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BULLETIN No. 24. 



1 

Hi 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



OF 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 



FARMERS' FOES AND THEIR REMEDIES. 



. ;l 



Hon. R. a. Tatlow, 

Minister of Agriculture, 

Victoria, B. C: 

Depabtment of Aobicultube, 

^ Victoria, 15th January, 1908. 
Sib.— In fulflllnient of a long-standing promise. I have the honour nf 

aueane, of «ock-ral»»r and farmer. «lm tbelr renjwIlM. The Informatl™ 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

J. R. AXDERSOX, 

Deputy Minister of Agriculture. 



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FARMERS' FOES AND THEIR REMEDIES. 



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CHAPTER I— INTRODUCTION. 



,.;:::=.n;r,-_;srrs.-r.v;r ,r,r."-r 






the mihj««rt nn.l.T ml.«\v. kIvIiir cmllt In all ciiwh to the autliorltjes .|.iot<-.! 
I have to exjiretw my thanlcH to Dr. Janu-K Fletcher. Dominion KntomoloKJsi 
and the Her. (}eo. W. Taylor, of Wellington, for at.HlRtance reudentl hi revlslim 
my work: also to Dr. S. V. Tolmie on " S* ,<k I'eMtH." and Mr. E. F. U.)blnHon 
<.n " B»H> PeHtH." XevertheleHH. I am .|nlte aware that in a pnbllcntlon of tliW 
«leserlption mlKtakeH will «KHnr In spite of the m«mt »areful revlnlon. and fur 
all riucli I ask the ln(hilKen<e of the public. 

Kellow. In hlH lutnxluetiou to "American In«ectR." «.<vr: 
" ThnniKhoiit this book reference is constantly made 1., the injuries don., 
by insects to our forest-tnH-s. flowers, fruits. veRctables and grains. The 
millions of dollars lost annually l)ecauw> of the sap-sucking of the San Jose 
scale, the graiM-phylloxera. the chinch-bug. and the Hessian fly. and the biting 
and chewing of beetles and cateri)lllnr8. grubs and borers, are a sort of dlrwt 
tax paid by farmers and fruit-growers for the i)rlvilege of farming and grow- 
ing fruit. If this tax were levied by Government and collated by agents with 
two feet. Instead of being levied by Nature and colle<ted by six-footed agentx 
what a swift revolt there would be : But we have, most of us. a curious 
Inertia that leads us to suffer with some protesting complaint but little 
protesting action the ' ways of Providence.' even when we fairly well recognise 
that Providence is chiefly ourselves. 

"When we reflect on tiie four hundred millions of dollars a year lost to 
our pockets* by Insect ravages, we may incline to believe that the only kind 
of Insect study which should claim our attention is the study of how to rid our 
lands of these pests. We may be excused for affirming of bugs, as was sal.l 
of Indians by some eplgramnuitlst. that the only gootl ones are the dead or.es 
When, however, we learn, as we are learning in tliese present davs. that 
Insects are not simply serious enemies of our crops and purses, but are truly 
dangerous to our very liealth and life, we must become still more extravagnn't 
In our condemnatory expreho.oiis concerning them. 

" We have long looked on mosquitoes, house-flies and fleas as annoyances 
and even tormentors, but that each of these pests actually acts as an inter- 
meiliate host for. and Is an active disseminator of. one or more wide-spread 
and fatal diseases Is knowledge that has been got only recentlv. Mosqultoc-s 
help to propagate, and are, almost certainly, the exclusive di-ssemlnatlng agents 
of malaria, yellow fever, and the various forms of fllariasls; house-flies aid 
in spreading tyi)hold fever and other disea-ses; fleas are agents In dlstrlbutln- 
the germs of bubonic plague. Other Insects are known to spread other 
diseases. Howard says: ' While in malaria and tjphoid we have two principal 
diseases conmion to the United States which may be conveyed by Insects tli.- 
agency of these little creatures In tlie transfer of the disease-germs Is by no 
means confined to human beings. In Egj^t and in the Fiji Islands there is 
a destructive eye-disease of human beings, the germs of which are carried l.v 
the common house-fly. In our Southern States an eye-disease known as pink- 
eye is carried by c-ertain very minute flies of the genus Hipj^lates. The so- 
called Texas fever of cattle is unquestionably transferred by the conunoi. 
cattle-tick, and this was the earliest of the clearly demonstrated cases of the 
transfer o f disease ty insects. In Africa a similar disease of cattle is tran- 
*In the United States.— J.B.A. 



of the lendc^Tin the n.?r r r'"'""''"'' cnim<.ltyof the n,oH,u.t« „nd one 

the .o... no^H^^';:.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ;- ;'Tf -«""•'"« -t n>a...r,„ ,„ 

«'niz reimrts thnf ', *^V""""""J to 300. J,y eflre<tlve war on nioHqnltiK's Dr 

1.200 men eH,xKl«lIy e,„niov.tl in , .' f ^ '^^""^'^^^ **>« oiK^rations of 
their breecllnaW-eTradl^^^^^ "'' '""'^^ '^^ the nu,s,„,to In 

of yellow fever developed n he n '' "'"'• "' "^ '■"^"'*' «'"^' "'"«^ ^««e« 

'1004). „« against 275 caHCH '" '"'''«""""^'- '"«"*'•« "^ J«n"«ry and February 

1.S50 to 189«Sl.GW deat, rJ^urred r«ri''" '" '•"'• '" '''' P^'^' ^--"n' 
times as nmny n.zZZtZ^TnVl^ ''"""'■° ''^™ ''^'^ ^'''''''' «"'» «* 
-hkh ,s now closed T^e be efifrof ^e" '"■■''' '"^ '" "" '^'''""«» •^««^^t«'- 
Janeiro have been as /ren. n^ .^ ^ "'"'' ""^"'^ «» "'« mosquito at Rio 

work Of the An"r,can authorltlef dL?"'"' "' ""^■""«' ^'^^^^ ^^'^ ^•^-o- 
-any stamped out ALw Jever ,„ r^itv?"* """"'**'"" "' ''^^ '«'""^« ^^-t«- 
I.ia.„.eentre.-W„L. C"«^: C^CT/r'^ireT ""'''' ^^'^^ "^ " 

re.ur,r::runrvr- frrv^^^r- ^^ "«^"« - — - 

"ntll It is harvested. F Z "tTlZ'; '' """^ '"' *'"' ^''^ «^^^ '« «>-" 
most injurious pests makrit 1 1^ « T. T^'f '"^ '"'''' '''' <^ommonest and 
an account of ime of the more i'? %*'' l^'T '" '""'''^ ^^'•'" ^«'' '"eference. 
approved remedies, and Jhen^-t^r. ."' '''''' *"^^*''"- ^'"^ *•>« l«t-«t 

It must be acknowredid hv !n K "* °''*'*^''' ''^ "PP'^^"^ t^em. 
attacks of insects are evfS vear eno?''""' ''""•'' ^'^'^^ ^'^^ ^«««^« ^"« *« the 
known that there a^ pracl^T-thr ;T'.r^ I' ^'""'^ '« '"«'•« ^'^'^'^ 
remedies for most of thc^ kLs wl Uh Z u"' "''''''' "°^ ^"^"^ «PP»^d- 
on all crops. For the XcuJe uL 1? "^ .^ ''""'' '"'^ ^"^»» « b««^y tax 
certain amount of knowl^^e Is to t, T^'**'"' "«"'"«* '"^"^1«"« J»««^ts. a 
very useful, so that thrift anDror'f . "' ""^ '*''"^*"« «' *^« ^«tter Is 
this at the time when^t "uTrre'ff'tTe.^' ""^' '' """'' "^ «'' «-» 



"^tm 



6 

I.IVI'a* OF IXHKtTN. 

Th.. llv,^ of |„«HtH «n. .lIvhliNl int.. four «HI ,„nrk..l .t..K.m. Tl.m. nr..- 

„ 111 ♦."'"'■ ' '"" '""" *'"'•*•■ " •"•"'• •"• ""'»f'f"n. .Inrlnu whirl,. «. 

n rnl. thoy ar. ...ont lnJurlo„H: (3, th. „„„.. or .hryHHliH. |„ whl.h. -x ,, 

" " '•;"• ""'•"•'•• »'->• •»" ""t ^-*>. I nr... «H „ ruh. without tl ' wi' 

-•omotlou: a„.I .4, the .K-rf.-t lumvt. Although n.oHt h.MvtH „,v „J ,r o 

fr r;. * /"'7'""' '•*'••""»■'• l"'IM.rt,,»t t., I«,ru tliHr n„,K.«rauo. and hal.it. 
fron. the tlua- th. .k«h an- laid until th. whol. ,|f. hintmy 1h .-onipl.t . 
that no opiK.rtunlty of d.Htroy|„B th.n. uiav Im- l.u^t 

/»////..^ «m/ N«rA/«,, /,Mr,./.._Al| Um-i-tn nn.y N- aivld.Hl Into two larir.. 
«««..„, th. natur. of th.lr n.outh partn. ,„ th. flr.t or lar«.r d Iv 2 

. whl... t H.y ..onnun.. th. .uhstan.v of their f.n.l. an In the .««« of "a 
pillarH beetles. KraHHh..p,H.rH. .t.. In th. H,H..»nd clanH. Sucking "rH*.^.ts l.v 
mve. lnHt..ad of n.andll.leH. a In-ak or tuhe by u.eanH of whUh t rH. i-k „ 
heir U^l In a liquid forn. fron. .K>„eath the Hurfa.v. as In th. ,s. .f ZtZ 
I.HKH, plant-Ikr. mil. ins.Mt«. n.oH,p,it<H^ .t. ^ ' 



CHAPTER II.— REMEDIES. 



Xature of Attack. 

at o,ri;; IZTf " n """"T '" '" '"^"''"« " '■'''^ «» exandnatlou should 
pro^rrem«rv ' Vl'^'^^ "" ""^'"-^ »' *"^ '»J-"-.v. so «« to dcn-lde upon th. 
proper remetlj. It Is plain that with Biting Insects, whi.h bite off i,..d 
Kwallow parts of the plant attacked, all that Is necessary Is to .a e u^n 
food plant son., poisonous substance which will not Injure the pU. t bu Th I 
beinB eaten by the Insec-ts attacking It. will kill them with Su 'k ng »- 
however, this treatment would be useless, for thev would nusheirh. 
through «^ poisonous covering on the outside oJ^he S 1 t.ltw I H 

S^m^rfcoL^^^^ '"'"'""^•^ '""«* "« '"^ «"'«^^'» will kill 

oy mere contact with their b(xlles. or by suffocating th« n 

For neaffy all the kinds of injurious Insects which attack our staple croiw 
we have now good practical remedies; and all that is nec^ssarv L the ' >'" • 

?^ . tbe DiMslon of Entomology, at the Central ExiH^rimeuta 1 Farm 
Ottawa, stating nlalnly what the trouble Is, and. whenever possible .end ' 
«pec.lmen8 for examination. In most cases, useful advice can be Zt ba k t 



ILV- !«,, ,ll.„>,.,„| '""' """■"' ""•■ »■"' "l«"l.v l.™n.«i m„„||™ 

'■"'"""«" farnuTM with tho bl L„ , *** """ '"'"" "'"«'" «• «"l'Plv 

-'^-'« ..r „,„„,,„, ..H-n^ H^'::Lrr uj';: ^'^; '"^""^ '-hop,......,:.' „•. 

that n «r..at «.,.„,- ox,H.rl,ne.,tH I'. iZ . ' ""''''" "' ""'^■""^"'K th..,„. 

IMvlHlon of KntonioIoK,. '" ""'* ^'*'» "••'""".^- tH»^l L.v ofH,..,.s of the 

Appahatis. 

-♦• <;.:^ 0?^:: :;:r;:;::::.nf.;::;jr i^t - "- — - - »..,. ,. 

<'ther H„hHt..n.. „h „ <lllue„t oi"" unt , 'Zr^' '" '"'•" """» "'"' -"-> 
'"«terh,l. For dry 'U-pJIentlonH Lui^hl^.i . I "''" "'"* **^ «-o.mn.lHe the 

.-'"t in that the ...Uer JL be ^r "' b^^Vrv '" 7f •'"' ''"^" ""'-«-t 
<>'vl8i<,n. HO „„ ,o .„,x thorouKhlv tlTth * . " ""^ ^" ^ '^'''^ ^''^ «tat^ of 
<liHtrlb.,tlo„. There are Xral l.ml ! '»««t'H.le and thus l„s„re eve, 
«"oh as MlowH. ,„„«.t ^r Zln^'hn "™"' '"' ^'^^'''hutlnK dry Insec-UHdl^ 
-utioned ,„ ehe .atahS ^^^if'^T''"' ""' '''''"'' "'" '^ ^-"• 
for dlstrlb„tl„K dry iK.lsons l.s to placrthe L^^'T"- ^ <«nvenlent n.etho<l 
""'«lin. then tie this to the end „f a „hlV h^' '" " "'""" ""'^ «' ^ery fl.n. 
'- b„« IH ta,,,ed lluhtly with another t^^ h n T *'"* " ^^^'"'^ ^••«" • l^ 
»"r can walk ere-t an.l do na.! Mter Irk h "/"' "''^''" '"'"^' «'« "I>«"-a- 
<•-.. with an ac-hln« back. Dry m^Iures l'?/''" '*"'''^'"^ ""'"^ "^-^ '•'« 
;""^ if possible. When the Plants are wnith, ^ "^^P"*^ '« «tin weather 
-"•ever, that during the spring Intlslpir '\ *' '"""'^ ^*' ♦'•^I'^'rlemv. 
-e are often jM-rlods of Lve^a "C .^en th!*^'"'''" """^ '"^* "'-'-I- 
therefore bec-omes nec^ssarv to apn - the no, '••♦"»>•"«"« clo not .xvur. 

tlie material n.ay be evenly dlstrlh!. / ' "" '" *'""'^ "^^er wav. so that 
••'"7 away by the wind ' TrmTlZ'' "" ^"^ *" "^ P-tectedV am, " 
"I'PlyIng with a spraying pun" LtVnZZnTT' ""' "'^**'^ «»^1 t*^" 
I have no doubt that t w ll L. t-onvenlent plan. 

-en ma ..„„„ «arde„"\:V: to r-^ZsTof"'" '"" ^^ "'''' ^--*'^'^- 

-"- - -- -.. .. ----- x;:— ;r:iri 







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■■■Mi 



time and innterlnlH than would pay for the best special Impleuieuts, In addition 
to which, when the work Is done, 1.^ is neither satisfactory nor effective 
There are a great many kinds of Implements for distributing both dry an<i 
ll(|ui<I insecticides, many of which are advertised in the agricultural and horti- 
cultural paix>r8. 

/.„„./M.-Before deciding on what kind to use, it is advisable for one 
who has not uscmI these Implements to consult his neighbours wiio have doiu- 
so. then write for catalogues to the best known makers; and wh I ij,„^. 
make it a general princii.le alwr.ys to procure the most suitable and the lu-st 
ot its kind. The difference i.. the Initial cost between a poor, cheap Implement 
nnd a tlioroughly good one is small, compared with the subsequent loss and 
inconvenience from using a cheap pump or a poor nozzle. Spravlng pumiis 
nre made in four sizes: (1) hand pumps, suitable for small gardens, whid, 
can be procured at prices ranging from $2 to |5; (2) larger pumj)s mounted 
on wheels or suitable for loading on a stone-boat, and consisting of an 
ordinary 4()-gallon barrel, with a strong force pump to be worketl l>y hand 
which will cost about $20, and will be all that Is required in an orchard of 
from fifty to a hundred trees, or in a large garden; (3) knapsack sprayers 
which are useful machines, consisting of a tank of about four gallons' capacity' 
to be carried on the back, nnd useful when treating outbreaks of cut-worniV 
turnip aphis, etc., in field practice; (4) l)ower machines; these are .,f 
various kinds, and are for use In large plantations, or for spraying street trees 
where great power is required to elevate the spray. These are worked In- 
steam, by being geared to the wheels of the vehicle on which the tank is 
drawn, or by the escape of carbolic acid gas. The cost of "these will vary 
very much according to the make and size of the machines. 

Spraying nozzles.— Ot eiiual Importance with a proper force pump in 
uistributing liquid poisonous applications Is a suitable nozzle, bv means of 
which the liquid can be distributed evenly. The late Professor 'itlley who 
did much in the development of spraying machines, said : " The desiderata in 
a spraying nozzle are: the ready regulation of the volume to be thrown tli.' 
greatest atomising power with the least tendency f. clog, facility of cleansin- 
or separation of its component parts, cheapness, simplicity and adjustabilifv 
to any angle." 

Almost every maker of spraying nozzles has some siwial make whicli he 
recommends; hue many kinds now in the market have not the qualities 
nec-essary for spraying crops for injurious Insects in the best way. All tln.t 
can be said here is that some of these nozzles are far better thtu others. an<l 
that great care is necessary In choosing one which will come up to Dr Uileys 
requirements, as mentioned above. The experience of others Is a valual.l." 
guide m this work; and, both at the Dominion Experimental Farms and -At 
the similar Provincial institutions, spraying work Is carried on every vear 
which can be witnessed by all who wish to do so, and advice will be fmh 
given by the ofllcers in charge. 

The operation of "spraying" consists of applying liquids by means of a 
force pump and spraying nozzle with such force as to break up the liquid s,. 
thoroughly that It falls upon the plants treated as an actual mist or sprav. 
Such terms as sprinkling or showering are inaccurate for the operation h.n- 



iutemletl. Tnfortunntoly. nui,h of the so-callfHl spiayiiiK. ns usually tarried 
out. could more acenrately b<. designated by these terms, which describe a unuh 
less careful and less even distribution of llqulils. 

Remkdies. 

Kemwlles are either Preventive or Active and must be applied in acconl- 
nnoe with the circumstances of the case and the habits of the attackluR lns(>cts 
Prcrcnttrr rcwcriU-x are either aKricnltural or deterrent. The former of these 
••onsist chiefly of such methods as special rotation of crops, liigh culture so as 
to stimulate a healthy growth of the crop and keep the land free of weeds and 
rubbish; early and late SHMllng. so as to present a crop to its lnse<t enemies 
when they appear, in such condition that they cannot injure It. and rotation 
of crops, by wliich Insects attracted to a locality by a crop will not have in 
that place the same crop to feed upon the following year. Deterrent preventive 
renmlies consist of tlie application of mechanical contrivanc. .s. such as bands 
of pai)or or tin placed round plants to prevent cutworms getting at them or 
the destroying or nmshing f the natural odours of some plants by scattering 
amongst tliem substances possessed of a stronger or a disagreeable odour like 
gas lime, carbolic acid. etc. Actirv rcmeilicH include such methods as hand- 
l.lcklng and the application of various poisonous substances to the plants to 
be protected. 

.t,-.vP,M7r,«.— The best known of these are Paris green. Arsenate of lead 
the Arsenate of lime with sotla. which has lately come into very much more 
general use, and Green Arsenoid. 

In all of these iiolsons. arsenic is the essential ingredient, and other chem- 
icals are mixed with the arsenic for the purpose of preventing it from injuring 
vegetation. There are many spraying compounds which ontaln arsenic, some 
of which are sold ready-made, and many others are maue at home bv combin- 
ing the necessary ingredients. 

Pari!, 0»wn.-Undoubteflly tiie best known, and in many respects the 
safest poison to use. is Paris green. It has passed through many years of 
trial, is well known, has a distinctive colour, and is a definite chemical com- 
pound containing 58.65 per cent, of arsenious oxide. 31.29 per cent of copper 
oxide, and lO.W per cent, of acetic acid. It is, therefore, an aceto-arsenito 
of copper. It is soluble In ammonia. Paris green. If demanded, is 
obtained pure in all parts of Canada; but, as there is sometimes' an 
adulterated article found in the market, it is wisest always to add an equal 
amount, with the Paris green, of freshly slaked lime, whea the free arsenic 
will combine with the lime, and it can then be used safely at the rate of one 
IKunul of Paris green in IfiO gallons of water on all vegetation, and, for a dry 
application, one pound Paris green in 50 pounds flour, land-plaster, slaked 
lime, or some other perfectly dry powder. 

As a general principle, lime should always be used with Paris green 
whenever it is applleil in a liquid insecticide. Paris green Is very heavv and 
the particles quickly sink to the bottom of any liquid with which it Is mixed 



51' 



*' 
'i' 



< ,:-■■«••■, 



I 

"-r 



10 

This makes constant stlrrlne nerpssnrv n..... 

water, and Is merely n.lx« Jri . . ^ '^''^" ''"*"" ""* '"««"'ve in 
vegetation in the^"rv"„mn 'i .n^? ./" '"'"""'" '^^ •^^'^ '""^rlbutlon on 
The Uner the pols^fs T u e t^^^^^^^^^^ *" ''-*->• ^"-ts. 

Jt. beeause the minute orvs « « . "^"^""^ "" *''« ^"•''«'t« "'•I*'' ^'U 

largely due to the freoiaent lllf 7, ^, "'* •^"tworms and other „ests s 

«o.e . the -.odsr::;^^::^^;::^.^ - -- - ...... 

AH of T::2:s:'::^x:Tt;rzr''' ^^^"""^ « '•^«"*'^"' ^>- '''i"'"- 

wuloh has 1H.„ added as n an.ltant WhZr'*V'\'""' ^^"^^ '"««-• 
rejection of the article It must h7h«; ^V . "'^"'■''•'' '""'* ^'•""•"l^ f'"' 
n«n.ber of other subs anl "mMn '"'^"" ^'I "»'»'^ ^l^^* "hlte arsenic and a 
-nble m ammonia, h"r t^e^Lf ll tf f Sr^e '"'"^ ^^^^ "^ -" 

Of ..tThoi2?ititC'ai: rr " 7r '^"'""^'^- -^'^^^^ -- "i- « -^np 

leave a bright J ee„ streak o,?tf "f " ,?"'" " '" ''"'*'• " " '^ !>"»•« it wl I 
pale m colour w^ , 7, " «.^' dal-ker ThV,, '''''''T'^'' '^^^ streak would he 
articles as arsenic gnnmn 11 7 f. "*-'"' '^"^ *^ "»^ l'''*'«^'«-« of «"<l, 

l"tensegreenhidesfnri\v" IsTcriH 7 '""'"" """^""^^^ -'^^^•'' "u- 
pound «.lcrosco,>e. whlc vm sCthe pIh "•""'"'""*'"° '« »"«'« «lth a con.- 
spheres. In cale of adul eratir tl Jl" ^T" *" '""•''*^* ""^"■^>^^' «'' ^"•«'" 
uiore or less white of crvstnn ?"', f " '^'''''•^" «'"« ""^^^» «lth nu.ttcr 
article and should be ZtZV^uZ^ ''T'^'''^'' ''''''''' ^« "^ I"- 
tendency to dampness or cakMug "'""'*' "" ^'""^'^^^ ^'^"^^"g "".v 

workTtrMlf^s^^fsCvC^^^^ r ""'^"^ "^"- -^'"^ ^■- 

has been placed on the .^rkr^ « vl v ?" *' ^'■'"""*" '^^ ^^^d. which 

Bowker-s Dlsparene nlasXlAlZlT'r?' '""" ""'^^^' "'« "«»- "^• 
Arsenate of Lead are th-TtZ ^'•'^""**' ^^ ^ead. The chief advantages of 

danger of injur;! a, ^ he X wltTp-I^i '" "" ''"'^ ^' ^«"««« ^^•'*' >- 
fine state of division It lasts lonlr T 1 ^'^"^ *"**' «" "^-^o""* of its 
off so easily. The It 1 tt- f^^ ''"k^' '^""^^' '^"''«"«« " ^oes not wash 

because. althouglfcC: pol^f/^ V^J^d iT! ""' '" ^'^'^^ ^^ ^"^'« «-"• 
the amount of it to get the smne ZS \ necessary to use three tin.es 

home. Formula, torltsTrZrntZ t'""""'" "' ^"«*^ °'«-^- "e made at 

Division of Entomo og Bi lletin No 4^'fT:r '"* '" "^^ ^'"'^^^ «^'»^'- 

for making the Ar^^^.^^ ' ash Ut ^r^'^^"'^""- "^ -'-' 

Arsenate of soda 

Acetate of lead ^^ ounces. 

Water .... 24 

l^'O to 200 gallons. 



11 

The arsenate of 8oda and acetate of lead sl.ould l,e dissolved «e,»arPtelv 
and then ,K>ured Into „ tank «>„tai„inK the required an.ount of «^ teT Tl I^ 

Arsenate of soda. 50 i»er t-ent. strength 4 onnees 

Aeetate of lead ^ onnces. 

Water ^^ 

T>,.<. *, '50 gallons, 

hasten the r^iV iw p1" '" ''"'''■ '''""" "•«*'^'- ^" «»« l'«i'« will 
iK^r nomui t^„ , , . ^ Fifty-pound kegs are supplied at cents 

.'uc ri ilclZtZllTT °' T'" "" '™""' -'•"" ""'^ 

WHO VV^ ^^ ^*^'^" S«<^ satisfaction, are those made hv 

...ents carried on at Washington that what's reLuire^ f"^" ".^ '" '^^'*- 
exceed 25 or 30 per cent of the weisht nf *i.^ "oning. so that it does not 









I* 

' * 

M 



m 






««fl 



-J L 



12 

«>«I. can I. macleTfonows:! ' "'' ''"" "^'•^'' """"«' '"*«• A goc, 

f'onmitratetl potash Jve ,,/ ^ 

Water 3ii. lbs. 

FlHh-oil .".' ''-' Ka""»s- 

«-m a,i„vi.r." ■ " "'™ ""°" '"> '■°»l- Any grade of ml,.,.,, 

...nun. ^„, «.:::^rhiTr^' r^rxt/r-r "- ™"'""- 

which prevents water from I vine imnn fiT '''''^''^'^ ""'^^ » ««xy seeretlo,. 
for this purpose, and It Tav he rT li ^"^ '^'"'^ ^^ «""P ^^"^ «"««ei- 

about enual'to one ^umT t7ZT *'"' "" '""" ^' ^^" ^««^ ^^ 

r^^rnsfrrzs:if- £r^^ -eS.^rs-:: 

«oap. or one pound o hard soan Inn^TV '^"'""^ "'^ °"« '^"«« «^ ««« 
a Pint of cride oarbi add Ro.f f "f ''"'''■ ''''^^^ ^«'"»^- ^^^^ half 
The n.ixture is thrrtdr/o be sJorJ^' ' T °''""*'' ""** ^"'- thoroughly, 
take one part of n.s "Sture hv m^^fsurlTo flJ/"*7' ""• '^'^^^ ^«''"'-''- 
spray directly upon the growIL n.„^L "^' ''^ ''■"*^''' ""'^ ^P'-'^kle or 

above ground ^ "^ ^"'"*' «""« * ^^^'^ f™» the time they appear 

orudeCraflt^^n^rdtth^Tt '"^^^ '« ^•™''^>- ^ P'"* o^' 

diluent. It is used dry iy s "1^1^ ^^^^7"'' "f ^""^ ""'''''' «^ ^^^ ««'-• 
-a to be very e.clen^ ^^C'^^^£r::J:::2j^^r ^' 

<^^^"^ZZ:r!T:Zt^^^^^^ «^ ^^^ -at valu'e of Bor- 

equally important one t , ,TI„h ^. ' ^^'^'''^ ^'"^ ^'^^ f«»«^ved by tho 
a Joint mixture destrueti Vat tTe^''^^^^^^^ ™"'*' '^ "^"^^ -"'^ " "»'* ^o"" 
pests. All of the aCical noisn^^^^ T °' '""«°"^ ^^««"«^« '•'^^^ l°««t 

mixture, and this praX^^lrrgLTal on^ ^n ifllV^ ""^ ^^^^^'^""^ 
crops against fungous diseases nn,i o* *. ^ necessary to proteit 

A useful formulaT makZ the p *. ''''TT''''' *" destroy Insect enemies, 
leaf-eating Insects Tghen farther on. '""" '''"^'"'•^ '""^ ^"°«^ «- 



13 

ixsEcrrciDEs. 

No. l.-Li,ne and S„IpJ,„r Wash.~For winter use 

expedient to give a full res le ofT "' " '""^"^^"^"- ^'"'^ " '« dee„.e.l 

t..re in the varlo«« Statesa "d In r T "^'^ *'" '""""'"- '•'•' "« '""""f"- 
I take the following;!!. •" '"""''"• "'•"•" ^'^^ ^' «• ^-"r Book. m.J. 

rear;Thl^rotrtarnrcrs„n"^ r-^^' '- •>- ^- »-.v 

-Comst.) m orchards 1 Ca if^rn , „, ^ , '"''^^ ( ^«/^''"o/«« pernlciosu. 

-Ithin the last m-e or sK vear^'f Ls V J '^ "" "" ^"^*«^ «'"^-- -»> 

...eftt for thlH insect In he Eas Ori.L«rT r^"'""'^' "'^ ''*"»'^«"1 ^''''''^ 
of 8cab on sheep. It w,L first uU if ''^^eloped as a dip for the control 

to Qu„,le. ,n IsS. l;:^?^.^^^ ^^Pretrctl ThT "?' "^^^^^"« 
a sheep dip prepared by Mr. A. T. Covell Thrta^h; /''''" ™'"*^ '^■'"' 
with modifications came nulckiv into f .v r^ ^ ''^'^ '"''' ^«^'^"*- ""'' 

either dry or in the fori of tashl« h .'"*• ^'"'^-«"'P"»'- Preparations, 
orchardlsts in the cont^oTof JX a;d Zg ";^ AT '"^" '^ '^^ "^^ ^-^ 
comparable to the boiled llme-sulnhLM .' ^"'^ Preparations are not 

of the latter as a scaliideTas !„ Z "i" '' "" '"''^''"^""y the usefulness 
fruit trees, the wash Tas be „ .^rioufl^^^^^^^^ "'"^-^ ^''' --» «" 

•shown to have a considerable ranJpnf.,f ° ^"""""' ""^^ " "as been 

as a fungicide. ^' °^ usefulness, both as an insecticide and 

^^>^eil^^^st:ZTa:i^^^ ': '""^- -* ^^ --^^-d advi.. 

.« econon,v to do so vLreTcrrds of 2 "'' "' "" "'""*''' '^^"«^-^« " -""'^ 
specially if the trees are lai'e ones If hu^ 'n """'' ""'' *" ^^ '''''''^' 
needed, as for the treatment of TZJi "'" 'l^antities of wash are 

hog-scalder will be satS ory It nmy bT^Cr'' "h" "''"'"'•^ '^^"'^ - 
aud the fire built beneath, as^n tl e ordinarv wf '",'"'''' "° ^'^'^ ^^«""^ 
»<hould hold 35 to 40 gallons m d Lflpln ^^ '''"*''''• '^'^^ ^<^t"« 

to be kept supplied- a,^ t will he .flf "^ '^''"'^ '' "" ^'""^^ ^^I''-"*' P"™P Is 

<" the spray-':nn,p Ce" \v th r^I^iVL^f.^r 'T '""""" «^ "'^ "-^^ 
sprayer can l>e kept busy most of the time ' "' '""''"^' ""« '>«^^' 

ironletlsZllnTf^'to^r^^ "'''' '^ °"* ^^""^'^-^ «^^-'-»>'e, large 
one or more kettle's beZ^sed 'cS ZgtT V'"^'^'* *" ^ ^^'''^'^ '"-«- 
;'f «pray gangs which it fs p^o'.^ o !un With a b I";;"" T "" ""'"''^'• 
large kettles and with proper water fad itL f " ^^^^^^ «f "'rt^e or four 
>»ay be prepared every ho ,.• \. , *'''""'^''' ^'«'" ^^^ *« 200 gallons of wash 
i..« is tLt the ."sb ,rn^.ma^^^^^ *« *^'^ -^^hod of .X 

poured into the spray br'^ ort^rentanf ','^^^*' '"•"" '''' ^««les and 
to prevent burning, '^inie^i^^lTLTa^^^^^^^^ T''T '"" ^' "'"^•- «"^ 
and labour-saving conveniences. ho7e,^r '"1^ T''"""''' '"'■'■"'• ^in^e 
considerably lessen these difficulties •' ^ ''^ ^"""'"'^^ ''-^^'^ "l" 



:iVi-^. 



■";''■* 

J'- 



, r 



^' 'f / 



14 



The Helf-oooking method Ih not considered Batlsfnotory. acoordinR to tho 
T . S Report quoted above. In which the following remark ocTrs--?' In the 
^ZZ: 1 ;'' ''"""" "' entomology this wash has not ^rsatlsfaetorT 
8. fflelent heat Is not generated during the slaking of the lime to brine Yn^o 
solution a sufficient quantity of sulphur." Nevertheless. Mr. W^ E U w W 
formula here follows, has had the greatest satisfaction f rom the^^;.^'::, 

Formula fob SELr-Boiuno Lime, Salt and Sulphub. 
A'o. 1 8pra„.-For winter use, while the trees are dormant :- 

f V^J ^'o^*' ^""^^ "'"■'^"'*' "^"'^'^ °' **^« B""^** «^ Horticulture. 
1. Take 20 lbs. flowers of sulphur and sfr Into a paste with a little hot 
water In a coal-oil can. (Refined sulphur should only^ used ) 

the L^f^h^'s^^yT ""^'"'"^ ""^ '^ ""'"^- ^'^'^^ '^''^^ *^« »- 

immiw?'' !?!\" ^*^"""" ^'•"■'''' "■°™ 12 to 15 gallons boiling water an.l 
immediately add the lime and sulphur. Cover the mouth of barrel with thi k 
^ckH^to retain the heat and st.r occasionally, whilst dlssolvlnrwithTw::;;':; 

In half an hour the sulphur will be well dissolved, and the mixture Is 
r«H.dy for use after adding 15 n>s. salt and filling the bar'rel f uH up wS. ll": 

the 'S: 'oggllg' "^'"^' '""^' ^'''•^"^'^ « «- »>—''- sieve to prevent 

Geneb.\l Remarks. 

1. Apply this spray as hot as possible, the hotter the better 

2. A great many authorities omit the salt. The writer lavours the use of 
It on account of it making the solution adhere better to the tr^s 

a« the 2\rrci:r:r:i^^^^^^^^^^ ™'«*-"- -- — ---. «- 

^4.^ Use a good spray pump and apply the mixture with as much force as 

the t'r^'' wfirthe '' rf '^"^-^"'"'^ »« f^'^'ouah, so as to cover every part of 
n!L V mixture. To spray a tree, say 10 to 15 years old It is 

necessary to spray from at least two sides, and preferably f^om thr^' 

shouMtlwC^^^r'^" ''^' '^"^ ^^""^'^ *« --^ '^^ t«P« Of the ti^s. 
.rallon J^f 'T^ "'^ ?™^ ^""P *" ^'^ ^^'••'^'"K «rd^''' run through about flv. 

ImnrtitM"^ T^ ^''' *''*' ™^"°" ^' generating steam on the plat* cnn 
impmve this mixture by turning steam Into the barrel, after it has ^u ^u- 
boUed^r about a quarter of an hour longer. 

gallons*""- ®'"" """•'*' *" American gallons In his formula, equal to about 42 Imperial 



15 

««» or He nmam «,„i „,„„ to J^^J" ,° f;?",' "" '"'<•'■• ""I »1" kill «.« 

Wm. E. Scott, 
0««f^e« ^«r6o,ir, 8„it Spring island, B. C. 

^^^Jhe ro„ow,„, i. the rK.u„„e„Uatio„ of t.e Prov.nc.a, Inspector of Fru.t 
Fresh unslaked Hnie . 

Siibllmetl siilnhur 40 lbs. 

Salt ;; 20 „ 

Water ^** " 

Place 10 lbs. of Uiup n.Ji on i». I ^ *"'*'• (^ajperlal). 

water. „„a boll over a b^is" Are f^tvfo 7 "'""* '" '^ *""" ^'^"^ ^ ««"«- of 
Uissolved. It will ttent\ZlZ2:rT\T!''' o"'^''" '« *''"-"«'•'*• 
<"sk and pour water enough over 7 to «. ^^''''^'''^ ^ "«• "' "™e In a 
When dissolved, add the »1 a,'d su nh. r T •^7'"'^' "• ^^''^ ^^^ ««'*• 
Add enough water to make 50 gal ol 1 ^ " ^'''' *" ^^^^ lo"8«r. 

i" the tank. ^''"'*"^- ^PP'^ «* « temperature of 130 degrees 

•n ^'"Z:XfTeTe\ZTr'ZZ^^^ - *•>« '-- '«". and again 
-re must be taken to thoroughly col^ T ^"•"'' ^'^""'^ ''^ "««»' «««! 
to the tips of the Shoots wl h the mXe J., "h'^k*^ ''''' ''•«™ ^^^ «'•«""<' 
when applying. mixture, which should be constantly stirred 

^ave)! ri^ r;:?rre:rr " ^^ - -"«<>« <«- - shou,d 

preference to any brand tharmay be offered f""" T' ""'° "-"""'acture i„ 
to know that your own article Is nron^rTr!? . T' ^'^" "« ''^ * PO«"ion 
Which you use Is perfectly fresh and v^rvhrt' ^ '''' ''''' ''"'' *»•« «"« 
sulphur; use no other qual ^o ma«er h ' T *'"* *'°" '^^ ^^'^ ««"<«'^'^ 
article Is well refined. L 1 flnelygroundThatr Y.7 "^^ ^''^ ^"''""'^ 
iime. * ^'^**"°^ ***at It quickly combines with the 

i^ thirtisTmrr "tZs'zztz t 'r -"''' '« ^-"- «--"ve 

injects, woolly aphis, etc.. and is Si M *"''"'*' Insecticide for all scale 

acting not only as an all^ound n^« fd Tu^oT"" ^/^""^'"^ '^»" *-«' 
-J- R. A.] "«ecncme, but to a great degree as a fungicide. 

Central Experimental Farm formula- 
Lime 

Sulphur, powdered 32 lbs. 

Water 12 „ 

Ontario Department of AgriouVture -l "'' ^""°"*- 

Fresh lime 

Sulphur (flowers) 20 lbs. 

Water "■ IS „ 

■ • • 40 gallons. 



'^i 



16 

Handliwo the Spbay. 
The pumim UHetl vvItU sulphur-llme wash luimt be washed out each nluht 

over the brass after continued use. Brass nozzles are eaten out by Len 
clays' spraying, and a sufllelent supply should be kept on hand trreiSac^tC 

the men should be protected during the time of application. This Is done v 
tt"s^n a"d maTnr'^! ^"^-klng or canvas. Su.phur-llme Is cauX. 
L^^wmrli^Sr: spying" '' ' '^ '""" " """•" ''' •"'"'^^ ""^ 

No. 2^-Q«a,,/o CAfp, and TF/ioIe-o« Soop.-Summer spray for aphis •- 
Quassia chips „ „ " 

„,. , ,, 8 IDS. 

Whale-oU soap . . - 

Water .' ^^ '•, 

X,.. .. . 100 gallons. 

th« 1 he quassia chips in about 8 gallons of water for one hour Dissolve 
slrV" ^*'' '""'"'' ""•"'" "«'' "^'^ '^^^'^ ««'"tlons together, and dilutlw ,' 

^r^t::- :; -^^^ r =erc;.r i^^ni^ri:? 

insets as Z^^nuZZ i^m«/*ion«.-These are particularly valuable against 
insects as plant-Uce. scale Insects, and animal parasites. The best formula is- 

Kerosene (coal oil) o „ 

Rainwater 2 gallons. 

Soap ■■■■■ j^ 

turn^t'InJ^thlT '" '""^ ^«*^'' «» ^» '«'di««oived;" then. whrLllng h,.t 
turn t into the kerosene, and churn the mixture c-nstantly and forciblv «M .' 

mCrit [r ""7 ""' ''^' ™^""*^^' ^^••^- ' -"» ^^of rsmXore^^ 
wltZ; on, T"'° ^' '^'^^' " ^l" ^dl^^'-e t« the surface of gas 

without olliness. As It cools, It thickens Into a jelly-like mass TM« ! 

ings along he" sldef Ceffl""/?- '""^^^ ''''''''' ^'^^^"^^ «"'«" "^-"- 
by^toppl^ul thr bre^tL',^^^^^ '""^^"^ ^•""^^''^•^ ^« *"^ -'^-"^^ *»^-'- 

amonmTfTormllrinZ,"^? '^ "^'^^ conveniently by using an equ.-.i 
chui for he TnL Z . ""' '^"^ ""^ '''''''' *° *»>« '^»'«^« formula, and 

mixing kerosene fir«t ^f „ii .«. / ^^"" ""** ^^■- ^^^ T- Macouii. nf 

the wo Crer t,H« '"'? ''"^•'" ""** «"«"vards with water, by churnin. 

Hour, ,Ucl, I, ,„ te had everrwhere. may be u«4 with «„„llv g„„l 



17 

n«ult8. If the emulHlon Is to be H8«1 „t ouoe. TIHh RlveH da tlien hv f... ti 

,..„._™,rr.r:;i=;rs:',r;.-;>r7;s: 

the higher anlmnl« i. i!^H I'raetieally harmless to human beings and 

toes an.' uasps, a^l of whleh nre n?, l7 "«- "'*"^^'*' P^"'"' "« "'*-«• '»««*1»«- 

quantlty thrown Into the air nf ^ I "''"'*'''• "*"'^'' ""^ ^«^»"S « «"'«» 

bellows or by a small auant tv^^ T"" '^";'"°' "' '^'^ *"«^*-S"" «"• ^«"«» 
smoulder. It ienT to Ze ^ teaspoonful) being ignited and allowed to 

No. C— robacco and Soap Wash — 

m th^rmtiuroJtrwiter rr '"' r*" '•'^ ^^"^ «^ «^-« ^-- <- 

Oil soap m 1 gallon hot ItT I ? !! """ ^'*' ^"^'"^ ' ^'^^^^^^ ^ »>• «^hale- 

-.p aL ap'pf; th: miLr o aX ^d' ^r :ss Ts^ " '°*« "- •^'-•^-^ 

nozzle and all the force possible Or thlT. / ^^ ''""'^'' ""'"« '^ ^^^ 

the insects with a swrbTl^rush a ' """'' ""^ "PP""^ '**^«'«y *« 

aphides. "'*"• ^ «^ «»""'«'• «"«b for all forms of 

No. 7^~Rcsin Wash.-For Aphis and Scale Insects — 
Resin 

Sal soda .... .........'.'.'.'.".".".' * "*®- 

B • • • • • 3 ^^ 



18 

^^f^""^ ?^ '^'" ■"** "' •*^* "* * ''*"'« '»•'*»» three pintfl of cold water 
(wf or ram water). Boll or alnimer slowly until thoroughly dl«o?^ed whl, 

^^.^"^'JT^ '^"^"- ^'*"" "Ufflelently boiled, the ream being cZJetey 

f.t^n^'*'* "T"" *'°' ''**" '"^ """^^ «> ««"«»-• After adding ThTwat^ 
U win become thick, but after boiling again It becomes thin. The a Je 
ready for Immediate use and should be used lukewarm If desired fnrTf 

trck^tbrn'""::^^^' '"* '''' °"'^ «- ^aiC^f irrd'L'ri 

For hop-louse i gallon compound to gallons water. 

For woolly aphis i ^^ j 

For scale insects i "^ g " 

For green aphis i " q *' 

The spray Is not Injurious to the tree, for after three or four davs' st.n 
shine It dissolves or breaks away from the surface ^ 

currant '.V^ms":- " ^^'•«^-^- ^^^ -<* Cherry Slugs. Gooseberry and 

Hellebore 

Water J T**' 

_. ^. 1 gallon. 

Steep the hellebore for an hour In one pint boiling water, then add th^ 
balance of water cold. To be used with spray pump 

^In! I .1 "''*'*°® ''°*''^° ** Leggetf 8 Powder Gun is a very efficient 

TZfUu IV '^ '"«' '"'''• '° «" ^«»««' <^«« «houM be taken to Ian 
good fresh hellebore, to ensure the results aimed at. 

leaf-ea«n';,"7n'rts!'r° "^"^-^^^ ^"^"°« ^«*^' ^''*«^"'-. -*1 other 

Paris green 

Fresh slaked lime I ^°'''®*- 

Water ,1 \ 

., , 50 gallons. 

mnt^f H * ^*.'*^ °^ ^^^ ^"^' *^° ^'**' ^ ""le ^at^r. Make the lime Into 

atogetherP rr:r';er, '"'\*'"^ *^^^"^^'' «°^ ''^^ -*- to si gallon 
altogether. Paris green is a heavy powder, and will not remain lone in 

tlTTl"'/Tu'' ""'* "^ "^^P* «^°«*^°«y ««rred when usTng Be su e 
Paris green can generally be used to advantage with Bordeaux mixture 

pimp '^^" *^ "^ ^""^"^ ^**'"'*^""^ "»^^*"r«- APPJy With spray 

No. 15.— £ye and Soap Wash.— For winter u«e only:— 

1 lb. concentrated lye. 

1 lb. whale-oil soap. 

5 gallons water. 
Dissolve the lye and soap in the water heated. 



19 

■ufflclent. ^ ^'"'P*^ *'°°*' *"»" »»>« '"nount of wap Is 



FITXGICIDES. 

Sulphate of copper (bliiestone) a n^ 

Fresh unslaked lime ' 

Water (soft) * " 

Double strength for winter use:— 

Sulphate of copper (bluestone) ... a ♦« ia i.. 

Fresh unslaked lime ... 8 to 10 lbs. 

Water (soft) . . * "**• 

Copper sulphate (bluestone) . i« nw 

Quicklime -^^ "**• 

Water ® " 

,p.^ ^, 50 gallon8=40 Imp. gal. 

pour into th" b.S^ .id Jr Cli'h, J? ' """ ""™ ''"'^'' ""O "">" 

Sulphate copper ^ ^ 

Lime ; "*">«• 

Water * " 

Paris green ....'.'.*.' ^ gallons. 

m. „ , 4 ounces. 

If buJaCrau'^mfr'otr,'" ^"^"'^"^" ^' ^''^^ -'-*«- 

four pounds Of f^h ^n'ever alr^ak^ follows :-We,gh out 

rtrt^i^:UT.aren-^^^^^ 

tUe spray tan^Cu^ , ,lfr c"^^^^ ,«*"'° '^^ -""^ of lime Into 

lumps, rocks, or flbe^ ^rorg^^Xttftal" The"' whS'^^n'r ''"^ 
material In the tank with a hoe. another man t^n;!^ adds' tl w T """ '""^ 
^t^iag that no lint or trash eoes In hv tMo . bluestone water, 

or irasn goes In by this means either. Then fill the tank 






20 

Mith w.,t..r. NtlrrlLK nil tho «hlU.. niul tho Mprny Ih mulv t» une Vcr, 
IHHir tlu. „mlii„i,Hl bln.^t»,K. ««f..r in.o fl». xuuMIuUhI ...ilk of II,.,... or ,i" .hht 
<h.... iral ..„1„„ will „.H„lt. KU..I, a ...Ixturo h„. ,HH,r fu.,«l,.lUul v« uJ L |, 
niphlly ,„ul tlogH the i.oa!«h.|i. u »uiue, «.ni»s 

STCKK SULITION*. 

♦« „^^''"'"" "'"•'•' <""" " '""•'^' "«• two of Bonlenux in to Ih- ran.lo. it wv«, tl.... 
to ninko whjit nro ciillwi Ht<Nk Holutloj.w:- 

WHKh o„t n,.,l ,,„t |„to a lo„K. ch^p trough llko n " UhhI tro„«h " ..no„si, 
ll...e to ,.,«ke « <l.«,.lto „uu.b,.r of harrHn „r t«„kH of npray. If th. tarn' 
holds no Kallo,.«. or the ta,.k 100 or 150 b«IIo,.h. „«■ ho„.c. .....Itlnle of f.l 

lK>n,.dH <,f ll,.,o. H„y 40 ,HH,.,dH. nrl..g to ...Ilk of li,..e by add, « J^ t 
.n.n.lH.r of k„||o.,« of water that yo,. ,.«. ,K.„.,dH of I.„„.. hmt 40 ««11„. T . 

I...0 « a.k« bent If war... or hot water Ik^ ,.sod .. „ starter. I)|HH,Hve 1.. a v.'rv 
InrKo t..b or wo«le., ta,.k 40 jh„„..1h of bl....Hto„o 1.. '20 or 40 kh1Io,.h of water 
Never ,.He le«H water tha.. 1 gallo.. t. each 2 ,K,„.,d« of bl,.eHto„e. „r , .: 
mntorlal will recryHtnlliHe I., the botto... a.id „.. the nl.leH of the c.o„t«l.„'r 

Then all yo., have to do Ih to .,.ea«„re .„* 4 Kallo.,8 of the .nllk of lUne - 
or 4 pallonH of the bl„eHt«..e water, .lllute to al^out 15 Kallo..H ea<-h «.»! ,hm,; 

ogether Into the barrel. If the Hr.rn.v.ta..k hoIdH 2 or II barrels. vo„ 1. av. t 

r;orthrb«;rei" """ '""" " """'' "•" '""*' *"" "^ '""'"^ "•"^'' - "'•■•" 

Tkstino Spbay, 

If the lime uaed In a fine lime, neither alr-8lak«l. h,.,,ro,H»rlv burnetl ,„.r 
hav..g „.„eh "rook" In It. I have found 4 ,H>u„dH H^fflelin to each 4 i.X 

to T^uZJlTZ""- "'""^' '*""""' "^^^^ ••"•«"»nend UHln« r. ,K>und8 of ll...e 
to 4 pounds of bluestone. and this should certainly be done if the lln.e U not 
flrst-c lass. The best way to assure .,„ -elf that he has lime enough is to tes 
the mixture. There are three waj-s of testing:— 

«n^ i'^' ^T. f ^'[^^^y *^'^""' *"•'»"* »»l«'Je "' n pocket-k.,lfe Into the Bordeaux 
«nd eave i In It for about one min,.te. If there Is not .ime enough, a thi... 
reddish stain of copiier will be left ujion the blade. 

2nd. Fill a small bowl with the Bordeaux, and. holding It level with tl... 
eje, breathe gently uinm and across the liquid. If It Is prorn^rlv made, and 

pellicle to form on top. 

.uJ'\^^^^''^ '" "''' °""'^' °' '""*^'* °"^ '^""^ «' ferro^yanlde of jHitns- 

solution to t. drop by drop. If a brownish discolouration takes plac^e, you must 
Add more lime to the stock solution and tank. . ^ u uu i 

I'sEs OF This Spbav. 
Apple Scaft.-rse once before flowers open, best just as buds are burstin;:. 
Ind Zr "''•'^ "'"^%«ft-r fruit has set. according to the prevalence of rain 
and cloudy weather. In ordinarily pleasant seasons three spravlngs inv 
enough. Whe.. aplying the last two sprayings the Insecticide can 'be added 
to the 8pra,v. thus scab and Insects being combated at the same time 



21 

Poinirn, MIMne of n,a,>r. Apple, Praeh and //rMr.-Ar.ply flr-t Ju«t nn 
.... « nn. ln.r«tl,.K. ni..l «,ntlnn.. nt Int.TvaN thro,iKho.,t the wuh,,,,. K«.h 

for thi. i. govrrniHl Inrgely by «,,„„„«. location ni.u provalfno.. of dlHt.«m.H ti.e 
proviouR yt'flr. 

Pf«rA-/r«/ f«r/.-AppIy J.,«t n* b.i.lH are h»m\m, nn.l two or threo moro 
thnen thro.iKl, th« «,rly m.„Ho„. I.mten.l of Bonlea.ix. tho llnie-Hulphur milt 
Hpray can be xx^ tov the flr«t npraylng with exc-ellent eff^t. 
n^J'^'^'J^lT' "'■ •^'•'*'-«''"-''-rrofeN««r Cordley. of the Oregon Station. 
w«k». tor all MiTaylnK. In the dormant ^.-aHon or fall, whether for tliN 

re;ti:^rrn;e'7J r;:„r/'"'"^ '^ ""•'^""'"« "■•' "'""""^" -^ "-^•^ 

Copper Sulphate dnlutUm:— 

ropiHT sulphate 2 or .in,. 

nater m ,. 

CO gallonH. 

We«t?r.'r r"?^u '*..'""';" *'"*^°'""^'' ''^ experiment stations both Eastern an.l 
Zl X 1 !" "•*" '•'""' "' Bordeaux during the dorn.«nt season. Though 
of equal ertlclency with Bordeaux, and more easily made and applied. It Is of 

to rr r " "'"""' '*■'"•" «""'"« '" "'"t-^-* «••»»» «">• •'•"" <•-• st«4 pars as 
o make Its use very dlsa.creeable. Iron nuts about the waggon or pump 
K.jome in a few days so sol.lere.! to the bolts as to make It nexfto L^'HTlble 

to loosen them. Metal parts of the harness, and even tools employed ZTsoo.t 

sen lee In the treatment of grain, though formalin is largely displacing It. 
No. lO.—Ammoniacal Copper Carbonate — 

Copper twbonate 5 „„„^^ 

Ammonia (ammonia water of commerce) 3 or 4 pints. 

CO gallons. 

DJ««olve the copper carbonate In the ammonia and dilute with water to 
..0 gallons. The concentrated solution should be poured Into the water. Keep 
the ammonia in glass or stone jar tightly c-orked. ^ 

hon„fJ"7 ^'"""^f '"'•^ «/ ^"PP^*- Car&on«/e.-As the precipitated form of car- 

Tt t^ZlT "'""'' °'*"'"''''^' ^'^ '""«^'"« '^•^-"-« "- ««-n 

,nnnl° " .'IT' T"^"^^^ ""^ ^'^^'^^''^ *^"** *»'' ">'"^»^ ««"«"«' dlSSolve H/, Ibs. of 

opper sulphate In 4 pints hot water. In another vessel dissolve 1% lbs. sal 
soda (washing soda) in 4 pints hot water. When both are dissolved pour the 

ZZT^Z '"': '"' r ""' ^"^ ''^•^'^'^•- ^^''•^^ effervescence leases. flU 

the ^e88el with water and stir thoroughly. Allow this to stand 5 or hours 

When a precipitate or sediment will have settled at the bottom. Now pour off 

he clear liquid without disturbing this sediment, fill up the vessel aga^n with 

mill" H H "' '"''"''' *'''° """^ *^'^ ''' «*«"*^ »»"^ '^- «e<Ji»ent has aga n 
settled, and then pour off the clear liquid carefully «« before- the rcsiduf or 

7^T.o -'••--^V' «>PPer. and from the quantities given 'there'hluM b^ 
formed 12 ounces weight. Instead of drying this (which is a slow process)! 



r. 



22 

add to It 4 quarts strong ammonia, stirring well, and then add water to brine 
the whole quantity up to G quarts. This may be kept In an ordinary stone jar 
but shou'd be closely corked. •' ' 

Each quart will contain two ounces carbonate of cooDer wi.!nh ^i, 
added to 20 ga.M„« ,.„ter will furnish a solution re^dyT'spravC 07'^ 

r'a..«on.-Mo8t of the copper compounds corrode tin and Iron Conse 
quently In preparing them for use. earthen, wooden or brass velsels should 

w,H ThT '. ,"? ^" "''^'"'"^ "'*-"' '''' P'^^*^ «^ P""P -•••<^b comet conta 
wltL the liquid should be made of brass. ^"uiact 

Though this Is. In many respects, as good a spray as Bordeaux It Is more 
costly and the Ingredients less commonly attainable. It used to be rZ, 
Zf ^ « *. ^""' '^'"''"^ "' "^™««* «" ^^""«' «'»^ " leaves no stal^as 
wiped before being packed. Its usefulness has decreased. For grapes, or am- 
other fruits attacked by fungi, and which caanot easily be wiped or ci;aned „ 
j|; any way this Is superior to Bordeaux as a final spray. This Is peculiarl/the 

» ' case with powdery mildew. ' t^unany me 

Formalin. 

This is a 40 per cent, solution of formaldehyde gas In water, though, owing 
to the escape of the gas and to adulteration, the commercial article hardlv 
ever contains 40 per cent. I have never yet hap,.ne<l to find any of soCr 
quality, however, as not to do the work expected of It. Such complaints are 
by no means Infrequent, but I Judge from my own success In the use of forma- 
lin that the cause of failure Is to be lal,^ more often to the door of the o e 

relnfested ^y the disease through careless sacking or handling after treatment 
The gra n or potatoes should be treated In the sacks In which they are to be 

,^!.\ """^ "^ ^''"'°' '^'*^™ sprinkling Is adopted, the sacks should be 
soaked before the treated grain is put back into them. 

Formalin for Potato Scab:— 

Formalin i/ „i 4. 

Water 4 P*" • 

lo gallons. 

Formalin for Smut of Grain :— 

Formalin 1 , * 

„. . 1 pint. 

Water -« „ 

oO gallons. 

Corrosive Sublimate: — 

Corrosive sublimate 3 o„„^ 

nater -•- ,, 

lu gallons. 

Corrosive sublimate 10 ounces. 

WfttGr rtrt II 

,^ ^^"^^r, '^"^ «"bllmate m warn ■water; and ^hen'dissoh^i ^ur Into a 
%es.. . contain ..- water and stir vlgourously with a lath. 



23 

Treat the potatoes as with the formalin. As no better results were 
obtained by me with the corrosive sublimate than with formalin, and as the 

of lormann^ ^"'^ ""'^ ^"'""^ ^'*'*"'° '''''"'* "'^ ^""" '" "*"*' ^ "•*''*«« ^^^ "«« 

No. 16.— Po/a«sfMm Sulphide:— 
.u ^^'!J^ ** I"*""** 8"»>stance of a brown colour when fresh, though turning on 
^r fl r "" 7. T ^""^^'"^ '" "''• ^"^ '"°"^"^t- " •«• f'^^ "« «»o«r. often 
sunlfght ■" ^ ' "•" " ''""^*' "" ''^* ''^ '^ ^'°«^ ^'^^^^^ "«t ---1>««^ to 
Potassium sulphide ,^^ „, to 1 oz. 

,„.,„ . 1 gallon. 

This spray is used for most of the powdery mildews, but I have had best 
results with It m combatting mildew on the gooseberry. Four or fi'4 sJravS 
«1 do away with mildew, when on previous years It has been so bad S 
o.mrely to spoil the crop. It dissolves readily In water slightly warmed while 
It never clogs the nozzle, so perfect Is its solubility. I found threl sprayings 
would completely save the crop, but that one or two more were n^Tto 1 
away With the disease completely. The first spraying should be a^^ed jutt 
as the young leaves are putting forth, and the subsequent applications two or 
three weeks apart through the growing season. 
Arsenite of Lime icith Soda :— 

White arsenic ., _ 

Sal soda (crj-stal) . ' 

Water .'.".'.'.*.'.' 

The ingredients are boiled in the required"amount of water ultu" dissolved 
vhlch will take place in a comparatively few minutes, after which the^It^; 

r, J T'^'T'' '' '•'P''^^- '^« ^^"^ '^ «^ ^ e«»o»« of water a prnf o 
this stock solution and from 2 to 4 pounds of fresh slaked lime are added The 

Jl™ ! , """"^T ""'''''"^ ''•"'" *'^ combination of the sal soda and t^ whl'e 

ZitJ^fT %"' '°^'- '° '''' P'-^^'^^ «^ ""« t»>«« »>reaks down and 

arsenite of lime is formed. It requires 4.4 lbs. of crystal sal soda or 16 lbs 

o dry sal soda to combine with 1 lb. of arsenic and 2 lbs. of freshly sfake^ 

ime to combine with 1 lb. of arsenic to form arsenite of lime It is a'wt^ 

desirable to have an excess of lime present. In order to prevent a 1 danirr S 

^::^;':a^^ s^by rdUt :r^ '-. - ^^^^'^-'-^ *« f-TgrL'^aVJ 

! o^ f u <iIstributlon and amount of lime in the foliage how well 

the spraying has been done. The formula, which Is the Kedzie fonnur wffh 

M- fjr, "^ f f.""^'"- '" "'' ""' ^^« P^«^"^«' t^«ts under the advice of the 

:2r irrc^apr --^ '- ^^--^ *^ •- -^^ ^^^^ - ^^--^ - -"- 

to f .r n° 1* *' **^'"^'* *^ "'^ Bordeaux mixture with this solution, it Is added 

^.. tr r r? '"'^*"''V° ''" '""^ P^^^^^""-^ «« to a similar quantUyff 
u.iter.— C. B. Simpson. Bull. 41, u. 8. Div. Ent yuanuty or 

The above combination of arsenite of lime with soda Is preferable to arsen 
Ll .' «° ««^»"t of the difficulty in making this latter tmbIna«on,^r* 
f«^y. and. When this Is not the case ,the free arsenic 1. very ^S^^^:. 



^^-.'' 



. i- V- 







:f. 



If 



24 

aniline dyes It « vert rHnnt , "^"'^^ P""*'"'"* ^" **^« manufacture of 

Orecnrllr T , " «""I^«"'«°' «°<» therefore unsafe to u«e. 

Sla'lrnCVVZrrr^ an7Xr.ettef rfoi.;- ^^ 
unless mlrJ Ti?^ ,' k ,, ' '"**■■ I^'^tnge of Kluble arseule. an.l 

oT.n„r„i°^ ,: LV"'?, r:\T„':s^r "^ "»"» ^'-"^ *"« ■» -■■"-' 
VI... one onn'oe ,„ !o j.zi':.:^,!''^^:::^ "™'«"'°» - '■•■" «-"• 

Fumigation With Hydbocyanic Acid Gas 

Matebials to be Used 
oyanMe%r9r;?eeT;r,l'"(2T?ur.' 1 '""'^""^'^ "''^-^^^ ^^-^""^ 

authorities, three d,ffe"uturrkl'' "" '^""''^ "' recommended by different 
cent, purit; to evejy 2^ or 3^ o Z'^'TT''^ ' "'• "' ^^""''^^ «^ »« !>*- 
The variationfn fho . ^ '^"^^'^ ^^^* «^ «P«*^ respectively. 

Character Of th^PiantsthatTretrn 7"T. '^^"'^^ ^'^ ^^'"^ -*-* - ^ho 
are dormant or aSJve ever^r^n or .V.T "^ "° ''''"* '*'"^°«*^' "'^^t'^^'- '^^y 
case of tender p^nts i oz 'rovrn,? "'' ^"'^ ^'"^ ^° **»« ^«««"- I" »"*^ 

While hardy pla^^s ma^: treaTi with'l'or? '" ,T ^"''^ ^"* ^^ «^'"-- 
space. ^ ^"*^ ^ •'''• o' cyanide to 200 cubic feet of 

.rente.. n.„./^ JTr., aZSrZ^.^: »*'' ""- ""'- " '» - 

w..erw,!rrc\rn,,.tt r r"* '^^ """'""^ -"-> "o-^ '"'° '"•■ 

into the no. diluted', ^pK no. . Tbel^.e"r'Tl"'T,"'!:' ""^ "''"•""' 



If 



25 

Should be careful not to enhale the escaping fumes ' ' '''^'^"'' 

It Is safer not to fumigate when the plants are in bloom 
^urse,■v Stock.-In the treatment of nursery stock reh„«h«« 

cover " '"' ''''^'"'' ™^^ "^^« ''^ *-«t^ »'y the use of u canvas tent or 

Canvas Covers for Fumigating 
Greaf Bn-taiHs' in"?' '""T '""" '""^ '""'^«""« *« »«* «« -mmon in 

,„ «:" \7 '^7 •"- °' »v.r^.h«,., ,e„,., and bo. oov^er,. Th. .Ve,. 












i ':< 






26 

.taped tent,, the mouth of whli^l wl, k ^ '"" "" '"" "' "»"»■ 

trees and bushes. "^°*'^ gas-tight. They are esp^lally adapted for small 

deadfrp^r.^ L^TrltMrlttT ^n.^T'^^'^"''^^ "'^•'^ -« «- 

labelled Pof*on whii-f ^1 „ ^* *° *" tightly-stoppered bottle and 

Fumigion rjd " Te cri:i\Tirrbrr*r. "'^ '^"°"'^* ^« ^^^"*''^- 

wet, but otherwise It mnvTl h I ^^ "'••"*• "*"" ^^^° *b« t^««« «re 



CHAPTER III.-BENEFICIAL INSECTS. 



every specif of pllr^lnln ai on Z' f '^^''/Ir"^ *"• ^"'^''•^"^' ^^'^ 
bearing that, in all of ks riri h f ? ^' *^^ ^'^•^' *^«« «° ««>°o«>ie 
prehension. If w"]^k out nln'f'T^ '' ^'"P^''*"'^* «^«" beyond our corn- 
observe myriads of w^Sds each of h.rr' "" " ''''^''' ^""""^^ "'s'^*' «« 
almost lightning rapTdity alone ,/« I ! J"'*''"^ ^"'^ ^"«'^"^«« ^"--^ ^'^d 

colliding 'or Uirgt7anttr*T:rnTrt 7:'^ ^^""' ^^* "^^^^ 
comprehend the magnitude of ihi. Ill . ^^^ manner, at best, 

holds each Planetrus nrooer n«i n^echanlsm. or realise the power which 

destruction or that oMtsTSbo^ "' '""'^*' " '"-^^ ™^^*°^ *« "« -» 

Of wiatTeTtnTsIr th'eT; '""';^' *'^* ^^'^« ^"-^ "^''^^ representatives 
most powrfu^Trcl Which h 2' h "' "' *'' ^"■^"*^*' *' °«* '^^^ the 
InfluenS wh ch we Tall n^f;;^^! each species in its proper sphere, is that 

would scarce be Iblfto live rr* . ^"* '*"' ''''' '°«""°^' P""^ '»»'"'^°ity 
Insect friends in comiatlne insect "nnT?',"lf '"''• ^' " '«' ^'^^ ^^^^ «' 
little understood^nTln fact C^ "T.''^ ^''°*' '^^' '' '"* 

know Of the existenc; of their benei^tols" '"' ' "*''"' ''^°^'* "-^^ 

more .ap.dly, ail hence they have become too 



should very SM„f„, 1.1. ' ^ ' "'■" ""■ """"" '""l" ""novwl, we 

although It may cause the dLth nf „« *. f ' ^""^'•'» cereana, Fab., 
nt all. but 81 Ji^a Lit „ate It dl ^r'^"^ "' '^'' '^ "«* '^ P«™«'t« 
them of their store 77oSl * '''™"' *^" ^'^ ^"* «""l^>y rob, 

this reason, thal^ da fof ts^L ;Lr,n th sT" "' ''"*' *'^""^''^'' '«' 
are. by most foreign naturallS dls^^ntlH '^T' "^ *^™"** Parasites, 

more proper term All Zeflr.t,r^f "' cannibals, wnlch Is really the 
ever, the Saveng" b^ tefbein! n^u^ "' "?f """'"""^ ^«°°'^«>«' b«- 
the cannibals afe nofaH of them henefl .T'"''"''"' ^"""^ °° **>" «*»^«^ ^""'i' 
Which are .Ireetly enga^rin'p^nTS'th: InZlol '^.T'' ^^^^ 

t.eir^.;in^oT:r th7ba^Th^^^^^^^^^ r^^- ^-^- - --- 

feeding upon the Ivlng tissue Linn,! « I ' '''*"°^ ''^*'^^'"« therefrom, 
or extract the ImIcIs ^rn^ ,t' f « ' "'''' "^ ^''*^*' «°^ •^«™"'- their prey. 

