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140 lllll 2.0 



'653 East Main Street 

r^ Rochester, Ni 

le» York U609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300- Phone 

S (716) 288-5989 -Fax 

:--- i 

The lYoviDce of Ootario 


Its Extent, Resources, Climate 
Mnd Development 

Prepared by^Dlrectioa of the Commii..ioner of 
Crown L^q4m- i 909 



Extent, Resources, Climate and 
Industrial Development 




Prepared by Direction of THE HON. E, J, DAVIS, 

Commissioner of Cromn Lands 


rinted by Order of the I.cKisIa, i v e Assemblv of the 
Province of Ontario by L. !<. Cameron. Pr'intor 
to the Kind's Most lixcenent Majesty. 
Toronto, n>oj. 

Wiirwirk liroH .V Knttti. 
I'riiitiTK, Toronto. 




Introductory Survey 
Climate of Ontario 
Tourist Attractions 
Political Institutions 
Ontario's Agriculture 

Northern Ontario 

cMineral Resources 

Forest Wealth 

Commercial Fisheries 



Lakk Ontakki. 









The Province of Ontario. 


{Kxtruit ftnni ,111 iuUr,\s itt/ivtn;/ hv tin- \U^\. Ku maki» M.\nnMKr. 
.^fiiiisfir of fuiunifioH, DntntiK.) 

CAN ii cmintry K- named the si/c ot ourys, with a like popula- 
tmii and like condition",, vvlurc the people Kenerall> are 
either iTiore contented or pri»perous f Where the ),'eneral 
avera^'c of eom(i>rt is hij;her / Where the prospects of a 
r--»g. ; ^^'■y hri),'ht fuiiire iire more eiicoura^'in>;> Wheie there is 

ySf^J l^"'"' illiteracy, less crime, less abject want-' 

y^ I Times were hetter than now. No man \m:ms\ he 

' i>ut ot employment. .\o class is discontented. No j;rievances 
exist. The mechanic, the laborer everyone has work to 
do. and a jjood waj^e for doinj; it. 

The farmer is prospering' Krvally. and he brink's to bear upon his uork, 
to as jjreat an extent as an\ where the whole world over, keen in'ellij^.nce and 
critical observation. He is more and more beckoning' science to his aid. and 
his callin^r uas never so hoiunirable as now. The acrea),'e of land under 
cultivation in Ontario has increased by nearly a million acres in ten years. 

Our mining' industries were never so prosperous, nor the output or 
value of our mines as l.irge. We are only bej;inninK' »•> appreciate the value 
of our herita^'e. and capitalists the world over are constantly examinin^f into 
our resources. 

l-ar^re enterprises are beinj,' successfully launched, new undertakin^'N 
commenced, and that spirit oi hopefulness which alone is needed to attract 
capital for all kinds of undertaUinjrs is manifest in every direction. 

Railways are bein^,' constructed and vmi>,'rants in lar,,'e numbers are 
pounn^- Into our inviting' Northland. Trade is buoyant and prosperity 


IXTROin 'CTOH J • .SY 'A' / E I ' 

W K history o{ the early settlement oi Ontario dates back about one 
hundred and fifteen years, to the closf of the .\merican;War o»- Inde- 
pendence. In 1784 about io,o(X) of those who desired to maintain 
their alle^'iance to the .Motherland. mif,'rated from New Vork. 
Pennsylvama, and the New Kn-land .States, and settled aloni: the 
River :,l. Lawrence, around the Bay of guinte. on the shores of Lake Ontario 


P K O V I N C l«: O F O N T .V R I O 


■ ind in the Niajrara Peninsula. They are known to history as the United 
Kmpire I.oyalists. and were of varied descent, numbering' amon^ them many 
sons of Kn^land. Scotland and Ireland, besides persons of German, Dutch 
-iiid Huguenot orijrin. Some were farmers, but the ^'renter number consisted 
of discharged officers and men who had served Great Britain in the late war, 
and were unaccustomed to pioneer life. They bej,'an the ardu- 
zarly 0"s tasks of fellinj,' the trees, clearing,' the 'land, for Ontario 

Settlement. ^as an unbroken forest) the huildint,^ of rude houses and barns, 
and the plantinj,' of cleared j^Tound amonj,' the stumps of the 
forest trees with wheat oats, and potatoes for the sustenance of themselves 
and their families. In 1812 the population had f^rown from practicallv nothing' 
to, all of whom, with the exception of a few hundred, were en{ra|,'ed in 
t.llin^'- the land. .At this time the principal articles exported from the farms 
were oak and pine timber, and potash distilled from wood ashes. Graduallv 
a larjrer amount of land was broujjht under cultivation, and substantial 
dwellinf,'s and farm buildinjjs of sawn lumber took the place of the first crude 
lo^ structures. In 1830 there were five towns in the Province of oxer 1,000 
inhabitants each, viz: Brockville, 1,130; Hamilton, 2,013 ; London, 2.416 ; 
Toronto, 2,860 ; and Kingston, 3,587. The Province could also boast of one 
daily paper and one bank. In 1837, the pop.ilation had increased to 397.500, 
by far the greater portion still living on the farm. 

About that time an extensive immigration set in from England, Scotland 
and Ireland. The great famine of 1846 sent Irish immigiants to .America 
by tens of thousands. These new comers, who were a very fine class of 
settlers, located as a rule in groups or blocks, which formed the nuclei of 
some of the richest townships of Ontario. In this manner arose the 
Highland settlement of Glengarry, the settlement of English gentlemen and 
retired military officers near Cobourg, the Irish settlement near Peterboro', 
the military settlement near Perth, the Talbot settlement in Elgin, the 
Canada Company's settlement in the Huron Tract, the block of Paisley 
weavers in Wellington, the Germans in Waterloo, Huron and Renfrew, and 
the French Canadians in Essex, Prescott and Russell. 

The year 1853 saw the beginning of the railway era, the first lin- in 
operation being that from Toronto north to the town of Bradford. This was 
followed three years later by the establishment of railwav connection between 
Montreal and Toronto by the Grand Tru-ik Railway, after which the work of communication and transportation faclities was pushed forward 
with vigor. 

The lumbering industry now assumed very large proportions, and the 
lumbering and railway operations combined with the influx of immigrants and 
capital, greatly stimulated all branches of trade. 







,r vv ^It^' ?'■"■■" ''"' '' P^'P^I'-^tion of about ..500,000. Its prinmry sources 
o» uealth are four ,n number its farms, its forests, its mines, "nd its fisheries. 
VopuUtion. "''"^ ''■'" hereafter be briefly described. To these is added 
manufactures as a fifth. Ajrricuiture is still bv far the most 
•mportant mdustry in Ontario, representing $..000,000,000 of invested 
capital and an annual production of over $200,000,000. 

Ontario has an estimated area of two hundred thousand square mMes - 
not mciudmK^ that portion of the Great Lakes that lie within the international 

hrrdlh '/" ' "•, "'T' '""^'^ ^"'"^ ""^'^ '"^ ^''"^'^ ^^f 750 miles, and a 
breadth of ,000 m.les. It .s lar^^er than the nine north .Atlantic states of the 

c4r.4. -^"^e--"^;'" --epublic by one third ; larger than Maine. Neu Hamp- \ ermont. New York. Pennsylvania and Ohio combined ; 
arger than Great Bntam and Ireland by seventy-eight thousand square miles 
It IS only four thousand square miles less than the French Republic, and onlv 
e.ght the .sand less than the German Empire. Its extent cannot be fulh- 
realized unt.l one has travelled from end to end over its territory I ess than 
twenty per cent, of the Province has yet been settled, over eightv per cent 
st.ll bemg in the hands of the Crown. In round figures there is'an area of 
100.000 n.les unsurveyed. a considerable portion of which is almost 
unexplored. In area Ontario alone is vast enough to become the seat of a 
mighty empire, and its great resources warrant it in aspiring to a position 
of great commercial importance. 

The geographical situation of Ontario, bringing its southern limit almost to 

the centre of the continent, and its remarkable water transportation facilities, 

afforded by the lakes and rivers which bound it on all sides, are points in its 

favour that many countries might envy. Consider the position of Ontario on 

the great waters that open to the commerce of the world- the mighty inland 

seas. Superior. Huron. Erie and Ontario, with their outlet to the ocean, the 

River St. Lawrence. While its northern point is a port on James 

adZnuJes. ^^-'■' "^ ^""^hern point, further south than Boston or Chicago, is 

washed by the waters of Lake Erie, which forms with other 

great lakes the finest system of inland waterwavs to be found anvwhere 

Note how like a wedge the territory of Ontario is driven right into the heart 

of the great agricultural states of the American Union ; consider how manv 

large cities there are on the American shores of these lakes and throughou't 

the territory adjacent thereto, important centres of industrial population 

which may by means of these waterways be easilv and cheapiv reached. 

Consider that by a little deepening and widening of channels and canals 

that already exist, ocean vessels of deep draught might be brought to the 

doors of the citizens of Ontario's capital itself; how with a little widening 

and deepening of the present canal system at Niagara Falls, these same 



vessels mifjht pass throiijjfh Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, and after touching' 
at such ports as Buffalo, Detroit and Chicajjo, proceed on their way throuf^h 
Lake Huron to the City of Duluth, at the farthest western limit of Lake 
Superior thus penetrating half way across the continent, a distance of 2,384 
miles, and there tapping the prairies of the West. Already vessels drawing 
fourteen feet have sailed from Lake Superior to Kurope, and vessels drawing 
twenty feet sail from Lake Huron to Lake Superior ports. There now 
passes through the Sault Ste. Marie canals at the juncture of Lakes 
Superior and Huron, in the seven months of navigation, a greater tonnage 
of shipping, American and Canadian, than passes through the Suez canal in 
the whole year. These facts make it readily apparent that the geographical 
position of Ontario gives her many of the advantages of a maritime country, 
including remarkable natural facilties for the cheap distribution of her pro- 
ducts, whether of the held, the mine or the forest, to the markets of the 


To facilitate description, it will be necesssry to divide the Province into 
two districts, namely, the southern, or settled portion and the northern, or 
sparsely settled portion. The settled portion is contained within the triangle 
or wedge of country, the apex of which extends southward into the territory 
of the United States, to the latitude of the City of New York. This triangle, 
49,000 square miles in area, forms practically an island, washed by the waters 
of two large rivers, the St, Lfwrence and the Ottawa, and three of the great 
lakes, Ontario, Erie, and Huron, thus possessing opportunities for commerce 
such as few other inland countries enjoy. It contains over twenty-three 
million acres of occupied farm lands, and nearly the whole of Ontario's popu- 
lation is to be found within these boundaries. Southern Ontario is for the 
most part of great fertility, and may be described as purely agricultural land 
of considerable development, suited by its soil and climate to all branches of 
farming. In this respect it is very similar to New York State and other ad- 
jacent States of the Union. 

Most of the leading cities and towns of Southern Ontario are located on 
the shores of the lakes and rivers named above. The following brief descrip- 
tion will give an indication of their size and commercial importance. 

Toronto, the prosperous capital of Ontario and the second city in 
Canada, is situated on the north shore of Lake Ontario, and has 
a population of *2i 1,727 (1902). It is ihe principal commercial and distribut- 
ing point of Central Canada, and the seat of the University of Toronto and 
many other leading educational institutions. Its mercantile importance is in- 
dicated by the extent of the financial transactions of its banks, the bank clear- 
* Assessor's figures. 













'ys for HJ02 amountinir to $800 o-S "r. 

the previous year. '»'«°9.o,8.,,9. an increase of $,S3.85o.253 over 

•'^h.p yards, distilleries, carriaL^e ^i-.^ ^ ,^"' ^"'^ ^'''^''"S houses, 
tories. The city occupies • ': • , " • •''«'''"^"'»^'-^'' implement fac- 

Canadian Pacifi^ and G^n;'V: : r'^ Z'^^'^'"" '' ^' -'-^ -"^re. the 
roads makin,. it the radius of "h^ ' " '■'T''' '"''^ '^''^ '"-'butarv 

-hilo in the open season a TarJe T "^' "''''''' ^''"^^ ^^^ --f: 

fine h-nes of st^.n,ships "hich 'v 7TV "''''"' '"^ ''""^-•^^'^ ''^ the 
Lake Ontario ports. '^ ^ ''*''"'^"''^' ^° ^^^'^'^^^^ and the leadin.. 

t'-MuIk^rn^'^:^^^^!,;^^^;^;- ^^^'^V^-'^ ^-''erin.on 
-'th re,.ard to other points of interlsi re' . • '"'' P"""'''" of Toronto 

number of tourists everv seaso, 'l '" '" '^"''"^'""^ '^ '^ « very large 

•ons, banking and telegraph Tc iitie T"'" T'^'"'"' '^°'^' -"0"""odat. 
-street car services on 'he Com n nt ' F T' "' ''' ''"^^ ^"^'^ best-equipped 
well provided with spaciouHa k ' nd " ^'"^^ ""'""^ of population are so 
public buildings include the CitvHln ''T''"''" ^"■°""'^^- '^"^ numerous 
the Provincial Governm^n: bu^, "n-^ ^^.^r^^. ^^^^^^^ ^ ''^ ^^-^^ of $3,600,000. 
the Queen's Park and the Universltv If 7 "'^ '" "'''"'"^"''ing position in 
>ness streets which are solidly navJ T:u 'T "^ ^* ''^"''- ^he bus- 
handsome structures The esidenul^ Z ,"^''''^' ^" ''''''"'^ -'^h manv 
in'J-e large numbers of vveTl o do neol 1"k '""^ advantages of Toronto 
-unities surpass it u, the air of pt'e^t'c Tr f^^^"^ ^"^ ^ew com- 

'" 'Vh''ei;;'^f^o[t'''^^'""^\^^''"^^^^^^^^^^^ ' """"' "'""'"' 

-tuatecf :^thl ?;,^ r!::' ';:!:^,^^;;:^ t^'/^ picturesquely 
Province of Ontario and O.. k • °""'^'*'^> '""« between the 

feature is the handsome anH u , '^s most conspicuous 

mental Buildings which occupy aTe^tr"? and "' ^""^'"^"^ ^"'^ ^^P-t- 

are also some fine educnhonaUbMnH ^""^niandrng position, and there 

residence of the Governo-C^^^^muL''; T""'''' ""''^'^ "^"' ^he 
iaid out with wide streets a^d hT 'a mil. 1 '" ^'^ ■^"''"'■^- Ottawa is well 
important business interesfis the 1. K '''''"'-^' -''^'■"''^^- '^s most 

region of the upper Ottawa ^L its tri'i; ."'"^ ^"'^ '^""^ ^^""^ ^'^^ -tensive 
Ottawa River is interrunted by th "cha d 'V'n''"" ""^^ "^^'^^^-" of the 
water-power for a large number of lumb" M ' 'T''' '""''^^ ^ magnificent 
-ents. Its industrie.: alsoTnc ude ZoJnT^ "^' wood-working estab.ish- 
machine-shops. foundries and ar-s hops '''" ^^"'^ ^^'««"- manufactures. 

i . 



