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Full text of "A deep waterway to the sea [microform]"

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-EVERY LAKEPORT A .EAPORT- 

''riday. January soth. icu. 

Representatives present: 

Hamilton. Ont.-M,yor John Allan. Controller Cha. VV G.,- 
Sarnia, Ont.-Mayor J. B. Da«an '""*" 

Pr«co.t. Ont.-Mayor Geo. McCrea. Jno, P Uunne 
Chatham. Ont.-Mayor J. McCorvie 
Wallcervilie. Ont.-Mayor Harry How. 
Toronto. Ont.-J. Hunter Duthie. 

W. R. Haldane: rlaffif Man\rr"■Bol"'^''^"x'"' ^""^"^ ^-W 
President LaWe Carriers AsSt.on" "' "^"'^ ^'"^ L-n«.to^e: 

-n''^eth%?;:r~?'p:^^^^^^^^ ^^"-" Mothersill. Alder- 

.Vy. Alderman Howe. . ^r s1so„"e "g ^"'^';"' ^''"'"" '^"'t" 
Rev. J. C. Tolmie. C L. BarkTr H"d"son. J. L. Murphy. 



tr^. 



l^'«. 






I 



INTROD* :T0RY 



Variout projrru f..r ihr conalrurtinn of a deep W4l«rw«y from 
the Uk(« lo th» AiUntu >>«tn have c.ccupifd ih* attrntinn of ihf 
public. It wa« fth thai a conferrn.c of rrprraenlalivct of the citici 
and town* located on ihr Rrrat lakrt and Si. Lawrence river an4 
contiguou. territory wa« nr.r,.ary t.. c.n.idcr the r,ueit>on and 
formulate retoiu'iont fur pretentaiion to the irovernmmt, «etting 
forth the rrquire.iient* of a channel of navigation that would con- 
serve the inicreiti of the lake and river port* and Irrntory trihu 
tary thereto 

The city of Windaor, Ontario, midway between the h<ad of the 
lake* and Quebec, wai thought to be the logical point for such 
a conference and. by request. Mayor Henry (lay. of Windaor. 
iatued mvitati.m* to the lake and river port» to i<-nd representa- 
tive! to a meeting ■,. |,p held in the City Hall. U indior. en I'riday 
afternoon. January :iOth, I'.iH. at .1 o'clock 

A record of the proceeding, of thin conference will l.t found 
in the aucceeding pages. 

We desire to call atteiitio,. to the fact that the Windsor con- 
ference did not discuss the question of the devrlnpmnit of power 
in connection with any of the proposed projects for the construc- 
tion of a deep waterway lo tlie sea. it bein« the ..[.inion of those 
pr»"sent that the matter should !>e con-iiilercd purely from the 
standpoint of a channel of navigation and that the development 
of power was of secondary importance and only incidental thereto 
In other words, the object of the mectinK was to ■secure the con- 
struction of a deep waterway that will permit the free passage 
of ocean Roing vessels of large capacity in order that transportation 
facilities adequate to meet the necessities of the country might be 
provided. The consensus of opinion was that the development of 
power should be considered on its own merits and entirely separate 
from the question of a waterway. H sufficient power can be devel- 
oped to pay for the construction of such a waterway so much the 
better, but the main consideration it to secure a satisfactory chan- 
nel of navigation. 

The record of the Windsor conference sets forth plainly the 
views of the representatives of the lake cities regarding the con- 
struction of a deep waterway from the lakes to the sea and we 
place it before you confi 'ent that it will meet with your approval 
and that immediate action will be taken by the government to 
decide upon a policy that will insure the speedy completion of 
a channel of navigation from the lakes to the ocean that will prove 
to be of inestimable value to the people of Canada. 



C. L. BARKER. Secretary. 



HENRY CLAY, Chairman. 



Conference of Repreienutivei of the Cities and Town. Located 

On the Great Lakes and Saint Lawre.ice River Held In 

the City HaU. Windsor, Ontario, January 80th, 1914. 



w 



with^Mavoy^?<."n? "V-f ""f^i? °J'^" *' 3 ^'^'^^l* '" 'he afternoon. 
Barker; secretirj ^^ Windsor in the chair and Mr. C. L. 

.h.. ^f/."^ *^'^^' .'" '''■' ?P<^"'"8 remarks, stated that the object of 
wn..M r l^^'.u" "'•*'<»" .»hf best meons of securing action tha 
7^^u 'a?!"".'" *'"' construction of a deep waterway from the lakes 
i° naviiiSn" °"u r'' TPf'"i«d 'he fact that^uch a channel 
fr»ffir^^r *°"''' '° a large extent relieve the congestion of 
traffic which was an annual occurrence. He said that the building 

°/defrac? ,h*e'?.i?/^ "r"' '^"/^ 'hatwere a feasible plan, would 
th»^ fh ■ .^''^r Pu"*"'?. *"•* *he t-rritory tributary thereto and 

hv ,h. L"'"."'« of the Province of Ontario could only be conserved 

oLed SnTtK^^ '^\^'- H**^'^^" '^"•«^- The question was then 
placed before the meetmg for discussion. 

m^.t^,"^'"' '^"*"' ?^ Hamilton. Ontario, strongly urged that the 
.T. K^M-"^"'T°"u''y^"*'°'"." 'he St. Lawrence route stating thai 
the building of the Georgian Bay canal would je of no service 
to any of the ports on Lake Ontario or Lake Erie as well as bein^ 

Tted'^fh^r^ •°. '^' ''•.!" ""'^ *°*"'' °" thf DefroUr ver.^'nl 
wn,M„c„* '° ^"^" ''"^ ''"y °f Hamilton was concerned they 
wou^d use every endeavor to secure the adoption of the St. Lawrence 

was^ece«a?v^^fnr'»hl ^"u'^' '*f''u^ i^^tth^ St. Lawrence route 
i necessary for the welfare of the terr tory tributary to Sarnia 

He v2ue tS'them.''^"" ^'' ""''' '^ '^"^'^^^'-'^- woul^d be of ll?-' 

Mayor McCrea, of Prescott. also urged the adoption of the 

cLhTllT '°"'". i' ''"'^^ '" .""= '•'*""»'' of the people of 
Canada and was of the opinion tl>at the Georgian Bay canal if 
constructed, would not prove serviceable as a cha^nnel of navfgation 

»«r .•^''" •'"•°' ...^"l!"'^' o.f Prescott. drew attention to the necessity 
for improving the channel from Clayton. N. Y.. to the St Lawrence 

HnnI k"\^- ''•' '*u" ^'' °P'"'0" that ' this v^ork could be bett" 
done by utilizing the water route in United States territory 

tioncalM'^attei^lnn'l?."^;,^ •"''*'"' °^ '*?*= ^?^' ^"""«' Associa- 
that' woufd be Xrf.H h »l ■'"'"""^^^ saving in transportation tolls 
mat would be effected by the construction of a deep waterway and 
gave figures to prove that rail transportation was much^ morrcostly 
than water carnage. He stated that whatever was done ."n the 
direction of improving the waterways would be of ereat benefit 
ITJI ll ^tr'^' e"*^ the United States and thought thaf both couS 
good """"^ *°^'"'" '" '"^""^ °f 'his kind for their mutual 

Mayor O.scar B. Marx, of the city of Detroit Mich <;aid that 
It gave him great pleasure to be present in order that' he m.u 
show his sympathy with the movement inaugurated by the ciJy 
of Windsor to secure the construction of a deep vvaterway to 
a sur^.^rt'^ hoped that the project would be carried 'Kgh C 
a successful conclusion. Anything that was good for the ci^y of 
Windsor would necessarily .>e good for the cily of Detroft and he 
was plensed to say that there was .ot the slightest feeW nf 

we riLr^r the benefit" f'^ ^"'^ *\^ ' ^.^ ''^^ cltSus^f Win'dso 
Tn ri.Vl -r^ benefits of the growth of the city of Detroit they 

ritv nf w- T'' ^o° ''"'"« benefitted by the rapid growth of the 

peoVe a^d throe?nle"o? nT^-^ '•" ^^P^thy ';ith%he W?nd or 
people and the people of Ontario in their efTnrts to 'v»-j-e thr 
adoption oi the St. Lawrence route from the lakes' to the sea. 



Wayor Clay appointed the following committee on resolutions 
ff> report at the evening session. 

I ^D^?( '^"""' Hamilton. Ont.; Mayor McCrea. Prescott. Ont.; 
n ..,• -,¥"""«• Prescott. Ont.; Mayor .Dagan. Sarnia, Ont.; J H. 
Uuthie, loronto, Ont.; .\hi Mothersiil, Windsor. Ont.; Mayor Mc- 
t,orvie. Chatham, Ont. 

The meeting adjourned at f, o'clock and the representatives were 
taken hy special car to Wolfs Hotel on the river front, where 
they were the guests of the city of Windsor at an elaborate luncheon. 



Evening Session. 



1 he meeting was again called to order at 8 o'clock, with Mayor 
Clay in the chair. 

Mayor Allan, of Hamilton, chairman of the committee on res- 
olutions, moved the following resolution, seconded by Mayor Dagan: 
I I, "WHEREAS the construction of a deep waterway from the 
lakes to the Atlantic ocean is, we believe, an absolute necessity 
to provide facilities adequate for the transportation of the rapidly 
increasing volume of business moving to and from the Canadian 
vvest, also that such a waterway will be of incalculable value to 
lE■co7^VJ?^ '"butary to the great lakes. THEREFORE. BE IT 
KtsuLVfcU that this meeting of representatives of the cities and 
towns located on the great lakes and Saint Lawrence river endorse 
the development of the St. Lawrence route as the only feasible 
plan Ijy which a satisfactory deep waterway capable of taking care 
cki wirF."*\."^" "" ^^ secured. FURTHERMORE. BE IT RE- 

u '" "^'^^^ 'o remove existing uncertainty with regard 

to the matter we hereby urge upon the government the necessity 
fi" immediate action in connection Lherewith." 

Mayor Allan spoke strongly in favor of the resolution and 
urged that it receive the unanimous approval of the conference. 

Mayor Dagan, of Sarnia. vigorously supported the passage of 
the resolution and made a stirring appeal for the St. Lawrence 
route as being in the best interests of the country generally. 

Mr. Henderson, of the Canadian Salt Co.. Windsor (a subsidiary 
organization of the Canadian Pacific Railway), stated that he was 
in favor of investigating the Georgian Bay route and oflFered an amend- 
ment to that effect which went without a seconder for sometime, but 
was ultimately seconded by Mr. Murphy, of Windsor, in order that it 
might be voted upon. 