^i^^^ro=SS^^~ - ^-= 

to an orders. Some Xese at ca'nnibaVtt ^' ^""^*^' ^^'«"^'"« 

others during all of their stages of development ""*"* '*'"' ""'^' 

near;VS;V:nTo7^r;th:r'^ *^« «-* ^'-. 

Ichneumonid^, ig parasUes Prl^fJ, f ^^ ^"""*^'- ^^bneumon flies, 
are described ^s Sing readlTy' r^^ Tk V*" '""^ ^''«^''^^'^«'- The firs 
the long, exserte^ oviSor' w^S t oft n'vT'? ''°" """ ^'^°*^«^ »-*y' 
sheath formed by four stvlete ^f th Jl ^ ^ ^*'°*^ *°*^ protected by a 

body, is a goc^ iHustratiofofTeZ ion of ^hV^X'^^^^^^^^^ l'^ 

long ovipositor, the female is able tv. nr^n^*^ I ^" "* **^® "'^ ^^ '»«'' 

and deposit her eggs in heir bc^i^ "^ f ?' ''""''^' °' wood-boring larv« 
'Jnisitor, Say.. areToth parfsiti?!?' thfr " f''""'' ''''''^•' «"^ ^- ^«"- 
Br.. commoni; called the rL^leL!^ T T '^'^^'''^^' while P. annulipes, 
codlin moth. Two other am2 IS"'' « '' ^"'""'"'^ °° ^'^^ '^^^» «' the 
irrallator, Say., destroy the flJ^n.T ',^''"'"" """'^*' ^"^y- ""'^ ^««'^«« 

^ other species. Si.^musTLllXZTa::T^^^^^^^ TT Tf' 

Kiley, attack the larv« of the plum cur^ulio The forr* f *"* ^°""^'-'^*«"' 

" the Vicinity of St. Louis. Missouri. wa?found by ^^^1^^^^^^ '"f '''''"' 

three-fourths of the early developed larvrorthr^r^riotS 



r 



'Ml 



. ..-^^^1 






^j 



■:im 



'm 



i 



i 



28 
option, Ophlo,, ,„«.r„,„,„. I.|„„. „„„ ,h„ e^™,,,, „, ,„ p „,„,„„„, 

C «... .« „„r„,l,lc „|K,n the Aim-rlcm, .11- om, P .»„ ...^"'CrLC' 
TUe larte groon „•„„„ „,f™,|„, .je vl„«, „. ,„„,«., La tomato, h o tei 

of rice. The ,„rui 1, the l.rro, of the llve..potted .phliii. UnKln/ccl 

"»:^rZ' cThV" ""^ "' "•"""■' '■^-""r''-.. p.ra.j. .4;.r;; 

"7" -J' ^^ ""'"•"■"« of there on the worm 1. broiielit glKii.t h, 

ZHhe ..?" °'','"' '""""' ""«"'" "" '^ '» "■« '-'J' Of "e worm U 
wh ,h . , '■. •*' """ "■ ""' "^ """'■ ""> "»»"• »".lte. tootle™ grnbl 
nhlch devcl.,,, from ,!,„„ hegln at o,h» to feed n,»„ the fatty Trt7ofT 

tZIh" « '■"?,'""'' •" "" " ""'" '"" ^■""O- "'<■" «'■<•>' <■" their war o« 
throngh the ,kh, and .„l„ their cocoon., within which they ,M.rtle pnn 

.nd^ or zr Lriu;r;j z rr^ - i^rortrgr.™: 

.r«,nTt, """"-'"^ »•'■"«• ""e tLo,e J„.t mentioned. ote^VeZir 
and .till other, are brown; bnt they all belong to .ome o' the mn,fv.Ic „ 

«ar:,hTrd'z:""' "''°""" """"'".'^ " -""<■• "* "-^ — -" 

there^rrrrriL^tirh^^s^^^^^^^^^ 

pe^-trrririrrt^fbL-tcSr^^^^^^^^^ 

rre.^rrrd°:,„ir\TT-™"-^^^^^^^^^ 
engag. ,nir;,rtr:r ir.,dr„rr yr rrt^iS^^^^^^^ 

r^rrap^^dSgr?.:,:: ;:r"- --'- »' '--" ««-- 

pointed at the anterior and blunt at the posterior extremities. T^e ^lour Is at 



29 

things fo.„Hl on ther e ;« Xrim L m„^?"" T'" '*^ *'" ""''^ "^''"^ 
depredators. * '"''"^ "'"'^** « ^•'«'«" «««*P of the true 

l.lMiiig lier eggs on llic mirr,in> of «i,„ .11 . . ">«'""« "ii's. the teiimle 
la™ whloh S,i ,„ m',S " 1, '" 1''° " """"»""' ""I many other 
..mllne. flattened n„d of a „^ , "'" "" ""'"■""at elllptlonl In 

»tuck„,on,^^*tranll,Je *;:°r;".'''''""''°'= "■"°"'"'""- ""'■'' »"™ 
the n,a,„,er „, the y^^XZT :^^ZX^:.riZ'Z!yZ:t"'' "T 

;™ -'r:i"T -"■ ■^'■' - - "- ™*'- --:« r'tre-^hrs 

The following are some of the beneficial Insects found in the Province:- 
Apiieunus: flscipennis (How.). 

/<.c;;:,LrrVeri:?inra:"'"- '"'^ ^^-^^"^ characteristics Of 
species (Fie 1 ? ThT ?. . accompanying figure of a closelv allied 

hood of Los Angeles. "^ "' •""'"" '''^' '"'^"^'^ ''^'^''^ '^^ -'g^^bour- 



II 



..■, "•i.I 



30 




Pewtiua Misella. 




(PlO 2 ) 

— alfgreatly enlarged * °" '^°®'°' *"'» P"P* of Pentllla attached within calvx 

<L. 0. Howard and C. .. '^''r^J;il^^Jo.J>:^^ries, m.Uion of Botany. V. .. 



31 

Pentm'T:^:''!rT2rS'': ^-t i„t«re«t.n;.. the Httle co<.i„e.Ua 
beetles seeming to p efer the ?^i Zl" f T"'" '^ "^^^ '""^ '>"''^' *»>« 
young scales. \t IsZnd ^tVln theTstern sf T'":, ^^ '''''' "^'^'^ '"^^ 
Pacific slope. ^"**'™ ^*'**«' "°*»' POMlbly, also on the 

Twice-Stabbed Ladybihd (Chtlocorua btvulneris) 
This is a beautiful little blade beetle with two bright read spots on Its 




^""^- (P.O. 3.) ^'•- 

to the San Jose Se (rjSuT T'^ 

(i/|/«ia,p/, porrumr ^^*''''''""" Per»«^o«««). and the Oyster-shell scale 

Bbown-Neck Ladtbibd. (Scymnus marginicollis) . 

black aod ,hlnr, and at the touch drOMOT tjn. JT^/r" 
reachlDE the gr„„„d .pread, out Its Tt, «^ S, ' '"'°"' 

Ambiguous Ladtbibd (Hippodamia amhigua). 




(FlO. 4). 

Much 
Enlarged. 




(Pig. 5.) 



..e 1^ "^rZ^^TtrL^^a:^- - - " o.e ot 



'1; 






^7 A 



I . 'ill 



CoKVKBoEST Ladybiro (Ulppodamia conv 



ciffcna). 




Thl8 beetle works destruction to aphis and scale Insects, and Is nulte 
common. 'im". 

Lace- Winged Fly (Chrytopa oculata). 




When the Ladybirds are great destrojers of scale and aphis, the larvje of 
the Lace-wlnged flies rid trees and plants of million of Aphidtr. The flv has 
a slender body, with delicate, ganze-llke wings, and Its colour is ?enerallv 
gr^n with golden eyes. The eggs are deposited on petllcles and lal.l In tlu' 
midst of a group of aphides. The larva Is supplied with sharp mandibles, with 
which It attacks the aphis. 

Syhphcs Fly, IIovehing Fly. 





*^^'B^^ 



Fig. 1. Natural slie. Pig. 2. Natural slie. pig .-} 

'" whiJ?h''7***"'^*f**f- l.fPPWsents the fly: Pig. 2. maRnlfled thP case In 
which It transforms Into a fly; and 'Plg. §. magnified, the larva, 
ihe Syrphus flies are also great destroyers of aphides. The larva- f«HMl 
entirely upon aphides, and appear and disappear as the aphides appear and 
disappear. The larva is a footless, eyeless, flattened, transverselv wrinkled 
gaily coloured, green and purple maggot, having a very extensile i;odv. whi.h 
enables it to reach up and grasp the aphis with its peculiar looking month. 
The single egg. dei>osited In a group of aphides, hatches forty-eight hours aftt-r 
it is laid, and the h-rva becomes full-grown and transformed into a pupa In fiv 
or six days. The reason of this extremely rapid development in the first two 
stages, the egg and the larva, is explained when we consider ): .lef Is the 
existence of the aphis, and how suddenly its colonies appear and disappear. 
When the larva is actively feeding, it destroys dozens of aphides, one after th. 
other, and its body changes colour. When filled to repletion the larva falls int.. 



a lethargy. Iimtlng two or thrw honro. diirliiK wblcU the i.ror^ui nf hi. ♦. 

of d.ge.tlou ha. taken place, the larva again Ih^Iu- ItH w..rk devrring a phTdT 

Tachina Ply. 




ver^T^uZlrZ " '" •"•"*• ''*^'"« '"^^^y "P° oater,.llIar». and 
TmeTol » , ''' "'^" ^"*"'«""«' Frequently, when the latter are 

oaTn^fiSLlW V lath n^ 7 7 T"""' *° """'^ " P^'"°" *»'«* the larv« 

someumes without attempting to get out of their ho^ ther;han8^ to sS 
'"yTCrl'"""' ^-^-«"ythen,aggots leave their host an^ltS 
full Growth ^Z '''""°'' '"^ ''"P"*"- ^""« ^"«« caterpillars will attain the r 
fuiurowth with aa many as thirty or more of these maggots feeding ins.de 

pn^^^f '"* ^K^ "'^ generally rather large for their class, robust In annear 
ance. always bristly, and sometimes formidable looking rom the nrrT of 
«harp shiny points projecting in every direction from their Zli rZl nrl 
among the most effective of nature's checks to cateJSma^Js'eclar cut! 

CuTWOBM Lio.N BLACK Gbocnd Wasp. 

(Calosoma caUdum) (Ammophila luctuosa). 



(Pio. 10.) 
c 




(FlO. 11.) 




(Pio. 12.) 



lai 






34 



-I. 



"Sg"°™--- 



KEMEniES-rilEVEXTIVE TREATMENT 

P«nVENTIVE MEASt'BKS. 

For the constnnt external nnrnaltes ns !!«. itoh «,il , ^• 
of nil nnlumls lntro.liioe.1 J„f« „ ' , *^"' "^ "^' "oh, mites, etc.. quarantin." 

to prevent iifeotl . ^o T,'^^,^^^^ "••^'•""«'' ^--^''t'"-"* «f «"-!. «„l„,„s 

t.e most praeti:!;;^^ Sn'sVurZ^^ ^^ "^''"^'^- "^^"- ^^ ''^ 

INSECTICIDAL SUBSTANCES. 

afte^LTl^rZZ^ jnbstanoe. Which n.ay be used ,n treating Insc.s 

value in thTr^C e thor tn^nvli n^ "" *" '°''"^'« «" ^'^"^ »>«- '^ re.,i 
their valueable parties «^ ''Hllvlduallv or in combination, and to Indkat. 
applied. I'^-^l^^J^^ ««Hl, very briefly, the forms to which they may .>e 



35 



li.«« t. It I-. h<m-ov..r. t.« dang-rou* « ,H,lmm to N- u-«l ..xc^nt with ,.,. 

j^r..«t«.t <nr,.. n,»i tho p««lb,Ilty of th. « .„, treafnl Ik-klng iC Tr ,tli^ 

foo.1 u,H.„ «hl.h tho «.,„tl„„ han drIpiKHl to huH. «n .xt m" L to ge a 

:.Ce";.::;;r'"^""" "• ^""^"^"^ -^ ■•'*^'" -«"• ^^'"^•'' «"- -« "-- 

c3th '^ ':♦.".""""""""""''• '" ''' ** highly m.o,u.m.„,KHl. I„ „„„; 

Kreut wmiiK III •••mt. I ml externally, without other coiahlnatlon than with 
water. It nhonhl have „ dilution of alnnU 100 tlmen ItH hulk o u^r VZ 

.- c..nm.tr«ted or ,„K.n very Hunoeptlhle anIn.alH. muh hh dZ It . , . Tk 
n >««rhed „„d .-aun,. ,k.Iko„,„«. ,>r. KranelH r^-onunendn It very highly « ..m 
l»lnatlon for <attle tl.k«. and the "Poultry World" gIveH It Z ! \ 
«- a c.„.hl„atlon with .l«k«l lln.e. to .. \Z l^.u.ndVnJVr.^^^^^^^^^^^ 

,^"irtie«. '' '"""'• "' ^"'"•^' •" ""^ «••"' *^'- -«"«! to their inZLZ 
tleks^'hl'thTf ^h' '" :*'■""'"*' '•*^<"»'»-'«^«l »>y I>r. FranelH for treata.ent of 
iiB utuon i« Hiniiiar to that of other oh. and while It killH «niii« ,.f fi.« ♦■ i 



i 






36 



•f. 

-5, 



* 
If 



Which infest stai;,r„;df"Jr , lo": T'"-" '"""'^^ «' '^♦''- «""»"•'' 
sheep <ii„s. ^'^^ " '* '"^« »««! «« o»e of the lngre«lients In 

on ao... eats, oh^rire^^^^^erv Z^U 7 u1 "?' "T^' '""• "'• »-'■'"-• 

LivEB Fluke m Sheep (O/Woma hepaticum) 
67. as follows:- *"' ""''"' Agric.Itural Society of England, A'ol. 

fen.a'l^^nCtrhe?:,^^ ^r* "", T '"'"^- ^^''"'^ '° ^''^ "-' t"^' 

pasture wth the dunri'fHw , T'''"^*^^ ^"* ""^' distribute,! over the 
able, the en.hoo e" ters It "' ""'^^ '""" ^^'■«"«^« ^r«,^a/„/„) ,s avail- 

fresh and not i„ sa t'atl" u t ^h '^ ^ "/.? '"""• '""'^'^ ^""» '''■'' «">>' '» 
three generations, ta,.' ./"ea"" ofwhM r/""" "? ""'^^'" *'^^'^'"''«- '" 
taken in by the sheep with i,f^, ' ^'^^ *""* "' ^''^ «»«»• «»d «f 

hern,aphro.me Anke \h parasi^rhav.:" ^ T"'" "" ^"^"""^ ">«*-' 
removal by any knowu nui ' ' ^"''"^ "" ''''' "^ "« '>««*' ^^A- 

Prccciition. 

to the development of thffreeThnr, " ''r'""""*- '^^o'«ture Is essential 
truncatufa.) Into l"Lu Torts ™"%T^^^^^ "»« «"«» (^^''"«-" 

no farther. The surest ami ^01,1/^ ''"""• "'*' '^'"^••^•« *^«" «*ivance 

to prevent the exis r„ee of tiTsa^d 'n , h"''? ""^ *" ''^^^-^"^ "^''^^ -^ ''^ 



37 



helps to establish conditions unfnvonrable to Its life. Llnilnj: of pastures has 
iH^n freely a.hocated, but it is diftlcult to see how this can be of substantial 
service. Livers containing flukes should be well boiled If to be U8e<l for dojrs 
etc.. but under all circumstances the flukes it may contain should be des- 
troyed. Sheep from alTecte<l flocks should not be brought on to a plac-e. When 
liver rot is detected in a flock, and it setMns likely that the disea,- hns been 
acquired on the farm, it will probably prove most economical t^. kil; rh.. v\hole 
fl(»ck. „8 it is impossible to determine what animals may not .c Itifested 

Plentiful supply of good dry food, to which has been ad ! M .unm^' cWb^ > 
salt and some bitter tonic, may assist the infested sheep to re oviv v hlle .t 
may help to expel any flukes which may hapiK-n to be in the Intestines. Fus- 
tures should not be overstocked, and high ground Is preferable. 
Sheep Tick (Mclophagus ovinus, Linn.) 

winl* %T^ ^7? "'*" '''^"" ""''"^^'■' "^ *^" ^»™">' '» n*^^-^'- possessing 
« ings. The head Is small and sunken Into the prothorax. The middle portion 
of the thorax is rather slender, contrasting with the development of this 
region in the winged forms. 

" ';• of n reddish or gray-brown colour, about one-fourth of an inch long 
and easily detected when present in any numbers on sheep. Thev never 
migrate from the original host, except it be to attach to another animal of the 
same spec-les. and probably tue principal movement Is that which occurs aft^r 
sheep are sheare.1. when the ticks tend to migrate to lambs. On the sheep 
If abundant, they may cause considerable damage, indicated by lack of growth 
or poor condition, and when massing upon lambs they may cause greaJ 
damage, resulting in the death of the victims If not properlv relieved 

They are distributed over the world generally where sheep are kept and 

InTu rth" """ '" ''''''' ''■"''^" ^" "^"-^^ '' °~-^- t« empha^ ; the 

knl o7 "^ '"?% '"' ''"'^^ "' ''''''' ''''^ """^^ «"Wect to attack, but 
I know of no record of their occurrence upon other animals. 

Remedies. 

nf .3«llf "'^ "'■''^ "'"^ ^ '''''^"*'''' ^^'^""^ '" "'""^^^••^ by the vigorous use 
o p.vrethrum-a most valuable remedy during winter-the most practlc^ 
Plan to adopt, and one which. If thoroughly followed, will make all others 
unnecessary. Is to dip the sheep each year after shearing 

f I> in the chapter on remedies, the kerosene emulsion is recomn,ended for 
his form and several of the patented dips on the n.arket are goo<l while 
tobacco dips, tar dips, etc.. may be used. If preferred 

fU..l\lV^nZT' ''*'""'"b'« *« "«*- ^ dip that will effectually destroy not only 
these ticks, but the two fonns of lice and the scab mites. In case any of these 
are present. A dipping tank Is an essential part of the equipment for she^n 
nilsing and Its construction Js descTibed in the chapterl 1™'^,'' ^ 

A flock on . freed from the pests will not be again infeste,!, except by the 
hUroductlon o«f lnf."-.l animals; hence, care should be taken 7n ma kng 
additions to the floe, .o free the newcomers from parasites. It Is also well to 
keep the sheep, for a few days after dipping, in a different Inclosure f o m 




'Ml 

Ml 



!■ 



. 4 



38 

charged with then, whe e huL .7 , ' , T"^' '"* ''''"*"'• "'"' '^ "'« »"«1 l-^ 
easily return to t e^" iC t u '" '^ '" ''""■"'' ""'^••^ ^''^ ^'^^^^ ^-"X' >-t 
and win «oon d ; :rre.n,?;i n^^rr V'""' ?"'^' '"'*""«^ Indepen.lentl v, 
assnre success. With d neo rl^ ? '"''*'"• ""^ J*'"'^"*''' ^""-^ •> "^ "ill 

•liPPin.. and l^:.f ^l " ; rrSuI to , '"' '^ ""' ^^^ *^" ^''^'^^ «"-■ 
from pnpffi that snnlved to 1 e«t h '' '^'"^'^' "'" *« ''"^•'" ^««"<"l 

Cattlk Tick {Ttiipiccphalus anmilatus) 

^^S.hr!:;.dic:r;m:«^r' r*^ ""'^ '*^^^^^- ^'- '•'^-^^ ^-™ '-.. 

aclnlt. ".ay\>e eCer the , Jt;r^^^^^^^^^^ ^'"^ "'""^''^ t,. 

the parasite of Texas fev7r«l u-^rr "'"^ '""'"' ^'^"''^ '"«»' «"-'--^- 

more or le.s.s extensheirin the tC, T'^! . "'" "^'•"'^'«««^««'«. ^vhic•h exists 
tine KepnOMe, .^i^/ . n Lm Itn V"''"""""' '''""«' ^^^••-- -^'•«-- 
«onthern Prance. Pini^lnd^KSi niland^T^ '""•-^^' ""''''''' «™"'-^- 

,. i^ini^^rt^ll r;:S':;r ^'^'^^'^^ ^'^^ *---'^« the parasite of 

part Played hy tieirLltrLe 'a ^Ll^ t^^r ^' ^^•^■^"^^^- ^"" 
other agents than ticks may carrv the n,!r T J '•*'*^" •"'"S^^^ted tliat 

The connection of iZted tk-ks ^fht ",' '"'""'"*' '"^ '"'"'">-^- ••«"'- 

firmly estal.llshed (l.Ssi^^iS,^ ) k^ sn. t . *'!^l^«^»»^■"«" ^^ Texas fever was 
have been H«n.nn,rised hv DrV ' H r v.^Itl r ^^^^^ investigations, which 

The destruction of ticks ,„ ttl', ol ' i""^' ^''""'''■"'^^ University, 
acarlddes in the form ofalenr or ,7 ?f ''''''*^^ "^'^ "'^ application of 
only a few anima are i ?eT« the\.,^^ 

petroleun.. turpentine, or to a^o i ' i.l tJ *"^ *°""^^^ ^^'^^'^ '«''"=«•»'• 

and destroyed by burnh^g BuVLnd n'.clf " ^T""^ '^ ''^•""^^^ ^'^ ^J" 1^»""- 
the larv,e and i^p^ are sn n^^, en'ou.h T f '*' *'"'"" ""'^ ""^^^t«^"- - 

chioronaphthol, 50 Pounds. dissS'^o" 00 gXsof"". "^^""^"^ ''''' 
pounds of soap. Grav and nniu^nfJ .«; ^^"o"^ of water containing 40 

arsenic. G pounds roaro4?oldr ^^"''''"- '"""^^' ^ ^^'^ ^«">1>-*^ «^ 
gallons; and water, 42ig;t,ons'^'' ^^'««1»»« ««<^«. 24 pounds; wood-tar, 5 

varlo^m^ef i;^ h^f ad^rt"^ ^^r "^^*"'^*'^" "^ ^'^-^^ ^ r>astures. 
fever, advises keeping caXoff^s^^^ . 7'""' """ '"^'"^'^"^ '^^ Texas 

the ticks, in the absent of ^hein,o,r?'"'' '"^ "'^'*^" "'''°*'^''- «•• ""*" 
ence of their hosts, have perished. Others, including 



*^^: 



39 



LlgiUeres suggest sowing the land with lucerne. In^tter drainage, ploughing „n 
top dressing with gas lime, burning off the grass, fencing off Infested parts 
etv.—^ellmln'8 Parasites of Domesticated Animals. 

Wajjs to Kill Ticks. 
There are two general plans that may be followed in getting rid oftieks 
.'.nd either one will prove suceessful if It is carefully followed out. The first 
P an. and the one that every fanner can adopt. Is to use oil. either bv dippi.ig 
the stoc-k in mule oil. or by ap-lying the oil by means of a brush or mop the 
m-ond plan Is to make use of pasture rotation, that is. to change the stock 
from one pasture to another during the summer and fall. 

Use of Oil. 
("onstructlng a dipping vat is too exjH^nsive for the farmer who mav have 
f om ten to thirty head of cattle on his farm. Such a .stoc-kman .m'aeZ 
o her means o getting rid of the ticks. Several farmers in the neighlK,urhcKxI 
o Stillwater have practised the following method of work, and their far^s 
are now ree from ticks. Build a small but substantial corral at some """ 
vc« place, ,vnd in this build a narrow chute that will accommodate o.e 

ri'iT .. ^^ ^ f "" *'"* ''"" ""' "'^"'"'"^ "-''^'y "«'-t of an anhnal that is 

ouflnecl in it. Collect all of the stoc-k on the farm and examine then, close Iv 

or ticrks every two weeks during July, August and September. The large 

tu-ks Should be picked off and dropped into a can of oil. After this is donT 

apply crude petroleum by means of a brush or mop to ever v part of the 

an imai ,vhere .von can find young ticks. If there are ticks on an animal they 

.11 be ound on the inside of the hind legs, in the flanks, on the bellv, be2 

l' ee J. ions of u '' ' '^''"''"™ """""* ""' ''''''' ^^'^ "«« *»>« f«»o-l"«: 
Ihree gallons of kerosene, one gallon of black machine oil, and one pint of oil 

of tar Apply this in the same way as for the crude oil. If the cattle are 

carefu ly treated the first time, it will be light work afterwards if thev are 

treatecl every two weeks. Dont expec-t to find small ticks on cattle by wa'ki^ 

t^ 2d 'Tutur r ''' "" ■^^^^'^ '"*^ *^^ ^•^"^^ -^ ^^ ever th^ « ;' 

the hand. A little careles.snes8 will allow some of the ticks to mature and 
.irop off, and this will keep the pasture and cattle infected and there will be 
ufection the next year. If the work is thoroughly done for thre^ or our 
uonths clurlng the summer and fall, any pasture or farm mav be made fr^ 
from ticks.— OA7a/jo/«« Bulletin 72. 

Ticks m Connkction With Red-Wateb in Cattle. 

of tJr •\';7^«"«/°»"«J Report (Vol. G6, page 143) an account was given 

e ent:n Z d s!f f ""^^ '"^""^'"^ ^"""^ '^'"^^ -^«-"»^ measurelo 
ejention The disease is again referred to here because it has been found 
tl.at the old erroneous opinions regarding Its cause are still wldelvTeld 

t must therefore be rei>eated that red-water Is caused by a microioplc 

ot ticks. It is the fact that ticks play an e.ssential role in the causeatlon of 



■■*r 
"I 







■.■ > 



40 

of age. It is HO .nild a eharortrr In 1.1 . "'' ""'""'' «^" t^« y*""'- 

It generally fails to eLt ,„lL" n T.k.'' """""'* ""'*^'' * ^^^ <"d that 
attack of the disease tends to rZ.r'' 1^ '^'^t^bance of health. As on. 
infected during earTytff are^ afte^ h""'k!!!"""P"''^' ^«"'« -•^'^^ "- 
even though they are grazed on notoH^^ '^'"" ^'^''^'^ ^'^''^^ «r di.. 
these anllls are not en reVfrrfromti". r""''"/ ^'^"°'- '^'^^^rtheles. 
once an animal has been l7f^te^1t ^v^r aflr ?' '"" '""^ ''"'^ '« *^«* ^^•'^-' 
continues to harbour the mill^ iarnsl/ m t'*"'' ^'^ '^^ "°^ "*« ^^'^ ^^^^s. 
This may in most oases be iLdnvDrovI^,? ""^ ''^" ""^"^ «' ^^^'^^ter. 

blood for the inoculation Of a beaUhTalul' ox the' TW""'''' ^^ *''^"- 
being that the Inoculated nnimni^ , ' ^^ **""°^* Invariable result 

about one week. T^t ^71 T.Z'V''" r'^'"'''"'' «' -"^-"t^^ ««e 
were Infected while young TeZ To ne^.'T'If '7"'*"'"'' '""^ ""^'"^'^ ""ieb 
their blood, become inf^ted and naTl" *'^^'«««««• ^^'^ ''<=^' ^ suckln,. 
the same pasture. ^ "** ^''^ parasites on to other animals on 

be e^aTatXotVn'; rveV;:^;^^' ^^^^ ''' ^^^^^^ " "^'^^ -''^ 
out. but m ..ctual oircumstanl snT ' '^f'^'f*^'' ^°»W thereby be stamped 

bowever. be achlevJdTkS^gTttle'r^^^^ '' "'"""^ '^'«^"'*- ^^ "^^^ 
one Whole year, as this SX ex,^ds t^^ 7T' ""' *'^ P'^^*"'"^ '- 
tick Which is denied the opportunit'vT f^*^^ ^^''''''^^ "^^"°>« «f ^ 

tunately. however, there isTsSerld"? ***' ^'"^ °' "° ""''"-^ Fo," 
speak. . eansing a pasture and tTt L t r"^""''^^ """^^^ «f- «« *« 

Sheep for a full period ^f" one year SuJT IZ"''''''''''^ ^'""^ '^^^-^ '"• 
extermination of the ticks ?or these m! . ^''^^^ <»««« °ot lead to the 

gate their species on hote^ Id s?^p"7„tT« «^^ '""''^ -*«*-"- a«<i Propa- 
red-water, an Infective tick ceases t7be^ *" "^ '''*"" '"" ''^ '"'^^^ ^^'t" 
to a Sheep or horse, it is trrholi th„?fT.? """'' " ^"« ""^^^^'i "self 
be systematically made o stamn o^r^i . *•"'' '^""*'*^ ^"^"'Pt^ «"1 ««<'» 
facts just mentioned It must ^notLf"" '^ *"''°^ "**"«"*««« ^^ t^^' 
Pian is that after the fu "ear ts b^n Z""7. '''''' '" '^'^"""^ P^"** "^ *"- 
no animal of the ox species that has r/r.** '**'' '""^ "'"^"«'"^ ^^ t^e ticks. 
even been grazed on rS^vate^lu.^ l!° ""^f "' '•'^-"«*"' ^'^ ^^^<^^ ^a.s 
because, as already explained Tuch anL" \fZ"^ «° t«^« l>»rinea pasture. 

Of the disease in tLr blc^ arwould t^^^^^^^^^^^ '""* "'' "'°*"'° '"^^ ^-»-- 
infecting the ticks. •*• ^'^^^^^O'-e. Provide the means for le- 

imprts. ifisTvi::: rugrthat i^r^r ^-^^^-^ ^ — ^ 

and inconvenience would be caused In c« J , ^ 1'^' * '^'*"'" ^'"^""t «f 1»^'^ 
be asked whether there is any oth- Zl' V'''''^ ^"*' «°** " "•ay, therefore, 
or reduce the loss which he annualT^"' 'j ^'''' ^ '"'"^^ "^^ Prevent 
another method in reality follows from ^h ?.''"'" '■'^■^"*"'-- ^^^^ t'^-«'^ - 
previously be< . explain^ iat the d,?'* ^^« «"-««dy been said, for it has 
usually so m' - as to be of mt.l 1 '"' '^^^'^ contracted in youth, is 

It for the rest of itl li'r Hen^ ^X7;?J *° *»>« -'-al, and yet'prot^ts 

above cannot be put into operatro^.Tfa^me ITs^kT' ""T" ^'^^^^''^" 

luier may geek tu mmimise his los.ses 



41 

and tuL r.„e, 't C^ iZ^nt 71 '"k 7"'°'°"" ^■"^^ '"'«'"-"• 
when this , e animal MM to.hj™^ "'"""I"™™ «0"I1 be that 

land subje t to rotatln oforn/f^^^^^^^^^^^ 'f ""'°^ ^°'^*^ -""«>« *« 

themselves, but the risk Is aTr'v 1 "T""' '"""'^ Permanently establish 

permanent pasture or mcLrland rT T V""" '°'"'*^ ""*"« «^« '"«^«'i to 
HoBSE Bot-Fly (Gastrophilua equi. Fab ) 

famlllar to the Tnc nts ht 5^, 'Z't. .",?" ^'"^- ''''^*^'^^ ^'^^^^ --^^ 
■ Adults of thiJ ! '^"^'' °^ •lls<^us8lon among learned men 

win.r„r.i™',:n?.;rr.u:":,r'''' -t '-* '° ■"«""■« 

irregular, transverse baDd The Z? , "'"' "" "'""•" '»"™'ne an 

.bitisn rront, t^oZXZr,.^:,^ ir^iri^ ■""" ''™"° "•"' 

spots, which are sublect to ,ZTi k, ^'"'^^ '"'"''■^ o^ blackish 

segments are often almost entirHv h"* ' ^'•'""on^- I" the females the 

yellowish spots. whlliTmartbe ^T" ""' ''"^'^ " °^"^«^°«' «^^'^« «' 
or very light brown Lh T abdomen may be almost entirely yellow 

rarely'i^r.oTwhii: V^^^^^^^^^ T' ^^^ ^'«"-t- The m'ales a" 

the females around tthoLrdeLI.nrtH T'""'"" <x^"rrences to witness 
aloof. The eggs arrLht 3Slo7iTcoT f '''' *^' '""^"^ ^^''^^""^ »>ol<l 

the hairs of thLhoulS foreZ undi^^^^^^^^^ '' '"""'^ «"«^'^^^ *« 

mane and other parts orho^l. "' ^'^y* ''"^ sometimes even the 

Shoulders. The m h^' of denosUlon T""!!'"""^^''' '''' *^^ ^«-^^«« -^ 
female hovers neaXtorl ^T Z '^^ frequently observed. The 

Since the bodyrbenfdorwl rftl^ ^?''' "^^"'"^ *° »" °^«^'^- -••"««^. 
«nder the boJytX foment Jhe 7'^''^/'''"^'^ '' *^^"«* '°™-'» 

ventrr^ctt X^ar^;:J whilf ! T '"'""""^ ^^''^ '^ *« P- 
oase Of the o. bot.y. to eomj^^rer-fr ^^^^^ 



vfil 



T4I 



7^ 

if" 















:^''r^' ;f"" 












4>> 



'■ ""1^^^'".^^ t^^^^^^^ 2 The saa.e rendered 

S>, chrysalis; 6. Female fly, from 8DeclmenX«tiA^^- /'u^ 

female, showing the way m VnTch'^he abdomen ls\?.*rn!J,"" = -, ^- ^'^^ ^'^^ «' 
1-., from nature; 8. after Miss Omerod -Neriealand KHn^'^io" ' ^- ^"'^ ^i- 
attack Hes in the oon«plcuo«s ,K,«,tlou of tZ tgT ^oZZan probabl.- 
can overlook these objects when oc-nrrlng on thf horse heTcZgC a ,i 

etr r:rrr::rz:t-.:^r rv^z:: tif r"F 

During July. August and September, or as late as eggs appear on the 
horses, those kept In pasture should be examined once eSrv two or thr e 
weeks and the eggs destroyed or removed. This can be aLm^Hshe^'"; 



43 

::;^" uS ."^r o?^r r:xr:;; rt -"" ^-^ '^-^ --"^ 

kerosene, by o..pp,n« the h„I Tr ' , .k ^0!^ 'T:^ "'^""•^" ""'' 

or n„or. 0„r own ex,.r,enc. ,e.ul« us ^ ?e 'r t f ,. f WUh" """ "^""^ 
knife or rnz«.r (n dull one will u-n.i^ ^,.„ 1. " '*'' " ^'*^^y ^''nrp 

very „„lc.kly „„ oTr Uho t i 1? ^^ ^'"'"^ "'" "''*^'^*^ ""«« ^•"» l>^ 

inetluMl leaves no Zht I Itn .?.''' """"' '' ""•''•• "^ »"« h"*'"- This 

eggs or shells. IM-f^r nc^e erftu "''J'"* ^•"'"•"^•"t^' ^y " 'ot of dead 

l>e asketl by the man who hn«. «„,. 1-7 ^,^'"'"''- ^^ '" '* 1»»'/- may naturally 
I'astnre. Possibly not If i^?"' , t^^"'*y-flve to a hundred colts m the 

single horse, o h ^o " ncUt^n'tf 7'" f ^'"""'*--"'' '•"* "-' ''- "^ » 
fretting of the whole nmn.r . """*'''• "'^"'^'"8 ^om bots. or the 

"^ ren.ov.ng the"4::rfr u^' tCiT rtrr'"" ^'""' "" "'^ -^^ 

of the i,est year after venr iw , , ' ,**'""''**" the presence on tlie farm 

i.n.ve i».».'.,i:r„r.L,",;T"u ';:;'."■'"' "" "• """■-"■" -"». «•« 

Remedies for Bots. 

t..ei^;;!:;rr;:r^ tT^.nd m '^^-^ -^ r '^"™ "'^ --•'• "- 

to the entomologist but it n! v . k *"' '""'''*''■ *" ^''^^ veterinarian than 

few Of the„K if s o CO „ e notl ""' '" '""" '"''^ '"^ ''"" ««-•»">" ^<' a 
of the horse whetl^ ar naVlc^ , .'?' '" """ '"^ '''•^^"""'^ •^•"•'■'« ti.e life 

laekof nutrition IsdrUtll^em^o^t^^^^ "^'""^-^ '^''^'""^ - 

•liuing similar svmntoms an even „ *" '*'"*' ""'^'^ »«"»•>• Pro- 

ia diagnosis. If^asZarls ' '^^'"''f ^'"t veterinarian n,ay be puzzled 
together with LroonZl tt. "^ '" *"" excrement of the animal. 

substance thrt the ^a s o/'le s^^^ "' >vlthstandi„g almost any 

intending to dose for them L to / '"" ""^'"■"' ""'^ ^^^^ ««f^«t plan, If 

-t genLiiy 1^^^::::^^^^::^^;.,^;-^ -r- 

of Agrieulturc, Division of Entomology "'"* ^''- "' '^^ ^' ^'•^'• 

""umnT ,^™-^^^««^^ ^- ^"y^oderma Uneata, Figs. 14 and 15. 

countries, and the same ..l^;^: TaZ ^ sfppZ Tu ^iT''^ '" ^"^^^"" 
careful examination of either larv,e or 11,^^ f , ? . "PP"^""^ »"'« 
i-ertalnty. There Is so much n nl L determine the question with 

of the injury of the wo s^^ie tZT' "'""''• '" *'^ ^"'^'^^ «»^ »«*»••« 
tl.ese general featLs L The *- s T"' "l^I-ropriate to discuss some of 
featu -es for the two forins with J '" ""^ ^'^^ *" ^'^'^ the distinctive 
treatu^ent as nmv be neZkrv '"" '" '"'"" '^''^^''^^^^ o^ h«^'t or 

^-•/. ln\nind apS^prlrlv toThr; '' "'""'"' ""■■^' "''"« -^'«- -"l^ 
n * "i'i"ies i»roi)eriy to the former STjeoiei ^niiUefii, v - x- ^ 

/>c/;a;-f«,o., ./ Agriculture, Division of Entomol^ "' '" *" '• ^• 









44 



m 




t, , (Pio. 14.) 

Female; natural .iic Indicated by side Ilne.-C*rc«/ar Xo. 15. V 8 

Agriculture, i > ^- a. 



Department of 



:« 










"" v!X? v^/eTo?'t}.1?7sLT '^I'lfKr $> -'"Kement of extremities; (.► 
dorsal view of mature llrvi urn, iJ.1 *****"* ?' extremities at (e) and (/ 7 ' / 
lateral view ; "atural slzl^nd catid ursTdl? nnl/"''l?P'™';!^^ " " = <<) «>« ««^l'. 
25, U. 8. Department of Agriculture ^ Hnes.— fVotn "/tweet Z-Vc," C<rc«?«-' 

Ox-Warble. Ox Bot-Fly, Gad-Fly {Hypodertna boris) 

TbeTmale\t"llT'f '""'^ f""'"^ *^' '"""^'^^ «^ J"*^^' J"'^ -"^ August. 
nnl.Kf ^' ^''''' ^^ provided with a very strong ovlijosltor selects if 

pierce the skin and deposit a single oval egg In the hole. This operation 



46 

Is repented till all her ejrm nre Inl.l Aff 

'•"u«e inflammation, and ,>mhur'S.„!.r. ""** •"«^«">^nt8 of the grubs 
found within theHewarbJherdor^^^^^ ^''^ «'"bs are 

t..beH. being pren^ed again"' tte o, "ng ' '"""''^ ""'^ ''^-•' '"« 

wlUot'^tr/erg^rS^^^^^^ — ^^e owning-, 

fall to the ground, where. Iirthrmaggot ' oT the':'" f "'^ ^'•"^«- '''^^ 
the earth, or under anv arallatie "he^fr! , ^orse-bot. they wriggle into 
from Which within a .o..:T:^T.\:'fj::^, '-« ^^« ^^--Hs stage. 

,e..owi«h.v;u"Uz:i;?he^;tir^ «-* - *- •>«<'>• «- 

black and yellowish One Hp^lm^f.. ^''* '"" "'^•^'»^" '" ^^^^^-^ «hlte. 
•luarters of an inch in length '' Possession measures just three: 

the h^r o^ r ^irrir i?^«5:oL"'" "v^'"- »>- '^ «>- '"^"- 

states that the nnnualloss hrthe lilted ^ T'"""' ^ ^correspondent 
amounts to several millions sterling. * "" '•"^'^ **^'« ^'^"^^ «'«»« 

-4 Preventive of Warbles 

of sublimed sulphur. 1 gin of spirits nft„.; " '™'"'*'' "' -» «»»«« 
-Mix well together, and U.v aCg t.^ ^e" «^t /'"^ ' f ^"'" ''^ "•^«'*^°"- 
off the flies and prevents thmnfrl V . ' " ^''"■''''- ^he smell drives 

Mosquitoes. 

the:z"drsirfitT/y«,:rTrei:r ""' •^^^^ •'"* « '™"^"' — of 

that every means shou d bTused o mlt LT";h '" '""' '^"^^ °^ ^'- ^^""try 
wild areas of swampy land It ^ an ZtT^ *'! "'"• ^' ^''"^««' '" ^^'^^ 
near buildings and In clrcmul LS bJl.n' '' *' ""'""P* «"^ "'^'"^'y' ^ut 
towards ridding ourselves rthft^tsThe'Tn' V'* ^'"' ^"° "^ '^o"^ 
mended by Herbert Osborn. of theTn-ted ^ . "^'^''^^ *''""''"^"* *« ^^'o™' 
" Probably the best .and certaUy tL allest :f S^ "'°* '' Agriculture: 
mosquitoes Is the application of kerosene tothl J"^""^ '"'""^^^ "^"'»«t 
The suggestion that kerosene could ^1^ 1 .""^ ^^ '"'"^'°« I'oo'^- 

new and has been made more Tan o^oev"' ? ''"""^^ ^^'^ mosquitoes Is not 
ou a large scale were m^de In ISOo h, the r'^^''"^"*^ «»* «' doors and 
exminients show that aprroxl?tetol''r '^'''^^ ""«* subsequent 
feet Of water surfac on Cr^^^^^ 

i" that pool, with the addltllnl^t^^^^ Z ''^, If"^ ^"' ""'^» 

rteterrt^l from attempting to oviposit ^re Ln^ . ""^"^ ^^'""'^«' "«* 

ken>sene-covered water. Ordlnrr^T ^e .p'l" ^on",!"^ ^'T.'^"^'' "" ^'^^ 
;' month, though varvine clrc»n,«t ,„,J>1 "i'^""^^*'^'^ need not be renewed for 
tions In certain cases?' '^'^^"'"«t«"^'^^ ">«y require more frequent applica- 



,r.< 



.1: 



.•'it' 



4': 

L. O. Howard (Bulletin Xo. 4. r. 8. Depnrtniw.t of Agriculture). Mnj-s- 
"Altogether the most satisfMotory way8 of tlghtlng mo^iultoeH are thow whirl, 
result m the destruction of the larvie or the aholltlon of their breeding plaivs 
In not every locality are these measures feasible, bnt In many places there is 
absolutely no necessity for the nios<|ulto annoyance. The three wain i>n" 
ventive measures are the draining of breeding places, the introduction of snx.ll 
flsh into flshless breeding places, and the treatment of such pools wltl. 
kerosene. These are three alternatives, any one of which will be efficacious 
and any one of which may be usetl where there are reasons against the trim' 
of the others. 

Housk-Flies. (llusca domentka) Linn. 

Under this general designation tlie several species which infest dwelllni;s 
and are not only disagreeable, but from experiments recently coudn.-ted it 
has been found that house-flies do carry about on their legs fllth of all kinds 
aiid are therefore not only disgusting but probably dissemhmtors of diseas..' 
The t-cmmon house-fly {Munca ,lome,tica, Linn.) breeds In nmnure and do.,,- 
yard fllth. and it Is therefore of the utmost Importance that cleanliness sl.oul.l 
be observetl In and about the premises. Howard says: "There is not mud, 
that need be said about reme<lies for house-flies. A careful screening ... 
w ndows and doors during the sunmier numt^is. with the supplementarv use .,f 
sticky fly-paper, is a methotl known to everyone, and there seems to be llttl.- 
hope In the near future of nnuh relief by doing away with the breed'ng pi,u,.s 
A single stable in which a horse is kept will supply house-flies for an .vten-l..! 
neighbourhood. People living In agricultural communities will probaoly nev.T 
be rid of he pest, but In cities with better methods of disposal of garbage. a..,l 
with he lessening of the number of horses and horse stables consequent up.,,. 
electric street railways and bicycles, and probably horseless carlages, tl„. 
time may c.>me. and befc»re very long, when window sc-reens may be discard..! 
The prompt gathering of horse ma.uire, whion n.ay be treated with lin.e .„• 
kept in a specially prepared pit. would greatly abate the fly nuisance, and dtv 
ordinances compelling horse owners to follow some such course are deslrabl.; 
Absolute cleanliness, even under existing circumstances, will always result i„ 
a diminution of the numbers of the house-fly, and, as will be pointed out 1.. 
other cases In this bulletin, most household Insects are less attracted to th. 
Z"tSertlnar' '' ''°"'''° "' "'" »'<l-fa«hloned housekeeper than to those of 

Clothes-Moths. 

" mol^r^.r! "'^ f T** '•?''^'"'' 1>«»«^'^^P*"''. The mere mention of the wonl 
aiTf^ir enir r.f *^, T^"""^ "'^ ^'^lo''^ «f household treasures of wooll.„ 
and fur eaten full of holes, their beauty gone, their usefulness past It w ,s 

Ss-'ZTf *'r' ^'r "''"■'"^^^''^ '"^"•■^^^ "-« eaused'by a Si.;;: 
sSes'o f 1 1r ^" ^'"^'-''^ that we have In this country three 

s,>ecies of clothes-moths. These differ in habits as well as In structure. 

species is a'trir^'"'".''*""''"'^ ^ "''""« P^^'«>ncIla).-TUe larva of this 

whTch are f. '"T ."^' ™"""^ " ''''' ""* «^ ^"« ^^ "« foo,l-matc.i.l 
^hlch are fastened together with silk. As the larva grows It enlarges Its cnse 



47 

The pupa «ate „ Pa-JlwUhTn'Th^^eat ^^^^^^^^ ^"" -"S' «- "^n 

with « few „„rk .,K,tH „„ u, ,„re:„^„ "*^- ^''^ "*»"'* ^^ « •«»>«" browu moth 
The TuJte-lHilldlng Clothes- Moth iri..,, . 

Thtogali„jta]„«,oj„|,„„ « " ««1 «ltll »ra«.ne„„ „f rfoth. 

''•™"l- ""■"■'ore, tl,,. x„|.„, ci",r,,'l" """ °" » «""-"•'•■ " an,- be 
otter t«„ „«.,„. Butwhe,,,l,e,„irtaf^n'J "'■""■I'""""™ to the 

xu. .0.. ,. „, . ,„,„„ .t™..^j;::r^ro:"'jr:;irr..«r ""• 

Protection from Clothes-Moths 

OruHhecl and examlnnl for th^ Zt/nnH . T""'" '"'«"'^' ''- thoro.ghly 
practicable. Then they shouldbe'^ p"' ^^IT; *^ ^''^ «»""«'>t an longt 
packed 1« pasteboard boxen, which cTi ten? ^" ''''"' ""^''- "•• '>^tter. 
-ack tetween the cover and the b^x L^ ZZlu "* '''"'"' "^^^' «"^ *»•« 
lt.-/n«ec<*. Comstock. ^^^ •** ^"''""8 « strip of paper over 

CATxr. HoHX.Fx,v (HacnatoMa sonata, Dksv.) fi,. la 




<n IS^rhrdrrch^hL;^ J;-"Satr ' r^ ---- «- '» Canada 

t is abundant they fa„ off rapi, yTtL fn fll? "';' "^ '*'*^' «« ^'^"^ -^fn 

he time it first appeared m ranad. ?his flv r "'"' '" ^'"^^ "' ""^^ ^'^om 

I^uiniuion. reaching the Pacific cC In m, butt" ^T" ^" P""" «^ ^^^^ 

1J«3. but is by far more troublesome 




.-'1, 






;%i 



48 

In thp Eantorn Provlnopn thnn in the Wwit. Tlio fly In n Hi.itill aihI very nctlv.- 
dark uniy kimhIw. ulMMit on«'-thlrd the nlxe of the onllnnry ciittle-fly. nii<l 
■hniHMl JuHt like that Innec-t, with the Name kind of biting. daKKer-HhaiKHl Jwak. 
rarrUHl projistlnu forward In front of the head. When In Inrite niinibern them^ 
flies fn^inently ehwter on the horns to rent. It was from this habit that tiM-.v 
Kot their name. 8tatement« that they bore holes Into the hornH are Inamurate. 
The only harm done by them Ih due to their very IrrltathiK bites on the Imn1Ii>n 
of the aninuils. The eujjs are laid by the females In freshly deiM.slt«I .-..w 
dropphiKs. The maKKots liatih In 24 hours and IwH'ome full grown In nlwut a 
week : they then burr<»w down a short distanee Into the ground and turn to 
brown puparla. from whidi the flies emerge In four or five days. There are 
several broo<Is during the Hunuuer, and the last brood or nniggots pnsws the 
winter as puparla. 

RemnHen 

Of the many remedies we have tried, the following have given the greutewt 
satisfaction: (1) Smearing the parts most usually bitten with a mixture of 
lard, 5 lbs., r.nd pine tar. 1 lb. Two applk-atlons each week when the flies are 
very bad. Mix well together and apply to the parts most attacked, brushlnij 
the mixture lightly over the tips of the hair. After two or three applications 
the treatment has more effec-t than at first. ; (2) Spraying the animals twicv 
a week with ordinary kerosene emulsion. (3) Fish oil, 2 quarts, and oil of 
tar, 2 oz. ; or flsh oil. 2 quarts, coal oil, 1 pint, and oil of tar. 2 ozs. (4) Goo-I 
work may be doue by breaking up the cow droppings In the field. The uiaggutH 
can only live In the dung while It is In a moist condition. A boy with a rake 
could go over a pasture three times a week and break up all the rresh 
droppings and the drying up of these by the sun or the washing away by rnin 
would kill all the eggs or maggots, thus locally reducing the numbers verv 
much. 

Cattle Lice {Trlchodectca scalaris, Ilacmatopinus curynternua, Xitzsch.) 
The loss from these disgust) .ud very common parasites of horneil 
stock Is far greater than Is genera <ly appreciated. Many animals turned 
out in spring in poor condition have been reduced in flesh by the constant 
discomfort of being preyed upon by myriads of lice, which might have been 
destroyetl by a little attention on the part of those in charge of them On 
account of the small size of lice, they are often overlooked until they have 
become very numerous and have done a great deal of harm. Lousy animals 
win neither rest nor feed well. They are prevented from putting on fle>8h 
their growth is stunted, and their meat Is neither so good nor produced so 
economically. It Is well known that an animal kept in good condition «n.l 
steadily Increasing in weight costs much less to prepare for the market tb:,!, 
one whose growth is checked and allowed to get Into poor condition. Li. ,. 
cause more loss In stock than Is generally appreciated. This loss is unnect-s- 
sary, because all of the common external parasites of live stock can be easily 
and cheaply treated. There are two kinds of lice found commonly on cattl.' 
the small blue louse or biting ox-louse {Tvichodectes scalaris, NItzsch), and 
the big black louse or, short-nosed ox-louse {Haematopinus eurvstemu:< 



B 



40 



nJIl!iL".-m JT """"'*'* "•* -".netlim.. found In great n«mlK.n. «n 
neglecfPd onttle. and when the stalln have become thoroughly InfeHtwl are hard 

benefit to the atock and to the owner. Many remedle. are known. We have 
I^thrTbbZ't" "ll'*; •"'"^' --"-'-"on. l-raylng It on to the „. „,. 

uiS Tor tht n.n '"h ""^ '"^ ^-nvenlent. Recently «,„oIeun. ha- . J. 
^f^^nr/h V,'' "'"''"• ^" """«^*'"'* P"* o' »•>« treatment con. at! 

i^cT Of thrw^^wo^:. "" '"" ^''^ '"'""■ -"•* '"'*« '° *»•« --"• -«» 

Hoo Louse (Hamatopinua $ula, Lsach). 

It Jii' V'^i^i" '" Mf* '?" '"'''''°' "*"»'-«ng one^quarter of an Inch In length. 
It la of a dirty white colour marked with brown. The feet are provided with 
-trong claw., with which they cling tightly to the hair.. AUhou^Jrl, the 

117h»T. Z " ^"" '° ""•*'"'*^' t*** "«"« r«°>«»«e« mentioned for t^ 

rhorrughly. ' '" "*^"' *° "P^y **>« "^P«°« 1»"tera very 

Sheep Loit.b (THchodectei, ,phcerocephalu», Nrrzscir 

in-ea™'rltati;n't7lnZll,'"T 1"' '' " ""^ trouble«>me para.Ue. cau.Ing 

SemJlv^ Ind bv ^/r .?.!:.''''''' "''"^ *'•""■ <»'«««"'«« by rubbing 
inemaeive. and by biting at the wood. Moat of the severest caw's of Infest* 

Z"r^t7VTn^7 '^° '" '''' "'"*"• ^^-^ -^-•'^ ^ exTml^Lttre 
winter sets In, and If any lice are found they should be dipped. 

Fleas. 






:4i 






* 


I i 


1 




i 






ii 



i 



w 

l-.'i 

i 



50 

P^.w-h.rs was Inoffcrt.u.l i„ ono c-nwi'of extmno Infostati.,,,. .. was also an.i 
. noro nMuarkahly. a f.w spr,„klin« of tt.K.r ,nattl,.«s with 1.., ,e fc,' " 
imuuu. ,t was „nal.y .uv.ssar.v to take up tho floor .-ovorh.us . , wish 
^K> s < own With hot Hoapsnds h. onh-r to sec-uro rcli-r fro.n ,„.. ,1 ^^ 
In anothrr caso. how.v.r. a sh.Rlo III„.r«l applicatlo,, of hnhach was « r^^^^^^^^^^ 

o,„ distnrbanco .xlst. Infestation, howevor. is not lilcely to o<rur '7 ■ 
•.'...') tloors .an ho f.v.pu.ntly and thoroughly sw.pt. Whon an outbreak .. 
s ..onu-s, howov.-r. th. .asi.-st rnn.xly to apply ,s a free sprink ln,f 
IJ yt unun powder in the infested roon.s. This failing, hen.lne „ av he rie 
a ti orouKh spraying of earpets and floors bein« undertaken, with the exen i ' 
..due jn-eeant o,. „ se..in«. tluU no ,i«hts or fires are in the house at the a 
f the application, or for son.e hours afterwards. Finally, if the plague i. , 
1U.H abate, . all fl.x.r eoverinss nn.st be renmve.l and the floors wXl w 
hot soapsads. This is a useful ..nH-aution to take in any house wid t 
I.i-opo.sed to eh.se f<.r the sununer. sine, even a thorough Hwee^.V^v h av. 
...hind some tew flea .-ggs from which an all-,H.rvadin« swarm L,rdevel , . 
before tlie liou.se is re-opened. uimioj. 

" Provide a ru« for the .-at .,r the dog to sleej, on and give this ru- •, 

nZl"^' '\""V""n """"'""' "'^"""'"^'^ *^''^'»'"« "" ""«! burning tlu L 
thus r™u>v..l. As all the flea eggs on an i„feste<l aninn.l will not however 
.lr.>p off in this way, and those which renndn on it will probab y evel i 
Hu«.ssfuily. it will be found wise to cx-casionally rub into the hair of he d !^ 
or cat a .piantity of pyrethrum powder. If thoroughly applied. It will cans;: 
the fleas to fall off in a lu.lf stupefied condition, when Ley. t..o. maj be sw t 

SZ1>C"'~^"""' ^" '• '■• '■ ""''""""'"' ""' ^^^'•*^""«-' ^^^^^'^ 

Bed Bro (Acantliia Icctulatia, Linn.). 
n,n«7't'" rr"'?' '^*'«"'''^«' '»y I^'n»«^"« « ^"entury and a half ago, has been a 
to aetern.il;r '" ""' ''""-'' '""^ •^''^ '""« " ^'"''^ '* i/aulte difflcult 

n 1 f '^''\"^''''' ""'*"'• «»>»'«'« "re Involve,! in too much obscnrlty to 
allow of any estimates being forn.ed. As found in houses infesting man t 
<-an only be conshlered as semi-parisitlc, living for the most part .si-retod i 
cracks and ..reviews and attacking its victims during the night. Prra'!^ it" 
attacks upon other animals are of a similar nature, although It is referred to 
b.v some autlu.rs as a parasite of d..me8tlo fowls. 

end "^i"^ wm rr'\'': ''"""' '" " "''"''•' """"'•' «"«''»-^- "«rrowed at on., 
circular lid at one end. 



61 

arasmsm on otlu-r aninu.ls than „.an. Pa.kanl iiUmouXollZTf 

=s^r;:;..;:r j;..!^^ ---- — -^ ^-- ^-i - - 

nvos",!„'r'ir''/'';' ""' '""' "^ "•""'"'^^ ^'^ ^■'" '^-•""■'«-I'laces of n.an and 

nr . ? "' '"■""' '•"'"' "' •■••^^"♦'""- ""t wo l.av,. know,, (t to .w a 

in pHKliKions n„„,l„.rs in a .hi.kon I.ons,.. wln-ro It n,nst havo f.. i J 
u.KU^,i.kons- ,„.HH,. an.1 it is sai.l to o<.„.. ailT Jn K ,^ . i::t:Mi::::: " 

arrj Ih.I 1m,-s fro,,. ,,laco to ;,latv. and .•onsi,l..i-i„K tlic s,„l,lon.".s witl, whlH. 
^.y appear in now bnii„in.s. and so.noti.nos in l.nildi,.; ,,:;.; ,' 
. «olil n«s it s.c.,«s ham to otln-rwlso acv<„„.t for ti.Hr appv.ra, •,! s , 

r rt^''^:"';": '""r '" "'^^ ''"' ^"-^ ""•• ^^ oppoitn„iti.:-.v>r ,:: 

!'<.iTat,on. thoie ^^ill ho no insnporablo dlrticnlty In acconnti,,.- for all s,„I. 

:'=;:;•„„/";;:';': '""--'-' -" "• - "■"' -• -«--."":';;:: 

Prrrniiioii and Ifcmah/. 

CIoanIl,»^s and tho ..pplhation of tin. c-on,n,o„ ronnnlics s,kI. as bon.ino 

<orrosivo s„bli,„at.. and hot water, wiil nsnall,- s„m.v to Ico ; tl p Ts 

nHhu-e.1 m ordinary dwoiii„Ks. l„,t in lar^o bnildin.^s n.oro ,t«on, .» . ro' 

nn,y sou.eti.nos be necessary, and in sn.-i, c-ases ti,e.v is ,.n.i.al I .,, ,.," Iro 

rr^ri-^tZii^ir::; ;:r-- ^-•-- -«,...:;-= 

XVe know personally of an in.sta„ce .here a lar«e bnildin«. l«dlv i, Se<l 
^Mth this pest, on being thoroughly fu.nigated with sulphnr as a , i. fectant 

MtZTVT' """""'^ '^•- ^'^'"^ ^"- -u.p„n.tively free fro iT^r;' 

Attentiou to the cracks In the walls and around casings, as well alrflhe 
jointe of bedsteads, will do much to keep ,>ests under control ^ ' 

For Innnediate relief 1,. a sleeping roo..,. pyrethrum is ...r.st available since 
oa.. be used while a roo.n Is occupied. Dustcnl botwcH>n the sh^tsU „ Cl 
t will protect the sleei.r f.-om the most voracious hotel l^ul-mZm Vo J 
1 . 8. Department of Agrieulture, Dirhion of Entomology. ' 

Lice of Human Beings. 

Children and people of dirty habits are especiallv subject to infestation hv 
those, perhaps the most objectiouable of all Insects ThreeT^ m s „"''^''*"*'"" ^'^ 
..K>wn to attack human beings. Those are ZZ^ )^ZZ:Z^::^^ 

those of others. The head-iouse seems to prefer the region Just abm^ethe 3 






tr 






I 



fP, i 



"I 

1. 



62 

sand tLSuM^La, Tn TmZtf T. "^ "^'^ *''^''^ "^^^^'''^^ "!^'> 

anyone .^'TaUTb^^.Tu^^^^^^^^ T."/ T "'" ''^*^ ^P>«' «>"^-«" 
the head-louse, and annearB to mJ hv / """'' ^""^ *'''"*^"'* *"««^* "^an 
any fold of which It wmcree^ "'h 7 '"''''1^'^ «° ^^e under-clothes. Into 

blood of Its vlothu/ It i^T Jherffon ?f ^"'""° " ^"' ^"^"^ »»> «>^' 
The crab nrpf -JI .' **'*'^^'°'^«' *» ^oll any clothes which harbour it 

nearly driven mad by ttenf rndT.?«tr.^ '°« ^"' ^"'^*° * '"*»*8»»t «>« 

TFa«Ae« and Dips. 

the .moan, „f wi^' " be 11 "^h ""? """"^' ^^""^ '^""^ °P»° 
Muttons Of ,Z^ dUut, c^LJ'' ?"l """»'"<' »"»««"»8 .re tte 

«..e„c.,«H,«:^;r':;re'r>oriirz°' -»""'- — -' 
the ^L"r.°cr„re"^ :^'rr "Lr "°°' rr '- "'"■ • "> - 

even In winter, with some carrto „t„^f . °" "'"°'^°'' «>» •« ""^ 

re^ohln, ever, ,„„., „,„ sU^ .0X1^7"^ 0^^"" °'" "'"""' 

and ahonld not eonwrlVe thfn 2^, "" '""°°''™ '° °"»' •»"»«'»■ 
of water. ' consLteuiy a„d then diluted with required amount 

Dip twice, wl.h an lntorvn,"f " n aT™ ^he In'J u "'. "*i '° "»<"«-" f' 
soft soap, 4 pounds- watPr nnln J ' ^ ^•*"*^= "^^ ««'^' 20 pounds; 

-uid . .:.^. ..-r.^ rXr rr.:"dr.?^orrT' 



53 

th. ^°'?"'Tf1 ''"•~'^''"" *" ^'"''""'^ ^'' ^••- ^''■""^•'« to give on a law scale 
«^^. mos satlHfactory results for ticks. The oil Is simply ,K>ured ou a vat 
filled with water, the cattle being drenched with It as they euierge 

n„v h^^", ^Z r'""'' " '""" ''"* '•" ^"ffl^''*'"*. «»d Plg«. lambs, dogs. etc.. 
may be dipped In a tub or barrel. There is a patented dipping devlc* fo; 
lowering animals Into a tank. 

Wherever dipping Is to be practised to any great extent, the construction 

BuHe^n Ao. 5, L. S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology 

DisKAses OF Poultry. 
Prevention is better than cure, and the breeder who kerps the houses 
clean, warm and properly ventilated, and has the water and feed vessels 
always clean, need have little to fear from diseases. 

Roup. 

This Is the most to be dreade(4 of any of the troubles that the poultryman 

3 l^'V^'^r "*''■• '' '' " «"^« «^*« '^ «tart the whole flc^k may go 

that sho "?'""' '' *"''" "* '''' ^*"*' '« ^^''"y ^^«<^'^«<»- *»«! the bird 

that 8ho«8 any signs must be immediately isolated from the rest of the flock 

The symptoms are: Eyes watering, nostrils closed, breathing deep and fre^ 
quently swelling round the eyes. 

