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1 2.2 



1653 East Mam Street 

Rocheslei, New York U609 USA 

(716) *82 - 0300 - Phone 

(716) 288- 59S9 -fax 

aibr SrairabiUtif nf thr llrntrrtinn mxb 

Eurnurayrmput nf ffifrfta in 

auft arnmtft (Chatham. 

By Andrew Arthur Brovn, B. A. 

\t Bffllrttbllttji of tlrr Jlratrttimt atxb t«rniirmjmf nt of 
lltrdfl in and around (l^atUanu 

"f)h Nature! thou (ijdilcM whom we worship 
For in ihee we catch a gliinpte of the Uivint 

Thoij){h interwoven »o intricately 
That just where it liei we cannot define. 

iv^ our eye* feast upon thy many beauties 
Our can list to the noces raned in thy praise: 

Voices of hirili sinking in tree fop>, and 
I'he miectt humming alonu thr byways 

But many dangers beset thee Oh Nature; 

And we must lend to thee a helping hand 
If we would ever prf.prvc thee as thou art 

tn truth so perf-tt. .o beautiful, so grand." 

Minis limy ho .stu.liiMl from tliif.- [xiints . f view:— The 
scientific, the s<»ntiiiifnt!il iind the tccniumic. Th. iiiphules 
their (.Hfrin, rleveh)pinfiit, structure and relatiuiiship to the 
otiier foriiLS of life past ami present. A.s rejrards the structure 
of birds it i.s rather of interest to note in an a;:p when aerial 
locomotion so (>ngr()SHes the .sciontiHc world that moist of the 
speedier planes are modelled upon diagrams ,,f such bird* an 
Eagles. Larks, Marti n.s, Swallows, (Julls etc.. when soaring; dur- 
ing flight. Mans desire to Hy led him lo carefully observe 
bird .structure and the restdt is the monoplane. Sentiment en- 
ters largely into the of many. Children watch with 
interest a Robin tugging at a worm. The building of the nests 
excites our admiration for their ingenuity and facile adapUtion 
to circumstances. Nearly everybody loves to hear the song of 
birds. The hum of insect life mingled with bird notes is to 
most natures soothing. Thus 'Nature does not provide delight 
for the eye only. The other senses are not forgotten. A 
thousand sounda, many delightful, seem to till the air." The 
individual who has studied Nature and felt its potent charm ifl 


nt'Vtr fritiiilloxH tor till cnHliun ^jrrt'tM liim wlx-rever he luny 

turn in M(.iin'»«»f itn uiiiltiiudc of t. hum utnlthiiM in inHiikiri<l en- 

iioMirl. I'oHsil)!}- tlu! wt>i<l in<|uii»itivfnes.H wouM niuit* clwirly 

fleriiM- riiir iitliluJc tlmn sfntiiiuMit Tor iimn i<« a Kcnititii/.injj 

uniinitl uii'i Natiin- iuiriislu.* him with no form of lift>. phint or 

anttiml. so woii(l»Tl'iilly fushiont'il uixi ^jifttMl with [loweiH ojf 

ailuption to iimn-oreiiti'd coiKlitionNUM binlM, t-vt^n Hlthou;(h they 

an* hy no nuaiiH u« hi^'h in thf .s<'»ilf »if creatitni hh tnnuy (»f uiir 


In thin -hort iiiticli- I nhiill «'(i(i('Hvor to hiy li<fon' you in 
but H vtiy inipfrfirt anil ii)n<h'ns<»i foi tii .lata which I trust 
will C'onNincc you oi tlie ecoiiomio importaiu-i' i^t' liinis an<l that 
thfir juott'Ction ami tiicoura^fiiu'iit i« not only necessary hut 
hi^'hly <<«'.siiahli'. 

Many peopU- will recall tliat some five or six years ajjo 
conilitions wire »uch hat an overahun«iance <jf iuHect life was 
the result. Trees wtit- iiiresu-il in muny cases to such an ex- 
tent as to seriously menace their life. 

Elm Park in particular sutleroil, au'l only last year afttr a 
showtr tn»' walks in the Park and many of the sid»«walks were 
carpeted with moths carried earthwards and stunned hy the im- 
pact of the lain drops. 

Ah you aie awaic plants and trees breathe 
throujjh stonnita or pores it) the leaves and that 
under the influence of suulii^ht assimilation of a lar^e 
portion of the plints and trees' foo 1 is performed hy tl»e 
clilorophy! of tlie leaves. A very larj^e number of insect pests 
prey upon leaves which they devour in ama/ing (juantilies 
thus robbinijf the plant or tree of its main digestive organs. 
This necessarily retards growth and mav cause them to die. 