In speaking in favor of the original resolution, Mr. James Hun- 
ter Duthie, of Toronto, said: 

Between four and five years ago under the heading of "Can- 
o ^■■ansportation Problems." I placed before the government 
at Ottawa, in concrete form, the need for better and more adequate 
transportation facilities for the handling of the rapidly increasing 
volume of produce coming from the wheat fields of the Canadian 
west, and urged the immediate construction of a railway to the 
Hudso.i Hny which would lessen the distance from the Canadian 
west to Liverpool approximately 1,000 miles and result in a mate- 
rial reduction in carrying charges which would be of inestimable 
value to our people; also the necessity for reconstructing the Welland 
Canal so as to make it suitable for the passage of ocean vessels 
and which would be the first link in a deep waterway from the lakes 
to the sea. Mr. George P. Graham. Minister of Railways and Canals, 
took immediate action and as a result of his work the Hudson 
Bay Railw::y is in course of construction and work has been started 
to deepen the Welland Canal and make it large enough to permit 
of the passage of ocean going vessels. 

We have every reason to believe that the present government 
will prove to be quite as proerissive as its predecessor and that 
concurrently with the reconstruction of the Welland Canal, steps 



win be taken to deeoen th.. «;» r . 

entire work is competed we wil^Tor. T'' '''J''*' ^^en ,he 
|ron, the head of Lake Superior o he At), nt-' A '^"P waterway 
tak.nK care of ocean vessels of Urge'' capicit"y" °"'"' ^'"''''^ °^ 

o/ elcif ^s^o^t^ re's^[t*e'5^„"a'rre.a "' '?' '^''" ^ '"' «"- 

^^^ ::it;!'v;?;r- i^«F? °^"^'' ""^-nX%^ 

essary facilities for 'Se movement ofh.'"* *'" P'^X!**^ '^' "«- 
the west, but either one ^f VlT i *"« munense wheat croo of 

relief. Liverpool h trg^ea'dstrlten^'" T ^l"^'^ the desired 
the opening of these two routes w 1/0^.","'" °' commerce and 
gram at least f.ve cents per bushcT to ?^.» transportation tolls on 
will benefit thereby ThnLl!,^. c ,^ P'""t and the producer 

United States into weJte^n Canada an^''" ^''' »°"^ f^""" th" 
that they have not made a mistake in r^.t,""' ?u"'' J=°"vince them 
our government is alive to thdr nece«it^c 5^ '^^ '^'*"»^'= ""'^ that 
facl.t.es to meet their tratTorrat"rrequ7rem"ents'''''"'^ ""''"^'* 

and i-J-Xra^ctrsL^uft !? ^'"^ - - a necessity 

through to a successful conclusion fh« r*" government to carry 
previous administration in the T.. Po''cy inaugurated by the 
route by way of the Wel'ranfcaStTlt'Ll^ete'kiv'er^"^^ 

be ?.PTI^^^ "s^ve'r^T'^r:^: VI' ''. ^-^--" -"'^ may 
by se fish motives and not giving consilrt?'' '^"\ °"^ ^«^tuated 
what IS best for the poop e generallv Th •°" '° '''" ^""tion of 
St. Lawrence route are the Atlant c^StJam«h"''7 •'' ^PP??'"? the 
the new element of competi ion whi.h ^11 'f ^'""' ^^ich fear 
opening of a deep watTrwav the r,n ' ''l^^'^P 'trough the 

affected by water comp-t ,^n*' the slltZ" '^^°'' u'^''' ^'" '-' 
cial supremacy is at stakp -Tnli lu ^'-^'^O'^^d cities whose commer- 
canal schom/w'ho 'art's 'eking \o foi^t'T?h °V"'^ GeorgialTT/y 
power scheme under the ^>iseS.7 J°':L?Vr'^^He'Turt'o\"e '^ornti=! 

the '^oL'^'rilllVts .tV\l^^^^^^^ .oods in 

of cost makes a successful nation "'°'''^ ^* '^^ minimum 

tatio'n'^at" thf n^iin^r^^^^'cosHs'^oS '^""/^^t'' ''^ -^'"- transpor- 
of utilizing to the fullest extent the Zl'^' ■^^"'^''''' '^' 1"es?ion 
ways with which this con in7,u has he.n ^"J "".* ■'^''"'^ °^ ^^ter- 
interest every citizen who has the we fare o7t')f " °"' '^''' ^''^"'d 
The United States h.c ^/"^/^<"'fare of the country at heart. 

the Panama Cana? linking'togetrr the^f.^'' '\' construction of 
Pacific Oceans, but even that undertaking I" °['^^- ^t'antic and 
t'on and accomplishment/ will not hrinT .^'^fu"''^ •'? '*^ '^"""P- 
country the material benefit^ that will ,^ ^°r^^^ *^'tizens of this 
of a deep waterway to the At am ic Ocefn ^'°Tu '^^ ^?"«truction 
we now have under consideration i« ^ . ^-^^ P*"" *=<^t which 
greater possibilities than the plnania Can,l"'-7'"''" ^'I^ '"^'"itely 
pose to bring our lake ports in^.wf^'^'* """."^ that we pro- 
Ocean, it means that the imports and el nrt"J".' T'^ ''"=. Atlantic 
be received at and forwardeH fr!ll exports of this continent will 
and be delivered at desti^a ion jwu^ .'^K^^^'■*^ "o^ i"'and ports 
ject that is fascinating to the mTnnT, *'u"'''."'f ''""^- ^t is a p/o- 
will bring to the indi °dia dtSn "of^'jhe '" ''f T'*"'^' ^^P^^" 
northwestern sections of the United s^ate'-^'r *■*'•. ^^J**'^" ^"^ 
efits of almost incalculable vaK It me.n,'' ^^"!i^^ ••^''■"' ^'^"- 
cost of hving to each and evy citizen "* "-eduction in the 

enabl'/thTS^r^io^n Se^^A^Ia^^^^s^^aboTr'S t'o'^^^'r"- \'^^ "^ "" 
cial supremacy at the exoense nf ff,« » ° maintain their commer- 

but the time has come'Xn thfnecesSof ?r''°" °^ '^^ "»ntry. 

necessities of the great west demand 



. -»;„«^,, 



since th^v it..^,„, ""'" ""^ carriage ol traHic than at any t me 
since tiiey became common carriers and vp» th-r,. ,, i 

wha.rveMt may be '''"'""" "'"*• P'^ "^•' '•^''"'i-^' -PensV 
nes were hiiilt tV, r,.,VI, Vu stages of rail construction the 

r.o^.,i„ • L '"'""' a i<.ciins that a change \<as necessarv th^ 

cfreful .^nnc- .'''''f" '" 1''°'^ *" ^''^ waterways for relief and after 

^nH"]n^H r^'"'' '""P°" ^ "^P°^t and have ocean lessek'1ischa^« 
and load their carRoes at our inland docks vessels aiscnarRe 



It IS unfortunate, liowever, that not only those scrking to im- 
prove our transportation facilities have realized these farts. t)Ut that 
others, whose whok- ;iini is ti> take advantage of opportunities to 
enrich thcmsilvis, have taken hold of the question and are ur;;ing 
the adoption of projects of thei' own ostensibly for the benefit of 
the country, l)\it really for their own financial ^ain, and carryinn: with 
their so-called iniproveiiicnt schemes, the dan:-(r of loweriiig the 
waters of the great hikes and imperilling navigation therion. 

In every country il.. ■ »■ are men who watch closely the progress 
of events, and they ha\< taken cognizance of the movement to pro- 
vide a deep waterway to the sea and have d'terinined to use it for 
their own personal benefit without regard to whether or not what 
they are doing, or attempting to do, will result in injury to the 
people generally. Of such a character are the men who are seekinK 
to exploit power schemes under the guise of the Georgian Uav canal 
and the lakes to the Gulf canal. 

In walking down Woodward .Avenue in the City of Detroit re- 
cently, my attention was called to a painting displayed in the window 
of an art studio depicting in vivid colors an attack by pirates upon a 
merchant vessel and the thought Hashed through my mind that the 
men who to-day prey upon the public arc more dangerous to the 
community than the pirates of the past, who at least risked their lives 
in their nefarious work. 

Th; privateers and pirates of olden times are a thing of the past, 
but in our day their places have been taken by the buccaneers of 
finance who have adopted smoother and less dangerous methods, but 
are equally ruthless in their wcrk when there is booty in sight for 
themselves. 

Three different propositions 'ir the construction of a deep water- 
way from the lakes to the oc ^Te prominently before us today. 
They are: 

The Lakes to the Gulf Canal. 

The Georgian Bay Canal. 

The DevelopiTient of the St. Lawrence Route. 

I will deal with these propositions in the order in which they 
are named. 

When the lakes to the gulf scheme was promulgated, it attracted 
wide attention and as a result of the publicity given it, the Federal 
Government of the United States appointed a commission, headed 
by Gen. W. H. Bixby, to make a thorough investigation of the pro- 
ject and at the same time they were directed to make a report on 
the proposition submitted by the State of Illinois for the extension 
of the drainage canal. It must be borne in mind that the proposed 
extension of the drainage canal has nothing to do with the lakes 
to the gulf ca.ial scheme proper, although those who are urging the 
extension of the drainage canal advanced the argument that later 
on it coi:,.l be deepened to 14 feet and ultimately to 24 feet and thus 
be utilized as the basis of the lakes to the gulf canal should that 
work ever be undertaken. 

Two propositions were considered by the commission appointed 
by the Fer'eral Government, viz.: 

First: Calling for the construction of an eight foot waterway 
from Chicago to the Illinois River. 

Second: The construction of a waterway of not less than 14 
feet and eventually of 24 feet to the gulf. 

The report of this commission was long since made to Congress 
and I ask yo\i tn c.irpfully con^iHrr the eonclusiors arrived at and 
form your own opinion as to the possibilities of the lakes to the gulf 
scheme as a deep waterway to the sea. 

10 



ji^,^m,.i'mi 



In connt-ctiun with tlic tlrst proposition for .in ciKht foot water- 
way thf report says: 

"The work now ijroposed liy thf Stati- »t lUmors in 
connection with the canal of the Chicago Sanitary District 
contemplates a waterway ironi Lake MicliiKan to I tica, 
which, although departing from the lines nf the old canal, 
substitutes a waterway mure than sulVicient for any proliahle 
naviKiiti""- This will, in fact, full'ill the original agreement be- 
tween the State atul the Goveinment, and incidentally develop 
a water power which the state considers a prolilalile invest- 
ment. 

"The Board believes that the State is more generous in 
its provisions for navigation than necessity requires, tliat the 
locks are laiger than will be utilized, etc." 

I'lie statement that its provisions for navigation were more gen- 
erous than necessity required proves conclusively that the commis- 
sion recognized the fact that an eight foot canal was not intended 
for purposes of navigation and was not entitled to consideration as 
a cliannel of commerce. 

In ISOS the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois, gave a 
decision denying its navigability and this decision was later ,-itTirmed 
by the Supreme Court of Illinois, and yet the forces urging the 
extension of the drainage canal contend that it is a highway of com- 
mercia' importance. 

It has been asserted that the diversion of water for the drainage 
canal affected the level of the lakes and since the report of the com 
mission was presented to Congress. Tiencral Bixby has submitted a 
supplementary opinion against any further diversion of vvater from 
the lakes on the ground that navigation would be imperiled by such 
action. 