As soon as it Is detected. 'take the bird and after dissolving a teaspoonful 

under and hold It there till It seems to choke, which action will draw the 
solution in o all the cavities of the nose and throat, and I have found la 
most effective remedy. Do not use any tins or cups that are ranted for any 
o her purpose, as the disease is very Infectious. Put the bird n a dry warm 
P^ce an^ repeat the treatment in a few hours. Zinc ointment or caL^ated 
vaseline is also good to apply to the swelling round the eyes. 

Cholera. 

*M T'*\''''^' ''^^^^ ^'t** ^^''^'era »» dejected, sleepy and droopy, is very 
thirsty, has a slow, stalking gait, and gapes often. They often stagger and 

Zrh'^'^ Tt "'• "'"^ ""'"'^^ *"™ ^"'^ "^ sometimes dark and thfy have 
diarrhoea. At once remove al'. -affected birds to a warm, light place with plenty 
of clean straw. Give no water except with "Douglas Mixture" in same 

IT^I^^l^ f''^"*' ""'**• *" P"*^^*"* ^^^ ^P^^"*! «f tb« <"«ea«e. Nothing but 
Tt? iZ:^T^^J'^- '^^^""*'° ^^ "^« -'^ -- -- ^- this d?s'eaJ^^ 
effLlL """^ '"^' ""^ ^'^^^^ treatment Is most likely to b^ 

Crop Bound. 

a laT^I' Zei"""?/'."^"'" '"^ "''''' '""'*" '° confinement more than those on 
LlT^ rfn . """""^ "^'"^ ^y over-feeding, and unless relieved 

promptly death is sure to follow. Relief may be quickly given by openi^ 

elTth" ' r'f' "''' "^ '''"P '^°''^' ^""^'^^ « Bllt sufficiently Tg to 
.emove the contents. Clean the crop with warm water and sew up again 



H^ 



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A: 

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54 

Oapen. 

..».r'::;:;r;-;s;i,,rr rcr",;'" ""■"' "■""'- — '- "■ "•■.■ 

■iPIN'trt,.. '^ " '""■'■""!■ "■K-llUT ,vlll, l„„rt|v|t,v , ,„ ,„ 

•' ««' ... .... .,z ,r , :":;uV';" ,;;";', " ;••"•. """" '" '" ' "■ 

.l.e lill.t. • " '"'' "'"' ..'« '«"!, .......It tai dn.io t„ 

ifff Wcnknesn. 

ineroases the weight of the bo^Tv To ',':? '•" '"" ''^S" f-<"»«. whi.h 
the legs; ,t „„,re generallv rJ^^„rri,f Cf "! '" "'' "'""'"'"^ ^*'-'^»«"' "^ 
Brahinas, particularly in the^^erelV ""^^ "■'^'' ""^'^ ""^ ^'^^•"'■- »"" 

t'-r ;^ri;tcircr:^j;n^^^ r^ — - ^ ..rt 

T/rr,.,«c«^-i„ an earlv ^Ze.ZZZl^'"'V'' '''''' '''' "* «"• 
a day: One grain of sulphide of iron *^."*"7^»^ I'"' *«»'•« or three times 
l'«Jf a grain of quinine. ' ^'^ ^'"'"^ ^"^ I'Hosphate of lime and 

Doiifflaa Mixture. 

^■-n^^^fin^^zx:^:.:^^;;!;^^ ^^ -'^''«- «' ^- (common 

1 «ai,o„ Of water. Into this n^ '; lirte'Ti ''"* '"'^ " '""'« ^ J"« 
Is dissolved add the acid, and v hen If i« ? .. ^'''''- '^" ''^'^ «« »he iron 
In hot weather, or when he fli^, / ^i:, '^ " "''*"" " '' '''''''' ^^ "- 
but the above proportion should be rsorv^Thr- ":'; *" '"'^'"''''^ «* ""-• 
be given in the drinking water evervTfh!!' , '"'^ture" or tonic shonld 

bead is not too u.uch-and where there L'%dr* ^"' '"'' ^"'^'y twenty-flve 

but Where there is no disease, not o often ort 'n"""* '*' "^^ ^^•*'^-^' ^'«>- 
day. ""' ^'^ <*"««' or In small quantities If used every 

^^ ^'^««'^ Pests of Fowls. 

keep d«wrthe":en„h; '7LsXu' rT''' '' '^ «^«"'"^^">- "— rv to 
also troubled, but to a lei deg ^^ ^ S" ."'f '^^^ *" •■'^'^"^-«: turkey^'aL 
If at all. "^^'^**' ^^hlle dm-ks and geese are worried little 



55 

newness, than It is in «„,• other part .,f Cana.h,. Hut It ,an he ,„ntroIU.,i 
with comparative ease If proi.,.r inethcHls ho adopted <<'"tioM,,l 

found nn eager market for all kinds <,f patent Hxturos for the ,s t ' 
prevention of the vern.in .H-st. I tern, suc-h fixtures luxuries and s n t 
as non-essontial. Kut it will he necessary for us to kn<,w so, etl i iof 1 
khds of vermin which Infest poultry houses and the f<.wls the ei^"L 
«ell as .omethinK nt the nature of the san.e. hefore we can i t el L „t Iv 
discuss their prevention as iH'sts. "in him ntl.\ 

Vermin pests are of two kinds, viz., lice and mites 
The lice stay on the fowl and are mostly the large grey louse. 
Kinds of Lice on FoirU. 

'■ 'i^rac'^^'^r " •■"""" '"'"' ^'•"""'- ^'^ *'»' ^"'•«"" «--V loose, 
hehind^ Lun ''^"'^'-^ -' >' '"»""«" «"«! very prolifl,.; it trails a tickler 
In .. ; *- " '■*''■•'■ '"-'^"^'"R «'"satlon: lives chieflv on feathers 

Hence It is a pan.site and stays on the hlrd all of the time 
louscf "■"'"'' ' " ''"■"' " •"""""••' "'*'"«'^ "«t Ko large" a. th, largo hen 

^^n^:aZy'Z^i^''' '""'^ '^ "^"""^ ^'-"' "1- ^-'- »''-'- i^ very 
name'dtotef"*"" '"" '' '''"'""" *" "'"^"' '^"* '^"^-"'t '- «""!-. «« Its 
above. ''""'""" "'" '"'"■ '' " "'''"""' ^'^^' "•'"' l>«'>it.s «huil«r to all of the 
,n H^"; ^''k. "*" ''^ *^^ ^'^ •''"'^^ **^ ^'^'^''^*^» "t-e ahove-mentloned are sin.il-.r 
are so small that they can scarcely he seen with the naked pvp- nt, - .^ 
-retlve in habits as to be sc-arcely disc.rnibie al^^gt.^ f^, ther Tl" 

" The^ ZZ Tr'" °' ''•^•^^ "^^ ^^« "large "'and xJ'^Zj^' 
r!« „ ' "'"^*' '^"' '*'■*'" "'^»»Sh It be only one here and there 

It Is a sure sign of great numbers of the pests 

Among the varieties of lice there Is also: 
The common duck louse. 
Squalid duck louse. 
Clear duck louse. 
Clear goose louse. 
Biting louse of turkey. 

Mites. ,, 

These are of two kinds, viz. :— 

^^^^^ 1. Chicl.cn mite (4 legs), .sometimes white and grey, but blood-red when 
nealthj fo... suua becomes lu.possibie. The chicken ndte leaves the bo<ly of 



*t 



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*il 



56 

the hen before the fowl lenvpH tha i-A^^ . 

attac?/troor ^r «r;pZ:r "t"*^' "- ^-^ «--. ,t «... 

-cales. and the oe^. ,uin7« noTX 1,""k ?t """' '' ""'" '''•"« P°'"^« - 
-eems to stand Btlll f^r Lrhanl Tmon^ k . '"i?^"- ^'•^ *'''*"«* ««»««'°-« 
work. The base of the ^rJ^ h 2. ' **"* "" °' *'»'" ""« ^^e mite Is at 

The feathers oTtbe head sTandTat^hr"."' T. '' '"" '' "*"« ^— « 
imbed themselves In the flesh and r^lf. ,*..'"'*' ^*"' ***""• ^"^""^ »!>• tJ-^^ 
the feet and legs this m te " aCve"^^^^^^^^^ T"^ '''' "^»^- «" 

knots; a crust forms beneath the ^^es and thT. T'^^.'^'j^P ^^^ O'" 'om In 
"Scaley leg" is nothing more nor Z than 1 '^'. '*°^ ''*^' """"'^ '"»<^'>- 
the " Itch mite." *^'*° *° excessive state of the work of 

Remedies. 

CLEANUNEP8 OF HeN HOUSES. 

insisJz'ir^'grstrist '°rr ^'•^ «•"« - — -- 

about three times aTar^prTni m^dr" ^" ''° '""^'^ ^"'^ ^«'""« ^ater 
hot lime and 5 per<^nr:^ZncaTZ7'f ''"• '''^° "^^^^^^^^^ -"'^ 
sulphur. Put coal oil In the craJki and on \^ ""'" '^ fumigating well with 
8ood, as Is also Persia!; Ins^ Powder "^'''^ '°'^* ''"'^^ '' 

tub JX^slTeT'^^Dust :rT^t7 '"r^*"^^' *^^'"- ^^^ ^^^^^ t^'-^l^ 
effect their death. So then It ^i^ 7' 7"' ''°^ ^''^^ ^"•'^^ «°<i h«noe 
have access to a dus^' ba tt and L prr^TnThlcrtb'^ ''"'^ ""^* "'"'«^« 
Btrongl. Of some tar extract.-^, ^^^^^l: To^V^unZ:' ^'^^"'^ ^"^" 

THE TKEATMENT OF WOUNDS. 

""' 'udgl'"r;J'' ^^'"' ^•''^'"^*- o' «tock Of western Australia. 
there'"apt ™ lot iTg^TX" t'oT'^'^^ T ^"-^^'^^^ and others, 
ing wounds .nd other ^uri^ otTtZT "J *** '""^ ^''^^ "«*'>«^ «' *««*- 
Object Of endeavouring to hl!J 1 ^. "! " ,^^'-JP«o° ^ and It Is with the 
are offered, which are prLar,V Intended 7" ^ ''"'' *'' ''^"''^''^^ ^^""""^^ 
m contact with animals whoTre m^« ! r^""" *°*^ ^^^'^ '° ^^e bush 
ance. "''' '*''° "« "°««y <>«* of reach of professional asslst- 

use o"ZZ\Z':X::ZeTn^^^^ ^-«"- «' *^'« -^ the 

constant use of which mere^^ tends to^«t^' ^"* ^'^'^ '' * '"'«**'^^' «»d the 

other, plain English will ^ the ^st and'n th """ ^'^ *^ -nderstand each 

oe ine best, and on the present occasion we shall. 



57 



UB far a« ,K,88lble. .tick to it. leaving the Jaw-breakers for the anatomv 

HO imimportant as to be looked u,K>n as of no consequence; L the sZLt 
scratch sometiu,es may lead to serious complication^ ending p^Jh.pt ^"'deaTJ 

nf thoK J . . ""* "^^ •*' * Clean-cut wound on some muscular oart 

of the body is to stop the bleeding, if excessive, but unless it is verT^eat Id 
ZT:T^ blood-vessel is severed, this need not bother us 7n T k«^^ 

r: th aranXnt^'^Jb?^ *° ''' "«"°^ ''' -*' " »« "^^'-'^e to waTh 
iTl./* antiseptic. There are many such at present, such as carbolic acid 

1 . ^re gld" t1 r^' "'^'"^' ''^'' ^™-«-«te of potash, phe^ ."et" 
All are good. This often prevents trouble afterwards, by helping to war 1 off 
infection of the exposed lacerated tissues caused by mLoTrganismri . the 
atmosphere, and which are ever ready to increase and multij^aro cv L^ 
A .-ound is the open door by which they enter our system. „* >uam inX":!' 
A trouble with wounds Is now well known to be due to these .maU or^a^"ms 
and when means are taken whereby they are prevented from galnhr" ^ess 
to the t ssues much better results are experienced. Antiseptic have the 
power of arresting the growth or of entirely destroying thes^ orrantm! n 
days gone by. when antiseptics were not used and their a7tirnotTnow„ 
the mortality from wounds and injuries, especially those aTtir,nte™ai 
parts Of the body such as the chest or abdomen, was sometlmeT^ "ad ^Tnd 
fully 40 per cent, never recovered. In those times to amputate a Cor an 
arm. not to mention anything worse, was about as much as the pat enfs life 

Z r • T "'*'"'"'°'' '""'^''^ *•«« «> ^'"'^^ on account of badliu s 
that scores of people preferred to run all other risks rather than re^rtT It 

re^ultfnTf 'Vh' '""' "'' "'^"^ ''''' ^' ^^^ " '« -* ««-n we heTo7dea h 
resulting from the operation Itself. Antiseptic surgery has chanjej evil 

hing and operations of a nature which would have bee^ lauS at aJ 

Sn douhr'''T ? "" '^'^ '«^^ "' performeTnow :fh^3„li 
Skill, no doubt, counts; but 50 years ago there were surgeons In FranT3' 

before the l.temal part, teal ; and often on thl. account ai^fZh! 

=;zrrrrn::^tn:Tncrorrra.r^7""°' 

In bringing the edges of wounds together, it Is alwavs na «.oii ♦„ k„ 
to cut away as little of the skin as possible as t d^3 rL7^ ,. ''"^'"' 
ugly blemishes are ' -ft where skin S^remo;ed "^ "^""^ **^''' '*"** 

The applications applied to wounds by Ignorant nersona nr« » *. 
Of an extraordinary description and do more'^b"™ t^aTgL %oTd„r 
Which is now mentioned in the pharmacopcHla. finds great Cur wTh s^m^' 



f ■ 

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vi 



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58 

I think, to ,.ow .inn«. :. a ,H u r/;r .;'"^ ""'T'" "'"""•""• ""■>' -■*•""" 

the u,...„.th of hHir xlvrtl, ""•'"''""« ♦'» «'"»''. for „r o„,„ 

""H "» virtu. I„ „.„ki„u the LlvlT ,^, T'\ "'• '""' '""•"* '""»"" 
f.K.t Is con,,.r,KMl. Ih.mHl non r it """'^'*" '" '""^""'"•.v when- th.. 

ev jt;„;::;:^::rr';;::j;;:n:r T-" " -•- '— -> - 

It .l(M..s much KOiMl othorwlN.. it« n,fi . ,^'*^^^' ''"t I )iin not nwjiro tli.it 

'•••""Hly, wl.kh can only act Homothl L rr !. \ ^ ""^ " "^'^'"^ '" '•'»••"■- 
. ""^t Hcnsltlvc and del c^ orZ ^t "!: "" '""'''"" "' ''""'''""'^'- "" ^'"^ 

.HvaHlonally ex,.He„m, the pnl^n^^^^^^^ f" *'^ ^^'•- ^^ "-- "•> 

^'Pe^k ,„,v,n« «ot into the e7e/b?ut.rk oThT" '"""'"'* '••"•" " -"'"' 
"•; thnen. «n,tln« and rubbing ^^^t the ball "oVT ""'""""' ^''"'""""^ 
Htructures. Of all the n.ad notlo rthnV *^^ ""-''^ "'"^ s'lrroundinu- 

their name 1„ ,og,o„. nZly nhTev ri,""L?r"l*'*' '"'" «^ ""'"• "■'" 
glas. treatn.ent as appHed io the eye " absurdity this povv.leml 

^r j;f ti^x^tiXr ^t ,: sCi?;jvr'" " ^^-^'-'-^ «- -- 

n« unless this is done the s icthes lirnnh . "^ " "'''* "™"»"* "' «kln. 
«"Pport .nuch wei,^ht. I nee^ h«rX I '"* *'''**'"«'> '^ ^^ey have to 

separate and tied o„ Its own^nd , 'wouiTn * T '"^^'^ ""^^ "^ -'^'-O' 
«t.Vle of a tailor stitching a ple^^ o oZ rJZ ^" *,' '"^ ' ""'"^ «'^^^ ^•'»' 
one part breaking, the wLe w^ld git Iv h """""'^ ""* ''°«^" «* «"• '"^ 
What is known, therefore, lu s^iger „s ^he'-l T '"'^"'' """'•* ^« '» ^•"'"■ 
is the proiH^r thing. The best soinf f " »»terrupted " suture or stltcl, 

different work) ls'o„e w,thl lalj^ i''T "" "' ^"--"^"^ «'-« f'"' 
needles are very difficult to pass tJou^ " * "I. '"^'"^ ^"^"'*^- ^'•^•""••y 
ways, silk suture thread (^InZ^'.trt T """^ ""•'"«^^ '^ ">«">• 
long as It is clean and unJS^red mav ^ 'T ^'^' ''"* '''"^"^"^^ t««ne. as 
diPI>ed It in some antlsep'c Tolut'lon "^ "^ "* " ^"°^''' '>'-«^''«"«'-- havln. 

as nli'itslTsZ^^^^^^^^^^^ ;^ ^y r^ r '^^ -•^-^ '« ^-- «>->- 

the highest authorities anj ngt^Ltherl T, "^ 'f "' ^"^'"^ «« '«"i """" "> 

I>o not be prejudi,^ nga nst t '^^ ^"* '"''' ""^* I'*^"^ ^^tails. 
'•areful that It is clean rilchrr ^"""'^ " '« ^«"«1 twine, but be 

"-'*' Of. <.at-gut I^s tt^rsSurri^nr^^rr "'"» -^«* -'^t-"" ^t ^ 

«i<ver is useful in s^H^-iai L.I, rThe 'i neTC" T r^'" 1^^ '""'''' •"■ 

must be removed wlien the 



5J) 



•'' f' 



'.H.of<.,n. ,s ;.x:::,,. :i f^: t. "mL VHr";"";'", "' '••^' "••"•"^"'«"- 

nft.T iM.n.lnjr off n..f L' * """""" "'' '^ '" *'"' '"•«'• 

wonnn s,..^. Ne '«:;.;: ^;;;lr:;''';:l:;:' ,;'•«■; -7 """• '^"" 

)-l«l.t ill thHr way b,it If ti,. "^♦r ^Mtli it. ItiiiKhws ,„•.. ali 

UVt «,i,.I...ati..,.s. . :,. Oil ami .t.::." . " ';""' "''"""" "" ^'"^ ""*''"•• 
.-.s ilry diVHsliiKs- tl.ov k^-en ,' ""*'"' **' '"' •**' «»tisf«,.t„rily 

a,.n,;o..atioi.:;f.::"Lu;;i\rr;;r.;r' ;;r;,:""^ %- ^-'''""•^- - 

nature. ..«t latiire L J "'^^^ '^"f ""' "'■^•■" """' '^ >"ft ..|.ti.v,y t., 
a little help 1 x^ uTo L ? "' "." "'"' ""'^*"- J"" ''^ "' «"" •»->" 

value <.f tlie animal in tl le rna ke . T " """""•' "'""'' '"""'•'^ ♦"•^ 

"vo. ^ii t.ii.1. if :r,rr;;ori;irrirr^ ^'-^ ^« 

tl.eui. They oftl" noil ot u^wrf f. '""'""' "'' "'"^ '"'"^ •"•'•»-*"•• f>-»'» 

"PPlloation to al «or 8 of wom„ls T fm„iently in the bnsh as an 

tiles do not ear" aZ it Z 1 "'iT"'"''" """" *" "v.n.me.id it. and 
ne. and have to dCifd n : Z ^^ T^jr'Tj-^"'""^ '" "'^" ""*^- 

"Pmion that mo« o7 the p n^ic umv ,;! 7 '"-' *" ""' """""'^- ^ "'" «^ "'« 
1.0 niis«ed.-./o«,««i .nj^ LT uv . "T" ''''''''''■'''''• "'"^ '* will uever 
07 Affiuultuic, Western AuHtruUa, Junuary, I'JOH. 




ri» 



■' l\ 



COXTAGIOrs ABOKTIOX. 



PRLTKNTION AXD TRKAT.MKNT OF 

»..,...n,tc. „„.„„„„? ,,5, r: r ;■"■"" """"" '■'■ ""'•" "'■"■ " .-""•' " 



- -'fc! 



I 



I 



M 

a Holutlon of blue-8touo, 5 ouncwi to 1 gallon of water. The cow-houne gutters 
should be dresml this way about onc-e a week. The whole of the Interior of 
the stable should be sprayed with a solution t-ouslstlng of 1 part crude carboli.- 
acid to 30 parts of Ilnie wash. 

S[.raylng stall and floors twice a week with a 1-30 solution of crudo 
carbolic and water Is reported to have a very beneficial effect by son... 
breeders, some claiming that the Inhaled fumes act as a preventive In 
pregnant cows. 

The vagina of aborted cows should be syringed out dally for a week or 
until discharge ceases, with a mixture of alcohol. 1 ounce, corrosive sublimate 
1 dram, and glycerine 1 ounce, dissolved In one gallon of water. The vulva 
anus, back of the hl|>s and root of the tall should be sponged with this liquid' 
This external washing may be applied to the whole herd. A 1 per c-ent 
«)lutlon of add carbolic may be used Instead of the corrosive sublimate" 
When a cow aborts, the foetal membranes must be removed as soon as posslb.e 
and burned or deeply buried with lime, and the stall should be at once cleaned 

d^crrel? "* "*^''^' """^ ^^^ ''"*""' """^ ^''*^™"' ^''*" *'"^"*«* "*' 

Aborting cows should not be bred for two or three months and care shonl.l 
be used In selecting a healthy bull for the purpose. The bull should have his 
Bheath Injected and belly washed, before and after service, with a 1 per cent 
solution of carbolic acid. « ^ per cem. 

When the disease exists In a district do outside cows should be received 
for service. Newly purchased cows should be kept isolated and treated a.s 
above before bringing them In contact with the others of the herd 

Cows usually abort from the third to the seventh month of gestation 
Some very good reports are given of the use of carbolic add Internally In 
suspected cows, administered at the r-xte of half a dram dally, with feed t 
trZ"^ by diluting freely with water and then mixing with food. Fatten- 
ing and disposing of aborting cows will help to rid the herd of the disease 

etc r^h^f *! ^'''°'^"°" «' ^t^'''^ "t«°«"«. milk-stools, dothes of attendants, 
etc Is abso utely necessary, and over a year or more will elapse before you can 

rpSt^ng. '" '"" """'^- ^"" '^''-""^ "^^^"-^^ ''•" p-"^" 

S. F. TOLMIB, V.S. 



J- 



•1 



CHAPTER v.— ANIMAL PESTS. 

OopiiEU AWD Grol-nd Squibbels. 

These pests are very numerous In some parts of the Upper Countrv. doing 
great Injury to crops of all kinds and fruit trees, by gnawing the roots. 

The following method Is recommended by the U. 8. Department of Agri- 
culture for the extermination of gophers:— 

Bisulphide of carbon.~ln most cases bisulphide of carbon Is the simplest 
agent for the destruction of gophers. It may be used as follows .-Open the 
gopher hole where one of the freshest hills has been thrown out. Pour two 
tab espoonfuls of bisulphide on a bunch of cotton rags, tow. waste, or any such 
material and push it well down into the hole; then close the opening. The 
bisulphide quickly forms a heavy suffocating gas that flows down the hole and 
along the galleries. Wherever it overtakes the gopher he Is quickly killed. 

^l^'^H , ''^K r " "^''^"y ""°P'* """^ ^"•'y- The only dlfliculty arise, 
from the length of the tunnels, which is so great that the animals may be 

S", ^ .T^ °' ^''^ •*■• ^^°** " " -onetimes necessary to open the 
tunnel and introduce the bisulphide at two or more places 

hi..,?^? f ' **"vf """* ^°"''- " '*•''"''* ^ carefully kept from Are. as It is 
highly Inflammable and explosive; otherwise no danger attends its use. 

Fumigati(m.-Rude pumps, known as " fumlgators," by means of which 
the fumes of burning sulphur may be forced Into the burrows to suffocate the 

So^la 'Th!f ^"•"'? ""^^ '° '^"" P"*' «' '""^ W««t' particularly in 

nfhp«T'"T"~^''^^^" "^ *^""y *'"PP^' «"** «°<* exterminated In a field. 
Others do not soon come In. Their manner of travelling Is so slow that onlj^ 

not oft '^h ' ::«°derlngs may settle down In a new place, but this does 

not often happen. The process of trapping Is perfectly simple, although many 
farmers have assured me that pocket gophers can not be caught In traps 

trntt T Z , ''"■''■""° *'" """^^ '« ''"^'"^ «"*• 1'^ ^J^^n «° that side 
un« the open hole Is found. Enlarge the hole sufficiently to admit a No. 
steel trap and remove such loose earth an may have fallen In. The trap 

uXy^Tjr ""'"^' ^'""^ "^" •^«^" '" '^'^ ^''^' -»»^ 'n 'oose earth to 
IL. I. u . ''"°'^'*^' "°*^ P^'""^ «>n^^«l«>'l by sprinkling of fine earth 

step! o: ?h?tr" '"^r""'' "^"""^^ *° ^^••«"- ^•^^ ^--'- '- ^^^-^ ^^ 

TT "'' ""•^ *' ^""«^^- " '«««« ^'I'-tb i« left m the burrow it Will 

Other methods of trapping gophers have been tried with varying success 
and numerous kinds of traps have been devL-ed for the puvr-me l^'Tof 
these are figured In the bulletin of the Oregon AgricuUurrExp^^ 



.->*V 



■vi 



(V2 



■•£■ 
't 



Htiitlni, (Unll.-ilii N... --.. Ai.ill tv...l.. Mni.y ..r th.-in nr.- vlmuny ,.n.l ..x,.. 
Hlv.>. iiiHl r.'w, ir miy. niii (•..iiiih^i.. with tlii' (•oiiiinun Ktc^'l trap wli.-ii tli.> |mii, ■ 

l« |MII|NTi.V llSfll. 

l'ois.,Hhit,.—V„lHou\uu \H .1 Hiiiii.l. :• iiitd inniv .■x|MNliil,,iiK in.-th.Nl ,, 

.l.'Hti-oylni: K'..|.li.Ts tliiiii trii|.|.|iiu'. I.iit is iiM.rv lahnrlocs timn tl k 

l>iHii!|>|ii.l.> of .arlH.ii. Til.- iis.- „( |,„is.,i, is niwiiys att.-ii.l.Ml with .lant'.-r |. 

'" "•'"•' "'' " •'•«'"iH...i. ctli.r aiiinmis tliaii tli.>H<> for wl.icli It was iiitnul. .1 

ar<> lialilf to jfct it. 

Til.- nsiiai iiiHIknI is to iiis.Tt a siuali .|iiaiitlty of ars.'iil<- or Mour.l 

KtryrhnliH' into a •.• of potato aial piisl. tiic potato as far as possil,!,. im.. , 

nvsl, Kop|„.r-s l.ol.. aii.l tli.-n .losr tlio „« H...-.irHv. Tli.. llor...nral.l.. I 

Sl..rlin« .Morio,.. S.-r.-tary of Atfri.uiiur. . I.as fo„,j,l ..rsmi.- on wl.ii,. |».fMto . 

"'"' ""'''•■'* •■»H'"<I<>"H ii slroylnu p,Hi<,.t «oj rs at his hon... 1„ |.v,Mt.T., 

•St'liraslva. 

I'hospi.orns lias I,....,, „s,..i ..xfaslvHy i„ California. Washin;rton ai„l 
On-Kon in .l.-stroyini; Kr.ain.l s,p>irr..is. „n.l to a Irss rxt.f.t tor ,..k k.-t Koph.,. 
Mr. All,.., n.atlin. of Cluirtrr t)al<. Iowa, stafs that iu- has rntlrHv «.xtmni.,; 
»U'il tl... ffoph.-rs fron, his own aiul s.-vrai noiuhhonrln« farms l.v' tl... ns- .,, 
ph.)sp|.onis. His r»Nip«. |s as f.iil.nvs :— 

I'nt a sti.-k of pI.osi.ho,.„s in a r,-«allon .-an with a iittl.. .^,1,1 xvat..r- ,„At 
IH.nr In hot wat.-.-. not .p.it.. bolilnj:. „ntii tl... .-an is half fnll. atal stir with •, 
H l.k. Wl..... tl... j.l.osp|,o.-ns is n„.lt,.,l ,,,1,1 wl.il,. tl... wat.T is stlnv.l ...,„' 

thkk.n to a stItT hatt..r with .„r.. „...„| „n,i Ho„r. hnlf-an.l-l.alf. Xow a.1,1 
vrhon „,,,| .tlrn..tll stitf. Whil.. n.l.lin« tl... whoat a.l.l also ,.-. to 2.. .„..,. 

It «lll h.vo .... ,,„it.. I.anl. K,M.p In « ..,h,1 ph..... Small plo<.,.s „..v I,., .hip,,..! 
off as ......1..,.. (,op,...rs „...y «,.t t.x> lltti.. strychnl.,,. 'to kill th...... , ' 

from fllll.,K. an.l <...v..r ov..r with 1(k,s.. dirt to ox.hulo tho light 

,K.is.,s i";,!,': TTM ":""' *"■•* •""'*"•"*"••- »« «"«^ »' tho most .l..a.llv 

hl8 or ...v . '" '" '""" '•"^'"•"^»"- for rcH..mn..ondln« tho „s.. . r 

tnis or any oth.-r jiolsoi. .a. tho farm. 

<'-^«"<>>- I)i.sii.|.ini,K AS A Sqiibrkl Killer. 

hlsn.r.T,T "^ •■"?"" •"^""•'""'' <"'• "« '« »>«>•«. .■.,.n,...>nlv known, carl 

Ik , "" " "'"'"* ""■ ^''^''^ """ ""^ ■>- '-" k>.ow,. for n.anv .. 

l:^^ :.z:v "t";'" """ '"^^"•^""''' •" "«^"-"'*"-- ---..- 

.mlo 1 f 7-<'«"l«*'l for a conshh-rahlo ,K.rl...l of tl...o. It has 1,....,, 

Ss .m 'knr:? .'""" 'V'T ^'^^•"•'"'""*'"" 'X' -t^- «"l'>'-s and pn.i.i: 
Inn f """' "■'"• '"'•'' "'••"'" '■"'•»'*'•" "«■ «f It in tho oxtorn.hn 

rnH' ■ 'H-'f — — rr iL',?ir i;;;: 

ttiem. Aftor a trial thl« spring. I can state with certainty, that wh.Mv 



(;.-{ 



«iii|ilo.vi'i| III till- rk'ht way iiiul I 

III nil of ,|„.|r ,|..|,.. I, •,,.,« ,,...„ thoMx'h. tl,,,t ■,|.|V knwiu.MlL'.' 



kTowfi-H of tfi-iilii. iilfaifa. ,1 
|»n'wiit liullftlti. 



II riHinlr.'.l iiiiMiiiiitM. It kfllM ,in ,<>■ til,. M|tilrri>ls 

Wtllll.l Itl'llctlt 
IS It'll I.) tllf 



liver or KriiMm-H In \U,> HtnU; niiil li 



lU-Hvilitliini uf Ihf Siilixt 



Onri; 



♦ 'iuImiii I>ImiiI|i|i|i|«. ( 



Miiliiliiir 



or iiioiv iu-«nriil.'l.v. <liHiil|)|il,|..| |m i„,„|,. i 



.... •'• '•■-■■■I'liiin-i |» llltllll- IV IttlNM 111; 

wipoiir ovr i-ok.. or ,-l„„vo„| wl.l.li Iu.m Im.m. I,..at,.l ,.. a ■•.■h..nv 
n .-..lonr I., a v.-rtl.-al rHor, of ..aM-lnm or «.ax „• i.w n I . 

• - " IH K..|H.nill.». wl„.,i i„„M„.,.. as onlli.arll.v so|,| an. wnl of a v..|l,m 
.•.-... an., of a Hl.^k..n.i,« f„„, ..,..„,. va.n. ,.„,■.. u Han I . J , " " • 
ml Is «lis,..nln« «Iil,... owinu to |,s |.|«,i .-..fra.Hv.. ln.l..x I, n .v,,,. ' 

;:^; v'-s::i.;:;,""r''' : "'^' '■"•• " '"-■ • ^^ ••'• "-•<--';. 

> liKl.ts. ,,i,„.„ or .kars. I,s M,HHlrt,. Kn.vitv Is al.ont I •".-[ ,nniuJ\, 
tlu«r..f..r... .-ons ral.ly lin.vlor than wah-r In r, '••"•MiiK It. 

- .1;::^::*;;.:;; ;,;;;;:"■"' "- »"■"■ ■— ••— -'.■"■•..'..« 

„, , . Jl"ii^ to Vt,c it. 

-M ta.i.es.:,.;:;ii ;;;;::" .^t' "zx: ^r w;"""! ^■"" '""■■• ""• •^" 

•t..as,,oo««" and '•fablmKmns" wM.i "Ine-ulass n.ark.Ml off Into 

.ln.K«lHfH «v nslnl uT . ''"" '"" I»"-'»»««l at almost anv 

...- It Int.; a ill . t'^tt.^^^^^^^ •"^" »"^' »-""-' 

""••••"•lu^^lve. aH ^nZ L M ;""""'" '" """ '^'''*' ""^ *"^ ••— '^« «•-••- 

«-t them an. o„ the one uj,, Tf ' ' '^ T """ "■'" ''"''"' '"'''''' '"'' 
.-.n.-.oi.„ in. «a. foiir hoL^Tr rr\r ;: —S t 



■r : 












'I ■?! 
» ' I 



J« 



64 



unnecegsary if they connect. I depend much upon my Judgment of whctli. r 
there is a den or not, to which conclusion many things lead you. such oh ncm 
ness of holes, size of holes, lay of the ground, amount of injury to grain ..r 
grasses, etc. 

In my experiments this spring I likewise tried to determine liow nui. h 
would kill the squirrels. To be sure of the mortality, we dug them out. mid 
did not rest content with seeing whether the holes remained closed. Tills is 
too uncertain, as visitors or strnvs may dig out holes from the outside. 

Time to Use. 
It can be put out any time In the day, but is best put out near evening, for 
two reasons. First, late in the afternoon all of the squirrels have gone int.. 
their holes, and the execution is more perfect. In the second place, a gn-at 
deal of work can be done after supper, when during summer or late spring tin- 
evenings are long and darkness does not come till 8:30. It is remarkable 
the number of holes two persons, one to handle the spade and the other the 
poison, can attend to in two hours. If a field is simply overrun by squirrels, 
I would advise using the whole of several days for the principal poisoning! 
doing the finishing touches after supper. 

Cost of Carbon Bisulphide. 

As retailed by druggists, the cost is high, varying from |1.75 to |2.2.'5 per 
gallon. In five-gallon cans it can be bought for about ^T-'iO per can, or |1..%() 
per gallon. Owing to the danger In handling it, the freight charges are very 
high. It Is likewise extremely volatile, as before stated, and there is con- 
sequently much waste !n handling it. Could the farmers unite, howover, and 
get a carload from the manufacturers direct, probably the price could Jm- 
reduced one-haif. I may add in conclusion that, though much more costly 
than phosphorus, or perhaps even than strychnine. It is infinitely better, as it 
kh> all the squirrels In the holes, while food-poisons kill only a small per cent. 
of them.— Idaho Bulletir, No. 11. 

Wolves and CovoxBa. 

These pests, particularly the latter, are so numerous and cunning tluit 
the production of some classes of live stock, such as sheep and poultry, in the 
Upiwr Country, is rendered unprofitable, and the almost human sauaeity of 
coyotes is such that they are rarely caught in traps or killed l.v ix)ison."jiiMl 
the bounty paid for their destruction, viz.. $2. Is not a sufficient in.luiH'm.nt 
for anyone to make a business of hunting them. Tlierefore. any nietluMl tlnit 
can be suggested by which these wily nnhnnls can he clrcuiuventea will Lc 
hailed with the greatest satisfaction. 

A Bulletin rectMitly issued by the V. S. Department of ARrionltiiro savs 
that success In trapping wolves and coyotes deiH>ii(ls hugely on tlio u.xe of .i 
scent that will attract them and keep them tramping inul imwlng until canKlit. 
Meat bait alone Is of little use. and often, indml. scares the animals away 
Of the nniny scents and combinations tested, the fetid halt has pioyed ni...^t 
successful. The following directions for Us preparation and ns«' are given : 

Place half a jwund of raw beef or venison In a widenioutluNl hnttle luul 
let it stand in a warm place (but not in the sun) for two or six weeks, ,.i- 
until it is thoroughly decayed and the odour has become as offensive as 



65 



lK>8slbIP. When dw-oinpositioii has reaclied the proiK^r stngo. add „ n„art of 
sporni oil or any liquid aniu.al oil. Lanl may Ik- use*!, but pralrlo-doR <,il is 
betfer Ihon add oue ounce of tincture of Siberian nnisk. or T..n.,uin n.usic 
If this cannot lie procured, use in its place one oun.-e of drv. pulveris.^1 
castoreuni (l>eaver castor), or one ounce of the connnon n.usk sold for iht- 
funiery. Mix well and bottle stnurely until used. 

After setting the trap, apply tlie s^rnt with a sticlc or straw or bv po.irlng 
from the bottle to the grass, wetnls. or ground on the side of the tra,", opposite 
that from which the wolf wouhl naturally approach. Never put sc-ent on the 
trai> as the first Impulse of the wolf, after snuHing the scent, is to roll on it 

This bait is very attractive also to cattle and horst's. wliich are sure to 
tramp over and paw out the traps if set where thev can get at tliem 

Tlie Bulletin also recommends the following meth.Hl of i)oi.K..ning wolves 
and coyotes: — *, "wmn 

No pois(m has yet proved .so eiTwtlve as pure sulj>hnte of strvchnine 
provldeil the proper dose Is uswl. The most effective dose is 4 grains for 
wolves and 2 grains for coyotes. The comn.on 3-grain gelatin capusules sold 
by druggists will hold, if well filled. 4 grains of stry.lu.ine. and are better 
than the larger capsules. The regular 2-grain capsules should be used for 
<1.yetes. The capsules should be filled, securely capped, and every tra.Hj of 
the Inten.sely bitter drug wiiH^i from the outside. 

Eadi capsule sliould bo lnserte<l in a piece of lieef ^uet the size of a 
walnut an<l the cavity securely closed to kivj) out tlie moisture. Lean meat 
should not be used, as the juic>e smm dissolves the gelatin of tlie capsule ThP 
neeessary number of poisoned baits may be prepared and carried in a tin can 
or pall Ihey should never be handled ex,t«pt with gloved -uTs or forceps. 
The baits may be dropped from horsebaclv along a sceiite.1 d.a«' line made by 
.ragging an old bone or piece of hide well saturated witli tlie fetid sctM./ or 
tliey may Ih^ placed around or partly under any carcass on which tiie wolves or 
n.yotc's are feeding or along trails which they are In the habit of following 

Gelatin capsules quiclvly dissolve in the jui.es of tlie stomach. Strvch- 
nine taken on an empty stomach sometimes kills in a very few uUnut..s.'but 
on a full stomach Its action is much slower, and the auinial may have time to 
travel a considerable distance. 

Further Itistritction,^. 
^ircular No. ra, issued by the Bureau of tlie Biological Survev. Washlng- 
on. D. C.. gives the results obtained during ]J)07. in the way of wolf destruc- 
tion. The methods of capturing wolves in common use are thn^-(l) 
rapping. (2) use of scents, and CI) pols<mlng. For trapping, the best'xo 4 
<><>"b e-spring trap should be uschI with a heavy stone as « ,lrag When 
possible, the trap should be p:nced between two tufts of grass or weeds, so that 
i can be readily approaduHl from one side only. The trap, stone and chain 
s hou d be buried on a run-way. S..e„t is use.l to attract wolves to the vicinity 
of the trap. Fetid bait is ma.le by placing half a pound of raw iMM-f or 
venison in a wide-mouthed bottle and letting it stand in a warm place for 
from wo to six weeks. When ...mpletely decomposwl. add a quart of any 
..uimal oil. an -., „,^ of pulverised asafetlda and an ounce of Siberian or Ton- 

£1 






~t. ; I 



66 

quln n,«8k. The mixture should be 8„rlnkled over the grasH w«.i« , 
ground near the trap, but never on thl tr„,> x- . ^^*' **'"' 

The bounty on wolves, whkh has been up to the present t\m^ *o „ . 
was in January. 1008, raised to |15. '^- ^^' '>''"'^' 

COUOABS. ~~ 

Skunks 

Who rids his place by this method, assur^ tfe wJ ter t Zn.. '''"?:""''"'' 
feet of the skunk are kent off \uT ^"«,""t" t^at as long as the hiiul 

effluvium. ^ ^^^ ^'■^""•^' "« '« inc-apable of emitting his 

Raccoons 
™«K»„, however, ^nCf/re. ;V*rS""'"'- '" "»• •~"™ »' •' 



67 



CHAPTER VI.-PESTS AND DISEASES OF BEES. 

Pests of Bees. 
(■«« 0/ Empw Co»,(,.._«o,„„,„ ,„,. ,»„ B„. j,„,j 

difficult. P„, „ mcmv^^rnw ,1,7, , "^ """"""-I J'- •1"' "'-■^y 1. not 
len tlie lulee In wltb tbe comb, '■'"""' """ J^°" "» "« 

.PHn^Xbe^zLC: rr,::,;v:r, "" '"°"'- " - ""-^^ <"- '- «■■» 

th,t before the .nmn,et 1 over ™„^,n , 'h » °"T '*''°''- " " °'"'°"' «■""'" 

iil> tl,e hive moth-tlght before it I.T„T 1 T , ^°" "'"'' ""'« ■""I"' 

"■HI be the „me; tor tte »™ o, the „Tf ° ""■"■ '° °^' "« "«"» 
jurln, the „revlo„. f.,1, ,„ 1^ZZ:2LZZZ7;::^TJZ l'"- 
it Is, however, not an pusv thin.. +^ . i . . presence of the hees. 

«,»e«e thron^b . n.".'",!,; ^er^^*Th': !, Z "ZTi L'' » """■ ""' 
« hive fun Of comb, „,„n which a colony ha d^ 1 ,o Jf h„ ' k° *■ """ 
as possible In the care nf n „*..^„ . ' ^^* ^^^ combs as soon 

blood, the bees wmmrjLorfH^^^^^ E-si-iaUy ,f of Italian 

large enough to do Z!ut^2 "°'°^ '"' '""^ ""^'"^ ^^«^« t^^^^ "e 

Of apple bloom, wlt^hive ,s^ icf^ ^l"' '""' '"""' '"*' «»""* "'« ">"« 
•lead bees, and put It under ah v""^ with unocvupied combs, clean out all 

«hould be any en trance dlr^tlt fro^ T!*"^. ""^ " '*'"*'"« ^«'«»J^- " th^^-^ 
Ko as to oblige the b^s tori th? ""'1^' "'" "'" "P*'"^ '>'^'«' ^'^^^ '* "P. 
Keep the entrant .^Ty small the Zfi ,'"^" ''^" '" ««'"^ '» «»^ «"t 

the colony has had thL'.:r l^e T hf^^e' rab'^t'^-e:! "''^^^- ""^^ 
cleaned out and get used to the «nri! v ^^"^ «l»o"t a "wk. so as to get it 

.o can out, pu^fln^The tZZfJTCirZ^^r'' '"' "' """» 



■m 



.:;! 



I 



68 

Of JLr ;r j^;^^z;; !;rr j?rr Tr^ r ^ ^^^ -'-^ -- 

Man io take Int.. the cellar hiverwhoJ hJ^ li'^"'' " '""^ """' ''« « '••"• 
for ,n the eo.iar the wonns "iThaJd U- m a Z t' "" ''^ ^"•"•"^^ «»«"'• = 
When the .nuKx-upied eorubs will b^ ,^Le^ to fom " ""'"*'" "^"^^ «'^'-""''' 
«>ver. to Io.k at them cKxa«lonal)v to^That tuJ^ 7' '' '' ^^""' "*^"- 

;ll«ie„.t to see where the worms ha e Tn the r Se^'" "!''''■ '"' '' '' ""^ 
Is often a«ktHl whether It will do to hive „ ,7 . ««"'^' '•^«- ^''^ Q"estio„ 
has dhHl. Unless such a h e Is eicl!d^„r'«'^H " *" ""'"" '" '"''''•' " ^«'""-^- 
e^ean It „,, at the same time l^i g «":^'^1^, l'^'' '^\^^ "111 prompt!,- 
It is well to . now that freezl fg* de^trm^s Jhi '' " '""'"'"^ ""^^' ^«"''-- 
that has iKMn, left out all wln^r Isln nn^^ T""'' ^'^ '"^ *»'^« ^^ ^«""- 

warm wer.thc... when moths have hai time tTf? """'" "°"' "*"' «'«"« '" 
-mbs ar- h„n, up 1„ an alryplaef wUh a sT "T^ *' '"^ '^^^^ ^^ «»«" 
they will almost surely be safe f^n? ul^ 'T ""^ "" '""'' ''^*««'° t"^'»'- 
indeed wc.n.s nmy not trouble them n *'^'-°"«hout the summer, and 

usual posh.on. ^ "'^'° "" «""''»«•• '^ ^^^ ^ the hive in their 

If for any reason It is desired tn mi „. 
material usually resorted to. r^r!',,' " nfT' ° """'"• ""'^"^"^ ^« t"^- 
will fln.«h the worms when they are qui fsmalblr' "J '""^'"^ '"^^""'•'• 
a very heavy dose; so it is well fir«rt T! ' '^''*'" ^"" S'"^"'" " takes 
For this ^.ke a sharp I JnteVk! fe „„Vn,or ??. *'' '"'"^^^ '^"^^ ^^ •>«"••• 
silken ga..ry for half an inch then cnl ^ '^'"'^ "* ^"« ^'"^ «f the 

the Whole length. This w i" ^iv^" tTe worT nl *'' "II!''' ^"' ""^^ *^" ^* «I-» 
hole you first made. You can end itle. . I °^ *'" " '"""^^^ «"* of the 
To fumigate a Idve with "ulphur sit into ^"^ ^"^"^ ™^""^ "^^^ ^^"^ best, 

small vessel of iron. Tn th s "ut 1 «n. h''"'' "^'Z^"'" P""""^ ^"" «' ««hes a 
live coals or a red hot iro" Th s must be in T """" ^° " '' «'^«^'^'^"J "^ 
close.l box or chamber, so that the ^umes'nnnr "'"'"'' ""''' ""' ^"""^ *'«"">- 
exerclsal so that the fire do^s not eTe.d to th"'""'- """"' '"^ ""«* '>*' 
<ou,bs plac-ed over the burning sulnhur nin. 1 surrounding wood. The 
by means of a piece of old sh^t 1 p,„^'„'"/''!r*^ ''"""^ -«t-hln^ «re 
remembered that burning sulphur d"troro„";the?"- " """'' *" '■^•""^"' 
Jt may be nec^-ssary to treat the c«mh« 1 f """'"'• "•'^ ^^^ ^^S^' ^ 

laid Will have hatcL.** Coml Thl T'' "^ *"'^ ''''"' "'^^^^ ""^ ^«>r« 
infested with worms; but In the casl o^ b'.alT *""' "^ "''^ °«* "'^^'•^ *«^ 
left too long in the hives, there mirhtL'' '''''"''^"y '' *»>« «>•"»>« «re 
for these may be lighter ihaT^r *^^a .oX TfT' , '"", '"^ °' «"^'''^- 
-- ;..nbs Will assume a greenish eoi:.^h.^r:^I^S- - 

the i:rL:irrf r^ir^-s:: ^^'-^^ *"- ^^ - — - ^^ i. 

fun of suc.h combs may be iS over a * '° "''' ^'^""^ ^"-y- ^ l^'ve 

oi-enlng through it ha ing flrsri^n „lacS ''' ".r''*^"' '^""* ^'^'^ « «»•"" 
allowing but one or two Ls to nls «? !•'" *•"" '""'^ ^"'''''^' «"d this 
apt to break down the eomTs and there 1^.^ ""'"^ '''' ^^« "^ ^t so 
wa^to set the hive at some dL^ ^:Z^Z.:: ^T;:^^!^::;;- 



'♦Xote^'by^Mr.'^Bobtas^o^'rspead!^"^ ^"^'^H- *ero at least. 



united States, there are many "at eVentS r "1™"* "" ^'^'^'^ «' tl e 
The adult bees of an InL^ Z^!^ ^ ^^ ^""^ ^'^««« »' «ny kind 

Ittle toward cleaning out iX'^^lTl ^'""11'' '■"''^'- ^"«'^"^« «»<» do 
thej- turn to a light chocolate coTouTlUn t.^T *'' '""''^ "'"« ^''' «ff«^ted 
become darker, resembling roasted rffl,* T"'^'''^ ''''^^^ «' decay they 
attacked at about the time of rnnLnnT '^"'"'■- ^'«"«"y «'« '""i are 
Jarv. are capped. As decay .^^''f.'rr °' ^'l^ -"« -"Gaining infect 
perforated, and. as the healthy b^eml'^! T^'^^^ ^^^^ sunken and 
relis containing larv» which havl^ed oJ^'; '""^ "^"^'^ ^'^^"^ t^e scattered 

no iceable characteristic Of this inf^tl ,s thrr'; ^h"' ^^^- ^''^^ "^^^t 
s inserted In a larv» which has dlS of tie^l *''"* ^'''^" « «™«" «"ck 
broken-down tissues adhere to It and w „ oftefs^'; T ''""'•" ^^°^"^«''' *he 
before breaking. When the larva drle" it flrn.^ .?.'"* '''' '''''"'' '"^h^« 
very dark brown colour, which can best be oh^ \"^''"^ ^^""'"'^^ «"«>« of 
«o that a bright light strikes the lower tide T, ^''" "'" ^'"'^ '« ^^^'d 
have died of this disease have a vervThJ ? ""'""• ^^«yl"g larvm which 
poor Quality of gl„e. This diseU l^ldlTtf f ''.^^"^ "^'^^ resembles 1 
appears to be much more vlrulenTinrw ?^ ^ ^'^"^ ^^^ 1"^" '"".e. It 
than m the East. ^°* ^" *^^ ^*'«t«™ Part of the United States 

Drugs, either to be^rdll^rf^ ''''''"''■ 
combs, cannot be recommended fr^therr."' *" "" "^'^ ^«^ fumigating 
fihaking treatment —Tn^ ^^ '^^^ diseases. *^ 

ne^sary first to remove fronTtirhlralf oTt," TT °' '^"' ^^^^ '* '« 
« done by shaking the bees into a c ean* live "''"*"'* "''^^^••'"'- This 

rips Of comb foundation, care being aken thn. ^l ?? """"'^^ "'"» ««"«» 
from the infected combs. The heaUhV hr J? f ^^'^ "^"^^ ^««« "«t drop 
saved, provided there is enough o make ur.flrK?\'"''^'^ ''"''^' """y »>e 
several infected hives on one of theTeakest '? t t. '*' ''""^ "'' ^«'"'>« '••<"» 
a weekt or ten days all the brood vM . . '^ '^'^''^^ colonies.'* After 

out. at Which time all these comrshoS d J' """' ''''''''' ^'"' "ave ha c^ 
In the case of box-hives or Tps the bees tr^r^^ ""^ *'^" colony treated.^t 
box or preferably ,„to a hive «'th mo^leTr '''""'™^ ""* '"*« ""other 
"«pect for disease and are a menace to ali"?- ""^'^'^^^ «'^ »>«"» to 
;;^^_region where disease is pr^nt ''^ "^^^ *" ^'^^ neighbourhood 

or com^f.rund'atPon""""" recommends new hive, and new frames w..h h „ 

."« ttlT^r'^^^^Z ^ill\X.r^ - -^ "- -on. or ..en a la.ln. ,„ee„. .„,. 



:t^ 






l»l^ 



»rt 



?ni 



70 

<'omb« „.ndeml Into w«i W.^ ' 1 ,. " . 'T'"'"''' '^'''''''''''^ ^'^ ^"•• 

hour. If ,t U to .H. f.Hl ba^kh. bo"^ uZ 7 f '"'". "* '"""* '""' "" 
l*e very tboroughlv flean«l t n.l L^i '' "^'*'" "'''*^' " *"'"'"•' 

honey or cHm.,^,e^:.^^l III T,;,';;'"' ""''" ''°"'" '^" *"'^*'" «'"* "« '"'^-t..,, 

<loubt It Is 8„f..r to re,H.at tbVo. er„H . "^•*'^"'"-^' »»"* "•»<'» there Is a.,v 

If ro,H.ated. the Hrs "eV .17^0^:1:^^ ""; "" ^'^"^ '^^ ^*'-'"'«-^"- 

fron. (Uwrtlns the strl .Hnf r , *. ''^^troye,!. To prevent the boes 

or a .^^^u..^.:T:^7T2zr^ -"--^ "- -«^ ^» -^ -•• 

that'i:;:;;rof";iin:n:r7^" ^i-'^'^^ *'^"*-"* --^ »>- -oam.., ., 

«tand. ana In Its ac^ a ' L:" IvHit^X^^^^^ ^'^ ''^" '^ '"'^^•^^ ^-'» ''^ 
queen Is at once transferred t tt , "**"' ""'^ foundation Is set. Tin- 

they next return fZntrtiem'^rin^^^^^^^ ""^ ^' '"'^'^ «"- 

or close beside the clean Idvrad n Si f '^ " "^™ ^""^^^ «» *"" ''» 

hive containing dlseal^sj h„ 1 v^l T '"""^ "'" ^'^^ ^"*'-«»«^ ^^ *»- 
from the cells mavlea^^ eh.,?*"' ^^ ""** ^'^"^ "•♦''^»» '«t" ^'"-r^e 
the colony In the Lw bU '"* ™°"'^* '■'*"™- ^'^^J' *»»-••-'--. Jo^. 

it wo^id h::z:i;;;rfor"hrr "tVr" v"^--^ ^^ '-^^ '- *^^ '- «•- 

be modified by shaking the h^.^. 'T"^ ^"'' ''■*"*^'"' *»^«^ treatment n.av 
This will be sattal?; o^v aftT T"' """*^ °' '^^'^^ ^«'- -'»*-'•■= 
«uch cases disease ra"e.?r^a;j,e;rr '^''^'''''''^ '»«« -"^'^ ceased. I„ 

it l^'d^r^lT^ho::^^;;^,:;^^^^ 'J^^ •« ^"^"-^->^ v,r„lent. 

Chemical means before .fs^^ t gl' ^Th.s i: IT'"' *'' '"'"''^' ^^ '*-^- 
Eastern States where the disease i..n..H,! * "''''"^''' P'-"^*'^^ m the 
boiling the hives or dlslnfeJ^Z Jhll^ w^^^ ° ''"• ^""'^ P^^''"^ recommend 
carbolic add or corrosive lw,m„tr T , """^ '"""''" <"««nfectant such a.. 
frames, because of thlalnlrt^^.,.* '^„"«"«"J' »«* Profitable to save 
be dlslnfected.3 Grea^ carrot, t '' ""' '"* '' ^''''^' '""'^ "'">• 

It does not ,>ay to treat Zv we^k c!. T"'"^ ^" "'"""'"^ «">• «PP«rat„s.. 
at once or iveral veal o.X be L^ , f' "^"'^ """"'^ ^'^"^^^ '^ '»-«t'-«J-^' 
to build up. ^ ^^ ""'^^ *•> '"«'^^ «ne which Ts strong enough 

^~S-S vv^^ :: """^'"•^ '^"^'^ ^''*- '" - "• --'-^ - ..... 

a^^d^rif e^^e%^i..i', ^p'^L^.-.V^o? K"' '•'"'^^' t'^e^^^axra^^.^-rm'X V^r^SeT-^.^a 



71 

neoently soiiip new "ciipps" i.n,.« k 
P«rtlc.„,arl.v for E„ro,.an Cbrc^nl ' -^^ "'r"'*^ '" "" »>- Jonrnaln. 

but will eradlnite the dlseaneTZJ . ''^'"'' '" ""' '«^""»>' «r nplarv. 

In nil ,.a«e8 great aTe lo. ,.? '' '""""' """""•'*• ^^•^'' ^•••"l- 
"•uiHelf spread t^ „f«t,on hv '*;,r-^^'-*''^" "'«» the bee-kee,H>r „,„y not 
<"«i^^tln. hls .u::.K :;:r^ r ^ l;-:;^^ <o.on.e. ...,re thon^hi; 
Hniall anu„„,t of lnfect«l nuUerlal o „/'/?' ' < "'*" *"''*^ '"'^ " '"'■'■ 
-lony. It i. evident that too „„ d eareTlo T: L" " "'"•'"'""•^- '"•"'^"•^• 
»>""ey froni unknown soun-es J L^llrTl . "' ^" "" ''"'''' «'"""'«> 
-erelse<, i„ „„,,ng ,„eenH. slnee ,71.:' To t' T"' ''"'"'' ^"""'" ""^" '- 
""CHl In shipping ,,,ges. C^.m/rH 1, 7""* , ^••""«'»'««1 in the candy 

infeeted apiaries. '""'^ ""* ''*" "'«'«•*» f""" lUve to hive In 

^-^^r:''!:;:X'Zl:^ ^^ «- --l oa.lH, hy ..ee. 

-t.rlsed hy „ s.vollen w te v p "al e /f The^ '^^ "'""•• '' '"^ ^"-- 

'•""■k .-olour of the head. The IT "s , , v l "''^ ">• 

"■"1 the heads point upward TI ll^f ' °" ""'"" '•"'''^^ '» the eell 

to brown, aftei the Ian die T ^'1: ^ ""'." '"""*'"^ ''■""' "^'^^ •-""»- 
that of sonr decaying „.„tter no 1 in a T. ""' ""'^ ^'^^ «"'>• »•'«»'• '« 
In case the larv,e are capped o^l the nn f "I "' ^'"'*"-'^"» ''""' "••"<x'- 
tbe case of the coutaglonMres. Z E Zv J"' 'T"" '"''''' "" '" 
<ause can !«. given f<,r this dhsease an, « 1h ' I'"»f't"red. So far no 
<li«P"ted p.>,nt. rs„„„,. no re^tL "t , r'' "" ""* '* '■' ^""^"'^'""^ '« " 
<lenrth of honey, hut In verv raT^L whenT''' '?""^' ''^""^ ^^"••'»« 
comb are .lead from this cause thlT "'^ majority of larvm in a 

-nb put ,n ,ts plaee. totar t unuLr^ f o'Te .l."""^'"' ""'^ « ^'-» 
dead brood. unnecessary for the bees to clean out so much 

"..'nrbrrt^^ "strd^r bfr.s~f ""^ ^"^-^ — ^-ors 
"nfamlllar with the brood diseal foH. f T'"*'^ ™'^*"''^"' ^^ ^^--^^'^ 
examination will soon determirT^letherT 7. "'" °"'^'- «' «'^°>- ^'areful 
or merely some outside cW I brL ^f T '' '''' '•^"'* «' »»•««"«- 
<•«"«-. it is usually soon carried out bvthT^ . '""* ''^"""^ «'' «««»« «ther 
Brood Which dies from external clsesoZf- ""*" *'' *'"""' ^H^appears. 
<-olony. but wholly unlike that o IZrlan fn„M°^' " '*''""^ ^«»'- '» the 
■natter The colour of such br<^ vte/b^t;;!:'^' ™"^'^ "'«*«' ^-«^-'"« 
the infectious diseases are usually nbint th« ,. ^''«'-«^terlstlc colours of 
belngjnore nearly gray._c, Tc'L^T Vo 7/ ""''' '"'''"'' "' '^""^ '"'•^^^ 

eoS'^f !{w=-ar?Vrr?"'*"^''*'^^^^ """-^'"F the cure of 



■ 'iP" 1 



•^^ 



V 



: tl 



i 



fHi 



72 



f 



CHAPTER VTI-PLANT DISEASES. 

f'BowN Gali- OB Root Gall. Fig 37 

«hruJ^^ 0,rfZ7;r.r"' '" "'•'""■* °" therootHor various tree. „..„ 
snrubs. On fruit trees It commonly foruw spherical swelllnes of vn.i,. 
«lze«. occasionally as large as a walnut. Thesl globular bodirinnl 2 7 
a pec-u. ar warty surface. They should not be confused wlt^^. ^Z ZZ 
by woolly aphis, which, moreover, are smaller and usunllv ov„^ Z \ 
Besides In aphis galls some of the " woorMs\rairto L^m J '""'''''■ 
It frequently hapi)ens that when the roots are affected wlfi, ti.i« hi 

>.o remedy is known, and. as the disease appears to be contaelous pv,...v 
effort should ^ made to prevent the sale of nurTry stoc..':ffrtTb7r '"^ 
enll of f. , ^ . '^"^ ^"' '^""y discovered in Arizona that the crown 
ZosuT '' """' '" "^ ^""" """"» ^^•'''^•»> »^« — ^e«c/r.MZ; 

I laave been unable to discover this or a^iy similar organism In the cUK 
on apple root8.-r. 8. Department of Agrie2ure, Bulletin lo3-pZeT 



% 



3 




Apple Crown Gall on grafted tree Hmrv n«„f r>i 

,P,„ -_ . " ™ "^- "«'r.v Root nisonap on graftod apple tw 



73 

A pa|)or on Crown Gall hv Pmf v a n ^ 

State A«r.c.u.tur„, CoH J"'LofudrL Vowf r""*' «"^«->'"«"'t- K«nH„« 

the zrof 'oro^r ",7 ;f "! r ^ •^"^ 't '""'*^ ^^ ''^^••"-"^" ^« ^»-* 

«lH>«t all that ea rL arne'bv the rnt' ? ?" "'"'■"^■""*' '""'« •«> '^^'- ""^ 
Planting «„a hZ^n^ Lnu h f H" bv th?""'"*^ ''"""*' "" ^"'^" ^'^"- 
«»«..v. and for bis own\„„ltte 0^:0 pfe^nt p3«Ttr '""": ^"^"" 

«u-pt.bie tr«. .rrAr«rthrs :;=:?.:,::;::.--- ^' 

Gau. ok LmoEB T.EE8 (Eriopliuc ahnormt, ) 

.■ho*;:;',,:; ';"s::::i°"""'"* " ''^^'^ «»■ -'"-•" '» or. F,o,c>,.r, 
A,p,^ ,»„ i^. s„. „■„.«„„„„. ,,„,rt,te.„ .„a r;,rt„.„,, 

DeacripUon. ^ 

cl.«refersr.::^h:nrr:::^^^^^^^ «-«- re.^t,vel. are 

Of the disease and L L^Il^^ '^e:;* t V^ '"""' "'''""'''"- 
separate descriptions are not nece^ry '''''^ "^ *^*'°"""^' 

entire crop is much dC^lat^ ,r;in""^ ^"^"^ ^'•*«'° ««««««« the 

owing to the Presenc^Tnu^rous bilkTsh"^^^^^^^^ """"'""'' ""^"^^"'"^• 
cracks on the surface. ""'"^'^""^ '»'«c»^'«b blotches or scabs and gaping 

the spores are washrbrra^on Jo the frT ""TdT^ '^'^' ''''"' ^'^^"^ 
If the fruit is nearly fnfirrrwrblfnl .. ? 1 T '' ^^^ ^"'^ *« *^ «"«^ked. 
fungus remain «n,al.Vnd „reT eS^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^h '"^'^ '""'""^ ""^ *»»« 

the market value Is thereby denrS^ ti^ ^^""^"^ ^^'^r *»>« surface. Although 
the scab being quite superflc^^^^^ '"T '' "'* '""Serially Injured. 

fruit is young. L further ';^^'th ^^e^kT^h^^^^^^^^ Tl" ^''^^" ^''^ 
less covered with sc^abs of various sizes an^ '„. i/'""" '^"'"^^ """''^ «' 
tHKlred. On the leaves n„rt v^ . ** "^ ^''*^'' ^*«se is Irregularly 

darlc<.o.ourei pat ,:.;,S have'at^:.? "" '""^^ '^™" """"^« -'-t^' 

ripe. .oe. .; ...o„.:;:\;rkrrrs ^ T "^ ^'^^^^^ «- 
a wi^.r^^-^i^rsC "rrr t'-t-'^^ — '^ -- -<^ 

and fruit,- the winter stage Hves in TT.\T" '"'''*' ^'^^ '^^^^«' ««^^«^« 
off in autumn. The winter s aL ll, . "''"' "^ '^' "PP'« ^^^^'^^^ 'a" 
leaves, after they fall off In a "tumn The' JiT ')' '"""^'- ^*«^^ '° *»»« 
that cause the infection of the^l^, lea^e^r ffuif in^oT "^ ^"^^^ 






.•V 




74 




temediea. 






75 

.1... .1.- .„«,,.,;,., ;.r,:.":::^ '." ::r ;;;:"";."'"'.: """' ""'""■"■ 

<^n. iH. „H,Hi with ZTLlut^z: i"?\ """"■ '""^ " ^^••'"'"••' "•"•••-""^ 

I)LACKNI>01 CaNKKB. 

(.Vanoitlitma ciinhima. (' H Vviw m. ., 

I 'w. ». M. iK(K. (.locMfioriHHi inaUvorthh. 

