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Full text of "The Canadian business and law, or, The careful man's guide [microform] : the best and most complete legal and business compendium for the Canadian layman, to which is added facts, figures, tables, weights, measures, statistics, short cuts in figures, etc."

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Additional comments:/ Pagination Is as folio 

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! f22], [l]-86. 86a-86d, 87-462. 4S5-W2, M2a-*82b. 



livraison 



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Tha copy (llmad hara has baan rapreduead thank* 
to tha gcnwoaitv of: 

National Library of Canada 



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Blbliothiqua natlonale du Canada 



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Lat imagat tuivantat ont *t* raproduiiai tvtc I* 
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illuswent la mOthode. 



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THE CANADIAN 

BUSINESS AND LAW 



The Canadian 

BUSINESS and LAW 

OR 
The Careful Man's Guide 



CuduD Uym.li. t. which i. .dded 

F«U. Fi,„,„ TJJ^ Weighu. M.„„r... S,..l..ic^ 
Shsil CuU in Figure!, elc. 



By 



EDWARD MEEK, K.C. 

A-iu.d b, Olh., Promi,.,, A.ion^y. 

"1« EilUoa 



■ ■ ■ - - REGINA 



/ / /"" 



Copyright, Canada, 1914, By 
THE JOHN A. HERTEL CO., LIMITED 



PREFACE 



This volume is intended as a sale and trustworthy guide 
to the proper transaction o( all kinds ol business. 

It supplies the necessary legal and buiinesa inlormation 
together with the approved forms tor the successful conducting 
of practical business of every description. 

The matter it contains is up to date and carefully written 
by competent men experienced in the particular branches of 
which they treat. 

We are indebted to the Canadian Almanac also for valuable 
matter on the following subjects: The King and Royal 
Family; The Kind's Civil List; The British Census; The 
British Navy; Sterling Exchange Tables; The Dominion of 
Canada; The Census of Canada; Patents in Canada; Holidays 
in Canada; Parliament since '67; Postal Information; Bank 
Statistics; The Succession Duties Act; and the Law of Intes- 
tate Estates. 

This collection of commercial and legal forms is so com- 
plete as to enable any person to readily draw up almost any 
kind of business document that may be required in any of the 
«-rovinces, including Contracts, Deeds, Leases, Mortgages, 
Bonds, Bills of Sale, Bills of Lading, Building Agreements, 
Articles of Partnership, Promissory Notes, Orders, Due Bills, 
Receipts, Powers of Attorney, Guarantees, Wills, etc. 

The innumerable points of practical law and valuable 
business helps and hints it contains are not scattered hap- 
hazardly through the work, but are all arranged system- 
atically, under appropriate headings, with index commence- 
ment words printed in boldfaced type, so that the eye of 
the reader catches the particular information wanted im- 
mediately. 

Besides its legal and practical inlormation, the work con- 
tains: 1. Letter-writing, with helpful forms and illustrative 
examples of social, business, and official correspondence. 
2. Exhaustive explanations of the various swindling schemes 



ol the d«y, thorounhly eipoiing the dmngeroue conadence 
games and frauds by which honest larmers, bankers, mer- 
chants, and business men generally are daily defrauded out 
nt their hard-earned money. 3. The latest census Uhles, in- 
terest, limitation, and exemption laws, contracts, leases, and 
a large amount of sUtistical information that cannot be 
found ii, any other publication. 4. Tables for rapid compu- 
tation and ready information, constructed so simply that 
they can be easily understood and practically used by every 
one having the slightest knowledge of figures. 6. A miscel- 
laneous collection of useful information pertaining to all 
the business and social relations of lite. 

It makes no pretensions to lull and exhaustive treatment 
of the subject matter comprised under the diflerent heads, 
(or to do this would require under each bead a lib- 
rary and for each f ™nce a separate treatise; but like first 
aid to the injured on the battle field it is intended to antici- 
pate and supplement the work of the skilled specialist, by 
giving such information as may avoid many errors into 
which in the course of business undertakings a man is 
likely to tall. 

As the statute law may be and often is different in the 
provinces and territories, pains have been taken to go over 
this work with care and point out such differences as may 
exist in the diflerer* localities by careful stateinent of the 
law under each jurisdiotion, or by such words of caution 
as will indicate that the law varies in some sections from 
the statement of the text. 

It is believed that this book will be found of great prac- 
tical assistance in the conduct of the affairs of those who 
use and study it. 



May 1, 1914. 



Thi Authors, 



I 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



AbbNTbtloii, Biitieu .. 

-itCMCJ 

Oenenl Agent 

Special Agent 

Bxtent of Authority 

Liability of Principal ....."" 
Wrongful Acts of 

UablUty of " . . ' 

Accounting , 

Compensation 

Sub-agents 

Mixing Property 

In Whose Name Done 
Responsibility of Third Party 

RaUdcation 

Revocation 

Power of Attorney ...... 

AgrMmeata 

Made In Writing 

Restraint of Trade 

Oral '■ 

General Pornn of ...... 

Employer and Employee 
Mer to Purchase or Sell Land 
AlplubeUeal Index . 
ArUtntlon .... 



A.stor.r,^''T"'°''''°"™''''°°''"'''^^"---- 



Lands and Tenements .. 
For Beneflt of Creditors 

Forced Assignments 

Things not Assignable , 
Forms of 



raai 
. 888 
141 
142 
142 
142 
143 
142 
143 
143 
143 
148 
148 
148 
148 
144 
144 
145 
76 
76 
79 
82 
83 
84 
84 

S67 

146 

146 

147 

147 

147 

147 

147 
, 148 



BlUl. 



14> 



Form of Ball Bond 160 

Bctlneata 160 

Bukrupte^ 152 

Buki tad BaiklBf loi 

Banking Act of Canada loi 

Bank Circulation Redemption Fund 103 

Floating Security 104 

Additional Security 104 

Collateral Security i06 

Cheques Raised 109-112 

Certllled Cheques lu 

Indorsements of Cheques 116 

Forms of Indorsements lis 

Banking Rules 117 

BOIi of Exehangc 120 

Bank Draft 121 

Set of Foreign Bills of Exchange 122 

BDli of Sale 265 

Black Fox iDdaitrj 288 

Bnuh of Tmst 322 

Brokefs Ig2 

BnOders' Tables (See Facts for Builders) 446 

BulllHS 

Get Into the Right Place 

Industry and Integrity 

Moral Courage 

Franklin's Maxims 

Habits of a Business Man 

Diligence in Business 

Carefulness in Money Matters 

Marshall Field 

Importance of Little Things 

Bnslness Dictionary 



16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 



25 
613 



Cards— Calling and Bnslness 69 

Capitals— Rules for the Use of 29 

Carpenters' Rules 492 

Roof Framing 492 

How to Find Bevels and Lengths of Rafters 493 

How to Find Height of a Trt; 494 












CONTKNTS 



PAQE 
497 
COO 



Cnni of CuMto 

Ot Brltatn •""^.""!""]"! 

Of Newfounillunl 

chn 8«rTi« ;■•; 5?? 

Coaneree 

I'telBi agiiHt Eitatet 

CoouwreU Arltkinetle 

Addition 

Multiplication ] 

Division ] " " 

Multiplication and Dinalon Coi'blned 

Fraction! 

Gomnlmloa Xcrelmta 

Commajr Law 

Various Provinces 

Joint Stock Companies 

Cantnuts " 

Simple 

Mutual 

Unilateral 

Miners. Lunatics, etc 

Under Seal 

Of Record 

By Agreement / ' 

Implied In Law 

Voluntary 

Executed 

Executory 

Illegal ■■....■.....[..[.. 

Against Public Policy 

Void and Voidable 

By Letter 

Forms of 

Gopyrlghts 

Coronation of Etn^ Cleor^ V. 

Corporations 

Correspondence 

Business Correspondence 

Some Special Points In Business Letters '. 
Rules for Writing a Postal 



496 

13 

. . . . 307 
. . . . 405 
. . . . 405 
. . . . 407 
.... 411 
. ... 412 
.... 413 
... 167 
... 159 
... 160 
... 161 
71 
. . . 71, 72 
71 
71 
, .. 71-80 
.. 72-75 
.. 72-76 
72 
. . 72-74 
72 
72 
72 
78 
78 
79 
. . 73-83 
83 
300, 301 
487 
163 
33 
34 
40 



41 



CONTSNTB 

Mgg 

Ctmtptainn— Continued. 

ExamplM o( BuiloMi Letter! n 

Lettere Re<]uestlii( Special Farori ^t.f^ 

Letten of Apolofy gj 

SooU) ......!!.] (4 

Letten of Affection .,,,.. M 

Lettera of Priendeblp 57 

Letten of Coniratulitlon ....." 51 

Letten of Introduction ' . . . (g 

Letten of Condolence gi 

Letters of Love and Courtahip «| 

Credit— Tke Potnej of jj^ 

CriBlaal Law ,„ 

How Divided in 

Hiitor7 of ...!!.!!.!!!!.. zv 

Arrests 

Juatlllcatlon ...!...! 

Self Accusation 

Insane Person 



329 
330 
332 
382 



Debti— How la CoUeet 

Lejal Steps in Collection 

Cos* --,; Collection 

Exemption Laws of Dllferent Provinces . ijb 

When Outlawed 

Deeds , '" 

Delivery of 

Deed Poll 

Different Kinds 

Escrow 

Execution of 

Indentures 

Registration [ 

Requirements of Different Provinces 

Form of Warranty Deed 

Form of Quit Claim Deed for Ontario ...... 

Form for Nova Scotia 

Form for Newfoundland 

Form under Torrens System 236 

Form for Saskatchewan and Alberta . 238 

DeseeDt and SIstrlbntlon of Estates 



177 
173 
180 



188 

78-206 

76 

78 

208 

76 

76 

76 

208 

208 

210 

211 

212 

212 



304 



I 



CONTKMTH 

DlTbl.1 .t tk. U« "" 

DcBlihii tf CaaUa ' 

Dnfti **l 

RulM for Writlni and Aocnptlni .'..' 

f^nat of Drafts 

Form of Bank Draft ... 
»■• BUU 



Faeti for BilMart 

Fam Laaui 

Fanoi an* Farmlar 

Farm staUatica 

Measurement of Land 

Amount of Barb Wire Required for Fence '. 

Area and Weight of Tile 



Immigration . 
Imports . .. 



118 
120 
lil 
«7 



4I> 

« 



Edicattoul Srslcm of Cauda 
Eiforeemnt »l Uw ... 
CtMom* 

Direct .!..'.'"."!.".'.'.'.';.'.' !! 

ClreumstanUal 

E«ls« Tariff 

Facta aid Fifares for BislMta Mai 

How to Become Wealthy 

Canadian Rallwars 



71 
126 
>U 

in 

111 



Salaries of Qorernment Officers of the World Ji2 

ProductlTe Wealth of Canada ,14 



44S 

244 
341 
34. 
348 
3<« 
348 



The Carrying Capacity of Tile 349 

Hog and Cattle Table 



360 



How to Find Number of Bushels of Orain '. 3151 

Grain Tables 

Farmers' Club ..[.. 

Fence Laws !..".'..".' 

Flndrr of Lost Property ...!!!."!!!!]""] 

Guaranty— Forma of 

Husband and Wife 



352 
367 
318 
323 



266 
316 



291 
!i08 



CONTIKn 



litumict 

Fire InturmiiM 



ni 



Pormi of Polloln |jj 

"•"n ;;;;; ,„ 

Y" MO-W 

IniuruM InrmtlfaUon 2U 

Accldtat and Cuualtjr „0 

Hiltorjr of Iniunnea jj^ 

Dominion Iniuranca Act (gg 

Provincial Iniunnce Rompanln 281 



, . 107,420 

Internt Act ,q, 

Oomlnion Money Lcnden' Act jog 

Internt of Judgment Debti igj 

IiTttntloai _'""" ,j 

Forme of Vtrlout KIndi of Invltntlone M 

Anewerlni Inrlutloni ., 



Kilt art Peril Faallx 



Laa4Iei4 aad Teiail 

Leaaes 

Rights of Landlord 

RIgbte of Tenants 

Duties of Landlord 

Duties of the Tenant 

Form of House Lease 

Notice Porma 

Tenancy, Various Provlncea 

DIatresa 

I<Msea— Ilouae 

legal Gifts 

Legal Holidara li Cauda ........ 

Letters of Credit 

Llenf 



Mechanics' Lien 

For Various Provinces ' 

Lnmber (See Builders' Table, Pacts for Builders) , 

Buying and Selling Lumber 

Pacts for Lumbermen 



2Se 
256 
258 
269 
2«0 
2<0 
2«1 
2<3 
284 
286 
281 
322 
381 
123 
, 267 
2>t0 
i-271 
460 
460 
461 



I 



CONTlNIg 

hmmUr.—Con'inuet. "" 

Botrd and Plank Mmiaurament at Bltbt m 

Tabia or Meaiuremanta Uj 

Low Reduced to Board Mnaiure 1 !!!!!!!! 466 

Number of Shinilea Required for a Root isa 

Number of UUia for a Boom .'.',['., 45, 

Xtp of C*w4a 

JUrtirwdta wtittaf»«*Priiuii'.'." ,; 

Punctuation " 

The Two-MlllloB-Dollar Comma ^^^ ...'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 26 

■ctcaatae A|*Mlca 

KntJ (See Banki and Bankint) ini 

Fact. About Money !^ 

Table Showinc Value of roreign Mowy '.'.'.'.'.."" u» 

^•tntf 

Real Bitate "' 

How to Foreoloae ,,' 

Korme ; ; "° 

Newfoundland ■■"!"""!!!!!" 217 

Short Form, BrtUih Columbia ...]!!]!!.!!"!"' 218 

Newfoundland Leasehold ......."..'.'.' 219 

IHloharie of Mortcage ,,„ 

Anignment of !!!!!!."""' 0,0 

Long Form, Ontario ,, 

Chattel Mortgagee ■■...■.....'..'. 241 

Rules Governing .'_'_" "" j^. 

With Power of Sale ............'. 242 

Form of Live stock, Saakatohewan 229 

Seed Drain, Manitoba 224 

Torrene System ..'.'.'.... 237 

KiiBleliigl Law '..!!]"' 

WatnrallsaUoa „,, 

Kewfoundland ill 

Sotes (Promlssorj) og 

DeBnItlon of ig 

Negotiability go 

Special Features gja 



CONTENTS 



Notn (Pronltroi7).— Condtmetf. 

Days of Grace 

Dishonored 

^™"""'K '.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.'.■.■.".V.Mfc, 87 

Presentment for Payment 811b 88 

Joint ■ 

At Sight ....■.■;.'.':;: Z 

Accommodation "" ,jj 

Endorsers of 

Made Payable at Bank 

Lost ""'■ 

Forms of 



Offleial PoslUoBs CnSer the Clrfl Senlee Att 

Orders 

Forms of 



FilnUng 

Partnership 

How Partnerships are Formed 



uz I 



86a 
Seb 



87 



Endorsements— Examples of .'_'_* 94.JJ 



496 
96 
97 



460 

153 

Dissolution of Partnership . . ... 

Articles of ;„ „. 

Patents .........' 

In Canada 

In United states 

Points on Crimful Law ......."... 

Postal Inrormutlon •■••.■.... 

Parcel Post 

Postal Service of World 

Postal Service of Canada !."......... 

Postal Service of United States 874 

Practical taw and Bnslness Pointers . 

Price of Wood per Cord 

Principal Cities of Canada ."'!.!...."!.".'.'" 

Principal Cities of the United States 

Promise, Tolnntary ,. 

Propertj-Personal ............', 'ol. 

Sale of Goods and Chattels 

Warranty 



.156-168 
. . . 296 
. . . 296 
. . 298 
.. 327 
.369-380 
.369-372 
. . 373 
377 



316 
467 
479 
482 



247 
247 



264 
256 
272 
192 
192 



11 



CONTENTS 

^"Vrtj—rmoatL—CmUnaet. 

8«le by Auction 

BUI of Sale .' 

Act Regarding Alberta 

Fivpert)'— B«al 

HIght of Ownerahlp 

Estate for Life 

Joint Tenancy . .........'." '' '*' 

Tenants In Common ......' ' "' 

Mortgages "' 

Title '.V, IM. 213 

Heal Estate ...."........'.' "* 

Torrens System . "^ 

Descent and Distribution of' Estate.' '..'. fJi 

Claims Against '''* 

PnbUe ITeetln^ 

PnbUc Boads. laws GoTemlBg 

Respecting Motor Vehicles ..'.'.'.'.'.'.' !!? 

Publle Schools-Caiiadlaii 

^trr.T'K"'* l*' «'«»'" and ■DuM«';iDi;,c: 
tors. Teachers, Pupils and Parent. 

381 

"•Dwayg, StaUons, Depots, etc. ... 

Branch Lines '"• "' 

Spur Unes ', '29 

Crossings. >29 

Junctions . . '..'.'.".';.'.';.'.' "'■ ""• ''1 

Wages of Workmen, etc ■' '^' 

Trafflc 130 

Injury to Passengers '" 

Railway Fares ^f^. 

Luggage 132 

Liabilities for Damage' io' Goods !f ! 

Stoppage In Transitu 'f: 

Dangerous Commodities . . . ] , ^'^^ 

Officers and Employees *'' 

Hecelpts-Bnies for Writing All Klads 'f! 

Forms of Receipts '' 

Resolutions . " 

14 



190 



CONTENTS 

PAQS 

BcspontlbUltr of Oirnlng a Dog 321 

BIgbtii nd Obligations of Parents and Cblldren sie 

Rights of Parents gj- 

Obligations of Parents 317 

Children's Rights and Obligations 3ig 

Bale for Finding Baj Eyent Ocearred 433 

Bnles for Painting ^jq 

How to Mix Inks or Paints for Tints 46] 

Bules floTemIng tbe Finding of Lost Property 323 

Boles and Examples for Tarioas Business Operations. . 414 

Commission 4^4 

Discounts '4]!; 

Proat and Loss 413 

Taxes— How to Find a Property Tax 419 

Insurance— How to Find the Cost of 419 

Sales of Personal Property 247 

Salesmanship 332 

Shipping 386 

Signature 32g 

When in Pull 320 

By a Married Woman 326 

When Person Cannot Write 326 

Spelling 28 

Statute of Frauds 76-78 

Statute of LImitatlottB 31 

Steam Boilers, Inspection of 333 

Sterling Exchange Tables 125, 126 

Succession Duty Acts 393 439 

Swindling Schemes 39J 

The " Green Goods " Swindle 392 

Three Card Monte 393 

Shell Game 394 

Envelope Trick 394 

Bunco 335 

Film Flam .'.'. 395 

Patent Fence Swindle 397 

Fence Stretcher Machine Fraud 397 

The Lightning Rod Swindle 393 

Form of Swindling Contract and Note 399 



OONTBNTH 

Tabl»-SterU.g £«»..«« ,,,"" 

Hog and Cattle Table . "6, 126 

Grain ^^0 

Interest ......]. ' '°^ 

Wages, by Day, Week or Month ".'.'.['. «J 

Ready Reckoner " 

Value of Coal and Straw "* 

Grocers* ^^^ 

Builders' ^'* 

Lumber, Log and Wood ' „ *,tt 

Day and Year "^■"' 

Money Tables .. *'* 

T«.B_Kli.d8 of In Canadi '.■.'.■ "''"' 

Of Unearned Increment on Land J!f 

Amendment to 

Telegnplis ^** 

Submarine Telegraphy ] 

Wireless Telegraphy 

The British Census .... 

The British Sary [[]'[' 

The Klnir and Royal Family 

The King's clTll list . <»6 

The Torrens Land Titles System'; "* 

The Law of Snbscrlptlons ^'^ 

Trade and Commerce ..', '^4 

Trade Marls "* 

Transportation . , . ^'' 

Liability of HallroadsandBxpress Compan'le;::: '" 

Bills of Lading 134,137.140 

Common Carriers of Persons ".' ."!."." i.' I.' .' lit 

Tmsts and Monopolies 

Trespassing and MIschleroBs AnImaU ...'.'.'".'"" 

Valnable MIsecllaneons Matter 

Measuring Land *^^ 

Table Showing Value of Foreign Money'.': HI 

World's Production of Gold and Silver '? 

Coinage of Nations for 1910 

Table of Things, Distances, 'etc! '.'.': .' .'.■.'.':.■.':;■•■ "l 



200 
201 
201 
500 
497 



137 
358 
220 



C0NTXNT8 

fiat 

Talubl* MiMcIluMiu m*tt»t.—Oimni>ueil. 

T«ble Showing Time In Principal Cities 471 

Olatancea and Mall Time to Foreign Citlea 474 

DIatsnces, Cares, etc., between Cltlee of U. Si... 476 

Une of Perpetual Snow and Longest Rivers 478 

Deepest Seas and a Century of Progress 478 

States and Territories of the United States 481 

Creeds of the World 411X 

Religious Denominations of the United States and 

the World 4)] 

Welf kts SBd Measores 148-440 

The Metric System 443 

Table for Finding Contents of Square Tanks 443 

To Measure Wells, Cisterns and Casks 443 

Tank and Barrel Measurement 444 

Wnis— Bales for WittlBK igg 

Codicils 172 

^nrms . , , •••••...,,,,..,.,,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 173 



PART I 

Division of Law, Enforcement. Ed- 
ucation, Advice, Business 
Maxims, etc. 




H. M KING GEORGE V 

KliiB nfi,,,.„t MritulM ,i„,l I„.|„,.,| 
Emperor of India 



DIVISION OF THS LAW 

Blukitooe'i Commentarlea on th. i 
puwirted .bout 160 y«« «o Jf H,^- . "' *""'"« "•■■• 
«ner«i dlviloa.. name" !^L^?. f!''".?" "" '»» '-"o two 
•ubdlvlded e«h Of thMe into two dlvf.. "J"" "' '*" 
volume, of commentarlM dl.culnh« ^ ""• """^ "" """ 
'■>« title., VI.., (1, The Lw. ?1^^ ■ """^ '"« ""'o*- 

" "a rule of civil conduct Dre.orlh.Ik\. """"" '»* 

■■> the State, comn,andlnrwrtTr.,h, " ?' ^""""^ '»"'"■ 
l» wrong." ' '• "«'" •"^ prohibiting what 

beS\^;.:rd^r.irir "" ■""-'"""■ <" - »- 

«tentjue.iy «, It C ^Tll "■?""' "" '» »»■»« 
but a vague concept on „' me phtl^^h """' "^ '""'»«'"' 
For example, hi. exp™.. oL ' r.giro, ''th,!; "''°''°! °' '""■ 
a» a division of the Mn.^i i . """"■ when uaed 
'-appropriate. It La, be "d ' tl " ..''°"' ■"'«='"""'<' ■""« 
indlvlduau or eorpoitJoVaLe X ':":*?" "*" "*■"'• 
thing., but thing, themselve. f. I """*"• *"^ o™"- 

cannot properi/beliLT Xvl:garVr'""v' ''™''"'^' 

Pletene.. of hi. treatise Its .1^ i. *^"- ^" *» <=™- 

n.ent. and hi. lucId ^■wj; of ex:: t'or^n"''' """*'- 

demand emphatic recognition as an »?, " <""■'«""'■' 

patient labor and researeh Thp '"'/■'*"■•'■'« -onument to 

law form the subJect-maUer of • JuHsn"'. ""' "" "'™« "" 

race Is parcened out Z a °li TJl'''''"" ^he human ^ 

ties or nations, differ nl\re„^f '"""'°' """■"• "«='«- 

'-their Physlial, .;lVand mo^l"?"' '" ""='""^' «»^ 

"oclety or nation has Us own ZT "I""'"'"'"- Each 

there are many things commLT T, ? ^'"•"■'■••"'ence, yet 

expressions a. right dutv ? °" '°^'" »"'™''- S-di 

common to all Th. . , ""■'"'""■• J"«tlce and crime are 

a-d classlVln^-oVrrirrner-Ts"" ^'7'-'"" 

.-. .0 some o.v"Crsutr':"..rZ" r .r 



[;':!' 



I :| 



DIVISIO.V OK THE LAW 

tH. br,«h of , contract re.uU, In « „tlon tor d.m.l 
«nd the TloUtlon of . criminal l»w rMuU. i! . ''•°»«". 
pnnl.hn,.nt Both con.. .„" uJL,;" n<. " BlX'/n.": 

In all countrlea where Englleh law prevail! or I. ,h. 
foundauon of the legal .y„em. there are aever^ inrce from 
Which law. ,nd rule, are derived, the fundamentll LuZ 
being What 1. called -The l!.,,!,* common taw^^ttaZ 
unwmten or uncod.fled law. and ha. been va^M and Idd^d 
to. and It. principle, and remedle. have been ext«„mfj7 
amended, and extended, by ,(,1,1, i,,* L ! . "'""'"'»''■ 
J»d,.tal decl...... The coVmon'^aw": ttrr/atum or 

groundwork of the legal .y«em exLtlng 1„ e"'?^^ Z 
nearly .11 of the United Bute, of America and In f 1 C'th^ 
colonies of tie Britl.h Empire, with a few excenti^i. ,^ 
Province of Quebec In Canada, and tte'stat, o, ? . . 

ta cwi and criminal matter., prevail, in ail of the SU^« 
and arougbout the Dominion of Canada. The Engll.h crim 
inal law. the law relating .0 negotiable in.trumenU ?wiTh 
a few unimportant modlacatlon.) company law partnorlh „ 
ml^Mr'r"" ""'• "" P™""''^ the .ame ,n evc^ 
Of Canada .„.'1h^"""' ■""■ ""o "■™"«^'«'"' tt" -"0^ 
Lh of th. « . ^' """^ °'"''°'" °' "■» Brltlah Empire 
tte Prov „! "" °°°""""* "« "-""^ State., and each of 
own l7J, w '='""'"'"°« "" Dominion of Canada, h". iL 
ZL ^. f ' """ '"'»'" "°"'^'' power, for the enac^ 
ment. and its own offldal. for the enforcement of law, Th« 



r I 




DIVISION OF TlIK LAW 
(1) The L»w of Property. Real ,nd Per.on.l. 

p^^rtjr^-rr:^^—' - 




THE KNKOriCEMtNT OF THE LAWS 



I 



" uneonitltuUonsI " lagliU- 



Thta Mpreulon li aqulvilant to ' 
Hon In the United Stitea. 



THE ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS 

.worn .0 .„d delivered .o . Ju.tlce of .he p..c tr" X 
m«l..r,.e. or by an •■Indictment" pre.en.ed to . J^„d 
Jnry upon wblch a .ummon. I. l..„ed commandlnftt. 
d. end.n, to appear and an.wer to the charge. orTwarr«t 
I. iMued for the arre.t of the defendant 
.>^''"'!'! '*"' "* •»'•««! by forfeiture., line., penaltle. 
and putjlahnjent. of varlou. kind.. Every court, every 'ud/e 

i^hta LT, '"" ^ "" '""'°'' »""■» •'""•"^. "" ".Ok 

h.dil . "" »«■■»'»"" to e^wte and enforce the 

Judgment, and order, of the court., .uch a. .h!riff. 
con.t.b,.., „„„„^ „„^^^, ^^^ empower d ton,. '. uch 

«T; ■"";''"■;"""■■«"''»•. detention., and attachment 

r„r. f,, '"^''"* •"" "Irectlon. given to them Of 

en. u:,e''"laT IT""' ""'™»'-"». Prl»n. Ind pen"' 
tent arle.. where tho.e who are accu.ed of crime mav h. 

ourt may (1) direct the payment of money a. the "debt" 
6 



i[_ 



Tin (Nroiciiinrr of tiie uws 
«o." 01 th. conlr«t, i. ihc. eu.. wh.r. th. etelm of Ih. 

dunM«; or (3) lh.r. m.r b. , Jud,m.nt for w^'^unl 
Hon • r«tr.talD, «b, d.f.nd«K from Ui. co»«.l„ 3 « 
oo»u»u„c. Of «». ,ron,fu. «„ „ ,4, .fc,„ ^H.',' 
to^Ji!'^ "Wuncuo"" or ord.r oomcodln, th. d.f.nd«t 
to >b.t« Mm. nulunn, lueh u . noiloui or offrailr. 
ofT^?"'."' " ""•""' •"*"" "'""'"'«• " 'ho »™»'ni 
^oii^. "^"" *""• '^•" "• ™»»« nul«Bc.i 

to atat* ttaa nulunce ud to p»y •uoh d>inx«i u nwr bo 

co..ld.»d . «tl.f.ctlon for th. Injury c,u.«l by th, nu" 
«^», """ "•" ■'"' ""'" • *«f.nd.nt to .xecut. . 
l.^«!.„"V?"f or to do «,y oth.r ut which th. .dmln- 

i.f7^.« ,^ ,^' '!'""*• ■'"'""' •» '»'"'"»«' »' ">• 

«irr.r """* ™""«"«" """. "d «. order from th. 
"diL^ """'■ ««n»"dliii Urn to .nfOrc th. 



1 



;l 



MUMICIPAI. LAW. 

MUNICIPAL L iW 

'«T" »«n. .», loci ty tt. ini^i. r"* """ ""■"WP.I- 

»««lclp.l,ty „e.n. „ c,y town t"i ""'' "'""'' 

county or,„,.„;r "■" ■*" ■" "" »""'«. without 

•roctod Into . "vmll. ' VZ""""- *»'' "'"rtct m,y b. 

«■• «« Of .„oh ^Crwer. ."""" ■" '«""-' •» 
«^Urto «,n.muted t„ ...iZ, ,''/°:'"'""'""""^»>' '» 

r?'""""-' "" -~-. «c r-^ruir^ii 

lM.t 600. The Municipal B^ri ' ' >«'P"'»Uon of at 

"■» . population Of not e« than^'lLt" """ ' """■ »- 
■"ay erect any "vfiia,..,;t' ■"'"' '""' » "'"y." and 

2.000 Into a •• town" "'"* ' ■»'""«Uon of no. lea, Zu 

8 



I 



llLXIfilML LAW. 

r«r.?jr' ^°''"'" " """""'• "' "•"">' «"«« by 

J^tt 1, """'■ ^' "■""WW' council. b.lng ,h, 

^J^T,? ,. """"—• "^^ """ »' • ">■"'"' '« th. 
«i«jror of th. dtjr or town, or th. reeve of the vlll„e or 

*h?.'.iu. "f.'r""-" " '•"»'"<■ «o .PPotnt . "rk" 

*ho.e duty It I. to record In the minute book .11 the re«.l,. 
U„n. d«,.|on. .nd other proceeding, of th. »„'„:« Ttc 

z Jx-..inr4; ^f '1— 'rr — 
^r..7r.r„?,rc:;ntV''"-'' -- """---' 

Th. .ot> of counetl. tr. eipr«..d In th. Ik>na of by-I,w. 
or r..olutlon,. Th. word by-taw, or " byM.w ° melni I 
tav .ppucbl. to th. Jnh.blUu.1. of . p.rS«T."'loc,my or 
By-Uw, b.^ a, „„, ,„„ ,„^,^ ^^ 

?r 1^ "«*«•' P.rll.n,.nt h« over th. p«pie .t Ur„ 
Another mod. of „pre„lng the will of th. Tunc" "by 
•wwluUon." But It I. erron«u. to .uppo.. th« , "rJi^ 
luUon" 1, Of the ».me validity a. . by-l.w. T^^^l^ 
Zl ^\lJr *•""""»■' ■- " ">" a corpor.Uo. c^ 
r«J !fL . "•" "" "•'• """ munlolP.! corpomUon. ." 
«thori.«l to «t by ■■ by-Uw." A •• r.«,luHon " m.y ."pr^JJ 
th. opinion or Intention of th. council, hut 1. I. not . fCJ 
•ct of th. council. The thing, which . council m.y tawfZ 
not^T "!:; •" "" "' """"■»'*«-*• A by-Uw ,Z.M 

i^oH.!^. /".."'""''"'" " '""'«' ''•y '"»« " 1« »o. 

Inhabitant.. ., may b. deemed expedient, provided they are 
.Mctlon of every conncll .hall be exercLed by by-law., and 
r.^„T"' J"""!?' """' ""■ ■■"=" '»'-""'" «"1 """■. auch 

Zl r : *." "'"""• '•'"'''• """" '-a '""■•'"'ty o' the 
not contrary to law. Council, may .1« mak. by-law, and 
rewluuon. tor govenitag the procMdIng. of the council and 



if 



MUNICIPAL LAW. 

the conduct of Ito Diembew. etc Tho„»h h, , 
Pasaed top mrny divergent ni.rnT * *'^"''"'" ""'^ ^e 

between •• monly byTw, 'i^. "h"^/" '*"° " ' '«»"«Uon 
by-law "mean, a bHiwror'"V":r "'"""'• * ""«>■■<»' 
or for borrowing ZtiZ a " a r V '"" " '"'"»"'>''■ 
the amount of the debUnt™..H TT' "''""'' " """•"" >«««« 
"hlch It is to be created thf " "'"'"• ""« ""J"' '<"• 

property of the m~'l ty and°T °' "" '"■°" """"">'« 
debtof the corporation etc inT , "°'°"" "' "" '»««' 
re,u.re the aes^nt "r tbr:,e,i:,r'Trar.V tTe"^ '"-''^'" 
pares the proposed bi- !«» .^^ . ' ""^ ™>"":" Pre- 

all 'be e.ec?orssha,. vote upon .t'"'","" " ""' ■"'°" ""'"'■ 
vote Is sufficient In ^ih„ '" """' ™'«« « majority 

'h aid Of manuftctires ' ra""'' ■"'." "" ""'"■"' '■^-"'-»" 
tion Of the elector sxceekfaT; »" """' "' " '•"'^'■ 
There are provisions In ^!, f .r'"'"' '» -'"ally required. 

'or the apZ^:;°:r eTa ° , ::e""„r'r' ^°'t' ■""'■"■■* 

some Board of authoritv ^™ , f I °''"' ''J'-laws by 

■»ent to save the e,pen» and. , ' ""' """"""■"" "o"""- 
vote of ratep^e^ ""'^ occasioned by taking a 



it 



10 



PUBLIC MEETINQS 



M^'T " °^ • MMtiag-When a number of person, desire 
to call a public meetjng for the purpose of taking action^ 
any kind, .t is usual to proceed by means of pLonaTre: 
quests, written notes, printed circulars, or ad,^rtiseme„ 
.n a newspaper. The call may have one or more namTJo 
It, or It may be a simple notice without signatures 
Organizing a Meeting.-When the persons to constitute the 

"etTrv trat""'""''' "' *''\»PP«"'»d Pl««e, it be':™: 
necessary that some one take the lead in order to proceed 
to business. Such person should rise and say: 

!„„« ?"■ '"'""". ^"''™'* ''"' '"■smess, I nominate Mr 
Jones as chairman of this meeting." 
Some friend of Mr. Jones then says: 

I second the nomination." 
tbe^n,^^" ■"""' ""'"^ mentioned, the person who opened 
ot Mr. Jones' nomination, and will say: 

It IS moved and seconded that Mr. Jones be chairman 
of this meeting All in favor of Mr. Jones will say 'Ze" 
All opposed will say 'No.' " ' 

There bein? no negative response the proposer will say 
chair:" ° " ™™'''- ""■• '""^ ""' P'^'^^ '"''«"'» 

seafres«v:df^r^*b"'T'"'"'°"* ''"•™°"y' ^'"''^ "> «•« 
TtZ 7f f" the "hairman, and, if so disposed, will make 

to h^ «™' l-t^t''^ '"■• "■« '"•"'»■ "■■ '■omp'i-ent paid 

Mm,Tnd sa" ' "P °° "'" "'''' ""■'''* •»«"' 

"What is the pleasure of the meeting t" 

Some one will rise and say: 

"I nominate Mr. James Wilson as secretary." 

Then another says: 

"I second the nomination." 

The chairman then says: 

se::^u!; "fTht meeting"'' " """ ""■ ''""' ^''^°-' *" 
11 



^'>h 



t'VBUv .MKETIX(;a 

for tl,e question r"" '""" '""^ *>" "'"tion; are vou readv 
Voice: "Question." ' ^ 

^ "airman: "All i„ * 
this meeting wilAav"I"™r,f ^"'- '''"^■>- for seorota.^ „f 
Response by the meeting: "Ave" 
nmirman : "The T"' '"" '"^ 'N°- ' " 

Will read the'V^,,,;^ -^ "pen for bnsinesl T„e .eereta^ 

-^n^'o/iri; srr:ft„!'r^-,- "■" -««. the 

inee.ated „ay thr^'H^el^av*^- '«-> P--t'!:„1: 
Mr. Chairman!" 

«eogni« Wm,™Mr.''s;;iI', "s/""™ "^d^sing bin,, he „;„ 
7" on n,y right," or°"u.ft" "'^ ""'»' ^".V- "theVenUe 

re.ogni.ed as entitled to tl eCr ^ ?'' "'" P""^™ i^^Ln 

coed, to spea."::itr„ r"prSn' "-^ "■" "^-'^-t:- 

ent for the chairman to .,av ^ '"' "'"P^" ""d e.vpedi. 

- arotro„"r'm!;L%^f^"- "■» --«■.«• Has the ,ent,e- 

^i';^::r,"7v;;^^^«-"7thens„y: 



I 



PDBHC MEETINGS 



''™ tZT ''"°"" T"^'-' -'"'•'- be- "ta X he' 

rawrr"wHL"" "■""T" "■'" ^''"°'" -"'paHiam ta^° 
laws be withdrawn without eonsent of the meetiiiL- hnt 
It le usually allowable for the move,- to re'aU or modifv ,t 

'^.enr; b^; rre"ott,rei„Ji;t„r'""°" '"" -^ --■ 

If, while a resolution is nude, debate in a society meet- 
13 



1 



PUBLIC UEETINoe. 

brousht „p a^ain i„ the „ der J, ™''- u""/ ™'' o-'^ be' 
subsequent meeting. anflmshed business at a 

»M« or BMOHmoM 
B«ti«ni«nt o( «a Offlear 

Beaolntlon ot Thukt 

Resolve^ That an 



BMOIntlon ot «nnp»th. 



years Mcuprt . prominent rank in oTmiten, ?"""'"■ "''° ""= '" many 
X^ "?■"" ""•"""hed, and a button .r'"'"" ""■"■' "' ''^"^■ 
Theretare. Rtmlvcd, That in tlie death nfui^K ""■ ■»P'»a<'li- 

bdrte^e'dh JJ"' ""' '"""»" CooSnea 2' ..T""""' °"' ^""'"^ eon' 
Pr»«.t.d,„ the ,.n,ily„,''„V;.^7»l';,""n.. property en,r„«ed. be 

i K- Arthur, President. H. K. Coil,™ 

Ba«TS«,«», Secretary. A. w«^™' 

J* Amouwon, 

14 




civilized powers of the wod t1 n ' '™'' °' '"' *^*'" 

"», .™.. ,.,„., „„„, ..blSTS ", ;? 



BUSINESS 



in ,r • ^ '""^ »«" »' 'ho "orld. ha, bean th, 1, •. 

n the march of man's civilization BW^L *"" '"''■'«' 
low Its aJvancing footstew I L™. *" '""J-when, fol- 
aeldsto «,nreitf nobHSd, h, , T" "'' "'oodrtalned 

Wendly and tarmoniotTnt^n'r'^ir''''™ '"^«' »" toto 
<ii«M, breaks down personal »!?r?:. """"" '"»• P™ju- 
"mily of man togeS^eTby s.^!^ , *' ?" '"-'^' 'he whole 
■""tual »nddepenfent inteU? « , • "' """'"'o- .nd of 
towns and citirare br^M ^^J^r.^l'"^ f™ '°^"'"' -d 
'n^Wps, and travel con ineZ'rnZ72h" ■""" "«' «« 
ever wo g„, whether abroad or Z h^J^l^l f^'hways, and wher- 

t™i. the great interesto^f the ™71d ^""" """ °°'- 
men mighty, ° ""'"*• ""> "nalw. the affaiw of 

,, , 8U00M8 

It is a matter of time and work : I shall «rf if ,^ 
to do is to keep on trying get it yet All I need 

One cannot do successfully what h» h~, . —Marconi. 
stand. He ,nay have competent 1 ,T """ '*"'""y "-der- 
to do his business, but tw may do hf ^ t""^ '""""y' 
»eek their own ease orp„Tt at L 1 ' """' ''"P«'"eotly, or 
»ble to detect th-v ma W ' ' f'*^*' »"" ''^' ""t liing 
M. Or he may attemp't to mZreve^fr' "t '"^ " '^""'P^ 
fatal errors, as he wiU be Sm^sC^T "^.''''"*"' """""^ 
a Btill greater loss. "Pim ^de^^/°' »»'' "-ereby sustain 
bu,ine,s.»ndthengo»he^.. ^^'^ "'-^ "'tail of your 

''-rthrcitir£S— '""'"^'^ 

nnpromising, lay betw^n ihe two nh^ Tf tyrannical and 
master; '™ ' "" Plirases m the mouth of the 

"Oo to work." and "Come to work " 

.atrrra'„V"s-t7„r:°rr""-""'-- 

Mourely to fortune. ' ^"'' ordinary luck, led 



IS 






■DVOATIOir 

Ther. 1, BO .lament which will .nto, into our future euooew 

TZ:^^^- ""^ «■*""' '"""•»» ""> '«"'■'« ™ o»rnat3 
CCu»n """ ^ """""'''<'"««'«8»«d»g«i»-t.vil. Which 
my natumlly ariM from a continued Buah of eucoe«, than per- 

™L~ K "1^ """"^ education. The more carefully "ou 

fZTof ft""" r—""'' »""-'. i" • K^t measure: the 
.^. '^" '' ,'«»^f" "■» «=cupation, they are to pur- 

J^Hfvth °"'/''" "^'l"'** their view,, „.ode.ate their desires, 
rectify their aime and insure their success 

Stay at school another j ear or two, and don't be ashamed of 
what ought to be your glory, that you want to ir^o™ 

«h»lTth "V:"'"' «"«' to ""> >"«h school, from the hirh 
school to the college, if you can. Get a busiue« education by 
JU means-you will never learn too much. If you tah^ Z 
become a mechanic instead of an engineer or a faLer, Zlin- 

l! ,1^ J"" "°" ^°" *" •««"»• •'">«• It "iU iJway, to 
oapitol bearing a large income of interest 

"When home and lands are gone and spent, 
Then learning is most exoellent." 

OR nrao THE BIOHT PLAOI 

How many poor physicians who would have made maaterlr 
ZZ T- .r T^^ '"^''""^ merchants, who would havi 
m^enoble, athletic farmersihowmanypettifoggingparchmm™ 
^d^ lawyers who might have done thel^Sy some 
s«rdce as cobble™. No wonder the old philosopher said. "^ 
has made in this world two kinds of holes: roundTotes a^ 
I^iZr^l!!.'"' -"'^'-oWndsof people: ^Z^^ 
^ f^^fT""™"^ f""''' '"" *'"■<»' "" 'heround people3n 
™1h r,"""^ '"'''' """' "•« ">"e^™red ,^fe in the 
Td the f^ul f """ "•" ""«-»<— d unhappinTof societ; 
^v the™ r/ "° r"^ ent-'Prises. Get into the right place! 
stay there and master your situation, and success is yours 

^auhe':;" " '""'"^ " """"' ""' '*"«•• ^''''" ^ '^™y» 

WHAT TO DO 

Young men, you are the architects of your own fortunes. 

.^r ir T" <"™„"'"»Ktl' <>' body and soul. Take for your 

star, self-rehance. Don't take too much advice-keep at ,oZ 

a 17 



I.VDl-STRY AND INTEOKITY. 



.ma>. „„., gl'ot:'^".,!™" ";" I """" "■"■'• "■" '"e 
Jealou,. Fire abovn .h. „ L ° '"'"''^ «'"' "»'"<>•» and 
'nv.„..b,e .eLt: . o-n X a''H..'rr.;° ""• ^''"''- 
that move the world n. i> '' "■' "■" '^ver, 

generous. Be crvl,Re!d ./""'"'■ «^ ""-■«""*• Be 
-«. Ma-e ^onlian^dt Zl^Z'n ^LT'" '"" ""'■ 
fellowmen. Love truth «nd i , ^° ''<""" °'"' »■><« 

obey It, law. " """"• ^°™ ""ur country and 

force themaelvea tIo^L o„' , "" '" """^ '"«-». 
' think, la the reverse of beneLI^! T ' """"'^ """="■ 
action, an aftermath la apt L 11° "'1'™*' ■•""• ^ re- 
Physlcal elasticity Is aot to „rl . l ^'"" "■""«' a-1 
■•^ult that they wll too ' n 1^?^ '' ■"""""' "'«' '"e 
of their careers and traveZ/,h 'S™"'™' »"« the summit 
The great cities on thrluneM !.'*''' °"' '"« "■"■" ""«• 
the United states, have a vo^L, ' " '""•'"="'"'!' tho.e of 
of youth. They det: op'a^r^T;'"' '" ""> -'tallty 
him."_Dr. James Loudon ^"' "«> "^'■•"st 

-eiti; do" :t "cTtrh^ rLr "'^" -^ - ■— ■ 



nronsiET and WTBoany 

.«:jmrw?,.rrcr '^e^vr r-- - 

so poor that a shIlHng was a mi. ■ , ""^ "' ^"terday- 
and breadless; compIlTed Z ."" ^"""'= '--'»^'»» 

order to Procure Jor and ,h "" "" ""'"'• '" 

-^as become the taJnteT y^g "-' "o'f " ^' 

18 



MDIUL rOURAOE 

the power of hiti gooc right »rni, and the potent influence of hi. 
pu« prinoiple., flr.,ly and perpetually maintaiLl wL pov 

ne uiuddered ot, nut pressed onward. Wealth I what oara. hL 
inoJ:r'' ", M°" ■" '" *■*»" " •»■"■ ■"»' "i- wa I. upr,«rrH, 
Utursn ^ T"'''' ''"•"'"■ "-"^ >"» «""'t'y '«»« that the 
h"n theThl "^""T "-'' "P"^'" ^o""* ""^ » worth mor^ 

.1 ?? , ''° ""''" ""■ «0"ntry-who bring to it what- 

eve of iron sinew and unfailing spirit it possesses or dlL 
wouIhI^ raying that man is the oreatureof oiroumZ^es it 

™\^ T ^ . "** '"°'* materials one man builds 
^r^oZ^Z'^T' T ""*<—'. -"ther villas. Briot 
then,T^^M 1°^ ^"^ "''"^'"' ""'" "•» ""h"*"* ™n make 
them something else. Thus it is that in the same family, taihe 
same oiroumstenoes, one man re.™ a stately ediflo^ white hi^ 
Tj^H^'r,""'"? ""* Incompetent. Uve. foreverl^a „i^ 
The block ofgrani.,, which was an obstacte on the ^thw™y of 

MORAL OOURAOC 

Have the ooum • to discharge a debt while you have the 
money in your pocket. * 

Have the courage to do without that which you do not need 
however much you may admire it 

^l ,K°" '°"*™ "'■"' " *" **"»' y™ »'«>"''» >» "tent 

Have the courage to speak to a poor friend in a threadbare 
coat, even in the street and when a rich one is nigh. S^^ 

it ^ wX""™*" "' '"'^ """^ '"""'^ """ "'*"'*■ ""* •«" 

.n?'.™""!,!"""** to admit that you have been in the wrong, 
and you will remove the fact from the mind of others, putttag a 
dedrable impression in the place of an unfavorabte one 

Have the courage to face a dilBculty. DiiBculties, Uke thieves 
often disappear at a glance. 

Have the courage to tell a man why you wiU not lend him 



iiF^- 



ntANKUNS MAXIMS 

mr^mon.,, h. ^„ r,^,^^,^ „^^ ^^ ^___ ^^ 
H^ th. oourag. to out th. mo.t »K««hl. .«,u.i„h„,« ,„„ 



WOF. ootDwiN surra 

"are the courage to review your own oonrl,.^ . 

where you detect fault,: to amend it 1,7^?'. ™"'*™° '* 

to make go«i reaolvee fo^'our ,u.,™ ,^""^°"'""""J'^ 

them. • ""' '■""" SuiJance, and to keep 

'^l^^'HSLa'a MAXIMS 

-«: avoid trifl1^L°:L^l:-" "'"^ "'""'"' ■"'- " ^''- 
your°ut;t'v:it:tr ""^ "■"'^-"-"^ "" -^ «»"*<" 

wtth^^aTwVti^^'rii.r""™""'" — "'^ — 
.o^™f:i::ri:ra^Lrotrr -"'■ " ^--^ '° --- - 

20 



HAIIIT8 or A BUaiNEHS MAN 

mLrrth-^Ttcrvr^ '"'-''-"''■'« '■■^"*-- 

or h.WU~:n"'~~^°"""' "° ••«"•«■"«-. In bod,, .V^ 

II. TrMQCUllty— B« not dliturtwd at triae. or at iu«,M-n.. 
oommon or mwroidable. ' •oolamU. 

Rum or A Bummi uak 

A «ered ngaitl to th« principle of justlo. ought to form tb. 

o'?^;:;;7tr„T,r.:r""""" ""^"-^'•"»~™- 

He i> itrlot in keeping his engagementa. 
He doea nothing caielemly or In a huny 
^H. employ, no penon to do for him what he o«, do for hlm- 

.t1S'.pZr«r'""''"' ""'"'"' -'^ ""■"<»■ ""^""^ 

ci^tZe^Cr^ltrm^r '""'"" " "^ ''<'"■"''-"<". 
^e^teep. hi. derigmi and barine« from the knowledge of 

He doea not overtrade hi. capital <»K>met«. 

ti^Lt^iZ" '" ""'"• "•"• " '"^" " ■"— '• « -^"t a 

-n^^^tlZlLr'""'''"'*"""'"™ '"'"«"-'»—'' 
He i. clear and explicit In maldng a bargain 

He will not be above his btulDess. 

oa^f.l'.r'" ""'"" ■" '" '-"Portant letter, written by him, and 
oarefnllypreMrre. all which he leoeive.. r aim, taa 

He b methodical in hU habit, and arrangemenia 

He ia alwaya at the head of hi. biuinaK 

ai 






DU.IOI!Ntj; IN BI.HlNt>« 

^u!^l',i\ZZ "'°*"- '"" '■" ""'-" '"^" '- ■' '«•' 

pr^rrC" """""" "'" ""''■ """ - '"•' '""^ ". 

H. .voij, l,w ,uil, ,„,i arcmnuMUtion bilk 
in^ni" *™"""'-' '» "'" ".-..lUu,.. .„d l,v« within hi. 
He I. <,„,|„u, ,„ b^„,„^ ^.„^, . ,^^ 
H« l« Ken«r„u,. but l.ut until I,p I„„ l«e„ jf,.™ 
"t » iniiii of buMlne«« .•nnforn. .trL'tlv to IIimw h,ihl... -k 




SIR TIZOMAS LrPTON 

Diuaiitai nr Bunmn 

Cultl™te a .pirit of diligence, both in your temDor.1 .nH 
.plritual employ, strictly <u.he„ u> yo JbuLn«r«U^ 
22 




j 



CA»ISFltJ(l:»s l.V IIONIIT HXTtKtU 

"f- :...-:!:;»;:' 1 ';:„;:'„:'::„i;;;';T"\r'' 

;wrv-:i;'r;::';;i:;;;;:;^ -■'»■-" ''-A 

OABBFUUnas Ilf M0KB7 MATTERS 

=sxis^i=^xH His:: 

Uliii 

THE TOUOHSTOHE OP EXOELLEKOE 
IndMtiy is the true touchstone of excellent ^„a h. 

measures „f o.p.c.ty. They a^,. not powe'r, but mlrel/guidt 






w 



in its application. Woiil.i ,„.. u 

out of season, eaily and 1,(1 Z7! j '"™ '" »«""<>» and 
eess will eome. It Ly L tanlv 1 »""',»■''"'"'!'• and sajl 
-Pproaci,, h„t it „,;„ m '«rJ.,, ,t ma.v hnger. reluctant to 

-M .ir°^;:r-- ott ^esT "" " ""-■ ^"e 

v'tality and p„sl, f„d leaves ■l^'f*"' ^'"'•''^ 'akJ a„?„ 
«lf-poised man has confix '"''.""'''^ ""I lanRnor. nut the 
he never uobbles "or a^erfrl "",'*'/ '" ''- -<> ^ 
"/'■' "'■'-d as in a slrai^Hour tt" " t'"' '"" ""^he 
'" .7™- T:,ey who believe in th^.r"'"''.'"' '''^«""y ever 
of the,r own force of character „fT'"'' "?" "'« """^-^ious 
"■e w,re of infinite power and ea„ » '"f ""' ^^y- 'ou« 
be .mpo^aible to those who lack the Wtar"'""' """" '"»■'<' 
on se f-oonsecration and knows no. I '""^T^ "'""I' »'it' 
of this vital enei^ wasted ?rL^ °,"''- ^''"^ '" enough 
«" the affair o,"^, ;„' f^<^ E e'S; ''"':i'"' ''"'^ "> """ 
marshal your forces nnt i *''"?"'"» •"'o tlioiight of defeat 
Vincible Office. -T J' iT-n ^^^f "' "- '- 1' 
fear but you will win a ^In,-; ■. ' ""^ vou need not 

""^ on the sun-kis^eVhJStrof r,Zr ""'"' ^■'"- "'"" ' 

MAXIMS PKOM SHAKESPEARE 
-Set'lt' ""' °' ''™'-*' '"y pen f^m lender.- books 
^oZt^^'C^:':i:^^^-o„ tried, .rapple 
- ~i„.ent Of each tXiZ^Xf^^ ^^ 

"^f «5 'f^^rrrrwU™d^l>«- r ■- - 'oses ,«tb 
-Mem- ^ """' "■« «<lsre of husbandly 

tHe da^^Z:™. :- ?^ -- -^;;ust t^ ^^^.^ 
24 



"1 



PBHSgVKlUNOE 

A EABD WOBO. 

Perseverance! Can you spell it I 
And Its meaning, can you tell itf 
If you stick to what you're doing, 
Study, work, or play pursuing, 
fcieiy faUure bravely meeting, 
Bravely each attempt repeating, 
Trying twice, and thrice and four times, 
^es, a hundred, even more times. 
You can spell it! You can spell it! 
And Its meaning, you can tell it! 

ntPOBTAWOB or UTTLB THDfOB. 

an?1t°s"tt" -Thf""*™™ " ''"'-™"' ■="» <" "usiness, 

visit ^'jL ? T ^"'"^ "' " ='■"»■' since his previous 

t™f featu^-bZr'"''. 'I",:^ P"rt-polished that-lliftened 
sion to th?s ,t^"t^ "'" """ ■"-"■^le-Kiven some e.p,«^ 
thes« .« r« ^, ^ °'°'''' """^ '» ">«* limb." "But 

,'!£" "'?'' '' » P«»di trade is a spring." 

as ^:::z r. "ii--^-' "• ™'"- -o- •■> « "--« « ^g 

2S 



( [I 



PUNCTUATION 

'aalllng- in life, may be smn f^., .1. - 

rt.ge of my oHreor I ^ne^yw^", 't /r',"",! •"- «' "^ 

ten at night, " ' ^°'' '""° "i"* in the morning to 

di:;^Tar'KTii'.'"f^„^;:r""""'™.isatth, 

enterprfaing. exerobe <»„Ju, ,3"* h""! -leal honestly, bo 
judloioualy." ■" judgment, advertise freely but 

that time ofli^ggi'e*'' """''''K™-' ™ my motto during aU 

~^ir Tfiomaa Lipton. 



punctuate may he'trd-t^tt'o^UoXf'"' "' """*"' 
A Two MilBoa Doltor Oomnim 

•'tat aniota ^hould^l^?;^%l*''»r«-« anume™t«i 
article, specified we« "all to„i^ ,''^ °f "»''• ^mong th. 
piMt. imported for transTuT^f ''^°'*' "°- n"""^ 

The enrolling oleA™ o^n^f P^P^""" " «perimenfe 
-ooidentaUy, 4tog it ^'"7"« ,',"« bUl, inserted a oomma. 
As a result of thissimple^Sakt fn^ *° '™"' P"^**'" ^f 
oould remedy the blundeHf L ' "J*"' ?' ""'" O"*™" 
ewpes and other foreim ftwL '"*^«^ lomons, bamuuw. 
This little rnistX S.^ "*" ''*°*"»<' ''^ oT^ 
oould ha.e avoided hy°'c^?resr^'?H"""»'° ""^^^ 
less than «.000.000, Ap3v3^ ™* *^ govemm«,t not 

tence into inji'pL'™?'"',""*^ « •»"« •»" "'vide, a «,». 

-cewhen^^Je-^hXryZtSr----;;^; 
26 



PUNCTUATION 

might he a dirtinot «nten ™ ^ '^' ""^ ™" »' "■»■» 

"Plain, themeaainrof ^m^oS al^ioVttT "'^'"''^ 
from that expre«ion by a wmi-co on !nS ° ' .^ ««P«™ted 
«nteno6 inti sections whrnth-~'- " "'"' '" '"^'"^ » 

«ach other. .no^Zr::!^^!^^ "" "<" '-'»'«"''-' <>' 

a.^^£d'ttkiitrjrreir„r- '-^-- 
deoim J jr/thrni^jTiornerraZ^^ 

of £:£=•: rU'a\lr/'- eW .ntenee 
oJei^l^t'pI^Littfthr"''''™ "'^''«' '" "-o -OJ"*- 

^th^,„ng^?sri^re.''sr:'.^7nSo?tr'''''''^ 

thesis marks. msiead or the paren- 

s^^'^S'2 '"1'""« "■"-">» of an author or 

,s:^ti„n'n '«™^?i:rooSr,rrrerhZL":i::: 

graph have the fint quotation mark a? VhT^- , J"™" 

o^tt^h."";*:,':.',^'"" *■-' "•"»'"•""" '•«" - >«■> 

going 
I am^to Toronto. 
U. Bnefat. r J are „«d chiefly to giv, „ explanation, or to 
27 




4' 



niNCTDATION 

supply an omiraion; as, Yours rGrnat nr,t.i„i • 
coimtrv. lureat Britain] is a great 

James- house P"«wMve oaaei as. O'er, John's book, 

tioa "" ""'<••*' »"'• B— u«Ki to invite .peoia. atten- 

"■ The Brace | M-neots several words with one common 

"a"; oT^to";:™^* '®> -^ '- ■»«'"' -J-tation.. means 

I S:£sJ(-^rr"'l?"t::T"»""^- 

tera or wordT ^ ' ''•°°'" -*■• "■°'«fon of let- 

■Pnuiia 

Very few mlea for spelling can be eiven to whl^i, •• 
=:ara=.-ot'rer^'--=- 
«I°to:::trabte"Sn*!:::'-'!;7 '«''-"•. ..rmmation ab,e. 

Words of more than one svllablo «nHi„. • 

ceded by a single vowel donhf. T., * "" * ^o^^nt pre- 

travel, travelled 7n th^ u 8 th. ' ° deriv.tive,r.., 

.«. accented on ^^eC srblJTLTorrrm'ir '" "- 

28 



RULES FOB THE USE OP CAPIT.VLS 

befoir'i?' °' T "'"f'''° ""'"K •" '■ ^"t » double vowel 
before it, have only one / at the oloee, a, mail, ^. " 

P^t'.^r'"'"'H'° '•,"'°'""° """ '""«' '" ">e termination ly 

Plrtioiple. endmg in ,„j, from verba ending in . Im, tL «n.i 

c M have, havine- malco n<.k!... » ="'""» m e, loee the anal 

retain boih aa .^ ^t. ri? '^■^'"" """^ '"'*''8 '" « 

mu.t«tainther^fr,^- ^'"' '""' ''"'■ '» «»<"• "owev.,. 

holT *°""* » ■« "'"^ «"> fl»al .. «, .ho., ehoeing; hoe, 

hiding., a. mL,,V„:^rt^f .r;roS^''»''P'»»' by 
nan^it i, oh«,g«, to «, li the vlurul. ^ S^'^^^^T^ 



BUUS FOE TDUM or 0*1 



OS 



ita?iISL"T'"' "".!' '' "" '°'P"'P" "" «■■ omi«ion of «d- 

-^t;f n-^»nr hTteTo^-rr..";-^^ -- •« 

.^prt-ii^^r^raritttr 
fr=,rmr.^tirhe7J:!traX^ 

with a capital. '^ "" S<«»™"y commence 



2R 



CAPITAUZATION 



»• monUn o( the jau and th* day. of the week begin 



with 



capitals. 

J^TT^ °°'"'- """"'• "»■'■ "•"»• ""^ tl-e'' oompoundeaod 
abbreviatloM, .. North.We.t, cnmmenoe with oapit.1. when 
they denote a aeotion of country. 

The pronoun I. and the interjection O, an alwaya capitala. 

Every direct quotation ahould begin with a capital letter 

All titlea of penona begin with oapitala 

All the principal word* in the titlee of hooka ihould besin with 
capital letters. 

llie aeveral ohaptera or other diTlaiona of any book begin with 

Common nonna personified begin with capital letten. 
lettef ""* Particularly important may begin with a capital 

letto' ''°"*' '**°"''' ^ ""^°^ denomlnationa begin with capital 

nsnaUy begin with capitals, 
to aocousta each article mentioned ahould begin with a ct^M. 



PART II 

Correspondence, Letter Writing, 
Sociai Forms, etc. 



Fi 




PLtTT ROGERS SPENCER 
Author ,f «,. Sp.«.ri.„ s„|. rf p„„„^^^ 



J 



CORRESPONDENCE 



Correspondence 



I^p"""^ " "■» '■"»"-«• •' thought h, „«„ of 

»n««PortaHon Wend. Jn,,f fi' "'/^P'* t™»it "d cheap 
"d their only ni«„ orLDfaiT.^™ ""^'^ «"ttered 
"mxWh letter writTg * * "" *°'«='' '^"' °»« "other i, 

'iTpT-^"''''^^^'^^"" not only .„ 

'•miltarity withTHua^r^ ^ ""''^ «"™"«' "»■» 

^ general ohar^^er. 1 fa tfe to^,^? ."/ "'» '"""Kht. and 
appreciate the value of the^abiutv .^ •^' "" ""Jority do not 
«nt in ImporttM. _p„^'^VL'° ™*« « ««d letter. 

|n . letter TthH^re*"^^ S.* ""*'*' "' ""' Importance 
language. ^««lon of the proper ideas in the proper 

•^^^X<JTLf:^t^'\ "' '^"'■<^- '^«> -'-'• 

punctuation often renl^T Zl '' ''"""'.'""^- '°'P™P«' 

ge?-ucu««3,s^*;ri;3B'LC."™'"'''"^"«> '-«« *wo 

«u.tion.^rfe,';::.'t7X'ir;r^'.-''''"'' p«--. 
«g-ing"nS:r;f"h:s.rfit:er^-''""«--- 

33 



r 



BUBINEHH CORRBSI-ONDENCI 



tb» MtMllllt.-Ooad pm, ink and papm. For bniiiiMi 
oomipondtnca (brae itylM of papar an In genaral naa, tI». : 
eommenial note, about 5x8 inobea; packet note, about 5}x8{ 
Inohaa, and letter paper, whiob h usuallj about 8 J i II to 18 
inabM. The nnaller uliea tor ahort lattara and the largw for 
longonea. 

Tha UTalopaa most oommonljr uaed an Noa. ( and t). 

Varts ol a I^ttar.— For oonvenienoe In axplalning the form of 
a lattar we call tbe diSennt parU bj the following namea; 

1. Heading (Plaoe and Date). i. Body of Letter. 

9. Addreaa. i, ComplimentaiT Ckaisg. 

S. Salutation. «. The Writar'a Sigsatnn. 

The fallowing diagnun wiU ahow clearly their poaltlon: 





XMAfffim ol th« PhU of Irttten. 


HBADINO 




AODHKBS 




■ALUTATION HODT OF LCTTEB 




* ■ 
3 : 


s ' 


: as ■ 
; o ■ 


BODY OF UCTTER 


K . 

a. 








COUPLIMENTARY CLOSim 


MIONATUKK 



III 



34 



I 



aCUNESa CORBESPONUENCE 

_. ,.T~'"? I«*""K IndlotM wh.ni uul whm the l«tt« 

right hMd dde of th. .h«it and .bout two or two «dT„"h,i? 
lDoh« from the top. Th.„ i. no obJ«,.l„. ,0 uTg two 0, 
more linn for the hauling if requlrod. 

TtaAdtoMof a letter consbteof tlieoMne ud title of th. 
p™on or firm to whom ,ou .r. writing, th. «.id.no. or pU^ 

the .ddr« on th. .nv.lop., .xcptlng that on th. i^dt !SJ^ 
tta^y and .tat. may b. written on the «u„. lln. t,^n^ 
rfta«.on th.left.h«,d .Ideof th..h«,t. on. inch from^ J„ 
hL!i.' ""P"'' "«> on the line foUowIng the on. on which tto 
h«dlng ta written. Th. ««,nd llo. of th, adirJl^tX 
«. Inchfarthnr to th. right than wh.™ ,h. first line Th.^. 
iJ^i^?^"" '"^-■f"" «'«" »' oourte.y riu,uld not 

tiue. a., Mr. J. B. W^lKn. M.D., or Hon. Henry We,tan E^ 
On. „oeptio„ to thi, rule, however, i. perSttedtLf . 

■"' ( )• giving only the minuune. 

I P* ■»'<'»»*'<» <» the complimentary term uwd to beirln th. 
ette, Tta form, mcrt in ». a,. sin^Dear Sir or J?, ^r ^.V 
In .dd,«.lng aflrm. Sir.. Dear Sir,. Oentlen^. or'^iLr 

Madnl » r^" '^'^"^ *» » "^ly' ^'■*"». or Dear 
f^f^ JL * *" ' '"""'«• """"ried tady. ZVar Jlfi„. or tt fa 
wh.lh^T'J" °"°" '^' "'»""'»• "heri doubt eSt^ „ to 

«r rrrtr^rUrrmr '*"^' ""■ "™ '^'« 

wlinu.^trat.thi.anrth'^'^orofUtUrre™" ""' "^ 

Til. Body of th. L.tt.r b that part which contain, th. mMnm 

or information to be Impartad. In thl., gooA form, pe^T^f 

.pacing and paragmphlng rtould r«»lv. du. carft '"°°™"*' 

4 3S 



i 




I 



th« MM or<l.r or wciatr. ^^^ •™"' " • n>»nib.r of 

In o«ol.l let»M» , more fomuU mtI* 1< i,^. .. ..n ,. 








<3^< 



^— '^&»*«**»^ V'CSt' 



a^^iyf 



37 






^^^m^ 




■I 



important ^'°" ■""" "«•" "^e "P- Thi. i. 

rt«at .„d „i„ber^' ^ven orThiTJ:^''"'^ ^" 

of envelope °""' "" '»"" ''gl't-luu.d oomer 

faSrj^rjrolttr^J^f-'^^;:::-'-^''- the flap 

directed, therefore ^ e^t oa " ICuV "' °^ '■»l-<'P«riy 
ins envelopes. "'' '" ™re«'H in addres- 

8» example, of addressed envelope. 

add™. 0, the .end^. ^thX C^ tTrri^'"!?''.""' 
certain number of day, if not oJlJTfor """* " » 
38 







',' ■i 

' 'A 

^l. ill 

! J 

' i' '\ 



39 



ii: 



1 



BUSINESS LETTEBS 

«0M« BPKiUL ponm nr buiubs lettiu 

4 Avoid the use of flourishes. 

« A v^r/rl T" '*'"' *" »''"'enline» .re inexou«ble. 

7 M^V J!""'^- "'her rewrite your letter 

7. A.m to write as legibly „ you know how. 

10. Write on one side of the sheet only. 
^11^ When requesting information alway, enoloee ««np for 

^ttruitrwrtte'en-rris" -"'— ''-- 
It ■^y'^ee'yTt^'u'iie""*" --"^'-^-ttereof important. 

.ett.^e„T»rng itsf r"''^* "" """" »' ' "•-'»- 

^^Never write an anonymous letter; it i. the coward'. 

P^JerlTpun^tZd'*"™ "" '''"" •"•« '»»«»P'» "d 
.ou'w^Tfttrgt'f^m""""™'"""-™'"'"' 70urs.de and 

wl^,d:"^7„g°tn''d'irS„''';°""K'*'*' "'"'"^ ">» «"<"«> 
^dre^of theV-inor'C™' '" "'■"""°'^' «"" '"« name «.d 

ord^re'it-e^i'letTer-^"^ "^ """'■ "■»• <»<">'■ «P- 

^o^m^TdfS-tt-ro-hl^i-J;^---- 

28. Do not forget to sign your name. 



40 



=J 



1 



r 

88. 



BUSINESS LETTEBS 



their correct m™ ^ '*"^ ^" «■»=, only In 

<Aan an ewm,. '° *"** " ^«»' » /">«d. 

p<^'c::r Trnj:.et-twr„,rv/™-'-- «- • 

render, it unmailable, ^d ^ .L („h^ ."? on a postal card 
.c.n.™,o«en«. nnlrittrofcaTad'.'""'^ '■■'"»'''' 

8ofd»f/a™r:„1ar';?-r "' ""■ "-""^ ■" '» <"->" 'or 
»■ Avoid abbreviation, and the u« o( poMecripl, 

p<SJr;rira"wo.rn"\:;/'-'°^^^^^^ - -» 

xoia KR vBimro a postal 

eoU o-^^ru.te^.etll't^r "» "^^ '^-'"'-^ 
8. Alwaya dgn your name in f ua 

4. Never write, demi^ „ HZJ^. T"™'""' "» "^""g. 

poSte''^'^rth'::p';;^"'-<>-P"ta.. l^typ^oHbe. 

the writer Erite.iir^b''rt.-zj::z:"""" "'"'""*<' 



'*^^g^^=r^ 






BUSINESS LETTERS 

EXAMPLES OP BrsiNESS I.ETTEns 

l*tte, Co,ttlntag , Rem|,un«, 

Me,»ra William.on « c-a^on "«"'""• »•»» . Feb. 10. I»i2 

M.j^.00, "r;;,,,.!"*":'; cr,„r™"r;i '-^ ■'""^•»- "- 

win kindly rec.lpt and return January 13,h. which 5™ 

Toura truly, 

P"TBH SCMRADEIL 



I*tter Acknowledging Above 



Mr. PrxTO SCHHADSK, '"°" "*"*""■■ Ont- "eb. 12, ,|„2 

MWvllle, Sa*. 

flv.pr,nrr;7.«";rcU';%";'i"";h,~"''''°'"* ^"" '«■• si«y- 

We onclo.e bill i,r,;„„i ^ ""'" morning. ^*^ 

P^ntp, «.t.en,.r."„?X'^.e^rt'""'' ^^urT-'" "■»"■< "" ,„r 
""oi. Your, re«pecttully. 

Williamson ft Cato.v. 



Jitter OrdeHng Wood. 



Pitl 



M.«ra Qto. M. h,ll 4 c„^°°*° "'■■ '■''™'». On... May 1, ,912. 

Winnipeg ' 

■ow°„;"S„rr'"'""' -'^ -^ '«'«-. over the o. T. Un, the ,„, 

loSl:,'UL"S ^-^"■"P^^la. Cotb Binding 
" Copied ?hrXSn":.'.'''^:''»; "''''-"-■™™ Binding 
13 Cople. The Bu,l„e™ Mu™, ' ,';'°"' """"'"8 
^ 10 Cople. Bible SySa cS°;;,"°~™ J"""'"* 
Enclosed you will And P ^ ""' mniUng 

(?"00) ,n paymrt 0, ata„°- STd? ".■!" '^ ^'">-S«ve„ Dollar, 
«nd Oblige, »'«""• »°^'„^ "WP " promptly a. posX' 

'uura ror auceoss, 

EDW.K LEW,,, Agent. 

ClUng Aetendon 10 E,„, i„ Invoice 

Mewr.. Davis t Holt, Hamilton, Ont.. Jan. 27, 1912 

Ottawa. Ont. 

for •SmmrorblKmtJ°th«"'""*v.''°°' '""<"" ""'el the lOth in., 
box on the Plain «daa I heCh"'' °""''"»«> ">- >= "«s'"„lr 
to kindly send me a corr^'^ ^o "'i'"™'™ and a* yl 

Respectfully, 

* lU. DOTU. 

42 



I 



bUSINESS LETTERS 
!«««• 4clu,„wl«lgtag Orter for 



Goods 



Mh. Ebwin Li:wi., WInnlpei. May 4. :9:s, 

Toronto. Ont 

._ -vr - - "- ?o- - "-» - - - o< 

a«o M. Hill * Co. 



letter 



»»««o«lii« Corr«t«d Inroiee 



»''. Ja.. Doiui, Ottawa. Ont.. Jan. 30. isij, 

^ Hatnllton. Ont 

Youn truly, 

DivM ft Holt. 

Pfr D. 



'****■■ Requesting a ham 



Mp. PlUNK SmiH, Bedford, <jue.. May 1. 19,2 

Dear Sir ■f.M'""*'"™-''"'- 

-e^f d-^^ySTuXtr • "■" "- - -" Par-on ., „ , ,.,. 
"Ciievo nie. 

Gratefully yours. 

John Lonolbt 
OlrtW Notlc of Note Coming |,„. 

Mr- D. B. HOLra, °"'"'' Ha". Que., May 1. ,9,2 

Cook«hlre, Que. 

..... «^'i'™nCa"n7rdeTj„?^"- "»»•««)• ^-« Sep. 3, 

*■"* zoura truly, 

Koa^KKx. 
4S 



BUSINESS LETTKB8 



It 



I*tt*r beioiinf Hot* 



tor "nllwllnu 



C««U, B«i OF COMMBICft ■■»""«*•. *».. 1« M,,. ,8,3. 

*"• Voon. truly. 

I-tf, Eacl„„. BUI „ L«un, .. ^^ ,„ „^^_^ 

Bi»« oi. lUMitToN, ottt»,, OM., 2nd June, 19,3 

Hamilton. Ont. 

Klujl, deliver mid bill of l.Jl„. . .. *'■ """ "'r. 

Yours truly. 

Ozroio pon. p„ 



!*»•« of E€dfi»Mon 



ttOFWHi„ Mm. Co Hllldi, N. 8., Sd ^.y, 10,3 

City. 

Ple.«int cbar.cte,. "°"«'™ "■' '"e .l„y, i^„ „, ,j'^ «^J 

Vour« wry retpectfully. 

0«o. W. H«Di„o. 

I*tt« Advlsta, SUpaent on OoBuntaUon 

MMsr.. HiLi. d r.i:,i,c. """"• "• «•• 2ath Aug., ,(,,3. 

Comiulialon Merrbauts. 

r 'Dti ^*' ^°^^< N D, 

'-"'«"'■ - --'.''"o.rr,Tu''z,';zr"'"' • - -"-- - 
"""'»"'"■■■ ""'' -'■« "e rro"c:.eSr,o'".rrred;t *:;""' •" ■-■' -'» 

•■ue ireait or my account 
lours truly, 

J. B. Obmo (Shipper). 



i 



BUsmiBS LETTEBB 

*■•«« OMot Hotie« .f Ti.T*,-. (ho 

(PrinM LtUerkead.) 

"'""• K""**". Bbo.« * Co. '■"" J"". 1018. 

Oflbawa, Ont 

"•■•"a'ully yoiin. 

Km"" Kkititoo Milui. 

*"««^».8»ia.uH«««„0«,d. '"* 

"•«»■ Ahtbub a Combib, Winnipeg, Man., 2nd May, lOii 

Gentlemen:— Pieaw dell 

Yourt truly, 
Mewn IUaB„o» vtzm t Co., "' ''''°'°»'' 0°«-. loth M.j., ims 

''"^'"=»«ow Bros. 
T*** P« J. D. P 

'^ "'** »"^ " «-»ti« ., p«„^ 

_ , ■>"■ D. Shaw. 

ine above notice mav h^ sn. "■ "• b™tu;». 

^^'^-^int.rZZ'^,^'^ '■'■'"■■»^«' or .dd^d to 

45 






BUSINESS I.ETTE1» 

M«t«n. ALUtN * Lm, Toionlo, Can.. 3/8/(M, 

Detroll. Mich. 

VouM truly, 

ROBBBTB A Co. 

B<qaM<lii«r Addnu o( P.p,r OJuuin* 

Me»«r». IlEiuu, i.,.„ p„ TorPjln, So.k.. 2nd M«r, 1012. 

niiftl,.f„rd. an,k. 

Ba.k., and obll«f! ' ' '• ''• "'»'■ "■• Vork St.. Caplyle 

Youra tpnl.v. * 
3- K Good. 

""»• MQTWTnio snaui. tavou 

making th. r«iJ^^^'i„'^^^^;^>'^fo-''e«^7 tor 
or tor .„ «L.ior„f tim"T^!„ L!J?'°?''' '"'"''« ""'»"«'. 

'T ,T, r '» -^'-Ktrr^uT""' " "•"•• "^ "" 

The toUowlng win „„« u exsiple,; 

Meaara. Ki.via..K 4 »„„, Bmndon. Man.. 4tb April, loij. 

IlumlMildt, 'saak. 

pj^rr.n^:;;rrdr;,r?f- -="'™^^^^^ 

bal.„M to th, ,5,h „, S,pu p„v°dS y„„ can ^ "' i!!" '"'■"'"'°' <" ">» 
■*«!"« b, the 20th ln.t ° '<«""™»l»>e ua .Ith y„u, 

b. .b"nt;r rsr„'„r- -^jzi^tz -^ •"- ■-'■ - 

•ccount before due. ""cemity of ciUlng on jou tor your 

^Kindly •"" """ •«^- •• - «P«-2^in. yon ,„ .d..„„ we 
B«niectfully youra. 

H«ii»T liouw t Co. 

M 



JOih Jan.. inu, 



^■ Ww c Wou Istwdad 

Montreal, 

U.. t.v„,. ""«*^'' •"■ "■t^l" to .h.„k ,„„ ,„ ^,„^ 

voun very mpecltully, 

■Iamu Dsnnu a Co. 

"•"■«• OF niTBOOUOTIOM 

natlTrf* Th.t.^Ct.T' ^ """""" •"""^ <" "urine. 

b» one you can safely reoom^nT ™' "•" P*""" 'itroduoed 
that you will not he obli^"™"ll?^ ^?' '"^' "■■'"'«» » 
. I*tt«, „, lntror„tr'S^r^''''Li'''"'''" '»'«■''• 
Introduoed hai a ri^ht .„ i, u ^ '^'**' ■" "» Pereon 

Th.,oUowi^ViC:etreX';::''''"'"'"'''"^ 
"r. J. B. Ki,».D,. Abfrdcm. ont., 7th April, luw. 

■5 Spruce 81., WIODlpen. 

A^f",'° °'*" • >■""* oC ?/™»' '' ■'■""■-to. e..«lne bu,M.r.. 
Youn very rwnectfiiUy, 

c«n« the fallowing: /n*™<in^„X Sa^d X^""'"''""' 
Letter! of Indonenieiit 

n-ponsibloandof^ohl^l J^'^ *° "» A^nolaUy 
8«« character and bmdnen ability, uttle riak 

47 



'! I'l 



11= 



BUSINEWI LETTEM 

!• Mramad; but nnlMi h* fa knoirn to poam tbm qnalttta 

tb« lMt«r hettar not ba Kl'tn. 

I«tteni or indonamsnt ihoold not b* Mtlod U dallTwtd to th* 
psnon raquMtIng thtin. 

Tha following Is • mte tern: 

MaMti. EoisoM ELicTaic Co., 
Klonton. 
aMi«.m.»:-Th. t>«u.r. Hr. Robl. Wmi. la pnpinoi M mnn In 
tailom In DrockTlUr. Onl.. •nd olto on >oii lof tne pnrpoii ol aiui- 
Inlng your gooda. 

Nina yam' ■cqiulnunce wllh Mr. WW JtiatlOea ua In alillnc that ha la 
> lantlanun of sl«lln, quallliaa and bualnaaa ablllly. and knowlnf lh« Held 
in wnich ha la «li™t to locata, wa baira no haaltallon In asjln* thu you wlU 
lad II pranubla » aitand to him .very courlaay. 

Very Inily youn, 

Ron. Walton A Son. 

Ltttor Inetmiiic Dlnet U«UUtr 

110 Llncohi St., 
t. , ^ uuelph. Ont., S-9-U. 

Maaara. Jam. tUj • Co., 

Naoalmo, B. O. 
aentlanian;-Thla wiu hitroduoi Mr. R. E. Hlfdna o« our city, who 
wlahaa to puichaaa looda on thirty daya' lima. 

Wa h.ye known Mr. HInln. lor the paat Stteen yean, and conlldentlr 
ttate that he la lood for whatever contracta he may make. 

You may conalder Ihia letter Indoraement to the extent ot One Thouaand 
"""^ Reapecttully yonra, 

Coui t HcKinu. 

urmi OF uoomnHDATioH. 

In giTing • lettw of raoommendatlon it nhould almtys b* 
borne in mind by tha writer, that in reoommanding anothar, 
three peraona are liable to be affeotad by It. 

U not oarefiilly worded the applicant might be entnuted with 
dutiea or reaponsibllitlea on the 8ti»ngth of nuch a letter, that he 
la totally nntlt for, and consequently the employer would auffer 
kaa and be put to inconvenience, the applicant inatead of being 
benefited would be disgraced, and the writer'a reputation for 
good judgment and truthfulness be injured. 

If the applicant merits commendation it should never be 
withheld; but the letter should never overdraw or state more 
than he la capable of fulfilling. 

The letter may be addressed to the person or firm to whom 
tbe berjer desires to make application; or it may be written 

48 



•wlM«« w.y. It Buj thm b. preMnUd toMy ou tlu lw«r 



Th* (oUowlDg u« tooM of the uinal roraii: 



Mcun. J. 



ciinrr. Alb. 

hM b«, 1„ ™„ employ ,„ ,h, p„, u^ , byThehiirftJ 

P«fonn™c. ot hU ««k .n.l 1,1. m.nly. upruh. chjic „ ,mw mS 

-iL!''"" ' '~»™^ ""to » . IruBworlUy. c.p.bl. »d^«U.,to 

K«i*i*rrH »nvBm Co. 
Aa Op«a Latter trf IwmmiMmlnhm 

_ _, BrldjMowii, N. «., 4U llu, I»13 

To Wbok It M.t Ookoom:- 

Till. 1. lo wrtlCy th.1 Ih. bniwr. Mr. a»m J. BUhr Im. l«n to ih. 
jmploy cl our compMy tor ih. pul iwo yem, u bookSiii»r«T.i,.. 5 

•ood lublu, .nd liK CIUI.IIU, cliMKter, uid w. hamUy r<no^i^i^ 
to ajyon. d«irln, .h. «,vl« of . comp««, b„olS»p^^^^ "^ 
tor ^ ;:S!r *<■ '"""^ '--"'°°. "" «««- •»!. hto our b« WW. 

CAwnot Co. 
PaJ. c. Cuui, riM. 
39 Woodward Ave., 
■n. t. .... Cmnbrook. n. r.. toth Mar tfllS 

aepMtmmt of our dry loodi boiue for nvenU y«>, mu „, |,l„^^«Zi 
jud^. la b„ uns o, work .nd cp.^'Si.SSj xlV^^^i^ ,!:£ 

JOKKl * BXHSDICT. 



"'@???^;^ 



ii 



BI'HINIMM I.KTmS 




"""7 dMeot the emn. If ujr, ud not only that ha form, 
u MUut. of your quUltl« t^ th. letter y™ irilT 

The foUowIng niggeatioiu may be helpful- 

J. Write your letter of applioetlon yourKlftad do notaimlT 
for a poeition you doubt your own aUUty toflll ^ ^ 

». Write refl)eotfuUy. and modeatly, bmakly ateUnc your 
qualifloatioiu, without boaating "•"■■» your 

Jili^.T/'"' !?" °f ''T "^^^ '^ «~»™"' Ponotuatlon. 
•pelUng^ and uae of oapltab ara oomot 

J. I*t the writing be Mt, the letter free f™, blot, and 
•nmrw. even If you have to rewrite It half a down timee. 
0. If making a personal applioatlon. and you are aiked to write 

oolleoted and put these sug^ertlons into pnioUoe. 
«. Replying to an advertiKement, sUte when and when the 

iJir^^^^"" '*"„ "*''" •PP"™«on for the poelti" 
adyertiaed, and answer all the requirementa 

■•Imnui'i AppUcaUon 

MMT.. A.«o„. t Co.. »"<"«»ke. B. C, 0th April, IBIS. 

itt'vfiatokp, n. r. 

.. °™.f''"»° :— K^PLrlns to your ndvi.rtl«.in,.nt In Siitiirdiiv» At.ll 
offer. I b.,e h.d .l,r„. yoar,' o.porlcDc. .. «,,„„„„ ,„, „ ^e "t 

SO 



BUaiNBM LriTEm 



good* atlllai to srocvri asd batrbrn. aoil koow tho eity ind llw trad* 
tborooffblr. All I life ti rd opporianltj to prov* nf iblllty to wii 
goods. 

1 mpi^rullr trtM jr«Mi to J. 11. H(Miny * To.. 10 H. Watvr It, 
RtT*latoki>, or Jofan D. MUli. Iflfi Market Kt.. R^vflMokp. 
1 ahall bv glad to call on jrou for « (trraonal Inlorvkir, 
\nirra wry truly. 

L. A. rosm. 



AppUnttott for ".^osU.. 



•n fc.-, ,;*■ .iioa 



HaURALL ft DtTNIIK. 

BurllDittoB ' 
nrotlpmf>v :— t^aminr ^^^ 
1p lD<r(««lng to aurh an tvt>-ui h it ' 
I brrrby mipe^fully appr T' t tbf > 
faltbfatly a#rTP you to '\ heat or i 
ba my flmt roDalderatlnn 

1 aball br glad to faratah t( tlm >i 
Hoping to bear from you finunii 



H frkiid '<[ ni\n- thill 



bU>lD)-M 

i.ij'i r ,1 aaWman. 

' ' 'pl«d I will 

> 11 iotrrMla will 

I'uct r, ability, etc 

ii . ffully. 
N'lR McNilL. 



urms wMqatnsnii pathkht 

Th* eompottUon of a lattar requagtlng paynMot of u aooount 
it often ft perplexing Uek, parttoularly If the peieon ot firm is 
oepable of pAying. but oweleM ebout It. Such a letter, to be 
perfect, must not only obtain the mcmey doe, but do lo without 
giving offenge. Such letten iliould not, ae a rule, be blunt or 
abrupt, but ahonld oouTteoaelj and clearly gtate the reagont for 
the request If it beoomee neceHary to euggeet placing the 
aooount in the handg of a oollector, the suggeetlon should not be 
put in the form of a threat but in such language as will show 
your reluotanoe about using such means. Generally speaking, a 
statement of the debtor's aooount is usually all that is necessary 
to remind htm that payment is expected when due. 

If necessary to request prmnpt payment, something like the 
following may be used: 

Toronto. Can., Sth May, 1012. 
Mr. D. C. OowAN, 

Melrlllp, Bask. 
Dear Sir : — Incloied please find statement of your account fur April, 
which we trust you will find correct. 

We would appreciate It If you will kindly cheque same at your 
earliest convenience and send ua a Toronto Draft for the nmoiint. 
Tonrs truly, 

Shithdov & Dewsnap, 

s 61 



111: 




JUta d.b«o, 1. t^ . „e<«d «,«* ought k, ,,^ „ 




Vr. J. o. Bonn. Tomto. Cud., loth Ibr, wis. 

Bmpmoii, Mid. 

«1»!™ b, ret„™ ST." ■ "" '* " "° "'°"'°' '"'»' "• WItb ,o„ 
or, 

CONKOK A BLAIMB. 

MeMT,. Maxwell A Oo«Doir, ^■""<*""'' *^- «■- «" APHl. 1902. 

Halifax. N. 8. 

we b,„ ,!„„ r„! In k° "• "" "t™'!"" paid to notice." since 

put n. under tb"TecS.t?«:f.o!:;''°""°° " "'«'■«'"■'»« /»« wS 
collector. "oeeMlty oj pl.cln« ,our .ccount In tbe bnndi ot our 

iw.ltl« . prompt repl,, w. .„. B,.p„„„,^, 

DiTw * Liwtmci. 
LETTERS OP AFOLOST 

predion „„ th. on, to whom the expUnaifdrL "^ "°- 
Al«lw for PtUur. t. &«, , B™to« Bn«u«m«t 

»■ J. NomacoTT. ""*'"• ""••• "'"" •'"■. IMS. 

Nicolet. Qne. 

.b.^o;.';n Bo„«.v."i7 m'i b.'j ' •".^"'"" *° "«' '°° " 

up on tbe rond, m, tnln ™ Jl ',,*1"' "^'«*- <"'■« «<> ■ "PMb- 
tor m, to keo^tb. ..„„^t ""'' '^ " '" ■"■«-"• 

62 



BU8INESB LEITKB0 

If FM win Undlr InfOtra me when It wtU b* coDTaUent for jrou to ise ma 
I *Q1 t wijto d to unuics mj biuloMt and meet 70U on wtuteror d«t« you 
uaj nufft- Sloooelr youn, 

Wu. J. Kuto. 

Apology tor fallim to Paj an Aeooo&t 

WlODlpeg, Man., 4 April, 1914. 
UeMn Omo Hoou * Co, 
Haotey, 8aik. 
Q«nt)emen:~We owe you an aptdocy for not havlni settled our account 
tlu flnt of the month m promiMd. We have been disappointed in not 
reoelvinc returni for several larie shipmenta the past month, but expect to 
be able to settle our account in full not later than the 20th Inst. 

If you will kindly five us this extension of time we assuTe you the account 
will then be paid. 

Trusllnf that we have not put yau to any inconvenience, we aie. 
Very respectfully yours, 

CoNOBB * Duir. 



83 



i 


■ Ml 



m 



I', 

[I: 




,L 



J^J^.^.^ '^'" """•"''" '•**" •" frienddiip fa an 
aocomplMtaaent v«y m«,h to be d«,ed, and ought to bean 

!^J7l^ T "^"^'y »»y ou« w*„ « not „ued upon at 

■ome time to wnbt,ltttars of a mraal luuun 

it ne««ai7 to oultmMe g«.ar ««. ,rf eipreKion in their 

u,^ ,f^^ ! ""*"" Wnd - p.^ wiU depend Mmewhat 

upon the piirp«e for whK=h it i, to Wn«A Oene^ly speaking 
what would be .uitable for bu,™-, letter, would nTtefo; 
WOW oorre^ndence. excepting Commerciat Note. 5x8 in 
which may properly be used for eitlier. This size is the n.™t 

Octavo Note. 4Jx7 in., although other sizes are in use. 

it i. „„f L!^f* r? !*"'"»«' P*!*' ""y be used by ladies, but 
It is not good taste for gentlemen to use either. 

sh^elfX'.J:,.'"""'""" '"^ ■" "» -'^ «"•" "«' 
perZns'h]^'"''™' " -""' ■"*•""■ '" "■« t^'" »' y«- 
Knvd,^,. Two style, are in general use. One, nearly square, 
to oonhun the note sheet folded once, and the other oblong 
which contains the note sheet folded twice, once each from top 

^t T^' It. r * ""'" '""'" »* "•'y "■»- "-e folded 
•heet They should be of the same color as the paper. 



M 



80CIAL LETTEBS 



ol a I«ttw.— Huoh of what has been said regarding the 
parts of a btisinen letter applies to the parts of a social letter. 
BmUng.-Form and position tlie same as in business letters. 
Addres s .— When the address is given in social letters ito 
proiwr position is at the close of the letter, on the next space 
below the signature, and commencing at the left-iuuid side of 
the sheet at the marginal line. Many social letters written 
nowadays do not contain any address, the salutation being made 
to do duty tor both, yet the address, placed at the close. Imparts 
a tone of respect to the letter, and may always be added with 
propriety, especiully in writing to our superiors. 

Salutation.— Wliat has been said regarding the salutation in 
business letters applies in social letters. The position of '.he 
salutation is the same as the first line of the address in business 
letters, and the familiarity and warmth of the expression used 
depends entirely upon cur relationship or intimacy with the 
friend written to, and the subject of our correspondence. 

The qualities that combine to malie an agreeable associate 
are required to make a desirable correspondent, and too great 
familiarity is not one of them. 

The circumstances and variety of expressions are so many 
that we refrain from giving examples. 

Body of the LettMr.— The body of the letter in social 
correspondence usually begins to the right of the salutation and 
on the neJt line below. Both sides of the sheet may be written 
on if the letter is more than one page in length. 

The Oomplimantaiy Oloiiiig.— Ocoupiee the same position as 
in a business letter and should be in keeping with the salutation, 
and the subject of the letter. 

The Ugnatnn.— Usually in letters of intimate friendship only 
tlie given name is signed. One point in favor of signing the 
« liole name is this: if there is any uncertainty about the letter 
reaching the person to whom you address it, your name will 
insure the letter being returned tofouin case it is sent to the 
Dead Letter Office. 



H'^. 



65 



BOCUL LETmS 

umgu OF A fwuHo w 

«»v^?*'V? *'*"'" "" ""*''' " *"'' o"' o' o" »««f4 'or 
"*"•*. '5'^ •" " *lBi»nt H our nlatiou to othen, ud 
mv be limply U» .ipMrion of Uiully Ming or of U» 
xrongam Impulna tlut move the human heart. 
I*ttet» of affeotlon add much to human happinees, and mom 

^i^jj^" "" ,'^"»"- '"'' "»' "-^ '""'' *"» '"■^ 
M^',"^'," "^^ " *"""'• "•"* «■-*■"- • good letter 
mnpl Our pleurare in receiving such letters should nmlnd 

i^f^ ^^ to our dear ooee in the matter of writing them 
.11^^ ."' *"* ""^ ""^ "'^ •» onlivenod by playful 
^ustontjest. and familiarities provided the writer is Le ho 
will not be misunderstood 

The meet elegantly oompoeed letter wlU not bring one-half 
ttie pleasure to a far-away relative that a simple letter orowded 
with feelings of home life and home love wia 

SInoe no form would perhaps fit one oasa in a hundred wo 
oo^ ^ve the following example, which we considar a model of 



1 



MTBi^OBU,:- li««)n. Nov. IJ. I7M. 

iMiLl!^ ,i° "" .* '" '^" "^ "» • 1«" "M-nwor. u.d andoxl 
«™ ^L .„°"h ""=: •°„^ "«»■«>«■. <«B~tl«,^^e«?iim joTSXh 

r-S-^^H ^" ""' °°" ""^"^ "I"""' •<"•?»» poor iM. I hii 

mtUMd enousli, men when there Is the most occMkin -~. »• ui- 

The menenger n;s he ten the letters st your house and s>ir von mli^ 

wsrt. .t Dr. Duehes. „d Md ,^ ,hen he would |^ id t" t K^^' 

I T.^ ' ?. .■I"?'"™'' •"" "W »>"' 1»" be don. with yon 
•tout the middle of the wed., nor wlU I .«.d you . word of new^-Uul? 

«T duty to mother, love to children and to Hlia Betsey and Oi^;,. eic.,,tc. 

I am your loving husband. 
D e 11. Benjamin Fsahkuh 

-Jii^ wiJrr.^rJ'JirL^,'""^ — * b..« wntteo la hssf by 



L 



mm^ 



SOCIAL. LETrERS 



or 



LttUn of fttondihip make up that large clan of wiltlHi 
meMagea that strengthen the bonds of friends abamt from one 
another. The '^hlef obarm of suoh a letter 3 Its natural, 
conversational style. It should cause the person reading it to 
feel as though he bad been favored with a pleasant visit, 
rather than a formal calL 

Thus, Bayard Taylor, while in Germany, writes to an intimate 
friend in America: 

"Your letter csme (our or five daya ago, and I take my flnt leiiun to 
sonrer it. I take it for granted that tuiB will find you In your Tenth Street 
rooma, which are w rlear in my memory that a letter iM more like a penonal 
meeting to me than when you were in Rondout. You aomebow manage to 
bring your own bodily aelf before me when you write: I see your eyee and 
the changing expreaaion ot your face, aa I read, and the aound of your voice 
acoompaniea the written wtntla. Tbua your letteti are most welcome, do 
matter what you write. * « * " 

To another: 

"You made your ahort note ao [desaant that I can't aoidd you tor Ma 
brevity; yet I should like to. There might have been n much more of 
what may aeem personal or domestic 'nothings' to you, yet have auch value 
at this diataoca. * • • " 

Freshness and orie^naHty in eScpresston should be cultivated, 
eepeoially in the opening and closing sentenoes. Avoid old and 
time-worn phrases as, 

"I tbou^t I would write you letting you know," "I now take my pea la 
bsBd," etc. 

Bow refreshing to receive a letter from a friend who begine to 
talk to us from the first line; for instance. 

"It wae kind of you to aend me a good, long letter while I was lying all 
aluie In my room with 1 othing to do but take villainous doses of medicine;" 
"It was a delight to me to see your hand on an envelope sK&in:" 
"I found your letter waiting for meon Uooday when my holiday closed." 

Compare also such closing sentences as : 

"Having told you all I know or care to write, I will now cloee;" 

"I must bring my letter to a close, as I have nearly filled the sheet;" 

with such as 

"Reodleet that I am absent and you are at home, so your letters are 
wtffth the moat;" 

"Remember me very kindly to your brother and my old (rieods on the 
hill, and beUeve me. "Yours very lincendy, 



87 



<% (f ■■ ■■ V';' 






SOCIAL LETTERS 

ntof of. tetter. Son«of ou, b«t.«thor,«t «.good^SiX 
Evar and ever roun, 

ClUJL SCUHXK. 
(5iiiii»wr fo Afr. Toirer.) 

rob- J^brZ Sr"^"; ''':'^;™" iLr '^° ""-^ '" "»" «""'■'« 
(Sydney SmWt io Lady Orty.) 

if.ii.u .^ . (To Lady Hollaat.) 

Ever your aflectionale friend, 

taiABI.Bl DlCKBNS. 



58 



SOCIAL LETTERa 



XOmU or OdROftATUL^TlOM 

VMmn vt OaagntaUtion are those written to friends upcm 
mnj oooeaion of miooen, joy, honor, or advancement, or when 
they have in any way been espsoiaUy favored. They should 
only be written when we can heartily enter into the spirit of 
rejoicing with the one to be oongratulated. Nothing but the 
nuMt natural, hearty and genuine feelings of Joy should be 
expressed in our letter, and that in our happiest way of 
putting it. 

Letters of congratulation are generally brief— sometimes only 
a telegram— and contain no^ng regarding other matters. It 
depends somewhat u|ion the occasion, how much may be said 
in the letter, as, for example, the following written by Charles 
Sumner to a friend just home after some absenoe from his 
tamily. 






Budion, on the North River, 

TuMday Evening. Sept. 38, 1841. 
DxAa LntNnt: — 

Hen 1 am impriKmed bj the r.iln in the Inn of • Yankee village. Long- 
ing for companlcHiBhip, I write to you, and while 1 write, imagine that 1 have 
it— ai the ostrich auppoaea hinuelf free from danger when he haa thrutt hia 
bawl In the sand. • « • 

I trust you have had fair breexee and this letter will find you with her 
who lovee you so well and with your boys frolicking about you. Ah! my 
dear Ueber, are you not happy? I know where you live. 1 wish your home 
were more according to your heart; but you have sources of the highest 
bappiaMB — domestic blisB of the rarest kind: constant and honorable em- 
ployment for your time; a dlstinguislied name; and the consciousness of 
doing good, of aiding the cause of truth, of education, and government. 
I know tew persons who have such reasons for blessing God as you. * * * 
Ever yours, 

C1LUU.BS Sotona. 



. ,< 



Oongntulatliitf a Lady on Her Manriage 

Betlevlllv, Onl., lOtb Sept., 1U13. 
Mr DKAB Eva: — 

It was with heartfelt pleasure that I learned of your marriage to Hi 
Howard, and 1 pray that time may but unite more closely your heart to that 
of the noble man to whom you have confided your life's happiness. 

Hoping I may hear from you soon, and that you will pay me a visit on 
jour return, I remain your old friend and schoolmate, 

Ehily Blanchabd. 
To Mrs. EvH Howard, Asqulth. Sask. 



WCUL LETTUa 
• Owttmn an ■■ lUnlK* 

.. CoBlptoll, Qo*., Not. 9, 1913, 

Mr DUB Mm. ALLctf;— 

I llHUli to offer jrou m; coimstulathHU uid ilnctTC good wiihM la 
n«ud to jotiT i«c«nt bspplnoM. I hope th«t Nch dftjr majr but add to tlio 
' I of youneir Mid MtlmabU wUa. Yotin ilncM^, 

Mn. D. 1. Wutcnum. 



It- :r.jnr, » Mnd «a tlw Hth laatnmiy o( Waddiac 

, . MdlOM, N. 8.. B.p». 9. 19U. 

Ut VMAt dM. Adahi: — 

II my meitory li fslthtul. It Is Jiut twenty-ara yeui to-day itaieo I had 
the plMun of coocratulatlnv your food buiband upon his rnddlng and 
toBderliiff to you my itncere food wishes. 

Permit me to confratulate you both upon bavitif oomplsted ths sUtw 
drds. and oiler my best wishes that you may lou IIts locether and eiptri- 
•nce as much happiness In the luture as your laces prove you have anJoyed 
hi ths past. With best ncards to yoursell and husband, I am, 

YouiMsnd, 

Cua, Osaa. 



OaacnMMiac a Mand aa tta Bbfh a( a Bon 

„ .. _ Yarmouth, N. 8.. June 19, 1912, 

Mt naaa Ha. OaanNBR- — 

Allow me to pressn* to you my most hearty confratulatlons on the birth 
of your son, and my lin- -« hopes that he may prove in very truth a blessing 
to bis parsnts. and the piide and comfort of their old affe. As for the little 
lellow hhnself, I could wish him no greater happiness than to be bom of such 
parenu and hi such a home. Your Mend, 

Jomr CtJLbiM. 



URDi or nTBODTTomni 

like latteiB introducing aoqusintssoM for biulntaa pnrixiaea, 
Kwial latteiB of introduction aliould be given only wlien the 
penon writing them is aatisSed tliat it will be desirable for all 
partiea ooncemad. Your letter is an endorsement of yoar 
friend's oharsoter and qualitiea and If they are not aU that 
might be deaired, it reflects on you. 

You may speak in complimentary terms of your friend, but 
not In such a way as to make him feel embarrassed In preaantiUK 
the letter. " 



■ociAL Lnrxn 

BMldants ■honld Bnt call opon • b«w miihbor unlw h* 
Mngis latter of istroductlon. Iiitli«»<»»»th«i»w<oiiwriii«y 
otU ant If a ■tnogn' nndi r<»> » l*tlw of introdaotton uid 
hia or har oud, It !• Tonr duty to osU tii* nut dajr. or nod an 
ISTitation to call ufou you. 

Tha f ollowiog ara azamplaa o( lattan of Introdnetion : 



Huuu, N. »., etb ADrii, igis. 



■r. H. 



. R. Bbldim, 

OtUwm, Oot. ^ J «_ 

Uy d«u Sir:— This wDJ Introduce to rour MqiMlotftnce my friend Ifr. 
r-™old». tor whom I luve irent eetenn, ud whom I •m nin jrou wlU be 
'-H-,py to know. 

Any Mtentlon you miy hnve hi your power to beetow durlnf hU »l« 
to BMoa will be pitehiUy ndimcated by Your triend. 

H. 8. Warra. 

OUce Bay, N. B., mil Dec., iai3. 
Ur. T. H. OaimH, 

VeraoB. B. C. _ _ J 

Deer 81r;— I take much pleefure In Intloducini to you my eeteemed 
friend, Bflie CImre Htriend, e young ledy who will spend a few monthe la 
your city. 1 un sure an eequelntence with her WUI be a pleaaure to you. 

Any favor you may Ihow her during her stay hi your city 1 ehell conilder 
a OMnnal one. Youn rinceiely. 

a penonai one lU^ j. H. Howaan. 

Brandon, Urn., 4th May, 1912. 

Mr aaaa Una Joaaaon:— 

Uy friend, Hr. T. E. Carter, purpoelng to make hie home hi your dty, 
1 yenture upon the khld hoepitallty you ha« always extended to me to hltlo> 
duce hhn to yourself and family. Trustlni that the acquaintance wlU be as 
pleasant aa mine has been with both yourself and hun. 
1 am, very respectfully. 

Your friend and well-wiaher, 
J, F. OLaaiiOH. 

LimU OF OORDOLnOl 

Lettara of condolenoe are written to expreaa aympathr with 
thoae who have auflered loaa or bereavement The taak, 
eapeoialljr in the Utter oaae. may not be an eaay one, for if 
hnproperly worded instead of bringing comfort it might only 
add to the aorrow. The diflioulty of the taak should not prevent 
OS from performing our duty to the beet of our ability. 

Let your letter be brief. Show your own sorrow or aympathjr 
In wallchoaen worda. 



11 


1.1' 

1, ,.r 


: 81 


l!l SM 



If 



■ooui, unma 

B» oouid««to, ud omit nMntlonIng uunM ud Um datalb of 
tlia Mnow, H llwjr oolj opan *(raih tiM wounda. 

Do noi try «o polnl out what iiii(bt hsro btmn If 1U> or that 
ud boon done, 

Oive comfort, or withhold vriting. A flne .xunpl. ocoun in 
tllo oomqioadmoe of Cliarle. Sumnar, ud |»rt of hii basutiful 
irttar to Chwlamadie Towar on raoaiTing nawa of tin daath 
of Ur. Towar'a bttbar, ia ban (iraa. ^^ 

Mr ..« »*,„„,_ Cta.b«d„. rad., Horaln,. May 11, lUJ. 

Th. mommt I n» ih. blu'k letl ol your klter. my mind •ntlelpaM 

I oO» you my .mem nymwhtai. Tl» Ion „r . I.ther I on only tnu^ue' 

I«ll^ ■C ^ir.".".*? "™""^ *" '■°'" •"»""'«"" -"1 U'««y predl- 

« h:;:°.!i':rs;";,S";o:r,",.''™. * :""."• °' -"^"""" "■■' ~°«'^"°'' 

BeUeve me ever your true friend. 

CuAnum SmiMut. 

Parhapa no better apeclmen of a letter of condolence can ba 
found tlian the following, from the pen of the lamented Unooln 
The original letter adorna tbe walla of a hall in the CoUege of 
Braaenoae. at Oxford, where it ia looker-, upon with deep interaet 
by American visitor, and ia treaaored by the authoritiea of the 
ooUege. It azplaina itaelf. 

Executive Mineion. 
D>« M»»A..- W«.hin,lo,., Nov, Jl. 18M. 

Adjlit''.'„7r';^l'!'°ri'° '"t"'" °' "" '^" >*I»nn.ent . «.„„ent of the 
h.vl ;r2; ? ^ Mi™ichu«.ll,. th.t y„„ .re llie mother ol llv. „„, .ho 
h.ve died Blor,o,„i, „„ tlie fleld of tattie. I led how weiUi „d Inilti,-™ 
must be any word ol mine which .iiould .tlempl to beniile you (rot ,l" 
JTlet ol . o» «> overwheimln,. But I cmnot retnln ftX lenderli,, ." vou 
dtlTo- ."" "'•>"" '»""" 'n tl».h.nk, or th. Repubflc t „!y 

died to »ve. I pray that our Heavenly Father may »i.u.i,e the aiiKuLh 
ol y..ur hereavement «.d leave you only the cheri^ed memo" „I thTveS 
M^U,!-!. nd the »lemn pride that must be your, to have laid >o coilly a 
•acriUw upon the altar o( Ireedom. ' 

TV. u- Bi.k- ^™" ""' ^""^^ "nd re.pectfuUy. 

ToMr..Blxby. A,aA«*. Liscoij.. 



*• • MmiI « iMi at Bmm br rin 

rhalham. Oat.. Irt Jul;. Illlil. 
Mr MA* Mm. Romh:— 

I haw |iul tauMd of irour ho ol iMt mnlni, ud luaKn In aUn you 
my qrinpallur; lor. ueopt hao o» llh, ilKni can In norui irolrr thai) iliat 
o( Iba hoiM, round which io many phaaanl iMmarm din,, and In which 
wa ha¥a lathcrMl ao many houaahold irMmina which no money can raplaca 
I know alao what • laollni of daaolatlon mun come ovar you loJay. 

Accept my eaineal ■yapalby, aod, IIIeuiliianywayaldyou,donal 
nil Io call upon me. Youn, 

E.'a. PiWm. 

t* • rtlnd on tk* Dwth •( ■ ■« 

Wlulpei, Uah., 4th Oct.. IU13. 
Mr. EuoixB Eaoan. 



My dear t^lendr-It la with deepeet lympathy that I write to you 
reallilni how profound muat be the lorrQW when he la taken away who tor 
•0 many yean, hai he.n the comlort and prlile ot a tather'a decllnlnc'ute 
■till a lew more daya here, and I tnut we will all be united to Irlenda who 
hare been mercllully. no doubt, taken away iBim ua who mourn here below. 

I need hardly aay that you can now, more than ever, rely upon my aldljia 
TOU In any way In my power. Your moil ilneen fri.nH 



Your moat aincere friend, 

CHAluja D'OWAV. 



urmi or um Aim oo tow hif 

No cIiM of lettcn ooniumM to muoh time and thought, or 
CUUH tho writar mora anxiety thnn love letten ; however, when 
true alleatlon prompt! the meacge, little guiduoe wiU be 
neeiled in the oompoaltloo. 

The charm of thia oorrMpontlenoe Ilea In the aimilaritj of 
taetee. and the tone of eameat aSeotion which ii given to the 
meMage. 

Never Indulge in flattery, but remember the flnt element of 
lasting affection is respect. 

Ladies especially should be careful to preserve their dignity, 
and guard their future reputations when committing anything 
to paper. 

Secret correspondence should not be indulged in. Uberty 
from pannts or guardians should always be sought first 

We give no tamplea of love letters. No one would want to 
receive one written in a copied form. If to be without a copy 
U»vee a fellow to make a fool of himself, better for the other 
party to find It out early. 



i ;•■ 



63 



maocon iesoiution iest chadt 

(ANSI end IXJ TEST CHART N„, 2) 



I.I 



la ^ ^ 

^ 1^ 12.2 



1 2.0 
MB 



1^ I'd ill 1.6 



TIPPLED HVHGE in^ 

'653 East Uam sirsM 






SOCIAL LETTEBS 

AiUng Pamiulan to Call 

D«. M,«i Bm.:- l«H.wlejrSI..H«h,M«M. 

nMumliw >omewh.l upon our tornier acqualntwice. I boot to bo imr. 

Stl^"", ^' 'T. °r ""'* " '" "^ '»™'»*'" •" ci>n«I^1 with z. 
and >lso to h.ve the pleasure ot calling on you at youp tome 

Anxiously awaiting a favorable reply. 
HI- u.~ ,:■ = I am very truly your IHend, 

Mln Mary E. Biee. cauiu. 0. Vim 

S04 Elm St., City. ^niiuj. u. vixH. 

A r*Tenbla Bajily 

D.«,s„:_ 204 Elm St.. March l»,l«M. 

I J^Z,'T7!. fO""""""™' '"""Sh "Ot extensive, ha. been pleaMml. and 
I do not flnd It In my heart to object to your kind request. 

With pleaiure I subscribe myself. Your stocere friend, 

Haht £. Bbeb. 

An Ihit>TonfaIa Baply 

D.A, S.»:- °'^' "*"" ">• 

Your very ktad note has been duly received, and in reply I am permitted 

ll^l ^"' ""'^.■""«'"<* '^»y "'"er^i by your re,u«t. TJ^Sit 2 
liberty to (rant It. with sincere regards. 

I remain your friend, 

Chuleia. Vemi, MA.rE.BM.. 

16 Hawley St. 

Fism • Omtlaum to ths rather oi a Lady, Baqnaitiiic Hw 
Band in ManUga 

No. 3G6 Greenwood Ave., 
Mr. Join F»m»i, Lockport, N. B., sth March, lois. 

Lockport. N. S. 
My dear Slp:-I am certain you will not be surprised when I tell you that 
through my frequent visits at your house and your kind hospitality to me 
I have leuned to regard your daughter with a most stocere alTection. Know- 
tag that her welfare and happiness must be the first comrtderatlon with you. 
1 hasten to acquaint you with my feelings. 

I am, as you are aware, not lacktag to this world's goods; uid, If an honest 
and sincere altection can secure her happiness, these certainly rilall not be 
WHitiaf. WiU you trust her to mef I anxiously await your answer. 
Very respectfully, 

Clabxncb Bsaw. 

M 



INVITATIONS 




Invitations 




Notm ol inTiUtion for luge gatherings ate usually engniTed 
or printed and should be sent at least a week or ten days in 
advance, and should be written in the third person. 

Among friends of long acquaintance a familiar note is in 
better taste. 

For less informal gatherings, invitations may be sent out 
nearer the date of the oocaaion, and need not necessarily be 
written in the third person. 

Notes of invitation for teas, luncheons and evening parties 
should be written in the name of the hostess. 

The time-worn custom otpraaUing compUmenU', in an invita- 
tion is passing out of usage. 

Invitations to dinner, breakfkst, or luncheon require prompt 
answers, and the answer should be written in the same form as 
the invitation. 

Initationi to laeaptiau or an "At Home" do not require an 
answer. If the peraon receiving an invitation is unable to 
attend an "At Home or "Afternoon Tea" it is proper to send her 
card the afternoon of the occasion. 

Wadding invltatiani should be issued not later than Bfteen 
days, nor earlier than tour weeks before the date of the cere- 



They are either engraved or printed (printers now have several 
fine linee of type that produce work about equal to engraving) 
on fine white or cream tinted piqier, the correct sise of which 
is about 7iz6) inches and (olds onoe to fit tha esTelopa. 

S5 



>i ! 



INVITATIONS 

nrviTATioini to LUNOHioir 






...o'eAed 



SUm9i^sd^ 



InTltation by Koto 

69 Dorchester St., May 12, 1912. 
Dear Mrs. Pattebson:— 

I afaould be pleased to have you lunch with me on Tuesday, the ninth, at 
half past one o'clock. 

Itusting no previous engagement will compel you to deny ub the pleasure 
of your company, I am. Sincerely youis, 

Ethel B. Harris. 



It is quite oorreot for the hostess to mail her calling card, with 
the annotinoenient, 



written beneath her nama 



Invitatioiis to Beceptioiis 

These invitations are now sometimes issued in the name of the 
gentleman as well as that of his wife, reading, 



INVITATIONS 

When a mother and daughters receive, the card Is in tUi 
form. 

Eta 



biTlUtion to ■▼aning Par^ 

Mrs. EUiott requests the pleasure of Mr. and Mrs. Sluiw'i oompuvoa the 
evening of Hay 4th at el^t o'clock. 
14 Kingston Ilace. 

XnTitation to Bido 

Mr. Bell would be much pleased If Misa Rennle would accompanr him in a 
drive to Lookout Point thia afternoon at two o'clock, May 10th, 1912. 

ANSWXBDIO mVITATIONa 

Aceopting Invitation to Lunch 

n m a tmmiaSitm 4a ^utc4«cm 
«/ cm* 9'fioeA 



' m 



67 



INVITATIONS 

BMytarmiUtrirate 
Dull Hu. HAams:— 

Slnwrely youra, 

Jean A. Patteiuon. 

Bagnt In Auww to IhTitetioii to Broiinc P»rty 

d.,.!!,'; '"."!. "" "'"" "«"' ""' ""'"« '° »>• I" """Itl" ot Ihelr little 
Maplewood House. 

ITie abilitjr to grucefully atxwpt or decline an Invitation U 
quite u euential aa to Imow how to write an invitation. 

wiDDnro nmiATioH 

A 

(chuTcli or iiome address) 
t» enoloeed witli the wedding inyitation, and may be inscribed 



68 



INVITATIONa 

r.^ If (T^t^* "" ^ oeleteBted with only , f„ friend, 
prewnt, it is oortomary to send out announcement cards. Thev 
are posted on the day of the wedding to all friends of the bride 
and gloom. The usual form of such announcement reads : 

A 

«"■«*«« AmmJiW «,/ /&»<, •/ 

.1.''^ Mmonnoement may be accompanied by a card bearing 

^tasaa AND BUBDIXSS CUUtDS 

J^^ '^ '" '-*«-U«^y » "-arried lady, card is 
larger than the one used by unmarried ladies 

ta "^ s^lL'" "**•* *? "^f^ tok are the only one. u«rf 
"1 good noiety. Nanr we bevel or gilt^ged oaid. or any 
decoretto™ other ttan the n«ne. addr«S. and^r^Sn^ to 
mall town, the address may be omitted. 



^ ::i; 






•y^a. ^a 



t>rman 



Mtiti 



-'^ .J^^ 0ai>t;x 



^ ZZ/OiKi 



70 



PART III 

Contracts, Promissory Notes. Orders, 
Receipts, etc. 



L 



C0»I»4CTg 

CONTRACTS 

th.a only ,„„,... „, ^„' °"'" "^, ""n^". or one « 

tlcuUr thing." From ihi. T , , , ' "' '° «'^e ■ome n-r 
..i.ute .uch .„ ZZ^'J:, S't.:';""'" ""' "> "- 
or mutual ...e„t „, .„„ or Ire „' "^ ""^ '•'■^"'™" 

valid oon.lder.,lon, and (3° .r™hr„ , J '" " ""o" "-I 
"> be done which I. the objT ! f^ ° "" '"'"'' " «"'««■• 
"Q«'.Ue. there are Involved T^o.;,, ™°'"'"' '» «■'" 
...e«l„g p.rtle. .hall he co^pl;, ?'°"'^ "" "•" «>e 
ttat the object of the contractTh.1 k , ° ™"'""' '"«' <») 
™".t be . concurrence of Indention IT ""'' '""'• "f"'" 
of whom or each of whom oromr " '"" """"■ one 

"bo on hi. par, accept, .ucrjo','""""""* '" "" °"'". 
be promlae I. called the " promC" . '"" "'"'' "«"'■>« 
'"• "'•on.l.e I. m,d,, j^, »"™''°;' .f" 'be party to whom 
bo-nd to the other by a -i^IC" Z""" ""'^ ■»«>' b° 
» cantractor hire. , workmfn , ""■«"««•' For example 
^y the month, or by ttl ", *""■ '" ■>'«■ by the day 

work done. The worl,^ ' °' '"^ »«■•«■ 'o pay for th.' 
oon.r.«or agree'.TpT; "C J" "? '-« -"""^ b 
tbeir mutual promtae, con.tifute/™""'" '"o other, and 
Of each being the " conZ « „ ' 7°'"°'' ""' " "-msj- 
otber When the contract w^h " "" P'omUe of the 

'o be «,.Ita,.„^. ?or eLmnl. ""t "^'^''^ ''-"^' " " '^d 
-"r..y for another. A ,aya To'b ",1'" » ■>"■«- ""oon. 2 
bl. man a. a collector for a w„ J T" """"« 'o ™Ploy 
f" »" Buch eum. aa he .h»M • ' "'" ^ '^'Vnmil 

Tbat would he a unilateral coi-"?"" "'"•'"^ """ ""-e - 
^"t B not being bound ,! T "'' * "^'"^ bound by It 
B employ, the man then Z " " '"^ ■"»"• "■ however 
b'MIng on A. "'" ""' ^"""'"e attache, a i become. 

"•■bere Is al.o the ca.B ^, 
minor may .ue upon a .„ , ^ """"' "'' " "mtnor" a 
-not be .ued; T-^m ry^'i.To '^"" "'"■ '-'-■' "» 
- - Of a contract rej.rld V^ t b^eT^C 
71 



L 



CONTRACTS 

•re laplM i, ^^ "^ •»'«■'»•. and contr»ct. which 
I. no contract I, rh„! "'"„"''""' "" *" '" '"■»■■ •"er. 

«'.rh7rh7.r.°" rr^her'" - "■"™" '• "■-"•«■ 

If mad. h. S *°™ * "Pre"ent«tlon ot (act 

t... i. mai: doer 'ct up^r,."".?, '° *-'"" "" """-'- 

.n.:rTS:C[;n.rc/.YatVr-"-..r 

after hf °"""' "■■ "°'»"""'y "" 'ffl^ng a se" 

after the name of each contracting party Even Tn tlT™ 

i« paid, or some act Is done In return for tliB •• nr^™!.. .. 



72 



CONTRACTS 

Inoth^r 4 ■ •" ^"'■nent to become .urety tor 

another. Agreement, exprewed In wrltln* are .„hw. ? 

r»n.™ct""'r"''" "'""»» '• ~ -«"-"^ 
P.m« on. t«.^ """' "' """■»»-'-'- between two 

con.tUnt. .n .eoeptance of thro^er^irie "ett"7rerit 
in . flnal and deflnlte offer and acceptance of cert." ."ec 

fnM. ."'"'"™'""'""' ™''» "" '"« P"rPo»e of Inducing 
another to enter Into a contract. It untrue may turnirt 
-ufflclent ground, for afterward, avoiding It 

Where an otter ;> made or accepted by an "agent" It I. 
of the .ame validity .. ,t m»de by a pr'nclpal hut V! 
per.„n ..ehlng .o hold the pr,nclpaM.ahrmu« prove th 
the party with whom he contracted wa. the agent of tue 
pereon agalnet whon he I. enforcing the contract The 

within the scope of hla authority. ^ 

An offer may be made, limited to a fixed time It no. 
accepted within that time, there I. „„ contract Such an 
offer may constitute what 1. called an "option." Indtld Z 
word. "Oiler- and -op,,..- „ean practL'y 'the .ame 
73 



CONTRACTS 

thing. But the offer or opUon may be withdrawn b>r ,h« 
person Who n.ade It at any time hetore aoceZce n how 
ever the pereon to whom the offer 1. made ha. given .^v 
conalderatlon tor It. then the option will be w„h !^ 

cannot be withdrawn hetore t^'Z. T d Vn 0,^^^ 
I revoe*!;, 1 T' " ■"" "''"■ ''°"'"«' "^ '"= other par?; 
oVer party be, """"° """"' "'' ™'»"»""«"ed to I'e 

jpir^e^rpsr:;err.tirx^ 

drawn betore It le communicated. A/ter the acceptance hae 
bean communicated to the party making the offer Ucanno 

landTH "1."""" "" ™"""'- ^ ^■""«' for'h .ale o 
land la deemed to be complete at the time of the acceptance 
of the offer. After a contract for the sale of goods Is acclp^ed 

re-^fTereprnr" '-' '" ""' ""-■ ^ ^^ 
Simple contracts arising Independentli of agreement that 
heZue^'b 'r"1 '" ""• '""'"■'^ transactions rffecung 
r^L, . ."^ """"^ ' """""' o" »"« <""> Side, and a cor 
relative right on the other .""uacor 

Contracu "Implied in l.w» include the tollowlng. namely 

an^hefdrTo""^' '"' ""'' ''"' '" "■" »« -•;>«"«'"( 
another debts for money received by one party tor the use 

BUt^ed-beYwer'tV" T'' '-""^ '" •"= "^ ^^"'^oZl 
stated between the parties, such liabilities being recognized 

LT °T''' """•"' "»''-' <"">«• When severafTer 
sons are "co-debtor," tor the same debt or liability which 
as between themselves Is payable In several shares anS 
21: Tr"'^ "■ """ '"^ ""'-'■ "' ' >"''' greater than hie 
"eon/wf « -■"""' '" """^ '■■■>'» ^"^ <" the others a 

Share t^debr/""'"'""" "' '"^ ^^''" •>''^°-' »'« -» 
Share, as a debt tor money paid; as where one of several 

.0 r/tf 'T, """''' "■ " '™' «""«» - " "« '""a" 
L ^^. "^'^ "^ """ ' '■'*'" "■ «'""" "ontributlon from 

^e sa^r>- .r^": ''™™' '"'™"'' "' "e-"-«tles- tor 
h!„T . • ^-^ ""^ °' ""^ '" ""«» "P0° to pay more 

than his share, he has prima ,„cie, and subject to any special 

agreement between them, the right to - ein,rlb.,I„;; »Tom 
74 



CONTRACTS 

the otheri proportionately to the amount, for which each 

^JnTT '"'"' '■*'"•""' ""» '"«' >"'" "h enforce 
agaln.t hi. co-.uretle. In an action tor money paid The 
above are example, of Implied contracts. 

Contract, ander seal are formed by a deed aeai^H .nn 
aeltvered^ They Involve an a.reemenl Inarmucb the 

TZ , .K "■" ^'^ *"'™ •''^"- '"«»' '"«=» ft-™ the for- 
mality Of the .eal which Is used to witness the agreement 
and not, like .Imple contracts, from the mere fact r. he 

ZT'^""': , ^"'"*' " " '"'"°"'" """ '"» P»"l«» to put 
agreement. Into the form of a deed under .eal. But agree- 
men . a. to .ome matter, and tor some purpose, are 
'oqulred by law to be made by deed. 

A "Tolnntary" or gratuitous promise, that Is, one made 
without a consideration, „ void of legal effect, unless m^de 
IL T„ H " " ' *■■"'"* •"• '-"'-ne-t written, sealed 
and delivered, to prove and testify the agreement of the 

execntlon ..d delivery of . deed may be attested by a wit- 
ness, who signs a formal statement, written on the deed to 
the effect that It was signed, sealed and delivered In hs 
f„'rr,r "^ "="'' '° *' '■■«»»«tlon .houw not be an attest 
of the deed. A deed take, effect from the delivery, it i. 

Z.„; ^ Z^ "'""^ '"=' " '"«» delivered on a dif- 
ferent day. The date of .xecotlon govern, the Interpreta- 
"on of expressions of time not otherwise deflnltely flxed 
Where parties to a deed contemplate that It shall be executed 
by all the persons named therein. It Is not binding upon an 
executing party If that condition I. not compiled with The 
del very of a deed may be made npon . condition, .o that The 
delivery Is not complete and the deed not binding untn the 
condition IS satlsfled. It Is then called an "escrow.- De! 

le'TeedMl^r"™ "" "' ■"""'' ^•"'^' '"^ "^"^ ""i"' 
Iton toV.M L '""' ■>'"'«»»'<"'■ <"■ "P™ delivery of posses- 
t Z„ , """'■ ""■ '" '"" =■"'«"<" 0' ">« other party 

money or ;r°" °' "" "■"""""■ ■"■"" '' '"= '"'^"■'■" »' 
money, or the procuring or registration of a discharge of 

75 



Ill 



COMl'BAOTS 

.nM^^" """'%''""«■' ""• <"■ "ore parti., i, u.u.Ily called 
lCt^T'*f ""'""' ''"*"""^ "»'" '" «i"P"cat, on one 
Ih oC """ "" "*" ""'=■"''' •" " "> « '■"» 

or^!n!r'.'""'^ '° °""* •"""""» «*» «■'«" "«" <="' "mooth 
or polled. 1. a deed made by one parly only. The promisee 
doe. no, execute the deed, but 1. IdentHed by name or de. g! 

expressed ' "" "^ "='""'"""'" """ ■>""«"" «"'"'■' 

Contr«t «f Record. A "record" 1. . memorial or entry 

of the acts or proceeding, of a court of record. The enrol- 

tute the record. A record Is conclusive of It. contents and 
adml, no averment or proof to the contrary. The "Judg- 
ment m an action, when flnal. 1. entered upon the roll of 
the court containing the record of the action. After the com- 
mencement of an action the parties may come to an agree- 
ment as to the entry of a Judgment. A Judgment for pay- 
ment of a certain sum of money may he treated as a distinct 
debt or Claim on which a new action may be brought. The 
judgment of a court of record merges or extinguishes the 
cans- of action, on which it wa. founded, and the Judgment 
. a bar to the original cau.e of action. The cau.e of aTtlon 
Is changed into a matter of record, which I. of a higher 
na ure. and the inferior remedy Is merged In the higher 

Airreement, Made la Writing. By the statute law wme 
contract, are required to be made In writing. The "Statute 
of Fraud, i. the most Important of tho.e which require 
a written contract. That .tatute. which was passed in the 
reign of Charles the Second, contain, a number of provisions 
Which make it essential that at least Sve classes of contracts 
shall be In writing and signed by the parties. They are (1) 
A special promise to answer for the deM, defanlt or miscar- 
riage of .Dotlier The promise must be made to the person 
to whom another Is answerable, and It must be a promise to 
answer for a debt of. or a default In. some duty by that other 
person towards the promisee. This provision applies to such 



CONTRACTS 

oa». u Where a man promlae. to be an.werable top the Bate 
uiinj, delivery, and return of a hor»e borrowed by another 
Or a promlae to Indemnity another from the con.equences of 
becoming ball for a third person In a civil action. (2) Any 
eontract lor the 8.1. ,f Und, or tenement,, or any InteresV 
In or concerning them. This refer, to agreements not oper- 
ating as an Immediate transfer or conveyance of land such 
a. a contract to execute a grant, transfer, or conveyance at 
some subsequent period. But If there has been a " part per- 
formance " of an unwritten agreem3nt. such as to place the 
parties In a different position from that in which they would 
have been If there had been no contract, the contract may be 
enforced. For example, where a verbal contract is made for 
the sale of land, and the purchaser has taken possession, 
the court will compel him to carry out the contract not- 
withstanding that there Is no written agreement The 
statute Includes contracts for the sale of any "Interest" 
in lands or tenements. Certain leasehold agreements, 
agreements to make alteraUons and repairs In build- 
ings, and agreements for the sale of growing timber 
and underwood, are required to be In writing and signed 
(3) Any agreement which Is not to be performed within a 
year from (he making therml. This extends to all contracts 
which are not. by the terms of them, to be fully and com- 
pletely executed within a year. A part performance of such 
a contract will not make it binding. For examp'e, a per- 
son who verbally agrees to take a literary work puoilsoed In 
numbers, which was not Intended to be completed In a year 
and who has taken several of the numbers, cannot be held 
liable upon the contract as to the remainder. A verbal con- 
tract for a year's service, to commence on a future day Is 
not binding. A verbal contract not to carry on the 
same kind of business within Ave miles Is not binding 
(4) Any promise by an executor or an administrator 
to render his own estate liable for damages. The pro- 
mise of an executor or an administrator to pay a debt of the 
testator or Intestate Is a mere nudum-pactum and does not 
Impose any personal liability, unless there Is some considera- 
tion for the promise. (5) Any agreement made In considera- 
tion of marriage. For example, if a father promises A that 

77 



OONTtliCTS 

writing All proralae. Md agreement, made by one per.0B 
in conaideratlon of the completion of a marriage by aSot^e? 
mu.t be in writing. A promise by a hu.band beforT ™r- 
rlage that be will make «,me provl.lon for hlB wife in hi. 
will cannot be enforced if not made In writing. In addition 
^o the above there i. al.o a provl.lon in the Statute ofZud" 
With regard to the .ale of good., which .ay., -No conlmrt 
«»r the .,le ,| ,„ g„„a,, „ merchwdl.e. lor the 

?h.» b. in "Tl' '.'"""» <'" •" •^"•"" SU "L W 
part of the good. .0 .old and actually receive the .ame or 
give .omething in earne.t to bind the bargain. orT par 

of the bargiUD b« made and signed by the par.ie. " bf 
Thi.'l M """"*'"" *"'"""' ■awfully authorL" 
sale of good, not manufactured. To remedy thi.. a .tatute 
wa. .uh.eQuen.ly pa.eed. which made the provl ionlppu 

deliver.". T '",*""' """' "" «"■"" ""« '■"-"«« to "e 
delivered at .ome future time, or were not at the time of the 
contract actually provided or at for delivery. Of "our.e If 
II J7 "" '"""''' "' "" ""■» •" «'«• "re 1. an 

iav h! °Jr'""'T "■""" ™ "" "»■•' »' ">' ""<=•>«»" to 
pay the price, or the value. If no price I, .peciBed. which can 

be a for^ ■ ";""■■ """ ""'"-"'»'>"■" '» -«"-« need not 
contract can be aacertalned from the written propcal A 
ter may be Interpreted by the aid of other letter.. But 
.i.. name, of the parties and the term, of the contract mu.t 
appear from the writing or writings. 

Illegal r.ntracts. An agreement may involve some matter 
or purpose which i. illegal, and which render. It void The 
burden of e.tabli.hing illegality rests upon the party assert! 
h. n, t T""'*'" "'^'' *■* ""^al at common law, or it may 
include such agreements as are contrary to •■public policy" 
and moramy. Public policy requires that a contract to Z- 

^rL kT'.'"' ^'^ " "'^^'^ '° «"other to commit a 
crime, shall be necessarily void. The court, have carried 

78 



CONTHACTS 

thl. prlnolpl, .till farther, by holding that contract, to com- 

T,ZLT , "*" " "■ *'"* °""'"' " """-i '" «■"""«■• 
to commit an Immoral act, or to do .omethlng agaln.t the 

ffT^h r !'k°' """'*""'■ """" •■' ""'■ ^ "O""" '• void 
If prohibited by .tatute, though the .tatute Inflict, a penalty 

^rlhlh^'.r" ''"°"'°'' """* """"'" "" «""«« ■"»«"» to 
prohibit the commlulon of the act 

to interfere with, or to unduly Influence, the legi.lature, or 
he government. 1. Illegal and void. For example, a prornLe 
to a member of the legi.lature In con.lderatlon of hi. giving 
or withholding hi. vote upon a bill before Parliament Any 
agreement Involving bribery, or undue Influence, at the elec- 
tton of a member of Parliament, or at any election for muni- 
cipal office. 1. Illegal and void. An agreement to create a 
monopoly ■ l. agaln.t public policy, and therefore void 
A contract to pay a man for burning a building, or a contract 
to pay for printing a libellou. book. Is void 

A|n«ement8 in Beslniint of Trade. In contract, for the 
formation or dl..olutlon of a partnerahlp, or for the employ- 
ment of an agent or .ervant In a particular trade or bu.lne... 
or for the .ale of the " good will " of a bualne... .tipulatlon. 
are frequently made . ^training a party from trading or 
doing buelne.. within certain limit.. In .o far a. .uch 
re.trlctlon. are neccary for protecting the Interest of the 
person purchaalng, they will be upheld and enforced. But 
an agreement "In re.traint of trade" I. bad If - unreason- 
•we ; It may be made reaeonable by limitations of time or 
.pace. The question of " rea.onablene.s " is a question of 
law. The court must construe the provisions of the agree- 
ment and d .ermine whether It Is reasonable or unreason- 
able If an agreement In restraint of trade Is limited In 
point of "time," It Is not necessarily bad If unlimited In 
space, and a restraint which Is limited as to space may 
be unlimited as to the time of Its continuance 

Told and Toldable Contracts. A contract which Is "void" 
has no legal effect, and binds neither party. A contract 
which one of the parties may set aside under certain condi- 
tion. 1. "voidable" only, but unlegs and until set aside It 1. 
binding on both parties. A party may acquiesce In a void- 

79 



CONTBJICTS 

dltlnctlon between the term. •• void " „d " voidable " In th.fr 
.ppllcntlon to contrncu 1. often one of ,re.? p™t.l.Mm 

mprleon another, an agreement to Indemnify a ebe'ltt from 
the pecuniary con.equence. of permitting . prCe .o 

?:r?n^anrt:crr.'::;err" .r "^ - ■'"•°" 

rn,e voidable^ .bat le. .be .0^.™',';;; r^e "o "beTund 
by the contract. But after coming of aae h<, ^i.,., T 
validity to the contract by a new promiror by anj oth" 
ratlflcatlon A contract made by an Infant (a peraon unSer 
1 lZll'!,T ''"'"'"°"" '° """• '■ ab-olutely void By 

■mo byln nfatr'thr"" "' '"*' "" "■"™«" ™'"^ 
l.m „,"■"" "" '"« "payment of Lioney lent or to be 

«t. for'nr" ■r"""' " '" •" ••"■■""O-ther than co^ 
tr«.t. for neceawrlee-are declared to be absolutely void 

made after fuTaaT'-'"""^ ■"'"""=^' "' »^ ""«»«» 

cannot be enforcr' " """ """"■"' ■"""» ""'»« ""»«^. 

Under the Ontario Insurance Act, a minor who 1, 15 years 

:^e:r^:^Lr:::^rj;^crrr"fH 

prem.um notes given by such minor will he Ut^d , J 

mrr.nf::;.sl\' "" ^--"'»« apprerLs^n^'lnrr 
wift fhl^r^ ^ "' ■"■" "" "«^ ■" '« y^"'. and not living 

Of no validity, u Is -fflclrnf'lf" he pa Hs ,nc:r e'o? 
underatandlng the contract when It. purport 1, «Xned 



80 



'l 



1 



OONTBACTS. 

yar, after the Muse of .ctiri^ comoenoed within .ii 

«. action upon .^nd or ^thi, . ■** " *""»' ™'« 
con.n,encedT. .'nru»,"w 4'" r,'™! Terr' """ "' 

contract ° •**"" '° """ '"» • ""•O of the 

or other deflnlte time Ind leave, b^for.,,."'' T "^ °"""'"- 
reasonable cause, he'loee. rrt^X Zr,„°' "' ""1°"" 
be has served. But If h» i. a,.J, ^ * '" ""« "'^od 
recover for the whole term Jt »"^ r"'"""' "="" "« '=»■' 
ba. been able to «,„ iT^^ ' e-'Piratlon-Iee, what he 

dut. to .eeJ'ottr"emZ«en^^7i '.' T'""'^= " '" -" 
of damages. It is no „,ii^. . ' "'"''" '"« """ount 

contract that be was nut u^ "T' '" '"'«■■'"»■'■>« one's 
time the contract wa^r 7* ""' "-''-"P'ated at the 
speclflcklndof worrhutTh.^ "■ "'" "'°"*"'=' »"» '" 
laboring during The sUnuL^ef "."""-"^ "^ ='"*"«" "o" 
services .8 m!ch as h^r.. ,"""*■ "' """' '"™''™'- '<"• •"« 

be labore" though tter' . '" ""^ '""•"'• ""• «■« ""o 
eo. Mough there are some excepUons to this rule 

unferTe^em o^S " T'™" °"""'* "^ ««'»"«'. 
81 



CONTBACTS 

f««e against the DirfffATu'"""'™' °"'' «•«" "f de- 
amount^of he debt wi h Vh, ''.'■^'"': """"'' ''"'"■• ">« full 
accrued. "" "" '"'"*"' """i ''™'» which have 

of"a°^';T7'haf Z'^e™'' °' '"" -"P*'""*? the measure 
which tCZ ghes a :„°e"drZ,''°' ''?'' T"""^' '"' 
n.e„.„rate with'the'i;:^;;":'^^!!::!™'"'^ """ "' ™"- 

i HOW A OOKTBAOT SHOULD BE WBITTEH 

thf"e"„',r„etr'ti!!'„!r?ei"de"JI'"^ " '"■"'"""' "»' 
The contract should be writ"en in nlaln , ,"""""' '"™"''- 
suage, and the law does no ," generTreoui™ t";'™",' '"- 
tract drawn up with technical precWon!^ '°™'" "™- 

or*^„l^rrn"d"g"r""" """•" """ "-""'-<-ye« 

thaT^.^H",T' *'"'""' "• "*"•"• "■«' »"> 'honld be taken 
that the date be not a Sunday. Holidays are on a different 
ba ,s from Sunday. It is said that a holiday is a pr viZ 

ite^'^or^^.-iL^ri^-r"^^^^^ 

Ji will uatea on Sunday is not invalid 

indicatethattheybadbeen»aLt:rbrntrZToJr 
-iny Material Altaratlon in the contract after it is sieved, if 






CONTRACTS 
■entativM. Such reDrM«n(..iv.l """"f" but hit legal repre- 

o«trnT„.t?ea^trJnrhe;*;:c^';i^^ 

together co„e,i,ute the written comrtt If JlV^I" '""" 
■. «nt and fllled it i, , written oor.;t ", ZlfVy, "' !"^* 
eoncerned, but not a. to the other nartv A . , ' ""'"'■ 
•ame way may be a written contract ^' """ '" "" 



Agreement, (General Form) 



"t i^fvnerai rorm) 

Sai*atcl,ewan. party of the one mrt Th .°, "'°* *"" "'"I"™ »' 
"' Roglna. 1„ «,e county of rLC ' nrt ,'''' ''""^ °' "■« village 

party of the other part. ' ""'' P™""';" of KaUiatehewan, 

WkercM [(n.er( rertlol. If „,,]. 

(a.rzz'rZrr f:r"rho's;"r,i'" 'jh-i-"-"- »' 

'^'-''\zz,eTt,T>r.zz'°r'"'- •""■"'«» '- ...» 

»') (one, dollar now pad by™eST,"°" °' '"■» ■"■»""«• »"d 
other Of them "Tedtlvrly they ^e „a., >,''°""" "•""' '» "■« 
heir and each of tholr hel . exVmorrarf JT'.°' '"' '^-^^Ive., 
by respectively covenant aM Sr'"^^^7^ admlnHtrators, do here- 
oxecator., adn,l„,.,r„,o„ and°f, ^^''^''^C" °' """"• ■■" "'"•■ 



That t»er« („.„„ ;,„r.,a.ter. „, „,„c,„e„„. 
hand" ran'rUalT*"""'' "■" "'" P»"'" ^.-e hereunto 



their 



RicHABD BarsoN. 
7 83 



Wm. gilu 
aABBr Clai. 



CONTIMCTS 



■irumcntB under ceal. '' '*"• dollar— «v#n Ji, ,^. 

An. .„ coi" , : '° :'„rj-" " ■"" o.np.o;„;;„,V ' ' ■"" 
Oanl. .„d .=.,7 '"'' "" ■»"'" ""''o i.ave here„„,„ .,, „.,, 

84 



tl< 



CONTI1ACT8 

dolliirn iinyabi, „ ,„,., _ 

.no. h,.,o„,, „he ,„"::;■ .,^;;'„7'" »' -oll-r. on ,h. .,. 

"1.1. inter,.., on ,h, mo^g.^.^"^ "'''"' ""■»'.■,..„.. on „.c. l,.n„. 

•«;r.l..„ ,.„.r ,„„. ,„„„„,. ."„,„„",, ^"'° " ■""" "' -l'' •■■ 1- 
'"-• ..... «„y other .p„.,„, „„„,X„". ; d.,y. „„„,.„. 

--Jrrrr,rx;:.:;r:;: - r- •;'■'■••• °' -■ 

Tlia n.._ L limi oj tnu pur<'hilM>r 

.™..n.,e.. „„. .h.„;"L t ,t d To r"""" "'■'•^'"■' "■ -l'"n« 
;;'™P.unoe. „„„ „„„ p„y ",^" '<■ ^° «!' rent, from th- aato „r 

Tho vendor ,|,all „„, be lK,u„d ,„ „_,. 

•■-Pt .ueh ... are ,„ hla ,„.^.„,^"'" """' """'"-» "' title e.- 

The puri-hafler to Hei.n.h * .». 

Lave tirtcen ,l„y. ,rom Z Zl , "' '"" °*" •"»"«■• ""- •■> 
-l-ll b.. .l..e„„„ ,„ have .:,;,!'/ „";',7'»""- '» -'""""C II. „„„ 
oLJeetlon. n,„„.. „„l,l„ that tZ^ f ' ''"^ ?,'"'" "" '° "">• «rl..en 
>l.at tl.„. ,h. vendor ,hu„ hLT-^ a Jll m* " "" """"• ""l-l" 
"u. ir he he anahle or unwliur,: dj^"""-' '""» '» '«"."ve „, 
any Intermediate eorre.pond.nfe elncer .h '^ "°'*''"""'"'l"n« 

con:;:t:'::';,:,:::rrr;^rirv^ -'- -—• 

!»• .trlctly „. the e.«noe hereof °" "°'''' ""'' """' "hall 

...i.'"twrre;rdL?'„7Ma;..h,'';;,2"'''"'° ■" "" "■"•' "■"■■ »ai. 

Witnbm: PiUL M.Douoal 

Fix.rD Jones. 

ACCEPTANCE OF OFFER 
ther'eor"" ^"'"■' "■« "— -"• «"■. «»ree to fa,,,, ,„e tern.. 

'-''■"'"" 'Z':!-^^-.'::r" - ™ '■-' <- -, 

WlTNKBB; 



MOMIMOSY NOTM 

PROMISSORY NOTES AND BILLS 
OF EXCHANGE 

Mm.. . .u» crui,, ,n ml.' to or J'^. ? '* """" 
Bed p«r«n, or to b..rer " * ""'" "'• » "»<"- 

honour, in n> f,r .. ,h.„ •■». Prot«i. and notice of dli- 

P.P.r. .r ." »a t,r.: r d"'n'"r/"' """""' 
>n»y render it void .. , „ote .hh„,, h . '"">">ient, it 

«d .cted upon. be",Ud ,..„*!;■"• ' ''■^'- *""'' «"■"•* 
an ..reeuent " weement or .. .,id.nc, of 

(2) The writing mu.i contain a "onmb 

nr- An l.o U. oontalmn. . .. . •'"■"• eniaging to 
note. For .xampTe 1" o n "IZ '° '"'• " » P™«>li.ory 

<n.Un.." .IgneTa^d de'll^e^.dTa. Ild'to"':' "" "", '""' 
note. But a writln. In ih. . .:„ ' " Promliaory 

aemand.. ,. „:t"l'r:'.'.:r;"no;e °-"' '" ^'^ "" ••»«• »■' 

»yZr;:rTo rt'^e:: v,':::^ "■" "■"■• ■» ••-"- 

A. oB undertaking opayc a tilr " ""■'""* »'"•■ '»' 
"Po» « . pron,l.fo ? no^e aurgh rmaTh"""' "' ""•' 
d.»c. Of a contract ,o pay in'o'nt to c. ' "' -"" '= "'" 

(4) It muit be "signed by Me Baker" ti.. . 
any party may be made by a du!y a^WiJ "'""" "' 
authority of the aaent m.v k '""'°"»"'' »K™'. and the 

ca.e.. Each atno'? .r'^.g/ntr^r','' " '" '" •""" 

^r.,nr":e'^.ig^Tur~"- — ^ 

"««. A not, mu,t not be expree.ed to be payable on " 




I'llUUIBKOHV NOTKM 

"■"•m. . ..>. upon th. "flllt . „, """"■»•" "o.. not 
• P.rf«. ln.,run..nt ^hTlZt^ IT'"""- " "•"•' ^' 
*" 'niMrntiv.. o«i.v.r«i or luued. and ii nn,« 

Th";o!;.:r„-i «r n-oTr™:: "" "«••• >• —».- 

«.. d.«au,on' A ,°:jzz'yZ:rr "■"^'"°''"". 

A prooUe to p./ ■• ,„ e„h „r hv ' Particular r„„d." 

WWbl. In chlc.,0 In Am^L ""'" '""" '» C«n,d. 
r ""f muBt b. P.»b.°to . ""clflr;"""" " "^- T"" 
- not. any b. dmwn p.,,b,- '''°''"'"' '"•"^ or to b<..rer." 

■ ,-"'""-' »y wn. I. C™ , ^.* r'","' "'""• *"»" " 

»" not until It I. „ end, Md '*"'"° *» '«•"•'•. 