The handsome and prosperous city of Hamilton is very attractivelv situ- 
ated on a beautiful bay at the extreme western end of Lake Ontario, 40 miles 
mmilton. ^^' '"''*'' ^^'"'''"•*-"^t of Toronto, and 5^ miles northwest of Niagara 
and the American border. Population 54,035. Hamilton occupies 
an alluvial plain lyinj; between the bay and the escarpment (or "mountain" 
as it is locally called) a continuation of the height over which the Niairara 
plunges at the halls. From this summit a magnificent view mav be had. 
The city lies immediately below, and beyond it the broad blue waters of Lake 
Ontario stretch away to the eastern horizon. Tlie plain is covered in all 
directions with fine farms and dotted with thriving villages, for the city is the 
center of a magnificent farming section devoted largely to fruit. 

The total capital invested in the manufacturing industries of the city is 
about $S,ooo,ooo, and the number of men employed is 14,000. it has ex'ten 
sive manufacturing industries, including woollen and cotton mills, sewing 
machine, glassware, boot and shoe, stove and implement works, machinery, 
water and gas pipes, furniture, saw and planing mills, rolling mills, bolt and 
tack works, breweries, etc. There are a number of fine public buildings, in- 
cluding one of the finest insane asylums in the Province, besides numerous 
well built schools, churches, an opera house, two hospitals and a lari^o public 

The city of London, 76 miles west of Hamilton and 121 from Toronto, 
IS the centre of one of the leading agricultural districts ot the Province! 

Its population is 39,265. Its chief industies are agricultural 
London. implements, breweries, car-shops, chemical works, brick and tile 

works, and boot and shoe factories, and it ships grain, live stock 
and farm produce, besides the articles above named. 

Kingston is situated on the River St. Lawrence, 172 miles west of Mon- 
treal about half way between that city and Toronto. Its population is nearly 

18,463. Chief industries: locomotive, car and steam engine 
Kingston shops, quarries, agricultural implements, cotton and hosiery, 

pianos, organs, chemicals, etc. It has an PInglish and a Roman 
Catholic Cathedral and two important colleges the Royal Military College 
and Queen's University ; also an observatory, museum and library. 

The city of Brantford on the Grand River is one of the most enterprising 
and progressive of the smaller cities of Canada and has a population of 

17,000 people. Some 3,000 men are employed in the different 
BfAntford. manufacturing establishments, the leading ' industry being the 

manufacture of agricultural implements. Brantford stands third 
among the cities of Canada in the export of manufactured goods, 
it is also an important agricultural centre. It is served by the Grand Trunk, 
and the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railroads, and' is the seat of the 

12 I' R O V I N C K O F O N T A R 1 O 

Provincial Institution for the education of the blind. The Six Nation Indian 
Reserve is in the immediate neijjhborhood, and in the buryinjf jfround 
attached to the old Mohawk church, lie the remains of Chief Joseph Brant, 
the faithful ally of the British during the Revolutionary war. 

The other cities of Oiitario are Cluelph, St. Thomas, Belleville, Chatham, 
St. Catharines, Stratford, Windsor and Woodstock. 

City H-vll, Tokonto, 

, '"tj''"; -■ 




As the pioneers in the early days in Ontario proceeded northward, hew- 
injf down the forest before them in their path and preparing the hind for the 
plow, they soon found that the country underwent a complete chan^'e in its 
character. Instead of the continuous stretch of arable land they were ac- 
customed to in the south, they found rock and river, hill and lake on every 
hand, and almost impenetrable forest; and so unsuited did it seem to tarminj; 
purposes that they soon desisted from their efforts to settle it. [.ater on the 
lumbermen penetrated its more accessible rei^ions, and as that industry j^rew 
and thrived, towns and villages sprang' up here and there devoted largely to 
lumbering^, saw-milling and kindred businesses. As time has progressed, it 
has been gradually demonstrated that it possesses not only great forest wealth, 
but great mineral wealth ; and not only so, but that immense sections of it 
are quite as well suited for agriculture as the land in the southern part of the 

Northern or "New" Ontario is estimated to contain '41,000 square 
miles, and has an area almost three times as great as Southern Ontario. 

It is divided into four districts, Nipissing, Algoma, Thunder Bay, 

and Rainy River. Until very recently litt'e was known of the 
capabilities of the major portion of this territory. .A very limited amount of 
systematic exploration had been undertaken, and the country remained in a 
great measure an asset of unknown value to the Province. In order to learn 

more definitely the nature of its resources, the t rovincial Govern- 
ifecent ment in 1900 organized a number of exploration parties, who 

traversed the country from the Quebec boundary in the East to 
the Manitoba boundary in the West, and northward from the better 
known districts to the Hudson Bay slope. The result has been to demon- 
strate the fact that the value of the country, especially as regards its 
agricultural resources, is far greater than had been supposed. That 
the northern country contained great forest wealth and probably great 
mineral wealth, had previously been admitted, but the astounding 
fact was not looked for by many that an agricultural region of 
undoubted fertility, with an acreage greater than the whole of Ontario at 
present under crop, extended from Lake Temiskaming in the East almost 
entirely across the province. To this section, which lies between the 49th 
and 50th parallels of latitude, has been given the name of the " Great Clay 
Belt," and it is estimated to contain 24,000 square miles, or 15,680,- 
<Mgrtcultural fy^^ acres. To say that this territory could be made to support a 
population of a million souls is surely not an overestimate. Almost 
the w hole of this region is well adapted to agriculture. It is well wooded, 
and is watered by no less than seven large rivers o\ over 300 miles in length 


•' K O V I \ C !•: o K ONTARIO 

m Ik. Nor,l, from ,1,. p„i,u of vi.w of ,ho people ,f OU Ontario ' urn d 

Wh , , ' 7 " "'" '■""■ ■""''■» "' " -"•^' -"I I'^'K"'.-.- 

7>„o»„, Z V s'l '"'""" ,'■■' "■""' ""' ""'^■'■"""•■-» '-f 'h^' knowledge 

w/i^W.. Kh,,. „K.,o,^ ,o ,1,0 l'ro>M,oc is t-raduall, bd,,^ realized, 'one of 
.f. , """"■' "■■"">'- !'■,« heei, ,l,e »li,„„la,i„^. of railway e„lernrise 
A erwards >nll follow ,he .-radaal se„,i,„. i„ ,„e eoua'rv. „ , deve ZZi 

lead ,t , i : ,r "'," T-''" ^" '" ""'"""" f™ '■ "^- "'■ ""'-^ 

iwd,,,^ lo „ iha, are already ,n eo„rse of c,„„ir,ulio„ o, are projeeled. 

A ^■■lHT»^a(N ,,sr.\Ki.. K.»km 

r> V I-^lVl^'"'""""'' "'""' '''^''' ^"' aj,^ricultural tracts i„ New Ontario 
to the objection of inaccessibility cannot be said to annlv To 

r™,,, no.^ f„ a jiiiio,, „er\:'::f l: Of l^ ::::;'::: f-inr":"'"'^ 

important area at the head of I ake Tpmi^L-.^ • "^"'^P'^'^^^f fertility , a very 

r::-;"--'.-> -o;trvXr;r::r:?^;::r,s-l" 

acres , bes.des other ,ectio„,, of lesser extent or eontinn-.y. Of the« dttk^ 
a more detatled description will I . found in the chapter devoted to N^thet 
Ontano In hke ntanner will be found information concerning esour « of 
the lores, and the mine which belong to the country under considera o, 

i rera;;,:rr:r":d'd" ''"' "t^'"^™-' """• ""'>^- ^^^'^^^^^ 

I OKNW ALI, AM) ^ (tKK. 


The Climate of Ontario* 

■ HI-, popular idea of the climate of Ontario, not only in Great Britain but 
n> the United States as ueli. is that ice and snow are the dominant 
features for most of the year. As a matter of fact, Canada has a very 
varied climate, as may v -ll bo imajfined from the >;reat extent and dit- 
ferent conditions. It is free from the enervating influences 
prevalent m more southerly climates, and it may truthfully be said that, taken 
as a whole, no country is better suited to be the home of vigorous and 
energetic manhood and womanhoi>d. 

The Province of Ontario extends farther south than any other 
province ot the Dominion, namely to the latitude of Constantinople, while 
Its northern boundary is on James Bay, a southerly extension of Hudson 
Bay. Ihrough the months of June, July, August and September fairly hot 
weather prevails. 

The winter climate of southern Ontario is only moderately cold. Here 
the great lakes temper both the summer heat and winter cold At 
the same time, while they render the winter less severe, the atmosphere 
is more humid than in regions that are beyond their influence. In this 
section there is seldom any real winter weather until near Christmas 
and by the end of March or the beginning of April spring begins to put in 
Its appearance. 

As one proceeds northward the winters gradually become colder, and the 
summers more temperate. In the Ottawa and Upp.-r St. Lawrence valleys 
umter is moderately cold, but very exhilarating, and has the advantage of 
being steadier than in the lake region. The snowfall, too. is slightly 
heavier. "^ 

In northern Ontario, where the altitude is higher, the winters are longer 
and colder, the maximum degree of cold being on the north shore of Lake 
Superior. When once the great divide is crossed, and the land surface 
begins to slope towards Hudson Bay. the climate starts to moderate again 
until on the shore of that sea. winter is said to be quite temperate. 

The annual precipitation varies in different parts of Ontario from 

^KainMl and ^^""^y to foi'ty inches, the average -ain and snow fall being • 

Sunshine. rain. 25.28 inches on 81 days ; snow. 64.6 inches on 34 days ; 

10 inches of snow being equivalent to one inch of rain 

The average number of hours of bright sunshine for the Province is 2,000 

out of a possible 4,363 hours. 




T A « .. « VI. (•..m,«.«l.w. M..t....r..|..«,. ..I K. ^„.t.r for ih« -v..,, w-r.. |H».l |»..|. «, 
0»-.rvHl..r.v in U,. 4:,..ilU N . ,»„| L,„«, .1 ,.r.. 17..,. .H «.%. W. |,.,.,„ .,,„„ 

Ihf IH>h3.')4) fret. 

AvpiiiKf ti'.niMraliiit. 

l»iHfn<.i(». iron. iiviTiitfi' («t| y«.»ri«l 
Tlifiniic aiKiiiwIv (Ut. 40 4«»' 

Hi({hpi«t toin{M-ruturo . . . . 

I.<iw«'-l tdn|H<ratiir)* 

Monthly Hint iiiiiitiitl ritii);(>« 

Avvnn{i' fliiilv riuij^f 

(;r«'iit«*iit ilaily range 

.\v«'rnn<« hfijjhl of tmromftfr nt .12* F. 
I)itttrt'n<e fiorn avcriig«(«l ymrs) 

HJt{)ifiit lutroiin'tttr .' 

I<oiV«'«t litiroiiietcr 

Monthly and hiiiiuuI ranges . . , 

Avcragi' humidity of thf air. 

IhtftToncf from avuragti 

Avoiagt! flaMtiiity of ai|Uf(>»is VH|Miiir 
Average tenipt-raturf of dew point 

A vernj^e of cloiidineHH 

Ditterencu from average (47 yearn). 

ReHidtant <lire<tioii of wind 

KeHultant velocity of wind 

Average velocity (milen jht houi) 
HigheHt velocity in month and year, 

Total amount of rain in inchex. 

Difference from iivenige (111 yearH), 
\umlxT of days of rain 

Total amount of snow in inchew . . . 
Difference from average (ttl ytars). 
Number of days of snow . . .' 

Numljcr of fair days 

NuiidHjr of dayN completely clouded. 

77 W N «^. wIn 80 
2..>3 2.»n> i .1.09 •_>.«( i.7,s 1 ._. 4.. 

10, «7 10,14 10.12 12..3.-i 
44.0 45.0 i 44.0 I .50.0 55.0 61.0 

Numlier of auroras observed. . . 
Possible to see aurora ( No.of nights) 

Nuiulwr of hours of bright HunHhine. 
Numl)erof hourHof iwsHible sunshine. 




t .3.15 





- 3.266 

t 0.671 


+■ 7.05 

+ .3.75 






















TH i: I I.I M \ IK oi ON I \U\0 


TiiK Akmi>kik>4, Tuki»To. 




, J 


1 , 

1 5 






> a 




1 ^ 







, c 



1 ^ "" 

Moiitlily nu'iiii. 

■-It. 3 





Uu , 

15. 3 

' .4.3 



M'liithlv iiifiui. , . 
M.iivh. ■ 



-i >< 








Moiitlily iiuiiti. . . 






' 2N.0 





Mont 111 V nii'iui. , 





44. » 






Mciiitlily iiii-aii. . 

.■>(». 3 




.54. « 






Montlih iiu'im. 



6(1. .5 

ti.\ \ 






61. H 

Monthly nifiiii. , . 





(is. 2 







-Monthly niL'iui. . . 

Monthh mean. . . 
















(i2. 1 






Monthly mean. . . 




40.6 i 

4ft. .5 



45.(. 1 


41. (i 

Montlily mean. . 


.36.7 . 

.36.9 i 

3o.8 i 







•29. 1 

Monthly muan. . . 


26.7 I 

27.6 ! 

26.2 ! 




•22 3 i 



Anmai. mkan. ' 

4>.fiS 1 


4.5.77 1 





41..37 i 


37.. 55 

lllll,, ,,■-11"''"''* Illll,lllllll' 

,ji!" ■" ssji ■^3ls'"'''i«Sf Tft 


f '91 

Tourist Attractions in Ontario. 


/n\ N \ R I 0-" a pleasant prospect of lakes and woodland," which the 

I M word in the Indian lanj,'uage implies-is aptly named. It is a land 

\U/ of lakes and rivers-rivers that have their source in the northern for- 

ests, and flow now swift, now peaceful, till they join the vast inland 

seas, Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario, whose waters are in turn borne by the 

broad St Lawrence to the ocean. Of beauty and variety of scene, therefore, 

Ontario has much to entice the footsteps of the traveller, while the inviirorat- 

•ng qualities of its northern climate make it especially beneficial to those who 

reside farther south and desire to escape from the enervating influences of a 

southern summer 

The tourist starts as a rule with Niagara Falls, partly because of its cele- 
brated beauties, and also because usually it lies directly in the path of travel 
Afte th^s attraction and the magnificent Niagara River, his course 
will probably be across Lake Ontario, a distance of 45 miles, to the City of 
Toronto the Provincial Capital. Toronto is a convenient centre from 
whence he may proceed East, West or North, as inclination directs. 