A. n. COBDLKY.) 

Common Xamr of the IHmcom- 

'•"«t».l Stat... AU.U. r i^ are 1. . X "7 '/' *'•" "'•'"^' ""•""«"""t the 
IIMnolH Apple tnn. oa .ker Ve ter T ^T •"""" '•■•'^' ••'""^"'- '""' the 

-w,. a„ the n.He;rT;v<^;;T.r:: r ; ;r"",' ""^""" •"^•'""- 

unlfoniiitjof nau,eHaiMltor..t..inM ' '" '"■''" *" "'»"'" 

u» tuoHen to use the c-oumion naiue of BhukHiwt canker 
Occuirhiy on both Fruit itmt Bark 

together when tuUy ^"o^l^lTZL't^:'' " ,'°"*^'''' """^^""^ '"^••«'"' 
Assure. ' '^'^ '™'" ^^^ snj.wood and bounded by a ragged 

.entrlcaliy arra "g«/ ' "'"""^ '"^"^ *'^"" '''^ "> ^«rk. usually c-on- 

CauHc of the Disease. 

or .hi°;:,r«. 'trr" ':M,^",:f r ,'" ''''""""•"'° "" "•' «-— 

lia. !»,.„ m^„tlr Z M„,Z,irT .^ ""'■'■ •*"' "K""""""'- One which 

t^ have l^u ZZ r ""■ '"'" •"" """■■'•■ ™'» """l' <"»t .ae 

.x;:^ ^rrj-^r z oTC; ri •*" -"- '^' -- - 

nitrates l>een found "*' ""'"''• ""^ *" °^'t'»^'- ^""^e have 

Pierce as earlv na iima iunr . "«"=- -^^-oramg to Miiito ill. 



il 



'J 



H 



s 



I> 



i 



7G 

the f„nKi.« ««.! ha- rea.-he., «,. „„r ^.. t'r A,, o'f tl T"""""'"" "'"'^ "" 
nmwMfnlly dUDlh^ited hv the «H 1 ' "^***'*' ''■°'"'* '»"" »«- " 

on the life hlHturyoTt^e ";;;,;,,? "'" """'' "''•""""«' -'^»' '»"" »»-" d...... 

/«*<•<•/# .l/rsw/a^fd ,f/tA Blackitpot Canker 

or nJir r;;:r::^\rr Tr "^'t- '"- •""••-•' -- ^- -- ■•• 

foumi in the name 0,^^ ' ' """" "■• ""*'* '""^ '^•"♦'»"'""' '- 

feui';„f;::4^„i::;r:: j:^^^^^^^ ^'•---- ^->-t«- a.h.,e 

time the cankerH are f„tl TsL "hl'r''r ^■''' """^ •^•"'^"- -^''""^ •""' 
the margins «f the eanke™ a nlZT ^1"" '"* ''"'"" '» "'« '^"^k "-"•• 
to Heveral h.„ulr«' of the"e etn mt^ll* " "T,""* '" ""^'' ''«'^- ^ '"- 
The work of the beet e and of the . ^ "'^•*^"*^^ """"'' "^ «'"«'« ««"k"r. 
eallu8. "^ ""'* ^'^ ^'•^ "'"•'« '•^'t"<l or prevent the growth of ,. 

«re «'ll::S'h;rfl::::'%I^^ H„„«.n„„„>._After the e„..e. 

fallen out. the wo^,,; aZ fll Its I-a" .toTh "* "'' ^'^ """'^ '""''^ ""^ 
Ply rapidly and soon Involve t2e entrre r!n 1 .r""''- '^'" "P"''^'"' '"""»' 
InseetH on the tissues eau^rthem tn !1 . " *"'""'• '^"^ «^*'"» "' thes,. 
callus whleh d<^ noVirelrto^X^rZl « "^^ -'-> 

rp, ., General Description. 

v«rir:oi";:e::;;;::;trte^rnV't '•^^"""^ '"^'"« « «'"^"- -- 

July and August. ' iCr pJrar at This' «""'." "'" ''"" '*"'•* ''"^'■"'' 
only When weather condltlora^rvm X Th'ev o^eT'"?"' "" ""■"''• 
never developed enough to be of econorc ?i^ J'^^ ""Th7flrrt ""T" """ 
api)ear In the fall nre nannii^ *^ i T ""''"'^'""ce. me first cankers that 

tender twigs o^l^in^^ye'r.^^^^^^^^ ^^•"'^ '^^ ^•-•— «" the 

large Ihnbs later In the season "he ""kers that'dnlTr '" "" """'"^ """ 
early |„ November to early In Februarv T, ' "' ? "'""^' '''''"«'' ''"'" 

late November and early December ""'"''*''* """**''' ^"'"'" 

When the young cankers have develoned enm.^h ♦ • 
eye they are round, somewhat sunken anT^n^Tf ''^" "**' "'« "«•*"*' 

istlc of the Infested areas CZl,^ c-oloured-n colour charn.ter- 

h;U the fungus r>e'netrs tlo^ Th: ^rk ^^tJThe^'^^"'^' 'V''""^^^^^^^ 
Having entered the cambium or irrmv-.n^t u ^^^ sapwoo<l beneath. 

wood layers It grows rarJirandZn^n^ 7"" ''''"" *'" ^'""'^ ""** ^'^^ ^^I- 
many times lar'ger than he om^rTrtCoT^^ «-a of lt-^fte„ 

iHe outer portion of the cauKer. with the return of 



77 

At llr.l II,.. ■•„„k,.r, 1 7 ? . "'"' """'■'' '"•"'•""■. 

'"" I.V .k "„';"„ ' n;ri,;.",',:r ""•'■ ' *'™« ■<• 

I ""■" .lr,v »l,.l l,rll, ,„, ,r, ' ,, "'" '""'""• '" "I" <"•■ tark 

"''"«...»■.. ...„,.„„ „ ,„x'L ' "zri'rt "■■"",""• -"" ""' 

"ITi'iuIn. iMjomi thiH HMsiiro the fuiiKus iifv.T 

-"It ;.r two ..r ...on. .a.. j:r.iz tuZ: """• "" ""•*^*'^ ""- "- "- 

"* » HU«hf ro„K,„.,.l„« o t..c/op, „."7J" r""" "' *"•' '"""""on «'f npon. 
"'^' U,.v..|o,.,..« p..,,,,,,,. Lot' t ,1 'u "" ""^^ """^•"•' '""-'"• ".V 

that then. „r,., „..„r tl.e ,lo« nf """*''"' """"''' *"" """-Kin. so 

'•'."•cor. w..o„ th« p «^^ i';r:r\r"" '","" ^^-"^"^ "• « «'"«'*• 

for a .•o„«I,l..r„r.U. .htiJi of th,;. Tho "re c„„,,,„rgcHl fro,., a 8l„Kle .....kc. 
">ul the.. .iropH out! leavurg a Il^ar. """"'"' "" "'" ^''^ ^"^ " ".ue 

Remedies. 

.voun« trt.eH. who,, little 01^.^^^^^^"'' " ^"^"'^ '" ^''"•^''^ «» «"»"• 

"J'I'enrl.,g fro,., Xovo„.lM>r to Fobn.ni^v ,. ''" ""•'"• "'"' "•^"' """^ 

^h^-k by 8„.h a ...othcl I.fso, ! '"I»««'«'We to k«.p the disease h, 

^.-M after thetfe^ Zk Z\^: ;;;;;^;::,'""^-- — '" "•♦^ 

...M'tx:r;n..rXkr'rtr::.r v'-^'^ '~^ -- 

'""./«/ station. Bulletin No 66 ^^tnmu.-Mashinffton K^peri- 

om o , ^^""^ '''" ''""" ''^^""" ''''■''^""•'« '^'"•«*"««.) 

t^J<l c«,.ker-ente„ tri.«« xxui i 
^re,,.en..y left ..ulte m.«."ter L"";""?'"'""^' ""'°'"^^'^' "^'-«- «- 
""rseries for the spread of the dZerm. ''"'"• '''"''" •'"'^' ^^-^'^ «« 

-am reasons for thl« apparent " athv /h^'"' '*' ''*' "'"'*• 0"« "^ the 
-'"ker as eans^Hl thru,,«h so.,^^b iai .Ll^"*, """i' f'""-Si-wers look upon 
•"< the res„it of attac-k bv a nari^t^To ,n r*""'^'" ^' '"^^ ^"' ""^ "ot 

ventive u.easures are q.dte bevonHf ^ '^^^ "'"'*^^" "'"^ pre- 

aa^^tion «. . .ont...o;;;'di^r:„::;rt^^^^ ""^■- ^° --^ -"^ ''^-^ 

"U'thods cai. be kept well lu check euiployuient of certain 



fj 



>9l 



R 



78 



CauHc of Canker. 
True ni.pIo ....nkor Ih r«„H«l thronRl, the inf«H-tl«n of tlio troo bv n parnnif ,. 
....KUH known .,H tho onnk^r f„,.«„H (.Vrr/«,/„ ,im..,,„„). tIh- h.h'tJh ,, 

m.K„H K„ „ «a.„lKHlo„ ,„to t.K. tlHH,U. <.f th. tHH- throUKh WOU... H • . , 

.hvayn o Ik- fon.ul on frnit tm-H. Hen.-e the f„„K„H belonRH to that «ro , , 
f"nKl whl..h ..ro oft.n trr«,«l wonnd-paruHlteH. Treon «.,^ havo .it, w h 
nmv ,H.. .„,!., .. fal.. c-ankor." whoro the effec-tn r.^.„.hle thl of tr "„ • 
lM.t in t\mn the «,H-tarla f.n.KUH Ih not to Ih. found. The ,„««. of 1 1 -m 
canker" han Ikhm. attrlhntc.l „» h«<.terla. and the r..^nJZ ^ ^^.^^^ 
WHUu to iKjIut to thl8 cwHluHhui. "jrz.^zlnsk. 

Pnvvntlon nnd Rcnndlcg. 
When yonns tm.H are attarkwl all air«.t».,l bran.lu^H nhould be .arefnliv 
n.t off lK.|ow the ,H.l„t «f inf«.tlon and burnt. The e.xiK«e.l Jt hum. . . 
H' ,.rotjHt.l with a «>atln« of onllnary Kan-tar. WluInT^Iek b^a 1^ 
.li«.aH.. the aff«t.Ml partH n».y Ih" out out and the ontn treatnl with tar 

It Is most m.iM.rtant never to UHe wIouh from a triH- that Is or Huh Ikvi. 
J -«H«l: throuKh the „eKUH.t of thlH prm.uth.n thouHa„,l« of vounuJ • 

iii».> snouM b«' eut down and burnt. 

Healthy and dlM-awnl tHM-H Hhonld not Ih- prunwl with the wune knife ;.s 
s,.ores are often .-arr... fmn. tnv to tree durln« prunlnK. and he .'.,:, 
H.rfm,.H offer an admlrab.e Htartln« pim-e for fresh Inf.vtion. The o N 

should be sterlllmHl after pru g an InfinhM tr«. 

SprayluK is <,f very little use In d.^stroyluB this dlseas,.; still. llnHN.n.l- 
ulphur n,l.xture s«.e„,s to h^sen Its ravages .-onslderably. Proper "t 
nWIuHls an.I the ke,,,ln« of the tr^vs In a vigorous state, will gener llv i 
Hn,-,vssful In wanlluK off this dlseas,..-.Vor Zraiand Bulletin \o. JO 

(Jl'MMOHlH 

IH tlu. name Riven to a dls,.ase wlileh attacks stone fruits esmvl lilv 
HW.M. <.herrles. ,ts nature Is n<.t well understood, an.l Is dJ-rlH , 
MIchlKan Bulletin 2.-.. as follows:— utsciUMMl in 

The tl.m- of Bun. from branehes of ,,lum. iK>neh. .-herrv. ainumd ef Ir.s 

Jir t "f ' /«'/'"</'«n,/m r7»>*,//o,»,. and a sin.ilnr trouble on the san.e 

rMosporium c„i„t,„II,nn has also Ihhm. found oausInK Kunnn,wls on tl... 
pnrplM...,v., variety of the Myr an plun.. «rown for T, It n 

found to hi. associate,! with a sikm-I.^s of na,los,»i»orIun.. In nn.nv ,as,.s fl... 
tro«h.e probably In-Klns In sou.e ,.ra,.k or woun,l whl.-h a o«' L- „■« . 

of s.p u||,.i ,.xiMles and hanh-ns. fonnlnR t,.«r-llke .Irops. s,un,.flnuN of 
<.msl,lerabl.. size. This kuu. Ik partly utills,., by the fuuKus „ tL ro, H, 
of «.ore s,K,r,.. The ,K>rtio« of branch b^.yond the affcvU.l s.k, ma n 



i 



79 

i-am-H Ik. klllcl or ixTinanently woakpiiwl l,. -.. i 

<"t uff ..!„„• the .„«e.,H.., area .."a hmi„. T^'.:""': ?' "•"'"" """"'" «-' 

.nu. rr';.::r:'u:::;r;:;;;^;;;;\r^ -'- - .^.^ « «.>. o. 

•«» «llow the entrance of f„ L| 'r/,. » , '"*' "■"""•'" '*'••"'"'">• »"«'" «*•"« 
—,.. or t.u..e treeHZlSU:'"^^ "^ -"""»'"« the ,„«.. 

I..K the h-aven H.uhlenlv , ro v^'^^^ '-"'"'• '" " ^ew honrn turn 

s....;!;!:."::!:;;;:;;:';;;';.;;: ;;:;;r«;;; ;:;-" ••■t- - 1.... brow.... a... .„>. 

rnM,„e..tly hv the blj^htin!' ..,...? prm....-,. of the dlseas,. more 

larger ,.|„„ter«. ^h..: ,'t... , "^ "' ""' '""•'"^»'» ^"'«t«'rH o.. the 

The progress .i t La^ s a hvav;",'"""'" *'."'"""'""' '•*^^""' •'""•^-'^ 

>»..re s„s<v„tlhle varieties I ". lells ""^«*-'' '"•'""'"'« "r^' •»f.'*t«l. I., the 

;^;t ... the ...ore r..j!;:::z::^::z:!::^^:;^^^^^^ 'r ^^""'•' '''-'' 

Whe.. the disease is active the hark of ten! "*' '" ""^ *"' ^"«t- 

thUk. hla,.klsh. K„.„.„v rt,.|d ev II "»7"'^«H<'«1 hra..,hes cracks. „,.d a 

"""l-.«I. .iry a..d sZ.ke Th dLl^ T ""' """•^"» '"'^'^ '--"'- 

•.ra..eh..s a..<l tr,..,ks of r,d t tr«s ,17 "'''7 """^ "'"""'•'' "" "»" ""•«•"• 

••s„..^.ald." This dls«.aw. of the rm.ks 1 . r^ T'' "" " ''»"'»'''^ " or 

;^|H.ke..ofas",„KlyhII«ht"or' o,.gU^t^^^^^^^ t'!'';. :''": '" """-"""'« 
layer of the l|.„|,„ „,„i tr,,„u „„/„*' "'^''- ^'" "»»'«• l""-!* a..d n....h|,in, 

•••v the hll«ht. ...s^ll' re , :: 'T ^''TV'"''*' "' ^'"' ^^^ ^"'"' 
watery „|„.rs ««.>.,.,„,„,„, ,v , aJ "''''"*' ""* '""'• '•'^'"••'"« 

!.utrefa,.tlo,.. ' ''^"""' •"'•""•• •""<» "^ -'H' writers to r.mM..hle 

"•'"^ is a sharp 11..^ t.Z,;"?\ "'""""' '""^^^ 
|K.rtlo..s.-(,r«//r.) 1-"'"r«»tinu hetw«... the .llseamnl a..d healthy 

-n..K.r";>f : mZ;;;:;. X'^- •" ""^-'t ..K.a.ltles. n..d there a., a 

-...."^« «. ...ore s..s«;,t;:/r ,;r t:, ^zx- r..r .r 






■'.si 






4^' 



. •! 



80 






1 
I 



service berry nnd hawthorn nre frequently diseased, but not to such nn extent 
as the flrst-nanie<l trees. There is a diffen>nce in the susc»>ptiblllty of varieties 
Thus, among iH'jirs. flapp's Favourite, Flemish Beauty, and Bartlett are ni..n- 
liable to the disease than KelfTer and Duchess, and amongst apples, the (nil. 
varieties are the least resistant. 

Climatic conditions influence the disease; warm, moist weather wiih 
much rain favour It, whilst bright, dry, sunny weather tends to check it. 

High cultivation, rich soil, heavy manuring. fret« use of fertilisers. Iicax.v 
pruning, or any other treatment which has a tendency to Induce new and 
succulent growth, favours the disease, as the bacteria grow with far greater 
rapidity and iK-netrate more quIcKly from cell to cell when the tissues are 
gorged with sap. Insects are more partial to young sucrulent shoots .iihI 
leaves, and the bites and punctures of such Insects whose mouth parts may l.e 
contaminated with jK'ar blight germs often serve to Infect the tree. 

It Is thus manifest that healthy, thrifty, vigorous, well fed and wel! 
cultlvatetl tnt's are more liahlc to the disease than others, and henw tiie 
severity of nn attack of fire blight may be lessened by conditions wiii<li are 
under the control of the grower. 

Treatment. 
The treatment of fire blight is of two kinds— that which is design»>d to 
put the tree in a condition to withstand the attack of the blight microbe, ami 
these methods which aim at the extermination of the casual bacterium. 
Unfortunately, all methods which nre used for hindering the attack of the 
microbe consist of restraining the full development of the tree, and hence any 
such system of procedure should not be followed unless an orchard Is very 
badly atackeil. 

High cultivation, with pruning and the other conditions already mentioned 
as predlsitosing trees to blight, should be nvolded, but the trees should 1m- 
allowtHl to rir)en the wo<k1, and in order to do this the fruit-grower must use 
any method which will check the amount of moisture in the soil— for Instance, 
by the growth of a clover crop. 

Tlie Are blight organism cannot be exterminated by spraying, as the 
microbe lives in the tissues iMMieath the outer bark, and it is Imimsslble n. 
reach it with any spraying solution, for, unless the bacteria come into contaet 
with the germicide, spraying is Ineffectual. 

There is. therefore, but one remedy, to cut out nnd burn the aff«HttMl 
parts of the trw. It is very necessary when cutting out a diseased l)raneli 
or twig to cut well below the dlscoloure<l portion, as the bacteria are In nio.st 
cases far below the di.scf)loured portion, the discolouration not being phkIik..! 
immediately uiwn the appearance of a few bacteria, so that if only the dis- 
coloured portion were cut off numbers of bacteria would still be left in the 
stump, and these would continue to multiply, and the disease would soon he 
evident again. 

Cutting of affected parts may be done at any time in the winter ami 
spring, but It is not advisnlde to cut in the growing season, as fresh cases may 
be ctmstantly (Xturrlng. and these, owing to lack of suHlclent development, 
would not be seen. 



81 



The best time for tuttliiK out afrecte<l hrumhes Is townnls the fall, or 
when the trees have stopjH>d foriniriK new wofHl. when most of the blight has 
develor)ed. and when the contrast between the distolouriHl leaves and branehes 
and healthy tissues Is easily seen, 

Tr«-<.M should be carefully Insiiectf'd for blight dnrlng the winter and In 
spring before the blossoms eonie «»ut. In order to destroy any aflTeeted parts 
that may have been missetl at pvivlous lnsi)ection. 

All trees of the pome family in the vicinity should be examlnwl as well, 
as tliese, if bllghteti, may serve to re-infwt an orcliard which has been care- 
fully treated. 

In cases where the l»ark of the trunk is aflfe<te«l, it can be cut out and 
the wound covereii with a lead or oil paint. The cut surface of the branches 
()ver one-half inch in diameter should also be painted.—/'. C. Harrimni. 
Ontario Bulletin, A'o. 13G. 

Wlien a tree blights, remove and burn at o\m\ outside the orchard, every 
trace of diseased wo<k1. Saw off the smaller Itranches about a foot below the 
least sign of disease, and dig out the spots on the trunk and larger limbs. 
<-utting deep enough to remove all discolouration. The knife and saw used in 
pruning should always be (Hslnfected with carl)ollc add before leaving eacii 
tree, to avoid infecting the freshly-cut healthy wootl of the next tree. The 
exposed surfaces should be at once painted to exclude germs that may be 
floating In the air.— 0/ti;o» Bull. 27. 

Leaf Blight of Pears {Entomonporium maculatum. Lev.). 

The fungus causing this disease attacks the leaves and fruit of the i)ear 
and (piince. On the leaves It provinces small rounded sjiots of a brownish-red 
colour. On the fruit the spots soon lose their n?«ldlsh colour, liwoniing much 
darker, while tlie surface sometimes becomes cracked In severe cases as with 
the si'ab. In tlie centre of the diseased siwts small pimples may be seen, due 
to the formation of si)ores beneath the epidermis. Later these cracks o|»en. 
allowing the spores to escai»e. 

The spores themselves are very i)eculiar, each being c«»miK)8ed of two 
large an<l several small cells, united and possessing several bristle-like 
pro(<'88«'s giving them an api»earanv-e suggesting some kind of an insect. It is 
sometimes especially bad on nursery stcK-k in the row. 

It is «iulte readily controlled by the Bordeaux mixture, about three appli- 
cations serving to keep the foliage and fruit free from the disease.— J//e/«i»aM 
Ii:il!rt;i: .V.o. 25. 

The Shot-hole fungus (('iiUndrosporium padi. K.) penetrates the entire 
leaf, but congregates in spots to prcMluce siK)res. Here the tissue dies, be<-omes 
brittle and soon breaks away, riddling the leaves, whlcii turn yellow and fall 
lirematurely. 

Remedy. 
Spray with Bordeaux mixture or annuonlacal copper carbonate about 
June Ist. and every tlirw weeks thereafter. If the disease is had.— Ornjon 
Bulletin Xo. 27. 



■J 






i 



'mi 



ROTS. 

naturally pr-valont In ,ho«. a Xh I L .^^ nr..,nnf..,v„,.... „„„ „ 

.v/««<'///«. Link. I lav.. ,.al . n. '• n """'■«'•""" '^'•""•» " "•• ''nuriUun. 

llriTi:» I1„T (Clu,„,r,ll,i ,«lo-mm«l,„„. k„„k ) 

rc'tanled by ck,! wvatl... a ^ m . . , ? j * I'ron.in.nt on sputH that an- 
« »n tl». other hand, th.! , r l in, I ^ T. """""'" ^'^ "•'^■*''-'^" -«""tions. 

a s,K,t that is d.;J, .i «;,:': :^^^^^^ 

•'"laws and p-ows ol h'r if 1 'avonrahle con.IItionH. As tlu- s,K,t 

a i.«..t. wa,...!; : .;r NH:::,:^t •■':;;" "■ "^ ^^'"""- '''''"^"•^ ^•'^ ''"•• 

and s<.,„ b..on,..s sunk..,. """""'' ^*''" " «-"-J«^Hn.Hl naupn. 

- a.:!;:.;":; t::;r ;,rkir 1^:^ ^^ 

ffl «,n.vntrl,- rinKs. Th..,. .a.stm .« ''"'^■, '''"'\'"> ••"«'<« and usually arran^l 

Pink, sticky .s,>oronuJsvS: rTadiir:' >"";"".'". ""' '^'^^"' ""^^'•-'•«"-' 
tlu. dl«.as.. „roK'n.ss..s ..tlu.r ri Js .f . ?^ *, '' '"^ ''*' *^"'"''" "'"• »•"'"«• •^'^ 

n'a.v hav.. only on<. disoaso.l snot l.nf i^ I , ""' ""'"*" "'" "I'"'" 

-voral. and ,t is not un,-o un^^ l ^ V rr^J "i: *'?""" """•" "••" """"">• 
"f inf.H-tion. l»„ring the „asf M . '. "terally ,K.„,H.rod with ,K,ints 

"1.PUS and .stinuu! ' l^'^n ^^^'^ ""' ''T' '"""^*'" ^"^ "" " '"»«'- 
j,v/ijv on oa<n of sevcra others wiw... « 

uuitrs. When So numerous. 



S3 

thos.. Hpots «ro at first vMs^.l. a,.,H.„ri„K «« Kn.nll brow,, hUstorH o,. ,ho nkl,, 

of tho „p„l,.. n,.,l „ro fn.q„,.„tly so arn„,K,.<l as to su^-st tl.at fl„. „oi„tH o^ 

nfootio., .,..„ fo„ow.Hl ,ln,,H of water trlc-kllng dow., th,- si...! If t ^ p,,:' 

the siKH-kod aroHH oxt..„d i„ strips toward the calvv ..„d 

\Vhe„ a „„mlK.r of spots apin-ar o„ a sh.ulo apple tliey so,,,, .-oalesce a„d 
thm. or four ...i,..,.« tl,e as....,.,,.,,,,-. e„velop the others a,.d r etah U 
.•Inula,- sha.K.. each prodn..i„« i,s rh.^s of fr„ith.« p„stnh.s. F,. v t . 
. . .V fr„,t s converted i,.to a .lark-brow,, shrivell.l u,.d wrl,.k,e<, , .n, " 
«hl.h „,ay ha,.« o,. the tree a year or ,„o,-e. Iloweve,-. ,|,e ...alorltv o t ; 
arrcK-ted f,-,.its fall ,o the K,.o..,.d l.efo.. .hey are half n.tt . , d , 
rUH.o„,poslt,o„ Is haste„e<l by seave„Ker I„seetH a„d deeay f,„.«l. 

Jnfluniriii;/ Condition.'*. 
"■'■"""•'•-The p,-edo„,lna,m,' eo,.dltlo„s that i..,l„en.e the ,h-velop,„e,.t 
of b tter-,-ot are te.apen,t„n. a,.,l h,n..ulity. A few rays of hot. shi.we y 
weather „.ay start a„ epiden.i.. „.at will destroy the e..tire crop of n-rtal,, 
\arielh's. j.rovlded the fm^is is jires«.i,t. ^-^riaiu 

J/o/./«,r.-Mols,u,v is ,:ot o.ily ,nHessa,-y for the «er„.l„atlo„ of ,i„. 
.J.K>res. b„t it favours the «,-ow,h of the f.„„ns a..d has,e,.s spon- p,':.,,, ti 

a ois a ...osphe.-e tl... spo.-s a.-e pr ,eed ,.,.„,. ,..o,.e n,p.dly U.a„ when 

11m h* •^^•"""'^■•"•- ••'"" ''^ '"' "<ti^" "«""t i,. the spn-ad of the disease 
levvb "" 7;''^^'V-"' - "'f-^''*' "PPh" to adja..e..t healthy fr, ts 
leaxy dews followe,! by hot eio„dy days wi.l, a hu„.id at,.,..sp,.ere. appear 
to make Ideal conditions for the rapid developn.ent of this disease. 

Conrhiniotui and Rrronimindtitionn. 

S«n.n.arisin« the results obtained, and considering th. fart that the ex.HTl- 
ment.s were .na.le d,.rln« a season unusually favourable to bitter-rot t 1 
foilowinj: eonelHslous may bi> drawn:— 

1. imter-rot en„ b«. ron.pleteiy controlled by ,.ro,KT applications of Ror- 
dea,,x mixture. »;U to !>S.O .hu- cent, of .sonnd fruit having K-en saved by s ,d. 
treatment in these ex,K.riu.e,.ts. while the ch.vks rotte<l ..anph-leh ' " 

eont;".^r'r"^"''"""""- '"'"" '"'"'" ^'''' '" *"•' '-'^"^ t""^"' '•"••' «'»H.i.'nt to 
eont, 1 the U,s«.ase satisfactorily, but 1„ order to b.. sure of covering the 
infec-tion iK^rlods one or tw,. additional applications ,nav be nec-e.ssarv 

3 The applications should be n.a.le at Intervals of two w..H..ks, b^Kinni,,-. 
alKHit six weeks after tl,e trees bl(K),n. iH>,nmin« 

4. It IH n«-,.s8ary to spray the trees thoroughly, coating the fruit on ali 
sides with fine mist-like applications. 

^"- Other diseases, sn.l. as .scab. leaf-s,x>t and .s.«>ty-blot.l,. n.av be eon- 
troii«i In wnnection with the treat„,ent of bitte,-,o, 

For the tre«t,„ent o( bitter-rot alone, spray the trees thoroughly with 
Bordeaux „.i.xt«re at Intervals of two weeks until five applications L, iZ 
inade. beg nnlng not later than f.wty days after the ,K.,als have fallen 

tor l,e combined treat.nent of apple sc-ab a„,| bitter-rot. spray the tr«.s 
horoughly with Bordeaux n,lxt„re: tl, j„st ...fore they bbH..„ but fre 
the cluster buds have ope.n.l and ex,«.s,.l the flower buds; (2, As Ln a« 



Hi 



»r. 



n a ,;r': "" ?"■'*' '" ""^^ ^•^ «'*>• ♦^-•^^ ««" the fruit han «:" ' '' 

twice In rapid Hiicesslon with nii IntPrvni «f ««i,. „ .- . "'".""*'"'> ''I»r">«'<5 
the rr„lt thoro..h,, a« ,,....T Hrnl'^-J^.r/r ii^l ittr^alr U 
is difficult to <.,at the fruits Hufficiently to protect aKainnt bitter rot and th 
second application, which adheres better than the flr«t\„ .ux^int 
prese..,^ of the previous coating, and also rea.-hes parts o Z Tr,l 
touched before, is nec^sary for thorough protection Jr.'^ ^^^^1,^0^ 
Brown Rot (Monilia fmctigcna) 

These six^res may reujain unchanRed for a creat lenn-ti, «f fi™„ 
causing the so-called " hrown^Tor' ' '^'^^"'•«"»'^'"« the tissues and 



85 






The mycelium or plant body of the fungus remains dormant during the 
w nter In the dried or mummied plums which are left on the trees Infected 
with the disease, or on the ground beneath them, and when warm weather 
comes the following season will pro<luc-e an abundant crop of sr)ore8 to start 
Infection afresh. 

In dealing with this disease. It will be easily seen that the most successful 
T,TZT T "^""'•"y ^ «' '^ preventive nature. It Is usually first 
noticed m the season on cherries. esiKvlally on soft varieties which burst their 
skins after a rainstorm, such as the Governor Wood, and, undoubtedly, Infected 
fruits wh ch are left to dry up on these trees are a fertile source of Infection 
to plums later In the season. Great care should be taken to gather and burn 
these, and also the first Infected mouldy fruit noticed on plum trees In 
orchards which have been Infected this season, the first thing to be done Is 
to pick off. as soon as possible In the fall, all dried up or mummied fruit which 
may have been left on the trees, then with a fln^toothed garden rake gather 
ogether all fruit that may have fallen on the ground, together with fallen 
leaves and trash, and burn up all these sources of Infection ; after whicli the 
trees should be thoroughly sprayed with Bordeaux mixture of double strength 
viz.: 8 pounds sulphate of copier, 8 i)ound8 lime, and 50 gallons of water- 
the ground beneath the trees should also be well sprayed with the mixture 
This should be followed by a thorough spraying with Xo. 1 Mixture (lime 
salt and sulphur spray), during the dormant season, both of the trees and of 
the ground beneath them. 

In the spring, the spraying of the trees with Bordeaux mixture of the 
ordinary strength should be commenced as soon as growth starts, and at least 
two sprayings given after the blossoms have fallen. 

If there is reason to expect an attack of the disease after the fruit has 
attained Its size and before ripening. Spray No. 10-the Carbonate of Copper 
foT/r, ?^ be carefully used, as at this stage the fruit Is particularly liable 
to be infected. Cherry trees should be carefully sprayed with double strength 
Bordeaux mixture as recommended for plum trees, while the trees are dor- 
mant and in the spring the trees should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture 
of ordinary strength when growth commences, and again after the fruit has 
rormed. 

-t HH u^y' " *^ '*"*^ by Professor Cordley. "that now the disease Is well- 
established, any prune or cherry grower who falls to employ preventive 
measures against brown rot deliberately takes the chance of losing a large 
proportion of his crop, even though such loss may occur every year." and this 
statement applies with the same force In Lower British Columbia 

with it and It has been amply demonstrated that this season almost the entire 
crop of some badly infected orchards was unfit for shipment. A goc^ dealTf 
he loss experienced this year was due to the development of the dIseaL 
in hepackages en route to market, the temin-rature inside cars filled with 
fruit being high enough, and sufficient moisture present to fun,i«h fav.Hirable 
conditions for the spread of the rut to a large portion of the shipment 



J^ 



'4ij 






80 
Pkacii Leaf CTbl (Exr>a>,ru» dr format,,). 

their tlnnxwH. The hllHtorH «, mot „ .T v. , '»''''"«<-«I* '"»»<UH which attacks 
The entire 1 nfmnv. '"""•^*'™'^ ""^^'^ «««•»«' « 1-nf, Hometlines alon^ It 
ix.rtll,:; :;;,,;[ tu^T^'I "" "" ^^^ •" "'"•e...K„,H„hIe. „r otTv 

tloiiH of these. The follace .rener .iivTn I^' ' ^ ' "'' "''"*^' •"" «""»>••". 
thnn the tree Ih exlImZ !Z^ZVT f,' ""'' """*'"''" •••"" '" ""•"«'» ""^: 

after setting. The Attacks aT^^^^^^^^^ ^'""'* '* """""*' """• " ''"^ «"*'''* 
ohangeahle weather. T. dir«e m^ t:rr;h';.'™;T'" "'""*'""" «"" '" 
the wcKHl: thu8 «.ionH and b^rrr r„ n * , "■'"*^'" ''^ *"•" ""*"' "'"» '" 
•uto .«.ant.e« ^^.rlZTJZIZyVlZZ' '"^ ""' ^'""^ ''' '"-•'- 

Pretentions and Treatment 

«cIo„s or budH from a" trS J Zl'^l. ^T "' '""'^ ''""*^»'" *« «-"'• 
two yearn. K,H.p " Hharn^k o. /T i^ f. ""'* ''^"^ ""^ "'« ^'«^"«^ «'«>'" 
oivhard Rive the tr^ the Z"st a te^^lT ' ?' """" ""'"""' '" « '-"" 
"pared at this stage-" A sE ?„ tlT T} '""'*• ^"^ *'"°"*"^ «''°"'" ^' 
leavcH from diJaiVtrllhouI.i! .!!'*'' "'"^^ "^^ ^'''^'''^^^ «"<^ '«"»^" 
series. Bonleau^nlxt Te .rooLr.^n^H'*' T ""^ '"™^' ^^^^'^''^ »» "»•- 
Soon after the ea ^ IT; nTn ' l.""'' "'"""*'• ^^"^ ^^''^''^ *»>« ^IseaKc. 

-r the .ta. le ;:^r ^ ^ ^ '.:a;.:!^^;tr/^ - 

be oSllrl/^lrirr^arfun^^^^^^^^^^^ ^' *'^ ""««"• -^ '^Pnear. to 

cold weathe; As smm «« tT f ^ " *'''' ^*"''^" °' ***« '««' develo,»ed bv 

leaf on C tree a^o: t^j^II T r"" '"^" "' ^"^'' '^'^'^ ^"^ «''-*«• 
appear again. TUelZ ^rmarnt Vr , r" *''"• ^'"^"'"^ '* «"' "«t 
K.KK1 cultivation and pr'ulg ba-k ^Ten' the', ^' "'.'""*"• '"^"^^ ^>- 
most of the follaue nnri L..!. ■ ! '^•^"'^ '" ^^''^'*' " destroy., 

^mcr^an Fruit CuZZ ' ""•" ""'"'"'"•^^ ''"'« '^^ tree.-Tkoma.- 

GoosEBEKRv 31,.nKw (..MaTo^/,.c« mors.uv^, B. and C ) 

bej;:.rai'rsrn?hr;r.T>L"' """.""°" ^^ *^^ ^"-^- ^■ 

Succeesful results are reported bv Prof rnw <.«•*• . . , 



87 

eight t.nu.H aJlVtlZZn^r ' ' "'''""'^"^' "'"^ "'»-^-» — - 

«lven for the n^Z g^. .4z. :- "' '" ''' -"•»« '-'-rtlouH as tho«. 

Carbonnte of c'oi»iH?r ^ 

Aninionlii ' °^- 

Water ^}^ ''*"*"• 

-Cenfrfll Experimental 'Farm',BuUetin No^ lO. '^ ^"'^" 

Ko«E Mildew {Sphacrothcca pannom ) 

twiKBonUfloweritlHo niJs .rLtZ't "f"'""" *''''^"*"'' ^''^ '*^-«'' 
flowerH of sulphur llxc!^lwro,ithin '" '" ''"'' ''''''^ '"""*« ^^'^h 

with ,H,t„H«l„ „ Hulph d^i o^ to "Janon- r f "'"'••'' ""•*'• «^'">>'«« 

PowDEBY Mildew. 

Soon after this luycelium eet« iv«ii .i^. i ^ vmm Douy of the fuugus. 
anee. Cue to the pXtro/o^Z t.tCj^.^urZ: '^ ''"^^'"^ "^^"- 
to spread the disease during the^row.^g s:Lo^" To^ardV^hT^^^^^^^^^^ """ 
the myc-ellum develops small round black masses Justvlllf ?. ""•""" 
«ye, and these are the eases which nnnfoi *t •' ""'^ *° ^^^ "»"*«» 

fungus through the winter *"'° ^'^^ ^^''"*" ^''^^^ «»*» ^'""y the 

Treatment. 
APPLE THEE lliu>tw (ma:roll,cm „„«. j,»ON« ) 

A„er,;"rr:r:nir:,^'r 'LZi' - r ""^°' "" "" ■""- 

one of those wsts llkelv tn . nilMew. It Is very prevalent, and is 

^. the myc^iri: M;:^-^%rz3 tr wir i::r h""r v- -'■-''' 

Dud scales, and thus escai^e detection ^'"■'' *"'* ^^^"'""^ *»»« 



A: 






t 



Prevcntire and Remedial Mcanum. 

1. When the dlwnw in prew.nt In itx wonit form, the only certain nu.th.-i 
of nrro-tln* It. proKr«« Ih to out off and burn all the Infected ^Ttt.^ of In w^ 
The cj^^houhl IH. made alK>ut two Inche. behind the tuft ofle^ TrL^Tl ^ 

iz rrr - ^•"^ """"-- ^'-^ °- ^-'"-^ •>"-'•- -•»' -^ ir. 

treo^h^^M L""' '"T'^ "^^"^ '" " '""'» '°'''° «° the scattered ienv.* th. 
tree «hould be .prayetl with a aolntlon of p«ta«dum sulphide (liver of m\l»rl 
one oum-e dl««,lved In two gallons of water. Wiver or sulphur.. 

Infection of the leaves only takes place when they are quite voiin.r „„,• 
then Is the time to look for the mildew. On the first symnLns of irT f * 
anc. sprayluK nhould be cmmenc^. ,f this op,« "unr TeJ.^tl? T^^^^^^ 
mildew Is allowed a start, spraying may be considered u^l J "' 

3. It would, under all clrcumstancen. be advisable to spray trees where tho 

7x0 deT^""'' :?*"' "'"""^"^""^ "''*'" ^''^ leaf 'budVare^pa, din : 
dlstHh.;^LtH '''^'J' "' ^"* '««hcomlng as to whether l„se<-tH assist h, 
d s ributing the spores of the fungus, or aiding In Its atack In any other way 
It I. however, quite certain that mildew Is most abundant on trees that Iro 

-hould be dealt wlth.-«o«., of A.rieuUure and FisHerieLf /uoiT^lZ^ 

Apple Powdery MiIdew. 

or I J**/.r"* "*'i''"* '"^"'^ *° ^^"^ '^""«' *^«"'*'> by this disease. Is the Iohh 
Of its foliage To prevent this, and thereby Insure good working stocks or 

When "ZV "^'"T ""' '''' ammoniaoal eopper'carbonate sSluttn fir" 
Jhen the eaves are about half-grown and thereafter at Intervalr of twehl 

2Lf 7'?^ *''" ^'"°' ^"-^ "P^«^'"«^ -'" usually r made Hfl 
budding, and at least two after this operation, making five In all. It Is seldom 
that powdery mildew proves serious to budded or grafted stork P,nlr 
certain particularly susceptible varieties. In such c^:^1>rac7l a. yThe "^^ 
Une of treatment recommended for the seedlings may be followed flT 
Galloway, V. 8. Circular Xo. 10. loiiowed.-B. 7. 

ANTHBACN08E OK Raspbebbt AND Blackbebbt (Qlw^porium vemtum, Speo.) 

nl„nr*!„^°*'"'"*''"!^u' ""P^'^'-yy «n^ blackberry is a common disease of these 
plants and one which Is capable of doing much harm. It affects the can^ 
first, later appearing also on young shoots and leaves. The spots In the ear'v 
stages Of the disease are purple, but as the disease progr^^s thes! Z s 
acquire a whitish centre and become somewhat sunken, ir bad ca-Xe 
«pot8 run together, sometimes encircling the cane; at other times Tne-" run 
along one side, producing large patches of a grayish colon Durlg tb^ 
second season the spots tend to dry out. producing cracks in the^^ ami 
scaling Of the bark. On the leaves the spots are apt to be small, but nu^rou 
and follow the general appearance of those on the canes. The effecHf tMs 
parasi e is to reduce the vigour and size of all parts of the p'ant. The f u 
often falls to mature properly, but frequently dries up before ripening 






89 



TreBtment nhniild c-oMiRt of cutting out the worst dlwnwMl oaiu.« and 
"praying. B«.,xlnnlng In spring, tho flnit application may be the «.i,iH.r 
milphnte Nolutlon (1 po.:nd In 25 gallon, of water) before the leaf budM o,!en 
The «H-.,nd. mxm after the foliage, In out. with Bordeaux mixture. A third 
■praying with the Ii<»rdeaux should follow the harventlng of the crop Start 
new plantatlonH from healthy canes or from root cuttings in case of red 
raspberry and blackberry.— if<cA/i;fl» BulleUn, No. 25. 

Iwsii Bi loiiT. OR Late Blioht or Potatoes {Phytophthora infentan,). 

Symptoms. 

The first indication of this disease Is to be seen on ihe leaf In the shape 
Of a s Ight -Hluctlon in the Intensity of the colouring-matter «.f the leaf. This 
!• rapldii »ilowed by the appearand, of small brownish blotches, commencing 
generally at the edge of the leaf. These spots soon Increase In sl7,e and the 
tissues die. turning dark brown or nearly black. In dry weather these 
patches do not Incnasr much, but In humid weather they spread over the 
eaves with Immense rapidity. After destroying the leaves, the disease 
travels down the haulms, and in severe cases the whole of the aerial mirtlon 
of the potato plant may within u few hours become a blackish mass of rotten 
plant-d^brls. which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odour. If the under- 
surface of the leaves be examined with a iKJcket-lens. there will generally be 
seen around the margin of each 8i)ot a more or less distinct border of whitish 
mould, looking somewhat as If fine flour had been sprinkled on the leaves 
This white mould Is the fruiting portion of the fungus causing the disease' 
and as myriads of spores are quickly formed on each leaf, it Is easy to 
understand how It can be spread so rapidly. 

This potato-disease is practically wholly propagated and carried on from 
season to season In the tubers themselves. It is. therefore, of the first 
importance that none but perfectly sound potatoes should be used for seed. 

The appearance of diseased tubers is very characteristic. Numerous 
sunken, dead, brown patches are developed on the surface of the tubers 
These may remain firm and hard for some time, but generally thev become 
soft, and the wholo tuber rapidly rots. This rot is accompanied with'a partic- 
ularly foetid odour, quite distinct from the rots caused by bacteria, fusarium. 
etc.— A'eic Zealand, ISth Report. «iiuuj, 

Seed potatoes should be stored in a perfectly dry and well-ventilated shed 
They should be examined at intervals, and any tubers showing signs of disease 
should be at once destroyed. 

The dipping of seed potatoes In Bordeaux mixture, using the 4-4-40 form- 
ula or. If the skin Is well hardened, the 6-4-40 formula. Is to be recommended 
A large barrel should be used, and the potatoes placed in a basket made of 
wire-netting, or some such material, and the potatoes totally Immersed for a 
few minutes, then lay them out In a warm place to dry before storing. It 
must be remembered that this dipping kills only the spores and those portions 
of the fungus that are on the surface of the potato, and Is quite ineffectual In 
destroying the part which winters In the tissues of the tubers themselves 



-^: 






'1; 



I 



MKROCOfY KESOlUTrON T«T CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




1^ 


|2| 


l» 


■m 


LA 


1^ 


lii 


laA 


IB 


Ih 


mult 





2^ 
2.2 
2.0 

1.8 




A 



APPLIED IN/HGE 



I6SJ Eait Main Stmt 

tSfif**"' '^* ''<»* '♦609 USA 
(716) «2 - 0300 - Ptron, "^ 

(716) 288 - 3989 - Fo« 



00 
■i least sig,, of rot. *""^ *" *""*"' '"»» '-^U'^ve any sh,nvi„^,\,„. 

„M r,;r "S",:,:;;*':: ,::;r '" '"""-' '- - - - -. 

Wide C III that ion. 

™,:;;'r;:;:;'"i:;j:;;:,- — 

»"" » "-I 'M'tl, „f soil „„i r.,der tt, " '""' '" ''""•' ""■ <"l"'» 

even tl,„„sl, ,l„. f, »M,,,,v J/^ "* ^e , ' "'"' "•""" '" "<■ ■""•■"-I 

earn,., „„„.„ ., ,„„ „„„ .„„^^ „--'';_ .l^'-^'J'- «.-» ^ ,.„.,, 

Maniiriiiff. 

Numerous ex„eri,m.nts carrie,! o„t in n t'>.oo„rnffP the .lisease 

that crops „.an„rec. with h.« ,v „ r^^e "or.n'"'' "' *'" ""'•'" ""- •^•--' 
bLxxl. etc., contract the dis^^a.se tZ7ZTt ""• '"^"^ "^ "'^'•«t^ "^^ -«'a. 

;yhen they are „,a„„re„ ^.itul,nZS^"T\ ""'■'^' "" *"« "«>- »-n,l 
the disease to a great extent. '•"'""'' '"^'^^ «'"! Ph-sphates they often e.scajK. 

Good Drainage 

tial. an.1 the addition of large quanmiTs of hlTV''"'"'^*' '"^ "'''^^ — " 
gron-n on over-n.oist soi,.s les's suscep«ble to Xl" ''" ""' '""'•^^"^ -""'^ 

^«//e.-/«, Ao. 2J. *'"^ ''"" Bordeaux mixture.-.Ve»(, Zc«/«,„/ 

TFAen to Spray. 

appeared about the Ist of Julv l,i .^ ' '*^ ^PP^^rance. Last ye-ir if 

;t first appears, sn,a„ Liide^y ^ ZZ"' 'T"" ^""^^^•'^"* '"*- ^' - 
then dead, brown spots appear Wh.; " *'"'' ""'^'"'- «'<^^ «f the leaves 

rapidly and has been know^ to spmuT over" ''"V '""^ ^'^^"^ «Pread -en-- 
S|^n the leaves and stents are re need to a Z^T" '^'^ ^" '^"^ '^^ '-'- '^-•; 
disagreeable odour. From this hL ? ? •^*^«y'"g mass which emits a verv 
deveioped no time should be iost I ^Ct T. "^ ^^^ »« »- ^1'-- "I 

tndoubtedlv the 7.^./ ..i ^ *^ "^'■'^- 

;•>« middie Of .TunH/Se ' o\:re of t T^ ^^ '^"'^^ -^iy. say about 
be reiM^ated every two weeks to u """"^ '"^ "'« «i'«^a«e. This shon 

l<eepingthep,ants.safe,;S;LlVS^^^^^^^^^^ a great dea, de;t: 

^o. 46, Washington Agricultural cSleT. '^' sin^re^.-Bullctin 



'% 



91 



Early Blight, or Potato Leaf-Clrl {MaciOHporiitm solani). 

This Is caused by a fungus which attacks the foliage. It Hrst appears 
on the older leaves In the form of small brown or grayish-brown spots, which 
gradually spread and Join, so that soon a considerable area is Involved, the 
affected parts becoming curled, hard and brittle, while the remainder 
frequently assumes an unhealtliy yellowish colour. On the apjiearance of the 
disease the tul)ers cease to grow. Usually in about three we<'ks most of the 
leaves are dead; the stems remain green for some time longer, and then 
gradually perish. The tubers, being undeveloped and unripe, turn soft atid 
will not keep. It has been proverl by extensive exiteriments, both in Europe 
and America, that spraying with Bordeaux mixture will not only prever; or 
keep down fungous diseases, but will so increase the yield as to more than pay 
the extra expense Incurred. Great care must, however, be taken in mixing 
and applying fungicides and Insecticides. 

The Macrosporiiim must not be mistaken for tlie extremely destructive 
"potato-rot," so much dreaded in older countries. There is no doubt tliat it 
has been so mistaken, both in England and America, and this mistake has 
given rise to reports that "potato-rot" (Phytophthora infcstam) had broken 
out in various localities, when it was only Macrosporiiim, which, serious as it 
may be, is not nearly so bad as Phytophthora. 

Treatment. 

As the spores of the potato leaf-curl live through the winter on the dead 
haulms and leaves of affected plants, it naturally follows that to prevent a 
recurrence of the disease It Is essential to carefully burn all tops, etc.. that 
have in the previous season shown the least signs of infection. This burning 
should be done as soon after the potatoes are harvesteil as possible, as delays 
are always dangerous. 

Potato Bactebiosis (Bacillus solanacearum) . 

The first sign of disease Is disclosed by the yellow colouration and prema- 
ture wilting of the foliage. Sometimes only a few isolated plants are 
attacked, at other times whole rows may become diseased. At a later stage 
the veins of the leaves take on a darker hue than the rest of the foliage, which 
then rapidly ili.scolours and dies. 

If a diseased haulm is cut across it will be seen that the woody cylinder 
shows a brown discolouration, and the vessels are filled with bacteria, which 
gradually ooze out from the cut surface in dirty-coloured drops. In cases of 
severe attack the tubers become affected early and rapidly rot. 

Preventive Means. 

It has been definitely proved that this disease Is transmitted from field to 
field through the agency of leaf-eating insects; In the United States the 
Colorado beetle being esi)ecially active In spreading this bacterial blight. In 
consequence of this, it follows that In districts where bacteriosis is knr)wn to 
exist all leaf-eating Insects should be kept In check. For this purpose the 
addition of 4 oz. of Paris green to every 40 gallons of Bordeaux mixture will 
be found an excellent chock. 



\4 



92 

All aflfected plants should on the first appearance of the di«Pn«o , 
down to the ground, to avoid the „ffo<.tion spreading to the ubers '' ''!' 
must be remembered that when once this baciluL has g' ., ^d 1 entrv „tr;,;" 
tissues of the potato-haulm, spraying would be of no avaU The top '. 
cut off. Should. If iK>ssible. be burned.-Ac. Zealand BuUetin, 2%5 
Potato Scab (OospoHa scabies). 
Description. 
At the present day Oosporca scahics Is one of the most wl.le^nroo i . 
diseases affecting the potato. The fungus usually attLTtL re s l^^,? 
young, ormlng scattered rough patches or scabs on the surfad ho^J T 
gradually increase in size and number, and not Infreque^ rwhlr he ti " 
Tlfe'r^ "'r^'"" '^ """ ""' '""'^ ^^^""•'^*«^y covered with s", 

;r ::rrtCrf::=g^ •- — ^- --- - - -- 

Prevention and Remedies. 
llIsJVhP^L''l?^ ^^^^"^'^ "'^ "'"•* ^«'' "«^«"^" ^vithout having been stc- 

when they may be cut and planted in the usual n.anner. Great carnustl.: 

acL" orT ''"'"'"'' ""'''' '^° '''^''^ «« «»>-« that they are no pl^d 
sacks or hampers that have contained scabbed potatoes 

(^.) Land that has produced scabbed potatoes is certain to be lnfe<to,l 

cr,; r;'b?::- ;r:;c rs jur ---^^^ ^^' ^^« --• 

(3 ) In the case of gardens and small allotments, where potatoes are of 

18 trtieif":!!, '''''''"''' *''" *levelopment of the fungus in the soil; th.^ same 

have^binTollef 'Znf/Tf.''''^' ''""'•* °^* ^^ ^'^'^ **^ P'^« »»'-« they 
methcTof dellL «Hth ^J the safest, and in the end the most econon.ica . 
Leafl^Zm. ''''"^'-^oard of Agriculture and Fisheries, London. 

What will prevent Scab on Potatoes^ 

a ».«,„,. or one poooa o, ,o™ „:~: iZsZ z::'^^:^^: 



93 



lire nbc.iit oqually eflfectivp. an.l ..„«.•« <-|,oi,-,. will .IcikmuI npoii tl.p oaso with 
which tlu.y cim I).. |>ro<uml. Foniialiri tias tli.- a<lvaiitaK.. ,.f i,„t hoin- a 
violt'iit i)ois«.n lilvc tlic (orrosiv.. sul>liinat.'. For tliat mison. 1 pivfi-r tlu" use 
of formalin.— 7'/Y>/. John Craiij, Corndl iuiivtsitji. 

Dry-rot of Potatoks {Funnriiim ojjiKporum). 

The (lisoaso to which the iiaiu.' " dry-rot " lias Ik.-ii givni is cans...! by 
several diffm-iit fungi, hut the one whlefi .lr,es the main amount of <lamaK<' is 
known as Fumihiun ojnjKimum. a fimgns vi-ry Hoselv allied to the sleepy- 
.lisease fungus of tomatoes. The I'nxariHin Is fairly prevalent, hut is generaliy 
not noticMl until a oonshh'ral.le time after the tubers have b.n-n store<i 
although the disease is contracted while tlie <rop is growing in the field The 
foliage of diseased plants geui-rally wilts, but as this does not (n-cur till the 
tubers are nearly lull-grown, very little notice is taken. 

The disease enters the tubers at the stem -nd and graduailv spreads 
through them. f.)llowing the course of the vascuar bundles, and thus shows 
up a discoloured ring when cut across. At first sight one is reminded of 
p..tato-bacteriosis, but it can at onci> 1m. distinguished, owing to the absence of 
any watt-ry matter oozing out from the dl.s«olr.ured ring. The tubers gradually 
shrink and the skin bm.mes wrinkled, while the whole interior becomes trans- 
formed into a more or less hard, crumbling mass of a grav colour. The fruit- 
uig j.art of the fungus iijipears on the surface of the tubcTs as specks of white 
mould, on the delicate filaments of which are produced the characterlsti." 
sickle-shaped spores, which are divide.l into four by transverse septa. Sound 
potatoes can readily contract the disease through coming in contact with 
diseascHl ones. Thus the loss that may be sustained through the storing of 
healthy and diseased tubers together can easily be imagined. 

Treatment. 
As this fungus enters the plant b..low the ground, and may gain access 
during any part of the season, it is dmicuit to cope with; neverthele.ss the 
following measures will be found fairly satisfactory :— 

1. (July sound tubers should l)e used for seed. It is equally important not 
to plant iKjtatoes on laud where the .lisease has recently appeared, for this 
fungus can live in the soil for a considerable time, probably for sev.Tal years 
.Such infected land should be used for otiier .rop.s. such as cereals or grasses' 

2. Collect and burn all badly-diseased tubers and store susi)e<-ted ones in 
a cool, dry place, where the temi.erature remains about 40 Fahr 

3. If it is found impracticable to store in a cool place, the tubers should be 
sold and eaten as soon after harvesting as jK.ssibie. There is no danger in 
eating partly affected potatoes, as b<.iling kills the fungus; ami even if tlicy 
were eaf..n raw the fungus cannot harm human being.s, as it cannot grow at 
onlinary blood tenijierature. 

4. Nitrogenous manures have been sliown to increase the virulence of thia 
disease, lience they should be avoided as far as i.ossible. 

5. Never throw diseased tubers on the manure-heap; this is one of the 
most fruitful .sources of the spread of nearly all fungus diseases 

(}. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture makes the plants much more healthy 
than they would otherwise be, and helps then, to resist this disease 



> 



ii 



04 
Wkt-rot. 

-'::!::".:;■ ::;;:■;..,:,:,: r ;:;;!,: i';::r -rr '- ■ '■• « 

■■nilS..,l 1,V l«l,t,Tl.l I,.- «l,..f LI,, '" """■ '■""""''■"•.I 

■■•-. 'M.. ',;:,; ';; ; v: r^.™ ;;;;-■ x™;; .":f """■' • '•■■ ■"' 

turwrs ar.' in tl... irrom..! ,„. i ""*'"""• J''<> alT.vtioii iii,,K.urs wlu-n tl... 

"".1 tlH. Who,., intoroi ;,•;.. ' "r"'" """"'' "^""""^•">- "'••^'-•-t 

.llHto,ul..l With varlo, «., T ., f * " ^r"' •'^'•'"•^' ■""-• "ft"" ^r...,!, 

i". n„.. thus ..vati;-;;;. i^s';:::,;;;:;;:;'""-""' - --" - 1,. ....t ... ... 

--•r ••;::r.!-!::;r-;:;--;;;;;-^^ ^. i.. ., 

n.VcrKHrAL IMSKASI: OK TOMATOKS 

•••ro intro,huv,l into th,. tl.sh of .. h ' h . t '^^'''■^^"'"' ^'•'•»' " <li«^^"««"<l fr<ii> 
<loes not appear to h'iUul.o" "T""' '"""""' ^■""""•'^- '^^'-^ '"•— 
tniv was kept c-on-parati'lf ,ow ""''"' '" " ''""^^' ^^•"^'^••' t'^^' """i-a- 

tho tissues. Ins,vts si, i . . '' '""^ '"""''"*•' ^^"^ ^'-''-t^i-'a I>i-"sent in 

1-t aet won,.; ::t^^ !' . i;.^ !;:; ""':; ^'^ -'»« -' in-tieille. Ti.is 

DiSKASK OF THK TOMATO 

Anthracnose (roUrtofrichnm Immwrsiri r ^ ...f , .. 
at the point where it In.s i,eRun t eo uf '^ '''" ^'''^ "'l**^""'" ^oniat.. 

Joss before the fruit can .>e nn^ Le e. ' '""' ''"''''''' ••"'•»">•' -'"-"*^' »"•<••' 

With a dark eentre; tiuJ^^i . j ,iV'"''T "' '''""'^'" ^^'«^">'«»'--l spots 
of the necaying fruit and a "s, rl Jm' ""'/"f "^'r. -ve- a lar«e portion 
-^ -s and youn. frt.it -^rS si^ ^ ^ Sr^^l.Se ^'^^ 

Ti,„ i„ . Southern, or Field liliyht 

^^yl^.trZ^'%T ^^T^ "- -^« «l-ivei and d..op. 
- tl,e fa„. Clmn« e tomato patJhTn'"' h""' '"" ^"^^'"''^ ^'"^ "-» ^-'^ 
-Orc^OH i/«//e</«, A'o. 27 ''"''"''''" ''^"'^^ ^'^^^ t»° o^' 11^1-- years. 



^^1 



95 

Onion IUst. or Miii.kw ( l-rro,w,,>on, .'irhUMrniunn. T'no ) 
This disease In.s h,.,.., ,„.rti.-„!,uly Im.l In tl,.. vi.initv of Xnnain.o It 
a ta,.ksth. leaves a.ul very s„..n destroys nil „... plants In a IhhI. A n ■ s 

in. slightest Sign of atta.lc shows the plants sl.onhl he spraved repcat^l vlU 
nnK<,d,.s sneh as Hordeanx ndxtnre. This n.ay savL the er l.t , 
tak.-n early an.l persisted in. the c-hanees are against su..eess Al n n 
e Min preeaut,c.ns should not ho negle-.te.!. sn.-h as hurning all tops an,. .f„ !' 
. .1 sin.-.. Is sai.l that the spores of son.e fnngons diseases snrvlve or o -i 
I ■ i...is in he gronnd. th. h.-st n.eans of avoiding futnre troni.le is to a .n ,: 
< ;"'<"' >-H and grow the .-rop only npon fr..sh soil. Possihh- lin i g 
' " .." 1H-.IS and growing new .-rops on then, would have the ..flVt of .v n,- I • 

.M a Ae.j strong n.ixtnre. as high as twehx- poun.ls of eo, r snlph-.te to 

e.«ht pounds <.f lin... an,l .'O gallons of water, for sprayini old Ik Vh 

hrs tappoaran... of this dis.-ase in the spring-tln.e result, fron. the prj . 
..t the res .ng spor... whieh are pro,Unvd in the d.H-aying l.aves- a' u-e it 
na un.Ry ollows tl.at inununlty fron. this disease dep^nd^ largei; nZZ 
.•■•'.e that has h....n l„.stowe<l the previous y.ar on the collec-ting oJoth r 
and hurnuig of the ch'.ryi.d f(,liage. i-'feanti 



.Stuawiu;uky Lkaf Bliuiit. B^lg. is.v. 




.51= 



1)0 

RliKht (i^plKnilla frat/aria', Tul.) usually causes its greatest liijnrx 
by attackliiK the new jirowth which appears after the fruit is harvest.,! 
the old leaves then euiitaln countless si)ores which will Infect the y..niix 
BrowliiR folhiKe. To prevent this, mow the plants with a scytlie, rak.' up 

all the leaves, allow them to dry, and then burn carefully. Some reconun | 

renewhiK the setting annually and planting in deep, well-drained soil. Spray 
with ammonlacal copper carlwnate every fortnight, beginning the latter |.iirt 
of Ai)ril. Four applications should be sufficient. 

Mint Disease (Puccinia mcntliw). 

Specimens of a disease which killed off most of the garden mint in 
Victoria were submitted to Dr. Fletcher, who reported on It as follows :— 

"The trouble with the mint seems to be a sfwcies of rust, allied to grain 
rust, and known as Pucvinia nicnthw, the uredo form being jiresent jit the 
time you plucked the si)ecimens submitted. Curiously enough. I f..iiii.| 
associated with this fungus very small red maggots, very nuich like those nf 
the common wheat midge, several of these larvie being in the package that 
you sent me. I find this or a similar kind of maggot feeding ou the sp..r.s 
of grain rust, and also I have recently found what appears to be the saint- 
thing feeding on the spores of a rust attacking the leaves of the ilay n]>\<U: 
These maggots devour the spores, but I fear can do but little in controlljn;; 
the rust. As you know, we are almost helpless In controlling rust, and I 
regret that I am not able to suggest a remedy in your case. Its abundance 
on mint with you may be due to meteorological conditions, though it nnist be 
present in more or less abundance every year." 

Diseased Grass {Phi/sarum ctnereum). 

A si)eclmen of diseased grass from the lawn of Mr. Justice Martin was 
submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and tlie following n-port 
was received from A. F. Woods. Tathologist: — 

"The material was .so broken before it reached us that only a small 
portion of the organism could be observed, which Is by no means sutticient 
for a specific determination. Similar material from lawns is very frequently 
sent us, which, probably without exception, lias proved to be Phiisannn 
cinereup', which occurs very commonly on richly manured ground. MiixotHii- 
cetcs, also called Miicctozoa, are peculiar organisms possessing both anlm.-il 
and vegetable characteristics; hence they have been claimed by both zoolo- 
gists and botanists, probably not belonging rightly to either, although their 
descriptions are generally included in worlcs of systematic crji)toganii.' 
botany. The life history of the Mii.iom]icctcs comprises a motile stage in 
which the Plasmodium streams or spreads over a surface of perhaps even 
.several sciuare feet, and ascending substances, as the blades of gra.^s, are com- 
pletely covered with the fruit called .sporangia. As far as I know, tlif 
Ml/xomycctcs, with extenml siwrangia, have never been reported as of any 
economical Importance. Changes in temperature and humidity, unfavourable 
to the species cu grass, may have already caused its disappearance, and it is 
doubtful if experiments with fungicides would be profitable." 



!>7 



Smi.t is Grai.x. 
\yiiat the ,Siniit in. 

Wheat smut Is ciinscd by a small i»laiit \vlii<li st«'!ils Its HmmI from tlu> 
wheat j.laiit. The siiint plants are <listrlh\ited l.y the thie. Mack iiuw.lerv 
grniiis of smut which cliiitf to the s<'e(l wheat. Kven when tlie wheat 
apiK'ars to he clean, they may he itfesent In the grooves in the side of the 
grain or in the tnft of lialrs at one end. When the farnuT plants tlie wheat 
he also j>lants the snnjt. As the smutted l<eni<-l ;:<m'h into th.« ground it 
carries witii it .sev«Tai grains of smut. After heing planfe.1, tlie wlieat grait, 
grows and brings fortli a small plant. So also th»! snuit plant p-rmlnates and 
sends out a fine tliread-lik.' j.lant so small that it cannot b«' seen with tlie 
unaided eye. Tlie smut plai soon prcnluces small thread.s. wlilch i.eiH"trat.. 
into the small wheat i.lant tlin.ugh Its w.ft and delicate .sUHi. After a few 
day.s, lio\vev«'r. at about the time that the wheat unrolls Its first leaf, its skin 
gets t(K. liard to be itenetrated by the smut, so tliat if the wheat has escaped 
thus far it is no longer in any danger from the smut. 

Jf the smut has penetrated the wheat skin <luring its danger period it 
contiiuies to grow in the wlu-at plant up through the stem. Alx.ut the tinu 
that the wheat plant niak«-s its seeds the smut sends its thread into tlie wheat 
kernel. As fast as fowl is stored up for the young wheat j.lant, the smut 
steals it and replaces it with its smut grains. 

In the covered or stinking smut of wlieat only the Inside of the kernel is 
removed by the smut and a sliell is left around it, but in the loo.se snuit.s as 
for example the loose smut of oats, the whole kernel is destroyed and the 
spores are left exposed to be blown about by the wind. 

