceous lobes; we were not able to detecV^rgall' 

The specimen is a female, and presents the rudiments of a fourth molar 

ooUi in each side of the lower jaw, which would eventually have repTa ed 

the front ones, already much worn. (Peale.) « replaced 



VOL. III. — i2 



U30 



DIDELPHIS BREVICEPS.— .Bennett. 

SYNONYME. 
DiDKLPiiiB Rrkvukph. — Bennott, Zool. Proc. fo- 1833, p. 40. 



Dr;SCmi'TION. 

Allied to D. ^^irfrinianns ; iiuu-li smaller size ftnd darker colour ; ordi- 
nary woolly hairs of tlic body white at base, the apical half, brownish 
black. Heyond this woolly hair there is an abundance of immensely long 
bristly while hairs on the upper parts and sides of the body. Head, 
throat, and under parts of body brownish, the hairs being white, with the 
tips bro vn. Lips white ; a broad white dash under the eye, joining tiio 
white lips ; a longitudinal brownish stripe extending from the eye towards 
tiie tip of the muzzle ; browniah black hairs also surround tiio eye. On 
the crown of the head ihcre are 'ung white hairs, interspersed like those 
of the body, but shorter. Ears black, naked, the apex whitish ; limbs 
and feet brown-black ; tail with minute bristly hairs, springing from 
between the scales ; the basal half of the tail a[»parently blackish, and 
the apical half whitish. 

DIMENSIONS. 



From point of nose to insertion of tail. 

Tail, 

Tarsus to end of longest claw, 
Ear to point of nose. 
Height of car posteriorly, 
Longest bristly hairs on the back, - 



Iiichaa. 


IJnM. 


12 


6 


11 




2 




8 




1 


1 


8 





GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

California. (Bennktt.) 



am 



OIDELIMIIS CAL„.o,tN,CA.-.i,««„„,. 



SrwONYMB. 
DincLPius CALtKOHNioA—Bennelt, Zool. 1', 



roo. for 1833, p. 40. 



DESCKIPTION. 



I , ^runaps, acad niuoli lonffor than thaf nr n o • 



DIMENSIONS. 



Inohu 


Lme 


14 




13 


9 


8 


11 


2 


2 


1 


9 



From nose to root of tail. 
Tail 

From car to point of noso. 
lursus, .... 

Height of ear poaterlorly, 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The description given of the colours of n b. • •„ • 

1 he animal is also more lightly coloured 



t?.i 



832 



MLS CAROLINENSIS. 

Carolina Mouse. 
M. Dilute plumbeua, auribua Jongis ot pilosig, cauda corpore longiore. 

JUARACTERS. 

Tail longer than the body ; ears long and hairy. Color i\ffht plumbeous. 

8YN0NYME8. 

Mob Carolinensib.— Aud. and Bach, Jour. Acad. Nat Sci., Phila., Toi. viii., naH 

ii., p. 306. 

*♦ «♦ Le Conte, Proo. Acml Nat. Sci., Phila., p. — , 1853. 





DESCRIPTION. 

In size this species is smaller than the house mouse. The upper fore- 
teeth are slightly grooved. The head is short, tlio forehead arched, aud 
the nose rather blunt. Eyes small, but prominent ; whiskers longer than 
the head. The ears are rather long, and have a very conspicuous incurva- 
tion of their anterior margins, which are fringed with hairs ; they are 
thickly clothed on both surfaces with very short hairs. The legs and feet 
are small and slender, hairy to the nails, x^he thumb is almost entirely 
composed of a short convex nail. The tail is long, clothed with short 
hairs, rounded in the living animal, but square when in a dried state. 
The fur, which is of moderate length, \a thin, soft, and silky. 




COLOUR. 

The incisors are light yellow, tipped with black ; eyes black ; point 
of the nose, lips, chin, fore-feet, and nails, white. Whiskers dark brown. 
There is a narrow fawn-coloured ring around the eyes. Ears, legs, and 
tail light a-^ihy brown. The fur on the back and sides is from the roota 
of an uniform light plumbeous colour ; the under surface is scarcely a 
shade lighter. 