The eastern route is preferably by boat along the north shore of 
Lake Ontario, past Port Hope, Trenton. Belleville, Picton and Kingston, 
^^ all pleasant summer resorts, to the River St. Lawrence. Here the 

Thousand ^^"'""^ archipelago of the " Thousand Islands " is entered. For 
Islands. fifty miles the vessel picks its way among these charming islands, 
where with ever; new water stretch a fresh vista opens to the view' 
each more beautiful than the last. That this is a famous summering place is 
at once apparent from the homes that have been built, either among the pine 
trees, or perched on rocky bluffs, or half hidden in the beautiful hays. 

Soon after passing the town of Brockville, at the foot of the " Lake of 
the Thousand Islands," the vessel enters the first of a long series of rapids 
The passage by steamship through the churning, foaming water is certainly 
a most novel experience; but there is little danger under the guidance of 
the conipetent pilot. The last of the series is the far-famed Lachine, which 
.8 the finest of all. After the passage of the rapids is made, the City of 
Montreal is soon reached, which is the present head of ocean navigation. 

\ 20\ 







If. ^2 jBS^4ii»-5^. ^^- -Mt4v tf C -w,_ 

;t" ^ 



From Lachine, a pleasant trip may be made up the Ottawa River 
which forms the boundary between Ontario and Quebec, to the City of Ottawa' 

It IS to St. Anne, just above the Lachine rapids, that Moore refers in 
his beautiful " Canadian Boat Song : " 

" Faintly as tolls the evening chime 
Our voices keep tune and our oars keep time. 
Soon as the woods on shore look dim, 
We'll sing at St. Anne's oir jmrting hymn. 
Row, brothers, row, the stream runs fast, 
The Rapids are near and the daylight's past." 

The Ottawa is a majestic stream, one of the most beautiful of the 
dominion, and the sail is truly delightful. Ottawa, the capital of the 
^^ Dominion, is a most attractive point. The magnificent Govern- 

OtUiua '"^"^ buildings, situated upon a high bluflf overlooking the river, 
T^iver, the Chaudiere Falls, the immense lumber business, ire all 

extremely interesting features, and make a day spent rambling 
about the capital a very pleasing experience. 

The route through the Upper Lakes is a very popular one and under- 
taken annually by a large number of tourists. There are several well- 
^^ equipped lines of steamers available, and the traveller may embark 

Upper ^'^h^"" »* Owen Sound, Collingwood or Windsor, for a stimulating 

Ukes. and refreshing trip of two or three days' duration which closely 

resembles an ocean voyage. The route lies through Lake Huron 
past Great Manitoulin Island to Sault Ste. Marie, and the monotony of the 
expanse of water is continually relieved by the panorama of the coast. At 
the rapids, which occur at this point, named Sault Ste. Marie by the French 
voyageurs almost three centuries ago, magnificent locks have been con- 
structed on both the Canadian and American sides, by means of which 
steamers are lifted to the level of Lake Superior. The immense water 
power afforded at this point is now being utilized in great indu.strial under- 
takings which promise to make Sault Ste. Marie a very important manu- 
facturing centre. 

Leaving Sault Ste. Marie for Fort William, the steamships take their 
course directly across the widest part of Lake Superior— which is far more 
like the sea than a fresh water lake-and in less than twenty hours come 
within sight of the rocky bluff of Isle Royale and the tremendous purple pro- 
montory of Thunder Cape-'- The Giant Asleep." This turreted headland 
shelters the large indentation of Thunder Bay and affords a grand har- 
bour which has been taken advantage of to form the principal ports upon 
the north shore of the lake— Port Arthur and Fort William. Here the 
tourist will find good hotel accommodation, and if he cares to stop over, he 





P R O V I N C !•: OF ON T A R I O 


Ztrl'r'^ru''' '" ''''''^"" ''""'■' ""^^""^^ '"•'^^ '■'''' '^ ^'-'-brated resort 
for trout fishermen. 

streams' rnr''""/' r^"?"" ^"•''^"^-^ '-^ of thousands of lakes and 
streams and mynads of .slands-are unequalled for those who desire to 
spend the summer months on the lakes or in the woods 
under canvas by the camp fire, or in the summer cotta^^e or 
hotel. For the weary, over-worked toiler of the citv the healinir 
sunshme and pure northern air of this region will work wonders' 

.Among the best known resorts of the north, frequented by Americans 
and Canadians may be mentioned the Muskoka lake region and the 
Georgian Bay, The Muskoka lakes are situated about one hundred miles 
north of Toronto and are much frequented by the people of that citv 
Summer cottages have been built on the islands of these lakes, where an 
unconvenfonal. out-of-door life with all the attractions of good boatin.. 
bathing, fishing and pleasant society may be enjoyed 

numl'r'Jr'"''' U ''' ''"'■''"" ^''' '^^"^^ ""^°"' '"^'^^'y thousand in 
numbe . are equally attractive. The trip by steamer through the intricate 

In Jhere '^'°"''°"'''^'''''"°'' •'''*"''^"' '^^' '^^" ^^ '"^^'^^^ in 

hat of the upper Ottawa River. This river forms the drainage basin of 

housands of miles of virgin forest, and it seems to carry with It much of 

the power and grandeur of the far northland where it has its source. The 

O tawa IS one of the water highways of the lumbering industry and manv 

mdhons of feet of logs and square timber are yearly floLd down it^ cuTrent 

mavbrmVt ""''•''•• "^^^ ^^'^ ^yP-' French-Canadian lumbermen 
may be met with voyaging ,n their flat-bottomed boats, breaking up the lo^- 
jams, or running the rapids. r F ic lug 

If the traveller has the explorer's instinct and wishes to see the forest 
as It looked when only the red man held sway, he should take a canoe and 

c4ttract^or^s fl ^"'^"'" ^f^^ ^""^ '^""^'"^ ""''^^ ^'°"' ^^"^^ Temiskaming and 
attractions follow one of the rivers that are tributary to the Ottawa dll he 

Sportsmen, reaches Lake Temagami. There he will find himself in a land 
where m. er the settler nor the lumberman has penetrated Its 
woods are the home of the moose, the caribou, the deer and the bear, and its 
waters are still sacred to the trout, the bass, the dore< and other game fish 
To the sportsman. Ontario's northland will readily appeal, affording him. as it 
does, oppoitunities that are almost unequalled in these days for 
securing big game. An area of 1,400.000 acres in this countrv 
nthprc K '"'^'"'''"^ Lake Temagami, Lady Evelyn, Rabbit. Obabika, and 
others, has recently oeen withdrawn from settlement and constituted 




timber reserve under the Forests Reserves Act. Hence this lar^'c tract will 
remain a wilderness and a perpetual resort for the tourist and sportsman. 

In the more accessible regions of Muskoka, Parry Sound and Haliburton, 
the red deer is very plentiful, while the moose is quite common. Both may 
be hunted in season on procuring^ a license from the Provincial Government 
tor a small fee. 


Ready to Start ox a Caxok Trip. 

From "Country Life in America," 

Algonquin Park was set apart in 1893 as a health and pleasure resort 
and forest and game prese- ve. It is a densely wooded tract of over i , 1 10,000 

Pro'binci^ ^'"'^^' ^'^"'*'^'^ '" ^^^ ^'^^"'^t of Nipissing. Since it was estab- 
'Parks. ''^'^^^ '^ h^s proven a veritable aslyum for wild life, and moose, 

deer, beaver and other game and fur-bearing animals have greatly 
increased in numbers. 

Rondeau Park, in the County of Kent, was set apart in 1894. It con- 
tarns about s,ooo acres, about one-half of which is covered with timber thus 
preservings remnant of the magnificent forest which once characterized this 
part of Ontario. 

By setting aside an area of land under the name of Queen Victoria 
Niagara FalLs Park the Government has given the people of Ontario and all 
visitors free access to and enjoyment of the great natural spectacle afforded 
by the Falls of Niagara. A board of commissioners appointed by the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in Council administers the affairs of the Park with little or 
no cost to the public chest. 





Political Institutions. 

N T A R I O has a very fine system of central government, with an 
elective Legishiture and Cabinet Council responsible thereto, compris- 
ing the departmental heads. Every Minister is a member of the Leg- 
islature. The subjects that fall within the legislative authority of the Provin- 
cial Government are very numerous and affect immediately every man. woman 
and child in the province. Comfort and convenience, liberty and life, all the 
rights of citizens with respect to property, the endless natters that daily 
affect a community, are under the control of the provincial authorities. 

The legislative powers of the province relate to the management and 
sale of public lands and the timber and minerals thereon ; administration of 
justice in the province; property, and the raising of revenue for provincial 
purposes; the establishment, maintenance and management of prisons, 
hospitals, asylums, charities, etc.; tavern licenses, local works and undertak- 
ings, and generally all matters of a merely local nature. 

The care ot lunatics and idots is, in Ontario, undertaken by the Provincial 
Government, a burden which, in most countries, falls entirely or mainly on 
the municipalities. All these institutions are well equipped, and conducted 
on the most approved principles. There are six asylums for the insane in 
Ontario, located at Toronto, London, Kingston, Hamilton, Mimico, and 
Brockville, besides an asylum for idiots at Orillia. 

The Provincial Government also maintains a reformatory for boys at Pene- 
tanguishene, an institution for the deaf and dumb at Belleville, and one for the 
blind at Brantford, besides a reformatory (or women and refuge for girls at 
Toronto. In addition to this about $220,000 is spent annually in giving aid to 
hospitals nd charities, and for the care and protection of neglected children. 

There is no tax whatever upon the people of Ontario for the maintenance 
of the Provincial Government, the revenue being derived from the sale of 
Crown lands, timber and minerals, from liquor licenses and other fees, sunnle- 
mented by a subsidy from the government of the Dominion. Not only is the 
Province free from debt, but has a considerable surplus to its credit. 

Out of a total expimditure of $103,960,277.66 by the Government since 
1871, the following sums might be fairly taken as contributions either for the 
relief of taxation, or for the improvement of the country :— 

27 I 




r«>roiito Unix iTnity. Hrnt grant. . . 

ffcmpitalH itrid chiiritiuB 

MrtintcimiKt) t.f Public IriMtitiitionii 

Siirplii* (iJNtrihiitiun, IH73 

DtNfributioii of clt-rgy Uiuln. 
R«'hni<lH IiuhI iniproveniftit fiiiiil.. 

Agriculture and artn 

AilniiniHtration of justice 

»IM,a«,.*«.l 42 
l«M),IMM» IM) 

3,.V.1»,59I »► 

lH.7»7,'2n M« 

3,38H,777 47 

m\M-2 8(1 

.134, 172 91 

4..^5M,H<>ft 70 

.;,. ,, . , ,, l(t,OH4.«0t 73 

A HI to r.»ilw.i>H. including imnuity repay montH 8.3(U.901 IQ 

3,;WM,743 28 

Coloni/jition rondH 
Munici[ial drainage 
Swamp drainage. . . 
River, lake and bridge wurkH 

1.2I»8,3«4 (M) 
238,405 (f» 

KepairH and maintenance nince 1884 

-.. ...„. ...... ......g„ „„r«» l,0(W,r»42 04 

National jmrks since 1885 ',^Z Z 

niblic buildings -o^mstruction outlay ^ j,^, ^,^3 ^ 

"^"" "' 1,.*«)4,292 30 

!il84,4.V2,078 tt4 

Ontario also possesses a very complete system of municipal Self-govern- 
ment. Under this system the province is divided into city, town, township, 
and v.llap municipalities. Each municipality annually elects a council to 
trans^act its business. The only direct taxes that the people of Ontario are 
called iipon to pay are those imposed by the municipality. Municipal taxation, 
especially m rural districts, is, as a rule, quite moderate. 

The Ontario system of education combines the best features of the 
Edac^Hon. ""y^!^""^ °^ ^'^^^ ^^tain, Germany and the United States, upon 
which It has been founded ; and for completeness and excellence 
IS probably unexcelled in any country. The complete system includes the 
Kindergarten, the Public or Common School, the High School and the 

Education is practically free, attendance is compulsory, and the schools 
are national instead of sectarian. No class or sect is favored. The highest 
distinctions of the Umversity are most frequently gained by the sons-and 
daughters too-of working men. The poorest boy or the poorest girl may 
reach by his or her own efforts the topmost rmig of the ladder 

The work is presided over by a Department of the Government with a 
MinKster at .ts head, who has a seat in the Legislature and is a member of 
the Cabinet. There are in all about 9,500 teachers, male and female, in the 
different grades of schools, while the number of pupils is about 500.000. 
The province is divided into counries. which are sub-divided into townships, 
and these again into school sections. In the centre of each school section 
there is^a public school, which is presided over by the ratepayers of the sec- 
tion. These schools number upwards of 6,000. Though the Province of 


OntHrio is generally Protestant, there exists a Roman Catholic min..ritv. In 
order to meet the demands of this church for combined secular and rcl'i|,'ious 
instruction, what is known as the separate school has been established, to 
which persons of that religion may send their children. Other reliKMOus 
bodies also have the privilej^e of establishinjf denominational schools, if 
desired. There are 250 Roman Catholic Separate Schools in the Province. 

After goin^r throuffh the course of instruction in the Public School, as 
laid down by the Education Department, the pupil is ready for the Hijfh 
School. Kvery town or villajfe of importance has one of these institutions. 
They form the connecting link between the common schools and the I'niver- 
•sity, as the course of study culminates where that of the University begins. 

Total KnuiU for all Fublic-. High an.l S„,mrate Hoh.H.l ,.unH.Hi.« $:rAM> Xi 

Total gi rtiitB for SchfM)! of !Scifiie«« .HT (I.V( .W 

Total graiitH for Univemity of Toronto , . ......... ;'r,'wM 'u 

Total giantM for Mining ScIi.mjIh 42 m» Vi 

Total grants for Agricultural Kdueation I utj^:, (N) 

« Jraiid ToUl anniml grant* for Ktlucatioii WMW,».'.I 50 

There are several good Universities in Ontario, the principal being the 
University of Toronto, a teaching university with which are affiliated the 
£/n«»er5rYi«/°"""''"*f institutions, namely, University College (Provincial), Vic- 
toria College (Methodist), Wycliffe College (Anglican), the Ontario 
Agricultural College. School of Practical Science, two Medical and a Dental 
College, a Veterinary College and two Colleges of Music, etc. This University 
was founded in 1827. It has an endowment of over a million dollars, anc an 
income ot $85,000. Its students, male and female, number about 2.000. It 
also is undeno lational. 

The following universities have been established by various denominations: 
Ottawa University (Roman Catholic), yueen's University (Presbyterian) 
Trinity University (Episcopalian). The Western University (Episcopalian)' 
Victoria University (Methodist), now federated with Toronto, Knox College 
(Presbyterian) and McMaster University (Baptist). 

In addition to the above, a number of private and endowed schools and 
colleges are to be found throughout the Province for the students of both 
sexes, some of which are ot a denominational character. Amongst these the 
Upper Canada College is well known There is also a school of Technology 
anc a school of Art and Design, located in Toronto ; a college of agriculture'; 
two schools of Mining and three schools of Dairying. 




