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Collection de 

Canadian Inatltuta for Hhtorlcal Mieroraproduetiona / Inatltirt Canadian da rnksroraproduettena Matorlqua 


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TfChiucal «nd B«Mio«rapliic Nam / Nom MtfuMquM tt >iblio|ri»hi<Mii 

Tlw Insiiiuu hM dtumittMl to cbMin itw iMni eritin«l 
copy awuUtttc tor tilnnni). F«aiyr« of ihit copy wAich 
nuy IM bibltogr^plittelly uniqiM. which OMy <ilt«r Miy 
of iho im«g»* HI ih« fwproduciion, or which may 
■igMltCMillv ch«rt(M Um y»iMl m«lh4Ml of lilmirtB, ar« 
chodwd balew. 




Colmirad cowi/ 
C oywfty w d« c oMl« y f 

Conn OiNMiind/ 
CowMfluft MdOnUIMflM 

Cowrt rMlofad Mid/or liiniHMlM*/ 
CM««f tim r«lMirM •l/e«i p«UiC4il«« 

lift* miuinfl/ 
L« titt* at «oyMtf1uf ■ man^iM 

□ CalMWtd nw^ 
CafHt iMif a|ilii<)im « cautoM 

QColeynd ink (■.«. atlw Ihan Mut or black)/ 
Enora d« wutavr (■.<. >ut» v Mom e« noira) 

L'Imuiul a nicrolilma la maillayr aaaiii«lai>a wi'il 
lui a aia poHiMa da M ptocunr. Lai daiaili da cat 
aaai««laKa 4111 tont pa«»-*ira iinquai du pouit da •« 
bikliotrirtlisiia. qui pauaam maditiar una Unaca 
rap>aduitt. au qui paunnt aaifK una moditicatMn 
dam la mathoda nsraula da lilwm lonl iod^uat 


I I Pi| M dawna*/ 

□ ffU raatarad and^r lamauud/ 
Pataa fai l au r aat at/du M lli a ulaai 



0CokHir«d plaut and/or illusualiom/ 
PItfichas at/ou iMusiraueni on coultur 

□ Bound with eth«r maurul/ 
n«lM avM d'uiusi documwiB 

I "H Tiahi tMiMhnfl m«y mum th^dowi or dttiortion 


alone miariof marflin/ 

L* raliuft Mrraa paut cauwf da romttf a ou da la 

ditunion la loofl da la marga uitariaura 

Blank taam addad dwina raitaratian may appaar 
witkin ika ttxt. Wkanaaar powiMa, Hmm haia 
haan oinina^ from filming/ 
II f Paul qua earlainat papn Mancbal aiouiaai 
Ion d'una catuuration appafaiuant dan< la uxH, 
mais, lonqua cala ttaii pouiMa. cat pa(tf n'oni 

□ Quality of print aariat/ 
Oualiia i n iiala da riaipranien 

□ Coniinuoui pagination/ 

Include! indaala*)/ 
Cemprand un (daa) indan 

Titia on haadar takan (ram:/ 
La titn da rauMta pioaiant; 

□ TitIa page of iwaa/ 
Pa(i da liira da to liwaimi 

I I Caption of iiaua/ 

Titfa 4i dapan da to linaiion 


GanoriqiM IparioriiQun) 4» U livrwtoii 

Additional Gommanu;/ 

Pdg«» wholly obacurad by cliauaa hava boon rafllnad to anaura Urn baat 
psitibla fnaga. 

Thit iiam it filmad ai tlw laduetion ratio diackad balaw/ 
Ca documani att f ilnw au taua da radunion indiqw 
1OX lax I8X 











Th* oopv filmed har* ha* bMn raproduead 
to tha ganarotity of: 

Library of tht NmIoimI 
ArchKm of Cwuda 

Tha lma«aa appaaring hara ara Mm baat qualtty 
poaalbia eonaidaring tha condition and laglbillty 
of tha original copy and In kaaf ;ng »vith tha 
filming eontfaet apocifieatlona. 

Original eopioa in printad ftptr aovafa aia fHmad 
baginning with tha front covar and anding on 
tha laat paga with a printad or iiluatratad Impraa- 
tion, or ttM baeii oovar whan apprepriata. AH 
othar original copiaa ara fiimad baginning on tha 
f ■>« paga with a printad or Iiluatratad impraa- 
■ien. and anding on tha laat paga with a printad 
or Hhntratad Impraaiien. 

Tha laat raeordod frar.-.* on oach mierotieha 
ahall contain tha symbol — » (moaning "CON- 
TiNUeO"). or tho symbol ▼ (moaning "ENO"), 
whiehowar appliaa. 

. . te.. may bo fiimad at 

diffarant raduction ratios. Thoaa too larga to ba 
antlrahf ineludad in ona anpoaura ara fiimad 
baginning In tha upper loft hond eomar. iaft to 
right and top te bottom, as many framaa as 
raquicad. The following diagrams lilustrata tha 

L'eiompiaire flim4 fut reproduli grlee i la 
g«n4ruait« da: 

Lt bibliothtqin d« ArctiivM 
nnionilM du CMnda 

Ua Images suivantas ont tti raproduites avse la 
plus grand soin. compta tenu de la condition at 
da ta nattet« de luemplaira film*, et en 
eenformM avac lee conditions du eontrat da 

Lee eiofflplalraa origineux dont la eouverture an 
pepier eet lmprim«e sont fllm«s en eommencent 
par le premier plot et en terminant solt par la 
*jmi*re pege qui comporte une emprelnta 
d impreeaion ou d'liiuatretion. salt par la laeond 
ptot. aaler le eaa. Tous lea autres asemplaires 
originaux sent fiim»« en eemmen$ent per la 
promiiro paga qui comporte une empreinte 
dlmpreeeien ou d'iHustretion et en terminent per 
la damitre page qui comporte une telle 

Un dee aymboles sulvents spparattra sur la 
demMre image de cheque microfiche, selon le 
cas: la symbole ^ signifle "A SUIVRE", la 
symbole V signifle "FIN". 

iM cartas, planches, tableaux, etc.. peuvent itra 
film4a t dee taux de rMuction difftrents. 
Lorsque le document eat trop grend pour ttre 
reproduit en un soul dich*. 11 est film* i pertir 
de I'angia suptrieur geucha, da gauche t droita, 
et de haut en bas, en prenent le nombre 
d'imegea ndcasseire. Im diagrammes sulvents 
iliustrent la m«thoda. 







rafiiiiiiwii iiiiiii Ill mwi 

wmmK^^KSw^Mcw^Mvt c>4..<iaei^BE3itqB^a^wt!Pe^ "^m.m'jb(hk- 

••aocory msouition tut cH«tr 


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i^SI <65J Eotl 14am StrMt 

S"^ Rochwur. Neo Yori< 14609 US* 

^S {?1S) 482 - 0300 - Phon, 

^E (^'6} 2Be - 5989 - Fa, 




One of Montre.P= Modern Palace, of Ice 









la« SI01.V or THE DOIOMON, •• EIC. 

I L I. U S r K A |- E D 



Copyright, 1913, by 
Tiut John C. WiNSfroN Co. 

I--:' ■ .!»: 

l€-iM- ^1 



Quebec 18 picturesque in its history, in its natural 
setting and environment, in the evolution and 
character of its people, in its politics and religion 
and daily life. As French Canada, it has left a 
powerful impress upon the history and life of the 
continent-a more pronounced one than is generally 
understand. As a part of British Canada it has 
always been important in its influence and interesting 
m its action. 

This volume is an attempt to bring together the 
past and the present in the history and environment 
of an attractive people. It is not a record of party 
contests or of the rise and fall of politicians; nor 
■8 It a detailed description of events which may be 
found dealt with in histories of varied character 
and pomts of view. It is not a guide-book to the 
places and scenery of Quebec, as to which several 
compact and useful little volumes have been pre- 
pared and published. These things have their 
places, of course, with a value and interest all their 



The author has endeavored, however, to portray 
the conditions of the past in their association with 
the places of the present, rather than to provi4jB 
an exact and consecutive record or a geographical 
study. He has also tried to analyze the under- 
currents of sentiment and action which have made 
French Canada so interesting and which will prob- 
ably keep it as an important and attractive element 
in the life of this continent and the history of the 
British Empire. 


I. Th. Frinch PATaw« to a Conhmnt . . "u 
II. Tb« Making or tbi French Canadian 29 

T J' I" ''"'"""' *^*''*'>"'« A» Nation Bcild.m 48 

IV. FooTPMNTs or THE Fbench Pioneers 58 

V. Quebec-The Cradle or New France. . 87 

VI. Montcalm, WoLrE and the Plains or Abba- 



VIII. The Jescitb-Pioneers or the Cbom in 

^*»'*'>* j^3 

IX. The Heroic Aoe or Canada .... . ig2 

X. Acadia— Thb Land or Evanoeune 184 

XI. The SEI.3NEFHU-AN Old-world Abistocbact 

IN America ^^ 

XII. LirE, Cdstoms and Envibonmbnt or the 

Habitant ^^ 

XIII. Chubches AND Shbines or Fbench Canada.' .' 2M 
Ji.iv. Reuqiocs EvoLcmoN or the Fbench Cava- 

""N 277 

XV. Reuoioos Traditions, Folk- Lobe and Bal- 


v^Tr" f""*"" *"» I'*™«AN8 or Literature' .' 3M 
Yv,., ^'"™" Landmarks in French Canada . . 342 
JtVIII. Educational Interests and Ideals in Que- 


XIX. P1CTUBE8QUB Phbsonalities or French 

IND^"* 386 



w^ j*y^*. 


Capes Et.bnitv and Thimty, SAauBNAy !! 

MONTMOMNCI KALLa, (JuEBCr ... ' ' ' Ig 

Chicoutimi, Saokenat Riv«b J 

Chobch o. Not-. Dam. d„ Victo.bcs. (Ju.b.c ' " ,a 


Ch;t«au Kkontenac and C.TAD.L,' Quebec .' ' ' ' im 
Scene on the Saooenat H,veb, Quebec ' ' 120 


OUATCBOUAN FaLU, LaKE 8t. JoHN ' ' ' ' IM 

Scene on the St. Lawbence in W.nteh ' itb 

Thatched Babn, Cap 1 L'A.ole, Quebe,- ,9° 

JRENCB Canadian Kishebiien . . ™„ 

ChXteao St. Locis, Quebec ^ 

Habitant Woman Weaving Homespun CioTH 232 

Habitant Woman, Cap a L'AiaLE, Quebec '. 266 

Chubch op Ste. Anne de BeaupbI 272 

Scene ON THE MetabetchouanRiveb.n Quebec' ' 304 

Bhead Oven, Cap a L'A.glb, Quebec 323 

Little Cbamplain Stbeet, Quebec C.ty '344 

8NOW8HOE Scene near Montreal . 'tan 

T.MBEB Coves at Quebec 3"" 

Toboooan near Montreal . .qq 



Th. F«.«eH Pathway to a Contin.kt 

in the «,i, oU va ^nfwe Sr^/'"" '"^"*'"« '°°*'' 
•nore fir™,y than thTy TneThTrn't^'^ ""'' 
sought the nifwt .muJj-j ^' ""'' "lehberately 

do^i„io„'"'a„riu£r c^coSa'tr r "^^ 

none greater than that of New JVa ' . ^! ^°""'' 
grew around and beyond QueZc ^"h th" s, T'^ 
rence at its fep* r„..' ^ T'" ^'''> the St. Law- 

Koberval.ti the ^Z'^t.^.r'"' '""' ^^ 
trapper,, «,ldier, and prTest ^nhl ''°^**!"" *°" 
men and Peasant^^VhrtrVe, Hh "'r'\ 
the great river in the sixtrnth i^ *'" "' 

centuries, saw no surh .„„„ "'' seventeenth 

today wik r,,r tn, rsfg^rand*" ''""'""^'' 
ments of civilisation and commerce ^hHrr'" 


by dtTfrt,';Tiri:rv^ -""^ «"--»«^ 

wail of the wolT or r ' '"'" """^ *° *'«« the 
there were th^ yTja^t rnd'""' °' '""^ "'^•'«^' 
«- storms an/ ^'i^^ srw^^ 'lo--' S; 


BiM irTiiiim"iir-¥ j&si^Jismimmm 



river faced by men fresh from the sunny slopes of 
France; there were the marvelous and gloomy 
portals of the Saguenay, the varied scenery at the 
mouths of other great rivers as they poured from 
unknown inland reservoirs into the St. Lawrence; 
there ivas the exquisite beauty of the summer and 
autumn seasons when the shores revealed some- 
thing of nature's wooded charm and beauty and 
the river itself showed graces all its own, crowned 
by a solemnity and mystery which must have 
proved an inspiration of courage and strength to 
the early adventurer or explorer. 

Gradually, as , exploration and adventure, war 
and settlement, trade and mission effort, impressed 
themselves upon this land of mountain, forest and 
wilderness which lay on either side of the St. Law- 
rence, knowledge of its geographical and physical 
features came in limited form to the rulers and 
pioneers at Quebec and Montreal. It is, however 
doubtful if they ever knew, with any exactness,' 
the details which are possessed today. They would 
have deemed it impossible that the five great inland 
seas of which they caught glimpses or the shores of 
which they partially explored in birch.^bark canoes, 
could have a total area of 94,660 square miles; 
that the vast waterway up which, in part, their 
tiny ships first sailed could traverse, from the 
western end of Lake Superior to tht Gulf as it 
widened into the ocean, a distance of 2,384 miles; 
that the lesser rivers opening into the greater one 
could drain various lakes immense in themselves 


realue that the immense system of waterways 

skirted only by parties of wanderin,, C" T 
unde^tand that a'J. these vasTboZ VSe^we ^ 

atl":' """ '''""y P-*^ °f o- river rilr." 
a httle many-named stream which fell into Lake 
Supenor; to see into the dim future and find the 
St. Lawrence proving to a „.eater Canada what 

been .ndeed, to possess the qualities of a nrophit 
CchTanar 1 ''\^ '''^^-'^^^ "^ ChristS; 

the ctt:r InXiTflrcornlt"^ S ^°^" 
' '- wi^en French dominion rratraUAmer 



and clasped hands with the Acadians, when marks 
of ownership and possession were planted down 
the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys to t*- ^ Gulf of 
Mexico and the French of Quebec w brought 
into touch with the French pioneers ot l,ouisiana. 
But that was New France glorified and, for a 
moment, almost attaining the heights of Richelieu's 
imperial dream and Fronten;.<;'s hope. Usually, in 
these periods of early struggle it included Quebec 
and Acadia and the main portion of the Ontario 
of today with an ill-defined and changing region 
which stretched for some distance into what are 
now the Centi'al American States — a territory 
sometimes held and sometimes lost, but as to which 
hope was not abandoned until the final victory of 
the English on the Heights of Abraham. 

The French Canada of the past century, the 
country which had grown out of its fluctuating 
conditions of pioneer settlement and warfare into 
one of settled boundaries and fewer external diffi- 
culties, was a region of 350,000 square miles and 
so remained until 1912, when the vast Ungava 
territory was added to it. It was bounded on, the 
north by Hudson's Bay, only accessible through a 
wilderness which has remained more or less unknown 
up to the present time, and by Ungava, of which 
much the same may be said; on the west by Upper 
Canada or Ontario; on the east and south by the 
River and Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Province of 
New Brunswick and the States of New York, Ver- 
mont, Now Hampshire and Maine — touching on 


the extreme northeast the Labrador territory of 
Newfouadland. For 550 miles along the J 
and north of the river, up to the nfouth of The 
Saguenay, the country is mountainous, bold and 
rugged ,n outline with many rivers, ani a scener J 
moro picturesque than beautiful; for 200 S 
from the mouth of the Saguena; up to the St 
Ma..-ce River and toward Lake Ontario there is 
on we north shore, an alternation of mouTtain 
Seirtfbell'f ^^-^ ^'^^''*'°- -'J -duS 
riSes Sh T"''^ *»'' "'^ agricultural 
wWch skirt th.. %"^" '^' ''^'«''*« ""'J '""'« 
upwards resemble in appearance the Laurentian 
range to the north, but are further away f"m Z 
nver and leave room in modern days for deirhtful 

tzz::jr '"' ^"^^^^ -' ^ ''--^" 

mto restless rapids; as ,t sweeps past cliffs crowned 



with verdure or great natural ridges capped with 
dense forests; as these break frequently to reveal 
fertile valleys and a rolling country, or rise into 
rugged and yet exquisitely picturesque embodi- 
ments of nature such as the heights of Quebec; 
there comes the thought that here, indeed, is a 
fitting entrance to a great country, an adequate 
environment for the history of a romantic people, 
a natural stage-setting for great events and gallant 


Though greater than any other Canadian river, 
the St. Lawrence was, and is, a natural type and 
embodiment of them all. Sweeping in its volume 
of water, sometimes wild and impetuous, never 
slow or sluggish, on its way to the sea; ever changing 
in its currents and rapids and waterfalls, its lakes 
and incoming river branches: passing through 
varied scenery yet always preserving in its course 
a degree of dignity which approaches majesty; 
it reveals a combination of volume and vastness, 
beauty and somberness which make it in more 
senses than one the father of waters on this conti- 
nent— "the great river without an end," as an 
Indian once described it to Cartier. 

The gulf into which the river broadens is more 
or less a land-locked sea, deep and free from reef 
or shoal, running 500 miles from north to south 
and 243 from east to west. In its center lies the 
once lonely and barren Isle of Anticosti; not far 
from Gasp6 Bay, two miles out at sea, lies La 
Roche Perc«, a gigantic pile of stone with perpen- 


Perci vaUge and Rock, Shores of the Gulf of 
SK. Lawrence 


dieular wallg forminK, in certain conditiona of the 
weather, a marvelous combination of colors out- 
ined against the blue sky and emerald sea. In 
this rock there is now an opening broken by the 
unceasing dash of the waves; according to Denys 
there were at one time three great arches, and 
seventy years before his time Champlain stated 
that there was only one but that one big enough 
or a ship to sail through; in still earlier days 
Indian legends describe its connection with the 

Let us at this stage look lightly at some of the 
geoi^aphical and associated conditions as we pass 
slowly up the St. Lawrence from its mouth, and 
try to see what manner of region this is which has 
witnessed so much of romance and has brought 
together and kept together the new and the old- 
the Europe of three centuries ago and the America 
t!^^- ,^?'" ^"'^ '""^ '*» '"^•"ories of a naval 

sunk w? •> "'''' *"" ^'"^™"° '">'P« -«^ 

sunk, we pass along a shore devoted with undying 

allegiance to codfish and possessing at Mount Ste 

Anne one of the finest scenic views in eastern Canada' 

furthest pomt of Quebec on the south shore of the ' 

frn-ff r'^°Ti^,?' "* abundant salmon and 
fruitful mland fields. Here Cartier once landed 
took possession of vast unknown regions for the 
King of France and erected a cross thirty feet high 
which flew the fleur-de-lis, also, as a mark of owner- 
ship; near here, Admiral Kirke defeated a large 



French fleet. Th»n 

i^'ering r.«,p.rt oVr^.^"'* """P^ with it. 

»nd lofty clirVerCat^J"''" "' '-kT'wS 
•»d French naval fighf'^:,^''""*. another En^^ 

aJ«o, runa into the St w "^ P'"'"' "d near ifew 

fa«ou. for it, trout annf" '''" Matane rS 

'*ve'it«>If etretchrtSv'fi""""' '""■'" "-e^i;' 
"orthem Bhoree. '^''*^-''^« «"eB aero™ tf U, 

^nence, one goes im *i, . 

r°ven around it of *h.^ , *''"''' "enturies havl 

•^ .WeaJc, inaccessible "^ """^ °' ^^ows ^hi^ 
"""ring rock, a li ti' ut P^'P^^dicuiar waJl« ^f 

^ttf ;/'"----^^^^^^^^ ''' °*^^«''« 

-the latter a fashionAhu ^°"P ^^d Cacouna 

nn'es wide are *i,^ ■ . "^^^' ^^hh here i. bV 
" if* Eboulements with I.l. * ""'' mountain 

•"""•'*-*-:' res t*^ 


origin where rock, and mountains Hi-em to roll into 
one another and commingle in the wildest fantasies 
of nature's strangest mood. 

from Thr^'f ^"P/""""""'-. towering 2,000 feet 

^If ■ .! "" '"^«*' ■""• °"«"' '»''«""1 pile- of 
pamte juttmg out into the river, with the Isle of 
OrUans green .nd beautiful in the sunlight, with 
the St. Lawrence jewel-bright and showing glimpses 
o the wh.te curtain of Montmorenci Falls i"^' 
distance with the naked, somber height o? he 
Laurentides to the north. Everywhere inrf^lH the north shore, from far do^^'t hT'latado; 
coast up to Cap Tourmente, there is this wall „ 
mountams, like a sea of rolling rocks, cleft heTe and 

nay Everywhere, also, are footprints of the eariv 

c'amLT'h """n ""Tl!' 'anded,%here ChamZn 
camped, here De Hoberval is supposed to have 
disappeared forever between the wWeTalle of the 
Saguenay, there Pont-Grav<S or Chauvin left t ace! 
of adventurous exploits. 

roct^wh"'^" *''?«, '"o™ "P the sentinel on the 
rock which overiooks all the pares of r,in ,Hi 
hhtory and still stands as the' most pietist" 
and impressive city of the new worid. Here o^ 

height* of I^vis; on the other are the grand out- 
lines of Cape Diamond, crowned with the rampartl 
of Quebec and now embodying age and poweT as 
the graces of the Chateau Frontenac represent 
modem luxury and business. In the neighborhrd 



de Beauprt; ."lei^i"!""",'*"""' <" St.. Anne 

Europe; ruin, of flS. h",'''"'"" °' ""^'""'•J 
memoric, of history and m iti«"'"* !°'^-^''>« 
tragedy and crime ^ '' '"'"' ""' '""ghter, 

Pawing from Quebec im «i. ^ 
the mouth of the Cha^i,"^ l ''"" *° *^°""««'. 

Benedict Arnold mirched Jr^«'^ *''"""^'' ''''''"• 
to the hoped-for captu e I? olT""' r'^'^''"'' 
aux-Trembles, further on tL^ ! f" ^^ ^^'"^ 
encounter between 'p~n **""" *»«'' P'ace «everal 
Rive„ Btand, 7"he mou^r,' ^««•''• Three 
which ri,e., With *tt 0«aialdV*-«*'""'*"-' 
>n a ma«e of lakoa o„j ""awa and the Saguenay 

the north. In the Ivt'"""' '^J'"''''''^'' "^ "'''^^o 
running baclc to 1618 and inT!f- *°"" ""^mories 

-nd romantic tradi'l'No??'",'^'^'^*-^ 
St. Lawrence widen, into Lake sT pT '"'"' *''« 
"hove it the Richelieu Lu«i J'' ^f*"' ""d ju.t 
greater stream, and at th.^^ 1 "''*^"' «*» the 
in 1642 a fort wa^ bSt bv m'°^ ' »?"" ^°'«' ''''«'"' 
Montreal, with^its mn^'^ '''' *^°utmagny. 

^7Pie. reat's at 'th?m"eXre"':?Th "' ^''^ 
the old. It combines in itsflfth! ' ""'" ""d 

tones rival interests of churTh 7''"* "'"' ■»•"«- 
customs and n>ethl o M Mr r°'T*'^' *•■« 
races, the streets and narrow n * ^'* """^ *''*'""' 
-H the great .nanciaX^ugElJ^- 


Of the pr«jent. It itandi at a point where all the 
commercial and businow kloalg of Engligh Canada 
meet and pre* upon the tradition*, practieea and 
pohcy of French Canada; it prcHcrvoH itself by 
combining the«e varied interest, and maintaining 
a center of wealth, commerce and transportation 
while, 8o far as its French population is concerned 
remaining devoted to racial instincts and loyal to 
one religious faith. 
From this commercial metropolis of Canada. 

viow of other mountains on the American side, 
the St. Lawrence-crossed here by the Victoria 
Bridge, which was long thought to be an eighth 
wonder of the world-forms itself into rapids which 
must have caused tribulations and sorrow and many 
portages m pioneer days an.l whi^h -re uow relieved 
by canals and chiefly utilized for the benefit of 
tourists. Here are the beautiful Cascade Rapids 
with waves flashing high over rocky masses; the 
Cedars where close in shore the green foliage sweeps 
down to meet the turbulent waters; the Long 
Sault, which IS the most strenuous and inspiring 
of all; the Galoups, where the water first awakens 
to the situation and begins to writhe and foam in 
an anger which grows with the rocks it feeds upon. 

battlefield of Chateauguay where De Salaberry 
and his French Canadians defeated an American 
army; „ear Morrisburg, farther up the river, lies 
Chryslers Farm, the scene of another victory of 

m ■ ^k£K 



a^irS r^iZr^^'''^ -«"'a- Soon 
rest the famous ThouLtirr V'"''^ ^^ere 
-in reality I 800 of ?h "''^^ '''^■^<= ''i«t°'y 
enters the ProSe of *tr~''"''. ''^™ *he river 

!*« ho„,e in Lr^onts xr ir T^^ *° 

■n the vast water expans^J of th! f "^'°*"^ 
continent. pansions of the center of the 

Menders of sZ^'^'Xi^ I^^^^ "' ""^'^^ ^-^ 
the historic rivers of Euro Jir f ""'^ '^'*'' 
country with traditions an/ ^^rai'^ " ''"'" 
which are attractive to thp v? / ■°'' '"'"nories 
the student and important L ^ •"'l."^*''^'^^"''* *» 
The Ottawa runs ZoUkl St ? "* °' ^'"''«^*- 
many widened waters of the St rr""" °' *''« 
the northwest and mixes its dLt ,^'*'^"'"''«-from 
the pine and ^r-cZZsllt^^^^'''''' ''™"'' ''°'» 
lighter blue of the grea er S/ ^T' ^'*'' **>« 
of the French r^^mfif w "T: . /•"' "'"^ '^''^^ 
fur trade and the site of thTT/ '^ ^^^^ °^ *»>« 

Where Ottawa rtheo„t„—r''''''''' "^ ^^'^'i-- 
Quebec side now join and m '"^' ""'' »"" °» *<>« 
center of PopulatiTard CinfJt T ''"^°^'">* 
the Algonquins had many a hn A """"'^ ""'^ 
At this point another aTd LtL\ -^"counter. 

Falls pour over a <rreat n'l f "'"'"" ChaudiSre 
Picturesque bllkground £%t'°''\'"'^ "'^""^ - 
the river rolls on between th' -^'f "*^' ^''"^ 

1 ' Jfc:fi*-rj4 



wide reaches conta .lin? varied Mets. Today its 
chief traffic is lumbe ciirried iu g eat fleets of roomy 
barges; in the olden aays it was known for the 
many French boatmen along its course, who in- 
spired the famous Canadian boating song of Thomas 

Faintly as tolls the evening chime, 
Our voices keep tune and our oars keep time. 
Soon, as the woods on the shore look dim, 
We'll sing at St. Anne's our parting hymn. 
Row, brothers, row! the stream runs fast, 
The rapids are near and the daylight's -/ast. 

For some distance the Ottawa is the boundary line 
of the two provinces; into it runs a wild and turbu- 
lent river called the Gatineau, which drains a great 
extent of country and possesses near its mouth 
seven miles of fiercely rushing rapids; La Lifivre, 
a little farther down, is a much smaller branch, yet 
it has a course of several hundred miles. On the 
Ottawa itself the next points are the well-known 
Chateau of Montebello and town of L'Orignal, 
with the beautiful mountain-girt Lake Comandeau 
in the distance running into the Ottawa through the 
River Kinonge. The historic Pass of the Long 
Sault, the lake of Two Mountains, the village of 
Rigaud, known for its place in Rebellion records, 
and Oka, famous for its modern Indians and an 
old-time Trappist monastery, follow, and then the 
river splits into three mouths and loses itself in the 
Father of Canadian Waters. 



I il 


The Richelieu and tho «. p 
St. Lawrence on the south ^/'"'"''^ '"a into the 
t^a'- Along the Cer ^'^r '" ^«"<"- Mo„! 
;n name and in fact, such 2 v " ''^ ^'«*°"'' 
Chambly, Co„trec«u and vLlr"""' ""'^ ^°'' 
of the days when the Zth oflh ''~''"''°"''^"' 
Iroquois gateway and The r ' "^^^ '""^ *'"-' 

went guarded the aonrn .^""^"an-Saili^res regi- 
Montreai. Through thfwn" *.° ''"'^ ^«"<' «' 
Eastern Townships-ote the' r'' ^'* """""tainous 
English-spealciSg set" er Ith !* '"'' ""^^^^^i"" 
'fe to the people and eh„L tol "°, "^"« ''»">' 
'akes abound-McmDhmmn ^f ""'• Beautiful 

Massawippi and maly' nothTr"' ''''f'' ^'°'-^' 
tarn scenery is there, such 1 the h"-".!'^''"' «°""- 
Yamaska, Mannoir and Bo" f n^'"' °' S^'«". 
" -hole succession of clfC rif "' *'"°"«''out 
«od and beautiful scenes Jakes "V' ''«'"" ^*'t"« 

he>ghtsand valleys-all seem mi ^ "''"'"' """""'ain 
tive whole. ^^^^ ^^d "P in one attrac 

Along the north shore of the St r 
Montreal to Three RiyeVand ;^ T""''' ^'""^ 
1^ a country of settled Tver"^, *''",;'*• ^^aurice, 
■st.cs marked by many smaU f ^'" ^^' ''^'''^'*''- 
bearing the saintly nomenl T ""'' ^"'"g™ 

wterests American tourS I"? ^'^'"^ '° S'^""-- 
French Canada and m ^ed ', '" T '^''''^'" °f 
narrow fields which a^t . '° ''^ t^" '"ng, 
''c.bitante. Above the roaLpT*""^*'" °' *h« 
the country alone the '""f f 't °' ^"^ ^uque 

Maurice was suppLd oniyTferyt " ''' '*■ 
J a lew years ago to be 


a Wilderness of little value-the home of lumber- 
men nd.ans and trappers. As in the Lake 8 . 

iheltTZ ^" ^P^'.'T''-'^ P'^'^'dise far north of 
the St. Lawrence and drained by the somber, silent 
Saguenay) the rapid development of recent year 
has found m all this country much of value in naCa 
res urces m fer^lity and in commercial possibilUie 
(M the ^t. Maurice are the Shawinigan Falls 
»o remarkable for their beauty even in this count y 

water^T'tlr ''' f'''' °' "°'°" ^ '^^ ^^ftLg 
tTon^'f th *''^P;''"'"^' ^^riations and complica- 
t ons of the road traversed by the boiling, foaming 
funous r,ver as it conquers the obstacleslk its way 
At and around Lake St. John there is a vast countr^ 
covered with primeval forests-trackless tangej 
woods hold myriads of dainty lak s hTdden 
m their midst and shelter varied forms of bird and 
animal life. Here roam the majestic rnoose and 
the proud caribou, here are stately solitudes and 
npphng waters, here are lofty mountains and all 
the charm of a magnificent unbroken forest Into 
this glo„o.s wilderness the railway had to come! 
but the scenery along its course is still characteristic 

11 z^'zif '"" '™'» *- much :S- 

of turbulent, saucy-looking, uncertain waters- 
peaceful and polished on the surface at one moment 
stormy and savage at the next. moment, 

Around and below the City of Quebec there is 
one of the most beautiful and characteristic por 
t.ons of French Canada. Ste. Anne de Beauprt 



deserves many pages of description and will cer- 

country breathes peace and contentment- the 
i « ory of past warfare and sanguinary Indlk con! 
fl.ct seems mappropriate to such a region the 
hahtant hves a life which looks like a Teaf ' from 
rural Normandy in some forgotten century MucT 
more m,ght be said of many places and of mSd 

but this chapter is only a summarized picture of 
conditions Chicoutimi, the seat of a city at the 
mouth of the river of .the same name, where it pou« 
•ts waters mto the Saguenay from Lake KenogaT 
after a precipitous course of seven falls and a Tn' 
tmuous series of rapids, might be mentioned. Mrh 

Sbec \T of° t^ '"""'"' '''' °' °"^-« "^^^ 
the t T ''^"°"' ""'*"^'' '«'''S Which dot 

-breaktTn Th" "" T" '°T ^'"^ ^P°*« "^ ^-'^«« 

JZr ; ^"'' ^''tr^ '''"' '"»°y other towns o; 
villages along the shores of the St. Lawrence are 
picturesque and clad with a mantle of W Z^ o' 

face of things. Sherbrooke, in the Eastern Town- 
ships countrj- Lennoxville, Farnham and other 

the St. Francis was a waterway from New England 
to Quebec, while the deep chasm of the CoatLok 
winds in and out of a richly prosperous region. 

ii . 

Il## A 


Geologically this country of the French Canadian 
IS of intense interest. It reaches back into the most 
ancient period of the world's evolution; it was a 
later product of titanic changes and movements of 
the earth's surface. The grinding, crushing flow 
of great masses of ice from the Arctic regions had 
potent force in creating the vast basin of the St. 
Lawrence; upheavals of a volcanic character are 
obvious around Montreal, are clearly marked in the 
Lake St. John region, are found in the Laurentian 
ranges; evidence of earthquakes comes to us from 
within historic ages. Of the mountains in the 
Eastern Townships country, where the elemental 
struggles of geological antiquity must have been 
violent beyond description, Jesuit records at St. 
Francis describe an earthquake of September 5, 
1732, so powerful as to destroy a neighboring Indian 
village. The better-known disturbance of 1663 
along the lower St. Lawrence lasted for months 
and resulted in continuous landslides and a series 
of convulsions. The St. Lawrence was said to have 
run white as milk for a long distance because of the 
hills and vast masses of sand which were thrown 
into it, ranges of hills disappeared altogether, the 
forests, according to an Indian description, became 
as though they were drunk, vast fissures opened 
in the ground, and the courses of streams were 
changed. The whole of the Mount Royal region 
and valley shows clear evidences of volcanic action. 
These latter disturbances were, however, only 
episodes in geologic ages of formation; there are 



Laurentian and otheT Tn T"^^^^ ^"'^ »' the 

'•ontinent will stand as *!' "'• f*"'' P"' "^ the 
mighty world-moveLrts r? t ^"" "'°™ 
ment for the history of tL t„h '°°'''" ""^■''•on. 
«fu^gles of the French cL !. ""' '^'^ *'■" «"'y 
«o emn witnesses of the civZf" T"^'' """^ "« 
taken possession of this Int 1°^ ''^''^ '"'« «><"- 
hop- in its own Ltn/Slir "^" """ 
build upon and refine and., if- i' ^'""'« ''"y to 
«toreh„u,e for its ow^ J^n '*' ""*"^'« «P'«"^'-d 
went of its people ^ '^ '^°''' '"'* *he advance- 

The Making of the French Canadian 

wnHH?' ^'f^'V'™" the older countricB of the 
world have been hoard to say in parts of Quebeo 

and^tteTuteHf '"•"J '^^*'' «»"" farmhouses 
ana attenuated farms, that it was all rather uninter 
estmg but as much as could be expected in a reg on 

ruth had been known to them-even though they 

sages, had left their imprint through two thousand 
years of history-much that was romantic attrac 
t..e, inspiring, might have been seen or fdt As" 
a matter of fact, the existence of savage life of Jd 

apTef 'of 'S"r T"''"''"^' °^ -^* »''°-'y 
creltL • '^f i"'"*' """^ K'-^ate' waterways 
created in early Quebec elements of romance and 

ouirl r'"?- 'r "^"*"™« ContinentrEurS 
could not entirely grasp and which without indi- 

'' oi::r;r,\"'-* f" ^^^ I-ople of Englanl-s 

sceptered is e have always seemed more or less 

ncomprehensible. To the historic rr.ord of such 

sSi, 7 '""'^"""^ '"<' f°-- of rugged 
strength and picturesque memory, of barbarous 




me^aL""?. "'"'""/'"" «"'- "' «"i'"y achieve- 

form of thp T i- T*'°""*' ^'^'^ tl^^ solitary 
and more civ zed race on^ n( ty.- Preceamg 

When Cartier in 1535 and Champlain in 1608 
firs came ante contact with different tribes !? 
atti uh'' llZ ""f-*-''tely a.,umed a hostile 
att.tude-the former in carrying away Donnacoaa 


on a voyage from which he never returned, the 
atter .„ espousmR the cause of the Hurons againnt 
he Iroquo«. They could not see into the future 
they could not well estimate the nature of th^e 
«avage forces of the wilderness, they could not 
comprehend a native character which all httory 
has faded to satisfactorily decipher. Through the 

Tn th. 1 / "", """" •"""« •^°™ to "« imbedded 

m he literature of a hostile and conquering race 
as the very embodiment of cruelty and savagery 
Vet that mysterious figure was in many respecTs 
a noble one to which nature had given a vlst Ind 
varied environment. Cold and hard in character 
passmnate and revengeful in temper, ignorant a^d 
supersffous in belief, keen and Sui;!.'^ thought 
the „d,an was never, in the days prior to his period 
of decadence under external influence, guilty of the 
efl^mmate and n :,ncr vices which have de'^^troyed 
peoples such as the Koman and the Moor 

Love of liberty in its wilder forms and contemnt 
or all arbitrary rule or personal control he cSd 

nar of l^^ '"T"™ °^ "^^'"^ ^«« « "atSral 
part of his surroundings of war and treachery 

subsrviL'^^r""'."' ^'^ opportunities aZd 
subservient to the passions of pride and crueltv 
were perhaps misfortunes more than they w re 
faults. Compared with the ereater VnZiT 
the gentler faith, the more cultrd'sur'rrS:' 
the kindlier home-life of the white man, his chancer 



were very slight and his sins not so luri.l as their 
flaminB background might imply. The curious 
federal system of the Iroquois, and the characters 
of Pontiac, Tecumaeh and Thaycndenagea indicate 
l»8 mdividual capabilities under favorable circum- 
Htances. The Indian was, in brief, the product of 
nature, the outcome of wilderness conditions, the 
result of long and continuous struggle with the 
forces of extreme heat and cold and of contact with 
the wild, free vagaries of a wandering forest life 
The Iroquois, with whom Champlain first came 
face to face m *he inauguration of a drama which 
had a contment l:r. its stage and a century for its 
enactment were at once the best and the worst of 
all the Indian nations. Their pride was intense 
and overmastering, their lust of conquest was 
mdividually as otrcng as that of Alexander or 
wapoleon, their savage passions and cruelties were 
vented m an indescribable degree upon their enemies 
let m courage, constancy and concentrated cnerKv 
It would be difficult to find their equal as a people 
and where they inflicted pain they were equally 
ready to endure it. As Mohawks, Oneidas, Onon- 
dagas, Cayugas, Senecas and afterwards the Tus- 
caroras, they stretched in what was practically a 
loose federation of nations across the wide lake 
region and into what was destined to become the 
State of New York and the Provinces of Ontario 
and Quebec. In their day of greatest power the 
Iroquois warr.ors never numbered more than four 
thousand men, though they became a thought of 



Capes Eternity and Trinity, Saguenay 



ttrSt*°T '" '^' '"^' ''°'° '^' '<"""« waters of 
tho !?,.„ u ,'"^."^" to the Atlantic shores To 
~g oftaTa? *''^ '^^'''"^ -'^ -- -'S 

«etW what tn jTat trrpecTed "It"!^ 
and f!r^ ^T °" ""''"''"'' "'^^ who could fiKht 




fnendly, that peace came to the habitant. 

.^fj/f^j-'r, --rrs IS- 

of the world; shared in privations and danger 

e^1oreT^h:Stratti?Th *° •^'^-^ » 
of the Mi^issippi, the't.^;':;iTf'rfatl 


New tantr^t? '°°'"''°* '"^^ ^ t^"' - ""' 
undTr [h 7" '^ ^"^^ ^'^" P'^-'^d almost entirely 
under the control of this Order of Jesus. Its m^ 


sionaries, in fact, gathered at Quebec from all over 
the continent to welcome a large number of addi- 
tional -lests whom the victory of Admiral Kirke 
m 1629 prevented from reaching their destination 
feo far as Canada was concerned these missionary 
pnests were the pioneers of religion, the pathfinders 
of territorial power. Over all the vast countries 
from the confines of Hudson's Bay to the heart 
of the Mississippi Valley they carried with alternate 
failure and success the banner of the Cross. To 
them no self-sacrifice was too great, no suffering 
too pamful, no hardship too severe, if but one savage 
child were baptized into the faith, or the passions 
of a solitary Indian modified by the influence of 
persuasion and the power of Christian hope. Many 
a gloomy forest of the middle of the seventeenth 
century echoed with the prayers of wandering 
pnests and often blazed with the martyr-fires of 
their execution by the merciless Iroquois or vacillat- 
mg Huron. Often, too, those lonely aisles of 
nature's primeval church witnessed scenes of tor- 
ture such as the pen must fail to adequately describe 
and even imagination to fully understand. Daniel 
Br^beuf, Lallemant, Gamier, Garreux, Buteaux! 
Chabanel, thus wrote their names across the pages 
of eariy Canadian history in letters illumined by 
the light of a great sacrifice. 

In the two French Canadian cities of the future 
stately buildings of sto.e grew up emblematic of 
the ambitious policy of this and other religious 
Orders; while early in the history of New France 



Ma«u;r,^. R I'Incarnation, Mile. Mance and 

were interchangeable terms in the early historv of 
Quebec, a„d though changes afterwards came and 
the rulmg fcroe and material wealth of thrOrder 
tt ZdTt:"'""^ ' ''' ■'°P-- remained upon 

ti„nV»V'''„'^'V"'''' ''"''"'f' *° ^''i''h this considera- 
tion naturally bnngs us in thought and pen it has 

influence m the making of French Canadian chfr 

in the .nf„nt ^"8"«°°*^ ^°"«ht place and power 
m the mfant colony to the latest days of Bantist>ons from Ontario, Protestantism\rs, S a 


few exceptions, found no permanent footing in the 
life of the French people. Around them it has 
ebbed and flowed. Montreal has been and always 
will be a center of the opposing faith to which, in 
its varied forms, the English-speaking commercial 
and financial interests of the Province adhere; 
the Eastern Townships, once settled by English 
peopl.' and loyalists from the United States, are 
rapidly falling into line with the rest of the Catholic 
and French population of rural Quebec; the Church 
has been and remains first in the home and the 
school, first in the lives and customs of the habitant. 
Politics may at times appear to create a diver- 
gence of feeling and one Party may not always be 
as tender in its treatment of the Church or as 
-espectful to tradition and obedient to ecclesiastical 
opinio^ as the other. But ',hcse are more or less 
surface indications of external influences which have 
been and must be powerful; below thci. ' a deep- 
seated, though not always clearly expressed, devo- 
tion to the faith which has been so woven into the 
hearts and history and lives of the people. From 
the Church have come the instruction and ideals 
which reach back to the earlier days of settlement; 
from it came the educational institutions such as 
Laval and the classical colleges, which have steadily 
maintained the highest standards of learning and 
culture; from it have risen the leaders of religious 
thought and ecclesiastical statecraft and political 
action from the days of Laval to those of Taschereau, 
from the times of Papineau to those of Cartier or 



Launer. Amonggt the people a church building 

village, the pansh cur6 became and remains to this 
day m rural villages the most important local per- 
sonage; each local school was kept under religious 
control and guided upon the basic principle that 
relipon was is and must be the vital element in 
the life of the child, with secular matters following 
in a necessanly secondary place. 

What was the influence upon French Canadian 

D^frin.^ \ J l^' "''^^''^ '° North America? 
e^ded bv ?m/'"" °' intermittent conflict, 
ended by the battle on the Heights of Quebec 
the flag of England and the flag'of FranceTad 

of the binr "*r'*' ''''"'"'^•" ^' ^"^ « P-^rt 
Of the birth-pains of a continent in national char- 

actenst.cs conditions and constitutions; and it 
was, therefore all important in the making of history 
as a great whole. But it would be easy to oveZ 
estmiate the effect upon French Canadfan evolu- 
tion in particular. The victory of Wolfe may have 

f«™'th '/"*^ f'"''' ^'^''' •* did remove 
from the New England colonies the menace of an 
ambitmus neighbor and the possibility of a great 
French empire in America. It did not greatly 

P^ .?i; fi'' *'"' P"'"'"" °f **>« French settler 
except that he was no longer a unit in the aggressive 
and patriotic designs of a Champlain or a Fr^tenac 
a Richelieu or a Colbert. ' 

It is questionable, indeed, if a great victory won 


by Montcalm instead of by Wolfe, and the estab- 
lishment of a new or stronger French state — backed 
by France with zeal and with a wiser local, state- 
craft than that of Bigot — could have preserved the 
permanent independence of New France. The 

» world trend of English-speaking population and 

the aversion of the French at home to emigration 
;i would have still remained as the great factors in 

;! Continental evolution and would, finally, have 

I given the dominance in North America to the 

nation or race which has there produced in a cen- 
tury nearly 100,000,000 of people as compared 
with 3,000,000 of the French race. If, when United 
States independence came, the republic had found 
i itself checked in its expansion by a French state 

'; of attenuated population to the north, or in the 

heart of the continent, supported only by a France 
enfeebled through the world-wide ambitions of 
Napoleon and hampered in expansion by the home- 
loving instincts of its people, the result could hardly 
have been doubtful and would Lave meant, finally, 
the swamping of French nationality in America. 

As it was, the French Canadian conflicts of a 
century had been as often with the English colonists 
on the Atlantic as with England herself; the wars 
between the white races were frequently over- 
shadowed by the horrors of Indian struggle; the 
France of the soldiers' loyalty and the hdlntants' 
faith was, as they afterwards realized, a very neglect- 
ful France; the Peace of 1763 threw a British mantle 
of power over the whole continent and brought 



rest to the much harassed settler in French Canada 
When that rest was disturbed by the American 
Revolution the French Canadian found himself 
in a situation where Iv> possessed the same rights 
of language, laws and religion as he had during 
the French rfgime, with an added element of greater 
liberty and a period in which he had enjoyed assured 

The Quebec Act of 1774 was, of course, a potent 
influence in this process of mental growth or newly 
evo ved point of view. This act of the British 
Parliament had fixed the boundaries of the Province 
made provision for its civil government, vested 
authority in a governor with a council of seventeen 
members, established the English criminal law 
while in civil rights and property preserving the 
old French laws, recognized the Roman Catholic 
religion with its preceding rights and immunities, 
preserved all the religious Orders in their rights 
and pnvileges with the exception of the Jesuits. 
Such a measure, followed by that of 1791, which 
separated Lower or French Canada from Upper or 
English Canada and gave each a constitution with 
a governor and executive council, a legislative 
council and assembly, was enough to impress any 
people with belief in the fairness of the British 
authorities. There were troubles and complica- 
tions, of course, but this policy, helped by the open 
antagonism of New England to the Quebec Act 
with Its maintenance of Catholicism in Quebec 
proved an efficient counter-balance to natural 



memories of the long warfare between French and 
English. Added to this was a growing feeling that 
peace was preferable to war and that when peace 
brought with it the rights and liberties for which 
war had been so often invoked, it was wise to con- 
serve the conditions under which this result had 
developed. Hence it was that aversion to war 
grew and deepened in the nature of the habitant. 

This fact or process of thought explains, in some 
degree at least, his refusal to accept the influence 
of Lafayette, the wiles of D'Estaing, or the appeals 
of Washington, and to plunge into the American 
revolutionary war. Twenty years later the habitant 
was growing in his love for what was now his native 
soil, and in 1812, therefore, a part of the popula- 
tion was more than passive; it was active. But 
this activity was not because of any innate military 
spirit in the people; had it been so the fiery elo- 
quence of Papineau in 1836-37 would have fired 
the heather indeed. This second American war 
simply increased the French Canadian love for his 
native country; the several invasions by United 
States troops brought the war into the homes and 
hamlets of the people; the struggle gave the French 
peasantry an enemy to discuss and denounce and 
deal with, other than their British traditional foe; 
and no matter how generous England might have 
been since 1763, this was in itself a most important 
matter. The Church took active steps and, just 
as in 1775 Bishop Briand of Quebec had issued a 
Mandemcnt denouncing the "pernicious designs" 



of the Americans, so in 1812 Bishop Plessis urged 
his people to "fear God and honor the King," to 
encourage loyalty and to stand by their allegiance. 
The awakening of the people to a fuller and more 
just appreciation of the benefits which had accrued 
to them from British rule was the chief indirect 
mfluen c of this war. It also checked a growth 
of republicanism which would have been natural 
in view of events in France and which afterwards 
found some active expression in the troubles of 
1837; it prevented the influences of United States 
contiguity and of that geography which a distin- 
guished writer in after days claimed as ordained 
by God to bring together the peoples of this conti- 
nent, from having any effective result; it for a time 
brought togt ;ier Canadians of French and Knglish 
extraction in defence of their hearths and homes 
and laid a foundation, invisible yet powerful for 
a realization of that splendid vision of Nicholson 
Sewell, Pownall, William Smith and others— a 
permanent federal union of British America for the 
purposes of common interest, defence, trade and 

The next great factor in French Canadian evolu- 
tion was the problem of self-government. The 
whole confused medley of recrimination, protest, 
violent language, charge and counter-charge, dead- 
lock between legislatures and governors, rebellious 
action and fiery controversy, which made up the 
history of 1800-1840, was the effervescence of an 
excitable people struggling for constitutional powers 


which they did not dearly understand; which no 
other dependent people in the world had as yet 
enjoyed and which were quite outside the ken of 
the most experienced statecraft; which the people 
of the United Kingdom themselves did not yet 
fully possess. Out of evil, however, came good; 
out of the conflict between those in power and those 
who wanted power, plus larger liberties, grew 
knowledge as to how to use liberty when it did come. 
During the first part of the eighteenth century 
the French population, in the main, was a rural and 
agricultural one, essentially poor, obviously irre- 
sponsible in a political sense, absolutely dependent 
for protection upon British troops, money and con- 
nection. The commerce of the Province was in 
the hands of the English settlers, the money of the 
Province was, in the main, possessed by English 
financial interests, the most important city of the 
Province, Montreal, was rich and dominant by 
virtue of English capital and enterprise. A part 
of the public revenues still came from England, 
the greater portion of the remainder came from 
taxation of the English minority. The English 
were accustomed to governing and they naturally 
did so under the changing conditions of the local 
constitutional system; the French were inexperi- 
enced and, when placed by agitation and then by 
election in control of a tentative legislative system, 
they naturally concluded that their main mission 
in public life was to overcome the dominance of the 
English. Hence a contest of forty years' duration. 



It waa not usually a dlaloyal controveray or one 
of estrangement from England aa a aovercign power; 
It wa» a local and racial rivalry which waa bound 
to find expresaion and which, in its final solution, 
reflected honor upon both sides— upon the domi- 
nating English classes for giving way without 
exercising the real military nnd financial powerH 
which they possessed, and upon the great Catholic 
majority of French Canadians for having so well 
learned the difficult les8,.n of self-government and 
for afterwards using, so moderately and so wisely, 
the powers of executive and legislative authority 
which they obtained. The period of constitutional 
stress and struggle which followed 1800 included 
the rise and fall of Papineau with his fiery cross 
of rebellion and gospe' of a liberty which reuched 
the extreme of license; the rebellion itself, with 
its fitful folly and final collapse and its earnest, 
honest adherents who, in death, arc heroes still 
and are enshrined in memorial and recjrd as martyrs 
to the cause of human liberty; the union with Upper 
Canada in 1841 and twenty-five years of succeeding 
evolution which brought inevitable racial complica- 
tions in its train. 

It was a period which finally formed the French 
Canadian character and formulated the place of 
its people upon this continent. There was just 
enough of bloodshed and passion to produce a local 
patriotism without destroying wider national growth 
or checking individual progress; there was just 
enough of struggle and ill-feeling between races 


Mf' rcligioM to strengthen and deepen the French 
love for their posseiwions and ideulii without cre- 
ating a luting bitterneiw in the race or against 
it; there wai- just enough of keen political con- 
flict to impresg upon the French Canadian mind 
the value and responsibility of self-government 
and the greatness of the boon so readily given 
by Great Britain when her people once beame 
convinced that the trouble was not imperial but 
racial and local. To obtain similar gifts of freedom 
within and immunity from danger without— as 
French leaders of education and experience came 
to realiie— other nations or states have had to go 
through centuries of war and struggle and turmoil 
and evolution. During this period was developed 
also a vague, almost intangible, yet very reol, 
aspiration for a Quebec which should be all French 
in its local characteristics and racial dominance; 
today it seems not unlikely that, outside of Montreal, 
this ambition will be ultimately realized. 

One other influence of an intangible yet very real 
character was that of the Seigneurs and Seigneurial 
system. By the middle of the nineteenth century 
the question ond the situation had become a mere 
football of the politicians and the abolition of the 
system, when it was once brought into open antago- 
nism to democracy, was inevitable. It did not alto- 
gether deserve that fate; its influence and the 
individual lives of the Seigneurs had very often 
been of real service to a people who required an 
element of culture and hereditary wealth o round 



out the result of their pioneer labors. The feudal 
customs may at times have been ubused, the habi- 
tan<» may have had occasional cause for serious 
complaint, but on the other hand, the lives and 
homes of the rural population absolutely required 
he strong hand of a local leader and educated m^n 
for the purposes of defence and organization, and 
m early days the hand of the over-lord was some- 

SeS' '* "" '" '"^" "^" *"« --y 
Without the Seigneurs the light-hearted, irre- 
sponsible peasantry would have fared ill at many 
stages « their early history; the literary light 
of French Canada would have been hampered or 
checked instead of scintillating with a brightness 
which has passed upon the pages of history; much 
of the charm of old-world manners and the culture 
of an olden time would have been absent from the 

hL° /^l! ' ^^^ P"'"'"' °^ ^^^ P"'^''^ would 
have lost the presence and public services of many 
interesting figures and the life of the Province been 
devoid of such famiUes as those of Taschereau and 
De Lotbimire, Baby and Casgrain, Boucher Le 
Moyiie, De Salaberry and many more. In IsM 
the institution disappeared in the United Parlia- 
ment of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canadt 

H?. n?t. p Tl P'''*"™^'!"* elements in the 
hfe^oMhe French Canadians more or less went 

Such, in brief summary, were the major influences 
m the making of French Canada. Minor ones 


there were in plenty, such as the Hudson's Bay 
Company with its picturesque element of hunters 
and trappers; the court life of olden Quebec with 
its sometimes gorgeous and sometimes somber and 
sometimes trivial conditions, its rivalries of Church 
and State, its high ambitions and low intrigues, its 
imitation of the graces and vices of distant Paris; 
the influence of poetry and song upon the character 
of a people dwelling at first in a rugged wilderness 
and afterwards in an isolated statt; the preserva- 
tion of old-time s ems of farming and living in the 
midst of newer aud more enterprising populations. 
All these and many other thi .gs had a place in the 
evolution of French Canadian character, but it was 
a lesser place and one which was not fundamental in 
Its nature. 

The French Canadians as Nation Builders 

The French race in Canada, as a separate people, 
represents much that is interesting, much that is 
unique in origin and evolution, much that is oic- 
turesque in character and environment. Beginning 
early in the seventeenth century with tiny pioneer 
settlements on the St. Lawrence — which at the 
time of Wolfe's victory in 1759 had grown to a 
population of only 69,000 — the French people had 
maintained for mere than a hundred years an 
unequal, eventful struggle with the slow, steady, 
ever-advancing force of English settlers on the 
Atlantic, with the power of Britain on the sea, and 
with the ever-present menace and almost unceasing 
hostility of the Iroquois. They had to endure or 
overcome the inertia or feebleness of French admin- 
istrations in distant Paris; the fitful and passing 
regard of Kings who knew little of and cared less 
for the vast region their loyal subjects sought to 
preserve or conquer for the Crown; the corrup- 
tion and indifference of local administrators. 

Yet these few and afterward scattered people, 

from their historic, original vantage point on the 

ramparts of Quebec, stamped a record of great 

achievement across the map of America. They 



' i 

Montmorenci Falls, Quebec 



swept down the center of the continent and left 
memorials of their possession scattered throughout 
the Ohio and Missouri and Mississippi valleys of 
the United States and in the still spoken mother 
tongue of Louisiana. They stormed the northern 
fortresses of cold and wilderness and savage life 
and made the story of exploits on lake and river 
m primeval forest and lonely wastes, their own' 
In later days they have faced the dominating 
characteristics of English-speaking Canada and 
the pressure to the south of great masses of a still 
more alien people; while at the same time they have 
preserved their language, held to their faith and 
conserved their own national identity. 

To understand fully, or to indicate even faintlv 
the causes which have embedded in this continent 
of teeming millions, amid our great commercialized 
wealth-loving masses of English-speaking people 
a bit of mediaeval Europe and preserved it through 
centuries of strife and turmoil and change, some- 
thing more than the ordinary records of history 
must be reviewed. What is meant will not be 
found m the pages of political annals, in the story 
of the nse and fall of public men, in the interminable 
difficulties and natural divergencies of party life 
m a land of restricted or of enlarged liberties To 
comprehend the position of French Canada to 
grasp the real picturesqueness and romance of its 
position, to realize the nature of its people, the 
by-paths of history should be studied and they will 
not be found-except occasionaUy-in the passing 



vww Of toumts, m the feelings of English Canadians 

iith'"°°°'^* ^'"' ^"'"<''' '"»''' conditiornot 
a together congenial, or in the pages of controversial 

able and obvious racial complications. 

to ».♦,""' i' "'"""y ^"'"^'^''^ "« t° the past- 

°f^l of"^a:J°^^''"*^^^.'''■ *'"' P^-h^pnest 
w tuu of It, and frank regarding it, but his view- 

Which he regards as the father and mother »ml 
brother and sister of his people; the F"encTcanadkn 

Xcreir"'"*'^ ^"'•"' "^ Frenchmen fro^i^laS 
who clearly can know little of the workings of the 

peasant mind or of undercurrents of thought in » 
people who are French and yet separated from France 
by centuries of time, thousands of miles and ever- 
^o^ng divergencies of life. There has been some- 
thing exceptional and unusual in the French Can! 
^an's condition and process of development-taflu: 
ences there were which have been already brieflv 
«umman.ed. Religion, it is true, moulded hfm 

n a marked manner. But neither reM^on nor 
language nor both combined, have held thrSpanrh 
communities of South America in close touch" h 
the pa«t nor preserved amongst them the institu- 
tions laws and loyalty of another century. The 
Scotchman, who is described as "twistin.r m! 
creeds with an iron twist" and who of iSlis^ 

rr2a°.V'r " *'* "°^* ^°'»--* -^ assert ve 
m racial type, has settled amongst French Canadia^ 



and in many cases lost in a few generation, his 
anguage and his religion and his race-even at 
times findmg his name corrupted. 

Yet the French Canadian goes down into New 
England up into the Canadian West, across the 
western border into Dakota or Minnesota, over 
the provincial line into Kastem or Northern Ontario 
and settles m little communities where he preserves 
the customs and traditions and language and 
religious law of his race to an amazing extent A 
million of these sturdy people are to be found in 
the United States today and nearly half a million 
in the provinces other than Quebec. Nor does the 
second or third generation under these circum- 
stances become, as might be expected, merged and 
lost m the Anglo-Saxon atmosphere of their environ- 
ment. They may become good Canadians in a 
broad sense or good Americans in a national sense, 
but they still remain French for causes which no 
superficial judgment will ever comprehend and in 
a nationality which, in certain obvious respects 
IS distinct from that of France. ' 

In this latter fact rests the germ of much inter- 
esting speculation. Had the French Canadians 
remained m close touch with France the Church 
inight have lost its influence as in the mother-land- 
the people might have become republicanized as' 
was the case there, and then gradually moulded 
along the lines of American institutions; the social 
life and thought of the masses and the classes would 
have been controlled by the looser forms and varied 



eveP-pre.cnt factor in L expanln ^7 ■'^"' "" 
But other conditions prevaHed Ibln'."'"'""'*- 
by France caused reaction «„Hh '^''*'"l°°'°«'>t 
Eneland- Pn»H k "'"'*""? «"«> dependence upon 

Quebec. Thedeparture'^ofaoranyofthTrffi "' 

t.t:t:j^ -z^-- ^"/ttter 

fitted to meet tt^TflL J'TTi' ''«^'"oP'°e"t 
8el^government b;itlan^"°heCh"" ^^""^ """ 
and became estab,' hedfti C^^^TZ'''''""'' 
m a sense whici, it failed tn m. * • -^ '^P'*' 

bounding acUvlties of' ' /"'' "'""" """'dst the 

to the Anglo-Saxon Th"""' '? •'"'°' «'^«° °^" 

preserved uniteTLth in ''""""° ""^ ^"* P''"'" 
vu unuea faith m one great Church and 



vrithout the dividing influence, which inevitably 
come from the religious freedom of Prote8tanti»m 
Th„ Church was itself apart from the inherited of centuries in Continental Europe; it 
.tood for race as well as for faith and remained a 
Uvmg factor m the iae of the people. The language 
was preserved by British law, cultivated by racial 

ZtjT^^'^u'^ '*'*°"' "»'' ecclesiastical 
mfluence, helped by partisan complications in the 
rest of Canada. constitutional institutions, 

Fr?n°A"°r ' "i ''' ,■? """""'""K the essentials of 
French Canadian life by bringing the non-essentialn 
nto harmony with people elsewhere in Canada and 

and legislation, perhaps of civil war, which might 
have eventually submerged the Province and its 
racial type. 

To the trinity of elements-religion, laws and 
anguage-which are generally and vaguely supposed 
to have preserved the French type in Canada, must, 
therefore, be added another. It was the influence 
of free institution, in Quebec, and in the rest of 
Canada, which by a gradual process of negation 
at times and construction at other times enabled 
this trimty of elements to adjust itself to an 
opposing and dangerous environment and to, at 
the same time, modify that environment at points 
where conflict would have been perilous in the 
last degree. The eariy stage of self-government 
prevented a discontent which in 1812 would have 
thrown the French people into the arms of the 



American republic and eventually ttrlpped them 
of their special privilege.; the knowledge that 
Britain had gone far in the direction of freedom, 
and would go further, prevented the rebellion of 
1837 from being more than a pacing tmeule which 
did not develop permanent hostility between French 
and Ensiligh Canadian* as a serious civil war would 
have done; the union of 18 I with Upper Canada, 
while still conserving their language and laws and 
faith, brought a wider development of self-govern- 
ment, though one which had special complications 
of Its own; the Confederation of 1867 set a seal 
upon real deadlock or difficulty between the races 
established still more cleariy and effectively the 
rights of the French Canadian, broadened his 
sphere of possible expansion, and promoted tolera- 
tion m the English people while it helped a judicious 
moderation in the French. 

Self-government within certain limits was, there- 
fore, the keynote of a condition which might never 
otherwise have endured, and liberty was a British 
birthright acquired for French Canada by Wolfe 
upon the Heights of Abraham, preserved for it by 
Wellington upon the field of Waterioo, conserved 
for It by Brock and De Salaberry on Canadian battle- 
grounds. Without it French Canada might have 
worshipped and fallen at the shrine of French 
military glory, imitated the weaknesses of French 
social life, shared in the collapse of French religious 
vitality. Without it, and British power combined 
as another alternative, French Canada might have 



fall-:! ]V>\weT 

I lie jr ation c i, 

•■*iw_' 1.. hinJ :./ 1 

'111 "J. .--lijU of 

fallen under the dominance of the United Stat™ 
by preuuro of republican develn xnts, or at a 
later stage by the force of econ .i uusiderntion*. 

This view does not minimi ■■ 
of the Church in its possible f' -.I , 
tions named, but it deals >'i;ii 
force which, as already t'atra 
with the Church in pre tving; 
racial solidarity— lang-ng. , laws ni .pjigion— by 
the smoothing down of ospenj^j, ,,.; ^ht prevent- 
ing of a serious issue with the etronror r:.;.,il tvpe 
of the continent. Not that tcif ; ■ -mmti.t, in 
itself was intended to produce this result or was 
expected to do so. In the earlier days it was indeed 
looked upon with suspicion as possibly leading to 
the very opposite conclusion— a flooding of the 
dykes and ramparts of the Chuiuu by the forces 
of a democracy which had so far shown itself chiefly 
in the French Revolution or in English religioui 
independence and, in another century, was to evolve 
the loose social system of the United States and the 
political socialism of Europe. 

As a national or racial unit French Canada has 
taken its part in the making and keeping of the 
Canadian Dominion. It was, to summarize briefly, 
a loyal element in the American wars of 1776 and 
1812, a restless, dissatisfied, uncertain, but in the 
end, and in the main, a passive force during the 
so-called Rebellion of 1837. It was a people reach- 
ing out for the light of constitutional government 
and groping in the darkness of experiment, ignor- 



ance and prejudice for the knowledge of how to 
use hberties which were not very cfearj deLd 
or understood during the years from 1837'tof86o1 
It was a force for national unity in the davs of 
constructive statecraft which follo'wed the crea ion 
of Confederation m 1867; it has, in later years 

a~f1nt: '"'^T"' '^^*"'»'-^'' Canadii:^™' 
In ° °*'T P"^' '" ""'^ '°^« f°^ t'''^ Canadian 
tZ7IT :^^" ,*•>'»* ^°i' includes in the mind o" 
the habitant httle more than the boundaries o 
h:s Province With it all has been preserved an] 
mtens,fied the thought of Champlain on the Rock 

w tJThri '}' "'": °' ^-"t-- - his strugS 
with the Indians, the work of Montcalm in his 

of fhl mod' *'' "°T^ '"' ''"« King, the spir 
French 1 "T^^ ^°' preservation of the 

French language, the sentiment of the priest and 
pohtican of the habitant, of the merchant, of the 
poet or the writer of today-France is here! 

But It IS a France isolated from the flag of the 

Republic and apart from weaknesses of the looser 

social system of the mother-land. It is a France 

of the past, of tradition and history; a France 

replete with romance and religion an^ patriotbm 

This sentimental feeling is accompanied by onHf 

passive loyalty to Great Britain, of a friendHness 

which IS satisfied and even gratified at the Sg 

relationship with the British Empire. At any 

great crisis the French race in Canada would loyaUy 

upport the flag under which they have been reared 

but It would be done from a sense of duty, of oW g^ 



tion, of individual and racial advantage, rather 
than from any such sentimental feeling as the 
French Canadians have for their own mother-land 
of the past. Even this measure of imperial loyalty 
however, is marvelous and it is due to two special' 
elements in the history of French Canada— the 
liberality with which Great Britain guaranteed and 
preserved to its people their peculiar institutions, 
and the generosity with which she conceded to them 
the benefits of gradual self-government. 



The period when France commenced to take a 
fitful yet vital interest in American exploration 
was one of intense maritime activity, of commercial 
enterpnse which included also the taking of great 
and unknown nsks, of dreams on the part of states- 
men and active curiosity amongst intelligent and 
educated classes, of a stirring up in all the ele- 
ments of adventure amongst the masses of the 
people Spain through the genius and courage 
of Coumbus England by means of the Cabofa, 
Italy through Amerigo Vespucci, Portugal through 
Corti-Real France through Verrazanno, and then 
Cart, and Champlain, plunged into the search 
^r new worlds or a new route to ancient lands. 
Dunng this period of conflict and rivalry on sea 
and land, of golden galleons in southern seas and 
the deeds of Drake and Hawkins and Frobisher 
and many another in more northern waters, the 
pages of history reveal a prolonged struggle by 
merchants to carry commerce into great new 
countries which were slowly being opened up; they 
teem with the courageous, yet cruel deeds of buc- 
caneers and pirates and gold seekers; they deal 
with events which made the Spanish Main, the 


West Indian shores and seas, the South American 
coasts, replete with elements of romance. 

While English saUors were disputing the wealth 
and supremacy of the New World with the mighty 
whips of Spain and, at the same time, skirting the 
snores of the continent in a thousand places, plant- 
ing the Enghsh flag at many points and carrying 
It mto the farthest north and south, France waa 
entenng the portals of the St. Lawrence and making 
good her hold upon an immense region of the 
mtenor. Jacques Car+ier, between 1534 and 1642 
discovered and studied the shores of the St' 
Lawrence and named many places with the names 

f A' }^°'[f f """=^- ^'*'* «'''*'<" °° ti-e shores 
« k! ^u^?^ f • I"'^«'«=«. the port of Blanc 
Sablon, the Isle de Bouays, the Isles de Margaulx 
Bnon Island and Bale des Chaleurs, are some of 
the designations which have lived. It was on his 
second voyage (1535) that Cartier called the waters 
around the present Ste. Genevieve Island the Baye 
baint Laurens— the name which gradually grew 
into that of the whole vast body of water which he 
proceeded to partially explore. 

