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Loraque ie document est trop grend pour Atre r epreid u lt en un soul cHeh*. 11 est film* i pertir de i'angle supMour geuche, de geuche k dreite, et de heut en bee. en prenent le nombre dHmegee n ^ c ees s ire. I.ss diegrammes auivents Mustrant la methode. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mtoocorv RBoumoN nst omit (ANSI and ISO ItST CHAUT No. 2) l.i Li ||2£ ■ 25 Hi ■ U ■ 2.2 lii ■■■ IK III 1^ 1 12.0 il.25 i 1.4 i i 1.6 ^ y^PUEn IM/C3E 1653 EiKl Man SlrMt (716) 482 - 0300 - Ptioi« (716) 288 - 5989 - fo. BULLETIN No 31/;^^ WHAT THE HORSE MUST BE Lv' — BY — Joseph Pasquet PROrESSOR OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SCHOOL OF AORICULTURE •AINTC-ANNt OE LA POCATIIHf, p. q. TRANSLATID FROM THE FRC| ■ V J. J. OAUTHEAU, B. COOD TYPE OF PERCHERON HORSE Published by ordkr of The Honorablk Joseph-Edouard Caron Minister of Agriculture Phovincf of Quebec Mst^it^M^'sttstist^it^sti^^ WHAT THE HORSE MUST BE In my first bulletin ( No 30) I have tried to show how. bv the pro- [)er use of heredity, one could produce a desired animal and how i)y use one could improve it. In the four following bulletins (31. i2, ii, 34) we shall see what the horse, the dairy cow, the sheep and the hog must be. We will first study the horse, which Buffon consid, ^s as the most noble conquest" of man. I think it important before studying the exterior of the horse to say that pretty and good shaM have an equal value in this lecture 1 he pretty horse is a good horse. The beauty of the horse or of one of its parts is, according to the correct expression of Messers. Goubaux and Barrier, that which indicates a perfect adaptation either of an organ or a region to its Junction, either of the whole individual to its use. The beauty of the work-horse is not like that of the race horse. I he beauty^of the former is, a conformation, which will make it strong: while the beauty of the latter is a conformation permitting it to make rapid headway. I insist on this, because I know that many farmers would like a work-horse having the conformation of the race-horse, which is impossible. The horse must be conformed in such a way that it can execute its aptitudes and attain the end for which it is destined. To facilitate this study, we wiH succesively take up the diffe- rent regions of the head, barrel (body), fore and hind-limbs. — 4 — THE HEAD The head is interesting to study and deserves an attentive exami nation for u can give us pretty good mformation ui^n tl^consru tion, character and enei .7 of the animal. ters it can be tolerated on a work-hors« but must be reieteH L, race-hor<;p A "fo«-*,." u j .i. . u'usi dc lejeted on a ..itenorse. A fatty head the volume of which is cau«#>H Kv «^ di"' ^ad""n'"v"r/ ^"'«^''' ^"^ '^'"■'•^' -'-'Tt ' m"i clean head well chiselled out, indicates aii enereetric animil -nT h wiin tn.a head , found or old horses, feeding poorly. Shape —The head must be well developped in its too-oart nth^r short than long. The straight profile is moTdesi Ible th^n 'h t^^ cave or dished out one given by a flatnosed head, and more desir'^ than the convex profiJe given by the arched head fig. 1.— straight head fig. 2.— flat-nosed Piratfof Sl^Svirri?"'""' "" ^'™sh. Prome facilitates res- of the horS ^ ' ""."'" """'- "" '-"^ of 'he general outline strairtttrofit' ^- ' f?'^' '■"'"P ^"^ «»*». correspond to a o'n;fXiLh^„ira:ihn^'^^^^^^ .n. generally correspond to a convex J^^f fttlj^d ^^ — 5 — While to a concave profile of the head correspond a concave A,U, direction, the head .: old make an angle of about 45 deerees li^ht '.nd"ea'"''' '"' ''"^^ " ^""^^ " ^-^ respiration^^ signt and easy movements. ** The "vertical or cowled" head is'not disgraceful, but reduces the pace, and prevents seeing distant obstacles; moreover it troublTs res p.rat.on and allows the horse to take the bits to his teeth ' The horizontal head (or carried in the wind), is not better as n prevents the horse from s.eing nearby objects; ti;e horse is general ly^hard m the mouth, because the bit rests against the firsf molar fig. 4.— straight head and nedt n«ik fig. 5.— Stag neck and horizontal head fia, /; k> neaa. fig. 6.— bow neck and vertical head. The head must also be well attached to the neck with :, cmnii We will now review the different parts of the head. — 6 — The fore-head must be wide and well developped. and l^«;Cf:H:T„:*r.^r 'rrrr^itr-^''^ « u« of a .wi.h,. . «», one «ntu.™,r .^cf a;::;ir'SX- J)t«vOs ■ «*. "«• ^— Lower part ot head Dents incisives : indior trrth r. , Palais : roof oT^Zi t?^ fll' \^'*- Levreinfirieure: lower lip. Ch^l^ '• ^'^^ . Ungue : tongue. ^ k^^'"" • '»?