That insect pests destroy vast (juantities of agricultural 
and forest products yearly is indisputable. 1 t\o not e.xactly 
recall to what Carlyle referred when he said: "There are no 
triHes for out of triHes come tragedies. Had he had in Ids 
Blind s eye some devaf<tated forest or agricultural area ho 

CouM ri')t hiivi- tiMi'l'- 11 III -If HiiliftU ikini |»filiii.iit niii.iik 

A >.in;rle iiiotli li^rtU' 1)1 (!y in «'«|»il.l.' ui Imm uf^ th.- ii .»tnr 

fif iiri iricr.ililil.' iiiiml>Hr (,f iu kiml, iiut inlif.|Ui'iuly iiimiiii;^r 
intft till' liuii<lr<-ils of tlic.iiHii.uls, an. I .•v.u niun- \t\,\ tlif (••• 
Milt' Thf>»' itiH.'cN iiiijHt li\ luxl plant lil'-- will i... .|,.iiii.|.-.J uf 
its* vepliiif Hi) us to IfHiI nrif .1) ini|tnii- wlu'tln-r u pi i^u.- urn tiro 
hns lately I):i.s.ho«I tlmt way. 

IvM-ust and uthiT plii^u»'« iin* im \nnn- miiiiiiumkim li' <iiy 

tliun irt liihlical litn^s. I.nt lui- »'0i n inilly niiuli nioii. v.-iioiH 

to tuitions tin. I coniniiinitit's 'ri„. I'.-.i w.M-vil in u .sin::h' stuti) 
cl.f««troyfl l?;{O(i(».0()0 w..itli of tlmt ciop. Tl„. f,„v>t t-nt rutii - 
pillar hus Htri()p.".| I) ir. ..f ,.vriT j.-il .ilmh ol .I.M-iMiioiis triMis, 
K<juan' mill's in ••xt.-nf. hihI the l.rowii tjiii an. I '^y\>^v inotliH 
hiiv«. cost th.' N.w Kii^'Un.j and otii.r slal.-s t.-ns ..I' niillDiis of 
(lullnrs. On 11 consftvativ.' Iia^is it is .wtiinatcj that ih.' loss 
yearly in the I'nite.l States on agricultural and forest proijufts 
is ttJmut l?M0(),0(K),(K)O. C. (Jor.lon H.-witt. 1». Sc, K. U S. (.'. 
Dominion Kntonif.lojrist estimates that on our tield corfts th« 
minimum annual loss due to injurious insects cannot ho less 
than 9r)0,()()0,0(K). Nothing' is said of forest products destroyed 
by these agents annually at all. 

Birds are the speediest and most eflicaciouH means of rid- 
ding ourselves of insect pests. 

There is a definite relation between a tree, an insect and a 
bird. The former affords food to the second an<f a place 
on which often to deposit its eoftrs; antl also a shelter and 
inj; place for the latter a.s Well as that on which its food, the in- 
WMit in one or all of its motamorphostical forms, is largely found. 
Hence it is important to preserve thiseijuilibriurn for if insects 
increase and birds decrease the tree suffers and often die*; and. 
if birds become too numerous, a state of affairs not often oc- 
curring as various agencies tend to tl-e contrary, insect life— 
the birds' main food supply— will be depleted and they will 
starve. Not only do birds perform a service to man impossible 
of monetary calculation by destroying insect pests, but man/ 


birdn oftt larjfi.|y of wmd imHn; for ' trtr.H." m they fM in th« 
limfof Our L»r,| ^till, will chukf ' ' hihI impmi the full 
pr.Hhictivity of (h«> H#)l.i mm.! «anhMi. To the Unuvr. who de- 
pend". :.irj;ely upon H.'I.J «n<J truck -^urilofi products for a ljv«. 
IIIhmkI. I will throw out thiH «u|fjr«.stion thnt an acrt- inoru or 
Ie!M< (»f W(Hi.n»4n.l clos.. to thecloiir.'d land not a«ide a^i a bird 
wihctuary will amply repay him for any lorn ho iiii^ht occaaion 
by witholdiniT (hiK lot from cultiviiiion, Hnd matt-riully 1««50H 
his lalK)rs m .'liminatinj; thi; pornicioui^ Colorado IWxstlu or 
Potato Buj; and othor poHtH. 

Following arc a list of hiris mi^Tatory and resident 
in this Heetii»n with th«f diet net iorth as rt'V»'altd by anulyMis by 
the United Stat*!.- Oovtirnnunt, various state and other inveiiti* 
gators in Cimada including' notes of my own. The dat«H aro 
tlie earliest and latest date of arrival Iiere, covering,' a periixl 
of sixteen years, tiik<!n from l>r. Huxttrs list in th<- Miramichi 
Natural History Association liullttin, NuuiImt, 2, IMOI. I have 
arranged them in «;roups for purposes of consideration. 