The Island of Anticosti Cartier called L'Assomp- 
tion in honor of the festival of that day, and indeed 
all through the explorations of the early French 
navigators the names of saints and other remi- 
mscences of devotion to the Church of their fathers 
are continually in evidence. The Indians, accord- 
ing to Dr. S. E. Dawson-a careful authority- 
appear to have previously called the river 



Hochelaga, and the site of Quebec, Canada To 
them .t n.u8t be remembered, these vLt wate« 
meant much. In their birch-bark canoes thev 
paddled everywhere with ease, and cameTnd went 
with almost mvisible swiftness, throuKh vasTrprf could not otherwise have S uTlZZ 
months of time; on these various rivers they^h^ 
for food and attacked, or evaded, their foes Tb 
the explorers the St. Lawrence and iU \re^t 
benches provided a scenery and sur ^.nd^ 

ment. The waters teemed with myriad fish 3 

G:^:Mr """ r "^""- werHeentS 
Gulf and lower reaches of the St. Lawrence The 
forests on the shore were green and rich wUh pTL 
and maple and ash; in the autumn they hum iZ 
bnlhant rainbow hues of beauty. Here anfth^™ 
meadows were discovered in blossom and flowt- 
shadowed perhaps by rugged hill or mountdn sThp 
Everywhere were salmon or other fishTn thp.i ?' 
lows; wild pigeons and gulls wingin^Sough /he tt 
pengums or great auks, wild ducks, |ui emots 
puffins, margaulx, and many other b rds on t^j 
countless islands and along the shores In Zn^r 
of course, this was all reversed hnf J^t .J 

Vendor which still remained ujque ^'"^ " "^'^ 
Through these islands and along the 8hor», 
through reefs and shoals and in places whpr«*t' 
most experienced modem nilot 1 ■ ^^^ 

with ths oM t i """"'"i P"Ot goes cautiously 

tT sa 1 bv i"V f ' "°.^ '"^^y«' Cartier seemed 
to sail by instmct-without accident or serious 


difficulty. At Saguenay the precipitous mountains 
Carti^^ '"''' O"' "f a deep dark river and struck 
fnf f- u °"'''^ ''°8"'*' '>*'=''"=« of the great 
without the need of earth. Here he seems, as 
was the case later on at Hochelaga, to have 
accepted local Indian names. To Isle^a«-CouXs 
irer-^ the name which still lives; a spacious 
green isle, rich m wild vines and fruitful soil, and 
now known as the Isle d'Orl^ans, he termed the 
Isle de Bacchus. At this point the footprints of 
the pioneer became an actual fact and to him came 
countless savages in their noiseless canoes seeking 
assurances of friendship or enmity, wondering af 
the marvelous ship with wings which flew over the 
surface of the water, ready to give an admiration 
and respect which might easily have been retained 
and which might have made easy the coming 
century of alien settlement. ^ 

From the point on the north shore where, at 
the mouth of the St. Charles River, Cartier reked 
for a few days (September, 1535) he could see all 
the wonderful panorama of nature provided by 
the promontory of Cape Diamond, by the sweep 
and curve of the great river at its base, by the blue 
hills of the Laurentides in the distance, untouched 
by the creations of civilization, unmarred by the 
growth of cities and towns. At the point of junc- 
lon of the St. Charles and a small stream called 
the Lairet Cartier erected a fort upon the remains 
of which, today, stands a monument to the explorer. 



totr^ifHo!! ^"^" "'^ '""''°'°'«' »* *"« Indian 
town of Hochelaga-now the site of Dorchester 
Street and the St. James Cathedral of MontreiS 
From here he ascended the elevation which he 

Sl^tTd''""'^' •""" '°°''"' ""* "Pon a scene 
Which eft a deep impression upon his mind and 

which included the Ottawa River in the dlta^ce 
mairLT 7*? *'>!,^'"'« of Two Mountile 

he Lake St t' ^'i '"''"""'' broadening 'into 
the Lake St. Louis of modern times, the roarine 

Sfiv" tet*"^ '"''' "l^ "^ water'rushes do^n' 
raniTs 7«/ ''''? """'"' *'^« '«'° Laurentian 

to tr« ..'""'^' r"^ ''"*'"''^«'* '-'"« ""d plains 
to the south covered with forests which flamed into 
color under the early frosts. 

fo/ a Ihtn ^"*'" '""''^''^ ^'« ^y"' <=o«"mission 
for a third voyage to the new lands, and was de- 
scribed in this document as "the discoverer o^ tht 
countnes of Canada and Hochelaga," sJd to Je 
a portion of Asia on its western Me." A sudden 

tuaTcrr"'-,''^ '^°"*' ''"^«-'' -'•"-- 

tua^ly Cartier sailed under commission from La 
Boque, Sieur de Roberval, acting as the FunJ* 
Lieutenant-General. It was in August, 1541 that 
he again reached Stadacona, the Inian ^ 
nestling at the foot of Cape Diamond, and H wL 
at Cap Rouge,, afterwards the scene of a great 
imber industry and now covered with the summer 
residences of Quebec City, that he fortified Ws 
camp for a winter of suffering, disease and death. 
It was here that he found traces of iron and gold 

and "stones like diamonds," and it was from th. 

B^^r/ t "^ '^""''^ ^«'« Viscount de 

Sff ' "" r^""' "° '''•"^*> <=■'»« the name 
of the famous shrme of the future. In September 
Hochelaga was again visited, but, i„ the man the 
ootpnnts of Cartier during the ensuing S 11 
records of endurance, Indian hostility, mSunes 

oi 1542 flith a large expedition and met Cartier 
retunnng home. The arrogant and inexperien ed 
nobleman went on his way up the river^nd erected 
forts and buildings on a considerable scale ut^n 
the site which Cartier had abandoned No remits 
exist to^ay, little is known of the ens^g ~r 
and le» of an alleged expedition into "the frSe 

to France and there is no proof that he ever made 
that somber tnp up the Saguenay where he wa^ 

^.ch has been woven so much of romance and 

Chill blew the wind in Lu face 
As, still on his treasure chase. 
He entered that gloomy place 
Whose mountains in stony pride 
StUl soulless, merciless, sheer. 
Their adamant sides uprear; ' 
Naked and brown and drear. 
High o'er the murky tide. 

Of "^litsr It? s 7rr- '- .^"^ '•^^^-^ 

ue was but a simple seaman, 

, ii 




without rank, or brilliance, or outstanding quali- 
ties. Instinct and natural skill seemed to guide 
him in his seamanship; a certain primitive faith 
marked bis actions and proved his inspiration. 
Bretagne, in his day, was far removed from the 
intellectual stir of the period and even from the 
national life of France. Despite all this he has 
left a wiser, better reputation than Columbus; 
his statecraft in dealing with the Indians was 
marked by only one fault, while that of Columbus 
in dealing with the Caribs inaugurated a disastrous 
system of forced labor which ran up a heavy score 
for future generations to settle. Cartier founded 
no great city and administered no great country, 
yet the landmarks of his presence loom large in 
French Canada. 

Following him came an era of fitful action and 
hastily passing personalities. The region described 
by Cartier in letters and careful maps which, how- 
ever, have perished somewhere in the centuries, 
soon came to be called New France. Trade seems 
to have been carried on between the old and new 
land."", but no settlements were made. In the Gulf 
and adjoining waters and up as far as Tadoussac, 
enterprising fishermen were numerous— notably the 
Spanish Basques with Bretons and Normans from 
France. Into this situation came also the English 
under Frobisher, Drake and Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
and, in 1598, occurred the melancholy colonizing 
effort of the Marquis de la Roche, under mandate 
of Henri IV, which ended in the bones of most of 

Chicoutii.ji, Saguenay River 


MKiocon r 


(ANSI and ISO TIST CM*«T No. 2) 

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S^ t6» Eotl Main Straat 

^S Roch«(t«r, Nam York 14609 USA 

^ (716) 482 - 0300 - Phofi* 

ag (716) 2B8 - 5909 - Fax 


his companions strewing the bleak shores of Sable 
Island. Amongst other adventurous spirits of this 
time was Fran9is Grav^, Sieur du Pont; who took 
an interest in the fur trade which centered at 
Tadousac, and, with Pierre Chauvin pnd others, 
made futile efforts in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century to found a settlement there. In 
1603, however, an expedition was sent out under 
Samuel de Champlain, of Brouage, the practical 
father of Canada. With him was Pont-Grav«. 
The footprints of Champlain are everj-where in 
Canada. He was at once cautious and brave, a 
statesman and a soldier, a loyalist to both King and 
Church, a typical Frenchman of the age in all the 
finer national characteristics of his people. In him 
centered the earlier romance and around him has 
been woven much of the patriotism of French 
Canada. With a combined experience of sea and 
shore, the inspiration given all his followers in war 
by Henri IV, and with the added possession of high 
personal qualities, he made an ideal pioneer leader. 
One can imagine this determined and fearless 
explorer ascending the silent spaces of the great 
river and exploring in canoes the lesser waters 
running into it; standing on the beethng rock 
where he was to erect his future fort and house and 
lay the foundation of a great French state within 
a British empire of whose still greater scope he 
could not even dream; journeying with a few 
friendly Indians through the wilds of the interior, 
portaging around or perilously crossing swift rapids 




and great waterfalls, traversing vast forests and 
encountering great inland seas; standing upon the 
wooded heights of Mount Royal and gazing up 
and over the sweeping river which led to such 
vast, unknown regions and which held within its 
bosom such potentialities of war, and commerce, 
and shipping, and development. One can even 
picture this representative of the military civiliza- 
tion of Europe as, clad in steel breast-plate and 
plumed casque, with sword at his side and match- 
lock ready to hand, he passed through the mighty 
wildemess-ever listening for the war-whoop of 
the savage and ever on the alert for some new and 
undefined danger. 

On his first voyage Champlain vinted the meet- 
ing place of traders and Indians at Tadoussac, 
with Its environment of granite nills and great 
mamelons of sand, and then passed up the 
Saguenay to a point a little beyond the modern 
Chicoutim,. So far as is known his passage 
through the mighty precipices of rock which we 
call Capes Trinity and Eternity, into the walled 
chasm half filled with water which is styled the 
Saguenay River, was the first visit of a white man to 
this wonderful region. It is not diflicult to imagine 
this intrepid Frenchman in his tiny ship, with a 
superstitious and naturally terror-struck crew 
traversing m ever-growing silence and somber fear 
mile after mile of this stupendous cleft in the 
Laurentian plateau which some earthquake or 
upheaval of prehistoric times had constructed 

A-C M' 


The unknown is often terrible, and in this case 
they would see on eithir side an almost unbroken 
line of lofty, naked cliffs, they could look down and 
around into waters so deep as to become black as 
pitch, with only purple glints in the sunlight, and so 
vast as to be capable of holding all the fleets of the 
world though with hardly a place for anchorage; 
they could almost feel the silence of dark solitudes 
which neither bird nor insect cared to share; they 
could not help but be profoundly impressed with 
what one writer has termed a River of Death and 
another described as making Lethe or the Styx 
look like purling brooks. 

This first experience was a fitting one for such 
a man as Champlain. In the years that followed 
his footprints were stamped all over the center of 
the continent. He saw the beautiful falls below 
Stadacona— from which all Indian settlement had 
then passed— and named them after Admiral de 
Montmorenci; he passed over and named the 
broad waters of Lake St. Peter; he visited Mount 
Royal and stood on the site of the future com- 
mercial metropolis; he explored the lower St. 
Lawrence and visited Gasp4 and Peic^. His second 
voyage was financially aided by the Huguenot, 
Pierre du Guast, Comte de Monts, who was com- 
missioned as Lieutenant-Governor for the King 
and in 1604 accompanied Champlain to Cmada. 
With them were Biencourt de Poutrincourt ajd one 
hundred and twenty colonists, and following in 
another ship was Pont-Grav« with additional sup- 



phes. Along the coast of the Nova Scotia of to- 
day Champlain passed and named many places 
A settlement was established at Ste. Croix Island 
and, finally, made at Port Royal under the author- 
ity of De Monts. Meantime Champlain had been 
traversmg the coasl north and south and at one 
time actually stood on Plymouth Rock, where fif- 
teen years later the Pilgrims were to land as the 
first of that stream of population which was to one 
day check the sweep of French ambition and empire 
To Port Royal in 1600 came further settlers with 
Marc Lecarbot, a bright and clever lawyer, and a 
writer who has left us the most reliable description 
of pioneer French conditions. 

In his further explorations Champlain, frequently 
accompanied by Poutrincourt, searched the shores 
of the Bay of Fundy, visited the Halifax harbor 
of the distant future, studied witi enthusiasm the 
Acadia of his time. At Port Royal he and his 
gallant associates had founded the <irst permanent 
settlement of Europeans, excepting the far distant 
Spanish posts in Southern America. They had 
instructed the local Indians in religion and won 
their hearts; with proper support from home 
following upon Champlain's further work in the 
interior and at Quebec, France might, at this early 
stage in American history, have established its 
position and held its vast possessions against the 
influences of the future. 

After a period of three years' absence Champlain 
returned to St. Malo and prepared another expedi- 



tion. On June 3d he was again at Tadoussac 
and a little later he was busy clearing the ground 
and building a post or "Abitation," where now 
stands the Church of Notre Dame dea Victoires 
in the Lower Town of Quebec. A little later he 
started up the river with a few Frenchmen and a 
number of Indians. His footprints on luis journey 
are numerous. He stood on the site of Three 
Rivers, called the Rividre du Loup of today by the 
name of Ste. Suzanne, styled the St. Francis River 
of the future the Riviere du Pont, named the 
Yamaska as the Riviere de Genncs. He dis- 
covered the Richelieu and called it the Riviere 
des Iroquois; with two Frenchmen and a 
number of Indians he started in birch canoes 
to explore its waters to their source. To the 
modern traveler who passes in a steamer up this 
great stream, who evades rapids by going through 
a canal and who sees smiling farms and villages 
on either side, it is difficult to realize the situa- 
tion as the three Frenchmen were paddled by their 
somewhat doubtful allies over unknown waters 
>vith primeval forests standing on either side in 
dense and continuous masses of dark green foliage; 
with the knowledge also that hostile bands of 
Iroquois might be gathering in the woods to cut off 
the little party on its return. They persisted, 
however, and the intrepid explorer gave his own 
name to the great lake which they finally reached 
and which afterwards proved the scene of several 
battles, which was long a key to French Canada 



'' rl 

on the souvh which English 8oldie™ and American 
colonists 80 often sought to utilize ^""e"**" 

As with Cartier, the site of Montreal had ^reat 
attractions for Champlain, and in 1611 he examTncd 
the ocahty with care and appears to have propS 

the Custom House m the center of the modern city. 

escaped deah m some of its turbulent waters 
He stood on the site of the future Canadian caoitll ^ 
saw something of the Gatineau and its innumerabU 
waterfalls; discovered the beauties of the Falls of 

tri'ed o d'7 "'"'? ." ^""''^'''''"« civilitatfon' ha 
tried to destroy with factories and mills- and 
passed up th, Ottawa as far as AllumrtJe Island 

nation "% n" *'' "T" "' '""^ ^'"''■f Algonquin 
na ion. Following this journey Champlain, in 

afterwards became the Province of Ontario Up 
the Ottawa again he went, up the Mattawa to its 

and k'"'''/" ^"^ ^■P'^^'"^ ^' P-'^^-d by portaie 
and then down the French River to Georgian Bav' 
It was a laborious and diiHcuIt work of exXaUon 
and was ended by a visit to th. Hurons at a po "nt 
near the site of the present town of MidLd ?„ 
Simcoe County. He, of course, discovered Lake 

R^rto^RicetT '^'''^^'''''^ "" thrSnaS 
to Ih. n ^'"^J^^^" ""d followed the River Trent 
to the Bay of Quinte, issuing thence into the waters 

Trent Whh T. *'^ ''t'' '""^ "^^^^^ *°- 
irenton. With the possible exception of Etienno 


Bruld, Champlain was thus the first white man to 
Bcc Lake Ontario. On his return he spent some 
time at the point where Orillia now rests. 

This ended the explorer's wonderful work He 
had studied the coasts of what are now the 
Provmces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 
with thoroughness; he had traversed the Saguenay 
and St Maurice and Ottawa, the Mattawa nnd 
French Rivers; he knew the eastern shores of 
Lake Huron and understood the vastness of that 
body of water as he did of Lake Ontario; he had 
penetrated the northern part of New York State 
and hunted in the country between Kingston and 
Ottawa; he had traversed on foot much of Central 
and Western Ontario and knew fairly well the 
topography of a doisen modern Ontario counties. 
His analysis of soil and natural productions, his 
descripti. n of varied Indian tribes, his maps and 
eartograpuic studies are all able and wonderfully 
exact. As a builder of cities his selection of Quebec 
was an achievement; his hope of Montreal an 
inspiration. As a soldier he won the respect of the 
Indians and whenever he fought them was success- 
lul. As a statesman he seems to have held the 
confidence of Court and Church and Colonists- 
a difl^cult feat in those days; as a man he was the 
central figure of French Canada's origin. Over 
much of the Canada of today his footprints are 
visible to the student, and while he did not excel 
in naming permanently the great waters he dis- 
covered or the places upon which he stood in the 



birth<lny of our hUtory. he did leave an imprea. 
of personality and action which time cannot eradi- 
cate or events disturb. 

Meanwhile, the spirit and efforts of Champlain 
were stirrmg up the adventurous feeling and 
ambitions of h,s country , en in every direction. 
Ihey found special attractions in the work of 
Canadian exploration. There was enough danger 
to attract men of spirit; there were spaces so vast 
and possibilities so varied as to excite the least 
curious mind; there were chances of wealth in furs 
and there were constant stories of gold and silver 
ant. precious stones. The immense size, numbers 
and varieties of the bodies of water in the interior 
of the continent and the myriad deep undulations 
along Its ocean shores made travel easier than 
in waterless countries, while the presence of Indians 
added not only the spice of peril but also the ele- 
ment of service. The Indians also brought into 
play the religious spirit of the Jesuits and R^collets 
and to the labors of the priests were due manv 
important discoveries. With them, or in advance of 
them at times, were the fur traders who acted from 
love of adventure or gain, or officiated as interpreters 
between the pioneer priests and the Indians, but did 
not as a rule, care anything for geography or science 
or the records which constitute so important a part 
of discovery or exploration. The missionaries, on 
the other hand, recorded their data and posterity 
has, therefore, a double reason for gratitude to the 
flevoted men who were pioneers for their nation 



Vicloires, Quebec 

i ■fljiiilillT • > 





Vf^HmV^HV^htn HHFUHflliifliiBP 



' I 


An illustration of the fur-trading and commercial 
pioneer was Etienne Brul«, who caught the fever 
of travel from Champlain, a spirit of wildness from 
the Indians and added a quality of licentiousness 
all his own. He lived much amongst the savages 
and seems to have been the first white man to stand 
upon the site of Toronto. He explored central 
Pennsylvania and went down the Susquehanna to 
Chesapeake Bay, discovered the waters of Sault 
bte. Mane and was the first white man to paddle 
along the shores of Lake Superior. Of the four 
R^collet friars whom Champlain brought from 
France in 1615 Father Le Caron was the first 
missionary to the Hurons and Father d'Olbeau to 
the Montagnais. With Father Sagard and other 
ater arrivals they added much to the slowly accumu- 
lating volume of knowledge. In 1625 the Jesuits 
arrived and their Relations cover a long period and 
record a vast amount of travel and study as well as 
of noble missionary effort. Down to the Rapids 
in the rear of Montreal came the R^coUet Father 
Nicholiis Viel to meet one of the Jesuit Fathers, 
and tie Huron Indians who were paddling him 
down tne river threw him to his death in its waters. 
Hence the first Christian martyrdom in Canada 
and the Sault au R^coUet of today. 

In the succeeding year Father D'Aillon pene- 
trated to and dwelt amongst the Neutral Indians 
on ^lagara River. He seems to have heard of 
Niagara Falls, but there is no record of his having 
ever seen them nor, indeed, is there any evidence 



Of Other missionaries or explorers reportine at th!. 
.me more tl>an vague rumors of a Sty wal 


. The dark primeval forests on eithrhlnH f?' 


St. Anthony and appears to have stood nnnn*i, 
B.te of Minneapolis. Other Ss^ho left foot" 
prints of exploration across and down thp ITJ 1 
in this period were Fathers A^t^i oHX* 
and DruUlettes, with the saintly Marquette wh A 

and -^ion/r.rruSyi7Sr 

The Royal banners forward go 

The Cross shines forth with mystic flow. 

F,!'r'\i°'"'* ""^ " °''"^« Canadian who, with 
Father Marquette, appears to have been the Trst 
to discover the source and nature of the wate™ 
of the Mississippi. An explorer and tradlr by 


nature he was also a mathematician and hydroR- 
rapher and his footprints extend from the Mis- 
sissippi to Hudson's Bay on the north and to Labra- 
dor on the east. In 1673 the trader and the priest, 
under commission from Frontenac, traversed the 
shores of Lake Michigan, turned into Fox River 
and passed to its head waters, thence journeyed to 
an olbow of the Wisconsin and at a place now called 
Frame du Chien glided into the broad waters 
of the Mississippi, which [Jolliet christened La 

?W fl f";t ''^*l'' ^''°°*»'''''« family name. 
They floated down the river, seeing bands of bison 
and flocks of wild turkeys, meeting ever new bodies 
of Indians, passing the mouth of the Missouri and 

!v!fh 1 ="" ""'' **""" ""*""'"<* "**•>«' »!>«•» meet 
wth the Spamards and perhaps lose all the fruits 
of their discoveries. They ascended the Illinois 
and Chicago rivers and reached within four miles 
of the site of the western metropolis. They crossed 
the portage connecting the two great water systems 
of the continent and, late in September, reached 
the Fox River after a voyage of 2,800 miles. 

CateH!r'H *'^°«^T''" '" **" P'""" °f ««°« Robert 
Caveher de la Salle completed the labors of these 

two men. Proud, persevering and self-reliant ne 

was a figure worthy of the great arena in which 

he was to move. He joined his brother, Abb4 

Jean de la Salle, at Montreal in 1667 and two 

years later accepted a commission from De Cour- 

celles the French Governor. The object of his 

expedition was to discover the Ohio of the Senecas 



and, despite the obscurity of the facts available 

B^vor of today. I„ 1679, after varied vicissltudel! 
La Salle, accompanied by Henri de Tonty in a 

£,ne, the St. Clair River and thence journeyed to 
Michilimackinac and Lake Michigan. After many 
adventures he and a portion of his parly reached 
a place now known as South Bend, Indiana. Sup- faded here and the return was effected under 

find it Ta^rd t"' '"t """I ""'"^ ''"''«'"'>«- ^ouW 
find It hard to create. In his next expedition La 
Salle seems to have touched the site of Toronto 

Georrian r' ''"^'' ''^ ""^ °' ^""^^ ^imcoe and 
Georpaa Bay. He reached the Mississippi again, 

I682T H ° "fr^ *° '**"«• Eventually,?™ 
1682, he descended the great river to its mouth 
and issued out upon the Gulf of Mexico, where 
on Apnl 8, he erected a pillar upon the shore bearing 
the arms of Louis XIV, and formally took posses- 
sum of^a vast unknown region in tZ nameThL 

This problem of the continent's waterways 
a. wdl as those of the center and the north had 
thus been solved by a Frenchman, and from the 
cold cliffs of the Saguenay to the tropical wate„ 

water in the worid-over which was to some day 
pass an almost incalculable volume of commerce- 
had become, for a time, part of the New France of 
Frontenac and his brilliant dreams. Sill 


mackinac was at this time a name replete with 
memories of French pioneers and included some- 
what varied and confusing localities. It covered 
the mythology-laden isle of Algonquin reverence 
in the middle of the strait between Lakes Michigan 
and Huron, the points of land on the north and 
south of the strait, the mission place of Father 
Marquette at St. Ignace on the north mainland, 
the fur-trade center into which this also developed 
and from which La Motte Cadillac went in 1701 
to found Detroit a later French fort on the south 
shore and still Irter an English fort on the island. 
St. Ignace was the center of much adventurous 
exploration, mission effort and fur-trading-familiar 
to Fathers Allouez and Hennepin and many another 
brave priest of the wilderness, to Jolliet. Radisson 
La Salle, Du L'hut and many more. 

Another leader of this period was the explorer 
whose name is enshrined in that of Duluth— "the 
zemth city of the unsalted seas" as an enthusiastic 
American once termed it. His variously spelled 
name appears to have been Daniel de Greysolon, 
Sieur du L'hut; he was of noble family and high 
socia connections in France, but from preference 
and love of the wild free life of the forests and 
prairies he devoted himself to Canadian explora- 
tion. In 1678 he left Montreal to study the almost 
unknown Northwest, and passed along the shores 
of Lake Superior, across the Mississippi and down 
T .^ *''«/"'«ams to a Sioux village where he 
planted the flag of France. He held a great Council 



end of Lake Supenor, and thereafter, for yeare 
hved m and thoroughly explored all this great 
repon-much of which no white man had 

lid t !h H '^ l^"^ f ^°'* ^""'"»' '•<' t^veled 
tT„ w !i '°"*'' *"'' °°'*''' "°"°d *•>« Lake of 
the Woods country and into the basin of the 

fl'rrv ,. ?" b"^^ ^'"''«°'' •>« ''»d ''°°ther post 
"mrh f'"?K ' '''"'* ''"'* *'"' ^'<""« ""d covered 
Thr™ A , •''*'.* ""^°" "P *° Hudson's Bay. 
Through h.s friendship with the Indians, Du L'hut 
on more than one occasion was able to brini assist- 
ance to his Governors at Quebec, and in moTe^ 
at Montrea^ w,th a high reputation for bravery, 
chivalry and capacity. ^' 

fromTh''''' V""".^'""""*' ""''*' 'P^"*' commission 
from Champlam, discovered, in 1634, the Strait of 

Si'°""'^"'°/"/°'* ^"^'^ **"°"8'> 't '"to the Lake 
Michigan of today. First amongst white men he 
traversed the bea itiful strait with its clustering 

his people he saw the great "Freshwater Sea" whkh 
was .eheved to be one more portion of a mighty 
waterway leading to China and the glowing East 
So vast were these waters that the silence and lone- 
imess met by the explorer's solitary canoe w^ So 
ess than is encountered in later days of enormous 
traffic and great steamers. Paddling along the 
western shore of Lake Michir»n the Frenchman 


came to what is now Green Bay and the Menominee 
Kxver, and not long afterwards to the mouth of Fox 
River where he was met by about four thousand 
Indians One can imagine the picturesque scene of 
splendid lake and river, wild forest and wilder red 
men, the explorer robed in embroidered Chinese dam- 
ask and discharging, as he advanced to the meet- 
ing, a pistol from either hand. He was to the savages 
a Manitou, or god, wielding thunder and lightning 
and to him, therefore, a warm welcome was given 
Many such scenes occurred in the experience of the 
eariy pioneers. The explorer then passed up the Fox 
River, through Lake Winnibago, and up the river 
beyond to the portage of the Wisconsin. He seems 
to have stood upon the water-parting of the Mis- 
sissippi and the St. Lawrence basins. 

Of explorers in the Northwest during this 
eventful time Pierre Esprit Radisson has left an 
impression which, like that of JoUiet or La Salle 
would fill volumes if fully described. His expe- 
nences and adventures equal the most thrilling 
of romances. His family came to Three Rivers 
from France, in 1651. He, himself, lived much 
amongst and knew much of the Indians and at first 
proved a useful interpreter for the Jesuits. With 
his brother-in-law, M^dard Chouart, he explored 
Wisconsin and neighboring regions and appears 
to have been the first white man to traverse Lake 
Superior beyond the Sault Ste. Marie. Radisson 
saw much of the Mississippi, explored some of 
its lesser branches and studied its head waters 



traversed the southern Hhores of Lake Michigan 
wandered over what ig now the State of Minnesota,' 
traded and talked and lived with the Indians and 
started, in 1662, from La Pointe on Lake Superior 
to KO to Hudson's Bay. He and Chouart coasted 
Its shores for some distance and returned by way of 
Moose Uiver and, probably, the head waters of 
the Saguenay. The rest of the career of these 
men was one of adventure, perhaps, more than 
exploration or discovery, but was none the less 
remarkable in its waj-. Radisson appears to have 
been the real discoverer of what has been vaguely 
termed the Northwest— a phrase applicable to a 
great region in the United States and an equally 
important later center of attraction in Canada. 

A later poincer of the West was Gaultier de Va- 
rennes de la VtSrcidrye, a gallant French Canadian 
soldier who was bom at Three Rivers and essayed, 
time and again, to discover the fabled Western Sea 
which was supposed to lie between America and 
Japan. He had fought in New England and New- 
foundland, been wounded at Malplaquet in Europe, 
and experienced many vicissitudes of fortune when, 
accompanied by fifty grissled adventurers, he first 
started from Montreal on June 8, 1731, to trade, 
to explore, to discover, to fight or to do anything 
that might be necessary in the wild wastes of the 
North and West. Up the Ottawa and through 
the Great Lakes to NIpegon the party proceeded 
and thence to Michilimackinac, where De la V^ren- 
drye was joined by his nephew Sieur de la Jemmeraie 


* :. 

^§ fiifjS'- 



anil by Fathi-r MrHsaigcr the JeHuit. Tlic two days' 
journey from the Straits to KominUtiquia took the 
party in their frail canoes a month; thence the 
explorers proceeded to the Lake of the Woods or, 
as it was then called, Lake of the Isles. There 
they discovered the Winnipeg Hiver and later on 
the lake of the same name. 

Thence, up the Red River went the intrepid party 
until, at its junction with the Assiniboinc, De la 
Virendrye met a party of Crees (1738) on the spot 
where Winnipeg now stands and looked out upon 
an illimitable ocean of rolling prairie. He, with his 
three sons— Jean had been killed by the Sioux not 
long before— stood upon the site of a great modern 
city, studied the Assiniboinc Valley, erected Fort 
Rouge on the banks of the river and for the first 
time the bugle call of the French sounded across 
the prairies of Manitoba. Up the Souris River, 
through the plains to the southwest, along ravines 
where grazed hundreds of thousands of buffalo, and 
accompanied by six hundred Indians, De la V^rendrye 
then proceeded to the Upper Missouri and again 
took possession of fresh territory for the French 
King. Meanwhile, Pierre, Francois and Louis de 
la V^rendrye, his sons, reached the banks of the 
Saskatchewan and erected a fort there and one on 
Lake Manitoba. Some years later, on New Year's 
Day, 1734, Pierre and Fran9ois de la V^rendrye 
were the first white men to sight from land the lofty 
peaks of the Rocky Mountains. The gallant father 
and his sons had set out to discover the Western 



Sea and they had found a sea of prairie* and a Hea 
of mountains; they had traversed parts of two great 
and hitherto unlcnown rivers— the Missouri and 
the Saslcatchewan; they had planted plates with 
the royal arms of France in a new and vastly rich 
portion of the American continent. 

In 1669 the Sulpicians, Dollier de Casson and 
Br«hant de Galinfe, explored the north shore of 
Lake Erie, in March, 1670, encountered Marquette 
and Dablon at Sault 8te. Marie and returned by 
way of Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa. Galin^e's 
narrative of the expedition was sent to the King. 
Another picturesque pair of explorers was Nicholas 
Perrot and Daumont de St. Lusson. The former 
was a master of Indian tongues, a useful interpreter 
to De Denonville and De Vaudreuil, a widely- 
traveled explorer, and the discoverer of lead mines 
on what was afterwards the Des Moines River in 
Iowa. In 1665 he first encountered St. Lusson at 
Sault Ste. Marie. Six years later (June 14th), in 
one of the most picturesque scenes of French life 
in America, St. Lusson, who had been despatched by 
the Intendant Talon to take possession of the North- 
west in the name of the King, did so on the heights 
overiooking Sault Ste. Marie amid much barbaric 
pageantry intermixed with civilized state and 
ceremony. Representatives were present from a 
dosen Indian tribes which roamed the prairies and 
lake-lands for hundreds of miles, and they affixed 
their names, or rather marks, to a document claiming 
for Louis XIV all of the known continent from the 


Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic aee of tlie north and 
to the far-off Labrador coaat. An immense wooden 
CroM was erected and a cedar mast placed beside it 
with the King's escutcheon affixed. 

Following Marquette and Jolliet and La Salle the 
thoughts of French Canada toward the close of 
the seventeenth century had been mainly directed 
to the Mississippi Valley— despite the many and 
varied efforts to the far north and west. In 1699 
Nicholas Perrot had forts at the mouth of the V.U 
consin and on Lake Pepin. A little later Fathers 
Montigny, St. Co8m«, Davion and Thaumer de la 
Source established missions as far south as Baton 
Rouge; in 1700 Father Gravier reached the Gulf of 
Mexico with a similar purpose in view, while Father 
Le Sueur ascended the Minnesota and stood upon 
the site of St. Paul and Minneapolis. In 1699-1702 
expeditions under Le Moyne d'Iberville and Le 
Moyne de Bienville of Montreal founded Biloxi 
and Mobile on the Gulf of Mexico with a view to 
guarding for Old and New France the portals of the 
Mississippi. At the same time Henri de Tonty, 
noted for his association with La Salle, abandoned 
his Fort St. Louis on the Illinob and established 
another of the same name at MobUe, while French 
ports were also established on the site of Detroit 
and at Miami, Outanon and Vincennes in the 
Illinois region. In later years and around Lake 
Chatauqua, the source of the Alleghany River, 
Forts La Bteuf, Presqu'isle and Venango were 
built. Fort Duquesne was a famous place in the 



EnglUh-French wan. Up the Riohelieu River 
which wri for long year, the high road between 
French Canada and the English colonies under the 
name of Riviire aux Iroquois, the route was studded 
with forts of both nations and the soil of its shores 
is stamped with much of adventurous and romantic 

There were many other French priests or mis- 
sionaries, explorers or adventurers, traversing these 
wonderful wildemcssea. Hudson's Bay, discovered 
from the sea entrance by Henry Hudson in 1610, 
was a source of great attraction to many. Radisson 
and 'Jhouart no doubt reached iu shore from land 
before Father Albanel, who, however, is generally 
credited with having been tue first to do so, and 
they are said to have suggested the formation of 
the Hudson's Bay Company to the English at a time 
of personal resentment against D'Avaugour, the 
Governor at Quebec. In 1672 Father Albanel, 
following the unsuccessful expedition of Fathers 
DrulUettes and Dablon in 1661, sighted its gloomy 
shores, found the English fiag already there and is 
said to have torn it down. From Three Rivers in 
1651 Father Buteux had, meanwhile, ascended and 
explored the River St. Maurice, which Cartier 
Pont-Grav« and Champlain had all examined in 
lesser degree and with reference, chiefly, to the 
importance of Three Rivers as a fur-t -.ding center 
Father Buteux left a clear description of Shawini- 
gan Falls amongst his limited geographical records 
and was murdered by the Iroquois while returning 


to the mouth of the river. Tho Upp*.r Sagucnay 
region was the home of prolonged mimicnary work 
by Fathers du Quen and dc Crepieul, who at Ta- 
dousac and Lake St. John, devoted more time to 
the Bouls of the heathen than to the geography of 
the region where later, under English rule, their 
missions were forgotten and the country for u long 
time regarded as boing a hopeless wilderness. 

At other points also the omniscient Jesuit was pur- 
suing his adventurous way. Mission stations in the 
middle of the seventeenth century were established 
at the mouths of the chief rivers running into the 
St. Lawrence. Some have been already mentioned 
Father B.-iilloquet ascended the Papinactoix on the 
. north shore of the St. Lawrence and Father Nouvel 
explored the Manitoupgan. On the sou' I shore 
Father Druillettes passed by wa- of t'le Chaudi^re 
River, opposite Quebec, and the Kennebec, to the 
Atlantic seaboard; the missions to the Etchemins 
of New Brunswick were carried on from Rivi*re 
du Loup, opposite Tadousac, and by way of a 
portage to Lake Temiscouta and the Madawaska 
into the River St. John region. Restigouche and 
Nipisiquit on the Baie des Chaleurs, and Richibucto 
and Miraniichi on the Gulf coast of New Bruns- 
wick, were mission centers and the bases of various 
missionarj journeys. The far Labrador coast was 
the source of varied effort and Father Nicholas in 
1673 opened a mission at Seven Islands. 

It will thus be seen that from the far north to 
the furthest south of a great continent, the French- 


men made their mark and left memorials of voyage 
and journey, exploration and settlement, adventure 
and peril, religious effort and self-sacrifice, upon all 
the wonderful water stretches of the interior and 
upon the shores of two of the greatest rivers of 
the worid. They impressed upon the continent 
a splendid national imprint and the record of a 
great ambition which however often it might 
flicker or fail amidst the distractions and varied 
responsibilities of court life in Paris or Quebec, 
never wavered in the hearts of heroic missionaries 
and courageous pioneers. In the end the hope that 
New Prance would dominate a vast continent 
failed, but it was not the fault of the earlier repre- 
sentatives of the nation or the Church, in the heart 
of the wilderness, that such was the case. If failure 
did come in this great aim, success was all the more 
conspicuous in the record of individual achieve- 
ment and individual example which these men of 
a bygone age have left to their people. It indeed 
forms a part of traditions and history which take 
no second place, in certain forms of comparison, 
even to a hundred years or more in the history of 
their greater motherland. 


Quebec— The Cbadi.b op New France 

Upon the Rock of Quebec, at one time or an- 
other in two centuries of struggle, there have stood 
the rulers and the ruled, the impetuous and pic- 
turesque French adventurers and the inscrutable, 
self-sacrificing, obedient priests, the gallant repre- 
sentatives of a line of French kings and the corrupt 
administrators of colonial wealth, the reckless and 
the wise, the chivalrous and the mean, the states- 
men and the soldier— i.i. the moving panorama of 
men who looked out over a wide continent upon 
the wild struggles of a scattered and proud race 
of savages, upon the rivalries and warfare of two 
great European powers in a world still fresh from 
centuries of solitude, upon the birth-pains of two 
new nations in process of creation. To the reader 
or traveler who thinks today of Dufferin Terrace 
only, who considers the scenery as very beautiful 
and then passes hurriedly on to see and share in 
the more attractive and bounding life of greater 
cities, there is nothing much to be said about Quebec. 
History is, in a certain real sense, what one makes 
It. Parkman and Green and Macaulay put the 
puppets of the past in their proper place and made 
the real influences of life, the actual, breathing 




people and controlling principles of tv period 
move across their pages. It was the ,wer of 
.mag.nat.on which did it and, despite any errors 
n deta.l or .n the minor facts of their records t 
sth.s power and this only which enabled them to 
reconstruct h.story and ma!,, facts and events 

of tl^/'''*r to Quebec, or even a life-long resident 
of that cradle of h.story, should possess the faculty 
of .mag.nat.on the facts of four centuries are easy 
to unders and and the romance of his surroundings 
become clear; .f he has not that faculty let him 
consult the pages of some writer who has. Nea" 
the Quebec of the future on the banks of the St 
Charles Jacques Cartier and his sailor comrades in 
1535-36 passed a season of severe privations and 
were the only white men living upon the whole 
cont.nent of North America. Here, on njy J 
1536, Cartier erected a cross thirty-five feet high 
beanng a sh.eld with the fleur-de-lys and the in- 
scnpt.on m Latin: "Francis I, By the Grace of 
God, France." On the St. Lawrence and 
above the s.te of Quebec, Cartier passed another 

T /A" n'u' '''"^ ''""* ''' Cap Rouge a smaTfo t 

wh,ch De Roberval occupied in the succeeding y ar 

At the foot of the Rock of Quebec Champlain 

£ h "ak ^'' '.?"'' *^ "•'"^ ^'<^ °f 1^-°-. 
future. If Napoleon as he stood with folded arms 
and inscrutable face viewing the Sphinx of Egypt 
and up an eastern empire which might 


compensate him for European disappointments of 
the nioment is an attractive figure of the world^ 
h^tory U should not be very difficult to surrouM 

Cres o'f ^art "^ nf^"* '"*^'^«* *>>« '-«'' 
t.?ares of Cartier and Champlain as, in long-sepa- 

rivers of untold areas of fertile soil, of miirhtv 

mountains and rolling prairies '^^ 

In founding this seat of future empire in oriran!, 

Zft T '" ^r'''"""^ '«"' exploradoJof To: 
results he could have no real conception Cham 
Plam selected the site of Quebec as b Jng " so nTt 
defens,ble from a military point of view a ° ^ 
fitted as a port for purposes of the fur trade and 
shippmg mterests. At the foot of tho nliff -j . 
a forest of birch trees, he buuf hl^el a 1^-1 
th spot where the Church of Notre Dame7es 
V.cto,res now stands. It was in reality threfsepa 
rate houses, joined together, with a courtyard 
a orehouse, watch-tower and an esplanade in fS' 
Zetf\ "^.V^"""" ^'"^ P'^'i^^des and a ditch 

" AbTtatio:- Ch 'f • Z '^' ''^"P- ^-- this 
Abitation Champlam directed the alliance with 
the Algonquins and Hurons and that firtt hoS 
movement against the Iroquois which eems to 
have controlled the history of New vLT^ 
century and a half and which m ;, fnXI W 
been a pnmary cause for the situL'tion in 'wUch 



Wolfe encountered on the Heights of Abraham the 
gmall army of a 60,000 population instead of the 
armed settlers and soldiers of a strong young nation. 
It was his one mistake, though the motives no 
doubt were those of a statesman. To advance 
the commercial and trading interests of his country 
an alliance with strong Indian tribes could not but 
be useful; to draw some line of demarcation across 
the center of the continent and along the Atlantic 
settlements of the impetuous and pushing English 
pioneers must have seemed desirable; to have 
natives help in exploring the vast interior was 
obviously important. He could not in the brief 
time at his disposal understand the dominating 
qualities of the Iroquois or realize that before long 
they would sweep these other tribes before them 
hfce chaff before a wind. 

Up to 1612 Champlain's residence was the home 
of a limited local authority and the center for mili- 
tary expeditions and inland fur trade In that 
year the free trading rights of the Basques and 
Malouins were restricted to the river below Quebec 
and Champlain was given large additional powers. 
Population came but slowly and was not greatly 
encouraged. Champlain described the number in 
• ,L^ , ''' '°«1"<1'°8 women and children; and 
m 1629 when Admiral Kirke captured the place for 
England-and held it for three years-the popu- 
lation was about the same. Meantime the "Abita- 
tion had seen some important changes. Though 
the Hundred Associates, or U Compagnie de Can- 



«ia which Champlain represented after 1627 and 

an ardent CathoL.''tc2r£TalZV "1' 
fittar:TatlT' fi'T^ '" '''' '"'' '^i^-^^^. 
While SIX Jesuits came in 1625 and soon constructed 
rmaTeM'lr '"'"''f'^ ^°«- " wrp^tpo" ed 
T^^ZT^TZS:^ ^''*''°""' --^ ^» *^e -in 

th?Fort^ Champlain commenced the erection of 
the Fort or Castle of St. Louis on the brow of the 

fefnTr r « ''^ *^^'t''«-" (tl^e comer of dS 
t7Z, Z Z^""' ^^^ P'"^°* post-office), and this 
irc^of S r*' " "^ r^^^'- --^-d th 
Mai cession of the country to Great Britain 
From this new seat of authority Champlak ^ 
representing in turn the companyf the v^erov ' ^ 

sm'rtTf '^' *'^ -air/ofVe'RjcS 2^ 
Jesmts m the missionary work of the time- from 
We he guided and modified the jealouZs of Z 
l^ant colony which at his death in 1635 stiuLm 
bered only a hundred souls; from here he waterd 
and assisted the fur traders in their dangloustS 
attractive and lucrative occupation; from here he 
planned and carried on expeditio;s which eave 
vast terntories to the Crown of France aldTmmenle 

from here he departed on constant missions to Paris' 



in the vain effort to hold in one stable policy of 
trade and settlement and acquisition, the conflicting 
interests of Court and Church and the selfish rivalries 
and intrigues of men and women working for evil 
ends; from here he led French soldiers to fight 
side by side with the Hurons against the Iroquois. 
Here, also, Champlain's beautiful young wife sup- 
ported him with her sympathy and helped the 
settlers with unselfish labors for their welfare. 

This Fort and Chateau of St. Louis saw: many 
a scene of interest in succeeding years. As the 
settlement grew in numbers and importance— Quebec 
was always more influential than the size of its 
population would have warranted in a European 
or Asiatic town— the Chateau became the center 
of a varied and changing history and the home 
of men with many-sided qualities and performances. 
De Montmagny was a successor worthy of Cham- 
plain, though perhaps only Frontenao and Mont- 
calm in a long line of royal appointments could be 
said to reach his standard of ability and devotion 
Deeply religious, Ferland (the French Canadian 
historian) describes him as kneeling upon his ar- 
rival at Quebec, with all his suite, at the foot of 
a Cross on the roadside and invoking the protec- 
tion and guidance of the Almighty in his future 
work. He rebuilt Fort St. Louis in stone, drew 
plans of streets for the future city and welcomed 
the construction by the Jesuits of a College on the 
site of the present City Hall. 

During this period the Chateau was not a very 



gay or bright place. The last days of De Cbnn, 
P lam and the twelve years of De Montmagny tv-" 
wL diS °' ?""'' '=°"'™' - which socety 
V' acious or sparkling. Mont.pal ..i.^ 
ounded at this time under influL teli^Jj^ 
religious, and life, both there and at th^cl^* 

observance. Then ensued the heroic period in °'^ °^ ^'''"'^ ^'"•"da and a Jro onged 
death-grapple with the Iroquois I?„ll^^ ■. 
came D-Ailleboust de CoulonTas GovSoTLn 
de Lauzon, Vicomte D'Argenson, Baron D'AvIu 

pohcy and determination, proud of his Churl 
.t. authority and it. missi' a' Discord L'^S 

tSr I J """' " °""'''^'- °' *'^«"'=h -cobles and 
their ladies, more settlers of varied classes mnr„ 

tlr^n^'^l' •"*"''^'' *•>«■' sa^rs irtl; Go" 
the iltle ' "'•p.!?"^'''" P-^ded the streets of 
the little capital side by side with black-robed 
Jesuits or gaily attired habitants. 

as thl Kin^ '" !" '^^^^2 ""d ^^ Tracy 

subdue the Iroquois; with the Jesuits moving 




freely amongst the Indians and pawing up and 
down the contment and around the great lakes in 
contmuous succession; with French influence felt 

Irr/!i*K*''i' °' ^""'^ *° t'"' lU^oi". and 
accentuated by the presence and settlement of the 

Inf^H^'/^ ^''T'"'-^""'*'*^; '^*'> Talon as 
Intendant, wise, far^eeing and patient-acting the 

r^,- // ?'"*.° """^ ''""King the colony into 
en^r/ °/ P/"''"''*"'" ""d ProBperity-New France 
entered at this time upon its golden age, and was 
further aided and kept in this position by the 
Bemces of Comte de irrontenac in 1672-82 and 

If the walls of the old Chateau of St. Louis could 
live and speak their tales of council during 
period the result would hold high place in the 
pages of romantic history. De Frontenac, in par- 

n Ca'n' J t Vu" ^T""" ^'"«'« ^epres^ntatfves 
m Canada after Champlain, was essentially a pic- 
turesque figure. Noble by birth, dignified and yet 
vivacious, free m his mental poise to the point of 
autocracy, a brave soldier and excellent miUtary 

of an extended administrafcon. During it he cowed 

thPn, T.T ^^^ •"" "^'""'y '^^^ ""d placated 
them with his personal courtesy and bearing, while 
encouraging explorations which made New France 
a force from the far north to the southern seas 
Incidentally he had the defects of his quahtTes Td 
disagreed with the Intendant Duchesnay while his 
proud disposition ill brooked the equally proud and 


King's lieutcnan°ge„e,flTn a''"'' ""^^'^ "" ''«' 
high military repStS '"/"""'^ ""d with a 
by a brilliant staTandbv. ^ "''•'ompanied 
anxious to share in the w„l T,'' °' y"""* ""Wes 
natural grandeur of th« '^'^' *° ««« the 

place in'^the advelt JT""^; ^f *° ''-'' ■» 
He had, also, 200 s^ldCanH *'l' ^"•'«™«'«- 

additional r;gulL orth« , '°'°*^ ^^ '•'^ 
Sailifires. GoreZs in ,. !*"°^°* Carignan- 

"d flowing ^rhV°a7rsta?r' '" "°'- 
on June 30th by Bishon H. t 'T^T* «'^^*'^ 
robes, surrounded by priel anT'^° ^'' ''"'''y 
and gentlemen. DoL ud^ u t °®"''''' °®"«'« 
flooring of stone-HiT ? ^" ''"^« "^ the bare 
knelt fhe bnllLnT^^ " f T "''^''"^ ""^^ion- 
receive the bt^g 7Zc£l f '""^ «"°« *° 
representative in America ^W ^'■'"" '*' '''«''^«* 
scenes in those davroTn'.l^ T o^^"^ """"y «"=b 
A greater and more 1 ^ '^''"'*"' '''"^ State. 
city and colony dS ^LT"'"* 'f "^""^ '» *be 



8ble figures of the whole French jMriod. Though 
not of noble birth or title, he was King's Councillor 
of State and Privy Councillor, Intendant of Justice, 
Police and Finance of New France, of the Island 
of Newfoundland, Acadia and other countries in 
what the state documents quaintly describe as 
"North France." He was an able lieutenant to 
Frontenac, the first to build ships in the colony, 
the first to open up trade with the West Indies, the 
first to build a brewery in North America, the 
first ruler who developed cod-fisheries along the 
St. Lawrence. He encouraged agriculture and 
manufactures, strove earnestly to keep the great 
West for the French flag, and worked to that end 
with Frontenac despite the commands of Louis 
XIV to concentrate the slim forces of France in 
America and to hold securely what they had in 
hand rather than expand loosely over a con- 

Meanwhile, population had been growing and 
social conditions changing. This golden age of 
Quebec was naturally influenced by the ambitions 
of Louis XIV and his talented minister, Colbert, 
as well as affected by the brilliant group of French- 
men in local control. The King spent money freely 
to colonize this great country and in doing soproved 
himself a statesman more truly than in some of 
his larger and more famous lines of European policy. 
From Normandy and Pictou in the main, and also 
from Brittany, Picardy and Paris itself, came ship- 
loads of emigrants— 1,200 girls being sent out be- 



Riviere du loup 



tween 1665-70 a« -.v.r.lin? gifts to the .settlers 

somewhat the half monastic, half military aspect 

2th its TLr""" °' ^"^^^" "^ '* grew' tSy 
with Its Ursuhne convent, founded in 1639 bv 
M^re Mane de I'lncamation, its Hotel D^u Z 
Chateau and fort, its Jesuit college and hu'rch 
.ts Lava Seminary and Court House and prS 
homes, >ts one tavern which stood oa the He Ih ! 
S .*^«"'' «' -hat is now St. Lou^s Street' 
Here m Upper Town lived the priests officers 

was the traH Tf^'- ^^'°- *'"« Promontory 

was the tradmg part of what was at once a fortress 

Low °^^°'' f"'' " P''"'^^' settlement. In S 
Lower Town Jived the workmen and sett e^ 
and traders of various kind, and from here th^ 

Ss thet .' ^,f '" """^ *™PP«^« ''"d voya- 
geurs, the men who followed in the wake of or accom 

pan.ed priests and explorers over the vast expanses 

of a continent; here gathered along the shores 

spoils for bargaimng and trade or, perhaos in 

ways and means of defeating their foes; here 
when the occasional ship came in, there gathered 
he whole settlement while the King's representa-, accompanied by Intendant and Bishop went 
aboard to welcome the arrivals and hear n;w?o 



sometimes great import to the welfare of the town 
and perchance to the future of a continent. 

B^TonL I'^V""" '"'°'"^ administration of 
Ue Frontenac the fort on the Rock of Quebec 
^w an unhappy period of Indian warfare und 

when thel!"" '""^ !'" ^'"^'^'^ "' ^'--vill 
wlien the colony was plunged from a high nosition 

and almost despair. De Frontenac was sent to 

much of the prestige of French Canada before death 
came to h:m in 1698 and ended a career wS 

many devoted friends and placed the Fort ofT 
I^ms, durmg his administration, a. high above any 
other center of government upon the continent as 
It was m a natural sense above the splendid rle 
and scenery which it overlooked. Following F on 
S th™' ' '?.•"""" "' ^'"^''^ ""Wes bringing 

tTe evS o^ V t''"' °^ '^' «°°'' ""'^ something o? 
the evil of French court life-Chevalier de Calli^res 

vandreml, Charles Marquis de Beauharnois, the 
Marquis de la Jonqui^re, the Marquis de Duqiesne 
de MemienviUe, the Marquis de Vaudreuil-CavaZT 
It was an age of brilliant uniforms, bright Cos- 
tumes, wigs of flowing and picturesque locks So - 
diers were on guard day and night, officers clanked 
the. swords at dance and carl-games and varS 
amusements, priests in somber black, or ecclesias 
ties m rich robes of state, came and went With" 



cwirtL'tLr :r'^"^'' *'°°^"-*- -^^ the 
Of the Kin«.~ rti:s^re';KaV'^ """-^ 

cr-rhXr''^^-^^^^^ -- ^;^! 

the beauty, grace amri"-'' ?!,*'^ '«««'«»* ^om 
tainebleau ^r VeLXt f"!''' ".''"™ "^ ^°"- 
the historian said of in;,- I ^^■'^''' Charlevoix 
Quebec with H current in"",'f"''' "' ^^^0 that 
a very interest ng™/"!"*'"" "' '■"«« ^^^ 
military officers and nob es with^TV'T^";''' "' 
suited to the adventurou tlte of th" "^^ ^'" 
occasional Indian struggles we,, fi/t.!?/T''' """^ 
mg characteristics of men blrn and K ". '^' ^«'>*- 
tions of European warfare A/fh. !!''' •", ''°°'''- 
't: "The English know bettef how t"'" P"* 
wealth, but we alone „r^ . *° accumulate 

agreeable way oSplZgIt' ''"'"''' '^'^'^ *•"« --* 

ipptdrvauS:s:,'^:/,;^-/« ^f^-- ^''"- 

in the R6ccMet chaDel T^ T '"'^ ""^ ''""cd 
qui^re also died in oL J ^"'"^"'^ '^^ '"^ J""" 
same old church-the rl ' T ''""«'» '" the 
wards transfer ed to 7kTZ r ^" ''^'"« ^"- 
Church. De M^sv «l J ^ ? "^ ""^ Seminary 
its founder Chamlifand t ^°/^' '''*^' "« ^id 
Acting at times durwTK ''''''"''"'' Montcalm. 

administrator or Seniir"™' ^'"''-"''^ - 
picturesque figures-C I^d f r"'' ^^^« "t^er 
Le Moyne, Ba^n de W - ''"^^' ^''"'•''' 

de la Gallissonni^re The faJn "h' *'^ ^"""^^ 
ine last named endeavored, 



unsuccessfully, to plant 10,000 French colonists 
along the line of the Alleghanies in order to check 
the advance of the English, and in 1750 sent 
Celeron de Bienville to mark the boundaries of 
*rench and English possessions down through the 
heart of the United States of today. Metal plates 
bearing the arms of France were affixed to trees 
at certain intervals, and at the foot of each tree 
was buried another plate-inscribed with a procla- 
mation of ownership. This line was drawn all 
around the valley of the Ohio up to the Alleghanies. 
With La Jonqui^re in control (1749-52) began the 
corruption which was to eat into the vitals of New 
France, defeat the ambition and genius of Mont- 
calm and help to transfer the northern part of the 
continent to the dominance of the British Crown 

Of society and Ufe in Quebec during the closing 
years of French rule, Franjois Bigot, Intendant of 
the King, was a conspicuous and malevolent figure 
Somewhat commonplace in appearance, brave 
enough, in a physical sense, skillful in the un- 
scrupulous accumulation of money, fond of pleas- 
ure in its more degrading forms as well as of the 
lighter, brighter social life of the times, he came 
to New France (Louisbourg) in 1739 after a career 
of lucrative character in Paris. Six years after- 
wards he returned to France with charges of mis- 
appropriating public moneys hanging over his 
head. In 1748, however, he secured the post of 
Intendant at Quebec and there developed a system 
of speculation and what we would call "graft" 



Which WM monumental in character, picturesque 
m .te avish expenditure upon his "palace," his 
entertainments, his pleasures; dreary and cr^el in 
ts squeezing f taxes out of the p7ople; elabo a ° 
m Its svnndhng of soldiers and the government 

food withheld from the starving masses and in it 
crippling of Montcalm's military efforts 

After' thT' ^"^^ T r"""""^ ^"'"K *° *•>« "ime. 
After the conquest he was tried in Paris (1763) 
found gjiUty and condemned to be taken to the 
principal gate of the Tuileries by the public execu! 
t.oner ma tumbril with a rope about hi neck 
and bearing in his hand a lighted torch of yXt 
wax two pounds in weight. On his chest and on 
h s back were to be placed placards with this in" 

Th ef " Md th ^T .^'^-rt-tor-Perfidious 
h„, i * And there, kneeling, bareheaded and with 
bare feet dad only in his shirt, "he shall decTare 
ma loud and intelligible voic; that during h 
administration of New France, in peace and in 
ZL" « ^«7 8U.Ity of frauds, extortions and 
lilLm-n- ^%'"«P'''''l'le harm was done. 
All the mil ions of francs which were restored to 
the French treasury by himself and his accomplice! 
Cadet and P^an, could not give back to France Hs 

EtfaSr ■ ^" "'^^^ --'^' **^ -* ^^ 

With the coming of Montcalm in 1756 had 
commenced the Seven Years' War, in which England 
and Prussia stood against France and Austria and 



Russia, and various lesser states, while fierce battles 
were fought in America, in India and on the sea 
At Louisbourg and Quebec, as on the plains of 
Hindustan, England was victorious. The weak 
character of Louis XVI and the growing abuses 
of government m France affected conditions at the 
Jiuropean seat of French power as did the cor- 
ruption and weakness of Bigot at the seat of author- 
ity in America. Failure was not the fault of the 
military leaders in New France. With Montcalm 
were the Marquis de Uvis, the Comte de Bougain- 
ville, General de Bouriamaque aid others worthy 
of the great question of national power which was 
at issue. Corruption was the present cause with, 
back of that an a primary reason, the lack of popula- ' 
tion and financial resources. The result of the 
centunes-old duel between France and England in 
Amenca was at last settled on the Plains of Abra- 
ham and in 1763 Quebec ceased to be the capital 
of a vague, vast, intangible New France and became 
for a time one of the outposts of British military 
power. Through all these years it had been a 
center of hfe and strife, of hope and fear, of religion 
and war. It had passed through the tremendous 
difliculties of pioneer settlement; it had survived 
t^e prolonged agony of Iroquois days; it had passed 
through the siege and capture by Admiral 
Kirke m 1629, through the siege by Sir William 
Phips m 1690; it had endured the attack of 1759 
and that of De Uvis in the succeeding year; it 
faced the desperate effort of Montgomery and 

ra M'' 


™t.on- ..,1 „ .bi.„ ot iJSZll,Mh?T 

try with r«n rI . ^*''* lumbering indus- 

of the'^t. Chli;° h seaUnT R \* ^^ ""'"*'' 






present home of a most important boot and shoe 

1 Se', m""*"1"1''*' °' *'"' modern cit^ 
m! • I /i! J^"'*""^"*' *''« Wolfe-Montcalm M^ 
morial. the Champlain Monument and a MemoS 
of Queen Victoria. Outside of the city are wt 

St. Charles and Lairet, of Murray and r)» t^ • 

nificance. With what history and life sufferin; 

gatesi^Pre's'l^K "'"' ~-. wS'th2"2 
gatcs-Prescott, Hope, St. John and the like 
reple e, what castigation will the unknoi^ nat^: 
of those responsible for their entire r^ovaT- 
changes were no doubt necessary-receive fTJiK 
ever growing number of those who TvrmeZri?!: 
of the past; who base their patriotism in some 
measure upon the visible tokens of "hat Z 
who feel a curious fascination in seeing things' 
dfferent to the newness and swiftness and cha^.:: 
of modern construction and modern taste. * 

The commercial age has come upon the citv 
S reet cars and trade dislike narrow gates and thev 
had to go; modern buildings require space and ^ 


F^mo^ac and Ctadel, Quebec 







river an/St hi J" 7"^/'"'" °' -""^ 
beautiful valleys nml ni * ""^ ''■'"^" »«"' 

ferin Terrace one of th^ «'""?"" ^'"'"'^■»- »"'- 
world, and U,e n, . r""* P™'»«'"«1<"' '" the 

world.; rrit"ro.'e!i:''L::Tir;ru?^ °', *^? 

he ancient chateaux and loveL , r^d fiT ^ 

ground and erected th, ^°"" ^d'^^rt cleared the 
the cliff in ZZdtJlL^'^S'' 'T """" 
Hall stands where the Jesui CoH^ ' *•" ^"^ 

famous offic s JL L it/"'" !f ^"*'»'' ^"^^^ had 



R. H. the Duke of Kent lived in 1791-93 tZ\u 
luKtns oi an olden dav. Thp ri..,,„i, * »t . 

Lr .rrva? oTr ;r ir r j 

t e eh h_the plural style waflu Je"d t'^SU 

Walke tj"r''*'i"r '^ ^''">'-' Hovendei 
the nfll . abandoned-fitood in early days 

xecu o°nT uTed fu" '""^ ^''""«' *'>'' ^-^oW '» 
da s from Tel *° ''? «'^^*«d. The church itself 

inZeSlS The'firf'f r^^^"^ ''^ 
the^Cul-de-Sac and was destroyed at the siege of 

Champlain Street extends from the base of Cape 


Dmmond where it touches the market place 
stiU noted for its Saturday sale of productVbv 
Mnis. to the city limits and includes the one- 
time business center of the town, the old Guard 
House and the remains of the anci;nt inner harbor 

from"o K ""^ *'"' Charlesbourg Road, norSr 
from Quebec, are to be seen the remains of wh!t 
IS popularly called Chateau Bigot. Tradition ha, 

taks of love and cruelty fitting to the life of In- 
tendant Bigot, but the facts appear to be that 
■t was built by Intendant Bdgon (1712-26) who 

Ze' ;,' 1!*"'^* ™''" '" both 'character Ind 
fame Elsewhere ir. the city there are varied 
quamt and tortuous streets peeping out of mod n 
thoroughfares and reminding the casual visitor thlt 
Europe once held a vivid place in the making of 
American history. Nooks and squares and road- 
ways houses and churches have, in a sudden and 
surprising way, tales to tell of the stirring past 

future. Some of them were taught in that splen- 
did demonstration of national unity and inter- 
national friendship which marked, L 1908 the 
four-hundredth anniversary of Champlain's memor! 
able action in fou,"ding a settlement on the Rock 
of Quebec which would forward French power J 
the New World and advance Christianity among t 




Montcalm, Wo... ,,„ ,„, j.,^,^^ ^^ 

a^e everywhere L he City oJ O T*°'^ "' '^'''''''*' 
ture teems with studies of tl^"'!' ^*' "*'''•''- 
of the leaders- it» „!* ^ .• ^ *''*"* ^nd stories 
French, isTnfliencecf bvth""' "'!!*''*' ^"«'-h " 
death, by the" oint mi^ ^ '1'°'''' "^^ ^''^ double 

Casgram, Doughty WnnH i ^' Haddington, 
historian haye vied SnS.lT'' """"^ """t^er 
descriptions. Eyerywhl/e J^ "*" """'^^^^ ""d 
the great event. WoUetLZr"' """^ '°^'"^ °^ 
until 1832, when I nrH i i *"''' "'"« »°t honored 

erected a 4Te tottlTo^'lf ""t ^°^^--- 
Mde the city-where ^Tr , 'P°t-iust out- 
the monument o^ti wS """'"'' ""'' -»■-« 
gamson of Quebec in l^Q ""^ '''"^'^ ^y t^e 
the Stc. Foy Road "tlnd t^?5 Zt T'"' ^'-« 
bronze bearing an inscnnt.nn i k* ""'"""n "^ «uted 
captains of the wlr-th * n °"°' "' ^""^ "^^^^ 

Battle of Ste. For " AuVr^''^'''"''"-' '" *"« 
par la Sod«« St Jean pL * ^' '''' ^^eO-Krig^ 
• ''^*° BaptLste de Quebec 1860 " 




name of Murray? on tie sTe F "T ^"*'''° *»>« 
name of Uvis above th»-^ '"^^ "PP*"" t^e 
The Wolfe-MontcZ MeS" ^^ ?''. ^"'°-- 
entrance to the Go^erS pI'm' *"'' "* *''° 
"nder the admini.trro„ of Lord n"^''''' "''=*^'^ 
«ith an afterwards f«m fo™ Dalhousie 1827) 
Charlton FUheT: ">«cription pen. 4 by 

Valom. gave them a common death, 

History a common fame 
And posterity a common monument. 

with greater forces a„TS'„^,,: Z/V*™*"^'^ 
was holding the eates „t tT ° '"^ «"^. 

middle west the Kch hlS'lT"'' ""' '» ^''^ 
Lake country and nf n!^ had lost control of the 

the Indians "w£ oi TZS:'!."''^''. '""°"'^* 
fallen, and at the heart nf!.°"''''°"''8 '"^d 
and Montreal Bkntt ^!''^'''»8' i" Quebec 

the vitals of powe'r Fran"''*""' r ^''""« '"*<> 
Europe and could riv„ r*?, '^'^ ^""^ P'«««ed in 
domiLnt upon the seaT.r''' E"8">»d was 

French Can^In^w r Vtti l'?'r T '"''^ 
with 3,000 000 Fn^; K , • °*' death-grapple 

might ofEnZd'"' ''°'°°"*^ ''-k«<l by The 
aa^VZ;^^,^:^^^ were somewhat 
- -««ion, in position.*^ ^^s" jtZ'V'^MZ' 



racy and member of „T •, ! ^""^""^ ""^too- 

that "wa^r i/the tomb o tt M f ^''* ''*''*^'"«"* 
Wolfe, though the s"„ o/«n ^°°*'""'"'-" '''""«« 
a family of any IZ°!, °^'"'- """''^ °°t boast 

was aecLomeTto r fo Tclr " '"'"*•'»"" 
the field; Wolfe showed t "l adTan^' "'" "^ °' 
monial or on social occasion and mI7 *'.'" "'''■ 
mistakes that the Dukl^fNer ?>'"''' '""""" 
in the presence of the K ng ha^S " °""' ^"'^ 
was "a mad fool." ■• If L if jT ^ f. "'"^ «''°^™' 

Wolfe was uglv s,.ffpr.H ^. mhented position; 


Both were brave tlskitoffi? '™'" ^"^''''^• 
soldiers. Both had alpp»^ • ""' «*P«rienced 

American aoH '^ ''°'' ^'«"''' ^''^"ries on 

The actual battle was a brief one Th» 
was about where the w„if ,, ^°® ^^^^ 

today, though itTnc uded m Monument stands 
than of what is ZpulartZ' *'" r"""" "^^ 
Abraham-called aftorAK . " "' **•" ^'"»« °f 
Pilot who intaiyXs twnT ""r'"' " Q^''- 
the land. The operation, 7 J " '"'«* P^^''"' "f 
xne operations leading up to the conflict, 



Z^'onlvIrT' " ''''''' "«" °f '""d and river 
included o„?oVr; ^tT' °" ^"^ ^'«""'' ^'l" 

of French mS" h„ T'. '"'' """*"*'''» «"PPort 

tain allies and ve" y^'?;'!"! ""^ -"« "-er- 
leader, some French mar^i / ""*'*""" °' ^^'" 
in the Richelieu durin?r "'" ^''''" "'''>°««1 
were abouru oi 2 *'''' j'^^^' A'*°eether there 

mander-n ch ef T T " ^°"*'='"" ''« «»'»- 
more numert \haf horoT W 7' '"' *''°"«'' 
in their qualifications and varL^^'ll"^^^ ""-^d 

the regu-ars and colonial loS^did "fir"' 
work well together- whil» "*" ^^"* »°t always 
commander wis th« . ♦ "' *''"'" ""^ their 

undisciplined rnity^thTS adl" w"^^' ''' 
the Govemor-De VaudremT f '"""?*'-''*i°° of 
every direction, also w^ the Hi '" '" 

immense difficutfs created bvh'*'""'''"""' '^'^ 
Bigot and his satellites '^ *'"' """"P*'"" «' 

Wolfe was more fortunate. The British fleet 




anchored m or sailing up and down the great 
nver m front of tlie Hock of Quebec, had 9 000 
trained troops aboard, though of these only 5,000 
took part m the ultimate struggle. This latter 
portion of the army included the Fifteenth Reiri- 
ment, now the East Yorkshires; the Twenty- 
eighth, now the First Gloucesters; the Thirty- 
Mth, an Insh regiment now called the First Royal 
Sussex; the Forty-third, afterwards famous in the 
Pemnsula campaign; thp Forty-seventh or First 
Loyal North Lancashires; the Forty-eighth or 
I'lrst Northamptonshires; the Seventy-eighth Fra- 
sers now the Second Seaforth Highlanders, and 
the Louisbourg Grenadiers. The fleet itself was 
a powerful part of the British navy and included 
su men-of-war, nine frigates and sixty transports. 
It neutralized to a considerable degree Montcalm's 
possession of the strategical spot in the struggle 

On the 26th of June, 1759, the fleet anchored 
off the Isle d Orleans and on the following day the 
troops were camping on the upper portion of the 
island. French engineers had already commenced 
fortifying the Beauport shore, opposite, from the 
River St. Charles to the Falls of Montmorenci. 
Montcalm had come up from Montreal to direct 
the French campaign, and on his arrival had at 
once pressed forward this work of strengthening 
the defences at the mouth of the St. Charles and 
along the shore below the city, while batteries and 
barricades were set up in the Lower Town of Quebec 
and guns placed wherever possible. Fire-ships 


dr/JutSn. " "'■?^"' '"^*-- of I'o Vau- 
c'ost a mm!orC;:n7'"°^''''"*''''''»- They 
When let loose 'jZ^^^Z^'^l^^^^^l '"''^ 
pation of Pointe I^vf.. ^ "* British occu- 

bombardment of Q^ebec''°reee:^' k" •'°"*'""°- 
of troops at Montmorene' A l^^rn f ?[ " ''*"'''"« 
out serious action and tLn « \. '''"°^"'' ^ith- 
Montmorenci in whkh th« R 5\' '°°^ P''"=« "' 
checked; the LoweTTown .A ^"'"n\'"*^'""'« ^as 
by shells from L^ ^"i ''"«* '""^ '^''^ •'"">«d 
British position afthe Fall ^'P"""''^' ^d the 
a detachment went uo it ""'' "^^"^'^^^ while 
Of Quebee and iared^ ^y--: ''' "^'^ «'c,e 

and*dXr a";t 5^ ""4 ^^^^ ^-"^^'-t 
''onfide to his brigadTers tT f '".^ ''^ '^''^ »»» 
Murray and CarleTon ""re a^l T ",'' ^°'""'*°»' 
resource, but he conceived ht enf """"^^ ""•! 
hazardous for any but r ," ^^^P''^« to be too 
for some days been ul-rT"'.""""*'""- »« bad 
and beyond'^^ap Bou^to I °M """^ ""''^ ""ove 
the French commander ^°^'""^'^''' Bougainville, 

and who could rSoihi^g^ofTh^r'^''""^ '""'^ 
which included camnin^ an I u ! """^"ments- 
up the river in shZaSt "o/^'^^ ""^ ^^'-<^ 
however, instead of actuluv ..n ^^^^'"•'er 12th, 
the troops under Caretoi r^ 'L'"*" '^' '^'^^ 
and the ships passed on ?„mT!'' '" **"« •'"ats 
ville on land'toTrdt plteTu^Tr" ""m ^•'"«'''"- 
twenty miles from Quebec M ^'t'?j'''«^-about 
8 ^^''*''- Meanwhile the L^vis 




batteries commenced a severe cannonade of Quebec 
and Admiral Saunders threatened a descent at 
Beauport. Carleton carried his men in boats 
down the river, unseen by the French, and landed 
on the opposite or outh shore, to be ready should 
Wolfe succeed in climbing the Heights. 

