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1653 East Mam Slrsel 
Rochester. N«« York 14609 

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Mr. a 


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John C 


in refer 
Que' ec. 




Before th« Canadian Club of Ottawa at the Ruasall Houso, January 20th, 1906, 

upon tna aubjact of 




Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen, — 

When you were good enoujrh to propose to me, a little while ago. 
that I should address the Canadian Cluh on the subject of Confederation, 
I had some little hesitation about acceptiniEr your invitation, ['he subject 
was one which, to deal with adequately, much less exhaustively, would 
require not one address but a series of addresses; but on consideration it 
appeared to me that I might best meet your wishes and pi-rhaps best 
answer the expectations which you might have formed by giving you as 
briefly as I could my own recollection of the state of things prior to Con- 
federation, in 1863, together with a few remarks on the men, who, in my 
judgment, contributed most to bring about the Confederation of the 
Dominion of Canada. I had another reason, Mr. Chairman, for talcing 
advantage of this opportunity, and that is that the other day, in looking 
Dver the list of the sixty-five members of Parliament who appeared at 
Quebec in the session of 1863, to represent the Province of Ontario, I find 
that, in so far as I can ascertain, there remain but three survivors— .Sir 
Fohn Carling, myself and Sir William Rowland, now almost a centen- 

Was Youngest Member. 

I desire, in the first place, to mention to you that I speak exclusively 
n reference to the state of thinj^s in tlie Provinces of Ontario and 
^ue' ec. At the time to which I refer we knew almost nothing, I am« arc not alw.iy. Mk,.,, into ( |,,<,. ,.„_n,, , „ . 

were very eq.inllv HfvMcl l„,l„. 1,, . \- 'I'-'t hme, partie 

co„,eq„onoc wi, tl,.,t ,1, l, ',""''" '"' '■''''"•"■•■I 'viti, nnd ll„ 

.o.e:„. ..,,2: :,':.;: :,:,:;,: ■::::;:;,:,:;;:;.':—■ "'""""•' 

session of Parlnnirnt T • \. IJ '"^ ^"^ ^"^ s^'^onf' 

j^r nny man who took „,<, ,,i^,„,„, ,•„„„„ .^ ,,,/ 'TJ "" *' ™"'' 


W ^'^f •^' "'^'■" P'-^-t-n-Inrfv the Province of Ontario W. 


Motherland bv the slow 7,- ''"'-'' ^""^"^""'^^t^ with the 

no transcontinental raihvav. Then n^ 7, ; ;;;^L V^eTn ^ 1 " ^" 
cation with the Mnritin.e Province, and whatTv s ret^rT? ]"'" 

ence to the futnre. stil! nrnro in.nort.nt the . T ^ ' '""'^ '■'^'''- 

cally no Northwest There J7TT' \ "'' '" '^'' ^''''^^ 

sible that there m.v h . e h '' *'' ■^'■''''* '°"' ^'"^' ^"^ '* '^ P^^"" 

who;rin h 7 t 1 " '"'^^ "'" "" *'^ "°^^ ^^ *^^ «-- 

- =^.^ .hat m the dim and d.stant future it might become a factor 

i . 3 

in the development of North Amrric a. hut for all practical purposes at il there was no Northwest, as far as we were concernc.l. Ntoreover' 
rvvn m our own territory, and it wa* a matter not to be .lisrc^anlcl the' 
Mate of coninninication was exceedingly slow and imperfect. Practically 
the C .ty of Qiabtc was almost as far fr.-m Toronto in those days during 
a gnat part of the year as Ottawa i, » .m Vancouver to-day. I can 
remember, myself, if I must recall these .ncient recollections, on one 
occas.on being on a train which took four days to make its way from 
rescott to Ottawa, and that train had on board. besi.Ies myself, the then 
M.mster of Finance of and the .Manager of the Grand Trunk 
Kailway. (Laughter). If the communication was difficult under those 
c.rcumstances. there werr other conditions, too. which confronted us. and 
which required our most serious consideration. Commercially speaking 
the condition was alarminj,' cnoiigli. 