SoiiK Birds of Orchard and Woodland 

Wilson's Thriisliiliyl(K-iehla fuseese.ns fusceseens)\lay I 1. Feeds 
on insects larirely. especially thus,. lir(|u.'iitiny the yr.»un<i and 
the lower parts of tn-es. Ants, ^roiMid beetl.-s, cureulio«, 
gnisshoppers. cutworms and earth worms art' favouni.-s; l.ut It 
ha.s U'en observed occasionally to cit hairy eatcrpillurs of thu 

gipsy moth and, f line; coiisidciabjy in trees it lakes many 

caterpillars ii.clii.|iiiu tl„. destnictiv ■ tent cat-rpillar. In sum- 
mer and fall it .'ats wild i.-iiit, ^cldMiii troul-linj; cultivated 
varieties, lis halnts are eomuiriid.ille and it should be eticuur- 

Hermit Thrush (Hylocichla guttata palassi) .May 21, I'-H 
diet islarjjejy iii.Mctivoiiius. A y(Ujni,' Ifermit Tliru>li in capti- 
vity. Mr. Dani.'l E Owen .states, ate rei;ularly half its weight 
of raw steak daily, and in .all probability wonld have eaten a« 
Iiiucli m(jre had it l<een fed oftener. 




Protv^nor ForU-M' Ntudien of tin- ^eriiiH Hyhciclilft in .'llinoi* 
showH thit 61% of their forwl c«m«.iMt« of iiisi.otn. V'' of niyii.i- 
rKKl« and rJ2''/ «f fruit. Thirty purtH of thr food cuuMisttd of in- 
junouH inncttM nml only wvi-n uf Iw'niHcial H|)«ci««. 

Ruby-crowned Kin^lft (K»-sfuhiH mU.n.luhi calfndula) Apr. 
.10 and May ao. It n«'«t8 in conifiTou-* trrrs. Hfing .xtrtniuly 
i«niall, runkinjj m-xt to thi- Munuiiinf(ltirdn in Hiz«, it f<(«dHon th.« 
niinutr foroM inwctn which f-scipo Iiu^'t hirdw. Not oidy do 
they creep uh..ut tht- trunks hut mIko skillfully warch the folia^.-, 
and an- exp.Tt Hy ouK-Ihts. I5ark h.;ctlfM. Hcal.- insects, and 
the og^s of injurious uiothH, and plant licf form thf» major part 
of i»j) food. It is a valuahle /mset in the orchard and ii.M work 
on conifers is uu>st etKcncious. 

American BroWn Creeper (Certhiu famih'nris Americans) 
May 10 and June 17. Feeds very largely on insectM. im boring 
gruU and th.; pupae and egg.s of in.sectM, Dr. .ludd's cx-imina- 
tion of a Htomach showed such heetlon oh lUI'.ps acreu.s und 
Bruehus hihi«ci; aN.) HawHie.H. antw. spiders and seeds of scruS 
pino. Th#y work on tree trunks starting alK)ut two feet from 
the groun.l working up to almut twenty feet and have been ob- 
served to thu.s search forty-threetrees in an hour. 

The Warblers are small bird.s and as they are in.sectivorous, 
this enables them so reaeh even the tifis of the twigs. Th.! 
vurioMH members of this lainily cover a tree from the ground to 
the topmost branches and thus are highly d.-siruble. The eight 
birds below are \\'ood VVorbh-is 

Maryland r(Jeothlyp^s trieha.-^ tiiehas) May 1 
and dune (J. F.-eds on leaf hop[)ers, grasshopp<-rs, eank.rwoi ins. 
gipsy moth CHteipilhirs (has Ik-m ob.serve.l toeat tilty-two in a 
few minutes), ca,se bearers, leaf rollers and many other de.struc- 
tive caterpillars; also catching and eating butterfli.s and moths 
:n consi.lcrab!,. numbers. Ke.-tles, Hies an.l especially plant liiv, 
llie birch aphis bc-inga favoiite, are included in its food. 

Oven-bird (Heiurus ..njrnCapill!!:-^) M.ny tii. Wh:!*- fcc.'in'T 
on the ground it eatsgrub.>j and earthworm.s and picks up cater^ 


pillars nn.l Other ins..c-t. wind, l.uve dr.,.,..! f.-on, the trees 
Many cat rp.llars ..f th. .nf-sy u.-th ar. thus .l.stroye.l in their,^^ plHcvs an.,... ,|.,.., ,.,„,,, ,, ^,^^ ,.,.,^^,^,.^ ^^^,^^^^,^|^^ ^^^_ 

vice hy .h,stroyin,i. cankervvorn.s un.l phint lice: and, while 
mainly insectiv„n,„s, can .si.h.sist on lar;t.,H,,.ouM f„o.l. 