There is no need to describe the battle in detail 
At the Cove, now called after him, and situated 
about two miles above Quebec, Wolfe succeeded 
in landmg and in climbing the steep cliff despite 
unknown dangers in men and guns, the difficulties 
of scahng heights in utter darkness, the responsibility 
for the hves of thousands dependent upon absolute 
silence and upon the result being a surprise to the 
enemy. Wolfe had, indeed, almost given up hope 
of finding a place in this long line of towering crags 
where his men could make even an attempted 
ascent. Finally, by chance, he had noticed with 
his glass a slight marking amid the bushes and 
trees of the cliff which might indicate a pathway 
and on closer examination it was found to be the 
dry, almost precipitous course of a little stream 
called the Foulon. It was at least an opportunity 
and at this point De Vaudreuil came in again as 
being, with Bigot, the twin evil spirit of New France's 
last days. 

Just above the lofty cliffs there were known to 
be troops on guard despite the fact that Montcalm 
deemed them inaccessible. The latter, however 
felt the curious movements of the British troops 
to be dangerous and twice had despatched his 


with hi» superior authority nnrf h i ^°^*™<"'. 

soned troops others of .iLut, P'""" °' "»«- 

«"«picion of either cZpt'ln*''''"'^""''^' 
enemy, or cowardi,.. n^7^^ trafficltmg with the 

The r^'sult Zt 'h? 'a;brkto,? f 7'^°"'- 
the Rubicon of his hooes h»H W° '« had passed 
less troops at the top ^Ih^ .•^"'"''"f "* *'"' ""«" 
3.000 men-aftemards.nV J "'"' ''*°°'' '''"' 
Plains of Abraham ""' *° ^-OOO-upon the 

wS etrtrx:^:L%i^te^°!:f\""- -- 

the formation was sat a o ; .Td ..'l'' r""''''' 
was passinir im AnH a .' ^ *he Genera 

withholding of'fi",:'„Jr"'f''f """'"ess and the 

enemy. Mean^h rSonTlt S """ °' *"" 
haste from the St. Charies Jh™ h ""' "^ '» 

watching the mancTv^es of^t T '"^'""'y 

to find the British r„r ^^^^^^ ««et, only 

proach to the cHv Sa-r''"'" °' '''' ^-"'"^t ''•^ 
guns below and on eve^Xrh. "''""^ *° '""^ 
of 9,000 might be fare tlf *'^*.''"'''« '"an of a total 

An immediat attack by Z::;*','" """* ''«'«--• 
and at ten o'clock hp In .'"'"^ ""^ necessary 

men to meet tte BrH sh T h "!f f °"* ^''^ 
with his 2,000 men mi.M T'' B°"eainville 



The conflict waa short, .harp, decisive. The 
troops of Montcalm advanced to the charge Sh 
the French Canadians throwing themselves to^e 

t?"re T "'^ ^'"''^""'"'"'t'' afte' the first order 
to fire Temporary delay and disorder followed 

Tth^ ^/T'*"' ""* ''*''"« "^customed toTws 
method but the advauce then continued untU 
wuhm for^y paces of the enemy when Wolfe gave 

French Imes with fearful effect-followed by a 
wo"<£ wSHell '° "f ■">-• As he uttered ^th^ 
t?tt,T / l.'"*""^ "'"""^^'^ ""d ^'"' carried 
to the rear to d.e. Montcalm, meanwhile, was 
tnnng to ' .lly his men from that close-ranged ;oney 
of shot but m the effort was himself fatallylound d 

On the Bntish side Monckton and Carleton were 
wounded while General Townshend (yea« after! 

r"?;ldT' " ""T"'^^ "-•"""'l command td 
reformed his men who were pursiing the French 
to the gates of Quebec. He was just in tfme to 
repulse De Bougainville who had arrived to" a e 
to save his cause, too late to affect the result- Jter 
wasting precious hours in storming a stone house 
occupied by the British at SiUery As ^th De 
Grouchy at Waterioo, a little moTe haste, TrskS 
or luck, might have changed the fate of ai empi 1 
MeanwhHe Wolfe was dying in the arms of hTs 
officers. He had himself directed the charge in 



Wolfe at once gave orders for the St rh„,i T .. 
to be seized and the retreat cut off ^urntf o^ h*?' 


there toM Tat he had f°r' '''"^'^ ^"'««°°' ""d 
much the bette?" wi th ""^ " ''"^ *° '■"«• "8° 
live to see the F Ti, '""P""'"- "^ «ha" not 
uve to see the English masters of Quebec " H» 
then dictated a letter to n» v j '■*'t,''- «e 



other than thonn nf ,..„■ .•■ , "" '"*" no «ounda 
air from Br tirartiiLrT" tl "'"'""^ *'''°"«'' ^^e 

excavation torn outT .h„ fl •^T" '" ■"» 

Britiah bombshell sth Utr "' "", "*' " 
end of the man who h»H h »PP"ently ,ad 

Pru: I. . . "°*" commanders dead aith 

'r o/r:!;; '':rreb"^ *';^ «;•<» a^;;;:; 

defenders nttlJi T- ^ ''*" '***'f shattered, itn 

" "■"« ™ttle had been about 600- that nf ♦!,„ 
French about 800 l?i„« j , ' °^ *"* 


closely bv thr FrLI . *''* "'y- preyed 

flOOOn, ■ J. ^ commander, who had about 

»,000 men, mcluding a number of Indians pl 1 

""z TCI- r?" »«*• .s 

After a ueZioro fi!r'""'''"'*"'''°"« P°"«°"- 
and retreats hTLd f * !' '»'"'»"^'««. advances 
lo«s of S i:„'"'l ° '^/."™ *° t''" eity with a 

being at WoIfeCVeH ' Z u ""*"" °' *•>« ''""'e 
now stands T., I 1' "'''"' *•>« Q"«bee Gaol 

involved wnere Do L6vis was 




batteries against the already enfeebled garrison and 
walls With a lesult dependent upon the first arrival 

the probable fall of the fortress; a British frigate- amved on May 9th with two others on the 
15th-wouId and did mean the saving of the city. 
Ihe siege was raised on the 17th and De L«via 
retired to Montreal. British forces under Murray 
Haldimand and Amherst converged upon that 
center where, on September 8th, De Vaudreuil 

Zr t*"!! f^ "'"' "'*'' '* **■« p°-ti- of 

was th„ f } '^'"'"'"- "" ^''^' P^S^ '" history 
was thus closed; a new one was turned over which 
involved much that was interesting and important 
but could not possibly equal the picturesque 
strikmg and romantic characteristics of New f-an'^e 
fighting for life in a new world during a century 
and a half of struggle. ' 

f <l 

11 n 

Stene on the S«uenay R, 

»er. Quebec 



MONTBEAL-TH, Seat of AN Anc.nt 


alone due to the fai-f th t ^t^action is not 

very old and narrow or 1""' f '''' ^*'«^*« "« 
pointed out a build^^ whn T-l ^""^ ""'^ *''«'« « 
archHecturetndSe hirtnri ""'• ^""^ "»'' «»"«' 
in it now center thee 'no "?T"f°°'' °' »'«<=«"«« 
greatest transpV^trfntrr' ^T'" "H' ''' 
have their place, of course, al have thelrr '^""^ 
looking ecelesiasti<-al o„^ j . "'^''y severe- 
handsome chu^h f the soLnTn 'r' ^'^'«"'«' *•>« 
soUd character thin the flfmsv f ^'^ °' " '»°"' 
of modern fancy thlohu T' f"*'^*''' structures 
water which appear at irri °' '"*''""' ^''^ """1 
from the top of Mount ZvT ''°'"*' "'"' ''^'<'^' 
of the finest^anotrs S r^Th ^" ""^ 

aiirs'-itrrfr ff-^ *--?*: - 

therefore of oiher agL w^ft* f *>?« *-- and 
interesting because if! T 1' ^°"*real is primarily 
its races Ld i ^^11,' \-*""^ associations! 
the present and mefge The cTvH T *'" ""^^ ^"^ 
under Louis XIV, wi^fttt ^S^w l^Ta 



commercial age and under a dispensation of democ- 

.iZpr*^''' ^"* ^'"'^ navigators and explorers 

cunosny and beauty. The Indian town of Hoche- 
laga-wherc Sherbrooke and Metcalfe Streets afte-- 
wards stood-was surrounded by waving fields of 
maize and nee and great forests of oak and maple; 
the view from the mountain which faced Cartie; 

threshold of an unknown world was rarely beautiful 
and picturesque. Great masses of primeval forest 
flaming in golden autumn colors mixed with red 
and changing green; the distant silvery rush of 
waters in the rapids to the west; the vast plain to 
the south broken only by the sweep of the St 
Lawrence and the Ottawa and the peaks of nameless 
mountains; the quiet, even flow of that part of the 
great nver which he had just traversed; these were 
some of the things which greeted Cartier and after- 
wards Champlain-though in the later case all trace 
of Indian settlement was gone and nature was alone 
beaJrt '*' ''"***'' strength, its graceful 

Champlain was especially charmed with the scene 
and e:q>lored the region upon several occasions. 
Upon hia first visit he thought the opening in the 
waters was, at last, the route to China; hence 
the Lachine of a later date. The Island of Montreal 
he examined carefully with a view to settlement 


-me wandering band 0/ SL" It^T L^ 
however escape the keen observation of the JesuH 

King in my profession of arms." The obi^ 

1642, that the landing took place at thrp. 
^yale of Champlain'and tha'tlhelou^ding"':? 
Ville Mane de Montreal was inaugurated De 
Ma^onneuve was accompanied by De'^Montmagny! 



Governor of New France; and Father Vimont. 
Superior of the Jesuit* at Quebec; while Mdlle 
Mance had a new companion in Madame de la 
Peltne from Quebec, who possessed a soul of sinular 
sacnncial devotion. 

Religion and the Church were conspicuous from 
the first. As De Maisonneuve sprang ashore he fell 
on his knees in prayer; his followers did the same and 
an altar was then raised and decorated by Mdlle 
Mance and her companion. One more picturesque 
scene of sacrifice and zeal was added to the history 
of French Canada. With the splendid background 
of forest and water there stood Father Vimont in 
the rich vestments of his office; De Montagny, cold 
and stem and not very hopeful of results; De 
Maisonneuve, a tall, erect, warlike, enthusiastic 
figure; the two devout gentlewomen with their 
servant, and the clustering group of followers. 
Around them was the balmy air of spring, but in 
the whispering trees and amid the myriad sounds of 
ammal life there fluttered the spirit of Iroquois 
hostility, the silent breathings of a savage hate 
which was to give the colony many years of terror 
and suffering and individual death. The Uttle 
gathering knelt in reverent prayer as the Host was 
raised aloft, and the priest addressed them- "You 
arc a grain of musta-' seed that shall rise and grow 
till Its branches overshadow the earth. You are 
few, but your work is the work of God. His smile 
IS on you and your children shall fill the land " 
Thus commenced the Canadian city of churches 



and commerce. The proud, duty-loving pe«oniUity 
of De Maisonneuve was one well fitted to be the 
central figure of such an event, and hi. words-used 
when the dangers and difficulties of his task had 
been pomted out to him at Quebec-may well be 
.nscnbed in the hearts of the Canadian l^Z ot 
today without hmitation of race or creed: "Gentle- 
men, .f all the trees of the Island of Montreal were 
changed into Iroquois I am bound by honor and duty 
to go. Difficulties surrounded every stage of the 
ear y settlement. The Governor proved right in his 
fear of not being able to protect it from the seat 
of authonty at distant Quebec, and the colonists 
had to at once devote themselves to strengthening 
their crude defences against the ever-menacing 

n^r^ f'J''' ^"'"' '"*" *•>« ""'^ Governor! 
DAilleboust de Coulonge, brought them a new 
band of settlers and helped in the construction of 
better fortifications, while the new King, Louis XIV 
sent a present of cannon. De Maisonneuve made 
an Ideal governor in this troublous period-calm 
courageous and cautious. So careful was he of 
his men and their safety, so averse was he to the 
reckless raids they would Uke to have made upon 
the surrounding and underestimated foe, that thev 
were for a time inclined to attribute cowardice to a 
chief who was, personally, brave to the point of 

On March 30, 1644, he gave his followere a lesson 
and, gravely warning them to be as valiant as their 
own words, he marched out of the fort at the head 



o thirty meu. At about the .pot where the present 
Place d Arme» .s seen they were faced by two hundred 
Iroquow, and after a ta«to of fighting bo hot and «, 
mercies aj. to rtrike terror into their «,uU, the 
troope fina ly ran for shelter and safety. Their 
eader was left to retreat alono and did so. holding 
the enemy off with his pistol and aided by their 

fort the chief of the Indians closed in and the pistol 

eoliers and Indians, De Maissonneuve succeeded 
m discharging his other pistol and the chief fell, 
shot through the head. The Indians were so taken 
aback that the gallant Frenchman had a moment 
m which to gam safety. There were no further 
murmurs about the commander and his caution! 
Meanwhile, though De Maisonneuve was the Royal 
Governor of Montreal and the lands depending 

.'T' \? '^'"'* ^""^ ^'^ -""de of the entir? 
Island of Montreal to the Seminary of St. Sulpice- 
an Order founded about the same time in Paris by 

youthful French priest. By this Order it was after- 

™f lJ°°'"^'t*'' **" ^"""'""y °f St. Sulpice in 
V le Mane or Montreal. To the Virgin Mary the 
Sulpicians consecrated the Island of Montreal in 
order that she might defend it as her property and 
increase it as her domain; the eariy name of Ville 
Mane confirmed this religious invocation; the 
Company which they controlled had the figure of 
Our Lady" as its official seal. 


_ Great care was token m to the Ant immiaranti, 
m respect to character, habita and physique Qentt 
men o good family came to tl!e Element «S 
Tesvard de Montigny, Jacques Le Bcr and C^harles 
Le Moy^e bmit houses; the members of the SomiLry 

^th ihe l^,'"- 7"''.'''««t«'d Seigneurs of the Island 
wi h the quamt designation of the Gentlemen of 8t; a fortifie.l mill was built by the latter at 

Tnd arh'"""".!" """■'^ '''''' - Win.lmSl pL" 
and another on the site of what is now Dalhousie 
Square Family after family came from Fran e and 

mcrased, the very large infant death-rate of the 
earher years decreased and the population grew 
apace Meanwhile and for twen'ty-five /earl 
M. de Mmsonneuve labored unceasingly for hi. 
^ttlement and its people. Time, money, al the 

h^ re^rneH h" "'"i """r'' '° '* "-"^ '" '««5 -he" 
he returned home to Paris the Town Major was 

from New France found him living in povertv and 
forgotten by the world, b„t thinking anxTously of 
his hfe-work in the lar-away land ""°"«'y of 

Durmg these years the right-hand man of De 
Maisonneuve in secular matters had been CharS 

JCen/hT"' T'^7 "' '^' '"°»' distinguished o 
French Canadian families, though not himself an 
aristocrat by birth Pnint «♦ nu 1 """""' »" 
after him .Li. ■ ' <-'""''es was named 

after him and he was given the Seigneury of Lon- 
gueuil which he settled, fortified and developed whi 
fighting for the colony, sharing in the fur trade and 



Square H.«' ""t *""* °' ">« ^uatom Hou" 
■square. Here wore born hia utili m,^.. < 

•OM-Le Moyne d'Ibervill« .L i «" ''""°'" 
WUe. The rn„er^etrerl^?r„\t"• 
yean. Other eminent names of this DerioH— m.„ 
who helped to make and keep MontrlalTto ""d 
Its conditions and sufferings in the period of InT 
Btruggle-were Robert Cav^ier de lT s.M„ ♦( '" 
explorer, whose home in lOa^wLt'S ' J^^ 


On the west half of the Bons^Scours Market stood 
for many years the Palace of the Intendant^ 
was a headquarters of Bigot, Cadet, Varin a„i the 

Slr^T''""'"''- '* ^'^ «'- the'hTme o 
better men, and for a time, after the Cession wZ 

occupied by Sir John Johnson, the famous UyaUrt 

M^ld stone building, still standing (accorZg 

M w. D Lighthall, an authority on Montreal'. 

h story and traditions) on the coLr of S^e 

wh"h'BTot''/r'' «°^^™'"-* warehouse": 
Which Bigot and his associates carried on manv 
of their frauds and which, like the similar buHdingin 



a hou. which wa,?het:„. ;;'-r,"":7",P,^ 
famous Le Moynes-De V,, „.. V , 

ofst^A„t„ine»„dst.A...,,; ',,,., i'',^ ;::"-' 

the Monongahela," am; his l„,.,;.; '.v ,i „ °' 
the French officer who .,1 so ,.1 „ ''" 

dock's defeat in that Lnl^Z^/ ; , " ';""? «""»- 
Carter Square^Here St. Puu/ ■L.e/'" 't^T 
was the house built and occur! Du I ,m l^!,' 

ast French govcrnor-the Marquis de Vaudrenil 
hved .„ tbe splendor which chTloterized th^eT 
Here came Montcalm and De Uvis in tvL I 1 

stanH. tu. ""orms. Un St. Sacrament Street 
stands the house once occunicH hi, ♦!, »* . 

ment, village and town had to face the constant fear 



SauoTs"' 'u'f' '"^^""'"ent, reality of war with the 
Iroquois. It hung over the whole life of the people 

hcartedness in many cases and the inborn, inbred 
rehpous feeling of the community in oth^ cages' 
enabled them to often rise above it. It s a ^0,^ 
of war today and peace tomorrow; of surprises 
and raids and massacres; of capture , tortu"es"nd 
fnghtfu, death. The fighting was des'ultory thougj 
fierce and Its history is more or less a recital of 
mdividual incident, of personal heroism, of gaJ^ant 
endurance of sufferings. Mixed up ^ith ft wL 

sich T nT °'/''°*'' P"^^*^ •''"' -"-Bionari^ 
Euror fZ ''" ^'^°"' ^ ""^^'^y officer in 
Europe under Turenne, who came to Montreal in 

i Srt r f It' ^""''"'""' ^"P'o'^'i ^'^'^ Galin^e 
a portion of the Great Lakes, acted frequently as 
a m sionary amongst the Indians at daily risk of 
nis We, and became eventually Superior of the 
Seminary and Vicar-General of Montreal. 
One of the eariy heroes of this prolonged Indian 
ruggle was Raphael Lambert Closse, Town Major 

save o?he™ n ''" '°'^'^'''^'' ^'''"^ ^« "f" *» 
save others. On one occasion, in October, 1652 

in a^'LTlI *"^"*y-f° V^ ''^ ««" were surr;unded 
t K ! i"""^' °" *''" """fin^^ °f the town, by 
lheFZi"t"^'"'f'- ■ ^'^^''"tly the ammunition of 
the French began to give out and this meant death, 
or capture and torture and death combined. In 
this predicament the commander selected a man 



named Baston celebrated for his running powers 

volley ' Zl^'t 'T *]■« "r "°^^"''' •>' '- "^ 
iZTu ?? ^^^ defenders, managed to aet 

through the enemy and run to the fort, whenS 

SLT Trf ^*'' " '''' '»«" '">'' *-o iiht field! 

were of" o^ti "'' *'^ '""^- «"<"' ^»-d-ts 
were of continuous occurrence, and DoUier de Cas- 

1 H^/vf' ''^J^^'' '"''" *•">*' "^ ^''ort time beVore 
into the 'fitM^^^'r"^ «' ^««2. when he rushed oi 

were £ if tt t^u*" '"^^ ^""^ ^"'""'^t^ ^h" 
were being attacked by an Iroquois br d he had 

Baid to some friends who warned bin, thlt deS 

would result from his efforts: "I but came here 

arms. It was this spirit of the Crusader that 
makes this period glorious and this mar: and otS 
like him heroes of history. Like De Maisonneuvr 

excerthe°nf '""^ '°'/"^' °' "'"«*■ ^ p""" 
Sf '^ *"' "^ ^^'"^ "*''«" '"'•J «'«=rifioing 
In the spring of 1655, after sweeping over the in the St. Lawrence near Quelle 

the Iroquois moved on to Montreal and endeavored 

hands. Charies Le Moyie arrived from Quebec 
just m time to avert the danger by a stratagem 

thl Tnnf '' r'^' °^ "^'t"'" P"«°"«" held by 
the Ind mils. Four of them were little giris sur^ 
vivors of the recent Island massacre. Mdlfe Manee 



took charge of the latter at the Hotel Dieu and one 
Of them m after years married Closse, the Totto 
Major while another became the wife of Sieur de 

Of the events of this time the most striking and 
the best known was the heroic action of Adam Dol- 
lard des Ormeaux and his sixteen companions who 
dehberately sacrificed themselves in an effort to 
hold in check a new and sweeping onslaught of the 
iroq'aois. The movement of the latter was a wide 
and far-reaching one with the determined object 
of finally driving the hated French into the sea 
Quebec was so weak at the time (1660) that hearts 
there were wrung with fear. Three Rivers was 
practically defenseless and Montreal stood in the 
vanguard of probable attack with slight fortifica- 
tions, which did not cover the settlement as a 
whole, and with few troops. Under these circum- 
stances Dollard, a young officer lately from France 
volunteered to lead others who might offer and to 
endf- -or at some advance post to hold the enemv 
m check fo' at least a time. It was a daring and 
seemingly hopeless task, but on April 18th the little 
band heard their last mass and received their last 
communion at the chapel of the Hotel Dieu and 
departed amid the earnest prayers of the nuns 
and, indeed, of the whole population. 

In the beginning of May the party found them- 
seves withm a ruined fort, a building at a place 
called Greece's Point, at the foot of the Long Sault 
on the Ottawa Rivei-. Here they were joined by 



two small bands of Indian allies, and here they were 
shortly afterwards attacked by a large force of the 
Iroquois. Day after day, night after night, the 
httle garnson fought and prayed for a week against 
constantly increasing masses of the enemy. Event- 
ually all the friendly Indians, except an old chief 
named Anahotaha and four Algonquins, deserted 
and the end was in sight. No man of the French 
survivors wavered, however, and the defence became 
so desperate that even the Iroquois recoiled and only 
the arrival of five hundred more braves braced taem 
to the final attack on May 21st. In it so many 
Indians were killed at close quarters that the savages 
actually lost sight, for a time, of the desire to capture 
♦he defenders for purposes of torture. When it 
was all over they could only find one body with 
ife enough in it to serve their purpose. Though 
ost by DoUard and his companions, so far as their 
hves were concerned, the victory was really won. 
bo dismayed were the Iroquois by the gallantry 
the persistent heroism of the defence, by the feeling 
that If a few men could fight hke this what would 
not a large number do in places such as Montreal, 
that they gave up their object of exterminating the 
wnite men m one sweeping onslaught, and the httle 
colony at Ville Marie was saved once more. Inci- 
dents such as this are more than picturesque or 
stnkmg. Leonidas at Thermopyls Uves in the 
history of Greece and of the worid; no less a place 
IS mented by DoUard des Ormeaux and his com- 



What Jhough beside the foaming flood untombed their ashes 

The world becomes the monument of men who bravely die. 

The fighting which followed was, however, merci- 
lesa in its desultory way; the savages were every- 
where, and no man knen as he worked or ate or 
slept, outside of the defenses or fortifications, at 
what moment he and the members of his family 
might be killed, or captured and tortured and 
scalped. It was late in October, 1661, that M 
Vignal, treasurer of the Seminary-whose predecessor 
had lost his life not long before-obtained permis- 
sion from the Governor to cross to what is now called 
Moffatts Island, with his workmen and a guard 
for the purpose of obtaining construction material' 
Amongst the latter were Ren4 Cuillerier and Claude 
de Brigiac, secretary to De Maisonneuve. As they 
were landing a force of Iroquois surprised the party 
and the attack was so sudden that in the ensuing 
hght four were captured. One of these was killed 
at once; another's fate is unrecorded; Cuillerier 
was saved at the demand of a woman whose husband 
he had killed and who made a slave of him; poor 
De Bngiac was tortured to death with indescribable 

The Massacre of Lachine occurred on the night 
of August 4, 1869, in a little settlement on the 
upper end of Montreal Island, about eight miles 
from the present city and on a site once owned and 
settled by La Salle. Noiselessly, under cover of storm 
and darkness, some fifteen hundred Iroquois stole 



into the village and surrounded each house. Then 
with the awful war-whoop of the savage, doors and 
windows were broken in and the sleepers slain or 
captured in their beds. Fortunate, however, 
heaven-blessed in fact, was the man, woman or 
child who was killed instantly in the first heat of 
the assault. Others were dragged forth, old or 
young, child or woman, tied to stakes and tortured 
with indescribable tortures in the light of their 
blazing homes. Some who survived were carried 
away prisoners to further sufferings before the merci- 
ful release of death, while to his eternal disgrace, 
De Denonville, one of the weaker Governors of 
New France, who happened to be at Montreal, 
refused to allow any of his troops to go to the 
rescue. Such were the struggles through which 
the Ville Marie of New France passed; such were 
the men who founded the great city of the future. 
There was also war in other directions. The 
conflicts with the English colonies were distant, of 
course, and intermittent in character, but at times 
the war came home directly to the settlers of Mon- 
treal — it seems to have been usually called Ville 
Marie in early days— as well as indirectly through 
the Indians. Early in February, 1690, for instance, 

a party composed of two hundred and ten men 

Indians and French— left Montreal with a view to 
attacking Orange, now Albany, in New York State. 
Most of the notable young Frenchmen of the place 
were in the party, including Testard de Montigny, 
Jean Lo Bcr, Le Moync d'Ibervillc, De Maricourt, Le 



fluence. The surDrie. ''""''"*«d »» English i„. 
was made at „ghrr„d ♦."'.r'^*"' *"« """"k 
times and the ? fodty bred ^ ^^ ""^'"'^ "' *he 
savage warfare Ct of th« T?""* '''"'««' ''■xl 
to the sword Vollt *''^ '"'"'''itants were put 

.allant,. Zt ,? C: d'^ Ste'^Sr' -^^^ 
defence of Quebec n.r»lr,.f *i, I ^^'*°^ "» the 
William Phips l„Tr " ^"«'"'» ""der Sir 
figures were cUt tVrr d^ sT T"*^^'' 
for a time commanded th„ p Z ®*- ^""'' '^''o 

sealed by De Vaudrenil in *t Abraham and 

to the BritisroXTemtrrS^r^r*'^ 
Amherst, Murrav H.m;.„ I ' <^^<"°erals 

tlie place of t^rbrillfant™^^^^^ and C„,eton took 

the dejected soldie" 5^^! ::o n ""k' ^/"''^''^ 
four thousand, were sent bal* t numbered about 

era in the hist^yTf Mon S a^s IZZ' ^"^ ^ "'^'^ 
was mauBurated n.,„ "^ °' America 

City of t'heTat^°TisToreTtifcrr ^ 
-ter. also, of a brilliant socTl t^^t^ 






2 th fi '^T;*' *•>« influene. of modern oommeroe 
and the financial dominance of the English in latter 
yea«. .t i. still a French and a Catholic city mI^ 
^^T^ "'^breathe a»ociation with th^^t S 

A,^!" '^" "^^"'^ *'«' Heroic Age of cS 
and of those years when, at times, theW.^ of ^^Jn 
the bravest soldien, ran like water in their vein^ 

There, on U Place Royale, is not only the site 
of the landing of Champlain and Maisonneuve bul 
the site of the first public square where I^„,h 
executions took place and wWch Tm7t> 

the Port T^TT"""'" ^''''' °f t°d»y. "tood 
the Fort de Ville Marie, succeeded in 1686 bv th, 
home of M. de Calli^res, and near b^ irthe'^fiM 
Manor House of Montreal and resUen^e of £ 
Maisonneuve. The Place d'Armes, where now 

tlntv '*r*"%°' '** '°"°''«'' -« the ceLr oT 
the aty s earher hfe and facing it stands today the 
Notre Dame parish church, the chief reUriouI 
structure of the French people in Canada. Ad2^^ 

n 1657' ^h""* °'l««'°-'''y of St- Sulpice, r c ed 
in 1657; through the site of the Bank of Montreal 
building there once passed the stone-bastioned will 
of ancient Montreal-Extending from Dalh"ul 
Square to Commissioners Street and thence back to 
the Square. They were commenced in 1721 by 
Chaussegros de l^ry and demolished n 1817 

S'a S ■ ri" *'^ "''^ ^'^ - ""'y days a swamp 
C^^il t ' '"'""°« *''""'8*' "■ On Jacques 

Cartier Square was the original Place des J^sukes! 

•"^•oeowr nsoiuTioN tbt omit 


1^1^ II 




1 653 Eotl Mom Strwt 
(718) 288-iM9-Fo. 



and adjoining it wag the monastery where Pdre 
Charlevoix, the historian of New France, lived for 
many years. Here, also, four Iroquois prisoners 
were tortured to death in 1696 as a stem reprisal 
on the part of De Frontenao for continued Indian 
atrocities and as a warning for the future. 

Between Notre Dame Street and the Harbor 
IS the oldest part; of Montreal-St. Amable Street, 
for instance, is fully a century old and most antique 
in Its structure. In this neighborhood is the Chateau 
de Ram^zay, built in 1705 by Claude de Ram^zay 
eleventh Governor of Montreal, and afterward^ 
occupied by various British governors up to the time 
of Lord Metcalfe. Under De Ram^zay it was a 
place of great hospitality and entertainment- it 
was long afterwards the headquart;er8 of the Conti- 
nental Army under Montgomery, of the American 
Commissioners in 1776 (Benjamin Franklin, Carroll 
of CarroUton and Samuel Chase); of Benedict 
Arnold for several weeks. It was the home of the 
hrst Canadian printing press brought over by 
Franklin and operated by Fleury Mesplet. It is 
now the home of the Numismatic and Antiquarian 
Society and the premises constitute an excellent 
memorial of the old-time thick-walled, defensive 
structure prepared for emergencies and constructed 
when large wine cellars and immense fireplaces 
were the vogue. Dalhousie Square is the site of 
what was called the Citadel, erected in 1685; where 
the Fire Station now stands there lived the first 
British governor of Montreal— Thomas Gage 



who afterwards kept New York for the Crowa 
throughout the Revolution. All these and many 
more memorials of a picturesque past are a part of 
the hfe of French Canada; they should be an 
inspiration to the youth of all its future. As a 
Montreal poet well puts it: 

Sprung of the Saint and Chevalier 
And with the scarlet tunic wed, 
Mount Royal's crown upon thy head, 
And past thy footstaU broad and clear 
St. Lawrence sweeping to the sea; 
Reign on, majestic Ville-Marie. 

Of the English rSgime in Montreal much might be 
said. Its first portion at least was picturesque. 
Upon Bons^cours Market there stood for many 
years the home of Sir John Johnson, British Indian 
Commissioner and son of Sir William Johnson- 
here also, lived General Ralph Burton, second 
British governor of Montreal. On St. Gabriel 
Street were the famous Northwest Fur Companv's 
stores, and in them centered enough adventure, 
discovery, and stormy incident and trade to fill 
volumes; Wther, at times, came Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie, Simon Fraser, Alexander Henry, J J 
Astor Washington Irving, McTavish, FrancWre 
and al the strong, sturdy, rough and capable men 
who followed the French pioneer period with another 
of mde discovery and sweeping ccomplishment. 
In Montreal centered, as a matte . fact, the great 
fur trade of the eighteenth century, and Alexander 




Henry lived on St. Urbain Street, Mackenzie on 

Simpson Street, and Simon Fraser not far away 

while Simon McTavish built a great house on 

Mount Royal (owned as a property in recent years 

by James B. Allan), and on the slope above Victoria 

Square lived Joseph Frobisher, one of the founders 

of the Company. The American wars left, also, 

tneir impression upon Montreal. In 1775 the city 

surrendered to Montgomery, the commander of the 

Continentals, and during the winter of 1776 remained 

m possession of the Americans. General Mont- 

gomery, Benedict Arnold, Benjamin Franldin, Ethan 

Allen, were figures familiar to the history of that 

'*!?''f.,'°«^°°*'"'*'- ^" 1"^ Sir Guy Carieton 
Mia the British troops re-occupied Montreal, and 
Dorchester Street stands today as f lasting memorial 
of the man who as General Carieton and Lord 
Dorchester did so much for his country's flag in 

From days of war and fur trading the modem 
city grew into an age when transportation was the 
great factor and element in a new national life 
which Montreal helped to create and helped to 
maintain. John Molson, in 1809, launched the first 
of Canadian steamboats— the second on the conti- 
nent. From Montreal, half a century later, came 
the inception and operation of the Grand Trunk 
Railway; in Montreal originated the Canadian 
Pacific project and in that city has since centered 
the great wealth created by its success and employed 
in part, so wisely and well by Lord Strathcona,' 



Lord Mount Stephen, Sir William Van Home 

miJatr^in-M'r'r^ ■'"•* "''- ^^^^^ 

7^e bIw * *^?"'' '"'^'"'^ *•>« operations 
Jaml M r.? •*'"'i """""' '^''"^ ^^^ personality of 
James McG.ll « cherished in the institution o 
learnmg he founded and which has had so 
great a sphere of usefulness. 
In more recent years the spirit of commercialism 

hL h T> ^% ^^''^ ^''^ •="'"« *° '^^ <='vili.ed world 
h^ had Us effect in Montreal as it has everywhere 
upon th,s continent. The corruption of bS 
under French rule has been succeeded by the 
corrupfon of the notorious " Twenty-Three "unie 

TeJ of the t r.' "'^ «°"^™'"«"* '"'« »»* "'way 
been of the best, here as elsewhere. But Montreal 

NeTworH "V' *?*"* '''''*"^««'l- centerof th 
New World and combines in itself much of the good 

rush oTthT/'''^ r'*""^' ^P-^' -<! -S 
Z» ^^/^.P^^^ent- Just as the Victoria Bridge 
once an additional wonder of the world, conneXl' 
the far-separated shores of the mighty river at its 
d^r so the spirit of the past and preLt hi been 
fused m the umon and friendship of two great race" 
and proven in the general harmony whf^^ exTstT 

Jevo ttd rth h "*" °'I''"- '' '^ -"*- °f ^^ 
devoted to the shnnes and scepter of a great Church 

has not been wholly realized, but therfhas evolved 

by ties of blood and sacrifice, bound to the present 
by deeds o good and strong influence wielded or a 
high morahty. Romantic trade and adventure 

H r 



have gone, but are replaced by the pulsations of 
commerce m a great new nation which uses this 
seat of Maisonneuve's religious enthusiasm as the 
outport c trade for half a continent: 

Child of the hope of noble hearts, 

Brought into being through sacrifice 
Of men and women who played their parts 

And counted not their lives in price, 
She haa ffown in strength Kke a Northern Queen 

Neath her crown of ligbt and her robe of snow. 

£°*""^ in her beauty fair between 

The Hoyal Mount anu the river below. 


Thi Jmuits— Pionbebs of the Cbos8 in 

The footprints of the Jesuits are almost everywhere 
in that part of the Continent once called New France 
Up to Hudson's Bay or down the Mississippi; in 
the Land of Evangeline or amid the forests of 
Ontario; wherever a savage could be taught the 
sacred meaning of the Cross or new lands studied 
and described for the benefit of the great Mother 
Order m Europe; there the restless, devoted 
fearless priest of the Order of Jesus was to be found' 
i^oimd and through the wilderness now known as 
the Nipissing and Muskoka regions of Ontario- 
even yet wild and uninviting in many parts— on the 
shores of Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay, there 
centered in the settlements of the Huron Indians 
the greatest of the Jesuit missions. Here occurred 
events and incidents which constitute some of the 
finest pages of heroism in all history; here are foot- 
prints which no traveler can overtook and which no 
Canadian can forget. 

The mission and work of the Jesuits in New France 
was not the isolated, accidental embodiment of 
individual enthusiasm: it was part of a wonderfully 
orgamzed, directed, and controUed movement then 



going on in all parts of Christendom. Its picturesau. 

rtr and' r;"'"' '"""!■'" -'^--SvZ 

velous J°h «°'''^«°<;e..Per«istent effort and mar- 

mytnicai to the masses of Europe. Amonmt th» 

That this dominating, invincible spirit brourtt 
power and sometimes arrogance is not to b" wondefed 
at; that the mdifference to Ufe which charZetS 

^^^^h'^B^^H^^^. %BirMy^ M.I\'¥yi' Jr^ 


~hSmati " of heSTnot "'"* ""'^ *"-'' 
that the «imnli„T . *^* ""y Mtraordinary; 

rhurnh • r- ** *''*y "^^ achieve for their 

putea. They strengthened the Church in V„r^L 
against the onrush of the Prnt»l? ! ""^ 

they DresentBH „,'*"«, ^"^otestant movement; 

.,3fi f !! *'■■'■"* °f enthusiasm and self 
sacnfice to the worM m>,;„i, " 

lor morality and punty of life. It may be thZt 

Ter^Ulitt:^ in a woHd-wide Zl^lX 
or versatiDty m the choice and use of means fn l 

of thl ' L" "? •'°"^* *'«'* ^'^cn the Voltairk^ 
of the eighteenth century swent ov^r p, "" 

«ed by the onrush Ji t^^LZL^^Z' 
vw loii was ine Urder of Jesus, Whpn th^ 

tZ\T:> *: '"Zr '""^ '''^ combined "cafa! 
clysm .nd to strengthen itself in the nineteenth 



Z^y*^ ' '•■'^ '" '^y°°'' that of the previous 

faith w,th the detached, often isolated paVnottm 
of the guenllas of some great cause. They wanted 

hoped to found a new French nation, apart inTts 
dommatmg Christian zeal from all ^ther natbn 
and to malce the wandering and fighting Ind.ans 
a hvmg example .o the worid of savagefy turned 
to gentleness, of warfare turned to peace of bar 
banty turned to Christianity by the Jtenin; 
mfluence of the Cross softemng 

istfcstfTe oT^'^T" ""'"' '''"' *>-« «»"'"<=ter- 
rh^^l T t, ''" ^^'"^^ '" *''« """"inK of Fathers 

Br^beuf to Quebec, on June 19, 1625, set the seal 

hst„r , "^u'T' """^ " f^'"'* ^'•'rifiee upon The 
history of the American continent. Their first 
act on reaching shore was to kneel and thank God 

wL Inder"°"j "' "'^'"^ »<"^ given them. I? 
was mdeed, a desperate service. The Huron 

n JTe'fiT t° """ !?^ '"* °''^«'=*« "f thel soIiSude 
and the first converts to their missionary zeal, lived 
H IS true, m homes of a better character than the 
supposedly typical Indian wigwam and were tie 
m^t easily influenced of all The tri^s,Tthey 
beheved to some degree in a Supreme Bei;g^„S 



enemies the Iroquois, their rivals T„ 41 •"' 

were Iceener in character quicker in ♦/'T''"'""' 
clever i„ warfare. They were ll*^*L,'"°"' 
religious influence; still /urtherTway from" '°"'''^,*° 
ness of the Christian faith I^tT^K- ,-**°*'^ 

oped inferno of barbarism w J 1 V ' """^ '^*^*'- 
the great evil of w»r ^- "^^^ °" introduced 

ChrisUan nii TnH ""■" ^'""^'^ "PP""'^"? 

situation S^auTed vT^rhorribT *''^''-' 

was one of the most notable aua Is life a ntuA.- 
everythinit that ♦« „ _ j * study m 

pictulquitcUii aTd''m"r:;^,rr^'B:r" ^ 

a^o^rSeVrt^Her /" l^^^^^^^^ 

succeeding autumn .n^ a prehmmary, passed the 
™mg autumn and winter of 1625-26 with a 



rovmg band of the MontagnaU-shHring their 
hard«h.p«, learning something of the intense cold 
of a Canadian winter, suffering the penalties of 
hith, vermin and smoke which marked the savage 
camps, realwmg much of what real loneliness meant 
m the midst of savages wandering through a vast 
wilderness. In July, 1626, with Father, de No"e 

Father de la Roche Daillon, a Franciscan, he started 

for the great Lake of the Huron.. During the 

ourney, De Br^beuf touched even the stoicism of 

he accompanying Indian* by the endurance of 

abor and immunity from fatigue which his large 

frame and great physical strength enabled him to 

E..ow-through seven hundred miles of wilderness, 

which incluaed unknown swamps, and rushing 

nvers, and precipitous rocks, and dark forests. 

Finally he settled upon the tribe he proposed to 

TdTed ' 7'' r'l' "' '""'""^* *"«'" '<" '^oy.^. 
studied their habits and characters, nursed thei^ 
«ok and wounded, learned their language, of which 
he prepared a dictionary and grammar. For the 
balance of his hfe he renewed every morning a solemn 
promise to bear patiently all insults and inS^ 
and sufferings "for the greater glory of God." 
Ihis, indeed, was the principle and motto of all his 
colleagues-^f the many brave souls who in succeed- 
ing years descended upon the wilderness and sacri- 
ficed tnemselves for their cause. Paul Raiteneau 
fterre Chastelain, Charles Gamier, J^r6m?Lall^ 
mont, Isaac Jogues, Simon le Moyne, Gabriel 



Ullemont. Pierro Pijart, Charlcn Raymbault. 
Franco,, du Peron. Claude Dablon, Claudo Allou, 

Francis Bre«.ani, Antoine Daniel, Nool Chabanrl 
Jacques Morin Adrian Daran, Adrian GnTon' 
were amongst them. 
The experiences of De Br^beuf with the savaeca 

vZu '°Th'' "^^,T *'•" "P*"""™ °f »" these 
priests They m.gLt not suffer death, some even 
escaped torture, but they were dealing with men who 
were brave to the point of indifference regarding 
pain, who were swayed by easily aroused pas^ionl 
and superstitions, who were unrestrained in treat- 
ment of a supposed enemy, or hurtful personality, 

the tnbes which De Br^beuf and his associates 

which the w. ch Hoctors at once charged against 
the missionaries It was no use protesting or 
objecting, and the priests walked in daily, hourly 
B^L, l\"','i''^:'^'"" *° ^^ "«-' Father de 

SS' r ^"" t ^ ^•''""' Chaatelain, 

0,llL ° u"f '" ^'"""'- S""^""' °f the Order at 
Quebec, which was a model of Christian resignation: 
With all sincerity I can say that not one amongst 
us has any fear of death. Nevertheless we all feel 
keenly for the unfortunate savages who have 
dehberately closed against themselves the door of 
grace and instruction. No matter how they may 



deal with us we will try, with God's wace to «.„ * 
our sufferings natientlv " t^ ^ ' """^P* 

site of PenhanShen OnU^r-J^'l '''' P^^^"* 
cated J ,„e eo^se to^rV'Su S;^ ^^^« ''^'''■ 

3«.naHes Of beiVLZl^^^^^^^^ 

"ley seemed to be themse ves immunp vJv. 

f«.re ttf' ^*r ^"-^ ''-^^^ --d 

his W"'\*° Ji'at tV".*' ■"'^ ""'"' ''"-'"> 
nation by Br^eu anH rh" *""'*" ^''^ ^«"t"' 

•"■.".St ?Tr^ "™ ^ --" "' "■'" 


later Fathers Pijart and Gar^er-the laftert.r^ 
an agoniz ne death in ir«;r f ^"^ latter suffered 

through hif £fkb L- ' ';:d":" J"^""'^-'^""** 

wilds of Muskoka. v^th u °"'*'°" « the 

«ome other is ^„ f " ^'^''* «'«''*«' t"^"" » 
unflinching heroes labo/n *'^^°*y-^°" ^ears these 
kindred Wbes unti at 1 T""'' *''" «"^°°« ""d 
sv^eep of the IroSi over thi ."*??•.*'* '"""^"^^"^'^ 
flood upon a tinyZZe ll""^^''''''^'^'^'''''^^ 
Hurons had beconTe rh^i * • . '"*'^"' «" *•>« 
weaned from soreotSw™,*''^^ """" "-" 
wildness of life, some of ^1^/ '' """^ "^ *>>« 

which were PoXral?s^^^rT'th'""*^'• 
rivals. While the W,„« ° *"*"■ 8reat 

of peace and cWlildo" Id :f "f" « *••« "^^ 
gone a long wly i^ ^7^°*^ ^^'^ ^"-l ^y 1648 
had been absortIL eJ ''■^«"'*'°°-the Iroquois 
rival tribes and ma:.dne^? "" T'' ''^^^^^^^R "^her 
to the powerS Fr „ch Z T ' "°"*' •'"^" 
come over the Hnrnl u ''''^"S^ '^'>'«h had 

prayer repeltd^^r^ ''LlCf '""^ ^'"^ 





it was a Btgnal triumph for the Jesuit Fathers, but 
it was not war, and without the heart to fight, and 
fight fiercely, there could, in those days, be no safety 
for life or home. 

In the summer of 1648 the St. Joseph village 
and missirn— on the site of the modem town of 
Barrie— was surprised by a large war-party of 
Iroquois. They burst upon the unhappy people 
like a thunderbolt, set fire to the buildings and 
burned the women and children and old men— 
the warriors were abroad op a hunting expedition— 
in the chapel. Father Daniel, who was in charge, 
baptized and exhorted and blessed his people as 
the flames mounted around them, and then going to 
the door, stood while the Iroquois poured shot and 
arrows into his body and he fell at last rent with 
wounds but praying as he passed away. The 
warning was, unfortunately, not taken and the 
charred remains of St. Joseph marked only the first 
of a series of similar massacres. Early in March, 
1649, a thousand Iroquois on the warpath captured 
St. Ignatius, tomahawked and scalped its inhabitants, 
smeared their own faces with blood of the victims 
and then stormed the neighboring village of St. 
Louis. The two priests, Br^beuf and Lallemant, 
were captured and tortured to death with atrocious 

The former, a man of great stature and strength, 
lived for hours in untold suffering; the latter, 
delicate and slight in constitution, endured more 
than could have been deemed possible and lived 



twice as long as his companion. De Br^beuf's 
sufferings were typical of the martyrdoms of that 
period. The Iroquois' idea was to torture in such 
a way as to prolong pain and create fresh forms of 
suffering without causing death. They tore the 
flesh in strips from his body; plucked out his finger 
nails and scorched the wounds with fiery brands; 
they hung a red-hot collar of hatchets around his 
neck, tore away his lips and cut out his tongue; 
they poured boiling water on his head in imitation 
of baptism, scalped him and, finally, still alive, drank 
blood from his side so as to partake of his courage. 
Tearing out his heart, they devoured it with the same 
object. So, also, died the heroic Lallemant, who was 
slowly roasted to death— both praying with their 
last breath for the salvation of their torturers. 

This was practically the end of the Huron Mission, 
as the tribe itself broke up and sought refuge in 
small detachments with other Indian nations; 
some fleeing to the wa'Is of Quebec and being 
guarded there by the guns of the fort. The Fathers 
gathered such remnants together as were possible, 
abandoned Ste. Marie with all its sweet and bitter 
memories and selected an island on Lake Huron 
for a new settlement which they designated Isle 
St. Joseph— called today, Christian Island. Here 
they erected a military fort. Meanwhile the 
Iroquois had burst upon the Petun Mission of St. 
Mathias and massacred Father Garnier and the 
inhabitants. Father Chabanel met a similar fate 
not far away, wh"- on his road to the island by 



order of his Buperior. Ultimately the island fort 
with starvation facing its inmates, had to be aban- 
doned, and shortlj afterwards little groups of Hurons 
and priests were struggling through hundreds of 
miles of wilderness and every species of hardship 
and suffering toward some place of safety. 

Before leaving this melancholy, and yet glorious, 
chapter m the religious history of Canada a word 
must be said of the services and death of Father 
Isaac Jogues. He had served with Father Raym- 
bault amongst the Petuns o^ the Sault Ste. Marie 
region, and in 1642 was captured on the western 
rim of Lake St. Peter by a band of Iroquois. Carried 
to a Mohawk town, he and two companions suffered 
agonies of torture. He was compelled to run the 
gauntlet of fierce blows from a long line of savages 
who then applied fire to his wounds and mangled 
and tortured his poor body in various .vays. One 
method was to suspend him by the arms with bark 
ropes from two posts raised in the center of the 
cabin. Day after day he was tortured and harried 
with insult and brutality; finally he was allowed to 
escape more dead than alive, but even then hesitating 
whether he should leave these people to their savage 
devices. He finally reached the Jesuit College 
of Rennes, France, in a condition which made him 
almost unrecognizable. In view of his mutilations 
the Pope granted a special dispensation as to the 
services of the Church and iu 1646 he was again 
amongst the Mohawks on a government mission. 
The war party amongst them demanded his death and 



finally won. This time his tortures were ended. Even 
reater suCferings were meted out to Father Joseph 
Bressani, a scholarly young priest who dedicated him- 
self m 1642 to the Huron Mission. Captured, in the 
Mjne way, by Mohawks he was carried up the 
Richelieu and on to the Upper Hudson, where for 
a month he suffered such prolonged and slow and 
awful tortures as one hesitates to transcribe from the 
Jesuit Relahona in which the narrative is imbedded 
How he hved, it is impossible to understand in these 
days of smooth and easy living and horror of pain 
or physical privation. EvetLually ransomed by the 
Dutch, he reached Europe, but returned again 
to his work. He lived to write a History of the 
Missions and died as a missionary in Italian villages. 
With the passing of the Hurons came the still 
more desperate effort amongst the Iroquois, led by 
Joseph Marie Chaumonot. He was a nephew of 
a pnest at Chatillon, France, a devotee from the 
shnne of Loretto, a man of intense enthusiasm 
zeal and piety, an expert in Indian languages and 
forms of speech, a master o.' simple yet powerful 
oratory. Accomptinied by Fathers Fremin, Le 
Mercier, Menard and Dablon, he reached the Iro- 
quois country in 1655 and his address on one occa- 
sion la the great Council House of the Onondagas 
an appeal for the vital truths of Christianity, is 
said to have been a masterpiece. A little later 
Fathers Ragueneau and Du Peron joined the 
Mission and for a while the priests met with gratify- 
ing success. Then suspicions of treachery became 



certainty and by a clever stratagem the missionaries 
all got together and escaped on the verge of a whole- 
sale slaughter. In later years others took up the 
cross in the Iroquois country, Father Albanel preached 
on the shores of Hudson's Bay, Father Allouez 
led the Mission at Sault Ste. Marie. Everywhere 
north, south, east and west, the footprints of the 
Jesuits in early Canadian and American history 
were clear and distinct. They passed up and down 
all the great waterways of the continent. Chaumo- 
not, Br^beuf, Jogues, Raymbault, Le Caron Du 
Quen, Marquette, Allouez, Messaiger, Hennepin and 
others were first, or else a close second, in the dis- 
covery of vast lakes and rivers and continental 
landmarks. There were few parts of the great 
new continent in those days where a Jesuit did not 
pioneer the way with his crucifix or traverse the 
paths of danger as companion to the lay explorer 
Where the one carried and planttd the flag of France 
the other held aloft the cross of his Church. 

Yet of all that they did the epic of the Huron 
Mission remains the most lasting L,smorial of the 
Order of Jesus in America. Gamier, Chabanel 
Darnel, Jogues, Br^beuf, Lallemant were dead- 
martyrs of a vivid faith, a devoted spirit, a great 
Order and Church. Others there were who had 
suffered as much, perhaps, as these, though just 
escaping the final crown of martyrdom. Their 
chapels were in ruins, their adherents scattered to 
the winds of heaven, their numbers were depleted 
until less than twenty remained in New France 



But the memory of their heroism, their conviction, 
thi .- unstmted zeal, their devotion, remained as a 
basis for religious life, as a bulwark of the Church, 
as a vital factor in the future life of the Province 
of Quebec— greater in its population, though not 
in extent, than the New France which the Jesuits 
had hoped to aid in establishing. 

As they were preceded by the Franciscans for a 
brief period, so they were replaced to some extent 
in after years by the Sulpicians— a body of great 
force, influence and lasting power in French Canada. 
Even m these later years, however, and up to the 
time of the expulsion from Quebec which became 
inevitable when the British came into control, 
the Jesuits were still a powerful element in the 
life of the colony. The Jesuit College in Quebec 
was, up to 1763, the chief seat of learning in New 
France so far as general education and the training 
of priests was concerned. The Order also became 
wealthy, owners of fiefs and seigneuries, of land in 
the heart of Quebec and Montreal. It became 
influential in the homes, and when Father Chaumo- 
not, m 1663, established in Montreal the Society 
of the Holy Family he helped an association which 
IS vanously described but which in any case wielded 
great influence. Parkman charges the organization 
in Montreal with undue interference in home affairs 
with petty tyranny in matters of moral discipline, 
with undue prohibitions in respect of books, dressi 
society, dancing and various customs and habits 
of the day. Dean Harris, a modem Catholic 

''i ^„ 



writer, describeg the Society, on the other hand as 
exercising a saving influence in the family, sanctifying 
homes, encouraging domestic purity and fostering 
filial devotion. 

In the public affairs of New France the Jesuit Order 
had exercised a considerable influence. There was 
no difficulty with Protestantism such as there was 
m Europe; speaking generally, there were no Prot- 
estants. It was an intolerant age and in Quebec, 
as elsewhere, the laws were stern and were rigidly 
enforced whenever it happened that the Governor 
and Intendant and priests .worked together. In 
days when looseness of life and morals and religious 
thought were eating into every department of French 
life at home, of French government and French 
society, this was not in itself an evil, though it may 
and must have been an inconvenience. Such trouble 
of the kind as did develop in Quebec or Montreal, 
from time to time, was the result of an influx 
of new immigrants and an occasional laxness in 
enforcing laws. Some writers of the time criticize 
the regulations regarding social and individual life 
hquor and drinking conditions, the relations of the 
sexes in general, as arbitrary, as evidences of priestly 
intolerance, and so on. Perhaps they were, but it 
must not be overiooked that life in those days was a 
very stern thing; that these scattered populations 
were hvii ; on the verge of a savage volcano which 
burst into eruption at intervals and which was 
liable to break out at any moment; that war was 
always possible with the Knglish colonies even when 



not prewnt; that when looseness of life and govern- 
ment did develop, Colonial disaster ensued. The 
conditions of 1789 are a sufficient illustration of 
this latter fact. 

In diplomacy the Jesuits wielded much influence 
and were of substantial value to the Government of 

lZl"""'T'^^J^' ^'"«-'° *•"= ^'''« "f America 
W T.T^" °' ?"'°P*- Charlevoix, the historian, 
has stated that the presence of a priest among the 
Indians was often of more value than a garrison of 
soldiers. It ,8 of course, obvious that a converted 
Indian would be a friend of France and that the 
alliance of the Chnstian Hurons, if properly guided 
and con rolled, might have been enormously valuable, 
lake aU powerful organizations, with determined 
views and vigorous principles, the Order of Jesus did 
not always get on with other branches of the Church 
in Quebec; *eal and obedience were under perfect 
control within their own body, but intense enthusiasm 
in one orgamwtion does not always run well in 
harness with individuals and institutions without 

lameTnd"""*''*" ^''""^ *" "* ^°^^^^ ^°' *•>« 
i ^w'iu* .'**'* important product of Jesuit labor 

Written by individual missionaries to the head of 
the Order in the form of reports and published first 

! iV^^IV" "°''" '°°°*'"'y ^°''""««' ^^"y embodied 
m li e-Iike natural form the unselfish devotion and 
absolute aloofness from woridly affairs and interests 
of these soldiers of the Cross. Modesty and self- 



sacrifice were the characterirtic* of their letters- 
information of the greatest posgible historic value 
w one lasting result. They were penned under 
every condition of hardship and difficulty-on the 
field or bare ground, in the smoke-laden air of dark 
huts, with maimed and broken fingers, in conditions 
of extreme cold or extreme heat, with death in the 
air and torture imminent or recently suffered. They 
are amongst the most extraordinary literary do*,u- 
ments of all time and constitute a mine of knowledge 
as to early conditions on this continent which is of 
untold value. 

As to the rest, the Jesuit Order was suppressed 
m France m 1762 and also in Louisiacia and Quebec 
They were suppressed by the Pope in 1773, but 
afterwards restored to their religious position by 
asuccessor at Rome in 1814. After the cession of 
New France to Great Britain the Order was not 
aUowed to replace its members by novices and its 
property was taken over and devoted to educational 
purposes. They ceased for a time to be a factor in 
Canadian affairs, except as an inspiration to the 
people of their own Church who realised the early 
history of the Order in North America; or as an 
incentive to the fear felt by Protestants as to Roman 
Catholic power and progress in the light of what 
they believed to be the record of the Order in other 
countries. When the Jesuits commenced to come 
to Canada again is not quite clear; that they did so 
about 1839 and became influential in Quebec eccle- 
siastical affairs is known. There is a strong Jesuit 

I'lbi ^...«-""-r..* 


» Isolor ill 
n to thp 

Oncstchouan Falls. Lake St. John 

-'"II? Jl-SUII. 


c?nt!™ 11^^''"! "'"i'^'''' "" J"'"!* educational 
centers elsewhere in the Dominion. A wave of 
pohhcal excitement and much religious conZLv 
was created in Canada by the policy of .he Merder 

veto til 1 , !• ^"■"■°'on Government refused to 

folow.d *" ?*'°" ""l™"^*' ""P'"'^'""* discusdon 
followed-unpleasant because when political and 
sectanan feelings are aroused at one and the same 
time, all history and all religion can be tested to 
serve the purpose of one party or the other 

One conclusion is positive, however, and can be 
stated here positively. So far as Canada is con! 
cerned, the history, the record, the lives of the 
Jesmts ,nd.vidually can only be an oMect of respec 
and admiration. Their characterisv.cs stand out 
w^th vividness, their actions and sacrifices were 
those of heroes, their continued efforts constilute 
a page m history which any country-even our 
TXT "" '-'''"' - ^^^^'^^ ^ZroZ 

The Heboic Age of Canada 

North Amenca was the constant and seemindv 
un«vo.dable feature of settlement and pro^^ w£ 
marked by mnumerable incidents of hrroTsm 

rtheM"'"''T '°''*^""*^ °^ -^ vivid h~: 

To the Indians who occupied the vast regions into 
which French soldiers and sailors and prieste a„d 

Cavahers preachers and peasants settled, warfare 
was a pastime, a positive pleasure, a life-oc upa on 
J^l ^""^l"* "^-g^t the-n^elves and decimated the 
Ind^n ^ r'''"^ °''^°'"' ^^^" '" historic ages the 
Injan 'nbes seen by Cartier at Stadacona and 
Hochelaga passed away and the Hurons, EriT 

men the white men came, their arrogance in deal- 
ing with savages who were equally arrogant and 
who possessed whatever ownership there wVaJ 

ralier'^^Th^VT"* /'f °" ''"'' '"^'^^^^^^ 
disaster. The nvalry of the two chief civilized 

nations concerned, in Europe and America, SeJ 

this result, and amid the gloomy aisles of endS 

breadth, amid a myriad lakes and rivers, bodies of 


the horrors or honors of the conflict. ^ 

" centi / of peace and commerce— w«b tl.» 

stoorflt /r ^"^'^ *•■« ^^"""et Gate, which 
stood at the corner of the Notre Dame and McGill 
streets of today, General Amherst took posseSn 
for the British in 1760; on September sS lTl2 
General Hull and 375 American oflicere and men' 
P^ed as prisoner f war from BSrcaXrof 
Sn ; , J'>"^°"8^ the Quebec Gate (on Dalhousie 
Squ^e) there passed Ethan Allen as a pJsoner" 
war in 1775, and near it was the old-time wooden 
blockhouse or citadel. The first fort actuIu^'S 
m Canada was Cartier's structure (1541) at Can 
Rouge, near Quebec, which he called Fort Charles 


^ort Of Port Hoyal TifS^^J^t^ 



(Nova Scotia) and Fort Louis, or Lome: on, near 
Cape Sable, N. S., followed in 1615. Seventy-nine 
years after Cartier's action near Quebec Champlain 
started his Fort of St. Louis on Cape Diamond, 
where Dufferin Terrace now enables the peaceful 
traveler to see one of the most beautiful views in 
the world. De la Tour, the hero of Acadia, built a 
fort at the mouth of the St. John River in 1627. 
Champlain erected a fortified station on the St. 
Maurice; the Hundred Associates constructed Forts 
Sorel, Champlain, Ste. Th6»dse and La Motte alcng 
the Richelieu; Frontenac erected a palisaded fcrti- 
fication at Cataraqui near the Kingston of today— 
where rest in a peaceful cemetery the remains of 
Canada's greatest statesman— and it is known to 
history as Fort Frontenac; Louisbourg, on Cape 
Breton, at the gateway of the St. Lawrence, was 
commenced in 1720 and cost the huge sum (in thope 
days) of ten million dollars before it was completed. 
As a natural corollary of the French claims to the 
watershed of St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes and 
to thai of the Mississippi and its tributaries, many 
forts were constructed in those regions— notably 
Fort Rouille, built in 1749 upon the site of the 
future City of Toronto; Pontchartrain, long after- 
wards replaced by the modern city of Detroit; 
Duquesne, called after the French marquis and 
governor of that name, and now a center of wealth 
and industries known as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
There were others, such as Le Bceuf, Venango, San- 
dusky, Prud'homme, Vincennes, FrM&ic or Crown 



Point, Niagara, St. Joseph (near Lake Michigan), 
Michrhmaclanac, Green Bay, Crfiv^eceur, Presqu'I 
isle, Miami, Outanon, Chambly, Necessity, Ticon- 
deroga or Carillon, Anne, Monsipi, St. Louis in the 
lUinois country, and some at the mouths of the 
Wabash, the Ohio and the Missouri. This vast 
semicircle of fortifications, flying the flag of 
France, v-s intended to hem in, to crib, cabin 
and confine the boundless energies of the English 
settlers. The great rivals of the French were 
hardly less active. Halifax was founded in 
1749 as an Atlantic arsenal and fortification: 
Fort Lawrence frowned at Fort Beaus^jour on 
Chipiecto Bay; Fort Frederick covered the ruins 

/w'^r^'J" '^°"' ^""^^ Edward, George, 
and Wilham Henry watched La Motte, St. Jean 
and Ste. Th^rdse in the Champlain region; Fort 
Oswego stood on guard against Fort Frontenac and 
so on over a great area of disputed territory and 
clashing interests. 

The forts built by Radisson and the De la V^ren- 
drye in the West included Bourbon on Hayes River 
and Bourbon and Poskoyac on the Saskatchewan, 
Dauphin near Lake Manitoba, King Charies on 
James Bay, La Jonquidre where Calgary now 
stands in its modern wealth and western pride 
Maurepas on Lake Winnipeg, De la Reine on the 
Assiniboine, Rouge on the site of modern Winnipeg 
and St. Pierre on the Minnesota side of Rainy Lake' 
They marked the French advance in that great 
region, stamped its history with definite points of 




adventure, stnking story and deadly Indian struggle 
1. m""!?^^*""'*'' ""'' '°'"'*^''' *•>"' '"in« t^ay 

STin . n "^ ff ""'"^•'* '" ^''^^^ y«"« of »ew 
lite in a new world. 

n»,?T5!?°"*.''" *'''' wonderful continental wilder- 

lofty chffs nestling amongst the trees on the shores 

Wh^ ?' *'T'"°'^ ^"*"°8 "*8s, or green-clad 

isthmuses planted on the bpnks of lakes and rivers 
and spread over the prairies of the far West, watch- 

ih?r.wr* P'";*T' P"''"' "' P°'°*' °° pathways 
through the vast forests, were forts, forts, forts! 
There were probably not less than a hundred of 
them descending in the scale of stren^h from the 
proud example of French engineering skill at Louis- 
bourg to the simple palisade structures of the far 
intenor. They guarded settlements against Indian 
raids, or the sudden attack of small detachments of 
the white enemy; they protected traders and wel- 
comed fur-buyers, hunters, trappers and voyageurs; 
they were centers of communication, of discovery 
of rescue from Indians and of such production as 
there was in those pioneer days 

Around and about these fortifications circle tales 
of suffering and heroism such as history loves to 
preserve; some of them shared in all the French and 
English and Indian wars; others were built, like 
the Jesuit forts in the Huron country, solely for 

bi^ifh w°"* '""^'^' '^' ^^°'>"°'«'- =o>ne were 
built by Western explorers and at times were the 


iJii-niresque. ihe armor-clad fieurp nf oi,-™ i • 

of French soldiers wW. fleu".^^^^^^^^^ 

them, meeting here and thpr» t^ u ''"'« "^^^ 





France against the English Colonieg. Relation, 
with the Indians turned upon many things; one of 
the chief was the astuteness with which individual 
leaders took advantage of French and English 
rivalries and played one nation or its representatives 
off against the other. In the last quarter of the 
seventeenth century, when the worst period in its 
history, the lowest ebb in the fortunes of French 
Canada developed, this was notably the case The 
English colonists on the Atlantic were then ten-fold 
the numbers of the French; the fur traders and 
trappers of the two peoples were everywhere rivals 
and the English were, quite naturallv, endeavoring 
m various ways to divert the profitable traffic in 
peltries from Montreal and Quebec to Albany and 
New York. ' 

The first scene of what has been called "The 
agony of Canada" centered at Fort Frontenac, 
whence De la Barre, as Governor of New France, 
after seeing the Illinois allies of the French attacked 
by the Iroquois and permitting this to be followed 
up by the plunder of French traders, started to 
make separate treaties with three of the Iroquois 
nations-who had no intention of keeping them, 
finally he got together a force of 1,000 militiamen 
and Indians with the object of invading the Seneca 
country, but wasted time at Fort Frontenac and 
near Oswego until terms of peace were actually 
dictated to him by the confederate Iroquois tribes. 
Shortly afterwards (1684) he was superseded by De 
DenonviUe, who at once passed from Quebec to Fort 


Frontenac, strengthened the place, and prepared 
to maintain it with a garrison of five hundred men, 
to guard the fur trade and check the British 
Three years later, by an act of treachery, he 
succeeded in getting fifty of the Iroquois chiefs to 
a conference at the same fort and seized and shipped 
them to France to work in the Royal galleys. To 
the lasting credit of the Indians the missionaries, 
who had been unwilling and unintentional instru- 
ments of this action, were allowed to leave the 
Iroquois country unharmed. Shortly afterwards 
Denonville defeated the Senecas at the mouth of 
the Genesee River, ravaged their country and 
destroyed their villages; Fort Niagara was rebuilt 
and garrisoned, while palisaded forts were planted 
on the sites of Toronto, Detroit, Sault St. Marie, 
Llichihmackinac and down the Illinois River. 

It was then— within a decade of the end of the 
seventeenth century— that the Five Nations of the 
Iroquois burst like a storm-cloud upon the French 
settlements. They attacked and destroyed the 
fort at the entrance to Niagara River and spread 
themselves like a pestilence along the frontiers of 
French colonization. The country was ravaged for 
a thousand miles, probably a thousand French 
colomsts were victims of the tomahawk or scalping 
kmfe, an army of Iroquois warriors assembled at 
Lake St. Francis and there tried to dictate terms of 
peace. The Massacre of Lachine was the culmi- 
nating act of this period. Following it Montreal 
Island, outside of the feeble walls of ViUe Marie 



WM for two months in possewion of the Iroquoia 
and no hfe w„ safe for a moment, while peril wa. 
the daily and nightly portion of the people of that 
«o lated po. To Three Rivers, and Quebec, and 
I Mane the power of New France was for a time 
confined. Fort Frontonac had been abandoned and 
When De Frontenac returned as governor in 1690 
he found the country of his pride and hope prostrate 
at the feet of the enemy, shaken by fear and in 
imminent peril, menaced by an alliance of all the 
northern and western tribes with the Iroquois and 
the English. He had to act and he did so in a way 
characteristic of the man and of the times. Three 
bodies of French and Indians marched from Quebec, 
Three Rivers and Montreal and in the depth of 
winter attacked, surprised and captured Schenectady, 
N. Y., Salmon Falls, N. H., and Casco in New 
England. Little mercy was shown and these places 
were practically destroyed. 

Th' effect of this quick and definite action upon 
the gi ueral situation was electrical. It restored the 
waning prestige of the French, strengthened the 
spmt of the people and reopened the channels of 
the fur trade. On the other hand the brutality 
displayed m the capture of the villages embittered 
the spirit of New England and New York to a 
degree which nothing could efface except the final 
destruction of French power. Sir William Phips and 
an Enghsh Colonial expedition against Acadia at once 
succeeded in capturing Port Royal; the same officer 
was put in charge of a naval attack upon Quebec- 



a land force was launched from New York againat 
Montreal; the Iroq\;'i« ravaged and burned and 
slaughtered wherever an opportunity offered. 

A picturesque incident of this period occurred 
when Phips reached Queuec on October 16th with 
thirty-two ships, plenty of cannon and 2,000 men. 
He at once sent a messenger to De Frontenac, who 
received him in the Throne Room of the Chateau 
clad in gorgeous uniform, with stately and impres- 
sive bearing, and surrounded by such an array of 
military and official splendor, in costume and appear- 
ance, as the simple New Englander had probably 
never seen before. The letter presented to the 
Lieutenant-General of Louis the Great was a 
haughty demand to surrender within an hour, to 
which the Comte de Frontenac declined any but a 
verbal and immediate reply: "The only answer I 
will give will be from the mouths of my cannon and 
musketry." Meanwhile the weak defences of the 
place had been strengthened, De Calli^res had come 
down post-haste from Ville Marie with 800 men, the 
batteries were ready for action, and the Beauport 
and Beaupr^ shores, below the city, were guarded 
by French Canadian sharpshooters. An effort, pro- 
longed for three days, was made by Phips' second 
in command, with 1,300 men and some field-pieces, 
to land at the St. Charles River near Quebec, but 
was defeated, while the well-directed guns of the 
fortress played havoc with the fleet. Phips then 
withdrew and sailed back to Boston. 
Outstanding amo'-gst the raids, massacres and 




varied confllota of the D«xt few yeart is the inci- 
dent of which Marie Madeleine Jarret de Ver- 
oh«rea was the heroine. Daughter of the Seigneur 
de Verchiree and living on the banlcs of the St. 
Lawrence some miles below Montreal, in a fortified 
and palisaded manor house, she was, in 1692, but 
fourteen years of age and, from all that can be 
ascertained, a child of marlced beauty and unusual 
couroge. Around the house had grown up the 
dwellings of laborers and dependents who sought its 
protection whenever danger threatened. At the 
time when the incident in question occurred it was 
eariy autumn, the great forests were ablaze with 
color, the indentations and bays of the river were 
alive with the flutterings of wild game and water- 
fowl. There had been no Indian outbrealc for some 
months, the Sieur and Madame de Verchires had 
gone to Quebec to present their annual feclty to the 
Sovereign's representative for their fief and sei- 
gneurial righte, the garrison and even many of the 
laborers were away shooting in the woods and along 
the banks of the river. 