The wheat kernels which have been smutted are broken in handling or 
in threshing, and the smut grains are thus scattered on to new wheat and 
are ready for the next year's planting. Very evidently, the only way in which 
this disease can be reactuHl and the smut plants killed is bv treating tlie seed 
wheat with something wliich will kill the smut grains, but whldi will not 
injure the wheat. 

Hard Smut (Tilletia caries). Fig. ISb. 




<o) A Bunted grain of wheat : (ft » A traverse section of the same: (c) A lonKl- 
m „ ^, tudlnal section. (All enlarged ttve diameters.) ^ 

The diseases of wheat known generally in North America under the name 
of " Bunt," " Hard Smut." or one of the other designations mentioned above, 
«re due to the ravages of two parasitic fungi belonging to the family Tilletia 
a 



Jf 'f 



■I 



'■^ 



96 

In n " Bunted " kernel of wheat the wh«>le of the fnrlnnoe<.\jB poutents of the 
grain ar«? uestroyeil by the Invading fungus and their place flUwl by a bla«k 
powdery dUHt— the rli»e 8i»orea of Its repro<luetive systtui— aometiuies culled 
the fruit.— fiM//c«n Ac 3, Central Experimental Farm. 

Smct, OB Loose Smut (Vatilauo carlo). Fig. 18c. 



" Smut," or as It Is generally called, " Loose Smut," to distinguish it from 
" Bunt " or " Hard Smut," to which it is distinctly related, is very Injurious 
to wheat, barley and especially oats. In many parts of Canada. The scientific 
name Vstilago is derived from the Latin word ustus, burnt, and the specific 
name carbo means charcoal. Both names refer to the appearance of the spore 
masses when they are produced in the ear. This disease Is not of the same 
serious nature as hard smut, from the fact that the smutted ears are easily 
observed and can, with a little labour, be all removed and destroyed before 



99 



mnny of the Bporos nre dlMHonilimtod. nt»l borniiso. thorp Iwinjr no f.-tlil o«loiir 
J'lnlttPd by thp Hiiort'H. th.'.v do not upoll eltli.t- the crop of wlieat iiiuongHt 
whicli they grow or the flonr m.ulo therefrom. 

As with bunt so with this I.H.se smut; It Is evident that the disease 
begins nt the bottom and works upwards. In all Instance's wlien the siK.res 
npiwar in the injured ears the spawn may be detcvtecl In everv juirt from 
the root through the stem to the inrtoreseenee. In no ease, however, can this 
spawn be found in parts through whl.li It Is not necessary for It to pass in 
order to reach the iwlnt where the srK)re8 re formed ; thus they are not 
found in the blades of the leaves. Thl'» smr is not restrlctcnl, like bunt to 
the seeds alone, but the whole ear Is destroyecl.-Cc»//«i L'j-iterimcntal Farm 
Bulletin, No. 3. 

licmciUcs. — Wheat. 
For wheat, probably nothing is more effective than the common bluestone 
treatment, using one pound of bluestone dissolved In a pail of water for eight 
or ten bushels of wheat. The solution should be sprinkled over the seed and 
the grain shovelled over several times, to Insure that every kernel of grain 
is moistened with the solution. It is not always convenient to have boiling 
water to dissolve the bluestone. and It will not dissolve in cold water unless 
It be placed In a sack and suspended In water. Just below the surface when It 
is claimed It will dissolve In a few hours. The amount of bluestone necessary 
to make a barrel of pickle can thus be dissolved readily by suspending It In 
an old sack across the top of the barrel, Just so that all the bluestone is 
submerged under water. 

Formalin Treatment. 
Formalin Is a 40 per cent, solution of a gas In water. As obtained at the 
drug-store it has the appearance of water, but has n characteristic odour 
It Is poisonous m the strong solution in which It is bought and sold, but not 
in the weak solution in which it is used on the grain. About one pound of 
formalin is necessary to each 40 or 50 bushels of grain to be treated. One 
should be able to purchase it at the drug-store for about 45 to 60 cents per 
pound, buying it in pound lots or larger. Mix it with water at the rate of 
one pound of formalin to 60 gallons of water. Make a wooden trough about 
the size and style of a watering trough and a little wider than a shovel 
Partly All this trough with the formalin solution. Pour the wheat slowly from 
the sacks into the trough, so that the grains will separate and the smut balls 
and wild oats will float.. Skim these off. Let the wheat remain In the trough 
and see that it continues to be covered with tlie formalin solution for at 
least one and a half or, better, two hours; at the end of this time, shovel it 
out on to a bam floor which has been cleaned with boiling water, or shovel it 
Into a canvas sheet which has been cleaned in the same way and is supported 
between posts. If the weather be favourable for drying the wheat, it may at 
once be put into the sacks and dried in them. Use only clean sacks, that is new 
sacks, or those which have been cleaned in boiling water. Soaking Little 
Club Wheat (which is the softest wheat raised in Eastern W.nshingtosi) for 
one and a half to two hours will not appreciably soften it. At the end of that 
time it can scarcely be dented by the finger nail. 



■""* ?R 



iff. 



100 

" '•' ""•'* " I'* "'"••1. v.T.v ,.n,..|, ,„ „... n.nn.r. "" 

rr/;y o/ ,svy,/ afhr T,ruh„n,t 

I" t In .. .li,,.N smks ,„• ,nlo m..vtl.ln« wl.i.l. Is .■uv..r...l xvltl, llv,. .nn.f I «. i 

;":n.':;,::n::::r;;,;;r ,;;;;;::,:'■;:' - ■" , --»■ •"■'-.•'■.-..'.' ,;;: 

*.M ... „..,. ,^,:;:;;„;;:-' „-; :'t™;j;;;;;i':r'';:r,::;; 

., ,'„:,:'■" w ':""■'; '" ' ' - •• •■""' '"■" » - «;,'■>, 

■ = ::::•;„ ;;:'t:;; ;:;: :;- :';::;:-:::'';n;";;::;:n::',.r:" 

''"' ''<»>iit.~ron,ialii, Trnitiiinit. 

..n.4U':,:r::.':.;;:;;::;:r,r"',;;;' -' ■;;- - •■•». - r-.. , • 

Ihe forinaiaehyile solution here re<-oniniei,,iP,i i» .. ^ 

_, , f^ot Water Treatment. 

ment [n Z'l^o- . '"'""*^' ^^^''^ "'^"""^ r.vo„,„,ended. This treat- 

"rtds*nrt Ll^r^^^^^^ '""^ '*«"«" «' Tra.uan.sburg entire,; p^e- 
nrea smut. The methud does not seem to gain In ix,p„lar favour, owing. 



101 

no .ln,.|,f to t,H. pn.vnl..nf l.!... tlu.t If Ih .lifflmlt ... k.vp tl... wntrr nt tl... 
-„.lrn! t,.„„M.n„u.v ,l.,-..„«,..M,t tl... tr...m„,.„,. Th. Ml..«,„. ,..,,. J 
•ov..v,.r will ,.„„M,. „„,•..„,. tn H.s.„n. cxn-H.-nt h-huUh wl.h III 1,1, .i 
only or„l,n,r.v ....r... NVar „ Inru. kH.I.. I,, wl.lH. ,1„. wnt,..- ...v |.., 

H.irfa.'o. A f,.w f..,.t f,o„. ,i,m l.nrrH «,., „ po„t with .. polo a.roMH tl... ,o„ 
o „M.. „H „ ,ev..r l„ dipping th. Hn.ks of on.s l„to tlu' wn t ', W . ! 

K.r.„onK.t..r. ,K.„r part of It l,.to tl.. l.arrH „n<, a.M hot or -o \v ,." 
tho „„.r,.„ry HtH,..lg nt 148". About one huHh.-l of oatn n.,.|os,., . '•. ii 
«unny.H,u.k Ih now lowernl Into tho wator ,,v ...n...H of th r ^ . ", 

iHL umiHTnturo Ih im . Tho nark hIioiiM »«. ,„ov.m1 .....Htniitlv to li.H„ro 
he end of ten n.lnnten. Tl... ontH „.«,• he UrUnl by shovcllInK th.Mu m'.r ,." 

or they may be Mown hr.«d,„Ht withlu a f..w h.-urs hv ...h.II,.k t l."n. wmi 

7 m J"' """'""^ "^^■'"'' "'" ""^^ "'• t""t "t-"t on..flfth .noreby Zh r 
should be m^yn.-EJ■pcrmcnt Farm liuUvtln. Ao. 3. "»"Hure. 

Uarley Smut. 
..ffooHv! "/"'h T*"™' ''^ '^^ tn.ntn.ent preH.Tlb.Hl for oat nmut will l,e found 

formaldehyde with twenty gallonn of wat.r. Inntend of thlrty-Hfx ^h mlm- 
mended for the eradication of oat smut. 

The barley hull may be more reHlntant to the formal.lehy.le nn.l off..r« 
b^^ter protection to the nmut nporen than the oat hulls, or t av be «" 
that the «mut siK^ren of the barley are more renlntant than he oat «mul 
spores, consequently, necnl « stronger solution for their extermlnttlo,". 

A Rot of Stobed Celkry. 

Celery may be dug In the fall and storwl In a wllnr to be ns.vl .inn.,., 
winter and spring. It in usual to pack It cl.>Hely. with t "' n^.t^l "T. I Tuu 

esZaTlv If Jh "T''r"' '' ''' ''"" '' "^* "'"^ *"^^ ten.,K.rature va L „,^ 
especlallj If the celery freezes and thaws. It will dwav De.nv fnii<.„.. 

npon death. The bacteria and moulds are Its a.-tlve agLts T^v a „, ; "^ 

present In the soil ,n which the celery grows, and In the so^' , w " Z 

roots are packed, and there are no practicable n.eans by whi -h hev •. , '.t 

plnnt. It remains then to keep the celerv alive and in health s,. uSu 
resist tho invasion of the bacteria. A constant en e^r^ure a i n . 1 

r",n:;^rs„~r:.Tr;"~ 

This w:is obsrrved lu s.»me celery stored in the cellar of H,n tt^.h ,* . 
The «ler,- ,„,„ ,|,„„.„1 sls„» „f i,„vl„g b»„ ,„...„, but, a, ,l,c „„,„..,;,,,„ 



■|s I 



102 

oontlnuod low, It n.mnlncd so„„,l within, the outer leaves ami stalk, onlv 
showinK >;I^;ms of ,le ay. While the weather eontlnned cold the celery in tlu- 
cellar re,nalne,l «.,mul. aithongh It develojHMl a sweet taste; but when warn, 
weather eanie In early sj.rlnB. what had not been eonsu.n.Hl. rotted 

ny su,h study we learn that bacteria cause dmiy. an,l that decay takes 
place under con.lltions in son.e n.easures knmvn to us and uder our oiUror 
To keep celery well it should be packed with the roots in clean soil. For this 
purpose It is best to use the humus, or nmck s U which the celery s 
co,n.n„„ly «rown. The soil in which the roots are packed should be kept 
moist but no wet with good water. The cellar or storage nx^m should ie 
kept at a uniform low tem,K.Mature, a little above freezing. Free ventilation 

rruVrr'-.'T^r '"•""'' "^ ^'-^"'"^'"^ «- temperatunid : 
the health of the plants. It should be rememl,ered, also, that celery kept in 
a close, foul atmosphere becomes talnted.-0«/«//o Bulletin Xo. 136. 



CHAPTER VIII.— APHIDES AND MITES. 



J*- 



t ■ ■ 

f 



Red Spider ( Tetrmychus telarius, and Allied Species). 

These minute posts of the hop-grower and orchardist all have a similar 

fe-hlstory and habits, which, however, vary In different climates and locaH- 

ties. Infested fruit trees or plants show their presence by the unheriv 

mo^th^ ;r f "" '''""^*"' "^ "" ^"p ^'^'"^ «-"^-' »»• « -"ititude Of ill;;. 

lighter sll'ie""""' ''^" "''"'"' " ^'^"*'"*^'' ""«*' ^^"'^ l'«t^-»^« «f « S^ayish o'r 

..inh/r "*^ «P'^'»'"« 'nost conmionly fonnd here, the eggs appear as ruby-red 
globules as scH-n under the microscope, and are sometimes found In vast num 

eL'th'lIt tf u"" ""'l?'' ''"''' °" '^"'^ •'^'*^' ""' ""•^'^^ "'bblsh and clods of 

o? 1 U 1 "^'r '"'' "••" •'""^'"'* '"^ "^'"''^y' «»•! t^^« applications 

of the No. 1 spray, used as warm as possible, are advised to be made to 

h.fested fruit trees, in the winter or very early spring, before growth starts 

During the summer months, a badly infested leaf has Its un.ler side completelv 

covemi with a dense web. under which are eggs and mites in all stages of 

deve opmen . and it Is dltBcult to reach the pests with ordinary spraying 

In C allfornla. however, where they are very troublesome pests, the follow- 

ng me ho<ls are in use in spring and early summer as soon as th" eggs are 

bellous or other appliance, after they have been wetttMl by a spraying. Some 
growers use a spraying ndxture n.nde In this way: Take 20 L.'of sulph r 
and n.ix to a paste with com water In a barrel ; then add t.> this wet s Ip ,; 
10 lbs. of caustic scxla. 98 per cent., when it will boll up like lime si kl g 
bave ready 20 gallons of water to add to it as it boils, to prevent b r n 1 fg 



103 



This forms n stock solution. nn.l when ready to sprny put 40* gallons of water 
In another barrel, and take half a gallon of the stock solution and add to If 
strain, and apply with the spray pump, taking care to wet the under sides of 
the leaves. 

At Chllllwack, a strong hot solution of whaio-oil soap, applied with hand 
sprayers, has given gocxl results against the red mltc' of the hop, but very care- 
ful work is required to reach the pests, and it must be done soon after the 
mites are hatched out. 

7?cmcd/('*.— Various preparations of sulphur and soap have been recom- 
mended, used separately or together, mixed with water, and applied to the 
bushes with a syringe. Plain soap and water, or water alone, freely applied 
Is regarded by some as efficient, as the Insect Is known to thrive besi in a dry 
atmosphere. In applying any liquid. It Is necessary to wet the under side of 
the leaves In order to make the application effectual, since. If applied to the 
upper surface only, the mites would .emaln uninjured beneath.— TV. Saunders. 
Teab-Leaf Buster Mite (Phytoptus pyri, Xaiepa). 

A considerable amount of Injury Is done every year In all parts of Canada 
where the pear Is grown, by the ojjeratlons of the iiear-leaf blister mite The 
irregular blotches, about one-eighth of an Inch In diameter and frequently 





(Fio. 19.) The Mite. (Pio. 20.) Work of Mite, 

confluent, caused by these mites, are frequently so abundant on the foliage 
as to make It impossible for the leaves to perform their functions. These 
blotches, when examined, are found to be hollow bllster-llke galls with a hole 
n the centre through which large numbers of almost Invlslblv small mites 
Issue and attack fresh parts of the leaf. Few i^eople recognise this injury as 
thework of an Insect at first sight. It Is nearly always sent in as a fungous 
•American. 



J! 



■'ii'' 



Zn.?r ♦. '. P^'ar-grower may be pruotlcnllv extorinlnated with n 

Mngle thorough s,.n.y,ng with the nUxture above inentloned.-^Slt Cr" 

T. RNip Ayo Cabbaok Aphis (.lp/n> 6ro«s/cec, L.). Pig. 21. 




A«flrA--Clu.ster8 of gray plant-lice situated all round the bases of the 
sterns and beneath the leaves of Swede turnips and all kinds reabbages fro n 
which they suck the sap, causing them to become withered and stunted and 

rr", '" Hwf '' '''''■"^''''^ ""^"'^ ^^«P«- ^« ^ r»'-. these plant "l^ are ;>o 
noticed until the end of the season ; but In dry autumns, or o,f high rnd7thev 
increase with Incredible rapidity and become one of the most der^ctlve 

rrrand^rrrs ^" -''- - "^ '«*^ ^n a„,„jc-: 

nTltt"'? L"' -»»«o— : but in Eastern Snada'the Lst iCtant 
injury Is to Swede turnips in fields at the time that they are formin^thelr 

Ifcmcdies—vrhen cabbages in gardens are attacked, the colonies of nlant 
I^ Should be destroyed by spraying with kerosene emulslou or thaleilC. 
c«» the r first appearance. In turnip fields the injury Is always in autumn an 

Z^ Tl"" 'f ^''"*-""" ''^""'*^ «'«•">•« ''^ '^^-^ ^ov whe.^ the turZ are 
being hoed and thinned. At this tln.e good work may be done by 8im^,ly hX 
out the infested plants and, having pulled some earth over them with Se 
hoe pressing it down with the foot. When the plant-llce are t^ numerous 
for th s s n.ple treatment, the infested plants, which at this time a7e grerT 
h. restricted areas, should be promptly sprayed with a knapsack sjayerrig 
kerosene emulsion or whale-oil soap, one pound i„ six gallons of water ^s 
the egp, are laid late in autumn on the leaves of turnips and cabbag;' 

iSf:rtr;rer:!!X^:^er^' '^ ^'^^^^^ '"^ "^^'-^ ^-'^^- ^^^-« 



105 

water, allowing It to stan.l f,.r . ' ''""'""y "^ 8«Jt In a vessol and fill it with 
l« then ready l^Z "ZZ^ ^ZTfT "'"''"''' '"' *"« ""*-• ""'^h 
The ,ua«Hia and winde-oir^p "p^ " T^ZZ: \ '^ T' "' ^"*'""^'""- 
clous iu this Province. "' ""* "'*'*' ^^ ^0"»*1 to l>e effioa- 

Bean Aphis (jp/,/^ rM/«/c,>, £.). Fig. 22. 




4»fl/.fr Bin . !^"^\ ^^-^ Natural size and enlarRed. 

attention has been drawn tflt ^'*'''''° ^° ^^°"*'«' ^O'"" 

;^the Plant at tr^e\ZV't::rZ'lT''S^^^^^^ 
because it overcomes one of the chief difflonm^^f ^ . "* *' "'^" beneficial 
the failure of the ikkIs to de ^fon ThTch^^^^^^^ f ^'"^ **•'" ''"•^P' ^'^'^^ ^« 
the tips causes the flowers to sei J5! ,' ^ "f ""' *^^ ^'"^'"^ •'•^' ^»"'"« «« 
/^/c/rAer. * ^^ •'^"«'' t^^^^ " the tips are left on.- 

Apple Aphis (Aphis mali). 




(Fio 2r).) Greatly enlarged 



106 

The eggs of the apple aphis are deposited In the fall, usually on tho 
extremities of the new growth, or around the buds. Two thorough annii 
cations of the No. 1 spray, according to the directions given, or of the lye an.l 
soap wash (No. 15), will destroy the eggs, and this Is by far the best lueth.Hl 
of dealing with t),.- pest In the first Instance. In a natural way the eggs hat.l. 
out just when growth commences In the spring, and the leaves of Infested trets 
soon become curled and roll up, making It very difficult *o reach the lusivt 
with any spraying mixture. 

They multiply at an enormous rate, those first hatched giving birth to 
living young which In their turn reproduce In the same way, and so on f.,r 
several generations, so that as fast as new leaves expand, they are attacked if 
the weather conditions are favourable to the aphides. 

For summer spraying, any one of sprays Xos. 2, 6 or 7 will, if used as 
directed In the earlier stages of attack, prove effective; two sprayings are 
usually required, and are better given with only a short Interval between them 
not more than three days. Care should be observed to make the spraylng,i 
very thorough, as the washes kill only by actual contact with the Insects. 

During the summer winged broods of the pests are born ; these should bo 
looked out for, and prevente<^ from establishing themselves by a timely use of 
one of the spraying ml" ires referred to. 

Blac: Jhebbt Aphis {Myzus cerasi) 
Is very Injurious to the new growth, especially on young trees. It multiplies at 
an enormous rate In a similar manner to the last-mentioned pest. Badlv 
Infested trees are often a source of attraction for swarms of files and wasps 
which feed upon the sweet exudation from the bodies of the aphides. 

I'rompt and thorough sprn.Mng In the early stage of the attack Is necessarv 
to deal with this pest effectively. It Is more resistant to the action of sprav. 
than the green aphis, but the same remedies should be used, and better results 
w follow f the spraying mixture Is made as hot as the leaves of the trees 
will bear without Injury. 

CuBBANT Aphis (Myzus ribis). 

is yellowish In colour and Is found on the under sides of the leaves of currant 
bushes, which become curled, blistered and reddish In colour. They migrate 
during the summer, but return later on, and their eggs are deposited on the 
stems, especially around the buds. 

Spray with the Is'o. 1 mixture to destroy the eggs In the winter months, and 
.nT^f «f sprays Nos. 2. 6 or 7 in the growing sea.son. directing the .sprav 
so that the under sides of the leaves are reached. It Is most Important that 
the work should be done early In the season before the insects become t... 
numerous, and tlie leaves roll up so that sprays cannot reach them. 
fu. J^f T P^''"^"""-^y «"Wect to attacks by predaceous enemies, such as 

^LZZTl ^' ''"'"'-*'' ^«'"^«>' ladybirds, etc., and are often completely 
cleared off In this manner. 



107 



Mealy Plum Aphis (Ilyaloptcru, pruni) 

hut a, they Increns. I„ ,„e th,y te"„o ,.1^''"".^''^ '" """"" '" ">'■""■ 
le.r« »« covered .1,1. a „hl,l,h iT,*/ ™'' '""*" ""O '"'=»'«1 

Hop Aphis (Phorodon humuU) 
numuli) has substantially the sa^LSdU:''/"* ^1^ ^''*"'"'" 

e«,^.ii. in^heLr;lerptt:er:Lzru:.^ t^ h^r^ ^^''- 
^ .0. the su_ =^r :\^r; ^t:; ^^^^^^^^^ -- 
tMs rth^o.^'i^^patr r ;;r r^thi rr ^'^' *^ "^'^ --- -^ 

The second generation grlTTl^^ Tl . ?'* ««°eratlon of the season, 
becomes wlnled and 3Xter the l^TnA ^'^^'/'''t'^ *« « t^ird. which 
the yards. The winged n ant 11^ thlnfl T ^"!! '"^'^^ ^^nsiderable growth In 
the plum tree entTrSyind s^tt l^. ,^ IT '""^ P'""*' *° '""^ »»«P«' «i«««rtlng 
giving birth to fnoti^r gen^rS oTw, f T? °' *'' '^^P^' ^'^^''^ ^^^^^ »^-«ln 
astonishing rapidity E^chfemalf iT canTh,; ^'^^i" '''''' ""'"^'^ -"»> 
about one hundred younrat the iati of thf P''^*^"^'"^ «n an average 

ditlons. Each generation iJns to h,^^ ^^ ^^^' "°^^'' f«^o"rable con- 
that the issue fr^ a ingl^fd v^^^^^^^ f'^t.^'^'^t^ ^^^^ «"«' birth, so 
trillions. The issue fr^a ^ingf ^i^^^^ '° ^'^^ "'"^^^ «' « «»'»°»«r. to 
oircumstances, blight hundrL of Lrl!TTJ ' ""^^ *^"'' "°^«'' favourable 
From five to twehe genera«rs a'^^ ^T"^ ^' ^^^^ °' '""'^ °>«°th«- 
carrying us in ^.nt oft^ rthe"h;pX:Js^:sr Thl^e 1 ''l '7"^''' 

leave the Plum trelB^'e time tl'' """"''^r''' ««l"'r« -In^s and never 
but a few days. Tarying acco Ing to thTf " '"' "'*"^^' "^^^^ ^-^^l-^ 
viduals, which ;re tL truriies fl^ , f ^'"'^J'''''''' delated winged Indl- 

the wingless true fe^airupon^h 'p^n'mieaTs a::d'tr'^''" "^'"^ ^^^""^^ 
the winter eggs. Thus the^ tlLtl ' ^ ^^^^ ^"^'^ thereafter lay 

<U.eed. and thT at the cLZf the rro™^^^^^^^^^^ T^ !"'^'^'''^""^« ^- 
trees; the males winged on haJ \\\, ^''""V ^^""'^^ wingless on plum 

Virgin females onlyVaZeZnZ tZTZ"^^^^^^ 

insect's life. *"® Invariable round of the 



'iS 









.Vi 



» 


^H 




'■ 


,v^ 




rr 


■ 


R. 


ifl 



108 




(Pia. 24.) The hop plant louse, male. (Knlarged.) 




(P.O. 25.) Winter e.. "U^ ''Xc«a'&-^'ULV^'^^^^^ '''•" »' ^'^ — 




I 



<F,. .,., X.. Jjp £^.,i.-. ™ra^J»„.,,„ ™ P.»jn^-... „„„.„„ .,., ,„ 



109 







(Fig. 27.) The hop plant lotmo. ^rue se^ml f.male. (Enlarged ■ 

tiono,! ft.r\herl ;;, ,!^1" ":7f "^'^^ '^^ «"'»« °f the fixtures nlon- 
neighbourhood! of h^p ^ ' // ^ ,';'^;'-^'-'^--''-'I. to all plum trees in t.u. 
first Winged gener/Zn ' /d its n J ? V^' ''"'"'■" "^^^ «I>l>^«rance of the 
nop picking and fter tru^^- ZT '"'^'■"''"" '"^ '^'^J'' «^ '" the fall after 
".alcing their prJ « raMol or Z ,T" "'T ''''*"'""^ *" "'« "'»"'• «"•! -e 
"ill. perhaps, he preferlT, e for the re, ^ .f "'"''' ''^^^- ^"^^ ^««er time 
IK. less susceptible to the action *f '""""" *'^«t ^" ">« f«" the plum trees «111 
applied Without danger to the tr^ J^T^ ""' "^ T"'^" ^'^^""^^ -" ^« 
through a hop-growing countryshZl ^^L^T iTXlT '' ^ ''''^'' 
1)6 either burned or thoroughly drenched with tf' ^ ^''P ''^"*'' *"'•'"''* 

the crop is harvested as dossLp wiJh . "^"^ *''°"^''^" «" «««» ««er 

preventing the Iruprg^rarnTtr^em^feJ V/ H the'^ ""'"' ""' ^'^"^ 
been neglected and the lice have att^oSi /., f '''*''*' measures have 

protected by spraying " with ins::4dtif^^^^^^^ wS if thT T ^"" '^^ 

cr^n^ii^trvarsrcei? r ~^ -^^^^^^^^^^ 

except^ c.rargrm\t7amt'arh:r"""" ^^^ "^ ^^"°«* — 

couf : r i:;^;^---^- -s^^ the .iv. 
rrstr x;^Sht^\iLirri thar^^shinjrat-iiiXtr 

any results. Soot has been Tr^eJ Tnr..';"" "'^ "''''' "^^ P^«»^« ^'t^out 
"ring has had no nLrk^i^tlnefce ""'''" '" '^"** '^""'•^«' -^^ -- 

A^JuUn^'oTEillr^^^^^^ -rr'^^^ ^^ the Board of 

It.«. of quassia chips nm^by bZnt - m.f ""*""' ' ^ •'^'^•"«° «' 1^ 
gallons of water. The chins mav l^ „' J, ? i '*"" ''' ^^"'^«" ^"«P' «»d 100 
t-ourse weaker The hons Ln.T,^ ^ ^'"^'^' ^^^ "^""^ ^^'"^tlon being of 
summer, and If tirir've" Za^.^J^' "« *""- -^-^ - 



Woolly Aphis (Scltisoneura lanigcra). After Rllej*. 




(Fig 28.) Branch of apple Infected. 1. 2. 3 and 4 the Insect enlarged.) 
Kew Zealand Bulletlt. 4s). > ' 



Ill 

It. and Its harmful offeo l^C m^ in .U.„„„,„g „„ .,,,,.„r„ n.foHtcl with 

from the Hecretlon r^^^S Z ^Zyt^^'Z: ""'"*' """"' *" "-'-•« 
l>«ly. The Insects appear on Infest^l trl. . *"''' '""''*' "•■ '''«« ••"^•*'" its 
tufts of cotton, attached to he ^«t« rT ""? **"" """'""-^ '" ">"*'«-'' "ke 
the bodies of the In^ts "'''' ^""""' ^^■'''^•'' ""' »'♦* '""'ul 

wJ^itrordTrdfottrtrT "'^ •'-" -^ - -^'"^ '- »- 

at or near the collar of^e r^t ' '^" ""'"'^" ^"' «"^'" "^^ '«"'«1 

The eggs of woolly aphides are stated bv Dr Smith " ♦ k , 

m crevices of the bark, enveloped In thedrv «^1„ of ho /'' ^T. ""'"' "'"^'^ 
During the summer months they renrScf n thV '"''' 

aphides, but winged forms appear onlyTn trfln '"""' "'"""" "' ^'-^^ 

rounrre"r:nr:t;fo7Vvei;'Lr:r'?^^^^^^^^ ^-^"^^ -''"^- ™- ^ 

Place, the eggs probably hatch olrann:^"^ ''"'' '' "«« ^«-^''"« *«'^^« 
that viviparous reproduction goes on wm J^ t^"' '"'""'^'^ "^« «^«^t-d- «•• 
The prevalence of dead-spot oHarkdlilir^ , '"^''"^ "' ^«^ '"^-^^S- 

dltlon of the bark which favours the ZS 'h ^'''"" ''"'' ^''''' J»«* ^"e con 
and Increases the d.fflcuty of reach „1 tS' wUh'^^ "."' ''"" ^^'"'^ «''^"^^' 
It Is therefore Imnortnnt thnf , spraylng mixtures. 

and all surplus limbs «„?;" nehe; ^f' inLTe^T'''^' '^"'^ ""'^ ^-"^'-^ ^^^^ 
spraying ,s done, to allow the mature u^ t^^T: '^'"^ '^^ '""''^^ ^^'^r- 
The be.t winter wash Is the No l Cv t^^f ."" ^"'^ "' *^^ *'-^«- 
8 also effective. At least two app^ catTons ;hou^d '^""'' T^ ^'"''^ <^'«- ^^> 
trees, and the spray applied warm wUh "u l7f "'''^ '"^ ^'^'^'^ ^"^^«t^ 
good spray-pump. During the summer m th "* ^''^'^^*'' ''^ »"«""« «f a 
aphides occurring on the tnmk or^rh ""'' """''^^ ""' ^«'«»'^« of the 

with a swab or'brush dlS ^rdaT^llTr tttb "^'^ '^ ^^"^•^'"^ t^- 
applied with a spray-pumn it wm 1 ^^"^ '*' ^P'""^* ^o. G or 7. 

intervals to keep'the'S" ,n che^i u^^:Z *' "^"^ '""^ ^-^^^nt a 
used. For the root fo^ of wcK,ny'aph Ses th r^^'"*'"* "'"«^«« '^^ ^ 
the lye and soap wash used fr^y es^ f,Tv h \^ '^'"^ '' '''^'''■^' ^r 
These substances will also act as ferS 1 J tt'' J*"' ''"^ «"*^ '•'^^^ J«'"- 
effect, the roots of Infested trees shouShr ^ *'*'^'- ^« ^°"«««« their 

applying. Refuse tobacco dug ,n ^ tL'ZrV ''' '' ^^^^'^'^ '-'-e 
the pests. ^ '° "^**"* the roots will also help to keep down 

The Missouri Exncrlmentni «f„+i 
^;lth different methods of kU Ing l^Uy anul ""''' '"*"°''^« experiments 
;>«' tlu. p..t. .„.„ „ ,„„et,n Issued by rstauoni f" i'"'""^ *^^ ^««* '^^^ 
^ cheaply and easily kllle<l and lent «!«. *^' ^^'^^ *^^ ''^t form may 
a liberal use of tobacco dus appHed nr^'^ T "'" ''^'' «^ «PP'« trees by 
trunk for a distance of two SaJ'ZTZ'oU ''7^^*' '^'"'^ "^-"'^ the 
•^Pace with tobacco dust, and cov;rlng Juh elrth" '' """'^ "'""« the 






& 

1^.. 



112 



Quite frwiiiently during the full niontliH other h|kmI.* of .iphldeH. h.ivli, • 
a Hiintlur "woolly" uiUHMirum-*'. are often inlHtaken for the true "apple w.«.|lv 
aphlN." jiml NiMrlnieim of w.x.lly uphhieH of dlfrerent simhU-h wer.. Kent to h,- 
Fleteher. who writes In re«iird to them an fi.llowH:— " In the box of wlil. I, 
you demrilM. the HiKHlnienn nH taken off an apple twiK hadiv InfesfMl win, 
WiK.lly iii.hldes; these were th.' true .S'. laniunn, hut aniouKst them w.-re ho,,,.. 
other HiKvlniHiH of aj.hlH malifoliw, whhh has the venation verv sln.llar to 
that of «/»/,/* mall. Tlie difference hetwe«.n thtw two last-named n,m..|,.s is 
chletly colouratlonal and In the size of the lns,vt. The other Ik.x .nntnlnli,' 
HlHKlmens of the " w.K.lly aphis." whieh has given you so mueh trouhl,- ,u 

Identify, and which are tlying In such myrlails in your wrxxls, are neit • .h- 

alder aphis nor tlio true woolly aphis, but a sfKH-les called I'rmphhnix i>»ri 
which iH'lonjrs to the same genus as the alder woolly aphis. 

"The difference betwrni tliese two genera is very easy to re«-ognlse wImm 

once iKilnt.'il out. and that Is. In the genus Srf,i:ouri,m the third .lis. li.n 

vein 18 forked, while in pimphigufi all the veins are simple. 

" PcnphiiiuH pini pr.)bably Is a native sikhL's with you. an.l .mcis 
through y.>ur wwhIs on different sikk-Ics of jtyrus an.l Crataegus." 

This sptM-les .>f woolly aphis (PvmphiuuH tvH^vlluta) Is verv .-ommon uih.,, 
alder trws In lower British Columbia, ani is often confoun.led with th- 
wolly ai)hls of the a|.ple. from which It Is quite .listlmt. Like other apl.l.l.s 
they repro<UK-e by giving birth to living y..ung. Vast numl)ers of wiuK,.,! 
specimens api»ear In the fall and spread over the countrv. the air son.eti.n.s 
apiiearlng full of the insects moving with the wind. Thev have not b,..„ 
found Injurious to fruit trees, although many of these wlng^ speclnu-ns nn- 

found on them. They do not seem to reproduoe except on their proper f I 

plant. 

Wheat Midoe (Diplonis tritlci, Kirbv). 

A«ocA\— When wheat Is in blossom In the month of June, minute yellow 
midges with black eyes may be found, particularly t.)wards evening. 'flyin- 
over the fields and la.vlng eggs In the florets of the ears of wheat. Th.-se e-'s 
m about a week hatch Into small reddish-orange maggots, which s.)nietimcs 
to the number of ten or twelve He Inside the chaff and suck the juices from 
the swelling kernel. When mature, they leave the ears of wheat and ik-m.- 
trate about an inch beneath the surface of the ground, where they spin tiny 
cocoons. Inside which they remain normally until the following spring wh.ii 
the perfect midges emerge. Under si)eclal circumstanc-es. however, sonic of 
the flies appear In late summer and lay their eggs upon volunteer wheat ..r 
the young fall wheat. 

It Is many years since the Wheat Midge, which Is generally known hv 
farmers and millers as " the weevil," has been the cause of much loss in th'.- 
wheat crop of the Dominion. Fifteen years ago the losses were enormous- 
but, Just when it seemed at Its worst, it suddenly dlsapi>eared entirelv an.l 
since tb.t time has not been the cause of widespread injury. There have 
been occasional outbreaks, as In the Niagara district in 1898, and last vear 
In the fertile Chllllwack district of the Eraser River Valley. B. C. where it 
was estimated that In some fields fully half the crop was destroyed. 



113 

RnnnllcM.-The rpiiiwlioH for the Whi-nt MI.Ikp .IommuI I„rK..|v m...n the 
way It piiKWH the winfr. The ineth.MlH whi.h hnve Klven the Inrnt reniiltH 
are nn fullowH : — 

1. iKvp |,I„uR!iln» directly the cn.p 1m .nrrlwl. w> kh to hnry the Inrvn- ho 
deep thnt the tHes enni.ot work their wny out thr«)tJKh the w.ll. 

2. The hiirnlnjc of nil ohnff, diiHt or ruhhlnh known uh " wrmiliw " or 
"talllnKH" from »)enenth the thre«hlnK mnehlneH. hh thene .-ontHln n.any of 
the larviP whleh are enrrle,! with the erop. If f,Hl to ,.hl.kenH or donieHtl.- 
anlnmlH. this Hhould be done In a ph.c* where none of the imparla can em-aiH. 
destruction. ' 

3. Clean farming. Including the .uttlnjf of all KranwH nloiiR the (mIkoh of 
fleldH and the ploughing down of all volunteer crops found In wheat flelds 
before the winter sets In. so as to destroy an autumn bro«l where one exists 

4. The cultivation of such varieties of wheat as experience has shown 
are least affected by this Insect. 

Gbain Aphis (Nectarophora gramrla. Am\; etc.). 

.4«acfr.-Green. yellow, reildlsh or dark-co ared plant-lice, sometimes 
occurring In large numbers upon the heads and eaves of wneat. oats barley 
and rye. weakening the plants and preventing the kernels from filling 'as well 
as they should. These plant-Uce generally dlsapi^ear suddenly just as the 
grain is beginning to change colour, being as a rule destrove«l bv their many 
parasitic and predaceous enemies before much harm Is done to the crop 

It is probable that there are two or three species of plant-lice which attack 
grain as described above. It is known that some broods of several species 
feed upon one class of plants during part of their lives and upon grasses of 
various kinds at other periods of their existenw^. Some of these as the 
apple aphis occasionally may be found upon the small grains and 'grasses 
It Is convenient to speak of all these kinds occurring uiK,n grain crops under 
the name of grain aphis. 

I?cmcrf;/.— So far. no treatment has Ih^u discovered for controlling plant- 
lice when on grain crops; but. fortunately, they seldom affect the output to 
any considerable extent. The apple aphis {aphis mail. Fab.) frequently 
develops into a serious enemy of young fall wheat; and. as this Insect passes 
the winter as an egg upon the twigs of apple trees, the regular spraying of 
apple orchards with kerosene emulsion (Remedy 2) would not only clear 
those trees of a serious enemy, but also to a large measure protect the fall 
wheat of the following season. A similar alternation of generations takes 
place in the case of the hop aphis, which passes the winter In the egg state 
on plum trees, from which a winged brood of the plant-llce the following 
summer migrates back again to their summer quarters on the hop. Spraying 
the plum trees during the winter reduces largely the occurrcce of hop aphis 
later In the jear. — Fletcher. ' 



r t 

if. 



I 

I 
i 



114 



CHAPTER IX.-INSECTS ATTACKING LEAVES 

AND TWIGS. 



URANMIIUPPKKN OB r>K I HTN. 





(Pm. 20.) Locust. laylliK their egK". rPm ,n , 

«ml a quarter Inches long. fn»m the head to the tins 0?;!..' "T . 
<ll8tril.„te,l throuKhont the contlnenj "''' ""''■*' '^"'"^'''""^ 

Packard's iJnst n/ «, A ,• « ' /" "" ''"'"*" "^ ^«"«^'"- I" the West. 



11.-1 



r ««.»«« prthwhia. H,.,..UI.. ..Itl uh ,„»,.|, l,„r„, „«« ,I»,k. I,, ,|». n,.„,„ 

^«U•y l.ya H,KMl..H .l.*,.!,- n.-,.iiihlli.K thr U.Nk.v Mountain l>H„«t. |,„t „ 
n, hor M«,all..r hihvU.h. n.lU.l .l/W««oW„. «/W,w.. , •.«,.. ul.l.h „„. tho nan... 
i.l.ltH. In Manltuha tl... U.Hky Mnuntaln LiHunt an.l tlio I^^t Mluratorv 
'-"••'"•' »'"^« "" '•>• '"' tho lawHt ,.r.»,M,rtlo» of l«J„rv to ,to,,h 

"Oil «ltl, a flrn. Hurfa.... h«.I, „h Ik pr.^.„ttMl in a H..|,| nnU.T a ^raln ••ro„ 
Ho nun- 1, !h thin tin. ra«. that, w , H«.h conditions ar,. avallal.l... hardlv any 

M «>. H..Mm. f„|| Brown and have wln«H abont the Int July, when they .H.«ln 

mlKratlnK in Hwarn.n t.» 'n-nl, f.H.llnK and lT..MllnK KroundH. K«« laying 

ak.^ phu.. mostly in AuKUHt. and the nnmlH-rn drop off raphlly fron. t e 

//rmr«//t7».-For tlic inlKratory H|KHi..8 the rem«ll«, «„»: (l > The 

ThiH Is renderetl easy by the fact mentiont above that the e«Ks are laid 
nlnu«t entirj-ly in Inn.l whieh is or has re« .tly Inn-n under .rop and l.a y 
ever on the bare prairie. (2.) The destruction of the ,ounK before tl e " Z 
are deve.o,HHl. by piouKhinK .h.wn. rK,lso.dn«. or by burning i„ wlmiro v o 

Tf n ;. J ^^ "* *" '""•'••""•"*« •""»«•« «« hopiHT-dozers. ,H,nsistlnK 

«f n light frame c.,vered with canvas or sht^et iron, in the bott-n of whi- 1 
Home water with a little coal oil on the top is plnced.-Fig. ».. i ) i-oiHou 
ing. This has been very natlsfactory either with the polsom .nas' or 




» urifiiiMiiiii I 

(Fifj. ,loa. » Hoppcr-UoziT. 
With tlie recently devised Crlddle mixture. In Manitoba, where for some 
years grasshopiKTs were very destnutlve. after a thorough trial of hopper- 
dozers, tlie implements have Ikhmi entirely suiHTswletl bv the use of the 
Crlddle mixture, which was widely used and gave gonen.rsatlsfactl.m The 
lati'st hnproved formula for making tlie Crlddle mixture is as follows •-B\,r 
convenience it Is made In quantities of luilf a barrel at a time. Take fresh 
horse droppings 100 parts. Paris green 1 part (=t pound) and salt 2 poun.is. 
disso ml in half a pail of water, and mix tlu.roughly. In this <onn«tlon Mr 
Criddle. the originator of this mixture, says: "We usually measure with a 
three-gallon patent i)all. l)ecause it is more conveMle.it to fiirnuTs th'ui to 
welgli the materials. Five jmils, we calculate, ai.proxlmately «,ual 100 parts 
of horse droppings^ and each part e,iuals in bulk one pound of Paris green 



! -* 



116 

A great drawback In using welehts Is thnt h«.=„ ^ 

the same weight." This mrxVure .! , . ^'""^^^"^^ «••« not always of 
oart to the edge of an 1 fe ^d «! "J" " ""'' "^"''^^ ^"'J drawn on a 

IB then seatteSd broad^r;^^^^^^^^^ »>« '"^-^-'- The ndxtur^ 

or w< Hlen paddle. I^„sts are at raoTeS to t fr'T "^ '"'""'' "' " *'-«^^'" 
killed in large numbers by eating ..rnlon I m "f ''''*""""' ""^ «"' 
as above, and scattered looJwlLTJVu ""^ nilxture Is distribute.! 

standing grain, the^s Ztl"^ aSg^r of «."?*' "* *'^ '^'^ «' '^ «^'d o^ 
Should any of the mixture be left o^er If «mT ^""'"^ ^^'"« Po'«<>«ed. 
Piece of land where Its fertlhsing eS wl l b! "^ T'''"^ '"^'^ ^^^^ a 
be no danger of poisoning anlmL ^s Is t "^ ""'' '''''''' *^^^^ ^"' 

most effective remedy for grassZHperJ whl h t , "^ '""^ *'" ''''^^' ""^ 
found by Mr. Crlddle that trS^lffl/vl ! "'''''' *'"'"^- '' »>«« l'^^" 

spread a little at a time ev Jy o"her d!y vhlcT^., T' *''' '"^"^^^ '« *« 
mattering a lot at once, less frCenti;-;L'ltf " " '""''" "^"'^« *»•- 
T.BNXP F.KA-BK.XI. OH TrB.xp FX.V (PA,»o.rc.« W»„,,. F.B.). 



I 




(Fia. 30b.) Enlarged eight times. 

Attack.— Small active shining black beetles uth nf «» i k , 

yellowish marks on the wings which eat thrsZ; , /" '"""^ '*'°^' ^•"'' 

cruciferous plants dlrec«v Spv' 7.™? k ^^^-^^"'-^^ of turnips and other 

they hop to^slldfsta";^' ' "''""'' "'"^" *'« ^••«""^- ^''^^^ «J'«turbed 

farm!?: '^'iZr^Zl TcJ^r'T !" '"*' ''' "^""'^^ ^« -» '^— »»' 
fmling on the eavL of Cur^ r ' 'f "''^ ''"'" '^° ^"""'^ «* Ottawa, 

as the turni, buTir is^ t^ Cres«, a plant belonging to the same family 

generally pas;ed on he roots As 1 "'"^" '° '''' ^'^''''^'' *°«^t '« 

the beeies 8«tm orthen .^'^r T ''T^ *"™''^' ""^P^^^ «''<'^'« ^'•"""d 

important to theToung p al '"1,27; . T' '''^''^' "'^'^^ «^« «" 
it necessary to re-sow faJge areas "^ ""''"^ ^'^"'^ "«P« ""^ "^^^''"S 

to t.t'ly'o'rtle'iLt^erdiiSrnr"' h"' ''•''^*"' ^"^ '^^""^ •^^ ^'^^ former 

When the'y are c^v r" wltHel t an^l^^^^^ "' ^"""^ *"^"'''«' '^ P«-'»"« 
ei «itn de«, Is an effective remedy against this trouble- 



:^i^ 



117 

on growth. As soon as the rough, true leaves are form, J. the plants are n« 
a rule „„ e to make more growth than the beetles can destrov 

nnf 7'' ff*^ ''"''■'"'^- ^'"'■*'^"' "l'^*"""""" I'os «l.own us that for Central 
Ont.-.rlo the third week In June is the most satisfactory tne or sm in. 
turnips to avoid injury by fiea-be.>tles. By that thne the iJ-iM-ect 1 "s "f 
the first brood have, as a rule, disappeared, and the youn, pits .Jrr , idlv 
7LZ: as goo.1 crops as when sown two or th'r^. weekl ^/r.ier - 

The Ked-hkaded Flea-beetle (Sij>^tcna frontalis. Fab.). 




(Fig. 30c.) Enlarged elglit times. 

reddfsh'^fo^^h h?r "*'"'« '"'"'"^ fl-«-beetles, y,th of an inch long, with a 
reddish blotch between the eyes. These sometimes occur in large numbers 
on potatoes and many other different plants, particularly clover to Tliich 
they are sometimes a serious pest. On the slightest disturbanc^ tbeybop 
actively from the leaves which they are attacking ^ 

case.'^demt; a^ntC'"^ "" """""" ''"""'• "^'^'•^' ""•*' ^'^^ ^^'« '« '^'^ 
Remedy.-Spraylug potatoes with the poisoned Bordeaux mixture 
(Remedy No. 7) is the best treatment. Other plants, as gra,rvlnes and 
nmny garden flowers, may be dusted with Paris green and l.nu "'or, wLn Tn 
venlent, sprayed .ith the poisoned Bordeaux mi:.ture.-F?f/c"/*c/-. 
Small White Cabbage Buttebflv (Picris rapw. L.). 




•ill I 



(Pia. 31.) 



118 

control. There are two l,nK>clH luruTZ Z f '"""" *"•''*""* "*'^^'^ »" 

late supplementary .,ne of «I f h f ""'^ ''^""''"' ""'' ««»»^tln,es a 

November. Farn.ers ! ^l ^^^ ^^ l^i..^^^^^^^^^ «- ^o-I - late as 

the ]«rv,e and apply the renu'lT nmn t^ r, "'" '^''^ "PPearanc-e of 

butterflies on the leaves I»"'"Pt'J- The eggs are laM by the fen.ale 

wuht:2;;;:^rrr:;-r^;r^^^^ — "- '-- 

cheap flour. Mix the wh<,le to JtiZT I \^ ^ ''"^'''^ "'"' ''"'"■ "«»"<1"* of 
or jar for 24 hours. Til p^vS the . I T". " "' " *'"'^"^^' ^'"■^^^'^ ^•"•"■^^-■ 
the cabbages either wl h TZlll^; I '' '''' "'" ""'^ •""•^' "*^ ^"^^te.1 over 
stick, or from one of he v^rio Xect ' ' 'T"^' ""'"'" "'^'^ " «'-^'-- 
The advantage of this r met c^rmanr;r "'r' "°"' '''''' ""' •^'^-'-'-■ 
that, although insec-t Powder L To 'leadl to 7 'T'' ''' '"^^'-""'^"•l-l i« 

rx>.sonsrrbaxrorrtar\^^^^^^^ "- -- «« 

dangerous without any commensuSe aa;a"tage "^ "' '^'"^ '-''-' 

Blisteb Bektles (Epicauta sp.) 

«. M* o„d Bvarnunj'"*' 1 * *1 '7«'» """ «>" I-"™, wl.lol, fly 
ru.e, ,Le« ..„,„, .em'lZJLTr ,?r"nd'r """'" '■'"'"""• -*' " 

edge of the crop, where he' wi^ile f *'^"™ ""*" t*^^-^' ^«'"^ to the 

able to destroy he BHstt b' If 7^ '"''"" '■'*"'""• " '^ ""^'^•''"- 

larval form they are j^e^c^ors 2 L '"" '' '"''^'^'^'' ""''^''^^ '" t"""- 
as in the case of nerriraTlea tea "'V" T '''' ""' grasshoppers; b„t. 
spraying the crops with a olsonous ° l " *'''" '""" "' ''"''''''''''' '^^ 

Prof. r. M. Webster has ^^Z::r:^Z^Zl:: B ","' "'' '^^•^"""■^• 
not attacked by Blister Beetle., and n^ „i. .?.; Bordeaux mixture an- 

Bordeaux n.ixture everv vear there !! ' ""^^^ ''"'"''^ '"^ ^I'^'^'^^l "'tl' 

from these Insects. l„ addition TL , "'^ "•'""*'" "'••'' "'*''^' «'»«"'^» «"ff"i- 
particularly men,bers of 1 e ea famTiv ' "T' "*'''" ""'''' «"^' '^'-^- 
Blister Beetles. ' "'""^' "''*^ ^""^"^^ by different species of 



119 

Hop Flea Bkktle (l's,m„lr, punctulata, Neis ) 

PoiHono.1 With arsel'^^fT;: ;.i ;• r: ;::r,"'"; " ""-'-"-^ ""-vture 
the mixture." I„ conse^nu-me of f« , k./ i " '"" *'' *'''''''^' "'^ «""'""^ "f 
hop« denuding the„,rZi :« J^tT xl^^^^^^^^ •^•"""^' ^'"^^^ ''^ 

and Mr. W„s„,, m„,,„ f,. Sir A hurVten e at v T '° '"^" "'"'• 
not think the beetle will eat the noison^d VT "* ^^*''""^- ""'^■'^- "^ ^l" 
every day to feed upon'- Mr liir; f '"' "' "''•' «"* " '"'"• «'-""-^" 
Chllllwaek «o.ue ve^r a«o amll. '"'r'''*^ '"'' "^"^^ "» '"« "«>!« "t 

«s.^. manner fo^ ir^l^i.^!: , ^^^^1:; ti^/T^ "^'%'" "'^ 
probably for the same reason as glmi bv Mr \v L ^ ""' " ^"""'•''• 
wards reported that the only 1„ thf iIL 1 "• '•''"• """'"''t ""or 

w«s by .spreading tain., ^ ^ hrS:^;'„^^^^^^ "^ '^"'^ •»'^— ' 
cotton sheeting and tack it on to « fr / "*""'' " "^ *-'"^*' thin 

recomniendetl bv \rr ni.ih....^. i ^ "^"oi. «h.>s. >\e used the remedy 

to tap them with tar ^ *«tr,f™„ l"'." "'°°" "■ «""' '" »"»»• <■•> 
»nd .here are but fewt no'Lt the'^i-aM .."^"" "" """"""-'"« ■■""•■ 

Dr. B^letcher, writing under date of '>Cth vrnr,>h ioat 
the correspondence concerning the ,1^ ^tfe Tn.r : '"'T " ' '^"^ 
cannot help thinking that the tylmlP of Th. . . '^^"''*'''' '"'P-yards. I 

nested ,n your letter. « at the IremuJ'o? le", '" "' *'"" '"" ^"•*'*- -'^- 
«hould haye been. Your ietter TZ te^l^'Z Z 7^1 ^"'^^ "■" '' 
ground thoroughly. The only thing at aTlT, th« .^ "■*' ™'*''"'"' *"*- 

accurate, but ^yhic•h at the same time !L I J ""*"" "'"'*'' '" "«t quite 
is your surmise tlmt tils luX Z/^"^/ " ' ""' *'" ^"^"""» '» "'« '^'"■^t. 
the pupal condition. ^^^'J^^t Z:^:j::Z ''' "'""^ '" 

^zz ;;.r "-^ •^''^^'^' ^-^ ^••^ ---^ - « :::^d':r^:j::s::; ;j: 

"The amount of arsenate of lead used - m« * 4^ 
undoubtedly kill a great many of the be^tesTu; of \^ ''•''"""•''• '"" 

"ot be able to And them unle.ss by "mm!"; Lht inT"' J' ''""'" """"^ 
as Mr. Wilson suggests, the tlea beetles wi! ntetn "'". "''"''"*■ "' 
has auained the objec-t ain.ed at. Tl e grow h of thl ' 'T'""'' '"'"^*^' "^ 
-d supply enough unspra^^^r ^h^'^^^'d^ t ^d^ 






that 



+*. 



120 

as the plants were apDearlng. and 1 still believe that Bor.lennv »i '. 
,.oi«onea With Paris «ree„ or arsenate or lea.,, wouiut theTs"^^^^^ 

Ihese insects feed freely at the time of the year when spraving i" n .o,., 
mended, and one meal of the „oison«l foliage is enough to les v .... 
tha if „i, the foliage in the hop-yard were th,,roughIy c,,v..re I I" ." , 
doubt that most Of the beetles would be destroyed by a single s praving 

4 ms. in th?40l„?ir"^' ^' ^"' ''''' "'^^ ^"'"^•''''"*' " -'«''^ ^^' -"to to 
After a visit to Agassiz. by Dr. B^letc-her and Mr. An.lers<m. in August rior 
when a thorough insp,.,.tio„ of Sir Arthur Stepnevs hop-yards w-.s nml". n 
re.omn,endation which follows was made by llr. Fletc-hlr' M h b'n in .^ 
to be eflieacious In destroying large numbers of the bet^tles. The oontH ^, k" Is 
s mply a n.odifleation of the hopin^r-dozer used for destr.>ying 1^, " ' 

in hopper, containing a small quantity of coa, oil and water, to be dr .t.' 
through the yard, the pan to be nearly as wide as the rows, and t.. be d ;' 
on wheels or o„ a sto„c boat; the plants to fce beaten lightly with bran. 1 

LTnL t."''"' ""; '"'"^^' "•^•^•'' ^^"'^ *'^^" J"-P frL the hop Z „ 
fall into the pan as it was drawn up the rows. Mr. Ackrovd found it • dv 
t,.geous to have a float in the pan to prevent the l,.,„id fron. s o p .g v" ' 
The coal oi pan should be used from early in the season and In -. n un -u ." 
with spraying with arsenate of lead. uM.juu.iion 

Slugs and Snails. 
Slugs and snails belong to a group of animals called Mollusca. The Sh.^s 
iZ V '"*" '""^ ^°«"^ (or Ilelicidce) are terrestrial In habhs a nd 

such as plants of all kinds; many slugs also live upon plants but others 
prefer dry vegetables and animal substances, and will not tLh gre^'ma to 
unless under stress of circumstances 

less hiT/r ""T*""*"^ ^^ "" '■^*"™"' ^'''''' •'"t '""^y ba>. a shell neverthe- 

tL t. r^K^ • ""^ *^^ ""'^'^ ^"•"^' ^''''^ "«»«"y « J«'-ge Shell into wiii.i. 

the whole body can be withdrawn. They also have the power of clo ing 1 

exter?arflesr",f'' T""'""'" '"'""^^ ""^'^ ' '"""th compose.1 of 
wlHch t a Hbh m ""'' ''"'''" '''''' '' "" "LParatus. the chief part ..t 
t^ "tes ofYa^ts f r"'' k' '''''' ""'' "•''""« "^ "•*>•''»' «»^y rasp awa,- th. 
of these n^?.^, " k ^"^^*""^*^« ^^'^''^'h they employ as food. Both kin.ls 

callTthe fZ" O ' 'I'TV •' '""'"^"^ ""••'''^""^'- P"t «f the body 
thir . . ^^ ""*"'''*' ^"""t^r^ '« the copious flow of slimv i..u.ns 

w Ith k.n n n '"" '"n?.'"'"' "°''- ^" ''^'^ ^"^^^ «^ «'"««' tl"« espech." -iter res 
v^ Ith killing them. This slime cannot be produced continuo ,sly . iong at a 

^r;e the Skin ?r'TV\f' *"° ""' '''^'^ '^^^^^•"^^ «^ '"'tant pow .::■ 
e.en beneflcial. Both slugs and snaii« have r le and female sexual orsrnns 
in the same individual. Both deposit eggs, and the young resfmbTthJ aTult": 



121 

yaturnl Kiinnicn of Unuils and Slugn. 
By far the Km,t,..st natnrnl .Locks are birds. os,K^.|alIv Iho thniNh „r 
..M-allcHl ro, „. whloii not only oats n.an,- slugs, but Is os.k- -lallv partial 7o 

r.M.lr;N "' "'f ^"""^ "«"'-^ « «tono anU pIoUIuk' out tl' o ui 
Bla.kl i.ds .lovour largo nun.hors of slugs, as also .lo starlings. Toads are 
groat dovourors of slugs and s.nall snails. Molos and shrow nu,. also hoi, to 
k 00,, do vn tho n„n.h..r of slugs, i-oultry an,l ducks oag..rly soard. for tl o,u 
entlpodos attack slugs an.l ants frc.uontly kill snails, but nono o t o 

tUose niolluscan creatures. 

Prcrimtion and Remedies. 

attJuVT"''"^ !""'' "^ ■"^'"»'""^"l «« tending to provont'and le.s.son the 
attack of these j)osts: — 

t. Drainage, because dampness favours them. 

uiJ^.trl^ IT^ T""'*"' "'■• '" '"^' ""-^ °''««"'<^ n»«°»'-e where slugs are 
abundant In the soil. Em,>loy artificials for a time. 

3. Dry dressings of .some irritant to kill the pest.s. (a) 3oot and lime 

Zd^drkr^' ''' ""'^' "'"^ '■■""'''' -^-' - *« -^ -chanra?,y."TJ; 

t,,JT '""'' """"^ ^^ '" '' ''^'^ ""*•'*' '^•'''•'*"'^ «*«*« «nd quite fresh. r,ro or 
thee dressings must be given, the second some 15 to 30 minutes after the first 
L me and caustic soda Is found to act best-four parts of caustic so.la o fM; of 

laXrt'hTmllnr "'"'"''''' '''^'' '^^"^^^^ -''' ^'^"'^ '^ ^^"^ ^^ 

nroumrchir ;i:;t;^'^'"' "^^ ""' ^-^ -^^ ^^-^^^^ ^^^ »-'-«» -«^ ^« p-t 

o In gardens and hop plantations heaps of bran-mash or moist oatmeal 

rCnrerecJr -" '''-'■ ''- ^-'^^ «-- -^ -- whichir;r 

dealt Mith mainly by hand-picking and by trapping with cabbage leaves. 

i. Rows of peas. etc.. are best ,.rotected either by spreading barlev swoon 
mgs or cinders and lime along the rows, or by heav/dr'ess.ng^'of stkecrilmo 

S. Rockeries, ferneries, hedge botton.s and rough herbage at the b-.se of 
^v^ns^should be Cleaned out in winter and the xnasses of hLrnat.ngtii; 

10. Wherever Invasion is seen to come from a neighbouring copse or 
gara™ l„„d, „, ,her gm.dl..v devour Mh kl„d» of ,"^. "^ '"" °° 



,s 



f^l 



If'* 



lt„ 



■ft 



122 

12. Tliru8liPH Hhoiil,! l»o pncouriiwHl t* i« „ . . 
fnilt tin... to s,.p„n..ss tl.o sn« 1 ,?. . . ""*''" *" ''""»' *'"^"' "^ "ur 







wings are spread. It varies er ll .^ '*; ""'""'•" *^^" '"^'^^'^ "''e" the 
rule, rather dark-brown, but var'^,.r o J rl' "' = '''' '"'"''"■'"^-^ ''''' "'^ - 
the disk and toward tl.e e,.d of « e VinJ^v.H ' T '•»««-^»"-<"vn, shaded o.. 
Hpecin.ens are ,uite Ught ^J^Z^:^::::;^^'^' '''^''''^'^''' 
Ihe wings are crossed bv the usnm f„nr L . "*^ *'*"'''*' ^^ the wing, 

the eosta. The renifor.; or Sy , "ri". f' '''""^* ^'^"^^^ ^^^'^ - 
orbicuh,r or round spot, and Z re. i orm h' "'"""^ ^'^'•'^*^'- "•"» the 

o"ter.nargin. Tl.e under wings are Xrlvw^r,,".,"' "'"' "^'^'^ "" *"*> 
sheen, b<.rde.-ed broadly a..d ^ei,.^ S du k ^ ''"*'"" "'^"^ " J^'"'!'"-^" 

(he..c. the E..g,ish ..a...e of Ue itZ^tl'^.^^^^^ 

I. J:jii:r;;;^cr^^^^^ - fou..d .. ... 

ab«.,da,.ee it is probable that these eggs are' ,n' v'h ", '''"''' "' ''''"' 
on the f.d Plant. Kggs which ^^r. r.o.t'^::^^- ^^^^ ^^ 



123 

(From Report of i,s.96') 

-o .he':;:;;:;;;ro:T.Jir;;r;;r;;rw;;i;!':""'^^^ "'■'"■" ""■"■'• '■'■ "■"■« 

Thf ™(er|.lilor» under cousldcrntloii are tjio^e nf .h. „,„.■ , 
•• PcrMromo ««,,ri«,-. of ivlilch Dr FwJ™ . "»"e "f the moth known as 
»me,vh„. U,.ppro,r,„,er.,r™S«e^' :;:;'.? "T" "' '^f' -■■»"■«• 
l:n„wn ,n K„„.„d nnder the name o' Z "vZ^^^aZ':'''''' '"°"' " 

When the o«ten>illnr, are »v,t hatched they are mhntl ..„rl, , ^ 
and hnlry, and are at that time, and tor al»nt a wITl- !„ <larkK»lonred 
monly known a, l,„,*rs or geomwe" A, the n„T , ' """ "" """■ 
they are „rorlded with „l ZeX. and In i "^ " "T "'"■- """''"■'"•' 
relln,,,.. th hahlt ot ,o^„n. and 'a^nmrthrL 2';^;:: ^ h:^ ""■'■ 

namher, from ,„ace to ,Z if 1 JL"r™"ndTI"^ '" ""■'■■'' 

in-^^t ':, T.T i-^tr >^r'" "—""■"""'■■" -'-"'- 

earner, the ..^L^'^ :1:Z^Z ^IZ ".r""" ^"«' 

Rcmcdicn. 

hetween the row, ot an l„fe»te,l emr„rTt^ ,,,-t •■ T °-™' "'' '""-' 

land, hnndle, ot «am,lentwee^l or L, '"""""""''" '"f""'"' 

i.revio„,,y ,.,,on^ hyt^dnrttnrintr.rrti.rrrvirr- 
.r cTJmir ai°:,ir'';;*horr'"-"T' '" ''^^ 
;;.»^ on. atter .ndo:.,tnd '." ^i,^ ::rr ^T^^ :':::: jz 



ri 



; I 



124 



Spraying iUk-m uot wh-iu to ho th.. most HatlMfa.-tory wuv of ai.nlvi.,' 
rH)lsonH for tut-wornis. Tlio i)olm»ncMl bran ri'iniHly kIvgh really rnuark",ni' 
n'HiiItH. ami Is actually more nttrac-tlve than khh-i. veuatlon. Th.- mixtnr.. 
.-onslMts of bran niolntened with sweetened water and ParlH Km-n .nlx.-.| i,, 
the proj-ortloii of 1 ,.„nnd to 50 pound* of bran In n.aklnu tin's n.ixtnn 
the most convenient method Is to damiK-n a huuiII (pmntltv with th.- sw.vi 
ened water (a few .mnees of sn«ar In a pall of water), and then add ni.„v 
dry bran, until the whole is almost dry again. If the Paris green Is a.l.l,..| 
to the bran without dampening. It sinks with rem-.rkable rapidity to tii,. 
bottom, even In this dry ndxture, when It Is stirred. 

If It Is desired to use the poison as a wet aj.pllcatlon. more water .an l... 
adde<I until It Is of about the same consistency as porridge, but If It is t.. l... 
ustHl dry. dry bran must Ik- stirred In until the mixture will run thr..ugli tl... 
lingers easily. The poison may then be applied to the land, elth.-r aroinnl 
or betwe<.n the plants to be protected, or a row of It may be run dose t.. tl... 
drills of crops planted in that manner. 