CAROIJNA MOUSE. 



Length of head and body, 

" of tail, 
Height of car, 
Length of taraua, • 



ItlMENSIONS. 



Inch**. 

2 
8 



8811 



,L 



Lin«, 

4 
8 
4 

.6* 



OEKfERAL BEMARK8. 



-r^- 



If] 

i 1 



ilil 



834 



SOREX RICH ARDSONII. — Bach. 

Richardson's Shrew. 

BYN0NYME3. 

SoREX Parvus. — Rich (non Say), Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 8. 
SoREX RicuARDSONii. — BacUman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Pbila., vol. vii., part ii^ 

p. 883. 




DESCRIPTION. 

Ears short, about half the length of the fur, covered by short fine hairs ; 
muzzle long and slender, the tip slightly lobed ; the whole upper lip bor- 
dered with whiskers, reaching to the ears ; the tail square, pointed at 
tip ; body longer and thicker than that of S. Forsteri ; feet slender, par- 
taking, in this respect, of the character of most of the species of this 
genus ; nails short and slightly hooked. 

COLOUB. 

The lur, from its roots to near the tip, has a dark bluish grey colour ; 
from its closeness, however, this colour is not seen till the fur is removed ; 
the whole upper surface is of a rusty brown colour ; beneath cinereous ; 
the feet and nails are light brown. 



il!i 



DIMENSIONS. 

Ii'xhci. 

Length of head and body, 21 

" of tail, If 

" of head, i 

** from upper incisors to nostrils, .... J 

" from eye to point of nose, • ' " * tV 






885 



^ 



SOREX BREVICAUDUS.-Say. 

Short-tailed Shhkw. 
CHARACTERS. 

8YN0NYMES. 
SoREx BREvicAUDus-Say, Long's Expedition, vol. i., p. 164. 
^ * Godman, vol. i., p. 79, plate 3, fig. l. 

Ilarlan, Fauna, p. 29. 

Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci, Phila., vol. vii., part ii, 
p* 331. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The form of this species is more slender than that of Deka"'s shrew 
ndU appears about one fifth less ; the feet are a little longer and ^ 

e length of the other speeies ; the fore-feet are naked ; the hind ones 

parse V covered with hair ; the nose is distinctly lobed the orifice to 

th nternal ear .s large, with two distinct half-divisions the ta in the 

e:;:X3 t^^r " " ^"^" ^"^-"^ -''''-' ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

COLOCU. 

The nose and tail are dark brown ; feet and nails white • tho wJ, i 



DIMENSIONS, 

Length from tip of the nose to root of tail, 

of heel to end of tail, - 

of tail, - . . . 

of head, 

Bread til across the head, • - . . 



fnohei 

31 
J 

1 
il 
ft 



886 



SHORT-TAILED SHREW. 



:li 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

The teeth of this shrew are white, brightly tinged with chestnut brown 
on the points, except the third and fourth lateral incisors in the upper 
jaw, which have merely a brown speck at the tips, and the fifth, which ia 
white ; the posterior upper molar is small, though larger than that of 
S. Ddcayi ; tlio incisors are less curved than those of the latter species • 
there is also a striking difference in the head, that of the present species' 
being considerably shorter, the skull more depressed and much narrower, 
appearing about one fourth less than that of Dekay's shrew. 

From the number and appearance of its teeth, the specimen was ovi- 
dently an old animal. 