Hluo-eye.| V..||.,w Warhler n)en.ln.i,.a aestivu ae^iva) May 
.ian.l.lun.U, (), f ourn.ost useful hir-ls. Almost entire- 
ly .usee .vorous. Two tlu.-ls .f i.s f | ......i.ts of eaterpillars 

o .t .s l,.,..|, wh,.n pl,.n,if,.| ],.,„,.^., ,„„^„ eate.pilIarK' 
ot the K,psy ,.n.l hrown-t.ul n.uths an.l shows an inonlinate fond- 
n.'ss tor cnnker and othe,- Tent caterpillars 
are comn.only eaten as ar. sn.all bnrk l.orin,. h.-tles. an.on. 
the latter the una^oes ol the eurrent bore,-. W.evils an- ..•e.d? 
>^y se.^ed upon^ A v.-ry few useful Keetl-s are eaten ly if 
^ho^v.n. considerable skill as a Hy-catcher it seizes sn.all n.oths, 
■ke the cod „,^. n..,h. It covers the whole tree and even -M-ass- 
iioppers, an<l are on the bill of fare. 

American Redstart (Setopha^^a ruticillu. Apr. 2!) and May 
^7. The .nsect iood of this bird is perhaps the n.ost varied of 
^^ common NVarble... ^ere are few sn^U si.ed forest insect do not ,n one form or another fall a prey to it. Cater- 
pdlars which spin silken threa.Is and han. in ndd air are seized 
upon. It takas .ts fooi from trunk,, leaves and the air 
so of necessity Its prey i.s varied. Practically all the smaller 
pests of deciduous as well as coniferous trees are .levoured 
It oats many of the s.naller hai.y caterpillars, as well as bugs- 
moths, gnats, two-winged flies, small grasshoppers, beetles and 
plant hce. A rather interesting fact hasbeen gleaned by observa 
tion: that in common with the Maryland Yellow-throat when 
searching a tree trunk they will, unlike the Creepers which 
chng perpen.Iicularly and partly support themselves with the 
tad, cling horizontally and maintain their balance and hold 
with the claws alone; but they work up a trunk spirally as do' 



The Marnn Hou,e ha, been occupie.l on ,he author', ground, for so ne^ix year, 

Sparrow, al,one« .n oneof .he 14 room, and they .eem to agree with neighbor,. 

The hou,e in the tree i.a, tried thi, year a, an experiment and i, made of zirc 
roofing ,n the form of a stove pipe and covered with birch bark. The two hou,e, 
of th., model on our own elm, have two roon, each and are all inhabited and the 
birds are doing good work among the insects. 


the Creepers.* 

.„ Y«;'"W-'''""Pe*l Warbler (Dendi-oicncoronaU) M«y 13 ami 
28. teed upon bay-WnieM. cad.ljs flics, various insect larvae beet- 
le. Kn'iK plant lice and their e^g8.l,ou«o flie. and other diptera 
and the birch an.l w„lly apple tree aphi^ of which it is irery 
fond. In .pring it renders valuable service by prtyinif upon in- 
sect pe«ts which come into l,einK with the w„rmer weather 

NHHhville Warbler (Hehninthop.Ia rubricapilla rubricapilla) 
May 2, and June G. Feed on CR,.kerworms. tent caterpilUrn 
brown-tail and ffipsy njoth larvae. 

Black-poll Warbler (Dendroica striata) Apr. 30 and June 1 
teed o„ |,H„y caterpillars and plant lice. e.speciHlly the aphi« 
infe.Hting the iK)pIar. ^ ^ 

Ceruleun Warblfr (Dendroica caerulea) May 25 Feed upon 
the in.sects commonly constitutinj^r the food of Wo )d Warbiera 
^ Cedar VVaxwin^(BomKyciIl*cedroium) May II and June 
J. Peed on cedar berries a.s well a.s of mountain ash 
bats voraciously of cankerworms. While they do eat cherries 
in large quantities, a stomach analysis shows them to be 
very largely wild cherries; and much more than half their 
berry d.el is wild. They are particularly efficacious in keepincr 
down the elm-leaf beetle. Flies, grasshoppers, beetles, cricketl 
ichneumon Hies tent caterpillars, crane flies, cankerworms lace- 
w»,gs as well as bugs and bark lice go to swell the bill of' fare. 

?»*« «Ti 1 fP''*^*f?,P"''f'"'^"^ purpureu8)Apr. 28 and 

Jutte (5. I)evoui-s buds and bhvKSoms of apple cherry peach and 
plum trees feeding on the stamens and pisti s iTeV^i fe^7 
upon the blossoms of the r^ maple and Jeds of .u^ ?re^l tTe 
white ash and the berries of re<i'cedar, mountain ash anToUen. 

♦Note:— I have oKserved that the Brown Creeper works nn 
a tree spirally from left to right while the AmeXn R^' u"? 
ascends the trunk spirally fn>m right to left. I have never 
observed the Maryland YelloH'-throat but in no in.stance thaJ 
came under my observ tion did either of the first mention^ 
b.rds proceed to .search the trunk than in the above mannrr 

A. A. B. 


Their purning in however not excessive a.ul or» the other hand 
hey eat 5e<Ml8 of n.any of our moet destructive weed-s. ragweed 
being a favonte. In,ctive to plant lice and ranker 
worms and also takes ground beetles anW s.Mne cutwonns 

American GoldHnch ( Astragal in i.s tristis tristis) May 20 an<i 
June 12. Feed much on the seeds of weeds as wild clematis 
w.ld sunflower and ragweed but seeds furnished with down as 
he dandelion and thisMe are favorites. The young are largely 
fed on plant lice, caterpillars, sn.all grasshopper and beetles 
and the parents themselves take Hessian flies 
egirs of plant hce. the birch aphis and Chennaphis laricifolise' 
J'n aphis common on larches. 

