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(ANSI and ISO ItST CHAUT No. 2)
il.25 i 1.4
1653 EiKl Man SlrMt
(716) 482 - 0300 - Ptioi«
(716) 288 - 5989 - fo.
BULLETIN No 31/;^^
WHAT THE HORSE MUST BE
— BY —
PROrESSOR OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
SCHOOL OF AORICULTURE
•AINTC-ANNt OE LA POCATIIHf, p. q.
TRANSLATID FROM THE FRC|
J. J. OAUTHEAU, B.
COOD TYPE OF PERCHERON HORSE
Published by ordkr of
The Honorablk Joseph-Edouard Caron
Minister of Agriculture
Phovincf of Quebec
WHAT THE HORSE MUST BE
In my first bulletin ( No 30) I have tried to show how. bv the pro-
[)er use of heredity, one could produce a desired animal and how
i)y use one could improve it.
In the four following bulletins (31. i2, ii, 34) we shall see what
the horse, the dairy cow, the sheep and the hog must be.
We will first study the horse, which Buffon consid, ^s as the
most noble conquest" of man.
I think it important before studying the exterior of the horse
to say that pretty and good shaM have an equal value in this lecture
1 he pretty horse is a good horse.
The beauty of the horse or of one of its parts is, according to
the correct expression of Messers. Goubaux and Barrier, that which
indicates a perfect adaptation either of an organ or a region to its
Junction, either of the whole individual to its use.
The beauty of the work-horse is not like that of the race horse.
I he beauty^of the former is, a conformation, which will make it
strong: while the beauty of the latter is a conformation permitting
it to make rapid headway.
I insist on this, because I know that many farmers would like
a work-horse having the conformation of the race-horse, which is
The horse must be conformed in such a way that it can execute
its aptitudes and attain the end for which it is destined.
To facilitate this study, we wiH succesively take up the diffe-
rent regions of the head, barrel (body), fore and hind-limbs.
— 4 —
The head is interesting to study and deserves an attentive exami
nation for u can give us pretty good mformation ui^n tl^consru
tion, character and enei .7 of the animal.
ters it can be tolerated on a work-hors« but must be reieteH L,
race-hor<;p A "fo«-*,." u j .i. . u'usi dc lejeted on a
..itenorse. A fatty head the volume of which is cau«#>H Kv «^
di"' ^ad""n'"v"r/ ^"'«^''' ^"^ '^'"■'•^' -'-'Tt ' m"i
clean head well chiselled out, indicates aii enereetric animil -nT h
wiin tn.a head , found or old horses, feeding poorly.
Shape —The head must be well developped in its too-oart nth^r
short than long. The straight profile is moTdesi Ible th^n 'h t^^
cave or dished out one given by a flatnosed head, and more desir'^
than the convex profiJe given by the arched head
fig. 1.— straight head
fig. 2.— flat-nosed
Piratfof Sl^Svirri?"'""' "" ^'™sh. Prome facilitates res-
of the horS ^ ' ""."'" """'- "" '-"^ of 'he general outline
strairtttrofit' ^- ' f?'^' '■"'"P ^"^ «»*». correspond to a
.n. generally correspond to a convex J^^f fttlj^d ^^
— 5 —
While to a concave profile of the head correspond a concave
A,U, direction, the head .: old make an angle of about 45 deerees
li^ht '.nd"ea'"''' '"' ''"^^ " ^""^^ " ^-^ respiration^^
signt and easy movements. **
The "vertical or cowled" head is'not disgraceful, but reduces the
pace, and prevents seeing distant obstacles; moreover it troublTs res
p.rat.on and allows the horse to take the bits to his teeth '
The horizontal head (or carried in the wind), is not better as
n prevents the horse from s.eing nearby objects; ti;e horse is general
ly^hard m the mouth, because the bit rests against the firsf molar
fig. 4.— straight head and nedt
fig. 5.— Stag neck and horizontal head fia, /; k>
neaa. fig. 6.— bow neck and vertical head.
The head must also be well attached to the neck with :, cmnii
We will now review the different parts of the head.
— 6 —
The fore-head must be wide and well developped.
and l^«;Cf:H:T„:*r.^r 'rrrr^itr-^''^
« u« of a .wi.h,. . «», one «ntu.™,r .^cf a;::;ir'SX-
J)t«vOs ■ «*.
"«• ^— Lower part ot head
Dents incisives : indior trrth r.