887 



PSEUDOSTOMA B U L B I V O I{ u M._K.„„, 

SYNONYMES 
DiPLOsTOMA? BaLmvoKUM.-Rich, Fauna Boreali Americana p 206 
U.O.. B.B.O..-.. ., eonte. P.c. A.. ^J^:tZ:, ]7Z ^„L^ 

DESCRIPTION. 

evGs siinll Ti.« J-. aisicnded whiskers very shorf 

e}es s.«all. The audUory openings arc moderately lar- e but thoJ. 
external ears. Tail short rnnnrl .n.i . • ' ^'^ ^""^ "» 

thinly elothed with hat T^ ll f"""' "^'' ^"^ ^'^"'^"^ ^•"P- ^^ 

the wrist and ankle jlil .• ^'.Z^T;^;: TT' T '^ 
five toes on each foot • the hinH nni [ ^ ^"'^^ ' ^^^''^ a'-e 

or less excavated tLrThtaTon^^^^^^^^^ ^'.^"^^' ^"^ ™«- 

shaped than the others. ' ^'"''^ *°^ ^^ "^«>^-« T^"^' 

COLOUR. 

Incisors yellowish ; on the dorsal aspect thp f.,n i, , . 

<iia.« b«wee„ chestnut and yen„wL*Tw„ I L „ t,! °"'' '"T?- 

Ihe /««d./ee/ are covered above with whitish hairs. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Length of head and body, . . . . , 
of head, - . . . _ 

rreadth of head behind the eyes, when the pouches 

are distended, --..., 
Length of tail, ... 

ot upper incisors (the exposed portion), - 
of lower incisors, 
VOL. III. — i3 



Inchs>. 
11 

3 

3 

2 



Liau. 



6 

a 

6 





SS8 

lVSKUI)()Sn).M.\ HULUIVOKUM. 

OENRUAL REMAllKS. 



f^' 



£99 



DIPODOMY8 AGILls 



G A M H E I , 



cnARAnTrns. 



DipouoMYa Auiijs.— ( 



HYNONYMKS. 



l>r. Lo CoiiU). <• „ . . ' 



DEHCnU'TION. 



vol- vi., f>. •.'24. 



COI.OUB. 



DIMENSIONS. 

Total length, including tho tail 
Length of tail, . . 

HAniTS. 



Inchni. 

6i 



other p„„cl,cd a, „ „; "" f '"''"'"'■ '^"""'- ^'""'■""'i'- Like ,!,„ 

i« different ~^ZI^ l^T ^^ri '"'""'• '™™''"'"« "'« «ol>l« 

fee. or «ro at IZZZZZ' T '"' """'"■'""" "'" "'■""""" "f ""' 
spring, and u diaoult to capture. (OiMJEi,.) 



840 



DIPODOMYS IIEERMANNI._Le Con,.. 

BYNONYMB. 
DiPODOMVs IIkermann,.-Lo Conte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, Phila., vol. vi., p. 22 k 



DESCRIPTION. 



iJ 



Tail shorter than the body ; hairs on tho outer third very lon-r • oars 
moderately small ; aiititragus obsolete. " ' 



COLOUR. 

Tail brown, becoming black towards tho extremity, with a broad white 
vitta ou each side ; tip pure black. 

GENEUAL REMARKS. 

This species was procured in the Sierra Nevada, by Dr. ITeermann 
The specimen was not quite full grown. The above description &c wo 
take from Dr. Le Conte's remarks in tlie Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences 
Philadelphia, cited above. ' 



841 



PKKOGNATIIUS KA80.ATU8.-W.„„. 

Jlf""" ° "'"'~™"' """-«"'• »"""" «"'»-. .t.isf. uu. ,,„,„,,, 



BVN0NYME8. 
>' -I, N„v,i A.t, Le.,,,,,1,1 LW. Acad, lo, 300, 

'^ Wagner, S.,l,r,.l,..r'H HauK.I.iero, Suppl. a, o , 2. 

bcliiiiU, Syii. Mam,, 2, 26U. 

DEHCBII'TION. 

0. st-rod str.pe ox.o,.din. fn.,„ U.o noHO alor.g the whoL Zto t 1' 



DIMENSIONS. 