Red-eyed Vireo ( Vireosylva olivacea) .May 10 and .June (i 
Pray upon larvae which depend upon their protective shape and 
coloring. One of the eflective enemies of the and 
brown-tail moth.s. Many kindsof moths and butterflies, assassin 
bugs, tree hoppers, bugs that eat plants an.l fruit, many beetle.s 

kIL 7 T^ ""^ ^"'^ ^''^''"*' "^♦^^•''^- ^-hoppers, 
katydids, locusts are eaten; and at times it becomes an ex^rt 
flycatcher taking horseflies.nosquitoes and other gnats and mrny 
gall Blueberries, ra.pbernes. blackberries and mulberries 
are commonly eaten but to them may l>e added sheep berries 
and the bernes of the dogwood, prickly ash and poke. They 
are also fond of the fruit of the benzoin bush, the sLsafras and 
magnolia and wild grapes. 

White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus griseus) May '^1 Fee^is 
quite largely on hairy caterpillars. 

Chickadee (Penthestes fttricapillusatricapilluH) This bird 
isa resident throughout the year. They can be heard any- 
where in the woods along our country roads and railroad 
rocks. At one time they were quite numerous in town but the 
last time I can recollect hearing or seeing any was about five 
or SIX years ago when a pair nested on the Benson homestead 
in a tree opposite Mr. Michael Murray's. They readily respond 
to encouragement and amply repay any measures tak4 in that 







liroction. Other birds are always whoi-e ChickHdeon mv found. 
They seem intuitively to know that where these kiu-n eyed Hn<l 
induHtriouH littl.- cre.iturrs are, there also is forxl. They are 
not .|Uarrel8oiiit' and in addition to attracting other birds p^-r- 
fonn yeoman service in devouring such pests as the tent c-M- 
erpillars ,ind their eggs; codling moths with thn;- larvae; 
the forest tent caterpillar; and the larvae, chrysalis an 1 imigo 
of the gipsy and brown-tail moths. 

Ihe birch, willow and apple plant lice ami eggs as well as 
the pine weevil, flea l)eetles, und bark beetles .jestructive t(> 
fruit, shade and foiest ti ees are also eagerly devoured 

The Acadian Chickadee ( Penthestes hudsonicus littor- 
als) is also residint all year in this section of New Bruns- 

SoDgiess Birds of Orchard and Woodland 

Least Flycatcher ;. pidonax minimus) May 22 and 2S 
Catclies house and May Hies, many moths that fly by 
• lay as the gipsy, brown-tail and codling moths; al- 
so those stirring very early in the morning or eveoiug. 
Caterpillars which spin down by a silken thread fall a prey to 
it as well as many hairy cat rpillars and their imaijoes, borinf 
and bark beetles, the flies of the railroad worm, cankerworms 
and many other caterpillars and plant lice. 

Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) May 1G and June lo. Feeds 
mainly on flying insects, May beetles, Cetonias, weevils of fruit 
and grain, click beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, wasps, wild bees, 
moths awd flies preying on bees, ants, fleas, house flies, as well 
as si'veral species troubling catUe, mosijuitoes, gnats, midgets, 
leaf hoppers ajid many other bugs, numerous varieties of cater- 
pillars mostly hairless species; but also eats hairy caterpillars 
and tl eir imagoes. It is the premier destroyer of the gvpsy 
moth and also takes the ichneumon flies when a host to an in- 
jurious or secondary parasite (Theronia melanocephala) 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) May 
20 and June ri. Plant lice, small spiders, beetles, small worms. 


'W.vms.-nectHr oV 11 hikI littl,' ins,.c(H Hit in tlu- air. .-s- 
ri)eci!illy un.l.r tiv,.s, ,,ji i]uo suimiier evening,. 

North.M-n Flidv.-r i(' uuratiis lut.tis) Apr. 2»; a,„| 
^Iiiy 2f>. Fee.j.s nu .-•ats ul.ic-l. constitut." ubcut 4.-) of its fun.l; 
«t l..'ini:tlM-j.n.i„i.., l,ir.l in this p .^p.-ct. Also takes l.cotlcM. 
pa^slioiq^.Trcrick-.-ts, eat, -rpiliars such H> fnrfst tent an.) |m- l.Hiry cat-r,.ill,„s, pupa.., ..{' jjip.y „,uth, plant lice niu\ 

other har.uful iu,ecls an 1 ^.r„ss an-I w..,..l ...,,.K are taken to 
Sfjine e.vtent. 