.a?C' l!l'Zn,°T. 'ZlT ""'"^ »' ""-'"ory „o,„ 
;«..™m.nt I. on.X "a 'X iTT"'' ^ ■"""«'•'"' 
" l» l-nwble to bearer or hv !""""'''^<« bv delivery, If 
'' 1. made p,y,b|, ,„ order Tr.?"f"""" ""' '"""">'. " 
I'M or n,oney repreaen od by » „r"e .T'"' """ ""' ""> 
O" P.r«,n to «.other. The maklr ^r " '""""""l f™m 

•' •bin ,n„,.. ,i„ he win p.; ° l""':, "' "" »««P'" 

«» '■ tbe principal debtor bU """"""k 'o It. tenor 
' *•" be paid .ccordlnrtolt. ..r "" '"™»" """ 
Ulahonoured be win ^„ "'°'"'' '"^ 'hat If i, i. 

«<..entendor«r:b'oirorp";:,r '""■'" " "^ "" 
Prxeedlnga on dlahonourTo i!^;° ^ "' " ""' '•'">"'■"« 
™« denying tbe genulnene,. and re^.f"; "' '" '""""' 
•l«n.ture, and be i. p„„,„" f"!"*"'"'"' "' ">o maker'. 
«dor.eo or bon.-Me hold"r1ba,7he hln " '" " ""»■""""' 
time Of bl, endoraement a vlud ind I" """' -" " '"« 
"M tbat be had tben a IZtT, '?""""■* '""rument, 
»«y relieve blm.elf from oeL ? ,° "■ ""' "" ^dor.er 
""da, "wltbout reooure,C "f'T "^ "'"""^ «■« 
meaning, after hia a,g„atu e w^h ?b ""* """' "°'"" 
no ea p^^.h,, ^„ " demand," tbeTdo n^^ k"""'™ ■" "'"= <>' 

-ed-.a,.ed -..„ ./^^.'^ rrar„ej''rn '^ el^' 



PliOMISSOBY NOTES 
except where the bill or note is payable on demand When 

fir ,rrr s; =;.r.sr..". ziB 
EfH €"•■■'"'■■-"="»' —^^^^^ 

a bin "n:,"""."""''' """ "^^ "» "P"f»W.- Wh;>r 

be p ell?,'' "■'''' """"""^ " " """'-'" «"■"=«. " -us. 
oe presea ert for payment at that place, but If no place of 
payment la specllled, "prewatment lor p.jmen?- Is no 
necessary In ord.r to hold the maker liable; and a Present 
men at the place mentioned in the note, or ?fno place be 
mentioned a presentment to the maker for payment Is suffl 
c ent m all cases to hold the endorsers liable When a place' 

a Zr"^ " r""""' "^ — a-Oun. only pre^entme 
at that Place Is sufflclent. An endorser becomes Habie to 
every subsequent holder to the same extent ar he mlker 

b? "s^teTfoT"" ™ ''™'""' "■'" "»- endorsed irmus. 
the makT„: ''???' ""'"° " " "-'""^^^^ "■»»," after 
ine mak nr of the Instrument. In determining what Is a 
reasonable ..me. regard must be had to the nat,rre"f the 
n r„n,ent, the usage of trade, and the facts o. he par 

rel"te7:i.h,'n'' "'" " ■""'• ""^'""^ "- —a ls'n"t 
presented within a reasonable time, the endorsers if »nv 

tne assent of the endorser or endorsers, as a "oollaleral or 

IITJZ TTIZ " """!,"■" -' -"--"■' '"' - -"' 

o long as It is held as such security. When a promissory 

by the^horrT '""' '' ""' ■"""• " "-"^ "^ "lo^eZ' 
of the nn° ■■ '"'»-P''y>"ent. and notice of protest or 

test „r, ''"""' '"'"' "■"" "«' »<" "'""■ ^"y Pro- 
est). must oe sent to each endorser. But In order to render 
the acceptor of a bill or the maker of a note liable It Is no 
w hl'7 '°/?'™' "■ * "'" - -'- "^a™ and payable 
sary to n™, ,' ""'? "" "'"'""'' «"'" " '» "ot neees- 

Quebec A 'r t ? ,"""' """ ^«^'>' '" ">« P"-"-'"" of 
Quebec. A protest of any bill or note within Canada, and 

8Gb 



I'HOmssOBY NOTES 

Benutlon and dlehonour and al«o „f , ""^ °' ""- 

notice or that the note haanot J """ ■'"<'"'«' 

Of non-payment (ca^ed Not ,e „f Di " T"' ""■" """« 

or delivei-ed not later thThv I ^^'\°'"'"'> "■■'«' »« -ailed 
■iaj' When the bin or note he ° °i "' ''" """"""« "■« 
(Section 97), " No Ice o" dLnT"". "'"'• """^ «="«» "y,. 
e»ectual. muat be Xn „„ Zr";; T" '° "^ ^''^ "■«' 
ne« day next followZ the ^f.. ""' ^'"■'"""«' ■"• '"'»'■ 

be given by or on behalf of the 7m "' """''■" " """ 
"io la liable to the holier e^c '"' " "' '" ™'"'""- 

"inj/:urr:f;ei:r,;/ - - «- penod 

grace are allowed In »,/.,. Payment. Days of 

or after alght 1 . "b draft , IT" " """ "^''»'>'» « 
bill of Exchange) or. , . ' '°'' " '"""'■ ' "a^s '"r a 

March, la d'.:"™ t Tr^of rcrr^" - '-^ ■" <" 

»lgbt." presented for payment u T ""'^ ''°^^'"'' " "' 

presentation. A bll or Z . °'' "■" "'"■<' ""^ «"" 

-.gbt," ,s due and payable :L thTatrdT"" '" ""^^ ■•""- 
Every bll, or note Lde paylwe afa 'mb '" -™'"'"-'- 
date, becomes due nn ,Z ' °'" ""onths. after 

'n Which I, is made n.!.,'""" """"■""' ''^'' ">' '"e month 
unless there s no uZ; " "" """ ^ *■■'* " '^ "ated. 
payable tbcb case u'! ■"™"' '" "•"^" " " ■"»"" 
tbat month, .t^ Z' ^^ZH: ^ Z^^:'^^' "l 

Whether thet"; r'L: .t/: ^ ^^ °' «"- following. 
Joint Notes, a promissory note may he m,^ k 

86e 






PHOMISSOBY NOTBa 
aCor or „^\„"'««-»'"'«"»-" n.ak.r „r a note, Z 

due after the expiration o,,r T"' " ""' " "-'» '" o^"- 

-.'sr- rrs : r,,r ,r.r." «■• "- ~ 

the-maker-ota w. ,? \ ' "*""' poaltlon as 

^o Due 



(The words " Value received ' 
8Gd 



are not essential.) 



PROMTSSOBY NOTES. 

Ill Ca»e ol Fraud, Theft or Robberi If th. i» . 

never been given force l,v tiV. , '""fument had 

was no. guilty of neg.lgeLe th "" '"'""-^ »■"■ "» 

<- -ch case the notetou.a n'e er tav^e^had'"' '"', """'"^^ 
enco. But the nllghteat ne»lle„r *"'' ''«»' e'"''" 

"-r .nstanoe, If .hf raler'.^ T ^r" te" '"' T" '""""■ 
tains It In his possession, no matter how """"l""'"'' " «- 
rardlng to so. authorities n^„ securely, he Is, ac- 

'" eood faith, or as he is In 'T'"' ""W" '« a holder 
I'older, although It was „ll.» ■??'*■ '"'"'^''' » •»"« «<!» 
thof, or robbery. "^ """ '" ''""'at'on through fraud. 

With the amount left Wank .hf "„"'"'««'' and delivered 
't will bo bound o a iona M l",." "'"' ''«" -• <"""'■■'"' 
may be filled In " """ "'■"'" '■"• "■■>' amount that 

anoth:r?oi,rsr: z 'n^-r, « r- "'- - 

holder though the other fli'l,i„" uT '" " "''"'' «'"' 
than agreed. But If a oerson .? '™'^ ^"f"™' "o'" 
paper without an"; int^fC ™ Cng 1%^ " T ■> ""'"'< 
other obtains It and writes a nnL f ^ °"'' """ """ 

"Ot be binding even In ttUdr^f r^o^ fn ZdM"'" 

.>ors':d"r„o"eM"'',';re'^,^;',-'' ~ -"'> •>-" - 

satisfaction can be ecllea ^o?","?"'' ' """ ""'^ ™« 

^:^t\^;^oSr -'--:=:: 

be';"tera:r;Ze''nt'dem"' H""""'""" '"^ ""'^ «-' 
day It becomes due *°'"''' ■" "■« "aker on the 

nourtrthrt:: t: ;trd ;:r ^'"'""■™' -^ " 

-t refused. When a notel"„rd:,r;i7or;Lrtatrn; 
87 




h 



PEOMISSOBY NOTES 

Hi. said to be "dishonored" and is taken to a nolarj- pub- 
he who again presenta it, if not paid, he notes its non-pay- 
ment, and afterwards draws out a formal protest, that legal 
proeeeding^ may be taken for recovering the nmoint due 

Protest IS unnecessary, the certificate of the notary being 
merely prima facie evidence of dishonor. Notice of dis 
honor, however, should be given all the endorsers. The 
rules as to notice vary in different states. 

Notice of Prote«t.-Tho holder of a note may give notice 
of protest either to all the previous indoors or^^y to one 

and the last mnst give notice to the last before hira, and so 

Where notice of protest is didy addressed and deposited 
m the post office the sender is deemed to have given due 
notice notwithstanding any miscarriage in the mails If no 
notice be siven the indorsers are discharged. 

Demand and Payment-Notes payable on demand must 
he presented for payment within a reasonable time, in order 
to hold indorsers. 

Where Days of Qrwie are Allowed by statute on notes, 
thej are not considered due until the expiration of the days 

Thn r?'.. % "°" '' P™^™'««1 and payment demanded on 
the Inst day of grace, and payment refused, the maker is in 
default, and notice of dishonor may forthwith be given to 
the indorser. Three days ol grace are allowed in Canada on 
a I notes not payable on demand. In Newfoundland no days 
of grace are allowed on sight drafts. 

A Wote Hade Payable at a Bank and held there for pay- 
nient until the usual hour for closing, need not be presented 
to the maker in person to bind the indorser. It may be pro- 
tested, as in the case of drafts, immediatelv on the close of 
b.nnk hours. Payment must be immediately demanded of the 
indorser it he reside, i„ the same place; if he is a non-resi- 
dent he must he notified at once by letter. The notice of 
dishonor m.iy be sent by a notary. 
Presentment Not Necessary to Render Maker Liable.— 
resentment for payment is not required in order to charge 
the maker of a note. 
Sundays and HoUdays.-When the day of maturity falls 



rSOMISSORY NOTIB 

"P"n Sutulav or a legal holiday IIm! nole is payable ,m the 
next «uMee,liMs business day if no days of grace are allowed. 
Hut m cose days of grace are allowed and the last day of 
grace falls on Snnday or a holiday, the note is payable on 
lue next preceding day. 

H«e of D.mand.-Where place of payment is specified in 
a note demand should be duly made at that place. 

By Whom Domand Hay Bo Mado.-The holder nf a note 
or any one acting tor him may make the demand for pay- 
men a,„ send notice of dishonor to the indorsers. Usunllv 
the l,ol, r or his agent notlHes all the parties on the not^. 
This is the most business-like, as well as the most prudent 
way, as renders all parties responsible to him, and each 
responsible to each other in their order. 

Extending Time of Payment by the holder releases the in- 
dorsers of he note, unless consent to such extension has been 
given by the indorsers. 

which has been lost, he may by law be compelled to pay it, 
but It would be necessary for the party colleclin- it to '.-ive 
bond to protect the maker from all further claims on^ac- 
coiint of the lost paper. An innocent hoMcr fo, valu° may 
collect on a lost note if pureliased by him without knowl- 
edge of the loss. 

Proof Re,nired.-It is neccs.sary to prove that the note 
h.is been given by a certain parly or parties. If the de- 
fendant claims that the „olc has been pai.l the bur.len nf 
proof is on him to prove thai. The production of tl,,. nolr 
oy tlie plaintiff gives rise to the presumption that it has n..t 
been paid. 

Tie Finder of a Note, as of all other properfv, mnst make 
leasonable efforts to find the owner, before l,e i, entitled to 
appropriate it for his own purposes. If the finder ciiii<eil 
It. he is liable to the charge of larceny or tliefl. 

A Note Destroyed by Fire can be rollecte.l l,v i.-. ,f 

loss. ■ ' 

Interest.-A note which does not state on H« t 

bears interesi, will bear interest only from mat. , 

89 



PKOmsSORT NOTES 



If the Word. "With IntPre.t" ,re Inclnd«l In . !,„u, |t 

draw, the legal rate of lnt..,eat from the date of making It 

i*g»I. but not higher than the statute of the Province al 
Iowa, the rate of Interest must be specifled. 

n.f^l'^"' '. """"■■•— A"" 'he death of a holder of a 

tl„r?hr ■"'*.'" "' ^''"°" •="?"«•— The "tatuto Of Ilmlta- 

■1™!^ r°" °,V"r' '" "'"' y™" f™" ™"t"ritv or l.,t 
inTx yea^ '" '" """"' '''■°"""'" '">'' Newfo,,n,1la,„l 

DIFPEHEXT FORMg OP NOTES 

Form Of Non-negotiable Not* 

' Thh-lv rt-v. „ ... '''"'■"■nlln. Nfld.. Marrh 24. 1912. 

areJ^li'lIar'^vZ^e^;;!"™""'' "• '"' ""'" ^°-' °- "- 

John Dodson. 
Negotiable Without Indomement 

Slifv ,i„,. .. J, Clwstprvllle, Ont.. Jnn. 2. I!li2 

Grant Whitb. 
Negotiable by Indorsement 

xTi . ^ Poultney. N. B., Mar 31 1915 

ae. r •j.s^r;;;,^^ ir-r ^r- •^"- -■- " - 

Richard Mill-s. 
Payable at Bank 

wHh inter™, „, six ' pef "ce«°'pe? anTum ' ''"' """''"'' °'"'"'' 

Charles Johnson. 
On Demand 

"* An ,io™« ^ , ■ Kincardine, Ont., January 2, 1912. 

Bdwird Jaubs. 

90 



PBOUI880RT NOTES 
Acconmiodatlaii Note 

„!,!!!,■ ■f'7''" """'" "' "' ""'""nodatlon note (one for 

or lu Z .T"" "" r"'*""'""' '"^"" '<"" "'» name 
to thfn a-'Mramdatlon of the holder) I, „„i bound 

M. . M °" """■""'oOated, but I, bound to ,11 other bona 
ade holders, precisely as If there was a good con.lderatlVn ] 

1100.00 _ 

Credit the drawer, 

Almh Wilson. °""» ^•»t«s- 

To One's Own Order. 

Marion Aoamb. 
By Married Woman 

9200.00 

K-n- 1 , Brampton. Out., Nov » iqi-j 

ment of this note. "»";'iy anu tstdto with the puy- 

(Mr>.) Makt H. Jones. 
By Person who Cannot Write 

a>w,N M„™.s, Wltnesa Lo„,a x' b.hs,h. 

mark. 
Payable In Merchandise 

1100.00 „, 

Pnr.,-,1 . . Blnacarth, Man.. May 3 iqi2 

For value received, 1 promise to nav nam^i w . 7 
"Uhdrea Do„a., .„ n,ercha„tah,e'°wZ.,''r.l^errr;nTp°Hcr °"° 

jAaPKB Notes. 
Note to be Secured by Mortgage 

91 



T 



PROHISSOST NOTXg 



■>.» deb. u^urTh. "„'„': :T:,uZT':; ■»"«"' »' ■'•i- «» . ' 

<">' ""..■, und all neo^rj oTZw. T^TT" '" "" "">-""-' •■' 
«.p„„,lbl, for .„j, ,ie„,|oncy ""■ "°''""« "»"«•" 

MAHTIN PlBLD. 

Iiucallment Note 

tlon.no 

On the flrat djiv nf » i Montreal, June 10 igi" 

iimrte on llic lotli ,luy „, ,„,„ ' "™1 "' ■urli piyment. to be 

;;.e event or a „efa,„t I.ZllT.^T^f.^T"'' ""'" ■»'"■ "■ 
>ln,e mentioned, the whole amoont ,?r .M " "" "'""'"f at the 

payable fortlmllli. """ount e; thia note .hall beeome due and 



William Joiimhon. 



Xote.-* 



I. treated „e „ separate note .,?,dhr „ V ■;'"■• ■""" l"««llmenl 
any Installment of Interei 1 „ „i ' '" '""" ""■ l"dor.er for 

ln..allment fall. „„e an a notl" « Ti" "" "'""'"^ ""^ ".. 
Xee )l c. L.. T. S6. ' '""'">nor given >ucl, lndor.er. 



•foiat Note 

ti'on.oo 

Two month, after date we nrom?.""^''- °"'- "'"'"■ "■ I"-', 
-rt «loan TWO „u„,red r-oTl^rr"!:' ree^r/ed'." "" """^ "' ^ 

Jacob Scott. 
James Atkink. 



■lolnt-nnd-Srveral Note 

1500. on 

. Sl« months after date for val„e'r„"".' *'!1' °"' ' """^ '■ "l^' 
•nr promise to p.y Hlr.m ZvmTZ ''™'«'': "« ><"M>y and eewr- 
Kh. Ilandred DolLrs. w7th Cert. ' "■" ''"°'' "" "°°"™'- 

Richard Mark, 
James Hackett. 

92 



IKOOIUEliXNn 

""^■■■"■iTi OF mm 



nl 



BTjr to «,. (urthar negotiation of the in.trument (8^ For^T) 

AQuUfltd iDdommoit conrtitutes tlie indoner a met. 
M-lgnor of the title to the imrtrument. It mar te ^a h,^7 
ingto the indoor', rignatu™ the word. ™ Hhort^'^"^: 

fXs.,^ '"'*°""'"' '''»~*'' °' *"» '-trument (l:! 
tion. AjBrty Mquired to pay the instrument may di,rei.ard 

™2; , r ""* ~"'""""' *■"" l^" '">fl««l <" »ot. But™ny 
perwn to whom an instrument so indorsed is negotiated wm 
Md thesame, or the proceeds thereof, subject to ?herightrof 
the pen»n indorsing conditionaliy. (See Form 4.) 

..mi^^'T* ^"•«»"' expressly conflnes the payment to 
some partiouUr person or purpose. (See Form 5.) '"™"^ ■" 

.m^'^'!!?"''"^'"'' "o™'' '» '«»'''«' O" a note the 

s^ntre-^r'<rrm^ar '*^'""' '''^'<-' - '" 



04 



J 



uoosaEMivn 




Form & 

'irtUl P*jiiMDt IndorHmat 




Form s 

An Order in a written request or direction for the pay- 
ment of money or ilelivery ,.f goods to a person therein 
named, the same to be charged to the person mailing the 
request. * 

Orders for the paj-ment of money are negotiable if made 
payable to order or to bearer, but the person on whom they 
are drawn is not under obligation to pay them, unless they 
have been accepted, for an order partakes of the nature of ■ 
draft. 



ORDIRg AND DUB nuA 

FOHMM or OHORRH 

tor Momet 




M" RlriKu F~.. „, "'lliw. H.i.k., Uarrh 10 tgi2 

TtfoMAK Fii.r.. 

• to. oa *""' •'^' •" *■•'"' "' ^■•^'" >»-.o.„ 

, «'■••«.. nno»,„„. K,N„ « r„ .*'°";'°"' 'J- ■>• April 1. 1,,.. 

"•:-~u« II. Thojh,, 
For Ooodi HtoKd 
Me..„. 8MIT.., J„„., * c„ Vancouver B c. So,,,. ,. ,!,,.. 
''""••• '^I'PIt". •loriKl by mo In yc.ur w.ir . 



DUE BILLS 



t::rv ^'■™- ""■-;:, r^rr^ "- 

lerable, and drav-i nn i«f— * . "'-'■ iians- 

a aravi no Intereat unleaa .pmibm therein. 

t^MIS Of DIE |„,,,j^ 
• 60.00 '*"*''"' '" ■■""""'^ 

o-e w,„u.„ M.„y. „„ .„.„„/!--«; J^.^; ^Hl^/;--;,,, 

John Knox. 

• ■0000 ^"""' '" •■"<"-••«-<"- 

WILL1A.M JOHNHO.V 

RECEIPTS 

al property (money or gooda or h„,h', ,. ^ *'° '"'"°"- 

Aco.p.«e„^.,:j--:i,:::nra:atrr; 

97 




!'tl 



RCCE1PT8 

That a payment has been received; the date of the pay- 
ment; the amount or article received; from whom received, 
and If for another on whose behalf payment iz made; to 
what debt or purpose It la to be applied; by whom received 
and if for another, on whose behalf It was received. 

KIndf) of Receipts. — Receipts are divided generally into 
three kinds: Receipts in Full, Receipts on Account, and 
IteceiptH to Apply on Particular Accounts. 

Kvcry Heceipt Hhould Show whether payment Is made in 
full, on account, or on what particular account where there 
are more than one between the persona. 

How an ARent Should Sign. — An agent should sign his 
principal's name and then write his own name underneath, 
prefixing the word "by" thus: 

John Smith, [principal] 

by Thomas Jonea, (the agent.] 

Receipt for a Xote Not Xece(*«ary. — It is not necessary 
to take or give a receipt when a note is paid, as the Instru- 
ment Itself becomes a receipt. 

Mistake or Fraud. — A receipt given under error or mis- 
take of fact, or obtained through fraud, is void. 

FORMS OF RKCFII'TS 

Receipt in Full. 

Mt'dicine Hat.. Alln , May 5, 1912. 
nrcelved from R.infinl|.li Pike. Two Hiindrt'd .ind Fifty-tliree 
Dollitrs. In Full of All Demands. 

Charles Johnson. 

Receipt on Account 

Sprlnfifi-'M, P. E. L.. July 1, 191J 
RecPlved from Hiram Powers, One Hundred and Seventy-five 
rinll.irs, on account. Clahence White. 

Receipt on Particular Account 



Received from Abner OgUuhy, 
Dollars, to apply on hire of horse. 



Prescott, Ont., Aug. 1, iai2. 
One Hundred and Nlnety-Hvi 

Marshall Strait. 



Receipt for Rent 

SyUncy, N. s.. May 1. 1914. 
Rereivo.i of William Lawrence. Thirty Pollurs. in full for rent 
of residence at 96 Adams Street for the mruilli of May. 

jAMFIg WlLTERS, 

Per William Stout, Agent, 
98 



Receipt for Honey Advanced on Contract 

♦"**<* Digby. N. S.. June 4. I&IS. 

Recolvea from Wm. Rlck^rt Fifteen Hundred Dollara In advance, od 
a roDtract to biiild for liltn a brick bouse at No. 2244 SbtTionn Street, 

James u. Stkklb. 



Digbf. 



Beceipt for Purchase of a Horse 



»150.(H1. 



rrlncf Rupert, B. C. May 1, 1013. 



Received from John Meyer One Hundred and Fifty I>ona'r8 for _ 
gray mure, guaranteed to be only four year* old. gpntle, quiet to ride 



F. M. SCHULTZ. 



Beceipt for Interest 



ndsoa, Alb., Sept. 9. 1314. 
KPceived from Jampa K. Harter One Hundred and Twenty llollara, 
for intereMt to Sept. 1. 1014. „n his Hond and Mortgage; receipt to be 
ncltnowicdged also on the bond. 



Rate, 755 



Time, 



Months, - 



■ Days, 



L. Mebton, 

Elxecutor. 



Receipt for Property 



Morden, Man., .Nov, 10, 1014. 
Received from W. L. Peterson the followins enumerated articles to 
be held In triiHt for him and returned on bia demand : One Bicycle one 
Gold Ring, and one HlHe. 

Edward Pakks. 
Receipt for Money Paid on Lost Note 

$1,000.00 Bedford. Que., April 20. 1014. 

Received of Charles J. Morrlnon one thousand dollarR, In full pay- 
ment for a certain note Kiven by said Clias. J. Morrison, dated October 
15, 1014, palling for one tlimiHand dullar«: which said not.- Is Inst de- 
stroyed, or mislaid, and this receipt is a guarantee against future de- 
mands on account of said note, 

Samuel W. Goss. 
N. B. — Better never lose a notp. 

Warehouse Receipt 

{For form of warelionae leceipt and a statement of the law 
regarding them see title Warehousing.) 



100 



PART IV 

Banks. Banking, Interest Laws, 
Legal Holidays, etc. 






' 



m 



fit 




o-t „^^''°'' ROTHSCHILD 
The First .],.w Who Sat hi Patliamont 
F,»«,c»,. B..d,.,. w.,ld'. Mo™, U«l.r 



BANKING 

Ac^, «hlcl, U reconsidered and revised by the Parliament 
of Canada about every ten or twelve years. The following 
remarks are based upon the Bank Act of 1913. Th, ,„,! 
ciae pr.,hloB, of the Act .ppl, u, .11 tbo« eorp.™. 
lo« having ge„er.: tanking p„„er. In tanad.. The 

heTub» "' "" f '' '" ''™'""' "^'^ ""'"""-"■"' «"" -^^ 

an lend thefr' " """"'■ "'"' """ ^'"•'»'"-' -"" -"«" 

proflt, and can act as agents In the collection and remlsslo' 

of money. Organically It Is a •' bank of hsne," a fundamental 

reZTn ht^'" "T"" T -""'" """ - -"'Lfenrcu - 
rency In the shape of pn)mls»or, notes, called "bank notes" 
ntended to circulate as money, a ■• banker- ,s one Tho "^ 
the ordinary course of his business receives money which 
he repays by cashing the cheques of the persons from whom 

Is one whTh'""" • ''""'"' '"= """"''■ A -customer - 
LTJ °, K. ^ "°"''"' """ » "»"" o' talker. Every 

and Is bound to discharge Its Indebtedness by paying Its 
customers' cheques. Paying its 

The stock, property, affairs, and concerns of the bank are 
Zctr 1 '" '":'' """'"^'"' "' "■" •">"" "' 'i<™ctors Baeh 
sta ed n thTA ; f "',".'""=' "' "" ■>"■"' '-> "■» ■""""■" 
n™i hn™ ; ^..-'J^''^ 0' tte a'"«tor, must be nat- 

ural born or natnralhed British .objects and domiciled In 
Canada. The directors must be elected by the shareholders 
at he annual general meeting and are required to elect from 
their number a president and one or more vice-presidents. 
The directors may make by-laws and regulations with regard 
to the management and disposition of the stock, property, 
affairs and concerns of the bank, the duties and conduct of 
the officers, clerks and servants employed therein, and all 

But such ''h"'f'"' " '""'"'"'" "> '"« """""'' °' '"<' "■'■"■• 

of the Art ':T """'r' '"' """"■"' '" '»= «•'«-'»••■■» 

Each shareholder has a vote for each share held by him, 

101 



BANK! NO. 

holder, upon the unoald .h^ t' "'° '"""' »"««- 

necessary I Vn? In' f ! '" '""^ '"^"' ■•» '"'^ "-O 
been lo.t.he d'ect^s „,»v mJ" ,?" "*'"'^' "' " """ *•• 
Whose Shares are '^ S" fin" ..To" '"« '"""'■o'ders. 
-oay be e,.l™ie„t to the l„s 1„h„^' '""" -^'"'" " 
Pron. .0 n.ake good the ,o iVhe d'reetorL"'""' "" "" 
amount of any call »nd ■„ , '"^™" "»>■ »"e for the 

bank, and may sell forfeToH h '" "" ""■''""«' '<> '"e 

eha.e« are tr^n erable fut IT' ",' """"^ *""""•■ "ank 
registered In the t-ok kept for th.?" "'" "" '""" °""- 
require that the ■„«„„ v. " l'"n>o»e. The bank may 

pay all hT ndettrdneTs rthe'L": T"" "-"' ""^'"-^ 
the remaining etock i, '° ! ^^"k whioi exceeds in amount 

has been traL::atcd by Wrtue o" a"„'v': "/""■ ^""^ ''°"='' 
nient or by intestacy th. „ !. ! ^ testamentary instru- 

.^mlnlstration must'be nrodu 7 '.'° "'" " "■' '^«'" »' 

~r „v£Hr " •-"■"" °~ 

bank as they may deem allfhr "r" "' ""' """'» ■>' '"e 
Shall be decJed „ Te o^dnn'- l""."," '""''^»-' "■• bonus 
and no dividend ex ceedln?^,.^"""' '' ""■""' '■""•'"-•. 
unless the bank hrrrtlduro ZZ'. C- "' T" 
thirty per cent n/ »■ n.u 1 ""erre riind " equal to 

and do'ubtrdebts Evet" V"".'?'' """ """'""'"■« "» "'«' 
re-lssue ita notes payableL b"° "■""' "'^'' "»«« «'"' 
note Shall be or a sum le.. .If^.r" ^™""«- >"" -o ^^b 
Of the notes in clrculaUo! ,t ° **• '"" "•" '"'"' «"""'■" 
aggregate amoun o the ul""; T '"'"' "■" ""'''' «"> 
bank, and the amoun nf """'""'• ^P"'' "' 'be 

amount of current gold coin and Dominion 




BANKI.VO. 

•-"Pose Of th. fund i. to secure ^hl„ ''""""">■>• The 
ot any Insolvent bnnk. Payment of the notes 

If the payments made out of •■ Th. i, , 
demptlon Fund " exceed the ,„ . "'"' Circulation Re- 
by the suspended S tL^" 'r"""'"^ "> "■" '"ni 
-ake ,ood the amoun Jf the e cl ""'"' "" ""'""'^ '° 
tank I, required to es.ab«sh aZ. , "r"'""""'"- ^"l" 
"Hd pay„,ent of Its notesat Torom L ""' "'"'"■'""'■> 

•John, Charlottetown, WInnlLI p °' """■'"'• "*'"«• St. 
torla. When making Zia^^ent t:' k'^''^"^ "»" ^.c 
request of the person to whom th^' „ "'"' "''^"' « ">e 
pay the same to the extent of l.\ "^f""""' '' '" "'' ■"»"«. 
•on notes. No Payment "^eh?.*^"^"" """'"^ '" D-mln- 
notes, Shan be madT ta hnis thl Ir T"" "°""' " '"■>" 
«<ally defaced. The bills 'nV'rs'of'aTr'' '"™ " ■■"• 
offlcer" appointed by the dlrerM "'^"'''"'>' »" 

Itotory, though not under the ™ ""''' """""^ "" ■"- 
"ank. n,e directors may depute anTr^ '"" °' ""' 
nnd notes Intended for circulate Thet" '" '"^" "'"^ 
sons authorized to sirn bills „nH . "■"' "' ""' »"" 

by machinery provided fo that pur,!: T "^ ""''^»^-' 
authority of the bank: prov ded thT '"' " '"'"' ""> 
n.us, be so impressed after X„l. °' '""=" "'■"»» 

bank from the engraver and nl^ \."^ """^"^^ ^^ 'be 
«lth the receipt or dirbrsemeMof "' '"^'" ""■"<^»'' 
stamp or write In plain let^™ °' """""'» '^ "■""fed to 
or -f«„d„l™t- note LeTTn T", ""^ "counterfeit" 
*ben presented to UTLJ °,™ "' " "»■"' ■""«• 

Ing to the credit of a custome;, I ^ *""""''"' "'"nd- 

be has loaned to the hank tl.Z,^,""': ""''""" -"""'^ 
purely a personal obligation o niv i'' '" "" '=""™" '^ 

^■••i^r^yrS-f-"^^^ 
" -'" - — -~o.-irnf c -. -^^ 

103 



It uT.t!. . """"»' """rtty for .ny lo.n nude by 
It. But except a> authorl.ed by the Act b>nk. .-. . 
anowel to deal 1„ the buying or L>C ^f U^^war . a„°d 
merchandUe, or to lend -noney or to m^ake aZtce.irecl 
upon the »ecur.<y or mortgage o. any land., or of any sh,™ 

ThrnTay'TotVeT t"'/"^ *°°""' *'"" " -"•""■''- 

Tzzt:':-: rhCrTher: °'"'-"°" -•' 
^::::::airr.rtrrrrurx 

lx.nd. Of corporations, By ,hl» meana they may , " effi^^ 
end money to the holder of .ueh bonds on a mortgaao ^1 

Charge on the assets for the time being of a going concern 
Banks may take as collateral security the asslg"Lnt of . 

bank's Ivir""""'' ""'■ "'•'"""•'^ "'"^ "" '"«-■«'« '» th' 
banks favor as security for advances which the bank may 
make rom time to time. T™n«cU«., entered Into byX 
tank. In e„«,r.,entl„n of the Art .„ ,.« ,. b, - .„„ J^ "j 
.nd (Jierefore toM. a transaction forbidden by ""rstaSe 
cannot be the foundation of a valid claim. The'stock.tnd. 
deben ures or other securities acquired and held by a bank 

o h dibf br",'." "r '" '='"'' ■" ''^""■" '" '"e payment 
Of the debt be sold and conveyed or transferred to a pur- 
chaser. But banks are not obliged to sell such aecurltL, 
within twelve months, and the ,lght to sell or dispose ofthe 

may take, hold and dispose of mortgages upon real or Ar- 
senal property, by way of "additional Menrity,- for d^t, 
con ra„.,a to the bank In the course of Its business, Tnd may 
purchase any lands or real or Immovable property offered for 
sale under execution, or In Insolvency, or by a mortgagee 
having priority, belonging to any debtor of the bank Td may 
hold and dispose of the same at pleasure. Any hank S'y 
104 




«qulre ud hold an «biio;at« titi. i. 

property mortgaged " It .. "Ld..?"' , -'"" " '■""""•"lo 
..ourlty for . debt o l^L Ind „ "' " """•t.l.l- 
any prior mortgage o.'klrieor' "k""""' "'"' "■='"■'" 
tart >h.ll hew „y Zl 1 ,1„ ° f""" ■"■'"«">'■ 8"« »• 
««.lred, „e,p.rr To". "" , '' "'""""• "»""""" 
" 'oveii year, -from til H^. .^' "' "•""" "'•»«"«K 

"7 -^.-x^fX' -rr-t: S* ""'"■ 

cr^'«r„f7ar;.?roorer.z„;rtf '--'-• 

any debt or for any .Ublllty incurred by « „\ "'""'"" "' 
in the course of it, banking buslner A 111 '"■ '"'"°" 
or bill of lading so acquired ve, Uin .h ""'""■"<' '•™'"'" 
and title to ,uch receipt or J an. to , be ."" "■" '""" 
therein or covered therehv „f «, *°°"'' ""i»"oned 

thereof. Tbl, appearrto L ■"■'"""" ■"■"""• "'■■ ■"^"-"• 

"'biting banka from le„J? '"'"'"™ "" "■« <='»"«« l-ro- 

an ajg'rnerg»s'"re7:nd"rr'':r''""™ •■■■'■" 
^r^.Kt^^:S~-^ 

passes to the bank with Vu- .l»i, 7, P '" ''°°''' 

t*. KO.d» l«,«r«l- u V .t tr Of vZ r "" "*"''"» 

to a ."„h nle ',' "' "?* '""^''' <"• «■» P'-ol-cts thereof, and 

"c::oT:irj;:a^ir:h:"r-=. 
"cer^dH:Sr— -'-^^^^^^ 

mav »!«, i.„^ persons to cut or remove such timber Thev 
may also lend money In aid of the building of any ship or 

105 




SA-VKINO. 

Th. i«curlty la .uefc c«" u JL^ V '7" """' "" '""■ 
of wWcl. I. given la the bI„! >., t" ."! ""«'■•'«'»". • 'orn, 

of the good, mealloaod twel .„H *"""• '° '■"'««' 

..ar.r»eY:.^tTreZ:e"; Tr -' ^ "-' - 

other Bpecl.1 .ecuritt J'^}"""' "^"'P'' " "111 of lading „r 
the product,; or.t^l<»^7"'"'' ■"""■ ""> "»»'■ ""'^ '«" 
«r.ln mentioned thl"?,; 7' ' rT.r' "■"«"•-"«•. or 
to pay .nch debt o/ Hahl itv wl h Im"™.' ■"■ ""' "■""" 
«ood>, etc.. were aoaul'red TM^ / "f"™ '""" *"•'"' "» 

«"»er, (he „„ n,„,t k ' b. . , v . ^^ '"""'"* "' ••»• 

take warehouse receipts etc t' "''"°"- """"" "» ""'^ 
"ote, debt, or llaWlltv whf '.i """'''' "'° '"''"""" "' » 
negotiated or contracted :r,h,,"''''' ■"""• " "'"'""^' " 
»"ch warehouse r ee rty the . T °' ""' ^^O""'""" of 
made on the security Xt,.. ' "^ *'"""'" "■» 'oan Is 

receipt .r o rer"L, " ^^ ''™''" '■• *''"^ " ""'''-ouse 

regard to the Interls „r T" "' '""'^ "' "'»"^<' »""■ 

■•"even per cent TerLn TT "'""'' ""'^ '"»>' '«"« «o 

the Minister of P,n.„ ^'""' """" "">" " «"'rn to 

rates charged Banrar"'.;"'.'" "" '"'""«" ■"■" -"«<""■' 

posits or money and Z\T "^ "" ""■"" ""^°»' " -•- 

The debt incurred for moneys Z^T f. '"'""' ""-"■■• 

barred by the Statute orilmLH" „""""'""'"" "<" 

certain pereenUw chaVe, for^"*^- "f."*' '""' "«"'" 

repayment of anrmoneT h' o..,/ .."" ""«"•"»»»• Before 

"receipt" from the person „? ' '" ''"" ■""" "'""■•'' « 

money, .deposited If It .1",^!"°"" '" "■""« """"^ "-e 

"Jointly." the recelnt „f Vf. ^ ,, """"" "" ""' ""sons 

'n the names Of slera,°;so''„ ^.r"'"""- " " ""'"<'» 

majority shall be sufflcL. .# ^ ""''' '•'^"''•' "«»«« "y a 

"«I. a bank, the pZuCl '' ""■'"" '"" """"' ' """""« 

•■Probate of he Wm "1? "T ^-'hentlcated copy of the 

Administration";.^ oT"L "e'st^^" g~ " °' "'-«"» of 
■.u«e. granted by any court In 

106 



BANKINO. 

•ulhorlty to .h. bank to p^y to th r^ "■""' "^ """""'" 
deposit. ""iruinent tho Miount of tho 

""ed ,or b. the ml^lZ'ZZT "'""" " ""^ "« 

return ''rMcht;rw.l'';,T' '7"""""' '- "•" ■•-n.h.y 

required to bo .Igned by the ChTef a ""■"'"'' '"•<' 

Pre.ldo„, or V.ce-PreMdcn, a^S'l^r"^""'' '"" "' ""' 
There are ,pecl.l provUioni In thl ''"' """""I MaiaKrr. 
to the Bank of Britl.h North a t ^""^ ^"^ *'"> regard 
.0 refer to the.e -n "t'bl'refTeSron'"" '' !' ""' "^'^ 
property and a^eta of a banl, h i .' ""' "™' »' '"o 

debt, and "abilities each sharotTn '"."'"''"' '" ""^ "» 
deflclency to an amount equal to .h. ". """"' '" "'<' 

held by him. In addition ZZ^ "" '""" "' ""' ">"e» 

«hare.. "'"' ^ *">' "»°'"'t Mt paid up on inch 



INTEHBST. 

'-eit I' r- j\v"^"'-- --^^^^^^^^ 

rate of Interest shall b" Ave '**"'?""'"' "'^ ">' law, the 
rate of interest o«eldl„; p^^ ort"'"Ln"H """'""■ ■"^''' 

recoverable unless tbe contrac- '0^ L""" "^ ""^«'"'' °r 
"lent of the yearly rate or „ ™'""» "" express state- 
ever any prlnclpa Imol or ^ '"= "' ""'""■ ^^'— 
on real estate is made paU.e „n7h 7T "' """''•'"' 
on any plan „„i„ whlch^bl """'"^ '""" l"«n or 

and interest are blende or whlchT', "" ''^""=""" ""-^ 
interest on stipulated reDavm.Jt . "" '" allowance of 

able or reeove'rable on Toy ™art''oVt;""'/'""' "^ '"'^- 
-eaa the mortgage ^ZS'l llLT^::,.:^, 
107 



IKTKHUT. 

.mount of .uoh prlnclp.1 mon.y .nd the nt, of ini.r..t 
Idrr. n'^'r- "'°"'""' ''"'' " •■•" r..r y noun 
other l„..run..n. roqulrlnK Ihu dobtor to my lnle",t „„ 
.rrenr. of Intare.t, ,.... com,K.„„d .„t.re«t 1? .nyr.*' „°^ 
«ro..„r th.„ tb, r..o p.y.w„ „„ prtaelp.. „.o„.y no. ,n .r„.r 
Hhere the money .ec„r.d by . n,ort«.«e on r«l e.Ute I. n„, 
made p.y,blc „„ . „„,„ „„„ „,„ „^„ "J' 

.« the n,or,g.Ke the mort„«„r ™.y „ ,h„ explr.tlon ofnve 
>o.r, tender the prl„clp.l money .„d ,rre.r, of Interest 

ly del"? TTI"" '"""" """'"' '» "-' <" "O'l- .nd 
m.y demand . dUch.rge of the mortgage. If ,he amount 

the „r^,f ■ '"■ '"""'"•''"' ■" •-)' time thereafter on 

the Pr nclp.1 money or Interest due under the mortgage 

"Ut. given by a -Joint „o,» ™„p„,- or other r«m„™ 
:„ Z T"' '""'""' """•" "^ -- -n-P-y or eorZ" 

ay or nor.r""'"' °'/'"''' ""^"^"^ ■>"» "«'" «"™ "^ 
'ay of mortgage on real estate. In Hrlti.h rolnmbl., IK.,. 

ka.che„.n and Albert, and In the North »,rt TerrlZu, .„d 

Tm Tu l""""'' "■" *" -™'"""" """ -very Judgment 
debt shall bear Interest at the rate of live per cenf oer 
annum until It Is satisfied. The word, "Jad,n.« iZl'Z 

?r„r due", '""•"• 1"^" '■"' «P'»«. «'.ch h': 'hoen' 
round due In any eho proemllnK. 

< .«d.!'"wl":h """" "■""'" '*" ■"">"" "> "-o Whole of 

■Uda. with the ejceptlon of the Yukon Tf rrltorv B„. i. 

only applies to "money lenders" .nrf .„ ,""*''• "ut It 

It savs ■• vn ™„. , i """'»" ana to loans under |.-,oo. 
It sajs. No money lender shall stipulate for, allow or exaet 
on any negotiable Instrument, contraet or agreement Z 

E?-":=tir-dL-:5^5 

eVrery o" .h"e am "'/h"""™' "' "'"" n™oeedlng t th 
lnT^^7 . ""' ""'■ "■ •"•" »"" "■• other proceed- 

ing concerning a loan of money by a " money lender "the 

wt^r'lf ,:"'?," T -^'^"""^ "■"■" «- hTndred donars 
Wherein It Is alleged that the amount of Interest paid or 

108 




CHEQrES 

srace The holder of a cheque cannot .„e .he bank 1, 
it unle.. It ha. been certlfled or "marked" A h^nk Jh 

"iart"h>:".r, '°d,"b *■''"'" -'""-'- •■-"■--„.: 

" iiaoic to him If it dlahonoura his chenue ir th„ h. 

> tie^'T^rr ■"" """■"'"' '■""■• ""i« ban'; .:'::[ 

ie a bi.1 „, r°" "'" ""' '"' """"^^- A -Cheque, 
^en/an"" d'lv'errro'vldTd^ ^\Tlr 7, ™''""- 

leranie. Notice of the death of the drawer of a eh..,„„. 
be ore It has been paid, terminate, the ban^/InLH; " 
pay It. If a cheque, payable to order, la paid by the bank 

right of action agaln.t the bank to recover the amount ,o 
paid nor any defence to any claim made by the bank for 

year after he ha. acquired notice of .uch forgery If the 
109 



if! 



CHEQUES. 

"k'T^ '!!"!■ "■ *"" ■"'='' "■"'" "'""■' » "««■. ">o Cheque 
•hall be held to have been paid In due course. It a signa- 
ture is forged under such circumstances that It Is capable 
of ratlflcatlon, and Is In fact ratlfled. the signature becomes 
as valid as It It had been originally authorized. 

Marklnif or Certlfj^liig Cheflues. In Canada and m the 
United states there Is a well recognized practice of marking 
or certifying cheques, the marking or certlflcaUon of a 
cheque by the bank corresponding to the ■■ acceptance ■■ of 
a bill by the drawee. The bank which pays the money 
stands in the position of the acceptor. In England It is not 
cu«loni«i7 for banks to accept or certify cheques. When 
presented, they are paid. Where a cheque is not presented 
or payment within a "reasonable time" of its issue, and 
the drawer had the right at the time to have it paid, and 
suiters actual damage through the delay, he is discharged 
to the extent of such damage. At Common Law the Ottilsslon 
<o present b cheque for itarment did not discharge the 
drawer until six years had elapsed, unless some injury 
resulted to him from the delay, such as loss by failure of 
the bank. But the endorser of a- cheque, like the endorser 
of a bill payable on demand. Is discharged unless present- 
ment for payment is made within a reasonable time after 
endorsement. In determining what is a reasonable time 
regard must bo had to the nature of the instrument, the 
usage of trade and of the banks, and to the tacts of each 
particular case. The authority of a bank to pay a cheque 
drawn on it by its customer may be countermanded, or It 
may be determined by notice of the customer's death. 
The Caudlaa Bills of Exehange Act provides for the 
crossing" of cheques, hut the practice ot crossing cheques 
Is so seldom resorted to in Canada. Crossing means, writing 
the word "bank" between two parallel linos across the lace 
of the cheque, either with or without the words " not negoti- 
able"; or two parallel transverse lines simply, either with 
or without the words " not negotiable." The ohjert of cross, 
lag a cheque Is to make It comp, jory that It shall be pre- 
sented tor collection through a bank, as a holder, and not by 
an individual, and as a precaution against payment to a forger 
a Snder, or a person not enUtled to receive the money. 

110 



I 




M 



i r 



^fusm^rmi'jimm/m 



N 



a S S 




114 



IND0IC8EMENT OP CBE0DE8 

. Alwiy. Keop the Stab of Your Oheom BnoV j • 
the cho',e is pa™ ° '^''"'"* "^ °° indebtedness «„ta 

locality always ha, e it eertifitd J, ♦h'"' ^'T •""> '''™ »■• 

OTHEB FORMS O." CHEQUES 
1330.00 Payable to Bearer 

Bunk of Montreal, p., to E T n'm,""'' ""'■■ ""'" <• >»"• 
and Firty Dollar.. '^^ ° ^- •"■ «"""»«. "■• l..nr,.r. Two ll„„jr,,d 

1120.40 Payable t« Older 

Inlon Bank ot Canada nay to B r "b"^"' ?°'- ""• '• 
red and Twentj..,lve and ,a Si,„ra °"'°°"'' "' "*■■•• <"» '"■>" 

,50.00 PayaWetoTonraelf 

«..■. o' New Brnn,w,ck. pa. to '.'„jr™^ «i„^- '"■ >»><• 

INDOESDrO CHEQUES " '' ''^"°' 
How Indorei'ment Shonld be Writtm w,» .i • . 
ment across the back n^fu.i. ■*""''' ""> ""Jorst- 
Each Succe^i™ I'T '"'"-'thwise, of the cheque. 

those thafpret^rit""""" '''""'" '"' ""^tten „„dcr 

pos^t,"T/tw ul^r "■"'" ""»- "■■' "-k "Por De. 
can only be deposited /„d <,,""?;■., "'"""' "'"^ '"''"^-d 
to the bank tte:r'c:lfZ'1he::^' "-' '"' "■' "'^ ''"^ 

PaytotheS^«---^---™o...e = 






moORaSMENT OP CHEQUES 

Do not 8tDd Away t Oboqno IndorMd in BUnk. but nuke 

It payable to the person to whom you send it. Then if lost 

It cannot be paid to any one else. 

A Ponon mnat Indorse hit Kuue «• it is Written in the 
rheque A cheque drawn payable to W. Kinp, cannot be in- 
dorsed \\m. Kinjr, If drawn payable to Rev. W. King it 
should be 80 indoned, as bankers are very particular to 
have the name of Hie payee as given on the face of the note 
exactly reproduced in the indorsement. 

If the Spelling of the Name on the Fmo is Wrong, indorse it in 
that way and then write it underneath correctly^ 

ResponsibiUty of Indor»er..-The following table shows the 
relative responsibiUty of each indorser E«riadZr i! 
responsible to the one below him ^ " 



lo • ODte. 



1. Maker. 

2. in ludorser 

I .I. 2nd Indorser. 
I * iPd Indorner, 
' Etc 



In an unaccepwj 

draft or uncerti* 

lied check. 



I Drawer. 
?• I»l Indorser 
3- Slid Indorser 
*■ 3rd Indorwr 
Etc. 



1. Acceptor 

2. Drawer. 

8. isi. Indorser. 

4. 2Dd I|)dorser 

Etc. 



In a certined 
cbcck 



I. The Dnnk 
2- 1st Indorser 
3. 'iad Indorser 
4- 3nl Indorser 
Etc 



rOBMS OF DfDORSEMElfTS 
When Presented for Payment 



^ 1 


SS^ 


^l^- 






■^ 



When Tnnittmd 



116 




BAHKnro BDUl 

1. Make your deposits in the bank as «.,!» in tu. , 
«ible, and neve, without your b^k b^ " '^ '" **" ■»" " f^ 

Whe„^'e'^;r.r:''deS thet T'*'' "^ "■" '»"-- 

indorsed, «l.ethor dra™ t^ t'l,! ^°"''». "I"™ 'hem to be 

3. Do not allow year banl hoot? °' ''^P°^"»'- " ""t. 

balan.^ Co„paJr;irtlte^oro7tf:\t^^ 

7 In flmn. ?" T" '^T' •"■"■' ""''" 'o^k a-d key 
r»e words instead of R^Z ^'^ '''"' " ''"''• 

fe« iMo"rn:,;;:r!"ti,£tStT "^''^ "r"--- '™- 

own cheaJe ^^iTe' ' Pa; to Tilli',/""^ "" '-'' ™ '"ur 
name ;„ .,; ,„.,y „, ^'^ ^» ->-If .nstead of writing y„„, 

identified ^rtirbaVktTrd '"." P'"™ ^"^ ''"' '«"'' '" "o 
indorse the TJ'"and tlfl b" "T", "''^•"'^"'' '"»« '"» 
"Si^fnatureO.K "andslv ""' '"L^'™'"™ «■■•"« 
Pa.vment on ti.e cUrSurfLtride^/tiS^atr ^"^ 



U7 



araw 




DRAFTS 

Time Allowed for Acceptance— A Anft „„„t i, 
drawee .a. accept I '^ o^thj da^ 0^7^ te I'l! 



DBAPTS 

the draft oa„™,"" uLllv" 1""'' ,'"/«"" »' ""•'l' demand 
til the time haVexpirS \f 'T'"'' f" "'"-«''«l't«»ee un- 
«P«!ifled. the debtTi^'be treatedTn""' '"""" *''" «"■« 
t .. dishonored for non-accert^lji Z> ^'T """"'i'"" 
ioM his risht of recoZe ,.-» n . H • "''"»'«« 'I'" ''"Mer will 

or accepted make. !?"t"lei °" """ " •"" '«^-» ''"'-" 

i».drriie"S7tr:iitd^r,'Tr''"»'''''''™« 

hia legal rcpre.entati es Bv s,«'. *" Presented to 

mand draft may be paid «i.Mn>f !" """"• ^""«' » ''e- 
of drawee. ^ "^ " '"'"■ " '"»"«' time after the death 

isfa'S^dS^^ff'ThriftlX™? """'' "P"" »"•""" 

■node payable to'ou,4,?L!lTe^VV'"°" '"^' '" t""™ '* 
person to whom yo„ in endt t Ihr';" %'■' f"™-' "' "■« 
Rood receipt for the m„uey '' '^''" «"'<« y" « 

<s?:*ir:ftrn.°TrcX«r ""'^ -' '«^«- 



^c«5«om ,o«,5.// /„ taking and gM^ r«:,lpt,. 
««n /» .ma// 6«;„„ <r»„rf/o«. ft „„, „„ 
Koii m«c« tro,*/,, „„„, anrf upen,e. 



i.y 



Ill 







To tet'i Own OHu 

•'"'■'>o .. ... 

T..n .l>v. .#• . . V. llamlKon. Ont.. Feb *» 101J 

^^^ T... d.n .f,„ .,,6, p., „ „, „,„ „^_„^ ^.,,^^ iJC..;"ltv 

To Wlllisin rilil. '■ "■ JuKn, 

llBmlKoD, Ont. 

.100.00 8'*** >>'»« 

To WllllBm Dii. Fbask Lawlbi. 

8t. John. N, B. 

M0..K1 ''"• I*"" 

Value rcct'lvcO. 
To H. B. Mofer, Chah. Uumteb. 

Oabawn, Ont. 

j3"o CO ""• """' *•'<'»'• ^onn 

To Wm. K. Anlre, <«"ie rectlved. JiUta Clawi. 

"■llJai, N. g. 

BILLS OF EXCHANGE 

reign Dank, is losl, then the second or third, being sent bv 

railed foreign b 11, of exchange, and the othera are K)metimes 
called inland bills of exchange "ometlmes 

in? fo^i't^T ' ^'" °' ^»<">'^-'. '»ving money deposited 
in a foreign bank, orders the bill cashed there In tli^wav 
travelers are saved the trouble and rfak of car^inglaTge 

■tredTato^flnTr"'"' """■ '"""»"*' enga^^nloreZ 
trade aho find them very convenient, and make aU their nav- 
inents through Bills of Exchange. ^^ 

120 




Jr "'I 




£x,*ame,) Toronlo. Nov. s. 19-4. 

M ^ 

/>«.* SUrl,»t. «-/« r.»tv.d, and.harg, Ik. urn. ,. 
Hmry Herman *. C». 



JVo.6^t 



n a. CnmtrnalBmk c/Claspm, i 
Glasgovi, Seal. \ 



FokM 3 



Exckmg,) Toro„,o, Nov. s. >9I4. 

for V 

Ponnd, iurl,ne. valu. r.cnv.d. andckarf Ik. ,am. lo 
/fmry Herman *. Co. 



JVo. 643 



To Ik. Commtreial Bank of Glasgow, > 
Glasgow, Scol. \ 



/or t 
0/siZnJl Hr . ^'."'^ *•" "f'"*!!"'/ IMS our Tkird 
SUrlmg. valu. r.c.iv.d, and ckarg. Ik. sam. lo 



No. 643 



Hmry Horman *. Co. 
To Ik. Commercial Bank 0/ Glasgow, I 
Glasgow, Scot. I 



122 



LBrrraia or crkoit 
MTTER8 OF CREDIT 

nwogniwd. ^"" '• •" dewrlbed that ha bulj ba 

to whom it ta«id«««i\«ipta ir "'^ " "" >*""» 

WM or LRns OF OaXDIT 

Muana. llAvf -T, Rm t Cto., Toronto. J,ii. lo. mj. 

lo .a .mount „„, „^| ,„ rhfiL^!?"'!' ".li'" ''""°' '"'' """• 
ch.rm IhB ume to u.. •Mn»«le the .bove-nuaed lum .„d 

Tb. «,„.,„„ „, a,. „^j„ .^„„„,„ ,^„ 

Vour. very rapntfullr, 

SimuUun ot c»o.. p. J»^i„. rom.,, WAutm 1 Co. 

"""• ^"^ * 0»'« l-tt« Sant by Midi 

Mbwu. Havaht, Reko a Co.. Toronto. .Un. lo. mis 

London, Erg. 

-"'^"iIl;: '^';;rij:Tj;-- - '- -■ -- ..a, „„ . „,. 

BetlwcHuUy youn. 

fOMM, W4LK„ 4 Co. 

123 



III 

i f 

i 



I , 






m 






UTTERS OP CREDIT 

A OUABABTEE UTTEB OF OBCDIT 

Ulu Walter Coiem... Shorteooke, Q„o.. Mnroh :,. mt. 

Toronto. Ont 

Vvry n*s[»p<-t fully, 

MliIVER, yilHTLT2 A Co., 
17S Mollne St. 

The Letter Sent by Maa 

Mr. n-^,.r::H (^olema.v," "' ^'""°'' ^*' ^'"'*'"°' *'°'' ^'"■*''* ^' ^9". 
Montreal, Que. 

o,Z'"J: ™'""' "" '°"»'"««"« »' O"" and » |,rommem mercl,.„. 

.•u"d.i"h ^r'^nti'i'.""" '"^ ■""• •"■ "*' ""• "" ' ■^'' '»»'P'««o«. 
Wo oomuKuil Urn to jour kind mnslderallon. 

Hespeotrully. 




THE RIGHT HON. W. E. ni.ADSTONE^ r 

124 



•STKKLINO EXCHANOE TABLES. 

rMlIMn Unw._ 




;^";^*':^'"lml".p.tp,«„„„ „_ |»»l»«o.p.rlb. 



700 
028 

Oit 
Ofi 
006 
800 




dmntolnA 



* < 

l» l» 

s > 

• t 

< 4 

» 'i 
> > 

S ftl 
t 8 
» •» 



> » 

» •» 

» H 

1 1(4 

• 10| 

• m 

• 111 

4 Oi 
' 01 



if 



PART V 

Transportation. Arbitration. 
Corporations, etc. 




^ M y* Chairman Board D rectors. C p r Cn 



RAILWAYS 



ute. of Canada for 1906 as Chapter 37 Th., ^ ! 

a "rlgw of wkV r '"V^™""' »' "■« owner, tad, tor 
.ake .and "«ve hundred fee. ^T.Zl^:: ZlZl Z\f2 

conve:,i'rn,.':dr: 7'Z'zi\ir;t t r 
ftrs:o;-~=3£f1i 

10 137 



■I . v 



pany may alio enter upon any land which la not more than 
600 feet distant from the centre of the located line, and may 
occupy the same aa long ai may be neceiaary for the con- 
atructloa and repairing of the railway, whenever any stone, 
gravel, earth, sand, water or other materials required for the 
construction, maintenance, or operation of a railway are 
altuate or have been brought to a place within such distance 
from the line of the railway. And the company may for the 
purpose of obtaining such materials lay down the necessary 
tracks, spurs, branch lines, water pipes or conduits over or 
through the Intervening lands. The owner of land, whether 
taken permanently by a company, or for a term of years, 
and for whatever purpose taken, has a right to " compensa- 
tion " both for the value of the l^nd taken and for the injury 
caused to the rest of his property. The compensation may 
be agreed upon between the owner and the company, and if 
not 80 agreed ujwn the matter must be .settled by arbitration. 

The award made by the arbitrators should contain an 
adequate and sufficient description of the lands expropriated, 
and the amount to be paid. Whenever the award exceeds 
$600 any party to the arbitration may, within one month 
after receiving notice of the award, appeal therefrom on 
any question of law or fact to a Superior Court. 

The award or agreement shall thereafter constitute the 
title of the company to the land therein described. The 
compensation paid for lands taken, without the consent of 
the owner, stands in the place of the lands, and if more than 
one person Is Interested therein, each of the persons Inter- 
ested shall take the share awarded to him. 

If the owner of land taken makes any forcible opposition 
to the exercise by the Company of any power given to It 
by the Judgment or award, the judge may Issue a warrant 
to the sheriff of the county or district commanding him to 
put the company in posBession of the land, etc. And where 
Immediate possession Is required, or where it la shown that 
the company should have immediate right to exercise some 
power or control over the land, the judge may also issue 
his warrant to put the company in possession, even In cases 
where theie has not been any award or agreement. But In 



128 




from the B>JnCo.„v,H .""*"'• " """"• "■■«■" 
But the owner o-uchfZrt'"; '"""■^- " "'"'"''■•■ 
'o deposit a -urn ."acleirto de". "an't'h' """' "" ™""'«' 
«ruct.n. ana comp.efn. .JZl or irLllZT "' "- 

"rf^T^mi: T^z'^^r -"^ ^^ "'">""■»'' 

term, as to protect and .X/. th°erol"r?r" "^ •"■=" 
ent. At any such crossln. „! h .7 ^ ''''°°" «>«""- 

appliance, and otherdevU and """ "*"■" »"""" 

directed to be u.ed a. to render !?..,„ r""*'™""" "'^ "« 
to paw over ,„ch cro„ln« L . . ^ '"*"■" '""' '"!■>» 
n.«y be carried u,in.,o'X. ^ '""" ^'" "O """"J' 
'ln.1.8 of any c^"', iXrwratld", """"^''"''^ *'""» "■» 
has obtained the coneenrof h T" """" '"^ "™P«°J' 

Presaed In the forH, a Uuw"""?^?b "r™"°°' «■ 
that the railway ihill h. „ . f' ^°*'^ "ay direct 

".'.-way, or that tJe^ ,',;:;;taVb''"- T" " "'""' «" 
along the railway or .h.T .^ ° ""''''''^ '"«'■■ ""der or 

permanently ""eried InS that iT " •"*"*" "»» <« 
and such other meaaure. ^IT ^'■' ""«" "« '""""^"X 
be best adapted to rerveTd,"„ri;-"dl^:/'"' ^"^ '" 

or?o:t\xY:rV:urtsrr.b'ri --' - '- --- 

the railway by mean. VeTr, Cre^a 7T' "^ """ 
under the railway It is reo„l/^ , ,, "'rtway passes 

'n width and no. i™, tta„:o1r. V "°" '"^'^ '«' 
highway crossed at ralMevel sl'T '"!' """'• °'' '-'^ 
and maintained with the worl 'T^"^' »■>«'■ "e erected 
on each side thereof ^Vher, 1 <■>'' ''"'"""'" ■"""''" 

l«d to construct operl^aL ?!' °''°"'"'' " »""«>■•- 

or telephone for tietryanc'e oM g^t "he'ir " "" ""'^""■'■ 
trldty, the company mu.t not in/ . ' ■"""■ '"' '"^'=- 

of travel nor pTmlt 2 ° L ' T' ,"'" "^ '"■''"■= '""" 
feet above a highway o7pu:;:«.„:: '"' "^ '"'"-'- 







i 



BAILWATS. 

F«m rroMlirh Companlei are required to make and 
maintain lultable dltchee and dralni alongilde of and acrou 
and under tlie railway, to afford aufllclent outlet to drain and 
carry off the water, uud to make crosHlngi for peraone acroes 
whoae landa t^e railway i> carried, convenient and proper for 
the croailng of the railway tor Farm purpoaea. 

The Railway Board may order the company to provide 
and construct a aultable "farm Croa.lng " whenever the 
Board di . ma It necessary, and may direct how, when, where 
and by whom, and upon what term, and conditions, such 
farm croaalng shall be constructed and maintained. The 
company must also erect and maintain fences of a minimum 
height of four feet six Inches on each side of the railway 
with swing gates at farm crossings, and cattle guards on 
each side at every highway crossing at rail level, and the 
fences must be turned Into the cattle guards at each side of 
the highway. 

Where an owner brings an action against a railway for 
the value of cattle killed by trains or engines, he must fur- 
nish satisfactory evidence that the cattle were so killed, and 
that the fences or cattle guards were defective. Even where 
cattle or horses are trespassing on a railway, and are killed or 
Injured, If this could have been prevented or avoided by rea- 
sonable care on the part of those In charge of the engine, the 
company may be held liable. All railway stations are 
required to be erected, operated and maintained with good 
and sufficient " accommodation " and facilities for " traffic " 
Railway officials may prevent hotel runners from being upon 
the premtaes and may exclude them If they see at. 

ffa^es of Workmen and Employees. The Act prov.des 
that In every case In which the Parliament of Canada votes 
ananclal aid by way of subsidy or guarantee towards the 
costs of railway construction, mechanics, labourers or other 
persons who perform labour In such construction shall be 
paid such wages as are generally accepted as current for 
competent workmen In the district In which the work U being 
performed. 

Railway companies are required to provide and use modern 
and efficient apparatus and appliances for communication 

130 



1 



RAILWAYS. 

out the nece«lty of men ZZ n\T ' """'"'PK"' wlth- 
«" tram, carrying pa,"en«« h ■'"" ""^ '"'• t""- 

be c„„t,„„„„. a„d^„Ta™a„»^ „'LT "' """" "■"« 
t-'ng applied by ,|,e angin' d" Ir^ "' "" ""Wble or 

Corapanle, are ren,,|lv^„ k " '"" ""keman, etc. 
•lie Of station ho le. tith „':,'; " "'"'""'"■' ™ ">» on.. 

reach the .tatlon. '""°' '»«>' •>= expected to 

orttntrrin'Te r^' oj':'"^ '"'"-'■ "'"»'■'-"" 
P«..engera are carried Whe„ ' P"««»"t car In which 
••Wrtwaycro»,,ng..T;J*;"„,"»y"'" - approaching a 
■ounded at lea.t eight rod! blrn ^^"° *"""'« "■"« be 

•onnding of the whl«Te „„, ,^h !""" """ "■"» "' 'be 

hWway. No tram la allowed ^o T"". "" "°'«"' '"h 

tbichly peopiea portion o,::' town 'r ".„" "'"■'*'' "^ 

greater than ten mile, an hour , ""*' *' » ■»«»« 

'» or properly Pro.ec d ^'jriln ^.n '.*" '""" " '-«" 

o;" any highway cro„mg "t r"u ,e, ' f ""'"'■' '^ ■""" 

Wan ten mile, an hour, „„ie,l TJ T ' *"'''"" "^^ 

maintained and Protected in»o.n? °'""^ '" oon.tructed. 

Regulation, of the Board Where rf "'"■ '"^ ''"'"' ■""" 

Peraon mu.t be placed on .h» , "' "* ""■"»« "P a 

a'ivanclng.towarnpConaVatmr' ■" "■" "" ""'«'■<« 

Cr. or engine. m,f.t „o" bTanowed"," "'"""'' ""' '™''- 

"t any highway, or In .h„„t,„ ! * '° "*"" <"> any part 

'onger period than IT^Z" Z^' "T '™«'" '" ' 

Pany employed on paaaenclr L, '■"""°^™ "' » '=0"- 

"on. Is required to ^To",, IT ""' "' ""'""«" «- 

cate his olBce, etc. ■"" '" ""P ■» badge to Indl- 

^^T:ij':^zz 'a'ndT'r i '"""- '"«"'"' ■>»>- 

with other railway., a^, at "l T 'T"'" "' "" ™'"'ay 
' . and at all .topping places eatablLhed 

131 



!1 i. 



RAILVAYH. 

for that purpou, adequate and lultable meana. appllanoea 
and accommodaUon for recelvlnj and loadlnt all " eraffio " 
Offered tor carriage, anu for carrying, unloading and deliver- 
ing the aame with due care and diligence upon a reaaonable 
hire being tendered. But railway companlea differ from 
coinmon camera" In that (I) their right to limit their 
liability by contract la curtailed, (2) their tolli muit be 
equal, and (3) they are subject to the general aupervUlon 
of the Hallway Board. Comnxin Carrlere were not limited 
by any controlMng authority, and the only quallBcatlon upon 
the toll! charged !■ that they muit be ■• rea«>nable." But 
railway! muat not charge out. perion or company a higher 
rate than la charged to another. The general rule li that 
carriers of good, are "In.urers" of those goods, whereas 
carriers of passengers are liable only tor " negligence." The 
only defence at common law to an action tor damage to or 
lor loss of goods was that the loss occurred through what Is 
called the act of Ood, the King's enemies, some Inherent 
Ssnlt or defect In the thing carried, or the fault of the shipper 
For example. If fresh meat Is Injured through a " delay" m 
Its carriage the company will be liable, but If It becomes 
unsaleable through being Improperly packed or protected 
conaldering the distance It Is to be carried, the company 
is not liable. Prima facie the company Is liable tor Injuries 
to cattle shipped, but where It was shown that the damage to 
the cattle was due to neglect or carelessness on the part 
of the owner or shipper. In not sending a man In charge, the 
coinpany was not held liable. A horse had been fastened 
In the usual way In a car, but was Injured by having Strug- 
gled through an opening which to all appearances seemed 
too narrow tor It to get through, the company was not held 
iiaDle. 

Injury to Vmagtn, Raflway Fares, etc Every passen- 
fter who refuses to pay his fare may be expelled from the 
train by the conductor at any usual stopping place, or near 
any dwelling house, but the conductor must Brst stop the 
train and not use any unnecessary torce. No person Injured 
while on the plattorm of a car, or on any baggage or freight 
car, shall have any claim In respect of such injury If room 

133 



IAILWikT8. 

r«iu,r«. ,. ^\m^^to"Z," >"". """ ^ """' '• 
"r <■>. p.„en„r to tb. »" pa"/ ?' . '^•" "•'"•'«' 

but Where , p,.„„,„ ,1^20..,^^ '"**' **" ""•■ 
«Mlon .1 hi. own reauMt ih. "*•• " "" »*■■ I»- 
'<■•• or Injury ,o -uch p. ' .. T""'"'' " ""' "•""' '•' 

b."s: rrirorr.^."'.' «- --"- 

'"ould be m.de known totte «J""" ■" ""• "■"«•"<'» 
bound to check ud c'r, free o^T *"• '''"'>' «" ""'X 
we." and .re onlr luZ tor . ^^"" "M..en»r.' lu,! 
lo.t or d«n.«ed „ ,rf 1„" , "'""" ■<> «rrl«l, ./d 

•■I"re.ge." Wh^r^a n.JiZ.? ~"«'"''«°''«d In the tera 
"•"y Of "gold pen. .nd pTnc'u" ,".'.-''."' * ™"" ' O-^ 

^e^ th.. , .„„.. drd-r coirr, °;r "■• ^-'^ 

c.r.;rAri--- -b . p.«.u.::^^^ to. due 

Journey. The coaplnyta ^ot 0^?"^ "" "• "» "" »' bl. 
".pec free '^n.X'Ln^. r,t«:J. «?'"'»'•* "" ■» .U 
"d eqmpaent. but re.«,n.blyTd"tU^ I 'on.tructlon 
P«..enger riding on . trelrtt tr.f- ? '° "" ""»•".. A 
'be ..„e .ccon,„od.t.on ''nV. ?.y' "', r'""" *" "•«' 
a P«.,enger train. It . pa..enAr .i "* ""' "•'■'« 

tbere I. „o ,,«,„„ and "" njured t^" "^ "' "•" ""o" 
tbrough the car or car, hnve ,7e 1 . " "" "''""' "'' W"" 
cannot cl.in. damage for an Injury " "'"'' * ■"•"•■™- >" 
The contract between t>.. . 

'. ".ually on the Tk^et '1,™^ 'if'^h ' "*=■"' -"■"" 
known to the tlckM i,„i., . 'b« condition, are 

bta. If he I. ?nttd hV?"""' '"^^ "^^ •"-"-« »Au 
"negligence on th "art o, thT""' """ ■■' """«• «"' 
A company may undertlke ,„ I. :"''" " "»' «« "'»™- 
" -.0 condition, are C-^thf rp^r—' S' ^ 
133 



k 



UAII.UAVN. 

l.bmijr by contr.ct. The m.Mur. „f d.n..,.. for inJurlM 

.p..kh„, .uod d.m,g,. „ „,^ ^ r,.«,u.bl, .uppo.J^ ^ 
I..V. beea In ooni.mpl.tion of tta. p.rtl«. wb.n they nak. 
th. contnct, may b« oInimxL 

LkkOHj lor Otaic ,, Goodrs rt». Wh.r. a thlDDtr 

.«",';•/■..'!.',',,.''' r"" """'•"""« """"•""'■ "■"'•' ^ 

m.v il H i"' "" """' •" """""' "> "•'■' "'I It. and 
wber. th.r. I. a condition that the (oodi are " •hipped at 

2r.™.. ■"*"*•'■" •>' '"e carrier or Ite «rvant., will not 

byr.""r.ncV*l'n" 'i* """'■"" '""" '"■ -«""'■•«'' 
by«. negligence. All ..eb eoUUI... ,„ «,.,„h ..rfetl, 

M^»». ««p.,y. Where the bill of lading Mated that 
Mie ruk, yet u wae held that the company wu liable for 
™.nTtVe'':;l^"" ■"""'*'"" "' "■ ""•-•'» no P^' 

S: loeTofd'^ '"k"' ™°""°^ '™'" "'""<^' -» " 
o.«l«V» " "'°""' "' ■■""«" '"' "•« negligence 

^oreldTotT *"! *" """ ■" "■" ""'"■• "rvant.* bi^ 
fully aold or converted by the carrier. 

'• tne value of the goodi." but. ai already atated the com 

he''conrrU'°:'lth"th"'7,'^ '" """ --«' "^ ^n-'^onTTn 
Vide ,h.,' »! "'""'"• »"" ""' condition, may pro- 

able. The carriers' contract I, with the person In whom 
been .Old. and reshlpped by the con.lgnor pureuanTto agree! 
or L^.""'"^"™ " ""« ""•«' '»™« «" ane 'o o^. 



IL 



134 



im **BiI. 



Intpr 



RAII.WAVH. 

unwld vendor „ l„„g .';'*'" '"'""""" "■"t'l'Ue. 1„ ,h„ 
««!««, or n... <r.hec.rr";l J,".' T'''"''''' "' ""' 

"toppage rem.,„.. When U,e ","» '« "^" ' ' 
'lie good., hi, duty i. to h„iH ,; '" ' "' 

on good, .hipped .re "'^ remo." ' /"" ""■•"""' "^<>N'« 
*•» been m.do In the kZ^T *"" *""'' "'"'>' « -lalm 
W.«re . con.lgnee ,,ned ■ ,T": " ■"" "•*" -""aHowed 
"n,p.ny w.. .", Jtlhlrg^the t"""'" °' " -""" ">" 
Hotel e.pen.e Incurred wh'le w*!:'^""'' °' "'"""•' "'"'■ 
>«« delayed In tran.lt canLr^ '""'''' ""« ""^ 

"" . Claim for hotel expe^ealndT""" '" '"'■"■" 

^■^r— -""~x::rro;r 
-rrrent: 'rrrrr "■» *« — 

d-hgerou. or e/pfo. na „r "a„°d '"""' "■'"^" "^ "' « 
by a railway any .uch VL . '"'' "''"'"' '^'■o .end. 
-..gerou. nature ™The oZlT^'^'T' """ '-'" 
»'-e give notice In writing o the ',.? """"**'• '""^ °"'"- 
" '- to receive .uch g»d "al ton ""'"' """"^ -""^ 
delivered. *"'' '" "■"om the same are 



13S 



III 



m 






RAILWAYS. 

WHICH it 8 .pecu tc contain goods o( a dangerous nature 
or may require the .ame to be opened to ascertain the tact! 
«^d the company 1, prohibited from carrying any such goods 
except m car, specially designated for that purpose, and 
having in large letters painted on the ouUIdo thereof. "Dan 
gerous Explosives." 

ei„"«r7 "O E»>pl«T«e^ Every conductor, locomotive en- 
gtaeer, train desp^tcher, telegraph operator or any other 

or rn^rri T" ■" " ™"**'' '"•"'"^y *•"> "• l-toxlcated 

seT „r J f. """■•'«'■'"""". -" "very person who 

"ells or gives spirituous or intoxicating liquors to any 
servant or employee ot a company while on duty is liable 
LL f " "'r'""""«»'- " " the a"ty of railway com- 
w?.r ""„ '"'*" '^'' "'""■'"' »" "■'«'"' »«« "oxious 
ha^e sufflclently matured to seed, and in case of the neglect 
Of the company to perform this duty a penalty of »2 per 
toy may be imposed. And any mayor, reeve or chief offlcer 
of any municipality In which any part of the right of way 

uch"'.w.«'"'"°V""'""™ '° '='" *'"'"• '•°°' <>•" »"" ^«"foy 

tnLlv briL .' "' ^ '"'P'-'"'°-e-"- Every person who 

Tu din. nr ^ r"' ™"" '"' "="""■' »'«' »'«■ '"-O". 

building or structure of a railway, or removes, obliterate, 
or defaces any printed or written notice, direction or by-law 

Shan hf H M . ""'"' '" "" P"'ormanee of hi, duty, 
shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding »C0 Every ner- 
eon, not connected with the railway or emp oyedTy tte 

the same is laid across or along a highway. 1, liable on 
summary conviction to a penalty not exceeding $10 



136 




TRANSPORTATION 

LiabUity „f IUii„^ „a Er,ro» OompMie. 

oa°l:;:s™;;^^i:re InMrrr-^' *''">."» f- ""-« are caned 

f"5 a eo.,.z?i;: 'eftirt-LT^r "'""■ "' '"»- 

Fuuiic geneiallj are also common carriers. 
Oommon Oarriem of Chnds 

1.17 



IN 



'.|J.l; 



¥ '■* 



TBANSPOBTATION 

L"„°Z.,^i,"' "" '"1 ™""' ""'"'''"' '"» »"■»' "ompensation 
18 Offered him m advance. 

B,n,^.T "" T""'" ™" "" *°" l"^ ">«y ™f"»« to take 
more; he may also refuse to carry freight of a dangerous 
character, such as explosives. uangerous 

.»^**~'^"""1,'°''^' «'»'■'«'> '"'k rate., provided the 
.ame are reasonable, or make such contracts as they choose 
r»".?/ ™'P"™"™' '""•»"}■ have established schedules of 
rates, fhey can change these from time to time, but they 
must accept the goods of all persons at those rates. Thev 

muT'trtrr Jk^^ '""" ""' '""'•' "■"" '""" '"'""-' ""' 
WKrimlMtlon UalawfuL-The carrier must not make 
unjust discrimination a« lo prices of carriaKC. Before the 
p.issage of the Inter-Stale C.mmercc law. svstematic dis- 
crimination in their charges was proctiee.1 Uv some „f the 
railroad companies in the United Stales, (ireal ...MTio.ations 

7^ u ^T" " ■'"•'■'' '■'"■ ""''■ '""' "I'ipnwnts, while the 
small shipper was crushed by mi.cl, ui^^er .-h^ses for 
transportation. Unjust discri„Mn„„„„. were al»,. made be- 
tween different towns and l,„.n,n,.s. -l,.. Inter-S.atTt'om- 
merce law renders such discrimii.ation» imiro-fu. 
, Oomp<,nMtion.-Common carriers mav <le_n,l iheir pay 
n advance, yet they often transpor, ihe b«,1„ .ad collect 
tne freight from the person receiviiiu- the mwK. 

In case the person to whom the -oods are «^l refuses to 
pay the charges the carrier must collect from the sender, 
e«n K """/"t, him the contract was made and he alone 
can be sued. The other party made no contract with the 
carrier, hence cannot be sued. But if the sender is actins 
as the agent of the person to whom they are to be sent the 
company may sue the latter, for in that case the contract 
was made with him. 

e.JJ!^'"" f ^'J^^^-'^ '•"™™on carrier is bound to 
Tfl '5 ,•'• '''"' '■e»8onable diligence and dispatch, and 

safely deliver them to the person to whom thev are e .n- 
signed, without any loss or injury, except such as mav bo 
oceasionci by ,he act of God, the public enemy, or the fault 
or traud of the owner. 
Wlea Ll.We Btyond His Own Route.-It a carrier re- 

138 




TKANSPOBTATION 

'"-it l.i» liability to hilo™ ;o„f. f V ?■"•'"' '^■""'•■"^' 
»«fe delivery to'ti.e ne« Z,,:;'- 1^ '^ilit^'™ '--" V 

"btaT,"e,'r,"r'T-l'Z?" '"■""■'' '"'"' """">" "ay t„ 

have .a,.,;„-, ™'" '"."ireCrrs"'" «"""» '^- 

-de "r r. J/"" '" """' "- »-'«">. -1-, pay„,e„t is 

a 2: Ta^. ',r„Ct 'tT ir "■';•, "^^ "■- ■■»"' i--'- 
p-m with .,.„„ ,;;::,:' ;::";:;,t7 """ "■" -» "■« 

''«« " " ^J"^o;r*rlTir;'''':"'"V-? ™P""«iWe for any 

-;^-i,ei„..p^:,r:b:;^.;;::>;-;fi:i;^ 

owlrr^^:;^:;"^''^" "act of 0,,d,.. ,,,,, a, 

'■»ff>tr,i„(., ,|,„,,'„„, ,„',""'''•,, ,"" "f. "»les» caused l,v 
doe^ not reliove tuZlZZ^^^"'"'- «°'"'--^ " "-f' 

•■-".-I. the oareless™;;:" „v of it ""I '' " '""""'' 
I>«ridiaWe Oood, -rnrri ™ployee8. 

in defective boxea or '.^ , "'rST "'■,*"'""'' »''■"'"' 
eroekery or other artiol'rtZ ' •■, """'' "" B'«»«»'„re, 

If " package is of ;::. . ,n' " rh''" ''™''"'- 
""oLll™'"" ""'" *"■ ^"f"™«l of " " """"■'' "■" """'- 
railn„,"!°^,|^«^,^;~;" ™«' of d„m„^ ,„ ^„,^ „,^ 

"-""""t of dam,„.es ,„,'," ■!,;'""'" ''" ""-^ '">»i«'"i and tl„. 
<- and ,vitb .'uSeient"'ov!;;„::TfM;:;::-^ « P™!- om- 



TBAKSPOBTATION 

A common carrier must pay the market value at the point 
of destination <iif all property loxt or destroyed by liia 
fuwlt wliile in his care for transportali.. i. 

R«!eipt.-In shipping goods by tieiKlil or express a re- 
ceipt or bill of lading should always be taken and carefullv 
preserved. 

BiUi of L«dtag.-The bill of ladintr is the carrier's ac- 
knowledBment of the receipt of goods, and is evidence of 
contract between the parties, and is supposed to contain all 
the carrier's claim for non-liability. Three copies of the 
hill are made out; one is kept by the shipper, another by 
the party transporting the goods, the third is sent to the 
person to whom the goods arc consigned. 

BUb of Lading arc transferable and assignable, and the 
assignee may sue for the recovery of the goods. 

Form of Bill of Lading 

New York, Oecember 10. 1904. 
Sblppoa In toot order, and well TOndlUoncd. by Jamei C. Honlon 

on board the ship Ooodapeed . . 

Marked as folIowH : 

Srlveater Clyde. 

Rio Janeiro. 

whereof Chaa, Boitman 

Is maeter. now lying In the port or 

JVeir I'orfc and bound 

for the port of Rio Janeiro 

500 Sorrel, of /lour, belni marked and numbered ai In tbe margin and 
are to be delivered In tbe like order end condition at the port of Rio 

'J,"""'" <"■= danger of lea only exiepted) unto Sj/Uxjicr 

Y*"" "' ■"'" U'slgne, he or tliey paying freight for 

the xaid eaHea, witb ten cents primage and average accuatomed. 

In wltne&j whereof I have affirmed to three bills of lading all of 
this tenor and date: one of whieb being acoompllsbed the others' to 

stand void. HISNBY R. SANDFOBIJ. 

(In the above form. Ilanton is the shipper or consignor, 
Clyde the consignee, and Sandford the carrier. It might be 
signed by the master (Bollman) instend of b,. Sandford.) 

Oommon Carriers of Persons 

A conimon carrier of persons is one who holds himself out 
to carry for hire from place to place all such persons as 

140 



~ MfsmmmrnhmimmS'imx^BiBainm.. 



AOENCY 
care and d„ ge'nco In ho conrt . "" ""' """■'»' ""^^^ »' 

-pons,.,e 'or\:7CJ^::rzv:.''v:rr r " '"■ 

tect the paasengers aml„.. ■„ , ^ ''°"'"' "> P"" 

vants or emp™yee" Tl TL ^ '"^'"•'' '™"' •"» »«■- 
ttae to get oVando n Ih ,^" Pa^'engera reasonable 

doing 80 '"' "'"'"^^ "■"' s-l'aWe means of 

.a^'^"^r'''rr: T:r "" '"■""^""^ '^ «>» ''»<^- 

allowed to carry prcels hf . T'"" ■" "■" "^"'^ "» 
tbelr safe delivery aTthi^h the o" T'" "' ^''■»"»""» ">' 
therefrom. ^'fough the carrier derives no beneflt 

Pany",:rng u""* " ""'"" "' '"^ '"""'^ °' 'he oon.- 
an"S ro„l,:trt:r-'- " -e. «cept 

the baggage to snob a^n't h ,"""'""" " "^ "'^ '='-'■•' 
<" the baggage to thatCnt. """"""""« ""■ "•« safety 

AGENCY 

other. caZM: 'p'rUa^ Tr, h"-"^"" '" "" ^" "- 
Known as agency. ' "''""'" ''^'»<"'" them being 

t-onfoTi,;:. Tea'yt^r^rr- ■""« -essary rela- 
te some one n,se '^h ,1 every 0^;^ 27 f ' T ""' "''"' 
of the proprietor. Almost all the h . " " "■" "«<''« 

n-lsslon merchants Varel »„!» """' °' """'"'■ C"""- 
an agency. CorporXr'a t"w rr/r'm '^ '"T ^■'^' °' 
viz.: their officers, clerks etc °' agents. 

W1.0 M.r AC as PH„,p., „ ,^.,_^^ „^^ ^^^ ^^ 

141 



I>t;i 



h 1' 



comiietent to do biiaineiH for himself may act aa principal, 
nnil npiwint nn ni-ent to transact it for him. Peraonn who 
cannot ilo business for themselves mny, however, be ap- 
pointed to act as aeents. Therefore minors and married 
women may act na a^-nts, 

A (leseral Agent is one authorized to represent his prin- 
cil'ni in all his business of one particular branch. 

A Special Agent is one appointed to a particular thinu 
only, or a few particular things. 

How Appointed.— An aRcnt's authority may be civen 
orally or by writiuK; no particular form of words is neces- 
sary. In important matters, the aj.'ent is often npiminled 
by a written instrument whieb is called a power of attorney. 
When tiius authorized under seal and said instrument duly 
ncknowledpred aild recorded, an ap-nt can sign deeds, or 
other conveyances of real estate or sealed instruments. 

Extent of Anthority.-The employinpr of an agent is the 
act which (tives him his authority. An agcTit has authority lo 
do whatever is necessary or srenerally done in connection 
with the pun>oses for which he is employed. Some employ- 
ments Rive very wide latitude of power, and leave ver)- much 
til the discretion of the agent; others give a very "limited 
authority. 

Liability of Principal-The principal is responsible for the 
acts of his agent committed in the execution of the agency 
and which are within the scope of the agent's author- 
ity. A distinction is here made between a special and a 
general agent. If a special agent exceeds or disobeys his 
nistructions the principal is not liable; but if a general 
I'gent exceeds his authority (lie principal will be bound, if 
the net m within the apparent scope of an agent's anthorily, 
when ii is such an act as is natural aiul usual in transact- 
ing business of that kin.l. By appointing him to do that 
business, the principal is coiisiilercd as saving to the world 
that his agent has all the aufhc.-ily necess'arv to transact it 
in the usual way. For any criminal act, however, of the 
agent, the principal is not responsible unless he authorized 
him to connnit it. 

Wrongful Acts of Agent«.-As to wrongs and injuries, or 
142 



MDtCT 

which demand Xm ? """"ntrng until demand, 
fi«n him for ™t.'"' ""'''' ""'• «"«•«'"' opportunity 
OaanMuatioii fees aninit the iiriiu!h»i a 

■">•»■•■• Ifame the BneiaeM i« Doim ah k ■ 

"n^r"'sp'J',^ibl: f^fM/"^-"^"'"""'-^ « P"-" can 
H3 






AQENCY 

know,, at th.. time ll,e act w„« done, becuae he i. ,apno«d 
to .lerivo the bencHt of the same. i-i~-»" 

B«tUli!»tiOB.-If a principal ratifies an act done, he ia 
bound by It, whether he Vd Riven the agent authority or 
not. Siibwquent ratilleatu.n i, equivalent to prior authority 
But If «„ch ratification ia n, under a miatake of circum- 
atancea it la not binding. 

BwpoiuiWlity of mini " .,.-A per«.n doing buaineu 
w,th an aKeiil i« j„„t a> .eaponaibio to hi« principal aa 
tlioHgh he had transacted thf busineaa with the latter in 
person. 

BwocaUon.— It is alwa.vs in the power of the principal to 
revoke an agency; but if the power conferred i» coupled 
with an interest, as where an agent has power to sell goods 
and apply the proceeds to his own use; or if it is given for 
valuable consideration, and a continuance of the agency is 
necessary to meet the responsibilities he has assumed in 
advance, to carry it on, then such agency cannot be re- 
voked at the pleasure of the principal. 

How to Bevoke an Agwcy.-It mnsl bo done by an ei- 
press act of the principal or by the act of law. The first 
implies a written form revoking the ,„wer of attorney that 
has been conferred. ,.r any express ,' larotion to revoke. 

the second occas may be the death of the principal or 

agent. 

Hottco to be OiT«n.-Di,e notice should he given by the 
pnneipal of such revocation to those who knew of the au- 
thority given to such agent, because a general authority may 
continue to bin,! the principal otter it has be^n actually re- 
called, if the agency were well known and the recalling of it 
wholly unknown to the party dealing" with the agent with- 
out that party's fault. 

Power of Attomey.-The authority by which one person 
15 empowered to act in the place or as the attorney of an- 
other 18 called a power of attorney. The power of attorney 
18 usually m writing and under seal, though for many pur- 
poses It may be created by parol. Strict rules of construc- 
tion are applicable to these instruments, and courts incline 
to construe even general powers narrowlv rather than 
broadly. If the power of attorney is to be recorded it should 

144 



POWER or ATTDKNKV 

be^properly .cknowlwl^ed befnre nn ...Iloer tW Mme a. a 
Ctnunl Pom of Power of Attotsoy 

.nj ..,„d |A,r.. .,„,c ac purpo.c ,„ LZ Z Tier ZwtT TT° 

to h. do„. ,„ „; .«.„ ..r„™°i: ." Tui,? ,?",',"!• "' °~""»"' 
s' "i:/rs " "" ""'■"""" ■'■" i^'";" r^r!.- -r 

Signml. Scaled, and Dsllvered William Ukovvn. [skal] 

In Pre-nenve o( 



Power to tako Charge of and Carry on BnHneai 

m, lr„. .„d ,„,„, .t.orn.,T„r;„r°.„i'!.^ "••■•■••'■ Winter. 

«o..| to p„rcb..e .„d ..„ ,„ r.fh „ 1 c"rdU°Tl ueh L?,'"'- """ 
menhaodliw, and waro. an ha .h.ii j articles, joodi. 

to .tat. account ; I. ". .„7L^„,° ™ J" 'T'' """"• "'"' "'""• 

an 0,.,.. or d™.od. doror7o"^:i "irt":' "iiri""" ■«"" 

attar to eil«t la niy (avor- to adl.i.t ..!■ . "'"'"« "' ^'r- 

-btch „.. „,.. o?mr;.r.,.? ,.raZ.t"L"ln; " ''""■"^" 
with uld bualao, or otlicrw«> agaln.t ma, either connected 

d.,«'-l!!!l •?•!!'"■ ' ""•'■"ennt. .ct «, hand and „.,, ,h„ __ 
Hensy Saylor. [seal.] 

Power to Vote u Proxy 

Kno-^ All Men by r*rsc Presenti. That 

undcrslBDed. Stockholder in tbe *^* 

do hereby appoint ... 

Attorney, with power of' .nb.tlutlon "tor ,'„7*, '°'' '"""' 

t'o-rJeVr " "" """- °' '" ■'-"«««,.■,„■ ..r. .'°:: •..•::.■;: 

with all the power. v "?!' " "'' "'I<'»™m<'nt thereof. 

bereh, revokln, all preVl.u. 'pro.l,; """"^ '"»"°""'' l>"»-.t. 



US 



: m 



I '! 



ARBITRATION 

rtrm »l AiTMnirat to Itofir to ArMlnton 

fount, <>( x-rthumtoK".,,?',! ;;i„.?; ,f*oIi':iL°L"''fi;"t_'» "» 

i.»plr. or third .rlltriilor ""''"""•" " •"? "•""•r, la ■ppolu „ 

.i.r'"."r.,..v.'"r;'Xp„?.' ci^'^'./.^i'Ti'Vi""' •■* *•>•' 
i..u"i,i:".°,',rd:y''vri.;;;.i"B.'^,'"* '•"••- -• •>•" '•— •■"• 

1. Ul. pr».„. 0, Joi. Brown. SsJuIn B Sir, tS^J 

Form of KsUee to ArMtnton 

.mdXnX'.V .Tb^.f.":„d'".°,.',i-L",."^^J"Sr ?n" d'T"" "' "" 

Ubhbt QAaawM, 

BOIONO B. OODV. 

Foni Af ArbttrmUoB BoRd 



(Birntd) 



FBBD. HOtHWTI, 

Ohai. B, WILLUIH. 



Fonn ot Aw*, d 



.r. if"oi ;" it\;r,.,?;;' /,?•"'.'■ '*,'■•■■ ••• "» «"-""if«i. "«. 
ir?',"„- ;.'„r- — '-. .'.';J'..',oi,v.T'ia.."ft";»'°.'ir. -a'. 



146 



Cha«. Barkib, 
Wm. Bionia, 

ROBRnr RlHLIHO. 



ASSIGN MKNTB 



ASSIGNMENTS 

«<!lui^ inui^f .1 ■ ' P™!*"*'. Penwnnl or real, or any 

»rB;3:ir.'ri.Ltesr "" "-"'- '-- 

-nd recorded HkeTde^.l'' "^''' '*'""'• «I"«'"'«''K«<1 

m«.tt Id ;tr;el? "["'h *"""?' '" "''^'"'"■™ 
of the aMiBnor'7 nt^^ . ' Z } °" a«»>Bnment cover, all 

•generally prohibited by lt,L "'"'"°"' ""' '"" '' "- 

«.u":^rr.ra"i,rer,„''rr'H'' ■; '■■--' -^-^ 

he cannot be forced rioMeViMt^n^K'"' "' '"" '•™"">" 
Form of Simple AMlg„me« 

D.W.1 Sjdne, u B 1. November lo.' A U. ,»... 

MAUBin SAKDrORD. 
147 



MlCtOCOW ItSOLUTION TIST CHAIT 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




^ APPUEO [IVMGE 

^^^ leSJ East Mgin SI'h) 

S^|S Rocheiler, New York 1*609 US/ 

^^ (716) *82 - OJOO - Phone 

S^S ("S) 2B8 - 59S9 - Fa. 



e of) 



ASSIGNMENTS 

Auicnment of Account 

In consMeratlon ot Ooe D.,ll.r. value received. I Ureby >ell and 
°T,l',° 'i "■ '^' '^°'° "" *'"■''' I"""". «l'lih Is Junlr due from the 
within George Sanders, and I hereby authorise the said W. C Cole 
to lollert the pame. 

Toronto. M.roh 10. ,9.... j^„„ „^^^^^ 

Aa8i(iiment of Hortgaga 

Knoio oil Men ftj ihae PrcnenD, That I, William Bower, the wlthlu 
named mortgagee, for a consideration of Six Hundred Dollars hereby 
as,,lgn transfer, and set over to Henry Kllngman. bis heirs and assign, 
the .ithln named Instrument of mortgage, and all the real estate wllb 
sppurtenances therein mentioned and describe*, to have and to bold the 
same foroier. subject, nevertheless, to the c,ulty and right of redemp- 
tion ot the within named James Yundt. his beiri and assigns therein 

In witness whereof, the party of the first part has hereunto set his 
hand and seal this fifth day of April, A. D. 19... ' 
^ , . , , William Bower, [seal] 

Sealed and delivered In presence ( 
EuwAMn Miller. 

This should be .ipknowledgetl and recorded same place as 
mortgage. 

Amipiment with Power of Attorney 

In consideration of the sum of One Thousand Dollars (the receipt 
of which Is hereby acknowledged!. I do hereby assign, transler, and set 
over to Martin Scott (of Chicago, 111.) all my right, title, and Interest 
in and to [here deaertbe wlu.q. And I hereby constitute said Martin 
Scott my attorney. In my name or otherwise, but at bl« own costs and 
ihurgea. to take all legal measures which may bo proper or ueceesary 
for the complete recovery and enloymcnt of the premises. 

Wltnes, my hand and leal this twentieth day of January A D 19 
(Witnesses,) „ , ' 

HK.VRY LONQ, 

Assignment for the Benefit of Creditors 

Knoto all Men bj, Thene Presents, That whereas I. William Colerage. 
merchant ol the city of Montreal, and Province ol Quebec, am Indebted 
to various persons In considerable sun.., of money, which I am at pr™ 
ent unable to pay In full, and being desirous to convey all my property 
for tb, benefit of my creditors, without preference or priority other 
than that provided by law : 

Now. therefore. I. In consideration of the premises, and of the sum 
il fc t. ''°"",''"J;'< '" ,■"« ^1 Ohas. Watson, ol said city and Province 
do hereby grant, bargain. Bell, assign, and convey unto the saldcbas 

148 



William Colebaob. [sial] 



BAIL 

rniirvini only .uch Drooenv n tl L-ll.S V ""!■ .!>•• •«™plliiB .nd 
To have and to h„]H "h. "rapljd by la> from altathmenl. 

and co„flde„"'',„'°„'^?'t„fdl.pZ°„r,h'J" "h''' "?"■ '«'"'»'°' '"""■' 
'or ca.h upon ,„,h <.m. and fondlHon. a. tf l,"" 3"" P"'"""' •«■'• 
W... and app,, ,h. proce^l." in S'tC .'^ In'ani'.r!"'.'^"' ""' "^"' 

"'""t!«Ji'Zi:L::titi\v.^! "" '"■ " «■• "i" '"™"»" 

•h,oh he „., ow„ ra^eaS>,'';n*rrop"."'lo;"; .t'l/'rl.Srv/llif ""'" 

if ,l°"t, ?.:,":» z ;"id 'o™'?.'^ °' "■• ^•""^ " '"^ »"•". 

or aoign.. " """■ °'" '» ■»'■ »>■ "ecnlor.. adminialralor.! 

«flJmhlrof P'obr""^, Lo'!"l !""""•" •" ">■ ''"°'' •"■■ '-l "■'■ 
Executed and delivered 
in .the presence of 

.tohn mvkhs, 

Hknrv Best. 

caslr ' '' '" "'^'enments vary In different 



BAIL 

DefliUUoiL-Ball I, a bond or recognizance given for an- 
other's appearance in court. It I, required In criminal cases 
generally and 1.. certain civil cases such as RepTevin The 
term ball Is applied also to the sureties themsej^r and to 

o"th"rp";i:"c,;r^ '"^ "-- "■^■""- - '- --™-° 
riz: "•,?i:esre"'" '-"' "-^ ^~"' "■ " -'"-'• - 

Ball B«nd.-The bond given by the sureties Is termed a 
recognizance and In case the prisoner does not appear for 
trial, or forfeits his ball, as It Is termed, the sureties have 
to m Whatever sum Is pledged In the bail bond o recog 



149 



BAILMENTS 

Fonn of Ball Bond or BMsogniuaco 

Pbuvihoi of Ohtabiu. 
County of York. 

•U ol Aurora, 1„ ..i dloumv °nd H™?;?' "•'J"'? ."ll «^"l' St.ilK.ll, 
Heir ,o«d. .ad .l,.,,.!., Uad. .?d Mi'^,'''"' "''"''"• " •* '•'«'' "' 

NovltrX.l!:* 19'"7,^."°bt°.h?T„"d ^''»'?' r ■■■■■• -"■' "'J •' 
Brown, . i„.,le, „, Ui. p..™"'^;''' l"", "•'"'°"' '" ".' >*'"• John 

•nc. to .«„„ ,0 .»ld ch,r„ k™ ,K ^ providfd, tor hli app«,r- 

county, on ,h« ninth d.y „f D,ei'; An'^'.o'''"' ?'/""!■?■ 1° '"I'' 
then «nd thm to oniwer to ih. ..ij ' . ' . '*■• *' '"'' o'clock, a.m., 
••Id ch.r,,. ,„| lm",l,l ord.r Tf''j°' "■" <'"■'"'" of Ont.rio, „„ 
d.p.ri the „„, wllCn, l..;;"",',,"''. 'h"'','?".!:'."' "I" 'Ourl, .nd not 

,, A. wit.™ „„, i.„d. .., „,^, ,j,. ,^__,^ ^_^ ^^ ^■'^■'^21 ^^ 
ChABLC. SMBERT." rsCAL.] 

r«A>rit Staxtok. Cmal.] 

HotS?: i"D.'^»'°^ "' «kf»lrfBd bctor. m. ,hl. ,e„,h d., of 

JOHN BEOWS. 

Justice of Peace. 

Jn^«,m. ce. the recognizance, m.y be oral in open 



BAILMENTS 

B.B*rtt«»._BalIment le a delivery of good, or money by 

rLthr:.rex«:r"^' " ""■'"^*' "■■" "^ '-■' ■"»» 

termeTL"! .T"*'"^^"^ o'"'^-- »' '"e good, balled 1. 

orT^^"; tbeTaiier" "■" '"""' *° -""' '"'^ "« """'-'O 

Tie Ee.p<„ribIUHe8 of B.fl«, i. g„Te„ea ^y ^.^ ^„„^ 

160 



BAILMENTS 

eration w/ielher, in the case of the thing bailed, they have 
been gu.lty „f ordinary neglect, gross* neglect or slight 
neglect. Ordinary neglect is the omission of *h«t care „Mch 
every n,.„ „f common prudence takes of his ow, co„« ns 
Gross neglect .s want of that care which every man o TrnJ 

erty. Shght neglect is the omission of that diligence which 
every circumspect and thoughtful person uses in secC^z 
his own goods and chattels. ' securing 

hpn"' ^'^V 9^'"^'^ "'« '"W of bailments are: 1 A 
s't oni;foT"' "° '^r"' '™-" "' undertaking is respon 

flt from ,rh T\ '•• "" """"^ "'■° "'°"» -^"'- "ene- 
m from the bailment, is responsible for slight neglect 3 

Ira :er"fLT"V' "'"^"t' '" •"■"■ P"'"" ''<> ^«"- 
ranvb«Tl/.f'''"°7 ""*''"'• '*■ A special agreement 
5 All hill ""''""' '"'■ "'"'■' ""■ ^''''' '' ■" general valid. 
«,n„„Kl, f "^ answerable for actual fraud, even 

WeffrfL''T™'^''ff!'P"'»'''^- «• No bailee is chargla- 

A S^°T' "" "" i' ■•"^Pon'Sl'le for slight negligence. 

fn7.rT^^' •°!"' "''° "™''"' P'ods or money to be kept 
^s"'Lgle'c" ""'■™' " "'"''""'™^'' '^ -P™-"" ""'y f»^ 

A Carrier of goods or money without reward is resnons! 

A Mv^r::,"^f '*' "^ ''^»''"' of good ^i h. ' """ 
»b* S'rrdin";:^'nU:ct'"''' "^ '""'' ^ ^"'"' *» -™"- 

^trrhistrii;*"'- ""<■ -'^ » ^-ee-otirif 

vin^ "•"!** ^?'?°" Bwponnible for losses by casualty or 
law^Tdemrnd.''-'- ''''"•" '" "'"^ ">« t-injbailed.'^n" 

kefnTT "* =^" »'•'' answerable in all events, if they 
keep the things borrowed or hired after the stipulated time 
or use them differently from their agreement ' 

151 



BANKRUPTCY 

OepodtoriM ud Pawnera are answerable, in all events, if 
lliey use the things deposited or pawned. 

Iaiikeeiwn.-An innkeeper is responsible for the nets of 
ins d.miestios, and for thefts, and is bound to tak^ nil pos- 
sible care of Hie j;oods of his guests. He is regarded as an 
insurer, re»|K)n»ible for an.v injury or loss, not caused liv the 
oi't of Oorl. the King's enemies, or neglect or fault of the 
owner. When, however, a guest has the exclusive keeping 
and occupancy of a room, the inkeeper is not liable, nor 
where the guest takes upon himself the care of the goods, 
or neglects to use ordinary caution. 

WanliaiiMinen are bound only to take reasonable and 
ordinary care of the goods deposited with them. Thus, 
Ihey would not be liable for thefts, or for loss or injuries 
caused by rats, unless occasioned by their want of proper 
care, etc. Their liability coramenres as soon as the goods 
arrive and the crane of the warehouse is used to hoist them 
in, and it terminates the moment they leave his premises. 
J he warehouseman's liability is usuallv fixed or limited by 
receipts which they give for the goods deposited, and which 
pass from hand to hand by assignment. See Warehousing. 
Wharflnger>.-A wharfinger is one who keeps a wharf for 
the purpose of receiving fools on hire. His responsibility is 
similar to that of a .iarehousemiin, 

BANKRUPTCY 

There is no general bankruptcy legislation in Canada 
as yet. By the British North America Act legislation ol 
this kind must be passed by the Dominion Parliament. 
The Provincial Legislatures have no authority. Such 
Legislatures may, however, pass regulations governing the 
voluntary assignments by individuals or corporations. Most 
of them have done so and the references in this book to 
assignments tor the benefit ol creditors cover the greater 
part of the legislation now in force so (or as its general 
application is concerned. 



PARTNI£K!illIP 

PARTNERSHIP 

A portnerahip exists when Uvo or more pcrsuiw combine 
heir ,,io,».rt.v, their labor, their skill, or all of these in 
bMiness, to share the gains and losses in certain propor- 

The rim is the name, style or title under wliieh the part- 
ners do msniess, and also means the partners themselves 
taken eoleet.vely. The firm name should be set forth in 
the artlelea. 

DIFPEEBNT KINDS OF PAETKEESHIP 

A General Partnership is instituted between individuals 
If they nKj-ee to er.ter into a general or particular business, " 
to share the profits and losses together without flxing anv 
limitaln>ns or conditions. 

A Special or Limited Partnership is on agreement entered 
into to allow a special partner, whose name does not appear 
in thot of the Arm, to put in a limited amouni of capital 
and to receive a corresponding share of the prolits, and be 
held correspondingly responsible for the contracts of the 
firm, but only to the extent of the capital contributed bv 
mm. and no special partner can interfere in or transact 
firm business. A special or limited partnership agreement 
or certificate must generally be acknowledged or sworn to 
and recorded. 

Such partnerships were unknown to the common law. and 
the limitation of liability is secured in this country odv 
by strict compliance with the particular reqnirements'of the 
statutes of the sceral Provincsa o.- States. 

The statutes generally require such a partnershii. to be de- 
fined in a certificate, ocknowledged like a deed, which must 
set forth the firm name, nature of business, names of .r,,n- 
eral and special partners, distinguished as such, and "the 
amount which -.a.-i, special pnil-ier contribules 

An Ostensible Partner is one who is known as such to the 
world. 

A Set^et Partner is one who is not openly or generally so 
declared. He ,s not liable for debts contracted after' hi, 
retirement, although he has given no notice of the same. 

15.1 



PAKTNEKBUIP 

A Donunt or 8U.nt P.rtiier i, on« who takes no part in 

profit, rfT" "" ""'"l"' '"" ''"-''"■'»' •"" """«»» 'h« 
profits ami losses accordinsj to certain agreements 

A KomtoU P«rtii.r is l.eld out to the world as sneh with- 
buLess" '' •>''"'"P''"»8 "' 'I- rrofll. and loases of Z 

HOW PABTNEBSmPS ABE FOBHED 

All persons who are lef-ally eompetent to do business for 
themselves may enter into partnership. 

n,fnt''r''^"T'''P"'?^ ^ '°™""' "-y » °"« ""'"'1 «P-ee- 
ment and stand in law, but a written agreement is the only 
safe one and he who neglects it will doubtless have reason 
to regret it later. 

The parties may agree as the.v please as to sharing profits 
^ra vT ?"' '"•,!'"' "^""^ "' ""'■"*' '" P'-"^'^ 'h« ™"- 
losse^s equan" " "'"""" ""' '""^""' """ P"*" »"■* 

The articles of agreement should be drawn up with spe- 
cial care in writing the details of conditions, liabilities a^ul 
proportionate share of profits or loss fully siated 
.M^", *""-.I,° ^"?»^« » ""ited partnership i. not con- 

.h1n^„ ,T "■ '." T'"?.** '■ "'«*• "■"' « e™«»l partner, 
ship must he registered withm a definite time, under penalty. 

from a fl™T/°lf""T''"-^''''™ » P""*"" -"W™'™ 
from a flrai, bnt allows his name to be nsed as before, or if 

Zu7 .^-V^"' '" ' """• '" *'"'" ""' ''« i» h^'d respon- 
sible to third persons as a partner provided such third per- 
son has given the credit on the faith thereof. 

Suing Partuer..-It is generally supposed that one part- 
ner cannot sue another. This is not wholly true. A partner 
can sue for a bahnice due him after settlement of ge"erll 
accounts or for a balance due him on some specific aSnt 
or for a balance due him on some specific account. It is 
howe^r best to appeal to a court of equit.v, for that court' 
can do for partnership what the law cannot do. 

DISSOLUTION or PABTNEBSHIP 

A partnership may be dissolved by mutual consent, by ex- 
piration of predetermined time, by death of one of the part- 

15i 



PAHTNEHsh'P 

one partner „,..i„."7h/^:^, „r In'n ."" ""'"■""^'b- ot 

o-" agr..en,ent, but he muTJ ' , t """""""* '" "" ""■""^l^" 
to lh» other partner ^ "' """™ "^ <>'" i'"'"''"" 

he i» 'res^nlJble : th fit f^r'd''™" "' "" 1""^' "■" 
breach of hi, promise '»'" """"^ l-y "■" 

s:r "-^ ""^ -'^ - -.d- ararj:«:i7fe 

the creditor, of "he Arm a„^^ "'f!" '" T"' '» ^«'' ""e of 
Whom the part„e™hi?,™„rL*"l7,^™-'P->na with 

antSHe^'oT^Tb^lS b^".r"' ^"'^ ""^ '""""' «™ 

-^^:^J^:d^S;^^r'— -^^^ 
Hie o.„ pe.o;:-'tt:.^,i:t7rif L-'ottuir'"^'' '- 

Liability of the Several Partner. -For tt 

=7,t arthi^tTe^r^"^'-?- -^^^^^^^^^ 

eponsibie for a J^ o1 t^u^^d rtn^C'd^bt':''^ ^'- 
155 



PARTNEII8UIP 

bdlTidiul Dtbti Of TKtam.-lt a partner hu individual 
dfbtn, tliiMi Ills iiilori'St in tlio Hmi u licid renpnniiible lor 
llwm. ul'i.T llie ilehta i>f lliu (inn have been paid. Tlie lia- 
bililKM „f (In. Him, however, alwaya have tho Hr»t claim 
upon i(.^ own proper(y. 

LiabUitiH of a How Putaw,— A now partner is noi re- 
Bporisili' for (li'li(H of tho firm contracted by tho snmo jire- 
viourt t>, his tidinisttion. 

Bellini of a Partnai'i Intereet— No partner con kcII his in- 
IcrcBt (.1 un on(«ide party, in order to have him take lii« 
pliicc, wilhont the consent oi' the other pa-tner. 

Anthorlty of Partnerc after the PartnenUp la DiuolTed. 

—After dit-solntion each partner has the right to settle np 
the hnsine-s, nnless tlie partners a(-rce otherwise and (rive 
due notice thereof. He can, however, create no new obli- 
cntions. hut only settle np the old ones. The statnte law of 
(ho .State should be inrefully complied with in this resiiect. 
The followinj; forms will seive ns models for drawing up 
articles of copartnership: 

Articles of Ooputneiihip 

Arllclrfi n/ .lorrrmr.il iniide and rnncludcd lhl« Irit day or Janu- 
ary. In Ihc year A, li one thouaand nine hundred and Tour, betwMa 
Heury R Raym.T, „r Ihr Bi-sl part, aa.l r.)m ., U. Wc.rnr.r o( th« «ec 
ma Mit. Iiotli o( tlie Oltr ol Hamlllon. In tt , Oouatr of Wentwortn. ma 
rrovlncc of Ontaiio. 

Thi. lal.l f.artl,.. have acreH l.i aasorla thfm.rlv™ sa copartncra lor 
thf 1 urno,e ol ...rrvl,.,.- o„ the Dm. r.l I , Ci„, ,|s Bu.lnw. at No. at 
Olevelaii.l Ai-c-nui.. In the i ity ol Ham ii aloro.akl. 

1. The naino. litk-. and stylo ol .u^ n partnerahl,, ,hail b'e r ly. 
m«r i Werner and It ..bnll continue three yeara troni dalo hereof ex 
cent In ca.o of the death o( either or the aald partner, within' the 
i^aid term. 

2. That the >.ald Henry Kaymer rontrlhutea Sli Thousand Dollara 
(JB.OOO) and the raid Chaa. Werner T»o Thousand nollar. U2 0UO) 

3. All the net prollls arlslnj out o( the hualnes.. ahall bo divided In 
Ihe rollowing proportion.: Three.nurth., to the .aid Raymer and one- 
fourth to the said Werner. 

4. That book, of amunt ahall be kept. In wbleh .ball be entered a 
full and exait aecount ot all purchaae.. .ales, tranaactlona and ac- 
counts of „la Orm, and which .hall alwaya be open to the In.pectlon 
oc both partlc. and their lejal repreacntatlve. reipecUvely. 

ISii 



'ARTNiaaiup 



•nd ye„ .b„v. ,«.,.„:• " '"'"' """"'» ■«> our h.„,|, „„ «^ ,„ j,^ 

*rticl»i o( Limited Putuniiin 

Hmry n. Buyiner I. to ^.h. ? ' '"'' ™°""M throe yt.„ " 

manner, to »how aU tj,e pJ-^SMnlrT^, '•°°''" •" ^'-""nt. fr, a pn.n.r 
examination to mrIH wJ_„ ^ tranNjictlnna. which ««. »« i Pr^'PT 



1S7 



rAHTNcicsair 

OwtUuu at Uaifi rutawtUp 
,uiJI™ ,". J* "■""'• '^•' '"• "'"'•"lf»«l hiT.. inmnM M um pnf 

1^ .tan,", u , °' '"*" """" '" "" •"""• '"•' " I" •" >» ™>»lti«rt 
con.r ,?,m'H Ti "^'K""> l™nnT: lllat in,- «,,.. <T,„|™ B. W.nirr h« 

K,»k inrt ,i"'.'T.°' """' '" ""'"' •■"""" "" ■■•"""' '™«"' ""• '•"""noo 
M'JSi V ,'' "■""'"""I' I" '" "">•> ™ the Ilr.. d,r o( May, A. ft 

Ditcd thU firit day o( Uay. 1004. 
KtM> In Ih. Prj>mrenl WMiiAM Loumu.! H„„ r, „,,„ 



Notary Public. 



PMVINrt or OlTTARin. t , 
County 01 Wtnlwortli /■■• 



ClaiLii b. WuMu. 



.•^,r«l .h.^' '1"" ''"°*" '° ■" "" '"■'"•Iduala dB,rrll»d In and «ho 
«SIl!d tho'iSil ^"' ""' ""*' *••"*"' "'°<'»'«i««l "«l 'b'T 
,,-^1 William T^nnitiinER, 

'^^ Aolaiy PubUo. 



IMiMhitioB of rutnonhlp 



-.r.^!,'!! f"*'"*""'* ■•" mutually aim that the wllhin mmtlonrt part. 

Kttl.™; ih^l '."" """•"""' ■>' 'I" """h". the™ .Sd^n ,uS 
•ettlenunt wholly to erase and terminate. 

dw'ot JMu'SyTJ^i'' "■' ■"" '"""°'° "" "^ "•"■'" •"" «•" "■" "« 

Hbwrt R. Ratmch, [seal] 

eined. .«M. lutd ddlwed , '^"- ^ """"• '•'"l 

in presence of f 

Fred Porter, 
Allen Morten. 



Xotle* of DUiehitton 

Notlc« li bereby glren thit the partnerfthtp heretoforr eslBtini.' hetweeo 
Henry R. R^Tmersnd ChM. B. Werner of Hemllton. Oi.t;iii(>. uiidi-r the ftrm 
Dtme of Hiymer A Werner, !■ this li»t dijr o( January. Vm.% disM.lved b* 
nuituil content, 

Hrnby r. Ravmkr. 

Chah. B. Wikneb. 
The bualneu will be coDtioued it Hamilton by Henry R. Kaymer. wbo 
Is authorized to aettle tbe aftaira of the said firm. 
Hamilton, January 1 1906. 



168 



COMPANY LAW 




...- .. ..„» ^ „.„„„„ ^';;~« ,•; »• 

it. contract. T^p"!" „, " """ "" '" •"'■' "■»■> 

tribute to ,t. ...1 a™". ."^ .t.".', ':: n""""" '" ™- 

It cannot be miiiv «/ " * '" «<>"m«« SMi » thereto, 
only ."°i twer" Lh °fZ"" •*"■"' "« i*™"- " ha, 

p...../:rera„rLuX%r;rvr: ^^ -''"- 

on co.p„anee „,th the re.u.reLnt, oJ tbe let. "'™™""""' 
159 



COMPANY LAW. 

•like that . rtort de.cript"on of anv '"" "" '" """^'■ 

to explain the generaT Drt„",° ^ °""' "' """" '» """"^'ent 
the others. The al"l ',^r 'J'" """ "'""•"""' "' "»'='' -t 

Alberta. The p"v"b"L ', r „ «^ *^"'«««*«<'«n. and 
take ..ewhat7rnr4-ero1.S'r':,.t*•/"- 
tha?'flve" peton:' IL'ttTtr " "'"""■• ''^"^ -^ »<" >™' 

.bjee., J wmcrtt^orpLrrr :»"'?''"'■' ■»-• "■» 

Ptaee within Ontario wher^fho h, h «. '""-'■Wted, the 
to be, the a^ount^? the ^.I.T.J;!' °' 'k" """""'^ '^ 
the name and place of re.M.n ' """"^^ "' «'"'«!". 

.ppllea.... anHhe Ir "o? hre'ort'h"'''""" "' '^"^ "' "■» 
to be the pr«Thl„,al director, shall L"'"'"" *'"' "' 
lleutenant-OoTernor, askirr; .h P^ented to the 

incorporation. C^oM^^l,*'"' ^""" °' ' =""'" •" 

lneorporat.J upon ^^ "' ,"" »*"* '••"•-I- may also he 
stating the proposed cor ,o™Te nam T. "'"'" '" "'"'"'""'• 

prison Which are "not carr cd „„ tr V. ''"•"' '"•«"- 

"e usually Incorporated »^,h .. """"^ »' Win," 

CMtallzed comp.17 ect .ieirdlr^T'"" '"•"" "">""" 
™pltall«d companies may e eet thlT^" "'■°"'^- >»«■ 
»' mr,, or for life. The Wwi! ■.?".'"" '" ' ''"" 
^'t says, "any three or more „ "'"' *"""''' <'»>"P«"le» 

'awful purpose except for ,rr"°"' ««»oclated for any 
or trust elpan;, Tay by :„K ™f''™ "' " '^"^""^^ ""'" 

stoe. company, t:' la" ry^f'"™ l"' h"™'""""' " '""^^ 
«ed" either to the .J^ ! members may be "Um. 

tbem, or to^s,! htorrt^r"'" "" "^ ''-"' -"" "^ 
may fix. The -»,emold„„ 7"°™""™ <" association 
") thenameof troproZ" """""tlo-- m„st state 

wbich it la esubii h '7;' tit:- [': "■■' ""J"'* '- 

^0. <3) a dectaretloD" stating the 




COMPANY LAW, 

linltoUo. of the ItaMlit, o( the member,, u^ ,u 

ot the capital stock and the ^.Ts * "" *"■""■" 

(S) the time o, „, „„ ^,^^ exWeocr n-H ■" """"'■ """ 
must be the last word „ ."e 'ami T '""''' """"e*" 

Thle memorandum ot a« ociatZ mn .T"'' ".""""' """"'■-^• 
He»I«t«r of Jol„, StoTcom™„u! "VS'stered with the 
ei«H.«- must al». ^',.1" "d Jv',". "'"''"■"' "' "»'«• 
'he memorandum, and muet "rfltd^ '^ r """"^ ''"""' 
In most ot the provinces Inm. o, , memorandum. 

'noorporated h/ Letters Pat„\rr.h°""""'" "^''°°' "^ 
working of railways, or for the h , '^-■"ruction and 

durance nor for a Ir ,st and Man h "''' °' '"'"'""« "■■ '- 
■•eQUlrod for those pu ose" and .„?',■ '* """""' '*" '» 
Of Bani,. There Is no hT. ,f »»""»'«» Act In the case 
specially author" Ingthe Cm " n '"'" '""''' ^""'« *« 
companies (other than foXnl, "'"'''"' '" '"™^"''™"' 
"Joint stock corapanle. Act • B^^ ""?'"''"■ " '" ""= » 
exclusive authority of the Parl.-n^ !'°"°° " ^"^^ '"« 'ho 
to all matters relatUg to^Cr" h""^""'""' ^''«" ''«™'' 
"on," "shipping... "hfnlg'Thc'^.Tssu'""'';""'" ■■-"'"^- 
and "savings banks.- and :: !, '""•"' "' I«Per money," 
'-- "for the peace, irder Td Id""""^"^' '^ '"^™ '" ■"''^» 
I'nder the authority „, the soeM- ^°™™"''"' of Canada." 
I'arltameB. has Passed a ll'rr\'''r''™''''' "■" "»""»'»» 
ingforthelncor^ralonof com™? ?""'*"'^'' -»•■«• "■■'•vid- 
" petition signed by any flr„rm" '" ''"^^' ■""™'. "Hon 
na-e Of tSo Proposed eomtnya^dthe'TbT'; ^r"^ ""■ 
" Is to be Incorporated etc Th„ . . ^""^ '°' *hlch 
tion and manage„,erof ra.llays '^ "7 ."' "■" ™""-- 
loan companies, and telegrrnh an. . , v."^'"*' "■s-'ance. 
eluded from the DonHnlonTom,.a"t .T""" """■ "' «- 
objects are to earrv on "ueh M "'■ Companies whose 

. »mi.l Ae, fromtheVJr am™.";?"^'"'^' »-' °''""■' 

r;::^-/cr """-' --—-r'-cirnrj; 
'u":oCr.\S7hari:'r:; 7-^- "^^*™ p-- 

the province,, to r g,s L and ob, f """ '"™^'"'™'»'' "> 

P-aela, government to do^tstr w'tlllrre r^nt 

161 



COMPANY LiW. 

o°r'ote7ar„ror :";;?"%"""" '-'■ '<*" "■ ••'» 

» provincial charter P™'"™"/ amount to obtaining 

or^rorsTrr-oVriro?' -^ ■" "- -""-- 

created, except by the -coLl,- of theT?™ *""" " " 
.t wishes to carry „„ Its bTl'ess ""' *'"'"' *""" 

;^eX:^t:^rr:::::-i-.;:^rr;~- 

an. in ease o, -,'^',.3. ::Z^'jL^X'\rr""' 
terms may be varied. created by charter, the 

BROKERS 

net t"'oTh::s""„r:,:„:,n°c ", rr^- '° '«— ' "-- 

and brln. the™ Ct^'TZ^: Z'ZrTr '""' "=""» 
act for them the business of Tni, k ''"S'^'"^. or to trans- 
kc is regarded as rmrddleman ", "'*-''"'' '°'''''*- '-""■ 
between the principals on hoT'.H "■'"""«""'« "sKotlator 
ducted by him. '" '""" "' '^« "egoUatiou con- 

cU^cs'.le'o'rdfn^trtrnrrofX'''^'''''' '■'"' ^"'"•'-' 
deal. ^ """""""'» property In which they 

merchandise, for Xrs """ '""^''^' "'«»"' " 

«r.trii:tr -'■aidrr\"'' ™"^ -'■"='-'^- 

on real estate tor others "" '""" ■"■ ""'«»*«» 

Pro'cuJ^t f.rtsT.c''"' *"" '"^ """=""' -^ »'» "' vessels. 




COMMISSION MEBC1IA.VT8 



"'XoTZ ""' "" ■'" '■" "-"■ ">" »'»c. „, ^.,. 

MEKCHASDISE BROKER'S FORXS 
*en,«r,«d„„ f b. Gl«n ,« ,*. s,„„. 

Huiu. Whit.. Ludlow t Co Monlr,»l. Durember 10 10 

«• h "'■ ''"°"" *• " " " 

Mkrbiam ft CMAPiN. Brokem 

Memonmrfxim to be Glren to the Buyer 

Mh. William Holswohth Winnipeg, Decpmber 10 19 

450 22d St. ' 

.o.,n/:'l!;5„^-^J»s.a^rJ;°"A,'rB™^c^"r^,? ""•• "- '»'■ 

MUUOAU t, CBAPIN, Broken. 

CORPORATIONS 

A CorponUon Ib a body created hv low 
dlvlduala united under a common nl^' ™°"»»»'' <" l- 
taln powers and function. a^r„ . ' """"'** """ ="" 
of member,, ao tbat he L/v- " "" "' " ""~''»»">» 

— . tbe <^^r.:T^rLz^\z\Tz:'ir- 

i.ry «' aat, m,r,",*S'"'iCi'„ir>' '■'' "'"' """ppii ..o„To \Z Z'"'- 

lion tJI "'"""'y o' each provinre a< In Ihi '^ f obtained from tbf 
.'"Ee^.J^^i'^r"'"""" '«■ "' -"- •» Se'^c'aSf i'.'eS'ir.t 'ji.^'K 

"""A'^St'^r''''™''^"''™"' '"''°'"'"' ""■ "■""" "" "-""- 

e.lM'".b?;oa.rv'.,'r'' ■• '"• •"■■"■r «.«.e"<."'.'r'e..b .h.„; „ i. .,„ 




CORPORATIONS 

value, above par, or a !Z.7l""' ""T ''" «' "'«''' "™i""l 
and below par ^,e„ th ,v ^11^"^' "'"" ""y ^'^ '"'^ ■"»«. 

tain per eent ™ the „" , " "* '' compnled at a eer- 

Prehrred Stoci LTC J""'"/' ™''"' ■"' "'= »''"-' 
fo»ec,,re8„„e,,i,lJatio„rffh '"'' ''°''' ^"'" '"■■>?"'>• »■• 
"■enee of the ,mlin,frv <»"-P"ratio„ and take, pref- 

•l-"d, or princ na rin^""" 'Tr °" '*'"'' ''"'" "' '" J"!- 
l-W-s are u^ualt'e ,i :< ° ''-'"dalion) or bo,,,, and tl,. 

■"i-- or autboS t.t7s Trr'""™ '"' """■'«'■ "^ 

a «>vpor„, e^,;: :,^':" "V"''"™' "> '--e what is ealled 
''ea.i..s some ;riee r " ■ .°"'" ," °'°" '"'^™"'' «""»P 
taehed to ee.tai, written LV , '■<'fl""-ed to be at- 

Pomtio,,. Its ,"e"n,^t ""■'"" ."•"""'""■'' •■■■*■ ">" "-or- 

transactions, bu only 1^ tr''™""-^ '" "'"""'■J' h-^iness 

-;.. ..eb as dej;;^:,ix— ^- j: -'™'' '■""™- 

"rapany is in™,porale,l r'Lu. u "'''"" "''"■'■ *'"" 

■K'f *,^^„''f .^ft',t^ ™'""™.'/''" r-^ "^ "'"-""-^ "■• 

>"'- i» -rveV o," s'h f"t'l,:""'-'- J'""""i« "r s.nn- 
law .nav i-resei-ibe exeentive ofHcers as the 

i» V"T1 "'"' '^ '""' "P"" '>•'■-" -^ «r.ai„ dividend 



164 



CORPOBATIONS 

times the chartar of a coZr^Lff t- .""""P"""""- Some- 
dvidend exceeding a ee;.r;rce„r„f, he -^ '"'r"^ "' " 
"water" the stock that f» il n>».v find it desirable to 
"■"ease in the nutber „f sl.To/:'''"'™''' Z'"'™^- ""» 
rentage of dividend, a tI?o„^l, h„ •^'""•*« "d"™" M,e per- 
gate, is seeured to' n.e "tLlIi'lder?" """'' *" "'" "«^- 

Limited Ltobllity of Sharehold.™ A u . 
joint sf kcompanyisonlTlIabler;^-, '"'""''«■• '" « 
o( »t«« he has subscribed tor !,^h'^" to the amount 
by bad management the stockholder! i '^™'P»°J' »« w™ked 
o the stock they subscribed for b, Zb"^'- *? ""■ "'«"' 
al»o that of Newfoundland and tie Yuko^ I^ommion Act, and 
every joint stock company shall h.™^*' " " '^"'"^ """ 
"Umited" after it on t'he 'utsfde 'nts oV""' ","" '^^ ""•• 
ness. This word "Limited" in ,^°' "*.°*™ "' Place ol busi- 
name is notice to the public r^^Z."°''.""''""<'<»"Pany'« 
of its shareholders. ««Pectmg the limited liability 

Dluolutioa of Joint Stock f-«_— . 

becomes insolvent, acred' tor, «ttr'-7^*° » ^-nP'-y 
alter lour days- notice to thlco^'"" "'-'"»""'«■' sV 
court in the Province where th^^^L^^'J"*^. "PP'^ "> the 
winding-up order. If the cLn. °®™ " »""«te for a 

the court will cause iLreSLToT ""^ "PP'-^'on, 
order „ granted or relusedTh/^™.*" \"""^^ ''^'»'-e the 
up order, „n.y appoi„, o^e or m^r^"^'" "■"""« the winding, 
of the company. IheloZT '"J""'«'°rs of the effects 

carrying on its b'usinesseSrth"'??' ■^" «"»<' '""> 
the interest of the oreditora. * '■qnidatora permit in 

When dissolved, the debts nf ti 

out of the assets, and whit rem»? "T"'^""" ""•' ' ' Pa" 

among the stockholders ' '"^°"'' "■»' vided 

oth?rV?d?s^„troL: ""■" ''■'"^ "''-■''•" - in 
corporations, are"'^:i,f /;;r,r"The'1'™!;''^ »'"' °"'" 

stock exchanges perform a number of „sef„, f„ne.ions, 
I6S 



r 



CORPOBATIONS 



only a lew of which can be indicated hew Tl,. l. j . 
.leale« And it convenient, if not „ece»sa ' L Lf„ ^^ °' 

report of an incjll 1 ™ """'"*' "" '"^">^^ »''»™. •!■« 
the concern often hZ t"f°'' '" """ -"P"' " '"<^'' '" 
ciation in .k. , ^ ''''°"* »" ""''"« citation or depre- 

b oC„'r"d aeri^ h "'"%"" '" T"^'"™- ^he atock- 
»ha«, freeiv "d tht^ f^l" "■''"' confidence aells hia 

.lona, Pani/h:t:^l:^r LrthTa^-ear: "fL"" ""- 

.4p;ri^---^oS:;..^,X,^ 

the''!^r7l'^n*f''°"' "t"y "P*"'''""' ■» »" organization for 

"=?l^iH£Ir^=--^-- 
.iveiy, cWtirca.rr„: ir ffret'?h tiut"'t''r.' "r- 

parted with their stod- ,r,^ Jk although they have 

fey are still entltlef co dlid endsT ?o° tht' ^1,'"* ?"T' 
profits uiviaenas, or to their share in the 



166 



COMMISSION MERCHANTS 



COMMISSION MERCHANTS 

such business Is usually conducted 

responsible to hi, principal for any loss that may result 

When left to exercise his own Judgment, he Is not resnon- 
sib le for any loss that may result from making a mlstal^ 

£5 ::.^rrr-sr,:: -----:: 
.^:d'^"ttrr::\^-T^-t^^^ 

167 



OOMMlasiON HEKCHANTa 

But If to „, way be br«k. hi. contr«rt, h. lo«. u. dUm 
to u]r oommiMlon on that tnouoUon. 

Onanmtj C«»h,|„^_eoinetlm.. th. eommlulon !• br 
Mr«m«,t. m,de to r»r.at.. p.,m.nt by th. p.rt"" .Lorn 

ownn?".."!"'" '" '""' •*••■ ■■• " "-wn.lb.. t^ tt" 
owner If the buyer doea not p«y. 

in^.hl"'*'^'^""'"'"' "" «"»°""lon merchMt .drance. 
of what he think, the good, are worth 
comml.,lon. from what he realite. from the rule. 
and'jTk.' m" *"T''-"" ■"•"""irol «■> "voke hi. authortty 

lm\T """"■"" •"'' "''™"« "• "" """i the good, 

unui his expense, or outlay, are made good 

The rule In law 1.: A commission merchant has a right 

,?„H,T "T^" "' "• Pr'o«lPars which are to hi. hand 

rr M^ ," .? ■""" '" "«'■"'""'■'. "ivances and expen... 
due him from the owner. 

By this general Hen he can keep any goods, whether th. 
debt arose In connection with them or with other.. 

kn!tnT.h** ^' "'^f'-" '"e owner of the good. 1. m«le 
known to the buyer, then the commission merchant assume. 
In ireneral no re.ponslblllty hlmwlf, but If he say. nothing 
about Who own. the good., or .ell. them a. his own, acting 
as Principal, h. asiumes all the respon.Iblllty of the prin- 



168 



PART VI 

Wills, Taxes, How to Collect 
Debts, Public Schools, etc. 




IMJ HON. JU3nCE J J. MACLAREN. B. A . u. d, B C L. D C L 



,. 



WILLS 

BrT« POE WMTWO A WOL 

will to oar^ out i,' n^^l'"''"'''' " °"" »PP"'"'«<1 by tl,^ 

femimne JJIlf life C n"rcu.ri,'''*Ar.r'"''-. "'" 
i« B person Biinointeil hv iho """"'"t' An aUniini.tnitor 
wh.n there "i Twill "^ """*■■ "''"" "• *""« ""e estate 

i-"Tui!;7^ ":ft ':»!^-;f «r "'™ "f -'■"" 

will -hould, lumever bl itaZ J^ f*',"", ""'"'"'°"'' "^ " 
ply wkli the provi,ion, otihVlZ'i. ^ '"'"" '" ™"'- 

ly -utTa r i::^ s -/, "" 'r'-'- —'/^ iimet. 

".. word«. "Bei,7o, Zft^ '.^-li """^ ■""^ <» fo"owed by 

"Ufflciently de" criLd „ i-1 "'''!'"■<•"' I*n.on,, they ,hould be 
wbere it all r ,e" ,„ one Ij:!;'*' ""^ '"«"»«?"«'' then,; but 
'lueall, all my ™al estate to ' ' .?-"''"l' ^'T' »» "I ^■ 

■•Hnd^denHliS trTr "'.^'' '^'"'' "^ '" ''-'■"'»<' ■"- '^ 
bequest of ante rtato^r"« r ' f"* "■"" ""y >■« "^ general 
language. "^ " ''""°""' "■'''l^rty made in general 

«e'^ri„t'?i.i°:h'^„;r„^t::p'""-'"™ -"" "^ ■*-'-'' ■'" 

qaeathed in accordance ,uh he fr""?'.*""' *■"'""»">' " "e- 
tl.e testator was resicLn^ "' ">" P-vince wherein 

..f ^JlSr^'TTetruifit' ■" 'i:r"r^ -" "- -'""™ 

II- '"statorand thor^S^S v'und'Z M-' "'•™'"'"' """ 
»< .l.e .ime when he extn'.ed th^w^ '" ■"'"'°' ™"'""°" 

bear™ tiryltSe'MJ.':'""' i" '"» -" «--"> -' 

.o a will i, he have^ "b'Scfa? i;^.::::rtSn': ' ^'■"'' 







U Cuad* M Intt Iws vIUimhi m Hwnltal to win. 

•tutor .11. ,fc. ,„,, „a .,„ „ u„m„„„ „ ;unMl« 

m. tl^ur"" " '"" '""'■ " "" " '■ '"• '""•^' 

n^'. """""'• •' "" *"»"• """'W »• Pl"«l OPPO.U, hi. 

o/Jtr*! ".*">""" *"•" '" • "'" '• • ••""oriWni wlto... 
or to th. Iiu.b.„d or wifo o( .uch wltn... i. ,oid ,„ oaurto 

■•ntM !■ .n heir of th. t..Utor. Th. oonip.t.noy o( th. wlt- 
nM», how.v.r, ii not a(rKt.d. 

Th?t»r'"'' "1 "'.T'"" """"'' """ '» ""«•"»« •«•«•» 

Uta, . T k' "■;•"" "*" "■ "" ""'•' "'""" »' «"• t.^ 

wom.n ff o?r' ^' "° ■" ""■" "•"■ *"""■ •»« »»"*«l 
women. If oth.rwii. competent, may h. wUsmh.. 

I«wi Oonivlif wail. 

«• All p«riona of uund mind, of lawful at. and tuota aa can 
frwl)- .xercU. their own will, may dlapoie of their properly 
by maklnj a will, m .ome sut.. n.airl.d wom.n cannot 
mak. a will without the conunt of their husband. 

2. A will I. not of force until after the death of the tnutor 

3. The t«.Utor can cancel or modify hi. will at any Ume 
but not by a'«erlng the original In.trument 

addition" to'irm.' ""■"" "' """■" "'"" •"■"» " " "-^ " 

n,L "."■;'"' K™"«"y operate, a. a revocaUon of a will 
niado before niarrlage unlee. the will 1. made In contempla- 
tion of marriage and .onetime, even then. 

8_ A will made by an unmarried woman I. Icrally revoked 
befnr, ■•""'"•"'■" """•"""' >■»'«• ""» Uke. . ■. legal ..ep. 

r Cdo'""'""" " ""' ""^ "'• """="• '- '«- ««'"■ 

debt, and funeral f-pense., though thi. provision I. not 
eseentlal In many states. 
8. If there he a general direction to pay debt. In .ome 

iro 



1 



WILU 
S'^l'L""!'*'*'; '*I""">«'. if enei.n.b.r.d with d*bU mu.! 

lO. In Canada, and la moM of the 8tat« a hu.h.., 
cannot daprt.. th. wl(. o( bar dow.r fh.?'i. ^"''"'^ 

pc.r,.,„„l ,„,,,K.rty ., woU a. i„ ,he real e.tatc, in .,°u of 

additional bequeat can be made to her by h, c'h.„H 

„Jf " ■„'°""'f """"^n poaaeMe. property, and diea >lih 

of kin ' '° •<■""»'■»"! in "thera, the next 

i.YnvtliJ ^™"' »' P";P«rty "..d. to a .ubseribinK wil„e« 

iffected th.~bv"*T • ""'^"'^ "' "" *'" » '"•■=™i« no 
anected thereby. In aome atatea, however, if the will ..n h- 
proved w,th„„t the testimony of auch witn«V h ,T^l„"" ^ 

rn^f be vaHd"" '""" "" '"'"'"" '" "" ""'^ "J"' i^ """.« 
en" oftlf win"Tf"'"" "°" ■'";■'" "'""'" '"' "ritten at the 

h:^4 {^: i:;^!. ^i^^is ^'i:::^;^^ i?t 

.s m.c,ou» of what he i, doing, renlr, the ^Hl^ if '' •" 

15. I. 18 always best if the testator appoints some itnbl. 

person or persons to act as e«eutor " ' 

rh.;™ ".^°""""'' '°°'' °'"'^'' ""' « »""»•>'« tombstone and 

hir:.t axrervren^ "° '"^" --'''- " 

17. If there » no executor named in the will or the n«ned 
171 



some St„ es ,« required to be ,i,n.ed before wo wltaeL 

ttt,tL'"bl''yzr "^ '"^ ^"■"^ ™"' -^^o-^ 

many states subjcet to criminal proseeution 
Codicils. 
A written addition made to a will is called a codicil and is 
executed hke a will. It is desisned to e.xplain ,™di?y „ 
clm.iKe fo^er bequests made in the body of the w II It mus[ 
be executed with ecual care as the wlli itself, and requ"es 
the same number of witnesses as the will "<!•"'■« 

ductlono? the wl,r wills beQS«i;M„' compelling the pro- 



WILLS 

Form of Will. 

This 1. the la,t will and testamen, of me. John R Baker 
the cu. Of Hamilton, ,„ the County of Wentwonh. TZ 
Province of Ontario, Merchant: 

JT'J T' '""' '"' """"""' '" "^ ""». A»»a, hor 
heir, and assign, forever, one-half of all my property real 
and persona, of what nature and Kind soever and wLro 
ver the same shall he at the „me of my death; the Ir to 
bo taken by her In lieu of her dower. 

S.co™. I give, devise and bequeath unto such of my child- 
ren, as may .e living at the time of my death, one-balf , i 
my property, real and persona,, of what nature and kind 
soever, and wheresoever the same shall he at .he ur„r 
death, to he cually divided among them, share and shar^ 

THIHO. I herd>y direct and empower my executor herein- 
2' »-ed ,0 sell and dispose of, to the hest advan.a;; so 
much my personal property as may he necessary, ,' a, 
an my debts and testamentary and funeral expenses, as so 
as practicable after my decease. And I also hereby d re t and 
empower my said executor to sell so much of my r^al an p r 
sonal property as It may, ,n his iudgment, seem necessary or 
odvantageous, ,n order to make a division of my estate among 
my devisees hereinbefore mentioned. 

neir™; ' '"""' ""'°'°' "" ""^' ^»"«' '='-'''- -' 'he 
person and estate of such of my children as may be minors 
at the time of my death. 

Fifth. I hereby appoint Joseph M. Baker of 
In the County of ,„ ^„ .^ , 

. to be the sole and only 
executor of this my last will and testament, and I hereby 
evoke an former and other w: ,s and testamentary paper 
by me at any time heretofore made. 



173 



John R. BiKca. 



WILLS. 

ot July. A.D. 19 , at the city of Hamilton. 
Signed, publlBlied and declared 

by tie above-name^ Johs r. 

Bakes, as and tor his last will 

and testament. In the presenco 

of us, who have hereunto sub- 
scribed our names at his rc- 

queoi, as witnesses thereto. 

In the presence of the said 

testator and of each other. 
Albest B. MILLB). 
Davio Smith. I 

CodieU to the Above Wni. 

WHEaws. I, John R. Baker, did on the iith day of Joiv 

1 wrm' d^d Tth-e^d dVrA"-t-^ ^r^^ 
ernr-harrtrtnurf""'""-'-"^^^^^^ 

William the share wh ch he „„ m .°"' "" '*"'"='"' '" 
said will If he had rurvU' J™"' ''r: ""''° """" "^ 

=^.::h:r-"---~n:^ 
-a;"or^::;r:«r:it^:^r^5,rr-''' 

signed, published and declared 
by the testator, John R. Baker, 
«a and for a codicil to his last 
will and testament In the pres- 
ence of us, who In his pres- 
ence, at his request, and In 

the presence of each other, ( •'"«" R- Bakeb. 

have subscribed bur names as 
witnesses thereto, at <he date 
thereof. 

Edwabd J. Bbadfobd. 

Damiel «■. Johnson. 



TAXES 

Every government, whether of town, Provin.* or nation, ia 
under tlio necessity and has the right to raise the necessary 
fmids to carry on all the functio.m of tlje government. 

DeaiiiUon.--lax is the sum of money which the govern- 
ment demands from the individual or from his property to 
pay for the benefit ho receives from the government. 

The government protects him in his rights, protects his 
property and often advances the value of the same by publie 
improvement. It therefore has a right to levy a ti upon 
him and his property. J - "" upon 

Kinds of Taxe».-Tajes are either direct or indirect. 
i^irect Taxes are those which are levied directly upon per-- 
sons, propery, incomes, etc. - «• f 

Indirect Taxes are such as are assessed on manufactures, 
imports etc., as the customs tariff and most of the excise or 
internal revenue taxes. 

Taxation in Canada ranges itself under the three heads of 
Dominion, Provincial, and Municipal. 

Dominion Taxatior i, laid almost wholly in the form of 
duties upon manufa.rared goods imported from ioreign 
countries and excise or internal revenue taxes laid on the 
manufacture and sale of li<|uors, cigars, etc., and collected in 
great part by means of stamps, 

_ Provincial Taxation is laid upon pnjperty or assets and is 
direct. It is supplemented by duties on estates, called 
succession duties, and by taxes on franchises of corpor- 
ations, etc. 

Municipal or local taxation is commonly very much heavier 
than provincial ta-ps. It embraces: (1) all tixes for the 
general purpose o, counties, cities, townships, towns and 
villages, and (2) those local taxes, which are usually called 
local assessments, and which are laid in special districts 
peculiarly benefited by the construction of some public work 
and by apportionment each item of property is taxed iij 
proportion to the benefit it is assumed to receive. 



13 



175 



TAXES 

e.tym.l^l'^J °f Pn.p*rty.-The a8.e..or of the town or city 
»h r .. n ", '"""° ■" '^"^ "'«» <" '«««"» property 

Ittle difference whether the property's valuation t, h^h or 
low because the amount at tax to be raUed • .,ted a „-° 
ing to the valuation, but It Is of Importance , any In ' 

neither higher nor lower than that of others 

,„T?h' '"•T;'^'" "■•'"■'=""» ">»t no one should be allowed 

the value'o'?. ■'?,' "'"""" ""^'-^ '" ""> »n>munlty 
the value of the privilege Is commonly termed "single tax " 

m hls^hLS"?"'"""^"''' '■' ^^" "^ M- Henry oeorg; 

unon th? .J"""^'!'" """' '■'"'""'■'■ ■^"^ '--""'P" >' based 
upon the theory that, as all men are equally entitled to 
the use of the earth, this Is the only rightful sou cf ot 
public revenue, and therefore all taxation except a tax upon 

rui-rabrhed" ■"■"■ '-'-'- °' "» -~- 

levying Taxes.— The rate ot taxation is determined as 

thirrfl ; ;' •"""' "^ ™"""""' -p-- »" the propm" 

,1 .M '"! '"°°'"" "' "'"'»'' "> "« "'«" by the town 

from this sum the poll tax (where there Is any, L subtrlctl 
ed. I this sum Is divided by the total valuation of the 
property Of the town the quotient Is the rate of taxation 
that is, the sum to be raised on each dollar of property 

The amount varies all the way from two mills on the dol- 
lar or perhaps less, to twenty cent, on each hundred dollars 
or two dollars on each thousand dollars of property In 
large cities the rate of taxes Is sometimes as mucSa 2 plr 
cent or twenty dollars on a thousand, or even more 

Collection of Taxes.-In some the town collector collects 
all the taxes for the town, county and Province; In others 
the county collector collects of all the towns 



17fi 




»ne or penalty U added TL™ . """'"'" '""" " 

after a further .pedfled time th^ „ °'' '' "'" "«»"'>•'«« 
The treasurer or sheVm ^0,™,,"?""'^ '" »""' °' »""''"'■ 
t^e taxes and expe„: J ' %: 'r' rrZ',™"'^ '° '"'^ 
ohaser of the property rLflZ '^"""''»'° '<> »■« Pur- 
tlme In which to redeeta b^J 7 """^ "»' » ""'■^"'■^O 
-no all Ike cost "^ """'^ "^ »">""»■>' <" ">■= tax 

coneL^rr^rasureriTX^?""-'" -" "■» ■"""- 
a reoe.pt. The treasr iTZZZ^TZr' '"" 

Jter:^:r.m:7hriatTr r ?rt™' '^'°" 
=;^r.ra:::r -~ -«--=:: 

Certr-poTtl^s'^tf o^"'"^ ""-"'^ '" ^"^ -™P'. ^.z.: 
and utenr':ria°hor: rmXlo'L-^ri"'",'""" " '°°" 
tame institutions, also ihur^heTrd ''pa:::^;^''' '""^'- 

I hSnr"'" "'"'"^- - - -- that?nrds:';;:rd 

HOW TO COLLECT DEBTS 

™s :iXa-; oo.:;r„^esrBrrr oir -^ 
:=r^.r:::tr^:rT^S"-^^- 
=^r:r^rd:Hr'^~- 

peaceable or forced. IZZTnlZy'"''"' """ '='""=^""""' 
KrJaV " '" '*"" '° ™""' ="* <"""' are a matter of 

hT .. -"orand" ""r" "' "'"'"«'">'' "^ -"" "d^ 

are . „ ," s J --PleasantnesB and heavy losses 




now TO 'JOLLEOT DKBT8 

Xethods by Whifh Debt* are Contracted 

indeanlto future time. Labor Is employed, to b. paid tor at 
certain future periods. Ua„d». hou„e, and other property 
are purchased under contract for -ature payment. Money u 
borrowed, on notes, mortgage, or other securltlee, and many 
o her tr.n..ctlons In bu»lne»a and trade call torti oocjlon. 
or present temptations to contract debts. 