Entire length, 

JiOnjrth of tail (including hair), 
" of fore-foot, • 
" of hind-foot, • 



aBOOIlAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 

Jin. species wa« procured :n the territories west of the State of Mia- 



Inchon 


f/lnon 


4 


u 


2 


1 




8i 




8 



842 



SCIURLS CLARKII.-Smitu 



I , 



Clark'b Squirubu 

8YN0NYMB. 
SciuRus CtABKii, Clnrk'8 Squirrel.-Oriflitl.s, Cuvier, vol. iii, p. m 

DEHCRII'TION. 

Back, upper parts of the hoa.l and neck, eheokn and tail, of a delicate 

ir. ar 7 ''■ ;'" ^"""'"^' ""''^' ^"'"^' '"'^' '-'-•- -^-.itit 

. w th,n and w.t .out. are white with a slight ochreouB tint ; on tho 
dcs of to nose and the forolc.s this tint deepens in intensity ; he hi 
IS rather flattened and thick, the ears sn.all un.l round ; eyes Wack and 
s. uated on the sides of the head very far distant fron. cad. cle a'v.^ 
a w.do expanse of forehead. Tho nostrils are sen.ilunar in shlpe - the 
upper l.p ,s cleft, and there is a black spot on the chin ' 

The ta.l, which is fiat and spreading, is very beautiful, not so full near 

OBNERAL UEMARKS. 

We ^ greatly i„cli„ed to consider this .quirrel as ideolieal will, 
^^n. Fonor, of Pe,.., „1u„„ „ have llgnred and dceribed. Shi d 
other spee,me„s of th„ spceies not be found and .nore posi.ivcdy deter- 

anu give 6. tossor as a syuonymo. 



,i| 



S«l 



SCIUttUS ANNUr.ATUs.-S«.x„ 

LbWIs'b StltJIURKU 



8YN0NYMH. 



HfiuuuB Annulatub, L 



owiH'« N.,uirr«l._(JHnitlm, Ouvier, vol. iii., p. ,»o 



DEHCUIl'TION. 

colour., U,o Lack ; i,o ,.0X11' a h ,""'"' '"'' """' "'" "«""> 

ioK a donacloJ black ,„Z T . , ° """"' "' "'" """'■'«■ '""<- 

« W„a ,.„o„i»„ ,,.c, a,,„vo, wfu, ,a. ' , I ..tn,:^ ""i *'" f 

ta.. .oagor ..a„ U,„ bod,. „„„.,, a„a„,aM Mack Z ChtMU tw.'; 

nKNERAF, RRMAKK8. 

our continent. - celebrated journey acroHS 

The specimens were deposited in Peale'h Museum in Phil^rloinh- . 

wcre.U is supposed, burnt up when the remains of that col. .^'' '"'^ 
destroyed by fire. remains ol that collection were 

Unless the peculiar annulated tail was the result of twistinr, th.f 
bor when the animal was skinned, it is difficult to upr lis ^7" 
been a true sauirrel Wo n» „^t 1,1, suppose this to hnvo 



Ui 



LIST OF DOUBTFUL SI'ECIES. 





We have above given descriptions of some quadrnpods which we have 
not ouraelves hail an o|)portunity ol" examining— the result of the obser- 
vations of other zoologists— but are not at present able to state posi- 
tively tliat all of tlieni are founded on good species. 

Wo add some names of animals that iiave been given by authors as 
belonging to our Fauna, but which we have not been willing to introduce 
as such into our work, and which may, we think, bo safely omitted in 
future lists. 

Sorcx Cinereus. — Bach. Young of S. Carolinensis. 
Ursus Ardos. — Rich. A doubtful species. 

Sciurus Texianus.—Bsich. Grey variety of S. Capistratus, without 
white ears. 
" Occidentalis. — Bach. Variety of S. Audahoni, 
jirvicola .iYuttaHL — Harlan. Young Mus Lucopus. 
Mus Virginicus.—{}mc\. Probably an albino of Mus leucopus. 
J^pus Campestris.—liddu This appears to be identical with S. Town- 
sendii; and we should have given the latter name 
as the synonymo. 
Lipuria Hudsonica. — This is supposed to have been a distorted or muli- 

k"ted ^;ki:i. There is no animal to correspond 
'"'■'■^ ^he descrijjtion of it. 
Lepiis Lona-icaudati's.— This is an African species from the Cape of Good 

Hope. 
Felis Occidentalis. — Probably Lynx nifus. 