This mixture Is extremely attractive to cut-worms, being pref.'rred t„ 
plants In all the instances which have come under mv notice It f.k.s 
about ten pounds of this ndxture to an ,u>rt of iwtatoe.^^ as ordinarilv plant.M 
Paris green being a deadly poison, care should be exercised to keep It out of 
the reach of children and domestic animals. 

Salt in lieu of Sugar. 

Walter W. Froggatt. F. L. S., Government F^ntomologlst of New S.Mitli 
Wales, m an article entitled "A Fight with Climbing Cut-Worms (LcNnnua 
uminttwta)." says: "The bran was brought up In bags, weighed, and 1 poun.l 
of Paris green added to every 10 pounds of bran. The bran, after beiu' 
welghe<l, was poured out on large bag sheets, the Paris green scatt.'r.M'l 
through It, and two men with long-handled shovels mlxetl It up thoroughlv 
AVhen the whole was of a delicate gretm tint, water was added from a ho-s- 
head, In which about half a bucket of salt had been put, so that It just ha.l a 
salty taste. The first lot of poisoned bait used before 1 arrived had been 
flavoured in a similar manner with augar. This had a hardening effect up.,n 
any bait remaining over till the next day, so I substituted salt, with very 
good results; the caterpillars seemed to eat It more readilv, and the fotKl 
remained moist at night." 

Hand picking or digging up the cut-worms whenever a plant Is seen to 
be cut off should, of course, always be practised. 

Traps made of disused' tins, short sections of drain pipes and similar 
things sunk In the ground and covered over with boards, allowing sufficient 
room all round for the caterpillars to creep under, will capture number., of 
the pests. Fven ditches with steep, smooth sides, prevent a great many from 
getting from one part of the field to another, and when the ditch has wat.r 
in It it is quite effectual. 

Preventive Measures. 
Preventive measures consist of: Clean culture, by which all ve-etatio,, 
is removed upon which the young caterpillars could feed in the autumn or 
which would attract the moth- to lay their eggs. 



125 

♦h„r?*'"'"*""'" "^ "^"'■^' '•"'^""'^ •'"^•*« ""«»»"" »« <^»«»»' over H,u,H,tl, 8urfnf«, 
therefore surrounding a plant or tn^ with a band of tin or even ,m h r^i 
the ea«e of such plants as cabbages and tonnUoen 1h an efflHent iZL o 
prot,Ht,on. Tin bands „.ay easily be nmde by taking ple..^ ! i^^Zlul 

ong b,- Uvo and a half Inches wide and bending thL uroun a ^,a " oT 
broon. handle so as to form short tubes. In placing then, "rou ." ,1 Z 

L^ T ^^ °°"'*'* ""** ""^^^"^ <^an»- To prepare these eiisliv the cn.,« 

need only be thrown into a bonfire, when the tops and b^tonr nui ' ff Z 
the sides become unsoldered. The large piece of tin can tl 7 e us h1 wlmlJ 
or may ,>e out down the centre with a pair of shears, so as to orm two b^ „ 

t may be well to mention here that the two remedies so often mention^ 

r::::!^:- crwrm"!";.^ ^--^ -"^ — •- - ---- 

out r^ir ^-: i-r ;sr-rrt- sr :: i: 

round the trunlc of the tree and to overlap an inch or two ac"" d ng to the 
sze of the tree. These bands should be tied round the tr^e'Ttl twine Jn 
the lower edge, the upper edge is then pulled down so as to form a i?rt o 
umbrella-shaped obstruction, over which the cut-worms are uuaW^ to Lh 
especially if the edge of the cotton batting is a iittle teasel! "ut.-^;::,:;'^ 

Cut-Kormg in Grain. 

Diflferent kinds of cut-worms attack grain crops during tl,e sr.rine and 
sometimes eat them bare. They seem to be most numerous whe «^ds ha^e 

Kea backed cut-worm (Paragrotis ochrogaster, Gn.). Two other snecles 
?ZT« ™ '''^ "^"'•' "' '""^•'^ •"-« '''^-"^t to reach. be^L^^r; 

are tl^e Glassy cut-worm (Hadcnu devastatri.r. Brace), and 11,7 Yellow 
headed cut-worm (Hadena arctica, Bdv.). These are of „ dir v whm h 
colour, very similar In general appearance, but the former l"as a eS.h brow," 
head, and the body Is tinged with bluish 'green, while the Yellow-CL, c« 
vorm has a smoky-gray body, and the head and neck-shield are tawn^^^llow 

Remc<lies.-When grain is found to be atta.-ked bv cut-worms the fields 

hould a once be examined to discover if pos.slble what speX ss ^t wort 

If the cut-worms are of a surface-feeding kind, like the Red^acke,! cu -^rm' 

aey may frequently l>e controlled with comparative ease by ^at erlng 

Msoned bran lightly through the grain, near the spots where the caTer^lHars 

are most numerous, or ahead of them, where they are so numerous as tT have 

.snmed the narching habit. If ,„nd is systematically kept cTear of we^s 

n autumn, mere will seldom be trouble from cut-worms In the crop ofX 

following year. Prairie or sod land which is to be broken for Sing he 



=W 



126 

iH'xr yenr Hlionid \h> fed ntt iim liiti> iih |n)wII)I«> ..r iiiowhI iH-ror.' I.roiikli.i: |i, 
tlilH wny th.. MmiU. luotlm will not Ik* iittr.uttMl t.. tli.. tall v..K«'tatloii on ki.. i, 
lantiN wlu'n laying tholr ♦'»t«H.— fVc/cAf/-. 

I'KAR AXJ) ClIKHKY Hi.io (Sihiiulrta ccniMi). 




(Fio. 33.) 
This inswt passes the winter In the pupa state umler ground ; the rti..« 
the progenitors of the mischievous brood of slugs. ai.iH-arlng on the wh.« 
about the third week In May until the middle of June. The fly is of a ^'l.,ss- 
bla(-k colour, with four transparent wings, the front pair being crossed by a 
dusky eloud; the veins are brownish and the legs dull yellow, with bin. k 
th ghs, except the hind pair, which are black at both extremities, an.l .lull 
yellow in the middle. The female fly is more than one-fifth of an inch Uma- 
the male is somewhat smaller. When the trees on which these flies are ,n 
work are Jarretl or shaken, or if the flies are otherwise disturbed, they fall to 
the ground, where, folding their antenmo under their bodies and bending the 
head forward and under, they remain for a time motionless. 

The female of this species begins to deixmlt her eggs early In June: thev 
are placed singly within little semi-circular incisions through the skin of the 
leaf, sometimes on the under side and sometimes on the upi^er. In alM.ut a 
fortnight these eggs hatch. 

The newly-hatched slug Is at first white, but soon a slimy m.^tter «m/.e. 
out of the skin and covers the upper part of the bo.ly with an ollve-colou,e.l 
Btlcky coating. After changing its skin four times, it attains the length or 
half an inch or more, and Is then nearly full-grown. It is a dlHgustlng-lookini.' 
creature, a slimy, blackish, cr olive-brown slug, with the anterior part ..f its 
iHMly so swollen as to resemble somewhat a tadpole In form, and having ,-. 
disagreeable and sickening odour. The head Is small, of a re<ldish col.,„r. 
and is almost entirely concealed under the front segments. It is of a dull 
.vellowish colour beneath, with twenty very short legs, one pair under eM-li 
segment, except the fourth and the last. After the In.st moult It loses l,s 
slimy appearance and dark colour. .- ' ..pears In a clean, yellow skn, entirely 
free fro.n sl.rae. Its form also is changed, being proportionatelv longer. In a 
few hours after this chaHg. it leaves the tree and crawls or falls' to the groun.l, 
where it buries itst^lf to a depth of from one to thrtH- or four inches lU 
repeated movements of the body the earth is pressed firmly on all slde-s. anil 
an oblong oval chamber is formed, which is afterwards lined with a stlckv. 



127 

n:";r:r:;:r ;;:f :.,;:..r",:;,7::"-, "'"■';' • - 

trm,Hfori,.Htlo„H. l.rn.kH ..," . l . ' '" " ''"•""«"» M'-I-Iuh Hh 

The foliage. dt-prlnHlVtHH iZn; J ' •' "" '"""' "'"' "' '•-''"'• 

lnfeHt«l |KM,r ore ard wZ . r " ''"•"" "■'"" *'"• *'•♦"''• '» " ""«% 

ln«t«,K-eH the tm>H are oh L„ t„ L "^ . '•'' "'"" '" •»'•'«"'»•"•■ I" "'H'h 
HO exhaustH their il^^rt / .t^^;::^;':^^^^^^^^ T\ "^ T^"' ^"'"^^ 
IMJWer the folhmlng year Altlu., li. T '^. '""-^ '''"' ^^''^^ frult-pnMliHinK 

<lestroye<l In the Interval b^ eZ. , "' ""**• "' "'*">' «"' "«»"- to be 

Spray with Pari ge^^ orhiHr "^ "»'«^-«""'»>'« •"'"Htlc inflnenoeH. 

».«. he treat., a« for Z^^:^!^, ZrZZ::^.Z r ^^^ 

the young larv«. soon hatch out TnT *" "^ ""^^ '" "'•" '''«^-«' ""'l 

infested leaves becZe 8,rttL In ^•°"™'*'"-*' their work of destruction. 

larv» hatch out ^^nnZltetl. '''''"'■""''' ''" "'" ""'**"• ''"^^"^■*"' »•*•''"•'' the 
yellowish-green ;nil^rrarv.n7rT"! "' "'*' '^*"- '^''^ '«"«- «"" light 
the Ie„ves':uK>n whirthVar;;:^^;'"'''" "''''''''' '""^"^'"^ "^ -'--of 

few days' neglect resulting in „rhLTr„K I."''! ' '"''"' '" "'" """'••^- '^ 
feeders. Whether «in-n ve<l or , st„, on Hp n ' """' "' *''"'' ""' ^'"''"••'""^ 
sides of the foliage for^?est results ^'''"''' '""''* '•*'«^" t"^*- "'"'^^r- 

Cicada, or "IIarvkst Fly." 

No injury is done bv these insepf« <n f^i> 

'-.«es considerable trouble. The eg^^ae :^'"!' ''"\""'''' ^««-'«-^'-'« •-'>'t 

trees, a series of slits being c^ bv the nv I *"'"'' "'"' ^'"'''"^''''•^ «' 

<i.ambers m which the eggs „, JZ'^^ ovipositor of the female, forming 

'..V their broad. trans^Tw ,s :X ^eTcf with"^'^ T ^"•^"•^' '^"'^-" 
each Side, and by the shrill loud noJse or « J . 7l Prominent eyes set on 



^1 



128 



U(M>NKiiKMiY WoKM OK < 'at»:ki>ii.i.ah {<Syiiniinin<hun aitiH-HtHriiliiluM. IIartii. t. 



H 

-it 




(Fio. 34.) 

In the inJurlouR ntnKP of their exlHtem-e they nre mnnll green rnterpllliirH 
whU'h fiHMi vorac-loiiHly uiMm the lenv(>M of K«M»M«'lH»rry nntl «-nrrunt bUM!u>«. 
ThiH BiKH-JeH is a native one, hlentlfled from »iHHlmenii of the parent fly, brinl 
by the Rev. (}. W. Taylor, of Xanalnio. The parents are nieinlwrn of the «a\v- 
tly family, and there arc at leaHt two or thri-e brmKlH of tlMiw pestH In n 
Reason. Late api>earinit broods, which ar<f generally very niunerons, arc 
often negleft««l, and Infested bushes beeome defoliated In a very short time 

The Hrst brcxMl usually npi)ear8 e riy In May. At this time there may only 
be a comparatively snuill number of the larvo». but it Is Important to destroy 
these, as each suceetHlIng br«>od is vastly lncreas«Hl In numbers under natural 
conditions. The eggs from which the larvie hatch are deiwsited on leaves near 
the base of the branches, j»nd the young caterpillars can be destroyetl with a 
minimum of labour and exijense. If attacked in the early stage of their 
existence. 

Hellebore has been found the b«'8t remedy fur this pest. It may l>e used in 
the form of a dry iiowder, or In water as a spray, at the rate of 1 oz. to i' 
gallons water. On a large scale Legget's Powder Gun is a very quick ami 
economical means for applying dry hellebore; by its use there is a great 
saving of time In the application as well as nmterlal. 

If desired, Paris green mixetl with dry flour, at the rate of 1 oz. to 4 ll»s. 
flour. r-u\ be used to dust the bushes for tlje early broml, or as a spray, but 
wouhl not be advisable for later use, when fruit is on the bushes. 

The Imported CrBBANT-WoBM {\cniatiia rcntricoitui*. Ring). 

The Insect appears soon after the currant and gooseberry bushes i)tit 
forth their leaves, and the eggs are laid upon the under surface of the lower 
leaves, along the principal veins. The eggs hatch In a week or ten days Into 
a pnle, twenty-legged caten)lllar, with a large, dull, whitish head. They soon 
l>ecome green and accquire shining black spots on the bo<Iy, and the head 
iHJComes black. The full-grown worms are about three-fourths of an indi 
long, and are shown in various positions in Figure 34a; a and & give tin- 
I)osltion of the black siwts \\\w\\ magnified Joint of the body. When they 
have completed their growth they leave the bushes and either hide Just 
below the surface of tlie ground or under any leaves that may be on the sur 
face, spin a thin cocoon of brownish silk, within which they assume the pup.i 
state. Late in June, or early in July, sometimes not until August, t'le perfect 



129 




(Fio. 34a.) (Via. 34b.) 

liJHet'tH npiienr: a second crop of egjp» Ih 1hI«1. iiiuI tlif njiine round In r«>r)(>nt«Hl : 
but tills wcond brood do«H» not Issue from the pupa until the f«illowlnK Kprln«. 
The i)erf«t fenmie Is shown In Figure 34ii. the llneH showhiK the lutuiil Hlze. 

ThoHe who receive currant bushes from a distance. In order to avoUl the 
introduction of this Insect In the pupa state, shoulil carefully wash the ntots 
of the plants and bum whatever may be washed from them. 

Rvmcd ica.— yyhea the worms are not cheiked. they swrn strip both the 
ciiiruii* and ii0O8t'b«?rry bushes of their leaves, apd the partly-Krown fruit 
shrivels and dies. The Insect threatenetl to put ;in en.l to cuiiant culture In 
localities where It is an Imimrtant croi), until an effective reminly was made 
known. By the prompt use of white hellebore the lnse<t may be sulMlued with 
but little trouble, and the crop saved. Some paiMTS sjM'ak of the use of 
••hellebore/' and It is necessary to 8i»eclfy white hellebore {Virutium 
album), which Is an entirely different drug from the black hellelMire {IhUv. 
horua nigcr). The powdered root as sold at the drug stores. Is of a light 
greenish-yellow colour, and excites violent snet^zlng when taken Into the 
nostrils; hence care should be observed in handling It. The powder nniy Iw 
sprlnkleil uiwn the bushes by means of a tin sifter, but this Is often attended 
by unpleasant sneezing, and Is not so I'conomlcal or eflfwtlve as to apply It 
mixed with water. Place a henttlug teaspo<infuI of the i»owder In a bowl; 
make sure that th^ iwwder Is lioronghly wetted; then add more water, 
stirring until a quart, more or less, has been addwl. Turn this mixture Into 
a pailful of cold water, stir well, and ajiply by the use of any garden syringe 
or hand-engine, or a waterlng-iM>t may be useil. The object should be to wet 
every leaf; hence much force Is not needetl. In a few days, if any wonns 
are found to have e8cai)ed. tlie application should be re|»eate«l ; rarely are 
more than two doses needed. The use of white helleliore Is so easy and so 
effective that none of the other applications that have been reconunended need 
be notlcetl. — Injurioua luaecta. Treat. 



i 



•1 

:t 



I 



130 



WiNTKR Moth {RuchvUi (tccUlrntaUH) 
Is o,u. „f tl.o measuring w.,n„s i,, tlu- pn.vli.re. <.f wlild. tlie U.-v c, 
AN. T.i.vlor says, the n-iiialo is wliiKh-Ns " "• 

the w;::r'i^i;:'"^"'^ """ "" ^''"'^ '^^*^" ""^" ^^•->- ^- «> -" "^t.... 

Oi.MyrK-KANDKD Lkaf ItoM.KB (VacwvU, romccitna) 
I'-J'-rlnK tl... l.tHls and yon„« l.av.s <,f „„p,e „„,, other fruit trees ThN 

"iiiiiii wiilcn tUev live ami fMj><l tiw. i.ii....» „ .I'linni?., 

♦1. 1 > . . ^"*' ''"^•'' <?<»iiinieii«'s oiKTiitlons as s<ioii ., . 

m. ur.. ?"tr 7'"""= """' ^■""■^"•'•^^•" *"^'>' "- "»-"^ thrr<;." . 

1 u-hi,. length. .,f a «r,..„ or .vellowish-grm. <.„lour. with the hea.l , . t 
<.f lie flrst s «.neut bn.wn ; there Is usually a darker strl.K. alone 1 
^^^ ..ooth dots on eaeh sequent, rro. eaeU^^^^Hlc^risra^t;: 

The ravages of the larv.e are often quite serious rs thev ehe..k tho . 
growth and destn.y the l.losson.s. Spraying, to he em^-t ve! r ".Tures to i: 
done early in the season, using the Paris itkh... «,„.,». // '•^l"li-<'« t.. 1... 
forn.ed, hand-„lek,„g and^-rushlnrof thlTaavls.,: ' "" *'" """ ""' 

Lack Bros {Tingithliw). 

T'HT are found o.. the un.ler sides of the leaves-small whitish fl.",i 

sue the sap of the leaves. The inscn-ts are hhu-k or hrown in "c^ lo "' s' «e 

of tne adults usually live through the winter, and the f. ,les depo.it H e r 

eggs „ the spring, hut son.etin.es eggs are laid i.. the fa m.d u w te 
pnssed i.. that stage. For shelter in the wh.ter fallen leaves are u h1 o. t^' 
.;.. "Itlnseets enn,. under loose barU scales or into crevK-es. I., the u" .'..er 
"se..ts n.ay be destroyed „,- using either of .spra.vs Xo. 2. «. o^- 7 
-Vnyy l.un.p, taking eare to reach the under sides ot the leaves 

TlIRIPS. 

Of this siHV-ies of ins,vts there are n.a..y members son.e of wl.i^.i. i 
oon.,.derable l.ar... to fruit and o„.an.e..tal t ees a.^bur LsV s, 

ilu.^ u., a .,1 fij rea.l.ly: so...,, of the... jun.p or sprh.g when dlstui-bjl 
K.ll„.r 11„. „.l»i,-,-„ , „«„, (x,, „|, „, , 



131 



Lesser Appik-Leaf Roller (Tiras ininiita). 




(Fio. .-i.-).) 
(<7.). I.aivn: (6). l»t,pa : (<•), Moth; id). FoklInK case of loarps. 
llie caterpillar of the lesser apple-leaf roller Is a sreenlsh-vellow larva 
smooth, with a pale brown head and whitish marlvings. aflTecting tlie young 
leaves ot the terminal twigs, witli wliieh the ins«H-t forms a protective' ease 
Ihis species is remarkable in tliat two of tlie tin-ee bromls of moths which 
api.ear during the year are of a l)right orange colour, while those of the third 
bro(Hl are reddish-gray. It is an example of what naturalists call dimorphism 

Tlie eggs are laid in the spring, on the unfolding leaves of apple and other 
tnn-s and bushes, the larvie s«Hm liatching and feetling on the you. g foliage 
some of which they roll into a protective covering. 

Here they continue fecnling for about a month when they pupate within 
the folded leaves, and a wwk or so later emerge as small orange-vellow n.oths 
Tliese moths lay eggs for anotlier l>r«Hl of larvas the moths of wliiclj are also 
.vellow. and they in turn lay eggs for a third broo<l, which develop in the fall 
as reddish-gray moths. These winter in shelteretl places and in the following 
spring deposit tlieir eggs as previously stated. 

Vl»e caterpillars feed together in numbers, usually stripping the branches 
of leaves as tliey pr<K-e.'d. When handled, they emit a transparent fluid 
having a stn.ng acid smell. When full-grown they desctMid to the groun.l and 
• onceal themselves uncler leaves or slightly below the surtax, after a time 
changing to l)rown clirysnlids. 

Tlie motlis usually apj.ear aI)out .Tune, and are describ.Hl as f„n„ws — 
The fore-wings are dark-brown on tlie inner .-.imI grayish cm the outer margin 
with a dot near the middle, a spot near each angle, and several longitudinal 
streaks along the hind margin, all dark-brown. 

Tlie hin.l wings of tlie male are lirownisb. or dirty white: thos,> of the 
female dusky brown, \\-lien expanded, tlie wings measure 1 to li. inches 
across. 

The female dejM.sits her eggs in a cluster on the under side ..f a le-if- 
these s<.on hat.h into small .ateriMllars. which at first foe«l on the substance 
of tlie under side of tlie leaf; later on tlu«y f.msume the entire leaves When 
not eating tliey remain close together, .s,mietiiiies completelv covering tlie 
bnn h they rest upon. On acount of iliis habit they can l>e easilv gathered 
ami destroyed, or tlie limb cut oflT and tramiiled under foot. They are -ilso 
easily destroyeil by using the I'aris green sj.rav. No. 9 



Jm 



'i 



132 



i 







(FiQ. 36.) 
MOTTLKD Umbeb Moth (Erannis dcfoUaria). 

c-hestnut red heads d«^ T, ,7. ? '"^ "■*'™''' ^^^ '"^^^^^ '» J^ngth, witl. 

black Hue. t : ?ol ^ di tZ and"" ""T' """'^" ^''^^ '^-•^^ "--v 
beneath. There Is lTavkrJ.^u ^KT'"'^'^'' ^^^ "'*'*'' •^'''S"t J'^"""", paler 
«I.lrae,e. The" e ,lt^s ira duH '^'r' "'*' '^"^'^' -rroundingVa,, 
.«"d baB the upper wings do«e^ an T t^T° ^"'' ""^'""^'"^ ^"^^ '»^'^'^■^• 
bands; the npace betwee^ ttl ,s ^a.e Th"^ '*''^^"""'^' ''*-*«'' '^"'"'^ ^^ave.! 
«pot : the lower wings ar" !mZ th 1 ''^"'' ^° ^"'"'^ ^^''"^ « d«rk dis<al 
brown dots, and they ha^ a dark snot n """Z^ "T "'^ ^'^'^ ^'^'"'"'^•^^ -'^>' 
brown, with two rows of con.n^n. ^ ' ^^^ "^^^^^^^ '^^^ ^•^'""'^ ^aoth is 

«lmost entirely aborted wZ'trir'' '"™ "" '"^'^- '^'^^ "'"^^ "- 
crawl „p the trunks of tre^ran^l "v IL,?"'" '" '''' ""^"'"" *>^« ^-"■'•'- 
condition the insect passes^he whUeJ ^'" '" ''" '''""^^^«- ^" "^'^ 

and eo:si7:i TyCsticlT :!:"'" ™"^ ''^^ "^^"^"^'« ^^ «''« «•-'- 
trunks Of fruit Jrl^s to prLrt 7el contrivances around the 

eggs, or what will be fiund I !'« Ti? h ''"'"""^ "^ *« '^'^I'^^'* ^heir 
When the young caterpi." ' atcr with TarT; ''"'''"" *'^ '•"^'^ ^" •'"•^'"« 

each to 200 gallons of water or heRorf/ .^''^" "°** "'"^' ^ J'«""^' "^ 
Xo. 9. ' ^' *^^ Bordeaux mixture and Paris green spray, 

The Diamond-Back Moth 

to thre::ur:f'rr:/ri:S'w\i:[^ tt""'- ^^^"^ --^""-- 

turnips, etc., eating numerou; ^U h Jes IrolTtilf '""" ^' ^'"'^''••'^'^'^• 
irregular blotches from the under surf- 2!!*. I ,f ^'"""*^'''' '*'"^'"^^- """' 

they run backwards, wrigg g t,X bod. .'.t' '""'"'• '''^^" ^'■'^^"'•"•■'l 
by n,eans of a silken thread nil to „! ? ""'' ''""'" «'^^ *« •"'••'^^ ''»»•• 

The caterpillar of the dian Ind «7'""" ', "'''^ *'''*' "^ '^""^ «""• 
of cabbages, turnips, ra e a ra,rr"l./"l '" '*""' ^'^"^^ " -^^^'-"^ '^^ 
of bad attack the wl ole ,uZ s<^n turn J f,^«7'-»<'Jf«rous plants. In years 



133 

to a month, and hrpunaT 1,^ . T" " '""""'"' '"'*^ ''''"' "'""^ ^^eoks 

Blender Htti; creature very vSlfir." T'"''' '""' '"•"'"'^ »-"' '" « 
is ashy-gray with a Vm'e of M^ ."'"' "'"'•'^'"^- T"^' «^-H'raI colour 

back wh'en'the "icings airoirr """"""* ^'"'"-^'-'-i-l ""»»<« on the 

wh.eha.4y.;ppe' Vrt,?'^;^^^^^ »"»'l- ^^ l-asite; 

as it 18 a difficult insect to co tro The i'. i " '"'"*"""'" ^-i- .""stance, 

in hot, dry seasons. "^"^ "'^""*'' '"'^ S^"^''"''*' »'"«•« serious 

wood ashes a^ a d luen? iTk^jZ'T ™'''""- ""''"^ '"^^^^«'^>-^' "">« «? 
Obtained, this subs taLe n. " d vt "7' '""* ''""' '"" ^««^ ^«" ^^ -««">' 
togivethebestresur AfK' "^^ 1"antlties of slaked Ihue is found 

bas given e^^Zt^resiui i:':z:i::xr::i T '''''' T '--' 

treatment, inducing a vigorous growth vSnih; , supplementary 

or some special fertiliser, is mS^ "efu ff ^T .''^ "' """""'^ "' ^"' 
advantage of watering thorou^hv T t 11 '"' ''*''^'*^'' ""'"«" the 

cable. (5.) AS a ^^re::;^^!:: :^ti^Ti^z r 1 ^^^"'- 

weeds and plants of the mustnrri fo„, i, , ! " *° ''*^''* ''"^^n «» 

Plants Of a crop whll! Z ^ aZ ,7 iVThtT '^ T"'''' "" ^"^^""^ 
brood Will be de8troyed.-F/efc/,c,-. '"*' *'''' «ver-wintering 

Fall Web-Wobm (Hyphaiifna textor). 







appear ,l,ey begin ,o eat a,„l to .p,„ , „.,h i ,r 'h^Xf L''°""' P" 



134 






I. nc-k and thore Is u broa.l. dusky or blackish strl,.e down the back alo 1- , 
si<le is a yollowish band. sp«kl»Ml nu.re or less with 11 Mk Tl eT: 
covered with long straight hairs. ,ronpe,l in tun.^.CLn.^-^t:t 
or oran«e-yel,ow ..rotuberan.-es. of whieh there are a nundnn- .. ^a * ,,n.C 

llH' moth is of a ndlk-whlte colour, without spots. When evp nd.^ , , 
wiuRs n,eas„re about H/i Inches across. From their birth te«i^^ 
habits of the larva, pron.ptly leads to their det'ti a. d I^^^ ^ IT;: 
Should be ren.ov«l by cutting off the twig or branch an, dZ . v ng i 
hey remain constantly under the web for so long a perio,l. ti e r n '.1 of tt 
branch insures In most instances the destruction of the whol^ ^^ , • "" 
also reme<ly reconunended for Apple-Tree Tent CaterpiHan ' 

Tlssock Moth {Ormiia anti</uu). 

Fmling uiK.n the leaves of fruit and other trees. When mntnr. n, 

pS'psTd— 1-^ 

hac^. With two pencils of black hair on the anterior, and o.^ on^ ;:jZ 

The eggs from whicl rue caterpillars hatch are often notir-^i i.. , . 
on ,h.ul leaves which are fastened to the tree wl h us, . I I 1 """"'" 

atta,-hed. The i.jury fron. these ,.sts is bm p Iwented b t 1 r""^^'"-- 
these egg masses during the winter. l"^^^>'tfd bj the destruction „{ 

The caterpillars may be killed by using the Paris green spr-.v or if n , 
tw numerous, picking might be resorted to. ' 

Red-Hlmpkd Catebpillab (CEdciasia mncinna). 





(Kio. .'J8.) 

(Fig. .-jo.) 

This caterpillar f,.eds upon the foliage of apple and other fruit trees I,, 
head .s re<l. and there is a lunnp on its back of the san.e co,o ,r t ;;»■ 1 
ring or segment; the bo,ly is marked lengthwise bv slender hli ck \l^n / 
v..ite lines, and has two rows of hlack prickles* a^ofthb ck Co;;: 
sho ter ones upon the shies, from each of whi.-h there arises a fine Inl T , 
h.n.ler scgn.ents ta.H.r a little, and are always elevated when the in';^^ N t 
crawl-ngt measures, when full grown, about 1V4 m.-hes i 1 Z , ''^ "" 
IT. 1-letcher. under date of .1th September. l!)0,i. savs- "This c- nMli.r 
has been rather more abundant than usual in all parts of i-anndnf.V 
aUhough it ap,.ars to ,>e a very bad pest on acc.llmt ^ t ^^e^^^,^ ^ ' i;!' 
ing .n arge clusters, as a, n.atter of fact it is not an lnu.ortant " e- nTof : 
apple. iHK-ause the whole (tilony can be cut off an.l destrove-1 T \ 

their presence is detected by their injuries.- "*^^'^-^«J ^^ "''^•^■- ^honev... 



135 



TfcXT Caterpillar (VlMocamim Americana). 




(Via. 40.^ 

<«.). Side vlow; <^ ';»-;. v.p,. n... «n.w„. at a.,out s,x weoks o.U : (e,, C.u.fn. of 

egfes, (rf^ totoori, oval of palo yellow tolour 

This pest of tlR. fnilt-«r„wt>,- is widely dlstrihuteil throuRhout the Province 

«m known .,v all tT„lt-.M-owers l.y th..h- habit of building webs o I ts f n 

vhich they i.sue to f..Hl. The e,^«s of these pests are de,K,si ^ Cn le 

a Viscid liquid, which dries Into a sort of varnish, by the parent n oths • i 
takes place during July and August. ' ''^ 

On the principle that an oun<e of prevention Is worth a ,K>und of cure 
the easiest way of .h-aling with this .n-st. es.Knially on sn.all tls is to 
lestroy the egg n.asses. either ren.oving then, for the purpose, or c^thig c ff 
he twigs on which they are tound. Careful sean-hing Is r-e<p. red o d this 
but the work can be acon.plishcd In the .lorn.ant season, Jhen there is "t 
so nuuh press of work in other ways. If the caterpillars are allow^Ito hat^^ 
out they are easily detected by their conspicuous web or nest. ftl e e" r - 
a.u a e ,...rti..ns of the day they will all be found in these nests an ca" be 
oa.l ly destroyed by crushing the nests and their .-ontents with the g ovCl 
an,l. by tran.pling under foot, or by using a torch to bum then, on So, e 
.n.es when a nest has l^en destroyed s<.n.e of the caterpillars will ."e ^ 
feeding, a.al with!., a few <lays the nest will be rep.i.-ed .-uul the ,e, .on ts f 
l.e colo,.y ..e-establishe.i. so that .-epeate,, visits should be made to tl e o "h „ 
n onler that all n.ay be destroy.l. Xeg,...tod tr.H-s are ..„ .tripped of he 
tol iage a..d be<.>n.e exhaustcl by having to reproduce foliage at a '„,! so . 
.Ude time, so that little or no fruit will !«• producnl the follow »»«*-^^«'- 





■ul- 




t'K 




-■;.* 


is 




'I 




1 








^m 



ling 



ison. 



136 
Where theHe Dents have l,een neglected till they become mature it .,. 

«^;r..:r^"-^' ^« - ^he r„r.« «r.„ Hpray (xo^Mo^LrtTh;:;;;:; 

FoBEST Tent-Caterpillar (a/«iocampa sulratica). 




1 




(Fio. 41.) 
A near relation of the last-mentioned pest, and like It, wldelv distrlbnte,! 
nnd destrnctive both In orchards and to forest trees, such as wl lorinle 
birches, etc., often completely defoliating considerable areas Thev dc"m t' 
spin s«c^ extensive webs as the preceding pest, and are greaJ Ltll s 
clnrlng he latter part of the day, and often dnring the earlier Irtir too 
they c.>llect on the trunks and larger branches of infe't^ tris in in^^: 
niasses; this habit can be taken advantage of In desJoyCthem bnt it u 
often difficult to protect orchard trees in the vicinltv ofTfeLn 7' . 
Cons1^,t watchfulness is ne«,ed in such ^^^TL%^TitnZrZ[ 
o^ TZ7^"' ""''""' ""' band-picHng and destruction S masT^l'b:^^ 
Bud Moth (Tmetoccra occclana). 




(FlQ. 42.) 
The half-grown larvre winter in inconspicuous temporary cocoons which 
are usually secreted about the buds on the twigs and smaller briers Wh 

^ h etf and rurbVl" * V^ ' *'^ ^"""^ ''''-' *^^'^ «— -^ ^ 
both leaf and fruit buds. During the day time the moths remain quietly 

res ing upon the trunk., and larger branches of the tree with the^r «hn^ 

folded rooMlke over the back. In this position they J^loV^^ J^Z^JZ 






137 

bark m colonr that It Is difficult to detect them. The moths probably live 
two or throe weeks, nnd. beRlnnlng a few days after they emerge, fly alH.Mt 
from tree to tree, mostly In the night, and deposit their eggs singly ;r h. "1 
clusters upon the leaves. In from seven to ten days these eg|s hatch The 
young larva., which Is at first green, at once begins to fee<l. usuallv up^n the 
k,wer epidermis of the leaf. It s,Km spins for Itself a silken tube oT^n al 
both ends, and usually located beside the midrib. Throughout the summer the 
arv« woi-k urK.n the leaves In this manner, but towards fall they re rea t 
Tv n T'" rf """"■'"' a. a construct the temporary coc.«ns n Xh 
they pass the yvlntev.-Cordleu, Oregon Horticulturnl Report, 1901. 

This lnsecl,ls found attacking both leaf and flower buds upon the apple 
am sometimes proves very Injurious. The half-grown larva winters Ter' 
and appears In spring as a small brown caterpillar. Just about the time the 
iMUls beg n to oiH-n. and fee<ls u,K,n them. It measures about half an hi 
When ull grown. By rolling up one side of a leaf, and securely fastening 
ulTV^'^u"' 't '""'" "" *"^ *" "'^'^•^ " -'*-« '^- pupa stage, hi, g 
s^t n d r ZTr "'? ' ^'^"'^ """•" ■"'^•^•- «' «"'^- This'cnditlln 
te andfoJm U t ^7^" V '"""" "^°''^' ^'^^^''^^^ ^^^ ^'HlHng moth In 
. ize and form. It is of an ash-gray colour. The front wings have a whitish- 
gray band across the middle; the hind wings are dusty-brown The 
expanded wings measure half an Inch across. It also attacks Zr Plum 
cherry, quince and peach trees, and blackberry buds. 

Remcdy-Pavi^ green added to Bordeaux mixture, as directed for the 
treatment of the apple.-0«f«Wo Bulletin on Pests. 

For Twig Borer and Bud Moth. 
Spray in the fall, as soon as all the leaves have dropped, with sulphur 

to swell, with following wash: Sulphate of cop,^r, 3 pouna. : lime. 4 pou^s- 
ra Is green, 4 ounces; water, 45 gallons; and again with the same wash th^ 
latter part of Uay.-Oregon Horticultural Report, 1903. 



■,* 






138 



CHAPTER X.-INSECTS ATTACKING FRUIT. 



SYXOrSIS OF LIFi: IIISTOICY OF rODLINt; MOTH. 



Codling .Moth (Ciri rui,Ma i,»monvlla, Li.nn.) 



i 




(Fig. 44.) 
(«i. Nest of Inrva on outsldp of tr.'P 
iindiT tho ol,j bark: (6i. puna: (<•>' 
laivii oxposcd from nest: (,/». olij 
n«'st :(.•!. larva about to biilld n.'st : 
(M. the moth at rost : an. motb witl) 
wings spivaU; On, bead of larva. 



Tlip piinrtiir.' made by the moth is 
repr.'sented at (6i. the Iwrlngs of the 

^"//■^ti."' ^'Vk *'V\ m"'"''- worm at 
,/ • J^*" ""♦l' ^^''f'> wInKs dosed at 

«rV„,''' T^iV *'"» «■'"«" expanded 
at (fli. and the cocoon at (ii: (r/i 
the chr.vsali.s. and (hi, the anterior 
part of the body masnlflj-d. ^"ttrioi 

There are tliree stase.s l„ the life history of the codling motli :- 

(1.) The larva or worm; (2.) The impa ; (.-J.) The moth or mature insect 

The insm ahva.vH passes the winter in the larval condition, as a worm 

Lh h fl.7,i "" "'■'" '' -»»"-••'"- to find, and almost always 

siKcmls in flndinR. some dry place to pass the winter, snch as .,Id f.M.ceK 
hoard., scaly hark of trees, or even large clods. At varying time n t i; 
spr n,, a,,.,.,„,„, ,, ,,, ,^,„,,..^ „^. ^^.,,^^,^^.^. ,^ ,^.^^ ^^ ^^.^^^_^^ ^^^^^^^ hiding ,a 1 

his worm changes Into that pecnliar brawn objec-t .ailed the pnpa. ami f „' 
tins stage into the m.,th. Here is the first ami most important h, nt or ■ 
apple-grower, who intends to fight the moth sm-ce.sst'nilv. to n u er -i 
lou mnst know just »„c„ the moth appears in or.ler to d.", intelligent w" 
Therefore, prepare yonr.self a In-ecaing ca,jc and confine some of the worn s 
It tha. you may la,o>r with certainty wh«u the moth comes out. O^ f 
the simplest cages is a wide-mouthetl fruit jar. and in place of a lid tie ^me 



IIVJ 



llKht wlr»'-Kaiizf about the mouth WHMjrely. ho that neither worm tior moth 
• nil get out. INaee the jar lu the orthard in a cool, dry phiie. Aljout the 
time of Hpiile hluHMouiiii); refer to your Jar dally. Ah hoou an the tlrnt moth 
f«)meH out you nhould Im'kIu your Hprayln^', whether all the in'taln. or 
" hloHj. luH," have fallen or not. It is rare tli.,t a moth emer^'H from Its jiupa- 
case bv'fore moHt of the iH'tals have fallen ; often It does not take place until 
a week or two after thin time. To Hhow how thin varlen from year to year, let 
me liiHtance from other hulletlnn and from my own work. In Ttah, In 1!M».'{. 
the flrnt moths appmred. acct)rdln>; tr- H„|i. aiiout the tirnt of June. In IS!)!). 
accctrdluK to Aldrich. the Hrnt moth Litiyeanil altont .Inne l(!th. prohaltly tw<» 
weeks later than usual, while th» bless, ais did not fall till June 14-17. This 
.rear, the first moth apiieannl in m. c.ige May ISth, while the api»les were In 
full blossom alH)ut May 14th. This was due to the muisually warm, dry 
Hpring which forced out both moths and tlowers a ctmple of wwks earlier 
than usual. To Ije In time to catch the first worms, whicli iaigUt liave come out 
before those in my cage did. I had to si.ray ltet(»re most of the petals liad 
fallen. The transformations of the worm take alwut fifty days, and may 
be shown graplilcally as follows: — 

(1.) Winter worms change to motlis about when i>etal8 are falling. First 
spraying. 

(2.) Moths mate and lay eggs in a day or two. 

(.'{.) Eggs ItJitch almost always in ai)out eight or ten days, while petals 
close lu about ten d'lys. •• Firnt hrfntd of trorniH." 

Many advise a second spraying at tills time, to get the jiolson into the 
ralyx <ups iH'fore tlie last of them close, and to catcii tiie last of the young 
worms of the first bnxMl l)efore they enter the apple. No spray can affect the 
worm when once he has entered the fruit unharmetl or uniwisoned. 
(4.) Worm remains in apple about eighteen or twenty days. 
(5.) He then conies out by enlarging the tunnel he made on entering, or 
by eating out a new tunnel, and b is himself down from the apple to the 
ground by a silken thread, or crawls down tiie trunk of the tree, set'king a 
hiding place in which to pupate. 

(«.) Having found such a hiding place, he wraps himself up as did the 
winter worm, gradualy changes to a pupa, and comes out as a moth in aliout 
twenty days. Simpson found tliis time varied from eleven to forty-nine days 
in Soutliern Idaho. 

(7.) The eggs are again laid, and they again hatch In about eight or ten 
days. As this forms the time for the third spraifinn. or the second, if we liave 
omitted the last one mentioned, we must again have recourse to the l)reeding 
cage. In fact, it is niiuh more essential that we should know the exact time 
this set of moths ai>pearK than the first, as we are more or less limited in 
the first spraying liy the dii.e of full flowering. So, as soon as the worms 
come out of the apjiles, which can be told by the bands on your trees (and 
you should use bands), catcli some, place them in your cage, watch when the 
first moth apjK'ars, add eight or ten days for hatcliing of young worms, and 
yon wil! know when this xrvnttij hmuil of worm?! is re.idy to enter the apples. 
Your spray should Ite on tiie a|)ples soon after the emergence of the first 
moth, in order to catcli early as well as late worms of this brood. 



i| 



I- ,••:■ 



m 



140 



I 

^f 



«PPU' mainly by the .«/,. o./; ,.i L "h, nLnnltv f ..h'm r"' ""'•"■" ^"■• 

ap,.ie„„y.hor:;V^..tTj:/ \7tX 

oiiwrgvn from the „p„le «»,!„ ho doi „„t „l„n;^^, '' ""'*"''" '''"'" 

«-n«.n into the n.oti, iuit H^k« n Zi ^i i !'"*""''''' '""""«*' "»-'"'" ""^ 

ana there M,H.n,lH le w t^-r Unrn! '^■' "'**: """" "'"'" """ ""* --">'• 

purpose of devouriiiK such frnlt „n,i . . T ' ^'''^ orchani for tli,. 

^0 U.e Ures or .. e^CZ ^ Z^^eS^rr 1:;;^ ' '"'"'"' '""- 
The following is from the U. S. Farmers' Bulletin. No. 247- 

n.oth :r::;;;:j^re<riiit^^^^^^^^^ r^ '^'" '^^""•" »"- «^ ^-^^ -"«-- 

were discovered. l7 ^ o Zrd^Z '''''''' ""-Henioa, sp.,,vs 

thoroughly done, it ma"" rnte:: r M^ ut^r i7ir"' '"T'' '' 
are old and cracked, and have holes in the tru' ! an , hr„ h ' """ ''""^^ 

dose together, so that spraying Is UmZt V, 1 5T ^ "' "'"'* '"""*^' 
aid m bringing the insect under conH' •"' '""''' "'" "'"*^'-'''>"^- 

c.coo":rd'^i;''rriarra"Z^;'\?." '^ ^^^ '^'-^ *« «••'» '- 

Cloth bands, from 10 to J^Lhes in wh h n A .'T ^"'""^ '""^ ''«'"'• 
placed around the tree. ThJv can ^ fllf ,7 °''^'** """^ lengthwise and 
removed and replacT bv SrUMrl ?, ?*^ '" '"'* " "'^y «« *« ^' easily 

Off the head JtZ^Ze^oTZ^lT ZltZ' T T T' ""^'""^ 
band should be placed on the trunk nn^ 1 '^ '' "^ ^""^ '"^ '"•'S^- "»e 

bands of any hLvylrrr^I sr/ariTp^ f^^^^^^^^^^ T"" 

or paper. When bands are used, the trees shoni/iL , "'"^^ ""^ ^"^ 

or loose bark, to leave as few ot er nttm ., ^ ^''"'^ ^^^"" "f '"""«»» 

l«rv« might spin ooc^n . Insp^t oroTt J'^ ^''"'^^ ^" ^•^"^'^ ^''- 

at intervals of ten days and arilr?^! T "**' '^""^^ *^ '"'''*« "-^^""rly 
be destroyed with a k'lfe If Vsp^^, """ T''''! '"""*' ^"""^^"^ "'^™ «'»«»'^» 
badly infested 100.1^^ Jut 1 is al„« '. m'""^ *' '"* ""'« ^'^^^tive in 
uo Circumstances should tndi ^ h.":!^ ? 1^^=! *; '''^''^'' ^'-^- 

The use of arsenate of lead for +hT!Lu ^"^-^"^^^^ ^^or spraying. 
Xew Zealand AgrlcuUural Crt' ^9^ ^ ' ""'' '' *'"' "'^""^ ^« ^" ^'^^ 

" f^praying for Codling Moth. 
"Such excellent results in the control of th« „, *u u 



141 

moth niul other deHtructlve «itlnK-lnHerf« Ti.„ ... . . 

far an exteuHlve uJ i. Lrcmlrr „l "L '"T ■"•"" """''"* Prohibitive an 

« «.«teri«, re,u,ctio„ L;to ;r rs ii t;\^ 'T^T'""' '"* "-^^"^'-^ 

to u«. an efftHtlve Innet-tkhle ^wirt "" "' "" "'"'^ ''^'^ '»"«» 

to n very lar^e exte t7n ie Pa :,^ Vn.,"'""""'' '" """' '" ""«• '-'"« '"«'<» 
diHtrlets m Calfornla. The Po t Tborf 1?\ "' "" """*•"*"' apple-««.wlng 
reH»lt« fron, the uho of dlH.m en^ ^J aPPle-Krowern have derive,! Hph.„dl.i 

have re<l«oe,l .aoth Infec-t o nevt^^'m ""'^ *'"'""'*'' '"'^">''"« ^^'^'^ 
of H.n...th-barked treen there ^ ZllT "^ '" "*""' '"''""* "••^•''«"''' 
While l„ the older orchards r^rt;:"; ^U^ J^';: l^:);:- -•^- 

How to Spray. 

for the codling moth Is for the ^le ob rir J h I""''' ,^^*' "^^ "P™>''"« 
cup before It closes, an.l everything e£ s^ T^^ *'"" f^'""" '"'" "'« ^«'>-« 
It has been found b • veLntZe^^ri^Zl^^^^^^^ ^ Hubordlnatnl to that end. 
with great force. wlll7>^X^te and " m!^ ! .? ™"'" '""''^ '"^'•«>- ^^rown 
like spray ordinarily S u ?ifs Z h "'" '"'*' •^""'' ^•^«" ^''^ •»'«^- 
out towards the light nTt as the 1 lol "'""" "'"'' ''""^'"^ "••'•'«'^t "^ 

the spray must be thr "v > /rom 2^7 "'"W "" **^ «° ""° ^''^^ <•"•- 
from below «;. „s It s u nany done In ^heT.n^"'" ''"/''" '"• '''^ '"'^ 
gathers on the stan.ens and either r^,n«M ' ""^ ^^^ '"''*■"•'« «Pf«>' 

carry an«- ,K,lson down i:to thrcl " wUl'd h'''" '"'" ""*^ ^'^ ""* 

spraying until the tree Is rtr nnInT ,, ^° "° '*''"" *« toutlnue the first 

the calyx cups ^u stl^ there ''^^ "" """•' "^ ^'^^ "'^"'^ '^-' ^-^ 'odged in 

The second spraying serves two purpo^-s one to All „n. . 
oi>en. and also to leave a coaflnc. of L.l . *^^ *^'*'^'^ ^"PS s"" 

formely used the mist sra" for th,«H ''". "'""' ""** "•"'*' ^he writer 
spray and se^-uredttter re u ts ThVsn '"''"' .'"' ^'""^^ *" *»»« ^««r- 
tree begins to drip. ^'''' 'P'"*'^"« «'^«"''i ^«'«« «« soon as the 

^^7»a< \oz2le fo Use. 

the 8enecl of' he Oo.n, Co I^ZlLTTTr' '^' ^"^ ^^™'"« ^-' - 
so that under the work „g r^eTs. ^^^^^ ''^ "'^"^ *"« »«!'»'« oapaclt.v. 

8 feet before a mist L f^rn ^ if «^ i '•"'"" ^'^^ ''''''^ "'" »'« t^^^-^"" « to 
smooth surface at a dlstTr 'f " X f''JTJinT'''\r ''"' ''''"'' '^'^ '^ 
Mith little drops of water the size of „ n.T' i '^ "'^ ^"'■^«^'*" '""^♦''•"l 

a .ram or more of r.i::":ZZmT::n ZT^^^^^^^ 
It spraying ,s continued too long these litt e drops wi 1 „! "" ':''^''''^'- 
carrying the poison with them. If the ".ozzle is se to^ in ""^^ '"" ''^' 

slow, if too cx,arse the drops will rnn off o I ^ ''"^' ^""^'^''^'^ ""' be 

do better work ,Ua„ ,„■„ of ,he 1 " ktad^ ""'" °' '""'■'' *"""""' "'"' 



Mf. ! 



142 



^^'hrn to fipraii. 

Thi' ttm iipplinitloii Hhniiltl \n' iiiiiih' iiH wNMi HfttT till* h\>MA\ fallH nx 
,HmHll,|,^,u.v,.r Willi.. tlH' hloHM^niH «r.. on. lu „ i„„iiy ,„Ixh1 or.|,„nl this 
inlk'ht iK^Hll.ly In> when n f.-w hJoNmm.M wrr.' on tlH« Into tm^-. I.iit In <»ko tli- 
.llffrnMit varl..tl..H wm- m-iMinit... H|.riiy ni«li varh'ty tl.m. or f..ur .lavH nft.r 
th.' |N>talM fall. In plaiitInK an onlianl Ulfr.>r.'nt varl.-tU^ Hliould iM-k.-i.t In 
bIcHkM. or at IniMt In rowH. ho that tlu-y <tin U' Hpraytnl wIhmj rt-a.ly. 

Thf IniKth of tlni«> In wlilch tl.o .alyx nMnalnn'oiK'n varl«.« lii .ll(T..r.'iii 
varlotlrM and In .llffm.nt mtm,UH: prohal.ly hIx to tn. dayn wonid Im' a fair 
av.'raK,.. TIiIh can In. wat.li.Nl and thorn- that rl.mt. the .,nl,k.mt Hprav.nl Umi 

Thi. »«.n.nd Mprayhitf Hhould Ik- made from ten davH u, tw<, w.4h aft.r 
the tlrnt. Thin will .at.h tlioni. ,,,lyx cupH that are late In cloHlnK .md auv 
from which the Hn»t «pray has Uh-u waHl».<l. and xvlll nlHo leave n (.,>atln« of 
iH.lm.n on the n.)w fairly well-Krown lenv..n and the developing frnlt.-««m7,„ 
So. 87, Utah. 

Lkhhkb Applk-Worm {nraphoUtha prutiliora, Walsh). 

ThiM IH the Inmnt which haH 8o often tHM^i. ndHtaken for the .^HllInK inotli 

hy our frult-Krower«. and «.rtalnly hi Home resiH^ts there |8 n mnrkwl re ,- 

hhuH-ts It IH niHo known aH the plum-mi.th. ni.d was first figured and 
descrlbwl by Walsh as n r»Ium enemy. 

Full-urown siKnlmen larva- are dc-scrilHsl as f.-llcms: three-eighths of an 
Inch In length, one-slxtw-nth of an Inch in diameter. tarK-rlng siightlv towards 
K,th extrendties; r^ldish pink to pale pink m colour; lightest "in colour 
.etw«.n the segments. Hea.l smaller than first segment, with blotchv. darkish 
brown markings: thoracic and anal plates also darkish, markeil wi"th brown 
»<Hly coveretl with white bristles, with finely dotteil surfac-e to the skin' 
(under n .r/o,K.). The parent moth expands nlK)ut five-eighths of an inch 
ncnms w..., ; the ground colour of the front wings is black, with larg.. 
patches of rusty nnl and a central steel-blue patch. Along the c«.sta an 
s(.ven very ttmsplcuons short white streaks, nrrangetl 2. 2. and 3 together of 
which the longest are the 1st, Sn\. nth and 7th. These str.'aks are nearlv 
parallel t.. e.uh other, and are obli.piely dirwtetl towards the r«steri.,r an«lc 
of the wing. The hind wings are dusky gray at the base, shading Into bla, U 

•I L I lit. t Ij '• 

The .-..nnnon form of attack of this ,>est In cultivated apples is at the 
calyx end of the fruit, and in the majority of c-ases the larv«. do not ,HHietratc 
very far into the fruit. There are. however, many exceptions to this nn.l 
riuite a number of apples have been foun.l in which the larva- luul Imrcd h.tu 
the mitre of the fruit aii.l even fed upon the pips, just as the true ciHlling moth 

From this habit of fee.llng. it is apparent that effective use can be made 
of the I aris grmi spray, or Bordeaux mixture and Paris grmi ( .Vo. 0) applied 
very s,M,n after tlie trees have blossomed, and bef<.re the voung fru'it turns 
downwards, and wherever there is a r«robabilitv of the post apiH'nrin" thi^ 
cyurse should be adopts]. In addition to this, infeste.l fruits, which uMiallv 
rlpeu i.rem«turely, should be carefully collected and destroyed, as soon as 



14.1 

;;!:;::::^:r^.,:^r::;;;:;:::;- ^ «-;•' -'" --, ....... n. 

tlint. .....1 ,.„r,.. "' '""* ""' '""'■" ••' ••""'•'"« '"•tl'l>.K but « llt.U. 

H a v..r.v H«.ri..„„ ,«.,( of l„„h r..l „„,i ,,,„,k .,,rr„„tH 

l«rv,P hnt.h „«t very , k, 1 r^ ^ '"*""'' "' '"'"** -"•* "««-• Th. ,„„„« 

fruit fallH t„ theVnm r and r ; """ "'"'' """'*""•• -^''-^ ">' "»' ".r.-t..^ 

on the Hurfac^. under rubbW if L r '"""""• '•'" "" •^- »"'>' fanHfom, 
..rown colour. I„ th /liuh^ ;\':''i';'"" ^'T '""'-^ "* "' '^ '-'" >-"«wi«h- 
Kradually underRoing ch„X .to tl e 7 "' m ' " ""''''"' ""•""•" "' ^^e year. 

Ah a preventive ZZV f ^^ ''"''" *'"""''*''•"' '" <'»' '*l"-ln»:. 

sprinkled J.th a nd tuT" r- L n r ""I *^"^'"'"' "'"'"-^ «"-'-I '- 
viouH to the tln.e when ^uJ ^T ^Zu^^ :'rl^: ""'• •""'^ "^ ^ "- 
pint of crude curl»olic aeld t , nl . , /" '"^"''"'''y «»•'>' In May. One 
strong enough for th^fu Le Thl "rneU L", /'""\""'' """''' ^"«''^»'-- '" 

(Jatlierlng and destroying the fallen frnit l'„rin„ t 
numberH of the pest c-onsldernblv an. „L [? l" "'"'"* ''■•'"''' ''*^'"''*" »"« 

the surface of the ground th^ can 1^ , . "*?"' '*''■"' '*' '"""«"*» «t or n.-ar 
son to a depth Of ;„ S/orlv o .r^fulirS ''' T""'^' ""'^ ''"■•^"'« "'« 
soil HO that the young flien are unnZ t '^ '*-' ""'^ ^"'•"""'' «'""" »"•' ^op- 

.•one by chicken' 1„ Plc "g up he ^s;";;;;^,;" '''' '""'"'''• •^^"•" «'-' ^l 
«lven the run of the patch ^or that pLnl^e ^'"'^'"'-"t. they should be 

are ^^ZZ ^ll^S T the";^snr ' "^ ^ '"^^'^ "' "'« ^ «^ 
time no very satisfactory ren^lv .Is b« l 'TT"'"''''''' "'* '" '''' ^''"^'^^^ 
I'as give,, any results Is^he ^nZ: e' ^ '• T'*' ''"'' *''""*»'-* ""'H. 
tl.e soil fron. beneath bushes 'hlc have . '"."?'"' "'""' ''''*^ ^"^"- "' 
fresh soil, and then treatmrtl o ' . '"'*''*''*'• "'l»'a<-'"« this with 

i.-es d.K.s not occur in tm^ ( , ifZ';';' ""^r" ''"'''' '^"'' ^'•- 
m.wers should know the appoara!;!" . .f t'v "t ?""" "'"' ""«• ^'•""- 

of snout beetles. so-ca,l.l fro. the shape ;f thX^d/lhtr J^.::;^;^ 



I'i 



144 




(Fig. 45.) 
The dlffcront stagps are shown In the engraving above: o represents the grub much 
magnified; h the chrysalis, and c the bwtle. Iwth much magnified ; d the yount; 
fruit, showing the crescent-shaped mark made by the Insect, and the curcullo, lite- 
size, at Its work. 

a beak. The beetle Is a small, rough, grayish insect, about one-flfth of an 
Inch long. The female deiwsits eggs In the young fruit of plums and cherries, 
causing them to drop prematurely, generally before the larvie are full grown. 

Apple-Fbuit Mineb [Argyresthia conjugella, Z.) 




(Fio. 46.) Infested Apple— Halved. 

The first apparent sign of infesfaition is the exudation of Juice from the 
fruit, at the itoint where the larva enteretl, which generally dries up in the 
form of a little bubble, grayish in colour. The point of entrance is often 
between two fruits which touch each other, or under a leaf which covers part 
of the apple attacked. Later on, when the larva has left, the small hole in the 
side of the fruit through which it escaimi can be seen on close examination. 

Many fruits were found to l)e infested both with this and the lesser apple- 
worm (Grai>hoUtfia pniiiiiora, Walsh). The full-grown larva is smaller than 
the last mentioned. It has been descrilml as follows: Nearly cylindrical in 
shape; slender; about %, inch in length, when extende<l; body whitish, some- 
times greenish-white, with black head; r.iufuce of the hoily une%-en, intraseg- 
mental folds deep; as also a medium transversal fold on each segment. 



145 



The cxMH)n w thin whk-h the pupal stage 1h pa«««l Is double. consIstiuK of 
a rhme. dense, white spindle-shaped Jnside coe.Hin. % i„. i„ length e„cl< ^i h 
a network or loose, open bag of large meshes. %\, by % f ' J e T ,de 
C0C..V. is apparently o,K^n at one end. for in nearly eve y h.stanee the inn I 
head and skin are pushed out into the outer eoooon. 

SiHHiniens of the apple-fruit miner confined in a jar having a laver of 
moist earth at the botton.. and containing, also, loose phves of,, k in ariabh 

:xt ':z rr T:;.:t ^—^ "-^ ---"^ '-- ^- " « 

w.n^''%"'''"' "f ''"^ "'^"'^" '"'^*' '"^««»'-'nB %-i"oh across tl.e expanded 
irtblT ' "^ r^' ''''■''y^^'^y '« «>'o»r, mottled with darker pat JL 
A ong the inner margin, from the base to the middle of the wing is a bromi 
silvery band of white ending abruptly on the inner marL-in ft ,y, '"'"^ 
running i,ackwards at the outer ang.; of the band Th i; Zo^ Tl 
conspicuous, black patch, which, widest at the inner nmrgin runs dhlnallv 
backwards across the wing; next to this is an elongated trto^rwhe 
patch mottled with brown, having the base on the inner ma gin ohe;'g 
wlh . ""T !'"*'"*"' "'"' ''"■^^^ backwards towards the rip of tl e\ri Lf 
«Wch ternuna tes with an eye-like spot somewhat like a peacock's f'^^^r' 

^Trs ns T' "T "'""' "'' '""^"^ ^^'"«^ «" "-^-d -i 1> long Silk; ^/v 
hairs. a« also is the lower apical margin of the upper wings The fro^ita^ 
tuft and the thorax are of the same silvery-white as the broad ba. ds on Z 

tirtn:: n""'' "^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^'^^" *»>^ -'°^« «- closed and ;o„;u 

the thorax, form a continuous white dorsal stripe from the fron to "if iZ 

:s„rx TVi,:: s-r. *^r rr '?;= : i 






i •--, 



:1 ^F 



146 



i 



Japankse Fhiit-Borer (Larcrna hcrellera). 

An Item iiiuw-nml in a paiH'r i»ubll«h«J5l in Sacranu'iito. Cal.. in NovomlM^r 
10(»7, to the fflft'ct tlnit (J.OOO boxes of apples from Orcas Island had been con" 
dennied In San Francisco on account of being infected with bud niotli. and tli.u 
a quarantine had been declared against Britlsli Columbia fruit for tiie same 
reason. This absurd statement naturally called forth an inquiry from this 
Department as to what was really meant. Whereupon Mr. J. W. Jeffrey tlie 
State Commissioner for California, exi.lained that the api)les In (luestlon iiad 
bwn condennied by Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, on account of being infested with tlu- 
Japanese Fruit- Borer (Laicnm herellera). Mr. Jeffrey remarlcs furthermor*. 
" The ndstake as to the Identity of this Insect was not ours, and I hoiie you 
will give the facts to your people." 

Mr. Ehrhorn, who, Mr. Jeffrey says, is an entomologist of national reputa- 
tion, says: — 

" Your letter of Jainiary 9th, addresswl to Mr. J. \V. Jeffrey, State Com- 
missioner of Horticulture, Sacramento, Cal.. was sent to me, as in it you 
express a desire for specimens and a description of the i)est found in a ship- 
ment of apples from Orcas Island. I am sorry to say that I have no si)ecimens 
of the insect, which is the apple fruit-borer, Laverna herellera, and not the 
bud moth Tmctoccra occelana. as was report^ in the various papers. I dont 
know how your Province came to be mentioned, but sometimes reiwrters get 
things mixed. I have from the start said that the fruit came from Orcas 
Island and was shipped from Bellingham to San Francisco." 

Under the circumstances, it is considered best to publish the following 
descriptions of two Japanese insects taken from the I'. S. Year Book, 1807 :— 

" Of Japanese Insects we need mention at this time only two sjiecles 
These are the apple fruit-borer (Larerna herellera, Dup.) and the pear fruit- 
borer (Xephopterifx ruhrizonella. Rag.). Accounts of each have been sent us 
by Prof. .M. Matsumura. of the Agricultural C«.llege at Sapporo. Tlie figures 
which we introduce of these two insects are re-drawn from Prof. Matsumuras 
sketch€>s. 

Apple Friit-Borer (Larcrna herellera. Dtp.) 

" Is said to l)e the most troublesome insect with which the fruit-growers 
of Japan liave to contend. It is thought to have beer introduced into the 
c-ountry. and is now met witli there wherever api)les are grown. The larva- 
live only in the core of the apple, injuring the see«ls. They mature in almut a 
niontli. nmke a pas.sage through the flesh of the fruit, crawl or drop to tli<« 
ground or emerge from the fallen fruit, making wlilte cocoons in tlie earth 
and hibermiting in the pupa stage. It procluws only one br«KHl eadi sea.son. 

"On the day that these words were written. November ]lth. 1S07. parts 
of two apples were received from Mr. Craw, at San Francisco, whi.h a 
pa.sesenger on the steamoi from Jai.an had given liim. and whh-h showed 
evidence of the work of what is very probably this insect. No .siHHlmens of 
the in.sect itself were found, but the apples contained tlie larval burrows lead- 
ing to the core, and two of the s(hm1s had iKH'n eaten out. It is not likely that 
the passengers would have bought daniageil applc-s in Japan, and, therefore 



147 




1* 



, , . , (Fio. 47.) 

(") adult ; (6) sane, side view ; (c) larva ; (rf) cocoon ; (.) injured apple Ul sll.h.lv 

enlarged, except c. which 1. reduced. Ue-dra^^ from yLlTra ) ' ' 

it 18 probable that the Inrvte Issu .1 from the fruit on the Jonrnev so that It 

dS"uh":l"V!;'^ T" '' ^''"^ ''-'''''' ^^ particularly liable ;or;tr! 

a roothold in British Columbia. (Xot in British Columbla.-J. U. A.) 

"Pear Fbuit-Bober {yephoptcryx rttbrizoncUa, Rao.). 

Xf „. ' '^ ^^^ 'r^^'' ""^ *"'*' ^''^'^'^ '"' «^'»"«'' »»«hlts found in Japan Professor 
Matsumura states that pear-growers lose every vear from 30 to -o .17 T 
o^ their crops from this in.seot which is more troub^:!!?";'.' L^Z ^ 

^'^2:1 =.r^Zt::;t^r:r r;- ;;; £ 

lasts three w«^ks or more, and the pupal change is undergone vm n thi . 

Bilken coc<K.ns inside the fruit. The i„se<.t hibernates in tlu "1 sJa^l"- " 

On the matter being referretl to Dr. Fletcher, he wrote as follows •_ 

mntteJ nf ' H '*'"'' 1'"'' "* *''^ ^"' •^"""»'-'^' «"" "'» •»"'" interested in the 
matter of the apiiles which were condomn.«i Tf »i • ""«"" '» me 

fru.t-mlner. .l,w...s.//uV, o^.y^.c^^w , ^l, ,^:':;!;n: 7'! *'"-' ""l"^ 



I ' 






1 



n 



148 




M 



(Fio. 48.) 

Adult above, larva beneath; egg mass on twig at right; damaged pear with pupa at 

left. All natural size. (Be-drawn from Matsumura.) 

and In Canadian Entomologist, 1899, page 10. where you will see tliat ITof. 
Renter, in an article on an outbreak of tiie same insect in Finland, dissents, as 
I had done itreviously, from the opinion that our insect is the same as tlie 
Japanese Lavema hcreUcra." 