Hence when Mdlle. de Verchires, wandering by the 
nver on a beautiful afternoon, suddenly heard shots 
and the blood-curdling Iroquois war-whoop, looked 
hastily around and saw a number of savages emerging 
from the woods not far away, her peril was very 
great. She made a wild dash for the house, calling, 
'To arms! To arms!" as she ran, with one young 
brave, in advance of the others, almost upon her. 
Just as she reached the heavy door of the house 



which was, fortunately, open for her, the savage 
reached out and caught her, not by the flying hair 
a« was their usual custom, but by a covering to her 
shoulders. With a swift gesture she unfastened it 
in front and as she flew in and barred and Imlted 
the door the discomfited Indian fell back with only 
the garment in his hand. Inside all was confusion 
and for protection there was only an old man of 
eighty, her two youthful brothers and two soldiem. 
Mdlle. de Verchires took instant command, fired off 
the small swivel gun in the court-yard with her own 
hands to warn the scattered garrison, had the de- 
fences strengthened in every direction and though 
she could not save the unfortunate harvesters in the 
fields from slaughter, she did hold the fort during 
two long days of siege. One soldier was .ola otf 
to take care of the women and children in the block- 
ho'jse; Madeleine, the old man and the two boys, 
each fully armed, took charge of the four bastions 
or redoubts at the corners, and through the storm 
which came up, through darkness and daylight, for 
forty-eight hours they stood at their posts with the 
lurking, alert enemy in every direction — thinking 
naturally that the place was well defended. Then 
came relief and the name of the child who saved the 
Manor House of Verchires and its occupants passed 
into history. She, herself, married Thomas de la 
Naudi^re, a French officer and Seigneur, and, after 
his death, De la Parade, another officer of good 
birth. In her later years she was given a govern- 
ment pension for life. 



A French Canadian hero of this period was Le 
Moyned Iberville. Bom in Montreal or Ville 
Mane, he spent a lifetime in exploration and in 
f Shting for his flag. It is a question whether any 
Canadian, before or since, has had such a career of 
strenuous adventure, gallant struggle and, from the 
standpoint of France, useful performance. In his 
forty-five years of Hfe he crowded such activity 
as seems almost marvelous. He entered the French 
navy m 1686 and took part with De Troyes in cap- 
turing from the EngUsh the Hudson's Bay forts 
of Moose Factory, Rupert and Albany; in 1689 he 
was agam on the Bay and captured a British ship 
witi, a cargo of guns which he brought to Quebec; in 
1690 he was a leader in the raid from Montreal on 
Schenectady, N. Y., and thence, in the far north, he 
captured Fort Severn; four years later he was again 
in the Bay and this time he took Fort Nelson from 
the British and practically brought the whole vast 
northern region, for the moment, under French 
control; in 1696 he was sailing the Atlantic coast, 
captured Pemaquid on the coast of Acadia, which 
had already been destroyed by the Indians and 
rebmlt by the New Englanders as Fort William 
Henry; at the same time he took possession of St 
Johns and the coast of Newfoundland; in the 
following year he again sought the Hudson's Bay, 
defeated a larger British fleet than his own and 
recaptured Fort Nelson; in 1698 he sailed from 
France with an expedition which sought and found 
the far-southern mouths of the Mississippi; he spent 




the balance of his life in building up French power 
in what became the colony of Louisiana. His 
name is and should be a household word in the City 
of Montreal and the annals of his race in Canada 

Around Fort Chambly, on the Richelieu, twelve 
miles below St. John's, centered in all these years 
much of conflict and interesting history. No more 
attractive ruins exist today than those of the old 
Fort which was first erected of wood in 1665 ajd 
reconstructed and built of stone in 1711 by soldiers 
and residents from Montreal under plans drawn by 
M. de Ury. It was constructed, and so remains, 
in a large square, with four bastions, and must in 
early days have been very strong and imposing. 
The name it now bears was given it by Captain 
Jacques de -Chambly of the Carignan-Salli^res 
Kegiment (afterwards Governor of Acadia and Mar- 
timque and Seigneur of Chambly), though at times 
It was also called St. Louis. Here, the oft-times 
slight and inadequate garrison, and surrounding 
settlers of the Chambly Seigneury, faced the silent 
sweep of the Iroquois upon French settlements in 
many a night of terror and darkness, or waited for 
their war parties, as they passed, in fearful expecta- 
tion; here, in after years, i.t guarded the highway of 
New England expeditions into New France and, with 
a Cham of posts built for purposes of defence, it 
played an important part during the first half of 
the eighteenth century; here, until August, 1760 
Its garrison held the French flag flying even while 
French power was crumbling to pieces over half a 



continent; here, in 1775, the Amtrican flag flew 
for a brief period and here, in the War of 1812 as 
many as 6,000 British troops were Itcpt to guard 
a vital strategic point; here, up to the early seventies, 
imperial troops were kept and the British bugle- 
call heard where for so long a period French soldiers 
had held their cheerful sway. 

Not very far from this fortification, and about 
twelve miles below where the Richelieu pours out 
of Lake Champlain, is Isle-aux-Noix. It is a small 
island and the ruins left upon it are slight and appar- 
ently insignificant. Yet here was, for a time the 
strategic point in the protection of Montreal from 
the onward sweep of the English in 1,59, when, after 
the fall of Fort Carillon (Ticonderoga) and Fort 
Fr^d^nc (Crown Point), Bourlamaque threw his 
army on to this island and held it in defiance of the 
British advance. Fortifications were erected and 
after the fall of Quebec, De L4vis, himself, assisted 
by the French Canadian De Lotbini^re, directed 
the work of added fortifications. De Bougainville 
succeeded to the command, but the island was 
evacuated in the following year. In 1775 General 
Schuyler, of the Continental forces, took possession 
and rebuilt the fortifications; from here Ethan Allen 
undertook, with 200 rangers, to capture Montreal 
and had, instead, to spend an enforced period in 
England; from here General Montgomery marched 
to attack Quebec and here, during the Revolutionary 
period, various negotiations took place while the 
contending armies passed through or briefly occupied 

• ■fl'.l 

-rief ,>^niKl nnd here, in tk- W., 

- ''OM BriUsh 'rm\» wrre k, 

tnifegin point: here. Mp.u> the .... 

■M troops w«e kept «„<i ,j,e b,' 

' rt «*Pre fur so lo.,^ „ ,„.,,i,„| p,^ . 

^let'rtf the 

'''•tp(i aii.i. 

•■IS, iuiii«<jj/, jtssis^^ 

_ Lotbijii^rfe, iJircrt'-f 

' n; command, f.i:T f ,. ■ i , , 
„■;■ "r"*-'" *-^^ fp&win,« VM- p "1 

S'.'iHiyif^. of ih, Couti„«„L^i f,., . ''"■:'"' ■ 

ana h..i, uir'^i'jrr^n'^r"^ ""^*^^^' 
o aUacK yueb«e ,„d We. rfunng * ' '"' 

- ' '■■>■'■':!<• ' ,.,,: .:.... .. .,.,.■," , 

■ ' ■■■•'■'!•■ ■-"•Oiipir.! 

Scene on the St. tawrence in Winter 







Its shores; here in f-e War of 1812 were erected 
several British forts, of which Lennox still survives, 
with blockhouses and other defences; near here in 
1813, three American ships were captured and from 
here went the expedition to capture Plattsburg 
and later on troops to help at the memorable fight 
of Lacolle's Mills not far away. British troops 
occupied It until the Seventies, and it is interesting 
to note that, in all these earlier years of warfare, 
while IsIe-aux-Noix was safe Montreal was safe; 
when it was lost Montreal was also lost. 

Memorials of these times of stress and warfare 
exist everywhere throughout Quebec, though it is 
doubtful if many visitors know of, or hear of, them. 
From Montreal, for instance, there extended for 
some miles a chain of outposts or fortified palisaded 
buildings to St. Anne's and including Forts St ■ 
Gabriel, Verdun, CuilWrier, Lachine, R^my, Holland, 
Gentilly, Pointe Claire and Senneville or Boisbriant.' 
The first-named was an excellent embodiment of 
these days of danger and its remains have been 
resuscitated in pictorial form from ruins which existed 
on Montmorenci Street as late as 1890. It was a 
long, low, solid house built of stone with protecting 
walls two and three feet thick and twelve feet high 
with heavy stone gateway buttresses calculated, 
on the whole, to stand any attack except that of 
artillery. A stone storehouse stood near the house 
and on the borders of the Lachine Canal. The 
foit was first erected of wood as far back as 1659. 
Many other places in Quebec, towns of modern 

;l I' 




days, with modem life and industrial activities 
everywhere evident, have similar survivals of 
historic days. Sorel, for instance, at the mouth of 
the Richelieu, with its turbulent memories of the 
past, was established by De Montmagny in 1642 
as a fortification intended to stand in the vanguard 
of Indian trade or Indian war, as the case might be. 
Called after Pierre de Sorel, he, in 1665, erected 
stronger and more elaborate fortifications, and it 
was for a century a stopping place between Quebec 
and Montreal for governors and soldiers and mis- 
sionaries and priests. Here, in 1787, came gay 
Prince William Henry, afterwards William IV, and 
so popular was he that for a time the place was locally 
called after him. It was refortified in 1778 by 
Haldimand to meet a possible American invasion and 
near it were settled many of the Loyalists of 1783. 
Three Rivers, at the mouth of the St. Maurice, 
was an even more important military post and is 
now a larger and more imposing city of peace. 
It was founded in 1633, before the days of Ville 
Marie; Jesuit missionaries came in the succeeding 
year and afterwards the R^coIIets, while in 1634 
Laviolette built a substantial fort; throughout the 
seventeenth century it was a center of the fur trade, 
a resting place, or starting place, for explorers and 
voyageurs and a central point for expeditions against 
the Iroquois and the English and a pivotal place in 
attack and defence; for long it was a separate 
governorship and a center of the French life of the 
country, with such early notables as La Salle, Du 


L-hut and Frontenao .nj a -.hole series of leaders in 
FVen h actmty and adventure; it was used as a 
ITI '*"■/'»"'"'"'" """'^'y supplies in 1776 and 

seat of Haldimand's government for a time and from 
here he rescued and relieved many of the Loyalists 
of the Amencan Revolution. 

TifnL"" **"'■ ^''""'^ ^""^^ ''°'^«^'". Carillon or 
Ticonderoga .s probably the best known tc the 

nearly so o d or historic as many others. Built 
by De Lotb,m^re in 1756, on a promontory at ?he 
southern end of Lake Champlain, it is now il United 
States temtory. It was the advanced post of the 
French m their last days of power and the scene 
of a famous victory by Montcalm in 1758; it was 
captured by Amherst in the succeeding year; to 
1775 was taken by the ...nericans, and two ^a^ 

spinted and memorable scenes in the dying days 
of New France was the attack by Abercrombte uwn 
Montcalm at Carillon. It was a vital period"^" 
the prolonged contest, and although the caused 

Quebec, they were not generally understood. Louis- 

t^fZ' r " .V"'' ^"^ ''"" *"''«" "y A-^herst slortly 
before CanlU,n was invested, but about this time! 

,., ; ° *^^ "^''"=«' "^^^ tbe French. Mont- 
calm 8 victories at Oswego and Fort William Heim. 
had come at a perio,-- when high taxes, const^ 




Indian forays, frequent militia levies, and the not 
always pleasant presence of British troops had 
added to local rivalries and jealousies and ham- 
pered English colonial operations. 

In these last stages of the struggle no one place 
or portion of the continent can be said to have 
been the headquarters of the soldiers on either side. 
From one point to another, through immense prime- 
val forests and wilderness stretches, across streams 
and rivers of unknown depth and current, along 
miry pathways and over; wild morasses, troops were 
on the march continuo..-,Iy. As the war centered, 
temporarily, on Fort Cavi'.! jn or Ticonderoga, Mont- 
calm found himself, in the middle of June, 1758, 
with about 4,000 men face to face with Abercrombie 
and his 15,000. The situation appeared desperate 
and, indeed, hopeless, thuugii the French commander 
held a splendid position. The Fort, from a rocky 
height, overlooked the head of Lake Champlain. 
Behind it ran a rough valley and beyond that a 
ridge fortified with high breastworks and palisades 
built of tree trunks, with sharpened branches point- 
ing outwards, and a sloping descent in front thickly 
set with stakes and felled trees. 

Second to Montcalm was De L4vis, an able o£5cer; 
second to Abercrombie, who, himself, had little 
ability, was Lord Howe, a young officer of radiant 
character and great popularity in the army. After 
prolonged preparations by Abercrombie and patient 
waiting by Montcalm, who at this critical juncture 
dared not make a false or venturesome move, the 



British General on July Stli Bturtcd from Fort 
George to capture Carillon. His forces and artillery 
required 900 bateaux, 136 wlialcboats and numerous 
heavy floats for transportation, and at the Narrows 
of the lake was over six miles in length. With 
the beauty of a summer day and surrounding scenes 
of woodland splendor, with lofty hills and rolling 
waters, with the varied accessories of music and 
striking uniform and flying banners, the sight must 
have been a memorable pageant even for the youth- 
time of the New World. On the 6th the force dis- 
embarked and in a succeeding skirmish with Cana- 
dian sharpshooters Howe was killed— the greatest 
loss short of defeat which the British troops could 
have had. Montcalm received the charge of the 
enemy on July 8th at the fortified ridge already 
described. Without artillery and during a long, 
fearful day of desperate charge and fierce attack 
Abercrombie hurled his men against the tremendous 
defences of the French. It was a useless though 
splendid sacrifice and at nightfall he withdrew, 
leaving 2,000 British dead behind and with the 
famous Black Watch, in particular, almost deci- 
mated. Of this regiment twenty-four officers were 
killed or wounded. By the French the victory 
was regarded as a miracle and in honor of the gal- 
lantry of their defence against tremendous odds the 
greatly inspirited Montcalm erected on the spot an 
immense wooden cross bearing these lines: 

Soldier and Chief and ramparts' strength are naught; 
Behold the conquering Cross! 'Tis God the triumph wrought. 



Following thla conflict, however md «hll. *i„ 
crombie with hi« troopn i«v tr^hl.n • I' ^^''^ 
««;» Heno., BradH^Tt aL ht Kk"'*,'^"- 
militia had captured Fort Pr„„. f '^ '°'°"'"' 

ton) and all iuZu . J^wntenac (near Kings- 

"ad fallen, and in its uT7 1 ^^^"^^'g also 
«triking car.r. '"nI^' alt^" UnHlv "".' 
commenced in 1720 it „ ■ '^'^ and 

tban Quebec,°th;"l;rpX'Xrr ""'^ 
in America. Twentv fit;. "*""'' P""" 

it. construction iTmlrmilir" """"""^ '" 
Built at the end nf . f^ millions m its cost. 

Atlantic fL the coaTo^ 'c'" T'""' "'*° *'"' 
there was behind it» TV n^^ ^'^*°n '''and, 
chiefly mora!s lroL\ T"' «"'""'' '^'■'c" '-as 
ful batterir protected TT^ '"'""' ''^ P°-- 
the harbor stc^d llh!; "''"'" '" ^''^ ■»<>""> of 
wa« first reduSn ms u T"'^"' "^"""y- I* 
with their CoTonil? J„„n- "^ ^."T'"" ""'* W"""" 
from a great fleet it wT„""'' ''"'' '•""'^^'^ «"°» 

'tr r 7°'^' -'^ Bosrwe^rSs''''''''' '^ 

twelve warlii Sm/" *'"' "'**-'""»» were 
of the fortress ^rel 9 ht^ '^°'' '" ^''^ ''""cries 


unable to »top, the .teady advance of the BritUb 
troop, to the wallH of the fortre,.. On June 26 h 

ihl K '""*"■ , ^'"' "^'■nt wounded Ix)uiH XIV to 
he heart and encouraged to a triumphant degr^ 
the men who were to win the final »tages of he wa7 
The m.ghty fortifSeation, were demolished aTte^ 
months of labor and today only va7tTne« of .»lh 
works ,i.„., ,„,„^, y^.^^ y -t t Tand echt" 
■ng to the sou..d« of pastoral nature. Yet no ,»^ 
on the continent is more worth visiting anSno^e 
bears more mteresting historical memorfes 

Those times of war have passed awny, th. war- 
pamt and feathers of the Indian have vanished 
orever, the cassock and the breviary T now 
emblems of pence and brotherly love; theTrucTfix 
s no longer carried aloft in primeval forests 
the blue and white and gold of the French uni' 
forms have disappeared, the fleur-de-i; s now" 

wmie the wings of peace are said to have enfoldJ 
forever the Great Lakes and the water-str t t' 
of the continent. Yet those scenes and evenl 
and the vast vistas of history and study which thev 
open up cannot but be of interest to thl li£ 
mind-to the intelligent British or French toS 
;n particular to the patriotic Canadian " American 
m general. Memorials of those stormy andXenu" 

■ wel merir" T"' "" "^"^ '"^^ continent the, 
well merit modern attention and c-'or, ^r.A 

devotion to some, at least, of thrfderLrdtd" 


Acadu-The Land of Evanoelinb 

The Canadian provinces of Nova Snotia o„j 
New Bn.a«wick, tl>e Wands of C B eton Ld 

er^f SeT'' 1!" ^.^°^"°" °^ *■>« StafeTf MaTne 
east of the Kennebeo River, constituted the Acadia 
or La Cadie, of the early French explorers of the 
earliest French settlement in Americf, of o^e hul 
dred and fifty years filled with the sorrow and suffer 
mg, the struggle and success, the darkne^rand bST: 
ness of pioneer life. Four years earlier than the 
foundation of Quebec, Champlain and D Mont 
started, on a small island in the St. Croix River 

va^^S TaTdsh"'"''.'". *'"' ^"'""^"^ year Tnd a^; 
vaned hardships, had to be transferred to Port 
Royal-not far from the site of a later place of the 
same name, now known as Annapolis Royal. 
There, on the north shore of the Annapolis River 

and the first village commenced in all the vast reirion 
which was to later on fly the flag of France Z2 

thelT/,^"' r '""^ P"""*-"" f<"e«t. around 
them and throughout the Acadia of succeeding 
centuries were beautiful rivers and brooks and ■ 
streams exquisite valleys and scenery of the milder 
type, shores washed by seas which swarmed 2th 



fish, soil which ripened readily into production and 
the growth of flowers and fruit. The Indian life 
of the woods was, fortunately, not of the fierce 
type so characteristic of the forests and lakes of 
the far interior and the upper St. Lawrence, but 
It was at times wild enough. And, at the beginning. 

If they had been imaginative the thought of what 
ay beyond and behind them in the recesses of a 
seemingly endless wilderness would have been, in 
itse f, a tremendous burden. As Longfellow put it 
centuries afterwards: 

Sr^J^'™''*' u' ""• ""•' ™'™« ^''d and prophetic- 
Stand ,ke harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bo^m, 

oe'r """'' '''^""' "■» ='"'-™-'' ""ghSg 

^"''ftesT'' '° ""'""'^ di^^^olate answers the waU of the 

The site of Port Royal was a beautiful one and in 
llrr" f.*'^^^ hopes and of their first settl^ 
ment Its sunshine and softness of air, its sentinels 
of rock serving as a shelter .gainst storms from sea 
£ Td ''"V"'"-'''"« ^l^" -'--ts from storms' 

rL7\r "^^ """^' '* ^•""° "^ ^«^y haven of 
rest to the mexperienced. light-hearted, optimistic 
Frenchmen. With the two leaders we;e ^Jean de 
Biencourt, Baron de Poutrincourt, a wealthy and 

( I 





S,K S°" "• T"' "" »•"» '™d. Sh 

reacned in shadowy outline from Paris in T^„j 
and back again to this tipy settle.rron th^^e^ 

ana reaping. De Monts went to Paris tn tr^ »„5 

Sr td?^ °' -'"'"'T ■'"'^ ^"'d^^eXSo a 
ngnts he had been granted. The winter of Ifin«ji7 

was the famous occasion of ChamZn's " OrTr o5 

a Good," when the fifteen leading men of the 

Zr j/i? ^ ''°"" "> 8°°d fellowship and good 


groupof t,e.enj;:n:r.rhf^^^^^^^ 
berton bearmg the burden of a hundred yea« ^f 

ettatn'T"'""'"^^ "' *"*«" leader^hipf a?d a 
reputation of sincere friendship for the whites. 

This jolly and prosperous season, however was 

the calm be ore the storm, and in the spring-tLe 

gure Vf'Se Ton/- ""t" '"''""«' »"* *^' ^""^"a 

settlers but tf. * T^ ""'" '^^"""'^^ ""^ ^e^h 
settlers, but the intolligence that his enemies had 



triumphed and 'is charter been revoked. There 
was nothing for it but to pluck up the deepening 
roots of settlement and return to the motherland, 
and this Poutrincourt did with a sore heart and a 
steadfast determination to return again. He took 
up the mantle of interest and labor which De Monts 
now dropped and, while Champlain proceeded to 
write his own name large in the history of the New 
France which he hoped to establish on the banks of 
the St. Lawrence, Poutrincourt continued faithful 
to Port Royal. In 1610 he returned with new settlers 
and a zealous priest— Father la FWche— who soon 
succpfided in converting the friendly Memberton 
and influencing his entire tribe. 

In the following year the death of Henri IV of 
France brought upon the European scene the stormy 
personality of Marie de Medicis and introduced to 
the smaller Acadian arena the black-robed and 
ambitious figure of the Jesuit who was at this time 
dominant in Paris and destined to become a 
dominating figure over the greater part of North 
America. The large interests of the Huguenots 
of St. Malo in the settlement and in the Royal 
charter passed from the control of De Poutrincourt, 
who was only able to hold his little territory around 
Port Royal, and wide powers were placed in the hands 
of Madame de Guercheville, a .ady of the French 
Court famed for both beauty and virtue and a 
strong supporter of the Order of Jesus. Father la 
Fl^che was soon aided by Fathers Biard and Mass^ 
and their labors carried the banner of their faith far 

m I 



jf,^t\TT'^^ *''* ^""^^^^ °f ^^' Atlantic coast, 
in 1613 Madame de Guercheville sent out a fresh 
expedition with men and stores and accompanied 
by two more Jesuits-Fathers Quentin and Du Thet 

fTrthl H '""'" '"*"^'l St- Laurent was made 
turther down the coast. 

At this iK)int and in connection with the elabo- 
rate and widely-extended, though necessarily vague, 
charters of the French King, there commencedThe 
hostile and histonc antagonism of the English 
colomsts to the claims and ambitions and power of 
New France. Argall, a military leader from Vir- 
gima, sailed in the same year into the harbor of 
this new settlement and uprooted it. He followed 
this success by a raid upon Port Royal, which he 
found defenceless-Biencourt, the gallant son of 
the adventurous Poutrincourt-being engaged in an 
expedition against the Indians. The place was 
pillaged and burned to the ground and even the 

triumph to Virginia and the unhappy French 
CO omsts struggled through the ensuing ^nter by 
means of wild roots and the help of half-starved and 
friendly Indians. Poutrincourt, shortly after this 

t^n K ^ •!! ^°^f^''^ "^"^^^ '" ^^'""'e «°d his son, 
who had evidently mherited his ability and energy 
was givea the rank of Vice-Admiral and remained 
m Acadia to hunt, fish, shoot, trade and guard the 
remnants of his cherished settlement. Ultimately 
though the facts are obscure, he appears to have 
rebuilt Port Royal and in this as ^U aa in his 



generally adventurous life was seconded by a young 
Frenchman of good family— Charles de la Tour— 
who was destined to take an important part in the 
Btern game of war and colonization which followed. 
Meanwhile, as one result of Argall's raid, Great 
Britain began to press the claims upon the soil of 
North America which Cabot's discoveries seemed 
to give. By right of settlement the greater part of 
the Atlantic coast from Acadia downward was 
already British; by right of discovery and, despite 
a record of colonization and exploration which 
crowned French energy and enterprise with honor, 
claim was also laid to the whole of what was then 
called New France— including Acadia. In times of 
war ^ ween France and England this claim con- 
tinu ,0 be aggressively presented by British 
invao.on or British expeditions; in times of nominal 
peace it was too often urged by Colonial invasion 
and New England raids, followed or preceded 
French expeditions of a similarly lawless character. 
In 1614, King James I granted to a Plymouth 
Association all the lands lying between the forty- 
fifth and forty-eighth parallels and called the region 
New England. Sir WilUam Alexander, afterwards 
Eari of Steriing and Viscount Canada, a man of 
letters and a patriotic Scotchman, resolved that 
there should also be a New Scotland. From the 
English King he obtained, in 1621, a grant of Aca- 
dia under the general name of Nova Scotia and 
began operations at Port Royal— which seems for the 
moment to have been abandoned by the French. 



Port Royal continued to be the Acadian center of 
the struggle When Admiral Kirke arrived on the 
expedition (1629) which terminated in the tem! 
porary capture of Quebec, he bore down upon this 
ittle place and from it declared the whole country 
to be under the rule and government of Sir William 
Alexander and his company. Meanwhile, Charles 
de la Tour held a strong position some distance 
away at Fort St. Louis, now known as Port La 
Tour near Cape Sable. Here, in the same year, 
he shut himself up and defied the English, though 
his father, Claude de la Tour, had been iaptured 
on his way with supplies and armament and been 
earned to England, where this survivor of the Hugue- 
not aristocracy of France, with well-known influence 
and resources in Acadia, was considered a great prize 
He was made much of in England, feted everv- 
where married to a lady of the Court, made a 
Kmght-Baronet of Nova Scotia, granted forty-five 
hmidred square miles of territory on the Atlantic 
coast, and won over to espouse the cause of Eng- 
land and to promise the support of his son-who 
was included in the titles and grants. 

He had, however, undertaken too much and 
when in 1630, he arrived at Fort St. Louis with 
Bntish shipa and colonists and the assurance of 
British support to his plans, he was repulsed by 
his son as well as in the assault which followed upon 
the fort, and was compelled to withdraw to Port 
Royal with his settlers and the wife who had been 
led to expect a triumphant entry into new and great 



possessions for the Crown of England. Claude de 
la Tour now found himself unable to return to 
England because of his failure and exiled from 
France because of his treason. His son protected 
him and built him a house and thence he fades from 
the canvas of history. Charles de la Tour had, in 
the meantime, won high credit in France for his 
conduct and in 1631 became the King's lieutenant- 
general in Acadia with sufficient men and arms and 
supplies to surround the position with something 
more than an empty halo. 

Then followed the despatch of Isaac de Razily, a 
relation of Richelieu, with a aefinite mission to drive 
the Scotch out of Acadia; and with him were 
Nicholas Denys, destined to succeed L'Escarbot as 
a picturesque scribe, and D'Aunay Charnisay, a 
Frenchman of good position, ability and intense 
ambition. Various minor struggles with New Eng- 
land ensued in which success generally rested with 
the French and in which both De la Tour and 
Charnisay distinguished themselves. De Razily 
died in 1636 and left his power in the divided hands 
of two antagonistic and ambitious men. The 
ensuing events read Uke a romance. De la Tour 
retired to a new fort which he had built at the 
mouth of the St. John River and for five years ruled 
from there over much of the New Brunswick of the 
future. Charnisay remained at Port Royal, which 
he had rebuilt on the south shore of Annapolis 
Basin and greatly strengthened, and there he 
maintained authority in what is now Nova Scotia. 



Each was jealous of the other's power and plans, 
but while De la Tour rested in proud contempt 
within the walls of his fortress, surrounded by his 
family and relatives, his soldiers, Indians and 
steadily successful fur raders, Chamisay sought the 
seat of power and undermined his rival's reputation 
at the Court of France. In 1641 he was successful. 
De la Tour was stripped of his position and posses- 
sions and ordered to France under arrest. It was a 
desperate case. To go was to meet ruin at the hands 
of a Cardinal who naljurally disliked the Huguenots; 
to stay was to court ruin as a rebel. In the latter 
case, however, De la Tour knew his friends would 
stand by him and his followers fight for him; while 
chance might at any time reverse the conditions 
prevalent at Paris. He, therefore, stayed and his 
defiance resulted in a strife which filled the forests 
and coasts of Acadia with all the evils of civil war 
for a number of years. 

It was the war of a hero, and the fitting wife of a 
hero, with a man whose character has been revealed 
by the light of passing years and of history as infa- 
mous in its indifference to honor and integrity. The 
real qualities of De la Tour were open to the world, 
and had won the respect of all who knew him. As 
so often happens in the history of countries, he was 
the one man who, at this crisis, might have made 
Acadia a great and prosperous French state and he 
was the one man who was denied the opportunity. 
His ambitions were those of a patriot combined 
with much of the prescience of a statesman. Those 


■■' '■'■{' ■.-.' £■', ''iS £ .I'llltel 

Kill I 

Thatched Barn, Cap a L'A%le 


'ma;-, s-.,^' 

::l El 




of Chaniisay were the self-aeeking principles of a 
trader cohibined with the unscrupulous personal 
designs of a Philippe EgaliW. The conflict began 
by Charnisay attacking Fort La Tour, at the mouth 
of the St. John, in the spring of 1643, and being 
repulsed with considerable loss. It continued 
through his close investment of the place with, also, 
the arrival of reinforcements from France; and 
was marked by the escape of De la Tour and his 
wife to Boston through the close lines of the enemy 
and by their return in triumph with five ships full 
of strong and willing men from Massachusetts — 
during a brief period of peace between Britain and 
France and between their Colonies. It ended, for 
the moment, in the chagrin and amazement of 
Charnisay and his hasty flight to Port Royal. 

The result should have been a permanent one, 
with Port Royal taken and Charnisay captured. 
But the New Englanders had to be considered and 
De la Tour found that they were amply content 
with the booty in furs which they had gained and 
the terms which they had forced him to yield. 
Perhaps, too, their thrifty patriotism saw possibilities 
of injury to France and benefit to themselves in not 
too suddenly ending the war of the rivals. De la 
Tour, therefore, set himself to strengthen his defences 
and consolidate his resources, while his brave wife — 
whose conduct through the hardships of the siege, 
the escape, and the journey to Boston had already 
been heroic — started for France to obtain assistance 
from her Huguenot friends in Rochellc. Chami; •, 



meanwhile, had left lor Paris where he arranged to 
have his rival's wife arrested on a charge of treason. 
She escaped him, however, reached England in 
safety and after twelve weary months of peril and 
ad-'enture arrived home at Fort La Tour. 

She had brought some help back with her and her 
husband went to Boston to get further aid with the 
intention of this time finishing his foe. Chamisay 
heard of his departure and (1645) with cruisers and 
troops at once invested the fortress. Thn gallant 
wife did everything to supply her husband's place 
and, possibly, more than filled it. Supplies ran 
sho.°t and traitors were discovered. Instead of 
being hung they were mistakenly driven with 
contempt from the fort and intelligence thus afforded 
Chamisay as to the state of the garrison. Fire 
was opened by his battleships, but it was replied 
to with a force and good-will which destroyed one 
of his ships and drove back his men with heavy 

For two months the heroic garrison and gallant 
lady defied his blockade and laughed, apparently, 
at the assault which he threatened but was afraid 
to deliver. De la Tour, meanwhile, had returned 
from Boston and lay cruising as near as possible 
to the scene of the siege, but his single ship was no 
match for the fleet of his enemy. One night, in 
the month of April, Chamisay plucked up courage 
to once more defy the chances of battle and during 
three days the struggle lasted with every rampart 
attacked at once and every weak spot apparently 





known to the enemy. At last a, Swife mercenary 
turned traitor and threw open the gates. Chamisay 
entered and there followed one of the blackest and 
meanest deeds in the history of the northern part 
of the continent. Afraid of this woman, afraid of 
beiug again repulsed by her leadership in the 
struggle yet to come, Chamisay asked for a truce 
Hnd offered honorable terms. With a woman's 
natural desire to save her brave followers, Madame 
de la Tour consented and the terms of capitulation 
were duly drawn up. Then, with the fortress in 
his hands and the Cb °iaine at his mercy, this 
man tore up the documout, repudiated his obliga- 
tions and his honor, and, placing a b'^lter around the 
neck of the brave woman who had beaten him in 
fair fight, forced her to watch the death struggles 
of her soldiers as one by one they were hung upon the 
ramparts. Carried to Port Royal by the conqueror, 
the heroine of Acadia died of a broken heart at the 
end of three long and weairy weeks spent, no doubt, 
in brooding thought over a broken home and 
butchered followers and a husband who, through this 
succession of misfortunes, was now a wanderer on 
the face of the earth. As Miss Marjorie Fickthall 
has beautifully described it: 

Did God weep for the heart that broke there, 

Only the lips of the dead men spoke there. 
And she who dared them, she who led them, 
Drank her death in the death he fed them 
Cold in clay. 



She in the flowers of God upstanding, 

Sees the Hosts of the Heights disbanding, 
Spear on spear of a iilied splendor 
Hears them hail her, hears the tender 

Words they say. 

Chamisay flourished to the full of his expecta- 
tions during the next few years. Supreme in Acadia, 
confident of his favor at Court, fair of word and 
arrangement with New England, reaping riches from 
the fur trade, successful iif crushing his only remain- 
ing rival— Nicholas Denys, who had been his friend 
and schoolmate but had become rich and strong in 
Cape Breton Island— this extraordinary character 
seemed well content with his fortune and fate 
Then suddenly, in 1650, as if in mockery of his 
position and prospects, he fv=ll into the little river 
at Port Royal and was drowned like a rat. De la 
Tour, meanwhile, had been treated with the respect 
he deserved in parts of New England and Europe 
where he had spent five years of a wandering life 
and was now able to go to France, refute the false- 
hoods of his enemy, and receive every reparation 
which the King could give. He was made Governor 
of Acadia, the fur-trade monopoly was placed in 
his hands and, to ensure the permanance of his 
fortune he cut another knot of difficulty by marrying 
Charnisay's widow and takine the children of his 
former enemy into his hands and under his protec- 

This remarkable story then took another turn on 



the wheel of fate. England was in the stern and 
successful hands of Cromwell and a large expedition 
which had been sent to capture the Dutch settlements 
on the Hudson was thrown suddenly upon Acadia. 
De la Tour was overpowered and Acadia overrun. 
Boston and New England were at the back of the 
new move. Cromwell, who seems to have under- 
stood the great issues at stake in apparently petty 
struggles, refused to intervene, or to restore Acadia 
to France, and De la Tour was seemingly crushed 
once more. But he was not the man to meet such 
a fate without effort. Going to England, he saw 
Cromwell, impressed him by his arguments and his 
personality and obtained a grant of the whole region 
known as Acadia to a co.npany which included 
De la Tour and Sir Thomas Temple. The latter 
was made Governor, the former soon sold out his 
great interests in the grant and, weary of tempting 
fate, retired to the comfortable obscurity of private 

Until 1667, when Charles 11 gave back Acadia 
to France in the Treaty of Breda, the land rested 
in reasonable quietude. From that time until the 
finger of fate placed its seal upon the country in 
1710 and made Acadia finally British it had many 
governors and amongst them were several names 
familiar to the history of Quebec, such as Robineau 
de Menneval, Robineau de Villebon, Denys de 
Bonaventure and Daniel de Subercase. The most 
striking figure in these last years of French rule was 
that of the Baron de Saint Castin — hunter and wood- 



ranger fighter m a lawless fashion on behalf of law 
and order warden of the marches upon the Peno^ 
Bcot, fnend of the Indians and guardian of AcadLn 
BO.I agamst New England raids With h s Ind a" 
w.fe, with wealth gained in the fur trade and wUh 
mauenee at Port Royal maintained through Us power 
over the Indians, Saint Castin presented a most p^c 
turesque personality and one full of materiaHor the 
romancist n these later days of historical ficto". 

Meanwhile the Province and Port Royal shared 
m he ups and downs of^Colonial rivalr/and w„ 
The fort was captured by Sir William Phips and U^ 

?or wnium" T' ^Tr" •'^ *'^« -"^--^ 

*ort VVilham Henry at Pemaquid: surrounded 
rom t„,e to time by the devastation o'f InZ figlt- 
slt CrtL'f Z *'! °*^^^- I" *hese conflict "* ''""'' triumphed, while 
of Fr!L^r T' '':^'^'^"«' the dashing darling 
of French-Canadian history, sailed into the Bay of 
Fundy, fought the British fleet in a drawn b^tle 
and captured the fort at Pemaquid. In 7? 10 the 
clnt. N^h'^ " •" ^^^"-"^ --^^ -- when' 

^OuLT ""^ *° "«"" ''"''■"P* the capture 
^Quebec, overpowered the litf. garrison of Port 
Royal and overran the Province. The war-scarred 
fortress was re-named Annapolis Royal in honor of 

d.d the r best for the Lilies of France, the strugrie 

had failed, i-,„gland was in a strong enough position 



in Europe to dictate terms and, by the Treaty of 
rtreclit in 1713, to retain Acadia with the exception 
of uie islands now Icnown as Cape Breton and Prince 
Edward. In 1744 an effort was made by the French 
to re-capture Annapolis Royal, as Port Royal was 
now called, but it was defeated. 

The grass-grown ramparts of this historic fort 
may still be seen amidst surroundings which are both 
beautiful and romantic. Annapolis Royal stands 
on the south shore of Annapolis Basin with its sap- 
phire waters and turquoise sky, its picturesque and 
peaceful scenery belying the record of the past, 
The well preserved and ancient fortifications cover 
thirty acret, of land with old cannon and buildings 
which speak volumes as to the centuries of struggle 
that are gone and a bronze statue of De Monts look- 
ing down and back over three hundred years of his- 
tory. Back of the modem town is the river which 
winds its way seventy miles into the interior through 
one of the most beautiful and fruitful regions of 
the continent — the famous Annapolis Valley with its 
sea of apple blossoms in June, its blaze of scarlet 
and golden fruit in September, its ever-exquisite 
scenery and sweetly-scented air. It is diflScult in 
this atmosphere of peace and contentment and quiet 
prosperity to think of the war-drum and flaunting 
flags and roaring cannon, but to do so is interesting 
and the result mspiring. Passing from this historic 
spot, one comes naturally to the Bay of Fundy with 
its famous tidal phenomena, its shores which hold 
still more famous memories of Acadian life and ex- 




pulsion, its mighty promontory of Blomidon with 
the stormy ocean in front and the lovely vales of 
Evangeline's story and Grand Prd annals behind it: 

This 18 that black bastion, based in surge. 

Pregnant with agate and with amethyst. 
Whose foot the tides of storied Minas scourge. 

Whose top austere withdraws into its mist. 
This is that ancient cape of tears and storms 

Whose towering front inviolable frowns 
O'er vales Evangeline and love keep warm, 

Whose fame thy song,'0 tender singer, crowns. 

After the conquest began the evolution of the 
romantic yet sorrowful Acadian question. The 
people of French extraction, during the years of 
peace which followed, increased largely in numbers 
and certainly did not decrease in their sentimental 
loyalty towards France. Their mother-country 
was steadily strengthening its position in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence with a view to the future re-conquest 
of Acadia and the vast fortifications of Louisbourg 
were designed by Vauban and built at great expense 
on the Island of Cape Breton. That place became 
the headquarters of French power and pretentions 
on the Atlantic, the home of French privateers, and 
the Mecca of Acadian hopes. It supplied the 
Acadians with a market for their products, kept 
them in touch with French sympathies and aspira- 
tions and plots, and prevented their peaceful accept- 
ance of British rule. 
Through all these picturesque incidents and the 



prolonged struggles of large interests, rival per- 
sonalities and great outside Powers, Acadia had been 
growing slowly in population. The early settlers 
who came with Razilly in 1632 and with Charnisay 
and Grand-Fontaine, at later dates, were from 
Rochelle, Saintonge and Poitou on the west coast 
of France; at the first census of 1671 there had been 
only 441 inhabitants all told and most of these 
were in Port Royal. For a hundred years this was, 
indeed, the chief settlement of Acadia, but, at the 
time of the expulsion of the Acadians, Minas and 
Chignecto had become more populous and there 
wore about 15,000 French people in the Colony. 
Latterly many disbanded French soldiers had also 
settled in different parts of the territory and were 
grafted upon the original Acadian stoclc. Most 
of the early settlers were farmers and in the valleys 
and fields of Nova Scotia, particularly, they found 
conditions — except for a little harsher winter — not 
dissimilar to those of the marsh and dyke land of 
the part of France from which they came. They 
were unlike most American pioneers in not caring 
to fell trees, or clear the forest, or create farms by 
the usual processes of early life in French or English 
America. They stayed by the sea-shore, erected 
large dikes, and reaped fruitful crops. 

They were a frugal people, industrious in a quiet 
way, peaceful also in their characteristics, not 
educated in the ordinary sense of the word, devoted 
to their Church and obedient to the priests, moral 
in their lives. Around them Longfellow has cast 



not in this ILtet'iS^ 1 1" -^tT- Jt*." 

but not reairsuMuedthtTu ''•'"' """""^"^ 
and small in numS« 1 1? "^ ^^ *°° ""^^ 
from the "nZ^rd JlTotThJ^'T"''*''''^ 

and the -:s:t ti^^ .^:feUi:K"^^^ 

affection or whateC ° w u ' "''^"'°°' ««»- 

new conditio^; the hea^^nd^ ^''"".f. ""'^*' 
hopes were all with thtT ^ "y^Potbies and 

unnatural. '^"^ ""'""^fnces was >ot 

For a part of the period between 1710 and 17-;s 



to New England, to the presence of its troops and 
to the aggressive assertion of its authority over the 
whole Atlantic coast. Meantime New France 
indirectly, insidiously and constantly asserted its 
claims and expressed its hopes; the loss of Louis- 
bourg was followed by the erection of Fort Beaus^- 
jour on the north side of the Missequash River 
(afterwards the boundary between Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick) and by the maintenance of 
Fort Gaspereauon Bale Verte; the Micmac Indians 
stood by the French in the main and were a further 
encouragement to the Acadians under the leader- 
ship of Father La Loutre, a powerful priest of much- 
discussed and contradictory character. 

On the other hand Colonel Lawrence, the British 
Governor, found himself deaUng with a most dif- 
ficult problem. There was in those days little to 
give a conquered people in the way of constitu- 
tional liberty and self-government; such a thine 
was unheard of and not thought of in any quarter 
There was always possible a new war in Europe or 
fresh complications in America and the rivalry of 
France and England was very real and very bitter- 
the Acadians were restless and dissatisfied and might 
easily become more so with probable Indian support 
m case of an uprising; as time passed on French 
claims from Quebec became more active and French 
support to Acadian sentiment more obvious- New 
England dislike of the Roman Catholic side of 
Acadian hfe and of existing treaty rights was con- 
stantly expressed; Halifax, after its foundation by 



Comwalh. m 1749, became very quickly a power in 
the Provinces and an influence with the Governor 
whjch was naturally along the lines of develop 
a powerful Province; while the English 
troops available were not enough in number to hold 

ZZZ' '''' ^''' *" •"' «''^'^'' 'y ^ ^-«« 

Colonel Lawrence in his official letter to the 
governors of the other English Colonies explained 

1785 after Fort Beaus^joilr had been besieged and 
captured by 2,000 troops from New England !nd 
Fort Gaspereau also taken. He declared that 

rennL"'"^'*.""^ ^"^ ^'^ «iv«n. « 'act reiterated 
requests made for the Acadians to take the oath of 
allegiance m return for the retention of their lands 
and possessions; that this was unanimously refused 
even >n face of the threatened alternative of expul- 
sion, that If the people would take this attitude at 
a time when there was a large British fleet on the 
w^mT. " '*:•!! '""'^ '°'"^ '" *»>« P'°^i°«e. what 
small British papulation was left unprotected by the 
fleet and unguarded by the New England troops 
who would have to return home. What followed 

h to y although in its degree of suffering and 
humihation and danger to individuals, it hardly 
compares with the later and infinitely larger com^ 

thtuLTsS:" °' '"^'^'^^^ - "^'^^-" ^-" 

i*^, .,M='-^~^.i .:#:•. i;.«# ' '* 




The total number removod wag about 6,000, of 
whom 2,242 went from Minas, 1,100 from Pisiquid, 
1,664 from Annapolis and 1,100 from Chigneoto! 
The arrangements were made with sternness and 
secrecy, the operations were carried out in the 
summer season with, it would seem, a minimum of 
hardship and within a few months the unfortunate 
Acadians were dispersed amongst theEnglish Colonies 
to the south. Every effort appears to have been 
made to keep families together and to preserve the 
precious lares and pcnates of the households. 
Much hardship, however, was unavoidable and 
many stories of individual suffering were afterwards 
told; the beautiful village of Grand Pri was given 
to the flames, though destined to be rebuilt in after 
years, to be the home of a very few returned 
Acadians and to be the birthplace and home of 
Canada's Prime Minister of 1913. In succeeding 
years, after the fall of Quebec and New France, 
many of these people drifted back to their old 
homes or to new ones built on the ruins of the old 
or, in the main, to tho shores of St. Mary's Bay on 
the west of Nova Scotia. Today their 
descendants constitute over 150,000 of the best 
most peaceful, most loyal-hearted inhabitants of a 
Province of British Canada while their story lives in 
literature and romance and history. The gentle 
attractive, courteous character of the Acadians, the 
lovely little cottages of the people, the happy 
valleys and villages in which they dwelt have been 
immortalized by Longfellow in an alien language 



eMtwMd. '^^ ^"* "•''^""™ •«"«<*«>d to th. 

"'TuX'^" "■ — • r "-'- •« ««^ without 
m«^^.t h„<u o, th. ,„„„ fc^ ,^ ^^ ^^ ^_ 

«.hut^,« th. turbulent tide.; but .t .t.t«, ««„ .„ ,^. 
"^m'ido"^.-'"'""'^ '"• - »" --« ..t wm o'„ tb. 

chMtnut ' *'"' '""»•■ o' o«k and of 

^"''^X'^" " ^""'"••'^ ""«' » "» «i«» of th. 
'^'pXt'C "• "^" '""' "•""-'^-ow. „d ..b... 
Ov«-Jb.b««».nt below. p„teeted «d .b«..d tb. door- 
The„.^ti,. t,a„,„i, .„^ „, .^^^ ^^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

'"*:l:t.^'*«' ■""'' •"" «""«' "» -„ on tb. 

-.;... -p<»r:'n:;;'tb---i-ruitt sisi: 

Mingled their sound with the whir of »!,. i. ■ 

•onge 0/ the maidena. *' *''••'» "'' **>* 



SolMBiUy down th« (trnt oMno the puiih "-i«.t, ud the 

P»UKd in their pUy to ki« the hand !..- , ,rtrrt tr „|„... 

Rarwend wslkcd he kmonic them; wi n, r ,, . , , ,n'. mM 

HWiliim hi* slow approach with wor-*- r.( uiT, ,:(i.iniitu . ■horn-. 
Theo came the laborers home froi" iho ti.l,' .-nl mr-icly 

the lun aank 
Down to hia reat, and twUigti piuvaiM. ., ,,. r ,,ni the 

BoWy the Angelua sounded, and over the -oof- .f the .Man 
Columna of pale blue amoke, Uke olouda of i. , ■ • jicen,;.n« 
Boae from a hundred heartba, the hoaua of ueaoa and oon- 


i I 


The SEI0NEUB8-AN Old-World Abibtocracy 
IN America 

Wrapped up in the schemes of Richelieu, included 
m the pohcy of Louis XIV, was the establishment 
around the French King's representative in America 
of a landed aristocracy which would be a new buckler 
to the throne m a new world. Many considerations 

thought that the New France of the future would 

develop along the lines of Ufe in Old France; that 

the Governor or Viceroy should have for his court 

the social customs and institutions of Paris and the 

environment of a brilliant aristocracy which is so 

essential to Monarchy; that the aristocracy thus 

created or gradually evolved would, in a wav 

similar to that of the feudal system in Europe, 

supply a local military force from amongst the 

tenants or cennlaires sufficient to be a substantial 

help in mamtaining or extending royal authority; 

that the system would naturally fit in with the social 

conditions and class distinctions of the Old France 

from which noble and officer, peasant and soldier, 

would have come; that the Crown, the aristocracj^ 

and the Church would work together in some 

measure, of harmony-perhaps all the stronger 


French Canadian Fishermen 




because of distance from inherited jealousies and 
difficulties at home. 

The theory was a natural one, the practice did 
work out with some degree of success for a time and, 
had there been a continuous and organized French 
policy in the way of emigration and support to the 
authorities at Quebec, it might have been much 
more successful. The method first adopted was to 
give an unlimited grant of land in New France 
to the Company of One Hundred Associates upon 
terms which still left the King as actual proprietor. 
The chief of the conditions exacted was the distribu- 
tion of the land to those "who shall inhabit the 
country"— the Seigneurs who were vassals of the 
Company, the cermtaires who were vassals of the 
Seigneurs. The Company remained vassals to the 
King and were to render fealty and homage. Under 
these conditions Robert Giffard, in 1634, became the 
first Seigneur in Canada with, ultimately, four 
leagues of the north shore of the St. Lawrence, 
below Quebec, as his Seigneury of Beauport. Chef- 
fault, the agent of the Company of New France at 
Quebec, was soon after granted the Seigneury of 
Beaupre, Jacques de Castillon, another shareholder 
of the Company, was given the Island of Orleans, 
the Duchess d'Aiguillon received the Seigneury of 
Grondines and thirty acres within the banlieu of 
Quebec which, however, she ceded to the Hotel 
Dieu. Jean De Lauzon, afterwards Governor, 
received as Seigneur a large tract on the south shore 
of the St. Lawrence. 



The sixty Seigneurs created between this date 
and 1663, when the Company's rights were resumed 
by the Crown, had to pay homage yearly to the 
King's representative in the Chateau St. Louis, 
and to present the Company with a piece of gold 
and the whole or part of one year's rental — according 
to the Coutumi de Paris. The grants were generally 
two or three leagues square and had various special 
clauses from time to time) but the chief items were 
the preservation of oak trees on the property; the 
pledge not to carry on fur trade; the disclosure to 
the Crown of any mines discovered on the lands; 
the settling and clearing of the Seigneuries; the 
reservation to the Crown or Company of any ground 
which might be needed for forts; the reservation 
of necessary land for roads. 

As to the censitaire, or vassal, or tenant of the 
Seigneur, he had to do yearly homage and pay a 
rental of one or two sous per acre and half a busbd 
of oats; he had also to grind his com at the Seigneur's 
mill with about one-fourteenth of the yield payable 
for the service. He had to work for the Seigneur 
during certain days in each year, to give him one 
fish in every eleven caught, to pay in addition to the 
nominal rental a small yearly tribute for each acre 
held, such as a goose or pair of fowls. The Seigneur 
had the additional privilege of levying the lods et 
ventea or a tax of one-twelfth the amount of every 
sale of property or real estate made by a tenant, and 
it was this which, in after years, constituted the 
chief popular objection to the system. As time 



went on there were modifications in law and practice, 
but nothing was ever done under tite French rigime 
to give unconditional ownership of the land to either 
Seigneurs or cenntairet. The system as a whole 
failed chiefly in the point of immigration; it did not 
promote settlement as Richelieu and Louis XIV 
both hoped it would do. It did, however, create 
what the great Cardinal expected it would— a 
distinctive French community or series of com- 
munities with a gradation of dignities and interests, 
of distinctions and duties, which bound together 
the social body and the Church in a unity that 
not even the eventual legal separation could destroy. 
Of the first Seigneurial grants such of the French 
nobiUty as had come out to the Colony and de- 
sired to take up land were the natural recipients. 
Amongst these were the Marquis de Vaudreuil, 
whose Seigneury is now represented by the County 
of that name, and who was, also. Seigneur of St. 
Hyacinthe; the Sieur Boucher de Grosbois, who 
was ennobled by Louis XIV and given the Sei- 
gneuries of Boucherville, Montarville and Soulanges- 
the Marquis de Beauhamois, who held the Sei- 
gneury of that name; Claude de Ram^zay, who held 
several Seigneuries in France and those of Man- 
noir and Ram^zay in New France; the Baror. de 
Longueuil, who was ennobled in France and given 
the Seigneury of Longueuil near Montreal. The 
Church was also recipient of various properties 
The Jesuits were Seigneurs of Sillery, Batiscan 
Notre Dame des Anges and four other properties 



in the District of Quebec, they held two Seigneuriei 
in the District of Three Rivers, and that of L« 
Prairie near Montreal; the Sulpicians were Sei- 
gneurs of the whole Island of Montreal and of the 
Lake of Two Mountains; the Ursuline Nuns held 
the Seigneury of Three Rivers itself. 

The military forces, the officers of France and 
New France, were numerous recipients of grants. 
Jacques de Chambly was Seigneur of the region 
around the fort bearing his name, and others of this 
character or origin included Sorel, Verchires, Ber- 
thier, Granville, Contr^coeur, Varennes, Rougemont, 
La Valtrie, La Parade and De la Naudidre. When 
the Carignan-Salli^res Regiment disbanded to a 
considerable extent (1668) after a distinguished 
record as wardens of the marches, or guardians of 
the country bordering on Montreal, many of the 
officers and men remained in Canada and the former 
were given Seigneuries. Amongst other early or 
original grants were the Seigneury of Portneuf to 
Sieur de la Poterie, and that of Foucault to M. 
Foucault. Well-known Seigneurs and families 
were those of De Hepentigny, De Normanville, De 
Chavigny, De St. Ours, Dc Vitr«, De Comports, 
De Crevier, De la Cardonni^re, D"Artigny, De 
Lanaudi^re, Louis Jolliet. 

These and other names werr amongst the most 
distinguished in the history and achievements of 
New Fiance. Of the Seigneurs, individually, were 
many who did their duty to King and country on 
the battlefield while to many, perhaps, the social 



Mde of life at Quebec— after the first year* of 
pioneer privation and limitation— had a special 
and natural charm. Some of those mentioned did 
a little m regard to colonizing their lands; others 
did nothing. Of one hundred Seigneurios in exist- 
ence in 1681 only sixty were mentioned in the census 
of that year as having any cultivation or settlement 
and the total area of land cultivated was only 
24,827 arpents with a revenue averaging 1138 a 
year for each Seigneur. It is, therefore, apparent 
that in the early stages of the system the returns 
from rental were very small and that the holders 
of these large areas of land were dependent upon 
other sources for their incomes— the army or navy, 
or official position, or estates in France. 

Some of the original Seigneurs had their land 
grants cancelled for this neglect; others, such as 
Le Moyne de Longueuil, Robineau de B^cancour, 
Chartier de Lotbini^re, Juchereau de Maure, Fleury 
d'Eschambault, Tarien de LanaudiSre, Couillard 
de Beaumont, Morel de la Durantaye, Deschamps 
de la Bonteillerie, Berthier de Villemure and Le 
Gardeur de Tilly, were careful to clear some 
portion of their domain. Cavelier de la Salle in 
his Seigneury of Cataraconi placed a few set- 
tlers; the notable sons of Le Moyne de Longueuil 
helped to colonize his Seigneury; Hertel de La- 
fremSre, Godefroy de Lintot, Leneuf de la Poterie, 
spent their time in commerce; others lived on half- 
pay, held judicial or official positions, or lived a 
life of exploration, adventure, and war. 



A« time pawed on and into the eighteenth century, 
however, conditions changed. Settlers arrived in 
larger numbers and filled the ranks of the eentitaira 
and the coffers of some, at least, of the Seigneurs; 
a few of the latter had built houses or chatiuux 
on their estates and lived a life as near that of a 
French aristocrat as pioneer conditions would per- 
mit. It was at this time, also, that another process 
evolved and the sons of prosperous habiiantt oc- 
casionally purchased Seifrii-urial rights from the 
holders of original grants or their descendants, and 
assumed a position to which they were not bom 
or bred. In the ranks of the Seigneurage, there- 
fore, were the rich and the poor, the nobleman 
and, in a limited number of cases, the peasant. 
Some of the gentlemen who held these positions were 
really little more than farmers on a small scale— 
with long descent and designations, well-known 
names and intense pride. Poverty, however, held 
them in its grip; lack of surrounding settlers and 
workers hampered revenues and prevented pro- 
duction; they added little to the advancement of 
the country in a material sense, though they helped 
to keep alive the traditions of loyalty, courtesy and 

There are not many rrdstmg memorials of the life 
and times of the Seigneurs. Manor Houses are 
scattered here and there throughout Quebec; forti- 
fied windmills and other indications of bygone 
construction and customs are occasionally visible 
in rural villages; Seigneurial pews in old-time 



churches remind the visitor of days when the Lord 
of the Seigneury drove to church in state followed 
by his eennlairet with no one daring to drive in 
front or beside him. A first and most conspicuous 
mansion of this feudal period was the Chateau de 
Longucuil, opposite Montreal, the home of the eariy 
Barons of that name and described in the ennoblinit 
patent of LouIh XI V as " a fort flanked by four strone 
lowers, all in stone and masonry, with a guard- 
house several large buildings and a very handsome 
church, all of masonry, enclosed in said Fort." 
Ihe dimensions were about 210 by 170 feet and it 
was erected about 1690. In 1792 the buildings were 
burned down and the Manor House rebuilt on St 
Helen s Island. 

Over the ruins and out of the walls of the latter 
home of the Le Moynes there has since been erected 
the Parish Church of Longueuil. It is not hard 
to imagine the war-like scenes in that old chateau, 
the softer social festivities, the drinking bouts of a 
time which was wild and free in that respect, the 
clanking of spurs and swords and tramp of armed 
men, the soft step of the black-robed priest, the 
gliding through the halls of graceful ladies clad in 
the beautiful garments of an olden time, even the 
distant war-whoop of the Iroquois. The presence 
of the sons alone, in the case of a reunion during 
the days of the first Baron, would have been enough 
to create a memorable scone-De Ste. lUline, the 
hero of many a fight, who fell during Phips' siege 
of Quebec; D'Ibervillc, who led French forces L 


•••"ocofY nsounioN mi chait 




lit ta 






^ 1S5J Ent Uoin Strtat 

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C7ie) 4«2 - 0300 - Ptw« 
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takmg of Fort Bourbon; S, 7V"'^^ "* ^^e 

«alm is said to have ha^ h^ h ^""^ '^""'"»« Mont- 
-n 1759 and here, eertainJv ^u """*•"■« ^"^ « «me 
W« of Quebec iorZ^l' J^' '°'''-' '^^d military 

Around it game was ml" rr ^'^ ^"" P'''^ 
-cords of 1648 stat^at Tz'oo"?' '*"'' "-*'"» 
«hot there in that year Th! V*''™'^''" '^"^ 
through Robert Giffard's /''\f ^■^"^"ry parsed 

'»totheJuehereauandthenth"t''u ^^ »""««« 
and for two hundred years tt "''"'^ay families 

Canada the institution as iJf'T*'''' '» French 
--der and more extensive anZ T"""^ *° *>« « > 
St- Denys, Seigneur I? p^ "^ ^'<"""as de 
himself in 1690 afthe siege of S?r' '"««"«"«hed 
a patent of nobility; hisTo^ H^^ f ^""^ ''^ Pven 
Louisiana, and t/o merbers Z''^'^''' '"^'^e i" 

Kuay. The chateau was h„r T! *** Chateau- 


^hit6«u St,:t«ui^, Q^^^^ 

I I: ' 


iX:--.5ifiMt .M J 

C^. .M^^ 

-^'^ : 




mony under which a cemiiaire named Guion on 

Sed ;.'"*"• '"f "* *'"' ''°-°f '^'^ chateau and 
recited these words: "Lord of Beauport, Lord "f 

ftr h\^°"* °' ^"""P^'*' I render you the 
fealty and homage due to you on account of my land 

title deed avowing my readiness to acquit the Sei- 
^eurmland feudal rents whenever they lall be due " 
Of other known manor houses that of De Salaberry 
was m 1738, not very far from Beauport U 
was very small and unpretentious though of solid 
construction with much quaint ornaLnlaSl' 
nere H R. H. the Duke of Kent was a freauent 

Til "; rt":' ^'''^''"" '' S-'laberry and'here 
the hero of Chateauguay was born. The De Lot- 
bim^re Manor at Vaudreuil was built by M de 
Lotbini^re about 1764 and stood till very recent 
years where the hotel of that name now stands In 
the olden days ,t was near a small river on a slight 
elevation and was officially described in 1815 as 
"a mile and a half from the Church" 
im^l BellefeuiUe Manor House dates from about 
1786 and originally belonged to the Seigneury of 

hTin th' "''"'' *''^ "^ Bellefeuilles obtaLd 
half ,„ the year mentioned. It represents an old 
type of house with rubble walls, steep gables and a 
ga lery reaching out over the road. There are vari- 
ous manor houses scattered through the Province 
of a more modern kind, such as Berthier, of Cuthbert 
Se gneurial days, and Dautray, near Berthier 
belonging to the same family; Uculle, of th oM 




De Beaujeu Seigneury, sold to an Englishman named 
Hoyle and built in 1826, Montebello on tl OUawlf 
purchased n 1812 by the father of L. J. PapS 
together with the Seigneury originally grant St^ de Laval; Pointe Platon, the home of the 
late Su. Henr. Joly de Lotbiniire, who latterly ren! 
resented the family to whom the Seigneury o"^^ Z 
name was originally granted in 1672. 

«h^,! ^k""^' f-,,'*"'^'' ^'""^ Q"**"'"' on the north 
Bhore, there st.ll stands what is called the Manor 

?Z: °^*''!' J»"'t«-who once owned the loc^ 
S.W M i"'m-- ^"'"''^''^ *° *'«' antiquarian, 
.s perhaps the oldest house remaining in Canada. 
Its walls are three feet thick and within them must 
have rested-from time to time-most of the Tariy 
martyrs of the Faith in New France. Here, in 1646, 
De Montmagny held a grand council with the Indi«. 

oh± ^r^y ,'^"^ """^ '"^ » solidly-bum 
church, a hospital and a convent. Belmont is an 

on the Ste. Foy Road about three miles from Quebec. 
The present structure only dates from 1800, but it 

1 vedtlT^ *'/ 'l^^f *'^ °" ^■""•^ ^ ^Wch 
lived the Intendant Talon and it was in turn ac- 
quired by Chief Justice William Gregory, General 
James Murray, Governor of Quebec,*thT Ca d^S 

S "'^°. t" '•'''' *"' ^^''^•""y °f Lauzon, the 
Irvines and others. Not far away stood Hoi and 

IS It dated from 1740 and was erected by 


Jean TacW, who married Mile, dc MwKan irr«nH 
daughter of the Seigneur Louis JoUiet he^cSr' 
of the sources of the Mississippi M TAP^J „ 

lonl^*^ f-T ^"^•^O' "« the '"ins of wha" ht 
Jong been called the Chateau Bigot, or Beaumano^ 
The gloomy old walls have been th; theme oTmuTh 
tradition and many stories, but modem res^Ir^h 

walls, deep cellars and vaulted underground apart- 

irirfi '° '"""'°* "^«°'' -^ -* *^« 

wefe'^urfl^' ^°"'' f".*'"' ^"''""^ °* Montreal, there 

Regiment, who, however, sold it to Jacques LeBer 
a wealthy resident of Ville Marie. It wLattacted 
by the Iroquois on several occasions and rebuUt 

thicT:red'*°?;± T- '''"' °"^ ^''°-' -"ht 
BtvU t,^ fortifications, was maintained in a 
style o feudal splendor by the family of iTBer de 
Semievxlle up to the changes of 1759 and afterwards 
passed into the hands of the De Montig^y famS 

days. The Manor House of Saint Jean VnU r„i 
near Quebec was built upon thfruirof tt"^ ^' 
burned by the British tr^s 2^753°!;^ tt Set 

iS: .*" m 



gneunr there held by the famous novelist, P. A. de 

i^'m/^n o"* *"'"'''' *° A"*""* ''« '» Chenaye 

OuiJ, *^™"'' ^''''"''' *''''*y^« '»"«' below 

Quebec, are some crumbling ruins of the Manoir 
once erected and lived in by Pierre de pC 

^Zr'u" ''""''l'^- ^'••' "'^ Manoir of Del: 
chambault was until recently, and perhaps now to 

rts first Seigneurs were important personages in the 
early days of British rule. 

The life of the morfe prosperous and powerful 
or important, Seigneurs-the real repres^ratVves 
of feudalmm, and members of the aristocracy wWch 
It was hoped to establish permanently in New 

Brillmnt were the scenes at the old Chateau St 
Loms, m which they shared and in which many 
were conspicuous figures. They were scenes replete 
^th vivid contrasts, bright with varied colors, dark 
with gnm possibilities, or actual facts, of war and 
massacre, interesting with an ever-changing series 
o stones relating to Indian life, exploratioL and 

fur7rar'fii;"f*'°ri ^*' '^' excitements of the 
fur trade, filled with events in the opening of a vast 
continent. Society in the fi«t century of C 
trance, whatever its privations and limitations, 
could never have been dull; in the second centurji 
there was more comfort and luxury but quite ^ 
much peril and excitement and change. In the 
great hall of the Chateau St. Louis, with its lofty 
carved ceiling, its polished pillars and panels of 

,jrr^ -saRi 


wainscoating, it. historical pictun. anu delio... 
arab^que.. the Seigneur, had ?o attend at Wol 

lilie. ofP,L ^u . *^ Stamped with the golden 
Knl? ^""'"'' »•«"' horaose an,l oath ^f allerianee 

h gh po..t.on, though unfortunately he did no? 
always realue that he also had high responsSitfe^ 

were much the same m city and country.»v 
was an essential quality of the French gen«;man^"d 
h^ wife hospitality was of the openrhandTd ch^r 

Fr^n'o. K^ """^^ '""^ greater chateaux of OM 
France before the Revolution. The lonJ^ l„i 

stone-built structures had more room tian 'm 2 

be supposed; their thick walls, as illustrated in fJe 

st.ll existmg Chateau de Ram^zay, produced an 

irom cold, the huge fire-places and ovens and solid 
coohng utensils were constantly in v " In £? 

wills of a°Z ""''," '"'""' "-- -'h"n the 

7h7lnL "*^^ enclosure, stood the stone mill for 

the Aato' grain with also a fortified windmi 1. 

As to customs, the Seigneur and his family break- 

nner ""i' ° "'°'"' °° '""'' ^"^^^ ^'"^ '"'d coffee- 

nC r ."""^ '"'' ^"PP" '' =«^«° - the eve-' 
mng. Decanters were much in evidence; brandy 
and cordials were frequently drunk. The ideboard 


fi ' 




waB laden with quantities of anceatral diver and 
china. A feature of dinner at certain aeasona wai 
a huge paaty served on a great tray covered with 
a naplcin— one described by De Oasp^ contained a 
turkey, two chickens, two partridges, two pigeons, 
portions of two rabbits, slices of fat pork, two hbms 
seasoned with onions, and the whole flavored with 
the finest of spices. A curious custom at meals 
was that of the guests carrying their own knives; 
the things provided by the host being a napkin, 
plate, silver goblet, forjc and spoon. The furniture 
of the house, generally, was that of the higher-class 
mansions of France— though its style at any given 
time or pluce might be somewhat antiquated. 
Cards were a favorite amusement, with sleighing 
and skating and snow-shoeing in winter; hunting 
and fishing and shooting were the sports in summer 
with driving in carioles or caliches. Dancing was 
at times frowned upon by the Church, though at 
other times it was permitted with strict limitations. 
The Seigneurs and officers and officials and, of course, 
the ladies liked to dress well; conversation at social 
functions was gay and witty. 

The entertainments at the Chateau St. Louis or 
the Intendant's Palace at Quebec, in the neighboring 
Chateaux towards Montmorenci and Beauport or 
along the Ste. Foy Road, at Longueuil or in the 
Chateau de Ramdzay, Montreal, must have been 
both brilliant and interesting. It is not hard to 
picture such a salon as that of Mde. de Ram^zay, 
for instance, in days when her husband was Governor 


Of the lightnw. snd brightncM of the court wit 
. f..r .hare of the military „„.| official if" whT h 

Pan»«o memorable, were tranHpl«„ted hero to the 

»uen a> the Compte««e do Frontenac, refused to a,- 
oompany their husbands to New France, the major- 

h, n ■" P^'' 'r"' *''" •'•"'"» »' "'"' presence to 
the pioneer life of the New World 

How atrange it mu«t have seemed to a wandering 
-avage who, in time, of peace, might seeThe iLht! 

tT^fn^h^ ' °' '^"""^^ *'"' '^''y •'""'ohes of fores? 
trees in the summer time, and illuminating, within 

SiHiS-^^C^'errthT?' f °' .''''"*-* 
other centuHerZ rerSe^irtrSnict 
an que furniture of a dining-room or the crowded 
walls and stately furnishings of a drawinrrim 
her re , utters of daintf wom:„ aL SsTn 

iLd nat h rV"'"''''' •" **"> '•'8'' •>««'«. "'"paint 
M.d patches, the tresses d la Pompadour of he period 
there were men dressed in the flowing locks and the 
gorgeous colors aud garb of a time wheVpontaini lu 
or the TuJene. led the social world. To ee the 
Btately and yet lowly bows of men and women 
to watch the courtesies and manners of an agToi 
chivalry, to listen, perhaps, for a moment" on one 
of these outposts of savagery, in a vast w Iderne" 



and amid lonely forests, to the accents of cultured 
Paris, must have been an unique experience. 

O, fair young land of La Nouvelle France, 
With thy halo of olden-time romance, 
Back like a half-forgotten dream 
Come the bygone days of thi old rtfime. 