Birds of Field and Garden 




ar. :».') 

'^I'lanesticus niii,rr,itoriu, nii^'rati»riu«i M; 
il. Vevrrtal.Ir r.,o.l :.S' ami of this 


47% wiM fruit an.i only 4 fultivate-l varieties 

Earthworn.s. larvae of March (lie. (l5ihio all.ipennis) 
cutwonu.s( the larvae of Xoctui.l moths,) eankeruornis, woolly 
bear caterpillars, caterpillars of the foreit tent.;ripsv. l.rown-tail 
an.l wh ,e-n.arkr.l>ock moths, all the span-worms: tent cat- 
orpillarH.curculios. leaf-.-atinnr, woo.l-horin^' and rj.oun.l beetle, 
wire worms, white grubs of May beetles and so-called "June 
•bugs' of the genus Lachnosterna. 

Bluebird (Sialia sialis sialis) Apr. 24. on cutworms 

-cankerworms, furry caterpillars of Arctians and other hairy 

species; and Orthoptera, of which grasshoppers constitute 

^nearly 25% on the average of the years food. It also takes 

•vegetable food including many wild berries. 

Dr. Judd says the food of sparrows consists of from *>5 
-to 35% animal matter and from 05 to 75% vegetable matter. 
Beneficial insects .seldom amount to more than 2 percent. 

Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia m^Iodia) Mar. 29 an<l 
Apr, 23. Feeds on cabbage plant lice, cutworms, caterpillars of 
brown tail and gipsy moths and several hairless pests among 
.the Geometrid.s, leaf hoppers, apittle in.sects, grasshoppers lo- 
custs, crickets, click l»eetles Hies and their larvae, earthworm.^ 
-•spiders, wild fruit«. some wa.ste grain; and 50 per cent of their 


food eoTiMists of seeds of weeds eh cliickweec], purslane, sorre?, 
dandelion, dock, witch, pidjjeon, barnyard, and crab jfrassos. 

Slate-colored Junco(Juncohyeinali8 hyeinali8)Mar.29 and May 
S.Useful mainly in that it eatH large (|uantities of seedsof Ainar- 
ath, lamb's (juarters, sorrel, wild sunHower and other pernie- 
ious weeds. 

Chipping Sparrow (Spiz.ella passerina passerina) Mar. 2}) 
and Apr. 28. Destnys caiiktrworni.o, caterpillars of brown- 
tail gipsy and tu.««80ck moths; tent and tent caterpillar* 
and nioth.'s; codling moths; nocturnal moths; such as Arctican» 
and Tineid n-jths: current worms, leaf-eating beetles,! lie*-, parsely butterflies; and seerls of chickweed, 
clover, rr^weed, aumranth, wood sorrel, dandelion, lamb* 
quarters, jHuslane, knotweed, black bindweed, crab and pigeoa 
grass anu some wild fruits. 

Tree Sparrcw (SpizelU monticola monticolH)Apr. 24 and 25. 
Seeds form i)H per cent, of its food. It feeds very largely on< 
pigeon, crab and other j^niss .seeds as well as those of ragwe^'d,. 
amaranth, lamii's (juarters and other common weeds. 

Peabody Bird (Z-motricliia nlKJcollis) Apr. 27 and May 11 
Feeds on beetles, berries and thi., seeds, but mainly on weedl 
seeds, the ragweed C(»nstitnting 45 per cent of its food; andi 

Siivdtiuali Sparrow( Pas.serculiissandwicliensis savanna;Apr."23; 
and .Miy lO.Neirly liiU' dI" its fo)! isinsi'-t. .,u3h as Sparrows 
eat. Itshows a fondness for Ik-.tlc-i, ant^ in p.irtieular, cut- 
worms, some spiders and sr»,' = ls and its vegetable food is largely 
the seeds of pigeon, panic find marsh grasses and wild rice. 

Vesper Sparrow fPoaecetes <rrniiiineus grunniieus) Apr. (S^ 
an<l 29. Feeds on dung, leaf, dick iin<l ynmnd beetles, weevils, 
grasshoppers cutwoitiis and seeds of grass and weeds common- 
in corn and other fields and gari.lens. 

Fo.x Sparrow ( I'asserella iliaca iliaca) Apr. 14 and May 3.. 
Feeds on insects generally eaten by Sparrows and the seeds ot 
our common noxious weeds. 



House or Englwh Sparrow (Pjiswer doraesticus) Here the 
year round. Has a very ctII reputation hut while puijnacioui* 
if spacious nesting phice isavailahleothtT hirds are not niolcNted. 
This is only my own observation. The va»t majority of their 
foocJ is grain and seeds, especially of tho .• weeds abundant in 
gutters and on lawns; but in summer they eat large numl)er» 
of flieH, mosquitceg. moths, elm-tree beetles and a smiill mauve- 
blue fly which infests the elm leaf, tussock caterpillars, and in 
fact they eeem so greedy they will eat almost anything. I am 
fully aware that my remarks are not any too e.vtensivcly cor- 
roborated but am certain as to their accuracy as the fre(|Ucnt 
denunciation of this bin) led me to watch him closely. 