SuggestJons for AToMInir Debta 

„„L"° r *'f!I""' ''""" ""''""--Better small prollts and 
quick sales, than large profits and long credits 

Mark your goods at prices which will give you a reason- 
able proat and adhere unswervingly to your cash principle. 
This Is best for buyer and seller. It avoids collections and 
prevents losses. It saves the time and labor of keeping 
accounts, and enables the seller to sell cheaper and the buyer 
to buy for less than on credit. 

2. CanUon8..-Goods sent abroad shouM be paid tor betore 
the purchaser takes possession. 

The time of credit should be as short es possible and the 
bills collected When due. When working tor others collect 
your wages weekly or monthly. In accordance with the agree- 
ment to pay, unless your employer Is quite responsible, thus 
making your dues safe. 

In renting lands or houses, a duplicate lease should be 
made, one tor each party, the rent paid promptly when due 
at the house or business place of the landlord, and the pay- 
ment credited on the back of the lease, or by written receipt 
In receiving or making payments, a receipt should always 
be made out; It is a voucher and may save trouble 
.„!? f I "."? """"-^'-e-housn keepers cannot be too prompt 

mo.,,1 , ""'""'"^ "■""■• """"■ - 'heir customers are 

mosuy transient, making torced collections sometimes Impos- 

r„ » ! '"f ^»"''""' 18 ™all; this Is safest even between the 
most trusted friends. 

Waen the loan is large, have the note secured by a mort- 
gage on real estate; but see to It that the propeny Is not en- 
178 



:.E<1AL STEPS I.v tOLLKCTIONS 

to have y„„r moriat , Xrl'd b'," '"'"™" <" ""« "- 

-«.a.e . .„,.:; TZiZ "op:^"^- """« " *■"-■ 

-ru.:r.' uTarot^rrt,;:: er t 'rr ""-'"" 

process, It may be wl»er to dro„ ,„ ™"*<^'"' ""•■out legal 
-. a. so „„, ,,, ,:; r -- - rr - -- t.e 

First S«.p, In m.^,,^ Collection, 

»>a;ra;e"rerw:r.e':res"raiT.™'""^'- ^^ --»•>«" 

unable to pay at the time soLlJ ""Tl"""- ""■""'»« "'m 
-ome may be eareless and „e»i ." "''"'"■'* of patience; 
".ay be inclined t beTshonestM"'"'' """""'"^ ""'' '"'■•'" 
•"g- Thus dlsc:etlon Is ner^ "" "^^ "'o" *"<:''■ 

Of the letters reauest „e „ '' ^" '" "■" 'o™ >°d 'one 

tratlng the first eZ 1 fn TT'' '''"" '""'■• "'■■'»» "'"- 
and 62, " "■ '"*'"■'« oollectlons, see pages 51 

LEGAL STEPS IN COLLECTIONS 

.ndtce''rc^eXr^rr:^:„re„7-''°■■ •■^"' " ■"'^" '"o-W 
'-8 of retaliation or of geftlnrrM r^"*- * "■"" '-'" 
business. ^""'"^ satisfaction has no place In 

'ouot/nrres't'll'*' ''"' -""-'"- « '" -" to as. the 

'u thl^IgLrocelr""'^" '- """-' «■» «--- involved 
b/way"oftempt'n""" "™''"'^ "■"" «•" ^ ""ows hl. 
*^^e'V7eZl7T-"'" '^- '^"'"■'t.on Laws,, 

■-rrrirL:trrrr;;t;-~ 

179 



LEOAI. STEPS IN COLLECTIONS 

A creditor who flnds It neceuary to aue, in»y enter suit hlm- 
«el» or by a aolldtor. Id any o< the courts of the dlffereiit 
province.. If the claim be a .mall one. It I. entered for 
«ult by .imply leaving with the clerk of the court a .Utement 
of the account In writing (with a. many cople. a. there are 
defendant.). The party thus entering .ult must give his post 
office addre... and full name and the post office address of 
the defendant, and his occupation or business. The payment 
of a -mall tee Is required to cover cost of summon, and .er- 
VI ce. 

JnrLdlctloB of the Division Conrt-d) All perMnal action. 
Where the amount or damages claimed does not exceed (60 
W All actions for debt up to 1100. (3) All liquidated money 
claims, that Is, notes and written Instruments, up to 1200 
-.nd Interest In addition to that amount. (4) Unliquidated 
Claim, and demands of d^bt. and for breach of contract, up 
to JIOO. (5) Against ab..;ondlng debtors, where the claim 
I. not less than $4 nor more than »200. (6) For replevin 
where the value of the good. doe. not exceed (60.00. 

The Snnmoi. alway. sUtea the numbe- jf cay. within 
Which a defence must be entered, or Judgment will be given 
by default. In Division Court cases the .ummon. I. Issued 
and served by the clerk and ballUTs of the court. 

The Cost, of Collection In the Inferior or Small Debt. Court, 
are about the same In all the provinces. Where the account 
Is under (10, the cost right through to judgment only amounts 
to (1.25 for clerk's fees, or (!.6C Including the bailiff's tees 
tor service of summons, exclusive of his mileage. 

The tees Increase somewhat with the amount sued tor. 

The Statute of Limitations cannot be taken advanfa,'* of 
by a defendant unless he claims In his dispute note that the 
action Is barred by statute because of Its being six years old 
or that six years have elapsed since the last payment or 
written acknowledgment 

180 




UMAL STEPS IN COILECTIONS 

TiM Jaffant 

rendered If the def»nH.». .'""'"""■ ""> Judgment cu be 
me defendant dae> not appear a^ the trial. 

Ontlawl0ff ol Jndimeita 

.en^fa"rrre.prtl^;"''rj.t"S°r' T" " ""■"' "■« 
the last wrltte'n aiknow ZmentM': IfZ^X'^' " '""" 
Yukon and North-West t:.T. .' *"■""«• Saakatchewan. 
Scotia, Prince Edwlrd """"'T^'' «"""™ 5'""i lu Nova 

years/ ,„te,ec^C Je."' Xefr??'"""'' '"'"'^ 
be enforced In OnUrlo after .,. v.? ^ J""™"" ""-ot 
foreign court. "'" '"°' "" '""^ "> fe 

Th« Exeeitloa 

The Judgment having been obtained the m.inM* 
enforce payment. The proceaa i. '^n^ "•^ **" 

Atfachment 

judgrntrd:r„troS":orrtr; t- -^ '--''"■ 

debtor mai get awav hefr """'■ ""' '"» '«»'«'nest 

creditor; or "e drtto'lV^""'" ™" "^ ™"'™0 "^ the 
move th; pr.,erty bevo„nh '""T "™""' ""«" " '«" 

-n Of proper.. owneS ./Z] ^,^0^ Irhm'enr 

How M Att' nt la Obtained 

.ur:e:erprL~v^.:rerj'n.:r r- ™- 

an e,ecu„„n, attempt, to remo^ve^rh r^'aVptZn:; 




!-■:< 



WOAL BTErs in COLLECTIONS 



tl.. d.b, .. juMi^d?.' Zll^'Z"""" "' "" """' ""» '"" 

OnUrlo U,. .<Uchmen. l/,',ow J,'*"' 1° '!'"". '" "*""■ "' 
in Quebec If IS or upward " " " '"»'"'': 

•t once. The law " .Lli . ? • " •"•«'"»™t l..ue, 
v-ue. Ul differ.:. prov'aC "" '"""^ '""° "'"'"" "'' 

u..":.r.rs.e^'et:vz«"rr'' '- -"" '- --- 

.tuohmeu, 1. improperly "fed \t T' '" ■="" "" 

«mel,r.qulr.d,„gi,..ii„r?' ,° "'^'""' "^'^^•"■">« «"' 

oliUm.d. No«.re.,den, cr.Sr.ori r " ", """"■"■ ""' ""«»"" 
•ecurlty tor co..,. "'«'"'"•» »" usually required to give 

tlon. Pr„per.y of ,b. tb or .nTheT ';"" " "'"'» ■""«- 
-y ..» be r.ach.d byC/ropr,!":: Jr" "' " """' '-"^ 

proX^r .rrb.:'r T,zx:i t "■ -- "--- 

can g.t judgmen. When ^h«^ "' "■"" "■" "•"'">■• 

.un,mon, ., ..rved. Td ?f ,ie <^'^T "" '"" ^"^ "■" 
m.nt l> obtained In th. Jh. ° '' •"•"P^'y Proved Judg- 

.ake. ou. bir lee Inl'T.Tiev^'" '"' "•" """"^ 
-ched. and ou. of .. prre^a o'f Z\r^.Z.7^^Z 

o«?^'o?r"i'a;'':'u3ne°:n" "";r™' ■"-'• -- ""^ 

-. need be no -l^C.^' ::TiZ^:T^ZZZr 

.ec"tro'fr.iu3'o?of. ": r™"""-'" '-= — <>' -- 

Wmself n.ay have nTp^'ri''"''' ""'" ""^ ''^'^"''-' 
o property In bis posaeselon upon which 




LKJAt STIiPg IN <01,LKCTI0Ng 

Sm^'^''T' '", "" ■"••" "■"• o""" >»™» mar b. I.. 

AtUeklM thf Bodr 

I' under an atUchment tha olDcer ratur.. .... 



Armt of AbMoidlPf Ocbton 



In Ontario, Brltl.h Columbia and the Yukon .„ k . 
Ing debtor cannot be arreated »bi... .! , . ''■""■"l- 

amounte to |ioo "'"*"'> o"'™ the claim agaln.t him 

court; but „cTselZ".r '""" '"^ ^'"■"■"'' ■">" f^"""'' 
order rom a J„d» 1« h KfT"""' "'"' '" ""' «"•'» »" 

under $80. ' ""' """' ™"'*» """'"^ Jurisdiction 

rf t^e^sibtroir.xro'r"'.^'"'^'"'^ "--' - »^»- 

Tom the supreme Court "" '"^ ""' "' ""'' '"- 

.bXtmrrto'Vr''''^ -''='■'»" ■"-•"•"e.tedwbere 

183 



IJ 



IJOAt, Kltn IN fOLIJSOnoKi 

Ufkt to A,tmt 

bond «,„:;:;:."•„„',". rc„;:;:„r*"- - •-" °"" "■- 

"r cum to the Supreme Court of the Province A b«nrt .»i- 
.PJ«.I f«,n. .a. court to mother I. granted, .. from Z 



184 



UMAL MTBW IN C0U*t"ri01l» 



EXEMPTION LAWS OF THE 
DIFFERENT PROVINCES 

.— z .'STpZV^!:" ,"•"•"■• — » 

part of their prop.rt. >, ih.v m., «. t ""'•""'" "' •»«•> 

• - » .....-■.""«:.■. '.rr-rr;,;:'.:'- 

I» Manltob. the following article, are exempt from ..i, 
ure under an execution or for arrears of fZ„., , 

" bIX" \T'"'- "" »■" -" " ^'«" "rVenr"" 

.e^oT^;<r^aii;;=i--— oT^^ 

practice of his trade or orofMoinn .„ ,1 , ""'"" '" '"« 
th> .„.„.i ,J proresslon, to the value of 1600 00- 

the actual residence or home of any person other than , 
farmer, to the value of 11.600.00. Any waiver o,Jlt„f 
exemption Is null and void by statute ^ ' 



185 



Si 



LEGAL STEPS I.v COLLECTIONS 

a. ,aw or e^myT2 'iZnTT " ""' "^ ""^ -"»"• 
WOO.OO. personal property to the value of 

».ov°e,?„?::.rp,p\\\reri-''.-"""« "--'"•^ -» 

l-old articles to vafue ot $50 o^* T"""' "'"' ""^ """^e. 
-d fuel for six moulds one span "f^'!"'"^ ""'""■■■ ""■" 
oxen, etc.; books relating to thr^r, "^l '"'™'' J"""* "' 
debtor, to the value of S2oonn-.^° "' '"^^ -' "■« 
the trade of the debtor to th. ' > ^"^ "°'"™»"" '» 

Of monthly -lary, not exceedin?.MJ?""''= """'"'^ 
one-fourth Where salary Mc^fH.f/""-'"' "" »"">"»: 
exceed 12,000.00; and one thirf l ■"'"'■'"' """ ^°es not 
»2,000.00 per annum """^ ""' »'">■ exceeds 

.heYll'X^rpttTr^pTr"'*-'^''" '■-'-'- 
execution or for arrear, of inter . "" '^""« ""-'" «» 
-ort.a.e, but not agatsVd'sLlTft "/e^r'"""" ■""- ^ 

ny^tL^rnTtr rn/ruLT ir-^ "' '^''- '-' '»- 

o' »500.00; the necessarvfooH , '""'^'''-^^ '" "-e value 
for six months; tools and im^ ""■ ""^ "" '"""y 

t-de or P^fes'siriThe'v" roTmHr^ '" "'•""'" 
extent of 160 acreo- n,« . "e or 1200.00; homestead to 

debtor to.ether":rh .^ lo^: :r„";",'"fooTo-"'^ "^ 

from "eT™^f„"„"de?"'Sl„r or-'r'"^ ^""'^ "' -™-' 
principal upon n mor.gagi nitwith.t "T" "' """^»' " 
'n the mortgage wa.v.rg':he ™ .„n "' ""^ "^-ement 

^o:iior:r:::LZ°T"d T'-'^-' "■"' '""■""^ and 

food for six monthsfiooks o? ZT ".' """""^ "'--"^ 
necessary Implements used In .L™"' ""=''■ '-""^ ="* 
'o value Of ,600.00; house and bulM,'"' '"""'"'"' °' "ebtor 
together with the lots, ."ova," oTZZlT"" "'""""■ 



186 



LEGAL STEPS IN COLLECTIONS 



-ea<,3;"or:^^^/-f^^ -pare, -.ed, bedd,„, and .ed. 
household articles to value of mn„'' ■""""" «"" ""-er 
o value of ,40.00; one cow ,w°!°= '<""' ^^ '"Irty daye 

--:t^t:::^-;^;~--e-- 
-"rs— Ca%rru:£ F----- 

Btove, one cow. not exceeding va/uT!?'' ?' 'I^^'- <"■" -^"ok 
In money. * ™'''e <>' both ,50.00; ,16 OO 

tlona. as fixtures, wild SmZ'Jll "T'"'"' '='* ««mp- 
8on in the way of trade thi^t, * ^' ''silvered to a ner- 
e"«ody Of the law the too s and-i^'r' "''■ ""^ *™d» '» 
"ng sklft or punt; the necessary c„„^f '"'"'" " «■•'«'''. Ash" 
an- wearing apparel of thrdXrTJrhl^r i;"'' '^''""^ 



187 



i 



LEOAL STEPS IN COLLECTION B 

THE TIME IN WHICH DEBTS 
ARE OUTLAWED 

» L» '°, Ir"^ """"ary In all commercial countries to tx 
a limit of time during which debta shall hold good. It would 
not tend to sound business practices or fairness for a creditor 
to be allowed unlimited time in which to enforce the collec 
uon oi a debt. 

„.,; VTlr °' """""'-' "a™ therefore been enacted, the 
period of time varying, there being no natural boundary line 

3. The range of time Is from one year to twenty years 
frl r.""""? ""' '"""«'">" P"tod generally begins to run 
payment '" "' "" "" '"""' "'' "•■"" "■" ""' "»"'»' 

n„t'r,?"° ""' ''^''""' "^' " "''"<"' Mknowledgment by 
note, letter or otherwise, the claim is renewed 

.„! « i°.f°' """^"^ '"*' Judgment be obtained within the 
specfled time, but merely that the action be commenced. 

Statute of I/lmltationt 

In all the Dominion Provinces If a debt be not paid, or an 
action commenced to recover payment, within the time flxeS 

barred ' "'" '"■""'' ""'"'"''' "■"' '"» ''*>" ■>' «'^° 

rt.M " ""^""'" '"'»'' "y «tafte for the varlou. kinds of 
debts and claims is as follows: 

Merchants' Acconnts^In all the Province, of Canada 
except Quebec, action on merchants^ accounts, , nd an othe; 
debts founded upon lending or other contract, not under seal 

:TJi:zTr' "'""" ^'^ ^^"^ """ '-^ --" '"aeC 

dbt^r Claim "T?"' "' ""•'"=" "krowledgment of the 
debt or Claim. In Quebec the limit Is live years tor such 
accounts. In Newfoundland It Is six years. 

Promissory S„te, and Acceptance^-m all the Pro- 
vinces Of the Dominion, except Quebec, where he uZt 
■» Ave years, promissory notes and acceptances become 






188 



LEGAL STEI^ IN COLLECTIONS 

acknowledgment Of th/rr ''°'' '"'^'"'"' " «""™ 
from that d"'e against ,hfi T"""*" '"^ '""" ^'^ ^«"» 
acknowledgment but 1 "f '' """""^ '"^ "«>"»«■" "■■ 
on the paper ■ ' "**'"' """=" '""'»= -""-^ are 

ourw?dT;;i°„tranrter: "^-""""^ ^"— » ^-o- 

Saskatchewan, Yukon andv^, ."''""'"'"'""■■ '» *"■"'«. 
years; 1„ n„v J^X p'"".!.'*""''-^^*'' Territories, twelve 
land, twenty years ,n o^lh? .J"" '"'^"'' "■"• N^wfound- 

wick j„dgmLt:r;„^^ ;,: ^Sh'r-. ;.° ^^^ ''^""'- 

or Stipendiary MaristmJ, rl'J '' '^""■■"'''loners' 

e~-ced aner s. ^ ^^0^"^ rnfry'ir t?re?gn"rnr''t° 
Instruments Under RahI a«*.i„ 

or any Instrument n'der"e7,mavhr°'' """''■ ''"'™''"'^ 
Within twenty years '^ commenced any time 

mon°grf:t"r'ear::'ta.?r-': ""'"'o -" "-"oba 

=ci^h5 =S=rr ~- 

«uehec. thirty y^ Tt ^ ToZZ^'l^rllZZ' '" 



_-.^^:».yi£ii*i^"",^:. 




189 



iiiiK 



^1 



PUBUO SCHOOLS 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

L«»» GovernliiK the KightK and Datlea of Directora, 
Teachrrs, I>apU8 and Parents 

Sihool Management.— In the Dominion, ot Canada the 
management ot the public schools of the different Provinces 
is placed by statutes under the control of trustees. 

Kniploymem of Teacher.— The authority to employ 
teachers for the public schools Is conferred by law upon the 
trustees. 

TerminatinK Teacher's Contract.— The trustees cannot 
terminate a contract with a teacher by doing away with the 
partlci.Iar school in which he is engaged in teaching. 

Janitor Work cannot be required of a teacher, unless it 
Is «o speclfled in the contract. 

Legal Holidays.— It has been held hy the courts that in 
the absence of statutory requisitions a school should be 
allowed the legal holidays without deduction of salary to 
the teachers. 

Expulsion, Etc.- School trustees may expel or suspend 
and teachers may suspend piiplls for sufflclent cause, as for 
breach of discipline, refusal to take part In exercises, re- 
fusal on part of the parents to sign and return periodical 
written reports of the pupil's standing, father's refusal to 
permit the teacher to whip tne child or to correct him him- 
self, refusal to study certain branches from which the par- 
ents of the child have requested that It might be excused 
or misbehavior outside of the school tending to injure the 
school and subvert the teacher's authority. 

Sometimes It has been held that, before the pupil can be 
expelled, he Is entitled to a hearing It he asks for it. 

Corporal Punishment 

The Teacher Stands in Place of the Parent, and while a 
pupil is under his care, has in the absence of statute or other 
regulation to the contrary, the same authority as the parent 
has at home of correcting him by conflnement or whipping, 

190 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

similar circumstances. '^ ' """"'^ 

Value of Corporal Pnnijlunent.-Thc riuht nnH . 
I am coniicicnt," says AilJison "llmi „ i. 



U 



191 



I 



■USAL PHOFEBTY. 

REAL PROPERTY 

est which » „ Includes every possible later- 

expression .Tea. an" P Bona, estate'"™": "'""• '""' 
origin. "Hereditament-- . °' """■" '■'"'™' 

rsr "H-," ..••=n.ri=-: 

the land described ry^TJT. 1 " " ^""'■^ »°« •>■■«" 

•• delivery •■ of the possession. B„t thai mode of / V '""' 
property has Ion. been Practically abolished ^,"1^'*"" 
perty Is now transferred hv i>.n„ i •""""nea. All real pro- 

r:^'^:rrt£55^^i:^-i7d:^- 

exeepti.. TZt,c, where th"'^rnV', '""'"' "'"■ "" 
transfer (as defined InThe CIvM Co7e , ^I ""* """■' "' 
Napoleon) prevails. ""' """"'°'' "'"''' ">« Code 

193 



:i li 



BEAI, PHOPERTT. 

I. «n: rr.'it;« t r- '■•■■-<«•'« .«.- 

military service to .h "" condition of loyalty ar.l 

Rift. A gran Of land„ toT" ""^ *■""" '"' ^''"'"" ""■ 
merely a grant for He no.^ '7"™ """"'' '" ""'^ ■""•^». 

without therdrcon:;n° o: Jh 'h r"' "^ ""= «^'""™ 

■"0 the land reverted 71 lor"d or^ror"' uVrT "" 
to the heirs of the deceased °"^^ S^""'""-. It did not j.ass 

descendants of the tcnlnt L ,.r . T '"'""'""' """ '"° 
decease, this Intentlo? «• """' ''"^"'"' "Im at his 

'n the gran ATranL J TT""" "' "''^"'™«l »•»'•''» 

-ers%he hUr'esr: LVn-to-'r^aw^-r- 

eX Talie^d T^Z^^t;:: "' ^ ^ ^ ~Tn 

:^^r::"^£?^fr-=^at:— 
:?r;-ftHi-~^''- 

Joint .ena^LonLdfreM ,r..r7°-'; " "■"" "^ «"-» 
may grant his undWlded hare ml ' """ ™^ "' «""" 

person. This brines in » '"'°''""' '° '™e other 

*ut as a ..tena^S llVo^ 1?, ^h^^h" ^t' ''"'"'' 
unity Of title is thus dissolved, but thlunlvor '"'"' 

-re. Both .oint tena^, a^rrnt^n rrn:r "eo^ 



BEAL I'EOPEIITV. 
pel a partlUon of the property according to the v.Iu. „, .k . 

wUh interest Tt the .ate . eed"';;::' 7,7"!,""' ■""""^ 
usually called a " mortKaec debt " ti.« ». . 

«--.,„, ...rr,'s ::•.-;•= ,r..s 

was an absolute canvejance TbTct to an 1 " "°'"''^^*'° 

wroTrtV;;: :rr ™'V'' - -- -er,^- 1' 
:.i^::^Ht^^ "- - '»'~-S" 

either at ■•L",nre„° oT.Y "": " '" '^'""'""^ '° '«'«' 
.o as to cut ou'tT ;":tertlTcrrs^- ;r ■'^-- 

194 



i 



HlAl ESTATK. 

agreed to warrant and defend the title of .!,„ 
tenuut Bgalnut all m.r»oi,H a .... ""' K'^'^'c or 

'I'" with It an l«.plo"warra„ :"',"», ""'' "'"""'^" «- 
ha» dU.,peared in modern conveyance, a' d -"' *"™"^ 
title" has taken its ulace I.,;, u ^ ^ ' "■covenant for 
matter with the plrch":; eTto hav thr'tiuT' """ ' '"" 
not to rely „,erely „„„„ the w^aitv „ '■""■''"«'"^-'' «»" 
l» «<rlelne», a .carrh of « ll. h ,. '^ covenant for title. 
of forty ,„r, IndiH" .*""'" """"■' ""•k 'T a period 

v.ndor'.„'"rh;™e,';;,';;r;:'; "•'""''' •"»■-.-' 'r„L. the 
agreement provides tha the* h ' l"-"I'<Tf,. Usually the 

abstract or'any' «,e d ed, „oT rh^'L""' 'T"'"" '"^ "-- 
called The Vendor's and P.^A, ' """""""""n A "tatute 

mrs ago in England Each of, r "^^ "■"" '""""' ™"y 

■.as e„act,d this statutf a„d „ .Sr"" "' '"'' °°""""'» 

enactments are substantially alike "" ''"'"•" ""^"» 



HEAl KST.ITE 

Real Estate might he divided into two main classes: 

sr.:;\~rertr '"'■""- '"-'•^• 

-r^d^^r^— ro„-:r^-r"-"' 
=g\;r::t,:;™r:,rri^i,'^— »™; 

by the an.onnt of revenue «i,lch the "'"' "'"''"""ed 

Vacant property in „ 1 '"'°''"'*' ""' •'■■<'"'■"^'■■ 

various elLe's!l',t„rce°%::!:;„™r - •"''•"'' '"'° 

"ear the business centre. re'ldenHan f""' '"■'""•"*• 

property, property on the .h . Property, warehouse 

perty on the edge or just outside the building 

sbld 'iZt:; wm Take IZr^'r" "'' =* "■'"- '^'■ 
■■"')'• If he is a caXlis? » 7 " '""'"'^ "''^'" Vro- 

cf the growth Of the busfness T "'"" "" ""■ ■"■■'"■""> 
-rohably buy this kind o pTop^Jy w." "' ""' <^"^ ""■ -". 
are often made. Or. If 1 ce«^[! . " ''"'' ""■«" "'■'""» 
■■• If a certain part of the city Is more 




UAL KilTATK. 

•ulUbljr loettrd for ilUa for wholeule flrms. than U good 
■pwulatlan In buying up the bent sltei available. 

In every Urge city there U what la known ai the eelect 
realdentlal nectlon, and thl> claee of property Is very often 
at a premium. 

Subdivision property Is alwaya more or leaa speculative 
depending how far out and how faat the city will grow within 
a certain time. Wise Investor, of aubdlvlalon property, aside 
rom noting the distance of the property from the centre of 
the city, usually dealgnated by the Post OBlce, will ascertain 
In which direction the city Is most rapidly developing. In a 
good many cities the development la reUrded In one direc- 
tion or another by the location of a foreign element, which 
makea the property lying outside this part of the city less 
•peculatlve, that Is, It does not as a rule reach a very high 
value. 

To value property In the city, the most Important thing Is 
to Ogure out as nearly as possible what that property can 
be made to earn. Prom 11,000 to »2,000 per foot frontage 
might seem high for business property, but If It Is possible 
to Improve this property by erecting a building which will 
be revenue producing to the extent of earning a good rate of 
Interest after making due allowances for depreciation, taxes, 
etc., then that property has not been overpaid for. In most 
of the large citlea of the West the quotation of property la 
generally given by the price per foot frontage. Loan Com- 
panlea usually advance money on properties up to forty per 
cent, of the value of the land and the cost of the building 
Most of the large loan companies make It a practice not tc 
loan on Improved property which has less than a thirty foot 
frontage. In a great many ways this Is a good thing, as It has 
a tendency to keep houses a little farther apart, thus leav- 
ing a few feet on either side. In most cases there la a limit 
to the amount of money which can be borrowed on resi- 
dential property, no matter how much the house might cost 
as the loan Inspector keeps In mind the amount of money 
on which the house will earn an interest providing It should 
have to go back on the loan company. An expensive house 
might not have any more rooms than a cheaper house of 

196 




per cent, up u, ,h, flr, thou,.„H ^ """«"•""• •" "v, 
cent .n.r tfc.t. 8om. ci'e.T"t' ■" '"' ""''•''•" <"' 
Charged up u. the a"., a'"; 'r*""' "" "'» per cent. ,. 
exception, to these cLVh""- °' «"■"" "■"« "e 
con.n,l..|o„ IB ch.rgeu"n th? •"'•'"«'■' "'e per cent. 
«" Urge ,„d con fdarab e », ' "'""'*''• "'"" ">» d..l. 
'»«. etc. Good .rgum'nt,. r. .'■ """""^ '» '^-"c"- 
come When comn-Cn. "wirbe ' ,/k''™''" ""■ '""« »'" 
•tend of „ now by ^o Ljl' p"^"" '"' "'° ""chwor In- 
to a real estate .gent .„a ° .h, ,' T"""'' " """" '"■»». 
property to- which he state! he ^ .t? ' "'■'*'" <•'«« of 
•um Of money. The aUt ' e. . 7 "' '" ■""■ » "^c"-'" 
i-erhap. he 1. able to buy atTL. ""' """ ■'™''"'^' »-> 
'e- than hi, cllenrwas ^mZT''" '"?'"•""" "" "-""" 
agent la working for hi, e if / ''• '" "'"^'' -^"^es the 
property. "" ""''"' "" "ot the vendor of the 

^■'""'S!' iTJbL'"^ repr?,e«ed 'n'"'! """"*'" «" 
"rn,,. They meet perlodlcanyTnd h, "'" *" "■» '«'«« 
taming to different branchli^ ^ ,.?""!' ""' "■"""» Per- 
m's, an international Hea?L.lr """"""• '" •"""• 
Winnipeg, at which there wero ^""""""o- »•» held In 
from different parU Tj^^Z ' '"'"'"' "'"»'""« 



197 



mt 



IKADE AND CIIIIUISIICE 

TRADE AND COMMERCE 

"»^n!rri7t^iiuHi'rj"''™'''r'"^'^' ""• "-»"»• 

log. filing .Mhanrin J '* "»"."• """'t r«rtriot«d to th, buy. 

to .11 ™,„m=^w'irt^™ °n' " .""""^ '-il^rlminately 

"<"./. WholemirtS^r/? 1 1 ' ° '''"™'' "•'«>''■«■(« and 
qu.„tl.i«Aup*^Xrrr,r«,:^^^ ».rth.pi«.„H„ hrg. 
»liil. retail trade deaLT.n!f i "d mlddla men generally, 
air«^l7 to oo„™L„ "" "™" """""" "d ^pplta. gooi 

.nTt:„T:fet^f Je'r;"^ '• "'^'^-^ '-"> '- <•.«.. 
of the oount^T,^ "^i" "T r V*" ''"^''" ■" "'« ''"'•""7 

'"^.rxiirSr '^^^^^^^^^ "---»' """ "^ 
«'^:.Kfni;:;^':"&tg"thr""r """ "»™- 

to another. carrying the .urplus produce of one 

The total value o export a Quar.lrr'"' *"'-'".^*0. 
I90.203.000, While -n'm 1 "it'^s' V2 M^Hr '"'° "" 

can\Trve^\'::5^:rv:gT;rrv"^^^^^^^^^^ 

for Ita inland carrying I fae "iT, ""T™"" ""='""- 
dollar, have been .pent ^n .»„ T '' ^ ''""''"'' """"'" 

-..o.a o, to^a ^t^r %hrs,r.a— -rcor 

198 



THABE AND CiilllrCRrE 

n.lle.. The ra„ad,l„ p*'|. °' r '••«»"'■"»" tl.ou.and 
tr^l to Vancouver," 2ZITV ?°'" ""' ""•" «»»- 

»iM,8:ll,441 In ,909 ThI. °!,'„ ' " """P""! with 

U vor cent. «Pre.ent. an Increa.e of over 

.. porto;";'r;Jre 've^T "'T''' "' "■• —»•«»' 

ana dutle upon Tn, ported ^™h '""'^'"'■"""« "» entered 
ve«e>. ob.a.?°he "ra^anrandrhr''''"'''' """ *'""' 

areknownllan ~l"'' "'""'"J tS""". and ve.ae,,. 

on in.p„rtea .ood,;.; r.cr;^^™."!"^::'^!""' '""" 
wh^"r p^evrrtifdu'tr"', "" ""^ '° - •»"■'«>• 

When warehoused nl governJ.en'.r""" "' " """"'• "^ 
under the control of ^hfcX" 'o ' r/orl":?,""::; '"'h 
(or consumption and the dutiea paid """ 

rorTn^nttl^; pl? orhrp-la-c/T'tr 1.°" ■"■" "-"- 
not a port of entry they flr>t . ' . ^° Dominion that ia 

are forwarded l„„„d,„ 1 '", " ■">" ■" """■'' "nd then 

.rana-ah,p„ent L e'Sed°hro;gh'"rea:a or""'""" '^'' 
broiier at the port of enfrv . \ °' " <^'"s'om-houae 

....n. and oth'er .hl^prfpap-er: aT ^nl '■'™'™- ■"» "' 
199 



TELEORAPHS 



TELEGRAPHS 

Parties to the Ooatnct Th 
'■•»-". (1) the senderT.^e "L"" '™ P«««« '" the eon- 

»>"st keep his (or ij) agrte^ „t i7.r "''''8« ""d "ach 

i~ wir :=:^ ^: ^t f ^^-^ <- da.,.. .„ ...e 

ftilure to do i,; d„Jv i,",!!f '"J"™'' '■y ">e fonipanyl 

" WcnS^r '~*'"^^^ ™"'""°" - """ 

stitute. .he eo^trac, "^rjn If '^™'"' W""'' -ally <•„„. 
^end a n,o.sa,e (oa,M a dispat' ) ZT' ,!"' '""»Pa"y "o 
effect an ofTer to pay tor Ihl 7 •' "i" *"'"'' " ■•^l-est is in 

•he sender „«„eMo';?;'C't!;!t "' "'^ ™"'"'=' ■"•» (D 
and the company mav refuse t Z T f "■" "^"''^ ™te 
™"™; (2) the eompanv alL , ' ",""''*' *« Pays in ad" 
graph with pror^plZZ T^iTJlZT" ■»'-"«« ^"tele. 

tZ^'T """""' •" "- - ^■-""''" "'^""^^^ 

;'- operaTor o'tnreeTt.iS' T"'-'^ " ■'' ''-"■ Hence 
ates„f^ran,„„r, nor ad" nor „2 °"m''""' ^""h ^ •»!- 
change i„ it. "■ "'"• """t anything, nor mote any 

Proinptness Th 

--'^'-•^o'^trst^^e^txr; 

200 



TELEQBAPIIS 

of the »e„L,T„r imo :':,;^ r^r^^ -" '".^ ''""°'" 

tion in almost every iiart „f ,l, ,1 ' 1 ^ '""'' '" "P""™- 

.he submarine eabTer; I e Ih:,' ' „ da^'"' '*'"' ''',""" °' 
nauticaJ miles. """"y "* "ver ISO.OOO 

-^^i-o-i^B??'---- 

-d CornwaJI, Eng.am" a distanee"? oTo "-'"".<'■"..'"«, 
are now sent remilarlv hv hi? , H ""'''"■ MeasaKes 
tanoes, and it L contended Lr"? ^°'' "'•"'''>»'M<- dis- 

wirciess .ele«raph;"t™t' .' 'perio°r t^ .^ -'■"""">■ ^-s. 
lines. "cciior to the ordinary wire 

on^wTltr'JSnt^ll" "-'- '^'^^™P'- equipment 
other vessels simZt el npe.l tll'r ? " "■' '"'"' »"" "'"■ 
safety as well as comfort Sf an o""' "" '"P" ""'' "'= 
urably increased by "s „^e " ""^'^ '' ■■»■"«««- 

oe!Ii:^':Utr'TLXa:e™er' ^"^-^^^^""^ "-"^ '" 
debted to it for the success'^orihei/ '" ° '^'»' ""'»'""•'= '"" 
at Port Arthar, their Spalwai^hV™"" "■"' "' '*•'"■'' 
tl.e necessary "i^iess'^ran^^lltrraKervln^^rtt:^ 



201 



1 T' ' 



M I 



ftAFB mnxoDs 

MERCANTILE AGENCIES 

^kf f*^,?''*"™''' "■ "«»'''i»">mei>t «or supplying mei- 

ta buiLr* " *" "" """""^ •'"'""« "' •»'"»• "«5^ 

rj^dento ii M v«i, at the oounto' information u to the 
character and per»n^ responsibility of individuals, firms, and 

.uTnstr^nters"""" ""■* '""■™'"™ "^' »™"»'>"' «' 

d.^Z'n**'^-"^"'" "" '■"ormatlon thus obtained Is 
dednoed what are known and reoognized as "oommercial rat 
lugs The names of the various merchants, with the ratines. 
«™ «»uod qu«terly. in book form, and are olaasiaed. flrstT 
rt.t« and provinoes. then by cities and town,, all ar;«ged in 
^nd ^ "? "^T ^'^ ™''™"' «"'"'"K <•>■« United Itote. 
h^ln^'' -"^/^ ' '"'"'''" ""^ • '»"»'*" ■" distinctive 
bustaes organizations, and yet so simply are they classiaed that 
a reference can be had with as much readinen ae the flndiuK of a 
subject in a cyclopedia. ""umg oi a 

Leadinff Ag».dM.-The Bmdstreet and R. G. Dun 4 Co. con- 
cerns are the leading agencies for the United States and Canada. 
Ttey have headquarters in New York, and sufr-agencles in aU 
principal dt.es. Agencies also exist in Europe, and importing 

kept informed as to each other's commercial standing 
ch^* *° «r*"''-Thi. system euabie. the sSivent mer- 
ohai. to purchase goods anywhere with «.«,nable certain^ 
ttat they will be delivered promptly, avoiding undue delaTc^^ 
«quent to mvjestigating his credit. The agency thus sei^^L 

iufr:ti::ttZXr.r^rr!x" ""' -" ■" 



''•«==?Ce^jfejF^' 



202 



I 



PART VII 

Deeds, Mortgages, Leases, Loans, 
Licenses, etc. 



Y-n 



!-■. ,, 




1«41 RT. HON SIR WILFRED LAURIER, P. C. C. M. G. D. C. L. U. D K c 

M p lau ^""IP'- statntTnan. Orator ' "" "- *■• '- 
"■■'■""■ Mm. I,. R.,.i»77, p„„.c.n. ISaS-ltlll 



'<il 



DEEDS 

DEEDS 

A D«d u an Inrtrument In writing and under seal whereby 
real estate or .ome Interest therein 1. conveyed 

The Seal required by the common law and alan hv .... . 
in the Older Province con.UU of an lmpre"ln „pS'„ T^l 
wafer or other tenacious subsUnce. The Land ^18,^;^ 
pasaed by meet of the Provlncee and almost exclul; T, 

consideration. ^' °' " *""* '""I^rts 

.-'r ^: s,t-i-,*'i;rr. Lur - 

must be duly executed and delivered if .i™.j V 
<.eedsmustberecredo?reSs^r^er.lrjr^ 

Trr to°L"„ '"''"'^'- " " -"'-a'y.'thoth no ic :: 
rmoiy rr rsTid."""' '"-• " °- ■""'"• -- -- 

rect S/driors """"^ '' """""^'^ - - 

805 



H irl 



■5'^ 




Idaho, K^tuX £„u ". tana mZT'V""^'- °«"«'« 

•tatute. A wItneM should have no ?n, . /"'"'""" "^ 
The Witney .hould .ubacrlb" 'hat the Zd "" """• 
■ealed and delivered" in hi ''°"' *" "Igned, 

made to a oorp^ Hlon no ^b^cHhr i"^"'" '"« """ '» 
a. the amx,ng''of the corporate .a "o. Th'" " ■'"*"""^- 
Poratlon 1, .nfflcent when a "ned t' l^llTT'' " ""- 
ahould be made out In dun i^T '" '"'"''■ °»">" 

and the other to be Lp"'by "*; rrr' '" "^"""on 
die proof Of their handlrlting wWh T . " '"""•■™ 
Z^^ Obtained, proof ^t^:^^^;^:^^^- 

"^ta^at^TnTiir i'L^.r.ri^ti.'Tb''' "■' -"^■ 
r tVt-^t-to r ;r^ruL~ '-- - 

or's creditors. Place to rSer i ?? S* " ""' ■""'""• 
ia-d Title Office of tL cCrt or Hc^ i I'^'^A'"^ "■'"« " 
the property is situated R»8'""tion District Mliere 

.n.''"r.:.^fa°reru;ire«rne7b """^ "'""•"' ""' "- 
Title Company Usuailvrll, '^ " "■»"»'»■" 'awyer or 

.. signed ^by both^rre/^-rprid'e. "ttt^ the''r "'' 

Chase Ls earnesTmoS^r """' ^ ""■""" "' ">« """ 

A W..,- .'"''*'*^«*:''T KINDS OP DEEDS. 

nants'^rr^ant'l %\rd'randr'"%;'"' -"'" »- 
persons, and to the extenr^pecmed """'"'"' ''*^'"' "" 

206 



•fSS-^'='"'"-™~->--' ■'■'"•' 

eUim to .nylntercfh may'Lv, b«7L™?'^ •'"''» 
his title. ' ' ""' "°<'S not warrant 

on the purchase money at a flS ?»,„ ' """'"'"' """"■"t 
rate of interest '^' ^"■"^ """n ">" »«u»l 

a>r«tt'^n'^''tr?anrrr'*°"^ ," ''""'""" — 
grantor has not done or 'coLit T '"""''"''' "■»' "■" 
premises conveyed are 1^^^ ""'' '"■' "'""•<■''>■ "'= 
renuisifion „f .r i «''»rfre'l or encumbered. Everv 



207 



"<!< 



I. '( 



Befflstnttlon of Dradu 

ITnder the laws of the Dominion of Canada all deeds iind 
InBtrumpiita respecting tltlps of real (vitiitt; may be reglHtered 
in the RoKlstry Office, or Land TltloM oriice of the County or 
neglstratlon District in which the proi'ertv concerned la situ- 
ated, and must be reKlstered to retain thnir priority. 

Every deed or other inHtrumont respectlnB title to land 
in order to be received for registration, must be verified by 
affidavit in proper form of a Hubscrlblng witness present at 
the time of signing. 

The fee for registering depends upon the number of 
words in the deed. Unless a deed or other instrument re- 
specting the title of land be registered it Is void against 
subsequent purchaser r uortgagee, and it is therefore im- 
portant that every det^ should be registered as soon after 
Its execution as possible. 

If a registered deed or mortgage should be lost or de- 
stroyed, a duplicate can be obtained at any time from the 
Registrar on the payment of a small fee. 

Under the Torrens System of Lands Transfer, commonly 
referred to as the "Lands Title Act," registration must be 
obtained on formal application, the owner of the deed being 
then given a "certificate of title," and when he transfers 
the title of any part of the property the transfer must be 
entered on the duplicate certificate in the Land Titles Office, 
and when all the land embraced in the certificate of title 
has been transferred the certificate must be returned to the 
Land Titles Office. 

REQUIREMENTS IN THE DIFFERENT PROVINOES 

In Ontario deeds must be under seal, except where e.xe- 
euted under the Torrens Land Titles System, which see. A 
wafer or some adhesive substance should be used. A scroll 
will not answer. Deeds should be in duplicate, one for rejris- 
tration and tlie other to be retained by the purchaser. 

Proof of deeds for registration is to be made by afHdavit 
on the instrument, or securely attached to it. 

If different parties to the deed subscribe before different 
subscribing witnesses, each witness must make an aiHdavit 
as to the execution by the parties whose execution he at- 
tests, or the deed, etc., cannot be resristered. 

In Quebec deeds must be executed before a Notary Public, 
who retains the original in his repertory (the Notary Pub- 
lic being a public officer) and issues authentic copies, which 



208 



DSEDe 

make proof in the courts. All deeds affeoting real estate 
"Ser^r""' '■'■ '"""'"' "' ""■' """^'^ be«eant 
III Not. Scotia all deeds affcctinR land must be executed 
..n<ler real and in the presence of a witness, and on^ ake 
•Beet a,s asainst third parties from the time of thejr ro.-S 
Pro W„ u !? °l n-ortpiBe may be proved within the 
HroMnnc by oath of witness taken before the Reeislrar a 
JudKe of the Supreme Court, a Notary Publie, a C "'o? 
he I oaco or a barrister of tlie Supreme Court. Out of the 
1 lovince a deed or moitpase may b<! proved by oath of sub- 
H^.„b,„. witness or acknowledgment of partie^s under ont 
Such oath can be taken before a Judge of any court of rce 
ord by the Mayor of any town, by a Notary Pull °r 
-y a tommissioner appointed to administer affidavits without 
the I'rovmce. Where the deed is to be proved in a forrian 
ounlry, the oath must be taken and the attestation w^S 
the date cert.fled under the hand and seal of anv Public 
Mimst^er, Ambassador, Consul or Vice-ConsuI of Qreat 

hv^„„^'*"f Oolmnbi. deeds must bo under seal, and attested 
by one witness. Acknowledgments and proofs of the exe- 
cution of instruments entitled to be registered or recorded 
may be made by: 1. The party executing in person ch 
instrument. 2. The attorney in fact, when such in Uument 
.» executed by an attorney in fact. 3. The secretary of any 
corporation, when such instrument is executed by such secrfr. 
T « , ""'«"•>'»« witness to such instrument, 
in Manitoba deeds must be under seal and attested by one 
rlr^' ' ," ""•»' ""k" «- affidavit that he was peraonally 
p.esent and saw the instrument duly signed, etc. The pr^ 
visions nf the registry act as to lands not under the Tor- 
rens System are very much the same as prevail in Ontario 
In isew Brunswick deeds must be under seal, and before 
re..-,stration must be acknowledged by the per.son executing 
the same or be proved by the oath of a subscribing witt 
ness, before a Judge of the Supreme or County Court 
or a member of the Executive or Legislative Council, or be- 

fr :i":id T-'™.;' -^j''""'''- "■• •""■ ^"'^^y p-*-"" "ppo'-ted 

and Im. T '^ "■■■,I'™v.nce, and certified under his hand 
and oBicial seal, or before any Justice of the Peace of the 
county in which the conveyance is to he reHstcred 
16 209 



f ' ! 



fil 



OIEEDI 

. ^ •'"<<'»»<U«nd «ll dw-U affeoting land mu.t be regu- 
t«r«d. Deedg within the i.laml may b< proved upon the oath 
of a .ubscnbiog witne.. or any party eiccuting the .ame. 
or upon the personal acknowledamcnt of a party from whom 
an interest pasw., to be made before the Registrar, Deputy 
Kefnstrar, a Judge or Commissioner of Affidavits of the Su- 
preme Court, or a Justice. 



Fom of Deed. 

.!.« 4°J!SrM:'' "" °°'"'° "^ '"" °' "•'•'»" "^ "f' sbbr» 

Till. IKMSTIHI m.de lln dupllrali-i ll„. nr« nl .\„„.mi»r In th.. 

iZ. , T lu'". T """"'"' °'°" """"'■'■"' """ ""■iv. 1» P° r"V' 
sow ol the abort Forms of ConvcyancPH Act. 

.™^'"r°,/°1° ""■"■' °' ""■ TowD-hlp of plymptoD. County of I.smb. 
ton, and ITovlnc of Ontnplo. n.,.ri.h«nl. of th,. nr.t part, and 

Anna Bice wife of the party of the Ant part, of the aeeond part 
and Harry «. K,en. of the Townrtlp o, |.|,„p,„n. Count, °,l2,^ 
ton. and ITovlnie aforesaid, yeoman, of the third port 

,J!'""","': J"" '° '■""M'™'!-" «' Three Thou.and Dollar. 
».1. KIO, lawful money of Canada, no, paid by the .aid part"" 
he third rnrt to the .aid party of the hr.t part (the ree,.|ptTh re^f 

la hereby aeknowl,.d«ed). he the .aid party of the drat part. jS 

Oroni unto the .aid |»rly of the third part. In Fee Blmple 
JII on.l S(»Bi,l«r that .ertain pareel or tract of land and premlw. 

.Ituate. lying and bein, m the To,n.hlp of Mympton. VmM,7l 

iTdr,;:,"'.?,^ ',''";■,'"'■'■ °' "°'""°' '■""'"'°'°' "' ■""'•""rem;: '„n. 

hundred acre., I,e the .ame more or le... bcin, eompo.ed of the .outh 

c:^n-a'fo::;s:'- "• '° "" "' ^•°°"""-' ■>"- ^"•">^"'' 

To hm-e and to hold unto the .aid party of the third part bla 
heir, and o.,u„., to and for hi. nad their ,„le and only o.e Me,°r 
"Jim "•"""'"• '" ""' "■■ervatloo., limitation,, proylao. and 
condition. e.pref..e(l In the orlKlnal „™»( made theri-of from the 

.k'^t,!?''' "f"/."' "" "'" ■"" '■»'■'■"""'• with the ..Id party „f 
the third part. I),«l he ha. the rlihl to convey the said land, lo the 
•aid party of the third part, notwlth.tandlnt any act of the .aid 
party of the llr.t part.. J »<i oi tne .aid 

And that the uld party of the third part shall have quiet po»«..- 
slon of the said land., free from all encumbrance.. 

And the uild party of the nr.t part co, enoiil, with the .aid parlv 
of the third part that he will ejeente ,ucL further ...urance. o( 
tne .aid land. a. may be re»|al.lte. 

And that be will produce the title deed, enumerated hereunder and 

210 



DEECa 
.C"Mrt"i" "" """' °' """° "' "" "•"" " "" "'■' """' »' 

,')!!'' .'k." ."■"' ■""' "' "" '""' >■"' ""■'•«■«'• will, ti>.. .„i,i „„«, 
.f th>. third p„rt that j,c h.. .!„„. „„ .,., ,„ ,.,„„^,, „.. . ^ ,;;;'j7 

Anil the niild purlr of tli» llr.t ,>,irt rrlra.r. t„ tbr ..1,1 ™rlT of 
ll.o third part ,l| k„ cl.im. .j,,, ,ft, „,„ ,„„,. """ " 

doiJr'lo'Z St'ld'!,'!.""" " "■■■ -""" """■ "■•■"" "»'« "■- 

hair;";'"!"™' "■" "'" ■"""• """•' -" "-■■"■ «• ">■■'' 

Hlinitd, ■,.«l,.d and dellnnd j,„„ „„., . 

IKBUV II. Kutii. *""* "'"• 

AiKdavIt of WItnen: 
County of I^mbton 
To Wit ■ 

I. Harry II. r-con, of the Cltr of Samln. County of Ij obhin .„j 
Prorln™ of ontiirlo. mrrMiant, makr oath and .iiv : '■"•»'""" '"1 

1. That 1 was peraonally prca^nt and did „■<, tho wllidn In.lr.. 
n,.nt and dopll.ato dnl, .l„,.l. -alnd and ...cuU by ohi n c. 
and Anna nice, two of the parti™ tberoto. 

2. That the. aald Inatriimrnt and dupllrnto wcr,. ,.,railid liv th. 
»ald parllo m the Townablp of Hamla. •ciuiio iiy m, 

■1. That I know tbo aald partlra. 
doidkatl."" ' '" " •"""""'"»« '"'°™» "> '"- .aid ta.trun,™t and 

Swum btforo mr In Bnrnla. In the Coimty *of"r a'mM™''''ti,i 
llr.t day of Noyomber. JOU, IwioL. 8°ep , 

A commUisloncr tor taklm alBdavlt, In tho founty of Lamblon! 

Fomi of Quit Olaim Deed 

(For Ontario) 

THi» iKDtBTi... made (In d,.pll,aln) the llrat day of June In 
'"■?■?' °' I" '-""' ''°° thouaand nine hundred and fnurleen ' 

nelween Sam. Bum., of the Town.blp of Eioter. County of Bruee 
rrortnoe of Ontario, merebant, of the Brat part : and Walter J "Z" 
of the Townablp of Exeter. County of Brace, Prov n " at„Ve» d' ' 
yeoman, of the iecond part. aioresaia, 

ini„™„,» That the «ild parly of the Oral part, for and In coo- 
alderallon of the anm of Five Thouaand Itollar. (»s,O0O) of lawM 
money of Canada, to blm In hand paid by tho aali ™art, „? tbi 
-eeond part at „r before the .e„ll„„ „„d delivery of tbe.e'^ITesei"; 
lid o T^ whereof I. hereby aeknowledsedl. b«, Branted. released 
and quitted elalm. and by theae |.r,..ent, doth ,rant. releaae and quit 
elalm unto Ihe .aid party of the aeeond part, hi, beir, and aa.l™. 

both at law and In equity or otherwise bowsoev.r. and whether to 
fnTo'or'lTo?""""""' °' ""^ "" "" '"" " """ »"' ■""•»" 

2U 



J 



II 



•* III 



1 1 



If-' 



r 



DEEDS 

All null IKnalar thai i-rrtnln par.' I r.r Inrt of land mmA ._ i 

.„ /", ''"••• ";' '" >> 11'- "'"rr.nl.1 lan.l, ,,„,! pr..»il*., »|,li nil 

rf«r.iilloni.. llmllHtliina, i>n>vl>iaa 
ittlKlnnI iirnnt U„-r,„l fr„„i ,h. 



Hill'J«fl. IU'ViTthi-l. ^„, ,„ , 
nad cunillllonM npn-iimtl In i 
I 'ri)WD. 

in Mllitent wkiren/ thr i.;i 
their ImndH Nnil hi'iiIm. 
Hlk'noit, K4'nl<><l iitid lirllviTvit 

lu i>r«M>Di-v of 

I>. H. (JlTkr. 

Ili'ci-lvi-il on tlio iltiy i.r I hi 
FlVf 'riuiiimlQil IhtllarM it7,ij(Mi 
nun.'..: 

11. U. UlVltT.* 



il linrtlin lii-rflo tiilvc h«-ri>untH 



Kam Dirnn.* 
' of this la«l4-nturi> the fliim of 



Hah Bums.* 



rona of Connywice of Fmlioldi by a Vmdor SoIimI in r.. 
ample to a Fnrcluuar, Wltbont Bacitali 

(VW .»wf(HIBdlMid) 

Tiii« lM„;»ru,:, mndc Hip Sd dny of Jnouarr, lOH. ■itwiek 
A. I. of s. J„h„-.. I„ ,h. l.,„„d of X,..t„„„dl.ni. aenHom^r'" 
!...■ ..n,. i„,rl. ..i,d c. I), „( th.. ,umc place. Umtli-man. of the olher 
|»rt „-,t»„..,;t„ ,,„„ ,„ ™..l*.r.tl„. of the .,,„ of ,'io,ooo to 

the .»ld A. I. |,„ld l„ the .„ld C. D. (the reeelpt whereof I. „ ely 

no the ..1,1 , . 1,. ALL THAT (de.erthed premtae.). to have a»d to 

,';.';',;■„;'"' •»' "" ■>•■'■' ™ ^i« ^" "' th. „id c. v.. hu. heir. .JJ 

1 wiiEBEor the »td pnrtlo. hereto hn.o hereunto M 
• hand, and seal, the day and year arat above wrlt- 



IN Wir.VKS 

tbelr redpitth 
ten. 



Porm of Quit Claim Dmd 

(Kor Nova Scotia) 
T„ia l»i,,:»Ti«„ „,de thi. thlrty.|lr.t day of July, ,„ ,he 
.y.ir of „„r Lord line Tb„n.„nd Nine Hundred Thlrtcea JtTWKv 
Jam,, Jone., of the Town.hlp of Colehe.ter. to the r'untj ' t BKh 
mon. , l-roTlnee of Xovn »™tla. yeoninn. of the One fart and torn 
Satlt:,. of the To.-„.bl„ „, , oi.be.ter afore.ald. of the ot er Par, 
I .T.N«..KTH bat the ,ald party of ,Ue Cr.t par. for and „ „n 
-Ideratlon of the .um of Two Thoumnd Uollnr. (»2.000) ot lawful 

u..m,.y of the I.„u,l„l„„ of fanada. , „id Jame, Jonc, In hand 

well and truly paid by the .aid party of the .econd part at or before 

212 



MOUTOAOEI 

tl... .>D.'.jju, „„,! a,.,iv„„. „r T,i,« |.„,„r., lb. r..c..l|it wi,..r,.„r 
"n.1 I.J lli.«. IT,.«.DI. ,l,.ll, ,r.,ir. ri.|..,i«. .n.1 qull ,l«ln. «ZT ,! 

tloo of luodi, i„a,.||i.r «lih mi „„d .mauliir tho PnJm,.n.. t^S 

in anjwiu' »|iiHrwlnln.-. with ii„. r.'v.r.loii oml .■...■..~i,„ 

li" (Hioit. riKUl, tltl<-. intcriKt. claim ppom-rty aod drmiiml i^.tt. »i 

ITovlnc of Sovn S.otl«, .. ., *''°' ^'■'"• 

.,riU°r "!" """;'■""" "»>■ <" •""J. ■»• D. 1013, before me. He .ub- 

::ru,,,v:,^;ar r.rb,?vj::r""- ■'■""•° ■""-• «"-• 

B- C. JoiiNsrpN, 
A CommlBsioaer lor taking AiBdavlti, etc. 



HORTOAQES 



L 



n.^^ **• " ' '""">'""•« of property, either real or 

iiiiwtsa!.t' b<Toiii..s voiil anil of no volnc 

i, cX'l't?' ''"V"-'ri"' P--«on niortsasin^ l,i, pro,H.r,v 
» called the mortf..n...o,-, a„,l the per,,,,, to whom the „n, l'. 
sasre is given the niorti;niree. 

EEAL ESTATE MORTOAOES 

<riJf„J?h' ^""1° ""rtmiKes, a, ,,snally written, the pe™on 
giving the mortgaRe retains possession of the property, re- 

213 



i 



1 



?! 



MOUTUAUES 

.ue and recover „p„n tl,e note or bondor t r'S^Z 

to ;^''u;e''d''e''bt he'r " ""' »"«7-t^->™A-rt,: s 

note "^ '''"°™'' *'■" '"''»"''« ™ "'« bond or 

ment:nhe''k"d''°'°I^\l''""" T""'" "'«' ""^ »"■" '»'«"- 

n.o^a'r h^a Ur Hgh %rLT"\f ""™''"™ "■" 
eS in te lort^a ; "'"'"^' "■™ "" "" ''^'^™-' '» '""t 
214 



UOJfTQAaEil. 

HOW TO FOBECtOSE A HOETGAGE 

thrf^,l^l?°^" "' """■=">»'-■« ""y ta Offf'rent Provinces, but 
the following general 8tep» are common k most of thei;. 

1. AppllcaUon to a Court for authority to foreclose. 

•i. Hearing the parties by the Court 

3. Selling property under power of sale. 

4. Aavertlsing the property. 

B. Selling It to the highest bidder at auction. 
£1S 



i- 



■''Vs« 






ill 



im 






t f 



Ir*: 



MOBT0A0E3 
a. Deeding it to ll,e purchaser. 
^^^^ Mor.Ka.ee t„ki„, „„„ ^etaiain, p„„,e,«io„ of t„e prop 

to ttri'^J.""^ ^"^'- '--' -".aining from ti.e sale 

Form of Hortfage 

.joa'i^'.irLixr.adiij^fri;'' ""' -^ " *'"'■ ■>- 

of Mortmge, Act ■ '"""Ma. la pureuaare of He Sbort Form. 

Of mo'Enr„r„ °„'f "CTSl: "' "*"•'"■ '° "- '^o".. 
b.rela»ft.r colled Hie a,o"g»,"r ' °' "" ""« P»«. 

^__^I;.U. Good, ..fe Of U.e p..;, „, .,, „„, „.„ „, .^^ ^^^^^ 

tte Mid Mortgagor doth Graat ond mIU '' "''''°^"""''"*<'>. 

>Jortg..c, .,e ,e.„. «.c„torr' adra,Sor..r ° ..Sa'. ^ 

u./i'.t::?e.'!,r"««t,:"t .r'%' " *"" »' »-' -^ p™- 

•«ld. coatalalig by acton Ij 'Town.hlp „f CoIche«ter ito" 

(5th) Coace»Ioa of the To™hfrof r f". '""' '"' ""' f'"" 
r.ell» Good, of the .econd nT« S f Colchester oforeaald : nad 
land.: ""°'' ""■ ""'!>! bar, her dower la aald 

i>.u^rrLnri zzvk'T„,:°'L7,^r?' °' "- ^''»""-> 

oeat. per aaaum, .. follow.- '°'"''" """"o" °' A™ per 

p.Jhi: rfS-Xi'Tarai^^Ltisr r"™ " - -"• »»^ 

Fifty Dollar, each, with "tere.t ^t ?e ,f, /r """^'^ '"> 
•aaurn oa the uapald prlnclaa? ™v.. . '" °' "" '*■• «»'■ PW 

■»o»t Of prlaclpal The flrSt 'of T.i "°"°"'' •""■ "">' "■«•"■ 
iater,.t to be dae aad P^jabTe oa th. arrj""',' "" ^"•""'•" »■"> 

Mor...',o" 't,rA7?L"l"r„'" "'"■ ""■ "■'-■ '-«•«- «.at th. 
the .aid ProvlM, tLt the Mortr,™rh7 "°" '"'■'''■'" »»•' °"«"" 

Of .i° ..ldyadVa?a.rr?;''„,Zr"'' "°"'' '■'""" "— °- 



1 



lU 



216 



MORTQAOES 

pency ; "'" """ '"■■■ Six Iluulrud Hollars mr- 

Provldid that th,. .nM « .. """" " ""■ "nlU [irovlno. 

«o„.t, „„, „„".,'.!;'„;" infri'. °:,r."„" "'.r"-" '- '<- 

^_^ Pr„vld.d .... ,1,, „„„„„.„ „„^ ^,^,^^___ ^^^ ^^_^^^_ ^^ ^__^^^ 

.«f rr ;;:,^ tr :;.,::::; si;--' - •- ■— « -.o,, 

1T"VI,I,,I ll,„t „„,„ .lef,;,,],, i .„ ™°"' P""!)!,.. 

th.lr"l,„"it""*„ "™r°' "■" """ ""'"" """"> -'e li,.rru.,„ „, 
Signed, ,„„i,.d „„,, j„||,.„^ 

In liic pn-spnce of ^'*'' OooD,» 

Grant Jaulsom. Lwla Good.* 

County ot HIcliniond 
To wit: 

mrj^o'^d-L.rnZro": L" J'S ."n'd ^ "'"' '° "■" <^°-" " 

Oood and ,,.„» Good. ,„„ or ^^^ ^tZ Ztl '"' """"■' "' «•»• 

.be -..Id par,;:: nr'fnc'vC" ""fb"?"""" '■"'• '"-""- -^ 
of rolohpMrr. ' °' '^"''•''ester, of the mli Townsblp 

D.puZ" ' '" ' """""■"" """"» '■- tb. Mid ,n.,n,„,„t .„d 
Sworn before me at the Vnin™ _»,,,,. "'"'" J*MIgo».« 

mobn.,.nd. .b. „r.t r/o^;crtn°t'bf°;:r:;"o:? ^'rd,<^r»;;^ ■•' 

A c„..„l..l„„„r ,„, „„„, affld.v,t.Tn'ii.''c.'re™: 
Tonn of Mortgage in Foe of rreehold. 

(Fop Newfoandlaad) 

P.rt, and M of;';, ' be^e "am. 'Tan:!,'!''''' °"°"^""'"' "' '"- »"■■ 
part: loereinart.r called tbe mortenKee), of tbe otlur 

;:^^ire=TXe':,-- --rt:-;;- -- 

.0 tz -r^,- ^jrr-i^nj'jfp^^i^err: 




MOBTQAQES 
with IntPfPit at the rate herrlnaft.r mentioned >»u».rf i- - 

of "'/, per .nnum. computed from the date hereof " 

.he;'7re"e:t.".;r,s: LYd c^'orr' ■'■■"''™«'" "«• ».*, 

A.VD |,„» I»o,;„Tl»Si ALSO WlTSESsmi Th« In IW.L. 

Ali, that (parcels), 

To HAVE AND TO HOLD thf SBDle UNTO and TO TH« HMF A» ♦>. 

.a^zz^^:^ d'i"„,''ri'/".i.r .r'-^ "•' - 

In nriTNEsa, etc. 

Short Form of Mortgage 

<Far British rolumbla) 

Tills iMOE.VTi HE. made the dni- of ~. ... 

"nnd nine hundred and m i.ursuaneeoVVhV';';' °"" 

1-=./ 1 . *''"*^"'"'tn. that In I'onsldernt on of . dollnr.. 

Emwmmm 

the,'"h:„ra".d ieiT"'- '"" '"' """" '"■""° -- '■"•"■«° - 

218 




Uortgage of Leuaholda by DinnlN 

(For Nvwroundland) 

Tm« iMDBSTtHE, made the dur ot 10 

BITWE.:» A. ..f. etc. (mortMKor), of the one pkriVnd'B'J '.;■ 
Imorljiiiu.e), ot the other part- "'• "'■ 

O.o'^r^^iZT' ""'" "" "■""'• "°'' '" '■"'°' '«•""•- '--"■^ I" 

::r^HrF- --»™"™'.-^^:;err;i 

..Id, tte ,.,d A. a. ,s».r,c.»L „„„KK. doth hereh, demlw uoto the 

oe„;":; :;■"::«' «r..':":.tro7- "■' ■""°"",^/ -^ "'■■ ■- 

to lie demised 10. . .. exuressed 

•t .ny time therc.utler, upon the reque.t an.l , thecoH „ Ihe .T, d 
A., hi. exeeutor.. ndmlntalrator,. or a».k 
preml»™ unto the raid A., hia eiecutora, od 
or as he or tlie.v shall direct. 

"The-;;:;;;ir;:^':^r„rxr;r;::„;:- '■■- --■-«- 
eje^^dSi^r^^irrr^h:-^-:-?-™- 

01 nie Bu d A. ID his name and on his hehalr and as hl« art nn.V 

" "3rt„^e;:;"ir'?,m'*- "'"--..••^dm-ini.-.rrr':. ::"i,z 

irnstt hln, or them sle" , «T,;;'Md° "°^ """'"' " '»■"''"' '» 
uiem BODject as aforesaid, ot In any purchaser ot th« 

219 



surrender the said 
ilstrators, or assigns. 



'If 

ii 






r 



M 



i 

r 



MOBTOAQES 

-.0 pre.,.,, „ .„ „„, ,„„„, ,„„ ^^^,^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ _^___^ 

In witnehs, etc. 

DUcharge of Hortgage 

Have ,»,|,«,^ „„ „„„„. i";'* °":"'°°'' "^ •>■■" Tborp. m. ,|fe 
WUnc, my l,„„j ana sea] mi, lir,t day „f May, a. d. IM*. 

WltUMl: JoaiPH CL4«K. (g«|l.J 

JuUN Smith. 

Form of A»ignm«nt of Hortfaca 

(To b. Indorwd on buk of mortraio) 
A. IT'imT"'"""- ""•" "° ""-'""•> "-' "■"" Oa, „, Ju„. 

jbei^r-.,'r.r!,°:.r;,'ir.^iy--r^.:^^ 

l!.e receipt wherrof , bLi .^^L^ by tbe porty of tb. ,„„„ „ 

-Id, .na\..s'iUbr.b:r„™i™i?-d„T ""•"'• ''"'•'^'«'- 

"..d a»l8, ,0 a. party „? th. e™,^d °'r. b„ f?°'' '"""'°- -"■ 
mlnl.tr.tor., and asalsn,. al lb" Xbt m,'. , ' «"■«''"■ »"• 
mand whatw,»er of him the o«„v If ,; ""' •, '°'""<' <^lalm and de- 
land, and tenement. m™t oneTaL delr^,^ ', 'T °'- '° "'"' W '"« 
And al.o (0 all .„m and "urn. of lot „ '° "" «■'""» "ortww. 

and none remaining unpaid '^ """"^ "^ "'""' '^""•^ 

recover ".r .re Z 7„°ny ra"It°r "^ l""' ""•""■ "" -" 
Parly Of the ar.. par., n"!' bl*"„,:S"ir;,C';nhT.are "'• "" 

.e.;je:=a^";^r.h^^;-- !!raE— .;r ^"••° 

Jambs Jones. [Seal.] 
Signed. 8^«ied and DeliTewd ^°"" ^""^ **^'' 

Id the presence of 
WiLLUU WILSOH, 



MOUTfi.lGES 

Form of Mortfiit*, 

(For Ontario) 

"' M..rtii„.™ Act. BRw.l i„i' , k' '''°''' '" ""■ '">'•" Form. 

™.trr, ,„ ,„„ .■=Jt"orr,™„," .ri"iT;,°;, 'I''' 7™""''''' -''-'"■ 

ln.iffr .,n..d the Mort,.«,,r or ,hV ar.. J . T'"' >''"°'"°' "■"■ 

.ho T„._^«,„p .,„„„„« »„^„°/„.'j; :; ,r^ I,-",,;'--' "-»>.. .r 
..on'r-rr'srrnd ''Z.i::z°]zj:;:r"', r"" " "-"'-■ 

.hi! .aid luorlsoitcc lo Ih. J.1,1 „ . "'' °' ^"''"''" ""«■ pnld bv 

.c|,.o„,od.odrz%i''',i.r. ' .r rr.in!,''.; ti. """•'"" " -'■'■■'^ 

O'er. A1.1. AXD sivrti*., ♦..„*. ''*"'^* ""•' nialKntt for- 

pro,„i.o. ....,."0 " "id'S^UTn" ?.,."Tr' :' "■"' "' '"-' »»^ 

...orb.'X'-L-r do'.;^,f i;:t r.;i .rd.""- °' - ™- — 
i;.nr;;;Tr rnTo;.!!';;'-,"-;-'?,: - -- -»-"<■ 

tbe dnto hm-of at five ikt <■,!,» nL« mtorest to hi- computed fr,>.n 

Th ij . "^ "'■ P*"^ annum, as followH • 

dr,.d r,„„.„ o.,h,\,,br°;o«'.',',bo r„,;'„7zi;r"r ■""' ""- 

on .b,. i,u„.id principal. payabl",„ J,„ L ' ?,? "^ ,""■ '■'' "■'°"°> 
principal. ,bc flrat ot ,„cb p." nonta of ir. , ""''" '•"'"<"<■" o* 

l-e and payable oa tho flm ?arof i™ .''°'„°°'' '""■"■"' '» ^ 
.ov.™i p„,.„o„„ „, princlp" „'d'l.,cro.,'i„t°„i''?- V" "'" 

above provta. kat .^^,,..^0, b-T "^ '•'"■"« «nd ob-crve the 
-aid lands. And that b. ° afthe H^b? ^'^ '""^ '° '" """"• '» .he 
.be aald mortgaiteo And tba on S /^- ..'° '"'"' "» """I land, to 

po...™ion ot't^T>zZTL:izi'i,r"''r """ "»'•'■ '>""■' 

.he .aid mortga«or will o.ocato .uch for.b '°""°"'"«™- ^nd that 
land. ma,. !». „,„,„„, And tharSb^t aaanrancc, or the „ld 
ac. ... member the -aid and. AnS t^a tt^e" 'S"' '"" ""°'' °° 
m.ure the building, on the .aid land. f„ .h niornraeor will 

the principal money berebv -ecired lo H f, °°'°'',°' °' °"' ''■»» "■"■> 
ranada. Provided .bat If .„ ,"'"""' '" «»""" <>' lawfnl money o- 
ln,„rable va „c ^ L bulldtoj.^r,'' ""''' ""° "- """"" '""" "■'■ 
.0 any „eater e, en, than .„e" taalSe"™?" ""'." """ ""■■ '-""'■'l 
.he ™me .hall l,e I,... tbmm . 1„ , "• """ " "»"' whenever 

n^nlre .„eb In.,;.:™. t"",be"'f„ "'ir.lbb.''" ,*'" T'""""" ■"■" 
prejudice to .he rorcgo... atatutorll oTaT,'";; U tthof .^„L"d"t'h^: 

221 






li. 



UOBTGAQES 

the morluN,.... niny r,.,|iilri. any ImarnDrc ot tbr Hid balldlnin to be 
riincfll,.,! nml ii n,.iv Insurani^ .Jvctc-d In iin oBlo to bo Damrd br 
him or them nnd iiUo miij, of bl. or thplr own arcord ctprt or main 
1.1 to any In.uranio bcreln provided (or and any amount paid by him 
or them Ihorrrori. shun Ijc (orlbwllb pnynblf lo bim and them nlth 
Intcroict nt tbc rale atorimid by tbe mortgajor, and aball be a cbario 
upon the land. v""i«t. 

AMD the tiald mortanBnr doen releane to the aald mortgag«e all hia 
elolm. upon the sold lands, nubject to the aald provtoo. The said mott- 
naitor rovenanta with the aald mortuaseo that be will keep the aald 
lands and the InilldlnaH and Improvement, thereon In (Ood condition 
and repair, aeeordhw to the nature and deBCrlptlon thereof, respeetlve. 
ly. and that In turn ol nesloct to do so or If the mortsajor or those 
ilalmlnii under lilm eommlt any act of waste on the said lands or 
make default as to any of the covenants or provisoes herein contained 
the principal 1 reliy secured shall at the option of the mortsaiee 
forthwith bicom.' dui' and payable and In default of paynust the 
IKiwers of sale heri'by tflvcn may be cterclsed. 

AND the mortitaiiee may from time to time make such rvpalra as« 
they may deem noulslte ur proper, and the amount thereof shall be 
added to tbc principal and bear Interest at the said rale and sball be 
forthwith pa.vah]e. 

I'RovioKD that the said morteasee on default of payment for one 
nuinth may on one niunth's notice enter on and lease or sell the said 
brads. And provided also that In case default bi> made In payment 
of either principal or Interest for three months after any payment 
of either falls due the said powers of entcrlns and Icaslni or selling 
i>r any of them may be acted upon without any notice. And a'so 
that any contract of sale made under the said power may be varied 
or rescinded. And also that the said mortnaiiee may buy In and 
nwll the said lan<ls or any part thereof without being responsible 
for any loss or deficiency on resale or expense thereby Incurred Pro- 
vided that any such sale may be either by public auction or private sale 
and either for cash or (.1 credit or part cash and part credft and nt 
such sale the whob. or any part or parts of tbc aald lands may be sold. 
I'noviDBO that the mortgagee may distrain for arrears of Interesl 
Provided that the mortgagee may distrain for arrears ot principal In 
the same manner as If the same were arrears of Interest; provided 
that In default of the payment of tbc Interest (or any part of the 
prlncl:uJ| hereby secured the principal hereby secured sball become 
payable. 

llioviDKD that the herelnliefore mentioned notice of exercise of 
isiwer of sale or leasi\ or either, may be elfectually given either by 
leaving the same with a grown up person on the mortgaged premises. 
If occupied, or placing the same on some portion thereof if unoccupied! 
or at the option of the said mortgagee, by publlsblnR th.' same twice In 
some newspapi.r published In the County In which the saM lands are 
situate, and that such notice shall lie suKlclent though ni.t addressed 
to any person or persons by name or deslsnatlon and notwithstanding 
any person or persons to be affected thereby may be unknown un- 
ascertained, or under dhMblllty and on any sale time tor payment 

222 



UOKTOAOES 

to l™«, „r .cii „od tbat tbo remedy of l^h . „ ' """""W flnlmi 

-.-..., „o,„ „d .be „,. -o*r"ii;ei!i-prr.r.;,r ^^^ 
,uM^re^,„ro',r'.rrdr "'°"- •- ■°°«»«' -- b.,. 
...frorfboTiSTjdX'nm;" 'o"? .?,"""- "- •«™- 

«iulv.l,.nt la »„d pajau ° .t tb„ Lml H ' '" ""••"i"' « n rem 
"■-».. of lolere., .^'bereinbifit .""L","' "" "■°"" »" f" my 

tbe Il,„rl,.,oe m.y In de„„„ „, „" "^'r ' f '°'"''"- ''WW"! 

tb. .en.„.., hereby ereateU wi? ToUce '" "°^ "" '^"""•^ 

bf'ar lDter,,t al tbe .,,me rate and .h.ii? , . ""'""" "''""■•I "O 
mor,„«„r to tl,e m„r>,„,ej' ,„d°?„'5; ' '« 'r''""" P".'"ble by tbe 
.«m bereby .ecured .ball become pn/r,! .L"!^" ""' "''°"'»" 
beifby ,.|,en may be e.erci«Hl f°rtbiHh .1,^ . ■""""■" "' ">' 

tlw even; of the mortmsee^tilr' „r '."' ""' ""'I""- '>■"! In 

out of tbe money ^27'^ol,tl°' "°','""' '■''"»'' »' 'l"lm el.her 
•"■•U be ."titled trrS-eouHleaZd":' " '""""» "' - "be, 
perMD. w „„id off, «„d ar^ bel^b. °^r'.' i."" °' ""■ <'"•"•' "' 
cb.r„tbere„f,„t„«"^°,.;,';„J''^J' ""'"""""l to '"■!» any dl- 
I' they Iblnk at to do „"""'"°'' "" ' l<""" PTiod tban .l> „„„tb. 

.b.eb",brmor,ia";T..id°.'^.'""m.v''r 'V"" "'" »' ■<" '■"» 
.ball .land rh.r„!i v,M,i",Z,'ta:Z''''' '^ """"" ■■■"■• «»« 
bo per^oi, .hail baye an, rSbrto rn,!„ r T"'" '"'""' '"'"'■' »"> 
apporti„a«i upon „r In re,„ct „f I"! k °'""'="«'' °"'°">» '" '» 
mortsasee may <ll.cbar1e ^^.^1,? oj ^rti^Sr ""'!? "' '°'"' "•'^ "" 
mortgaBrt land, for iaoh 'o^2,Z<^ "j"° "'" *° """■ »' »•' 
proper or without con.°der.,°o„ If hi !k "' ""' ""'" ""'•I' 
;ll.ebar»e .h.l, dimin" b " ^^i.idlce M. " T "'• "'' "■ "'"» 
landa remaining ondlMbarirrt !^r;.„. '' "■™rlty a< agalnrt the 

tbereof be not paid .rm«url.Mh ""' ■"'""""I <•' »"> , 

to pay tbe aamfex"pt after tb^ TT ^'^ """ ■"" "» ■" ""-" 
morLasee or uponThc. p" yment 7? T""" °°"" '° "■■"'°'' '" "> ' 
•ueb notke, and l„ ,he T,l^t«, n ? "'°°""' '°"'""' 1° "'" of 
vl-lon. 0, thi. mortgage a "onL'tw ""r"" "°''" ""■ "™- 
added to the mortgage debt '°°°"'" '°'"''"' ""»" "« 

tbia^rnV^tr'trLStrgrorL'^r 'i" •'■'°"" "■'"—• 

to. aucb mantlon or ro,ere"n-'«.°;iird"e:r«.'.'orer;:! a^dTn'^jr 

223 



II 



'»< 



ill: 



ill; 






UORTQAGEH 

the tn^ulDn. «dalnlitratora ud «u||tii> ol tbo mortgafor mxl mort. 
gogeo, rcipvctiTcl7. 

James Jounioji. [Heal.] 

Mart JaKX JuiiKHnx. iKfnl | 
Iw WiTJiMii WiiKBMtr tb« MM partlet hereto bare bcrvunto aet 
tbtir band! and s^iIb. * 

HIsDPd, Bfalfd and Dellreml 
tn tbo prtw^nro of 

JOHH K. WiLROX. 
COfUTT or PRANT, 

To Wit: 

I. Jobn P. Wllaon, of thfl VIIUko of Ancartfr. Id the roimiT of 
Brant, Clerk, make oatb and My : 

1. That 1 wan personally prcurnt and did w^ th.- within Iimtni- 
ment and Duplicate thereof duly BlKniil, wal.-d aud tzecuti^ l»y Jamt-s 
JobnaoD and Uary Jaoe Joboaoo, two of the purtlfi tbmtu. 

3. That the Mid Inatrummt and Dupllcatf wore rxpciilfd hy the 
uld partita at the VinaRc of Ancantpr, of Hid TowUBhlp of Amliatrr 

3. That I know the uld partlfi. 

4. That I am a BUhicrlblng wltnrati to the said lDMtrum< i,t und 
Dupllrntp. 

Bwom to before me at tbc TlllRKe of Ancanter. In the foiinty of 
Brant, tbla drat day of June, In the year of our Lord, 11>13, 

John F. WiLtKN. 
A CommlMloner for taking Affldavlta, rtc, 

(Where mortgagor U unmnirled the following declaration must be 
added to mortgage.) 

CoLKTi or Bramt, 

To Wit : 

I, Jamei Jobneon, of tho village of Amnster. In the roiinty of 
Brant, do •olemnly declare that 1 wa>i at the time of the exicntl.in by 
me 3t the within Iniitrumrnt unmarried. And I make tblK Rolomn 
declaration conaclontlouily heUiVlDg It to be truu and kuuwiuK t .at 
It !■ of the Mme force and effect as If made under oatb and by virtue 
of the Canada Evidence Act. 

Dkclared before me at the vlUng.- of Ancaator In th» fouuty of 
Brant tbla drat day of June. 1013. 

A Commltaioncf, etc 

Form of Seed Onln Mortgage 

(For I*rovlnce of Manitoba) 

Tina l.NDEKTL-RE, made (In duplicate) the fourth day of Auguat, 
one thousand nine hundred and tblrtoen. between Jamps Dixon, of 

tbo Towuililp of niHtrlct of in Uii- rrovlace 

of Mnnltobfl, hereinafter called the Mortgagor of the first part, and 
Arthur ScovlIIe, of said townnblp, hereinafter called the Mortgageo 
of the second part. 

WiTXEssETii that the Mortgagor for and In conBlUcrallon of Five 
Tbourand Doliara of lawful money of Cnaada to blm In band well 

224 



MOBTOAOKg 

1" ■« M ten, ALL iKD «...,vr" n ■ "" ■•«"™'°". namlol. 

baKbrV" """".'T' ""'•'"""" '""■' •1.0- M„r,.,..,,. 

Tu llAVi; AMD TO Hold ill am, .,vuiia. fh., ™ 

iMTi xrnio Icriua of payment) 

Or Hhiill wpll and truly nav or rA...» t« k 

mntmlnB witldn tbe prrlod of tZ' . . '^ proml.,or, not.- 
»l.«h.r for th, ,h„,o f;™, any oartTr" f'■"°:,K'^ "»"■ "'""■"'■ 

"' rat,, aforcald: which .aid " 1,""' """'""'"■"">'"™" 

l..rol,r „.<.„r,.d '"""fral. .e>.urlty for paymtn, „, ,^^ j,,,,, 

nn.T „„r|,o.e. anythin,. Zm .o^'m tl"^'" '■"" '» »" I""-'" 
nny,-l,o notwlthrtondlnc ■ ^''°'°'"""' '<> ""■ rontrary tl.orrot |„ 

.y ■r;."iU!rr At"»r,.,:r,:;.""r' °°,- '--" -'■"-- 

•"111 .MortBacrc agaln.t the MorliiV ^ '" "'"''"■I'l ""to (hu 

other por.,m or po™„, .t„,";T ""'' "'""' »" "-' -"• 

A.vn the MortBacor iloth herehy . ,,-vavt ,..„„ 
and with the MorfBUBee that the M „ ' u '""■• ""'' ■'°'"^" >" 

t™ly pay or oau«, tr^e paid ,mt„ 1 T J'"" °°"' "'" ^'^ "'■' 
money in the ahoye nrov^rm T J ""toKee the said ,um of 
aforesaid on tEe day'and tJc ai°d°7n H " '"""•'■'" "" "«' ™"" "» 
the payment thereof; ° '"" "■■'■"■' «""'' """IM for 

225 



MOBTUAOCI 

Ann »i«ii r> cms Di:»t 1.T mAix ■• jud> id tiii rATitKT of 
tbe Mid >uiiM of money In lb« uM provlio Duntlonnl or of tht 
lotrml thrrniD or iiny |iart tlwrrof or In .mo. tUi' MorliJiiior ■ball 
mirBpt lo <ll>|io>. of or In any w«y iinri with th,. |H...,.„|on „f 
lUe MM crop, or uny of llipm or lo nmovt lUv luiiii.' or iiny part 

llirmf out of t:ii- IlriMratlon DUtrkt of or .uBm or 

pirmlt tlw Hni' to Ix ■.'l2<'il or lakrn In tiituilon wllbout 111., ion- 
iK«t of Ibv Urirtiailor lo nuill ulo. rimornl ..r illapoul Itoriof Ont 
bad and ubtnliinl In wrllUig or In cnie ilic .Mortwuor iliall oMmnd 
or atU'mpt to abmond from or l.ov.' tbv mu\ I'rovlm.' of Jloulloba; 
or lo ra-f thf mild Mort|iB|{<'r f.-.tpt iinnnft; or ln..i-tur.' or di^m tb« 
cropa aforeuld In ilankvr of bi'lne aolil or nmorid ; or upon tbo Imue 
of any Writ of Humncna or Klot.m.nl ..f ilului for u mon.y .btnand 
ngalDit Ihp Mid MoruaKor or tht- Imhoi' of any writ or wrlu of 
cii-cuUon upon any Judumrnl a;,-oln«t Ih.. wild Mortiiniior or uiion 
Ibr arliurv ol Ibi- iropn afonaalil or nny imrt lli.rrof undor any uncb 
rnrullon: or In cax' t:ii. uld Mortiioiior »linn full lo pay ibo ront 
orUlw out of thf land and pr<'ailH>.H upon whivh arc xltiiuti' and 
lying tbv cropB nfonitnld at any tlmf durlnu tlio currency of tbia 
Jlortiaie of any rtnrwal tb.r..<,r ol Ira.t nli day. In-for.. thr umo 
■ball bMomp duo^ or upon tin. Ihiup of any warrant of dlntniiH for 
Mid rtnt. or on thr lalluro to Iniurc or keip Inaurrd the .ropa aforo 
Mid within the meaning and provlsloni of tbU Indenture, or upon 
the ibaBdonmeut of the iropa oforeMld or any part thereof, or upon 
lb» Baking of any anbniment for the Inneflt of credllora ^ or upon 
the arrnt of Mid Mortgagor on any criminal ihnrge. or the laauc ol 
•cy writ of "eapln>." or attachment agnlnat the Mid Mortgagor or 
In caae default shall bo made In the performanee of any of the cove- 
nanta by the uld Mortgagor In the«e pre,enl« lontalni^ and ao often 
aa the Mid erenla or any of them may happen. 

This and In every aurb cuae It ahall and may be lawful for the 
Mortgagee with bla or their ..rvant or aervunta and with auch other 
aialaunt or aaal^lanta ai be may rmulre at any time during the doy 
to entir Into and upon ony landa. tenemenla. houaea and premlM-a 
whereaoever and whataoever when- the crop, oforiaold or ony port 
thereof may be and for auch peraon or persona to break ond force 
open any door, locka, bora, bolts, faatenlnsa. hlng..s. gntea. fences 
bouaea. buildings, enclosures and places tor the purpose of laklng 
poaa<«alon of or removing the crops oforesuld. .\nd If the cropa 
OforeMld have not motun^d nt the time of taking possession oa afore, 
sold, then the Mortsngee shall U' at liberty to remoln In poaseuloa 
of the sold premlwa until the cropa aforesaid have motured and been 
converted Into niarlietnble form and sold, 

.\jiO upon ond from and after the laklng possesalon of such crops 
as aforesaid II shall and may lie lawful and the Mortgagee la hereby 
authorised and empowered to nil the ero|H afori'sold or ony of tnem 
or any part thereof ot public auction or by private .ole oa to him 
may srem me..t ; aSD from and out of the proceds of such sale In 
the first plo.e lo poy ond reimburse himself all audi sum or sums 
of money oa may t:;en be due or owing ond accruing due by virtue 
ot tbeae ITenenta and all auch .-xpenses aa may have lioen Incurred 

226 



'■ .iu.ii A 



li Hkcl. lalliir.' or iiln<on.llni, a. .bo.,. i»,.ni|„„„i „„,, ,„ „,.","■ 

.;' :r:jiLT„"zTr; 'ii ""•," """""- "- "•"• ^-"'» «' " 

!• lur... .1, !»»""■" ■>' "II "lull xum ut .uu. „t nii.n.» und 

,. ,1 '■■ ™»»'r.l.in iiiid Kulo and „tu.r |«i,i„,.ni „r il<„ 

... .,•'.»," '■•'""" ""' '" ""'" ""'""■• '■""•'•r.K.ii uDd 

MHTtb..|,„ lb,,, I, .„„|, „„, 1^ ,„,„„^.., 
... , '»'' •ll"l'»«- "t II... irup. uf.,r...„ld l,.il ibat .„ 

■ ,"'r°'.n' "": """ ""■° "' """■•»• ■""■ """-"t 

, ■■> ■ ... .. .;;; " ::Z TuZ'J:. 'zz '::j: "tt 

. '■"""■•" "' 111" lIort,ii,„r o, ,„, ,„|,„ „,„ „ ° ; 

■ _^'v .no „,. u„rl.„.„r d.„l, h,.r..l,, r„rlb,r ',,,^,7,° 

d«m«,. I„ I..II or llr, 1. „„, ,„.„„„„ „«" . , aulhor". d ,o ,ra» 

r;';^', :;'"f '"■'°""' """• "•' "" -» •«™ir,«ua „Vd d.r..; 

°""!,;°''.."'Ch" "■■"'■::'•'■ •"" "- --'-ip^i ';.. b...^^;,r.t.„s- 
In';:;;;'.,:,' 'i^rb'.' """•■"°"'' """-"-"^ '-" "-^ "- -- s. 
wi«'T;L:."„;''"i'>" '""•"'•"' »">•" <•• '<•>• m.."..... .l™,, .. „„ 

.ci^'r:,:^- X si^'.jo ,=- r-d:;: ^z z 

227 



UOBTQAGEB 

ProTldcd Iurti„, that In lu™, .ud, .i.urliy „r «.cutm,., bare been 

or may hcrcafur b. elvon. tHo pajmeDt ot the „„o .L.I b^ ™ 

•IdrriHi pnymmt "iiro lanto" of ibl> JlortaBo 

I'BoviDBD tbnt the MortBUKor. bl» belr,, executor., odmtal.lrntor. 

Md ....tan, nre and .ball be beiiad by the <o„„anl. kad .tl,," btlon" 
hereto mntalned, and the benellt „( ev.Ty covenant or , " .Hon 

herein conlalaed on the part ot the Mortsagor .bull eL^ to a^S 
ZZ^ fr? '"■'''"° '"•""•"^ ■"">■ "'■ •■«T'^^l"ed by Ibe heir.. e.e°„t°r. 
ada nlalrator.. ,ue.v..or. or a.»l„n. „( tl.,- MorlBasee and aKai",; 

be her., e.eeutor. adml„l.,r«tor, and a».U-„» „t The JIor"a„„r Lnd 

"id .e"e;aT°°°'" '"'""° "°'"°''' ""■ "■ >-• »■'"■"•«' '-^'"iZ 

It 1. aluo agreed, whcn-rcr the .Insular and the maacnllne nm 

n.ed Ibrourtont tbl. Indenture, the .ame .ball be eon.lrT^ aXea" 

Inlo'l'o Cnt" •■ "" """°'°° "'"° "" "";■" "' "- -""■•»"'-"°- 

un.rjsfLrd'j^ur '■""" '° '"^ ■•'^■■™'" "-■ ^"- 

JaUES Dl.tON. [.KAI,.] 

Sia.vcB, SEALED A.VD Delivebed In thc preiencc 0( 

srhip'r'"" •" "-rt- ,'°""^ ■.'^"^"""-""■•. o, the 

iown.blp ot lo ,b„ Province ot Maaltoba. the Jlottaav.e 

li^T "' ""'" "' """ °' """'""' ■'»°''«'. i oalb 

That . the Mortsaior In the foreKolna Bill ot Sale 

dep.rn',° """""^ -".ed 1. Ju»,ly .ad truly I'debuil °,'„ 'tt 

nJe"'i'b'on;and-nol,a-rr„,;.!;:io^rfb^,r'"'° °"°"<'' '° ""= '"" »' 
TUAT the .aid mil of Sale by way of Mortaaite wn. executed In 
80od faith to .eenre the purch.«. price of .e,d Br^m and J^ti. 
expre.. purpoae ot .eeurln,; payment of the money .„ Ju.tly djo or 
necruluB due a. aforcnld. and not for the pnrpo.' of nroteetlnrtbl 

ehatT;rmo?;a"'";;r;„r';f '^. "° r 0?""° ■"™""°"! '- "-' 

buabel,' .,""""" °' ■ ;■ ■ • "' """I" P-r bu.hel and 

" a '' "' ■, ■< eents per bn.bel. 

SniiR.s before me at the Ton'n.hln r.i ,„ .u „_ . 

of Manitoba, tbl. fourth day of Ausu.t. A.' I,.' ,Vl3. """°"~ 



r.„..,„ ■. . '^ f»"n'l«»loner for tnklns Allldavl't. In n. n. etc 
Canada. ITovlnce of Manitoba, ton-It : 

I. John IlarrlNon, of the Townuhin ,./ 
ot Manitoba, make oath and ."""^ °' '° "■- '•"""■■™ 

That I wa. pcr«>nally preK.nt and did «=e the wlthto Bill of 8.1, 

228 



=11 ! 



Uy ■ 

.iml -VrtlMir KrovlU,. th., „„rtI..H thm- 

|nirtli„ ,11,(1 tiiat tiw nai 

wIlnpHH to till 

"ilH iIi-iHtni-ot. 



of 



mo Jolio Ilnrrton >et ond «ub.crll.', ". . 



s., „„ , , '° ""■ ''■■"'■'■'™ of Mnnitoba. 




ot Manlloba, thl. fourth d,,', of Aiwu.,', .v! a ini,-,: '° ""' ■''''"""■' 
A CommlMlonw- for tnklns A(idavitV'ta'ii. H., rtc. 

Form of Chattel Mortgage— Live Stock 

Criif Provliuv of Snskntrhc.wnni 

silvery Of ,h,.. Pre,™,r, """''p, wbLofr^'',"'"''"' ""'' 
I'r,-».ntH .H,T„ JLx;%™r til';!''" .""■'''■'°''''' "°" "^ ""■"'^ 

stock.) ' '° '"''■ <"''rc elvc location of live 

and unlll the,. I'r,,™!. „„- fnUv , ,M , ^ ^ °' °""""' "" '<"" °" 

'^,", " -ndcd"b/;b,'Z,s ;';'br.,;d d'';:;.- ""■;• '"■■••- 

nt liiH own (>Tiiiin...> n. 1 1 »■*•'" I" ur.inueo i»y the Morteiiirnr 

<o.t and c,pcn» oL"tonndTh,,;r T'J" """ ™""" """ »*' "'" 
by «....,. pr,.,,.°.l, '™"'°°"" ""™'>- '° «•■■■ Prl-Hpal m„„oy ,..,,,r,.d 

either 1„ addition t " n n™^i , , " ,':'""' ■",:■ '"■ '""'"■•'" """•"■■"■ 

afnrcnld live «o,k. ' " ""'""""1"" '"r "ny or tbo 

A»i> ..so, any and all Hvc .took, horoaft.r purchased or acqulr,^ 

229 



!1 
II 



^fl 



ft 



rm 



M0RTUA0E8 



pi-ney 



thew prvaentH tir any 



' utock, unto 



l»y tho M.)rtKa«..r diirlnit tli. 

«l«c notvi-ithsMndlnii : couirarj thirc.r la any- 

for" vL™. rLrToT,. T^m"" " '°'T?' "• "»• "°"- "'"'"'°""' 

- n. .^ >n':;L:: sz::;r3°;;^;:'m:;; jrt: 

uald in ., , '"•"'■■'■"t "Oil rompound lnt|.r..»t arp out 

i" 'Lp«„pd ,z s, ": ';:;.2u.*'r;!,""" ""-" ^" ■°°''' 

Oicn du,. and >u on rr„n L ''°'"'"' °° "'" negrritatr amount 

impound ,nt™.. ^a,',";:: I'-zz ^:%,:':^^'i^i;jr"' "■" 

..».» tbo ...^ Mo,™"/'.'.'.:;."'^"^"" ""■ -« "- ..ock. 

.„Ver °°- "'"'""• """■"> ■■-'""-•p-onoV^rJrrC; 

TIlEfAMFVrotV^.L.H ■"■'"''* '■>"': ■"^'■■I.T SHALL R|: MALB IS 
o of tb" tater,. h^ „„""" "' "'""'■'' '" ""■ ■«''' "■•'""» ""-ntloncd. 

«.«» .bXti r,"°:,rnr"d°Lr',,;'rr„''.:' '" """ ""■ ■^"'"■ 

po-.™,l„n of th,. ,„ld „>-,■ stock o^an V f th 2 *,""'■ """ """ ""■ 

or .a, par, ,„or,.of, „„. ofX' ;;:.ir/,„'„'"„"',„";,,r:,™"" ""■ "Z 

«a,or .tall .„,,.,, .„„„ „, „„„„ „ j,,^^^^^, ,^ ^ ^^^^^j^^ _^^JJ^i^ 
230 



MOBTLAQES 

::=':, ■.-.'—£ l~- ■ - ™ =-■- 

or t],™,».lvo, or Ur or witl M» „ ,h I »'°;K»«"<-- I'.v Wm»..|f 

wllh ,ui.h otlur n,.l.l.». „r » , ^ . "'"""' "' "ervuit., and 

:iS'",„.;.'T". ""- -'™''™ "^'^"-° °- r.°»;°Xr":;!r;.",i;i; 
.^.''aL";,:!. v:'..';";;o„'?.:7„:.rLr- ,r. -.r: -?■"•• 

p^.j^s»r:LrTs;d~'£SHri^ 

;rc.r;;;r :^d'r^cr'°^rd""'V" «^"^- 

«orr:::/;;r''..d"rrr ""--""■' "-^^^^ 

-';;- ■' f '- p":™.rr.-,s„°„: 'd'::".L?:?":,-r.° :; 

o? ';„. pro";ro/;„z„r.?;v"/ r? --'^ -»■' '-"■""»« 

-r:; ?:r H~'^ - °-' -'='" -,^ 
=td r;rSr H™""---~v:^ 
"II ri; ™t:; — yzr^r E™p-"i=o- 

aiorreaiu. and the Mortgamr dotb horcliy further 

231 



I! 



I 



HI 

ill 

n 
P' 



M0RT0A(IE8 

Interruption of .i,„\t . J "''"'"'■ lilndrnnie or 

""^'i^'. »''i^en,-Vr„„r,«srx„:Ltr™" -" """'- 
durtn, .,..n ,;r,;'.,f„rV;.oi o„z"2. 'c"! '„';; rtL''""";. "'" 

or ox.outlc.n ,.itant „BOln,t M \hr,~ °- "' ""' J"*""™' 
»o pn,„, ,o„c..,„.r'„,',n°':, ItreraU'an",""..;!""""; °' "r' 

BO paid. "<i-«" Hiin siuli HuoiN of nionpy 

And t.,e Mor.wgor c„VE.v,Kt» with the Mortgagee ,h.t i, 

2.12 






MOK'i'JAHEB 

will .lurtni! thp coDtlnunnc,. ot tl,i, „,„r,™ 

t" b,. approve,, u, cr," «»«,.",.,„,, f°J° r"" """"""■ '■'"'. 
Thou»a„d U„l]a„ ,„j wm pa) all , m! °' °"' '""" "'"° TLr™ 

B'Seo . I1.C pdllcy „r B„||i° ,,,*'"" •"" '" 'l"' ""U Malt- 

apporh,l„,„B: V„„v,»/„rLarL l/°",rT "^ """"" '""-"■ 
nlam ar .urn. of nionoy u, thr\r„' WJment „t „,j „„, 

IjiTcby .ocorvd (a»d .ball b™r 7n° r™t », „ " °^''"' '" ""' ^l" 
day of Buib pa,ni,.ol) and .io,M ' " """"^ '"'• ff""" tbe 

nfocraald. loaru.u «i(ii tUo repayment tbcriot aa 

.^'x.:';;.^nL"^s;i':^..::i'r:i"^ """■■' "-'» 

l-ltalor. and „,»!„, of lb. partL b, rf . ' """"'""■ "''"'l-- 

prw«ly m.-ntloned tbercln ■'••"Peitlvtl, „, „ j,. 

•be plural or tbo f,a,^^ . ^berr.L t". '"V T"'™"" " ■»»"'■■« 
«" rcflulri-. """" "" •"■"•■«t "< tho panic, heruto 

a..rjMrr\:.'dTr-:t';..''""'™ "• ""- ""«-" -c. b„e. 

SiMCEL Joil»aoN. [8I4L.J 

William Ulbn.v. [„„.. , 

B.a».p, g,AL.„ .»„ D.L,v.„.p ,n ,1.0 prc^nc „, 

Caaada rrovlnc,. of Sa..a,oh....„, ,„..i, ., """• ""— 

I, ttllllam Ulonn, of tb,. Townsblp of 

Sn»lcatchc.vian. ihc Uortaarav In th, / ,' '° ""' ""vince of 

«».«,,„,. na„..d „„u. S';. °, 'SsL"',!,' '/'i""'" ">■ "»^- "' 
l-agor, In Ibe fori'mln- mil „, a„, , '"""' '"bnson. the Mori, 
la Jii»tlj and irul, indel ed i^ n h" ""'■ '" •'"''"isai!.- naui.d, 
Morto,,,.,. .b,.r,.,n'nam"'t ib. L oTrb' '"'T'^ ""•'■'■ "- 
monlloned tliercla. That th i .,, d Iin? ? » , T ^'"""•»'"> ^ollm-. 
w«,, ,.„cH,t.d In ™,d faU and ?„r 'tb/' ^':!" ■"■ »"'• "' «»"-.■■«.■ 
tb,. ,myn„.„, of tbo money .0 J„ °tl, d ,h , """"" '" "''•"•"^ 
■aid irnd not for 11,0 p„rno„ „, „ Jf, T " "^'"blns doe a, afore- 
lb tbe 1,1,1 of s„,' by""r or ilorSl.""' "" ""' "•"" "'"tloned 
aald S«,oo,.| Job„„n t"o' v'rt^a^or Th "'? "' "■" ""<"'"" »' "" 
1.8 the er„ll,or, of oeh MorlZr fro™!", TT"''' "' °' ■"'■"■"• 
i-laln, a«„l„.t ,be »ld MorSo" '°'°'' ""'•"•" »' °°» 

SWUBX IIKPUKE IIK lit tllO f 

Of sa.i„„„e„„„, ,1,1. „„, day'of's:,,°e„;.;;;A; D.'°t,K" '■'°""°" 

* STIT"" '" ""••' Afflaa,lt» In' 
Saskatcbewan. 



*l 



for the Province ot 




i 



;ll 



M 



1 1 

III 



!l: 



UUBTQAUa 

lUDuilii. frovlnco of Saik.ulii.,«n. luwlt • 

I. SiimucI Johnimn. or tlie Town.hlii ot f„ ,„. 

till- wthln MorlKair,- and I om ,.„rr.,tlj du«Tlb«l ili.-r, In 1 nin 
no, .b.ol„,„,,.. „„d ,n „, .OK. „„d ,„Llvc. ,l,b Z Zj Z 

wtlbln ctiattcl ujortKasi*. 

vJ,„J'" "?"" '°^" °°'' '""«•'• ■" correal, dcirllwil In .aid 
Morti-w, „nd .r,. now nil in Bo.«i tondlttoo „nd r,.,,„lr ;,nd mc 

wwtli todnj- nt 1,'ii.t Thr.',. Tlioa«ind l.r> In ca.li 

... TUal mj Itabllltl™ In nil do not -.m-d On,- IlundM llolloi, 
J. mor,. la no mortsm:... LypoHirc. ||,.n or ilnim ..t any i.lnd 

l.a.l,.|., or any porllon o( tl..-m. »»^ the within morlBascv and no 

and'cha'tiT' ""-■ ''°" T ""' '°°'" "^ ""■°"«" ™ wH'cl. .id BooS^ 
and clinttplH or any of tlii-m arf altuati-. 

or 'l:,fl'l''" 'r °° ^'"'""'■»' "■■ '-I'-^tl.m o( any kind now In tor™ 
or ...lant asaln.t m,.. I clala, th. .aid cblttel., or .ucb portion 
tlirrmi a. n.ay pr„pi.rly b,. .„ ,.|.|„,.d a. ...ompt from ^"0™ 
under any ,.,.™,l„n or other proee™ „r any ,oan and I will ^ 
Claim then, until .uch m„r..a„e I. (ully paid and .au"! I und " 
tak. to pay th,. .aid m„rti;ai!o acordlnt to the tenor thereof and 
not to .ell. e.ehaoKe or otherwl.e dl.|,o«. of an, of the chattel, 
hcren de.erlhed without th, eo„.e„, la writing of ,h. Zr,JZl' 
therein mentlon..d until the ™id llortrage and mtereat are full, 

«. I aiu over twenty-one year, of age. 
tent' noil TUM'" °''°*" •""■""•" '"""S other.) ,1th the In- 
Moe,.r» . , ''"''■■""" """■""'■ ■" "">»■'>'« the within named 
";" Mfr't^age." "'"°°™ ""• """"° °»°""' •"" "° ""• '"-■■"» »' 

ASP : make ihl. solemn declaration, con.rtentlou.lv bellcln,, 
it to be true and knowing that It 1. of ,he .ame toree and eff«? 
Tso" " °°"' °°'' '"' """' ■" ^'"' <»°"'"' '•^vldeaee ,"t 

Declaiikd before me at the . of I th 

TTll faf,"""-""' ""' «"• 0"'"°' 8ep,VmberVi;-,hc ye.^ 

* 8a°r.'e"h'e°w°«. '" ''""' *"""'"■ '" ■"" '"'"'"''-"» o, 
Canada. I'rorinee ot Saskatchewan, to-wit • 

I. John Ilendrli, of the Town.hip of |„ ,be Pr„rt„,.. 

of Hasknichewan. make oath and »ay ■ 1 rovln.e 

Sa e hj way of Mortt-at-e duly .leaed, sealed and delivered by Sam- 

tTorthe"re:!f ,- M "" """ '""""'"■"' ■■" " ""-•»• •» ""■ «'■'"' 

hat .hi ' "'■"""■ '"'"""■'■'"■'B o' -'» thl. deponent, and 

that the same was ei.euiej at the Township of T . . in ije 

Mid Province ot Saskatchewan. in ine 

234 



THE TORBENg 8TBTEH 






1 



THE T0BBEN8 LAND TITLES SYSTEM 

™t«bll»b.j title and tru,t compnny And oven T.r .' T "" 
unoortnlntT U aToldcd. The n„bllc r....ir,r »? fh' ■ "^ °°'' 

1^ ^ . »• M 11. *» me TvgutoT shows a morteasc rfln<>i>i)Mf i* 

l» not nrecMrr to ttamlnc the ln»tn>mcnt to .e» 1( It u in Lr 

toba, Si skntchewan. portions o( Ontario, and XortliwOKt T.-rrltorl™ 

235 






ji: 



m 



THE TOURENS sysTKM 

rem of Jhti Vain Torreni Byattn 



n 



I. Henry JobDnon, of the cItT nr nttnivn i- »k #^ 
In th,. olll,,. of L.nd Tm..!T,. r. ^'' "■'■""""' "°'' '"«l«l"r.-a 

her,rj; "rsowrjt-tji.r.r "■• ••"' "™- -'-■■■ 

D-M «.. .... d., 0, „„ ,b„„„„j „,^^ ^^^___j^^^ ^^^ 

Wltnen : ,, 

N.th.n ,„n«. .MH^rj^v"?""- 

o..n'-r'.'./°"°"- "^ ""— -"- ^^^'^^i::u 

Um°l\LTnk°J 'f! °'° ■I" """■""I"" '". ">»< >!.<■ »l»v.. named 
Ibl.'"""' tTir " "",;'" °' °"'""' '° ""■ '^™°" "' '■■""■'°"- 

A. n . ™™»,.;,v«,r;',!c ""•" ""'""'■■•■ 

rorm of hud Traaifer Under Land Titlo. Acta of 
Sukatdiewan and Alborta 

=;«ro;'::^o^ i:::r,n- ;^,;;^r „^-7;;°S 

kn..,n „n,l d™crlb,J „, foil,,,-,; ,^,^, l„,ort if LXjil. •■ ^ 

name ,„ ,„„, „ddr, „ „„' «<<J.Zorlm.,-.ytr^JZ'''T 
rocolp, „ .„,cb .„„ , „.,„„, „.,,„„„,od„o LnZ ,X " W 



THE TOBRE.NB aVBTEH 

..««! on ,.„ a„ .^„ o.,.«, ,, „„ ,. ^^,^^,^ ^^ 

in tb. Pr„,tacc Of mnkewhaod 



I, 



nay 



.. o( . 



°-- ■ l" ■'"' 'or tb,. eo.,n,y oj 

ronn of HortCHe Under Tomn. System 

.or,.« a» .„ no.liJ'brrr™i3ur„J.r":, ■■""?■■'• '"-" '•"' '»• 
on), or th«t plcco or land (htro Z. ? J ° '^ '■•">'"•>■•' b'-re. 
.... s<rtlon ....,Towo.h7„„f ' ""•■"»"»■' o( land), port of 
""■I, ronlnlnlnit .... acre. ,»'.►'»' """"•■• ' <0' >• the catc ma, 
rl«ht. of wa.v...n,om.n?.7f'a"v inU?^","""!" ""• '""■ """» "-t' 
tl..- land, and If ,hc and Zi ",r»n.°..^ 'T""^ °'"""' ■""' 
orlBtaal .(rant. r..f,.r thoreto ™ dMcrtnlZ „? "" ,'°°'"*'^ '" "" 
otbcrwlT „.t f„„h ,„ ,„, „,° , ", J"°° o' n-'wla and dlaBram. 

dollar, on tbo ..'. da, of A no "' ""^ »' 

...":r'-.b^i,',ar'i.x':ri,rei:ai-"''^ •"°' « - -» « 

""J' of and „n ,l,e "^d"; it ' T""™'" "° ""' ••■ 

™rt','rv:' '""■ ■p'^'-i ™'«nnn;.vi,':n';r' ""■ 

■ina for thp lu'ttor .rcurinji of the nid r n .1 
ninnnrr »for,..ald of the nrln,1n»l .,.„ . . ' ""' '•'POJ-mcnt In 

•crlbod. ' '"''' "°'' Interest in tbo land abore do- 

.l«,'o°f "".°."". T'""' ' '•''■' '•"'■"■'"' "»=••« n.. name tbla .... 
Slynod by thp iilmvc namod A n ■» » A. B. 

(.n„rt n.o.„ra.d„. of°';V^^es'°an7rn°LlS-i-, 



237 



If- 



Uatt 

•1 



BLACK roX INDUVTBY 




TH« HOH. OHAILCS DALTDN, 

The l'loOi><>r In thi> BraMjInit of the BltviT Black 

I- ox In, lYlDce Edward Island. 

BLACK rox nrouBTRT 

<AbrtdK«d from OfllelHl Report of CaoadlaD CominU»loD of Conserrfr 

tlon,) 

Kca Fabmisu l8 H now Indiwtry In Canada, but Its derelnprnont 
una been rapid. According to thi- report of tbe rommltteo on Flaliirlo*. 
r.ame and ForBearlng Aolmalfl, published In 1013 by tbo Communion 
of Coniierratlon of Natural Heiiaurces, the moat remarkable mitfceM 
ban been attained In brerdins rilver nod other color pbanit of the 
fox comtnoQ to Kflstem Canada, 

Locality.— Up to the prevent time (he domeatlcatlon of wild fur- 
iM-arlng animata has U-cn practiced moHt extenBlvely. and nltm most 
KiicceasfuUy. In the Maritime Provincea ; but the Indunlry 1h devi-lop- 
in« rapidly la Ontario and Quebec, while iiolated fur-fiirma are to be 
found throughout the Western ProTlnces. 

raiCKB.— The black and dark illver ■klna from foxca produced on 
ITInce Kdward Island iaDehe» have rarely brought leaa than live hun- 
dred dolltirn each, and frequeDtly bring over two thouaand dollars at 
Ix>ndon auction nales. The pioneer fox breeders have acquired wealth 
In the business and their BuceesH has Inspired their netjhbora to en- 
gage In a similar line of work. Naturally the price of breeding stock, 
ri'siMJndlng to the Increaned demand, has risen to many times the fur 
value, so that the ownership of c-ven a pair of silver foxea la Impo^ 
fllble to the average farmer. 



BLACK FOX INDl'BTBY || 



CoanuTiiixii AID 
"•I mtllion. hovi. b,,, 

k^n.. ..i».i. Which ^„L°!o.°u;,"'?''r !° ""■•■" ""■ 

ported into ,1,, »,„,„„, IZl^TnX,^^ J'"' '°"" ""'■ "»• 
price, ihTc UU.V.. [Jc o"t,tac3 I. .;^ ,,'"■ '"'■°* ■"" "'1™"'»1 

»( . l.l«h.Brad. Mick L ',Mc. ™ ., 'f:'."'"- ■""■ "" v„l„ 

•nd hl> former purtncr. Ho".?, t OulZ ? ' '" ■'''«°'"''- '■• t'- >■■ 
■ ho„t ins: ,1,1, „, ,„,„, "|,,..*„„ • ■J"'"" l"""" cipcrl,D..„l„, 
Utcr. hr b„„rt. ..0 «!,;■„* Ivc?,'"','" " """" "' '>■"" •■o»d 
«d from Ant.co.,1 l,\°l", LlZnm«Z m" "'''"'""h, Ul,.rlct. 
dlfferrnt .„„,,. f„r uLoat ICD vc^. f,^M„ ' .k""""'""""'" '"" '"■ 
.1™ oxp,.rl„,.MIng with .liver fZ; nl!' ,"' "°"' '""'™ ""■ 
...nd, „f Which he „.. th" :„'|,'S„K He L" "■"■', "" "■'"«" 
the p„l,llc with the ncccllr „, kc^p.«Lnvfr ?,''■' '" '""'"■" 
hi. pen., con.tructed within on ouUH^ , ' " '''' ™°''', und 
■ren. were the n,„le., f„r ,° S?e.Jnt >v.,r T""' " """"■' ■""■ '» 
Oillton Join,,, In,,,,,,, |„ iJoroT iher i^ .° ranching. Dolton and 
out .i,cc,...t„|„ .ne present form. ow.r"- ""'■ """"■'■ ""''■I 
built ranch ai TlunNh .fiVl . . , •'"rloiure.. lo ISI)-, Dalton 
rnnch. ,1,. JU,'",:"'. , i" ,':,^"j".^« » "•" |»>"re«t In th,.' ZlZ 
Mle. for the dl.trlcl. M, Oulton'. ro.c, """""!' »"duct.J the f„r 
.. tho«. uf hi, lale part", Jam" "»' '"'" '"' """"'■ »' '••■" 
al« .ondncted „ generr" "".'poaTn " wnr^h""? """" """"" 

.elllnB for foundation br„^lnK .,„ck h'.T - '°"* " '"" '""■ '•"> 
80 great I, ,h„ demand that "he nHc^' m ° T"'"' '""■ '"" """• 
jear,. from »3.00« pair to «,,,S^ ."T"""'''' '""■'■ ^'cn In two 

provld,^ f„r thci, I, in,„'°aw,"„?' tnT r """■'• " "" "°" """"^ 
fnr-h,.ar,.r» durln,. vJ^iTZi..^" Tt "'"'-"T" '" """' ■"•»""■'■-' 
beacr, for ran,hlDg pur„„,e, ,7,1, L "°'""'"" "' ""I- '"' 

o-P. .■rince .dward l.J. .j^- *» J™;^,^ S'SS^ 

239 



mcMocorf rewlution tbt chart 

(ANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




I.I 



12.2 



12.0 



I 



1.8 



^1^1^ 



^ APPLIED IM/1GE I™ 



.^^ 



(7161 *82 - 0300 - Phon 
(716) 2SS - 5989 - Fo. 



BLACK FOX INDUSTRY 

nnd Qufibec to hold the naimala during the close season, provided they 
have bwn caiiKht In the open scation, or brought from a point oat- 
side the province. In all the otlicr provinces, no ranching can be 
legally done without a permit from the provincial department charged 
with the care of game and fur-bearing animals. 

The amount or capital requibrd to finance a ranch containing 
even three or four pairs of foxes. Involves the organization of com- 
panlos or extensive partnerahlpa among people whose experience and 
location are suitable for fox-ranching. In the autumn of 1012, at 
lenst 150.000 was required to build, equip and stock a ranch in Prince 
Edward Island with five pairs of flrst-class stock. Many ninchea 
have been equipped for less money, but cither cheaper wild or un- 
aelected Htock irom Newfoundland or elsewhere was purchased, or 
options had be.'n taken at an earlier date on pupa for delivery at that 
time. 

Tub 8ILVEB FOX industbt Is centered al>out the following points : 
Alberton. Snmmerside, Charlottetown and Montague, In Trlace Ed- 
ward Island; Tort Elgin in New Brunswick; riaatrc Day on the 
north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec city in Quebec, and 
Wyoming in Ontario. An attempt was made to aecure expert opinions 
from qualified furriers as to the final value of sliver fox pelts when 
they ure ;jroduced in aa large numbers as those of red foxes are 
nov-. The consensuH of opinion was that because of Its greater 
beauty and more favored color, silver fox fur would bo three times 
as valuable as red fox, natural black furs not occurring commonly In 
nature. 

Because the silver fox has never been produced In considerable 
numbers. It has been Impossible for furriers to carry a stock large 
enough to warrant advertising it and featuring Its sale. It has 
been difficult to obtain even two matched skins at one sale. Under 
the new conditions, when thousands of skins may come on the mar- 
ket season after season, matching will be easy, and the beat fur 
stores can carry In stock enough silver fox to warrant the featuring 
of the stock. 

Cautiow, — The promoter has entered the field, and companies are 
being floated whose capitalizations are based on present high prices 
and rosy speculations of profits. Although there Is ample basis for a 
sound industry In fox-farming. It Is necessary that the general public 
should realize that the industry is liccomlng a highly speculative one, 
and that the Individual who puts his money In companies loaded with 
a heavy burden of capitalization assumes a risk. 



240 






HOBTOAGKS 
CHATTEL XORTGAOES 

security and yet retain DosM«f<,„„f .f'. "'''"'*'■"' " 
furnltnre. machinery, tools'^^nibary "etc"' Thi. cLT^h"'' 

RniM GoTernlng Chattel Mortgages 

alllclavlt before one or o.hV^? ?. u^T"' ""'" »'"" ■"«*« 
8age is taken for 1 bonaSde dehf .^rn"/"'* '"^ ■"''"- 
Of defeating the morWr't crtditora """ '" '"« '"^^ 

hecrerX..V''e%TrnTs ^rhaTr/T.f''* "l"'^'- 

must be renewed bi^thefllng o? a^^ri^' 'I""' """^ " 
the mortgagee within the III!.^^ "*""' statement by 
rersary elcfyerro the last mina'j;; f"'^'''^ the annl- 
renewal. - ' """^ °' '"« mortgage or Its 

Similar rules are In effect In other provinces 

ady?nrrtrt,metf°?hrsS/o5 ?.°'^ """"^^ "^'-^ 
also to cover futu™ advances Th" """"Kage, but 

only the Chattels or stock in ;-de!n tTe''„°"°/°""' """ 
time the mortgage is ilven h„;".i ' Premises at the 

substituted therefor ' """ '"'' ■""^'' <"• <=•">"«" 

to "?o^Tsf:?y"„^^erg"vr^ofirsta"nV'';^'''"''' '^'""^ 

chant to a wholesaler at ?!,.»„ ,f' "'' " ■■*"»" ™=r- 
good, to the former "' °' ""* '""' «»PPlylng 

melts' ilTa'cIf cl'ae'^ °'"'^''^™ ™"- '" <" ««« re,uire- 

anlVromTt crr°see!."trH",h?'":.° '" «'^^" "-="" 
parties. '"^ "*'"" »'"' obligations of both 

17 241 



i 

'4 



S 
t 



MORTGAGES 

Chmttal Mfwtgag« with Power of Sale 

THii INDKNTURB made fin diipllcate) the tenth tlay of June, one 
thousand nine hundred and twelve. 

Between John Smith of the Township of Berkwlth, In the county 
of L4inark, Province of Ontario, yeoman, hereinafter calleil the Mort- 
gaffor, of the flrBt part; and Wm. Punn, of tlie Township of Bet-k- 
wlth, fn the County of Lanark, Province of Ontario, yeoman, herein- 
after called the Mortgage-' of the second part. 

Witneaaeth, That the ..Lutgagor for and In consideration of Four 
Hundred Dollars of lawful money of Canada to him In hand well 
and truly paid by th- Mortgagee at or before the aealing and de- 
livery of these Prt.-.^nl8 (the receipt whereof Is lioreby acknowl- 
edged) hath granted, bargained, sold and assigned, and bv these 
Presents ttoth grant, bargain, sell and aaaign unto the Mortgagee, 
his executors, adminlstratorn and assigns all and singular the goods 
and chattels hereinafter particularly mentioned and described ; that 
Is to say : 

(.Here deacrtbe chattels and their location.} 

To Have and to Hold, All and singular the said goods and chat- 
tics hereby asaig.ied or Intended to be assigned unto the said Mort- 
gagee of the second part, his exeoHtors. administrators and assigns, 
forever, as his or their own proper goods and effects. 

Provided, Alwat/s. and these Presents are upon this express con- 
dition, thai If the Mortgagor, his executors or administrators do 
and shall well and truly pay or cause to be paid unto the Mortgagee 
his executors, administrators or assigns the full sum of Pour Hun- 
dred Dollars, with Interest for the s;ime at the rate of Ave per cent 
per annum, on the tenth day of June, ini2. then these Presents shall 
be void and every matter and thing herein contained shall cease de- 
termine and be utterly void to all intents and .lurposes anything 
herein contained to the contrary thereof in anywise notwithstand- 
ing. 

And the Mortgagor for himself, his executors and administrators 
shall and will warrant and forever defend by these Presents ail and 
singular the said goods, chattels and property unto the Mortgagee 
his executors, administrators and assigns against himself the Mort- 
gagor, his executors and administrators, and ngoinst all and every 
other iMrson or pei^ons whomsoever. 

{Here follows a declaration of Mortgagor, that h^, his executors 
etc., agree to pay tUe Mortgagee, his executors, etc., the sum of 
money as provided, with interest, and in default of payment or 
attempt to sell any part of the chattels the Mortgagee toill have the 
right to enter premises of Mortgagor, seize and sell the chattels to 
satisfy the mortgage.) 

(A further stipulation provides that it shall not be incumbent 
upon the Mortgagee to sell the chattels, but if he desires he may 
retain peaceable possession of same, or in t>ie case of sale if pro- 
ceeds do not satisfy the mortgage, the Mortgagor is liable' for the 
deficiency. ) 

And the Mortga'gor doth put the Mortgagee in the full possession 
of said goods and chattels by delivering to him this Indenture in the 
name of all the said goods and cliattels at the sealing and delivery 
hereof; 

And the Mortgagor covenants with tlic Mortgagee that he will 
during the continuance of this mortgag.- and any and every renewal 
thereof, insure the chattels hereinbefore mentioned against loss or 
damage by fire In some insurance offlie (authorized to tranfm/^f 
business In Canada) in the sum of not less than Four H?nd«d 

242 



MORTGAGES 

mwS T,Z\^^ £0?;:^^""' »"" T"'" «'^™""- ' r that 
deliver over To tS^%M^S"l^^iJ'"L'""'"r, ^""""" '"' '" »"'' 
tor«. ihe poiiey or nollcle. nf f,?S„ executor, anil a.lm„,li,ir„- 
lulnlnj,: rrov|d,.d ,h.. 1I „„ '".'"'""ee and receipt. Ihereti, ;,pDer- 

"r a.lmlnl.tralor.' may pay thf !Sr^,"",„^'"'*«ee, 1,1, execulcr. 
"hull be uddrd to the debt lifr.hvi^?; "."^ 'T'' """" "' "'""'V 
at the Mmo rate froi^ the dlv'o?"."^ i""" *."." '""■■ ">""" 
repayable with the p°rSclpal Sm hcrTy" S'SS"" """ "" » 

.e.'"heTr"Kr.'n"d.7„r«;r ■"""" '° "■=« ^"»— -- "e™an.,. 
Signed, sealed and delivered i„„„ „ 

In the presence of ^"^^ «»"«• ' 

.a^ihr.c^'S? Jsit-UDidS'iSiiir tS;;:!^.-" - »- 

WItne..: C„*»,j„ BLAKcHAno, j<,„^ s„„„ 

Ontario. *''"DAVrr OF MORTGAGEE. 
County of Lanark, 
'To Wit: 

Lanirir"?eoma°n°- t?,'e M'rUaTef 'l°n Ih "J^""","- '" "■» ™""'y »' 
way of Mortgage name"°Sf o'ath a n'j .'aT^Tha*. f "1°' «","» ">■ 
Mortgagor In the foregoing Bill of fli1» h,°„ "?' /e'"' Smith, the 
1. Ju.lly and truly Indebfed 10 m.h 'h ""^ "'"""B'S" "•'"led. 
Mortgagee thereto n.S. In th"%„m „f''''ro,!?''„"''5' ''"""■ '"» 
menlloned therein. That the said Bm nt ?.?|/ """'i'-ed Dollar. 
gage was executed In good faUh and for S' "'' *""' "■' "°"- 
-ecurlng the payment of the mmer^ Justly d.^J^n"" """"^ »' 
as aforcMld, and not for the DuroosT,,} ?,„..»* ""^ "ee™lng due 
chattels against the creditor. „/ .^ "' Pro'eetlng the good, and 
gagor therein na,;Srorpr'e°v"ntlng ft, Tjedlto?." „?"''''.• JI'" «"'- 
from Obtaining payment^of Iny flata 'agata.t hl„ "'^•' ""'«"«-■ 

Ontario, ^- ^- '" ^^^ 'Of t^e County of *LL*na'rk. 

County of Lanark, 
To Wit: 
I. Charles Blanchard, of the Vlllairn nf Car-i^t^ t>. 
County of Lanark, make oath and iay^* Carleton Place, m the 

Charles BI„nchardrsetai^dsuSnbed».i ■„?,"" """ '"= "'""e 
Hon thereof. Is of the proDcrTin^t,,?, " ""nes» to the execu- 
and that thi same was rxTutedt fte'"/ow°„ o'S^'M^'n,*",''"''"'' 
said County of Lanark, on the tenth day of t° „! "''"l '" ""■ 
nine hundred and twelve. "^^ ""« ""'".and 

Charles Bi.a.vchahu. 
Sworn before me at Al.'nonte. In the Conntt, „# t 
tenth day of June. In the year ot our Ejrd 1912 '"■''■ ""^ 

R. Graham, J. p. 

243 



FARM LEASES 



■;.K 



FARM LEASES 

While the foregoing laws are of general application to land- 
lords and tenants, some additional features [lertainlng to farm 
leases demand special attention. 

Oeneral Duties of Fann Tenants.— A tenant of a farm is bound 
without a special clause in the lease to cultivate the land, and 
generally so to manage all the alTairs of tlie farm as good hus- 
bandry requires, and as is the custom in the vicinity. 

Oropa.— As a general rule when no time is specified at which 
the tenancy shall cease, the tenant is entitled to the so-called 
"away-going crops," or crops of the present season, but when 
the time is fixed and certain the tenant is not entitled to such 
crops, because he knew when he sowed that he took the risk of 
setting his crops off before the termination of his term. It Is 
also held .that the tenant leaving is entitled only to the annual 
productions of the soil raised by his own labor, which does not 
include the permanent and natural products of the earth, such 
as trees, fruits of the orchard, natural grasses and the like. 
Local usages of the country are, however, largely taken into 
consideration here, and special statute'* of the Provinces may 
vary greatly in this respect. 

Hanure.— It Is a general law that manure upon a leased farm 
cannot be removed by the outgoing tenant. 

Tixtuni. — The question as to what constitute fixtures on a 
farm is a broad one. and we can only say that respecting this 
the rules are liberal in favor of tlie tenant. It is stated in a gen- 
eral way that a tenant may sever and remove at any time all 
such fixtures of a chattel nature as he has himself erected or 
placed upon the rented premises for the purpose of ornament, 
domestic convenience, or to carry on a certain trade; such may 
be in some oaFt's engines, machinery or biuldidjia erected 
by him for such machinery. 
Taxes.— The tenant in possessi<m is fienerally considered 
as liable for the taxes, but without special agreement lie is 
under no obligation to his landlord to pay the taxes. This 
statutory liability varies in different Provinces. 

Oood Advice.— No class of litiijafion is more intricate and 
technical than that of landlord and tenant. It should there- 

244 



KAH.M I.EASK 

lore !« avoided it ,„,8il,lo. |„ ohUt Io do so have your lea-o 
care ully eieouted, 8i«ilyi„g as far a, ,,o,sil,le all details of 
condilioMs, and then observe them carefully. If, however anv 
one, be he landlord or tenant, anticipates difficulty, then we 
advise hini to secure the services of a comiretent lawver to liel., 
him It iKissible to avert the litigation or to conduct it for him 
Law and justice are two things which God has joined but 
man has put asunder." 

FARM LEASE 

.Niy'"'"" ""'"'«■'<'«■:. na>* 111 UiipllCiite Uie 

Short r„™. "„f lS,»°J? Brtieln ■'"'™'"'"« "' 'l!" A-t r.»p..c,l„„ 

measurement . . ." " .' .' .' .' .' ' " "ncVpa' 'iA 'lU ' iu contafniiig by -.hI. 

being compost'd of ' *** "^ ^'"^ ^^""•-' "i^i^e lexs. ;in.l 

Isea. An.l that he wllf l2nv» th. ?.?™," ""Isai"''", "n the »nM i.rcm- 



245 



J 



^m 



m 



?ni ' 



FARM LEAHE 

^!Ii.i""t2r.!ir'^u«'i» tf"'"«w'jf An.l will, diirlnx llio continuance of 
."iiliJ term, keep down all noxloiia wcedi und gruiBeii. anil will pull 

II. ur otherwiBf .leBtroy all dwkii. nd root, wild muBtiird, wild oata. 
twitih gniBB iind Canadii thistlef) which aliall grow upon the said 
ineiiilBea. and will not aow or permit to bv wiwn any Brain ((intam- 
InK any need of any noxious weedw or KruMeB. or docks, red root, 
wll.l mustard, wild oats, twitch Kruss or Canada Ihltttle, and will 
not Burter or piTmlt any BUth foul weeds t»r Krusses to go (o seed 
on the said premlaes. And will spend, use or employ m o proper 
hufliamlmnn-llke manner all the straw and manure which shull 
grow, arlae, renew or l»e made thereupon, and will not remove, or 
permit to be removed from said preml«e» any Btraw of any klni 
manure, wood or stone, und will caretally stack the straw In thJ 
last year of said term, and will each and every year of said lerm 
turn all the manure tliereon Into a pile, so that It may thoroughly 

leat and rot. bo as to kill and destroy any foul seeds which may 
he therein, and will thereafter und not before Bpread the same 
on the land. 

are of nr- 

The Said Leaaee hereby covenants and agrees with the said 
i.eijsor that In conaideratlon of the premises, and of the leasing 
and letting by the said Lessor to the Bald Leasee of the hinda above 
nanied for the term hereby created (and It la upon that express 
undemanding that these presents are entered Into) that notwlth- 
ctaniiing anything contained In section t'llrty or any other section 
n' (^napter one hundred and seventy of the Revlaed Statiit. a of 
Ontario, 1S!»,, or any amendment or amendments thereto, that none 
of the goods or chattels of the said Lessee at any time during the 
(ontlniianee of the term hereby created, nn the said demised prem- 
ises. Shalt be exempt from levy by distress for rent In arrears bv 
said Lessee as provided for by said oectlon or sections, or anv 
amendment or amendments thereto, of auld Act above named. 

. "^'''I*,/"""'*''' *^'"""e 'n which Lessee forfelta righta under aaltl 
art, and Proviso stating that If Lessee attempts to mortgage chat- 
tele, make asalgnment. sell stoek or abandon premises, etc., then 
ensiilnK year s and next year's rent and taxes become due and 
payable, etc.) 

Proviso tor re-entry by the said Lessor on non-payment of rent 
or non -performance of covenants. 

The sold Lessor Covenants with the said Lessee for quiet enjoy- 

And It Ir expressly agreed between the parties hereto that all 
R'^llw'!-. covenants and agreements, rlghte, powers, privileges and 
liabilities contained In thia Lease Phall be read and held as made 
bv and with and granted to and Imposed upon the respective parlies 
hereto and their respective heirs, executors, administrators and 
assigns, and these presents shall he read and construed the Bame 
as If the words heirs, executors, administrators and assigns had 
been inscribed In all proper and necessary places. 

In Witnkps Wherkof. the said parties hereto h»ve hereunto net their 
handit and seals. 



SiKiieil. Sealed and Delivered, In the presence of 



(The above lease Bhould be acknowledged before a Justice of the Peace.) 

246 



BALK OF aooils AND CII ATTKI.S. 

THE 8,UI! OK UOmtS A-NU IHATTEIS AND OTHEH 
PER8U>AL PKUPKHTV. 

A ule ,f p,r»oii.l property I. tiullr ttntd ■ -b.nr.1. 
•ml propertj in « thing lor . pri.. In m„n,,. To oon.tlt^te 

er , in which I. »r«n»ferred from the ,eller to the buver, 
(4) ■ price In moner P«M or ngreed to be paid. When the 

ment, the «alo Is complete. When the Roods, agreed to be 

er v' oT.r :, """""• " ''"^'' '•■'" ''' 'X'™™'' the prop- 
erty of the .»ller. It they can then be identlned. the mere 
ugreement to sell transfer, the property In the goods to Z 
purchaser The price to be paid must consist of 'moj,,' 
otherw se the transacMon win bo an "exchange," or « b«rt«- 

«r .ll'birJ" " '"." """' " ■"" '''''' "^ ''= "^reeS '. 
re.»on.bIe» or customar, price win be prennmed to have 
been Intended. Persons nnder tw.nty.on. year, of ag° can! 
no make a valid contract for the sale or purchase of^good", 
unless the goods purchased be classed as -n«.„arleV' A 
the common law an Infant's contracts were « ToldaWe » only. 
That Is the contract coulj be enforced unless the Infant 

7ZT, !' "17 "■""'■"= "' "«'• ""' '» "" «"-» a person 
after attaining his majority could ratify a contract made by 
him during bis minority. And a minor can enforce con- 
bound on I" T •" " """'" "' '"" •»•• A" '»'"» '» 
bound on his contract for « i-ecessarles," If the price be 

sTcrmedT, ^"^""'"^^ '"='"-"' """■■ ^""*'"''' e~n a„': 
such medicines as the Infant may require when In HI health 

tract w? ^T ""'"™" "•""" ■">' """^ « ™"'' -n 

ract without .he concurrence of their husbands. But th- 

aw has been changed In this respect, and now they have 

the same right to contract and to bu, and sell as men have. 

a "TulT-""'' "" *' ""' '"• " """•"«' <" ^o""' '™-. 
the ^ "I ™"'*'"°' ""'»'' ""^ soods purchased by 

be r!tCV7. ?•"'""'"■"•'' ""' "" ^-^ ~°'"e'» -ay 
l-oratlons whose power- are limited by charter, or by by- 

847 



fi 



w 



8ALK or UCOriS AND t'HATTEU. 

I«w., or by nomo atalute, cannot bo held liable upon pur- 
cha«e«, sales or oilier contracts, whlrta mtrd Ihc powers 
of tbe corporation. Agreements with corimratlons may also 
be voidable or non-enlorceable by reason of their not being 
executed In the niannir iirescrlbed by the charliT or by- 
laws. If goods are • »tol»»" and sold by the thief, the 
property in them rrmalBs In the orlvlnal owner, notwltli- 
stanUlng that they may have passed through several handH. 
An "annt" entrusted with goods, or with the documents of 
title to them. may. within the srope of his ■ulhnrlty or bnsl- 
nesi, sell the goods and give a good title. Wl'in goods 
are ■• pnwned " or pirdfrrd the genemi property remains In 
the pcwnor, and a sperlai property Is transferred to the 
pawnee. The sale may be a " rash " or • credit " sale. Not- 
withstanding that time Is given for payment or that Instead 
of cash the vendor accepts the purchaser's note payable at a 
future date, yet the property In the goods passes to the pur. 
chase' at the time of the sale, and they arc then at the pur. 
chaser's risk. Where the consideration given Is " worii and 
iabonr" done, or "rent" of premises, or "board and iodic- 
Ing," there Is a "contract" for the transfer of the absolute 
property In the goods, but It Is not c snie. Where goods are 
excha .fed for other goods It Is a "barter." The price which 
each pays for the goods of the other Is paid In goods, but 
generally spc king the same rules that apply to a sale apply 
to a barter ,r exchange. At the common law all that was 
required t give validity to a sale was the "mutual assent" 
of the pan'js to the agreement. As soon as It was shu'vn 
by any evidence that It was agreed by mutual consent that 
one should transfer the absolutr prriperty In a thing to the 
other for a money price, the contract was completely proven 
and binding on both parties, and the "property in the thing 
sold passed Immedlnleiy " to the buyer. But If the property 
was to remain In the possession of the seller until some 
future time, or until the accomplishment of certain con- 
ditions, such as weighing or measuring what was sold out 
of a larger bulk, then the contract was called "eieentory." 
But a very Important modification of the common law In 
respect to a bargain and sale of goods was Introduced by 
the "Statute of Frauds" (29 Charles II.. chap. 3). The pur- 

248 



BALK OK U0OU8 A.VI> CIl.VTTKLS. 

r.qu ring , p„,y ,h„ „„„, ,„ ,„,„^^_, ■»■. 'J 

Of he American ir„,„n. The .ub.tance of the e„.etm,„ a 
^^»„^ * "' "PwardK Bhaii not bo onforcoaWe bv 

behalf. It »ii| be observed (1) That a verbal cont.act which 
h«. been partly performed by way ef accepting and "ceW na 

Xrtl Zril "1 "■™-." ■"'^■"™' "' part paylron 
price, o' (2) by payment of something In earnest l„ bind 

cl^d rx; ^:v:.: Tz t-' -^ "" -"'> ••• •» 

a. .0 What l/a .'^C ..'oT-rcoracrr "''":1" 
abour Is not a sale of goods. Where A employed a ta^ 

s£Hi^~> —■"•=-«."»»: 

it "■;. t "•' '• •^" -■•'" ■""'■•■ •^.. 

r'rtitrrrz: :; .r- -vr ""- -" 

receipt of the same. There may b 



1 



i- 




SALE Of UUOUH AND ClIATTKLg. 

receipt of gocxli witkout *n accepUnce, and foodi max be 

accepted betore they are actually received. If tbe lellar 
deliver, good! to a "carrier laaiMl by the parfhaHr," there 
!• a rcifliJt of the goods by the purchaser, but not necessarily 
an accepUnce. The accepUnco of goods may be sufflclent 
to make a binding contract without writing, and yet It may 
not be sufflclent to preclude the purchaser fiom ebjectlif to 
tht qnaatlty or qaallty of the iraodi delivered. In other 
words the contract may be complete, but the goods accepted 
may on eiaralnatlon prove to be so defective that the pur- 
chaser may reject tlieai. It « purchaser "marks" the goods, 
or selects" them, but leaves them with the vendor to be 
delivered at some future time, there Is an acceptance but 
not an actual receipt Where a purchaser oKers to raiell 
the goods or keeps them an nnreasonable time wllhoat objec- 
tloa after receiving them. It Is evidence of aecepUaefc If a 
buyer merely says, "The goods are not equal to sample- 
UmI Is aot snfficlent to ne^Uve acceptance. But If he says 
«L!! *'"'" ''"'•""* ••"' »" ""« «<1"«' to sample," or 
beeaase they are not according to representaUon," tbere 
■• BO acceptance. 

Now with regard to the "receipt" When the seller has 
lost his possession and lien upon the goods, there has been 
what may be legally called a "receipt" of the goods by the 
purchaser. Where there Is an agreement by the vendor to 
hold the property for the purchaser, although the actual 
possession has not changed, yet the agreement may eonstitate 
a receipt of the goods by the buyer. A drover selected a 
number of cattle from a farmer and purchased them and 
made a payment on account of the price, but by agreement 
left the cattle with the farmer for a month. That constituted 
a receipt of the cattle. If the vendor and the purchaser 
agree that goods shall be held by a warehouse man or that 
a horse shall be held hy a livery man, that will eonstitate 
a rwelpt of the article sold. If the value of each of 
several articles purchased Is less than $40, but the whole 
quantity taken together amount to that sum or more than 
that sum. the statnte Is applicable. The memorandum In 
writing must be • signed by the party to be charged" or his 
agent, and must contain terms of the contract sufflclent to 



250 



J 



iP' 



BALK OF IIOUIM .\N|> Tir AITHIJ). 

nUity the regulremml. of the lUtute The wnii.. „ . 
not on,, .how .he -.rtl,!. ««.- ,„. Un,.T.Z^"L''J^^ 
, r T^ The wrltl«, „e«l „ot b. „„ „„. pT.„ or „, 
» ..y b. I„ the form of . wruten offer b, the .e,l° Z. a 
wrltte,. .eceptance by ,h. buyer. «, connected tha they r.n 
r^fer'Vo IT" " ""' '*" ''°"'™"'" «'"=- '« '"/»."" 

Chair ..r„.:rtrrr:,;^Lv.ri.rf.L !," r 

Tn,!^^ Even.wrltlngbeglnnin, ",, AB agree 

^rr-i-nzri^e^rtr^r/'E 

o;.:}"!/"- rn-rnrrr-t-r/rr r 
: .on r.rr .T.r:r.r brrL-r^-i 

£ ?x^■^™•■=■~''>■:';^; 

o a B^rt defver , .! """' "' """"^ " »"'' "■"» "■ereaf.er. 

baraaT Whlr'^ ' *°°^' "'">' "" ™'"' """ "■" verba 

larlan ItTetreard"'' " "*''" '" """""'" '» '"-' ">e 
„„„, """' "" " »"■•' imyment of the price The 

envrTthr '".'-^ """"''"^"- " '""- has been no 
delivery of the goods, or any part thereof, or no earnest 

jriung eigned by the party to be charged. Verbal 

evidence may he given „ to what addition, are to be mldel 

251 



aXVE OF GOODM \ND CIIATTKLS. 



^^1 






or exceptions allowed, but where the written agreement pur- 
ports to contain the whole agreement, It can only be proven 
by the writing Itself. An ineonslstent verbal collatenil 
agreement is of no TBltdlty In sueh a case. This does not 
result from the Statute of Frauds. It has always been the 
law that a written agreement must be Interpreted by the 
words contained in It, except in the case of some latent am- 
biguity. If " John Smith " Is named In the agreement, verbal 
evidence may be glvea to show which John Smith was In- 
tended. Although a vendor is bound to deliver, yet he cannot 
be compelled to do so unless the agreement requires him 
to carry or send the goods to the purchaser. Authorized 
delivery to a common carrier Is prima facie a delivery to the 
buyer. 

Warranty and Condition.— A "warranty** la an agreement 
the breach of which gives rise to a claim for damaffes, but 
not to reject the goods or to treat the contract as repudiated. 
A ^condition** is a representation on the truth of which the 
existence of the contract may depend, and It gives a right to 
rescind the contract If the condition Is not fulfilled or Is 
falsified. A stipulation In a contract may be a "condition,** 
notwithstanding that the parties have called It a "war- 
ranty.** A mere commendation by the seller may not amount 
to either a condition or a warranty. Auctioneers use lan- 
guage to Infiate the value of the goods sold, hut such ex- 
pressions do not give any right of action. There are "ex- 
pressed** and "implied** conditions. The sale of a horse 
warranted sound, will be the foundation for an action for 
damages If untrue. Wliere there Is a sale of goods by 
"description,** there Is an "Implied condition** that the 
goods shall correspond to the description. On a sale of 
goods by "sample** there is an "Implied condition** that the 
" bulk " shall correspond with the sample. Where goods are 
bought from a person by " description,** and the seller deals 
in that class of goods, there is an implied condition that the 
goods shall be of "merchantable** quality. Where goods 
are purchased for a particular purpose and the buyer makes 
known to the seller the particular purpose for which the 
Booda are required, there Is an Implied condition that the 
goods purchased shall be reasonably fit for the Intended 

252 



SALE OP GOODS AND ClIATTKM. 



the good8 being stated Thl . "'"^'" ""' ""^"'^ »' 

eIothwaMobe'„r.:ta.ira ZZT" "^ """ '"^ 
to the sample, b„t being ° ,«,,''! f"" ""'"''""' "'^'^ "I"*' 
«We," and the court h"d that h. . '"' " "-""'taat. 

refuse the goods ° Purchaser bad a rigbt to 

ao?rsed"'trre":u-''Ms" ret ^^^^^ '" ""^ ^"^^ "- 
".etion for d.m«er- Th ' d '' """ ""'-'"^"^'ry is an 

naturally res^tinTlt ,J''%^""'^«'== »"■ he estimated loss, 

-ner. <>r2^ot-:oZi:r7\:rr ■" '™°'^' '™-» "•« 

goods from some othe person at .M?" "'' "^ ""^ '"« 
ence In price and th. . ^'*'""' ""■'"■ the ditfer- 

ages wbicb L :„ be entuTe: t"','?"'''^ "'" "^ '"« "''"- 
erty- has passed ti thVbn 'but t a '^elle'' d"" "■" "''"''• 
them, the purchaser's action wm be to r " "'°' "''"'" 
and damages for wrongful TtentL ^I^I '."l^ ^°-'= 
chaser refuses to accept delivery of the „„ T^ . " ""''" 
has sold them to another party a. - . '"' ""' ''"^^ 

bring an action for -^„,ITJ^ i' \'°"'l"" »'•"=<'■ "» «" 
against the original PUrc^arL tn clZ the"? T""'" 

r^ts^rtrbuTen^-v-^^"^^^^^^^^ 

.n his own posiessi^-'unrth X'T Z^T "t 
seller may retain possession nt th 1 '"' ""P*'* 

tendered the price except where .^ ^°°t' ""'" "' '' ""'" " 
The lien is los't wh^rthe sIllTd LTth "" T'" °" "'■"'• 
tor the purpose of tran.m. "'"""^s '"« Boods to a carrier 

the buyer o'r his agentTawJlry'lt": "''"''■ """ "'^o »"-» 
Stoppage I„ Tr.nX^™"',;''''' "' r--'™ »' '•■em. 
unpaid seller who has pl^^ed wl h the f „H """.r"'" °" "■" 
ewrdsed where the bnV.r ll ^ *'• " """ ""'J I"* 

(roods h.Te reached M.Z , "''' '"""'"'"« '«■'«■•'' •••* 

::;:^e'^dHir^=^--^'--= 
can .us^rhT^i— — - irif hXrr 

353 






IN 



SALE OF (I00U8 AND CHATTELS. 

parted with the posseaslon ot the goods. But the right of 
stoppage in transit can only be exercised against an In- 
solvent buyer. Ooods are deemed to be In "tnasltn" from 
the time they are delivered to a carrier tor transmission 
until the buyer or his agent takes delivery of them from the 
carrier. Where the goods are delivered to a varehonseman 
or other agent for the buyer the transJtns ends. Even where 
the buyer forcibly takes the goods away from the carrier 
before the destination is reached, the transitus ends. And 
even where the goods are delivered to a special carrier 
named by the buyer, the right ot stoppage exists, notwlth- 
Btanding that such delivery might be regarded as a delivery 
of the "possession" to the buyer. Sometimes the vendor 
retains the right to "resell" the goods if not paid for before 
actual delivery. Where goods are "perishable" the right of 
resale Is Implied. 