The second proposition to construct a deep waterway from the 
lakes to the Gulf of Mexico is dismissed \ y fleneral Bixhy's com- 
mission in a very few words. The commission said: 

".\ a4 foot V' terway from Chicago to the Gulf of Mexico 
has never been considered by Congress, but its cost woi.ld be 
enormous, and even if constructed it never would be used 
commercially by the vessels for which intended " 
The report of the commission shows conclusively that the lakes 
to the gulf canal is impracticable as a deep waterway to the sea and 
it is evident that the drainage canal will never be required as the 
first link in a canal from the lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, therefore 
the proposition for its extension must stand or fall on its own merits 
as a power scheme. 

The Georgian Bay Canal. 



The second proposition is that known as the Georgian Bay canal, 
calling for the construction of a channel of navigation from the 
Georgian Bay to the St. Lawrence river, and a somewhat similar 
situation exists in connection with this project; its cost would be 
enormous and even if constructed it would not be used commercially 
by the class of vessels for which it is designed. Delays would be 
inevitable in connection with transportation by that route and there 
would always be grave danger of disaster from the possible destruc- 
tion of the reservoirs which would be required to hold the artificial 
supply of water which would be necessary for the operation of the 
canal. 

Realizing the weakness of the proposition to stand upon its own 
merits as a canal for the purposes of navigation, the promoters of 
the Georgian Bay canal scheme have tacked on the argument that 
it would develop a water power which would be of great value to 
the people. In considering this question, however, we are dealing 
with a transportation problem, no! v- ith a power proposition, and if 
the project will not meet with approval as a channel of commerce 
it must be rejected as the solution of the problem to provide a deep 

II 



wau.r«ay iron, tlu lakci, to ilu- sea The |.i;opli- of thi» country 
w.ll not approve tlu- rxpemliturc ,,f a large sum ot money on a 
i.mal that will only I.e u>eful for the development of power 

Canada has had considerable experience with canal schemes 
which havi cost the country large sums of money and have been 
absolutely useless for purposes of navigation. The Newmarket canal 
'"■:.«"»•■",■♦» ""'"t- prefer to call it), and the Trent Valley canal, are 
str;king illustrations of expenditures of this kind. When the Trent 
Valley canal was proKCtcd we were told that it would revolutionize 
he carriage of grain from the west to the seaboard, but there never 
has been and never will be a cargo of grain pass through its locks 
It does however, provide a good water course for rowboats and 
motor boats and the owners of these craft will take advantage of 
the liberality of the government in providing such an expensive 
stream oi water for their amusement 

In discussing the Georgian Bay canal, consideration must also 
be given to the fact that, even if it could be made useful as a channel 
of commerce, its construction would sidetrack all the territory tribu 
tary to Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and the Detroit River, and the 
I rovince of Ontario is entitled to share in the benefits to be derived 
iroiii the construction of .» deei) waterway to the ocean 

I he Georgian Bay canal project is not a sound business propo- 
sition as a means of transportation and it would not meet the re- 
qmrcnients of a waterway required for the carriage of the business 
ol the great west to and from the sea; it never will be constructed 
because there is an alternative route by way of the St. Lawrence 
Kiver that is inhnitely s^uperior for transportation purposes and which 
can be developed at a fraction of the cost that would be incurred in 
the construction of the Georgian Bay Route 

The construction of the Georgian Bay canal as the solution of 
the problem of providing a deep waterway to the sea would be one 
ot the most stupendous blunders ever committed by the government 
of an intelligent people. 

This brings us to the third and List ..f the three propositions 
Ill-lore U.S. VIZ.; i i ■ 



The Development of the Saint Lawrence Route. 

The St. Lawrence River forms a natural artery from the lakes 
to the ocean and by taking advantage of it we secure a deep water- 
way with the minimum of canal niilear- and the greatest stretch of 
free running water and we must all ad that these are two essential 
necessities for a channel of commerce that is to be of service to the 
people. This route presents the only feasible plan by which we 
cr.n .ver hope to obtain a waterway capable oi taking care of the 
immense volume of traffic which will move to and from the ocean when 
the work IS completed. The reconstruction of the Welland Canal 
which is the most expensive part of the work, i- already under way 
and the money that is being spent on the new VV 'land Canal will 
be wasted unless it is followed by the development of the St 
Lawrence River. The object in reconstructing the Welland Canaj 
was to provide a waterway large enough to accommodate ocean 
vessels and vve must make it possible for those ships to reach that 
canal otherwise the work will have been done in vain The Welland 
Canal cannot handle ocean vessels until we make it possible for 
those ships to get from the sea to the canal, and that can only be 
accomplished by deepening the St. L.iwrcnce aiul niakimr it suitable 
tor the pas.sape of ocean carriers. 

The reconstruction of the St. Lawrence canals is a necessity and 
calls for immediate action on the part of the government 

I here is not a practical vessel man doing business on the Great 
i.akes. who if he were a.sked the question which of the three proposed 
routes would prove most serviceable, would hesitate a moment in 
acclaring that there was only one deep waterway that would be of 
any beneht to the country and that is the St. L.V.vrfncr route with 
Its long stretch of free runnine water. 

I-.' 



\^ hiK- thf St. Lawrence rdtitr is i'iiiir»l> within < .iii.kIi.iii inri- 
tory anil the work ol riconstiuclinn must oi mcoMtv In- nndi-r 
taken hy the Canadian tiovernmcnt, there i» a larKe portion ut the 
route from the head of the lakes to Lake Ontario that is interiiatiuii;.! 
Ill its character and control and there ■.hoiild he a ihorounh under 
slandinw hctweeii the two Kovernnietits with re«ard to ilie toiiser 
vation of these waters for the heiicht of the citi/.ens of hoth countries 
Senator Townsend. of MichiKan, ha- taken an active interest in the 
promotion of sentiment in favor ..i ,i deep uaierway on the oihei 
side of ilie line ami wliile lu i« i ,i in a in.sition to speak with 
authority for his Kovernment. In >iales thai he feel* perfectly con 
fident in saying that we c^n liepeiid niion the co-operation of the 
L'nitcd States in any measures tlial are taken to pre>er\i the lake 
levels, and very recently he introduced in the Senate a rcsidulion 
which receiveil unanimous approval, recommending thai the two 
governments should K»t toKetner and provide ff)r the protection and 
devel()piiieiit of w.iter navination and more particutaiiy for the con 
structioii of a deep waterway from the lakes to the ocean. We, on 
this side of the line, feel certain that Canada will do its part in 
planning for the development and protection of the inland waters 

The statements of (Jeneral Bixhy ami other prominent engineers 
that aiiy further diversion of water from the lakes will imperil 
navigation demand attention and action. It would appear to he as 
impossihlc to divert water from any portion of the Great Lakes ex- 
tending from Sujierior to Ontario without affectinK the whole sys- 
tem as it is to take away the lifehlood from any portion of the 
human hody without afTectinj,' the K'cneral health of the in<liv;dnal 

There is Need for United Action on the Part of Both Countries. 

That is the kind of reciprocity we require between the Inited 
States and Canada, a reciprocity that will tend to the upbuilding 
and development of both countries while it will not result in injury 
to a single individual. 

And rif{ht here 1 would like to make clear the position taken 
hy the Hon. K. L. Borden, leader of the KOvernment, on the reciproc- 
ity compact which was submitted to the people of Canada at 
the last general elections and which resulted in the defeat of the 
liberal administration, frier to the elections I was favored with an 
expression of Mr. Borden s views and believe that they will meet 
with the approval of the people ot. both sides fif the border, even 
those who favored the adoption of reciprocity. Mr. Borden said: 

"If the L'nited States produce anything that is necessary 
for the welfare of our people, it is the duty of our government 
to make the tariff on that comtnodity low enough to enable 
them to obtain it at a reasonable cost; if, on the other hand. 
w;e produce anything that is required for the benefit of the 
citizens of the United States, their government should, in my 
opinion, take a similar course of action." 

Some of the old line politicians might say that this is bad politics. 
It is not the utterance of a politician: but the words of a stateman 
who has the welfare of his country at heart, and it is right in lint 
with the action of the present government of the l'nited States 

It might be said that a deep waterway to the sea by way of the 
St. Lawrence route would not be used freely by the people of the 
United States, owing to the fact that it would be under the control 
of the Canadian Government, but there is absolutely nothing in such 
an argument. TR.VNSPORTATIOX KNOWS NO BOITK.DARY 
LINES and traffic will seek the cheapest route irrespective of its 
ownership. As an illustration of this fact I might say that about 
1900, a company was formed in the City of Chicago for the purpose 
of operating a line of steamships between that city and Liverpool and 
two or three trips wore acluaily made by the St. Lawrence route, but 
the ships were of such small capacity that they could not be made 

13 



,"5f*1 



prohtable «nd the service wa« discontinued. Thii i» •ufficient to 
prove that if the deep waterway it provided it will be used freely by 
our friend* acrofi the line. 

The buildiiiK of a canal tran.formed the city of Mancheiter is 
anniand. from an inland town to a seaport, and the building of a 
deep waterway to the Atlantic will transform every lakeport to a 
«aport and prove of inestimable value to the people of Canada and 
tne i/nited States. 

It is within the power of a great artist to depicit upon canvas a 
picture that will live as long as life lasts in the minds of those who 
arc nriyiU-ned to see it. and if it were within my power to paint a 
word picture that would live in your memories for a time, I would 
do It in but few words, and I would have them placed over the door- 
way of every hf.m< represented in this meeting so that they would 
t>e the hrst thing that would meet your view as you entered in the 
evening and the last thing you would see as you turned to hid your 
family good-hyc in the morning and those words would be 

EVERY LAKEPORT A SEAPORT. 

Dr Samson, Mr. J I.. Murphy and others followed .Mr. Duthie 
and the amendment tn the motion was placed before the meeting an4 
received but one vote, that of the mover. The original motion was 
tnen put before the meeting and was unanimously adopted. 

Mayor Allan moved, seconded by Mayor Dauan, the following 
resolution: ■ 

"RESOLVED, that the inland cities and towns of the 
I rovinces of Ontario and the Canadian west be asked to 
memorialize the Dominion government requesting that the 
development of the St. Lawrence route for the purposes of 
deep water navigation be immtdiately proceeded with " 
T hi.s resolution wa.s also adopted unanimously. 
It was decided to issue in booklet form a report of the conference 
proceediUKs for .submission to the Dominion government and distribu- 
tion throughout the country. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



14 



' * 



u 



Canada's Transportation Problems. 

A series of articles written for the 

St. Thomas, Ontario, "Journal, 

July, 1909 

By James Hunter Duthle 



ft 



CANADA'S TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS. 