Credit Was Low. 
Our credit at that time was very low indeed. I can remember, and it 
IS worth while recalling the fact, that in the years just immediately pre- 
ceding Confederation, the credit of Canada was so low that I have known 
Canadian five per cents selling at seventy-five cents on the dollar in the 
English market; in other words, it would have cost us. if we had put a 
loan on the market at that time, about seven per cent., and my commer- 
cial friends will understand what that meant in obtaining funds to carry 
on the requisite improvements in Canada. We had had a series of hug- 
deficits largely caused by the breakdown, for the time being, of the Grand 
Trunk Railway. How grave these deficits were you can judge from this 
simple statement that in proportion to the then revenue of the two Can- 
adas. the deficits were as great as if we had to-day in proportion to our present 
revenue a deficit on our annual expenditure of from $20,000,000 to 
^ $,rxxx* I need not say to my elder friends that at that particular 

, f J? Apf °;'*<J » » sUtement from the Public Accounts of old C.nada. prepared hy 
J. Langton AudUor-Gencral of Canada, an.l countersiKned bv J. .M. Courtney now 
Deputy M,n.,ter of Finance, .howiuK the condition of affairs from ,858 to TC 

Revenue Kxpenditure Deficit 

ll^^ 15.270,67705 I8.645.944 64 #3.375.31759 

'l^ 6.597,01758 8.09.. 761 85 1.494,74427 

= T" 7.436,58510 9.410,57509 1.973.98999 

'^' 7.543.92620 9.542.93429 i,999,oo.S 09 

'■^^ 7.377.16590 9.441.49704 2,064,33114 

lfiO\ S fir.2 iA. a9 ~ . o- . /-, c 

Mr. Sa'iieM^SnTd "" " ''''" ^^°" '''' ''^ '«'' ^^^^ '^ -" --'-^-» »>^ 

time the r.ranrl Tr.,nk R.HIw.iv wa, i„ , . , i 

civil war. that t,„. uorM ,!.;,;: V'' '"" '""'••^' ""'' "' ♦''" »''---' 
months of tiK- ...MM„hli,„, V »i .. r " ''"" ''*'''"*''• •"'"' *^'''''» a f 

;-'-'>■ ■■•^ C. I,::' .:::;::;,:;,,:•■;• "' ""Vr' - ^ 

'''•'"K .IranKccI Into the vurte. f) W [ ' " '""'''•' ''""^'• 

nty Treaty (.) " ''f'— ■'«' ■'••"..!!, ,H.|. to our K.cip, 

The Famoui Deadlock. 

" ,„ ,,v :;h':;;; ,;'„;::■ ,:•-;;;;:;■'; •';-^-;"- w,.,,. , „. 

— >*^rs. hut It was bccominjr ver 

(i) There t<t no doiif.t that ■»•>.. , . • 

■.'on,,vur„.,„„,,,.,,,,;rjr;;r:.::r,:.r :*-''>■»•'■■-'.."... .., 

Many venr» Infer in w . i "" """ "'"eue tanai a. 

of Mexico by an An«I...Pr..„ct, ...n,l Sp.,u"h fi J' """ '"' "' ""^ 'hreatcne,! inva.ion 
'e't by the Unite.! S.h,.s anth.-ritiTo he . , V """ «""'"''''' "r'P^'''«-i"n 

French. Thi,, co«,„H with the comictL U. h " "''"•" "' """ '^•"'-- «' the 
o.. of all effective control over Ce.ur /l l^ri " .. 7,^"'''''''''" "' '•"■ '«"»»• — » the 
the .cale .lecidedlv in favour of pen e rc:; ".';""'"' '■^"""""•- ^■""" '-"•" 

which no m,„ knew fro,„,,av to ,U^ wheth ' ^ -'• «' r' ^■''''' *"^P^"« ''"rinK 
•most profound impre„i„n. A «ittv f L ,7, '"' f '"' """•^'^■" '" -"■ Produced 
".e true father of C .nfderation wa u , . 'T .""^""^ ""^ ^•""' »" "'-"«»!" that 

^V.lWe.. U. S. X . «„., u is .ertain the ^'^r:Z:'Z: ^^T;:.^,::'''''''''' "" ^^''^• 

colle.Kues to the Ho,„e .-...vernuu-nt in ,%6 ' "^ "'" ^ ^- ^'-'''"«l'i an.l his 

HttiedouJtZ t;^:;:;-r::- ■e^^^^er.u. ^-'n --'^''- '- ^--» 

Canada to the ITnited States. an.I also 0,". he si . " T'^"'^ '"''' °" '^' ^••■^"''>"« ^rom 
'896. especially after the t^„ ted stts J .ta ',•',," "''"'"" "' ^■"••'"'« f^"' •«66 to 
«enes of very hostile tarHTs nressinJv.r;, " '^'"'^ '*""''"''' ""'^ "'^oPt^J « 

staple productions. „ere alio the acio. ofX u;;;; ^s""'"" "' '"^ ^^^ "^ »-» of he: results. "'"" °* "'*^ ^'»te<l States pro.luced very important 

ion an<I it 
iorii at an 

lilt a few 
'aH an ex 

know, of 
> rca!ir)n to 
'|»l«' wcrr 


fore con- 
!<• I liavc 
»n of tin- 
^' partir- 
't alonp 
nff very 

coin was 

"K to his 
r of the 
eant the 
il turned 
e 'liirinj{ 
lin that 
It Capt. 