Titlark or Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensi'*) May (J. Feeds 
mostly on in.sects common to thetJiet of the Wood Warbler.'*. 

Crow Filackbinl (Qui.scalus cjuiscula (|ui»cultt) Mar. 29 and 
May (J and Rusty Blackbird (Euphajjus carolinus^ Apr. 2.'^ and 
May 21. Both feed on hairy caterpill.irs, cutworms and earth- 
worms but are destructive to other birds eHpecinllv t!ie younj; 
«nd those of the Robin in particnlar. Tli.-y jittiick adult 
birds and pick their eyes out and will rhive away robins as 
a result ofjtheir raids. 'Iliey me also grain eaters. The fornier 
bird should be dubbed the * Kobi-.-r !'.ird ' and no opportunity to 
shoijt either onglit to be nei;l< cied. 

Crow (Corvus brachyr. l.iMehyrliynclios) Mar :{ and 17, 
Some usudlly stay all winter chiefly around smelt boles. They 
eat soiiiu insects, hiiry eHt.-rpillars ti,.-M mier ;in I grain, 
as every farmer knows. 

Bob(»link (Dniichony.x oryzivorus) May 17 and dune 'I 
About S.5 per cent, of food: in-. M-t. V» ry destructive to plant 
lice, grasshoppers and caterpiil its, the army worm in particular. 

Spotted Sand})iper (Actitis niacuJaiia) May '2'2. Feeds ou 
gra.sshopi)er.s, locusts and other insects connnon in field.-*. 

Birds of IVIarsh and Waterside 

Swamp Sparrow (Melospizageorgiana) Apr. 28 and Ma3r 

21 K....1. on .n„y vvon.H th. irre.n, «n.l tho .shU 

Mav ^1 "' n '''"- '^'' """'"'"^ nov..horH..nsis n.,vo.>..rHn,„.is> 

,' \V 1 u '.'", ■" ''"" '"'" "^ ^'""'' '"^'-•^•t>*co.nmon to the Jiot 
"" »V(in<| \\arlii,.,> 

<;';"«tBIm-ll.r.,M AM.i..,il, Apr. 2S and 

ay :;.an.iMitt..n..,;,.un. ..•) May 7 nndjL ^^ ^Cl 

"""'"V worm, if,vc,. u.i..l...pp,rH. s.ilt .„ .rsl. cat.rpilluM 
iiXH.low ,me,, ,,.ptile^ and f,o^«. '^ ' 

Birds of the Air 

^'';'"'' ""'•':!"'■' 'i'vus lMi.|.soni„s) Apr. UHn.|JunolOn24 
^ ..x, 7, cor.tain.. i poultry or .a,„. ,,i,.|s; :U 
<t her l„n s. ..,, ,..,e.- an-l uth...- .n.u.mals, !), r.ptile.. otc.; U. .n- 
M'Ct«. ,11.-1 ,s „.,.,v .■ii.pty. 

Mav-""oM!r? •'^'t'^^P—'- «parverius)Apr.51 and 
a H> -. )t .L'O stomachs examine.]: 1. contain.-.l a .mail- 53 
o he. ...... s:,Oi,mu. ami other mammal. ,,.'iKoS 

2i+, insects, etc . .in.l 2 were empty.,^..! Hawk ( Uuteo phityterus) Mav l' 1 Of 49 
stomachs evamin,.,!. -^5, contained and other 'mammals; 1 
li/'Uds; i.inseetsiand 4wereempty. 

'r''"^<'«retheexaminationshy Dr. Fisher of U. S Hiolo- 
«ical Survey and of .32 ston.achs of the bird examine,! by C 

fowl" I '";^'''^"«^ me contained a trace of any domestic 
fowl and nearly every one c-.,tained mic 

i\ies^!'"'!u^ T'V"^^- ^"^•*P«''^ffiea)Mayl and SO. Catches 
rt es. small beetle.s of various kind.s. Hying ant.s. bucjs. gra.,shop. 
pers, an. I other insects, and spiders. 