Such in brief and hasty outline was the evolution 
and character of this interesting institution — akin 
to the Dutch aristocracy of New York or the English 
aristocracy of Maryland, though with points of 
difference eo marked as to show little affinity in com- 
parison to the divergence. The class development 
of life in New France was deliberate, constitutional 
and constructive; the object was clear and in many 
respects wise when the character of the French 
people is taken into account; the forms and fashions 
and ceremonies were suited to the society of the 
period and to the customs of the men who had to 
govern in these far-away regions. The system, 
also, was fully organized by legal enactments and 
the CoiUumi de Paris controlled regulations in 
the main. Military service was not a condition 
technically, but, practically, the working out of the 
plan constituted the Seigneur and his tenants as 
parts of the militia — the former, or members of his 
family, being the officers. The Church was associ- 
ated with the system through the parishes h?ing 
usually coterminous with the Seigneuries. The 
Seigneurs were often called to the Supreme Council 
and they could administer justice at pleasure, though 

II i 


gentlen^an and an alto" Jt ^t "^ 

of Des Wets was erected Intn ' Se.gneury 

became afterwards Cnlf Tr? " ^^'""y ^"^ •>« 

number of noble f«m:i: ^ * certam 

established i„°S;Frnt^ ^brLeT'^ T!,' 
several branches Anrf a . "^ f^ Gardeurs had 

Courcelle, My d flSvaisX n "~''*'"°"«"^' 

It^irSavr' '''' "''''" " *'«'"-'lous change. 

e.egXo%aertL"„br „r; '°™' *^ *'« 
trigues and counteSbtrigut o^thaT*' *''. '°- 

matter; the trouble rlmoT * '^"'* '» **>e 

^^ , trouble came from outside officials ap- 




pointed by the French authorities without due care 
or knowledge. New France was sound in the rural 
districts, but the canker of corruption, which at 
times affects aristocracies and democracies alike, 
had eaten mto life of every kind, and debilitated 
character as well as conduct, at the seat of govern- 
ment. With the Cession many of the Seigneurial 
names disappear from Canadian history and the 
owners of large Seigneuries, such as those of Lon- 
gueuil, Lauzon, Ten'ebonne, Foucoult, La Prairie, 
Le Chenaye, Beloeil, etc., left to live in France. 

Naturally loyal to monarchical institutions and 
hating vigorously the growing republicanism of the 
people to the south, the remaining Seigneurs seem 
to have taken the change of allegiance in a good- 
humored way when once the century-long war was 
settled. They had fought to the best of their 
ability against England; with the issue decided 
they accepted the situation with typical cheerfulness 
and Mnj froid. In 1776 and 1812 they were, as 
a rule, loyal to the new order of things and helpful 
in many ways to the British rulers; and in this they 
were hand in hand with the priests. They settled 
on their properties and prospered with the gradual 
growth of the country. Many changes of family 
and ownership naturally took place, but in 1842 
there were French Canadian Seigneiu^ of Varennes, 
St. George, Ste. Th&6se and de Blainville, Lasalle, 
St. Eustacne, Verch^res, De La Gauchetidre, St. 
Charles, Soulanges, St. Mm6, St. Paul, St. Ours, 
Terrebonne, St. Hillaire et de Rouville and St. 


Hyacinthe Old families such as Baby, Dumont 
DeUry, JoUiet, Duchesnay, Hertel, mZ„ 
Papmeau were still represented and there wryet 
some of the spint surviving of the old lines: 

Happy is he who in a country life ' 
S*un8 more perplexing toil and jairing life, 
Who Uves upon the natal soil he loves 
And sits beneath his old ancestral groves. 

DlJ.y°'n "^"'*' !T'^""' " '^'"^ '^1^^ »«'d taken 
place. During the years following the Cession 
sundry old French Seigneuries had' been ^Z 
to or purchased by, various British officers and 
gentlemen, from time to time. Hector T. Cramah* 
(a Swiss by birth). Sir T. Mills, Maj^r sZtt 
Holland, Captains Naime and Fraser, H W Rv 
land and many more were amongst them; so' that 
by the imddle of the nineteenth century many of 
the old Seigneuries of New France were hardly 
^ogmzable under such mimes as Yule of Chambly, 
Ellis of Beauhamois, Christie of LacoUe, De Bleurv 
of Repentigny Johnson of Argentueuil, Hamilton 

fin«?\ ^^' !f'^u'''° "^ ^'^"''- Then came the 
fiaal change and abolition of the institution brought 
about by one who was himself a Seigneur. 

The holders of the Seigneuries no longer held or 
exercised any power outside of certain legal claims 
upon their tenants which the latter had come to 
consider burdensome; they neglected very often 
their duty aa to the saie and grant of lands and 
promotion of settlement; the day labor enforced 



upon the nngitaire or habitant upon certain occasions 
was greatly disliked; their assumed rights of pre- 
emption, and their taxes upon transfers of land, 
checked conveyance and were very unpopular. 
These, however, were only surface reasons for the 
abolition of the Seigncurial Tenure system which 
was brought about in the United Legislature of 
Upper and Lower Canada in 1854 by the Hon. 
L. T. Drummond. Back of the movement and of 
the expressed discontent was the feeling which is 
so easily aroused in democracies that the land 
occupied by the habitant or peasant should be his 
land and that the immemorial rights of the landlord 
were, or are, tyrannous and unjust. It is probable 
that this sentiment would never have come to a 
head if (1) the Seigneurs themselves had not so 
greatly changed, if (2) the politics of the Province 
had not been so closely associated with the democ- 
racy of Upper Canada or Ontario. 

As to the first point many of the Seigneurs were 
now of the dominant English race and associated 
in the public mind of the habitants with their strug- 
gles for self-government and the bitter memories 
of 1830-40. They could not, even when personally 
popular, be any actual strength to the system itself 
and the carrying out of any feudal practices in their 
connection would naturally le-^k the sympathetic 
feeling which lay behind the relations of the old- 
time French Lord of the Manor and his censitaires. 
Where the Seimeur, in other localities, had himself 
risen from the habitant class the objection would 



be diffarent but equally obvious. It is rarely 
indeed, that a man likes one of his equals in labo^ 
and position to rise above him and to expect from 
him the courtesies and duties willingly accorded to 
the gentleman with traditions of class and personal 
distinction. A further difficulty was the division 
of the Seigneuries amongst different personages and 
the consequent weakening of family wealth and 
associations As to the political aspect it is abund- 
antly clear that no aristocratic institution in Quebec 
or elsewhere on this continent, couid expect to live 
after it had once ceased to be popular with the 
people concerned. The grievances were not great 
m this case and those that did exist were grossly 
exaggerated; but the system and the Seigneurs had 
lost touch with the people and the end was certain 
It was hastened by the help of the Ontario democracy 
m a common Legislature— a democracy which would 
in those days have also deprived the Church of 
* rench Canada of many privileges if it had possessed 
the power. 

With the passing of the Seigneurial system there 
closed a page of history which possesses great 
interest to the lover of the picturesque or to the 
imaginative mind and intellect. It was an experi- 
ment which might have lasted had New France 
lived and become purified of its corruptions-a con- 
dition always remediable when strong men come 
to the front and one which Montcalm, himself, 
would have overcome had he been given a free 
hand from France. Even under British rule, had 






the Seigneurs remained French, held their properties 
intact, done their full duty to the people, and lived 
in close association with their own race, the insti- 
tution might have lasted indefinitely. Given these 
conditions, no democracy, however near and politic- 
ally insistent, could have destroyed the fabric which 
Richelieu created and Louis the Great had aided; 
which lends a charm to many pages of French 
annals in America; , which produced many able 
men and, in a most substantial but indirect way, 
established culture and courtesy as strong char- 
acteristics of the educated French Canadian of 


Lira, Customs and Envibonmbnt op this 

To the people of the United States and even to 
m„y of the people of Canada the Aa6^W o! 
Quebec .8 something picturesque and peculiar 
something one speaks of as a problem, somett ng 
extraneous to the continent in which he dweHs 
There m no doubt about the French Canrdtn 
being a picturesque figure in this commerciarru h" 
mg. money-getting age; as to the rest it is a po nt 
of view, a matter perchance of prejudice, or even 
o Ignorance In truth the habitari is v^ry much 

tion and its best interests, very much a pioneer in 
the histoiy of the continent. His viUages a e 

to those V° '^' "^'^ •'*"""'«« '"^^y «- <«fferen 
to those found anywhere else in America; his life 
and customs are of interest because he has preserved 

the peop e, of whatever race or language have 
more or less departed from traditions^aT'di 
something which is labeled progress 

Everywhere throughout modern Quebec-perhaos 
the phrase is a contradiction in terms-are Ses 
nestling at the foot of some slight elevatbn or 




tjny rivulet bea Jag theZLTr '^f '"'"'« '»"«' 
clustered around the ^1]^ J ".^'"°°"» """t; 
built along the sides nff ." P"'*'' church, or 

country-ro'ad wUh ti7»« -i-ding -d beaut'if J 

cultivable land behi^- • * ""^ ""'« siips of 

"horesofan^yriadS; rr"*^ "'"'" "P°" the 
°>ay be, with quaint therT^'r"" "« t'"" <"^ 
quota of interest to SS X V "*l '"''''°« ""-' 
/laton/. Th'ere, every^hete 7 ^'°'' °' *>>« 
v'l^ge is the church Yutht f ^''^'' *" *<>« 
■ and hope of the people tL "f**"" "^ t''* We 

»d funerals and re£!« /Tl"^ *''^"' '^«<lding« 
tbeir traditions and Sts f'^*'"' ^''^ "<"»« ^ 
place near which in . . "'' associations, the 
«e the re^at^ranSr'^^^l-^^-us'uJlt 
Primeval ages of CanadTH^r*, '"'"'' '■°*° ^'•e 
one of them, marked by a W m 1' '"'*'"""'' « 
ample inscription: "JeanB«nr! J*"^ "°^' « the 
21 Janvier, 1809, agf^Q Tn^ ,' "T"""^' ''^"^•^ 
father, great-graidJather Tv h '^'''"''' «">»"- 
graveyard to carry the visitor h I' •"' *'''' ««»« 
days when Ontario wLT^L '^ '° """e to the 
village. New Organs a Pr '"^'•'™««. New York a 

Ar-^und the church WS ' T* '" '""^ 'o^^*- 
or. perhaps, a newer TnS °'''' '""'' "^o^e walls 
structure, nestles The ^LTV^^^ '"°<'«"' 

• .^...'IWi":.-iP 

it M^FM MW . ■"^■'"taaii • 


Weaving Home: 

spun Cloth 

V 111 ittel 

*- a-. 






blind, of «,me vivid to ,uit the owner', 
tutea. There are the home* of the vill««. ZZ. 

th.T(.^t r " *'" ^°'^' »' the doctor tTough 



to know about their families, he feasts with them at 
baptisms, betrothals and weddings, he looks after 
them m times of want or trouble, he helps their 
young people with sage advice which may not be 
always followed but which is none the less useful, 
he watches over those who leave the home and' 
then transfers his care to some other and perhaps 
far-away parish priest. 

A word may be said as to the general situation 
m this respect apart from association of the Church 
with the racial elenient in the habitant mind and 
traditions. There is no doubt that the warmth and 
color, the ceremonial and the forms of Roman 
Catholicism appeal to him. If profound belief in 
the supernatural means superstition, there can be no 
question that the French Canadian is superstitious. 
He peoples the earth and air, the rivers and the 
forests with stories of a ghostly nature and religious 
character. The saints arc very real to him, and his 
Calvaires and wayside crosses embody ideas of 
genuine devotion, which, however, do not affect 
his light-hearted view of life and Treedom from 
serious thought. Why should he worry when an 
all-powerful Church can take care of his future if 
he lives the right life and regrets any sins he may 
happen to commit? When he celebrates the F«te 
of St. Jean Baptiste he does it with all his soul, 
and not even in countries close to the Papal Throne 
can processions more picturesque be seen than 
Montreal and Quebec will produce on such occasions. 
Cars with figures emblematic of saints and of great 



events in the life of the Church precede long lines 
of cheerful habitantt doing their duty, paying their 
homage, to the patron saint of New France So with 
the Ffite de Dieu, when the Host is carried through 
crowded streets with thousands of devout believers 
on bended knees, and ecclesiastics and priests in 
brilliant or black robes, as the case may be, -.on- 
tnbutmg their quota to the stately character of 
the procession. Everywhere in Quebec, in French 
parishes outside of Quebec, as in all Catholic com- 
mumtics, the First Communion of the children is a 
picturesque and pretty incident. Crowds of little 
girls and boys— the former in white frocks and caps 
and gloves and veils— march through the streets 
and up the aisles of their churches, with the proud 
parents looking on and all feeling i. to be a most 
important moment in the lives of the little ones. 

Around the habitant in every direction are names 
of villages, churches, parishes, counties, even munic- 
ipal divisions, bearing the association of some saint 
of his Church. There are neariy fifty villages or 
towns called after Ste. Anne alone— of which Str 
Anne de Beaupr^, de la Pocati^re, de la Parade, 
de Bellevue may be mentioned. Every place or 
settlement has, however, a patron saint, and it is 
obviously easy for some commonplace or unpopular 
name to drop out of use and the name of the local 
samt substituted or perhaps combined, as in St. 
Andr«-de-Restigouche. This latter action is quite 
a common one, and many small places are burdened 
with long hyphenated names, while others, it may be 




said in passing, have a most incongruous sound as 
Ste. Lucie-de-DisraeU or St. Jean-Baptiste-de-Sher- 

The homes of the habitant vary a little, of course 
m detail, but in broad general outline they have 
retained the characteristics of two centunes ago 
There was a period when local conditions of war 
and penl and tiny settlements— branching out from 
a center like Quebec or Montreal, or creeping close 
up to the fortified residence of a Seigneur— made 
some differences in the habits and customs of the 
peasants or censitaires, but it was not a radical or 
permanent divergence from their old homes in an 
old France which has now passed away. The 
essentials they preserved and crystallized in the 
forests and pioneer wilderness of the New France 
which their rulers and soldiers were trying to estab- 
lish. The leaders of those days have passed away 
and the., dreams have gone with them into the 
clouds, but the simple habitants, of whom they 
thought httle except as useful fighters and farmers 
have preserved in the heart of an alien continent 
the home, family and religious life of rural France 
m the days of Louis le Grand. 

Usually, the houses have three rooms on the 
ground floor with a loft reached in old days by a 
ladder and more recently by a curving stairway; 
or, perhaps, the more modem and prosperous home 
may have two or three rooms on the ground floor 
and two or three on the upper. The outside door 
opens into the living-room and kitchen of which 



m pioneer times the bare ground would be covered 
with sawdust as a floor but in the past century 
or so by wooden floors of scrupulous cleanness. 
Ihe great fireplace of the past still exists as a rule 
with Its lar; kettle of soup hanging upon an iron 
crane and simmering over the fire of logs, but with 
It very often there is now a modern stove; outside 
m the older villages may be seen the oven in which 
the habitant cooked his food and, at times, still 
<lo«» so. These curious ovens of the past were 
built of wicker work and plastered inside and out 
with a thick coating of clay or mortar; they were 
raised four feet from the ground and covered over 
with a roof of boards. In the better houses the 
imng-room and kitchen are sometimes separated 
and the floor of the former is covered by home- 
made rag carpets or small rugs of vivid hues. Around 
the walls are. highly colored pictures of St. Ignatius 
of Loyola, of the musical St. Cecilia, of the youthful 
and beautiful St. Catherine of Hungary and, per- 
chance, of the late Pio Nona or, in fewer instances, 
of the reigning Pontiff or the British King High 
on the wall, in some place of honor, hangs a crucifix 
nearby perhaps are images of a guardian saint and 
others, or of the Virgin Mary, and not far away 
hangs the chapelet or beads of the housewife-- 
perhaps one brought from Rome by a son of the 
house who was once a Pontifical zouave and obtained 
for It the blessing of the Pope in person. 

In a corner or niche of the wall there is, perhaps 
a statuette of the great Napoleon or, in sea-board 



parishes, of a sailor; sometimes there is a plaster 
cast of a parrot or some domestic fowl; at other 
times there is a wax figure of some special family 
interest — the face or hand or even the finger, kept 
in a glass case, of some departed loved one. On a 
table there may be a cherished family album— a 
rather modem product however — with pictures in 
strict gradation of the Pope and the local Cur^, and of 
any member of the family who may- have taken 
Holy Orders; the^, possibly, the Governor General 
of the day or some notable of local attraction, and 
after that the family circle. There stands also the 
bottle of holy water brought from the church on 
the Holy Saturday before Easter, and elsewhere is 
sure to be seen the old eight-day clock reaching to 
the ceiling and having a bell whose clear metallic 
tinkle is said to be an art lost to modem clock- 

Somewhere on the wall there may hang the long 
shot-gun used by the habitant for ducks and wild 
geese and for the occasional bear or caribou when 
he goes upon some special and notable trip. In 
much of the Province game abounds — wild fowl 
in the woods and along the rivers and streams and 
on the borders of countless lakes; fish everywhere 
and of many species; moose and caribou and red 
deer in Pontiac, on the shores of Lake Temisca- 
mingue, in the forests of the Lake St. John and 
Lake Edward country, in Temiscouta and the 
Lake Megantic region, up through the Ottawa 
River country where for months a canoe can carry 


OueW r^i Laurentides, a few hours from 

Quebec City, are hundreds of lakes and various 
riven, teemmg with fish and such is the c^e for ou 
hundred m.les up the St. Maurice. Around Quebec 
also are to be found immense game reserves, and the 
lucky k-AUant of Beauport or St. Anne, oi of any 
village ,01 a hundred miles below Queb;c has not 
only an excellent soil to cultivate the exquisite 
air and scenery associated with th^ sweep of the 

game'^n ^fi "' T^'^ '"* quantitie^of wild 
game and o fish and fowl of every kind. The 
modem hahtant, like the old-time settler and 
voyageur and hunter, loves the sport of the woods 

ffi^ life of the Hunter! He meets on the hill 

I^H ?1T .r'', '''^"«^' "" ''"«''* ""d "o 'till 
And feels a< the clouds of the morning unroU 

The sUence, the splendor, ennoble his soul, 
^fh ^*J "•.«"<»>■""■« to stalk like a ghost 
Enshrouded with mow in which nature is fS. 

To return to the home of the habitant. The 
housewife of today may still be seen sitting in a 

nfcbtht" *"™"* *'^ ^"'""'"^ "■•-' -^'mak! 
mg clothes, or rugs, or counterpanes, of wonderful 
strength and durability and comeliness, luieS 
daughter perhaps is seated on a box 7 tru^ 
actively engaged at her loom and humming a soj 

eUs of home-made linen in a day's work. The 



dress of the housewife is simple — a mantelet of 
calico, a blue skirt of homespun, a neat white cap 
called the caline. The picturesque dress of the 
kcAitant himself used to consist of a long-skirted 
cloth frock or coat tied around the waist by a red 
worsted scarf with crude trousers and, in winter, 
moccasins and the bonnet rouge — a sort of loose, 
warm, red nightcap. Time has modified this garb 
somewhat, though it is still to be seen aid both men 
and women, upon festive occasions, revel in colors. 

The old-time food of the people has not greatly 
changed. Fat pork is still the staple diet, pea soup, 
puddings or sausages made of blood and the entrails 
of hogs are great favorites, vegetables and fish 
constitute the diet during Lent. The habitant is 
fond of thick, sour milk. Thanks to the efforts of 
the Church, he is, generally speaking, sober and 
t-imperate, but in the old days there was a good deal 
of drinking indulged in by hahUanta as well as by 
Seigneurs, and the travelers of a hundred years 
ago describe this condition freely, though perhaps 
unfairly, because they would see, in the main, only 
the indulgence of special occasions at the market 
places or in the larger communities. 

The houses are usually to be found at or near the 
end of a long, narrow strip of land leading down 
to a river, a roadway, a lake or some place of special 
interest or value in the life or work of the habitant. 
Originally this was useful for purposes of defence, 
as the houses were then brought close together into 
a little village or community into which a church 


with these strips of farmin "• ^^^ t^'^dency 

become more a^d m "r*f °' *"^"« '"»'* " *° 

village AM.'/a„rwm ciear^I." '"«^ "*^ ^''^ 
hundred dollars a veL T ^^-^^ ^ """P'^ of 
or farm l-^dlLt/J'^J^Zn ''''^ "'* °' «"'l™ 
In his house of our or fitT "' ^T" """P^^- 
two families-a Znl 1/?°°" ^''"^ "« *'"«"' 
to. wife and children '"°« "* ^'"^^ '^tb 

-StTl?* Z±t?r *^" *° «"- --i 

The more there are tSenrV'''"*^-^^^ "l^'d^n. 

are the parenL 1, ." f f.""^ """'^ ^''t'^fi^d 

the Privrtio.^ taeStTbl ° " *'"'^°' P°^«^y °' 

with many mou;hstt,.\loui:''' '^ ''°'' 
matter you mav mrh ' u '^^ ""'"""^ ^''O"* 'he 

numerorthe fTmirth' ^'/"''^ *'"'* ^''^ ""O'e 
willing worJrLmeT rrm' Vr^ °^ ' 
encourages this view of liZ JT^' ''^ *^''""'' 
domesticity of the Tverlil 7 ;^"*'"'' *•>« '"^t^ral 
kindly relations btwie'lhemlf ''"^ '*' ^''^ 
and the mutual obi Itl A t?''"'' °' "^ ^'''"^'y 
religion estabUsh H as ^^f^ft r' ''^°''""* "^ 
The Government even ZZITT '° Q^^bec. 
time a free erant J?" ,«'"=0"rage8 it and at one 

of a specmedTumbe ^o/c^d '"'"^t ^^^'^ ^»*'^- 
the race do not7eem t b« u ?' '»°*'"«" "^ 

responsibilities, and a few vT ^^T'* ''^ "><='' 
~TiCrr-r " <» f'w years ago* Sir Lomer 




Gouin, Premier of Quebec, paid them a tribute 
wliich is not too highly colored: "Despite the cares 
and responsibilities of muternity, there are few more 
active, more helpful and more light-hearted com- 
panions than the habitant wife and mother. How 
attractive she is those of you who have traveled in 
the Province of Quebec do not need to Ije told. 
How good she is time would fail me to tell. Usually 
of robust constitution, strong in the religious faith 
that sustains hei; firm in her sense of duty; domes- 
tic, frugal and industrious; a devoted wife and 
indulgent mother, she appears to be a combination 
of all the virtues." 

It may be regretted that the women are allowed 
at times to do field or garden work, but it certainly 
makes the girls strong and healthy — though it may 
not improve the prettiness which they usually have 
as children. There is, however, plenty to do in the 
home and no doubt the condition rights itself. 
Socks and mitts are made by the mother or her 
girls; mats and rugs and white or colored rag- 
carpets are still the product of looms in many a 
home; coarse linen table-covers, curtains and bed- 
spreads are made from flax which has been soaked 
and beaten into fibrous matter fitted for the spin- 
ning wheel. Straw hats, glove&, candles and even 
soap are madti by the women. The wedding dot of 
the girl is often made by the accumulated results 
of years of such patient and pleasant labor. Some- 
times the men work at home aud they are very 
handy — making in the more remote villages prac- 



W *"''^''""' *'"'* '" '"'"^''' '" »' """"d the 

k„?i r^"™ *«'*'"''*"«' methods the habitant 
knows h tie and cares less. His personal prideh^ 
el -sa^,s acfon, his kind of happy coneeitThim 
self are clearly marked characteristics. Why shouTd 
he learn from those who have never had what he 
cons-ders his advantages, his privileges? He d^! 
hked and practically abolished the use of the wo^ 
cenntane because, whatever his relations to £ 

a vassal he chose the word halntant because it 
meant that he was the free inhabitant of S^ew 
country; he revelled in and still greatly en ovs^hT 

ness, the thmgs that only a rural existence where 
spaces are vast, rivers and lakes numerous Jand and 
forests reasonably clear of civilization, ckn afford 
Se Z «°.'"'>^"*«'d, inborn, inbred belief that hi 
hfe and rehgion are the greatest, the oldest and the 

from the land of Napoleon and from a people who 
whatever their faults of recent years, were once he 
considers, the greatest nation in the worid Why 
herefore, should he change the customs of S 

ahn ,f f"%'^'"'^°''' f'«'l"«"«y declines to bother 
about fertilizing or rotation of crops 

The habitant raises horses whenever possible and 
httle farm keep him and his family; sometioies 




they enable him to educate a son for the proud 
poeition of a priest or, perhaps, of an avocat. He is 
very proud of bis land, and of his little property, 
and is devoted to the soil of Canada in a upirit 
which no other class of people on the American 
continent can share or perhaps even understand. 
In many cases farms are still held by families in 
direct line and descent from the cenntairet to whom 
they were first granted in the early days of New 
France. A Committee at Quebec in 1908, under 
instructions from the Government, investigated a 
number of cases and awarded medals to 270 families 
which claimed that they still lived in family home- 
steads built or acquired by their ancestors from two 
hundred to *wo hundred and fifty years before. 
Hence, in part, the fact that from the days 
of the Seigneurs to the present time the habi- 
tarU't manners have been and are courteotu; 
an independent, open-air life has developed an 
appreciation of the fact that courage and courtesy go 
tot her as do internal servility and external rude- 
ness. He has faith in his God, faith in himself, 
faith in his past and his future. Who shall blame 
him if that faith now and then takes the form of 
the Scotchman's "unco gude" opinion of himself and 
leads him to fight clear of modern change and 
so-called improvement even when it promises to 
give him a few more potatoes to the acre, a few 
more turnips in his cellar, a little more produce for 
the market. He has contentment enough to be 
indifferent to the statement and philosophy enough 



'? f^l** '*: ^^ * "'■"" °' '""» the cen.u» figure 
of 1901 and 1911 show that farm building, In th^ 
I'rovmceincrea.ed from I102,000,000tol218 000 000 
or ovor 100 per cent; while the value of farm' im- 
plemente roae from 127,000,000 to 154,000,000 

The most common cnticiHm by a ea«ual visitor to 
Quebec is probably one dealing with this question 
of the somewhat archaic methods of agriculture. ' 
It would possibly interest such a person if he were 
able to delve more deeply into matters and see how 
really mtelhgent and quick, how versatile in many 
ways, the haintant is. He often manufactures his 
own wagon and harness; in days when the sheep 
industry was prosperous he or his wife made their 
homespun clothes; he often makes his own boots 
and, amongst the chief industries of the Province- 
replacing the humble, wandering shoemakers and 
cobblers of early days who worked on a bench out- 
side the Mni-s door-are the large factories 
employing the young French Canadian at perhaps 
twenty dollars a week to make boots and shoes. 
He IS naturally clever as a craftsman. Thouah 
modern industry and commerce are making a dif- 
ference the haintant can still make many articles 
of home consumption; in days not yet altogether 
fT' TZ ""'* e^a-'dsons and great-grandsons 
foIWed the same craft. In carpentry he excels 
and as a cabinetmaker he was always a clever 
copyist-undertaking even Chippendale furniture, 
excelling in ceiling and wall woodwork, in carving 
statues and m wood sculpture generally. 





In hii winter workshop, which it often the family 
living-room, many a habilant malcea things in a 
casual way which an Ontario worlcman would con- 
sider amasing. He creates bitHkeU out of pieces of 
white ash, makes wooden horses from bits of spruce, 
manufactures quite a good kind of chair from birch 
wood, with rush or thong bottoms, builds comer 
cupboards of excellent style, even makes four-poster 
bedsteads for his family. At one time the habitatU 
was good at iron work, and even now in Quebec 
there are to be found occasional brass, metal, and 
silver workers. The bookbinders of that city do 
beautiful work in both design and hand-tooling 
and it is hardly an accident that the young French 
Canadian is so much in demand in the factories of 
New England. 

The habitant and his family love amusement, 
gaiety and the simple pleasures of rural life, in 
communities where everybody knows everybody 
and has done so through many generations. Even 
here, however, there are gradations, and subtle 
differences exist as between the habitant't daughter, 
for instance, and the mechanic's son. They may be 
overcome if the former is gracious and the latter 
prosperous, but they are none the less existent. 
Men, women and children alike love good stories, 
are fond of singing and dancing, are fluent talkers 
with a real love for their own voices, and revel in 
the music given by a violin, which is often made at 
home but which suffices for such dancing as may be 
permitted by the Curi under very strict surveillance. 




The men and boy» imoke conatantly, too much 
indeed, and they learn very young-the tobacco 
being grown m the home garden. Reading i. not 
conaidcred an amuacment and religiou. books are 
the only onea really common to halnlant houK,- 

OccBuions for social festivity are many; distance 
IS immaterial, as a horse and sleigh, or some other 
vehicle, are the property of every habitant A 
drive of twenty-five miles over snow-deep roads or 
throufch summer scenes is thought nothing of to 
share a hospitable feast, to pay a h'-^ ±y visit to 
attend a religious festival or a holiday celebration. 
Winter was and is the great social season of the 
hahilant,. Between Christmas an-t Ash Wednesday 
they pay frequent "surprise' vimts in la ge parties 
to each other's homes and feast gaily upon bound- 
less supplies of cooked meats and pies prepared for 
the occasion. What dancing and music, songs and 
.aughter, chatter and story-telling, kissing games 
a^d flinations, these merry-makings evoke! In 
the old days of New France, and even of Quebec up 
to modem times, in some localities, the great frolics 
of the year were in connection with the making of 
maple syrup at the close of Lent and the celebration 
of May Day. Immense cauldrons of sap were hung 
on poles over fires and around these young men and 
maidens, old men and young children gathered and 
sang or danced to welcome the coming of happy 
spring, to speed the going of the cold, yet cheerful 
winter. ' 



The May Day celebration was largely associated 
with the old Seigneurial system and was a part of 
the joyous social life in which the lord of the manor 
shared as of right. The May pole, a tall fir tree 
stripped of Its bark, was usually erected in the 
beigneur's farm-yard and thither went every one in 
the neighborhood who could walk or drive- blank 
musket shots were fired at the tree trunk until it 
was black with powder; then the doors of the 
manor house were thrown open and the haUtants 
feasted at tables groaning with game and meats, pies 
and cakes, white whiskey and tobacco; quaint 
stories and homely wit and jokes sped the day; the 
beigneur passing from table to table talking and jok- 
ing with his guests. Amongst other old customs now 
falling into desuetude was the IgnoUe or celebration of 
the renewal of the year; the Conies or bees for the 
domg of some special work in which the aid of a 
number of neighbors is sought; the ipluchettes or 
corn-shucking and the hrayages or fiax-beatings 
These were usually accompanied by dances and 
festivities. The f«te of La Grosse Gerbe was perhaps 
the chief of these celebrations when a large sheaf of 
gram surrounded by smaller ones were gaily decked 
and young and old danced around them. New Year's 
Day is still a great occasioa and Christmas is 
celebrated by everyone in a spirit of gaiety which 
IS most attractive and with that religious spirit 
which IS a part of most French Canadian festivals 
To quote Lord Dufferin's translation of a Chanson 
popular amongst the habitants: ' 

THE J >.?■ I'ANT 249 

Let dead YulM lend-their brigL. reflections: 
Let fond friends blend-their recoUectiona- 
Let Love revive— joy's ashen embers- 
For Love is Life— since Love remembers. 

The courtesy of the hMtant is one of the things 
which stamp the French Canadians as a peopk 
apart from the rest of the continent; as, individ- 
ually a product of some other age and clime and 
condition. Like the better-class portion of the 
population he inherits something of the traditional 
charm of French customs in the days of long ago- 
something of the politeness which is even yet more' 
natural to a Frenchman than it is to any other 
nationality. It is not at ah due to servility, it is 
not an acceptance of inferiority, it is not even a 
recognition of greater wealth-though the average 
h^tantu quite keen in the making of money. 
The politeness of manner so far as it is instinctive 
comes from a racial type.; so far as it is acquired it 
oomes from the teachings of the Church The 
young man who touches his hat and says "Mon- 
sieur or "Madame," when addressed, has the 
habit of respectful speech drilled into him in church 
and school. Little of the crude looseness in speech 
of our continental democracy has yet penetrated the 
French villages of Quebec; when it has done so 
through some repatriated workman from an Ontario 
factory or a New England town it meets the fact 
that natural as well as acquired taste makes the 
ocal habitant somewhat oblivious, in this respect 
to his comrade's "progress." 

f ! 



Besides this he has a certain feeling of self-pride 
and equality which, in itself, prevents him from 
being ashamed of civility. It is a feeling akin to 
that of the property brought up English or Canadian 
or American youth who says "Sir" to his father or 
his elders without question and without the least 
ilislike. Complaints arc heard at times from Eng- 
lish-speaking sources that the courtesy of children 
is growing less in these later days and that the 
democratic air of, the continent, coupled with polit- 
ical denunciations of Imperialism and British 
"schemes" of closer union, are aJFecting old-time 
conditions— <-apecially in the case of English-speaking 
Canadians visiting rural centers. Thet,' may be 
something in the contention, but the situation is 
not serious j et. 

The habitant's voice has not retained the softness 
of sunny France; it is somewhat shrill and shares 
in the continental characteristics of enunciation. 
He is fond of using words which are not quite 
innocent in their origin but which are merely 
exclamations, mild expletives, or points of emphasis 
under existing corruptions. "Sacristi," "Palsam- 
bleu," "Ventre bleu," "Corbleu," "Sacr^ bleu" are 
a few instances. The laws arc very stringent, and 
always have been in French Canada, against profan- 
ity of any kind and, needless to say, it is severely 
dealt with by the Church. Even slang is dis- 
couraged and though here and there inevitable 
EngUsh words have crept into what might be called 
the commerical use of the French language, the 



tongue of the habitant is usually remarkably pure. 
Not long ago Archljishop Brucli(!si proclaimed the 
absence of patois from the French Canadian forms 
of speech and it is claimed that the language really 
approaches more nearly to the standard of some 
centuries ago than does the ordinary speecli of the 
modern Frenchman. The Archbishop himself, and 
the educated French Canadians of today, in gen- 
eral, speak the French of the old school. The 
habitant has, however, some of the peculiarities of 
speech which characterized his Norman ancestors 
centuries ago and they have been crystallized, like 
some of the old-time customs and habits, in the 
midst of the American continent; even the archi- 
tecture of the steep-roofed cottages with their 
dormer windows, deep and large chimmeys, and old- 
fashioned rafters, is Norman in its style. 

Of miscellaneous characteristics peculiar to the 
French Canadian it may be said that he dislikes 
gardening and lea.-« it largely to the women and 
children; that he marries young, with twenty years 
for the man and seventeen for the girl as popular 
ages to begin the interesting process of courtship; 
that the habitant and his women folk are alike 
thrifty, careful, economical, saving of money, and 
m this respect take after the peasantry of France; 
that they are clean in appearance and apparently 
so in person, with homes which are quite remark- 
able in that respect; that the newspapers are more 
carefully and cleanly edited than in English Canada 
or the United States, with clear precedence given to 





church events and local interests over the latest 
murder or awful crime; that the people appear to 
be exceedingly healthy despite the habit of keeping 
doors and windows sealed during the keen winters 
of the country; that as to sickness the most serious 
trouble is in the matter of smallpox, due to prejudice 
against vaccination, and in that of infant mortality 
at Montreal due to laxncss in looking after sanitary 
conditions and to lack of cleanliness in the milk 
supply. , 

Picturesque details of ordinary life in French 
Canada include the thatched roofs of bams and 
outhouses in the older villages; the curved roofs, 
with projecting eaves, of many of the houses; the 
quaint and crowded markets of the cities and towns 
where the habitants, their wives and members of 
their families on a Saturday morning throughout 
the summer, bring in and display for sale carts full 
of domestic produce— vegetables, butter, meat, 
home-made sausages and puddings, fruit, basket- 
ware, etc.; the frequent appearance in the streets 
of Quebec of priests and nuns in their cassocks or 
prescribed garb and of the boys or young men of 
the Seminary in the long blue coats and green sashes 
of their institution, and the similar conditions 
prevalent in Montreal; the sight frequently wit- 
nessed in rural regions of two or three oxen abreast 
drawing a load of wood or of farm products to 
market, or the quaint spectacle of a man carrying 
water in pails which are balanced without apparent 
trouble from a pole held across the shoulders. 




A word must be said here as to the old-time 
relations of the Seigneur and cenntaire out of which 
evolved Bome at least of the special characteristics 
of the French Canadian. In the first place, the 
obligations of the habitant, as he gradually came 
to be called, were not very heavy. The yearly 
total of the Cena et rentes was only a few dollars 
m our money for his small holdings of land with, 
too, the option of paying in produce or game if he 
preferred— a live capon or a measure of grain for 
an acre of land. Rent day, instead of being a 
monthly season of weariness to the flesh as it is to 
the workman in our modern civilization, was a 
pleasure, a yeariy and festal occasion, when the 
tenants gathered at the manor house on New Year's 
Day and were regally feasted by the Seigneur 
Even when the Seigneurs were poor and did manual 
labor on their own farms— so long as their birth 
was good-it did not affect their position of social 
superiority. This the Church aided by giving the 
Seigneur a special place in the sacred building and 
precedence at religious functions; where the Seigneur 
lived on his estate he and his wife were often the 
source of much patriarchal aid and kindly sympathy 
for the habitant; when he lived at Quebec and 
only came occasionally on a visit to his estate, he 
was still the one great man of the habitant's 

Some of the powers which the Seigneurs possessed 
in French days they did not exercise; others were 
evoked after the Conquest and utilized by men 




who wanted more than a rental of one cent an 
acre for land which they no longer held as vassal-) 
of the King and had naturally come to regard as 
their own. The habitants particularly objected to 
the Corvfe, or about six days' labor upon the high- 
ways, which was exacted yearly and which some- 
times was switched to the building of manor houses 
and similar work. They also objected to the in- 
creased rentals under conditions which involved 
cash and not produce; to the lods et ventea, or tax 
Oi one-twelfth ^i the price of any land sold by the 
habitant, which did not amount to lauch in the 
old days but became very important in times of 
progress and growing population; to the droit de 
banaliU under which the habitant had to use the 
Seigneur's oven and his mill. The former condi- 
tion was ineffective and the latter became burden- 
some when the right eventually stood in the way 
of establishing independent grist and saw mills 
and even factories of certain kinds. Much of 
this, however, was the product of a new and com- 
mercialized system; the old-time Seigneurs and 
habitants seem to have had the very best of kindly 
relations. It was this previous period in pioneer 
conditions, surrounded as it was by religious sanc- 
tion, which seems to have left the strongest imprint 
—perhaps an indirect and not always understood 
one— upon the habitant mind. 

In passing from this subject it may be added 
that the tremendous influence of the Church in 
forming the habitant's thought, and leading his 


fot}^^. r^^'J^'" *?''"''' "P°° ■" this chapter. 

oT"buI n„r° '"'ir'' ''""'"' «'P"''*'' -"-dera- 
tion, but not even the most rapid and indifferent 

hav. InH !■?''.!:' '^"'' '"""' affiliations thoy 
have made the habitant, in the main, what he is 
an mdu8tnou«, contented, temperate, ehcerfu ' 
devout and patriotic man, sure of hs Chur.1, 

fid?/ h'^T^ ^"'^ "^ '^--'f' b"t quite con 
fidently doubtful of matters outside of these lines 
of thought. Narrow he may be in some respect; 

tiozL P^™""' '""«'=«• Yet these faults or condT 
tions are and may well be, forgotten when his 
whole-sou ed love of the soil, his'chccrfur happy 

of TtZt is bri hM' f ^ ■^""^'""^ '^pp--*'- 

«,. 1 A A ."*''* ""'' P'""^""* «nd joyful in life 

«™ ■htirr""''- "^ *° ^''^ -»'- -- 

One in whom persuasion and belief 
Have ripened into faith and faith become 
A passionate intuition. 


Chubchm and Sh«ine8 op French Canada 
dia^!-?""'''"*]?"*' '"" ""'y ""^ f°' French Cana- 

pres« and in the Legislature, in iUeZZ'orJ'^ 

villairea rr U™ ">nuence. The long-drawn-out 
villages or low yet steep-roofed cottages make tZ 

.....«..« „"Ls-^-„.-:™i .set 


ll t 



Hab„„nj W;.aun bpu.u;,,^, t ,., . L A:^U:, Qurl. 



-^Mn,.,«.„ .«, .rr:.,-:r,:,r;:r; 

wooden church IT the ' „ 7't" f"'"'' " ""'" «''' 
Quebec CiS where rude '"'"""-I'""'"'- "oar 
crude orj^aitlir i^f ^ciTXtt T 't 

and Quebec ItTnnf *''^f '"'t""'^ '« Montreal 
the ma« of i'l "° r'''"^ ^l^^ architecture, „r 

■ » not the IS ex^ndeH* '"'''"""'"«' '» 

of the church Le^ J isTt "'""'!'' '•'''"«'' 
•""ociations surrounding it or theT • *''' '''''°'"' 
which it bears to th.t ■• "'"'"'"» sanctity 

Tb. .i,u "u "2, JS*?!: "•">»•'•»"•*.„» 




comer of the present St. Sulpice and St. Paul 
streets, rjid almost directly on the site of its successor 
which was built in 1672 across the Notre Dame Street 
of today. This great church is not beautiful in 
its external architecture, but it is impressive in 
appearance and has a distinct French trend in its 
style. The towers are 227 feet high, the chime of 
bells which ring out on festival occasions are each 
of thfe.-n sweet and strong in tone and one of them is 
said to be the largest on the continent. When they 
all ring together a sweetness is heard "mingling and 
blending in the aii like a rich embroidery of all sorts 
of melodious sounds." Upon this structure the 
neighboring Seminary of St. Sulpice has lavished 
the wealth which came to that immensely rich insti- 
tution as Seigneurs of Montreal and the cost of the 
church is roughly estimated at «6,000,000. The 
interior shows a temple worthy of an ancient faith 
and a great Church. Shrouded usually in a rich 
gloom, permeated occasionally by shafts of light 
which weave golden halos over the figures of saints 
or pictures of a costly and sacred character; solemn 
with a silence which is almost felt as the doors close 
behind the visitor or the worshipper; the general 
effect is most impress've. 

In detail there is a multitude of objects- 
notable or attractive, valuable or ancient, beautiful 
or sacred, or with a combination of all these qualities. 
There are exquisite stained-glass windows; there is 
a beautiful wood-carving of the Entombment of 
Christ and a marble statue of the Virgin given by 


Pope Pius IX; there is a bronze figure of St Peter> .s a copy of that at Rome. Unde one a£ 
the c1 ° T ?^ '""^^ °f «*• ^''^ "rough tm 
of the Madonna copied from one supposed to havn 
been p, t,d by St. Lulce. The grand Ttar" v"y 
nch .n;c carving and ornamentation repreZl 
ng the Sacnfice of Christ, and at one side of it is 
the small, but brilliant chapel of "Our Lady" 
which .s remarkable for the harmony of its lines and 
proportions, for the mass of gilding carvinr „nH 
sculpture with which it is decocted fo^pands in 
mosaic original paintings by Canadi;n artlts and 
a reproduction of one of R„,,.el's celebrated friezes 
Near the foot of Mount Royal, upon the site 

vilage of Hochelaga. stands St. James' Cathedral 
It IS a reduced copy of St. Peter's at Rome andTts 
dome towers above all othei. in the city, being 
with Us cross, forty feet higher than the towers of 

religious but brilhant in white and gold, and no 
more picturesque sight can be imagined than a 
ceremonial occasion when the ArchWshop n L- 
dinal and purple, the priests in gorgeous canonical 
robes of scariet and gold, the acolytes in whTte are 

frot Hanir't-'" "" '''*'^*'^ ^^ ^y '^ ^horu 
from Handel echoing up to the vaulted roof and 
amongst the fluted pillars of the church. Care- 
u ly preserved in this connection and only used on 
ceremonial occasions are certain vestments and 



altar cloths of peculiarly beautiful texture, style 
and handiwork. They were made by Jean Le Ber 
of Ville Marie, in nineteen years of cloistered and 
rigorous seclusion, and have been described as solid 
masses of delicate silken work on a ground of Bne 
silver threads with a color and luster which two 
hundred years of time have not impaired in the 
least. Beautiful as is the richly-piled velvet from 
the looms of Lyons, its modern robes are said not 
to compare with these made by the pious maiden of 
Montreal in jjears long gone by. 

Of the older churches in French Canada, Notre 
Dame de Bons^cours, in Montreal, holds a prom- 
inent place. On its site stood the little church 
founded by Marguerite Bourgeoys in 1673 and of 
which the foundations were used in 1771 for the 
present structure. It is Norman in its style of 
construction and is notable as having been saved 
from sale some years ago by Protestant agitation in 
order to preserve one of the most picturesque and 
historically interesting spots in the city. There is 
a statue of the Virgin in heroic size which was given 
by a noble of Brittany; there are pictures which 
were amongst the first works of art brought to the 
country; there is a most dainty chap.-l above the 
roof of the church, with tiny colored windows, which 
was designed after one described as a miraculous 
structure, at Loretto, on the Adriatic. The Jesuit 
or G^su Church, in connection with the College of 
that Order on Bleury Street, has a beautiful interior, 
Its frescoes are very pretty and its fine paintings 



notable; m the eastern part of Montreal amongst 
the purely French population is Our Lady of 
Lourdes Ch_ ch-a building of Venetian type with 
a statue of the Virgin over the altar in which she 
appears standing on a cloud with these words under- 
neath: "A woman clothed with the Sun and the 
Moon under her feet." From an unseen source 
oomes a bright light throwing a kind of exquisite 
radiance around the figure. The decorations of 
the church are in gold and colors, with arabesques 
and fifteenth-century detail work. Underneath 
the buildmg IS a shrine fitted up like the famous 
Orotto near Lourdes, France, and lit by dim 
colored lights which give a curiously weird effect' 
The Westminster Abbey of the French race in 
Canada is to be seen at Quebec in the Basilica or 
Notre Dame de la Paix-the latter name dating 
back from a certain peace made with the Iroquois 
m 1644. The structure was built in the succeeding 
year, when it took the place of Notre Dame de la 
R^couvrance erected by Champlain in 1633 as the 
■first parish church of the ancient city. From the 
time when M. de Montmagny, the Governor, and 
father Lallemant, the eminent Superior of the 
Jesuits, superintended the laying of the comer-stone 
up to the present time, and through all the event- 
ful ups and downs of French Canadian history, this 
church has held its place. It was damaged by fire 
and shot and shell in 1759 and afterwards restored- 
^ received a clock with three chimes from the 
British Governor, Lord Dorchester, in 1775; it was 



the scene of special services and ceremonial events 
of much splendor over a long scries of years; it has 
probably received as guests, at one time or another 
every Governor of Canada-French or British, 
Cathol.c or Protestant; in its sanctuary lie the 
remams of nearly every Bishop of Quebec-a series 
of smgularly able ecclesiastics; it has buried within 
» Z '^^ ^''"'''"'''■y- the official curds and canons 
of New France in Quebec, representatives of the 
Jesuit missionaries and pioneers and of the RdcoUets 
with many hundreds of the leading men and chief 
families in th« annals of Quebec. The church 
contains many rich paintings, its pulpit and side 
chapels are particularly beautiful, its memorials of 
religious Me and incident arc of deepest interest to 
the pious Catholic. 

Around the Convent and Church of the Ursulines 
m Quebec gathers much in history that is attractive 
and interesting and important. Founded in 1641 
by Madame de la Peltrie, a woman of extraordinary 
character and qualities whose career prior to com- 
ing out to New France reads, in Parkman's pages, 
like a vivid romance; it was presided over by Marie 
de 1 Incarnation, another woman of fervid feelings 
intense religious conviction, the victim of an 
unhappy marriage, the subject of intense joy in 
her new vocation. These two women contributed 
to Canadian history records of saintly character 
and of devotion and built up in their Ursuline 
Convent an institution of fruitful service to the 
infant colony and one of much influence in the 



molding of French Cnnadinn character. The leav 
mg of cultured homes and all the comforts of life 
m sunny France to cross the stormy Atlantic; the 
long journey m tiny vessels with rough seamen and 
only a few priests and two or three other nuns as 
companions; the devotion of their lives in a cold 
severe, stone building, planted on the very verge of 
savagery, U> the training and care of the young 
presents one of many illumined pages of sacrifice S 
the story of the Church in New France 
inT«L*^"T''"* """^ <l''«troyed by fire in 1650 and 
m 1686-the present building dating from the latter 

iZ'iJn """l °' *'"' Ursulines, in association 
with the Convent, is the third that has been erected 
and .s modern in construction though splendid in 
itr .portions and appearance. The convent and 
H,nf ""^V"^'?' paintings by L„ Brun, Cortona, 
mm and Prud'hon, rare engravings and important 
books, with rich collections of religious souv. -s- 
the annals or records of the Community, its papers' 
itle-deeds and Royal letters, its pateni signed bJ 
Louis XV; a massive silver crucifix given by 
Madame de la Peltrie and a reliquary containing! 
It IS said, a rehc of the true Cross, with altar cloths 
made out of sdk damask, and curtains which once 
belonged to Louis XVL In a chapel is a votive 
lamp presented by Marie de Repentigny in 1717 and 
kept alight through the centuries since then-oven 
when shot and shell in the time of the great siege 
were shrieking over the heads of the devoted nuns 
and tearing the walls and corridors; beneath the 


! j_ 



pavomont of the church lie the remains of Mont- 
calm and other notnl)l..« whonr memorials speak 
for them here as does the history of their country 

The little, unpretentious Church of Notre Dame 
dos VictoircH stands upon the site of ChamplainV 
house as it nestled at the foot of tlie rock behind 
which L.y so prolonged a struggle between the 
forces of civilitation and savagery, between, ulti- 
mately, the power of France and England. It 
commemorates in its name two French celebnitions 
over the KngliVh; its walls remain almost intact 
from the storms of the 17fiO siege; it*, floors cover 
the remains of four French Oovernors, and painted 
panels at the back of the building depict, in artistic 
coloring and design, the historic facts associated 
with the structure. Of other churches in Quebec, 
that of St. lloch contains the heart of Mgr. Plessis,' 
Bishop of the Diocese, and famous for his loyalty 
to the British throne in 1812; the Convent of the 
SoBurs Pranciscaines Missionaires de Marie carries 
out an interesting Catholic custom of this Order, 
in all its hundred churches, and keeps the Blessed 
Sacrament exposed day and night; upon the site 
of the present Place d'Armes where, in part, the 
Court House now stands, the R.«collct8 built a 
church (1693) which Charlevoix described as worthv 
of Versailles and which saw much of Quebec's 
ecclesiastical history in the stormy century which 
The Convent of the Rgcollets was turned by 



Hwhop (1,. Ht. V,.li.T into a (U-ni-ral HoHpital and 
Hinn. 1002 lia« Ixm tli.- unooaning refuge of tho 
homH.w, the p,«,r on.l tlio Hick, of the woun<li..l 
Hol.liiT of whnt<-v<-r nation or faith, of all who 
■"•.•(led HU(u.or. In ItH ehaprl th.Tc i„ a chalicn 
with altar cructn, vtc, which were 8cnt out to the 
founder l.y Madame de Maintenon. The Hotel 
Diou of Quebec, Ih th<- ol.leHt momwtic OHtahlinhment 
in trench (;ana<la and dateH from 1037, though tho 
exiHting l)uil(ling wan not finiMhcd until twenty-one 
yearH later. The HospitalMSrcH Nun8 have charge 
of Its Hick and the medical BcrvieeB arc in the hands 
of I-Bval profcHHorH. It poHHeHHCH Home great paint- 
ingH Huch OH The Crucifixion, by Van Dyke; Mary 
m the Temple, by Lc Brun; and Violation, by 
KubcnH, which won prcHentcd by the DuchcHH 
<rAiguillon. It has rorc tajwHtricH ami valuable 
portraitH of the Jesuit martyrs; its archives con- 
tain letters from St. Francis de Sales, St. Vincent de 
Paul, Talon, Montcalm, Vaudreuil, Maisonneuvc 
and many others. 

In the Kast-ond of Montreal there is a long 
succession of convents and Roman Catholic insti- 
tutions. Priests ami friars and cowled monks pass 
along the streets; nuns robed in black or gray, or ' 
in buff, walk sedately and silently ufmn their mis- 
sions; students in Church caps and uniforms, with 
sasheH of green or blue, parade in large numbers; 
pilgrimages to and from such shrines as Ste. Anne 
de Beaupr^ or Ste. Anne de Varennes pass on theii 
way to the boats. Here, as in Quebec and else- 




where in French Canada, the churches are packed 
with devout worshippers at Christmas, in Holy 
Week, on Palm Sunday and All Saints. Near the 
head of Park Avenue stands the Hotel Dieu do 
Ville Marie of Montrea. an immense structure 
founded in 1664 by Jeanne Mance with money 
supplied by Madame de Bouillon of Paris and 
maintained by a strict and secluded order of what 
are popularly called Black Nuns— many of them 
vowed to cloistered lives and never leaving the 
walls of the institution. Mile. Mance was one of 
those enthusiastic women who helped to make the 
history of this period memorable. The Hospital 
which she first took in hand was on St. Paul Street, 
surrounded by palisades and garrisoned as strongly 
as possible in defence against the Iroquois. At 
that time the Indians prowled constantly around 
the infant settlement and their silence was some- 
times as deadly as their piercing war-whoop. There, 
with three other devoted women, she first took up 
her work and then carried it on until death came in 
1673. The present building only dates back to 

The Hospital of the Grey Nuns is vast and severe 
m outline, dates as a building on Grey Street from 
1871 and contains over five hundred sisters and one 
hundred novices. Historically it was founded in 1737 
by Mme. de Youville; practically it has, through 
branches and in its own work, a vital and immense 
mfluence today in the life of Montreal. Here in the 
mother institution the helpless through age or in- 



funcy,tlir.)UKli aiMciiHc or infirmity, are cared 
for and foundling chililron rccfi vod from all over Can- 
ada ami the United Htaten. In the hranch institutions 
orphan girls ond aged persons, servant girls out of 
work, women without a night refuge, blind ehildren, 
etc. are cared for. In Western Canada many 
establishments arc maintained by the Grey Nuns. 
The Misters of the Congregation de Notre Dame 
constitute a great teaching Order with many con- 
vent-schools throughout Quebec and elsewhere. In 
Montreal is the mother-house of the community which 
has altogether more than twelve hundred sisters. It 
was started and founded by Marguerite Bourgeoyg 
(1663), one of the real founders of Montreal, a fitting 
companion to Maisonneuve in piety, bravery and 
devotion. Unlike Mmc. de la Peltrie, Mile. Mance, 
or Mire Marie de I'lncarnation, she was of the people 
and the daughter of a tradeiman; unlike them she 
never reached the lofty heights of the supernatural 
m her personal experiences; like them, however', 
her religion appears to have been one of an absorbing 
and practical devotion to Christian duty. 

Klsewhere in French Canada the religious memo- 
rials of the Church arc many. At Tadousac is the 
old Jesuit chapel erected in 1746 on the site of a 
church dating from 1615; at St. Anne's, on the west- 
em end of the Island of Montreal, is an old and 
sacred building which saw much of the heroes of 
the fur-trading days and was the last church which 
explorers and voyageurs visited to receive the Sacra- 
ment before plunging into the wilderness; at Mount 



Rlgau.1, on th« banlcR of the Ottawa, where DollarH 
•loR OrmcBux and hu men ilieil for their country 
I" « nhrine nilorned with vnriouii ImnKei., nml ap' 
proarhnl liy a rorky ron<l liaviiiR fourteen HintionH 
of the CnwH Imilt from iiniiit Ktonei.; every when- 
tlirouRliout ( nr,' tin- w«yni,|c eroNHen whieh 
mean no mneh to the devout Cntholie ami are no 
intereHtinn to the tourint. What are ealie<l ( 'nivaireH 
are unually abi.ut ten feet in lieiRht ami often ineluile 
not only fh.e ero«< l.uf the erown of tliorn», tin- liam- 
mer and nnils, the exeeutioner'n ladder, and other 
mementm-s of tlii> ureal Saerifiee. Not only do tin- 
habilandi wdute the Croiw as they paMH, l.yn lifting 
of the hat, hut they eome with their familieH during 
the summer months and make these shrines into 
open-air altars. One further evidenee of the 
Church's work ami place can only be mentione.1 at 
this i)oint— that of K.lueation— and the splemlid 
seminaries, universities and eolleges which are de- 
vote»l to the training of prieMs and teachers and the 
youth of the land. 

The Seminary of St. Sulpice at Montreal is, how- 
ever, so associated with the religious life of the 
community, as well as with its education, that no 
reference to the Church in Quelwc is complete with- 
out its inclusion. Quaint and unobtrusive, somber 
and silent in its life, replete with all the significance 
of Rome's conduct of Church affairs through three 
hundred years of Canadian history, it stands as a 
gloomy, massive reminder of days gone by. Within 
Its walls the priests of St. Sulpice control one of the 

i-'J"^' ("i 



largo-t rovrmir. on tho r„ntin,.nl nn.l nrn m«.tr™ 
of liind .m th.. Mnn.! ,.f M..ntrnal. Kor tiro 
m-nturi... tlu. .•„hl,|,..Ht»n.H „f i,„ ,«,„rtynr,l have 
«ch.«.,l to,. ,r..«d „f pilRrim- «,„l ,„.nit..„u and 
IM.MMTH, while, tho n..i«.|,.w. Ht..p „f th.. pri..Rt hiw 
....n.. .i|ul K„n.. from th,. tim,.H „f Ir,K,„.,iH horror 
to U... .InyH of ,.omm,.r,:inh«,..l lih,.rty. In th,. thirlt 
wnllH of th., Hominnry ,tr.. (h.. hH,p-h.,h.H for muHkotry 
whi..h r«n..n.l th,, tw,.„ti,.th ....nt.iry to.iriHt that, 
h..r.. w«« a tim,. on K.ih ,„ntin,.nt wh,n r,.HKi..n ha,l 
to l.„ Hupport,..! hy phyniral forn,. a« w,.|| ,«, k,.nt 
aliv,. I)y rontiniiouN H..|f-«ftcrifi,.... 

F,mn.lo,l l,y a young r-riciit, th« AhM ()li„, ,u, a 
r..«ult of thoHc Divine communing, which app<.are,l 
to com,, HO often to th„ faithful an,l .l.vout houIh 
of that porio,!, the object of the Sulpician Or.ler wan 
nn,l i» to train the youth of the country, ho far an 
available, for the prienthod an.l to teach secular 
Nubjec^H to othern in combination with reliiriou* 
mHtruction. In 1067 the Holi.l ntructure of twlay 
wuH ercele.1 an a branch of the ..ntablinhment in 
farm. Their holdingH of land at the time of the 
tcHHion appear to have totaled 250,000 acres- 
what the value of thcHe lands is now or just what are 
the relations between the Mother House in Paris 
and the Order in Montreal it is hard to say The 
priests are still largely French in origin; there is an 
tZ^^"""" '*''°"* ""^ '"""tution as there was 
1 I Tt" '*' T*""''""" '''"'""'' ««i«neur8 of the 
Island of Montreal, of Two Mountains, and of St 
.^ulpice; upon its pinnacles are still carved the 



lloHr-,l,..|y,. In ,1.0 liviH „f it, ,,rir«t« thrrr hiw npponn.<l i<nilKMli.',| thr .■nrlirr VhrlKtlnn 
|.r.i.,.„l,^ .,f H..lf-,l.„i„| „,„1 „„„.|, „f wlint UiHl,„|. 
.1.' l-i»v„l ,,.,,.,.«Ml wlirn l„. tlmt Ihry 
wi-n. ",l,. i,, fnith, dootrini., ploty and 

Of nil tlio Cluinh liiHlitiilionH of (Jiirl)..,-, liowcvor 

tho mo«t intorrKling ,., thorn, outMJ.Ir of it« pnio »' 

tho ( l.ur.-h of Wto. Ann,. ,lr H,.«,.;,r« will, itn miracu- 

Imw cln.m«, it» Httrnotiv.- liinlory luxl it,. ..xfrnor- 

•linary r..,or.l. Tlio p„ri.l, i,«,.;f jjo-h l,„ck to 1667. 

whon tho only o(l«-n, oxinting in »ll tho v««t Mrotchcl 

of Now iTimoo woro lh.»«. of Tn,l...mnr, QuoIh-c, 

Montr,.,,!, I hroo Hivorn, „n,| Chnt,.,,,, Uiohor! 

Trmhtion ,s„yH th„l in or nlH,ut Uirx) Momo Ilrrtcm 

marinorH won. wro.-ko,l on tho con«t un.l, whil,. 

prnymK for th,.ir liv,.«, vowo,! thnt If thoy woro 

Mvo,l thoy wonia ,.n.ot „ o1„„h.1 .„, tl„. nhoro in honor 

of Sto Ann,.-moth,.r of tho Virgin M„ry nnd patron- 

c^ of tho,r own lurnl of Brittuny. A «mnll woodon 

chapol I, ^ui to hnvo lu-on or,.ot..,i, though history 

'" "IT^ *° *•"* '"''• ''"' '' ''«•« »PP<-»r that ,ail„™ 
on the St. 3-nwronco had special veneration for tho 
spot and special prayers to their good Ste. Anne 
Missionary priest* were certainly at lleaupr*? as 
early as 1(145 ami there is nothing inherently improb- 
able in the tradition as to the existence of the little 
church. In lOr,? M. d'Ailleboust, Oovornor of Now 
l;ran,-e, hud tho corner-stone of a now church on the 
site of tho present public square; in 1661 it was 
destroyed by floo<l8 and a new building erected where 


r!iirRnHi.»4 ani» hhrivkh 27, 

« mnmoriHl f.M.„(„i„ „„«, „,„„,,,. i„ ,„-„ 

'•''";•• '„«""• ;■"••■' •" "■•• Hi... nf .1.,. ,.„,„,„, .V,,., . 

..ri«IC.„.„..|,wl.i..lMHl.„il...n,„wali: w, H 

w.KKlw„rk »n.l ,.r,m,„,.„tH, „„,1 „,i« MniHur,. I„h.,.,I 
f..r w„ ....„t„r„.H; .1,.. ,,r,^.,„ u.^irn, ,. „,,)..,„|i,| 

wiin built in IH7(1. 'iu'Mi, 

'•„..t,.r of (hin „hri„,. h..,.,„ ,„ hnv l.,.,. v.'ry 
-nrly. »,„|,op ,|,. |,„val wnl «.v.Tal ti,n,.H „, n,.„„. 
pr« «H « pilKnn. nn.l wrot,. in KMiT that "nothin. 
ImH a,,lr,l UH ,„,.„. p„*..rfully i„ H.,Ht«i„i„K tl», wH^I " 
of th,H chur,.|. than th.- H,H.«i„| ,l,.vo.i„„ ?(,„ 
mhu MtantM of tluM ..ountry l„.„r to .Str. Ann.. " 
1» th.. H.,cr.....linK an ncconnt of iniraci™ 
wrought at thi- rliurdi whh r.iil.liHh...! I,y thf locnl 
"..KHUmary pri,.Ht, with tho approval of th.. Hinhop, 
«n< in It th.< U«v. Kttth..r MorH Ht„t,.,l that h. ha.l 
in tho pa«t Hix y,.„r« witnoHm.,! thrn.. ,niraH..H an.l 
alHO th« many „th,-r ,.u«.m of h,m.H«I Hpiritnal «,«.•,• 
accorclod by (io,l to Hinn.TH. M«rc M«ri„ do I' 
nat,o„, ,n a httcr ut thin timr, «p„k. of the blind 
roccivinB BiBht, the- paralytic „.„,|o to walk, and the 
«ck o„abl«| to roKttin th.-ir health. The pilKrimagcB 
of those days were small in number; it was naturally 
a matter of individual vIhIIh only. Time, however 
brought population to the country and to the 
contment; the fame of the shrine gradually grew 
a« cl,d the mass of crutches piled up against the 
mtenor walls of the structure and in special recep- 
tacles; the number of the pilgrims increa. ' k 



modem days until in 1880 they were 36,000; in 
1890, 105,000; in 1900, 135,000; and in 1910, 188,- 
266. Meantime, the mother shrine of Ste. Anne at 
Apt in France had contributed some of its famous 
relijs to the Canadian daughter— indirectly in 
several cases— and these included a bone from the 
hand of Stc. Anne given by the Bishop of Carcas- 
sonne, a bone from the Saint's wrist obtained by 
Cardinal Taschereau from Pope Leo XIII, a piece 
of rock from the wall of Ste. Anne's home in 

The shrine itself, within the Baailica, is a most 
artistic production seven feet high and made of 
beaten brass, polished and gilded, with four columns 
supporting statues of Ste. Anne, St. Joachim, 
St. Joseph and the Blessed Virgin. The reliquary, 
containing the bone from the Saint's wrist, is made 
of massive gold ornamented with precious stones 
and is only placed in the shrine during the week 
following Ste. Anne's day— July 26th to August 2d— 
when many thousands of pilgrims crowd the edifice. 
The communion rail of the church is sixty-six feet 
long and is important for its unique and valuable 
panel work carved on the five different kinds of 
rich marble with which it is constructed. The 
statue of Ste. Anne herself is ten feet high, the ped- 
estal being of Carrara marble and the monolith of 
Mexican onyx — almost transparent in appearance 
and crowned with a diadem of gold and precious 
stones presented in 1887 by Cardinal Taschereau 
in the name of Pope Leo XIII. 

1 , ^,-;. *!..■ 

-A. ,x- '--■■ 




:iV8.uii1il in iSSO ihcy wore Uti.ii ' , 
'•»; in 19OO,.r«;0O(!: aud in JMO. m. 

'tJi'. ;!..■- <)...n,i 

i'VL'iai fn'<' 

! 'inrl f.f Si. 

■ .'rmt'., a I ■ 

■ *H!nal 'i . • 
■-<)■ roi:k from itw w;,: 

^irtatU; j.r.ffiii.-tioi) n:-, . 
; f:ttenjjrast<, ixiljshcU n.,,) ,;, 

■^tf. Aline ai 
'? its famous 
:<1irpe!ly i.ii 
lie fnini thi' 

Vnne's borne m 

^rtiii-'fltfay-nriily 2tith (.■■ Auttu,-! 
. tboa,^anda of pilgrims crowd the (. ', 
The timimuujon rail of th» church is sixty-six", t 
ions and is important for its unifjun p ' 
iiK'I work ejirved on the five diffcn 
■rb marble with «hicli it i» tw^trut- • i .;■■ 
=<tati!P {rf'Sle.. Aiino het!«eHis t«>n f,-et high, tin t^ifd' 
•sta! Iwing of ■Oirrara marlile ami tlic monolilli i>f 
I'xiciin onjTt— aLmtwt traasparonf. in apppiiraiu • 
'■n.wri.'.l with a rfiadem of goid piv . . 
"t(>d in ias7. by rardinal Tow 1 • . 
ckAiWof Sfe'-.Ariie de Beaupre ' 



Of the historical or scmi-sacroil relics connected 
with the church is the first Canadian wooden statue 
of Ste. Anne, dating from 1661 and brought from 
'"'anoe; a collection box dating from 1663, noted 
for the sexton's statement that when the Marquis 
de Tracy and his staff performed a pilgrimage to 
the church on one occasion they dropped seventy 
francs into it— a big sum in those days when wages 
were only one franc a day; a Mass vestment of 
silk, gold and silver, made and given by Anne of 
Austria, wife of Louis XIII; a silver ciborium used 
m Communion for two centuries of pilgrims; n 
chiselled and embossed silver portrait of the Comte 
de Paris presented in memory of his pilgrimage to 
the shrine in October, 1890; a solid gold seal which 
belonged to President Santa Anna of Mexico and a 
chalice made of gold and precious stones presented 
by pilgrims to the church; together with an infinite 
variety of gifts of various values from individual 
pilgrims. There are many paintings in the church 
of different ages and quality, and on the hill at one 
Bide of the edifice is the Scala Santa— a representa- 
tion of the marble stairs which Christ ascended in 
order to appear before Pilate— and up these stairs 
pilgrims in thousands ascend on their hands and 
knees. Surrounding them are representations of 
the various incidents in the last days of the Saviour. 
Just behind the church with all its wealth of tradi- 
tions, and lore of miracles, and beauty of interior, 
and richness in relics, lies the Monfl<,tery of the 
Redemptorist Fathers who are the custodians of 



the Bhnne; the Convent of the Franciscan Sigters; 
the Convent of tha Redemptoristine Nuns. Such 
18 this famous shrine and church, set in one of the 
most beautiful, historical and fertile spots on the 
continent, and surrounded with such vistas of lovely 
scenery, such freshness of ambient air, such volumes 
of rolling water, as may well cause the visitor to 
feel that nature has combined with tradition and 
religion to make the place attractive: 

The waters of the grand St. Lawrence glide 
In calm majeatio motion on their way 

Paat Bonn, Saint, Anne a8 if the gentle tide 
Its Bilent, humble homage thus would pay 

Before the ancient Shrine, as on its breast 

It bears the pilgrims to this place of rest. 

What may be said in comment upon such a place 
upon claims so highly pressed, upon results so 
variously represented! Non-CathoUc visitors to 
8te Anne de Beaupr«, as to Our Lady of Lourdes 
m France, go to see, to admire, to wonder and 
perhaps to scoff; they leave with opinions which 
are affected naturally by their individual training 
modes of thought, points of view and personal 
prejudices. Pilgrims go to do honor to a saint 
whom they revere and in whose miraculous inter- 
vention in human affairs they thoroughlv beUeve; 
or else they reach the spot in a frame of mind which 
hopes against hope for the cure of some desperate 
ailment or condition, which cultivates a faith that 
the Bible ha« declared will move mountains, which 


reaches very often a gtate of mind abstracted 
entirely from the world and resembling somewhat 
the exaltation of the martyr in his sufferings or of 
the saintly women who first came to the wilds of 
Canada to nurse the sick or nurture the minds of 
the young. 