/'V NTARIO has 7, ckjo miles of steam riiilways. In this rc^'aril the southern 
( I portion of the province is particularly well supplied, beinjf covered with 

Vy/ a network of lines. These, in connection with the lake, river and 
canal navij.fation systems, aH'ord exceptional facilities for internal 
communication. Residents in the settled portion of Ontario are in nearly all 
cases within easy access of a railroad and there are but few localities in which 
the farmer cannot re.ich a station with a load of produce and return to his 
home on the same day The principal railway systems are the Grand Trunk 
and the Canadian Pacific, two splendidly equipped roads with fine road-beds 
and rolling,' stock. The systems are not confined to Canada, but their rami- 
fications extend to the United States as well. 

A third system, not so well known as the above, but one that seems like- 
ly to play a very important part in the development of the country immediate- 
ly noi th of the older settled portion of the province is the Ottawa, Arnprior 
and Parry Sound Railway. The route of this road runs for 2(.4 miles directly 
across the province from the city of Ottawa, in the Kast, to Parry Sound, a 
port of the Georgian Bay, in the West, and parallels the main lines of the 
Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk to the South. It connects, via the Canada 
Atlantic, with Montreal, Quebec, St. John anu Halifax ; and with Boston, 
Portland and New York by Ameri«an roads. It forms a short cut across 
Ontario from the Great Lakes and is thus a very direct route to tidal waters. 
Since 1898 there have been incorporated by the Provincial Legislature 
twenty.five steam railway companies. With but a few minor exceptions, the 
proposed lines will be constructed in Northern Ontario, where they will open 
up for settlement large agricultural areas as well as permit the development 
of rich timber and mineral resources. 


The Ontario and Rainy River Railvay is now completed from Port Arthur 
to Winnipeg, 26.^ miles of which passes through Ontario, opening up a great 
area of country hitherto more or less inaccessible. 

The Manitoulin and North Shore Railway, ultimately intended to run 
from Meaford to Sudbury and the shores of Lake Superior, is under constftT- 




The AI»roma Central Railway i. «Uo in procc..„Mlru.,ion. ,.» ot if, 
40 hen, h.n.hed a. .he .ime of,.. «« .ell a. ,on,c . nil.. >f 
the M jh.pitoton Branch ol the name line. 

(• ,v.'!'''""/ 1"'"'"^' '?'•*'/'"''" ''^'^ "•^"Ji'y P'-«'>rre,,ed touarU, more complete 

than ''""'^^'»''''"*l-^^'"-^-i"»f to impede private enterprL ' „o n.ore 

" .r "r^'V "^'"^ """• "''"" '"^•"''"-'" «hi- re,.arJ ha. heen th 
«urx.> and partial construction of a line from North Bav to the a^'ricultural 

Kntk^nce to t,.k VVkklan., Can.... Cunnkct.n. Lakes Ontakio av. K,uk. 

districts at the head ot Lake Temiskami„K^ by the Clovernment. with the 
mtent.on of constructing? it as a Provincial work. This railwav will touch 
Lake and permit the development of the rich agricultural and 
mmeral region adjacent to that lake and its tributary waters. As settlement 
advances it ,s proposed to extend the railway to James Bay, thus opening 
a direct route from the capital of f e Province to the northerr. seaboard a 
project equally advantageous ' new and to older Ontario. 


I' R O V I N c !•: O V O N r A R I o 

The ^T -wth of «hc cicctru- railwny in OiUHriu within the punt lew yearn 
hnn been rapid »nU continuoiiK. In the cilic* und more importunl town* lh« 
El H cl«.'t'«ric cur ha<i coinplcltfly taken the place 

'RMilrodds. ^^^ ^^^ hoTHt'cnr for panNen^er traOic. Not 
only so, but the system \% rapidly extending 
Itnelf into the rural districts, where it afTords li^fht or 
secondary railway facilities for the speedy transpttrta- 
lion o( passen);ers, farm produce and j^'cnirral lijjht 
freijfht, and bics fair in the near future ti> add ^jreatly 
to the wealth and prosperity of the IVovince. 

As has already been pointed out, the (ireat i.akcs 
and the St. Uiwrence River form the (greatest system 
of inland waterways in the world. There is, however, 
a difference of level between Lake Superior and the 
tide-waters, amounting; to (ku teet, ^ivinir rise to 
rapids between Lakes Superior and Huron, to the 
celebrated falls of the Nia^^ara River between Lakes 
Erie and Ontario, and to the rapids of the St. Lawrence. To overcome 
these obstacles to nuvi|;ation a fine scies of canals have been constructed, 
fifty-one miles in extent, at a total cost of about fifty millions of dollars, 
as follows : 

The VV'elland system, connectinj,' Lake Vie with Lake Ontario, 
twenty-three and three-tjuartcr miles ; the St. Lawrence system, 
twenty-four miles ; and the Sault Ste .Marie canal, three-quarters 
of a mile. By this means a continuous stretch of inland water communication 
is afforded through Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair, liric and Ontario, and 

Ni»KitM rttU, Onurto. 


Kurt Williuiii, oiituriu. 

Sariiia, onturio. 

the River St. Lawrence to the Atlantic, a distance from Port .Arthur of 2,260 
statute miles. Under the present scheme of enlargement, now almost com- 
pleted, these canals will accommodate vessels of 14 feet draught throughout 
their entire course. The principal traffic of the route consists ot grain and 
lumber. There are also several internal canal systems. 








Ontario's Agriculture* 




- $ 158,274.403 

O U T H E R N ONTARIO is pre-eminently an a{,'ricultural country. 
Its soil and climate are in all respects such as are required to produce 
the best results both from the g^rowing of cereal crops and the raising 
ot live stock. One is not surprised therefore to find that the majority 
of the people of Ontario are engaged in farming as a means of obtaining a 
livelihood. When one considers the magnitude of the industry, the ;imount 
of capital there is invested in 't, and the value of the annual output of the 
farms of Ontario, as compare.! with other industries, it becomes apparent 
that agriculture is paramouiii in point of importance. Statistics show that 
there are twelve and a half million acres of land under cultivation, and that 
there is invested in lands, implements, buildings and stock, no less a sum 
than a thousand millions oi dollars, which is a far larger sum than lies invest- 
ed in the manufacturing industries of the whole Dominion. 


That farming is being conducted on a more extensive scale than formerly 
is evident from the table herewith given : 

Farm lands have increased in value since 1897 by $20,67.'i,0(X) 

The buildings used for farming purpoaes have increased by l.'J,398,0(M» 

Farming implements by 6,02i>,000 

Live stock by 29,625,000 

The area under crop of all kinds (including pasture) has also increased 

in the past four years by ... 129,603 acres. 

The increase since 1891 is 934 959 acres. 

The Ontario farmer can no longer compete with the West in the growing 
of grain crops for export, even though it is admitted that as good a sample 
and as high an average yield may be obtained in this Province as in any part of 
North America. The economic conditions in which he is placed demand that 
he shall turn his raw material into a finished product. Consequently he is now 
feeding his coarse grain to live stock instead of selling it in the markets ; is 
producing butter and cheese, meat, poultry and fruit for the British market, 
and breeding high class stock to replenish the herds and flocks of the United 
States, as well as other parts of the Dominion. Not only does he thereby 

I 34 I 

Light and Heavy Types of Ontario Bred Horses. 





receive a better cash return, but he also maintains and increases the product- 
iveness of his land, by restoring to it that which is taken from it. 


IN 1900 and 190t. 

From the report of the Bureau of Industries, it is estimated that the sale 
of stock for the years 1900 and igoi is as follows :— 

^"''«*''' , .? 3,774,480 

^'*"'*' 18,017,989 

''^''*:®P •2,872,60J» 

''^*''"*' 15,800,799 

*;""l^'->' 1.176.740 

^'^^^ 2,850,000 


« 4,847,582 









"T"^"' *44,492,«17 

Thelbreedingand feeding of stock is a highly important branch of Ont- 
ario agriculture, and is regarded as the key to successful farming. Ontario- 
IS particularly well suited for the stock raising industry. Its invigorating 
climate and abundance of pure water, the nutritive qualities of its 
roots and grasses and its remarkable freedom from disease espec- 
ially fit it for the raising of the finest of cattle. Purebred-animals 
trom Its studs, herds and flocks, have been shipped to the Tnited States for 
many years past and have brought a high price in that country. In addition to- 
this, Ontario supplies large numbers of pure bred animals to the sister Pro- 
vinces of Manitoba, the North West and British Columbia, and it mav justly 
claimjto be the greatest breeding ground in North America, for animals of 
this description. Nearly all the breeds of cattle prominent in Great Britain, 
are represented. 

During the past few years, Ontario's export trade in live stock with the 
United States has grown in a very marked manner. At the present time ia 
all classes of live stock including horses, the demand is excellent and prices 
satisfactory. '^ 

Ontario has been pronounced to be the id^al home of the combing wool 
sheep. Perhaps in no country are sheep liable to so few diseases, and all the 
Sheep. '^''''^'"^ '"■^^'^^ ^° ^^'^"- The climate is as nearlv an Ideal one for 

the successful raising of this class of stock as can bp found any- 
where. United States flockmasfers look to Canada for breeding stock 
knowing that sheep raised on our soil have, similarly with cattle, the stamina 
and quality necessary to improve their flocks when fresh blood is required. 

Ontario is noted for the production of a fine class of horses. During the 
Horses. ^°^'' ^^"^ '"^ '-"onsiderable number were purchased in the Province 

for army purposes. They were pronounced to be unusually sound 
in wind, rejections on this score not exceeding- two per cent. At the fronts 

I ^ 



they made an excellent showing for stamina and intellifrence. and their powers 
of endurance were notably superior to all others. 

In conjunction especially with dairying, the bacon hojf industry has 
rapidly come to the front as one of the most profitable branches of Ontario 
a^^riculture. The by-produc- . of the dairy are now largely used as food for 
pigs, and great numbers can oe raised at a minimum of cost and sold at pav- 
ing prices. " 

The success of Canadian bacon and hams in the British market is largely 
due U the fact that the quality of our hogs is superior to that of the corn fed 
Pork »nd ^°^ °^ ^^^ Western States. By the opening up of pork-packing 
Bicon. ^"^ bacon-curmg establishments in Ontario a steady market for 

light young hogs is assured all the year around. These are locat- 
ed at Toronto, Hamilton, Ingersoll, Brantford, London, Stratford, Peterboro, 
Collmgwood and Palmerston. The yearly output for Toronto alone is esti- 
mated at 83,000,000. Immense strides have been made in the Log-raising 
and bacon-curing industries within the past ten years. In 1890, the value of 
the exports of Canada in this line of production amounted to onlv $646,000, 
whereas in 1902 it had reached $12,404,000. 

The business of poultry-raising is undergoing great development at the 

present time, and is capable of much wider expansion. Turkeys have been 

Poultry. ^'^'PP^'^ to England for years, and considerable shipments of 

chickens are now being made. The export trade in eggs is also 


Estimated value of Dairy Products for 1900 : 

^•^^®*^ |!1.3,023,02i5 

Butter, creamery and dairy o cqq i^^^ 

Milk and cream ".'.'.'.'.'."■.'.".■. yi-mOOO 


Dairying is one ot the foremost branches of Ontario agriculture. On- 
tario exports more cheese (than the whole of the United States, and on the 
British market the quality of the product is admittedly superior. Entering 
late into the race when it seemed almost won by the United States, Canada 
Dairying. ^^^ wrested from that country the first place on the market by 
the superiority of its product Much of the cheese consumed by 
the British public is made in Ontario, although doubtless sometimes sold to 
the consumer as the home article. At the World's Columbian Exposition, 
Ontario cheese swept all before it, taking a total of 261 awards, and in many 
cases securing 99 out of a possible 100 points. In this department Ontario 
and Quebec combined captured practically all the awards, leaving but a 
small portion to the rest of the American continent. 


Ontario cheese is made under the factory or co-operative system and T '"r ''"'""' "*" '•'" ^'"'"''''^- '^'^'^ ^^'"■'^'-' '""kers manaffini: 

Factories ^hese factories have for the most part received their training in 
Government Dairy Schools. By these methods a superior and 
uniform product is secured. 

The development of the cheese industry in Ontario has been remarkably 
ontmuous and rap.d. In ,864 the hrst factory was erected. Prior to thal^ 
■ me about 3.500,000 lbs. were made annually in the farm dairies. Since 
then the growth has been as follows :— 

1871 —Amount made in factorien i» via ini*. 11 

1H81— " .. i.i,.)00,(M> Urn. 

18»1_ .. .. 35,0(K),00(. .. 

1895- .. .. 81.»-.'4,.)42 •• 

1899- .. .. KHV2.3(.,.340 •' 

1901- " .. 12.3.324,(J<K) '. 

l.U942,5(H» " 

frnn, n^ ^"'°""' ''^ Canadian cheese, of which probably two-thirds comes 

ltT,9 6.o.T3'9."''°''''' '° '"'''' ^"'"" '" '''°' ""' ^''°'39^.35o lbs., valued 

The butter industry is not so far advanced as the cheese manufacture. 

chiefly owmg to the lack of proper facilities for placing the product on the 

world s market in prime condition. Ontario is capable of produc- 

Gutter. mg as fine a quality of butter as is produced anywhere, and with 

the proper means of manufacture, packing and transportation, is 

begir img to compete successfully in the British market. 


All the fru.ts usually grown in the temperate zone can be produced sue 
cessfuUy m Ontano, and the province contains a larger area lere suitable 
conditions of soil and climate prevail than any other province of 
Fr.t. the Domm.on. For quality and flavor Ontario fruit is unsurpassed 

ket and fruit r."""" ^T"'" "°" ^"""^""^ ""^^'^ '"PP''^*^ ^""^ *he home mar- 
ro nH tT "^"''^'^"^^''^ ^ '^'""'^^" ^'"^i'^'e of diet and is abundant the year 
round. The export trade is. however, capable of much greater development 
Ontano .s justly celebrated for its apples. They constitute the staple 
and pnncpa fru.t crop, and can be grown successfully over a verv large pa I 

of the province. The farther , orth the apple can be pr'oduced the 
c/ipptes. better IS the flavor and keeping quality of the fruit. Beginning 

with the valley of the St. Lawrence above Brockville, a good apple 
coun ry ,s found which extends to Niagara at the western end of Lake OntaH^ 

Ert rT^' ''' ""'T: '" ^" ''^ '^^-^--^ ^-'^--^ - Lakes Onta o 
Erie and Huron, and indeed "n all the counties of the west, apples grow to 

great perfection. The orchards of the Huron tract alone w ll.'n a ffJornh e 




>ea produce fully 5cx,.oo.. barrels. A number of varieties of carlv and late 
of ^o>d'L' '"■""; •''"^'^r-"''^"*^'^' =^"-^''"" '^ ^-"^' P-^' to the production 
snipped annually. 