.* not only lucVmrruihJ 1^1? ;'/^;'^ ''"'■;'""'■ ,""' "" f"^* "'•" *' 

■>( tlu- worl.l, V. ,7.lv f ""'"h l-.mpir.-, I.iit tlu- principal snurc, 
v.iilr.lthr (•■,., h,.. '"^'"-'^ >>■''«••«'•«' for tiansporlation ha. i.ri 
ml ,..J I > '" '"■ Vr';\uctum „f tin, n...,t import ,nt "r.L 

".n„ of our waterways .r,;;!. '^ '^''^ «^,;;^';:;^;::;'' > ;;•• ■-■.•••p- 

trrs Thry arc 



affcrt tr.iiivfx.rfalidfi niat- 



rh.- 

rhe 

Ihr 

llu 



Hudson May Railway 
HeorKian Hay Canal 
l)i-t'pomii« ..t llu 
Ml Kr.l l.im- 



Waicrwa) in tlu- Oci-aii. 



each'!;; Vhr^^r';.!;^:;:'',):-;;;: liir^'-' ";■''""' - "^-' -•»- 

to their sup or VV d . „,, i .rVn '^' i"^r""'. "V'^'"''^ '■'^•' «^"'*"^'l 
» political itandpum. I ,. ri" on" it ^"H.."'«^?'- •';"'K^ts from 
their bearing upon tlu- trans, ortti , ^ I """'f' "''^"'^ *" "•'"'' 
our readers will r,nd .hen , " 's, ^M^ •■»"'' 

warrant their serious consi.lora io, *"'»ic.ent importance to 



i« 




f 



5i*iB*''**'Cr.ij'Si"C*«» ifli 





m..^m-m*mM 




L^'^^^ 



/ • " .. 



! I 







i 4 
I 



' ,1 












'^^JiferdC';:/ 



M.tl* 

IM,M K .<h I AHA . KlIlKAi 
Kl( HKi.ld r.A.NAI..S. 




\ ..V 

.V \ -"^ 

••«, •«» i» «) < 




n 



"0 - 



Article J-THE HUDSON BAY RAILWAY. 



»> 



#♦ 




iitTc IS not aiiothfr riTcui ■>#• >, j t """ ""■'»f'i 

,"...v,. is SO neccvssary for man ' 'r '' ""' ''''"'■" "' '*'''^''' 
''"'ly an.l f..e.l,s the l.rain as no other v' i 1'. """■•''''"■'* 'he human 

" "'■'■ "^ •!;\!;;':^^;''^'V'^^c?;J'^V';hal1s'°' """"' """'^"^^ 

thriiui 




Liverpool as Near Winnipeg as to Montreal. 




t^L--. ..J . ; ' '* '"* case, ai 

The Hudson Bay Route. 

the "^tancrf;i,^^„[r[^.;;;,,!;;ri^"sl ":' t-^^' '^'^'^ ""^^- -^^^ 

lessened hy about o e thousand mi'- ■ .'''^"'' "''" "°"''' ''^ 

material reduction in th..n?.»f. *•*• ^'"^ ''i'-'"'' would l.c a very 

The Do„,in/;:n' Go ertuMU^'h^ 'ha?r'"n?""" "'^•T^^-" "^^^ P«^"'» 
♦.m. the advisability ofco„st?uctinl TrJl '^^' "*!''"=""?" f"r some 
West to the Hudson Bay S w ,^, t^ro^ir'^^ """'k- "^'" Canadian 
woul.i prove of almost in.-air fl^'hl^ . ^ r^^'' steamship connections, 

-ach year. The prin'c pa oh ^tion^ff "'."''''•''''b' '^•"'-'"' "^ »''"'' 
thi.s line of railway is fhl ^..^ . offered to the construction of 

"pen for naviS, for J ^e? 'Tho , 'n''- H *^ ^V"''"'" f'^>- ''^ «"'> 
consequently it would he of Ihtl. V i ""'"r ""^^^ '^''*""- ^"'1 that 
only a few veirsW"-, t !/ "'"''' ''''"^'" «" 'he country, ft is 

and\snska"c'h ewln'^'er '' nirr for d^iliV'T'^'^'^ '^^^■- 'hat'.Mherta 

idea of ,,rowin.^ ^-irin'Th t ' iLtr c^wt C 'ed\''T l'\r' ''^' 
IS l.emtr produced, the countrv U f-.L k • '•*"«"7 "■ ''"t the grain 
who have Kone tliere would n-l '^ ^^'"^ '^"''"^ ''"'" 'he peopi, 

fact, the w'heat Ss of "hi c.^'llinvv /" ''''''" '". "''' ^"^^^ '" 
of the aRe in which we ive T, s alto^e /rrl'T " "'^^""^^■^> 
ments made with rc^^rd to Hudson Biv I "'^ "'^' .^"^^ '*"''''- 

reiiaMe as those which vere made win, •""'"^'"" ""'l ''""^ '"* """ 
Alherta and Saskatchewan ^n,l .1 - • V ''^'•'"^ ,'!' ^^'- <^""'3t'' "f 
'<• the people throuRirthe' short nn=''''?'''i'-",. ^^^'^^ ^^""''' •■^ccr,u- 
Iho route were onlv avail.blo f r ''1•°^'';,*■ •'"'"""'• ■•'^•^" "^""gh 
.■^timable advantage" to Canada "'"'' '"'"''' ^" "^ '"- 

raiIw^pt'w:M";'^''.'!T''''''''°". »^ "'>' construction of the HnH.on «,v 

-. .it.,.;- -^cr;;>vrxrh-^u;ey- r'te,-- ^- -^ 

17 



openinK of the liuJson Bay route would necessarily cause a revolu 
ion .n the handling of traffic to and from the Canadian VVest. conse- 
quently wf can readily understand the opposition which the oroiect 

hu ZTt. Sir \^T: l^'''' in'— ts lie in a different dirmion 
bi there is lit ledouht that, sooner or later, the Hudson Hay route 
will be opened for traffic and the western country will be in a 
position to reach the markets of the world at a very greatly reduced 
cos as compared with the charges at present iniposed for trans 
porta ion. 1 he construction of the Hudson Bay railway is a neces- 
sity Or the development of the Canadian West and it is to be 
te f'^*- "'VK7"T"'" >^*" .shortly see its way clear to .ake 
hold of this project and carry it througli to completion. 

Cheap transportation is essentially necessary for the development 
of tra.le and the buildmg of the Hudson Hay railway will materially 
lessen tlie cost of carnage between the Canadian West and Europe 

^^Ju^'cr^lVu"-]''^^''^ imposed for the carriage of grain from the 
west to Great Britain are due to the long rail carriage which is neces- 
^j"u°'''^^'' ^° '■*'*'''' ^^'^ seaboard. The rail haul to Hudson Bay 
wou d be a compaatively short one, consequently the railway tolls 
would be reduced to the minimum figure, while the ocean rates from 
Hudson Bay to Liverpool or other British port would be almost as 
low as from the Atlantic seaboard. 

K .I'^e Hudson Bay is not an unknown route as it has been used 
by the Hudson Bay Company for years, and it has been clearly 
demonstrated that it is available for th, purposes of navigatiru 

Article 2— THE GEORGIAN BAY CANAL. 

Some years ago when the Georgian Bay canal was mentioned 
t Had re erence to a proposed canal from Collingwood on the 
Georgian Ba> to J oroiito, a distance of about ninety miles, which 
kfvpr"^?. r t° r"' "" 'he long Journey by way of the Detroit 
Kiver and Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The late Mr F. Chase 
Capreol ol loroiuo was the most consistent advocate of this scheme 
and practically dey,.ted his entire time during the latter years 
ot his life to exploiting this project. The citizens of Toronto 
however, did not heartily endorse the undertaking, as they could 
not be convinced that the canal, if constructed, would ho as serv- 
iceable as the existing route via Lake Erie. 

.nr7^ ,P<£°P"^»tion at present before the government is of an 
entirely diflFerent nature It is now proposed to utilize the waters 
hetween the Georgian Bay and Montreal by way of the Ottawa 
river, connecting the diflFerent waterways by means of canals. The 
citizens of Montreal are doing their utmost to secure the adoption 
of this plan, not so much for the benefit of Canada as for the wel- 

are of that city. They desire to put an end to the idea of a canal 
between Collingwood and Toronto and believe that the most eflfec- 
tive way to do this is to insist upon the acceptance of the project 
now under consideration. The .Montreal people believe that the 
construction of a canal from Collingwood to Toronto, or the deeo- 
emng ot the waterways by way of the Welland canal and the St 
Lawrence river would seriously afTect their commercial supremacy" 
inasmuch as either of these plans would make it possible for ocean 
steamships to land their cargoes advantageously at the lake norts 
consequently they are determined to use every effort to maintain 
the continuation of their commercial supremacy and in order to do 
this will bring every influence possible to induce the government to 
build the canal as suggested. 

It is well to bear these facts in mind in considering this question 

Hie people of Canada as a whole are not particularly interested ia 

he welfare of either Montreal or Toronto, we are pleased to see 

the progress they are making, but are not prepared to advance the 

interests of either city at the expense of the balance of the country 



The 



A Gigantic Underuliing. 



a distance of 4A' mTs J/L. ? ^' Lawrence River cover, 
dams and rcs.rv,.irs or Z , urniT ' ^.""^'^!"•'i"n of numerous 
of water the year aro ml I,' « ,K./l'"1'"'^''!;"'^' =*" '"'l"'''' '^"I'P'y 
ject depending' for its s, -ce un n . ''.v' "."''"''•r"'' ''^^^ •'' P^«- 
tained in this way woul be , S., , i ""•''' .'"'"''y "' ^^'" "»>- 

Distance. 

via ui:e'E;;::'a;rt.fJ"(i^^;^„:;';^i,p;'^i:-^^-'«-?iy - ^^ „..ies; 

miles in favor of the Opor^i., n ' '"'''*• ^ ff'^fence of 288 

presented l.y the Kovernmenf on tE,/ 7"'" '" '^' '"'""" f<^f-^' 
"As comn-ir.-.l v^?/h T ", . '■* su'>Jfct appears the f-llowinR 

canals to rdpth'of"2rfeet'?stminL"'?h^^^ '''"•^ '"' ■'^' '■=»--- 
he Kreativ rot tirrrl a, ,/ assuming that the niimht-r of l,,cks would 

prac^ti'caS";.;,: efirii t mo^o/"tr"ns!t 'c-ouMr''*^ r^'"?'' ,' ^"'■•^••■^ "^ 
•listance beinK nearly offset bvrhy '' ^'^'"•V'- "'»• ^avin^r in 

wide river na^i^atio? /h!^h 'e x'i^ts' 'hrouXuH^Y'lk 'Fn'' '^^ 'l' 
Ontano route, where hi^^her speeds would be prmi^'ble"' '''*' 

en«i,?eel^s""e,tK:d" to Tep^r? rVh'!'^" '''''' ^'"^^^- "-'■-- '^^ 
superiority in the ma ter o? im. P'""''"' •'"■^ doubtful of its 

.he'wella'nd clnr.l '^nd'^St ll'^ence'^iler/'"^*'"^ """•- ''> -^>' "^ 

Cost of Construction. 