, Palais : roof oT^Zi t?^ fll' \^'*-
Levreinfirieure: lower lip. Ch^l^ '• ^'^^
. Ungue : tongue. ^ k^^'"" • '»?*•
Commissure : chin groave nu f^^ ' «!?«""•
T; . •, » -"^ Chan f rein : Bridge of nose
J ne nostrils must be • wWp nTw>n<wi f-^ «^ -^ /•
nrnk tJ^„Tm "'' ""■"" ^""""^ ''"'"S of nostrils) n,„sl £
Horses whose nostrils i-emain dilated after th«. Uoc*
aroff^r^ '"^ " f°""« respiration; those breathin/ou^Tn
an ot tetid odor, are to be rnktmcra^ ^\, «""«ig uui an
serious nature. "^'-^'^^ted. These symptoms can be of a
— 7 —
In the mouth, until 8 years old. the teeth can mxt us orettv i.v,r»
mf..rmat.on on the age of the horse, the lower incrrrbTingu.^
The central "milk or te„MK.rary incisors" appear the 8th day.
The intermediate ones situated on e;.ch side of the central incisor,
appear between the 30th and 40th day. or at about .,ne mol of r^:.*
Between 6 and 10 months of ape the 'corner or last pair of tern
o^^Tt r^rort ^'^^^ "^"^"'^"'"^^' •-" -' ^^^^^^^
The teeth then wear in the same order.
The central incisors at 12 months.
The 2nd pair of incisors at 15 months.
The last or corner pair, at 20 months.
The permenant teeth appear in the same order.
y^Z^.i^T^^T^^'"' '''' '' ' ^'^'^ ^' ^^^' --''-^ their
The 2ttd permenant pair af 3 years, reaching their height at 4.
their^^^^ ff ""^ permenant incisors, appear at 4 years, reaching
tte'Jh'.l^f L^„' r:j!. ^^- ^'' '-- '- ' ^"" --^' -^ th!
The central pair of permenant incisors wear at 6 years of age.
The next pair are worn at 7.
And the corner pair are worn at 8.
there'X'"be"^"lor:f'^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'^'^" ^^ ^-" ^ ^'^ --^- ^^at
ur^J^t ^uu' "'■ fP''" '^^^^^" *^^ '"^'^"'•s and the molar teeth
upon wh,ch bears the bit, should be clean, slighty, elevated and r^un
., J^ "^' ?°''^^ ^ ^^" "^^'"^. t^^^"^^"-- "-f ^Plit up too far so
as to permit the proper placing of the bit.
Th, ^*** ^^'ty under the lower jaw. should be clean, wide and neat
The jaw-bone should also be clean and neat. One shouV ,usptt fn
— 8 —
flamed ganglions of that region, which is often ihe indications of
glanders, a dangerous and contagious disease.
Clean, neat cheeks are to he looke-' for.
The eyes give us indicatior as tne character and health, etc
yuick. k.nd and expressive eyes indicate a true, energetic horse Eves
that are distant apart, of ec,ual volume (size), slighty, convex, having
black pupils, clean eye-lids, movable and nicelv opened with nice pink
interior membrane, with a few limpid tears,' are desirable.
• •• /au*Cttt.
fig- 8. — Horse's eye.
Cils : eye-lash,
Paupiere : eye-lid,
Pupille : pupil.
Blanc de roeil : white of eye.
An important thing is to" see that the pupil has' no spots or scars,
and that it has the faculty of contracting and distending. The eve
IS best examined when the horse is taken out of the stable; the pupil
being dilated ,n the dim light, must contract as it receives more light
Ihe cavity over the eye. when very pronounced, indicates old age.
The ears should be small, dean, distant apart, movable and
pointed forward, when the horse is at work. A large falling ear
indicates a sluggish horse; ears that are leaned back indicate a cross-
— 9 —
The neck must be well attached to the body that is well blended
with the withers, shoulder and chest. It should be rather long e^
. fig. 9.— ear , of tlje horses.
B. — lop-eared,
C. — short ears,
E.— leaned ears,
F. — rabbit ears,
G. — confidant ears,
H.— ears showing fear or nervous ears.
pedally for the race-horse, as it facilitates movement, but it must be
well muscled without being fat.
The direction is perfect when the neck forms a right angle with
the head and an angle of 45o with a horizontal.
— 10 —
THE BODY OR BARREL
The withers must he high, long and clean, especially for a r;
n«)rse. Its cleanliness is important. Bruised withers-are difficult
N*. la.— ronnded iMck.
— 11 —
fig. 13.— low-back.
The back is use hold up or haul the load, and to transmit the
impulsion of the hind-limbs to the fore-limbs.
The back therefore, must l^e solid and elastic and a «*«;«!.*
rally ^tiff, and a low-back generally very supple but weak.