*• Commissure : chin groave nu f^^ ' «!?«""• T; . •, » -"^ Chan f rein : Bridge of nose J ne nostrils must be • wWp nTw>n<wi f-^ «^ -^ /• nrnk tJ^„Tm "'' ""■"" ^""""^ ''"'"S of nostrils) n,„sl £ Horses whose nostrils i-emain dilated after th«. Uoc* aroff^r^ '"^ " f°""« respiration; those breathin/ou^Tn an ot tetid odor, are to be rnktmcra^ ^\, «""«ig uui an serious nature. "^'-^'^^ted. These symptoms can be of a — 7 — In the mouth, until 8 years old. the teeth can mxt us orettv i.v,r» mf..rmat.on on the age of the horse, the lower incrrrbTingu.^ The central "milk or te„MK.rary incisors" appear the 8th day. The intermediate ones situated on e;.ch side of the central incisor, appear between the 30th and 40th day. or at about .,ne mol of r^:.* Between 6 and 10 months of ape the 'corner or last pair of tern o^^Tt r^rort ^'^^^ "^"^"'^"'"^^' •-" -' ^^^^^^^ The teeth then wear in the same order. The central incisors at 12 months. The 2nd pair of incisors at 15 months. The last or corner pair, at 20 months. The permenant teeth appear in the same order. y^Z^.i^T^^T^^'"' '''' '' ' ^'^'^ ^' ^^^' --''-^ their The 2ttd permenant pair af 3 years, reaching their height at 4. their^^^^ ff ""^ permenant incisors, appear at 4 years, reaching tte'Jh'.l^f L^„' r:j!. ^^- ^'' '-- '- ' ^"" --^' -^ th! The central pair of permenant incisors wear at 6 years of age. The next pair are worn at 7. And the corner pair are worn at 8. there'X'"be"^"lor:f'^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'^'^" ^^ ^-" ^ ^'^ --^- ^^at ur^J^t ^uu' "'■ fP''" '^^^^^" *^^ '"^'^"'•s and the molar teeth upon wh,ch bears the bit, should be clean, slighty, elevated and r^un ., J^ "^' ?°''^^ ^ ^^" "^^'"^. t^^^"^^"-- "-f ^Plit up too far so as to permit the proper placing of the bit. Th, ^*** ^^'ty under the lower jaw. should be clean, wide and neat The jaw-bone should also be clean and neat. One shouV ,usptt fn — 8 — flamed ganglions of that region, which is often ihe indications of glanders, a dangerous and contagious disease. Clean, neat cheeks are to he looke-' for. The eyes give us indicatior as tne character and health, etc yuick. k.nd and expressive eyes indicate a true, energetic horse Eves that are distant apart, of ec,ual volume (size), slighty, convex, having black pupils, clean eye-lids, movable and nicelv opened with nice pink interior membrane, with a few limpid tears,' are desirable. 6U \^ • •• /au*Cttt. fig- 8. — Horse's eye. Cils : eye-lash, Paupiere : eye-lid, Pupille : pupil. Blanc de roeil : white of eye. Iris-iris, An important thing is to" see that the pupil has' no spots or scars, and that it has the faculty of contracting and distending. The eve IS best examined when the horse is taken out of the stable; the pupil being dilated ,n the dim light, must contract as it receives more light Ihe cavity over the eye. when very pronounced, indicates old age. The ears should be small, dean, distant apart, movable and pointed forward, when the horse is at work. A large falling ear indicates a sluggish horse; ears that are leaned back indicate a cross- horse. — 9 — The neck must be well attached to the body that is well blended with the withers, shoulder and chest. It should be rather long e^ . fig. 9.— ear , of tlje horses. A-— Pig-ears, B. — lop-eared, C. — short ears, D.— mule-ears, E.— leaned ears, F. — rabbit ears, G. — confidant ears, H.— ears showing fear or nervous ears. • ■ pedally for the race-horse, as it facilitates movement, but it must be well muscled without being fat. The direction is perfect when the neck forms a right angle with the head and an angle of 45o with a horizontal. — 10 — THE BODY OR BARREL The withers must he high, long and clean, especially for a r; n«)rse. Its cleanliness is important. Bruised withers-are difficult cure a race to N*. la.— ronnded iMck. — 11 — fig. 13.— low-back. The back is use hold up or haul the load, and to transmit the impulsion of the hind-limbs to the fore-limbs. The back therefore, must l^e solid and elastic and a «*«;«!.* rally ^tiff, and a low-back generally very supple but weak. The loin which is the continuation of the back must be- well at- ached to the rump, well muscled, partucularily wide and si,^, 1 s an .mportant part of the top-line, a part whfch tires, fT whid, reason a good strong conformation of ,h,t region is Ixied foT A poorly attached loin is not much appreciated. The rump is never too long. Lenght is necessary for the race horse and ,s useful to the heavy draft horse. T1,e Ara^ 2>Tt fig. 14.— horizontal rump. % 15.— slopii^ ramp. — 12 — skilled horsemen say: "the rump which is equal to the distance bet- ween the withers and rump is a perfection". fig. : < nken rump. hg. 1/.