he reel- 
lod his 

there is 
18 from 
1866 to 
'ptecl a 
of her 

J^andfi.-!,! Ma=,l„„al,l.|)„r,„„ ,„ 1 ,,1,/. M. ■M-K-.lo„al,|.S,cotl,. 
l.".l tl..- ourio,,, arra ,1 ,"^r ■,"""" ""•'"'"" ' "• ■"" «' 

".ercly have a deci,!..,! ,„.i.,ri,y i„ „' „J „ " ' f^'^ "'""'•' ""' 

;n;ac., „, .,.. ,„.„ ,.,„;.„, .^,,,,:;;,;,;;r;.::- : :, ' -;j_,-.^i"H.y 

that his successors rcpu.l.atcd the I. '"" ^'"^'''^^ ^*" 

tudc. '"■'"■ •'^'■•'"K^"'^"t with preat prompti- 

;£r:r;:;;r -:::-■:—;::-.::-;: 

av. rage hfc of a .n.n.stry was about six ,„onths. The Carticr (fn I m 
ministry subsisted s^v m,.ntl, a . . ^ "*- ^a«»t.r-AIac(lonalfI 

in tlie or.linarv scn^. „f il, , , , "la.llock bclwi-on two parties 

l.e.wccn .,„ OS i,u. ■■■'''■ "■,;' T" """" """' "'"" " """I^K 

i«w.„ ..o .::"";,; :^;': :: r.,,'::r", "'" r'-- -<■ 

was wid.ninR. Evcrv .l^.v i,' „, „ ''■"'" '"■'"'■" «" '"<> 

bes.;.we<, anf .„„„„■ i l" n'V;:, rj;: --^''-^^J'^' "" T' ""° 
into erabic Roth s.M .. ,« ■ . ^"-""^Jn ot things was beconiinir 

-Ives. „ .heel : On, " "" "",'™' • "■"' " *=""" '''■•■'' ■" --^ '- "-" 
publierev ntlwe" ii?n ; " T"""""'' ' '"S'-hare of .h. 

and which rsse::;;,,; ;:::;:; ■".'" ":: ""-■■™ ••' '-- --ch ,arger_ 

-n .He .he. .he.e-„as ad^e™^ !;:;- j'^ ^ ^ :S ^ 


scntatinn f ^'^"'7^'/° 'hem might be considerably endangered if ret 
scntat.on by population became the order of the dav A, T » ? 

mem was absolutely impossible, every ministry wt^ he ^T 

two or three knaves or firf.n.t. i , """'"^J^ '™s at the mercy of a 

well that n,a„;:;tr 1 '; r ::.:„: "f / """""- '-"'' 

at tl,at time almost in Jesnai'r Ma ' .,„ °" """"'^ """ *' 

■ne nnite franMy that '^nl^^jT.^J^^ZS^TVr °'"-'°" 
union was absolntelv inevifahl. 7 r , , " "•"^"'""on of tl 

i. was perfoetly cja la . . , 1 " """'''""^ ' ""^- ''°'""='' »' 

have happened-, at theiss,-'" ,"" " "" '°" °' "•""" » "-1 

Shortly s:ceeae;b;\h:\t: i :orot;::„7o"'b "-^^ ^"" ^^^ 

States. (>) untario and Quebec m the Unite 

Explaining Confederation. 


broached, boldingalarLr:^; rre'i'iTs'i^t^ ''-r^^'"^ 

""-•^""ffs, as It was my clear duty to 

to ask for i„.,ependence. ulas a,s: c^e nuirn'r' '' ^""^'^ ''"^ ^^-> ^^ 

assurances that if the two Ca.adas agreed thTwo^d , '-"'^'"^' ^^''^ P^^'^^e 

as ,n fact they did. It was notorious thit New R 'T"""" ^°' '^'^" J-'ior provinces 

vote.1 down the proposal for Confe'e^ ion at theZr' "'"" '" "'^ '"'^^^ '-«— 
d.rect intervention of the Governor Si Arthur r ^? ' ""t ••^-^«"«t^»<^ted - by the 
Home authorities utterly ignored the pit t 'n7: r^'^'^ Nova Scotia the 

population. ^ '""^ P'^^"^' ^n^' petition, of the great mass of the 

in the Pro- 
1 the terms 
rovince of 

similar to 
It, and not 

had been 
d if repre- 
'e said, all 
d of thing 
'e govern- 
cy of any 
»g to sup- 

and I do 
'■ floor of 
lave been 

nen were 
pinion to 
5n of the 
nted out 
it would 
een very 
; United 

V it was 
, spcak- 
• entliu- 
ect was 
duty to 

seen fit 


by the 
tia, the 

of the 

do. all over my riding, for the purpose of explaining the situation M 

pcrfoctlv distxw.rl , • • ^ ^■•^'-^litnt spirit and appeared 

fannly." 1 can a.s,,r. ,ou tl a , .u'; ;/ ' ^""'' himself and his 
of His l;xcclloncv s T „ ^ ^ ; ' ^^^' '"•■"■" '" ^"'= '"■• ^ «<l"«i°n 