The loin which is the continuation of the back must be- well at-
ached to the rump, well muscled, partucularily wide and si,^, 1
s an .mportant part of the top-line, a part whfch tires, fT whid,
reason a good strong conformation of ,h,t region is Ixied foT
A poorly attached loin is not much appreciated.
The rump is never too long. Lenght is necessary for the race
horse and ,s useful to the heavy draft horse. T1,e Ara^ 2>Tt
fig. 14.— horizontal rump.
% 15.— slopii^ ramp.
— 12 —
skilled horsemen say: "the rump which is equal to the distance bet-
ween the withers and rump is a perfection".
fig. : < nken rump. hg. 1/.— double rump.
Width is necessary for the draft horse. Without being nar-
row, it should not be too wide for the race horse. Too wide a rump
would cause a rocking which is a drawback to forward movement, by
using a part of the energy.
Direction. A horizontal rump gives a rapid motion, but soon
wearies; an oblique rump is contrary to rapidness, but gives much
strenght; strenght, resistance and speed coincide weH in a sloping
rump (giving an angle of 25 to 35o with a horizontal line).
The sloping rump is well for the road-and heavy-harness-horse;
an oblique rump is convenient for a heavy draft horse.
The ruivp must be well muscled, and particuliarly for the draught
horse. We, sometimes, find a double rump (deeply gutted), when
the muscles are projecting up.
The tail must be the continuation of the top-line, attached as
high as possible and carried high. The tail is a real dynamometer.
The resistance produced whep the rail is lifted, can give information
as to the muscular strenght of the animal.
The hips or hook bones should be protruding, being fairly angu-
lar. Too much angularity is preferable to a lack of angularity.
Very angular hips^re homely, disgraceful but indicate much strenght.
Very smooth hips on the contrary, indicate a lack of vigor and
— 13 ■-
The flank corresponds to the loin, it should therefore be short.
Skilled horseoien like a flank that is only an inch or so in lenght.
The deep cut-up flank is undesirable. A good flank is well filled in
and blends imperceptibly with the abdomen (belly).
The abdomen must be proportioned to the rest of the body, and
w.M contmue the outline of the chest. A "cow-belly" that is falling
low. IS generally caused by too great a ration of poor roughage- a
cup-up belly .s also an indication of poor feeding and is more dange-
rous than the preceeding. . -
The ribs limit the chest which contains the heart and lungs- in
order to have plenty space for these organs to develop and work, the
ribs must be long, convex or round, and have a good space between
Flat low ribs, a poor heart-girth are a bad defect.
Th. u 'm , u """'f ^^^^y' ^ ^°"8^' ^^P*"^>y for a race horse.
They should also be well muscled. A very sloping shoulder is looked
for in a speed horse. A straight shoulder (upright) is favorable for a
work horse; the collar will rest in a good position and by the way
the muscles are disposed, permits great strenght.
In trotting or working, horses, one should see if the shoulder
has an easy movement. The arm which connects the shoulder with
the fore-arm should be half the lenght of the shoulder; Were it lon-
ger, the hmb would move close to the ground; were it shorter, the
action would be too high. A strong arm permits speed, and a slo-
ping arm gives strenght.
The fore-arm shall be in a vertical position. Being the upper
part of a pillar, must have a strenghty position. The fore-arm
— 14 —
shaJl be long and well muscled. A long fore-arm pcmitts a good
extension (long reach).
The knee is a complex and delicate articulation. Therefore we
should look for a knee of strong conformation, free from blemishes;
a good knee shaill be wide, thick, clean and neat and in a vertical po-
sition, without deviation either forward or backward nor bowed in-
ward or outward.
out turned toen todng in.
fig. 19— Poor conformation.
fig. 18. — front view
(good conformation) '
The cannon from a side-view shows two different distinct p<trts:
the cannon which comprises, the bone and the sinews composed of the
The sinews shaJl be wiry, large and set back. Their compactness
The ankle, like the knee, is an articulation which shall be thick
and wide, clean, free from fleshiness, and sound.
The pastern, to be strong must be wide and thkk, cJean and neat.
The 4ength of pastern corresponds with its direction. The long-
- IS -
jointed pastern is equally high-jointed, and the low-jointed one is
also short jointed.
Obliquity and lenght of patern shouM be medium, that the weight
may be equaJly supported by the bone and tendons.
fig. 20.— Pasterns.
The tendons or sinews of the low-jointed ankle, support most
of the weight and are soon blemished: action is soft and elastic.
The contrary is true for the high-jointed horse, where the bones
do an the supporting and are exposed to blemishes, action being short
It is estimated that the tendons and bones support an equal
share of the weight, when the pastern forms with a horizontal, an
angle of 55o to 60o.