It is estimated that the (ieonn-m n... i 

that sum would le hXIfhcicut f<^r[ .T""^ probability that eve. 
pletion. "I'lithcient to carry the project thronph to corn- 

Danger From Dams and Reservoirs. 

June^w^Iu!v7'a"n'idta'of;he"rn ''"^? ''''' "."'^^^ ^^^^ "' '^e .7th. 
the construction odan^s -^nd t^^r • ''^' ''■°"'*' '"= *"'^""^d 'hrou^h 
the proposed GeorU„ Ray canal '"'" "'''''''' ^'" ''"' -^"^^-s of 

"The cflFect of dams built over a vear airo ,» i.>. „„», • 
the waters of Lake Xipissinir at norma^hv. I ,h *''' river to keep 

most disastrous, espcc allv thi. v .^r •.. .u '^f ^^""^ """""^ l^as been 

Much property- alonrth' horV 1 ne h's' be:n"';ro"?"r ""''} ^''l'' 
eastern section of \ortli R;*v -.nH ,^ "as tucn flooded and m the 
siderable damagrh-is be „ Hon. , '"^' "'f '^"'""i" cottages con- 

Xew dams will l.e constructed on diflFcrei i r,lan« - ,k 
use were iittor v useless in coi.imr » /i IH- I ^ l ' '"* '"°'"^ '" 
never have been put there." '"^ "'^ ""- f^^^ets. and should 

Possibly nothiuK more forcible c.n,b! be wriit,.,, f„ .»,„ .u r ., 
of construct nu the Gcortri-m R^,, ^.,„o Vu ^^""i" '" ^how the folly 
dispatch. ,\ prSect denendin- fo>-^^ " '°"'=''"*"'' ''" "^^ ^bove 

.n..rests,a„d we do" no. heliev^'i^;;!. ^h^Car;^:;:;'-:,,;:: ^^ :;jPP-; 

I'J 



Il^j^^ 



The Hudson Bay Railway. 




iioi romiiHMul 



I, "•'■ /'ly. ^""s'ri'f.li"" of the Geor«ian Bay canal will 
it-.rlt to the Canadian pt-ople. 

Article 3— DEEPENING THE WATERWAYS. 



1 IllTl- is 
l>i>SSfSSL-S .1 J 

111" the- vvatiTways wliiili involves 

canal and the St. Laurence riwr 

live i<H)t waterway u, the oiean. 

Mu-;iii.s a complete change in tiu 

what were loinurly l.tke ports, in 

ports; It means that l,eK'inniu« at KinKston on the 

riKhl around Lake (Ontario, through the Welland 



no pr.,jee. be/ore the people o. Canada today that 

rtatir tasnnation than that known as the dcepeninL. 

iiie improvement of the VVellanil 

roiite so as to provide a twenty- 

I he carryinK out of this work 

aspect of .iffairs; it means that 

a moment of time, become ocean 

east, running 

anal to Lake 



Lawrence 
lakes and 



route 
rivers, 



ui:; 'nuro:; ";,;"v^"'^'''t^'^^' ^'''^''-^"^"" ^r xi^,!:;;:;:. 

••mi.! I. , f • ■ ' ^"^'"«'"" ''-ay and Lake Superior, every por 
capable of bems .leepened to an extent sufficient to Derniit X 

Ih ""HLnV'I'rar'anY^r' """r ''^°"«"' '"'" "rect c^tac'r w h 
«.es at TaL n r,' i^, .' '.P' ."' 'V«V"''^'^*'y ^'" '^"d 'heir car- 
goes at lake p.,rts instead ot unloadini? at Quebec or Montreal 

The proposed (Jeor^ian Hay canal (even should it prove to be 
a practicable cnannci of commerce, which is doubt fu ) 'wou'd he - 
efit a very small portion .,f ,he country; the deepening of the St 
lirectly atTects not only the w;iter points on the 
be unloaded -^t'ih.l , ' '"'""^ . '"ritory as well, as traffic could 
oc unloaded at the water ports in question and shipi.ed inland hv 

oer l?,u ?*'''■' '"T "'u'""'" "'^*^'' ^"'"''' ''^' fron, 1 ty t seven y 

The Trent Valley canal, started hv the Conservitive trnvr-rn 
ment and continued by the present administratio , is at' , resen o? 
no commercial value to the country. The deepening of the St 
awrence canals would mean that this canal can'^be made of prac 
,rlt " i^ \" ' '' '."7'*"'>' "'^""-'' ^^hich it passes, inasmuch as 
traffic could be landed at the Lake Ontario end of the canal in 
ocean vessels and carried from there in boats of small caoaci 

pomfi ■/ c "• ^''V' "'^"•■" »t ^'^""«id-able reiuictu:. in' "an.' 
portatiy.n ci ^a-s. makmj. it possible to get some return for tL 
money invested therein, and tmnin« a catfal whrch is now teles^ 
com rv""'r;''''''"",P"''""l^-' '"•" ^oincthinK of real value to the 
he"n:a'Jl.. oV servict '" ^'" '"'' ''"' ='"■ '^''^■"^ ^•^"'-> ''-•'' -" 

Would Control United States Traffic. 

shipments ma.f l.v 'tb ''l^'' 'f "'"'^'•y. ''"« are eliminated, and 
thr^^i 's made by the cheapest route, irrespective of the countrv ' 
throuRh which u passes. As an illustration of this we w''„1H -"for 

•-'0 



SdLJKK 



Canal From Lake Ontario to New York 

Siiiliiii 

mmmmm 

Canada's Greatest Asset. 

night and day at work to secure advantaRcs. while the busTness of 
Intr-f^S'*-' a-^?"-" ,*" '•'■ "^^Rl^'Cted by those to whose care it i. 

The^ time has rn,^Jf" ^ '^^ "?"*-'"9" "^ 'heir representative.. 

ine timt has come for an awakemn!- in Canada- we are on thr 
eye o a ^reat developnu.nt and it is necessary tha we o„h pro- 
vide for the tremendous increase which will take place in th 
transportafon necessities of the country. The improvement of he 
St. Lawrence n-er route is of vital importance to the welf^rVof 

he Domm.on of Canada and the work should l.estrted a oncf 

on'struaion of th ■ ^ '^"-"'« """- .» tremendous Cd'en in th 
construction of the Grand Trunk I'aciiic Railway, but the necessity 

or deepemnu the waterway to the ocean is of even greater "mor 
tnnce to Canada that the construction of the Grand Triml- Parinc: 

Georgian Bay Canal An Experiment. 



1 




^nr, r.^h " """' ""•l"«-^«""'«l'ly M>p,Ti..r t., any rout. .11 .xi,!- 

on nf Ih '^'.l^*'"''r,"" ""••.'^" P'«P"»i«i"n,. With tho cnstruc- 
.01, of thf Hudson lay railwny and thr improvcnKnt „f the St 
l-awrfnco mutt Canada will havr transportati.,,, f.uilitirs suftirient 
to take care of any increase - h.ch m.iy come .lurinK' I'u- next hun 
■Ired years m the trafTic re .■en,.„ts of the conntry 

-..IvI^Vm'" , "'^'"''' !'"•■ 'l'"^'' 'J"''"''" ''*"• ^'••'"n i' I'as hern deemed 
adrisal.le 1., provide a thirty foot waterway in nnl. r to accommodate 
I' •• i.ir«er \es«(ls now ui the ocean service. 



Article 4— THE ALL-RED LINE. 

NolwithstandiiiK the fact that there has heeii nuich written in 
-upport of. and many attempts made to hoom, tlie W] Ke.l F.ine 
lie average Canadian is not at all interested in the scheme; in fact 
the Kreat majority of the people have not talen enough interest 
in the proposition to inform themselves with regard to it ind 
look upon It as one of those freak schemes which will die a natural 
neaih in the ordinary course of events. 

An Old Measure In a New Dress. 

The .All Red Liiie as now proposed is really an oM measure in 
a new term and will undouhtedly meet with the same fate as its 
predecessor. The idea of a fast .Atlantic service for the carriage 
ot mails IS not a new one. as some eleven or twelve years aero a 
similar enterprise was under considerati, 1. Ax that time the Domin- 
ion goyernnient entered into an aRrei.nent with I'cter.son, Tait 
& Co., by which they were U, pay them an annual subsidy of a mil- 
lion and a quarter dollars per annum for a fast line of steamships 
hetween Canada and Great Britain, but the proposition was so 
vigorously assailed both hy the press and by the supporters of the 
government in the House of Commons that it was quietly dropped 
oJt of sight and allowed to lie dormant until the present time 
when It IS brought forth in a new dress and with a more attractive 
name with the hope that the people will be carried away with 
the clam; that it is an imperial measure in the interests of the 
h,mpire at large and with that idea in mind give it their support 
It IS a vam wish on the part of the promoters, as the Canadian 
people are somewhat tired of projects which cannot stand upon 
their own merits and are not disposed to accept a proposition of 
the nature of the .All Red Line which h-.s nothing to recommend it 
but the sentimental idea that it might possibly help foster closer 
relations between the different portions of the British Empire an 
idea which has no foundation in fact. 

The consolidation of the British Empire is not dependent upon 
a fast mail service, although such a service i;nder properly con- 
sidered commercial conditions is desirable The love for the mother- 
land is inbred in the native Canadian and will not be increased 
or decreased through the creation of a faster mail service between 
the eastern and western portions of the British Empire conse- 
quently any project of that kind must be considered as a ourelv 
commercial proposition. 

Special Subsidies a Mistake. 

,h An' p'^V t"-"" ■'P'"'^'''' ^"''^'tJ'" '" favor of enterprises such as 
tne .MI Kcd Line are a mistake was never more clearly illustrated 
than in connection with the proposed Peterson. Tait Co Fast Atlan- 
tic Line, as within three years after that measure had been dropped 
we had a better .service between Canada and Great Britain than 
would have been the case had the Peferer-.r! Ta^t contract ') • 
carried through. The natural development of busines"s' created ''a 

22 



(icinan.l (or a l.ctur cla»> ot vtssel, for thf Atlantic service, .in.l 
instead of haviHR one fast line, we had several of the existinir steam 
ship conipantc!. strivinK to outdo each other in proviJinK faster an.l 
be or vessels for the service, and. as stated, in a very short time a 
.etier class ot ships were plying between Canada and fireat Hritain 
than would have l)een the case under the I'eterson Tail contract. 

Hudion Bay Route Will Give Fatter Service. 

It would be manifestly absurd to subsidize a fast service betv^een 
Oreat Britain and the Canadian seaboard in view of the proposed 
openinK of the Hudson Bay route, with its shorter niileaLu- \ 
fleet of ordinary steamships plying between Britain and Hudson 
Hay would make better time for the carriage of mails to an." from 
the Pacific coast than would be possible with a fleet of fast ^team 
ships between Britain and the Canadian seaboar.l. and with fast 
Jteamers running to Hudson Bay the proposed All Red Line would 
be beaten out of sight in the matter of time. This fact alone 
should l.e sufficient to convince the government that it is not 
in the interests of the Canadian people to incur a heavy expenrliture 
such as that involved in the formation of a fast mail s.-rvice on 
the Atlantic. 