-o- ncaH, ,„:;;„:,::'"i: ;. t::z zr '-t °' ™'- --' 

tuents only, for it is a .„ urcr f i , "■' "' '">' °"" ""^ti- 

'Ha. .l,e „, and o^K o ! , r '7' "" " '"^ "'"""' "'"'•■ i'-" i''^. 
federated l.on.inion wasT ■,'" ""' ""' '■""■""'■"' °< ">= Con- 

A" was a ., .:::',:::;':';- ""-"-" -^ «- b. n. a. 

as it was, caning for an ann-n , . > X' r'";'" °^"T "'Z' '"°'" 

General. ■■ "'*■ "a'ary of the Governor- 

So far as Confederation was tile work of „, I ; 
nearly absolntelv the work of ■, I .,. , , ■'">'""')' " "as pretty 

■nos, nnions. fhave Z lit I '","'; '' ' ''''° '"' "'" '= '™' <>' 

Hngiand when bro„;.^2 '::;:: i:;.':."'''"" °' ^-"-^ -" 

vote in its favor in Seotlan.l „ I '' "" """"'"aiming 

Ireland and l^nsland " i, ad ,' "° """" '" ■•"' '"=" ""^ ""'<■" <>' 

have nu.t with : ^ ,n , ' 'Z """'"""' '" "" P°^"''' vote would 

."-n,w..i, a. .i:h:;rfrK:;^:h'::;irr'" ""'■='"'" -= 

and, in sonte eases. ':». 11: !'!„'':"' .■" '-""-■"ar who took the risks 
^unnnatton. ft ^o happ^ed th;;';:;;;!^:^^:"^;::^:! 


1 1 



Ontario and Quebec who possessed a predominant if not an aim 

despotic influence over their respective provinces. One of these men i 

Mr. George Urown in the Province of Ontario, and the other was \ 

afterwards Sir George Cartier, in Oueboc. They were both mastei 

men. They had been for many years bitterly opposed to each otl 

Nevertheless these two gentlemen had one thing in common. I 

bound to say, looking back through the vista of two or three and fo 

years, that they, in their own ri'si)ective ways, were both large mind 

unselfish and patriotic men. At any rate, one thing is certain ; both 

them, for various reasons, had a thorough and hearty detestation of ai 

thing that promised to lead to absorption in the United States. 

George Cartier thought that absorption in the United States would me 

that the Province of Quebec would lose its nationality, and that it woi 

lead to the creation of a state of tilings closely resembling that whi 

exists in Lousiana to-day. Mr. Brown, although he was a staunch pa 

isan of the United States in many ways, and although he had support 

the north in the war to the uttermost, was equally devoted to maintaini 

British connection. 

George Brown Indispensable. 

Under the circumstances there was no step possible without the cc 
currence of these two men ; nobody who knew anything as to the state 
feeling in Ontario at the time but must know that I am strictly within t 
facts in saying that no project of Confederation could have made ai 
headway in Ontario without the active support of George Brown and 
the Globe. No man, I think, will deny that things were very much in tl 
same position in Quebec and that without the active co-operation of S 
George Cartier very little headway could have been made in that dire 
tion. Both of these gentlemen were men of experience, men who hi 
been engaged in politics for a long time, and both were thorough 
alarmed at the state of things then existing. The difficulty was to brir 
them together. There is an old monkish proverb whicli I have seen som 
where or other and which runs something as follows:— 

" Dn? im cum duro non facicnt murum," which means " Besides yoi 
bricks or your stones you must have good mortar if you are going 1 
have a good wall." Fortunately amongst us there was at that time or 
man in particular who was eminently qualified to supply the element r< 
quired. That man was the late Sir Alexander Gait, who, besides being 

an almos* 
e men was 
r was Mr., 
ich other. 
1. I am 
and forty 
e minded, 
I ; both of 
)n of any- 
ates. Sir 
>uld mean 
t it would 
lat which 
inch part- 