Transfer of the Property.— It Is often necessary to deter- 
mine at what exact point of time the property In goods passes 
to the purchaser, as the risk lies upon the owner. The ques- 
tion Is, who owned the goods at the time they were injured 
or destroyed I and in order to determine this question it Is 
necessary to ask another, viz., what was the Intention of the 
parties 7 Of course the matter of risk and of insurance Is 
usually agreed upon between vendor and purchaser. Where 
a given specUed thing, such as a horse or a book, is sold 
unconditionally and in a deHverable state, the property 
passes to the buyer at the time of sale. But where an un- 
specified article, such as a hundred bushels ot wheat out of 
a larger quantity, the property does not pass until the hun- 
dred bushels are selected and separated from the bulk. 

Sale by Auction.— When goods are sold by auction the sale 
Is complete when the hammer falls, and after that time the 
bid may not be retracted. The seller may notify that he has 
placed a " reserved " price upon the goods. 



254 



BIU.S OP SALE 
PEKSOJfAl PROPEKTT 

hor^e^. g„,„, implement, „?v1m„,! '7'' '''"■^' " «"'«• 
money, all of which are movab™ .k"^".'' '^""'"'■« »-l 

the manner of Peraonal estate ^?' """"" ''"'"™ «"er 
opposed to freeholds, leaeehoTd. " '^"seholds. As 

,7'ate. But as being „~?n\;;, "r"'" " ■■""onal 
•ohattels real" to dlstln^ h le^ ,'"*'' '"'^ "" ™"'"' 
are called - chattels persTa' ■• l-I "'''™ ™™'"^'' ""Ich 
'"■een „al and persoiMl property,, .ff ■""""='"■" ""- 
are „„„ed .bs«l„tely by the ,nd.v,V , """""■' <••»««*'» 
"oes not admit of the «b,l "• '"■"^=' our law 

'•'•o^t .St... that the owner ca^ "T".""" "' "•""■ ^11 
simple" held of the Crown B„tir,'." *''*"' '" "'"e 
•". Object Of absolute ownershfp TT "" ^'"""""'^ 
real property." A leasehold «t , '"*'' '" '»■"< Is 

«tend for a thousand year l'™' T™ "'°"«'> " "ay 
<ll.tlncOon, become lmp",a„ l"''^ " ""«""■ These 
Intestate. mportant where the owner dies 

rorm of Bfll of SaJ. 

KNOW Al.h MeV rv Tu 

' Ive Horses 

T™ S;?'"" "■•■'••■':."..■ S tlO".. .. «5on 

Two PlowB a I? 180 

S is EO 

Total « 

To have and to hoM »i,. .. ' *^70 

J£r ^t- :^ r-i ■ S" ~ --^^ r£F 

o' said good, and cbattc], l„ „ ' ""'' '•"'u' authorll,- , " ""' 

255 



ill 



Sffe 



L.VNDLORD AND TENANT 

In wftn«ta whereof. 1, the Mid John R. Hirtmtn. hire hereooto Ml 
mr Iwiid and leil this tWfnty-flrxt d«y of Mar. 1912. 

John r IIarthav (rial) 

Signed, nonled and (lellviTedl 
In f riM'f^iM'e of i 

William Maov. 

Affidavit of Purchater a« to the Sale being Bona Fide 
for Value: 

OotTNTT or TOBK I 
To Wit / 

I. Charles Oatton, ol the Cftr of Toronto. In the County ot York, the 
vendee In the foreEolnx bill of lale, make oath and say: That the sale 
therein made Is Boka Fide, and for good conilderatlon, namely, the a'tual 
incsent payment ]□ hand to the vendor by the vendee of the aum of Seven 
Hundred and Seventy Dollars, and not for the nurpone of holdlnv or 
enablins me. this deponent, to bold the goods mentioned therein aRalnstthe 
creditors of the said vendor. 

Charles Caxton. 

Sworn before me at Toronto. 1 
In the County of Tork. this } 
2lBt day of May, A. D. 1912. J 



B' ' '* 



ir r 



If.. 



LANDLORD AND TENANT 

LEASES 

Leases are contracts by which one party, called the lessor 
or landlord, gives to a second party, called the lessee or 
tenant, possession of land or other real estate for a fixed 
period of time, receiving in return for the use, possession and 
profit thereof a fixed compensation called the rent. 

Daration. — A lease may be for life, or for a term of years. 
from year to year, by the month, at will, or by sufferance. 

A Lease for Life terminates /ith the death of the lessee 
or tenant or any person speciiied as such in the lease. 

A Lease by SaffcraBce of the landlord exists when a lease 
for a term of years has expired and the tenant is allowed 
to rpmain in possession. Such possession in some Provinces 
may be terminated without notice. 

A Lease at Will is one which exists only during the will of 
the landlord and may terminate at the will of either party, 
as the rights of possession on the part of the landlord or 
the rights of abandonment on the part of the tenant may 
justify, or by the death of either party, or by sale of prop- 

256 



LANDLORD AND TENANT 

crty, or by due notice. Statutes usually regulate this notice 
in eacb State. 

A Lease for a Teim of Years begins and ends at a certain 
speciHed date. Under tlie latter the tenant pussesses greater 
lirivilfjjes than under eilliur of the two former. 

Written or Unwritten.— A verbal lea%e lor one yea- or 
under is valid in all the Provinces. And so also is a lease 
lor a term not exceeding three years when completed by entry 
A lease tor a term exceeding three years must be in writing 
and under seal, and in British Columbia, Nova Scotia Al- 
berta, Yukon and North-West Territories it must also be 
registered. In Quebec a lease (or a term ot more than one 
year must be registered. In all the Proviiices a lease lor a 
term ol more than seven years must be in writing, under 
seal and recorded. 

Essential Bpeciflcations in a written lease are; dates 
names, rent, description. 

The Date fixes the beginning of the lease. Where no date 
is mentioned the time commences ordinarily with the deliv- 
ry of the lease. This, however, is not always conclusive if 
another date can be proven. 

Names—The law recognizes only one Christian name and 
the surname. If a party assumes a false name he is never- 
the ess responsible. The landlord deals with the man, not 
with the name. 

The Eent.-Rent8 may be payable in other valuables be- 
sides money; the amount should, however, always be stated. 
If not stated, the law will allow the landlord what the use 
ot the premises is reasoi >■• worth. 

Description of PremL The lease must describe the 
premises. It need not be ,.. full detail; any general descrip- 
tion that will identify the property is sufficient. The parts 
and appurtenances that ordinarily belong to such premises 
are included. 

Who Cannot Give a Lease.-A husband cannot make a 
lease which will bind his wife's property after his death. A 
guardian cannot give a lease extending beyond a minor's 
majority which the minor cannot annul if he wishes but if 
he does not annul it the tenant is bound by it. Under the 
common law a married woman cannot lease her property, 



18 



257 



A ipeciftl 



LANDLORD AND TENANT 

bat Udder the .tatules of most Province, ihe en 
•tatute supenedeg the common law 

•enant. Students under age hiring room, come under thi" 

Biglito of LaadlOTd 
hiSH"^*^* "* Airignln, Le,M._The landlord can pro- 

oJ hi T"' '""" """'"'"« "■» ?"■"'«». - a"y part 
of them, or from assigning the lease, by stating the prohihi- 
tion in a special clause of the same b j. lu 

Tnunt Br«king the Oondltioa-If the tenant has broken 

andlord, if he accepts the rent due, knowing of the sublet- 
ting, cannot remove the tenant. 

Blflit to bupect PremlM-The landlord has the right to 
enter upon the premises to ascertain whether there is any 
waste or injury done, after first giving notice of his inten- 

]n!l5^."?!^~^"''"^ expressly covenanted, the land- 
lord IS not obliged to make the necessary- repairs. If a ten- 

r.l"i, " / "^"^^"'^ '" "'"'"= ^P'""' "'Paira -i-ring the 

erm he must stipulate for the same in the lease. But if 

the landlord does agree to make all necessary repairs and 

pa^ngrent""' "™ """ ^°" ""' ""'" "'» tenant from 

Krtlct to Qnlt.--In case of a tenant at will, or one who 

of ?h. 7".?*'!"' "" "P'™"™ "' "" '^-^^ '"'h "-e consent 
of the landlord, a notice to quit is necessary to compel him 
to give np his possession. This notice must, as a general 
rule, be given at a date before some "rent day," and dis- 
tant from it by the ucual period at which reuf'is Xbl . 
Thus, ,f It IS payable monthly, there should be a month's 
notice ending on the day when the rent is payable. The 

rthe Hiff,""^ "?'!"''' f""*""' '" "'"»"y fi^^-J by statute 
in the different states in order that summary proceedings 
for possession may be commenced. If the rent is in arrears, 

,««„'-. ,r/ T " ':^''"''*''- '" "">" »' *e Pro-vinee. this 
IS fixed a from five to fourteen days. Sucn notice need not 
be made to end upon the day when rent is payable. 
E.ftu.1 to V«j.t6.-If a tenant refuses to vacate the prem- 



LUfOLORD AND TENANT 

i»M after the tennination of his lease, from anv eause the 
proi«r and safest way for the landlord, as well as the e'leap! 
est, IS to get hin, out by process of law, or by a sealed lease 
to a third party, who can legally claim ijossession. 

Sights of Tenant 

Some of the rights of tenants are embodied in the ove 
atatemenls of the rights of the landlord 

To What . T.n«it U BBtiUri.-In taking possession ot 
the premises the tenant is entitled to all the pVivilegt-s am 
appurtenances to the property in all their details without 
being expressed in the lease 

Sale of Frop,rty.-The landlord ofi-icts the tenant 's rights 
by selling the property, if he has a written lease. Such sale 

"SJ, LT^' ^"''•''"■' '" ""' ■^'"x "f ""> tenant 

Tit Right to Sublet.- A tenant cai sublet the rented 
premises or any part of them, r.less expressly prohibited 
from doing so by the terms of the l.ase. He, however re- 
mains responsible to his landlord, unless the latter accepts 
such third party as his tenant in place of the former and 
releases him in writing. 

Le.ieABdgnaUe.-A tenant's lease is always assignable 
unless It contains restrictions to the contrary. Such an as 
sig^ment, however, to be fully legal must be under seal. 
The assignment may be for a part or the whole of the oriW- 
nal term, but if for less than the original tem, then it°i, 
properly subletting. 

„JJ?n ,*!"''«»«»«— The subtenant bears no relation to the 
original landlord and Is not responsible to him for rent The 
tenant from whom he has rented Is his only landlord In The 
3, .?. "^^'^-"'^''t <" 'he l^ase with the assent o?the 
landlord and must pay him the rent. ""gmai 

^.?,!,^'''';":;^"'°*"' °"''"°' "'^'■» '■«P»'" upon the property 
Z H h^ ■ ""T' '"" ^""'"■" "»"■ o-" "■"■» the rent, tor ^hlt 
»ould be In effect compelling the landlord to do it 

Dart'^fThe'Tr*"""''-'"" '"""•" "'<""« '"at become 
f^ZftltJ '''^- °' ='"='' «« '='""■"' be removed without 

the landlord; but a tenant may remove from rented prop- 

25!) 



i(£'\ 



LANDLORD AND TENANT 



i 



erty articles which he hai placed for use In aome trade, auch 
aa engines or other machines, or even In some cases of build- 
ings erected for the same purpose, or articles for domestic 
use, such as furnaces, shelves, gas nxtures, etc. Of course 
his personal property a tenant can remove any time at 
pleasure. 

Blfht ta guIL— Where the renting la for a deHnlte time no 
notice from cither party to the other is necessary, as the land- 
lord has the Immediate right of posBcsslon as loon as the 
time expires; so the tenant has also the right to vacate at 
that time without giving notice to the landlord. \Vhere, how- 
ever, no limit of time Is set a notice from either party Is re- 
quired— a month's notice In case of a "monthly tenancy," 
and sU months' notice In case of a "yearly tenancy." 

Payment of Tax««.— Where the lonaiit is to pjy the taxes 
on the property lie oeii.|iies it must be distinctly slated in 
the lease, ns a verbal promise is of no effect. 

Effacta of Mortiage.-Jt ntter nntinj; tlie landlord should 
mortgaue the ])roperty, Ihe mortjfasee's rights would be sub- 
ject to those of the tenant holdiri); a leuse in writing (duly 
recorded if necessary under stntule), and a sale or fore- 
closure could not dist\irb Ih-i len.int's possession. 

Duties of tbe Landlord 

1. It is the Inndliird's duty to see to it that his tenant 
has the quiet en.joyment of the premises and is not dis- 
turbed by any one hnvinu " better title to the same than the 
landlord, 

2. The landlord mnat not render the tenant's occupation 
uncomfortable hv erecting anything like a nuisance on or 
near the premises, 

3. If not otherwise provided fur in the lease, it is the land- 
lord's duty to pay the taxes, ground rent, or interest on a 
mortgage that may exist. 

4. The landlord is not bound to make repairs or allow tlu,' 
tenant for repairs which he may make unlesa especially 
agreed for in advance mid so slaled in the lease. 

Dnties of the Tenant 

1. The tenant must t.ike such care of Ihe premises that 
others may not be injured by any neglect of any part of it. 

2. The chief duty of tenant is to pay rent. If no time 
for possession is fixed, then he is only obliged to pay for time 



1>ANDIX)BD AND TENANT 

he has occupM; b.,t if under a„y agreement for . certain 
term he will |,„v„ t„ ,,„y f„. „,„ ,^^ ««•>" 

t « .t an,i rei-ur .,11 ,l„„,ak..» mod,. „r snflered by 1,,,, 
Natural wear an,l t.ar l,e n«.,l not .aake b«hI. '^ 

i«v u^'l fu '" '"? °' "" """■ •""«■"'■-""»' i" value C 
r.„l. V "'«''»■"■"' ">■* "f '•«■ This requires him to 

replace broken door, or windows, „r such other article" o^ 
nioy have been broken by use, neglect or accident 

Porm of Home Lease 

«,T«;,»rr„ tha, i„ con»ld..ratlun «t ,1,.. Ilont" Co ,,,„,- , 



261 



;-fi!!i| 







LANDLOBD AND TENANT 

■Dd that Iw will IMVP thft pnmlM'H in ikmmI repair, rfaaonulil.- wi-ar 
■ad tear aod daiiui«i- hy ilr.-. MiiUlalDK imU it-miN'flt unly ^in>i)t><«l 

I'BuviDBD tbal In ttip ivinl nt Hn-. Ilubtnluu and (vmix-Hi rtol 
ahall c<-aM> until tbi- |>ri>mla<>N art- r.-inilll. 

I'auviUKD that the Mid I^ Kpwr iihall bay.- the rlgbt Id the t-wnt of 
■uth drHtructtrin or imrtlal dfntrtictlun iw nfuriMald t» dt-tlan- tliv 
■uld tfrm to be forthwith tf>rmlnnt*<d, and In such event r«-nt Bhall 
tH< payable up to thi> time of Burh lu». 

I'HuviDED that the I..eHi.H> may remove hU flttureii. 
raoviDKD aliio that durlnii tb.' lant two niontbi of Ibe term hereby 
in-alcd any HtriiDfccr or atrangen may Inapi'ct tbe xald pr>>mliu>H and 
all partH thereof on producing a written order to that effect signed 
by Ibe nald Leaner. 

I'KoviDKD for re-entry by tbe aald Leaaor on non-paymoDt of rent, 
or non-iierformunce of covenants. 

riiuviuED alHo tbn' In the caie of a aelaurc or forfflturo of the 
■aid term for any o the cauiea hereinbefore net forth, the Leaner 
ahall hnvi- tbe t>nDi> right of re-entry trn la given under the next 
preceding proTlao. 

The Mid Leaaor covcnaota with tbe aald Leaaee for quiet cnJov- 
ment. ' 

I'KOVIDKD that notwItbRtandIng anything herelnbofore contained 
the Lenaor'N right of re-entry hereunder for non-payment of rent or 
non -performance of covenantH Hhall become eierelaable Immediately 
upon Buch default being made. 

I'ROVinEU and it la hereby granted between the parties hereto, that 
where the conteit makea it poaalble the word Lemor, wherever It 
ocrura in thla Indenture, ahall Include the heirs. ex»>cutora and ad- 
mlnlBtratora and a«alRna of the said Leaaor, (and In the ca»e of a 
Corporation, their BUteeaaora and aBalgna) and the word Leaaee, Bball 
Include the heirs, executors and admin iBtrn torn of the aald LeBaee, 
(and In tbe case of a Corporation, their au^ceaBora), and also ahall, 
when the Leasee asslgoed these pruBents uni'er conaent from the 
I.e«Mor us hereinbefore provided. Include the asalgOB of the said 
Lessee. 

The KAiD LBaHEE hereby Covenants and agrees with the aald 
LeBsor, that In consideration of tbe premises, and of Ibe Leasing ard 
lettlUK by III!' said Lessor to the aald Lessee of the landH and prem- 
ises above namid for tbe term hereby created (and It Is ut>ua that 
i'SpresH understundlng tbot theae presents are entered Into), that 
notwithstanding anything contained In Section thirty, or uuy other 
Section, of Chapt.T one hundred and seventy of the Revised Statutes 
of Ontario. 1897, that none of (he gooda or chattels of tbe said 
Lessee at any time during tbe continuance of the term hereby created 
on said demised premises, shalt be exempt from levy by dlntreH« for 
rent In arrear by said LenHoe a« provided for by section nr ttectlona 
of the said Act above named, or any amendment or amendments 
thereto, and that upon any claim being made >r such exemption by 
said LeBBpe or on distress heluu made by the saiu Lesnor Ibis covenant 
and agreement may be pleaded an nn estoppel against salrt Lessee In 
any action brought to test the right to tbe levying upon any aucb 



r 



I.ANDLOII0 AND TENANT 

lood* ■» nrc Danxfl ■h pxrmptnl In uld u^ptlon n* . -»i— 
"■™i or imoDdm™., ih.rf to Haid tiL^ .Zi. "")"»"• »' •»«wl- 
all and ,.,.rv b-ortt that ™„ld op n^K "' "" "" '""" *»• 
a»d b, ,!«;,. o? "L « d ftctloi " 'fcX: "-""^10 him „.d., 

«l.n.cl. fcalPd ..d d,ll,„^T '° "•'• '"''°"° "« 

the prpHi'ticf of 

Jaum Jons. 

Jamh AyDKMoK. iseai i 
WiLLUM Watiioi.. (Be.1.1 

AflUUflt of WitMn 

««"na?t:;.*,Vtr.orr.'ro°i. ""-'-" «" •—«■ '» »• 

8. That I kDow the iaid pirtlei. 

..."s dT".r.;;.i":hr^.-^r^:M'r,- "™'' »' -- 

. - , . '"••■ B. Kt»T, 

A CommlsHontr for lau,i, AgUrlu, «t. 

Pom of Kotict to Quit 

To WlUIAII MATVOOO, 

(TenaDt.) 
•'leaw take notice that rou are her*h« p«hi»^ * 
deliver up p„.„„,„. „, the'JSuL .;;"« Zat^.t N-'."?^."? V 

r„-»th?p:,r':»°'thrif^*d:j-™r"--- 
i-^-^-'a-x^..:;'" •'""■' -.W"fo°4."Sht7Vid-dSV,.2;! 

Dated Ibl8 asm day of April. A. D. 1&14. 

Yoan trulj, 

RiCRAID JonNR, 

(Laodlord.) 

Form of Notico by Tanut 
Tv Richard Johns, 

(Landlord.) 

-Ill' T'"'^''i"'^. '''" °°""'' "" °° "" ""« "T -I Ma, „e,t I 
will quit and dellter up pomeaalon o( the ptcmlw, I „„„ „ ° ' 

'™n '.i' ,M- f^ Jr"" ""•■"■'■ '■ «■" ""aroTaJdZ '""' " 
Dated thla 28th day of April. A D, 1014. """"'■ 

Youra truly, 

William MATWooa 

363 



ri 

it 



m 



;tlllC 



i 



TKNANCV. 

Tkc matt tl pattlw u ti4 I* a t»amy hf ' —On to 
«■!!" !• aiipUeaklc wkcra Iter* U aa npnu lUpalaUaa Ikat 
H ikall fe* M 4elcraila«4. The mut common tenanclei an 
thou from jrear to year, from quarter to quarter, or from 
montli to month. 

In the abaence of any expreti itlpulatlon and apart from 
•Ututorr provlalon a reaniabi* "aatle* la qalt" may be 
■ufflolent 

In the caee ot a "tomarr '«■ J««r to jear," it li lettled 
that halt a year'e notice, expiring at the end of ume year 
of the tenancy. Is neceitMary and lufflclent to determine it. 
And In the caao of a monthly teaaary that a month'a notice 
given before the i«plry of any month shall be sufflclent to 
terminate the tenancy at the end of the next succeeding 
month, 

la SoTa SeoUa It Is prorided by statute that notice to quit 
any house or tenement where the same Is let " from year to 
year," shall be given to the tenant or by the ten nt to the 
landlord thereof, at least three months before the expiration 
of any year, and that such notice shall be sufficient, although 
the day on which the tenancy terminates Is not named In such 
notice. 

la »w Bniasivlek, three months' notice is sufficient to 
determine a yearly or a half-yearly tenancy, 

The effect of a proper notice to quit la to determine the 
tenancy, and although a notice once given may be withdrawn, 
such withdrawal does not revive the teuancy, but If the 
parties agree, a new tenancy may be created on the old terms. 
The rnle that half a year's notlre, three months' notice or 
a month's notice shall be necessary does not apHy where 
there is an express rgreement as to what notice shall be 
given. 

Ib ease of a monthly tenancy a month's notice has been 
held ',e be a reasonable and sufflclent notice. 

A weekly tenancy does not come to an end every week 
without notice, and It has been held that aome notice la necea- 
eary. 

But to determine a week., tenancy It seems that a reason- 
able notice only must be given. 

I» Ontario, New Bmnswlck, Nova Scotia and Manitoba it 
Is provided by statute that a month's notice la neceaaary to 

264 



DlgTRXM, 

4Minnlct ■ monthly tauncy. ud « WMk'i utlM to dMu" 
mtiw • wtakljr tenancy. 

If the preDln. are let >t a weekly, monthly or quarterly 
rent, the tenancy li vrlMo /o.i, , weekly, monthly or 
quarterly tenancy reipectlvely. For quarterly tenancy It haa 
been held that a quarter'! notice to quit U aufflclent. 

Where there la an expreaa itipulatlun creating a •■ yearly 
tenancy," and the partiei have not contracted a> to the notice 
to be liven, a half year'i notice muat be given by either narty 
to the other. 

DIHTRE88 I. a remedy that I. arml to eoapel the paymeil 
el rent It con.i.te In taking poeMioton of peraonal chattel! 
without legal proccs. or Judicial authority, and lelllng them 
to reallie the amount due. 

The right of dletreee u a remedy to compel payment of a 
debt may ari.e In three way.: (II by .tatgte, (2) by eiprcM 
■freearat, and (3i by implleaUoa ol law. 

Where the relation of landlord and tenant exlats, the law 
Implle. a right of dletre.. a. neceeearlly Incident thereto, 
providing the following condlUon. to be fulllled; (.1 There 
muet be a tenancy .trictly .o-called, lb) There must be a 
rent reserved, and It must be certain In amount, (c) There 
must be a ■■ revereion " In the distrainor a the time the dls- 
tress Is made. 

A distress for rent must be n.ade In the daytime, between 
sunrise and sunset. It cannot he made until the rent la In 
arrear, and It Is not In arrear until the day after It becomes 
due. 

A person to whom rent Is due under any lease or contract 
may aelze the goods and chattels of his tenant found on the 
premise, (except .uch a. are exempt from dl.tress). and may 
hold the same until rep], led. and In default of the same 
being replevied, may sell t . same, after appraisement thereof 
to be made. But the gooos distrained shall not be removed 
by the person distraining (to the damage of the owner 
thereof) out of the place where the same are found and 
selMd but shall be kept there (as Impounded) until replevied 
or sold In default of replevying. 

A dlstre.. may be made on any part of the land demised, 
as the rent Is deemeu to Issue out of the whole and every part. 

865 



ill 






OtIABANTY 

Onarantr for the Perfonntnce of « Coatraet 

above (or wllhin) .^1 . " oompll.nc. with th« t.rm. of the 

Rlohard Unger """'"" ""' "•' P"" <" th. «ld ™„tr.Mor. 

of ^.""..tf'Alr .»»'•" '"'"°"' ^""■"" »' """"o. '-" 'MH d., 

Phakk Klikk. I„.,i] 

Sipied, Haled, and delivers Waltbk Hankins, [bkal] 

in the presence of 
William Lowbb, 

OHABLSa ANDRBWa. 

Onanmtjr for the Pnrehise of ■ Hone 

arive. (,„j, Howi.A»D, 

an ..periencea iudg. of koL (o tt.fti; TI.^ " '" ■"*' "*" ** "^ 



Guaranty for a Debt Not Yet Incurred 



M«8sas. Sanfobd & Babth, 
LondoD. 
Obntlsmxn: The bearer 
on the point of visiting your 
desired articles in your lin 
thounand dollors, and such la 
that we hereby guarantee the 
with you during thia year | 
dollart. 



Berlin. Ont., March 10, X914. 

of this, Mr. R. J. Walker, of thia city, is 

city for the purpose of buying gooda. and 
-e. He IS considered worth some thirty 

our confidence in his ability and integrity. 

payment of any bills which he may make 
an amount not exceeding five thousand 

Yours respectfully, 

Williams ft Rvah. 



GDaranty of a Debt Already Incurred. 

Th» PiTTSBL-Ro MANirrArTi-MNd Co R*''«»'''ft. Ont.. .luty 8. 1914. 

Pittsburg. L'.S. 

Voura truly, 

Chas. SCNDkRLAND. 

266 



LIENS 

A "lien Is a» rigbt irhleh • man has to retain In his 
poamaalsn somethlni; belonging to anotlier, tiU certain 
demands are natisfled." For convenience, the person to whom 
the property belongs Is sometimes referred to as the 
"debtor." and the person retaining the property as the 
"creditor." Possession by the creditor Is essential to a 
legal lien, called a « possessorjt " lien, to distinguish It 
from others. A particular or "Specillc" Uen is the right 
to retain speclflc property In satisfaction of demands 
m respect of such property. For example, the right of a 
carriage maker to retain possession of a carriage which he 
has mended, until paid. Where a person "agrees" With 
another that he shall have a Hen upon property as security 
for the payment of a debt, that Is called a "general lien" 
Where " possession " la essential to a Hen, It must have been 
lawfully acquired. Possession obtained by violence, fraud 
or misrepresentation, cannot constitute a Hen The pos- 
session must also be of a "continuous and uninterrupted" 
nature. A partieniar lien by "operation of law" arises, 
where a person Is compellable by law to receive the goods 
of another, or to perform certain services with regard to 
those goods, such as a "common carrier" or an "Inn- 
keeper," each of whom has a "right to retain" the goods 
n his possession until paid for services performed. General 
Hens, unless established by contract, can only be claimed 
by custom." It must be shown as a matter of fact that 
such a usage exists, and that It Is universally acquiesced 
in. In every Hen the "possession " Is with the creditor, the 
ownership" with the debtor, but as a rule there Is In most 
cases no right of Sale In the lien holder. 

An «e,nitobie» Uen Is the right to have a speclflc portion 
of the property allocated to the payment of speclflc llablll- 
ttes. The right of a partner, on dissolution, to have the 
Arm 9 assets applied In payment of the firm's liabilities. Is a 
right of the class styled "equitable Hens." An agent may 
sue on a contract, though his principal be disclosed. If he 

267 



II 

■(in 
III/ 



LIENS. 

taa a Hen on the proceeds: for tWe rea»on an 
may sue for the price of the goods. 



' auctloQoer " 



A -niarlOme lien" is one which attaches to a thin. •„ 
„p ,u .1, ''"*™'"'^«- It does not depend on the DoaaeBuln- 
Before the passing of the Mechanics' lien Act a bnlM,, 

i5~Hir"— --^^^^^ 
"=; s^.'i~ s«r' ■- :«=.■.,■■:-■ 

wJrV^r^eX";""' or?"" "^ """"■ '-'' ■>"'-■>■» "-V 
any mater l; to brnsed^nT"' w " •""'' " "'™'^''^» 
.». atting, aitering, C:!^ ori^al^rorCe^tS:; 




Liens. 
Justly owing by theowLr' S ' °' '"* """ -" ""> -"'" 

the lien o, the owner Of" hfr "' l"' '"'™'' """"'»« 

dunn. .he pttltan TLZZ' 7""''"'' '""'"' " 
day. ar. r the completion the oof" e: 1' ,1 "Ji^'^ ,""^'^ 
renlstered within thirty days af er th. . . .?"' '" ""* 
wort shall absolately cease t« e'LtAnr""""'"" "' ♦"' 

Hen which U not D™,.»ertrH "^ '™''^ registered 

"'"s registered r.n V ,''° ^'"' " ™«'«eate of !1, p,.„. 

exp.rM?oforntetTZfafrre:r "" ^^'" """ ""« 
completed or materials have been^urlheV"? '" """ 
where credit Is given the „.n . / ^ °'' ■"*""■ "ut 

the e,p,ry o, such p^fo TtLTVrLT 7""' '™" 

^^-^^r^:!:::rj-~^— -- 

^e.strat.on. . 1^ C r^a.^,— ^ - /- 




(•1 



LIENS. 

■Igned by the claimant acknowledging payment and verlBed 
by affldavit and registered. 

In the FroTlnee of JUnltoba "the Meohanlce' and Wage 
Earners' Lien Act" Is practically the same as In Ontario, 
except that no Hen exists for any claim under the sum oJ 
twenty dollars. 

In British Columbia the Mechanics' Lien Act o( 1891 Is 
very similar to the OnUrlo Act The claimant has (a) 
thlrtj'one days within which to flle his claim, (b) where the 
workman continues In the employ of the contractor upon 
any other work, the 31 days will not begin to run until the 
completion of the w-tIc. Lien actions are to be carried on 
In the County Courts, 'he Judgx may order the cancella- 
tion of Hens upon the gUing of sei'.,rlty or otherwise. There 
Is also a provision declaring that mechanics and others 
who have bestowed money or ski, and material upon any 
" chattel," In the alteration or Improvement of Its properties, 
or tor Increasing Its value, shall have the right to sell the 
chattel by giving two weeks' noUce by advertisement In the 
newspaper, etc. 

The Mechanics' Uen Act of IToTa Scotia of 1899 and the 
Mechanics Lien Act of New Brnnswick of 1903 do not differ 
in substance from the Ontario Act, although the wording of 
the corresponding sections is somewhat dissimilar. But both 
of them have a clause similar to the clause in the British 
Columbia Act enabling a person who holds a lien upon a 
"chattel" to sell It after giving notice by publication In a 
newspaper, etc. 

The Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta have Me- 
chanics' Lien Laws similar to those of Manitoba and Ontario. 
In the Province of Quebec, there are several articles of the 
Civil Code which give mechanics and labourers what prac- 
tically amounts to a lien on "immovable" property, to the 
extent of the value of the labour or material placed upon It, 
tor which the lien is claimed. The articles are too lengthy 
to be quoted In full in this summary, and a synopsis of them 
would not state the law completely and correctly upon the 
subject. I must refer the reader to Article No. 2013 (a) to 
2013 (1) Inclusive of the '■ Civil Code," and to Article No. 805 

370 



LIENS. 

Ject. .„ Article. 2103, 2168 and 430 to 441 ■r.Cule 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 

the completion of the work Th« .t... T 

the eof, but the amount must not exceed the sum oayable 
by the owner to the contractor. A registered ll.„ i. ! 

hoTdTr „ "" *" '"""" '""■"■ «■»' ttae. A party 

:re"Ve L'htor:por:ir ""- '"-" "■» ^"''- "- 



271 



RALB AND TRANSITEB OF StOCKS 



AN A€T TO REGULATE THE PURCHASE, SALE AND 
TRANSFER OF ST0CK8 OF GOODS IN RULK. 

Hla Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Legislative Assembly ot the Province of Alberta, enacts as 
follows: 

1. This Act may be cited as " The Bulk 8aJc9 .Ut of 
Alberta." 

2. It shall be the duty of every person who shall bargain 
for, buy or purchase any stock of goods, wares or merchan- 
dise la bulk, for cash or on credit, before closing the pur- 
chase of the same, and before paying to the vendor any part 
of the purchase price, or giving any promissory note or 
notes, or any security for the said purchase price, to demand 
of and receive from such vendor, and It shall be the duty of 
eacli vendor of such goods to furnish to the purchaser a 
written statement, verllled by the statutory declaration of the 
vendor or his duly authorized agent, or If the vendor Is a 
corporation, by the statutory declaration of the president, 
vice-president, secretary-treasurer or manager of such cor- 
poraitlon, which statement shall contain the names and ad- 
dresses of all the creditors of the said vendor, together with 
the amount of the indebtedness or liability due, owing, pay- 
able or accruing due, or to become due and payable by said 
vendor to each of said creditors, which said statement and 
declaration may be in the form set forth in Schedule A 
hereto, or to a like effect. 

3. Whenever any person shall bargain for or purchase any 
stock of goods, wares or merchandise in bulk, for cash or on 
credit, and shall pay any part of the purchase price or execute 
or deliver to the vendor or to his order, or to any person for 
his use, any promissory note or other document for or on 
account of the purchase price of said goods, or any part 
thereof, without flrst having demanded and obtained from the 
vendor, or from his agent, or if the vendor Is a corporation 
from the president, vice-president, secretary-treasurer or 
manager thereof, a written statement verified by statutory 
declaration purporting to be such as Is provided for in the 
preceding section of this Act, then such sale shall, in and 

272 



SALE AND TRAN8FEI1 OF STOCKS 

With re.pMt to any action or prooeedlng which within ilxty 
days thereafter U brought, had or taken agaln.t ,uch pur- 
cha«r to Impeach or Bet aside such tran.actlon, be deemed 
to be fraudulent and shall be absolutely void as against the 
creditors of the vendor, and every disposition made of the 
purchase money or of a note or other security given therefor 
by the purchaser shall be fraudulent and void as between the 
purchaser and creditors of the vendor, unlvu the wHoIr ot (»-■ 
proceed, 0/ .uoh ,ale. or ^ufieient thereo/ to ,„ti.ty the claim. 
0/ all creators of the vendor i, in fact actually applied by the 
vendor l„ „r toward, payment of all hi, creditor,, without 
Oivma any preference or priority to one over another except 
,ueh a, I, provilled for by law or previous contract. 

(2) Where goods, wares and merchandise purchased In bulk 
contrary to the provisions of this Act are resold In bulk and 
It appears to the court that the sale and re-sale were made for 
he purpose of evading this Act, the rights of the creditors of 
the original vendor hereunder shall be capable of enforcement 
against the person or persons In possession of such goods 
wares and merchandise, In the same way as though they were 
still In the hands of the original purchaser. 

4. Any such purchaser upon obtaining such written state- 
ment and statutory declaration shall either obtain the written 
waiver hereinafter referred to, from the creditors of the 
vendor, or shall pay the whole of his purchase money or suffi- 
cient thereof to satisfy the claims of all the creditors of the 
vendor, or deliver his promissory note or notes or other 
documents securing the same, or part thereof, Into the hands 
Of an official assignee, for distribution pro rata among the 
creditors of the said vendor, subject to any preferences pro- 
vided for by law or by previous contract. Such distribution 
shall be made In like manner as moneys are distributed by an 
official assignee under The A„i„„ment, Act. and all the pro- 
visions of The A„ianment, Act relating to meetings of credi- 
tors, advertising for creditors and proof of claims shall apply 
to proceedings had by an official assign under this section. 
The fees of any such official ar.,lgnee shall not exceed 3 per 
cent, of the total proceeds of such sale which shall come to 
his hands, and shall together with any disbursements be 
paid by being deducted out of the moneys to be received by 



18 



373 



1^ 



■ILI AKD TBANSTXB OF STOOEl 

tht nil endttnn ud •ball In no erant be ebwind to U» 
debtor; proTtded fnrtber tbat from and after the furnlibinc 
of lucb declaration no preference or priority ihall be obtain- 
able by any creditor by attachment or gamlehlnc proceea or 
otberrlie. 

». If such purctaawir upon recelTlni lucS written itatement 
and statutory declaration ehall fall to obaerre the require- 
menu of the laet precedlni section without obtalninc the 
written walrer from creditor! hereinafter referred to. then 
•uch pnrchaaer ehall be liable to the credltora of the vendor 
In the amount of the purchase price or such portion thereof 
as la not or has not been paid or applied In or towards 
payment of all the creditors of the vendor pro rolo without 
rlTlng any preference or priority to one oyer another except 
such as Is provided by law or previous contract. 

«. Any sale or transfer of a stock of goods, wares or mer- 
chandise, out of the usual course of business or trade of the 
vendor, or whenever substantially the entire stock-in-trade of 
' e vendor shall be sold or conveyed, or whenever an 
Interest In the business or trade of the vendor Is sold 
or conveyed, or attempted to be sold and conveyed, such 
sale, transfer or conveyance shall be deemed "a sale In 
bulk" within the n.eaning of this Act; provided, however, 
that if the ver-.3„r produces and delivers to the vendee 
a written waiver of the provisions of this Act from his 
credRora, representing llfty per cent. In number and value of 
the claims as shown by said written statement, then the pro- 
visions of this Act shall not apply. 

7. This Act shall only apply to sales by traders and mer- 
cbants denned as follows: 

(o) Persons who as their ostensible occup»"on buy and 
sell goods, wares and merchandise, ordinarily the 
subject of trade and commerce; 

(A) Commission merchants; 

(c) Manufacturers. 

8. Nothing m this Act contained shall apply to or affect any 
sale by executors, administrators, receivers, assignees for the 
beneat of creditors or any public official acting under Jrdlclal 



874 



=J 



PABT VIII 

Insurance, Naturalization, Copy, 
rights. Divorce, etc. 



nrl 



1:1 

i\ ! 

V 



11 I 




I 



HON. GEORGE A. COX 

Capitalist anil FinaiiciiT 
M«de ■ memlwr of tha S«natr |8% 



iMauBAMca 



INSURANCE 

D.talUou._Twai, Einployid.-In.nr«nM ii a rontrart 
b, wl,.c, „,a. „f the ,,artie«, oullcl ,l,c insurer, bin'™ mn 
-elf to tb. other, called the in.ure.l, t„ ,,„y bin a tm of 
money or „therwi.e indemnify hi,n in caU'of tlu I ?;:' 
".B of a fortuitou, event, provided for in a general or ««.. 
e..l manner m the contraet, in con-ideralio', of a or S, 
-urn of money called a premium, which the latter pay " 
binds himself to pay biro. 

■.?„n„'?'„'"^"' "l """"'' '"' "'"■•'' '!'« '"'""•»'■' i» »"*• 
» called a policy, the events or cause, to be insured a^ain t 

liitle";;"!"?' "" '""'* """"" "■« -""J-'-'.tfer or 

ih^l,' "i' '^""'•-In'uronce is divided Kenerallv into 
Ihrec kinds: fire, marine, and life-the last includfng accl 
dent insurance as a branch. 

Tax IHSUSAHOE 

Hr. iMurinc. includes all undertakinp, to indemnify the 
1. s .red against lossc. by lire, whether u|k,„ buiUiiiKs, ship,, 
or the goods and stock contained therein, or live stoik 
J?t "^ "f^ *" lMur«L-Every kind of property 
mry become the subject of insurance, unless, from moires 
of public policy. It has been prohibited by law. Insurants 

freight, bottomry, loans, proHts and commissions 

Who m«y IiuurB.-A person in order to secure a valid 
po icy must have an interest in the propertv insured. It is 
not necessary, however, that a person should be the owner 
of the whole or a part of the pro|«.rty in order to enable 
him o effect an insurance thereon. It i, sufflcieni if he is 
directly interested in its safety. A person. tlie,ef..,e, h.,a 
on insurab c interest in any property wlien he is so circum- 
stanced with respect to it, that its loss will be prejudicial to 

Increaring Ri.k.-The amount of premium is based upon 
the decree of danger there is of fire. The insured oiust 
thereforo, not increase the risk; if he does the policy be- 

875 






II 



IMIUIUNCV 

MUM void. No ohonge .liouM b« mad« wilhoat notifyinir 
the inmiron™ compony and oblBining it. conMnt. 

in.,,"r" "'"'''' "'''"■ ""' '"'"'•>' '" '"»"'' for whi,h til. 
ln.iir..d I, not re.rKi„»ible, will not nffect the cintr.ct 

„ hT'"*,"""'"' "'"■'' ""= """ "" R"»l«.wdcr or gum- 
Ine^mll be k..,,t .,„ Il,, p,,.,,,:.,,. in.ured; that they -hru 
not b*ro,„„ v,»a„t, or ,l,ai if „„y „,,,„ i„„r,„„ i,^dd"j 
the dmipBiiy he iioliHed. 

..^'!?T"**""' "" "".•'"'■' "' "" """'■'• »» «» "■, char, 
•cter of the prop.Tl.v or the >ln„Ber to which it m.y b. ex- 
lioned iiialie tlie policy void. 

irffUgroc«.-A Hre caused by negligence does not eicmpt 
the company from payint- the lo. , „„le„ the negligence U 
•o great an to bo criminal or to indicate fraud. 
Proof of Loii.- In „r,ler to recover amount of in.uranee 
he insured, alter the los, of property by Are, musl prove 
the quantity „„,1 value of the goods ao lost, and also the 
injury 8u»taincd on g,„,ds not burned by reason of water 
uMd ,n attcmotin!.. to extinguish the Hre, and must make 
M^. jmdaviu .n,.l produce such certiHcales cs the terms of 
iffi f"';")'/'''!'"'-''' ""'l '•■•"«« the same to be filed in the 
oBIco of the company within the time specifled in the pol- 
icy of insurance. *^ 
But with some cmpanies and in some States the full in- 
surance will not be paid unless the insurance is of a certain 
fixed propm'tionnic amount of the value of the property 

»10,(KM) are insurcl for only |.5,000 and there is a partial 
loss say. U fS.OOO, the full $.5.noo insurance will not be 
paid but only a proportionate amount thereof. 

Aooiint f»id.-The amount to be paid in fire insurance is 
the amount of the loss, unl..», the loss exceeds the amount 
of th. policy. The company n.xcr nays more than the pol- 
17' ?.U ""■ ''"'''■■'■ '" '■'"■ *■■'•"''"' ""'1 the loss is !(;300 
i SfooA* ,"".'' '!"' ''"''■'■'' ''"'"""» *2,700. It the poliev 
Si.'i.nOO and the policy ia dischurged. 

Vahiition is sometimes n.ade in policies upon chattels of 
uneerlam value, aa books, pl.nte, or works of art, and if a 

8T6 



INKirBANI'l! 

I.« happen, ,b. ,„„„a ,. .„,„„, „„,^ ,„ ,^,^_^, ^^^^^ 

£;£-£=■:—-»=:.:.'" 

•o.. or „„„,„„, ,„,„ .xS"L rr,:„,""r,:™ """,'-""»"«•. 

ury, 191:-. •■'"■", of ,he compuny th, l,j,„ ,,„,. „, j„„/ 

Se,.,etnry, W»LTI11 R Oi.abk. 



[8EALJ 



Renewal of Pire Inauriinre 



Preciaent. 



"f fony iJol]ar«, 



The r]„i '■";"""'• ^""■■""'- •'"""'"■y in, 19 

PrealdenL 



[SEAL 





INSURANCR 



Anignment of Policy 



knowledged) hove 7ra„l/^ m ? "" "''"'"'' '' >"">-y •«■ 

.lata, .„d n.nd l„ .„d?o .i°;.thT- ■",.°' """■ """""'■ '■"'"•' 

•van hlm.elt „J ,to ,;",« r,, , '"™''">' >° M""'^ 6ln> full, to 

are (or myself aad mv ,„l,^ ' "^ "" "'""^ """'r «l«n 

l.l» legal repreSaUve' ' "''"»»'•'"- to «,d Carle, oLa aad 

..o.i°d:r'oT°irr°i. \.-„t '""""° -■ •" ^-^ ■« «... .h,. 

Exeeuttd and delivered In the Chahlib A. BlBKOWa. [auAI,] 

presence of 

WILLIAM SPENCER. 

Wc hereby approve of the above assignment. 

(Signed) John Jones, Secretary, 
New Hartford Ins. Co. 
MARINE INSUEANOE , 
Marine Insurance is a contract to pay the owner of a ship 
and cargo certain portions of l.i^ loss, if it is damaged or 
destro.ved while at sea. 

The Premium is often paid by a scries of notes called pre- 
a.um notes. The policy is valid whether the notes are paid 
or not. '^ 

The Amount of the policy may bo any ti.xed snm, namelv, 
the loss the company shiiii he r sponsible for. The amount 
to be paid 13 that proportion of the loss which the amount 
of the policy bears to the value oC ti property. Hence the 
company does not pay the whole of the lors unless the oolicv 
equals the value of the property. 

If property is insured to only half its value the company 
pays only one-half the loss. 

If policies have been obtained in several companies each 
company pays its proportion of the loss in the same pro- 
portion as though it were tli only company. 

A '^inie Policy is one framed to' cover possible loss within 

« sp cifled tune. This may be a year or certain months of 

278 



1-;- 



HABINE 1S8URANCE 

lyl": °"'" ""''"'"' """' '""y "'" '''^ i" « «rtain 
Wlien the insurance is for a certain voyaRe, tlie iilace of 
sailms and (h„t wl.ieh is to be the termination of the ™ya«e 
n.nrt be spee.Hed, and the voyage must be bv the orllfy 
onrse t,„m one p„r^ to the other unless deviation is a led 
by the terms of the policy. If the vessel does not e,"er 
..|.on the contemplated voyage the premium Teed not be 
paid, and if paid must be returned. 

»Uk Assnmed-Tbe risk provided against is not only that 
of nre, but also the other extraordinary perils attenfinra 
-« voyage, such as the perils of the seZ piracy, ^, 'av" 
erase and salvage, (ieneral average is the !,« of ^ods 
occasioned by throwing overboard a part of the cargo! 




order to save the vessel during a storm. Salvage is a com 

!;:;;:;;":" ^'" '"'"''" '- -"--^^ "-"p^^^- 1'-4 Mud^z. 

sn?eTth."e'''~^'r''. "r^' "'■^ "f™ ""'d •■''"'■• <>«"« in- 
sured, the consent of the company should be secured to make 

,0 iev''''f""7/",^"'- J'"' "'">■ >"■ '•''"■■■"''' '■J- making the 
of t fe lots "'Vhr",^ "' ^''"^ " """•^ -"""" "' """™« 
»l! owJis the goods "" ""'"^ """'"^ ■" ^°™ "" """^ 
Valued PoUcy.-The place for the valuation of the prop- 
erty s .sometimes left bla.ik. In that case the value ZZt 

?s in:er™d"'the" ItV'''^ "'•""' '™"- »'" "f™ '" " 
IS inserted, then that valne is controlling for both parties 

.t .s then called a valued policy. H i„ th^at policy the g^a 

2;!i 



are vnliied at $500 and llic luss is if200, llie I'Dnipany paja 
only $200. If the loss liad lioeii .■f.'jOO llio company would 
have paid tile wliole loss. A full insurance is when value 
of propoity and value of i>oliey are equal. 

Seaworthiness.-It is taken for Rrauled that a vessel to 
be insured is seaworthy. The jierson insured, not tile com- 
pany, must take (he risk. If the vessel proves to be not 
seawoitliy the insurance is void, though both the insured 
and insurers were not aware of it. 

Lost or Not Lost— These words in a policy have reference 
to the insurance of property on sea when neither the owner 
nor the company know whether it is already lost or not. 
The company take the risk, also, and will pay the loss at 
the time the contract is made. 

Abandonment.-If property is wholly lost the company 
pays the whole amount of its policy. If the partial loss be 
less than half the value of the property the company pays 
Its due proportion of the loss. But if the loss is partial, 
but amounts to more than half the property in value, its 
owner has the right to give up to the company what re- 
mains, and claim the full amount of the policy. This is 
called the right of abandonment. If the words "without 
right of abandonment" are in the policy the company can 
refuse to take the property. 



LIFE mSURANCE 

Lift Insurance is a contract to pay a certain sum of monev 
on the death of a certain person or when he reaches a cer- 
tain age. 

A Whole-lift Policy is an agreement to imy a certain sum 
to the representativ. s of the insured mentioned therein on 
his death. 

An Endowment Policy is an agreement to pay a certain 
sum to the insured at the end of a fi.ved tei-m, or to his rep- 
resentatives on his death, should that happen hefiue the end 
of the term. 

Principles Ck)Temlng.--Life insurance is governed by the 
same legal principles, so far as they are applicable, as other 
kinds of insurance. Any fraud or deceit in obtaining a 

880 



INSURANCE 

jiolicj-, or misrepresentation of essential facts, will render 
It void. 

Insurable Interest-Any person can insure the life of an- 
other upon uhom he or she is dependent for support, or in 
the oontmunnce of whose life he or slie has an adequate 
peeuniar.v interest, and a wife is always held to have an iu- 
surahle interest in the life of her husband. 

The consent of the pereon whose life is insured must be 
obtained to a policy issued in favor of a third party. 

It there is no insurable interest the contract is void, as 
beinj? a wa<;er policy. 

A creditor may insure the life of his debtor for the mo- 
tection of his debt. 

Restrictions are usually imposed by the company, such as 
to travel only within certain limits, or not to 'en"a.'e in 
hazardous employments. In such cases, if the insured de- 
sires to overstep the restrictions, permission must be .di- 
tamed from the company. 

Assigning Policy.-IJfe insurance policies are assiirnahle. 
The policy Itself usually specifies the way in which the 
transfer must be made. Generally the assent of the insur- 
ance company is required to an assignment. 

Life Insurance Policy 

No. 48,728. 

The Occident Life Insurance Company 

In consideration ot the repre.ent.tlon. made to them in (he appll- 
canon tor thi. policy, and „I the .um ol thirty-tour dollar, and the 
further ,u„. of thirty-four dollar, to he paid on the 27th day „t Janu- 
tZ.rTt nf , '^l'" """' """"« "" ""'tauance ot thi. policy, do 
insure the lite ot Cha,. N. Milton, cf Fort Leavenworth, in ,bc Coun.v 
Of Leavenworth state ot Kansas, in the amount of one thou.and dollar- 
tor the term of hi. natural life. And the said company doe, promise 
and agree to pay the amount of the said Insurant at L „mce ,„ st 
Loul. ,„ Cha., N. Milton's iegai representatives in sixty day. after due 
t°hiL™o"y. ""'"''"' '""" °' "'" '""' ^"""^ "■' -"t'nua". of 

In witness whereof the said Occident Life Insurance Company ha, 

"'JV/t;^:'^""-' "'-'^ '■"■ -""- - ™-°-' •- 

WAn«E» Weight, j„^„ g Costello, 

,„„, *""•-'■ "resident. 

Premium $34. payable semi-annually. 



281 



w 

h ,; 



'i I'i 



m-^ 



INSUHANCE 

Indoraed Auignment 

Clares Dorr ,"„ ."r^ 'V'J^^, •'"«■■«=« tr.n.,., ,o n„ ..« 

-' under Iho .aaie " her.alt.r ma, b.,,, |„, t„, 

W/.ne.» ,ny b.„j „, „., ,^„ ,_.^^ ^^^ __^ ^^^_^^^_^ ^ ^ ^^^^ 

Executed la the pre.eoce ot '^""' "' ""■'""'■ '"'"•' 

El>WA«u EVERKTT. 

Recent investigations by a LcRislativ^ Comniitee into the 
Big tocome and Snrplns.-One fact looms out of the in- 

oo^'r :„T'"- f r' -"-.eietrtrixrof^^^,! 
;t:;r™rrr ' •■"^""'"- "'^-- -^ ti^:.^ 

the people of the United States now pavin<- in"o .°fe In 
snraneo treasuries $9,000,000 a week but the ""oM in. 
J»nies„„,d ,2,2.0,000,000 assets tt p'rottfou.lX X 
.1 Htriy„„rf fT "7- ''f-'"'-"^^"-'- ""Wlities. Adding in- 
TZ °' ■'/■•'""""' insurance, fully *2,500,000,000,-en„al 

Di^rtin^th ;■' "; '""' '" "'' "■^"™"- treasuries. 

Diverting the Surplus—Instead ot regardinK this vast snr 
Pl"^ accu„,„|ation as a sacred trust for tit, widlws and 
orphans of the policy holders, the managers 0^^" 
1 fe nsuronce companies in New York devised metLs of 
Sre^a'^dTrienV^^' "' '-'' ^^^ ^^^^^:^ 

Among the principal means resorted to for thus diverting 




INSURANCE 

Big EmolamentB of the McOurdy Family -Prc,i,l,.nf \r 
urd.v of „,e M„tu»l Life, was ,!^d nTLv Vt * ?,^«„^ '" 
.ear, lus .son, holding a Bubordinate po.i,i, ,"^„ , *, >^ Z 

. ' ""^ ""^i'- Tlie policy holders of these three leadin.. 

ill™ ^■^""'■^ '" set two dollars back and to -ive 

he manaKers and agents one dollar. For everv SIO nl 1 

tban lu n;rV«;t „f!t 7?"""' '"'" "'""'•'"='' f""" I-"- 
•han 23 ,ler cent ™'' "' "'' ''""™"'^ '" """« 

SmaU DiTidends.-Di.rine 1<)04 the Mnt„.i'. 

the large con,pan,es has been wasteful, almost beyond belie" 



INSURANCE I 

'l-i.- f.„.e vain... HU^lZ^rV'" "''•" ''-'' ""'■■'' '^••". 
|K.lioieK w„„|,i h„ „,.,," •""" "' ".'"'l""' oulstamlinK 

«-rth .,„„. (),• V . „ :r, ","■'■ '"""« ''I'"' 'I-.V »™ 

ins protoHi,,,, «'o ,„' " h^ u,!' """"" """"• "'" <■•■<!■■**- 

.■oinparaliv;],. ..|,"a ' pr"" '"T""''' '"' """"'"'■'> 
1»"4 „f one la, r Wlin """""l ""' '"•'""'•« ^'"'« for 
•"i"«. revenue :,■ r i r"""-" show, „,„, „,„, , ,„^. 

amounted to b„, .nsO.OOO 'neindi "''Z',f T"" "-^r"'^^ 

'I i» K. 1... l,„rie,I rr ■ """onal Kovernment, and 

-•""rls w 1 I, Id ,, ° """";."•">■ ''•i" I" •''■v«ed. which the 

l«.st one-thi,-d oxpenses. Premiums should be eut at 

word «en8i.r«n™.» or InTorLnV. k ^ "' "«°' '"■^" "■« 

W.S. .„.., .,; p;.;zT:rrr;Li:-- r™ 

284 







IXSCBANCE. 

.uch a« -life In,.™.™- a„d «„c|d,Bt ln.»r.nce," hav" Tad 
an .„„r„,„.« development. The ,l„,„lo,t Idea o „':„ a„co 
a an agreement made by a ••group or person, •■ that when ° 
he C "°" '" '"' "' "'™' " '"»" •■" "I'trlbuted "e 

organized^ A rivalry between the « pronrletarv " an,l ,h 

Panie, were taxed ,or the ^ZorTJ; nT Z:ZZ:Z 
he injustice of that ,y»tem eventually became apparent am 

n.„ra„ce of personal property rapidly became a" ,„,;„'.' 

wa : e .'sr'z Z' "i """ '"' ^™™"'- -^^"""^ 

«as tne sun Fire OfHce," founded over 200 vear, «„„ 

•«::.X2"°°: '"i "^ "■" "■■"'"■ »•'" »«"." aLT„ 

society of Assurance tor Widows nnH n..„k ,. 
founded In 1BOT ... , "'oows and Orphans" was 

lounaea in ](,»!). Its plan was a crude form nf iil,.t . 

::red'"ha?;^^''"'-"' '^'"^"■■" •'-rnelrel'e IZ 
theTh?efH™u. ■""■"" "'™ " "■" ""^■'o'" '■emedy for 

le^^^teTril "o'r- faiTt;-' '"^"™"^^ '"■='^'''- 

c-aXiTe'T f ^= '™- -^onr^r-iTg: 
rirrr rra g-art?; "^'^'^ '-'-- -^ — - 

•n case of loss Is not deterZn^rbrthe ."^ILT^:: ZZl^ 
2K 



INSCBANCE. 

iMured, but .Imply by the •>.ai...t ,f the 1... „ fa, .— - 

1' 'X^*'!' '" "' "" '° ""•" ""' •"«'>■■-' """^n 
the policy. "Average" pollcle. conUIn . cl.u.e th.t the 

lr»7,; ," " ""'"' '" """"' "^ "•"' "«- K"™ 
value of the property at the time of the Ore. Th. contract 
1. contained ,„ a written ln.trnn,en, called the CX^ 
Since the passage of the Oambllng Act In England In 1774 
he contract Is void It made on any event wherein the person 
for Whose beneflt or on whose account the policy Is made 
h" BO Interest Hence the policy states that the loss "hafi 
be payable to the assured "., hi. Interest may .pp„;.. The 

transfe the policy without the co.sent of the company. 
The policy usually contains "conditio.,.- and the con^r' 
entered Into on the basis of a proposal signed by the Z 
tending assured, called an - .ppllcaUon." The proposal con- 
slsts Chiefly of written answers to Question, and .UtemenJs 

Itec ,o„ r", ■" """ °'""'"'-"»' '" "-"'^ guidance and 
protection It Is essential that the questions shall bo an- 
.wered and the tact. ,t.t«l trnly. A knowingly f.l," .n,w"r 

ZmL , T. I ' "''" '""''<'™' >>>l.-8tatements have 

fal" of theTr ^ '°'""'" " " *"' '»*"»"' ">"' O" tbo 

ralth of their being correct. Every fact that I. , 1...1. 

cTd^'a'.i".!:'' *"""■ •" "" '-— •"^htt'b o„ .i' 
rated, and the property should be a«cnr.t«l, described. 

In Canada there are statutes, both Dominion .,:« Provln- 

Thi' «ZVTV^ "^"'"""^ ""'■"'' «»"» <" insurance 
The Dominion Ins.rance Act of 1910 Is a general act anoH 
cable .0 the whole of Canada, but there are certiti In uran e 
companies and classes of Insurance excepted from It. oper^ 
ion. The Minister of Finance Is authori.ed to Issue a llcen™ 
to any nsurance company .0 which the act applies, ,0 clrry 
on business within the Dominion. The Act app;i;s to life 
insurance and to are Insurance In all their forms also to 
accident, guarantee, lldellty, bond, burglary, weather cyclone 
tornado, plate glase, steam boiler, sprlnkUr leakag^TnUnd 
iZlTe- "'°'""'"- "'"" '■"" ""™' -t"" MnH 



\: 



IXStlRASCB. 

EieiT eompM, mi.t ma« ■ dtpoiiit with the Xlnhttr of 
HMnee .nd obtala ■ liMg>e before commenrlag ba>lieM 

The Oovernmont sppointe a " auperlntendent." who acts 
under the authority of the Minuter of Finance keeps a 
record of the aecurltlea required to be depo.ltod, and of the 
Mcense. le.ued, and who muat personally vl.lt the Head 
HWce of each company In Canada once ■ year aad make aa 
aaaual report Each company Ig required to send In to the 
M n later annually a >»ora ntalemeat of Us asset, and 11a- 
miltles, Income end expenditure. In the case of any loss by 
Are on property Insured In Panada, remaining unpaid for 

H.1 v^T; "" ''""' "' *"" <■•"""'«"» "»f "• wlfhdrawn by 
lie MlBlster. Another provision says, « >o Hre poiiry shall 

ears"" '""' '"' °'"™'' '"" ' ''"'*" ""''"' ""'" ""*• 

« life Insuraaee - Is a contract by which the Insurer under- 
akos to pay a given sum. upon the happening of a par- 
Icular event contingent upon the duration of human life 
in consideration of the Immediate payment of a s.naller sum' 
f-very policy delivered In Canada by any life Insurance com- 
pany, licensed to carry on business within Canada, shall be 
deemed to contain "the whole coatract between the parties," 
and no provision shall be Incorporated therein by rlferenco 
to rules, by-laws, obligations or any other writing, unless 
they are endorsed npon or atUched to the polley. No com- 
pany can carry on an "assessment life" Insurance business 
In Canada without being licensed and registered, and com- 
plying with the other provisions of the Act. Death claims 
are declared to be a lirst charge on all moneys realized on 
assessments, and no portion of such moneys can be used for 
any expense whatever. Any action to enforce the obligation 
of any policy may be taken In any court of competent Jurls- 

uTr^iuV^, 'T.'"^' ""'" *'"' """"^ »«"•' "■»•"<•''. »' 

last resided before his decease. 

The directors of each company are authorized to make 

by-laws, not contrary to law, nor to the special act under 

which the company Is Incorporated, nor to the Insurance Act, 

The books of the company shall be open to the Inspection 

287 



11 



IN8UBAN0B. 

Of the •htreholderi and credlton, >nd In the oua of life 
oonip«nle». to Inapectlon by participating policy holden, at 
the Head Olllco or chief place of bujilneai of the company, 

" ProTlarUI hiinnian C«mpa>le>.»-Each province han ltj< 
own Inaurance Act. authorlilng the Incorporation of com- 
panies to underUke and carry on lire, life, accident. Inland 
marine and other kinds of Insurance bualneas within the 
province. The executive council of each province hai con- 
trol over provincial companies so Incorporated. 

Provincial Insurance Acts are necessarily similar, and their 
provisions are generally to the same effect, as those of the 
Dominion Act. 

There arc « statntory rondltlons," which provide (a) That 
the Insured shall forthwith, after a loss, notify the conpaay 
In wrltlnx, and where this condition Is not complied with the 
Insured may not b« able to reeoTer. (b) That If the pro- 
perty Is assigned without a written permission endorsed upon 
the policy, the policy shall thereby become Told. But this 
condition does not apply to a change of title hy succession 
or operation of law, or by reason of death, (c) That money, 
books of account, and securities for money are not Insurable. 
(d) That If the assured has any other Insnnnn on the pro- 
perty covered by his policy which is not disclosed to the 
company, or if he afterwards elTects other Insurance thereon 
without the written consent of the company, he will not be 
entitled to recover In excess of sixty per cent, of the loss or 
damage, but if the non-disclosure of the other Insurance Is 
for a franJnleit purpose, the policy shall become void, (e) 
That any change In the property insured which Is material 
to the risk and within the control or knowledge of the assured 
shall avoid the policy, unless the change Is promptly notllled 
to the company, (f) That the company Is not liable for the 
loss of property owned by "any other person than the 
aBsnr^d," unless the Interest of such person Is stated In or 
upon the policy, (g) That where the Insurance is upon 
buildings or their contents, and the loss Is caused by the 
want of brick, stone, or cement chimneys, or by stoves or 
stovepipes being, to the knowledge of the assured, In an 



INSIIRANCK. 

uMufo condition, or Improperly .ec»,«|, or It good, ,re d.m. 

which the application of •• Urn heat" I, nectary, or ?t the 
Kooda arc UaomKcd while the h„lldl„„, are b,.l„/a°t ered or 
repaired, and In cun.e,„„.ncc thereof; or If the drmJe 
occur, „.b,„. „„„,„„„, „„„, „„ ^^ other I'Z 

lH.wdM IH or are „l..red or kept In the building Insured or 
!or"he' „'." "■• ""*"' '"• "■"-"■■^ "■•■' ■«" "e liable 

Z .f, ? " P"rpo,cB, In quantltle, not exceeding 

l> Th»M''.r """•'^'"'■"' ■>" "> 'he »"-»e limited ,ua„ ty 
(h) That In the event ot there being any other In.nrance upon 
the property at the time of the happening of any lo.. „" 
damage each company .hall only be liable for a rateable 
Pro,K>rtlon of the loss or damage, or for such araoun I ,h° 
assured may be entitled to recover (li Th., i "' "' '"" 

..™„.„d by „.M„,„g or « i«..oL"::r rr.d.'T„r 

tompanles may reserve to themselves the right to termfnate 
a Wiley by giving seven days' notice, and by repaying a r."! 
able proportion of the premlnm for the unexpired term H 

rl , L' *""■* """"' "'"'"' "> 'l-" c-n-pany or It, 
agent. All written notices may be by letter delivered to the 
assured or by registered letter addressed to him at his last 
pos -office address Where property Insured Ts on^ pa 
tla ly damaged, no abandonment of the same wl be aUowed 
unless with the consent ot the company. An, p"„en entiS 
make » claim „„der the p„l,c, shcld UMh^'mllln^^, 
a «rlf „, ,„ ,„e company, and deliver .n .eco„»t „, «' 
lo», ., the nature of the ease j.erralt,, und furnish ?her.wi.h 
a sUtntor, declaration verl,yi„, „«' ."'«"."'?» stall.' 
the e«„,e of the Are ..d ho« It originated, etc. The assured 
should also. If possible, produce books of account w.reh 
receipts, stock lists. Invoices and other vouchers i?!! 
or his Claim. Any rraud or false stat:L:t"t:;:y'"st:t„To°ry 

^» 289 



I 

i 



INIIURANCK. 
^.rr.c..p.„,p„J'o",h1l„.. ThTr, r? """"■ "'" 



ACCIDENT AJID CASlllTT H8UBA1VCE. 

..in.. 10.. from v.rlou. tortultou. h.pUC '" 

benent for . partially dl.abllng accident. "^ 

dent, to tho.e ,n their employ, accident, to .Lm bone™: 
S90 



1 



■UUI0K4TION 

IMMIGRATION 

With ro„rd .0 .„.,„ lnu„.,ra„7/TL'''^l™'° Vrn ""' 
ha. cnacttd law. with rciiard to .).„ i7 '"'*"•' ' •fltamot 

""ly It I. to l,iJciZmiZJ ""'""■""" °m^"" who.,. 
«mmlgra„t do . no. ,« ^ . t'h;^" '" '""'" """^ «" 

In the country from whi'ch h " ""'"'^""' <" ">■"" "'■»" 

the country for L* ' ' ^or"' " I' "" '" '=°"""'' """ 
Pnnl.hment, etc. I. ,S. ,.°' ,"'"'""* ■"•"-"cutlon or 
I. under .he e„l„ ?„,„",.!, ''^' '" "'•"« «« "•"->»" 
"•«»t The Dominion pi: I'r."' "" """""'»» •"""•• 
M„™i,n..l..T?rww:r:a:°revrH'''T'"'"' ■''''"^'' «■■ 
.».» and therearte'r sllrt.^re: "?„ t9lV"?r";"r '" 

":rc\=:d^°^;r.?hrr"-^^^^^^^^^^^ 
-r^^ rir£r^r '^^'" -" 

domicile, .hall be Dermltt^r, , . ""■" ■"■ "»' *-■«"»<"«" 
landed or entered "anlda 27\ ''"""■ " " "" ■■" 
therein, who can he '"'..lied » t, "'"''""""' "■ ■•™"'" 
-prohibited cUl,,,,.- The ' °„M. ^'™'""'' '^ "">' ■" '"e 
imbecile,, fee"" "„de?Ir„? °'""'" ""■ '"' ""<""• 

have been In.ane vi.Wn five "' ""'""■ " """""^ '"'«' 
afflicted with a„yCl„"rra"e''r':';:, '" "^7""'^ 
which 1. contaeiou. «, i„, """ase, or with any disease 

disease Is or^.Tch . „" l :":ithr""'^'' """ " ^"* 
time, .nch person may be per' f.ted to " T'™^'"'' »'«'« 
to leave the ship for medlcaMr . . ''''"'"" °" "■"ard, or 
are dumb, blind or o^he w. """'"''"'• «" Immigrants who 
the opinion of the B» Me, I""'?"" ■"•""^"^■'•' ""'"» '° 
money or have s .ch nrofe , '""" """»• ""^'^ ""«<='<'" 

ment that they a e n't Lie toT"""'™' '™"=' " ^l""^- 
belong to a fa™"y whio^t^ve ?" " """""^ '■'""•««: "■■ 

.rants becoming ^a pS'bt 11^™ TdmnV:! 'r^ 
291 




IMJIIOBATION 

been convicted of any crime. InvoWng moral turpitude, (e) 
ProBUtutes. and women or girls coming to Canada tor any 
nmioral purpose, and persons living on the avails of prosti- 
tution, (f) Persons who procure or attempt to bring Into 
Canada prostitutes, or women or girls for the purpose of 
prostitution (g) Professional beggars or vagrants, or persons 
likely to become a public charge, (h) Immigrants to whom 
money has been given or loaned by any charitable organ- 
zaUon for the purpose of enabling them to qualify tor land- 
ing In Canada, or whose passage to Canada has been paid 
wholly or In part by any charitable organization or out of 
public moneys; unless It Is shown that authority In writing 
has been obtained from the superintendent of immigration 
for the landing In Canada of such persons. (1) Persons who 
do not tulflll. or meet, or comply with the conditions or re- 
quirements of any regulaUons which for tht time being are 
m force and applicable to such persons. 

The Governor-ln-conncll h anthorbed to appoint a « Super- 
iEtendent of Immigration," -Commissioners „f Immigration,'- 
and such other officers as are deemed necessary for carry- 
ng out the provisions of the act, and to establish and main- 
tain Immigration offices at such places within and outside 
of Canada as may seem proper, and to appoint or employ, 
either permanently or temporarily, any subordinate officers 
required In the furtherance of the objects and provisions of 
the act, including medical officers, inspectors, guards, matrons 
and nurses at Immigration stations. 

c-^.'r\l°'', passengers are permitted to leave a vessel In 
Canada, the immigration officer In charge may go on board 
and inspect such vessel, and examine and take extracts from 
the manifest of passengers, and from the bill of health, and 
the master shall permit any examination of passengers re- 
quired to be made on board his vessel whenever so directed 
by the Immigration officers In charge. 

Every passenger seeking to land In Canada is required to 
go before an Immigration officer and submit to an eumlna- 
UOB, either on shipboard or on train or at some other place 
designated for that purpose. Each person on examination Is 
required to answer truly all questions put to him; and every 
person so examined may be immediately landed unless the 



1 



IMMIOBATION 



NATURALIZATION 

n Its national polity. The naturalization of aliensin cL»„^ 

ITVLsl „7V ar'.C iTLo" '"'"=■"• ""-•"''■'• ■"'"' 

«„* . \_ »ueii. In the same manner as hv » 

natural born British subject A titiP tn ™oi !. 
P;oPen. Of an. aescHptlLV, Tae'riv:? rn.nr 
or in uccesslon to an alien, tl,e .ame as if such all™ we"' 

"fficrand".?" """ ""'" "' dls,uall«ed from holding 
Office, and they cannot legally be elected for any municipal 

Inte^T „ " ™ ""' "==' ""'■' ttree ywir, and who 
intends when naturalized to re«lde in Canada may take and 

:?WM Vr'eVr'i "'"««"--- --i ".UeZU- forms 

year TnLe ?i ^'.""'r """'"^ '"^ ■>»'»' "»» "»Med three 
years In the Dominion of Canada, with Intent to aetUe thereto. 



1 






1^' 



i i' 



tm § 




KATCBALIZATION 

^'tT^ t,*"*^"* '" **• •'"' •»»*• These cthB nay 
.uthorlzed to administer oaths, or a iustloe of thTZce or 
other nuiglstrate, or before a notary pnbllc. The ne^n 
before whom the oaths are taken Is authorized to glve^° 

Xh^'the",'?"'"''" "'''""' "■" "" -" ^^"^t^oZ. 
and that the Judge or other officer has reason to believe and 

time In Canada, and that the applicant Is a person ofrood 
Character, etc. This certlUcate so given by the Judge. L^s 

«t O.torio, to the ronrt of Ceneral Session, of the Peace^ 
the county In which the alien resides, or to tte Court of 

tte Mm,. ° ?"!'" " '" ""'^"''^ "> ""' Circuit ConrtThln 
tte limits Of the Jurisdiction In which the alien reaves In 

T>ni«.d.i «i IT »"»i>ii lerntory It Is presented to the 
e^U^the n "' ?' ""'■""'■' '" '^--' "■" «™ ate 

rtrXteZprtrr..rH=:::;i^:~:^ 
=£^^^»i^^njir-rariH 
£r^^/crrt i: rsrunr;;?^: rz 

Court House, and must be transmitted to the Judge with an^ 
obec tons which may have been filed. Where Xre ,s"o 
obect^o.,, a -Certificate of ».tnr.U.aUen - is Issued.. If any 
objections are filed, the Judge or court appoints a time t^ 

b.™ TlmT" M T "»""• ^•" . P.™.Vh. w.^ 
oom a Britisli subject, but who whii» . • h._. . 

CanadTardel^rbfret^uS^Jer:^^^^^^^^ 

the oaths above mentioned, and then apply to the oroner 
court or authority for a "Crtiflcto .1 Il^ZnX mZ 

294 



NATUKALIZATIOS 

KatloMlltj," readmitting him to the autus of a Briu-h ...h. 
shall be deemed to be a subject of the .tate of which hw 
father >, ' ""• "■" ""' ""« » »"««' o' cltl«n If . 
i?^uch ^aSfer' '"""\"""^'' "«»■»« an alien, „lj .",„ 
res de^^'''^" " mother who. during Infancy, ha. b«ome . 
...if ,^ '"'""'"''' '""" '^o '»""■■ ■"■ mother 1, natural- 

l«d. shall within Canada be deemed to be a subject or niH. 

iattrall^dlnH ."" °' """"' *''™» "'"■"» ""'e become 
naturalized and who are resident within Canada, shall have 

ittlon o'f ,f ^''"' """'°'"- '- «"•' Brit.1,^ he natu«l! 

Nara„i:ri:ta^r„"'urr iiT'"" ^^ "- 
o-Ja-Brs'h" rr. --' - -p-arAcna-sr^r 

r„1^ !r^;. r '"" '" '™"' '"' "' "■» BrtUah Empire The 

bourse SL Domlhlons Is a British subject But of 

course there are exceptions to thl. rule. Fttr example the 

Somlnlol " ""' """' *•" ■»" ^"^ '^« BrttJh' 



395 



PATENTS IN CANADA. 



The P.Knt Offlo. I. . BiMch of ih. Department ol 
Afriowltuni. .rH] th. HlnlXer of Agriculture for the 
Uit» btlnr li the Commltaloner of P»tenl». 

Any perwn who hu invented anv new and uaeful 
trt. machine, manufacture or oompoililon of matter, or 
My new and laeftiT Improvement in an) art, nuchine 
naniKacture or compoaltlon of matter, which «« not 
known or us«l bjr an; other person before hl« Invention 
UMreof, and whioh hae not been In publio um or «ale 
with the cooaent or kUowance of the in«ntor thereof 
for more than one year previouily to hie application for 
Patent therefor in Canada, may. on a petition to that 
•OMt, preeented to the Commiseioner, and on com- 
"iianoe with the other requirement of the Act, obtain 
• pfttent granting to such perwn an exclusive property 
In woh invention. 

No patent bhall Issue for an Invention which has an 
midt object In Tiew, or for any mere scientific prindple 
or abstract theorem. ' 

Any person who has Invented any Iniprovemeni on 
My patented invention, may obtain a patent (or such 
Improvement; but he shall not thereby obtain t 
right of vending or using the original invention, n.r 
mil the patent for the original Invention confer the 
right of vending or uting the petented improvement 

The Patentee or his legal represenUtivea mnst, within 
two year* from the date of the patent or an aalhorised 
extension thereof, eonimence and continuously carry 
on in Canada the construction or manufacture of the 
invention patented in such manner that any pervon 
deriring to use It may obtain It, or causa It to be made 
for him ti a reasonable price at some manufactory or 
wt^Iishmsnt for making or construoUng it In Canada. 
If after twelve months from the granting of > patent, 
or an authorised extension thereof, the PaU...ee or his 
legal represenUtives imports, or canaes to bs imported, 
into Canada thu invention for which the patent Is 
rnntad, such patent shall be void m to the interest of 
the person so Importing. 

The Commissioner, upon satisfactory cause being 
•howB, may grant to the Patentee or his legal represen- 
taUvea an extenrion for a further term not exceeding 
one yaar beyond the twelve months during whkh he 
may import Into Cnna.ia the invention ; such applica- 
tion must be made within three months before the 
ezpliy. of the sold twelve months. 

An InTentor obtaining a patent for his Invention in a 
foreign ooontry before obtaining a Canadian patent, 
n»y obtain the latter if san e be applied for within one 
jear from the date of the Issue of the first foreign 
potent; and If within three months oftcr the date of 
iwue of a foreign patant the Inventor gives notice 
to the Commissioner of his Intention to apply for a 
Canadian Patent for such invention, then no other per- 
«m having commenced to manufacture the same device 
lo Canada during such period of one year shall be en- 
titled to continue the manufacture of the same after the 
Cwwdian patent has bacn obtained without the consent 
«r allowanoe ot the inventor. 



Upon application (or a patrnt. i.r within six months 
A(ier wue o( the patent, ihe CommU«oner may oHer 
hat, instead of the aWe provision, n. to manufacture 
n CmidA within two., cars. ,„,h ps.«m .hall be eubject 
to the following condition.;- Any pen»n. while the 
I»tent .ontinuei. in for<c, may appl, to the Commie, 
sioner for a license to make, construct, uw ami sell the 
poterited invention, and i( (he CommiMloner is iniiifled 
that the reason.ille requlremerts of the public have not 
been saiisHed by reoson of the neglect or refusal of the 
Potentee or his lej-al reprewntatives to make, construct, 
or sell the Invention, or to grant licenses for so 
doipij to Others on reasonable terms, he mav make an 
ord.r under his bond and the seal of the Patent Odlce 
"nirlr, . the owner of the patent to grant a license to 
the p,./ rfn applying therefor upon such terma as to 
royalties, etc., as the Commissioner deems Just, and i( 
the Commissioner makes such an order, ond the owner 
of the Patent refuses or neglects to comply therewith 
within three Calendar months after a copy of It is 
addressed to him or to his duly authorized agent, the 
patent and all rights and privileges thereby granted 
■hall cease and determine. 

An application (or apatent is mode by a petition where- 
inlhefiileornomeot thelnvention U set forth, and In 
which the applicant declares that he i»the inventor of 
thu invention, u well as plocing.his domicile at some 
known and specifled place In Canada, and such petition 
must bo verified by affidavit or afflrmation of the appli- 
cant that he believes he is the Inventor of le said In- 
vention, and that the sUtements in the petition are true. 
Should the Inventor be dead, such oolh or affirmation 
may be made by his asaifnee or legal representative, 
»nd with the petition must be filed a specification (In 
duplicate) <rf the invention which ahaU correctly and 
fully desoribe the mo^e of operating same, the con- 
trivances «iid things cUImed as new, and for the lue of 
which exclusive property and privilege la chdmed, and 
shall bear the name of the place where, and date when, 
made, and shall be signed by Uie applicant and by two 
witnesses. In the case of a machine, the apeciflcation 
shall .•:.|ly explain the principle and several modes In 
which it Is intended to apply, and work out the same ; 
and wherj the Invention odnUta of illustration be 
means of drawings, the ^ipllcant shall also send In 
drawings in duplicate, showing dearly all parU of the 
Invention. In all t .sea in which the invention admlU 
of representation by model, the applicant, if required 
by the Commlsdoner. shall also furnish a model of con- 
venient siie ; and when the invenUon is a compoaition 
of matter, the applicant shall also, on like requeet, 
furnish specimens of the Ingredients and eompoeitioii 
sufBclent in quantity for the purpoM of experiment; 

In the case of conflicting kpplicatlons for any patent, 
provision li ftiode lor submitting same to the arbitra- 
tion ol three skilled persons, two of whom shall be 
chosen by the applicants and the thlid by the Commii. 
•ioner, and the decision or award In writing of moh 
wUtratoi*, or at any two of them, •hall t>e HaaL 






"U» I m. 01 u» .|,,,||«Uon II I. opttou f„, ,h, 
t«.W. rw, onl,. „ J„,^, ^, „^„ ,„^„ ^ 

Sr:^c",^r '"""'• "" '"'""' •'"""°" ■"'■ 

".IMend In tb, P.ic„t o«|„ rt.U b. null iu,<l ,oli 
*• *«*'"•' <«>y mbKIUiiil u.lp,e<,. 

Uie P.t.nl»,, nmk.., comtractn, or put. Into pnctlc 

Z Z"°" '" """' • >»""' '■" !«." "SJ^^^S S 

Tu. iT^^K ' '»'•»'". «"■! -ho u«e. It, .n^ll ta 
S™^,;^ " ■""'""■ " "'■ "«- "■P"»»l.tlv., In 

•moon. 01 the J.n„i„, cw„„| ,„ ,b. p„„ , ^ J 
l«--lnMn,„„.nt U .11.,^ to b..e fk.n p^ Sj 

h". JnrlrflMton over th. intin Dominion ol Cniu. 
Bvory p«i„,ui, OMI lUmp or snmv, on ,^k 

."""'" '*«. o' " llio cu« maj b« ; or »hen Iron. 

r;.rn?,rir '^'' "'''■'•■'"'""« '^^""'''•^^^^^ 

ii^Tl For .,ol.,lo„ o, tbl, provision ,b,„ |. ,„. 
POM , ponnlt, not rroodinj lloo.ou. .nd. In d.f.ull 
^In,ont il,™,. in,prl.„n™.nt .or'. ,.™ „« ." ' 
CMdlnir two niontha. 



jcntad l«, .h.M 0.U.0 „„ „u ,|„„„.„^ .ji^i, ^, 
b. MM .„,„.. tn 1. p™„rt ,„ ^ 
•PpLonlon . m.d„ b, ,„, Mb„ pen™, for .p.,™ 

.h.ll (,rth.llh II,. n«,l„. b, n,.ll, „, .„ob .ppll„,|„„ 
to th. pcnon nilns .nob c„„t, ,bo .b.ll. witbin tbr» 
month. th.,i»rt«r, II h.wl.ht. to ...M hln«cll ol th. 
..»«, m hi. pcuilon, .nd ut. th. otb.r .t.p. n«» 
«ry on .„ .pp|i„i!„n l„r . p.t.nt. Th. .pp|l..,|o„ 
lor tb. p.t.nl m„.t b. m«l. „iih|„ „„, j^ ,^ 
Bllnj ol c,.e.t. otb.r»l» lb. Comml«lon.r I. nil.,,.- 
rrom th. obllifatlon ol ffirbiK notlc 

Th. Oonmmcnl ol Cuiul. m.,. .t .„y i|m., „„ „, 
potrnlrf inv.nlion by pnyinu to tb. Pai.„t« ,„oh mn 
«. tb. Commtalonor rrport. to b. . riiuon.bl. am- 
p.n.atlon lor tbe UM thenwl. 



ol CO, nt.rl„uns or hnilntlnj lb. .i^p, „„b „ j,. 
vto. ol th. |„t«nl ol .noth.r p<.r«,n, or ol di».l,ln, th. 

l»l.nM in o^dk I. . mtal„„„„„,, J„ ,„, , J^ 
thorel. > An. not .lowllne »200.l», or imprtaonrntnt 
lor • torn not rxcMdlnj thrc. month., or both 

J'!'',':i^'''' "P""""' '"' » Potrnt who h.. not ,cl 
porlo. «l hi. mvrntlon. nnd i. In l..„ „l bci„B d«p«iLl 
o hi. M«, ,mi, m. In a, p,,i.„t omo. . dracriptlon ol 1 
lil.lnnntlon » hr, with or without pl.n.. ol hi. own 



W.m.nbi, and othrr p.p.„, .„.„ „„.„, .J'^ 
op.n t. lb. Inspection ol lb. public .t tb. P.Unt Offlc 
»nd.r «,ch r«ul.tlo,» u or. «loptrf In a„t b.hj, 
Th. lollowin. Ice, „. p.y.bl. :-rull Ic on p.t.nt 

<or 18 ,.m, mom; pmi,i ,„ ,„, ,2 ZT, 

J.»,«a(IO, lor m„h.r t.m, 01 y..,. So i 
•IW 1 lor copy ol p.t,nt, with .p«,l»c.tlon. »4.<»r^ 

ar]^"„''ii'',T';^"S '"■""«"■ •PPlictlon In 0,..t 
arlWn m fe.00 ; P„„„e, ,20. „ . o.^ „ ,„ 

p.t,nu coyer not onl, Oormm.y „d p„,„ b„, .,„ 
thd, colon,^ Th. «u„l.„ p.,.,,, .„„^ ,„ .„ J^ 

A.SiLlti'n'.r,""'" '" """" "" "PPll^Uon In th. 
Au.t»l,.n states """">• V"™*-!, Victor^ l.„ 
South «r.l«,. South Au,l,.ll., Wotem Au.tn.bk .nd 
ltan.nl. „ sr,.oo on mm,, o. tb. application „;.M 
». allowanc ol „m, .|„1 Ksc ,„ p,.pa„,i„; „, a. 
wilinir 01 patent: N.w Zealand, jaaoo- Mexico K' 00 ■ 
!l.t.l.BO.OO;J.,»n,P5.oo; Jamaica, lisu.oo.' ' ' 



iWL 






-I t 



iili 



PATENTS, THADB HARKS AND COPTRIOHni 

PATENTS IN THE UNITED STATES 

How Obtained.— Application must be made to the Com- 
missioner lit Patents, accompanied by carefully prepared 
papers and drawings. Foreigners may obtain patents as well 
as citizens of the United States. 

AMigniMiita.— Every patent or any interest therein shaU be 
assignable in law by an instrument In writing. The patentee 
or his assigns may also grant and convey in like manner an 
eioluaive right under his patent for the whole or any specified 
part of the United States. 

Mark.— Every patented article, before it is sold, must be 
marked patented, so as to give notice to every one that it is 
patented. 

Iniringament is the making, using or selling the patented 
article without the permission of the owner of the patent. Its 
consequenoea are twofold: (1) The infringer must pay to the 
owner of the patent whatever damages the latter suffers through 
the infringement, equivalent usually to the profits which the 
infringer has made; (a) the oourt will compel the infringer to 
stop. By these two methods the ezolnilve right is enforced. 

Fees Baquired by Law 

1. Application — On filing each original application for a pat- 
ent except in design cases, fifteen dollars. 

2. Original Patent.— On issuing each original patent, except 
in design cases, twenty dollars. 

8. In Design Oaoes.- For three years and six months, ten dol- 
lars; for seven years, fifteen dollars; for fourteen years, thirty 
dollars. 

4 Oaveat.— On filing each cc-eat, ten dollars. 

8. B»-Iaaue of Patents.— On every application for the reissue 
of a patent, thirty dollars. 

a. Disclaimar.— On filing each disclaimer, ten dollars. 

7. Bxtaniion of Patent.- On every application for the exten- 
sion of a patent, fifty dollars. 

8. Oront of Extension.— OA the granting of every extension of 
a patent, fifty dollars. 

9. Pint AnMal.— On an appeal for the first time from the 
primary examiners to the examinerin-chief, ten dollars. 

10. Xvery Appeal.- On every appeal from the examiner-in- 
ohief to the commissioner, twenty dollars. 

11. Oartiaad Oopleiot Patenta.—For certified ooplea of patents 

■Z98 



mit 



PATENTS, TRADE HARKS AND CDHVRUIIITS 

»nd other papm, Inoludlng oartifled printad ooples, ton oenu 
per hundred words. 

13. Bacordlng.— For recording every sMignment, agreement, 
power of attorney, or other paper, of three hundred words or 
under, one dollar; of over three hundred and under one thousand 
words, twodollara; of over one thousand words, three dollars. 

18. Oopiu of Drawing.— For copies of drawings, the reasonable 
cost of making them. 

14. Fml Intormatian.— These feea may be paid to the Commis- 
sioner of Patents, or to the Treasurer or any of tlie assistant 
treanirers of the United SUtes. If you desire to secure a pat- 
ent write to the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C, 
and you will receive all the necessary papers, blanlis, and com- 
plete instructions and directions. 

OAyum 

A caveat, under the patent Uw, is a notice given to the ofHce 
of the caveator's claims as Inventor, In order to prevent the 
grant of a patent to another for the same allegeil Invention upon 
an application aied during the life of a oaveat without notice to 
the caveator. 

Any person who has made a new invention or discovery, and 
desires further time to mature the same, may, on payment of a 
fee of ten dollars, file in the patent office a caveat setting forth 
the object and the distinguishing characteristics of tlio inven 
tlon, and praying protection of his right until he shall have 
matured his invention. Such caveat shall be filed ta the confl- 
dential archives of the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall 
be operative for the term of one year from the filing thereof. 
The oaveat may be renewed, on request in writing, by the pay- 
ment of a second fee of ten dollars, and it will continue in force 
for one year from the payment of such second fee. 

The caveat must cotr.prise a specification, oath, and when tlie 
nature of the case admits of it, a drawing, and, lllie the applica- 
tion, must be limited to a single Invention or Improvement. 

TRADE MASKS 

A trade mark is a mark, emblem or symbol which a merchant 
or manufacturer uses to denote his own gooc' !. It ia usually 
attached to them and may be In the form of letters, words or 
ornamental designs. 



299 



t'C 



PATENTS, THADE MAHKS AND COPVRKIHTS 

It a good for twenty-flve yeara. and rcnewab a tor .20 
COPVBIOHT IJf CANADA. 

t.on o, h.a work the "'o^Jr^Vt rd^rerthe'^u,.";? y-ea™"'' 

To ty,/^, ?' ^PP"™""" '»■• Canadtan Copyright. 

To the Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa 

Of Vete",-'Cri,;'dX?rha°t Tarr'' ,'■!/''' P^^'"" 

quest that you register said wt ^„ 1' ""* ' ^"'"^ '«" 

"IT "'^'' f P™v'"ons M'theTopyH^h't ic?" "' """"■ 

Signed at Montreal, this third dVy of M^y 1912 m .„ 
' WUn^esse's"" """ *"°"'™ "■"ier^sllned.""' ''"' '" '*« 
AMOS AMES. '°"^ JONES. 

JAMES MOORE, 



300 



PATKNTS, TBADE MARKS AND COPYKlUUTa 

Copsrright Uwi of the United Statu 

A. Rerlwd by »n »rt of ConitreM, Including the proriilons for 
foreign copyright, of Manih 8, 1891. 

1. HowObt«ljMd.-A printo.1 copy of the title of the hook, 
map. chart, dnmatio or musical compoeltlon. engraving, cut 
print, photograph or chromo, or a dacriptim of the painting' 
drawing, statue, statuary or model or design for a work of llie 
fi^"^ '"' "^'"^ copyright is desired, must be delivered to 
the Librarian of Congress or deposited in the mail, within the 
United States, prepaid, addressed 

Librarian of Congress, 

Washington, D. C. 
This may be done on or before the day of pubUoatlon In this 
or any foreign oountiy. 

The style of print is Immaterial; that of a typewriter wiU be 
accepted. 

Tlie printed title required may be a copy of the title page of 
such publications as have title pages. In other cases the title 
must be printed expressly for copyright entry, with name of 
claimant of copyright But a separate title is required for each 
entry and each title must be printed on paper as large as com- 
mercial note Tlie title of periodical must Include the date and 
number, and each number of the periodical requires a separate 
entry of copyright 

_FuUH«m».-Every applicant for copyright should state dis- 
tinctly the full name and residence of the claimant and 
whether the right is claimed as auyior, designer or proorietor 
No affidavit or witness to the application is required 

2. Copyright re«l.-The legal fee for reourding each copy- 
right clahn is fifty cents, and for a copy of this record (or certif- 
icate of oopyright under seal of the office) an additional fee of 
fifty cents is required, making one dollar, if certificate is 
wanted, which will be mailed as soon as reached in the records. 
Tor publications which are the productions of persons not 
citizensor residents of the United States the fee for recording title 
Is one dollar, and fifty cents additional for a copy of the record. 
Copies Required.— Not later than the day of publication in 
this country or abroad, two complete copies of the best edition 
of each book or other article must be delivered or deposited in 
the maU within the United States, addressed to Librarian of 
Congress, Washington, D. C- 

301 



FATEOTB, THADI! lUIUU AJID COPnUOHn 

Hut B« AaiMiMn.— Booki moat be printed thim tTm .m in 

... Unl.«l Stet« or f,„„ pUte. n«d. «.«.h»r^£SX^ 

from n,g.UT»n«<l. In th. United 8te««,, ohromT^i^ 

fb™''unl^u;i'"'"'"' •^""~-'" """"""n n..d„n 

Mpyrlght i. Toldand peniUtyof twenty-flT.doUmhlnou™d. 

No copy ii required to be depMltedeltewhM* ^^ 

I»ew«ditlon.-The law requine • oopy of eeeh ne<r edition 

.hi"nL!f"".'^'"*'^ "'»"«-"• '»*l«tobedepodt«i.wS 
the Lihrarien of Congnn. i™"". ■""• 

Xetioe by Lnpiint.-No copyright 1. Telld unlete notice ii 
given by Inwrttog in eveiy oopy publlri,«|. on the title pege or 
following, if it be book, or if . map, chart, mueioal compjlrith^ 
print, cut engraving, photogreph. painting, dniwing, dbromo! 
•tatu. .Utuuy, or mcdel or deign intended to b. p«ftated« 
• work of the fin. arte, by in«ribing upon «,me porS^tSreS 

I^J? ;,"'*',■"* .r '''■'°'' "■• "°» '■ mounted tl»M. 

towtog word., vf.., "Entered According to Act of Congw, 

In the Year — , by , in the office of the LlteSin 

°l |^°g»" 't W«Alngton." or the word. ~Copyrigh" 

H^^aT, '"^ OW»-Tl.e law ln,po«. a penalty of one 

S^h„ri iw""^".!"''*^" "'"' *" """ »W»inL oopy. 
right who di.il in«rt the notice, "Entered Aoooiding to Act of 
Congre." or "Copyright," or word, of the .«ne iiporfino, 
upon any book or article. ""j~ni in or 

ftBultttoa. Ktc-The copyright law «cure. to author, and 
their udgna the eicluri™ right to traclato or to dr»mati» any 
of their work.; no notice or record i. required to enforce thta 
right ^^ 

DiimionolOopyright.-The original tenn of copyright run. 
for twenty^sight yearn. Within Ox month, of the end of that 
time the author or dedgner, or hb widow or children mav 
(wcure a renewal for the further term of fourteen yeara. AnnU- 
cation. for renewal mmrt be accompanied by a printed title and 
fee and by explicit statement of ownership in the case of the 
author or relationdiip in the case of his hein., and must steto 
definitely the date and place of entry of the original copyright. 
Within two month, from date of renewal the record thmeof 
must be advertHed in an American newspaper for four weeka 



PATENTS, TRADE HARKH AND COPYRIUHTS 

"m.^- th. foregoing, .xo.pt th, im„^ „ tL U1!L^ 
rig^ta tt* V!^^," •""J'"*' "' • ""•'«" ■»"<"■ «<■ copy- 

».. ._. ~~' ™™ '"» .nteiBd at Stationer's Hall London M,. 

t^T. °VJ^° *""r "«""«■ """1 five .hmbrj 

™d^d of th. Company of Stationer, for four othTr nbrarii 
O^ht mayb. e«n,.d in Frano. by an American brp„?. 

SSilltt^ No fee or entry title required. Copyright in 
C^ i»to be ..giatered with the MinilJer of Agric^ Se It 



DI8CIMT AMD DUTMBUTKW OF MTATM 



DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION 
OF ESTATES 

!■ BHtlsh Colambta.— Real eitau dnemdi to, am- 
1, lineal deacendanta and tboa« claiming by or under them 
per atlrpes; 2. the father; 3. the mother; 4, collateral rel- 
•tlvea; 6, lurvlvlng wife or huaband, In caae Inteatata 
leavea no lawful deacendanta. la entitled to one-halt of real 
eatate, and In caae Inteatate leavea deacendanta, then to 
one-third for life. Peraonal eatate deacenda according to 
the Engllah Statute of Dlatributiona. 

In Manitoba.— If an Inteatate die leaving a widow and 
child or children, one-third of hia real and peraonal eatate 
goea to hIa widow and two-tblrda to hIa child and children 
In equal aharea, and. In caae of deceaae of any of hla chil- 
dren, to auch aa legally repreaent bim. In caae of no Isaue 
the whole eatate, real and peraonal. goea to the widow; It 
laaue and no widow, to the laaue; If no widow or laaue. to 
hla father; If no widow, laaue or father, to hla mother 
brothera, and alatera In equal »' are^; If no widow, laaue 
father, brothera, or alatera, to hla mother; If no widow" 
laaue, father, or mother, to hla brothera and alatera In equal 
aharea; or If any of hla brothera or alatera be dead, their 
children take the parenfa abare. All theae falling, to hla 
next of kin; but In no case are repreaentatlvea admitted 
among collaterala after brothera' or alatera' children. 

In New Bronawick — Real eatate, aubject to widow'a 
dower, la divided equally among the children of the Intea. 
tate, then to the next of kin and their repreaentatlvea 
Peraonal property la divided aa follows: One-third goes to 
the widow of the Intestate, and the residue In equal por- 
tions to the children, or. It dead, to their lineal descend- 
ants; If there be no children or legal representatives sub- 
sisting, the widow then takes one-half, and the other half 
goea to the next of kin In equal degree; and If there be 
neither widow nor children, all to next of kin In equal 
degree, and their repreaentatlvea. 

3(M 



BE81KNT AND DISTRIBUTION OF EKTATE8 

I" Nov, Scoil..— When a perion din IntMtato, anr re*! 
«la.. to which he n..y b. entitled at the time of hi. death 

!»?."'"„;;■ ""'7'- '■ '" """' •■""■ «■" Children ."S 
l«ue Of decoaaed children according to the rl«ht of rep- 
re^ntallon If no child living, to hi. other lineal de.cend- 
ant. who .hall .hare equally. If In .amo degree, otherwlw 
mcording to the right of r.pr...ntatlon. 2 If no iMuT 
on»-half to father, one-half to widow In lieu of dower- If 

on" IT: "";7'«"<' "> '""«■•• S- « no l..ue nor fathe 
one-halt to widow, other half In equal .hare, to mother 
brohor. and .Ltera. and the children of any dece.aed 
brother or .l.ter by right of repre.entatlon. 4. If none of 
foregoing. In equal .hare, to hi. next of kin In equal 
degree, excepting where two or more collateral kindred In 
equal degree but claiming through different ancestor., 
tho.e claiming through neare.t anco.tor .hall be preferred 
but n 110 ca.e .hall repre.entatlve. be admitted among 
collateral, after brother', and .l.ter'. children. 6. If p,r,on 
deceaaed, unmarried and under age. e.tate Inherited from 

enu„''llv''^r''",' *"' T ""'""" °' '™'' ■'"•'"' ""-i '"■"« 
equally. If of same degree. otherwLe according to right of 

repreaentatlon; If no children of .ame purent. to an the 

..ue of the other children of the .ame parent equally if 

In the .ame degree, otherwise according to right of repre- 

u,r.Tr. ??,T "' *'"■'"'' ™™P'"«<i by civil law and 
kindred of half blood Inherit equally with tho.e of whole 
blood in same degree. Personal property descends In the 
same way except that after the payment of debts, funeral 
expenses, etc.. one-third goes to the widow. If any The 
widow Is allowed all her paraphernalia, wearing apparel 

hu^sba'nd ™ '" '""'"'• "" """'" '"'" '"" ■"'«'' "' 

In Ontario.— The real and personal property of an IntM- 
tato or the undisposed of real and personal property of a 
testator (subject as to realty to dower), after tl f. payment 
of h s debts. I. distributed as follows: If the Intestate die 
leaving widow rnd child or children, one-third to widow 
rest to child or children. If children dead, then to their 
representatives (that Is. their lineal descendants), except 
such child or children (not heirs at law) who had estate 
by settlement of Intestate or were advanced by him In his 

n .305 



DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION OP ESTATES 

llte-tlme equal to the other sbarei. If the Intestate leaves 
a wife only, half goes to the wife, rest to next of kin In 
equal degree to Intestate op their legal representatives, or. 
If no next of kin, to the crown. If the Intestate leaves no 
wife or children, all goes to the next of kin and to their 
legal representatives. The property of a married woman, 
who dies Intestate, is distributed In a similar manner to 
that of a husband dying Intestate. Representation among 
collaterals Is allowable only as far as children of brothers 
or sisters of the intestate. Real and pe^^'sonal property of 
every Intestate dying after the 1st of July, 1895, leaving a 
widow but no issue, shall in all cases wheri^ . he net value of 
such real and personal estate shall not exceed $1,000, 
belong to his widow absolutely and exclusively. Where i ue 
net value exceeds $1,000, the widow shall be entitled to 
that amount after payment of debts, funeral, testamentary 
and administration expenses. These provisions are In addl. 
tlon to and without prejudice to the widow's right to share 
in tiie residue of the real and personal estate. 

In Quebec. — When the deceased has left no will, the 
descent of property Is regulated by the following rules: 
Children or their descendants succeed to their ascendants 
without distinction of sex or primogeniture and whether 
they are the Issue of the same or different marriages. If 
there are no descendants, then the parents get half the 
estate, and the remainder goes to the brothers and sisters 
and nephews and nieces of the first degree. If there be no 
brothers and sisters and nephews and nieces In the first 
degree, then the parents divide the estate equally between 
them, to the exclusion of all other ascendants; and if there 
be likewise no parents, then the succession Is divided 
equally between the nearest ascendants of the paternal line 
and the nearest ascetldants of the maternal line. If the 
parents have previously died, the brothers and sisters and 
nephews and nieces in the first degree exclude the oth«r 
ascendants and collaterals. The division is made equally 
among them If they be all born of the same marriage, but. 
If not, an equal division Is made between the two lines of 
the deceased, paternal and maternal, those of the whole 
blood sharing In each line, and those uf the half blood 
•haring each In his own line only. If there be brothers and 

306 



DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ESTATES 

sisters, nephews and nieces, on one side only, they exclude 
all the relatives o( the other line. If the deceased have left 
no issue nor father nor mother, nor brothers nor sisters 
nor nephews nor nieces, In the flrst degree, and only ascend- 
ants In one line, the nearest ascendant takes one-halt of 
the succession, and the nearest collateral relation on the 
other s,de gets the other half. If there be no ascendant, 
the nearest collateral relation of the paternal line gets 

line. Relations beyond the twelfth degree do not Inherit 
and. in that case, the succession belongs to the surviving 
consort. In default of a surviving consort, ft falls to the 



«I-.*I.MM AGAINST ESTATES OP DECEASED l-EBSOXS. 

In Brl(l,h Columbia.— All claims should be sent In to the 
executor or administrator within one year after granting 
of probate or administration. Judgment debts have priority 
over ordinary debts. = p.ioniy 

In Manltolw.— Executors and administrators may pay any 
claims on such evidence as they may deem sufficient It is 
^ffldavi't" """""' '" •='"""" "> •"> »<="' l". verified by 

In New Brunswick.— In administering estates no distinc- 
tion exists between judgment debts and other debts- ail 
rank alike. 

In Newfoundland — Executors and administrators are re- 
quired to advertise for claims against the estate, duly at- 
tested, to be filed within such time as shall be fixed by the 
court, or one of the Judges thereof. 

In Nova Scotia.— Executors or administrators are re- 
quired to advertise in the offlclal Gazette, for all persons 
having claims against the estate to Hie the same within one 
year from the date of the advertisement, duly attested before 
the Judge or Kegistrar of Probate for the county or Justice 
of the I'eaco. 

In Ontario.- Claims are enforced by action against the 
executor or administrator, who is appointed by or receives 
Ills letters probate or letters of administration from the 

307 



lit 



I. J 



DESCENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF ESTATES 

Surrogate Court of each county. No distinction ezlsta be- 
tween Judgment debts and other debts; all are paid pari 
passu. Wage-earners are entitled to three months' wages 
In priority to other creditors. 

In Quebec. — If there be no testamentary executor, and 
none has been appointed by the Judge, the execution of the 
will devolves entirely upon the heir or the legatees who 
receive the succession, and claims against the estate should 
accordingly be made against them. Any service upon the 
heirs of a person deceased within the previous six months, 
may be made upon them collectively, without mentioning 
their names or residences, at the former domicile of the 
deceased. 



THE SrcCESSIOX DUTY ACTS 
Saskatelienua, ItO* 

^o,!^***,;^^* ^°** 1*" apply, as respects payment of duty to anv 
estate the value of which (after the allowance. aathorlied)do^!^ 
not exceed »5.000. nor In respect of property paaalnKbvwni 
Nr intestacy or otherwise, to or for the use of the father 
rn^S'L^S";?'.".,^' .,""'"• ?"""■ S^ndchlld. daUKhter-ta-law „; 
r,^?or^ ?J1 °.."'° .''"'""'■'I or to any person or persons adopted 
beiore the age of twelve where the saareKate value of th* 
property of the deceased does not exceed »26:ooo °° 

,1 ,™, II .?"!'" =' any person who at the time of' his death was 
I .imlclled In Saskalchewan, or who being domiciled elsewherS 
Zi duty."^ """""' '" Sa-kalchewan. if subject to a sTcc™! 
Where the aggregate value exceeds $26 000 hut dopn nnt 

5ifor?„«!'K°°d„?rifi?,''peV^c?nT«^v^£nhV"SA'^^ 

value Is over 1200,000 the duty la Ave per"eSt aggregate 

TXB AKBBBTA ACT Is 

as the Saskatchewan Act. 



for all practical purposes the same 



PrlDoe Edward Island, 18*4 



aft7r''Davmen''t°Sf Tn'flKPj'' 'S ""' "''"» "■» »»'>'• »' which 
airer payment of all debts and expenses does not exceed 12 000 
nor to property given for rellBlou,, charitable or cducatlnn.i 
purposes within the province, nor to p'operty glveS to Mood 
l1o"5no"" wK^™ .'h' ^V"" °.' i"' P™r>orty dol. Sot e?J«d 
JJJeerts «lJ5nn 1, .t, )\"1^° '"L,""' '"■»P"ty Klven to relations 
ifSn n? .h.'J.il,,.' 'tel' '"^."uMect to a duly of 11.60 for every 
Ji.lih.^^; *'!"'; Where It exceeds $60,000 the whole propertv 
wSl' °.k"'"'^*'=' '; " iluty^of »2.60 for every 1100 of the value. 
?l?n nf'^h property exceeds 13.000 the duty Is 12.60 for every 
lino of the value. And where the property Is given to anv 
stranger of the blood of the decea.eif ,Sd exceed! «3 000 thSJ 
the duty Is 17.60 for every IIOO of the value. f^.""" men 

808 



PART IX 

Facts, Legal Pointers, Building 
Associations, Pensions, etc. 




HON. S. H. BLAKE 

Dean of the OntnHo Har 
UB» Of th« niMt BiKCBuful kwyan in Canada 



FACTS ANU FIUUKES FOR BUSIXLsa MEN. 

FACTS AND FIGURES FOR 
BUSINESS MEN 

BOW TO BECOME WXALTBT 

ker"n.tr'"*MT' ''""''"■'• '•■'»»PW"«''theway to mar- 
It i.Lt^^' '" "" '""" «<"*'-i"'lu>,try and frugality 
Jt i. not what a man earn,, but what he save, that mak^l.lm 

Prom the following table it appears that if a pen«>n saves ■>} 

the total will, ™mp.,„„,l interest, will amount to Si 800 an.fa 

Have all you can in a prudent an,l systematic manner for a time 

^lyTl-sr^l'"' T ^"'^ ''^ -"^'"^ '■--'=''"• -^ 

any by aMislmR those in need, and helping in a good cause. 
A Table of Daily tavinj. at Compound Interest 

cents per Day. per VfnT i- t x. 

2( J ,„ • '" T^™ Y.-ar,. Flfiy Yean. 

,fi :::::::;:: 20::: » ;2!J »2.mo 

J', 40. : ?S2 MOO 

SI' 100,., .lis; 11.000 

, f5 200.. i-SS^ 29.000 

{•;? 40O s-SSS .W.OOO 

'■" too... .'aS IlCi.000 

CANADIAN RAILWAYS 

The munber of miles of ..team vailwavs in Cana,!,, ;„ „-,8 

and m l.,12 to L-. ■-, or (i„ol„din, all tracks and .:i,I„;;:J; 

Ontario leads i„ milraffC with 8,734; Quehoo ha, 3 SSI- 
Saskatchewan, 3,734; Manitoba. 3..'i;m; All orta 1 W17- IVit' 
sKolumhta, 1,8.04; Ne„ Br„„„„i,.|,. 1,.3-I3; Nova i™ ia 
],J37; Pnnoe E.lwarJ Island, ai'l; Y„k,„;. l,e. "''"' 

to ^'iSsS!?^"""'*'' *" f'"""'"°" ^'™'>' ■-'-y» —is 

The number of men employed, 141 iwo 

Total earnings. ii'2W,4l):i.7,52.7!) 

Total operating expenses, $l.-i0.720 j.li) 87 

Government Kailways.-Cana.la has i.48.1 mil., „f Oov- 
ernment ,.a,hva.vs. the total cost of which on Ma"! , ll"t "^V 

^tm^T\^^S:r "' """^""^^'^ .-.1.1 in- ^1 ^ 
U, 3,416A)3; freight, 4,536,599 tons. 

311 



11 



i ! 



FACTS AND FIOLHES FOB BUSINESS MEN. 

The Stran Wonden of tka Modern World. 

Nearly one tliousand scientists, icpresentinj; every Euro- 
pean, Canadian, and Anieriran scliool of advanced tliought, 
were recently rciuested to participate by ballot in the selec- 
tion of the seven irreatcst wonders of llie modern world. 
Tlie following list represents the consensus of opinion of 
the entire votinj;: 

1. Wireless Telegraphy. 

-. The Telephone. 

•^. The Aeroplane. 

4. Radium. 

■^. Antiseptics and Antitoxins. 

<■'. Hpecfruni Analysis. 

7. XRays. 

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 

1. Pyramids of Egypt. 

-. Pharos of Alexandria. 

.1. Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 

4. Temple of Diana at Kphesus. 

•'>. Statue of Jupiter by Phidens. 

6. Mausoleum of Artemisia. 

7. Colossus of Hhodes. 

BaUries of Oovemment Officers of the Principal Oonntrlee 
of the World. 

A comparison of the salaries of the principal executive and 
legislative officers of the United States Government with 
those of similar officers in other countries shows the former 
to be relatively small. The following tables of salaries paid 
by the different Governments are compiled from th« latest 
authentic sources: 

United States. 
^'T'.. "»■<«» 

VIee-PresWent 12 OOO 

Speaker of Houae of Representatives u'ooo 

Cabinet Ofllcers . . 12,000 

SflnatoFH 7 5QQ 

Represeatatlvea "_ ' 7|jjqo 

Besides their salaries the members of Congress receive 20 
cents per mile for traveling to and from the seat of Govern- 
ment. 



FACTS AND FIGURES FOB BUSINESS ^EN. 



Fnncb Republic. 

President »240,000 

Speaker of ChambiT of Deputies 14.')00 

Cabinet OfllperH li'.OOO 

MemberB ot Spnate 1,800 

Members of Chamber of Derutles.. 1.800 

Rnuia. 

*^'=^'^ »12.000.000 

MiflHter of Poiflign Affalrn 1B.288 

0«nnany. 

Emperor $3,8B2,770 

MInlMter ,.l Fjmlgn Affairs 23.000 

Othpr Cabiiict omcerH 6,000 

Members of the Reichstag (Parliament) receive 15 marks 
(=$3.) a day for such time a» they are in seasion. 

Oreat Britain. 

King an4 Queen $2,850,000 

Prime MlnUter 50.000 

Principal Cabinet OBlcera 25,000 

Other Cabinet OfBcere 10.000 

The members of Parliament receive no compensation, but 
in many cases they are supported by their conslituents. 

Italy. 

King I2.858.000 

Prime Minister 22.000 

Other Cabinet Officers 15,000 

The members of Parliament receive no pompensation, but 
have many perquisites, including free transportatiun on rail- 
roads, street cars, etc. 



Canada. 

Oovernor General VAOOO 

**"'"'" 12^000 

Other Cabinet Offlcers 7_ooo 

MemberB of Parliament aiaoo 

313 



. 3| 



'! il 



FACTS AXD FIHUHES FOB BUSINESS MIK 



Aoftrallui Colonies. 



PPloie HinlBtfiFH 

Other Cabln«'t Ofn.er«. 
U«mberH of Parllam-'i 



•B.IOO 
. 8,000 
■ l.SOO 



Argenttne BepuUlc. 



Preildcnt 

vi™-p„,w„, ...■:;;:;,.;;:; 'f^"" 

cbiM om,.er. :: Jl'™ 

Member, of Both IIou».. „t Con,™^. [ ['. l.'.; ij'ooo 

PEODUOTIVE WEALTH Or OANATA 

Approximate yahie pio<lnce,l onnimllv by Canmla'a nrin.i 

pal natural .„o„rees an.l by man„fac^„rUT'^rf „7owa: 

e™t .no'n^^Tfl'r-' ^°r,"f /;-'"'""''• *"«i.o»3!o(!o »: - 

erais, »1U.),4J2,43»; flshones. .f34,fifir,S72. Value n<Ii1i.,I L ,.„ 

^"^"'V"' ^"1" *'"""°"^'> "> *14bo,M5,03() "" 

nrtiertM.--('anada baa the most extensive and best stocked 

commercial flshinsr waters in the world. Tbe flshei^ a,™ 

coast and J20,000 square miles of fresh water. Value of 
flsher.v production for year 1911-12 was *:i4,007^o82 ""^ "' 
m„~* 1^' ^^^ "* •^"""•l" "••«' >»»« e.vtensive and 

flst^'r;^^:rLr:er -^ -•'■-«^^ "- 1.:; 
p "rt-^-rruntrd'To ,.t ^roa^r- "--'"'-'^ 

f.S"',f "* l""^ Provinces in manufacturinfr, with 8,001 e». 

^ck iTsS 'fi^rTtf r'/f 'i '"'™ ^"""'' l''«" New Bruns" 

L^'m fv^i"'' ^"'•'n''"''. 051; Prince Edward Island 

^ lo^tZ °^''' f ' ^"''•■■'»' 290; "nd Saskatchewan, 1?3 ' 

Montreal leads Canadian cities in manufacturing with 

.■n'"o ^Ir'Tor™; ^^'"'f' "■"'^'^ in..rease"of"?fl"°p?; le'l 
234"ner cent il 'o . P'"",""","' '«^>''-l»«-9«; increase of 
-J4 per cent in 20 years; Hamilton production, *ft5,]25.000- 

9M00n 'o'^k''""""";' »2.BiM.00O; Ottawa productiin, S 
»54,000; Quebec production, $17,149,000. 



314 



1'B.1CTI(AI. LAW AND Dl'SIVESS POINTHIS. 

PRACTICAL LAW AND BUSINESS 
POINTERS 

t'OBiBltllg liwyer^In minor matters It la hotter to loia 
your money than to rush Into litigation, but In matteri of 
any Importance never act without the advice of good coun- 
sel. You would not think of trying to ampuute your little 
linger without a surgeon's help. Much less should you run 
the risk of losing thousands of dollars through error which 
might be corrected by a little timely advice. 

Bank Cheeks.— The acceptance of a bank check by a 
creditor Is not an absolute but only presumptive or circum- 
stantial evidence of payment of the drawer's debt. 

A drawer of a bank check may stop payment of It before It 
Is presented. 

Distrain (or Reat— Rent may be distrained for the next 
day after It Is due. provided that demand for payment Is flrst 
made, and the rent distralnable. 

Seljure may not be made before the rent Is due even though 
the tenant may be Intending to move out, nor may selaure 
be made In any of the Provinces before sunrise, nor after 
sunset, nor on Sunday, nor on a legal holiday, except by 
order of the court. 

Where the household goods belong to the wife, and the hus- 
band rents the house, the goods are liable for the rent as 
long as they remain on the premises, but they could be moved 
out before the lease expires, If there was no rent due at 
the time. 

In Quebec, a 8ub-tenant'« goods are liable. If the lease pro- 
hibits sub-letting. 

ExemptioDs.— In all the Provinces, a reasonable amount of 
property Is exempt from seizure under execution, or distress 
for arrears of Interest on mortgage, and In some Provinces 
from a landlord's distress warrant. 

In the articles exempted debtor Is entitled to make choice 
of which articles he wishes to retain. 

In case the debtor died, or absconded, the family or widow 
are entitled to the same exemption from seizure, as the debtor, 
himself, would have been. 

Wrongful Levy of Execution.— For wrongful levy on pro- 
perty, when an officer, under an execution, seizes the goods 



WACTICAL LAW AND BUHINESB POINTEKM 

"f «oiiif tilliiT iwnmii elinii ll.c lU'ruiiiluiil in tlio cxoniti. i, 

Ihu owiiiT iiin.v iimiiitaiii uii ut-ti ninl trenpaaii in the u»ual 

reine.ly of llie uwhit; but Inivi'i- njay Iw maintained in miny 
caMB and in aume cases replevin will lie. 

HtlSBANO AKD WITB 

lUbOUj of Hubud for Ooodi 8cU to W«t.-When good, 
necessary ami m.iUMc to the poniliiir, in life of a wife are 
Bold to httr, ti.e jiiiy will W- jn.stiHcd in (indina a venliel, 
a)[am«t the husbnid, if tin. hi!»baiid authorized her either 
exprenKly or iui|,licdly (^. g. |,y ,wmiittin(! it as a common 
praclu-c), or It the liusbaiid himself neslected or refn-vd to 
furnisli her with such necessniies. This rule is subject to 
exceptions. 

Wife LlTiaj Apart from bar Hiiib»nd.-A husband is not 
liable for necessaries furnished his wife when she lives sep- 
arate from him under decree of court not requiring him to 
maintain her, and in some coses where she lives apart by 
agreement he is not liable. 

Sopuato Maiiit«nanc«.-Wheie the wife leaves her hna- 
band without sufficient cause, she will not be entitled to a 
decree for a separate maintenance. 

When sh" leaves him with his consent and on account of 
his ill treatment, he is liable for the expense of ii separati 
maintenance. 

WOHTS AND OBUOATIONS OP 
FABENTS AND OHILSSEN 

In ancient domestic life the father ruled as absolute mon- 
arch over the family. So it is still in oriental countries. 
Christian civilization has greatly modified this and laws have 
been enacted that set forth the relation of parent and child, 
defining the duties and obligations of each. 

316 



rBAOTIUAI. UIW ANB Bt'SIXKHS TOINTEIM. 

RIGHTS or PABEXT8 

1. Ai long Ri a chilli la under axo and living at home he 
la subject to the control of his parents, who have all rpanun- 
able authority to enforce obedience. As long as a rlilld Ih 
properly treated by the parenta no one haa a right to InliT- 
fero nor to take away and retain a child against thilr »l«he». 

2. tdoptlig a rhIM.— \Vhen a child Is adopted by nnothor 
family Hh parents lose their claim upon It and the aduptliig 
persons take their place. A child cannot generally npeaklng 
bo adopted without the consent of Its parenta. 

A child over fourteen must hiniaelf In aome Provlncea con- 
sent to the adoption. The court has In all cases the right to 
consent to or refuse the adoption. 

Application must, therefore, be made at the court and tho 
Judge will consider and pass upon It. 

3. Fgalshmnt.— Parents have a right to punlah their minor 
children, providing they are not guilty of cruelty nrutallty 
Is severely piiniahed by law as a crime. The punishment 
must be reasonable, leaving no bruises nor injuring the health 
of the child. 

4. riilns niion Earntafa.— While the child Is a minor and 
living at home parents have a right to all his earnlnga 
They cannot claim them of bis employer If the child mode 
the agreement. Parents, however, may free the rhild and 
allow him to collect and use his own wages. When this is 
done the parents cannot thereafter collect the child's wages. 

r.. X Rnuwaj CblM.— A child has no right to leave hoirio 
will ,it permission of the parents; If he la under H In boys, 
anil 16 In girls, he can be brought back by force. Relations 
or others who would keep him can be forced by law to give 
him up unless It can be shown that It would be for the best 
Interest of tho child to allow him to remain with others. 



OBLIGATIOXS OF P.UEXT9 

Obligation to aupport— The law requires that parents 
shall support their minor children. A child having property 

.117 



I 




PRACTICAl. lAW AND BVglMISg POINTIKg 

hL'"'Thr ''°" ""' "''"• "•• P»"nti from .uppor(ln« 
miT.i„J , "^ "• "'"'""■■ "J' "PPlylni to the court7t.° D "r 
the child', property for hi. lupport. BeTond »hl. .h 
Ty "ThirehL'urd T" " """' ■"" "• chnd'.'-pr'o"- 

Parrnta are liable for neceultlea purehaied bv a mlnn. 
llv „K at home unle.. „o,|ce to the eoStr.ry h.. »Ln ^^len 

CHILDRBN'M RII]HT8 AND OBLIOATIONfl 

^A "'!"'', ™" '"'" property, over which the parenta have 

same fL'r ,h"'"" "" "" "' "■« '"'»■»• »■• PrlKl of ih° 
same for the .upport of the child, aa at.ted abov" 

ILM." """'' """""•• « premeditated crime, he I. perK)nall» 

r J rx%"m".r Jh'„"^^,-^rp?rei;^ £™ 
£^^=sji;e?iC-oi';^;^^r»2i 

conS^ctL with fi. ^tl,/"" ^"■■n'tted during and In 
luiiueciion witB the child's emp oyment The law th.t 

Minora aupportlng themselrea and not llrtna •> 1.^™. 
may sue and recover for wage, earned by thSm Wage! 
of^mlnor. may be garnl.heed for payment of necelr". 

FENCE LAWS 

*be™Tcated""'Ther»"*'""°^.';'' ■"""'" <" "■« P'»"-=» 
appnca{,u"o''them''re„e''r;i;"'"'" '"*■• "''"«"'• ">«' "« 

Banagen-As a general rule all premises should be pro- 
perly Inclosed before damages can he recovered from "the 
owner of trespassing domestic animals for Injury thereto, but 
any trespass on the lands of another Is actionable 
P»rUU«». or BItl,l«D F«ee,.-The owner, of adjacent 
318 



1 

r 



PHACTICAl, LAW AND BUHINEHC HOINTEMK 

irwia ol land, In moM of th. Prorlnci, tro botmd lo .rnt ud 

."'«:!" .°r "' ■" • •-"••"• ••"" ■"""« "•• '- -p.- 

hij, own nock /rora trnpuilng npon the land, ol 1,1, „,igh. 
^I'^.'^'i""^ '" """• °' "■• P^'lncei, are provlde.1 f.,, br 

RaUrowta are re,nl,M byitatabiln many Provinwi to fenoa 

-lock kil «l h.v n.„s<,„ of „on-co„„,li„„„, „.i,|, ,1,0 .r.,,,1,. 

Barb-wire !,;ms ,l,o„l,l be «« u»o,l and ,.„re,l f„r „, „„! ,„ 

eMdan.>.r pc™,„„ and proper.,-, and ,l,o „»» ot .,„.|, ?e, ,.o 

rr".:,>"da;r;7"" '"*' ''™ --^ ™"™-">- -'■■'"«''"™- 
h,''r,!l,':?i'!:'" .',"""■'. ''•'■'^"■''■'' '''"™'' """* ""' •''"■ ->"'•=""-« 

m n,n„ n„ .l,n.- trams, not only to avoid killing- »l ok h„l 

riuroad aL" """"" "■" o*"" »' l»nd 'through vh ch,, a 
"adto .raf " co"„,y road, who torn, hi, hor.e on tho a ,' 

line of ,t» nght ol way, i, not thereby guiltv of mici cn.rib,,- 
^.7 nj^i,ae„ce a, will preclude hi, ri«ht of reooverv f„ i j , ", 
to I . horse from ,t, contact with the fence, thr.„„h IriBht ZTd 
by the running of a train over the companv's track 



31 S 



ii '.» 



i 



PBACTIOAL LAW AND BUBINESB ^INTiaW 

TEBSPASSWO AND MISCHIEVOUS ANIMALS 

Owner, of ,l„m<,»tip animals, mvh a« cows, ho,-8es, sheen 
hoKs, poultry „„,1 doRs, „,u„t „„t ,«,™it them to stray ,Z' 

'lamr;™"" "' """"' " "'"' "■'" ""^ ''■"■'» "> '-Pa»" f.'r 

No Eight to Kill or InJ«r,.-B„t thoae „po„ whose prem- 
os sneh annnals trespass are not jnstiBed in k.Uing or i„- 
1. n,« ,l,e ammals, „o .Matter how UKj-ravatiMB or re,«ate,l 
in, .V /■'"""' T"*' ■"'• ""''■'" "" """""' killed is at the 
of liie l.me;."*' "" '■ °"'"'"' ""'' '' ""'"'^ '" »»'» "" 'ifo 

nu,' h.Me their re.ne.iy „, an aetion at law for .iamages and 
there are statutes providing; for the taking np „f sueh ani 

!""'» ""'^ ''"I >-' 'I'on. at the expense of their ^ iner „ r 

miponndmg them as estrays. 

Ri,hll.Dn« Off C.tU..-A person finding eattle wrongfully 
up,.n Ins land h.as the right to drive then, „£f by any of the oI^N 
nary means winch a prudent man would resort to, and may use 

hS. [.',,'""■'""''• T'"" "'"" " «"".e<l.ing in the »i.e or 
ha s of the dog, or ,n the n.odeof setting him on, or pursuing, 
nhid, would negative the idea of ordinary care and prudence. 

The Right t. Di.tr.in animals doing damage to one's property 
>■■ n-coKHzed at eommon law and by statute. The person dis- 
training Is authorized to detain the animal i„ piejge for the 
payment ot his damages. The owner of the prlper'y InjurM 
by the animal Is bound to exercise ordinary care to privent 
the damage, and the animal must be taken while on the land 

tTe'TLd :rT, '' '"•''■ *■" " " "'=^-- - is driven 0^ 
Itralne. M .""f ^'"'"""'^ <"""« """■age. It cannot bo 
distrained. Most of the Provinces provide for a summary 

tZ::^ :' 'l: '""""^' """^ '*• "«= '"'"»-"■« anlma7a„d 
their sale for the layment of the assessed damages. 

MischievoM Animals -The owner of a mischievous ani- 

"..e may just.fy the killin, of a ferocious animal at Jar^. 
320 



rSACTICAl, LAW A.VI. BUSINESS TOI NTKRS. 

J ™Zr °' r*' "" """"" ■""" "' """'^"''' '■>' maintaining 
a common nufsance. 

It a person enters the barn or pasture or another, and Is 
injured by a vicious horse or bull. It nu,«t be shown hat the 

?orT„ "",'.'"' rr"""'" """"^ '" ""> -™ "' hi' -in,": 
for the safety of his employees and neighbors. 

If a person enter, the land of another, and Is Injured he 
must show good eause for entering upon said land, and also 
prove ordinary caution, In going where cattle and horses 



BESP0IV8IBILITT OF OWNING A DOG 

A person has a right to keep a dog to guard his „rrml.,e, 
but not to put him unconflned at the entrance of his h»us,. 
because a person coming there on a social or buslnoss errand 
may be Injured by him. But If the dog Is chained, and a 
visitor incautiously goes so near him that he la bitten he 
has no right of action against the owner. 

liable for n.ni,ge.-Owners of dogs must keep them f,„ „ 
straying upon the public highway, or they will be re.sponslldo 
for any damage caused by their annoyance of travellers .scar- 
ing of children, barking after teams, etc. 

If a dog strays upon the premises and kills or Injures any 
other domestic animal. Its owner Is liable for damages. 

D»B)reroii» Don running at large may lawfully be kni,-,i 
when their ferocity Is known to their owner, or In ,nlf- 
detencc; and a rabid dog may be lawfully killed by anyone 

nut a person Is not justified In killing a dog merely because 
It barks around his house at night. 

The owner of a vicious dog will not, as a general rule, be 
liable for the dog's biting a person unless it can be shown 
that the dog had previously exhibited a propensity to violence 
and that the owner was acquainted with this prope„.sity. 
This Is the common law, but statutes have been pas.sed making 
the owner or keeper of a dog liable In certain ease.s for any 
damage done by It whether the owner or keeper knew that it 
was vicious or not 

321 



:l ft' 




FUACTIOAL LAW AMD BU8IKK88 rOIHT£Ba 

BXZAOH OF TBUST 

Breach of trust is IIr' wiill'ul misnpiiropriation of persoiml 
property by one who has been intrusteil with its |)ossi>ssiiiM 
in cniititiencc. 

At Distlnguiahed from Thrft.— The cases where personal 
propert- ia talien hy a person to whom it has been intrusted, 
and who converts it to his own use, present very nice dis- 
criminations of mere breaclu's of trust from theft. 

If a person has property in gisiils, and a right to thti iws- 
session of them, he cannot, in general, commit the crime of 
theft in taking them. 

The courts generally lean toward construing the offense to 
be theft, and not merely a breach of trust, where the party 
gains possession by some false pretense, with the original 
intent to steal. 

A oailee who fraudently converts the property intrusted 
to him to his own use is guilty not simply of a breach of 
trust, which ia only a trespass, but of theft, which is a crime. 

LEOAL aUTS 

Doiilutioii.--A Rift is the voluntary and gratuitous transfer 
or conveyance of the right and possession of proirerty by 
one person to another. 

Names of Parties.— The dver of the property is called the 
donor, the receiver the donee. 

Who May Uako a Gift.— Any person competent to Iransnct 
ordinary business may give whatever he owns to any other 
person. 

Delivery to tlie donee is essential to a gift, and there must 
also be actual acceptance. It must be an actual delivci-y, ho 
far as the subject is capable of delivery. If the tliiug be not 
capable of actual delivery, there must be some nit eijuivalciit 
to it; something snllicicnt to work an immediate change in 
the control of the property. In the absence of proof to tlie 
contrary the law presunu's acceptance when the gift is mani- 
festly for the !)eneHt of the iloimr. 

Looked Upon with Suspicion.-Thc law generally l,,oks with 
some degree of suspicion upon gifts, and tliey arc usually 

322 



PRACTICAL LAW ANIl BUSIXES3 1>01NTER9 

cmsidpicd Id be frnudulciit if creditiiis or ollier-i Lccotiie 
sufferers tlu'rt'hy. 

Ketractinj.- Whore u (lilt liaa been e.xeeuled by Jeli\eiy 
of iio«ses»ion, il is not i„ ||,e donor's power t<i retract if 
lint so Ions; iis tlie sift bus not been eom|ilete,l by deliveiv 
ol possessnin, it is not properly a (;ift. hut a contract, und 
this a person cannot bo compellod to pcrfomi bat upon good 
aii.l siillicicnt consideration, 

A Oift Made in Proipect of Death may lie revoked by tlic 

''" ■ •" ""y li""" 'lurinj; liis life, lhon;,-h it bo eompleteil 

aiul cvcculed by delivery and ncce|)lancc. 

A Oift may be Annulled by Ibc crcdilms ul ibe donor, if 
be was insolvent at the time of the gilt and it diminished the 
creditor's fund. 

FINDER OP LOST PROPEHTY 

Tlie general law on this snliji ft is, llnil llie lindor of money 
or iroods if be takes iwssession of the pinperly, is to use 
all tluo means to discover the rishtfrd nwiu^r; and if he an- 
pi-opriate the art'-los to bis own use knowing- the risbll'id 
owner, or bavinp: the moans of Hndiiis; iiim. ho is held "'uilty 
o( thelt. Failing to find the righttnl owner, alter taking 
due nnans to do so, the finder of the lost articles is entitled 
to regard tbcni as bis own property, gimie Provinces prescribe 
by slatule Iho means to be takiTi by llndcrs to advertise tho 
property. 

RULES OOVEBNINO THE FINDING OF 
LOST PROPERTY 

1. The lindor of lost property is llie owner of it against all 
the world but the ori<.'innl owner. Thus. i| is lu'ld lljat a 
sirauser who finds lost money in a shoji may retain it as 
ai;aiiisl Ihe shop owner; but Ibe conlraiy has also been hehl, 
et least where the money or a purse was left on tlie counter. 

Honey Lef< on a Deak in a bank, provided for (he use nf 
its deposit. ,s, is not lost so as to entitle the finder to the 
s;iine, as afjninst tho bank. 

An Aerolite which buries itself in the ground is regarded 
as an accretion to the land, and bolonjjs to the owner of the 
soil on which it falls. 



'if 






li 



PBAOTICAL LAW AND BUSINKBS POlNTliaa 

2. The finder is always at liberty to leave untouched what 
he finds, and cannot be made accountable for any iujarv 
thereafter hai)jiening to it. •> ■> J' 

3. The Under may demand from the owner all his expenses 
necessarily incurred in keeping and pieserving the property 
and properly advertising and like charges for the owner's 
benefit. 

4. If a reward be legally offered, specific and certain or 
capable of being made so by reference to a standard, the 
finder complying with the terms of the advertisement be- 
comes entitled to such reward, and may sue for it. 

5. If the finder of lost goods, or goods which are reasonably 
supposed by him to have been lost, appropriates them to his 
own use, really believing when he takes them that the owner 
cannot be found, it is not larceny; but if he takes them rea- 
sonably believing that the owner can be found and thus ap- 
propriates them it is larceny. 

THE LAW or SUBSORIPTIONS 
Subscription is the p'acing of a signature under a written or 
printed agreement. By such an act a person contracts, in 
writing, to pay a sum of money for a specific purpose: as a 
subscription to a charitable institution, a subscription for a 
book, etc. 

SntaicripttOB Paper..-" The law on the subject of these 
subscription papers," says Parsons, "and of all voluntary 
promises of contribution, is substantially this: No such 
promises are binding unless something is paid for them, or 
unless some party for whose benefit they are made (and this 
party may be one or more of the subscribers), at the reouest 
egress or implied, of the promisor, and on the faith of the 
subscription, incurs actual expense or loss, or enters into valid 
contracts with other parties which will occasion expense or 
loss. As the objection to these promises, or the doubt about 
them, comes from the want of consideration, it may be re- 
moved by a seal to each name, or by one seal which is de- 
clared in the instrument to be the seal of each " 

Book SnbscriptlonB.-A person subscribing for a book is 
bound to take it when delivered by the agent, provided it 
corresponds with the sample copy shown him when the sub- 
seription was given. The agent or publisher may recover at 
law the price of the honk should the subscriber refuse to take 
It when presented to him. 

324 



PUACTICAI, LAW ASD BCSINiigs FOINIEBS 

Hwspaper. and Other P«riodic.l.._Thc,e h no postal law 
reffliln 111- liie tiiuisuclions between imblisliers mul «i,bs,.|ih 
e.^. llio o,d.nmy „,le« of eontraet ,-ovei„. all ,„,:„'i„,^ 
bel>vce., llie |,,irt,e» coni-e.ned, ami llie puslullice has no „„rt 
except to delive.- the article, or return it wlie,. ouleiXo 

If tbe publisher of any paper or periodical sends his paper 
or mnjruziMe, the [.oslninster niusl deliver it, if tlic pe,x'„ |o 
whom ,t is sent will take it. If he will not take it, the ,«,sl- 
niasler must notify the publisher. 

If a pei-son subscribes for a periodical for a given iieriod 
sn.v one jear, and the publisher sends it aeeordinslv. the sub- 
senber cannot terminate the contract by stopping-' his paper 
at any time durin- the year. But at the end of the vear llio 
suhscnher may slop his paper even without payin- the snb- 
«cnpl,„n due. He is under no lei-al obli^-atLf ,„ take "lie 
paper another year. The fact that he has not paid for the 
expired year's subscription does not bind him to conlhiue 

year and the publisher can sue for and collect his year's sub- 
scription only. 

If at the end of the year the publisher continnes to send his 
paper and the subscriber to reoeive it. the sending is the 
offer of another year's snbscription at the sa prire. and 
the i-eceivinff of the paper is an acceptance. The implied 
contract from such action is a renewal of the subscription; 
and the publisher can send the paper for the renewed term of 
one year and collect the subscription |.rice for (hat vear as 
well as the precedini. 

If tlie publisher a.lvertises terms of subscription, all parties 
takiiiK the paper nnder these conditions will he held accord- 
mp to the conditions. 



325 



TSACHIXU WIVES AND CHILDREN BU8INBS8 

WHEN >AME SHOn,D BE 8I6XED IS TVlh. 

PerBOlii. should al«ay» BiRn thi'lr full name to deeds mort- 

Kagos notes., and receipts; lor, although one fhrlBtlan Mme 

only is recognized lu law, jet the writfng out In ful " ""s 

middle nau.e. as well as the llrst name, tends to urevent the 

name being mistaken for that of some other Individual having 

.fo"j;!,"'Ll,"e^^Joner' "'"""'^■^- "■"""" -' """' ^ ^°-- -"« 
HOW A XAUUED WOJIA> SHOILD SIGN HEB XAME 

«l^^r^7\li,''"7^ ""J""." "'f " ■"•'■■ <""■ Christian name, In- 
m,S? "'J^""' °' '■" "usband, to legal and business docu- 
ments. For example, Mrs. Smith should sign Mary Ellen 
Smith, Instead of Mrs. John Smith. 

HOW SIGSTATrRE OF PEBSO.X WHO CASSOT WRITE 
SWOl'LD HE JSIGXED 

When a person who cannot write Is rciuircd to sign a docu- 
ment, it should be dune by having him mate his mark The 
signature should always bo witnessed. Example: 

his 

Henry X Yates. 

mark 

Witness: William Henson. 

Impoitince o» Hailnir BnsinrsH rndertaklngs Wrtttei Down 
and SlKDrd. 

-No business understanding cir agreement of any moment 
should be entered Into without Its being written down In black 
and white and signed lu the presence of a witness You have 
then some data to go upon, and lan right yourself In case 
of necessity In a court o.* justice. .Veglect of this precaution 
nas cost many a iju.slne.ss man a considerable amount of 
money. Yon often hear the expres on "the man's word Is as 
good as his bond," and the time ha, been when a verbal con- 
tract between two persons was regarded as binding. But the 
world has changed since then, and In order to be perfectly 
snfe from loss or Injury one must deal with everybody so 
far as business Is concerned, a.s though the matter would 
have to be passed upon In court. As for friends— well busi- 
ness Is business, and with them still greater precautions are 
needful. 

326 



CKIMINAL LAW 

THE POTEXY 01' CBKHIT 

In credit modern flnauco Uvea, moves, and has Ita belug 
It Is estimated that 90 per cent, of all basliicss tranaactloua 
are done on credit, and the currency used In the majority 
of cases composing the other ten pir cent. Is only credit In 
another form. Some people talk ot credit lu, if it norn 
merely the means by which one can buy and buy and imy 
by and by. Dut It Is more than that. It In the medium 
through which the representatives of ,iroperty or value may 
bo exchanged. 

The bank customer's note is In one sense only a .slip of 
paper, but It represents all the property of the maker. Uond.-. 
represent the property, cortlllcates of stock represent the 
capital ot the company Khich Issues them, and bank deposits 
stand for actual cash. Credit rests on eonlldence. which Is 
simply a rellectlon ot the cvlstlng conditions. When con- 
fidence prevails, credit expands easlly-that l.s, the repre- 
sentatives ot property and cash are readily Interchanged. 
When confidence Is shaken, credit contracts In i.roportlon to 
the gravity of the cause, and interchanges become corre- 
spondingly difficult 



CRIMINAL LAW 



The Criminal Law deals with the definition of crimes, with 
the procedure for the trial of persons suspected or accused 
ot crime, and with the punishment of criminal offences All 
ollences against the law have been divided Into two classes 
viz., •• mala l„ se •■ and " mah ^njhibila." Acts which are 
essentially Illegal and acts which are ■' forbidden " bv stutute. 
Acts which are moral crimes, and acts which would not bo 
criminal If not prohibited. The words ■■ crime ■■ and " indict- 
able offence " are synonymous. There was formerly a dis- 
tinction between "felonies" and "misdemeanors," but that 
distinction is now abolished. 

The Criminal Law of Ensland is the basis of the criminal 
law of the whole Dritish Empire, with certain exceptions. 
The Scottish law Is founded uiion the Roman and the Soutli 

:!27 






CRIMINAI. LAW 

African upon the Homan-Untch law. m Canada India An. 
tralla^and New ...ala.,U .l.o Uul. „, .1,„ oHnUnal^w ta^ tZ. 

O^^n'y^L?'^' °' '^'""""' '■ """"tantlally the BnglUh 
Draft Code of 1880. It w.> flrst enacted by the Parliament of 
Canada In 1892. since that date It ha. heen amended in .ome 

ly ofTh '. "'"" "'"' ""'""" "' ■■'""-n-t. Dut the 
body of the law as enacted In 1892 remains practically un- 
changed. I. constitute the criminal I.w ior the whZ 
Uommion of Canada. The Drltlsh Nort. .merlca Act say. 

Parl'laten. n, P '!"..'«"""= '««"""''. authority of the 
^ven the '„° ?■'"'"• '■'"' ■"•"''■"""' '"^-'otures are 
Srhave r .^ "'"""""'' ™""'' "' "'"""»' Jurisdiction; 
i^d tSe L . """■'" ■" ""' "^-n'-l't^tlon of justice 
mcnt by line, penalty or Imprisonment for enforcing any law 

legislatures. The "civil remedy" tor any act or omission Is 

rlr."? ? """""' ^' "■"»"''" "■'' »''<^'' «" "■• o-l^lon 
amounts to a criminal olfonce. A person who steals money or 
property may be sued by the owner for the value of the thing 
stolen, and may also be prosecuted for the theft. The con- 
viction and punishment for the theft does not discharge the 
thief from ',1, "civil nubility" to make good the loss which 
anot^or l,a. sustained by reason of his crime. Where the 
act or omission constitutes an offence punishable on "sum- 
mary conviction," or by "Indictment," under two or more 
acts, the offender may be prosecuted and punished under 
'Ither of any such acts, but he shall not be liable to be pun- 
ished twice tor the same offence. 

The Code says that no person under the age of seven years 
Khali be convicted of an offence, but a child between the age, 
of seven and fourteen may he convicted If It can bo shown 
that such child possessed sufflclcnt Intelligence to know the 
nature and consequences of Its conduct. 

A well known principle of law Is that " everyone I, pre- 
sumed to know the law," and " Is.iorance of the law Is not an 
eicuse ■ for any offence committed. It a person knowingly 

.•!5S 



f' t 



CUIMIXAI. LAW 

*». an ut which i. unlawful, be la preaumed to know that 
the act wa> unlawful. HI. Ignorance of the law will not 
excuae him. The courts are obliged to enforce thia doctrine 
rigoroualy. because every criminal might escape punl.hment 
If he were allowed to set up as a defence the fact that he was 
Ignorant of the law. Although Ignorance of the law cannot 
excuse any person, yet the court cannot help looking Into the 
stale of mind of the party at the time ho committed the act 
For Instance, If a j.arson takes what he believes to be bis own 
property. It la Impossible to say that he waa Intentionally 
guilty of theft. 

All rules and principles of the common law which render 
any cIrcumsUnces a •• Justlflcatlon " or excuse for any act 
or a defence to any charge, still remain appllcable.-to thJ 
same extent as before the passing of the Criminal Code 
" Insanity " may be pleaded as a defence to a criminal pro- 
secution. The Code says, "No person shall bo convicted of 
an offence by reason of any act, done or omitted by him, when 
labouring under natural Imbecility, or disease of the mind 
to such an extent aa to render him Incapable of knowing 
that such an act or omission was wrong. But " everyone Is 
presumed to be sane at the time of doing or omitting to do 
any act," until the contrary is shown. 

Arrests.— Every person authorised to execute a lawful war- 
rant Issued by any court or Justice of the peace Is Justlllcd 
n executing such warrant. If the court had Jurisdiction the 
Irregularity of the warrant or other process will not make 
the act of the constable or officer executing It Illegal Even 
where the court has no Jurisdiction the officer executing a 
warrant or process of such court will be protected from 
criminal liability if he acts In good faith belluvlng that he la 
executing a valid process. If a constable by mistake arrests 
the wrong person believing that he Is the person named In 
the warrant, he will be protected from criminal rnsponslblllty 
If he acted In good faith and on reasonable grounds A peace 
ofBcer may arrest, v.lthout a warrant, any person who on 
reasonable grounds be believes to have commlttPd an offence, 
for which the ollencier may be arrested without a warrant. 
Every peace officer Is Justified In arresting without warrant 
any person whom he flnds committing an offence. 

359 



I< 



1i 



CRIUINAt UW 

D™!!Ik!r"'°1r'^*"'°"' "■"»*'"")' •M.ult.d, net h.Tl», 
tore. If the force h. uie. I. not meant to c.u.e death or 
Jrtevou. bodily harm, .nd I. n„ m„„ than I. „«.,." ''," 

t^lert'oTord TT'""- '^' """■•"'• " * •'"k« B.Vh„ 
trie, to avoid further connict. bat A continue, the attack 

injure, or kill. A In order to .avo l,|m,clf, D I. Ju.tlfled 

vent .ulh . r* "° """■" ""^"' """ '■ ""'"'"y to pre- 
vent .uch a..ault or the repetition of It. Everyone who I. In 

^.XTeTir *■' '"^ ™^-''"' ""PertX '. ;:tl„ed n" 
Tin reVkin. It? "^ ""l" '"■'"'"'' "^ ""^ " tre.pa..er." 
bLiny h«m 1 .i "■""■ "•""■»»■" Provided he doe, no 
bodily harm to the treBpa„cr. An "owner" I. nrotected 
TCT^l -P«n..b.ll.y for "defending hi. p^Ve^loTot 
any moveable property," even agaln.t a per,on claiming by 

more fore, han i, nece..ary. Evcrone who I. in " peac" 

111 r"""™ "' ""' ""'■"■'» *"•""" ".J-tiaed In u.l„e 
-uch force „ may be „ece.,.ry to prevent he forcible break 

wLo l^ln »» K, "°""" """" """'"«' '■•'«■'-• Everyone 
Who I. In peaceable po8.es,lon of any hou.e or land I. W|! 