The report referred to by Dr. Fletcher, contains the following statement :— 
"An Interesting account of a Japanese insect (Lavema herellera, Dup.). 
which, if different, resembles In most respects the apple fruit-miner in a very 
remarkable manner, Is given with an excellent figure in Bulletin No. 10, new 
series. Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, by Prof. 
Matsumura, of Sapiwro, Japan. In a foot-note to this article. Dr. Howard hns 
suggested, from the resemblance of Prof. Matsumura s figure to bred specimens 
of the apple fruit-miner from British Columbia, which he was good enough to 
examine, the identity of the two insects. Although it is true the figure cited 
and the perfect moths of the ai.ple fruit-miner do agree closely, the habits of 
the larva?, as given by Prof. Matsumara (loc. cit.) and as described in niv 
annual report for 1S9<!, differ ujKJn what seem to be such Important characters 
that for the present I can hardly think that the two attacks are by the same 
si)ecles. The writer of the article referred to says that the larvre live onlv 
in apple cores, injuring the seeds, that there is usually only one egg deposited 
on each apple, and that the cocoons are made In the earth whenever possible. 



149 



" The British Cohiniblnn Inm-t vpry rarely nttiuks the cores ami seeds of 
the fruit. There are usually several, two, three or more, larvie In each apple, 
and the cocoons are made beneath flakes of the bark on the trees or beneatli 
leaves or rubbish on the surfai-e of the ground." 



1^ 
f 



CHAPTER XI.— BORERS. 



KoLND IIkadad ISobeb (Sai)vnlu laiiilida). 








(Kio. 49.) 
(o) and (b) larva; (c> beetle; (d) pupa. Enlarged. 

The cffffn are deposited about June, near the base of the trunk of the apple 
tree. The larra eats Its way through the outer bark to the Inner, and takes 
about three years to develop. It works In the sapwood. where It forms flat, 
shallow cavities, filled with sawdust-like castings. These are often seen on 
the bark, and indicate where the " Iwrer " Is at work. As it reaches maturity. 
It cuts a passage upwards Into the solid w<kh1 and then curves towards the 
bark. In this channel It enters the pupa stage, about spring. When fully 
developed it is an inch long, with a round head that distinguishes !t from the 
flat-headed borer, which also affects the apple tree. 

The imago is a slender beetle, one inch long, with two broad, wliltlsh 
stripes on the wing covtrs, and long Jointed antennte. It appears about 
June. 

RcHudv-— name as that for the following : 



150 



Flai-IIkadad Boheb (Vhnmbothris femnrata, Fab.). 



1 
I 




(a) larva; (6)b«K.tle; (o'Jead oJinale ; (rf, pupa. Enlargod. 

flnal y bores Into the solid wood, and becomes a pupa for about two l.u 
aud ,m,l,.r'8ld„ „, ,„» body preseut a a,„pery l,„trr '"*""'■ ^"^ "^ 
a..d ,„e ,„n. .,„ed, «. ,„„«, J'L rrea". fj^ZZLl ^^ '" 

=.:n;£Sr1^35 n^ 'r — - 

bru.sh to rub it lu^OntaHo 2tn:o:Pel^''' '' ""'"''' "" '"' ''''"''''''■ 
Pkach Tbke-Borer {Hanninoidca cxitiosa) 



151 

UHually Ju8t nt the Hurfat-e of the w>ll. A fe^v ilayn after Uh ch-o..!. in made 
the b«rer ihaiiRes to a pupa, in whlt-h Htage It remains f..r alx.ut three weekn' 
From the pupa, the moth emerxeM. thus coinpletinK its llfo cvile in a year 
fully ten montlis of whicli are usuuliy siK'nt as a U>rer in tliJ tree 




(Fio. 51.) 
(a) female; (5) male; (o) larva; (rf, e) female and male pups of cocoon. 

The dates at which they hll)ernate and hatch out wlli varv with the 
Uxallty and climatic conditions. 

AVhen fully ktowu the lame or •■ borers " are aliout an inch in lenirth. of 
a light yellow colour. 

California Peach Tree-Bobeb (Saiwania Paclflca, Riley). 

nescription.-Fenwle differs from the Eastern species, in not having any 
yellow markings ui)on the abdomen. The head and eyes are Jet black • thorax 
and abdomen are bluish-black, with slight bronze tint: «Jges of abdominal 
segment^s are marked with light blue; forewlngs are black, opaque. an,l in 
certain lights have a beautiful greenish lustre, tips are fring,Hl; iK>sterlor wings 
transparent, with six black veins, narrow margin of black, and lower «lge 
with purple fringe; anteiniae and legs black. 

Male.-Uead, eyes, thorax, and abdomen bluish-black; forewlngs trans- 
it rent, with a black blotch across the veins; extremity of wing black, with 
purple fringe: posterior wings transparent, with narrow black border; lower 
edge of wing furnished with purple fringe. Antennre black, an,I up<,n inner 
etlge are two rows of very minute hairs: legs black, with light .vellow hairs at 
the jomts between the fenu.r and tarsus. Expanse of wings one and one- 
quarter inch. 

}fabit.~The female moth deposits her eggs on the bark, genernllv near 
the surface of the gi-ound. The larva^. .s,K)n after hutched, burrow into the 
bark and work downwards, and as they increase in size penetrate deeper 
devouring the inner bark an<i snpwoo.l. causing the tree to exude gum This 
species has more of a tendency to w<.rk verti.ally. still where the Imrers are 
present In numl>ers the death of the treo Is certain. I have recentiv examined 
apricot and peach trees where the entire l,.-,rk around the "cilar was 
destroyetl by this siiecles. 



hoi j 

■■'4 



152 

grown n[.plo-w«rn. (Carporapm pomomUa) ; hen.l dark brmvn fll . . . 
KeK„.entH are ..arker than t..e ...a.u.; .t .L Jx'Jr ^«^r hor n^ l ;: 
fli'Hhy or nu.„,braiu.ouH .....h; very few nhort hairs n.K.n the IkmU 

I iifT , ■ *'••"«»'•"••* " impa case with their enHtiuKs and „...» I,, 
< allfornla they reach thin Hta^e „f their exlntenc^ |„ Arrll. Mav a^ Inn 
mnain ,.« „ thi. oondltlo,. three <.r four w..kH. The „u.« Is b o ,. ', 1 Z" 
alH.ut to change to the moth It foreeH Itself throuKh the end ..f ti 
from which the moth afterwards Issues. "'"' '■"*"'"• 

How to Find Them. 

Peach-Krowers should make a careful examliiatl.a. of their tre«.s In the 
Hprln«. by ren.ovl„K the soil a few iuches de. . arouud the t mk T.n, 
s en., and If any part shows an excess of n.ol.n.re or Rum It Is ure in 11 
tion of the presence of borers, unless the tren.. has been in in ml in c m . 
(•arefully remove the bark on the susj^-tecl part, ami . ^he . 1 ^l ,:^^ 
the burrow until the larva Is found. Hut water has b^n^n re..n mem « ly 
Home, and others use a thin, flexible wire, with which they probe tl vTun • 
but the most certain an.l satisfactory way is V,e knife, if er the borT as 
IHH.„ found and destroyc.l. cover the part with n.oist soil ; or. where the njnr« 
surface is large and the sapwocxl cut away, allow the wock^ to dry anc . ^ 

wm r %: '"'"''■ ^"""= ""^'•-"'■d« -ver with clean sand. Th s t ^.t ' n 
Will keep the wood sound and healthy until the bark again c-overs the part 

Preventive Measures. 

Nearly all our warfare against Insect pests has been carried on after 
they attack the tree, but with this .e we have the n.eans of^re ^„tl.^g to a 
great extent, any very serious damage. They prefer the moist cL> bTrk nea 

he surface of the ground, and as this Is the most vital part of the trel It cm 
be so protected that It will be ImiH>ssible for the moth to reach It ile c^^ 
sj^tem of banking the soil against the tree to the height of eight or t wehe 

nches has been tound of great benefit In preventing the borer from reaclUng 

a. .!?• , 'T "'' '""""'"^ '" ^^*«y-l-f«r« the moths deposit their e^s 
-and kept In position until winter. This will not prevent their attacks but 
when the soil is removed they can be reached to itter advantage in o^r 
dry c imate the placing of a small conical bank of soil ..gainst the trunk h s 
no injurious eiTec-t. provided It be removal before heav/ winter ral." il 
rc.s can the., be exa.nlned. and the borers destroyed before they devdop - 
Cat, forma State Board of HortleuUure, Bulletin Xo. 58. 

Westkrn Stbawbebbv Cbown-Boreb (Tuloderma foreolatum). 

and lo1'.ri!nT *' ^r"''''"'P' '"""*'• """'^ ^"""^ «•«' '^"•'^ «^« destructive, 
and so far have not i.roved a.ne.mble to imlsons. Changing the location c.f 
s rawberry beds Infested with tl.is pest Is re«,mmended. being oarefu to ge 

beds should be dug up and burned as soon as the fruiting season Is over. 



153 



Bbosze Appu: Tbke-Hohkr {Maatlulh .Vncnccnn). 
The parent Inn-tleH nre notlve durlnK tlie warn, days lu l«te Mav an<l I.n.e 
pren^r „. he Hunny «,.,e of „pp,. treen; the .^,. tnnn whi h lede »„'""; 
.J h "r ^'"*^''"*' '" IH-rforath.uH n.ade In the b.rk. ,,rte„ w^i- » 

vlth Hpa«.« iH-tween each jK-rforatlon; scanethnen Im.lly Infented mV v Ili 
imve their trunkH and mah. hranchen aln.ost cc.ver.d w 7 HuL "r.., 

nrkh.KH. The young larv.e Ho<a. hatch out. an,l conunen.e to fZ u a e 
bark and Hap wood, seriously affecting the vitality of Infested tr.Hs 
„„ /'''" 'J*'''^""^« "'P««ure8 rcH-onnnended for the larger l.^rers a*r.. effective 
agaluHt these pests, but usually two applications are m.ulred ,a e , u.t ^. ' * 
han the n.lddle of May. the other ,n two or thrc. weeks' In cs or u, .t ^ 
beetles are apt to esc-ape and continue their s,h.c1..s 

Where young trees are slightly Infested with larv.e thev should he over 
haulecl h. the spring, the larva- cut out with a sharp knife, a^ h' sten s 
bound up or eovered with plcnes of sacking, when the' Injnrv wU .lr„.H u 
repaired. It Is usually observed that trcts In u u„ 1 Iftv '';,1""'^'-^' 
imrtlcularly subject to attack, and. In ^7 -a^l c^a " Zdd be" ^' ".''" 
ara..^ cuUlvation and manuring, to Induce a '.^.^TZZ ^^h "Z 

Black GoosKnEBKY Bobeb (XyUmius Agassizll, Sec.) 




r^^ 


/ 


-.r ■ %' 


^ 








(V e 

(Fio. 52.) 
This is a very uncommon pest, and was found In this Province in voung 
g.x,seberry bushes im,K,rted fron. Oregon. So far as observed, o .e lir^or 

XTc^irthV: '"? *"''^^"^ ''""*• ''''' ^"'•^^ "-"">• starts in fern a 
rotch n the branches, and works downward. api>arentlv wintering in the 
roots, then working upward in much the same way as tke Kaspi^rrv O ne 
Borer, pupating in a chamber hollowed out in the stem son.e 1 cTic^ above 
he ground. The male iK^tle is about % Inch and the female abca t M. in^h 
in length. They are of a deep, dull black colour. 

The illustrations given convey a good idea of the inserts, and their manner 
of working In the stems of tlie plants. manner 

All of the infested plant., were destroyed in the Instance mentioned and 
in th^TrXcJ. ''""" •" ''"°""' *" '•"" "'^ '^'' '« ^«-^ -'^-'^-e "'- 






154 




Fij?. r.3. — Thi> lilnck (^oosobori-.v-horcr : 
Infested stem reduced one-tlilrd. 



(Fig. 3:!.) 




Larva In stem — sllKlitly enlari^d 



155 



IMPOBTKU CiBRANT BoHKB {.K(,rrhi tlpuUfurmi^). 






I' ' ' 

I ■ t 



■ I 



* ■ ' ^-4 


■". ' ' • ^ 


• ^f. 


,- . *. 










rtfc 


lie 

yt 



2 (Fio. r.4.) 

(1) ^rub; (2) pupa, both onlarBed; (.t) perfect ln«ect. natural ,Uo. 
n the luJurlouH Htage of Its existence this Insett Is a small whitish 

<l lH,sitMl slnglj cm the young stems near the buds, early in sunun.T l.v a 
.lea -winged wasp-Uke «>„th. with a bluish-black bodv" an I u^ ve .Iw 

:;:, r : rzx-ci ^^„- - ^' -— ;;;;- — 

only one br.Kid has becMi noticed In the year. 

All dc>ad and weak sh,H>ts of infVstc^d Imshes should l>e out off and burnt 
St as scK>n as leafing out shows where ,he attack is located, and o " wed 

Anoth.r i.re^enti e nu-a.sure which has been found effective Is to 8„rinkle 
the bushes and the ground adjacent with a ndxture of air-slaked lime a^l 






-. I 



166 



rnrlM.llc n«l«l. nt tho tliiu* wiii'n tin- pnn-nt iimth Im active. uMiialty tilHMit ili. 
tuidtllf uf May t«i tli«« nrnt w«H'k hi Juiu', varying H«.iiM'What witli thi- liM-alltv 
One plat of «arlK>ll<- a<l<l to a biwlu'i of lliue. 

ItANPIIKRRY CANK BoHKR (OfcfTrrt UmavulttUt), 
llio mliilt of thlM Jiimnt Ih a Hl<Mi(U>rlMMll«><l black IxH'tle. with a yfl!.,u 
c-ollar JUKt liehiiid tin- li«-a<I. It apiKMirn oarly hi Muninu.r. uHually <lmih- 
June, and dc-jioHltH e»rUH In the (tm-n eaneH of raHpberrleti and hiarkherilis" 
The pHK-c^HH of oviiNiNition IH iKHiillar. The bwtle niakeH two tranMverw n.un 
of punetcreH, alwut half an inch apart. In the mne; towardH the tip im.l 
midway betw^-n thew Hhe deinmlts the e^K. The rowa of puneturen niak.' ni> 
a kind of jrlrdilnK. whkh cauHeH the tip of the* cane to wither. A Hhort tln.c 
after the egu Ih deinmlte*! It hatches Into a Hniall cylindrical larva, that N.r.x 
downwardH thronKh the pith. By autunni they have frwpiently reatlu-d tli- 
N.ttoni of tlie cane, where they chanjce to j.u|«e. and the followlnj,' Jim.- 
emerge again an IwH'tleH. The larva Ih f«)otle!*8. 

8«M)n after the cancM are puncturnl by the beetle they wilt; conHe.pi»ntly. 
If they are exanilntnl aUmt mhlHununer. affeitecl canea can easily he dlN- 
tlngnlaheil. and they ahould then l»e cut off b«Mow the lower ring of lanutuns 
and burne«l. If the Injury Ih notlcwl later, the whole uine should be pulled 
up and destrciyed, to be sure to get the la^va. 

ItASPiiKRRY Root Borer (Rcnihtcta maiglmila). 





a. i 

(Fio. 55.) (F„, 58 ) 

It Is quite distinct from the cane-borer, having in the larval state sixt.cn 

legs, six of which are fully develope<l, the others not being very well d.ti I. 

The parent moth Is cK ar-wlngetl. with a black body, prettily baud.d nii.l 
marked with yellow. The eggs are deposited In July on the leaves of the 
raspberry, and the young larvse, when hatched, find their way to the canes 
and feed upon the pith In the Interior, gradually working down to the ro..t 
where they winter. In the following spring they work ui) again, usually 
through a fresh cane, to a height of six Inches or more above ground, and ear 
the cane nearly through, In iireparatlon for the exit of the future motli. 
Within the cane and near this prepare<l siwt the change to chrysalides takes 
plac-e. and these, when the time approaches for the moth to escaiie, burst 
through the outer skin of the canes, and the moths sfjon take their flight and 
commence to lay their eggs, as previously stated. 

Little can be done towards the destruction of this pest, other than 
destroying the Infested roots as soon as they are noticed. The application ..t 
boiling water to Infested roots Is advised by a Callforulan writer, but applica!..!" 
only to very limited areas. 



157 



CHAPTER XII.-INSECTS ATTACKING RO*" . 



Wkntkbx Tkn-Li.nki Ji'xk Hi,, (l'oliii,hi,lla ilvrrmlhicala). 
Tho larva of thl*. InwHt. whl«n |h a largo whito Krwh. In a bad i^^t on 
many plantM. aiiuaiirst whj.h an- KfrawlH.rrl.*. In Un larval hUw It attacks 
tlK. ru,tH »f plai.tH. wry wnm killing thoiu. by Htrlpplng off tlit- bark fn.i,, 
w.HMiy plai.tH and l.ltInK off the r.H,t l^'Unv tlw .ruwn of «rawberrleH and 
KiHh plantH. 

IhncrlittUtn. 

The i)erf»Ht bwtlf. like Hh prototyiH-, the May lUig or June or I)..r Itnx 
of the KaHt (Laih,w»t,n,a fiiHca. Frohl). haH a dlHagreeable habit of con.l.m 
through oiKMi wlndowH and buzzing alxiiit, kn.KkIng then.Helv..H against walls 
and c'lllngH. and wanetUneH agalnnt oneH faee. whUh It 8trlk.m with «<.n. 
Hlderable for.*. The IxH-tle In alwut one Inth and a cpiarter long, with a 
thick round b«Kly. half an Inch or more in diameter, of a light bn.wn c.lour 
with eight white longitudinal Htrlin-H ruiuilng the whole length of the wing 
<-over8. and two short ones; the breast Is covered with a brownish down an.l 
the abtlomen has three transverse stripes. The larva is about two inches 
long, with a thick body and brown head. 

As in the case of the Black Vine Weevil, a frequent change of the be<l8 is 
to be recommended as being the most ettlcaclous renmly. It also resembles 
the last-name,! insect in its injurlons habit, both in tlie larval and in-rfw-t 
stages. Naturally, on acc-ount of the nocturnal feetling habit of the beetle 
and the underground habits of the larva, it Is a difficult Insect to control 
Iteferring to the June Bug. Saunders says :— 

" It is very difficult to reach the larvie undergroinul with any remedy 
other than digging for them and destroying them. Hogs are very fond of 
them. and. when turne<l Into i)lace8 where the grubs are abundant.' will nmt 
up the ground and devour them in innnense .luantities. They are likewise 
eaten by domestic fowls and insectivorous birds; crows especially are so 
imrtlal to them that they will often be seen f^illowlng the plough, "so as to 
pick out these choice morsels from the freshly-turned furrow." 

White Gbibs (Lachnostcnia f'mca. Froh.) 
.4«flcA-.— White Grubs are the larva? of the May Beetles or .Tune Bugs 
so calletl from their great abundance in May and June, wl . they may l)e' 
found in large numbers flying around trees and bushes, shov.lng particular 
preference for certain kinds, as willows, oaks, ashes, i.lums. maples and 
lilacs. The eggs are dei>o8ite<l In the ground, one to three Inches Inflow the 
surfatT. and hatch in from ten to eighteen days. The iarvje feecl on roots 
<lurlng the remainder of the season and burrow very deeply into the ground 



158 

ns winter ni.proi.clios. roturnliiK npUn tlio followliiK sprinR and .IoIi.k a L'lv-.r 
(h-nl of hnrn. by vnUuti tl.o r.H.ts ..f Kras«.s and n.any otlior kindH of i.Ianis 
imrtl.nlarly corn and i«tat<K.K. their injuries iH-inj: must noticeable in th.^ 




May Ukkti.i:. (FIr. r>T. » 
(</) iK'otlo: (6) pupa: (r> InrvH (whlto Kmb.. Sllghtlv enlareiHl 
iChiltrmlen null. 19, V. «. IHv. o/ Ktit., U. H. Dept. Ai,r.) 

WH-ond year after 8o«l has iM^n pIoubIhhI down. It is claimed by Dr. S V 
FtirlK-H tliat a s«H<.nd winter and sununer Is passtnl as a larva and that the 
Kmlis do not change to pupa- till June and July of the third aeas<.n the 
IK.rf.Ht iH'etles IssuIiim from the pupa- tw* or thnn. weeks afterwanls hut 
passing the .hird winter in the pupal cells and enierRing the folh)wlnK Jnn.. 
Thus three full years are eonsuin.Kl from the thne the eg«s are laid until 
the iK'rf«K't lH>etles apfiear. 

/^•wi(y/.V«.— l-nfortunately. there are no nu'asures which can U' (h'lM'n.l.d 
».p<.n for the destruction of White (Jrubs In most crops; but as the eg-s are 
laid mainly in grass lands, land which Ims Imh'u in s,h1 for several vears slmuhl 
not iH. plant.Ml to cc.rn or iM.tat.K's the «H-<.nd year after breaking. Tlie first 
y.-ar 11h> grass which Is plougluMl down, to a large measure. f.Hnls any grubs 
whi.li nniy Im- in the ground; and. as pigs are particularly fond of these gnibs 
II crop such as rape or turnips may Ik' sown with advantage and the Hel.l 
tUHMHl into a hog pasture, when the j.igs will not onlv fee«l <m the «rop but 
hunt out many of the grubs in the soil. It Is clalnuM that these animals 
will, in tile course of a few w.H'ks. completely clear a badlv lnfeste.1 tinf 
On account of the depth to whbh the grubs burrow lK.f<.re winter tl.es,. 
crops should be fe.l oflf before tlu. first frosts. Clover, it has Im'U p.r- 
tlcularly noticMl. Is sehlom nttacked by White (Jrubs; therefore, this ,n.|. 
iKM-omes of s|M..lal value for growing on land which it is Intend.'.l to use Cor 
corn or i^.tatm-s the following y.-.-.r. When, as is s.»methn.-s the case. Whit.. 
Cnibs appear In larg.' numbers In meadows, this fact Is manlfeste,! by Hi.- 
dying of flu- grass In large pat.lu's. If. „n examinathm. the grubs :,.••■ 
notlcHl. pigs shouhl be at onc»> turn.-«l In. an.l Is-fore autunm the i.atch.. 
renovated wifh fresh whmI. 

r.«'avlng land tinder grass f,.r wveral years gives opiM.rtunlties for White 
(Jrubs to in.rease; hen.e. a short rotation In wlilch ,-l<.v,.r follows gn.ss ..r N 
grown at shiut intervals, will prevent the Increase of tlu'se inwvjs. In this 
spcci.il rotiition .small gntlns should folU.w clover before corn or iM.iattn's. The 



159 



r«ll«Htl«n of the iK.rftnt UM'tlos l.y iH-athiR tm-s at i.iKlit time has mnwUmvH 
been i.riutlmHl witli ndvautaj:*.. ami a tl.K-k of iK.ultry fdlowluK a i.l.MiKh in 
infoHtwl tlHtlH. It Is chilimHl, lias done k<mm1 work. 

When May Kwth's attack frnit tr«.« ,„• are f-.nnd ahun.h.ntiv ,m otf.er 
tnn^. Hprayh.sr the foHa^e with nrsenl.al iK,is.nis will destroy lar«e numbers 
or. as they are mmh attraete,! l.y lights, the lu^.tles may Ih> kilhsl In lantern' 
traps by phulnR lanterns In large pans of water with <oal oil on the surfmv 

When White (;rui.s are fonnd d.-stroyiug lawns, some go,Ml mav 1m. done 
1..V spraying the grass fnvly with kerosene emulsion (Uenu.lv L'» and washing 
it In with water.— f7<7(/«r»-. " 

t)NiON MA«i()OT (Aiithomi/ia vt'imiHiii or rhnrhhi (■ciKiniiii). 
t'ABBAUE .Ma«i(iot {Aiit/ioiiii/hi bniMninr). 
Attack.— »inn\\ white nuiggots whieh lK»re Into the roots of radishes 
freshly set-out <abbages. and Into the bulbs of oni.ms. and sometimes als.i 
injure the roots of beans and Indian corn. 

The Cabbage or Radish Maggot, and the Onion Maggot, whh-h for all 
praetieal puriwses nmy be treatwl of here as the san.e s|HH-ies. cause grmt 
h«<s m crops of caulltlowers. early cabbages, turnips, radishes and <.nions 
almost every season. ' 

The maggots which are fcnmd attacking cabb.-.ges. radishes, cauliflowers 
and turnips, and those in onions, and in In'ans and corn, are very sindlar 
but they belong ti» three dlffere .pe<-ies, Phorltia braxsUa: BouchC' attacKing 
l.lants of the cabbage variety, Hiorhia ccparum, Meig.. infesting onions and 
I'horbia fimircpH, Zett. injuring Ijeans and < in. 

Corn sown during a wid, wet iH-riml. by which gerndnation is unduly 
delaye<l. is very liable to Ik^ attacke.1 by Uie Corn-seed Maggot (/•. fHsrirrpM) 
In such caws It Is well to wait for warm weather to re-sow and tlien push on 
the crop witli a light dressing of nitrate of s.Hla, 2(J() lbs, to the acre. 

The i)erfect filths (.f all these nniggot^s are very similar to the ordinary 
observer and may be descriluHl as slender flies, somewhat smaller than the 
ordinary liouse fly. which fly ab«.ut close to the ground an,l lav their white 
eggs on the stems of the young |.lants. Here, after a few davs, tin- maggots 
hatch and work their v.ay d«.wn InMieath the soil, wliere thev lie ch.s.. to tlie 
i-oot or burrow Into It. tearing the tissues with their hook-like mandibles and 
living ,Mi the sap. thus so.m riHludng tlie r.H.t or stem to a i-otten mass. 
When full grown, these maggots turn to r..ldish brown pni.arla in the soil 
.•l..se t(» the roots. The exact numln-r of bnM>ds of these maggots which may 
IH' found In a sea.son sinnus t<. l)e rather c*)mpllcattHl by the overlapping of 
brcMMls. and the delay in issuing of some individuals of each broo.l : l.nt 
practically it may 1h' said that cabbage and radish maggots do l.y far the 
greatest amount of harm during the month of .lune and early In .July, and 
in many years tlieir Injurlc-s are slight alter tlnit iH'riod. With onloiis the 
injury ccntlnues throughout the season and is most noticeable In .Time. AngtTSt 
and September. The injury to Imnius and Indian corn is only In spring, .ind 
as a rule, is c-ontin»Hl to plants which have bcM-n weakencMl by the secnls iK-ing 
plant.Nl t(M. (h^.ply or by late frcwts. However, in seasons of exc-essive 
.iliimdancc. cul.i.agc- and onion maggots may be found all tlirough the growing 
wason. and cabbages and cauliflowers are cHcasionally Injunsl in autumn by 
the maggots attacking tlie heads of the plants. 



i 

3 ! I 



160 






Remedies.— Vp to the present time It cnnuot be olnlmed that any i^rfwtlv 
efficacious remedy has been .Uscovered for root maggots. In certain years 
they seem to be so extremely abundant that even the beat remedies nierelv 
seem to prolong the lives of the plants, and only a very small proiK)rtlon of ", 
crop can l.e savetl. In ordinary years, however, nmch can be done to pr.)t.H t 
crops liable to attack, and the following are the remedies which ha\ • u'lven 
the best results : — 

For Onions.— White hellebore dusted along the rows once a week 
from the time the young plants appearetl above the ground gave coni'- 
luiratlvely clean onions, very few being attacked. Fresh gas lime broadca«.t»Ml 
over onion fields at the rate of two hundredweight to the acre had a similar 
effect; but, when the caustic lime came in contact with the young onions 
they were burnt out. A light dressing between the rows of onions of tlu'- 
same material gave almost as good results as where it was distributed over 
the whole field. Wlien onions have begun to form their bulbs, the earth may 
be hoed or brushed away right down to the roots, and in some years tli • 
maggots do not i)enetrate the bulbs. As soon as the earth is hoed away in 
garden practice, a dusting along the rows with white hellebore makes\hi. 
protection more complete. 

Dressings of salt, Paris green and plaster, and wood ashes have l)een 
found useless in protecting onions from the attacks of root maggots. 

For Cabbages.— (1.) Tarred Pai)er Disks.- Pieces of ordiuarv tarral 
paper three inches in diameter, with a silt running to Ine centre 'so as t.. 
allow of their being placed around the stems of young cabbages and cauli- 
flowers at the time of planting, and pressed down close to the ground, will 
prevent to a large measure the flit3 from laying their eggs on plants so 
protected, or will kill the young maggots. 

(2.) Insect Powder.— About half a tea-cupful of a decoction of 
pyrethrum insect iwwder (four ounces to a gallon of water), or of 
white hellebore of the same strength, iwuretl around the root ot ea4 plant 
after drawing away the earth, right down to the roots will destroy any 
maggots whkh may have started to work. The earth should be put ba.k 
again and the plants well hilled up, when new rootlets will soon be formed. 
A light sprinkling of nitrate of soda, or some special fertilizer, will ei.c irage a 
quick growth and much help the plants to overcome attack. Dressings of one 
oume to the square yard may be used for this purpose. Cabbage plants 
should be examined late in June to see if the maggots are at work. The 
earlier the treatnjent with Insect powder or white hellebore Is applied tlu- 
more effective it will be. If the mixture Is applied to the roots with a force 
pump, although more liquid is consumed, It has the advantage of dlslodgln;: 
many of the maggots so that their injuries cease at once. 

(3.) Cheese-cloth Inclosures.— A very effective and practical means <.f 
prwurlng early racUshes. cabbages and cauliflowers, perfectly free from ro..t 
maggots. Is by growing them beneath cheap frames made of light wo.m1 
covereil with cheese-cloth. A convenient size for small beds Is 8 feet long ' 
feet wide and 2 feet high. This frame can be made for about 25 cents, of (in.- 
and a half inch square wixhI, imitetl together at the corners, and with tL.- 



161 



cheese-cloth taok«l on the outside. In su.-h a frame five .auliflowers and 

fron the time the young plants came up until the radishes were pulknl 

nn.l V! r"'""' """^ «ufticiently advanced to require no further protmion 

and the frames were remove<l about the first of August 

For Itadlshes.-The maggot which attacks the radish Is the same s.^nleB 
as «ls,>..ttacks cabbages and turnips, the severity of attack on these dlCnt 

uT ^. I "'""' *" *'" "'••*" '" ^''''■'' '""^y «-•« "«'»»^. ^ that m years" f 
light attack ra,llshes will draw oCf Injury from the cabbages 

little Jgn of «.L"'^?rrr ''"""^ ''"'''' ""^ •" "^^^^ '"^^""-« « "-•> «»>-•« 

1 tie sign of this attack In autumn, even In seasons when the maggots may 
ha^e been found In considerable numbers In the spring 

(1.) The Cook carbolic wash, consisting of one quart of s<jft soan 
or one ,K>u„d of hard soap, in a gallon of water, with half a pint o < n de 
c;arbo ic add added, and the whole boiled together for a few minute . t, n ake 
radlsTn^ -"f 'o"; has proved over and over again an excellent rem^d for 
rad sh maggots. The stock emulsion can be kept In a closed vessel so that 
dust and rubbish will not fall Into It, and. when required for use'^; ^art o 

directly u,K,n the growing plants from the time they ap,K>ar above the ground 
once a week until ready for the table. ground, 

th. tit^ r^"*" hellebore, dusted along the rows of radishes once a week from 

Frm tw •''•^'""'•."'^^•^ t'^^ «'--"«l- han given good results in most Mr^ 

from two years- experience with the cheese-cloth overlngs I ha've To 

hesitation in re<x,mnH.„dlng these to amateur gardeners, however snaUthe"" 

gardens may be, as a sure means of obtaining perfec- ly dean' as well as 

St cr ""' """'^"•^" ""' '''' '''-' "-' ^-»*>- "* « ..n;;::;-.;^ 

o,uJ''l^^''"\ """* Corn.-Injury to these crops In Canada Is a rare occ-ur- 
onc-e. The only remedy which can be suggested Is to sow these cT-rTn 

WiBK- Worms (Larvw of Click-Bccths. Elataida). 







(FiQ. 58.) 



Wlreworm, (7. 8, 9); pupa (10). nnlai^rcl/ck beetle, (5). natural size- (-> 3 «» 

enlarged. — Curtit. "uiurai sixe , u, J, 6) 



ml 



162 



-t'''«fr.-Sleu,ler. cylln.lrln.I. yellowish or mWlsh-brown. touRh and 
Hh,.lng «rubH With flattentl ho«..s and darlc Jaws. These grubs ha'^ o, ' 
thn.. pairs of legs on the th»>e segments following the head and a s^ . 
Hhort. s„oker-l.ke foot ,n the ndd.lle of the last segnfent. ben^lTth Wln-n 
grown they are about an Inch lon^- and only about M2 of an .„ch w 1 w 
these wii, be found many spcvhnens in spring of about j"st ha f t o'sixo 
he larger ones. WinMvorn.s oc-cnr n.ost frequently in low groun.l Z ta k 
he roots of almost all plants, but particularly young wheat and corn j t .t 
t Is ,^nlng up. They also bore into the tubers of ,K.tatoes in autumn Ths 
.jury is most frequent on land which has bm. for several years H^id „!. 
the attack is most severe in the second season after the sod ^1:^^ X^J!^ 

Wlre-M^,rms are the grubs of a large family of b^n^tles ki^wn as click- 
bee es. easl y r«.g,Uzed by their power of snapping their neck, wit la HMc 
« th such force as to spring up into the air if they fall on thei ba k 
Ihese beetles are many of them dark-brown in colour, of an elongate o',l' 
form, obout three times as long as broad, and tapering to the end^f 1^ b^u 
The eggs are laid In sumn.er about the roots of grasses and wtnlVmu^t le* 
larvre of most sfKK-ies take two years to «,me to fu'I growth. They ;hange to 
inu«e inside cells In the ground in July, and to perfect beetles ab^t thr ^ 
weeks later. In August. Most of tl.ese beetles, like the May Bec"^ rema ^ 
lu their pupal cells until the following spring before emerging 

«c,ucrf,c«.-Agricultural methods are the only ones that 'have been of 
much avail. The wlre-wonns which are Injurious to the farmer are prrUci, 
any those which feed on the roots of grasses. When sod is ploughed do v 

nd trrtr'^^ho: Tl/r '•^/^^ ''- ™^^* '^'^ ^- the^decal^g g^lls 
ana its roots. Ihos^ hi their second year of growth change to beetles in the 

first .year, and do little harm, as they have had plenty of food in tl^e decay g 
HCHl without attacking the crop; but the young larv., which were onlTha It- 
grown When the sod was broken, attack the crop of the followl g yea 

that bar ey and rye are less attacked than any others of the small grains an 

bene ruiti?" ""'%'°J"'--'- ''^^ ^^^y maturing grains are therefo" 
better suite.1 as a crop for the second season after sod. because the land can 
be ploughed immediately after they are harvested. an«I thus the pup« and tl 
freshly formed and still soft beetles are dlsturbe<l in their pu,ml ceMs a 1 
many of them destroye<l. Clover may be sowed in spring with eltlL o 
the^ crops and either ploughed down with the stubble in Sej.tember or lef 
on the land un 11 the following autumn, when the land should be ploighnl a 

ZiVlandTs : fTr''-''^ "^^- '^^ fl-t cutting. A short ^ol^^i:^ ^ 
>U.ich land is not left In grass for more than two years, will, to a large 
easure. prevent the ravages of wire-worms. Prof. S. A. Forbes rmmmeS 
ploughing down sod In autumn and sowing to fall wheat or rve. with Iver 
on these in the spring, the clover to be left for two years and then ol ow m 

of wTw' rr- fT/"""""^ '^"^•^ ^'*«'"^ «-* ^-""« •" ciearh:^ ,:::, 

the land "tTh^'^ Ploughing. twice in the san.e autumn, the first time In August. 
Septeml^r "'""'"^ " '*'""'' ""'''' «"^ ^'^^^ cross-ploughed In 



163 



Extensive exiH^rlnifntH uin.le by Prof. i\,rbe8. In iniuols, nn,l Prof. Sllngoi- 
land, in New York, sliowed the UHelesHnesH of many re<-oinniendtHl ren.e,lle8. 
Huch as c-oatlng seed grain of all kinds with inAmu, the snrfa.e ai.plkatlon of 
salt and other chemicals, and even of a clean fallow to sUirve the wire-wonns 
out. — H etcher. 

Ex,H.rln.e«ts conducted by Prof. M. V. SUngerland. of Cornell University 
give the results of efforts to discover a practicable method of preventing the 
ravages of these pests, and a study of the life history of several c.,muion 
species, m Bulletin No. 107. He says: "Both defensive and offensive measured 
were usecl In our ex,K^rlments. Thus we tried to protcH^t seed from the 
ravages of the wire-worn.s. and we also tried to destroy the InscKts In each 
of three different stages of their exlstence-as wire-worm or larva, pnpa. ,ind 
adult: no eggs were obtalmnl uiK.n which to exiK^rlment." The general results 
are succinctly as follows: That It is not practicable to protect seed by the use 
of the various ,K>l8ons and other means. That starvation by the growth of 
supposed luimune crops, such as buckwheat, mustard and ra,K.. was not 
successlul. That destruction by means of Insecticides, such as kerosene, crude 
petroleum, poisoned dough and bisulphide of carbon, were useless against 
wire-worms. That substances that also act as fertilizers, such as salt 
kalnlt. muriate of potash, lime, chloride of lime and gas lime, to be effective' 
had to be used in such quantities that plants were destroyed, and the exi^^nsJ 
too great for practical pur,M,«es. Of starvation by clean fallow, he s,iys- 
It has been the general belief that the wire-worms which Infest our fields 
c^uld live but a short time In soil in which no vegetation was ullowc.1 to 
eTo^^• No experiments were recorded, however, to show how long the worms 
could live in such soil. ""luis 

" We kept several experiment cages in ' dean fallow ' for nearly a year 
and more wlr^worms remained alive (many of them passed through thci 
transformations to the beetle stage) in these cages than in similar cages in 
wh ch grass was kept growing. Therefore, we would not advise the farmer 
to lose the use of his land for a season and the labour nec-essary to kcn^p It 
free from all vegetation, in the hope that he may thus starve out the wire- 

Trapping. 

"Our experiments on i.reventlng the ravages of wircMvorms l,v trapping 
were carrleci <>„ i„ ISSS and 1889. Two n.ethods were en.ploycMl. tmppi ,g by 
baits, and by lanterns. i ^ . u i inj, uy 

"On trappinff h„ &«,7«.-Thi8 u.ethcKl has Imm discussed in detail in 
Bulietins 3 anc 33 of this Station, so that only the general results will b^ 
given here The baits, which consisted of sliced ,K)tatoes. wads of green 
clover, and sweetened and unsweetened crnmeal dough, were placed under 
boards in various parts of a badly Infested corn field. Instead of attracting 
he wire-worms, as was ex,Hxted. their parents-the dick btvtles^ame to 
thebalts l„ large numbers; the clover attracted fay far the larger number 
— uo per c?ent. 

" It was found that the beetles were the most active at night, and that 
they seek their food chiefly by running over the surface of the fround 



r '11 
r- - 11 



164 



Falsk Wire- Worms (lulus). 

One species of this Insect has been troublesome In the vicinity of Vlctorin 

doing considerable Injury to ,>otatoes, which It enters In larg^ nulers c^n' 

suming the Interior and forming a disagreeable. IH-smoIllng r^sr^thatU ' 

tuber 18 rendered valueless. The particular variety alludefl to s n^lte sLll. 

iTlr^ T '";'/"'"• '*"'' ''' ' «'-«'^'«»^ -'-- ^^umberfof a large vaHe i 
are to be found In damp wockIs during the summer feeding on rtl , 

vegetable matter. This species Is about an Inch and a ha Mon? ."arrblae'Jf 

«.th^yenc,w bands. The following description of the genul 'S^^jr/en 

"Several worm-like creatures found in the soil are popularly c«lle.l 

rn'^:^he's • jrXh ;:^dT;x:a\rsx^ eV-r m^i 

common representatives of these belong to tl.; genmZuT Thev u^ 
worm-lIUe bodies, made up of numerous horny dl^isi:". m^st of which b^ '^ 

brcj;r l^Z'r^ ""'•^ "'•^ *"^ ^^^'-^ '->-« -^ ^^e head. They are of . 
blackish or dark-brown colour, and when disturbed, coll themsehes h,t„ „ 
ring. They undergo no metamorphosis like the propeT ns^tT frn™ h, . 
they are also distinguished by their numero^f le'i^'^O^ ^Tp^.^ are frlm 
an inch to an inch and a half long, but in tropicaT countrlesX^ reach six 

n tteTl^t :iL\ft7m? f™ '^ "^"" '"^'^ vegetableTn^rim 
matter, but some of them feed upon the roots of living plants One of thr. 

argest species (lulus nnatistriatus, Walsh.) has been foum "rs^me Toc„ ,t es 

destructive to strawberry plants, carnations, and especial ytrilTybuis 

Potatoes have also been much injured by smaller species Trans in he flrn." 

o, potatoes. „s ,uent.oned under wire-worms, would Jo serM e or s'L"" 

apples, carrots, potatoes, or parsnips, placed u|K>n the becis lud «>ver ji 'vi 

pieces of board, will catch many of these millipedes.- 

The trap mentioned is as follows :— 

"In England, previous to planting the iwtato crop potatoes with n 
stick thrust into them to mark the place, are burled here anT^rre to serve 

e^nS'oftirder;^:^ " """"^' -^ -- — -- -^ -- 



166 



CHAPTER XIII.— WEEVILS. 



■if**': 



Br-ACK Vine Wkkvil {Otiorhumliii^ .siiUiitns, Fab.) 

This beetle Is prolml.ly the most <lestrmtive h,s.H-t ,«^t. .K.th In Its larval 
and per Mt stages, on strawberries, that we have lu H.-itish («ol„, .1 , r, 
nnunre insect is brownish-blaek. about half an m.-h in length, w It h'e lo « 
nout ..haraeterlstie of all weevils. The larva is „ sn.all thite « „ w "' 

Isputo, of I-niit l.,.s,s. reronnnends bnrninK off the tops of the plants after 
the rop has b.H.n gathered; this has the effec-t of dest roving the beete^ 
whieh Shelter themselves anu.ngst the leaves, and whic-h thev also 1 1 a.^ 
.?s ve Ts 7 "'f ;7"« -">' — 'ly -hleh c.„ ,>o s„g«este.l for this "e le! 
nf;,l,.^, '""-'"' '**'«^^»«"-'-'^'« «■' >'-«• gronnd. and fnH.nent renewj 
of the betls. the worst h.jurh^ iH^ing done to old plants." Mr. AV T Ma o" 
the n,,rth-« tnrist of the Central Experin.ental Farn.. consUhl the ^ I e 
crop metlKKl of growing strawberries the one whi<-h pays best, the fruit I i' g 
finer and the land being kept clean n.ueh more easily. Son.e varieties\v^d ' 
do not make runners frei'ly might Ihj left for two years. 

SxBAWBiaBY Weevil (Aiitlionomua sionatm. Say.) 




Ms/f 




(Fig. 38a.) 
The habits of the strawberry weevil are Interesting. It passes the winter 
in the n.nure beetle form. an.i. just before the flowers of the .s^wl^rry 
unfohl, the insects tiy to the strawlK.Ty beds and nn,y he fo „,d h S 
numbers u,K,n the tiowering sten.s. When the fe.nale lavs her eggs Ihe 
punc ures .. closed bud. for which purin^se she generally choos.>s the ^.rliert 
and largest. This is done with her sharp and slen.ler beak, and the ho e 

It down into the hole. Having done this, she crawls to the stem of the flower 



4| 






! 



• % 



16G 

nnd srnawH Jt .u-Hrly throuRh. m that the bud lm,.«H down ami eventnallv 

pnsneH throuKh all of !t8 HtaR^H. the dead flower remaining Hoh„i „r,„„„, 
a. a protection. When the grub In fuH-Krown. It forn.H a brltT^e k Z o 
he dfbrlH. and m aU.ut a n.onth from the tln.e the egg Ik laid tl e Zf^I 
b.H.tle eatH Its way out. The new generation of beetl/n n,av n e.m 7,^ 
found at Ottawa in the latter half of July, and early In A^ugxiMt T ^re U 
only one br.KKl of thin iK^tle. an far an In known, and. an all the TTtkl 
dl.ap,K.ar nuddenly In the l^glnnlng of August. It In sup,K««l that t ^ t 
into hibernation at that time, hiding away beneath nnJ „r nmo g bu^h^ 
am ,H.rhapH n woods, where they remain In a lethargic c.,ndltlon unU U^ 
following spring. The varieties of strawberries chosen bv the l^^n" es f r 
egg-laying are always those which pro.luc. ,K>llen m considerable antlth^ 
and it is chiefly u,h,„ the pollen that the larva, feed. Varieties of s tr « 
berrh^ with entirely pistillate flowers are not attacked; cons«,«ently wh^n 
the strawberry weevil Is abundant, growers will do well to plan L, ate 
varieties as much as possible, and only enough plants of varle les vl ch rfr^ 
duee ,>erfect flowers (which have lK.th stan.ens and pistils) as ^-U „e 
the pro,x.r fertilisation of «.e fruit. The numbers will, to a large meal rl 
S ml "•■''''' '"■""' ""' "" ""•"''*'^ •*' "»-'- VnnlucJ.-rMZ:.: 
Pka Wkevil, 08 Pea Bio (Bruciius pisonm, Lin.v.) 




(Fio. 39.) 
Attack.-X small, brownish-graj-. very active beetle, one-fifth of an inch 
ong. with two conspicuous black s,H,ts on the end of the bodv. whicl. Z^ 
fron.sc,.d pease in aut.nnn or i., spring, leaving a small round hole. 

The ife history and habits of the pea weevil are well known. The c^.- is 
a: .n th.> outsi.lc of the younu ik>,1. and the grub, on hatching, eats its wav 
u ami penetrates the nearest pea. Here It re.nains until full-grown, ensu- 
ing the interior of the pea and passing through all its sta..s fron a • le 
fleshy grub to the pupa, an.l then to the perfec. beetle. As a rule, the bn- les 
do no under ordinary circumstances, leave the pease until these are sown 
he tol lowing spring. Son.e of the beetles, however, in certain seasons, es.-a pe 
fiom the pease. (Hvasionally as early as harvest time, or during autun n 
an. pass the winter hidden away under rubbish, or about barns am tier 
l."!I.li..g«. On reviving lu spring, they ,Iy to the fields of growing jk'sc 



167 



«ometln,e8 lon^ dlrtanoeH a«ny and for n time feed on the follape of the ,^n 
about the middle of AuguHt, and all. whether they winter outHlde the iM-aw- 

r tnth^jf T„;;;: ^•'^ -^-^ ''- -- -- «- -"-- -ea.«r:i:rd:.x 

Lo«» bi, .e>,r/«f, irrrr///rd /Vfl,r._That Heed inniHe wln.h have been bor«l 
hy weevi « „ re very aerlously Injured. I have „rov«l by actual exJr „u^, tn 

L^!' L?"^ "''" "" ^'""''" ''•"" "'«"*" '^""^ '--feet Jh.1. Lur«e ,^;^ 
gave a be ter ,>eree„ta«e of from 10 to I'M jn-r cent. Therefore vc^-^M 
jeane should not be uned for seed If any other HtcK-k Is obtainable. If howe e? 
this Is lm,K.s8lble. much more see<l should be sown to the aerC. 

Rcmedten. 

-'nr^H""!f ""!"'•"*'""'*''""" '^"'^ bisulphide of oarbon Is a sure remeflv 
^or the treatment of small quantities of 8e«l. .mrtkularlv by Irn.Trs an' 
ord^ary coa oil ,«rrel Is very convenient. This will hold about Hve bt she^ 

^„r^ 'T^T "' "^' ""^' ""'^ '^ *'-**"*'^ «•"»» 3 ounces of blsul.Ze o^ 
carbon whleh may be inured right on to the pease. Care must be akef. t. 
close up the top tl«htly. This Is best dor^ with a c-ap made sml Hv for thl 
P«r,«se but may also be done with flue sacks dam.ln^i audTal s„ c^'thU 
on the tc^P. over which boanlfe are laid, with a considerable welX le . 
to hold the cover ng down closely. The bisulphide of carbon should be oth" 

stouIcTTJ f r« r' ^'"' '"'"'•'^ ^^'"'•""^ «»>' '•-'^•"-' -^^ the expcsure 
should be for 48 hours. Pease should be fumigated as soon „s pc>«s,ble after 

fr3i "V7 T' "^ 'IT "^ ""^ "'"^ "-^^^ '^^ tem,HJt„re '1 at: 
freezing. As the vapour of bisulphide of carbon Is very Inflannnable this 
work Should be done at a distance from other buildings and t S of T- 
kind must be brought near. So smoking must be allowed near the bulIdZ 
Where the blsul,>hide of carbon Is being used. When large quantl^o 

u^ b If '"I^"/'' ''"•''' '"^ '''''''''' "' ^- '« the amount regularly 
used by large seed houses, as In these tightly constructed "bug houses" 
thercj Is less waste of the va,>our during the necessary ex-,>osure of 48 1 mrs 

renuHl, is the holding ovc>r of seed until the second vc^ar. Pcse sh mid 
« ways 1. baggcHl up „„d the sacks tied at once after thrkshlng. T,^ „t" « 
are not able to eat their way through the bags, even when tlu^e are „ ndc c J 
imper. All the wc.vl.s which en.erge. either In autun,„ or the fo 1 w„" 
sununer. w.ll perish Inside the bags, and the schmI can be sown th^ f lc v ^^^ 
year without clanger; the sound seed wil, not be Injurcnl l.v ^l ,^.e X' 

rtri:;,;: '"^ "'" "^"^ ^^^"^ '-- --— ^ '>'^^ 

Trrating nlth coal oil.-X remedy which has boe„ „sed by nianv fnrmers 

<o. ' oT. ";"""•/•' '"^ ""'"''^ ^''^ ^"^"^ '•''-•^ '-"^ --»<« .>efore sc^-i ; " , 
<oal oil, using alwut half a gallon to a barrel „r tu-f^ h,. i t r 



"1 4 



168 



over HO tl.«t nil will bo olI«|. „„,i tl». HhovollInK inu-t bo rP,H.nt«l ovcrv ,lnv 
for four or flv. .l„y.. ThiK, If pro,K.rly done, will kill nil tl. woevlln'n I • 
IH-HKo Without Injuring the Hewl. «feviiM in th.- 

Hcnm»„ nrnL-Ot the «nme nntnre. when ,H>nHe nre found nt flu. t|„„. 
of Howl„« to ...ntnin wch-vIIh. ,. «.„,„„.^ „„ «^, ^hln n.ny Ih> .,o„e • 
pour „K then, h.to H.«ldln« water and then either ,H,„rl„« the water Htral«h 
off them apiln, or eoolh.g off hnniwljately with cold water. 

ItfcnmnHndatUntH. 

1 . '"r,;""/'*''' "' ^'''^ P*-" ««^»'- ' •"'••'•v*'. IH i..ssll,le. lM.t rhiH niUHt l„. 

lone. I think, not by leglHlafion or by ulvlng np the .ulflvatlon ..f su,h nn 
lm,K.rtnnt rro,, „« „.,,«.. whi.h we eannot well do with..,.,, but bv iK-rHuadh,.' 
everyone who hows pease to abstain fron, sowing „„y ^^x .vlil.h ...nt.-.i,: 
Ih .« w.H.vlls; when pnr.haslng seed, to refuse deter.nln^llv to b,.v anv 
without a.. assHran.e that they have be^-n treated, an.l furthe,-. even witi, 
this to examine f..r then.selves to see that any oontal..«l wm-vIIs are n„llv 
.lead. I would also iK,lnt out that, from the exiK-rlment alreadv ,i(ed <rf 
growing pease from weevllled seed, such »e«l Is only worth alK,ut one-,n,arter 

!, oi >'«t.ssary for growers and farmers to handle their cn.p a 

little differently than has b«.,. the usual practice. The Injurv is of an 
exception..' nature, and exceptional n.easures il.ust Ik- taken ti. avoid loss 

1 here nre. however. siKvlal f,.atures about this attack whi.h r.M.de.s 
Its control n simpler matter than Is usually th.. case with Injuries of .,„ 
«nml magnitude. The ,««« w.^vll Is not a native inse.. a...l has no nativ ! 

IndetHl It is so restricted In Its f,..d habits that no ..ther f...Hl plant is k,...wn 
than the different eultlvnte.1 varieties of true jH-ase. bel..nglng to the b.>tanl.-al 
genus P..«,«. These pease will not live over the winter In our climate. If le t 
m the open field, at nny rate. In nny part of the cmntrv whei-e the ,..•, 
^•eevll Is known to bree.1. c,.,.seque,.tly. .-very s..«l jK-a s.,w„ for .n.p n. ,s, 
nt some time before It was sown, have b..en umler th.- .-ontrol of somL,.e b^ 

vzix if ;rr, ■' i^^r" *•''"'"' '"'•"■*' """'"'^- *« •'^«'"''^' *"*^ '••>"»«'"-i 

«eevll. If It hn.l one. The remetly Is effective, easy a,..l cheap. Is well k..ow„ 
and can be applied by anyone. If nil growers w..uld con.blne ami !„' tl. " 
the larger number of the weevils woul.l be destn.ye.! In a single ve..r This" 
however. woMd not be sufficient, because a certain number of " the " Insect^ 
some n,es leave the pease during the nutu.a,. when the s«h1 rlpe.is. and' this 
sometimes before the pease are carried fron. the field. This fact Is the o .e 
great dlHiculty in arriving at a ,M^rf«t reniedy. but I do not believe that it 
Is Insurmountable. 

8own. to kill the weevil, and that seeding should be done as earlv as .Jsible 
so as to get the crop ripe cough for harvest earlW than is the usual .-uston,: 
-. The pea-growers should harvest their pease as much on the green side 
as is safe rather than, as Is usually done now. when they are dead ri,>e a,. 1 
thresh and treat them themselves, or sell at once to ^raln huvers. T lu « h ' 
u.any advantages. Not only Is the straw of very mu.h higher quality for 



169 

f«Hl. hut tho WHtl Im Ih'uvUt nntl iM'ttiT for PVfry piiri»«w'. for i-xiKirt. fm- 
fwNl iiiitl alM> fur mhnI, Ihhiuiw' It 1h of hlirher KtriulimtliiK iMmiT. and fiirtlH-r, 
iMH-aiiw. thf ww'vll at that time 1h luudi I.'mb advaiufd In growth, aiul «ons,.- 
«|iH'iitly han ai-Htruj..*! a luiKh wualU-r |»ro|M>rtloii of tho hulk ..f the whhI. 
The averaj:*' datt'H for iK-a harvwtlujj are from July IHuh tu AiijjuHt :i(»th. 

Kx|M' Imeiit luiH hIiowu that the weevil at all Htaw'K may he kill.-tl liisl.h' 
the jK'a hy fumlKatliiK the »ee<l with ItlHulphhIe of larhoii' (•..ii.s,..|uently. If 
»fr»»werM wll liarveHt antl threHh earlier thau uhuuI for a few year**, aiul either 
themselves treat their stn-^l ImmtHllately or wll to the jcralu huyeis. wl... for 
their own sakes will <]o ho. mmh it«-Hl must surely result. When fur iiuy 
reason in-ase eaniiot he treat*"*! at ,in<e or dlsiM.se«l of. tliey should he hii;;-'e<l 
up antl the sacks thnl lnune<llately. so as to prevent the eH«ape of any w.h-vIIs 

wlihh ml«ht emerge In the autumn. When the jtrain Is HMpiired for f Iin«. 

the i^ase shouUl Ih' ground as s.H>n as tlu-y are «lry enough, and to prev»'iit 
the meal from iKMianhiK musty the new i>ease should he mixed with s..me 
ohl pease when KrindluK. 

lHffi(iilth„ to hv Hi»7.— Somethu • [n-ase ripen so un«'V.'nly iliat hy resip- 
Intr early It is feareil that the sai'iple will he very uneven when thiesh.-d; 
hut, slnnild this he the ease. It simply means that the small and shrivelled 
I>ease are hlown out of the w*"*! jM-aw when they are oleuntHl and are not lost. 
hut can he us«hI for feetl. The greatest dittk-ulty of all Is wltli regard to the 
IK'ase whieh are shelled out in the tleld at the time of harvesting. Tills, how- 
ever, will Im> to a great measure ohvlatinl hy reaping early, as the wn-d will 
not shell out nearly so much as when left till the regular time. The cleaning 
ui» of inm fields, moreover, hy turning in hogs is a generally ret-ogniml 
practice, and the work Is done tlmroughly. Where hogs iire not avaihihh'. 
lK)uitry will d«» the same work, and, where neither of these can he us.h1, the 
land should Ik> plouglunl so d«'«>ply that the wetnlls cannot work their way 
out when they leave the i>ease. I am aware' that it is not the <ustom to 
plough u!) pea tields for fall wheat, hut 8lmi»ly to cultivate or dl.«' them. 
biK-ause the land is left In such excellent condition; but it must he reniem- 
l»er<Hl that the loss from the p«>a weevil Is now excessive, and. if this small 
change In methwl can be shown to be of great advantage, it surely Is worth 
a trial. 

Another dlffl<-ulty suggesttnl Is that it would l)e hard to get all iK'ase 
thresluHl bt-fore the autumn emerging weevils escaiioil. on account of the 
small number of threshing machines wlilch would Ik- available. In reply to 
this. exi)erience has sliown that demand will always product' supply; and I 
feel sure that the lnii)lement makers will not lose such an op|K»rtuiiity o 
pushing their business.' The mudi higher price obtainable for tlie enrly 
tlireshtHl iR'ase. to say notlung of the enormous value of future crops due to 
controlling the weevil, will very soon repay to the farmer the Initial exfK'nse. 
Where, however, there is no |Hissibility of getting a threshlm: machine. I 
would draw the attention of growers to the old-fashioned meth.Ml of treiiding 
out the iiense with horses. That this Is advantageous is indicat.'d by the 
fact that some of the se«l merchants ps^y a higher i>rl«- for j.case tiireshed 
with horses. — Fletcher. 



ii 



170 
nKAx Wkkvil (UruclniM tAltTlua. 8av. 




ursiiiK lowarus tUc tip; the flret four and the hint JolntH re.l.Il«i, -n. 

.,.«t rr, rz; "r^'T;";;"'" '" -"' "•""''• - '-■• 

me iK-n wee\ll. Ihe ematn of lM»th are hiid iii)on the ikmIh whii« .1. 

«ril know,, ,l,„„™in. ToMy f„r llio ,,,„ 1 ,?"/,, ,,1 '"'' ' "" ""' 

of iK-n.,. Infii-tal with |».a ,v.i.vll ,v,.iv i,,it ii«„v f.?, , "• 

W...V,,. „.„„,„ ,,„orK.c. ,„o „r,. .,„.,„„ an, l ' „/ ,J B«"m ,'" ' 

"t n tag „f boaiw li.rostnl l.y the rH.ni, ,v...,.ii ■, . , " ""*' 

.11 Ih-lr .„,„,,. „„,1 .hi. „„.„,ine JJXJZ- „ Z r ""; "" ""■"'"■■" 

...e ,»,». » „„.„„ h,„, h, -vhh::ir,;;r, t:;:!:r;r'h;,''rr 



171 



oni© of the lienn wwvll nikIi Imikm nn* ninllly i»Tfornt«l niiil the iMH-thm 
p«icH|i»--frwniPntly, wliPii UiIm lia|)|M>iiM In Ikiuw-n, um Im H«mu>tliu*>H tlii> vim: to 
the urput oouHterimttoii of tlit> iiilmbitHiitii. 

Th«« benn wt-evll iH>eiiifi to l>e n <-oNmo|N>lltiiii ii|hmI»^. tlu* orlKiniil lioin.' i.f 
whlth wni« In Asia. It wii» probably lntnMlu«-«l Into AnHTl.-u tlmMitdi «-oni 
inerw, nud hun bwn the tuune of (••HmUhTalde «lanmi;«> In vnrlouH Htuttw ..t 
the Ain«>rii>nn Inlon. It hnn J»e<«u mentlomil In th«« r»'|K.itM of wmtiiI Iiiltwl 
8tat«4 entomologlHtii. full nrtleles being kIvimi by I'.nfi*»M.rH Hlh-y. 1'oi'«'1"h. 
and LUitner. There has been a gren» deal of dlMiiMNlon an to the |.ro|KT 
nauie of the Bpeth*. The luHt detlHlon m^eniH to be that the iMvtIe nhonld In. 
oilleil Bruchua obtectuf of Say. The bean weevil huM never Uhmi v.-ry 
inJurlouH in Canada. 

The Kuro|*an Bean Weevil (ttrurhiii ruflnuf 
iuii>ort«Hl In need, but has never establlHheil ltm»lf 

Rvinvdirn.—Xn in the eaHe of the i)en w«h> M. 
in«e«'t Ih the destruction of the wwvlls Innlde r|i Ix'i.i". 
after the erop is ripe. FuiulKatlon with l>;su .i.li , 
treatment In every way. 

Wkkvil on Vv.kvu J'IU,(.S 

At Sumnierland. in April, Mr. Jas. >.: Smh r ; 
attacked by a weevil, which ate the leave* in', m ,1, 
young KhootB. The ft)llowlng mtnnniendatlon i as n : 

'• I cannot quite Identify your wevll. but Inusi 1 1 
in tlie same manner an the New Yorlc Wwvll (///( 

think you « annot do better than to follow the dIrectlouM given for the dent ruc- 
tion of that Insect. 

"Trent descrll)eH the weevil mentloniMl as follows: 'This large snout- 
beetle kills the twigs by gnawing off the tender bark. In the earlv part of 
the s«.ason before the buds Imve jnit out. and later in the vear it d.-stroys 
the tender shoots which start out from old w.mhI by entirelv devouring 
tliein. It attacks, by preference, the tender growth 'of the apple, tlu-igh i- 
win also make fre«. with that of the peach, plum and iK-ar. and pn.lmblv of 
other fruit, as well as of forest tn-es. 

•"This bt>etle belongs to the same family as does the Plum Curcnllo- It 
is distinguished from most of the otlier snout-lKH-tles l,v the antenn-e'or 
horns being straight Instead of elbowed or tlatl-shaiKMl, as thev .,re in the 
common Plum Curculio, for instance.' 

"(Yoiu- pea wwvll has dwidwlly ellMiwed antenn.'e.) 

"•The female. In deiwsiting, first makes a longitmlinal excavation with 
her jaws, eating m.war.ls nnder the l.aik towards the end of the brand, 
and afterwards turns round to thrn.st her eg- i„t<, tl..> ...xcavation The 
larva hatching from the egg is of the usual pale.vello« ,„lonr with a fnvnv 
head. We have watche«l the whole operation of depositing, and returning to 
the imnctureil twig a few days after the oix-ratlon was isTformcd iiave c-ut 
out the j-oHug larva; but we do not yet know how long a tinie'tlie Iirva 
nmls to come to its growth, nor whether it underpn-s its fransform.iilo„« 
wirhm the blanch, or leaves it for this imriwse. to enter the ground; though 
the former hjiwthesls is the mo^t likely.' 



''•h.) Is <N-caH|omiily 
;ist. 

I. "it /• iiuil. for this 
i" ooii ., iKwslble 
ci ilMin iv le iK'st 



,1. |i tuN's were 
bark from the 
< VnderMm ; — 
W'.ks exactly 



I: 



%\ 



m 






172 

"(I would th<.r,.fun. mnniUHMMl y.,„ u> I.M.k n,p,.riil|y f„r f 

tlu. riunH'ur,nllM. vvlil.h i.ri. uHfollowH:— "'P'-OtHi n8 win, 

,. ■;"'''"', "[ ""'"'"^■'' ""•<"<"1 th„H far niM<.,vm.l Is to j«r down .1. . 

nK,Hts ...Hi ....tH. .1...... o,. Hl.,H,M. Th. tm. should l...v.. „ su, . .. . , , ! 

• "...-,. sl...kl..u. For this purpos,. It Is a p..d p.a,. to s,, ^ J, 

ll'"!'. I"'nvi,.,- „ st...np a f.n.t or loss loi.tf. u,Mm whl.h to strik, wl I. , i' 

•..allot : this avoids hruish.K tl... hark of th . trcv ' . at'h th. 1 . :"' 

pi;^.-s of sh..,„., ...,. two ,anis lo... a..d a iJ::",^ r ;; i. ^ 

. n.,.n,.s of s...a 1 n.ds o.,s,l..ks. o,... at .a.-l. lo..u sldo and o.... „ .o . M ' 
" ako t ho oads ot thoso stloks sharp. a..d ,„t a ,.ot,|. at a short <l'stn, ' 

*"•• ;•"" = <"" '-'■'•>' "f t tl. ks ,. i„. p„sho.i i,.,.. to .lot ,;;''' 

no...hos will pr..vo„, tl.at fro,., slipping. A .htso,. oa.. .1 1 ir," h 
r"'' •'•'-'" ;■•'"• ' '""<"'« t'..-... o.. tho .ro.„.d. O..0 oa... I ,''..' .r 

•"" •;•"'' '^ •""" »" ••" J"'---" «•>• .. Ntroko of tho uu t. Tho fa I , . ': 

"...V 'H> ....s l.od lK.twoo,. tho ti..,o,.s. or IM. plaood 1,. a v.wl of a o. 

which tl.oro lloals a si.iall .imintllv of koi-osoi.o • ' 

•••..... n'forrl,.« tho i„s,vt to Or. Flot.hor. and I,. ,ho , „.„„.., , ,„.,... 

that y,u vill l„. ahio to k.^.p tho upiHT-hand. hv followlnir t ii. ti 

«i:'";- • , '■'" '■""« »"»t s..n.,ln« with Paris Kn^ I. , , ' "; : 

.•ft..-. .>f .l..s,ro.vi..« larKo ........hm-s. Tho fo,.„.u.a Is , ,M„,.d ot ,r,s " .v 

1 IH.und of u..slakod lin.o. and l.«. p.Hons of wator" 

follolvsM"""''""' """"'""" "' '"" '"""' **• '*••• '"'"^'■h'"-. ho ro,K..tod as 

•• With ro«ard to tho w.vvil fro,,, Sun.n.orland. I tl.luk that v.u.r an.wor 
..Mr. Nuthorland wli, suit ,ho .K.asio,,: hut this Is not a tr,,o\ U 

nu n,u.r,n>ar,,,,L I n.vlv..l a s.H.in.on. son.o yoa.-s „«o. f n., . ^ "ts .'. 