Improved facilities for handling the traffic of the eountry is 
of much greater importance to Canada than a fast service for 
the carriage of the mails, and any expenditures incurred should be 
in the direction of giving increased accommodation for the produce 
of the country. The proposed All Red Line would be purely a 
passenger service, as the neces.sity for maintaining a high rate of 
speed would make it impossible to carry a heavy freight tonnage 
The main objection to the All Red Line is the fact that as com- 
pared with the Hudson Bay route it would he at a decided disad- 
vantage, and Canada has enough burdens to bear without adding 
to them with projects which would he of no service whatever to 
the couatry. 



83 



T^ilnir^yTT 




L.- 



The Development of the Waterways. 

A series of articles written for the 

Detroit "News," October, J912, 

By James Hunter Duthie. 



Mm 



'i^mi^m.4^amX,^%^^>. Vlnkl 



ArtkU 1.— A Omp Waterway to tht Sm 

.houid inhere.. cve;Tci/izcr;;";r/rr,eli^su,vr''"'''' '• °" '"•' 

niticcnt tiect of Mianiers which can h, Jin i"^. .^^ "\''"" '"='«• 

rhP l^^TT; V'^'la'l^-'ph'a. New York. Moston an.i Montre-jl ire 
.,„ ^V'"' ocean vessels landing at Detroit this city would he th.. 

in Vnlul 1 ^k" ^"^'^Pl'^hed hy an inland city like Manchester 

ihe gr?at lal^^eT "' ^"""^f""^ d"P'icated by the^ities located on 

reacJ^If tlfe' ^.^^llra^ ll^el^'lo^r/The^-^'ttts'ttTi";:" ^^^^ 

ETnffi ^''r^ ^'^=*,?*-^^u^ °f *"«= ^«*- Scili ie'Yor The carti^.'e" of 

I5 the7?eceded'from''';h'°^'y"- '''^^ ^'"'^''"^ ^-^»'" inKand 
as tney receded from the waterways thr nero.cify f«, . _A'" 

lhtt"neri J[r"*^°""''°" ''"^"'' apparent, and' wilh a realization o 
that necessity came He creation of the steam railways. In the first 



from the »ialMarUrud ,/„«,' r.V*'''fr ,'" "'?""' '"«>« '«' »"«! 
were .l.rcue.1 .o ,hc c..;." uc. on f "n'.w IfJ "'j'", ?-'^ '"".«'" 
conncclion with ihoic already irx.Mcnce.H .1 "'"^' "'».'•'"« 

«o the ira until hv ami l.t , .V! u •."*' »'*»>« Kftiing cl..icr 

the interior to he ..«"n and .. L", f /"" '""" T*" •""'"'^ f^""' 
the boat line^ were 5u"cMy drrvin ou/«7T '!:"''' *»* '""'"""«. 
followed by a con.olXion of X Tt, ?' *•« »>ui.ne... Thi. w.. 
throughout the counrvr«.?i..« t^"'".' *"?"'• '*"" '»' '»''w«y 
the great trunk Ime. ^f he ,^r * "'":"'""''' J" '»'« 'omutmn of 
tremJndoui powcrlhlve t,«n m.^^ i ''"T" •',"'* *^' *»'"'' "' »»»*'' 
by water and 7o prevent th? .nu, "''"'''"•y «" "u.h c..m,.rtiti„n 

-'"-y. for Vu/';::e7'of\Wn7po;utr • •"" "-""P--" "^ «He 
own Ko'o5"i r:ndVhe' inl.?i'/itt"o? r^VTr '""" "^"""'-' '" ""- 

directed to the waterwayi and after r„.fi ' P?"^'*. **• »«>'" 
mendoui poisibilitiei o7 t'hU rh,n„.i 7^"' consideration the tre- 
thcmselves on the mind, of thoL .i "' y«"*P"r»"°" "npr".*d 
that it wa, easi y whh"n our oou^r '"'""«"'• «"d it wa. realized 

''"^n'^^ve^V'coif ""'• ''"^'"« - ou-r^'infa^Vd'ctr^* ' - 

of c!e"nrr;n'd7h"erL 'e';:wV; Six^a'^e^ortt"""'^ ''' •''°'^-" 
vide a deep waterwav L .K- „ ^ j"l°' '"' "Jovement to pro- 

for their o^nplrionYl benefit with"ou',"r '"'^ .'»««"'".in«<l to u.e U 
the succes.furcornjretion of treir^rh^T''* *" t^/ 'njuriou. effect 
country at large Of such » charac er . '^k' **«"'d Jiave upon the 
try. are .eeking to exploit the lake, .n X' '"'" *ho. n thi, coun- 
wL i„ Ca„ada%re Pr?'f\i!,'g%t'e'GeoVVan%*Ly^a"al '' "' "'°" 
with'in't^a""ro°ha^'•lt'mav^''■''""' P-Po-tionV will be dealt 
Crete form of the difTeH nrnnn.''r ' ^o'"P«»';"»ive idea in con' 

consideration aUo shS/how r'?leen"u*,.^'^°" ""' P'^^'P'* '"' 
constructed to the sea that wiU h^ .a^ waterway can readily be 
•hip, with a capacity of o ooo ^nn^^*""!!^*." '° ^''^^ ^""^ "' "'ean 
they offer for the iL^erior Se ''" ""'" "'"*• "''°"''' 

Article 2.-The Lake* to the Gulf Canal. 

n..:'r\LVZsU,VrVr,'y con^re^^.r i/°ct ^""m"! ^""^'^ »>" 
and even if constructed it nt"lr wm HkI *"'V ^""''^ '"= enormous, 
vessels for which imen ed^'-F^fr^i^ ) ""'' commercially by the 
appointed by the uS ' State s^'cov'eVnnKm "'"^* "' commission 

tions foTthrcot.TJctbn'of a' doeT "^"'^ ?"'' '"^''"^' P-P-'" 
to the Atlantic seaboard Each of Z.T'^f ^'■°"\ ""^ «^^^' '=''*" 
supporters, some of whom are^rnn , f " schemes has enthusiastic 
but many because of a T..n„ln;i*^ /'?"' "'^Uyvs of self interest, 
route they are sun^'^^'f"--^^ >- '" practicability of the 

The7ake" t^'dZi f^nl/'^" Propositions are as^follo^,^ 

iu S'^orsrian Bay Canal. 

I he Developn.cnt of the St. Lawrence Route 

wide''.t,7n,*'on.'rd%:s^ rv\.f ••'/ ,^rr ^"nu.'Y r'""'^^'^'' ■■' ^"--^d 

moters. the federa eovernmonf inL ' P"''''^"y K'^en it by the pro- 
General W. r nTxbf to Take .K ».^'°"'"''"'°"' ''"^^'^ by 
;..f ,„j ,1. "'xiiy, to make a thorough mvesti.rafir.n „' f>-- -„K 

i«t. and th.s comn....on was also directed to make "a report on 



£ 



th« proooiaion .ubmiitcd by ihc si.k o< lll.noi. (or iht ciun.ion 

o !• Tr^T/' '•""*'.■ " '""" '"."*""' '" '"""1 '"•" "- •■»""* on 

each o< iheie kI.cii.h arv u.ii.g ii.c i»rgu.iK..i that Uter o.. the 
drainage ca.ul .hay lurn, the ..r.t l.nk ... the lakt. to the gul a 1* 
•houlu that w.jfW ever be uinjcriaken 

appuinttd i)y the ic'vernrnctit, vu,. 

Iirii. Calling lor the coiiiiructioii o( an cmhl foot wairrwav 
from Chicago i,, the lllmoit river * waterway 

I— . ^*'i""' ~ "m «^""»'fuc«'o" "I 4 waterway of not lew than 14 
feet and eventually of u feet from the takei !<; the gulf of Mexico 
i.m/, '''''"f' "' • .* »="•»"'•»•'"" wa. preicnted to conKfei. loine 
time ago and we a.k you to consider the conclui.on, arrived at 
and decide for your.eif a. to the neccity for entering uoon an 
aggrcisive canipaigii lo check the adoption by the g< vernme t o" 
VkLr::'''' ,*'""■■''■ •^^'"">' "'. ""l"«'^«'y. threaten. ".on/urioLry 

m^nHl/'^h'' "*"'.'' "" '*'*^ ,""' P'"P«»'»'on the commii.ion recom- 
t7?hr II ;„'„*"■"""?"."' '" ""'" '"«» waterway from Chicago 
i hi^K ' °'/ "'"''• **'"=•' " ••y* '» '"«''«'y «"•''''« »nd would be 
tc." T1.^,.hI/II" commercial value to the bu.ine,. of the middle 
wcit. further along m thii report the commitfion tays 

with'S^^'„°/I^?^^ Pr°Po««l ^y the .tate of Illinoi. in connection 
with the canal of the Chicago lanitary diitrict. contemplatea a water- 
way from Lake Michigan to L'tica. which although departing from 
he line, of the old canal, .ub.titute. a waterway more ifian sLIfic en^ 
^L\7.J!f*^^' navigation. Thi. will, in fact, fulhll the origina 
3f!t?„n ."*"" "" !"!.* S"** •*" government, and incidenUlIy 

men %hr.n'':r,". '''"'*' i!^' *i»" con.ider. a prohtable inve.t^ 
ment. The board be leve. that the .tate i. more gcnerou. in it. 

far«r'?h/„ J.ll V'^^It" i''" 'I.^''^''^ "'*«"*"•• "'»' 'he lock, are 
larger than will be utilized, etc. 