In several sections of Ontario fruit jrrovvinj,. has become a special industry 
and has grown to very large proportions This is particularly the case in the 

V^ne.y.rds ult '"«"°" ^""^ '" '^' '^'""''"^ bordering on Lake Erie. 
xjnoa.rf5 Here the mfluence ot the great lakes renders the climate milder 
Orchards. even than m districts lying much farther south, and tender fruits 
such as peaches and grapes grow to perfection in the open air. 
producmg enormous yields. Vineyards and orchards varying from ,o to ,00 
acres in extent are seen everywhere. 


Frl-it Ready for Shipment at Nia(;ara-ox-the-Lake, O.nt. 

In the narrow strip of country bordering Lake Ontario from Hamilton to 
Niagara, pears, peaches, plums, grapes, cherries, quinces, apples and small 
fruits are very extensively grown, and make this the most important fruit 
section of the province. From this district fruit is shipped by lake and rail 
to Toronto, Montreal and other eastern points, and as far west as Manitoba 
in addition to pears and apples exported. 

Grapes grow prolifically in these districts, the crop averaging fifteen 
n^lhon pounds annually from about three million vines A portion of tl 
crop IS used in the native wine-making industry. 

















ONTARIO'S A tl R I C I' L T l' R K 




The BurliiiK'ton and Oakvllle districts, near the head of Lake Ontario, 
are famous for apples, pears and plums, and also for small fruits. The Lake 
Huron and (Jeor^'ian Bay sections produce besides apples, enormous 
quantities of plums. 

Another important fruit section exists in Prince Kdward County, at the 
eastern end of Lake Ontario, where for many years a f,'reat variety of fruits 

Smjdt ^"""^ ^^*"'" ^'^''^^'"- ''"•"■^''^''' ^'■'■'^^ "l^^'iR the St. Lawrence, little 

Fruits. *''"'^ '^ iirown except apples, as early frosts render tender fruits 

precarious. The smaller fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, 
cherries, currants and (^gooseberries do well in almost any section of the province. 
Ontario apples have for years been exported to (Ireat Britain in larjfe 
quantities. During' the last few years, shipments of pears have been made, 
and have met with ^'re;.. success on account of their size, appear- 
Exports. ^"'''^ ""^ flavor. Kxperiments recently conducted by the Govern- 
ment have proved that it is quite possible to send delicate fruit 
to England in perfect condition. Shipments of pears, peaches, earlv apples 
and grapes, specially selected and packed and placed in cold storage on 
the railway and steamship have been successfully made. The fine appear- 
ance of this fruit excited great interest in England, manv finding it difficult 
to realize that it could be produced in the open air. To make this business 
a practical success, a continuous system of cold storage is involved, last- 
ing irom the time the fruit is picked in the orchard until it reaches the 
consumer. This is a difficult problem but its solution opens a new era for 
the fruit industry of Ontario. 

In the province orchards, vineyards and gardens occupy about 400,000 
acres. There are now six million apple trees of full bearing' age and about 
four million younger trees. The yield of apples is estimated to be between 
fifty and sixty million bushels per year. Some thousands of acres are planted 
with peach trees, and 11,000 acres are devoted to vineyards. 

The growing of fruits and vegetables for canning factories has become of 

dnning '^^'^^"^ y^^rs an important industry. Tomatoc are exteisively 

factories grown for this purpose. In this convenient form, these product's 

find their way to many distant markets. 

The evaporating of apples is extensively carried on in some localities, 

and large quantities are exported. 

Other specialties in connection with horticulture are, the growing o\ 
nursery stock, the production of flowers for sale, and market gardening. 
Large areas of land in che neighborhood of the principal cities and towns are 
now being devoted to the two latter industries. 



.ro2)l!f''^'"'^ *'""', *"'''' '^' n--^^^"^''!^^" ""U estimated value of the field 
crops for ,900 as compiled by the Bureau of Industries :- 

Field Crops. Bushels, 

rail wheat ,,•<«: 

sprinjr wheat ....::::;: iTP^'^^'^ 

Barley.... ^,940.333 

Oats •6,909,75, 

Rve 89.693.327 

Peas..;;;:; ^'^57.635 

Buckwheat. . "/.'.[ 'V2''f 

Beans '.874.261 

Potatoes v.".'. ,, .Ia'^^^ 

MangeUwurzels . .;;;;": f^sl^? 

Carrots... 24,728,525 

Estimated \'alue. 








Turnips;. 3 460,11 433.640 

Corn for husking '('in ihe ear) S'^^' -^f k^ll'l^° 

Corn for silo and'^fcSdder grjin ) 'tons ''2;'^ 'si ^^^.^1 

Ur^-e proportion of the land in the southern part of the province is good but, 

A Fertile :1'""Y ^^ ''"PP*"*^''' "^"^^ to some extent in different sections. 
SoiL I he character of the country is, as a rule, gently rolling, and the 

Whil • """'"!? "^ '^' '"" '' "'"^"^ '^•^>'' '^'«>' '°^'"' "'• ««"dy loam. 
\yh,Ie m some European countries larger yields are obtained, it is as a rule 
at a relatively greater cost. There is no doubt, however, that the lands of 
the province are not producing nearly to their full capacitv. Neither is there 
any doubt that the productive capacity of the soil might b'e greatly increased, 
by more thorough and systematic farming, by more extensive underdrainin^ 
more care m crop rotation, and by feeding more stock on the farms. 

Wmter wheat was at one time the principal grain crop. Now it is no 

longer raised for export, although a considerable quantity is grown for home 

use. , About a million a-re.s of land are annually devoted to 

W7,«/. wmter wheat, and the average yield is 20 bushels to the acre. 

Y.e ds of thirty and forty bushels to the acre are not uncommon, 

where the fertility of the land has been maintained and the soil properly prel 

pared. Of spring wheat, between three and four hundred thousand acres are 

grown, and the yield averages about 16 bushels. 

Over two million acres of oats are planted everv year in Ontario, and the 

average yield is about 35 bushels per acre. Barley yields between twenty-five 

and thirty bushels on an average and half a million acres are 

f&S' '^°"""P'"'^ ^y '^^' ^"-^P- The six-rowed varietv is usually 

One of the most important crops the farmer grows is peas. Pea meal i* 




a valuable part of the ^'rain ration both for milk, and beef and pork. About 
750,000 acres of peas are jfrown, yielding: an averajjc of ao busheb. 

Sixty years a^o all jfrain crops had to be harvested with the sickle. To- 
day the modern harvester will cut and bind the heaviest crop of jjrain and do 
the work m the most perfect manner. Similarly, in the early history of the 
Ubo^S i '■'''"""■>'• •'" ^^'^ *•"■"'" *«** threshed with a flail, and the work took 
W Mjtchini^y^^'' ''^''^'' «'"'«'■ »^^ accomplish. Now the threshinjf machine, 

I which travels with its jran^r of hands from farm to farm, threshes 

and cleans the jfrain ready for market, besides doing the work as fast as 

j two men can fork the sheaves into it. 

i ' ats ar exported in iar^'e quantities to Great Britain and Ireland, and 

oatmeal to Scotland and England. Most of the winter wheat grown is milled 

Gr*mPn. '" ^"'"'*'°' ''"* '*'^'"* ^P'"'"*'' "^^^'"^^ '^ exported. Ontario barley is 
dadion in ^"P^'"'^^'' ^° '^e best barley :;rown in the United States, ind is 
t899. eagerly sought for by the United States malsters ; but owing to 

the high protective tariff vjry little finds its way to that country 
Peas are exported largely to Great Britain and the Continent. Canadian peas 
are considered the best sample grown in any country in the world. 

The kinds of hay commonly grown are timothy grass, red clover and 
alsike, and occasionally lucerne or alfalfa. A large quantity of clover seed is 
exported to Europe. Hay is cut during the first week in July. Hay dries 
« fast in the Ontario climate. With good weather, it may be raheJ into cocks 

the same evening as cut, drawn to the barn the following day and stored 
away in the hay mow. There is no department of farm work more replete 
^^ with labor-saving contrivances. Tht mowing machine has been 

H*ivesimg. '" "^^ ^'^'' ""^^^ >'^**'"'*' ''"^ of late it has been greatly simplified and 
rendered much more effective. For raking the hay, the "sulky" 
rake is now in general use. Another torm of rake is one with a side delivery, 
which throws the hay into continuous windrows, which is of great advantage 
where a hay loader is used. Another useful implement is the tedder for shak- 
ing out the hay, and the horse fork for delivering it to the mow. 

in a similar manner the amount ot manual labor has of recent years been 
greatly reduced mi nearly all departments of the farm. Not uncommonly, 
" sulky " plows, harrows and cultivators are employed, on which the farmer 
I . sits while driving, just as he does on his reaping machine. The modern steel 

/ frame windmill is very commonly used for the pumping of water, cutting of 

toed for stock, eic. With the aid of such devices as these the farmer is en- 
abled to dispense, to a considerable extent, with hired help. 

Roots are among the most valuable stock feeds, and are widely grown. 
The average yield of turnips is 422 bushels per acre ; of mangels, 437 bushels ; 
lipot Crops. of '^a^ots, 350 bushels; and of potatoes, 115 bushels. About 
350,000 acres are devoted to these crops. 



A KiKAr, Hi(iii\VAV. 

of UveVrT''"'' ^ ^JT '" ^"'"'''' ag^riculture has the raising, and feeding, 
o .ve s ock assumed that one of the farmer's most important studies is tt 

The ;:^.:t ""I ""r"'^''' '-''''' ^"^'^'^ • ^-^^^- - necessary dugt^ 
the winte months when the cattle are stabled, and also durin.. fne lite st m 
mer months when pastures are liable to fan on account of drvteather 

•MndiL'orfodd '''"'•"? T "''P^' '" "-^"^"^ ^—-ew acres o. 
Indian or fodder corn is cut before full maturity is reached and 

EnsiUge. ^J^''^^ '" the s.Io. This is the surest fodder crop he can raise 

No matter whether the season be wet or dry a fair crop is assured' 

J.^IT , ? !"' '''' '^" ''^ '^P^ ^^" ^' '^^'^ -here much corn odder ^ 
ra.sed ,s relat.yely yery large, and the area deyoted to the crop is co.urnually 
ncreas„.g Nearly all stock men grow and feed more or less corn d2 •' 

■ng. especal ly. ensilage is a distinct faCor in making the business a pay ' 
one. Corn .s planted about the end of May with a ^eed drill i„ rows'ab u 
30 mches apart It is cut about the first week i„ September. It et 
put up m arge shocks in the field, where it remains until w.nted fo L or 
better st.U, .t .s chopped into pieces about an inch long and stored in the silo 


43 J 


'•«OV,.vo: OF ONTU<,0 

The «i|o „ an « ch,n .. u . , 

outniUt the barn uhik "•" ''^ ^■'"»*^«"«^^f9 '»r w.hhJ ...H. . 

«^ "«rn, uhich preserves .he com In -v u ' "" """^'« «»•• 

n,J^/o. '-^"ni the .ilo. ,h. rodder c n h "'' ""^ '•"^•^'"'^•••' ^''ndilion. 

required. No other cron ^iji . '"•'"'*•""> fed to ..ock a* 

;:,r«" •^"^•--o- per acre orn'rle:;:;' "' ''*''" ""^ ^^'•^'-- 
yields are obtained. ••^vra^^e. while occasionally much lar^'er 

Ontario \h well a,t„^t i 

. The fro,, i, „,„„||, ;, , ^,° ™"> "■••»■"'" f"' 'h« f»™.r commenc 

tow """Xy .ho .„iUd,. , H I':,,';;;™"'', ^>, "- "•K-.nnin.-orApHt 

»prin^ plowing. ,„ comm/ncT ^ u ' '""^ " ""*"■'"'"■ "'-V '- 

and ho,. The crop, rapid,, ^- ouMo^aJr;; 'i""' '''''''"'"" -»''-. 

quick ,ucce„io„. Fir,, hay. ,hc„ h IT "" *•"" '° ""^^ "arvc.d in 

-d ,he far„,er work, fro^ L ■ il^h, ^ di;^ "th T'" '' ""'■"• ■•'"" -" 
abou, ,he Ihird week of July n^he m, ^7 , *•' "'""" "'""" ™mm..„ce. 

The spring rain., „re usually a^ "^ '"'■'•'""' "^ ""■'''»«'< of Au^u.,. 

June. The. ,„„„er.„n,h:: 'rdit:t7' 77'r' """" »"■«.> 
»^dered esceedinRly dry. eyery d-,y h • " "^ '"'"'"''■ """W he con- 

D-in^ .he mo„.h,'of trv^:^^ .t .'^.^f'-r "' "7"'""" """ »'-"i 
cour.,e ,ea,,„n, yary ,omewha. hi, T "'"'"''''>''"'' ''"'<'''■ Of 

froma„exce,„ofmoi„ure. ' ' "'" """ '"""" "OP^ seldom suffer 

.^oye:" rridt 1^ :::ir :;:h?r" r': --"' -'-- - -->= - 

."B .he land in.ended for ^eodin^ ,he „li::'; . "' '"""" '» -"•'"'-'"' - P'- - 
liable to lurn cold a, any time L fr i "^ "'"'"'•'■ '^'•" """I'" i, then 

a. »hor, notice. After ,'he ZlH ^ZZ " '" "'"'' "" l"""' - -"-^e" 
an end. and from then until ^X.- tJ^^Z^^TTi' "'"" ''^ P"'"'«"v "' 
para„yely li,„e to do, except to , te 'd , . "^ "" '"™" I"'" b"' con,, 
market on hi, ,leigh oyer the .-ood r »? u I ""'"'• °' ""<= >"' Pr-duceTo 
'f -he Ontario tarmer is h..,rd .urtd i t^mf .'^ ^''"" '''^"■'" ^^ - , 
co".Pa..,ve ,ei,ure, and i, i, ..n^;:r ^ ;« ^^ "' 




The ilimatc nccvsMitiiti'ii that ntock should H* huitocd and fed in winlcr 
time. The ^tahlei lor cattle are iihuhIIv hiiili under the barn, and are knoun 
as hawcnu'nt ulablci. They are conMriicted of brick and >*tonc or 
StAbUa." ^■^*"^'"«'«' »»h1 >crve as a foundation for the barn, a Hpacii>us wooden 
structure in which the cereal crops are stored. This i^ foinid u- 
be a very convenient urranjfcment n% food and beddinjf cm ej. dy be unpplied 
to the stables below. 