" Fasciata. " 

Lutra Ca'Afornica. — Grey, supposed to be L. Canadensis. 
Felis Discolor. — Felis Cot.rolor. 
Condylura Macroura. — C. Cristata. 
Mus JJgrarius. — Godman. Mus leucopus. 
SpermophUus Bceckeyi. — Rich. S. Douglassii. 
Sonx Talpoides. — Gapper. Probably S. Carolinensis. 
Ixalus Probaton. — A hybrid. — Not American. 
Cervus Jirctica. — Rich. Requires further examination. 
Lepuji Mexicanus. — L. JVifrricaudatus. 
Sciurus Jlurogaster. — S. Ferruginivenler. 

" Ca/ifornicus. — >S. JYigrescens. 
Sorex Canadensis. — iScalops Jiquaticus. 
t^ccomys Anthopilus. — South American. 
SpermophUus Pealei. — Not American. 



i mjni i ii i | i iji.M i i i um 



f iN D E X . 



Americiin Klnok Bonr, , 

Uluuk or Sil" er I'ox. 

— DocT, 

(ircy Wolf, 

Mui.sh Shrew, 

— IJoiruloor, 

— Souslik, . 

Aplodontiii, Genus, . 

— — Leporiiiii, 

A rut if Vox, 

Arc'loiiiy^ Kliivivontir, 

LoTvisii, . 

"~^^~~ I'ruiiio.sus, 
Armadillo, Nino-baii.leJ, 
Arvicolii Apc'llii, 

Austorus, . 

Baird'M, 

liorcalis, . 

■ ('aliloniic'ii, 

— I'ariipostris, 




Texiana, 



■ Western, . 

V'ood house's, , 

Xaiithognatlia, 

VOL. III. — 44 



. 187 
. 70 

. 108 

. 27 U 

. Ids 

• III 
. 'i-M 

OS 
. 8U 

• m 
. loo 

• 32 

• 17 
. 220 

. 28 a 

. 2U1 

. 2!)1 

13i 

293 

21)3 

287 

100 

270 

287 

802 

211 

21U 

232 

214 

103 

297 
290 
ol9 

o.)0 



nnuliinun'g Ifnre, , 

Hack's l.einmiii),', , 

IJaird's Arvicola, 
lllaek Hear, . 
Ulaekelawud Shrew Mole, 
lilaek or Silver l-'ox, 
lila.'ktailed Deer, (Jolumhian 
Hear, HIaek, . 

Cinnamon, 

'irizzlv. . 

Calil'orniu Oroy Sfjuirrel, 

Meailiiw Mouse, 
• 'aiirorniiin Arvieola, 

" ^llarp, . , 

Skunk, . 

Camas Kat, 
Caiuida (.)ttcr, . 

Canis I'ainiliaris, var. Horealls, 
Lajjopua, 



289 
67 



(lupus) Griseus, 

Capra, Genus, 

Amerieana, . 

Cariliuu, 

Carolina Mouse, 

Cervus Luueurus, . 

■ Virifinianus, 

~~ liiehardsonii, 

Chestnut Cliceked I'ouehed Ral; 
Cinnamon Hear, 
Collie's S,piin-el, 
Col. Abert's Scpiirrel, 
CoIund)ian lilaek-lalled JVer, 
Columbia I'ouehed l!at, . 
Common Ameriean Deer, . 
Cooper's Shrew, 
iJrab-eating UaeeooH, 



Puir* 

. -M 

. 87 

. 2'.il 

. IS7 

. 821 

. 7C 

. 27 

. 187 

. I'it 

. Ml 

. 201 

. 270 

. 293 
. rt'.i 

. 270 

. 1118 

. 97 

■ f)7 

2711 

1-js 

ILIS 

111 

3:;j 

77 
108 

27 
.'iill 
Vir, 

21 

202 

27 

21 
I.IS 
n!! 

272 



846 



INDEX. 