large minded and brilliant man, was a natural born diplomatist and I 
•peak on that point with all the more authority because I had the lu.nur 
of being one of tiiosc who employed Sir Alexander Gait to conduct the 
Halifax negotiation in regard to the fishery awards, the one negoliatio„ 
which has ever taken place in my recollection in which Canada and the 
United States were concerned, in which Canada got decidedly the best of 
It, and the one negotiation in which the whole conduct of the matter from 
first to last was left absolutely in the hands of Canadian lawyers and 
Statesmen, no man else interfering. Sir Alexander Gait was fascinated 
by the project of Confcrjeration. lie threw himself into it with all his 
energy and he succeeded in making a convert of Sir George Cartior-Mr 
Brown was red hot already; therefc,re, I say, without intending or' wish- 
ing at all to detract from the work done by other able men in this connec- 
tion that to these three men, for good or evil, must be attributed the ini- 
bation of the project of Confederation, and I repeat and with knowledge 
that, at that time, at any rate, without their concurrence the Confedera- 
Uon project would have been entirely impossible. (') 

* Sir John A. Macdonald. 

t the rnn . .. ^^'' ^ '7' "°''' ^^ *'''''' °" '''^^''' '^'^''^^^ ^'•°""d- ^ ^ave to speak 
t the con- of the atftude which Sir John Macdonald maintained towards the project 

iti i?th "" T ' r'^i" '''^"- ' ^''"' '" '" ''''''''''y ""^lerstood. I do not wish 

Ide In Z . ?. ' '''^'■'' '" ""^''■"'^ ^''^ '"^P""-*^"^ ^^^-'"^ ^hich Sir John 
'ade an^ Macdonald subsequently rendered to Confederation, and I am very far 

'n and of mdeed. from desiring to impugn his sagacity or statesmanship in respect 

ch in the to the attitude he took, but it is a fact, nevertheless, that in the first 

'^^^''^J^^^^^;^^^^ not by any manner of means en- 

''^'° uT'k^ •^" ^^^^P*''-'*"* P«'t played hy Sir (^.eorge Cartier and Sir A T Gait i.i 

3roUghlybr,ng.n, about Confederation was sul.secn.entl v. though LdUv. reco; i. d 

t-^ '^""^^S ce!t ^K cT'"'T;h '^"^'-;.-'P'^^'--f^o"f-leration Sir Jol^n.UcZZt 

wareiusea to accept the C.R. somewhat pereuiptorilv, on the ground fat anv rnt,. i„ 

^ iT M '';• ""Tr^ ""^ ''''' ^'^" '^""^ ".«ch „.ore ;« promote con eLrrtlnthn 
des your^ J°!;" ^I«cdo„a,d. The Imperial authorities on consideration made Sir AT "lit a 

?oing t.4L han^K cT Shi ''Tr ff ^'"'^ " ^^""^''^-^' '''''''' ''^^""'^^">- -»^^'« ''">^ 
• ««°"^nan a K.C.B.-ship. The affair was finally arranged bv Lord Monk who knew 

;,me on.tte facts, but the mcide.t. as was natural, created no small stir'at rhe time 

ment re-- ^ "may he added that it was always quite understood in well-informed circles that 

being aXfsr::ts:fr"s""°- '-'— ^^^^-" — ^- - 


amoured of the project. The fact was that Sir John Macdonald wa 

caufous and „n,clc-nt much more cautious and prudent in regan 

I>oht,cal n.atte.-s than he perhaps always got credit for. Sir John M 

donald thought that we were taking very great risks both as to the fut 

of the country an.I as regarded the future of the party with which he ^ 

more n.ned.ately connected. He did consent, but he consented un 

duress under the severest pressure and not until he had been notified 

many o h.s own supporters in Ontario that they would not. in the ev, 

o d.sso ut.on. come forward as can.lidates again, and not until he I 

been not.fied pubhcly in my presence and in the presence of many oth, 

by h.s Quebec alhes that if he would not make terms with Mr. Brown 

he refused to enter into a coalition, they would withdraw their supp< 

and make terms with Mr. Brown for themselves. Not until then did < 

Jo Im consent to throw in his lot with us and support Confederation ' 

judgmg of the matter as I have said, I do not impugn Sir John's sagaci 

Not Welt" r '""f ""^"'" '''' '' ''^' *••- ^^-« -s , 

North-Wes and no hope of acquiring a North-West as far as we kno' 