The farmers of Ontario are cffeitively and actively organized. Kach 

department of the industry is represented by .in association which advances 

itN interests. The dairymen, the fruit jf rowers, the poultry men, the stockmen 

the h' r»« breeders, each have their assvKiation. These are educative in 

their object and receive liberal aid from the Provinci.d l.oL'isIa- 

glnuJions' '"''*• ''"^'^>' "^^^^ "* s\aUs\ times and their members read 
papers, deliver addresses and enjifa^'e in discussions. The in- 
formation thus ^rathercd is afterwards printed by the (iovernment and liber- 
ally distributed amonjf the farmers for their information in the form of 

The Farmer's Institutes constitute one of the best means oi furnishin>f 
help and information to the rank and file of the farmers. These institutes 
have been orjjanized in almost every township. Kach year they hold a serks 
of meetinjfs or conferences, which are attended by delej,'ations of speakers 
sent out by the Department of Ajfrici'lture, who deliver practical addresses 
on farming in all its branches, and gi,e information as to the latest and most 
approved methods. 

Every county in the province has from one to three district af,'ricultural 
so^-ieties, and the territory is ajjain sub-divided between township ;ind horti- 
cultural societies. These societies are organized under (.iovernment auspices 
and receive state aid. It is customary for each society to hold an annual ex- 
hibition and to offer prizes for products. Important exhibitions of this kind 
aie held in Toronto, London, Ottawa and several other centres. The horse- 
breeding industry is especially represented by an annual Horse 
ExhSluoni. ^''^'^^'' *^«'^ '" Toronto. Every year a large and representative 
exhibition of live stock, known as the Provincial Winter Fair, is 
held in the city of Guelph. F'at stock, dairy cattle, and live and dressed 
poultry are exhibited. Ontario possesses one of the finest and best equipped 
agricultural colleges on the American continent. The Ontario 
College and Experimental Farm is an institution founded and 
OnUrio maintained by the Provincial Government, under the direct control 
^Uege!"^^ '^^ '^^ Department of Agriculture, for the express purpose of pro- 
viding the sons of farmers with an education exactly suited to the 
requirements of their calling. Unlike American colleges of the same class it 



is devoted to agriculture only. The course of training is a combination of 
practical with scientific work. In addition to this, ilairy schools have been 
established at Cluelph, Strathroy and Kingston, whoio the student may secure 
a thorough course in cheese and butter-making, siuli as will fit him to under- 
take the management of cheese and butter factories. 

An important feature in agricultural development in Ontario during the 
past fifteen years is the establishment of experimental farms and experiment 
stations. Associated with the Experimental Farm is the Ontario Experi- 
mental Union. By its efforts a system of co-operative exoeriments has been 
established among the farmers. The number of individual experi- 
Ezperiment rnenters is over two thousand. By this'means, new and improved 
varieties of grains, etc., are tested and introduced trom seed 
distributed from headquarters. In the interest of fruit growing, the 
Government has iikewise established thirteen fruit experiment stations, the 
object being to test different varieties of fruit and determine their suitability 
for the locality represented. 

By these agencies many problems of vital importance to the farmer have 
been solved and a mass of information obtained that has helped him to 
make his business more profitable. The whole of this important work is pre- 
sided over by a special department of the Provincial Government — the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, having a practical farmer at its head, who has a cabinet 


The following is a partial statement of the prizes won by Ontario's live 
stock and other products of agriculture at the Pan-.American FIxposition : 

CiOth. : Ontario. All Canada. United States. 

Cash .slJ.SS 4(» .•?3,1.51 t)0 .>!4.3«8 40 

Medals and Sweepstakes. . Six. Eleven. Nine. 

Slif-pp : — 

Casli 1 ,743 73 l,aV2 50 I .Sfi") 62 

Medals and Sv.-eepstakes , . Five. Six. Seven. 

Sirine : — 

Ca.sli 447 .'><• 447 .50 165 00 

Medals .... Four. Fdui'. One. 

Horxes : — 

Cash 750 00 1,022'50 857 50 

The medal for the hest ware of anj- breed came to Ontario, and also two other 

Poultry : — 
Cash 1,100 00 1,100 00 1,2(X) 00 




Horticulture :-The Ontario fruit exhibit stood first in regard to quality 
in comparison with the various States of the Union, but second to New York 
State in the number exhibited. Ontario received the gold medal for "gen- 
eral display of fruits of superior excellence." 

C/ieese:— In all cases Ontario's export cheese scored high. The only 
gold medal awarded came to Ontario. 








Northern Ontario 


i- hard to reality, c-omprisinV as , .* '"■"'- '^""- "» va,st extent 
■square miles, or 90,000 oooac "a c ft, "" ■"■'" "^ "'"'"' ■■'0,000 
«..led portion of^ntarir U s diCidtT ' ,"". ■'r^'''"'" '"""'>■ """> '!>« 
^.n., A„o.a, Thunder Ba,, and tf^^::'"^:^:^- '''"'^ 
the older portion of the orovincP fnri' ^^^tween these districts and 

n^ediate region, are the diSr'f .M T L^^ Prr.T't 'j ^^"^' ^'^ ^"^- 
Northern Ontario, taken as -i JhlT J ""'^ ^"'^ Haliburton. 

country, yet it has the advantage of no """'. '' '^'"''''^"'' ^^ ^ ^^-'"^ 
as fertile as any in the Pr^ nee and lable of ^""^^ "^^^ ''^ '^^'"'"^ '-^'^ 
a lar^e population. The more access^etf ^h "''""""' '" '""^ ''^^'^^'^'^ 
settled, while others are without n.eT"s or 1 ■' '" ''""'^ P^^^'^' 

to be available at the present 'rml — ""-'ation. and too renote 




Thunder iJay 
Rainy River. . 

S.i. .Miles. Acres. 

. . 3,0«)0 1,<)20,000 

■ 17-500 I1,20<»,(KJ() 

4, (too 2, -»«(), 000 

(*W .SS4,0f¥j 

Allowing .CO acres to each head of a familv th H ' 

accommodate 80.3.0 families, and allowing ^To ell f '^°''\!^'^'-^«^- ^o"ld 
sent a rural population of 401,600 soul LVaf l' '^" """''^ ''^P^^- 

capable of supporting, as nl doubt ittil'l be ntheTu7 ''' '^"""^^'^ '^ 

to the same area in the older parts of th. P '" ^ P°P"'^ti°" equal 

tain a population of over'oo pel|^e "' '' "'" "'^""=''^'>' --•"- 

te^Ht!:;: t;^^;::,/^-^!----^ an unknown 

pectors. During the last few ve;,r« h^. adventurous mining pros- 

and New Ontario i. fast t ^aT :;:;l'„74«^"*-° 'T '"" '""'*^'- 

wealth.agricul.urai and otherwise/ With the r"a"on°f.h" ''"'""-■'''"' "' 

.»un tne creation of the great manufactur- 


ing industries at Sault Ste. Marie, the building of the Algoma Central, the 
opening up of the iron mines in the Michipicoton and other districts farther 
west, the working of the rich copper deposits along the north shore of Lake 
Huron, followed by the construction of the Government railroad from North 
Bay to the land settlement north-west of Lake Temiskaming, and with the 
rapid increase of settlers in the Temiskaming district, Rainy River district 
Western Nipissing, and in the southern part of Algoma, as well as in the 
Thuiider Bay district. New Ontario is in truth pulsing with a new life. So 
popular is the country proving with people who are looking for new homes 
that the suitable land now available is being so rapidly taken up that it 
«s the intention of the Government to survey this year a larger number of 
townships than for many years past, and these townships will be located in 
territory that has first been found suitable for agricultural purposes. 

There have been located and sold in New Ontario, during 1901, accord- 
ing to the returns of Crown Lands agents, farms of from 100 to 160 acres 
each to the number of 2,541, amounting to three hundred and 
PopuUtion. thirty thousand acres, representing a population of nearly 10,000. 
These official figures do not, however, fully represent the total 
influx of people into New Ontario. 

The population of the new northern districts is shown by the following 
table taken from the Dominion census : 


Muskoka and Parry Sound g 919 

Nipissing ,792 

Algoma 7 018 

Total 15,728 145,577 

An increase of 827 per cent. 

Another evidence of growth in population is to be found in the towns and 
villages in the newer districts, some of which have come into existence since 

the last Dominion census was taken : 











*"" Dominion 

villages. Census, 1901. 

Oravenhurst 2147 

Bracebridge 2479 

Huntsville 2152 

Parry Sound 2884 

North Bay 2531 

iSturgeon Falls 1415 

Towns Population, 

*"^ Dominion 

^'"»Kes- (Jensus, 1901. 

Su'^buj-y 2027 

Thessalon \W5 

Sault Ste. Marie 7169 

Port Arthur 3214 

B'ort William 3533 

Rat Portage 5202 

Many of these towns are the centres of important industries, which give 
employment to many men. They are also the commercial centres, from which 
equipment and supplies are obtained, and the headquarters from which the 




fumh."" H "" TT? '" '-"-"'<•• Thus Matta«a is a centre for ,h. 
lumber ,„du»,ry „ ,he l/pper Ottawa ; North Bay a railway centre ; Sturgeon 

hJ.M^ sl„, J";! "" '«"";"""'' '""""y "' ■"» "ack ; Sudbnry is the 
Cnht,. ^^' "f the great nickel and copper industries of Ontario ; Sault 
»'«• "arie, the headquarters of the Clerifue industries v hile Rat 
Portage ,s ,he centre of the Lake-of-the-Wood gold Helds. a d o'f e nsl 
umber,ngr, flour and saw.n,il,ing industries. Port Arthur and Fort W Zm 

Its fJr ITk ' "'"■ " "" """"" "" "f '-'" Superior, are bot" 

aTthe e ooin T"' "r" "'"' ''""'' """"• ^hree railwavs converge 

vessellir^r " ^ •"" """ "" "■^'""" P™i"« - •■"^- 'ransferred to lake 
vessels in larj,'e quantities. 

Algonia . . 

Post offices 
ill 1S81. 

.. 39 

Poiit offices 
in 19()l. 


(oUotZlT ""' ""'^ '"^"''"^ "'"'^ "^^" "^^'•^'''^ -^ settlement are the 

rive7L'cIref '7"'^ """'.?"' °" "^"'^ Temiskaming. on the upper Ottawa 
nver. occupies a arge valley comprising about acres of choice 

rne,em,s. "wn' ' "tu"\ '^"J^ ^^ ^^'^^ ^^ ^'««" ^-veyed and laid out in 

c^mmg tounships The land, which rises abruptly from the lake shore to 

Country. a height of about fifty feet, slopes gradually towards the Height of 
f. 11 . .^^"'^'T'^'^*^ '^ ^''^"t fifty miles distant from the lake. The soil is 

an ly equal in fertility to that of any portion of Southern Ontario, being T ich 
clay, with a surface of black vegetable mold. 

n.f •?' f 'l^'u '' "^"'^ "^^'"''"^ "^''^ numerous streams and rivers, the most 

r tt wib^Rrer "''"''' ""'-' -''-''' '- - -"- ■' ^^« ^^--- 

lar tlmarack7 '^^^^^^'^^-d^'' -'^h spruce, cedar, birc. balsam, pop- 
such thH^ ^ 'l^ '"'^ °''^''' ''"''• '^^^ '"'^^^ "'^^ket for the timber is 
such that the settler is often enabled to make not only a living but a hand 
some profit in clearing his land. ^ 

runni!^t'/''°"v''''u^o°''"'"'"'"' ^^' undertaken the construction of a railway 

is for si r.o 7 . '" ' ""'■'^"^ ^"'^""^'^^ '" ^^^ ^'^^---^ °f Nipissing 

tor sale at ^o cents per acre, subject to settlement duties 

clav belt '^Z'f-7'"'^ 7""u- ' '^'■'"^ ^'^^ southeastern extremity of the great 

undert ke b^th T r.' "^^ ^^^^'"^'^'^ '^ ^'^^ ^^'^^^^ exploradons 

northvvcsterly direction, with a slight break at the Height 



of Land, across the districts of Nipissinj- and Al^'oma and into Thunder Bay 
district, comprisinj; a total area of some 24,500 square miles, or 
aly^B^ft. 'S'^*^'^^^ "'-■'■es- This almost unbroken stretch oi ^ood farming' 
land is nearly three-quarturs as great in extent as the whole settled 
portion of the province south of Lake Nipissin^' and the French and Mattawa 
Rivers. Ano ..r important fact established by the explorations is that the 
climate in this northern district presents no obstacle to a successful a^fricul 
tural settlement. The absence of summer frosts noted by explorers, and the 
growth of all common vegetables at the Hudson Bay posts, completely 
dispels the erroneous impression that its winters are of arctic severity, and 
its summers too short to enable crops to mature. The following comparison 
of the monthly records of mean umperatures from April to October, kept at 
Moose Factory by the Hudson Hay Company in the year 1901 with fifteen 
vears' observations at Kdinburgh may be of interest : 


Monthn. K.linlnirBh, Moose Kartorv, 

Ifptf. ali.)\ezero. Dt'i' above zetf(. 

•■^f"'' 44.3 

^'">' 48.8 47.6 

•^""" 34.9 .-,6.0 

'V''^" :^S.O 62.7 

•^"8""* 57.5 6I..3 

St'ptemJxT ry2i^^ .., - 

^'^^^^^^r 46!l .'ko 

It will be seen that the five summer months are just as warm at Moose 
Factory as at Edinburgh, while April and October are very little cooler. The 
remaining five months are much colder, but while the winters of Northern 
Ontario are much colder than in Scotland, they are not excessively severe as 
compared with many well settled districts in Canada and the United States. 

In the Rainy River Valley, which is in the extreme western part of the 
Provmce, settlement is progressing with almost equal rapidity. 
pi^ef^'"^ The settlers who are going into the Rainy River Valley 
Country. ^^'^er from those in Temiskaming, in that while the latter are be. 

ing drawn mostly from Old Ontario, the former are farmers 
from the United States, who have discovered the advantages offered bv the 
Rainy River Valley, and they are pouring in there in large numbers. The 
building of the Canadian Northern Railway through the valley has contrib- 
uted not a little to the development of the district. 

The luxuriance of th- natural vegetation found in the Rainy River Val- 

ey is evidence of the great fertility and richness of the soil. Wherever the 

country has been fire-swept, and the timber destroyed, it displays a rank 



PK..NEKK H..A»-Mak.N.;, Tmk,.,.:H IVu-Wuo.. F..KKHT. TkM.SKAM.S,; D.sTHI.T. 

«rrowth of wild clover. Native j,.rasses. peas, and vetches flourish abund- 
antly, and wid fruits grow in profusion. All the grain and grass crops 
produced >n older Ontario, including fall and spring wheat, barley, 
peas, oats, etc., do well, and field and garden vegetables vield heavilv. 
Hay always yields an abundant crop and clover attains a ;ery vigorous 
growth. ^ ^ 

The land is for the most part covered with timber, much of which is 
commercially valuable, and can be disposed of by the settler. Lumbering 
operations are carried on extensively on Rainy River and Lake-of-the- Woods, 
and several hundred men find employment during the winter in this way. 