Cures have undoubtedly been effected, wonder- 
ful cures in appearance and often in permanence. 
Ihe Catholic will say and believe that they are 
caused by faith and miraculous action; he does not 
believe, as does the average Protestant, that miracles 
ceased with Christ and his Apostles or, as does the 
higher cntic, that even the Biblical miracles are 
allegones or fables. He sees no reason why Divine 
intervention should have ceased with the Crucifix- 
ion and he is perfectly satisfied to accept the dictum 
of his Church in the matter of any specific mirac- 
ulous p«wer which may appear to have been 
exercised since that time. On the other hand, the 
mtestant enters the church with no hereditary or 
religious sympathy with ite claims. He has a 
tendency to argue that because money now pours 
into Its coffers after two hundred years of gradual 
development in faith and knowledge amongst Ro- 
man Catholics, therefore the primary object of the 
pneats is mercenary. He sees the devout in prayer 
he sees the abandoned crutches, he may even see 
the cures effected, yet he doubts the result. 
Despite the teachings of Scripture, despite the fact 
that Christianity m based upon the miraculous 
.•md environed in its birth by miracles which his 



own ( hurchos toaeh as truth, he finds it hard, in 
this age of popular agnosticism and accepted criti- 
cism, to beheve in spiritual manifestations. 

To the observer who has no prejudices in the 
matter who would be glad if po»ible to believe 
that there is a higher power for good acting upon 
the word even though it should act at times 
through the mediation of sainted men or women of 
the past or even the present; who cannot see why 
there is anything more inherently impossible in 
answers to prayers at this or any other shrine than 
he was taught to believe there was in answer to the 
prayers he learned at his mother's knee; there is 
little at Ste. Anne de Beaupr* to cause anything 
but feelings of respect. To eyes unaccustomed to 
tnese things there may be something at times of 
crudeness in the figures, of excessive glitter in the 
ornamentation of a startling appearance in repre- 
sentations of the Crucifixion, yet if the onlooker has 
imagination sufficient to see such things through 
the refining spectacles of faith-to say nothing of 
the brightness of a pilgrim's hope-the subject has 
quite another aspect. There is, besides, much of 
real splendor in the scene, much of exquisite art and 
beauty, natural grace and solemnity in the e-vriron- 
ment. The well-balanced visitor can hardly leave 
such a p ace as Ste. Anne, or such a scene as the 
annual pilgrimage, without a profound hope that the 
implicit faith which he sees and feels around him 
may have some actual realization other than that 
which IS looked for chiefly in the worid to come. 


Religious Evolution op tub French 

New France wag born and bred in the fold of 
the Roman Catholic Church; its greatest pioneer 
achievements were those of the Jesuit missionaries; 
its early political controversies turned upon the 
relations of Governor and Bishop; its great 
requirement of immigration was guided, controlled 
and at times checked by the policy of the Church; 
its proudest achievements in exploration and war, 
in government and politics, were blessed by the 
one religious organization. The Church was the 
mainspring of popular enthusiasms, the basis of a 
limited public instruction, the fountain-head of 
knowledge or experience, the embodiment of a 
people's faith, the natural leader of the race under 
the further dispensation of British rule. Historically 
speaking, the Church in this connection accom- 
plished three cleariy defined objects— it made and 
kept New France a completely Catholic community; 
It preserved the Province of Quebec as a French 
and Catholic country; it kept the 3,000,000 French 
Canadians, who have grown out of the 60,000 
surrounding the fleur-de-lys in 1759, as members of 
its own organization. Whether for good or ill, 



whether it is to bo admired, or dislilted, or feared, 
each of these acoompllghments was a great one and 
far-reaching in effect. 

There were certain epochs in the development of 
this powerful position. The Rdcollcts, or Francis- 
can Order, came first to New France in 1618 and 
rcmamed until the temporary English conquest of 
1629 rmoved them from the country; they include.1 
only Fathers Jamay, Dolbeau, Le Caron, Sagard 
and Viel. In 1625, and again seven years after- 
wards, the Jesuits came and the record of their 
missionary labors has been already dealt with- it 
was an epic of unselfish heroism. The Jesuit College 
at Quebec was founded in 1635 and flourished until 
the Order Was suppressed in 1763; its influence in 
the molding of social and moral regulations and in 
the formation of religious character in New France 
can hardly be over-estimated. The establishment 
of the Episcopacy came in 1658 with Mgr. de Laval- 
Montmorency as the Vicar-Apostolic and after- 
wards Bishop. He was one of those men who loom 
large m the pages of history through dealing with 
great things in a great way. His environment was 
certainly vMt enough and his diocese, as created in 
1674, included the greater part of what was then 
known as North America; he repeatedly traversed 
immense distances amid privations, dangers and 
difficulties almost inconceivable today. He was 
amidst the missionaries in Acadia at one moment, 
then m the valley of Lake Champlain, anon upon 
the shores of one or other of the Great Lakes; 



then at home amidst the troubles of his own wttlc- 
ment. He obtained the .reation of a Hoveniim 
Counc.1 for New France of which he was the soul 
and heart; ho fought great governors such as 
trontrnnc in a prolonged effort to prevent the 
sale of liquor to Indians or settlers; he established 
the (Teat and Minor Seminary of Quebec in 1063 
and 1(108, respectively, .3 carry on training for the 
priesthood in the infant colony. 

His successor, Mgr. do St. Vallier, was a man of 
<loiumatmg, aggressive character, who left his 
mark upon all the disputes and disorders and dif- 
ficulties of the time-not always one of peace and 
concord and conciliation. L'AbbcS Fomel, in his 
funeral oration, described him as a Bishop who 
was great by his piety, greater still by his leal 
and greatest by his charity." The latter quality 
ran to 600,000 livrcs-an immense sum in those 
days. Mgr. Dosquet succeeded and then came 
Mgr de Pontbriand (1741-60), the last Bishop of 
the French r(gime, in a period which included the 
darkest days of the colony-a time of famine 
pestilence, war, conquest. Mgr, Jean Olivier Briand' 
who followed, was, an,! had to ue, a diplomat as well 
as a Bishop. It was a time when conqueror and 
conquered, soldier and kabilant, Briton and French- 
man, had to be held together up to a point where he 
would be in a position to protect and advance the 
interests of his own people. Treaties had to be 
mterpreted, regulations made or defined, the natural 



antagonisms of a Protestant power and a Roman 
Catholic jH-opIo 8ub<lucd. He succeeded sn well 
that his Piistoral letters of 1774-75 were strong 
mandate" to loyalty undir the new conditions. 

Mgr. J. O. Plessis was the eleventh Bishop of 
(Jueliee, and the first Archbishop, and was Irarn in 
Montreal. Through him the Church in Canada 
obtained a higher rivil statu*, the recognition by 
the nritish Govrrnment of his position as Bishop 
of Quel>ec, and an official al.jwanee from that 
Protestant Government of £1,000 a yearl He 
founded severil colleges, extended the authority 
of the Church by appointing auxiliary Bishops of 
Montreal and the Northwest, and died in 182,'i. 
Of him Lord Dalhousie wrote officially to the Colo- 
nial Office: "The Church has lost in him a vener- 
able prelate; hi» people a faithful and indefatigable 
guardian of its spiritual interests; the King a most 
true and loyal subject." These were the great 
historic names in the French Canadian Church; 
other personages of eminent qualities came and 
went until Archbishop Taschereau was created 
a Cardinal in 1886; the Episcopate spread over a 
great area and from Montreal to Winnipeg, from 
Victoria to Halifax, the Roman Catholic Church in 
Canada became a powerful force in many com- 
munities. Especially was this the case in Montreal 
where Bishops, or Archbishops, Lartigue, Bourget, 
Fabre and Bruchfei have, in succession, wielded 
ecclesiastical authority since 1836. 

For a hundred years of the Episcopate in New 



Franco the niH>io|M rulrd in ncrorilnncf with the 
canonii of the Church nml in oonfoi .iiity with 
Royal ortlinanic'H. They did not nlwiivH rciognin! 
vicc-ri'gul rightH, tlicy often rcwntcd ■ ■ < Icvcrnor'ii 
action or opixwrd Ww poH'T, they iir vd par' /» ■< 
at idcuHiirc, controlled churches, , i,, , , tcric ji" ' 
collcKCH, i»HUcd rcKulntionn rcuni I'm,; <||^'. ; uc und 
mornU which iifTcctcd clcrny ud ! my ali'..\ and 
mipcrviHcd th.' MchooU. Mu. I; of t'l's f,ov,.r >-;s 
lout at the ( Vwion; mont of it ■. is Rrii.l , ,|iv'fl 
sfterwnrdH in tliat piirt of New !■ rntice i J . ■! Qpiclicc- 
flsewherc it whh partly mergccl in ti,( r ivnlr' i ;jf 
an Kngli«h-»p<'aking environment. H'h, ti<iwcvcr, 
the French race and the Catholic reli^.,, , w,o, in 
thprfo latter caBcH, comliined together and a pari§h 
erected— whether in Manitoha, or Nova Scotia, 
in Dakota or New lOngland— the Church retained 
much of its influence, though it If-t, of counte, 
the endorsation and authority of the civil power 
which it still retuinH in (Juelwc. 

The region once vaguely called New France 
must now have within its borders al»;nt 10,000,000 
Roman Catholics of various races and tongues 
together with immense wealth, numerous Dioceses 
and wide influence. Its wealth cannot be accurately 
estimated; in Quebec the figures are approximately 
available. In 1800 official statistics transmitted 
by Lieutenant-Governor Sir H. S. Milnes to the 
Imperial Government showed that prior to the 
conr;uest 2,096,754 acres of land-grants had been 
made to the Church— 203,.524 acres to the Urjulinea 

■( I 



of Quebec and Three Rivers, 693.324 acres to the 
Bishop and the Seminary of Quebec, 250,101 acres 
to the Sulpicians and 891,945 acres to the Jesuite, 
mth other scattering amounts. The value of such 
of this land as was held-most of it, except the Jesuit 
grants, was retained and put to some of the purposes 
of the Church-must in these modem days be 
enormous; the tithes which are legal taxation and 
collectible under law, for specific purposes, in Quebec 
must make a very large yearly total; the gifts to 
the Church from time to time are large and always 
have been-either in things of beauty, or of service, 
or in money. 

If an outside estimate in 1854 as to the total 
wealth of the Church in Quebec being $20,000 000 
was even moderately close to the mark, the present- 
day total must be five or six times as great. As 
the revenues and work of the Church grew, its insti- 
tutions, religious orders, charities and communities 
grew also. Something has been said of the Sulpi- 
cians and the Jesuits. The former used their wealth 
in unobtrusive systems of instruction. The latter 
since they re-appeared in Canada, have estabUshed 
several colleges with hundreds of priests, scholastics, 
and nowces, and dozens of chapels; with many 
Indian and other missions, and missionaries traveUng 
along the north shores of Lake Superior and in the 
West. Then there are various French Orders with 
in these latter days of suppression and difliculty 
m France, a steadily-growing membership in Quebec 
and Canada generally-the Oblate Fathers or Order 



of Immaculate Mary, the Catechists of St. Viateur 
the Congregation of St. Croix, the Brothers of the 
Sacred Heart, the Fr^res Maristes or Little Brothers 
of Mary, the Order of Franciscan Fathers. Fifteen 
yean ago there were in all Canada 30,000 male 
students being educated by Catholic religious orders 
and 50,000 female students by the various Sister- 
hoods with 7,534 nuns in the Dominion' and 466 
establishments under their control. A very large 
majority of these students and institutions were 
m Quebec and the numbers in all these connections 
are very much greater at the present time In 
Quebec there were last year 3,200 female re .gious 
teachers, or nuns, in the schools with 340,000 

A recent observer has declared that the Church 
organization throughout Quebec is "as Perfect 
as the wit of thousands of devoted men, having 
no other object than its interests, can make it." 
There can be no doubt of the accuracy of this state- 
ment and to it are owing the three conditions of 
development already outlined. This organization 
was not effected immediately or without struggle 
In the days when De Frontenac and Bishop de Laval 
disputed about questions of precedency and the 
solution of the liquor-selling evil; when Bishop 
de St. Valher and the Governor, the Seminary the 
Cathedral Chapter, the Sulpicians, the Jesuits and 
even the Religious Communities of Women were 
more or less at variance; when society of a mili- 
tary type in Quebec and Montreal resented the 




Strict religious regulations which aimed to make 
the practice of morals conform with precepts; it 
was then that the harmony and obedience, the 
perfect mechanism, the strong organization of 
another century, were gradually created. 

In the seventeenth century the Jesuits, and then 
Mgr. de Laval plus the Jesuits, were in control of 
the Church and, despite obstacles and lapses, of 
soc iv. Every detail of daily life was watched 
and when<!ver possible controlled; svery tendency 
to looseness in morals or social custom was checked- 
crime was punished with the excessive severity 
which characterized all civilized countries in those 
days; the superstitions rife in New England, in 
Old England, and in Germany, as to witchcraft 
and pumshable there with such frightful penalties 
were held in check by the Church and neither this 
offence nor those of blasphemy and heresy were 
put under the civil power or very severely dealt 
with. During the Governorships of Champlain 
and De ?''ntmagny, or of D'Argenson, D'Avau- 
gour and M^zy, society was not only kept in check 
by the Church but in subjugation. The three 
latter Governors were in conflict with the Bishop 
over different matters of administration and were 
therefore, particulariy ready to meet his wishes in 
affairs of a religious, or moral, or social nature 
So much was this the case that public balls were 
tabooed and dancing or amusements, bringing the 
sexes into close proximity, discouraged. Theatrical 
performances, such as the times developed, were 



however, permitted and even used by the Jesuits 
to instruct the Indians and amuse the people. 
Later, under the administrations of De la Jonquiire 
aLd Duquesne and the second Vaudreuil, different 
conditions were uppermost and then the end of 
the French rfgime came. The Bishop's denuncia- 
tion of conditions prevalent in 1759 under the social 
leadership of Bigot were so vigorous that even 
Montcalm is said to have advised caution. 

For some reason there was, at times, a more 
rigid or severe code of discipline in Montreal than 
in Quebec. The Gentlcir.en of St. Sulpice were 
very strict regarding their flocks and during many 
years forbade dancing and gambling, masquerade 
parties and gayly colored or decollete dresses. 
Socief.' there, as in Quebec and in all parts of the 
world, was more or less influenced by periods of 
military power and the coming of the Carignan- 
SalhSres Regiment had the effect of notably in- 
creasing the gay tone of social intercourse— even 
though the war-whoop of the Iroquois might at 
any moment be heard in the land. To offset such 
conditions Father Lallemant, the Jesuit Superior 
created in Quebec the Brotherhood of the Holy 
Family and obtained for it the approbation of Pope 
Alexander VII. It found immediate and strong 
support in Montreal. The women members were 
urged to ask themselves on all occasions: "How 
would the Holy Virgin have acted under these cir- 
cumstances?" and 10 abstain from frivolities in 
which they thought the Mother of Christ would 



be unwilling to share. Of this organization the 
Bishop was the head and, in 1667, a reproval of 
certain members for going to a ball given by M. 
Chartier de LotbinUre caused a prolonged differ- 
ence between the Bishop and the Intendant Talon. 
The action of this organization and its priestly di- 
rectors in Montreal also aroused sundry criticisms from 
writera and visitors which have come down to us. 

While this rigorous rule of the Church, or of the 
Jesuits and Sulpicians, over personal conduct and 
in the regulation of private life seems strange to - 
a Protestant qivilization or community of the 
twentieth century, there was much to be said for 
It in New France. It strengthened the moral fiber 
and maintained the physical well-being of a people 
who needed every element of strength in their 
continuous struggle with the forces of savagery 
and nature; it countered the indirect and subtle 
influence of a Voltairism which was then eating 
into the upper circles of French life as well as a 
republicanism, and a wider socialism, which were 
preparing the way for the frightful excesses of the 
Revolution. Neither extreme of French society, 
nor of the terrible religious controversies of the 
century, reached Canada; the Revolution with 
all Its horrors passed over the heads and outside 
the hearts of the people of New France; the Re- 
public and the career of Napoleon only touched 
them on the side of their vivid glories and reflected 
It may be safely said, therefore, that the Church 



Showed excellent statecraft in much of thi« period 
even .f, a times and after the event, it would seem 
that conciliation might have been better than contro- 
versy. The men and conditions, Kings and Gov- 
ernors, and the Church of that century, have to be 
considered with their surroundings^d not wij^ 
the enviromnent of the present day. Frontenao 
and Bishop de Laval were both high-minded. Me 
and patno ,c men, but on certain points the^ did 
not see a ike. Looking back now, for instance 
upon the liquor traffic question and all the horr^le 

Z^Tr "'.''^^^f^ Indian race alternately 
degraded and mflamed by the use of alcohol, it is 
hard not to sympathize with the Bishop in his rigid 
attitude or to say that he was not right in figh"^ 
the local cml authority and in ultimately getting 
the Royal support for his action * 

.JJ'\^°TT ^'^''^ ^^^ *•'** ^''^ ««'« of brandy 
attracted the Indians to the French and brought 
them under refinmg, humanizing and Christian 

SHT.; ^'^ *'** "^^" temperately "^^n 
enabled them to resist the great cold to which thev 
were e^d; (3) that in withdrawing them Mom 
the protection of the Dutch or English, it protected 
them from heresy; (4) that in any event the r^ 
hgious authorities of Toulouse and the Sorbomit 
wei. ^vided as to the rights or wrongs of the matter 
It was beyond debate, this vigorous attitude of 
tne Church toward questions involving public 
l«ity of mor^s, coupled with the strenuous^ sef! 
denying, sacrificial, personal Uves of the priest- 



hood, the hierarchy, and the sisterhoods, which 
first laid deeply the roots of the Church in New 
France. Upon that basis was built up a steadily 
improving organization of parish life and priestly 
influence; out of these two things, and the important 
public policy involved in the hand-picking of immi- 
grants and the exclusion of non-Catholics, came 
the fact that when New France, with 60,000 people 
in what was to be the province of Quebec, faced 
absorption by the greatest Protestant power in 
the world, it did so with a united religious front 
and a determination to preserve against all obstacles 
or aggressive attack the institutions and influence 
of the Roman Catholic Church. 

To preserve this position was a more difficult 
and vital task than either the Pope's representative 
or the Viceroy of an English King could have 
imagined. Religious toleration or equality was not 
yet the accepted policy of any great nation — not 
even of Britain. Much water had to run onder 
the bridge before Ireland obtained what the defeated 
people of New France hoped for; the pledges «f 
the Treaty of Paris and the Capitulation of M<<n- 
treal were general and vague and depended largely 
upon interpretation; the British Government would 
have been more or less than human if it had been 
without suspicion of such projects as the appoint- 
ment of a Frenchman as Bishop of Quebec or of 
cur^s and priests from France; the people of 
Quebec could hardly have believed it possible 
that their present conquerors would eventually 



give them a freedom of administration, laws, church 

government and self-control, greater than they 

ofi-rance "*'* °^ obtaining from the Court 

Hence, for a time, the difficulties ,nd real state- 

bII t,^T5^'- ^°"'^'^'^'' «»d Haldimand, of 
BshopBnand, Bishop Plessis and th^. ecclesiastical 
authorities at Rome. When the early clouds of 
suspicion and natural doubt had dispersed and the 
prehmmary difficulties of a British and Protestant 
government in dealing with a French and Catholic 
people had been adjusted, it was found that the 
Roman Catholic Church was given absolute free- 
dom of self-government and practically complete 
control over the religious life of its In people 
Whatever the civil troubles of succeeding Veaxs. 
or the hot-headed utterances and actions of Rebel- 
lion days, or the political controversies of another 
epoch, this condition does not seem to have been 
ever seriously controverted, or to have been the 
subject of discussion. Hence, in part, the loyalty 
of the hierarchy ,n the War of 1812; hence also 
the ever-increasing influence of the Church amongst 
its own people. *^ 

rih r'^^ ^*T^^ """^ "'""'y fo' a Roman 
Catholic Btthop of Quebec, who should be formally 
recognised by the British Government, the Church 
had stood for the recognition of Catholic suprem- 
acy withm French Canada. It was a difficult thing 
r u *?^,S"'"'' authorities, representing an Estab- 
hshed Church of England antagonistic to the Church 



of Rome, to place a Roman Catholic Bishop in 

Quebec upon equality with, and in practice superior 

to, the Bishop of its own Church in that Province. 

Eventually it was done and the fact bound the 

French people more closely to their Church than 

might otherwise have been possible. From that 

time up to the present the Church has kept itself 

steadily in touch with the race; religion and 

patriotism of a local and racial character have 

developed hand in hand; as the country grew and 

its responsibilities enlarged this patriotism also 

took a wider range, though perhaps naturally, not 

in the form and shape which those outside of the 

Church, and the race, might have desired. The 

difficulty faced in that century by the Catholics 

of England was the arousing of a certain form of 

local patriotism against the control of the Church 

by an outside authority; in Quebec the influence 

of that outside authority was made an intimate 

part of the patriotism of a race. 

Internal difficulties were unavoidable. Differ- 
ences have occurred between the Church and legis- 
lators either at Quebec or Ottawa; differences 
between powerful institutions and the Church 
authorities such as those connected with Laval 
University; differences even between Ultramontane 
Bishops or priests and the more moderate school; 
differences between the Church in its relation to the 
State and the aggressive ideals of modern Liberalism; 
differences with the civil power over burial and 
marriage in such instances as the Guibord case 


d[ffic.!ir'' ""'*"* "^•^'* ""'"''«*• Most of these 
difficulties were met eventually by appeals to Rome 
and the solidity of the religious feeling of the peopTe! 
their sense of allegiance to the Church, was Tn „ 
the submission which followed to the decision 
rendered. In most cases, also, the pol cy ofT 
Bishops was sustained and their influence ^th the 
people correspondingly strengthened. The Papal 
authonties do not seem to have been subjecMn 
this respect to the weakness which destroyed the 
VresHge of the Colonial Office in British CdonTe 
during the first half of the nineteenth century when 
mstructions were given today and rescinded t<^ 
morrow, a Governor sent out with a definite policv 
m one year and the Governor and policy changed 
m the next year or perhaps the policy altered with- 
out even consulting the Governor! 

It is to the skilful commingliiig of these elements 
o^ religious authority, racial ties, and moral suprem- 
acy-backed by a succession of devoted, kindly 
high-hving priests-that the Church has been able 
to carry its polity and policy beyond the bounds 
of Quebec into the distant regions and diverge 
communities where at least a million French Cana- 
dians have gone in the last twenty-five years. The 
parish system has gone with the people, the parUh 
curd has earned his administrations and intimate 
l^owledge of his people into the new environment 
he Church control of education has accompanied 
the pansh system. Hence it is that in New England 
manufacturing centers, in Eastern Ontario counties 



in the districti of New Ontario where mines and 
woods and fishing and shooting attract the habitant, 
in the villages of Dakota or amid the growing pros- 
perity of Manitoba, in the fruitful lands of Saskatche- 
wan or in the cattle ranges of Alberta, the Church still 
stays with its people, still exercises iU authority, 
still aids its people in their work or, perhaps, gently 
directs them bock to their old homes by the St. 
Lawrence. Incidentally, the Church organisation 
has in recent years gone further in a paternal 
direction, and there is no reason to doubt, as con- 
ditions have arisen which -nake the English-speaking 
settlers or farmers of the one-time English region 
called the Eastern Townships of Quebec abandon 
or sell their properties, the Church has stepped in 
and helped the Catholic habitanta or farmers to 
obtain possession. In New Ontario and Eastern 
Ontario, and elsewhere, similar developments are 
taking place from time to time. 

Passing from general conditions and development 
to local conditions in Quebec, a word must be said 
as to the administration of Church ^airs in that 
Province. The first point that occurs to the out- 
side observer is the paternal, intimate, family 
character of the relationship between the Church 
and the people. It dates, no doubt, from the time 
when tiny settlement" an.! isolated communities 
depended upon the occasional missionary priest for 
what was to them the essential elements of religion. 
The black-robed figure bringing vessels for the 
celebration of the Mass, th<! giving of Communion, 



the baptwm of infantg, or perchance the final sacra- 
ments to the dying, was a venerated and valued 
personahty. As time went on and the scattered 
settlements grew into a diocese, the parochial visit 
of the Bishop was one of the great events of, per- 
haps, a two or three-year period. With him came 
the authority of the Pope, in him rested the 
supreme decision of the Church in matters religious 
and moral, around him was such pomp or ceremo- 
nial as conditions permitted. The people knelt as 
his procession passed, they went at once to the 
church and received benediction, confirmations and 
commumon and religious instruction followed, every- 
thing was inspected and grievances adjusted, com- 
plaints were listened to and peace brought to all 
the interests concerned— even the most trivial. 

Meanwhile, after the parish had been formed, the 
cur« was always there— unlike the Protestant 
mimster who may be in charge of his people today 
and a thousand miles away in a week. Probably 
for a lifetime, so long, at any rate, as his strength 
permitted, the priest was with thnn— helping in 
their ambitions, whether parochial or personal 
aiding in their trials, and sharing in their simple 
pleasures. The building of a church, the main- 
tenance of French Canadian love for genealogy 
through the bare records of the church registers, 
the keeping, in olden days, of the habitant's sav- 
ings, the blessing given at his birth, his marriage 
and his death, the providing even of innocent 
amusements and recreations, the directing of his 





■tt I 





1653 Cait Uoin Strtct 

Rochailar. him Yorli T4C09 USA 

(716) 462 - 0300 - Phon« 

(716) 2M~5989-Fa. 




social hfe-all these and many more things formed 
and still form, in the main, the work of the parish 
pnest Naturally very much of this parish life 
turned upon the church building and the first 
essential was, and is, the construction of one suited 
to the wealth, or otherwise, of the parish and to the 
wishes of its people. 

In this respe.o there has been a certain accept- 
ance by the Church authorities of democratic 
mstincts. As in very many rural districts every- 
one belongs to the Church there is less difficulty in 
carrying out a set plan than might be expected A 
majority of the rate-payers intimate by petition to 
the Bishop what is desired-a church, a curb's 
residence or a school. If after ten days' public 
notice there is no objection submitted the decision 
to build IS announced by a board of commissioners 
and the parochial rate-payers meet and vote the 
necessary money. Trustees are then appointed to 
collect the unds and the assessment becomes a 
first and legal charge upon the land. The procedure 
IS usually clear, precise and business-like. Boiled 
down, of course, the whole matter means that the 
cur6 gets whatever he wants, but he gets it through 
the expressed will of his people. 

The cur^, himself, has an independent income 
froru tithes-one twenty-sixth of all the cereals 
produced by his parishioners-and this runs from 
»600 a year to double that amount. Though 
Provincial law enforces this contribution, it is very 
rare, mdeed, for a curd to resort to legal methods 



for collection. Of course, his income is affected by 
agricultural changes; if, for instance, the halntant 
takes to dairy produce, which the cur« often 
encourages him to do, there is no tithe coming from 
that source. He receives a portion of the offerings 
in connection with masses and a part of the fees for 
wedding ceremonies or for baptisms. But these 
matters do not seem to trouble the cur6 as they do 
Protestant clergymen— probably because he has no 
family to maintain. He goes his way quietly, one 
m feeling and aim with his people, respectfully 
saluted by everyone as he passes, a source of appeal 
for every charitable need, the help of everybody in 
the way of advice and comfort— apart altogether 
from the confessional and its intimate confidences. 
It is now the great ambition of the habitant to 
have one member of his large family in Holy Orders 
This desire was, and is, naturally encouraged by 
the Church and the old couple who are present 
at the ceremonial induction of a son into the priest- 
hood, are given a place of honor, are accorded the 
congratulations of the parish, and feel that a great 
ambition of their lives has been realized. This 
condition relieved the Church of a serious problem 
which existed in eariy days when the population 
was small. The British Government was then in 
deadly and vital conflict with France and naturallv 
frowned upon the importation of priests from t 
country while Irish priests could not speak the \ .- 
guage. The French Revolution, however, brought 
many priests of the emigri class to Quebec and 


ji^Sv. .. "''If "" 

"'»i^ JuL * 



these, of course, were quite satisfactorj' to Britain. 
Then there gradually developed the situation of 
today and there is now no difficulty in the matter; 
moreover many French priests are flocking into the 
country as a result of political changes in France. 
As to public matters the Church in rural districts 
wields much authority. A churchwarden is yearly 
elected in each parish by majority vote and exer- 
cises considerable influence; the Municipal Council 
which looks after the highways, liquor licenses, 
etc., has several members— not all— elected yearly; 
the School Bokrd also has its Commissioners chosen 
annually. Voting is open and upon matters asso- 
ciated with morals the Church, of course, uses its 
influence with effect. A large number of parishes— 
the rural parish, municipality and school district 
are usually coterminous— have no licensed drink- 
ing places. Of all minor positions that of church- 
warden is most valued and most sought after. 
Elections to Parliament and the Legislature involve 
wider problems which will be considered elsewhere. 
As to the Church outside of Quebec, its modem 
position is well illustrated by St. Boniface in Mani- 
toba; from which during neariy a century strenuous 
and successful missionary effort was spread as far 
as the Pacific Coast. Almost a suburb of Winnipeg, 
prosperous in condition, French Canadian in popu- 
lation. Catholic in faith, it has large and imposing 
religious buildings and institutions; an Archbishop, 
m Mgr. Langevin, who more or less dominates the' 
situation in Western Canada so far as it ia effected 

■=^Utikii."'\!'M-""tiiiif £r 



by the votes and views of his people ; and an influence 
in respect to Separate Schools aad bi-lingual educa- 
tion which is not confined to Manitoba. The first 
church on the site of the present handsome Cathedral 
was built hi 1818 through the efforts of Bishop 
(then Fether) Provencher on land obtained for 
him by Lord Selkirk. In 1820 a new Cathedral 
church replaced this and about 1840 the existing 
structure was completed. It was of this pioneer 
church that Whittier sang in "The Red River 

The voyageur smilea as he listens 
To the sound that grows apace; 

Well he knows the vesper ringing 
Of the bells of St. Boniface. 

Bells of the Roman Mission 
That call from their turrets twain, 

To the boatmen on the River, 
To the hunter on the plain! 

Such is a brief picture of the Roman Catholic 
Church— especially as it appears in Quebec. Its 
present-day power is very great; just how much so 
it is difficult to say. Clerical control and censor- 
ship of theaters and newspapers and books is ad- 
mitted. Of dealings with theaters the Th«4tre des 
Nouveau^fe in Montreal is an illustration and of 
journals the fate of Us Dibats, Le Combat, L'Aciion, 
Le Canada Revue and, within the past year, Le Pays 
is abundant evidence. Books and similar publica- 
tions are more difficult to deal with, but it is probable 



that many a work of questionable character has i„ 

OuT ''k*" ^''"'? *° '^' 8'°'"'' "* Montreal ir 
Bait? because of f , Church's posrtion-those o 
Balzac and de Musse. are cases in point. Its atti- 
tude towards education and its power in that con- 
nection need no comment here. The Church in its 
relation to politics is a wide and attractive subj 
probably its influence is greatest when least Jn o 
discussed It has enemies at home and abroad 
2- within the fold and without, able foUoS 
who are by no means devoted adhe.snts. It has 
priests who are as ready today as their predecessors 
were three centuries ago, to sacrifice their lives for 
the faith; it has enthusiasms restrained and un- 
restrained within its ranks as great a., any shown 
If a rr ^ \has immense wealth and the prestige 
of a record which has been, in Canada, one of 
statesmanship amongst those who had charge of 
ts interests as an organization, blameless lives 
Uved by those who ruled its destinie-, before the 
people, kindliness of heart and seir^acrifice in 
action amongst those who held the humbler parish 

tmned, coup ed with close racial and religious yet do not dangerously antagonize 
other races in the country as a whole, thereTno 

ZlrTiTX''^:'- ""'"'' •=''" "°dermine t" 
power of the Church in French Canada. 


Rbugious Traditions, Folk-Lobe and 

The period in whicli French Canada evolved 
its faith and traditions and habits of thought was 
an age of intense reverence for things spiritual, of 
the fullest belief in supernatural intervention, of 
the deepest confidence in prayer and the answer to 
prayer. On the other hand, it was, also, an age 
of growing scepticism amongst the learned and 
so-called scientific minds, a period when the intel- 
lectual predominance of Voltaire, Rousseau and their 
school was, in France, especially manifest; a time 
when Protestantism, or tb» gospel of dissent from 
Roman Catholicism, was widespread and growing. 
It so happened that New France became a product 
of the former line of development and the whole 
thought of its peasants, the folk-lore of its people, 
their traditions and fancies, became more or less 
permeated with religious incident. 

Hence the fact that when prayers were said in 
some great public matter and destiny proved to be 
on the side of the French there was not the least 
question as to the direct intervention of Providence. 
For instance, when, in 1711, prayers were said in 
church and home, by priest and peasant alike, 


. . ,a^ij>i.j 





for a rescue from Hovenden Walker's great fleet— 
a rescue which seemed impossible because of weak 
defences and inadequate soldiery at Quebec— the 
wreck of the English ships in the St. Lawrence, the 
loss of a thousand men, and the consequent return 
home of the fleet were considered to be a positive 
and obvious result of miraculous intervention. 
The event was celebrated in the special dedication 
of two churches and in public ceremonies and thanks- 
givings. Hence it was that, in the spirit of the old- 
time Puritan as well as of the Catholic enthusiast, 
when a Jesuit priest in the hands of savages prayed 
that the cup might pass from him and some event 
did occur to save him, it was accepted and so recorded 
in the Jesuit Relations as a direct, spiritual, and 
supernatural intervention. 

Belief in the answer to prayer was an inherent 
quality of faith and religion in the wilds of New 
France and, as time went on, it naturally permeated 
the life of the habitant, the homes and haunts of 
the people, the teachings of the Church's religious 
orders. It was not belief in a mere answer through 
the ordinary operations of nature, which appears 
to be the average faith of today in many Christian 
circles, but it was an expectation of direct and 
supernatural action by Divine or saintly power. 
As an illustration. Father Chaumonot may be 
quoted when he tells of an Indian warrior rushing 
at him like a madman, drawing his bow, and aiming 
an arrow at the priest. "I looked at him fixedly," 
writes the Jesuit, "and commended myself in full 


confidence to St. Michael and, without doubt, the 
great Archangel saved us; for almost immediately 
the fury of the warrior was appeased and the rest 
of our enemies began to listen to the explanation we 
gave them of our visit to their country." 

To these priests visions came frequently, as they 
had come in far-away France to many of the self- 
sacrificing founders of institutions or missions in 
New France. They were visions of the Cros, on 
high in the heavens, leading onward to some great 
spiritual success or warning the coming martyr of 
his final sacrifice for Christ and the cause. Divine 
power and saintly support were constantly with 
these missionaries. The ordinary cures of sickness 
or the workings of nature might be good, might 
even be effective, but they relied still more on 
prayer and supernatural action. The efficacy of 
relics of departed saints was a vital tiement of their 
faith as it is of the habitant's belief today. Signs 
and voices from the other world were frequent; 
those from Hell assuming the form of demons dis- 
guised as bears, wolves, or wildcats; angels fre- 
quently appeared and comforted them while Father 
de Br^beuf in 1640 saw a great Cross in the skies 
approaching from the Iroquois country. 

Of definite miracles alleged to have occurred and 
which have been handed down from generation to 
generation, there are many. For instance, P6re 
Le Maistre, one of the devoted seminary priests 
of early days, was (August 29, 1661) with some 
harvesters in the fielrs outside of Montreal when the 



Iroquoi8 sprang upon him from ambwh. He had 
only time to call out to hb men to run when tSe 
savag .. cut off hi. head and carried it away in a 

penod the features remained imprinted on the hand- 
kerchief which looked, on the upper side, "like a 
very fine white wax which bore the face o the ser! 
vant of God " So terrified were the Ind an^ tl; 
hey gave the handkerchief to the English whHe 
the Indian (Hoondoroen) who committed the aSJ 
cnme was converted and died year, afterward a 
the Semmary of St. Sulpice. 

Parkman teJls another story of Jean St. Pdre, a 
notary, who, after his head was cut off (1667) bv 
he Iroquois talked to them through the skull and 
condemned them for their action. The foundation 
of Montrea was preceded by a miraculous mee Z 
between Oher and De la Dauversiftre; to Jeanne 
Mance m ar-away France came a vision in which the 
shores of the .sUnd and the site of the Ville Marie 

O li ?'s dea"th n "'r'^ ^''°'™- ^*- *»>« AbbI 
of StSntn ^':^'"\^'" kept by the Seminary 
of St. Sulpice at Pans in a leaden box and, on one 
occasion, Mile. Mance being in France on a X 

never healed, resolved to try the miraculous efficacy 
of the rehc According to Parkman its touch upon 
her arm restored the instant use of the limb so that 
she could even write with that hand. Similar ind- 
dents and tales of miraculous action might be greatl 
enlarged upon; what has been said is sufficient 


to indicate the deep religious basis of the habilant's 
life and customs; a point accentuated by tlie crossed 
and crucifixes found on every roadway and by tlio 
place which the Church holds in almost every rural 
home. Typical of this feeling are the story and song 
of Cadieux, the brave woodsman, voyageur and 
interpreter of early Indian days. It is hcaid every 
where and his tomb on the banks of the Ottawa, near 
Portage du Fort, tells the tale of an escape from 
Iroquois raiders only to wander insanely and alone m 
the woods until exhaustion and starvation came and 
he made a narrow grave, laid himself in it, spread 
green branches over his body and died. His lament 
or message is sung in part as follows: 

Oh nightingale! go toll my mistreM truo. 
My little ones, I leave them my adieux, 
That I have kept my love and honour free 
And they henceforth must hope no more of me. 

Here, then, it is the world abandons mc— 
But I have help, Saviour of Man, in Thee. 
Most Holy Virgin, do not from me fly I 
Within your arms, oh suffer me to die! 

Passing from these elements lying at the root of 
the peasants' character in Quebec, it may be «a)d 
that none the less, or perhaps all the more, is J^un 
Baptiste a jolly, care-free, happy fellow. He accepts 
whole-heartedly the dreams and visions and miracles 
of the past, the supernatural manifestations of the 
present, t' piritual things which he is taught as to 
the future. But he does not take them too seriously, 



or rather he often puU hii religion in one comp»rt- 
ment of bis life and hu not very reprehenaiblo 
amusemenU or pleasures in another; in many 
cases he combines the two as in his Christmas f«tes, 
the Paquei or Easter holidays, U Touiiaint or All 
Saints' Day and other festivals. His poetry, his 
songs, his stories and his 6ddle reign supreme on 
these occasions with much of his old-world racial 
instinct and character coming uppermost for the 

The Frenchmui, ewy, debouaire aud brUk, 
Give him hii 1>«, hia fiddle, and hu friak, 
la alaraya happy, reign whoever may. 
And laughs the genae of mia'ry far away. 

Things comprising the folk-lore of a people— the 
traditions, fancies, stories and proverbs, the quaint 
•customs, ballads and songs of a race— are always 
interesting and in recent years have become increas- 
mgly important to the adequate study of popular 
conditions and public development. The French 
Canadian folk-lore is not as deeply mystical as that 
of the German nor does it revel in mythological 
conditions such as those loved by the ancient Greek. 
It has an element of lightness in it balanced by a 
sadness bom of religious expression; it does to some 
extent people the air and the earth and the water 
with gnomes and goblins though they take, more 
especially, the form of ghosts and apparitions; while, 
as already stated, supernatural intervention is fre^ 
quent and is accepted as a matter of course. 

i'ltgimg^, ,.,|fv V, «' - . . . .t^~}::>AMi"^'':^' .M^M 


meiit of hk )if(: (laa 

Iii!< nut very re}" 
or p!i.,-i.'!Trci in ;»iiot;ier; ■ 

■ 'lis C;«rJ9lmaa f&u;-i, 

-' ■! T</u3!i<iiit( ijr AH 

'-■- His; ]<wtrv, hwi. 

"""'■'^■'" '■' ■ ' ■ i"pi(j;n sujin'mp on 

iheas (KjOttsi-jiw wHii much ot iiis ol(i-irorW ' riw;iaf 
instinct an.f cimraitt'r ■■otiting^ upperin^st f./r tho 


the Pnq" 

S«ims' '^»a. 

;r=giy ,aipt,rii,„t ti, tile arfpquatp study of popiii... 
i^inditiow ajid public deveiopim-nt.' Th« Frenr 
CaoadiHn Xolk-l(i«' i.>j not aa defiply. mystical &x tbv 
of tlw (Jcrtitan ntir does it revrJ in' mythoiogii- 
■onditioni such mi those kivwl by the aneieat. Grt-ik 

It h*i art efemvnt. of I 
sadimsti born of r^ ;igi.>' 
extent p«opie tJie air 
with gnomes nail k<- 
iHpfici-iiy, tile- form o! i. 

" it tJalanc- ' '■ 
n: it dolls ' ' 
ith »nd tiu- ,, .!» 
I tiiey take, m.^r- 
ippfiritiiin'; whi': 

'Seene onttbeiMtiabetclioaau fftwerin-^ebec 


., . ■•^■;-.f^?- 


•» >■ 

•^ {1 !Mr, M . ji'"'!'WSv'' 1 


Many of the customs, beliefs and superstitions 
lingering amongst the habitants and fishermen had 
their origin in Old France; many others have 
arisen from historic association with the Indians 
For instance, amongst those dwelling on the shores 
of the lower St. Lawrence many think that a tune 
played on some musical instrument or sung in the 
evening when the air is calm causes the Marionettes, 
or Northern Lights, to dance freely and beautifully 
m the sky. If, however, any luckless wight should 
become fascinated by the dancing movements of 
these golden threads of light and should attempt to 
join in the mazes of the dance he will be found next 
day stiff and stark on the shore! The French Cana- 
dian half-breeds in the Northwest believe, or did 
believe at one time, that it is possible to attract 
these Northern Lights, or Aurora BoreaUs, in the 
same way as they would the spirits of the air by 
whistling for them, while they also believe that' the 
lights can be frightened away by firing a gun 
The belief apparently had its origin amoagst the 
Crees and the Algonquins— the former styling the 
phenomena "the Spirits' Dance." 

Will-o'-the-wisps, or jeux-folUts, have all sorts of 
traditions attached to them; many habitants con- 
sidering them sorcerers, or malignant spirits, others 
looking upon them as the transitory spirits of those 
who have been condemned to eternal punishment. 
J. C. Tach«, in his Forestiers et Voyageurs, tells the 
story of a deep hole at the lower end of the Isle- 
aux-Comeilles, in the St. Lawrence, which remains 



full of water at low tide and over which there floats 
a strange light that suddenly disappears, mystifies 
the beholder, returns again, and sometimes lures 
the unwary to death. Similarly, in a certain part 
of the Bale des Chaleurs, there is said to exist a 
strange light or fire which, after burning for a time, 
disappears in a display of innumerable colored 
sparks. Some old Acadiana along those shores 
believe that the lights first appeared after the removal 
of their people by the English and that they are 
flames tormenting those who were responsible for 
that action: > 

Who has not heard ot the phantom light 
That over the moaning waves at night 
Dances and drifts in endless play? 
Close to the shore, then far away, 
Fierce as the flame in sunset skies, 
Cold as the winter light ihat lies 
On the Baie des Chaleurs. 

A legend is recorded of the same region by M. 
Faucher de Saint Maurice. At the very end of the 
Bay there is seen, at times, a luminous point flitting 
to and fro; in the belief of the local fishermen this 
maiks a spot where some mariners named Roussi 
perished in a storm; the tradition adds that the 
light conveys to passers-by a desire for prayers on 
behalf of the souls of those lost. A similar belief 
exists on the north and south shores of the St. Law- 
rence, in the vicinity of the Isle d'Orl^ans, where 
the habitants think that wandering lights, or will- 



o'-the-wisps, are evil spirits luring unfortunate 
victims to death. De Gasp^, in Lea Andens Cana- 
diem, makes one of his characters tell the story of 
his own father's experience who, usually, "like an 
honest man, loved his drop," but was on this par- 
ticular occasion quite sober. He was on his way 
home at a late hour when, suddenly, "it seemed to 
him as if the Isle d'OrMans was on fire. He stared 
with all his might and saw at last that the flames 
were dancing up and down the shore as if all the 
will-o'-the-wisps, all the damned souls of Canada, 
were gathered there to hold the witches' sabbath. 
Then he saw a curious sight; you would ha . a said 
they were a kind of men, a queer breed altogether. 
They had a head big as a peck measure topped off 
with a pointed cap a yard long; then they had arms, 
legs, feet and hands armed with long claws, but no 
body to speak of." After further description Jules' 
father quotes the following lines as being simg by 
the goblins for his personal benefit: 

Come, my frisky Traveller'a Guide, 
Devil's minion, true and tried, 
Ck)me, my suc'King-pig, my Simple 
Brother Wart and Brother Pimple! 
Here's a fat and juicy Frenchman 
To be pickled, to be fried. 

In French Canadian tales and legends the loup- 
garou of France survives, but with additions born 
of the wilderness and of Indian superstitions. The 
Rev. Armand Parent, of Oka, describes a belief 




amongst the hdbitarUs that if a person neglects 
partaking of the Sacrament for seven years he will 
turn into a lougaroux, a sort of shapeless animal 
without head or limbs and will so remain until some 
good friend kills this creature when the man once 
more appears. De Gasp^ is authority for the story 
that a habitant says ouvrei or, open the door, instead 
of entrez or, come in, because once upon a time a 
young woman used the word entrez in response to 
a knock and the devil entered and took possession 
of her. Now and then one finds the belief that the 
spirit of evil appears in the form of an immense 
black cat darting fire from his eyes and making a 
terrible noise. 

There are many similar fancies found here and 
there and not necessarily general, or widespread, 
because they are mentioned. La main de gloire, 
the dried hand of a man who has been hanged, will, 
it is thought, enable anyone who carries it to go 
anywliere he may wish to. Le chandelle magigue 
is a candle composed of the fat of such a hand 
melted into a taper and enabling the hold-'r to dis- 
cover treasure at the spot where the lighted candle 
may go out. A story is told of a habitant (many 
similar ones pass current) who, passing the body 
of a dead criminal hanging in a cage, out of bravado 
invited him to supper that evening; greatly to the 
astonishment of himself and his friends the dead 
man duly appeared, carrying his cage. The intruder 
would only leave upon the promise of his unapprecia- 
tive host that he would, the next night at 12 o'clock, 

mmrj^^iw gpym-i^j^^jp^^w^Masfc iwiMM 


dance at the foot of the gibbet to which the cage 
had been hung. Accompanied by his friends, recit- 
ing their chapelef . the village cur^ and a newly 
baptized infant, the man appeared at the hour 
promised and was let off with reproaches for not 
coming alone and an expressed hope that the 
incident migiit prove a sa'utary lesson. 

Of traditions or stories based upon the supernatu- 
ral, that of Rose Latulippe is one of the best known 
She was a handsome girl, very gay and coquettish, 
fond of flirtation and passionately fond of dancing 
On the festive occasion of Shrove Tuesday she went 
with her betrothed to a dance when, about eleven 
o clock, a vehicle stopped at the door of the house 
and those who looked out of the window saw, before 
anything else, a wonderful black horse with fire in 
his eyes and fire in his motions. The newcomer 
who got out of the vehicle, was a stranger clad in a 
splendid racoon-fur coat, and under it a suit of 
black velvet richly braided. He asked permission 
to keep on his fur cap and gloves, took a drink of 
brandy and then, inviting pretty Rose for a 
dance, stayed with her to the end of the evening 
despite the anger of her lover and a warning from 
an old dame in a neighboring room, that every time 
in her prayers she used the names of Jesus or Mary 
the stranger turned and glared at her. When twelve 
o'clock came— the hour to cease dancing so as not 
to infringe upon Ash Wednesday— the stranger 
asked for one more dance and, when it was over, 
tried to persuade Rose to accept a necklace of 



pearb in place of the gla« beads around her neck 
to which were attached a tiny cross. Mrs. J. W F 
Harrison tells the end of the legend in the following 
verses: ^ 

"You are mine," .ay, the .tranger. " From to-night. 

Dance, dance, little Roee, a word in your ear 

You are dancing with Lucifer, what doat fear?" 

The Cur^l the OunSI He takea it all in 

From Roae in her peril of horrible ain 

To Mother Marmette and the aged Seigneur, 

The whispering girls and the daied voyageur 

And, breathing a hurried and silent prayer 

And making the rign of the Cross in the air 

And .aying aloud, "The Church hath power 

To save her children in such an hour," 

He taketh the maiden by both her hands, 

WhUst Lucifer dark and discomfited stands. 

Snorting and stamping in fiendish ire. 

He gains his steed with the eyes of Bre, 

Who gives one loud and terrible neigh ' 

And then in the darkness thunders away. 

It is a natural ending, under such circumstances 
for the terror-stricken and repentant girl to enter 
a convent and become a nun. There is a similar 
tradition m Germany, where, however, the ghost 
of the fair maid awaits the time when some Chris- 
tian shall dance with it and remove the spell. An- 
other Mardi Gras legend is that of an ancient and 
pious settlement on the St. Lawrence, where, on a 
certain Shrove Tuesday, a stranger riding on a fast, 
coal-black trotter proposed to the habitants that 
they should take possession of a deserted manor 

K •'m.%^'f^MM^mmwmLma^ziwwr''«'mmitw§j^imLmi\> 


in the neighborhood, borrow a fiddle which he would 
play, and invite the village maidens to a dance. 
The jollification commenced with the smoking of 
plenty of strong French Canadian tobacco, the 
dnnkmg of Sangrce— a sort of mulled wine— and 
fontmued with intermittent dancing until midnight 
when, according to all church rules and local pre- 
cedents, the party should have broken up. But 
the fiddler would have none of such rules, wilder and 
still wilder dances were played and indulged in until 
the lights grew dim and the dancers had disappeared 
with nothing visible but the red tuques on their 
heads— which were madly leaping up and down above 
the ground and their buried bodies! 

The religious environment of these legends may be 
noted, as it is very general in French Canada. Sir 
J. M. he Moine tells the story of a light being seen 
at midnight in a little church on Isle Dupas, near 
Montreal, with an apparently phantom priest stand- 
ing motionless at the altar. Finally a parishioner, 
braver than the others, volunteered to stay one 
night in the church. Presently, the priest appeared 
in his soutane, went through the preparations for 
celebrating Mass, retired and assumed his sacerdotal 
garb and then returned, bearing the chalice. Mass 
was then said, the habitant helping in the service, 
repeating the responses and escorting the priest to 
the SacHstU, where he turned and said: "For three 
years I have come here every night to say a Mass I 
once said too hastily. I was condemned to do so 
every night until I should find here a person to serve 

-:* ..uliiii'a^:':; 



o. the same ..ll^lt' "^^^f^, 8J«'!* •«» on the rivef 
in the Ro«, UtuliZt"'°^*'"'Wea, illustrated 

tain lands havingTsenTj.^i^'C ' T' ^ 
Bell, owner of the Fo«.. "!^*!" ""n. Matthew 

Three Rivers/the laUeflr ^'"^'"^' ^°"'« °' 
one day "S n^.r *"^ "" ' moment of anaer 

justly ipropriatinV'""'"* ''"'^''°* »*'"«" ^om u " 
to the DT^?"'*sI*rtKW. 1 bequeath it all 

same statement Sth'^^f '"'"'' ^P*''*"^ *•"> 
who had wronged hTwouidnoT*™*'"? *'"'* *''««' 
they had taken rZT^ '"'"J' '" P*'"'"' "'hat 

in the neightrhood-:°l S "/ ^""^ °^ ""»»" 
Four men werese^carrl « «''°'"y '""'lents. 

it must be the Tvil JSm f " '"1° *'"' ^'"^'~ 
A man stalked the hS e^!:^^" ^°'?"° *° "elll 
in his hands-it mu t t^ IHZ T ?"■ " P'P*' 
-countsi At mid-^ght a peat fi™ l'""'''''^ ''" 
noticeable on the hill whtif ^^i u ^"^'^^ ^"^V 
to Satan and weird fi^X S '^rj?'"'"''''*'""^ 
were seen while howls of m1!^ TJ , "'"''"ng chains 
were heard followrd bvT^K '""*''*" ""-J '««« 
All kinds of other«t • '''f P''«'n°"s utterances. 

Tf *.?' ^"* *••- '^'^ siffict wr*" *''^"'-'-'' 
built two%Xrts°o ai""\:S«*- ^«ne. 
H-er, there is thr;:dirnTharaXer':-: 




II if: 

&>a^ionav River 



to the meeting which was called to deal with its 
construction and forcibly opposed the placing of a 
cross upon the steeple as being too expensive. 
He was a swarthy fellow, recently from Paris, and 
had ridden to the meeting on a coal-black, fiery 
Norman roadster, very restless and held by a spiked 
double bridle. Finally, when the cross was omitted 
the stranger offered to cart all the stone required 
in building at his own expense, and as construction 
proceeded it was noted that the horse did not seem 
to mind how huge or how heavy were the boulders 
he drew to the place of operations. One day the 
beadle of the future church led the horse to a well 
and though it was known that its bridle was never 
taken off he proceeded to do so, when, behold! 
the horse disappeared in a cloud of blue flame and 
sulphurous smoke. The exquisite satire of using 
the devil to build a church is obvious and indicates 
the keen sense of humor which the habitant undoubt- 
edly possesses. 

All the way down the St. Lawrence, out into the 
Bay, and even along the shores of the Acadia of old 
are to be heard superstitious stories, incidents of 
ghostly character which date from the long ago. 
Near IsIe-aux-Coudres is a small island called Seal 
Rocks and on it, according to tradition, a young man 
named Chatigny was abandoned to starvation by 
a jealous comrade. Since then the place is sup- 
posed to be haunted by spirits whose cries and moans, 
however, may b.? accounted for by the cries of 
young seals and x,he groanings of the winds. The 




weird and melancholy tale told by AbW H R 
Casgram, in his volume nf r.,. j- t *• 

belief t^aTie'^e^a^rLtT'' "" '"'^^''" 
world than adults and lell "d LVXr'*"*' 

Of suffermg, urgmg on the tormentors Verv 
general amongst the hakitant, is the tlof a^an 
tast.c and fearsome boat, akin perhaps to the Black 
Huntsman of other lands, which is called the cK 


GaUrie; and goes flying through the air with the 
speed of an arrow; which is manned by a dozen 
red-coated figures, "paddling like damnation," as 
a rural story-teller once told Frechette the poet; 
and which has the Devil in the stern, leading in 
chorus with a song and a vo'"3 which strike terror 
to the heart of the hearer. xJrummond depicts it 

But I know on de way Canoe she go, dat de crowd must be 

dead man. 
Was come from the Grande Rivi6re du Nord, come from 

Come too from all de place is lie on de Hodson Bay Contrce. 
An' de ting I was see me dat New Year night is le phantome 

Chasw Gal'rie 

The country around Tadousac is replete with 
legends and the place itself furnished W. H. H. 
Murray with the Indian story upon which he based 
his sensational Doom of the Mamelons. It was from 
here that the news of the death of Father de la 
Brosse, a devoted missionary who passed away in 
1782, was wafted by supernatural means to Father 
Compain in the IsIe-aux-Coudres, out in the St. 
Lawrence — the bells on the Island being tolled by 
mysterious hands at the very hour of his death. 
There are traditions of a mansion built at Charlotte- 
town, P. E. I. — then known as Isle St. Jean — over 
the graves where lay the remains of French soldiers 
killed when in charge of local forts. The story is 
that the new occupants could not sleep at night for 



the cellar and trying to find out the cause * 

r„™ K ?."""' *'''"«'' "« t°W of Louis Olivier 

into thrst T. , ^"''^''"' "^"^ '"noinK 

the Mal-Ba.e region come habitant stories of horsed 
E Jhiirtr"'""^ "* D-«'-town Porta^"- 

the Magdalen group, rests the legend told by Moore: 

To Deadiaan's Isle in the eye of the blast, 
To Deadman', We she speeds her fast. 
By skeleton ehapes her sails are furled 
And the hand that steers is „ot of this world. 

The Stories told by the habitants are masterpieces 
of e-aggerat.on and mixtures of the supernatural 

tvLnf^f"'' ''' P^''"*''"*' »d *^' relfgious A 
type of the exaggerated tale is told by W. P Green 

ough, an American dweller in Arcady4therwt" 

rural Quebec-for some seasons. It is supposeTt^ 

be narrated by Nazaire, a guide and hunterSom 


Mr. Grccnough employed. There was once upon a 
time a very famous hunter named Dalbec of Stc. 
Anne. He was on his way home when he saw a 
fox on the other side of a little round lake. Just 
as he raised his gun to fire six ducks came flying 
out from the bushes near him. He was not sure 
at first which he would try to shoot — the fox or the 
ducks— but ,1 'dcd final'" to try for both. " Placing 
the barrel of hiH long gt i. between two trees, he bent 
it into a quarter of a circle, fired at the ducks, killed 
them all, killed the fox also, and the bullet came back 
and broke the leg of the dog that was standing by 
him." Dalbec was a real personage and a great 
story-teller ae well as a mighty hunter. A favorite 
amusement with him was to get another hunter and 
rival in his art, gather a crowd of habitants around 
them after Vespers on Sunday, and then compete 
with each other by the hour in telling the most 
amazing yarns with mutual interjection of approving 
remarks or exclamations. 

One more story of the kind that would thus be 
tossed to and fro may be given. Dalbec had ex- 
pended his ammunition and was returning home one 
day when he saw a flock of wild ducks swimming 
about among some timbers. He waded out in the 
water, got hold of one duck after another by the legs 
and fastened them to his belt till he had a dozen or 
so when, suddenly, he found himself raised in the 
air and carried off up the St. Lawrence with a strong 
gale blowing and helping him on his journey. "Just 
as he passed the church at Ste. Anne he heard the 



first bell of the Mass sound and he wished he had 
stayed at home instead of going shooting. At the 
rate he was going he had not much time to think 
but presently he realized that something must b^' 

onT^f f: Tl'" ""r" "»'' '^"'^^ *h« neck o^ 
one of the ducks. That let him down a little- 
then he twisted the neck of another. So he kept 

ZZi' "'?. '* ""^ '"^'"'^ «»' "e found himse' 
t^T .T *^e ground in front of the church at 
Sorel and heard the second bell of the Mass. He hrd 

h':r°aSr-^""*^-'^^ """-"•' ^-^^^-^-i- 

Some of these stories take hours to tell- some 
occupy two evenings in narration. They ar'e Xn 
fairy tales ^U a youthful prince and a beautS 
pnncess as the central figures. A curious mixture 

.snot thTl T-^f' *'' ''"*«°"'"" "»'' *•>« ^"bulous 
IS not the least interesting phase of these fairy stories 
For instance, Petit Jean, the deliverer of a princeL 

What the h(dntant loves to eat-boiled pork sau- 
sages, etc^, while the liquors accompanyi„g?he,;iands 
r„tf "^T/""* '^' •'*«* "'-l Jam^ca rum In 
another and finer part of the building will be a table 
furmshed with all these things and also black pud! 
dmgs, wines and French brandies; in the stables are 
horses, carriages and "a beautiful little bugg^ " 
There is a traditional giant and Petit Jean shoots 
his nose off and sticks it on again with a piece o 
sticking p aster! And so the story goes on from 
one ridiculous or amusing incident to another 


Coining to the folk-lore of the people as expressed 
in songs, ballads, or Chansons Canadiennes, nothing 
can be said without consulting Ernest Gagnon's 
volume of collections in that respect. He embodies 
in his pages the condition which means so much 
to the life of a people— the fjngs they sing. To 
hear the French Canadian habitant singing in the 
woods his favorite sentimental ballad framed after 
the style of three or four hundred years ago; to 
note the lusty and cheerful way in which he chaunts 
the romaunt of which there are said to be very many 
more than the hundred or so described by M. 
Gagnon; to hear and to see him is to understand 
the difference between the habitant and his Ontario 
or American neighbor or his fellow-subject in the 
fields of the distant England. Imagine an English- 
speaking farmer or laborer returning from his day's 
work, through the fields of the farm, or the streets 
of a village, caroling at the top of h -oice some 
song or lilting rhyme of old Englanu, of bonny 
Scotland, or even of the distressful Isle! The 
favorite of them all with the French Canadian is 
A La Claire Fontaine of which a couple of verses 
and the chorus follow: 


Unto the crystal fountain 
For pleasure did I stray; 

So fair I found the waters 
My limbs in them I lay. 

Sing, nightingale, keep singing, 
Thou bast a heart so gay, 


Thou hut a hevt n merry 
While mine ii aorrow'g prey. 

For I have loat my Mistrew 

Whom I did true obey, 
All for a bunch of roeee, 

Whereof I uaid her nay. 

long ia it I have loved thee, 

Thee ghall I lovo alway, 

My deareet; 

,Long ii it I have loved thee, 

Thee ahaU I love alway. 

The little boy imbibes these Chamom as hfi Hn.. 

oy tne side of a stream, or in some shady nook 
wher« the words and the music fit into the scene 
2h.Hrr' T ''"«'"« *"««*''" the tunes Tre 

^"r when thev """'"' '""""-''^^ ""= ♦''^ «-- 
sums When they seem most delightful. a verv 

K'trinTe? " *'^ °"^ °^ "^ ^"°--'^*^ -^-ke S 

The cruel ball has found its quest. 
His golden bill sinks on his breast; 

-T M 


Hii golden bill ginkg on hia breiwl, 
Hu plumes go floating Eut and Wp«t. 

F»r, far they're borne to distant land*, 
Till gathered by fair maidens' handii; 

Till gathered by fair maidonn' hands 
And form at laat a soldier's b«l. 

And form at last a soldier's bed, 

En rotdatU ma boule. 
Sweet refuge for the wanderer's head, 

Bn roulant ma bouU. 

The words of these Ckansons, it may be added 
afford httle idea of the melody and charm which 
they have under natural conditions. Just a few 
lines may be quoted here, at random, from Mai- 
brouck—a. most popular and widely sung melody— 
in concluding u rambling study of things that Ue 
below the surface so far as ordinary history or 
travelers' experiences are concerned, yet which are 
really vital to any knowledge of a people's position 
the records of a race, or the real Ufe of the often 
voiceless masses: 

Malbrouck has gone a-fighting, 
Mironlon, mironton, mirontaine, 

Malbrouck has gone a-fighting 
But when will he return? 

Monsieur Malbrouck is dead, alasl 
And buried too, for aye; 


And itt the ournen of hii tomb 
They plutnl row-iiikrie. 

And from their topii the nifhtin(*l« 
Rinp out her ovol free, 




It is nn cnity stop from the balladi of a people— 
the inatinctivc, irrRRponiiible exprenion of their 
thoiightR ami fnncira and fcelinga— to the literature 
which still further embodies or describes their 
history, their opinions, their development. The 
one is really of the other; to write the songs of a 
nation, even in these commercial days, means 
much in evolving or cementing the patriotism of 
its people. The literature of French Canada is 
and has been a living, breathing entity, a factor in 
its creation and preservation, an element in the very 
lives of the people. It would not be difficult in any 
important collection of Canadian books to find 
several hundred volumes of history, poetry, belUi- 
lettret, romance, travel, written by men and women 
whose names are practically unknown to the public 
outside of Quebec; who have spoken for and to a 
narrow audience growing in a century and a half 
from less than a hundred thousand to three millions; 
who have been hampered rather than helped by the 
vastness of their surroundings and by the richness 
of material opportunity on every hand. 

Canada, even French Canada with all its superior 
brightness and lightness of thought, its facility of 




•peeoh and inherited poetry of lentiment, iU old- 
world tradition* of literature, art and drama, haa 
been influenced by the inevitable difficultiei and 
requiremonti of pioneer <lByB, the otill greater 
mntorial drmnnclH of the present. The peasant 
or habitant miglit have developed more Ringers of 
national thought in the form of poetry, more crea- 
tors of national fiction, but ho was immersed at 
first in the dangers of early settlement days, then 
in the struggles for political change, then in those 
great modern interests — the development of the 
land and the entry into factory and city life. The 
Heigneurial syxtem promised much and a class which 
could produce a whole family of Le Moynes, which 
could present to its people a heroine such as Mile, 
de Verchdrcs, which could evolve such families as 
the Duchesnays, the De Lotbiniircs, the St. Ours, 
the Bouchers, the De Salaberrys and many more, 
might well have developed a great literature. It 
did not, however, have a fair chance, its opportunities 
were limited and confined, its development was 
never very complete as a class. The days of New 
France were, upon the whole, days of war; when 
peace came the change of allegionce, the reversal 
of patriotism, the transfer of so many families to 
France, the change from a government of autocracy 
and paternalism to one of modified and then slowly 
increasing liberty, were not conditions fitted for a 
creative literature. It was a time of transition 
when French Canadian patriotism was naturally 
unsettled and ill-defined. The people were neither 



British nor French nor Canadian; thpir inatitutiona 
and idcala and patriotiam wnrc all in the inrltinR-pot. 
In th« war-timp, and fint iitriiRRlJnK (x^riod of 
French nationality in (,'anadu, tli<-ri' wim little writ- 
ing of ony kind except in the form of official reporta 
and deapatchea to PariM from t<ov<'mor», Intcndanta 
and Biahopa or in that Hplendid aeriea of Icttcre by 
Jeauita to the head of their Order which now con- 
stitute seventy volumea of hintory and literature. 
The IcBdcra of New Franco were very often cultivated 
in their toatPH and would, in any caac, have helped 
literature to flouriah had there been men, or time, 
or openings for such a purauit. Frontcnac wan 
fond of literature and all that it means; his wife, 
who, however, never ciimc to Cnnada, wa« a friend 
of Mme. de Scvign6 and other lights of France in that 
period; Mgr. dc la OaliNsonniirc was a lavanl who 
made hia mark in other fielda than government 
and politics and war; M. Dupuy, one of the Intend- 
ants, brought cut a large library to Quebec; M. 
Boucher, Seigneur, founder of a family, Governor 
of liiree Rivers, a soldier and a fighter, wrote a 
volume on natural history; Champlain himself 
was a man of science, an able writer, a real student 
of geography, navigation and nature; Jolliet, 
Nicollet, De la Vdrendryc, were all educated men 
who based their explorations and described the 
results upon scientific lines; M. Talon, when Intend- 
ant, had investigations carried on over a wide range 
of country as to conditions and resources and it was 
done by men nf science imported for the purpose; 


II, ki 




^ ^m 




the Marquw de Beauhamois as Governor and M 
Hocquart as Intendant, were fond of circulating and 
discussing the French literature of the period 

T^^.T '^'"'° "* *•"" ^'"'*«''" St. Louis and 
circulated ;n manuscript for want of a printing 
press but, m the main, are lost to us; the songs o? 
^„H ™= ^"'^^Jed everywhere, with the soldiera 
and fur traders and explorers and voyageurs and 
helped undoubtedly to create and establish the merry 
spmt of the modem habitant. ^ 

All this 'did not, however, constitute a native 
hterature, though it proved and voiced intellectual 
activity just as did much of the private correspond- 
Z\^ *•>"* f n°d of which we get glimpses now 
and then. There were, however, the writings of the 
Church-somethmg confidential, in a sense vet 
seen by many in France and amongst the cultured 
ar les of Rome The letters of the Jesuit Fathers 
were hterature m the finest sense; descriptions of 
actua^ events and incidents, products of intense 
suffering, of exalted feelings or, sometimes, of a 
poetic fire aiid force straight from the forge of 
natures mighty hammer. P^res Charievoix and 
Lafitau were students in ethnology and botany as 
well as recorders of current history; Father- M», 
quette and DoUier de Casson were write™ as w"l 
as militant priests and explorers. This Uterature 
was of course, confined to the men of monasteries, 
to the missionanes in the field, to the ecclesiastics 
who were founding and developing schools of 
religious learning; to the Seminary and Jesuit 



College of Quebec or the Sulpician Seminary ot 
Montreal. It was essentially religious in its ele- 
ments; it naturally did not touch the lighter and 
fanciful side of the French character; it lives in 
history, yet was hardly creative of a national litera- 
ture in the fullest and widest sense. 

It was, therefore, natural when the French 
Canadians settled down in 1800-1840, or there- 
abouts, to find themselves in a patriotic, political 
and national way and to use the printing press — 
which had been first utilized in the French publica- 
tion of prayer-books and, in 1776, of a work (Sailed 
L' Adoration Perpetuelle — that the issue of pamphlets 
should be the initial development. The people 
had to deal with new and peculiar problems and 
relationships; they could not know what was going 
to be the outcome of existing conditions. A passive 
acquiescence in British rule, a sort of vague feeling 
that Great Britain had been generous, teachings 
by the Church of loyalty to existing conditions 
were not enough, in themselves, to form a basis 
for mental alertness or literary effort. The books 
in the Colony at this time were fairly numerous; 
it is estimated that in 1765 there were 60,000 of 
them, but they were held in private libraries and 
in the hands of cultured families who understood 
public affairs and discussed matters in the spirit 
of a Parisian Salon. 