Ni-hthawk rChordeiles virginianus virginianus) May 28 
and . W H ProfeHsor Beal estia..ted %hat the Jol 

M ;? h .''.?I .""^ '^"'' """'^ "^^^ '^^'f °f the insect contents.' 
M iy b. .ties, jfris.hoppar.s. gnats and mosquitoes in enormous 
quantities potato and cucumber beetles, leaf hoppers ^nd bZ 
are found in their stomachs. ""Fpers ana bugs 



Whi,,-,,o<.r.wiII (Antn.MtM,„„s vc^.if..„.us, \„ 
anun... tr.p. N.,,t ,....,. Ma, «.., ..,„, ,J,J: 

beeth.. hairy c«U.r,..llHrs Huch hh th- t.nt a,..| l..s..,ck nUe.n.l':^. ^s|,u„wor.„H, Kra^slu.pper. an.l unts ,... .1, ,,,..,. ,'.,, 

Barn Swallow (Hirumlo ..rytl.r.tra.t.M, May 1 au-I "4 

CliH-orEuvos Swallow (lVtro,.h..|i.|.„. lunifn.,,. lur.if.on.; to the ban. Swallow. U,-,. nu.ube.s of ,1.1 
tweful hinls un. ..r th.- ...ives ol ,1... ,;,. ♦ .• , 

I.0.H „f U,o CM Wharf, Nc„™:;;,: "■ ""■ "«""'■ »"l"- 

l'"r|.l.- Martin (Fr.,Kni.sul,i,s„UH a,.,, ir, „„.| M,,,. ..^ 

.lnp..l cucu.„ber bo,.U«, .. w,.|| .., ,,„„.,. „ .„„ ,„.; .,1' 

.nKCws „„,,„„,,,..„, ,„„„j. „„„„ „,^,^,^^ ,1^^ 

VWlt« to thiMr y.Minjt in one ilay. 

Trusting timt U.. aUve i„f„„„„,i ,, |„.,.„ ,„„i^i^,„| 

•..-. .i„ne ,„ . fuw c„n„trk.s wl,„,. .ncmrat-, ,„.n, . 
an ,iin<,vati.m hut a science. - "nni i, n..t 

Karon V„„ Kerle,,sch on hi» es,,.te.« ,., S,.,h„eh, (i,..„„,nv 

hH.s for nmny year, encourage,! h hi. >v.,,„ilan.|. h.ivin'ir' 

» than Vm „e»t hnxe, ,,lace.l ,,„,! ne^rK- „|| occu,.i:,i „ 

re-ult when the Hainich w«i, ,o„,h ..I Ki,;.n„eh, eoveri!,.;,:;. 
.ral M| „„|e., „.„ „trippe,l nearly I,,,,-,- in ,;„. s,,,in.. ol r,0.5 
by ca,er,„ilar« „t the .Jak„ler n„„h ,T.rt 'ix vtr,: i, „,! 
the «-,««s of th. Baron », I on, .„,i,l the ;,e„er„l f..„."J, 

rr'iulri" t„:'"'ra1rti:,r;f7 

Bt.rl.M.sch nt-st U>x th^ *r^"'""""> ^^ the eco..orni(> value of the 

ii.. ./.u,. ; „:h';'of'lTe.!;'::;:";r ;:;;: ^^z'^t. ^Jt:i 


In HunjfarxOtto Hermann i/imrKoly r-^poniiibl* for Rimilftr 
wnwMrcH beinK taken; and in (act iUv Aunru-Munifarian (Jovem. 
•n«nt n.anufactnroii thoM boxoH in NUte factoricn. 

In England a Royal Society for Bird FroU^tion >.»<• under- 
taken niinilar work. 

Tht. United Stat*^H Government tun recon.mi-ndod such 
ineasurei,; and many states are activdy e„,faff.'d in bird prt,t<KS. 
tion and their wo,k i» ably mippl.-mented by the National Aiao- 
ciation of Audi *>on SocietieH. 

In ( )ttawa throujjh thr- windom a»d efforts f.f Dr. C (Jordon 
Hewitt. Doinini-.n KntomulogiNt, there are t.. l»e two bird ^anc- 
tuanes. In oth.r Heeti„„s too. bini protection in receiving, a littU 
ot the (ittetition which it juHtly nieriti. 

The Mart in house on our own ^Mounds hh well «« the tree.s 
have attracted birds in incieasio^r „u„a,ers yearly for 
past, an.l apart from any eeununiic vulu., which they undoubt- 
Odly havo.hav.. uHorded a vasf amount of pleasure. 

The binl« which tl... boy, of (Jrannnar .School Manual 
rrauunjr Class are buildin^r in competition for tlie prizes I offer, 
ed will I trust be hun^. in Elm F.rk as it is my intention to ap. 
proftch the mayor and council on this matter; and doubtless they 
will absent to guch a proposal. The result will I can u.ssure 
every .loubting Thomas be bifarious. affording protection to the 
trees and a source of pleasure to those frequentinr. the Park as 
bird notes float from the branches. 

Trees are a monument to a man s love of the beautiful in 

ItTnf Fl T"l^ ^^'V' r '''''''' ^^^^onhl like to see th! 
trees of klm Park standing for many a year to grace the only 
recreation and restmg place our town affords; and also to "«• 
them more extensively inhabited by our feathered friends. 

"There are always destroyers and upbuilders- 

In everything those two forces blend; 
While the moth and the 'ocust are destroyers 
The bird, is Nature's greatest friend." 
Chatham, N. B. 
Apr. 29th. 1914