The lumber and timber supplies of Manitoba are largelv drawn from 
this district. There are in various localities rich mineral deposits of iron and 
gold. There is, accordingly, considerable demand for labor. Fort Frances, 
Emo and Boucherville are flourishing towns. 

Another section of New Ontario that is quietly and gradually developing 
Other Sections. '^ ^^"^^ ^^ Wabigoon, containing a number of townships cen- 
tering at Dryden. Situated midwav between Port Arthur and 
Winnipeg, this settlement is excellently located as regards markets. The 
Government explorations or 1900 showed that there were millions of acres of 
good agricultural land in the tract. 



One of the finest sections in New Or.tario, and one which is beinif rapidly 
filled with a hardy and thrifty class of settlers, is that district lying between 
Sturgeon Falls and Sudbury the district known as the French River Valley. 
The soil is very productive, and for many reasons the district is conspicuously 
adapted for dairying' and the raisinjr of cattle and sheep. There is a splendid 
local market for all produce at Sudbury, Sturgeon Falls, Warren and 
other growing towns. 

In the districts of Muskoka, Parry Sound, Haliburton, around Thunder 
Bay on LakeSuperior and especially north of the Georgian Bay in the Algoma 
district, much excellent land exists. For the most part the country in these 
sections is broken up by ridges of rock, but between these and protected by 
them, stretches of arable land often unbroken for thousands of acres wind in 
and out. Everywhere lakes and rivers abound and constitute a marked 

New Ontario is thickly timbered, except where fire has passed over it. 
With the exception of some tracts of hardwoi ' and pine in 
Tifrnier. the southern limits, most of the timber is what is termed " pulp 
wood " and is not difficult to clear. 
The climate of Northern Ontario is healthful and invigorating. While 
the winters are undoubtedly cold, they are probably not as severe as those of 
Manitoba, on account of the moderating influence of the forest growth. 
While Winnipeg is on the 50th parallel of latitude, the Temiskaming 
country lies south of the 48th ; the Rainy River Valley, south of the 49th ; 
Southern Algoma and Southern Nipissing, just north of the 
OintAte. 46th; while the 49th, which is the southern boundary of Mani- 
toba, passes through the centre of the Great Clay Belt. In 
summer the weather is slightly more temperate than that of Southern 

Northern Ontario will grow to perfection as many varieties of grasses, 
grains and vegetables as grow anywhere, and grow them well. In cereals 

and t rasses, its virgin soil produces crops which exceed in yield 
CrSf'L ^"^ quality the most favored section of the United States, and 
Country. ^^en the average of Ontario generally. It is a typical country 

for the production of mutton and beef, cheese and butter. Even 
its rocky bluffs -where these exist— clothed as they are with a vigorous 
growth of timber, protect the pasture land of the valleys, where cattle and 
sheep may roam and graze for seven months of the year, and are not, 
therefore, without their compensating advantages. The sheep is exactly 
adapted to Northern Ontario, and the supreme excellence of the mutto'> 
raised in this region is a matter of note. As a dairy, stock and sheep raising 
country it has all the advantages of cheap land, good transportation facilities, 





rich soil, ^ood water, and cheap building material, while its climate is 
unexcelled for the production of vijforous stock and vi^jorous men. 

For the settler of limited capital New Ontario offers advantajifes quite 
surpassinff those of the Western States or of the Canadian Northwest. Most 
of the lands now open for settlement are wooded, and during the last few 
years there has been a noticeable increase in the value of timber other than 
pine. In the earlier days pine alone was marketable, the other trees being 
regarded as incumbrances, to be got rid of as speedly as possible. Spruce, 
poplar, and other trees furnishing the raw material for paper, are now in great 
demand, and the settler having such timber upon his lot can find steady em- 
ployment in cutting and hauling these woods to the railways or to the water- 
front for shipment, where a good price will be given for them. Hardwood is 
coming very largely into use in building operations for flooring and finishing, 
and in furniture, and its consumption is increasing very rapidly In place of 
burning off the hardwood in huge log heaps, as used to be done when it was 
not a marketable article, the settler in New Ontario, in clearing his land, can 
in most cases sell the logs at a rate that will pay him well for his labor, and 
perhaps have something over. Moreover care is taken to see that every dis- 
trict thrown open for settlement is well served by railways or other means of 
transportation. This guarantees a market for both the timber and the produce 
that the settler fias for sale. 

The following is the mileage of railways in the below mentioned districts 
at the present time : 

Muftkoka and Parry Sound 184 

Algoma 537 

Thunder Bay and Rainy River H73 

Nipissing 210 


Of the above mileage the C. P. R. system covers 1,197 miles. The bal- 
ance of 607 miles received substantial money or land grants from the Govern- 

In 1881 there were only twelve miles of railway in all these northern 

In addition there are in New Ontario excellent water supplies almost 
everywhere, and the settler knows what that adds to his comfort. Fish and 
game are found universally. And all these things, together with the 
present rapid establishment of schools, churches, and the other advantages of 
civilization, make life in a pioneer community in New Ontario vastly different 
to what it was in the earlier days in Canada. 

How to Secure Land. 


T.o». So.,.,,,.,.,,, ..i..c.o.„^c„,;.nii,;;:^;^:;,:i:;:r;;,^s;;l," '- 



The Mineral Resources of Ontario, 


n\V. mineral resources of Ontttrio arc widely spread, varied in character 
and cover almost ti.e entire !i»t of economic mineraU with the except 
tun, ot coal. Kxamination shows that even now. when onlv on the 
threshold ol discovery and development, they are of jjreat extent and 
value Not only does ihe varied list include all the principal and comn,onlv 
found metals, such as iron, copper, lead, silver and koUI. but it also embrace's 
the comparatively rare metal, nickel, the enormous depc.sits of 
Mmer^ls. which in the Sudbury district constitute one of the two sources o( 
the world's supply. 
The metallic minerals are found chiefly associated with the schists and 
chlor.tes of the Hurorian system of rocks. Those rocks extend in belts or 
tracts sometmics for hundreds of miles amonjf the I.aurentian ^'ranites and 
^:ne,sses. the latter constituting the main formation northward from .he 
older settled portions of the Province to the Hudson Bav slope, and fron, 
yuebec boundary m the east to the Province of Manitoba in the west The 
amount oi systematic prospecting^ that has been done is small indeed in pro- 
portion to the extent oi territory. The greater portion of the countrv has not 
even been run over by prospectors and cannot be thorou^'hlv explored for 
many yea.s to come. To the settled farnuuK' country of the" south belonjf 
practically all the products of the structural material class. These with 
petroleum, at present constitute nearly 55 per cent, of the whole mineral 
production of the Province. In the near future, however, the metallic mineral 
products are certain to assume much larj^er proportions. This statement is 
particularly true as re^'ards iron, the minin^^ of which has been L-reatlv 
stimulated owin^^ to the erection oi blast furnaces at several points in the 
Province and the consequent demand for iron ore. following' on the irreat 
advance in the price of iron during' the last few y.ars. 

The ores of iron occur in Ontario in {.-eat abundance. The most im- 
portant and extensive iron ranges are those of the .\tikokan River, the \fat- 
tawin River, ,n the vicinity of Gunflint Lake and on Hunter's Island, all west 
of Lake Superior. Lar^^e bodies of hematite have recentiv been discovered 
at .Vlichipicoton, on the east shore of that lake, some of which are 
iron. being actively worked. These ranges may be folio v>ed for miles 

and the western ores are said to form a continualion of the Min- 
nesota deposits, which now lead the world in the production of hcv 

( 59 I 





•" Ihe ncKhborhood of Ukc TcmHK .ml. North-w.M of I.akc VVahnHp.tac.. 

and cUcw here ,ron-bc«ri„jf rock, occur, and a lar^re »H»dy of maK-icthc o. 

Kood quality han recently been located in the lownnhip of Mutton. In the 

eaMern part ol the Province tht.c are larife deposit, of K>th ma»rnetl». a.ul 

The eMablishment of mode, n bla.nt furnaces ul Hamilton. Deneu...... i,d 

M.dland ,. lead.nK' to the opening' up of a number of Iron drpo^it.. Similar 
urnaces arc beinK: built at Sai't .Ste. Marie, while others are projected for 
C ollm^rwood. Kin,.ston and Port .olborne. and the pro.pectn for the industry 
arc br,,,ht. The production of iron ore for ,.^. was ,5y.a8H tons, most of was smelted ,n The amount of pig iron produced wa. 
M..<rf<7 tons, valued at «i.«.H.,.o5;. made from Ontario and United States 
ores. About (>H,./k> tons of steel were produced. 

The most extensive .leposit.s of ni. kel bearinjf ore in the world are found 
."Ontario. They extend over a wide area north of Lake Huron, in he 
districts of NipissinK' and Al^jomn. and recent discoveries of the 
wv«-/. ore have been made in the district of Party Sound. The Town of 

Sudbury, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, is the centre of the in- 
Uiistry. A few years a^'o experts from the United States Navv Department 
who examined the Sudbury deposits, estimated in their leport that ther. were* 
..50 OOO..XX, tons of ore in si^^ht. This ore. which is nickeliferous pyrrhotite 
amtains from . .^ ,., .,..• per cent, of nickel and fr.m . to 4 per cent, copper.' 
S.iue then other discoveries have been made within an area of about Zxx. 
square miles, some of which are bein^^ developed. Mining operations were 
commenced at Sudbury in .«8(,. and the districts new furnishes about half the 
norld s supply. The copper-nickel matte is at present shipped to the United 
States where the final stages of the processes of extraction and refininr are 
earned on. In ,902. u.Sgo.ocx, pounds of nickel were produced, valued in 
the matte and before being exported for refining at $2.2io.rj6i 

All the Indications point to a steady increase in the consumption of nickel 
and assurance that this Industry will grow to much l.irger proportions 
It seems probable that the greatest use for it will be in the manufacture of 
mckel steel. When united with steel it forms an alloy of great strength and 
hardness This alloy is used in the making of cannon, small arms, armour 

Take'L fTn "nM!"b "T?'"7' T' "'"^ ''''"*''''' -^''-^'i'i^y. -pabilitv to 
take a fine poli.h and .freedom from rusting are valuable properties. 

nickel inTusIrv' 'T'' '' T''"'' '" """'""'' '^''^'■^' ^'^ ^ '^y-P-^-' ^^ '^^ 
nKke!,ndustr3. The most important copper-bearing sectlor utherto dis 

eovered extends northwards from the shores of the Georgian Bay. This b t 

mav be traced from the Par.. v,...n. r.i,,Hct to Lake Sunerior. a c 





''•^OVINCE OF ... 

'^ beann^, rocks do not o ''"""■'^'derab/e por^r '• ' ''"^ '''' 

*/cD ^'^J^ tons o/ ^^ ^" ""d will k ' '"«Ke it ct^^t • 

" -nn:",:;-^, ■•" °"'«- .» a new i„, 

.oo 0, „„ ''.f°™P"«s a parallel "'"^ "'•>■" and Th i""" " """ 
'-" Of a. Ta r/'"^' '^■•"^ '"- X:" Of -•.„,., atl.''r;:„«».>- "-^c 

<«»™ve„rhr^" '■'"'"• '•"' «"«t^ • "" «^'"= River M °"^ "" »'■<>••. 
"•"• with a few ° ""?'"" """ "mpe.e„r ''" >"''^- mZvTT^ *?"' 

country exienj "P'"™c„eal str/^ ff ""• P'-oceeded fi? "^ ^'"S' """« 
•"■ins mad t",;''""^"""' "X "°" ""ch far^eT n'""'*""' P'a« 
worked. " '" E-<-„ 0„,ari„"'!: ^' ''■ "="' *«ovo4?°:"' ""^ »°W 

■■"■ch as al Mir,, P^""^ "^ Ontario „r ■ ^ ^"ccessfu/,,. 

E-^^rn •"""" °" Lake SuJ ""''"? discoveries h 

""««. va,„e» a, fo^' - ^oid. ,„ ."^ -- is of a refrac'^ t^^^ "■ 
*/W. which have ,a,eK ^ O"" "■' mines near P 

P-^-an,^*; l^-^aiiie sub^;,^ ^ _ "" '" '*=^ •" 96,666 

" petroleum y^r.^^^ 

° '^ Height of 

''^''^ copper. 
■"P>''-'te, an ore 
■^.'-<^opper ores 
'"c/uded the 

'^" '«49 and 
'■" developing 
^°"nd, also, 
^'^ "P- The 
'-''^"t'y intro- 
certain that 
'fitabjy. j„ 

of matte at 

nisin^ one, 
'j^ bearing- 
'^ and the 
■ d'stricts. 
long- by 

'esota— a 
^e shores 
"«■ g-oJd 
■se will, 

_o pJace 
's g-old 


^a in 

• and 


e of 










^''^ -hCe Shore or U.eHu ' ^^^^R/o 

S*/t ^„^ «"*^ for many mi,^". ';°'" ^''^ 'atitude of Kin. .■ 

«f >'earJy output Tn."^"''' ''"'^ «" °*hers "f a '"^"^^'•'^«- 

^'*'" ^an do i' tt p ' f ::^^ «" admirable eLlr".' "^^"^ '" th 

^-^-^« orp^^rrr::^"- --:::^ -ar ^^^^ --- 

f;r"de petroleum J„, • ' ^'^^ '^' ""^ ^' ^°"ows • 
[""minating oi^' '""^'^^ gallons .... ,^"-yty. ^^,„^ 

Lubr eating- oil . '°''«5,592 $94010^ 

Benzine &Nenh.^ " 7. 7^0,866 ;7°'i°^ 

Gas, fuel _V,!P''^i«' " "•• ^.765.677 ^>5i3 

iry are the towns of . . ^^ "'as about ,^ 
"e past few years T», ''° ""derg-one «»*: r 

-^967.0,5/ ^- ^'^^^°-^^^o-9ofa::,::;;trz.'^^^^^^ 

A^- W c;.. . ^''^ existence o' nat . '^ ""''■'''• "^ 

P'-'ncipally in "th'^' """'^^ ^^''^''^ datTi ^^' '" °"^^^'° ^as first d' 

'"-a" ex,e„ °; '~^' "«• "- also f^ "f"""' Pa«. of fh" ""^ '""' 

^mwa '^7, Chapter ,6 . "^'"""^ '^ embodied in th. iv>r- 

- P=^-„.of ,,.4- 1-.0, ., - a ™.^a, , ,^,» - 



^•ne southward, 
''beds of salt, 
•^h. but also as 
■ash. bleaching 

e in the value 
enterprse and 




^e centres of 

Tient during- 
rels, valued 

^een sunk, 
' valued at 




e, ch 
otta and 
e of the 
ed to be 



•00 to 
fier in 
•e for 


subsequent years. Lessees have the privilege during? the currencv of their 
lease of purchas.nj,. the lands outright ; or at the end of ten years, if ail rent 
has been pa.d and the statutory conditions complied with, the lessee ^-ets •» 
grant without further payment. ** 

Mining lands cannot be held without being worked, the law requirinjr at 
least $6.00 per acre to be expended in development work during the first seven 
years, at the rate of $..00 per acre for the first two years and $..00 per acre 
per annum for the next five years. ^ 

Prospecting for minerals on Crown lands is encouraged by free grants of 
forty acres where valuable discoveries are made in new territory 

... '?k^^m"^ ^''''')°" '^ ""'"'''' ^'''"''' '^o^ting $,0.00 per" annum, en- 
.tles the holder to stake out mining claims of twenty-two and one-h^ f "r 
forty acres, and to hold the same on performing the 'required deTelopl: 
work^ S.mdar regulations are in force with respect to unsurveyed terHu.ry 
The greatest area which may be granted to any individual in one vear s 
320 acres of and contammg the same class or kind of o.e or mineral within 
a radms of fifteen m.Ies m any county or district. To companies, syndiclrs 
or partnerships the maximum area is 640 acres. .>"'caies 

The royalties formerly reserved to the Crown have been abandoned. 