The two paragraph, referred to appear to be rather conHictina 
inv^nrni^^S'""' ^'^^'^.'^^V- ^} »> would be more than .ufticient ?«; 
any probable naviKation. coul. lot possibly prove to be a h.«hwav 
Oi great commercial value to e bu.sine« ol the middle west \s 

roZv"Ml • "" ■'""'; " •'• •'■'"*'• ""^ '^'""'t t:oi.rt of Cook 

bounty, Illinois. Kave a decision denyiiiK the naviKability of the 

Coiln'LVrilinoir " ''"'"'"" *" '"'" '^'''''"^ ''y the'^SuprerSe 

So far as the state of Illinois is concerned the cist of their 
proposition is contained in the statement "and incidentally develop 
a waterpowcr which the state considers a prohtable investmen"'^ 
The promoters of the scheme for the extension of the drainaRc canal 
are not interested in furnishinR transportation facilities; they want 
h.nj'r'^ ''.'I,''"' V^ " waterpower which will become a personal 
bcneht to themselves; therefore the scheme must stand or fal 

la^k^e" 't^ ;rKu!7caV:i. ' ^""^^ P-P-i'i'>n. not as a portion of the 
The construction of the drainage canal resulted in an apnre- 

T^rtrTTy\''\ "T '^'"^^ ''•■^•<^'^- ^"'1 its extension would still 
further afTeet lake levels and become a serious menace to n.-ivination 
As^a result of recent activities on the pan of the promoters of the 
ion'T^/r ''■' "/*^"«'7 «f '\ ^^•■''"^'^e canal, a further investiga- 
tion has been made, and even the citizens of Chicago are protestinn 
against any further lowering of the lake levels, and General Hishy 

stating" ,l,.f, 'Jn""? ':r'''V'" ".•^■•""•7« "f congress on the subjec- 
stating that any further diversion of water from the lakes would 
mperil navigation thereon An eight foot canal wouM be usele's 
for piirposes of navigation in this d.ny of large capacity vessels- 

I ::c second pi\jpo5itiuii,-, ealiuig for the construction of a dcco 
waterway to the Gulf of Mexico is dismiss by the federa com 
mission in very few words. The report rea... . "A 24 foot waterwTy 

«7 



wr.ulrl hr .ufticrni u nu2r Vh/ r ..,. 'h» Ukr.. .,,d ,hai .Ion* 

of vl,„CM If ,hr t.i.,rn. of (Kir.L Ii»k«- Mirhitfai, i., the (Julf 

c..n..r,u....n ,.f , prac ca .Ir !,« i .'''" *"*""' *""''' '"'l-'nKcr ihr 
wo.,1.1 ,„. .monK^.^X" ' ZZTM' 1" «!!'. "•»>""5. thry 

a <l .n furthfr.r,« thr .If v. lo,,, .in? ,•*/."'''•'''' "?" '« '» «" "'".I ihe.r 
'.f in.l.v.,h.als. "v.i..|„nrnt o| , ,,ower »chr.Tic f..r thr benefit 

••' thr'"..!.:t" th^t ''w,ii" '1::"!'';;:' ^"' "?•. '"'"*«>' » <'-i. wa.erw.y 

should 1. d,.,Vi«cd';l'o,"''::,„'Ji;;j:;;''''- "f '-'- .h.reforc'.{ 

ArticU J-Th« CeorgUn Bay Canal. 

Th.- |.r<>i.,„f,| (;.„r((ia„ Hay canal will n,.f K, i ... i 
'>y the K..vrrn,M.nt „f a„ .,,trni„!.nt Je'.plV " ''" committed 

K.a,. llav. t,. th.- V r T .ro,^? * •.llin»fwn.,d, „n ,1,^ (iror- 

fro.n tlu. lake, by way'' ..7^ .^'l ^.Tn cr"' ^ri'l'w 'T« ^"'""I:' 

St f.awrfruc rivir, I hi i,r Mti, n i, " Ukr Krr.' to the 

n.uch o.n,ulcratin„ a lu' S "^ "'"' ""' '^'"ivr very 

canal, if o.nstrticti.l w, ,1, 1. ...v ' '"" ^"""v"nc.d that the 

n.ut.. by way of lake i!-;!; ' '"'^ •"'ITovcm-n. „„ th,- .-xi^tinu 

is of'";;; s:{;'zJ::::r:^^. ''Tfr: «"^""'"'"' «« '^- — 

water, between the Georgian Hay a"' MnnZJIT^'"''^ '? ."""" "'^ 
river, connrctin,? the .iVerem ,.reaml ^^ "^ V "' ''''" '^"•■»*'» 

proposition is receiv.nK rather ,./«„ ^ "^'Y "^ ""«'*• Thi« 

Quebec, not l-ecausT 7i, nerit, a»7rnn^rr /f""' ^^ouucal and 
that it. construction wouH e '„?, .he .'J'"' '''?"" "^ '^"^ f»^« 
those cities for a time whiU ^h! . ""^ <^""ifnf real supremacy «f 

by way of I-akeF rand the s't Uwr"e'n? "• *'"' '""i^: '" *''«'»" 
them the handlinw of the mmrnse , nn " "u" """"''^ »»''*' '""" 
ocean by way of t1-e St* Law;";*;" riv"r '*'' "'' """ '^^'^'^'^ '^e 

he.wle'.^ }he"Ge*orS"Ray ^l.'jr £!^±'' °^ '""^ ^'-" -^^ '^l^e. 
miles and invc! the luJ^ldinl of „,»« ''"''",* " 'I'^'an^c- of 440 

for the purpose ,,f .naintanL^ " "Z"""' ,''""'/ ^"'l ^«'""voir, 
round It will he rradi"^" ."erstood' thlt ?'''^ "' ^''" '^"^ y" 
Its success upon an ariffciaTsunnl „f .* ^'u'^^^ depending for 
wouM be a very doubtful men n.^*^; ^ '*'"". "'"""••d "n this way 
no, be relied 7n at all times '""'Portat.on and one that could 

route "Xo'Jld'r about % 'mts'^vl^T'/v"' p^^- "'^ rT^"" --»' 
canal l,2ifi miles a difference in diVinnL-*" F*""" ""S" "'•" Welland 
Georgian Ray canal rotUe of'sn" mi '""l„'"the w.^^ '^^ P'-«P«««1 
.en.ed by the Canadian .overnn,c;r."on ^^s'^ul::^:^^^'^^.^ 

canals' toTTpl":^:o'^PeT'«:.,r•'''''7H*' '^l'^'" "^ ''^t- Lawrence 
would be «reatr;VdLc;d Sd' sr^orth!.'!-L'i^r.T,'i%--; '-^« 
«bl> n. practical .enefn in time of transit' cnuid' be clalmedfThe 

S8 



?i 



1 
J 



h ttill >. ""■*""''"•''"•' »P"'« would I.r t,*rm..,il.lr • 

po.c:i'u::r,'';^H:rv',,:;v'v:7.."'*'' •" -"..er,...,. ..„. ,1,.. ,.r.. 

■ulf c.nal. Itri. M w" M » •■""•"•ti.on HJth .h, lake. „, ,hr 

«ver woul.1 »%'u«/;":'„ rvru'hr'ir -r'* *■"';" •' ^"""'^tr.! „ 
•le-gnrd Dday. L Uld l?e mrvi.^^f J ' ''" "'.*"•«•'' '"' wh.ch 
l««ion by that rout, i^mlln ,ddl,, ' h,l" '"•'"""l"'" *'"' <""»l-r- 

inimrn»r rr.rrvuir. wl, 'L \*mM . . , l'^"'*''''*" dctruciion of the 
•upply of w.irr which would h!„l '''""'f'' "' hold thr ,rt,(lcul 
tion of the c.n-l ** '••^ nrcr,„ry f..r .he .ucfc».ful opcr« 

•he lamr tact"* •» tho L lir.nJ .h^"*" .'" "*" ?""•• ►»•*' "I'-P'H 
agr can.!. a„,l arc rip ".mL'* E? ,1' IJi."""." "' ""' ^"^*"«" •l'-«*"- 

of power t. indui.rie, n tha. .1^ °1 '^ ""*'• '"^ "" ^"PP'y 

be obtainable were .he cana .llf .K. "^''^''^'h't would n„. 
•idcration. ""*' "•''' ''" ""'y «i'l>Jfct under con 

goveTr;:;;t"\e';rXir.Ura«i''of'';h'''" -r •-* ^-'•'»-" 

c.nal. and the plea wa. made^h^ it 1 ,', l""'"'?'"' ^""'K''" Hay 
great lake, that wourd ,e7n,Irei; w hm f- * 'T"^ * '""" '" '''' 
from poMible interference on , fie n-., V^**"" u'""""''^ *"'' '''«^ 
tunately the l-.urier aSutraion decUe ."."^ ']'*"' I""'"" '•"'• 
* government measure an7ranad:.wL. "'■•'"''» «>" »«-h«-me .i 
•nimmen.esumof money which wonMh,"V'' ""i "P""'i«"re of 
The Canadian peoole hive :V:^h\^^ ^^ '.J,'' '""*■" '''»«l"tcly wasted. 

only result ha been to n ovX I^. Th ?'"' '" "'/* ^"^^^ '"'^ "» 

motorboat, the o^n^^/^rl^i.v:;^;',:^^^::,'::!./-/-''-'" ■•'"" 
w;Xr"'fo^.hr^ru:.'::nrn..'"«' 



motorboat,. the own;;; fwhich''are,rwi "'").'"' '"' ^"wboat, and 
ality of .he Kovernmenf in .„ . ^ "'*'?'' •'"IvantaRe of the liber- 
water for .hdr""^"^cnt ft'"T""'.\?"o'"''P''""'^' '«^"'" "' 
been and never w I be t ,c,l fJr^he .r*!! ^' ""^^ '"='"?' "'•^■" ^n. 
the Georgian Ray to Lake Ontario '^*'"^^•"^••■"■"" '>f '"ffic from 

Bay^an^l\^h%'me"V°!l^,rTHXy"'"rh' "' ^-»'»» 'he r.e„r«ia„ 
hope .hat it win'ecue the aCoval of ,h '''''""'''''' "'«'''■ '" •►" 
matter is thoroughly con,idcroru.tthL^ '^"^••■^""'^."' before the 
in failure because of the far, .b. », • ''I '' dctir.ed to rcM.I. 
route available from It K^reat'Tale^Vo" ;be-\,ceir- '"' ''" ^"^"^ 

i. no?: nrd"bus?n7/s'''pr"opo',r,ir'Jnd''^-.?^^'"* '' transportation 
ments of a waterway de/,?,,,l. ^ T" ."'*' '""' '^e require- 

west to the reaboTr/ '"'^ "'^ ''"■"'"'" "' '^e great 



Article 4.-.Th. Deepening of the St. Uwrence Route. 



.he s ::^%ic.";„:.'!„?'- t^h^^^^^y^^r/^vrnr* ^f '"^ ^"^^ - 

natural artery to be u,ed in 'hr;L's^r^^^tioV;f\^rp"Ta.;rV^y'i: 



the st-al.dard. Hy taking advamaur ..t it u ,• .an r<„(Iily secure a 24- 
foot waterway to the ocean with a minimum niikaKc of canal cnn- 
structiun, and the work can he completed at ks^. than ()nt-<|uarter 
the expense of any other proposition advanced It is true tliat origin- 
ally there were sotnc obstructions to naviKatioii, Inn they have all 
heen overcome, so that today a vessel may load with ^rain at Duluth 
or 1 ort Arthur and djscharge at the docks of Manchester in the heart 
of hiTKland provided the vessels do not draw more than 14 feet. All 
that IS nece'sary to make this route available for ships of 10,000 tons 
capacity is to deepen the existing channels of navigation to 24 feet, 
and when that is done it will be possible to deliver the products 
of this country in Europe at the minimum of cost for transportation. 
I he influence of this waterway on the progress and development of 
an enormous tributary region is incalculable. 

Water competition from the continent of Europe to the head of 
the great lakes will inevitably result in a lowering of railway tolls 
aiid an improvement in their service that will be of benefit to the 
whole country. 