330 



CmUtNAI. LAW 

No one hM the riiht to conaeiit to tbo InAlotlon of death 
uiwn himself. Another genoral iirlnclple of law la that 
everyone li protected from criminal re»i.onilblllty for any 
act done by him In obedience to a law nuidc and enforced by 
tho,e who for the time belnis are " de facto " In |>o..e»alon of 
the SoverelKn power. 

Everyon.. U guilty of an oBence who does any •• Indecent " 
thing In any place to which the public have access; or who 
does such act with the Intent of Insulting any other person 
Everyone Is guilty of an Indictable offence who sfducis or 
has 1111,1- connection with a girl of " previously chaste char- 
acter" under the age of 111 years, but the burden of proof 
of the i.rovloua unchastlty of the female Is upon the accused. 
On an Indictment for the seduction of u virtuous unmarried 
female. It was hold that the .luestlon whether she consented 
and shared In the* Intercourse for the Brntlllcutlon ot her 
lascivious prope;wltlo« «a» proper to be considered, as well 
as the extent ,o which (he was Influenced by the acts or 
Importunities „[ the accusfd. Where a person Is accused of 
seduction an, sets up the "previous imchasllty" of the 
female as a defence, the burden of proof Is upon the accused 
and the female Is i-.ot required to prove that her conduct has 
been n.evlously chaste. The law presumes that every woman 
Is taasto until the ocr.trary Is shown, Just as the law pre- 
Bun..-s everyone to be Innocent of crime until proven guilty. 
A WOT. n who has been guilty of unchaste conduct may sub- 
sequently become chaste In legal contemplation, and may be 
aeduced a scond time. RoferrlnK to the section of the code 
whlrh says, Everyone who seduces or has Illicit connection 
with any ,"l!l of previously chaste character above the ace 
of 14 years and under the aso of 16 years is guilty of an 
Indictable c (fence," etc., It will bo observed that the mere 
act of " Illicit connection with a previously chaste girl be- 
tween the nges of 14 and 16 years." Is sufflclent In Itself to 
constitute the offence without proving that the accused actu- 
ally seduced the girl. Therefore the defence on such a charge 
seems to be the production of proof that the plrl did not 
possess a "previously chaste character." The word 
" seduced " when It Is used with regard to the conduct of a 
man towards a woman has a precise and definite signlflcatlon. 



MCROCOTY KESOWTION TEST CHART 


(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART l>4o. 7) 


1 


1.0 




1 

II 


I.I 


la la 12.2 


m 1 


IIh 


= 111=^ 


^ /IMPLIED INA4GE Inc 


A 


Sr 1653 Eosl 


- 0300 - Phofw 

- 5989 - ro» 






.►I 



■ i 



iH 




PUBUG ROADS 

It Ig unlvers&lly understood to mean an Inducement of ber 
on hifl part to surrender her chastity by means of some art, 
Influence, promise, etc. 

The offence consists In enticing the woman from the path 
of virtue, and obtaining her consent to Illicit intercourse by 
means of promises made at the time. This applies more 
particularly to " seduction under promise of marriage." If 
she resists, but finally assents or yields, Induced thereto by 
or In reliance upon the promise made, the offence Is com- 
mitted. 



-No one ought to accuse himself except 



Seir-Accnsatlon.- 

before God. 

Insane Pemons and others who are incapable of judging 
between right and wrong are usually absolved from criminal 
responsibility, though they may be liable civilly for damage 
done by their wrongful acts. 



LAWS GOVERNING PUBLIC ROADS 

GENKRAL PRINCIPLBS 

1. To prevent collisions, and to secure safety and con- 
venience of travelers meeting and passing each other upon 
the highway, a code of rules has been adopted which con- 
Htltutes what Is called the law of the road. These rules, 
originally established by custom, have, In many Instances, 
been re-enacted and declared by statute, and are of general 
and uniform observance In all parts of the Dominion. In 
general, they apply to private ways, as well as public roads, 
and, Indeed, extend to all places appropriated, either by 
law or In fact, for the purposes of travel. 

2. Public RoadN are those which are laid out 
and supported by officers entrusted with that power. 
Their care and control is regulated by the stat- 
utes of the different Provinces, and In detail will 



Ik 



LAWS GOVERNINO PUBLIO ROADS 

not be referred to here, as they «»n Ije easily looked up by those 
who tiesire information ho entirely local. 

3. Ownership.— Tlie soil and the land remain in the owner, 
wlio may put the land to any use, and derive from it any profit, 
not inconsistent with the rights of the public. If the road is at 
any time discontinued, the land reverts back to the owner. 

4. Liability.— The repair of highways is usually imposed upon 
towns, and they are made liable by statute for all ilamaKes 
against persons or estates, from injuries received or happening 
in conseriuence of a neglect of duty on the part of the officers 
hiiving the same in cliarge. 

5. The Primary law of the road is that all persons using the 
same must exercise due care to prevent collisions and accidents. 
No one can cUim damages for an injury mainly caused by his 
own negligence. 

0. Persons traveling with carriages or vehicles of transporta- 
tion, meeting on any public way, are required to turn their car- 
riages or wagons to the right of the center of the road, so far as 
to permit such carriages or wagons to pass without interruption. 
Any unreasonable occupation of the public way, whether arising 
out of a refusal to turn out and allow a more rajiid vehicle to 
pass, or from an unjustifiable occupancy of such a part of the 
road as to prevent others from passing, will render the party so 
trespassing liable for damages to any sutTarin^ injuries thetd- 
from. A loaded vehicle must turn out, antl allow tiiose to i>as8 
who may reasonably and lawfully travel faster. 

7. Riders are not governed by any Hy ' rules, but are 
required to use reasonable prudence at all times to prevent 
accidents. They need less room and can make quicker movo- 
nients, and are, therefore, not under as well defined rules as 
vehicles. 

8. Pedestrians have a right to use tlie carriage-way as well as 
the sidewalk, and drivers must exercise reasonable care to avoid 
injuring them, but a foot passenger in crossing the street of a 
city has no prior right of way over a passing vehicle; both are 
hound to act with prudence to avoid an accident, and it is as 
much the duty of the pedestrian to look out for passing vehitiles 
as it is for the driver to see that he does not run over any one; 
nor does the rule requiring vehicles to keep to the rigiit apply lo 
Ciirriages and foot passengers, for, as regartls a foot passenger, a 
carriage may go on either side. 



338 



lift 






i 



r.AWS OOVKItNINO PUBIJC RO.VDS 

0. Runaways.— Tlie owner of a ruimwav horse or horses, if 
negligent, or not exercising clue eare. is responsible lor till Jam , 
ages that, may occur. If a horse naturally iiuiet to rUe and drive 
is frightened by a railroad triiin, steam thraslier or other causes 
not under the control of the rider or driver, and does any damage, 
or injures any person or persona, the owner is not responsible. If 
horses are known to be vicious, or sustain a runaway reputation, 
break loose or run away with their driver, or injure any jierson 
or persona, the owner is responsible, unless it can be shown that 
the horses were frightened by some obstacle which would natu- 
rally frighten a gentle or ordinarily q-.iiet horse- 

PETITION FOR LATINa OUT A ROAD 



To the CommifiSioncrs of the Tnwn 
lUinois, 



of riiiinflelO. Countu of Will, State of 



Your petitioners, of the tcwn of Plainflfli], would respectfully rpprespnt 
that tht! public oonvenii^nce ami wanis rcqiiirt- that u nmil am) liisliwuy 
Elioiihi b«s luiil out and constructed ItexinninK at the nurtheuat canwi of 
George K. ftmitli's farm, in the town of Plaiiitield. and leadmg in a direct 
line south to the town of Ixx;ki>ort. 

Your petitioners would therefore ask that your honors would view the 
Vreniises and locate and construct said road iind highway, accordiuK t(j the 
lartM in such ciLses made aiid provided, a$ shown by the «tatuti's of the State. 
Signatures. Signatures, 




PETITION FOR OHANOINO A ROAD 

To the Commissioners for llic Counly of 

The undtTsiKned rf .siktI fully represent that the public road and highway 
from the house of J. II. Nolan, in the town of (Jswego, paHsinij the house of 
G. H. Faust, to the liou.s«' oi Charlt^s Peterson, in the town of Oswepo, h 
indirect, ini-onvenient antl out of the way, wherefore, your petitioner* re(|ue»t 
your honorable body to view the premises, straiRhten or new lorale such 
road, and fii-siontimie such parts of the iinwnt hi^'hway as may he uselesfi, 
or make such alterations or improvements as shall appear to j»Jiir honors 
necessary 

Siynatures. Signatures. 






334 



MOTOR VEHICLES 



AS ACT BESFECTING XOTOB VEHIClEs. 

3. Every person now owning or hereafter acquiring a motor 
vehicle shall, for every such vehicle owned by Iiim, tile In the 
office of the Municipal Commissioner a statement containing 
his name and address with a brief description of the veliicle so 
owned by him, including the name of the nmliur, factory 
number, 8*,yle of vehicle and motor power, on a blank to bo 
prepared by the said Municipal Commissioner for the pur- 
pose. 7-8 Ed. 7, c. 34, s. 3. 

4. The fee to be paid upon .the filing of such statement shall 
be as follows: Nothing for motor vehicles owned or operated 
by any municipality: two dollars for a motor cycle, and live 
dollars for any other motor vehicle, to be reduced to two 
dollars it tlie application is made *ctwcen the first day of 
October and the first day of the following April. 

(2) Upon the filing of such statement as aforesaid and pay- 
ment of the proper fee, the said Municipal rommisaioner 
shall register such motor vehicle in a t)ook or index to bo 
Itept for that purpose, and assign to it a distinctive number. 
1 Geo. 5, e. 28, s. 1. 

B. The Municipal Commisifloncr shall forthwith issue and 
deliver to the owner of such motor vehicle a rertineate of 
registration, together with a seal of aluminum, or other 
suitable metal, which shaW have impressed thereon the words 
"ManUoba Licensed Motor," with the registration number 
and year of issue inserted therein, which seal shall at all times 
thereafter be conspicuously displayed on suc'i motor vehicle 
by being rigidly affljied to the interior portion of the front 
part thereof. 

(2) The Municipal Commissioner shall also issue and de- 
liver to the owner of such motor vehicle at the time of the 
issue of the registration certificate as aforesaid two number 
plates having thereon the registration number of such motor 
vehicle, the abbreviated name of the Province and the year 
of issue. Such number plates shall be of a distinctly dilferent 
color or shade for each year, to be designated and selected 
by the Municipal Commissioner, and there shall be at all 

333 



JIOTOK VfillCLES 

times a marked contrast between the color of the number 
dolar ^ „^",°"--'^^' ^•■''""''"■'-r may charge a fee of one 

provT..o: oT ;h:r;ct.'"""'" ■""" ''-"" """•"-' "- "■« 

(4) In Cttso ut tl>o Josg of number plate» or of a chauffeurV 
badge, a new pair of number plate, or a new badge o an",her 

■■Mhe ,as,. „,ay be, may be oblalued from the Munielnal rZ 

loss of the said nun.bor plates „r badge, as the case may be 
and the payment of a U: of one do„ar. , 0^^ 5,72^.1; 

wo!:/"'/""""" °' ■■''«""■■'"'"» »l.=n contain the aame 
yearf ""' '7""™"' °' '''"'"'''■'- ^-y <"' renewed from 

c!'L, : r"'"' '■^- ""^ ^^'- " '=■'■ '■ - 59. ' rraeo. 5! 

15. Every motor vol.iele shall be equipped with „de,u.ate 
brakes sufflcient to control such motor yehlL at al IHre 

16. Every motor vehicle shall carry during the n^-i „ , 



MOTOR VEHICLES 

required to dl.play one white lUht In ih^ h ,, ""^ '"' 

they are proceeding. 10 Ji 7 39 " T laTr" '° ""'''' 

19. A„. application., or a .Ln/e'to operate l.;?- ;^r/- 

such application ahall be accompanied by : r ' w^.o*;;::;: 

nto th.7 ! ■" "" "■"' '"'^ '""'•"■ ''"h'ele la brough 

Into the Province. 7-8 Ed 7 c 34 s 48 "rougnt 

ty tZ" vn> """ ""■"'" '" ""^ °""^ PO"'on o ly 
ectlng Dubliih T ^^ °' ""-roachlnB a corner of an Inter- 

warning luThe """"="■■"'"»»> "■"'" aPProachlng a person 
Z™ i "''"'' "' » ""•■"« highway, or a horse or 

thereof" """ ""■""''■ '""'^ ^""'- " '^^ " "riven 

thereon, a person operating a motor vehicle shall not lessthan 

ree'drnr:?/";;: '""b^"* ■'"'°"' ='°- ^-vn;°'sr r 

exceeding six miles an hour and take reasonable precaution 
o ensure the safety of such person or animal, and In he 

z:\rz ^:xx ''°"""=- " "''--' ^^'^'-"'- 

337 




INSPtUTIOX OF STtAll BOILEHS 

DIGEST OP AN ACT RESP13tTI.\C THE I>SPECTIO> OP 
STEAM UOILEKS. 

ProTlnce of Mailtob*, 

». The Inspet'tors shall— 

-«.) Inspect all steam boilers or steam generators within 
llieir respeetlve districts before the same shall be used- 

W once at least In each year subject all boilers to hydro- 
static pressure. H.S.M. c. 180, s. 7. nurl. 

10. The said Inspectors shall satisfy themselves by a 
horough examination Inside and outside and by a hammer 
test after the hydrostatic pressure- 
Co) that the hollers being Inspected are well made of good 
and suitable -material; 

(6) that the opening for the passage of water and steam 
respectively and all pipes and tubes exposed to heat are of 
proper dimensions and free from obstructions; 

(e) that the flues are circular In form; 

id) that the friction (Arc line) of the furnace Is at least 
two Inches below the prescribed minimum water line of the 
boilers; 

(c) that the arrangements for delivering the feed water 
are such that the hollers cannot be Injured thereby 

(/) .that the hollers and their steam connections 'may be 
safely employed without peril to life; 

(ff) that the safety valves are of suitable dimensions, suffl- 
clent in number and properly arranged; 

(ft) <hat the safety valve weights and springs are properly 
adjusted so as to allow no greater pressure In the boilers 
than the amount prescribed by the inspection certificate- 

(0 that every holler Is provided with a loek pop safety 
valve of approved make, with openings for the discharge of 
steam on the side thereof, and provided with a cap covering 
the adjusting nut and set-screw In such a manner that it can 
be efflclently sealed by the inspector; 

(;•) that there is a sufflclent number of gauge cocks and 
a properly inserted Ju«lW« plug In the flue or crown sheet so 

338 



INSPIiOIION OF STEAM BOILEUS 

M to tuae by the heat of the furnace whenerer the water In 
the boiler falls below Its prescribed limits; 

(*) that there an. adcciuato and certain provisions tor an 
ample sUDply ol water to teed the boilers at all times so that 
In high pressure, boilers the water shall not be less than four 
inches above the top of the flues In horizontal boilers and 
tour Inches above crown or flue sheet In upright hollers; 

(I) that means for blowing oat are provided so that the 
mud and sediment miiy be removed while the boiler Is under 
pressure of steam. H.S.M. c. 160, s. 7. pail; 10 Ed. 7, c. 68, s. 1. 

11. In addition to the annual Inspection. It shall be' th- 
duty of each Inspectov to examine at any time, when In his 
opinion such examination shall become necessary, all such 
boilers within his district as shall become unsafe from any 
cause, and to notify the owner or person using such boilers of 
any defect and what repairs arc necessary In order to render 
them safe. n.S.M. c. 160, 8. 7, part. 

12. In subjecting to hydrostatic tests, boilers usually desig- 
nated as high pressure, the Inspector shall assume one hun- 
dred and twcntyflvo pounds to the square Inch as the maxi- 
mum pressure allowable as a working pressure for new 
boilers of forty-two Inches In diameter, made In the best 
manner of plates one-fourth of an Inch thick of good 
materials. R.S.M. c. 160, s. 8. 

13. The Inspector shall, however, rate the working power 
of all high pressure boilers according to their strength com- 
p.ircd with this standard. R.S.M. c. 160. s. 9. 

14. Should the Inspector be of the opinion that any boiler, 
by reason of Its construction or material, will not safely 
allow so high a working pressure as herein provided, he may 
for reasons to be stated specially In his certlflcate. Ilx the 
pressure of such boiler at less than three-fourths of the test 
pressure. R.S.M. c. 160, s. 11. 

18. Every boiler shall also be provided with two reliable 
steam gauge unless the Inspector shall expressly certify the 
same to be unDe''po°:iry. R.S.M. c. 160 s. 17. 

19. It shall be the duty of the owner, manager or operator 
of a boiler to allow the Inspector tree access to the same, and 
to furnish water and All boiler and remove jacket or covering 

23 33(, 



I;' 



IKSPEOTION or aiBAM BOILERS 



•ccordlng to the proTljlons of this Act or of whlcl, .urh 
..M.in.tlon h« been. pef«.ed. R.s.M. c. 160? .2, 
M. Anjr boiler not Inepected. or which, on In.pection ha. 

ttr..""t":hr.!r,r '■""'=""• """ ■>"• ««xer.nd U" 

u>e of Mid boiler. > Ed. 7, c. 68, s. 4 part 

o-'n'^M" ""'."Jl »'"""■'» » •»"". " »ell a. the leuee or 
owner thereof h. c.» the »n>e U being operated wHh hi. 
con«nt. without there being an unexpired certlflcat. ' 
n.pectlon thereof, .hall, unle., the absence of the e«mcate 
L.r, "'"'*"'" " «<"•"" »' an Inspector, he liable to a 
«. .1. "".f"""' » "ay 'or each day .that be .hall ope' 
ate such nncertHcated boiler. R.SJl. c 160 s 25 

an, bo'i'ie'r''!;™^ '"'."f " °' "" ""='"' <">""'"« »■• "wnlng 
anr boiler pronounced by the Inspector unsafe to cease to um 
the same until such repair, a. are Indicated by the InsjLl" 

mentor tTe,'" '"' " """"' '" """'■"^ «<'h the "X 
ment. of the Inspector, the person owning, aa well as th. 

ered'lnToTT S"' """ """" »■"" "= "-""tra fl" To 
h!™^ . "'"'"* ''°"'" '"" ""an also be liable for any 

damage, to^person and property resulting therefrom 8.8^1 



340 






1 



PABT X 

Farms, Farming, Grain Tables, 
Land Measurement, etc. 




HON. CEO. WM. ROSS. LL. D.. F. R s. CAN 

M. P. I«7m. Mi-U.., Edu.. im-W. P,.„. o„,. i,„.|^ ,.„,„ ,^j_ 



UNEARNED INCREMENT UN LAND 



AH ACT RCHPKCTHti THE TAXATION OF THE 
l'>£AK>ED I?ftB£ME?iT UN LAND. 

{AtMcntetl to Oitobvr 25, 1913.) 

HIb Majesty, by and wtth the advice and (-onat'iit of thx 
Leglslatlvf) Atrntnibly of tUo Province of AllK-rtu, Lnacttt uh 
tollows: 

1. This Act maybe cited as the " Unearned /ntTcwiit Taj 
Act." 

2. T'lie expresHlonB defined In section 2 of TA'> Lanil Titlra 
Avt shall have tn this Act the Bamu meanings as are by th< 
Bald section aisBlgncd to them. 

3. There shall bo ftayable upon tho regltttratlon under Thf 
Land TUUm Av* of any transfer of land u tax of live p<>r cent. 
OR the Increased value of tire lutld iand over and above the 
value thereof according to the last preceding value for the 
purposes of this Act, excluding in alt cases tho cost of Im- 
provements or of development work actually made or done 
upon or In connection with the said land. 

(2) No tax shall be payable under this Act upon the regis- 
tration of any grant from the Crown, or of any transml«slon of 
the land of a deceased person or upon any transfer from the 
executors or admlnlBtrators of any such person to the de- 
visee or devisees of such land or to tlic persons entitled 
thereto upon a distribution of the estate and any value ascer- 
tained upon the registration of any si<ch transmission or 
transfer shall not be deemed to bo a value ascertained for 
the purpose of this Act. 

(3) No tax shall be payable under this Act In respect to 
the transfer of any unsubdlvlded land of which at least »rn 
per cent, was under cultivation and which was actually and 
bona pie ,'.sed by tho transferor for agricultural purposes 
during twelve months Immediately precedlnR the transaction 
which results In the making of the transft., except <o tho 
extent oi the excess area of land beyond 640 acres In which 
the transferor wad beneficially interested immedlatdy before 
the transaction which results in the making of the transfer 
and to the exient of the excess value of the land transferred 
beyond the sum of $50.00 per acre without improvements. 

341 



iiii 


1 "li'i! 





r 



tiNEAn>fi:r) ixcrkmknt o.v land 



(4) The value ascertained tor the purpose of any transfer 
of land exempt from taction und-r the last preceding clause 
shall bo deemed to be a value ascertained tor the purpose of 

tills Act* 

4. For the purpose of ascertaining the Drat taxable raloe for 
the purposes of this Act in respect of any lnt~-est In land 
created before the passing tliercof. the last value for the pur- 
poses of this Act shall ho deemed to be- 
to) JI5.00 per acre In the case of any land not at the 
date of the passing of this Act within any incor- 
porated city, town or village; 
(6) rhe assessed value of any land within any Incor- 
porated city, town or village according to the last 
revised assessment roll for the year 1913, if such 
land is assessed upon such roll or If not then such 
value as may be made to appear to the registrar of 
land titles to be just; 
(c) Prjvlded that If It Is mr.dc to appear to the satlsfac 
tion of the Registrar that the person liable to pay 
any tax payable hereunder has before the passing 
of this Act bought or agreed to buy the land In 
respect of which such tax is payable at a price 
greater than the last value as hereinbefore ascer- 
tained, the price paid or agreed to be paid upon 
such purchase shall be deemed to be the last value 
for the purposes of this subsection; 
((() And provided further that If within one year from 
the passing of this Act the owner of any land not 
within the limits of an Incorporated city, town or 
village makes it appear to the Registrar that at 
the time of the passing of this Act the value of 
such land exceeded iils.OO per acre, the Registrar 
shall cause the value of the said land to be a.scer- 
talned and the value eertlflod by him shall be 
deemed tu bo the value for the purposes of this 
subsection. 

(2) For the purpose of ascertaining the first taxable value 
of any Interest In land created after the passing of this Act 
the last value shall be taken to be the value ascertained at 

.■it; 



DNEABNEI) IXCRIiMENT ON LAND 

the date of the creation ot tlic Interest, If any, or If no value 
was then ascertained, the last value shall bo taken to be zero 

B. The secretory-treasurer ot everj Incorporated city, town 
and village shall lorthwlth upon the assessment roll tor such 
city, town or village being finally revised for the year 1913 
send to the registrar of larid titles for the district in which 
such city, town or village lies, a copy of such roll duly certi- 
fied by him under the seal of the corpoiatlon. 

(2) Uiion the receipt by hira of such assessment rolls, the 
registrar ot land titles shall note upon every certificate of 
title covering lands Included therein the value of such lands 
as shown upon such roll. 

8. No transfer of land shall be registered until after the 
payment of any tax payable hereunder. 

7. Unless otherwise agreed upon between the parties, any 
tax payable hereunder shall be payable by the transferor or, 
In the case of the Urst transfer after the date of the passing 
hereof, shall be payable by the person beneflclally entitled to 
the land at the said date. 

(2) If any tax payable hereunder Is paid by any person 
other than the person liable tor the payment thereof, it shall 
be recoverable from the person so liable In an action at tho 
suit of the person by whom It was paid Into any court of 
competent Jurisdiction aa a debt due to such person. 

8. Where part only ot the land Included in tho last valuation 
is transferred the amount of the tax payable shall be ascer- 
tained by determining the unit value of the whole of the 
said land (namely, the value per square foot or per acre or 
as the case may be) according to the last preceding valua- 
tion, and the value according to the valuation of the same 
unit at the date of such transfer unless It Is made to appear 
to the registrar upon oalh that such ascertainment of the 
tax would be u.ifalr or Impracticable by reason of the varia- 
tion in the quality or situation of the land, or other similar 
cause, and In such case the registrar shall decide the mode 
of ascertaining and the amount of the tax. 

9. The Lieutenant-Governor In Council may from time to 
time make such regulations and provide such forms not In- 
consistent with this Act as may be necessary or advisable 
for the efficient and equitable operation of the same. 

34.3 



% 



I«IND TITLES ACT 

AMENDMENTS TO THE LAND TITLES ACT BELATING 
TO THE INEABNED INCKEMENT TAX. 

The Land Titles Act, being chapter 24 of the Statutes of 
Alherta, 1906, and amendments thereto. Is amended as follows- 
1. Section U7, subsection 2: By repealing the same and 
substituting therefor the following: 

"2. The value of land and Improvements for the purpose 
of this Act and of The Vnearnal Imrcment Tax Ac: rhall be 
ascertained by the oaths or affirmations of the transferor 
and transferee of such land or of such other person or per- 
sons on behalf of either or both of them as the registrar be- 
lieves to be acquainted with the value of the land and whose 
oath or affirmation he Is willing to accept. 

" 3. Such oaths or affirmations may be In Form II. In .the 
Schedule to this Act, and shall be necessary In all cases 
where any new duplicate certificate of title Is required .to be 
issued whether or not any fees are payable In respect to such 
land under the provlslona of this section or of The Unearned 
Increment Tax Act. 

" 4. If the value of the land or ot the Improvements as set 
out In the affidavit sworn by or on behalf of the transferor 
and transferee respectively are not the same or If for any 
other reason the valuations are unsatisfactory to the registrar 
he shall cause a valuation to be made by an Inspector of trans- 
fers and such valuation shall be taken to be the value of such 
land or Improvements and shall bind the parties to the 
transfer." 

2. By adding after section 117 the following new section: 
"1170. The Lieutenant-Governor In Council may appoint 

one or more Inspectors of transfers and It shall be the duty 
of such Inspectors to Investigate such valuations as the regis- 
trars of land titles may require and report thereon, and to 
perform such other duties as the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council may from time to time assign to them." 

3. Section 124: By adding thereto the followjng subsection: 
" (8) For every violation of the preceding subsection the 

offender shall be gulHy of an offence and on summary con- 
viction shall be liable to a line of not less than »50,00 and not 
more than $100.00 and costs for each lot sold under agreement 
for sale or otherwise." 

344 



LAND TITLES ACT 

4. By adding to the Schedule hereto the toUowtng form: 

" Form II, Section 117. 
Canada, 
Province of AHwrta. 

"I, (name in lull, no tniltala) at (resUence), (occupation) 
make oath and say: 

"1. I am the transferor (or transferee, or agent, of the 
transferor, or, and, transferee) In the within (or above) 
transfer mentioned and I know the land above (or within) 
described. 

" 2. The Improvements upon the said lands consist of the 
following and are of the fair value set out opposite each: 

Building used as a | 

Building used as a • 

Building used aa a t 

(aettina out every tuildfn;) 

of fencing 

{stating length) 

C'earti-e acres 

Drt^akliK acres 

Crops now upon the land acres 

Garden improvement 

Well ., 

Other Improvements 

lacacribing them) 

Total I 

"3. The land alone, without improvements, is of the fair 

™''"' °' dollars, the total value of 

the lands, with the Improven-ents, being at the date hereof 
• dollar^.. 

"4. I know the circumstances of the above (or within) 
transfer and the consideration named therein Is the true 
consideration passing between the parties. 

"Sworn before me at the City of 

In the Province of Alberta, this ] 

^y «' A.D. 1913. 



A CommUaioner, etc." 



315 




FARMS AND FARMING 

To Find th« Weight of Lin Stock by :-,uniMnent 
In^'l""!*" '"''™°»'" leoeMary i, » measure with feel and 
nial just behind the shoulder blades. The length is the distance 
from the shoulder blades. The superficial feet are obtain^ bv 

tC Ll 'raltf rlr" ""^"- ^'" '<"""■•"« ^^'e contains 
the rule to ascertain the weight of the animal: 

l! is T,Z °ZJ.°°' 'r "'""• """""'>■ ™n.rficml I„, hy oisl,,. 

thr«.'°" """ "'"" """ "'""' "■"" "'■'"■ """"P'S- ™l»"i"al tot by thirty. 
, J' "* "■»" '"'•«" •"■' "■"« "■«" nine, multiply .uperficM tot by forty. 

Measurement of Land 

)„V f^K**.';! '«.'»/'>'""■"'<"■ J»"-»"«l0Bram, multiply the length 
in n,J» by the width in rods, and divide by 160, the nutntor of 
square rods in an acre. If th. field is triangulkr, mulUplVthe 
length Of the longest side in rods by the greatest ;."th n rtl 
and d.vide half the product by 160. If the field be of irlegS 
shape, divide it into triangles, and And the acreage of ™ch trT 
wfl^tl^esld'es ^" '"^f^'"'^ fleW^can betf.usm:::l;rld. 
rLsTnln,!^ ? T'"^ ""'' '""«'"»'• '"ke the length in 

^he „r , ^ ?" """"*■■ °' ■"'^^•"■ements, which will giv^ 
hemZlS h ^r^*" """"^'^ """ "■« "*""■• °»"4ly 
the Held IS ,n a circle, find the diameter in rods, multipiv tie 
square of the diameter by 7.854, and divide by 100 '^' 

oonLnflmT ^"•r "«'*'*^ Form.-Anacre of land 
contains 160 square rods, or 43,.';00 square feet. Hence to lav 
out an acre at right angles (square^rners), when one s' del 
known, divide the unita in the square contents b^the Jterf 

346 



FASMS AND TAKMINa 

the same kind in the length of the known side. Thus: it the 
known side be 4 rods, divide 180 by 4, and tlie quotient, 40. will 
be the depth of the acre plot. It the length of the known side 
be 00 feet, divide 43..'-.00 by 1)0, and the quotient, 4», will he the 
depth of an acre-plot. 



Townahlp^ 



- Rangg 

County- 



- 


- 


r 


: 


T7~ 


"Y 


-]- 


■ 


"•T 


r 




j"i"i 


rr 


P 


il 


32 


~ 


S3 


- 


-34 






-£S 




i- 


- 




- 




















- 




1 








- 




-- 


2S 


-- 


20 


- 






'£8- 






- 




























1 






1 
































1 






- 




- 






- 


'20 




i2l- 


















- 
















T]' 




1 




1 




1 






































-13 


. 


- 


IB 


- 






■?1 












>i. 


'l' 




































































r 








z 




















) 






U^^ 


- 
































1 
















































"T 






- 
































































L 


J 




; 


-li 




-U 


_L 


jj 


J 






JJ 


JL 


JJ 




_J 



Heasurement of an Acre Plot 



ElthfT of thP following mpasiires incliidp an arre plot: 
3 by 53 1-8 rods. l 7 by 22 G-7 rods. | 10 l.y 10 rods 

Shy 20 ■• 11 t>y 14 0-11 ■■ 

9 by 17 7-8 " 12 by 13 1-3 



4 by 40 

5 liv 32 
G by 20 2-3 

12 rods 10 feet and 8J Inches square make an acrr* 



Square Peet aod Peet Square in Fractions of an Acre. 



2722* 
544S 
10890 
14520 



217S0 
43560 
87120 



347 



• I 



FARMS AND FARMING 

Amount of Barbed Win Bequlnd for FoncM 

FJtlmatert numlMT of pounds of Barbed Wire required to fence =»,, 
dlstanc-s mentioned, with on... two or three lines of wire, bused upon 
pound or wire ineafiurlng one rod (IGJ feet). 



space or 
e»ch 



I Square acre .... 

1 Side of a wjuare acre. 

1 Square hair acre 

I a<iuare mil. 

1 §.'''? ?' ? '^'lore mile. 

!^^ '" length 

100 Rods inrenKth.... 
100 Feet in length. - . 



50f lbs. 

12} lbs. 

30 lbs. 

12H0 lbs. 

320 lbs. 

1 lbs. 

100 lbs. 

6 1-16 lbs. 



1014 lbs. 
25i lbs. 


152 


lbs 


38 


lbs. 




IDK 


lbs 


2560 lbs. 


3840 


Ihs 




960 


lbs. 










300 


IbH. 


12^ lbs. 


18 3-ie lbs. 



I<«(>1 Weighbi ud Meaanrts in Canada. 

pr"'i,lod'':St°ln^coS?;»?y / """'"I SMIute> o» Cannda, lOM, It M 
unk'ss a hiishni lU. •'^' aaoiild lie determiDod by wriKhlnK. 

.cBv";i.°„t''.?ir'bXrsr«^<a",K'.""' ■*""" """••"" «-^'«" 

naH^r'is'^b^""-, ,;?''">", «","'. «f ."»•, Bf:«. 56 lb.. Peaw. 00 lb.. 

Cii.tor binn's In iR'. ..'^.■. "lui- iiraaa «e,.d. 14 lb«. LImo, TO Iba. 
110 ll,» lS;,i™ n-|h.'°S'°:'''i?,.ll'»- lai-alP". «» lb.. Carrot, 
coal 70 lbs ternS ™. V!; ""iV"- nnlona, 50 Iba. nitulnliloui 
lb.. "*'■' °° '!»■ Tlmotbj-, 48 lbs. llDckwbpat. 48 

BrilT;h^1frad"rodw°fihP„?',','!.'' "'■''"."«' «'».""«' <" C"M<in. loon, the 
WW abollSd Z.^ ifh *!' 'I- .P"""?*. and tbo ton o( 2.i;40 pound, 
and 111?. Inn ■mJ,?,'' .,''■' IfU'Iml'VclBht was d.clari'd to be 100 nunnd.! 
Sriilnida'and'tte'l-nlM KS"'"""' '""' "'"""'""'■■l! 'l-e w«ll!"i 

<V,M"'lL'''t'[!,,!' ?,'.f"1' tl"" '«' "Pl'l™ tl,r barrel .ball ho M 
Mi-rVEid 't'i^-'; loff™, betwi-™ bead llu.lde measur..) : 

iS'oHio !nSi'»'j,a'i°ni!ib'i,:3'o''''c';bi?'rc£ ""^ '•"""■ '">«»' 

Ina and Weight of Tils 

'"'e following table allow s Uipan-aandllie weight of the different steed tile: 



Siz,.. 
7 ill. 



41 so. In. 

52» . 



348 



FABM8 AND PARMINQ 



Tlu Ouiyisg Otpicity ol Tile 





Gai.uinh Per 


MrNrTE 










Fall per 100 Feet. 


Blze of Tile. 


1 tn. 


3 in. 


6 in. 1 9 in. 


12 in. 


24 in. 

04 
131 
304 
750 
1000 

i:uo 

2070 


;io In. 


a-inch 

4-lnch 


13 
27 
7S 
153 
20fl 
207 
432 


23 
47 

129 

iSi 

463 
730 


32 

ea 

183 
375 
5d3 
655 
1033 


40 
HI 
224 
400 
G17 
803 
1273 


40 

s:t 

258 
529 
711 
020 
UOK 


79 

103 


6-lnch 

8-lnf 1 


450 

923 


6-inc 1 


1240 






12-inc 1 


2551 













A larRe tile w<!l carry more water accor<1ing to its size than a Nmall one. 
This Is because there Is less surface on the inside of the lorRe tile compareii 
with the size of stream, and therefore less friction. More water will fiow 
thtouKh a straight tile tlian a crooked one having the same iliameter. 

ExAMHi.F.: A nine-inch tile at 6 hichea fall to the 100 feet will llow fiS3 
gals, per minute. 

Bow to Vn the Hog and Oattla Table 

Cattle, 

What will be tbo cost of 1,170 lbs. of cattle at (4.2S per hun- 
dredweight? 

1,100 @t4.3.'> = Me.75 
70 @ i.%S= 2.98 
Answer— 149. 73 
Boos. 
What will be the ooet of i,7eO lbs. of hogs at $8.75 per hun- 
dredweight? 

2,700 @t3.75 = »101.25 
50 @ 8.75^ 1.88 

Answer— 1108.13 



349 



Hog ind Cattle Table 

The mtddlp roltimn rIvch iIk^ iiiimljer u( ])fiun<lfl and the top ot eorh volumn 
the prirt! iHT i»ound or huiidn-d weijtUt. 



.1 




350 



FARMH AND FARMING 

How to Find the Nttmber of BoihoU of Orftln In a Bin or Bos 

ft»/t'.— Multipy tlie length in feet by the hi-ight in feet, and 
then RKiiiii hy the breiultU in feet, ami then iiKitiu hy H, luiil out 
ofT Mie ri^ht hand figure. The lust renult will I>h the number of 

busliuU. 

Example. —How many buHhela In a bin 12 feet long, 8 feet wide 
unii 4 feet high? 

£Euiufttin.— 13x8x4X8=807.3 bushels.— Answer. 

To Find tho Contents of a Wagon Box 

A common wagon box is a little mo.e than ten feet long and 
three feet wide, and will hold about t-vo bushels fur every inch 
in depth. 

i?«/e.— Multiply the depth of the wagon box in inches by 2, 
and you have the number of bushels. 

If the wagon box is 11 feet long multiply the depth in inches 
by 3. and add one-tenth of the numlier of bushels to itself. 

Example.— ^av! many bushels of grain will a wagon box hold. 
20 inches deep and 10 feet long? 

So/HfiOTi. —20x3=40. —Answer. 

N.B. — A bushel to the inch ia calculated for com on the cob. 

Explanations of Grain Tables 

Tlie figures in heavy type represent the weight of the load, the 
number uf bushels and pounds over are found at the right under 
the kind of grain. 

Example.— Hovi many bushels in a load of v.heiit weighing 
1400 pounds? Run down the first, or wei^lit coluiiin. to 1400 
and Qnd opposite under "wheat" 24 bushels ami -'tO [Kiuuds. 



351 



^1^^ 





FARUS AND rARUINO 




TablalbowliigUwXiimbwotBiulMtaudoddPoiiiidilB || 






t L(wd Of Onin 








loTo 


J 


It 


1 


w 


3 




1 




■mTTST 


•1^1 




29 


71 


18 


<s' 


to 


60 


14 




IS 


8S 


11 


03 






1020 


30 


00 


18 


18 


17 


00 


14 


4« 


18 


48 


81 


19 






1030 


30 


29 


18 


33 


17 


10 


U 


90 


IS 


OS 


31 


38 






1040 


80 


69 


18 


33 


17 


20 


14 


60 


IS 


69 


81 


83 






lOSO 


30 


88 


18 


43 


17 


80 


18 


00 


14 


00 


ai 


48 






1000 


31 


18 


18 


63 


17 


40 


16 


10 


14 


10 


33 


04 






1070 


81 


47 


10 


06 


17 


50 


16 


2C 


14 


20 


32 


14 






1080 


81 


78 


18 


16 


18 


00 


16 


30 


14 


SO 


23 


34 






i«eo 


82 


06 


18 


26 


18 


10 


16 


40 


14 


40 


23 


St 






1100 


82 


36 


18 


36 


18 


30 


16 


90 


14 


SO 


33 


44 






1110 


82 


66 


18 


46 


18 


30 


16 


00 


14 


60 


88 


08 






IIUO 


82 


»« 


20 


00 


16 


40 


16 


00 


14 


70 


38 


16 






1130 


33 


24 


20 


10 


18 


60 


16 


10 


IS 


OS 


18 


86 






1140 


33 


63 


20 


30 


18 


00 


16 


30 


IS 


IS 


88 


86 






1160 


33 


82 


20 


80 


18 


10 


16 


30 


IS 


3S 


as 


46 






1160 


34 


12 


20 


40 


18 


20 


16 


40 


IS 


SS 


84 


08 






1170 


34 


41 


20 


60 


19 


80 


16 


90 


IS 


4S 


84 


18 






1180 


34 


71 


21 


04 


18 


40 


16 


60 


IS 


SS 


84 


38 






iieo 


86 


00 


21 


14 


18 


90 


17 


00 


IS 


6S 


84 


88 






1100 


86 


29 


31 


24 


30 


00 


17 


10 


16 


00 


83 


00 






1210 


35 


69 


21 


84 


30 


10 


17 


20 


16 


10 


83 


10 






1220 


36 


88 


21 


44 


30 


20 


17 


80 


16 


80 


as 


80 






1230 


36 


18 


21 


64 


20 


30 


17 


40 


16 


SO 


as 


80 






1240 


36 


47 


22 


08 


30 


40 


17 


60 


16 


40 


as 


40 






12S0 


36 


76 


22 


18 


20 


60 


17 


60 


16 


SO 


86 


08 






1260 


37 


06 


23 


28 


21 


00 


18 


00 


16 


00 


86 


18 






1270 


37 


36 


23 


38 


21 


10 


18 


10 


16 


70 


86 


88 






1280 


37 


66 


23 


48 


21 


SO 


18 


20 


17 


OS 


80 


88 






1290 


37 


94 


23 


03 


21 


80 


18 


SO 


17 


IS 


80 


48 






laoo 


38 


24 


23 


13 


21 


40 


18 


40 


17 


2S 


87 


04 






1310 


38 


63 


33 


33 


21 


30 


18 


SO 


17 


SS 


87 


14 






1320 


38 


82 


33 


32 


22 


00 


18 


00 


17 


4S 


87 


34 






1330 


38 


12 


23 


42 


33 


10 


18 


00 


17 


SS 


»7 


84 






1340 


39 


41 


33 


62 


23 


30 


18 


10 


17 


OS 


87 


44 






1390 


39 


71 


24 


06 


32 


80 


18 


30 


18 


00 


88 


00 






1360 


40 


00 


24 


10 


32 


40 


18 


80 


18 


10 


38 


16 






1370 


40 


29 


34 


20 


23 


60 


10 


40 


18 


20 


88 


30 






1380 


40 


oil 


34 


30 


23 


00 


19 


60 


18 


80 


as 


86 






1390 


40 


88 


3* 


40 


28 


10 


10 


60 


18 


40 


28 


46 






1400 


4] 


18 


25 


00 


23 


20 


30 


00 


18 


30 


88 


08 






1410 


4] 


47 


33 


10 


23 


30 


30 


10 


18 


60 


39 


18 






1420 


4] 


76 


23 


20 


33 


40 


20 


20 


18 


70 


39 


38 






1430 


4S 


06 


26 


30 


33 


30 


20 


80 


18 


03 


39 


38 






1440 


4S 


35 


36 


40 


24 


00 


20 


40 


18 


13 


80 


00 






14S0 


42 


66 


36 


60 


24 


10 


30 


50 


18 


23 


80 


10 






1460 


42 


94 


20 


04. 


24 


30 


30 


00 


19 


33 


SO 


30 






1470 


43 


24 


26 


14 


34 


30 


31 


00 


18 


43 


SO 


80 






1480 


4S 


53 


26 


34 


24 


40 


31 


10 


18 


S3 


SO 


40 






1490 


43 


82 


26 


84 


24 


60 


31 


20 


18 


6S 


81 


08 




•Bean 


itoo 


44 


12 


36 


44 


26 


00 


31 


SO. 


SO 


00 


St 


18 




SSbox 

B also 


re eO IbR. per buRhel. 3g2 




1 











FAHMN AND FARMINO 


















• Lead of OnlB-Continued. 








ir-6 


.» 


4 


^ 


m 


SW: 


'%sr'i''%sr' 


S 






tSr 


TKT 


1.." 


LG7^lnT,.rrt';i~ 










44 


41 


26 


34 


83 


10 


81 


40 1 20 


10 


31 


23 












1B20 


44 


71 


27 


06 


26 


30 


81 


y 


20 


20 


31 


33 












1530 


4< 


00 


S7 


18 


83 


30 


21 





20 


30 


31 


42 












1540 


4e 


29 


87 


28 


25 


40 


22 


o„ 


20 


10 


82 


04 












ISSO 


4S 


69 


27 


38 


23 


50 


23 


10 


20 


,iO 


33 


14 












"SS 


4« 


88 


27 


48 


20 


00 


23 


20 


20 


m 


32 


24 












1570 


46 


18 


28 


02 


20 


10 


23 


;io 


20 


-0 


32 


34 












1580 


40 


47 


28 


12 


2U 


20 


«3 


40 


21 


m 


32 


44 












seo 


48 


76 


28 


22 


20 


30 


22 


50 


21 


15 


33 


00 












600 


47 


Ofl 


28 


33 


20 


40 


22 


00 


21 


23 


83 


13 












eio 


47 


36 


28 


43 


26 


50 


23 


00 


21 


33 


33 


20 












1620 


47 


66 


23 


52 


27 


00 


23 


10 


21 


45 


3^1 


30 












1830 


47 


U 


29 


06 


27 


10 


23 


20 


21 


53 


3:1 


46 












1640 


48 


24 


29 


16 


27 


20 


23 


30 


21 


05 


34 


08 












1650 


48 


63 


29 


28 


27 


30 


23 


40 




OO 


34 


18 












1660 


48 


82 


29 


3i> 


27 


40 


23 


50 


22 


10 


34 


28 












1670 


49 


12 


29 


40 


27 


50 


23 


00 


22 


20 


34 


38 












1680 


49 


41 


80 


00 


28 


OO 


24 


00 


22 


30 


83 


00 












1690 


49 


71 


80 


10 


28 


10 


24 


10 




40 


33 


10 












'ZOJ 


SO 


00 


30 


20 


28 


20 


24 


20 


22 


SO 


33 


20 












1710 


SO 


29 


30 


30 


28 


80 


84 


80 


22 


60 


35 


30 












1720 


60 
SO 
61 
61 
SI 
62 
62 
62 
63 
S3 
63 
63 
64 
64 
54 
66 


59 


80 


40 


28 


40 


84 


40 


22 


70 


33 


40 












1730 


88 


30;50 


28 


60 


24 


80 


23 


03 


33 


02 












1740 


18 
47 
76 
06 
3« 
66 
W 
24 
63 
82 
12 
41 
71 
CO 

■>a 

5!) 
88 
18 
47 
7(! 
06 
35 
t)6 
94 
24 
>3 


31 


04 


29 


00 


24 


GO 


23 


19 


30 


12 












1750 


81 


14 


29 


10 


25 


00 


23 


23 


36 


22 












1760 


81 


24 


29 


20 


25 


10 


83 


33 


36 


33 












1770 


81 


84 


29 


30 


25 


20 


83 


43 


36 


43 












1780 


31 


44 


29 


40 


85 


30 


23 


65 


87 


04 












790 


31 


64 


20 


50 


25 


40 


23 


63 


37 


14 












iio 


32 


08 


30 


00 


88 


90 


24 


00 


37 


34 












88 


18 


80 


10 


•a 


60 


84 


10 


37 


34 












1820 


88 


88 


SO 


20 


86 


00 


84 


20 


37 


44 












1830 


82 


38 


80 


30 


86 


10 


84 


30 


88 


Of, 












1840 


32 


48 


80 


40 


26 


20 


24 


40 


38 


16 












1890 


33 


02 


80 


SO 


86 


30 


24 


50 


88 


26 












1860 


33 


12 


81 


00 


86 


40 


84 


60 


88 


36 












1870 


83 


22 


31 


10 


28 


90 


84 


70 


88 


46 












1880 


00 

55 
5.1 
oti 
5(i 
5ti 
57 
57 
57 
67 
58 


83 


32 


31 


20 


86 


60 


35 


03 


39 


08 












1890 


33 


42 


31 


30 


27 


00 


25 


15 


39 


18 












1900 


83 


52 


31 


40 


27 


10 


83 


23 


39 


28 












1910 


34 


06 


31 


50 


27 


20 


85 


35 


39 


38 












1920 


84 


16 


82 


00 


87 


80 


85 


45 


40 


00 












1930 


84 


86 


82 


10 


27 


40 


85 


63 


40 


10 












1940 


84 


36 


82 


20 


27 


90 


85 


63 


40 


20 












1950 


34 


46 


32 


80 


87 


60 


26 


00 


40 


50 












1960 


36 


00 


82 


40 


88 


00 


26 


10 


40 


40 












i?7i 


8S 


10 


82 


50 


88 


10 


26 


20 


41 


02 












L980 


85 


80 


88 


OO 


88 


20 


26 


30 


41 


12 












1990 VSI 


<S 


80 


83 


10 


88 


30 


86 40 1 


41 


22 








i 




1000 "!>' 1 


IS 


40 


33 


SO S8l 


40 


S6 50 J 


41 


33 






353 










































f-TF 





rARtn AND FAIUirNO 






Tibfe ItowlBttlMlliimbOTolnulwIiudoddronBdila 








* Load «< Onia-L'oritiiiuca. 










<?» 






iuiWi 

70 IX. 


^'^\x 












20l(J 


ml 12 


as 


00 


33 30 


t8 


80 


31 


W 


4] 












202U 


n 


141 


■M 


04 


33 40 


38 


60 


» 


70 


41 


04 










203(J 


« 


»71 


3tl 


14 


33 SO 


10 


00 


31 


09 


4a 


14 










2040 


w 


)00 


i« 


34 


84 00 


39 


10 


37 


IS 


43 


M 










2050 


w 


)20 


IK 


:I4 


84 10 


80 


30 


31 


89 


43 


S4 










2000 


(K 


l»» 


M 


44 


34 30 


39 


30 


37 


38 


43 


44 










2070 


« 


88 


ai 


84 


34 30 


30 


40 


37 


49 


43 


00 










20HU 


« 


18 


;'7 


08 


34 40 


iO 


80 


n 


8.) 


43 


16 










20U0 


a 


47 


.17 


18 


34 SO 


39 


60 


37 


69 


43 


86 










1100 


111 


76 


:tr 


28 


33 00 


SO 


00 


38 


00 


43 


86 










2110 


es 


06 


it7 


38 


39 to 


80 


10 


38 


10 


4a 


46 










2120 


ea 


38 


37 


48 


38 30 


30 


30 


38 


30 


44 


06 










2130 


es 


M 


38 


03 


33 30 


SO 


30 


38 


80 


44 


18 










3140 


ea 


64 


38 


13 


88 40 


80 


40 


38 


40 


44 


88 










21S0 


& 


24 


38 


23 


89 SO 


80 


60 


38 


SO. 


44 


88 










2160 


6! 


S3 


;ig 


.12 


36 00 


80 


60 


38 


60 


48 


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06 










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354 









PAI1I8 AND P.UIMIVO 


1 


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t Load o< OntD-Contlimnl. 








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85 


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61 


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53 


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24 


3.W 







FARMS AND FARUINO 

T«bto Showliv the Rombar of Busbtli and odd Poimds in 
* Load >.< Orain— Continuod. 



# 





rARHS AND FARMIKQ 

rABMIR'S CLUB 

In a famier'fl club, which has for its object social intercourse 
and the acquisition of knowledge, there need Ite few arbitrary 
rules of order enforced, but, instead, the discussions may be 
more or less conversational. But, as all business is facilitated 
by good regulations, the officers of the club ought to be armed 
with by-laws, and empowered to enforce their provisions when- 
ever necessary. 

Oonatitution 

Art. 1. — This aatociation shall be known a,n the Castann Farmer's Club 
Its (ibjwt shall be to i)n»inote a knowleiise ot iirat-tical rurnihit' ami (.iarden^ 
iiiE among it« members and the community, in conniTtion with wk'IuI onjoy- 
ments by th« raembprs and their rumilies. 

Art. 2.— The members of the club are thosp who frame lliis constitution 
and conform to its requirements, and others wlio may bu invjliid to join by 
the executive committee, all of whom shall pay »00— annually in September 
(or monthly) into the treasury. 

Art. 3.— The omcers of the Qub shall he a President, a Secretary, who 
shall be the Treasurer, and three members, who. with the President antl 
Secretary, shall constitute the Executive Committw. The Secretary shall 
keep records of transactions, and be custodian of the funds and other property 
of the CIul). being accountable at all times to llie Executive Committee, Riving 
bonds, if required, and shall prepare and present a full rciwrt to the Club at 
the annual meeting. The Executive Committee, three mcmbtTs of which 
shall be a quorum, shall have general charge of the interests of the flub and 
the carrying out of its objects. It shall fill vacancies among its officers, 
make rules, invite new members 'i join, regulate expentliture.s. manage 
exhibitions or fairs, publish offor., prizes and tlie awards, be responsible 
for the welfare of the Oub, ami report at the annual meeting through its 
Clerk. 

Art. 4. — The meeting of the Club shall take place on the fir.it Tuesday 
of each month; the meelingin January being known as the"Annuul Meeting." 

Art. 5.— This Constitution may be amended by a vote of two-thirds of 
tlu! members present at any regular meeting, notice having been given at the 
preceding^iegular meeting. 




357 



I 

''I 

i 



TKirsTS AND MONOPOLIES. 

TRUSTS AND MONOPOLIES 

.i,"^" T.?"*" "*''"' ''°""'>»"' 'he business world of to-day are 
n «* i""^ descendants of the old English monopolies. 
BefllUHon.-The old time monopolic, were grants by the 
crown securing to one or more persons an exclusive right to 
carry on some particular branch of trade or manufacture 
while the modern trusts are organizations formed by the 
combination of competing Arms, which. Independently of any 
grant of a sovereign or State, exert the right and power of 
controlling the entire business of the particular branch of 
trade or manufacture In which th. ;• are engaged. 

History.— In the sixteenth century the people of England 
complained of the extortions of the monopolies which had 
been granted by the crown and the whole system was at- 
tacked In Parliament In 1597. No restraining law was passed 
because of the personal solicitation of the queen, but In 1601 
Par lament took up the subject and a list of the most ob- 
jectionable monopolies was read In the House of Commons 
One member of that body caused a sensation at the time by 
asking. "Is not bread among the number?" 

In 1623 the so-called statute of monopolies was passed 
which provided that all monopolies should be Illegal except 
such as might be granted by Parliament, the only excep- 
tions being the control of new manufactures and Inventions. 
For a time this law put an end to the formation of monopo- 
lies, which have now become common under the name of 
7 .. J» "'^'"■'J' e^ery civilized country of the world 

of th! „ V""'T"' ''°^'*'"'' ""^^""^ '"« l-du^-lal energy 
of the country and Its extensUe commerce, the trust system 
has not made the advance it has In some other countries In 
Europe or In America. 

B«,sla» Trnrts.-In Ilussla, while the courts do not recog- 
nize the formation ot trusts as legal, strong Industrial or- 
ganizations control many of the commodities. Iron, brandy 
sugar, petroleum and a vast number of other products are 
In the hands of monopolies which oppress the people. Not 

manv fT. "■"t""'"' "'''""' "'^■" ">' '"^ government, hu 
many of them have been organized under the protection and 
with the assistance ot the government. 

3S8 



1 



PART XI 

Money, Postal Information, 
Salesmanship, Shipping, etc. 



■'■, 




1854 RT. HON. ROBERT LAIRD BOROEN. D. C. L. K. C 

Harrist<'r, Louder Op|i, H. of C I'JOl 
Premier of C»n*dft 1911— 



I'AUCEL I'OST iieui;lations 



PARCEL POST BEGCLATIONS. 

i„M„H"'"r" ■" ^"" *'°"" '"='^'">"">"' at Parcel Post rate, 
ncudo farm and factory products, merchandise of all de- 
scriptions such as dry goods, groceries, hardware, confeC 
onery stationery (Including blank books, etc, seeds cut- 
tings, bulbs, roots, bedding plants, scions or grafts and a 1 
other matter not Included In the first class, and not oxcluded 
from the malls by the general prohibitory regulations with 
respect to objectionable matter. tu'atlons with 

Parcels consisting of third class matter may be mailed at 

zt:::: ""'' "' ""'" "^'^ ■"""" ^"'^ "' "'^™"°» °' 
exSy prrtiT '"""'"'"'"^ '"""'- "' -■"-"- -" 

2. The rates of postage on articles accepted for trans- 
mission by Parcel Post are as follows- 

J,m ^7 '""f ""■ "■" ""■"' ^""""^ ""« 1 «« for each 
addltlona pound or fraction thereof, up to tour pounds, and 

within . .,/'""'""""" "'"'"'' "■' "> ^'^^<'" pounds 
Mthin a radius of twenty miles from the place of mailing. 
Irrespective of Provincial boundaries. 

(b) Ten cents for the first pound and 4 cents for each 
ProvZri' " T^ " "■"""'" """•'""■ ">' =" PO'"'' '» "•« 
mHe radius " " '"'■'"'' '^ """'"'• ""'""^ "' '"" '"^'^ 

Ja,1, '^'? ''''"' "" '"^ ""' ''°"°'' "'«' 8 '=''"'« 'or each 
addltlona pound or fraction thereof, for all points outside 
the Province In which a parcel is posted, and beyond the 
twenty mile radius, with an additional charge of ' cents a 
pound for each Province that has to be crossed to the des- 
Inatlon of the parcel, not including the Province In which it 
Is to be delivered, up to a maximum of 12 cents a pound. 

The three Provinces. Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island, are to be considered as one .one. 

.lo^w^n I Z""^" '° "•"" ""^ """■=' <'°^' "' trr.nsporta- 

tlon w I be made on parcels addressed to or posted at offices 
In certain outlying districts when such parcels have to be 
conveyed more than 100 miles by a conf us stage service. 



n t 



-I..- ^hi^ 



PAHCKL POST REGULATIONS 

auoh districts to be do&lgnated by the PostmastRr General. 
The charge on any parcel shall not be greater than 1 cent 
an ounce. 

Tables of rates for the several Provinces, as given In the 
rate cards printed for dletrlbutlon, will be found on pages 
366 to 372. 

3. The postage on Parcel Post packets must be prepaid by 
means of postage stamps securely affixed to the parcels. 

An insufficiently prepaid Parcel Post packet Is forwarded 
to destination subject on delivery to payment of double the 
deficiency, provided at least one cent is prepaid. After the 
additional postage required on any short paid parcel has 
been collected from the addressee, " postage due " stamps are 
to be affixed to the parcel and cancelled by the Postmaster. 

Parcel Post packets totally unpaid will be sent to the 
Branch Dead Letter Office. 

Franking of Parcel Post packets Is expressly prohibited. 

4. A Parcel Post packet may he insured within Canada up 
to an amount of $25.00, or the actual value of the contents 
when less than that amount, upon prepayment of a fee of 5 
cents in postage stamps, and up to an amount of $50.00, or the 
actual value of the contents when less than that sum, upon 
prepayment of a fee of ten cents In postage stamps. This 
ffie must be prepaid, In addition to the ordinary postage, by 
means of postage stamps, which the sender must affix to the 
cover. 

A parcel intended for insurance should not be dropped 
into a box or receiver. It should be marked with the word 
" Insured," and with the amount of the Insurance fee the 
sender is paying, thus " Insured 10 cents," and be handed 
into the Post Office or to the rural carrier and a certificate of 
posting obtalLed, bearing an acknowledgment that an Insur 
ance fee has been paid. 

The onus of properly enclosing and packing a parcel for 
Insurance rests with the sender, the Post Office assuming no 
liability for loss arising from defects which may not have 
been observed at the time of posting. 

Indemnity will be paid to the addressee, or at the request 
of the addressee, the sender, !)rovIded claim Is made to the 

360 



PARCEl. POST nEGUI.ATIOXS 

Department within one year of the date of poBtlng. upon 
receipt of sworn etatenients cJ the persona concerned:— 

(a) That according to the best of their knowledge and 
belief tue Insured parcel has been lost or its contents 
damaged In the malls. 

(b) Aa regards the value of the contents of the parcel or 
the damage sustained. 

(c) As regards the ownership of the parcel. 

It must appear that the loss or damage did not arise 
wholly or In part from the fault of the sender, as, tor 
Instance, from insufficient packing, Inadequate fastenings, 
loss of "tie-on" label, etc. The indemnity paid will not 
exceed the Talue of the contents of the parcel lost or the 
damage sustained. The right is reserved of reinstating the 
contents of a parcel Instead of giving pecuniary Indemnity. 

In the case of damage the parcel must be retained for the 
purpose of enquiry, as nearly as possible In the state In 
which It was delivered. If complaint Is made that the con- 
tents of a parcel have been lost or abstracted, the cover 
must be produced. 

Indemnity for damage to articles of a fragile nature will 
be given only in those cases in which the parcel Is con- 
spicuously marked with the words "Fragile with care." 

Parcels containing eggs, llah. meat, fruit, vegetables, glass, 
crockery, greases, seml-llqulds, liquids or any articles of an 
exceptionally fragile nature cannot be Insured. 

Indemnity will not be given for loss of coin or bank notes. 

Indemnity will not be given for injury or damage con- 
sequential upon. I.e. Indirectly arising from the loss, damage, 
delay, non-delivery or mis-delivery of any article sent by 
Parcel Post. 

Indemnity will not be given in the case of a parcel on 
which the Insurance fee has not been paid. 

Indemnity may be refused for loss or damage, on any 
ground on which exemption from legal liability may bo 
claimed by a common carrier. 

An insured parcel that cannot be delivered within Canada 
will be sent to the Branch Dead Letter Office. 



361 



'!: 



I' 




PARCEL roST HEGUI^TIONS 

PMed Font Pukcta Xoat Not Be Bcfliterad. 

5. Fanela munt be prepared for mailing In »uch manner 
that the contents can be easily examined. 

8. It Is desirable that tile sender's address should appear 
either Inside the parcel or on the cover. This must be kept 
distinct trom the address proper. 

V. Parcels are, when ro-dlrectod, chargeable with adJ.- 
tlonal postage at the rate which would have been chargeable 
had they been originally mailed from the office of re-dlrectlon 
to the new address, except In cases where the original and 
the re-dlrected addresses arc both within the delivery of the 
same Post Office. 

8. The limit of weight for a Parcel Post packet Is eleven 
pounds, and the general limit of size Is thirty Inches In length 
by one foot In width or depth, but parcels will be accepted 
up to 3 ft. j In. In length, provided that the combined length 
and girth do not exceed six feet. For example-a parcel 
measuring 3 a 6 In. In Its longest dimensions may measure 
as much as 2 ft. 6 In. In gl-'h (I.e., round Its thickest part): 
or a short parcel may he tMcker; thus If the length Is not 
more than 3 ft. the girth of the parcel may be 3 ft, 

9. When practicable, Parcel Post packets must be sent In 
covers open at the ends, and In such manner as to be easy 
of examination. Dut flour, drugs and such like articles, 
which cannot be sent in covers of this kind— but such articles 
only— may be posted enclosed In boxes, or In bags of linen or 
other strong material, fastened In such a manner that they 
may be easily opened, so as to enable the officers of the Post 
Office readily to saUsfy themstlves as to the nature of the con- 
tents. If paper bags or covers are used for enclosing flour 
or other similar matter, they must be of extra quality and 
strength to resist friction and pressure In the malls, and 
prevent the escape of the contents. 

10. Any staple article of use or consumption, properly 
transmissible by post, contained In the original unbroken 
package and with prot'^r descriptive label, may be forwarded 
by Parcel Post, though the tin or case In which It Is enclosed 
may not adroit of being opened In course of post. If posted 
by parties known to be engaged In the manufacture or sale 

3C2 



r.VlH'Kli I'OST liWll'LATHtNS 

Of the article ta question and who vouch that the content! 
are precliely as described on the label. 

11. A parcel may contain Invoices and accounts provided 
they relate exclusively to the contents of such parcel; It Is 
also permitted to enclose a card or slip of paprr giving In a 
brief manner necessary directions for the IdentlHcatlon or 
treatment of the article or articles contained In the parcel. 
Care must be Uken not to abuse this privilege by converting 
such notes or marks, designed solely for the facilitation of 
buslnesi between the sender and addressee, into what might 
properly be called correspoLience. A parcel containing a 
letter or any writing intended to B*»rve the purpose of a letter 
in the ordinary sense will become Uablu to letter postage. 

12. When several separate articles are enclosed in a Parcel 
Post packet there Is no objection to each bearing a dis- 
tinguishing number, so as to enable the sender to give direc- 
tions by letter (sent of course separately and duly prepaid) 
respecting the several articles which the parcel contains. 

13. Any person who wishes to mall a large number of 
parcels, whether on a particular day or at regular or Irregular 
Intervals, will facilltote the work of despatch If he will give 
the office where they will be posted early Information of the 
number of the parcels, their average weight and the dateE 
and times at which he proposes to send them. He will also 
consult the convenience of the Post Office by sending the 
parcels to the post in batches, beginning as early In the 
day as possible. 

14. Parcel Post packets are subject to the general pro- 
hibitory regulations excluding from the mails everything 
liable to destroy, deface or otherwise damage the other con- 
tents of the mall bags or injure the person of any officer or 
servant of the Post Office, as well as all obscene or Immoral 
matter. 

ir Liquids, oils and fatty substance-*, put up In accordance 
with the following regulations, are not excluded: When In 
glass bottles or vials, su/ih bottles or vila must be strong 
enough to stand the shock of handling in the mails, and 
must be enclosed In a wooden, heavy cardboard or papier 
mache block or tube not lesn than three-sixteenths of an inch 
thick In the thinnest part, strong enough to support the 



i 




:|^ 



PARCEL POST REOULATIONS 

weight of malls piled In bags and reelit rough handling; and 
there muet be provided between the bottle and ita outer caie 
a cuihlon of cotton or spongy material lufDclent to abiorb 
the liquid, etc., In case the bottle should be broken, the block 
or tube to be Impervious to liquid (Including oils) and to be 
closed by a tightly fitting screw-lid of wood or metal with a 
rubber or other pad so adjusted as to make the block or tube 
water-tight and to prevent the leakage of the contents in 
case of breaking tl.e glass. When enclosed In a tin cylinder, 
metal case or tube, such cylinder, case or tube should have a 
screw-lid with a rubber cork or cushion Inside In order to 
make the same water-tight, and should be securely fastened 
In a wooden or papier mach^ block (open only at one end) 
and not less In thickness and strength than above described. 
Manufacturers or dealers intending to transmit such articles 
by Parcel Post or as samples, In considerable quantities, 
should submit a specimen package showing their mode ot 
packing to the Postmaster at the malting ofllce. who will 
see that the conditions of this section are carefully observed. 

16. Specimens of diseased tissues, when carefully enclosed 
In specially constructed double tin cases, closely packed with 
absorbent matter, and with closely fitting screw i^ps, may 
pass at Parcel Post rates, addressed to Provincial Boards of 
Health and Public Laboratories. 

17. The following articles in glass, viz.: Eye-glasses, 
spectacles and microscopic slides, may be forwarded by 
Parcel Post if put up In such a manner as to admit at once 
of easy Inspection and to guard against Injury to persons 
handling the malls. 

18. Parcel Post packets containing anything ot a fragile 
nature should be marked " Fragile with care " and parcels 
containing articles of a perishable nature, such as fist, fruit, 
meat, etc., should be marked " Perishable." Parcels sent by 
mail should In a\\ casos bo substantially and securely packed 
so as to preserve the contents from loss or damage and pre- 
vent Injury to the mails. The Department desires to co- 
operate with the public in seeing that special attention la 
paid to the Important matter of packing, particularly with 
regard to parcels containing matter of a fragile or perish- 
able character or of a nature to destroy or Injure the other 

3G1 



rAXCEL r08T BEOl'LATIOKII 

oonttnU o( tbt baia or ucki In which thcjr tre lent torwaril. 
In order that proper precaution may be exercised In this 
particular, peruna desirous o( transmitting articles by Parcel 
Post are advised to consult the postmaster as to the proper 
method of packing in all cases. 

As the safe transit ot eggs Is a matter o( some difllculty, 
shippers are advised to adopt the following method of pack- 
ing: Lae a wooden, papier mache, or other box ot a rigid 
material with a well-ntUng tightly adjusted lid; wrap each 
egg separately in newspaper or other protecting material, 
place the egts on end and nil up the vacant spaces In the box 
with newspaper or other packing material, so as to prevent 
the eggs from striking together or against the sides, top or 
bottom of the box; mark the parcel eggs. 

Parcels conUlnIng goods likely to spoil within the time 
reasonably required for transportation and delivery must 
not be accepted for mailing. 

1». Postmasters must exercise the greatest possible care to 
see that all parcels accepted for transmission by Parcel Post 
conform In every particular to the requirements of these 
regulations. This applies with special force to parcels con- 
taining perishable goods or fragile articles. 

20. Requests for direct return are recognized on Parcel 
Post packets addressed to a place In Canada, and parcels 
bearing the address of the sender may also be returned direct 
after being held llfteen days. Parcel Post packets so re- 
turned are subject to a charge equal to the original postage 
charge. This charge Is to be marked by the office returning 
the parcel and collected from the sender before delivery by 
the office to which It has been retumeu, "postage due" 
stamps for the amount collected being affixed to the parcel 
and cancelled by the Postmaster. 

21. After a parcel has been delivered to the person to 
whom It Is addressed It cannot be returned to the sender, 
unless the person retnmiiig It pays the necessary return 
postage. 

22. The Postmaster General reserves the right to refuse to 
accept, for transmission by mall, grain or any other com- 
modity shipped in excessive quantities which might Interfere 
with the transportation of first class matter, or other articles 
such aa those enumerated In paragraph 1. 

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J 



POSTAL INFOHMATION 

IT 18 WELL TO ''p^lJHE^rOLLOm.O SPErUL 

POSTAL INFORMATION 

POSTAL SEBVIOB OP THE WOHLD 

Two-third, of all the letters which jam tlirouEh the nostnffl™. 
Of the .vcrld are written by and sentl people whls^:!"!^ 
hah There are substantially 600,000.000 persons speakin^ „,! 
loqu.ally one or another of the ten or twelve cS ^e L 

COO prson., speak English. About ninety n,i lion jZk 
Eussian, seventyflve million German, flfty-flvl million rreS 

nlnZ ^T,"^'^' S;" "■" '^'^""^ Hun^rian, Dutch. Poli , 
P1em,.h, Doheman, Danish and Norwegian. Thus, wh le „„ y 
one^uarter of those who employ the facilities o the po",,'^ 
departments of civilized governments sp™k, as their ,mtte 

EnXhUntt"""''"'^"'''-'^""''"^--''-"''''"-'^^^^^^^^^^ 
This situation arises fmm the fact that so large a share of the 
CO nmercml b^iness of the world is done in English, evn 
among those who do not speak English as their native languLe 
There are, for mstance. more than 80,000 postofflces m Uit 

than SM^O^' """'; '" '"""' """ ■"P^^-t'Sregates ufore 
tlian 300,000 000 parcels a year, and the business of these offices 
« done chmny in English, though of India's total popuS 
wind, .s nearly 300,000,000, fewer than 300,000 perLis eS 
speak or understand English. 

373 



POSTAL INPOBUATION 

Though tO.OOO.OOO spesk or undenitiinil Russian, the business 
of the liusaian pout department in relatively small, the number 
of letters sent throughout the czar's empire amounting to less 
than one-tenth the number mailed In Great Hrltain alone, 
though the population of Great Britain is considerably less than 
one-half of the population of Russia in Europe. 

The Southern and Central American countries, In which either 
Spanish or Portuguese is spoken, do comparntivelv little post- 
offloe business; the total number of letters ixwted and collected 
a year in all the countries of South and Central America and 
the West Indies being less than in Australia. Chile and Argen- 
tina are, in fact, the only two South American countries in 
which any important postal business is done, and most of the 
letters received from or sent to foreign countries are not in 
Spanish, but in English, German or Italian. 



I I 



POSTAL 8EBVI0E OF THB ITIRTED STATES 

Tl» Orowth of the postal service of the United States is 
amazing. In 1800 there were IK)3 postolHces, 20,817 miles of 
mail routes and yearly revenues of 8380,804. To-day the post- 
offlcea number over 74.000, there are over a half million miles of 
mail routes, "id the yearly revenues exceed $143,000,000. 

The postal service of the United States handles over 60 per 
cent more mail matter than the postal service of Great Briton, 
about 100 per cent more than the postal service of Germany, and 
over 100 per cent more than the postal service of France. 

Domeitic Batea of Postage. -All mailable matter to points in 
the United States. Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, 
Guam, Tutuila. and the Philippines, is divided into four classes 
under the following regulations; 

Fint-OIus Matter.-This class includes letters, postal cards, 
"post-cards," and anything 8eale<l or otherwise closed against 
inspection, or anything containing writing not allowed as an 
aoGompaniment to printed matter under tduss three. 

Rates of letter postage, two cents per ounce or fraction 
thereof 

Rates on local or drop letters at free delivery offices, two 
cents per ounce or fraction Ihereot. At offices whera there is 
no free delivery by carriers, one cent per ounce or fraction 
thereof 

374 



,! 



:\ 



POSTAL INroIlMATlON 

R«tM on pMtiil cards, one cent (douhle or "n.»l,r" ... i • 

™.nU). Nothing „,urt be added or » tached^a r^^T' 7 

except that a printed addre^ slip not Cer t,,J?, o i?^^' ^t 

:fei :' ".t-t '° ""'' "■"» '~"™ Z^mce ' prr;::: 

»-"y. notwithstanding tl,e special delivery stamp " ""' 

£=j^---^-Xn:t;--a::! 

80 they » ill bo sent to the Dead Letter Office- but thev will ,1 
returned to the sender if he is located at the p^Ta „„ 
and f lusadclress be printed or written upon thenT ^' 

or'^:::;^r;^itri;i:.c*^-:r;;r^^ 

copies seiarately addressed. t«enty identual 

the'lnJcr'flT"'" ""'" •" ■""" ■"""''^) "•'■" "'= <■'"'""■" to 
lue sender free, if a request to that effect is printed or written 

::^rX7rp^d,"''*''°'"™"">"°' -'«•■' '"--■-■'-"■- 

Prepaid letters will be rcfonmrdcd from one postolBce to 
another upon the wr,.,ten request of the pen.,n addLUd witl. 

375 



1 



II'" ■ ! 



i:,i- 



POSTAL INFORMATION 

<>ut iiJ.litii.nul clmrge for postage. The dlm^tlon on forwarded 
lettera may be ohangeil as many times as mii.v he necessary to 
reach the (lerson adtlremied. 

iMond-Olui Matter. -Tills class Includes all ne«-spnpers, peri- 
odicals, or matter excluaivcly in print and regularly issued at 
stated intervals as frequently as four times a year, from a 
known office of publication or news agency, to actual subscribers 
or news agents, and transient newspapers and publications of 
this class nmiled by persona other than publishers. Publica- 
tions having the characteristics of books and such as are not 
subscribed for on account of their literary merits, but because 
of other inducements, are not eligible to second-class privileges. 
Secondclnsa matter al.so includes periodical publications of 
benevolent and fraternal Booietiea, organized under the lodge 
system and having a membership of a thousand persons, and of 
the bulletins and proceedings of strictly professional, literary, 
historical, and scientillc associations and institutions, trade 
unions, etc., provided only that these be published at stated 
intervals not less tlian four times a year, and that they be 
printed on and be bound in paper. Publishers who wish to avail 
themselves of the privileges of the act are required to make 
formal application to the department through the imstmaster at 
the place of publication, producing satisfactory evidence that 
the organizations represented come within the purview of the 
law, and that the object of the publications is to further the 
objects and purposes of the organizationa 

Bites of Poitage to Publiahera, one cent a pound or fractional 
part thereof, prepaid in "currency. Publications designed pri- 
marily for advertising or free circulation, or not having a 
legitimate Ust of subscribers, are excluded from the pound rate, 
and pay third-class rates. 

Second-class publications must possess legitimate subscription 
lists approximating 50 per cent of the number of copies regu- 
larly issued and circulated by mail or othenime. Unless they 
do, pound-rate privileges are revoked or withheld. 

Publications sent to actual subscribers in the county where 
pubUshed are free, unless mailed for local delivery at a letter- 
carrier office. 

Rates of postage on transient newspapers, magazines, or peri- 
odicals, one cent for each four ounces or fraction thereof. It 
should be observed that the rate is one cent for each four 
ounces, not one cent for each paper contained in the same 
wrapper. 

376 



POSTAL INFORMATION. 



CANADA 



utter lUWf ko. 



In Canwia or to th^ Urt la Statei or Mexico I VTiir 
PHmU PMt Ca.di. -The face ot a Private Poat 

B^J^^i^??.;.".'"' 'ir' °' " '•"' t loon li let 

alont each o( tlie four aldee ot t)ie poataae ntanm and 
> claw ipu. S( iTOhe. ten, aod 111 John .IjiSSn-S 

CMd. Privata Poat Garda for tfellvery Ic Canada Ua 

ft°0 "bVSl-liV""","' "<■',"• "" •"•n sTSh a 
IB nnKtn by SJ InohM In width, Carria (or nihsF 
SiT^'ffi n« eaceed .j inche. l" enS bj s 
inchea In width, nor lie leaa than 4 Inche* In renirth bv 
J InchM In width Ca„i. of dlm.naiona not oiZrnilna 
£,l,?r. ,™"''''"«"" •" "eaied aa In.nlllclentlv pa 5 
lettera If thej bear w ritten oominiinlcutlona. 

Itau on Mdni, n,f.._Card. which hare the ba. k 
S; JfiiUtSr.'""' ""'' "'"•■''■" «' "» front to the 
caatmia, are admitted aa poat cat^a. 

S;.u^ "S " "" !"""• "' "■•'""• <" Prtnled matter 

KSiSCSXteTlS™. •"• »'"•»' "«"""»" 

pr!S?fi.'J;SX^Ei'£Z'!'J'J,a'?rot™''"^ 

Fonign Co^tntriM, txetptUnitfd Statft and .Vtxico' 
— PMUge on Uttere, 6 «nU for n letter weijrhinK one 
T'J!!^,^}^^J[" MUti y\gMnH over one ounce 
™,S^«iM 7"" *"'*'<'** '" each lubwriuent 
ounce or Imction of an ounce. 

vFu^i^^VJ^ ^'^".T^* •*** o" letters to the 
United Staiei and Mexico l> the same lu in CanaJa, «nd 
at leart one rate (2 centi) miwt be prepaid. 

Double the deOclent iwstnite In churited on all unpaid 
« Intumolently paid lettere (or other countriei except 
Ibe Unltwl Statet. Only the defldent poitaice li m" 
leetcd on overweight letters tor the ula. which are 
prepaid one rate. 

Kximu or Special Dtlxetry £«((«■«. -Arrange me nU 
have been made for the delivery by special mMwnjter 
dally, except Sundav between 7 ».m. and 10 p.m.fof 
Itttert bearing. In addition to the usual prepayment ot 
"V **'ii*?«*:L'"'"™'Ji," ®P«^'l "^""T ■**«? o' the 
«?"?« ^ " "^ or orihiw-y pMtajje itampo of tfie value 
of 10 OU., and thr words ^'Spwlal Delivery" leutblv 
written on the upper left hand comer ot the envelope 
addreeaed to the following cities in Canada : In OntaVld 
-.Toronto. Hamilton, London, Brantford, Kinit^ton. 
Peterbortf, Ouelph. Stmtford, Windajr. Chatham 
ftjrtln, 8L Catharmes, Samia, St Thomas, Fort 
William. Port Arthur, Owen Sounfi, Ntafrara FalU. 
Brft:k*il!can-J Ottawa; in mitUN;-SI..ii(rcul. Sher- 
brMke.8L H a. mthe.Troi. Riviires. Hull and (Juet)ec; 
n NewBrunewlck— Sl John, Monc(*in and Fredericton ■ 
tii. ^1™ Scotia-IIatifan and Sydney ; In Manitoba- 
Winnipeir and Brandon; In Saskatohewan-Reirina 
Sailiatoon, and HooM Jaw ; in A Iberia -Calgary, Leth- 



Charlotietown. The -Sji^dol Uliiery " .(M.p^he 

K.illy lu^ld re)[l>terf.l letter* t>«aring "Special Oe- 
it? I H «ir T °""""J' «»'"pi ot the vSue of 10 
pt*.. ill adflitlon to the poilat-e oihI reitlatratlon fee and 
he word. '■S,*t-ial IWIver,/' oZe under t^oUS? 
tioiis ot thli erheme ot special delivery, ^ 

RoflatntlOB. 

Per»oni post Inu letters containing v^ue ihould bt cu«. 
ul to require them to lie Keglsier^.^d tS obUln hSSi 
thePostmaater a certifi.ale o( receipt tor fUilMration! 

Therljftrtfe lor Iteai^ralloii in addUion to^2pSS«i 
I, on all viMiteM ol matter, five cents »«■«■■ 

Roth the Postage charHe and ItcKwtration fee ahould 
in all cries, he prei>aiHl.y stamp. " nwsnouM, 

Ketfisl ration is not an ul>«>luie guarantee against the 
mi«-arriaKC or loss ot a letler ; but a RegliuTed Latter 
^J"™!?"^*^ j^*'^? "" <^nf«K'«ered UUer can not. and 
the posting and delivery or non-delivery can be proven. 

Indtsmlty for lt«iiat«»d AitlolM. 

D„mnHc - (1) In caw ot the lo«a In the PoMal Strvlce 
of a wg sterwl article posted In Canada (or dellvtrv In 
Cana.latheoddrewe.oratthere.i,.estotth««|dre2M. 
the sender. Is entitled to ftn indemnity, which In nom 

;^ ^'LfL^.^'':!!''-''''",''"":"'' " "'« «*"^ valuTo; 
f* „^! a -^i'V."^ *""'S V"" '*" ""•• '• I'M than 
twtnty.flve dollars, provided no other compensation or 
reimbursement has been made thcrelor "**"'*"'"' "' 

ii) The indemnity will l>e paid, provided the low Of 
the regirtered article is reported to the Department 
within one year ot the dale of p,w.ting, upon fecelpl ol 
sworn stntPmci.ts ot the personH concern eJi— '^ 

.. I. (?' J*'*'' acconling to the best ot knowledge and 

belief tho rcKislercl article has been lost In the malta. 
(W M retrards the vtlut- of the oontents 0( Iht 

lost registered nrtieie. 

(c) as regards the ownership ot the same. 

(J) No mdcmnity is given (or a reglsterad article 
wl.ieh has not been entirelv lost in the nialli. 

.1.*'' V,'"''P"'".'**'> '^'*''" '" "" 'rticle uponwhkh 
the reghtration tee has nol Iwcn paid. 

Dritinh and for^i^n.-Exceptlncascibeyond control 
('..I/,. teni|R-<,t. shiiiwrech, earth<tiinl(e, and w«r). the 
I osul AdminiNlrations of all counlries and Coloniee In- 
eluded In the Postal LViiin undertake fo pay an Indcin- 
niiy ot M francs (»Ui) when it U proved to their satis- 
faction that a letter or packet duly admitted to Reds- 
tration has been entirelv lost whilst to their custody 

HowBpapen and Pertodicali. 

The general poslagc rate on newnpipers and periodicals 
publtshed \n Canada not less frequently than once a 
month, and nrtdremetl to r.xuiar suhscribere in Canada 
Memco. the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Barbados. 
Bernjuda, British 4Jiiian.i. llriHih Honduras, British 
North Borneo, Ceylon, C>riu«. Falkland Islands. Fiji. 
Gambia, Oibralt.ir, Hong Kong, Jamaica. I^ewafd 
Islamls, Malla, Hauritim, New Zealand. Northern 
Nigeria, Sarawak, Seychelles. Sierra Leone, Southern 
Nigeria. Transvaal, Trii -l.id and Tobago. Turk's Islands. 
Kanilbar, and Newfoui, .land, and to newsdealers in 
Canoda, Is Dvivt by ],« at J cent per iiftund The 
following exception, however, is to be noted ;' Newspautn 
and periodicals published not tnort r-pquently than one* 
a week and not lem frequently tha., «nce a month, are 
entitli-d to pass tree lo regular subscribers and news- 
dealers in Canada within a circular area ot SO miles In 
diameter, having as cent-e either the place of puhllc*- 



nSr. '-<~«l" o.n„,i „„ ,™. „„„ .'J'l'", 






(MilnK »rdi, the manuwrlut irf houki nv ■■■■■■■■■■a 

■■•B b* rtMl by th« hjlnd. lOtMkJcnhMi^lnlwi .^ 
..Un.,.Wk..NpM„„„,.ij'S^,55;,™',;J*~l'2j 
•Id |»rtl>-printfd m^tur ;-»,i|iitriS''AT„l'irt»™ 



.... I«rtl>-print«d R _....„, 

uitnwR ltlMlltc■t^ »M«n' luu. 

roiu,r— ■ ■ ■ -^ 









EST;.".""'. "" '"' '"""I d.llv,r,- .1 pl„, 

Tmulmt irtWBiMiiwn. 

Si 1 '"* ''>'»»». Turk'. u.nd> o" Z.n. hir l"; 

"jj^b. pr.p.M lb, Mrowi., „i. b, pmI:;^ 

i» l."S l.I'.lff!''^'! "!i I«11«1W« not ,,„hll,hed 
~lio" 1 iJ7i, i'°' " 't' ""SL""' P-lblJ,! muur 



•J7~ ^' ' ""» P«r Y oM. wbt'n 
Klnrioin Of Brttlih CoIooIm. 

BookPo«t, Jw, 

boJi?"i.i!!s'3 H'y K?';"'^ ""* """'" «' "i*"" 

l« «;n-,.i?^ . "''irbt for domrat],- post. 5 lbi(un. 

Jirj!3.3?ffi5-„;Kf^r:ii^:„";,rr;:''- 

J_^'««Pondence paMiiiK between blind 
jjjjjj- jJJJd cbmctert l> oUntaU. nt the nti or 

**^ J^.i* B<tok Pwiliels for delivery in Canwla. 

Caruin MUotlUutotu lUttar. 

b«S™"i;™,'"ii'"i,''"f'!'~' " »"*'■ ">w pu. 

in,^«!I !; J .?*' ™"' *"* fo'^arded t,> the United 

fiStiT, .J" °^" ""ntrie. bj Book Po« i_ 
in pnnt without reference to procees euch as rir , <■ 
printed tomii. nupe, print*, drawinire. p ant (Soft 

flSSi'K^'^i^*, '" Wntltie-.thee.'S™; 
|>bMlm prinud or wrilton) Inatructloo boobi In muMo, I 



i..™,,,«u,wdin»,,ijsr.;„";;':i!VS^ 
i,iiK™.K?rvr"™' fp"""" f" ib» ui» of tb. 

m,..^" ""?'*''*'" "'W^oitnlied Inelitutlon t„r tba 
mind In Uaii«to to Ulln,| peViin. for their Siu-u 
.llo«e,|iopo<,atther.teVf 1 ...lit lor eSrr<\^,; 
frmion tbereoli but belbr. am In.lilu'S *.?T«« 
..leh paper at 111, al„.e rate th. Port l«ll";S;ii"iS 
aliHt.»amu.t bemihlW .. t« |i. claim to be ran 
.idereil an In.tlluiioii I„, ibe niind. i» b. eon. 

,a.l *^' ".' *'.''•' communifTtiion Intendeit to aene 
the purpo«i ot a kiier mu.t he ,.ni or lnclo.«) li, JJJ 

*iae «o put up aa to ailinlt of the contenta belnv if 
iiece..,,,,. eaalij withdrawn for e.anilnuion liv hi 
om,.e„ „ the Poat i)m,.e to en.u" S'p™„„' wM 
ihi. p,o.i.lon (, eiKiioaeil iii aeal«l eoreloji n"t,S 

™., .' . "' ■"',';",■ "" •'"■ "" ~'ner. oSt o«, eltS 
rate ,>( iioatafte will U chaived). 

No racket of niieevllaneoua matter can be tnnimlttad 
h, mall If It ei,:,rt. s Iba. In w,l,ht, MliSilT InTnJth 
lenirth and ainh of any packet exceed « feet. 
tw<^57..^."^?"'""'*LP'P*" ireberally are liable to 
ih'Xml'nilS'a'nU."'" '^'^ '"' ^'""^ """» 
3rd and 4!h claaa matter, adtlrevied to placeewlthln the 

^iii if^V^'T" '""" """'•'• «» delivery to him 
tbrooith the Poet once, of the lull amount of poitaire U 
which the article waa in i be a rat place liablerTwher 
wlib any cba™ rated thereon on accou« ™ any 
deilciency in the oriitinal prepayment. '^ 

BntUh and Fonlfn Poit-OoiDiiOTeua Fapan. 

'■Cnmmcrci.tl Papem ■' are undentood to coinpriac ..Jl 
paper. or dauiuent. wrtllen or dn.n whollTof prnlV 
of i^SL'ilZi '"'"'"" conmiunioatloiia of the natuii 

oi leiieraorother p^."." "--' •- ' — 

acter ..f an actual: 



- ...... 9 u. ..u,,Riiuiiicatioiia oi ine nature 

f r Dapeia or dociimenta havlna the cbar. 
m^n'i.-yw T" "'1 P""""! """Pondence). docu- 
ments of eifal pwicedure. deed* drawn up by public 
unci onar,™. copie. of or extract, from .Qa V.„d,r 
private ecal andlwheth.rwritten or printed ouitamSrt 

and other doounicnta of a meicaniile character, docn. 

E?o^ Z"'""'''.""' ,°""; P""" rompanie., all 
kind, ol manuwinpt music, the manu.; ript of book. 

orlrtnal n irpi„ and pupils' exerriws in orimnal and 
corrected form but without any comment on the" oX 
iirj^ - . ■ ^^"^ P*' ^ °"- '""t e«cb packet must 
bave a minimum prepayment ol 5 oents ; ihl, prepi;. 

«»7 „ii i. '^ '." ""> direction unices in the 'orm 

; .iiwl' "!;"' ' '•"/"■ °' 3" '"tii" i> «ii»»«i p™ 

weiKht vAikt not exceed 4 lbs. c oss. 

SamplM within the Dominion. 

_aD!p.r= r.( M-Miaraiirc and Oootts tor wl« not 
havinj salealile value and not exceedinit 1 II,.. in .riaht. 
exceM samples ol tea, which mu.t not e.cenU™ |„' 
weijht, may be poal«l m Canada, to be lorwanlM to 



t |N»lair«, prw'tflfit at 



ft-MU In MMllhin to ih« pwiafc nit.r*Mt t, 



Otliet lot 



™wre.'*tt'ta',,^',.s:'.'.?'fj''i'~ "'""1- >? 'K^ 

»kM auah ptchit 
rcfntraUoii. 

~JJ«1 In •uch . „„„„ n., ,1,., „^, J. ,,^||^- 

n^IHF "^ "•>* nlmlMibl* At Hinpla nt« 
»ir°£iu ".hl'H.r"..".' '" """tlon M ". inl.r, ho.. 

if iSl'uD''™»-|,'.M;; r^. "^r"" '■L""" '" ^»" Dominion 
II put up cftraiully In itrct aocorduic* with tK* d ».. 

STt'te '" "" '■"'•' "■"^ -S^.Sn.t!;.'! .T; 

•uapiu rot vnitiit iiiifdam. vdimi natM 
and FoMfn CountilM. 

f»iw,— loBnlperaoi. Of (raetonof foi. with k mini 
SMnplM ol liquid!, o t. kUm, ato »« •dmlttPH « 
with th« direction! Riven In th« PocitU Guide. 
Prohlbltad ArtlclM. 



All •xploaive, (tangiroi; 
glMi bottle* or Klau in ktiy 
" ' ' ipcedfy 



■■«■ oottiM or Kliu 
ftll matter •iibjvct t 



)r deatnictiva nibatwicM, 
form liable to break, and 
d«.«y, all otMcene or im 



»';oV.rs;r;r;,t^ ,'ssss-j "'«"- '° 

VHftU HIIU. 

p^ffi'tilJ '" '•"I"'"' l"'t""- TntnuoLl money to 
PoitAl Notei or Money OMen. Mfthe compbint/ana 

S™,.. ';"'"'■ "1 '"m"! corrapomleou to 

fo tZ P».,^'..1'~^°' """'"'" ''•'""^ ''"'"■ 8«n5 
to tne PoitmMter.Oe(ieral envenpei ol lettera about 

i^ S'-K'" r,',' '"<r.""'°" " "»»• comiWnt In 
r™. f '".."? ?''' "" """ ol the Ciunt, .n,l 
.^T™ S," ^'''l"l• "?" >d<lre»ed I. loe.t«l. pEJ 
SSr'pMi .»„'''"'"'"'"' ""•" °°""' »' "■• "I'lni 
u..;. .1 '""' "*" "*"'* »"'• l"'l "rfdrew In or on 
letter, to Innirv return i( it cannot be ileltvered In 
!«»;' K!"S' •'•■"?• mol-ten the en.ei, »,i ili 
be remo.S '" '" ""'■'•""' "» no™ H apt lo 

Fannii Clui luttar.- (KtratauiIlM). 

tof^Ki; pSie^'/uSr Th',,'XS'"eo'^pK 



•umlnatinn of (^nirntii >i>rf »....> ' 

jS;i';'..o,Vth"e'iZ:n.ia,J»j,K"« 

tenUol iuVh biiet^f .? ..''"'''■'■ ''f •• the eon- 
'•"I or .lip oiK,, il nJ ,„!f CT'""' " •"<'l°" • 
•llr«tlon. lor VlirX'lKi™ . ' ."""" """"T 
•rliel. or .rllel™o„,XjlnTh. ,,.';:"""!' •< "" 
be When no. u, .b,™ ,£ prMl™'. K SSreSlSl"^ 

Etei' Kin'ar'nJv;-' H'{^r* "- 
-b« n,l,ht iSler : bi .^ta ,1*' "'■'™". Into 

5^tiri?!t:'SHu««^^^^^^^ 

FKMi rm Witt a, oniwd lumon. n*. 
•»4 rmtni Couitnai. 

■In!^ '^'! "^ 't e>chan«Ml .lib the United 

Wsah^otiar rh^^r.•,;°ts.s;i"^ 

.tin,™.'" "'"' ""' >- '""' P"P«I1 'y PO«Ht 
Kin Jjill""!"'"."" °' ' ■■*"«' •>l'l""ed to the umud 

Sh wu;\„^eh"i ,vssToV.'.nS 

oiviiaa, eta The djnienijona of a Parcel addiMwi b> 

r? 2. t 1 '" '".'"' "' "«" '" "Mth ordeJSr 
m ih^ rS^r'lL?" "i"^" • I'tter or an, SlUnt 
ir'da'n?e™u:'.'r,a"''" ""' '""-"•• ™*"«l*f 
p.Jh^"an'?5Sd""" " ■™"" "^ «"— Mr 
»i^h ?!;'"• "I""'' *?■■ "» °"'» •» 'orwaideU » put ™ 
r,L„.S: 1" ' """It? r^nlred In conneetlon .ItCihS 
tranenilMlon aa lamplee In the ordinary maila. Fn^ 
artlcleartioold be packed .lib ipeoMtaS^ ^*" 

«. Each Parcel muat be plainly directed, and auoh 
P*iwn for whom the parcel la intended — « wa 

T. For each Parcel the tender muat All up a Ouatana 

KiS 1 .1 'i'! " 'J* "ntent, and value WlB 
Tr ^' ''V'J"'*'i™thereof..ith,l„,atureai»ipla«. 
of abode of the «!nd,r. The Ouejome DedaStlS SS 

Parcel! from the United Kingdom or any other plaoa 
be.;pnd Jhe Dominion »ill be liable to OanilE"iS2 
dntiee, and under e«l.tlnit repdalloo. muU be eiaml^ 
for the purpote by an Officer of the Cuatoma fn tta 

enK l"i^Tor£"^ "•'• «" '^'*' »"«•■ - 

.i,!?K".'i.'""'I.'*j''"'''i " "" ■"oetmaaler; in nixaaa 
ehould they be dropped Into a letter boa or aSH 
receiJtacle for mail matter. 



Cemmleeioaj on JToaev Ortf^a 



m' 






» " *i. » •■ I •■ n ■■ m.M " 

iSrSli^ ' ■" '"' . '■•Wiwmllwit. UM irnlUd RMm. or 

j2^ 111. n«tiii».»«»,iio,«,. .„ i^u, S!rSi,~, 

»"■;, ™,",r"' " "" "* "r b« H"« - tt. ». 

rmiNmiM, tt tha ralM of omn.nWon diowii halo* :_ 



1:5 

*A(ltM (AraUa». "" 

!*W«. It (Oer. tVw^lofu). 
lAhkM^ MotithWut (U.r 

wn ProtMlontai). 
|Afrl« WmI (CvMraoni, 

'Andaau 
'Aittfolk. 






For MUM not nefg. fB. 



?il 



[MwMWfM, 

jjI MWlT IIritllll 



f"*-""'— Htlimiw m 



Thitrh Kmi indiM, 

JVwulni Itlwd. 
^Jl lllanda. 



.1,.. Ai «/;S I rp,r..ffi'.'-rr,^„ 



,J'.^J!"!r','r'*i'"'!p'» ■"•St 

fSS?- /H,"',' "Jf^" ■ """"n K-plr., 



•Md«^KmM<Mn);||er. 

RaUoM : EbMJM ; Sun. 
wvn i gu Gtovuiil dl 
llMhitt; SftnUquumnU 
OratMHAlbMk); TmW. 

Hmimm.) ^ 

Auctnlk (gommonWMltb). 

BMUtOlMld. 

*B«TtKhlitM). 
Btnyul (Ti1|mU)l 



mtW) BMhUMMlUHl. 

•Britfah Cantnl Atrin. 
■Britldi EmI Afritt. 
*Br1tU) UorKturH<Be1lt«} 
*Balff«rta. ' 

Ov«olOooclIIOM. 
■OuiMrooru mmI Toro, 
;OBMVrKl*I«lud? 
IgM^iB* If. (0«r. Pro.) 

CAathMn Iilftmb. 

•Chili. 

|OmW> Fro* Stet« (BMuuia, 

*CaM*Rln. 

"CjFpnw. I 

■DanUh Wm* rndlM. | 

Darrlancilci. via hruice. i 
Otnintrh, inoludinir lof. 
Und Mid Pkro» lalanda. ' 



Oaniiu South W««t AMoi. 

'Olbrftltkr. 

•OoW CoMt Colony. 

■Oracet. 

IliliKoUnd. 

HcrMgovlM. 

Horimnd (NfthartMd.), 

■llonduraa- lUpuhHr. 

HMf Koni, InofudV Amoy 
CMton,rta'ohaw, Huih' w 
Hoih'w, Ninnm, Utt. 

Swftlow, Shuif h*l. 
flunffwy. 

•IndU(Bril'h),»iid«,r«nc|« 
»tAtten,b«rd»d.Bfthr»ln, 
BMoorkh, Uunder Abbu. 
Bumwh, Btwhlre, Qtia. 
dur, Juk, UQtfk, Uo. 
Mmnwrah, Muooat and 
Pondlchcrry, 
lUIj-. 

J«Mn. Mth xrenole* at 
ChaiiKaha, Chetoo, Chlo- 
■■*»■;, lluiifchow, Kin- 
•ilaiK. KMikinj, New. 
chanif. Pekin, ShMho, 
oooihow, Tl«iiUin, Tona- 
hu, Wuhu. " 

Konw (Pimm, Chciiiulpo. 
Cninnunpo, KunHui.Ha- 

3l"th2? *^"*" **" """^ 
■LabuAD. 
f Ladrono Uland*. 
•IJl>erta.JlcpubHcof. 
Loronao MarqaM. 
"LuJtoinbtirK. 
■Hadvlra. 
^Halta. 



low lovlk WalM 
KowIwIawJ. 

•"•■wta-Noitlitni, 
>HI«orla-aoHtlMr«. 
'Noftk Bomoodwkl, U- 

KorwM. 

KevtlkMr. 

Oraag* Rlvir Coloay. 

!j£«»(BHtkkA«w«V 

^kwfwPalaoDWMda 
narfajB btoiKta. 
•Poru. 
'Portufkl. 
■POftntruMo QoiBoa. 
*PartnirtMw India, 
QowmUnd. 
OltMdMia. 




I (')••• 



aerr- 



"^•^JW*** ItonM OpAtn witb tko eo 

wbjort, thof^bn. to a Snn ■hft 

^1 J'*r!K ■•*• *^ *•" *«« - - 

KlvWnf Ordm an ; -Sd. frrwma not hmoiIIm JL 
and Bd. tor oaoh 4^ lor fnetSSrSt^lSSSSJS: 

I Th*t«cihanfowittiUoaMnMmlaoUAMtrla.wluna 

to KO erowM and IW holton fmi SOOtoW^M 
I Tbo oxehann with tho oouatrloi naitid UiwmL 

.jb«.m«,. a i o« o« por o«t. on th. .««», „ 

1 TlM •Kuhanffa with FlnlMid la thrauch $wadaa whaaa 

a daducllao oil pa, oaot. la «adaSa^.3iS*Sr 

I Thaaioliaiiia wtth aoootilaa narliad Uoa ||) k Km 

, SStK.ifaK.'SSS.J- '•"«" '~ •»• 

"SrassiMr '■ *""'"'' "«•'«-* 

tlDaduoUon will ba aiada bf N.w Soulli Walaa ol M. 

'"aa^MorliaoUoimiaraol. ■" " •» 

JHHiay Ofdara on tka abova oountriaa ata drawn In 

Canada Cnrranajr. Tablaa ahowlai Ua anna nyMa 

danomlnatloo, nill ba foond l-^ — *»•■■"»» 



•Kalajr SUlaa 

Hanrlinil 




.. .""™> "'" nowin wajw, AMoiaiiia, naw ^nHan 
"^tW,B«hadoi. D.m.^T2!^a^ lSiS?nS 

Trinidad. T^baw, Turk! Iil»Dd..Qronada,lltLaotK. 
Vincent. Orange Rlv«r Colony, and tbk AiuS.^ 
whew pay w«nt will b. made in SlwUnfMoMi^ " 



J <. d. 

10 



HBiii-niirla. 

'Manchuria. Northern. 
fUarianne lalanda (Kcapt 

OuamX 
*Manball lalanda. 




'And twoctntiioreaph penny tomako up IbiVumiwiutowt 



PUBUO STATUTORY HOLIDAYS IN CANADA. 



OKTAIiro,_»um),,., Ktw Ymt-. Omv n«ri v.m.. 



~- "<1 ui' Duailiiloii iMlhUr KM I 



Oovtmur g 

tlunhatlvliiB, 
rludid tn tKli 

Itii l.lmt.ninl.Oo.tmor u • puUlo holkUr m m. 
KOVASTfyriA _■..»•._ fi..^_-.j - . . r^ 



""J.Kl^'E?*— ^.""''•'■' '" Yurt D«. Good 
ntdfj. CkrMmu Ou, Dominion D», flMurin tuT 

•«nl<Io,«iio, „ , p„bli. hnlku,. 0, 1™ ."J^ 



■onnmuio honour .lihliiili,i.„,i„;""™~ 
MANITOBA.— ■undtii, New Ynr>. n,.. q-oh V.4.U.. 

I* Si. IW ' ■ ""I '" J W»"'»l™ koiW^r o^lotadS 

SlJir 2i »f 1,'lS'r' •'» p^to'tio" i« ; 

aASKATCHKWAN.- Suic u Aibrrw. 




SALESMANSHIP 



SALESMANSHIP 

sun ill the »rt of selling goods has been reduced to a sci- 
ence and sch<«,b for teaching this new science of "sale . 
manship /' as it is called, have been established at New 
York, Chicago, and other large cities in the United States 

by Mr^o^hf Tl^-'^^l *""™"'^ instrnctions, drawn' up 
ny Mr, John A. Howland, on experienced and successful 

:ntr„";n"' ""'"'■V,'",--f"' ""dy by those a W to 

far failed of th""™ '%',;*'' T"^ "^ """^ "'«' '""'' ""•» 

ttirtslnl'cL^r^ "'' "'""' '" """^ '"''-^ »P'» 

m^e' f fir °!'™ ,?»'?'»"' ""■«■■ appears to work hard to 
make a sale. Usually he is not a great talker. It i, the 
clerks m cheap stores who talk hard and fast; they hustle 

tobrorh .T." '"'•'''"."' "' "" ™™" ""■' custom'^.rs and 
to browbea them into buying. The first-class salesman is cc^I 

knows just how to proceed to make a sale. The great talker 
may be a good salesman, but he chooses the hardest road 
and necessanly accomplishes less, since he spends too much 
energy on each customer. 

Method N«!e«i,^._The salesman who wants to pass every, 
body on the road must have, either consciously or uncon- 
sciously, a definite method of procedure 
JbT,^. Pn>"«d.-Before trying to sell anything find out 
what he person can buy. When a man ha, told you jus 
what he wants he has committed himT,elf and he has given 
you a distinct advantage. In business it is the effort of elch 
man to make the other man "come to him," and as soon as 

material style, pnce, etc.-he hos "come to you;" all you 
have to do IS to fill the order. If you can do that ther fs a 

^1 fZT V7' T" '■"" "^ ""'^ ■»"« his desires and 
agam try to satisfy them in the required article 

IUiirtr.tlon.- Suppose, for example, you are selling subui- 
382 




SALESMANSHIP 

ban lots on s commission. You bo out on tho *,.;„ 
morning; perhap, you ,ot to talking tn The tr^'^Hh 
«.me of ,„ur firm's prospective customers. Don't U 15 
random; try to draw ont your man as to what Is wants 
how much he can pay, cash or in payments. All tl,rvou' 
learn about his business, his experience or lack of i T„ ^ea" 
estate deals, his income, his savings, etc., is lust so mm.h t, 
your advantage, because, with all tf is info^J L„ bZ him 
and h.s wants, you can pick out jnst one lot and, i-norl aU 
he rest, spend oil your time and energy talking up^^s merite 
If you proceed skillfully you will not have to ask im for a 
dcpos, ; he will probably ask you to accept o^e. If he does 
not gc as far as this you have nothing for which to bW 

rrakingTsr ""^ '■""-'■^ *"<' -'^ ^"-^'-^'^^ 

Showing Ooodi ^ E«idom.-ror you as a dry goods clerk 
U> bnng out goods at random, without fl,.t ascfrtinlnV " t 

Tack of nter" ™ T "T '""'' °' """'°<' ""d ">efc ore 
tM "'"■*• ^™ ebamea to one you will not strike 

what the person wants. You have, therefo^re, pTa ed yo ™e^f 
at a disadv-antage at the outset, lowered your ow diS 
and lessened the value of your judgment in the eyes of you 

tapatlnc:.'" ""'°' ■"" '""' ■'^ '' "^ '"'- "-" O-P'-y. 

How Some Sale, are Lo8t.-I£ y„u firet find out what a 
,«rson wants and can pay for, you escape the serious danger 
of showing the prospective purchaser something he or she 
will want but cannot pay for. Many a possible sale i, lost 

no intention of spending more than .$12, she may be so 
pleased with the more expensive article that nothing cheaper 
will suit her. But she is nnable to buy the .$30 ha" the™ 
fore she hesi ates long and finally leaves the *„p v thout 
bu.v-ing anything. If you had first found out that sh e"- 
Tu't of 117 °". '' *l^' '■"" "■>''" ■■"•» ^"^^ ">e $3U beautiis 

°1« sale *Th" • ""u'l" ?f' ''''"^"^ >>" """l -'""Pl^""' 
n,e sale. This is a kind of failure that all successful sales- 
men must carefully guard against. Even if you should at 

383 



ril 






■1^ 



SALESMANSHIP 

Inst bring the woman who admired the $30 bat to the point 
of buying the 112 article she could pay for, you would have 
w~sted time and energy that you might easily have saved. 

Importance ot Ooncentrati(in.-Another advantage in first 
flnding out what your customer wants is that you can talk 
so much more forcibly than you can if you scatter your 
eSfoits. Suppose you are selling men's shirts and you say 

Here's something nice at $2.50." The man seems to like 
that; he picks it np and looks closely at it whUe you dilate 
on Its good qualities. A minute later he says: "Well I don't 
want to pay more than $2.00." All you can do now is to go 
back to the $2 line and say: "Well, these are nice, too," etc. 
Weak, isn't it? After committing yourself in favor of the 
more expensive grade of shirts, you have discounted before- 
hand all you can possibly say in favor of the $2 article. If 
you want to talk effectively and convincingly, you must con- 
centrate your attention on the one article the man can pay 
for. *^ *^ 

If this rule of first flnding out a customer's wants were 
atnetly adhered to, think how much time would be saved 
from those terrors of the dry goods clerks, the women who 
are merely amusing themselves by fingering piece after piece 
of goods. Many times if sneh women were directly and cour- 
teously questioned they might admit at the start that they 
only wanted samples. By further inquiry as to color, weave, 
price, etc., think how quickly one could get rid of them, 
without giving offense, either. 

Mnch Talk Not E«iiiiied.-Beside8 the direct saving in time 
and energy you can effect by first getting a customer to state 
his wants, you save yourself a large percentage of effort and 
nervous strain by the procedure. After you have produced 
the article the man has asked for, there isn't much more for 
you to do; a few judiciously chosen words of admiration 
and encouragement at most. The man who has thought out 
his method beforehand does not need to make any great 
cfort or talk much in order to make a sale. 

SeU, or Know Why Ton raa.-It is, of course, absolutely 
impossible to make a sale for every inquiry, but what an 
immense satisfaction it is to know accurately— aa you can 



8HIPPINQ 

know if j.„„ („„„„ ,his method-just when the failure ,„ 
make a sale was not your own fault and just when i^re" 
suited from jour own carelessness! 

Vour confidence and consequently your effectiveness con- 
stantly increase as you reduce your work to a systematic 
procedure. You always "know where you are at," yorcaa 
note your own progress, and there is with such a metliod far 
less cause for possible discouragement. There is nothing so 
helpful as knowmg the cause of each failure you make: for 
If j™ know your weak point you can guard Hgainst it next 

o„??vh?!* ^•y-T'''' '"»"i™« ™thod of always finding 
out «hat a prospective customer wants before taking v„„r 

saTesml^. " " "" "'"^ """" "■ """"«' » ^''"y ««h ''"^ 

SHIPPING 

Shipping is the transporting of goods by water. Shin- 
owners are common carriers, those who send goods are shi^ 
peis. Owners sometimes charter their vessels to others, wl^o 
then as charterers take the owner's place 

hey have to be cleared at a custom-house. This is done bv 
heshipper fl hug out and swearing to what is called a ship 

p.rs manifest, containing a description of the goods shipped. 

ln!s. "^ " " ^™° "" *'PP" "* '" '"'""d '''■iP 

owl^'^f '* ^^ '' " document delivered by a master or 
owner of a vessel, or the officer of a transportation com- 
pany and signed by such parties as an acknowledgment 
Ti uJ'^" """^ ^''^ received for transportation. 
The bill constitutes the contract between the shipper and 
the earner. Three copies of the bill are made out; one is 
Z?*< •^' 'h^ shipper, another by the party transporting the 
goods and the third is sent to the person to whom the goods 
are directed. 

When one of the bills has been used the others become 
.Old. The master usually makes certain exceptions in writ- 
ing; as, contents unknown" of loose goods; "not ac- 

3,15 




SHIPPING 

countable for leakage or breakage" o£ liquidn in bottleg; 
not accountable for leakage" of liquids in casks; and 
pieces in dispute," if the shipper's list of articles differs 
tiom the shijj's account. The master also makes notes of 
any goods which seem to be in bad condition, lest he should 
be compelled to make good or pay for any defect, as the 
bill ot ading begins by stating them to be "shipped in 
good order and well conditioned." 

TraMfer of BiU of L»din».-The bill of lading stands for 
the property itself, and carries ownership with it The 
consignee upon receiving it becomes the owner of it and 
can assign the bill ttf lading and, of course, the right of the 
goods with it to another party. 

aUp's M«nlfert.-With the aid of the manifests fur- 
nished by the shippers the ship's master makes out the 
ship s manifest, containing the name and tonnage of the 
vessel, the place to which it belongs, and the name of the 
master, besides a regular list of the ship's cargo, giving the 
mark and number of each S6para*e package, the names of 
the persons by whom the different parcels of goods are 
shipped, and those of the persons to whom they are con- 
signed, and a specification of the quality of the goods con- 
tamed m each package. This manifest must be signed by 
master of the ship, and he cannot clear for a foreign pori 
without it. Within a certain number of hours after arrival 
at any port and before "bulk is broken," this manifest 
must be delivered by the ship's master to the customs offi- 
cer of the port. 

Lorn or Injury.— As common carriers, owners of vessels 
or charterers are responsible for any loss or damages of 
(he goods, whether caused by negligence of agents, master 
or crew on the voyage. 

But, as on land, there are exceptions, namely: Carriers 
by sen are not responsible for damages which occur through 
some extraordinarj' peril of the sea, such as storms or 
piracy or fire at sea and in certain other ways 

Oesaial A»er«ge.-A loss occurring to the cargo when in 



order to save the ship in a stonn a part of it must be 
thrown overboard is called General Average 

The law is that if any part of the vessel or cargo is vol- 
untarily sacnflced to save the rest, all the ownerfof Jth 
interest" -"^ "'"" **" "" '"' '" P'-Porti™ to their 

Three conditions, however, are necessary to make it a 
general average: 1. The sacrifice must be necessary. 2 
It must be made voluntarily. 3. It must succeed, i. e., the 
rest of the vessel must be saved. 

Sajyage relates to property abandoned at sea. Any one 
saving property which he finds abandoned at sea is enti- 
tled to large compensation for his services. This compen- 
sation 18 called salvage and is intended to encourage such 
services, which are usually attended with danger. 

The amount of salvage varies according to the difficulty 
and danger and may be one-half of the value of the ves- 
sel and cargo saved. All who take part in the rescue, mas- 
ter, crew and ownei, share in the salvage, n aid U ren- 
dered to a vessel in distress salvage is allowed. 

rorm of BUI of Luuig 

iii.inn~i 1. .. .. ''™ ^"'' December 10, 1904. 

Shlppal in «»<»1 ortep, .„d well oonaitloned, 6, J„,„„ c. Uwto- 

OB board the Bhlp aoml^pced . . 

Marked .. toUowai whereof CTo.. Bolli,^,' 

mr;:;er- if„r""' -' 'TJ-r '°'* '-''''^ 

'^'^ and bound for the port of 

h.ln. ^..y.^ „ ^ "" ■'"""■'■o 600 barrel, of tlour, 

In the like order and condition at the port of Bio ja„ciro 
<tbe flansor. of sea only ejcepted) unto Sjlteslcr elude 

cL^'„rZZ'^ '". " ""' '"•"°* '""*" '" "" »'" ""•=. «ti.' to 
centa primage and average accustomed - 

In wltnea. .hereof I have afflnned to three bill, of lading all of 
«1 ,0°;. '■ °°' °' """" '"°' ""■"P"'"- ".. o<>.0" d 

Contenta and weight unknown. ■"""' "• '"*°'°"- 

lln «e above farm, HaMor, i, the Mppcr or consignor, nsfde the 

fZt™; 'ZT'rt ""' ""■'"• " •»""« "' """'^ 61/ rt/mL er 
(Bollmani inatead of ty Sandford.} 

387 




C2|.j^y^...Oomml«oB "^ 




nmnPtom. 



{■"T'"' Invoice. 

>if InTolce Book. 

•"* (Initant) The I 



, ent month. 
.IneolveDcr, 



Joto Bene) Tek« 

IWnit dalno- 

S-i!;; Oulwud lanlra 

ftjS":: &5!:_. IBoot 

»»::..., 

/Vrcrar 

r^cl. ....... .(^ 

p . w hundred. 

S-..f.:::;:.:Sg"^'«' 

^w* Pnmium. 

"<»■ (PK^mo) Tlie next 

Pt.... 
P.C.B. 
JImX .. 
«.«... 

^■^.•.■.issaL 

»«■'" :;?S3!^%io iMt 

•'•• {Vw3ice«) To wit; 

nemely. 

Ki;.v.v;.:.-Ss:'>*»^ 

• ..Doner. 

{ Cdnte. 

J ■ ; ■ &SS?" S""""* 

" "'At.orto. 

-Percent. 
■Aooount. 



. .^« and 1 (ourth. 
. .One and 3 fourtlu. 
■OiMwd a fourtlu. 



1 



PART xn 

Swindling Schemes Exposed, 
Trusts, Monopolies, etc. 



I) tfri 



f\ 








ALLAN PINKERTON 

•n. c J tlniirNt SaKUfiims Tactful 



■WINDUNO SCHEUU 




■■WABl or SWtMDUUU 

SWINDLING SCHEMES 

BarnuTi, the great American showniBii. speaklns from 
ebundanoe of experience, declared that "the American people 
lilie to be hnmbagged." He might have gone (artlier without 
departing from the truth and added, "and they are the easiest 
people on the face of the earth to be awindled." 

Tlie millionB of dolUira that recently have been paid to persons 
conducting Tarious fraudulent "get-rioh-quiok" schemes in all 
parts of the country, prove this to be true beyond question. 
Rich and poor, wise and otherwise, have all alike been duped by 
these pretended money-making schemes. 

It is important, then, that every one should be on his guard 
against fraud, and the following brief words of caution should 
be ever kept in mind: 



391 



_* 



nriNDUNo scHxim 

th. mu who pnmt. to you . Meulnglr pkilbl. ^mf J«i 

tl«t p»,po« in vtaw do- « ,n hU own Into^t „d „™:jl^ 

H»w,n»l^ 'He*!. I win, toll, you low." ""yoiOT. 

». Put not your oonflJenm in .Imnser^ npMlmllr If Ton n 

money in ,„ underhand or di.honor.ble 4ni..r. Moit^^ 
th«t go wool-g«thering rome back fleeoed "^^ 

^lurt ;"ur7tW„t' ' '**"'^'' °""' •"""■ " '• '"■• *-"»« 
8. Never .ign your ume to any writing until rou are mrhl. 

.ll , ^""'",°*"""*""«"-- Bj'™«'<xtlngloob«^« 

».,f .?"""!.""''' °' "" "'»'"'■'« "<">•"« here deKribMl win 
put the re«l,r on hi. guard .gain,t being def niudriS .itart" 
•«ned money by unprincipled .harpen. 

TBI "OSSDr OOODS" IWIHSLI 

thll^n'' ' '"'""" "^ ""'''' "■" "rtidlem «,t upon the theorr 

t^T^ "i""" ""°'"'" »" '-> "«" York City, and f«m 
there they wnd out a typewritten letter to. bu.in«. mw^ 

counterfeit money 1. meant. No name i. dgned to the let™ 

...i?*:? ^ "°"° responw to the letter a woond btter i. 
n»fled to the Intend victim, and e„clo.«l with it 1. wtat ^j! 
pert, to be r dipping from a newspaper, giving an account of 
^e govern „t pl.t«i having been^olS trLli^^^^^ 
Department at Waehington, and money printed from thwuS 
Pjwed In circulation, and of „ perfect a char«,ter that tt. 

oetween It and the genuine money. In this letter the pnw- 



■WINDUNO KIIEMU 

™™i ni« pwkage be flnd^ to hfa amMement and ■orraw 

plain tTujtSttSSL f^hi ^ M " 'r.'" "'° P""""" •» «'"'• 
THUIOABDMOlm 

393 




■WINDUNO BCIIUUi 

UMaMthkUnw bnttlw two^po*. H* thonght Iw kiwir tor * 
ewUlntjr Jiut wh«« tlw m wm »U tlw Unw brauu* h* had 
notiaad that oam oonur of tliat oard wa< lUghtly tarnad up, 
whioh (act ha thought Um •harpar had telM to ofaMrra, hot 
whioh Id truth waa tha rarj halt aat bjr tha iharpar to oatoh tha 
(adgaoD. At tha propar momaat ha daftly tnmad op tha oomar 
of anothar card and imoathad down that of tha a«a No ona 
•houM arartrytobaatthla gama, u tha iharpar alwaja "wtaa 
ODk" 



Thii gama abo oiualljr li workad at oonnty tain, and, Ilka 
thna card monta, Ita niooen depend* upon alaigfat of hand 
deoeptlon. Thna half ihalli of EngUih walnuta and a Uttia ball 
of hard rubhar or celluloid an uaed In working tha gama. Tha 
•harpar rolla tha ball around on a box or hairal head, and ooran 
It Snt with ona ehell and than with aaotbar. "Plok out tha 
•hall tha ball la under and jou gat Are dollan," ha laja Aooo- 
fadanta i t and ln g near replies: "I think I can beat that gama 
eaay enongh," and at once picka out the ahell tha ball la under. 
To tha apparent chagrin of the tharper, he waUa off with tha 
mooaj In erident good humor with himself. One of the "luno- 
oanta" la the crowd, who has watched the performance rary 
oloaaly and thinks he knowe exactly how it was done, offers to 
wagar no ha can pick the shell tha little ball is under. Hapnta 
up his monej, picks out the middle ahall and— hisea. Had ha 
picked out either of the other sheila tha result would hare bean 
the same, for the ball at the time he picked was not under any of 
tham, having been leUined by the sharper in the grip of his 
Uttla finger. And yet when he picked up one of the other ahalls 
he showed the crowd that the ball was under that. This la ooa 
of the most deceptive and successful games praotioad by aharp- 
ais. Steer dear of it 

mVKLOPB TBIOK 

This trick Is worked through the help of a oonfederata. One 
of the sharpers has a box of envelopes containing tlcketa with 
numbeia on, Indicating certain prisea dlqilayed by the sharper. 
On paying a certain sum of money a person is allowed to pick 
out any of the envelopes and get the prize it calls for. 

The confederate pays the price asked for a chance, and of 
oouiae c h ooses an envelooe which he knows contains a card 



■WINOUNO KHEMES 

oiIllBctorsmhMtbhprIn, iwiiw>tol>ar»flT»<lolbu'blll HIa 
waoM InduOH oUmh to trjr thair look, ami a rich harrant la 
^f*" '••pad by tha •harpani in a law mlnutan. And tlian thay 
man to aoma otiiar apot to flaaoa a (raata oroml of ionooanta. 



TWa oonSdanaa laina haa baan ezpoaad a gnat manj limia In 
tha nawipapata, but It atlll flnda Tlotlma In all tha larga dtiea of 
tba oountij. It nausUy raqulrea aa many ai four ihatpera to 
emnj It thnagli. Tha tint mora la for one of tha aharpen to 
"maat bjr ohaooa" aoma ptoaparoua-looklng stranger in the city 
and aoooat him funiliarlj lomathing after this manner: "Why, 
how do you do, Ur. WItaonT How'a the dry goods buslneaa up 
In Bookfordr' ' 

"Exouaa ma," tha stiugar replies "but yon are mlataken In 
theparaoB. My nuia b Myara. not Wilson. I am from Spring- 
llaU, not Rookford, and my line Is hardware, not dry goods." 

Tha aharper profuaely b^ hia pardon, and at onoo oommunl- 
oataa what ha haa learned to one of Us oonfederatea, who pro- 
oaada to look up particulars regarding Sprlngaeld's promlrent 
dtiaena In tha Anerkan Bank Note Reporter, while the flnt 
•harper keapa tab on Hr. Hyera. 

Pnaantly the oonfedarate "accidentally" meets the Tlotim 
and exclaima: "Why. Mr. Myara, how do you dot How's every- 
body down at the Capital!" 

"I bag your pardon, sir, hut yon Yam the advantage of me," 
npllaa Mr. Myers. 

"Why, hare you forgotten meeting me in oompany with my 
mlol^ Mr. S. H. Jonaa. of the State National Bank, at Sprinc- 
Baldt" ' ^ 

Of oourae Mr. Myera doean't remember, but he healtatea to 
admit the fact, and Anally la convinced that they have met before. 
Having onoe obtained the oonBdenoe ol the Springfield merchant 
It beoomea an ea^ matter to steer him bito the den where certain 
other conf ednratea of the aharper are in wsithig to fleece the 
wealthy victim. 

Thla la aooompllahad in many different ways, aometimee by 
means of some swindling game reaembling faro, or by Inducing 
him to cash a bogus check, or engage In a fraudulent game of 
cards, and oooaslonally by the adminiatration of knockout dropa 
and robbery. 



395 



J 



SWINOLINa SCUEHES 

That TL»M 

A ^ "^'"* *■ '''"^•* ™ °«"o'«'"» fa the followtog naumw 
Amw MrtMsa .tore and oelb for »me trifling a^de wra 
M*e or dMTlng Map, and after fumbling In hia nooketa for 
^«|ng..j.d finding none land, out a tenJoiiar ur^tl^ 
mwAant olMnge. and gives him back »».(KI. The sharper pro- 
«jd. to count his ohange, but suddenly hesitates k^sT^ 

■WW, ana here's the exact amount " 
Will, the merohant turns to the cash register to get the biU 

mmnnt hi. oonfedereto walk, into the store, and a. the mT 

Zlll^y' ■** '"f ""' ""■ "™''- " «■« "toe. he SSL 
Ua^tioo to «,me article in the show c«« and engage, him 

^eprohability i. that the merchant wiU never think of the 
*»»«MUon again or dlKjover that he has been nrindled. 




Thb 1, one of the numeroua patent right fniud. by whioh w 

W T""„5:il^'' '""^ ">»''• " '■ ""'k-d "M- 
^., 7;''*^' """""■•Pok.n rtmnger oalU upon , 
fanner and .how. him an MtWlo illn.tn.tion of a patent farm 

thoTt:!'" 'If ■"""' " """ ^" '"^'"■<' l-'-ti™ that ^7. 
the ohoapeet and mort endurable fence evei^ dovi»J The 
farmer fa won convinced that the fonoe fa bonnd to have a larra 

•mp fa to dgn hb name to a note for »150. The farmer has 
dream, of phoing one of hfa patent fence, aronnd e«" torm " 
the townahip. „d r«Ul.ing therefrom enormon. proV Bnt 

ISr.r. l""* ^ r* "■"»'' ""-W to permit of it. beng 
■old at a prioe any farmer would be willing to pay for it In 

Into the hand, of an innocent holder. The fence man hwfled 
the couatry, and the farmer fa bonnd to pay the$150and in".^ 

nam sniraBm KAaHm nuno 

1 7!^ °™ "' ^ -krewdert fmud, by which farmer, an 
ImpoMd upon. It fa executed a. follows: The .harwJ^,^ 
jenta to the fanner that he fa the agent of a c^CnyTanX 
turlng and wiling machine, for rtretohing hardwire l„ti^ 

;1I^,T^ *"'"''"''- <" the privilege of exhibiting Z 
value of hfa nachme, and he offer, to Imlld the farmer thirty rod" 
rftejoe without octog the fannera cent, juet to.how hTw^o 
™ohine opemtea The tknner fa .Aed to iign what appear, t^ 
iSdrT^STj '"/"'^ """"-''«' '"^^terialThfa 

^ .„ »^ ^.' "" ".* P'^"" *° "■" ""»" -"ha' proves Z 
Z^T^f! '! of no earthly uae to the farmer, but he And, ho h^ 
^l^f .^'° "**;-« "■ »""» '^ » P«P«' »ol<nowledgi„g t^ 
«»ny day. after date He fa legaUy obligated and must pay. 
397 



^INOUNQ BCHEMIS 




THE Lioanmia-BOD iwnisLi 

The Ughtuing-ntd sharper calls upon a termer and takes his 
udartorthe placing of rods on Us bam in the fallowing form: 

Mollne, lU., Aivuit «, 1904. 
William Fcll: PlesM erect at your esrUnst convenience your llxhtnjiix> 
roda on my bim, lor whlcii 1 agree to pay you 7 cents per foot, <3 for each 
poUit, $4 for each vane, ts for each amw, tl for each bill or brace, caih 
when Uniafaed, or a Dote due six months from date thereof and bearlns Interest 
at seven per cent. 

HoaaiB HoHia. 

Attar the onittaot is signed the sharper inserts a before the 
T, making tlie amount per toot 07 instead of 7 cents. And tliere 
being nothing said in tlie contract as to the number of points, 
Tanes, eta, to be used, tlie lightning-rod man throws them in 
"good and plenty," so that instead of the business coating him 
about 198 as he expected, he finds that the bill runs up to I18S, 
and he is required b7 law to pay, aU because he was guilty of 
negligence in signing a oontraot in which the amount per foot 
to be paid for the rods was stated by a figure only, instead of 
being written out, and the number of vanea, arrows, bmoesb 
etc., was not spedfled. but left to the disoretion of the party 
erecting the rods. Of course, if the farmer could prove that the 
figure S had been inserted after the contract was signed, and 
without his consent, it would make the contnot void, but it h 
Tery seldom passible that this can be done. 



398 



NEOLIOKIrC]! 

NEGLIGENCE 

»methlng e^,e Ev^,,™""' "** * '*" »' ""•»• " »""- 
c.u.e daLjto oZ. rr'.""' °™"' ""«""''■ " -^ 

^rr.r£~ r •' ""^-^^^ — - 

careful cTTmJi ^J.T' """'*' " *" "" ^"'^ «• •« 

(») that It wa, U. du^'^tl T "" f""'"" ''" -««"«»«. 
or injury reaulT^ ,'L^. ;.°°**°°'' '''*'''''* ''"»»<' 
there mMtS."!,'™"'' *'«»^a"f. negligence. B«, 
the defendant sJ'l\ Z^^ """^ "' "" «•'"*"«. Where 
«. careleae" drf^n inr " '"'*' '" ''"*■ '"* "" 

tbe defenda^? lid n„rr,r°' "f"* '^'' ■""« "»* »"■»»«• 
larger amount to I't^Z ^ """ "'"""" '"""« '»■• «>« 

t^naferred ° ltoaUeredl'n,'T *" """"^ "■" »•" "" 
no legal duty to the Zd ^T' ="*"'' ""* defendant owed 

builder ,Ld he W h V *" ' ""'"" "" »"•■ ""o* the 

the arch'tt'tou r'h "LriUh,"?'' " ™ "«"' '-' 
WTBon Who advanced Ln.. * '"^ ""K'teence to a 

relying on thfceXtT:/^ J„XTtI° '"' ''"'"^^• 
tect owed no duty to the Lril ^' '^"'" '"» "«"- 
Boate had been fm„d„,™r^'**'°- "* """"' « "■« <=«rt|. 
been liable nluw of SeSr"' "' '"'^'^ ">"'"' ""^ 
enquiry aret aa to " c rc^™ r"" """™' '*»«" """ «" 
to take ea«»^ im^Tn ."""'* ""■""■ "W'" « 'Mj 

" "-'^unrcr.r.rn-c^:''- rtr--" •'*•" 

negligence the court B.st d..!,^ '» trying an action of 

400 



NEOLIOENCE 

*.!!' ""J?*'«°'«" ^ «>"'>«rt«ke to do what he know, nothing 
about Where a defendant undertakes to do something pro! 
tening to have the necessary skill, and Injury or d,^„ 

Tk"; ^"^ "■ "'"" °' ■""■ "» '""' '^'""J' «■"!" WmBelf 
liable. There Is a clear dlsUncUon between " negligence ■ 
and "fraud." Negligence means that a person Is acUag care- 
lessly and without any design or Intention ot doing an Injury 
Fraud Imports a design or purpose to do an Injurious act 
Negligence Is the opposite ot "diligence." There b«lng no 
unlawful IntenUon, only an absence ot due care and skill 
vlndlcUTe" damages cannot be awarded. The damages 
glien IB such aetloH an what may eonstltnte compensation 
lor the lajanr Inflicted. Another principle Is. that the Injury 
must be the "direct" result ot the defendant's want ot care 
"Remote damages" are not allowed. For example If the 
defendant negllgenOy Injured the horse of another, thereby 
prevenUng him from taking a contract on which he could 
have made a prollt of 1100. the court will not allow bis loss 
of proflt to be added to his claim. He can only claim lor the 
"direct damage" done to his horse. The owner ot a house 
has a right to pull It down, but he must not do It so negli- 
gently as to Injure his neighbor's property. In actions 
founded on negligence the defendant treauently sets up what 
la called • eontribntory " negligence. It a defendant can 
show that the accident would not have happened but tor the 
negligence ot the plaintiff, that may amount to a good defence. 
In all cases of contributory negligence the guesUon to be 
determined Is, "Could the persoB who did the last act which 
caused the Injury have prvveBted (he aceldent by using rea- 
soBBhle careP The plalntlft may recover If he can show 
that the defendant could by ordinary care have avoided the 
effect of the plaintiff's negligent act If the defendant could, 
by the exercise of ordinary care and diligence, have avoided 
the mischief which happened, the plaintiff's negligence will 
not excuse him. In the earn of children a different cob- 
slderatloB arises. A child le not expected to have the same 
knowledge and to Uke the same care of Itself as a grown-up 
person. Where a horse and cart were left unattended on 
the street and some children began playing with U, and one 
of them was run over and Injured, the owner ot the horse 
was held liable. Foot msmngers have a right to watt in 
401 



If' uoincE 

care that the article irn„t 1-^!^ "'°"'"" """"» •»*• 
"* other comn,on c„!^,r.rf S- Z^'"*^ ""'»»'" 
^•XHI. Which they <^n^J^^t," ":? «»«'»• « 
of the good., except to L »Zt^ l! 1 *" *" *"" ™'« 
"• Hmlted b.co„^^VC^rble?o:'^1f™''-"^ 
«n*er. urtalng from negUgeaw ^ ft^™ .1 "*"' *° '«»- 
of their offlcr,, «,r™,ta o7^„'^ '"'» "» '""Mxnt «to 



402 



irhan 
wko 
ie lo 
w«y 
md 
Uon 
or 
ner 
»wi 
Ith- 
Ich 
Sty 
ler, 
I « 
in- 
ell 



PART xm 

Short Cuts in Figures, Tables, 
Rules, Weights and Measures 



VM 



immts i 




OmniOTCIAL ABITBllBnO 



COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 

Tlwi obiKt of to. following pxiM <• to »t forth method, of 

^^T^Z ."^ "^''^ '"■' -" "»" »*»•■"» ">, ortS. 
n.17 method, ot making tlia »ma douLtioniu It i, impoi.ible 
to booome proBoiant In nrithmatinl computation. ualftTth. 
fand«n«.UI prinoipl«of -Ithmtlo haroUff™/^^' 

tm ^ rr VT!*^.!"' ^""""^ •* "» »»" »rvi«JS. 
wiU the following nwthod. ptoro to Iw. 

ADDRIOV 

ProBoienoy In addition can ba acquired only by pmotioe 
There are no oontraotion. by mean. 01 which addition may be 
perform*! with ^pfcjity «,d eeM. Pr^rtioe. «,d pnwti.nnly' 
will wcor. thi. fl„« n>qal.it.of the «»oontant Howe™" a 

!^ i';!?^,!"?*^"" "" l^' •-•■•8CW to tha» who hare 
acquired but little proflcien<7 in additiin. 

The Bendt Method at Addition 
~>S"'^Ti?'*'°"'S« '^"' ""o '»"" flpmi In unit. 
Mon, (uu. 4, B, 14, IB, 85, 89, 84; then carrrlnir the a tn 
the n«tooluinn add 8, 8, 17, M, 88, 88, 4t S * 

ll_ iniS'.'Im?''.''" «>'•»?"» downward. Thi. method 
lie. In the aUUtr to ne and combine the nsolt of two « 
more Sguiea witWt Mopping to add each Mutely 



85 
84 
SO 
78 
8« 
04 
54 
48i 



478 '1 

181 

5»7 

464 

844 



488 
618 
844 



15 



The 01019 Method «t Addition 

1B^P^"°'^"",^'.°°,'"?** ""right add upward, 
ind 4 fit' i8^"fe.'' *■ C."'* ' '»•■ '«•• grouping 6 
? . 1 o . "i? add 18, making 35; and grouping 4 7 

fl.Si.h.S;;'*^'" '^ ".J"' ™«Wng«, the ™ult Jf 
uJ^^Tn.; - 'l?!P''"« '■>« * ten. to the second col- 
•"nn, adding a. before, etc. 

«i lUuSSSTrt^™"" "''™" -'o'""™"'. grouping 

«>«<!.- Practice in grouping will lead to great 

^floienoy,and after one fiasTwoome .killed in™e 

JL™7 fi '*'*^ "i"" nnmbera which can be moet 
oouTenlently grouped. 

406 



ooMinaciAL AUTBiiano 

-a?""?^ "'^ '^*'" '" '»''»<»«<»<•«. "In towlo««iHl 
oth« budM. fonn.. av b. Mti without teloc nwritt« la 

tojt lU unlu .h.U b. of Uk. oni«, ud gmt oortlntyTw!! 
JJ^ghTto^ " *^'""* "^ '""'^ «° '*" •««' «« 

no, «»7, «7, Mi.aM-a,n(. aw 

Tho group BMthod nuj bo omplojod with aquU odnntuo 
whora numbon u« wiltton horlioDtallj. 

Horiwntal wUltkHi 1. not ofton pnotlood with nombw. oon- 
Uining mora tbu four or flra SgniM. In wldlnK doUua ud 
oonta it Is bMt to omit tho dollar ilgn. 

4> 



iMj Kothodi for AUmg Loitthj Hnti* ud 
Denhto Oohaau 

£q>(aiiaMm.— Bagin «t 8 ud add u nmr ao M poalble 
Jk". V-/ ~ "' "^^ "" '™' ""• P""* ' «o tho light of 
tho iMt Bgnro Bldod, «. In oxwnploi bogin at 7 ud ndd 
7, M ud S- 17. njoot tho toni, phua 7 to tho right of 
».bogin««udrfd«,7,Sud<=l». Nowmddtagtho 
flgura In the now oolunuu, 7, 7 ud «_M-4-8 ten. 
njootad — 08. An*. 

driSf^'flSS^ir^^.*'"' «>'»»»• rauhinto tho hun- 
2E?thf S?'«''™"'~*J"i~<''«^ not. tho amount oppS- 

tSSSlnS. ^^'' *° "*"* •«»'"• *™»"' *"'"« 

h.Slf-i!^-^'^ 2f J*"?/ •• "»* ™»»"y omplojod by 
buainoH men. Tie, baginninK at tho top ud ad<£nK dtn^ 

amimed to be oorteot, for tho mme error, if then wm 
one. would not be likeljr to ooonr In tliei»»«o Sdi. 



OS 

7 
«w 

8 
» 
8 
7 
» 
« 



7 



4W 



OOMUEIICIAL ARmilUTIC 

n* OMl InTte* Mttlud ol AddiUan 

i-i.mt m 

8.947 34 
t.lM8.ll 



11 



7,«»4.8 
8.S74 21 
S.41U. 18 
4,087.81 



8R 

t4S,(IO«01 



Begin al i.ha right and itdd «*eh oolumn wpantelj : thnatiM 
•nm of the fint column equals SI, the Moond 88. the third 3«, 
and K on. and then add the iwulu u shown above. 

This method is useil by oivil service employes, bank clerks, 
and others who tiandle Utrge sunu of money. The advantage 
lies in the fact that one's attention may be called to other 
things and yet he ii never at a lose to resume work where ha 
left off. 

HULTIFLIOATiail 

The following are oontractione In multipUoatlon of slmpto 
numbers. 

1. To multiply by 10, 100, eto., annex as many ciphers to tha 
multiplicand as there ate in the multiplier. 

a. To multiply by 8, SO, 800, etc., annex as many ciphers to 
the multiplicand aa there ate figiues in the multiplier and 
divide the result by 8. 

S. To multiply by 28, 880. etc., multiply by 100. 1,000. etc 
and divide the result by 4. 

4. To multiply by any number ending in 9, multiply by the 
next higher number and then subtract the multiplicand. 

Erampte— Multiply 83 by 80 : 83 x 40 = 8,820 — 88 = 8,887. 

5. To multiply any number of two figures by u, write the 
sum of the two figures between them 

Example. —Multiply 4.-i by 1 1 : 4 + 15 = 9, hence 49.'!. A 3. 

6. When the sum of two figures Is 10 or over, add the 1 to the 
left-hand figure. 

Example. Multiply 74 by 11 : 7+ 4= II, hence 8H. 

7. To square any number of O's. Beginning at the left write 
as many times less 1 as there are O's in the given number, an 
8, us many ciphers as O's and 1. 

fitoinpie.— SquaiB of 09 = 9,801. of 009 = 908.001. 



27 



407 



oomtwoiAi. ARiTuiuno 

. M t tt odi at UM^ItuMm 
to andtlply bf li. dIHd* bj 8. oUl II tana 
T» moltliilj bj 1|. diTida bj «, <»ll It uu 
To mulUpl)' bj St. dlTld. by 4. oUI It tuu. 
To moltlpljr by «{. dlrlde by 8, o«ll It Uuu. 

To malUplj by «}. dlTld* by It, call it bundndk 

To maltiply by SJ. dlrtd* by !«. o*ll It hiudnda 

To multiply bf 1«J, diTldo by 8. cnU It hundnda 

To mnltlply by IS], dirlde by «, o*ll It hundrada 

To multiply by M, diWdo by 4, oall It hundradi. 

Tb maltiply by 81). divlda by 82. call It tho<mo<hk 

To multiply by 881 dlWd. by 8. oall It hundnda 

To multiply by 80. divide by 2, oidi It hundnda 

T» multiply by ««}, dWIdo by 15, call It thouaanda 

To multiply by 8l!i divide by It, oaU it thouMuda 

Tb muHiply by 185. dWId* by 8k oall It thouMnda 

To multiply by Itaj, dlrld* by 8, call It thouaanda 

To mnltlply by MO, divlda by 4, oall It thouaanda 

To multiply by 888), divide by 8, caU It thoiuanda 

To mnltlply by 87), take | of the number, oall It hundreda 

To multiply hy 97), take } of the number, oaU It hundreda 

To Multiply Ihmben Indtnc with 8 
To multiply two amall numbera aaoh of whioh enda In «, auoh 
■a 8S and 78. take the pnduot of the 8 and 7, Inoraaaa thla by 
one-half the aom of theae flguraa and pnez the mult to 85. 
Inna, 

85 8X5 = 85 

78 7X8 = 2l,21+X7 + 8) — 9« 
8,885 

To Mnltlply Any MumlMr by n, SI, 41, ete. 

In multiplying any number by 21, or 81, or 401, or any num 

ber of two flguna when the last la 1, or of three flguraa, when 

the laat two flguraa an 01, a good deal of time oan bo aaved by 

'mTm f* "" """"•'y P"**" " hen Uluatnted. For 

881488 inatanoe, suppose we have to multiply 281428 by 21. 

Inatead of putting down 281428 with 21 under it, 

then drawing a line, multiplying by 1, then by2or20. 

then adding, aa la the ordinary ouatom; all that i> 

■ la aimply to multiply by the 8, placing the prodnot 



4«884«0 



408 



comanaAL AamiMrnc 

OM Arum to th. Wt. Md thm to wld. Try thh nMthod. 
«lng»l, M. •!, »1, Ml. aooi. ud Ml » mulllpltar,. Tl>.r, to 
• MTlng in th* aboT* uair I. of dght Agum. 



U ia Milar for mo 1 
IiutMd of multlpljrl' >■ 
number from thia ; r • ^i 



to IlBlu;,,y h, u, n, <!09, ,1,. 
■ Ul btl' Irr • i' I 



'»a y (1= HTMM".,!'') 



u to multiply, 
nd lubtnuit th* 



'I'li.'ra aiulsubtmct; to multiply 

lihl,-iu,'t tc. 



Ir.ntU.' 

To multiply bv Oii. ,,.id iv 
by M«, add thraa cl,<li"ra r < 

n* ooip^ 

N. B.— Tha "complaroani, . ^ number ia a numbar which 
when added to It makea It 100. Thua tha complement of M ia 
0. of W la 8. 

To and the product of two numben, aa M and »8, for Initanoe, 
multiply their oomplementa together, and for the other two Hg- 
urea aubtraot acroaa, either the S from the M or the « from 
the 06. 

M — 8 
»4-« 
»813 

Vnat ol MnHlpHeatton In Tan laconda 

Here la a simple proof ot multiplication which in a modifica- 
tion of the old method of caating out the ninee. The unitalt of 
a number la the aum of ita digita reduced to a unit. Note thew 
examplea: 

84Se8=l 0=1 0:=1 
898460 = 80=18 = 8 
400898 — 88 = 
The sum of tha digita of the first number is 10; these digito 
added equal 10. and these added equal 1. Note the following 
example in multiplication : 

993 = 
881 = 6, 
8S8 
604 
766 
80808 = 87 = 9 

409 



f = 54 = 8 






COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 

The unilate of the multiplier b 9 and the unitate of the mnlti- 
plioand is 6; 6 tlmee 9 equals 54, and the unilate of S4 is 9. 
Now the unitate of the product is found to be 9 also, which it a 
proof of tlie correctness of tlie woi Is. Note this example : 
7508 = 29=11 = 2) , , , 
34«a=16 _7J-=14 = ll 

32794 
45588 
80392 
22794 

2681 1874 = 82 = 
It Is not necessary to write down as many flgnres as are writ- 
ten above The unitate of each number can easily be found 
mentally. 

Bapid MultipUatlon 
When the unit flgures added equal ten, and the tens are alike, 
multiply the units and set down the result; add one to eitlier 
numbers, in ten's place, and multiply by the other, and you 
have the product. 
To multiply any number by MJ, add 8 ciphers and divide by 15 

;; •• 166J, " 8 < a 

125, •' 3 a 

The three ciphers increase the number to be multiplied one 
thousand times, or two ciphers one hundred times, and dividing 
Z^ *''* ''™''*'' "' times the multipUer is contained in 100 or 
1.000 gives the product. 



410 



COMMEHCIAL ARITIIJIETIO 

To Mtdtiply Mixed KumlMn 
l>. Add the tour products 



Example — Multiply 12J by 8j. 



o 5 "i"!* ."'""'*" ™"'tiplloil. 

8- Multiply la by S . , . 

3. Multiply 8 by J 

4. Multiply j by }=ii3or .'.'.■ 



12} 



Add results 

:io| 

To Multiply Two Humbors Haying th. Sunt Fimctlou 
ftd^'thlf",'"'"^ the whole numbers together. 9, 



sum by either one of the fraetions 



lOJ 
Ml 



Divmoir 

LigbtDiag^Methada of DiTiaion 

T°o di J!de bJ si ^11 P°!"' ™« ?!»<« <» "««. multiply by a 

To .1 V dl K «• ™S ™ P°!"' ""^ P'»<* to '«"■ multiK by 4 

To divide Li'j^S.™ ^"": °"« •''»™ to '«"■ """iP y by 3 

by ,a ""'""' "y SJ' remo'e pomt two places to left, miltiply 

I^^To dirtde by 18}, „„,„„ point two place, to left, multiply 

^To divide by 16|. remove point two places to left, multiply 

^o divide byas, remove point two places to left, multiply 

^^To divide by83J. remove point two places to left, nmltiply 

j^^To divide by SO, remove point two places to left, nmltiply 

I^^To divide by 135, remove point three places to left, multiply 

I^^To divide by 850. remove point three places to left, multiply 

^To di,ide by 833J. remove point three place, fe, teft, „„|.|,„, 



411 



I 



OOUMEBCIAL ARITHIIiniC 

THti <a DiTlalblUty 

Anj nnmber la dlTimble b; i when tha laat figun ii mm: 
dlTisible by 4 when the hut two flijurea an divisible by 4; 
divisible by 5 when the last figure is or 5 ; diviaibia by 8 when 
the sum of its figures is divisible by 3; divisible by » when the 
sum of ita flguiee is divisible by 9. 