The hoof-head should be wide, clean and not too salient.
The foot deserves particular attention; "no foot, no horse".
This universal saying is well true. It is impossible to make a com-
plete study of the foot in this brief lecture, but I will be satisfied
with indicating the beauties of the foot.
The foot must be:
1.— Of size proportioned to that of the body; too large a foot is
heavy and awkward. Too smaU a foot is exposed to contracted heels
2— Of. good conformation. From a front view, it must be
wider at the bottom than at the top but the outside must be more
sloping than the inside of the hoof.
fig. 21.— face of' foot.
fig. 22.— toot in profile.
fig. 23.— bade of foot
fig. 24.— Bottom of the foot
Sole : sole. Lactine latiralle : lateral lacuna,
lalon : heel. Barrebar.
Lacune mMiane : mediana lacuna. Fourchette : frog,
bord.inf&ieure de la paroi : lower part of wait
— 17 —
The straight line of the toe should- make with the ground an
ang € of about 50o. The heel-line must be almost parallel with the
toe-hnc and be at least half its lenght. Fiom behind the heels must
be wide and of uniform size. The sole must be concave and thick
The f rc^ well devclopped and well cut out. Flat feet, the high or low-
heeled feet, contracted heels narrow-heels are malformations which
much decrease the value of horses.
3 —Well set. The feet that are toeing-in or out, are a poor sup-
port for the horse's limbs.
4.— The horn of the hoof will be rather black, not too soft
The hind limbs must lie more perfect, more solid and more free
fn.m blemish, than the fore ones. This is comprehensible. The
hind limbs supi^ort the weight of the body as well as the fore -limbs
and hue a surplus work, the impulsion of the whole mechanism.
The thigh as well as the fore-arm, shall be long and well mus-
cled. I'he desired direction of the thigh is one forming with a hori-
zontal Ime, an. angle of 80o, for the race horses, a more oblique
thigh being preferred for the work horse. The leg will be long and
A very important part of the horse still remains to be studied,
because of the concentration of impulsion: r
The hock, which is still a more complex articulation than, is the
knee, must be more resistant and stronger. '
— 18 —
M-n« ?!*k'T \"1,^,L"^."'*'" ^**'*^^ **^^« ^^« following conforma-
tion of hock, shall be chosen :
and width of the bwer part, mdicates firmness. Width of too and
bottom mast be combined. Width at bottom is useless if abne.
fig. 26.— bog spavin fig. 27.—.
%. 28.-curby hock fig. 29.- curb.
— 19 ^
top i.^rc^."**" **^'°" ^"^ " particularily apt to blemish, if the
b) The hock must be wide.
•h^ K^J^'"''* T .'^*"'* " •'"P^'"^*"* ^°'- the exterior appearence of
U^e hock must furmsh a true analysis of the Interior. ArhcS^wS
be covered by a clean skin showing the angularity of the ^rt
d) The hock will be without blemishes which are always serious
on this part and decrease the value of the horse.
iocks\lIlTu '^ '""u'"' ""' '''^" ^'■""' '^' P^''"t "f the but-
^t he ill"'"'; ^y'"'' "^ '^' ^^'^' ^^""°"' P-^tern and
foot. I f the hock IS placed mur . under the body, the limb tir-s and
js exposed to blemishes. If it be placed away 'from the L the
bj^ck .s hable to be concave and prevents extension forward . f the
fig. 31— poorly set-legs.
fig- 30.— rear view of
well set l^s.
f) Good direction. II the hock is set as aforesaid, the horse
will have complete comrol of his limbs and action will be straight
— 20 —
N.. doubt I have indicated too briefly what the different parts of
inc horse should be.
liut a horse of the conformation indicated in this lecture, would
be lui.lt either for speed, either for strenght. Shall it be strong ?
Shall u be a fast speedy horse ? This will depend upon the texture
of .ts tissues, and of Us energy, which is not necessarily nervousness
One can ascertain the texture of tissues, by the fineness of skin, its
suppleness, by the cleanliness and neatness of the angularities"
((.obert) • but one can still be easily mistaken. Work alone can as-
certain the rcsistnnce and texture of tissus. As well as it will ascer-
tain the energy of the animal.
An hour of work, starting heavy loads, will give more advfce
as to the energy, activity, and trueness to work than would the mi-
nutest examination. ,
The oflfspring shall be what their parents have been Therefore
select sires and dams that are not only sound and of a good con-
formation ; but that are resistant, actif with(,ut being nervous, having
proof as to their capacity for speed or strenght.
N.-B»— Tke iliMiiatioM
AlooligBjr. MoBiMrf, FiofiMI ai ' ~'