Two events, however, made a native literature 
possible and evoked the popular spirit out of which 
such ix development comes. One was the publica- 




t'on and intended to describe fh ^''""^ S"^"'"" 
constuutional system of Eal h' °'"'"''*'''" °^ the 
'^as a revelation to tlie ot, «°^«nment. It 

°f it came an immenle ^1 ^"^"^ Politicians and out 
vers^al n>atter. TlTe Tecond' "' '"'^^''"^"t <=ontro 
« Quebec of Le Ca« ^^ SoeT* "t^ *''^ ''^^^^S 
ne'vspaper with a full nil; ^ *' " ^'^''''h weekly 
«over„„en. for its init 1^^ "' "°"^"*"f- ' 
continuous controversy as Z TT"^' ^''"^ and 
brightness > and wit Z Z "^''^ characteristic 
^t'cles as a feature FromthTf'"'"^"* «*--y 
decades, there poured o7 l^Vl'^""'' '^^ ^^^eral 
Canada a series nf ? °® Pi'css of Fren^l, 

-hieh dealt with myrirdTh ""^^ 7" """'icaS 
French and EnglisrrSiot'"''.f P''^*^ ^''^far" 
government and poIiticJSi" the province, self-' 
a number of transient IrS ^""'"""^ started 
h^toncal nature and writer^ °^ ^ '"^'^'^ «nd 
there and in Quebec whl. '""*' to the front 

"> ^rench Canadall °N T" "*' ^*'" «''«™h°<i 
f- X. Garneau, M A pf' ?"' *'"' Mondelets 
B«rthelct, Cau hon the n "''°"' "''*'"'"™ I'ab e' 
P-nt, Raphael Uta^eT/r' ^r^' ^«-- 
Panbault and others ' °^"n-^'ajoie, G. B 



Brwd Oven. Cap , fXig,, 




T; M 


i' ■ 




latter end of the eighteenth century, but the younger 
spirits of 1830-40 listened to the voice of the charmer 
when it came through the brilliant writings of 
Lamartine, Victor Hugo and others. They were 
held in check by religious or Church influences, 
but a certain French vogue did touch the literary 
efforts of this period. Quesnel, Mermet and Bibaud 
produced poetry of a didactic and pastoral char- 
acter; Real Angers, J. G. Barthe, J. E. Turcotte, 
Cr^mazie and Garnnau came to the front with 
verse which rioted in wrath against existing condi- 
tions or limitations, revelled in a patriotism which 
wanted change and reform, and delighted at times 
in the expression of French ideas and radical ideals. 
Bibaud, Ferland, Faillon and Gameau embodied 
many of their ideals in historical works which, in 
turn, had a powerful influence upon public opinion 
— an effect enhanced by the re-appearance of Le 
Canadien for a short time in 1821 after a temporary 
submergence and again, more permanently, in 1831. 
Of these pioneers and leaders in literature Octava 
Cr^mazie and F. X. Gameau were probably the 
patricians. The former was rich in rhetoric, strong 
in passionate appeal, instinct with the public senti- 
ment and environment of hb time Whether in his 
Le Drapeau de Carillon, and many other poems, he 
did what an English Canadian writer has recently 
described as necessary for permanence in verse — 
keeping "essential human nature in harmony with 
universal art" — is a question which can be left to 
a still further posterity. There is no doubt that 



Crtmazie embodied in permanent form much of 
the fleetmg thought and fancy and pa«,ion of his 
hour; ,n domg so he was like Kipling in later day 

Anln rr^l' '° '^'" ""'"*' """^ ^"> their ideab 
Apart from the writing of a RecesHonal or a Crcsina 
the Bar what more could he have desired? 

Of Frangois Xavier Garneau much might be 
said here and much has been written elsewhere^ 

people and interpreted their feelings not only i^ 
powerful ver,e but in his HisUnre du Canada~M 

L T^ 1 "'Tr^' '"""^'- A« " ""•"'equence he 
8 a great au hority in Quebec regarding the con! 
tentious annals of a bitterly controversial period- 
FrZ^r '"T'^'"'^^' «"*«"* the representarive o 

ot Enghsh and French in that Province and of 
Great Britain and French Canada; hU statue 
unveiled by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, graces the PaS 
ment grounds of the Ancient Capital while hh, 
praise echoes through the words of French Ubrarians 
joumahsts and authors. No student of French 
Canada can afford to neglect his pages and, perhaps, 
the opimon of one who is himself resjicted by 
everyone interested in the annals of Quebec- 

S'"°'".?iS'*'~'?''^ ^'" "^ """^'''l « this con- 
nection: "He ,s less passionate or partial than 
hi^onans who have dealt with the subject befte 
.; I '."f**""^ ^^ °^^«'" hides the good doines 
of the British people upon this continent." T 
Garneau s poetry, Sir J. M. Le Moine has said that 



much of it reminds one of B^ranger and that it wag 
marked by enduring loftiness of idea and aobleness 
of sentiment. 

Meantime there had been some development in 
the realm of fiction. Eugene L'Eeuyer, P. J. O. 
Chauveau, P. A. de Gasp«, Patrice Lacombe, 
Joseph Doutre, Napoleon Bourossa, J. Talon 
L^sperance, and Antoine G4rin-Lajoie wrote novels 
dealing with French Canadian life and characteristics. 
G^rin-Lajoie in his Jean Rivard is described as 
carrying the palm for roman de moeura in the Province 
of Quebec. Chauveau was of the best type of 
literary man produced by French Canada. Cul- 
tured in taste, kindly and broad-minded in character, 
moderate in opinion, a politician and educationalist 
as well as an author, he stands out distinctly as 
one of the patricians of Canadian literature in its 
highest sense. None of the volumes of these writers, 
or others touching the realm of ficti> u, however, 
were really historical in character. Despite a soil 
redolent of forest life, of Indian customs, of the 
venturesome deeds and unrecorded heroism pertain- 
ing to the pioneer life of the past, they do not seem 
to have been so inspired. 

One can so well imagine heroes of a great historical 
novel, moving through its pages amid all the pictur- 
esque splendor of early French Canadian sur- 
roundings, with all the brilliant garb and bright 
conversation, the daily and hourly peril to their 
lives, the vivid background of mighty forests- 
sullen and gloomy in their depths or illumined by 



autumn wind* into vast seas of golden color or 
flaming red. To look around and dream of the great 
continental wilderness which these tiny groups of 
men and women had undertaken to subdue; to 
thmk of the vast lakes or rivers stretching for 
thousands of miles in a primeval silence only broken 
by the stormy dash or peaceful ripple of their own 
waters; to picture the plumed casques and knightly 
armor of Europe, or the priestly robes and even 
the ecclesiastical vestments of a mighty Church 
m the shadow of savage camp-fires; to see men of 
courtly training, priests of medisBvai .volish, women 
of the cloister or of cultured homes, a pioneer 
life on the very shores of a sea of savagery; to 
carry the mind back into all this wonderful environ- 
ment is to surely experience surprise that French 
Canadian literature is not, as a whole, steeped in 
the atmosphere which Sir Gilbert Parker, William 
Kirby and other English writers have so well por- 
trayed. Joseph Marmette did, in his FraiKoia 
de BienvilU, touch this fascinating theme and took 
the times of Frontenac and the 1690 Siege of Quebec 
as the environment of his story. De Gasp^ in his 
romance, Les Ancien Canadient, produced a work 
of interest for its description of conditions in early 
days, as did G^rin-Lajoie in his novel dealing with 
La Tour and Nova Scotia life, but they were not of 
the school of historical fiction which Walter Scott 
originally made famous and which a host of modem 
followers have made attractive to the uttermost 



It was in poetry that French Canadians really 
excelled amid the fighting scenes of political and 
racial conflict and afterwards when full constitu- 
tional liberties were accorded and the people had 
burst the bonds of bureaucracy. The poetry of 
the two periods was different just as the two chief 
patriotic gongs of French Canada were widely 
divergent. Sir Georgo Etiennc Cartier in youthful 
days of a rash, impetuous patriotism, which led him 
to share in the Rebellion of 1837, wrote in 1834 
Canada! Man pays, Mes Amours. It was for 
long a popular air, but has been superseded by an 
Canada.' from the pen of Sir Adolphe Basile 
Routhier— lawyer and judge, author and historian, 
poet and orator— which has found popularity outside 
and beyond its native province and original language. 
Joseph Le Noir and Pamphile Le May were two 
poets of different periods who represented some of 
the best qualities in French Canadian verse. 

It remained, however, for Louis Honors 
Frechette to bring the highest honors to French 
Canadian literature, to make its qualities widely 
known abroad, to win recognition from France in 
the laureateship of the Academic Frangaise, and 
from Great Britain in a Companionship of St. 
Michael and St. George. M. Frechette was in his 
day, and not very long ago, the acknowledged 
doyen of French Canadian literature. As Cr^mazie 
was a follower of B^ranger so he was a passionate 
admirer of Victor Hugo. He was a champion of 
sentimental relations with France and at one time 




wa« doubtful of Canada being able to hold it«lf 
away from the United 8t«t«.; he wa. an adhe fnt 
of the modem «K;hooI of liberal thought and m 

Canada; a behever, at the same time, in the gener^ 
advantage, of Britiah rule in Canada and of the 

tt^ "'"'""'' '" ">« """t conspicuou. of all 

on French literature has been very great, conserva- 

rhe!.°th "r*" ?' '"^"""^ ««-'»<'»» °^« vL 
W J , "^"^'"'''♦y; '^membership, "the Forty 
Immortals," mcluded in recent years auch nam« 
M the Due de Broglie, Emile Olivier, Sully-Pru- 
tie Cf; ^""^TiHal^vy, Copp^e, Sardou, Qa^t 
t^.^J " ' °°"'*'*' Theuriet, Hanotaux and 

Jt^^'^' ^^' *''" Academy's laurel crown, 
fTS 7 T"""' ''"'"'"^""''' '^'^ Kiven to M 
and U» Ot^ux de Neige. On October 13th 
following, he was banqueted in Quebec by a repre^ 
aentative gathering, with Mr. Justice TasehTrZ 

1"? V'^^'-J'''' '""«' ^««^«««' " speech typTcal 
of cultured PVench Canadian oratory iT whch he 
referred to the French Academy as "the Lat 
intej^ret^r and infallible judge of the difBcXes 
the beauties and the genius of the French language "' 
tToS ^"tr^l 'Sacred France, Mother of CivTzk- 
tion and "Fairy Paris, Capital of the Muses " 
In his address the French Poet Laureate was n^er 

J ^u.^ 


more eloquent and revealed the poetic feeling, of 
ei^l.!!!!!. ''r,:' Old Quebec: "When my Z „f 
e«le shook m the wind, from off the great Western 
Lake, or slept on the boi^ery shore of Louisianian 
ih. » "; T ?^ t^v"'"'" «kiff was rocked in 

on the blue wave, of the Loire; when I had before 
me the wild majesty of Niagara, the immensity of 
the ocean, or when filled with admiration I paused 
to ga.e upon the stupendous monuments of the 
K. I, . A' ."^^ thoughts ever instinctively flew 
the wlrid'? "'i'^^'r °f Champlain, unparalleled in 
the world for the picturesque splendor of its site 

2n ''"'.PT J^ ^^'"^ "° '*'"' ''«"'"' ff"™ the very 
.tone, of the fortress than it lingers upon every pa^ 

youthful day. of struggle, to the poverty which wa. 
then « Canada the inevitable accompaniment of 

n th« ?7 ^"fT^^ *° ^' """^ *° """"y ""Other 
m the he of Quebec and of all Canada were 
Macaulay';. beautiful lines describing an infant 
over whom the Faery Queen was suppld to calt a 
mantle of literary life and literary joys: 

"Ye., dwUng; let them go," .o ran the .train: 

And aU the biuy elve. to whose domain 
Belong, the nether .pherf , the aeeting hour. 

WUhout one enviou. .igh, one anxiou. scheme, 
The nether sphere, the fleeting hour awign. 

Mine 1. the world of thought, the world of dream, 
Mme all the past and all the future mine 


Of the fair brotherhood who share my grace, 
I from thy natal day pronounce thee freej' 

And if for aome I IfHjp a nobler place, 
I keep for none a happier than for thee." 

There are many more French Canadian names 
which deserve a place in any future pantheon of 
fame. Between 1820 and the close of the century 
there were two hundred writers who had each done 
something worthy of note in prose or verse. Some 
families, such as fhose of Barthe, Provencher, 
Gelmas, Doutre, Fr^yhette, Boucher, Garneau and 
Gagnon, ha4 each produced two or three writers; 
some of the more prominent authors, such as L h' 
Frechette, Sir J. M. Le Moine, P. J. 0. Chauveau 
N. E. Duinne, F. G. Marchand, had produced 
excellent work in English as well as in French- 
pnestly students of the Church were conspicu- 
ous in historical studies, as might have been ex- 
pected, and Abb6 H. A. Verreau, Abb« H. R 
Casgrain, Abb^.'Cyprien Tanguay, Abb6 L. B. Bois, 
Abb« C. Guay, Mgr. Henri T«tu, Abb^ G. Dugas 
Abb4 A. H. Gosselin, Abb^ J. Camille Roy, published 
volumes of marked value. Benjamin Suite, in his 
eight-volumed Histoire dea Canadiena-Francais, pro- 
duced a most important work and has written 
besides, an immense number of books on variou^ 
phases and developments of Quebec annals. The 
last quarter of the century, however, developed 
more hterary effort in French Canada than the 
whole of the preceding century. Hon. Thomas 
Chapais, A. D. De Celles, Arthur Buies, L. O 



David L. P. Turootte, J. Edmund Roy and Ernest 
Myrand may be mentioned in prose and Mme. 
Dandurand, N. Legendre and J. L. Archambault 
m poetry. 

Literature has been aided in French Canada during 
the past hundred years by Literary Societies. There 
was a French one in Quebec as far back as 1809- 
the Literary and Historical Society of that city,' 
which was founded in 1824 and is still in existence, 
was helpful to both races; the Institut Canadien 
of Quebec and Montreal and the Indilut Canadien- 
Fransais of Ottawa were central points for the 
study of racial interests. A multitude of literary 
journals, reviews and magazines were also started 
in the Province and conducted for a brief period 
before collapse came; but they usually lived long 
enough to imbed in their pages, to preserve for future 
study or perhaps publication in some other and 
later form, valuable contributions to current Utera- 

An impetus was given in more recent years to a 
wider knowledge of French Canadian literature by 
the organization of the Royal Society of Canada in 
1882. Whatever the faults and weakness of that 
body It has at least brought the two races together 
m this particular connection; made each famUiar 
with the names and attributes and wo-k of lead- 
ing exponents in the public thought and literary 
taste of the other race; taught the English and the 
French Canadian to respect the labors and point 
of view of the other. The names of its French 


Pre8idents— P. J. 0. Chauveau, Mgr. T. E. Hamel, 
L'AbM H. R. Casgrain, Sir J. M. Le Moine, Hon! 
F. G. Marchand, L. H. Frechette, C. M. G., Benja- 
min Suite, J. Edmond Roy— alone afford an excel- 
lent picture of culture and literary capacity. Of the 
twenty-eight members in the French section in 1912, 
and apart from those already mentioned in a specific 
connection, there were Paul De Cazes, Errol Bou- 
chette, Ernest Gagnon, Lion G«rin, N. Beauchemin, 
L'AbM Am«d6e Gosselin, Sir F. Langelier, Hon. 
R. Lemieux, P. B. Mignault, Albert Lozeau and 
P. G. Roy, I who had distinguished themselves in 
different branches of literary effort. 

Canadian literature, whether French or English 
has passed out of the pioneer stage and is slowly 
but surely escaping from a later condition where 
prosperity and either prose or poetry, as a pursuit, 
were utterly incompatible companions— when the 
creation of farms and homes, of private fortunes, 
of industrial and financial institutions, were the 
dominant accomplishments of the hour. They 
are so yet, on the surface of affairs, and to the 
passing visitor or tourist, but if the latter investi- 
gates more closely he will find that, in French 
Canada, at least, literature is now greatly encour- 
aged; that men engaged in that pursuit are aided 
by government, supported by the influence of 
politicians, given civil service positions, considered 
as men of no mean honor in their own country. 
Some French Canadian newspapers or journals are 
an additional encouragement to literature through 



their development of a literary style and the cultiva- 
tion of good writing. VAction Sociale, an ecclegi- 
Mtieal organ of Quebec, and 'e Devoir of Montreal, 
the special and personal product of Henri Bourassa's 
clever pen and political force, may be mentioned in 
this respect. 

The evolution of a wider national patriotism has 
also helped. The kabitant, the merchant, the 
workman in factory and city, or the politician, has 
larger ideas now than he used to have when his 
country was not only a dependency of France but 
one autocratically administered, or than he had 
when it became a British dependency without com- 
plete British institutions. Moreover, in regard to 
.'ranee, religious influences and conditions cut him 
off for a century from most of its literary life— with 
the exception of its songs and ballads; while in a 
later penod he was cut off from English Uterature 
by his own language. Now he has a great Dominion 
to think of, vast in size, in resources, in possibilities, 
and who can greatly blame the imaginative mind 
which now and then transcends space, and time 
and probability and traces in glowing prose or 
patnotic verse a future in which New France has 
renewed its vitality, vivified its clipped wings 
and once more holds half a continent in feel These 
are the dreams by which literature is created. They 
are, however, not frequent in Quebec; the ordinary 
evolution and expansion of his province is enough for 
the wnter or journalist of today. 
Moreover the Church, in literature as in politics. 



education or philosophy, has been a steadying force 
and the stream of bright young men who have 
come from its colleges and schools were, with cer- 
tain bnlliant exceptions, an influence for the quieter 
by-ways of literary efFort-except when they took 
to the stormy but pleasing paths of political journal- 
ism. A Zola or a Flaubert in French Canada is 
mconceivable: a Voltaire or a Rousseau is difficult 
to imagine, although some weak imitations have 
occasionally flamed up and then flickered out- a 
Daudet or a Cherbuliez is not so impossible now 
that literary, relations with France are close and 
friendly and when the spirit of the people is stirring 
with the pulse of a vigorous Canadian nationality 
It must not be inferred from what is said here that 
the Roman Catholic Church in Canada has dis- 
oouraged literature. The contrary is the case along 
certain lines; if there has been a check given any- 
where It has only been given to the extremes which 
this great pursuit or occupation may sometimes 

Such, in brief review, is the literature of French 
Canada. It has not yet reached the altitude of its 
motheriand any more than has that of English 
Canada; it has not quite risen to the height of its 
eventful history and brilliant racial traditions in 
America. On the other hand, it has produced a 
poetry that is in soue respects the best which 
this continent has seen and is not inferior, in a gen- 
eral way, to that of English Canada or the United 
States; it has developed a certain form of culture 


Which has reacted upon its journalism and language 
S Z^'^' '* '"«,«''"Wted qualities of lightneL 
and deftness of touch, simplicity and at times rich- 
ness of style which are French in the main yet local 
to the soil in certain details. Certainly, in its 
fanciful traditions, solid realities, religious anna 
nu^itapy memories, folk-lore and environment, it^ 

Si, /T^ ''^'''- *° ^^' "motion anrt 

rImnK .r'°* °1 " ""°« "*""*"'«• As Wilfrid 
\^&mpbell somewhere says: 

You ask me where I get these thoughts, 

These dreams melodious, mystical, 
I read them in God's book of lore. 

Wide-open, splendid by my door. 

I read them )se curicis runes 

Those tra, jes of love and strife. 
That chart of memory-haunted dunes 

That demon, angel-book, that man calls Life. 

BBrnsH Undmakks in Fbench Canada 

of the war here ThI 7 . *''* *"<*''^'» ^'ose 

Plete and d/tea from ,823- iH *7'. 'I'T *» — 
William Wood a^ Jfh '•♦ ' '*"*'"' "^ Colonel 

atruet.on is massive and thorough a? 'JJ^^' 




expected and underground passages are said, unof- 
ficially, to communicate with certain localities out- 
side the fortifications. These were, as a whole 
built with formidable facings and protections for 
battenes, there are deep ditches, thick walls, secret 
doors and great bastions on the edge of the rocky 
crags which face and overhang the river. The whole 
takes the place of the wooden works of the French 
which in their day, however, and with their splendid 
strategic position, answered the purpose of their 
builders and guardians to a considerable extent. 
Canadian soldiers in British unUorm now guard the 
ramparts, British military airs echo over the rippling 
waters of the great river at the foot of the cliffs 
the Umon Jack floats over the mighty waUs, which 
moss grown as they may be, still rank amongst the 
world 8 great fortresses. 

The present fortifications have not stood a siege 
nor have they shared in the great events of Cana- 
<^an history, but there is no doubt that the fact of 
their existence and known strength has been a 
consideration to possibly hostile neighbors, in the 
days now gone by, when trouble existed along our 
borders. What the strength and value of the can- 
nons, or of the defences, may now be against modem 
cannon and modern ships is for military authorities 
to say— to a layman the Citadel looks most delight- 
fully strong. Within the ramparts is a tiny cannon 
which the soldier accompanying visitors delights 
to exhibit— especially to Americans. Every one is 
told the same story, but it sometimes receives 

I ? 



^expected additioM t 

U-ited State, the ^ard « °°t *'"^t ^".m the 

"»oriptio„ show,: '^S oT"''*"'' •» «deed the 

American vicS:;\':-^-fed to hi«^^^^^^^^ 
"b^/r. ^^^ ^'l],.n^:^?7,. - cannon'^:' 

but If the hill had been on' k P''^'^ '''e «'Jdier 
^•^ we would have car^Sl tW ^'^ '" *'"' "annon 

Another landmark aTo,K°**°°-" 

the spot on the walls omeRn IT, * "«'»"«en t, " 
^We Major-General Rot J M ^^°^ ^^^ ramparts 
«'»« one of those occSf *^°"'8°'nery fell/ jj' 
"esses or failures seeTto "u^""" '""'"' <^^^^ suc- 
«°n>ents in the arriv^ o?f! '° ''*'- '^''en a tZ 
disposition of 8tWWn° >T' " ^''' y^ds fa fhl 

be'ng appealed to by wl^'nl ^""""' P«0P'e Were 
their motherland and tW h"'"^! emmissaries from 
passive and neutral in th«^f"'^'' Presently to h^ 
decide their own^ua^e f ^J'^ S' 3*° !«* the ^^ 
° -" -^^'ow Quebec t; bVcfrS: S^:t^ 

:.«. -.'i. 


'1 Critlr.;! 

Litae Champlam Street, Quebec dity 

-J- .*'•■ 



a _ _ l=i 


1 * 



band them beoaufw of the opposition of surrounding 
French Cansdiana. 

Montgomery finally invaded Canada, captured 
Chambly and St. John's, Sorel and Three Rivers, 
and then Montreul and in November General 
Benedict Arnold, with another army reached 
Quebec, after a perilous, difficult and memorable 
march through the wilderness, and was there joined 
by Montgomery. On December 31st the American 
troops converged in an attack upon the fortress and 
Montgomery— who, curiously enough, had fought 
under Wolfe at Louisbourg as Carieton, now the 
defender of the city, had done on the HeighU of 
Abraham — decided that a surprise was essential 
to success. He approached the ramparts from 
Wolfe's Cove, by a narrow path under Cape Dia- 
mond, to the barricade of Prfts-de-Ville, where a 
small battery had been erected manned by a few 
French Canadians, English militiamen and British 
sailors. The Americans expected to surprise the 
poet; they were, however, surprised themselves by 
an unexpected volley which killed Montgomery and 
his aides. Retreat followed and elsewhere, also, 
the attack was unsuccessful, Carleton's barricade 
at Sault-au-Matelot, in the Lower Town, being 
stubbornly defended against the assault of Arnold 
and his forces. The latter was wounded and one 
hundred of his troops killed or wounded and others 
captured. Montgomery's remains were afterwards 
carried into the city and buried quietly and, in 1818, 
removed by a relative to New York. Upon the 




Steep face of the great cliff there is today a large 
unpretentious plate with the simple inscription: 
Montgomery fell here December Slst, 1776." 
There are in Quebec romantic and less formidable 
memoriaU of this period. In the autumn of 1782 
a Bntish warship, The AlbemarU, lay at anchor in 
front of the town while many beautiful days glided 
qmetly away and the coloring of the forests gleamed 
m the golden and scarlet of the season. In command 
of the ship was the man who in later years was 
to crush the power of France upon the high seas and 
pve to his country the phrase which will ring on 
through all the centuries of British history: "England 
this day expects every man to' do his duty." A 
young man, only twenty-four years of age, in com- 
mand of an important ship, with all the worid before 
him, with perhaps a brilliant future, Horatio Nelson 
was sure of a welcome in hospitable Quebec. In 
the society of the day was Mary Simpson, a beauty 
and a toast of the town, living at Bandon Lodge in 
Grand All^e— upon the site of which Hon. Mr. 
Shehyn's house was afterwards built. Here was told 
the old, old story of the sailor and the giri; here 
Nelson passed through a brief romance only to 
awake one day and find his ship ordered to India 
at a few hours' notice. Farewells were said without 
any definite understanding, but, on the verge of 
saUing, the young captain left his ship to return 
and ask Miss Simpson to be his wife. So much 
appears to be certain; as to the rest authorities 
differ, though a balance of opinion seems to be that 



fellow-oflSeen, fearing for his future success, carried 
him back to the ship by force. Miss Simpson after- 
wards married Major Matthews, Lord Dorchester's 
secretary; Nelson made, long afterwards, an un- 
happy marriage which was followed by his famous 
infatuation for Lady Hamilton. In a short 
twenty-three years from that time of autumnal 
splendor, and of a romantic interlude, on the Heights 
of Quebec, Nelson died a Viscount and Admiral 
of Great Britain, a man of many victories and a 
hero of his race. 

Memorials are everywhere, in and ar 'nd Quebec, 
of H. R. H. the Duke of Kent, son of iUng George 
III and father of Queen Victoria. While there * n 
was Colonel-in-command of the Seventh Royal 
Fusiliers from 1791 to 1794; in 1797-99 he was 
Commander-in-chief of the British forces in North 
America with headquarters at Halifax, where he 
built a pretty house on the shores of Bedford Basin. 
In Quebec City, on St. Louis Street, there still stands 
a plain, solid-looking residence called Kent House, 
where the Royal Duke lived at times and enter- 
tained lavishly the society of his day— the Hales, 
the Caldwells, the De Salaberrys, etc. At the old- 
fashioned picturesque place called Haldimand Hotise 
near Montmorenci — now a summer hotel— he lived 
the greater part of the time. It was a beautiful 
site for a residence, one of the most beautiful in all 
that region of lovely vistas and historical scenes. 
Here he also entertained his guests and from here 
hunted big game or led shooting parties into the coun- 




try around. The romance of his sojourn in Quebec 
and at Halifax consists in his relations with Madame 
de St. Laurent, the beautiful widow of Baron de 
Fortisson, a Colonel in the French Army. Sir J. M 
Le Moine and other writers state that there was a 
morganatic marriage; Quebec and Halifax society 
certainly accepted her as his wife. Years afterwards, 
m 1818, the Duke was married at Brussels to the 
Princess Victoria Mary Louisa, sister of Prince 
Leopold, afterward King of the Belgians. 

Of British memorials, in general, there are many 
in Quebec-Center though it is of the prestige of 
New France and the presence of the French race 
Next to the Citadel the most important is the site 
of Dufiferin Terrace and the Chateau Frontenac 
It 18 a sort of holy ground of British as weU as French 
history. Haldimand Castle, built there in 1784 
by Sir Frederick Haldimand as a wing of the old 
Chateau of St. Louis, held, in later years, the Laval 
Normal School. In this famous building Prince 
William Henry, afterwards King William IV, spent 
some time in 1788. Here lived in succession Lord 
Dorchester, the British "Saviour of Canada," upon 
two occasions; Sir Alured Clarke, afterwards a 
field marshal of Great Britain, and SirR. S Milnes- 
General Sir George Prevost, who nearly played the 
part in 1812 for Canada which Sir WUliam Howe 
did m earUer years for British power in the United 
States; Sir Gordon Dnimmond, Sir J. C. Sher- 
brooke and the unfortunate Duke of Richmond, who 
died from the bite of a fox; Sir Peregrine Maitland, 



the Earl of Dalhousie who has placed a considerable 
mark upon Canadian history, Lord Aylmer and the 
Earl of Gosford. The Earl of Durham found Haldi- 
mand Castle too small for his entertainments in 
1838 at a time when his squadron of men-of-war was 
in the harbor and the Coldstream Guards were 
actrog as a ceremonial escort while all Quebec was 
agog with excitement and social functions. He was 
given the old Parliament Buildings as a residence 
and festivities were the order of the day. 

Haldimand House echoed, also, with the foot- 
steps of stern old Sir John Colbome in Rebellion days 
and here Lord Sydenham planned the union of Upper 
and Lower Canada; here, also. Lord Metcalfe, 
Sir Charles Bagot and the Earl of Cathcart lived 
for a part of each year as Governors of a United 
Canada. Here, in 1789, Lord Dorchester had wel- 
comed as a visitor young Lord Edward Fitzgerald 
who, nine years afterwards, died in an Irish prison 
as an Irish rebel; here, in 1812, the British Governor 
dealt with Generals Winder, Chandler and Win- 
chester who had been brought to Quebec as American 
prisoners of war together with Winfield Scott, 
captured at Queenston Heights, and afterwards the 
chief figure in the United States war with Mexico; 
here, on September 4, 1819, were exposed in state 
the remains of the Duke of Richmond and Lennox 
before their burial in the Anglican cathedral and 
here his daughter, Lady Sarah Maitland, performed 
the social duties for her husband while he was admin- 
istrator; here, in 1824, came Hon. E. G. Stanley, 



afterward Earl of Derby and a British Prime Minis- 
ter, as a visitor; liere, in 1825, came H. R. H. the 
Dulce of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenaeh and during three- 
quarters of a century, the representative men and 
visitors of British Canadian history. Upon the site 
of this castle of olden days as well as of the still 
older Chateau of St. Louis, there has been built 
the beautiful hotel which a great railway, the Cana- 
dian Pacific, called after a military hero of New 
France, but which may also stand as a memorial 
of the new British era of peace, transportation and 
commerce. ' 

With the passing of Haldimand Castle as a seat 
of government, Spencer Wood came into historical 
publicity. It is a picturesque, old-fashioned house, 
buried in trees, on the south side of the St. Louis 
Road, about two miles from the old city wall, and 
was built in 1780 by General H. W^. Powell. In 
1808-10 Sir J. H. Craig occupied it as a summer 
residence and in 1815-33 it was owned by Hon. 
H. M. Perceval, M.L.C., who caUed it after his 
relative, the British Premier— Rt. Hon. Spencer 
Perceval. In 1849 it was purchased from Henry 
Atkinson by the Government of Canada as a resi- 
dence for the able, genial and kindly Earl r'. Elgin, 
who was then doing splendid service as Governor- 
General and who made it the home of a boundless 
hospitality. Sir Edmund Head, Lord Monck, 
Lord Lisgar and Lord Dufferin all lived within its 
walls— though the t.iiilding itself was partially 
burned in 1861. 



Here, in 1860, had stayed H. R. H. the Prince of 
Wales, afterwards King Edward VII, here, also, 
visited the Duki ,f Edinburgh, Prince Arthur- 
again long afterwards as Dulce of Connaught and 
Governor-General— Princess Louise, Marchioness of 
Lome, and Prince Leopold, afterwards Duke of 
Albany; here, also, had come as visitors many 
famous men of other than royal rank-the Dukes 
of Newcastle, Buckingham, Argyll, Athol and 
Sutherland, Generals Grant and Sherman, and all 
the many men of note who, during the latter half 
of the nineteenth century, came to see Canada or 
Canadians. Since 1867 Spencer Wood has been the 
official home of the Lieutenant-Governors of Quebec 
— Belleau, Caron, Letellier, Robitaille, Masson, 
Angers, Chapleau, Jett^, Pelletier, Langelier— 
and the seat of cultured hospitality for a mixed 
English and French society which is not as fre- 
quently seen together as might be desired. Near 
Spencer Wood, and once a part of its grounds, is the 
Spencer Grange property so well known, with its 
quaint, old-fashioned delightful country house, as 
the residence since 1860 of the late Sir J M Le 
Moyne— Prince of French Canadian gentlemen, 
hUerateurs and antiquaries. Of the scene in which 
center these two landmarks of the days of British rule 
It has been weU said by Adam Kidd, the EngUsh poet: 

Through the green groves and deep receding bowers 
^ved Spencer Wood, how often have I strayed, 

Ot mused away the calm unbroken hours, 
Beneath some broad oak's cool refreshing shade. 



The bliuhing arbors of thow clawic dsya 
Through which the breathing of the slender reed, 

First aoftly echoed with Arcadia's praise, 

Might well be pictured in this sheltered mead. 

And blest were those who found a happy home 
In thy loved shades without one throb of care — 

No murmurs heard, save from the distant foam 
That rolled in columns o'er the great Chaudi&i«. 

Other memorials of this period may be mentioned. 
That prettjyr park-like garden hanging suspended 
on the flank of the cliff, and a little lower than 
Dufferin Terrace, is now called Frontenac Park. 
It has been the scene of most varied events. Here, 
in 1616, there was a vegetable garden for the R^coUet 
Convent, then a farm for Louis Hubert, in part it 
became a cemetery— the first in Quebec; here, from 
1688 and for years afterwards, was the house of Mgr. 
de Saint Vallier and then a new structure occupied 
by the Marquis de Beauharnois and the Intendant 
B^gon; here lived for many years Mgr. de Pont- 
briand and in a deserted chapel near the Bishop's 
house there gathered, on November 13, 1775, a 
meeting of citizens who wanted to yield the fortress 
to the Amnican troops. This inauspicious beginning 
under British rule was followed by the erection of 
a building which was occupied from 1792 to 1832 by 
the Parliament of Lower Canada. 

Here for forty years a strife was maintained which 
was often bitter, frequently patriotic, always elo- 
quent; here Papineau, BWard, Panet, Neilson, 



Lafontaine and Morin wen- lieartl in that sorics of 
speeches which helped to educate French Canadians 
m self-government, though, at times, causing great 
trouble to Governors, government and governed, 
to the British people and the French population, 
alike. Here, in the Upper House, or Legislative 
Council, were heard the calm and conciliating 
speeches, the patriotic, far-seeing advice of Bishop 
Plessis. Here came British Governors who were 
angry, who were statesmanlike, who were concilia- 
tory, to deal with difficult questions and far-reaching 
demands. In 1833 a new and handsome edifice 
was erected and used from 1838 to 1852 as a City 
Hall in a period when sessions of the Legislature 
were not held in Quebec; destroyed by fire in 1854 
there is not even a ruin left now to show the seat 
and home of all those stormy incidents and events 
which preceded the rebellious fiasco of 1837-38. 
A word must be said as to the Cathedral of the 
Holy Trinity, standing as the representative of the 
Church of England in an historic city which, as a 
whole, does not recognise its religious claims or 
ecclesiastical authority. Built in 1800-4 upon the 
site of the IWcollet Church and Convent it is a 
substantial stone edifice surrounded by splendid 
trees with a beautifully arched and tesselated 
ceiling and massive supporting pillars. Within it 
are many marble monuments, brass plates and 
memorial windows marking the historical events 
and characters of British rule in Quebec. The 
communion plate was a gift from King George III, 



and the Governor Gencrors official pew, with the 
royal arms at the front, is in the north gallery. 
Here, in 1893, was celebrated the centenary of the 
diocese and in the Cathedral have been held many 
Important ceremonials, including the last church 
parade on Canadian soil of the Canadian troops who, 
in 1899 and 1900, left for Imperial service in South 

One thing must be mentioned before leaving 
Quebec, though it is not, strictly speaking, a matter 
of the British fiffime. Over the doorway of the new 
Post Office building, which was erected in 1872, 
appears a basso-relievo, a solid block of stone, taken 
from the doorway of the massive stone structure 
which used to occupy the site and which was the 
home of a rich French merchant — Nicolas Jacquin 
Philebert — in and following 1736. A quatrain of 
verses are engraved upon the stone in golden letters 
over the sculptured figure of a dog, lying down and 
gnawing a bone. What the words and symbol 
meant has been the subject of unlimited speculation 
since first Captain Kirke of Wolfe's army, recorded, 
in 1759, that his investigations had been fruitless. 
Legends galore have gathered around this "Golden 
Dog." Auguste Soulard wrote a romance based 
upon it in 1839, Sir J. M. Le Moine and Sir A. B. 
Routhier have written about it at length; Jacques 
Viger, a learned scholar, studied and d- Jt with it; 
William Kirby, an Ontario writer, made himself 
famous by a novel based upon it and called Le 
Chien d'Or. All legends agree in associating with 




the tradition and the inscription the names of 
Philebert, of Le Gardeur de Repentigny, a young 
Seigneur and soldier, of Bigot the Intendant, of 
Ang^lique des Meloises— the Mme. P^an of unsavory 
social history, Cadet and other historical characters; 
but the facts are still in doubt and the mystery will 
probably never be cleared up. A literal translation 
of the famous words is as follows: 

I am a dog gnawing a bone, 

While gnawing it I take my rest. 

A time wiU come, not yet arrived. 

When I will bite those who have bitten me. 

To Montreal the British Hgime meant much. 
It was not a political or government headquarters 
like Quebec except during the brief period of 
American possession when Montgomery ruled a 
large part of the Province from the old Chateau de 
Ram^zay and Benjamin Franklin used his astute 
intelligence in preparing addresses and leaflets for 
circulation amongst the French in which he had to 
explain away the statement of the Continental 
Congress in 1774 that the Quebec Act established 
in French Canada a religion which had "dispersed 
impiety, bigotry, persecution, murder and rebellion 
through every part of the world!" The first great 
phase of Montreal's development following the 
Cession was during the period in which British 
explorers, land-holders in the great West, hunters 
or fur traders for the Hudson's Bay Company, 
the lords of the lakes and forests of the North and 



I: i! 

West made thut city their headquarters. The 
famous Beaver Club waa, for forty years following 
1785, the scene of sumptuous fortnightly banquets 
during the winter months whirh were enlivened with 
toasts and songs and the bringing together of 
distinguished visitors and most of the wealth and 
commercial intelligence of the city. Here came 
the Earl of Selkirk on his way to found the City of 
Winnipeg, in a work which these magnates were 
afterwards to bitterly oppose, and here upon one 
occasion came Sir John Franklin, Around the table 
there sat from time to time, Sir Alexander Mackensie, 
James McGill, the Frobishers, McTavish, McGili- 
vary, De Rocheblave and many more. 

In Rebellion days Montreal was a headquarters 
for Sir John Colbornc and his forces and, later, for 
the pacificatory efforts of Lord Durham. Here, 
in Montreal, were prepared the Ninety-two Resolu- 
tions upon which the more rash spirits based their 
militant activities and which included denunciation 
of the inclusion of Judges in the Legislative Council 
and of the participation of appointed Legislative 
Councillors in elections; of the hostility shown by 
the Council, which was largely English in composi- 
tion, to the Lower House; of the accumulation of 
public office in the hands of the Administration's 
favorites and the otherwise inadequate distribution 
of such offices; of the distribution of public lands 
to friends of the Government and the too frequent 
checking in the Council of bills passed by the 
Assembly. Much was said of the need for popular 



liberty and a rcspoiwiblc ministry. It wan after 
the actual violence of the conflict wiw over that 
Lord Durham reported to the Home Government: 
"I expected to find a contest between a government 
and a people: I found two nations warring in tlie 
bosom of a single state; I found a .'ruggle not of 
principles but of races and I perceived that it would 
be idle to attempt any amelioration of laws or 
institutions until we could first succeed in terminat- 
ing the deadly animosity that now separates the 
inhabitants of Lower Canada into the hostile divi- 
sions of French and Knglish." The attaining of 
this condition was one of the invisible but most 
imposing landmarks of British rule in French 
Canada; even though the process evoked a perio<l 
of English-speaking dissatisfaction which culminated 
in the riots of 1849, the stoning of Lord Elgin, 
and the burning of the Parliament Buildings in 

Another landmark of, however, a shifting nature 
was the construction of the Eastern Township 
settlements out of an English-speaking iminigration 
from the United States which developed at the 
Revolution and proceede<l into the early years of 
the nineteenth century. After Waterloo, and the 
adoption of a sliort-sighted land policy in Queljec, 
most of the settlers from the States went into 
Ontario. Of the eleven counties between the head- 
waters of the Chaudiire and the Richelieu, lying 
between Montreal and Quebec, with Vermont and 
New Hampshire to the south and east, thus par- 



tially Mttled by Loyali«t», British loldien, and 

American pioneers, the names tell the early story 

Brome, Compton, Drummond and Arthabaska. 
Megantic, Miwiiasquoi, Hiehmond and Wolfe, Shef- 
ford, Sherhrooke and Stanstead. The scenery of 
this region is varied and beautiful, the soil fertile 
and agriculture prosperous, the industries progres- 
sive. She-'-rooke, called after the Governor I'eneral 
of that na' .e, is the chief center and a notable city 
in many \/ays. In recent years a great and vital 
change has, however, occurred and the racial suprem- 
acy of the English in this historic portion of the 
Province appears to be passing away. French 
Canadian farmers are taking possession of lands 
vacated by English or Scotch, and this process in 
steadily increasing from year to year. The end 
seems to be obvious and, if so, there will be one 
British landmark which was djC destined to be a 
permanent one. 

In 1849 a movement for annexation to the United 
States found place and life amongst the merchants 
and financial interests of Montreal— a city then 
sorely stricken by the repeal of the British Com 
Laws and the preferential system of duties. A 
manifesto declaring annexation necessary and im- 
perative was signed by men so, afterwards, famous 
•n Canadian life as the late Sir A. T. Gait, High 
Commissioner in London, Sir J. J. 0. Abbott, 
Premier of the Dominion, and Sir A. A. Dorion, 
Chief Justice of Quebec. The movement, however,' 
was as ephemeral as it was hasty and ill-advised! 



Four yews after thb incident there waa launched 
at Montreal the project of a railway which shoul'' 
connect all parta of the united Provincca of Vyij 
and Lower Canada, and in the succeeding .on 
Btruction of the Grand Trunk, which gave Mr.iti, :u 
its first impetus as a great railway center wer. 
intereated such local loaders as Hon. Jonn lio.p 
Sir Francis Hinekd, Hon. Peter McGill and 1 njnui;' 
Holmes. The Barings, Glyns, Sir S. Moi , , IVn. 
and other British financial interests were al.^J i..- 
volved and much history made and written before 
the enterprise was completed. In 1860 (May i.". 
the Prince of Wales inaugurated the famous Victoria 
Bridge across the St. Lawenoe, built in connection 
with this railway. It cost $7,000,000 and at the 
tme woa the greatest structure ot the kind in the 
worid while, since then, it has been greatly improveii 
and strengthened. The Allan Line w'aj another 
great Montreal enterprise and was followed by 
mtny steamship lines connecting Canada in general, 
and Montreal, in particular, with vtried countriea 
and important trading interests. 

To the magnates of Montreal in a financial sense- 
Donald Smith, afterwards Ix)rd Strathcona, George 
Stephen, afterwards Lord Mount Stephen, B. B. 
Angus, now president of the Bank of Montreal, 
Donald Mclntyre and others— were due the con- 
struction of the Canadian Pacific Railway which 
today has its headquarters there with a splendid 
railway station and its Place Viger Hotel. Today, • 
with its »260,000,000 of capital, its equipment and 



railway costing 1382,000,000, its 16,900 miles of 
Sc^wS^T"^"! ."^ [*'°^'^ passengers and 
at Quebec and great hostelries in Winnipeg, Van- 
couver and Victoria; its employment ^75,^ 
I»nl''?v^T'"°° °^ 11.000.000 acres of western 

T ^* .^i**"'*' '" ^^^ ''"'•'l- Of all its varied 
ntez^sts Montreal has been and is the center ani 
m ite history there lives one of the greatest land- 
marks of British rule in Canada. Tf the Brd 
Boom where ^.r Thomas Shaughnessy now rules 
and where Sir William Van Home preceded him," 
could speak, what tales of financial daring, financia 

foWed? " ""' '''"°°''' "°"~«^ '^^'^ ^^- 
Of memorials which can be seen and inspected, 
the harbor improvements originally designed under 
Lord Sydenham's administration seventy years ago 
^ad mcludmg walls, wharves, elevators, raTlZ 
ZTTT'\°L''^f'^ description, are conspicuous; 
Mount Royal Park with its superb views of land 
and city and water is delightful; the Champ de 
Mare once the parad.- ground of British troops, 
and the monument to Nelson erected in Jacques 
Cartier Square (1808) by the merchants of Montreal 
are interesting; the colossal statue of Queen Victoria 
in Victoria Square, sculptured by Marshall Wood 
IS notable. Amongst Protestant churches, which 
m Quebec or Montreal, are naturally the product 
of the British period, Christ Church Cathedral is 

■-- ^X).'.i»0 ton. of frdgiu, its, fh«s,.a„ },, 
" \'i.'-( ami gr.'ttt fefw.<f.trtM it. '-V'ir,,,,,, 

'•ouv.T ai.ti ^'ioturis; . - ' ■" 

men wici ixwsessiifnt ,,: 

mterwte Af„„(r,.a, „„, ,>^,„ ,..j „ ,^^;^. , 
'« >te h'Mory thore lives nnc „f ,.te „„ v,;. 






iiuarp'! (SOS 


ft.:. . 

-if to. 

-irt Sr 

'1 Victoria 

.-,„, ; 1^ IV, ! 




noteworthy as having been erected in honor of the 
first resident Anglican Bishop, Dr. Fulford. Of 
financial institutions the first and greatest and 
most historically important is the Bank of Montreal, 
which has for so many years controlled or vitally 
influenced the financial interests of the city, the 
Province and, at times, of Canada. The site of its 
imposing yet unpretentious building on St. James 
Street has been for nearly a century a center of 
Canadian affairs and Canadian progress— although 
the building itself has gone through various trans- 
formations. Hardly less important, though so 
different in its functions and development, is McGill 
University, which for more than half a century has 
been a vigorous, effective, molding force in the 
English life of the Province and, indeed, of all 

Passing from the visible or material landmarks 
of British rule there is one in Quebec which no 
traveler or student can wisely omit to understand 
yet which is quite invisible and intangible. To 
some extent it is represented by the comparatively 
new buildings which impose themselves upon the 
visitor in Quebec City as being the ParUament 
House of French Canada. The real point, however, 
is what that structure stands for. It represents a 
constitutional system of government which has 
only recently developed in France itself after 
revolutions and wars, popular starvation and misery, 
national degradation and humiliation had worked 
themselves out in a century of change, of crumbling 



dynasties, of loosening morals, of decaying faith 
It represents a liberty and free form of government 
such as no colony of France, no dependency of 
Germany, none of the possessions of powers other 
than Great Bntajn possess today. It represents 
the Bntish right of a one-time alien and hostile 
people to rule themselves in the confident belief 
that sucl. rule means a combination of liberty with 
loyalty. It means faith on the part of the great 
Empire, in which French Canada is an important 
lactor, and ai>preciation on the side of the French 
Canadians. It spells opportunity for the cheerful 
and contented people of that Province to go on and 
prosper m peace under a flag which brings much 
to them and receives nothing in return except a 
loyalty which is obvious and which may be found 
in any possible day of danger, much more real and 
effective than appears on the surface. In the words 
of Dr. J. M. Harper, of Quebec-poet, essayist, 
eduoationahst-the people of his Province may well 

My native land, a debt of song I pay, 

A debt of love that lieth on my soul, 
When memory drawa the veU of by-gone days 

And olden music greets the lifting seroU, 
A tribute to thy freedom's faith I bring. 
The piety that Ments thy glebe I sing 


Educational Intebbsts and Idkalb in 

To the superficial, hasty, or passing observer, to 
the man who mentally flits over the surface of things 
either in his own country or elsewhere, to the 
person who, perhaps, has certain prejudices which he 
wants to prove, the education of the French Canadian 
may not appear complete, or thorough. Of course, 
in this as in other matters of public concern a critic 
under such conditions will be very apt to indicate 
his own real ignorance in the premises. Then so 
much depends upon the point of view! One person 
considers that education turns, as it were, upon the 
top of a pyramid and regards the University as the 
end and aim of all things; another wants the child 
trained solely for skilled manual labor or to become 
an expert in technical science; still another believes 
in the three "R's" as the root of all learning and all 
happiness. The school of thought most largely 
represented in Quebec believes that religion is and 
must b.1 the first essential to which all others may be 

There is something picturesque about the latter 
view in these utilitarian and commercial days; 
something which carries one back to times when 



men and women were willing to suffer and die for 
their faith and when religion and not trade appeared 
tlie vital issue of all the ages. Certainly it has been 
a conspicuous one in French Canada and its associa- 
tion with education is obvious from a first glance 
at the somber buildings dedicated to the training 
of men and women for religious duties, for the 
education of youth of both sexes in religion plus 
culture for the education of children in schools 
where black-robed priests and women in the garb 
of nuns are everywhere in evidence. The earliest 
institutions of education in New France were the 
Jesuit College in Quebec and the Seminary of St 
bulpice m Montreal, which were devoted to the train- 
ing of men for the priesthood, or in cultivating 
fitness for the instruction of others, and which have 
been elsewhere described; in 1639 came the Ursuline 
Convent at Quebec and in 1863 the Congregation 
de Notre Dame at Montreal. 

It must not be supposed that because the Jesuit 
and Sulpician priests and missionaries were primarily 
teachers of religion that they did not teach other 
things. Father Le Jeune, in 1632, wrote home after 
his arrival in the wilderness: "I have become a 
teacher in Canada. A few days ago I had as pupils 
a httle Indian and a little negro whom I was teaching 
to read. After passing so many years of my life 
as a classical teacher I am at last back at the A-B-C 
but with so much contentment and satisfaction that 
1 would not exchange my two scholars for the finest 
audience in France." As a matter of fact the priests 



and the nuns were the teachers of every branch of 
education in the pioneer days of Quebec and they 
had the great advantage of being themselves, as 
a rule, cultured in their training and past lives. 
It was a very different class of teacher from that 
which the pioneers of Upper Canada had to submit 
to; old soldiers being the unavoidable favorites for 
many years in the wilds of what is now Ontario. 
In 1656 the Sulpicians established the first primary 
school at Montreal and, in 1668, the Petit Siminaire 
was established in Quebec as a preparatory school 
while Bishop de Laval also organized at St. Joachim, 
near Quebec, a school which had the double object 
of teaching the useful arts and training teachers. 
Louis Jolliet, the famous explorer, and afterwards 
a Seigneur of New France, was a pupil of the Jesuits 
and in 1646 maintained a thesis in philosophy before 
Intendant Talon. 

When the R^coUets returned to the Colony in 
1670 they devoted themselves largely to teaching. 
Then the Ursulines established a branch of their 
, order at Three Rivers while the Sisters of the 
Congr^Cation established a school for teachers at 
Montreal. Like the St. Joachim institution it was 
a sort of pioneer Normal School. These institutions 
were all intended for Indian as well as French 
children, though there was great difliculty in getting 
the former to attend— their parents being filled 
with the natural suspicions engendered by the wild 
vagaries of a wild life. In those early days it is 
probable that the population of New France, as a 




whole, were the beet educated in the world. There 
was no clan sunk in brutal and abrolute ignorance 
as there was in Europe or as there is today in the 
slums of great cities in either America or Europe; 
old parish registers in Montreal and Quebec indicate 
that nearly every one could write while the home 
education, backed as it was by the constant aid and 
efforts of cultured priests and nligieutes, was much 
more efficient and effective than it is in modem 
days. Writers such as Charievoix and Kalm, who 
studied the country in the last half century of the 
French rigime, unite in eulogistic references to the 
culture and refinement of the upper classes, the 
purity of the spoken language amongst all classes, 
the absence of rusticity or boorishness amongst 
the habitanU, the pleasing manners and good humor 
of the people, the presence of Church schools in all 
the villages. 

During nearly a century, following the change of 
government and allegiance in New France, education 
cannot be said to have maintained its former general 
diffusion or exceUence. War and poUtics, changes 
and then political conflicts, the dispersion of the ' 
Jesuits, and the natural desire of the British and 
Protestant rulers to promote a different system of 
icstruction, together with a period of ci ;ri, inssensions 
and actual strife, hampered the Church which had 
previously been the custodian of the entire system 
of instruction. The Roman Catholic authorities did 
what they could. The Ursulines at Quebec and 
Three Rivers, the boarding school of the General 


BoRpital Nuns and the Petit S^minaire at Quebec, 
the Sulpieians and the Sisters of the Congregation 
at Montreal maintained their activities and, in 1773, 
the Sulpieians also established St. Raphael's College. 
According to the Hon. P. Boucher de la Bru4re, Chief 
Superintendent of Education for many years, this 
latter institution and the Petit S^minairc at Quebec, 
educated and trained the generation of men who 
"under the constitution of 1791 were to carry on 
the struggle to obtain from England those constitu- 
tional liberties which she herself enjoyed."* 

It was found after much legislation, after many 
efforts to establish free or public schools in the 
Province, after varied instances of racial and religious 
friction which increased as both the French and 
English population grew in numbers— especially 
the former— that the Catholic and French people 
would not accept Protestant teachers or patroniie a 
mixed instruction which was freed from the religious 
element. Primary instruction therefore continued 
in a parlous condition so far as definite organization 
was concerned, but with the continuous labors of 
priests and nuns and cur^s in parochial and Catholic 
circles. Lord Durham, in his famous Report of 
1838, paid a remarkable tribute in this connection: 
"The Catholic priesthood of this province has to a 
very remarkable degree conciliated the good will of 
persons of all creeds and I know of no parochial 
clergy in th e worid whose practice of all the Christian 

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virtues and zealous discharge of all their clerical 
duties is more universally admitted and has been 
productive of more beneficial consequences. . . . 
In the general absence of any permanent institutions 
of civil government, the Catholic Church has pre- 
sented almost the only semblance of stability and 
organization and has furnished the only effectual 
support for civilization and order." 

The Cnurch established at Nicolet in 1804 the 
first of what have since been popularly termed the 
Classical Colleges. Others followed at St. Hya- 
cinthe, Ste. JThfir^se, Ste. Anne de la Pocatidre, 
L'Assomption, Three Rivers, Jolliet, St. Laurent, 
Sherbrooke, Rimouski, Chicoutimi, Rigaud, Ste. 
Marie de Monnoir and Valleyfield. As conditions 
improved in the Province it was found that these 
colleges were most useful centers of culture and 
education in the widest sense. Not only did they 
partially prepare young men for the priesthood, 
but they instructed others in the preliminaries 
of the liberal professions, trained them in taste and 
manners and morals, and gradually attained a very 
high rank in the cultivation of all that is meant in 
the word culture — something that is not always 
or necessarily involved in the wide curriculum, 
varied studies, and practical training of modern 
English-speaking colleges or universities on this 

On September 24, 1854, there was inaugurated at 
Quebec, under Royal Charter, an institution which 
has had immense influence upon the training and 


the Laval University. Years afterwards, in 1876 a 
branch was established at Montreal, wi h? To I 
normal sehoo attached to the institution at Quebec 

Quebec S^minaire whose Superior is de jure rector 
of the University and whose directors and certain 
professors constitute its council. The Iposto,: 

ArcZ ^ Ir^'^l ^"""^'"''"y ''"d Visitor is the 
Archbishop of Quebec with large and definite powers 

of rhTp °' "' *^ """'^ '^^ '^ *^« Cardinal Prefect 

f/om Ififir'T*^"- ^^' ^''"'"^'^«' i*««'f. dates 
from 1663 and accommodates many priests and 
divinity students who live in the grea' b^ing^ 
which mclude Le Petit S^minaire or Boys' SchoS 

a^d to total at the present time about eight hundred. 

irchbthr'T , ""'"'"f ''^''^- ^''^ ^^^^^ »d the 
rh.r! 7! ^^'^"" "'"' *•■« ^'^"''''' a°d Seminary 
Chapel, all stand together on the crest of the Heights 
are many souvenirs of the history of New France as 
weU as of New Quebec, of the old r.^W Tnd th 
new. The revenues of the Seminary are known to 
be very large and are derived from old-time grants 
ofcSar ''' °"'*' "'*'''"' '^"^""^ investments 
The buildings are most interesting and old- 
fashioned. There are no elevators and the igh 
narrow winding stone staircases have to be asr Jed 
on foot. The massive walls of the older structures 




arc, in many cases, fourteen feet thick and in their 
two centuries and more of existence have passed 
unscathed through the fires of 1701 and 1705, the 
sieges of several occasions, and the shot and shell of 
1759. Here Bishop de Laval used to live at times 
and here can be found, or at least felt, the footprints 
of this really great ecclesiastic. The Library of the 
Seminary and of Laval is a most important and 
imposing collection of volumes (about 200,000) 
Kept in a fireproof building and regarded as probably 
the best of the kind in Canada. Many rare, inter- 
esting and extremely valuable books in every kind 
of print, or manuscript, or parchment form, are to 
be seen. Throughout these buildings or institutions 
politeness and courtesy are universal; it is seen at 
once that manners and the cultivated side of life 
are carefully looked after. 

The institutions are all, of course, closely asso- 
ciated in government and work, but Laval has 
faculties in Law and Medicine and Arts as well as 
Theology; lectures are both public and private and 
oral examinations take' place weekly in the subjects 
studied; there are degrees in Arts, Letters and 
Sciences as well as Law and Medicine. The Univer- 
sity has, at one time or another, conferred honorary 
degrees upon His Majesty the King when Duke of 
Cornwall and York, upon King Edward VII when 
Prince of Wales, upon Lord Dufferin, the Marquis 
of Lome, the Duke of Norfolk and other notables. 
A congress dealing with secondary education was 
held in its halls last year (1912) with eighteen a£Bli- 



ated colleges represented-a fact which affords some 
faint indication of the influence its teaching must 
have had upon the thought of the Province 
A most important and attractive feature of Laval's 

irLf n T''"^'"'"'^ »" "^ociation with 1 
artistically beautiful must have a refining and eLat! 
ing mfluence upon character-is its spleLw Sv 

Frat" r- pi^r "' *''*•» '''''« ««»* out to New 
Sis whJr h'"' i'-J'^^lins, Vicar-General o" 

Fren;>, n 7'^- '" ^"''''* ^°' " *™« during the 
French Revolution. He had collected them bv 
purchase or gift, from closed and desecrated chu'hes 
or monasteries. The gallery includes works by some 

French and English schools-Albert Cuyp, Thomas 
Gainsborough, Francois Boucher, Sir Thomas lTw 
rence Sir Joshua Reynolds, Peter Paul RuLr 

Wt^ct;^ ^*'; 'T''''^' °"' ^- ^-, etude 
Vernet, Charles Le Brun, Salvator Rosa, AllcKri 
da Correggio, Philippe de Champagne, I^cola" 
Poussm, Anthony Vandyke, Diego Velasquez 
Teniers the elder. The collection is an educTon 
m Itself a ong certain lines-naturally the ^ "t 
majority of the pictures deal with sacred subS 
and matters of religious or Church import 'fiut 
they are the products of brushes which, in many 
cases made Europe beautiful with their frUcoeTand 
pamtmgs and made the churches of that conUnent 
famous for all time. Out of Laval, from such sur 
roundings and with such an obvious tone of reliJo„ 
of culture, of the esthetic, there has come, sincere 



a:;,**':. 'Ji; 



middle of the eighteentii century, a stream of pro- 
fessional men who have influenced and molded the 
whole tone and character of thought in modern 
Quebec. Very few French Canadians, who have 
risen to prominence in law or politics, who become 
judges or ministers of the Crown at Quebec or 
Ottawa, have not graduated from Laval. 

Laval University, Montreal, is a branch of this 
institution and, since 1889, independent in its losal 
government though still receiving its degrees through 
the parent establishment. It has faculties of Theol- 
ogy, Law, Medicine and Art, with several affiliated 
schools — the Polytechnic, the School of Compara- 
tive Medicine and Veterinary Science, the School 
of Dental Surgery, the Laval School of Higher In- 
struction for Girls, the Institute of Marist Brothers 
and the Institute of the Brothers of Christian 
Instruction. French is used in its courses and 
subordinate schools except in the Faculty of Theology 
where Latin is used aiid which is under the direc- 
tion of the Seminary of St. Sulpice. The Archbishop 
of Montreal is Vice-Chancellor and ex-officio Chair- 
man of the Administrative Board which holds the 
property and directs the finances of the University; 
the Vice-Rector is chosen by the Bishops of the 
Province of Montreal. The Chancellor and Rector 
are the ecclesiastics holding those positions at 

Turning to primary education, it may be said that 
a system gradually developed under which, in 1859, 
a Council of Public Instruction, composed of eleven 

•I'"fel!€f4. J^flfe.- 



Catholics and four Protestants, controlled the schools 
of the Province. In 1875 this was modified so that 
Cathohc and Protestant Committees of this Counci' 
were established with independent and separate 
powers and control over the schools of their respec- 
tive religions. With inevitable, and very rare e.xcep- 
tions, this system has prove.l satisfactory to the 

French and Catholic majority of French Canada 
has shown quite exceptional toleration and modera- 
tion in dealing with this difficult question The 
division of funds has been generous, rather than just 
and the question raised in English-speaking Canada 
as to the minority's right to separate schools there 
IS rarely discussed in French Canada. When M 
Mercier gave his famous grant of $400,000 to the 
Jesuits he also handed over 860,000 to the Protestant 
Schools Committee for its use-the storm which 
followed in Ontario being due, in part, to popu- 
lar prejudices regarding the Order of Jesus and in 
part to an apparent recognition in the preamble 
to the Jesuits Estates Act of the Pope's interven- 
tion m, and approval of, Canadian Provincial legis- 
lation. '^ 

The Church control of the modem system of edu- 
cation lu Quebec is now, after an historical interlude 
and of course with the exception of the Protestant 
separate schools, close and complete. The Catholic 
Committee includes all the Bishops and Archbishops 
of Quebec with a selected number of representative 
( athohc laymen; its methods of administration, its 



regulations, coursen of study, examinations, business 
management, and construction of scIiooIb, etc. are 
almost identical witli those of the Protestant Com- 
mittee; the great distinction and difference being 
where religion enters into the situation. The Catho- 
lic schools are grafted on to the parish organiMtions 
—each of the latter being, as a rule, incorporated as 
u municipality and also as a school district. The 
cur«, or priest administering a Catholic church, is 
given the exclusive right of selecting books dealing 
with religion an.l morals for the use of pupils. At 
the Catholic Normal Schools one of the leading 
subjects taught is religious instruction and, in the 
diplomas awarded, sacred history is included. 
The teaching orders of women are freely utilized 
in these schools and to the fact of their drawing little 
or no remuneration is due the very small average 
salaries paid to teachers in Quebec. ■ 

The education of girls is, in all countries, one of 
the most vital problems of today and it is claimed 
with apparently excellent reasons, that their instruc- 
tion at the hands of thousands of devout and devoted 
women in French Canada constitutes one of the 
best and most beneficial elements in the Catholic 
system. They instruct their pupils in not only the 
ordinary course of studies but in domestic economy 
knitting, sewing and embroidery and, it is claimed 
refine their manners while cultivating amongst them 
good morals and Christian knowledge. It is prob- 
able that at least one-half of the girls in the Catholic 
schools of Quebec receive a thorough training in 

t ■ ''■■»;* 

''>#»'ii.4i ^^ Jm^WM'^ 


thvn^ important »ul.j,.ctH. Th.- numbor of female 
M.«.ou, toachor- i„ lOU wa« 3,194 in the .nodel 
chool« and academi™, while the „un« teaching in 
elementary Hchools totaled 542. Under such con- 
.h ions ,t goes without saying that the history, 

st:g"ht tr" "' *"" ^'•"^'' "^ "'- *-«^' 

Much the same con ment as above may be made 
upon the male religious or.lers and their instruc- 
tion to boys. The Christian Brothers, and oth. rs 
have been placed in charge of important commercia 

Th reir, «T ' ", '^^r'" ^'*'' ''*«^"-"* '-""«• 
Kchoois and academies and colleges and 112 priests 
ea^nng in the elementary schools-a total of over 
■.,0W male and female religious teachers out of 14 500 
teachers who instruct 344,000 Catholic pupils 
To the cost of all the schools ,he municipalities 
.■ontribute $5,750,000 and the Provincial Govern' 
nient a little over 11,000,000-the great bulk of 
this money coming, of course, from Catholic parishes 
and going into Catholic schools. There are difficul- 
ties in the evolution of the system and some faults 
which are obvious. School commissioners who can- 
not readorwrite areoccasionallyfound.thoughin any 
ca^ they arc usually good managers in financial 
matters; on the other hand, lack of education can 
be found on school boards in many a rural municipal- 
ly outside of Quebec. Some of the time devoted 
to religious exercises and instruction in the primary 
schools must necssarily bo taken from secular 



subjects; on the other hand convcntg and religious 
schools afford an excellent education for many 
children at infinitely smaller cost. than it could be 
obtamed for in any other province or state of 

The great trouble is, of course, economic- 
the large majority of children, especially boys 
eavmg school at too early an age. What they have 
learned they are apt to forget-though this is a 
condition not confined to French Canadians. The 
atmosphere around the French habitant or workman 
IS not conducive to thought or literary effort. He 
IS too comfortable, too coatented, too happy, if 
you like, to worry over newspapers and books and 
the life of other people and societies and nations 
m which he can never live or share. Even a girl 
brought up in the convent seems to be glad, after a 
few years of domestic life, to hand over pen and ink 
and literary communings to a daughter who is 
perhaps going through the same routine of education 
that she has left forever. A keen observer estimates 
that in one French parish, which he knew minutely 
there averaged in recent years a daily paper to 
eleven families and a weekly to about every fifteen 
families. Books are still more rare and are very 
limited in scope and character— especially in the 
rural parts of Quebec. 

Such are the general conditions of education in 
French Canada. In summarized form it may be 
said that the overwhelming French and Catholic 
population and the limited English and Protestant 



1*3 Ji,m: ■£ 




people have the same general system and forms 
of instruction, with complete self-control in respect 
to text-books and religious teaching. While, how- 
ever, the Protestant element devotes itself with 
restricted means and success — outside of McGill 
University — to a secular education of the type 
known in the ordinary public schools of Ontario, 
the Catholics devote all the resources and energies 
and skilled practice of a great Church organization 
to the thorough grounding of the children, the 
youth, and the young men or women of French 
Canada, i religion as understood from a Roman 
Catholic standpoint. With that point of view and 
general policy there is necessarily bound up the 
racial situation and the preservation of the French 

There will apparently be no compromise in this 
respect — the Church and the language must stand 
together. It does not, of course, follow that the 
Church or its leaders believe either would necessarily 
fall if they stood apart; it simply means that many 
elements of strength lie in their unity and certain 
obvious elements of danger in their severance. At 
the French Language Congresn of 1912 the Church 
and the Race combined to uphold this principle 
and policy. There were present representatives 
of three million French Canadians who were also 
Catholics, while Archbishops and Bishops were 
honorary presidents, and much applauded speakers, 
with Monseigneur Roy as chairman. Language 
was described, in mottoes, as the soul of a people 




and as a sacred privilege, wliile Archbishop Langevin 

of Winnipeg declared that: "If we have remained 

French it is because we have remained Catholic 

It IS by guarding our religion that we guard our 

race." M. Etienne Lamy, the distinguished French 

author and visitor, described Canada as "the land 

of constancy that has strengthened the wisdom of 

Its laws and its customs on the Catholic faith-" 

Abb^ Groulx, of Valleyfield College, urged CanadiaL 

to keep their distinctive spirit, with the virtues 

of their faith and the value of their tongue." Sir 

Joseph Dubuci declared that "the French language 

IS, with the Catholic religion and the love of our 

country, the most sacred heritage that we have 


The problem is an obvious one. So long as the 
Church and the State are one in faith and language 
just so long will they be apart from the temptations of 
a wide liberty which often degenerates, throughout 
this continent, into unrestrained license; and apart 
also from the looseness of modem literature, of the 
Higher Criticism and of the infinite variations in 
modem religious thought outside of their Church 
The literature of the religious life of the French 
Canadian is in French, his teachers and preachers 
use French, his laws in civil and religious matters 
are from the French code of two centuries ago, his 
habits and customs are French of an old-time 
period, his traaltions, songs, history, and patriotism 
are all wrapped up in the language of his fathers— 
which his children are still learning to lisp at their 


mother's knee. It all serves to differentiate him 
from the vast, overwhelming Anglo-Saxon life of 
the continent, to keep him in closer touch with his 
Church, to make him more submissive to its teach- 
ings and, in this age of a democracy which is almost 
uncontrollable in even matters of religion and social 
relations, to keep him more easily amenable to the 
moral code and moral precepts. 

Is this situation a desirable one or is it not? Can 
a writer or observer deal with such a problem 
outside of and apart from religious feelings or racial 
prejudices? There is one thing which seems clear 
and that is that the question of this French-speaking 
people imbedded in the heart of an English-speaking 
continent cannot be considered apart from religion 
or from the Church which holds an entire people 
at its altars. The first thought that occurs to one 
is the vital and basic problem of whether some 
particular religious faith, accepted by a whole 
people and followed with such measure of devotion 
as human frailty will permit, is not better than a 
condition in which the same people after having 
that particular religion undermined, or shaken at 
its roots, turns in part to other churches or denomi- 
nations, in part to practical infidelity, in still larger 
part, perhaps, to general indifference regarding all 
religion. Back of this thought is, of course, the 
fundamental conception of religion to which all 
Christendom adheres in theory — that religion is 
the most important thing in life and should control 
or influence all its interests, '^he Roman Catholic 



Church claims to carry out this theory in practice; 
aJl he varied divisions of Protestantism differ i,^ 
the r apphcation of the theory, though most of them 
exclude government and education from its purview 
French Canada is still Catholic in its almost 
universal acceptance of the Church-even the 
Irish part of the small English minority adheres 
argely to that faith. The obvious and natu a 
mtention of Catholicism is to retain that allegiance 
to strengthen the weak links in the chain of loyalty 
to put religipus backbone into those who might 
otherwise be feeble in their faith, by keeping a sZng 
hand upon both education and the pre^ and in 
making he former the key-note to the religion of 
the people. At a French Congress in Three Rivers 
dunng his present year (1913) George H. Baril 
of Laval University, Montreal, defined the leading 
principles of the Congress as follows: "First and 
foremost is absolute and unquestioning submission 
to the Church and to its right of control in moral 
and religious education; then there is the assertion 

W ^r .u"'^ *° """'"^ °^" *he child, and 

astly there is the exclusion of Governments from 

!d I^H^^r ?[ «'*"<"'*'°"" "The Church," he 
a Ided, 'ha^ the sacred right to direct the education 
of Its youth and to see that none of the books of 
nstruction are allowed to contain anything in the 
least injurious to the doctrines of the Catholic 
Church; It .8 the business of the State to give 
protection and financial assistance but not to take 
charge of National education." 


Such a view is of course in absolute antagonism 
to tiic average Protestant view of English-speaking 
people in Canada as a whole, or in the United States. 
Yet it really appears to be the logical and natural 
one, from the Homim Catholic Church's standpoint, 
if It desires to hold its poople in French Canada, or 
elsewhere, as a unit in ti;ith and as a great force 
within one organization. Ot course this carries with 
it a high responsibility in the practical exclusion 
from French Canada of all knowledge as to the high 
principles, and lofty thoughts, and splendid ideals, 
which have distinguished so many branches of the 
Protestant faith in so many countries and centuries 
of the world's history. 