The pttxluct of any three oonseootive nnmben is divisible by 
6i the product of any four oonseoutive numbers is divisible 
by 34 

HTLTIPUOATIOll AMD DITIBIOII OOMBimD 

When it becomes necessary to multiply two or more numbers 
together, and divide by a third, or by a product of a third and 
fourth, it must be literally done if the numbers ore prime. 

For example: Multiply 19 by 18 and divide that piwluct by 7. 

This must b* dane at full length, because the numbers are 
prime; and in all such c;i.sea there will result a fraction. 

But in ritual Imtineiu the problems are almoet all reduoeable 
by short efMntiona: aa tim pnces of articles, or amount cUed 
for, alwan ootnapoada with asme aliquot part of our scale of 
computiMiu. ^iad when two or more of the numbers are com- 
poaite numiters. the wvrk cttii aimaye be contracted. 

ScoOTpfa. — ^ItaltipW S3> bv 7. and divide that product by 21. 
To obtain tha ■nawer. a ia saMeient to divide 375 by 8, which 
gives 12S. 

The 7 divides the 21. ^A the factor 8 iBmains for a divisor. 
Here it becomes nec c i rj s a i i to lay down a plan of operation. 

Draw a perpendicular line and pUce all numbers that are to 
be multiplied together under oaoh other, on the right-hand side, 
and all numbers that are divisors under each other, on the left- 
hand side. 

EXAMPLES 

Multiply 140 by 88, and divide that praduot by 84. We pboe 
the numbers thus: r j v 

We may cast out equal factors from each side of the line with- 
out affecting the remit. In this cu» 12 wiU divide 84 and M; 
tneu the numbers will stand thus: 
,1140 

I' 
But 7 divides 140, and gives 20, which, multiplied by 8, gives 
DO for tin remit. 



412 



L 



Multiply 4788 by 8», .„d divide that p™duot by 18. 
Three timee 4788 must be the reeult. 

8 W I W 4 
II I 9 

In the above divide 80 and 80 br'a? and 14 »n,l M i, , . 

''-»^c!crt^a!X^^s;ri!r-- 

n&onoKs 

Th?L'^rr:f,:^;;^;™trri'.'^'^"°'' ''^«" ■>»■>"«■ 

two or more CtioTr^'^JlTT'' '"™''"'- '''"«"«»> 

the denominator, except L o " J""""'"""'' """"P""^' 

multiply .U thedenomfnatl™ J'therL""" """"°™'""' ""* 
nator """arers together for a common denomi- 

ADDITION OF FHACTIOSS 

the eum over the Zmriet^i^t:"' ■'"™"'°" "" ^ 
Add !^._%?^JH-45+24^ ITO^ 49 

Here SxtxS or 60 islj, oomm^ denominator. 

snBTH.lcnoN OP PHA0TION8 

denominator. Sub?^ ,'^0^ ^ r^tbr:: "" r°"" 
nator is 3 x 4 = 12 and iL.,^ "ere the common denomi- 
,V i. the ^wer ■ ^'"""^ °' "•» ■"«™»ton. I, hence 

MULTIPUOATION OP FKAOTIONS 

in.r?sr.T.r;;i!:'r"«'' ■'-"--'''•■-•-• 



41.S 



J 



?! 



COUMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 

DIVISIOS or FBAOnoSS 

Jnrwt the torm, of the divl«,r and proceed a. in mulUpU- 

RULES AND EXAMPLES FOR VARIOUS 
BUSINESS OPERATIONS 

Sdoh As: Commission, Discodnts, Pbofit and I^oss, 

JAXH8, INSUBANCE, PARTIAL PAYMENTS, ETC. 

OOMMIUiaN 

To Find th« Ooimni.rton, tha Ooat or Ballinf Pnca uid 
Par Cant of Oommiuion Baing Oivan 

Of tt^^;^""'" ""■ "^ ■" "'""« P"™ "^ 'he rate per cant 

bu^S wfrtw""^ c„mm«ion wiU be due an agent who 
ouy» W.000 worth of coal on a commisaion of 5 per oentt 

OPEBAnoN 

W.OOO = Investment or base. 

;"■' = Per cent of commission. 

W5«.00= Ck)mmis8ion or percentage 
^anaffon -Since the late of commission is 5 per cent the 

To Knd tt. Inyastmant or Ore.. 8.1a., tha OonnaiMion 
»na Par Cant of Oommiuion Baing 0i7an 

mi^n""'"" """ ™""°'»''"' "ythe mto percent of com- 
Bmm,<le--U an agent's rate of commission is 3 ner ™,nt „i,.t 
™lue Of good, must ha seli to earn a ooT^LloZ^' 
Com. 

S?E-- 18IS7.M0 
„ , ' «3,50O 

e^?rr^Xvrt:Tr::::-irr^: 

414 



-i»-|Ml«Mtl]«lJH]J«nai,JHig»ffi^# 






COMJIKRC r.\r. AUITIIMETIO 

goods Mid, therefore, must he a> many time. »t m 8 cents h 
fa " '""" "' *"• ""'°'' " '■'^ """"■ "■" ^■»«' «^^ »' 

To nnil the Inveitmaiit and Oommlsiion When Both an 

Included in a Kemittance by the Principal 
ihrfe.-DiTide the remittance by 1 plus the rate per cent of 
Example.-lt ii,m is sent to a Syracuse agent for the pur- 
^ 6 pe'?*'*""' ""■ """ *" '■'''"• *"■ "*• "' <»°""-'°» 

OPBBATIOK 
♦*-J2 = '■""'"«"«• »1.0B)»W50 

..X?"?'"""''"'™- Ooo: Sum invested 

«.05 = Actual cost to principal of each in salt 

dollar invested by agent. 

tl-f^""'"'™ 7^°" T'' ''°"" '■"■"*«' "-e principal supplies 
the dollar mvested and 5 cento for the agent's services, therefore 
the agent will mvest only as many dollars in salt as $1 plugs 
oents, or $1.05, is contained times in 11,080, or 1,000 times hence 
the inveetment 11,000. 

dhooumts 

DiKOunt is the allowance made from the amount of a debt, a 
note, or other obligation, or a deduction from the price of goods 
for payment before it is due. ^^^ 

TladeDlMonnt istlie allowance made by manufacturers and 
merchants upon their flied or list prices. 

When there is more than one trade discount they are known 
as discount senrs. 

Trade discount is computed hy the rules of percentage on the 
market price as a base. When a serie, „f discount, is allowed, 
the first only is s- computed, and in every 8ubse.,uent discount 
the^remainderafu ■ each preceding discount is regarded as the 

To Find the Balling Price, the Liit Price and Discount 
Series Being Given 
Example—The list price of a carriage is $250, what is the net 
■euing price, if a discount of 40 per cent is allowed? 



415 



Jl 



'I ii 



COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 
OPCIUTION 



W80=Lirtprioe. 

..oo:j;;;EK.'r"""»""*- 



100=Dliwount. 
'IS* = Net selling pri tt. 
£rp(an<./(a„ Since th. di«x>unt I. 40 per cent and the lirt 
"^ ? ".^ ■" '^'"' "" ■"■«»■»' '° *» •'"•""te'l will be 40 p^ 
cent, or $100. The net prioe will be SaW-JloO^Jloo. 

TnuDlaeonnt 

True DiMomt i» the difference between the face of a deM dm 
at a future time and its preaent worth. 

. 5^!^T°' *"* "' * ''''" '"y"'''" •' » '"'"re time without 
interest » its >-:.lue now,- hence is euch a sum as being put at 
simple Interest at the legal rate will amount to the given debt 
when It becomes due. 

To rind the Fraieiit Worth and Hue Dlieonnt 

Eramj,fe-Flnd t!ie present worth and true discount of a 
claim for »871.68 due 2 years 8 months hence, at per cent nr 

OPERATION 

* Lm^AnfoZt""*' '»■•«'"• »-<>• »t«p.roent. 

2?,'S * L'J;'=.«™8' P-*""' worth. 

871.88 -»7«8 = |108.68, true discount. 

Ezplanaiim -The amount of the debt at the end of 2 rears 8 

months b ?8;i.68, and since $1 woul.l in tlat time at 6 per cent 

amount to 51 185, the present ^-orth murt he », many times %\ 

as »1.188 is contained times in »87t (1«, or $7(l». If the face ia 

J! i^^ ^S** '." •"!""' "'°''"' '" ""'y *'**• ">e ""» discount will 
be S87I.68 minus 1798, or J108.a8. 

«ttfc.-mvide the amount of the debt at its maturity by one 
dollar plus its interest for the given time and rate and the 
quotient will be the present worth. Subtract the present worth 
from the amount and the remainder wiU be the true discount. 

Bank Discount 

Bank Discount is a deduction from the sum due upon a nego- 
tiable paper at its maturity for the cabling or buying of such 
paper before It beoomes due. 



416 



COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 
Th. di^nt m.y be . BMd «,m. but I. Mnally the fntar-* .t 

Hotel containing en interest olauae will h«»r l„t,_.. ^ 
d.te to maturity „nl«« other time ZpI^fleS^ '""•"" *"" 

pafd";^ruritr** """ *^™*' "'"^' •«"'■=« " ■»' 

V Jh° r?.'""'? "' ' °°** "' "^^ '■ '■><"<»teJ by „,ing a short 
vertiMi line with the date on which the note or d™ft u „omf 

To Find the Dtaeooit aad Proeeedi, the Fuse of a Hote, 

lime md fcu Per Omt of OiKount Being Siren 

wS-drt^TC-.l^r^T""'""^ P'oc^.sofano.ror 

OPIBATION 

W80 00 = Faoe. 

..4!!? = P"*"™* for «3 dam. 

»S73.9: = Prooeeda. 

f„f?r!"°"^ ""^^ """^ ■"*»""* <" • ■">»« Wng its interest 

minus the banlc discount, it is only necessary to comnute th, 

^r^™ I ^^r°r' '""" "■" '"™ "> «"'l the proceeds; 
fZ^ * 1i»onnt, 1580 minus W 09 equals «573.i.l 

di^inl^T" K."" '"""■' '■"■ '*" "™ »»'■ ""• fo' the bank 
nornndX^r '»■"■'«-•»« '«>»".« '-or the 

To Find the Fwe of a Mote, the Proceeds, Time and Bate 
Per Cent of Oiscoant Being OiTes 

•daS"Z^w"i»'^- """*. ^ *■" '^°' * """«• Wable in 60 
kS:»^ d-oounted at 6 per cent the proceeds may be 



r y 



COMMF.BriAL ARITHHETIC 

OPERATION 

n.M <> Face of note of n. 
.0109 = Discount -tf note of tl. 
.9805 ss Proceeds oi note of $1. 
Wm.tl *■ .IWU5 = ttmu face required. 

£j!planaUm.—U the dieoount of tl >t 6 per cent for 68 daye 
■ 1.(1 ' heproceedaof tl of the note would be tl minuaLOlOS, 
ort '- 1. uid If the proceeds of tl ate tt.OSDS It would require 
Miiu. . doUan face of note to give t»78,91«» ttSK are con- 
tai I 1 times In t373.91, or S580. 

/.Ue.— Divide the proceeds of a note by the prooaeds of one 
dollar for the given i«te and time. 

PROFIT AMD LOH 

PnBt ud Lou treata of gains or losses In business transac- 
tions. 

The gram or fall oost of an article is its Urst cost Increased by 
all outlays incident to its purchase and holding to date of sale. 

The Met Belling Price is the gross selling price, less all chargeo 
incident to its sale. 

To nnd the Profit and Lois, the Out and Rate Being OlTan. 

Example.— An agent paid tM for a reaper and sold it at a 
I»oat of 18 per cent. What won his gaini 

OPERATION 
J9B.00 = Coet. 

. 18 s= Per cent of gain. 
tl7.10 = Oain. 

ap/anafion.— Since the agent gained 18 per oent or 18 cents 
on tl. on the t95 of coat he would gain 95 times 1. 18, or £17.10. 
/iK(p.— Multiply the cost by the nte. 

To rind the Ooit, the Gain or Loss and the Rate of Oaln 

or Lou Being Olven 
fiiifc.— Divide the gain or loss by the per oent of gain or loss. 

lo Knd the Rata of Pioflt or Loss, the Ooit and the Profit 
or Loss Being Oiven 
JJlrfe.— Divide the profit or loss by the cost 

To rind the Oost, tbe aelUng Price and the Rate Per Oent 

of PTo0t or Lou Being Oiven 
i?M/es.— Divide the selling price by 1 plus the rate of gain. 
Divide the selling price by 1 minus the rate of lofla. 

418 



UIMUKH(,|.il, AHiriiaETIO 

TAZXI 

To yiad « Titftttf T«x 

«nimpfe._The rate of t»xati..n in the rity of De. Mnin- 
lo"-.. U li. Wl,„t amount of tax mu.t „ p«U n ^Ty w Z 
per»,nal property i. valued at »17.S00, .ud .ImTwn.' „„, IZ 
nunti leJ at 934,000) "«"» real estate 

lirnoo 

94.1)00 

»4a,400x.01J = $742. 
&7rfnrKifiVm.-Slnce hie total valuation was W 4(in ...i .i 

oft!:;rI""""' "" '°^' ''"^'' ™'"= "^ «» "^ >«" <»"t 

nrsTnLuroE 

Ta nnd tlu Ocwt o( Innruica 

Krarapfe^-The Mock in a etore I. Insured for 87,w What 1. 

OPERATION 

1750 = Amount insured. 
.015 = Per cent of premium. 
111.23 = Premium. 

1 35 = Cost of policy. 
?la.50 cc Full ooet of insuiHnoe. 
fi^ai.ofiim._Sinoethe amount insured isthetaae and th. 
per cent of premium the rate. If the amount is mul«^ed by to 

Of :i^"':i^d'^a^s\r rcr;™ "' "" "" - ™"' 

To riDd the Amount In.n«d. the Premium and Per Cent 
of Premium Bting Oiven 

o^!L~^Z *^* 'f.^ "' '-««°™ ™M'»<-t the extra 
m3^ H .T^' •""' "^ '•»'™<-i" by the per cent of pre- 
mium, and the quotient will be the f«» of the policy. 

419 



!;jj! 



INTEREST 
Lfi PaiBM OoMwiitin b«««it 

1 InUrMt l> monjr paid tor Um iiM of momj. If om bofw 
nm monajr pnHnlaiBg to ra|i«)r it with an ulditloiial unouiit. 
Uwnunborrowadtao*ll«dUwpr<iw<iia<, tin MliUtlaamI unonat 
iHtentl. It ii unallx italod h k> mnob pw oeot, !.«.. to wtnj 
dollan of intaraat for ovary hundred dolUn of prinolpol. 

9. Whon AHowwL— IntarMt ii allowod (t) when It i< ezpreeily 
contracted for. Ii) when luoh an agreement la Implied, (8) whan 
a debt haa become due but remalna unpaid. 

The meat oommon inatanoe In the fliit claaa la where money la 
borrowed. The debtor uaually expreaaly agraee to par the debt 
and Intereat 

The aeoond claaa ia where money ia borrowed and the agiw 
nient to pay intereat ia implied from the nature of the buainaaa 
or the uanal ouatom. 

The third claaa relatee to the inteieet aoorolng after the debt 
beoomea due, and it ia a general rule that one who faila to pay 
money due moat alio pay intaraat upon It up to the time he doaa 
P»y- 

8. Uinqr.— Uany of the Statea forbid any one to give or 
reoelre mora than a atated rate of intaraat. Thia rate differa In 
the dilTerant Statea. varying from 8 to 19 par cent The taking 
of a higher rate than that allowed by the law la uaury ; thua 
timry U unlawful I'nfemt. 

4. Legal KaU.— Every Bute haa eatabllahed a certain rate 
which ahall be the rate of intereet in aU thoaa caaaa where the 
partiea have not fixed their own rate. Thia la called the legal 
raU. and In moat Statea it la 8 per cent per annum. See IjUerat 
Laim and Statuta of Limitation. 

A promise to "pay tioo and Intereat" meana intereat at the 
legal rate of the State in which the payment ia to be made. 

t. louihyotUaary.-Some penalty la inflicted upon the one 
who t,-Jiee uaury, I.e., upon the lender, not upon the borrower. 
It vaiieo in the different Statea, but la uaually one of three 
kinda: (1) the forfeiture of the uaurioua intereet, i.e., all above 
the lawful rate; (2) the forfeiture of all the intereet; or (8) the 
forfeiture of both principal and intereet. 

In a State where the Sret rule is adopted, the lender who haa 
lent at an usurioua rate may recover the principal and interest 

420 



INTIU»r 

•I the I«.l r.l»; where the «eond i. adopted only ihc 
money he lent; ,„d where the third i. .dopted not eve , th. 
See Intereat Laws. 

Book Acco«iU.-l„tere.t may be eharKed o., 1k,oI< ,„.. 
eouiiti «ll,.r l,Ko| demaiul for pjyme.it. I„ (•„„,„.,,„,„, 
inleieHt on book oocounis i, «l|„wed only wl,..„ p„,„,..„t ,» 
nnrenxinnbly delayed. l".'noni i" 

N. OllUdUlll ud TnutOM may be eharged inl-re ».„ 

all lrn«t fund. ... their lian.l,, after their failure t.i invent 
tlioni within a lenminable tiite. 

II. Oop.rtll.IIhip.-If a partner withdraw, m„n..y (,.„„ 
he fiMulH ,M.|onKing to the firm, for private u.e, he will he 

liable for interest on the aame. 

III. PoUey Of Ill»or«Il(».-If low. oeeurn nndir a iH.liev of 
inHiianee, it bear, intereat from the time it i., du,. a.conl- 
init to the terms of the [wliey. 

11. Oompomid intereat is not colleetible bv law When 
interest has aecnmuiated and become payable, an aitrei- 
ment that it shall be added to the principal thus formed 
will usually be deemed legal. ■- i™ 

Lightiiiag Motlwd for OUcuktiaf Intomt 

This is probably the shortest and simplest method known. 
Multiply the pnncipal by the number of days, and 



1 



For 
For 
For 
For 



- iwr cent. diTlde lij 90 

5 per cent, divide by 72 

a tier cent. dlTlde by 60 

7 per cent, divide ty 52 



For 8 per cent, divide by 45 

For 8 per cent, divide by 40 

For 10 per cent, divide by -Ifi 

For 12 per cent, divide by 3u 



Example. -What is the intereat on $450 for 1 month rnd 
10 days at 8 per centt 

Solution.-430X4O-=-45 = $4.00. Ans. Interest. 
BANKERS' MBIHOD 
To Find th. Intonit oa Any Sdu .t 6 Par Cent for Any 
Ntuabor of Day. 

Rule.-Remove the decimal point two places to Ihe left 
and yon have the interest for 60 days. 

E.xample.-What is the interest on $280 for 60 ihivs at 6 
r>er cent f Principal. $250. Interest, $2.,')0. 

When the time is more or less than 60 days, first timl tlic 
interest for 60 days, and from that to the time required. 

421 



MKIOCOfr IISOUITION TUT CHAII 

|*NSI and ISO TEST CHART No, 2) 




'= m 



A /APPLIED IMBIBE Ir 

^^^ 16S3 East Main Str«t 

^^ fiocheslef. N*w York H609 US* 

^S (^'S) *B2 - 030O - Phone 

^S (71G) 2Se- S9S9 - F-Q. 



!I-i^:M'' 



For 120 days, multiplv by 3 
Wi " add i of itself. 
75 " " i •' " 
30 " divide by 3. 

15 4. 

8 '* " '* 20. 

What is the interest on $720'for 75 days at per cent? 
97.20, interest for 60 days. 
1.80, " " 15 '' 

$9. 00, interest for 75 days. 

Cancelation Method 

Bwfe.— Plare the principal, the rate, and the time In months, 
on the right of a vertical fine, and 1^ on the left; or, if the time 
is short and contains days, reduce to days, and place 360 on the 
left. After canceling equal factors on both sides of the line, the 
product of the remaining factors on tlie rigiit, divided by the 
lactor, if any, on the left, will give the required interest. 

To find the intere8tofS184.80for 1 year 5 months at 6 per cent- 

OPERATION 
•1B.40 

05 
17 



$13.09, ,1ns. 

Analyns.—tlM.SO X .05 gives the interest for 1 year or 12 
montlis, which divided by 13 gives the interest for 1 month; the 
quotient multiplied by 17, the number of months in 1 year 6 
months, gives SNt.OD, tne interest re<iuired. 

To find the interest of $340 for 3 months IB days at 7 per cent. 

OPERATION 

.07 

3 810. na 

I $3.04. Ann, 
.Analysis.— 1340 X .07 gives tlie interest for 1 year or 360 days, 
which divided by 380 gives tlie interest for 1 day; the quotient 
multiplied by 78, the numl)er of days in 3 montlis 18 days, gives 
93.64, the retiuired interest. 

To find the interest of $696 for 9.1 days at 1 per cent a month. 
Of $325.30 at i per cent a month fur 63 days. 

OPERATION OPERATION 

.n w 

PS'I "We 63 



1107.88 



«5.iai. Ant. 



$31,576, Am. 



422 



PART XIV 

Miscellaneous Statistics, Carpen- 
tering. Test Questions, etc. 



!ii 






i '* ! 
■I. 






m 




IRA4. H(k\. ALLGN B. AVLERWOKTH, M.A., K.C F.V., M.P. 

Out; of >:is Majesty's ConunlMloncrB for iht- StttUnicni ut tbu 
Alaska Houiidary in 1»03. 



INTEREST 



INTEREST TABLES. 

JN the following interest tables, mtereit 1, computed to mill, 
to Insure greater accuracy. 

Theintereslatanyotherratecaneasllybefound. Interest 
.t 4 per cent Is a of interest at 8 per cent. Double Interest at 
» per cent and you have Interest at 10 per cent, etc. 

The interest is given in hundreds of dollars. To and the 
luu^rest on $10. BO, etc.. move decimal point one place u, the 
left. To And interest on «. |9, eu,.. move decimal point two 
places to the left. 



EXAMPLE : 

Intemi on »loo for om yesr ,5 ^ 

" " ~ '■"■Zz:iz ,.00 

" : » 25 

100 *' flvemoDtba jw 

: : 1:: : •■•••••• - 

10 

■ " 100 ■• .lxteend.,5 23 

:; : r: : ;; •••••• ■*• 

01 

""""™" IILM 

26 423 



i{ 







i i- is 

I 'S: f 

lit: ;■ 

I- ":: 1 ■ 



IMTERBOT AT SEVEN PER CENT. 



im 


•100 


noo 


tsoo 


1400 


tsoo 


1 
1600 


«700 


1800 


•MM 


1 


•OK 


.039 .05( 


.07! 


.09- 


.117 


.13t 


.15« 


.17S 


2 


.03t 


.07f 


.!!• 


.15C 


.w 


.233 


.272 


,311 


.360 


3 


.058 


All 


.17J 


.233 


.29: 


.35« 


.408 


,467 


.626 


4 


.07! 


.i5e 


.233 


.311 


.388 


.467 


.644 


.62S 


.700 


5 


.091 


.194 


.29£ 


.389 


.486 


.683 


.681 


.771 


.876 


6 


.117 


.233 


.350 


.467 


.68« 


.700 


.817 


i!a8i 


1.050 


7 


.136 


.272 


.408 


.644 


.681 


.817 


.953 


1.229 


8 


.156 


.311 


.467 


.622 


.778 


.93; 


1.089 


1.244 


1.400 


a 


.175 


.360 


.625 


.700 


.875 


1.050 


1.225 


1.400 


1.675 


10 


.194 


.389 


.583 


.778 


.972 


1.107 


1.361 


1.556 


1.750 


11 


.214 


.428 


.642 


.856 


1.069 


1.283 


1.497 


1.711 


1.925 


12 
IS 


.233 


.407 


.700 


.933 


1.1S7 


1.400 


1.633 


1.867 


2.100 


.253 


.606 


.758 


1.011 


1.264 


1.517 


1.769 


2.022 


2.276 


14 


.272 


.544 


.817 


1.089 


1.361 


1.6,13 


1.906 


2.178 


2.450 


IS 


.292 


.683 


.875 


1.167 1.4.'i8 


1.750 


2.042 


2.333 


2.62S 


.16 


.311 


.622 


.933 


1.244 1.556 


1.887 


2.178 


2.489 


2.800 


17 


.331 


.661 


.992 


1.322 1.6.5.1 


1.083 


2.314 


2.644 


2 97S 


18 


.350 


.700 


1.050 


1.400 


1.750 


2.100 


2.450 


2.800 


3.150 


19 


.369 


.739 


1.108 


1.478 


1.847 


2.217 


2.686 


2.956 


3.32S 


20 


.389 


.778 


1.167 


1.556 


1.944 


2.333 


2.722 


3.111 


3.600 


21 


.408 


.817 


1.225 


1.633 


2.042 


2.460 


2.858 


3.267 


3.675 


22 


.428 


.856 


1.283 


1.711 


2.131) 


2.567 


2.994 


3,422 


3.850 


23 


.447 


.8M 


1.342 


1.789 


2.236 


2.683 


3.131 


3.578 


4.025 


24 


.467 


.033 


1.400 


1.867 


2.333 


2.800 


3.267 


3.733 


4 200 


29 


.486 


.072 


1.458 


1.944 


2.431 


2.917 


3.403 


3.889 


4.375 


26 


.606 


l.OIl 


1.517 


2.022 


2.528 


3.033 


3.538 


4.044 


4.5-^ 


27 


.62.1 


1.050 


1.675 


2.10O 


2.62.^> 


3.150 


3.675 


4 20n 


4.725 


28 


.644 


1,089 


1.633 


2.1-8 


2.722 


3.267 


3.811 


4.3.56 


4'' 900 


29 
Mm. 


.564 


1.128 


.'.692 


2.256 


2.819 


3.383 


3.!)4- 


4.511 


5.075 


1 


.583 


1.167 


1.760' 


2.333 


2.017 


3.500 


4.083 


4.667 


5.250 


2 


1.167 


2.333 


3.500 


4.667 


6.8.3.1 


7.000 


8.167 


9.333 


10 600 


3 


1.750 


3.500 


6.2i0 


7.000 


8.7S0 


10.500 


12.260 


14.000 


16.750 


4 


2.333 


4.667 


7.000 


0.333 


11.667 


14.000 


16.333 


18.667 


21.000 


S 


2.917 


6.833 


8.750 


11.667 


14.683 


17.500 


20.417 


1^ 
12.667 


!6.260 


6 


3.500 


7.000 


0.500 


14.000 


17.500 


21.000 


24.500 


31.500 


7 


t-2*? 


8.167 


12.250 


16.333 


20.417 


24.500 


28.683 


16 ! 750 


8 


4.667 


9.333 


4.000 


8.667 


!3.333 


28.000 


!2.e87 


17.333 


12 000 


9 


6.250 


O.soo 


5.750 


21.000 


!6.250 


n.500 


16.750 


12.000 


17.250 


10 


5.833 


1.667 


7.500 


a. 3,33 


>9.167 


16.000 


0.833 


16.667 


52 500 


11 


6.417 


2.833 


0.250 


!5.667 


(2.083 


)8.500< 


14.917 


)1.333 


57.760 


1 


7.000 


4.000 


'1.000 as.oool. 


15.000 42.00ol49.000 


w.oeo 


U.OOO 



426 



INTKREST 



nrreiiEST at eioht per cent. 







it 



! I 



liMl 




INTKKKHT 

Bew M OMy Orom at InUmtt 

tf on« dollar b^ InvMtecl anfl itic intrmt aildfd to *hf prinrlpal annualljr, 
ftt lh« raiex nanml, we shall have the fuUuwIng rmult m tlii:' accumulalluQ 
of ooe hundn-l yran. 

One dollar, 100 y«iw at 1 per n*nl I 2.78 

One dollar, 100 yean at 2 iwr rr nt 7 , 2A 

One dollar, 100 years at 3 [xr cent 10.25 

One dollar, 100 years at 4 per rent M.3A 

One dollar, 100 years at S percent 131.50 

One dollar, 100 yearn at C per cent 340.00 

One dollar, 100 yean at 7 |>er rent SOS. 00 

One dollar, 100 ytam at H iM-r cent 2,203.00 

Time In which Moiwy Doobtei 



Per 


Simple Int. 


Comp. Int. 


Per 
C*l. 


Simple Int. 


Comp. Int. 


2 

i 


SO yeui:i. 
40 years. 
33 yr». 4 mos. 
28 yrt. 208 da. 
25 yean. 

'' .V"- »■ "■■ 


35 years. 
28 yra. 26 da. 
23 yrs. 104 ila. 
20 J rs. 54 da. 
I7ynt. 240da. 
15 ym. 27.1 .la. 


5 
fl 
7 
8 
9 


20 yearr). 
16 yrs. 8 mo». 
14 yu. 104 da. 
12i-yeBrs. 
ilyrft. 40 da. 
10 years. 


14 yn. 75 da. 
11 yra. 327 da. 
10 yra. 80 da. 
9 yr,i. 2 daya. 
8 )Ts. 16 days. 

7yr.. lopo^ 



Tibto Showing Nmnber of Diyi Batwaan Two DaUi 



Tow- 


Jati. 


Feb. 


Mar. 

50 

28 
■365" 
334 
304 
273 
243 
212 
181 
151 
120 
90 


Apr. 

00 
59 
31 


May 

120 
89 
61 
30 
366- 
334 
304 
273 
242 
212 
181 
^51 


June 

161 

120 

92 

61 

31 

-365- 

335 

304 

273 

243 

212 

182 


iuly 

181 

150 
122 
01 
61 
30 


Au,. 

212 
181 
153 
122 
92 
61 
31 
305 
334 
304 
273 
243 


Hep. 

243 

212 
184 
153 
123 
02 
62 
31 
365 
335 
304 
274 


OrtT 

273 
242 
214 
183 
153 
122 
92 
61 
30 
3H5 
334 
304 


Nov. 

304 
273 
245 
214 
184 
153 
123 
92 
61 
31 


n«% 


January. 

Fehni'ry 

March . . 

, April . . . 

! Miy . . . 

- June. . . 

* July . . . 

August. 

Sept. . . . 

October. 

Nov. . . . 

Dec. . 


.165 

334 
306 
275 
245 
214 
184 
153 
122 
02 
61 
31 


31 


.134 


365 
337 
308 
276 
245 
215 
184 
163 
123 
02 
62 


303 

275 


365 
335 
304 
274 
243 
212 
182 
151 
121 


244 
214 
1N3 


365 
334 
303 
273 
242 
212 


122 
01 
61 


335 


365 



For example: From any date in July to the same date in February there 
are 21.^ days. When the day of the month to which you count is latkh, 
add the difference; if earlier, subtract it. Thu.i, from January 1 to May 1 
are 120 days; to the llth t May it Is 10 days more; while fn»in January 11 
to May 1 it ia 10 days less. In Leap Years add 1 day if the latit day of Feb- 
ruary Is included in the given time. 

Dividing the table diagonally by short horizontal lines, the numbers 
below show the days to a date in the year following, and numbers above to a 
date within the same year. 

428 



Tlbl* of W«(u by tlw WMk (nan ta.W 



to 190.00 




tl 



i I 



III 






429 



! il 



I 't' 

I*; 




TABt.K of w.\UtM MV lUE UONTB 

tM» o( WatM b7 th* Month from W,00 to ITBM 



la 
I •• 

\\A 

I i.n 

' I.M 

t.a 

i.n 
la 
aw 
a.« 

4.U 
«.W 
«.« 
>W 
•.H 



14 



{.« 

».13 

•.« V.B 
».W|I0W 



aoi 

» 

•.n 

MOD 



JIIU 
■m\ im 

'JtllS 

En aw 
Ml lu 

t.U 4.611 ... 

iM\ t.n 6.» 

a.flo Lu tjti 

>.U ■(» «.u 

•.01 •!» 7.«l 

«4« 7.00 f.M 

&M r») 8.0R 

T.M 0,00 PM 

IH •«! 9l» 

■ 11 •.W «.«» 

«.n au I0J3 
•Ja 10.00 nn 
•.nittw a« 

mu ILWILU 

■oiB ii.uuja 
11.00 BOO u.n 

IIH IXtO U.U 

K.wliaooin.oo 



!S! 



a.40 

l.0< 

4.>« 

_. «!• 

Ill «.» 
»l •»! 
lal 7.10 
14" ■ 
l»l>.» 
l«l •.» 
IT I 9.SI 

lolioaa 
loliaoo 



J4 

La 

LIB 
t.40 

d.00 

uo 

4.91 
4.W 

>M 
0.1ft 
0.77 
1.08 
OiU) 
>.•> 

•.a 
»«» 

10.40 
11.00 
ILOII 



J7 

fi 

1.91 
I.M 

too 

1.07 

>M 
tM 

A.S9 
S.00 
0.14 

i:S 
•.» 

•.u 

10.40 

11.11 

11.77 
U4< 



LOO 
1.00 

t.77 
1.40 

4.M 
4.W 
0.14 

0.U 
0.01 

7.a 

0.31 

e.uf 

•.on 

10.il« 
11.00 
11.77 

i:.4a 

Ulft 



S«olll.>4 1X31 1X00 
iilu.ii 12.00 n.7s 
il|l>.OB iat4 i4.ao 
illOLOO 14.77 IU0M.03 
>|I4 4! 15.30 10.30 17 31 
«6n5.00|l000 17.00 10.00 



l» 



U> 
M 
001 

4. UN 
0.11 
0.00 
0.U 
'•M 
0.04 
0.77 
0.00 

lots 

1U.M 



140:: 
IS 3:^ 

0.00 
0.01 
7.U 10 10 

o.irr lOKi 
o.ooico.ou 



o*«wlBt tho *M»a«t far 1 D«y, up 10 »e (irorklat) B»yo. 



r? 



, '•4« 

•.00 0131 
0.00 lOlft 
IO.SO 11.00 
11.31 11.00 
UK ItOO 
U.Ot 13.S4 
18.73 14.30 
14.84 IS.l!:l 
IS.» 10.00 
10.15 10.0! 
10.00 17.77 
17.17 IO.IB 
lOM 10.40 



1.77 
<0» 
3.54 
4.4t 
0.31 
0.10 

\L 

8.0S 
0.13 

loot 

11.10 
lUO 
13.17 
14.15 
15.04 
1S.03 
■0.01 
17.00 
MM 
10.40 

».as 



10.30 ».3I •tin 

10.IO 11.15 :.>.» ,„„ 

ti.oo|a.oo|i3.oolia.ool85.m 



M 2» 

"'"IS 
.a: .« 

1.00 1.0? 

(.77 roo 

too 3.05 

401 4.01 

0.S1 5.77 

40 0.7; 

1.30 7.00 

0.31 0.05 

«n 0.01 
10.15 loja 

II.W 11.51 
lt.«l 11.50 
12.82 18.40 
13. »S 14.41 
14.77 IS.38 
15.09 10.35 
10.02 17.31 
17M 10.17 
I0.4« 10.23 

io.wao.u 

10.31 11.15 
21 Jd 12.12 

21.IS23.0II 
23.08 24.04 



/.oo 
MS 
181 

a.40 

4.02 

5.77 
(LOS 
8.00 

>ja 

10;38 
11.54 

12.00 
I3.8!> 
15.00 
10.15 
17.31 



21.02 
23.08 
24.23 
2538 
20.04 



4.01 
5.38 
0.7< 
0.00 
• 42 

io.n 
12.:.' 

13.40 

14.81 

10.15 

17.50 

18.85 

20.10 

'1.54 

22.08 

24.13 

25.S8 

».02 

.•8.27 

20.02 

30.00 

32.81 30.93 

13.05 38.40 

35.00i40.00 



•J3 

lan 

1331 
13.85 

b.3« 

10.02 
18.40 
20.0U 
21.M 
23.00 
(4.02 
20.15 

i7.r: 

20.13 



' JO 
1.18 
8.40 
519 
0.02 
a.05 
10.38 
lilt 
13. ; 
15.58 
1731 
19.01 
20.77 
22JU 
SIJB 
25.00 
27.00 
29.41 
31.15 
32.88 
34.02 
30.80 

;i8.oo 

30.8t 
4t.S4 



* 00 
1.31 
4.02 

o.at 
• ta 

11.54 
13.85 
10.15 
18.48 

20.77 
23.00 

t&ao 



'JO 

108 

5.n 

8.05 

11.54 
14.41 
1131 

UIH 
23.(10 
25.00 

28.85 
31.73 
34.«t 
87 JO 
4a80 
4.7.27 
40.15 
40.04 
51.02 
54.01 
- -- 57.89 
18.40 80.58 
50.77 83.411 
.■13.08 00.36 
55.38 00.2Q 
"T.cn 72.12 
6Q.00 T.'V.OQ 



The center column shows the days anil the black face flpiin>« nt fv.*. *«« 



430 



J 



' 



UISTRLLANRnril TAIII.KH 



-j~.ttta. u,. tivMBr.», lb. U.P .„i,.„.„. „.„ p„„,„ 




' il! 



ill 



inii 






I 

» 1 li , 



I '■ ■ si 

I ' I 



:■;«■ 



r; : 



MISCEI.LANEOTTR TABLES 


READT RECKONS. 


Hi* flm eolmnn on tbe left containt the NUMBFTl of Uhe Artlcte, tnd th» 


eolumii on tlM topt of tbe tkblet tiie PRICIJL 


No. 


Bet 


23et. 


Met. 


20 ct. 


20 ot. 


27 ct. 


S«et. 


Wet. 


80 ct. 


81 ct 31V4ot. 1 1 


2 
t 


.44 

.66 


.60 


.46 
.T 


■00 
.76 


.78 


.84 

.81 


.86 
.64 


JI8 
.87 


.80 
.90 


.82 
.93 


^ 


4 


.88 


.92 




1.00 


1.M 


1.08 


.12 


1.16 


1.20 


13t 


J-a? 




1.10 


1.15 


l!2l 


1.20 


1.30 


1.38 


.40 


1.48 


1.60 


1J8 


i«y. 




1.32 


1.36 


1.41 


tJO 


IJW 


1.62 


.68 


1.74 


1.80 


IM 


i^ 




I.S4 


1.61 


1.68 


1.76 


182 


1.80 


.03 


2.03 


2.10 


3.17 


2.18K 




1.76 


1.81 


1.02 


2.00 


2.08 


2.16 


.24 


2.32 


2.40 


2.48 


2.80 




1.98 


3.07 


2.16 


2.20 


2.34 


■J.43 


J2 


2.61 


2.70 


2.79 


J?!}> 


10 


2.20 


2.30 


2;40 


2.90 


2.60 


2.70 


.80 


2.90 


8.00 


8.19 


'-kC 


11 


2.42 


2.ra 


2.61 


2.76 


2.86 


2.97 


808 


3.19 


3J0 


8.41 


8.88 


12 


2.R4 


2.76 


2.61 


3.00 


8.12 


8.24 


8J6 


3.48 


8.00 


ai72 


878 


13 


2.86 


2.99 


3.12 


3.26 


ass 


3.81 


.84 


8.77 


3.90 


4.03 


4JWV8 


14 


3.08 


3.22 


■3A 


9.D( 


8.64 


3.78 


.03 


4.06 


4.20 


4.84 


HIS 


U 


3.30 


3.4ft 


3.00 


3.76 


3.00 


4.08 


4.20 


4.38 


iM 


4.68 


4.684J 


1« 


3.02 


3.68 


a84 


4.00 


4.16 


4.32 


4.48 


4.64 


*M 


4.86 


MO 


17 


3.74 


3.91 


4.06 


4.26 


4.42 


4.60 


.76 


4.93 


8.10 


6.27 




18 


3.96 


4.14 


4.32 


4.00 


4.08 


4.88 


.04 


8.22 


8.40 


8JI6 




19 


4.18 


4.3-1 


4.K 


*n 


4.H 


6.16 


6.32 


8.81 


8.70 


8J0 




90 


4.40 


4.60 


4.80 


6.00 


8.20 


8.40 


8.6I> 


880 


6.00 


tM 


6J8 


» 


0.00 


6,76 


6.00 


6.26 


IM 


6.78 


.00 


IM 


7.28 


7.78 


ISl 


» 


6«t 


6.90 


T.30 


.7 60 


7.86 


8.10 


8.40 


8.70 


9.60 


9J0 


40 


0.80 


9.20 


9.60 


10.00 


10.40 


lOJO 


11.20 


11.60 


12.00 


12.40 


OM 


00 


11.00 


11.00 


12.00 


12.60 


13.60 


1360 


14.00 


UM 


18,t? 


13 80 


8.09V( 


00 


13.20 


laoo 


14.40 


18.00 


18.60 


16.20 


16.80 


17.40 


18.00 


18 60 


18.78 


TO 


16.40 


16.10 


16.80 


17J» 


18.20 


18.90 


19.60 


20J0 


21.00 


21.70 21.87H 1 1 


M 


17:60 


18.40 


19.20 


20.00 


20.80 


21.60 


22.40 


23.20 


21.00 


iM 


16.60 


00 


10.80 


20.70 


21.60 


22.00 


23.40 


2430 


28.20 


26.10 


27.00 


TIM 


8.12(4 


m 


aaoc 


£00 


34.00 


20.00 


2O0 


27.00 


fflJjO 


29.00 


»M 


LOO 


!£_ 


Koi 


Bet. 


33ct 


88>ict 


C 


asct 


»ot. 


Slet 


37i4ct 


68 CL 


89ct. 


40 ot. 




M 


-^ 


M% 


« 


.70 


.72 


.74 


.78 


.78 


.78 


M 




M 


M 


liSr 


1.03 


1.08 


Loe 


1.11 


1.12% 


1.14 


1.17 


SB 




1.28 


1.32 


1:^ 


ise 


1.40 


1.44 


1.48 


1.80 


1.52 


1.88 


m 




1.60 


l-» 


l.TO 


1:1! 


180 


1.88 


1.87(4 


1.00 


1.98 


tM 




1.92 


1.M 


8.55^ 


2.04 


2.16 


2.22 


2,25 


iM 


2.84 


%.» 




8.9« 


3.31 




9J8 


2.48 


2.62 


IM 


im<A 


2.66 


2.73 


2.80 


• 


3M 


3.64 


s.ia 


2.80 


2.88 


2.06 


3.00 


3.M 


3.12 


»M 


• 


aM 


3.9T 


>M 


3.16 


3.24 


3.33 


3.37(4 


3.42 


8j: 


8.68 


10 


SJO 


8.30 


i^ 


S.40 


8J0 


8.00 


8.70 


3.75 


8.80 


3.90 


.60 


11 


aju 


8.63 


S.74 


3.88 


3.96 


4.07 


4.12% 


4.18 


4.29 


.40 


18 


3.W 


3.96 


4.00* 


4.08 


4.20 


4J2 


4.44 


4.60 


4.60 


4.6S 


4jn 


U 


4.16 


4.20 


i^ 


4.42 


4M 


4.68 


4.81 


4.87% 


4,04 


8.07 


8.20 


14 


4.48 


4.02 


4.76 


4.00 


8.04 


818 


5.25 


8.32 


8.46 


8.60 


10 


4.80 


4.86 


iW 


810 


6.26 


6.40 


888 


5.02% 


8.70 


6.88 


8.00 


16 


6.12 


&38 


l^ 


S44 


6.00 


5.76 


802 


6.00 


6.08 


6.24 


6.40 


17 


0.44 


6.61 


0.78 


8.06 


6.12 


6.29 


637% 


6.46 


6.63 


8.80 


18 


6.76 


0.94 


6.00^ 


0.12 


6.30 


6,48 


6.li0 


6.75 


6.84 


7.02 


7.20 


10 


6.06 


6.27 




6.40 


6.68 


6.81 


7.03 


7.12% 


7.22 


7.41 


7.80 


ao 


6.4( 


6.6( 




<.W> 


7.00 


7.20 


7.40 


7.50" 


7.60 


7.80 


8.60 


so 


8.00 


8,25 




8J10 


8.70 


9.00 


9.25 


9,37% 


0.60 


9.78 


10.60 


ao 


9.60 


9M 


tooo 


10.20 


10.80 


10.80 


11.10 


11.25 


11.40 


11.70 


12.60 


40 


13.80 


UM 


!S:^ 


13.00 


14.00 


14.40 


14.80 


15.1.3 


15.20 


16.60 


16.60 


SO 


16.00 


16.00 


17.00 


17.60 


18.00 


18 80 


1»,75 


10.00 


19.80 


20.60 


60 


10.20 


19.8( 


moo* 


20.40 


21.00 


21.00 


22.20 


22.50 


22.80 


23.40 


».60 


TO 


22.40 


23.10 


S:S4 


23' J 


24.90 


28.20 


25.60 


20.28 


28.60 


27.30 


28.60 


80 


28.60 


26 40 


i...» 


28.00 


28.80 


29.00 


30.00 


30.40 


31.20 


32.60 


W 


28.80 


20.70 


30.00™ 


30.00 


31.60 


.12.40 


33.3'! 


33.78 


31.20 


35.10 


36.00 


100 


82.00 


33.00 33.33H 


31.00 


38.00 3li 00 1 37.00 


37.80 


38.00 


99.00 1 40.01 


432 





mSCELI^NEOUa TABLES 



' hi 



READY RECKONrat 



• aittmlllllinnittis Mt conUln Uui NUMBER of theArtlcIa ind 
UM fioloron on tb« tops of Uie Tables Mm PKIf :E. 



Koi 


41 Ct 


42 Ct 


43 ct 


44 ct 


40 ct 


46 "L 


47 ct 


48 Ct 


49 ct 


60ut 


« ct 






M 


M 


.8f 


M 


.92 


.94 


.96 


08 


I (k) 


, 






1.2( 


1.21 


1.3S 


l.X 


1.38 


1.41 


1.44 


1.47 


1.30 


K53 




.61 


l.M 


ITS 


1.7« 


1.80 


1.84 


i.es 


1.92 


1.96 


200 






.OC 


2.U 


2.U 


2.2C 


2.29 


2.30 


2.35 


2.10 


2,45 


2.50 


2*55 




« 


3.8S 


2.fi« 


2.61 


2.70 


2.76 


2.80 


2.bA 


2.94 


3 00 






2.91 


iw 


3.0 


3.0i 


3. IS 


3.22 


3.29 


3.36 


3.43 


n.60 


3.57 




3.2£ 


3.3C 


3.44 


3.5! 


3.60 


3.68 


3.76 


3.H4 


a92 


400 






3.6f 


3.78 


381 


3.9e 


4.00 


4.14 


4.23 


4.32 


4.11 


4.311 


4.69 


1 


4.M 


4ja 


4J0 


4.401 4.80 


4.60 


4.70 


4.80 


4.90 


i.lK) 






4.8 


4.63 


4.73 


4.84 


4.98 


006 


a 17 


5.28 


a39 


6.00 


5.GI 


12 


4.W 


6.01 


0.10 


0.28 


0.40 


5.72 


564 


6.76 


aN8 


600 


13 


B.33 


B.4« 


6JW 


0.7S 


6.85 


aw 


an 


6.24 


6.37 


6..'U 


ties 


U 


6.U 


0.88 


8.0B 


0.18 


6.30 


6.44 


6,88 


6.72 


6.86 


7,U0 


7.14 


IS 


6. ID 


6.30 


6.48 


6.60 


6 78 


6.90 


7.05 


7.20 


7.33 


7.B0 


7. 65 


16 


6JM 


6.73 


6.88 


7.04 


7.20 


7.36 


7.82 


7.68 


7.84 


8.00 


8.16 


H 


B.97 


7.14 


7.31 


7.48 


7.65 


7.82 


7.99 


8.16 


833 


8.50 


8, 67 


IS 


7.38 


7.M 


7.14 


7.02 


8.1( 


8,28 


a46 


8.64 


8.82 


9.00 


9 18 


i» 


2-2 


^•S! 


8.17 


8.30 


8.85 


8)74 


893 


9.12 


9.31 


9.50 


9.'a 


so 


8.20 


8.40 


8.80 


8JiO 


9.00 


9.20 


9.40 


aeo 


9.80 


10.00 


Ut.'M 


S8 


10.28 


10.90 


10,76 


11.00 


11.28 


11.80 


11.78 


12.00 


12.25 


12,50 


1:^.78 


90 


13.30 


12.80 


12.90 


13.20 


13l80 


law 


14.10 


14.40 


14.70 


15 00 


13.30 


40 


1&40 


1600 


17.20 


17.60 


18.00 


18.40 


16.60 


19.20 


19.60 


20.00* 


MW 


00 


30.00 


21.00 


21.00 


23.00 


22.80 


saoo 


23 60 


21.00 


24.00 


25.00 


25.50 


60 


£!•«' 


28.20 


2B.80 


86.40 


2T.0O 


27.60 


28.20 


28.80 


29.40 


30,00 


30.60 


70 


28:70 


39.40 


30.10 


30.80 


31.00 


32.20 


32.90 


3a(lO 


31.30 


35.00 


35,70 


80 


32.80 


33.00 


34. U 


36.2U 


36.00 


3880 


37.60 


38.« 


38.20 


40 00 


40.80 


90 


36.00 


37.00 


38.70 




40 80 


41.40 


42.30 


43.20 


44.10 


43.00 


45.92 


100 


4t0C 


Uffi 


4aM 


44.00 


«jOO 


4aoo 


47.00 


4aoo 


4aoo 


8^ 


51.00 


Mo 


BS«t. 


03 Ct. 


04 «t 


80 Ct 


06 Ct 


57 ct 


08 Ct 


00 ct 


60 ct 


61 ct 


62 ct 




1.01 


1.09 


1.08 


1.10 


1.12 


1.14 


1.16 


1.18 


1.S0 


IJa 


1.24 




1.66 


tM 


1.6B 


1.69 


1.68 


1.71 


1.74 


i.n 


1.80 


1.83 






2.06 


2.13 


2.16 


3.30 


2.21 


2J8 


2.32 


2.36 


2.40 


2,44 


2.48 




2:60 


S.68 


2.70 


3:75 


3.80 


2.88 


2.00 


2.95 


aoo 


3.U8 


3.10 




ai2 


3.18 


S.H 


1.30 


3J6 


342 


a48 


3.04 


3.60 


3,(>G 


3.72 




3.M 


an 


8.78 


3.88 


a92 


a99 


4.06 


4.13 


4.20 


4.27 


4,34 




4.16 


4.M 


4.32 


4.40 


4.48 


4.06 


4.64 


4.72 


480 


4,88 


4.96 




4.M 


4.77 


4.86 


4.93 


0.0* 


a 13 


a22 


5.31 


a40 


5.49 


558 


10 


0.20 


t2 


8.40 


0.00 


6.60 


a7o 


a80 


8.90 


6.00 


6.10 


6J!0 


11 


B.I2 


0.83 


0.94 


6.06 


a 16 


a27 


a38 


6.40 


6.60 


a7i 


6.82 


13 


6.24 


0.36 


6.48 


6.60 


6.72 


a84 


C.96 


7.'>8 


7JM 


l.St 


7.44 


13 


6.76 


6.89 


7.02 


7.10 


7.28 


7.41 


7.M 


7.67 


7.80 


7.93 


8.06 


14 


7.28 


T.42 


7.88 


7.70 


7.&I 


7.98 


a 12 


a26 


8.40 


8.54 


K.ri8 


IS 


f.m 


7.96 


8.10 


8.26 


a4o 


asB 


a70 


a88 


9.00 


9.13 


9.30 


16 


8.32 


8.48 


!•?! 


8.80 


8.96 


9.12 


9.28 


9.44 


9.60 


9.7b 


9,92 


17 


884 


9.01 


9.18 


9.35 


9.oa 


9.69 


9.86 


10.03 


10.20 


10.37 


10 34 


16 


9.36 


9.64 


0.T2 


9.90 


10.08 


10.26 


10.44 


10.62 


10 80 


10.98 


11,16 


19 


8.88 


10.07 


10.26 


10.48 


10 M 


10.83 


11.02 


11.21 


11.40 


11.59 


11.78 


20 


10.40 


10.60 


10.80 


11.00 


11.20 


1140 


11. GO 


11.80 


12 00 


12.20 


12.40 


39 


13.00 


13 25 


13.S0 


ia7s 


14.00 


1420 


14.50 


14,75 


15 00 


15.25 


noo 


SO 


19.60 


15.90 


16.20 


16.80 


16.80 


17.10 


17.40 


17 70 


18.00 


18.:(U 


IK tiO 


40 


20.80 


21.10 


21.60 


22.00 


22.40 


22.80 


2320 


23.f!0 24.00 


24.42 


21.80 


00 


26.00 


28J0 


27.00 


27 80 


28 00 


28.B0 


29.00 


2».50 30.00 1 


SI.SO 


31,00 


eo 


3IJ0 


31.80 


32.40 


.0.00 


33.60 


31.20 


34.80 


35 40 


36.00 


■MM 


37.20 


u 


36.40 


37.10 


31.80 


38.90 


39.20 


3fi.no 


4060 


41.30 


4JIM) 


12.70 


i;).40 


41.6ri 


t;.40 


43.20 


44.00 


44 80 4S.m\ 


■Mt.40 


47 20 


mm 


48. M) 


4!).60 


90 


4e.M 


47.70 


48.60 


49.80 


80.40 31.30 1 


52.aO 


83.10 


M,tK) 


■M.no 


M.MO 


100 


C2.00 


63.00 


OiOO 


00.001 


06.00 


57 00 1 


58.00 


08.00 


tiO.OO 


61.00 


62.09 



433 



r 



!l:|lr 



i '4'^i 

I * ' irt I 



1 



I iii; 





MISCEI.I,ANEI)US TABI«1 






BEADT RECKONER. 






tf Iba Nlimbn nqulnd U not found In the Tsbln, •cM two Hnmbgn to- 






W and 6 tOMtlier ; and ao for 3afi buabalu-trabla Iba valua of 100, and 
add6Dan<n}toi[ethar. 










Ka 


Bitot 


63 ct 


64.4. 


60 Gt. 


66 at. 


86%et 


«7et 


68 ct. 


68 et 


70 OL 


71 eta 






a 


u> 


IM 


1.28 


1.30 


"Tffi 


'■33% 


1.31 


1.38 


1.38 


L40 


1.43 








I'STV 


IJf 


1.93 


1.06 


1.06 


2.00 


2.01 


2M 


2.07 


3.10 


8.18 








2J0 


3.6! 


2.06 


3.60 


2.64 


IS 


2.09 


3.73 


3.76 


3.90 


3.84 








s.uy 


3.1 


3.30 


3.28 


3.30 


3.38 


3.16 


&46 


MO 


3.« 








3.75 


a.n 


3.34 


3.911 


3.96 


4.00 


4.03 


4.03 


4.14 


4.20 


4.36 








4.9rv 


4A 


4.48 


4Jt8 


4.63 


i^ 


4.69 


4.76 


168 


4.00 


4.97 








».oo' 


8.0 


8.13 


8.20 


8.28 


8.36 


6.41 


ft82 


3.60 


668 








S.63V 


8.6- 


8.76 


8.89 


8.94 


6.00 


8J» 


813 


6.21 


8.30 


e.39 






10 


6J» 


tx 


6.40 


6.30 


6.60 


?S$ 


6.76 


9M 


6.00 


7.00 


7.10 






11 


o^sni 


6.9r 


7.M 


7.16 


7.26 


ija 


7.48 


7.W 


7.70 


7.81 






a 


7J0 


7JK 


7.68 


7.80 


7.92 


8.00 


3.04 


8.16 


8.26 


8.40 


s 






u 


8.UM 


8.1 


8J3 


8.46 


6.66 


i-ja 


8.71 


a84 


8.07 


9.10 






M 


».n 


8.8C 


8.96 


6.10 


9.21 


9.38 


9.63 


8.66 


9.80 


9.M 






U 


9J7« 


9.4 


9.00 


9.78 


9.90 


10.00 


10.08 


19.29 


10.38 


10.00 


10.68 






16 


10.00 


10.0! 


WJI4 


V.4D 


OM 


!?:^ 


10.73 


19.88 


11.04 


11.90 


11.86 






17 


0.0>M 


10.7 


10.88 


8.06 


1.22 


IIM 


11.66 


11.73 


U.90 


12.07 






U 


11J» 


11.31 


11.83 


11.76 


1.68 


13.00 


12JK 


13.84 


13.43 


13.60 


12.78 






M 


l«li 


1L9] 


13.19 


13.38 


UM 


18.66U 


13.73 


18.68 


18.U 


ia30 


13.49 






» 


1» 


13.« 


OM 


13J10 


3.30 


oM 


1&40 


13.66 


13.80 


14.00 


14.20 






S8 


I!.<1M 


18.71 


19.00 


16J 


tx 


am 


16.78 


17.60 


17.28 


17.60 


17.78 






» 


«.7» 


WM 


10.30 


19JS6 


OM 


30.69* 


80.10 


89.40 


30.70 


31.00 


21.30 






40 


u» 


38.3I 


30.01 


»J» 


96.46 


26.66% 


36.80 


27.80 


27.60 


38.00 


38.40 






» 


11.38 


31 JH 




38.8 


33.00 


33!^ 


33416 


8100 


84.80 


88.00 


38.80 






n 


HM 


37.81 




89.00 


aOM 


Sm' 


46.36 


40.80 


41.40 


42.00 


42.00 






70 


13.78 


44.11 




iSM 


46.80 


S:S% 


46.10 


47.60 


4a30 


49.00 


49.70 






M 


O.0O 


80.41 


81.20 


83.00 


88.60 


S3JI0 


84.40 


8&30 


60.00 


86.80 






(0 


;1J8 


86.7C 


67.00 


88J» 


89.40 


oeloo^ 


60J0 


61.20 


62.10 


63.00 


6aoo 






100 


ajo 


63.0 


HjOO 


OMj 


WM 


66J6VI 


6M0 


^00 


^00 


7M0 


TLM 






Noi 


73 «] 


73 ot. 


74 ct 


78<st. 


76 ot 


not 


78 ct 


78 ot 


8ftet 


61 et 


83 et. 








1.44 


Im 


1.48 


"Too 


1.88 


1.64 


IJW 


1.08 


1.60 


1.63 


1.64 








8.10 


8.19 




8.38 


3.36 


3J1 


tM 


2.37 


3.40 


3.43 


2.46 








3.W 


8.83 




3.00 


3.04 


3.08 


3.18 


3.16 


&ao 


8.34 


8.98 








3.00 


3.08 




8.78 


8.80 


8.38 


SJO 


8.66 


4.00 


4.0B 


4.10 








4.3S 


4J8 




4.80 


4J6 


4JI2 


4.63 


4.74 


4.80 


4.80 


4.98 








8.04 


8.11 




UM 


8.38 


8.39 


8.18 


8.08 


0.60 


&67 


8.74 






8 


8.70 


fJ! 




8.00 


6.68 


6.16 


6.81 


6.38 


6.40 


&48 


6.06 






• 


0.43 




8.78 


6.81 


6.93 


7.08 


7.11 


7.20 


7.29 


7J>8 






10 


IM 


7.30 


7.40 


7.60 


766 


J;I? 


7M 


m 


6.00 


&10 


8.20 






11 


7.98 


3.03 


8.14 


8.2 


8J6 


8.68 


8.80 


8.91 


9.02 






u 


P.fl4 


8.78 


8.88 


9X0 


9.13 


1:24 


9J6 


9.48 


9.60 


9.73 


a84 






a 


9J6 


9.49 


9.63 


9.78 


9.68 


10.01 


10.14 


ia2T 


10.40 


10.83 


10.«« 






u 


10.03 


10.83 


10J6 


OJO 


16.61 


10.78 


10.98 


11.08 


11.90 


11.34 


11,48 






u 


10.80 


10.96 


11.10 


1.28 


11.40 


11.0S 


1.70 


ItSB 


12.00 


13.18 


12.30 






M 


11JI8 


11.68 


UM 


2.00 


13.16 


13.33 


18.48 


12.« 


12.80 


13.90 


13.13 






17 


13.84 


13.41 


12J» 


2.71 


18.92 


13.00 


iM 


13.43 


13.60 


13.77 


13.04 






IS 


13.00 


18.14 


13.38 


13.80 


1368 


13.80 


*M 


14.28 


14.40 


14.66 


14,78 






ID 


13.63 


13.37 


14.00 


14.28 


14.44 


14.03 


4.88 


1S.01 


18.30 


18.39 


18.08 






ao 


14.40 


14.60 


14J» 


16.00 


18.20 


10.40 


8.69 


1B.B0 


16.00 


16.20 


16 40 






38 


13.00 


1838 


18.80 


18.78 


19.00 


19.28 


9.09 


10.TS 


30.00 


30.38 


W.BO 






?■ 


31.00 


31.00 


88J0 


83 80 


28.80 


83.19 


83.49 


23.70 


34.00 


SM.30 


3160 






40 


23.80 


39.30 


39.66 


30.00 


30.40 


30.60 


1.30 


31.60 


32.00 


32.40 


33J0 






m 


36.00 


3880 


37.00 


arjio 


a«oo 


3»J» 


39.00 


89.00 


40.00 


40.D0 


JJ:8 






m 


43.30 


43J0 


44.40 


48.00 


«.60 


46.20 


46.80 


47.40 


48.00 


48.60 






70 


00.40 


ni.io 


01.80 


63.00 


03.30 


63.90 


64.60 


BS.80 


80.00 


06.70 


67.40 






80 


OT.on 


88.40 


66.20 


60.00 


60.60 


61.60 


63.40 


eiao 


64.00 


64.W. 


fiB.60 






00 


UM 


66.70 


06.60 


67.80 


68.10 


00.30 


70.20 


71.10 


73.00 


72.90 


7a80 






loo 


KM 


73.00 


74.60 


78.00 


76.00 


77.60 


78.90 


7t.0D 


KM 


ILW 


«I100 




1 










"■""* 






■—.^ 


—■i^i" 















MI8CRLLANEOUB TABLES 



i 



Utlia 



RKAOr BECKONEK. 




435 



I 

■i 
I 

'If 

Mjii 

■ ' II 

111: 



I.'.!;:' 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 

Tabto Showbv the Tahu of Goal and Straw 





Weight of Ooal in Bin or Box 

wtrik^n fo'rrirwett' "^'i :f ^■■^ ■"»"' «» >»-'• 

«al, or by «, ror buZ^^L^^trt^^ H '"[,'"""'«'"» 
number of pounds. * "*"" "'" "^l"*' ">6 

To find the number of tons, rtivido by 2,000. 

P,, '■°^'*,°'"'*"^ '•"»'<'«' "Bin Will Hold 

n^trJtor ^'- ^^^^^-^t^-^^^lZ 

18X10X8=730 (cubic featWm— an <v^ j 

86,000+2,000=18 toll' P™""*"- 

To Knd the Amount of Chanoal a Bin Will Hold 

oftitrilltr^— ■/•--""--bes, aodabushel 

Ix.i°Sr "'the ^bTo' fSo^'l'ltll'i,'''' '""''f ™S'- •"»"' «8 
pounds. Bituminous coal weighs about M 



437 



I 

i i 



11 



J if 
in 







MISCELI„VNE0U8 TABUM 

Buma AMD snxiiia n thb ton 

To And the cost of snjr number of pounds at ao much per ton. 

iiu/i!.— Remoye the deofmil point three plaoee to the taft. and 
multiply by one-half the price per ton. 

Emniiife.-Wliat will 1799 pounds of hayoortat tlOperton! 
J7W pounds with the point removed equals 1.71», and 1.7WI X 8. 
one-half the price per ton, l» «8 905, the answer. 

OBOOC&'S BRAIL RTILX 

As many articles, such as tea. sugar, coffee, eto., are sold at a 
given number of pounds per dollar, the following method will 
show the number of pounds that can be purchased for any num- 
ber of cents. 

/!ule.— Multiply the number of pounds to be sold for one dol- 
lar by the number of cents' worth desired. 

Example.— When sugar is . 'd at 19 pounds for a dollar, how 
many pounds can be purchast ' for 6C cents? 

SoJufion.— 19X80 =11.40 or HI pounds. 

Orocer'a Tobl* 

18 things make J AtatB. 

13 dozen make J 8™" 

12 gross make Igreatgrcea. 

20 things make } !°?"', 

198 pounds of flour make 1 Pf^r 

200 pounds of beef or pork make 1 J*"'*'- 

135 pounds of potatoes or apples make 1 barrel. 

280 pounds of salt make } ™''™- 

400 pounds of molasses make J u? i* 

200 pounds of sugar make. . . . } barrel. 

240 pounds of lima make } barreL 

100 pounds of fish make } quintal. 

100 pounds of nails mnke J kag- 

00 pound-i of soap make J box. 

20 pounds of raisins mnke J box. 

2 pounds of cigars make J box. 

20 pounds of soda make J box. 

40 pounds of cheefie make 1 box. 

25 pounds of tobacco make 1 box. 

62 pounds of tea make } box. 

60 pounds of saleratus make 1 box. 

25 pounds of chocolate mnke 1 box 

86 pounds of butter mnke . . 'J nrkin. 

5 pounds of spices nmke J ^o. 

1100 pounds of rice make J J. ik*i 

2150. 42 cubic inches make 1 busheL 

281 cubic inches make :--'*?'r"''„ 

ZITA cubic inches make 1 imperial gallon 

■438 



• ! 



MISCGLLANEOITB TABLES 

Kapld Methods for MuUng Ooodi 

ThoM who buy largely can best appreciate the value of t\ quick 
^nd rapid method for calculating the per cent of profits def'ired. 
If you wish to ral(mlate the per cent on a single artictu, the 
following table will be an exutillent method. If you desire to sell 
an article at any of the following per cents, say the article ooeta 
00 cento, and you wish to make 

10 per cent, divide by 10, multiply by It —!'}!i. 

20 \mr cent, divide by lU. multij^ly by 13 = liO. 

25 per cent, multiply by 10, divide by 8 = (i3i. 

30 pur cent, divide by 10, multiply by 13 = (15. 

834 per cent, add } of itself = 66. 

88 J per cent, divide by 8, multiply by 4 = CtiJ. 

60 per cent, add I, of itself = 75. 

How to Mark Ooods 

In many mercantile houses it is customary to use a private 
mark, which is placed on the goods to denote their cost and ml-U 
ing price. Various devices are used. A wurd or phrase oontiiin- 
Ing ten different letters is the most common used. These letters 
are used instead of figures, thus: 

Cash Profit 

1284 567B00 

If the cost and selling prire of an article were respectively 
|165 and 9210, the mark would be: 
c r p 



if 

! t 



11 



An extra letter called a "Repeater" is used to prevent the 
repetition of any figure. Instead of writing 255, which accord- 
ing to the above key would be a p p, the repeater z or any other 
letter not in the key-word may be used, which would make 255 
read a p z. 

The following are a few of the words that can be used; 

Republinjin. Regulation, Quick Sales. Importance. 

Charleston. Cumberland. Vauderbllt. Misfortune. 

Instead of letters, characters similar to the foilowing are fre- 
quently used : 

j>>zcx: <hOX 

19S4 56 7890 
o h p 



29 



I If 



it 



I • 



I 



fi 
jl 

li 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



WBOBTI 

Troy 

2;* '?*''"(«'■> » penny wht.—iiwt. 

^ ''*'■■, 1 ounce,— oz, 

3a grainfl, i cmhi. diamond weight. 

By thte weWit gold, silver, and 
Jewels only are weighed. The ounre 
and pound In thla are the aanie pt lu 
ftpothecarlei' weight. 

Apotheeftritti' 

35 *f"'n" 1 wniiilp. 

3«"Mcs 1 .triichm. 



Rdrs. 
i2oza. 



Avoirdapoia 



, 1 ounrp. 
. 1 pound. 



Ifldranu (dn.) 1 ounce,— oz. 

I80Z1* 1 pound.— lb. 

2* Iba 1 uuartfr.— qr.* 

4 quarters 100 weight, — cwt. 

20 cwts 1 ton. 

• Formerly 28 lbs. wer* allowed to 
the quarter, but the practice la now 
nearly out of use excepting In the 
coal mines In I^nnaylvania, the E" :- 
em flsb markets, and the U. 8. Cu""- 
tom House. 

Grains are tho same In each of the 
above weights. 
5,760 grains, apothecaries' or troy 

weight 1 lb, 

7,000 grains avoirdupois weight I lb. 
Therefore, 144 lbs. avoir, equal 
170 Iba. aooth. or troy. 

*Of Liquids 
1 galloo of] weighs II.I6 lbs. avoir. 
1 gallon distilled water, 10 lbs. 
1 gallon sea water 12.36 lbs. 
1 gallon proof Bplrilw. JO.«H lbs. 

MISOELLAmOUB 

IRON, LEAD ETC. 

If lbs 1 Stone. 

3lt stones 1 nip 

8 pigs 1 fother. 

BEEF, roRK, ETC. 

200 lbs.. 1 barrel. 

196 lb'*, (flour) 1 barrel 

lOOlbs. (flsh) Iquinlal ' 



MXAsmn 

Diy 

if pints- 1 quart,— gt. 

.,;|[««ks 1 bushel..i-bu, 

Jft htisheU I chaldron. 

1 United States standard (Win- 
chester) bushel— 18* inches 
Iti diameter, and 8 inches 
ileep— coutalns 31Aa42 cublo 
inches. 



4 (Tills. . . 
'2 lunts. . 



Liquid or Via* 



, 1 pint,— pt. 
1 quart,— qt. 



- I'"""- I quari,— q., 

„' lua"'* 1 gallon.— Ml. 

314 gaUons 1 Barrel.- Bbl. 

2 barrels 1 hogshead.- hhd. 

V- 8. standard 

n Ea'Ion 231 cubic inches. 

Beer gallon. ... 231 cubic InchCM. 

Imp. Kalinti 2771^ cubic inches. 

31 bi'tr Kullons..,! bl.I, 

Time 

fiO seconds 1 minute. 

60 minutes 1 hour 

24 hours 1 day. 

7 days 1 week. 

4 weeks I lunar month. 

28, 29, .10. or I , „, . 

:ii (lays, i ^ calendar month. 
30 days .' I month (In com- 
puting interest). 
fi2 weeks and 1 day ( . 

12 calendar months. , . P y^"- 
365 days, fi hours, 48 minutes, and 
49 seconds 1 solar year. 

Oireolar 

60 seconds 1 minute. 

60 minutes 1 degree 

30 degrees 1 sign. 

90 degrees 1 quadrant. 

4 quadrants i , ^ ""•"'" 

360 degrees f 1 circle 

...^j^"''^"'*^"* method of finding 
the difference in time between two 
places, is to notice their distancfl 
apart, m degrees or longitude, and 
allow 4 minutes to each degree, based 
on the following 

calculation: 

1440 minutes 1 day 

or revolution of the earth ' 
1 revolution of the earth is 
360 degrees; therefore, 
1 degree 4 minutes. 



• Imperial gallon 



440 



WEIQHTB AND HEASURKS 



UEtMVKEB 

Long 

DIKTANCK 

3 ^«rl*■y.■nr^^ I inch,— In. 

*21n... l(<)ot,-tl. 

■',''•■ 1 yurrf,— yrl. 

fi^yrti IrtKl,— rd. 

**iur 1 mile. 

CLOTH 

•Hnrlira i nail. 

j"""" 1 (nmncr. 

4 cluuruM I yard. 

MISCELLAHBOUH 

'.i InrhPH 1 p«ira. 

■1 ifhwi 1 hand. 

'* inches 1 gpan. 

1« inchps I puhit. 

21,8inche3 1 Bible cubit. 

:J» |«^t 1 military pace. 

•» 'c*t 1 commoD pace. 

Bqnare 

ii^f^ina laq.foot. 

8'"i "■ i laq.yard. 

■}0*«(-.vrt8 l»q. rod. 

40sq.roda IfoodV 

broods iKCK. 

Bunreyori' 

^Iwii"*^***" *""'*. 

z.'S links , 1 rod 

4ro.]8 .. 1 chain. 

10 square chains . » . 

160 «qiiare roda . . . f * **^^- 

^0 ««^ 1 square mfle. 

Oubio 

172R cubic inches.. 1 cubic foot. 

27 cubic feet. . . . i cubic yard. 

'28 cubic feet. ... 1 cord (wwd) 

40 cubic feet. ... l ton (ahiDr»inirl 

2!|?« cubic in. . . 1 stanS'b'uf * 

27fW cubic 111 1 IniiKTfal cal 

1 cuDic ft., four-fifths of u bushel. 

To And the number of bushels in 
a bin of any dimensions find the 
number of cubic feet by multi- 
plyinir the three dimenaiona of the 
bin in feet; deduct one-fifth. and the 
lesult is the numbet of bushels. 



PApnt 

Thr Sisp/i in hirhea 

Flat Writinff-Pap«r 



itoubie nirLeiter: ::::::: :,j J 20 

^i"'"''"' 1?'^ 



Check Folio. \t 41 

Bank Folio n C ^* 

Doubiocop i7«;i 

Su,»rr Royal .....V.V.-mAt 

""i»-f»»' :;2;(x3i 

Of the different sizes there are alao 
several different weights of each size 
aa Demy 20, 23, 24, 20. and 28 lbs' 
per ream. 

Stationers usually rule, cut and 
fold the fiizea required to make the 
various styles of Irttt-r ami note pa- 
pers— a flat iticn nuikitu; one, two 
or four sheeta of letkr or note paper. 

Xiediirer Papen 

Flat Cap.. \At vr 

Crown.. ...; \l\XL 

Demy ifij^f 

Mediira ... ': \lll\ 

Royal .., : lov-.j 

Super Rojal ""^C 5J 

Imperial Sq, ii 

Book Papers 

Ttie usual sizes cf these. Wm the 
different Amcrirun an'l !:nghsli inan- 
ufacturm, differ but iii|io from the 
above, except m fill spwial ordura 



Paper Counts 



24 sheets. . , 
lOJ quin-s. . 
20 quires. . 

2 renni-s. . 
5 bundles . 



Units ot Anjrtbing 



12 pieces j , 

12 dozen i i 

'2 PTOSS I , 

30 units 1 . 



441 



I fJI 



11 



H 

i 



'4 



L.t]t 



WEiailTS AND ME-VSUBES 

TBB tana imm 

llMnn(i>tL«i(th 

UelHe DnimlnnltmM and Yaliiri. £,uiralf«(« (» nemmliuilioiu in Vm. 

Kll.mi.i.r - i.noo mclim = "liV'.' "h ?^d^ 

IKIuimcUT " 10 mMiT" - : »" i'"'"- 
Meter ■ I metpr = -W-i? nrheii. 

iVmlimtiT - .01 i.t a mil.r ■■»J«2' DjJ- 
MlUlmettT ■ .001 of a nw-ttT = 0.0394 incn. 

HCMUIU o< lurfu* 

Mclrte /VnominolWiu onil Valuet. EqutmUnlit (n Denomiiuifiiiiui <« Cu. 

lltflurr = 10,000 HqilBrf mrU'rt - 2.471 arT>^. 

Olltart- = 1 aquLR- lutur - 1,550 squurc inebea. 

Mtusni of OipMitr 

A/flrir Ocpinmmmiom oni/ Volafs. iiittiralcnte in Daumlnallont in I'M. 

N»>i>a. Ni,.l.ll.r«. riibio Me»»iirc. Ilrj- Measure. Winr M™»iire. 
KilnUUT =» 1 000 =^ 1 i-iibir mft.T := 1 ..108 cubic yards ==2tV4.17 Kallit. 
hI im'-r . 106 = 01 cubic meter = 2 lm.h. 3..T5 pk.. - 28 4 7 j. ,. 
Ihiallter . 10 = 10 c. .leclmelem = O.Ml quart.. = 2 B417 Ka U 

iter » 1= 1 c decimeter = 0.008 quafta. = 1.0507 quarts 

Millter = .1 = .Ic.declmeler =l).1022ciiblcllich. =0.M5jflll<. 
("i i ler = m - OccenllIlletfM= 6102 cubic Inch. ^O.JMfiudos. 
Millililli = .(io' 1 c. centimeter - 0.001 cubic men. = 0.27 Hold dr. 

WaichM 

Metric Dettominationa and Values, Efjuii-alenlit in Denominatifmn in VM. 
WeiEht o( what quan- Avoirdupois 
lily of water at max- Weight. 

iiAum. No.drams. imura density. 

HUlier or lonnenu =1,000,000= l cubic meter = 2204.0 iKiiiiids. 
SulrSll = 1110 000= 1 hectoliter = 220.46 pounds, 

flvrlamm = 10 (HIO = 10 liters = 22^40 i»mnis, 

KflMramorkilo = 1,000= I liter = 2,204li pounds, 

HsSTrn = 100= 1 deciliter = 3.S274 ounce.. 

Dekacrein = 10 » 10 c. centlmct, = 0.3527 ounces, 

(itiiin = 1= iccentlmet, =. 16.432 OTlns, 

lisSnim = 1 = .1 c, centlmet, = 1„5432 grams. 

Cmtoa^ = .01 = lOc.millimet. = 0.1S43itr. n. 

MlUiim™ = .001= icmllliract. = 0.0164 grain. 

Table toi rinding tba Contants of Sqiun Tanka 

A lank five (i-et by five (eel hol.ls '.''■'J''''- 

A tank six feet by six feet holil.^. . »| „ 

A tank seven feet by seven feta holds 114 ., 

A tank eight feet by eiKht feet holds 154 .. 

A tank nine feet by nine feet holds 19* „ 

A tank ten feet by ten feet holds ^Jt 

The above table is for one foot of depth only. 
To find the contents of a trough, measure its depth in feet and 
multiply it by the contents of one foot in depth. 

442 






WRlOIITfl ANU UKAHUKEfl 



A T«U« for Oinular Tanki On* Foot In Dtptb 



HKV«n f««t in (llmnelfr \uA»U O 

Mtiht fivt III illrnnftiT h(i)<l 13 

Nln« fM-t In (llumfli-r ImliU . . . , \^ 

Tt-n tt^t in dlamettT htrftla H»i 

N. B,— Tn flnrl t\w ronleniH »f a tank by th*« talile. multiply lli.* cnntnntt 
of one futiL In clt-plti by Hit) luimtjcr of tet>t ilttii. 

To M ouuro WoQi or Oiittnu 
Square the diameter (n inches, multiply by the (luoltnitl .7-<-Vi, 
and the product by the depth of the well or cistern in incties. 
The reeult will be the full capacity of the well in ouhlc inr'hea. 
If the actual quantity of water be souKht. multiply by the >lepth 
of viater in inchea, and In either CMe divide by 231 for tne num- 
ber of gallons. 



OircoUr Olitonu, Om foot in Dopth, Computed 



AURTKR rONTKXTS 

INCtlKS IN GALLONS 

12 6.875 

15 9.18 

10 ia44 



L\UAI.I.i>NS 



.18 



For any greater depth than one foot, multiply by the nuniWr 
of feet and fraotionn of a foot. As the areuH of circles, und 
consequently the capacities of circular cisternn of eiiinil depth. 
vary ae the W|uares of their diameters, it U iiiniccessary to 
multiply calculations. For Instance, should It \te ri>>|iiJred tn 
find the contents of a circular cistern of 3 feet in (liiinit>ter. my 
as the square of 1 : to the »|iiare of 3:0.875, thnt is, ah l:4::-'i>7.~i, 
and f>.87SX 4 = 33.5= the contents of such ctster*. This 
formula will apply to any diameter; for 8 feet, multiply by 9; 
for 4 feet, multiply by 16, eta ; for 0, by 35. 
Oiitemi and Casks 

To Measure the Oontonta of Cistema.— To a.<irortaiii the con- 
tents of circular cisterns, multiply the square of IhK diameter in 
feet by the >lepth In feet, and that product by ,V.h. for the con- 
tents in liogsheads, or by ,Vo'o for barrels, by V fo' t''^ "-"ontents 
in gallons. 

Square Oiatenu.— Multiply the width in feet by tlie lenjitli in 
feet, and that by the depth in feet, and that uK-iiii by ,Va fof 
hogirWeads, or is for barrels, or 7,*fJ, for gallons. 

Auother and simpler method is to multiply together the 
length, width, and depth, in inclies, and divide by :i31, which 
will give the content:) in gallons. 



443 



WmullTN AM) HtJ.VHIIREH 

Owk Otnglag.—ro BMMun the oontmto of «]rUndri<»l tmhIi 
mulllplj tha iqtura of the dininetm in InchM by 84, ami that bj 
tha height in inohea, and point olT four Agurai. Th« rmiK will 
he the ountentM or nujiiMiity, In wine Kallonn and di>i>imulii of a 
gallon. For ln-er gaUonii multiplj by SH inntend of M. If tiM 
ohhIc he only partially tilled, multiply by the height of the liquid 
iuNteml of the height of the oaiik, to awwrtain actual oontenta. 
In aiuwrtalnlng the lilameter, meaiiure the diameter at tin* hung 
and at the head, add togetlier, and divide by 3 fur tlie mean 
diameter. 



I Si 



TAMX Am BAKREL MIAIUUMIMT 

To Find tfaa Oontanta of a Boond Tank 

Multiply the iquara of the diameter in feet by the depth in 
feet, and multiply this result hy 6. and you have the approximate 
<Hintent^ of tiie tank In gallons. (For t'xnrt esultn multiply the 
product l>y H. instead of 0.) 

Example.— UoK many gallons will a tank bold 7 feat In 
diameter and fl feet deep? 
fl,>lulim.—T>C!x!i—U5. 

348x6=1.470 gallons. 
Nore.— If thet&nk In lanrtTiit tltf bottom than at the top, flnit thpsvrrsfe 

I. n...u •..•!.. u, I....... .1.11.. ...._. ..(a I... . I. ,...,> ..I.... ,, .__ 



To Find tba Oapaelty of Baxreia 







i2t*/e.— Add the head and bung diameters in inches, and divide 
by two for the mean diameter. The.i multiply the average 
diameter by itself In inches, and again by the height in Inoheo^ 

444 



WKiaii'm AND Mi>:.\iirRES 

thflB mnltipljr bjr N, cut off th« rfftht-hand flun, *dJ ^ou tuiTfl 
the number of cubic inehea. Divide l^ 977) ftn>l you Iwvd tlia 
number of fCAllons. 

To And the bualwli divide by 2in0.4. 

Example.— How many Kollonfi fn a barrel, wbfwe middle or 
bung diameter in 90 IncheM, and eml diameter ii Ifl ImlitM, and 
80 inches In helghtt 

So/K((on.— SO+lA-t-SwlS averasa dlametar. 

18X1BX80X8-7778. 

777fl+277i==38,(J. gallona. 
NoTR— A twnrl UeHtlmatetl unmlly at AUrallnn*. The lioitHliratl at G3 

ftUOOB. 

To rind tha Oontuti e( % Wfttorlnr-Troogh 

Auff.— Uultlplj the height in feet by Uie lenKth in feet, 
and the product bj the width in feet, and divide tlie roHult \>y 
4, and you will hit re the contents In faarrek of 1)1 J galtonN rat-h. 

Example.— Vf hi. . are the oontenta of a waterinK-trouKh 10 
feet long, 6 feet wide, and 4 feet deep? 

Solution. -4X 10x«=340-t-4=e0 barreln. 
Note— For«*xact rfs.ilt«miillli)ly lhi> lenittri in inclii-n In- tin* litlght In 
Incbea, by t!if> wlilth In inchei, snUtllvtde thun-MuU iiy 2:it, uHlyuu vnQ i«v« 
Uw oontvnti In ckIIuni. 



Estlnatiiiff IMeatnrM 

A Plat of Water weighs nearly one p/^und, and is equal to 
about 27 cubic inches, or a square box 3 inchpg |o<:g, ;i inilifs 
wide, and 3 inches deep. 

A Quart of water weighs nearly 2 pounds, and ii eq>ml (•» a 
square bo!c of about 4 by 4 inches and 3^ inchc-s dif ji 

A Gallon of water weighs about 8 pounds, and is t'(iiial t<i a 
box 6 by U inches square, and 6 inches df>ep. 

A Cubic Fool of water weighs about W pounds, and enntains 
8 gallontt. 

A Barrel of water almost fills a box 2 by 3 fwt sqinirc' and l.'i 
feet deep, or 6 cubic feet. 

A Peck is equal to a box 8 by 8 inches square, and S inches 
deep. 

A Bushel is about equal to a box 12 by lii iiu-lifH nquure and 
24 inches deep, or 2 cubic feet. 

NoTK-The Imptrlal (ralion urwI In Canida. contain^ j"', cuhlc (ni-heii 
the Htandard uaiion JJll. Referoncf?* here are to SuimUr.! ttalloiis cxc*i.t 
where Impe-lal 1b mentioned. Take flve-flixthn of a kIvl-u nu-ui^i-r ol Standurd 



KSllona to f ,d nnirber of Imperial 



44S 



>• 






builders' tabijs 



BUILDERS' TABLES 

BTTILDEBS' ESTTMATINO TABUS 

Quantity of matiTial In f^very four lineal feet of exterior wall in i 
frame buUding, height of wall being given: 



Lengtli 
Studs. 


Size 
or Sills. 


aizeof Htiids.Bracea 
etc. 


Uiiaiitity 
ol Kougli 
I umber 


Quutitil> 
of inch 
Boartiiiig 


Siding 

in 
sup. ft. 


■ Tar ■ 
Paiier in 
sui>. ffet. 


8 

2 
4 

IS 
2U 
22 
24 


ax a 

6x 8 
Ox 10 
Cx 10 
8x 10 
8x 10 
8X 12 
9x 12 
10 X 12 


2x4 Slii.ls 
4x4 '.races 
4x4 'lates 
1x0 {iljbuna 

Rtmls 

10 inches from 

cenieru 


42 
52 
02 
(>9 
S2 
H7 
OS 
109 
119 


30 
44 

f>3 
02 

SO 
HH 
97 
106 


-10 
50 
00 
70 
80 
90 
100 
110 
120 


74 

80 
00 
112 
128 
144 
100 
170 
192 


20 
22 
24 
26 


lOx 10 
10 X 12 
10x12 
12 X 12 
10x14 
ftx 14 
12x14 


2 X fl StudH 
0x6 Braces 
4x6 Platt-s 
1 X Ribbons 

Studs 16-liich centers 


115 

1112 

170 

ins 


80 
88 
97 

urn 

U4 
12.1 
i:{2 


00 
100 

no 

120 

i;io 

140 
150 


144 
100 
170 
192 
208 
224 
240 



shingl^'loVonr'lillST/^t'^nV'r-,'^'''''"-'"'''"? ?"** ''"irding, and mimherof 
&SlZi,?vhSZlJr' "' ""'■ "'^'*'"''"' ^™'" ^"'^^•^ *" eave over ridge. 

TV'Idtli ot 
House, 
Feet. 



2x4 
2x4 
2x4 
2x4 
2X4 
2x4 
2x6 
2x6 
2x0 
2X0 



lif Collar 



2x4 
2x4 
2x4 
2x4 

2x4 
2x4 
2x6 
2x0 
2x0 



jyuiintilyol J.umber in OiiantltyoT 
I Hn/...r Bn,i *',.ii.., Boariiing, 



Kafter and Collar- 
piece. 



No, of 
Shingles. 



100 

US' 

124 



560 
640 
720 
800 
880 
000 
800 
880 
000 
1040 
1120 
1200 



Comparative Strength of Timber and Oast Iron 

longhand oSe'iS aq^uSe"'^ '''" "'"'"^''' "' ^'"'^" ""'' «' '"'' ^^ ""« '«>» 



I Mreakiug 
Weigtit. lbs. 



Ash, sea-soned 

Chestnut, seasoned. 
Hickory, seasoned. . 
White Oak, seasoned. 
White Pine, seasoned. 
Yellow Pine, seasoned, 



175 
170 
270 
240 



ironccMt).: ::::::::::::;;:::::;;! a.? 



■ight Borne 
with Safety, lbs. 



446 



fiUtLDEKS TABLES 

BUILDEB8' TABLE OF BEIOK BlQUHMD 

{Allowing 7 Brick to Suprrticial Square Foot.} 



400 
500 
COO 
700 
800 
900 
_ 1.000 



NumlKT ot Brick« r eouiml in a 

Wall Wall Wirir~I~Wair~ 

uiirK. I ttnck. Ihiik, thick, 



15 



376 

450 

S25 

600 

673 

750 

1,500 

2,250 

3,000 

3.750 

4,600 

5.250 

6,000 

G,7.'iO 

7,500 



105 

120 

1.15 

150 

300 

450 

600 

7.™ 

900 

1,050 

1.200 

1.350 

1,600 

3,000 

4,500 

6.000 

7.500 

9,000 

10,500 

12.000 

13..'i00 

1 5.000 



45 



158 

180 

203 

225 

450 

675 

900 

1,125 

1.350 

1,675 

1,800 

2,025 

2.2,= . 

4,50o 

6,750 

9.000 

11.250 

13.500 

15,750 

1S,000 

20.250 

I 22,.'iOO 



30 

60 

90 

120 

150 

IHO 

210 

240 

270 

300 

600 

900 

1,200 

1,500 

1.800 

2,100 

2.400 

2,700 

3.000 

6.000 

9,000 

12,000 

15,000 

18.000 

21.000 

24,000 

27.(HM) 

30.000 



7.W 

1,12.1 



n,2,-.o 

l.i.lMM) 

is, 750 

L'li.L'.'iU 
.tO.IMIO 

:t;{.7,'in 
;i7.5oo 



,M iiii'hes 
thick. 



180 

225 

270 

315 

360 

405 

450 

900 

1 .350 

1.800 

2.250 

2.700 

3,150 

3,600 

4.0.W 

4,500 

0.000 

13.500 

18.000 

22..'J00 

27.000 

aL.'JOO 

30.000 

40.500 

45.000 



Facts tor Builders 

LOW SgTe/"* "*' '^''^'*''^' * '"'"''^ *"* weather, requires about 
1,000 sliingles requiie of shingle nails about .T pounds. 
70 yards of surface will require about 1.000 iatlis. 
100 square yards of plaster wiU reciuire 16 bu. sund, 8 bu 

lime, 1 bu. hair. 

1.000 laths will requir** of lath naiis 11 pounds. 
100 cubic feet of wall will require 1 ooni stone. 3 bu, lime and 
1 cubio yard of sand. 

One-fifth more siding is required tlian surface measure to 
allow for lap. 



447 









iiii: 




MOTS OOHOSUnKa STONEWORK, BBIOSWOBX AND 
PLASTEBINa 

Btonawork 

1- A cord of Btone, three bushels of lime and a cubic yard of 
sand will make 1<XI cubic feet of wall. 
3. One cubic toot of stoneworli weighs from 130 to 175 pounds. 

Brickwork 

a Five courses of brick will make one foot in height on a 
chimney. 

4 One cubic foot of brickwork, with common mortar, weighs 
from 100 to 110 pounds. 

5. A cask of lime will make mortar sufficient for 1,000 bricks. 

For Plastering 

6. Six bushels of lime, 40 cubic feet of sand* and 1} bushels 
of hair will plaster 100 s<iuare yards with two coats of mortar. 

•N. B. Then- iire about U cubic feet in a busliel. 



448 






FACre FOR BriLDERS 

Oonunon Biick in a W«D or Building 
A brick In 8 inches long, 4 inches wide and 2 inches thick and 
contains 64 cubic inches. Twenty-seven bri.k nuike one cubic 
foot of w.ill, without mortar, and it takes from 2IJ tu 33 bricks, 
according lo the amount of mo ir used, to make a cubic toot 
of wall wi*U mortar. 

Rut,:.- tultiply the length of the wall in feet liv tlie heiglit 
in feet, and that by its thickness in feet, and then multiply 
that result by 80, and the product will be the nuuilwr of bricks 
m the wall. 

wall iKfore raulliplyiiig by 20 or 15, a.s the cust. may bl'. "»"' i" » o[ iiie 

Short Method o< Estimating Stonawork 
fluJc— Multiply the length in feet by the height in feet, and 
that by the thickness in feet, and divide this result l.v 33 and 
the quotient will be the number of perches of stone iji'the wall. 

„ u';.^-'TT^"'^Pfrch"'stf>nftlipre are 241 cubic feet but "iiuliie f,4-t arc 
generally allowed tor the mortar auUlillinB. leei, uui -i ii.du inturi 

How to Find the Numbei of Cord Stone to Build Cellar and 
Bam Walls 

iiuJe.— Multiply the length, height and thickness together in 
feet, and divide the result by 100. 

11 nmJ'.'rZT}'^ ?"". '.5.?."'¥,'' '?" '"." "'^ >"" "«' tuorlar .inrl ain.l make 
it necessary to use but too cubic feet of stone. 

The Number ol Biicka Beqsiied for a Building 
The average brick is eight inches long, four inches wide and 
two inches thick, or 64(8X4X8) cubic inches; 1.73H cubic inches 
make one cubic foot, and 27 bricks make 1,73S (04x37) cubic 
incites. In laying bricks J is allowed for mortar, or 4J out of 
every 27, leaving 231 actual bricks for each cubic foot There- 
fore, multiply the dimensions— length, height and thickness— in 
feet and fraction of a foot, of tlio sever.tl brick walls, and the 
product by 23! and the result « ill bo the muiiber of bricks 
required. Multiply by 20 instead of 33i it the bricks are Urger 
than the average above given. Allowance should be made for 
chimneys, projections for mantels and the like on the same 
basis. 



449 



F'AITS F(IR BL'ILDEKS 

Nuabar oi Parehu of Itow Baqiiind lor a Will or Oellu 

The perch of stone la now compmed at a penjh, or 10.5 feet in 
length by l.S feet in width and 1 foot in height, or S4.7S 
(HSxl.Sxl) cubic feet Of this amount one ninth. 2 76 cubic 
feet, is allowed for mortar and Ailing. Multiply the thr. e 
dimensions of tlie waU or walls in feet-width, height and 
Ihicknesa-and ihVide by 22 (24.75-3.715) if the needed quantity 
of stone IS the subject of inquiry, or by 24.75 if it be sought to 
ascertain the amount of masonry In the wall or cellar. 




? Us: 



BTTTIMa AND SELUNO LUHBEB 

To find the cost of any number of feet of lumber at so much 
per tliouHund feet. 

fill(e.— Remove the iloclm.il point three places to the left in 
any. number of feet, and multiply by the price of one thousand 
feet. 

ExampU.— What will a-)0 feet of lumber cost at $12 per 
thousand feett Remove the point three places to the left in 
859-.859, and .859x»ia-jllO,S08, the answer. 
The Numbor of Cubic Feet In a Eoimd Log of Uniform Diunetor 

Square the diameter, in inches, multiply by 7854 and 
multiply this product by the length in feet, divide by 144. and 
the quotient is the number of cubic feet. 

Eatimata of the Nui-ber of Cubic Tnt in the Trunk of a Btanding 
Ti«a 
Find the oiroumferance in inches, divide by 3.1416 squam llie 
quotient, multiply by the lengtli in feet, divide by 144; deduct 
about one-tenth for thiokne.« of bark, and the result will be 
approximately, the number of cubic feel;. 

.460 



num roB luhbebhir 

inv™,edin lumber en.er,fri»e, w JT"',! 5^1 h ' I! r^"'';'"' 
•i.r United States is estimated at ] 0!)4 -.u « ' "'''''' '" 

almost entirely eliminated, and great inro.d7l,> ™" 

thesupp,,o.vaiuab>eti„wtttr.Cr''t^:r:;i::::,t;: 

Th. Kumb« o( F«t, Bo»^ M.«i™. i„ a Log of Unequal 
I>iamst«ra 

Square the smallest diameter in inehes. multiply hv -sy „ h 
the product by the length of the lo„ in fit diviJ^ h -t' ^ 
the quotient will be the number of feeTof ton , 1 ' " 
approiimately. °°'"'' meiwure. 

Th. Himbw of P„t, Board Msasur., in . Lot of Boards, Plank, 
Flooring, Scantling, Joist,, m, or Beams " 

with llio .lonH, „» .1, raooeiUiK, the proportrnn va.— nff 

with ti» depth of the groove and the width ut the b„ar,ls, ' 
Th* Hmnber of g,aaro Yards in a Floor or Wall 

nine, and the quotient is the number of squP - ■ ^ 



451 



f 



\M 






BOAKD AND PLAMK HKASUUEHENT-AT BIOBT 

fl ■* ""f? ** 'OW*' """) )• «-< >«>» **o noMbMik Tboa, II k Bnard l> 10 n lofw 1.3 
>*la.»U^addMMullllMd7Mh«nUn.4la. For t-ls riMk4aaW«ib«prM/«rt 



11 


3inW 


71nW 


HInH 


>lnW 


lOlllW 


llinW 


lainW 


I3ln W 


litnH 


IJIDW' 


tt.ln 


n.:n 


ft. In 


nin 


nil 


n In 


ft In 


ft. In 


n. In 


ft. In. 


8 





8 


>4 


HI) 


e 


7 4 


80 


8 8 


9 4 


10 


» 




i 


• 


«» 


6 


8 8 


90 


• 


tfl ft 


11 


i? 








7« 


4 


9 3 


10 


ni 












7< 


• .1 


3 


10 1 


11 


1 1 


13 10 


12 


la 






lid 


11(1 


1 (1 


II 1) 


13 


8 1' 


14 


1ft 


f 










1 1» 


II 11 


18 








J 






• 4 


III 8 


1 8 


13 1 


14 


6 


16 4 


J7 










11 8 


1 6 


18 


ISO 
16 




17 8 


18 








Kill 


HI) 


1 4 


14 


7 


18 S 


20 


* 








HI) 


It a 


IS 


17 


1 


18 10 


21 








HO 




18 D 


16 


18 


B 












II « 


14 8 


■til) 


17 


IVO 


1 


33 a 


88 


»' 






18 4 


1ft U 


16 8 


18 


200 




yft 4 










Ull 


IA» 


17 6 


19 


31 


1 


24 6 


26 






12 1 


MH 


i«n 


IH 4 


m 


330 


11 


V, n 


37 










17 8 


in 3 


31 


380 




Min 


28 






14 


1«C1 


18 11 


ai> 


83 


340 


8 


28 


80 








16 8 

1?4 


18 11 


an 


231 


360 


7 


n 1 


81 : 








10 6 


31 


38 1 


960 


H 




82 








ino 


91)8 


33 


34 


970 


t 


31 8 


389 






!* 


18 8 


ill 11 


38 


36 


380 








2 




w 


19 4 


319 


34 


38 




I 


88 10 


M 




i 




mill 


836 


38 


37 




1 


8S 


87 


5 








888 


3M 


98 










S 






114 


34 11 


38 


39 


830 








2 "8 






34 9 


It 


80 


880 


1 


8ti 8 


41 


f U2 








24 


81 






88 8 




i jjs 


^ f 


Si 


M8 


39 


89 


880 






U ' 




iLL 




18 


£^ 


89 


uo 


460 



BOABD TABLE MEASUREMSST— Cqiitimomp. 



.2j 



"InW ISinW ItfinW WinW 21lnW MinW M In W iBnWiMln' 



ft.!il. n.ln. ft.ln. ft.ln. ft.la. 



11 4 

12 9 

14 a 

i?' 

18 . 
UIO 
21 8 
33 8 
24 1 
26 6 



39 9 

31 9 

~ 7 

- 

36 6 

36 10 

38 8 

89 8 



14 8 

16 6 

18 4 

30 1 

39 

38 10 

26 a 

37 6 



ft. In. ft. In. ft. la. 



16 4 

17 8 
19 9 
91 1 
38 
94 11 
98 10 
98 9 

ai a 

83 7 

34 < 

86 8 

83 4 

40 3 



47 II 
49 10 



16 
18 
900 
330 
340 
980 
3»0 
800 
830 
340 
860 
880 
40 
42 
440 
460 
48 
60 
63 
610 
660 
680 
600 



13 9 
21110 
22 11 

26 

27 1 
39 1 
31 I 

88 4 
35 I 
37 i 

89 ; 
" t 

48 II 

46 10 

47 11 
• 

— > 
64 8 



452 



I.UHBRB 



•CANTUKO nroUOED TO ONE INCH BOARD MEASUm. 

8CAMTLIN0 AND TIMBER MEASLKE 

n.Dt.c.D TO o«i moa boabd «i.a.ci.,. 



I 



8.8 10.10 ™ 
9.4111. bI14. 
iO. 112. fills. 
t0.8ll3. 4|IS. 
11.4 14. 217. 
-■ 12. IB, 1& 
9.6,12,819.10 19. 
iff. |ia4 16. 8,20. 
106,14. 17. 621. 
n. 114.8 18. 4 b. 
11.6 154 19. 2 23. 



«.9 e. 

7.C10. 
8,3 11. 

9. 12. 

9.n,i.i 

10.fi 14. 

11, alls. 
12. iia 

12,9117. 
13.618. 
14,3Ift 
IS. 20. 
18,921. 

17.3 23. 
18. M. 
ia9'2S. 



£6.3 



^"'<J'" 'EgB AMD WIDTH IS IltCHEB 

I fi. ilO,6I2."l3,6"8~ 
II0.612.3ll4. 18.0 0.4 

12. !14. |1«. ifl. 10, 

!13.6,lS,0'lt<. 20,3 12. 

'18, IT.f.ai. 22.6 la* 

• 16,6 10.3 1'2. m 19 

— 18. 21. 124. I2T. «(l. 

I6.319.6'22.Bi26. 120,3 17.4 

nS.^i- '"♦■'l^^ ■■".« 18.8 

I8.9,i'2,6 2ft3'30. 133.8 20 

"" 24. 28. 132, !3ft h;|,4 

28.6 29,9 34. 38,3 21!,8 

27. 131,6 36. 406 24 

28.6 33.3138, 42.B 2-1 4 

30. !3S. 40. 48, 2fi.8 

. — 31.6 3n.fl!42. 47.3 28. 

27.6|33. ;3fi.6!44. 4n.6 2!t4 

28.9 34.6,40,3 46. 181,9130 8 

"" '"- 42. 48. H 1 32. 

43,9100, 86.3 33.4 

82.6 60. kl7.C 40. 

B9.6:(>8. )7fi,6 4B.4 




453 



VnOKKBH AVD WIDTH TV nrOlU, 



£ 


«.ii 


«.lff 


rr 


TTTf 7J5 


111 


TH 


"IT 


i.*|i.iO|i:n 


TO 


1 ^ 


38. 


24 fl 




38 6 


42. 


.13 






«4 




1 aH.}| tt 


W. 1 


33.8 ^,1 40.11 


41.11 


40. 


■■SJA 


42 


46,8| 51, ll M 






«. 






51. 1 




42.f 












;» f 


42. 47.3 52- < 


57. t 


6.'L 


48. 


54 


00. 


flfl 


S 






W. 


10 u 


44.8 62.e 68. i 


M. 1 


70. 


M. 












40,1] 


51.4 57.1 04. i 


70. 1 


77. 


fiH.: 


M 


73.41 M.t 


ML 






IX 


49. 


66. ea. 70. 


77. 


M. 


M. 


72L 


M. 


88. 


M. 






U 1 


60.1 68.2 70. 1( 


KL t 


01. 


<ni 


78. 


86 




104 






H. 


T7. 1 


65.4 73.1 81. t 


80. 10 


m. 


74.H 


M. 


93. 


102,1 


111 




£•'1 »■ 


^1. n 


70. 78.t 87. ( 


iW. 3 


1)5. 


80. 




100 










WL 


M. 4 


74,R 84. 99. 4 


103. 8 


12. 


85,4 


M 


10*1. 


11/,' 


121. 




w, i| m. 


W. fl 


7H BB.J 89. S 


lOft I 


la 


WU 














IIW. 


7.i 6 


84. M.f 105. 


ll^ n 


20. 


an 


OK 


120. 


132. 


144. 


11 




m. 


77. 7 


88.6 9O.OtlO.10 


121.11 


i;«. 


101,4 


14. 


120.1 


139,' 


101 




110 1 130. 


11. K 


03.4 106. 116. b'i28. 4 


140. 


















«. 


S« 110.3 122. 6:iU. 


14T. 


112 


IW 


140. 


1A4. 


158. 








W.IO iO-AbIIia.6il28. 6|H1. 2 


IM. 


117.4 


132. 


14';.l 


wii 


176. 








0.11 !07.4 130.0:134. 2 147. 7 


lAI 


122.8 














144. W. 1112. ItM. 1140. IIM. 


168. 


128. 


144. 


160. 


176. 


ira. 


t 




9.9 


B.10j9.11 


9.19 


10.10{ 1041 


lO.llB 


U.l 

60 


1 


11.19 


U.U 


U.ld 


19.14 




40.6 


49. 


4».1 


M. 


r>o 


S5. 


60. 


A 


06, 


72. 


78, 


SI 




«.i 




67.t 


ftl, 


68.4 


«. i 


711, 


70.1 


77. 


M 














72. 


60.8 


7a i 


80 


80. t 


68. 


96. 


104 


lU. 








7-1..1 


(<1. 


75. 


86. f 


W). 


BO. I 


W. 


108. 


117 


12& 










W), 


83,4 


01. i 


nil). 


100. 1( 


no. 


120. 














«>. 


018 


100,1( 


Ill, 


110.11 


121. 


132. 


143 


151 








m. 


Iflt), 


100. 


i:9. 


120. 


121. 


132. 


144. 


156. 


los. 








117. 


10;<,4 


no. i 


i:io. 


131. 1 


143. 


106. 


1(i9 






«4.t 


OS. 


IIM 


I'M, 


1IG,8 


128. 4 


140. 


141. i 


lU. 


Wi. 


182, 


190. 








!£<.» 


i;vi 


125. 


137. * 


IfiO. 


151.1 


105. 


180 










•M. 


i;«. 


144. 


t:klt 


140. f 


IfiO. 


1«I1. i 


176. 


192. 


?08 


221 






27, f 




1M. 


141,8 




170 


171.1 




204 






li 121.< 


;». 


I*l.fl 


102, 


130. 


165, 


IKO 


181. C 


10& 


210. 


2.(4. 










171 


158,4 


174. 2 


l!tl. 


191. 7 


209. 


228. 


247 


206. 


S 136. 


BO. 


165. 


1«0. 


166.8 




21H) 


201. e 












HT« 


17S.3 189. 


I'H. 


192. fi 


210, 


211. S 


231. 


252. 


273 


294. 




f». 


191.6198. 


I AT 4 




'^-0- 














w.fl 


1«».9!»7. 


101.9 


210.10 


ZV\ 


231.11 


253. 


276. 


m. 


822. 






m. 


m. 


204. 


188. 


m. 


33a 



^ 


1£IS 


lft.ie;iUJii3:i4 


lllo 


13.19 


14.14 


14.16 


14.14 


1S.1« 


1519 




90. 


06. 


83. 6 


91. 


67.6 


iw. 


98. 


105. 


112. 


112.6 


120, 




105. 


112. 


98. ; 


106. S 


113.9 


121.3 


1144 


vm 


130.3 


131.3 


140. 






12a 


112 t 


121. A 




I3H.8 


130.8 


140. 


149.4 


150. 


160l 




i;«. 


144. 


126. ( 


136. 6 


14«3 


J.'-rfi. 


147. 


157.6 


168. 


mi 


180. 


1 




liio. 


140. 1( 


151. i 


102.6 


1714 


1G3.4 


175. 


186.8 


187.6 


21MK 


1 




176. 




166. It 




:90,8 


179.8 


192.6 


205.4 


206.3 


220. 


1 


IHO 


1^12. 


169. 


182. 


195. 


211.'. 


l»(t. 


210. 


224. 


22,V 


240. 


1 


195. 


?0H. 


183. I 


l!'7. 2 


211.3 


2--'5.4 


212,4 


227.6 


242.8 


243.9 


260. 


1 


210. 


224. 


197 2 


212. 4 








245. 


261.4 


262.6 


280. 


1 


•m 


aw. 


211. i 


227. t! 


243.9 


260. 


245. 


2B2.6 


280. 


281.3 


300, 


1 


2J0. 


256. 


225. A 


242. 8 


260. 


?774 


201.4 


■/80 


298.8 


300. 


XHK 


1 




272. 


239. e 


257.10 


270 3 


niH 


?77.8 


297.8 


317.4 


318,9 


»Q. 


11 


270 


W 


243. 6 


273. 


292,6 


3\2. 


290. 


314. 


336. 


337.6 


m. 


l! 


;«5, 


304. 


257. 7 


288. 2 


30^.9 


.1?9,4 


310,4 


3,12,6 


3M.8 


.1.W3 


380. 


» 


.TOO. 


320. 


271. « 


30a 4 


3'J5. 


»lti.8 


32(3.8 


330. 


3714 


375. 


400. 


2 


31.-!, 




285. fi 


318. e 


311.3 


361, .'tis. 


367.6 


392. 


393.9 


420. 


2 


330. 


362. 


2!* 10 


333. 8 


357.6 


381.4 359.4 


38.5. 


4io.a 


412.6 


440. 


S 


;mb. 


308. 


313.11 


318.10 


37,19 


.10S,8 3T,5.8 


402.6 


429.4 


431.3 


4fl0l 


wl 


m. 


384. 


m. 


364. 


m. 


410. 


iHfi. 


420. 


448. 


450. 


4lia 



454 



LOGS REDUCED TO ONE INCH BOARD MEASURE. 

tvninh In foot In top llm-, Wametcr In Inchi.i. in h 
hmdnniro. Ite.ultlittonSuTol.Vi"' ''•'■'■■'"' ""'"' "" '"" ""•' 



ni 




455 




Vombcr o( IhinglM Kvquind for « Boot 

i?»/('.— Multiply the length of 
the ridge pole by twice the length 
of one rafter, and, if the abinglea 
are to be exiiOHed 4} inches to the 
weather, multiply by 8, and If 
expoHeit 5 inches to the weather, 
mnltiply by 7^, and you have the 
number of sblnglee. 

NoTK.— ShinitlPii en" Ifl Inrhra lone, 
hikI ttveruK.' uImiuI 4 Inchf » wide. Thfy 
un- put up in bundlfw of 2Meftch. 
One bundle 16-inoh shingleo will covar 80 square feet. 
One bundle 18-inoh shingles will cover Ik) RtjUHre feet 
Wlien laid 5 inches to the weather, S pounds 4-penny or D} 
pounds S-penny nails will lay 1.(H)0 .shlngle& 

Slatinff 

The thlcknesH of slates ranges from ,"g to ^ of an inch, ani 
their weight varies from 3.0 to 4.fl lbs. per s((uare foot. 

The lap of slates varies from 3 to 4 Inches. The standard 
is assumed to be B inches. 

Rule for computing the number of slates of a given size 

' required per w/unre.— Subtract 3 inches from the length of the 

slate, multiply the remainder by the width and divide by f). 

Divide 14.400 by the number so found, and the result will be 

the number of slates required. 

Dimensions of Slates and Mumberi Bequired to a Bqaare 
12x6 requires 5m to tho square; 14x» requires 291; 18x9 
requires 21;}; 34X18 requires lor*. 




Kumber of Laths for a Boom 

Laths are 4 feet long and 1^ inches wide, and 16 laths are 
generally estimated to the square yard. 

Rule.— Find the number of square yards in the room and 
multiply by 16. and the result will equal the nmuber of laths 
necessary to cover the room. 

To find the number of square yards in a ceiling or wall, 
multiply the length by the width or height (in feet) and divide 
the product by 0; the result wil be the square yarda 




PRirE OF xrn.D per ronn 






— • ■v W-* t-j ly ^ ^ ^ „j- 






I |^??S.??=S?S3S|S?SSa82asS?S|3i§i 
-— — _. _ """•"""""-■■«• 



||^^S.8.S.S Ssas?l^igS^SgSSS5^3S 




, , . ••»°'l>«rofOordsinaPiI«ofWood 

h4T„1 ^„'„S il8''<.K;f„ ZT '•""• ' '"^ "■"'" "-' * '-' 

So(«(.-on. -4X7X24=673 „„l,i,. feet. 67S+13S-,;!™nk ins. 
457 






VALUABK MIHCELil^lNEOVS MATTBB 




To Find th« Dfty of tb« Wtok on WUeh Any Dftto WUl Oe- 

onr, or Hu Occarrtd Slnct tho B«(liuiiii< 

of tbt Ohrtitiu Bn. 

Copyright, 1IK)5, by Oris A. Kcnyon. 

There are many invthiHtH nrul tableit for Hiidinfr the day of 

the week of any f^iveii dntu. It will bo fuuntl tliat the 

riiottt (if tlii-Hi> fover uiily a limitLul number of yt-ui*. and 

Hiinio nro i'rroneiitiH. KM|H'i-ially tho lnlli>r ix liable to be true 

when diitCH prior lo Septemlwr 14lh. 17.'>J, ore itivolved, fL'W 

u( Ibe mrdiodM being: "t «1I n|i|)liriibK' liefore that date. The 

inrthixl ^ivcn Ih^Iow rovers iin unlimited number of eenturieM, 

nnd will \w found rnrrect for ult datis un and after January 

Hrttt, year one, A. D. 

ISOO , 4 

ifttm 2 

•2W0 1 

zloo a 

2200 4 

2:i<)o a 

2*00 1 

INDEX rOK TUB MONTHS: 

Jiiimary (leAi> year &> 6 

KrbruHry (leap year 1> 2 

Alun-b .. .2 

AprU 5 

May 

Juno 3 

July G 

AuitUbt 1 

SAptember 4 

Oi'lobi-r a 

Novpmber 2 

Ueccniber 4 

^pptcmher 2ikI und >tembor 14th. 

nadt: when tbe Qregorlan Calendar 
wbh Introduced, on tbo latter duU'. 

This tabic may be indefinitely extended by jdvin;; the same 
index to every fourth sncceedinjr rentennial year. For ex- 
ample, the index for 2100 in ii, nnd the index for 'J500 i.s 
(i; for 2200 it is 4, fur 2()00 it Ib 4, and so on indefinitely. 

Notk:— Ti) nHcprtaln Hip day on which any datp ocrurB. add the 
nunibrr ot ycar^ and the nunibtr of leap yoars Hinre tbe preuedinf; 
< inii'iinlal yc.ir. Ihp day of the month, the Index tar tbo month, and 
the I'lntpnnlul Index. Dlvhlo this by aevon and the nmalndcr will 
hn the day of the wi'ek, coiintlriK Sunday an the first day; If there 
Id no ri'inalnder thr dav h Satupduy. 

Example 1, — On wiuit dav nf the week wax Wa^^hlngton born. Feb- 
ruary 22nd 1732? (New style), Feb. 11. (old Btyle). 

We must use Feb. 1 1 Instead of Feb. 22n(l In thin computation. »■* 
the above method applies only to old style dates until the change In 

458 



loo 


r. 












HOD 




700 




MOO 


. .r. 












J300 




1400 












1700 (on and after Sept. 
1752.)" 


14 


•There were no datPH between 
17B2, on account of tbe ihanurs 



LAKUtXT MUKARIKN 

J: J"*;.,!?;, 'S,vr"" "•»■■"•'. 

TIBS 

■>•■>!• II —a. li^^ J"""."^'—'"''' 

■>.«■. »-o. .b« ..,^„, ,t, ,„» .,„ j„,, „^ ^^_^^^ __^^^^ 

0. numtw-r of l«>«p r*.ar- 
i' 9*1 *" *•" «nonih, 
0, Iniltfx for the mootb 
_J. (-•nUnnUI Indei, 
7)48 

Lib,.ri.. '*'*^ Ul>r«rtM in the World. 

urlllub MuM«mn. Undon ■■■ 

X-. Vork Hubll Ubr"5 ^ 

H"»l Library, li„"o ' ' 

Library of CoDgri'iia, Wi.hliiMtcin 

Harvard Unly.r.l.y Lib"."" ". 

HtraMburc Unlveralty, Friini-e 

I nptrl.l Library, Vtoo". 

N'. Vork sue. Lib,,?, * 

."Ji"'. "-"Vf/V- Muiilrh ...,■■■ 

Il'fletan Ubrarr, Oirord 

Lflp.l.' Unlvfrally 

N.w York City Library.' .'.' 

Joyal Library, C,ppoJ,„,„ 
: Unlv{>ni 



»>j,ll.„rt u„fv',r.r,V "Lib";';, 
nibllol,... Natlon.l. &&.. 

'intludlni pumpblfftM. 

Th. f n^"^ Li*"riei of the United States. 

Ihe followinjf returns from the Reimrt of llu- Vu\ 

Rureau of Edurntion r..presi.„t nil lihrnri.. i„ ]Ui 

IH04, ond the Hrookl.vn l',ibli.> Lihrar.v. JlHi:,) I,; 



Nn. of \oU.* 

■ -. .3,00').000 

■ . . . 2.tiOO.lK)0 
1,H'N),(HH( 

■ 1.'JM.242 

- ■ .l.UOK.OJfO 

■ ■ - l.nno.uoo 

■ -. mu.ooo 
- .. fuy.ooo 

. . . *MK>.000 

■ Sti7,l)15 

. SflO.OOO 

. .. RSO.ilOO 

■ ' - 500,000 

■ . . 500.000 
. . . BOO.OOO 
' ■ fiOO.OOO 

■ ni'0,o*)o 



•5). 



200.000 volumes; 

Llbrarfen. 
New York Public Llbrtryt. 
Congrpa^lonal Library 
Bo^.oii Pubilr Library 
Harvard t'lilvPrHlty 
Brooklyn PubM.> Library " (fli 
New York State Llbrair. 
UnlvprKlty Of Chl.aBo 

Columbia UnlverHlty ■'-"*- 

Valp Unlverilty 2:t5 t'.jo 

Merpanill*. Library N-w ' York 2SS,Oon 

Chicago Publlo Library -2G2.»tR 

Cornell University •2r.8.498 

Pbfladelphla Free Library 22S.022 

rinrlnDatl Public Library •2')7,5S5 

Philadelphia Library Company 
Including pamphleta. tAr* 



I Stales 

lie tor 
■_. OV'T 



i-ludlng pampbl.... fA,'-' ' ' • Ubo.: '.iod 'fild ..'"'oilMdallo'^S: 



VolumiH 
1.(1 IX! Mir. 

•l.ood.ijoo 
*772.r.\2 

4LTl,i;!io 



2n:j.fiS4 
2U2.1IK 
201, 1S4 



Pam- 
phletH. 
1!40,337 



H:i.72.1 
15(1,000 

in, 000 

lOII.OIIO 



27.2(t8 
1 5.000 
31.000 






'fPI 



ml 

i 

fl 



KIM.ES KOIi PAINTING 

RULES FOR PAINTING 

Usually one-fourth of a pound of paint is allowed for each 
square yard for the first coat, and one-sixth of a pound for each 
additional coat. One pound of stopping should be allowed for 
every 20 square yards. 

A gallon of tar and l pound of pitch will cover about 12 square 
yards the first coat, and 17 yards each additional coat 

Priming consists of white lead and linseed oil 

Knotting consists of red lead and size. 

Putty consists of Spanish whiting and linseed oil 

White Paint— Twenty-eight pounds white lead. 6 pints Unseed 
oil, 3 pints turpentine and 1 pound litharge, will cover about 100 
square yards. 

Black Paint.— Twenty-eight pounds black paint, 10 pints lin- 
seed oil, 3 pints turpentine, and 1 pound litharge, will cover 
about 160 .square yards. 

Distemper.— One hundred and twelve pounds whiting, 28 
pounds dry wliite lead, and 7 pounds glue, mixed with boiling 
water. 

With ordinary paints, new wood and iron work require four 
coats, iocludiug the priming coat, but exclusive of any flatting 
coats. 

Old paint requires two coats for inside and three tar outside 
work. 

The following are the superficial yards which a fixed amount 
of material will cover in each coat, arrived at from actual meas- 
urement of work done with materials issued from store. 



10 lbs. white lead, 

1 oz. r«i lead, 

2 oz. litharge.* 

4 pints linseed oiL 



Firat Coat, or Priming 



> 63 superficial yarda. 



Second Coat 



10 lbs. white lead, 
2oz. lithiirKe.* 
2| pintM linseed oil, 
li pints spirits or turpentine. 



y 100 superficial yarrls. 



Third and Fourth Goats 



10 lbs. white lead. 
2 oz. litharge,* 
2 piiiLs linseed oil, 
2 pints spirits of turpentine. 
•Or i ot burnt 



y 113 superficial yards. 



hite vitriol, and li oz. of litharge. 
460 



B. i.,;.s Foil ivujwuo 

For ontside work, « en ixnoseil m ■ . 
fhould be u«,d to pre.» , ^hT'^lT 'roj^: T" ""^"«-» 
boiled linaeed oil should L uL L 'T- .""■'"«■ """' ™'J' 
n«y be used, but the leToHhe fZ " "''"'' '""' ""^^ 

coat, the color beinKKreund i„ '^ -^"^ ^'" "» """'"g 
colored ,»ints, the Luwo eJats "av" '■'"'^ " '""'^- "■" 
composition in the p™x,rMonTl, 7 ''.'^'°' "''''«"'> ">e 
of surface to he S^ Id h '"™'''' '"■•"■''''■'» >-"'"» 
«»Oucedinpr„,^rtfon '^'' ''™''"*^ "' ""'"" '»<i fa 

"'raureaOHPAWTSPOETIHTS 

White and blaok make gray tint. *^- 

White and purple make Uvender tint. 

wht a:^^'srk^'p"rnr '"-' »-'' -" -- 

UUnunwine blue and lake make purple. 
S^««' ^^ ««> purple make ruiT 

White and ultramarine blue make sky blue 
Ultramarine blue, black and white mike sUte. 
Wilion and black make Turker Z ^ 
White, yeUow, red and blaok make umber. 

Bua._White lead and yellow ocher 
OhMtnut-Light red and black 

Dr,b.-White i^T f "'"■ ''"'""• " ^'«"'«»» ^d- 

L(warm) wSt^le^'t""' """»■■• ''°'' " ""'» '•■'"°- ocher 
^ wmt. lead, «w umber, and a Uttle blaok (oool). 
461 



BUI.f-«-! F(m PAINTrNQ 

Of ^™ Oolor-Same u for flesh color, with atone ooher iuitead 

n»«h Oolor.-Uke, white lead, and a little vermiUon. 

™eh Or»y.- White lead with Prussian blue and a little lake 
I Jy ™'"--C'>">me yellow with a Uttle vermilion and white 
«8^; or Naples yellow and realgar. 

Oray (oommon).-White lead and a little black. 

iMd Oolor.-Whlte lead with black or indigo. 

Lemon Oolor.-Ch.ome yellow and white lead; more of the 
first than in straw color. 

1J1«— Same as for French gray, but with leas white. 

v!^Trz°''^~^ "'"^ "^^ ^ "-"p'^ '■~™ " 

Oak Oolor.-White lead with yellow ooher and burnt umber. 

unye.-Blaok, yellow, and a little blue; or yellow, pink, lamo- 
blaok. and a little verdigris. "^ 

fflive Oreon.-Prussian blue and raw umber. 
. °"°f»-5''>'ome yellow and vermilion (bright), yellow ooher 
ana red lead (duller). 

PeaOre«n._White lead and Brunswick green: or white lead, 
Prussian blue, and some chrome yeUow 

Peach Oolop.-White lead, with vermilion, Indian red or 
purple brown. 

Peail Oray.-White lead, with a little black, and a liUle 
Prussian blue or indigo. 

Piin>le.-White lead, vermilion, indigo or black, rich, dark 
red or colors for French gray. 

with a little whita 

Salmon Oolor.-Venetian red and white lead. 

Mver Oray.-Same as for pearl gray. 

tty Blue -White lead, Prussian blue, and a little lake. 

Btone Oolor.-Whito lead and yellow ooher. with a little burnt 
or raw umber. 

Stone Oolor (gray). -White lead, and a small quantity of black. 

straw Color.— Chrome yellow and white lead. 

Violet,— VermiUon, white lead, and indigo or black. 



462 



VALUABLB MISCBLLANEOUS MATTER 

VALUABLE MISCELLANEOUS MATTER 

Vmitd Suiu Und Mu.ure 

A Township is 36 sections, eacli a mile nantrc a . •• 
acres A quarter section, half a mile X is fw c'rTs " T 
eighth section, half a „,i,e long, no„h a'd soith, a^d o narfe'; 
of a m,le w.de, i, 80 acres. A sixteenth section, a ouarte of a 
raile square, is 40 acres. ' 1"""''' "I a 

co^e'r, to'sT' ''"' '" """"■"■"^ ' '° ^' ™"""-=-^ ■>' "-"-St 





The Sections are all divided in quarters, which are nimcl hv 

hsl:fewr'Th''r""''"™'- Theqnartersarrr n 
The south ha^L^^f," ''™"-l'«°" °l « '""yacre lot would re.,d: 
. nlTnto^,!^ h ^f ''■™' ''"" "' "■" »<>»th-we.t quarter of.ec- 
t.on 1 ,n towush.p 24, north of range 7 west, or as the case u.i.ht 

™;„beror™™ """' '■"' """'• »'"' »»'"'■«">« overrun The 
number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

Rules for MeMuring Und .nd Town Lot. 
q, (. , . , RMtanmUr Pmccb 

RmE" 'lni;"7 f; °i' """' '" " ■•''<^'a"«"lar piece of land, 
divide bjTm'^'' ''"^'' '" '"•^' *"■ '"" ''"■■■""" '" ™1«. and 

n hen the triangle is a right-angled triangle. 

^x^Mw. i"'^ "'" ^''"*' ""^ "'= '""K"- a"'3 divide by 2. 
MAMPl.E._How many acres of land in a triangular field m 
rods long and 40 rods wide? 

465 



ll. 



ill 



V.\HJABLE MISC'El.LANEOrS UATTEB 

OPERATION 

60x40-1-9=1,900 sq. rods. 1,300-1-160=7} acres. 

WHERE THE TRIANGLE IS NOT A RIOUT ANGLED TKIANOLS 



FIG. 1 

If a triangle is without a right angle, a perpendicular has to 
be found. 

J2u/e.— Multiply the base in rods by the perpendicular height 
in rods, and divide by 3, and you have the area in square rods. 

Eaeample.—'Biow many acres in a triangular fibid whose base 
or side is 140, and its width (perpendicular height) is 60 rods? 

OPERATION 

140x60+3=4.200 sq. rods. 
4,200 ■»■ 16U=26i acres. Ans. 

To And the area of a piece of land when only two of the oppo- 
Iste sides are parallel. 



X 



FIG. 3 

Rule.— Add the two parallel sides together, and divide hy 8, 
and you have the average length. Then multiply the width in 
rods by the length in rods and divide by 160, and you have the 
number of acres. 

Example.— Hovf many acres of land In a field, the two parallel 
aides of which are 80 and 130 rods long, and 50 rods wide? 

OPERATION 



80+120-1- 3=100 rods. 
100X50-t-160=81J acres. 



Ans. 



To Lay OS SnuQ Lots of Land 

Farmers and gardeners often find it necessary to lay off small 
portions of land for the purpose of experimenting with di£Ferent 
crops, fertilizers, eta To such the following rules will be 
helpful: 

One acre contains 160 sq. rods, or 4,840 sq. yards, or 48,660 sq. 
feet. To measure off one acre it will take 208[^ feet each way. 



466 



VALLABLE JIIHUELLANKOUS .MATTER 

f?°r!lf^r", 1".'" *"■'* "^* '"' '■'^'' '™5'- OnethirJ acre 
lWHe«t sad. way. One-eighth acre it will take 7:1} feet eLu 

To Maasurs Tows Loti 
R^/<. -Multiply the lejgth in feet by tlie width in f..,.t and 
d. vde t..e result by 43,M« and you will have the fra- ",n I t 
of an anre in the lot ■ ■."■".u |..irt 

So(u«,-o)i._iooxW=7.l500 sq. feet 
7,500 

To Find the Number of Acni in a Oiven Number of 
Square Koda 

n,f,"£'~?*°"'™ "*' ■'"'""^ •"'•" '""" P'""^"" to ' I'" left in the 

number of square rode, divide by 8 and multiplv bv 5 and you 

have the number of acres. .>'. .'"ujou 

Exampk.~Bow many acres in a piece ot land SO rods long and 

tr 3S^S<^tref " '-'' '^= -"' --' 

Land Measurements 

7.92 inches make. . 

25 links (!6M feet) make '''"^ 

•Irods (68 feet) make.,.. ■■\"'.'^ 

10 square chains (43,560 square f,,.,V \nAv. ', '. '. ', '. '. '. ! ,.;";" 

208 feel and S-i inches square make 

80 chains (320 rods, or .MW f,.el ) make.' .'.' ^Z 

I mile square contains. . , , ' ', 

*hO acres 

Nautical Measurement! 

6 feet make. 

lOO fathoms make 1 fathom 

tZlTj ' ' """""• ^-.»hichi,g„„eral.,v,.„nsidered 



467 



n 




PAOn AUODT XOHXT 
FACTS ABOUT U0NE7 



AtMolntely pnre gold ii 24 carata fine. 
Many Roman tin ooina ate known to be in exiitenee. 
The gold eoina of Great Britain contain one-twelfth alloy. 
The Spartana had an iron coinage, no other being allowed. 
The United Slates ailvar 3c. piece was first coined in 1851 
The English mint was established by Atelstane about 928. 
£,"■"1*28 to 1845 platinum coins were minted in Kuasia. 
IMI * coining machine was invented by Bruchner in 

The notes used by the Bank of England cost exactly lo 
each. 

Julius OiBsar was ihe first man to put his own imam on 
a com, 

Aristotle says that "money exists not by nature but by 
law. 

The first colonial coinage was minted in Massachusetts 
in 1652. 

In the tenth century there were thirty-eight mints in 
England. 

The American cents of 1787 bore the motto "Mind Tour 
Business." 

IMo" ^^^'""^ """' ""^ *"' '" ™'" money, about B, C. 

Homer mentions brass money as in us^e B. C. 1184, amoni 
the Greeks. ' 

Brass money was coined in Rome by Servius TuUins as 
early as 573 B. C. 

During the reign of Henry VIII., 23 to 25 per cent, of 
con. metal was alloy. 

The most ancient coins are of electmm, four parts of irold 
to one of silver. 

The coinage of 20o. pieces began in 1875, and was discon- 
tinued in 1878. 

The coinage of trade dollars began in 1874, and was dis- 
continued in 1878. 

Before the days of coined money the Greeks used copper 
nails as currency. 

Herodotus says that Cnens was the first sovereign to 
make coins of gold. 

In 1503 the first English shilling was minted. It bore the 
king's image. 



1 











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l| 

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VALUE OP MONEY 








11 


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S S S S S" S S" 3 S £ g g g ,»; ,9 

'-' -^ ?l Ti lO 






S3 
■■a 

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W.49,8 

0.99,6 

1.49,4 

1.99,i- 

2.49,0 

2.98,8 

3.48,6 

3.98,4 

4.48,2 

4.98,0 

9.96,0 

14.94,0 

19.92,0 

24.90.0 














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3Si8SSSfeflS3 S S"2 .5 SJ 
g -• -H M m n -» m ic !d cj g ;o ^; jg 






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VALUK OF MONEY 



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3 e-S • 



3B 
«3 



»is"| Is: 

p3-2- III 

oooco =ca 



a 
6 . 



"2 Is 

2 8 .IS 
= 0-55 



lis B 
Bars 3 . 

« is ■isf^-' 



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S.55" 
!|Si 

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VALl-E OF JIONKV 






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liiliitMliilJl 




VALUABt,*: MISCKIJiANEOUH MATTER 



MliealUiwoui T«bl* of Thlngi, INituMi. Booki, Ste. 



fii: 
^: 

Ai 1-1 



11!: 



A tmok roiiipow^l of KhfH>tfi foMcd 

into 2 Icavt'^ ih a frilo. 
A Ihmik rnni|MM«-(l of Ntif*-t9 folutu 

Into 4 IcitVfH in a qimrto. 

A tXKlk ri)lll|HIM>ll of HllM-tfl fDitlCtl 

into H leuvi's Is an <iriiivi) (i^vo). 
A lMM>k rumiKMcil of Mlu>«>t'i folrlfil 

Into 12 li'uvt'H 1m u -luoilct'inio 

(12mo). 
A hook compcwfil of Hlieeta lolilcJ 

Into 10 k>avi'!i In a lUrnu. 

12 units makp 1 dozen. 
12 rtozt'n iiinkt! 1 gntnu. 
12 gtnuA (144 dozen) make 1 RTful 

flTOWt. 

20 units muktf I Hcnre. 
ii6 poundM of buttrr make I firkin. 
100 pouiiilx of liHh niaki^ 1 quinlul. 
196 iKiMiHlfl of Hour nidkr I Imnel. 
200 [Hiuiiils of iHt'f, inrk, Hliud or 

salmon n)ak<^ 1 hiirrt'l. 
24 Hheet.4 of iiii|H-r make 1 quire. 
20 quires make I ream. 

2 rcamit make I tiumilc. 
fi huiiill4>N make 1 tiale. 

3 barleyconiH make i li. ' 
18 inrhofl make 1 rubit. 

23 inchi's make 1 sacred rubit. 
^llonn make 1 Kntilisb tirkln. 
2 firkl^^< makf I kilderkin. 

2 kilderkins make I barrel. 

2.1 poimd.>i make 1 keir (tmwder). 
too T'OundM make 1 cental (tn^ln 

mpaaun-l. 
100 poumlfi make 1 cask (raisin mcos- 

ure). 
2S6 pounds make 1 barrel of soup. 
280 ponndH make 1 barrel of salt. 
31} fcallon)) make 1 barrel (wine 

meAHure). 
42 Rallons make 1 tierce (wine meas- 

Uie). 

03 Rallons make 1 hoRPheaa (nine 
measure). 

64 xallon.'i make 1 puncheon (wine 
musurc). 



130 nUlona make 1 plpo (wine meas- 
ure). 
2fi2 icmIoiu make 1 tun (wine fieaH- 

iirci 
8 buxMs of wbeat (of 70 IIin. eatli) 

make 1 quarter (Luro|>eun ni<'ui«- 

un;). 
8 busliels of salt make I boirfbead. 
30 bunheU of cf>al makv t diulilnni 

(llnffllsb). 
33 bushels make 1 clialdn>ii (Amtr- 

Icar 
14 poui. .!* make 1 stone. 
2lf stones make 1 [)l|{ (Inin). 
8 iilg!) make I fotber. 
24f cubic feet (niawinry) make 1 

perch. 
100 Hqnare feet (caritcnlry) niuko 1 

Mquare. 
l.TtiO ,vard.s (ft,2*l0 feet) make 1 

Htatute mile. 
2,028-63 yards (O.OHS.O ttxt) make 1 

nautical mile. 
3 miles mak:' I Icuiiue. 
mi statute nnlea make 1 deCTee (of 

falltude). 
60 KraKraphical miles make 1 deKTee 

(of latitude). 
360 dcKTees make 1 circle. 
(10 pairs of sbocH make i ca-ie, 
Indien make 1 quarter <iil it yard). 

3 quarterH make 1 ell (i-leriii>li). 
fi quarters make 1 ell (KnKli>in. 
(inarters make 1 ell (I niicli). 

4 Im-lien make 1 band (nieaxurmK 
horse.s). 

6 feet make 1 fathom (depth of 

water), 
120 fathoms make I cable-lenxtb. 
71 cable-lengths make 1 mile. 
640 acri'it make 1 souare mile. 
311 sfiuare miles maKC 1 township. 
4tarthlnKaniake 1 penny (marked d). 
Vi pence make 1 shdlhiK (marked n). 
20shillin(nmake 1 pound (marked £). 
21 .stiilllnss make 1 uulnea. 
fi shiUiogs make 1 crowu. 




472 



mmum m mi Mt im. 



Niw Ve.r'i 
R|)||ihany . 



r>.y,. 



FNiRiuiir b^irihi on, 
»»Wii»KB*inni Sunday ! 

M*icii KfiriMon 
St. Oavici . . 

St. Palriok 

Annum latlon. 
Mm SuikUj- 



iMy i^y 



\mu bpvinion 

Ooal j'Jw^y 

Kulf r Hvnd9.\ 

WW MtiiHlay , , , 

81. Oeorjfo 

H«» bexlnion 

Acreuion Klnir O-totm V 
Rojtation Sunday , 
A«Cf niion Day, ' Ilwly Ihi 
Victoria Day... . 

Hirth o( (juMn Mary 

PsiiiecMt. Whit Sunday! 




JVKHlMflMOn 

Corpua Chrirtf . . 

Blrl>i of frlnr* a| wiiti. 



Jt'i-tlwiriniOB.,.. 
Dominion Dty , 

AlWIThflfJ,|,OTl 

««TiiiiMRi>n(in.on., 

Ubop l>aj , 

W.MlctuMii. Micliaf Im*. i%, 



Oi-Tonii h*ifl(u on . 



NoviMBinbvKinio 
fl. Andrew . 



J"i ■'"'»• I am Jm* 
am •■ nnijiiM 

3(lh .. j uiH JiuM 

Memlajr 
IK Julf 

Thuradaj' 

Sunday 
3nd H«pi. 
Mth ., 



IrtJoi/ 

rriday 

MoiMlu 

ahh 



BIrthol On. Alewn-lra, im 
Ut Sunday In Advm.. 
lit. Thonui , . 

t'hrtatiBM Day '.'.'.'.'..',','. 



|30th Nov, 



8«turdajr 

SOlhNov: 



■ ?""•'')' Monday 

■ «J Dec. lit D^S 



COMPARATIVE TIMES AT VARIOUS POIWtTtH^^^^I;^^" ' " 

/■r.,ar,J ,.ri i-wNiri^ J, r.rmluicZ/^.r ^"""UQHOUT THE WORLD 




DISTAKCC8 AND UAIL TIMB 

nmtAMOUAKD MAIL mil TOfOUXail 

Tnoirr or raw tobk 



cnntnoii 



Bt Pootal Rorm -ro— 



I mum. 



AjMkldf. via San r.uiclKo 

Alauiiifirla, via London 

AmMtrcum, via Loodon 

Ahtwvrp, via London 

Atbtu. via Loniloa 

BkEiftTBruU 

Btnckok, HlAin, via 8«n Fnnct«fo . , 

BstKvlft, Java, via London 

BtfUn, via London 

Bombay, via Lrnidon 

BranwQ, via London 

Butooa Ajma, via London 

BUMUM AyTM 

Calcutta, via Umdon 

Cap* Town, via l^ndon 

Oofutantlnople, via London 

Ftoranca, via London 

Olainnw 

Ornrtown. via New Orl«ana 

HalUai. N. a 

HambuTff. via Londm 

Bamburs. direct 

BonsKonc' via Sari Franclaco.' '.'.'.. 
Honolulu, via San FTiacivca 



London, via Queenstown 

London, rid Bouthampton 

Madrid, via London 

Melbourne, via San Franctsca . 
Ilextco Clir (Railroad) 



Mexico CI 
Panama.. 



Parti 

Rio d« Janeiro. 

Home, via London 

Rottndam, via London 

St. fttenbun. via London. . . , 
Sbanihai, via Ban Francisco . . 

Stocluudm. via l^mdoti 

Ardney, via San Francisco . . . . 

Valparalao, via Panama 

Vienna, via London 

Yokohama, via 8an Francisco . 



ia.845 

O.IM 

3.««A 

' 4,000 

I fi.66a 
a, 1170 

13.900 
13.800 

4,3U 
0,7SA 
4.23a 
B,(M5 
8,045 
11,130 
11,340 
6.H10 
4,W)0 
3..-i7» 

a.Kio 

MS 
4.340 
4.»t30 
1413 

10.800 
fi,64A 
3,H0 
3,740 
:i,7flO 
4.025 

12.265 
3,750 
2,356 
4,020 
0,204 
A,030 
3,935 
6.370 
9,730 
4,076 

11.679 
6.010 
4.740 

.7,348 



OOKAH DIBTAirail 




Nautical mis. 


Statute Ulln. 


torn New York to Queenstown 

rom New York to Liverpool 


2,823 
3,063 
3;i69 
3,204 
3,600 
3,370 
4,190 

i:i!S8 
?:Si8 

8.216 


11?? 




i:§S?' 










3 882 


torn New York to NapUi .'.■.*. 










3,196.8 


rom San Francisco to ShanKhal 

rom Ban Francisco to Hons Kong 

lom San Francisco to HanllB 


7,718.4 

8,640 

7,160 



474 



I>I1IT.\NCEH AND 



MAIL TIJIK 



b.t,«. ■„ T„k City „d Mnclp^ «!!:^; " "~ 
to tin UniUd luui 



Namm nr ri 



Allany, N. Y 

AtUtitB, (J» . 

B«ltln)orp, Mil. 

goMiin, Mua 

BulTdo, N. V, 

OlMlrtton, H. 

Clllcno. Ill 

Clnclnn»ll. Ohlu 

a;vrf.n.l. Ohio. . 

Omcord, N. H , - - , 

Forlw.y„. ,„,i;;;;; 7M 

galvmton. Tex \ .la 



M«IIT;mii liaiir, 



.N.Vfii 



Hn. Mm 



N. V. ' 



P». 



1.78» 

1H2 

113 

808 

I. .103 

I. .106 

1.300 



liT.""™* Colli!.. ., 

indlanAoollfl, Imt . 
Kaiuu bljr. Mo. . 
if •"no'onh. K«n. 

{utile Rock. Ark. . 
joutavllle, i£v.. , -.i- 

Jjobllc. Al» 

MontKom.-ry. au' " ' 
NMhvll],. t™nl . : 
New OrlfBna, La. 
Norfolk, va ' • 

Omaha Neb..::."' 
Pblladelphla, Pa.. 
KttHbuK. Ptt . . 
Portlamf, Me., 
grovidenre. R. I. '.* " " 
Richmond. V». 

i^'crso^'f. ■■■•■ 
iii.%"c',;;;r,.h iHss 

Trenton. N'. J. J.0|9 

v^cksbiiFK. Miss. . . : : ,«| 

Washington I> r 1,288 

Whw lnK3 va 228 

WilmlngtbD"-Tw.r I JM 



e.-j.j 

21. (H) 
20, fX) 
IH.(K> 

liJ.i'.l 
7.1.1 

lA.flO 

iw.r.-. 

40.2.-, 

A. If) 
2.»i.1 



I I . Ill ,( 



11^: I'.M. 



OSA 
1.230 
1,057 I 

«9S 
1.344 

4JI0 
1.383 



344 .. , 
3.099 io;( I 
1.048 



40.; 
3L'.00 
20.4.'> 
42.7.5 
8.50 
30.00 
2.. 10 
12.. 10 
B.OO 
.1.00 
12.N.1 
1.10.00 
24.2.1 
31.:i5 
115.. 10 
l.lfl.OO 
25.00 
24.00 
1.7.1 
3B.23 
7.50 
14.25 
3.10 



M.l 

lO-.-fr^.M. 
"i.:t7 A.M. 

l'>.47.i.M. 
II.Ha.k. 
10.5.1 A.M 
1 1. 0.1 A.M. 
(1.04 A.M. 
II 10 a.m. 
11. on A.M. 
10. .Hi A.M. 
U.51 A.M. 
'0,;f2A.M. 



™»*«ly oonwjt. are to be taken us approil- 



L 



475 



J 



if 






::;i 



li 



DISTANCES AND RAILWAY FARES 

TABLE SHOWING DISTANCES AND RAILROAD FARES 

FROM CHICAGO TO ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES OF 

THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 

(Firtt-CliM Far* only it Givan) 



Akron O. 

Albuny N.Y. 

Albuauernue N.M. 

AIleKlH-ny City Pa. 

A11ent4)Wii Pu. 

AlUsDce O. 

Altiiunu Pa. 

Annapolio Md. 

Atlanta Ga. 

AUantlRCity N.J. 

Atrhison Kan. 

AuKueta Ue. 

Augusta Oa. 

Aurora 111. 

Austin Tex. 

Bangor Me. 

Baltimore Md, 

Battle Creek Mich. 

Bay City Mich 

Bellalre O. 

Berlin Ont. 

BirmlnKhRm Ala. 

BOBtOtI MRB8. 

BrIdBeport Conn. 

Buffalo N.Y. 

BurlhiKtan la. 

Burlington Vt, 

Cairo 111. 

Canton O. 

Cape May N.J 

Cedar Rapids In. 

Charleston S.O. 

Chattanooga.. ..Tenn. 

Cheyenne Wyo, 

Cincinnati O, 

Cleveland O. 

Columbus O. 

0'>unril Bluffs la. 

Columbia 8.C. 

Concord N.H. 

Oorsioana .Tex. 

Crestline O 

Dalian Tex 

Davenport la, 

Dayton 

Decatur 

Denver Colo, 

Des Moines la- 
Detroit Mich. 

Dover Hel. 

Dubuijue la. 



««7.^ 
3.=i tW 

a 50 

in 00 
7 55 
13 43 
IRCO 
19 % 
19 25 
9 50 
22 50 
22 90 
74 

25 15 
•23 K5 
17 50 

» as 

5 65 
9 40 
980 

17 00 
19 00 
•21 00 
10 50 
4 12 

21 19 
7 30 

6 75 
•20 00 

4 56 

26 30 
1.^ JO 
m 65 

600 

6 75 

7 00 
9 75 

25 70 

22 25 
28 25 

6 45 
21 25 

8 75 



Dunkirk N.Y. 

Lmluth Miun. 

Ktgin 111. 

K.rle Pa. 

Evansvllle Ind. 

Fall Kivcr MasB. 

Fargo N.D. 

andlna fla. 

Fitchburg MaHti. 

Fort Wayne Ind. 

Forest O. 

Fort Scott Kan. 

Fort Worth Tex. 

Frankfort Ky 

Preeport Ill, 

(Galveston Tex 

Ualenburg Ill 

Gettysburg Pa. 

Grand Rapids. ..Mich. 

Grenada Mlf>s. 

Green Bay Wis. 

Greenville ...Tex. 

Hamilton Can. 

Hamilton O, 

Hannibal Mo. 

Harrisburg Pa, 

Hartford Conn, 

HaHtlngti Neb. 

Haverhill MaNti. 

Helena Mont. 

Hot Springs Ark. 

Holly Springs . . . Ulss. 

Houston Tex 

Hudson N.Y. 

Indianapolis Ind. 

Iowa City la, 

Ithaca N.y 

ackHonville 

JackHon Miss. 

Jackson Mich. 

Janesville Wis. 

Jefferson City Mo. 

Jolict Ill 

Kalamazoo Mich. 

Kansas City Mo. 

Keokuk la. 

Knoxville Tenn. 

LaCroHBC Win. 

Lake Geneva Wis. 

Lancaster Pa. 

{Lansing Mich. 



a so 

5 75 
22 00 
12 61^ 
27 «0 
19 00 
3 75 
645 

11 40 
21 2» 

7 65 
226 

25 80 

2 28 
17 60 

S 60 

m 74 

3 95 
19 65 
10 60 

640 
5 26 
17 26 
19 50 

12 90 
19 75 
40 50 
14 00 
12 83 
24 35 
19 31 

8 70 

4 75 
16 30 
26 15 
22 00 

4 00 

1 82 
7 70 

74 

2 8.1 

9 20 

5 00 

13 go 

6 60 
1 47 

18 i=. 