T>^ For«, WealA of On^^, 

C"E forest trees of O ^ ^ ^ 

'io\v tj]g .sett/p<i ., .• 
^ growth of h..,,... . P°''"on 

i be 

»>4///i. per cent, of ,h ' ^' "'e present r. "^ ''''»'< bron. 

forest has . ''°'''°" of Ontario • T' ^"'> ''hout t J 

'^^^ ^-" and .St,, i':::':; --'^'^ ^'^^ '-t °n;t,f-^ '-^- w/tr 

^ ^^--'hern Ontario ,h '•'■'"'^ P'-''"«n- sou ce?^' ''^''^ ^o-" m 

^'•ee-covered wildernes; ''t.^'-^^^'^^ «eat of theTu 'h^' ^^'""^- 
;:;»'-'«''es .uch as the pt "'' '""^ ^'"--th beir'""' "P^rations. i. sti,, 
^'^''^^ and poplar! '1,:^''''' "^""a'". cedtt? f"'^ ^° ^'^'^ ^-onffer" 
^-^•^•^ °f ^arLood exis /'" ^°"'''-" '•-•'t.s of the dH "' '^'"'-'<' - M 

extent of its for. t ^ ^ ^'P^'^'es as the v-,\u "" ^'''^ ^^''est Tf, 

n, u^... Portance is fh. .... °' Ontario, both for ..... .^'^ ' ^'"'est Wealth 

— "s ine trees of n,,* • ^ me countrvV- *■ ■' 

nem,e r'r^''' ^''^ white o^'.^r'^-th for value aXr^'-^^^^ 
a«e. the chief ^vood evn. ! !" ^^^>''"0"th pine P ^"'""lercial ii 

^•fficuJt to estimate, and i ^ '^"^"^'ty of pine sMu "'""' "^'""iberin^ 

by competent ;,„.i, "^ """^ "early so //r '" existing? i„ On. ^ 

"•chisfounnr, L"/:^"'^'-'^- 


by comnet ''*'^' «"d is 

'" the North in ," 'P'"'^^' « tree which is founH , "'^ ^"'^nca. 

"'«■ which is probab V ,r "* '° "'<^ »h"refof H ^"'' '" "o^od, a c^ 

Canadian;; .rf 1. "'°^' "'-^ive 7 
""cs, and a ,,,,„ n^^i^ I,''!^^ '^ '" '■""",„, 

fabric, and ;g;:;rnn'"'lf' "'"•-•" - 'nTn;;^! '"^ ""'"P"" ^arie.v fo, „ 
' ""''"""^'•<'f'"l.era«ic,; ^^ demand kr pape.f t«»' 

f66| ^ 




^''^0 of any 
portion wa.s 
«^s, consist- 
■uid beech, 
forest has 
s brou^rhj 

Jt twenty 
With the 
"f" >'ears 

's stij; a 
^'th Mie 
rees be- 
e north 
- great 
ey con- 
iai im- 
irio is 
'y of 

1 ot 






EstimMte of 
'P»lpnH>ocl Are*s. 




TluifHlfi' Bay. 
Rainy River 


'•»•' *m fKxi 

'•'>0 (HM) (MM) 
•« »H)0 (NMI 

Takin^r ihis quantity of nulnu,^ i ^** ""*' '"•« 

/n-A./O' resources. ^ ^" "^ ^^«n greater value than the pi^e 

if thinned out wouIH f "'^ valuable for wood m.l„ tu '^ ^''^"^ 

can h« u ^ ^^^""^ ^'■°"i the seed anH ft, c ' ^P''"^^ may be 

can be harvested to ohp r.f ^: r, ' " therefore two rrnr... r 

The wood p„,p ,„d„»„, ,-, „f coLparate ; ' ' *""">' "'■«-«''»• 

<J«5* 0^ '"-ge capital required in Us devlr " °' ""' ''"'''■^••y, ,he 

"* "^•"^- ""o" g^ws in a more Jittered '^"'"'; """ "" ''" '»"« P"lp- 

"e appiicaMe r.^i^r^ '"rt"' "' '^""'^^^!^'^7.r:^j:r zvA 

facture it in.o p„,p, „,^, ,„.,;."';^ - ■^-'w condition. ,„ „,<,„'^^^ -' ^= 

pciiu a certain amount 


m (MM) 

<N) (NM) 










prohibited by a^bilMnf*^?*' '" " """-'manufactured condifi u 

In accordance with this pCicy. concessions have bee 
Pufp^vood ^""'P*"'^^. some of which have ITh ^""'"*' ^° ^«"ou» 

Con's.,, active operation, others of whi h have' "''''' "'"^ «"^ «- »« 
part of the agreements Th« r , , "°* ^^^ completed their 

entered nto with H.ff-- . '=«='"enis. fhe follow mif is a li«* ^r 

" ""'""' """P»-« ""d .he .„ou« LreL ,„ k"^''""""" 

»'^^^" to be mvested. 

Capital to be 
• 400,000 

Spanish Riv" « ".'P ""'^ '**»"'■ t'o • 400,000 

Kche R v«r p" P *"'' P»P«^ Co. 1.000,000 

Nep^Kon pLr p"'P *»''/-?«r Co . .' «00,000 

Kee'wTtin'^IJjrwe^te^.'^nd^. Co.....: •::::; ••; ^-000 




The above sums required to h» • . ^350,000 ,,890 

Tfjg "*-tessruJ manufacture 



<l..po».d of th.reaftep should be le„,d nn^!^ '" «»«.5 of ,50 horw-po,.., 
wi.hin.sp.cifi.d period, wi.h.p '".ol, Th °" "' """" """"P— 
power not required by .he le.«« arr-.l L-""'"""'""'''' '"f--"i»h«l 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council " ^'" '" "" ""•<"'' "' "•• 

The rental asked is verv moderii» tt. u- t . 

development of th. many l.L°.'erf»lN I ""■^'"'f '° '"""^■B' "« 
while at the same time pro«cti"rthI n '^'T""'"' "' "'""'"" Ontario, 
pulsory and providing fo'r ^iTh e at'e'^u LTf';:'^ """"""«"' """• 

- ^rn^inir-^C -r^^^^ .rmeny, but 

co..«to supply do^mestieLs-XtV-r^--^^^^^^^^^ 

^ !''"':iV::rrr h:LeM7flr'''''r^ i"*-., or Ca„ada, and 

.Tsi^"-e.c. for exporr".r:r;7\r:v„::s^-rr"'''"' 

-e sawn":: irnXt^ri: ^ p^vt:* '"d ^'' -^ -- «>" -<""• ">- 

Asa consequence the saw 1 .1 '^'°'"'"' »"'' '=""<" be exported in the loe 

.i-e in its histor;: and ;;;T ml:l";':V' T" ""''' "■^" " -^ P'"-- 

Some idea o the growth ofTs "n "'^^ """"""• "' P'"°"'- 
•he las. few years, princfpaTy as I esu "0^'^^ 'T.'"' '" ''""™ """"8 

<>«'*''to a dollar h.,^ fu\ ' statement liks this to be exact fo 

S^'wAiiOs. I ,°"^'' ^"* ^he figures given have been gathered from JuT 

beheved to be the mo«t r^iioki K'»inerea troni what are 

with great care. The first tablTde'.t^ """'"'' ""'' ''^"^ ^^«" -^'"Pi'ed 
and the second with mil Jhich.tod Tn'd ""r"'"'' "''^' ''^^^ ''^^" "-' ^d' 
logs were being towed acros. to the M T T'""^' years while Ontario 
-"ed and again p. in clli^ ^.^ J;^- ^^ ^ ^-^^^ -n 


Hands Employed 

Annual Cut 



'•""VINCK c.l. O.NTVKIO 

"■''"•' "■ I H..,.i. K„,pr„).„| 

AiirtuHl Cut 



N7,.VK»,tl(N» fi.. I{ M 

■A total expeiidiiiire of *i .«,, ~~ ~ 

emp.o,.ent to';.,., m;:L!:;~.:: :;;?""•""- ''^^''^-•-- ^^'^-' ^-c 

'« .S59.75o.cxx, feet hroad measure it i r' '"""; ""'' "^^''^'^ """""' «"» 
''"^' Pi'iMK' pine lutnber on the Great ..L ' u"^' "'•" "'' '■"•*• ^^^ -winjT 
"-«» the amount of monev from 'his " "'^'''' '^-•^'>'' ^^^ '''""-•nd. st 

'""^>"*: Canadian workmen' to be exDenZr\ •''"'!'• '' """""">' ^'^^^"rsed 
;;an be very easily arrived at To th' '"." '"""' ""^ ^'""^f^'*' 

'■^-VM paid Canadian railwa , """""' **''""'^ »^^" -^^^^^' too. thj 

'-"Her. amounting, to about sVpr Z:lZ'''^ "' ''^' ^''^"'^'" ''' ''^^ -- 

Commercial Fish 


>H H commercial fisheries of Onfirio .r . r • 

possession, and constitute " "^^^'^ "'^'"*'"-'»^'^' ^a'-' as a national 

of th. Great Lakerarft V m T:;T" '^^'^'/'''"^--y- The fisheries 
-ater fish are concerned u"2 . hT' '" '''' ""■■'' ^« '"^ -"^ '^-^ 
western waters teem with the finer ."'^^'J'^^". the northern and north- 

now carefully regulated by the Gove'rnm "^ 1 ''^' '''' '''''"^' '"^'-'^ - 

vilmon-trout. herring.. stur.a>on bas. ^ . ""''^ '''' '^'^ vvhit,fi,h, 

The industry ..ivesemn,' ^"''"■''' ^'^'' '"'^ maskinon^e 
^MflTmiT . ^ ^ '''^'^■^ employment to about 2 onr. „, , . ^ 

%r,wL. -^ent^ an ."vestment of a million dollar /'^"^ "^'■^". and repre- 

and appliances. The anZZZu '" ^^''" ''^^^•'*' ''"-houses, of admm.stration and protection. 

^* # 



i i 



'•» many .vctionn protective h, J a i.! i ""''''"^ •"*'•"" P"'^*" f>^'«ti... and 

-«H the Govern Jn. in th Tr^ 'Z.'T "k"' "*''""''''^' •" -opi.ate 
proper public »enf imcnt. P'-'>Uct.on, by creatInK' «nd fo«terin>f « 

Hut the VHlueof thi^ r^ 

»'4/#f*: •^' ""•• anintry to nnrfit'in„»- • « tourists are aftnutcu 

"'"' •-••■"'•""^ Which »c.J^,,o^zzZ7T' '": """" '" ■•" '■""•■'>« 

bet consideration which the Governmen Tan" P*r*"''*'*"" *"' receive the 
"uppyin^ the requirements of thesT vi iZT' '" '\ '" ^"* "--''-^-'S the settlers have for the pr!lc rth'T "' ''' """">"' ""^"^^^ 
iHkes. where the flow of tourists ha?h' '^"■'"•*'- ^"""^ "^ 'he small 

heen so persistently fished, a^d J ^rl'lTZ ''/" '" '''" ^"-»*"' f'-. 
Hcen so ineffectively prote ted tha ^ZT ^^''' ""'''''" ^^^^^ *f-"« by 

condition To restore such waters and to " T" '" ' "''''' °^ '-••• ''^P'^'ed 
be created by the increased numbe; of^nrrr V'* ''''' '"'" ^^^^ -" 
embarked upon the work of re-stockinr w th Lam^fi?""" '^'^ "'"'•^>' 
alone havm^r been deposited la,t year a^ Z . ^^Z '^' ^"♦^^ adult bass 
■nee. Never before in our histo yTas so mu" ' '"'""* ^""^^ '" '^' ^-v- 
or attention devoted to. fishery n^atte's botrbvtK "'"''' '''*" '"^"'^-^^^ ■". 
erally. as during the last year, and it I^ Ir^f^- '"'''' ^"^ '^' Public jfen- 
preciate the efforts already put forth In"^ d ";"'' '° ''""' ^^'^^ ^^^^ ^""^ «P- 

-Hlt:^: -^ri^l-^r;;;^ e^endin, to Uke- 

'akes. which may be truthfully said to Lr"."''' '"""^^'^ ^''''"^-"^s of 
• of fish. When the pro" ss Le rai ' 7 "''' ''' "''''' ^-'"«ble 
up these vast regions, and cLTectTthem w^th V' ''' '"^'"'''^ "^^"^ 
hem more easily accessible, one of the riTh2 °"'"' ^'"''^ ^'^ ^^"d-"%' 

to be the fisheries, which will yield a contt^/ ''"^'" ^^'" ''« ^-"^ 

supply to the settlers who may eplrr the 7 . .'"^ '"'"""^ ^^"'•'^^ o^ food 

-- - -ir ..ine. ,^ - r ::mr ,::r :^jtr- 


location, I he kiiuK of fi h'lh 

iVpHr,„.en. for ,hc guidance hIu/ i!';;"'':'" ^^^ '**^'''""^ '^"^ '"^-^ '" "'^• 
fi-».in,^ prlvil.^.., .herdn. "''-^'"«„o„ of pr..sp.civ. applicant, tor 

To th«' Malt water fi»herio« n» ii.. i » 

hcc, made but r . ' ''" ""•'' '''""' •'^^^^«"^'* f'""* «lr^-Hdv 

whitu,,, H».,, p„„„,., ,Jxt„. J ,;;■•- •'• «»!- „, „, 

The whale fisheries of Hudson H.v , 

■ iiiuNon nav are hIum aw»^. i 

VlO,.u >'<*«''•'* P"-**! American ah .Ur u ? '"'^*""'^ ' •*' '"' 'orn 

►f^a/* f^^ '-""trican whalers have reirii arlv '.m . ' k 

.. I.O.0OO . ,„, .,. ., "::r r'::x'- -—