Meanwhile, the difficulties of modem life grow 
apace and even if the child of French Canada is 
not quite as much alive and alert in certain lines of 
education as hio Ontario compatriot and his American 
competitor, it is, after all, a question of comparative 
values. Ability to hold his own with others in the 
material development and labors of after life i« 
the excellent aim placed before the public school 
child in English Canada with, however, manners, 
morals and religion as conditions which must be 
left to the home and the churches. The obvious 
weakness of this system is that in the present age 
prayer and religion are being more and more elimi- 
nated from the home by stress of life and work while 
the churches and Sunday-schools are in touch with 
only a portion of the people or their children. On 
the other hand ability to meet what are believed 



to be the requirements and essentiala of life in thia 
world and the next— obedience to the Church 
religious observance and duties, morals and manner^ 
—are the Brst condition of the Roman Catholic 
schools of French Canada, with business afTairs, 
and capacity, and material interests, holding a 
secondary place. 

The two systems are fundamentally antagonistic 
and the results divergent. The Catholic believes 
that a man should be made a complete Christian 
along his lines of faith and that he wUl then be the 
best citizen; the Protestant, as a rule, is willing to 
construct the citizen first and develop the Christian 
afterwards or else to try and evolve the two lines of 
thought together. Which of these systems is the 
best will and must be a matter of opinion dependent 
largely upon whether religion or {iractical utility 
IS regarded as the first essential. The pity of it, 
to au outside observer in the case of Quebec, would 
seem to lie in the apparent difficulty of combining 
the two. Yet even in this question of practical 
utility there are two considerations. The life and 
surroundings of the rural French Canadian are so 
totally different from those of other Canadians 
or of Americans, as to at once bring up the question 
of whether a change is desirable. There is usually 
but one answer to that question, and it an affirma- 
tive, from those who are not French Canadians; from 
those who are of that race, taken as a whole the 
answer IS diametrically opposite. Is the final test 
of hfe, happiness and contentment, or is it ambition, 





restloM change, nnd money? Here again is a funda- 
mental divergence and the French Canadian may 
be taken, with inevitable exceptions, to embody 
the one view while the American people, with also 
many and important exceptions, and a large class 
of Canadians, may be taken to represent the other 

It must not be understood, however, that opinion 
m Quebec is or ever has been unanimous on these 
points. The majorty is very large in favor of 
present educational conditions, but there is also 
a small and aggressive minority. Of late years 
It has been led by Godefroi Langlois, M.L A of 
Montreal, and his paper U Pays. He wants a 
Department of Public Instruction similar to that 
of Ontario and other provinces which shall, pre- 
sumably—though he does not quite say so— take 
the control of education from the hierarchy and give 
it to the politicians; he demands free and compulsory 
education and uniformity in school books. Under 
such a system it is obvious that the parish cur« 
could not dictate the books on religion and morals 
to his school; nor could special time be taken from 
secular studies to prepare a child for its first Com- 
munion; nor would the Church and its great edu- 
cational institutions hold the same predominating 
place in the system. 

How far in such a case the change of masters, 
the transfer of the schools from the Church to the 
Legislature, would equalize conditions as between 
the Quebec and the Ontario boy, for instance. 



would then become a matter of race and here a«ain 

comparJLX W GoT hL ^t^T^. X' 
point of view in tk- T • , expressed hig 

children inacribed in the schoof or 19 ' , cSS 
the population; and Ontario 469 000 ^r is 

ZLZitr *'" "^""''^ -hoKterdaieeT^ 
yuebec was 77 per cent; Ontario, 69 per cent- Kbw 

zu'rirt^rmarrs^tf ^^"?'" 

which had long a«o adop[rtrs,r^%':°;:,"- 
thi ''^ » «'°'^'«'' average attendance at f^^ 
than Quebec itself. The Church's re^ly te M 
l^lo», m the present year, was toTnti^dit; Ws 

Beueve their own idpjila /.* «j i- """." '"ey 
of Ufe, methodsTf wo^\2 STorwha't f'l" 
tutes prog^ss to be right, who sha^ say Thel nay in 


picturesque side and if a hundred years f°m^ 






There is something picturesque, unusual, attrac- 
tive, about French Canadian leaders to the people 
of the rest of Canada. They are, of course, much 
better known than in the old days with which this 
volume chiefly deals, but well-known personally, 
or not, the type and characteristics are now pretty 
well defined in the public mind. The knowledge of 
two languages, a mental asso ilition with two groat 
literatures, the inherited and instructed courtesy of 
manner, a certain measure of culture derived from 
the classical colleges of their province and from 
Laval through which neariy all of them pass, a 
certain accent in speech which is pleasant rather 
than otherwise, and a fluency of utterance which is 
a constant amaxement to men of one language— 
these and other racial divergencies or conditions are 
easily appreciated if not exactly understood. The 
earlier figures in French Canada's history have been 
summarised and dealt with in these pages— Cartier, 
Champlain, Do Laval, De Frontenac, Montcalm,' 
Papineau— but it may be interesting in concluding 
this discursive study of a most interesting people to 
glance at some of their leaders in modern times, to 


;iturtnt.'t"tf "* ''■»'-''-•'-. '» -'efi- the 
I'lvuiai point! in ttii'ir nnrccra. 

Colonel C. M. do Halnbcrrv wu nn. o» .1. 

k1 by S?n '"'"''■ / "^ "-man^ndSei- 
Kncur by hirth, m on agr nnd provinci, where Do,iti„n 
me„„t something; a Holdier l.y instinct pro"! "n 
and love of arm,; an officer of the British A™? 
With eleven years' service in the West Imii,..?^' 
■mo When those islands were 1{^1^Z;1^ 
•truRgles and storms of war- nn .;j 1 
General do Hottenhurg inre'wlhl;txi:2ion 
•nd organizer in Uwer Canada of the QueC Vol" 
.geu«; ho eame into the War of 1812 wth every 
capac. y for success and camo out of it wfth « 
repuf.t,on which will grow with the centuri™ Ld 
with the Canadian patriotism which is ba^d u^n 

Chateauguay or Brock at Quecnston Heights 
ai* T ?°.* *'"' Campaign of 1813 when in 
September of that year, the United States GeLa" 
Wilkinson with 8,000 troops, a proclamaUon nf 
promised protection to all Fr'enchS^S^^ns who 
would remain quietly at home, left Sacket^l Hartr 
to descend the St. Lawrence, to capture Montre^ 

l.ake Champlain, had entered the province with 
7,000 men by that old-time military ^ut^ in o2r 
to join orces with Wilkinson, and had adCanceTL 
far as the forests surrounding the mouth of th^ 
Chateauguay. Here he was met (October 2Sth) by 


Colonel de Salaberry in command of 300 French 
Canadian Fcnciblc. and Volti,eur. and a few 
,^ '^*''' "''"' *'"' """"Pected reinforcement 
of 800 more French Canadian, under Colonel 
McDonrll, of Ogdenaburg fame. 

The French Canadians formed in the wooda in 
two line., De Salaberry leading the first, upon which 
Hampton advanced with his large force. The first 
mc was gra<lually driven back in the darkness of 
the n,ght with its leader, however, remaining 
Mubbornly m the face of the enemy and beside him 
u bugler boy sounding the advanco even in retreat 
..s these troops foil back upon the second line the 
American force heard a perfect pandemonium of 
Hound; many bugler, placed at great distances 
from each other sounded the advance; Indians 
numbering about fifty and also scattered throu-h 
the woods at regular intervals, made the night 
hideous with war-whwps and yells. The American 
CO umns broke and fled and the honors of this 
extraordinary victory remained with the 900 French 
Canadians who had driven back 7,000 invaders and 
prevented their junction with Wilkinson, who, him- 
^If, was defeated at Chrystler's Farm on November 
iiu. and the American invasion of French Canada 
terminated. De Salabeny received a Companion- 
ship of the Bath, a gold medal awarded by the King 
m honor of the victory and the thanks of the 
1 rovincial Legislature. He passed away in 1829 
unusually respected and with a reputation which 
had grown with the ye«rs. An English Canadian 


And^wh,™.,, th. «.h. w««l «„^, „„ .».. „^„^,^^_^ 

Did h, d.ow th. a.ry y.l„, th»t b«.p«k. iho blood ul K,a„„. 

From the y.ari of struggle which followed this 
penod .„ F.ench Canada there came the figure of a 

C^adl r "' ""T"' '""' '""'~''' »' thought in 
Canada now consider worthy of esteem-Sir 
Hypohte Lafontaine. The soul of honor „^." 

French Canadian and dignified in bearing, with 

r^'^lH^T''""!" '"•'•' ""•» ™P^rturbable manner 
he passed through the political storms of 1830-M 
wthout a stam upon his reputation, lived simply 
and wtthout ostentation, and died comparatZy 
poor m 1864 as Chief Justice of Lower Canada and 
a Baronet of the United Kingdon^. His "utlnS 
ing achievement was leadership of the moderate 

Robert Taldwin and the moderate Liberals of 
Upper Canada or Ontario. He had been an oriirinal 
associate of Papineau and supported the Ninety- 

after the Rebellion, he was opposed to the union 
of the Provinces m 1841 as endangering the French 
(^anadian interests. 

lAlif. 'l;i 



With the changes that came after that event 
however, and influenced, no doubt, by his asso^ 
ciation with Baldwin and others of that character, 
M. Lafontaine gradually changed his views, grew 
away from the violent section of his own party 
opposed the views of L'InstUul Canadien and 
LAveniT, estranged much support of that brilliant 
kind from his leadership while he acquired the solid 
confidence of substantial men. The Lafontaine- 
Baidwin Administration of the Canadas in 1848-51 
did much to broaden French Canadian ideas, to 
cement and promote friendly feeling between the 
races, to pave the way for a future and greater 
union. Its legislation included a thorough reform 
of the municipal system of the provinces and of the 
election, education and assessment laws, the estab- 
lishment of provincial credit abroad, assumption of 
control over the post office and establishment of 
cheap and uniform rates of postage, reform and 
remodelling of the courts, the granting of a general 
amnesty for the events of 1837-38, the abolition of 
pnmogemture in Upper Canada and the inau-ura- 
tion of railway legislation-a three years' record 
which the most successful and famous of Canadian 
governments in the next sixty years did not excel. 
M. Lafontaine was not conciliatory in manner he 
was not a tribune of the people, he was apt to be 
dogmatic and inflexible, but he could concentrate his 
arguments and think and reason concisely, he could 
construct in policy and he had unbounded courage 
to do what he thought was wise or necessary. He 


left a high reputation and a great name, yet in the 
latter and greater part of his career he was in almost 
everythmg— personally and politically— the antith- 
esis of Papineau whom he for a time had followed 
and then succeeded in the leadership of his race. 

Sir fitienne Pascal Tach6 was as different in his 
pomt of view from Lafontaine as two men of the 
same race and religion could possibly be. By 
profession he was a physician, by taste a soldier, by 
the call of the public a politician and administrator, 
by conviction a sincere believer in monarchy and 
Bntish connection for French Canada, by instinct 
a Conservative. He served in the militia, fought at 
Chateauguay and wore its medal with great pride 
was for a time Deputy-Adjutant-General of Militia 
m Lower Canada and long afterwards aide-de-camp 
to Her Majesty the Queen and Honorary Colonel 
in the British Army. A member of the Legislative 
Assembly of United Canada and afterwards of the 
Legislative Council, he joined the Lafontaine-Bald- 
win Government and then drifted into alliance with 
Sir Allan MacNab, chief of the Upper Canada Con- 
servatives and a Tory of the Tories. In 1855-57 
as head of the Tach^-Macdonald Administration' 
he was Premier of the Canadas. Knighted in 1858 
he accompanied the Prince of Wales in his tour of 
Canada two years later. 

It was Sir E. P. Tach« who declared in the Leg- 
islature that "ti-,e last gun that will be fired for 
British supremacy in North America will be fired by 



a French Canadian," and this was said in davs 
when h.s compatriots were not yet quite cLr of the 
feelings and passions of the RebeUion; it was he 
who assumed the burden of much laU ZTerl 
practical retirement from politics, when the Trent 
affair occurred and the Commission appointed to 

r'^f T '"It"^'"* "^ '""^ ^*=**« and orgail! 

.on of the mihtia was created; it was he Iho in 
1864 gave up the political retirement of years and 
again with John A. Macdonald, turned the 

deaXck 'd fi' T '"^''f ^^•'^'"'=«« ''^ » ««-ht 
and „nnl "^'^f ='/».'="»' ""d religious difficulties 
rendered tC" 'f.'''°^.^'^ t^e United States 
rtical H ^nl!""^ ''"""^ """^ ^^' *'■»«« most 
Iv 1 i ■fl^'" Chairman of the Quebec Conference 
lelt ''"^''~f y ""d -«" the foundatiorL Ta 
great conlederation and planted deep the fruitful 
roots of a future nation. At a time when nlrtv 
feeding ran high-almost to the breaking poinSe 
away t"irf of Ml parties and section^'and passed 
away in 1865 amidst genuine regret. He did not 
r /T ^''^Confederation for which, latte ly he 
abored, but his works live after him and he Ms a 
lofty ^and lasting niche in the pantheon of F^nch 

To have been a youthful leader in the movement 
which centered around VAvenir was a naSX 

taine Tach« and the union of the Canadas; but to 
the young man who was destined to die as Sir 



Antoine Aim6 Dorion, Chief Justice of Lower 
Canada, it provided many difficulties for his after 
public career and produced tendencies of mind 
which remained with him to the end. He was a 
Radical in early days and the leader of a restless, 
reckless yet brilliant school of thought which sought 
change as the great essentini, in 1849 he signed a 
manifesto in favor of Annexation to the United 
States; he did not like the Legislative union of the 
Canadas in 1841 and feared many and varied evils 
to his race from that historic combination; he 
opposed Confederation for specific reasons— because 
it created an appointive Upper House or Senate, 
because it unnecessarily pledged Canadian resources 
to the construction of an Intercolonial Railway, 
because he preferred a federated union of the two 
Canadas alone, because it was foolish to assume 
military or defence organization in face of the 
Northern United States which had in five years 
called into the field 2,300,000 men, because the 
wisest policy was for Canada to "keep quiet and 
give no cause for war!" 

M. Dorion had succeeded Lafontaine as leader 
of the Rouges, or French Canadian Liberals, and his 
opinions, even then, were "advanced" in many 
ways; he bitteriy opposed the selection of Ottawa 
as the seat of government and would not accept 
the Queen's official and invited selection; he repre- 
sented Lower Canada in the Macdonald-Dorion 
Administration of 1864. A man of thorough and 
cultured education, of courtly and polished bearing, 




of spotless moral reputation and nf .-.k i i 

Z °.^1.%V VI?''" *'"'*' "" •>« "PeaL in English 
face-^ h. u"".'"' Englishman with a foS 


st^t ^r '■ ^" -^'^^^^-n:!tii:: i^z z 

supportPr of amiexation was knighted by Ws Queen 

ion of his early fear« had become an important 
national entity and the hope of milUons Zeol 
in hjs maturer days. peopie 

Sir George Etienne Cartier was the exact opposite 

and perhaps the burning influence of Papineau'a 
eloquence led him into the troubles oi mr 11 
jomed the Sons of Liberty, fought at St n™ 
against the British troops, Ik tot ! uLt^i StlZ 




and, with sixteen others, passed under sentence of 
death if he should return without official sanction. 
Eventually he did come back and the rebel of 1837, 
under more favorable circumstances and greater 
liberties, became a Premier of the United Provinces, 
a Minister of the Crown in a greater Dominion, and' 
was created a Baronet by the Sovereign whose 
allegiance ht ' .d once fpudiated. It was a great 
career, yet Csrtier wa- m no ordinary sense an 
orator, he lacked the splendid or imposing bearing 
of his rival leaders, he was quick and nervous in 
manner and speech and without the special quali- 
ties that please a French audience or hold an Eng- 
lish one. He did, however, possess tremendous 
energy, marked force and aggressiveness, great 
capacity for organization and some outstanding 
qualities which commended him to that prince of 
politicians, Sir John Macdonald. 

With his entry into the Legislature in 1848 there 
had come a complete change in Mr. Cartier's point of 
view. Unlike his great opponent (Dorion), he did 
not in succeeding years cling to early ideals through 
all the thickening clouds of political difficulty or 
the lightning-like flashes of public fancy which 
marked the period. His ten years of patient study, 
careful legal work, cumulative experience in his 
Montreal practice, appear to have turned the rest- 
less revolutionary into a consistent and energetic 
Conservative. When he entered Parliament it was 
as a believer in monarchy, in government framed 
after and based on that of England, in a system of 



with two brief kWvri. Government and, 

ConfederatribeS^'is^p' " "^"^ "»«' 
tlie Canadas. dSt th,-/^' ^ u"""" ^^^^' »' 

r„rbKr ittiroftrs^'^".' ,r -"" 

busy in a 8VHt»m„ti !• ^^'Sneurial tenure, 

<"j' in a systematic, cont nuous effort i,^ K„*t 

about which a book Sght be'^uten Th '''r«°'^ 
tions, the humiliation of ZpIha T*:"""- 
scandal and his death in England mmJ"''Z7 

aTtrlr^TncSeiroT'th""""^'^ ''^ ^''"'^^ 




and energy, in parliamentary strategy, in freshness 
and vigor of intellect, in ardor and ability of 
political combtt. He was impetuous, dominating, 
confident of character; he was rough in speech, 
harsh and sometimes unduly caustic and bitter in 
style, without eloquence, or joftness, or persua- 
siveness, yet at times making his words seem like 
the blows of a hammer on the anvil; he often de- 
scribed himself as "an Englishman speaking French" 
and he certainly wielded unequalled power for long 
years in his own province; he was the friend and 
confidant of Sir John Macdonald, which meant much 
in the politics of that period. 

A picturesque figure of modem French Canada, 
remarkable as a journalist and a politician, keen of 
tongue, brilliant of language, oratory, style, yet 
never a successful or weighty leader, Joseph Edouard 
Cauchon was something of a phenomr , certainly 
a most interesting personality. As euivor-in-chief 
of Le Canadien, in 1841, when twenty-four years of 
age, he showed unbounded energy and almost 
boundless indiscretion; brought about the suppres- 
sion of his paper which he re-issued as the Journal 
de Qu/ibec; wrote himself, within two years, into the 
Legislature and there represented Montmorency — 
in the old Legislature and the new Dominion 
Parliament— for twenty-eight years. His first signal 
effort in the House was in response to an attack 
by M. Papineau when the young member electri- 
fied his colleagues in a reply which showed most 




brilliant debating qualities. This was a se««n ;„ 
French Canada of inevitable .torrwhentho^ 
of the great economic changes in Enidand otT. 
« and political movemente in See "f Se 
wars and revolutionary outbreaks inThe'.^*^ 
Europe, stirred up some old memories of^oc^ 
stnfe created new forms of friction, anrhelped to 
form the bases of new party affiliations. ^ 
uunng these adjustments Cauchon sunnort-^ 

the r„i ' *• '^*" *•"** •"^*«'l «t° support of 

MacJNab-Tach^ Government in 1855, but resimed 

miZ"" Z'' ^*'"^' *•■" Oavem^ent agK 
1861-62, was Mayor of Quebec in 1865. He favored 
Comederafon as preliminary to an inevitable S 

looo aeoate Shall we forever remain colonistn? 
Does the histor, of the world afford exaZles 'f 
eternal subjection? Everything tells us that the day 

United sf ^°"»"''P''*'°° o' of annexation to the 
Umted States is approaching." There wa« in ihl 
days no discussion of the thifd or m7d"m "t rnSe 
of closer umon with the Empire. Cauchon's suZr^ 

1 t?vTffeT° * °";"^ •"'^"*'°" °' confedTrS 
was very effective and valuable-all the more so 
perhaps, because he had disapproved the °dea a 
dozen years before. He was a curious Jomalv 
m public life. Influential through an ag^eS 
sarcastic eloquence a power of vituperat^Hld 
flow of words which carried everything before 


them, he yet made enemies with such case and 
certamty as to minimize the influence of his arim- 
ments. Dislilced by his more powerful opponents, 
he was feared, and hated also, by those who wer^ 
weak. In the end his unpopularity hampered his 
activities and position in the Dominion Parliament 
while a certain scandal relating to ownership of 
the Beauport Asylum which was supported by Quebec 
Government funds, while its owner sat in Parlia- 
ment, seriously hurt him for a time. 

He was for some years Speaker of the Senate 
became a member of the Mackenzie Government in 
1875, and proved himself an able administrator 
deserving of the confidence of his Premier while 
astomshmg his own numerous enemies. He passed 
out of public life after a term in the governorship 
of Mamtoba, ani died in 1885. M. Cauchon was a 
clear, cultivated, clever pubUc writer, a man of 
tremeudous industry and perseverance, but with a 
sort of unrestrained despotism of thought and speech- 
he was at times a powerful ally, at times a dangerous' 
and too candid friend, always an unpleasant oppo- 
nent. He had been a Liberal and a Conservative 
and a Liberal again; he was opposed to Confedera- 
tion and then one of its most powerful supporters, 
he represented his constituency as long as he chose 
to do so and nothing could shake its constancy. 
He missed being a great man, but he was always a 
picturesque and interesting personality with a 
viewpoint rather well defined in those old-time 


Tender-havM •tniko « nettle, 
And it itinfi you for your p*in<: 

Orup it u a mu of mettle, 
And it loft u lilk remaini. 

Til the iame with eommon nature*, 

U»e the<o kindly they rebel; 
But b« rough aa nutmeg gratere. 

And the roguea obey your will. 

What may be said here of Honort Mercier? He 
had every political experience, in shadow and in 
8un.hme. ,^ failure and in success, that a French 
Camtdian could hope for, or regret,' within the con- 
fines of his own province and the hearts of his own 
people He had a personality which was essentially 
attractive almost lo-able, an oratorical power 
that in his time was only equalled by Chapleau 
and Laurier, a political career in which he won the 
overwhelming support of his people, lost it again 
through pohtical misadventure, or as his opponents 
tZf rr°°'''«'*'- ''°" back in defeat and dea°h 
^L, M t <f •* "^™ *^''y ^'"''rined in the 
pohtical heart of Quebec Liberalism and embodied 

GovernmtnT °'°°"'°'°* ""'^'^ ^^ '^' ^'°^'"<''*' 

hi»^lvr? """'^ "°'°'°* ^'^'"'^ Canadians he showed 
hs ability very young. Napoleon Legendre, him- 

K,- .'T'"''*'' "^ " '^*«'' t«"8 the story of a 
pubhc debate by students of St. Mary's College 
Montreal in 1861. Four young men, who all afte^ 
wards attained positions of prominence, took part 


of a 


' ■■'"""' -lilr ■ ■ ■ 



Toboggan Slide near Montreal 

'WmJk -t-'-.^^im: '* 


and young M.rcier, as chairman, summed up the 
cLscus«.on It seems to have been a revelation o 
oratorical force. He commenced, gravely, slowlv 
audibly and olearlv "rr„^„ ii s'owiy, 

„>„„* • i l" ™"y- (gradually more warmth 
crept uto his voice and his sonorous words, metlmc- 
aJly clear m their tone, flew like arrow! stratht 
to their mark i„ every corner of that large h^l 
Everyone listened with surprise mingled wUh 
pleasure. When Mercier concluded he had achieved 
a great and well-earned success." At twentyS 
he was editing a paper which he had to give up be! 
ttro? ♦."' d^*«™i-d opposition to the confedera- 
tion of the provinces movement; for some years 
he practiced his profession of the law; in ml 

t^trboth tt" V f*""^"^* "'''' °"*«'^« < - 
w^th both the chief parties which should take in 

hand such questions as the preservation of the 

Separate Schools in New Brunswick which had just 

come up, and in the next year found himself in the 

JCT "^^''Tf* "* *'^^ '1^' °f thirty-two 
There he continued his campaign as to New Bruns- 
wick school affairs. 

After being out of politics for some years he 
entered the Provincial Legislature in 1879 and 
joined the Joly Government; in 1883 he was Liberal 

made a speech on Education which illustrated the 
many-sided nature of the man: "Ignorance is 

ra;r/'edu7'°" '^ "^'"*''= i^norarTea 
. avery, education naeans liberty. It is the mother's 
duty ., nurse the child which she has brought into 




the world; it is the father's duty to provide it with 

SLh^t ' /v' '"*^.°' '""''^ '« *° educate t 
And what IS this populace which it is our duty to 
instruct? What but the people, the real people of 
our land Those who work, the laborers7nd the 
artisans, the foster-fathers of the human race, those 
who construct, those who sow, but who, alasi do 

wde the doors of the temple which spreads its 

that f? l^t ^IV"' ""''' ""'• '«* "« »>-ke sure 
that that light shall penetrate into even the hum 
blest of humble homes." 

Then came the Northwest Rebellion, its sup- 
pression and the capture, trial, condem;ation and 
Into tr^vlr °^ '^' '"^'^ leader-Louis Riel 

ton to t?;^"'"" ''"""' ^- M-'='«^' '^'-^ from 
top to toe m the armor of racial indignation at the 
treatment thus meted out to a French Canad Ln 
who was said to be only guilty of a po£l offence- 
one no worse than that of Papineau and Car L 
TanHv 7,^°"^°-'' by an alleged but disproved 
^uf^\J^^ Orangemen of Ontario were respon- 
sible for this "crime against humanity," the Govern- 

existence.. The people rose to meet his eloquent 
and burning words; it was a new Papineau seek- 
ing justice and punishment for a Government of 
wrong-doers who had insulted the pride of a great 

IS said to have made mnety-three speeches-vehe- 



ment, imploring, argumentative, forcible, appealing 
doquent He emerged with a majority, became 
Pnme Mimster and m 1887 turned his now doubly- 
shotted guns against the Dominion Government 
in a campaign where he joined forces with M 
Laurier. Against this combination was the eloquence 
of Chapleau, the organizing force of Langevin 
^T f T' P°P"'''"*y and prestiye of Sir John 
Macdonald. Mercier failed, in the main, but he 
reduced the Government's support in Quebec 

His succeeding four years' administration is 
one of the most curious periods in Quebec history 
Ihere was great lavishness of expenditure and 
there was, no doubt, some of the corruption in 
provincial politics which the Conservatives charged 
Yet up to nearly the close of the period Mercier 
presented a brilliant, conspicuous and attractive 
hgure and a personahty which bore down criticism 
and dominated the situation, i^^ had won the 
approval of the Church by his Jesuits Estates Act 
and other legislation, he received honors from Rome 
which mcluded the title of Count and the Grand 
Cross of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, he 
was decorated by France with the Legion of Honor 
and received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from 
Laval. In brilliant robes and uniform he appeared 
upon the public platform and with his fine presence 
his sonorous, powerful voice, his flashing black eyes' 
his attractive personality, seemed to hold a position 
which nothing short of an earthquake could disturb 
He had also initiated useful legislation-evening 




schoo 8, the grant of one l.undred acres of land to the 
parents o twelve living children, the giving of prizes 
or agncultural merit; he had an active policy a to 
railways and manufactories and helped to sett e 
the Laval University problem as it affected the 
Montreal mstitution. Then came the bo t from 

that hH "/" ''•'"""'■"• '^''' '' -- ''-'ouS 
hat the Lieutenant-Governor, Hon. A. R. Angers 

(a Conservative before accepting office), had dl! 

missed his ministers for what he considered proven 
corruptK>n. M. de Boucherville (Con^rvatWe) 
who had once been dismissed by a Libera"! ' 
accepted the Premiership and in the succXg 
elections was sustained. '-(-eeamg 

billtvTr''^ \ ^""'' ^""^ *° ^PP"^'"" the responsi- 

men[ Ir I^ h V'"",^'""'' ^''''"«^ "" Public senti- 
ment or to define the measure of M. Mercier's 

Zrt'h "■?"• '* '^ ^*-" "^ P""*"-' -''""and 
though the picturesque personality of this particular 
leader never again filled the Premier's chair he 
retained much of his personal popularity, and ime 
cleared his skirts of much that was charged l^Z. 
him. History is already dealing gently with Z 
hough the Conservative leaders L Quebec a short since, would not attend the unvSng <^ hL 
statue. He possessed some of the faults and famnJs 
of his race; he accentuated many of its greaZ 

cZh^ aT^}"^ "" ''*"^' °f Independence for 
Canada and looked upon it as the inevitable future 
of the Dominion; he stood by his Church and his 


race along lines which he believed to be beneficial 
with a vigor and capacity which can not but be 
admired. As to the rest, only the impartial judgment 
of a distant posterity can decide— though even then 
anything like agreement would seem to be unlikely. 

.Sir Joseph Adolphe Chapleau was a man who took 
the usual strenuous interest of the educated young 
French Canadian in politics but, unlike the majority 
of them, he seems to have always been Conservative 
m thought and speech and policy. Handsome 
even striking in appearance, eloquent, with softly- 
modulated voice, ringing out at times like a silver 
bell, with flowing and rounded periods of speech 
and easy yet impressive gestures, with a habit of 
throwing back his head and passing a hand through 
his splendid mass of hair, he compelled public 
attention and attracted political popularity even in 
days when Cartier, Cauchon and Laurier were coming 
to, or were already in, the front. His career did not 
run along unusual lines except perhaps in the degree 
of Its success. He graduated from the Classical 
Colleges with a high reputation and eariy became a 
conspicuous legal figure in Montreal; defended 
Lepine at Winnipeg in 1874 against the charge of 
murdering Scott in the first Kiel insurrection with a 
forensic force and skill which attracted attention- 
entered the Legislature in 1867 and the Provincial 
Government in 1873; resigned a year later and was 
in the De Boucherville Ministry of 1876-78; became 
the leader of the Conservatives, or Bleu opposition 


J i 



decade. ^ '""^ * succeeding 

he stood face to ae" t 2; £n .' r^"!..'"" "^^" 

tremendous agitafon overThTRiM ^'"""^ 
Quebec. The lattJr h?i Question in 

the people that '^ IcutlnTC' '''""''''^•^ 

opponents at Ottawa into extinction It ♦. 
juncture Mercier offered to Inv >,,„ , **"* 

this popular movement. These offers w '" 

flatterine to mp Ti, " ^^'^ ^ery 

»tenng to me. The prospects they opened before 



me were very attractive. I saw myself accepted 
as the recognized defender of my race, honored 
and applauded by all my compatriots, interpreter 
of their sentiments and of their aspirations." There 
was, however, another and compelling influence 
summed up in the idea of duty to Canada and his 
people. "I saw as a logical consequence of this 
movement isolation, antagonism of race, reprisals 
losses and disasters. I felt that there was more 
courage in braving the current than in following it." 
An elaborate study of the issue followed, with the 
reasons for the Government's action. 

The public, whether French or English, likes 
courage and M. Chapleau was returned by his own 
constituents while the Dominion Government was 
sustained in its ensuing appeal to the people in 
1887. From 1892 to 1897, when he died. Sir Adolphe 
Chapleau was Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, a 
position he filled with dignity. It is an open secret 
that, pending the elections of 1896, when the Tupper 
Government and Conservative power at Ottawa 
were trembling in the balance; when M. Laurier 
was drawing the French Canadians to him by a 
tact and cleverness rarely displayed in Canadian 
politics; when the Manitoba Separate School issue 
was supreme in the public view and all kinds of 
collateral issues of importance were at stake; every 
effort was made and pressure exercised to persuade 
Chapleau to re-enter politics and support his old 
party friends at the polls. Had he done so and the 
eloquence which he still possessed been pitted once 



more against that of Laurier it i, hard to «.y what 

memories. His nprnf.#!„_ "J"™" are stui living 
national unit^'aViLi e tl'Lrhr' " "' 

his fn„* t 'acwng— m later years ill-health doeeed 
nis lootsteps and oprhnna if k„j ... "»«*<* 

than is known. "" '"''" '"fl"^'"'* 



able Prince of his Church in Canada, Elz(5ar Alex- 
andre Taschereau, Cardinal Archbishop of Quebec. 
Born of a Seigncurial family, trained in the academic 
shades of the Quebec Seminary, traveling in Europe 
at sixteen and a visitor and student in Rome at 
seventeen, he was ordained a priest four years later 
in the Seminary of his home city. For nearly thirty 
years Mgr. Taschereau remained devoted to hia 
work at the Seminary— teaching rhetoric, philosophy, 
dogmas, ethics, or canon law. Every position of 
honor and responsibility came to him that this; 
great institution could give; he helped to found 
Laval University with a view to extending the scope 
and character of the Seminary's work; he lived in 
it and for it with such rare exceptions as in 1847 
when he went to Grosse Isle to minister to the 
stricken Irish immigrants. It was a testing time for 
character. The malignant fever which had ' ■ veloped 
at this point of detention made the island ere long 
a mass of loathsome, perilous pestilence. Father 
Taschereau volunteered to assist the local priest 
in charge and to minister to the wants of the sick 
who were, in the main, Roman Catholics. His 
quiet heroism and unostentatious labors at this 
point of danger endeared him to the people. In 
1854 he paid a visit to Rome as the representative 
of the Second Provincial Council of his Church in 
Quebec and spent two years there in study, receiving 
•eventually the degree of Doctor of Cauon Law from 
the Roman Seminary. 

His great efforts, however, were for his own insti- 








or of the Petit S<<„S S Ul"?! f "'°'"'' 
or Rector of Laval anH «!» • ■ . *"* Seminary 
devoted in eve"; hought'and Th"?" 1° '"''' '"""^ 
Transatlantic jouS imi ' '*' '"'«'«'"»• 
compilation of meS n^ ', «°"«''P<'ndencr, 
letter, and mandereT ^j!"!^^ '"''^"'' P""**'"'' 
Pould do to advannf ' •'^"y*'>'"« that one man 

Ta«chereau did unt° is/, ""t" "" '^•'"''"' Mgr. 
time Vicar-clrai If tie At".'""" ''«'"« ^°'» 
he became its "CLl 'p He'didT^^ ^"^'"^■ 
responsibility but he did „„f k , . ' ''^''''^ the 
his pupils of the Petit^^ "^ '^' '^""««- To 
their L^.£ZTtT::TV''° "T *° °'^" 
a beautiful garden which I ". .^°™^''> I owned 
common with tr^tv Jriendl n?f^ "'f """^^ '" 
where could drag me fro™ 'f. u''"""''** °' «'««- 

loved to promenadeTt^Srefufwet"'^^ '"•'*•• ' 
opening of the nascenfr^s tlf' *° '^"t"'' *''« 
season caused to expand tw*l ^"''' scholastic 

alternating withTf;at/urd"'^;"^^°^ 
by little, made to ripen^nto si.1 ,°'. "''*>'' ««'« 
yea,« of incessant laC v siS^^ '™*-" ^'"«« 
ince and visits in v^ ^'ftattons withm his Prov- 

questions Tn c^^h goTe^r ^I"™* °' ""'"''"•"'*«'* 
educational process eveTrohv' ?"•'"'''''"""'" '"'O' 
the highest honn'tTe giKrhVch^'r' ''""' 
away from the central seat of i?I! ""''' *° °°« 

in elevation to the Cardlnllate '°""' """^ *° ••'- 

One of the most picturesque and brilliant scenes 

'•■ 'V/ 

'lA M 



m the life of modern Quebec was the welcome 
accorded His Eminence, the first Canadian Cardinal, 
when he returned from his inBtallation at Rome as 
one of the Princes of his Church. Imposing cere- 
monies, a great gathering of gorgeously-robed 
ecclesiastics from all over the continent, crowded 
and decorated streets with flags and banners every- 
where, brilliant illuminations at night, processions 
of great ceremonial pomp and splendor, tributes of 
music, poetry and oratory, a grand banquet in con- 
clusion. Here the new Cardinal described a dream 
in which St. Jean Baptiste, the patron Saint of Que- 
bec, appears to Mgr. de Laval on shipboard and 
tells the first Bishop of Quebec as to the mighty 
future of the land he is about to enter: "Behold! 
behold those rocks crested by our impregnable 
citadel; then behold the city which shall receive 
your ashes two centuries hence. Contemplate its 
many abodes of virtue and science. Do you see 
those massive buildings? They are your Seminary 
and the University which shall proudly bear your 
name. List to the accents of universal rejoicing 
that echo throughout the length and breadth of 
Janada on the accession of your fifteenth successor 
to the Cardinalate! This country, today so insig- 
nificant, inhabited only by a handful of Canadians, 
shall then extend from ocean to ocean, its boundleps 
territories belted by rails of steel reverberating to 
the thunder of palatial vehicles swept along at 
lightning speed by fire and steam. Without enjoy- 
ing complete independence Canada shall possess 





favored child on ChomLr,^*,^™'' °' °'"' °' "- 
welfare ^the SvlTchS "*' '"" °^" *"" 

'if-larSofr'! ^^""."^ *"« Cardinal-, 
and dignifie'STd^V SJ^' -"'""'o- 'abor, quiet 
the development of or" , " *'''"" "ffice-with 

"howed that"hr«il!„? '""'' controversies whi-h 

-thoda of denunSn."' ZZZ ?' ^^^^ 
the relations of Church and Sflf 1^ '""" '^»'' 
with the problems of " ?r""°"*''^ 
extreme liberty of though? !^' , """''•'"^y and 
intemperance, Lmorahtv^- "f""" *'"' «^"'' "' 
strife and disputeT^ hfn triT"", " ""^""""^ 
public issues such Ji , Church; trcatinu of 

United ^i2:tZ\ZZ:T''"''''"' *° *'"« 
free-masonry and other • "'"''* '"""ties, 

the Church disapproved T'"'""""* "^ '^'■'^h 
Dominion or ProS'l f Politicians as to 

Church interest;;"::: ndS cfJ'f- "'''"°" *° 
he believed to endan Jr ♦k • ,. ''^"'S'ons which 
privileges of relSon din" ""^'^ °^ ''"""'y or the 
attack^ the cEh ' inde "?'"« J''""'^"^*^ who 
a.~.« which menaced mora,ro '?«""' ''"'°™- 

- -rd the v^ta^^^te-lTtC^i^^^^^^^^^^ 


hi* Church row them. It was a great career and 
behind it a fine personality; the power wielded wag 
peri nt in much of its effect and vital in many 
lines oi import to the life of the modern French 
people in Canada. 

The most picturesque living personality in the 
Dominion is that of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. He posses- 
ses so many of the finest characteristics of his race, 
h<! is so deeply and yet affectionately regarded by 
his party, he has so few personal enemies and yet 
is so closely and intimately associated with every 
partisan issue in the history of Canada for twenty, 
five years past, that it is almost impossible to present 
a description of the man, or the leader, which could 
be generally acceptable— without its being either 
eulogistic and vapid or dishonest and worthless. Yet 
an attempt may be made to at least classify his 
characteristics and his achievements. Louis Fr^ 
chette, who was one of the Liberal leader's many 
devoted friends amongst the brilliant literary men 
and journalists of several decades in Quebec, once 
told a story of having in 1865 paid a visit to the 
editorial office of Union Nationale in Montreal to 
see Mdd^ric Lanctot, one of the fiery, clever, enthu- 
siastic opponents of Confederation who was then 
practicing law, publishing a journal of rhetorical 
and heated politics, and making his office a center for 
many similar and kindred spirits. 

In the far-end corner of the room M. Frechette, 
as he entered, saw a young man seated at his desk 





with rapid writing rnd fn / T "^ ''°""«'«"t 
serious way which n«t„Zi ..'"' ''"""entrated, 
F^chette was aSut toZZ wh f "" ''"'"'*'°"' 
young man rose and came W^ '* """ "^^'^ ^^^ 
the room. LancWt saTd °T!'^ '" °"^"' *° '«"ve 

yers. A f4re^:;J:,^^Sf '-8 fi^m of law- 
young lawyer-he wal th.n * ''°''' °'" ''^o the 
age-left the robman^Llnl*?"*^"'"'^ y^"" "^ 
With characteristrc Fren^n^^^fr^J^f !^« -^^^or 
for you! Did you notice it? ^hy sir LI " ^""' 
«> orator, a philosopher, a juris!' T " '^*' 

merate all his talentsf bu marrm^l^T".* '""■ 
coming man. Don't iorgetSfTcef" '^' '' '" » 

young man forged hi«w * '"^'^'^ *" **"« 
1871, into the^cClTn^^r^ ilt fhTf *-«• « 
Government in 1877 i„. 1' , *"* Dominion 
^.beral party Tf cf/a'd 1 1 ^7 ST^.°^ *^« 
ship of Canada in 1896 nt fv ^*° ^''^ Premier- 
Great Britain in 1897 At Ss n'"^? ''°"'«'" "^ 
that the young and risil i '^™°* '* """y »»« «>id 
Frechette was rather ^H* 7^"' '''^'="»'«<1 hy M. 
i» 1867 and'^Sg thf n^c^i" '?r"« ^""t^"' 
village of the Easte™ To^^ ^- ' °/ ^"^ '» '^ "ttle 
as ArthabaskaX Jt^ ""•f.'"''"*' '«'°wn 
Which might ea^ly haS e„l """"^f^ complications 

-th the exeitabfe'^:^trrnreoir7t: 



period in Montreal; it certainly provided him with 
his seat in the Legislature where, on November 10, 
1871, he made a speech which was so fluent, culti- 
vated, charming, polished in language and elevated 
in character ^a to attract immediate attention. 
He declared the trouble of the day, the cause of the 
existing depression, to be that production was not 
equal to consumption, urged his people to learn 
English as well as French, advocated an industrial 
immigration into the province of master mechanics 
and small capitalists, demanded reform of the 
electoral. and educational laws. In the House of 
Commons— April 15, 1874— his first speech dei'.'".ng 
with the Fort Garry RebelUon of Louis Riel also 
made a pronounced impression and a friendly 
critic who heard it has left a description of "his 
sonorous and vibrating voice, the wealth and variety 
of intonation, the chaste simplicity of gesture, the 
natural ease and grace of attitude." 

In a famous speech on Political Liberalism, Mr. 
Laurier, in 1877, enunciated certain ideals which 
practically created a new Liberalism in French 
Canada, paved the way for the removal of Church 
hostility which had been aroused by various events 
in the previous twenty years, and made a splendid 
basis for racial conciliation and friendship— jowever 
the precepts might be lived up to in practice. The 
policy of the party was defined as the protection of 
those free and Uberal institutions which had come 
to his people, their defence and propagation, the 
development of the country's latent resources through 




and under those institutions. Then he concluded 
by referring to the death of Montcalm and his fol- 
lowers on the Plains of Abraham, and to the picture 
of persecution, humiliation and despair which they 
might well have drawn for the future. "If Heaven 
had lifted the veil from their dying eyes and enabled 
them for a moment, before they were closed forever, 
to pierce what was hidden from their sight; if they 
could have seen their children free and happy 
marchmg proudly in all spheres of society; if they 
could have seen, in the old Cathedral, the seat of 
honor of French governors occupied by a French 
governor; if they could have seen the church steeples 
nsing in every valley from the shores of Gasp4 to 
the prairies of the Red River; if they could have 
seen this old flag (the tri-color), which recaUs their 
victones, carried triumphantly in all our public 
ceremonies; in fine, if they could have seen our free 
institutions, is it not permissible to think that their 
last breath would have been exhaled in a murmur 
of gratitude to Heaven, and that they would have 
died consoled." 

The succeeding career of Sir Wilfrid Laurier was 
fiUed with scenes of picturesque character and of 
compUcated public and party nature, of strenuous 
controversial issue, of imperial splendor or national 
importance. Picture him on the Champs de Mars 
Montreal (November 20, 1885), standing beside 
M. Mercier and before a sea of faces alight with the 
passionate feeling of his race, declaring that the 
Government of Sir John Macdonald in allowing 



Riel to be hung bad "committed an act of inhumanity 
and cruelty unworthy of a civiliz'"' nation." Picture 
bim in Tory Toronto facing a great audience during 
the elections of 1887 and proclaiming similar senti- 
ments with eloquent tongue and with a courage which 
deserved and received its mead of public admiration. 
Picture him in the bitterness of disappointment 
over the elections of 1891, and in profound pessi- 
mism of spirit as to the future of a country he believed 
to be guided by a loyalty to Britain which was only 
the covering for party corruption, telling a Boston 
audience that "the time will come in the very nature 
of things when separation (from Great Britain) 
will take place." Picture him years afterwards, 
in 1897, as Prime Minister of Canada, fresh from a 
great victory, with buoyant spirits and characteristic 
French cheerfulness, loaded with British honors 
to supplement those of his own country, telling 
audiences in Great Britain that the time was coming 
when she could call Canada to her Councils. Picture 
the same leader burdened with cares of office and 
multiplying responsibilities of a racial, party and 
national character, controlling and guiding the action 
of great Imperial Conferences and modifying con- 
clusions along the lines of caution. Picture him 
fighting for Reciprocity with the United States in 
1890 and 1891, and again in 1911, with vigor and 
determination — ever standing like a rock in 'avor 
of close friendship and intimate relations with the 
great Republic — and going down to defeat upon a 
trade issue which was expected to be a political 



defence which anolw ^^itZ'ltZ '' ^''^ 
■n character and fundament crdiroL'^'^ "'""«'' 

o^ 'i^TehaSSer^ ^^^^^ --°- 
-ttled. Through thrS"wn«d*'r "°* ^^' 
serenely taken his course LT ul^^ ^'""*'' '"a" 
sidered right or CngT th.- '*''*' ^« ^ =°n- 
in the policy natrin« ™"*' ^«e or unwise 

and wo^d T; 'hi bo °' h"'t*"f = '° '■'^ *houTh" 
he has won the ™?,' ^ ''"f " ^^^^ dignity, 
for the best chSri tTerotth:"' \'"" «*°<^ 
represented. As a Vr^r^T , ^™'** '"^ee he 
and acting for an EnSlT"/'^"''"*^' «P«'''^»8. 
many years and hd^ f^a p rof^H^ ^ ''"""« 
own province in the hollow LV^ °^ *''** ""o^' ^is 
opportunities for achJvemeL wV l"' '^ '""'^ «^«»* 
enhanced by his oC^^^'! i/'"t ""'' ^"^^^^^ 
conditions involved «e^'^°°:';f /"S^t''^' these 
sibility in the deeisifrl'^I ' ^ '""'' ^^^P""" 
which his party acted Hi, u """* °' "Pon 

wider range th^nth^- of ^^.Xt"- '"'- taken a 
"nan. In dealing with aLn Canadian public 

ism, racial unftj ^Id tLr" °' ^«^*^* ^^'^eral- 
Jesuit's Estates quest! ^Ton l" """V""^ *''« 
wn>, an eulogy of Mr run f '"° '"" I'nperial- 
British policf i^ t^ T^i*'''*°T °^ Q"*^" Victoria, 
Ireland, literlt^e or J[rir'"''u°\^°"'« ^^^ ^r 
equally cultureran" inS^i^^ "-^ """"^^ '««'> 



As to the rest, he has described French Canada, in 
words wh,ch he would probably like history to apply 
to himself as being "Faithful to the nation ?h^ 

llblrty" ' *""' *° '''' °'*"°" ^^''^ «-« - 

hJ^^Z '^°"\°*''" ^'''"'^ ^'''"'"'«° ^^» should 
be dealt with here His name is not a household 
word m Canada, though well known; it is not that 
of a great pohtician, orator or statesman, but of a 
simple, duty-loving, earnest soldier-Sir E P C 

.^Z"^- /° '!!'"''" ^' *^P'^^« " ^■*"''«°° wiiich 
IS important and ,m. al in its very essence. A 

n^H f T ""V*:? ^°«^'-' '^' " «°» °f -^ judge 
noted for his abiliiy and French patriotism, he 
entered the British Army (Royal Engineers) in IsSS 
at the age of twenty-one and rose in another 
twenty-one years to the rank of Colonel. He has 
served in England on work in which all rising 

°^IZ J\'°, *''"'""' """'''"^ ^' has been 
Director of Railways in the far-off Soudan and 
President of the Egyptian Railway Board; he served 
through the South African war as Director of Rail- 
ways—a post whose importance can hardly be exae- 
gerated or its difficulties adequately treated here- he 
was for two years afterwards Commissioner of Rail- 
ways m the Transvaal and Orange River Colonies- 
he h^ smce then held high command in England' 
served as High Commissioner of Northern Nigeri^ 
and then as Governor of the Protectorate; for some 
years he has been Governor and Commander-in- 



dry-docks, etc TiS f h^ • . °^ ^""twctors for 

aIo„« line'. of'^:^uZ'ZZVl^L''''-'^, 
construction. iJntish naval 


with little buH^, c ' Litv"'""""" '" '^°«''^'' ""» 
to aid hin, he rt ZS' tlT ^^^t K ""•'^ 


received various id^*;'^",."' '^' ^°"'''"' ""^ 
great civil servant sucil" t" '"""''^'' "« " 
has filled and was rZ7efZ LordTLr^'T '" 
«elf as an officer of brilliant aSy It rL/"' 
that sketches beginning with n« « i k ^"'"* 

end with Girouard-Tf nni J Pu ^^'"•'''rry should 
the two. The former fo^^^h^ *'"' ""'"*''«* ''«*''«en 
;or Canada ^^I^^Z'S ro.T:t ^cTf" 

bravely and wett Z", T,™*'^' *'>°''«'' ^e filled it 
J auu weu, tlie latter could wnrt „nj c i.^ 

all over the Continent of Africa X „!. ^^* 

from a Canadian Militarv ColW. kT f''<^"''*'»8 

the Transvaal forXZ a "d'^tl ''''''.**' «"'''^"« 

times, win for his wife th! H m '"' '° ''"«''*^' 

General for the^ll tJ^'v f *%°^ *''^ ^8«* 
oniisn Iransvaal m London. The 


former saw the beginnings of the new life of French 
Canada under British rule; the latter, a century 
afterwards, sees and embodies in himsel/, the evolZ 
m of a wide Dominion drawn from the unity of 
two great races. ^ 

Much more might be written of the picturesque 
figures who have abounded in French CaSs 
public hfe during the past half-century. One can 
see the modest, moderatr>, honorable, unselfish 
personality of A. N. Morin as he movek over the 
stormy waters which rose up out of the Rebel! on 
era and D. B. Viger, the bosom friend of Papin lu" 
the leader m responsible government advocacy and 
afterwards member of a Government under W 
Metcalfe which did not carry out the ideas invoS 
in that movement. There were Sir Narcisse 
Fortunat Belleau, one-time Mayor of Que^c 
Speaker of the Legislative Council of the Canadas 
upon whom knighthood fell like manna from the 
heavensfor the official presentation of an Address 
to the Prmce of Wales in 1860 and who was Wme 

changed the union mto a Dominion of Canada-be- 
came both Brown and Macdonald could work under 
ZTJ. f "xt t^ B°"«herville, descendant of a 
Seigneur of New France, Conservative by birth and 
mclination and policy. Premier of his Province and a 

Foujl Tn- ^°'.*''"'' ^'^P^'^o^^; Telesphore 
Fourmer, brilliant journalist and Radical, clever 
lawyer and politician, Minister of Justice for Camida 




Seigneur -/^I^t wSLroT:^'';^""'''""^ 
Lieutenant-Governnr !n , ""™' °' the Crown and 

T. A. R. LaSe 'ftS^^I*?" ''•"'""'''''' 

f„i»f "* '''"°''^' ''^-- hiif Lrs^ 

impetuous and arHnnt :.. * ""'"Ker and Kadical, 
Liberal Memt" of '"'^'"P*"'""'"*. eventually a 
Justice; J. 5 rlrtf^ T' ■""• Minister of 
^<une, PoliticSaStirt? Si"'"'" °' ^^ 
-ter of Public Works for ,t™ 1!^" W la""" 
—a restless, eairpr o,r.i,-*- """""^ °'r ". Launcr 
who drove Sir HL T»n'' """""^ P""""""* 

ti v?by rnlK'a'n? """*" ''• ^'"«''^°' Co-orva- 

dian Legislature and nl*^""'''""^ t^e Cana- 
fatherofConfederatil. k'°° ^"""""ent, a 

Governn>entl ot S toTI^W °' *^ ^'"=''°'«^<1 
charges made bv Liltr.i j ' ' '^''*"" '° 18»2 of 

^~m*the Ati:S,";,ttrett"^*R\^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Adolphe P. Caron TII,,-„ t I' . " *^"'°'»> Sir 
de St' Just, S'd^lnTail^--' i- I-teUier 
may conclude with a W *® references 

present day, sucr^ L/J y^^r"^'^''" °^ *»>« 
of much eloquence rndforcff 'i!'"''"'"' * ^^'^^ 
attainments 'as a'arty i X and '"^'k "^^ ''■«'' 
been afraid to euE BriZi, \T ''^° ^^ »»» 


veiled v,ew«, i„ his sudden appearances Ldtj^ 

rsu;io7""*'"' J'^''''" '"''^ manneris^?'^ 
ms support of one party or the other : 

Let fortune frown and foe. incre.*, 
And life's long batUe know no peaci. 
Oive me to wear upon my breaet 
Ite object of my early quest 
Undimmed, unbroken and unchang'd 
The taluiman I sought and gain'd 
The jewel, Independence! 

Such, in these passing chapters, are the outetand 

actenstics, picturesque conditions, underlyine sent! 
ments of the people of French Canldr,^ th!v 
struggled in the seventeenth century from tt'r 
vantage pomt upon the Rocic, and then Z ram' 



fn ♦^ T"'"' ""'*'' ■«"• '""th ""d ea.t and wit 
m the effort to build ud a .fill <„^.. • ' 

all Its essentials, scattered thr ^ghLwJZntJ 
various provinces nf tK= r> . .* settlements m 

I rac iv" "St'i: ir""'*'"" •" '*« "-* '" 

«j ivT . . '®™'"y »n Its increase of DonnUtin., 





AtMNronby. GtBenl, 180. i 

AcadI* (Nov> KoolU), 14, U, 170, 

17«, lM-a>7. 
Act ol 1701,40. 
Albiuul, F»ll»r, U. 
\lexftfider, Hir WulUm, 180. 
AUMKmlna, 33, 70, »». 
Alleo, ettutn, 78. 
AUmui. F>th«, 74, 77. 
AUumette liljind, 70. 
Amluriit, Lord Jeffrey, Oenei el, 130, 

183, 17l>. 
A»M, Fetber, 74. 
Anuiiolie Royel. 108. 
Annnution to U. 8.. 388. 
ADUcoetl, leb oI, 18, W. 
Arluuwae River, 78. 
Arnold, Beiedlet, 30. lOI. 13S, 345. 
Afeioiboloa RlTer, 81. 


lUle dee Cbaleure, 80. 

Bdlbiquet, Fether. 88. 

Beleun Lake, 70, 

Berre, de U, 188. . , 

BuUie* (eee Notre Cum de U 

Beton Rou«e, 83. 
Beye, Saint Leurene, 80. 
Benuhamoie. Cbarfee, MerquJs de, 

OS, 311. 
Benuieu, Daniel de, 130. 
Beaupi4. Vlacount de, 83, 
Beavfr Club, 396. 
Beioeil, Heltbu of, 34. 
Bic. 36. „ 

Bienville, C41eron de, 100. . __ 
Biiol, Franeole, 30, 100, lOO, HI, 

114, in, 141, 310, 388, 
BOoii, 83. 
Blano Sabloo. 80. 
Uoueber, 48. 

Bouchenriile, 34, , „ 

Bouiainviile Comte de, 103, 113. 

lie, 118, 178. 
Itourgooye, Marguerite. 36, 380. 
Bouriiuiutque, General de, 103, 178. 
Bradatvoet, General, 183. 
Brtbeuf. Father Jean de, 3S, 74, 117. 

162. 301. 
Breaaani, Father Joeepb, 185. 
Brest Harbor, 80, 

Brion leland, M. _ „ 
Briliah Caaeion. SS, IH, JM, 
Brorli. 94 

Brul^. Ktienne, 70, 73. 
Buade, U HivUre, 78. 
Buteaui, Father, U, 84, 

Caeouiut, 18. 

Cadlllae, U MotU, 77. ' 

Caen, da, 38. 

CaUWrea, da, 171. 

Cap Rouge. 83, 88, 101, IIS, MS, 

Cap Tounaenta, 10. 

Cape Chatte, Naval Battle ol, IS. 

Capa Diamond, 10, 81, 83, «3, 107, 

Cape Eternity, 88. 

Cape Trinity, e«. _ 

Cariinan-iliaiUres Saglmant, 34. 04, 

087178, 313, 3SS. 
Carletoo. Oeoeml Sir Quy, 113-118, 

140, 170, 348, 
Caroo, Father La, 78. . ._ „ 
Cartiar, Jaequefc 11, 18, 17, 10. 80, 

37, BsTM, 80, 81, 83, 83, 88, 

Cartiar, 'Sir d«>rge Ctianna, 304. 

gSSStWtfV, 48,314. 
Caano. boUiar de, S3, ISO. 
Calalogne. 0«d«qn da. 1»._, 
Cauehon. Jaaq>h Edouard, 307. 


Cenaitairea, SOS. 

Chabanal. Father, 31, 183. 

Chambly, Captain Jaoques da. 178. 

Champlain. Samuet de. 11, 17. 10, 
sTsS, 38, 98. 68, 83, 88, 67, 
88 eg, 70, 71. 73. 73, SS, SO, 
00, 01, 00, 133, 167. 336. 

Chaplaau', BUJoeenh Adolphe. 408. 
Charlevoil. P«re. 138. __ 

Chamieay, D'Aunay, 101-106 
Chateau Ftontenac. 10, 106. 348. 
Chateauguay, Battle M, 31. 387. 
Chateau St. Louia. 230. 
CfaaudKre. river. 30. 
— falla, 33, 70. 
Chaumonot. Father Joaeph Marie, 

74. 186, 157. 300. 
Chauvin, Pierre, 10, 66. 




Chicago juvmTm.- 
Chicouttai, M, M 
Chou»rt, Mti^n 

Crfnuuif, Ootave, la). 

Djvion, P,Her, 83. 

r>etroit, 77, jm 

r- river, la. 

D«^. Ad.„, de. 0™.„.. „, 

J^oyMooDa, 30. 


*ort Carillon, iftn isi 
Fort Ch«„bli,'|?;J?|- 3,5 

Fort Prootenac, 164 182 
FortificatoM of pi» v 
_ 163-184 """''' 

K g^^U" Ide. 83. 
fort Roiup,, 8, ■«• 

Fox River. 75, 79 ' '™- 

F5;UiS*°B;n" ',"" "WooU'l.) 


OikSj!"^"' *^''°"" ■<• l*. 09. 

o«"g«. u, 17, ei. 
—■ B«y. 18. 

~ g«P«. 18. 

Onm Bay, 79 

Oraner, PathBr 83 


How,. Rlchani, eS' iS* 
Hudaon'a Bay 14 ai «- 

174. ^' "■ ^' 35. 75, 84. 
I — ■ Ctnnpany, m gt 

HuniM, 81, 89, 143. 
Jiwiuol., 22. 31 32 16S 

I '"■" <! OrtSan.. 19, 28, „,. „j 

I •'"'■"on.SirJohn.&lTjo""- 



JotUct, Louia, 74, 77. 
JoaquUra, M«rquii de U, 

■■ — J iu iUqui* Riv«r, 78, 81. 
Kamourftciu, 26. 
Kenneboo River, 85. 
Kent, Dukfl of, 347. 
KinoDce River, 23. 
Kirke, Admirml Sir Williun, 17. 35 
90, 100. 

Laehine, MaiMcre ol, 134. 169. 

L>fayo(te, AUrquia de, 41. 52. 

LafoDUine, Sir Louis Hypolite. 389. 

Luret River, 61. 

l^Jtt Brome, 24. 

Lake CharopUin. 13, 69. 

Lake Chataugua, 83. 

Lak« Comandeau, 23. 

Lake ^ilrie. 15, 34. 74, 76. 

Lake HuroD, 15, 71. 

Lakr, Kenogami, 26. 

Lake Mamwipi^ 24. 

Lf Ju Megantio, 24. 

J^e Mnmphramagos, 24. 

Lake Miohiun, 76, 76, 78. 80. 

Lake Nipiiung, 70. 

Lake of the wooda, 81. 

Lake Ontario, 15, 22, 70, 71. 

Lake Pepin, 83. 

Lake St. Francti, 21. 

Lake St. John, 13. 25. 27, 85. 

Lake St. Louia, 22. 

Lake St. Peter, 20, 67. 

Lake ffimooe, 70. 76. 

Lake Superior, 12. 13, 15, 73, 7D 

Lake Temiscouta. 85. 

I<ake Timiakaming. 13. 

Lake Winnebaio, 70. 

La LUrre Riv£r, 23. 

LaUomant, Father Cbadea. 35, 123, 

146, 261. 
— , J4r6ine. 148. 
— , Oabrid, 148. 
La I^Me, Father, 123. 
U RoobeUe, 123. 
La Roche Peroi, 16. 67. 
— , BatUe of, 17. 

La Salle, AbM Jean de. 75, 76. 77. 
— , Robert Cavelier de. 128, 134, 

178, 213. 
I.A Tuque. Folia of, 24. 
Idiurentiaa Mountaina, IS, 22, 27. 
Lftureatidee, 19. 61, 239. 
Laurier. Sir Wilfrid, 38, 405, 407. 

406, 413-419. 
Laval. Univeraity of, 37. Iftt. 369. 
— , Bi^op de. 93. 06. Sfl.'i. 370. 
LaTat-Montmorenry, Mgr. de. 270. 

Le Moyne, Charlea, 46, 99, 127, 131, 

— de BiaDTille, 83, 128, 216. 

— de Chateauguay, 216. 

— d'Iberville, 83, 128. 135. 174. 

198, 215. 

— de Loogueuil, 225. 

— do Mancourt, 129. 216. 

— de Ste. H41«ne. 130. 215. 

— do Sevigny, 216. 
— , Simon, 148. 
LmnozviUe, 26. . 
L'Eacarbot, 186. 
Lea Eboulementa, 18. 
I^ Sueur. Father, 83. 
LAvia. Pointe, 113. 

— , Marquia de, 102, ' 117. 110. 

129, 176, 180. 
I/IncamatioD, Marie dv, M, 97. 202 
I^ngfellow, Henry W., 201. 
Long Sault, 21, 23. 
Longueuil. Baron de, 99, 211. 
— , Chateau do. 21£. 
L'Orignal. 23. 
Lotbin^re. Cbartier de, 46. 129. 176 

179, 213, 217. 
Louiabourg, 100, 164. 179. 182, 200 
Louisiana, 14, 40, 174. 

.Vladairaaka River, 85. 
Maiasoneuve, Paul de Chomedy 

Sieur de, 12.3, 127, 131, 13*, 137. 
Mance, Mile. Jeanne, 36, 123. 132 

266. 302. ' 

Manicouagan River, 85. 
Manitoba, 81. 
Mannoir, 24. 

Msrc^uette. Father, 74, 77. 
Martm. Abraham. 110. 
Matane River, 18. 
— , town of. 26. 
Mattawa River, 70. 71. 
Mennen^-ille, Marquia de Duqoene 

Menominee River, 79. 
Meroi?r. Honortf, 400. 
Meaaaiger. Father, 81. 
MAsy. de, 99, 
Miami, S3. 

Michilimackinao, 76, 165. 
— , Strait of. 78.] 
Minneaota, 80. 
Afiramiohi, 85. 
Miaaiaaagi River, 13. 
MiBaiaaippi. Valley. 14, 35, 40. 
— River, 34, 74. 76. 70. 
Miaaouri, valley, 40, 
— , river, 75. 
Mobile, 83. 
Mohawks, 32. 
Moocktoo, Oeneral. ' 16, 





Montidy, hthar, gs. 
— , TMud it. I3J. 
MonUii.giiy, M. lb, M, 1S3. J61 

iRm' '"^ '^- '»■».■ 87. 

— , Adniinl do. 67. 

MontrMLl. 13, 20. 34 ar n? ^9 an 

Moou.*, l4«. 

Moore, Thomu, 23, 

MooM Riv«r, 80. 

MonUiwt, 21. 

Mount HoyJ, 21, 27, M, 121 2I» 

Mount St.. Ann., n. ' '' ■""• 

-"SK'lS,"!!*^ '*• "'• '"'• 2»- 

S^' HoMfo, 3M, 

N.pi«on Bivw, IJ. 

How Bnmmriok, Prarinw tl, 14 71 

Nfw»oandUuid, IS, 174 ' '• ''■ 

Najur. RiTCT, IS, M 

rifffl* 3*. 73, 74. 

NioluUa, F«tk«r. 85. 

Nw2Si.T*£" *"»•"■»»»• 

NortkwM FuV Compuy 139 
gonhw« IUl„lli™,r4M 
Notre Oun.. Chureh of, 2S7 

°^f*°" ^ ■• ^. Ch\«h of, 
"'"rf'm' * *'°°*~'' Con-puny 


NoOTol, FnthB., M. • "*• 
Nom Sootih as, 71. 

Ohio Bi»or, 75, 78. 


OnSdu, 32. 
Onomjacu, ii2. 
^tuon, S3. 


— . proTinM of, 7ft 

I OtoMb.. Bi,„, 70. 

I °»'I*lyo«Loqrd»,Chupd.of.s«i. 

PnjrfnMtoli RItw, 85. 
Fsmnetu, 41, 44, 403 
Puknuui, 30, 262, SQ2 
g««» ol 1763, 38, M 


P(p»n RivOT, 13. 
Pijmrt, Father, ISO. 
HonoCT. French, 14. 

fr^Sl7j2S;,-^i?,„. 1, 

Pontiac, 32. 

Port Royal. 68, 163, 170. 183 

wTiS' ^'^°«»" «*«. 67. 163. 
Pndrie du CUmi, 7B. 
Protottantum, 36. 
ProtMtaat Chunh, 256. 

Quebw) Act, 40. 

Quebee, city, ii. ia |a ,» ,„ 

-iSAf "• "■ »■ 231-366. 
9™". Father du, 86. 
V^to, Bay of, 70. 

"•^^"•thor Piorre E-prft, 77. 

^^rilli?'' ^"^ ■''■ <»• 138. 211 

8«5»ll«»«. 72. 91. 264 278 

Bod BivCT. 81 ■ • "'■ 

Sfotiffourhe, 86. 

RiM Lake, 70. 

EicMtou, Cardinal. 14, 34, 36, 38, 


Riniouaki. 26. 
glw St. John. 86. 
givijre de Oenn™. 69, 
Kiiljre dee IniquoU. 69. 
Kivrtre du Jotb, 18, 69 
BlvUre du Pont, 09. 



Hobert Bent Onlln d> b Salle, 

Boche, Muqi^ de la, 64. 

E)wd. FathM, 73. 
SagUHioy, 61, 6J. . 

— ^JW^^' *3' ". 18. 19. 20. 00. 

St. Anthui' , Falls ot, 74 

Ht. Chariei River, 61, 112 
Ht. Clair River, 16, 76 
8t. CouQ«. Father, 83. 

Ste. Croix Uand, 6S. 
3to. QeQevieve Is>and, 69 
^te. H616ne, iaUnd of, 123 
St«. Suianoe River, 69 
St. Fraocu, river. 13, 24, 60 
— , town of, 27. 

St. inutee, 77. 
St. Ma^'e ] 

D», aiMif ■ Bjver. Ifl. 

St. LawreDM. Gulf of. 14. 27, 60. 

ot. lAwrenoe River. 11. 12 13 H 

St. IxHiif River, 16. 

St. LuHon, Daumont de. 82. 

St. Maurice River, 13, 16. 20, 24. 71. 

St- ^^". SSpin^y of. 126, 130, 
137. 258, 268. 286. 364. 

— , Gentlemen of. 127, 226. 

fl«l«^rTy. CojlwMl C M. de, 21. 46, 
*>•. *J7, 38/. 

SaAatebewan River, 81. 

Sai'lt au R«coU9t, 73. 

Saolt Ste. Marie. 73, 79. 82 

Saunders, Admiral. 114. 118. 

Seigneurs. 46, 127, 308-230. 

Beneoas, 32. 

ShawiniJBan Falla. 36, 84. 

Bhnbrooke, 26. 

Society of the Holy Family. 157 

Sorel. 30, 178. 318; 3467^ 

— , Kerrs de. 178. 

fourpe. Father Thaumer de la. 83. 

Souris River. 81. 

Stadaetma, 62, 67. 

Sulpidans, 126. 130. 167. 211 

Susquduuina River, 73. 

Taeh«. Sir EUenne Paacal. 301 
TRdousac. 18, 64, 65, 66, 69, 86, 267. 

Talon, Jean Baptiite, 95. 218. 335. 

Tuchrreau, 37. 46, 409. 

Tecumseh. 32. 

TbayendeDacea, 33. 

Thousand IsUufls. 23 

Three Rivere. 30, 79. 84, 178. 345. 

Tonty, Henri de, 76, 83 

Toronto, 73, 76, 104 

Tour. Claude de la, 190 

— , Charles de la. 190. 192 

— . Madame Chariea de la, 190-196. 

Townahend, General, 116, 119 

Tracy, Marquis de, 95. 

Trappists, 23. 

Trent River, 70. 

Trenton, 70. 

TuBcsroras, 32. 

LTwenty-Three," The. 141. 

Two Mountams, hike of. 23. 

Ungava, 14. 

Upper Canada, 14, M. 

Ursulme Nuns, 212 

^"1b"2a2.'aSL" "^ Church rf 

Varennes, 24. 

VaudreL.. Cavamial, Marquis a. M 

^•"^ n^"iii ^.'"'•Ppe. Marquis *de 93! 

VercMrea, Seigneur de, 34. 172 

— , Marie de, 172. 

Verendrye, Gaultier de la. 80, 81, 

— . Francois da la, 81. 
— , lx>uiBdola, 81, 
—, Pierre d3 la. 81, 128. 
Verrasaono, 68. 
Victoria Bridge. 21, 121, 369. 
Virf. Father Nicholas, 73. 
ViUe Mane de Montreal, 24 133 
136, 135. ' * 

Vimont, Father, 124. 

War of 1776 41.56. 
War of ISli, 41. 53. 66. 176. 380 
Winnipeg, nver. 78, 81. 
— . city of, 81. 
Wisconsin River. 74. 75. S3 
Wolfe, General James, 38. 39. 48 64 
90, 108-120. 346. ' ' 

— Cove, 114. 345. 

— Monument. 110. 

— Redoubt. 119. 
Wolf-Montcalm Memorial, 109. 

Yamaska River. 24, 69.