KHowna. ,.,., havo ...isplaoo.. ,t. aud oa,.„ot r.H.ll tho na.no J,.st T,. 

0..0 has ,..„.... tho l.ahits nf its .-loso ally, tl.o (Jray Poaoh Woo 1 .1... 

rofornnl to h. n.y ro.H.rfs for iss,;,. p. 177. and is!^. p. 1»s ;.„ , ! ,' 
.vos at ,..«,., w.,uld ...-ohahly ho tho h,.t ron,o,.y. Tho atta -k ' \. 
.. a vo,..v s ..,.t ,ln.o. .M....hani..al tnv prot.-tors. or ovon a ha.u .f J . 

lmHl..«. uii«l.t also aiiHWor tho pui-poN, .•' 

^iHASAHx WKhMi. {rnltniiha iiianaria, L.) 
Uht. WKKVir. (C. (hiixti. L.» 

This booMo. as won as tho two othor l„so,ts .t|o,..,l „. ,h,s sl.o.t 

"'\"''- ''"'" '""« '•^""*^" ""^ a .^.•«-lo,.s o,.o.,.y to s.o,-.Hl «n.l,. wi,..,. 

nm ,.,-o tho «ra..a,-y w.vvll is f,-..,., an oi«l.,l. to a sixth of ,... i,..,, i,'. ,,.,.„|.. 
"f a dn.k. shiny. n.aho«a,.y.h,-ow, .„„•. ui.h tho hoad prolo,.«..l |,.t„ ■, 

'!';;;. Th"".'- t: ^'^^""""-^ "■•" """"'^' """"•^- ■^- '•- "•« - « "•- 

" a'ath tho l.,,.d wl..K...a.sos. It Is unahlo to tly. Tl... o««s an- laid !.. .,.i.„.t.. 

...Us. w 1. -1. ,ho ,o...alo h..,h.s .K.,-o into tho «,-ai.. with Iholr s.ondor U-a s. 

«» ha .hh.K ,.om ,1.0 o«« ,1.0 yonnK ^-.-nh at o...-o 1h.«1..s to f.H.l o.. tl.o 

.....'..ts ot ,1.0 kon.oI. n,...plotos i.s K..o„-,h ..nd ...n.s to a 1kh.,Io h.sid.. 

tho san.o K.ai... wl.lH. ,luos ,.ot show any sip. ..f |..ju,,v „,.tll ,ho Imh-IIo 



173 



..m..ru..8. wlHMi It IH fuuiHl tliat th.« RrraKT part ..f tli.. li.sid.. has Imvm <.m- 
HiiiiUMl. In wli.'at and „th..r small rrroals a sii.«l,. la mi Inhabits a tfrain 

but a kfrnol of amx furnlsln-s f.MHl for son-ral In.llvl.lnals. T altire 

biH.tles also f«Hl ,„H,n tho tfratn. and llvf f.,r a long tinio. s,, that In warm 




(Fiu. «1.) 
(0) Uico W.'.'vn; (7) C'ommim <;ranar.v W.fvil. 
places wlH.re Rrain Ih kopt In store for a length of" time, the Injnrv may be 
«,nslderable. In the ,t>urs«. „f a slnule year. It has been estimated' that" one 
pair of these weevils will prinlutv 0.000 dt'mendants. so It .an Ir. readllv 
«Hui that they are <'apnble in a sh<»rt time of doing nui«li damage. 

UuK Wkkvil (Calandia oriiza; L.) 
This inseet differs somewhat in size and K«'nerai a|>|.earane,. from the 

Kramuy wwll. Tnllke that sikmI,^. it possesses fnliy-dev,. ..1 wln«s Inm 

tw.> yellowisl, blotehes on ea»-li wlnK-.am.. is slightly snnilhT an.i of .i pale 
brown «)K.ur. Tlie life history of this Inwnt is similar to that of the prertMl- 
Ing siHHles. ...xeei.t tlmt in very warm <>limates the iRM'ties are often fomul in 
Helds away fn.m any granary, and in the extreme Sonth and in tlie '«'ropU-s 
tile females lay their egi,'s in standing grain. The rice w.m-vII is of. : 
liijnrinj; storetl grain In company with the granary weevil. 

Anooimois «;raix Moth (Situtivffa trnahlUi. Oi.) 

In Canada the gnilii moth has never develo|HM snlll,- fly to be 

ored an Important enemy of slon.l grain. In soniiiern clin'.afes. however 
where It Is very abundant, tills ins,Ht is a bad pest. The moths lly from the 
granaries t.. the field and lay their eggs n,H.n the standing grain." Tlie eggs 
or yonng .ateri.lliars are tlins .arri.Ml with the tiu-esiied grain Into the 

granary, where they dev,-iop and cans,, great loss. Tli .tiis. however 

have not so far Imhmi n^-<.rd.Ml as laying tiieir eggs n|)on standing grain In' 
Canada, and where damage has o.vnrnMl. It has been to lnfest..,l grain whi.li 
has iMH'ii ImiKjrted. The eggs are de|H.sit..,l in groups of from 1.-, to •»-, 
generally u|N.n the umler side of tiie grain or in tlie crease of the kernel" 
They are white at tlrst. turning pink bef..re hatciiing. Tin. vonng caterpillar 
Is a minute creature, slender, and .overe.! with long hair. When mature It 
13 two-iiftlis of nn iiah in length, and of a dirty white colour. As a rule 



found 



consld- 



5- 



174 

only ..no larva onterH oa<h grain, bnt when corn 1h attac-kHl t«-o or thro, 
larv.. n.ay 1. found l„ a single kernel. After con.pleting ts gro«', tT 
ntterpl lar h,.1„s a thin, silken eoeoon. and within thin c-hanges t« « To n 
P"pa: m a few days later the nu.th emerges. The |K.rf.vt ln««t rl 
somewhat a oh.thes moth. The wings expand al^ut^lnr lul • . r ^ 
satln>-,-rea.n colour and bear a few dark s,K.ts on the fore wings wh <h 1 . 

wZ'cr ""' '''"''''' ''''' ""'''' """^ "-^ ^^^- -^ •-• -^^ 

tfc,„v,nc,.-\S'hon storeil grain Js found t.. Ih> Infesttnl by one of .h. 
above three Insec-ts. or. in faet. by any Insec-ts which are Lin to work 
dry cereals, it is a sl.nple matter to dc^tr ,v then.. Vfter re.Hnte.. . , 
-nts. it has UH>n found that the use of bisulphide of ;1;L" ," ^ . 

lns«.ts without any injury to the grain as to Its wholes«.„.eness f. f , 

llq Id with a very objectionable cnlour, which vaporises quickh- at Z 
ordinary tem,H.rature of the atmosphere. A convenient methll f . r t eat L 
smal ..uantltles of lnfest«l grain, is to fill an ordinary coal oU barre ^^ 
vll. hold alK>ut Hve bushels of grain, and the quantity of bisulphide b use 
is one oume to every hundre,! pounds of seed. The bisulphide uLw 
Pourecl right on to the grain or placed in a. shallow receptacle, but carTmust 
be taken to close up the top of the barrel tightly. This is best done wi"h a 
cap made sr,e,.ially for the punK>se. but may also be done with f^ne Icks 
laid smoothly on the top. over which boards are laid, with a conslde^ble 
weight on them to hold the covering down clost^y. When grain In bh 1 
being f„mlgat«l with bisulphide of carbon, these should be made as early 
« r-t ght as ,K>sslble. This may be done by pasting sheets of pa,x>r over t.e 
outside, or by overing them with blankets or canvas. In tight bins le 
amount of bisulphide to use is a pound to a pound and a half t<! the 1 o 
era n Some entomologists claim that one pound of bisulphide to everv 100 
bushels of grain Is sufficient to destroy all Insects, even In o,>e„ ^7 

it t r/ 4TI" T *" '"'^"'**"' *" '''' '""''^ "' ^•^"'p'''^- «' "-»-» fo.: 

llr TJr''' . "* "' **••" ''"^"'' •' ^•*"->' i"fl«'nnmble. no light of anv 
krnd must be brought near and no smoking must be allowed near the building 
when this chemical is being used. ""uuij. 

In Queensland It has been found that salt (1 quart dissolve,! in 2 gallons 
with this solution.— r/*f Canadian Entomologist. 






175 



CHAPTER XIV.— SCALE INSECTS. 



KIBOPKAX Friit 8cal»: {AHiMiotux oxtmrfonnU). 




(Fio. 62.) 

ThiH i„,«Ht was re,K»rte,l from Xa.mlnio as tho San Jose Scah. wl.l.l, It 

TT'r r" "'r''' '"'•" '''''''' "" '-tru-tions fr,,... tl... lion L "n.. J 
of Agrieul „re, Investigated the matter lu .on.pany with the Rev. (; ' 
T^ijlor. ami prononnml It to In- the EuroiK^an Frnlt S<ale. This opinion «' s 
afterwnrdH c.nflrme.1 hy Dr. Fletcher. Drastic- n.easnres wero a<h S ul 
he destruo ion of the affect.Hl trees by Are. slnc-e which It dcn-s not a.^lr to 
have spread. The following Is taken fron. Prof. E. P. Felfs BulLtln No.7<-- 

Dcscnphon.-The general apjiearanct' of this s,»ecic.s Is similar to that'of 
he perniclons or San Jose sc-ale. The sides of the scale are dark gr .v whlt^ 
he centre, which is nearly white, may be grayish or brown. The vofmg . 2 r 
to have quite a habit of arranging themselves at nearly cH.nal diC ce Z 
one another. The white or brown portion of the adnlt sea e mav break aZ 
and exiH«e the yellowish cast skin or exnvhe. Son.e of the yonng ar^ „u™ 
fonul amcmg a mass of old scales, and when they are white; the grav of tie 
ok scales Is lightened considerably. Son.etln.es ...asses of this scale 1 .sc.t ., e 
a dark gray, and then the young are usually grayish or brownish. The hul ^ ,- 
ual adult fenmle sc-ale n.ay att,.l,. a dlan.eter of nearly one-eighth of a 1, • 
It has a yellowish or ora..ge nipple a little to o..e side of the ce..tre and the 
gray part of the scale is ..orn.Hliy n.ark«l with black s.KH-ks. a..d. whe," o. a 
ZZT' '"'"' "' ''" ""'*' '' ""'""^' "^""""""^ " '''^ '^^ -ter lay o 



m' I 

til 

4 






- »i 

■ ■ m 



176 

i. ovov,v,p„r.>„s; that is. «,ve« ,„rth t„ !i^^^:2JZZ'!Z:rr'' 
about tlu. i„.st of tho ,nonth. „„., oontinu. to o.„.r«o fo r ,'1 's ''S','' 

8IHH-le8 pro<hu-e8 but o„o genorntiou in tl.is lafitudo au.l tl is n s. i t f 

make, it much Iohh dnngoroun than the ,,reoe,li„Irforl """ ""*"" 

" ''^""•''''•••'— Methoils of value against tlie pornidons or S..n Tov, 
shouia prove e<,uaiiy effeotive with this 8,>ec.ies. a ..1 as a nh it .»".,"'; '' 
l>e found much easier to control." I'n.hal.ly 

T„B PKACH-TBKE Bahk-loise (Lecanium nigrofasciaUnn. Pkro. : /...«„/„,« 

peraicw, Fabr.) 




(Fig. e2A.) 
Adults at loft. ,oung at right. Bull .ii, r. «. Department of Agrie.tture. 

i^ill *^^*'^*^ '"""■'"^' *" ""^ *"""*'*** '"^'"'^ "*' *ho Deach twigs. fre.,ue,.tlv 

he. ;.' r;, " •" '"" """* "' " ^"'^'' "••'"'"•'"« - " '^"-'^ luMnlsp,...H.-.-;. 
shell. alM.ut the s,ze and ,sha,>e of a split pea: its .surface is uneven, shining 

connnonly shoumg a pale margin, an.l a sfrifH^ n,Mm the middle. It fcnls n.HM. 

the sap. ploning the bark « ith its pn.boscis. and Imbibing the jnUes Wh..„ 

mature, the removal of the scale dlselost^ a multitude of eggs, wbi.h' in due 

leu-'; ;"h ■ '.""V"f ''""'""' '""'"^ '•■"""' ''''''' '^'^ ^"•"^- "•"•• ^■•'•''tening tlu-n.- 
H L . ' "'■"'"•^ I"T>»anently locatetl. and live the full tern, of their 

lives without (hanging their i»osition.— N««/(f/(T». 

/.VHH,///.-The tnmtment reconunendcMl for the Pear-tree Rark-ionse l.v 
hanndcrs. ,s applicable for this in.s,Kt. viz.: Fortunately these insects are of 
8m-h a size that they are easily 8,hm.. They should be look.Hl f..r during tl.c 
latter part of June, at whkh time the female- will have nttaine,! their full 
size, and when discovered should be pron.ptly re.nove.1. The under side of 
th imbs should also be >vell .scrubbed with a brush dip,>ed In some alkaline 



177 



Bhowx Ai'rkot Scai.k (Lrcanhni, aniiniUwiiiii). 

The Hcile is Vnit-sh, ,1. when inutiir«l Koinewhiit wrliikleil. The «»I»Mr 

8 a shiny brown .h.rker in the c-entre than at the e<.Kes. It hatehes from 
the eggH .lurinK May an.I Jnne. The treatn.ent a.lvlse<l for the Ovnter ShHl 
Scale should be foll.,we<l in dealln« with this i>e«t. 



WooLLV-MAPu: Babk-ivoi.sk (I'itlvlnaria innumerabilh). 




(Fig. 63.) 
ThlH •• soft scale " Insects occurs In some .listrlcts of the Provlnc-e In con- 
shlerable nun.bers c.^rtaln seasons. Infestl,.« nmple. wlllo«-. an.l alder tnH>«. It 

ctintcJ'n^ltr'"' "^ '"^"^""'' ''''^'-"^- "•"» ^•™ '-'- '" "- 

They usually attract attention in the spring, when white c<,tto„v nn.sses 
b«o„,e numerous on twigs or h,,ves of i„feste<l plants, In.reasinK in ^l^.e until 
they are a „„arter of an In.h or nmre in length, and only siightlv less in 
diameter, somewhat irregular in outline. The mass seems cotton;, b.it is 
really wax- or gum. When this size is reached, it forn,« a beddh.g V.,r innu- 
niera ,»-. rusty-brown eggs, very snmll in sl^e. which are laUl bv the female 
ln«H.ts under the bn.wn "scale" which s^n^ms to form the head of the mass. 
I-rom these eggs n.inute. crawling larva, hatch, similar in colo.ir to the eggs 
which spread in every .lin.tion <,vrr their host plant. In a day or two ead.' 
larva setth^s and Inserts its beak Into a leaf or twig, sucks up the sap and 
«.nunen,.es the forn.ation of a sm-li. flattened, oval scale-which gra'l.mllv 
ncreases in size. .Most of these are fen.ales. but there are alwavs some n.ale 
in8ectH and th.w come to maturity in tlu" latter part of sun.mer. appearing 
as small. tw,^wing.Hl flies; they mate with the fenmles which renu.in under the 
scu e«. and thes,s l.efore the leaves fall, nmve to the twigs or branches, and 
fH8ten themselves for the winter. They resume fc.llng |„ the spring, when 
the sap Ix'gins to circulate, and then the egg massif are formed 

L 



m 



1 i 



178 

In doallnK with thP8e jK-ste on cultlvntcnl plants, a Judicious prunlnR or 
thinning out should be the flrst step taken; In winter the treatment ad>Mj 
for the oyster-shtll bark-louse Is effective, and any that escape may be enslly 
destroyed In the early summer, when the young lame emerge from the ecirs 
by using either of sprays Xo. 2. 0, or 7. as directed. But It must be borne h." 
mind that, to be effective, this summer spraying must be do.ie before the 
Insects have protected themselves with defensive scales. 

OYSTKR-SHKLL UaKK-LOISK OB ScALE ( J//////««p/« po,„Orum, BoHUIIK.) 

Apple-tbek Babk-lovse. 




m , i ' ' ^*-^ (FlO. «5.) 

This pest occurs In th, ,rm of minute scales, about one-sixth of an Inch 
long, of a brownish or grayish colour, closely resembling that of the bark of a 
tree and somewhat like the sholl of an oyster In shape, adhering to the surface 
of the bark, and placed Irregi rly. most of them lengthwise of the limb or 
twig, with the smaller end upwanls. In most instances the branches of apple 
trees may be found literally covered and crowded with these scales; and 
where thus so prevalent they seriously impair the health and vigour of the 
tree, and sometimes cause ith death. 

Under each of these scales will be found masses of eggs varying in 
number from fifteen or twenty to one hundred or more. These, during the 
w-inter or early spring, will be found to be white In colour, but before hatching 
they change to a yellowish hue. soon after which the young insects appear. 
This usually occurs late in May or early in June, and if the weathei Is cool 
the young lice will remain several days under the scales before dispersing over 
the tree. As It becomes warmer, they leave their shelter and may be seen 
roving about looking for suitable locations to which to attach themselves 
Their aetua! length being only about one hundredth of an inch, to the uuaideil 
eye they a,)i)ear as mere Hym-ks. When highly magnified they appear as at '^ \ 
large proportion of them soon become fixed around the base of the side shoots 
of the terminal twigs, where, inserting their tiny sharp beaks, they subsist 
upon the sap of the tree. In a few days a fringe of delicate waxy threads 
issues from their bodies, as at 3. Gradually the insect assumes the form 



179 



shown at 4; o and prwriit the Inrnr an nearly full-grown. an<l wlien detached 
from the seale. before the end of the Heaw.u tl..> louHe ha;* wnretwl for Itself 
the 8caly covering In which It lives an.l maturi>8. shown at 7; 8 represents one 
of the antennw of the young lice; 1 shows the i-nM highly niagnlrtetl 

By the middle of August this female hnise has be«-onie little less than a 
bag of eggs, and the process of de|K>sltlng these now begins, the body of the 
parent shrinking day by day. until finally, when this work Is «.>mpletiHl It 
becomes « mere atom at the narrow end of the scale, and Is scarcely noticeable. 

The scales of the male louse are seldom seen; they are most fr«iuently 
found uiM.n the leaves, both on the upin-r and under sides; they are snuiller In 
size than those of the female, and different also In shai>e. 

In the orchard and Its Immediate nelghbourhooil It may be spread by being 
carried on the feet of birds, or attached to the larger Insects, or may be aUled 
by the wind In passing from tree to tree, while It Is Itself so brisk In Its active 
Stat* that It can travel two or three Inches In a minute, and hence might In 

?. u "*'? '■^"'''' * ^'°* *'''*" °'' ^'"■^ '■'^" ♦"«*»"* before it would i.erlsh. 
Although this insect essentially belongs to the apple tree. It Is frequently found 
on the pear, and sometimes on the plum. 

Apple trees should be examined during the winter months for this pest 
TV hen r)resent In large numbers on the trunks and main limbs, a goml scraping 
will remove n.any of them, and prepare the way for elTw-tlve spraying or wash- 
ing operations. The No. 1 spray Is a good remedy to use ; two applications are 
necessary, and the mixture should Jje used quite hot. Another very goml appli- 
cation to be used with a brush or swab Is made with 1 it), of concentrated lye 
to 2M. gallons of water. Both these remedies, of c-ourse. can be us«l only 
during the dormant season. Still. It Is almost lmiK)sslble to cleanse the trees 
entirely in this way. especially the smaller branches, and hence the Insect 
should be fought also at the time when the eggs are hat.hing and the young 
lice crawling over the limbs, as then they are tender and easily klll«l With 
this object In view, the time of hatching of the remiumts left after the winter 
work should be watched for. and while the young lice are active, before they 
have secreteil their protecting sc-ales. the trees should be thoroughlv sprayed 
or washed with a solution of soft soap and washing soda, or with either of 
sprays 2. C or 7. 

In experimenting for other pests. It was accldentiv discoverwl by Mr 
W. T. Macoun. Horticulturist. Central Ex|H>rlmental Farm. Ottawa, that ordi- 
nary whItewaKi ma«le of good lime, painted on the trees, had the effeit of dis- 
solving the scales of the Oyster-shell bark-louse, so that they could l.e brushed 
off. This remedy, whilst effectual where It can be appliwl with a brush, can- 
not, of course, be u8e<l on the small branches, which should Ih> sprayed as 
recommended above. 

San Jose Scale {AttpUUntuH pernirlnHUft). 
The San Jose Scale Is the most destructive of all i>est8 In neglected 
on-hards. Nevertheless, by Intelligent effort, It can be more easily controlled 
than any other first-class orchard pest : and when we come to realise that the 
one annual winter application of the lime, sulphur, salt sf.ray. which is all that 
Is necessary to reduce Its ravages to the minimum, is also one nf the b«.t 
general " clean '.ug-up " sprays that has yet been devised, we shall. r)erhaps. be 



■i r f 

-i 

m 



Wwh 



180 
with the lime. H„I„h„r «„d Halt." ' '"*" "'""*""« "« to H„ruy 



iL 









^,'.i 









."^•^/^ 



/C*|<-« Aft \ 

App^arancp of Scale on bark (n\ t„t^.t^\ '. 

- 1. .t. .^ f.,r ah knu«i.. rPdu.e the umnber of wormy apples in 




m 






-..'J.. 



181 
.... onhnnl. ,H,r .„„ It Ih- „h«I „h „ Hnl^,it„t.. for Itonh-Hnx wl.ll.. tl... tm^ «„. 

:: ":;r aijir :r:'^ ""^-^ --• "- -■ "• - •- -- 

iiiiu HiTHjIuK. ^\h> .' lo deHtn.y the San June S,-,,!,.. Y.t I Hiui that « verv 
H...all ,H.rceuta«c. of our far.uorH k,.«vv wl.at thin ,lr. | thl,."! w <■ ,* t 

.inly follow tUo ,KK.r v^^xUxh of ho umu-I. ,ulH.li,.Ht«l en., ^v" Hv , h u I. 

.ue^H..., .ur. ...t Hpray ,H.n..t...|a. r«,nltH are ainu.t ..rta.n o fo „ .^t 
the H^ale Ik. preH,.ut or not. XevertheleHH. everyone who «rowH tn.-H or h| r L 
Hhonld learn to know thin dentrmtlve Httie ..st and Ik prepa. "l t' . nl 
It Hinee t n.ay at any tin.e apin-ar np..u the ornan.entall o the < v " 

LUt of Fwtd I'luHtM. 
OBU.AB0 Fr, rrs. bi'hh Fa, its. 

*^'*"''' IlaHplHTry. 

^'*'"<*'' <}(K)«.lH.rrv, 

•;'"•"• Currant. 

!'''**'*'**'• Flowerlns Currant, 

U.Hky Mountain Dwarf Cherry.Blatk Currant 
I'erHlmmon, v. ... « 

Q"*"™' Almond. 

FlowerInK Quince. <"he«tnut. 

Small Fbiits. Peean 

StrawU.rry. HIa.k' Walnut. 

KuKllMh Walnut. 
Japan AValnut. 
.l//*tW/««r«M« On,a,„n,tul I'la,it,~Forr.t „«,/ Shtt,h Trrrs. 



Hose, 

Ilawthorn, 

Spirea, 

Cotonea.ster, 

EuonyniuN, 

EhkIIsIi Hucklelwrry, 

Linden, 

Acaein, 

Elm. 

OHiige Orange, 

Alder. 

Sumac. 

Wj>e|.inK Willow, 

I{e<l I )ogwo<Hl. 

Juneberry, 

Laurel. 



EuKllsh Willow, 

<JoIden AVIIlow. 

Laurel-leaviMl Willow. 

MllkwwHl. 

Catalpa spwlosa. 

l»nil»nrdy ro|)lar. 
Carolina Poplar. 
Silver Maple. 
Cut-leaved Rirch, 
Mountain Ash. 
Japiinese Quince, 
Actiiiidla, 
Citrus trifollata, 
^'tiowhiiil, 
Ixjquat, 
Akebla. 



{ i 



■?'| 



A i 



wmmmm 



182 
Ifow to Knotr the Han Jnae Sralr. 

£ -rrr. - - z t :r;HS£r Iff r 

HcdleH are grayiHh in «.lour. beliis unuallv h„t S \ ""**"•* 

than the bark to whloh they are «,crZiv!^'tt.».J^ rlT"^'' """^^'hat lighter 
-lea. wh.eh .nay be ioZ^ZTu ^hTire o^^. Zl Th"" '"" "' 
■omewhat itarker In colour. ' ""^'^ "* *''* P"***"^ "«»« 









''"'"^Itb'':j|„".^p2'„7i3f«;;f,,-^';:^ view Of l.rva .howln. .uck.n, beak 

■omewhat contracted, with the flmw"*^'* '.'^''t = (6) dorgaf view Sf s^e 

Lnlfe. there w.ll be revealed a minute bright yellow object! the Insect itjf' 



183 





.., , (FiO. 69.) 

(L. O. Hoteanl and C L. Marlatt. BuIMIh Xo. .1. Sew fieriet nivuinn nt 

On badly Infested plants the young w-ales settle wherever tliere is room to 
insert a beak Into the bark, and as they Increase la size they bei-ome much 
crowded and overlapi>ed and have the apm-aranc-e of a gray, scurfy .lenoslt 
on the bark. The natural c-olour of the bark Is obscured and the Infestcnl plant 
appears as though coated with fine ash-c-olonr.Hl bnin. If the thun.b-nall or 
other objwt Is rubbed over this scurfy c-overlng. thereby crushing the Insects 
beneath the scales, a nmlst or oily ap,H^rance Is produc-ed and numerous scales 
will be overturned and many of the little yellow Insects be revealed 

During the early stages of an attack, very few. If any. of the scales 
will settle uiKH, the leaves or fruit. I^ter both may 1« attacked. Ipon the 
eaves es|KKlally of the prune and peach, the young .scales may be found on 
both surfaces, and more particularly clustercHi along the midrib. Each scale 
produces a minute purple spot I|K.n purple pnmcH. rcl aj'^Ies etc the 
scales apiK?ar only as minute gray specks, usually clustered about the cavities 
at either end ; but uinm the yellow fruits, like i^ars. peaches, and the yellow 



MKROCOPV IBOUITION TC<T CHAtT 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 





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1£ 




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1.8 




/1PPLIED IIVMGE Inc 

^^ 16S3 East Main Strwt 

'^ Rocheiler, Nc» York U609 USA 

S ("6) +82 - 0300 - PhofW 

S {7'«) 288- 5969 -FOK 



184 

ar. ,.r<KUK.ecl by attack, of c-m . t ^^ "^1 'Tr'"" ""■'^' •^'"""'■- ^'^^^ 

not m tluMn.selv..s bo take, as pr. TTfJl,'''"''^' ""'" «"-"•" •^'"""«l 
.letenainod doHnltHy only by a . If j ex :.;;;>' '' '"*' ""'" ''''^^ -» "" 
of tbe stale. The prmMK-o of si 0^10^^^ "'"^ ^''^^ "^•^"•" ""^"<tion 

I.reHo.u.. of San Jose S.ale/fn,, I.' u 'r..'""'' '"" '""""^ •^"•'""'"'" '•^- »'- 
••y «ro«o,.s. buyers an<l in ..^c-t f "o a,srsb''''n h '"'"' "-'"""•''»'- "like 
Hhrlvelle,! l.aves u,k,„ the t ees In '„iw b e/ 1 . " '"■*""""" '"' ••-"• """• 
their ..resenee Is not proof of tlj , ^^ t " ,"'^ '''' '•'""-«" 

Vitality of the tn>e bas been serL^ InualL T ." "' '' " """*""' ^"•'^ ^"" 
Where San Jose Scale is prevalan t^^at — ^ " """"" '■""''*"• "''" "' ••«^«'<>»« 
iH the s«ile. "'"* '""** 'o « vast majority of Instances 

Development of San Jose Scale. 

-«ies. usually ..rishes durtrthe Z ^^t r'tr'"'""'^' '" ""' """'"^'- 
30. practically all are still allJe. A^> S'ex ' ' t " T"" "'"'*'"*''• ^''''''^ 
.lltlons for the remainder of the seas^ to «^ ' "'• "'"' •""•'"'" <-"" 
in scale infestation during the .-on ^su m" " '''''' """^''''^ '"— 




(Fig. 70.) 



(Fig. 71.) 



Dewlopniont of malo in.spct • (rt > vpntrni ,.i ., (F'C. 72.) 



185. 



n lU'iuly circular, yellow, sack-likt' iMMly. with loiiR. sleinU'r. I>rlstlc-llkc mouth 
parts. Au <'xnnilnHtl«»n of the male shows him to 1m> more elonpite. aiitl to 
IMissess the rudiments of legs, wlujjs. eyes, anteniue. etc. 




(Fio. 73.) 

Adult male, greatly enlarged. * 

(L. O. Ilnicuiil and C. L. Marlatl. Bulletin Ao. 3. Seic (Series, DiriHion of 
EnUtmoloail, V. ti. Department of Agriculture.) 

The females live and die Ijeneath their scales, never leavhiR them ; but in 
April the males molt fo: the last time, and soon thereafter emerge from under 
their scales as minute, active creature.s. with fully-develoi>ed wings. After 
mating the males die. 

In May. possibly earlier, under favouralile conditions, the females begin 
to give birth to living young, and may continue to prfMluce for si.\ weeks or 
longer. The yonng are minute, light orange-yellow, active creatures, witlj e.ves, 
bristle-like mouth parts, two antenna', or feelers, and six legs. After emerging 
from under the protecting s. ,le of the parent, each wanders over the surface 
of bark, fruit or leaf until a suitable situation Is found, when the legs aud 
antenna; are foldeil beneath the bod.v, the bristle-like beak is slowly worke<l 
through the outer bark into the living tissues beneath, from which it draws 
its sustenance. At any time during the summer months hnndre«ls of thes«> 
little i)ests may be seen, even with the unaided eye, as they crawl alwut over 
the bark or fruit of infesteil trws. 

Even before the young Insect has attached itself to the bark, the se<Tetlon 
of the .scale has begun. At first it consists only of a fluffy, white mass of fine, 
waxy threads, Vvhich for the first day or so of its existence causes the young 
San Jose Scale to a|ipear as a minute, downy white 8|)eck urwn the bark. As 
these filaments become more abundant they become fu.sed Into a more and 
more compact scale, and assume a yellowish colour. Later the young scale- 
Insect molts several tmes during its growth and the full.v-developed scale 
is thus made up of fused wax filaments and the several molted skins. 



186 

but one „,o„th tlu.so reiTar.^^^^ In the c„„rse ..f 

another generation. Thrr^^re thus n J , ' '""""' ""'"" *" '"•''*•"-' 
during the entire seaHoT Umler «..«?;?' ?"'" '""•" ^'^ "^"^^ ^'enerations 
females of the >.ter ge.rat.l" h ^T ^^^ favourable c-ondltions. «!„;,,.. 
000 young. Ral h^g' eT e nlT, uT "Tl' '" "^^"''^ "PProxlmatH - 
Howard and Mr. Perg nde havrsh T ^'•*"«^*""'''-™«« observations, i> . 
most favourable oSons ZfT '"* '* '"""''* '^ "««*»"^- "'"'•'r tl- 
astonishing numlLr of 3^/^^ 4(^ 'iXll V'"^'^ '^"'"'^ *" --" "h- 
each of these scales reach theTr'^2 i?l^? ." " ''"^'" ''""'^"- ^"»»''l 
all placed «lde by side touohii/eal ?h ''T'*'""' "' "" '"'"• ""^^ ^^-'"^ *'-• 
enough of then, fo 'V^ZZZatet n '" '"■""""• '''*-'' --"^ - 
needless to add that in t^TZnlTu^: ^r:^^"^ " f ^''"°" 
organism, and with climate condition- «„T ^""^^^n^'e of organism with 

cation is not even a Zxinmti, Th "" ««tonl8hing rate of multipli- 

when one realises he rorrouslar^^^t? T'"! '""'"'"'"• ^^'--"hell. 
i« no longer a surprise thT",Sft^^^^^^^^^ ^'*'* ™"'"^'"-' '^ 

factory results. A few females hire 7nT 1 "'"'''"^ '""' *^ ^'^'^ «'•"'«- 
of the tree which havrnorbeln'eaSrbv 1"' "'"" ''"*' "'""" ^«'-^-"'' 
season, completely re-infest thT" trrlt^L. ''''"''' """''' ^'"'"'"'^ " '""^'^ 
by the most thorough ^voX XlrTJ TT^' '■^'"^*" "^ ^^^«^"^ «n'.v 
branches and twlgstho^d^be th^ug^ ^eT^ ""'.'ylTn^ 'T' "'""• 

z:ug;\rr"^*- ^^-'^^ ^« -^anurnf is^roCy—: 

i/oir the San Jose Scale Spreads 

San Jose Scale can spread fml V. . 1 "^" "'''^'' '^'^'^ " 1« that the 

for greater distanr^ 1 ^nTy d::,:: llTnTs^T^''' '''''''''' ""^ «-' 
that one of these little nesf«?«n **"f''^ /'^^ ^^^^ '^^^ hours of its existence 
even then. It is ll-ZbieTvir f "*"' ""^ «'>««"'atIon has shown that, 

most from he trTon w^C iZ T "' "'"'"^ ""^^ "»'^" '^ ^«- '-^ at 
insects make goLl a^r sX 5o th' „ '7"- """^ '""•'' ""^ ^« «'«» «theV 
young scale hHawle; u'L The t^^^^^^^^^ «"^ "« ^-»>* -"^' '^ 

and thereon voyaged to the llsfLt r ! J ""^" '°"'^ '"«^'- '°«^'t 

doubt, also, stronHusts of «^ d of t w °^r"'*'''' '''' ""' '"''''''''- ""'^ 
which thoy are crawnn/an w f/ .^ *''^'" ^^^ '"'«'" *he bark on 

trees. These are pTv Ins oJ nf J"'".'" "^" ''■'^'"''^'^ «^ neighboring 
the Channels oTtr'^..^ hey 1 tr" , T ''^*f """« '^' «I-'- Through 
to continent. u,K,n nrfe^I rs:; st^cutt^^^^^^^^^^ """/^°" ^""""^"^ 
lesser extent upon infeste*! frnir r.!, f ««ng«. etc., and probably to a 
infested tree n ay tra« tl^ L. . !. ''"'^ '"'''"' ""^"'^**«'>- t"'^*'" ^..m an 
or may infest an eX ,^^0 tZ' r"'"'"' '" "''^'^ *'^^' "''^ •"--'• 
distributed to many 0":^'^% ^•:^so loZI 7^^' ""' "'™ "" 
about upon the hands and clothes of thrmr uh '"""'' ""■" """'*^" 



187 



The general distribution of the Hcale through Canada and the States 
has l)een brought alwut by planting unfumlgatwl nursery stcKk. Prof. L. O. 
Howard, of the United States Departnunt of Agriculture, tells us tliat. in 
spite of the wide dissemination of scaly fruit in this country, and to some 
extent abroad, there is not a single authenticatetl instance of the scale having 
been established from such ninterial.— ZVom pai)cr by ^^'illiam lloitkitis, read 
before Ontario Fruit-iSrowcrH' Aumeiation, yort;iihcr. J!K)7. 
How TO Control the San Jose Scale. 
The .S'nn Jose Scale a Permanent Factor in Fruit-<lroirni!/. 

The San Jose Scale is so widely disseminated and has become so firmly 
established In ths principal deciduous fruit regions of this country that its 
extermination is now in most cases out of the question. In the r ain. theri»- 
fore, the San Jose Scale nuist be recognised as a permanent 'actor, to be 
regularly dealt with as are other Insect evils or the fungous diseases of plants. 

E:;termlnatlon Is possible only where the scale is detec-ted at the very 
outset on new or recently jilanted nursery stock, or, at least, before any 
considerable chance of spread has been affordetl. It is true that by the 
greatest care in the introduction of nursery stock the San Jose Scale may 
be kept out of districts now free from it for years, i»erhaps. and one is 
warranted, therefore. In adopting every precaution to avoid introducing this 
scale and even to attempt extermmation wherever the conditions are reason- 
ably favourable. There is only one certain method of exterminating the 
scale, and that is in digging up and burning all Infested trees. This is an 
heroic remedy and is advlsetl only under the conditions of very recent Intro- 
duction of nursery stcx-k — in other words, where the scale is discovered 
within a few months after the purchase of the infested trees. If the scale 
has passed an entire breeding season in an orchard, it will have spread 
much more widely than any inspection will indicate and. very likely, will 
have gained a foothold on wild and ornamental plants, other than fruit trees, 
from which it will i-e-lntrofluce Itself into neighbouring orchan.s or info 
n»w il.i.li'ics. howeve: thorough 'uayhave 1 eei; th* attempts to crclicu' it. 
The San Jose ,9rf,h; fUii h^ fniitKilInK 

While, therefore, one is undoubtedly justified in asserting that the Sun 
Jose Scale is to be a permanency, it by no means follows that tlio profitable 
growth of deciduous fruits Is seriously menacetl on this account. The 
experience in California, covering many years, has abundantly demonstrate<l 
that this scale Insect can be controlled, and the more recent experience in 
the East iwints Indubitably to the same conclusion. In other words, by 
proper repressive and remedial treatment, the value of which has l)een 
demonstrated by much practical exi>erlence, an orchard can be protected from 
serious Injury and kept in a good paying condlton, so far as influenced by 
the San .Tose Scale. 

In view of the above, It is certainly very unwise and wasteful to dig up 
and burn a large portion of an orchard because It is infested with this scale 
insect, especially since the re-planted stock, even If clean v'len purchased, 
would, with little doubt, lie in the same condition of infestation In i very 
short time. 



188 

.....«"::" z X'?i;:.:: z.:^T'' rr-" '^ ^" •"-'-- 

»H' ...•< .|mnl,Ml with Kv^nt It JSiZT J, ^' "* '""''*• '""' "'" '"«">.. 

1...S su,nv„ to b; of ,>rr;,ruv„,;;;: '"'''" ""^ ""'" '"^'-^ -"•^" — i.... 

77fp Liiiir and Siil,,hiir HV/a,/, 

in the KMst thmv doubt on its U. i ' "-^'"''•'•'"'•^ "'th this w„sh 

Son.. h.t.,-\^x,K;. ^nts^^ho^^^^^^^^^ "'?""" """' "' *'"' '-"'t-l States. 

<--<llt>ons l.U> K.„ tr e\e^ f . oJ';;? ?'T." '""' "'""•"""■ "'" -"'»"- 
OitionH on th,! I-ncil roas t r '; "r'"'^'"«- '" " '"-«"«•". the c.n- 
tunately. the weather 3 H. 1 . ' ^***^'"^*' ^" *"^ *^"«t als<,. i-„f.„.. 

i" the East isno ^o^: e r. Bu'; if """!;"'• "'"'• ''''''''"''^' '^^ "- 
two weeks, at hv.st) ot Tlr ™..ef . /. ^■'^"'''*^'^'-«'^'*' I^'rio<l (lo days or 

wonhl probablv « -e V n- I is ctZ ',?""""' ''''''' ''''' ^"*"^'»-'^- '» 

"...>.;-. It is -a Winter ^:^..i:;;r;: ir:;:ne;r^.;;z:'orTr -" 

•»r at any time prior to sprinu growth J»»i>ai, or tebrnary. 

s.i::;;^i:'.r.rr.=L:::i.r -- -- - 

for sonu. tine ren a ^ " in n ""' "" "'""' '"'' "" ""^-"'■''>*' ->"ti>'^' 

It is well niKh in. isi .^ ;/ :/;;r;'":u^ nr ''''"■" ''"' """•^ ^^"''"• 

thonsh tlutt shoul.1 by all n ea"s be tl^ ..^ ""''. "^ ""' Hl>raying_ 

Imdly infestwl it is advis.l i. 1 f """-•»<"'"*'• '»^l»«''-e orehards are 

On wlndv da I is' ,' . ' ' 1""T."'*' " ''*"^' .'"^"'*^ '"''^ ^" ^ ""t"'"'^'- 
sary to sprav one sI.Ip ,.f ti. > ♦ ireqnentlj it iH-t-onies neces- 

.hat I ^rt''",;:;:::;;*': '■""7" ','" '»" ■"«* •'"'"'■ » '■ '»■-»«- 



189 

m • " :"•"■'"" '•••*""•••"«»• 'f '""•" f,H.H an. U-rt witl...nt sprav- 

"V ; ""I'' "■'■""" "^^ '■""'•"■^' •^'"•'"« " '^'"«'*' ""'""»'•• »""t the tn.;^ 

Fall Spbayino. 
(litirntl Siiuntiury and VomUiHionn. 

iU>u ^'VlT '""*'V"r "■*•'■'' "'-*" *'"" '•'■"'""'" ""' "'«"'^« attending tlu- a,.pll,«- 
1...1 <.f the sulphur wanhes were s,,n.ewh«t c.nflhtlUK'. since s,.n,e of the 
reatnuMits eaus,.! serh.us iujurles t» the buds aud hlosso.ns. while <,ther. 

in m. „,anner affe-ted the health of the trees. Rut as .esanls the inse<-,i. 

elda. v«l«» of the treatments, ail the ex,K.rin.ent« sIu.w^hI that applieav .,ns 

Mg<.ur an,l fruitfulnes. ,lue to the «,ntrol of the scaIe.-««//r//« \o m 
'^cw York Aurkiiltiiruf KjiK-riiiieiital Station. ' ~ ' 



U% 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. — Introduction o 

.. 11. — Remedies j. 

III. — Beneficial Insects 2G 

^^'— ^"sePt Pests of Man and Animals, Diseases of Poultry and 

Treatment of Wounds 34 

w V. — Animal Tests g< 

•> VI. — Pests and Diseases of Bees gj 

.. VII. — Plant Diseases j2 

„ VIII. — Aphides and Mites 202 

" IX- — Insects Attacking Leaves and Twigs II4 

ti X. — Insects Attacking Fruit 13g 

.. XI. — Borers 249 

„ XII. — Insects Attacking Roots I57 

XIII.— Weevils 205 

„ XIV.— Scale Insects I75 



■v.* 
■ ■m 

r| 

I i 



flip 



INDEX. 



AlMtrtiuii, coulaKioim /: 

A ranthiu lactularia ..!!.!. V 

A-Jgrrio tipuliformin 'J^J 

Aninioniacal Coiipcr « •nihoimt.- .' .' '.'.V 

.1 mmophila Uiituom - ' 

.1 nthumin witarum '.!!!!.' .ir 

.•1 . bramiira: .'!.'.'.'.'.'.'.' ^'•'* 

AnthuHom u* aigitatun J5L* 

AnKouinoiH Crnin Molh .' * |f5 

Animal Peats 17.1 

Anthracnosp Raspberry and BlarklMriv Si 

.. Tomato ■. ; JJJ 

Apple ; • • 'ZZ 

Aithf:linuM funviprnnin '. -'• ♦•| 

.1 . dia»phid(H •*' 

Aphides and Mites -i!J! 

Aphit bragaavw " ' ' i^l 

.4. rumida * ^J 

A. malt Iw 

Aphis, Turnip and Cabbage' .' .'.'.".".'.' JSJ 

„ Bean *•• 

.. Apple .■.■.■.■;.■;;■; }95 

„ Black Cheny JfS 

Cm-rant |w 

„ Mealey Plum ..'. }]S 

,. Woolly 107 

.. Grain 110 

Apple Tree Mildew ' .' ,' 11^ 

„ Powdery Mildew .'. 5l 

.. Aphis ■ ; » 

„ I.ieaf Roller, Lesser i^ 

Worm, Lesser ^.^ 

Fruit Miner .' |*J 

» Fruit Borer '. '. j** 

,. Tree Borer, Bronze .*'.'.' ifS 

„ Tree Bark Louse f 22 

.. Scab •.•.•/.•.•. V,y 1^5 

„ Anthracnoae r|' '^ 

„ Canker 21, 7^ 

Apparatus «^ 

Arseuitea •} 

Arsenite of Lime with Soila o-i 

Arsenoid, Green jr; 

Arsenate of Lead t 

Arsenic !.!!!.! i- 

.irgyrcsthia vonjuyiUa .........'..'. ,V^' 

Aapidiotua o^traformia iln 

.4. pcrninoaiia i *jj 

i7» 

Bark Louse, Peach Tree ,-j. 

Oyster Shell '...'.'.'. U!j 

Bacteriosis of Potatoes ^Av 

Batillus aolaiiaccanim .', ^? 

liacUlua am i/lovorua J;, 

Bacterial Disease of Tomatoes ...'!.'.';.'".' ,u 

BfUfficiai Insects ' ^ 

Bembicia marginata '. , rj; 

Benzine l'.JV 

Bed Bug ••••••••••^••"^i;i::ii;!:::::::::::::;::::;:;:::: io 



104 



Hi'f .Miitli 

.. Ktilil Ki'oihJ .' 

,•• '''••ki'- .. .;.;;■■■■ 

IJcfih. T:ii-ni|. |.'|,.u 

Uf-d-lifiiilfil Flt'a 

MliHii-r ' ■ ' ■ 

"••nil Aphis . . 

. .. \\v..vii .;. 

Hill.T Itnl 

jllnck Vin.' W.-i-vil 

jiack (iroiiiKl Wn»u'[ 

Miuksp,,! rank.T ... 

K H.kl...irv .vntiiia,.,,,,^,;';;;" 

HIikIiI, Firi. 

IViir I,cnf . . ,"." ,*."."" 
I riHli or Lnte of rotnt 

hiirly 

Toniiitd 
SirawlMTfv 

Hunlcuiix .Mixfiiri'- 



(H>H 



not Fly. 



Bort'i-H 
Borer, 



IIorMc 
Cntfl.. 



roiNonnl 



I{<. :i(l-lii>a(|<>(| . . 
Flat-hcad.Ml . 
IN'iic'h Tr,.,. ....■■ 
("nlifoi-nia iV-a.-li Tr,'.,". 
Nti-aulMTry ('rown 

•• "ro"'"' /<v]>U' 'I'r,'.. ; ; 

Imporied Currant . 
KaHpbfrry Cain- ." 

Brown Rot ' 

liruchun pinonitii 

If. obtrrtiig ... 

Biiliaoli 

Biiit<.rH.v. whii.Vrahbi;,;.-;;-' 

Bud .Moiii 

Carlmlif Acid . 

( 'an vas f •overs for Fumigiii ion 

( aloMoma vululum . 

< alonii'l 

Tnrhon Disulphiii.." 

< altle Tick . 

• I»"t Fly . .'.■.■. 

Horn FIv . 

.. /.ic ..•. . 

<'iuik.'r. niack«p((| .'.■.■.■.■; 

Apple iind IV-ar 

ItllllciJIy ■ 

•^I'liis 

-MmkxoI ....'.'.'.[,','.[[ 

ruHiirriiim . . 

fyt/ioiritxa iioniotKlhi 

f'liluiiilni !/riiiiiniii ... 

f. iiri/zir 

<Vicry. 1J„( i,| 'sVoiv.'! 

1 hiluiuiiiK hiriihn tin 

t'/iri/xDiMi iiriilatii . 

Chnlcrii. poulirv 



.X2. 



.43. 



( 'al.l.ai 



( 'ihiiria 



Paiik. 

.. «J7 

.. «7 

.. «R> 

.. 71 

.. 71 

. . IKt 

.. 117 

.. IIH 

. . IIU 

. . ia*> 

. 170 

. Ki 

. 1115 

• '}} 
i'» 

HS 

. 7I» 

. Ml 

. HJI 

. i»l 

. m 

. !C. 
. 1!» 

:. i!» 

. 41 

4:{ 

. 141» 
14» 
15»> 
l.TO 
l.-il 
1.";.' 
1.V{ 
l.Vl 
I'm 

15*; 

15(1 

al 
im 

170 

17 

117 

i;k{ 



;« 

35 
«2 
3S 
44 

:iH 

4.S 
75 
77 
117 
104 
15!» 
l.'Ut 

i;!,s 

17-» 
172 
101 

31 

32 

5.3 



J!»r> 



riiirry Sliiu ' *"*' 

.. ApliJM '...'.'.'.'.'.'.'". 1-"" 

< 'IrHtln >••<' 

< 'lollii'M .MiiiliM '-^ 

riiHioKiitiim I iin riraiiu ........'. ,.\*j 

'■. mhIxiIiiii ';'•' 

C«>|»rwr Siil|i|ini.> Soluiio'n .......'.'.'.'.'.".'.'.■.■.■'.■ '.•;',' 

.. <'iirli<ii:i<i)' Aiiiiiiiiiiiii iil '-\ 

» <iiiH<'rvaiori.>N. fiiiiiiitniioii of .-' 

< ollon S.i'il Oil -* 

< 'iml 'I'nr :|**I 

• 'iiyoD'M '. .' ''*' 

' 'oiiKii rn .'!..'."....". 'J' 

>''illi liitiii hum lnvourritii i J?.' 

*;h\uuii .Moth ..'.'.'.'.'.'. !'■• 

f'DHutiitihiluH III iiiiiihiir \'^ 

< '"iiliiKioiiM AlMtrlioii 'J'' 

« 'ro|)-lH(iiiiil. I'oiillrv •/' 

< "lowii ('.iill '. :.••'' 

t 'ill woiin I. ion .',H 

viiricisuicil .ilii 

,, " '» uruiii ...'.'.'.'." !.";r 

< iirruui ApliJM '-| 

U <»nn. Iiiiiioi-IimI JI!!' 

.mhki:(»i : • . ; ; -';"; 

Hon-r ji'i 

< 'nniilio '•»;» 

('llliiidrijHiHirium imji . . . . . . . . ............".'.'.".'.".".'.'■.' '■*'/ 

Diitumn hrimticum „ 

DiHfaiH-M. n»>»>M ... »" 

rianiM ...'....'.'.'.'. 'j". 

, .. Poultry ; i'r, 

r)iaiuonil-lm<-k llot h , •••• 

hiltloHtu tritici ]•»- 

iMiijrIaH ytlxtiire for Toiilt ry ".'.'.".' .' "7 

pry Hot of Potatoes ;*}, 

DiiHt '>>5 

:«; 

tJlatcridir 

HHtomnnporiiim maiulatum ^*!| 

Kpicauta ^' 

Kpoch rn ( 'anndciiHin ............'. ' j!J 

Hrannin drfoliaria ]\^ 

Kiiropean Fruit Scale ..".'..; ]'ir 

hxoancuM diformann ^ «•; 

Ntj 

Fall Webwortn 

False Wirewornis V^} 

Fire Bliirht l'"'* 

Fluke, Liver W. .['.'.'.'. ,'^'! 

Flies, IIou!<e '"• 

Fleas 4»S 

Flea Beetle, Turnip ...".".'.;;;;.'; ,!*•,' 

Red-headed JJL* 

Hop I]' 

Flat-headed Borer l]p 

Formalin !•''• 

Foul Brood, Bees ...■...;.■.'.■.■■.■ 22 

Fruit Borer, Japanese *!:* 

Pear 3fj 

Fuutcicides ' ■''» * 

Fumifcation ■••■............... ^'* 

Futicladium dendriticum ?^ 

F. pirnum l'^ 

Futarium oxyaporum .....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. A2 

> OQ 









196 



Page. 

Oasoline 35 

Oattrophilua equi 41 

Gad Fly ■..'.■.■.■.■.■.■ '.'.' 44 

Gapes, Poultry ' " " ] . r^ 

Gall, Crown or Root 72 

„ of Linden '.'.'.'.. ...'..'.'. 73 

Olaoaporium malicorticia 75 

O. vcnetum !!!!!.'!!!!! 88 

Olomerella rufo-maculana !....!..! 82 

Gophers ...!...!!.!.!!!!! 61 

Gooseberry Mildew 80 

Worm 128 

„ Borer, Black I53 

Green Araenoid !...!.... 24 

Greenhouses, Fumigation of 24 

Ground Squirrels 61 

Grass, Diseases of H6 

Grain Aphis 1 1;{ 

Grasshoppers 114 

Orapholitha prunivora '. 542 

Granary Weevil 172 

Grain Moth, Angoomois IT.i 

Gummosis ; \ 78 

Oymnonpchus appciidkulatug 128 

Hamatohia scrrata 47 

Hamatopinut euryatcrnus '. !.!!!.!!!!!!! 48 

H. auia '...'. 4U 

Hadcna dcvaatairix !...!.!!!!!...!!!!. 12.H 

A . arctica '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 1 2."» 

Harvest Fly 127 

Hellebore, White !......!!.!........ 17 

Hellebore Spray ' !!.'!!!!!!!.' 18 

Helicidw !...!!.!!.!!!!! ]2(t 

Hippodamia amhigua ~\\ 

H. convergena ...'..'.'.'."! 'A'2 

Hovering Fly 32 

Horse Bot Fly 41 

Hi use Flies 46 

Horn Fly 47 

Hopper-Dozer II.t 

Hop Flea Beetle 119 

Hop Aphis 107 

Hydrocyannic Acid Gas 24 

Hffpoderma lineata , . . . 43 

H. bovia [ //, 44 

Hyalopterua pruni 107 

Hyphantria textor 13.'{ 

Insects, lives of 

„ attacking leaves and twigs !!.!!. 114 

.. ., fruit las 

.. „ roots ]r>7 

Insect Pests of Man and Animals 34 

Insect Powder i~ 

lusecticides 13 34 

/«'»» '.'.'. . .' HU 

Jnpani>se Fruit Borer 14({ 

June Bug, Western Ten Lined 157 

^ 158 



Kerosene Emulsions 



.16. 



Ladybirds 31, 32 

liace-winged Fly 32 

Ij&ce Bugs 130 

Loverna herellera 146 



197 



Laehnoatema fuaca \r- 

Jxg Weakness, Poultry ^'JJ 

Leaf-curl, Peach 'J? 

Potatoes JjV 

Leaf Roller, Oblique-Banded .' .' .' i:.,, 

„ Lesser Apple \'n^ 

Lecanium nigrofaaciatum {-A 

L. peraicw !.!!..'! i-Ii 

L. armeniacum \i]l 

Lime and Sulphur Wash '..'.'.'.'. if. 

Lime ' ^;J 

Limacida; ^^'Jf 

Umax agrcatia '. . ' " " J„o 

Liver Fluke ^~ 

Lice, Cattle, Hogs, Sheep '." V. Vv do 

Lice, Human Beings ' r V 

Lice, Poultry 'It 

Locusts .' ." '}'* 

liye and Soap Wash ■••••.•............'.'.'.'..'..'.'.'.'. jj 

Macrophoma curviapora -- 

Maeroaporium aolani ! ! A't 

Magdalia JEncacena i -, 

May Beetle '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. \'rl 

Melophagua ovinua ...!!!..,! q- 

Melanloplua aprctua I'^l 

Mildew, Powdery .",■.■.■ 01 " s- Lt 

Cxooseberry -'• ^'' ^p 

.. Rose '^_ 

Apple Tree '.'.'.'.'.'. v-i 

., Onions , L 

Mites, I'oultry '. k.- 

Mites and Aphides ^-vJ 

Mite. Pear-Leaf Blister '. ]]&. 

Mint Disease 'Jc, 

Midge, Wheat '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 110 

Miner, Apple Fruit .' i ij 

Mosquitoes ^1? 

Moths, Clothes t! 

Moth, Winter '.[ 4n 

„ Mottled Umber '.'.'.'.'.". lSl> 

„ Diamond Back .'.'.' \'no 

„ Tussock io7 

Mouldy Core ^^' 

Mouldy Rot .'.'.'.'.".' 09 

Monilia fructigcna ',,[ " " • qJ 

Muaca domeatka !!!!!!.! 2fi 

Myzua ccraai J^ 

M. ribia : . : : ]^, 

Mytilaspia pomorum !..!.!!!!!.'.*!!! 177 

Nectaria ditiaaima _„ 

Xectarophora granaria ...!!! 110 

yematua ventriroaua iko 

Xephopteryx rubisoneUa ij- 

Xozzles for Spraying ^'*' 

Nursery Stock, Fumigation of •'•"!"!!!!!!!!!!!!!'.!!! 24 

Obrrea himarulata ^ ' 

(Edemaaia concinna JQv 

Onion Maggot \\\\\ " " ]'^ 

„ Rust or Mildew ^S 

Ooaporia acabiea ^ 

Orgyia aniiqua .' ." -^ 

Otiorhynckua aulcatua ,3f 

Ox Bot Fly 155 

Oyster Shell Bark Louse •--!.".".'!!!!!!!!!!!!!!;*.!!!! 177 






* 



198 



Paris rir(H>n 

„ •. . Spray '...'. [ '. '. '.',',' 
I arai/rotm Ofhrotfantcr 

I'fach Leaf ("uri '.'. 

Tree Borer . . .........". 

„.■• <'nliforiiia .. 

\\ wvil 

IVii Weevil 

/'riitiliK mini III, . . ' ' 

/'rroiioMiioni i,r/,hi,h'ii'iuii,i ".'.'." 
IVnr Seal) 

.. <'anl{er . . 

.. lA'ttf Blislit .'." 

.. Slug 

.. I-eaf Blister Mite 

•. Fruit Borer . . 

/ rrulromn noiiiia . 

I hlitoitthora iiifcitiaiii, ".'. 

I hyuarum rinrreum 

I nyUotrrta rittata . 

Pni/toiitiiM pyri 

Phoroilon humiili . 

rhorbin rritanim .. 

I'lckle BrotMl, Bees 

I'icrin ttiiur 

Plant Diseases 

Plum Aphis. MeaJy ".*.".' 

.. rnreulio .* .' 

PluUIUi mnrulipciniiH 

t-. irunfrrarum 

I oisoned Bordeaux Mixture 

Powdery Mildew ... 

PotasBiiun Sulphide 

Poultry. Diseases of 

rodoHphwra oxiiaronthir 

lotato, Irish or Late Bliitiit 

.. Early Blight .... 

lieaf Curl '" ' 

BacteriosLs 

Scab 

- Dry Rot . . . '. 

„ ... Wet 

foll/phyUa dcwmlinvata '.'. 

lnt/lhodrH puHctulata . . 

Pumps for Spraying ... 

ruivx 

Purchtia mcnfhw .'. 

Pyrethrum ■_■".". 

Quassia Chij^ and Whale Oil Soap 

Kacooons 

Raspberry Anthraon'oi,e 

Saw F\y- or Leaf Worn" ." 

y ane Borer 

„ ", Koot .■;;; 

Ifarhrla occidental ig . 

uemedies .... ■ 

Uesin Wash 

Red Water and Ticks " ." .' : 

"t^-hPajled Flea Beetle . 

Ken Spider 

Iied-huiui>ed CJa'teriliil'aV ' .' .' 

Rice Weevil ... 

Roup .... 

Root Gall ".'.'.'.■ 



.21 



.11'. 

S7. 



.. 9 

. . 18 

.. 12.- 

11, W 

.. !.-.«• 

. . 151 

. 171 

. 17« 

. 1ll(i 

. :jo 

. ur, 

■ T' 

77 
. M 
. 12«i 
. ](K! 
. 147 
. 122 
. S!» 
, !HJ 
. IKi 

1(« 

107 

ir,!» 
71 

J17 
72 

107 

143 

132 

132 
11) 

ss 

2.3 

.T.3 

S7 

MO 

01 

01 

01 

02 

03 

!>4 

1.-.7 

110 

S 

40 

iMi 

3(J 



. 16 

fi({ 
SS 
127 
l.^.fi 
l.Tfi 
130 

17 
.30 
117 
102 
1.34 
171 

72 



199 



RotH of Plants, &c> ^*"^: 

Rose Mildew ^z 

Rocky Mountain IiO«nist '.'.'.'. , , 1 

Rot of Htorwl ( VIerv ]/,? 

RoiimMieadtHi Rorer ].}. 

RuHt, Onion '4'.' 

!)ti 

Saprriia Candida 

Xanninnidtn vTilioHa ,,', \2'' 

Sainiania Pacifira '•_•*' 

., I'otatocM .'.'.' '••' 

S<'al». Apple and I'ear -H 

Srhizituiura Imiifjcra . , , '*• 

Srymnun murtiinivoUlH .".'.' '.''' 

S<'ale Inse<'ls . . -1 

Kuro|)ean Fniit HD 

.. Peach Tree '.'.'.'.'.'.'. U"! 

Rrown Apricot .' ' jili 

Woolly-maple J iJL 

.. ( ).vstei'-8liell .■.'.■.■ ]i\ 

San Jose ! i'** 

Srlandrin vrrani . . ' '" 

s. jfiihi • ; !:.'<! 

Sheep, IJver Fluke '..'.'. 'H" 

.. Tick : ; ; ; -Hi 

Shotliole FiinKUs •'!" 

Sitotroga cvrvahlh ,!!!.^ 

Skunks J <•» 

SluKH and Snails *»*» 

SIuK. Pear and ( 'herry . . "J^* 

Smut in (Jrain '. . . •_ 1-*' 

Spraying Xozzles ...........'." '. !>7-l(tl 

Sphwrothrra morit-uiir '*^ 

S. pannona \ '*^J 

S. mali •**! 

I^phwrclla frur/ariw ^~ 

Starved Rrood Bees ... ^'> 

Strawberry Leaf Rlight ...'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Jl 

.. Crown Borer ,^* 

Weevil }'>i 

Sulphur ■ iJi-> 

_ ,". . , »»n*' r-'«n»> Wash' .!!!!!!!.'.".'!! *,'!,' 

Sulphide Potassium J-' 

Syrphus Fly -'.{ 

Hystcna frontalin .,', •**- 

117 

Tachina Fly 

Tar. Coal '.'.'.'.'.'.'. '^^ 

Tetrani/ihuH UlariuM •"»♦' 

Tvras tninuta 1'"-- 

Tent Caterpillar '■'■'.'.'.'.'.'.l'.'.'.'.'.'.'.]'.] 'i'l 

. •• Forest -J;]*! 

ThtptcrphaUis annulatun .... '•^" 

Thrips .'IS 

Tick, sheep ...'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.",', VM 

.. ca 1 1 le W 'p 

and re«l water . . •^** 

Tiitrn taprtzrlla and oi hers '..'.'. / ; -.H.' 

I illitia iHiit M -»•'. 4 ( 

'/'ini/itidia' ........'. "~ 

Tmitoino orrdaiia l;*" 

Tolinc<(> and soap wash I'"' 

Tolmcco .'..'. 1 " 

Tttumio tiacicrial (iisease •••' 

disease [\[\ !M 

Trii-hiidri-tfH Kriiliirix ""* 

7'. xphn'rorcpliahiH '*■*< 

4!» 



'1,1 
■i 'I 



200 






Turpentiue, Oil of 

Turnip Flea Beetle . . . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! " 

„ .. Aphis 

Tussocic Moth , 

Tylodcrma fovcolatum . '. . .* .' .' ." .' ,* .* [ 

Uttilago carbo 



yarifgafod Ciit-worni 

Vermin on Poultry 

Wasp, Blacit (5 round . . .' 

Warble Fly 

Web-worm, Fail 

Western Strawberry" (.'rowii-Bore'r' ." 
Western Ten-Lined June Bug ... 
Weevils * 

.. Black Vine . . . .' .' ." .' .'.'.'"" 

,. Strawberry 

» Pea \' 

». Bean 

ft on Peach Trees ." .' .' .* .* .' .' .' ' ; 

» Granary 

.. Rice 

Whfte Si'llfCr "" Quansia Chips- 
Wheat Midge ...*.! 

White Grufis 

Winter Moth 

Wire-worms .!!.*.'.!.* 

„- .. False . . .' . ! ." .' ." 

Wounds, Treatment of 

Wolves .... 

Woolly Aphis ' : : : : : ; : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 

Xylocriut Agats rii 



Paob. 

. 86 
. 116 
104 
. 134 
. 152 



98 



.... 122 
.... 54 
.... 33 
.43, 44 
.... i;« 
.... 152 
.... 157 
.... 165 
. ... 165 



166 
170 
171 
171 

ni 

16 

17 

112 

157 

130 

161 

164 

66 

64 

110 



.34, 



158 



VICTORIA, B. C. : 
Pru-U.! I.y R,c,M„ Wo.r«K«.v. i.s.O., V. D., Printer to the Ki.^". Mo« KxceU.nt Majeety 

1909. ''