— double rump. Width is necessary for the draft horse. Without being nar- row, it should not be too wide for the race horse. Too wide a rump would cause a rocking which is a drawback to forward movement, by using a part of the energy. Direction. A horizontal rump gives a rapid motion, but soon wearies; an oblique rump is contrary to rapidness, but gives much strenght; strenght, resistance and speed coincide weH in a sloping rump (giving an angle of 25 to 35o with a horizontal line). The sloping rump is well for the road-and heavy-harness-horse; an oblique rump is convenient for a heavy draft horse. The ruivp must be well muscled, and particuliarly for the draught horse. We, sometimes, find a double rump (deeply gutted), when the muscles are projecting up. The tail must be the continuation of the top-line, attached as high as possible and carried high. The tail is a real dynamometer. The resistance produced whep the rail is lifted, can give information as to the muscular strenght of the animal. The hips or hook bones should be protruding, being fairly angu- lar. Too much angularity is preferable to a lack of angularity. Very angular hips^re homely, disgraceful but indicate much strenght. Very smooth hips on the contrary, indicate a lack of vigor and exicrgy. — 13 ■- The flank corresponds to the loin, it should therefore be short. Skilled horseoien like a flank that is only an inch or so in lenght. The deep cut-up flank is undesirable. A good flank is well filled in and blends imperceptibly with the abdomen (belly). The abdomen must be proportioned to the rest of the body, and w.M contmue the outline of the chest. A "cow-belly" that is falling low. IS generally caused by too great a ration of poor roughage- a cup-up belly .s also an indication of poor feeding and is more dange- rous than the preceeding. . - The ribs limit the chest which contains the heart and lungs- in order to have plenty space for these organs to develop and work, the ribs must be long, convex or round, and have a good space between tnem. Flat low ribs, a poor heart-girth are a bad defect. THE FORE-LIMBS Th. u 'm , u """'f ^^^^y' ^ ^°"8^' ^^P*"^>y for a race horse. They should also be well muscled. A very sloping shoulder is looked for in a speed horse. A straight shoulder (upright) is favorable for a work horse; the collar will rest in a good position and by the way the muscles are disposed, permits great strenght. In trotting or working, horses, one should see if the shoulder has an easy movement. The arm which connects the shoulder with the fore-arm should be half the lenght of the shoulder; Were it lon- ger, the hmb would move close to the ground; were it shorter, the action would be too high. A strong arm permits speed, and a slo- ping arm gives strenght. The fore-arm shall be in a vertical position. Being the upper part of a pillar, must have a strenghty position. The fore-arm — 14 — shaJl be long and well muscled. A long fore-arm pcmitts a good extension (long reach). The knee is a complex and delicate articulation. Therefore we should look for a knee of strong conformation, free from blemishes; a good knee shaill be wide, thick, clean and neat and in a vertical po- sition, without deviation either forward or backward nor bowed in- ward or outward. f.m out turned toen todng in. fig. 19— Poor conformation. bowed-legs. fig. 18. — front view of fore^imbs (good conformation) ' The cannon from a side-view shows two different distinct p<trts: the cannon which comprises, the bone and the sinews composed of the tendons. The sinews shaJl be wiry, large and set back. Their compactness indicates energy. The ankle, like the knee, is an articulation which shall be thick and wide, clean, free from fleshiness, and sound. The pastern, to be strong must be wide and thkk, cJean and neat. The 4ength of pastern corresponds with its direction. The long- - IS - jointed pastern is equally high-jointed, and the low-jointed one is also short jointed. Obliquity and lenght of patern shouM be medium, that the weight may be equaJly supported by the bone and tendons. low-jointed. well-jointed, fig. 20.— Pasterns. high-jointed. The tendons or sinews of the low-jointed ankle, support most of the weight and are soon blemished: action is soft and elastic. The contrary is true for the high-jointed horse, where the bones do an the supporting and are exposed to blemishes, action being short and hard. It is estimated that the tendons and bones support an equal share of the weight, when the pastern forms with a horizontal, an angle of 55o to 60o. The hoof-head should be wide, clean and not too salient. The foot deserves particular attention; "no foot, no horse". This universal saying is well true. It is impossible to make a com- plete study of the foot in this brief lecture, but I will be satisfied with indicating the beauties of the foot. The foot must be: 1.