There may hav^ been one or two men. who, as I have said, thought th 

at some far d.-. . day we might get possession of that country ar 

n.ake somethmg of it. but. as a matter of fact, Confederation was brougl 

about without any thought of or reference to the acquisition of that gr!; 

wITj' k """l " '"'"''^ ""'■"°^" '^""''''''y- ^Vithout the Nortl 

West. I am bound to say, Sir John's auguries and fears would have bee 

o a very great extent justified. We are now in the full flush of prosperit 

and m the enjoyment of the success which has been latterly achieved 

he setthng of the North-West, but it is well for us to recolLt that b 

tween now and then there was a long and dreary interval. For thirt 

years after Confederation our progress was very slow indeed. For som 

hrouVth"' -m'""" 'f '"' ^'^'' ""^' "^^^ P-^*-^"^ ^--llin: 
Enough the wdderness. It is a fact, which perhaps some people do no 

like to have recalled to their minds, but it nevertheless is a great and im 

per tant fact that cannot be overlooked in treating of this su^ect, that f" 

thirty years from 1866 to 1896. with possibly a short exception during th 

mend ' ^ / ''"'^' ''^^" '^^"^ '''' '^ ''^^ ^^-^ -- ^ mosf tre 

mendous exodus from the Provinces of Older Canada and from the Mari- 
time Provmces to the United States. 



laid was 

I regard t 
fohn Ma< 
the futur 
ch he w.i 
ted undt 


Emigration to States. 

I have every reason to believe, and it is a subject that I have given 
very considerable attention to. that in the thirty years I speak of, every 
third adult male born in Canada between 20 and 40 years of age, found 
his way to the United States and I know that of all the immigrants who 
lotified h} '^■'^re reported to have settled in Canada during that time, not one in ten 
the even' '^'"^'ned in Canada. As to Sir Johns attitude in respect to tlie probable 
il he hac «*'^'^"^^ o" •»» party I remember perfectly well that Sir John did not hesi- 
ny other> *^^^' ^° express his conviction that if once the Ontario Grits coalesced with 
Brown, i- *''^" ^'*^"s in Quebec and made an alliance with them the Conservative 
r support P^''*>' """^ould be doomed to permanent extinction and it might interest this 
?n did Sir *"^'^"ce to know that I have the best of reasons for stating that in 1865 
ition. It ^''' <-icorge Carticr iiilornied the Conservative members of Parliament 
1 sagacit; ''■°'" <^ntario that Mr. Brown had been so loyal and efficient an ally that 
e was nr ^'■^ ^^^ not disposed to part with his services if he could help it. More- 
ve know ^'^^^' ^^^ ^'''^ ^ '^^'i '^^ate on my own authority and I had it from the 
ight that J^'gl'^st possible quarter, if Mr. Brown had remained in the Cabinet and 
ntry an.] ^^^ ""t voluntarily thrown his cards on the table, nothing could have pre- 
brought ^^"ted the initiation f Confederation from having been entrusted to Mr. 
^at great ^'"^^n and Sir George Cartier instead of to Sir John Macdonald. You 
c North- ni'^y ask I'ow it came about that the attitude of the House should be, in 
ive been *'"^ mstance, so exceedingly— 1 will not say subservient— but so exce'ed- 
■osperitv »"Sly easy. 1 remember perfectly well that at the time the House was not 
lieved in exactly divided against itself, but it was divided into two parties; the 
that be- ^'^^^ '"en on both sides, I think, were very dubious, while the yoilnger 
r thirty "i«=" were decidedly enthusiastic on behalf of Confederation. The situa- 
or some *''^" '" some respects reminded me of a poem of Whittier in which he de- 
scribed the eflfect produced by the introduction of a damsel of unquestion- 
able beauty but of mixed parentage into an old fashioned Puritan congre- 
gation : — ^ 

'. do not 
and im- 
that for 
'ing the 
lost tre- 
e Mari- 

'' Said the old men, gravely doubting, ' She is Papist born and bred •' 
Said the young men, ' Tis an Angel, come in xMary Garvin's stead.' "' 

I am bound to say that men who remembered all that had happened 

in the preceding half dozen years, who remembered how bitter had been 

the controversy, how fierce and fell the fight between the parties, were 

excusable when they saw Mr. George Brown and the Globe on one side 

|nd Sir George Cartier and the Quebec hierarchy on the other, making 




common cause an.l ,Mi„g on cad, others neck,, in considering t1 
was a specacle .o givo ,a„se. An,l .„a,. Mr. C.,„ir„,a„ „ , „ 

..tie mcJent tl,a. goes ,o sl,„w how grea, at that panic ,!,,"„' w 
cns,on on men's „,i„„s „„c„ Confederation was on the li o, 
e,„orabeaftern.„„ when Mr. Brown, not without el ^ n 
«atement to a hushed and expectant House and declared tin, h 
abon, .,, a„y himself with Sir George Cartier and l.s f nd, Lr t, : 
pose of carry„,s out Confederation, I saw an exeitalde e rly 
French uiember r„,,l, across the floor, cli.nb up on Mr I ;own wh 

rordttri^Lr " -^ '° ■"= -- ^- - - --: 

Curious Attitude of House. 