The Welland canal connecting Lake Erie with Lake Ontario at 
present has a maximum depth of 14 feet. The Canadian government 
long ago realized the fact that this canal would not meet the re(|uire- 
ments of the present day, and some time ago engineers were en- 
gaged to report on t}.;- possibilities of constructing a new canal with 
a minimum depth o' M feet. Their report induced the government 
to undertake the wo.,, of building a new waterway from Lake Eric 
to Lake Ontario, and within a reasonable time there will be a new 
canal opened which will permit the passage of vessels drawing not 
more than 24 feet. In the St. Lawrence river proper there are six 
canals in operation, ranging from 1% to 14 miles in length, each hav- 
ing a maximum depth of 14 feet in harmony with the existing Wel- 
land canal. These canals would necessarily have to be deepened to 
24 feet to correspond with the new Welland canal, but the total 
mi cage of canal reconstruction required would only amount to 73 
miles, including the new Welland canal. 

At different points in the St. Lawrence river changes would 
require to be made to permit of the passage of vessels of large capa- 
city, but the work is one of small magnitude as compared with the 
other propositions before the people and there are no great en- 
gineering difficulties to be overcome at any part of the route 

Between Montreal and Quebec vessels pass through Lake St. 
I eter. Prior to 1851 vessels drawing more than 12 feet were barred 
from passage through this lake. Since that time by continuous 
work there has been constructed a channel 450 to 600 feet wide with 
a minimum depth of 30 feet at low water, and a 35 foot channel is 
now under way. From Quebec to the sea there is a free run down 
the St. Lawrence river with an unlimited depth of 'vater. 

It might be said that the people of the United States would 
not be inclined to make free use of the St. Lawrence route even if 
It were deepened to 24 feet, owing to the fact that a portion of the 
route would be under the complete control of the Canadian govern- 
ment, but there is absolutely nothing in such an argument. Trans- 
portation knows no boundary lines and traffic will seek the cheap- 
est route irrespective of its ownership. As an illustration of this 
tact we might say that in 1900 a company was formed in the city 
ot Chicago for the purpose of running a line of steamers between 
tnat city and Great Rritain, and two or three trips were actually 
madr by the St. Lawrence route, but the ships were necessarily of 
small capacity and were discontinued because they could not be 
made to show a profit. And today according to press reports grain 
IS being loaded at ,Du1uth for direct shipment to Italy by way of 
the St Lawrence river, but this will also prove unprofitable owing 
to the fact that they will be small capacity steamers. 

The Canadian government would no more think of placing 
obstacles in the way of business passing through the St. Lawrence 
river than the United States would think of barring foreign vessels 
from using the Panama canal when it is completed 



30 



4 



•1 



# 



th,. I;l'^"7' "*■ ''"^'■■'^'•' on.- Mbstacl.- in the way of the deepening of 

u.ur. , f ,h'"""'".TV'*'' ^'^.- ,''"■ ""certainily with r.^Rard to the 

future of the Kreat l.ikes. If tlic diver.su, n oi wat.r troni tlu' lakes 

pa.lv' wifh'rh'rVr^' "r V^\ h^;'^ ^^'" ''^- ''--red and ;;, syn.- 
?nn. ^'" '^"^ alluiK' of the lake levels the level of the St. Law- 
bass TtJu ^"'"T^- "'"'*'"^' " '■•'■'"'■' -•"^■-vay on the present 
„nl / u 'iisufhcient to meet the r.qnirenients of navigation 

^he C.n.Hi'.n"""" i"""''"'""-^- '* .^^■""''' ''*■ ""reasonable to e.xpect 
waterwav . li"""' '" "• ''ii''"'^ millions of dollars to provide a deep 
rorliDlete^I Lt '•. f =»'•?'•'' o"'>; «" 'V"'- ^^f" '^^' ^"^l^ t'as been 
waTer in ,'h ' ''■•"*''"•" P'='''<-' "««:'"« thro, .>'^ the diversions of 

water m the west, and that it would be nr,-s»H. . ;., do it all over 
again 1 he great lakes are the com.n.n p - erty ol tl:J t , nati , 
InV..^"' ,''"'"'■'•■" "^'^'" ""^ greater part . Northern Arv ica The 
boundary line runs, as nearly as may b . e ,.,idi.stan; ot^i either 
teresV and "' JT''"''"" "f t''^ waters v . ',„a,ter of na.tua li" 
teresl and should l,e arranged for by mu.jai n.^.-.-Tieit 

matte"r ^aVluIx ' " ^*'f* '^^' ^^\ co.7struction of this waterway is a 
,T «hoHM . L '"'P?'- a"« to the city of Detroit, it is proper that 
inteJnnrion I ■ "'«-• .'"."'^t'^'^ >" a" agitation for the creation of an 
hi Hi r" ^T'"'*'"'", "^^^ ^^"'^ ^'^^^^ absolute power to regulate 
Who wiirr/: ^••■'^" .f^^"" ^^'^ '^J^" for any purpose whatsoever. 
DetroiT citj? "'^^"'"K «"" '" the battl. that means so much to 

DortionTf"lh ^''"^V ,'" t"^ =>« impossible to divert water from any 
oCt Xr, n ..'-''"•'"u'^,''" ^^*^"''»"R from Superior to Ontario, with- 

inZidual. " '^^ '^' "* ^^^^^^^« the general health of the 

strnrT.vfn^lf ^^V"" '°""= ''''^S'''' *^^ °"'y feasible plan for the con- 
f.rnL, . I ''/'^'■P waterway from the lakes to the sea that will 
furnish adequate accommodation for the requirements of this coun' 

ransnor.?fii!f, )u """?"' ""'>' "'"' ^ '" "" <^^" ^ope to obtain 
side world minimum cost to the markets of the great out- 

Article 5.— Millions for Railways— Nothing for Waterways. 
During the past decade the attention of the people of this 

theTmL''"' ^"'1 'rl^'^^ '" "'•- development of the ?ai°ways while 
the improvement of the waterways has not been given the slightest 

wate'r'?;arp"ortaTi':,;^:vL^f '^ —^ ^^ ^''^^ ^'''--^ ^^-^ 
■ .F'rst— Because the railways offered the quickest means of secur- 
TrLZYt^l^il'rltrT '"" "' '--P-'^t'- of the rapidly-incrlasTg 
^.•.k^fu°"**~"^'^?"l'" '^^ railways have used their powerful influence 

no. KX. "'"? "^ ^^' """'^y '" '"^"t attention from the iminense 
possibilities of water transportation. 

in th. '^.*'!5 ^''"'^ '"'■ajons millions of dollars have been expended 
in the development and construction of railway lines, while th-- im- 
provement of the w-aterways for the carriage of t;affic has be^n 
elTJZ T^^^'i"^- ^'otwithstanding the imtrJense sums of monej 
expended m the extension of the railways throughout the country 

il the'^riffi'/" <?"'*H ""''''*■.•'" '"^' ^•'''^ '^' tremendous increase 
f^.-iv '"'''^ offered for shipment and the necessity for greater 
facilities for transportation has forced the question of improving 
he waterways to the front. When it is taken into consideration 
that one ocean steamship will absorb the contents of eight or ten 
ordinary freight trams, it will readily be seen what effect the open 
ing of lake ports to ocean ships would have in relieving the con- 
?o„nt°" "^^"^ "^'-""'? ^^'^ y^" '" handling the produce of the 
■land ed hv/r'.' ?*"»,•' '" '^^t*"^'''?"- ^he tonnage that would be 
kets of th/oU M '"""l^' ^'■°"' ,^^^ "PP^*" '^'^'^ ports to the mar- 

kets of the old world would not only result in relieving the congestion 
at lake ports, but it would enable shippers to obtain the benefit 

31 



of the ruling markets from time t(i time, which is lost to then. 

renience'JifVh ""r' ''^ *'"•' •'"'*^S'" ^'^'^^^ ^^'S <he -n 
yemence of the railways to get it to the seahoard for export 

ha. K. *P'"*'*'"8 ^'"' Prominent Detroit business mei, the writer 
hai beet, surprised to hnd that they take little or no interest in 

been asked, "What can we do to further the deepening of he St 
Lawrence route that i. .-: matter that rests entirely with the Canadian 
government?" It s true that the work of reconsructing the canal" 
be ween Lake Er.e and the ocean would have to be^nderuken 
and carried on by the Canadian government, but. as pointed ou" 
ma previous article. ,t would be folly for them to expend the 
money necessary to provide a deep waterway to the sea unlew 
!n,T i^'^lu '""If guarantee that the expenditure will not be 
made use ess through the diversion of water from the lakes There 

'LlToftV^^L'^' '''^ °^ ^•^♦'■°'' "" ^'^ »° "^"'•«= the develop! 
tT?h. • *»'"way»' V^- a campaign can be started looking 

nf rnn^^'^r'"*?!,""*.?' *"? '"^""ational commi.sion for the purposf 
of controlling the diversion of waters from the lakes; the support 
of cities like Chicago. Milwaukee. Duluth. etc.. can be secured and 
pressure can be brought to bear upon the federal government to 
secure the protection of the waterway, so that they ma^y be "mproved 
?nrl "p^'P-J? '" iK ^"^ interests of the country at large. As 
former President McRae. of the Board of Commerce, said in his 
address to the people from upper Michigan some time ago: 
...«„'^ .^"*! improvements are brought about first, by agitation 
second, by education, and third and last by organization" 

the time i.s ripe to strike for the construction of a deeo water- 
nnV? '^»*^ «,Sf'"'"<l and should the citizens of Detroit neglect the 
opportunity they now have to assist in the work of making thil 

apathy" °""" '''"'• "'"^ ""^y '""^ ''*'' '^«°" '° regret^, hel? 

The rhicago drainage canal is not the only danger point in con- 
nection with the diversion of lake waters; there fre r^Iny place, 
where promoters are seeking the privilege of tapping the lake 
11 Zr '^% TP°'" "^ enriching themselves without^ regard to 
the welfare of the nation, and these movements extend all the 
way from the head of the lakes to the eastern end of Lake Ontario 
The necessity for prompt action will therefore be apparent to any^ 
one who gives the question consideration. ^ 

Ihere is another new channel of transportation looming up that 

ve'arlv'in "thTutZv^ '^^^ '" '"^""'"f '^' ^on^^tion that occ!? 
^^^L ( ■ ^=^n<J''"g of western products, and while it will not 
compete for interior trade with the St. Lawrence route, it will take 
a considerable tonnage away from the railways and give them a 
better opportunity to give the people an improved service in the 
handling of purely ra-l traffic. The route in question is by way of 
the Hudson Bay. which will lessen the distance from Winnipeg ?o 

noS^^'f'^'l^"' ';""1 '";'".• ""'^ ^^'^^ *i" handle a consid^rlb le 
portion of the output of the northwest and to that extent relieve 
the congestion on the railways. "icm relieve 

If ynu have read these articles on the development of the water- 

rr^'n/n .^■' '^'°''"'i'-^ ^^•''"^'^ '^' necessity for action on the 
part of Detroit city. Are you ready to act. or will you do as has 
been done in many cases in the past, let it pass with the statement 

Sf. H?.""'^'"'' ' '='" ^? personally to further the work of making 
this city an ocean port? »"^'"8 



3t