— Of size proportioned to that of the body; too large a foot is heavy and awkward. Too smaU a foot is exposed to contracted heels and lameness. 2— Of. good conformation. From a front view, it must be wider at the bottom than at the top but the outside must be more sloping than the inside of the hoof. fig. 21.— face of' foot. fig. 22.— toot in profile. fig. 23.— bade of foot f«UA«t>idBCL fig. 24.— Bottom of the foot Sole : sole. Lactine latiralle : lateral lacuna, lalon : heel. Barrebar. Lacune mMiane : mediana lacuna. Fourchette : frog, bord.inf&ieure de la paroi : lower part of wait — 17 — The straight line of the toe should- make with the ground an ang € of about 50o. The heel-line must be almost parallel with the toe-hnc and be at least half its lenght. Fiom behind the heels must be wide and of uniform size. The sole must be concave and thick The f rc^ well devclopped and well cut out. Flat feet, the high or low- heeled feet, contracted heels narrow-heels are malformations which much decrease the value of horses. 3 —Well set. The feet that are toeing-in or out, are a poor sup- port for the horse's limbs. dry, 4.— The horn of the hoof will be rather black, not too soft nor HIND LIMBS The hind limbs must lie more perfect, more solid and more free fn.m blemish, than the fore ones. This is comprehensible. The hind limbs supi^ort the weight of the body as well as the fore -limbs and hue a surplus work, the impulsion of the whole mechanism. The thigh as well as the fore-arm, shall be long and well mus- cled. I'he desired direction of the thigh is one forming with a hori- zontal Ime, an. angle of 80o, for the race horses, a more oblique thigh being preferred for the work horse. The leg will be long and well muscled. A very important part of the horse still remains to be studied, because of the concentration of impulsion: r The hock, which is still a more complex articulation than, is the knee, must be more resistant and stronger. ' — 18 — M-n« ?!*k'T \"1,^,L"^."'*'" ^**'*^^ **^^« ^^« following conforma- tion of hock, shall be chosen : and width of the bwer part, mdicates firmness. Width of too and bottom mast be combined. Width at bottom is useless if abne. TS fig. 26.— bog spavin fig. 27.—. spavin. %. 28.-curby hock fig. 29.- curb. — 19 ^ top i.^rc^."**" **^'°" ^"^ " particularily apt to blemish, if the b) The hock must be wide. •h^ K^J^'"''* T .'^*"'* " •'"P^'"^*"* ^°'- the exterior appearence of U^e hock must furmsh a true analysis of the Interior. ArhcS^wS be covered by a clean skin showing the angularity of the ^rt d) The hock will be without blemishes which are always serious on this part and decrease the value of the horse. iocks\lIlTu '^ '""u'"' ""' '''^" ^'■""' '^' P^''"t "f the but- ^t he ill"'"'; ^y'"'' "^ '^' ^^'^' ^^""°"' P-^tern and foot. I f the hock IS placed mur . under the body, the limb tir-s and js exposed to blemishes. If it be placed away 'from the L the bj^ck .s hable to be concave and prevents extension forward . f the «••• ffl". fig. 31— poorly set-legs. fig- 30.— rear view of well set l^s. f) Good direction. II the hock is set as aforesaid, the horse will have complete comrol of his limbs and action will be straight and true. — 20 — K ta , N.. doubt I have indicated too briefly what the different parts of inc horse should be. liut a horse of the conformation indicated in this lecture, would be lui.lt either for speed, either for strenght. Shall it be strong ? Shall u be a fast speedy horse ? This will depend upon the texture of .ts tissues, and of Us energy, which is not necessarily nervousness One can ascertain the texture of tissues, by the fineness of skin, its suppleness, by the cleanliness and neatness of the angularities" ((.obert) • but one can still be easily mistaken. Work alone can as- certain the rcsistnnce and texture of tissus. As well as it will ascer- tain the energy of the animal. An hour of work, starting heavy loads, will give more advfce as to the energy, activity, and trueness to work than would the mi- nutest examination. , The oflfspring shall be what their parents have been Therefore select sires and dams that are not only sound and of a good con- formation ; but that are resistant, actif with(,ut being nervous, having proof as to their capacity for speed or strenght. N.-B»— Tke iliMiiatioM AlooligBjr. MoBiMrf, FiofiMI ai ' ~'