Dadypiis, nenus, . , , 

Ducr, Coliinibiun Olack-tail.'.!, 

''oinnion Ainorioaii, 

iKi Kays Shrew, 

l>iili'l|)liia, Hieviet'pa, . , 

« 'uliforiiictt, , , 

Di|i(>iloiny«, Ociius, . 

■ Aj^ilis, . 

lluoniianni, 

Oidii, . 

I'liilli|ijiaii, . 

l)i>i.', Mtiiiiiinaux, . . , 

lliire-IiiJAiii, , . , 

Dniiiiinond's .Moudow-Mouse, . 

iJusky .S^iiiircl, 

Kiiliydrn, Oenua, 

Marino, . , 

Esquimaux Dog, . , , 

F''eli9 Onca, .... 

F'l) iiig S(jiiirr«I, Severn River, 

IJocky Mduntain, 

Forster'd Shrew Mouse, . 
Fremont's Si|uirrel, . , 
Frin^'e-footed Shrew, 

Fo:., Aretio, .... 

■ Blaek or Silver, 

Jaekall 

(Jenus Aplodontia, . 

<-'"l>''n 

• Dasyims, 

Dipodoinyu, , 

Enhyiliii, . , 

Georjehu-, , 

Ovih ,.. 

K'aiiri.ic 

Oeorychus, Genus, . 

Georycliu3 GnEnlandiens, 

— llelvolns, . 

Iludsoiiius, 

■ Trimueronatus, 

Glossy Arvicoln, , . 
Goat, Jioeky Mounta n, . 
Greenland Lemming, , 
Grizzly Cenr, . , 

Hare, Baohman'e, . " , , 



220 ITnrp, Culifornian, . 
220 —Texan, . 
27 Hare-Indian l)<)g, . 
Ids Harris's S|)«rmo|)liilo, 
'JiUi Hoary Marmot, 
830 Uudi" .n'a 'Jay Lemming, . 
881 
137 Jackass Uabblt, 

839 Jaguar, 

840 Jaikall I'ox, .... 

yi7 

137 Large-tailed Skunk, 

^1 " S|)erni()|)liile, 

162 Largo Louisiana Black S(i«irrcl, 
18(3 Lataxina Mollis, 
74 Lo Conte's blouse, . 
Lemming, Back's, . 

Greenland, 

TawLV, . 



170 
170 
57 



Hudson's Hay,. 

Little .Nimble Weasel, . 
1 Long-nosed Shrew, . 
202 Long-tailed Deer, . 
206 Lepus Bachmaiii, . 

310 Californicus, . 

237 Texianus, , , , 

312 Lewis's Marmot, 
90 Lulra Canadensis (vur. Lataxina M 
70 
255 Marmot, Hoary, 



U8 
128 
220 
137 
170 



Lewis's, . . 

Vellow-bellied, . 

Marmot Scpiirrel, Say's, , 
Harris's, 

Large-tailed, 

S2 M.ush Shrew, Americun, 

4(i Marten, Pine, . . , . 

Ill Meadow-Mouse, Drununond'a, . 
82 
815 



82 
87 
287 
128 
315 
141 

85 



■ .New Jersey, . 
Northern, 

I'eale's, . 

Oregon, . 

■ Red-sided, 

~ Richardson's, . 

Sonora, . 