N^je _In states where the fare is fixeil by law at 3 cents per 
mile, as in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, etc., tickets 




TAHK 


830 m 


!t 20 


S40 


11 10 


12 HO 


2 40 


aooo 


9 a 


59 D8 


2 74 


5 45 


200 



22 00 
IHOO 

4 22 
10 78 
10 30 
18 00 
20 25 
23 00 

7 30 



18 00 
22 00 
606 
10 50 
30 20 
18 00 
9 H5 
10 00 
18 00 
59 58 
18 00 
22 00 
S 10 
3 10 



Le»Te»worth...,Kan; 

LexInfTton.. Kv 

Linfoln ,.., V|.i, 

Little Rock.... '"Ark 

LoKansport tna 

Long Branch N J 

LoudoD tian' 

Los Angeles Cal 

Lyons .... jj,' 

?j»^|8on .■.v;;ind. 

MadiBoa ^yjn 

Manchester. ,,ji y 

Uscon (ia* 

Manitowoc "wis 

Marquette JUtu' 

Uarshalltown..... la 

™*'™l'''lB Temi. 

Menominco Mk-h. 

Mlwankec wis. 

MinnvapoiiB Minn, 

MoHne Ill 

Montpt'ller . . , . ""'vt' 

Montftomery Ata! 

Mobile _A|„ 

Montreal 'can 

Muscatine.... "a 

Nashville Tenn 

Nebraska City ...Nel. 
New York... N Y 

New Haven.. ...comi. 

New Orleans La 

Newark o 

Newark ' N .1 

Newark "n Y 

Newport ;.H,i 

Newport kv 

Niagara Falls ... N Y 

ORrten. utjih. 

UKdeNHburK ... k v 

oncity...r.:::;; p» 

^«t>a Xeh. 

gj'awa Can. 

£»?»<*ena Oal 

Patterson n .1 

^nsacola Fia 

^fria Ill 

Peru inrt 

Philartelplila p« 

PineBluir Ark 

PlttfiburK Pa 

Portland "mc 

Portland Ore' 

Port Huron...... Mich' 

PortBinouth. , o 

P"K*'lo -■.Colo. 

Pullman ni 

Quebec can, 



(Julncy , 
Kacine. 

KalelKh „ ,. 

Kichinond... , ' inri 

Hichmond - 

Kockford. 
Rochester.., 
Hock Island 

Rome j; Y 

San Antonio. , ".' " 'i-ii v 

sm'"«» .mi: 

14 H Salt Lake C'lly Utah 

3 2; sai,du,ky.:::;::^;t^ 

1.5 90 8eatte... Wn.i 

5 00 Slii,ni,,iV...V TiS' 
I 70 Shrevcport.. in 

Slouicity... ,; 

Sprinarfleld '. '"o 

SpriiwrHcM n, 

Sprlimieid jij„ 

Spokane Fall... w«»b, 
Hteuhenvllle.. o 

S«-';<'"|» '.Mo. 

*'■?«"'■■ Minn. 

St. Joaeph M« 

syracuae nv 

i"™' Wash: 

Tallahaasee Fla 

I8nn tS™?"'"' ■"'1 

l»"ffff""" A'' 

Toledo..;'.;;; A\ 

Topeka "kin 

Toronto.. o! 

Trenton...... ji 

Troy NY 

Urban..... ij 

Utiea NY 

"«|"|>u« ;;;Mii 

S?™""™ lud, 

Waco ygj, 

Wa8liIngton...'.';.'D<''' 

West Point XV 

Wheeling w Va 

White MonntaJna N.H,' 

lilM WI„nlpe|,,..u,Va"a 

*> ■>0 Xeiiia n 

9 00 Yankton.... sn 

22 m Youn^stown . . .v.". 
2., ^ [ZaneM-ille ...r) 



19 00 



3 f!2 
15 76 
» 50 

5 43 
59 .18 
m 20 

41 m 

I! 50 
24 7r» 

59 .58 



17 40 
10 20 
rl Hi 
3 70 
19 00 
.W50 
S .W 
5 80 
8 00 
12 50 
14 !IK 
M 00 

27 m 

3 fiO 
22 20 
5 M5 
5 50 
II 00 
10 95 

19 m 

IM l.-i 
fi 46 
Hi 04 

18 (W 

4 75 
2!! 45 

17 .W 

18 00 
8 75 

19 m 

U 70 
18 00 
(1 00 
2n 70 



where enacted. 



■ state or states 



477 



VALUABLE MISCELLANEOUS MATTER 



,\i 

'ill 
III 






Lina of Pflipetnil Bnow 

The line of perpetual snow varies with latitude, and !■ as folloira 

in feet above sea-level. 



Latitcub 


Feet 


Latitude 


Feet 




16,260 
I4,7C4 
13,478 
114S4 


40 


0,000 


10 . 


50 


6,334 


20 


3,818 


80 


t^ 


i:278 



Longest BiTan 

MILES 

Hissouri'Mississlppl 4. 104 

Nile '.^...........4;020 

Vang-Tze 3,168 

Amazon 3,063 

Yenisei 2,960 

Amur 2,020 

Congo 2,883 



Deapeit Sau 

FEET 

Pacific Ocean, deepest 30,000 

Atlantic 27,000 

Southern 25,000 

Indian 18,000 

Arctic 8.000 

Uke Baikal 4,080 

Caspian 8ea 3,600 



jiit 

is- 



k r 
n. 

n ■ 



A OEMTUHT OF FBOOBX88 

The nineteenth century received from its predecessors the 
horse. We bequeath the bicycle, the locomotive, and the 
automobil& 

We reoeived the goosequill, we bequeath the fountain pen and 
typewriter. 

We received the scythe, we bequeath the mowing machine. 

We received the sickle, we bequeath the harvester. 

We received the hand printing press, we l)equeatb the Iloe 
cylinder press. 

We received the painter's brush, we bequeath lithography, the 
camera, and color photography. 

We received the hand-loom, we bequeath the cotton and 
woolen factory. 

We received gunpowder, we bequeath nltro-glycerine. 

We received twentytliree chemical elements, we bequeath 
eighty. 

We received the tallow dip, we bequeath the arc light 

We received the galvanic battery, we bequeath the dynama 

We received the flint lock, we bequeath automatic Maxims. 

We received a sailinj hip, we t>equeath the steamship. 

We received the beacon signal fire, we bequeath the telephone 
and wireless telegraphy. 

We received leather fire-buckets, we bequeath the ateam fire- 
engine. 



478 



CANADUN CEN8DS 

CENSUS OF CANADA, ion 

•hown by the Censn. of 190:. ' ""'"P"^'' *'"" the population 



C....1. ... s<l.Mlle.. 

Alberla 3.'29.e«6 

Ontario ... ,!'■*"« 

sa.kaiche.a„'::;;; '"•»" 

Vukon . 251,700 

North w.,.v.;,,-,„;i;.;:;;,,,\"J;,»,'J 



Pop. 1911. 

7,204.527 

371,663 

302,480 

<S5,61< 

351,889 

492,338 

2,523,208 

93,728 

2.002,712 

492,432 

8,512 

I«,961 



Pop. 1901. 
WJ1,315 

73.022 
178,857 
255,211 
331,120 
«59.574 

2,182,947 
103,269 

1, 8,898 



PRINCIPAL TOWNS AND CITIES , 



27.219 
20,129 



c.i..r,-r.-r°" 

Cutor 

Coleman 

Eriigoutoti 
[•etbbrldse . 

M«cl«ocl 

Medicine Hat.. 

Hed Deer 

BtrattaeouB . 
WelMkiwln . . 



ii.vio,.p^pu-tau;»';;oT;4*S*ov«^ Canada 

19II Census 

■•■■j;»^r"^^ 

i«&ej mi^r- 

NEW BRUNSWICK. &«'■! -•■ 

.8.579 CbaAam V... 4 lill?*"*"" 

2.411 OalbouHle ? S^lTruro 



•.-l.|K»Bourli 
■ -iJ-M? Virden ., 

■ !.1.'U4 

. .9.808 



■■■2.081 

■ ■■0.383 
■ -.6,418 

■ ■■■2,aM 

. . .3.17» 
■ . .7.<T» 
...6,713 
. -.3.1110 

■ 17.723 
1.74D 



BBITISH COI.UMBU. fesr ■■■■■■■1^^^^^ ■-■■■^ 



Cbllliwick . 
tranbrook . 
Fernle .... 
Onrnd PoTU 
Asmloopi .. 
Kelow&a . . 
Ladysulth .. 
Naaalmo ..., 

Nelson 4 irftl 

New W«.liBlH8ter.;i3;i» 
I'rlDce Kupert - j i™ 

Bevelitoke . . 

ItOSMlBIld .... 

Vait(^)uver . . , 
Vernon 
Victoria ...,;; 



^., Mtryaville 7 'S? Vannouth 

.607 Hllliowii .. }'23] 

yMMoncton :i'^\ OX' 



S.ugolUoDcton 
8.1« Newcaatle 

f->8f Woodatock" 



■ ■■1.184 



.100.401 
. . .2,671 
■ .31.660 



11.34S 

••■?-2i5^<^t«'> 

.•:«SJ&,r"..:- 

■ ■■<>.9(Mi Aurora 

NOVA SCOTIA. ffll^ 

Amhent SftTJo*'!?'"'^ 

Brldfewater 2 tk S'""' «'^" 

Canao ... fi?? gowminTlIle 



MANITOBA. 



Brandon , 

liaupbln 

Neepaws 



-..1.720 

- - ■2.323 

■ ■ .2,482 
.■■2.9UII 
-■■4.405 
■ -.1.001 
. ■ 2,102 

■ ■ -6.420 
. - -tt.87a 

-19,100 
■ .2.558 



ci-n.. D..- ■ -•™ Brentford 



Keotvll" HI? ,?""»81"« 1831 



23,132 
.1.770 

(1.374 



. -2,1001 Carleton Place ,....a. 



,831 




CANADIAN CENSUS 



rharUsin 10,770 

( lUTHi^jr 1 734 

':""""> '.'.2,3tU 

j,**":g .0.OT4 

I,"''"" B.H3N 

('iH'brun<> J 7JB 

Colli uicivfN Ml 7.090 

COH'PI- fllff 3.082 

iil'-nw"" a.sm 

Dencrduto 2 ow 

PrfwlMi ilHtl 

P""«''i» 4.a»tt 

l*"","*'!!*' 2.861 

niirlinui ] Qg] 

KMtTlew 3.180 

Eliulrv 1 782 

Kxrtvr i.tma 

£*•■«"" 1.834 

rort iTHrirla 1,611 

Port Wllllntn ifl.^M) 

"alt in,29» 

(iHiinmNiiif 8.8i)4 

liMrKfton-u 1,683 

Odlerlch 4.522 

Orav^nliiirHt l 024 

Orlniiby i.flOB 

Hullcyl.ui-y 3,574 

HaniilMii 81.wm 

ilaiiiivi'i' 2.342 

If H n If 4^1 til r; 4,4no 

II»*M|ifl4'r 2,36S 

HHnlHt'lllc 2,368 

luxemill 4,703 

Kfiiora fl,iB8 

Klnc-nnllQe i.bm 



Port Hoik- B.rtI>2|Jollp«p fl..-)40 

PortHtnautti 1,780 LacblDr lO.OBU 

I'rwicott 2.WI1 I-achute 2,4i)7 

Preston a.HfW Lar Mpfffliitlc 2.390 

RalDjr River l.UTN Lauratrli- 2,3M 

H^iif retv 3.H4fl I/Ana*>m|itl<>n 1,747 

HI'IgMuHO l.rUI4 lA TiHiiie 2.M4 

Rocklaud 3..'197 Lauion 3,»7g 

Mt. rptliarlBM .12.4m Lev la 7.4(12 

St. Miiryu ;i.:iH« Longueiill a,l(72 

St. TbomnH 14.0.54 Lvrrtte I.IWS 

Sondwh h 2,302 IxulwvlIIe 1.07(1 

SarnlB 0,047 Ma bok .'j.oTS 

«aiilt St.-. .Miirli- . . 10,»H4 Ualwmnpiivv 1N.0S4 

Seaforth l.na-) Marletllle l.M? 



ftlmcoe 

Smith's FallB 
SnutliamiitKn , 

^tef Hon 

atrnthroT 

Stratford 

Stiirfteiin PiilU 

fliiitburr 

Tbemialon ... 

Tborolil _._,„ 

TIlBonhiirg 2,7m 



2. 101) 
4,1.111 
l.fHft 



1N.874 
.... 2,0.52 
• ..0.904 
■ ..2,289 
. ..4fl.:iti0 



K ItiKatuu . . 
l4>aniiugt(io 
I.lnilHuy . . , 
LiMowel .. 
Luudon . . . , 

Maitawa _. 

M**"!"""' 2,811 

MerrltoD 1.670 

Mldlaml 4.R0:! 

Milton 1,0.54 

Mltdiel] ijta 

MorrlMhurR l.fflW 

Moiiut Forest 1,8.'W 

Napauef 2,807 

New l.lHkeard 2.I118 

Npivniflrkft 2.006 

MaxarH Fulla 0,248 

Norib Bar 7.737 

Kurtb Torouto n..'tn2 

Oakvllle 2,372 

OrauKevllle 2,340 



-•llu 



..6.8 



Oitbawa 7, 

OttHWn 87,002 

««*>n Sotinil 12..V58 

Pnlmeratou l.OHR 

I'«rU 4.0.T8 

Parry 8oiiu<l 3.429 

IVel 3,413 

Pfmhrokf . .. 5,820 

PeiietaDguUbi>iif 3.508 

Pertb 3,!i88 

Peterlmroiitfh 18..inii 

Pi'trolla 3,518 

PIcton .1.504 

Port Artbur 11.220 

Port Colborne 1," 



Toronto 

TreDton 

Tnnklm-k lltlt 
Victoria Hiirli'ir 

Wslkeitoii 

Walkervlllf ... 
WHilaoctiiirK 

Watfrloo 

Wi'llanil 



Weston 1 «7: 

Wbltl.y 2.248 

WInrton 2,2ft0 

Wlnditor 17 820 

WtoKliDm 2.2.'l8 

Woodstock ;i 



■ ■8,227 .MHtaQ«- 2,i)8tt 

..0.370Mont Jnll 2.141 

. . 1.085 MoDtmugnr 2.117 

-.3.93(1 Montmorency 1,717 

..2.823 Montreal 470,480 

12,041! .M.-oU't 2.593 

OutremoDt 4,82i) 

Plclaslavllle .,.1,559 

Pfllnte Uatliivau 1,7S1 

Quebec 78.100 

RIfbmond 2.175 

.370.638 Rlmouakl 3.007 

.t.OSS Roberval 1.7.17 

1..577 8t. tJalirlM 1.6(« 

. l.OlHSt. Hyin-liitbe 0,797 

, 1*.(M1 St. Jean .-i.otiS 

.:i.3()2 St. Jerouip 3.473 

3.437 St. Lomliort 3,344 

4.3W at. Laurent 1,800 

.5.:il« at. Plerr.' mm Llen«.2.2nl 



Aahestoa 
Aylmei' 
Bale St. 
Beaucfv] 
Beau barn 
Reloell . 
Tllaok L, 
- klDsb 
Cblcodiliiil 



1,0.53 
2,t)20 

.2,12f> 
10.405 
4.205 



St. Raymond 
Ste. AffHllK' 
Ste. Tlifrt «• 
Sbfrbrooke 

SbawlDtgan I....- ,..,„, 

Sorel «,42ii 

Ti-rrplionno l.itflo 

TliHroril MInea 7.201 

Tlirj-P Rivera 13.601 

Ullfyfleld 0.4411 

Verdun ..11,6211 

VIctorlavHIe 8.02S 

Waterloo 1 RKfl 

Wealmount 14.570 

Wlndaor Mills 2,233 



SASKATCHEWAN". 



..2,224 

Esternn 

Melrllle 

MooHTJan' 

North Brattlfford 
.1..11.. Prlmv Alliert 
i'-55ii"''«'b« ■■■• 
5.880, Saskatoon . 



.1,081 
.1,810 
13,823 
.2.1115 
.6.354 
30.213 
12.01 M 
.1,8.52 

. -- 2.2HI 

Yorkton 2,.1O0 



roatlcook 3.]ir.]3w|rt rurreiit 

D-lnrnell l,flo« Weyhnru 

~ ' 3..56.t 

FmKert'lIU' 6 774 

nruiiliy 4 7,^ 

nraUil Mere 4!7S3 

"'"'■ 18.222 

llwrvllle i.ooT. 

Jonquler«a 2,354 



Dawioa 3,013 



480 



mioa jmittM) 



JISf.r:::;::;;::|»'SSj| 

Arliona fSSI 

Arkunm. jSS 

C.lltornlt rSSS 

Color»lo ;S£ 



Delaware 

Diatrfct Of 
CoJumbI*.. 

Florida 

Gfeorir: 

Hawiili 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana. 

Iowa 

Kansas. . . 
Kentuckj, 



8,SO0 
8.0U0 
fi,000 
8.0D0 
12,000 
5,000 
S.O0O 
8.000 
«.fiOO 
"000 



500.884 
113,020 
58,800 
I 138.300 I lasu 
, 1870 

4,990 nrsa 

2.0B0 I •1787 



, 68.aS0l 1845 

I W.47S viraa 

e.740' 



, . Popu- , 

Utlonia I 

liNW I 



1.828,697 

63.592 

122,931 

1,31 l.Mt 

l.48,'i,a53 

639,700 

908.OI 

1»,735 

278,718 
628.&42 

2.216.331 
1IM.(N)1 
161.772 

4.82I,5SU 



luio 
2.138.093 I 

fti.aM 
l.■"^.ll^ 

2.377,.S19 
799.024 



I91.9U9 



Mifed.:;;::::;; JSSl 
Mffl-r".'::::! « 



Hlnnesota 



5.000 



m£»»';;::;;;: f™ 



5,000 
0,000 
2.500 
4.000 
2,000 
10,000 



Montana. 

gebraska 

Nevada 

new Hampshire 

S*2 Jersey nuui„ 

New Mexico. \ 4Mn 

NorthCarxjIIna.... aSoo 

feklahoni!',.'."." 
Oreeon 

South OakotiT^. S 

Vlrilnla .N J'SSS 

Wzffilnj : M 



84.8Cn 
»,6» 
a8,8fiO 

n,02s 

12,210 *i7af» , ?i2*.1 f43.S71 

M.M5 lOT ISS; J™-<I8 

K i ■! ■■^ i- 

J.30ft *1788 ^S 
7,2e8,8&| 



Iil92,21.j 

81.875 

, 430..S72 

2,.M7,167 

I 327.311 

9,113.01 1 



819.H6 1 ^ 

4.1W,54Ji 4.76, 

790,391 - -- 

413.536 „,. ,^, 

8.302.115 7.66Sm 

""1.243 I,1I«0 2 



428.550 
1.340.316 
4UI.570 

2,020.616 

I 8.CH8.710 

278,749 

343,641 

1.854,184 
518.103 
B.W.SOO 

~ 'SM2 I 



542,610 

1,815,400 

5K3,88« 

2,I)q,789 

3,896.512 

3.^5.956 
2.061,612 
1.141.99(1 
I.221.1I9 
2,333,860 

M5.965 



.J2MI 
J ^■271.811 I B3..^6,M3 I m 






ill 



PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES 
1910 Cnuus 

Tin fullmrjDi llii n.mM iii.l.n>«l.niil,.ir ail citin In tb« VMM SUM 
liaTlii, in, iboanM or man mii.l.ll.nl,. Tlie „ng»nl> .t .urnii, ilibt of 
"""°'° "' ""■ ■»'" "■■"" "K"'" »r r,™., „o,l.l ..tl„.u„ „, p„„„T.ll^ 



AtHTlIlTlI, H. I). 

Aherdceu, WumIi. 

AiIhidh, Hum... 

Adrian. Mk'h... 

Akron. O 

Almnda, ChI.... 

Albany. N. Y... 

AlbuqupTi|Uc, N.M. 

AlrxindrlB, La, 

Aloxandrla, Va. 

AllrntowD. Vm.. 

Alliance. O, ... 

Aliieoa, Mk-h... 

Altfn. Ill 

Alt(Kiiia, I'a.... 
Aniatfrilam, N.Y. 
AtiapDDda. Mitnl, 
Aoderion. Ind.. 
Ann ArUir, Mich. 
Annlntun. Ala. . 
AnMinia. Conn.. 
Appleton, Win.. 
Arxcnta. Ark. .. 
Aabury Park, N J. 



Anhpvllk*. N. c. 

Aslilniid. WlH... 

Aabtahuln, O... 

AtchlHou, Kan.. 

AthpiiB. (la 

Atlanta. <]a 

AtkntlcClty.N.J. 

Attk>boro. Mass. 

Auliurn, He 

Auhurn. N, Y.. 

AQguala, <]a.... 

AuftuBta, Me.... 

Aumra, III 

Anxtfn. Tex. ... 

BakiTHlteld, Cal. 

Haltlmore. Md,. 

BaitfTor, Mo 

Itarre. Vt 

Baravta, N. Y.. 

Baton Bonne. La, 

Battle Crei>k, 
MIoli 

Bay City. Mle;.. 

Bayonne. N, J.. 

BeauDiont, Tex. 

UeHviT Falls, Va. 
Bellafre. II... 
Belli-vlllp. III... 
Ilelllntthani, 

Wash 

Bek)ir. Wts 

Berkeley, cat.. 
Berlin, N. 11... 
BeBRt'iner, Ala.. 
BettilebeDi, Ta. 
Beverly, Mnw., 
Biildeford. Me. , 
BlllliiKH. Mont.. 
Blnjdiatnton.N.V. 
BlrmlnKliam. 

Ala 

BUlief. ArU 

Bloxmfleld, N. .1. 
Bloomington, 111. 



1*1,7.1.1 
i:i,UHU 
ILIHMi 
lo.TiUt 
Wt.UOT 
2a.3fM 

. JI.IKM) 
11.213 

ni.nrt 
]a,<iK] 

I2,7Ult 

W.t27 
3I.2«f7 
1U.i:t4 
22.47tl 
U.817 

ia,7»4 

iB.ir.2 

18.7T3 
11.1,-18 
10, 1 no 
1O.160 
1«,7(12 
ll.SM 
1N.:26» 
Id, 420 
14,U1» 
]54.N:tU 
4H.1.W 
1Z,40I» 
15.004 
34.668 
41,fi44) 
i:t.211 
2ft.H07 
2I).Wt<l 
12.727 
.'>.'W.4aT 

24,m;t 

io.7;m 

11,01.1 

14.HB7 



11. ISA 
17.;iM 
10.347 
fl74i..*>NS 
ltl.3.'i7 
I4,[V44 



BlueBeld. W.V 
Bulae, lilshii. . 

Boone, la 

BuHton. MaM. . 
nradiUfk, I'a. 

Bradford. I'a. .. n.crt* 

BridKeport, Conn. lii2.()S4 

Brldjteluii, N. J. 14.200 

Brockton, Maaa.. M.N7N 

Hrookllne. Uaaa. 27,7l)2 

Brownarllle, Tea. Iii,.ll7 

Brunswick, (ia.. 1(I.1H2 

Buffalo, N. V... 42:1,715 

DurlliiKloti. la.. 24.:i2t 

BurlhiKtitn. Vt. 20,4SH 

Butler, I'a 20,72« 



Bu"e,' Uotit 



III. 



(*' jniet. Uleh.. 
' BUilirldtce, Masa 
JamlirldKe, (},.. 
Camden. N. J, .. 

Ill 

.- « 

CarlN)ndale. Pa,. 
CarJIale, I'a.... 
Carneile. I'a... 
Cedar Bapldx. Ia. 
Centnil Falla.It.l. 
Cha ui I lemburK . I *a . 



2H.207 
4.'.. mo 
rhi..i4n 

a 1,0411 
12.1111 
12.1M0 
21.122 

24.2»R 



11. "HO 
1".«(H 
12.H:J7 
18. (Lilt 
17,<17!I 
10,0:11 
4S,4M 

132,68R 



Cha ui I leniburK . I *< 
Chnmpulirn. 111. 
Chiirl'-Klon, H. C, 
Charleston, W,Vi 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Ctiarianuoga, 

Tenn 

Chelwn, Maaa... 

CheKter, Pa 

Che.venne, Wy~ 

Chlraito. Ill 

Chlrago llelghta, 

Chlckai*a."nkii! 
ChlciiiH'e. MaHK. 
Chllli™the. O. . 

nn-rn. Ill 

rinelnnatl. O... 
rii-liiirne, Tex. .. 
Cleveland, O... 

Clinton. Ia 

nintnn. Mnna... 
CoateKrllle. Pa. 
roff(..vville. Kan. 
f"ohi>o». N. V 
Colnnido SprlDfC". 



30.1 OS 
t4.S4N 

ni.ouo 

I04.M3» 
11,.T27 

04,.i:m 

10,4(1.1 
S0.217 
17.040 
io.:k»:( 
111,000 
»2.811 
22. 7,14 
11. MM) 
12.421 
58.S.T3 
22,0IHt 
34.014 

44.6114 

32.4.^2 

38,.'W7 

'. 11.320 

.3,18S,2n:i 



10,320 
2:1.401 
14.ni» 
14..'177 

1*»..1B4 
son. all: 
25. R7. 
1.1.01X1 
I1,||S4 
12.nS7 
24.700 



2n.07H 
11,4.14 



Colnmlita, Pa. . . 
Cnlnmhla. 8, c. 
Colnmhiiii. (la.. .■.■,.^;.4 

Colnmlma. o isi Bii 

rnit<v>rd. N. H.. 21.4117 
rot.n.'llaTllle. " " 

Cornlnit. N. ^ 
CorlliiTid. V 
Coiinefl miiffn 



1 ?.«):. 
13.7:10 
Il.rrfM 



la 

. ovinitton. Kv.. 
Cranntnn, R. l,. 
Cuuiberlaud, Ud. 



20,202 
n3.27(l 
21.171 
2t,S30 



Dallas, Tex 

Uaiilmry. Conn. 

BaiiTHle, 111 

Uanvlile, Va.... 

Uuveuport, la... 

Dayton, o 

Decatur, III 

Denlwn, Tex... 

Denver, Colo. . . . 

Dea Uolnea, la.. 

I»etroU, Mich.,, 

Dover, N. H 

Dnlwla, Pt 

Dnbuiiue, la 

Diiliith, Ulan... 

Dunkirk. N. Y.. 

Dunmnre, Pa.,. 

Du«|itesn*. Pa.. 

Durham, N. C... 

East Chicago, 
Ind 

EaMt UverpooI.O. 

EaMton, Pa 

Efl«t Orantre, N.j. 

East l-rovldence, 

„K. I 

Eaat Saint 
I-ouU, III 

Eaii Claire, Wla. 

KlfTln. m 

Eiriab«tb. N. J. 

KIkhart, lod 

Elmlra. N. Y... 
KI I'aao. Tex... 
BIwond, Ind.... 

Elyrla, o 

Enid. Okia 

Erie. Pa 

EaoanabB, Mich. 

Enreka, Cal 

EvaoHton. III,.. 
KvAiiKvllle. Ind. 
Everett, Maaa.. 
Everett, Waah.. 
Fall Kiver, 

MaM 

Fargo, N. D.... 

Flndlaj, O 

Fitehburg, Uaes. 
Flint. Mkh... 
Fonddu Ltv.Wls. 
r>)rt Dodge, la 
Fort Scott. Kan. 
Fort Smith, Ark. 
Fort Wayne, 

Ind. . . 
Fort Worth.Tex. 
Frankfort, Ky 
Frederick, Md. . 

Freeport, 111 

Freano, Cal 

Fulton. N. Y... 
GadHden. Ala. .. 
Galeshurg, |||. , 
C.stvestDn. Tex . . 
ilardniT, Maa«., 
(Jarfleld. N. J... 

liary, Ind 

Geaevg, n. Y... 



02.1A4 
211.234 
27,871 
10.02)1 
43,028 

llfl.577 
31.140 
13.032 

2M.3)>1 
NO,. ION 

405.700 
1.1.247 
12,623 
3S.404 
7n.400 
17.221 
17.615 
I. "1.727 
18,241 



31.371 

13,S0O 

6S.MT 
18.310 
25.976 
73.400 
]B,282 
37.17tf 
89,270 
11,028 
14.820 
13.700 
66,5^1 
13,104 
I1.S45 
24.078 
60.047 
3.1.484 
24,814 



110.205 
14,331 
14.806 
37.826 
3S,.'»0 
18,707 
15,543 
10.403 
23.075 

■ 63,033 
73,312 
10,405 
10.411 
17,567 
24,802 
10,480 
10.557 
22.080 
,10.081 
13.910 
10.213 
16.802 
12,440 



N. Y. ' 
(JIolH.. Arfi.'. ... 
"I<iin-i'ni»r. Uhm. 
(lIotMNvIIie, N.Y 
UraiMj F<irki,,N.|i 
'/r«i»j l«Iai,d,.Veb. 

Mf'.'h "'■'"■ 
*i"-«t r.iiV,""' 

Alum. . 
OrcenLuy. wi;; 
tm-fnMbitrt), 
„ '*■ »'. ...... 

nn-erwlHirg, I's! 

jTifllTlll^. o - 

«"H.rl-. , 

llBckpiwapk, N.J 

Hamilton, o 
HammoiMj, ind. " 
Hiuinliiar. Mo... 
llarrlnlmrK. pa 

["If""-;', foan 

, UlM 

H""'"!!. Masa 
""W'lt..n. I'a... 
IIp|.-na. M..nt:.; 
Ilfmlprwi). Ky., 
U"'"k«'n. N-. 5.. 
Horan.I. .Mi,.h.. 
||"l>"k.'. Maw.. 
Iloiu<>Hti-ncl I'a 
"'"■ned. N 
"<it Rprliijni, 



k/l)'*'"'- V j" 

n,4*i J '«'HikH,.. u-i;- 

13.tHi •W'f'.iiK.lii.. 
47.177 J,' "'"'»"ti.i. iM.i' 

H.NM JH'tl-- .Via. ■ 

83.WCJ Jl'"!""-. La.. " 
}I"iiti-liilr. ,v j" 



r"..w7 



II'. 4.-. I 
■I7.!.<<i7 

'101. 4«f) 



-Mr" 



i4.aiit, 

2(1.247 ,, 

38.0011 ;!"• I"'. Iri.l. 



NY."" 



Park, (I. 

r Ifwlfcnf, " 



10.1123 
Ri-iai 
24,]M| 

ii.na 
■tn.i;w 

12. ,107 

■ 17.5;i2 

■ 3i).»i» 

ia.178 

24,ii(Uj 

• 2S.278 

1«,«T7 

m.Tui 

2)I.|N|.1 

110.384 
1I.T91 

la.!:.-.' 
W.fRM 
;i47.4HU 
2n.«l4 



Iowa (-/(y, ig'""- 
li^nton. o 

'"'nitton. N J 



11.N77 
12.44R 
14.802 
31.433 
21.262 

ifl.ni) 



ifbai-n, n y 

JBckaon, Mich.' 

Jnchaon. Mlaa.. 

JufkBDM. Twin. 

'•K-kwrnvllie/'iiV 1b'^ 
lumwumn.NY ai w? 
Jani-sviiip. -^f^- ?i.a> 

Jeffpown rity.Mo. 
Jfjrprsonrllle, 



Jpracy city. ^"-^la Marlon. 

>« ' 'Marlboro 



Ma<nKo'n. wii:;; 

Mahauoy city, 

MaMi>n.' Mk'Ki«; ' ' 
ManchcBtpr. n li 
Mam-lipaipr, Va 
ManlKte,., Mi^f,.' 
Manitowoc, WIh. 
Mankato. Him,. 

".SOOlMai-n.-tte. wIb 
Marlon, ind 



N. J 

Johnstown. N y ' 
Jnlmntowii p'n ' 

J»"". in..'" ■ 

Juplln. Mo. . 
KalamaioA, 



o.. 



267 TTftVr '"""'"'■ Mnwi. 
MMB K*")""- T-x... 
M.™ M„,,„„,„., 



i2.nr.4r.ii' "j 

«.<«H .v,.M,„;„i,. , 

u.7nti''''S""''""'- 

2'..>.il .\,„ ,|„,,„; '"■ 

fffl?"'''"'|"„".i.i: 

11...^; J".''""'"""'- It- I.. 
i^.-S'^VT" ■''■''""■ 

2rt.7fw ^Vw"l^u■"hV|U■•■ 
l2.»2.^ N "li'tiHle. 

1J.23. x,a«ara ^^„i, 
lI.M.V„rr„Jk.' Va 
13.874 \..rtli .\,ii,i,M 



Mloh. on.o. ("aaon ritv 

K-nkak«.;iii::; wa™ Ht:'""" "■ 

Kanaas city. l^-^se Mattoon. m... 

Kanaaacity. Mo 24S^i J!*'!"'"'"'- "■-»-. 
*•• J8.e38lMemphl8, Tenu. 

482a 



Mtf 



i;iiiil,l. 






23.. Wi 
27,S05 



13.1,003 

ii>.6.ia 

.Till.. 17.1 

■•io.3ptn 



■'Ki.Noo 
.7"«.SH3 

3ti.44B 
«7.4r.2 
27,S75 



rUlNCII'AL CITIKH til' TIIK I SI'IKU HTATK8— CoudnueJ 

Norwk'h, Conn... 2D,3AT IU*i>rriI(lc, Tnl. ,. ir.,:{l2 

N«rw.-Hl, (I .... i«,|«fl Kwinoli^ V«.... :n.M7* 

((■klnnd. 111... |liu.n4 Um-hvilrr. N. V. 2IM.1« 

Uorkfurd. 111... 43.401 

' Bock lalanil. III. 2-l.a»R 

Kumr, <■■ 

Ituine. N. V 

I ButUnU, Vt 



(Uk 1' 

Olden, tiHh.... 
Op^dfiixliur^. N.Y, 



Oft Vlty. I'«.... 
OklalioDia. Okla. 
Ohlftirgp, I'll. . . , 



OU-HI 



H. v.. 



Wk.. 



UinHha, Neb... 
Oranie, N- 3 
(Mfakoah, 

Owlnlni 

Oiwi-ito. N. Y... 
Ottumwi, Iowa.. 
OwpDsburo, Kf.. 

Paducih. Ky.... 
ralfiitlDf, Tex.. 

i'ftriB, Tcj 

ParkeniliDrK, 

W. Va 

PnrBons, Kan 

I'aHidena, Cal... 
I'atiMalc, N. J.. . 
I'atenmn, N. J. . 
I'awluckct, H. I. 
Pfibody. Uhbii.. 
I'l-okBklll. N. V. 
I'fiuiHcoln, Kla... 

■•eorlB. Ill 

Perth Arabov, 

N. J. ........ 



10, IMS 
iau,lT4 
1U,444 
Xl,fi80 

itv.tia.! 
is.esT 
«4,:iuo 

11,82-1 

14.74;( 
12-I,0M 

11. 4M) 

23.3en 

16,011 

22.700 
10,4mt 
11,28!) 

17,842 
lZ.4ai 

SO.lJSl 
64,773 
123,0110 
ai.(l22 
14,1(M 
lS.24fi 
22.982 



a,ooo 



32.121 
lO.BlO 
24,127 



Pfru. 

!'.t'.V"'.''?'"f' *^«- -->■*•" 
Phllsdelpljla, l'n.l,M».0<w 
Phlinpahurit, N.J. 13,B(»3 
Phuenlx, Arlt. .. •" "■ 
I'bofntxTlllf, I'a. 
PliiFhluff. Ark... 

l'l<|i)s, Obio 

I'lttHburK, Kan., 
rittaliurs. Pa... 
I'lttsllelJ, Mam. 

I'lHaton, I'a 

Plalnfleld. N. J.. 
I'laltahMrg. N. y. 
Plytnoutb, Msms. 
PIrmoutb. Pa. .. 
Pomona. Cal.... 
Pontlac, Mich... 
Purt Cheater.N.Y, 
I'ort Huron. 

Mich 1S,S6S 

Porlland, Me. . . ^..^Tl 
Portland. On-... 207.2U 
Purtamoutb. N.H. '" ""■ 
Portammitb, ().. 
Portamoiitb, Va. 
I'ottBfuwn, Pa.. 
I'ottBvrUe, Pa... 
I'dURbkeepsif, 

„N. V 27,M8 

Providence, R. 1. 224,320 
Pueblo, Colo 44,395 



Sacramento, Cal. 
Savlnaw, Mich., 
lit. Cloud, Minn. 
Mt. JtMcpb, Mo.. 
Ht. I>iu1h, Hi>... 
Paul, Minn.. 
it'Ui, Mbh>.... 

^lIe^l, Ore 

»Hlt Lake Cltr. 

Utah 

Han AuKi'lo, Tex. 
Itan Antonio,Tex. 
San Bernardino, 

Cal 

San Diego, Cal.. 
Sandiwk}-. Ohio.. 
Dan Franclflco, 
Cal. 



44.090 

(io,nto 

10,000 

77.«>:i 

0K7.oa9 
214.744 
4n.09T 
14,094 

92.777 
tu,:t2] 
96.014 



11.134 

10,743 

in,ioa 

13,388 
14,7W 

o.'t:).9uo 

32.121 
10.267 
20.850 
It.^-W 
ll,2iiO 
16,006 
10.2117 
14.932 
12,W)0 



Ban Joae. Cal... 
Santa Barbara. 

Cal ll.fiM 

Santa rnu. Cal. 11,404 
HiratfWB SprlngH, 

N. 5 12.003 

Sault Ste. Marie, 

MIcb 12.«IB 

Sarannah. Ua... on.004 
Sctienccladf , 

N. Y 72,826 

Scranton, Pa.... 12a.Hfl7 
Seattle, Wash... 237.194 

Sedalla, Mo 

SelniB. Ala 

Shamoklu. Pa, .. 

Sbaron, Pa 

HhawDee. Oklii., 
Sbebo.vftBn, Wli4. 
Shenandoah, Pa. 
Sherman, Tex. .. 
Shreveport, La.. 
Sloiiz City, Iowa. 
Hloiix FailB, S.U. 
SomerTllle, Mans. 
Houtb Bend. Ind. 
Soutb Bethlehem, 



11.20j> 
2:).4!41 
.33. 190 

2<J.230 



17,S22 
1.1.049 
10.A8H 
16.270 
12,474 
26,:i98 
2.\774 
12.41:; 
28,1115 
47.82H 
14,094 

77,2:)e 

63,084 



Tt'iJipIe. Tex.. . . 
T.-rre llaute.lnd. 

Tinn, uhlo 

Tult-do, ohk>. . . . 

Topeka. Kan.... 

lorrlngtoD. Conn. 
Tra»erae City, 
Mlfb. ....... 

Trenton, N. J. , . 
Trinidad, Colo. . 

Troy, N. Y 

Tneaon, Aria.... 

Tnlaa. Okli 

Tyler, Tex 

i'nron, N. J 

I'tilontown, Pa.. 
Utlca. N. V 

Vallejo. Cal 

Vlekaburx, Mlaa. 
VInceimea, Ind. . 
Virginia, Minn.. 

Waco, Tex 

WakeBeld, Maar. 
Walla Walla, 

Wash 

Waltbam. Maxa. 
Warrt-n. Oblo. . . 

Warren, Pa 

WaBhlnxton.D.C. 
WaablnKton, Pa. 
Waterbury. Conn. 
Waterloo, towa.. 

Waterlown. Maws. 
Watertown, N.Y. 
Walervllle, U>'.. 
WBtWTllet, N.Y. 
Wauhegan. Ill . 
Wauaan. Wla. 



to.iHKt 
fW.IW 
1I,MI4 
ION, 497 
43,084 
ls,4ti:i 

12.116 
M.Hin 

tii,2IH 
70,8 1 » 
1:1.111:1 
1K.1N2 
IO.4IM 

21.'>2.1 
1.1.344 
74,4IU 

Il.34<i 
20.81 4 
14.Klk1 
10.47;i 



Way. 



Oa.. 



19..T04 
27.8.14 
II.OKI 
It.tMO 

3:ii.0fn> 

18.778 
73.141 
20,093 

12.84H) 
20.730 
11.4rM 
in.074 
10.009 
10.600 
14.486 
11.817 
10.210 



18,973 



Racine, Wis 

Halelvb, N. C. 
ReadliiK. ■■<■ 
Kedlandx. 



38.002 
10.218 
90.4)71 
10.44t) 



Reno. N.-T 10.807 

ItensfielBer, N.Y. 10,711 

KOTere. Mass.... 18,219 

Richmond, Ind.. 22.324 

Rlcbmond, Va,, , 127,028 



Soutnbrldge, 

MaBi" 

South Omaha. Neb. 
South Sharon.Pa. 
Spartanburg. 8.C. 
Spokane, Waith.. 
Sprlntcfleld, 111.. 
SprlnKflebl.MaiiB. 
SurinKlteld, Mo.. 
Sprlnfifleld. O... 
Stamford. Conn, 

Staanton, Va „ 

Steehon. Pa 14,248 

Steubenvllie. O.. 22..391 

Stillwater, Minn. 

Stockton. Ciil... 

Streator, 111 

Sunbury, Pa 

Superior. WlH 
SyrneuBe, N. V 



10,210 
28.269 
10.190 
17.B17 
104,402 
61.878 
88.020 
35.201 
48,921 
25,138 
10,004 



10.198 
23,2.13 
14.253 
13,770 
40,.')84 
137.249 



Tacoma. WaHh.. 

Tampa, Pla 

Taunton. Mass., 



8;J.743 
37.782 
34,259 



Webb City, Mo.. 
WebBter, Mans.. 
Weehawken. N.J. 
Weat Cbeater, Pa 
WeatSeld. Maaa. 
W e a t Hoboken, 

N. J 

Weat New York, 

N.J. , 

Weat Orange, 

N. 3 10,080 

Wheeling, W.Va. 41,041 
White Plalna, 

N. Y. 



35,403 
13.300 



67.iai 
18.924 
31 .860 



Wllklnsburg, Pa. 
Wllllamaport.Pa. 
Wllllmantlc. 

Conn 11.230 

Wilmington. Del. 87.411 
Wilmington. N.C. 25.748 
Winona. Minn... 18.583 

Inaton Salem. 

N. C 22.700 

WInthrop, Mass. 10.132 

Wobnrn, Haan.. 

Woonsocket. K.I. 
Worcester, Haas. 

Yonkera. N. Y. . 

York. Pa 

YounffBtown, O.. 

ZanesTlIIe. 



15..180 
.18.125 
145,986 

79.803 
44.760 
79.006 



DOMINION aoVEKNMKNT 

DOMnnON OP CANADA 

n„„ *"* "' Owenunent-Ottawi 



°°'"'°^:s^:S.iiS^''— ^ 



. Uw. 



rnV,'"'°JF l^<'T°'s^ &"'?."'■■ '»• "«"..„, i,v ,,.„ 

«ep.'»"-£?/„,i:,/,j;™«Jr. UA. ^^^ *• «l«'l-«, ,■„„., ,.„,.,. 

ffij" i:"c"<' B""™: 



7,000 
T.OOO 



Miniftirr ' \',t' ' i/n'.Jl" ' ' ■ • ■. 

HA.. KC t^rothers. 

MinjHtvr of' "inland ' rA- 

^nWii Bruno NantS; 



7,000 



7,000 

7.000 

7,000 
7,000 

7.000 



7,000 I 



ifiriHtrr tit (•„ . 
lion, A K K,.„,,,' „,'>„• 

""'kj. K. II. «:i:rll. 

A. Ahiy. ( . (J Ki'7i i 

Lothrop, J, M, .!,"■ 
"Oil 11. ll..inni;T '• 

faiim/o—phijii,.,,. 11,,;' 
'mml„ral(„a A,,',„ _ i.' 

Hl/lh Coinmi.'.ion,".!""'/"/. 

(^o«_odo_i.„„, .s,™;g'. 

''rtinth, 17 Vli'tiiri'i «* 

London, i.-n.il;,!;i':':'.^.'v 

Jiumffiratlrii, ' It r,i i,',-'h" 
lH«'d. Smith .,77 



483 








Do. or PAUtAvum, 



DoHWUW OoAT w Aun. 

DOMINION PARUA MENTS SINCE 1867. 

Pa»tt 

POWtK. 




un. 



SENATE OP CANADA 






'■ O. 4BSKMHL B'TI OP 

Affomituitr. 

..lint « i^-J 



iMitOM. 

llM. Wilium Htlbr Arich.t .t:.""E™"" 



jnwtMoKay 



J. BoMiw . . 
M. SulUnil.,.; 
'fdhtr,...: 

£■ A. Louchnd 
Mrurtn 



jiurllcli™, 
H.lloijipijrt,, 



« vu J '*.?■*• "V 1«, 1881 

fin««oii.o.."jir •!';£! 

.jbdiM.w.kfi; 7' ss 

"""(-P »;■»>. 2MH80 

■■■ ■" 1891 

ISM 



■■'-M».(on.O «"' — *'^ 



■ «nB, o pth, 21 ' 

AlftrtA.ThltaudiiiilSiii,''^ ■•'.■'^ 21. HOB 
0«A.Cm .?^""**''Q---Aug. ja.ioM 



•Tojonlo.o ...No;, ,,',™ 
.il<lnlTOI.Q...j.„, jj;™" 

piTHit)'* ?•■ ^'^ 

-rort HIH Nov, ]», ISIM 

'• John V. mi; ■S"",'^-'}- -Felx 6,1000 
fflrLraulTjS^' i^**'"*!. Q-..J«n «l loot 

"!?^&WSSi;::::atS.o--fili';ig 

" WilllimoitJ^''"'*«-MoBtr««I,Q,..f',b. I" iSS 

•• '"^«S&:::;:5KfK;^i:fs .i'g 



« iotar«> 

, it^Ouimli, 



■WAfOM. 

"??■£■ "ifw. 

f. T. PnM 

JlH* Coffev. 

W. 0. Mnnb 
Jm. Doiu»j||o. 
■■•o. I)«rtil... 
H. J. Clonn.. 
W. WlohtU... 
ill.Wll™.., 

'<iHoi>.Bi,ii.j.r,;,„,ij,->i 

"?."• J- »■ S>^"A":". .&.■ ''■ ■ • K. », loo, 

■■■feiu„:.S;sS 

';l<>l«,li.c..»i„, J? is 
-.". i.oniw„ "nimton .... Mir T JSS 

iiiroto. w'tv; Si;™<>«"....j». i!: S? 
■H«,v.:iS: !5 ffi 

j«?,r^l^^"'°^X°- ■■■•I 



i H. KoS". 
T. o. Doiio. 
WHO*.", 
Pe'er TillioL " 
La. u,v,i„,: 

"■ M. DoubIu 
Robtrt J«Sr«j-' ' 

Jno. Coitlviiii 



;; ^nl nillnior. . . . 
I, '*■ H, Conieku. 

J «■ A, Belcourt. 
' kTI*, .P'""P'»II-. . 

: SS'cSW- 

, ••'fiUnalUti..' 
Edwuri u p .; 



'<">. M^ .. c^^^ ""'";" ""-"- " "■ — - " c«.„. 






-»l»»H0M.mbl.Ui.» 



1-C Bollroi.A.Hoilanii.... 



inmaMiui.) 



• ««»t. Of «„ IVrtnlo. ot C^U, to p„„„,„ 



i 



THE DOMINION OF CANADA. 



OMiMlOl 

O WlMil 



MlUi OohMbte . . 



Allwrto. 

lim«hWMtT«nil«rlMM 



My 1, IMT 
• 1. IMT 
H I, IMT 

•• 1. IMT 



k,1,ll>(» 
I, 10<V> 



(MW-t»C0MMa 



)lMtbh north AaWflM Aet, IHT, f 
> uid ImpnIkI Proclanwtlon, ttnd^ 
\ U^. IMT. [ 

ImptiikI Onkf' In -Council. tSrrl JuM, 

mrni Act rtd»n,\ P*rllMnMl,ch*p. 

a; HUlutMol IHTUMd B. N. A. Act, 

1171. 
ImpcrUl Ordtf -In Council, l«h Hajr, 

IMTI, Ml Mblrvw at lh« LMlalatun 

of Brltiih Cotumhia tni idrtnw tA 

VeArni Par)<iini«nt, •Mdon IITI. 
Imiwrtal Unkr InCounoll, tetii Jut, 

IHT a. 

Art Fodcral Parlluntnt, chap. 42; 

HtetulM of 19»6. 
Act Fcdi-ritl Parllamvnt, ohap. 41; 

SUtulM of inn, 

>ct rvdcral Parllamvnt, ehftp. ST; 

HUlutM or WM., and l>roclMiMtlon, 

24tli July. ItMUi. 
tot KMhral Pwliaintnt, chap. •; 

HtklutM Of 18M, Mid eiap. 41 1 

flututM of ini. 



•.40B 
14Jt 



Mil 

l,MO 



n.tu 
•4^ 



!43,X» 

sai.iM 
i,ni,ou 

900,437 



ZSO,<A0 

i.nn.Tu 

!0T.07« 



1!^:: 



TIm l ik n d el HtwfouadUnd utd th« Labrador Coait are not Itifhidid In (h« abova itatoiMnt. Thf arM 
ol (ba Ubmdar Com! la aboot T,OW aquBn milr*. and that el Newfoundland 42,TS1 aquara lollaa. 

* TUt %n% doaa not Imhtda tha portlona ol the Great Lakea ol the 8t. Lawranop within iha Urrttoria) llmlta 
'-~^- ■* 1— i_j— .t. ^j^ aided to the Provlnt-e by Act of the Imperial Parliament, IfiSV. 



PUBUO DEBT OF OANAVA. 



T«r 


Total DaW. 
* 


Total AmMo. 


Met DtU. 


InlOTMl 


iBtoTMt nc'4 
from 


'bMeot 
iDUreM 
poldon 

OmTDiU. 


RaUof 
Intaraat 
rac'd fnitt 
Invai'Mt. 


HatBata 

oflMtanM 

i*id. 


•n 


j".2».a!! 


41.440.su «4 


is8.iu.m OS 


•8.707.iriB 


1717,084 11 


8« 






2 


T4,9n,M M 




14atHI,«0 01 






4-Ot 




8-01 


























l»t.4Sl,BM « 


T,7TS.ea8 7l 




8M 


107 


S'H 






44,4«a,T»T 11 


I5«.SP6,7K *t 


7,601,144 M 


7S1.6U 41 


3-79 




a'48 






dl,7(tt,Bn 18 


15».W1.«0 71 


7.74Q.BOI 41 




8 70 


1-70 


8-n 








lU,4ea,71i4« 




1,001,1M 01 


a-70 




■28 






OIMW.MSH 








81T 












LM,4D7,flSI 14 


»,410,4SI M 


1,007.086 61 


8-68 












rZS.lU,10T OS 


■»iias 


8,290,078 01 


8TI 










4fi,«MM>M 


IIT,n4,7TS 44 




864 














03n,ii8 0( 


0M.O2&8e 


SU 




12 






HKtr,on 11 


nT.saokMi« 


10,14S,M1 tn 


l,806,a»lSl 


8-02 


1-00 


■07 








t»,SSB,ttl 77 


»,«a«,841 u 


1.0M.2nM 


887 


9-28 


■M 






6t,ooo.ia» 11 


I97,M»,090 ftl 


ft,M4,lM 7f 


i,0rT,tiB li 


8-U 


lfl7 


98 








Ul,in.4SI M 


«,7«S,0T8M 


1,(IW,4U M 


i-ao 


too 


'98 








Ml.Bn,01B 01 


0.80B.8m«l 


1.U0.1H SI 


8-98 


107 


'88 






a,t«4,«M4t 


I4«,1B3,0» U 


10,S19,M U 


i,BT.oc« vr 


8-81 


I'M 


01 






e4.BTS,nT 71 


t69,DT4,HT Ot 


10.400.t»4 « 




8-20 


1-06 


87 






«T,n),in H 


208,407.482 Tl 


10,001.420 01 


1.870.000 U 


8-28 


204 


80 






T0,Wl,^S4e7 


mifia$fiMU 


lp,a4^on « 


1,448.008 U 


8-20 


208 


■70 






T4,4iai5M n 


988,060.808 01 


Il),6l0,7« 01 


1.618,664 61 




208 


■M 




H5,100,M» ti 


T8,88T,45e M 


3ae,S78,44< 0( 


10,8M.1U 8< 


1.600,447*1 


814 


201 


Oft 






•l^7ll.m (H 




10,000.645 K 


1,088.060 61 


8-00 


2-08 


ou 






W,W.4S8 M 


108,480,008 01 


10,007.964 eC 




812 


207 


on 








271,080.069 « 


10,976,986 U 




roo 


2-00 


■67 










11,008,1W 11 




8-08 


2' OB 


47 






101.004.703 a 


I0OJ67,7USI 


lt,128.6M 71 




8-08 


21a 


■46 






tll.4M.413 K 


I0B.«4,108 01 


10.880,116 01 


2,106,081 41 


2-81 


l-» 


M 






l».H6.TOa fU 


987,012,077 7< 


10,814,OW 41 


2,140.811 n 


2-76 


1-70 


11 




3T».Me,«»0S 


lie,tM,MO 11 


SffiISS 


18,712,771 r 


1,288.740 01 


1.77 


l-« 


-44 








10,«73.6M 81 




LOO 


1-47 


91 










n.e04.5M 81 


2,260,648 11 


2-42 


1-46 


W> 








UB^HSiStOC 


1S.006.1W 9 


8,807.464 9' 


178 


1-D8 


■IS 




3te,«2,os2 <S3- i=.63S,5afl Si' i,oe^Tn w 


4^ 


144 





t. 


ToM. 


— 




IS 
M 

H 
t 


SM.in 

UI,aT3 

IT.Mt 


n 


Tl,T3a 


n 


■Tt,aM 


H 


l,Wl 


M 


zso,flsn 


111 


X.S3.IH0 


M 


l,t»W.T34 


ZT 


!OT.rt:(l 


SB 


3.TM,0e!i 



Ntiiuta 


)llRttni( 


iwid. 






s-n 


S M 


S'U 


I-S9 








■ ■•• 




13 


■OT 


■» 


n 


n 


'89 


■gi 


■87 




■78 


88 


88 


«U 


en 


•67 


; i7 






■11 


■u 


»1 




sia 



•OHONATION OK KIMI (IKOKUK V. 

CORONATION OF KING GEORGE V. 1911. 

C—4U. C«,..,.., „t I,., „ ,,^,,, j^^^^^^ 
were M lollow»: ■""—,11111. The ntllceri 



O/r C»»,./j/ Huny Cnl. |I, i|. 
«r., Hony MaJ. ,„„| gr.-kr. 

iHitr orr.. May a. j. van 
?2"™ni. c. Ota. i-ni: i,°," 

1 .A.M.C Paitmr,, L( -Col H I 

v.!;,"""' "■ I-l.-Col. V. A a 
WlJIlBma, A.n.c, R.C 1) Jrf;i 

)R.C.) J/c,/. Off., Maj. U 

on. CnmiVi,, MiiJ. R. A Car. 
man l«lh Light UOTK. A,lT. 

-IrllHcn, (ttorte. Field and 

Off. Coma'}), Lt.-Coi. E M »„ 

nouf. 2nd Heavy B,li„"e "r 

Capt. W. A. McKeZ'isS a'i. 



ll'avy Urlauje. 'c.u.A?''' '"' 
n- „^i'»iounUd Trt,„oa 
Off Co,,„/„ c„, A H,„%.V„ 

I> Blrchall. 5tli fiem -^ Vl 
"f Canada": Cap,, u S 
O Connor. "O a.l.-S ■; "j ^■ 

Sronf,%;-r..'"-..S.V'"v.;«;.J 
iKeura ae Qiiehef"; w H 

^""^wy^-i„-r-„«5 

If. Anderson, c.* r ■ n £ 
no.irhar.1. 86th Rcgt.'; R K' 
Irwin, R.C.K. 



11 
I!; 

'till 

m 



;iW'i 



''in 



EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CANADA 

KDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF CANADA 

VnlTenlUea and Ckilleges. — All the Provlncea bave nnl- 
versltleB or colleges, and the provlalona made for higher 
edacatioD are exceptionally good. There are special collegea 
for women and for agricultural Instruction. The principal 
untveraltles are McOlli University, at Montreal; the Unlver- 
altr of Toronto; University of Queen'a College, Kingston; 
Laval University, Quebec and Montreal; University of Man- 
itoba; University of Ottawa; and Dalbouale University and 
College, Halifax. N. 3. 

Xormal Schools. — There are numeroua Provincial Normal 
Scboola for the training of teacbere, and alao Normal Model 
Schools for hoys and girls. 

Collegiate Inatitntea and High Schools. — Under the 
British North America Act, 1867, the right to legislate on 
matters respecting education was placed in the hands of the 
government of the separate Provinces, the rights and prlv- 
ilegea of the denominational and aeparate achools then 
existing being specially protected. Each Province has 
adopted a system suited to its own particular needs, though 
there la much aimilarity In the methoda and aims of all 
of them. The system prevailing In Ontario will serve as an 
example: Each of the high schools (which form the inter- 
mediste link between the public schools and the universi- 
ties) is managed by a Board of Trustees, appointed Jointly 
by the County and Town Councils. In cities the Trustees 
may he appointed by the City Councils, or may be elected 
by general vote of quallfled electors. Separate School 
Boards of Trustees have alao the right to appoint Trustees. 
The Principal of the High School or Collegiate Institute 
must be a graduate of a British or Colonial university, and 
certified as experienced In teaching. Puplla attending these 
schools are prepared for matriculation to the universities. 

Public Schools. — Each township Is divided Into school 
sections of a suitable extent for one school; and In each of 
these sections throe Trustees are elected to manage Its 
achool affairs. In cities, towna ind villages, the achoola are 
managed by a Board of School Truateea elected from the 
municipality. 



488 



THE SUCCESSION DUTY AtJT 



"Oh dilM or iilT,™?^ ' """' •'""'"'"i ol 



W AH impariy , , . 

""■or or do„„,. „ „ J;" I °' ".•»'>»'°'. l«,nl„„. 
I; 1™M or .n.„|„ „ ""' ■« ""th to M, p„„„ 

•wi b,o,„. t..*,° „':';„•,"?»'•""' "jp.~» 

"".*"" "" y«" Immrtl..,,, prto, to hi d^ih i^ " ""'" "«'" ■ jClur "'"""""'"> *Prtl. ISM. 



ri".i diss's ^l r"" °' • '—"' " "V 

•n<l dull "clS nillT 'i" ''•^'"'^ thrrofrom 

-:;rr.rc":;:c.r'..-o.r^ '"'"•' 

.bio (un,„L „~r;™" """ '* ""d* 'orrooon. 

dow.^;c„jd;, x:.:,'"!::^':"''^' <•> '" 

by . d;.po.i.J„,:dX^j;~«^'»"7«"-t«< 

/* to, fol, eoo.id°«|o„7„ ""'""' " «'»"Wlo„o 
•bolly lor th. d^t^i" " '°°"' " "»"•»■■ «"'b 

•b.r.01 thoro I. . r^l,; ." ^" "" "'"" '" "■P"' 

d.U or .no„„C^£,rt°7,l"""" '"•'■•»■- 
ol lb« MUM. ' ■"" dWmnt portioo, 

Nodutyohallbeloviable-- 
.Uh,„ ,ho P-in^'oIo'Sr won':™",",''"'''''''"' 

S;""i'j"'™"" or .rbi,2',"oof7o r 



•~«. or 01l,„.,.„ .hi "™'J';, *'"•'>•• ""-'.Moh o, 

"S"::'" """'■ '-'«" 3'" ' d,:,s '°™ "■"■ 

•». r», d.y .77p I ' „* •?~" *'"« »» » «.r 

Iblblly .h«h,r b, d ,1.1 '■ "J ">■ ""•' P""" 
bomndal !«,,,„' h,,"^'"" " -"""I" " Uut <h. 

l»"o». tal'dih, .." L°"'"\'"""°™l>olb« 

tb. Prop.„, .|,h7, h, hta° ,;; "^'",'"'' •"""«■ •« 

"."(,.»». .,th .„; o,;~™; r " ""■"' " ■» 

■"b..»l», .„d ,h«h Vr ■ "^r ' '" """"« " 
'M. b, drri 0, oih^rTn,,™'"' T " "'" "» 'P"'. 
P"»«d. Ih.™,, ,.;„,„,"' "'""' WMJ ortt, 
"><h.„„|„,,or.hTOl„'? P"">dl'™rvrt 

"'■ ' pmon. '"'" "» 'b. dM„, ol inch 



- HCOUIUJ Qf I 

iMbor, mother, hu.bohd, ,i|, ikM"^ZXy'W I—""- 

- Ibh. 01 .ho drc,o.ed, .hrrr ,h, obX«o«w '"""■ "" "'"'«' '•■■» ol .b. .I™,«.. „„ „ 
' '"•"t'onwJ dof. not exceed Sso noft '" "•"''e «' 'n nan lo n^ f«, .».. ,.._.,. ..""'« •""ei" 



o. .b. p.:;pV.;:rdrdT;:rr,"'r''j"r 

P^on. ,„.„„o„,d dor. „o. o.'oIm SMoi ' " "" 

4»."o':ri;''dV;"i""""'-" -'"• 
«.,,«. o,;."oMh;r,;;;rrdT;-',=Vh''"''' 

tlm« 01 hi. droib. »h«hrr uch KxmVZ^^ m W' ■:« 
or Intatur. P'^Ptny pu<«. bj win p,, „„^ 



«. or ,„ p.„ I, ., ,„r .h;;;;;,:;™, .Tr' 

l™r; "'■'"'•''"'''■ "''lb I"- «'d"llbl.ri„ 

lb. r.,. .„d on .h.'Sr^lS'."-'""' " ' "" " 

pr'r c™,".""" «■'•'" •"' "" »« """I Wto.000. 2 
^(0 to.rf.aoo,»»„d d.0. „■ „^ „„,<^ , 
_M E;o»l. „„,o„ „d d.„ ,„ „„^ ^ ,^^ ^ 
KOOjOOO, 6 per cent. 






I 111' ''il! 






ProviiM when the valut of uj> d<ttMil« proparty 
•iCMda 1100.000 «Dd Uw MDOunt p«Mlnir in m»nn«r 
•lOnMld to ujr oiM ptmn szoMdi Uw unoimt herein 
■(tor ntntioiMd, « further duty dull be ptld aa tbf 
MtouBl w pMUm in »ddUion to Um rtUa in Um 
tortrriiw panfr^ih mentioned h foUowt :- 

S^ VSffiSl^ "« "'oeedWttTooo, 1 percent, 
pe riJSl. ^ «K» doei not ^.o^ldWoDO. U 
pe'^M tT*'' •'"^*"* "^ ''«■ ■«>' «o^ •000,000, 2 

(4^^0Mdl 1800.000 uid doio not oiONd 1800,000, Z| 

<() Kxoeodi 1800,000. 3 per cent. 

Where the ftfrtr^Kte velue of the property ot the 
deoeoaed exceedi 110,000. eo much thereof u pe«M to 
or tor the bemrflt of the irMidfether or r*n<imother or 
wiy other linnl knoeatoi of the deccsMd, ekoept the 
father wid mother, or to uy brother or tiiUr of the 
dereMed, or to My defendant of euch brother or eieter. 
or to ft brother or riiUr ol the father or mother of the 
deceaanl. or to any dceceadont ol euch lait mentioned 
brother or alatcr shall be aubjeet to a duty ol fS lor 
every tlOO ol the value. 

Provided that where the value of any duUable pro- 
perty eKceede WO.OO0, and Uie amount paMinv in 
■MnnaralDraeald to any one person mentioned in '.t;e 
i»e)itpreo«lln«iubeeotlon. except thelalher and mother, 
exoeede the amount hereinafter mentioned, a further 
duty ihall be paid on the amount eo paaain^ In addltioa 
to the duty in the next prmiedrng nibieotlon mentioned 
w follows :— 

*?*J![ «?:i!!." *5**'' <"»onn' »<i pMiinr to one penon 
•*S*? fOIMWO and does not exceed 9100,000, 1 per cent. 

m Exoeeda 1100,000 and does not Koec^ |UO,000. 
Uparoenk ' 

i '"VmSk"' •*"■"" »wl does not exceed $200,000, 
p} BioeMls 9900,000 and does not exceed KAO.00O. 
4 per cent. 

M Eioeeda tSM^ODO and docs not exceed «300,OOD, 
1 par cent. 

{/) Kxossds 1800,000 and doss not exceed »SGO,000, 

(9) Ixossda tUO,000 and does not mxand tWO,DOD, 
i per oenl. 

(A) Exoswii 1400,000 and docs not szessd lUO.OOO, 
H par — ' 



Wbtrs tbo atfrrenato value u( the property of the 
dsosBssd txoosds nt^OOO. uKl any part thcreol passes 
to or for tbs bsnsat of any person in any other degree 
of oidlatsral ooBSanguiolty to the deoeaaed than ia 
above deeoribsd, or to or for the benefit of any atraniter 
In Mood to tbo deceased, savs as berefntefore provided 
lor the aune, shall bs subject to a duty ol «10 lor every 
•100 otths value. 

Any, porUODOt an estate where the deceased &t time 
of deatbfadoaaioUsd la Ontario, and which is brought 
Into Ontario by exooutore or admlnistr«tora to admln- 
istor shall bo UaUe to duty, but If any auoceaeion duty 
or tax baa been paid thereon cleewbere than in Ontario 
and such duty or Ux so eollectsd le mreater than the 
duty payable In this Province no duty shall be pavahle 
thetwm ; but U tbs duty eo paid eleewhere Is leae'than 
tbo Ontwto doty then the dUTerance rourt be paid. 

When any duty or tax shall have been paid by the 
■alMe upon any moveable or personal property locallv 
sltnato outside of Ontario or any Interest therein, >» 
^allowanoo shall bs made for any outalde duly p»id 
thereon : the diffsrence, U any, between the outside | 
and Oatarte doty rtaOl be likewise jaW. P^>v^d«! »,,:■ 
■hovt aliovMHS* and dWeroaosa are only mads with | 



reepect lo any country, stal*. or Briti^li Previneo or 
poei ee elon where a slnillu allowance ie made lor the 
duty or tax paid under this Act on property In Ontuio 
passing on tU death of any penon dondoiled in any 
such outi^de country. 

Should an executor or administrator, in order to 
eso^ie peyment of Suoocsslon Duty, dlstrlbuie any part 
of saki eetaU without brinfing the eame Into Ontario, 
aucb executor or administrator ehall be lUble, peiion- 
ally, to pay His Majesty the amount of duty as If such 
aoseta had been brought within Ontario, provide.-! that 
this BhaU not apply to paymento made to pereoas 
(loinidled out of Outorlo from asssts situate without 
the Province. 

No foreign executor or administrator riiail assign or 
transfer any stoclia or eharee In Ontario standing in the 
name of a deceased pemod, or in tnutior hlm,'whkh 
are liable to pay Succeeilon Duty until such duty Is 
paid or security given therefore a* provided, and any 
corporation allowing a traiafe- jl any stocks or shares 
contnry to this provision Hhall be liable to pay the duly. 

An executor or adnilnlstlfitor applying for letters 
probata or adminiatration to the estate ol a deceased 
person shall, before the issue ol such letters to him, 
moke and flte with the Surrogatu Regietrar a full and 
correct statement under oath, giving (a) full itemised 
Inventory of all the property of the decesaed and the 
market value thereof. (6) The several persons to whonv. 
the same will pass under the will or Intestacy and the 
degree of relationship In which they stand to the 
deceased ; and such executor or administrator shall, 
before the issue of such lettan probat?, deliver to the 
Surrogate Registrar a bond, In a penal sum equal to 
ten per cent, of the twom value ot euf^ property liable 
Succeaaion Duty, executed by himeelf and two 
BureUes to be approved Of by the Registrar oondltloned 
lor the due payment of any duty to which the property 
may be found liable. 

Should the Treasurer of Ontario be not satUfled with 
the value eo sworn to or with the correcluess of the 
Inventory, be shall direct the Sheriff of the County or 
City to make a valuation and ^tpraise the eaid property, 
md proviaion is made for an appeal from such appraise* 
ment to the Surrogate Judaw ot the County within 
thirty days after making and filing euch oseeismenL 
The duUes Impossd hy the Act unless otherwise pro- 
vided for shall be due and paj-sble at the death of the 
deceased or within eighteen months theri^after. Should 
they not then be paid intereet at 6 per cent, per annum 
from death ol deceased shall be charged and cotlcirted, 
and same shall be a lien upon the property in respect to 
which they are payable until fullj- paid. Provision is 
made however as regards postponement ol the duly 
payable on any future or contingent estaUi, income or 
interest, with the consent ol the Provincial Treasurer In 
writing, until such estate, Income or interest comes into 
possesion. The Treasurer of the Province, on being 
MtisBed that the full amount of Succession Duty has 
liri'ii or will be paid in resjiei't ol an estate or in part 
thereof shall, If requlrod, give to the person accounting 
for the duty a certUcate which shall discho^e from 
any fbrtlier claim the property shown hy ihe certificate 
to form the estate. 

An administrator, cxocnter or trustee having In 
i^hirgs or trust any eetato, legacy or property subject 
to duty shall deduct same therefrom or collect the duty 
thereon from the person entitled to such property, and 
aliil! net dcliTcr any property subjtc; 10 dmy to iny 
person unUl be baa collected the duty thereon. 



' W THE CHinu) STATKS 



VALUABLE MISCELLANEOUS M.,rrKM 

BttlOIOOTDBrOMnrATIOlfS] 

TT ^"^""""- I Members. 

Advemists . . . — 1, 

gaptlsta , _»...U46 itiends: — 

Brethren (River) 5,"4.0G6 Jews . . . ' 

caSc" ^^y"^°^th): : : I ,*■«! \\ femon^: ; : 
J^'{'"!'c Aj>i)«toiic; ; ■ " ■ 



^^'}J2 Menonitea. 



Conimunlsth. 






OiscinlM of iTirlst " ■ , l*l-^> Reformed .'^•^"■'^"Wil . . 
AJUiikards J.5I9.771 United Bft.ihr„^ 



I -Mfiiiljers. 

123.748 
143.000 
40O.&-iO 

W.01I7 
l-.'iUfi.IMi 
'■'-'■AI.TM 
1HS.890 
14N.19D 
»0.8I9 
70.542 
"LMM 



0BXBD8 m THE WOELD 



girl.tla„|,y 



_J^jlowera. Creeds. 

549.ooo.oorfcs;;; " — 



?;'.000.000 
'7.000.000 
, '.000,000 
'f ■'.000,000 
'2.000,000 
lOOOjOOO 



Continents 

Kuro|)e. 
Asia. . . . 
Africa. . 
America. . 
'*'}«JraIiaanilOcean 



Catholic Lt«,t^t.;o.?h'a. 

I Churcha 

'7.293,434 '"9foffiBJ4 
J.fi68,34i 53,479 



3.«».» »iia,m 

\m,m.im 



>t.ed»M,o.7perreMJew».or.76Vl(So^' tf'^""""' '■'' »"<'." Mohara- 

491 



im^ 




|fi!l!l! 

■'ill 
il'lllhil 



Si- 



carpenter's rules 



CARPENTER'S RULES 
EOorrRAMora 

IMtaiitian o( Tonu.— The "gable" is the triangnlsr anc! o(s 
oommon double-rooted building. By the "pitch" of a roof 
1» meant the relation which the height of the ridge above the 
level of the root-platee bean to the apan, or the distance 
between the studs on which the roof rests. Thus a roof that Is 
one-half as high as the width of the building is "haUpitoh." one 
that u one-fourth as high .is the width is 'quarter-pitch," eto. 
The following illustration from Hodgson's "Practical Treatise 
on the Steel Square," not only shows the meet oommon 
pitches, but also gives the degi«ea: 

"Most carpenters,'* 
says Hr. Hodgson, 
"know that half- 
pitoh is 4S degrees, 
yet few know third- 
pitoh is nearly 84, and 
quarter - pitch about 
87 degrees. 

"A buUdlng 84 feet 
wide (as the mftera 
come to the center) 
has a 13.foot run and 
half -pitch, the rise 
would also he 13 feet, 
and the length of the 
rafter would be 17 
feet (the diagonal of 
13). Length, outs, 
oto., could all be figured from the one illustration." 

The Laacth of Rattan for the most common pitches can be 
found as follows from any given span: 

i,multlply span by .859, or 7-12 nsarly. 
" * .6 ,or3-a " 
' .625, or ( 
' .71 , or 7-10 •• 

„„ .8 , or 4-5 " 

Ifiuil *■ "1,12, or It " 

To lengths thus obtained must be added amount ot prajeotkn 
of rafters at the eaves 



492 




Ittpltdi,n 

iti ■■ 

If Rill" 



cabpenteb'b buuis 

morn or le« „„ th,i/le"X^w°u™ke.°1t;' """"■"« 

fiwmp/f.-To determine the tongth of ^f J» . • 
ooMtnioted one-half pitch with .^ . - " '" » ™>' 

'" "^~ --k- the Wgth Jbi'^L^J^t: "" "■" '"* 
Sow to Knd Bmb arf Uagth of H.ft,„ 



«ige„f the bo«d'on.°t;*^,tinX;ie th""" .'""" "" 
•• .hown in the above fi^ Th. . ■ ! """■' ""' "»''' " 
Of the upper end. and uT^gte .°t7.1 fh" 7'" *" "" '"^•' 
rafter. *" " " »' "■» lower end of the 

l»lfthewldthof thehmdinV tteTto^r t"'?"" ""*'•'>' 
dietanoe ftom a to 6 on «..' i? T ~ ""^ ' '«" "* Tko 

with inohe. on one .ids div^rt^ < '™'"' <»'''»y» "»o a square 
»fterwiUbe«°«t"^^ ™jtnr""«^. therefore thi. 

anr to Dete^ln. Our«, f6r Brick .„d Ston. tehe. 

Meaaure width required and 
draw the figure above in- 
dicated. U the points in the 
ngures are equal on both side*, 
the curve will be an exact 
part of a circle. 

To Find the Area of a Oahl. Ind 
£. «od the ^ b. multiXt the-wl'dtL":f r r^C,^ 







CARPBI<rrRR s KUI.Efl 

T* Ftaid KnmlMr of Faet ol Itoek Bowdi to Oorcr l 

Multiply th.dlrt«ice WCTind the hoiwe by the height of th* 
port. Md add U» Mw, of the two gable ends to the reeult. 

Hew to Find the Height of a Tiw 

Heaaure off on the ground from the bsM of the tree th« 

number of feet you d«tfr.your log to be in length (.^1*8 

for the height of the 

Btump), then measure 

back one -third of the 

distance and place there 

a pole as many feet long 

as thlf) last measurement; 

let some one hold it from 

the height of prospeotiTe 

■tump from the ground. 

then place your eye at 

the outer end of the line 

..J i„i. . measured from the tree 

^ iSt "JJ ^ ^^ ^""^ ""> ""■ The point where the 

3!i. ". "^.'^ •" "» '■•'«'" ""<"• '^" «<" you the log 
of the required length. "■»■<« 

88^rS7®"''':r ; ■"« " '*' ■»"« •» ^tea-measure off 
Wfeet out from the base of the tree, and then measure back 
•^ U feet. At this point (indicated by 6 in the cut), have 

Z th^l ■'". y°°' ■"'" *' "" '■"SW "om the ground 
that the rtump « to have, then put your eye at e. look over the 

which ^«I 11 V\ \ '.'"' ''""' "''° "'" »"*» »>» t™> •' * 
v^ioh will be 88 (eet from a, the point where the tree is to bi 




494 



['■«:, 




THE KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. 



Kif.» Bdward VII Bom m 



.i 



THE KINO'S CIVIL LIST. 



"If 



OBMaqwnt upon Iha dtuh ol Hit UaiMy KInf 
Gd<ranl VII .Md Ui* K«»«lon of Hit UmjMty OMrxr V . 
UKf* **■■ puMd In the Fmrliwiieiiupy WMiDn of 1910 
wl*l i. |...owr. u lh« Cu.l l.i.l An. th« Acl hy which 
iteterM.I»«|whAlch>rrttihall be mode on the co.,k.1. 
drtrt ruwl for tlw -luli.tenMM erf th« KInf m.1 hU 

Until Omtk* III. c>R.e to iIm throna In 1760, the in- 
OMMof tlMMvtrelBn w^^ J.rived chl«(l, from Crown 
»Mi, fmn K wiety of Iwu1«d property In England and 
W«lw. SootUnd ud Irvlnnd. In which the toytnign had 
ft tlfe-intcmt, wid from which he received the rcnti. In 
(he .id«| •(« thCM Unde conitltuted t prim-ly pktri- 
mo..,. In hUr Umee thbCrown property wu greatly 
reduowl by Uvlrii grmnU to roy.l favorite* At the 
lM««orMlon the Inooma from Crown knda wae aaccr- 
Uined by . comrolttM of the HouM «! Con.niona to 
«no«rit lo £117,900 a year. In MMItJoa td i4,«W Iroin 
tlMFon^olDean. By the time Charlw II. had been 
o* tha throne tbrea yeara he had by Ua Uvjth baatowal 
or "'•Undaonlavoriuarediicad the Inooma to £100.000. 
WiUiam III., by hit gnnU to favorJtta who had aoocm- 
paKM him from Holland, made further ha«oo with the 
OtowB domalna; ao much ao that at tha acceaalon of 
Quaan Anna Parliament endeavored tomva the remnant 
l»M Act fl AuM, o. «) which prohibited alienation of 
ttWB laiMKMd anaoted atrinsent provWona la rcKud 
U ttohnfthof tha tann forwhlch the* mif ht bt leaacd 
udlbaraatareMrvad. 

ainot than, and aapaclally ainca the Aocaaalon of 
tha Ui« KlB( Edward Vll.. the Income from the Crown 
Unda haa vary craftAy Incraaacd. 

«u«tn Aaita, o«or(t I. and Qaorsa II. derived the 
Ifcnrar part of tbair iBooma from thrir llle-lnUreat In the 
Crown property, but when Oaorta III. came to the 
throne ha aurrandarad hit lifa-lnlenat In tha Crown 
landa. U waa turned over to tha nattoo In rrtum for a 
ll«ad Civil LM of 4800^000. aubaequantly inoreaaed to 
£000.000. Oaorta IV., WllUam IV., Quean Victoria and 
Rdwaid VII.. on tbaif aocamlona, aurrendcrad their life- 
InUreat In the Crown landa In return for a Civil Liet 
Tha aama oouraa waa taken by Geersa V. when he came 
to tha throne ; and on June ISth. WIO, a committee ol 
tha Houae ol Commona waa appointed to racommend 
the new Civil Llat It reported on the 6th of Julj , lOio, 
and Ita reoommeiidatlona were embodied in an Act (I 
Oeorie V., c. 6), which waa paaacd through all ita staicei 
in the Ilouae ol Lorda on Aufuat 2nd. 1910. By thia 
Act the Klntr-a Civil LUt waa fl.ed at the yeariy aum of 
£470.000, whkh waa tha aama amount an that Krantcd 
toKlnrSdwardVII. 



ciAaaaa op bvpuditoki. auM appBoraiATtD 

I. Their HaJeaUer Privy Puree £110000 

II. SahwiearfHleMaJaatyehouaehold 

and retired allowancea 12I>,800 

HI. Expanaao ol HIa Uajeaty'a hotua- 

no""- I»3,000 

IV. Worto. 8o_ooo 

V. Royal bounty, alma and hMdalaer- 

»"»■ 18,200 

VI. UnappropriMad 8,ooo 



..Mmjm 



Har Mnjaaty Qvam AkuadrB !■ amrduoa wlih the 
Civil LW Aa pMaMi at th« aocaaalon of Edward Vll. <| 
E'lward VII,, o. 41, enjoya an annuity of £70,000, and a 
•ImiUr provlalon la made In lb* Civil Uat Act of 1MB 
for Queen Mary In rate aha eurvive* tha Kliy. 

The late King Edward-^ daufhtore, PrlneaM Louiaa 
(Duchaaa of Mia), Prinoeea Victoria and Prinoaai Maud 
( Prineee* Charlea ol Denmark), reoelva an annual allow- 
anee of £1B,000 durin* tbalr Joint llvea, whiob will ba 
reduGMl at the death of each of the aakl prinoaaaaa by 
£0,000. 

At tha death ol Edward VII. the provtalon for tha 
Royal Family amountad In all to £678,000, boinir 
£470.noo for tha Kinifa CTvU Llat, and ilM,m In 
re^wct of allowancea to other member* of the Royal 
Family. ThU amount I* aonewhat iDcreaaad by tha 
allowance ol 170.0(10 wade to t,^nAla«aiidra. Aatte 
Prince of Wale* la entitled to tha ravenuea ol tha Dnolv 
of Cornwall, no epecial provlaloa waaniadafor him I* 
the Civil Llat Act of IBIO, but It waa provldad that. In 
the event of hie marrying, an allowanoa ol £10,000 a 
year ahould be made to the Prinoeaa of Waka, to ba 
Increaaed to CW.OOO rtiouU aha eurvlve hla ^yal 
lllghneOT. Each ol King Otorgc'a eona la to recwlva an 
annuity of 110,000 on coming of age. to ha Increaaed to 
£lft,0«l on hie marrying. Tha allowanoa to daiighUia 
la to be £6.000 a year. No proviaion la made In tha 
Art for chlldran of younger mtmbera o- tha Royal 
Family. 

The annulllea to tha Royal Fkmlly after tha reaeltlf. 
mcnt at the aeceatlon of deorga V. atmd thua :— 

Hla Majeaty (Civil Uat) £470.000 

Queen Alexandra. 70,000 

Peoeiona tnnalarred to ConaoHdalt 1 

*'•""' 18.000 

PrinceaHaLouba, Victoria and Maud.. 18,000 
Prlnccaa Chrlatlan of Bchteanlg-liol. 

•t«'» i,tiOD 

Prinoeaa Loulee. Ihicbeaa of Argyll .... 8.000 

DukeofCon- .ujht 2(1,000 

Princen Beatrice (ol Battenbu^) b.ooo 

Ducheaa ol Mecklinburg-Strellti. 3.000 

Ducheee ol l^dlnburgh ||,ooo 

Ducheaa ol Albany 9,000 

Total £634,000 

The ravenuee ol the Duchlea ol Cornwall and Lancu- 
ter are outalde the Civil Llat arrangement. Thoae ol 
Cornwall, valued at £00,000 a year, are veated In the 
eldeit K»] ol the reigning aoveraign, who bcoomea by 
birth the Duke of Cornwall, by virtue of a patent of 
Edward III. In 1337. The Duchy ol Lancaator waa the 
private patrimony ol Henry Bollngbroke. aon ol John 
Of Qaunt. It is separaU Irom the other poMaaalona ol 
the Crown In order and government, but united to it 
ir> point of inheritanet. It alao bringa in a rtvenua of 
M).O00ayaiir. 



THE BRITISHJVAVY IN I9I|.,2. 

'''*^' » 'k. Mb 01 M.,«|. "iim. f "r*" '° "•>»«1"l» win ,1.0 V,, '""'""""' •»•' II.. .Urt,., 

■wiNJ .o,ita,„,,,,,.,7'i^"'^'»« '"•'•".»« ii™,»i.i,,., to" . ,' 2';'"''' ""•»"»' m' 



u»r.... 
«'»■•.... 



IIMIO.. 
»1M1.. 
MMt.. 



n.m.wi 



«.Ht.MO 

_. «.aai,iin 

uom!.' *>MHOI» 

»,«».000 



««»"«w.rni„d„™7 ■ "■ "''" II" »4., 

•" "I" tjp., Ud In .3' ,'*" "°'' "-I'lBhlpin, 

««>»«M«.n<lih.HoJ T; ., ' ""• «'■ «'■ 
»■..!»««.. ..^":^■^,^~' ;;■'•« l..n,.Mn, 

"<*• "W. oltn h", , ,";'°''"""" "- «I.I1».0» 



«!«« Kd««d. .„H ; ""^""•l"' lo on. ot ola. 



* protecUd crubin. 
I uiURDOund craiMT 
t'dMtroyan, 
CwbaurliMat 
t Hvtr lunboata 

■ h0i|>lui lUp. 



.W.'ofMrvk).. - 

ll»lll«hlp(N.plo„,). 

1 •rmonml „„,.„ nndohu^u,, 

a ■ 



Tiii"Sc»APm<,i.orw*MiiiP,. 

,'>i'is?is;'r4»;- "'«»". .0.. .p 



•"— •uip. I ""• ■»«i»i>i«. It w« »t all time h w 



_ ■■"*, ami inn. w 

"•roll Jl,t, i»,2, i„ loBvon, i, Z. T"~ """ 

.n.l..n„„b,ro(ii?,L^ 'i'","'""""'-"' 

on APH, u.. „„,.,^ ^ «'^''^"^i^::^",r:r^^-^°'^-^ 

b..u„,,„ = ,,^^J™ "»"" "»*«lo» 10 AfaS'y »S^'° '^ZT'^ '"' '«« *lp.. 5» 
» "-tn^^M o™l«_ B^i 1 ■""'"^ »"l»», .lon^„ i,.n.,.,Dj^ L""" """ '"""" """o- 

""w^ nnnariAH, dntrorm, m^ mmUi, 






hi!!!*::: 



P''!i 



* to IliM WduM iM puwd 



> Mftr iHh, 11)11, 



let of the world, •hU'h 
■howH th* (olhiwIiiK 



Hb**I 



1.117,100 



fttiraao. ».0l6,10O 

lllmllMWM«flmlv« MWkMI.. . . , 54T.n» 

Admlrally utile*.. 



ToUl, 



Ami, C. D. Vt«eh. . 
ArmMind Oraiwn. , 
PraUetod Cmkmn,\ 



■ U IT T S3 11 n 



3> » 4 U 10 t 1ft 19 



ri. 36 5 t H I I 11 11 



tAVnt«)W OrulMn 



">■ 16 7 t n 11 I 



TU>|Mdo<mMl».... 
1- 0. Dtatroytn... 
TDrp«deB<Mta 



. I7T««3 « 

. no »i M 



n IB II M r 

M S9 Tl « fi7 



BMUNhlpn 

AnnoandCruiwri..,, a 1 

ProUet«d Oruittn. II. 9 „ 

UnptotocMd OrulMn, » ,. 

■oouU 

ilubaMrilM Dtpdt Ship 1 ., 

T. B. DHlrojcra 2g n 

Torpada BoMta. ,. 



iiilihi 



I'M* >n>ro|MUU«M in «|d 

Totaf. 

Tha prlndpal Inoiw 



41B,2SO 

. «u,st4,an 

■ t,M»Ht 

<M,«H,TW 
■ l.Jl t,IIM 

<M,aM,t<« 

provldMllOrw*;— 

Wnrt^Mo. itttiflo 

Vleiuftdinc. „, ^ 

MmUmI MUMMintMU tooh 

■hlpbuiUinc f,«l|«iO 

HAvftl uniMMtit* MO^OOO 

Work* and buUdlva ^^jj 

MtoMllUIMIM ntnt 

Admlnltjr oflioa^ „,jj 

Paniioni, «te. t$MO 

N«v»l Kmhvm, 

admUaa mrriom.. 



l,HO 



II ta .. T la « 17 4 

Ftam tluM vUtiniM tiM fact tmiffM UmI , 

wmourad vvmta iht poaitlen of Orvat BriUla rabrw*])' 
to Um twoPo»«r •bncUnl ahowt but Utila chant*. In 
tail j-«ara Return th« numUr of batUMhfpa built tor 
Great Britain waa M, nnd for Oennanr ««) the United 
a»atei together 83, whcraae tbla j-ear the nombertar* 63 
Mm1<1. 

AuocA-noir or rei Hohit. 
In the year IMO-ll the numlwr of men and boyaln 
Ihe Britieb Navy waa IncreaaKT by S.OOO andailmUar 
Increaa*— alao of 3,000 men and boy*— wm naked of 
Parliament lo» the year 1911 It. Thie LrlnKS up th* 
total penonMI of the Ka*y to 1$4,000, and the (ollowlnn 
a'liounU are allooated In Eetlmatea :— 

WflfH— Officen, ieaman, bo}*, et<!.. £7,703,000 
VIctuallInc and olothinff for the 

Navy 3.ra3,»»s 

Medical eaUbllabraenti. Ssa.THT 

Hartlal law 4^000 

BducatJonal aervioe* ilfi,3a3 

Belentlflo •ervioaa go.sig 

Royal If aval Reaervn BB7,70e 

ShiphnlWlng, repain, etc. fpencn- 

Ml) 8,683,500 

Ditto (mataiial) S,432,tf00 

(MW(aOBtnw(woik) U«b»,900 



Thwaawdi n ri M wol 49,000 for martialla«r, £6,000 
tor aduoatiooal lartlON, awl «it,00fl for oi*ll iup*r- 

annuatlon, ate 

A* compared wiM tan y«an afo (tWH-l) than U an 
InireaM in the Eatinatea of nearly M par o*ni tht 
totale being «30,9B1,I15 and £t4,30l,50a 

Cabi roc nu Wnraai or nu Hw. 

In vxptalnlng th* laryar aoMHint r«|ulr«d lor mgtn, 

Mr. HGKannaitai*dtHar,aaa rMultotthaowiaideratlos 

<rf Ih* p**IUoo pr*.mH«l by the workman In Ui* dock- 
yard* in im(^ lnoraa*«l ntaa of pay had b*«a Ktantnl 
to Uborara and wood-oaulker*. Uad had alao b*«i 
given to man/ of the raooounaiMUtlona of Iha Coounitt** 
■ppointwl to anquir* Into the Kaval Madiotl 8*rvk* 
and Gto*c atUotion had ban ginn by the Adnlialty to 
the aerioua problem of tub*rcttlaal* In th* Navy. An 
ln***UgatioD had been made by the Medical ConaulUtiva 
Board Into th* mean* by whioh, under the oondlthua 
peculiar to aarvic* In the Royal Navy, tubarouloata 
oouJd beat be tr*ated and Ita InoapUon and tpitad b^ 
checked. 

Arrangemento wen made in lOll for tba anppiy of 

trained nuraea from Iha civil hoapltala In the event of 

war. Theie nun** art to form a reaem of trained 

ir*ea, and the new foroa U to be known aa Ou**n 

Alexoodra-e Royal Naval Nmralng Service lUaerv*. 

■ni* eastern <rf deuntion a* a form of punlahment for 
oBenoei under the Sava) Diadpllne Aot oame Into force 
on the Home and Mediterranean MaUon* on January lat 
mi ; and on other Poieign alatton* it came into force OIL 
April let. Th* change from the Srat appearwl to ba 
beneKclal to the earvk* and to th* m*n. Nm only waa 
the atlgmn erf Imprisonment removed, but the couiim of 
drill and training through whioh the men are putdurlng 
their termi of detention w<r* carefully deigned to 
n.»ke them mor= efl!-i.„V i„ j^^ „,^ ^^^^^ ^^ 
VMM m ihe Chang*, the naval prlaona at Portamouth 
and LewM have been cloaad. Bodmin being l.lt aa th« 
I only nana piiMo. u vu mtkbobaif to mIo Ml ' 







Tht tie* ZtaUml (I,.. .., 









/.---••^■-■■•"iviiinaMM „.„■'■," '''•^Ewt India, 

liif > Ur». armoured fniVr orVii /*."^'' ""•' '"flud- 

"Whip. II .., ™™,',;°V"','"d';.il.lilot,|,„ 

•""I ih»t lor iht lMr.ii.S;i~ 



i«»iu«ssBs;v„Y tes;.'!'!!?' '? f"-™" 

mwynr. ""^ "•'» lh"i In 111* pnrj- 

To K«, „, „„ o„„„ D„„„„„ -^-.. „ „„ „,,.,,„ ,i-T -P^i.ii, 

». . _. .. . • I WaH ihal thr i«*.^| Th,n , «„ «' H*""* l« II r JoMah 

■» IH. l».mnio,, 5 N„ Sr'a *!''',,'^"" "' ' "» 
"■awn.1 on her way ig phj,^ 

f^adi lolMrelnrllwraT 



--...,1 I,, Nr. STS'" 'f" '"• '>- ivtiSl~ 

■"III- cr.t^joSt"'.;.: ..aa .cn^i^iC 



loU ton by ItaUli LI JSi ST * ""' •" "" II"" 

-IP., .nich.,. 6t.iis.fr..?Ki«,:s'x&'Si 






QOVEBNOR8 -OENERAL OF OANA^ 



1887-1912. 



Nunc. 



Ita Hlulil Hon. th. bSi o "1 oll« ^° 



Koikr.k.i 



Date of 
A|<pnrnlni«nt 
■liiriB I, \MiJ 
»•«■. !^., J«ifi 
May a., is; ' 
<>■•■ 7, I07H 
A'ltf. It, I»:i 
H'l I. >«*8 
M»> '-•«, iNua 
Jiilj :mi. iBritt 
t«l>l. 28, I'KH 



tHUoT 

rx- 

;"ij I, iw 

"0.. li, »n 

<l<^- <■% IMS 
.lona II, laM 
"Tt in. IW 
i^-v- IS, isna 

IWC. 10,1804 



Naichc.iM, o„, „ ijii 



U"<«»i|<-C«»n|on of OiHulo, OihImo, Don SoM. ..j .-71 

ONTARia 



"nt^an 



■ ■ ■fulj' I, 1867 

.Jnljr u, lanti 

■ ■Ko". A. 1873 

■■«V IV, I87S 

u-ji"J;ip«30, 18S0 

.C.B..F#b. 8, 18«7 

M*y 2S. 1802 

no". 18, I81t7 



Majorocnenl H. W. StitUd C n 

".A, UocdofiAhl, P C ' 
■■ ■*"' Ar«, Cwnpbeir, K.O H G 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Hon. JoKepK H(we pS" "' ' ■ J**!" '3* 1870 

Matthew HMrvHlPh--**'-'^-'^- "^w J' *• >a" 



•■ K*n6 tilouanJ Camn 

" T."?'j*'*'l*ef''»St. JiiHi.p'c "" 

•• TWwlore Roliiuill,.. I' u 

■■ •* f. R. MwBon, P.C. 

" n- II. Angen 

•• ^'F J. A. Chapleau,. 

■■ L A. JtlU. 

«o"-8lrC.A,P. PenaJ.k.CMo 



"w. AFtfimakl, C.M.O 
«atth«w H«nry Rlchry 
A.W.Jil.UIa„„Ki;. 
" Malachy B. lUy 

Hta Honour D.C. FVawr 



I, iirrj 



■July ». I8W« 
■JMly n. 181W 

.July 20. Jens 
.July 20. IM) 
innfl 



. July 



P.O. 
jThe Ilon.sir|.'. UnselUp,' Kt.iBht , . 
NEW BRf.SSWlCK 

Mr,v:'r.^i';cn'^ 

Hon. L. A. Wilmoi.rK'L 

■' S,LT[||e,..rB 

■• Rl Damn r(,:..id!i r O C 



1. IMtT 
31. ](u;s 
It, ts; 
Ift. IM. 
% IHTu 
*. IWt4 
21, l«S7 
!>, IKft 

I, innj 



Jnl.v n,' 1<M« 



■oct.?«;mo|„;,„^„ru"r;:;' 



John J. rrnaer 

A K. Hc('M 

J^hex U. Srin 



' Dw. 

• . Pec. 



. 1873 
I>i, InTH 
II, IM80 
•II. IWB 
21. IHBS 

». IWVl 

30. too; 



THE BRITISH OINSUC OF lOlt 



* a 






"If 



JSlSfJ*"*-*.*.! 



!!•■■■! „W|i»i aaklM « Mai — — l»*i— im tkm 

ft-Srsslsr J^!!a.''i?"~» »» ••"• »<• "i 

!2!2lttSHli'teT~ "J'' »""■'■ '"»"• 

ncMMI tod Wuw, kownar, Um nu el Innfw wu 



int.. 

IHI . 

lUI.. 



IMl.. 
IMl.. 
IMl.. 

ini.. 



PsputeUea. 
MH,Ui 

lt,OOQ,tM 



io,oas,w4 

i*,oos,ftta 

at,m,us 

M,OTfi,SW 



u-io 
u-oe 

IB w 
U JT 
11 « 
11 90 

la n 

U'M 



I>»tnff tlM 110 YMn It win thiM be Men thai th« 
popuUtiM or KncUml and WaIm bM jnor. than qi»d 
ru|H«d,andthM,rouflilrapMkliit. tbin antwwrour 
pmow to vmj OM tnlwbiUiic ttw country at Um 
opMlnt of tin DlnatMnth ctntury. 

Tan licBM or FnuiM. 
Tb« niamb«r of whtdulM ooUmM !■ rouflhly muI**!- 
•nttolhaiiunttaroiraiiillin. In Ull, Um nnmUr In 
■?fj^f«l *••« wM a.OiaiBT, M •DOipand with 
T.Oia.Ua in lOOl-an lacnaM oIM1,«Ml or I* pw emt , 
I kifer IneroMt In th« Mrcwntw ot hmUlM than in 
tho p«ro«nta(< ol indtvldnali. Of tha a>,OTB,n» IndU 
vMiiali oompoainr thfM 8.0I11.U7 tamlilw, 1T.M8,I7« 
war»n)aln,Bnd)(l,n«,T«3wenf«raalw. TtalajtWnan 
•«»M ol 1,178,317 hmalci over maln-an aaoMt which 
would b« irtatly raduead It tha Engllah and Walah 
mcmbera of tha army and navy, and of tha marchant 
aanrica abroad, ware InciudKl In tha nckonlitf. Tha 
in tha population ' 

, ^., , -.. — 1,057 to 1,000; It iti 

deciinad cenaua after ecniua to 1131, whan It alood _. 
1.01! to 1,000. Afur IS^l there wu a ehanica in tha 
oppoaita direction, and up to 1901 thcra wu a allBti t but 
continuouB Inoraaaa in th* proportion of fenialaa lo 
malea. In 1911 the proportion waa the aama as In 1001— 
I.OtS to l.OOO, but when the larRe numher of Ensliah 
aoldlfra. who ware In South Alrica in t90l. la kc^Jt In 
mtnd, it wenunndoubttd that there li a amali actual 
Increaaa in the prapontMi of teinalei in the ponuiaHan 
aa recorded In ilie ceniua or 1011. 

Till Balani'R op Pop I- 1. ATI on. 



anoa htlwaen outward and Inward paaaenacr trafflc. 
Tba nai sain of j ipulation in Enfland and Wal«« by 






, 1* TK li»in i | i nm , la Ua talaaaa 

E.. iiini.ti. .'TT*' . . ""•—•■ 

uu.. tun.m KuiSi •loMim mTm 
«nu an Vuu ronunMi. 

OaaatltalMMnaalUaac 
ai Walaa la a das" ' 
lawai a n iii i uil,. 



SjS 



la af tta HaMiNa af tka aaaaw af Itll for laalaaa 

•I. ;sjssf'i££sjra'csiSiffcsr " 



pfopbtt l wu 
ol Lmiam m 

V '- 

■^S»J»Mi ^t tboii watt ehla((y CwBo o» a»»« ■o»». 

Than Um poMlailoa InoraaMl fioni Ujm to «,?«•, 
ibUon Dttba wboki ti Um N towM waa. bowavw, 
^ -.!'' ^ ?*"h " comparad wltk u hMNMt of lfr«i 
tor tha whoh of tha cMBtry. 01 Um bmr tewna. 

IWl to I06,»77 fa> 1911. w H par « - 
olMrt axdoalvaty duo to Um dovd.,. 
car nanufaottirlnf In jia araa. TTii i 

2S;i>"*f '*?*"'?«>■• *'''* •«!•««>" •>» London 

dWriota of Um OHy ot Lanlon PoAm and tho 

««trapolHan Polica. Aowad an Incraoaa ol HMB) par 

Porhapa Um gtaattat deoTMM la hj ««r»Mto Um 
City rf Ui^oii, ttaa ocntrd muaBU wMeh toahtdao 
the Bank ot ^Iwd and tha UaMtai Boum. Han 
li'iKS*?* I2R*'*"'°J' "«•"»«» Iron. M,fa ta IWl 
»»«7 In t«l, a daeraaoa of MW par cant A 
•paiM Day CMiiua wait howavar, takan J^Um City of 
UidM wjileb ahowad that Uura antarwl dalhr Into 
IhaOlty l,nT7,l» paraona and H.OtS vahlola«r>adaa- 
triana |oin« into tha city numbarwl lH,a«t j traino 
SS?*.-'." ¥'■*** Pf^wngeri ; motor vthleifo conveyed 
aM,867. herae vehiclea, 1M,*1«; cleclric tramura. 
lta.7iM : and bicycW, i9,sos. 

Aa raaaida the ratal araaa. In tha daoannlal period 
Irom IWl u 1901 Um eomparatlva Inoraaaa ot rural and 
urban areaa waa «■» par cant, and \it par oanL For 
the ten yeara Irom 1901 to 1911 tha rato of Increaaa In 
the urban dlairtctadccllnad from U'2 par ocnt. to tl-1 
per cent, whila tha rato ot incraaoe In tha rural areaa 
rOM from 21> per cent, to 101 per cent. Tbaaa rataa, 
however, rcpreaent an actual ini-reaaa of «,il8.07! par- 
■oni in the urban dlatrictl^ and of T»,SS4 paraona in tha 
"iral areaa. Taking! the urban and the rural diatrlota 
constituted at eath of tha [our paat ccnana yaaiw : tn 
1881. 0? per cent, of the tout population ot Enflaad 
and Walaa ware dwellera In towne. and 3S per cant 
era in the rural dlatrirta; In 1801 tha panMntane 
_BrB 73 U-T ttw- K-'m. am} S3 for the conniry ; in IflOl. 
17 for the towna and tt tor tha oountry : ar.d f« Iftlt, 
'H per eant for tha town* and IS for tha oonntry. 



!i^ 



' ••' WW lH-»||y nm\ 



MtiulMloM ol 

'H»u» of igni. 

•*•' loiLunn; 

>--»» ■fno* tiM 

.„ •'" 'Htn, tilth ltid,OM 

*- l>fr , •«. The tOWM 
V ,'h?. '»"' J" '">'""'•*. 

,". -i"iL ^^ ItrwiiMt 
" *» Iha MniiM nu 

!' ' ■'■•'• Arouihl Krlln. 

W". "W iroMth of 

' ,JV ^^*'" •xception 

■■• i».r ith«nih«popu|iu 

.'or the whole mrw».only 
'here »m h actuj 




<»»«• nana „, fco^^ 



trapuu 






t—.^. ;™«»- ™*«™_"W locnMt lo lb. Ubur.. 



in population. 






ISIO. 
1.07*. 188 
•M,B33 



1,I«),.'j:» 

i.aii.oss 

I,.'>7S..',72 
GW,WI6 



- 13,103 
- 4, Ml 

-3e.gsB 



ecnt. 



*.381,M1 .7B.8t< 






iM s.ii«iiii3i„ s mas"' ""I'* '*■«' 






1841.. 



a^on or i8ii * 



lp«ro 
nmw, 
/iW-iptr. 



■ i.iH,i0r 

. 6.TB9,M? 

. S.41t,STr 
9.n4.8H 
4.701.750 






■ n\ 



iwi AiiZ'iz: 



■i,:'l 



''^1! 



'€ 



\m 



III 






iw 






NEWF0UNDt4AND 

NEWFOUNDLAND 

In tho yeai 1654 the firet eatimate o( the reiident population of 
Newfoundland was made. At that time there were suppoaed to 
be about 17?" persona living on the island. In 1680 this had 
increased to about 2280 beaidea 4000 men enftaRed in the fisheriea 
from the West of England. The population has grown steadily 
from that time, and in 1911 the population, including the popu- 
lation of Labrador, was estimated at 240,000. 

The following table will show the number of Protestants and 
Catholics according to the census returns beginning with the year 
1S45: 



Year 

1H45 
ltW7 
I8«« 
IHTl 

(Including Labrador) IWI 

1901 

Eetlmated 1911 



PrntestanU 

I'.L.'KA 

«7,:i3 

!>7.aS7 

VIJ.WJ 
I »4.!I95 
IfW.000 



Roman Catholics 

K7.2H 
61. (HO 



The CenauB returns for 1901 eiiow tne number engaged in the 
following occupations: 

ClerKTinen **• 

Teacbera '^ 

Lawyers and Doctors 138 

Merchante and Tracers LOW 

Office and Shop Hand!' 2.SM 

Govemmont Service • 789 

OatchfnR and CurlnK FlHti: 

Males "-281 

Females 2M*S 

Farmers '■'•*"' 

FJsliers and others who cultivate land 40.4S8 

Mechanics S.111 

Lumbermen 1 .*** 

Miners I.5'« 

Factory Hands 1.626 

Employed otherwise 11 689 

THE FISHERIES 

The chief industry of the people of Newfoundland and the chief 
contributor to the prosperity of the country is the fisheries. The 
fishery products form about 80 per cent of the exports of New- 



!<■ 9> 




loandland a. .hown by the return, for the (i„ai year 1009 -n 



Coonih (dried) 

CodflHh (otberwlM) W.-W.778 

Herrlnt '*■"* 

Salmon »-M 

Lotater. «"''»> 

Other Fim '"■"^ 

Cod Oil "M9 

Seal oil """la 

Seal sum.. "»•«" 

Whale Ml ""sa) 

H7,3« 

As , ill be >een by the above figureB codfish is by far th^ un- 
important part of the fishing indnstrv Th. . 7 "'°" 
codfish from Newfoundland i^iSdt a'verage i rl"'!°f ,°' 
while the annual catch of codfish in ZzLl V™'™ quintals, 
about 4,000,000 qdntata if IM ttT ."Tv"'"''"''"""' 
totaled i,73Z,387 qataw. "■""' "' •''«»'°"-ll«nd 

buyrc^rc"o"^^:i,«rcr '-^ "^^ '■""™ - "■« '"■'^' 

IMPORTS 

Newfoundland import, from Great Britain in 1880 werr. v»l„=^ 

ct?'?;,''*''*" '■"* "'■'"" »'■'«'■«» '» «>»" orZg o„ ;i'";' 

i^:rt«t!:-i^- 

About one-half the importatins from Canada and Onited 
State, are what may be classed natural products and artTcTe. 

trTwT- "'f • "'^- ™°'' ""•• ■<> "-at only o„e-ha" o 
the importation, from Canada and United State, are m.nu 

lo°.'nnr'f '• "'"f "" '■"P"^""™' "om Great Brita^are 
«rf.KT '' r»"'»«»"1 "«'=l™- The following compar! 
iZtmo-"" ' •"""""" "'"■""'«"«■* -port, tof the yea" 



u::, b 



' m 


') ■ t I' IIS 



"■ {I 






*•■•• ol th« Prindpd Importe for th* Prnut PIv* Ymm, la 

which Britain, Cut Ida and th* Unltad StatH can 

compete on falriy equal tonns. 



AttiolM. 


isog^g. 


laos^. 


1S07-0* 


190B49 


1909-1O 


Total taperti of dlArtl- 


DoUan. 
I0,«l<274 


DoUui. 
10,420.040 


DoUan 
11.670,111 


Dollmn 
ll,40««7 


Doltan 
13,799,09a 


Co»l 

OrrOcodi 
(MtimVmbria 

TwmS. 

ST"''"'— """'^ -• 

OrooniM 

1 


mi,i77 

Sl»,440 
S06,M6 

2S6.0W 

mMB 
vwm 

iM/m 
wnm 
vajsao 

lOMu 


US,!08 

osaase 
87e,4e3 

2«2,2IS0 
800,207 
232,101 

2ii,sas 
2oe,ni 

ni2,7ai 

129.70; 
101.737 
M8.g4« 

I3s.!as 

lUJOS 

iwjnmi 


048,191 

308,909 
263,088 
398,686 
111,166 
361,716 
188,618 
188,900 
13i,74< 
143,886 
400430 
144.487 
111,714 


806,997 
847,888 
888,718 
843,023 
360,243 
316.700 
168,0«6 
181,166 
188,074 
100,806 
111,388 
880,034 
188,986 
183,M4 

ias,37> 


091,784 
481441 
483,080 
838,988 
847,880 
349,741 
91,411 
316,391 
100,808 
137363 
10638S 
618,404 
144,086 
118,116 
143,640 



Import* from Orcat 



■rtlclee during th* 



AitidH 



100fr«0 



Total Iiaporto from GtMt DoUin 
Britain of >U IrtiolM 
(iaaladlac opecie) ... 3,067,190 



Co«l 

Lwthar ud Lnthamn 

DirOoodo 

Cotton IW>ria ... 

Bwdmra 

Bawllwano 
RmpYuii 

BMdjraudo Clothiis 

TwMda 

Wonwn'o Dmo Oooda 

Srit 

Uaehinory k LooomotiTM 

OrooeriM 

ft<jl 

MMionoi; 



4S363 
10.083 
330.078 
338,307 
18^160 
190,663 
104,014 
169,109 
107,484 
187.000 
1,028 
87,634 
81,068 
37326 
16389 



OoUhi 
3.009384 



82,467 
17,147 
378,410 
100346 
141,780 
198,081 
160,809 
160,76! 
164,794 
123376 
1.188 
79399 
66,007 
U309 
38376 



1907-00 1008-09 



DolUn. 
3,008308 



24318 
10307 
264336 
179308 
139340 
179J87 
178,673 
144,31« 
137,980 
117,498 
1,114 
102371 
78,768 
K060 
38308 



DoUan 



3,498370 3340;401 



44,889 
16390 
3?8,4]3 
178,980 
107.868 
183300 
89,00? 
188.998 
184,873 
108,008 
911 
47.048 
66313 
89,746 
81,400 



190«.lO 



DoUan 



48.107 

38,188 

306340 

331,847 

161,408 

109387 

09,104 

108,604 

167374 

133360 

070 

114380 

63,697 

36391 

88,190 



«-»«• fc« C«»d. of .bove .rtlcl., darin, tk, -- 




Coal 

Lnthur ud Irtithon^ 
t«y GiMds 
Cotton Eabrioa 
HanJware 
Smallirares 
Hanip Tarn ... 
Keadjmade aothinit " 
Tweeds .. "> 

Wmren'. Drau Goodii' 

»**«i7andLocoi„H,e. 

Prait ... 

Sfatkntary 









Si! 

i 

ill 



w 

■ if »' 



K 't '*'■ 



The QanM Lbws of Newfoundland. 

Caribou or Deer. 

Bio. 8.~No panon •bmll bant, kill or pnnae with' intent to kill, tnj 
mooM or elk within this Col ny, at any time beton the Ut day oi 
January, 1013. Hazimam penalty 1300 or thne montha' impriionment. 

A. — Ho peraon shall hunt, kill or puratte with intent to kill, any caribou 
from the 1st day of February to the 81st day of July in any year, both 
days inolasive, or from the 1st day of October to the 30th day of October 
in any year, both days iu.:lusive. 

_ 7 — No person other than a licensee under this Act shall, during the 
time by this Act allowed for killing caribou, kill or take more than two 
stag and one doe caribou in any one year. 

10.— No person not actually domiciled in this Colony shltll hunt, kill or 
pursue with intent to kill, in any season any caribou without having first 
procured a license for the season, nor shsU more than one license be 
granted in any one year to any one person. 

11.— Such licenses to hunt caribou shall only be issued by a Stipendiary 
Uagiateate, a Justice of the Peace, or the Department of Marine and 
Fisheries. A fee of 91 for each license shall be paid to the person issuing 
same. 

11.— Any person not domiciled in this Colony shall be entitled to hunt, 
kill and pursue with intent to kUl, caribou on taking out a license, tor 
which a fee of MO shall be paid, and such license shall entitle the holder 
thereof to kill not more than three stag caribou. Licenses may be 
ilned to Officers of His Majesty's Ships of War employed on this station 
lor the Fisheriee Protection without payment of any fee upon application 
to the Minister of Marine and Fisheries. 

14.— Licenses shall be issued to all guides by any of the persons named 
in Section 11, but the f>is of (1 in the said section mentioned shall not be 
charged. Every non.domiciIed guide shall pay for such license a fee of 
MO. Every applicant for such license shall make oath or affirmation 
that he will use his best endeavours to have the provisions of this Act 
carried out, and that whenever any breach thereof may occur he shall 
forthwith report the same to the nearest Magistmte, Justice of the Peace 
or Warden, with a view of prosecuting the offender to conviction. 

15— No person holding a licensA to hunt, kill or pursue caribou 
shall employ as a guide, valet, or i 'rsonal servant, laborer or bearer 
in a hunting expedition any person ho has not obtained a license 
under the next preceding section. 

16.— Any person obtaining a license to hunt, kill or pursue caribou 
shaU make oath or affirmation before the person granting the said license 
that he will not viotate or permit the violation of any portion of this 



mem ther«,n in writing undsr oth nT.w J^ "" """ "■'"■ » ttat.- 

coupled .nd ,„f„™a bytt..eiL^ '.' ""■ """"■■. 'Dd m.y bi 
«.. o«.nc. «ri ,h, „J„^, ;^«T;^°' own.„hip balw«„ ,fc. a.,r„, 

».^«~,t°i.^l:.'^ *f^ »'"»-" "> bant, kut or p„r.„e cribo. 

"bwh he intend, to export ^dth.^^' ''*=''^"'« "» "«=!« 
Wlrf under iio.n« h.M W Wm .„V L^"' "" """'"""o' =«iS™ 
from „bom ho obtained the LiH^' *"'"« ""' "•"= »' the Pe«on 

'be .rticle, .boot .otl e^^'™""' "^.''''J-" '--eof, .nd'^S 

Cnstom. before whom each oirorr T ^'' °™'' "o "■» o«Mr of 

".i. A.UbS'CS tJLTory^b"-'' '"' °' "■■""= '"■^" ->^" 
more a™ tbree.tiig o«ibo„ ^ "arwuMs, bo^,, or »„,|er. of 

baf;;:^fSourint°/cU:rmr ''""'•'"' "»-""-■»». 
■tan. of o^ibou upon entering h,™^"''°" "" '"'""■ "••"» ■>■• 
Hon* in the ColoSj, and r,^,,"!, ° '" ,«P<>"«ioo M a Custom. 
parmit A.11 „oi be i.^.id'^il'''* " 'P*""" P«™il ">cr.for. Sn-h 

appucation for a permit .s m«I., .^tiug ,4, 



i 



I 

if 
'I 



I'll 



^ 




— "** ««»■« ot Dm utialw Is Im aipoiM, UtdTlMUBatloa, nd 

lb* pcnon from whom and pIam wh«r* obtained, aod Uiat tb* mmo «n 
■olbaiaii nportod u u nrtiolo of oommwoo. Such KlBdavit ihtU bt 
tnumittod by the officer of Cnitomi to the Ueowtment of Mnria* wd 
Fiiheriee. 

34.— Any penon who ehell pat np the flteh of cuibon in mm or tiu 
or other pukagee ■bell be liable to a penalty not exceeding two hundred 
dollars, or, in detaalt thereof, to impriwnment for any period not 
aoeeding three monthi. 

^•~^y fleih of cariboo fonnd put np in oani, tini or other penfcejee 
may be eeized, and may be deitroyed by the order of a Jnitioe of the 
Peace. 

M.— It ifaaU not be lawfnl for any pemn to pmrohaM, or to receive in 
exchange, from any other person, any Veniien or any portion of the 
fleeb of caribou, at any time between the first day of Jannary and the 
thirty-first day of July in any year, and any person offending a^uast the 
provisions of this aecliou shaU be lUUe to a penalty not exceeding two 
hundred dollars, or, in default, to imprisonment for any period not 
exceeding three months. 

27.— If any Customs officer is informed or becomes aware that any 
antlers, heads or skins of caribou an being exported except by a person 
who has complisd with the provisions of this Act in all respects, it shall 
be the duty of such offlcer to seise the said antiers, heads or skins, or any 
portion thereof, and to make complaint before a Stipendiary Uagistrata 
or Justice of the Peace that a violation of tbu Act has been committed. 

48-29.— AU persons are prohibited from setting any snare, trap or pit 
for the destruction or capturo of, or killing or pursuing with intent to Ull 
any oanhon. «■ ~" 

(o) With dogs ; or 

m With hatchet, tomahawk, spear, machine, contrivance or 

weapon, other than firearms loaded with ball or bullet j or 
(e) WhUe swimming or crossing any pond, lake, stnam, river or 

watercourse. 

No person is allowed to hunt or kill caribou within the areaas henaftel 
described, that is to say :— — -m^ioi 

Commenoing one and abalf milel south of Grand Lake Station, on 
the shores of the lake, to a point at the same distance from the railway 
at Howley; thence to Oooee Brook, one imd a.half miles from the 
railway Une; thence east to the railway line near Kitty's Brook Falls- 
thmc. northwardly six and a-half mile. ; thence to a point at Jnuction 
Brook, three miles north of Giand Lake Station ; and thence south- 
wardly along the course of the brook and shore of the lake to the place 
of commeucement. *^ 

All lines and penalties under this Act shall be sued for and recovered 
IB a summary manner on information or complaint before a Justice of 



■MFMMbyur 
•M-h>tt of >ll «. 



Bird, ud WUd R.bblt or Hare 

-f «h. a»b a.,.f SopCb^X^^aL' "'" ^ "' ■""»'« 
"y y«». ^ »«pi«ib.r ud tb. i,,h a,, of nwrobw " 

. t-«if, of «« doib» ««^TS^;r^^°" " '"''^- ■»*« 

No petMn tbau bnii», olo i^ _»j. ,. . 

of not \«u Uu« moo n« mSSTuM »•"'■ ""• ""''" » «•»»•»» 

.^.'^^rr.srL^^a.Trsi^'' - =«. ^.w« .b. 

P".liy of not 1.U tbw IkZ^I^ ^f ■■' "■ "» J"" >«>*' • 
n« «o«dtog tbro. ^ti. "^ ""' """^ »«». <" in.pri«nn«| 

d.fknll of p»,inMi» to 1- • °' •Mwding forty dolta, ud in 

known to frwoont ^111- ? '^ °' October, where such nm. i. 
on. month "^^ °'' •" "»?"•<»>»•■" 'or . period n.l ioJSJl 

« «.. ^ or «y.«st„ns''.b7cSr.'::?t;^frr«:- 



I 

m I 









If, 



lir! 



or»ro«l«,».k.. J.^ , •f,?"?''^''' "'"•'»l«.»iia •v«ry«taon 
• "*• «"^«o.. on which th. .^d lioB« 1. gr„toi .h.U b. ._ 

z^r^i^l^'X^ztz.t' ins l-^""^"'^^ 

»«n dollm u . fl, f" ZjiT^ ,^ iinttoniKd Agont the •lun of 

Fire Patrol Rceulations. 

Ckwd or pn».t« owner, uodtr le.M from th. Crown *^ " ™ 

Oo« Jmlr "" ""'" ""'" "°«" "" "" '•"» "P"" "— . tt» 

l.li'.Mhrclnr"'"'" °' " °""" '" '"• •■"""■""" »' "■•«"• 
■•ri.^".'*' "'"•'.*'" '"""'""g -otic i, coo,pioaou»l, din,l.,.d - 

Th. GoYoramont of NewfooadlMd b.ving lMa«! to th. An.l^ 
K.wfoundU.d D„e,opn.„t Con.p«.y «r.«, „T1ind ,,L ^ 



Otter.. BMve™ .„d PoKts. 

>«w between the «nt aire*' If^', ""i T"^ " *»«"> My otter o, 

"•tie to > pen»|iy fcr a J-T!*" "" "" "option oj tbe I., ,h»u1; 

•»"*»" "'•violTu^^'S^^ "* • '"'« "WU be M»l .(id, 
No penon ehaU hnnt foue h«. w .. 



Trout and Salmon. 



"o penoa duU cktch kai ~». 
N.wfon„dl«.dby„y„,b,;3f.;^^^POnd, lek. or „,^ (^ 

No p.r«,n ,UU by .«.«„ '^ ' ''""' "« "°=- 

«tae, tek. or .ttempt^o ST^* !;;r£l°« " •"■"irs wth „y net „r 

enter, there d,a„ be paVt^ri^:"!^'""" "f" '»-' ".v. been b^in t 
'eel ,0 width, Mteble of »E' ^'■™'^ °' ^'''-^'Uor not 1^, ,h„ ,„„ 



I 
I 

•I 

I 



.' 



'.f 

,'• 1 



I'i 



U» ■««■ of tiM Ai^to-NtwAmiidlud DanlanMat OomMU- 
oiTlil^.'J^'* ••«««» "1« « tiiilw.y horn ai»4 WU I. 
<I^ Topalli (Bammlt), iaoliain-it will U nwMMry lo am lO* 

•«»•«<>« •nwif.d with lb» Ck)«niiii.»l, U«l •• Ey«t toBftal or B»rt» o» 

.» tb. «.»! «„, ,!,„ „,rtiig OB tb. Uaii o« Ui, !.« O^iy." 

Cuctorai Rcsulatlont. 

-■!i!*S '^i'™' A»«l«i *ad gportamra urlvin( in tliii Colony hrin< 
rj™.!i5". ''»~r> B^y"'". A°8l""l Ontato, Troatog 0«,, Pi^ 
•rBa»iriAn.niimilion.T«ita, Cud, ud Impl.nwnU.thoy •luU bo 

A dofo^l equal to Um doty ■hall b« takon on inoh artlolaa ao Camana 

ti!2.^jilv ' "T*""* •» ">• 'o™ ••t~*«d ahall b. givMi lor tho 
*20dlMdu..parUonlar.ollh.ar«icl.irtaIlb. noted in the rK>aipt m 

j2^w^^ °?^ 'V"^ ^'"^ •» ""• *»^'«« Clleotor,^ 
l^^^y^. ^'- ■"*"■• *• """' "»• » "-" ^ •"• «• "» 

«rt«». and npon .to corrootaee, being awertained the refuid may b. 
WUU admitted Ire. «rf no depotit lor a rrfund may b. Uk.n 01x4 noh 



BUSINESS DICTIONARY. 












MPS 

«*««< or urmenl lime. '"* 

««>wili».-The owner or iiiirn In 



;»;m^; ,;--•«>..... for 

"»r& or h.'?"n,";*'n"'» '<>• 

*tes.7r5„-ffi-s;iroa.'sj 
*?!Sin,''fr5r:j;r"'j"e"'j!:». 



"■iioic. •iicn M llghiiii 
cene,. e.rlliqiin„.Vic, ' - 



*!'iSffi;r,ffis;,;,'Mi»..„r,„r 

*;;'I7"'--Tlie act Of making 



613 



•t. ! 

i 



:ki 



MICIOCOPY MSOlUTKm TCST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




mmik^ 



A APPUEa l^y^43E in. 



^ 



1651 East Main S<r*Bl 

Rocfiesler. Ufm fori. U609 USA 

(716) *82 -O3O0 - Phofie 

(716) 2Se- 5969 -Fa> 








BUSINESS DICTIONARY 



AppralM.— To sot a value on goods 
or iiroperty. 

Appurteiuincc.^AclJunct or apiiciid- 
it);eIo pro|>eTly. 

Arbitration.— The investigation and 
decision of a cause or matter be- 
tween |iariit;i« In controversy, by 
chosvn iiertioiis. 

AfMtntion ot Exchanse -The dc- 
diicilon of u pro|ioriional or arbi- 
trati'd rate of exchtinKe Iwlweon 
two )ilaces. through aii Intermedi- 
ate |ilacc, to u->cortahi the most ad- 
vantageoiis method of drawints or 
remit ling. 

Arrear.— That which remains un- 
paid, though due. 

Articles ol Copartnenhlp. — The 
written agreement by whichkco- 
partncrsliip lu formed. 

Aiiay.-To subject anore tochcmt- 
calexamlnatlon toll nd the amount 
of any metal contained in it. 

Aaacst.— To fix a certa.n value for 
the purpose of taxation. 

Aaieta.^Pronerty available for the 
payment or debts: also the entire 
pro|iertyof an individual or com- 
pany. 

AMlgnw.— The person to whom the 
rafllnK debtor traiiKfent all ills re- 
mainintc pfoperty for ttie purpose 
of having it dlsiribmed among hi:i 
creditors; one to wlioni anythlni; 
Is assigned. 

AMlKnmMit.—A transferof a falling 
debtor of his iiroperty lo an as- 
Klgnee: a transfer by one personio 
another o( any property, personal 
or rval. 

Auignor.— One who assigns prop- 
erty. 

AtfoclatlDfi.— The union of a niim- 
t>er of persons for some 8]>eclal 
purpose. 

Att«chmcnt.-A seizure by virtuoof 

a legal process- 
Attorney (Poweroli— A wriuenau- 
thorlty from one person empower- 
ing another to net for him. 

Auctioneer.— One who sells goods at 
public sule. 

Auditor.— A person appointed to ex- 
amine and settle accounts. 

Avails, rrollls of property disposed 
of: proceeds of goods sold. 

Average.— A proportional share of a 
Ken^ral loss; also a mean time of 
payment for several debts due at 
different times. 

A volrdupolf.— Commercial staiidnid 
of weight in the United States and 
England. 

Award.— Decision of arbitrators. 



Ball.-The security ttiven for releas- 
in«a person from eustodj . 

BallM.-Tlie person to whom goods 
areUitrnsied. 

Balltncnt.-A delivery of goods in 
iriist ii|K)n a contract that the trust 
shall lie faithfully executed on the 
part of the lutlec. 

Bailor.—Oiio who Intrusts goods to 
another. 

Balance.— The excess on one side, 
orvvhataddud to the other mattes 
ciiimliiy In the accunnt. 

Balance Sheet.- A statement In con- 
densed form showing the condi- 
tion and progress of business. 

Ballast.-Auy henvy maicrtui placed 
in the holdof a ship tobtca^ly It la 
the water. 

Banco.— A commercial term used in 
Hamburg; to dUtlngulsh bault 
' money from common currency. 

Bank Bill.— A writicn promise to pay 
to the lieaier on demand a ceriaiii 
sum of muncy. issued by a bank 
and used as money. 

Banking.— The business ot a banker, 
ot [leriainln); to a bank. 

Bank Note.—Sumc as bank bill. 

Bankrupt.— An Insolvent; one v^hois 
nnuule to pay tils debts. 

Bankruptcy.— The condition of one 
who is unable to pay his debts as 
tlicy fall tine. 

Bank Stock. -Shares In the capital 
stuck of a bank. 

Barratry.— Any breach of duty com- 
muted by tlic master of a vessel or 
llie seumeii, without tho cou'.ent 
of the owner, by reason of wliicli 
the ship or cargo is Injured 

Barque.- A three masted vessel car- 
rying nosquarc sails on her mUzen 
mast. 

Barter.— To trade by exchange of 

eoods. til distinction from trading 
y the nse of money. 
Bazaar.— A word of Kastern iisage^ 

Klgnifyln;; a place of cxchantje, or 

general market place; a repository 

of fancy articles, especially of 

dress. 
BeacoD.— A signal light for the i;iiid- 

ancoof mariners; naiiaily erected 

and sustained by the Uovernmrnl . 
Beneficiary.— In life insurance, iho 

iierson to wliom a policy is made 
layablc; tho iwrson for whose 

jencfit another holds Ihc.Jcual 

title to real cslatc. 
Beyond Seat.- Denotes absence from 

liie country, and generally held to 

moan al»encc from tlio particular. 

.Slate. 
Didder.— One who bids or olTers a 

price. 



paj 
bei 



514 



■ If 

in 



BUSINESS DICTioNAnv 



-SMa contract. " '"""' ""'H 

cases. nisTelr, I'o fMmS""' '" °>°™ 
promise oriro,?.^^" " *""cii 



*»y-BId(ler._ I n.r .;„ 

ajcllon,. In ord„ ?,5'"I''L'''''I al 

lyaroriTOSuoE",™'''""' made 
ernment. " "*^ "s own goi- 

C«Wl.l.-Ti„^ „5,, „, 

"ly. a, a wlm'rc '■' 
!.nW.osed to hai i- Ikt,, . 

m"a";„^r"°';-7,\ '■'"" r.l,rn.,. 
ware." an-l qV,, ' ""ft'liascr !«.. 
«hith the thill- .,,,1,1 I'J^ I'a^e in 

tank or tanker >„""""' "y a 
certain su,n"of„V, ".'",?, I","' » 



^'°nTora^STo1>"„ °'""^"'"' 
aceruins toTh,."""""""" """ 

Ballon. »" ''Sfcement or oni- 

'ffiS?f,;„^"„?"3°»,«"ce made by 

SSHH^iH^sEjii? 

or his |.rin;i|;ai ■ """S'lenamo 
prices. "8n""s lo pmi jo^.„ 



certain sum or •„,"'",;, '"a' a 
■IcposUcd Ihcre, E a ,V i' '"'" 

.'si."hK;°'"'i"-"*'Vr''^- 

^™by?l*'Sf-'„«rl,l,ca.„ 

corporailoKhS °"',|??^?" <" a 

Mr».,n owns ™ "nafn n .iY'""" 

„ shares oniie ,-i,,„ ,^ ,„"""'^r of 

Cenl(lc,u„n^,;,-!,J >'«!;• . 

the check, s m , 'mj,":;,f^'« "< 

0,112. ^ """"I" 
bnancellor,— The cht^f i..j 

couriorchanee,'^ ?'??'""'' 

Charter Party, -Thp 

selletsit.oraiiitrti 

■aJe or peril. II, I 
Which Is tl, I,,.,,,,,,, 
(ain thin? In,,).,,, 

money. ^ 



■^ I'iiimeiuof 



S15 



11 

m 



lis n 



m 

Si: 




BUSINESS DICTIONABT 



Chcck.-A wrhten order for money 
""■ *n upon a bank or banker, and 
liayablc Immcdiaiely. 
ChoMt-ln Actlon.-Thlngs of which 
the owner ha-, not i»os>«sslon, but 
merely the aci of icjtal action or 
possession, a-, noits, accoiinls. etc.' 
ChoMi in Pos^eMloo.-Thl^l<^ In 
iiossesMon It tlio owner: circulat- 
ing mediiim-ca>h and bank notes 
payable on demand; the medium 
of exLhanKC. 
Civil L«w.-Thc syMem of law of 

ancleni Uomc. 
Civil Remedy.-Thc method of, re. 
dressing an Injury Intllcied by one 
|ter«on upon another by leiial 
measures. 
Ckirance.— rermlsslon from a cu«i- 
tom house offlcer for a ship to sail. 
Ckflrlng Hou*e.~A kind of banking 
cxehansc for the convchlcnce of 
dally settlements between tanki. 
Cltrk«IError.~An error In calculat- 
ing or other acclucitlftl error on 
books or documents. 
Collateral.' Property iilidRCd as se- 
curity for t'le perrormance of a 
comract. 
Commerce. -The exchanse of mer- 
chandise on alofKesoHlc. 
Commercial Papcr.—Ulttii of ex- 
chnnt^e. drafts or )>romlssory notes 
Kivenin the course of trade. 
Common Carrlcr.--One who. as a 
bublncss, iindertakcf (or hire to 
transport from place to place pas- 
sengers or Koodsofallivho choose 
toem|)loy nim. 
CoHtlnK.»Sallin(; near land, or ves- 
sels trading between parts of the 
same country. 
Codlclt."A supplement to a will. 
Common Law,— The unwritten law. 
as distinguished from wrlitcn or 
statute law; the old law of Eng- 
land, that derives Its force from 
long usage and custom. 
CommlMion."The brokerage or al- 
lowance mado to an agent or 
factor fur doing business foi an- 
other. 
Competency.— The legal fltnesa of a 
wltnesH to give evidence on tho 
trial of an action. 
Composition Deed. -An agreement 
between an Insolvent debtor and 
bis creditors by which, unon pay- 
ment tu each of some fixed propor- 
tion of his claim, they ull agree to 
release the debtor from tbe bulance 
of their claims. 
Compromlte.— An agreement be- 
tween a debtoi and Ills creditors 
by which they agree to accept a 
certain proportloq of the amounts 
due, and discbarge him from the 
remainder. 



Concurrent.— F.xlstlng together: a 
cnnsideratlon is concurrent when 
lliv acts of the parties are to be 
performed at the ^ame time. 

Condition Precedent.— An act which 
must l>e performed by one pcrton 
before another Is liable, or In order 
iQ niitke him lloble. 

Cooperage.- Charges for putting 
hoops on casks or bales. 

ConslderathHi.— The reason for In- 
ducement In k contract upon 
which the parties C(;a>ent to be 
l>ound. 

ConslKnee.-One to whom merchan- 
dise, given ton carrier by another 
person for transportation, is di- 
rected. 

Consignor.— One whoglves mcrchan 
disc loacarrler for tran^iwriaiion 
to another. 

Compactt A covenant or contract 
between dllTcrent parties. 

Company.- A numfwr joined to- 
gether to undertake some common 
enterprise. 

CompouiKl.-To adjust by asrecment 
dirterenilyfromiheorlglnalttims.. 
to settle by compromise. 

Compromise.- A friendly settlament 
of dilTercnceii by mutual conces- 
sions. 

Consignment.— The act of conslsn- 
ing. as charge for safe-keeping, 
and management, as goods, i>roiier- 
ty.ctc. ' 

Consul. A tter^on commissioned to 
reside In a foreign country as an 
agent of the Government. 

Contraband.— Prohibited merchan- 
dise or trattlc. 

Contract.— To mako an agreemenli 
to covenant. 

Conveyance,— The act of carrying by 
land or waier; the mcantof cDii- 
veyance; a written insimmont by 
which an estate In lands K tranx- 
ferred from one to another. 

Copartnership.— A Joint Interest In 
business. 

Corporation.- An artificial |>ersnn 
created by law. consistlug of one 
or mure natural |>ersons, united In 
one body, and endowed with ihu 
capacity of tierpetual succession, 
andof acting In certain resiMjctsai 
a natural person. 

Counter-claim.- Same as set-o^; ono 
debtoi claim to set otf anoiner 

Counterfeit. -To copy or imitate 
without authority, with a view to 
defraud: aXorgery. 

Countersign.— To sign in addition to 
the name of a superior thatofllio 
secretary or subordinate ottlcer.as 
bank noteaare signed by the presl- 
pent and countersigned by tho 
cashier. 



516 






BUSINIM OICTIONART 



entered '"°" ["Jmem la 

'd^i"-""' ■■> "hom. money I. 

^ •l'esldew„lk*„'rV.™n? "'" °" 



15!^r^K«l,':>"'t»d,s. 



for mnnBi:.„Il.'-","7'"''t'»afcotint 
"^u I'l liiin, 



!SrF--'^-'en';SSI 



■^e'cXeTo^ro?',!'"?," /l™ by 

HHssr 

■^tere?;re/s^.--r 

"sually re.le,,MS"'" """'"')•. 
O.«|».l..-Ou,i„|<,„.„eg|ec, o, rail. 



SSS:'.'I!l:,reV„i:'"''''-"'^.nc.,. 

"S'.a-eJ''-"* ■".«"..* or ,ood. 

will, '"^'-'o WTiicatliby 

^^WffiJ."""-"™ ">' dclcn. 

«"~'"-'s.°i',a-- 

■uniiico' ■ ., , "*** "' marine In- 

wlibSutne'cesX"?'"',.*"""""' 
COUOB Qtine,l!^?J" llierexMlar 



"."nuSSf,,!""' '»"""•"). Iilng 
ness. bulibaresprollt. 



517 



■1)1 

HI 
^irnl 

m 



ill 




BL'SINKSS DICTIONARY 



Drawback.— Mnnov paid back on 
Kood8cxpnrt)<(l. a|>artorllic wholti 
of (he duty charged. 

Dralt— An onlpr from one man to 
anotbcrdlrcciln^' tlie imymcrit of 
money.aljlllofcxcbantto. 

Drawee.— The iicrson iipon whom a 
bill uf exclian^'c U drawn, who is 
directed to make the iiaymenl. 

Drawer.— The person who umws or 
muhusa Itlll ot exchange. 

DrcM Oood*.-A tcrmapplicd to falj- 
riC9 for the i^armcntti of wiimcn 
mid cblldrGii, iiKiially of mixcu 
materials, such us silk and culton. 
Kllk and worsted, etc. 

Due Blll.-A written ai-knnwiod;;' 
ment of ncht: not transferable liy 
mere Indorsement. 

Dun.— To press urgently tlit pay- 
tuetit of a debt, 

:>upllcate.~A copy or counterpart of 
unylliint;. 

Durcst. Personal restraint, or fear 
jf l>erional Injury ttr of Imprison- 
ment; It niilllllcs all contracts liilo 
which Itcntcrii, 

Dutlcff.— A lax levied by the Govern- 
ment on imported good'*: money 
paid in the UovommGnt on Im- 
ported and ex|)orted yoods. 



Earnest.— Something given by the 
buyer to Itie seller, to bind tbc 
bargi.ln and prove the sale. 

Eatcment.— The right to use nn- 
other'i land. 

Effects.— All kinds of personal prop- 
erty. 

Ell. -An English measure' of length 
equal to lUy^rds; the Scotch elt 
IB I 3-lfH) yards. 

Embargo.— A detention of vessels in 
port; pruhibitlon fromsalUii^ 

Embarrassment.— Perplexity arlsins 
from Insolvency or temporary in- 
ability to discharge debts. 

Embassy. -The pulallc biislncNS in- 
trusted to diplomatic oHlcers. 

Enact.— To make a law or cstablinli 
by law. 

Engrosser.- One who bnvs larj;o 
ciuantltles of any goods In order to 
control the market. 

Embenlement.— Toaiipropnatniiuii- 
iicmoneytoprivaie use by a broach 
of trust. 

Emporium.— A place of Gxlcnsive 
commerce, a market place. 

Emblements.- Urowlng crops of any 
kind produced by expense or labor. 

Eminent Domain.— The ri^ht of sov- 
ereign ^Kiwer 10 tiiku private prop- 
erty tor public purposes. 



Equity vi Redenptkm.— The rlffhl 
whicha mortKagor has to redeem 
his estate after tbe mortgage has 
cumo due. 

Endorse.— To endorse a note by 
writinK the name dti the back. 

Entrepot.- A boiided warehouse; A 
storehouse for the deposit of 
uoods; a free port. 

Equity. -A system Hupplcmcntal to 
Inw. ipiulifyin!; or correcting It In 
exirc'Uie cases. 

Escrow.-- A deed or bond delivered 
<)V a third party to bo held or do* 
llvered [otheKuaraiuee orcrcdllur 
upon iheperformanceof Bomocoo- 
dJtIoii. 

Estate.- The degree, nnantlty, na- 
liire. or extent of Interest which a 
person has in real property. 

Estoppel.— A stop, a bar to one's aN 
teKing or denylngafact contrary 
to his own previous actions, alle* 
nation or denial. 

Eachanse.— Act of bartering: a bill 
drawn for money: a place where 
merchiLnts meet: dinercnco be- 
tween the value In two places, or 
premium or discount arising from 
purchase or sa'.e of goods. 

Executed (of a cohtract}.— Finished. 

Exclsc.-Taxes or duties on articles 

r>roduced and consumed at homo: 
niernal revenue tax. 

Executlon.^A written command ts- 
cued to a sherltr or constable after 
u JuOtim^nt directing him 10 en- 
force it; the act of signing qnd 
sealing n legal Instrument, or giv- 
ing n the form rcriulred to make R 
a\aMua..-t. 

ExecMtor.-'The person ai^pdlnted Vj 
a (o^tator to execute his will. 

Executor- .—To be executed In th* 
fjiure. 

Exports.— That which Is carried .out 
of acuiintry,asgood!»and produce 
in tratnc. 

Exprcss.—Acourler: also regular and 
quick conveyance for iiaekages, oto. 



Face.— The amount expressed on a 
note or draft. 

Factor.— All agent who sells and bnyr. 
In his own name, being eniruiied 
with the goods. In thiii, respect dif- 
fering from a broker. 

Facture.— An Invoice or bill of par- 
cels . 

Fallure.-Bccoming bankrupt, sus- 
pension of payment. 

Fac-slmlle.-An exact copy or like- 
ness. 

Favor.— A note or draft Is said to bo 
In I'avoro' the payee. 

Fee Simple.— FuUowneniblp lu landi 



BUSINESS DICnONARlf 



Sio?,hin°'.° °' ""^ wwch iJ ,° 

Ilccio clicat or deceive an ",Scf 
ml diM'S""""" '"""'re""' Hll: 

FrfiRht.-Mcrchaiidiso belni! tnovfrt 



0«lfl.-\,|v.l„,;, j^, 

|*ke^,^o.e, ,„a ,a,, ,„;,i"l,;;: 
■^ ontrllKjihjH 



Oeneral Average.. 



niH.le J 



I lit) I 



"HlcarKoiotv ui.i,„ss„ .„,, , 

''>■ Ollf uf (JlPi- „ ,,.r I^',"*'''' 

ieSKl's;;.",:-"-"'"'--! '";>',;: 

ao«iwi„i™h;;,K'K, ;:',''«'|;■',i•■ 
5'SS!H:;;;;^r,;r^;ts'' 
on>"---'''»«l'e dozen 



naberduher.— A Miirr of Em.r 

U a rati ...- .u ■ "" ■ OI Sni'li 

wares, as thread, pmv. clc. 



Hand-money. -Mntiry pnid ,i,» ,,.,. 
Harbor.-A portorhnviri rorshir.« 

"rXT'"'°"°' •'■'"»"»' •'"!":. 

'"8''S«a».-Tlic unmcliKed »«ier< 

"iinycSr?"'''''-'"''''"''"''"'" 
Hollow Ware. -A i,,,,,,. ,„ , 



34 









!■ 


f^ ^ 


' 


i:) 


'ill 
ill' 





jrt 



fiU 'NKSH DICTIONARY 



nwiwB wg r.— ATI nwnrr'H or «n 
HKnit'i cutmululon for ktUindliifC 
toasbl|). 

HypottMcaU.— To pledge for the te 
cuTlly or creditor. 



Infant.— In Inw, one under the «i;c of 

twenty-one yearn. 
tmfwHte.—Wantliietn prudent man- 

nKcmcnt: not politic. 
Import.— To brlnii in from ft'T'ia'l '>r 

a forulsn country. 
Importer.— The merchant v.i-» lu"- 

|>OTllt Koodti. 
ImpMltion.-Tnx.loll.diityor c\ci-^v 

pro8cribt.'d hyHUthorlij. 
Impott.-A tMX or duly tm|M)i,p(l on 

Imporleil good:i. 



to ret ID I 
Indenture.— A mutunl a!;recnicni In 

writing. 
IndorKmcnt.-A UTitint; on the biii-k 

of a lunc. 
IndorMf.— The oiio who makes tlic 

Inilorseinenl. 
Indorsee.— The i>cr>on,liiwIion? favor 

the Inilorscnieut Is made. 
ln)unctlon.-A» order or dircclion of 

ihc court ci>ni]>elllns a euriuhi iter- 

son to refrain from doing some par- 
ticular act or Ihln^. 
Indulgence — Kxlensjon of time of 

pnymeui: forbcarlas to prus» tor 

payment. 
Inland Blllt.^A draft or bllNofcx- 

cbantie drawn on a piirty In ihe 

Hume as the drawer 
icy.- 

debts when di 
Insurance.— Indemnity from lots; Iho 

premium paid. 
inetallntent.— ruymcnt of pftrts at 

diflcreiil times. 
Inlercst.-l'rcmlum paid for the use 

of money. 
Internal Revenue.— The part f the 

revenue of our Government which 

Is collected In the form of iDlcrnal 

duties. 
Intestate.— Without a will. 
Invaltd.- Of no legal forcc- 
Inventory.- A list of merchandise 

mHdc periodically for the purjioso 

of knowlr.B the (inantl.y and value 

of unsold ROods, In order tonKCcr- 

taiti the condition of biiiiine^s. 
Investment.— The laylnfc out of 

money In the purchase 01 domc 

species of property. 
Involce.-A written acconnt or bill 

of merctUJidtsc bou.rht; a bill of 
items. 



Jettlsoii.— ThrowlnsKoodiovcrhoard 

in case of i>eril, to lighten and pre- 

•crvo the »hlp. 
Joint Stock.-Siock held in company; 

H H)>e('ic<t of partiiLTihlp 
Joint Tenancy. - Joint occupancy: 

TKil so close Intimacy a^i uartncr- 

Klllp. 

Journal. --A book used to classify 
mill arrange business transactions. 

Judgment.- The ^.enteiiccof the law 
pi'unoiinced by tho court u|Min any 
matter coiitiilTii;(l In the record, or 
In any case triiid by itic court. 

Judgment Dcbtuf. - I'nriy ak'ainsi 
whom a Jud};ment l.s obtained 

Judgment Note.— A note In the us- 
ual form, with the addition x>f the 
l>owcr to coiifciis Judgment If not 
paid when due. 

Jurisdiction.— The |>owGr of cxcrcls- 
Int; Judicial auihurlly. 



Kilogram.— The French measure "f 
vvcj^hl, c(|ual to -JVi lbs. avordu 
hoiB, or liHiU grains. 

Kiting or Kite • lying.- Exchnniiln;; 
L-heijk!>ou HifTcront banks, for tl)o 
pur)K)su of obtainlni; the use of 
money for a single day. 



Lame Duck.— A stock broker*^ tonp 

for one who falU to meet his cn- 

(taF:emcnt!i. 
Landlord.— One who owns and rents 

or leases lands or houses; a hotel- 
keeper. 
Larceny.— Theft: taking personal 

property belonging to another. 
Law Merchant.— The general body 

of usages In matters relative to 

commerce. 
Lay Days.— Days allowed for loading 

and unloading a cargo. 
Lay Down.— A phnise used to ex- 
press the ent'rc cost of a comnioii. 

Ity, including transportation. eh: 

at a placo remote from its prodiii- 

lion or prirchtise. 
Lease.— A conlruci by which oi\r 

grants to another for a period i hi' 

use of certain real estate. 
Legal Tender.— That kind of mon<'> 

winch by law can beoflered In pny 

luent of a debt. 
Legacy.— A gift by will of personal 

property. 
Ledger.— A book In whlrh a summery 

oraccoumB Is preserved. 
Lessee.- Otic who take:* an estate by 

a lease. 



520 



BUSINESS niCnONART 



'^«.1frr'?af,'r?;-cA,iV"" •"""""• 

, M"r,;rh<„K' °' ""™'»"'°n by 

."•,r'* """' "'"° °" properly for 
takes without comi.cnSi„„ !„ i^ 



;S,r,'* """'■■"' "f COM niirt silver 
KnUSc"""""™ "' ll.e>emclaTs 

""■,*^^"'""'""' ""'"■ " ""'- 
«jWe„>oro„J'eo„,racr,',;?„ 



'™rJ?'a'Sf^;-s,"/".nd,™,„ 

<liumorar.ii]„,V, '""""llni! nc. 
minor.-snnio a^ inf.n. - 

iiml.Tiuinir„„,', :'y- " ''"'<"i 
Ml«l«a««nc«.-Alt,- , . , 

profxTly an act ttji. n.V ,,'' '"i- 

niMlemcanor.-A i,,..,.,_ ,,, _, 
•■flriie; an u'cIliS «'"'"' "' 

mciit. Pf-'uity or punish. 

»pecie,ofBi„,i< '" ''"' "> «'iy 
"l''n'?S'K;;"-'"^--reo„.,„. 

"'■ for the Voilii?r, > '"» credit. 

K^— •■oii",;i;;,i;',„i,,ts-ii 

M^-njclptU-ot or ,«,„„,„„„ ,„ , 
""""-> ™"«.,c„'„J'"a'5,„„. 