unJl7T"" '"°'^"" ^°"^^^^^^ti°" of - more prosaic kind. The Ho 
undoub edly was .n a chastened mood. If they refused consent to 

tl. ough two elections in very rapid succession. Elections even to d 

Tx n^rtrtir '"°'"" '^-^-----^ -e rather troubi:::::' 

cxpens ve. but they are not a circumstance to what they were when I fi 
entered parhament. In tho^. days, elections, instead of! ' oTdL 

wiTc r *""'^^'^f • ^^^'^^ '^^^' fi-t of all. we had nonu-nation day 
wluch by an unwntten law, the candidate, if a person of any spirit; 
xpected to entertain his own supporters and to do it well Th s was^ 
lowed y two days of open polling. T..en, we had. on an av a^ o 

ZVttZ^,'"-'T^ '''""''' '° "" relative wealth of tl 
^ountry then .ind now, I should sa.v th.-,t au election was three or fo, 

nnes more expensive than it i,, ,,,-da.v. and it is expensive no, ; T e 

anybo,ly wanted to appeal again.t auv ht.le irregularities that ha 

ak p ace on nonnnation day, or on polling day. or on declara ton da 

1.C had .he pnvdege of going before parliau,ent, which would select t 


.-■*.. *.-2:' 

v'i. ^r 



^rinp that W^n, two on each side, with a chairman chosen by ballot, who would hear 
inds rue of the evidence, and if tluv pot throntjh hearintr evi.ience in three years tliey 
inic was tli would perhaps give him a decisi-.n in the fourth. I)y whicli time parlia- 
is- On th.i went would dissolve. 

n, made hi It is true there were th- other atid larger considerations. All were 

hat he w.i «J've to the situation, all saw the dangers to which I have already alhided. 
for the pur and this goes far to explain how it was that Cmfederation. a measure of 
Iderly HttMUch vast and far-reaching importance, was put through with so little 
vn, who a Opposition in the parliament of the tw.) Canadas of those days. Now. sir. 
Iff his arniJo-day we are fortunate. We have put in our thirty vears in the wilder- 
the visibl. ncss and I think a brighter future is now before us. but. I will say this 
olders, pit that had anybody told us in iSr,,^ when ue were debating that question 
tJiat thirty years would elajise before the people of Canada wotdd add 
One-third to their existing pojiulation. we would have been disposed to 
handle that prophet of evil very roughly. On the other hand, had any- 
body told us that within forty years from that time Canada would'he pos- 
Ihe Hous. se.ssed of or wo,d<l b.^ in the act of constructing three, if not four trans- 
•nt to th. continental railways from ocean to ocean, we would have been disposed 
had gon. equally to ridicule the prediction. Still, gentlemen, it is noteworthy that 
en to-day as I said, during the period which elapsed from iS66 to iS^yS the growth 
some anc of Canada was very slow indeed-how slow vou will judge from this 
hen I first timple fact: Our population at Confederation was almost identical with 
.onducte,: the population .f the United States, when, in 1790. thev inaugurated their 
I wdl no, present sy.steir. In thirty years they added nearly 200 per cent to 
m day. o. their population ; in thirty years we added a little over 30 per cent 
pirit, wa^ to our population. I am glad to say that this condition of things h'.s 
s was fo! been wholly reversed since, and I trust that the next decade will 
age, onlv -how that the progress of Canada has been greater proportionately 
e and ex- than the progress of the United States. But-anrl mind you, that was 
ip to the Without immigration-it remains a fact that starting with almost identic- 
when all «")' the same population that we did and with very poor means of com 
ise of the munication, the United States in thirty years had risen to a total of 
, the fac t 10,000,000, they had added nearly 6,000,000 to the total population and we 
h of the fa the same time had added a little over i,ooo,ooo.(') 

• or four'"'^" , 

I. Then. '') "^^^ populatibn of tlie United States ha.s increased as follows : 
hat ha 1 18^ .3,929090 

, ,o,_ 5,308,000 

.ea fiv. being an increase of 5.709.000 in tlnrty years, with hardly any immigration. 

Canada Waking Up. 

wakmp ,p. Canada .s now making progress that I trust will soon 

pensatc for the slow pro^.^s we have made before 

All that is needed now is a little nrndence-a little courage-a 

hone,ty on our part. We need to see that our present ^ood fortune 
not turn our heads, that we do not fall into the mistake of supposing 
because we have had a few years of unusual prospcritv we have he a fortunatus purse, which can never be exhausted and which 
warrant any sort of extravagance we see fit to indulge i„ 

dupes of "th-i! tV' ' T "^ "' '" "^ ^° •■* ^'^^ -« ^° -* '^^^--^ 
lupes of that most m.sch.evous of all modern delusions-or perhai 

hcn,ld say to that ,nost mischievous of al, antiquated delusions.'no^^' 

".ngly revamped-that it is possible to increase the collective wealth 

Kally to be exactly on a par with Dr. Sanj^rado's famous maxim th.t 
way to make a patient healthy .nd stron, was to bleed him inTv ! 
cnvable way and on every conceivable occasion. I will only add th 

ns be the of the people of Canada. T can certify tha[ there 
lack of leeches ready to accommodate them. 