— Yellow-cheeked, 

California, 

Riee, , , 

Sharp-uosed, , 



H- 



i 4' 

, Q3 

. ISO 

. 153 

267 

17 

82 

166 
1 

25fi 

11 

isi 

2U0 

97 

824 

87 

813 

85 

Sit 

184 

240 

77 

89 

S3 

160 

82 

97 



17 

32 
1 (iO 

62 
267 
181 
1U8 
176 
166 
295 
134 

8oa 

232 
297 
163 
296 
67 
270 
214 
211 



INDEX. 



i 4' 

Q3 

. ISO 

. 1S3 

8e7 

17 

8.1 

IS6 

1 

. 2fiS 

. 11 

. IHI 

. 860 

. 97 

. 824 

. 87 

. 819 
85 

. 8st 

. 184 

. 249 

. 77 

. 83 

. 63 

. Ifitt 

. S'i 

. 97 

■ 17 
82 

140 
62 

287 

181 

1U8 

176 

166 

295 

lU 

80a 

232 

297 

1C3 

296 

67 
270 
214 
211 



MoRdow-Moiiflo, TvxM, 
Mfliliitia .MinTojia, . 

— Zoiillii, 

M '\i>;aii Miipinot-Snnirrel, 
Mit'liigari .Moiisi^ 
Mink, MoiiiitaiiiUitx.k, 
Mole -HhiipeJ Touithud Kiit, 
Moio, Townsond's Sinew, 
Mouiitiilii-Brodk Mink, . 
Aloinc, (,'aioliim, 

' L« t'oiitu's, . 

I'oii.lieiJ Jerbou, 

Mus L'molini.iiaiai . 

Le Coiitel, 

— Mieliijriiiieiisiit,. 
Milstfhi .Mailfs, 
Mubk-Ox, 

Now Jersey Field Mouse, 
Niiie-IJandivl Ariim.lillo, . 
Northeni Mfudow-Mouse, 

Ord's Pouched Mouse, 
Oregon Meai!ow-Mouse, . 
Otter, Ouniida, . , 

f)vi|)os, (tenua, 

■ iloscliHtua» . . 

l'oale':i Meadow Moiiao, . 
reroi;i,iilliu8 I'enieillntus, 

I'arvu8, 

t'aseiatu.^ , 

i'iiie Marten, . 
I'ouehed Uat, Columbia, . 

Cbesliiut-ehecked 

I-i'adbcater's, 
• Mole-sliaped, 

■ ~ Keildish, . 

' Southern, , 

Tuft-tailed, 

Pouched Mouse, Ord's, 
Pouched Jerboa Jlouse, 
Procyon Canerivorua, 
Pseudostonia Bulbivorum, 

"■^ • liorealis, 

" ' t^astanops, , 

■ I'oui'lasii, . 



Ful 



vug, 



Puir* 
. 2'JU 
. II 
. S7H 
3U 
»2tl 
lot 
43 
217 
IDI 
3;t2 
824 
187 
882 
824 
826 
176 
4(1 



PseiidoutoMm Kloriilana, . 

" ^- Ili-piduin, . 

•- Mexicanug, , 

~~ ■ 'l'ikl|ioidcis . 

~ ■ — ■ I iiibriiiuis • 

Pleromys Al|iiiiii-s . 

Sabriuus, , , 

Piitorius Agilis, 

l'u»>U!<, 

Aij;reaceus, . , 

Rabbit, Jackass, 
Kae<!o<jn, Crab-eutiug, 
Hut I'HUlaa, 
Uaugifer, Genus, . 
Caribou, 



21ij 
220 
l!t4 

317 

2:! 2 

97 

170 

411 

4ii 



802 
2118 
828 
841 
170 
24 

;!o4 

307 
43 
300 
212 
298 
317 

137 

272 

337 

198 

304 

24 

300 



Ped-sided .Meadow Mouse, 
lie<ldish I'ouched I£at, . 
Huindcer, American, 
Uieo Meiiilow-.Mou.se, 
Jtichardson's Mcadow-.Mouse, . 

— ■ Shrew, 

Uoeky-Mountain Flying-S.juirrel, 
tSoat, . , 

Siind Pivt, Leadbeater-.s, . 
Say's .Marmot-.Sijuirrel, 
S<alo|w, .Eiieu.i, 

• Argcniatus, 
I.atiiiianus, . 
ToWMsendii. . 

Seiurus Aberti, 

» • • • 

— Annulatua, . 