""^fl'S'T,!",'""""" kuslnc'si lo 
iraie. """™"-"<= "■ toraain or 

'^M^l^f^'-''""'- »"" and 

liolif' '""°' '"I '"•"-" and dcdtic. 
N« Prollt».-i it 
ductintj losses 
d's^'l&i'V'l'" <" ""chati. 

~r,?„"!™,';'ai7,;i;: »'».»«'.■ .man. 
o?,-,?l!??,'^-„;;,;°""^"™'"»hai 

Note — A wrjllLii or inn ted nrmrr 



r ijriifit after dc- 



i 



n 









•■i. 



li'i. I 



m 



III::: 



lUSINKS.^ IHlTIONARY 



NoUBoefc.-A txvil, invliirn nmci 
o1 hniHl FHf Tfi'r>rii""d. 

MoUrlsl Scal.-Sviil tt a noLiry )>iil>- 
hi- 

Nol«ry PhMIc. -A public omi-cr wlm 
'ntli--l!. oi- r.-riitk-. lo nrkli"»l- 
i-dKmtnlt or tli-nN rIkI otiitr 
li'Mx't"' |'i«t«'>'i^ iiou-iaiiil hllh. 

Nslional CurrciK]'. .Ntiiionul bditk 

Nillonal D«iii«|n«.-Thon' nl^tn fur 
I hi' -. lol.iimiiofHrlKhi Irom «l li 
n.( aoiiul li>-.-.li!i« rt>iilU'»l. 

(«iwnuwr. -Afailtiicio us(;rit;lit^. im 
in'hilCoCs. 



iiiirifM'cl. 

Open Account. -A timmnit or tnwtt. 
lied accDUtu with un iiidivnUial or 
Hrm 

Open Pollcy.--\n liiiiiritrui; |i.'li.y 
covcilriK iindciiiii'd rl-l >, whuli 
iti'oildes Mini n- term xhitll l>i> 
ci>mo dcHnitc !•> siibsu.jiunl itd- 
clUionsor IndorMiin-'ntB. 

Oplloii.-I'erml>i.i'>ii n> choose; » 
siockholders ttrm fnr tbf |*rlvi- 
W-tce or taking < r d.llvt.rlni{ at ij 
futiiie day a <irtiiiii number or 
shares of a Kiviri hioci* ai a i>rice 
aurt^cd upon. . 

Oroer.— AC(lmmis^lon to imichasr; 
dliittlon 10 [.aj muncy or to dc- 

Ordcr Book-- A iK^ok in wlikb orders 

received art I'ntircd, 
Ofdln«ry.-A>hii> in harbor l« -aid 

10 tw In ordinary; or innliiim 

nnRllty. 
Ordtnancc.-A rule, or order, or nw. 

usually iippliod to itie acts or laws 

[laswd by Ihc comman council of 

a city. , . 

Ordn«nce.-All kinds of large guns 
OMttawed.— Adebiissald to he out 

lawcd that has cxhicd for a certain 

length of lime, after whleh the 

law.onthatKrmind alone, iireveiii-. 

lis bclnBcnfiireod. 
OftCHBlble Partners. -T I lohc known 

lotheinihlie, „ , , . 

OuUtandinK Accounls.-UooU del>ls 

noiyct colli'-u-.l. , , , ,, 

OHtsUndIng Oebt».-l npald drUs. 
Overdr«w.-ToiuH for morcmun.y 

ihaii lionderos't ,^ . ,, 
Overdr*ft.-A check paid above the 

amount oti douoMt. 
Oven'ue-Apnllcd 10 anoleor draft. 

Iht, specified time for payment of 

which has passtd. 
Overt.— Apparent, manifest; open. 
Owe.— To be obliged to pay. 



Paflk.-A (Inaitnil rrUU iimonR 

bit-in'-i'smen.amoiipiary prdtiiirv. 

Itt'iierully lliv iC'>ull ut uvcrtradiiiij 

anil Nineulal ion, , . , 
t>apcr MofMy.-Klll^ of hanks or of 

iTio tiovcrnniciit iia-MlnK current 

Pir.-Staic of cfiiinliiy In value. 
e<|tiallty of nominal and tctuul 

Parol. 'Oral declaration; word of 

iiiDiith, 
Par VsltM.-Tbe fare or nominal 

Willie of a i:uiumciv:ia1 i>a|K.-r. 
Par of exchanse.-'l'ho value of >i 
null ol one toiiiiiry'K coinage *.x- 
l>re»«ed In that of another's. 
Partner.-An Q^so^>alC In biislneas. 

menil>er of a partnership. 
Pariwrshlp. -Contract of n*o or 
nunc iierBons 10 Join money, stook 
or okll) III trade for mutual U'netll. 
Part Owner —On© of scvcimI owners 
of a 'hip: the relation differs ma- 
terially irom partnership 
Pass Book.-Abook kept by ft cus- 
lumer In whlchentrlesof purclia»e< 
Is made; n bank book. 
Passport.— A |>ormlsslon from a Got- 
ernment to travel, tvlih Identltlca- 
tlunandcertltloaleor nailoiiallly; 
a document carried by nciii ral mwr- 
chani vcflseU In time of war lor 
Ihoir protection. , 
Pawnbroker.- One who nolds money 
nt interest oA security or goods 
ilepoHltcd. 
Payable.-J iwtly dnr capable of pay. 

ment. 
Payer.— The person to whose order 

a note, bill or draft Is to be paid. 

Payer.-Ono who pays. 

Penalty.— Forfeiture, or sur- to be 

forfeited for noD-perforr ince of 

an agreement. 

Percent —By the hundn , ratca of 

Interest. dUcouni, etc. 
PcrcenUg«.-An allowa .0 reck- 
oned by hiindrcdih paits, com- 
mission. _^ , 
Per Coatra.—To thcoppobttc side of 

an aeeount. 
Permit.— Written ntithorlty lo rc- 

movcdinlablo gooda. 
Petty Cash Book. —Account of small 

reiciptKutid expenses 
Pledge.— A pawn, personal property 

deposited as security. 
Policy.-The written contract of In- 
surance. 
Port, -A harbor for vessels; a com- 
mercial city. 
Port of Entry. -A iwrt where a cub- 
torn house Is cBtobllshed for Itie 
entry of Imports. 




'''d'S;;-£,T,"„';.';,",^,°""«'»idc, 

»™*5»-P.rm „ro-;uou of .u 




RaUflcatlon. 
iriict ni«d« r,y it. 
•lun. brit now Vri 
other nmna% his ( 

RnlProptrty. Th.'i 

imm.iviible; lan, 
UertciPdorKflm 

TOuni. l'"""I'l l"rjmt,„, ,11,. 
"wSiml; „',';,'',"™l'"'«'»™t of 

S°:''^rhJ,"d'!rs»|''',';;;;,"''''i;« 

IlllWllon, or 1. « ni ,. .m' i' '" 



Pmlmry Not«.-(SM Nole). 
Uo""*'"* P™!"'""™! dl.ttlbo. 

•^s'lTir.:-"" •""' '"ppi;" pro- 



QuarantliM.-To prohibit • .i.i„ 
from inlercourso wlib ,hor^ wh,'j 

IJOM, „a re. no, .,rli',f,%«K 



^SroVil';;:.'?^"!,","""" 
i'n°Jo;:?r!kir---'-ffl^^ 

SJ^UT-eTlIf.',^?,!''""""-™''-"'!" 
ot p uSS'r'S""""™" '" '»»"« 

"•orjKST„\'Sj;»""»^.(rom 

''™rpr„°S!:f;««'™'»r'i>sus.o( 

riil»ci,ureordeitnilon 
RMOureM. - AvallaWe means: (u„a,. 

"re?S""*' '■^""-A pledge ot t 
"'mer*'"'"'-' ^°'"''' '" """" il"«n- 
Retire.— To take up one's r- cbefor« 

due;tor.lln„»i.hl„„?„,„"*'°™ 
Kelun».-Profli ol an inieslmcnt 
Kevenue.- Income; return; annual 

Income of e nation tor public use'. 



I! 



s' n 



iH 



■■ I -i 



ii 



n 



I: 



l- 



m-SIM^S |VMTI«'\AHV 



RcvMHM CutUrt.— Small vottcU lo 
aid revcriiifoltlcrrt tn tliu cultoc* 
tionof dutloMor 'J prsvviit ■rnuf* 

RcvtrakM.-Rlfiht to ]>o««cM pro|ier- 
ly ntlvT thB ))a|t|>i-ninK of rota* 
i-vpnt, n>i the death oi k (wmon 

Rtvvrl.-To fall w%in Into ihr |x)<t' 
HGMlon of the duuur, or ol ibu (or* 
Bir proprietor. 



Sato.— TratKfer of property for » 

confide rai Ion. 
MvBf*.— A romnet\Hatlon to tho«a 
who rcacuo a thlp or t cirgo from 

5«lvor.-0ne who voliintitrlly utvui 
a tthli> or a carifo from peril. 

Sana R«Go«irM.— ^VUbout recourse: 
komi-'tlmesatlded to tbe ln(lor»f- 
mantof a note or bill to protuci 
an lndor»er (rom liability. 

Scrip — CtriincKto of tlock given be- 
rurcreRlatratton. 

••CM^arlly.— Api>lledtoan Indornor 
of a note or drawer of a bill, sUnU 
fyhig tbai h« \% only coadlitonutly 
liable, or liable if tbe maker and 
drawee fait. 

Seaworthy.— Fit for a voyage and 



chandleo taken a* a ipeclmen of 
riiiallty. 

SecNHtlae.— DocumenU iceurlng a 
rlKht to property. .^ . 

Sella.— To take iwsBCMlon of by vlr- 
lueof a warrant or lettal amnorliy. 

Selkr'a Op-.loa.-A term mostly con- 
nncd to the lalo* of siocVs. for a 
Hale wbtch rIym to tbe sellei the 
option of delivering ibe urtlclo 
sold within a certain time, the 
buyer paying Interefl up to de- 

Shlpncnt.— That wblch >«. shipped: 

embarkation. 
5et-otf.— A claim which one party 

has against another who has a 

claim ftfalDSt bim: a counter 

claim. . 

Shipper.-One who gives raerchan- 

dlse to another for iransimriallon. 
Bifht.— Time of presenting bill to 

drawee. 
Short.— To "sell short" Is to sell for 

future delivery what one does not 

possess, lo hopes thai prices" will 

fall. 
Shrinkage.— Reduction in bulk or 

measurement, 
Short BxcfawiM.— Bills of exchange 

payable at sight or in a few days. 
Sight Draft.— one payable at stifbl. 

1. e.. when preheated. 



SltiMtHra.— The name of a person 

wTittt'n with his own hnnd. slitnt* 
rylni{ his consent to tbe writing 
fOyn\*- II. 
Sltont IHrtiwf.-One who furnlthes 
r;>,<it:ti. »iit takes 00 active part la 

SlmpU lntereat.-Intot.Jsl 01. prlncl- 

iiui alifftf: ni>tcomt>ouna 
Sinking Pynd.-A fund set apart 

from earnings or oiht- r Income, for 

tbe redemption of debiit of uovern* 

ment, or of a corporation. 
Sleeptng Pwtuw.-One who shares 

iheprorlts of a buslnesit wiuiout 

letting his name appear, or taking 

part In it actively. 
Slop Shop.— A store where cheap 

rvuity-madectothlnff Is sold. 
SMiiggicr.— One who avoids the pay* 

menl of duties by secretly traiwrt. 

InK goods Into a country: a testel 

enitaxed In ■.miigullng. 
Solvency. -Ability to pay all debts 

or]iisic!»lms. 
Specially.'-A contract orobllgatioa 

under seal. 
SUI«Mnt.-t'«ually a list of iirop- 

i-riy. or n-soiircos and liabilities. 
Speculation.— A buslne-.s Investmonl 

out of tbe ordinary run of trade, 
SUMp Duty.— Law requiring iiamps 

to be afflxcd to checks and proprie- 
tary articles. 
Solicitor.- An attorney or advocate: 

the title of a perton admitted to 

practice la tbe court of chancery 

or equity. 
Stqtie.— Principal commodity of a 

country or district- 
Sutlstfca.— A collection of facts ar* 

ranited and classtrted. , . , , 

Statute.- A positive law, established 

by actof lealslalure. 
SUtute Law.— Knacimenti by the 

legislature, written, as opposod to 

commou or unwritten law. 
StcrtlM.-Lawrul or standard money 

of Ureal ilrltaln. 
Stock.— Shares in the capital of a 

corporation: gcxidson hand. 
Stock Broker.- One who buys and 

sells stock on commission. 
Stock Exchange.- Place w here shares 

of Hiockaru t>9Ught and i^old. 
Stockholder.— Onu who holds fhares 

oftitOC'ri. 

Stock Jobber.— One who speculatei 
In stocks. 

Stipend. -Set tied pay or compensa- 
1101) tor services 

Stipulation. -A contract or bargain- . 

Stoppage In Transitu.— The seller o1 
goodii upon credtl resuming \>on 
BosHlon after their shipment be* 
fore tliev tjel into actual posses- 
sion of the buyer. 



524 




'l!2!ir'"i"i,"'"l ''"'' '"' "Mitt 
"."■Siri^XT'"' "~"«'"".t Of 

EU*!S«— L'M;r««l«cJ arllclvt. 
»~; '"•"l')u«ic«b,,|,,,ip,oe. 

l|.n,o,.,,r,o i„c„ for", Si 

J:?.V1R'C",',',;.'»-'"'»"S 



fu/iice! '"' ■*""• ""'"in- 

*"***';'!*'-"'•'«'" •"•' "'• !• 

SSSblfui;'""' ""' "* '""""'«'«d 
?SiiI'~l'!5"."' ""I'noi.xnrwMil. 

m.jjUor .ooa, i„ ^M\jl„,\St. 
^'tHi'^," •"""•"M for Ilia CI, 

jTe'cSilK'."* '" "'■'"• S"""' 
Tir(«.-.\ iin pf dutiM to h« Im* 

po.rt on ,»,«. i„p<,„s <^, ;,';: 

■^•"•'•-OBcer In > bank mo r,. 
T.™;:*"i.'»" out money. ' 

""S'lril""** *''° l"'« <" "nt 
^!I!Vi'.'-'j 'M'Mn.-l^rtoni hold. 

hfJi'^S' "" ■> ••"■""I "nd JIB. 

V?S« £''U"' '"P''"' "'""'•y or 

T^nura.-Tbe mnnner of boldlnv 
I'loiwrly In land) noioing 

win'"'"''''" '*"°" '"'■'"»• '■''•• 

'^•/!!!f''''"'"--'»'l""ii»of woven 

Kl- «'"""'" '"'"Cled 10 pl4S 

'^«''n'*i'.'~,* '""'' remaining memo- 
Tillii » O'O'fof ihi-ir maiiiniy * 

f™ f?:jre'"„-r.iVk."'™" "" ■"» 



!!::j,sr:|:-,:2;i-:- -.... 

^:tt! ?.*;;;;':,";■,',;';;;:; ■"•». hole. 
^^S3e'*;..,^;,'-:M.nd,„, 

,;o.|.in.m..„,„v,xricr/'„.°,[ 

l!?.!!f '"T" l"""™ rommcrclal 

Tr.ii.lK"'Tj ',°'""'«' """e'" " 

pro"Si7'° '""'"l "'•■''>■ '"It or 

J-"n"cr"iix.;,r,ssfoov: 

duc',% "»■■•"" '"«'•■ °"nS; 

^'?.'S?;r/e°ib°',?Jt.o'p''r"""°' 
wo?:;.T°r"o?£r„ir,'L!.'l,S.','". 



"mriul"'"" ""'I"'' Of be. 

"J^n'i'^n?'!?^"'-''""'' inoovern. 
K v,°,r tl!""'' ""'""niedarter 
Mi S^'''.'''"" ''«>e nol been 

Ultt-MorUII.-LaKt nionln. 
U~.umiil.-Noi currciil; not pan. 
ing in common |,a)„„„. '"' ■""■ 

?*,!?"■"''- "" '■'■'°" "" ""« 

''S;:i!"J^'-"')S" ln,„cr. io r.llpd 
ifciZ •'•.''"'''''■"'"«' II! name lo 
Ihe coii.lrilon of ihe policy. 

Unieawortby.-I'nlii /or voyaee in 
condition SrequlpiiJS;. ' 



525 









■tt) 



m 






i '-ilii 



ill 



BXiSINKSS DICTIONARV 



.n had condition; of 

doubtful solvency. 

Uiagcof Trwie -Custom, or the fre- 
quent rei)etltlon of tbe aEioe act (ii 
buslneas. ^, ^ , 

Usance.— Business oustom which is 
generftUy coQceaeU and acted uiwn. 

Usury.— KxoTbliani Inlere&t, for- 
merly merely Intereiit 

United SUtes Notet.-A written 
promise to \my to I he tjearer. on 
demand, a certain sum of money. 
Issued bj the United States Govern- 
■unt and u:>ed as money. 



ValU.-Havtog lesat stren^h or 
force. 

Validity.— The quality of being good 
In law. 

ValiM.— Ratt^ of estimated worth: 
amount obtamablelucxcbaDge tor 
a thing. ^ , 

Value Rec«lved.-Plira« used in 
notes or bills to exiiress a consid- 
eration Indefinitely. 

Valued Policy. -One which fixes the 
value of proiierty insured. 

Vend.-TToseli 

Vendee.— The person to naom a 
Iblnglssold. 

Vender.— .\ Ruller. 

Vcndue.-An auction sale. 

Vcntur«.— A mercantile specula- 
tion or investment. , ^, ^ 

VoM.— NulhUavlDg uo legal oi bloo* 
utg [erce. 



VeWaWe.-lIavlnB some force, but 
capable ol being adjudged void. 

Voucher.— A book, receipt, entry or 
oiher document which establtshea 
the truth of account). 

W 

Wages.— Hire, reward, salary. 
Welver.— The act of waiving: of not 

in-iisting on some right, claim or 

prlvlleite. 
Wares.- uoods, merchandise, com- 

modilie*. „„„. 

Warehouseman.— One who stores 

Koods for pay. . . 

Warrant.- A precept authorlxing an 

otfieer to seize an offender nnd 

brlnji him (o Justice; also to Insure 

aualnst defects. 
Warranty.— An nndertaklnff that 

Koodsortitleareas represented. 
WasUge.— Loss la handling; shrink- 

Wasta.- Refuse material. 

Wayblll.— A document contalninx a 
list and description of Roods »eni 
by a common carrier by land. 

Wharfage.— Fee or duty for using a 

Wharfiiiger.-The proprietor of a 

Wreckage.— Merchandise from a 

Wreck- Master .-A i»erson appointed 
bv lAwtoiakecharseol goods. etc.. 
thrown ashore after a 8bli>wrM»- 



fi9fi 




^ U 




'II 





■ Si. 



^ai 


mh 


' 


11 


1 




^^^HTF .v|fndi(tt| 


IH 


iliii:"''ii 


^1^ ll 


il 





1 




Interest, 1 DAY.— Continued. 




Rate. 


5 1 6 7 


8 


9 


10 


51M 


.69.9 I .83.8 .97,8 


1.11.8 


1.26,8 


1.39.7 


5200 
S3M 

9400 


.71,2 
.72,6 
.74.0 


.85.6 
.W.l 
.88,8 


.99,7 
1.01.6 
1.03.6 


1.14,0 
1.16,2 
1.18,4 


1.28,2 
1.30,7 
1.33.2 


1.42,5 
1.46.2 
1.47.9 


99M 
5M0 
5700 


.75.3 
.78,7 
.78.1 
^T79,5^ 
.80,8 
.82.2 


.90,4 
.92,1 
.93.7 
.96.3 
.97,0 
.98.6 


1.06.6 
1.07,4 
1.09.3 
1.11,2 
1.13,2 
1.16.1 


1.20.6 
1.22.7 
1.24.9 


1.86.6 
1,38,1 
1.40.5 
'1743.0 
1.46,5 
1.47,9 


1,60,7 
1.63.4 
1.66.2 


990* 
MOO 


1.27,1 
1.29.3 
1.31,6 


1.68.9 
1.61.6 
1.64.4 


0100 
0200 
6300 


.83.6 
.84,9 
.86.3 


1.0O.3 
1,01,9 
1.03.6 


1.17,0 
1.18,9 
1.20,8 


1.33,7 
1.35,9 
1.38,1 


1.60,4 
1.62.9 
1.66.3 


1.67,1 
1.69.9 
1.72.6 


MOO 

tsoo 

MOO 


.87.7 
.89,0 
.90,4 


1.06.2 
1,06,8 
1.08,5 


1.22.7 
1.24,7 
1.28.6 


1.40,3 
1.42,6 
1.44.7 


1.67,8 
1.60,3 
1.62.7 


1.75,3 
1.78,1 
1.80,8 


«700 
MOO 
6M0 


.91,8 
.93,2 
.94.6 
.95,9 
.97.3 
.98,6 


1.10,1 
1.11,8 
1.13.4 


1.28,5 
1.30,4 
1.32.3 


1.46,8 
1.49.0 
1.61,2 


1.66,2 
1.67,7 
1.70.1 


1.83.6 
1.86,3 
1.89,0 


7000 
7100 
7200 


1.16.1 
1.16,7 
1.18,4 


1.34,2 
1.36,2 
1.38,1 


1.63.4 
1.65,6 
1.67,8 


1.72,6 
1.76.1 
1.77.6 


1.91,8 
1.94,5 
1.97,3 


7300 
7400 
7900 


1.00,0 
1.01,4 
1.02,7 
1.04.1 
1.06,6 
1.06,8 


1.20,0 
1.21,6 
1.23,3 


1.40,0 
1.41,9 
1.43.8 


1.60,0 
1.62,2 
1,64.4 


1.80,0 
1.82.6 
1.84.9 


2.00,0 
2.02.7 
2.06.5 


7M0 
770O 
7800 


1.24.9 
1.26.6 
1.28,2 


1.45.8 
1.47,7 
1.49.6 
1.61,5 
1.53.4 
1.55,3 
1.57,3 
1.69,2 
1.61.1 
1.63.0 
1.64.9 
1.68.8 


1.66.6 
1.68,8 
1.71.0 


1.87,4 
1.89,9 
1.92.3 


2.08.2 
2.11.0 
2.13.7 


7900 
80OO 
8100 


1.08,2 
1.09,6 
1.11.0 


1.29.9 
1.31.6 
1.33,2 


1.73,2 
1.75,3 
1.77.6 


1.94,8 
1.97.3 
1.99,7 


2.16,4 
2.19,2 
2.21,9 


8200 
8300 
8400 


1.12,3 
1.13.7 
1.16.1 


1.34,8 
1.3b.4 
1..38,1 


1.79.7 
1.81,9 
1.84,1 


2.02.2 
2.04,7 
2.07,1 


2.24.7 
2.27.4 
2.30,1 


8S00 
8M0 
8700 


1.16,4 
1.17.8 
1.19.2 


1.39.7 
1.41.4 
1.43.0 


1.86.3 
1.88,5 
1.90,7 
-02X 
1.96,1 
1.97,3 


2.09,6 
2.12.1 
2.14.5 


2.32,9 
2.35,6 
2.38,4 


8800 
8900 
9000 


1.20,6 
1.21,9 
1.23.3 
1.24,7 
1.26,0 
1.27.4 
1.28,8 
1.30.1 
1.31.5 


1.44,7 
1.48.3 
1.47.9 
1.49,6 
1.51,2 
1.62.9 
1.64,5 
1.66,2 
1.67.8 


1.08.8 
1.70.7 
1,72.6 
1.74,'6 
1.76,4 
1.78,4 


2.17,0 
2.19,5 
2.21.9 


2.41,1 
2.43,8 
2.46,6 


910O 
9200 
9300 


1.99,5 
2.01,6 
2.03,8 


2.24,4 
2.26,8 
2.29.3 


2.49,3 
2.62.1 
2.64,8 


9400 
9900 
9«00 


1.80,3 
1,82.2 
1.84.1 


2.06,0 
2.08,2 
2.10,4 


■ 2-.81,8 
2.34,2 
2.36,7 


2.67.5 
2.60,3 
2.63.0 


9700 
9800 
9900 


1.32.9 
1.34,2 
1.36,6 


1.59.6 1.86,0 
1.81.1 1.87,9 

1.62.7 1.89.9 


2.12.6 
2.14,8 
2.17.0 


2.39,2 
2.41,6 
2.44.1 


2.65,8 
2.68.6 
2.71.2 


lOOOO 


i.sr.o 


1.64,4 


j 1.91.8 


2.19,2 


2.46,6 


2.74.0 



1.67,1 
1.69,9 
1.72,6 


1.76,3 
1.78,1 
1.80,8 



2.00,0 
2.02,7 
2.05,6 


2.08.2 
2.11,0 
2.13,7 


2.16,4 
2.19,2 
2.21,9 



Rate. 



Interest, 2 DAYS. 



8 



6 


\-J^ 


.03,3 
.06,6 
.09,9 
.13,2 
.16,4 
.19,7 


.03,8 
.07,7 
.11,6 
.16,3 
.19,2 
.23,0 



10 




; II. 



I* ■ 

W 



I' 



Interest, 2 DAYS.— Continued. 
6 7 I 8 



JJ7,7 ' 
1.71,0 
1,74.2 
1.77.6 



1.80,8 
1.84.1 
' 1.87.4 
1.90.7 
1.94,0 
1.97,3 


"2.11.0 
2.14.8 
2.18,6 

2.ai;B 

2.26,3 
2.30.1 


2.00,6 
2.03,8 
2.07,1 


2.34,0 
2.87,8 
2.41.6 



7000 
7100 
7200 
7300 
7400 
7900 


1.91,8 
1,94,6 
1.97,3 
2.00,0 
2.02.7 
2.06,6 


7U0 
7700 
7800 


2.08,2 
2.11,0 ! 
2.13 7 ! 


7M0 
8000 
8100 


2.16,4 
2.19.2 
2.21,9 


8200 
8300 
8400 
8900 
8«00 
8700 


2.24,7 

2.27.4 

2.30.1 

2.32,9 

2.36.6 : 

2.38.4 


8800 
8900 
0000 


2.41,1 
2.43,8 
2.46,6 



2.10,6 
2.13,7 
2.17.0 
2,20,3 
2.23,6 
2.26.6 
"2.30.1 
2.33.4 
2.36,7 
2.40.0' 
2.43,3 
2.46.6 



2.79,5 
2.82,7 
2.86.0 
2.89,3 
2.92.6 
2.96.9 



1^86^ 
1.99,6 
2.03.3 
2.07.1 
2.11.0 
2.14.8 
2.18,6 

■i.-a,6 

2.26,3 
2.30.1 
2.34,0 
2.87,8 
2^M.6 
2.46,6 
2.49,3 
2.63,2 
2.57,0 
2.60,8 
2.0jl,7 
2.88;5 
2.72,3 
2.76,2 
2.80,0" 
2,83,8 
2,87,7 



J.a,6 
2:27,9 
2.32.3 

J.36,7 
2.41.1 
2.46,5 
2.49,9 



2.61,5 



2.54,2 
2.58,6 
2.63,0 
2,67,4 
2.71,8 
2.76,2 



2.66,4 
2,61,4 
2.66^8 
2^71,2 
2,76,2 
2.81.1 



2.86,0 
2.91,0 
2.96,9 



10 



2.79,5 



2.84.9 
2.90.4 
2.96.9 



3.01,4 
3,06,8 
3.12,3 



3.17.8 
3.23,8 
3.28.8 



3.00,8 
u.06,8 
3.10.7 



3.34,2 
3.39,7 
3,46,2 



2.80,6 
2.84.9 
2.89.3 


3.16,6 
3.20,6 
3.26,6 


2.93,7 
2.98,1 
3.02,5 


3.30,4 
3.35,3 
3.40,3 


a. 06,8 
3.11.2 
3.16,6 


3.46,2 
3.50,1 
3.66.1 


3.20,0 
3.24,4 
3.28,8 


3.60,0 
3.64,9 
3.69,9 



8.60,7 
3.56,2 
8.61.6 
8.67.1 
3.72.6 
3.78.1 



8.88.6 
3.89,0 
8.94,5 
4.00,0 
4.09.5 
4.11,0 



2.91,0 
2,96,3 
2.99,2 



9100 
9200 
930 
9400 I 
9500 
9000 
9700 { 
9800 
J900 I 

ioooo 



2.49.3 

2.62.1 
J.5^,8_ 

2.67.5 , 
2.60,3 

^63.0 
2.65,8 

2.68.6 { 
2.71 ,2 I 
2.74^6 I 



2.99,2 
3.02,6 
3. 05.8 

aioo.o 

3.12,3 
3.16,6 
3.18,9 
3.22,2 
3.26,5 
3.28,8 



3.03.0 
3,06,8 
3.10,7^ 
3.14,5 
3.18,4 

3.26,0 
3.29.9 
3.W,1 
3.37;5 
3.41,4 
3.46.2 
3.49,0 
3.52,9 
3.66.7 



3.33,2 
3.87,5 
3.41,9 



3.46.3 
3.50,7 
3,56,1 



3.69,5 
3.63,8 
3.68,2 



3.72,6 
3,77,0 
3.81,4 



3.74,8 
3.79,7 
8.84.7 



8.94,5 
3,99.6 



4.04,4 
4.09,3 
4.14,2 



8.86,8 
3.90.1 
3.94.5 
3.98.9 
4.03,3 
4.07,7 



4.19,2 
4.24,1 
J.29^0^ 
4.34,0 
4.38,9 
4.48,8 
4.48,8 
4,63,7 
4.68,6 



4,16,4 
4.21,9 
4.27.4 



3.60.5 
3.64.4 
3.68.2 



4.12,1 
4.16.4 
4.20,8 



3.72,1 
3.75,9 
_3.79.7_ 
3.83,6 



4.25,2 
4.29.6 
4.34,0 
4.38,4 



4.63,6 
4.68,6 
4.73,4 



4,32,9 
4.38,4 
4,43,8 
4,49,3 
4,54,8 
4.60,3 
4.65.8 
4.71,2 
4,76,7 
4.82,2 
4.87,7 
4.93,2 
4,98,6 
5.04,1 
5.09,6 



6.15,1 
5.20,5 
6.26.0 



4.78,4 : 

4.83,3 i 

4.88,2 1 

"4.93,2 i 



6.31,5 
5.37,0 
5.42,5_ 
5.47.9 






i 




Interest 


,3 DA 
7 

2.93,4 


VS.— Continued. 




KM*. 


5 1 

2.00,6 : 


'■1 

2,61.5 ' 


8 


9 


10 


MM 


8.35,8 


8.77,8 


4.19,2 


IttM 


2T3.7~| 


2.56,4 , 


2.99.2 


3.41,9 


8.84,7 


4.27,4 


53M 


2.17,8 


2.61.4 ' 


3.04,9 


3.48,6 


8.92,1 


4.35,6 


MM 


2.21,9 1 
2.26,0 


2.66.3 
2.71,2 : 


3.10,7 
3.16,4 


3.56,1 
3.61,6 


8.99,6 
4.06,8" 


4.43,8 


imr 


4.52.1 


5«M 


2.30,1 


2.76,2 ; 


3.22.2 


3.68,2 


4.14,2 


4.M,8 


»7M 


2.34.2 ' 


2.81.1 


3.27.9 


3.74,8 


4.21,6 


4.68.5 


SM« 


2.38,4 


2.86.U 


3.33,7 


3.81,4 


4.29,0 


4.76.7 


5M« 


2,42,.5 


2.91,0 ' 


3.39,6 ' 


3.87,9 


4.36,4 


4.84,9 


MM 


2.46.6 


2.95,9 


3.46,2 


3.94.5 


4.43.8 


4.93.2 


*1M 


2.50,7 


3.00,8 


3.61 .0 


4.01,1 


4.61.2 


5.01.4 


«2M 


2.64,8 


3.03.8 


3.56.7 


4.07,7 


4.68.6 


6.09,8 


MM 


2.58,9 


3.10.7 


3.62.5 


4.14,2 


4.66,0 


5.17,8 


«4M 


2.63,U 


3.16,6 


3.68,2 


4.20,8 


4.78,4 


6.26,0 




2.67,1 


8.20,6 


3.74,0 


4.27,4 


4.80.8 


6.34.2 


MM 


2.71,2 
2.75,3 


3.26.5 
3.30,4 


3.79,7 
3.86.6 


4.84,0 
4.40,5" 


4.88.2 


6.42,5 


*7M 


4.96,6 


6.60,7 


MM 


^.79,5 


3.36,3 


3.91,2 


4,47,1 


6.03,0 


6.68.9 


m» 


• 83,6 
2.87,7" 


3.40,3 
3.46,2 


3,97.0 
4T62,7 


4.63,7 
4:60,3 


6.10,4 


6.67,1 


7M« 


6.17,8 


6.75,3 


7IN 


2.91,8 


3.60,1 


4.08,6 


4.66,8 


5.26,2 


5.83,6 


72M 


2.96,9 


8,66.1 
3.60,0 


4.J4.2 
4.2070 


4.73.4 


6.32,6 


6.91,8 


7.1M 


3.00,0 


4.80.0 


6,40,0 


6.00.0 


74M 


3.04,1 


3.64,9 


4.26.8 


4.86,6 


6.47,4 


6.08,2 


75M 


3,08,2 
3.12,3 


3.69,9 
3,74,8 


4.31,6 
4.37.3 


4.93,2 
4.99,7 


6.54,8 


6.16,4 


7tM 


6.62,2 


6.24,7 


77M 


3.16,4 


6.79,7 


4.43,0 


6.06,3 


5.69,6 


6.32.9 


7H0 


3.20..5 


3,84,7 


4.48.8 
4.54.6" 


6.12,9 


6.77.0 


6.41,1 


7M0 


3.24,7 


4,89,6 


6,19.6 


6 84,4 


6.49,8 


80M 


3,28,8 


3.94,5 


4.60,3 


5.26,0 


6,91.8 


6.67,5 


81M 


3.32,9 
X .770" 


3.99,5 
4.04,4 


4,66.0 
4.71,8 


5.32.6 


5.99,2 


8.65.8 


82M 


6.39,2 


6.06,6 


8.74,0 


KIM 


3.41.1 


4.09,3 


4.77,6 


5,46,8 


6.14,0 


6.82,2 


84M 


8.45,2 
3.49.3 


4.14,2 
4.19,2 


4.83.3 
4.89,0 


5.52,3 


6.21,4 


6.90,4 


85M 


6.68.9 


6.28,8 


6.98.6 


MM 


3.53,4 


4.24.1 


4.94,8 


6.66,5 


6.36,2 


7.06.8 


87M 


3.57,6 
3.61,6 


4.29.0 
4.34,0 


5.00.6 
6.06,3 


6.72,1 


6.43,6 


7.16.1 


8HM 


6.78,6 


6.61.0 


7.23,3 


84M 


3.66,8 


4.38,9 


5.12,1 


5.86,2 


6.68.4 


7.3195 


MM 


3.69,9 
3.74,0 


4.43,8 

4.48.8 


5.17.8 
5.23,6 


6.91,8 
6.98,4 


6.66,8 


7.39.7 


«1M 


6.73,2 


7.47,9 


92M 


3.78,1 


4.63,7 


6.29,3 


6.04,9 


6.80,6 


7.58.2 


»3M 


3.82,2 
3.86.3 


4.68,6 


5.38,1 


6.11,6 


6.87.9 


7.64.4 


»4M 


4.63.6 


B.40.3 


6.18,1 


6.96,3 


7.72,6 


9SM 


3.90,4 


4.68.6 


5.46,6 


6.24,7 


7.02,7 


7.80,8 


9tM 


3.94,5 
3.98,6 


4.7S.4 
4.78,4 


6.52.3 
6.68.1 


6.31,2 
6.37,8 


7.10,1 


7.89.0 


97M 


7.17,6 


7.97,3 


98M 


4.02.7 


4.83,3 


6.63,8 


6.44,4 


7.24,9 


8.06,5 


9M0 


4.06.8 


4.H8.2 


6.09,6 


6.51.0 


7.32,3 


8.13.7 


lOOM 


4.11,0 


4.93,2 


6.76,3 


I 6.67,5 


7.39.7 


: 8,21,9 



10 



_4J9,2_ 

4.27,4 

4.36,6 

\ 4.48,8 

I 4.52,1 

4.80,8 

I 4.68,6 

4.76,7 

4.84,9 

4.93,2 

6.01.4 

I 6.09,6 

I 5.17,8 

I 6.26,0 

I 6.34,2 

I 6.60,7 
6,68.9 

16.67^1_ 
6.75,3 
5.83.6 

_6^1,8_ 
6.00,0 
6.08,2 
6.16,4 
6.24,7 
6.32.0 
6.41,1 
6.49,3 
6.57,5 
6.66.8 
6.74,0 
6.82,2 
6.90.4 
6.98.6 
7.06,8 
7.16.1 
7.23,3 
7.3195 
7,39,7 
7.47,9' 
7.66,2 
7.64,4 
7.78,6 
7.80,8 
7.89.0 
7.97,8 
8.05,5 
8.13.7 
8.21,9 



Interest, 4 DAYS. 



10 



45«« 



4»M ! 



1.04,1 I 
l.(»,6 I 

i72ox! 

1.26,0 ! 
1.3 1 ,6^' 
1.37,0 i 
1.42.6 

_M7,9^I 
1.68.4 !" 
1.68.9 I 

2.64^ I 

i.'69.9 r 

1.76,3 

1.86,3 r 

1.91,8 
1.97.3 
2.02.7 r 
2.08.2 I 
2.J3.J_| 
2.19,2 l~ 
2.24,7 

2.35,6 
2.41.1 
j^46,6 
2.62,1 
2.67,5 
2.63,0 



1.06,2 
1.11,8 
1.18.4 
1.24,9 
1.31,6 
1^38,1 
1.44, 7 
1.61.2 
_K57.£ 
1.64,4 
1.71,0 
JJ7.5 
1.84,1 
1.90,7 
1.97,8 
2,03,8 
2.10,4 
2.17.0 



2.74,0 



2.23,6 i 
2.30.1 
2.88,7 
2.43"X 
2.49,9 I 

2.63.0 ] 

2.69,6 

2.76,2 : 

2.82,7 I 

2.89,3 

2^96^ 

3.02.5 r 

3.09.0 

3 J5.6 ! 

3.22,2 I 

3.28,8 



.99.7' 
1.07,4 

iJ6.1 

1.22,7 

I 1.30,4 

_I,38.1 
1 f.46,8 
i 1.63,4 
lyi.l 
I 1.88,8' 
I 1.76.4 

1J(4.1 
; 1.91.8 

1.99,6 I 
I 2.07.1 ' 

2.14,8 

2.22,6 ; 

2.80,1 I 

2.37,8 : 
2.46.6 ' 
2^53,2^, 
2.60,8 r 

2.68.5 < 
_2J6^ 

2.83,8 I 

2.91.6 i 

3.06.8 ;~ 
3.14.5 

3.29.9 i~ 
3.37.5 

J .45^2 
3.'62.U 
3.6U.6 
3.B.H,2 

3.76.9' 



• 17.5 

.35.1 I 
.43.8 

^62,6 

.81.4 

.70,1 : 

_.7li,l) 
.87.7' 
.96.4 
1^05.2 
"1.14.0 
1.22.7 
K31.5 
1.40.3' 
1.49,0 
._ 1.67.8 

i 1.76,3! 1 

_1.84,l I ; 

i.'92.0 : 

2.01,6 ' 2 

2.10. 4J 2 

2.'19,2 r 2 

I 2.27.9 I 2 

_2.36,7 I 2 

2.46,5": 2 

2.64.2 I 2 

_2J)3.0 I 2 

2.7M r-i, 

2.80,5 3 

_2Ji9.3 ■). 

2-98, r 3. 

3.06,8 , 3. 

JiAo.liJ 3. 

3.24.4 i",T: 
3.33,2 H 
SJI.HJ 3.1 

3.50.7 ! 3.i 

3.69.5 : 4.1 
.3^,2' 4.1 
.3.77;u :~4.i 

3.86.8 ': 4.3 
3.94 .5_; 4,4 
4:03,3 IT.,-, 
f-12,1 4.(i 
4.20„S 4.7 



4.29,(i 



4.h:i, 



•»■ .11.0 

■' , -21 .!! 

'•" ..32.9 

'■'?. .43.8' 

■; .54,8 

'•-_ .65.8 

•II ^~'«.7' 
■■} -87.7 
■"_ .98.6 

■1' I.Oij.B' 

■' 1.20.5 

^ 1.31,5 

7 l-42,i;' 

,' 1.53.4 

'L I.n4.4 

5 l.'o.lj 

I ; 1.86.3 

1' 1. 97. .-I 

t 2.0s. 2' 
2.I9.2 

I 2.30,1 

II 2-"4i.r 

il 2.52.1 
_' 2^63.0 

2.74.0' 

2.84,9 

2^95.9 

3.06,8" 

3.17,8 
L'-'.28,8 

; 3:39,7' 

3. .50, 7 
_.3J1,6 
i 3.72X 
I 3.83,6 
;_3.94„5 

4;a5,5 

4.18,4 

4.27.4 

4.38.4 

4.49,3 
J^.80,3 

4.71,2 
4.82,2 
4^93,2 
5.04,1 
5.15,1 
5.26.0 
5..S7;o" 



Intereiit, 4 DAYS.— Continued. 



: 






u 



1, 



Rate. ! 



tmj 

S2N { 
93N 

S7W J 
MM ~ 



MM 
62M 
63M 

tm 

*S«0 
t6M 

an 
t8M ; 

J9«0 
7M« 
71M j 
72MJ 

7m 

74M 

_75»»_| 
76M I 
7700 
7800^1 
7900 I 



8 



I 



JlOO 
8200' 
8300 



J700 

8800 ~ 

8M0 

9000 

9100 

9200 

9300 

9400 

9500 > 
J600 J 

9700 , 

9800 ! 

9900 

10000 r 



2.79.6 


3.36.3 


3.91.2 


2.84.9 


8.41 .9 


3.!)8,9 


2.90.4 


8.48.5 


4.06.6 


2 95.9 


3.66.1 


4.14.2 


.1.01,4 


3.61 .0 


4.21.9 


3. Mi. 8 


8.68,2 


4.29.6 


3.12.3 


3,74,8 


4.37.3 


3.17.8 


3.81,4 


4.44,9 


3.23.3 


3.87.9 


4.52.6 


r..28,8 


8.94.6 


4.60.3 


3.34.2" 


" 4:01. r 


4.67.9" 


3.3!). 7 


4.07.7 


4.76.6 


3.4.5.2 


4.14.2 


4.83,3 


3.50.7" 


4.20.8 


4.91,0 


3.1)8,2 


4.27,4 


4.98,6 


S.lil.A 


4. .34.0 


8.06.3 


3.(i,".i 


4.40.5 


6.14,0 


3.72.(1 


4.47,1 


6,21,6 


3.78.1 


4.63,7 


6.29,3 


3.83.B 


4.60,3 


6.37.0 


3.89.0 


4.66.8 


6.44.7 


3.94..5 


4.73,4 


5.52,3 


4.00,0 


4780,0" 


6.60,0 


' 05,5 


4.86,6 


5.67,7 


4.11,0 


4.93.2 


6.75.3 


4.16.4" 


4:99,7 


5.83,0" 


4.21.9 


5.06.3 


5.90,7 


4.27,4 


6.12.9 


5.98.4 


4.32,9" 


5.19.5 


oloe.o 


4..S8,4 


6.26,0 


6.13.7 


4.43.8 


6,32,8 


6.21.4 


4.49,3 


6.39,2 


"6729.0" 


4.54.8 


6,45,8 


6.36,7 


4.60,3 


6.52,3 


6.44,4 


4.65.8 


5.58.9 


6.7,2,1 


4.71,2 


5.65.5 


6.59.7 


4.76,7 


5.72.1 


6.67.4 


4.82,2" 


5.78.6 


6.75.1 


4.87.7 


5.85.2 


6.82.7 


4.93.2 


5.91.8 


6.90,4 


4.98.6 


"5.98,4 


6.98,1 


5.04.1 


6.04,9 : 


7.05.8 


5.09.6 


6.11,5 


7.13.4 


5.15.1 


'6.18,1 


7.21.r 


5.20,5 


6.24.7 


7.28.8 


6.26.0 


6.31.2 ! 


7.36.4 


5.31..^ 


6.37.8". 


7.44.1" 


5.3-.0 1 


6.44,4 


7.51,8 


6.42.5 1 


6.51.0 


7. .59,5 


6.47,9 i 


6.5"7,6"| 


7.67.1 



_4.47.lJ 

4:&5.9 I 

4.64,7 

4.73,4 

4.82.2", 

4.91,0 

4.99.7 

5.08,6 : 

6.17,3 ; 

_6J6^0^! 
6.34,8 
6.43.6 
6.62,8 I 



6.61,1 I 
5.69,9 

_6J8,6 
6.87.4 
5.96.2 

_8^04.9 
6.13.7 
6.22.5 
6.31.2 
6.40.0 
6.48,8 

_6^67.5 
6.66,3" 
6.76,1 

_6.83,8^ 
6."92,'6 
7.01,4 
7.10,1 



6^08,0 
"6.12,9" 
6,22.7 
6.32,6 
"6.42,6 
6.52,3 
6.82.2 
"6.72,1 
6.81.9 
iM ,8 
"6.or,6 
6,11,6 
8^21,4 
6.31 ,'2 
6.41.1 
6.61,0 



7.18,9 
7.27,7 
7.36,4 
7745,2 
7,64,0 
7.62,7 
7.71.5" 
7.80.3 
7.89.0 
7.97,8" 
8.06.6 
_8J5.3 
8.24.1 
8. .32. 9 
8.41.6 
8.50.4 
8.59,2 
8.67.9 
8.76.7 



6.60,8 
6.70,7 
6.80^ 
"6790,4 
7.00,3 
7.10.1 
7.20,0" 
7.29,9 

Jja.i 

7.49,6 
7.69,6 
7.69,3 



I 6.68,9 
I 6.69,9 
5.80.8 
! 6.91 ,8 
: 8702,r 
6.13,7 
_6.24,7_ 
6733.6 
6.46,6 
6^67, 5_ 
6.68.5 
6.79.6 
6.90,4 
7,01,4 
7,12,3 
_7^^.3_ 
7.34.2 
7.46,2 
7.66,2 
7.67.1 
7.78,1 
7.89.0 
8.00.0 
8.11,0 
8.21,9 
8.32,9 
8.43.8 
8.64.8 



7.79.2 

7.89.0 I 
_7.98^9J 

8."a8,8 i 
8.18,6 

_8^28,5_l 
8.38,4 I 
8.48,2 
8^58j^l J 
8.67,9 
8.77.8 i 

_8.87,7_: 
8.9775 , 
9.07.4 

_i).n,3J 

9.27.1 i 
9.37.0 I 
9.46,8j 
9.66.7 l" 
9,ia5,6 1 

_9^76^i 
9.88,3 



8.65 8 
8.76.7 
8.87.7 
8.98.6 
9.09.6 
6.20.5 
9.31.6 
9.42.6 
9.63,4 
9, 6'!, 4 
9.75,3 
9.86,3 



9.97,3 
10.08,2 
10.19.2 
"10.30,1 
10.41,1 
iq^62,2_ 
10. 63,0 
10.74.0 
10.84.9 
"10.96,9 




S«M 



10 



•.M.6 

" T.lJ.4 

7.2a,0 

7.88,7 

7.«7,J 
_7.l«,8 
7.90" 
a.08,2 
8.21,9 
8.85.« 
8.49,8 
8.88,0 
8.76.7 
8.90.4 
9.04.1 



Intemt. 6 DAYS. 



Rate. 



I 



78t 



■08.2 I 

■ 18.4 
■24,7 

■ S2,» 
.41.1 
.49.3 
.57.5 

I .as. 8 I 

.90.4 ! 

.98.6 I 

' 1.06.8" 
1.16,1 

I 1.31,5 
1.89,7 : i 

^47.9 i I 
1.6«.'2 ■ I 
1.64,4 I 

^72.8 i 
1.80,8 , 2 
1.89,0 I 2 
1,97,3 ! 2 

2.06.6 I i 

2.13.7 ' 2, 
2.21^0 I 2. 

2.30,1) r. 

2.38.4 ' 2. 
I 2.46.0 2^ 

I 2.54;8 3.1 

2.6.?,o i a.: 

2,79,5 i 3.e 

2.87,7 I 3,4 

2^«6.J)^|' 3..i 

3.04.1 i 3.6 

3.12,3 3.7 

3^20^6 3.8 

3.2S,S r 3.!^ 

3. .37,0 I 4.0< 

Jl.45^1 4.1 j 

''■■53,4 I 4.24 

3-61, 8 4.34 

3.<>9.'J 4.43 



"9,7 I .23.11 
».6 .84.5 
|».5 .46,1) 
19.3 .87.5 
«.2 .68.0 
U.U 780,5 
«.« i .92.1 
8.8 1.0:i.(l 
8,0 i r:i5. 1 
'.6 ; 1.28,« 
1.4 ' 1.38.1 
i.2 1.49.1) 
M 1.81,1 
.9 ( 1.72.6 
,8 I 1.84.1 
,7 l.!)6.6 
.5 ' 2^7.1 
,4 i 2.18.6 
3 2..30,1 

I 2.41.6 

II 2.63.2 
8 2.64.7 
7 2.76,2 
II 2.87.7 
t 2.99,2 
I 3.10.7 
! 3,22.2 
I 3. .13. 7 
' I 3.46,2 

I 3."6«,7 
3.68,2 
3.7M 

3.91,2 
4-02,7 I 

yjLi 

4.25.8 " 

4.37,3 
I 4.48.8 
! 4;6673' 

4.71,8 

4^83,3 

4.94,8 

6.06.3 

5.17.8 

5.29..H' 



.1.1.2 

• 28..1 

.•*l.5 

.52.6 

.63.8 

.78,!l 

.92. 1 

'05.2 

1.18.4 

l.:tl,5 

1.44,7 

l.-57,(( 

1.71.(1 

1.84.1 

I.97..1 

2.1(1.4 

2.23,6 

-'■.*!. 7 

2.49.!) 

2.63.0 

2.76.2 

2.89,3 

3.02.5 

3.15.6 

3.28,8 

3.41.1) 

3.55.; 

3.68,2 

3.81.4 

3.94..-, 

4.07.7 

4.20,8 

4^34.0 

4.j7,r, 

4.60.3 

4.73,4 

4'.86,V| 

4.99.7 I 

•5.12.9 I 

•?.26.0" 

5..TO,2 

5J2.3 

5.65,5 

5.78,6 

5.9I.S 



l.dl.ll 



l.i'1.2 

{.■17.., 

'■62,7 

1.77, .-, 

I.!a,.l 

2.07.1 

-'.21,11 

2.:ili,7 

2.31.,-, 

i.Wi.:) 

2.11.1 
2.%.!l 
•1.10.7 

3.'40.':i 

•w.-,i 

3.09, !j 

•■1.84.7 

H.'.Kl.:, 

■t.14,2 

4.2<l.() 

4.43.,s 

4..iH.(i 

4.73,4 

4.88.2 

3. 03.0 . 

3.17.8 : 

3.,12.(i 

0.47.4 

5.62,2 

■);77J) 

5.9I,»' 

6.06.li 

6.21.4 

(i.36.2 

6.51,0 

11.65.8 



4M0 



4.73.4 i 



4.11.0 



5^62.3 
3.63,8 
6.76,3 : 



.Is, 



IC 

• in. I 

..'12.9 
•49,3 

• 65.8 
•82.2 
•98.6 

"•••■■■I 

'•31,5 

'•47.') 

1.64.4" 

1.80,8 

'•W.3 

2.13.7 

2.;i0 I 

2.46. ; 

2.63,0 

2.79.5 

2.96.9 

3.12.3 

3.28,8 

3.45.2 

•■1.61.6" 

3.78,1 

■1.94.5 

4.11.0'' 

J.27.4 

1.43.8 

1.76.7 

1.93.2 

.,.09.6" 

•■,.3i,0 

3.42,5^ 

•,••58.9 

3.75,3 

3.91.8 

6.0S.2" 

6.24.7 

li.4l.l 

6;57.ir 

li.74.0 

6.90.4_ 

7.06,8 

7.23.3 

• m/i 

7.72.6 



M 




tIN 


4.11). a 


~»M 


": 4.27.4 


«JN 


4.a.'i,ii 


5M« 


4.4».H 


SM* 


'4. .12.1 


m» 


4.(ii).:i 


S7M 


4. IIS..-, 


MM* 


4.7«.7 


»«H 1 4.«4:il 


MN 


4.y:i.2 


*IN 


5.UI,4 


tM* 


IS.OU.I) 


tM* 


5.17.11 


•4M 


r).2B,U 


6SM 


».;)4.2 


MM 


5.42.5 


MM 


0.60.7 


6(>M 


6.68,9 


t«M 


6.67,1 


;n* 


6.76.;r 


71N 


! 6.83,6 


72(1 


5,n,8 


73M 


H.UU,U 


74M 


6.08,2 


79M 


6.lb,4 


7M« 


6,24,7^ 


77M 


6.82,9 


78N 


6.41.1 


«*♦- 


6.49,3 


IN* 


6.67.6 


NM 


6.66,8 '. 


»M* 


6.7470" 


83M 


6.82.2 ; 


84M 


6.90.4 


MK 


B.iW.ti 


8M« 


7.06.8 


8700 


7.15.1 


8800^ 


7.23.3 


8M0 


7.31,5 


9000 


7.39.7 


9100 


7.47.9" 


9200 


7.6B.2 


930* 


7.64,4 


"9400" 


"7.7"2.B r 


9500 


7.80.8 


9«00 


7.89.0 1 


"9700 


7.97,11 


9800 


8.05.5 [ 


9900 


X.Vi.l I 


lOOOO 


8.21.9 ; 



n.iKi.o 


! 5.86.8 


5.I2.!I 


i 5.I1K.4 


6.22.7 


O.IIO.'I 


5.;i2.(i 


1 0.21.4 


3. 42..-. 


1 0.32.9 


5.62.3 


0.44.4 


5.62.2 


! (i..V'i.9 


6.72,1 


0.07.4 


6.81.9 


0.78.9 


5.91,8 


0.W).4 


0.01.6 


7.01.9 


6.11, .-| 


7.13,4 


6.21.4 


7.24.9 


'0.31. 2 


7.;i6.4 


0.41,1 


7.47.9 


6 51.0 


7.59.5 


U.60.8 


7.71.0 


6.70,7 


7.82,6 


6.80.5 


7.94.0 


"0.90.4 


8.05,5 


7.0O.3 


8.17,0 


7.10.1 


8.28.5 


"7.20.0 


8.40.0 


7.29.9 


8.61.5 


7.39.7 


8.o;i.o 


7.49.6 


8.74.5 


7.69,5 


8.80.0 


7.69,3 


8.97.5 


"7,79.2 


9.0S..L' 


7.89,0 


9.20.5 


7.98.9 


9. .12.1 


«.('S.8 


9.43,0 


8.18,0 


!l.5S.l 


8.28.5 


9.66.0 


'8.38,4" 


" 9.78.1 


8.48.2 


9.S9.0 


8. .58.1 


10.01,1 


«,li7.9 


10.12.0 


8.77.8 


10.24.1 


8.87,7 


10.35.0 


"8.U7.6' 


10.47.1 


9.07.4 


10.58.0 


9.17.3 


10.70.1 


9.27. 1 


10.81.0 


9.37.0 


10.93.2 


9.46.8 


11.04.7 


"9.6«.7 


'11.16.2 ' 


9.0C.0 


11.27,7 


!l.7l!,4 


11.39.2 


9.86.3 


11.60.7 1 



6.70.7 
0.83.8 
0.97.0 
7.10.1 
7.2il.3 
7.30,4 
7.49,6 
7,02.7 
7.76,9 
7.89.0 
8.02,2 
8.16.3 
8.28.5 
"8.41.0 
8.54,8 
8.07,9 
8.81,1 
8.94,2 
9,07,4 
9,20,5 
9.33.7 
9.46.8 
9.0U.U 
9,73,2 
9.80,3 
"9.99.5 
10.12.6 
10.25.8 
141.38.9 
10.52.1 
10.05.2 
10.78.4 
10.91.5 
11.04.7 
11.17.8 
11.31,0 
11.44.1 
11. .57.3 
11.70.4 
11.83.6 
11.90.7" 
12.0il.9 
1' 23.0 
l-'.30.2 
12.49.3 
12.02.5 
12.75.0 
12.88.8 
13.01 .0 
13.16,1 



7,M.B 

i.m.i 

7,84,1 

7.98,11 

8,18,7 

8,28,6 

8,43,3 

8,68,1" 

8.72,9 

8.87,7 

0.M.6" 

9,17,3 

9,82.1 

9,4m 

»,6I,« 

fl.76.4 

9.91,2". 

10,06,0 

10.20.8 

10.36,6 

10.60,4 

10.66^2^ 

10,80,0 

10,84,8 

11,00.6 j 

1 1.24. 4 

11.39,2 

11.64.0 

11.68.8 i 
11.88,6 
UMJ ! 
12.18,2"| 
12,27,9 
12.4^7 

"12.67,6 ■ 
12.72,3 
12J7J 

13.01.9 I 
13.16,7 
13.31^6 I 
13.46,3 '■' 
13.61,1 
13,76,9 
13.90.7"' 
14.05,5 
14.20J^{ 
14..15.1 
14.49,9 
I4.64J_ 
14.79.6 ,' 



..I .M.4 

8.71,2 
8.(7.7 

~9:6r,r 

S.20.6 
_9.87,0 

».ss:4 

9,69,9 
9,88,3 
10,02,7" 
10.19,2 
10,35.6 

lo.ex 

10,68,6 

JO. 84, 9 
U.OTT 
11.17,8 

_n.84,2 
11.60.7 
11.67,1 
11.83.6 

"12.00.0 
12.16,4 
12^82,0 
12.iSX 
12.66.8 
12.82.2 

"12.98,6 
13.16,1 
13,31,6 

13.64,4 
13. 8M 
13.97.3 
14.13.7 
14.30.1 
14.40.0 
14.63,0 
14.70.5 
"14.95,9 
16,12,3 
15.28.8 
16.46,2 
15.61.6 
16.78,1 



15.94,5 
16.11.0 
_l0^2r4 
16.43,8" 



10 




SMO 



r'.i; 






■;:■'!; 



m ■ 



Rate.i 



nterest, 7 DAYS.— Continued. 
6 



I 8.09.9 

I 0.32,5 

6.44,4 

6.66,9 
' (1.67 ,4 

8.78,U 

6.90.4 

roi,9 1 

7.13.4 I 8.32,5 
7.24.9 !_S,45.t 
7; 36', 4 I S.69,2 
7.47,9 i 8.72.(1 

_7.6a,,?J_8.86,(J 
7.71.0 ;■ 8.99.6 

7.82.5 ' 9.12,9 
_7_^^0 l_9.26.3 

8.06.6 I 9.39.7 
8.17.0 I 9.63,2 

J.28,6 |_9.J6.6 
8.40.0; 9,80,0" 
8.61,5 I 9.93.4 

J.M.O IjO^WUI 

8174.5 10.20, 3 
8.86.0 ! 10.33,7 

l_8.97_,5 I 10.47,1 

9.09.0 10. (io,. 5" 

9.20.6 : 10.74,0 
_9^32.1 JJU^,4 

9.43.6 II.OO.S' 

9.66.1 ; 11.14.2 
_9^ea, 6^1 11.27.7 

9.78,1 i 11.41, r 

9.89,6 11.64.6 

10.01,1 11.67,9 

10.12.0 11.8i,4' 

10.24.1 I 11.94 s 
10.36,6 I 
10.47,1 ' 
10.58,6 
10.70^1 I 
10.81,6 
10.93,2 
1I.04JJ 

11.16'.2 
11.27.7 

ii..m.2 ; 

11.50,7 " 



i 7 


8 


9 


10 


I 6.84.7 


7.82,6 
7.97.8 


8.80,8 


9.78.1 


6.98.1 


8.97,6 


9.97.3 


7.11.6 


8.13,2 


9.14,8 


10.16,4 


7.24.9 


8.28,5 


9,32,1 


10.35.6 


7.38,4 


8.43.8 


9.49,3 


10.54.8" 


7.51.8 


8.69,2 


9.66,6 


10.74,0 


7.66.2 


8.74,6 


9.83.8 


10.93.2 


7.78.6 


8.89,9 


10.01,1 


il.12.3 


7.92.1 i 


9.05.2 


10.18,4 


11.3105 


8.05,6 1 


9.20.6 


10.36,0 


11.60,7 



10.74,0 
10.89,8 
1 1.04,7 
ri.20,0 
11.35.3 
11.50.7 



10.62.9 I li:62.9" 
10.70,1 I 11,89,0 
J0^87,4 |J2^08,2 
11.04.7 ; 12.27,4" 
11.21.9 12.46,6 
12.65.8 



13.11,8 
13.29,0 
13.46,8 



13.63.6 

13.80.8 

13.98J 

14.15,3" 

14.32,6 

1 4.49,9 

14.67.1" 

14.84,4 

lo.M.O 

15.18,9 

15. .36. 2 

16.53.4 

16. 70, 7' 

15.87,9 

J6.05^2 

16.22,6 

16.39.7 

16. 57,0 

16.74,2 

16.91.5 

17.08.8 



15.15.1 

16.34,2 

15.53,4 

16.72,6 

15.91,8 

16.11,0 

10:30,1 

16.49.3 

16.6S,6_ 

16.87,7 

17.06,8 

17.26^0^ 

17.46,2 

17.64.4 

17. 83.6 

"18.02.7 

18.21.9 

H-ILL 
18.61,3 
18.79,5 
18.98,6 



17.26,0 ' 19.17,8 



Interest. 8 DAYS. 



Rate.! 



.13,2 



■ 52,6 



.7«.7 
• 87.7 ! 



1.07,4 
1.22,7 
^1.38.1 
1.53,4 
1.68.8 



4200 


4.60,3 i 


4300 


4.71,2 i" 


4400 


4.82,2 


4J0O 


4.93,2 


4600 


6.04,r" 


4700 


5.15,1 


4800 


5.26,0 


4900 


6.37:r~ 


bO«0 


6.47.9 1 



4 I 1.97,3 

3 2.10,4 

3 ( 2.28,8 

8 ;2.36^7 

'i i 2.49, U 

! I 2.63, U 

I L2-76,2 

I 2.89, 3 1' 

i 3.02,5 I 

l__3.16.6 

; 3:28,8"! 

' 3.41,9 I 

_3.55,1 I 

3.6872 i" 

3.81,4 I 

;_3j»4^6 1 

j 4.07,7 i 

4.20,8 f 

!_4.34^0 ! 

4.47. r;~ 

4.60,3 ' 
_4.ra,4 I 

4.86.6 i" 

4.99.7 I 
5.12,9 I 
5.26,0 
5.39.2 

_6.52,;i 

6.66.5 i 

6.78.6 I 
J,91^S 

6.04,9^1 
6.18,1 



.17,5 
.35,1 
! .62,6 
I .70,1 
' .87.7 
,'^'.05,2 

; '-22.7 1 
< 1.40.3 I 
)_L,5_7,S I 
i 1.7673 I 

1.92,9 
_2^I0,4 i 
2.27,9 I 
2.45,6 I 
_2.63.0 I 
2.80„5y 
2.98,1 
3.16.6 I 
3.33.2 I 
•'i.50,7 ^ 
3,68.2 
3.85,8 
4.03,3 



.19,7 

.m.r, ! 

_ ..W,2 
.7»,!) ' 
■ !«.« 
1. 18. J 

'.38.1 
'.■57.8 
'■77..i 
'■97. .^ 
2.17,0 
. 2..%.7 
2-i6 4 
2.7ti,2 
2.«.i,0 
■■I. '3,6 
3.33,3 
•^..35,1 
3.74.8 
•'i.W,3 ( 
4. 1 J. 2 
4..'i4.u ■ 
4. .53,7 



10 



.21.9 
.43,8 



3.83,6 
3.98,9 
4^14^2 

4.29,6^1 
4.44,9 I 
iM^ t 
4.76,6''! 
4.91,0 
.6^06.3 I 
6.21,6 [' 
6.37,0 
6..52^3 

6.67,7'r 
5.83,0 
5.98.4 I 
«.13,7~r 
6.29.0 I 
6.44,4 i 

6.69,r'~ 

6.75,1 

6.90,4 

7.06:8 

7.21,1 



4.20,8j_4.7,?'4 ' 

4.38,4 . 4:<)3 2 

3.l2.'u 

5..32.« 

" ■32,3 ~ 



_±^^^lp.Hh2 7..%,'4 



1.67,6 1 



7.67,1 



4.66.9 
_^«.78.4 
4.91,0 
5.08,5 
6.26,0 
5.43:0' 
6.61,1 
_5.78,6 
5.96:2 I 
6.13,7 
__6.32.2 I 
6.48.8 i 
6.66,3 
6.83,8 I 
7.01,4 
7.18,9 
7. .36^4 
7.64,0 
7.71, .5 
7.89.0 
"8.06:6 
S.24.1 
_8.4J^.6 j 
8.59, 2 1 
8.76,7 



5.72,1 
'_3.9|.8 

6. '1,0 
6..51,2 
.J.51.0 
6.70,7' 
6 90,4 
7.10.1 



.87,7" 
1.09,6 
'•31,5 
I.53X 
1.76,3 
1.97^3 
2.19,2- 
2.41,1 
2.63,0 
2.84,9' 
3.06,8 
■1.28,8 
3.66,7' 
3,72^6 
^3.94,6 
4.16T 
4.38,4 
4.60,3 
4.82,2" 
5.04,1 
5.26^0 
6.47,9 
6.69,9 
6.91^8 
6^13,7 



I 6.36.6 
L6^57,5 
6.79,.'! 
7.01,4 
_7.23.3 
7.46,2 
7.67,1 
7.89,0 
8.11.0 
8. .32,9 
8.64,8 
8.76.7 
8.98.6 
9.20,5 
9.42:5 
9.04,4 
9.86,3 
I0."08:2 



;;-27,l I 10.30,1 

_JI.-lfi.8 !_10^52.1 

''■'i6.6 10.74,0 

"■S6.3 10.96,9 



Interest, 8 DAYS.— Continued. 



W -'i 



1% ' 
I- I 



§1 



Rate, 



JIM 
S2M~ 
93M 
8400 
9900 
9«00 
J700 
9M0 
9900 
_60«0 
6100 i 
«20« 
0300 



0700 
*800 
_M00 

7000 : 

7100 I 
^200 
7300 
7400 
_7900 
7600 
7700 i 

jm i 

7900 I' 



6.58.0 
5.(>9,9 



5.80,8 
_.'>.01.S 

0.02.7 

(:.13.7 
_0,24.7 

6.36.6 

6.46.6 

6.57.5 

6.68.5" 

6.70,5 
J^00,4 

7.01,4 

7.12,3 

7.2.1.3 

7.84.2 I 

7.45.2 ' 

7.56,2 

7.67,1 : 

7.78,1 

7.80.0 ! 
8.00,0 i" 

8.11.1 ! 0.73,2 
8.21.0 ljj.86.3 

si32,o i y.m.a 

8.43,8 I 10.12,6 



6.70,7 

6.83,8 

6.07.0 

7.10.1 

7.23,3 

7..36.4 

7.49.6 

7.62.7 

7.75,, 1 

7.*,. J 

8.02.2 

8.15,3 

8.28,6 

"8.41,6 : 

8.64,8 

8.67,0 I 

8.81,1 

8.94,2 I 

0.07,4 I 

0.2O,5"| 

9. .33, 7 



7.82 
7.07,8 
8.13,2 
8.28,."i 
8.43.8 
8,59.2 
8.74,5 
" 8.80.9 
9.05,2 
9.20.5 
"9.iJ6,0 
9,51,2 



I 



=£= 

8.04.2 

"9.11,8 

0.29.3 

9.46.8 

9.04,4 

9.81,9 ; 

0.09,5 ) 

10.17,0 

10.34,6 I 

10.52,1 I 

10.69,6 



10 



10. 06, OJ 11.17.8 
10.25,8 i ll.'39,r 



10.45,5 

10.86.2 

10V84.0' 

11.04,7 

11.24,4 

11.44.1 

11.63,8 

11.83.6 

12.03,3 



12.23.0 



, 10.87.1 

9.66.6 I Ih04,7J 12.42,7 
o:81,9 I 11.22.2 I 12:62.6 

11.39,7 

11. .57, 3 

il.74;8 

11.92,3 

12.09,9 

12.27,4 



9.9; 
10.12.6 
10.27,9 
10.43.3 
10.68,6 
10,74,0 



10.80,3 



JlOO 

8200 

8300 

J400 

8900 

8600 

870O 

8800 

8900 

9000 

9100 

9200 

9300 

9400 

990O 

9600 

9700 

9800 

9900 

lOOUO ! 



j 8..54,8 
I 8.66,8" 
8.76,7 
8.87,7 
8.98,6" 
9.09.6 
9.2 0.6 I 
9.3i.5 i 
9.42,5 
9.53.j_ 
9.64.4 
9.76.3 
_9.86.3 I 

9.97,3 : 

10.08,2 i 
10,19,2 • 
lO.M,] 



it.46,8j 11.04,7 
9.60,0 j 11.20,0" 
11.36,3 
I 11.60^7 
rii.66.0 
I 11.81,4 
111.96^7 
12.12,11 
12,27,4 I 
12,42,7_ 
12.58,1 I 
12.73,4 
12^8M 
13,04,1 ■ 
13.19,5 
13.34^8 I 
"13..50,1 f 
13.66,5 
13.80,8 



12.44,9 
12.62,6 
"12.80.0 
12.97,5 



12.82,2 
l_13,0I,9 
,' 13.21,6" 
13.41,4 
|J3^6^1 
13,80,8" 
14.00,5 
14,20,3 
14,40,0 
14,59,7 



I 10.25,8 
10.38,0 
10..^)2.1 
10.(15,2 
10;78,4 
10.01,5 
11,04.7 
11.17.8 
11.31,0 
il.44,1 
11.67,3 
11.70.4 
11.83,6 
11.96.7 
12.09.9 
J^2.23^0 
12.36, 2~ 



10.41,1 I 12.49,3 

10.52.1 ' 12.62^ 
io.63,0 12.76,6 

10.74.0 12.88,8 I 

10.84.9 _13.0J^ I 

10.96,9 13.16,1 I 



iO.l 
J 3. 67^ 
13.85,2 
14.02.7 
24^2M 
14.37,8 
14.55,3 
14.72.9 
r4.90,4 
15.07,0 
j5^25^5 
15.43,0 
16.60,6 

1.5.78,1 

13.96,2 ri5.05.0 
14.11.6 I 16.13.2 
14.2«.8_lj6..30,7 
14".4"2,2 j 16.48.2" 
16.65,8 



13.16,1 I 14.79,5 
13.32,6 f 14.99,2 



14.57,5 
JI4.72JI 
14.88.2" 
16.03,6 
15.18,9 
15.34.2" 



16.83 J 
17.00,8' 
17,18,4 
J7.36,9 
17.53,4" 



I 15.18,9 

I 15. .38.8 

15.68,4 

15.67,1 

_1^5.97,8 

16.17.6 

16.37,3 

16.67.0 

"16;76,7" 

16.98,4 

17.16^2 

17.36,9 

17.56,6 

17.75^3 

"17.96.1 

18.14.8 

18.34.5 

18., 54, 2 

18.74.0 



J8.'93.'7 
19.1.3". 4 
19.3? 2 
19.52,9 
"19.72,6 



11,61,6 
11,83,6 
12,06.5 
12.27,4 
12.40,3 
12:71,2 
12.93.2 
13^16.1^ 
i"3.377o 
13.68.9 
13.80.8 
14.02,7 
14,24,7 
14.4M 
14.88,6 
14,00,4 
15J2,3_ 
I 16.34,2" 
16.56.2 
I 16.78, 1_ 

re. 00,0 

16.21,9 
16^43 J^ 
16.65,8 
16.87,7 
17.09^0^ 
17.31,5 
17,53,4 
i7^75„3^ 
17.97,3 
18.19,2 
18^ia_ 
18,63,0 
18.84.9 
19JK).£ 
19.28.8 
19.50,7 

J9,72,8_ 
19.94,6 
20.18.4 

20.38,J_ 

20.60,3 

20,82,2 

21.04,1 

21.26.0 

21.47,9 

21.69,9 

21.91,8 



10 







ml, 










n 



Interest, 9 DAYS.— Continued. 



Rate. 



91N 
~92M 
S3M 
54M 
95M 



_6.28,8 

8.41, r 

6.63,4 
6^6.5,8 
6.78,1 
6.00,4 
_WW__7^02,7 
S8M 7.fB7r 
MM 7.27,4 
_m»jjr.3'JJ 
MM ; 7.62, fi 
t2M 7.64,4 
«3M_|_7.7«,7 I 
MM 7.8970 
6SM 8.01.4 
t*M ! 8.13.7 
67M I 8.267(r 
MM 8.38.4 
t9M I 8.50,j^ 
70M I 8.63,T 
7100 ! 8,76,3 
_8J7,7 

e.doio' 

S>;12.3 
9.24.7 
7«M I 9.37,0 
77M 9.49,3 
78M 9.6J^8 
7M« 9.747o^ 
MM 9.80,3 
J100^_9^98,0 
8200 I lO.liTo 



J2M 
73M 
74M I 
79M 



7.54.5 
7.W.3 
7.84, _ 

8.13,7 

8.28,5 

8.4W 

8.68,1 

8.72,9 
|_8J7^7 
I 9.02,5" 

9.17.3 
l_9^32,l 

9.46,8 

9.61,6 

8.91.2 
10.06,0 
_10^,8 
10.36,6 
10.60,4 

10.66.2 

16.80,0 I 12.60.0 
10.94,8 12.77,3 
lK«Mi^ J2.94,6 
11.24.4 I 13.11,8 



83M 
84M 
89M 
8t0« 
JTM^ 
eSM 
89M 



10.23,3 
20.35.0 
10.47,!) 
10.60,3 
10/72,6 
"10.84,9 
10.97.3 
11.09.6 
11.21,9 
11.34,2 
n_.46.6^ 
11.68,9 
11.71,2 



91M 
9200 

J3»i 
94M 
9SM 

9600 I 11.83^0 I J4.20;3 
9700 11.95,9 14.3,5,T 
98M 12.08.2 14.49,9 
99M |j^2.20.5 I 14.64,7 

IMM"! 12.32,9 ' 14.79X 





14.40,0 
14.69,7 
i4.79,5 
14.99,2 
15.18,9 
15.38,6 
15.58,4" 
16,78,1 
15.97.8 
16.17.5 
16.37,3 
16.57.0 
"16:76,7 
16.96,4 
17.16,2 
i7"..H579 
17.55.6 
17.75.3 
17.95,1 
18,14.8 
18.34^ 
18.54,2 
18. 7!, 
J8.93^7 
19.13,4 
19.33,2 
19.52,9 



18.19,7 
18.41,9 
18.64,1 
18.8673 
19.08.5 
19^30,7 
19. 62 ,"9" 
19.76,1 
19.97.3 
20.19.5 
20.41.6 
20^03,8 
20.86,0" 
21.08.2 
21.30,4 
21. 52. 6 
21.74.8 
21.97.0 
19.72,8 i 22.19,2 



20.21,9 
20.46,6 
20 .71,2 
20.96,9 
21.20,6 
21.46,2 
21.69,9 
21.94,5 
J2. 19^ 
22.43.8 
22.68,6 
J2.93.2 
23.17.8 
23.42.5 
23.67.1_ 
23.91,8 
24.16,4 
24.41.1^ 
24.66,8 



I 

Rate. 



Interest, 10 DAYS. 

6 i 7 T^Y 



2m' -J?'! -"-^ 




ill 

:'r'ii||i 



Interest, 10 DAYS,-Continued. 



'M 






MM 6.i«i,6 



li.64.ll 
S.71.2 
8.87,7 
!l.04.1 
9.20.6 i 
^37.0 : 
U.53,4 ; 

a.69.9 : 



i- 






t7M 

tow 



SM« i 7.12,3" 

MM 7.26.0 i 

_»«•• I 7..TO,7 ! 

SSM 7:53.4"; 

>*M 7.87,1 I 

57M I 7.80,8 i 

MM 7.>)4X 

5»«« I 8.08,2 i 
JM«_|_5:21,9 I 

JIJJ ( 8.35.6 !Tor02,'7 

♦MO I 8.49,3 10.19 2 
jM«m:?3,0 I 10.35,0 
MM ' 8.76.7 I 10."62,T 
gM I 8.90,4 10.68,5 

!'.i7.8 11.6l,T 
j'.3l,5 11.17,8 

. . _fJ5,2^! 11.34,2 

70M i 9.68.9 ; II fjir?" 

71M I 9.72,6 ! II 671 
JMO_'Jt.m,a I 11.83,'6 i 

?JM , 10.00,0 I 12,00,0"' 

?M0 I 10.13,7 
_WC«_l_I0.27.4 

7*M 10741,1" 

WM 10,64,8 
^?8M_ 10.68,5 
7M0 10.82,2 
8M0 10.96,9 
_MIML 11.09,6 
82M "ir23,3 
MM 11.87,0 , .0. 
«<M_| lr60,7J 13. 
MM I 11.64.4 ; 13.9773 
«M 11.78,1 ; 14.13 



9.78,1 
9.97,3" 
10.16,4 
10.35^6 
10.64,8 
10,74,0 
l(Ui3^2 
11.12,3" 
11.31,6 
|JK60,7 
11.69,!) 
i 11.S9.0 
12.08,2 
"12.27:4 i 
12.46,6 
12.65.8 
12.84.9 
13.04,1 
13.^3 
"13.42.5 ■ 
13.61,6 I 
13.80,8 ' 
"14.00.0", 
14.19,2 I 
14.38,4 ] 
12.49,3 ' 14,67,5 
12.65,8 ) 14,76,7 
12^8^^[J4.%.9 
12.98,6 ; 15.15,1" 
16.34,2 

16.72,6 



8 

_1K17,8 
11.^.7 
11.61,6 
11^83,6 

12.U6;6" .„.„.^ 
12.27,4 I 18.80,8 
12.49,8 I 14.06,6 



10 



12.82.2 , i4:247r 
18.06,8 1 14.52 1 
I8.3I.5 ,_14^79.'5 
13.68.2 : 16.06.8 
15.34.2 

, J.5.61,6 

".30,r; 16.89,0" 
"•64,8 I 16.16,4 
14.79,6 ! 16.43.8 



12.16,4 ! 
I 12.32,9 ' 




j 13.16.1 
I l.^J)1.5 
' 13.47,9 

"" 1,4 



g7ilO 
8800 
8900 



9100 
»20« 
9300 



J1^91,S I 14.3U,'l 
12.05,5 i 14.4676 



12.19,2 
12.8 2.9 
12.46,6 
12.60,3 
12.74,0 



14.63,0 

I 14.79,6 

I 14.95,9 

16.12,3 

,- , 15.28,8 

»«« 12.8777" I5T4572 
»S00 13.01,4 15.61,6 
_ 13.16,1 16.78,1 
9700 



9800 
990 
I0«0« 



13.28.8 16.9475 
13.42,5 16.11,0 
13,56,2 16^27,4 

13.99.9 ' IB. 437s" 




10.66.8 I 1877470 
18.87,7 : 18.9'l,6 
i_I7.09j^a^ 19.23,3 
17.31,6 rr9.477F 
17.53,4 19.72,6 
17;76^ 19.97.3 
17.97.3 I"2072r79" 
18.19,2 I 20.48,6 
_18^a_| 20^71,2 
18,63,0 i 20.9579 
18.84,9 21.20,5 
19. 06.8_| 21.46.2 
19.2878 ; 217^9' 



19.60,7 
19^72^6 
19.94,5" 
20.16,4 
;20^3M 
20.60.3 
20.82,2 
2I.(H,I 
21.26,0 
21.47.9 
21.69,9 



; 21.94,5 
! 22,19j2 
22.43,8" 
22.68,5 
22.93,2 
2.117,8" 
23.42.5 
23.67.1 I 
2.1.91.8' 
24.16,4 
24.41, 



21.91,8 I 24.66,8 i 27. 39,7" 



10 




9000 




W" n 




«:?4T 

43.5«,2 
44.80,4 

46 -20, 6" 
48.02,7 
46^84,9 
'47.67,. 
48.49,a 
49^31,6 
"60.1377" 
60.95, U 
6r78.1 
52. 00, 3 
53.42,6 
64.24 J_ 
"65.08,8 
65.89,0 
66 71,2 
57. 4,). 4 
58.35.6 
I.17J 
60.00,0" 
60.82.2 
61.64,5 
62.46,6 
63.28 ,<> 
64.11.0 
64.93,2 
65.75,3 
^^57,5 
67.39,7 
68.21,9 
M^04^ 
69.86.3 
70.68,3 
7K.W,7^ 
73. 32 ,'9 
73.16.1 
_7,').97^3_ 
74.79,5 
75.61,6 
J6^43,8_ 
77.26,0 
78.08,2 
78^9(^4_ 
"79.72.6 
80.54,8 
81.37.U 
82.19,2 



10 



41.91,8 

43.58,2 
44.311,4 

♦5.20,6" 
46.02,7 
46.84,9 

47.6?, r 

48.49,3 
49^31.6 
60.1377 
SO.»e,y 
61.78,1 




II! -M.i 

2J 1.64,4 

»»»l 4.11,0 
4.93,2 

_»?• r.39,7l 

.'3.J6.1 I 16.7871- -18.4171 

i7.7Mj0.71.2 
1«,74.0 I 21.8673" 



I.W,3 2-30'l ifj* 

4.M,8r5 2B;„ 

6.90.4 _7.«9.o 

8.95.5 I 9 20 K 

10.36,6 
ir.60,7 
12.66,8 



i 8.94,6 
I 4.93,2 
,_6. 91^.8 

I 5-w.< 

7.89,0 
'_8.87.7 
I 9.86.3 
I 10.84,9 



' 1.47,9 

I 2.!«,., 

'_4,4;i.l( 

S.ill.S 

7.*l.7 

H-S-.7 

'"•:«. (I 
'■l-'il,.-, 

17.73,;) 



IM* 

_18i» I 14^79.5 

-!'••. 17.26,0 

23M 18.90 4 
-MM |l9.72,8 
?'*' 20.5478^ 
**«• 21.37.0 



I 10.62,'l 
!JK83,6 
I 18.16,1 
14.46,6 
'_16-78,1 

18.41,1 9|) 7,'.; 

2W.i v., ,^t , 

l?:72;6|23:oi;JI^;^;fj];.ii.;; 
J7.6i_,6 ,fi';;g; ' 

28.93.2 
30.24.7 
31.66,2 



1.64,4 
3.28,8 
_ 4.!«,2 
•i.57„5' 
«.21.9 
!'.Wi,.1 
ll..'K),7 
1.1. 15,1 
■ U.79.5 
1«.4.1,S" 
11.08.2 
1^1.72,6 
21.37,0 
23.01,4 
_24.6S,H 
2«.3(i,| 
27.94.5 
2!).. 58.11 

31.2373 
32.87.7 
34.62.1 
36.16,4 
•^7.80,8 
,39.45.2 
41.1)9, 6" 




*m 

9«M 



Interest, 60 DAYS.— ConUnued. 



10 



!: 







t7N 



85M 



M.M.S _mMj» , 78.45,2 

I Ba.sa.e'i m. 311,4 t js^mTz 

eo.ijtl.S OU.OU.y 78.41,1 
B2.18J^!_71.M.4 ' JU.HU.O 
I tl3.i!f.» , 72.32,9 , !ll.3'7,0 
(14.43,8 I 73.84,4 I 82.84,!) 
Jjtt.M,9 74.96^9 ! 84. 32,B 
! 66.74,0 ("76.27,4" 88.80.8 
I 67.»«,0 77.68,9 87.28,8 
78.90,4 JI8.76,7 
80.21,9 ilO.24.7" 
81.53,4 01.72,6 
82.84.9^ 93.20^5 
84.16.4 "94.68,6 
86.47,9 i 96.16,4 
86.78L5 Ji7.6M I 
88.11,0' 99.12,3: 
19.42,6 100.60,3 ' 
9(1.74,0 H)2^q8,2 
I 92.0.^.5 103768,2 
' 93.37,0 106.04,1 
94.68, i 106.62,1 
90.00,0 108.00,0 
97.31,6 :109.47,9 
■98.68,0 II10.9B.9 
.- I 91J. 94. 67112.43,8" 
1 88.60,3 101.26.0 113.91,8 
I 89.75^ 102.67,5 !116.39,7 
9<l.90,4 103.89,0 ;il6.8777" 
92.0.5,6 |10S.20,5 118.36,6 
[9.1.20,6 |106.62^1 !ll9.83^,6 
I 94.36.6' 107:83,6 1121. 81,5", 

I 96. .50, 7 Il09.15,l 122.79,6 

I 82.84^|^.65,8J110.4U,6 jl24.27 4 I 

83.83,6 I 97:80.8 ijir.78,1 ,126:7'6:3'i 

84.82,2 \ 98.96,9 :113.09.6 127.23 3 I 

JI6.8M ,11)0.11,0 114.42,1 :128.71,'2 < 

86.79,6 ,101.26,0" ilS. 72, 6 '130r]9"2"l 

; 87,78,1 102.41.1 ,117.04.1 ,131.67 1 

L8 8.76.7 |103..5«,2 !lI8..36.0 ;i33.16;i I 

90-'*.0. 106.86.3 120.98,6 'l.M.Il 

9h72,6 '107.01,4 |l22.30,2 nST.SS.ft ' 
92.7"! ,2 |108.1(i,4 ^123:BT,07T39.0fi,8' ' 

j 93.69.9 [109. 31. .5 jl24.93,2 140.64 8 i 

!_94.(i8,5 110.46,6 jl26.24.7 142.02,7 ' 

9.5.67.1 111.01,6 il27.. 56. 2 iJ3.57),7"'" 

96.65,8 J12.76,7 128.87,7 114.98 6 

97.64,4 113.91.8 :130.10.2 146.46 



i I 69.17.8 69.04,1 
r , 60.16.4" 70.19,2 
I , 61.15,1 : 71.34,2 

J2J£,7 ' 72.4M 
r, 63.12.3 : 73.64,4 
i 84.11,0 [ 74.79,5 
J 6o.09j6 _7>.94.6^ 

'• 66.08.2' 77.09,6 
I 67.06,8 , 78.24,7 
j_68.M^6 JO..*.!, 7 
'1 69.04,1 80. .54,8 

70.02.7 ' 81.09.9 
L71.q^4 82.84.9 

72.00.0 Ii4.00,0 
I 72.93,6 '■ 83.15.1 
[J3.97.a I 86.30.1 
, 74.95,9 "»7.46,2' 

76.94,5 I 

76.!e.2 ) 

77.91.8 
1 78.90.4 
_79.89,0 i 

80.87, 7'| 

81.86,3 



I 8 8.II8.6 

I mTITS 

I 87.12.3 

l_«8.J6.7 

90.41.1 

92.05,6 

_93,69.9 

96.98.6 
98.M,0 
160.27.4 
: 101.91,8 
J03^.2 
106.20,6 
I 100.84.9 
Ij08^9,3 
: 110.18,7 
111.78,1 
|J13J2^6 
: 115.08.8 
116.71,2 
'J18.35,6 
120,00,0 
121.64,4 
123.28,8 
j 124.93,2 
128.67,6 
J28,21,9 
129.^0 
131.60,7 
133.15.1 
134.79,6 
136.48,8 

m.m^ 

139.72,6 
141.37,0 
143 .01,4 
144.65,8 
146.30.1 
147.01,6 
149.68 .'9 
161.23,3 
162.87^,7 
154.62,1 
166.16.4 
157.80,8 
169.45.2 
161.09.6 
lli2.74.0 



98.63,0 ,116.06,8 |l3i.60,7 lUTM^i'i'mMi 



10 




4.9B,2 
lfM.9 

J*-n.s 

17.28,0 
19.726 

I 24.M,J 
«712 8 
_29.M,9 
82.06,5 
34.62.J 
_36.98,6 
39.46,2 

_44.J8,4 

46.84,9 

49.81,6 

_61.78,1 

64."24T7 

; M.7I,2 

_69.i7,a 

6) .6474 

M.II.O 

_M.67,6 

71.50,7 

_7s.^.a 

76.43,8 

78.90,4 

_8K37,0 

86.30,1 
_88.76,7 
91.a,3 
; 93.69.9 
;_96.JM 
98.63,0 
101.09,6 
J 03.66,2 
196.0277 
108.49,3 
110.96,9 



2 



U3.28,8 



>;," 



Interest, ' t DAYS.— Continued. 



im. 



. 4' 



'jf 1 1^ 



' lii't fsi 



•V ' i 



. I, 



a 









■at*. 



MM 
liN 
MM 



MM 
S7M 



MM 



*7M 




82.17,7 _7S.4».2!_ 
64.1I.U 'i6.U3,2| 
W.34,:' 711.41. l! 
««.57.a_79.8B.0,_ 
m.iu,» 111.37,0 
6U.U4,I, 82.84,0 
_70.27.4l_84.32.fi 
'I.6d,7i 86.80.8 I 

72.74.0 87.28.8 1 
_78.W.8l_88.W.7! I 

76.20.61 90.24.71*1 
78.43.8 Bl.72.el I 
77.67. l|_M.20.6l 1 
M.OO.Il 84.68,6 
80.18,7' 98.16,4 

81.37.01 97.64,4 
82.60, 3| 99.~12,3 
83.83.6 100.60.8 

102.08,2 

To8:6872 

106.04,1 
108^,1 

"ios.oo.o 

109.47.0 
nO.J)6.9 
112.43,8 
118.91,8 
16.ffl.7 
116.87.7 
18.3S.6l 
19.83,6 

m.si.sl 

122.79.6 
J24J7.4 
126.75..?, 
127.23.3 

130.19.2 
131.67.. 
133.15.1 
134.63.0 
, 136.11.0 

,8 J37^«.9 

116.8!i;o 139.06.8 
117. 12. .S 140.64.8 
J18.J5.0 H2.02.7 
119.68.9 143.60.7 
120.82,2j 144.98.6 
122. 05.51 14B.4b.B 
123.28,81 147.94,61 



IIS.17.8 

^l»:Bl.t 

117.81,8 
119.88.8 
122.06,6 
124.27.4 

J28.49,8 
128.71,2 
180.83.2 

ja3.J6.1 
136.37,0 
187.68,9 

JW.80.8 

144.24.7 
148.46,8 
148.68,6 
160,90,4 
163.12,8 
. 156.34.2 
,6' Ifi' ^6,2 

162.00.0 
164.21.9 
168.48.8 
188.86,8 
170.87,7 
J73.09,6 
176.1176 
177.68.4 
n9._76.3 
181.97.3i 
184.19,2: 
18«.41,1| 
l8S.H3,Oj 
190.84,9 
103.06.8 
106.28, 8i 
107.60.71 
190.72.6 
201.04.5" 
2U4.16.4: 
206.38,4 



_iq_ 

12».71.8 

lU.U.i 

J88.J6,1 
136.81,6 
188.08.2 

_140J4.8 
148.01,4 
146.47,9 

J47.94,6 
ISO.TTl 
162.87,7 
166.84.2 
167.80,8 
160.27,4 

W2.74.0 

187.67,1 
170.18.7 
172.80,8 
I76.nfl.8 
177.6d,4 



Ilo.oo.o 

182.48,8 
184.M.2 



13.5 208.60,3 
8.7 210.82.2 
7.0 213.04.1 
4.2 216.26.0 
1.6! 217.47.9 
8jl 219.69.9 
6,0| 221.91,8 



187.88,7 
188.88,8 
182.82^8 
"B4.T9,6 
197.28,0 
199.72,8 
J' 19,2 
20... 86,8 
207.12.8 
209.68,9 
212.06,6 
214.62,1 
216.98,8 
219.46,2 
221.91.8 
224.38,4 
228.84.9 
229.31.6 
231.78,1 
234.24.7 
236.71. 2 
280.17.8 
241. «4, 4 
244.11.0 
248.57,6 



DkAINAOI. 

DRAINAGE 

•tatat. I. the fl„„ outcome of '„,„."' *■'"""" '»«. ThI. 
leH.I.tlv. ..wrtoent. Tho.e lo ,„ "" " "'"""">" «nd 
».«, »n,„„, ,h,„„„„ :"^; '°,'' "» ;m. a,., „, ,.„„.. 
K .r. .p, ,. ,o,„, ,^., Who h'T"' '" '""■"■"''' "■ 

■lo not know what wbi ii ii. . '" """inii- thf am 

"J. .h. autx o,".;."c.' ^rto""; /' ""; "™'--" «» 

«•«! la U>. .utute. ,nd not to ad ,1 ? '" ""' '""«"■«« 
t. m.r.1, bscuM It may .ecm '''^""""' »""> »ny part of 

•lly lnt.rpre..d. Th.y have dtZL , „ T'"' '" "« ""«■- 
Inoperative drainage by-law. Z! , . "' "■"'''■ "' 1«<:laro 
oba^rve .ome o, the dIr«ro;y ^ro L 'o:""; '" " '"""e to 
U" omI.,ion had not affected Z t °' ""' *'^'' "■""e 

*"».-.e „„rp„„ o, „h , " "T'^' '""^^ hlth. and with ,h. 

«"!.«.» f„. „. .trfct?.™;, „:;.'" ':;""• -"'-•«.i.«i.; 

• clear departure from th? "" o„i.I, " "'"'■' '■'" "<""' 
■t.<ute. the Court, will ,n,",l. th. h "''°"""'"" <" ""' 
•up.rvl.ing the Inception con«r..M ' ""• '""' '"'"'» ■" 
work. ha. been in.ru." dXo«e; T"! "'"''''™ "' "'■='> 

"«« «ald. ",„ matter, of dral„'a„ ?."■"""" ""^^ '" ™» 
•ature 1, to leave the mil "' "" """'■>' "' 'h<' L^Bls- 
J'" 'ocalltle,. andterurrr^ld'r'' '" '^" '"'"-» »' 
from. Interference, nnle.. thL t ""^ "'"'"' '" ■•"'■■aln 
J»«U.p.tahle Mr,;. om'„X| '"" ° ■"""'""' "I 

"Wrd of pe„„„, rtrta* "■• " "' """""M"! «.- 

non.re,lde„t owner, aTsLVn ^T." °' "" "•''''""'"' a"" 
■»»'« roll, of the land, ,0 h' h *■ " '"■'' '■"•'■"^'' ",,„,,. 
»orlbed in ,uch pe.Ulon l,,L"'*"' '" ""' "- a» de- 
vmage, town, or' o,,":"'^,: ^„ " ""^ •"«■ N.. Inoorpora.od 

-eo^forthedralnagey::::-"----;™- 
5.53 






r 






DRAIXAOE. 

of any s ream ", f '"""■''«"'°»' o-- o'herwlae improvCg 

".". "XMi-rs.:;' " -t- "■••■■" »^ 

ing the land" to blLl,.^'"""' "^ '""^'"^ '" «^«''»=- 

'ot. or upon the Irtofr ! ^'"'^^■"™' "Pon the whole 

When reZe A" conncil the '^ ""'="''' "^ "" "-"■ 
make ni.„. I^ conncll, the engineer or surveyor shall 

TloTtoL T'"^^"™' »»« 'detailed "„tlmZ- o 

-nLTth: 'xTXn ":r" r° """-'-^ '■"'''^' 

construction or renalr .h , '"'" '^°'^- ''"■" '■> the 

the amount to be paid to the h" "' "'^""'^^ "'• "" 

damages to land, ^1^ '^"'""'"I'e Persons entitled, tor 

Include ai?s ch sums InT TT'""'" "■"=''^' '"'-' «•«"' 
drainage workor oTthe rll "'»"""'*"'" »' '"e cos, of the 
owner of land affe^ e, ,/ thTl^l ""' ■="'' "^^ ^- -^"^ 

to th. "Drainage HeTree" *„»","' """•" '*'"""■" 

served upon the head o/'t. " "' "" "P"^"' "»'«' "« 

hear and determine ^helppealTr' "" '"^ '^'""™ -"^ 
on his own view ot the .,rT, =""""ary manner, either 

and their wi nisso, and "L"'' "'■"""" ""'"^ "^ """'"^ 
seems Just, .'non the fling o the T*^" "'" "' "> >"■" 
of the parties nterested m^^^h T'"'"' " Beport,- each 
amount of the .^^^^111%''°''^.''^ '"» <""" »' the 
of the engineer or aurvev ''"■'' "' "'™- The report 

after the m,ng or th pernio""^?' "''' ""-"> »'^ "■"-»» 

=:.r;nr::;£"Lf^'--^~o^ 

w.t. the cler. of thl'^;^, -i/;. ^T c;:r.«U\- 




ita ^mZZlTtZ'""'' "■" """"' -" "- al, "' "'"■' 
«"<i the date Of ?hl' ""'""■''' '"""s Md ,„ ,r ^^ "■'""''• 

an opportunity is „iv„„ , ' ""« meptint. of th„ ' 

borro" Int " "'"'"'•" "■""of " th. L '" "^ '"^"'■ 

- C be sir^', """""' 0" ">' o-a" ;;;■•"■ '»■ --' '- 

.„j 7 s^raclent to pay for (h„ '" "innlclpalltv 

a»« tor Issuing debenture^ of t, '"""■°" "'■ ">= CI 

:?rtr^--^or^^r-/-^^^:: 
- "a:r:fr;u^-"^-- ^^^^^^^ "-'^ ™- 

Any by-law passed by the o" ""= ""»' '-"^Hm/therlj 
fo" not produce suffle.ent Z17V°' '"'' -"Po'e w b 
to pay the coEt thereof Z , to compiote the won, 

-- author^ed t^t l-s^::; tay'trt? "' '"--»- 
'y from time to time be 
555 



nnAiNAOE. 
amended by the council, and further debentures may be Issued 
under the am,mdlnB by-law, In order to fully carry out the 
Intention of the original by-law. Any drainage work, con- 
structed under a by-law of any municipality, must after the 
completion thereof be maintained by the municipality The 
assessments to be made for repairs to any such work may 
oe varied from time to time on the report of the assessment 
engineer appointed by the oounci!. . Any work so constructed 
may be deepened or extended as necessity may require 
Ana any person or municipality Interested In a drainage 
Tv.h H?'"™""""" "'".'nrlon8l,.(feet«d" by the work or 
by he defective condition of the work, may serve a notice In 
k„„ ,f r"™ "" ""°"^'P'>'"y ''"ose duty It Is to maintain and 
Keep It In repair; and the municipality may be compelled by 
m.ndamo8," Issued by the iieferee or by any other Court 
or Competent jurisdiction, to perform the duties and to exer- 
cise the powers conferred upon It by the Drainage Act 
rersons who cause obstruction to such drains may be com- 
pelled to remove the obstruction and make repairs Any 
council may by by-law appoint an - JnspMtor of drains." 
AS between landlord and tenant, an agreement by the tenant 

hL », n "'"' ^"^ '" "='"'«' <" '"« •»°'i8 occupied by 
Urn shall not Include the charges and assessments for any 

proWdT. "'"'''' ■""''' '""" »^''"""" '" «==»■■«» terms so 

"Tie Land hntai^e Act» of the Province of Manitoba 

vlnlr«^ "' construction of all such drains by the Pr^ 
vlnclal Government The government can take the Initiative, 

Whenever the government deems It tor the public benent 
to dram reclaim or render flt for occupation and cultivation 
any lands in the province, the government may organise 
such territory Into a "drainage dirtrlct,- and may appoln " 
the land "»""" '° """'^ " ""^"^ -<» «amirion of 
the Zl m"^ .'".'^ ■■''="""""'■ """ " "'^^ "' -»certainlng 
the probable cost thereof and whether the work. If performed 
would be a public benefit When the engineer has exammcd 
the land and made his report to the Minister of Public Worts 
accompanied by accurate maps, plans, profiles, etc! Id ^ 
description of each parcel of land to be benedied, the 




■'^^C 



Minister of Publio vvn,i, 

" tne government think it „a , 
Works, describing the Und and h "°"-""'""t of t'ubllc 
.hereb/ '"''^ "«»'-' -" •>"-, „f tbe ,a„;,:';:' ^^ --J 

"™ a lien upon the lands t„ ,>. '^"™° "ebentures 

Parcel Is assessed. The dj,° "'\''»<""" tor whieh each 
■"«'»t.l„ed .„d i.,, ™»^«^'»J «».en c«.„„e,ed „.„s,™ ^ 

--"-"inte Ss^ttlX"^"^'"- ~- con 
"■•ovide that It Shall be iLfu??""'"'' ''"'"»'■» '»'t" Th" J 
"y municipality to borrow ' '"' ""'"''='»>' council o? 
munlcIpaLty for the nur^^ '^ "P™ »" credit of.h 

or dyking work, rr^ "' co„strue.,„K loca, !», 

-iorlty in number o^ "e^"?' "' ' -"'■^■' "»^ bT" 
assessment roll „f ,^ Persons shown by ih. i... ° 

--'ed witbirsuib' :r„-":;™? "> - owL'r^^rt: 

as Is speclfled and described ?„ b, '"■'* °' "■" "'"-telpamy 

'-« ".at the petitioners afe the'" w^ l';"/ "" "^ '■>°"- 

"nors of assessed lands 




I)II.H\A<1E. 

or the ,a„s, .";,?r„;;r;;j° r'':/^,;"."""'""'" 

'ake or pond h?2 ,° T'""' ■"""^""""■'. or of the 

and may prt; t "a ' " . """' " '^ ""■'"""«'' 'o 'ower; 

"• the Propo'd ;: r;:;l^'""""^» "> "^ "■■'■'^ °' t-e cos! 

engineer or aurvel; Tttl TTT"' '° '"' ""•"= •"■ "»•■ 

stating the Portion of bene„. .1 "" '"°'°""' '""='"■• 

each portion or paroe, of IL , , ""■'""' "■"'='™"'' "'' 

may. If it be deemed "L^ "" "^ """"' ""= ""»■ »»'' 

a by-law „r by. aw' to Z7 T ""'"''"'"'• '""'"""'" Pass 

work or any pirt .hi f T "" """" ""' ">« P^Waed 

visions With rega d „ ^ - "olan.e.s- contain pro- 

the form of the by-l" thfr""'."'"^ °' "' assessments, 

P'amts. by the Court !^?'«-^"'"^ ^■"' =»""°« "' <=»■»- 

and other malLs Stan-??. "• "' '''"' "' debentures, 

Ontario Munich' Dr^inl^fAc,' """^"""^ "'"'""-'"■ '" «■" 

slmU'l'r/t'r.C'p"^'''''''''" "•• """"•f" Act Is 

ings for the dralnat „7° "* "' '*''""<"'"• ^be proceed- 
ana carried out b/. he Tubirw"!," ""^ "" "'^'""'^■' 
province, upon the pl«tion hv ^ Department of the 

owners. But the dm !1U^'^ ^ "*""' "' '"^ P™P«rty 
tamed by the munlclpltle: " """•""^'' ""■"' "« --'-- 

ma'y" when^lTem's' il'':^ '"^ f "'"" °' ^"""^ ^orks 
the Province, appoTn.L enZ'' ' ™''""'°' "" '"'°'' "" 
or survey of thH^^Lity TZnn wTa"", '""""'"°" 
mining the feasibility and cost „r .h " "" ^"'"- 

dltch. The engineer th construction of such 

district andCrirt \"rSsri„"';"r^''- "' '"' 

a map or plan the nhvL, , J' "'"^ '"' reference to 
Where the .^tch sho'nifb'e It'T"' °' "■= '°-'"^. and 
the proportion of the cost to be . ^' ™" '"»«■"■ and 

Of land to be benefl.ed The n ZTf r:,™' '™'^ 0""^' 
tbe Department to proceed w^bTe^irCTf'rrh' 



"KAJNAQE 

a Notice „,A°lT "" *'"■ "■'^ •'■Tk Lf";;''""" "'«"-' "y 
Of appeL ,X ""■ '"* — "-n, ',":: "'■^■*' ^'onr 
"PPellan,; A. W^ZV;" '-« Vo^'om'Z^r' ''•"""" 
ttoe and place .„„. "*»• <■*»" all sun , '"' °' ""- 

attend at the cwr""t'' "" "" appe ,a„ "'""""» "' ".'• 

<=onstrucOo„ or*""!"'' " "« may thi' ""' "■"^''■■' ""ay 
apply for ™™ '''°='" '■■om th^ h., , * """<''■ ot 

-ee^Ukenorrnv"" '" '"^ '^^ wly a," V" t ''^-' •» 
authorized to m^„^ "'"""' ^•>'l'. etc V,"""""' "ad 

„ "■'» Ac. doe, no, ,,.,. ., . "' "" ''""»« "'Ontario. 

"Woh will' ." •""■"""^ **"rt and t ' ""'■ "■« "n- 

Which may ," , "' *"'»' wWcli will „ii°7. ' '"""rtie 
The powei " "'" "« "P«»<l«ure of 1!!! ' '"''"■ »"«S - 
"oo ofluch d^rl?"'" "' """""eTto a 2','"r "' """'^ 

w"r;^ r'- --xr„' -r'--- --- 

'ta^tri^r^fT"''-''-"^^^^^^^^^ 

"ay be dug by !hl """"'> '<> '"b ag"em™, ^ '■"'°^='"« 
"8 fj- the parties Interested! each ? "" '""^'' 

559 



1^1 i''}\ 



DRAINAHE. 



own portion of the work, without any Interference by or 
a:!si8tance from the municipality, except where the muni- 
cipality is a necessary party to the agreement. It 1b only 
In cases where no agreement Is arriveil at, that the muni- 
cipal engineer is called In to determine the rlghU of the 
parties and supervise the doing of the work. The engineer 
does not act as the representative of the council, but only on 
behalf of the landowners affected. He does not make his 
report to the council, and the council has no authority to 
determine whether the work should be proceeded with or 
not. Consequently the municipality Is not liable for any 
compensation or damages arising from the carrying out of 
the engineer's award. The assessments made under The 
Ditches and Watercourses Act are In the first Instance for 
labor and material, to be furnished by each of the parties 
Interested in or beneHted by the ditch. It Is only In the 
event of an owner making default and falling to complete 
the share allotted to him within the time llml*id that the 
Act authorizes the letting of the unfinished portion by con- 
tract, and the cost is thereupon charged against the land 
of the owner who has made default The Ontario Ditches 
and Watercoarses Act wbh rerlHed and consoltdated in 1919. 
It sa;'" " The owner of land who requires the construction 
of a ditch thereon, may serve upon the owners or occupants 
of the other land to oe affected a notice In writing signed 
by himself, naming a day and hour and also a place con- 
venient to the site of the ditch at which all the owners are tj 
meet, and estimate the cost of the ditch and agree if possible 
upon the apportionment of the work, and supply of material 
for construction among the several owners according to 
their respective Interests therein, and settle the proportions 
in which the ditch shall be maintained. The notice must be 
served not less than twelve clear days before the time named 
for the meeting. Any owner of land who has been served 
with such notice may within five clear days after service of 
the notice on him apply to the Judge to set aside the pro- 
ceedings on the ground that the person who served the 
notice Is not the owner, etc. If an agreement Is arrived at 
by the owners, It Is put Into writing and signed by all the 
owners, and filed with the clerk of the municipality. The 

560 



iii-! 



DRAINAGE. 




=^:;;:;:/r:.-— ifiv—'- 
rr^r^rj^ss't^r^P- 
made the requisition, and he la reonlr.H . ?. 

p:::u^rreSe;~----^ 

CONDITIONAL SALES 

p^r." 'lit T" """' """"""»''*' =" p '- " 

conditionia «U«.» Such transactions are ovW,.„ced kv ' 
agreement In wriUng called a -receipt ....e-r-ll^™ 
c.ft.t,» or ««ue iwrwment.- or It may b' caPed b^ Tv" 
other name. Such agreements usually pro' Jen that Z 
proposed purchaser to whom the possesln of til arUcle 1^ 
delivered, shall pay for the same by ren.lar monthlv „ 
quarterly payments, and that the «««.e "oHh Id 

2) Thr.n d 1° Tr"'"- """" '"^ ^--^ are'paid7or 
sh.ll t '" **'^"" "' W^^nt of any Instalment, the owner 
Shall have the right (a) to retake possession of the arUcle 

-4t ™„'rltau''''^^°'f """"' "' " """""^ - '>-'^'^^' 

i„T, ? "''"'" ■" "■« J"-''^*' "» te "■-at all of the 

instalments as having become due, and to sue for the whole 

ev^Trirb""'"'^ "■"'""'■ '"' '" '^»^" ""^ ""^■'^ a wha ! 
orlJ^n^f I ™"' °'"*"' '"' """ »»■""■ »"" to charge the 
original purchaser with the deficiency ta price. If any, and 

,, ' ^"" r" agreements are not alike, each company has 
Hs own form, but most ot them contain the provisions above 
mentioned or some of them. In tl. Province of On»«H tte 

fiGl 



m 

4 




# 



M> 






loxurnoNAL sales 
In writing and '■ signed by tho piirchaaer " or " hirer," or by 
hU agent; and that a true copy shall be " flied " In the Offlce 
of tlie County or Dlktrlct Court in the County or Diatrlct 
"where the purchaser or hirer resided" at the time oJ the 
sale, otherwise the contract shall be invalid aa against any 
person who purchases the article from the person In whose 
possession It Is, without notice. In good faith, and for valu- 
able consideration. The copy of the contract must be so 
flIed within •' ten days " after Its execution. As between 
the Immediate parties to it, the contract is valid without 
filing a copy. 

The Ontario Act further provides that where the delivery 
Is made to a " trader " or other person " for the purpose of 
resale" by him In the ordinary course of his business, he 
shall be deemed the owner of the goods. If the provisions of 
the Act are not compiled with. But where the trader or 
other person resells the goods In the ordinary course of his 
business, the "property In and ownership of the goods" 
passes to the purchaser, notwithstanding that the provisions 
of the Act have been compiled with. Registration Is not 
reuulred where the contract Is in respect of manufactured 
goods. Including pianos, organs or other musical Instru- 
ments, which at the time possession Is delivered have the 
name and address of the seller or lender painted, printed, 
stamped or engraved thereon, nor to a contract respecting 
household furniture other than pianos, organs, etc. The 
seller or lender must " deliver a copy of the contract to the 
purchaser" or hirer within twenty days after the execution 
thereof. 

The seller or lender Is required to furnish to any pro- 
posed purchaser or to any other person Interested, who 
makes a request In writing, within " Ave days " after receiv- 
ing such request, particulars of the amount remaining due 
to him and the terms of payment. If the "request" Is 
by letter, giving a name and post offlce address to which a 
" reply " may be sent, the reply may be given by registered 
letter deposited in the post offlce within the time above pre- 
scribed, addressed to the person enquiring. The Act fur- 
ther provides that where the seller or lender "retakes" 
possession of the goods, for breach of condition, be shall 
retain them tor twenty days, and the purchaser or hirer 






CONDITIOXAI. «ALt..s 

'"ay redeen them within ii... 

""• "« ""■ »eller or lender Intendl, "'""'' """"I" 

h.T' T h""" '" "^ "'"Can r„: : ;-^, '° «■„ „„r- 

Intended „ie •• ha« been given to the "''"'"'■■ "' the 

•>'- >ucce.,or In lntere.e The not?! ""■■'""""■ '"■ ""■- or 
"onally. or be left at the re.We^oe or T" "" "■■"'" """ 
abode of the purchaser or h „"„/', """'" "'«« of 
•flve day, before the 8ale,"Tr ,he no.^ """"°' »' '«"' 
registered letter posted at leas^ " ,1 ,"' "">■ "" »™t by 
TWa provlalon must be com^Ldw.h" ' ''''°^° ''"-■''•■ 
»'»"« in the agreement to the co^r./ """""""""" ""y 
have been affixed to the realtv ° ''' ""•'''" "■« Boods 
^iS-ts Of the seller .. lenerbutte ""''"' '"'"'''' '° " « 
or any purchaser or mortgagee has thr,"';"' "'' "•"" """>■. 

a~c:^:her"-'^^-:=rr 
sa'sr re: r-r;:- -- -^ a .o„,„„„, 

eomponen, part of any other Acl reiatln.f ',"" '"* " - " 
and Chattels, the general pur^se and . '° "''"' "' ^'""'b 

Jn 'o:.i?:^zrzToiTZ:r ^'^- -- - »"- 

^ate delivery and foUoTed ° by In a?"','™""' "' '"■-■ 
oSange of possession, whereby it, "' """ •"""""ed 

property In the personal chat'e „' T'^ "" ^'■'" '"^ 
bargain for the sale and a lien th ' ' '" "■" «"= <" a 
portion thereof. Is to remain 1^ y^" '°' "" P"-'^" ■"• any 
to b<re, until the Payment rnfu'^Tr"'""'' "' '^"'"« 
be In writing and signed by the lr„ .. "' "'"'■ ""=" 
™ent with an affidavit verffj-fng th " '''" """'■ 

the office of the Beglstrar „? ,^ ""'""■ """" "e Sled In 
Di»trtct In Which the ctteis are w? '" '"" "<•«"''>,,„» 
Of the agreement, oth"rw "th' """ °' ''''^ ""''"- 
creditors shall he null and 'vol, ,77'"^ "' '"^'"-t 
-ea from one registration rtrJto" an„— cZy^i 







I I!-) 



fONDITIO.NAl, BALKS 

rHEv^r "-"-"••■'.■•"=:;.=■■ 

rcfde. at l^'l'' '" "" """'' '" *"'»'- ">• P"ch..,r 
.>..-■■ ' "" "" P"«ha.e, within fifteen day> from 

I cr'dtroV "^ l"""'"- " '"""" """"'" "■" '» «- 
vendor tor aTr.""" "•• ■"'■•" """■" • 1™«nd upon th. 
Igreement .h ""'™'" <" "" «■»<>"»' i"' "nder the 

orf tt . , 1m ""°"'" »'«'e-™t, and In default he .hall 
ha/ retnie?"'" "' ?"""' "'«"' "'O""'- Where the vendor 
iw^n.v H ■^""""'-n <" the chattel, the purcha.er ha. 

rie'tT^'" "i""" '" """"■• »"" "'« ^y -""^e o 
th. f ^^f PosMMlon. Where the chattel, are affixed to 

hal nottc"'""""' "■" """"» "-■«'" 0' "■• vendor the^ 
T^ h ^! ° """ "'"™'' ""' "" o"-" of the Malty 

rin^Tue'tLr "• ""'■' •""" ""'""'■ " -^■■" -^^ 
«f ^^rrrothir'sr.^^rtnrr^d^nr.re 

«hen he term, of the contract are In wrIUng rtg^d by 
he bailee and duly flled. In ca,e of manufacL'd ^d^ 
Pany-ZV;" •''T" "' "■•' --'-turer or «„dTl.' 
»ll consutite' r'"; "•..'"""P^" " -f^^ved thereon, that 

bailee The '!„.„." 'J '°. ""=' '■""'" """"» ''«> the 
Zr. , Tv r '' '"""'' "" sPPllcatlon to give a .Ute- 

I. the ProTl««. of Q„,b«s conditional .ale, mv be made 







with .„ ^ox^niosAi. gA„;, — 

*lth th. ritllt ot redemption a. 

I. » . ■"" """ "-"" the K^r """'*■" 'hat the 

lltlonal Sales Art but It „', ""•'■*«''«o lli.re i, . p„ 
'o the vai„e of l?5 .„h '^ """""'» '" tin. „.,„„' ^°"- 

i.r™iVe ,?:??' " '- '""'"'■■ <" th « , r7 '"■" '"" 

o -ale „e registered, within ";^"'?""::f'«- and bm^ 
dll?., ° *°°'''- " ">» good. ar?H„H '™"""'dem- 
th «?d ' T" "' '"» »«t™c? must t'"'"' '" ""^ "'">''■• 

emo'ved-C" "" "■"" o'-ch r. te?; 'Ifr:"^" *"",n 

uiuvea from one dlfirri#<t » '"'"very, jf the Kood<i f>r« 

-nt m , re^lst:^'..'". -« ;- a c„„, -r the .' .t ! 

aays. a "renewal" must he ni ^ ^ '''■"■ "ItSIn "sixty 

""•"ceding the expiratton of ^', " *■'""» ""«»' days nex^ 

vendor retakes possession i * ""^ '»"' ""^wal. i, .?: 

-re's ^T- "-'Vurhr; a^ch":::: 'r r "'""" '-» ^ 

su.h '" """""■>' n>ay be mlr " "'"''' '" ^"''"'cbe- 




CONOITIOXAL Ul,i:( 

1.'!?*!'*' " "<a'»T" for olwtMU, flrra hj uy bM— of 
ctulttli. whero th. condlUon of th« l»llm«nt I, .uch tbit 
an poiMMlon" of the chalt.1 •hall pu. without uy 

ownonhlp " therein belag acquired by the bailee until the 
payment of the purch«.e money or iodm itlpuUted part 
th.r.0 .hall be void a. agaln.t any .ubaequent purcha«r 
or mortgagee of .uch chattel, without notice In good faith 
ror valuable con.lderatlon, unle.. a true copy of any lucb 

?r«"/;r"" ""'" "'' "'"■" '" "■• <"«" <" «» County 
Court of the dUtrlct In which the property I. .Ituate not 

ivtfc » " ''*«""'•'"" <«»>■« «'•" delivery" of the good., 
or the nr.t portion thereof, to the bailee or conditional pur- 

T^^,„ f°" *''° '■'"•'" ""' ""» ■" *^' "" "■"- of 
a conditional .ale must furnl.h full Information re.pectlng 
balance, due. ten... of payment, etc., within live day. after 
^f.T'lJ '.v""'" *"" • ■""'"""''' >'"<=>>a.er or per»n Inter- 
com!.,.. I "'■"'''"■ ""'»''"" Po-'BMlon for breach of 
condition he • must retain the article. ,o taken for twenty 
day. before resale," during which time the vendee may 
redeem, u„o„ paying the amount In arrear. with lntere.t 

value of 130, live day.' notice " of sale muat be given, which 
may form part of the twenty days above mentioned. Good, 
neld by the purchaser under a conditional .ale, the title to 
Which has not yet pasted to him, are only liable to distress 
for rent due by the purchaser to his landlord, to the extent 
of the actual Interest of the purchaser. 

Ill the Province of Allierta no sale or bailment of 
roods of the value of |15 or over provided or con- 
dlUoned that any right of property or poaaesslon is to 
remain in the seller notwithstanding that the actual posses- 
sion of the goods passes to the buyer, shall be effectual as 
against any purchaser from the buyer of such goods In good 
faith for valuable consideration, unless such sale with such 
agreement or condition is in writing signed by the bailee or 
his agent and registered In the registration District or Dis- 
tricts in which the buyer resides, and in which the goods are 
delivered in accordance with the statute, " within thirty days " 
from the Ume of the actual delivery of auch goods to the 



s J :i i! ' 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



^"■•pi.nr,. „( "ij" Sir 

.Jew. !,..» ,„ „,„„^ ="3 

•'".'i'""""'''" ■"""■»"..«"" 

Aer<.pl,„„ ut 

ASriSi '•""••- .i.-^:; »^ 

Al.nci«, . "•■ 243. S5B 

^■enpy 202 

Aki.1', li.biii,; Ta, 141 

;J^;^, -.....,.,:,.■„;•;:; ;;j 

■^i"hip« . T« 

aiiered (money) ** 

^^r^' i^-^ii'- ■■■•■■ " 

•'••■Itnment „t «;' '" ■ »"3 
A"i«nmenl of nj! ">""»i-' 27« 
.;..l|!nn..„,., !.",.."■";•»«• 281 
Auction . "" 'onus 147 

Aaiiupaitrc • ■ ■ • 854 

Alio™,,,, ;„,„, '"""Inrf . ,82 
Aulomobr ,. p.",' "' '""I'Titj- 351 



liatHlitx 
■ 133. 1 



"' dnl,! 



31», 



fir , ' ' • 

lUtl , 

Miir 1,,,,;^ ■ 
"•"" '"P„„.il , 

ll«ilnifiit, ■ 

Batluuna 

B.iik .-hwi,, .... Y , 

"•"k intu ■'■'" ""■ 

»«nk Jl.,„„,„ UK. 

i'2"t".' ".r;';","' '?'"•••■ 

Uiiikin, ,„j„ ." 

naiikriiptFv 
«"'ik. ,„i ,,.„j, 
Hunk.. ln,o]„„, ' 

grvr-"' 

1 Si? Mjroii. 

'.'V ;„!■;'■,,•■•»■»' -."H. 

""■™ meanure 
"""^d "f in-M.irv ;. 
irruntN , 

Breach o,' „„,„,, 

Brfarh ;( ,„„ 

Bri''kH. hiiu- t.. fii„l . . 1 ' 

(or wall , "'"' """il'sr 

Br.'.k.n"""': '"'"' '■'""■""'"« 

Bniidi,,, ™iir,;,; 

i!;;f" "I'l" 

Builil.r«, Uct, l,„ ., ■■ 

«;;"me..",M,„,.vi(,;; 



110 



Immi 






m^ 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



PAOZ 

BusineiB correapuu.'ence . , 34 
Buiiness dfctioniiv . . 51B 

BDiineia habits g], 

Buatneaa w»yB, how to teach 
Buaineas edncatlon .... 17 

Bualneaa lettera, examplea o( 42 

Buaineaa maxima 20 

BnaiDSM operiHona. rulea aiid 

•x»mplfla tor 414 

Buaineaa, anccsaa end .... le 

Bnahet, legnl 84g 

Buahela, how to find number 

'n fe*n 851 



CABLES, aubmarine .... 201 

C»B»d«, map of 575 

Cancellation, to compute in- 

tereit by 422 

Capacity or eontenta of gran- 
ary, to find 844 

Capital atock ( corpora! lona) 168 
Oapltals, mlea for ase of... 29 
Carda. buaineaa and visiting 69 

Card Bwindlers' tricks 098 

Carefulneaa in money matters 28 

Oarpentera' ntlea 492 

Carrier, private (op hire . . . 151 

Carriers, common 188, 187 

Carriers' Hen on goods ... 139 
Carrying capacity of tile . . 849 

Carrying trade 193 

Cask a, how to meaanre con- 

tenta 443 

Casualty inaarance 290 

Ob at iron, comparatlTe 

strength of 446 

Catholica, nnmber of 491 

Cattle tables 849 

Cattle, weight of 84« 

Cattle, right to drive off . . . 820 

CaT«ats (Patents) 299 

Cenaua of Canada. 1911 .. 479 
Census, the British, 1911 . . 500 

Century of progress 478 

Certificate of naturaliiatlon. . 294 

Certified check ^14 

Change, tricks In making . 399 
Charcoal, amount bin will 

hold , 487 

Chattel mortgagea 229. 241 

Chattel mortgagea. sales 01, 247 
Check, atopplng payment of lie 

Checks, certified 114 

Checka, forma of 114 

Checks, Indorsing 115 

Checks, forged and raised. . m 

Checks, preaenting no 

Cheques (see checkel ..109, no 
Chriatians, denomination of 

in U. S 491 

Ctiristlan acientists, number of 491 



PAQB 

Circulation, amount of money 

i° zotf 

Ciatema, to find contents of 44t 
Cltisenahip and anffnge . . . aoi 
Civil Law. divialona of ... . k 

Civil liat of the King 49s 

Civil proceedinga 

Civil service, method Of »d- 

ditioo 40f 

Claims against estates of de- 
ceased persona a07 

' Clearing a vessel 

Clerk, contract with 84 

Coal, how to find weight of 487 
Coal, table showing value of 488 

Oo-debtors 74 

Codicils to wills .'. 172 

Coinage of nations for 1910 471 
Coins, value of foreign .... 469 

Collateral notea m 

Collecting notea 88 

Collection (banking) 105 

Collection of debta I77 

Commerce 15 

Commerce, trade and 198 

Commercial agency 202 

roramerclal arithmetic 405 

Commercial ratings 202 

Commission, to find the ... 414 

Commission merchants lOj 

Commisaloner of immigration 292 

Common carrlera 133, 187 

Common law 4 

Company law , ',[[ jsg 

Companiea, limited 161 

Compensation 128, 188 

Complement rnle (Commer- 
cial arithmetic) 409 

Compound interest not col- 
lectable 421 

Compound Interest, poaBlbtll- 

„ *'" o' 428 

Compromiaes (hankroptcyj . . 155 
Conditional Indorsement . , . 94 

Conditional aalea noi 

Condolence, letters of 69 

Conductora, railway 18S 

Congratulation, lettera 01 . . « 
Congregationaliste. nnmber 

o' 491 

Conalderatlon (contrrcta) .72, 261 

Consideration (deeds) 805 

Constitutional law 5 

Contents fx. 

Contracts, eieruted ..'.".... fi 

Ccnlrarts, implied 72 

Contracts, law and forms 

^ «' 77. 248 

Uontracts. minora' 72 

Contracts, mutual 71 

ContraclB, of record 72 

Contracfa, aimple 71 

Contracts that must be ' in 
^'■'""P 76. 249 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



^„„,™°," ""J '" "»' l«wiul 7» 
Cm„c„, Mil.ter,l ... ■• 4? 
tontrictB, Tolnnurr 4« 

comipondMc, ■.■.;;■ '"? 

Corrmpondeoc, ou.Ib.u ' " ' If 
Oort..pondeiic« .oc'.l " 51 

cwjit, pofncyoi ■::.■::•■•■ fj? 



cnMom, d„„„ .....;;:;; J»» 



D™,.nd .„d p.,»;„r ,'^-: ^'O 

Deportation . . -°S 

ar°o^\\?. ■■•-'"■■■■ s 

""«.";."'' ''""'■'■■-•ion ■ oi "' 

DWIonarr' of' kbbr^l.lioo' ' ' !» 

dfffprent poinlR ^.^g 



l>i"««nc, i„ l,u,i,K.„ 

O'ccior. „( b.nk ^2 

^l"!-"!!. of „:-,- .01 

DitcDunts ■ ■ -15 

DUcrimln.tii;; ; j ■ . ■ ■ ■ • • ■ ■ J15 

DUUnces and („,.;;""■ ■ '"* 

world '" '"" 
Dl.i.io. ,e„™"°". Hi 

|oS..7,?''pte^ °' ■"•■""• '" 

Domicile . . * ^^* 



Can«da, gVv 



291 

483 



171 



DomioioQ 
; enimentB, ^„-. . 

Draiia,' "«• 121 

D^hooe.. ■..•;— ■.;;"'' 
Duo bills MO 

Duties of tPnnnr ' 

Dulles, „ r.,'..-- '"" 



^rnms 



199 



2.51 



EAKNEST monrv 

fduc.tlon. bn.mV,, 

Kxpculion of d,,a 

Eduoation.l ,;■„,„ 

Employer and pmpIoreV 

Eleetopal vo,„. „„„^„ „, 

Kndorsooient, of „o,es ., 

f.nforeomeM of |,w . , " 'I 

Rnsurance „_* 

Envelopes, style, if ' ; "'* 

Envelcpe swindle . . ' oji 

Epseopalians. number of ' «: 
Equity of redemption . . Ij} 

Erasures in e„„,r,e|, . . ■ ■*;: 
E«ero» (deeds) . . " 

?."t's"t','.'- /'""" ■"'"»'■ •■: s" 

"'■ou'o,''"""' •■"' ■"•"">»- 

E..i„.«n, messure. ;::::: l°i 

Exerutlon ■.■...■.■.■.■..■.■,»:„, «; 



' Can«d« 48fl 
263 
481 



.MMi! 






;.']ii 



(hi! ' ! 






liilll 






jiii 'I . 






AlPHABETIOAL INDEX 



I'AOK 
E»jru.U,„. ,„forH„g p.j.„„, 

sS'tSi •'<"'"•■■■ '»■■ f°{ 
B"pr.M comp,„i„ :.. lii' J„ 
Expreu money order. >« 

Ext.ndi,„ ll„'. „('p:.meni' 12 
E"de..r. direct „d" cS- 



Gr.in Ublei 851356 

Ureen Koods swindle 892 

Grocer'e table ^gg 

Grocer's retail rule ' " 43H 

Guaranty ^60 



stantlal 



78 



FACTS about money . . ... 

Facta and fipire, ' "? 

Pacta lor Lnmberm.n «? 

Fact, (or Builders •" 



Fares, 
Fares. 
Yorlc 
Farmers' Club 
Farm hand, 



railroad from 
railroad from 



Uiusiro 478 
New 

475 

•rm hand, contpoct (orhiV '" 
Farm lia'sVs .Ji 

SnTiaiV"" "-"">'"■■■ it 

Fence viewers . .' .' J}l 

Fence, amount of bsrh' wiri 

required „.. 

tinder of I„„ property ...; a"! 
F nde, 01 note, „,,„ „', "J" 

Fire msurunce ,,76 „S? 

Fiilures . , "''■ %'.', 

Floating secnritr ?«T 

Floorlnf e.tlSils ' i .' i?| 

F-oSlS" cTeS "'-',• °'"»'i 

FMctt"-..----: ^: 

Franklin's maxim. I ; JJ . 

Fraud, theft or robbery (Pro- 
misaory Notes) , . " a. 

Friendship, letters of SZ 

""""■*■ S<":I«J- of, nnmhe; 49I 



I HABITS o( buainesi men . , , . 21 
Holder* o( note jn good 

faith gjjj 

Hog and cattle i,muI« . . 349, 8S0 

Holidara in Canada agi 

HoUdara, working on 882 

House Ieaa« ggj 

How a contract ihonld be 

written g2 

How to become naturaliied' 298 
How to become wealthy , . an 

How to collect debts 177 

How to foreclOBe a mortgage 218 
How to form a partnerahip. 158 
Huaband and wife 818 



ILLEGAL contract! 78 

Immigration | * .' .' 291 

Immoral contracts 79 

Import and Export .'.V 198 

Improvemenia on rented pru- 

perty 259 

Indenture deed 75 

Indorsement, letters of ... . 
Indorsement of checks, forma 



of 



116 



Friends. ^ 

Krau/fulcnt 



(Checks) 



108 



laws 



Newfound- 



GAME 

land 

Garnishments for suing gar- 
nishee ^ga 

Gene,-.i average (Shipping): 380 

uiiis. legal 322 

Gold and aflver, the world'i 

production 471 

Good advice t.. tenants .'.'" 244 
Govemor-Generols of Canada 499 ' 



506 



Indorsement of notes 94 

1 Indorsers, liability of (Pro- 

miasory notes) 87 

Indorsing cheeks 115 

; Industry and integrity I8 

Injury to passengers (R»II- 

, V^B* ■ ■ ■ 182 

Innkeepers for what respon- 

^ •">Ie 152 

Ink, what kind to use 54 

Inks, how mixed 461 

Tnlnnd bills gOQ 

Inland carrying trade i9B 

inHBne persons. liability i!4T, 332 
Inspection of steam boilers. 338 

Insurance 276 

Insurance, find cost of 419 

Intention, in contracts 72 

Interest j^v. 108 

Interest, legal points ri>ti- 

ceming 420 

Interest. lightning method of 

calculating 421 

Interest, how money grows.. 428 
Interest, when a note bears. 89 
Interest tables (daily) 519 



paqb 

■ ■ ■ ,8Sl-856 

802 

488 

488 

266 



men . , . . 21 
n good 
88ft 

■ . 349. 860 

881 

> 882 

881 

inid be 

82 

rallied. 298 
ly ail 

177 

lortgige 218 
erihlp. 1S8 

816 

78 

291 

79 

198 

d pru- 

259 

76 

47 

formi 
118 

94 

(Pro- 

87 

118 

18 

183 

)tpon- 

158 

54 

461 

866 

.... IBS 
^47, 332 

ilers. 388 

276 

41tf 

72 

108 



••■"■ 


420 


<\ ol 






421 




42S 


urn. 


89 




519 



ALPHABETICAI, INDEX 



PAOB 

Invluilon, »'-.<7, go 
•! 



•'"^tmeiil (Km,; 198 

JM^"°"' "»»«i'o'„"oi fSJ 



KINO •nd l|„„| p,„,|^ 



' l'iiibilit.v. ],.,,,,^^ 

I direct i"curnntf 

I ;'i"i;>«ii .uiu,,",;; <» 

H'"" 'i""it. ,1.,,,^ '»« 

■ l.i«billly „i ],.,'"''"•""•" il ts 
j Lmbiiitj- «t ruilr, ;;* .;, j' ■ ■ ■ >5I! 

K:!^y^.°C=- :::::; 'I? 

Wen, carrier's *^9 

l-iien upon bohA,," '.^ 139 

, »i»n merrham", ^^«»"'*- 

J' jns. variuus kinds i.i ^**' 

•-"'p politj- 280. 287 

Loans . . , 10« 



[.fl 



reduced 



measure 



hoard ^„,p 

r^osa or injury"^ k„ ■ "' *^^ 

carriers , ^ ommon 
Ijogt notes 189 

t""'.',"?""' «"''"■»'■.■■■ all 

„7 . ■"^, """•bip, Jetteri 
I'Unatic " ' 6B 

'"'"'»">•". '.«. f„. 



Le«Be« . 258 

LeBBBB, fBrm 25fl. 281 

''•^•1 BiftB . 8<4 

''«nl holid.yB ■ : H2 

L.w^h,nd.,B. ..i^beVB ■.,: "= 

Lewi ten'der' Vsm'bI:."!.'."; ^"' 
parta of °^ 

'oiding of" ■:;;"■■• it 

bnaineas . 

■pecial poini," ■„ ' ' 

openiDf 

examples of 

•»' Introduction 

°; "'"mmond.lion.' 

»' •PPlicallon 

•oci.l ." JJ 

of Beection ; ?; 

«' friendBhlp . ' ' „ 

"I fon,rBlnP.llo„ ' ! Jo 

oj introduction 

oj condoienre 

"' Jo»o .nd coilri: 

, """™ "liBtered . li: 

'""•"• 'P'riBl dollvor, • : . . Ill 



running 



■elling. 



88 



51 



MANURE 

MBnufBduro. itroVlh n. 

Mbp of r.nidi ' ' ■ ■■ '»» 

M»rine insurance J" 

M>rk, „,^d „ Tri?i„°"""^ '»' 
printing '""» ""'' 

te'l"™'"' ""•"'ni';." -? 

"jarred women, codiclln «> 
Marr .d „„„e„ .?||, „',• "'• • 
M«>-rl.d women ^V' •" 
Married women 

Perly of 
MajTled women. h„w .bouii 

Biffn her nnme . " , 

Marahali Field's 'k»'- " ' 

ml.. """ » buBinei 



les by., 
PprBonal pro. 



244 



»7S 
171 
SSI 



346 



80 



Maturity, ir.nVfe; 

after 
Maxima, frankli,,'',' 
Meaauremeuf of i^nd 



24 



■148, 38.5 
440 



Mwlnja. public oouduclin. 



Memoranda 



1912-1918 . ni 



ill 



'i:}i\ 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



PAOS 

Menior.ndum in »,iun, .78. 240 

HmcMtll. .„„„■ 355 

."S""°"""° " '■■■"■ 
"oior v.hUi;;' :,■.■■ "j 

Metric •y.tcm . J" 

MUchUTOu asinuli '.'. njo 

ni^tt T°!""!. " ""I'lplV.' 4»I 

Money, (icti .bout . ija 

Money lende,, .„ "" 

Mon.,, m,t,e„, „„h„„,„ 

Mon.;.' matileiei ' ..j ,i^ ^' 

Mono,,' v.i„eof Vo;.i,i' .' .' ! ! <u 
Morel couren . . iS 

Mortme. .',....: " 

""'«•«••■ "el euete. '.Hi; aij 

Mortmee. chet... . . . . ""' |Jf 

Mortgejoe, Newtoundl.nj Jorme 

Mnnicipti L»w !!:;; g 

Uatllated money ia? 

Mutual u»et ....;,.;:;.";; ul , 

H. 

ihould ■im g2g 

NMe. OM of in pMtne„hip. 158 
N«m« when sfaottld b« ctrned 

in full ■ Q». 

N«oJi.bllity of note. ...::: lH 

Nautical meuur«ment ... 4*7 

Navy, the BHtiah In 1912 407 
NeceawHea fnrnlibed, IJabliity 

'0' ' 2S1 

Newfoundland. hiatorieV " «nd 

itatiaticB of 50- 

Normal achoott .... j«a 

Notea. forma of gSS 

Note, proniaaory Jz 

Notice to quit (Undlord and 
^*""'"' 258. 263 

O. 

OATH of alien {Natarallia- 

tfon) vuu 

Ocean diatancea 474 

Offer to bny or sell '.\ 73 

OfllcerB and employees of rail- 

Ordan "J 

Ort«ri,. forms of S? 

Option , J 



PAIXTIXy. ruiei for . 'JJJ 

PaptT, Hisa and atyU . . ' ba 

Paper, slaa in iochea .ai 

Parcel Poat " " SM 

Parents, righta and obiim- 

tlona of • -1- 

''""•°»»'>t« of Canada aince 

loo" .«4 

Partial payments ' " gi 

Partnership, different Hindi 

of ji;. 

Partners, indiTldDaf ' dVb'ta 

of j^_ 

Partnera, sulta between ".'." is« 

Partners, authority of ' isfl 

Passengers, injury to " 132 

Patent fence awindle not 

Patents Soi 

Pawnbroker's Hen . . 248 

Payment, letters reqaestinc' '. '. 51 

Payments (Hortgaraa) .... 232 
Payment (Sale, of Peraonal 

Property) „,« 

PedMtrlana. rlgbta and dntl» 

penauiM':.';;:::;; 555 

Pens, most aaltabla ... 54 

Performance (Contracts) ' gi 
Perishable fooda (Tranaport- 

' ation) ,»g 

Personal property, aalea of!' 

T, 347, 353, 286 

Personal property, wills 169 

Pastenn». facts eonceralng. 448 

Plowing ' 

Policy, insnranee .'.''.'.'.279' 077 

Poll, deed -..^.O, 277 

Population of eitlea of v's,'. ' 433 
Population of towna and eitlea 

of Canada 47g 

Postal information ' 373 

Postal, rules for writing "a"' 41 
Postage, domestic rates of. a74 

Power of attorney 144 

Power of attorney, forms of! '. ill 
Power of aae (Kortgagea) 214. 242 
Practical law and bnatness 

pointerH jjj 

Preferrpd Rtock (OorpoVatlVns'l 1B4 
Freaentment of note . . 361) P8 

Prima-facle OTidenee aBc 

Probate of wills 106.' 172 

Produce, minimum rates of.. S48 
Profit and loss . . . 410 

Progress, a century of .'.'.'. 478 
Promissory notea, facta and 

forms of gA 

Promissory notes, forma' of * ' 90 
Promissory notes ontlawed . . 188 
Proof of multiplication In tea 

■econds 409 

Property, re. ' " 192 

Property, personal ' 252 

Protest (Promiasory notes) Mb 87 



•«I 

Sfig 

816 

4t)4 

04 
158 

IDS 

150 

i5e 

182 
897 
298 



s. . 


483 


litlfll 






.479 




8Ta 


1. . 


41 


of.. 


U74 




144 




145 


2U 


242 


ni^n 






SIS 


onni 


184 


Hill 


. fa 




sec 


io«, 


172 




84S 




418 




478 


and 






8« 


It.. 


90 


.. 


188 


tm 






409 




192 




2S2 


««b 


" 



AlPHABETIO. 



*[. INDEX 



P40I 

J^'Hc „„„„„ °* "• 

pabiicpoM., (,co.,„«.,:: ," 

Panctnatlon ®^* 

•^""'"•■■"food.!. b.ii:: J" 



R-pid mo.tipn«„„ ;;;_ "'■ JJ* 



marking 

i 

■fenti tot b7 



R«pid methodi 

rooda 

Rktlllcatlon of 
principal 

K"d). «cko'„„„bi,.;:-- lit 

B««lprop,rt, '" 

R«.on.bi.„„. ,c,„,-;;- "I 

Receipt of ,„„j, "'"'•■ "b 

B'Mipl.. form. „i " 

»«com»»d.tl„„, „„„,,,••■• J» 

«';;^«». d...J:r..v,'" 

491 



Riih 

R'»k. inmranc. ^^^ 

R*v«r.. io„,„j ■ 2", 279 

R^ad". petition for iavi«-" ' " *''* 

"d changing '"'""«"' 
Koida. lawn .,„ " - 384 

a-'t-lBIES o, „«„.,. „ 
countriea 

«•''•« (swppi.,;;:::-'"'" 
8«»pi., ,o.d. „,d t 'II 



250 S«p, 



Sohoole. pnblic 
aenate of Cao.d. " 



achools . 



0.8. 

"-i.. ho. p.,.,;,, 

R..p.».ibim, ofi.do™„ •■ ," 

"w. .f.-..„bi„: ::::::; j"j 



Shipping ■•'8 

Signature ^^^ 

"?p''."* ""'■""■"■■p.p"' '' 

IProo,,,,,,. xoi„) . 
'""•"■'. of p.r... •.„ " 

cannot write 
Sinfic ,„ 32« 

a'«i»., ru,.. for numb.,' „i"' 
•'•'•a reouired . ... 

?"•». Ii«. of' perpetual " 

«P.;;.c_^ performance ,.„. 

Stain and territorlea '.■.:.■."■ ," 
aiatut, of Fraud. 
3'atute 0/ linitaii, 
to run. 



478 



481 
76, 78, 248 
"'One. t„jin. 



Steam b„iler,. I„,p,ci,„„ 



■81, 18S 
of 838 



:"iii!i 



|ii! 






ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



paob 

"tiling ^«rhMn|[o labl*. 125. 128 

8 onswork, ,„t. concerning 446 

Stoppag,, in tr»n.ltu ^53 
Stopping goodi or, the »., to " 

parch.MP j3 

onb-agentB 

Sob-let tenwf. right to" 2S9 

8iibiD.rine telegraphy 20I 

Subtcription,, toe I.w of a84 
Subten.i.t (Landlord and Ten- 

„ •"*' 258. 258 

ouccei In buiineai 
Slice .Mion duty act 

Sai.ig partnera 

aiiita by and again.t corpora- 

tlona 

Summona 

Sandaya and bolidaya (Prom 

iaaory Notea) 

Superintendent 

tion 



, Tnxfa and taxation ' X75 

Tcai'hert, employment and 

"I»ry of 190 

Telegrapba 200 

Tenancy, raHou kind* of . , 264 

Tenant, righta of 359 

Tenant! in eomnon 193 

Tender (Contraeta) §2 

Teatator j^j 

Three card moste 399 

Tile, carrying capacity 349 

Tile, weight and area of $43 

Timber, comparative atrength 

0' 4111 



308. 489 
156 



164 ; 



immlgra- 



Surety 

Surety. liability of bankmptL! 
Swindling contract and note 
Swindling achemea 



TABLE, hoga and cattle 349. 850 
T«ble of things, diataneei. 

booka. etc ^^^ 

Tables for builders 

Tnblej 

Tablei 



446 

for lumbermen 452 

ot wages 429 

Tables, ready reckoning 433 

Tablea showing the number 01 
bushels and odd pounds m 

load of grain 352, 

Tables showing value of arti- 
cles sold by the ton 433 

Tank and barrel measurement 444 
Tanks, tables for finding con- 

tents of 

Tariff, excise ....'.'.... 
Taxation, act respecting 
Tax, to And a property 
Taxes, where tenant 1 
pay 



Time, difference of in princi- 
pal ciltea 475 

Times at dilTerent polata . , 473 

, Title. 35 

180 I Title to land 194 

; Ton, buying and aelling by the 488 

88 Torrens land ayslem 335, 387 

1 Town lots, rules for meaaurlng 4fl6 

292 i Trade and commerce 193 

71 ' Trade msrka ' 299 

158 ' Traffic, railway i«i 

308 , Transfer of goods in bulk. .. . 273 
Ml I Transfer of insurance policy 277 

. Tranaftr of note gfj]^ 

' Transfer of property, real . . 28ti 
Transfer of property, personal 2S4 

Transients (mall) 373 

Transportation J37 

Tree, how to find height of . . 494 
Trespassing and mlschieTous 

•nimals 32Q 

Trespassing atock (Fence 

^•w») tfi8 

Trusts and monopolies . . 168, 333 
Truata. deHnltion of (Corpora- 



, 356 



442 

135 
341 
419 



(iona) 



ULTKA VIItES i04 

Uncompleted notes 37 

Unconditional notes gs 

Under aeal (Contracts) .... 7S 

Unilateral (Contracts) 1. 71 

Units of anything 441 

Usur;-, penalty for 420 

University and colleges 488 



tAOt 

176 

and 

190 

200 

of . . 264 

SS9 

198 

82 

171 

898 

B49 

848 

'enrth 

446 

irind- 

476 

l« ■ . 478 

85 

194 

>7 the 488 

335, 387 

urlof 466 

198 

299 

181 

273 

olicy 277 

— seb 

>1 . . 2tf« 

loi)«I 264 

878 

■ . - . 187 

t . . 494 
voui 

... 820 
enve 

... tfia 

168, 838 

or»- 

. ■ . 166 



104 

87 



1. 71 
441 

420 
488 




'.rf^ 




J "ii 



SEX HYGIENE 

For the Male 
and 

What to Say to the Bo: 

Nature demands that the Boy— the Yoi rg Man 

Know Something 

About 

Sex Matters 



They must and will learn that something sooner or lati 

Who shall do the Teaching? 

1. The wise Big Boy at School. 

2. The Barn Yard Philosopher and Street Corner Bui 

3. The Quack with his pernicious literature and quae 

suggestions. 

4. The sly experience with its crop of wild oats. 

OR 

1. The Good Book. 

2. The Capable Physician. 

3. The Intelligent Parent or Teacher. 



E 



i Boy 



g Man 



ler or later 

ng? 

orner Bum 
and quack 



One of the Greatest Practical H«f„ 
ofourDayAn.wers.J' OueitK™'" '"' Physician. 
■n hi. ma.t.r production. ^"""°" '" "» uncertain tenna 

Sex Hygiene for the Male 

What to Say to the Boy 
A BOOK 

which treats with the delicate things 

IN A * 

manner Free from Cant 

AND 

Quack's Suggestion. 



"" Dr. L,d«„„.. g„ ^ 

V.OTO, C. yi„„„,» j(p 






Every man should have one. Write 
-™ S/- «««TEL CO.. LIMITED 



3! ! 




ii::::l 



BUSINESS AND LAW 

The only comprehensive Business 

Book on the market at 

reasonable prices. 



THE JOHN A. HERTEL CO., LIMITED 

182 Spudlna Avenue Tonmto 



BEING PREPARED 

OUR BOOK 
ON 

CANADIAN REAL ESTATE 

Write for partimlars. 

Send for our Xmas Catalogue of 
other books. We sell direct to 
the consumer, therefore cheaper. 

THE JOHN A. HERTEL CO., LIMITED 

182 Spadlna Avenue, Toronto 









*