The population of Canada wa.s as follows :- 

1866, estimated includinR British Columbia 

,SS, ^ ^' ^' ^''""'^ *"** "" ^''"■"' ^^'^'t ' v6oo ooo 

issr *>y census, .. . 

1896, ,«timated.... 4.324,814 

I . . 4.050,000 

w^. rt:s;ruur'"^ '" '"'"' '""• " -^^ "^ '''-' ^^- ^^^ — «, . 

from i'mTZ^::^^ irn^rT^M""' ^^ *'^ "'""'-°" - ^'•-^ thirty y. 
record, of the de'de frir SS L ,i? u'' "".'''^^ "^ ^^^'•"*^^'^- ^"^ '^^ ^^^ 

canadawith the decLenntaro;::;t.t'vrc:i;:r^^^^ 
^::iL;"sr:^z;c::Sir7T;;'^ -' --^^^^^^^^^ 

the emigrants were mitl, ^n^^rd "omen" .t "'""' ''"'' ^^ '" "'^ '^^'^^ '^^ ^-'- 
that there are now in the uS Stlln M 1" 'f'" '^"'"^ °^ '^f'^" " *« P-bal 
either born in Canada or who are fhe rr,, f . " ''T """'°°'' "^ ''^-P'^ -^« -^ 
The political effectTo^ thi= e Z '^^^'^^"^-'ts of native born Canadian, 

vant to disc'uss thosetere """ ""' "'^''^ remarkable but it would be irrel 

Kin,dl"lrera7dTeUed) fnT^o^keTefm^ ^"r " ^^""^-^•' ^"^^ "^ ^^ ^^^ ^'^^- 
tion of the United States '"P"^ ^* ^ contributor to the popul, 

1 18 

For the rest, it may be that the men of '6.^ hiillrled better than they 

knew. The sapling they planted promises to become a miRhty tree. The 

Confederation, of which they laid the foundations, will. I think, soon take 

its place amonsrst the foremost nations of the world. Rut, I would say 

to the nun r,f to-day. that if they are the heirs of this vast heritage, 

ortunc dn,^**'"''' '"''"'"■''• '"'"''' ^'■'■''''" •''"'' r'^'^-^*'*'"")^' ni'>ro abun.Iant resources than 

iposing th *^^ ""^ "' '■'■''" ^''■''''■'' '■''" ''""'''• *''"> ^^ *" ''^ ^^•^'" »" f'-^'ollect it is diie in 

Jve there!. * ''"^ ''"■*^'' ""■^«"'"*-' ^"^ ^'"^ '"'"" ^vho, in .S63. in a time of great storm 

I which w •'f'' '^'■*'''' ''^''' "*^^^''-"^''^''^'^^- t'"^ srrcat merit, that tluy di.l not despair of 

tke republic and were able at no small sacrifice of thei. personal feelings 

become tl ""' "" '"'*'" '''"■'^'' '*^ ^'"''" ^*^'''""-'*' interests, to carry out the scheme 
perhaps <^*^"^^''^'^'''t'''^" ^v'""^'' they proposed. Sir. T doubt very much whether 
5 now ctir''''''^ ^''*'''' "'''" '"''* "''■ ^''■^"'"''^■■^"'•f"'' ""^ler which they did it and whv 
^^ealth of !?'-'' ''"' '*' '"'''' ^''" '-'Itopethcr fully and properly appreciated. I hope 
le econon '" ^''' ^"^'"■'' ^'''^"'■'' "^''^ ''° ^'"^"^ ^"'*'^^' «"^ 'f- ^^r. Chairman, it be 

m that tl, **^'"^''''' *''^^ ^ ''^'''" ^'*^^*^" f^Ttunate enough in the fe-v words I have 
every cor •*''''"'^^ *« >'^" ^o-day to bring about a fuller recognition of those men's 

add that ZIT' "V, 7? ''-'' '•' '^'"' ^ '"'''' ^''' "^^'^^ '""^^ ^'"p'y ^^p^'d f"^ ^"y 

, Httle trouble I have taken, 
here is n 

eems to 
II soon cotr 

»ge— a litt 
ortune do 
•posing th 
Jve therel) 
I which wi 

isus of 1891 

hirty year« 
the officiii! 
I arrived iv. 
tal number 
and a halt 
Of Ireland 
s probable 

who were 

be irrelr 

he United 
le popula-