~ Clarkii, 

Aiduboiii, . , 

Colla'i, 

r.,s,.o,-, . . ^ 

— Fri'Mionti, . 

■ Puliginosus, 

Mustelinus, . . , 

Nigresccns, . , , _ 

Sea-Otter, . . . * ' 

Sewellol, 



Severn-River Flyin;; Squirrel, . 
Sharp-nosed ArviiM>la. 
Shrew, Anieri>,in .Mi.ish. . 

Cooper's, .... 
- l>- Kay's, . . . . 
Foi'ster'a, . , 



347 

Pii,. 

• 'Hi 

• 30tt 
. 309 
. 43 
. 807 
■ 2im 
. '202 
. 184 
. 234 

. 104 

. 15S 
. 87il 
. 108 
. Ill 

. lU 
. 297 
. 800 
. Ill 
. 214 
. 168 
. 834 
. 201) 
. 128 

. 807 

62 

. 821 

. 2.52 
823 
. 217 
. 2ti2 
. 343 
. 342 
. 2(10 
21 
2(1-1 
237 
240 
258 
74 
170 
99 
202 
211 
lliS 
311 
246 

aio 



348 



INDEX. 




Slirew, Fi'inge-footed, 

Loiig-iioaed, . 

Riclmrdson's, 

• ■ Short-tailed, 

Bhi'ew Moll', Blaek-clawed, 
— ■ Texan, 

^■^— — - Townsend's, 
Silvery, 

Silvery Slircw-Mole, 

Skunk, Californian, . 

Large-tailed, 

Sooty St^iiirrel, 

Sonora Field Mouse, 

Sorex DeKayi, 

Longirostria, . 

I'alustris, 

Forsteri, . 

Coojieri, 

Fiinbripes, 

I'ersonatus, . 

Uichardsonii, 

Brevicaudus, . 

Souslik, American, . 
Southern Pouched Rat, 
Spermophilus Harris. ', 

Lateralis, 

iJucrourus, 

— Slexicanus, 

Pcalei, 

Townsendii, 

Squirrel, California Grey, 

Collie's, . 

Col. Abu't's, 

Dusky, 



ai2 
2VJ 
33 1 

fii)0 

3-21 

323 

217 

2,'52 

2r>2 

27 G 

11 

250 

290 

240 

210 

108 

310 

811 

^312 
314 
334 
335 
220 
242 
207 
62 
181 
39 
05 

220 

204 
21 

202 
74 



Snuirrel, Kn-inont's, 

Large Louisiana Bl'iok, 

- vern-ltiver Flying, . 

"ooty, 

— 'yeasel-liko. 

Tawny Lemming, . 

Weasel, 

Texan Hare, . . , . 

Shrew-Mole, . 

Meadow-Mouse, 

Townsend's AT-* icola, 

Shrew-Molo, , 

Tuft-tailed Touched Uat, . 

L' rsus Americanus, . 

(var. Cinnamomum), 
Fcrox, . , , 



Virgiiiian Daor, 

Vuljies Fulvus (var. Argentatus), 

Lago|)us, . . , 

Ltah 

Weasel, Little Nimble, . 

Tawny, 

Wensel-like Scpiirrel, 
Woslern Arvicola, . 
Wolf, Ameiiean Grey, 
Woodhouse's Arvicolo, , , 
Whistler, . 

Yollow-b allied I'armot, . 
Ycllow-che-^kcd Meadow-Mousfi, 



237 

. 260 

. 202 

240 

258 

. 86 

. 234 

. 156 

. 323 

. 230 

. 209 

. 217 



187 
125 
141 

168 
70 
90 

256 

-184 
234 
258 
294 
219 

2sy 
17 



160 
07 





p»g« 



260 
202 
240 
258 
86 
234 
156 
323 
280 
209 
217 



187 

125 
Ul 



168 
70 
90 

256 



-184 
234 
258 

294 
2V9 

2SU 

17 



160 
C7